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Full text of "Audubon"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/audubonnati20nati 



y- 



jJMrti lore 



THh I PROTt 



UMTIO BY 

I RANK M. CHAPM \\ 



MABKI. OSGOOD WKH.III 



Official Organ of ttjr Audubon feonrtifo 

AlKIM I>ir«» 

\l K I H\l I \Y\I UK 

AMD 

I (,ii Bl ki l*l iRSON 



19/8 



I) \iti ETON&O KIPAN1 

RAMUS* IND WW YOHK Cm 



ConrmioNt, tyiS 
Br I !\\ 








INDEX TO ARTICLES IN VOLUME XX 
BY AUTHORS 



KftStt, 






G .. Photograph by. 107; Ser> 



. mphs. by, 80, . 
«jrt». «$. 4S8; whan the Kara 

lieu. A F. sw%pheas. Dr. T. C. 

In. Qwna J.. Acting Secretary. Report of. 



tm hi.. Boston Region, jj*. 4*7- 
7 Pieman. Christmas Census, is. 

reUry. Report* of. 117. 

rhrodore, Chn»tma« fmtut. 40. 

Mrs. Joseph, tec Bkknefl. Mr» F. T. 
. A Bird Hoepiul. :$o 
' • I . Pressdeut, Rep o r t of, 440- 



v» 



Bags. Jala S sad Aaron C, Christmas 
aft. 

Henry Tomer. The Stake- Driver' Again. 




\braham 



of Falkland bland 

Secretary. 



Miller. Christmas Census. 37 
n*U.A57. 
B.r.1 Life'. , 

I 

•f PeainsuLs of Michigan joi 
Bam. Mrs II r . SecTetary-Triawsr. Report 

Beoetff I >r A. H.. and Walter Bran, Christmas 



Secretary. Reports of, 100, 



jint. hktar«-th 



407. 



Raport of. 40J 

Christina. Census. 47; 

■sOiHiTstory, sift, 

Bkknefl. Mr> > 4ograph by, 07. 



, Raport of. 11ft 



r. Paul, see Bay. II A ,6*. lit, j©7 

Ratrine. Our Winter Bird Neighbors, Chant. Rkhard II.. and Gear* P. Fi lilt, 

Christ nans Cnassss. 14. 
retary. ReporU of. toi. 407 Osorrst. CloraO K.. Christ om Coosu» 



erasxh. Adotph. S 
bender. Psul. see 

Blsir. Irani I • . Secretary. Kers^tt uf. ioj. 407 
Blamhard. George C . Christmas (emus. ,b 
Bhnrw. Ben J . < hristma. ( eoaus. «, 

< -hriataaM Cetssua. jo. 
Photovophoy.aof 

TV Bar* lit \ Mrret S.rne If tn 

( 



R. W . Jr . Christmas Cwuoa, jo. 
Boam. Thomas L.. Christmas Census, la. 
Bowdssh. Beecher S^ Secretary. Report of, 48a. 
Beano, Alee B., Secretary, Rep ort of, 77- 
Bowers, John H.. See Townsend. Manlcy B 
Braineni. Barron ami Hsskrll H (urr> .Chnstma. 
us. »7 ; see Talbot . L. R . 
C. Photography at Feeding-Stations, 140 
or, WBiam. A <■■■!>■ C 



UdOOJ l!'.' Christmas 



K.anl \nn.eM Cbb. CMstgfJg 



SST&am 



Bn.»ge. 



Boirdcrv 



Bruvt. Usrrroi-c P . Bir.ls I Have Seen. iHq. 
Bright. Harry G. Secretary. Report of. 
BriatnaH lira. A. W. Our Sui 

Brown, Elisabeth G., Report of. $01. 
hi.. Christmas Census, 4a 
Waiter. President, Report of. 506; see 

\ II 
Frank, see Smith. FJber 
Bryant, Harold C. Bird Horiaons in the Sao 
Francisco Bay Region. 4*0, 

Stewart H.. Are Starttags as Hardy as 



Sparrows? j $4. 
Burns. Mary. Our Birds. 44*. 
Buruh. Venli. A Pay » Sport suth the Red Oacfcj 
and Greater Yrllow-leo. U<. A Will I>u,k 
Trap, 410; W ool on the Tret SwaBows. 
The Warl.lcr Wave of the N«ring 1 1017. at 
Branchport. N 
luuer, Mr* J«-tirr».in, President. Krj»>rt ol. So 
Otterwkk. Claude A.. Christmas Census, j*. 
^ Christmas r 



Ub 



4: 



Calvert. E. W.. A Census from France— An 
Addition to the FlghHianth Christmas Census, 

Campbell. Mamie L. A. L. Campbdl. and 0. I. 

i.il.- Christ mas Census 4H 
Carlson, Fred C. Sidney E Ekblsw. sad Ed. L. 



r. Jessie I . A Blackbird (Isorus. 160. 

( artrt. sin r M . we I inti ". M \lt>eft 

Cartndge. P. Gregory. 1 1 

Case. Chfl.^1 M . Chrtstmas Census. >«, 
Caakey . R . C . see Fsirbank. Edward 
Ch«t-n»o. Frank M . M,t..rui. by. jn. inu. .• >V 
sou. i6i. 4U. Notes on the Plosanfa ol 
Amerkan Birds, 10. m. t»». rno, w 
Notes from s Traveler in the Tropks [sown the 
to Cuba, tg 1. Reviews by. ji. 54, 107, 



s SrTTtr s .• • 1 l) ' ' • • 1 

(■hflds. Helm P.. Sacretary. Report of 
■or.ostWt 



It 



anrnx. I . 



CbW. Jsmes W \r...«, 
Coast. Oscar R . A Santa 
Coalos, Cha*. P 

.84 
■ ) 



imrf . »gl 

Bird llousas for s City Pork, 



Index 



Cm. 



M I KM CnnMBi hi SeatlV 
md MabH I 

I I 

bcih. Chriatme* Ceaean 



Qmmt. WmWm« 

K r\ mMt • ol. Oft. Mi 
t HTry, Nameo ■-. me WIWIu, HIT>a 



-EfeL 



adwtb A . Secretary. Rrrnrt 

«th. Kilt* » Mi ataerl I (hnum*. 

I*ejdra*"\dward S . ud («o. P. Tilw 

Denarl*. Edward S« FtaDtaflaph by, t > R 
Dene**. M.> S. end Mery Kin*. 



a*. 



l>.w»« GOr* E. 



I>* 



( tlMUi ( CtHW, to 
Itrrlrt, \ ■ j I' lma*laf) I < '■'■•'■ "• > < '•■ < •> 

Domt. Mary C. Bird* ol tn 

l>o»l l»ul »«*! !»tt.I J.4rru ( hrwma. ( m»u%. 

Dm Briny. Ma M. B . Ow Summer VWtora- 
rue Stary ol Sam* No** Scot ten Bird*, joi. 
ML r Biduml Mr* F. T. 

A Junior Out is the 



Secretary. Report of. 
Dntmahhn, Walter. Secretary. Report of. *i 
IfcmdKTty. Margarrt. X«iure Study and A 
boo Society, tan. 



WL 



• retary. Report of, 477 
• ''»«'. XkemmMi Clrhuw Cenen*. jo. 
DaBoJ*, A II . Chrr-ma. Ceimav 47 
DaBofa, Gerard, A Feetbrmi l*atieot. 317 

\rwJale. Mr* 
Daaw, Lafc*, Mildred Ekeabrth Lewi, and 



ram*. TW Samel. _ 
l>«ixM. Dr. Jonathan. Review* by. I 

Eaton. P. E. . «, Eddy. WBaem H. 

t miatnmi Ceemm, ry. 
Eddy. Win. 



iad R. E. Honey. Cmiatmae 

raid.. r*rt.m. Pred «57 

Ehbten. Private Grot** E , Car** ami Cm—, 

FJdVetw. Sidney E. A Record of fbe Bald Eaeje 

f Blae 



-va BeBerd. Secretary. Report of. 908. 
Kacoa, me Lmtor 

NmeW with Urn Mart in. Dw- 
in* Time. «* 
Emm*. GafordTMy Fkat BM 

fair. W. U.CktMm. 



i »,,'.>• . MmmJ , ■ » • . (I MUm». 

fmwTSilkmWI, -« BkfumJL M<> I I 
FaroaU 
Canaan. jS 

Mayme. CiiwianiiaiBnf, Secretary. Report 
nf. 

I ■ . Will irr I I »l'' \<T T ' '■ \'.!ni*l Kr|»«f! 

Fanar. M. I. . Chh*t ma* Ceaau 



Floyd. Cbariea B.. Praafdeni. Report* of, at. **6. 

Bfed.WaBa.ifi> 
Fryaa, Ajp mt^Thc S tory ol a R om. 44 0. 
r a C*~ Ada Omafae. Prewdaat, R ap w t of. So. 
I id .11 W.. Secretary. Report of. 
Foot, Nathan Chandler, Prcwdcnt. Report of. 

Si. 
Forbuah. Edward 11.. Geaaral A*mt. Annual 

I ^'kwlw jmTsmSiSanB 
Foedyce. Georae L-. C A Laedy. WBn» M. 
r. and Votary Roaer*. ChrmUaaa C aaani, 



Wa 



Pom*. Elieabrth. Attracting Bird* to My Home, 

PreeJaad. Geom* IV *ee Chat, Richer-! 
Freeman. Mr* John. ModuVajbtrd in low* 
Feertea, Loaf* Again*. Colored Plate* by. latin* 

• v. y>\. I>r*wmg* by. wJ. 

yoo. 



and fUlrnbach. f. 
Gfdaas, Mr*. John. Secretary. Report of. 106. 
GeJroway. Mary. A Family of Brown Thraahrr*. 

■mo. to. 



Gwder. A. F . Chriatma* 
Ganhv 

Gardner. Mr* Arthur F . 1 V Wren. A Home- 



(Uv„. 



II 



/UOaaaoaVn .. 






GBwm. DaBa* Vamett. Old Mother Rotaa 
Her Babea. 18S. 



HimBtoii. me Van Dyi 

.-t»ry. Report ol 
<.t..%.i. Howard K MmMKi «l ■ Rainy Day. 

Gaaate, Walter A.. A t nique Wraa Keat. »v$ 
Gooch. John H . Chriatma* Ci a w 
Goold, Hattie. Secretary. Raport of. joi 
Gorham. Mrs. D. W.. The Ban! 

Window. 410. 
Gormley. Ueuori. me Macnamara. Charlr 
Gravaa, France* Miner, Chrtttma. Caaau* 
Geeaa, Maraaret S . Secretary. Reports of. 10ft. 

Gfa*Bm»f.Maaa,LO lloraky <a.and 



GewwotVI. CttuiB* T 



Hmw) (*• • • >-' 1 :••■ • 



<>n«i*. it*. 




Index 



i 
ii 

-:mjo 165 
II 
I 
Hatha* 



150. 

cn*u». 






rrtary. Krt»*t of. 510 
« ort h. George D. 
Hill, t HU? - 1 (i ..n» o|. iij. 507 

HiD. Leonice. An obtrrvmixm at 1 irst Hmd. 66 

use. 131. 

II liiuj, 448. 

hrisimas Census 
rnasCensuv 
flnBht ^actuary within •Sanctuary, 

n Andalc. Mr* Wra. 

ra from Lasmdale, 

Hruce. Colored Plata* by, facing too, 

Ifcwajwnn. Clarence. *• ■ 

I -lustry Awaiu a Captain. 160. 
Hwnaann. Mrbcent Lao, The Whip-pu 

■ rn. Spring Notes from a 

Report of, 508 

J a mra . EMaabeth P., Secretary, Report 01 

fiibbard J . Memories of the Paaeenger 

Annual Report, 460. 
NMH 

Joam, Lrnds, Oberiin Ke»nun. ti. n>. 441. 
Jonca, Hrr.r . •• 1 (iMpoadaM »«. rrtary. 

•at- 

Kaln abrietaon. I 

Kaajtx, Bknrt l - 11. . 11 -m 11 

Kcilogg. Clinton L Sr<retar> Irrasurrr krj.-rl 

•«raph by. tit. 
Kh naa. Edward 1» . ( hn.imi> ltnw%. aj, 

•ard. and Beth Rankin. A 
• ham C hri a tn ma C ana u a. 67. 

Kneveav Mary Kaatwood. Secretary. Report* of. 

■ Drytha. Cattataw Census 

LaDt* il 1 ermnn. Christ ami 

Laagdun. H.jr M Sr. r. u/y, RaJMfl •>< Qt> «■>< 



*> (Tirtunu. (fnw. 



Latahaw. aire. John T Secretary. Report of. 507. 

Laosbltn. J A . Christmas Census 

Laam- 

•ar, ImU. 

LaV, Vmrlia. C. iimi ni. . <(>■■■. Ir>.m Cao^U. Iff) 

Lear. ( ieonre, Christ mas Census. j6. 

Kaval Junior Audubon 
Sodrt 

•<»r I. 
' .V 
the Chestnut «ided Warbler, jo 7; The Black - 
billed Cuckoo. ^77 

■•ridge. Charles A. 
Lfwk (lark I.. Jr. an.l Kdsrard t. N.,h..|«. 

Christmas Cen»u- 
Lewis. Norman. A Word of Appreciation and a 
Testimony to the Value of Bud-Study. 64; A 
Three-toed Woodpecker 

Kdmonds. U .i ' 

an A Micklc. John D. 



UBUYP II lull.tr, 
Loaf, William II . (I 
l.ovclaml. David, A I 
Lund wall. Nelson, CT 
Lunger. Johi. 



nrta of. too. 504. 
Duck Carrying 



Macartney U 

Che Lure of the Feather- 
ed Songsters, 178. 
Macnamara. Charles, and Liguori Gormley. 

Madison. H. L. Secretary. Report of. 4«j 
Marafa U \\ . see Greenleai. Miles. 

•aheth Lawrence. Notes on Robins- 
Nests. itS. 
Marshall [genu* PaSJOK. V Iracr.lv. ul 

I I 
President. Report 

May. John H M I > . Chriatnma Census, gfj 

Ida. and Edward Preble. Christmas 

Cantata, iv 
McCamant. Tom. My Back Yard Feedmg 

Station, i8j. 
McConneU. Harry B . John Worlry. and 

Raymond Timmon*. Christmas Census 
McConneil. Mrs Annie. Winter Mwkingbirda, 



t< '.mnell. Th.» I. . 1 1 s*c*s M..riahty am.** thr 
PunJe Martin. ... Western Pennsylvania «lur 



mg April. 1017. 1 jo; an Savage. L. F. 
Mct'uhsxh. Bemw. Poem by. 6*. 

Census, *ft. 
Meu.41. I W Christmas Census. .A 
tfajjjaj, Mr Md Mr. «. Ilrnrv Chr.stma. 

MarriO. Janet. Vacation Ob.ers.iiom. 68. 

hfkkhv Una \ sre Uaam M IRNM 

■ 

immCamna 

Moore. Chriat n ma Census. to 



Index 



Moot. Mn Lata D, Secretary. Imi of. ioj. hwa Artaar. Praajdeat. Rajjort of. o» 

l^oli Prrbir. Edwar 

Mmehoail Alkr. Smrim. Reoort «L im. 



Report of. 104 

M l[ii, M» I >• .^mu ( rf..>:i 44 

VI 3 IW-th. <K.r B.fd Eahibrl. i7« 
. Edwin M-. CMtw 



Murphy 

Mui|Jijf, Robert t 
Myer*. llamrt " 



. MU.' 



•rr Latham. Ray. 
Secretary. Report of. 



Nation. Harold T . Honorary Secretary, Report 

mi mSjTV «rf l. £; wilfcit, 



Nichok. Edward G. are Lr. 

Nkhok. John Tr*e-Uefl. at* Latham. Roy. 

Nkhok. John Tieaitniiw. Bird Banding. 4*©; 

■■IlLuM'l NkHiaaU ihntlmii H.r ! 

Cum, 4 ><«k Region, jjo, 4»8. 



Rr\icw» by. 4U 



Nicholas*, 

Fn*U*h 

Ni.b>4««l 



\u-JuUo \\«k .»>■! thr 



180 



NoMac Frieda E .. Amateur Photography. 1; j. 

Nnrt.*. Arthur II r*ld \arnt. Annual Krj.,rt 

Novak Frank . Chriatnsaa Ceneu*. to. 

Oberhoktr. Harry C. The Migrate* a! North 

16. ;**, 






Town Martim 

Ota* s < . « **£■! k IWarmMh, rlo 






Packard. Wksthrop. Field Agent Annual Ra 
4*1. Vtrrtary Tmnim, R e p o r t of. 478 
Palme Reviews by. 54, i«. tst 

«. ***--- - . 

John G.. Bird* and Been, 404. 

Mr*. Bertha Tracer. Secretary. Report of. 



Re;- rt 
J 1'.. J07. 



47*. 



Haydn S- Maine Note*. 41S. 

Gwbert. A— —I Report. 
Editorial* by, 70. 104. i$6. j»a. jl*. 450; Leant 
Tm. jtej ;f**wtagrspb* by^ jet. 3*6, , 

• anisldorril'l 

(lariatmnaCa 
otogreph by. job. 

II A !«trui 
ftrtry. Dorothea R.. The 

FbJk, Welter. Chriatma* renew*. 14 
Plrror 

F reding ^helf. 4 
Plnkham. Roger I).. Actio** of a Cmmnry Swift. 

m. J. H . aaJISSo'ff'tbToirV. Chriat- 

£". Chriat mm Ceaea*. it; Pbmv 
\*£*f»- W 4*«; 

Nth* Mm : tat T^lii, Pimps*, 



utter. Jeften 
dctphk Rcfj 



■V tit. 
J6 



Irrtt B.r 
\ur Prc^trM. kr|..ft "I. lOl 



U.idLifc. ». 



Raker, hfary E.. link of Ik 
Chriatean Ctaaw. 48. The Bnhri ii r 

wings in Oregon. 1 87 
Raymood. Otnry M . (Tiriatma* Ceneu*. 11 
gegiMaj. Gertrude. Report of. 480. 

Reevea, Wyaaa, Home Ohaorvationa hi the South. 

nWiin. Oaaoa, u s • i eaMM * Nafm 

Martin Colony Thk V 
k..r Bejgi M .OlktWll C*B*wj 4* 

xrd ).. Christina* Cea*> 
Richard*. Efiaabeth. Secrr- ,• . k. ,-ei of. 487. 
ija^amjj \ \ ~r st..khridge. Charte. A. 
Rippk. liar 
Roada. Ixt) 

Roberta. Gnorm\ ObatrvatioM oa a F oo d S h elf . 
Robert*. Thoa. S., M. I).. Minneapou* Region. 

Minneaota. j>n> 
RoMaano. Donald 1 1 

Rubinniw. Virginia C. Chriatma* C iaa u i 
K *hncr. nvc.i..rr. Chn%tma% Cm»u.. 
Rogers. Caarka 1 *t » Elghtceoth 

< jfageaaCma . ;< \r. V4 c,t> ko- ... 

it, 
Roger*. Volney . tee Fordyce. Georjt L. 
RaCti I r,< k . kgasrkaa i^rrt u > pmn.%1 



Cawbgina« 

as 



vanta. 4: 



Ihr k.4>in. iRj. 



Bgagak UTii ta, Tha ksa Mhrallial !■ las HxmbW 

Caatsal Park \c« York < ,v :., 
Saunder*. Arctna A . . Chriatma* Cenau*. jo. 



lueael. Private 

kwlin. 



\* as. E- A New Feediag^lab. 14 
s»u%4*- MoeJ, a ir^i.tw: katJaa, «.'- 
Savage. L F.. and TboaX MrConaeO. CTiriaima. 

Sawyer. Edmund J.. Photographby. t«7. Poenw 




kri..rt<^.7^ 



George, ea 
MCeaata*. 
Grace. Secretary. Report of, 
Henry. A Song Sparrow in January 
187. 
Shaw. Mr. and v 



tecaataq kn.. 

riafai Ccoaoa, 

T heo dor a Spencer, 






Sken.Un.Vj.Vhr star gj BoOw»kj afoTtal 
- 

a Iham. Christmas Canon*. 4« 
Stole. John l> . SteMOMft «l 

South! rJ».crt E. K.naJ W r-^1. arvl Raja* 

rthy Content. i« 

Smith. \\ iJSuf I' . II -if- til • l.rr'« ;n t ..ntw-. '!■ u! 

34. MS. son, M7- 

■ 

Hun. Ckrtatma* Cenuis. 50 

Bath. J*8 

Mm Wm 



Index 






fen Bird B4t 



«r U...!Sur\. Ma 



Chn*tma« 



Winter Mixkingbird* . 1 $o. 
■ «h, Field Agent. Annual 



» 

Tkoma*. C I 

Tkwmas. J..» a retgfy, ■gaajtnf, im, 

Thimbu t. A H . An Audubon tArnry Exhibit. 

TinunoM. Raymond, we McConnefl. Harry B. 
Tindk. M Idled A- Secretary. Report of, 115 
Tneepkins. Eark. An Exercise in Bard-Study . 66. 

4*. 



. Rrf.ft gj 



B . and J..hn II BMMH 

B.. ScrreUry. Report of. 4*1 



M .. Retiring Secretary. Report 

uttk. r May. Snowy Owl in Iowa. 4*6 
MLJLLjhMi on the Neath* of the 
Nasnwtllr wartiler. roo. Scene Note* *jci the 

Ruffed (rfuU«r ( 



gft 



wAllnnta. 
.U s.,lt. in rot 



Bcw* HofUtk. I. 

oMhtaV <~hm(m.i% 
Hi:.. ■ <.,!.»:. 



VanAn.Uk. 

|)ur>>ur. ji>'1 I'hm (• 
CgOgOJ, 44 

Christ ma« Census, 36. 

VinaJ. Wtllu 

Volkman. I'aul. I'tcm l>y. 17* 
VosBurgh. Can. W. II.. Booming of tot AoMffcnn 
Bittern. 



Wagner. Al 
WnKrhajr. 



Alxan. 



C, Secretary. Reporta of 
no, SOS- 
Waiter. -Mice Hall Editorials by. 57. 170. no. 
■ Ppry of the World. 

Walter. rYwSCta K . ^r< rrtary . Krt.«>rt«< J. : >;. 50J 
Wnmbole,Iohn.A> 

Warner. Willi* II . ^ Nnfcmg, (ieorrr I. 
Wat* 1 ea from London. Out.. » m. 

WaUun. )«hn I) . Chmtmas Census. 41 
Way, W Sc.*t, Secretnry. Report of, 476. 
WeuthrriU. ( harlot te. Secretary, Report of, 401 • 
Webatcr. Lean I.. Seen Irum the Window of a 

Rtn^SdnaibVorawr. .. 
Welter. Charles, aee Farquha 
WeJty. Dr. Emma J.. Secretary. Report of. 4* J 

Wnitlocx. Howard E., Secretary, B epiert of. 4*0. 

rude P.. Secretnry. Report of. 497. 
Wiggins, Mabel R., ChrlsttMl Census. 30. 
WUcm. LeRov. Christmas Census. t». 
Wnkota, 1^4 » tH-. Suggestions for Bird and 
Ar»..r'l>av. 17 » 

WMnans, E. W.7a«7^ttthatdi Tenant* and a 

Pnir of Bed handed Romans, 117. 
Wjbon, Etta S . C hristmas Ce noaa^ aj. 
Winters, John H., Preasdeot, Rep o r t of, 70- 

Am S.. Our Back Yard Vbatote, Iff. 
Wood. Skehdnn F . Ckriatanns Caenma. 4 >. 
Woodbury . Mr*. Roland. Eknoor Chute 

Jamen Stendsnan, and Majorat Stan 

Christmas Census.' K». 
Woodward. MagnoBa. Secretnry. Report of. 47$- 
WordoB, Mann. Ckriatmas Census 
Worley, John, see M cC ono ril , Harr 
Wright, Mabel Osgood. Three Y. 

Notee on Bkdrraft Sane 

x>i. H um- la nd and the 
WrW^HornceW 

Wyntt. BtennotX How We Study Birds in Our 

Wysnan. Lei. tee Bkkorl. Mrs. I 




oong. G. S . 
ounsvfoknP 



7hr 



Ja> W ,11 M 



fo$ 



Edn.rd K 






INDEX TO CONTENTS 



ARatfttM*. Black tawed. Bgamd. I. 



Aadabaa Battel av noticed, jott. 
Aadabaa Swietir*. Annua] Report o< 

Stale. Amtutcd with 

Wl A«« U 1MI • 

Auk. TV. reviewed. »i5. jot. 4JJ. 



U.kl 



fjrft 



Mr. I 



oto* 



B. ?■!<:.!•< • kn.*t».rf. 47^ 

Wfd-CiM— mlka. we Bird Protection 
Ml».» Book, noticed, tos 
BmJ ll.*i*rv i to : ttgared. 107. 

0.61.70. 01. 104. 19S. 

64. t6$. *>, 
Bird Study. t>t. 64. 66. . j«6. 

1*4 

Bin! . i«|l ::• ' <. fururr.) 40S 

*Birda of Atacrka, rev tewed ■■ 

Bittara. American. t«4* *«$. joe; Learn, tto. 

Blackbird. Red winged, iw tjo 



(igored. HI. 

TnC. :• ! :■ r-! 

B-4. .hilr. 164. JO4- 

Bunting Iodic". 104. Snow. M. aj. 164. 

Butud. Turio 

Ciltnf h. $0. yx. g6. 1 0$. 440. 47'. 49*. Ml. 
Cardinal. 160. 165. t*9 
CalbW. 164 
Can. 164. 

> Loax'a Eighteenth Chrinttaii. tj; 

Nirwtrcftt r. 4 : ' 

Chickadee. 4*4; agared. 400. Black <apped. i6j; 



reviewed. 54. 16a. tj6. jot. y 
Coaaecticvl. to. 1 ,00. 

Cost. Ataarkaa. . 
C urmcrint. tao. ja6; iKjubir-oreated. j6i. 

1 ranr.nunna. ntwra. 400 
Creeper. Brown. >t. 165. 4*8. agar*! 



Red. t$. «<•« 



acko 

Graat Cahaa. jqt 

Aanrrkaa Scaup, a* 

pair 

■fated, mi; 



m. tyS; 



165 

1; aaat aad as, 
1 '-><.. Caavaabadk. 

•riia wiapiiiTeal. tji; Leatcr 






• 

I 
Kctei. Amen 

■ aad egg*, ■■and, j*s 

! oera. reviewed. 1 

Feeding Bird*. 14. 140. 1 - 

im.h Baa* . ■ I ' ■; »Oi 

Florida. 47s. 4*0 

Ih.krr I^Tifol let j *>. Kol UriUol. figured. 

iH.ii.Kct. ( rr%iol 104. t.rrat crc*l«d. 4." 

figured, tor. Lmu. 
Frigate, Bird, bguml. joj. 106. 

Fulmar (..ant. figured. J 

Georgia. 40 

Gnatcalcher. Blue -gray, tt. jo; 

GaMftack, gal liaaaam. 1 . Mrskaa.4jj 

Gooar, Canada, it 

(ioahawk. 11. 

Crackle. Boal-laikd. 

A»6;Purpie. tjo. tji. 590. ; 

Gnba, M i'-> 1 mured. u» «> >; lltaa nd 

Groabaak. Black hraded. agar 
hvcaing. H 
brcaated. J04. jo<; agurrd 
Grout*. Pinnated. Beared, tot; Ruffed. - 






J04. 1 

159. * 



14'. tiiTurr.1 t . »,. 

Gutt. Bonaparte' 

tag.**. 

Harper'* Twdvc Month* with the Bird* and 
Hawk. Vm-tkaa Rinjah lag' 

terruginowRougbkggad. >s; Marah. t$. 



iOXA^ 



; Grata. 4*1; 



«£ 



!lj.-..'. 



5«4. J04j Na 

>86: 1 rflorw -crowned Nun'. J04- 

Vudubon i> 

Hnaiiiaftiird. fiaaatd. aa aan\ set; Black- 
chinncJ. tot; CaBiope. ncured. a) 






^ 4tl. 47' 
ladkuia. nt. 11$. 477- SOS- S«7 
Iowa. 4: 

Jay. Blue. 166. 2 1 agurad. a; 

id*, figaanl 
.ra> neadr 



»9S. Ill 



>S. 4*9. 41t: agared. n. itt. too. »$4. lacing 



viii 







-4.1m ,r •«:•. ,04 

•ho/. «gO 

«1 ticurrd. facing. ja<, 

Uirncd. 
>. 4 10. figured, fadng 

«d*lnui llorne>i 



< ; »■; too, tururrO. 

j(4And. 6miml. 401 



Mi irtunu 




















Ruddy 


■ 









Yell... 



American, figumi. (aiin* \u\. 415- **<'■ 
b iaa d . figured, fat in* ty 1 1 5 

aM Bird 
Cuban, ico. ' •• .> breaurd. 150; Purple. 
;. ago. joo, 4*0. 4JO 



A 80. 81. 105. 117. 119. 



OlfeM 



of. 4S» 



j; (uban. J07; 
17. wBlrtt, fi g ure d, jfto 
uncrkmn. iftj; Hooded. 165; Red- 

. mi, 480. ceo. 
rd Law. - •• Ixridatiuo; Treat 

•f*w*d. J07. 
:. 105. jao. 407. 

ISO. 160, jo 



■dure, an. 100. 1 

jo. oj. 100. us. 48a. 904. 

I< 8a. 8$. oj. 106. 
108. 1 

j^HjtV, 4»o. Rcd-breattrd. *i. 164. t(< 
Wkto-bwofd. fit. 



Mario. at, .- 

riok. liAjfTi.fr w 



M. 464. *8a. 400 



J04. i>7 4>e: 






'•> 106; 



•firry. Amrt 



ray Screech. !>»■.:■■! f.7, C.rc*t H.*:.. 

Shnft 






P atterns'; 

I'arn*. White .n«.i>o! 

Pcanooa' Takn fron BirdUnd.' reviewed. aj$. 

Pehcan. Brown. 104. JV4. J©6; figured. 4 «ft; neat. 

tlfurnl. «'■.• 

Penguin, firured. j; Jackaav 7. 8 

P i nnayK iaw. jo, j?. 7J. 70. 00. 104. 118. lai. 

1*5. 4Cjo. 501. 
Plait.. Wood. job. 
Phainopepla. tit. figured, fadac. *oi. 



Putoifi. kelp. »rv Sh.-alhbill. 



Plover. Kin* rietk. tcy. l*pUn<i. jot 
Plumage I .aw, IVnntylvania. . 
Prau> 

rgmia. J04. 

i-rn. 1 go; figured, tadac too. 
■ 
Redstart, x ng 

Robin. 1$. 1 j l4 . joo. joa. 

k Jj8. 4»7. 4Ji. 4JJ; figured. 105. 

Sanctuaries. Bird. «cr Bird Protection. 
San<leritar. |6l. 

Cectorai aja. 

Jitary. joa. 

Spotted. 181. job. j6i; neat and young. 

Vettow bellied, ij. aja. 417. 
*fMM v TW .ii. ioj. ajo. joa. j 5 «. 417 

Shrike. CaHforau. »8t; Intend. a8S; Luaxrrbead. 
as*, ago. J04: tucured. facing, aft 

t- 401; 
figured. 40a. 4c hern L o g ayi htad. 

St*kin. Vine 

>ni[«-. WiU... :u iM. M| 

Soul h Carolina. t< 

Sparrow. Bachnu. 1 hipping, aja 

hjruml. jg8; Clay<t4urr 
Kngtuh. at, \<4. Field, i<m. Km. ti. aje, »ji. 
04; llouw. .is4. Lincoln't. J04 . 
oft 187. a jo, 

< igatt d. too. 404; Vaapar, ajo, aja. J04; 

\\c»trrn 'Irrr. ; < . \\ hitr , rowned. ,:. Wrnlr 

throated. Iftj \t*> t )7. «iH. 4ti 
Martin*. Europe* 1 »«j 

Swaflow. Bank. *oo. joa. ISO: Bam. ifo, aot. joa. 

an*. £Q *i T^ t a^iiW. «» t. aao. 

104 • "• nur »*. 1110 1 . \ \<j 
himney. »-• 
Swop*. Dr. Kosrar. WaTtO i rnp h of. 46$ 



Tanacrr. Cooprr 

>uiu*na. ifl 



Scarirt. 

acuratj 

Teal BtWainiii 1 .rara wiafled. 410 

Ttvn. C aa p a w . jm; Uaal. jto; naurrd. jto. neat 
and ear* aaumi. j8«; Black. 4$* 

Taraantr. Bruvn. tgnrad. ana. jo 

Sa«* 



TVWu Har—fc. . «i»t boftort. J04- »oj. Myrtle u. 166. %ot. joj. 



T«ft«L Ifwvd. 141 y ( q |t w k. jq6; WfcaaV. jt 



J04; 



Twrtw. i jr „ ^ . .,__.._ . . . . , Ytfcw Mm. t to. jc 

IMMMI '•• A*wU* » LaoCMor. (fvtrnd. thr>»*l«<d. n6 

jo* WmUwIob «« in in. jj;. joj. jo* 

Tnflo* » Tbr T««<^<W SortKc te tbc Ucm- W*trr ihrwh. 1 nddim jt 

•otMy SdMA wravida jot J04 

TWwtow. Roitd, Waawtac. Buhwlin, i6j , - !IC uml. 

Urine sot; CVrUr. 11. 161. :m . 
V«MM. *> t~*mm w , 

Mno. ntkiikhh J04: P l uwl ii gw . job: WrnVk+k. JO. Of 

SoBuiy. 104; w ai tfc u . 4*7: Ydbw-titoalad. WMp-poor wOL 114; It wo i. > 



3*6; I urlry. U». Wonrtpwrtor. America* Thnw t«*d. j$i. Downy. 

10. ij. 4 so. 411. 6cufrd. 40s; " 
bMlii... 



£. 



** Md WMtc 11. joj. BUcibuntko. 1e6.n8.4A 

i»: BUc»-po«. joj. a*?. 4*S. ug Una. Carolina, joa. Aft; B«o> 

fCl IMMi od BtW. >i. joj: Bladt-tnrontcd ijo. tii. »oj. jo6; nm. Igwod 

Gt«. joj. 4ji. Ifc iiw hyrt . J04: Canada, bfilrd Mann, joe. 
joj; Capr May. »i. joj; fl i f l di l o l . W. 

joj; ficond. . 106. CoooKlicot. 4*0: K4»l odor. ¥* »■ t fi . Groatcr. us; ocwod. jjo. 
J04. joj. Mocsflhrnjra. J06 




1. SCARLET TANACER. AdoX r»l« 4. SCARLET TAN ACER. P«nD* 

2. SCARLET TANACER. A*lt m»te moWnf 5 WESTERN TAMACER. Mate 
i. SCARLET TAMACER. AAA mate la vtater *. WESTERN TANACER. Pwmte 

< Mi tall BBMfl MMl 




2ftru=lLore 

A BI-MONTHLY MAOAZ1NK 
DBVOTBD TO THK STUDY AND PROTECTION OF B 
OffKMl 0««<m c» Tmc Auourod Soc I 



Vol. XX 



January— February, 1918 



No. 1 




Photographs of Falkland Island Bird-Life 

By ROLLO H. BECK 

Fthe |>a-t five years Rollo H. Beck has been « lying 

marine birds along and off the coasts of southern South America for 
.vstcr and Dr. L C. Sanford. Hi^ collections arc now 
in the American Museum of Natural H November, 

Journal' of that institution he begins a recountal of his 
an exceedingly ii. description of his vi>it to the great 

softhcFalkl Is. 

h these islands are treeles helcss possess a few species 

1>. Our own How represented by a closely related species, 

are also a Thrush afa -ise of our K Pipit, and < venl 

», all exactly or essen I t heir representatives in the neighboring 

»f South America. 

Is that the Falkland Islands are 

known to ornithologists. Penguins, Cormorants, Ducks, and Geese of several 

species abound 1 there are Albatrosses, Fulmars and Skuas. 

( k landed at Por 

at the I* 

it possible to moui 
ing-ground and reti 
Stanley, Bee 
Bleaker Island, al - 

island, he states, "is I 

o Penguins landing 

accustomed path, 

— a m range associatioo — to t] 



. the only town in the group, in October, 
antarctic spring. From this point, he wl 
hone and visit three species of Penguins on 
he same day. 

by sloop to the doubtless well-named 
rther south 



iding on the south side of the island, walking a rruTe 
«th, passing at times through flocks of feeding sheep 
i heir ne»ts within s few hundred yards of the water, 
but on the opposite side of the island from that on which they landed. 

k» article is illustrated with a large number of admirable photo- 
graphs, seven ., thanks to his courtesy and that of the American 
Muvum -Journal.' we an permitted to reproduce in Bisr>Loai.--Eorroa. 







V 



NBS1 
r roaa tkt flaw Hui a riMM laavw \ alpara»o m ta» »aat comI or 
•IMS* Ik* »«lWr« .k-cr. a4 Soolb AaacfKa a.d ap a. Lr ». IhMI Alfa. M Ika Mtt <• 
iwokaktr M><br dmu tkt •»•»•» mr tkat AJbatraaaa* nay m( m mm f r«m >< 

■Mall I 111 «IKknt| UUlto*. Mk b,. in <o.,-f.bir «i«bl U ..Urn MM, tM CMM«' 

Ik* IWlbtMt4 Ubaif ml coImmj ol ib* hUck Uro.cJ Albatroaa lo ba r»«nd ia tka 

FtUUH Lalaaxta. *»d «•« •>« l«o aboatf t »i* Ho»» TW B1m4 ration »bo» » a typical mm ptacad baadftda 

•I teat abort ib« taasaltaooa ata. dan to tka aalft* of a cUf Mi W«t "oiat I .land in • 

koolakapad Mat of tka AJbatmaa mmiMm tkal a* taw rUawafo. beia« Malt avwi 

Mar by bl.., a*-.), at* Mia) >♦** altar yma aaal an kavt ap cradaally to a c o aa ta V abU 

r«aa| Albatfaaa ffoar. Uooly. aad Ukaaw aaoatka baton M caa at«p Iroaa it. a*»t aad %a>l aoajr ovar 



(«) 



i 



* : 




fljh 

Ml, 



Kill* 

ill 



III 



I 



111 



1 



Hi*** 

mill 

Ilf j 
lljij 

pi 

ill*** 

-111! 




z % 



\ 









'Pauperizing' the Birds 

By HENRY OLDYS 



I in birds has grown amazingly in recent years. The charm of 

establishing friendly ri-l.ttions with these bright and attractive little crea- 
familiar with their a ays and varied songs is 

making an appeal I and old such as it never did before. Some are con- 

Id method of scattering a few crumbs on doorstep or window-sill 
i onstructed nesting-boxes about the home. Those, however, 
who I the always laudable ambition to attain the I 

possible study carefully the question of catering to the varied tastes of dif- 
t species. On the grounds of these more energetic bud-lovers, providing for 
irds is a much less simple matter. Elaborate tables are spread for the 
elected shrubs, which furnish food, nesting-sites, 
m enemies, arc planted in profusion; nest-boxes of special sizes 
are constructed or purchased and erected at suitable heights and in 
carefully chosen localities; the pan of water is superseded by the concrete 

and many other devices of proved service are used to attract avian 
tors. Especially are these modern methods and contrivances used in the com- 
munity bird sanctuaries which are beginning to dot the country in increasing 
numbers. 

That the beneficiaries of all this activity appreciate and respond to such 

welfare Is plainly evident to anyone who visits one of these 

■ and observes the throng of birds constantly about 

and pool; or who is familiar with certain statistics published by the 

Iture, whiih show that while the average 
is nesting about homesteads in the eastern half of tl 

one pair to the acre, places where the birds find special 

nmodations have as many as three, five, seven, even twelve, nesting pairs 

•efore the eyes of those cognizant of the progress of the 

movemen markable achievement of Herr Graf von Berlepsch, who, 

on his estate a n Thuringia, has induced more than 500 pairs 

■ home annually on the t j-acre park surrou 

opulation of forty pairs to the acre! 

I of increasing the* birds, the measures taken are un- 
' lonably successful. Let it not be supposed that a greater number in one 
place implies a decrease elsewhere — in other words, that the excess on tracts 
ences are supplied b drawn from other areas that are only nor- 
mally att r birds. Birds are very local in their attachments. The same 
be absence of interference, will nest year after year in the same spot. 
! *nding experiments that have been conducted for some years by an 
organization tend to show the same tenacity as retards their * 

sparrows banded on a farm at Thomasville, 

(9) 



to Bird -Lore 

Ga., wrrr noted at the same spot in the following winter, having spent the 

summer, at usual with their kind, at some | tonkr or 

in Canada. While it is ptMribk that some are 

able quart trait of local attachment «uggesu thai 

part responding to the offered hospitality are those w I 

m of a home or have hern to abandon the ol< 

plate 

It must be remembered, also, that under the huma- 
n engendcrril by the interest under 
the winter and more are raised to matu- caaualti 

inclement > the dangers that beset gr rds are almost incalcu- 

lable. Mut h ol the InritMf in numbers among the sj>ecics 
t is undoubtedly due to this saving of I. 
So far all is well. The movement brings about a substantial beret* 
our beneficial birds and a healthy growth of human inter 
The desirability of each of these results cannot be sen 
in the midst of our felicitations on the rapid spread of tin 
comes a discordant note. From sources too sincere, too 
rds to be ignored as born of ignorance or pr< 
are doubtless enj- irselves, and v 

but you are f>au pcri-.tnz Ike birds and destr 
supply them with NulMitute^ for their ordinan 
will give up their foraging habits and will no 
culture and horticulture in 

On its face this is a plausible indictment 
example, that obtains all his meals fr aaket will be 

sted tree ami man and tree will cea II Ik- 

transformed from a \< oeable hi lie pearii i his 

practical ecooomic relation to man will lie cot 

But several factors arc here ignored that are necestsi full 

understanding of the question. In tl 

any bin! will satisfy his appetite only at the ready-spread tabk V\ ith birds, 
as with man, the ap pe tite demands 
Woodpecker invoked as an example will help him 

especially in times of scarcity -of his natural food; but he is no more 
altme because of its ready accessibi s a man 

his<! Ken.ift hit ken be furnished him without » 

such an experiment he would soon find himself loathing t 
and it is probable that birds have a similar 
them to seek that of food which they need as much as ma 

oneof the best established ornithological facts is the govern.< 
absolutely by hab: he habit of U n the 

<>und th< 






Pauperizing' the Birds n 

raion arvl a necessity, but 

r unlikely that the ancestral methc*l of fi ;>osed on th- l>ir<l> 

8 will light 1\ disappear, to be replaced by a different form. 
shoul«i 

Is have approximated their natural nesting places hav< 

iced to accept them in n so small a change as boring a Imlg- 

ig hole in the cad of a strai. ling the 1 v of 

seed the occuptnq of bosca m the Prrkp trh woods 

nt. If our supposititious Woodpo iuty 

entire class, were ns of the 

^ and abandon himself to the luxury of unlimit. „\ nature 

i which she uses as a stimulant 
lieu of a con.v Id find h aed with 

irk for the foo I 
neath 

ormous number of birdamual l>< 
of v persons have an i prion. 

bamense concourses of Passenger Pigeons, remembc nany now 

I so graphically d esc rib ed W her early 

lologists. mon knowledge. But that the Robins wt America an 

more numerous than the Passenw re. and that main 

species outnumber them also three to one i> not generally 

^regariousneas of the I causing them to unite in a 

few great flocks, made the numlier much more manifest than do the scattered 
>mall bands aii of other birds. Vet « that Robins 

nest over an area * at its fart best limit- \ 

Ocean and from the Atlantic i and that in much of this vast 

hey are fairly crowded, it is easy to conjecture what an immeasurable 
would make if gathered it Bow many who read 

seen a Long>[ DO the morning after a Wet 

snow- : nnesota some years ago, one million Longs 

were : ig dead on the ground, having been brought down by the storm 

that was passing overhead through the night. 
n of the inconceivably great numlier of birds that populate 

hould not be difficult to comprehend very readily that the 

housands or even millions that receive a varying proportion of 

in man constitute an inconsiderable fraction of the 

a million Longspun may b n dead in a night without pro- 

g an appreciable increase of insects and weeds, n need have no 

conci he possible danger that our generosity may work serious injury 

maidcration must be given to the increase in the bird populatio n 
>e greater protection resulting from I rot m the birds, 



Hird-Lore 

not only on sanctuaries but elsewhere, as, for instance, in converting many 
thousand* of boys from bird -destroyer* to bird-protectors. What degree of 
suppression of forces inimical to bird-life is thus occasioned we cannot know 
with exactness, but it must be very great. It b easily conceivable that the 
quantity of insects and weed seed consumed by the birds thus preserved b at 
least as great as any increase of these pests arising through feeding the birds. 
ally, the young birds raised on sanctuaries, public and private, are not 
fed from the food-shelf while the)* are in the nest. Th< a diet of soft- 

bodied insects, which the parents must supply. The more yo mor<- 

insects. If four broods are raised where formerly but one was the rul< 
times as many insects will be required for the purpose. This necessity of H 
ing insects for the young will of itself prevent birds from incurring any grave 
danger of being pauperized, and the greater quantity of insects needed for the 
larger number of broods will obviate any diminution in the u agri- 

culture. 

To this point the argument has been of an a priori char 
eriori conclusion may be drawn from three facts, one general. r two 

specific. The general fact b that on sanctuaries, not only do • 
dueling trees) show no deterioration from insect attack, but t). 
healthier and freer from such depredations than befc 
was begun. It b largely for the purpose of benefiting the plant-life on a 
that sanctuaries are established The specific facts are as follows: 
few years ago, E. H. Forbush, State Ornithologist of Massa cased 

the number of birds in his orchard by the usual meat .nsioners, 

the following summer, saved his fruit crop (and, incidentally, that d 
neighbor) from the attacks of a host of tent caterpillars and cankcrworm - 
ruined every other fruit crop in the region. Again, when a - 
caterpillars stripped the trees of a large area in Germany so bare that the 
summer woods resembled those of winter, the birds that Baron Berlepach had 
fed and housed so protected his estate that although it stood in tin 
the devastated area the invading army could not get within a quarter of a 
mile of it. These example* of the actual effect of sanctuary methods amply 
support the theoretical conclusions previously reached. 

may, therefore, reassure ourselves and continue to enjoy our new 
timacy with the birds with clear consciences. We shall not paupcri/. 
birds by our liberality and friendliness. On the contrary, we may rest with 
c o nfi d ence in the pleasant thought that, while instituting a delightful relation- 
ship with our welcome guests and filling our homes with the added beau 
their song and plumage we are increasing their general efficiency and so in- 
suring a greater degree of health and beauty to our lawns, trees, shrubs, and 







■t RA PORTRAITS Or THE JUNCO 
lyCr. Stoat, •rucaport. N 



(H) 



A New Fccding-SIab 

By WM. B SAUNDBHS. U«ntf«o. Ont 

SO IfANi oi the readers «»f BotD-Lon arc intcrc 
winter birds ihBt this magazine ought to be b medium iange 

ideas on that 

e where we ar« ibled by the Bag 

therefore must be reckoned with before we can successfully feed • 
birds. I have done constant work in trapping Sparrows for two .ears 

and have been amazed to find that one can pra« 
his own back yard, even though they m 

hundred yards, or even leas. But we are learning all is an 

local in their habits, and this is only another proof addci 
have gone before. 

o<i the large box-trap, original I think. 

Department of Agriculture, into which the Sparrows enter through space: 
left at the top. 1 have also used a trap of the Dodson 



*S 




nn 



these are moderately successful d that they make 

wary, and they do i esults that are at all comparable to thos< 

e use of a plain trap consisting of a shallow open b 
is replaced b) wire net: held op by a I hes long. 

and a string attached to room window 

constantly under the box, and the Sparrows feed under it sa: when 

a Sparrow gets the habit of con y yard at all, he soon find- 

»ui>|ilv. and 1 notice that the seed is diminishing d 
is kept up, and some fine morni n . i DC or more Sjiarrows u 

when there is an opportunity to pull the 

In the spring of iqi6 I kept both a Dodson trap and a bo\ igh- 

out April and May. The Dodson trap caught one Sparrow and the other caught 
about twenty, and these were, of course, wary old bin great 

advantage of the box-trap is that it is used constantly by all th 
resident native Sparrows as a food-supply, and they act as unconscious decoys 
for the House Sparrow. The trap is, of course, perfectly si 
as I never pull the string except for House Sparrows, and 
to sec the absolute disregard with which the Chippies and others steal my bait, 
for to me the trap forms the best place for feeding native Sparrows. 

(14) 



A New Fccding-Sltb 15 



aslant trapping kccits the numbers of S|*rrows down to the minimum. 

when in put out food on horizontal platforms or perpendicular 

slabs, using fat and nuts, not only do the Woodpeckers and others use it, but 

sparrow* find it a welcome source of food, and if the)' are undisturbed they 

at two or three times as much as all the native birds put I I was 

in this way last winter that I was d invent the upside- 

down slab shown in the illustration, with the very satisfactory result that while 

jieckers, and Nuthatches use it freely, and apparently 

.veil a> any other method, the Sparrows never touch it at al! 

does one get ahead of the Sparrows, hut the snow nc\ n the food, 

as it does where the supply is on a horizontal platform ; and for the northern 

nets where there is a good deal of snow in winter, t Hi- i> quit! an imjiortant 

The handle which pr. rn the center at one end of the slab Is for the 

:«ae of supporting it. One may have two nails driven in it or two little 
wooden sockets on the wall or on a tree, the socket or nail nearest to the feed- 
ing-slab being below the handle, and the one farthest away being above; with 
arrangement one can pull the slab off, take it in for replenishment, and re- 
place it again with equal convenience. This slab was exhibited at the last 
matting of the American Ornitholoe. m and was favorably commented 

many of those pre- 

l food, my plan is to get a bag or tu <1 peanuts, grind them in a 

meat-chopper, mix them with melted suet, and plaster the mass on the wood 
with a spoon. As soon as cool it adheres perfectly, and one has the satisfaction 
of knowing that the birds do not walk on their food before eating it. though 
that satisfaction b probably limited to the human race and not shared by the 




The Migration of North American Birds 

BSCOND SERIES 

II. THE SCARLET AND LOUISIANA TANAGERS 

Compiled by Harry C. ObcrbolMr. Chiefly from Data in ihe Biological Survey 

See inmthfikvt 
SCARLET TANAOER 

The Scarlet Tanagcr ( Piranha rrythromeUu) breeds in the United States and 
Miuthcrn Canada, nortl ■ ia. southern Quebec. Ontario, and south- 

eastern Saskatchewan; south lo ^>uthern Kansas, Tennessee n Georgia, 

and western South Carolina. It wir, utth America >lombia to 

ia and Peru, and migrates through the Greater Antilles and Central 
America. It is of casual oa urrmce during migration also west of Wyoming and 
Colorado, and east to the Bahama Islands and the Leaser Antilles. 

SPRING MIGRATION 






Mosquito Inlet, r ! 

Dry Tortus 

Savannah. < 

Atlar 

Long Islaad, Ma 

>r leant. La. 
Point lit jIi 
San Ar. 
Aiken S < 
Raleifl 

Variel 
Wathinxtor 

WMtc 

( hattanocN 
Kubank. K 
irk 

Onega K 
Hartford, t 

K 1 
Motion. M 
Minnft»cli! Man 
Pbillin*. Maine 
Durham. N II 
Rullan.! \ I 

n. \ J 



\uml<i 



M..rn*ltn 

BaalawM 
Alfred. N 






■eat 


•priM arrival 


KartWat d 






i 41 1 






lOOl 








1 >4 




s 


■ 


!004 


4 




4. IQIO 




il IO 


IO, IQOl 


5 


\|»ril 1 1 


1 6, i8oj 
\|>nl ;.'. 1007 
.*oo 




M 












1 IO 


■ . 




\pril jo 


ifloi 








4 




1004 






1895 















4 




to. i8oj 










>o$ 










|| 


**>$ 




lln 


tO$ 






lOO 


1 


>*S 




*>S 




job 








io. 1882 
*oo 

8, ion 


II 









The Migration of Nonh Amcrictn Birds 
SWUMO MKMUTlOW, continued 






Number 

ol jdin' 

rct.if ! 



A*«fM* <*•*• o< 



ferlmt dale ot 
•pciat »m»»l 





s 


May o 


1 4, 1889 
April *o 








»9. >OJ5 




•4 








** 












April 








April 14, 1S94 








April i<). 1889 








igoi 


1 






jo. 1896 


i. 








wa 






1906 
April .tj 1006 
April 10, 1899 




IO 


1 1 


■ 




>4 




>»J 






14 


'■^o^ 








18, 1903 

14. I0Oj 




4 


10 


1S93 






JO 






IO 


May 5 


April 30, 1901 

1009 






June 6 


1909 



PALL MK'.K 





Number 


- ice rUt« o( 


torn* -u«c ..< 




U%t .»nr ..t^M-rvr.l 


Ia«I on* nl>«*r\r*! 






•<-mbcr 4 


gto 


OtUwi 




K ml>rr 14 








Septrml» - 


IOOJ 


; 




August to 


\ 


■ II 






• 


. II 






904 








IOOQ 




6 


Septcml>. 


October 6. 1904 






. mbcr j8 


VM 


BaU.lon S|. \ \ 








\ 






1007 

• 


Minnr4p<>li« Minn 






Ifti 

/<j6 




8 

JO 


SrptrrniHT .' 1 


pi 
September jo, iftoi 


Ob*nin. Ohio 


£ 




1901 
1891 


w 




NrptrmlxT • •* 








906 








1903 
*oo 
September j$. :qio 






K»rd-I ore 



uu.fcAiioH, continued 



LOCa; 



Kmmtm* 
at y»* n 



t.nnnrll Iowa 
■ *• 

<ma« 
Cadd 

• l 

■ 

\then». Tcnn 
Mian- 

lallaha.M-r. Ha 

Bay 

Port Arthur. Tea. 



mH daU ol Ut«M <Ut« o4 



;*»er 10 
Srpicmbrr iq 



Septeml»rr ;S 



September 
October 14. ioo6 
\uguat 18. 1001 

October it, 1004 
October 16, 1001 



LOUISIANA OR WESTERN TANAOER 

The breeding-range of the Louisiana Tanager {Piranga ludovu. 
in North America, north to southwestern Mack 

Columbia and southeastern Alaska; west to western British Columbia, Wash- 
ington, and California; south to southern California, southern Arizona, and 
central western Texas; and east Mexico, Colorado, and southwestern 

South Dakota. It winters from central Mexico to Guatemala; and <•< 
casually in migration east to Maine, Massachusetts, Conn. New York, 

and Louisiana. ^ 






SunUi 
• I >ear» 

I'. ■ 1 ! 






Albuquerque N \| 

Tumbtloiu 

I -as una Aril. 

4e», Imperial Co., Calif 
LotAnfde. 

\lodc*to t , .• 

Onafa, K.i 
Colorado v 

Jo. 

do. 









I J 



Boulder. 








a Y tA- 






rn. Idaho 
1. Idaho 



\thabaaka Landing. Aha 

Chipcvyaa. A 
Maanaaan Larwhmc R ( 



May 14 

May 13 
May 18 
May »o 
May ib 
May ^ 
Mayg 
Mav i<> 



May 10 



EafUwt da' 
ipnti arri 

:glO 

:qIO 

14. 100; 

iSti 

/I I 

,04 
10, 1904 

*97 
*°S 
01s 
Im 

3. I** 

April 30, toog 

May 14, 1003 

voi 

May 14. 101 1 



The Migration of North American Birds 



«9 









lenry House, Alu 

•kanaka n I.atnht . 



■ •.;li!' ■ (<>li> 



.«»* An*rlr> l 



VumSar 
at jntn' 

trc on! 



AWMMt date ••' 



mbW 4 






K«fli^»l -late "I 
a«t oat »b»»f \*.i 



robcr 10. iSgs 

' rnber to, 1804 
<-mbcr 11 
mlxr 5. 1884 

1908 

IQOO 

October i. 1 000 
August 24, 1010 
August 14 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

FORTY SIXTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 
(Sa« Froatkfrfaca) 

Scarlet Tanagcr s u trytknmd I'hc female scarlet 

Tanagcr .v winter plumage is alike at all seasons and all 

age*. Beyond Baying. I that our 6gu - too pale and 

yellow, we may pa&s to tht nallv interesting plumage change* of the 

<• nestling of both sexes is dusky green, paler below, streaked mditthn 
Mackish. At the postjuvenal molt the tail and wing-quills are retained, 
and a new plumage b acquired which resembles that of the female but has 
the lesser vung . erts hlack a* in the male The following -pring this i.»iuni« 
(eacept the flight-feathers) is exchanged for that of the adult mal- I 

-iter the breeding-season when it ia molted for the adult a 
dres* >emble* the female plumage hut has the wings ami tail black. 

The molting bird presents a curious (mtchwork appearance which has ev 

any obaervcrs not familiar with the change* of plumage 
through which tht* *|>c«ic% pasv-s \t the following spring the aStfkl body 

• asamal orange-bodied birds of this species are doubtless to be classed 
•r individuals lacking the full share of pigment noaaeaacd b\ 




Louisiana 01 W 



ager OVaatgaj I mi 
eexe> lanager are dueky 



ao Mini -Lore 

or brownish g- low below and m<»rc or kM obao 

wings and tail arc fuscous, an- 1 the former have two wcllpronoi; 
bars, a diagnostic mark of this specie* in any plumage. 

the post Juvenal, or first fall molt, all but the tail and lai 
are shed and a new plumage acquired which resembles I < adult female 

ut baa iht- rump and underparts somewhat j 
This plumage bears a strong resemblance to that of a female Scarlet Tanager, 
but the dusky back (instead of uniform oth ving- 

barsof the western I >ir<! fanager seen in the 

eastern United States could easily be misul i 

was surprised when preparing these notes, in t ) 

d a fema rn Tanager labeled. ilighl. \ N juv.. 

tr \ M. ai ition was a i 

he ornhhologkt who as a boy had taken this western species, at 
his home near \ it. a capture which I rabaequently r< 

ng or postnuptial molt practically all the plum. 
1. primaries, and secondaries, and the I 
much like that of the adult male in our plate. The back 
shows some of t he feathers of the winter dress, whil< feathers are t 

with olive, the head has less red, and the old wing and tail-feathers are 

<t the breeding-seas* > :ptial molt) this plumage is comph 

molted and the bird goes into adult winter plumage. This ro< 
the adult in sumn i.ut the head m washed wil 

without, or with but a trat. the back is edged with greenish 

;.|H'd with yellowish. 
At the second spring molt only the wings and tail are 
bird passes into adult breeding plumage, whiih i» not gain< until 

its second year. 

The plumage of the female presents but little cha h age, sex or 

season, but some adults in summer h or less red on the parts 

of the head. 




-?W^- 



THE SEASON 
V. October 15 to December 15 



■ 
•ated Sparrows, an.i 

region on their usual 
date. Novembi 

<- than a month of beautiful autumn 

>tcr set in 

snow an<! Iiut dttrinf 

tr\ was as barren of 
is in the winter of 1907-08, 
1 he torn ■ 
■ lent*, and th«- small 

I in this \ it initv I 

iber. 
and to the present ti 
mgs have 
a doaen birds or | 

lored Juntos ami Tree >p.irrows are 
wint> 

lie absen* • 
in the <o*utr\ al... . I>r ( \\ 

Town»en<i Ipswich, Mass., a 

normal population of water I 

I : 
»>bin» write- that the 

a iommon winter 
* absent from Wareham this 

species of northern 

brikea have 

isionally in the country. 

they have 

I'luse 

are plentiful Winm>* M 

niton, 1/ 

After an 
tobtr less plea»ant than usual 
. the latter part of the month 
mber ga\ 1 
splendid autumn weather, though 
I 



Bead Aalter 

(Granger and the writer), a Redstart (also 

a Bla II 

l«). and a Black 
and v. rbler at Long Bea 

I \l Johnson). 
Sparrows seemed rather unusually com- 
ringing freely, and Mr Nichols 
tells me that they and the Robins St 
unusually late (into the first week of 
at plate* on the western end 
and where they do not winter 
Spetimn mber (the 

t on the n northwestern 

rom outlyin. 

' ><>shawks similar 
it of last winter, and at lea 
:\\\ Northern Shrikes, alrea<! 
1 from in and around tht 
to a rather inward BM 

that species, which was almost entirely 
tor when so many other 
northern I il ad- 

were 
heard «>f 4 any 

of thi D the Pine 

Pun I 

lutumnal weat 

•dn-r t$. 

abundant at numerous potll 

mrnon 

. the 

mi. I. n irrows and 

Brown Creepers were |..-rhaps more 

Mil than u%ual Report* on the 

M fb,ghl ••( WoodV *ome. 

birds are 

taking thi* region as a whole, 

there ran be no dou>> lose l eaa oa 

for a term of years would not he amiss 

\ Vfotdetcft ««• found dead em 

mhrr at I 






Bird - Lore 



which ha- 1 1) flown Mtiut a 

telephone wire Bored bird*. »uch •• 

rossbills. and > 
iag Grosbeaks, which were m> plentiful 
late U»t autumn, are a» yet almost totally 
absent. One of the surprises of the icaioa 
i» the appearance of the Snow Bunting 
in aouthern New Jersey (Corson's Inlet. 
u\trt ii, Wharton Huber; Salem. 
Di Wharton). Tbeae 
bird* usually appear hereabout* after 
billiard like weather londition*. 

Goahawka appeared late in X«\ ember 

nsiderable number*. several have 

already reached the hands of lor*! 

dermis! • A fliitht ol about tifty Hawk*. 

probably Broad- wine*, was observed at 

intown, «-ml>er i 

Arthur 1 mien 

Other interesting record* arc Rough- 
legged Hawk, October jo. Lima. Pa., 
specimen examined hrer; Pine 

Si*kin. November 1. Uwynned Valley. 
Pa.. Wharton Huber, White ■ r owned 
Sparr- John 

d Owl, Juliuttown. 
I'.mory Bower; Blue- 

• 
Caawi 

Mth*land 
ing the unu»ually cold weather 
and No\ ember, there wi« little out of 
the ordinary to attrait the interest of the 
ornithological observer about Washington. 

*ie non appearan* r of rare winter 

the relatively, if indeed not a< tually, 
warmer weather of regions farther north 
probably account* The low temperature 
brought visions of many rare northern 

r«, but up to the present these have 
wholly failed to material: 

The migration during these two months 
■M apparently about normal, although 
a number of birds stayed rather long, 
and some winter resident* did not appear 
oa time. The Chimney Swift was teen on 
October jo. whic h it ten day* beyond it* 

|C autumn departure, and the Pied- 
billed Grebe waa observed 00 Octol • 
a late autumn date. One specks, the 



all it* 
p revio u s record* for aui 

11 \i Barrett reported am 

i* bai- 
rn c was November 1, 1917, 
1 hit l.r c\t far beyond an) 

hand, appeared 

in ad\ - previou- cord, 

S94. 
Although in no tense remarkable, a 
l-onjt eared Owl rep* • 
son, from Ka»t Kallt (hurt I: 
•nber 14, and a I 

-more, at Washingt 

ire probably of suf 
interrtt to merit not 

Some species have been more than 
ordinanh numerous thb fall. ai 

might be mentioned the Meadow - 
lark and thr killd« ■ 1 
latter wer« Karreti 

along thr Anaiostia 

chich lo. ■ are 

commonly teen at this sea*" 

BiWagka 
i«r/i" 

■ 
Blackbird* lint 

cold wave and snowstorn b and 

then they disappc. hi an- 

seasonable ttorm established m 
at far as the birds were 
followed nearly 1 
warm weather and i 
returned to enjoy the belat< 
Summer' weather. The usu 
and other Woodpr 
and in the beech woods, wher. 
of beechnut* is abund.i 
many Red- headed Woodpecker- who 
seemed intent on spesding 1 

winter bird with us, but usual 
when there i* an abundar' 
nut*. 

\* I 
second cold wave with attendant deep 
*now for the region. While there has been 
nothing out of the ordinary in the winter 
bird life thus far. I fully expect that 



The Season 






lhi» - ill Ix- 

the region by northern 

dst of thb •torn I found a 
ling to the 
viae* which cover one of the college build- 
in jr» He wii complaining Last 

dn idual of this specie* 
for wnc time during the colder weather 
in the unt place. The Sapsui . 
not a winter l.ird of the region. — Lykos 
JoXKS, Ohrrltn. Okie 

ughout October the 

mesota was so cold 

«rmy as to be almost unique in the 

records of the state. During the very 

• ring temperature^ 
vailed from the lows line northward, 
e on the ponds and shallow lakes 
and flurries of snow. Hrfore the month 
was over, nearly a foot of snow had fallen 
and subzero temperatures had been 
experienced in the northern part of the 
The effect of these abnormal con- 
ditions upon bird-life was, of course, 
disarrange the usual migratory 
movement* This was especially m 
able in the rase of water-birds. Many 
of th« notably the Canvasbacks, 

ads. and Teal), Rails, Coots, 
Gaflinules, shore- birds, and Herons left 
much before their time because of the 
tat locked up their food-supply. 
Among land bird* thrrr was also a speedy 
disappearance of species that usually 
linger through October. The bulk of the 
stobir. -rated a month 

ahead of lime and left an unusually heavy 
crop of mountain-ash berries, wild grapes, 
■» almost untouched, es- 
df of the 
usually dean op the mountain-ash 
berries pretty thoroughl) Inrfore going 

Following the tempestuous and un- 
seaaoti .her came aa equally 

unusual SovcmbM hi the beau- 
mild sad Indian Summer like ckai 
of many of it* days. Snow, ice. and chill 
disappear ird* that had earlier 

alarm did not return in any con- 
siderable number. At Heron Lai 



famous water fowl resort in southwestern 
Minnesota, and at various places north- 
ward on both sides of the Minnesota 
Dakota bound was an unpre- 

cedented assemblage of Mallards, with 
a sprinkling of tups, king 

re, Many thousands were 
ron Lake during the third week of 
iiber. 
The mil'i >er gave way 

with the advent of December, to 
winter weather. Temperature* 
far below zero have prevailed all over the 
state, and even as far south as Minne- 
apolis several days together ha 
without the n> < to aero, 

«\cn at noon, with 15 and 20* below 
morning* and rvrningv Only light snows 
have fallen thus far. 

winter bird student in Minnesota 
mu-t tu>. I Ug 1 hirf pleasure and estate* 
ment afield in the boreal viastaBl 
far thi> wintt-r thrrr ha* been little else 
but disappointment in 
despite the sbundant food-supply that 
awaits them and the frigid northern 
weather of late. The usual influx of 
Redpolls. Snow Huntings, and (upland 
Loagspurs. and thr roving lot I 
ing and Pine (;ro*beaks and Bohemian 
Waxwings have not appeared or have 
eluded observation \ S 
on thciampusof thi 1 '^linne 

apotis in late . »in 

t that the « ' - seea 

thus far. 

ad report* irom Badger 

away up near Lake of the Woods. N'ovem 

arrival of winter 

the only bird of the 

that has come to my n<> 

Snow Hunting which I first saw oa the 

there were three of us in com, 
walking all day. and the only living 
things that came to our notice were one 
Great Horned Owl. one Ruled Grouse aad 
one Downy Woodpecker -not n rabbit 
nor a squirrel were seea. The wolves will 
undoubtedly nave s hard chase for 
living, aad we have 
throughout the cou» 






Bird -Lore 



December | klund reports 

not hint; nr» except Snowy Owl*. 

Prof. I ucrnr Van I Icei. of Dululh, 

report* Decern! ■ <1 '•> 

•ee any of the winter visitants and 
wondered whether this was due to any 
lack of observational power*. I ha 
quired of tornc people whom I felt ought 
to know something ahout the situation 
here and t kcwUe i he absence of 

states that he has beard a flock of Red- 
polls but has not seen them I 
would incidentally call your allrnt 
the fact that a year ag. tober, 
we saw 'myriad*' (taking thi* 
word from our - in the 

n remit south. Whereas t hi - 
we saw none within the city limit* and 
only a few It would *eem to be 

an off year with the I 

l»r 
from I.ancsboro. Fillmore Count>. in the 
extreme »outhe.> ier of the 

• letter was received yesterday and 
from it I learned that you have had about 
the lai m regard to the bird 

migration thi* fall as I had myself in my 
field of ol. m and about Lance- 

ily of 
M:nnftnij. ilinntapolit. 

•d covered 
>» report has not been ent 
lean normally 

with little bird-movement < 
toward it* end. Thi* year it has been 
quieter than usual because of the mild 
weather. October and November, and 
December up to dai : >enver 

area nearl . of the possible 

*un*hine. resulting in bright, warm days. 
Yet most of the breeders did not linger. 
but seemed, on the contrary-, to leave 
perhaps earlier than usual. And, notwith- 
standing the mild autumn, some of our 
winter birds appeared on tin-.' 
ahead of the schedule. The various 



•pedes and races of Jun 

■Off •..\rrc OMsdJtiOM in the nrighl.oMtn; 

higher altitude* 

iw a large. 
red flock of J iii 
many of the Slate colored specJea about 
two miles from th« 
mouth of Piatt- 
The 

•l.ler were common unr 
third week in 

and the 

Use tame month. It was a 

the V. row as ear 

Octol" :i well out on the i 

(along the -m .ill « reeks and in the 
patches adjacent thi a the 

ahead of their usual a i 

Kouir - also was on han< 

weeks earlier than 

i*. appearing the *econ< 

in i* about tht 
bird whith met the 

maining longer than usual be. 
of the tme west 
winter in I 

m M-rn in the 
mi.J.l <aroncwa» 

»tand out in i records fol 

large nun 
adult mal< lawks seen, thi 

Urge nun 

Hawks, and the < onaiderable nun: 
Longspur* also, noted near 

ty years tin 
I has seen more than a stray Long- 
»pur of any sort dose t how- 

I his autumn a number of flocks were 
rd immediately sot. 

•Ilared 
and M< ( «>wn'» Longspur*. the lati 
ing vastly in the majoritj \\ II 



Bird-Lore's Eighteenth Christmas Census 

Till r thological feature oi : this winter, as shown rnsus reports, 

is the invasion of the northea- hrikes. Last 

memorable for th« «- southward movement of so many 

northern species, but three Shrikes appeared in censuses from Ontario. 
EnjrLi hi winter tin- numl>cr is twentv 

several others recorded as seen recently hut not <>n the census-day — in 

e species figures in abot; 4 the reports from the terri- 

mentioned. The 'farthest south' is cental Nen Jersey and southeast, rn 

but there is only one record from the latter state and none west of 

anics ex- birds seen n< Furthermore, there are 

us of Migrant Shrikes from |H>ints in and around Connecticut; 

rant and the unusual abundance 

ear of the Northern, b a somewhat suspi* On the other 

hand, one or more oi the former may have been recorded as the latter by ob- 

inking that any Lanius seen in winter is necessarily borcalis. There 

has also been a marked southward movement of Goshawks and of Great Horned 

Owls (see especially the Warwick, R. I., report); and a flight of Iceland Culls 

alone .isl— one, at least, reaching eastern Long Island. But 

< northern Finches so prevalent last year, the only oa urrences are a few 

-ed of Redpoll and Pine Siskin I rossbill in Maine and 

« ntng Grosbeak at Bennii . and Pine Grosbeak and 

sbill at Xewfane ii no record of the Brown- 

adec in the Census, and we know of none elsewhere. 

last and Middle West speak of an uncommonly 

cold autumn and early winter and a general scarcity of birds, especially seed- 

*. On the other hand, mme binN are to a certain extent wintering north 

usher records, Canada 

Massachusetts, three on Long Island and one in Iowa, 

•ably all or most of them Bronzed) at cu l.iasa- 

nnsyfvania. and an occasional individual of other 

species. 

t place goes to the energetic Los Angelenos with 106 species obterved 
ilc diameter. Santa Barbara b second with OS, which is the 

thanks are always due to our many friends who help mak. 
us a success, but, as usual, there b a regrettably Urge number who pay so 
ilicixed requests as to leave several days bet tak- 

ing and the posting of their censuses, tend them to Harrisburg. or in some 
way to cause the rejection of their reports.— Cnables H. Rock**. 

Araarfcw, Out I 9 M. ( «** »<*«*- 

• milc»oo»now»hocv Observers MPftftlc 



,6 Bird- Lore 

• Burled I 

Hlue Ja>. ;. Kin. h «; »>. «0. 

>n unusual winter redden 
Total. 9 specie*. 60 individuals. Dc Nuthatch 

Evening Grosbeak » tod other northern specie* lh. 1 common last year, have 

been, ao far thin winter entirely ab~ 

London, Ont. !•<-. it; combined Hal ••( four partic* hunting »< 
* ■ one party, three obeervr parties, ive obaer 

covering 00 foot a stretch • from the. -a roughl> 

ursc of t» I emp. :o" il S \ u :' .it 

ground almost bare; wind vetj li«ht aouthwi - .1 Grebe 

American Merganser, ao; Amci iencye. 10; Rur 

s ny Wood] 
row. 1.500; Purple Finch. 50 irrow, 18; Junco. 15; Song Sparrow. 1. 

•thern Shrike 1 . BfOU 
Black hickadee 1 apedea. 

individual « Bunting. BfWt*t 

wing. — Mr 1 

and J k M< I.EOD. 

Bockauort, Maine. 9 \.u. and ta.jo to 

snow; wind north, light, temp, o* >" at end. F.ight miles on (•■• 

Gull. It; Canada Ruffe<l 
crowned Kinglet, 10; Rol. ba# vidua 

North Bridgton, Cumberland Co., Maine, 
ft. of snow; wind north, light, temp. 8° at start. 18* at return. Eight mile* on 
Observers in pairs. Downy Wood|* Mm Jay. ;. Purple 1 Red Cross 

bill, t; Redpoll. 5; Goidhr Junco, 

a; Brown < j*ted Nuthatch. IJ ked l.rcaMed N'utli 

rapped Chicks* 1 ••edKinglct.it. Total. 14 sp< ndividual*. 

A Goshawk is wintering in thi hut was not «cen on 

Woodbiry. Mrsa I 

tlfglBnUM 

Nashua, N. H. to Merrimack, N. H.. and hack 
cloudy; 1 a in. of snow; wind northwest, strong; temp jj" at start, j6 * . 
teen miles on foot, much of distance on snowahoee. Merger 
Mongolian Pheasant, to; Hairy Woodr* 

Marling, jqt. Snow Bunting (picked up dea 
colored Junco, 1 ; Brown < thatch, 1; i*d Chick- 

adee, 16. Total. 14 speciea, jej imlixiduaU Saw whet Owl reported or. I 
Robin and t .olden crow net! kinglet | 

winter, all seed-eating birds vr- M fray 

birches did not seed this year. On these seeds the Sparrow tribe subsists in thai la- 
in winter Ordinarily the snow i% »trewn with the seeds— thi* winter not a seed. — 

aft of the time Mowers. 

Wilton, N H ,0 \ v Cloudy; 6 to .'4 in 

temp. 40* 104} I >odpeikcr. 1. Downy Woodpecker. 1, Blue Ja *adce. 

net kinxlet. ; Total. ; speciea, 

BO. 

Bennington, Vt. — Dec. if; q to 11.30 am. Four- mile auto drive and back with a 
} mile walk through held and wood. Cloudy; bare ground to 10 in. of snow; wind 

k tiffed Grouse, a; Pheaaa Wood 

Hlue }*\ i . Starting i-arrow, 2, Northern • asted 





Bird - Lore's t ighteenth Christmas Census 

■fend 
flock of bet»cen ) J «nd too Bohemian Was wings and Kvening Grosbeak* was observed 
in North Bennington In. and Mt> LOCBI »sa. 

If ewfane, Windham Co., Vt. L> ; 10 \ u in i som Clear, j feet of snow; 

wind northwest, light, maximum temp, about — to*. About 3 miles on foot. Ruffed 
Grouse (B.m.mmbfllui . <-, Barred Owl. i Blue Jay. jo, Pine 

ged Crossbill. 
lotal, 8 species, about So individual*. -(.» <> K CflSBI 
Boston to Gloucester, Mass ; I to 4 P.M. 4 

temp. 34°. falling to :o r \ steamboat. Blark Guillemot K wake. 

ream white with small black hilli; Black-barked Gull. 15, Herring 
too; Bonaparte-'* dull. 4; Red breasted Merganser. 10; American Gold. 
1 squaw, 14, Canada (..*»sr. i Total, S04 individual*, i 

na. 
Gloucester, Mass. Dei 14; 10 a.m. to 3.45 p.u 1 snow an.: 

wind soutK up 40 s . Observers togcthrr Horned 

llsck (.uillemot. 1. I. eland (.ull. ;:. (.real Black-backed Gull, 15; 
.11. 200; Ked-breasted Merganser. 30; Black Duck, t; Goldeney< 

Ihern Flicker, ;; Prairie Horned Lark. 
rling, 100; Meadow-lark. 2; Bron*c<! aow Bunt 

■hern Shrike. 3; Black-capped « 

.markaMe flight of Ireland dull- 
of creamy while birdv (or two only »rrr in the |»earlgray adult 

>lumagr 1. k Taxbot sad Babsom BaAuraas. 

Brewster, Mass. walks taken from a central point to favorable locality 

ween H 1 ; am and 4 p.m. Clear, with slight flurries of snow; wind north. 

ather .*:«•.,. ,bout 15*; ground bare. About miles. Black-backed Gull. 1, 

i. 10, Bla< k Duck. 85; American Golder mada Goose, 1 

ned Lark. '>. Blue J., w, 8; Mesdowlark. 15; tioldtimh. t. Tree Sparrow. 

te-colored Jun. wned kinglet. 

species, about 108 individuals Warri n F. Katon. 

Cohssaet, Mass. Sandy Cove region, along shore and through the woods -Dec. 

■ 4 >• w ' 1 in of fresh snow and a little still falling, wind northeast. 

ght, u Black-backed Gull gsnser, 1; 

White winv 
Blue Jay. 1 , Tree Sparro colored J 1. 

tie Warbler. 1 in>lden-crowned Kinglet 

^dividual* (1 consider this list as of value 00! 
aowin, U number of birds present thi% winter bj comparison with other yosrs ) 

M r> 
Cohssaet, Mass. 1 -,-,;» v u Cloudy, with frequent snow 

lurnes, wind variable, light, temp. 30*. Common Loon, 6; Black-backed 

II, 1 jo; Red Ircastcd Mergan no; American Golden 

I hern Pit - I rued 

1 Purple I M Sparrow, 40. 

•lured J u- ngSparrov ; pad Chickadee. 

ed Kinglet, 4; Robi. las, II species. $iS individual, Bsrro* 

Edgartown. Martha's Vineyard, Msss. -Dee. 16; S to n 30 a v nj to 3.30 

ground bare, wind BOTtl ■ hub- warmer at noon 

' Herring Gull, 40. Balili P i kia S td 

Mesdowlark. 31. Gold 



*8 Bird ■ Lore 

both 

..lev. to. Robin 
A .mall colony of \i«ht Herons i* bcrt e.« Apparently thr Mine M 

wa» with ■ I Scr specie* including the V-rt hrtn - 

Ibc Migrar tin* saoatl »sk. 

Fairhaven, Mam w Tartly doody; ground bare; wind 

southwest, strong, temp 4 inland, wood*. marsh, bench. Obser 

K (iull. 40; Purple - I »o«*ny Woodpr 

rned Lark f«». S, 

Sparrow. jo; Rotn 

Hotyoke, Unas, vicinity of M t. Tom Ranee . 
overcast. *iih faint sun at times; 8 to 10 in 17* ■» 

\o ft mile» on foot. Observers together. Pbeaaanl, 1; Ruffed 

ncrican trow rig. to, I 

Total. 11 species. 85 individuals. Have observed men 
I e and ad' ned Lark*. — J 

Mattapoisett, Mass. Dec. 15; 1 \ u !•• no p.m. and >udy, 

some sleet; ground bare; wind northwest, moderate; temp. 43* to 3°* Obsen« 
father. Seven miles on foot. Horned Grebe. 2; Loon, 1; Herring I Merganser. 

tinged 
Woolly k> Hlue J.i », 14; 

Meadowlark. 2, Ru»t> • Bl.i .ngSparro 

50; Brown I; t'hicka 

Ml and M 

Wareham, Mass. l»c» 13; sunrise to »ut iod generally bare, 

red patches of ice; wind northwest, light; temp. 14° at start. 78* at return. About 
10 miles, mostly on foot. Observers together 

ill. 45. Red-breasted Merganser. 1; Bb (ioldeneyc. 

While win. K lifted 

Red shouldered Hawk. 1. Belted Kingfi»h 

<«! 1-ark. 18; Blue J Marling, 60; Meadow- 

lark, it. (.old 1 ..w Buntu rrow, 130; Slate-colored Juno 

Song Sparrow, 15; Swamp Sparrom 1 rn Shrik< iirown 

Creeper. < 
dividual* n»tVM an 

West Medford, Lawrence Woods and part of West Side Middlesex Fells, Mass. 
33; 8.30 am to 1 a. JO r.u Clear; wind ea»t. light; temp. 10* to 18*. Pheasant ;, 
Hairy Woodpecker , 1 :.BIucJ» urling. 8 (joo 1 - Dec. 

jo and 11); Redpoll. 3; Goldfimh. 1. Tree Sparrow. 

4I. u species. 43 individual* 
Ban- 

Kingston and Narragansett Pier, R. I h % am. to 440 *J 

-now on ground; wind southwest . strong 40* at r< 

borU ring (iull. iq. Red-breasted M< Muffle- 

bead. 3. Ruffed • rrow Hawk. 1 . Downy Woodpecker 

•rned Lark. 150; Blue Jay, 4; Crow, 8; Meadowlark. 7; Goldhn< )> 
Sparrow. 16. Mate -colored Junco. Ij; Song Sparrow, 1, North. 

5.x kingbird. 1; Brown Creeper breasted Nathatcl 

adee. 40; (.olden -crowned Kinglet. 4. Total. 34 species, i;> indi 
: • • 





Hird :hiccnth Christmas Census 19 

Warwick. R I ■ u;f« (leur. ; in. of snow; wind north* 

rap 18* ■ * at return. Trn mile* on f lag Cod, 16; Red- 

raw Haw. .; Downy 

American Crow, >g fling. 

It Sparrow, 34; Song Sj>arrow. |; Swamp Sparrow, i; Snow Hunting. 12; 

tkadr- Total, it specie*. j.504 individual* J uncos absent. Myrtle 

em uncommon, in compari s on with last year nee taxi- 

ive had more than 50 Gooha* it Horned Owl* and 3 Snowy OwU 

Bristol, Conn. Northwestern Sect: .1 Ih.moi'.k hen 

ouding over again and snow-squalls, pa- it noon; 10 to 

•i old snow, wind north, very light, later Itcmming fresh and ending at north- 
temp. 38 s at start, 34° at finish. About 1 1 miles 
1 foot. Sparrow Hawk, t .todperker, 4; Blue Jay, 

iowlark. J unco, 8; Song Sparrow, 

breasted Nuthatch, ■; Black-capped Chickadee. 4. Tot 
individuals. — I 'A loioind Frank Bh 

Conn. Birdcraft Sanctuary and Fairfield Beach . sunrise tq 

■v Herring (lull. 120; Red breasted Mergan- 
v . Old-squaw, 40; W 
Sparrow Hawk, 2; Barred Owl, t; 
tng. 300; Meadowlark. 1; 
PurpJ« Junco, 35; Song Sparrow, 

Brown Thrasher. 1, White breasted Nuthatch. 
'.ividuaU -'len 

Hartford, Conn. in. of snow ami 1 

temp ight. Ten mile walk. Kxcellent observ.r nable 

ttber — open bottom lands and swamp* along the Conne< 
• 
Phea- 

-rted Lark. fl<»- 
Meadowla 1 Tree 

Swamp Sparrow, 3. Migrant Si itrown 

i»ted Natl 'S4 + iadl- 

Hartford, Conn. Dm 1 10 A.M. to 1 *.jo *.■ Cloody; I w. of MM 

Sparrow. kadee. 10; 

10 spetic .idual*. I 

West Hartford, Conn. I no m Qm >n. of 

mp at start o*. at return iM* Nine mil. 

n Hawk Wood- 

.rhng jo 

New Haven, Coon, from a window of the Now Haven Hospital 

>tal. * apodat, 4 
! PajHM 
New London. Coon, to Niantk and Btook Pomt 

>nd mostly bare, wind northwest, light, temp fifteen miles 00 

•mmon Looo. 1. Herring Rod-breasted Merganser. 



30 rd- Lore 

,.Hb Idpate. n rru an Golden. 'Hebead, i. 

Saarp shinned Hawk, t. Kingfisher, t; Downy Woodpr 

Meadowlark, 7; Goldfinch. 34; Tree Sparrow 

Warbi ;te- breasted Nut hat 

Blue I «o 100 unidentified Duck 

ftorwalk. Conn and j in i* m Pai 

. ht showers in the morning; wind southwest, light; temp. 34*; about 10 in. of mow. 
Twelve mile* on 
mju* inged Set. ny WoodpeU 

104; Meadow 1 I inch. 

• throated Sparrow, 1; Tree Sparrow, 6; Field >co. 7; 

Song *PP«* 

Total. 24 species, ;M individual* 
Sooth Windaor, Conn.— Dec. 25; 8 a.m. to 4 r u 
temp, j a*; wind light. Twelve- mile walk. Herring Gull. 1; Mergan 
Ruffed Grouse. 2, Sharp-shinned Hawk. 1; Sparrow Hawk. 1; Saw- whet 
t»wl A oodpecker, a; Downy Woodpecker. 6; Hick n rned Lark, 

co. Blue Ja Meadowlark. 2, Tree Sparrow, aoo 

Song Sparrow. 2, Swamp Sparrow, 1; Northern Shrike, 1; Brown Creeper 
breaated Nutba- at, 1 2. Total. 34 •pedes, 517 individual- 

mtut and the additional specie* included 1 Goshawk and t Migrant v 

Douglaston, L. I., N. Y 1 1- u ( laar; 4 oj 

northwest, light; temp. 10* at start. 34* at return. Observers to. 
i.ull. 2. Herring ( .till. 00; (Goldet k» (other than the suppoatd 

GoMannyc) Mi.irt- eared? Owl 1 tying ovar marsh I" • ■ Kintcnahar, 1; Doamji 

• tit ificd by their tails while feeding upon a 
garbage-dump with House Sparrows and Starlings) ; Starling. 400 (nearly all in one flock); 
Meadowlark, 7; Gold tin. ^ong Sparrow. 

ippad ( hitkadee. I (one sang). Total, 17 species. at>< 
iieb and Ruth Ajcs • 
Bast Marion, L. I., If. Y. Dae. to; g 30 a < lear; ground n« 

wind northwest, light, temp, ao* at start, aj* at return. The cd was 

about a ha -hore along Peconk Bay and a piece of cedar and oak *oo<! 

adjoining fields. Horned !, 150+. S 

.0. lielted Kingfisl A oodpeckr rdLark.j. 

Blue Marling. 70; Purple 1 I ...Mt'itnh *, 50; 

30, Song Sparrow rbler, as; Black-cappi bin, I 

Total, ao spedea, about 41; individuals. An unusually small number of ■ntaj 
were near raoogh to shore for identification. A Migrant Shrike was seen on De< 
Mabm k Wiccnta. 

Ft. Salonga, L. I., It. Y., near Smithtown. Covered moat of the territory within a 
radius of a miles of Sunken Meadow. -Dai v 

snow; wind northwest, light . temp. 14* at start, 18* at return. Black-backed Gull, 1 . 
Herring Cull. 101; king billed Itonaparte » Gull. 1; Bind ne flock of 

1.300+ , 7 single; Green- winged Teal. 1; Scaup. 1. Amen old-squaw, 

• oter. 10. :iged Scoter. 36, Sur mada Goose. 1; 

Brant. 1. Black crowned Night Heron. 1; Wilson's St. .oshawk 

Red-tailed lia«k 1. Bald Eagle. Woodpeck *ny Woodpecl 

Blue Ja> . 1; (row, 300+ . Marling, too; Grackle. 3, Tree Sparrow 
aoo-r; Song Sparrow. 1;. Myrtle Warbler, uebird, 



Bird - Lore's Eighteenth Christmas Census 



-en- winged Teal arrived two months 
■ water ponds and has remained there ever since with n few tam 

* » fine male — Tntoooa Dt> 

npstead, L. I., If. Y.— Dec. aj; 8 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. and (after dark) 5.30 to 6.30 
t frozen snow; average temp. 14*. Herring Gull, 47; Sharp- 
shinned Hawk died Hawk, 1; Red-shouldered Hawk. a; Sparrow Hawk, i, 
Long ear r vny Woodpeck. nod Lark, flock of 58; 
Blur I row, 190; Starling, 58; Goldfinch, 8; Savannah Sparrow, s; Tree Sparrow. 

-<>ng Sparrow, 19; Towhee, 4 together; v rcn, 1. 

< I brca»t r pedes, 

idividuals. The four Towhees. three males and a female, allowed one to get within 

is also heard them call several times. They were seen several timts before in the 

| suae place, oak shrubbery in a pine grove. The Savannah Sparrows, together, also 

ilose approach so they could be accurately identified. They were also teen 

1 me date 3 Mourning Doves. Other occurrences that seemed unusual 

to n rushes seen Dec. 9, and a Woodcock and 1 Fox Sparrow, Dec. 

Long B ee ch, Nassau Co., L. I., N. Y. -Dec. SO, Moderating after severe weather. 

1 and nightfall; ponds and marshes frozen, some remaining snow; 

rninjt gray, some half-sunshine in afternoon; a broad swell on 

ean breaking into a high, steady surf. Horned Grebe, 4; Loon, 1; Black-backed 

numerous, at one time fully 100 adults in sight; Herring Gull, abundant; Red 

'Merganser, several pairs and single birds; BL enumerable, lying off 

shore in straggling beds extending with little interruption for several miles along the 

beac r in flight ; Red-legged Black Duck, a resh bird found dead on the 

shore; Mallard, a drake, ■ ntail. 5 drakes, with Blai k .reater 

single birds, male and female, and well out three flocks of Scaups, 17 to 70, 

->quaw, so; American Scoter, an ad . lock of ao — 

ral small flocks of Scoters were almost certainly of both these species. White-winged 

• flocks of ao and 30; all Ducks in continuous flight were going east — larger nunv 
ipproximaie, Sanderling, a together; Canada Geese, $ passing out to sea, southeast; 

< •tills on a sand-bar and one on the ocean shore, shot by a gunner — an 
Sparrow Hawk, 1 ; Rough-legged Hawk, a pair; Horned Lark, frequent in 
C, common, one flock of about aoo; Meadowlark. 1; Ipswich Spar- 
ailed Sparrow, 3; Seaside Sparrow (?) — a Pttttktrkulut , quite certainl> 
•cation not technical; Tree Sparrow, small flock; Song Sparrow, several; 
numerou- • seen at Hewlett, leas than 3 

n Long Beach Total, 30 species. The best Long Beach bird-day for the season 
thai iwn.— I 

Long Beach, Bateau Co., L. I.. N. Y. Det 13; lOwOf, AM. !• 5 9M 1 lc*r ground 

•nds and pools frozen, cakes of ice on the beach 

coming tide, wind northwest litht. temp, jo'to 35*. Loon ap., 1, Black backed Gull, 5. 

000; Red-breasted Merganser Old-squaw, 

Sanderling t (flew by with strong, vigorous flight); Rough - 

lrg«r.i II «»k. ; t>.irr 1 r.r r . Short-eared f>« he village 

>ng Sparrow. 8; Myrtle \ . 7 tpedet, about 

roHi individuals. The weather was too mild and calm (or many water tones 



Orient, L. I, Pt Y De .. if 4 ret o b ssrvs n ;, jiom untfl 

Cloudy most «>: »nh brief periods of sunshine, a In tic 1 

*»» on the ground; brisk westerly winds, veering slightly toward south si 

Mcoming light ■ ■ of ram toward evening; temp. | »ng above 



ja Bird - Lore 

Ibr frecxing point by midday, and thawing pertcptil>: 

Sound and Gentian aats. dunr ten c hes, plowed field*. Mill meed' 

•wamps and lagoons, red cedar groves, deciduous woods on lowland* and hill» Horned 

moo Loon >u* t.ull. i; 1 1 eland GuU. i; Black-bat 1 

Herring Lull. ;So. Red breaated Merganser, 60; Mall.. 
I>u«k. 16. Qnalei Scaup, 100 (tome in gunner'* bag); 
band, 6$; OM-aquaw, aoc 

1 (dead); Pheasant. 1 (in guni Bob-white, 7 (in gunner'* bag); Marsh Ha»k. 

> rrow Hawk. 3; Long-cared Owl 

t Lark. 600, Blue Ja 
465; Siartinic. i>$, Meadowlark. it; CwwMi 
American Goldfinch. 10. Snow Bunting 1 annah SparToi 

rrow. 9; Junto. §; Song Sparrow, 60; 
U 
capped Ch 0; Golden-crowned Kinglet. 5; Robin, 34. Total, 49 ape< 

ing 4 dead dividual*. The Virginia Rail was found by a wood road, frosea 

with it* head tucked under it* wing-covert*; it w«* to thin that it exemplified the adage. 
hut it had not been long dead. At least two of rk» doady ol> 

appeared to I* !->rned Larks, although moat were the u*ual form 

den 1 1 tied Wren wa* not a Carolina and probably not a Wint 

Latham saw; Canada Goose, 5; Sharp-shinned llav sh legged Hawk. 1; 

Turkey Vulture. 1 (latest Long Island 

ouble- crested Cormorant. 1; Fi*h I 
Blackbird I Tbeadweu. Nichols and 

Speonk, L. I., If . Y. !».. it; S AM. to $ 9M 
to west, moderate; temp. 51*1041 H it Blue I! 

crowned Night ! «k. 1. Kough-legged Hawk. iwk, 1; 

cd Lark. 
Starling. 2$. Meadowlark, $5; Tree Sparrow, 70; Song Sparr 
Brown Creeper 

Total. 20 species, aoo individuals.- U • 

Albany, If. Y. (western o otakirts .0 \ u 

snow; wind south, liicht, trmp. o* 4 1 miles on 

together. l>owny Woodpecker. 8; Blue J rrow, 

$0; Browr breasted Nuthatch I > (.olden crowned 

kinr .il, ospedca, 3: »ang) 

and a Robin— both rare here in wir 
M 

Geneva, If. Y. Lake-shore and S. Mam St. region, within city limit 
a u («. ij to p.m. and a to 5 p.m. Cloudy, brcete southwest, lis: 40* to 50*. 

Observer* together only in the forenoon. I 
Gull. an Merganser, 4; Redhead, 7,000; Canvasback, 500; Lesser 

aup. 700, American (ioldencye. 8; Bufflehea 
Pheasant. 7; Served 

handed Woodp. yarrow. 5, J«a 

Waiwing, 30. Bro«t. hi te breasted Nuth.. 

• r..»nrt| kingle' al. 16 »pccies. abou 

1 1 F.UDV and ill 

Hamburg, H. Y. « m. to i.t$ p.m. Clear to slightly -un<J 

lightly covered with fresh snow, some old drift* -till remaining; wind southwest, light; 
temp. «V at *tart. u* at n n loot through three large w©« 






^hcccnth Christmas Census 



intervening (arm land Kurtc! • . «m| 

<t; Redheaded Woodpe. I 
PurpU ■* Bunting, ooc flock of jjo; Tree Sparrow 

Brown - ithatch. 4; (hit kail Iden-crowncd K 

-pedes, about 40; individual* Small flock ol Red CroaabiUa noted here 
N u*E. 

New Rocbelle, If. Y. I IDirhmnnt Park, Mount Tom Road and several other streets . 
,0 p.m. and) to n.. »md. temp. 

k.ed Pheasant, 1; Downy Woodpecker, i, Blu. 
(Goldfinch s onjc Sparrow, 1, Brown 

tsted Nuthatch, .'. Rol.in <; Total, u species, 74 individuals. — 
Ml - 
New York City Pelham Bay Park refion around City Island station . 

8 in. of snow; wind weal ap. 40*. Obser- 

Black-backed (.ull ag Cull. 100+ ; Dfj Bob- 

Red shouldered Hawk. 1; Sparrow Hawk. 1 >odpecker, 

Ked winged Blackbird, 1; Meadow 
Coldnnch, 5; Tree S|»arrow. 1 >Iored Junco. 9; 

itc-brcasted Nuthatch. 4. Total. 10 species, 
• dividual- \\ \iim 
New York City Claaon Point, Union port and Bronx Park . Trolley used between 
and Bronx Pari 15 p u. Cloud. wind 

temp. it". Herring Cull. 450; Black Duck. 55; Scaup. 1. Hlack- 
tight Heron. 4H, Red-tailed Hawk. 3; Sparrow Hawk. 1; Downy Woodj* 

Hlsfta> 
Jpnrrow. 4, Tree Sparrow, 100; Jun. ■ 

Tcper \uthatih. >; Black-capped Chickadee. 1. Total. II 

iitioomor • • far away for identi- 

«n in Van Cortlandt Pari I «. 
»nd I 
New York City Bull s Head to Richmond, via Greenridge, Staten Island Dr. 

,0 r u ( 1. ., r , snow on ground; wind northwest, fresh; temp if*, rising. 

iw Hawk. 1; Bdted Kingfi»her. 1; I' 

nic 1 1 . \\ hit r throated 5 .. Tree Sparrow 

ml, 1. Total. 1 J species. 104 individuals.— M 1 




New York City Staten Island, Waal Now Brighton to Richmond to Bull's Hand la 
rat New Brighton . I >•• ^ t . 10 p u Clear, about \ in. ol snow. »m.l 

uldcrcd lla«C 1 . Sparrow 
I 
leadowlark. ,0; t.oldtm.h it; Pine Sisi 
lored Junto, 1$; Song Sparrow. 30 I ardinal. :. 

rd Titmouse, j; Robin. 3 Total. 10 species. 4'* 
lividuaU \\ 11 mull I 

New York City Richmond Valley to Oakwood Heaghta, Staten Island C 
; > w t mi «nd snow-covered; dead calm; tern; Black 

rr Scaup. 1; Goldemeye. 6; 
■ 
Horned Owl t. Downy Wood 

Homed U< *.!•; 

Maadowtarl <** Spnrro« . 

>i»arrow. • >ne utif>, Myrtle Warbler. 1. White- 



Kird- Lore 

breasted Nutr lotal. 17 specs**. «.jo4 tad 

How aid II Cuun 

Poughkoeseie, If. Y. -Dcv . o \ u to 1 r u Clear; no wind, temp. 1 
uot. Observer* together Barred < rcech Owl, t ; Belted rUngashar, 1 ; Down* 

*. $00; Starlinjc. 10; Tree Sparrow, $ 
Brows Creeper, a; White- breasted Nat hatch, 8, Chickadee, a; Golden- crowned 
;*des, about 550 individual* —.V kvsoi*- 

Rocbeater, If. Y. Highland and Durand-Baatman Parks sad eidait 
until dark Cloudy, with wow flurries; ground frosen with ab. 
wind BOfthweat, t$ miles per hour, temp. 13* at »tsrt, j* at hm 
Kinic hille.' ked Phea». Woodpei i. 

Sparrow, a; SUte-colored Junco, a; Cedar Waxwing, 4; Brown < tal. 

las, 4, individual* \\ w on and k l v. 

Rochester, If. Y. Cobb's Hill and Highland Park). -Dec i~,. 8 a.v P.M 

of snow; wind variable, light, temp 15* at »tart, jo* si return. Observers 
togei" ring Gull, 6; Kinir.nc.kcd l'hea»ai 

Tree Spar: le-colored Junto. 4; Song Sp.> 

Creeper, 1 Total, 11 specie* dual* 

The Song Sparrow was studied with an Sx glass at rSsks snd »pot • 

breast were observed and it* note of alarm was heard several time 
Caass sad Gem 

Schenectady, If. Y. | Central Park and vicinity . 
and dull; wind northwest, strong; temp. 31*; about 7 in. of snc» 
about 7 or 8 mile*. Downy Wood|» !ue Jay. 4; Crow, 30; Brown 1 

■r breasted Nuthatch icksdce. is. Total. 6 species. 

ual* — Walter I'm to. 

Syracuse, If. Y. 1 ><-, en; 10.45 *•*• to 3.20 P.M. Route from I 
ville through woods. Fair, no wind; ground covered with »no* .". Downy 

WoO«! 

Totsl, 6 specirv 
Taxrytown, If. Y.— Dec a8; 0.30 *o »»-3<> a.m. and 1.30 to . 
of crusted snow; wind northwest, calm to brisk later nort» 
miles on foot Sparrow Hawk Woodp*> 

pecker, 5, Blue Jay, 3; American Crow, 8; Starling, 50+; < I'urj. 
record for this time of year); Goldrin.h. 30 + ; 1 row, 60; Song .v 

Migrant Shrike, 1; Brown Creep. 
Chickadee, 16. Totsl, 15 species, aoo+ individual* u P Os» 

Sandy Hook, If. J., sad Lower New York Bay r.M 

Mostly dear; ground bare, wind northwest, brisk ,* at noon. Tea mile* by 

stssmboat, on foot. Observers together after 11 \ w HolbatTi G Hleck- 

backed Gull, 3 adult*, Herring Gull, 1,000; Bonaparte'* Gall, 1 , It! dden 

1, Old-squaw, vinged S« Aoodpeckc: 

\merican Crow, 50; Fbvh Crow, 75; Starling, 70; Meadowlsrk, 
Ipswich Spsrrow, 5; Sharp-tailed Sparrow, * (one sesa excellently. P. cauda< 
■N hite-throated Sparrow, 9. Tree Spsrrow, 10; Junco, 38; Song Sparrow, 
• lar Waiting, s. Northern Shrike c Warbiei 

(seen excellently- J 

Hermit Thrush, a; Robin, too. Totsl, 30 species, shout 1,461 individual* 
Yoomo and Cassias H. Roctss. 

Bstaaudsville, If. J.— Dec. 1:, 1 1 a u to 1.30 p.m. sad 3 to 5 p.m. Clear 
•now; no wind; temp. *8*. Common Pheasant. 4: Great Horned Owl. 1 . Downy Wood- 



Bird -Lore's Eighteenth Christum Census 



peck ark?— Ed) Horned Lark, it; Blu« Jay. a; Crow, 15; SurUsg, a; Tree 

Spar- s Sparrow, a; Cardinal, 4; White-breasted Nut hat < I 

asant and Cardinal reported, not personally »een.) Total, ij 
•peciev I D KYDBM Kuttt. 

Camden, If. J. ( and vicinity). — Dec. aj; 10.30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Clear; (round bare, 

northwest; temp. 30*. Herring Gull, 6; Bob- white. 6; Marsh Hawk, t; Red- 

I Hawk. 6. kedabouidered Hawk, 1; Sparrow Hawk, a; Barn Owl, 1; Short-eared 

>wny Woodpecker. 1; Blue Jay, a; Crow, 10; Starling, 50; Horned 

leadowlark. 6; White-throated Sparrow, 8; Tree Sparrow, to; Field Sparrow, 1; 

Song Sparrow, 15; Cardinal, a; Winter I I if ted Titmouse, 1 ; Robin. 

•ecie*. 158 individuals. — Julian K. Pottbk. 

Baglewood Region. N.J Palisades Park, to llordboff, to Teaneck, through Eogle- 

srood to Englewood Cliffs, and along foot of Palisades to Edge water). -Dei. aa; 8 a.m. 

ear; 8 in. of snow; wind northwest, brisk; temp. 30" to 40*. Fifteen miles 

00 fe sf Gull. 300; American Merganser, 4; Black Duck, 15; Marsh Hawk, 1; 

ned Ha». tailed Hawk, 1 Hairy Woodpecker. 1; 

' xxJpecker. 10, Flicker, 1; Blue Ja Min*. 00; Red-winged 

Kkhi >wlark, 6; Goldfinch. 3; White throated Sparrow, S3; Tree 

is; Song Sparrow, 33; Fox Sparrow, 3; Brown Creeper, to, U 
1 it mouse, 1; Black-capped Chickadee, 3; Robin, t; Blue 
-7 species, about 574 individuals.- I ft., and Edwaed 

Hackettstown, If. J. Dec. *6; 8.10 to 11.30 \ u Cloudy, remainder of a 10-tn 
*\ snow; wind south. Downy Woodpecker, 3; Blue Jay. 4; Crow, 4; Starling, t8, 
<*t of these are part of a flock of about 40 which feed at my home) . 
Sparrow, 35; Jonco. 10; Song Sparrow, 1; Brown Creeper, 1; White-breasted 
til. 11 species, about tot Indi > lock of 'Prairie- ' 

Horned Larks seen Nov 17 M \by Piksson Allen. 
Mooraatown, If. J . 45 a.m. to s.ao p.m. Cloudy, with rain at intervals 

through the morning; ground bare; wind westerly, light, becoming fresh; temp, at start 
n 36°. Two parties covering different sections, and conveyed by auto 
snob iles . First part) returned at ta 30 p.m., second party traveled by auto 53 miles and 
walked about 8 Herring Gull, 38; American Merganser. 10. Rilldeer, 2; Marsh Hawk. 1. 

shinned i Red tailed Hawk. 7; Sparrow Ha« 

Woodpeck wny Woodpecker, lamed Lark, n; Blue J a 

•fling, 31 ged Blackbird, :. Meadowlark. t; Goldfin 

•ated Sparrow, to; Tree Sparrow. 81; Field Sparrow. . Song 

Sparr Mockuu 

ed Titmouse, re sp . 10, (Golden crowned Ringlet. 

3a species, 1,623 individuals. Total area • M within * 

dian miles. — M tr». Aura 

M N u Hv <>s f \ *\« ansl <•• ► Js 

Momstown, If . J. I >• p u Cloud) . about a foot of old snow. 

wthd west, light >ad to the Lake Road Bridge, thence 

through Speedwell Park and CoUinsville to the town's disposal bed*, returning along 

ceo Cemetery -about 6 miles Observers together 

[ay, 48; Crow. t$. Starling, at; 

Purple Finch, ao. Goldhr M Sparrow. 6a; Field Sparrow, i(seen at close range 

abot : eristic notes h o. 60. Song Sparrow. 6, ( ardmal. 4. ( J saalea. 



.0 

Mount Holly, N. J • . < r w ( leaf. n«. wind 

oa return. 30*. Ten miles <« loot. Observers tog. " 

». 5.000 -f 
< throated sparrow, 1$, Field Span* + ; Song 

Sparrow, 8; Cardinal. 10, Northern 

asted Nuthatch. 1. Tuftrd Titmouse. 

• 

New Brunswick, If. J. r v 

4 -*o r u nl.no* 

temp. j6* to 43*. The obeer\ • harp 

H 
K, .-i.r 1 Hair) Woodpecker | Down) Woodpecker, j; Him- Jav. 15; \merican 

ling. 100 
■ e Sparrow ..ng Sparrow, 14; C'ardin.> 

Rum I DaJtrotTC .«ti 1 rii 

Plainfleld, N. J. to Ash Swamp and back 
drixxling rain it 10 \ u . ibuM 8 in <if mow; little win 

37* at return. About u mile* on foot. Ring-net keel Phr. 

I ailed Ha ■ I ! 

Haw I 

Icadowlar. 
5 (flock . White throated Sparrow arrow, 14; Jur 

>p|K-d Chickadee, ft Total. 15 spet 1 
\\ 1 

Princeton, N. J. Mercer St to Stony Brook, and 3 miles along the brook 1 
10.4$ am p mow; wind northwest, light, temp. 22° st Mart, 14* St 

rrtur crs most of time tog 

•urning l» 
peck« lue Jay. 8; America: 

himo. 150. Song Sparrow, 40. Cardin. 
asted Nut >1 Titmouse. 1. Black capped 

•• Song 
rows singing softly at n<> rdinaN in it' KM and 

II \w 

Vine land. N. J. (Six miles northeast of Vineland rat. 

Light rain, sometimes mixed with snow, all day; wind north* l>. 39". 

Klur Meadowlark, 3; Tree Spa 

d, 8 specie Wat. H I 

Ardsley, Hillside and Roslyn, Pa ,0 to 4 30 

wind west, ligl 

Ik.ih 1.000. Starling 
•«-e Sperro* rdinal, 1 pedes, 

about 1. 1. •< individuals 1 

Beaver, Pa. Beaver s Hollow, Dutch Ridge Road, Gypsy ' 

* in. of snow; wind »r»t, light; temp. 13V Bob-whr 

v Woodpr 

[itmouM 
Golden c row ned Kinglet -ted Nut! 



Bird- Lore's Eighteenth Christmis Census 



dual*. I died for 10 minute* at i$ feet, and all di 

uii* note J* 

Buckingham near Doylestown , Pa l> 

• d 5 miles. Bob- white. arrow 

tdian (Tr rdiiul, 

Nuthatih. i Total, is specie*. al> 

Forty Port, Lustra* County, Pa. to Trucksville and return . Dot to; y 30 ■ 

rthwest, light, temp 15 . Klevcn mile*, covering 
meadow, mountain, valley and swamps. Ob* thrr. Sparrow Hawk. 

sparrow. 
•ut 45 individuals. II W Bay, Pact B 

Haverford, Pa. to Darby Creek and back . ■ ;o \ \i t.. 4 4; ■ u ( lear at 

it return. 1 in. of snow, melting fast; wind southwest, moderate; temp. 

at return. Fight miles on foot. Observers separate in KM,, together in 

Red-tailed Hawk, t; Sparrow Hawk. Downy VYood- 

'tr throated Sparrow, 5; Tree Sparrow, j; Jul 
I ardinal. 1; Brown ('rcej>cr. 1. \\ hin- l>rra*wd N'mh.r 

den-crowned Kinglet. 3. Total, 15 species, tot individuals. — 
: it. and Tin .»ix. ii> Spencer. 
ck. Pa. to Linfield, Limerick Center, Stone Hills, and back I>. .4; 10 
m 6 to 12 in. of snow; wind v.uthwcst, light; temp, ja* to j6*. 
leaon foot. Sharp-shinned Hawk, j ; Cooper's Hawk. 1 I Hawk, i | 

Ban I .rned 

numerous; Starling 6; Meadowlarl Sparrow, jq; Jun. 

Sparr rthcrn St>- tal, 15 species, about 1 1$ individuals -f-Crows. 

rthern Lancaster Co., upper waters of the Hammer Croak). -De. 
* \ w :h *now, wind. none. Bob-win' 

cd Hawk. 1. Red- 
shoulder* d Hawk. 1 ; Sparrow Hawk dpacker, ■ 

. about 1,000; Goldii .irrow. 68. 

ng Span- . Brown < 

• mouse, 10; Chickadee. Total, ao species. 146 individual* + Crows. — 
and \nn\11\u 1 
McKeeeeort, Pa, —I) 1.30 p.m. M light snow on 

kUUkl up to* to jo*. Fifteen i' haraaeept 

« hours. I 

>w, 80; Junto, o, Song Sparr.. >lc. heard and wauhed at 

died 
apped Chitka i>ccic*. J04 individual* I I 

Oaks, Montgomery Co., Pa. ParkJomon Crook, from Mill Orovo to Shto an.c n 

Schuylkill River preposterous alt rmi 

hrooghout of snow; wind west 

r«d a rough triangle 6 miles around. American Merganser 1 ailed 

Hawk. 1 adult and immature . Sparrow Hawk. 1. lirltrd Kingfisher 

Starling. 
Mead- j. arrow, a< -«mg Sparrow. 

• per 10. Tlinsnuat, 




j8 ■ d - Lore 

io+; Gold— crowned Kinilet. |«f. Total. 18 species, aboi. 

ROLAVO. 

Beading, P*.— Dec. ij; S a.m. to 4 ML Clear; 8 to 10 in. of mow; wind iv 
light; temp 10* at start. .15* at return. Observer* togc 

Blue Jay. 11; Crow, jo throated Sp«rr m, to; 

Mate-colored Junco. it; Song Sparrow, to; < 
Black cap: Ice. 10. '! da — Amma I*, and ! 

Bssdhag, Pa. I>. •' mow; wind north 

vny Woo.! 
Hloe Marling. 14; Mcadowlark. •; Gobi 

Junro, 50; Song Sparrow, 97; Cardinal. 15; Carolina Wren, 1 . Bro 
breas .. kadee. 10 Total. 15 *pe. lividual*.— M 1 

Savings, Pa. — Der. 15; 8.15 Moatly dct 

southwest to norths to 34*. Walked 5 mile*. Ruffed Grouse 1; 

•vny Woodpecker. 4; Blue Ja> ncn, 9; 

breasted Tufted Titmouse. 4; Black-capped < 

9 aperies, 45 individual*.- : ee. 

Telford, Pa. !»«■. if • 8.15 AJI to u.30 P w Raining at si 
10.15 a.m. followed by brisk north wind; temp. 34*; 8 in. of snow. Bob- -.< 
Sparrow Hawk, 1; Great Horned Owl, 1; Downy Woodpeck- 
Crow, ;o. Starling. ; arrow. 1;; Slate-colored Junco, ij; Song Sparrow. 11; 

breasted Nuthatch. 3; Black-capped ( 
crowned Kinglet. 15 Total. 14 specie*, is 5 individuals. Al*o one unidentified Ha 
I I 
Waat Chester, Pa 
flurries of snow; ground covered with snow and ice; no wind; temp. 36* at star 
at return. Kleven miles on foot Hawk, 

rcecb Owl, 1; Downy Woodr* Vmerican Crow. 115; Starling. 15; Purple 

c Sparrow, 5c <>red Junco. 75; Song Sparrow, 45 

breasted Nuthatch aperies, 34 

York, Pa. (to Wrigbtaville, along Soaqoehanna Rive . 
rat Clear. 4 in of a »; calm; temp. s8* at start. Six miles on foot. Ob* 

together. American Merganser. 3; Screech Owl. 1 ; Hairy \Voodpc< 
peck< rthern Fl. lue Jay. 5; American Crow, 

Sparrow,: .lored Jus. ng Sparrow, u; Cardinal, 15; ' vwing. 

aroUna Wren. 5 (singing); Brown « Tufted Titmouse, t; Black-capped 

nit Thrust kit was observe'! 

on Dec 15 s male Towhee waa positively identified where these observations 
were made. Total, 18 species, 137 individuals. — Airoca 

Chevy Chase, Md. northeast to Rock Creek and back).— Dec. 35; 7.3 
r.M Sky darkly overcast; snow In sheltered locations; wind north, lfo 40° at 

start. 35* at return; rain 10 to t or o miles on foot. Bob 

.rkey Vulture. 4; ked shouldered Hawk row Hawk, i; Screech Owl, 3; 

Woodpr woyWoodpco 1- beaded Woo. 

5; Starling 15 (first I 
has been noted Chase; they first appeared D< 

throated Sparrow, 6; Tree Sparrow, a; Chipping Sparrow, 1; Junco, 107; Song Sparrow, 
Mocking* rolina Wr< 



Bird- Lore's Eighteenth Christmas Census 



■ tie*. 4; Bluebird, 10. Total. so specie*, about 31 

D. C. from 1 point 3'* miles wrath of Congrtoo Heights to Wood- 
B. C. . winds light, variable, becoming southerly in 

I Gull, 1; Bob-white. 17; Turkey Vultu .pet's 

Hawk tailed Hawk, t; Red-shouldered Hawk. 6; Broad-winged Hawk. 1 

Sparrow Hawk. j. Barred Owl, a; Kingfisher, i; Downy Woodpecker, q; Red-bellied 
|; Blue J row, to.ooo; Ftah Crow, qi; Starling 

Ked-winged Blackbird. 2; Meadowlark. ft; Pun>le I Goldfinch, ft; 

White- throated Sparrow, 16; Tree Sparrow, a aft; J unco, 327; Song Sparrow, 34; 
rdinal, 28; Migrant Shrike. ngbird. 3; Carolina 

tufted Tit mou .rolina Chickadee. 11; Golden- 

crowned Kinglet. 4, Hermit Thrush. 1; Bluebird. 14. Total. 36 specie*. 10,938 individ- 
ual* i»;iim)N and K R Rmmbach 

Washington, D. C. (Wellington to New Alexandria, Va.; Arlington, Va. to Welli- 
ngton D 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Clear; wind northwest, light but penetrating; 
'iwr covering ground, temp. 25* to 30'. Distance 1 a miles. Hooded Mergan* 

>; Black 1 Redhead. 100; Canvasback, 500; Greater Scaup. 500; 

Lt ae rr Scaup, 6.000 (two sixes, as well as color reflections of heads); Goldeneye, 30; 

BufBehead. is (all ducks through telescope, 2$ diameters); Bob-white, 3a (7, 8, 16, 1); 

Marsh Hawk, 1; Sharp-shinned Hawk, i; Cooper's Hawk. 1; 

Red shouldered Hawk, 1; Broad-winged Hawk, 1; Bald Eagle. 3 

Hawk. .'. Downy Woodpecker. 11; Yellow-bellied Sapsu 

mmon Crow, 300; Fish Crow, 7; Starling. 5; Rusty Blackbird. 60; 

PurpI- Goldfinch, 30; White- throated Sparrow, as; Tree Sparrow, 150; Junco. 

-ong Sparrow, 10, Cardinal. 20; Migrant Shrike, 1; Myrtle Warbler. 1; Carolina 

•wn Crer; breasted Nuthatch. 1; Tufted 

idee, 40; Golden-crowned Ringlet. 150; Ruby-crowned 

King)' 50. Total, 43 species, 8,458 individuals. Ducks in three flocks, and 

probably exceeded ten or twelve thousand. — Mb. and Mis. Lbo D 

Mount Vernon to Dyke, Va. by way of Dogno Crook).— Dec 16; 8.30 a I 

of snow; wind northwest, light; temp. 33* at atari, aft* at finish. T— Im 
miles on foot Observer* together. Red-breasted Merganser, 25; Black Duck, 6; Canvas 
300; Lesser Scaup. 10; American Goldr: Hob white, 13; 

8, Marsh Hawk, a; Red-tailed Hawk. 1; Red shouldered Hawk. 
Red bellied Woodj. 
S3; Fish Crow. 1; Red-winged Blackbird, t; Meadowlark. 
Goldfinch. 11 \\ tr throated Sparrow. |jj Tree Sparrow, jq. Jumo, ||6; Banj 
iinal, S; Migr.r Mer. 4. Mockingbir 

White- breast e. 
Tufted Tit mo.; hichadec. 7; Golden crowned Kinglet, 

rd Kinglet, t, Hermit Thruch. 1. Bluebird, 16. Total. 30 specie*, about »$$ in 
at and Kowaid A. Pat at* 
Grafton, W. Va. McOoo to Boston Ferry. I >r> ;v. ; to \ w t<> i u> r m loud) 
and snowing until noon; a in of snow st noon; wind west, light, temp, to* at »t*r 
ght miles on foot. Bob-white, 6; Screech O way Woodpeek 

• hipping Sparrow, t; Slate-colored Junco. 70; Song Span. 

rea. 6, Tufted Tilmou*e. a; Chickadee it species. 

shout t ao individuals— A. J. DadisMak. 

Lewitburf . W. Va. -Dec. t<> »f snow (snow dinging U» 

the undergrowth made the observation difficult and disagreeable (or the oUer - 



40 Bird -Lore 

no vied, temp A' at Mart, . n Fifteen milr» on foot. Obeen< 

tailed Hj • row Hawk 

Woodpeck. 

Gold! 

Carolina v 

l>crir». i .006 Individ u.< ll\uv and < 

B oons, II. C — D» joi-M 1 

forenoon and becoming warm in middle of day 01 K two 

weeks of unusuall) cold weather and an unusual snowfall for the season 
-.ii 1 hern •lope* of too* in wooded valley* and on 

*o*. Bob -v at Home 

wny Wo*- 
Sparrow. 2, Junto. j u . Son* Sparro 

il. 14 »pr dividual* 

Brown. 

Lexington, W. < &.J0 \ u ».. 4 r u I 

to north, model ng; temp 15* to 3s*. Kight mile* cov er ed. Bob 

10; Turkey Vulture Blue Ja> 

Goldfinch, ated Sparrow 

103; Sonic 40. Cardinal, to; Migrant SI 

. Tufted I 
Hermit Thrush. 1; Blue) (Vital, 21 t\ 

Atlanta, Ga. 'Headwaters of North Utoy Creek end Procter Creek 
030 to 8.30 a.m. and 1 to 430 pu Clear; wind north* nd mostly 

bare, a little ice and now in «hadcd north exposures; temp. 39° at start, 50* n- 
Twelve mile* afoot . Kill' 

shouldered' Hawk. 1. Sparro Blue Ja 

Blackbird wlark. 8 pping 

Sparrow, 1 arrow, 40; Jun 

Loggcrh< 

own-headed Nut hat 
■ 
Bluet idual*. One Sparrow Hawk seen from office 

building in heart of < he ha* hunted for three years. 

throat* were 10 son* > 18 was s cold *pdl of unprecedented length 

Camp Gordon, Atlanta, Ga. all day. Clear; ground bare, patches of snow 

and ice in woods; wind south w< mj> jo* to 50' >owny 

Woo«! Blueja) kleadowlark roated 

'lipping Sparrow, ic ..arrow. 8; Swamp S| 

Tow! 

I *ned Kim 

about »30 individuab. — I»st\ ati: J-m \\ RtMB 

Nashville, Tenn. Bellemeade, Gleadale Hills and 40-acre reserv 

ar. little snow; no win«i ; a to 40*. Four mile* 01 

Mallard, 8; Kit Ulcer. 3; Bob-* 

Red-tailed Hawk. 3; Sparrow Ha« ■ lorned O* 

Woo«! 

\ellow- bellied Sap* d Lark. Jj 




J lore's Eighteenth Christmas Census 41 

teadowlark. 50. B roused fim k rpla Finch. 4; Goldn- 

»ted Sparrow, 60; Field Sparrow, 14; Song Sparrow 
.60; Tow «.in«bird. 

•breasted Nut hat < h 
! rmit Thrush :. Bluebird i, Tot.i 
idual* — A. K. Gamier 

\ V ami t tO 4 P.M 

-irons . temp 30* to 48*. About 4^ mile*. Blark Vul- wiper'* 

line Horned Lark. 17; Blue Jay. 11; Crow. 
Sparro Sparrow. 1; Field Sparrow, 1. Slate-colored Junco, 61; Sons 

irdinal, 8; Cedar Wax wing .< i ufted 

1 Total, 23 species, about 
idual* -Bin J Buncos. 
Albion. 111. to point 7 miles west and return. Dw J5; 9.15 a.m. to 5 p.m. Cloudy; 
of snow; wind north, light increasing in afternoon; temp, about 30". 
• row Hawk. 1 ; Bob- white, 3 together \\'oodpeck< 

IKIue Jay, 5; Crow, 35; Junco, 150 
sag Sparrow. 1 ; Brown Creeper, 1 , Tufted Titmouse, s ; Carolina Chirka >tal, 

tividuals. — John H. Gooch. 
Chicago, 111. 1 Jackson Park Riverside to Willow Springs along the DesPUmes 
<o a.m. to 4.30 p.m with slight rain; temp 35* to 45*. 

i.illed Gull. 10; Coo^r's Hawk. 1 , Hairy Wood- 
ill ue Jay, i$; Crow, 45; Lapland Longspur. to; Tree 
^^Hfc> w - 75; Song Sparrow, 20; Junco, 4; Cardinal n full song); 

-breasted Nut hat. t I Total. 18 

about 250 individuals. — James D. Wat- 
Port Byron, 111. 3 to 5 miles southeast . Dr. it,; 8.15 \u to j.to r.M 

< eks; wind south, modcr 40* at start, 48* at return 

uxh-letrjced Hawk, i .ird at 6 r.M.); Great 

A oodpeck' I -headed Wood- 

^^H^- •* hern Flicker. 2; Blur Jay. 15; Crow, 10; 

100; Cardinal, i, Brown Creeper. 1. White- 
Chickadee, 30. Total. 18 species, about 
usdi vidua 

Rantoul, 111 2 mil— Ihrongh woods 
I northeast, strong; temp. to*. Bob- whit ■ I Hawk. 1; 

•odprtkrr Horned Lark. 50; 

00; Meadowlark.3; Goldfinch, 1 j; Longspur. 150; Tree Span- 

rtl- breasted 
Total. 
<i ies, 560 individual* I 
Fort W« 

• 7 mile* 00 l«- . Sparr»« 

meri.an t rce Sparro 

song Spar hils>br»aste.l Nutha- 

Wayne. Ind - Ctoudy; ground hare. I 

.T.hr, I! 



Bird- 1 

American Gotdnnch. jo; Tree Sparrow. 71; SUtt-oolored J unco. js. Song Sorrow. 4. 
Towbee. a; Cardinal. ; . Carolina Wren. 1 ; Brown Creeper. 1; White-brea«tc< 
0. Black rapped Chickadee. 5. Total, 16 species ajo individual*. — < 

■ Kirn 

Lalajrette, Ind. Tecoaneeh Trail In Wabaah Valley Sanitarium and back throucb 
Happy BoUow).— Dec. ■«,; 10 a.m. to a.30 r.M Partly rloody; groond bare; wind north, 
raw and cold; tetnp. thawing aUghtly in sun in sheltered spots. Seven miles on foot. 
Woodpe. • ><>wny Woodpr 

Total, 10 specie ideal*. — M L. Fr*n 

Roach dale, Ind.— Dec. 14; 8 a w to 1 j <o r m ( Inudy, ground bare, wind south 
rooderatr. temp. 40* to 46*. rirht milea on foot. Barred Owl. 1; Downy Woodpecker. 
4; Red-belUed Woodpeckr blue Jay, 6; American (row. 140; Tree Sparrow, 

orrd Jun. o. 40; Song Sparrow, 10; Cardinal. 5; Carolina V Hrowo 

Tufted Titmouae. 5, Black-capped Chickadr about 

luals. Abo one large, unidentified Hawk. — Warp J K 
Cadiz, Ohio. — Dec. ij; 015 %M to I M f « < loudy; ground bare I wow 

in the wood* and on northern dopes, and remain* of great drift* in places; wind south 
east, light; temp. 17* to 36*. Walked 7 miles. Bob-white, 1$; Sparrow Haw > 
Woodpecker, 4 ; Downy Wood| I ed- bellied Woodpe. ■ row, $; 

Goldi I rec Sparrow, a; Junco, 15; Song Sparrow, 9; Cardinal, 8; Carolina 

Wren, a (sang); White breasted Nuthatch. 8; Tufted 1 kadee. 

Total. 17 specie*. Hat 

ev and Raymokd Timmons. 
Canton, Ohio. — Dec ay, 7 a.m. to 3.45 p.m. Cloudy; ground with numerooa snow 
rs; wind southeast, light; temp >6* to 38*. Ground covered. 10 milea. Marsh 
Hawk 1; Sparrow Hawk. Woodpcck 

row, aso; Song Sparrow ted Null 

moose. 6; Black-capped Chickadee, a. Total, to specie*. 387 individual* I 

bam 

Canton, Ohio ioavji light; ground 1 

with patches of snow; temp. 1;*. Five milea on foot. Obserx. 

Woodpecker, ; ; Blue Ja> -arrow. 40; Junco, 3, Song Sparror nal, 5; 

Brown Creeper <- breasted Nuthatch 

Total, to species. 8a individual* —Mai S 

Crestline, Ohio. — Dec. a8; 0.30 a.m. to 3 ».m Light doud -ound 

almost bare, temp 5* at start, to* at return; wind north, very sharp. Walked 9 miles 
Nearly all the birds found 00 south side of the woodland oodpecker. 6, DOWBJ 

Woodpea i beaded Woo.' Red bellied Wood) 

Blue narrow, 5 .lored Junco, 35; Song Sparrow, t. 

Cardinal.. Tufted Titmouse, x kadee. 

1 Total. 14 species. 133 individuals Shi bidan F. W< 

Delaware, Ohio.— Dec. a$. to a.m to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground lightly snow-cox • 
temp it Horned Owl Woodpet > *ny Woodpecl 

handed Woodi Ked bellied Woodpecker. 1. Blue Jay, . 

Song Sparrow, a; Towbe. I itmouse. 1; Golden-crowned - 

Total, t j spedea, 30 individual* Blue Jays and Cardinals seem very scarce this ■ 
l Hi ret*. 

Hillaboro, Ohio.— Dec t»; 9.30 a.m. to ta m. Cloudy; 8 in. of snow, drifted; wind 
northeast, slight, temp as*. Mourning Dove, a; Sharp-shinned Hawk. 1. 
Hawk. t. Kingfisher. 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodp< bellied 

Woodpea -Mow- bellied Sap*> 



hird- Lore's Eighteenth Christmas Census i 

\ MeadowU c Sparrow, to; White-throated Sparrow. 5; Mate- colored Junco. 

rr Wren, j ; Carol! t ruled 

Black-capped Chickadee, it; Robin : r..tal, 33 
iividuals.— Lktua E. Roam. 
on, Ohio. — I >' ly with uo« and rain; wind south. 

B| Gull. 10; Merganser. 5; Bald Eagle. 1; 
tern Flick Bronaed Crackle. 1 

olored Junco, 3; Son* Sparrow, j; Cardinal, 8; White breasted 
I hickadee, 3; Golden- crowned Kinglet. 3. Total. 15 
II G. Moksk and ro. 

Lacerville, Ohio. nules west of Cadiz*. Dec. 33; 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Cloudy, with 
rain fa ning; ground partly covered with snowdrifts; wind east and southeast, 

temp 33* in ■spying. 40" at noon. Red-tailed Hawk. 1 Urned Owl. 1, Screech 

• >wny Woodpecker.i; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 1 ; Crow.3; Tree Sparrow. 15. 
Song Sparrow. 3; Cardinal, 3; Cedar Waxwing, 1; Carolina I Whitr 

brea mouse, 10; Chickadi al. 15 species, So in- 

dividuals. I found the winter residcati very scan e compared with other winter censuses. 

Oberlin, Ohio radius of 6 miles south and west of town I>< • s p.m. 

.round barely covered with snow; wind northeast, sharp, snappy; temp. 34* 
\bout 1$ miles on foot. Herring Gull. 3; Mallard, t female. 
tb-» ! irsh Hawk. 1 ; Sparrow Hawk, 3; Screech Owl, 4; Hairy Woodpeck' 

lue Jay. I 
-row, 75 + ; Slate-colored Junco, 13; Cardinal, 8; Winter M Brown 

thatch, 5; Red-breasted Nuthatch, 1; Tufted Titmouse. 
I <>tal. 33 species, 165+ individual* — Helen M K 
Wilmington, Ohio. kM. to 3.30 p.m. Walked about 8 miles. Ground 

v co v er ed with sno \»* to 40*; wind southeast to west; cloudy. Black 

• I- tailed Hawk, 1; Sparrow Hawk, 3; Great Horned Owl, 1 
identified . 1, Hairy Woodpecker, 1. Downy VFoOsfcOl kcr. 11, Rod -headed IFoSw 
l bellied Woodpecker, o Crow, 18; Gold- 

inch Sparrow, 30; Junco, 84: Song Sparrow. 10, Foi Sparrow, 1; Towbee. 

\\ Titmouse, 35; Chickadee, o; Golden-crowned King 

tal. ia species, 439 individuals. The Black Vulture is becoming common 

lintoo sad dies. This is the first time we have seen the Fot 

Sparrow wintering in this locality. Out of the so Tow bees, 3 were females, the first time 

w* have known the females to winter here. This was immediately following two week* 

-npersture as low as 30* hdow icro — Gtos. • D H *»•»««. and 

Youngstown, Ohio 5 p.m. Cloudy; ground slightly snow-covered. 

iked about 1$ miles, by s utomobile 30 miles. Observers were 

DC Ruflrd GrOUSC 1. Krd tai.cl lla«k 1} flpMlOV II. i 

Screech I ny Woodpecker. t6; Red 

headr.|\\—l; allied Woodpecker. 3 Blur J.y. 4 1 . < -lit. 

-late colored Junco. 51; Song Sparrow, 14; Towbee, $ Cardinal, so. 

cbreastr. Hi mouse, 33; Chickadee. 

rn crowned Kinglet. ; Vmong additional species seen the previous wvck were 

led Merganser. Fileated Woodpecker. Fine Siskin and Carotins v al. 31 

mlu.— Gsosos L. Foawrca. C. A. La ant. Wuus II w «.-.■■ and 

triot, Mich. Palmer Park tad Bella Into).— Doc u | • a - 1.. 1 ; ■ and 3 to 4 
ground hare, no wind; temp. 4 Ig GuH. to 



44 Bird - Lore 

Total. 14 spedes. 177 individual* 

Lauderdale UkM,Mtr Elkborn.WU 10 \ u I 

iij m Partly rloudy, ground bare; wind east, shifting lo south< 
miles on fool . < lliwi vcr » 

breast rti Nuthatch, 1. Total. 7 specie*, jo individuals. This winter is rr m 
the tUrmr uf the I nickadee, only ooe having been Men sin 

Irntdul here in previous win- 
and K mi\k Jr. 

Racine, Wis. • Lake front, 3 miles up river and back 
Cloudy, -un ahininK dimly at time*; no snow; wind »oulh. light; temp. jo*. Ten mile* 
on foot. Observer* in two group*. Herring (iull, 105; American Scoter. . 

I breasted (> specie*, 

tot individual* Mm \\ Mia* Bgs*i 

anil Till" < • v 

Waukesha. Wis. Dr« . a©; 8.30 a u to 4.30 P.m. Morning 
ground bare; wind east, light; temp. ;o* at start, 30° at return 

dpecker, i; Blue Jay. 5. Amcr l • 

Remarkably few bird-, in thi» \ 

If ankato, If inn. 
—4* to + io\ 
Woodpecker, 10; Plicated Woodpc- iuc Jay. 4; Crow, 1 «r, 50; 

colored J 1 .otcd Nuthatch. 4 

Total. 1 1 spedes, about 1 jo individual* v. 

St Pater, Minn. 10 aJf. to 4 Ml 

wind nortbwc*t. medium; temp. 6° below 1 mile tramp, woods, field* and 

pecker, 7; Blue Jay. 6; Tree Sparrow, 5; Browi. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch, a; Black-capped Chickadee, *6. Total, g specie*, 63 individuals. 

Hushed t) was able to approach within 1 IIJ I 

Bettendorf, Iowa Do ;:, A j ndorfan<: 

4.30 p.m.. Suburban Island Partly rloudy. ground bare; wind south 
•t start, 40 * at rata rnile* on foot. Canada (Joose, 3; Screec I 

I id- headed Woodpc 
Blue .1 I I winged BUrkbird, 350 

iolored J unco. 38; Song S|»arr<>* 
breasted Nuthal Tltmonsc, 11; Black -copped Chickndoi 

specie*, 609 individuals,— I 

DsTenport, Iowa. Dr j p u Cl..ud> . ground bare; wind south, li 

temp. 40* at *t.i 'servers t«>. 

packer, t; Downy Wood, 

1.50c colored Junro. too+; Town. 

breast r. I Nuthatch. 4; Tufted Titmouse, t; Black capped < 
Robin, 1 Total, 13 spedes, 1,064 individual An unusual number of Red « 
Blackbirds this autumn and winter — flock* of thousands on several d. 
BonrogCT. 

Siou City, Iowa (Stone Pork and vicinity .— Dec 33; 8.30 a.m. to | 
wind southeast, light; temp. 31* to 40*. Observers togeth. .ules afoot. 1 






rd-Lorc'N Eighteenth Christmas Ccnv 

e Sparrow, 8 *; Juno linal. 

.ite-breastcd Nuthat kadce. ;. i Total. 

■'■SMS and \ l \ 

Jefferson Barracks. Mo. woods and river nearby. D« ■$; IS UK ti i pm 

oudy . ground bare and f rosea; wind nortbea»t \ Cooper's Hawk, i ; Downy 

rued Lark. 1. Blue 
Redpoll, 8; Goldfinch. 40; Pine Tree Sparrow, 10; Junco, 50; 

irdinai. 4; Bro* \ uthatt h. 1 ; Red-breasted Nuthatch 

noose, 10; Chickadee. t>. Blur! tal, 19 species, 200 individuals.— 

1ST. 
Marn.nville. Mo. I », . entire da) \\ ml cold, strong. Red- tailed Hawk 
Voodpecker t; Downy Wood] 

tied Lark. 20; Blue Jay. 6; Crow. 100; Meadowlark 
aldfiri lroated Sparrow, j; Field Sparrow colored Junco, jo, 

irdinal. 4; Mockingbird 

itmooae, 5 15; Klurhird. 6. Total, is species, about 

viduals. — Jmiins..\ N'arr. 

Marshall, Mo . . q am. to 1 p.m. Qomi bare; wind tight, south. 

asp. si tniles. Bob-whi rah Hawk, 1; Coopers Hawk, 

d shouldered Hawk, 3; Hairy Woodpecker, 5; Northern 
owny Woodpc. Red-bellied Woodpr. rthern H lilue Jay. 

\ merit an Goldt; ■ Sparrow, 35; Slate colored 

nco, :\. Cardinal. 3;. Carolina Wren. 4; Tufted Titmouse, 14; Black-capped 
hick.* Total, 18 species, 314 individuals. Note the shortage of seed-eating 

rds, the absence of occasional visitants, as well as of some of the regulars.— J \ 

Marysnlle, Mo. west, north, and east of town and back . > 

ind southeast, strong ;* at start, 28 "at finish. Fourteen miles m Isstj three 

uinity. Red tailed Haw. A oodpecke: tiern 

row, a; Tree Sparrow, 56; Slate-colored Junco, 130, 

Black-capped Chickadee. 17. Total. 10 species, about 

Salem, Mo to 1 1 .50 \ u and 2 to 4 20 p w ( loud y; ground and trass 

wind, chill northe. temp. 25* in morning, jo* in evening, 

miles on foot. Observers together. Duck 

Sharp-shinned Hank Woodpc. . way 

idowUrk. 

10, Br..r .oldfiach. 

M Sparrow arrow, 10; Slate colored 

Song Sparrow. 4. Towh. Ixtggcrhea rtle 

breasted N 
. liotden crowned Kingb 
obin, 7; Itlueb. ,7 species. 888 individuals - I t and I' 

Dawitt. Ark w . and bare, wind light. *uuth. lessp. 

»ugh heavy bot to m wo ods and cultivated fields. Mallard, 
bo; Mourning Dove. ipsrro* Hawk, 1 . Hairy Woodpcckr 

rllied Woodpr. i d winged Blackbird. 60; Meadow- 

isty Blackbird. 4< 



d-Lorc 

Sparrow, 06; Field Span Song Sparrow up Spun 

• . 
rotm Thrasher, i Carolu 
• east ed Nut hat rdTitmo >rohna 

Chickadee, 7; tiolden-crowoed Ringlet, 7; Hermit 
ToUl. 40 species. 1.4*3 individual* 

Aransas Pass, San Patricio Co., Texas.- I uylight until dark. Fair and 

.aim, temp. 71*. Country visited: Mesqur r-oal 

groves, bays and beaches. Lo. Ring-billed Laughing 

I aspian Tern, to, K Gull-billed Tern, 5 

Florida Cormorant, 10; V. an. too; Gsdwmll, 

winged?) Teal, a; Shovel- tail, 1,000; Kedhc. >nvasback, a; Leeter 

Scaup, 300; King-necked Duck. 1 (collected); i ose, 6; Lesser Snow Goose, 

irron. to; I Heron, 100; Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 

i*t Sandpiper, 6; Red-backed Sandpiper. 15; Semipalmated sad Western Sand 
100; Saaderling, a; GffMttgf Vellowlegs, 4; Lesser Yellowlegs, 1; Western Willet. 
1,000+; Long-billed Curlr u-k- belli* ! 

lipalmated Flo mg Plover, 1; Snowy Plo mini; 

• und Dove, 1, Inca I 
Marsh Hawk, 10; Sharp-shiaaed Hawk. 1; Sparrow Hawk, 
Red-bellied Woodpr 

Cowbird, I nde Meadowlark, 75. Great-tailed GffacUe, 250; G 

Savannah Sparrow, 1; Field Sparrow, 1 asi, 10; Tree S^walL 

Logger h«. Mockiagl 

• 1 Titmouse, a; Kuby-crowned Ringlet, 4; Hermit Thrush sub»i 
species, 3,407 individuals Seen also on preceding and following days Hornc 

Red- breasted Merganser. 50; Hooded Merganser, a; Mall i 
Baldpate, 4; \\ hi tc fronted Goose, 11; Wood Ibis, 3; Louisiana Heron. 4, Black-crowned 
Nighi Long-billed Dowitcber, t; Horned Owl, t; making a grand total of 80 

species. Census gives no idea of the extreme abundance of shore-birds, which have been 
protected in Texas for three years. Shovder and Forster's Tern much commoner than 
census would indicate— Liar !»< laal 

Ragle Lake, Texas,— Dec. gy; 8.30 a w and 1 to 4 r.u 

south; temp. 55* 1065*. Walked 9 miles through marsh, cultivated land*, live oaks 
and scrub. Green-winged Teal, 15; Shovel 

piper, a; Rilldeer. 8; Quail. 12, Mourning Dove, 1; Turkey Vultun Iturc 

so; Red-tailed Hawk. 4. Ked shouldered Hawk. 3, Sparrow Has Wood- 

peckc •w-bcUied Sspsucker. 3; Red bellied Wood; 

Flicker, to; Pborbc. 5, Blue Jay. 10. -d- winged Blackbird, 150; 

Meadowlark. ta; Brewers Blackbird, 300, Great-tailed Grackle Idhnch, 30; 

Vesper Sparrow, 4; Harris's Sparrow, t; White-crowned Sparrow, 100; v 
throated Sparrow, 5; Song Sparrow, 5; Swamp Sparrow, a; Foi Sparrow 
Towh- cdTowh. rdar Waxwiag. 40; Shrik' 

Warbler. 8; Yellowt.hr.. gbird, 50; Brown Thrasher, 30; 

Carolina V Long-billed Marsh Wren. 1, Tufted Tit mo . 

Plumbeous Chickadee, 4; Ruby-crowned Ringlet. 3, Hermit Thrush. 3; Robu 
51 species, 1.045 individuals— Alxxakdxi Wxtmobk. 

Fremont, Neb. — Dec so; 8 a.m. to j 1 south, raw; temp. 18 , no snow. 

Hairy Woodpe. *, 10, 

Blue Jay, 3; Crow, 4; Red Crossbill. 1; Western Meadowlark, 1; Goldnn 
Sparr .lored Junco. 6; Brown Creeper, a; Cedar Wax wing 






Bird -Lore's Kighteenth Christmas Census 47 






ToUl. 16 ■paries. 

urn. 

Omaha, Ifcb. Icar; no wind, ground bnj pi in (our 

hrection* through park* partly wooded and cemeteries right about thr <it>. Mallard. 

road- winged?) Hawk, i; Long-eared ' irredOwf. 

tiry Woodpecker. 5 Downy Woodperker. 16; Red- beaded W 

Tree 
Sparrow. 7; Slat e colored Junco. 261; Song Sparrow >wn Creep* 

n"hite-brea«t. : \ .- i.l ;. Chi« kadee 4: . GoldaOH rowaod Kinglet. 1 Total. J2»|>c«icv 

lividaab.— Milss Guts Hoaaxi w w htaasa at ***. 

Fargo, It. D. I>. j a.m. to 4 p.m. Mostly cloudy; wind south, very light, 

hilling to north and starting to storm; very little mow on field*. 3 to 4 in. in wood*; 
emp. 30*. Fields and woods along river; 1 a to 14 mile* on foot. Hairy Woodpeck. 
lorned Lar at a distance), a; Brown « ite-breastcd Nuthat. 

Jhickad' tal, 5 specks. 15 individual*. < kxs. 

Boxeman, Mont. I»r, 15; 9.30 a.m. to 1a m. and ;^o p.m. to 4 p.m. Fair todoudy; 
race of snow; calm; temp, to* at start, 34* at return. Seven miles on foot. Belted 
iffisner igpic, 10. Clar. KcdpoU, 40; 

;»arrow. 16; Mountain Song Sparrow, 1; Bohemian Waxwing, 75; long- 
ed Chickadee. « 7. Total, 9 species. ak NntOM I nVl 
Missoula, Mont. It. 10 \ u to 1.30 p.m. Cloudy, no wind; freezing; ground 
e. Si 1 mile Belted Kingfisher. 2. Batcheidcr's Downy Woodpeck 
l-shaftr. >hcmian Waxwing. 1.000 or 1.200 in flocks averag- 
rbaps aoo each. Dipper, 3; Long-tailed Chickadee, 8. Total, 7 species, 21 in 
1 wing*. — A I» I' 
Meridian, Idaho irrigated farm lands. Doc, 33; 8 am to .45 v u Dark 
loudy, raining about half the time; ground bare; grass growing a little; no wind; 
nap. 1 at return. Klcvcn miles on foot. Mallard, 155 (6 
. 3 (each one alone, only one seen at nil well); Great Blue 

card in another place*; Chinese Pheasant ;. urning l> varp- 

kinned Hawk. 4 l or 3 may have been some other kind); Hawk sp. (large 
-ong eared Owl, 2 . Short-eared Owl, 3; Red-shafted I ned Urk. 

ackbird « *tern Meadowlark, 33 (nearly all singt 

le Goidflfl .sirow. 65 nco. 

nke. 1. kuby-crowned Kinglr 
ecies, about 1,30a individuals -AutX. Stalks*. 
De a r er , Col. Dot 10A.1 \ p.m.. 8 miles by auto to eastern edge of , 

Ms., 14 miles by auto, south along Plat 1 ground hare; tetap. 

I", noon. 46*, and 5 p.m.. 36*. South wind a.m., north wind p.m.. both mild and 

I'heasant, a6; American Rough-legged Hawk. 
">wny Woodpecker. 1 ned 

Red- winged Blackbird, taji Meadowlark. 8; House Finch 
'ree Sparrow. 100, Slate colored Junco, 1; Montana Junto. 1, Pink-elded Junco 
. Song Sparrow 1 ong- tailed ChU kad« 

1 9 tpedes, about 370 individuals W II Bl aoTOtO. 
Fort Morgan, Col. a c r e w co untr y walk of 5 miles and ta rotaaraiag iillnahni • 
war 6 miles . he. * to 4 r w Clear, very little snow scattered shout, 

ght went wind, temp. 30* at Mart, iff at return I levrn miles on foot Wilson* 

ginous Rough leggr Belted Kinghsher . 

shafted Flicker. 3; Desert Horned lark, to; American Magpie. 14; Ptaon I 

i 40 Pink sided and t.rav beaded 



4* Bird -Lore 

Junto*, Northern SI >ragon Chickadee. it species, about ijj in 

dividusis Tbe Goshawk waa sen coining up tbe river toward m* »• hr wn pursuing. 
ibr Kingfisher. Juat aa tbe Utter waa dose to roc I stood up to get a 
Hawk instantly baited b mid-air and retreated a» tbe Kingfisher flaw on past m 
waa a ratber exciting picture.- 1' II Sir tix 

Secaton, Arisona (from Santan Day School on Pima Indian Reeerrabon to 
River tad rrtum m circular route). — Dec. ij; 9 a u 

plenty of feed for ill . very calm; temp, average 6s*. Killdeer Ouail. 500; 

Mourning Dove, 31; Turkey Vulture, 6; Western Red tailed Hawk, 4. Koadrum 

A oodpctk< o; Red-winged Bla astern 

Mendowlark, t Blackbird. 80; Western Vesper Sparro* 

Sparrow, 170; Intermediate Junro.40.Te1** Cardinal. 14; Western Blue Grosbeak I n 

ite rumped Shrike, 6; Palmer'* Thrasher, 18; Lead-colored Bosh Total. 

19 species, 1,156 individuals. The Blue Grosbeak waa studied with 8a glasses at cloae 
range, dark blue in color: bluish bill, very strong and wide. — Josw h 

Spokane, Waah. (to Long Lake and back .— I >ec aj, 10 am to 4 r.u Clear; ground 
-tiff north breeze, temp, ft* at *tart. 35° at return. Thirty mile- . miles 

on foot. Observers together. Pied-billed Grebe, 1 (collect- 
Red-shafted Fucker. 6; American Magpie, a; American Red Cro*< 
ftnch, 4; Oregon Junto. 25; Merrill'* Song Sparrow, a; Slender-billed Nuthat 
breasted Nuth.. pgy Nuthatrb, 6; Oregon Chick*' >lden 

crowned King!. >tern Bluebird. *pedea. 83 

individuals. The weather so far this winter baa been invariably mild, snowies* end ■ 
f restless, *o that the usual flocks of birds from tbe north are mostly abse 
k. Gbcbmwood, 1 ft \ II BmXBm Bbdcb. 

Multnomah near Portland , Ore., to Columbia Slough (near Vancouver , Wash.- 
. ,. ., a w to j r at. Clear; wind weaterly; temp 40*. Thirty miles by auto., 7 on 
loot. Observers together. Glaucous- winged Gull tig Gull, 8;; Mallar 

( anad* Goose. 1 . Killdeer, 1; Desert Sparrow Baa 

nicott's Screech Owl, 1; Northwest* • .1 Lark. <■ l 

Jay, 7; Western MeadowUrk, ay; Brewer's BUckbr ned Sparrow, a; 

Oregon Junco, 241; Rusty Song Sparrow, to, Oregon Townee, 11; Waste 

rrn Golden-crowned Kinglet, it; Ruby-crowned King!' <-»tern 

Robin, s, Western Bluebird. 5. Total, aa species, about 630 individuals 
tfMKLL and O. I. Gale. 

Portland, Ore. — Dec as; 9.30 am to I «S '•"• »nd > 44 to jru > 
several days' hard rain; light wind, mostly northeast; ground bare; average tcm; 

' one-winged Gull, 13; California Gull. 18; Mallard. 8; Bufflchead. 4; Canada 
Goose, too; Great Blue Heron, a; American Coot, as; Ring-necked Pheasant. 1; Desert 
Sparrow Hawk, a; Northwestern Flicker, 6; V. w, a, 

Western MeadowUrk >w Gold fin ( h 50. Nuttall* Sparrow. 3, Golden -crowned 

Sparrow, 13; Oregon Junco, 115; Rusty Song Sparrow, 18; Vakutat Fox Sparrow, 1; 
Oregon Townee, 7; Oregon Chickadee, 1; Golden-crowned K 
30. Total, as species, $ao individual*. Kakcs 

Portland, Ore. — Dec. a6; 9 a.m. to 1 r.M. and 1.45 to 4.3 
throughout da> ' to 58*. California Gull. 6; Mallard, 4; Blue winged Teal, 5, 

B nfl s ehe a d , 100; Canada Goose, 1; Ameru. :o; Ring-necked Pbeas*. 

Desert Sparrow Hawk. 1, Belted Kingfisher 1, Harris's Woodpecker. 1, North* l 
Flicker, s; Willow Goldfinch, 4; Golden-crowned Sparrow, 1 a; Oregon Junco, 70; Ruaty 
Song Sparrow, 16; Oregon Townee, 7. Chestnut-backed Chickadee, 4; Golden-crowned 
Kinglet, a; Western Robin, 50; Varied Thrush, a. Total, so species, 377 individual 
Hslbm D. ToMsarn 






Bird- Lore \ t.ighicenth (IhriMmas Census 49 




Diablo, C«ltf. within about i mil* radius from poet oSBea).— D* « to 

I 1 w Heavy fog all day, tight west wind; t«mp at start 33*. at return 4a*. Kllldsar, 

.lifornia Quail. 8$. (Cooper'*?) Hawk. 1: Western Red-tail. 4; Desert Sparrow 

Hawk \ xxipecker, 7; California Woodpecker, 41; Red-fthafted Flicker, 45; 

Anna* Hummiafbini hroeted F ack Pharbe, 5, California Jay. 

ado* lark *er'» Bla • en-backed Goldfimh. 7. 

'!'» and Gambel's Sparrows, 250; Golden- crowned Sparrow, 630; Western Tree 

•regon Junto. 250. Samu. yarrow, 100; Forbush's Sparrow, 1; 

Oregon Towhec >rnia To* tic WafM 

i Nut hat 

•use, 68; I' mitThru*!. 

il, 34 species, about 4,366 individual*.— Richabd • 

Los Angeles, Calif, within a diameter of 15 miles, including Hyperion, Nigger Slough, 

and tome of the city parks and cemeteries car; north 

light , temp. 63* at »tart, 70* at return Nine member* of the Los Angeles Audubon 

-even particv Terr:' .1 bj >trcet cat and automobile; observations 

taken on : Eared (.rcbe. 4; Pied-billed tirebe, 13; Glaucous- 

wfamgrti lull, 106; Herring Gull. 16; California (lull. 748; Ring-billed 

<1 Gull, 2; Hcermann's Gull, 14; Bonaparte's Gull, 334; Forster** 

arallon Cormorant, 17; White IV aliforni* Brown Pelican, 35. 

en- winged Tea. >moo Teal. 6; 9 ail 2, Redhead. 

Lesser Scaup r, J40; R • .. ft, Bittern. 1, 

t Blue Heron. lack-crowned Night B Sora. 1; Coot, 554. 

laUrope, 20; Least Sandpiper, 25; Western Sandpiper, 30; Sanderling, 11$. 

- llowlegs, 2, Spotted Sandpiper, 1 ; Hudsonian Curlew, 36, Killdeer, 08; Snowy 

V alley Qua ig- necked Pheasant, 1; Band-tailed Pigeon, 2; Mourning 

:. Marsh Hawk, 1; Sharp-shinned Hawk. 1; Cooper'* 

Hawk, 1; Western Red tailed Hawk. ;, Pigeon Hawk. 1; Desert Sparrow Hawk, 16; 

rt cared Owl, 1, Burrowing Owl, 4; Roadrunner. 2, California Cuckoo. 

• mgnsber. 2; Willow Woodpecker. 1 . Red-breasted Sapsu. krr. 1 . Red-shafted 

inned Hummingbird, 1. Anna's Hummingbird, 53; Cassin's King 

Black Ph alifornu Honed Lark. 200, California 

San Diego Redwing -m Meadowlark. 107; Brewer » 

rnia Purple 1 

• .oldnmh. (>, Western Savannah Sparrow 
Belding's Sparr <e- billed Sparrow, 3; Western Lark Sparro ibsl's 

•lden-crowned Sparrow. 40. W hipping Sparrow, 4; Thurber'a 

Junco. 41. San Diego Song Sorrow. 8g; San Diego Towhce. 17. Anthony'* Towhee, 

ainopepU, 1; California Shrike. ^, Hut' Vudubou'* Warbler. 

Pacific Yeilowt. Mockingbird. ruia Thrasher. 

ego Wren, 8; Western How 1 Marsh Wren, 4; Flala 

Titmouv, 10, ( auforoia Bu*h tit. 20&, Pallid Wren-tit. 40, Ruby-crowned kingl- 

nit Thrush R *:ern Robin, ji; Western Blue- 

106 specie*. 6.0A8 individuals,— M* 1 and Mas. Roskst 

Mas. Joaara 

HAS 

San Francisco County Golden Gat* Park to Lake Merer * na 

' t m Cloud) light southwest wind. 50* to $$'. Observer* la two parties 

1 ied-billed Grabs, 1 1 ; Common 
Loon us-winge<i era Gull. 3.000. Herring Gull. $.000. Ring 

billed (lull. <. 000. Califon Herrmann s Gull. 1, Bonapar Faraloa 

.00. Baldpate. 46. Green winged Teal. 130; Shu t ah 1 



50 Bird - Lore 

Tint Ail. |; Canvasba *aer Scaup, 75; American Goldcne 

WMetliag Swan 

Koo; Killdrer. 185 California Ou* Bawl 

•n Red-tailed Ha». Rough I noted Hawk. J. I»cvr 

Hawk. J. Western B. ked *haft. 

tladt Phcel 

n Mradowtark 
hacked Goldfia* lat't Marsh Sparrov 

Sparrow. i,no; Santa Crtu Song Sparrow. 100; Golden crowned Sp.. Sierra 

Junco. 55; Lincoln* Sparrow. 1; Yakutal Fox Spai ct, 5; 

California Shrike. 1; Hutt \udubon cllow- 

ihroat Vigors'* Wl 

Coast fc 
•rrn Robin, i. Tot.. iea, q.86* 1 

the following . alto, in the n< \merican Bi Sandpiper. 

• flock). Least Sand| ! soman Curie- 

Hawk rn Bluchir 

species, for two day* U \ BQUms, C K >ik. 

Sanu Barbara, Calif. Mission Canyon, Steam* Wharf, Lacuna Blanca, west to La 
Patera u miles over all . 1 \u to 5 .jo r u Partially oven.. 

light rain the preceding evening; temp. 51* at 6 \ u Port) mile* by aul 
foot. Observers together Western Gi 

billed ucous-winged G ill. 000; I 

King- hilled Gull. 150; Heermann'* Gull. 40, Bona par 
Karallon Cormorant. .\>oo. Brandt'* Cormorant. $00. 

Mallard, 3; Baldpate, 60, I "ged Teal. 40; Cinnamon Tea! ,000. 

Pintail, i.ooo, Canvasback. 00, Lesser Scaup, 300, White-wine 
Scoter. 40; Rudi 100; Bittern. 1 . (Jreat Km 

Kail. t;Coot. 1.000; Least Sandpiper. 200; Red-backed Sandpi; 

too; Sanderling. 250; Spotted Sandpiper. 3; Black bellied Plm r, 40. 

Snow> Quail, 10; Mourning I 

' irsh Hawk m Kedtail. 4; Goldca Eagle, 1 Arrow 

Hawk, 8; Barn Owl, 1; Burrowing Owl. 1; Belted kingti*- 

rnia Woodpecker. 14; Red-shafted kaaa'i Hummingbird, 10 

Phoebe, 8; Black Phi I >rned Lark, too; California Ja 

Redwing. 700; Western Meadowlark, joo. Brewer'* Blackbird. 4c 200, 

Willow Goldfinch, ij (jreen-backed Goldfinch, 3; Western Savanna* 200; 

Bclding* Marsh Sparrow, 10; Large-billed Marsh Sparrow, 5. row, 5; 

Gambd's Sparrow, 800, Golden-crowned Sparrow, 40; Sierra Junto, 10. 
Song Sparrow, . hony*Towbr< 

Shnkr. 14. Hut ton '» Vireo. 1; Du*k 

throat, jo. Pipit. 40c kingbird. 1; Western House U 

Plain TitmouM-. 4; Bush-tit. 40, Pa 

Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 6; Western Robin 
Total. 9* species, about 14.000 individual* The California Black Kail, the first I have 
nta Barbara, was flushed at close range in the El 
On the 14th Pacinc Loon. Parasitic Jaeger, Herring Cull 
Old-squaw <a female narrowly *crutini*ed). Wil»on beJHed 

Hawk; Pigeon Hawk. California Screech Owl; and Auburn Canon days, 

103 specks. Thi* small list i* due in part to an unusually dry season, in part to the recent 
destruction (by fire) of much of the neighboring chaparral, but most of all to the absence 
of preliminary routing trip* -GtLU E. Dawson and Wit 1 1 \u I -on. 



. 



Bird- Lore's Advisory Council 



Willi Mime slight alterations, we reprint below the names and 
addresses of the ornithologists forming Bird-Lorks Advisory 
which were first published in Bird-Lore for 
oo. 
those of our readers who are not familiar with the objects of the Council, 
we may state that it was formed for the purpose of placing students in direct 
communication with an authority on the bird-life of the region in which they 
to whom they might appeal for information and advice in the many diffi- 
Inrsct the isolated worker. 
e success of the plan during the seventeen years that it has been in 
operation fully equals our expectations. From both students and members of 
il we have had very gratifying assurances of the happy results 
rts to bring the specialist in touch with those who appreciate 
•l»rtunity to avail themselves of hi> wider experience. 
is requested that all letters of inquiry to members of the Council be 
accompanied by a stamped and addressed envelope for use in replying. 

NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF MEMBERS OP THE ADVISORY COUNCIL 
UNITED STATES \\l» TEMUTOl 

lerriam, 1919 M W., Washing. 

Thornbcr. Tucton, Ari*. 

mncll. I'niveraity of California, BcrkcK 
Waller K ; alii 

\\ It Herjttold. 1159 Row 4o. 

Con x tent t r J II >.n:r, Portlaad < uno. 

I.r ( \\ RidOM 

a York t 
k w William*, Jr.. Tilihmw, Fl 
.cat Murphy, Auguata, G 

l.llyn. Ill 
kidgw.y. 1 .aal Mttteum. Waaaiagtoa. D 

\ \\ Butlci m%c. todianapoti*. Ind 

K Kr>r 10. Iowa, 

rraity of Kanaaa, Lawren* 

raoa. La. 
.»ciet> of Natural History, Portland 
• it* William Brew%tcr, CamlmilKr Maaa. 
H Bain 

nana. 5103 Morgan >ub, Mo. 

■vanity of Moataaa. Mistook. Moat 
I»r k II V .vanity of Krbrsaka, Uacole 

.ilogkal Sorvrx D I 

Hsuf-nin l>r 1. M Allen Boaton 



J - Lore 

St* | Northern. ,>m»n. A. 

^oulherB — Witmrr tural Science*. I'hiladehv 

■ 
Sg» R huher. Biologic* 

. 
Ou< ynda Jonca. obcrlir Mo. 

r, Biological Survey, I>ept. of Agr , \V»»hin»;- 
OftftGOH.— U I Milwaukee 

Prws 

kiiour Im Uttt I! B Hathaway I 

It I' M Roa, Camikrtoti Mawi, Charted 
Tax** M P \tt«.it.r . }|.. •.:»(■ .n. Inaa. 

ah. 

\ tttiHNT l'r..« (.HI jrlinicton 

I>r W I • 
Wam 

\ 

I! 1 V. hlwaukce I 

\ 

Mai iitv (. I I'ippie, Calgary. Aha. 

uial Muaeum. 
Manitoba. — Kroe»t Thompson Setoo, Greenwich, Conn. 
Nova SCOI rial Museum. Halit 

Mcminn, jo; Rusholmc Road 

OjfTABI' M. 

tjraar< I I» W mtlr, iKo St. Jar Montreal. Canada. 

\| ! I 
I \\ Nrlaon, Biological Survey. Dent, of Agr.. Wash 

Whl l \ I - i 
I B. Cory, Field Muaeum, Chicago. III. 

IT \l\ 
•*>u Rhinebetk, New York 



• r \wm 




23ook .Dctus anb CUbtetos 



n*ulting 
inaging 

>*«h iatr 



Editor. 

ibutors, 



HKXRY 

I win + j;j 
II, xi. -»ges; Vol. 



xvm f tag pajjr^. 




The** handsome, well made volumes 
uotain description* of thr njjanp not 
ind egg*, a statement of the range, and 
Inscription of the habit* of the birds of 
America north of Mexico. 
The description* of plumage and out- 
of distribution arc based upon 
tsndsrd 'Birds of North and 
America.' Specks not as yet treated 
that work are here described by R I 

The biographies, as the title-page 
indicate* , are from a variety of sot 
Some have been contributed by well 
known ornithologists of wide i 
ntain mu< h original matt 
•een compiled from various works, 
average three-fourth of a page in 
length, and. v. far a* these limits ]>■ 
usually present a pleasing and sarJati 

of the life history of the spedes. 

The absence of migration dates, however, 

detract* from their practical value for the 

add student A »imil*r omission is fond 

•Hod to nest » and eggs. 

»e volumes arc prof u*ely illu*t rated 

photograph* of birds from nature. 

from mounted •pecimens. and from draw- 

iags, both uncolored aad colored . 1 1 

fretted that in justice to the teas 

Sit ■ hotographer, the phot* 

;• of living birds an not clearly dis- 

ished from those of mouat 

i trae that pho t o grap hs of 

Museum, obvinnslv depict mounted \\t*(\ 



mens. It is equally obvious that photo- 
graphs by Allen. Finley. Bohlman. and 
Job, for example, portray wild bird*. 
But there are others, attributed to contrib- 
utors who are included in the book's 
'Advisory Board' under the head of 
ralsta 1 or Wild Life Photographer,' 
which are quite as obviously made from 
mounted birds placed amid more or leas 
appropriate surrounding* out-of-doors. 
The inclusion of these 'faked' pictures in a 
work of this nature i* unfair not only to 
the reader, but to every honest bird pho- 
tographer. 

The uncolored drawing* of birds by 
Brasher, Horsfall, and Thurston vary 
much in character. Some are excellent, 
while other* betray an evident unfamili 
n life with the »pedes figured, and 
few show that genius for bird portraiture 
which characterizes the work of Fuertes. 

The colored plates of birds are by the 
last named artist and were drawn by 
him to illustrate Katon* standard work 
on the 'Birds of which they 

originally appeared. We fail, howe 
find any statement to this erTett. and the 
tarcwffr-* of Mr. Fuertes' name on the 
page of the work with that of the 
artists who have made drawings for tab 
work leaves one to infer that his draw- 
ings, in spite of the reference on them to 
I Museum, also vara 
made U a matter of fact, we are 

informed that these drawings by Fuertes 
were Included in thi* work without his 
knowledge, aad that he has ia*i 
p rocee din gs against the publishers af 
the unauthorised use of his name -F M C. 



Hit Life and Times. By Fa ax a* 

two volumes. Ulustrsted D. Applets* * 

Co ido.,1017- fivo. Vol. 

► 45«P*«™.Vol II. xiu-r 404 pages. 

In these two notable v olum es Fro- 



Hern.k 
trained to the 



pursuit of 



that a 
orsiithological 



*J 



S4 



Bird -Lore 



biography may be employed to equal 
advantage in the study of ike biography 
of an ottiithoioffUt Hi* work b charac- 
terised by keen, patient, persistent, 
i borough acarrh for information bearing 
directly or indirectly on hi* theme, by 
breadth of knowledge, both ornithological 
aad historical, which gives him a dear 
perception of the significant c and relation* 
of fa. of eipre* 

don, aad by a sympathy with hi* itsbjncl 
which doe* not, however, handicap his 
judgment or predetermine hi* point of 

Add to thb equipment an evident 
mi ere* t in hi* task which has made it a 
labor of love, and it i* clear that the fruit 
of i hi* labor must be given high rank in 
ihc literature of biography. Tak 
connection with Audubon'* 'Journal*.' 
published by hi* granddaughter. Maria R 
Audubon 

Hern, k* »cbolarly memoir gives us as 
complete, adequate, and faithful a history 
of Audubon'* life a* we may ever expert 
to have 

Among the *urprising amount of new 
information concerning Audubon'* early 
life which Professor Herri, k has unearthed, 
the discovery of the place and date of- 
Audubon's birth of course stands pre- 
eminent 

Heretofore the evidence available has 
led to the generally accepted belief that 
Audubon was bora at Mandeville, La.. 
'•n May 5. 1780. Professor Herruk. how 
;>re*ent» data which prove that the 
great naturalist first saw the light . 
«S. 

From thb date to the day of hi* death. 
January 17. 1851, Profes* 
us a detailed hbtory of the remarkable 
life of thb remarkable and lovable man. 

Through it all run* tl n ,»( 

those trait* which are shown only by the 
man born with that int. 
bird* which gric* them at all times and in 
all places first claim to hb site- 
Whether as a schoolboy fa as a 

youthful farmer in Pear, as a 

merchant in Kentucky, or as a teacher 
of drawing in Cincinnati. Audubon'* 



inherent love of birds b con*tai 
svidenca. There were no fellow 
oiogbt*. no one to stimui outage 

him— indeed, hb omithologi. 

>. rr thr 1mmf.l1.1lr . .m*c ..( di*a«tcr in hi* 
irrtial venture* — nor had he 

hb stupendous undcrt.. • the 

germ was there, nothing • nl it* 

growth, and it una! him trium 

phant through sll the hardships and 

fiologkal exploration and 
the even greater trial* of on 
put 

■ very one the hi* tor 
life must possess the combined fascina 
ti..n ..1 ' l.i..Kf.-i|.h> and mm in ■ l.ut t-. th. 
ornithologist it b a thrilling demonstrs- 
tion of the impelling pov* 
an inborn I manual or 

»»k» of ornithology can 
him the lc**on which he m.. 

a* work, the lesson 
that, given s geniunc love of birds, he ha* 
stored within him a ; 
will enable him to <l 
the utmo*t limit 

The Ornithological Magazines 

. numlM • 
fond' 1 

general articles, several * * and 

and the indei of the volume 
The principal articles 
Birds of Molly I 
National Park." f-v M I' .nd a 

description specie* of 

lUypis Mdimgi, 

Molly Island is a small bland in the *outh 
eastern arm of Yellowstone Lake, jc 
off the usual touri*t route, and conseqi 
not often visited. 

about 700 White I md 1.000 

California Cull* which utilize the I 
s* • nesting- ground, and a few Caspian 
1 hi. h have been o b s er ved in spring 
but thus far not found actually breeding. 
Yellowstone Lake, while one of th. 
portant breeding -places of the White 
Pelican and California Gull, b not the 
most eastern nesting ground a* intimated. 






Book News and Reviews 






•os both species breed as far east as 

orth he bum Gr»- 

*;dtn (i toUmumi, Oberholser bat 
rpara* I eOowtbroat of the cen- 

al part of the Peninsula of Lower 
alifornia and has selected a specimen 
on San lenacio as the type of the new 

The »hort note* imludr t*<> lo m cdi «>f 
be breeding of the Sierra Junco at Berke 



during the winter of iqi6. aad other notes 
of interest. 

This number concludes Vol. 
which contains 198 pages and shows a 
reduction of >o per cent from the sine of 
the previous volume. Doubtless present 
high prices of paper and presswork are 
responsible for the decrease in the number 
of pages, but it b to be hoped that it will 
not be necessary again to reduce the 
volume below the limit attained a year 
or two ago.— T 







fWss grips by ft sad t> Musm* 
ograph of a Snowy Owl was taken in Saskatchewan dur> 

•ing that winter 1 must have seen nine 
1 nsora than I h en in a season before or since. 

the young rattle with two portable granaries to 
a detour it «>• possible to reach the long tattle bar 

and from the barn it was possible to 
one of these thai the photographs 
er one. stayed around the buildings and corrals two or three 
rt no. Manitoba 



Bird 



2*irb=TLore 

A m at— Hhly "I* 1 '*' 

1 uim Study and Pratwttoa •« 

MMUi ©••*■ ot t«» avsvsoa BO C i Xtr aS 

UM a* rRANK M. CHAPMAN 

rUto.MABKl. OSGOOD WRIGHT 
to a APPLKTON * CO. 



Vol. XX 



Lifts No. 1 



•■•<**• O* UaS3fSMa> «M Mto 



• r*»i 



A BW m rat Baa* /• HWta Taw « «• //-.a* 



it the appearance of this number. 
Biid Loss eaten upon it* twentieth 
year. During the two decades of its 
existence the organization for whi 
stands has b ecome a firmly established, 
powerful influence in the conservation of 
bird-life and in the dissemination of 
knowledge concerning the value of these 
winged protectors of our crops and "most 
eloquent expression of Nature's beauty, 
joy, and freedo: 

Adequate Uw* for the protection of 
birds have been passed and their enforce- 
ment assured. Scores of bird-refuges and 
nesting-grounds have been guarded by 
Audubon wardens and their once per- 
%erutcd inhabitant*, now certain of pro- 
tection, are returning to their own, and 
so increasing that those who come after 
us may be promised those sight* in the 
bird world of which an earlier generation 
has written How this p re ser vation of the 
most sttractive of Nature'* forms would 
have delighted the man for whom our 
Society b named and whose most recent 
biography i* reviewed in this number of 
Bnto-Lo> 

But first among the notable achieve- 
ments of the Audubon Association 
work in the schools. During the last 
tares years alone over half a million 
children have bean enroUsd In its Junior 
Clssses and have rec ei ved systematic 
instruction in the value and beauty of 
birds. The limit to which this profoundly 
important phase of the Association'* work 



may be developed is set only by the 
of the resources which may 
be devoted u> 

had nothing else to its credit re- 
awakening of the child's mind 
lifting influences of an a< 
birds, it would be emu 
of the support which the public has so 
Krnrrmidy a. ...rded it 
The clouds of war should not tx 

' to cast their shadow over this work. 

ear much we may be called upon 
the honor of our country and 
the freedom of ma; l hildren 

should not be deprived of even a 
tional part of thrtr heritage in nat 

young men from the 
Museum's Department of Birds and 
Mammals have answered 
Call to Colors. Anthony h a lieutenant 
of artillery; Boyle has been in I 
months, the first of the . 
there; Chapin, Emj> rn are 

lieutenants of infantry; and Leo Miller, 
a lieutenant of sviuti 

It ban honor- roll of whi xum 

may well be proud. All b these 

men have had more or leas, aevr 
exceptional, ex perience in soological ex- 
ploration, and we cannot but feel th 
spirit which led them cheerfully to accept 
the hardships and dangers I 

•1 in the pur* 
f cation as naturalbts has prompted 
eagerly to offer their service* in ti. 
to a higher dm hat it 

will enable them to meet the vital tests of 
endurance snd courage which await 
them 

Thts we do know, that their « 
in the field helped prepare the 
entrance examinations as well a* for the 
•ubscquent courses of study and tr 
through which they received their com- 



W e commend to Bird Clubs for discus- 
sion the possible relation between the 
unfsvorabb climatic conditions 
prevailed over so wide an area last 

• print and the existing warcity of winter 
l>ird*. 



Cfje Hububon g>otittit& 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Bated W ALIO HALL WALTXK 

Ailmi all coaaaakatioa* ralatfcw to the work of tab tout- 
Mat to tlM TAHof. 6j Oriuto A«nn, Providaac*. R I 

A NEW YEARS GREETING 

always morning somewhere, and at> 
The awakening continent*, from shore to shore 
■...•where the birds are sinning everm 

Hum iow 

A STEP FORWARD 

car iqi8 brings with it many new problems but an equal number of 
ities in the way of real progress. It has long been the wish of the School 
it that our State Audubon Societies might be more closely brought 
togetr idividually. each might share the benefit of a knowledge 

of what all coll' \ • promt, many valuable leaflets, bull- 

and h lications are being issued by State Audution Societies which do 

audience of which they are worthy 
odd not fail to be an added zeal in our Mate Audubon work if 
more intimate exchanges of reports and observations of bird-study were pos- 
r example, the recent bulletin- in magazine form, published by the 
Illinois Audubon Sodet) 1 lere is a wealth of carefully prepared, recent observa- 
tion* and lines of work carried on in the state, which would be valuable and 
most suggestive to any other State Audubon Society. These bulletin* 
certainly show a decide rward in the recognition of workable material 

and live observation Without attempting to review them, a brief outline of 
> -nects of bird-study with which they deal may suggest to other 
Societies an improved point of departure First, these bulletins are charm- 
ingly illustrated with pictures showing the discriminating photographer and 
nature-lover Second, certain broad fields of study are definitely approached. 
ring areas within the state which deserve particular notice either on account 
of their natural "beauties and advantages or their possibilities of reclamation 
ate pro. Thus The (hark Region of Illinois' » described 

historically in connection with its eco logi cal and ornithological significance, 
as one of several tracts, which should be put "under the public care at a time 
purchase would incur but little expense," and the Illinois Audubon 
Society b particularly named as the proper sponsor of a mo ve m ent to pre 
this tract a» "a refuge for wild life and as a source of pWtwirr to coning 
generations," Similarl u:!e dealing with farm and orchard tur 



Bird - Lore 

- srea^ comparison of netting records, the invasion of new areas, and 
town or city bird censuses maps out definite work to be profitably dot 
home surroundings, whether rural or urban. 

The adventures of a party of Boy Scouts on a trip of discovery down 
the work of teachers of zoology ami mr 
>■». and of museums and individual observers vho kau 
mlmr to report are given space in a most helpful way. The und< 
of the Illinois Audubon Soric 

national matter* of moment are brought 
of the reader. It b well worth while to publish such parts of 
and federal game laws as should be made familiar to everyone 
adult or child, and it is cqua ollale a 

especially applicable to the study of birds in the home state of an 
Society as is done in these bulletins. The editorials also, ar 
practical, and art* writ itlv to aid the farmer as well as the teacher 

or scholar. Check-lists of Illinois birds, arranged accor 

lurative local seasonal lists, place within the reach of e\ luU>n 

' v meml.rr information which otherwise might be unattainable by reason 
of expense or lack of acquaintance with the nature-books in libraries or a 
working lists of reliable ornithologists. Altogether, the appearance of 
bulletins is most hopeful for a broader, and far more practical and coordinated 
grasp of I in relation to AuduUin Society ends and aims. 

DM the School Department will bring to the 
readers publications of this nature, and, in doing so, invito 
of State Societies in sending copies of such publican- 
success of nature study undoubtedly depends much U| 
State Audubon Societies and their friends with that of teachers and pupils. 
Again, the emphasis must be laid upon unity, not < 

\ II \\ 

JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 
Exercise XXXVII: Correlated with Physiology and Spelling 

THE BIRDS STORE OF ENERGY 

In commenced a series of sini] 

1 was discus s ed , some of the roost striking features of itssk< 
lightness, co mp actness, and stability were noted, and the adaptation of the 
beak and tail and the development and use of feathers werebr 
All of the>e parts of a ire arc important in i' 

food, and nest -building, but they are not the pi 



The Audubon Societies 

a i know that, of all living creatures, birds have the greatest amount 

Mrgy and are n ess in their activities. The secret <>f thi* fund of 

irer must be sought in the organs of digestion and circulat 

appose that a much larger I Id be needed to generate as 

much energy as a bird needs, and that a framework of elephantine size, for 

•>uk) be productive of far greater speed in flight and endurance in 

'•inns, or continuous exertion. That this is not only not the case, but h 

quite unnecessary and even impracticable, Nature has demonstrated during 

we have now at hand so many of her former experiments in 

•»g monsters for comparison, that we can safely be assured 

that the modern bird, endowed with flight, has been developed along the most 

e and economical lines, to take its part in the world-complex of living 

Just how this has been brought about, the study of comparative anatomy 

t, some of the peculiarities of the bird's structure would lie 

an insoluble puzzle. In this exercise, therefore, let us search for some of the 

reasons why a bird b able to produce and keep up so great an amount of raotor- 

rwer, or energy, observing that this energy is most strikingly expressed in the 

-m of motion ami heat in the case of a bird. When one calls to mind a Hum- 

•otsing on wings which vibrate so rapidly that they cannot be 

b certain that there must be a remarkably perfect mechanism 

trtsmitting the energy which sustains such rapid, and long-continued 

real wheels chained to roaring waterfalls and belted to smaller 

wheels, which in turn move giant gangway saws or huge millstones, scan 

produce an amount of power which will cause more rapid motion. 

Again, if one considers a bird like the Penguin, which nests in Ant.r 
regions, incubating its single egg and rearing its nestling young successfully 
aid than a particularly warm blanket of fat which keeps in the 
heat of its body so that it does not succumb to the cold and freeze, it is clear 
that the eneny necessary to keep up and conserve this IhmIv heat must be prac- 
tically never 

nperature of our own bodies as ordinarily taken by placing a tenv 
perature-bulb under the tongue, is normally 98.6 F. On the surface of the 
the temperature varies around 00* F., while inside the body, in the 
<scs aa Ugh as 107' I 

'b normally maintain a temperature of over too - F, in general to - to 

•igher than our own, which b an indication of the rapid rate at which they 

b useful to remember that no other living organisms have so 

tcmperai w the question arises W-.v produces this 

wonderful amount of motion and heat, and having once produced it. what keeps 

kindled, »»ut it soon dies down unless 

In a similar manner, as fuel must be constantly supplied to keep 

up a fire, so fuel in the form of food must be supplied to keep up the energy 



h.rd- Lore 

to maintain the heat of the body or Any of iu activities such M 
motion, locomotion, or. in man. an activity like the power of thinking. 

Food, then, is the real source of the bird's unsurpassed energy, u 
»equently, the food-habit* of birds form one of the most important and 
structivc chapters in their life-history. In this exercise there b not spa 
devote to the kinds of food birds eat . r object now is to gain some idea 

of bow food b transmit I sufficient amount of energy to maintai 

■ aitivitio of birds. It b evident that whatever the process of taking 
in and digesting food is. it must be governed by certain regulations. 
me of these regulations in the case of birds are: 

i Capacity for a rapid, large, and frequent intake of food. 
Capacity for rapid and thorough digestion*. 
Ca| rapid elimination of all waste material. 

All of the powerful apparatus necessary to keep up the I 
must, moreover, conform to the requirements of its genera 
we have recalled, are lightness, compactness, and subilii . ords, 

the bM must at one and the same time keep up a maximum of food-producing 
energy with a minimum of apparatus. It b a wonderful probl* 
in some of Na at perfect ways. 

Watching a bird eat, perhaps the most surprising thing is the amount it 
eats and the rapidity with which it eats Although a bird may occasionally 
get choked or have a pain from such hasty and unlin. prob- 

able that its digestion b so carefully regulated that few upsets of 1 1 
Nature has provided birds with two very effective contrivances to take care of 
the large amounts of quickly gulped food, namely a crop and a gizzard 
crop, you may recall, b between the mouth and the stomach, a s- 
reservoir where food can be stored until the stomach b ready to take charge of 
•w a bird's stomach is made up of two jurt-. a pmvmtrUuIus or glandular 
stomach, resembling the human stomach, with gastric juices to aid in breaking 
up particles of food, and a gizzard or grinding-mill, as it might be dest r 
from it> thick walls and content of stones, swallowed by the bird for the a 
purpose of grinding its food. Following the digestive apparatus on farther 
through iu tortuous windings, we discover that as soon as all of the use- 
ful parts of the food-materials in the stomach have been broken up and 
passed on into the blood to be circulated throughout the body me or 

non-usable parts, are rapidly pushed along out of the food-tube to make room 
for a fresh supply. This well nigh perfect system of digestion insures t 
bird the ability to produce, by means of an unusually large an 
the immen s e motor-power which it requires for iu daily activities. Cou. 
examine in detail this digestive outfit, we should understand far more clearly 
the value of birds as the friends of man and the guardians of foresu and fields. 
At the same time, we should be more than ever impressed with 
ability to perfect a plan in a special manner for a particular purpose. Although 



The Audubon Societies 61 

o long and complicated a story for us, as yet, to follow through, we can 
lean. idy more and more into the subject of the bird > 

structure 

•ve come to thr circulatory system of the bird, which goes hand in 
hand with its digestive system, the same economy of apparatus is found, 
vrithout los 1 0/ thoroughness. In birds, the blood is kept pure and moving rapidly, 
he relatively huge flight muscle- cssary to have 

constant I> on hand fresh, air purified blood in sufficient quantity to aid in pro- 
ng the energy which must be ceaselessly transmitted into heat and motion 

ould look at the heart of a fish and the heart of a reptile and the 
heart of a bird, with all the arteries, veins, and tiny tubes called capillaries 
that 1 : would have one of Nature's interesting stories before 

something to look forward to as you study more, and though it b in 
place* difficult to discover all the reason* fat the ditlerent way* in which the 
blood of tishe- iml birds circulates, there is always a reason and it can 

be found out by careful study. 

mphasize now is the practical working of the bird's internal 
mach 1, asalrea<l\ said, this tenter* around food. With the bird, it is 

always food and more food. In fact, food is the mainspring of all life, and this 
we are coming to realize in these days of stress and war, as never before in this 
food-relations of different races and classes of men could be 
equally a eobable that the major woes of mankind would dis- 

appear, for the demand for food and for more food is constantly upper- 
most in our daily life, with the increase and spread of popu wrds have 
■ >blcm quite like our own to face, which should lend interest and 
•athy to our study of and relations with them. It is a modern phi l osophe r 
who says: "The haps and mishaps of the hungry make up natural history." 
In this year of 1918 we are all called upon to conserve and to produce more 
food than ever before. The birds can help us if we will help them. One way 
question of the food-relations of birds and man is to classify 
■ inds of fowl and food-habits -first, of birds and, second, of man 
mple scheme with reference to birds, as follows, may be suggestive to you, 
■ similar scheme for man: 

I 
Fish-eating birds. 
Vegetarian birds. Wend ■ — d. fruit, grass sad trader weeds. 

h eat more than one kind of food. 
Birds which vary their food during the different seasons of the your. 
' :. cut carrion or arc of scavenger habit 

« hkh feed in flocks and runsons for the kinds of dassnge they snajr wo 

wiumflv Mo t.. •rope. 



61 Bird -Lore 



>rd» which distribute seeds u*e(ul to nun. harmful U> 
to. Bird* e» guan^ producer* Actual money value to man 
Birds s» guardian* of forest*; a* pruner* of vegetation 
Hirtl* in relation to destructive intect pe*l». funif..u» j» 

Birds **d Tkrir Pro: Ma**** 

f Mam. by Weed aad Dearborn, and bulletin* of the I'nited State* heparin 
Agriculture oa Kconomk Ornithology. 

II 

Kinds of food of different races of men. 
'ifttribatioa of staple articles of food, such as whea 
< aac, vegetables, fruit*, rice and other cereal*, coffee, tea. cacao. 0x04**1. date*. f>K*,fi*h. 
aad *heD fbh. 

upply of milk 1 ream, fats, and meat aad aeceasity for aay or all of these. 
kind* of food are most indispensable to 

kind* properly cooked and property eaten will nergy? 

h kinds are produced in the greatest abundan 
Which kinds are used by the greatest number of pe- 
I hich kinds of food preferred by man do birds eat? 
0. Which kinds used by man do birds prat. 
1 a Which kind* are capable of being improved? How? 
A hich kinds caa be grown in a home-garden ' Which 
cultivated areas? 

Mow caa man beat help birds so that they in turn 1 

See 0#» Zotui **4 Uf*~Z*m •flhe V*iud Slain, by I 
9. 1808, U. S. Department of Agricult >f Luther Rurl 

it Harold Baynev- \ II \\ 



FOR AND FROM ADULT AND YOUNG 
OBSERVERS 

SOME HIGH-SCHOOL METHODS OF BIRD-STUDY 

In response to inquiries concerning our work, I wish to inforn 
we are doing here in the way of interesting the students in birdi and 
study. 

ring the first two weeks in February I showed a set of Is 
our nrst-year classes and encouraged them to form a Junior Auduh 
The slides showed types of winter birds and methods of attracting 
my talk I emphasized the economic importance of birds. 

>ce that time, under the direction of Miss Amy K Hale, about 1 
students have formed a society. They are to send their names t) 

This past week, through the direction of the South ( 
Gun Gub and the State Bird Commission, thirty-five students have dis- 
tributed 300 pounds of scratch-feed and the Boy Scouts each carried a bag 
of grain when they started on their hike. The newspapers have rq. 






The Audubon Societies 






, and some wMcvmif a; • ctn given lo interesting thr }»eop,r in rind 

Mim Hale in her i >ry Science Classes has planned extra work fur 

ug and keeping records of birds and bird migrations. Several 

records of this kind. I hope that the stories and records of this 

•»g to you later.— Israh K ^ H n ipal, 

1 



D CONSERVATION IN CEMETERIES AND PARKS 

ers generally are beginning to realize what wonderful opportunities 
I conservation are to be found in our city cemeteries and, poasit> 
the vagrant cat problem is not too much 

neglected. Philadelphia, with the 
largest natural park in the world. 
has just decided to utilize the 
wonderful resource- using 

the hinl-litValxiut the 1 1 1 > . I 
necessary consideration with all 
the added vegetable - gardens 
under cultivation this year. In 
ides are necessary' and h< lp 
tul. but the best insect-de- 
ers of all do n- 

or packages, but in nests snd bird 
bom 

k-r the encouragement of 
Mrs. \\ I nomas, a Its- 

dent of birds and insect life. tin 
children in thr I riends* Schools 
Ol Philadelphia and (iermantown 

have this past spring made a 
numl>er of lilueliird and V 
boxes, and, with the cooperation 
q| the Park <\.ninii*Mon. forty of 
these boxes have already 
erected in Fairmount Park, about 
Chatoounu, and on the upper 
part of Lincoln Dltvi More 
■r. Feeding-station* for winter care of the birds will 
it up. and bird-pstrob among the schoolchildren will look I 

hern 

MMstrntK l.vrloprd. «hould »ucceed in increasing 







ort 

ami ili' 
work and could well be made part of the regular » urn. ulu: chools. 

hild interested means one leas unconscious dest 
ami one more active helper in Its <onscrvati< 

| To ibex prat ii< a I *uaaeMi< boot Department tan ad<l 

approbation. Concrete work with a itjkntU rnd in riVir will 
' han any other one thin. 

tonal A»» 

i« \ M \\ 

A WORD OF APPRECIATION AND A TESTIMONY TO THE 
VALUE OF BIRD-STUDY 

I gel i: 
ami i uagazines. bill Hiki> I u always 

papa I itartcd getting it Novemba December, 1914 I enjoj rending it 
thmugh again and again. I wouldn't stop getting 

pastime in bird-study. 1 am j ir^ old but ha 

mostly in Ham|Mlen. 104 ipecies of wild birds. 
Snov -real libit H 

All of these were set 

and J unco are already here from the Smth. and to-da 
and a three-room Swallow house and a two-room and a 
house. I already had out several houses and 
I put out a cement hird-liath. 

I will Ik- mighty glad wi I 

Lami, Hampden. 

■ plcaaant to know that I 
tomparcd with »urh admirable publ 

«trobK appeal whit h lab magazine nukr- .im-.I aim 

aitual observation o( living birds. In n< thrrr a wider oppt.r 

come* to mind of the vain purpose* < 

It ban! \ II 

A RURAL JUNIOR AUDUBON SOCIETY 

As the teacher of J unit >r bird Class ;>.;. Hodaot I would I 

you a little of our 1 

During the year we held twi 
was eight. May 6 we had an exhibit ion in the prim.i 

» was attended by intereated friends, who examined carefully it 
the child? ection of forty mt> ■ 

oldest member gave m the Audttb beautifull) 

memU-r had a most interesting collection of feathers, ea< h mounted on a 



The Audubon Societies 65 

longed, while another showed a 
aflets made a greal 
display and repn>< of work. A short program, given by 

tested of original papers, poem- mi auth >■ 

walk wcobscr • species, 1 the 

tmlicrs keep weekly I 
\ species. The samba es observed by the 

-ias been a great surprise that the papfli could so • 
md hear luch a large numU-r of species. 

r saw a J -inii material in in i.i 

i season I saw and heanl th< mplc trill A pair of White 

csted near mv home and brought their ' 

nons in the School I tepartment are greatly enjo lass. 

I now learning the- one >csof ne> ear's work 

• t he st» 
tin- children ovei each new species, 
a in t he class as a wh« cm hers are look in. 

of work tog< • kGNES M ' iss. 

<»• Daily Item the following i!r». - the reasons i- 

■ r with thr teacher'* 

Bstlact v»i 

--d and spontaneous out 1." lass in whi. interest 

in nature had been avakcned.it distinctly unusual and wholly to Ik- coouaoaded Second, 

* nib* t too beid in th- - room in the ihurih to whk I tad friends" 

re vork of ikt tk in e (ample of pain* 

helpful and rewarding I and pupil alike 

■ bird- walk* with imliv nlual li»U not only taken and keo 
torn » it, -I in the class, i» brou. and comradeship of (hi* Junior 

hon Society, and the deaire of mat. to continu< 

1 natural out ronw of sjraipatl ma and willing v II \N ; 

THE CHICKADEE 

ird singing up in the tree, 
kadee— 1- 

I le wears a black cap and has a black throat, 

•u hear his clear n< 
-till \rrs iow. 

And he keeps hopping n the rain or the snow. 

H : warm or if cold; 

comes near the house, hut i» not very bold. 

II treat him ju*t ri|jht. 

ar your nous. | 'till mi; 

— By a saiarim of the Hudson Jur 

Bsata MoCvixocm \ m )>raii 



i- I ore 

AN OBSERVATION A 1 I HAND 

1 am * ell you about a bird I have seen. One night afta 

was playing in the yard and a Cedar VYaxwing ft pound by a stone. 

I thought it teemed very tame and so 1 tried to see how dose I could corn- 
More it flew. So I went uj 1 1 did not seem afraid, so I 

lid not struggle. I carried it into the old wash-house in a basket 
and fed it on seeds. It got so it flew all around and then I carried it across the 
road and let it go and it flew away.— Leonice Hill, AskvtiU. 

< rbaps this bird tu exhausted from a »lorm, or wu not wel 
be ill. or it may have bees a young bird, strayed from its mate* n wings ait 

accustomed to go in flock*, usually small but sometimes, as baa been lately repor 
numbers a» Urge as twenty five or thirty or more \ M 

AN EXKKCISK IN BIRD-STUDY 

In the paper there was a notice to feed the hinl- I : < < are a great n. 
birds in your woods, and when you go to the cam) lid feed all \\ 

birds. You ought to read the m tnd do the same ash 

a I go out there we will take a walk in the woods and see I 
snow is very deep out there, and the birds can't find anything to i 

and tell you about our bard-dub sometime. -1 
hampton, Mass. 

• r who sent t hi* article, simply asked her dans to » 
iftcr reading the scene in "Frttklet' 
"In addition to the club in my own school. I have been 

schools of the town. As an experiment, we took only grades 5 to 7 and have 
tea dubs rintendent has furnished a substitute for my room, and I 

done it without extra pay, for the eiperience. I hope sometime to get into thi 
altogether." Again, a teacher who is full of enthusiasm and a desire to make 1 
not only successful, but general in the middle grades, shows bow pov 
tab study on a practical and. at the same time, pedagogical ba 
desi r ed that more ex p erienc ed teachers can go into the work of organising bv 
\ II W.| 

MAKING BIRD-BOXES 

tig to make a bird-box for the birds. When the cold weatlv 
t hey like to have a house to go in ; r room we have made forty-one 

>- \. Mam hoys and girls have made one, and they ha\ .-one 

bird-boxes. In our room some of the boys and girls have joine.! 
Edith Strigkl, Lawndak, Pa. 

(Tl rookie of work accomplished suggests the question of how m 

birds seek bird-boxes aa places of shelter during the time ■ 
Who can answer tab question from personal observation?— A H. W] 






The Audubon Societiek 



A SOUTHERN CHRISTMAS CENSUS 



67 



' ! -sisters who Are living in G eorg ia now with our papa 
and mama. 

were horn in KnoxvilU. Trim . on Chestnut Hill, where there are a great 

many birti>. an.l Aunt M W who loves birds, taught us 

names. When I was two and a half years old I n.uld name lrds. 

came from Tennessee to sper nas with 

ig we took little sister B and walked through Inman 

Park where there are a great many evergreen trees called water oaks. We were 
Is for our Christmas Census. We saw: 1 2 Blue Jays, 6 Townees. 
Is, 2 Mockingbirds, 2$ in all. We heard a Flicker and a Carolina 
we heard a Bewick Wren. 
The weather is so warm that we have the windows open.— A \\< Man- 
age 5 years), Hi m k wkin King (age 2 years), Atlanta, Go. 
(This census is dated December 25, 1916, and being published a year later, as it is. 
compa riso n* with this year's weather, which is unusually severe up to the time of writ- 
veil as with the occurrence of winter birds this season, will be help 
these little girls learned to name twelve birds before she was 
ears old suggests the appeal of birds to very small children. A boy friend, James 
gniae manv birds from a picture-book almost as soon as he'could 




A SNAPSHOT OF A GRAY SCREECH OWL 

contribt rrd Boul< 

in Beavi V snapshot of a gray Screech Owl that win- 

r orchard. Its mate was rufous A 1 n raised a brood of six 

young ones in the same hole thi> sca-.n ' 

'■is observation of doable tenantry during a 1— inn might often be dupli* 1 
iot Audubon me mb ra were oa the lookout drniimg *ii «mj*o> 






66 J - Lore 

i» alway* an inlerratiag a» well a* useful neu - 
•bould land superstitious people to think it (orbode* troubi 
i«namon. >lk handed dow • 

VACATION OBSERVATIONS 

■ summrr I sj K -nt par II 

'norning when I was out on the lake I nw n 
us. Thai afternoon as I w;i 

saw two Bald-headed Eagles resting on the limbs of a dead -< • W • 
close to them that we could ea* I 

was told b the reason for calling them bald-headed. A liti ig we 

paased near two Loon.- them was vei 

under water. \% hu h is their COSton when danger approaches. 

r day we went across the la \ I the Lib! 

which contains specimens of all the birds, mammals, reptiles, •• 
inhabit the surrounding country. I recall pa i 
of the wild Dudn and Pheasants, also those of tin 
If an r readers should visit that part 

:i at Luftetibmugh. It is worth while J 
(age i j years. Gra-I< \III Ifrffam 

the Mrthurn Junior Audubor. 
ol the organ i/rr i.f the Society whi«h ao nmpanied these observ 
■ ml enthu I am anxious 

thirty members of our flourishing I read Riv 

BOM acquainted with the I >epe*auk< 

It 4 Id headed Kaxle at ■!! bring back deli|(htful n 

on red-letter day* \ II \\ 

JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK AND THE EN(,I I ARROW 



ami adults but year. There were a! 

enccs with the birds, using lantern-slides to QlusU lib hai bi 

up now although I don't know the reas. 

1 listed in different species of birds last year and ha is year so 

good place to look for birds, as < > 
a half from Barmore Lake, and OB the banks ot 
i \isit these waters \ Wood Duck has nc 
k, 2 miles out from town. 
As re and write I have to Up the window 

the Knglish Sparrows from eating the food that I ha\ 
birds. I have had Robins, Chipping - 



The Audubon Societies 



69 



000. I am eleven yean ol< 

i»h Sparrow at winter feed 
\ II. \V 




c Juni 



Bellefoataiae, Ohio, dec- 



BIRDS ON A STATUE 

mhbc birds acroM • « 

at the tovad of coming feet. 

on! ihr i< «m»trr'» proffered Brain 
u'h lur> 



what * lr*vr%ty on c'« 
Th»t even ' 

ndeed be (tab »ad bone. 
Or. harmlrw broaxe, or rold protecting »toi 



Clje Hubutjon J>ociettea 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

■111 WT.OIUItT PftAJtSON. tocroSary 



srwtns 



doses, sod md »11 roashuacos for dw aad 



• <• u< AiKfaboa S o ci al ios. 1974 Brasd-sjr. 



• • • ' u! -■r.» !■ 



tam A iMMkiMbii " •'*•' »i PtAaaoe. J a t ro J ar j 

Timwu ft. f* > »*-r*t,t4nU J .1 «t«4» Dwick 

&UIOU. T. Casts*. Ja.. Ammrmty 

in tjrsspatky whs tbr abject* of thU .Wocistioo assy h(OM 

atssoal AasodaUoa ol Aadeboa SodoUos for Um Protortioa of WW 



Any pe rs on. cl»b. school or eossi 

•MM 

a ot M«ssbrr«aJp •• the N 

• udAMaokt 

woolly my* for • 
SOiS St OS* USSO 




Pool or Beqtkst — I 00 aoroby jrivo tad bsqoostb to Um NatJooal A.torUtioo of Audaboa 
fetJas for UwVrotoctioo of WOd Biroa tad AaJssaU (lacorporsud). of tb. - York. 



A WARNING' 



There i» great danger that, in the face 
<>f the numerous calls on the time and 
meant ol the people of this count 
help fight the battle of rivilizatir 
necessity of conserving our wild bird- 
and animal-life may. in a measure, be 
lost eight of. In (set. there sre many 
signs that thai tendency has already 
developed. Numerous bird clubs and other 
organisations of a similar character have 
recently reported the suspension of 

rctly natural that many good, 
patriotic people who have there) 
warmly supported bird j. - {fort* 

should now fed that all their available 
resource* must be given to the defease 
of their country and to the alleviation of 
human »ufl 

Rut if the friends of bird protection are 
to some est cut temporarily suspending 
their interest in the cause, it b most 
>ly true that the enemies of wild 
life sre \ery much alive, end the time 
has come when those of us more s< - 
engaged in wild life conservation should 
set the danger signals flying from 
hill. Never since this Association began 
eanised work, thirteen years ago in 
January have there been so many Indira 



tiuns <>i OOasCMted aflorl to l>rcak il"»n 
bird* and name-restrictive measures as 
right now. 

let me cite a few ex maples: Gunners 
In several of the east' re of Maav 

schusaetts have combined, at. 
assists nee of certain official* in 
ington whose names need not 
hsvc begun a dangerous move to throw 
open the spring shooting of » 
that similar efforts 

are being nude by the coestwise gunners 
w Jersey. The vci nee of 

Klamath Lake and Malheur Lake as 
Federal bird reservation* is today hang- 
ins; in the balance. These contain the 
most important breeding colonies of 
Ducks and Geese in the northwestern part 
sited States. 

Down in the mountains of nor: 
Mexico is one of the largest breed- 
ing territories of Ducks in the Southwest. 
For weeks this office and the I 
tective Association of New Mexico have 
bees exerting the utmost efforts to pre 
vent this breeding area, known as 
ing Lake, from being leased to s company 
of eastern gunners for exploitation. 

The most important inland w 
inn place I 



(TO) 



The Audubon Societies 



7i 



I Ukc thr Federal reeerva- 
la wure Arkansas As thu b being 
ttrn. a communication Ue» before me 
that, backed by commercial 
would seem that every man. 
woman, and child in all the country »ur 
rounding this great lake has re. 
signed a pel ng that, at least for 

the duration of the war, all prohibition of 
■booting be suspended, to that Ducks may 
bare be killed for food From Virginia coma 
reports of efforts being made to suspend 
the law so aa to permit the netting of 
wild water- fowl. 

n we consider the enormity of the 
food problems whn h may confront thai 
country, the danger that lies behind these 
cunningly conceived moves is very appar- 

1 Treaty Bill passed 
es Senate on July 30, but 
thus far it has been absolutely impossible 
to induce Congressman Flood, Chairman 
ons Committee of the 
Senate, to report the bill for senatorial 
action If this is not done at the p resen t 
session of Congress, all the efforts which 
the hi tors have made the past 

cars to get this treaty measure eon- 
elude • me to nsught. There is 

every indication that tremendous pres- 
sure has bees brought to bear on the 
Foreign Relations Comn 



What are the friends of the birds going 
to do in this country? The time has come 
when the situation should squarely be 
faced. Are we going to say that we have 
no more time and money to give to help 
preserve the birds that make it poss i b le 
to grow the crops of the land and to 
ptaeorvti our diminishing supply of wild 
game birds? Are we going to say that 
the birds must shift for th ems elv e s until 
the —amy is conquered? In other words. 
are we going to abandon the work of s 
generation because of anxiety regarding- 
conditions serosa the sea? 

Where can we get more valuable w< 
to help win the war than we have it 
groves and fields? The wild birds ask for 
nothing more than to be let alone 
Association, in common with other organi 
cations and individuals, has for years 
been standing as best it could between 
our Wild Life and the greed of mankind, 
and it would be an everlasting calamity 
if the work of all these years should be 
wiped out or nullified to a horrible extent 
for the lack of earnest volunteer workers, 
or a few thousand dollars with wh> 
fight the battles for the birds, and yet 
bapoasshfl 

There never has been a time when the 
in ends of conservstion should more 
loyally support the efforts for bird 
rction thsn to.! 



COR' ACH CONSERVATION OF WILD LIFE 

By a A. QUAKLEa. Dlrswtse 
Oas»ns»tai ut <msm *i*«4ia<. Aawttcaa Gasss PfoSscavt A— r u in .* 



recent announcement by Cornell 
of the estsblishment of a 
rosive instruction in the con- 
on of wild life t* ■■ t oil news. 

r will 

that will be 
at the Long- and Shor 



n w>IJ life . <>n»er\ation 


ong term Course Is rlesiffwed for 


10 wish to make a life-work of 


tlon. and it is rt saiga ad especially 


raining of men snd women who 



I to engage in the many forma of 

«nd executive work that the cotv 

.00 movement has already developed. 

• u. h as. for instance state secretaryships 

dubon Societies, game prot 
ablation., birdie, lure work rt. I rm 
course will require four yean' work for 
completion snd will lead to the degree of 
Bachelor of Science. The usual Cornell 
.nee examinations will be required of 
those seeking to tak 
The Sh 






Bird 



entrant r rumination* arc not required, 
fa designed m ularly for the 

! note who »i» 
lion In tbr principles of game breeding and 
preserving, with the idea of titling them- 
selves for the ponitkm of gamekeeper 

I hoae who wish to take up the bread- 
ing of game a* a commercial pu • 

and laboratory work in t hi* 
course »ill Ik- given from Februai 
to May ii. and the entire work of the 
course will be tomi 
the interval between the end of the It 
and the doting of tl • ring »pent 

onagame-breetl HMBt farm whith 

has just been eatabifahed at Cornell under 
authority of an art paw 

Legislature at it* last regular Marion. 
the benefit of many who will be 
ling up to 
unique action, the foil 
lirief I 

•r of the Dcpartn 
OmitfcoJof tional A* 

Audubon Socfatiea, fa due the < ratfil for 
tir»t putting in operation the teaching of 
wildlife . onaervatioa in an 

earning. Thi* work was 
in the tonne. Mural 

<»rrs. 
Later. Charlt 
s \ .1 tr ■.<!. . of f ornell ' 
suggested informally that the instai 
of a game- breeding experiment farm at 

■ aim 
in in. rea«mg the game-supply of th« 

vever , 
■ig about action on the *ugg- 
Three yean ago, tboae in charge of the 
hepartment of (.an % and Pre 

g of the American Game I 
Association found that the movement to 
supplement the • wild game by 

produc i ng it under intensive met!. 

u heai ily handicapped through 
the lack of n rnced in game 

broadlag and scientific game -preserv- 
ing. Men qualified for such work are 
usually termed gamekeepers. The 
principal source of supply for* sac h a 

• real Britain, hut that country MM 



men to meet the demand. 

movement so promising I 
ment of ■• 
\ merit an < 

boat finding a 
problem 

It took little reasoning to suggest that 
the utilization eilent 

schools of poultry husban- 
best and 

School was fixed upon as 
splendid prom> I thorouv 

vestigation 

ndl had l 
and so an opening wedge was used in the 
offer, two years ago, to g 
the t> 
the I>epartmci.' indry 

invito .1 second n.l a 

series f>g tht 

following sessi' 
These le- I 

by more than i .500 persons. The le - 

Rogers. an<! I \ 

following, during k at 

II. when r 
ntire t'nr 

Th« 
movement - ceding 

experiment farm at 

ing $15,000 to purchase the farm * 
troduced and. I*acked b 

aal Aasot 1 

k'h its *ei 1 
and the 
Association, it was pas*. 

>proval of ' man 

The farm ha* been » 
title await* the •rney- 

general It 

distai raafl and p oss es s ci unusual 

advantages for the purpose for whi< 
employe.' 






The Audubon Societies 






laid out a 

rnell auth 

Among thotc who will take an i 

Mentioned 
.arson. II 



II I orli ! ■ • 

- on birds; Louis Agassis 
•>thci> 
and pmcrvinK will !>• 



U 
Kurnham. Quarlc*. sad ot m the 

M h men a* 

Midi, who** work in 

MOaNftV ornithology i* «-• »rll known. 

■ 
biolofi md other*. 

lay wrll look u|>on the 
itropoacd as one of the mmt imtior- 
tant that has yet been n 

■n with the national movement to 



BIRD LECTURES 






I t he Association's 

tnent of Applied Ornithology, 

ote par winter 

topics of • fc and on 

- of attracting and 

; wild bird* and game \ 

Dae who ilr-;' I he t 



are ill th motion 

■ 

utcra-slide* All fee* 

•ort of the work 

of thi* Am >u>ped that 

these lectures will Ik- in great demand by 

our fricml- r mat ion m 

•in. 



KKPORTS OF AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS 

Audubon Society of Sewickley Valley Pa b in thi^ valley have 

multiplied *ime the organization of this S»* \pril iS, 1914, 

e home d art, and we feel that a goodly percentage 

increase is due to I 

*f«»r the past year in< I u-at- 

inu the children through propaganda ««» r k i»> 1Kb icfcooh; lactmti U* all aga*; 

Lher the members «»f two Au<l 
at a large annual dinner, ami legislative work fur th- «»n of 

<• work among the acta P has reav 

classes, at springtin >ade aeveral excursions with their leaden 

-iclda and woods. Is is also include. <hool 

m, and a practical turn 1 uaking of 

houses, of ml 't hy one *«h««.i 

\ 

'Neighbors.' was of especial 1 at her 

oxe* were so simple that an unskilled child could make them. 

. was again » tih us this spring, and gave 



74 Hird-Lort 

a lecture on 'Bird Friends' and several informal talks illustrated with stuffed 
bird specimens, He also conducted several outings, 

One of the most enjoyable affairs of the year was the second annual mc« 
of the Western Pennsylvania Audubon Society and the Audubon Sock 
Sewkkley Valley, at a dinner in the For' 

several hundred members were present Several notable speakers addressed 
the gathering, includin tock, who illustrated his address 

with his wonderful moving pictures of birds. A new committee has been 
appointed to erect bird-houses and winter feeding-stations along the miles of 

< -path through woodland and field. 
\ very interesting article, taken from the Ladies' Home Journal Des- 

iveness of Cats on Bird Life,' was published by this Societ local 

weekly paper. The Audubon posters for the encouragement of bird 
war gardens have been displayed in the shop windows of the neighborhood. 

society joined in the general protest to Congress in defense of ra tory 

Bird Treaty Act, and many assurances of support were recti - : \ bfll before 
the Legislature at Harrisburg was so amended, on protest by this Society, that 
full protection to the Herons in this State is now assured. The Six 
numbers 235 members and feels that it has had a very successful year.— (Mrs.) 
\l 1 

Audubon Society of the Pacific.— This Society was organized Januar 
Though the active members number only 80, and the war has called some 
away, the organization has already earned recognition by scientific orga 
tjons and several departments of our state and Federal govemnv 

The need had long been felt for a sustained supervision over a wider area of 
the Pacific Coast than had as yet been attained by any local and already-existing 
State Audubon Society. The organization of the Audubon Association < 
Pacific was for the purpose of meeting this necessity. The organization was 
hardly completed before many and important tasks were clamoring for 1 
tion. In the first few weeks of its existence the Association was instrumental 
in securing the defeat of the notorious 'Flicker Bill' in Legish acra- 

mento. This was an attempt by pseudo-sportsmen to put some usef 1 
orous and song-birds on the roll of their hapless victims, the game-bird*. 
preservation of certain harmless Hawks, Owls, and Kingfishers, which had 
heretofore been included among the dev species to bird and fisl 

in the Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, was taken up with | 
of the Park and met with a cordial and ready approval. The passage of rJhc 
Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act was urged upon representatives from the 
seven California counties at present included in the membership of the Associa- 
tion. All these lawmakers ex pr esse d approval of the measure and promi 
support it. 

The Association is carrying on a world-wide investigation a* to the des- 




Reports of Affiliated Organizations 75 

l>y waste oil on the ocean. It ia hoped that some information 

'hcotning in the near future, and that measures may be inaugurated 

for the suppression of this scourge to the ocean avifauna, which haa ■ssitmed 

proportion off our California coast. An investigation aa to the killing 

rds at the lighthouses of the Pacific Coast is also under way, and some 

Utters have been received from lighthouse keepers in answer to a 

is sent out. The study of these letters promises to shed some new 

he destruction of birds at such places and also some interesting 

Ling habits and routes of trav« 

Lectures have l>ecn given at 
the monthK &, the - 

jects presented covering intere- 
features of research on mat 

tMogical, both in local and 
foreign fields. The list of speakers, 
a veritable scientific galaxy, in 
dudes Grind, Stoncr, ltryant, 
Loomis, K vermann Maillard, and 

era. Frequently, lantern illus- 
trations were by cinematographs 
and slides, taken by mem 1 

thrnwlvo. 

1- trips under the guidance 
of some local expert have been 
made at frequent intervals. These 
trip** hftVl proved most attrai t 
aa well aa educational, careful 
notes of each trip being secured 
by the 'historian' appointed for 

HASY fl) ' . .... 

the day. These are read at 
following open meeting of the Association, after whuh they are pri 
iry records. 

i lands waa of more than passim 
hese Islands I Pacific Ocean, 2$ miles off the ftolden t 

and arc un<l< r liction of the Department of Commerce. They ar« 

. as of special ornithological interest, being the nesting-p ean 

going birds an.l t.-rming with bit lie breeding-season, and on. 

gg-poachers, aa recorded in the encyclopedia <»eral 

rohibtU visitors to the Islands, but, in re* 4 the Aasocia- 

k. honored it aa a special guest, taking us to and from the light 
nous. earned to the members of the Association that the super- 

Is waa probably » l the evidently steady 




decrease of the oace amazingly abundant 

for lessening the ( it ill myri.t I 

asked the Federal authorities to extend the closed season on the Isla 

end of August, as many young birds and son 

rhedandcnd.t -lithe 

r the magazii 

The Bird Club of Long Island. D iring the past year I has 

red an additional membership of 150 — 138 being annual subset 
21 life nv an«l thus 

pnaa 

year. It 1 also that the Club i> rq>r< 

and, and has then 
thai. 

The Treasur 
in tli' of all 

necessary expenses, of $1 ,04 of $780 is represei 

interest liearii ate issue 

pany, this amount, howevi 

• ■s, as under a 
utive Committee these are retained 
toward general expenses. 

Club ha ied along nearly the same lines 

as during the previous seas* than 1,000 enamel and linen sigi 

tglish and Italian, were posted on trees a: • rsoos 

with arrest and prosecution who molested birds or do> 
public and private schools now enrolled as unit members si 

Idren who receive, under the same arrangenv 
through the National Associa Societies, su< 

matter as it may issue, including leaflets and pictures of and thus 

■ trea knowledge of the usefulness of birds and an intrrrM in U 
Bird buttons were distributed t»» the childn 

and support and instil in the minds of all, especially tt >. the 

that binls must not be harmed or injur* \ pubta it) com- 

mittee of seven was also instituted to collect and publish tswer 

inquiries; these are numerous and indicate a widespread dV 
man :mg the good work which the Club a 

perform. 

irger memU t sever, is desirable in or 

income to earn- oat the useful purposes for which our < 
also permit tl • to undertak 



Reports of Affiliated Organizations 




i til t£ 



naivriAN irn. 

re urged that an i crest may be shown to 

int rcax- ot at least i ,000, and that our birds may be pro- 

vanton destruction checked, aad information distributed as to 

-Is <>f attracting them, while their economic value may be taught 

landowner and farmer |*rt of our Island. This great service The 

I «mg Island is anxious to perform if means are forthcoming from 

to accomplish those benefits to the comnn 
<l resources render impossible at this time. With the present 
•f labor, the necessity of I n becomes more and more 

this wa> tore apparent than at the present moment. 



Bird Conservation Club I Maine). — Our Bangor Club, which was 
.ear* ago by a half-dozen ladies who were capeo rated 

jndconservat ■inngthe 

yean has inerea>nl more -lowly i.ut steadfl) < >m nariwiMp h ■•■ 

eluded great undertakings, but wi know 
influenced t hi- tent um: •nmmum 






conservation posters, planned to interest and enlighten, and theme we ha\ < 
distributed broadcast over the Mate, to school-rooms, post-offices, town balls, 
wherever our members have wandered. Abo, we have had printed some • 
reservation posters. These we have used ty of Bangor, where we 

persuaded many owners of large estates or woodlands to resr 
as bird sanctuaries and to forbid all snooting and hunt 

\\ «■ have communicated with all the granges of our • 
much literature to them. Thus we hope to reach the ears and hearts of the 
farmers, to whom bird-conservation is so important 

\\ a are not allowed to form clubs in t! - schools d 

have offered prises for bird-houses, and the manual t its of 

the schools have turned out a great many nesting-boxes < have assisted 

the boys and . < I he Club itself has placed eight to ben dozen 

nesting-boxes, and we have been rewarded by many bird ten. 
Bluebirds, Wrens and Tree Swallows. 

During the winter months we have fed t 
hundreds pounds of suet were placed by the Club and I 
as well as large quantities of dry feed for the seed-ea many 

species of birds brave our Maine winters, but Hairy an 
Chickadees, and both White- and Red-brea 
sioners of our bounty, and several other kinds came occasior 
stations. We have also been visited by flocks • 
Grosbeaks, Bohemian Waxwings, and Redpolls. 

In thr last two years our Gub has planted nearly a hundred trees in 
various parks of the city: fruit-bearing trees, mountain-ash, a 
apple to furnish food for our winter birds, and evergreen trees t< 
■Ceded shelter 

I >uring the winter we held regular monthly meetings, when we have listened 
to many interesting papers and discussions. Occasionally we have ** 
speakers of some note. The meetings have been very well attended 1 ruriaf 
the spring season, and again in the fall, we have held numerous field meetings, 
which have been delightful and conducive to increase interest. 

We have tried to 'do our bit' by writing letters to our Congressmei 
State and National Legislatures whenever any measures bearing on 
lection were up for consideration. 

V\ e have done something in the past, and we hope to do n 
■ 

Birdlovers' Club of Brooklyn (New York . During <he season 
1916-17 the Hirdlovers' Club of Brooklyn held n> 
October to May and conducted monthly field trips to Prospect Park 
the leadership of members of the < \ ldresses were given 01 

phases of bird-study and identification in the field by ird W \ 




Reports of Affiliated Organizations 

l i Cleaves, of the Statcn Island Museum, 

vc an interesting address on his recent trip to the Virginia coast, with 
utiful ides of the bird-life of that region. 

lb sent type* to all Senators and Representatives at 

Washington in favor of the Migratory Bird law, and many individual members 
tmth Senators and Representatives. 
\ ' • I glass was presented as a prize to the boy or girl doing the most 
efficient work in I . in the Children's Museum. This competition 

aroused much interest among the school-children in the studv of local 
birds. 

Th< lleitions of the Children's Museum Bird-Room were materially 

increased and improved by a fund of nearly $200 raised by the Birdlovers' 

These study collections are used continually for 1 tudy by 

on members. The Birdlovcrs' Club maintains, through 

tor, a monthly Bulletin, ported in the Brooklyn Museum 

in the Children '1 Museum, of the I Prospect Park. Up to the 

t tir ib has identified a total of 168 species of birds in Prospect 

One interesting inquiry came to the Club from Russia, the heart of the war 
zone, for material on the subject of bird-conservation. — George O. Schoon- 

Blair County Pa. Game, Fish and Forestry Association. -The conser- 
vation and propagation work of the Association, as applied to wild birds, was 
rward during the past year in the same effective manner as that 

Realizing that it is education that forms the common mind, the Association 

offered prises to the school-children of the county who would erect bird-boxes 

and i upied in the spring. The children entered spiritedly 

00 test, with results that were countywide. The sum of $35 was 

appropriated for bird-boxes that were presented to the schools of the cot 

reds of houses being built by the Association on Government specifica- 
tion* and sold broadcast for 2$ and 30 cents each, or the bare cost price. The 
sum of $42 was appropriated and invested in grain, which was carried to all 

ag the severe winter months and used to feed 
game-, song- and mxn t »\ orous-birds. The Association also invested $33 in 
barberry and bsyberry trees, planted in selected spots to furnish feed for 

The Blair ( oum < 1 u» initrunictit.il 111 having the n»unt\ tl»r»r*i i«> 
Quail and eaaanu for the 1917 season, and made an 

effort Huffed Grouse protected for a year, but in thiswi 

ml hundred notices, calling attention to the state law regarding the dfav 

cre posted in all parts of the county, and 



So 



H.rJ-1 ON 



several prosecutions were made and com 

bird*, with excellent effect on the inreaponaible element that cauaea such des- 

<»n. And what b probably moat important in the organization* w« 
has educated an unthinking public to a point where there b a prot . 
for the wild bird.- stees, President. 




Brookline (Mass. Bird Club. The report of th. 
i « »r thb year might well lie a rq> year's wt . ■ ir has 

stopped the proposed publishing of the work Lite and • I 

very heavily upon the time and energy o! the Directors, progress a 
reported in all lines of cff. 

The membership of the Clurj — nearly 600 — b the largest - 
Hon came into existence. 

The lectures and 'round-table talks prove as popular as formerly, and n 
mation and instruction b obtained by those attcndi year, the 

tors are endeavoring to develop these meetings so that mor« 
will take an active part and become contributors to it, thus offering an 
opportunity for questions and the relating of bits of inti 
experiences. 






re* of Affiliated Organizations 






axe espeiialh gla hat. through the effort* of tin 

lub, II r was again engaged to hi t in the public 

:hool < that this will now become a permanent feature o! the 

and the Su|xTintendent of Schools stales that an appro- 

1 !*• asked for ar to continue this good wot 

the town, whose a are clos< 1 

with those of the Hint Club, continua bird-weliare 

i|>crintendent and Bird Warden, rcj>oris that 

.stations, scattered about the town, will be maintained again this com- 

ig wi; olid shelters are being set up at these stations, and 

ts will justify the expenditure of public money ifl this manner. 

he several hundred nest tea which were placed about the town have 

Beet and r: hem located to better advantage. The laws regarding 

tig within the town (now a reservation) are well observed, and public 

tinu-nt leans strongly toward their < These ail contribute to the 

healthy interest in birds and their protectioa that increases every year, 

•re and more impressed by the real interest displayed by those 

g up the mbject of ornithology as beginners, even among the 

people, and how true it is that those once actually ii -eldom. if 

Chaki net. 

Brush Hill Mass. Bird Club. I enportant Beove on the part 

1 ib during the past year was to extend «>ur active dm 

SO as to include the entire township of Milton; up to last April only resi- 
Brush Hill and HI • ctions of the town were eligible as 

re. This has resulted in bringing in many new members from the 

more densely settled parts of Milton and has made the (lub a town affair, 

a talk la BlOoklkM I 

his ( lub and its activities, municipal or otherwise. 
Messrs. Adams, Morton, and Walt F M 
•>naJ Association of Audul- us Bnetretrd b 

tures on local topi* we made th« In the coo 

' r. Baynes give his fmpular illustrated lecture at the Town Hall. 
the past two years we have prosecuted a vigorous campaign against 
•arrow, hiring an employee of the State Fish and (la 
.ite these birds wherever possible in our section of t he 
was made possible by th«- cooperation of the Board of Sf 

a special officer, with |* -r mission to shoot anywhere on tbep 

m ,K-rmits from most of the landowner* 
r section. As e result, over i.ooo Sparrows were shot last year and over 
6oo the year before, when w he plan and had but a 0,011 ' 

almost exterminate* the local nWk*. but the fact that their place* 



Kir 

are taken every fall by migration* from the neighboring cities make* a yearly 
campaign necessa 

Our business manag< >nedy , secured a good >n of 

the skins of common perching birds of this neighborhood last spring, and has 
had them preserved in individual celluloid tubes which are unbreakable, 
hermetically sealed, but perfectly transparent These are to be used as a cir- 
culating library by members of the Club, for study or reference, as the case may 

rhc collection was purchased by means of a fund I from eon 

the Club's members for that purpose, 

he war has made itself felt here, and there has been a very n< 
able slackening of interest among the Club members. We hope, however, that 
we can keep the organization running fairly strong despit< 
about to start a 'fall drive' in the town in an attempt to mat • 
membership, -Nathan Chandlek int. 

Burial. Audubon Society. — The eighth ye.i organize 

dosed May 18, 1017, with a paid-up memlx-rship of 264. There wen- 
meetings of the Society and six meeting.* ( ommittit- for the 
transaction of business during the year. 

Through the courtesy of I lowland, Superinte 

Sciences, cards of admission to four let tures were sent to each 1 
lectures of the year were as follows: Octol* 
November 23, Ernest Harold Bay no., Decern U r 5, Edwi 
cembcr 8 ! \ BaJ 

Arthur A Allen; March 30, Clinton G. Abbot; May 1 - 

I the second year the Audubon Society furnished moo 
make each boy and girl on the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation a ma 
Junior Audul* mbership fa ( ;ial Assc* 

Societies and in t <icty for tl.< 

Animals was continued. 

The financial report of the year ending Ma 
$932.28; disbursements, $620.65. On hand, May 18, $302.' II In- 

added more than $50 from 'Notes of the Audub 11 the 

Express, not yet paid in. The Bird Almanac netted tl. 
copies that remain unsold may be obtained free from Miss M 
Bird Avenue, by members of the Society or by teachers who 
Junior Audubon Circles. The postage is 5 cents for Buffalo. Pot the te\ 
year 'Notes of the Audubon Society' have (since March 8) appeared week 
the Illustrated Sunday Express. One-half value of published articles h 
to the writers. The Junior Audubon work is very prosperous. 
Miss Mary Ellis, is untiring in the work; and as ma 
during Uus as in past years. The Migration Calendars in the Exp* 
in charge of Miss Caroline L. Doll, whose efficient service is appre 






Reports of Affiliated Organization* S3 






many reader* in western New York. At the direction of the Executive Com* 

c. the Secretary prepared an article on 'How to begin Bird Study,' and 

mailed it newspapers »unty, outside of Buffalo. Copies of 

papers containing the printed article were returned by the publishers to the 

nt ideation walks, free to members of the Audubon Sod 
were con* 1 the Secretary in Ma\ en bird talks were given by 

members during the year, under the auspices of the Socit I l: Kersey 
pvethret-. II «t gave two, and the Secretary gave fourteen. Ten new 

lantern ->li- les ha\ e been added to the set owned by the Society. There are now 
•ilides, all in perfect condition. Seven members of our Society were 
sustaining members of the National Association of Audubon Societies the past 
The Tri State Bird Contest for 1916 was won by western New N 

1 -regretted death of Rev. Reuben F. Randolph, who orig- 
1 ontests, a challenge I > -»rk has not been 

hed an opportunity to 1 

legislation. Calls were received as follows: August, 
st against an extension of an open season on wild-fowl in any part 
the o t ember, 19 16, to help save Lake Malheur, Ore., as a bird res- 

ruary, 19 17, to help in passing the Migratory Bird Treat 
Mar to endorse the State Legislature imposing a tax on cats. The 

Kponsc of members to these calls for help have been most gratii - 
Realizing the need of educating the general public regarding bird helpfulness 
man, bird laws, and how to have laws enforced, 25,000 copies of a circular 
ig these points have been printed and distributed in more than 
> school* of Buffalo and western New York. Additional circulars are in the 
hands of l ary, Miss C. A. Doll, 587 Ellicott Street. Upon request they 

will be sent , to the number of 100 or less, to persons or places where they would 
en are asked to give thought to this offer. A special meeting 
xlubon Society, held May 5, led to a change in the administration 
of the affairs of th- tnnual meeting of May 18 a new con 

was adopted. Officers and Directors were elected as follows: President, 

I I. \ ice-President, Dr. Anne E. Perkins; Secretary, Miss 

I I I reasurer, Miss I S. Baker; Directors, Miss Mary 

met Savage, J M Ovcrncld, Jr. According to the new constitution of 

be annual meetings are to be held the third week in February. 

1 are payable (in advance) March 1 of each year. 

retary has received a most courteous response from all newspapers 
requested to give publicity. The appreciation of the Society b <l 

haries M . Nicholson, of 84 Ellicott s ha*. 

d years, shown in rendering prompt and accurate service at a vtty 

• bis, on account of thr r . ■ 








I 



Ijiru 

JSJZ 






§ 




., ~'r 



t Reports of Affiliated Organizations 85 

one from Buffalo t r clary desires to express her 

re appreciate- edoa that has been perm 

•ntidence shown in h. loyal responses to her mat 

r assists 1 he many kind words expressed; and for the goodly 

amount 0/ work accomplished through the united efforts of the member*. 
w officers, with Eta large membership, healthy bank account, and a 
foundation on which to build, the Audubon Society of Buffalo should 
lei add iti onal to its members and to its larger field of work— all 

w« (. \! \ usru, Retiring Secretary. 

Burroughs Junior Audubon Society (Kingston, N. Y. . Our So* 
was orga! • ' the fall of 1915 with aUnit So naflbfa. Hath year new 
members have been added. Our meetings have been held monthly, at 
rest birds, their habits, etc., were discussed. During the 
past year we visited John Burroughs, the naturalist, at his home in West Park, 
Y., saw and inspected 'Slabsides' and enjoyed a most profitable experience. 
:ghs himself was a guest at one of our meetings and told many inter- 
stories of hi> acquaintance with birds. His granddaughter is a member 
our Club, and this week was elected Secreta 

•ruary we hired Edward Avis to give his lecture-recital 'Birdlami 
lis was Bostrated with >tereopticon-views, and various birdcalls were given 
W h the proceeds of this lecture we purchased several additional 
he hint \ ictrola bird-records, field-glasses, bird-houses. 

lie boys are making feeding-stations now for the coming winter. Jim 
<- school closed we donated $30 to the Red Cross. 
La on State Bird Day, we gave the little playlet which was pub- 

lished in Biai 1 the school assemi 

g to create a wider interest in birds and hope to make the com- 
nost successful one we have had. — (Miss) Jennie H. Mautes- 
army). 

Cayugn Bird Club.— Seven morning trips for the study of birds 

nh successful year of the Cayuga Mir. I Club. These trips 
held in the Bird Club Sam tuary Saturday mornings, from April to June, 
sere well attended, requiring three or four sections each morning. I \ 

W leister acted as leader*, and. 
retarded vegetation, unusual numbers of birds were seen, 
of public lectures was this year reduced, but the 
thcr ways surpassed previous years. The annual Field l 
usual : vaa this year altered so that the Club 

tyauthoritic MshMahmrnt of a new park 

ir previous experience in the 

Idren ably assisted in the buOding of the 



M 



Bird - Lore 




Photacnpk by A. A. AOm.' 

paths, the dealing of brush, and the planting of n i>ark. 

The Bird Club, with the help i>h. the manual-' 

'uted a bird-house can in which about 75 boys took pur 

lent nesting-boxes were built by the boys, and these were put up in th< 
as one feature of the exercises. 

Another successful enterprise with which the Ca 
was the establishment of a program of wil 



W I - • — ' 


m 


" 


3B& 



RMl^^^^^H 



BIRD 
Pfcctacraph bjr A. A. Allca. 



Reports of Affiliated Organizations 
k at Cornell i v. The program mmiattri of a series of 



ucnt nut in the various fields of wil<! 

an elaborate and was concluded by a banquet tendered to the 

rig conservationists. It is planned that this program shall become a per- 
manent feature of the annual gathering of the farmers of the state at the Slate 
at Cornell l'i 




< csftful was the movement to construct a suitable arch at be 

ary. A concrete arch was designed by Premi- 

construction raised by public Mibacription 

1 had been prepared for it on the previous annual FieW-Day, when 

real eagerness, had placed their names in a Meet box to be 

thr arch Cpon the coaptation of • 



M Bird -Lore 

appropriate dedication ex e r c is e s were held, and the arch, which had been 
ailed t>\ bifi Amerfcaa flag*, mm nnveSed 

The usual work of feeding the birds in winter was carried on I 
its Sam tuary, and several hundred pound* of grain wrr ks on 

igaLake. Through the generosity of Jam* 
similar to the one erected near t the Sanctuary, was placed 

in t) meter)', and this will henceforth be main 

«>n the resignation of the Treasure cause of 

leaving the city, a vote of appreciation for her cffii i< es was ex 

her. Mrs \ \ Mien was elected to the vacancy. The officers of the 1 1 ub are: 
Piejiduat.Dr. Andrea l> White; Preafafeat,L \ Puertes;Vice Presidents, 

•h. \\ 1> I U! • 

\ \ \ \ Mien.- A \ ^ 



HJCT m 1 1 !1 



Columbus Ohio Audubon Society. Beginning in Oc 
successful bird -pr< \hibit at the Public I.ibrar lumbus Audu- 

bon Society has held a meeting each month Sustxated 

.teen field- trips have been taken, and $150 worth of prize- 
distributed in the bird-house contest in v 

In January, Ernest H. Baynes lectured on 'How to 
In Februa is Jones talked 1 4 t he Value of 1 1 

At the beginning of the garden season Prof, llobert Osbon 

. lectured on the relation of birds to injurious insects. 

During the Hip 59 new names were added to 

t GOLUMBUS AUDUBOH SOCIETY 




sisn exhibit or 




Report! of Affiliated Organizations 

Over go people joined the Club at the time of Mr. Baynes' lecture. The field- 
trips have been the means of attra- nore, making an addition of 171 

;.ooo visitors to the Octol it were about 400 students 

from ihool for Deaf Mutes. These children eagerly grasped 

ig explained to them. They afterward wrote creditable essays on what 

had seen, some of them closing with I wish to hear the song of birds." 

v pupils and teachers from the State School for the Blind attended Mr 

nes' lecture and are planning to make bird-houses for the next contest 

Space was given the Audubon So in exhibit at the State Fair in 

• reach the farmers. The farmers showed more appreciation 

e display of birds and their nests, weed seeds, winter foods, etc., than did 

the city people. One country woman remarked, reminiv Oh, yes, I 

know the Quail; he hollers nice." The men were glad to get the National 

Association's 'war' posters to put up on their far >v of them told of 

ing the winter birds. People from nearby towns asked for information about 

bird clubs and were interested in the bird books displayed. Besides 

'war' posters given out to the farmers, the Boy Scouts put up numbers of 

in the parks and surrounding country. — Luc. /ary. 

Cumberland County 'Maine Audubon Society.— November 3, 19 16, in 
the first snowstorm of the season, a little band of seven people gathered at 
;itural History Rooms to form a society for the study and protection of 
the birds. Though small in number, the enthusiasm was great. Those present 
were made a committee of the whole to obtain new members, and though 
r old, we have an active membership of 107 W < paet once a 
month u when outdoor walks took the place of indoor meetings. 

January 7. Artmi on, the well-known ornithologist of our own 

.rave an illustrated talk on 'The Mockingbird* that was wintering in one 
bruary, letters were sent to our Congressmen in regard to 
• aty, and replies from them, promising their support, 
rst Harold Baynes gave us a much-enjoyed let I 
itisbee, of our own city, gave us an illustrated lecture. 
I posters have been put up as yet. but we are now working for 
that, as well as arranging for the winter feeding of the birds. We have all 
be work and meetings, and fed that a foundation has been bid for 
1 good work in the future Our later reports will prove if this b< 
we are doing our part to keep the birds with us. -Ada OmoiMS Fooc, 

Detroit Mich. Audubon Society. - The I ihon Society was 

organized v it the home of Mrv Kdward F. Ru*h. who became the 

rhe program for the « d an 



Bird -Lore 

interesting lecture b I 1 1 M < .illvray.of the Public Domain, on 'Forestry and 

Birds.' A fine series of slides illustrated the work the Game Commission an 

Forest Scouts are doing in thr stats, The Society joined with the Censer 

Department of the Federation of Women's Out* in h< tiding an i 

booses and bird-shelter?, made by the boys of the manual training classes • 

public schools. A beautifully illustrated talk on shore-birds was : 

Abbott, of Grosse I ores, at this t 

Id-outings were held during the months of October, November, and 

U Robinson, st< 
.operation of the Commissioner of Parks and Boulevards in a- 
feed the birds on Belle Isle during the winter Two shelters wen- built at his 
l ion and placed in locations chosen l was a 

decided increase in the number of winter birds on Bel! ! fan children of 

the Junior Leagues made weekly trips all winter to carry food birds. 

On February 10 they found a Bluebird : <• earliest 

record f • • . so far as we know. 

Six Junior Leagues, with an enrollment of 174, were organized by Mist 
Gertrude Gilmore, Chairman of the Junior Leagues Con 
Leagues and many new members have been added this fall This work was 
begun in the school-gardens of the city 

The Detroit Audubon Society responded to the call to help sa\ 
tory Bird Law from ruin. 

toll Woods, of the Game Committee, had the Michigan state law 
relating to birds translated into several languages and posted in the foreign 
districts. The President has given tv. ostoftlk ides, 

before schools, libraries, and dubs. Much interest and enthusiasm 
and their protection has been shown, especially among the sen 

E. Jefferson Butlek >tt. 

Doylestown (Pa-> Nature Club. The Doylesto. has 

increased in membership and activities to a marked degree si 
sent to the National Association of Audulx Lies last October, 

membership now numbers 167. 

the second and fourth Mondays in the month, the following 
studied and presented : The - oots. 

Ferns in their Haunts, Kmerson as a Po» LuminoM- 

Insects and Other Organisms, Poisonous Plants, Birds • 
Highways and Byways, Seed Travelers, Wonders of the Sea 
Symposium, Nature's Calendar. A talk on 'Sweet Peas up to Date,' was g 
among a thousand hybridised sweet peas at W. Atlee Burpee's Seed I 
Doylestown, in June by the sweet pea expert, George W K 

C. F. Choffner, founder of th« Bell Bird Club, gave a stereopt 

Irrtureon thr value of birds in the public school, to which the 



rts of Affiliated Organizadott 






\n illustrated lecture on the oonstdlatiom was given by William 
the open on a perfectly clear moonlight night in July. A huge 
was erected in a field on a hill on which the pictures were plainly 
after dark, the members being seated on the ground. At the conclusion 
of th< thirteen brave members slept on straw under the open sky, 

along the Neshaminy Creek, at Dark Hollow, a place rich in Indian 
legends, remote from the habitations of men, with a mangy dog and a flash- 
light for protection. By a huge campfire, a midnight feast was prepared, 
Ik breakfast the next morning. I»r Edward William Geil, the 




■I ltlkl. UNI n ARV Of TBI DOYLESTOU 

noted traveler and lecturer, will give a talk before the Nature Club in 

Janur \Mtsand Ant H Hmry C. Mercer, of Moravian Pottery 

is book* rr on Historic Trees,' in November. Most of the 

s lectures are given in the public school to create an interest among the 

ib for two years has made a plea for 
of wild flowers by posting notices along the roads. M* 
>rise walk, to study the migration of Warblers, was enjoyed by 
So members, with a gypsy breakfast afterward in the woods at 6 o'clock. For 

has been taking these sunrise walks, and no matter 
what the condition of the weather at 4 *.n., a large percentage of the 
ms been ready to start at that tine. 






Kird- I ON 



The annual canal-ljoat trip wu taken Saturci. I li 70 

people on board. The route, from New Hope Pleasant, Pa., along the 

Delaware Valley, was moat interesting, abounding in fall flowers, ferns and 
beautiful grasses on the banks of the canal, and att 1 ngalow homes lent 

much interest to the scene. While an informal talk 

trola and ukulele music varied th. >i speed-locomotion by 

mules. 

U. 1.. r t.ill presented reh 

have been made to have an ordinance in Doylcstown taxing pet cats and 
eliminating stray ones in the interest of birds, hut the Club has only been able 
so far to agitate the matter through the press and create more of a sen 1 




bird j The Bird Sanctuary 1 lure Club is situated at Fonlhill. 

the estat< er, and comprises 10 acres. A third of it ii 

wooded, with plenty of water, and berries, fruits and weeds allowed to grow 
wild for bird-food. Many bird-boxea, for nests, and feeding-boxes are placed 
in appropriate places, and in winter systematic feeding 

old stone bouse built in - uated in the hear I uary , has 

been loaned to the Nature Club b\ rcer, and a museum of natural 

science has been started there with many interesting specimens.— I 
F. J AMIS, Strrri'i' 

Englewood (New Jersey Bird Club. Last April the hnglewood I 
Club entered the third year of its activities with a large member t hirH 

of which i* Junior —that is. under eighteen years of age. 



Reports of Affiliated Organization* 

During the past month* men of reputation in the bird world have inspired 
Among them, Charles C. Gorst, of Cambridge, Mass., by his remarkable 
lions of bird-songs; Howard H. Cleaves by bis 'Experiences in Wild Bird 
Job, by his helpful talk and wonderful motion- 
ind Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright, who p he wav of 'The 

TV.' 

c letters have been written our Congressmen relative to the 
passage of such bills as the Migratory Bird Treat ie Cat Licen- 

he good cause of bird-conservation. 

delightful feature of the spring was a series of bird-walks under 

: leadership of Howard II Cleaves of the Staten Island Museum, 

•gers of the .American Museum of Natural History, and others. 

40 members tumble out of bed to meet at a remote station of the 

ihusiasm may be taken for granted, hut — (addendum) 

g officers were elected: Presidei ifc M ( 

man lluim M. Shack ford; Secretary, Miss Irene A. Ha 

irton. — (Miss) Elizaiw \ I cretary. 

Forest Hills Gardens N. Y. Audubon Society. — A noticeable increase 

in the number an- he birds the Gardens and remaining 

ir nests is the most important thing to record for the spring 

and !* eved that this increase is due to the fact 

that rk the underbrush has been cleared away and the natural 

that the birds have taken refuge in the Gardens where the 

shrubbery has grown rapidly and where there is abundant food, water and 

the vagrant cat remains a problem, especially to the little, 

lost its efficient Preside ; . t I \ . Quarks, and gained a genuine 
and nature-lover and knower in Frit/ Hagens. Two lectures, one by 
! add, Preside!. .rem with Bird Protection Association. and 

one 1 of the State College of Agricu' ere given dur 

ir But t he main efforts of the Society were concentrated on an exhibit 
* al birds which was held during the Easter holidays at the sch o o l h ous e . 
les the sp e ci men* of stuffed birds, there were charts and other educational 
matter loaned Vmerican Museum of Natural History, the Chil 

Museum of Brooklyn, and the National Audubon So. me one of the 

tees was in charge each day, and each afternoon there was some sort of 
meat One day Mrs. Schoonover, from the Children's Museum of 
talk, and another time the Garden Society gave a copy of 
the boy and girl able to name the moat birds out of a 
possible list of twenty-five. 

A feature of our work which is continuous throughout the year Is 



Bird" I 
lamp-post bulletin* which give Hens of bird news ami snow approi 

The Society made s particular effort to provide adequ.t 
during the early spring snow- and sleet-storms which meant starvation and 
death to the birds unfortunate enough to be caught at that season. It also 
distributed free 100 pounds of chick-feed, and at differ 
IS pounds of suet in especially designed wire baskets- M I wood 

Knevxls, Secretory. 

Frankfort iKy. Bird Club. Out Crab was organized in Ju! 
following a lecture «** Harold Baynes. In Octolx 

Moore, President of the Bird Club of Versailles, Ky., a neighboring town, came 
before the Club and gave an interesting talk on the different character 
<>f birds, as well as on the separate functions of the wings, ta 
bird. Mrs. Elizabeth I h.nf Lexiiur addressed th< I 

January of this year, telling her experiences with birds dm 
years. In April, another speaker from Lexim \\ I gave 

an interesting talk on the songs of birds. 

Last winter many persons became interested in feeding 
snowy weather, due largely to a campaign waged in the interest of the fen - 
tribe by members of the Club and i By newspaper articles. 

Scouts put out a good many seeds. The school-children in general were much 
interested, and a feeding-station was established in the ( • 

Several bird-walks were conducted by older members of 
Junior members, and many of the children taking manual t 
houses. Audutmn buttons and printed matter on birds wi -bed each 

Junior member. Another Bird Club was organized by a member 
< lub, a teacher in a suburban school, and all the pupils 
interest. 

one time in the late winter, while snow was still on 
nocks of Robins arrived in Frankfort, and several bird-love lined 

literally hundreds in their back yards for several days. One member oJ 
solved the problem of how to take care of the birds when the snow was on the 
ground in January, by sweeping the snow from the roof an rary 

bay-window, which was directly below the sill of an upstairs window, an< I 
ing the window-sill and roof with bread-crumbs, hominy, rice, and hemp seed. 
The ground-feeders were not forgotten and reveled in all 
could eat, feeding on a snow-cleared path. She reported th« Is a* 

her visitors: a Blackbird, Crow, Yellow-hammer, Chewink, Blue Jay, 

several Cardinals, Tomtits. Chickadees, Fox Sparrows, Woodpeckers. 
Juncos, and the ubiquitous English Sparrows.— Hash y G Bai< 



K Reports of Affiliated Organizations 05 

W.Va. Normal Bird Club, our Chb was officially organised 
an enrollment of 5s members, and at least 30 of 
se are young teachers, while a large m t the rest expect to teach. 

the la-t Eve years we ha 1 with a 

irse offered in the Normal School. A rds is 

N itHKi ilud t«. and lomprises near iird of the 

ig in the early spring and continuing until -<>n.' 

rips every Saturday morm; /roup starts at 

ie at 8 o'clock. These trips are under the guidance of 
logy teat I ae, who is a most efficient student of birds. 

ur feeding-boxes put up by numbers of our Club, 
and two of the** were so arranged as to be seen from the windows of the Train- 

m Ina Ba lining, contemplates organizing a Junior 

:iing School this year. 
ib has ordered a number of the cloth 'Warning Notices' and is going 
on about our town and in the rural communis surrounding it Wi 
that many people take no action against the mistreatment of birds through 

ignorance of the law concerning them. 
We have also distributed the toll. .wing publications of the National Associa- 
n of A Societies among our memlx lubon Movement/ 

Miration oi ubs and Audubon So* en and the Bird-.' 

ries as Bird Sanctuaries 1 m I H\inni>. I'r^ident. 






Ha onn. Bird-Study Club. The past season has been a busy 

one for the members 01 .!», as a copy of our Year Book will indicate. 

•iave held lw< r indoor meetings and twenty held meetings. 

Desp lumber of persons engaged in the great war's activities, our 

lance at both indoor and outdoor meetings has been good. As 

; art of talent for our indoor meetings has been supplied 

)g the season, however, we have been favored with 

( harles Crawford Gorst and Clinton ti Abbott, ■ 

largely attended and much enjoyed. 

Many rare and unusual birds have been seen on nga, among whu h 

tioned the Little Blue Heroi lgeon.Gadwall 

ramped ami Pet total Sandpipers, Golden and 

lied Plover, Pileatcd Woodpecker, Snowflak ng Grosbeak, 

< ties of Crossbills, and Connecticut Warbler. On one of our field- 

we were privileged to see a female Worm-eating Warbler on her nest 

n a few feet of us, and located not 60 feet from the nest of a Whip-poor- 

t nest of a Rough-winged Swallow was also observed. 

to pounds of bird-seed have been fed at one windowsUl feeding tray 



96 Bird -Lore 

to a flock of r I .ro*beaks— the location l*ing in th< .ousts 

arc dose together. 

The dub 'lrcw up and presented to our last Legitlat >nsidered 

a model cat license hill, hut was unsuccessful in ha\ acted as a law \\« 

are not discouraged, however, and shall make another effor legis- 

lative session to have the bill become a law. Largely through the efforts of 
Club, a joint ticlil nutting was held in 
Fairfield, at which meeting twenty d 
upward of 300 people. At this meeting the Con 

and Nature Club* was formed and a c« • adopts 1 ederation 

had been in process of completion for near . ars. 

Our Club is now planning the organization of junior d« 
bene! ounger people located in the many suburbs o( 

that meetings may be held in close proximity to the homes <•; with 

the idea in mind that to preserv < the futun 

unior nature-lover of today along the right lines, 
been erected by Club members during the year, with varied success. Persoi 
I have had nesting in my front yard four varieties of bird- .in area of 

50 feet square, in boxes which I erected 1 use. 

would appreciate suggestions from anybody who may be interested 
concerning the organization and operation of junior departments al 
referred to.— Axthuk Powers, President. 

Los Angeles Cal. Audubon Society. — The 1 Los 

Angeles Audubon Society have been directed the past year alon^ 
of the economic value of birds. We have been addressed 
speakers: Mrs. Wm. Folger, past President of the X 
Socit Bishop, of New Haven, Conn V 

Vail. Te, of Seattle tf Alaska 

\ Wiley, of the Forestry Department; Prof. Alfred Cookman, of Long Beach; 
mily Hunt, Pasadena; and Mrs. G. H.Schneider, one of our own members, 
and now holding the office of 'official speaker' of our son 
active bird work among the Boy Scouts, schools, clubs. 

We have had, besides the indoor meetings, nine field-day trip* to beaches 
and canons, and one reciprocity program for w«> ibt in tip 

Federation. A charming playet, 'The California Woodrx • 
was given. It was written by our able Presidcn 

largo. We have created the new offices of Official Speaker, 
Custodian, District Federation Secretary, Historian, a: Press 

Chairman. Our President has been appointed District Chairman 
and our honorary member, Mrs. Harriet Williams Myers, Chairman of 
National Federation. 

At each indoor meeting we have had interesting reports of the birds set 



Reports of Affiliated Orgam/a 








SELES AUDfBON MEM Fir k \.. [Ml Mil Uiv VI |mi\||\.,|[/ 

Pbotacnpfc by Mr. F T. BidtacU 

lay; have held nine Board meetinp> through the year, have 
our annual pilgrimage to Fellowship HOI, and the usual day in Jon 
Pasadena Society, as their guests. We are working hard to secure a cat 
have been able to secure protc* .\ ati-r- birds at 

Lake, near Los Angeles. In legislative work we have I 







V 




MRS. F. T. BICKNELL. 

of t Im Lot And* Aa4«boa Socxty 



(Q*» 






Report* of Affilitted Organizations 



for Blackbirds, Mcadowlarks and Flicker*, and the amendment 
e hunting license limiting the age of applicants to not leas than fourteen 
\rar» 

have had notices of meetings posted in all libraries and have joined 
i'aaadena - nd all interested in birds and formed an 'Audubon 

ifter an enjoyable luncheon, we discuss all Audulion matter* 
and find this of material bet 

ration Meeting of H Clubs in Pasadena. <» 

ind on request furnished an attractive exhibit of a mot 
black cat, amid trees and shrubs, holding an Oriole in its mouth, and a no 
or announced it to be 'The 1 

have added a number of rare mounted birds to our Museum — birds 
ibled or dead — and have also secured over $150 to build a 

1 Park. The President has had over five dozen 'war 
posters' put op daring the summer. During the field-trips, and trail 

' here have been observed 1 25 species 
H. CftANE, i 'rrtspondinfi Secrrlary. 

Maywood 111. Bird Club. Our Club was organized March o, IQ17, at 

the h«>me of Samuel A. Harper, its founder and President. An able lawyer, 

a successful business man, a social worker, two women active in club and 

affairs, a minister, and a grade school principal compose its directorate. 

1 numbers a few less than 100 persons. Meetings are held in 

illage hall. The Club is a sustaining member of the National Associa- 

•n Societies and a ting member of the Illinois Audubon 

a mark of recognition, the Club has elected to honorary membership 

sons of Illinois who have attained T»fr*— *•» as ornithologists: Robert 

am in T. Gault. and Ruthven Deane. Other honorary member* 

esidents of the village School and Library Boards, and the teachers of 

Maywood and Melrose Park schools. 

H ributed two circulars containing information about 

K- boxes and the security of their tenants from cats and English Sparrows. 

Copies of art icles on the protection and encouragement of birds were distributed 

at met tings, village ordinances relating to these matters were reprinted in the 

local nd items on the Club and its work and on the cat were cootrib- 

request of the Club, I> U \ Ivans wrote, in the Chicago 

health article on cat> Cats Only a Menace Ten copies of 

Biological Survey poster. 'Feed the Birds Thi were displayed as 

u they came off the press. The Maywood Public Library b adding a few 

•ooks each month, selecting titles from a list submitted by the < 

■vood Twentieth Century Club offered prises to school- 
»»ree e**av* on bird* written bv girls and for the best 



too Bird -Lore 

three nesting-boxes made by boy*. The contest was a great success. The 
Club will urge the women to hold this contest each spring. Supplemet 
ihr Maywooil ib fostered the making of nesting-boxes by 

during and after school hours, (her night, it seemed, bird-boxes grew on 
and posts and buildings e v er y w h ere until there were more houses than 
families. 

ivwood now has a model cat ordinance, framed by th< 1 paaaed 

by the unanimous vote of the village Board. The opposition, by a 

enjoin the village Board from < 
gave it statewide publicity and thereby made it a precedent. Being based on 
the law relating to public nuisances, it declares stray and unrestrained a 
be a source of damage to gardens and a menace to public health and bird 

vide* for the killing of all stray cats and the confinement of all other cats 
between 7 p. u. and o a. m. every day from April t to September 
All (tenons are given the right to kill any and all cats trespassing on 

; Kjsed for violations. The Maywood b asked the 

Illinois AuduUm Society to assume the responsibility of set uring an amend 
to the Illinois statu b will enable villages and cities to pass ordinances 

M»mj>elling the licensing of cats. 

rfl • is now a red-letter da\ I his spring it was J 

roughs' eightieth birthday. On that day, in honor of Burroughs and Audubon 
the Club organized Junior Audubon Classes and created the burroughs Associa- 
tion of Junior Audubon Classes as a department of the Club through wh 
assist them. When school closed in June. 12 classes, with at 
children, had been organized. The Club is now putting the mat ' each 

of the remaining 50 teachers with the hope that even school-boy and girl in 

■vood and Melrose Park will soon be wearing a button with a K< 
As protection and encouragement naturally follow enlightenment on bird-life. 
and as bird-lore greatly adds to the joy of living, the Club con 
organization and moral and material support of these classes portance. 

—Roy M. Laxgdos, Secretary. 

Meriden N. H. Bird Club.— Our Gub began the year by tssuuv 
Third Annual Report. This document is in the form of a book containing i 14 
pages and 31 half-tone illustrations from photographs. The following im- 
portant letters, recent Icnecal Manager, also app* 
the Rep. 

Mr Dkab Ml Baynes: 

t have heard with sincere interest of your campaign in behalf < I American t 
and want to give Myself the pleasur mttag my great interest and of wishing 

tow the mmi uibstantial ••iially yo . 



Reports of Affiliated Organizations 101 

»l: 

I wish you all pouibki mc «m is your movement. Few things mean more for the 
< n«K and beauty of the com han the establishment <>t 

and l heir general utilitarian significance. 

ub hat been an example of inspiration to all of ut, and I 

1 be followed throughout the country. 
errly your*. ritsoooas Rooskv > 

Through our influence, bird clut» have been formed re< ■ Topeka, 

Kan* tas; Yonkers and Millbrook \ Y \ Brad- 

Mass.; and at Wellcsley College; and many dubs prcvi- 
uaded to join the National Association of 
\ 

M had interesting lectures bj H Job, Robert Cushman 

lawrence Smith, and I I irold Bayncs. 

•deny have shown unusual 

- year, and the senior class has pledged itself to support 

IKJssihle way. 

the third successive year, the Congregational Church at Meriden 

ices were held in t uary as usual, and 

-s delivered a sermon on Our I A 

and the pastor, K 
Bowlby. conducted the service. The offering was divided between the Church 
andt 1 bib. 

\ugust. the Ben Greet Players gave two performances of 'As you Like 
>tage in the Sanctuary, and the Club made a net profit of $85. 
In Sepu-ml" Imager delivered a lecture for the benefit of 

the local branch of the Red Cross So. 

Day' was held on Monday, October 8, and sixteen women. 
n men, and two horses worked in the Sanctuary with a view of making it 
more th to the bird tenants and their human visitors. 

1 members have put up thirteen war posters supplied by the National 
ibon Societies.— (Miss) Elizabeth Bennett, Secretary. 

Minneapolis Branch, Minnesota Game-Protective League. Most of 

■■ 

work accomplish* 1 League the past year is gj 

ing the last session of the Legislature, devr- lull* in « 

ted were passed. Among the most important of these wer- 
reason on the Ruffed Grou* open 

season and bag tin irp-tailed 

;»ing of shooting from automobile*; an Alien Gun Law 

»; the age limit taken from 



I02 



Lore 



icense Law providing that all persons ov< I age, 
instead of twn take out a license gray 
and black fox squirrel which have not ha< «ota; 
and a law providing for the codification and revision 
Law* reseated to the next session of the Legislature; also, an appro- 
priation of $15,000 for the maii/ 4 a State Gat cars. 
Upon this appropriation bring mad* meapolis Bra 

>tOOO 







RKAI>\ 



M 



birds were reared and distributed this year. The Minneapolis Branch main- 
tained the same number of paid employees as given in the Annual Report, 
with the exception of the Big Island Game Farm where I am nov 
the State as Superintendent of Game Propagat 

Since the Minneapolis Branch started, in March, 1015, with a paid i 
Secretary, much work has been accomplished, especially in the way of estat 
ment of game refuges. The Refuge Law was passed in iq 1 5 through the < 
of the Minneapolis Branch. The Minnetonka Game Refuge, covering 69,000 
acres, was the first refuge established under this law. There are now more than 
1,000,000 acres in game refuges, which include the Superior National Forest 






Report* of Affiliated Organization* ioj 



and State Parka. Minne tonka Refuge recently haa been increased to 85 ,ooo 

•lakes about 100,000 acres in game refuges now cared for and 

patrolled under the auspices of the Minneapolis Branch. Public sentiment 

in favor of wildTfc conservation has been very noticeable during the past 

two years, especially in regard to the protection and care of the song and 

insectivorous birds and in game-breeding. The literature and books put out fay 

nal As ociation of Audubon Societies has probably done more in 

helping to create this sentiment than anything else. Several hundred copies of 

I he Breeding of Upland Game Birds and Aquatic Fowl,' 

written I I), were distributed throughout the state. Without these 

Bulletins it n not likely that game-breeding in Minnesota would have 

received the attention that it has. Many of the notices put out by the 

nal Association of Audubon Societies during the past year, against 

•<ls, were received and posted by wardens employed b> 

League 

r war has stopped the taking up of any new work during the past 

< gular work of the League will be carried on as usual so far 
1 is known now.— Frank I). Blaib, Secretory. 






Natural History Society of British Columbia (Victoria, B.C., Canada 

This year, for the first time, a Bird Section of the Society was formed, with 

sident and Henry F. Pullen as Vice-Presi veral 

interesting round-table talks were given, illustrated by museum skins. The 

•ig of these were by Frank Kermode, Director of the British 

I»r. Hasell, and Arthur S. Barton. 

te was made from time to time throughout the year of the scarcity of 

birds in this section of the country. This was supposed to have been caused by 

the severe winters of 1915-16 and 1016-17. From all over Vancouver Island 

similar reports arrived. All bird-life has been scarce, but especially the insect- 

K migrants, such as the Warblers, Song Sparrows, Wrens, and Humming- 

Last winter there was an invasion of Western Horned Owls, caused. 

«aid. by unusual scarcity of rabbits in the northern interior. These birds 

^ed almost everything, but their favorite prey was the Chinese Pheas- 

h formerly an numerous bet- were reported to have 

i cat«, puppies, and many species of birds. Hundreds of the Owls were 

shot, but *omr remained in ttV until spring II I V 



Newburyport Mass. Bird Club. — As the result of a lecture delivered 
m this c i- Baynes, the N j»rt Bird Club ca; eifcfcDCt, 

aas formally organised 16, as a branch of the Conserva 

ib It haa since become an independent 



104 i • Lore 

society of About 70 members and seeks to c oop era te with the 
SJbea 81 - 1 heir aims sod work. 

The first year of the Club has been sn interesting and successful 
■ dual member* have endeavored to attract, feed, house and watt 
birds, and many of the school-children have become interested in this phase of 
the work. One of our members keeps a most accurate record of his observa- 
tions the year round, and by comparing the records of several successive 
■MOM hM pktfcmd MM Vlkssbk hrftmnttiftn b near. I t-> l»ir«l lift- m «.wr 
commun: 

ithrop Packard gave an interesting illustrate-' 
LaM spring we were favored by an afternoon with C. C. Gorst, whose won« :■ 

ng bird-notes was much enjoyed and appreciate 1 This talk was 
inspirational as well as educational. One or two members addressed 
during the winter months. In connection with the Gorst 1« .is an 

n of Audubon leaflets, colored by the school-chiM- 
tion of the Teacher This was honor work, and host 1 50 

selected. These leaflets, neatly mounted, adorned portion in the 

hall where the lecture was held. Their were also specimens of bird-houses made 
by some of the school-boys. This small exhibit was afterward transferred t 
Public Library for the summer, as an encouragement id an 

incei irther w< 

A small, enthusiastic bird-class took walks in the s; 
of six weeks, under the direction of the well-informed members of I 
Much pleasure and profit resulted therefrom. 

This organization supported the passage of I law, 

through the Massachusetts Congressmen, at Washington. The cat and 
Sparrow questions have been discussed, but although some traps a: 
use, no genuinely satisfactory method of dealing with the problem has been 
found. 

The Gub hopes to continue doing good work through the coming year and 
especially to interest the children in a much greater degree. I .or a 

l> IfOOBS, Sf,trt,u\. 

The North East <Pa.i Nature-Study Club.— Our Club was organ 
ft, 1016, and has a membership of 35 enthusiastic men and won 
and girls. The President and Vice-President are men of wide experience and 
careful study, which they are willing to share with others. 

The regular meetings are held monthly from September I 
one of the most interesting features being the specimens brought by each 
member, either labeled with a description of the same or for idei 
many as forty specimens are often presented at one meeting— some of 
rare and beautiful and their display made possible only by the 
effort* of many. They include flowers, ferns, leave galls, h> 






Reports of Affiliated Organizations to$ 



rds and their nests, butterflies, moths, insects, 

vided into groups to make a special study of one subject dur- 
ing the summer months and then report. The fern group studied under the 
Cushman, who has a collection of at least twenty different 
species of fern growing on his private grounds. Two high-school girls did 
splendid wort ioth and hut Id, having about fifty specimens 

mounted and read nd describe. The different stages of the worm 

andthc.hr . ocoon. were also show 

iman. an entomologist stationed in the Lake Erie fruit-belt 
oke to the < the subject of 'Flowers and In- 

!'re>ident addressed the high-school students on The Pro- 
Is.' The Club has pla> 
a book 01 in the public libra 

rubers of the Club who travel is observ m other 

places, and word-pictures of Florida and i (lacks were made much more 

ison of our mutual knowledge of at -.— (Miss) 

Pasadena Cal. Audubon Society. — Our Sodet) held Mva meetings 
ir, about six weeks apart, one of them in the af terno 
ng. and the last was an all-day >rs. 

Williams Myers, Secretary of the ( 
fomia \i. >. nifty, gave a talk on the recent progress d iu d a b o ai work; 

Ire, read a paper entitled. 'Our Feathered 
'■ed-Destr At the second meeting we had an illustrated 

lectui Mrs. Granvillr Koss Pike, Bird Chairman for the Fed- 

eral' Washington, and lecturer for the National Associa- 

tion of Audubon Societies. 

ne of thf Directors of the California Audubon 
and at th Acting President, was the speaker at <>ur third meeting, and 

gave 
as a lecture on the Customs and S ns of the Alaska Indians, 

renu that counm Mrs. William Folger. for 

dent of • i Dakota Audubo ty, gave a delightful talk at 

ng on the birds al*»ut her Dakota h. 
At i meeting, we enjoyed a talk by John J Fredericks, IYm 

of the California Audubon Society, on the subject of his then-recent w 
the cause of birds among the legislators at the state Capitol. The atl 
mu was the picnic, where . liners were three members of the Las 

e meetings there were, besides the 
rcpared papers or informal talk >ur members. 

has had made and placed on the roof of a tall bar 



io6 ore 

Pasadena a Martin box consisting of thirty room*, in ihrrr stories. 

mas time we placed a 'Birds' Christmas Tree' in one of our parks, in dose 

proximity to the large municipal Christmas tree. We thought i 

to the children's interest in birds. In the winter we contributed $200 each I 

California Humane Association and the California Audubon Society, to aid 

them in important legislative work then pending. We were able to give this sum 

of $400 through the generov \\ Brooks since deceased, who was 

always a true friend to the birds. 

are annual members of the American Humane A*so« 
fornia Humane Society, Pasadena Humane Societ itional Assort 

of Audubon Societies, the California Audubon Society, and the 
Society for the Protection of Birds. 

Some of our members, in small groups, but not as a S*> e taken 1 

walks now and then during the year, especially in the spi 
the National Association's 'war' posters have U-en put op (afisi I 
K WAUKM s ' "' 

Port Huron Mich. Bird Club. The Club has had the ple.i tear- 

ing two public speakers during the year 1916-17. On October x 
Tripp. <>f Forest, Ont., gave an interesting talk on 'M I riends.' 

Hegner. of Ann Arbor, in connection with the Teacher usion 

■t, gave a lecture illustrated by the stereopticon, February 8. 
March, a bird-house campaign was started and work was scalou> by the 

school-children. On April 7, the exhibition of bird-bouses was he! Pubtti 

Library, and prizes were awarded for best workmanship in high-m 
seventh and eighth grades, and below the seventh grade. Prizes, alv 
feeding-, drinking- and bathing -devices were open to all grades. The school 
having the most entries was given an Audubon Chart, thus stimuli 
interest in bird-study. Prizes were also given for bird storic 
115 entries in the exhibit, and the increasing number of bird-bouses seen 
around the city shows splendid interest in the welfare of the birds. A fine present 
of bird food was given to the different schools, to be fed by the children to 
the birds in the winter- time when food is scarce.— Mas. I turn. 

BansSjr) 

Rhinebeck <N. Y.) Bird Club. The Rhineheck Bird Club was 
years old when, on November 21 t became officially affiliated with the 

National Association of Audubon Societies. In that time it had grown from 
nothing to a vigorous club with the sentiment of the whole village aroused to a 
keen interest in its bird-life. During the last year it has, perhaps, been not 
Quite so active, owing to the absence of the President on military duty and other 
urgent demands upon its members. Nevertheless, the usual program has bees 
maintained, including public lectures, work in the schools, and publications. 



i 



.11 

i 




IR!^ 








vNDSUIT 
I IT. 



(tor) 



ioft ore 

Crosby have been the 
Mi far this year. 
One of the difficulties of the Club is the absence of a hall large enour 
accommodate all those who desire to attend the lectures; \ 
sessions were necessary. Junior AuduUm work is ftV in the schools, 

r members being recorded at the last annual meeting \ 
itg devices an< <-s made by school 

■0 much i material I udges had a hard task to scle* i the ; 

winners. In addition, commercially manufactured bird-boxes are alwa 
sale at the headquarters of thr Club and have bo purdaai 

menr food, an; ures, has also been um 

mcmlicrs. For small users, the food is put up in >- and 10-pound bags, m.i 
with the name of the Club. 

• he way of public.t ,l> has distril. tr-Book, 

h this year included a rapl • neswpaper articles by the 

I'resi iKmklet has proved of su»h 

being used as a textbook on birds in some of the schools of Dutches 
\t the proper seasons, the Club members and to all n 

tables of spring and fall migrations and nesting dates, also compiled by the 
President from his observations. Finally, 1 1 Rhinebe 

- and parcels have been distributed broadca h the 

town.— Ci Q \ i ! : Secretary. 

Rockaway N. Y. Bird Club. In N 
organization of the 'Kockau rial Asstx 

og our fee t<> the home office and becoi 
affiliated with the National work. 

\\ • have had two public meetings during the year, both 
. i ted by stereoptkon views. The first speaker was H 
rial Association, a: DgOOf first attempt, U 

in a small hall. We were delighted to find it Hied to overflow 
and all available spaces occupied by standees. With 
outlook, we held the second lecture by Baynes in a much larger hall 1 
was a splendid attendance and several dollars were added to our almost 

The monthly programs have brought forth several interesting and valuable 
papers and talks on such subjects as 'Conservation as Appl ! orest 

Land in the Adirondack*, \ Fairfield (Connecticut) S.-. 

'Bird Migration,' 'Bird-Routes and Time-Tables/ An interesting part of each 
program is the round-table talks and the question-box with which we usually 
conclude our meetings. Bird-houses have been made and placed, several 
baths made, feeding-stations established and kept supplied all winter, an 
in fresh-water ponds broken and the water made accessible to winter 




Reports of Affiliated Organizations too 

January i, 1917, when members were replenishing a birds' Christmas 
several varieties of birds were seen drinking at a hole made in tt 
within a few minutes of its being opened. Among these were Robins and a Red- 
breasted Nuthatch that passed the winter in the 

One of the most fortunate events that has occurred so far in the histor 
!ul> Ls the establishment, by Mrs. Daniel Lord, of her estate 'Sosiego' as a 
be estate is bordered on one side by the salt-marshes near the 
ocean, and has a large fresh-water pond and a wood which has long since been 
appropriated by the Black-crowned Night Heron and the Little Green Heron as 
a tanctuar uiy their own. Members of the Club are privileged to 

. at any time for observation and study. We have taken an m 

rd Law at Washington and have endorsed and eir- 
culated the petition for legislative work on the 'Robinson Act' for licensing of 
•v York state. 
June 16 the Club joined the Woman Citizens' League of Flushing, 1 I 
in a bird-walk and basket picnic, ending with a talk on birds by Dan Beard. 
In the same month we sent a special contribution of $5 to the National Associa- 
1 n response to an appeal for money to carry on the work of further protect- 
ing the song-birds from ruthless slaughter. The Club received and place-! m 
various haunts of the birds, both in Queens and Nassau Counties, 600 of the 
rial Association's 'war* posters, printed on cloth, and is expecting to post 
100 more of these when they arrive. The English Sparrow discussion has been 
MBt and animated, but, without organized and united effort of the entire 
oommun early useless to attempt anything. 

• townspeople, as a whole, do not seem keenly interested in Nature, but 
the Club hopes to reach many of these indifferent people through its various 
n Clubs, several of these having already been started by teacher- 
members of the regular soci< • can get enough of these formed, we will 
at least rest assured that we have laid a firm foundation for thorough and suc- 
cessful work in the future. -Mabcasft S. Gsf.en, Secretory. 

Kumeon (N. J.) Bird Club.— Owing to the war, there has been a re- 
the affairs of the Rumson Bird Club this past yea: 
however, have not been altogether inactr 
In January, we had a very interesting l< Id Birds and H 

tract The nest H. Baynes.of Meriden. N II I « washdd 

at the residence of the President of the Club Then- was a good attendance, 
co mp os e d of all the prominent members. 

February, a lecture was given by the well-known bird imitator, Edward 

■ e People's Lecture Course at Oceanic. N J the expense of their. 

being defrayed by the President of the Rumson Bird Club. Beccher S. Bowdkh, 

Secretary of the New Jersey Audubon Society, was present at this lecture and 

spoke, particularly urging the boys and girls to engage in a contest for the 000- 



no Bird- 1 

ion of bud-houses, for which suitable prises were awarded. There 
three prises, all in gold, which were presented to the successful contc- 
ui March. 

In April. Chapman's book, entitled Travel* of Birds,' was distribute*! 
among the individual members of the Club. 

We have endeavored to support the efforts of the National Association and 
have posted 250 parchment circulars in regard to bird-protection. This was 
done under the supervision of the Rev. Art h of Oceanic, a part 

of the Borough of Rumson. Mr McKay is at the head of the Boy Scon 
Rumaon, and the boys were employed to distribute these circulars. 

\\ ' itstributed approximately 150 bird-houses this fa! 

those for Flicker. Nuthatch. Wren, and Bluebird, among the members of the 
Uul> We expect to go still further with this work in the year of 1918. 

It is the aim of the Executive Committee of the Rumson liir 
deavor to stimulate interest in birds and their protection, particularly among 
the natives of the borough. Unfortunately, the Club has not had very much 
success at present in exciting much interest among the children of the wealthy 
summer residents. The Executive Committee is convinced that HI 
children will be more receptive and show more interest in birds and their pro- 
tection if some kind of stimulus can be placed before them. This we hope 
to do by offering yearly prizes for bird-house construction, engaging some well- 
known lecturer to speak as a part of the regular Oceanic Course of Entertain- 
ment, and always at the expense of the Rumson Bird Club.— John B. I.t sosa, 

.V< f (tor \ 

Saratoga N. Y. Bird Club. Our Club has held nineteen meetings dur- 
ing the year. The following addresses and talks have been given: 

September, 1916, 'Forestry and Its Importance in Preserving W 
Prof. Samuel N. Spring, Cornell School of Forest: 

of Saratoga Count Ingersoll, BaUston Spa, connected with Federal 

field-work; the meeting on this date was held with the Junior League at the 
High School Auditorium. March, 1917, 'Bird Migration Ingersoll. 

March, 1917, 'Birds of Texas,' Mrs. James W. Lester, a Club member. July. 
1917, 'Birds and Trees of Florida,' Mrs. Adelaide Deubon, a Club member. 
August, 1917, 'The Human Side of Birds,' Dr. Caline S 

the March 15 meeting, the President. Waldo 1 I . reported hav- 
ing written members of the Senate regarding passing of the cat ordinance. 
April 5, 1917, 'Bird Sanctuaries,' Gilbert Bene<l 
ods of Teaching ChUdren How to Work with Best Re- -key. 

The Bird Club enjoyed a visit to the country home of one of its members, 
a short trip by trolley. 

The importance of bird-protection has often been emphasised. The Juniors 
built a Martin-house for our city park. Last November our Club joined the 



Report* of Affiliated Orcanuations m 

ial Auduboo Society. Our President has reported forty pairs of Martin* 
I garden this summer. 

ersoll told us that the most beautiful bird he had ever seen was a 
Redstart, which was pure white except the wings, which were yellow, a 
rare case.— Cakoune C. Walk -rcrekuy. 

Seattle Washington Audubon Society. — The second year of our 
' v has been one of success, both in the increase in membership and in 

era are now 132 active members. Regular month! 4$ are held in 

the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce and Commercial Club, where lectures 

en by Samuel F. Rathbun. Pi Miss Mc- 

i-y, and otlw rs We have had a number of 'bird-walks' which have been 

• led and much pleasure and knowledge demo 1 tibri The public 

school teachers ha I he work whole-heartedly, and too much 

praise cannot be given them for the work that they are doing with the school- 

Our chid a iring the year was a bird-exhibit which was given in 

conjunction with the manual training department of the city schools. Bird 







1 1 



Bird 



houses by thr hundred* w« I was 

manifested, and the exh 

being crowded all day and evening. The advertising was uniqu >uscs 

• hundred bring hung up at 







ll W lolls 



.ich carrying a banner advertising • be boys sold a 

great many houses, and the Society received an accession in men 

•its are being made to have bird-houses and drinking iced 

in the public |«rks, and the Society hopes that the t im< 
the cats will be licensed, to which end we hope t<> w 
the Humane v 

iddrema bdon bin Pmrenti reachen Isaodalioai have been nu<i< \>. 
local members. A call for literature on bird conservation came to u- 
off Russia, and these things have given us courage and enthusiasm for the 
of the coming year.— ( Mr k \ 1 11 1 x i m \ 



South Bend Ind. Humane Society. -The South Bend Human- 
has about ico slides of birds, and during the year these have been used in I 
number of the schools. 




Reports of Affiliated Organizations 

il> in this cil) has I • and has ha« I monthly 

iigs and nun < ! walk-.. Quit done 

in the public schools through the aid of the teachers. Once a week icher 

in the lower grades gives talks on the birds and animals, and a great many 
of th< cs are ornamented with hundreds d the halls 

rooms, so that th< ->g continually educated by th< 

a> well a> the ear. 

is spring we had an essay a o essays on birds and 

;»ectstoe. t number 

of illu 

- gave a bird-talk for the benefit ross 

tfa the result that the sum of $40 was set he work. 

ear the National Association ol Audubon Societies formed a 
numU-r of Junior Audulxm classes in the schools of South B 
work M \ 

South Haven Mich. Bird Club. Thai Chib was temp*- nan- 

' mder the irold Baynes. following 

. ami the presentation of the Bird Masqu< lary.' 

•rganized »th 36 members enrolled. We meet 

a month; short papers an d discussions make \< 

<nal Association, placed the magazine Biai> 
ur library, asked our local paper to publish a list of bird boot 
iml at the library, and for a few weeks caused to be published, one day 
a wc« suggestions for the care and protection of our early raign 

« hristmax Census contained 14 species and 151 

if local ladies' litem we celebrated John Burroughs' birthday, 

a bird program, decorating the rooms with spring flowers 

nests and forty mounted specimens of birds and a hundred or so 

colored plates, bird-houses, bird-music . bird-poetl) tad l>ird-papcrs, rilled two 

hours' lime ami mu est was tal 

M .t meml>crs added more bouses for the spring arrivals, and some 

have sun evdull) trap) gli*h Sparrow. A Mockingbird gladdened the 

heart, eyes, and ears of our President all winter and well into the spring, when 
she spent muth time in her gar! 

1 small party of our members spent a delightful day in the woods, 
>cd 51 species of bi 
1 secure an ordinal control of stray cats. 

■g, and a little proud, so far. for a one-year-wl- 

Spokane Wash. Bird Club. Our organization has been in exi st ence 

id an illustratnl ' 



Bird - Lore 

the Chenev Normal School 01 
Birds.' 

One of the regular meetings was planned for ihr purpose of m 
members acquainted with each l ustead of the usual formal program, 

contests were arranged, re qalrin g ti .ation of local birds. 

Last spring sever rips were planned by the committee app. 

that purpose, the one on Decoration Day to Glen Tana Farms '• 




I r MADE 1 SE BIRD M 

largely attended and the most successful from the standpoint • 
and variety of birds seen. 

The Mini Club exhibit at the Interstate Fair, held the first week in Sep- 
tember, was greatly appreciated, judging from the favorable comment « of the 
large crowds that stopped to examine this display. 

The members of the Bird < have accomplished a good p. 

this year by helping to establish a much-needed city museum. One floor 
down-town business block has been rented, and a large collection of stuffed 
birds, birds' eggs, and other interesting material has been sssemhlrrl for the 
instruction of the public. A curator has been placed in charge, and the 
museum is kept open each afternoon of the week. The Bird Cub now 
holds its fortnightly meetings in these rooms. — Gertrude Ka 
TVamaw. 




Reports of Affiliated Organizations 






County N.J. Nature-Study Club.— This Club will, in November. 
- h birthday, and, although organized for I of Nature 

>irds caught and have held our interest, and our 
the moat popular feature of our work. While this has 
<-en a banner year in the number of birds seen, we have been pleased with 
a nui irer ones — Pine and Evening Grosbeaks, several species of 

ue aw! Mourning Warblers, and White-crowned Sparrow. The 
he individual members attract ;al winter 

vhom become tame enough to eat from the hand. The in- 
large flocks of Starlings are causing apprehension.' Three years ago 
re and there was a stray one to be seen. 

as endeavored to comply with all requests set. >nal 

lubon Societies r. < work, and have posted in 

various places in provided bj tonal 

Association. During the year on ment was given at 

•unty-N4 consisted of an exhibition of reels from the 

a report ub- meeting is sent 

[tapers, and the interesting n these reports 

ionc their part toward rousing the interest of the people of 

eat value and the necessity of becon 
nany communities ists in the hearts of some of 

our hunters an antagonism for the Audubon Society, but a lack of sympathy 
ie law-breaker is fast causing enforced respect, if not honest abandonment 
•hleas killii .• I BlancHI H 1 1 1 . Secretary. 

Vassar College N. Y. Wake-Robin Club. During the |*st year the 

ub have not been so extensive as formerly, because of the 

ganizations in college of economizing both in time and 

money, as a result of our war-preparedness program \\ ds on the 

campus during the winter In the spring the Club made its annual vU 

roughs at Slarnidcs,' where, after a picnic lunch, Mr burroughs 
iHy on the birds.— (Mist) MiLnari> \ I t>ut. Secretary. 

Vigo Count. Bird Club. The plea of the birds was first bear d 

me ss eng e r , Ernest H. Baynes. the 

Nil ,i -Liutauqua tour, organized the Vigo 

whose aim was to fo*< \ •reservation and -stud % 

further the movement for bird sanctut/iea. The officers were: President. 

Sara Messing \ ice- President, Assistant Superintendent of Schools 

leney; Secretary, Miss Amanda Lotze. 
vilar program for the year, under the direction of Prof. Till* \ . 
whose suggestions were most helpful, was as follows: Biography of 
ill Migrat seated n« the met 



n6 



Bird -Lore 










nil 



>roqght U 

\\ "rial feat 

hvi\ through the aid 
of the Indiana State Normal Sena* 
school the making of novel and | >r 

exhibited in the windows of the prominent >tores and the awar<' 

made charts of their ■ 
located as many bird-nests as possible and marked theii 
They then watched the progress of the brooding and. as the eggs ■ 
colored the mark* hart act ;ind dnsitied tin 

"light research work aroused great interest among the little 
< .ninth, head of the art department of the pu 

intercut by introducing a course irawing into • ilum 

of her department. 

igorous newspaper campaign was conducted against the « 
ornaments or feathers as adorn nur general publicity, so gran 

us l.y the newspapers, was of great aid in our I 
accorded space for articles written monthly by Club m« 
month being the birds inhabiting these parts at the tin 




Reports of Affiliated Organizatio 117 

ngregational Church I 

ng and illuminating talk on 
Meats,* ill specimens and 

at e r pr e ta l ills. 

numeiou 
look back ar's work, we feel most 

■ ear's work .< I thr little fcath- 

Wellesley College Mass. Bird Club. OurCfobiaon nthsoid, 

but it t-s with the cnthualui posts. It- 

rda and to OOOaWC and develop the 

lege grounds. raa the immediate 

inization of tin- Club, tin I thr birds to the 

the ravages Club was 

) and was launched very happily up 

Harold Haynes, with a ts.' 

and conducted a series of early 
walks an its bulletin board a record of q 

il> was provided with a cht the Mas- 

sac h ncluded more than 

ib is also work lose cooperation with thr la« ally Gonmif 

on the Conservation and Development of th< 

is Commt ■• a member of tin 

This Commit tee, by means of a generous gift of an interested alumna, had 
ing the preceding fall, establish* than a dozen winti 

rious points on the campus, and had learly 100 ne 

boar !ub was pre- \\ • 

designer, John C. Lee, of WellesUy . In the care of these feeding-stations and of 
sting-boxes, the Bird < render valuable assist.. m cause of 

conservation. Already, in the nrst season, more than half the Uote* were 
occupied by nesting bird*. 

.<• rcstorat l» to the college grounds and t U be 

• 
md measures that will assist in their conserva- 
make, each year, some pennan< • this 

cause, such as a bird-bath, a drinking-fo r a bit of planting that 

provide both food and In this way the it 1 find 

permanent expression, and the beauty of the campus will be preserved and 
future generations.— -M 



Bird - Lore 

Western Pennsylvania Audubon Society, [he Bodetjr 1 ! outings 
past year under the enthusiastic leadership of the 'Country Ran > rand 

\\ Vrthur, were very popular. These are all-day affairs (Satur 
at the appointed plao lirman appoints leaders of small groups and 

assigns them a I n the mid-afternoon all groups unite I .lders 

report the discoveries made by his or her gr. illy a sil- 1 was 

•r bird- voices. 
The lectures are, as a rule, free to members, with a small fa 
tvts during the past year wen W 

I leveland, Ohio; Geory 

-worth. Pa w S rhomi 

riggs, of Norristo ■ I 
and th« 
annua) affair in March. Member* are thus enthused to get >ooks 

and field-glasses and take to the highways and hedges. La 
lovers dined and were addressed by the President of the n I harlea B. 

Morton, and 1> »e, of Philadelphia. Pa., President of the stat 

gs were received fron I ihon, representinR thr 

National Association of Audubon Societies. M 
burgh, exhibited his wonderful mot ires of bird-life — procl. 

cities to be the finest ever taken. The Society has increased tl • 
in bir n the schools and created a desire I Knowledge 

sands of people. All over western Pennsylvania, bird-shelters, fa 
and nesting-boxes have been erected; food-bearing shrubs and trees have been 
planted; cat facts have been made known; and appeals ceding at 

times of heavy snow-fall have been made in the daily papers. The officers of 
the Society are as follows: Preside ii. Hon- 

Fred I I second Vice-Presid. I I RobinstM Presi- 

dent. R. H. Santens; Treasurer I I ; \\ litmus, 

Sfl rrt.ir\ 

Wild Life Protective Society of Milwaukee.— Realizing the immense value 
of junior work in connection with wild-life protection and conservation, our 
main activities were centered about the school-children and their schoolrooms 
with the idea of organising a strong army of defense — inculcating into every 
boy's and girls mind the noble spirit of wild-life protection. words, we 

hoped to accomplish by constructive measures what restrictive measures had 
failed to do. 

Our plan was to organize in every school, whether public, private, or 
parochial, a bird club comprising the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth grades. 
The teachers of the different grades selected one of their number to act as 
director of the club and the children elected a president and secretary. Each 
member of trw-M* rluh* was then presented with <-mblematir of the 




Reports of AfflHued Organizations no 

parent society and showing their affiliation with it. Each club was aJao presented 
\udubon Bird Chart to be used in their daily or weekly work, 
Die future conduct of these clubs is, of course, 
left largely to the dir e cto r! and the principals of thr various schools, 
ing at all times ready to m vord and counsel. 

h the assistance of a large chart, slides, and hlms, I talk to the^e tlu»»- 
irom time to time and help to keep alive the interest. We have now some 8,000 
children enrolled in these affiliate -ibs, and we have only started. > 

also had made a set of slides for use in our local movie houses. We have found 
be of great value in carrying on thi^ work and earnestly recommend 
nethod of propaganda to all our fellow conservationists. This has been 
almost our en' the past year, and we hope to continue the work this 

>g year. I believe that education is the only real solution of this great 
<m, and that to educate the children and teach them the I 

■iservation is the greater and more important obligation of all 
••athered friends. — Adoi im Bd k^\< m. Secretary. 

Williamstown Mass.) Bird Club. Our Club was started in January. 
. after a lecture by Mr. Baynes. In the spring there was a lecture for the 
school-children, given by Mr. Packard. On Arbor and Bird l>a\ there were 
addresses I I Clarke and Judge Fenney. 

Letters were written by Prof. Clarke and by Jodgi ur legis- 

lators, in regard to the Migratory Bird Treat 

The Club was made a member of the National Association of Audubon 
he sending of $5 to the Massachusetts agent, Winthrop Packard. 
A special ion of $5 was sen Massachusetts Audubon S« M 

rotection of our native birds, made necessary at that tin 
unusual amount of the shooting of birds by foreign laborers, who plead the 
excuse of the high cost of meat. 

A beginning has been made toward a collection of bird-skins, and the follow- 
ing ones have been purchased : Tree Swallow, pr . ; Red I Tree Sparrow, 
beak, pr.; Chickadee iludsonian 

ox Committee was authorized to spend $15 on nesting-boxes. 

About fifty boxes were put up in various parts of the village and many of them 

occupied. Some members of the Club were a- luting the number 

arrows, and more member* fed ar birds with seeds and 

*uct 

U has a membership of 57 and a balance in the bank of $47 
I XNALD, Secretary. 

nston-Salem 1 N. C. Audubon Society. -Our May meeting waa held 
he lawn at Mr. and Mr It \\ I olts'i home <m West Second St n-rt 



i jo hi rd- Lore 

There was a very large attendant c inclu 
members were added to our roll. Thiswa- 
v) thoroughly enjoyed by all present thai »ld mor« 

Schallert. the Prosidei r the business 

had been attended Schallert read ■ 

Society from the la>t annual report J .ttional Association of \ 

Societies. He also told us of his experience in pravicl 
f«»r the birds at his hoi 

meeting w near the 

id. 
Our kind host and hostess then conducted - 
grounds of several acres, where we were shown the nesta of various 1 
including th< Cardina and Car 

. some on trees and bushes, some in nesting-boxes, and some 
back piazza. Also a goodly numU-r of birds were seen and heard during the 
seemed to fear no danger from the gath< - 
(turned 1 f some well ! 

ions ripe fruit of which constrain* 
we finally reached the lawn a. rith most 

lemonade before i i homes. 

Our Jul ig was held with our enthusiastic ncmh 

Craii «ir beautiful new home northwest of the city, n< 

The afternoon was warm but clear, and a goodly company were in at 

rst adjourned ', 'rings at the foot of a iteep hill north of the 

dwelling, and after drinking of the excellent water, we started on our tram: 
half-mile through the woods and fields, along streams of runt 
with beautiful ferns and wild flowers of mat 
plained to us by our botan 

Among the t> found and exam in. 

of a Chipping Sparrow in an old apple tree; a ("hewink whose nest 
brown spotted eggs was right on the ground; a on 
wood limb that was so full of fluffy youngsters that it secmo I 

irning Dove that was sitting on her two cream-white eggs in a r< 
looking nest in a wild plum tree, but she flew away on our a; 
returned to the house, almost even' lady had quite a t 
and medicinal herbs. 

he large front piazza in the cool evening breeze, 
session was attended to, and then we bid our kind hosts adieu, and in n 
cars sped away to our city homes. 

have a number of Junior Audutxin Societies organized in ou ols, 

and some of them are doing splendid work. We are going t< 
work to the country >choob this fall and hope to have good row 
We had one excellent illustrated lecture during the war bv I 




Reports of Affiliated Organizations 






i II \\ i 

Wyncote Pa. Bird Club. In the i lird Clul. 

j ear has been the m«»>t 1 bectuae the Qnb ha> becone more 

ias been I that in * 

e pressing du: 




>>ird»and Club, 

expect any day to go > at hia count 

II uncjuot 

n made ■ 

bouses in an «»1d orchard 
one of then. 

r walk* <t|uontl^ 



K.rd-Lorc 

popular, and sometimes our trusty Fords are tilled t We had 

our usual picnic in June, with a bird-walk first and then lun« h in the woods. 
In July. 47 mrmU-rx went in two big automobile truck* t< i it t> 
Acad« \ aural Sciences, io\niles away. 







IA. HIR1» 






/« were awarded for -<\ photograp .lions of 

songs; (j) essay on 'Wild I bifd (other than I 

Starling) to hatch young in box made by com; 
a wild bird alights (not awarded). 

sparrow trap was bought by th< I 




Reports of Affiliated Organization^ 






iuu considerably diminished. Some have tried eating them and endorse this 
aa a good way to aid food-conservation. 

end iccding-stations were kept constantly supplied with food last winter, 

- ute Game Commission helped us in t iiating $10 to the cause. 

We have had some good lectures this year, one by Samuel ScovSe, Jr.. 

Ik>y Scouts of Philadelphia and Counties . K . ■ . Berbetl 

who used the Pennsylvania State Museum Slides; and 

. Secretary' of the State Game Commission, who used stuffed 

mmon bir.U to illustrate hi> interesting talk. In December, 

70 oi i.irold Baynes, the foun u Club, in his 

ectureon 'Wild Bit 
•we m*-t entertainment was almost cut inly by the Jun 

is a great source oi encouragement to the Club. We feel that 
especially in these strenuous times the Bird Club gives a needed recreation 
and has another purpose than helping the bints. — Estueb Heacock, Cor- 
<ank*y. 




)IN TM SOCIATION 

AND 

HELP THE CAUSE OF BIRD-PROTECTION! 



^ 



The Educational Leaflets 

OF THE 

National Association of 
Audubon Societies 



>our 



* Tke beel mhi of looraiag ike bud, of 
••igbborbood. and of le«ck.»g your cbiUrw. 
4J Eocb leaftet deecribe. Ike kab.t. aod adUty of 
otM bird, and fml ii w • driacbed colored plate aad 
•a oulbactkeicbof ita»ab|ect. 
4J Tke CtUnJPUtu are faithfd port rain of ike 
bird., yot treated artatficaJljr. at it akowa by i! 
ample* m tke border. No belief ptctaraa ol ikeir 
kiadeu*. (RaieaaottoldatparaleJy.) 
f Tbt Outl.r^t .re un.Uiod co; fa o| fa aft** 
.mmded lo be colored-ike beat aaetbod of fcxiag 
f ecu is a youag auad. 

^ Them laaaWli. 94 ta number, ere »old ol 3 ceat* 
.i of ihete Lealet*. aad olker public* 
inn. will be aval oa raqaajl lo ike 

National Association of Audubon Societies 
1974 BraeaV.y. New Tari 






SUBSCRIBE TO THE MAGAZINE 

BIRD -LORE 

COLORED PLATES ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 




I SUMMER TANACER. Afelt rate 

2. SUMMER TANACER. Yoonfimta 

3. SUMMER TANACER. P«Mfe 

(Ofwhalf r«m: «| 



4. HEPATIC TANACER. Mai* 
8. HEPATIC TANACER. F«ntto 



^trb=ltore 

A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

DCVOTKD TO THK STUDY AND PROTECTION OP BIRDS 

O'nciftl Ok«*m or Tmc Auouio* «Oc i • i * 

Vol XX March- April. 1918 No. 2 



Some Notes on Martin Colonies 

I. WHY NOT KSTABLISH A PURPLE MARTIN COLONY 

THIS . 

By ORACB ReSHORB. Dow.... M 

I companionship <>f birds, plan t<> sjtahlisJi ■ Purple Martin 

colony this year on your home grounds. 
era! years ago, a bird-loving friend — ;* i« 1 in me one April <b\ . I 
bundled! <»i M that I think would nest 

spend the HUUBi e i hen d im<l -ni tabic noting-places." 

years we have had one colony in the business 

ic space is limited, and when the young birds retUTU i«> the home 
nesting-pi South America, they are obttfed t«< move 

.*• home* for themseJvei The old birds will, if the neau 
ich year to the old home and bring their family with I 
m turn will make- for themselves new homes in the same locality, if *mt 
places ca 'id. 

In ind ignoram. I irold Baynes, a well-known 

Mtfcorit) on • were M tt that I 

had never seen thrm about our place did he dunk I «ould get them to locate 
that I had never seen tarn, probabt) m the mm that 1 
.ttra.t then; tint, d I would put up a Man m 
hou* thin an hour they would 

would take pu e m el nn probabh thr 
rear Two houses an han one, as I 

v nes suted that there were many good Martin-house* on the mar I 
oen able to »rc that the bird* showed any preference. > 
would be at apt to locate in a simple homemade affair a* in a more elaborate 
t the house were well located in the open, with the pole on which it 
was mounted made cat-proof. 1 would, without doubt, have the pleasure of 
seeing the house used and hearing the Martins' jolly musk all summer. 



Kird-Lore 

•ui thai time, I saw in Bibd-Lork a cut, with accurate mea* 
am) directions for making a Martin -hou>e. I took the cut to a local 

carpenter, Baking him to make me two of the houses, following the same general 
plan as illustrated in th< :<• not think the houses would be 

winners in a beauty contest, but, as Mr. Baynes said, the al 
cal. 

1 secured a 20-foot pole from the local telephone company, and, before 
painting it, I covered a part of the lower halt ->le with a sheet of 

thus making it cal-prx* n fastened the house on the pole with heavy 

angle irons, getting the first one up late in the afternoon 01 

The next morning I heard an unusual bird-note and looked out to local- 
sure enough, there were six or civ ng over and around t in- 

new house. They soon alighted «>n it and looked into the room. More came, 
until it seemed to me that all of 
of inspection, hut remain long. 

In a da I put up the second house, and that, also, wa 

promptly looked 01 e would be a day or so at a time whe >t see 

Uirds around, hut nearly every day a few would come and fly back and 
forth from one house to the >cn go away. 

By the middle of the month, a few pairs came to stay, probal 
the young, immature birds from the old colony. I could not se 
ence in the birds, as all looked alike. The young male and adu 
very much the same— backs a dusty black and breasts gray. The full plumagcd 
male does not have the complete dress of shining purple-black until us 
second postnuptial molt. 

My success encouraged others to erect houses for them, and we n 
in the « ity nine or ten houses of from eight to twenty rooms, all of 
occupied partly or in full. For the last two years I have had 'capacity' bouses. 
During the middle of a hot day they will seem to be away for several hours, 
hut morning and evening they can be seen and heard most 

It is said that a Martin will eat a thousand mosquitoes in a day can- 

not say that I miss any yet, I know that the Martins get a large par 
food at or near the house, ami all of their food is obtained from the air a> tbt 
about. The only time you - i* on the ground is when they are gather 

ing materials i iw.dry leaves, shavings, mud, and a few green 

leaves for lining the nest seem to be the materials most used, and from the 
inspection of the nests when the houses are taken down for the winl 
could not give them a first-class recommendation either as bousckeejx 
nest-builders. 

They nest only once during the season, and that rather late, as it 
warm enough for plenty of insects to be in the air for food for the young I 

Plan to start a colony this year; get your bouse ready and put it up the last 
of April or the first of May. Any boy can make one. Mount it away from 




Some Notes on Martin Colonics 127 

«»r buildings, put it up 15 or 16 feet from the ground, ami se< II not 

me of the birds flying over, who wi! ind inspect it 

perhaps, locate. You will be repaid for your effort l>\ their jolly mu-u <luring 

Thr Martins leave rather early in the wraaon — soon after the young learn 
time of their > <>ming varies with the season — April 1 ; is as early 
ive corn* a southei .-an. 

II. SOMK TOWN MARTINS 

By R r ONKAL, St. Lout.. Mo. 

eral seasons we have had a col. a rather 

■tied residence par' It mm that \h> >un<l their 

rigs congenial enough, and that they are not at all <tisturt>cil by the 
noise and bustle that are a part of city ! 

there was a four-family box, then two of them. For two mHMII 
it has been a sixteen-family settlement ami the home of tin to twenty laui 

tea — about 25 feet above the ground— are on scan* 
to a frame garage about 2$ feet from the rrar of the hou>e tad on the line of a 
paved and, at times, very noisy a! large box is on an upright 

that rises from tin 1 the roof. Within 300 feet there are five garages 

tenanted mainly with not always sil b, and 1 (thing of the 

• I in thi- -•> mm h for the social disposition 

of these cheerful birds. 

v was not put up until the Martina had been flying al*»ir 
some time, and they came to it at once, On M ». a lone male came 

v about 7 o'clock in the morning, ni rch for a little 

en flew away. It seems that the males always come first, and th> 
• m his appearanc came on April' < >t hers were flying about in 

a leisurely way, and it is possible that they had been in the neighborhood 
for several days. In iqi6. the date of arrival was I >. again at about ; 

o'clock in the morning. Thi 7 was a mil.l one, a good p.» 

h U-ing rather springlike, and one or two came about 9 o'clock on the 
morning tfa 

\ somewhat pecuhai feature >>, the dona of these birds is 

hat thr little colon) tor several seasons has been made up almo 
males. There have been visitors from time to time, sometime* mak 
ing up a mi \«-«l company of some ->r three summers there were 

seldor .an two males that seemed to be taking part in building the nest* 

<• young birds. Sometimes two females gave their attention 
to one ape - med probable that they were using a single neat, 

as is con h some of the domestic fowls. 

of the fledglings is made op of the common catch that it 



i>8 



Mird-Lore 



easily swallowed an y digested. Later, when the young a 

it seems that dragon-flics are much sought, and these are • drjwl thr 

throats of the voracious youngst er s w ings , legs, and all, with ming. 

pruning, or macerating of any kind. Catch a X and feed as caUfl 

this seems to be the Martins' way of providing for mg. 

While highly specialised along certain lines, as in their manner of seining the 
•r gnats an«l other minute fiven, tin .ire not all-round • 

any means. They are very solicitous for the sa- 
not apt at meeting some unusual conditions, and the fledgling ' 




SOME TOWN MA^ 
rbota«n»Wd b» E4..H S Da«M. 

ground b usually lost. And that first plunge, that trying of 
the experience that comes of with even chance of reaching a land i 

dashing against a wall — this is the supreme test in which a Martin lives or 
They are real artists in some respects, hut are utterly lacking in the 
that enables some of the ground-birds to pound a hard beetle into a In 
morsel. They know nothing of the engineering tactics shown 1 louse 

when she takes a stiff 6-inch twig through a hole the size of a qu. 
The straw that offers slight resistance b allowed to fall to the ground 
seem to waste a good deal of time in building very ordinary nests. The young 
birds usually come out in July. and. if the first flight b successful, soon learn to 



Some Notes on Martin Colonies 129 

tporl themselves with remarkable ease and grace. They usually lca\ 
t-s al»out September 1, btf they rHnttiintt get away ear' 
that long flight may be from New England to Brazil but what is that to 
t> of the air! 
•re seems to be a rather general impression that Martins are very par 
ular a /.<• of their quarters, and especially as to the size of the openings 

through which they are to come and go. There are reasons why this is partly 
ere are reasons, too, why it is true only in part. The habits of animals 
irds are controlled largely by instinct! that laid them to seek dark corners 
in inaccessible places, mere existence being the fast •• moderation, cot 

much part in the matter. Wild creatures can exist under 
moat uncomfortable conditions, hut t 1<1 not be forced to do so. If we 

attract the birds and offer artificial homes as inducements, we should 
also consi< fort and happiness, as well as th 

doing some of their ways. Shame on the InnMover who \s 

into a tomato can, only to be roasted, with their little 
ones, in the broiling sun of the long summer days! 

elisions of our smaller boxes are, approxin (ill inches. 

I lower apartments about 6 x 8>£ inches, with height of 5 inches. 

mg roof, which lias a break on each aid es the 

upper apart n advantage of greater heigh are 2x2 

ghfl bdng im retted by riigfel arch, with pa tches about i>£ inches 

from the I <-xtra perch, muih liked by the bank, is 00 akodai uprights 

cbes above the roof . The la -rpiecc of the set — 

h, aU» u|>|kt tad lower pen ha on the foot sides, and eight 

la, each al*>ut s l 4 x 14H inches. This box fronts in four directions 

I iiuhes V.t mmh t<> the liking of 
irds at fit t all in accordance with the idea* of the critics ,,f this 

lias been a kind of playground, and several broods have 
i|> in it. 
h the ordinary boxes, if the several apartments are occupied, there is 
at night for the pair and their fledglings, and the result is that some 
• iwded almost to suffocation Just here it is that the large box 
has served as a sort of overflow bungalow, affording In 

clement weather and comfortable aleeping-qua Iks and guests 

iner nifty 

1 the birds give grace and char: ph ture. 

away ear me of their departure. 

may be said that they are btrdsofgoo- perched 

tnes, and also in their rooms, the)- have a kind ..f rolling ami 

th a smacking of the mouth, and repeated ad anew, if not ad 

when on the wing, is dear and far-earning, and seena 

an that they are having a very good time. An occasional part oi their 



i3o Bird -Lore 

noisy ways, heard usually when they have gone it . b a sort 

of subdued chuckle, with sound sugg< ug of molars, that seems 

to be an repression of good feeling and contemn 

hare some of their usual notes, hut there is one other t 
of all. This b their loud, clear, exultant call, uttered wl 
with an air <>f great alertness, when hb fellows are cleaving the a sheer 

pleasure of artbtic flying— the ringing come-home' call and the 
he swift flyer that rant h the goal. 

III. THE SIZE OF ROOMS IN MARTIN-BOX! 

By |. J SHBRIDAN. St. Jo**ph Mo. 

eems to me some steps should be taken to n 

ng boxes for Purple Martins. An exhibit .xes being held 

at our public library this week shows the greatest variety of ideas as t 
proper size to construct these boxes, one handson. 
apartments had the rooms 3 # x 5 inches in dimensions, while an. 
about 10 inches each way. That thb condition should be con some 

manner goes without saying, hut the leading authorities are as widely apart. 
For example, in your January- February issue of 1014, a 
Start a Purple Martin Colony* says the rooms should be 8 x 8 x 10 inches, 
whil. I Dearborn, a Government apart, says the rooms should be 

6x6x6 inches. An authority on the subject says the Purple is 7.8 

inches in length. If this b a fact, then it stands to reason a room should be at 
least large enough to admit 1, and 8 x 8 inches would b< 

large. There b no doubt hut the bird will a<lapt himself to 6 x 6 
if he can do no better, but he will abandon the restricted qua- en he 

can find rooms large enough to accommodate him. I can reca 
instances where thb has happened. My boxes are built with rooms 8x8x6 
inches, and I think thb compromise will come as near met ting th 
ments of the birds as any size I have seen mentioned— at least m 
stay with the boxes, and that b a good argument. 

IV. HIGH MORTALITY AMONG THE PURPLE MARTINS IN 
WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA DURING APRIL, 1917 

By THOS. L McCONNEl L. McKrc.pon. P«. 

The old saying about the arrival of spring bird- bringing good weather has 
no foundation upon actual facts. The warm spell in u K ht 

back the Purple Martins ahead of time, and the subsequent cold rain 
almost annihilated the early migrants. Insectivorous birds that feed, lik 
Swallows, entirely on the wing and not off the trees or on the ground, require 
warm, fair weather. 



Some Notes on Martin Colonics 

loved seven dead male Martins of mature 

plumage : Sird-hou.se at Kittanning, Pa. This colony is about twenty 

year- I lor years has been made up of about pairs of older 

birds, all in high plumage, and this is the first year that many birdl in second- 
season plumage are in evidence. Last year's young birds do not return until 
.illy cannot get room in a well-established colony, hence seeking 
new homes. I mated that between one-third and one-half the older 

ied (luring April. 
>n going back over the daily weather report.* ' 

urgh. Pa, (45 mile* south of Kittannin- ng exceptional 

re found: 
It rained almost continuously from April 4 to 8, ind h the highest 

■r each day under 50 , exce; ;th. when it climbed to 6i°. 

Qth to nth. inclusive, it was fair and cold, the highest daily tem- 
|>eratures being 40°,34°, and 49°. During the remainder of the month there were 
er periods when the Martins were unable to feed. 
The fact that all the dead birdi found were males leads to the conclusion 
that the high mortality must have been early in the season, as the males 
precede the females in migration. The date of arrival for the Kittanning 
colony Ls not known, hut it is known that the M irned seven to ten 

days ahead of their usual time throughout the state. The in. male, 

reached IfcKecaporl 00 March .*f>. and many Infl arrival* were MOB 00 the 
-»4th at Way u oa bu ig, Pa. 

rig to the mortality among the Martins a -port. th< 

present home, there are now only six to eight hird> where sixteen to twenty were 
us years. The two big local colonies are near 1 
lis calam: . a light killing when compare.! to the almost t 

•n of Purple U throughout tb ugland States in 1903, 

he bad weather come two or three weeks 1*4 would have 

replenish our colonics. 

V A COLLAPSIBLE MARTIN-HOUSE 

By 0. HILLBH ClMKMti. Oh»« 

•4 some of your readers, I enclose her. •-* of 

•memade made of map-boxes, the lower story being 

somewhat sma ing the effect of a Swiss cottage. The house k 

hinged together and collapsible. The removable pins in the hinges allow 
house to be taken apart for cleaning. The aide of the house where the 
openings are for the nesting chambers is provided with hinged porches, thus 
making it possible to keep the house dosed to Sparrows until the proper 
tenants, the Martins, a I he partitions inside are worked in grooves, 

thus allowing a thorough cleaning. The pole or pipe la made of two 






Bird -Lore 



|>lni 

the 



and 1,4 inches in diameter rev, I collar near 

top from whirh thrrr thin cables run to as many cement a 
posts. The bouse has a a-foot pipe fasten*) 
in the main pole, the latter resting on a firm cement base, 
ground, with a steel shafting in center 

which the main pole slips in place. In winter, the pole with hou* 
down t«>U- put in a safe place indoors, to prearr no the ravages 

While we hav< rd-bouses in our garden, this is, 

all, and its cost b very little. 




y 1 







A MARTIN I 



Notes on the Tree Swallow 

By VERDI BUK 
Willi photograph* hy tW anlanr 



T 




HIKIN years ago Tree Swallows 
were very common over Lake Keuka, 

at Braruh|*.'\ \ \ 
early lief ore the ice had left 

the lake, until mid-September, these grace- 

>kimmed over the waters of the lake, their 
beautiful. Iii it fcacea l blur liacks gleaming 
in the sun. In those days there were, 
bordering on the lake and marsh, many 
Old will.»w. dm, ami map with 

their deal «»dpecker holes, and in 

these the Swallows made their no 

r crumbled and fell until all were 

also*! turm > «« over u tor .■in«. . 

gone, and the Swallows, after s pe ndi ng the 

•ijj with ua, passed on to some more favorable locality to rear 

I saw a pair of Tree Swallows invest iga ting a 1m n that 
This I mix was more than 50 rods 
•»ouRh the Swal- ^^^^^m* 

lows hung aroun several 

not seem to suit them 
esa» 1 Med H"A 

gavr -a which I carried out 

spring, when I made 

was done April 28, when 

u»t have been twenty or 

allows flying 

lay I saw a 

Swallow enter one of the boxes, 

and 4 a pair of Swallows 

K nesting materials 

one of them. This same day 




(i*j) 



Bird - Lore 

I grafted an old Downy Woodpecker's nest on p of another post 

m oui in the water, and before I had rowed my dim iway 

from it. a female Tree Swallow had alighted and was peering hole, 

while her mate was hovering overhead. The hole seemed to suit, aj 
almost immediately look possession and began to carry nest materials in 



^ 




A I I.LOW FAMILY 

Although they began nest-building thus early, it was done in a rather dean 
manner, and they did not appear in real earnest until the latter par 
By June 20 they were feeding young, both parents working 
supplying an abundance of food, various small dragon-flies forming a large part 
of it Itnih |iarents were seen carrying excreta from the ne> 
he water, where they dropped it 5 or 6 rods t 

A record of a typical half- hours' observation at the nest June 30 follows: 
Female feeds youn. ic male sits on top of the stub resting and yawning 

several times, then he flies away and soon returns with a small drag- 
which he takes into the nest and almost immediately reappears with e\ 
which he carries out over the water, dropping it some distance away. Soon 
he comes again with another dragonfly, alights at the bole, but flies away again 
without entering; does this several times, then enters. Appears in the opening, 
where he remains several minutes until the female comes. She goes in and 
there. Soon he comes back with a dragon-fly, goes part way in, backs out again, 
and waits for the female to crowd out past him when he goes in. 

Of the nine boxes placed in the marsh this year, five were oc • 



Notes on the Tree Swallow 



«J5 



ic n# M"^f ara son b over, the Tree Swallows, * lreda of Barn, 

.♦h-winged Swallows, gather in the evenings ova the waters of 
the lake and creek, where they skim ligl; ice of the wat< 

air, gathering their suppers from the hosts of insects flying there. 
At night they roost in the cat-tails, many of them close to the water's edge. A 
. those alread : hi- others with soft twitter- 

ings a rne; then there are constantly some flying up to take a few more 

in the air. and one too many will alight on the same leaf, causing it to 
U-n.i to the water, when all fly up and alight in another place. So it is really 
lark before all get settled for the night 
The fishermen here use an acetylene light with reflector, and we sometimes 
DC of these and row down the creek, and, by going carefully and throwing 
the light on the cat-tails, the Swallows can be seen, with heads tucked under 
their wings, asleep Rowing carefully along, we were able hem from 

the flags with our hands. 

The Tree Swallow is very fond of the water and will Ik- found most abundant 
r stream where there are many dead trees, with their old Wood- 
pecker boles, and, as I have shown, they can be easily induced to use boxes 
put up by man. 




^^ 




flMALI LOOKING OUT rinN MIST 







TO THE SONG SPARK* >\v 
By EDMUND J SAW> 

i we called you in t<«»t dl 

\\ hen Spring impelled us on <»ur truant 
How well we knew and loved Ihoee happy i 

You caroled from tin- bougfa I 

In feather, form, and n 

< >ld I in* oked you. soul and fran 
I he flight of years has changed you but in 

'Ground Hi r |, we c*l 

flitting and skulking hv tlu- br««>k. 

< ..illing and peering from the ^ 
Hopping and hiding, you have every look 

Of sprightK youth you had in da\ re. 

Your merry song, so sweet, so glad and fr* 
Your pose atop the fence or willow tr< 
Your long, loose tail, abob— all bring to DM 

The days that were, the days that are no m<-: 
(136) 



To the Song Sparrow 

I r«.m morn till night you ^ng. unlike the Inrush 
Remote withm the woodland's shade and bush, 
like the soaring I ark whose ^«»ngs outgush 
Hut reach un faintly like tin- songs in dreams. 
■t the tinkling stream, the gr.is»\ ddl, 
I In- homel) wayside no Reld and fell 

lhar places thai \w l<>\e mi well 
I hi \ chosen haunts and themes 

11 fabled happy lands, 

fl) m^ over palm ral strands, 

Where tropic seas and isles the vie* comaaands, 
sing; their splendors I d 

ir songs m\ feel ha-. 
I he Heaven that \<>u pr. i^t the sod; 

h<»\% I seem nearer t<> m\ 1 1 
liroun bird, with you, mv Bird oj Paradise! 



»37 




How to Make and Krect Bird-Houses 

»f HUBBRT WMCOII. A.hl.nd. Of* 

Pare beginning to understand more cle.i 
birds to mankind, and, as a result, they are putting forth grea 
toward the protection and preservation of bird 

One good method of bird preservation b the building of I. in I houses, an 
far a> In div id ual effort is concerned, a good deal of it has been directed in this 
line. Some have met with success and some with failure, the reason for the 
failures being that a very large percentage of the bird-bouses built are worthless 
because they are wrongly constructed. 

It is well that we should put up houses l< U. hut tirst we must under- 

stand a little of bird nature so that we may better know what k < »uses 

are suitable. 

Originally, birdi which nested in ca ier used cavities in trees caused 

by rotting of the heart of the tree, or they made their own nest cavities or used 
those made by other birds or animals. 

The Woodpecker is, perhaps, the best example of a bird which digs its own 
nest cavity. If we will observe we will find that the holes made by Woodrx 
for noting purposes are generally facing the east or south, and, if in a 
aontal or slanting limh. they will always be on the undent 

Facing the east or south they are leas exposed to storms th 
if they were facing the north. They are on the underside of a lin same 

purpose, and also as a protection against animal- - birds, k 

difficult of access and out of view. On observation we will find that th 
or floor, of the nest cavity of a Woodpecker is 6 inches or more bek> 
entrance-hole. This serves several purposes: It trd room 

without blocking the entrance; it serves as a protection against enemies; 
prevents the young from leaving the nest too soon. 

Thus, as a result of natural m birds have a. 

huild in nest cavities of this kind, and if we apply a few of these particulars in 
huilding bird-houses, much better results will be obtained than we would get 
otherwise 

One of the greatest, yet most common mistakes is makir 
the houses of human beings, with the entrance on a level with the floor. 

Birds do not value things from the esthetic standpoint. They prefer an 
old weather-worn bird-house to a highly painted one which shows skillful 
workmanship. The kind of nesting-site they choose is of vital importan 
them, and they select it for the protection and service it afford- rnses 

can be made out of hollow trees, kegs, slabs, and boards of any kind. 

Another very common mistake is that of making the bird-houses or rooms 
too large. For small birds which nest in solitary pairs, such as Wren 
dees, Bluebirds, etc., a room 4 inches wide by 5 inches long by 7 inches 

(iji) 



i to Make and Erect Bird-Houses 






» large cnou*: lickcrs, Owls, Sparrow Hawks and other larger birds, 

•oms should be about 6 inches wide hes long by 14 inches high. 

tis and other birds which nest in colonies, a bird-house can contain 

as many rooms as desired, each room having about the same dimensions as 

Is a good idea to have the side or the top of the bird-house hinged or 
removable, so that the old nest can be cleaned out, thus making room for a new 




stfccisnoNS toa si an soxss 

one for the following summer, and the birds will return to rear a brood year 

•ird-runw should not be placed less than 6 feet from the grourol 
•r above is preferable. They can be placed on barns, sheds, fence-posts, or 
ra trees. 

• Is always prefer houses more or less in the open, so that they can d< 
ntrudrr> which may come that way. They should not he placed amid the 



■ 4o Bird -Lore 

foliage and branches of tree * i 
in a conspicuous place, but the view from it should lie clear. 

Method is to bore a hole in a barn or shed and place • 
house on the insidt I especial! servation an- 

puip os ci 

•<> of very satisfa i-houses are show 

accompanying diagrams. Figun I 6, are t 

solitary pairs; 7 and 8 for birds which nest in colonies. 

These are a few of the main particulars in building and en 
and with a little effort we may 

feathered songsters about us. to add life and grace t 
till the air with song, and to glean the foliage of harmful inset I 



Photography at Feeding-Stations 

By C BRSD1R. Jr.. Newark. N ). 

A\ \ 1 1 K \I. outlet I mu bird-lovt 

the establishment of a back-yard 
my home is not the least suburban, all the birds that dei 
mine were gladly welcomed. Blue Jay's, Slate-colored J 
Downy Woodpeckers, and Brown Creepers were an more regular 

visitors, and I considered n With the coming of 

birds came the desire to record .graphical! > This wa 

easily accomplished because of their unusual timi made 

surroundings and the daily onslaughts of the horde of Sparrows 

infested the place. Seeing that 1 
would be few and far between, with the probabli 
off altogether, the idea was partly given up, but still the desire 
winter residents hung on. 

Early in the fall of 1916 the idea struck me of cs; 
ing-station for photographic purposes — going to the birds it the birds w 
not come to me. A companion nature-lover and m 
to take a bird walk through some rather unfamiliar I 
countryside. After about one hour's tn». he suburbs .1 

minutes' stiff hiking, we came to a beautiful bit of wooded farn 

were made to in, and we found it well supplied 

bird-life and were enabled to add a number of new name 
the 14th we decided at just what point* to establish the much-lab 
stations 

The first opportunity to do this came on tl 
brace and bit, and suet that had been run through a meat-cho) 
were located at rive points. One was in a large dead chc 



ography at Feeding-Stations 



u» 



i boles, H ' !un in diameter, arrangol in th< a triangle*. While 

lotographs were taken there, it was used M h by the birds of 

.vas located in a dead sapling <>t the same species, but 

for some unknown reason the birds refused to : in the very cold- 

\ third was in the cracked limb of another blighted chestnut, 

■bom 10 feet fi ground. It held more food than the rest and was always 

emptied before the- othen For a long time it was i as to what DM 

lid dispose of so much food in such a short time Blue Jays were 
suspected, l.wt imt many were in 
(ighborhood, and nothing could 
be proved again- 1 them. It was not 
until the winter had begun to break 
up that we learned that we had 
a Bock of about 
I believe a feeding-station 
- is unique, even if it i> 
unintentional Mm. Brown Creep- 
sere attracted to suet forced 
;ics in the bark of a 
£ oak. Some photographs ol 
Brown Creepers on it were taken b) 
but they proved to l*- 

a little too perfect examples ol 

. c coloration. The tilth and last 
•n was on post with an 

ample tratk into wh 

It was to this that by far 
Is were attracted, and 

■ 

Novcmln r 1 1 we saw only a solitary 

row, and it was not bt that all the suet was gone 1 1 

.ishedu that day, fmt still tbeooJ) birds we saw were two Song Sparrows 

wo Brown Creepers. Our next trip was on December *. and the hu 

season wa real number of ' spor tsmen' 

he woods was beginning to thin out, and the birds were returning 

1, *.,* thai da) t **w the bird* at the food On the 

oak tree were two Brown Creepers and a w mled 

., I. when I Id plate camera. I 

r distance, and I look home 

I used an .levke to operate the shutter from a distance 




i 






Bird -Lore 



.1 lii ting cold day, I had the camera 
o'ekx > I look m\ i 

rhcre were two on the pott at the time, hut one was out of rai . 
us. A Downy wanted the food but feared the staring Cyclops that gu.i 
the treasure. He would swoop down and make me believe that he was about 
to alight, when off he would g< • make another similar swoop 

single Creeper was the only picture 1 t. *>k that day. 

On December 30, two 
as th< keeping me on the jump for naught . A Browr 




Bkuws CUBPU 

ing' around also, but refused to get in a position worth wastii 

But then something happened. A hurried chal ry a fiul ngs— 

something landed on top of the post and was gone again, tlnn 

tree behind which I was hi< 

that is not all. I had pushed the button in that fraction of a second ti 

was on the post-top. The most that I could hope lot on the plate was a blur 

of wings. On developing it I was more than 

•living for the food, but without success for either him or mc. That ende 

year's experiences. It began to snow a little, and I could not have 

a moment longer because of the intense cold. 

The neat trip taken when the sun made bird photography possible was 
January 6. Numbers of Chickadees were around the empty post 
arrived, and picked up the crumbs that dropped from my hand as I stuffed the 



Photography at Feeding-Stations 

aree photographs were taken of the* Hows, 

out a complete failim- Another Brown Creeper picture was the 

it refused to have 

nprisoned in a piece of 4 x 5-inch glass, despite all my coaxing. 

ruary 10 the last attempt was made but without success. 

In tin- winter of the past year was spent pleasantly, healthfully, 

-pleasantly by association with nature, healthfully by outdoor 

1 all sorts of weather, and profitably l>\ tht Baking of valuable ad- 

mv knowledge of bird-fife. Of all the exposures made, only two 

were .inn U.th those because of some accident in manipulating the 

camera. This year more elaborate preparations will be made and better 



Holbcell's Grebe in Connecticut 

By WILBUR F SMITH South Norwtlk. Conn. 

THE largest num! lolbcells (Jrelies that I have known t.> DC in 

red in the spring oi 1916, and as none of the books 
access give much information co ncernin g their food 
or their befaftviof «hen on land, I was glad when » il drcum- 

stances gave me an oppo rtun ity to observe lx a* range. 

• ported was foun«l -now far from the 

happens, the party finding il ran for a gun an<! shot it 
r Birth ralt'i Most 
hreak up in Rowayton harbor, and, in a Mnall 
open space near the docks, just behind some fishermen* boats in whii h they 
an engine, two of these Grebes were feeding. They fished con- 
tinual K . and hunger may have had something to do with their apparent lack 
of cati i'lness, or confidence in man, as at times they came up within 

txiat in which the men were working. 
On< en told mi- that he saw one catch a large smelt, ami that when 

he went on deck m the night they were still fishing and teemed to be always 
rishin watched them they were feeding on small flounders, and 

occasionally the)* would catch one too large to hand »penwat< 

would swim into shallow water or to the edge of the ice, and 1 
»>und the hsh into cor* cat. 

I ' Kowaytoi I •rebes. We found 

that the ice had gone farther out of the harbor and that the Grebes were fishing 
farther off shore, where three more had joined them. A number of Herring 
1 ng around on the ice . 1 m down on detached cakes 

ttroved watchinff thr * ' 



144 Bird- Lore 

would oomc up with i fish, one or more of the < lulls would pounce upon 
the food, and the Grebe would have I i escape with its prize. Gen« 

saved their fish by coming up at a considerable distance, though 
succeeded in worrying a fish from the Grebes at times. 

They were wonderful divers, at times seeming to 'just dtsappt 
really fishing, they would throw themselves forward and almost out of th« 
water with the violence of their effort, and I wondered if the depth of water had 
anything to do with the manner- h watch in h^ 

under water, and <»n two occasions one Grebe was down - seconds- 

seconds was the a vera- 




MM 

On April i g one was seen in Saugatuck Bay, ami on April m one was i< 
in a yard in the east end of town. I liberated it. first photographing a 
ing its actions and posture on land. It sal forward cast, and it seemed 

to me the bird realized its helplessness, for, when placed on the lawn with no 
one near, it made no effort to escape and kept up a constant calling. A small 
child with <>uld have killnl it. though it struck viciousl long 

bill when anyone came within reach, but the blow did not ha 
power of that of a Heron of equal size. 

■m its actions one might have thought it was wounded, but when it saw 

the salt water— possibly first sensed it— a marked change took place in the 

e*s actions, and it struggled violently to escape. Placed on the ground 

some distance from the shore it went floundering along, propelled by wings and 

until it reached the water, when it was the perfection of graceful m 
It dove and preened and dove again, raised high on its feet and shook 
and flapped its wings, dove again, and then headed for open water at a pace 
that proved it to be in good condition. 



The Migration of North American Birds 

SECOND SERIES 

III THK SUMMKR AND HEPATIC TANA MARTINS/ 

AND BARN SWALLOWS 

Compiled by Harry C. Oberbols«r. Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

Pm Pfcaatfcpfaaa) 

SUMMER TANAOER 

re arc two subspecies of the Summer Tanager, an eastern and a western, 
. ourse occupy separate areas in summer but which mingle more or 
leas during the migrations and in win 

E immer Tanager (Piranha rubra rubra) breeds in the eastern I'nited 
*, north to Delaware (formerly to New Jersey), souths - mtheast- 

A tsconsin, and southea Uraska; west to eastern Kansas and cen- 

rexas; and south to northeastern Mexico, southeastern Texas, southern 
Mississippi, and central Florida. It winters in Central and South America, 
i uador, and Peru, and north to Yucatan and central Mexico, 
also of casual occurrence north to Nova - \.w Brun-wiik. Ouebec, 

•ntario. an<) in an idental in the Bahama Islands. 
Cooper's Tanager tl'iranga rubra cooptri) breeds in the -outhweMern 
ates and northern U o and central 

iia; wot :.>rnia; south t*» northern Durango and 

I^eon ; and east to central western Texas and eastern New M cxico. 
In the following migration tables all records of Cooper's Tanager are indi- 
cated by an asterisk (•); all the other- re, should be considered as 
e eastern Tanager. 















' 



\|.ril < 

i 



' 



100a 
V»4 

1904 
XH 



They are 






in Btat> Ixm* It* fauHatm 
hate to «Mae e«r McraiHa* 
•«■ «*mdy < 



Bird -Lore 

SPBIV. MICK lied 





Nvabti 


•ptiag ifmil 


faHhti ui» d 










Torabttortr \n * 








' 




1 '4 


1009 














il Jo 




Weaverville. X . C 


6 




























Athens. Tenn. 


8 




1006 


Kubank ky 


to 


il to 


1091 


Helm.. 




il 14 




kanv 




<jo6 








:S?3 


Phil.. Pa 






. 


ifa*j \ \ 




to 


185 






■o©4 


Blooming ton. Ind. 


8 






6 




\prit ||, 1805 


St. Loub. M<» 


8 




<joo 



Mil MIGRATION 



iOibef 


U»t ea« obmnmd 


Latest Oftfe 
I..I «N It 1 


\ \ 




Septeml.- - 


Philadelphia. Pa. 




Septeml 


CUD 




October 1, 1004 


Blooming t 




Septeml 


! 


September 18 








October 5. 1006 


Waahingt 


September 14 


September ig, 1006 
1884 


Weavervtl » 


boi 4 




10 


•rmber jo 




Spencer, W Vi 




1909 


A them. Imn .1 6 


DOT 2 


>t>er 14. iooj 


Eubank. K 6 


Septeml 


0. 1800 


5 


September 28 




Kirkwood. (.a 




IQOJ 


Savannah. da 4 


Septeml- 


.0. tooS 


Tallahaaacr. Ma 










tOtt 


vi. Mi». 






Helena. Ark 3 


Septeml" 


• 


4 


•her iq 








Sept eml - I 


I ranriaco Rive: 






tone Mountai 




1008 






1007 


San Clemente I» . Calif * 




l.cr 11. 1007 



The Migration of North Americin Birds 

HEPATIC TANAOBR 

1 1 pane Tanager I'iranfa krpatua) is one of the Mexican birds wht< h 

each* Jong the southwestern border. Owing to its 

imit< i frequenting the less inhabited parts of the United 

re are cotnpar few data on its migration. The range of the 

ypical subspecies (Piranha kepaitia kepalua^ the only one occurring in the 

ids from central western Texas, central \ico, and 

n south over the table-tend of Mexico to Guatemala. 

Another race, the Mexican Hepatic Tanager (Piran&a hr pat tea dextra), occupies 

n the state of Vera Cruz north . Leon. 

I 1 1 ION 



1 *SSi *•*•«. rHv.l 


Eariim <l» 
•priM »rr 


\! 


\pril 1 1. iqoj 
April 24. 1 


FALL MI 


Naatwf 
UX ILIT> .rwi' 




Ut«t feu af 

lot Ml Mmd 


■. 




1886 

BaptsaaMi :o. 191 \ 



PURPLE MARTIN 

Th. in has a wide distribution and is well known wh- 

ives. l irliest spring migrant to et tea from the south, 

o early, in fact, that we can with dimcu! 1 that it does not pass the 

There b apparent K . however, a period of a month 

»r two during December and January when it is not found even in southern 

Florida, although it appears sometimes as early as January *o, and has been 

M late bj v The latter, however, must be regarded as an 

mutually late date There are two s u h sp eci t a , both of whwh «ummer in thr 

i rple Martin /Vorav tubii subit) breeds in tem|>er.i America. 

Nova Sco; Hrunswick, northwestern Ontario, Manitoba, and 

ana; west to Idaho and Arizona; south to I epic and Vera Crua, Mexico. 

• southern Florida; migrates through Central America and northern 

h1 occurs accidentally on the B at mu da 
kland* and in Great Britain 



I4l 



Bird -Lore 



The Western Martin I'ropte ntbu kesperic) breed 
region of North America from soulhwt imbia to sou; 

Lower California; and -inji migration in Central America. Its w 

home b not known, but i> presumably South America. In the foil. 
gralion tables an asterisk (*) indicates the records belong, 
in. 

BPRIM. MIGI 






Orlando. Ha. 
Tallahassee. 1 



intain 









•»a 

Nonrav. Maine 

■ 






Kanbar 
of >*»r» 

f PC<if .1 


«f# <Ulf of 


Earth* dv 


•pHnc arrival 


•[•<in< an 


to 


ruary 8 


Tan 






January jo. iqoi 


9 


ruary to 


Ian 


M 










'<>07 




h 9 








>" 










1909 


5 


hi 


1901 


9 


h6 




ii 


il 22 

h 18 


1907 


•9 






;1 I 


6 






ii 




JO 




1897 






■ 900 




1 22 






■ <: 


<*> 


14 


il 19 








1910 




rfl 4 






u 

h :i 




II 


1888 


JO 


il JO 


«ooj 




il ij 


/OO 




.1 9 


too 




il ii 




l6 

Q 

1 1 




to©7 

1906 










! IQ 




JO 


1 IS 


1007 


1 1 


1 13 
rfl 9 


^90t 

■%88 


4 


1 10 
6 


;IO 


IO 


:*86 


J 


May 14 


10, 1906 



The Migration of North American Birds 

ntinued 



i4g 









Num!*r 



t t 
I I 

8 

10 

8 



.(•fin, 



April i i 
May 2 
May to 
May 5 

\|>ril i ; 

I 



laritaM dau of 
•rnr»l 



'. I90S 
II, IQOO 

tQOI 
)l I 
9. IQOO 

IQOQ 



> X I 1 MK.V 






ViimUt 






II 






Ust • 



Auffu»t jy 

{ August ll 
September 

^<-t>tcml»cr 



Utr .1 d«U at 



ttbtf 

mbcr 
mbcr 
mbcr 

Nt iO, 

■ mber 
mbcr 



il>cr 



It, 1907 

it. 1807 

igii 
4. loot 

t, IQOQ 
I QO7 

It, IOO8 

17, IQOI 

IQOJ 
|6, t007 



u \ 



rt ;o 



V|i!(mlKT 

Scptemlx-r 

Scptrtnlx-r 

1 mbcr 

•cr 11 

Srplr mltrr 



Sf|,!nti!ifl 

\u<u.t if.. 



Octobers 

•vcplrmlwf 



I, 1910 

jo. 1907 

»7. «906 
. 1891 

IO, 1800 

9. 1007 
1801 
. 
1M9 

1911 



i$o 


Bird -Lore 
rAii vi continued 




U ir\ 


itT.^' Avwaaw «U«» «4 


1*1 *»AC of»Wf»Cfl 


savannah, (ia 
TalUhaaarr | 

(arrollion. Ala. 

>n», l-a. 


| Seplrnil ■■ 

August 14 

4 

: Scptrml" 


a. 1000 

1001 

l)cicmlM-r . - \ , 

1910 

■ 

IOOQ 

1H78 



CUBAN MARTIN 

The Cuban Martin < ftogoo cryptoUnea) is a na: be island of Cuba, 

but is of accidental or occasional occurrence in southern and central Florida. 
The only authentic records f«>r thr Doited States are one specimen taken at 
Cape Florida on May 18, 1858, and another specimen, without date, obtained 
at Clearwater, Fla. 

ORAY-BREASTED MARTIN 

The Gray-breasted Martin (Progne ckalybea) ranges from northea- 
o and extreme central southern Texas, south through M rural 

America, and South America, to Bolivia and southern Brazil. Tl cords 

for the Doited States are a specimen taken at Rio Grande, Tex 
1880, and another obtained at Hidalgo, Tex., S80. 

BARN SWALLOW 

The Barn Swalh ndo erytkrogaslris) is one of the meet and 

widely distributed North American birds. It breeds north il Quebec 

(southern Ungava), southern Manitol»a. northern Mackenzie. an«l nor 
Alaska; south to North Carolina, Arkansas, southern Texas, Guanajuato. 
Jalisco, and Tepic, Mex. It winters from southern Mexico, through Central 
America and South America to Brazil, Argentina, and Chile In 
passes through the Bahamas and the West I n< lies, and is of accidental 
• rnland, the Bermuda Islands, and the Galapagos Islands. 

U1GRATK 



LOCAI.IM 



Dry Tortus 
Amelia 
Savannah. < • 
t harir 







April 1 1 
April < 

April 10 






8. 1890 

\pn! 

1905 
\pril t, 1009 



The Migration of North American Bird> 



i;i 



STUNG MJGBAi : inued 






\! 






ik. Io« a 



\ \ 






i I-j»n.lirnc li 



N««Ur 



4 

II 

4 

3 

6 
•9 

6 
8 

to 
«J 

22 



\o 
to 

22 



I 7 
IS 



s 
s 

2U 

I 



\pttnt Arrival 



April | 

April i 
Febru.. 
March jo 

April 10 
March 14 
\pril 14 

• 4 

April n 

\ 

Vpril 14 
April 10 

April 10 

21 

April 22 

\pnl 

it 

20 

■ ! 
May 11 



April ,0 
April li 
\pril :\ 



May 1 5 

M»s I 



F_.rl.ru .tat* ..< 

■priac until 



March 27. 1904 
March 20, 1895 
..iry 9, 1887 

1886 
5. iQM 
20, 1909 

m 

S88 

iSqo 

\pn! 

V)2 

/Ob 
vji 
1 1. 1&99 
April .'i . 1912 

VJO 

\pnl 

I 1. 1893 

>I4 
\pril \. lyoj 

l8, IQOO 

\pril 3. 1892 
\pril 16, 1906 

IM 

14. 1004 
\pril 2$. 190S 
\pril 18, 1915 
■ S90 
ifi, 1891 
\pril 2, 1882 
<i88 
'4. I90I 
\pnl v>. 1908 
191 J 

May 5. 1804 

April 15. 1 
April 13. 1897 
April 14, 1908 
Mav t, 189s 
April tj. 1890 
May 7. 1887 
April aa, 1906 
April as. 1894 
April 17. 1909 

May 7, 1905 

April to. 1906 
May jo. 1 
May it. 18*7 






Bird 



FALL Mh.t 






tear*' 






dreal ■ 
Meridian, Idaho 



...nd. Ind 
Chicacn 111 



10 

4 

6 
18 

>4 






Seplcn. 
September 6 

liter (> 
>bcr io 
September 14 



l»er 1'' 

Srptemlier 14 

September 18 

September 10 

iber o 

\ugu»t \o 

Iter |8 

>bcr hi 

Setitrttilter : 



o< 



itoj 

1887 

1910 
'007 
1007 

1804 

1004 
1900 

1904 



. 1900 

I 1908 

mob 

1 



September 1 7 

il»er jo 
r 15 



A \* 
Athen*. Tenn. 

■ 

mgk, Fta. 
Amelia It. ! 

San Mateo Mountain \ M 

Fresno. Cain 

EUROPEAN CHIMNEY SWALLOW 

The European Chimney Swallow Uintndo rustka) is a familia 
Europe, where it takes the place of our Barn Swallow, 
forms it occur* in summer or winter over nearly all of Kt 
the Ka-t Indies, and travels occasionally to Australia. 
Ilirundo rustua rusika, finds a place in 1 1 

is accidental occurrence in southern Greet 



or I 
>cr 34 



September 18 



1900 

October J", 1910 

'90$ 
October 19, 1905 
S96 
miter 20, 1906 

October 15, 1892 
October 1, 1905 



In one or mot* 
ropt . \-;.i. \l'ri« a. ami 

American bird- «-ni> 



Notes on ths Plumage of North American Birds 

FORTY-SEVENTH PAPER 
By PRANK M. CHAPMAN 

miner Tanager Piranga rubra, ! -At the first fall (postjuv. 

m«>lt Dg male acquires a plumage which closely resembles that of t In- 

fernal somewhat more ruddy, with saffron under tail-o 

and a tinge of red on the crown. The extent of the spring ( first prenuptial) 
molt varies greatly among different individuals. Son gain a wholly 

md retain only the primaries and secondaries of the winter plumage. 
i acquire only a few red body feathers. Between these extremes th< 
degree of intergradation, the bird shown in our pl.t ») representing 

tit plumage of this Tanager in its first breeding dress. Birds in 
this plumage present a most striking appearance and are sometimes reported 
ienced observers as 'new' or Grange' species. 
the second fall (first postnuptial) molt, the adult plumage, with wings 
and tail as well as body red, is donned, and thereafter (unlike the Scarlet 
iger i the bird shows no further chai 
The female passes from the nestling or juvenal plumage into one resembling 
that of the adult I 1 t will be observed, b much yellower than that 

of the female Scarlet Tanager, the wings and tail especially being less fuscous, 
patic Tanager Piranha hepatka, Figs. 4, 5).— The nestling of thb species 
• aceous above, paler below, and is obscurely streaked with blackis) 
the postjuvenal molt, the male in passing into first winter plumage, becomes 
much 5). A plumage essentially like this, but 

1 feathers on the head and throu it least some I 

reeding dress. I have not a large enough number of specim en s 
to state whether all young males wear this plumage, whii h corresponds to the 
breeding dress of the Summer Tanager. 

adult plumage b apparently secured at the first postnuptial or second 
fall molt, and b thereafter retained. It may be like th.r 
• »w traces of the olive-green dress of immatur 

enal molt the female present* no color changes in plumage. 



j£&^ 



<»SJ> 



^•otrs from JPtclo ano |?tuop 



A Census toon Prance— An Addition to 

the Eighteenth C brut mas Census 

heastern France. to 

vm to 4 70 r w ( lou<l> , wind light. 

temp, about 40*. Partn Wood 

Pige<» k. vx). Carrion 

• < kdaw, too; Ma*p 

unch. 
ilow Bunt Tree 

<a»t. 4. Blackl. 
Total, iq spedes. about 1,115 individual*. 

vpedi- 

Tbe Warbler Wave of the Spring ol 
1917 at Branchport. N. Y 

The weather last May was %cry un 
seasons hie at Branchport, N. Y., and the 
Warblers were a week late, the bulk arriv 
• n then it was cold, and 1 
think it was on this account that they were 



Ye '•I 

Qr%invj^E* -rr. 



THE BL IE* 

Pbatagnaeae' by Verdi Baitcb 

so tame and kept in the lower branches o 
the trees and even on the ground instant 
of in the tree-tops as usual. 
Many Cape Mays and Tc 
This was unusual. 



iJOM |u*v without our »crn»fc' 4 rfagb 
The street* *<• H and 

Blat kburnian» parti 

cular, was noticed by many people 
usually take no interr many 

came to me asking about the Ik- . 
little black and orange colored bird that 
they had »een. 

-lend who *»■ on a new 

lake aaid that a Red 
alighted on hi* also on his hat 

ami on a rule that he h< hand, 

then it flew up and hum- 
on rapid-beating wings. A neighbor 
brought to me a beautiful male I 
burnian which he found fluttering as 
the window in his bar igbbor 

brought a dead male Chest n ul 

and I ha 
doubt that hundreds were kill' 
while they were so close t Uftd 

May 20 a male Blackburnian »pent 
nearly the entire day on my lawn si 
the garden He »j> very bu*y all 
time, bopping over the ground 

ing Sparrow and seemed to be 
ing up minute insect* It wa» difficult t< 

photograph of ! at I could 

not get near enough 
dose to me, even passing bet w. 
The trouble was that he came too dose, 
and although I had him on the gn 
glass many limes, sharp »■ e, and 

made my esposures in t'i second, he was 

■ ly that when I developed my . 
I found my Blackburnian out of 
Many times he was within a few inches of 
my hand as I was on my knees hold. ■ 
camera near the ground. I used 
pistes in all. at a distsn 1 to 

and got just one good 
• 

Spring Notes from a New Hampshire 
Farm 

r lly 
ing up in front of th< 
meadow and m 



•54/ 



Notes from Field and Scudy 



155 



a lured me to the great 
meadows bordering the Connecticut 
whence a sullen 'chug-chug' announced 
the p r o gress of a (arm tractor. That the 
machine was 'doing its bit' on a 
Hampshire farm the increasing acres of 
brown furrows showed plainly — the large 
green wheels rose and dipped over the 
undulating land. I followed them and so 
made my discovery of a power in the 
tractor not advertised in commercial 
catalogues; for even as the I'm-. I 
charmed the rats of HameUn with his 
strange notes, so did this throbbing engine 
draw the birds. They hopped and flew 
ahead of the wheels, there were larg. 
and small birds, birds of brilliant and of dull 
plumage. Ours is an old farm, dating from 
Colonial days, when the pioneers left 
their hill homes (secure from prowling 
Indians), to raise, in common, crops on 
icadows. Until this 
spring of 1917 no other power than horse 

has moved the plow, yet now, when 
the novd monster moves over the acreage, 
the birds, with indifference, just keep be- 
yond the wheels — their attitude is absolute 
■aeon n the ground in 

front of the tractor where the birds were 

>g grubs and bugs. The dark, rain 
filled clouds overhead intensified the color- 
lag of the feathered gleaners — it was as 
though a flock of tropic butterflies were 
balancing on the dun earth. Here four Scar- 
•rgeous in their red and 

r biers explore*! 

rd flame and black, flew 

ip and down, in ceaseless 

led Kingbirds, au 

is Bobolinks. Field Sparrows, and 

birds garnered on the ground, whilr 

Swallows skimmed and dipped 

ht steaming funnel. Thaw the clouds 

dropped rain and I left tl nmed 

meadows to hurr> lot the distant house. 

•t the raindrops, for beti 

(he corn-barn I can 

were male Chestnut-aided Warblers 



stand beside him while he pecked in the 
road. Some very friendly Black -throated 
Blue Warblers and a Black throated 
Green Warbler picked up their supper, 
n like, at my feet. There were Red- 
starts everywhere, both male and female; 
fluttered into the cow- stables, 
allowing the herdsman to catch them. One 
moved between the ponderous hind feet 
of the work horses, flying onto their 
- s boot. These Redstarts were very 
confiding with me, and I watched in 
fascination the Japanesy little Warblers. 
One Redstart, feeding beside me, would 
dart into the air to the height of my head 
—once, plop! down he came on my hat- 
brim and hopped around 

This bewildering springtime brought its 
tragedies; such confidence was sometimes 
betrayed — witnessanexquisitedead Parula 
Warbler (a female) , and a handsome male 
Magnolia Warbler, and one of the Red- 
starts—these last, with their heads 
snapped off and lying beside their bodies. 

I have always known and observed the 
ife about me, but never do I recall 
such myriads of birds. To a pa - 
farmer's wife it seems a hopeful sign that 
our feathered friends in strong battalions 
will help us feed the world and win the war. 

W*$$ 
CUrtmonl. V //.. May 14, June j, 15. 
1017. 

Our Back-Yard Visitors 

laps many city people think bird- 
study is a too far distant subject to take 
sat in order to study sad know the 
birds one must be out-of-doors the whole 
time, or else take many trips to the woods 
or country. But such b not the case, for 
if one keeps his eyes open he can see many 
of these bird treasures la hie owa garden. 
In looking over our lists, it is surprising 
to tad th«' f, we have 

seen about fifty different kind, of birds in 
4rd, and probably then have not sssa 
all that were there, as many of the observa- 
tions were short ones. 

Throughout the winter we were regularly 
visited by three 



i 5 6 



Bird -Lor* 



Nuthatches, two to four Downy Wood- 
peckers, occasionally a Crow an< 
Siskins, and one unwdcoesed Sharp- 
thinned Hawk. February 17 brought the 
first Robin, which was again seen on the 
jsth. but a cold spell after that probably 
earned bin to seek wanner quarter*. Thi» 
k the earlieat date, for the Robin. March 
t8. Purple Gracklca fed in the yard, and a 
flock of them baa aince nested in a tmall 
ciwtti) about two blocks away. A day 
later. J unco* and Bluebirds put in their 
appearance. 

April brought us a visit from a single 
Meadow lark, a number of Brown Creepers 
and Chipping Sparrow*, a pair of which 
have nested in our pear trr< 
occasionally find their way here, and s pair 
of them have a nest in a stump in the 
cemetery with the Crackles. Early one 
morning we ssw two Hermit Thrushes, 
throated sparrows were quite 
numerous during migration, and both 

The May visitors were much more 
numerous about the middle of the month. 
One rainy morning, a flock of four Purple 
Finches created havoc by picking off many 
bl oaso mi , particularly from the plum trees. 
Their work seemed to be in direct con- 
trast to that of the Orioles which were 
among the bloaso mi at the same time. The 
mo rn i n g was fair, and the Finches 
around, not in the fruit trees, 
however, but eating the seeds of the dm. 
The change in the weather had caused 
them to change their diet, but why 1 do 
not know. Barn and Tree Swallows were 
seen flying overhead, as were also numerous 
Hawks. House Wrens are nesting with us, 
and Swifts can be seen at any time. 
Hummingbirds are occasionally seen, and 
we welcomed visits from the Oven-bird, 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Scarlet Tanager, 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak, and Hairy Wood- 
pecker. A Least Flycatcher. Warbting 
Virro. and Yellow throated Yireo sing in 
the trees continually, and, we presume 
they are nesting in the via 

The Warbler migration, May 17 to 
June i, brought a number of interesting 
visitors in the order named: Black and 



numerous), 
Black throated Green, Black throated 
Blue. Magnolia, Wilson's. Canada 
nessee, Bay-breasted, Blackburnian, 
Naahville. and Blackpoll. 

Other visitors have been a Red-breasted 
Nuthatch, which took a few me.. 

Song Sparrows at U. a 

Black billed Cuckot acked 

Thrush, and numerous Goldfinch' 
which we had the pleasure of seeing eight 
male birds at < an elm 

This concludes the May migration seen 
in our yard. So far in June the Night- 
hawk is the only new am 

It is quite surprising when lookiru 
the notes to find that so many birds have 
ar With the exception of 
the Meadowlark, which was seen in the 
lot back of our yard, all of the birds 
mentioned have been seen in the yard or 
flying overhead. 

Probably many, others of our city folks 
who think they cannot study the birds 
will see just as many, or perhaps ■ 
they keep their eyes open and give a few 
spare moments to the things that are going 
on in birdland in their own yards. — Ma. 

Bad hfnj WlMlvM - \V<<"U, KinfAon. 

Robins Repeatedly Using the Same Nest 

In the summer 01 Jefferson 

Highland . N. H. a Robin, for her second 
Mating, built in the woodbine climbing on 
the front of our cottar 
northeast, placing her nest upon .1 
stantial crossing of stout si 
close to the shingles and under a pr 
ing cornice about 1 1 feet from the ground. 
Its position secured to the 00 
plete protection from falling rain and all 
drip from the roof. So well placed was the 
nest that a casual observer would have 
said of the location. "How di*< 
chosen:'' The Robins proceeded 
<juietly and confidently all through the 
nesting period, scarcely sounding any 
shrill cries of alarm over our movements 
day by day. and they brought up their 
brood successfully. This was a July nest- 



Notes from Field and Study 






hat the pair had brought 
up a first brood somewhere near in 

toon alter the young were on the 

r home in the woodbine, 

we perceived that the mother was again 

vine, her neat, and our continued 

' hat »hc laid a lOCOttd 

%et of egga in it and brought up a second 

brood, which got on the wing in August. 

•nprwion conveyed at the time waa 

tie had found »uch full aatiafaction 

and contentment in her chosen site that 

the was drawn bach to it for hrr 

ng. 

the cottage on 
June : lowing summer, 1017, we 

discovered that a Robin had built the 
rst brood on s horizontal 
beam of the covered piazza on the south- 
east side of the bouse, placing it snugly 
•rner where the beam joins the 
bouse. So little did this mother Robin 
red to our movements, and so little 
did we hear any loud cries of alarm during 
the entire nesting, that we felt quite sure 
that our woodbine- nesting Robin of the 
us summer waa again with us, and 
that she had *g*in made choice of a well- 
protected site, this time under the roof of 
the piazza, thereby showing the same dis- 
cretion which bad guided her the pre- 
vious season. At thi» umr the woodbine 
bad not yet put forth it* leaves. The 
nr»t however, was still rest- 
ing secure I vine, but was fully 
Two birdlings were 
raised, and these left the neat on June 16. 
>ter we p er ce ived that the Robin 
was again occupying her Mat on the piazza 
beam without having made any attempt 
build anew. Again 
it una apparent that she liked thb chosen 
•a s» well that she st once returned 
her second nesting, as soon as 
she had sufficiently cured for the first 
brood, thus showing an indisposin 
choose some other locution. Thb second 
>g proceeded successfully, On July 7 
■ young which the parent 
birds were feeding, and on the roth, towards 
evening, the birdlings left the nest, or. 



rather, one waa seen taking short flight » 
about the piazza and the other two seemed 
ready to use their wings. But we were 
apprehensive the nest morning whether 
these two bad gotten safely away, since 
we found the nest had been pulled from its 

by some agency we could not with 
certainty determine, and lay empty and 
broken upon the floor. We kept no cat, and 
there waa but one, to our knowledge, in 
the immediate neighborhood. This one 
may have been the culprit. With our 

- hat the birdlings had already safely 
flown before this catastrophe came waa 
united a regret that the neat had been de 

<1, for we felt it would have beet 
interesting to learn whether this Robin was 
of so constant a nature in her satisfaction 
with a well-chosen site that she would 
retain it for a third nesting. The oppor- 
tunity for this test was lost. 

But there came, perhaps, the better 
proof of her constancy when, six days 
later, we perceived that the old nest in the 
woodbine on the front of the house was 
again in use. There was no remaining 
question with u* fl- 
ing Robin, which manifested her tut 
ton location there by twice using the same 
nest for two broods, was indeed the wood 
bine noting Robin of 1916 which had used 
the same r .1 successive nestings 

in the vine she had now returned I 
first well chosen site, to her old nest 
in s full degree of preservation, and at thi* 
time well screened from view I,. 
thick leafage of the vine, for her third 
nesting of the season. Three eggs were 
bid. and three > 
grew to malum rft the neat on 

Thus we have the interestini; 
Robin building but two nests (or the 
rearing of five broods in two successive 
seas on s, an d during the second isssoo. after 
rearing two broods In the seme nest, 
returning to her old nest of the previous 
year, in which she hud then rear 
broods, for raising her third brood. Such 
4 mote of const sney and conservation 
is. perhnp* thb instance • 

doubtless due first to her good jedg- 



is* 



Bird -Lore 



in Meeting location*, and then to 
her full content meat and sense of satis- 
fa. ti..n arum* from her dail> ciperirn. r of 
living undisturbed and not being 
fered with in any way. 

may be supposed, ga 
raurb aoag early and late and between 
whiles. Hia nigbt perch waa jnat across 
the road where la a wooded hillside. One 
evening in early July, when I waa record- 
ing the order of the evensong of all the 
bird voice* within reach of me, this mate 
sang hi* final aong at 7.50, and a 

little response came from the 
mother on her nest in the woodbine, ju*t 
a few softly given notes expressing 'good 
night,' and there waa silence II 

Notes on Robins' Nest* 

three summers now we have been 
visited by Robins which are very poor nest- 
builders. I imagine it is the same pair 
each year which has not improved in their 
method, and realiae, perhaps, that Fate. 




in the guise of n 
them. The first lummrr, a I 
storm during the night loosened thr 
constructed tree, and 

ur little birds fell 

my father. The baby I 

dead, but finding one showed 

life, he carried them all 1 ••use. 

wrapped them in flannel 

few feathers appearir. it them on 

the hearth of the kit m he 

went out and patched up their neat, 

finally tying it with a piece of bla< 

the old birds all the time regarding the 

affair with great intet 

when thoroughly warm, revived and 

returned to the nest, and 

grow up. 

The neat year the Robins I 
board id nailed under the eavea, 

and the nest, when the young were 
grown, being most inadequate and »l 
looking, another board waa nailed under 
the first, making the shelf « 
summer the Robin* aT a little 

water-pipe, and. .1. 
young birds looked in imn 
danger of falling, an under board, 
with low was 

put up for protect! 
bird* noticed while it waa 1>< 

while the littli 
hid the nest, the ma' 
an baatai 

.- the change, rlew up and 
fed the young birds as I 

JamtiUtvn. K I 

A Sanctuary witbtn a Sanctuary 
Although the • 

a carefully preserved - 

mer visitants this past season, 
apparently not satisfied with 
the protection afforded 






i'ark authorities, found a<i 



Notes from Field and Siudy 



ISO 




l\kK M 
MR «>» rLh KU- \M» A PAIR (» H 






if nesting within the <> 
enclosure of at ■ lioness. The 

lion't «aR< to feet and to feet 

uilding on one ride, ami is 
otherwise completely eocloaed by steel 
apart at the mo*t open 
place*. In hole* in a atump of ai 

ncloturc a pair of Flickers 
and j cm nested and 

reared their broods in sal 

'» feet above the (round, 
and the Wrens nest about 6 b 
. an another dram I. 

k were quick to find 
in t err novel sight, and crowds 

enjoyed wat.hin* tl 
tween the bars of the cage to feed their 
young, while the Wrens fussed, 
scolded, and sang from their own par 
•uh of the nag I he lionea*. 

<dy a place 

'-»m nest hunting boys or predatory 

animals could hardly be found than that 

• pairs of birds, and 

tab lion's cage ha* ever 

•f a model bird N 

.'•••«/ /sWefirW /Vs. 



A Winter House Wren 

far from my boa* nstoa 

lives a florist who has a (ante Rreen- 
housr t the 

front door open all day. Toward evening 
he (lo»cd it and soon heard a House 
I aong inside. The bird evident l> 
flew in through the open door It 
■earned very content, and so was allowed 
to remain. In the aoro weather of January 
it wa» delightful to en in and bear the 
cheerful «ong of i hr >lso helped 

the florist, in s large measure, to hasp the 
insect* in chock.— C« f-'muu- 

lew, ///. 

Threw Winter Mockingbirds 

Komi MM seen here the first 
week in January It was feeding on hoary- 

MM kic and |M>krt>rrrir« an<i apple* hanjf 

lag on the tree, aad *-> 

It *eems worthy of note that among oar 
bird-guesu there Is a Mockingbird 
•everal years wo have board of a single 
male being at Saady Hook, aad now bo 
bava cbosea lab side of Urn 



i6o 



Bird -Lore 



river for a »micr abode Perhaps the 
constant firing at the proving ground got 
on his serve*! He b eating the berries 
«>n a spikenard shrub near the house . and 
also drinking at the bird-bath. Yester- 
day (November a8, 1917) we saw him 
chasing three Cardinals who are our con- 
stant visitors, much to our distress. — 

■ H I MvYM v ffSfMM 

tuber jo, a mild, still day, a 

Mockingbird was shout our place all 

morning. For some little time he was 

K on the bushes some la feet from 

1 he plate glass window 

r of us had a ; w of him. 

I have seen him several time* during the 
fall, but not close enough to be sure 

til the ji Annie B. 

ikh II ill. K I 

Cardinal in Wisconsin 

l>e< ember 24 a Cardinal was seen 
n the neighborhood of our smallest 
lake — Wingra. The day was mild until 
noon, but a raw, cold wind was blowing 
from the north when, somewhere between 
j and 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the 
Unal was obsen 1 
While this is 1 me I have seen 

this rare visitor, he has been seen by sev- 
eral different people since late November. 
On one of t hes e days, in early December, 
the thermometer registered to* below 
aero.— N, C. Otto. MUiitm, I 

A Blackbird Chorus 

a perfect Sunday afternoon in 
spring, we went t ton woo.! 

at the edge of the meadow and sat down 
00 some flat rocks in the sun. Almost 
immediately a flock of Red winged Black- 
birds flew into the trees close by and began 
an anthem. They did not seem to be in 
any more of a hurry than we were, and 
gava us a concert wonderful to hear 
and free of charge. We all sat watching 
and listening, much as one would 
symphony orchestra. In fact, we dis- 
covered that it was a sort of orchestra 
The accompanists struck up a three-bar 



iBtmiaflf"- in two part time and after 
the third bar, others joined 
whistles. Instantly, the music was ; 
tuated with the liquid notes of 
polished singers, while th- com 

pa&imeat consisted mostly of a soft 
ikif 

he okarte — chair* rising above 
the music of the orchestra east t 
notes of an opera singer • es of 

heir as they take up their p.i 
the proper places. 

The finale was by the orcbestr 
several 'select 1 th a crescendo 

flourish, as of measures played aft< 
singers are through, and havfa 

time rhythm was a 

pause by the entire company as if, hav- 
ing finished a 'num 
ing before beginning a not ■ 

them 

at a d 

alike. There was a clearer and more defi- 
ne heard abo 
chorus of chirps and whistles. 

It actually seemed as though the main 
body acted as an orchestra ••< 
birds did the real singing. 

ilf an hour, with little pauses 
that strongly suggested the rr 
performances of sn orchestra 
instruments at any musical ent« 
— Jessie I. Carpenter. flouUrr. Cafe. 

An Industry Awaits a Captain 

agriculture by destr 

■illars and other pests 
population can be increased great 
simple means, one of which is the - 
out of nesting- homes, not so M 

ate nesting as to give 

snakes, and other enemies, and a 
refuge fr«.m extreme cold. The good done 
thus has been made so dear th 1 
farmers in some part ■<■ have set 

out nesting-homes of their owi 
Much information on this subjr 
given in a little book 'How to Attra 
Protect Wild Birds' National Asso- 
I idubon Societies). 
In order to have any appre 



Notes from Field and Study 



161 



Marie effect, nesting-home* awl be set 
out. not in ten* but in hundreds of thou- 
sand* millions, and hence they 

moat be nude cheaply enough to permit 
this. The experiments of the Bedford 
Audubon Society, of Bedford Hillv 

show that gourds fulfil the needs of 
the case, in being both very attr 
to the birde and extremely cheap, so 
cheap that over j.ooo of them have been 
sold within the last two years to people 
living in aad about Bedford Township. 

were first brought here for this 
porpoae by Wm. G. Borl . 

These gourds, when tried in competi- 
tion with more than 600 shingle boxes, 

rm approved by several of the most 
competent American authorities, proved 
much the more attractive. so per cent of 



those cxaaiaed having been nested in 
during the first year against only 19 per 

These gourds, strung srith martin and 
randy for hanging, with the proper hols* 
for entrance aad draining, cost a* only to 
«ut a properly organised 
industry ought - -he* oat much 

more cheaply, probably at a <«~t ..< n..t 
over 6 cent* each, because our cost was 
based on unfavorable coadltloaa, working 
la an amatrur way. with no special sp- 
pliances. wholly by adult hand labor, on 
a sa»«: .nd at a great distance 

•lina. where our gourds 
were raised, so that our freight charge* 
were excessive 

A gourd last* four years, aad perhaps 




longer. Papier-mache gourds would last 
much longer, and aright , perhaps, be aside 
at aa even lower cost, to judge from the 
cost of papier- mac he pails, but here 
actual experiments are needed to show 
whether a finish could be given them 
which would attract the birds. 

The cost of raising aad curing the 
gourds themselves b very small, and the 
only additional ex pe ns e is that of clean- 
ing them out and cutting and stringing a 
few boles, so that the total cost is small 
en ou gh to permit distributing them on a 
scale of real importance to agriculture. 
The preparation would naturally be done 
in winter, aad therefore under favorable 
labor conditions. 

■•-, then, seems to be an industry 
awaiting a captain. The work to be done 
first, to diffuse among the farmers 
the knowledge of the benefit from 
setting up nesting-homes aad winter 
feeding, so as to create an 
demand; -and, second, to organ 
the South an industry for preparing 
and delivering these gourds.— H M 
r. Bedford Hills. V K. 

Some Ruffed Grouse Notes 



R uffed Grouse, in spite of three 

M of persecution, is still I 

mmoo in some parts of Msssachu- 

sssj within 10 miles of Boston 

it occasionally by the haunters of the 

d woodlands which persist almost in 

>f the gilded dome The wise policy 

Metropolitan Park Commission in 

* la h undreds of acres of aa* 

land has doae much to pre- 

wild life, while the towa of 

aa been a pioneer in prohibiting 

al aVMJ mv.hrtr within the 



The sreompsnying photograph, was 
taken at Wabaa. M« a, la s 

small plot of second-growth woodland, 
adjoining oa oae side a large rora ield 
aad oa * further side the MetropoHtaa 
Part Road along the Charles River. Qaall 
are loantiiai seea is the com field, aad 
Phea seats are 



sight a 



163 






through the entire neighborhood, but the 
i*c was a surprise. 
From my bouse in Waban I beard tbe 
banb cackling of tbe cock Pheasant* 
in tbeae wood*, and their dusting- places 
were frequently seen. On the afternoon of 
I j I started out to look for a Pheas- 
MM where the cackling seemed 
moat frequ- 

I bad hardly gone too feet from tbe edge 
of the cornfield clearing when, to n 
note. I saw a hen Pheasant sitting among 



tbe 



I «i ainly visible as soon 




MibM, Mam.. ftUjr ij. i«i6 

tbe dead oak leaves at the base of a small 
chestnut tree. She sat very dose, not leav- 
ing her thirteen greenish tinted eggs until 
I had crept, up to within 6 feet of her. I 
regret to state that she never came back 
to tbe neat. Tbe only other Pheasant '• 
nest 1 have found was also immediately 
deserted, though in this case there was only- 
one egg, and we almost stepped on thr 
mother without seeing her. The nest was 
Dot touched or disturbed in any way, as 



hm t1u«bc<l 

I considered myself 
found the nest before the I 
it, as her protective coloration makes dis- 
covery difficult, but even k was 
in store. A few minutes later, at the base 
of a small second-growth oak, • 
150 feet of the Pheasant > 
■econd neat, and, to my surprise and de- 
light, >rouse was at home 
flushed when I was about 10 feet awi 
was back on tbe eggs in about an hour 
There were eleven eggs in this 1 
different in appearat the Pbeas- 

eggs, being smaller and bof, 
calm 

The nest morning I returned to the 
woods with can 'I. and a 1 

•or releasing the shutter 
The Pheasant'* nest was unoccupied 
1 tnapped tbe eggs, then approached the 

I he mother wa* lc»- 
today, but I oovld i> her 

before the flushed. I thr: ip the 

camera, took a couj 
eggs, and left for an hour* walk I 

Returning I fo 
as yon see her in th< 

but saw her. but u|> 
brief vuit to m> 

some broken shdU showed that the young 
bad been successfully hatched. L.v 
friend told me that he saw a brood of 
Ruffes about 

May jo in these same woodlands, and I 
trust the family is still intact and will 
increase in tbe neighborhood. 

The previous fall we bad posted the 
.roughly with 'No Snoot- 
ing' signs, and many birds had cr oss ed 
the river to seek sanctuary from the gun 
ners. The river bcin. 
Park, is a bird re»< 
sorted to yearly by A Mergansers, 

Golden-eyes, and, occasional 

.\<Uand. 



THE SEASON 

VI. December 15 to February 15 



»*.— The present • 
has proved the mwt severe Mason recorded 
from this region by the weather bureau. 
Low temperature* have been phenomenal, 
•n account of protracted period* of 
'he thermometer has 
remained at aero or below, and on account 
uf the extremely low temperature (15* 
so* below aero) which has accom- 
panied the cold wave*. The ground was 
- h snow and ire from November 
rst snowfall) until the thaw of 
removed a Urge part of 

• ow. 

here were very few bird* 

here to suffer from these unfavorable 

weather conditions Although flocks of 

icd to appear 

through the winter and Black capped 

• .idee* were present in normal 
number*, wintering Juncos and Tree 

m the observa- 
tions of several member* N it tall 
it appear* that most 
r Sparrows of this region are 
collected south of Boston, and although 
wintering along the 
se e c o ast , the inland country to the wot 
west of Boston b nearly dc 

The harshness of the winter brought one 

raring the arctic weather, Snow 

>gs, of late yr*r» a • pt on 

the seacoast. came mflsttad) in lotfcl <>( 

doaeas into the country roadways and 

be streets of Lexington, where 

• d on horse- droppings. — Watson M. 

\ in glen, .».' 

thi* 
bureau'* lowest 
recorded temperature was -6*. touched 
J time*, but that record has been 
broken on two occasions, -ij* being 
reached on December jo, aad 
January Furthermore, rrmarkably cold 
•rather ha* been almost continuous 1 



r, but. in the lack of warm spells, 
the snow that has fallen has stayed, so 
that the ground was not bared from the 

•f the first snowfall, la tc in November, 
till a general thaw which began in the 
second week of February. Naturally, ice- 
ill records; people walked 
across the Hudson from upper New 

the whole, bird* have been scarce 
these last six weeks, both in species and 

luals. so that it has been customary 
to list about sixteen species in a day's 
tramp instead of the ordinary twenty-odd. 
There has been a particular scarcity, at 
least in northern New Jersey, but less so 
in Ik "I eastward. 

throated and Tree Sparrows and Juncos. 

..now of no record mi 

Sparrow (except one on Long Island 

.Iden crowned King- 

Hermit Thrush (except on Sandy 

On the other hand. 

I finches, W 

breasted Nuthatches. Black-capped < 

adeea, and others have been in wonted 

sbundance, and it is remarkable that 00 

Long Island, with so much ice, Canada 

Geese have been much less scarce than 

usual in winter. The presence of the 

Northern S • xceptional numbers 

has been a feature of the season; in a doacn 

trips, since December 10, the writer has 

averaged one a winter. Many Goshawks 
have been taken around the outakirU of 
our Region (in Connecticut aad north- 
western (few Jersey), but I have heard of 
none nearer by. There has also been an 
unusual southward movement of Owl*, 
indicated hereabout* by several I 
Horned (apparently of one or more north- 
ern races), a Snowy trapped at Wilton. 
Conn., and one claimed to have been seen 
oast Guard on Long Bench, Nassau 
>d rather more Saw-whets 
than usual I know of no record, anywhere 
near this Region, of Evening Grosbeak, 



(16J) 



!<* 



Bird -Lore 



Hm Onnsini kr.i CtosHiB HUti 

«in«rd Crowbill, Redpoll, or Brown- 
capped Chickadee.— Caaauts H. Rocs**, 
AmrrU** Mmtemm of \ Mural History, 
Sew York ( 

PaiLAoatraiA Region. — This vi< 
came In for it* full share of the abnormal 
cold of December and January. All re- 
cord* of the local weather bureau for long- 
continued cold were broken. The depar- 
ture from normal averaged, for the two 
months, almost -8\ The Delaware I 
above Philadelphia, was frosen from shore 
to shore, and ice was said to be 18 inches 
thick a ihort distance up the river (Tor- 
readale. Pa.), the thickest in the memory 
of the local rivermen. 

As for the birds, there appeared to be 
about the same number of species present 
as in late November, but a decided falling 
off in the number of individuals was ap- 
parent. Thb was no doubt due to some 
extent to the deep snows, which forced the 
birds into restricted areas where food was 
obtainable. For instance, a small flock of 
Meadowlarks which had taken winter 
quarters on a nearby river-meadow could 
not be found. After repeated attempts 
to locate them had failed, they were 
finally discovered some distance away 
feeding oa the top of a heap of compost. 
They were very loath to leave and came 
at soon as the opportunity offered. 
' hem were numbers of Horned Larks 
and Song Sparrows. 

The Northern Shrike was the only 
species from the North that appeared In 
sufficient numbers to break the monotony 
of the ordinary list of the co mm on winter 
birds. 

A brief but characteristic repor 
the two months might be summed up in 
the word' .ild, birds scarce.— 

Potts*, Came 

Washington Rsciox.— Notwithstand- 
ing one of the severest winters in local 
annals, there were few of the more northern 
winter residents about Washington during 
December and January. The common and 
regular winter birds have been about as 



hatch, which is normally a more or leas 
common winter resiii 

Hawks have been present in more than 
ordinary numbers, many of them mm 
to places in the immediate suburbs 

[mrticularly the lo {the 

Potomac Park. Here the Red-t.. 

I is considered a rat her rare bird about 
Washington, has been seen reg< 
Other species observed during December 
and January were the Red shouldered 
Hawk, Broad winged Hawk, Bald Eagle, 
Marsh Hawk, Cooper Ha* 
thinned Hawk, and Sparrow Hawk, and 
most of these have been reported as more 
or less common. 

In the I Columbia, th 

the environ* of the 

the Bob-white has been, it is • pleasure 
to say, unusually numerous. I 
the severe weat ). ted person 

measures to save th- 
tion by systematically feeding then 
with gratifying results. 

A flock Horned La: 

Urge for thi consisting of si 

hundred individuals, with a slit 
ling of Horned Lark*, were by *t 
observers noted in the vicinity of Arling 
ton. Vs., on January 24 and on - 
subsequent dates. The 
Lark has also been reported from 

The European Starling has been much 
in evidence, moving in flocks all winter, 
and has appeared in a number of pi.. 
various directions from Washington. It 
is perhaps also worthy of note that the 
Horned Grebe was observed b> 
Swales, on December >>. it, 13. and 14, 
1917, in the Potoma .posit e the 

lower end of Potomac Park, and ■ 
bird in the same place on December 6, 
1917. 

Of the more uncommon whsti 
there are few to record. A single - 



The Season 



165 



bunting, noted b) < H M Barrett, along 
the A on Decemlx 

one American Crowbill, seen by 

near Cleveland Park, on 

December 15, 1917; and a tingle Northern 

SMfct) observed in Potomac Park, on 

December mprise the 

list 

*!»» the moat interesting ornith 
nlogiral feature of this winter has been 
the Urge number of various kinds of 
Ducks. These have remained in the Po- 
toma< rom the Potomac Park 

down to Dyke and beyond, to long at the 

or a portion of it was free from ice. 

■ Ducks have been much more 

■■ummisi this season than for many 

and, off Dyke alone, obv 
have frequently teen (socks aggregating 

1 thousand When undisturbed 
they often approach near the shore, but 
habitually be middle portion of 

the river. The species thus far reported 
this winter are twelve, at follows: Ameri- 
can Merganser, Red-breasted Merganser. 
Hooded Merganser, American Golden - 

baffle- bead. Greater Scaup, Lesser 

Scaup, Caavasback, Redhead, Roddy 

nd Mallard.— Hasey 

Btolotual 5*rtey, Watk- 



t be beginning of the 
second week in February, uninterrupted 
temperatures prevailed all over 
The cold has been unutually 
•evere. and there have been no intermis- 
sions, not even for s day, as b usual in 
now of any account hat 
UUen. and at a result the ground is deeply 
frosee and the ice on lakes and sluggish 
streams it between s and j feet thick. 

The gorge .,! the Mississippi Kiver brio* 

>llt has been daily failed 

with s dense mist which rose from the 

ffsce in great swaying wisps 

aad floated away over the top, making the 

chasm seem like some great, dim, aad 

myttrrious steam vrnt (rom region* un 

•een Between February 8 and t J came a 

condi t ions, and for 

•« since last November, melting 



temperatures at noontime appeared. The 
v snow disappeared in nposed 
places, and on February 11 a venture- 
some Horned Lark was reported near 
Minneapolis. A considerable flock of 
Cedar Wax wings appeared in the out- 
1!. feeding on mountain- 
ash berries (Mist C. K. Carney). But on 
the 14th came the severest blixxard of the 
season, with wind 45 miles an hour, 
ling snow, and, the following morn- 
ing, a temperature of 10* below. 

In spite of all this severe weather, there 
have been occasional reports of Robins 
seen in the vicinity of the Twin Cities - 
stray birds that for lack of migrating 
instinct, or other reasons, failed to depart 
with their more normal fellows. 

Frank A. Bovey reported seeing a 
dinal several timet during January on his 
grounds at Lake Minnetonka, some is 
miles west of Minneapolis This is a rare 
■m Lanesboro has come the 
report that the Brown Creeper end the 
Golden-crested Kinglet have survived the 
winter (Hvoslef). 

A single flock of Bohemian Wai wings at 
Christmastime, a Shrike January IS, and a 
flock of so Redpolls February to, all at 
Duluth, with Pine Grosbeaks ia Carlton 
County about December t$ (Van Cleef). 
lonsfwlsr all the winter visitants thus far 
rejx>rtc«l 

An occasional Red-breasted M 
J unco, and Tree Sparrow hat been seen 
in the southern part of the st 

Chirktdeet and all our regular winter 
birds arc still scarce. -Tnos. S Roast tv 
Umhm tUy e/ UimmtcU, U leeessWfc- 

Kansas Cm Rsoion The outstand- 
ing feature of the season's work was the 
hading of three forms of the Red winged 
Blackbird wintering here. The aggregate 
number of individuals was below nn wwl . 
but the pr nun ce of dfeieiwr J t— frru i 
/seek. A . a. ercsssVfau, and A e. seWsUsrsui 






In 
by 



The three 



-ring Ducks and Geese were 



166 



1 ore 



driven further on by i he severe weather 
ooxMtioni of late December and early 
January, the last aeen being Canada Geeae, 
Mallard* and Canvasbacks on th 
souri River on Christmas 1 

the common one of Mallard X 
Hlack Duck, was taken on December 8. 
It may be worthy of note that the water- 
fowl flights at thi* point have ahown a 
decided increase since the passage of the 
Migratory Bird Law. It may not be 
generally known that the sportsmen of 
this section have opposed the spirit of 
this law with more effect than those of 
any other part of th< 

roop of perhaps fifty Short-eared 
Owls spent several weeks prior to early 
Dec e mbe r on an exten»i I land 

recently formed by the meandering of the 
This tract, embracing a thou- 
sand acres or more, is overgrown with 
typical bottom-land vegetation, bordered 
i of young willows, and affords 
ideal roosUng-placee for these Owls. An 
unusual feature of their stay at this time 
was their feeding on the Tree Sparrows 
that frequented the willows in droves. 
let examined contained some 
token of the Sparrows. The fact of thi* 
unusual diet being resorted to, aa well a* 
the favorable locality being refused aa a 
winter roost, may be accounted for I 
absence of 
new ground. 

Blue Jays and 
have been here in greater numbers than 
usual, perhaps because of an abnormal 
crop of acorns, notably of the shingle 
oak. 

A lone Kingfisher was noted on February 

ittltnn dis co nsolately along the 

course of a froaen stream. On this date 

ren the only Crossbills of the winter 

—a nock of 

The usual crowd of Sparrowa braved the 
rigors of the severe winter in the deep 
•belter of the Missouri River bottom* 
so many Harris s Sparrows, however, 
were seen as during previo us wint< 

Myrtle Warblers, which have been met 
with nearly every winter in the timbered 



■ -.'} Mganjsf htggfM og |m»h 

< *' neJ '■'• < ■ ' t v '. •* wi 
Hvatis. Kamiot City, Ho. 



gat 



weather 

rv...ru(L* have hem »>•■*! ■' >Mr and 

pleasant . there ha* fallen a goodly amount 
of snow in our neighboring mountain* and 
foothill*, but not an ticeasivs dr, 

have been several spells of low 

ires during this time, the minimum 
in Denver having been 15* l* 

ihstanding lb f the 

cold mountains, and the spells of low 
tem|>eratures, there baa been a good deal 
of 'open water' about thr rgion. 

Blue Heron and a Kingfisher to sta 

all winter, the first having been seen near 

and the 
on January 1 . The 'open water,' as is well 
known, also encourages WOaon 
remain during what would api 
wise, to be an unfavorable season 
was seen here on January 1, and at 

•.her on Januar 
latter day was a vei 
seems strange (o Ik rd the 

•\% its afternoon 
Owl at the edge of the mountains about 

• lea west of Denver, one h 
seen there by one of the » 

Df Fisher and the writer also saw a 
ing Dove near the city on January 
aj, which in this locality is an unusual 
record for January. Robins have been 
more common in t .; the 

period now under consideration tit. 

I her similar period during the * - 
twenty-four years of observe - 
individuals of this species were M 
December and in every week 
Janu.f luaUofo. 

- bird-population have been common, 
and this population b well rejected in the 

the January*- February (1918) number of 
liini> 1...BI W. II M.D 

Drsjsvr, Colo. 



23oofc J^etos; anb Ctebietog 



Zoologica t ,.r •:., ! • 



/. 



mm 

an 

roadway. 

■ 504 
pages, numerous illustrations. 

■ be congratulated on the 
it* of beading what, ao far as thr 

this country- in *<-. :ly, of 

% birds rather than their 
shins. The museum man and the pro- 
fessional collet- 'liged to bring 
'pecimeas he ex- 
hibition halls and laboratories of the insti- 
tution he represents, and which requires, 
furthermore, tome tangible, appraisable 
results for the money expended; the latter, 
to ensure the success of his enterprise or, at 
to assist in defraying bis expenses, 
therefore, h»*«M!gs the 
1 pressing those in author: 
the organisation which already owes so 
•its labors, with the value of 
researches, to the outcome of which bo 
per uniary valuation could be attached, but 
• It in securing information 

iope that the showing be and Us 
associates make in this report (which 
should be considered a report of progress) 
will lead to the sending of many similar 



( a region (ah. 1 Mritish 

.hose hit. fairly well 

where faunal problems are not 
iltitude, and bene* where 

Beebc and his associates devoted sis 

to a 

Ibotogtcal, which presented themselves. 

Specimens ware collected when they 
were needed for identification or stu«! 



each man feeling wh >te his 

observation without the 
neces> present in the ...Hectors 

>*; at least so many speci- 
mens a day. 

As s result of this method, we h . 
this preliminary report so many a«l 

r knowledge of the habits of S 
American birds and so many suggestions 
in regard to further subjects for investiga 
■ nnot begin to enumerate 
them in this review, which indeed is 
designed to comment on Mr. Beebe's 
unique undertaking rather than to detail 
its outcome. 

m only hope that he will return in 
from his service as an a via; 
France and. with additions to his staff, 
be spared to continue his studies in the 
jungles of I una. 

Meanwhile we advise every student of 
tropical life to se I M.C. 

Twelve Months wi 

R alph 
is ao. 

a chapter to each month in 
Bar, the author pleasantly inter- 
weaves his own observations and Appre- 
ciation of birds with those of the orni 
tholugist and p fading has evi- 

carried him far afield in both the 
a den ce and sentiment of ornithology, 
.•mbining the results of these excur- 
sions with bis own, be has written a vol 
ume which contains much of Interest for 
both bird students and general readers. 

fondness for the Kngtish Sparrow with a 
genuine love of the birds in whose »* 

ussalna of tho«r (rait* which 

in mankind, hut at beat we 

redil him with the . outage to rham 

pion a f i b e r of t he feathered race whose 

friends- art t o nod chiefly among those an- 

familiar with other forms of bird hie. 

Esceilent taste has been shown in the 

of this booh, which may well 






I6.S 



Bird - Lore 



lind u» way to (be library °l lft e nature- 
Thi. Book or Biai> Biim or 

IN AMD ( 

.piers on 'Encouraging Birds 
around the Home' »• I ii Ki 
Mysteries of Bird Mi*: 

i \%, 3d. Illustrated in natural colors, 
> 150 paintings by Lotts Acassm 

Royal 8 

105 pages; many illustrations in color 

and black end m 

Tbe Editor of the Saiiotutl Orographic 
Magatinf has here brought together the 
various articles 00 birds which have ap- 
peared in that publication and with which 
the readers of Bran- Lota arc doubtless 
familiar. 

diflnult to overestimate the educa- 
tional value which these admirable ai 
have already exerted, and we cannot 
therefore be too thankful that they should 
now be presented in a form which makes 
them readily accessible.— F.M 

tOM. By 

1 <»uis* Pattbson. Photographs by 
tbcAulh Heath* ( 

- i>8 
pages; numerous illustra t io n s. 

In this book the author recounts her 
experiences with bird neighbors in a man- 
ner well designed to hold the attention of 
the boys and girls to whom it is ded 
and for whom it b written, as well as those 
children of maturer years who find per 
petural youth in association with birds. 
Numerous photographs from nature add 
greatly to the value and realism of the 

Ornithological Magazines 

Tux Condor -The January number of 
'The Condor* contains seven general ar- 
two of which relate to tbe nesting 
habits of waterfowl. Munro describes the 
habits of 'The Barrow Golden-eye in the 
Okanagan Valley, I h notes on 

their nests. He attributes the birds' pref- 
erence for strongly alkaline lakes to the 
presence of certain small crustaceans which 



Itffal '» r I'fini ipal tcxxl a! thi» 1 ' . » h 

a < harming act' \ Return I 

I >akota Lake Region I ey touches 

00 the various species of 

with, including the V 

« hi. h was found on < 

<>f lakes. 

.te a com- 
prehr 
Birds at tbe Lighthouses 

based on reports from • 



«on is slight and is confined mail 
waterfowl and shore bin! 

te on tbe Tr.i sac in the 

Rudd iles that further esamina 

tion of tbe field shows taWal 

air-sac is a secondary scxua! 
found only in males, and that 
habitually keep the sac inflated, 
while diving. 

Tbe remaining articles 
local lists of rather unusu.> 
Mailliard gives an account 
Autumn Bii 

list of twenty-three spedes that have 
apparently not hen" 
I r..m the floor of the II 

the fact that Ray collected eg* 
Hummingbird in 1898, and that Muir 
reported Lewis' Woodp< ■ the 

a number of years at 
Some Bird* from Central Arizona.' 
Swart h summarizes the result*, 
starvations during a trip ai 
Trail' between Phoenii ai 
summer of 1 ui 7. Among' 
records he was sble to add two spedes, 
Bendire's Crossbill and the Indigo Bunt- 
ing, to the state list, making the nun 
■pedes now known froi 
The concluding art n and 

HoUeman, contains 
spedes of 'Breeding I 
Texas.' In one of the brief not 
calls attention to tbe fact that so far as 
now known the White rumned 1 

rnia coast is Beat's Petrd (O f t w ee- 
Jroma Uucvrhoa btali .and that 
record of Kaeding s Petrd (0. /. ka*d»n l i 
having been taken in the state— T.S.P. 



Editorial 



169 



#irt) Uorc 

Dwm l to th« 



Minu otui or rat acveaosi soctrnu 
W FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

rWAMU. OSGOOD WRIGHT 
to D. APPLF.TON A CO. 



Vol. XX 



April 1. ltlS No. 2 



MNlilvlMri' 



A BW .. >W »»4 /« RWt* Too m i*. W-U 



The ante of nature-study has loat one 
ratiieat and most effective advocates 
in the death of Mr* Frank \ Doubleday, 
r red in Canton, China. February 
ha name 
Kan" Mrs. Doubleday made nu- 
merous contribution* |0 the literature ..f 
popular ornithology, botany, and horti- 
cultu: rat and most important 

book «hbors,' was published in 

1808, and at once met with a wider sale 
than any other bird- book which had then 

ubleday's book on 
Attra . as among the first formal 

treatises on this subject in which she was 
deeply interested. ery Child 

Should Know further expressed her desire 
to popularize bird-study, and she was 
doubtless largely responsible for the at ten 
tie* paid birds by 'Country Life in Amer 
be firm founded by Mr. 
Doubleday is the publisher. It was natu- 
ral that a person with Mrs. Doubleday '• 
broad sympathies and active, coosir 
mind should offer her StrrlCM t» her 
country Since the outbreak of the war 
she had been c ont im»ou»l> en*a*ed »n rrl.cl 
and at the time of her death she 
avding with her husband In behalf 
>e Rod Cross. 



1867. Robert Ridg* 
connr the Smithsonian Institu- 

tion at Wsshfngton, sad the prsaaat 
month, therefore, marks the coodosjon of 



Ma fiftieth year in the sen-ice of the 
Government. A half a century takes us 
back almost to the dste of publication 
(1858) of the Pacific Railroad report on the 
<>f North America by Baird, Casein 
and Lawrence, or, in other words, to 
the birth of systematic ornithology in 
America. 

It was to Kidgway that Baird, claimed 
by growing executive cares, handed the 
torch which be had lighted, and during the 
cades which Kidgway has borne it. 
it baa steadily increased in power, until to 
day it shines without a rival in the world of 
ornithology. 

Ridg way, in a memorial to Baird 
presented before the Annual Congress 
of the American Ornithologists' Union 
in 1887, and published in 'The Auk' the 
following January, states that until the 
middle of 1864, when he was in his four- 
teenth year, he was unacquainted with 
the name of a single living naturalist 
and with only general or superficial 
works on natural history. At the sugges- 
tion of s lady living in his native town of 
Mt. Carmel, HI., he wrote to the Com- 
missioner of Patents at Washington en- 
closing a life-aise, colored drawing of a 
pair of Purple Finches with the name 
"Roseate Groabenk, Sexse reies." 

bag time he received a reply from 
Professor Baird, then Assistant Secretary 
of the Smithonian Institution, commend- 
ing "the unusual degree of ability aa an 
shown in his drawing, which was 
identified ae that of a Purple- Pinch, and 
offering to aid the young ornithologist by 
"naming your drawings, or In any other 

l interesting to r ememb er that, just 
about twenty- five years before, Baird had 
appealed to Audubon for aid In identifying 
a bird and had received a reply eaaen 
similar to the one just quoted Actually. 
aa well aa scientifically, Baird, therefore, 
formed the connecting Unk between Au- 
dubon and Ri dgway. 

Three years later Baird called Rid. 
to Washington to start the career which 

%>»temali« 



Cfje Hububon Societies; 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

E41U4 by AUCS HALL W ALTER 

ARE YOU DOING YOUR PART? 

car goes quickly in these momentous times, and before these words a i 

ng will once more be with us, and Bird and Art* 
ave had many pleasant programs in times past for this occasion, many 
h*ppy gatherings of teachers, pupils, and part to be hoped, really 

fruitful results from the observance of this annual na: al. 

This season our eyes are strained toward one goal, nar 
war, and it is both right and imperative that we turn every effort in l 

of all the yearly holidays and anniversary days which we are accustomed 
to celebrate, no day lends itself so well to the great cons. Movement 

of the present as Bird and Arbor Day. Without vegetation, trees, shrubs, 
plants, grains, and grasses of all kinds on land, and marine vegetation in water, 
there could be no life and no means of sustaining life on this ear 
vegetation animals must perish, a truth which is emphasized 
instructions. Now you and I may at present seem to be 
on the one hand, from any natural disaster which would cut off all life- supplies 
for man and beast, and, on the other hand, from real i 
of food, by reason nding crises in national and international affairs. 

If we are in this complacen; m< I, it shows how small Ott 

hension is of the true situation. We must realise two fa 1 we must 

realize tkem mow: first, that there are just as many, and prok 
st rue live agencies at work in forest and field now than before the war. 
millions of human workers have left their accustomed duties to g 
and, second, that the last surplus bushel of wheat in this country has already been 
shipped abroad, so that we must redouble our efforts to conserve an< : 
substitutes for what we have until another harvest. 

■v is the plain statement of the case. With fewer and fewer dm 
keep up agriculture and forestry, insects, field-mice, gophers and other pests 

kely to increase more rapidly, while, at the same tin 
supplies of the world, which must feed every living creature until more can 
be grown, are smaller and more unevenly distributed. 

This coming Bird and Arbor Day, let us say less and do mor< put 

greater effort into plans for safeguarding crops and timber and make 
effort count for something beyond patriotic programs. Instead 
tree or so about our schools, let us turn our energies to st 
crease and conserve the food and fuel supplies in our own n< 



The Audubon SocIcik. 171 

1 to AuduUm Societies, as well as for teachers and scholars, 

v.iduhon Societies reach out, on the one hand, 

-oU and, <>n the other, to the homes for support in this matter Take 

as a slogan: Food and / nds and Foes, and, with this as a text, spread 

nation about local food and fuel supplies, and their feathered 

ibon Society, among othcra, pabtigbea excellenl l>ird 
study leaflets, in which the value of l>irds and tt der the game- 

laws of that >tate are presented. The I'nited States Department of Agriculture 
m reams of authentic information, n iUmt birds, but also about 

insects, forests, crops, and many kindred >ubi< 

- illustrate* I bulletins from Departments of Agriculture alone will do 
is needed. Practical demonstrations and experimental observation 
plots, as well as careful cultivation and ingfMCtfcgi of areas ordinarily tilled or 
KTve mu>t form the backbone of this m<> 
Jui < -sent a respectable army in point o! numbers, 

under the leadershi|> • 4 .rious state organizations, a mighty move- 

ment could well l>c organized along the following lines of endea\ 

is» a definite locality, preferably a home or town area, and learn the pres- 
•ndition of food and fuel (applies. 

• these supplies with four ends in view, i fa 
<»mparison with former ahum I 
ial present location and coi 
M < 1 1 reaae and conservation. 

ial agent* affecting these supplies, such as birds, insects, animals, tore. 
rage rainfall, temperature, storms, human dep r eda t ions. 
to school of home-conditions, whether farming areas in rural dis- 
M lawns and back yards in towns and cities, 

tared to show the location of food and fuel arena. Uncultivated 
- <-d arena should be shown in a special color, 
row Bird and Arbor Day program, present a graphic, practical report of 
•mdUions in your neighborhood, with suggestions for improvement, illust 
material showing the benefits of conservation, and a series of comparative pictures taken 
magazines or other sources, which shall point the moral of late***** asttMmsn 
«*sj of small areas. 

• nt a set of simple instructions in forestry, arboriculture, and bortlcui 

■ boys and girls. 

f*0 ymt p*t\ by engaging In active service. Children can learn the value as wall 

of discov erin g waste wood about (arm and dwelling, and picking it up for 

kindling next winter's torr m also help ia the garden, by working a little hrrr 

•» happy, Joyous kind of play, really, to be ia a garden with the 

vegeta b l es , weed*, fruit bushes and trees and all the strange feathered, winged, running. 

<ng. bussing folk whic h frequent it Make work a play whether indoors or out 
make s 0* yw p^n. «hctbcr young or old. by discovering the opportunities 

to learn new methods of doing things, new combinations of food, new way* of saving, 
new ideas about your share and my share la t his world now so rapidly changing Move 

\ II w 



i7* Bird -Lore 

JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pup 
Exercise XXXVIII: Correlated with English, Reading, and Agriculture 

"The world is ail before roe; but I ask 

Nature that with which she will comply- 
but in her lummtr'i sun to bask, 
To mingle with the quiet of her ». 
To see her gentle face without a mask. 
And never gate on it with *; 

. The ureen hills 
Are clothed with early blossoms, through the grass 

The quick-eyed liaard rustles, and the bill* 
Of summer-birds sing welcome as ye pas*. 

Flowers fresh in hue, and many in their class, 
Implore the pausing step, and with their dyes 

Dance in the soft brecse In a fairy mass; 
The ■weetneas of the violet'* deep-blue eyes, 

Kiss'd by the breath of heaven, seems colour'd by its ». 

— By 

Although Byron is not generally thought of as a poet 
lines be expresses much of the true nature-lover's delicate attunen • 
pure and quiet joy of "the green hills/' the "early blosson ezc," 

and "summer birds" which "sing welcome" to the passer-by. Only a poet 
could express so beautifully the appeal of the fresh spring flow* 
"implore the pausing step" perhaps only .a poet could have phrased the wish 
to see the gentle face of nature "without a mask and never gate on it with 
apath 

A SPRINGTIME HERMIT 

■y UZZIB THOMAS BALDWIN. Jamcatown. N Y 

One April morn, when skies were gray, I watched. A little kins dropped down; 

And I had wished a sunny day. Upon his head a ruby crown, 
I wandered where God's acre fair >yal song rose, glad and clear. 

Calls birds to matins, men to pra> • My preeninu bird awok< 

He answered low; then » welled to theme — 

Within s darkling ev erg re en An overture to L- I dream. 

A bird did sit. and there did preen 

Hi* wings. Twns he who soon goes north Dear hermit thrush! My cup runs 

And there his matchless hymn pours forth With rapt'rous song ne'er heard be 

In forests dim. on mountains high. Thou'tt >ung! And shall I ever say. 

As Love's full song mount* toward the sky. Ah. me! What's in a rainy day? 



The Audubon Soclttios 173 

Suggestions for Bird and Arbor Day 



By INDIANOLA WILLCUTS 



BV> A. X M 


* 


^ 




~ *> * 


DLi 


k * J 


r^Ti 


* \*M 


i. 


• 


4 


/ \l|fj 


l\. 




51 

1 


™3 


,^< ] 








¥ 


■ t 







ouncf ul teacher from Hoiyoke, Minn., has contributed the following 
Mccceeful method of arranging Bird and Arbor Day eserdeee. — A. 11. W.) 



I s. >!>>:- 



The Woodpecker' 



PROGRAM 
Modern 

Mu«u Srr.r. 



II 
III 

l\ Readti | Froi is bird d 

be Farmer's Friends." 

VI 

MI 

VIII 



\N Longfellow. 



Comparison of adjectives. 

.enfty birds. 
Came— "I m» a," "I se» 
Beat atory (re* 

Reading— "The Magpie's No 



GET READY FOR BIRD DAY 

daily work in school lor the mootb before Bird Day, in »ucb a way that 
when the day « omee your program is ready without having bad aay ruah or much eatra 

Send out inviutioaa. Hektograph a good number of Redheaded Woodpecker* 



«74 



hir<J 



(Reeti \tdubon Kducational Leaflet*). Color Umm carefully u 

out. I'attr a cuiuui on the lower kit comer of a piece of white drawing \>», 
cariboarfl, s'.i.n 4 1 , inches 1'nnt or write the foBowlag 



BI1 


CO 


\ I II: 


-< HOOLBOI 


n \i 




l»«tel 




(Time) 



liird Day in the variou* I the tame day, to !»• 

Have a iirogram (or each e> white drawing-paper m« by 6 inches. < I 

Id* (old a j inch Up. leading a 4*4 by 6-inch »pace under the Up. on 
or write the program. 

the Up. pa»tc a S< I -lucation 

Below, paate the w»t red paper oblongs 

During the mont! lay, bektograph Urge copiea of birds mm! 

> hil<!' mge them artistically around the room as soon as nnUbed. 

Hrktograph on Manila drawing-paper two com- MS in 

dumeter. the inner, ; inches, in which has been traced a Cardin.i 
It i* necessary to hektograph two copies; in one the bird faces the led, in the 
right. Color, cut out, and paste the two together. Cut two Urips of Manila pa; 
by yi inches, paste together, iniert one end between the tw< • that 

the bird will be »tanding in the right position. Hang one in each window. 

mux the front o( the room as a Mage, with three or more evergreens on 
of the Mage, back of which the birds may ttat 

possible, place branches of trees to which twisted bit* <>f pink pa 
pasted to represent pink bloaaons o( fruit tfl the papers 4 t< 

corner* rounded, twut at center snd paste on to bare twigs. Let the > 

In the song, "The Woodpr. the boys Up on their desks when 

M I snd II, published l> Burdett & 

beautiful bird-songs. Typical tongs may be found ngs." 

published by Longm >., and si 

\ \N Mumford. 536 South CUrk - 

An attractive but inexpensive way to make cottume- 
Ask each < hild to bring an old stocking, the top o( which will go over the h< 
Cut off leg, to make a snug cap, then sew up, and cut, being sure that the cap cones 
well over the forehead. Buy roll* of cheap crepe paper in colors to repre* 
as pear as possible. 

' tamplc: 
I'Uce cap on bead. 

I it the edge of the end of roll of red crepe paper dose to edge of ca off a 

Utile below the child* neck in the back. 

i'leat corners st front until paper fits head like s bonnet. Sew pleats, but do not 
let them meet under the chin. 

-f« tni oi bUck paper onto red at back o( n< iT at wain 'ling 

the lower corners. 



The Audubon Societies 175 

end of while crepe paper und< i tun Fasten one corner to pleats on 

Ida of red rap; pin the other corner to pleats on right side. Cut off at waist, round 

1 short red bib over the white. Keep paper up around no k for a high collar 
lap in back with black strip, lengthwise. 

iree- sided, of stiff paper 9 inches long. 
- for eyes. 
10. Leave opening at one side so the whole goes on like a bonn< 

ls H go storking footed, or ait] l>ullc<! over their slippen or 

»hor-» 

hers aad mother* enjoy games on a program. The one described asily 

IP I WERE A - -" 

In right end mount a bird, one trrlt colored by a 1 hild Print . fur example 'handsome 
off "funny nimble Nuthatch" oa tat 
n or fifteen such cards. 
Place cards on chalk-tray. 

you were a bird, what bird would 
ith his chosen card held by both hands so that earh one in the room nu\ 
If I were a bird. I'd be the handsome Mr. Blue Jag 
Id, in turn, takes card to his desk, after replying to th< 
■ place the cards on chalk-tray, when all have been drawn, use this question aad 

rl. what bird wen 
the handsome Mr. Blue Jay," (places card on tr.> 

THE FARMERS FRIENDS 

repare rhart% by 24 inches. 

e at top a pit ture of a bird, a Chickade- iple. Bel" common 

•1 charts, 
with pointer %taad near chart and - 

kadee is s>« inches long. It Kkas suet and bread crumbs. It helps the 
fanner because *orms, plant li mtbechai 

ADJECTIVE OAMB 

hart paper. 44 by tS inches. 

ild color s Brpaar a Red winged Blsrkbird. sad 

! mount one beneath the other in a »ide of rhart. Oppo- 

opposite Redwiaged Blackbird "blarker "; aad 
Id reads: "The Broase Oracak b black, the 
I is blacker, but the trow is black' 
overs the Redwiaged Blackbird. Child reads, "The Broase Crackle Is 
b blacker 

bjerts near by to comp the chart 

tallest birds, small, smaller, smallest, aad Urge, larger, largest laao 

Compare height of two or three chttdrea. Sis or eight aot too many 

a good idea to have fine wire naib. S laches Span *b sloag the top of 

ard. Punch all chart* 4 inches oa each side of crater Hang oa nails. 



176 Bird -Lore 

NAM1NO FIFTY BIRDS 

tarns of fifty bird* at least (Audubon or 
In various way* draw attention to them the month I 
Bg the last week let the pupil* tec who can name all of then hang 

them actum the front of the blackboard on a wire. Let the child who named them per 
. hool point to and name them. Parent* ire surprised I 

TO PLAY THE OAME. "SEE. SAW. A. AN. E 

aids 6 by is inches. Print "I taw a." "I taw an." "I tee a." "I have 
an," etc. oo them. 

Place these, with mounted pictures, on chalk tr.. 

< hild draw two cards to read, for example. "I saw an Oriole," and read them 
aloud. Another. "I have teen a Flaming- arents learn tr taw" 

k* said "ai 

-I> CALLS. SONOS. AND WHISTLES* 

hUd steps to front of room and say* 

i* side, *a\ la -dee-dee, "adding, "Bob- white, Bob- 

white Third thild stands in the line. »inv Bob- 

white" and adds the whistled notes of the \\ sparrow. 

Continue until all the children who can find a bird to imitate are b k* fif- 

teenth child, should give the fourteen sounds made before him and add a new one of 
his own. 

RHYMES 

7. Cards 18 by 11 inches (18-inch side b top). Print such a rhyme as the following, 
omitting the last w< - 

field- (Bice go out for a walk. 

They'd better look out for the hovering ." 

r of lower edge of card punch a bole Fasten a card hook of a 

Hawk. Child reads rhyme, chooses bird, and hangs it into the bole in the card when he 
says the word "Ha* 

Hang ten or twelve such cards on nails 8 inches apart on edge of blackboard. Stand 
the bird pi balk-tray to that they may be easily available for ieic« I 

There are fine rhymes in 'Babes and Birds' by Jessie Pope, published by H . M . < 
well I and Boston. 

A good reading is "Tk$ MigfiiSi Nest" (Art Literature Reader 
represent the Lark, one the Magpie, and so on, having one for the book itself, but read 
each part from the book just as in a reading-das*. 

M can possibly do so, dramatise "Cock Robin's Wtddimg" (tee July, 191$, issue 
of "Something To Do," 1 jo Boylston St., Boston, Mast). 

MS "birds" in costume* described in this art 
birds or use some tiny tin whistle* found in prise randies. 

A pretty way to introduce the guest* at the wedding i* to have a short song about 1 
guest, as he or she arrive*. I used "Songs about Birds." One child sang several as solos. 
If tome tot dance* well, let her represent a bird whose song has light music, dancing to 
her place around the stagr m "Owl" on a Udder an'! ;*>or will" on * 

high bench 

ou cannot secure the "Wedding." use one of the following playlet 
Stole the Bird's ! oems by Grades, Primary), "Laura and the Bird*" (Brooks' 



The Audubon Societies 177 

Readr and the Birds" (Brooks' Reader II > The Tongue-cut Sparrow" 

(Japanese Fairy Tale* I by Tereaa Willis ton Little girls and boy* dreu la kimono* 

he Uttrr and many "birds" are alone, the roads. 

Re. he Wood) d." from "Book of Nature Myths" by 

Florence Holbrook. Let children rewrite it. Have the best story read on "Bird Day." 

b) at least sis beautiful readme, chart* about birds with bird-pictures pasted on 

them 

■»u have the "Audubon Bird Charts" let a child name the birds on them. 
These birds make fine outlines to hektograph for the children to color. 

1 USED TO KILL BIRDS 
By Hun W. Lonoreixow 

I used to kill birds in my boyhood, 

Bluebirds and robins and wrens, 
I hunted them up in the mountains, 

I hunted them down in the glens; 
I never thought it was sinful — 

I did it only for fun, 
And I had rare sport in the forest, 

W it h the poor little birds and my gun. 

But one beautiful day in the springtime, 
I spied a brown bird in a tree, 
twinging and chirping, 
happy as bird could be; 
id raising my gun in a twinkling, 
I fired, and my aim was too true, 
I moment the little thing fluttered. 
Than off to the bushes it flew. 

And there to my sorrow I found. 
Right dose to its neat of young ones. 

The little bird daad on the groun 
Poor birdies ! For food they war* calling . 

But now they could never be fad. 

mother-bird who had loved them. 

Was lying there bleeding and dead 

icked up the bird in my anguish, 
•ked the wee motherly thing, 
That could never more feed its dear young ones, 

iart through the air 00 swift wing 
And I made a irm vow in that moav! 

en say heart with such sorrow was stirred. 
That never again in say lifetime, 

old I shoot a poor innocent bird! 

her iiiuwilime for Bird and Arbor Day m i da te may be found In p re c ed i ng year* 
of Bis .the issue* of March April It is moat desirable that great emphasis be 

placed this spring upon practical plans for incrvaeiag and cosoe r vin g food- and fuel 



17* Bird -Lore 



Ana' 4 t law or kwi 

tree* of the locality, showing branches, aonc of which will be la flower. 
other pupils illustrate the birds whi. be rc»|»r. 

• trrc castas of the neighborhood would make an excellent 
a* the>- stand on the Mage and exhibit and name the tree*. \ M U 



FOR AND FROM ADULT AND YOUNG 
OBSERVERS 

m. — The Editor of the JS7W Drfiartmrmi desire* to at 
tributiona are not delayed in publication without reason. In order to coml- 
in aa helpful a form aa possible 

becomes necessary to hold matt, r <>\rr In this section the emphasis ia 
upon migration, late win nces, and school-room method 

THE BLUEBIRD 

rk! tad look 

Just over the brook, 
What li it I hear 

In March's wind so drear? 

nd 
Th< icar 

g his spring song 
So soft and clear? 
—Pi it 12 yea 

THE LURE OF THE FEATHERED SONGSTK 

Many people believe that birds may be studied only in summei 
class quick, merry chirps or sweet prolonged notes with balmy May days or 
bright June days. These people on! 

not this world still inhabited with feathered songsters during the si 
of autumn and wit. 

It is easier to study birds in winter, that stay all the year, as they car 
be confused with April migrants. 

March \, 1Q17, was a brisk, wintry day, with just enough snow cm the 
ground to remind one of Christmas. Not many people would veotttn 
depths of mow-covered bird land. but. instead, went to pleasure-houses. 
They were unaware that the world's most lovely pleasure-ground lay open 
to them, and that they were even invited to this land that morning ;» 
rose. Who invited them? The black-winged Crow the world's bt 

by his lusty cawing. 

A party of three, including an instructor, was lured into this land of « 
lasting beauty and joy. 



The Audubon Societies 179 

4 meeting a number of the large Sparrow family. They 
wen > Harrow. Tree Sparrow and Song Spam ard the clear, 

t song of the Song Sparrow ring out over snow-covered meadows, and felt 
that 1 A-as worth whi if this were its only pleasure. But it was 

leasure nor the greatest, for after a while we heard a loud chirp- 
ing and, looking up. saw a large flock of Starlings. The chirping stopped 
abruptly, and we then heard the song of the Starling. At length the great flock 
rose and sailed across the leaden sky like a black cloud. I was deligh 

La* 1 walk we heard the Downy Woodpecker and the Chickadee, 

we saw, sailing over stately snow-laden hemlocks, which 
hung a rippling silver brook, a Crow, the messenger of spring He Mended 
h the silent study in black and white, the view of nature in repose, 
we saw the little friend of the north, the Snowbird, hopping 
native element and pecking happily at a withered brown bean 
A short distance from him we saw the female Cardinal perched on a low bush. 
To our great joy, she flew down from the hush to the little stream under it and 
drank of its cold, crystal water. All this took place just beyond a rail-fence. 
At the fence was a clump of trees heavily laden with the snow. We wen 
turning away from the trees and the scene of recent discovery when we heard 
the wild clear cry of the male Cardinal. We were held breathless while those 
true notes of nature were sung by our lit I v chord of our 

minds was entirely thrilled. Those few notes of the untaught bird expres se d 
more of nature's wonderfulness than can be written on pap made one 

feel as though being a bird were the only life worth living This half-minute of 
walk was worth more to us than a day of ordinary indoor bird-stu<! 
The only way to really study a l.ird or anything in nature is to go to the 
woods or fields and see it as it really is, not as others see it. Those who know 
rig of nature have missed half the joy of life. Km* \ mi 

retary of the 'Wake-Robin Club. HVil PkUMpku; 

kc n«tur< v worth many <Uy» of plodd in g indoor n 

The pkw (or outdoor »tudy i* more than ever worthy our attention in theee •trained, 
aaaatarnl time* \ II u 

A SPRING NOTE FROM THE TEACHER OF THE WAKE- 
ROBIN CLUB 

t spring walk was taken on th two of my oldest pupils, 

and original members of th« Che snow was 5 or 6 inches 

deep, but they wished to go. I myself had been exploring the snow-* 

vo days previously, and had found out rare birdland secrets. I was 
deligl these pupils go. My happy hunting-grounds are the crack 

■ », where there is woodland, field, swamp, meadow, and bushes. I haunt 
near-by creek section particular! 



i8o Bird- Lore 

On two occasions, both snowy days, I saw seven Cardinal fore 

•ul> there, and after I found them, I was attracted irrcsist ; 
place. I shall nfl ooc that favored me with a glimpse i 

beautiful self. I was watching a flo. Sparrows wh -ial. a 

male, flew out from their midst and alighted on a tall weed, about tw< 
the ground, a bit of flame showing red against pure white snow. I remained 
transfixed until he flew. I saw flocks of Cardinal la last » 

to me this single rosy specimen, seen in depths of winter, made the most \ 
startling picture I ever feasted eye on in the bird-world. 

I am learning to know the birds in this near-by creek vall< 
on these snowy days, February 19, 1 saw a Meadowlark ; later. 
Last week I saw the Carolina Wren and heard that clear and won- 
song. It seems all too loud to issue from a bird of its small dimensions. I 
caught a glimpse of a Winter Wren. 

The Chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers, Juncos, Tree Sparrows, and 
Sparrows are in the same locality. I have seen more winter birds this year than 
ever before, but when I took the class out they always seemed to beat a retreat. 
Along a two-mile stretch of road we counted thirteen nests of the Red-eyed Vireo, 
and I was able to show them the nest of a Goldfinch that had withstot* 
os of winter.— Clara J. Clair, Philadelphia. 

(The above record dates back to March, 1917, but we may gain all the more benefit 
from it by comparing it with observation* made this spring. In addition to work 
the children of the Wake-Robin Club, thi* teacher conducted a wx- weeks' co». 
bird-study in the Philadelphia Normal School, having the students out for two hours 
or more each morning. It is to be hoped that sometime Miss Clair will tell us of her 
experiences with Hummingbirds during the nesting -season. — ft II 

CORMORANT IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA 

During the spring migration, when the Ducks were returning north. 
Kennedy, two boys, and myself happened to be at Barmore Lake. It was a 
good thing we happened to be there that morning or we would have missed a 
rare find. As we went around a corner of a vacant summer cottage, we saw a 
bird located on the top of a dead stub, several rods from us. It was a 1 
feet long and three feet from wing to wing. It stayed there awhile, and tl 
was a beautiful sight to see it pose in mid-air a few seconds, then flying down 
the lake, where it lit. We watched it swim and dive and mad its identi- 

fication before going away. We saw it once more that morning. It was 1 
northwest. Mr. Kennedy said, "You had better take another look as you 
probably never seen another Cormorant in this part ot 
holson (Age 12 years), Grove City, Pa. 

(The writer of the above note says: "Last spring I had a pleasant experien 
thought might interest the readers of Biao-Loax. I am twelve yean old. Last ; 
listed 1 7 J different species of birds, the rare ones being a Least Bittern, Cormorant, and 



The Audubon Societies 181 

Dock. Mr. Jams Kennedy, one of the beat authorities on birds 

his section, and also a Director of the ' va» always 

is when we saw these rare birds, else we could not have identified them ourselves. 

it year I have succeeded in getting a Junior Audubon Society in our room at school 

k it will be successful as our teacher i» quite interested in the birds." Having studied 

mm the age of seven in his home township, "an area of 18 square miles," the above 

record of 1 7 j species is all the more interesting and valuable. If each observer would keep 

records about his own premise* even, or in his own town or couaty, 

nation, at present not verified with suffi racy to !>< liable, 

might be sifted and made useful for purposes of comparison in other sections. In many 

ways a concentrated, limited-area study has the advantage over unlimited wandering. — 

A H 

A THREE-TOED WOODPECKER 

Three years ago I saw an Arctic Three- toed Woodpecker and made a de- 

1 did not find out its name till if lay. According to 

Reed's "Wld Bir.l- <»t New England" this species is not bob in Maine. 

I am fourteen years old and enjoy bir< : is a 

great ht-i: lampden. Main* 

MIGRATING BOBOLINKS IN ATLANTA 

In April we were daily watching eagerly for spring migrants. On the joth 

a watchman reported that on the previous night he had heard the loud call 

t migrating birds at intervals, and morning showed that we had 

ma flock of Bobolinks. They took for headquarters a field of red 

clover, which had been planted in winter grain the previous year. Several 

males at one time would sway each on top of stalks of grain, thus being above 

the I* e field, and each would joyfully sing bis heart out. The Bobo- 

were with u> until May 11. hut evidently the personnel of the flock 

dang- rst, among fifty birds, only a few females were seen . later, when 

the flock numbered one or two hundred, about one in ten was a female; still 

• was one female to five males while just before their disappea r anc e , 

when not many birds were left, there were five or ten females to every male. 

if this period of time there were Bobolinks in widely separated parts of the 

ran, Pratidenu, R I 

»dera of Biao-Loat will be glad of this record from the pen of Miss Upton. 
especially since it gives data on the confusing point of the order of migration among 
spade. Vrthur Alien's monograph on the Red winged Blackbird, it is said with 

regard to that species that "the normal migration (•■ can be divide 

•even periods according to sta, age, and nature of the birds (whether resident or mi< 

^ rival of "vagr* 

I of migrant adult malts. 

ll of resident adult males. 

»1 of migrant females and immatt 
v *l of resident adult 



Bird- Lore 

i« meant stray bird* 
not far aoulh of the locality studied, and which do not properly belong to the boat of 
lone -distance migrants wboac first appearance U generally two week» bal 

U seen, appear in February, but the migrant* 
Mar. .r Bobolink is closely related to tbr > 

the same family group, the observations • !*come all the more sign: 

in the Ugh' \llcns authorit re based on n. 

V i! 

THE ROBIN 

I'm glad I am a Robin. 

I'm glad that I can at 

I'm glad that fn-sh and su 

I'm glad for everything. 



SCHOOL LETTERS FROM LAWNDALE. PA. 
! ABUNDANCE OF ROBIN8 IN 1915 

W< have been doing a great deal in helping Lhebii 
in the Lawndale School are making bird-houses. The boys and gi 
have at least forty-one houses put up W • tiave a great man 
this spring. I think that the Purple Martins are very scare • 1 
account for the birds we see each day by writing tl ick board. 

tve about ten b on thr board to-day. There are a great i 

Woodpeckers around. Some of the boys and girls in our rex ed an 

Audubon Society. They each received a I 
also getting a fev of different kinds of birds to color. 

(From season to season, the constant observer notes a dit- 
some of the more common and abundant species. The Robin is p 
in t hi* connection, shosring, as it is likely to do, considerable variation in ahun 
at definite points of obaer at readers have lata about 

this matter' \ II 

II. THE STARLING PUSHING SOUTH 

I am writing a few lines about th< [n our sch 

tiave made forty-one bird-boxes and put them out. There an 
some of them. This morning when coming to school, I saw I 
are all kinds of birds in Lawndale. 

I will name some of them. They are the Wren, Robin. Meadowlark. Blue- 
bird, Purple Martin, and Starling. There are many more birds besides these. 
I am going to join the Audubon Society.— Dorothea K I 



The Audubon Societies 183 

irrence of the Starting * t ha* been observed in i ; . 

>rt of thr number of Marling* now about 
Lawndale would be appreciate-, 'cpartment \ II 

III A GOOD SCHOOL-ROOM METHOD 

mr aUmt birds. There are a great many around 

I he ttoard how many birds I < seen and 

: the> arc Wc hi es. Some of them have eggs 

in th< 

lave seen birds carry n**\ intt» the Ixwes. One boy says that he 

thinks he has young birds in his box. We put pans of watt the- bird* 

Some of the boys and girU throw out crumbs of bread. J«>hn 

;>» exercise of writing on the blackboard in the school-room the names of birds 

It helps pupils to spell corn- member what they see. to have 

• common intcrrM in the bird* about them, and it alx» stimulate* COSBfMtMoa ami a 

\ II V 

HOW I FIRST GOT BIRD-LOk 

• 1 in birds that a friend of my sister gave me tome old copies 
id them so many times that I could almost tell every; 
her decided to give it to me for a Christmas present, and I 
tad it three years now. 

so that other Biki> I.ohe readers will lend the magaxin 
• >vers and so that many people will know how interesting it is. At nut 1 
\i!cu yea 

MY BACK-YARD FEEDING-STATION 

ii summer I started put tin. U and since then 1 

ng-*tation has been one of my great urted in 

welcome visitor was a White 1 unread Sparrow, and for a 
long time that variety of bird was my only visitor. Then cornet ition com- 
menced and, <>t an to work harder because I warm 
more bird* than my competitor, .1 boy Irving next dooi i«» DM If) friend bad 
the advantage of position. Across tin »m him is a garden with many 
shrubs and other attractions for birds. -.mediately took away 

te-crowned Sparrow with a ne*t. hut I am 

n began my worst trouble and the only trouble that discouraged roe for a 

en cat* and rats, both of wh e been bothered with 

irrow. To me one 1 row means no harm, although 1 

would rather not have any, but when it comes in numbers, such as ten and 

here is trouble. It not only keeps other birds away but the amount 



•A4 



Bird -Lore 



-id eaten makes it impossible to keep up the food-«Utioa on a< 
• >f the expense. This may found foolish but a boy with a dollar a month allow- 
ance can't afford to spend tweni its a week on food for birds 
me tell you that, although it is the greatest pleasure I ever had— putting out 
food for the birds— it, like anything else, has its cares and worries. 

tally a family of J uncos visited my friend's food-station and 
visited mine. Then was the first and last time I have seen a Junco bat! 
was a young one. I guess Juncos are not much given to bathi: 

Then I went to the beach, and when I got back there was not a sin. 
in the neighborhood. After waiting a long time I saw a Jut* 
food, and in a few days there were about twenty back again, for we ha 
nearly that many. Then came Song Sparrows and, once, a Towhr. again 

came the trouble?- ish Sparrow, and I abandoned the 

for a while. When I once again started in the Junros and a Song Spat 
came back, and to-day the Towbees. On the whole. I think a 
a thing of great pleasure and advise others to tr> Age 

ij years), Portland Oregon. 

(This record of practical experience ought to be of value to others. — A H 

BIRD-HOUSES FOR A CITY PARK 

the local president of the liird-Lovers' Club here, suggests 
that I send the enclosed prints. 

ur magazine, to the best of my knowledge, has never prn 
from this locality. 

The Martin-bouse shown was constructed by the several boys grouped a) 







The Auduhm Societies 



i*5 




■■■■■■■■ 

A 

it 1 1 is a r<-j .lica of a Spanish mission, containing sixteen rooms of size given in 
oq. There are over five hundred tiles upon the roof, each one 
of which was made from rough stock lumber. 

The large group of houses were built from slabs, the waste product of a 
.1 lumUr firm having a contract to make gunstocks for the armies of 

houses were built to be pla< est Park, the home of thousands 

of 'home nesting' birds.— Ch as. P. Coates, Instructor in Manu al Training 
(MorquttU School), St. Louis Schools, St. Louis, Mo. 

mmunkation* arc printed as soon at space pern lays seem loaf the 

artment begs the reader* favor. The good work described 
above i% in line with progress.— A li ■' 



HOME OBSERVATIONS IN THE SOUTH 

papa loves the birds and feeds them on the window-sill every wii 

<ls of birds that ate from our window. One day a 

his breakfast while mamma was playing the piano. 

head first to one side then the other and looked at her for a long 

time lie was trying to learn the tune so be could whistle it to his mate 

the sits on her nest this spring. One day I went for a walk with papa 

and .vo Mockingbirds that kept scolding us. We looked in a small 

pine bush and saw a pile of twigs. Papa held me up and I saw four little birds 

in the nest, and they had no feathers on them but they were real black. About 

to the neat again and when papa held me up the little 



iS6 



Bird - Lore 



birds were covered with feathers and seemed afraid of ree days 

we saw one of the old birds feeding the young ones, but could not find 
• •111 t> .v days after this we went again to look for our bir 

new nest and the mother bird sitting on the nest but she flew off and began to 
scold when we went near. Papa hrld me up and I saw three green eggs CO* 
with brown spots. Late this fall one morning I saw the mamma and papa and 
seven children birds eating holly berries : 
Christmas now, and we see our famih 

ks (Age 7 years), Winston-Salem, .\ 
ompanying thi» atraightforward »utrmmt d -<i* about home, b a aote 

laying that the article was prepared solely by the young observer It m 
to southern reader* to know th gbirds have been teen n in the 

«eaaon than usual. The ability of other species to imitate wunds u a question 
of mm hit xrtir* other than tt. 

imitate sounds? — A II I 

NATURE-STUDY AND AUDUBON SOCIETY 

have sc\ »ur society and most of them have been 

members for three years. We have a meeting once every two week 
officers take charge and different members help prepare the program. 




■y •» THE MCMBI I 

When the weather is pleasant, we have some of our meetings out-of-doors, 
and we go on field-trips, six or eight at a time, with our leaders, to It- 
birds and listen to their songs and calls. 

Our school-building is near the edge of the city, and there is a field just back 
of the school which has many trees and a creek running through i 
live there. 



The Audubon Societies 187 

rds and are glad to learn more about them and to help protect 
I them— Margaret Dougherty, President, Russell Planck, 
turnout School, Peoria, III. 

|T» »h<> sent thi* picture and lrtt< have a Urge and entbusi- 

> composed of the rhildrrn of the fifth and »iith grade- mlimoai 

the Junior Audubon Societies of the stat- won second priae (or their 

of birds, and their effort* in protet tinie them. Th< nt books about bird* 

which ucouraged and helped them in their The) have 

been keeping done watch of the birds as they return, and are learning their songs and 
caHs " The value of rare/id ttuiy tombimtd uilk tmtktuitsm k told in this brief report. 
Distinguishing the songs and call-notes of birds is < fa high grade of work. — 

\ II 

A SONG SPARROW IN JANUARY 

. was a : ;« I was pulling up I 

houses with a friend of mine, when I heard a familiar song. I looked up, and 
on the top of a maple tree I saw a Song Sparrow. Two days later I saw it 
again.-> II Jk . (Age 11 years), HorrisUm-t 

I" Red letter da) ry phrase suggests the delightful discoveries always 

ting the bird-lover, like this of • Song Sparrow in mid* aj people have 

study unusualh last winter, because 1 • \ of the weather 

in some sections made birds more than ordinarily dependent for food upon the bospi- 

•f man. With harbors and rivers frozen solidly for weeks, flocks of (.alls and 

at times practically deprived of accustomed food supplies. In one instance, 

db came tome i ick up corn muffin* thrown out by a bird 

•bo happened to have nothing else at hand to offer them. The habit of Gulls and 

•>g on floating drift, buoys or any available foothold at sea. has be co m e 

of immediate benefit to man. More than once in the present war. ships have d isco v er ed 

f them. A II W 

THE BOHEMIAN WAXWING IN OREGON 

moon of Februar- I saw a rather rare visitant, thr 

Bohemian M rd walk I stopped to observe gone birds 

ling on wild hawthorn berries, not far from Mt. Tabor Park, 

>aw a flock ol eighteen Bohemian Waxwinga. I am 

it there b no mbtake as to (hi I they corre sp ond' 

til to the d. m Florence M. Bailey s "Birds of Western 

<nc bird that I thought was a Bohe- 

vgs not absolutely certain, as I did not know then the 

distinguishing to look. However, when 1 saw the flock of 

.aled particularly the sige, larger than the Cedar 
Hog, which i >mmon here in summer; the white wing earn 

iiroader band of yellow on the tail. 

\ e Bohemian ' 



!S> 



Bird - Lore 



Mine flock noted previously, as it was in the same vicinity. I think these birds 
were probably migrating, and not in their usual course, as they are considered 
rare in this part of Oregon.— Maby E. Kakke (Age 13 years), Portland, Oregon. 

(Bohemian Wax wings have been tees in Ifaasechusetu (hi* winter. A possible 
nn>t rr,..rd in Rhode Island was not sumdentl) well established lobe recor.: \ H \\ 



A NOTEWORTHY CONTEST 




a \ f.w or T 



wnii nii.m 11 ' 



is photograph was taken immediate the dose of our first b 

house cot ere were nearly a hundred entries and an « that 

would have done your heart good. The results have been permanent, I think 
There was a prize offered for the boy who first reported a bird build 
of the houses which had been on 1 a. The first bird to settle was a 1 

bird, and the lad who erected the house received a check for five dollars. 
1 1 tt \ebkn Smith, Waikbu 

(Two other moat at .olographs were tent by this contributor, a minister 

has done much excellent work among the young people of Washbur ■<• wst 

a\ailable space for the illustrations which are 1 ith articles seat to this Depart 

ment it would be a pleasure to print them all.— A. H. W.| 

OLD MOTHER ROBIN AND HER BAH 

Old Mother Robin built her nest one spring, about eleven years ag< 

the old pine tree in front of Grandma G 's house. She made it of strings, 

grass, twigs,* and mud. When she had it about the right shape, she laid 
little blue eggs in it. In about two weeks there were four lit 

the rug*. 



The Audubon Societies i*<; 

be little birds were old enough to fly, she crowded them out of the 

thr lirnh. One of the little birds went to the ground and sat there. 

'ewdown to the little bird and talked tohim. Then she bopped a 

iches away, and the little bfed hopped to he: this a few 

times, after which she went about three feet away; but the lit t not come. 

hopped about half-way back, and chirped; Mill the little bird did 

time she was provoked, and rushed back, and pecked him 

Then she new to the fence, and the little bird flew up to her. She 

then flew away to let him take care of himself. —Dallas Ve*hett Gibson 

BIRDS I HAVE SEEN 
. in a tree on west of street, on my way to school. 

I 914, in a cherry tree between our house and the one 
brown on back and light red on breast. 

14. on one of the buildings down town. Color, pur] 
•vn and red. 
Sparrow M 1014, in front of t* ownish gray. 

Pbxrbe.— March lace next door. Color, brown and black, 

•odpecker 4. at the first farm east of town. Color, red 

and black. 

rV 1 Geese.— April 1, 1014, flying south. Color, brown and black. 

our lot back of the barn. Color, black and 
ow. 

top of a barn. Color, black and brown. 
emcb P. Biigcs (Age 10 years), Apulia Slatt (Member of dass 

I 'IK' >f IBmcUm wrr is the manner in which the pupils report their 

neat different reports nuke up the school bird calendar. 

lavs to be a Cowbird from the description, hot M I 
did* vrl< I am not posits 

4 method of reporting birds, the above has certain point* 

note the locality where oae sees a bird, even rather minute 
»rs suaitest the nature of its habits in perching, singing, (lying or search 
lag for >e»ting The date of a record la alao an indispensable part of an ac« 

ns a* one can make of the color and appearance of the 

Iditioo to theses p. rm of bill. head, wings, and tail, kind 01 

■ ip i m e d by noticing whether a bird walka. hops, clings, clutches, paddles, wades, or 
•entinl matter* which in reality are often of more assistance in identi 
■• than color, since color* appear very different la changing tight sad shade 

ir«l calendar and. alao. a lower ca l en da r are hne additions to any school- 
room II and them well worth the time and trouble given to 

■n ac«uratrl\ \ It U 



THE RAVEN 

By T. OILSEET PEAKtON 

C&f .national HMoctatton o( Hububon >octrttrfi 

EDUCATIONAL LEAFLET NO. « 



One July morning, in company with Kdwar 111: 

ton. I landed on a small wooded island off the coast 
group of Herons said to be nesting there. I'lamln-rinK up 
proceeded, with some difficulty, through thf lderbru* 

green forest until the heronry was reached > i I rees were more s> 

ing. and the sun's rays, breaking through, were ripening >ands of goosc- 

Sca that covered the network of vines rx 

us were found, and their nests and young soon db- 
colony, however, consisted of Black-crowned Night I! 
tree where one of their nests was located, I was surprised to 
beneath, the remains of four young birds about one-third grown. The flesh 
had been picked from the bones, but these were in no way 
eluded the possibility of the mischief having been done by I 
if indeed any such existed on the isLi 

matter, a cry so wild and unusual rang through tin damp woods that 
instant our attention was riveted on the sound. Presently it was repeated and 
was quickly answered from two other directions. 

once we began a search, which soon resulted in < alls 

emanated from a family of young Ravens, now well grown, but • nded 

eir parents. The evidence that the Ravens had destroyed these \ 
Herons was indeed scant. However. 1 believe all the member- 
knowing something of the habits of these birds, still regard it as probable 
it was the Ra ly that had raided the big stick nest in 

trees. That something was feasting liberally on yc» 
plain, for we found the fresh skeleton remains of at least 
and a more thorough search of the colony might |>ossil>! 
This was on Bradbury Island, in the ye. i 

km days before this, Ravens and a Raven's nest 
1 slant! On another occasion, in company with \rthur I 
a large nest in an evergreen on No-Man's-Land Island, which 
had been occupied by a pair of Ravens every spring for many year- 
may be found also on Old Man, Black Horse, and, in fa. 
uninhabited islands along the Maine con 

In a little opening in the woods back of the Lake Hotel in Yeliowsto. 
Wyoming, the garbage from the hotel tables is dumped. Thousands of I 
bts annually visit this dump to see the bears that come out to feed th 

(190) 




NOftTMEftN RAVIN 









The Ra igi 

(»ulK itimr up from the I-ake and Mttk IMR in < jiu-^t ol n«>d, and n»»t intr<- 
he hoarse croak ol the Raven may be heard in the trees nearh 
e great black birds come at irregular intervals all during the summer 
ich scraps of food as strike their fan. 
In A I saw a Raven feeding her three young with scraps pi> 

a garbage-heap back of a hotel on the western verg« : mnal 

ml Although aware that she was being watched, the old Raven 
would unhesitatingly tome t«> the garbage-heap, walk around until she found 
something that suited her taste, and then fly with it to the trees 50 yards away. 
Appa- be would not suffer her young to leave the shelter of the forest. 

The wide range of the croaks and cries made by their young was astonishing. 
yone who may chance to be in the mountains of western North Carolina 
may desire to see Ravens can usually have his wish gratified by going 
out to some of the remote settlements and visiting the places where cattle are 
slaugi r market. Sometimes as many as eight or ten Ravens gather 

nd a slaughter-pen and with evident impatience await their opportunity 
for a banquet. 

m the above references it may be seen that the Raven has a wide range 
Mates. In fact, there are few states north of South Carolina and 
Louisiana where it may not be seen, although its range is far more restricted 
than in former times. Mai early writers speak of seeing Ravens in 

now inhabited by them. For example, Thomas Lawson, Gentle- 
man, who visited the coast country of Carolina in the year 1 700, writes of seeing 
Today Ravens rart * ur east of the mountainous portions 

in the ( V 

-ig the habits and manners of the Raven during the nesting-season, 
Jamc* Audutmn has given this description in his usual picturesque lan- 

1 usual places of resort are 1 1 abrupt lanks of rivers, 

chores of lakes, an«! the 1 lift* of thinly-peopled or deserted islands. 

> h places that these birds must be watched and examined, before one 

can judge natural habits, as manifested amid their freedom from the 

dread most dangerous enemy, the lord of creation. 

rough the clear and ratified atmosphere, the Raven spreads his 

glossy wings ami tail, and, as he onward sails, rises higher and higher each bold 

makes, as if conscious that the nearer he approaches the sun 

splendent will become 1 of his plumage Intent on convincing his 

r and constancy of his love, he now gently glides beneath 

e buoyant air, or sails by her side. Would that I could describe 

to you, reader, the mam musical inflections by means of wh hold con- 

>ese amatory excursions! These sounds doubtless express their 

■tral feelings, confirmed and rendered more intense by long years of 



io* Bird -Lore 

happiness in cmch other's society. In this mat may recall the pleasing 

remembrance of their youthful days, recount tl 
express the pleasure th« 

\<>w. their matins are over, the happy pair are set- 
earth in spiral Noes; they alight on the boldest summit of a rock 
you can scarcely judge their at tu.il approach ea> 

meet, and carreases are exchanged as tender as those of the ^ 
Far beneath, wave after wave dashes in foam against the impregnable sides of 
the rocky tower, the very aspect of which would be to almost 

creatures than the sable pair, which for years have re • rear the 

dearly-cherished fruits of their connubial love. Midway between them and 
the boiling waters, some shelving ledge conceals th- 

now betake themselves, to see what damage it has v 
from the pdtingso: mpests. Off they fly t t ant woo! 

fresh materials with which to repair the breach; or on the plain the 
the hair and fur of quadrupeds; or from the sandy beach ; he weeds 

that have been washed there. By degrees, the nest is enlarged irned, 

and when everything has been rendered clean and comfortable, the female 
deposits her eggs, and begins to sit upon them, while her brave and arte 
ate mate protects and feeds her, and at intervals takes her pla< wind 

is now silent save the hoarse murro waves, or the wt 

produced by the flight of the waterfowl traveling towards the nor t 

In general appearance the Raven closely resembles a Crow, but it 
row rarely is more than 18 or ao inches in length and has an expanse of 
wings of leas than 3 feet. A Raven is 2 feet long from hill-tip to 1.1 
measures 4 feet or more across when its wings are spread to their full cap 
A dose inspection of the two birds reveals a certain mark* n the 

shape of the feathers of the neck, those of the Crow being rounded at 
while those of the Raven are sharply r» [n lhght the two birds may 

usually be distinguished, as the Raven has a way of sailing at times I 
extent rar er, equaled by a Crow. The well-known caw 

replaced in the case of the Raven by a croak so deep, so unlike id 
in nature, that once heard it b not easily forgot !• 

As indicated al» em build their nests on the ledges 1 * in 

trees. These usually are bulky, and as additional materials are brought 
after year, they grow in some instances to be very large affairs. The eggs 
range in number from two to seven. In color they are* > 
spotted and blotched with olive-brown. Twenty days of brooding are reqt 
to hatch them. 

The Raven's food consists of a wide variety of objects, but evidently 
animal matter predominates, They eat grasshoppers, beetles, lizards, a 
and young birds. They are scavengers and feast upon dead ani: 
large and small. 



The Raven 193 

l.ilhrur I-ikc in the deserts of 

we found Ravens much in evidence During a day's 

:>crhaps 30 miles about the Lake, I saw at least a dozen individuals. 

•nc or two would be seen at a time. One that kept in front of 

us for some distance, alighting at intervals on the posts of a barbed-wire t< 

carried an object in its beak at which it would peck and pull whem 

ied. Once, just as ii took wing, my companion tired a shot from his re- 
ing the bird and causing it to drop its prey. The 
experiment succeeded, a ing up the object, we found it to be a section 

of a rabbit's backbone about 2 inchea in length. 

ting of the Raven's feeding habits, Alexand* R ml I Ufa fond 

of birds' eggs, and is often observed sneaking around the farmhouse in search 
of the eggs of the domestic poultry, which it sucks with eagerness; it is likewise 
charged w og young ducks and chickens, and lambs, which have 

been weaned in a sickly state. The Raven, it is said, follows the hunters of 
deer I lrpose of falling heir to the offal; and the huntsmen are obliged 

to cover their game-, when it 1- left in the woods, with their hunting frocks, to 
trom this thievish connoisseur, who, if he has an opportunity, will 
k the region of the kidneys, and maybe the saddle, without on 
Throughout all ages certain birds have been famous, and • n muc h 

sifjmVanrr is attached to their pie* <•>* have been regarded as affect- 

ing the lives of human beings by bringing joy or sorrow. 1 ( uckoo is 

the ancient marria. he Eagle stood for strength and vigor, the Bittern 

represented desolation; and, in our own country, we have the Bl 
happiness. The Raven, which has a wide distribution throughout the world, 
has more or less typified the coming of calanut\ 1 1 has been one of the favorite 
birds of Ii* In the ancient Hebrew writings we find that the Raven was 

the fir hat Noah sent out from the Ark. When Klijah was a refugee 

and was hiding by the brook Cherith, we are told that the Ravens came daily 
rough t him food. Despite the fact that it appears to have been useful 
to some of the early Hebrews, Moses wrote down in his law that this was an 
unclean bird. 

Shakespeare was fon< i ; tig to t he Ra idy Mac I 

was told that Duncan was coming, the said, while laying her plans to kill him : 
The Raven hinudf is noane 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under say battlenv 

modem American literature surely nothing so weird or depressing 
has ever been written as Poc'» 'Ra\< 

Two *ub-spedes of the large Raven are — -yd— ■< in this c*> 
the American Raven, found in wester m and south to Guatemala, 

vn as the Northern Raven ln l> f Mffa 'g eastern North America. 
Ravens are supposed to h\< loa great age. 



Cfje Hutmfjon ^octette* 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Batted by T. OtLBXJtT PBAKSOlt. Bocrotary 
Addraa* all csfrasswadaaca, aad and »D mkuam lor 4ms tad coatribotioa*. to 

t ^ Eh U E5SS ^ USn MtSa, <«;« k...*i..>. nc ws tit r 

Fiibuk- A. Locas. AtUmt 

MM s MBaBB! m • '■'■' -:'«• | aaBBVUI r>»!.«i Jn.,Trmmm 

Samou T. Cum, J a.. AMm mj 

ai or coapaar «• aysspatajr wfca the objects of tkh ftasnrlatlaa at; 

•*NatioaaJ Aasortalioa of Aadaaoa Societies lor the Protect ioa of Wild 

. par* (•* • Bastaialng at aa*» 
sale no*) tfca aa nai llliii i a Lata 
a aoraoa a Patroa 





} • « 



or Baovmar — I do serebjr rhr* aad bagaaata to the Natioaal Aaaodatfoo of 
for tot Protection of W 04 Birds aad Aaiatsl* (lacorporatad). of the Cky af I 



AuduSoo 



DEATH TO THI Phl.ICAN 



huring January there Itrftn a great 
• against the Broam Pelican at van 
ous points along tax -t»t of the 

I'nited Slates. Those who have been show 
ing the most BCl real in starting a 

war on these biff picturesque bird* arr 
people finantiallv interested in commercial 
fisheries. The <laim i» l.cinR put forth 
that Pelican* are eating up the fish a' 
a rate that the birds must be dev 
if we are going to have sufficient food to 
feed our people and win the war against 
the Kaiser. 

The Ettnint Initpendt: 
burg. Ha., has championed these food 
conservators of the Tampa Bay count ry. 
The articles which appear in its pages 
tend to show that the Federal ami 

intents have done a very foolish 
thing in seeking to protect birds that are 

m tit ally destructive to fist 
ally this paper says: 

> time that the (Hivernmenl ».. 
formed as to the destruction that b being 
wrought by Pelicans in southern waters. 
The Pelicans arc protected by a National 
la* and therefore arc thriving and increas- 
ing in number, and it will be only a few 
years until the people will have to choose 
between the Pelicans and the fish. The 

(i 



no r.irthl'. ybody and 

serves no useful purpose. The fish are 
needed to help supply the deficit t 
food. 

will consume too to joo 
small fish in a da 

t boose nds of Pelican actios, and 

you have some idea what the Pelic.i 

vernrocnl is paying to satisfy a few 
•kcntimcntalists who want to save the 

R lliams. Deputy Fish 
Commissioner at St. Petersburg, ha* 
advanced a plan which he thin I 
care of the man 

destroy all the eggs laid by Florida 
cans for a period of five years, and then 
let them have one year in whi 

rig. 

fsWssng Indtptndent announces its 
hearty approval of this plan. 

helMt two sessions of the legislature 
of Texas, bills were introduced which had 
for their purpose the authorisation 
people lis and Pelicans along the 

const of that state, because 
alleged destruction to food- fishes. From 
this source fresh complaints arc now com- 
ing. They claim that fishermen should be 

94) 



The Audubon Societies 



«Q5 



the presence lican. 

because it greatly interferes with their 
busine** 

but natural that the I'diran op- 
ponents should file complaint* with the 
iiMion in Wash- 
ington), and as a result the Awh 
rece iv ed the following letter under date 
of Jan 018. 

in* many very definite 
.If of Mc\ 
that the Government take *teps to extcr- 
minatr the Pelican. 

"The recommendation* in this matter 
.n«le<l .»n the follow - 
Itarent fa< - 
' the birds in question annually 
destroy mtHions of pounds of food-fish. 

the birds interfere 
materially with the operations of the fisher- 
and 1 



reduced 

1 of food-fish in all the fishin. 

in serves no useful p 
and is not a scavenger, 
ng been known to eat fish that 

ilc *r are n..t at pr< 
tog any recommendation* in this matter. 

•iave a full 
v»on of opinion from your soci< 
' any data which >•• 

♦tate- 

mentionr.; 

11 rs. 



was sent to a number of ol 
4«l more or leas on 



<• MM. 

rrr l.lr.i 



lion that at least for the present ttan 

no need for beginning a war of estermlaa- 

rf w«* «r 

new and additional pressure lee been 
brought to bear on the Food Administrs 
tion, and the question at the present 

>ve one As a result the 
■iow planning to go sole 



feeding ha | the 

following are a few of the letters 
collected by the Association bearing on this 
subje. t three are written by men 

who have been employed for many years 
to guar.! l'i li. an colonies and who there 
fore have had unusual opportunities to 
study the fishing h hese birds. 

I that their letter* should be pub- 
lished and thus be made a permanent 

In Defense of the Peltcan 

"it would appear that, through the 
efforts of the market fishermen, the Food 
Commission is seriously thinking of tak- 
ing »teps I ate the Pelican as a 
great destroyer of food-fish. 

"In defense of this grand old bit 
wish to say that I am a native of Florida, 
have lived here continuously for fifty 
years, and have noted very carefully the 
changes of con 

Before the advent of the railroads there 
were vast ouantities of fish and many 
thousands of birds, but with the emigre- 

state came along the n 
fishermen who have y t rade with- 

out restrictions until there have become 
fewer fish and consequently fewer Pelicans. 

the fishint: 4 Florida and see the 

fish cause*! t> 

nen, he would no doubt taki 
mediate steps to stop this wanton waste 

Itest food-fish that the wal 
state ■ 

.1 I hav< r day. 

ten* of thouvan<U of (o*m! ti»h left <>n the 

1 .a ni » to die because re too small 

I. and the fishermen were too laay 

to put tlirm m the water again. 

"My busies** as Inspr. leral 

Reservation* take* me among these me*. 

a view of having 
the** people , r ' lor the very sit* 

•if which they now accuse the Prisma. 
1 t hat the Pelican 

can catch only such fish a* are 00 the 
and. with oa* excep- 
tion the mullet the bed b*h of Florida 
are what «rr known M UMtomfish. and 
> the Pell, an 

e each year, la the bread- 
ing M-a-n of lhe»e bird*. I ft* thn, nr„ 
tng l.la.c. St-! • •' -.illv note the .ocie, 
r young These 






Bird- Lore 



onanist almost entirely of men had e n and 
other •null, bony fish that they catch far 

eating and companionable old fellow, a 

very great attraction to the many thou 

sands of persons that annual! 

coasts ol Flo-ida. ai 

would not in my opinion better the fishing 

k 

may mention flat although more fifth 

Seen killed by the cold water this 

I known before, fiahermen 

ikinK unusually large catches on the 

oast, and I have beard no complaint* 

agaiast the Pelican from this qua- 

(Signed) It J PACETTI, 
I mi pet lor of Federal Bird Re terra. 

>m sorry to hear that this question 
has been brought up again about the 
Pelicans destroying food-fifth. I am not 
very familiar wn <>ns on the Gulf 

Coast, but I know it is not the case here. 

• 
The Pelicans here feed almost 
entirely on menhaden which are not a 
food-fish. 

The birds have been known to 
take a few fish out of set nets sometimes, 
if left too late in the morning. I 
the only interference tl been 

o£ and this has never been serious. 
As to their not being use! 
scavengers, one haa only to pay a 
to the fithhouaea during a good run of fifth, 
and they will tee the birds gathering in all 
the foul fish thrown overboard, which 
would otherwise float ashore, create a 
nuisance, and be a menace to health. 
Regarding the reduced catches of fish, 
this is caused mainly by the fisherman'* 
own greediness. There has been no law 
framed yet that the fishermen have not 
broken. The chief trouble is that the sise 
of mesh in nets has been steadilv reduced 
until now they are catching fish unfit for 

the fishing business will be a thing of the 
past, especially if the new ruling of the 
food control is ado; ike off all 

-iclions for the period of the » 
"There is more damage done to fish 
by one small school of po r po ise s than all 
our birds, and yet the 

and if we destroy the Pelicans, the other 
water birds would also have to go, as 
most of them eat fish. When I first came 
in 1KH1. these waters were 
teeming with fish of all kinds— evidently 
the birds had not reduced them any at 
that time — but after netting started it was 

i poss ib l e to see a differ- 
JU r.re»«-nt. f,»hine i» jccttin* l<. be m> 



in these waters that nv 
are leaving for ot 
ItW of the fore, 

j jj.mmJ reason i>ir < undrntnini; thc*r ! • 

at present. The fishermen 

the fish, and if we dest 
will be a bare count 



so many people that find pleas 
They would miss 



• ng 



th 



'Several years ago I - 
it of Agriculture a i 
gathered at the I si* 

record as to what k mostly used 

• feed young. At that lime we found 
they used mostly menhaden, a few tl 

A. butterfish, porgies, and other 
sea-fifth; there were ver> r fish, 

such as mullet, tea-trout, whim 

I 

attention It will be seer. i that 

le restriction* I cause I 

reduced catches, as the Pelicans do not go 
that far. and the bird 

h the kinds mentioned h 
the Food Ad mini* 
vestbrate this, I can show them the reason 

sea-trout brought in (caught in seines). 

>es long, which 
would be 24 in<hc 

weigh fifteen pound * ny wonder 

•ne fish are giving out? We have good 
laws to protect the fish, but the 
dealers always manage to break them." 

• ■ 
j* hland Bird Reier+ati, 

"In rep -»n I 

would state that from my close ol> 
tion of the Pelican and his habit 
understand how one could fti 
destroys millions of pounds of food 
I find that be lives chiefly on small m 
and sardines, * 
food-fish in this sec t 
could interfere mate- 
men is not within my po» 
I know of no way that they could 
number of Pelicans in this sc< 
is 50 per cent less than three years ago. 

I hat real! . 
fifth and shrimp today, more than 
other known enemy 
that in their search for shr 
millions of small fish which are li 
die upon, the shores .f the 

greatest enemies that we have 
the operation of the seines, milli 
fish are caught in the meshes, and 
hauling them for hundreds of yards through 
the « become entangled in the 

seine- meshes and are freque 

r>efore the haul is complete. It will 



The Audubon Sock 



«97 



•n of time when the food- 
■ n " 
■d Bird Reservation, 

• not possible to poi ' 

i that the damage d cm i* 

mean* to great as cUime< ! 

upon whatever fishes 
make only s ti 
proportion of their diet of fishes custom- 
used as food for man. 

nsrJves sre in the mi 

general The Pelicans' 



<-ding only in shoal water also 
.t» them from destroying some of the 
vsluable n»hr» in lad. most commercial 
fishes are caugh- of water » 

' mched by Pelican*. 

must be kept in mind 

tk of disturbing the balance of nature. 

rse of ages Pelicans and their 

ive become fitted to 

h a way that th. 

•trds nor their prey was 

endangered No one can predict what 

he balance seriously 

S. Biolott(4l A 

i« not surpri«ed to learn that the 
bthertnen of ' • I region are using the 

Food 

■ can. As a nature lover who 

mg creature t.» 

term* of dollars and cent*. I am, of coarse, 

/habit* of Pelican* 

a season, and bef<> 
take a 

I and that 



h I am familiar — fish 
indant when Pelicans 



i a region I 



h»h of t»u 
inedible | 



arianrw Pelicans 

iher part 
the food 

erv Peli 



large proportion of which would not 1 

if they were not taken by 

ins. 

"r. an* take a fish here and 

and cruise over a com- 

paratively wide area, so that at the most 

their I has no appreciable effect 

on the local fish 

would be far more to the point if 
fishermen were to observe the laws de- 
signed to protect fish and not blame the 
Pelican for conditions which they have 
brought about through their own short- 
ened) Fkakk II. Chap* I 

ere was a large gathering in t hi* 
tous people interested in 
fish and the Food Commissioners of 
Alabama. Mississippi. Louisiana. Georgia, 
and Florida. A resolution was introduced 
along the lines suggested in your letter to 
exterminate all fish-eating birds. I was 
requested to answer this statement, b aa ed 
on the fact that for many years I have 
hunted, hshed and cruised over a large part 

BB belief is that nature provided 

ird as a valuable adjunct to the fish. 

An immense amount of the food for the 

us game-fish which thrive in the 

waters of the tiulf are represented by 

minnows and other small fish which are 

unsuitable for food. Many of these fish 

r food when it is on 

<- water. The variou 

and 1 ' these small fish under the 

water where they are promptly used as 

food by m redfish. and vast 

numbers of other game- and table fish. 

ha same applies in regard to the 
sardines, or menhaden, which are 

tul in the water* of 
of these small fish sre edible, and by 
countleas millions they furnish food to 
what we call food- fish Almost w. 
exception, where yon find qu . 
birds, you find quantities of bait of all 



Repeatedly have I sawn schools of 
xf.nmp running right along the 
the water, where it was difficult for the 
game-fish to capture them because 
skim right along the but on the 

appearance of a few Gull*, these shrimp 
would be driven below the surface and 
furnish fo. ariettas of table- fish 

he principal charge I have heard 

mullet My lodgment is that this i. 
lUcocapar 



rather limited 



ful rr| ,,0 "b" ,,%r p»»»cr» of the 
the *mal! amount consumed 



with hie eon- 



seriously interfere with our food- 



Ml 



Bird - Lore 



thai bird* and fi»h each work to help ibe 
other, and my plea iitinil ibr 
lion of the bird Menu to have (alien on 
rrtile MO, becauw «ithout • single 
riceptioo. r\rr> tiwirrman prcM-nt mr 
roboraled the statements made, and the 
Importance of the con ser v a tion of bird- 

Inn. first, to their enormous d- 
tion of Inserts of every and. 



second, to the fa I emphaabe 

■ 

;»eir food » 

. 'it 

.>pe this brief information will 
Mimr »uld appr 

corroboration of my views from 

La. 



EGRET PROTECTION THREA'l 



ry year the Association col 
from its m em ber s and friends, contribu- 
tions to be used for the specific purpose of 

ling protection to the white 1 
that are killed to get the aigrette for the 
millinery trade. This support in the past 
has been sufficiently generous to enable t he 
Association to accomplish a number of 
notable results. For example, the passage 
<>f the law in New York state which pro- 

tne sale of these feathers, as well as 
the feathers of other native protected 

»uhin the borders of the Common- 
wealth 

Abo, the Association was able to wage 
a campaign in Pennsylvania for the pa* 
va«e of a law which made it illegal to sell 
these trophies in that state Similar 
campaigns have been conducted else- 
where, and now the laws of fourteen states 
prohibit merchants from dealing in these 
feathers. We have been able to cooperate 
eitl the State (iimc Protective officials 
in New York and elsewhere in bringing 
numbers of law breaker* to justice, who 

orced to pay Urge fines for illegally 
M-lling aigrette* 

ry spring, men are employed to 
guard the few remaining breeding colonies 
of these birds, in so fsr ss it has been 
p oss ib le to locate them in the southern 
states. This exceedingly dangerous warden 
work is carried on by guards hired during 
the spring months for the purpose. There 
b not the slightest doubt but what the 
in the South Atlantic States would 
today be on the very verge of absolute 

tion but for the efforts of the Asso- 

Sometimes money b alow in coming in, 
and the birds not infrequently have suffered 



as a result. The Ass- 
man and send him into the *wampa to 
guard a colony of birds unless it has n 
to pay for t hi* service, and 
a number of instance* in m 
when, through bck of funds to employ 

shot for their feathers, and the unattended 
nj left to perish in the nests. 
It now appears that a number of colonic* 
will have to be left unguarded th< 
ent spring because of b 
strata] in«tances $100 b enough In 
a colony through the breeding-sea*' 
other cases (50 b a sufficient amount It 
the bird-lovers of the country wan 
interesting bird spared and brought 
in numbr- 
mt< hinery anil 

hope that thc*c remark 
read by some members who may a I 

thi* » 

The following record shows a list of the 
contributions, for r Rrct pi 
whiih were received 

Ml. IQlH. 

Contributors to the Egret Fund 

Balance unexpended from 1 

as per Annual Rej» 

Adam*. William < t 00 

Viler 15 00 

Mlcr 15 OO 

Mrs. J. B s <*> 

s* Mary A. $ 00 

Han by. Miss Kmil\ 5 00 
Beall. Mrs I \ 

1 00 

Bbckwelder. Eliot t 00 

1 00 

H<>n ham. Mi*« Klixabeth S « 00 



The Audubon Societies 



lf)U 






$. 



( M 



nrimn, 1 



Bmii 



n H u 

k Mr* II K 



rt \\ 



•* (teorgiana . 

I 
H 

Faulk 



I M 



.n It 

r 



I K 

\ ii B 



oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 

oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 
oo 

00 

oo 

00 

oo 
oo 



r* K. 


f 3 oo 


Kuhn 


S oo 


Lagotriu, Mi»* Harriet 1. 


1 oo 




2 SO 




I OO 


Lincoln. Mr*. Lowell 


t OO 


foha i 


5 00 


Mann. James k 


1 00 


Marsh, Spencer S 
Mason. G A 


5 00 


1 00 


5 00 


Mason II I Jr 


5 OO 


Montell, Mr a \l 


J 50 




5 00 


■ Marian 


5 00 




3 00 




1 00 


Parker k 


3 00 




S 00 


1. 


1 00 




10 00 


I'helrw, Miss Frances 


to 00 


Rboads. S. N 


1 50 




S 00 


kiRhtcr. William S 

• 


5 00 


M OO 


Saunders, Charles G. 


i 50 


Mr. II M 


1 OO 


!war«l H 


5 00 


Sha« II 


5 OO 


Shoemaker 


10 00 


Miss Jean W. 


5 00 


Small. Mis* A M 


3 00 


Spachman. |fia» i ■■ 


l 00 


Spalter, Mrs. F B. 


1 50 


Mn J J k 
Smrxi. i k 


50 00 
5 00 


Thorndike. Mr • uj 


1 00 


Timmerman, Miss Edith 1 


1 >o 


Mr- 1 II 
I M 


3 00 


5 00 




1 00 


Mr* John L 


t 00 




< 00 


II 


J 00 




1$ 00 


vital j i 


i 00 


a 00 


\ 


1 00 




100 00 


>ey, Mis* Ellen 1 


1 00 




1 50 


M M \ 


10 00 


Williams, (•eorgr F . . 
William*. Mr» Sydney M. . . 


S 00 

> 00 




1 00 


Woodwan! 


5 00 


v 


l 00 






It. 600 6s 



-*GC 



Bird -Lore 



NEW LIFE MEMBERS 
Enrolled from October 20. 1917, to March 1. 1918 



Abrll. Mrv Edwin F. 

XllrrtoD. Mrs. S u 
Anderson, Frank Bartow 
Aanmun. Mr*. I 



Bancroft. Wikl< 



Ira. Robert J. 



Bemb. Alt- 

BUnchard. Miss Sarah II 

Cbapin. >ln Charles A. 
(haw. Ml* II. r„ I 
Codman, Mia* Cathr 
Coe. Mm FiL 
Coe. Thomas Upham 

■ 

Comstock. Mrs. Rob* 
Cootidge, T. Jefferson 
Corrigan. Jamc 

»ton. Miu Louise 

v A. 
I>abr> 
Dimock. Mr* Hcnr> 1 



I».»li\nr Mis* M.irt:arrt 
EUia. William I). 



M 



Emery. Miaa Georgia Hill 

Ku.tiv Mr> IIrr»K-rt II 
■ 

M 
Folson, Ilia* M 
Gnnma, Fimada P. 
Gifford. Jamea M. 
Glaasell. Andrew 

<..-lfrc>. Miss Adda. 

Geedon. Mr*. Donald 
Graascl • \ 

i M.Jr 
Hann 



nk J. 
Hunnewel) bur 

Sffray. Robert 
rdan. Miaa Jeann- 

Longyear, John M 
IfcCora* k, Mr- k s 
n. 1 

t harlr 

I iiitiK''Jf" 
M rs \\ .,!.!.. ( . 



MiHrr. 
MOM 



PMMMlerlrt Ul.rnht 
m II 

Rock wood. Mr*. Geort 

Shead. Mr* I. ia \\ 
Silabee, Thomas 
Smith, Frank \ 

Stone, Charlr 
Talcott, Georv 
Troes 

Tuttle. Arthur 

• ri< \\ 

rrt 

Va: 

loan \s 

I F»tellc 
tarn 
WHUams. ' -uane 

epeatiag Arm* I 
Wood. Walter 

! rs. Cornelius 
During the same period there bav< 
been enrolled 245 new sustaining membrn 
1 new contrihi. 
















1 FMAINOPEPLA. A** Mate 

2 PMA1MOTEM-A. Fwmto 

X BOHEMIAN WAXWING. JUMt 

(Ofwtaif 



4. BOHEMIAN 

5. CEDAR WAJCWINC. AMU 
t. CEDAR WAXWINC. Yowg 

DM) 



^irb=Hore 

A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 
DBVOTBD TO THB STUDY AND PROTECTION OP BIROS 

Officii 0*0«M C» Tm| AuOUtOR «OC I 



Vol. XX May— June, 1918 No. 3 



Three Years After* 

SOME NOTES ON BIRDCRAFT SANCTUARY. FAIRFIELD. CONN. 
By MABEL OSOOOD WRIGHT 

Til I ki are man thica! movant 

some phases of general nature-Study ami hird-pruti-iiion. 
; waves of m thiitfttm and pah dm and thrn. 

• > be. 
the publ ng <>t Birdcraft Si i three years ago. 

1 mui h i all tin . but 

cal i«>lk put tin- quest what do pooeapi 

accomplish in these ten acres that may not be compassed I r piece of 

M h preparation ami expense?" AIm>. "Will not the 
-hort tinu- tirr <>| the limited nniMiim <\lul>it and 081 

M rit^ the BBBWet «.»> "W«- -hall sec; timr only can 
I this si<!. 'irk m i harge spent a great- 

itural count the Sanctuary, as 

<• people b earn; the various* omments 

vrork already done being a gui haj should be developed to 

ir needs, as well as those of bit 

ike us long to find that the general public can best be taught 
irds accui m seeing them at dose range in the MMbb, 

lire* a special aptitude to group markings and color scheme as shown 
ig wild bil when seen through a field-glass. 

doaen birds are studied at short range through the pi* 
he novice has a series for mental comparison out of 

■ t way we added a secon 
I the seasonal scheme of the first room. 

f ..bl*krd ■ pmpft Sf Mr. «f*M *,->» lW — .,•<>— •••» «kN 




l»hof.Kt».pk«'l by Wilbar ¥ -milk 




hikl.i kAH I. 

TIIK CON 

Pl»tac»pk«4 by Mitel Oafaed Wrigbt 



<*») 



Three Years After 



*U 



• ticks 
\ wood ■ per- 

lb ami meadows, against which arc gro u ped BMi 

ah txcause of 

ng aoroe Quail while | 
\ 
>irds that have either nested therein, rested there during the 

show 
tod, as the 




if warden place ttu- display u|*>n a -• 

•lUM-uni aim*.' iway with the t 

siting great collection* 
<ommon -e groups, 

veJoping caaea" whereat thi l»ml- in ihowl m |«ir». 

Thine who i aim 

curiosity, came again a 'ids. Teachers ma a reward 

nior Classes, and automobtlisU leave the post-road to "take 

last annual record of visitors was 6,100 people, a *mall num- 

iwum. 1-ui vary «igniricant for a rural, cottage affair. The taw 



*M 



hlrd - Lore 



of the ground inside the so-called cat-proof fence is confined to a 
adult lentsadin i»crsonal card. Tocarn 

can id in a semi 

Iter is general bird photogra 
allowed; birds can I 

by rearranging 
ur ro undiu gs of their nests as *w 
shotguns or egg-collectors, 
record of birds se« : 7 was 

as follows: Species so -edes 



\ i«Ilu 




III! IN 

rtota«nplM4 fay Wl 



1 San 

sts,a* listed below: Robin, 22, 

Sparrow, 1 1 . Catbird, v Brown Thrash- 

era, 5; American Goldfinches, 2; Cedar 

1. 

i Pew© 

h Owl. 1 



1 IMt 

lb 



Otl.lll. I < 

1 and thirty bMi idled by natural causes wt 
chfi 

un l»y the State Commissi- 
Gan 1 in the* 

mou the wa is a 

ind <luj>li- 
cata krj.i sj "skins 1 t<»r exchange. 

If this great annual loss of bird-life 
could U- more frequ< 
waste by thi> methtHl. it 
siblc to form small 
study without tak 

The in<l: 
taken in the Sanctuary- are as follow* 
have a state jnrmit to da* 
that is detrimental i<> the Sa 

during 1017-1918: 

I 

linKs.54*. These two species de 
phoiotr.pwd by waiw p. smith the nests of more useful birds and con- 




Three Years After 



*>5 




tcr lutchiof thit bird last ■» wile »n«i iketoittr 
rkotacrapkrd by Wilbwr F Smith 



Mime, not only the natural 
food of native specks, hut 
great quantities of the 

», herries, I 

Purple Crackles, 28; 
Crows, 12. These birds 
break up nests, we f 
while the Crow we have 
proven to be an egg and 
h a 
degree that, whatever 
good he may do under 
other o»ii. lit ions, he is an 
impossibility in a Samtu- 
i>c the old 

■try way of placing 
poison in hens' eggs, by 
punching a small hole in 
one end and stirring in 
the poison with a straw. 




By * .1 



»rta 



JOO 



Bird -Lore 



the egg* where *r will, the Crows always i eat then 

equally thtir menace to |m>uI try- raiser* lethod would Ik* tumi 

ut land enclosed i .inctuary. We also tra 

.•uldcred Hawks, j; Long-cart 
Owls, i; Sharp- -binned Hawk 

ire caught in a tm 
harmless ami protected ipei I >wls may be liherated unh< 

ki are always set free when cauv 
finds thet- >1 ha* as 

the birds. 




\ ■ Mkl 



II lip ■Ilium t\ Hawk- the 

most ruthless harriers of our winter birds in the Sam n 

hil-ii . impaling vii limaon (he barbs ot the fence. 

I precise data on the cat question ha> Urn colic* led during these 
\hen 107 cats have been taken in the enclosed ground 
craft. .-4 having worked their way tic t ween tl 

M o of these cats might be classed as homeless wan- 

derers, the others were well-fed adult cats in whom the hird-huntii 
was so dominant that they would take grea 

of cat, together with Crows, we are o I. causes quite as great losses to 

poultry-raisers as all the Hawks comhim 



Three Years After 



J07 



• an be easily seen tha ling and housing more than an av« 

numl • rds in a given area, their natural enemies are attracted and 

increased, 10 thai it b of little avail to create a so-calle< unless 

const. no a resident warden is supplied. 

In cneral supervision, our warden makes his rounds early in 

the morning and at twilight lookout tor unusual hap|x-nings and new 

I'redaceous mammals, an< I the like, iiiim I I for. and his catch 

1 for the past year includes 
2 1 nr who helped hims*' 

eggs meant for the Crows), 1 ireaad 

I snakes, we having decide 
destroy these because of the harm that 
we have found that they did in breaking 
up tlw v.- rid Sparrows, 

while the *mall < hrla ami Red-should 

iown 
such rodents as the snakes would < let 

lesson can be learned through 
our e.X|K-r;. - . those wishing to put 
up hint-houses — do not place then at 

-» near to. 
garden was a salesrtx 
- arious ex< 

ItOUSC should ■ hin sight 

simplest construction find the readiest 

A long, squared box with the 

p and a few chips 

r Mill *uit I I 

elaborate 

I <psch constru< ving that 

ritan birds, like American people, 

nun hullur 

und a double reason 

Icaring out bird-ban dorms, 

in half adosen esses the wh deer mouse has made s soft 

■oxsfam g. This house 

carefully moti est In one of 




*Mt 



i.KI ' 



l-K-.t. 



notable birds that have ad r home- made houses is the 

er, who wss quite st home in s decayed apple stub 
with a DSI 

\ natural brush-heap, *u|*4emei psrtieu 



:cws 



Bird -Lore 



aunt lirown Thrashers, who are fast becoming regula 

c feeding-shelf in spin- of alleged shyness. A pair of Thrashers ma 
iheir mind to winter with us. The female suctun, 
the firit zero weather, but the malt- li\ed «>n. u»< ^»me salt 

packed pipes under the north porch, feeling upon cornbread, meat-scrap- 
the like and sunnii lay under the shelter of a bank. 

On Monday, April i, he began to sing in a broken fasl> 
10th he !• Phis seems to me an im[>ortant record, as the 




i #■ • 



rfckt 



six Acadian Owls were recorded. One wa up in 

d after being thawed out, was put in a cage an<! 

1 Sparrows and p that the warden caug!) 

cage was placed in the cellar, wl 
The Owl was let fly about, so that it mighl 
wing action until the weather was mild enough to liberate it sai 
cellar had been overrun with meadow mice and white-foots. ■ the 

warden discovered that the little Acadian was catching them as ck 
the most experienced cat or human mouse-catcher. In a short t 



migrant Thrasher 
until Ma> 

During the wii 
a half-frozen stat 
with pieces < 
it After a time 
freezing temperal 



Three Years After 



*oo 




W M R Ml. rHk.M ,.M \ : 

Ph«*„«r, P be.l by Wilb«r F. S«itk 

was a leaned an<l when tin- Owl w.i> be had paid 

lodging. 
4 a t>ir«! .is warden in BMcnfl makes it a gather 

place for those who have tales to till <>t their local < <s,and allows these 

m «»r dis prowl with author. ilx> hrlp> 

keep in l i l<*al bii 'U«h the *|Ht imrn> brought 







2io Rird-Lort 

in for mounting and he is able u< >a measure, illega 

ing t<> mount mens shot an 

As an Kl local record— word was brought to him 

during thr January scro weather that from I 
living in a marsh meadow one fourth of a milt- iwa 
laugh at thr it at the lmy's story was hacked up 

warden went to investigate. Tl ncre then and a record est 

mrxh being tin- exhaust— 
nearl tich kept ound tor tin 

win i. 









ami t< 

\ little native butterflies and moths will appea 
Of the vanishing wild flowers find tht-ir natural ha 1 
■0 that the economic relation U-twecn dower*, 
plain, but thi> will lie anoth- 




riPE loa i w< 



A Blameless Cat 

By WILLIAM BREWSTRK 

v rtprochr" might Ik- said of her no less appropriately than 
it was of the illustrious Chevalier Bayard in days of old. What matt- 
es no nu birds are similarly immumc from her attack! 
now. this maltese-and-whin pussy, ga/ing intently at the 
t-et, whose eyes are correspondingly find on lur. Just 
how and why she came to be so installed nay even i herished ihold 

uch a |H-t may interest 1 1 1 k i » I I 

I thus. 
Lit I ngland, the grassy dooi >ked 

upon Dttthern windows of our old farmhouse at Concord, Mass., 

b shaded l.\ large rims and partly enclosed within UiOH gJUWtl itOtM walls 

and fringed with barberry, elder, and other bnshi 
has al etfa ami two pook of water, one deep enough to 

>g>. and turtl- ier ihaDon enough for birds to drink and 

balhc in fearlessly. From it a lain-, similarly waJDed and leal I. leads to 

• far away. Thus conditioned and environed, the dooryard does 
not f.i iou?> birds and other creatures, Including some 

ungi\ i habitations. Chipmunka inhabit it 

numci ry season — although n n winter, when InUrnaling 

under) in< reasingry within r. 

g the l)i. Mips, and other i <ring 

■reflations became so i spread last ap 

that we could I tolerate them The chipmunks might easily ha\e U-en 

lor their familiar and ever -ple.i 

was e ied than thai of the flowers Lh< 

r without losing ll was therefore the problem d 

ill meshed wire netting, spread out llat OVW the 
ind the squirrels soon learned to but 
i ats. who wmethnei 
■sas next thought of as something that d employed 

bviousreasons.no livmg cat wasdesiredalioiii the place, 
hut t what once had been one would perhaps serve quite as 

tnaltese-.i e pussy n in the pi 

■in the M \ Fnuar Company, Boston 

anted, in an attitude chara- f all her I 

pre>-, and having glaring yellow eyes, she was so very 

it to come on her suddenly amid rank herbage seldom tailed to 

• >ur household ignorant or forgetful of her presence there. 

lie merest glimpse of her sufficed In till them with such 

ward t tic- \ dared not • ' >un to anv M»»t where 



til J -Lore 

she had I • have prove*! < 

not frequently moved her from place to place, always so screening her that 

roukl be viewed from one direction only— a plan equally necessary to a 

in dealing with scarecrow*, unless one be willing to have them contempt u< 

ignored liy intelligent Crows, as happens so often in N 

and elsewhere. 

Thus managed, our stuffed cat safeguarded the hullis through ths 
spring, yet banished the chipmunks no further than to neighboring stone a 
along which they continued to scamper freely, or to a wt ill nearer 

the house, whereon they loved to bask in warm sunlight. Her cfTct i 
then nesting in or near the dooryard was different and less plea 
whenever it tweame known to them that she was lurking there, Rol 
birds, Wrens, Song Sparrows, Orioles, and others asssembled. fluttering as 
dose about her as they dared, uttering cries of alarm or protest which » 
swelled into clamor so disturbing that we had to remove her from il 

After thus accomplishing all that had been desired of her at Concord, 
inanimate puss was taken to Cambridge later in the year, and there rendered 
similar useful service by preventing certain birds from eating fruit 
did not care to let them have. Numerous Starlings, especial 
our I 'ark man's apple tree, were kept away from it l>y the cat until at lengt 
of them found opportunity to watch the placing of her in the tree. What he 
>aw must have been correctly interpreted and also promptly communicated 
be other members of the flock. soon returned to resume 

interrupted feast and thereafter took no apparent notice of the cat. All this 
transpired within my view. It suggested that Starlings may not only observe, 
hut also reason, shrewdly. Doubtless there are many other birds no less 
'<! with »uth intelligeti. 

The foregoing testimony should convince at least some of those who read 
it that a stuffed cat may be better worth her keep than a living one — espe< 
in times of food scarcity like these. If, during the continuance of h. 
nine lives, such an animal may occasionally have employed a dolorous voJ 
shatter midnight quiet, or needle-pointed claws to transfix defenceless little 
birds or beasts, what does it matter now? All such transgression must of 
necessity date back to a more or less remote past ai no present 

concern to anyone. 





The Lark 

By EDMUND ). SAWYER 

He link- knew the naoderi I^rk who said, 

11 • sings inspired at high heaven's ft 
The bird t. 

; sings because enraptured with hb ■ 

Far more than sky. with ^un or starn train. 

i-en fields, or barren brown, to him are worth. 
He seeks no closer view of heav'n to gain ; 
H« -»ar> t>ut for a better view of earth 



■ 







•>u. 



(iij) 



The Whip-poor-will 

By MKLICKNT BNO HUMASON. New lit. tain. Conn. 
With pB.4.«r.plH by Utlfc V 

g, jusl l>efore dusk, as a fr 
ky wooded ledge, alter a long da> 
we were suddenly .surprised by a low chuckling purr. Ga 
i hi- dim light, at the spot whence came the sound, we saw a « ! 
glide ini<> the trees, with the planing, sidelong swoop of ■ 
alighted on a limb almost d love a hollow 

in whiih lay two white spotted eggs. 

*a» the Whip-poor-will, in this k>nely deserte<l place 
mountain the world, with apparently 

\\ - departed from the site a noiseless 

her to return in peace; then we rested on a Iti 
away. 

It wa> truly «lu>k now. The lights in the litl -elow 

glittered with friendly eyes; a wagon rati!' 'toroe- 

wanl at some imaginary foe in t! «arlet 

Tanager uttered his deep chif Wood rhruahes tin. 

and then, tlose at hand, a full-throated whip-poor-will, wkip- 
poorwill. many times repeated (once we < 
intermix). and happy compel 

ly the next morning we climbed tin- stony pat I 
leaved \ iburnum and dogwood, to the abode of our newly discovered resid 

tead of g «< the not of the Whip-poor-wi 

detour around her. approaching her from the rear, over a lar. 
nient depressions in the shape of steps. 
;tg grass grew in t) 
Solomon's seal str. toward the light. 

Climbing, then descending this rock, we mounted an 
end of which we I rilliant now in the morning 

the night 

Three trees formed the kuk ground and wings, namely, t 
nut oak, and the pignut hickory. We glanced into tin 
by the dickering sun. There were no eggs to be h ■ 

■ur glasses, what had at first appeal 
limb now shaped itself into a brooding bird. Soon we clearly defined the 
whiskers, the shut eyes, the sagging mouth. Caught in its sl< 
At the snap of a twig the 'limb' took wings, and. A the 

night before, fluttered, almost stupidly, to a branch only a few feet I 
the eggs. Th< lidlv blinked at us and secmc 



The \X hip-poor-will 



**5 



tended the rock toward the eggs, set up Ml 5x7 
camera on a tripod, took a picture of the eggs — I cannot say nest, then draped 
the camera with sassafras leaves, set it, and came away, carrying with him the 

attached to tubing 2$ feet long. Then we crouched behind the 
case and awaited proceedings. 

Would poor-will venture down from her perch, we wondered, with 

10 staring at her, * her brooding- pb< 




Willi I<m 



we tried to conceal ourselves behind the nnk was upon us, 

hough she did not fly to safer distance, neither did she budge an inch 

W* bulb where we were so insufficiently concealing 

he ledge where we had lingered the previous evening. 
I ire were settled, in m umbent and apparently unc o ncerned posi- 

ip-poor-wffl flew back to her M 

companion stealthily 
ick stairs' again, bulb in hand, and (leering, with glasses, over 
Mr and snapped. Once, twi. ■ wunded I 






Bird -Lore 



hear it where I was to anxiously awaiting— but the \\h>, 
•juivcr a whisker. 

For sixteen days after our dis» i the eggs, we • 

path to our destination, the home of U walk 

each way. By this time we were ex< i 

our general custom, we had killed a Ulacksnak was stealthily 

crawling upon her unawares, and we awaited the ad\< < r babies with 

much solicitation and y 

The sixteenth day. tin- Whip-poor-wfll whirred up. and 
pression of tl> it -oak leaves, were two lit t U- Whi| 




W'lllf.|'< 



Their beaks and heads were plentifully besprinkled with eg little 

particles of which were «juite imbedded in their fur. Perhap 1 di* 

putc the possibility of Whip-poor-wills bearing fur. hut I can at least assure 

you that these infants bore no resemblance to the young 

stead of being pink, with only wisps of feathers protruding fn 

they were complet< red with a nice soft down, which might Ik- 111 

to that of a chick. Fragments of shell were scattered on the leaves al ■ 

After taking a picture of the youngsters, while the motl red wildly 

about us, cackling in guttural notes, we hurriedly left the 1 1 

The next day we revisited the site and found that the young Whip j 
were beginning to look like their mother, especially around the beak, and that 



The Whip-poor-will 

. raw! out of their shallow home. A day late 

three miles to pay our res; the Whip poor-will family, 

but no trace of it remained save a few white c bipa of egg-shells and two stray 
feath< ul bird who had reared so tenderly her 'babes in the 

wood> I • .biles* she had carried them to a safer retreat in 

rtd. 



My Nuthatch Tenants and a Pair of Red-Headed Ruffians 

By K W WILLIAMS 

TAKOMA I'ARI i- .1 town of a ppr< }.ooo |M>pulatinn. jiartly in 

>f Columbia and partly fa boundai 

in Diatricl and Maryland, my home 
being; wholly within tin .,• yard is ioc iboul 17; bet long, 

m flows through a part of the pirmlsri in the rear. Neighbors, 
whose places are al*>ut the ana <.i tny own, have ■ goodly supply of shade 
trees, largely oak-. I have ten iiaks in the yard, the Majo ri t y ,, "" lt "j in a 
1st of the house. In the winter I feed the birds, ami during that 
season am the host to Jays, White- throated and Song Sparrows, J uncos. 

« hitkadees, \\ 
breasted N'uthatt hc^. and, occasionally, a Pur norning in the 

v at the -an | male Cardinals sitting 

inaM; in the bad U the time of the < out to be nan 

ers were lly housed, and raised their brood, in I 

on on< aks in th< 

March last I made a bird boa out of four li^ht hoards about 13 inches 
long and 6 inches wide, with pr. top and inserted bottom. The three 

exposed sides and top I covered with bark. A hole about 1 > . 1 diameter 

was bored rather close up under th. 

part . nth I nailed this box aln.u up on the south skk oi the 

•ne of the oaks in 1 of the n 

•••breasted Nuthatches wer< dy seen on and around the 

he end of the first week in April I was most agreeably ur prised 
bat they had settled themselves season. 

were comical. I frequently olMcrved one or • hem 

xix or on a nearby limb, swinging its body from side to »jd- 
s at a time, until I wonder (MMsibly could escape diaai- 

i»erformance and certa 
none the worse f<> 

were fairly noisy, but after a while, t suppose when in. 
-came, and until the youog *m hatched thev tontinuol t 
iring that so unusual a tenant might desert 1 dbfcfti 



2i8 Bird -Lore 

was never able del « rminc when the eggs were deposit' 

that matter, rmuh d anything that transpired within the bo had 

not long hatched the young, however, before I discovered that fact by observ- 
ing the parents carrying food to them. 

Hright and happy days for the birds, old and young, ensued, until one 
morning before break f. headed Woodpeckers arrived on 

the scene and inspected the box 1 Ad not attach n> 
and contented myself, before leaving for my office, with frightti 
away by vigorous gesticulations and by small sticks thrown at Chese 

methods seemed to suffice for the time. Later in the day, howe\< 
received a message that the Woodpeckers were enlarging thr entrance and 
prawning the bos, throwing out the ithatche -ig already 

been cast to the ground — and altog- i ting the parents, wh 

stricken, were looking on from nearby stations. The red-headed ruffian- 
at the box when I reached home that afternoon but they disappeared at my 
approach. I procured my gun and took a position from which I would \» 
to reach them if they returned. I had not long to wait. One of 
at the entrance of the box. I fired and the bird fell to the ground 
the box H«>t! ties flew to the base of the tree an. I, dinging 

there within a foot of the ground, regarded the Woodpeck tan a 

minute, with exhibitions of keen satisfaction and exultation. 

I found another of the young Nuthatches dead a few feet away fi 
tree. None of the young birds was mutilated to any extent. t< 
cuimtance it seems probable that the Woodpeckers were not in que 
but distinctly bent on i 

The following morning another Red-head appeared, and I prom; 
patched him. Hut, alas, the home of the Nuthatches had been desolated, and, 
while for a day or two they would sit upon the box for a fc i and 

occasionally look in the entrance, they never went in, and finally abandon* 
place. I shortly removed the box as the sight of it kept ali\ 
recollections of this pathetic incident. 

As I write this, some months afterward, I can add that, although 
hatches abandoned the box and its immediate vicinity, they ret n the 

neighborhood thereafter and are still here, occasionally feeding on th« 
flowers in my garden. Provision will be made for them during the coming 
winter, and a box will be erected for them in the spring. Red-hea< 
peckers, beware P 

• la hntka to Red beaded Woodpecker* a* a race. I timid u> that by no mean* aw t hey all a» 
dmuaiiial aa thoar above aamtioned There arc food and bad la all race*, avian or baiaia, and the 

TMt *h.«iU •...( »* ..«v.!emnol fai thr mifleedt d -* 



The Migration of North American Birds 

SECOND SERIES 

IV. THE WAXWINGS AND PHAINOPEPLA 
Compiled by Harry C. Oberhotacr, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

Vf rr.>nti«|.KT»> 

BOHEMIAN WAXWINO 

i an breeding- range of this boreal bird (BombyciUa narrula) 

.l> north to northern Mat • I northern Alaska; west to wt 

Alaska and western British Columbia. south to Washington and Montana; 

rtheastern Manitoba. It winters easl to Nova Scotia, tad south. 

though irregu I Mo, Indiana, southern 

Illinois. Kansas, Colorado, and southern California. It is of casual oc 



ii'urrt'iH' 



sJ'KIN(. MK.KMIoN 



mber 

rri<»r«i 


Averaae date of Earliest dale at 


, 


Mar. h :i i.>i4 

|8 to. i86j 

1800 






Number 

..I H)M 



Average date ot Uteet dale el 

la at nar <>liwr\ r t la*>l om . .t»»e*r%r ! 



. \ 






May t«, 1887 






H :o 


April 17, 1 




4 


\pr. 


IB, IOOS 


Scotch Ukr 












1*57 
May 14. 1908 






Jan 10 




J 


ruary if 


Mat.!. 1©, l888 














Mar< h 30. 1897 




J 






.'. 


1 




lOjOg 


apolia. Minn 


o 


1 April i 


■:■ 














Man I 




s 




April 10, 1000 




J 


\pril i 


April u. 1 
March 7. • *:<> 




4 


1 March to 


0904 


>rr 






1881 


OUMg.il Untltni. B ( 


1 




1007 



(aio) 



J JO 



Kird-Lore 

1 \l I. MIGI 



I <•< Mil \ 



Mittnr lamp. k ! un»ula. 



N«ml»t 
•■( rr«r» 



AwtM* date of 

li>l onr .»!►.»»» c<l 






li/Oi 












\ s 
iMjthinn. Iflaa 

I 

*a 

mi 

tcr. Col.. 
aican Un 

Dajexctt. « .In 



1 

mbcf 6 



. 



ihcr i 



mbcf : 



{; 



anuar 

gio 

igo6 

"tOQ 
iqot 

MO 



MJIO 



CEDAR WAXWING 

Th BombyciUa cedrorum) breeds north t<» northern \ 

i. northwestern (Quebec, northern Ontario, central ' 
Alberta, and central British Columbia; and south to southern Oregon, Arizona, 
north .ico. Kansas, northern Arkansas, and western North < 

Una. It winters in most of the United States, and soul 

Panama. It is of accidental or casual occurrence in Jamaica, the Bahama I slands, 
the Bermuda Islands, and England. It breeds late in the q 1 in many 

localities is of very irregular occurrence; her movement 

somewhat unsatisfactory to tra< 



The Migration of Nonh American Birds 






SPRIN 










Ul«ld»lio( 



8. lOOi 

3. »9io 

• 
:<>. iQto 
10. 1900 
»J. «0O4 

*S, 1885 

i. 1887 
6, 190a 
»4, IOO8 









I I 



Numhrr 
o( ye»r» 

rnor.i 



IO 



«7 
* 
8 

5 

9 






May ti 

M 

l 
M 

April 1 > 
April -'* 
M 

M 

April 1 

M»y jg 
M 

Junr i 



Biriton dat« of 



h :q. 191 1 

February 10. 1915 
April 10. 1898 

■ 

\pril 10. 1905 

1 15, 1890 

June ji. 1900 

January 15. 189a 

15. 1899 

<tot 

tot 

IOO) 

>4. »90J 

April 5, 1909 
May 16. 1906 



Mil 



U>' 


Hmmim 


■ 


■tta^r,- 1 




. 


<M.»»>*r it, i<*>* 
October 18, 1898 






<kt.»l*-r ;o 








Soptaabw 18. 1910 








<b*r 19. 1901 


1 






•bar to. i<> 


Autaux*villr \ 








: 




October to 


S»8 






rmbrr 


<►>'"'>" It, «*<>» 










,1,1 












d-Lore 

FALL Mlt.BAi: 



I 1 1 \ 



Montreal. OucIm-. 

>ltctu«n. I' I 1 

HWnorth. Maine 
Portland. Maine 
•• \ II 

ic. M«n. 
Athaltavka Lai 

igan Un 
V 
Rogrman, Mont 



Sumkwt Avwaai date of 



September iq 



Sr|»temi>er 1 1 
■ct i 



Scjitcnr 
Septert 



Ulf.1 <Ulr »l 



I90& 



1 r 10, IQOJ 

IQOO 
Octotx 

r 10. 1906 
r }o, igoo 

rr 8, 1907 

tyo* 



PHAINOPEPLA 

The Phainopepla (PhainoprpU nitrns) breeds north to 1 intral western Texas, 
New Mexico, southern Utah, s uuth er a Nevada, and central California (casually 
to central Nevada and northern California); and south to 
of Mexico I \ allrv of Mexico), Puebla, and Vera Crux. It winters \*» 

il California and xuitK na south at least to the southern lit- 

11- bnedbg rmufi 

m 



LOCAL in 



ml 

Santa Barbara. Calif 
Fresno, Cal.i 

liobty wintering 



Number 
«»( yean" 



Avwag* date of 



'1 24 



•prist arrival 



;IO 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

FORTY EIGHTH PAPER 
By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

• *st« I'r .".In, ,r c 

Phainopepla I'hoinoptpla nitrns. Figs. 1, 2).— On lea\ 
male, as well as the female, Phainopepla bears a general resemblance t 
adult female, but is browner with duller and narrower margins to the wing- 
feathers. The post juvcnal molt u apparently usually complete, the primary 
coverts being sometimes retained, and the male now acquires a black plumage 
which, however, differs from that of the adult in having the body feat 



Notes on the Plumage of North Americm Birds 

below, margined with grayish, the wing-coverts and inner quills 

• h the advance of the season these markings disappear, and by the follow- 
oung and old are essentially alike. 
Bohemian Waxwing (Bombyalla gamin, Y\. 
the nestling of this species differ* from the adult much as the the Cedar 

does. In the single specimen seen (Biological Su i 165,808, 

W 1 1 . Osgood) the wings have red tips and in 
yellow-and-white marking r r s f i nUc those of the average adult. It is 
nt that this is not always the Cast, Mint- some s|»et imens. in what is other 
wise adult plumage, are without either ltd tips ,. r yellow markings on the wing- 
quills. 

ording 1 \ the postjuveoal molt "involves tht- body plumage 

but not the remiges or reel 

- well-developed plumage of the nestling above mentions! indicates 

that reas cannot certainly be distinguished from that of the 

adult, and also that the character of the wing-markings is individual rather 

than due to a. ihown at its full development in Fig. ;. hut specimens 

arrow white tij>s on the wing feathers, as in Fig. 4, are not in 

;>ring molt and. a* with the Cedar Waxwing, the slight difference 
between winter and summer plumage is dur t«» wear and lading 

addition to its larger size, the Bohemian Waxwing differs from the Cedar 
Waxwing in its generally grayer underparts, the abdomen being like the lower 
breast an<! low; chestnut under taJ . white wing-markings and, 

usually, blai kcr throat; ail differences sufficiently pronounced to be obaerv- 

Cedar Waxwing ( Bomb y< ilia ccdrorum. Figs. c. 6).— The sexes ol this beaut i 
>rd arc alike in plu mage, hut the young, on leaving the nest, have a smaller 
and wear a dress easil iLshable from that of their parents. As 

rawing shows ! this nestling or ju venal plumage, b decidedly 

whitish. The streaks are more pronounced below than on the 
the abdomen b whitish instead of yellow, and there b less black about 
II than in the adult. As a rule the secondaries are without the 'wax 
rarely traces of then appear. 

nal or fall molt, all hut the tail and main wing-feathers of 

age are shed and the winter plumage b acquired Thb U similar to 

that of the adult . hut it b probable that the star and number of the 'wax* wing- 

tips increase with age, while the occasional presence of these appendages on 

•iil- feathers possibly indicates advanced age, though it may be doe to 

exceptional vigor of the individual pnesrailng them. 

There b no spring molt, snd the slight different r* between winter and 
summer plumage arc due to wear and fading. 



ilotts from Jfielt) ant) &tut>p 



Booming ol the American Bittern 
assay (to •«tt»r 

I ha\c read several account* of the 
booming of the Bittern, w! c had 

the p! witnessing three different 

time*, but none of them were a 
iclory ill 

heard th< "un«l like 

. kumk .hunk a lank plunk, and at a db- 
Umr resemble the noise 

l>r<Mlu<rt| t -den »takc 

in manhy ground with a large iron mall. 
,nk thehird 
with the hill |«,intrd well up 
After delivering it. the l*» 
the effort, with a dight j.« hunk, 

theMcond note, the lull b dropped slightly 
and a lit t and th« 

echoed, a* it were, in the bod> a little 
harder. At a — the thin I hill i* 

d down a little more, the head 
drawn rightly back, the whole body 
thrown very slightly forward, and after 
thcd< <»ed a» before with a moat 

ible jar ol the body. Lmmk. the 
fourth not. .red with about the 

Mme | t with the hill 

down about level, and head and whole 
body thrown a little more forward, 
echoed aa fa the jar of the body, 

which by tlm time become* quite \iolent. 
accompanied by a very alight ruffling of 
the plumage. Plunk the fifth and laat 
note on the bar b delivered with . <>n*ider- 
ably more force, and with the whole body, 
especially the bill and head, thrown, or 
jerked, violently forward, apparently a* 



• ■ 
the note In 

i return imnv 

ii to rc|>cai the whole serica again, 
.in.! not only the »«. ond tin 

»e (May, i \ i rule. 

I thi >r times. 

I had discovered a slough in the i 
I 
Bittern early iii 

the plaic. and one flay. a» if in an»w< 
mental wi»h. the hird ttepped out in 
plain view and good light, and gavr 
real entertainment, in ( a* if 

•■m to 
rest, at len»t wait two or thr. 
and then give me th< 
until I tired of watching— if thai 

\\ II 

Spring Migration in the 'Ram' 
Central Park. New York City 

ing of one of hi* boyhood friends. 
Jamea »■■ 
■ 

-.-ciooa anyone, ever 
hen me* does that for th. 

In m; 
memlier Kratefully a* one wh 

• iing woman in a ra: 
whom I saw on >n the 

«|inng of n)i ; in the bird section of the 
American Museum of Natural 

birds' nests, and being t he -■ 




^ 



Ltifr 



ti ..« 



r hi. itnri ot fee* pasfeJoa* h r»pe»t 

I >ttmn I-) i,<s. tt II m Bank 



Notes from Field and Study 



"5 



in lha iii<- building, we began 

Ik. I remember that 
(ate became, after 
ry delightful weeks 
irm in the Berkshire* — from the 
•ie end of April —here 
return to my home in the 
i>t at the time when Spring was offer- 
ing her mo»t ii treasures to a 

imped the fields aad 

• 

Iowa the first hep 
trailing arbutu> saxi- 

wake robin when you h.i\r 
durst 

-when you've seen tin- 
hiag on the • 
'•nes i»f the sumach. Use gi 
all * iy fallen snow 

nning 
roatrast to the r< .1 berries against a white 
ulmit that it* 
not m i cotnfbrt from 

lookiag at ilr> as-dusl stuffed specimens 
in a nm.r 

■ ally and said, 

Ramble' in 

t promise 

I! find 

rig through 






mine foun 



early, and cvtry morning 
there- 
course. 1 mimed some of the earliest mi- 

bt of more than w- 
sparica of bird*, one of them being that 

t Mourning Warbler. The 
mean! Kle day's observation, so 

i -cries, and 
the season record for the largest 
observed was ninety one by Dl M I' 

art interesting part of the daily 

ion was the opportunity of m rating 

• who had discovered the 

( hat you carried 

action 

enouci «• enthusiasts, and they 



tmheeitatingly stopped y< hange 

■betel their latest find and yours. 

ana th<- Ctergymaa • 

who came two or three times a week aod 

insisted that the country was not nearly 

so good for birds as the 'Ramble.' There 

was the Famous Surgeon who stole away 

from anxious patients for an hour almost 

•wo weary soul. 

There was the Biologist who "I 

as she put it, and never missed 
a chance to study it. There was the Board- 
ing-house Lady who came each morning 
after her marketing to forget her material 
cams by quoting |)r van I) 

iotes of t! nting 

re was the Naval 
Reserve Man who had left Vale to enlist, 
who came every morning for the week that 
he was on leave and "hoped his boat would 
be ordered where there would be in' 

Iron to wai re was the I'ark 

Policeman who was the 6rst to m 

tion we could not agree). There ami the 

Park Gardener who never forgot to show 

roost of the Black-crowned 

tad, oh, there were lots of 

me and aee 

\nd among us all was the 

keenest good-natured rivalry as to who 

should be the first to see the new arrivals' 

newcomer, if you had seen s ome species 
b ao old hand at the game had mimed. 

you would 
N open before you. if yon 
lie be»l thing* of spring, 
i have only 
to go to the 'Ramble' and join thr 
colony— Blancnk Samkk, .Vrw 
I 



•p nr row Hawk and 



si, mi*, back of the 
American Museum & History. 

mm iu»' 

«ith ao adult Starling for its victim 
•t observed, the two bird.* were 
on the ground, the Hawk on top of the 






Bird -Lore 



Marling, and »h..»u«. 
good grip. The Starling seemed fairly 
exhausted but jerked around spasmodi< ally 
time the Hawk made a nv»\r. whi« h 
«it aometimes nr 
position, but more oftrn i 

I he llawk'a 
wing* were continually spread ao as to 
prevent the Starling from overturning 

iion» were continued lor 
al«»ut h\r minute*, when the Hawk 



three 

there waa one it waa well conceal* 

Yellow Warbler va. Cowbird 

\ \ rll.. 

egg* of th< 

<u an un 
usual one (off thi* gpt n that 

.ntit> of i. 




was frightened away by a move of the 
ubearvm and, although he stayed in the 

•v of the Museum awhil- 
courage was not equal to his fear of dis- 
turbance, and he did not return for hi* 
»upper as long as the Starling was being 
observed. 

The Starling, in the meantime, ap- 
parently recovered somewhat and flew to a 
nearby window-ledge. Its flight, although 
weak, was straight, so it was obvious that 
no flight -bones were broken, and when the 
bird was viewed at a distance of about 



construction The nest was also not a» 

compact as is usually built 

being very loosely cot and as we 

watched it from time 

ful that the nest would fsll apart I 

oung were old enough to lea 
When first noted it was of norma 
and contained one Cowbird egg, whj 
a few days was covered by a amall 

n egg was laid at 
a (lightly higher lev r 
began n earnest, rapid 

L faUc bottom to the nest and raising 



Notes from Field and Study 



ui 



the ■■■ female bird bid 

eggs and brought off a brood of thrcr 
nc nl the en* evidently being 

of the unhitched < &gs. — 



The Evening Grosbeak in Minnesota 
in Midsummer 

M>.nth» of 

cabin within a quarter of a 
mile of the international boundary line 
betw. ota and Ontario 

tabin »** located on the rocky sh- 

Lake, whiih is one of a chain of 
ning east and west 



on these lake* quite a little and saw many 
north< era and an abundance of 

Hermit Thrushes, this was the only speci- 
men of tt xbeak that we 

I am not sure whether this i| th 

veninK Grosbeak in Min- 
nesota during the summertime, or whether 
the bird has been found before along the 
international boundary. The place where 
the bird was seen was about 30 miles 
m.rth of Uke Super ems likdy 

that the Evening Grosbeak nest- 
sparingly along the international border 
in n nnesota. 

The timber in this region consist ■ 
balsam, birch, and 
poplar. There are some open spots where 
fire went through some years ago, but a 
Urge portion of the region still contains 
the original growth of timber, except that 
the scattered pine has been logged 1 

nl, Minn 



ee saw a male I 

img plumage st 
the east end of 

when first %een. » js kitting on a bare | 
of gra. 
he had been pi. king gravel or small insr. ts 

of a nearby house, remsletd there a few 

tad then new away into the 

. 

seen, was sitting only a few 

t flew 

' he mixed timber on the Minnesota 

tide. Mrs. Lange and myself stood within 



that 



I'! 



EJmonds. Was: 



t \\r '■..., 11 .■ 



i%t rn.l 



idian observer who 
Pine Siskin* from Mtfai Celaaxh 

Bino- 
p r om pts me to send in my observa- 
tions of this bird. 

ree years, I have seen 
near Edmonds large flocks of 

v but I did not know that ihrir 
appearance was unusual mber 

l noted a flock of about three 
hundred, and from that date on until 
March . they came to our fruit- 

farm early and late, day after day. 

Possibly one reason why I o b se r ve d 
Urge numbers of them so often is the 
presence of fifteen alder trees in a ravine 
just south of our house. In the Middle 
West I have been accus t ome d to think of 
the alder as a good ebed bush, but here 
aider trees are Urgvr than the average 
raved »r »»mh of the East. Oar 
alder* are from $0 to <o leet high, and some 
more than ifl iachas through Their 
spreading top*, loaded with <« 
oiler a lemming breakfast to hundreds of 
the little Iwitt 






Bird -Lore 



n 1 am outdoor* caring fur the 
chicken*. I always know when tbr 
Siskins arc coning, for way off to the 
northward I hear a whirr- r and a swish, 
and then the chattering and murmuring of 
the rover band a* they whirl m the tall 
house and settle in the alder topv U • 
come and go from the » pans 

along the path beside the alders but noth 
ing disturb* them Some. I dees, 

hang with their heads downward; others 
sit upright and pick at the i at kin* 
Suddenl) a well- understood signal 
the leader sends them off like a gust of. 
dead leaves. Although the birds arc 

^ilrnt I have not heard anything 
that I Hi song. Karh time that 

I have an opportunii lo them I 

search for words that will describe the 
chatter they make. As the bar. 
ward and then swoops downward. I think 
I hear a grindstone turning rapidh 
the blade held against its surface mak • 
same shrill, thin sound that the birds 

hear a Pi ippose the 

warm sunny da h continued up 

•• ember i, delayed their coming. 

The first band was small, numbering about 

cti some time in the alder 

tops and all the whil< 

Mthnugh I have examined 
flocks of these birds with a strong glass. I 
have not seen other specie* with them 
Mas. Kt'GKXE D LtlONUV, FJmomdt, 

How We Made a Bird-Bath 

the rock in front of 
our house, on the coast of Maine, filled 
with rainwater, was an ideal place for sail- 
ing small boats. Two generations of 
< hildren had called this 'The Puddl. 
here we blissfully poked our boats about 
with sticks, and wet our feet. 

How often we had watched the Robins, 
Song Sparrows, and 'Wild Canaries' drink 
ing there in the day* when bird-study was 
almost unknown and only a few birds 
were familiar to us. When we grew up and 



im<i trom puociie-Dost 
boats upon the sea, the birds contin 
drink there, but we noti<ed thai 
sides were too si 

ing comfortably, although they made 
desperate efforts to r 

i of filling 

.ment. n« 

a ere more slanting, and 1 1 
my bi tied out. U i fine, 

smooth, white floor, 
the top. after tillin. 
pressing it doaely into all > « and 

ig down underneath I. 
surface dried, eaih t: 
made an impression oi 
tutting <>ui ils beside r 

'date crank' cut in 1 1 
bath was floode< hes, it 

was so pretty that 

\ K 
the pool, and he seemed to spi 

< he bathed, he rushed from am 
of the pool to the other, then turned .1 
ami rushed bat I 
After he had waded about to his heart '■ 

nt, he took a good bath. If birds 
m, that is wha' 
and he was apparently wdl please- 
himself as he sat half submerged, soaking 
in the cool water. He took ten minu 
bath. 

h a gardrn hose and a broom w. 
the pool tlean and tilled a 
The birds love it and in war' 
flock to it in large numbers, v 

• ment floor in 
the second week and after that <!r 

kinds of 
birds that bathed in 
that drank 

American Crossbills. A male and four 
females would > 

ing from a nearby piece of wood 
.a large apt assure 

themselves that there »< 
cats about, and then drinl ind Ik- 

off. It was noticeable tl. •ssbill 

usually drank from .1 I near 

the Urge one where his wife and dan. 
regaled themselves, and that aoi 



Notes from Field and Scudy 



229 



ut in Ihr trt-e and watched oper.. 

• It ma> ha\r Scrn that be had visited it 
before una h timet he 
was the first to take flight, and the family, 

■ few hurried sips, trailed off reluc- 
tantly behind htm. Kit cpting t he Thrushes, 
these Crossbills seem to be the mmt timid 
of all the bird* who visited the pool. Tbey 

• .unr and went in number* and usually 
made two trips a day to drink. 

The Thrushes patronized the pool late 
in the day. ami in the 1 hilly twilights of 
September »r frequently saw a Hermit 
- i*h taking a bath. 

Last summer it was not unusual to see 
■row* and Warblers splashing 
reining to agree that 'the 
more the men 
•■««. 

Notes from London, Ont. 

some two years since any notes 

ippeafcd in Htto Lore from London, 

lowing items may, there 

ml to Him. I .on readers. 

■ rs of our city have 

orga n is ed under the name of lh« 

nithologital Club Ourorgani- 
«ell as our meetings, b 
informal, but an increased interest in birds 
i« already appap 

tot many year* 
this hi accidental 

race in this vicinity. We now look 
Upon it as one of our i«-rmaneut raw 
smi a very welcome addition indeed. Dur 
ing t» < luh 

members had right feeding at bis |>l 

long time since Red 
polls have been as common as they were 
winirr 1916 17. They were 
noted on every trip taken in the Ofl 
between December 16 and Mai 

-When taking the 
is for 1916, one of these 



•» as found just west of the city at the 
1 v' This was the first one recorded for 
about three years. It remained all l 
and about 1 began to sing. It 

had a grea- >f notes, and we were 

k'hted at the opportunity 
afforded of hearing this rare 
song. Strange to say while making the 
CMttflMi rthern 

Shrike was found in the en 
favored by the one last year, and we are 
not the same bird. 
Lev hese birds 

was noted on May 30. 1917. in a fringe of 
willows bordering a small pond. This is 
only the second or third time this bird 
has been reported from London It was 
•n for some minutes at a 
distance of 30 or 40 feet, and. with the aid 
of field-glasses, identification was not 
difficult 

I'kwwii \V\tni>k This was s new 
record -unty and was also made 

on Mj ;. The song, which we did 

not recognise, ut. :»- t>egin- 

ning low and becoming higher and louder. 
!rew our attention. We approached 
but the bird seemed to 
presence and continued stag- 
ing and ( reding in a small dead tree k 
edge of the same pond. We rot within 
that every mark was 
clearly seen, even to the chestnut patch 
on the bf 

mi% 1 rip we also saw a tiray < heeked 

h and hea> and recorded an 

Olive-sided n the 

top of s tall tree, a Philadelphia Vireo, and 

are rather 
rare migrants with us, 

A note from the 1916 seas o n that might 
he of interest is the nesting Ideo 

crowned Kinglet cry seldom 

wHlh us during the summer 



THE SEASON 

VII. February 15 to April 15. 1918 



During Ihc month 
following February 15. seven mow*' 
delayed the advance of spring, until the 
enrWeat birds were ten day* overdue. 
Between \larrh 18 and ao the first group 

grants arrived in full force 
winged and Rusty Hl.i. <>nsed 

rows, and Bluebirds. 
Two days later there began a remarkably 
heavy fligh ^|iarrows and Juncos, 

with a few Cowbird- 

appaaring at t heir normal date, t be J uncos, 
migrating earlier than usual, hurried for- 
ward. evid< he general movement 
of birds toward the m 

Cold weather again delayed mijr 
until, on April | |»arrow»ci 

• gfon and were soon present in full 
breeding number*. Another period of low 
temperature followed with a fall of 6 
inches of snow on \pril 1 :. son 1 
stfl remains on the ground (April 1 
Ear the present spring has bet 
the whole, the kind of spring »• 
Knglanders must expect — a alow yi- 
of winter, with periods of summer weather, 
during which the birds appear suddenly 
in Urge numbers, alternating with days of 
»torm and cold, when migrating birds arc 
at a slamUtill. 

The failure of other Sparrows to move 
north during the favorable weather chosen 
by the Vesper Sparrows is to be noted; 
there are very few Field and Savannah 
Sparrowi and Purple Finches here 
now (April to), and no Chipping Sparrows. 
Flicker* are in great abundance. A possible 
explanation is the menace of Si 
the »outhward of this region. 

There was a prominent winter migra- 
tion of Robins late in February; as usual 
the resident Robins a p peare d about our 
aoaees the latter part of Mart h \V 
M I \ 1 1 * \| I» . / ./ rimglam, itau. 



\ Km.iox The weather 
of late February and March was about 



normal, though 
high wind than u»ua 

at just about their 

Bluebirds came well befort 

day was March 
and Fox Sparrows, Robins, an<! 
were much 

were seen, and a twkanda) 

Hawk seen up the k.i Im- 
probably migrating. Lat< 
migrants arrived *ith wn 

mi if ul on inland wal 

in number* in the latter pat 
the last was seen on I 
Mil 

haps leas than 
ordinarily nun 
appeared northward in a great ban 

Early April was cooler than 1 
this region, and th< 

ably, so that bit 
about the city found am mday 

the ;th, though the tir 

•trtl <>n that day or 
Island and in New Jersey, and a Robin was 
observed gathering neat-matt 

<ng laiaad 
following week, a five-day storm, 
great deal of northeast gale, hai I 
lag moat of two days) heavy an- 
the migration practically at a stand » 
Caaaxsa H. Rook* 

V ; ; « r ; . // i MTJ A ' .- I ■ ' » I : . • 

I'lllLAOELratA R«. 
lure of February averaged about normal, 
while that of March was somewhat warmer 
than usual, from the 18th I being 

especially spring il 
arrived about on time: Killdeer, February 

Mourning 
February 27, Red-winged Bla 
Ru*ty Blackbird, and Purple Crackle. 






The Season 



'Ji 



sparrow. March 7; 
Robin 

*as last noted 

Febn; >ng eared Owb were last 

observed at their winter rooat March 3. 

ring the aecood and third weeks of 

1 there were a good many Ducks on 

the I»ela»-> < hi Man h 17 a flock 

of about two hundred and fifty were 

observed, composed of Mergansers. Pin 

1 pa, Black Docks and several 

Redheads. Again this spring the Wood 

has been a common sight at some 

■cat Blue Heron was seen February 

n Thrasher ' 
en as a whole. February and March 
unusual sights to thi 

Camdem, 



Of all the 
months. February and March offer, 
generally speaking, least to attract the 
ornithologknl observer in the 

Most of the inter. 

' residents has waned, and but few 

spring migrant* put in their appearan.c 

This year, however, these months have 

been unusual! > interesting b] rea-.n ..f the 

umbers and gn 
that I nted the Potoaili I 

ur last report mention was made 

of the thousands of Ducks of various 

species that -.urred on the river durinjt 

the winter. Species seen in February and 

). additional to those reported in 

Tiber and January, are tirern 

-aldpate. B»ng 

•4 1 7 kinds of Ducks observed thus 
la s e ason « H these the most numer- 
ous have been the t.reater Scaup. Leaser 
Idea-eye, Canvas-ba<k. Mack. 
hand I he Baldp. 
recent years, has been one of the rarer 

.. and there are apparently on: 
previous definite records for the oarMar 
part of the year, these being Februj 
iSqq. and M Sii individuals 

W. Moore at Belmont. Va., on March 30. 



rxnellrr. for w hi. h no previous de- 
tinue spring dates have been obtained, 
waa observed on the Anacostia River on 

1 scorn; and 
duals were seen at Belmont, 
Va.. on March 30 by Mr. Raymond W. 
Moore. A few species of Ducks remained 
considerably beyond their normal time of 
departure, such as the Mallard, the usual 
date of departure of which is Man h 17. 
but which was seen at 

I wo lingered beyond their previous 
known latest dates: the G re en winged 
Teal until March 31 (latent previous date. 

1 '5- 1917); snd tat 
until lous date. 

■ 
The severe winter gave place, about 
iry. to much milder 
weather, and indications point to an earlier 
spring than we have had in this region for 
the past two or three years. Its eii 
already noticeable on the bird-life, al- 
though some of our common specie- 
Red headed Wood 
.rowned kinglet. Winter 
and Bed breasted Nut hat. I 
more than ordinarily scarce. A number of 
the early migrants have occurred con- 
l.ly ahead of their schedule. The 
was seen at Belmont 
on Man h u. its earliest previous record 
being March 14. 1910. the Ph<ebe appeared 
oa March 3 (average d.. > to). 

the American Pipit on March 10. at 

Kensington. M.I taverage date Man h 
Purple t.ra. kle ..n fchruar 

i.ruary so); Vesper 
Sparrow on Man h 11 average date. 

•pping Sparrow oa M 

tS (avcrai- I the 

ng the Anacostia River by 

w on Mar. h ■ < average 

A very few Robias base 

remained all -mtrr bat only ia the most 

sheltered ptacea. The first certain migrants 

appeared oa February 13. 

following notes on other species 
may also be worthy of mention in this 
connection Horned Urka and Prairie 
Homed Urks. mostly la small flacks con- 
taining both forms, warn reported by Mr. 



Bird 



H I ommon throughout 

wp Mcad< large 

«nm|.> numbering 

mum no individual*, was observed at 
rail* ( hu- 1 8, by 

Mr I I %on. and a small flight of 

Red tail llawkv iMimUrmc JO <: 

wa» nolrd at the hibc pi «amc 

observer an Man h 

irded a* a rare 
,.) bj Mr 
Raymond W M 

il lime* I id 10, 

probably nesting in • I 
Hron. gular 

mlhe 
ground* of Ihr Aitn. ultural l>r|>artrnrnl 
on March 18, and, po» udk 

inili\idual. on >uo*e<|urnl 

in ihr Mlhr HaJUtl C. 

Oatm . kimf 

/•a. /' 

1 8 teaaoo 
opened with the am rows. Blur- 

bird* and Robin* on Fcbruar\ 
i» the rarli< 4 this 

region There »*♦ no further movement 
until a Killdrrr appeared on th< 
On the firwl day of Man h thrrr was a 
considerable nv .ws, Blue- 

Robins, and Song Sparrow > 
lowed two days later by the first Meadow. 
lark. Bronied (Crackles, and Mourning 
I 'tiring this period of unseasonable 
warmth the resident Woodpecker*. While 
breasted Nuthatches, and Tud 
began their ...urting 

The nr\t migration movement occurred 
on Mar. h it. with the arrival of the 
rd and Towbee. an<l a 
drtided increa*. Meadowiark and 

BlMMd tiraikle On the iMh the Red 
winged Blackbird ■ 

beramr tommon. and the Migrant Shrike 
and ( owbird arrived. The neat day Blue- 
became common and th< 
Sparrow .. 

sed the usual Mattering arrival* of 
i rrows on the io\h. Mm 

the .-ist.and BeJted Kingfisher on 1 1 
with an in. rease of earlier arrivals. 



I nrkr\ Vulture and Yi 
on th< 
Swamp Sparrow and 

- 

♦nipe and B 
the 51 









•he 7th an 
on the Hlh; and a deci 
specie* whn h had .1' 
While the weather 

try and Marl) the who)- 

. ill) warm hi . the mi 

ii». after I 
ruary 14. were late and si 
. nanpit mow b) their alaaaal entire »Wn. . 

not found until it was unu*u 
l hem .arrows u 

>\»arm on I he • \en at 

this writing they are leas common 
usual. 

The exceptionally hard 

ion of th< 

out co\ t- > * on all sides of 1 
a single pair tan Ik- 

UrgtOTA f 

at a coot 
unusually severe nial 
14* below being <>n the jot 

Hut from this time began a rei 
ably mild and beautiful spring, brok 
only a single setback 

heavy tnowfal- 
Bul warm days followed imm< 
an* this snow • 

h, and a sfiring. a week 
or ten days ahead of lb . was 

usher* .nlinue until the present 

date. Robins appeared in numl- 
the vicinity of the I the 

middle of V 



mont.' 

the Mississippi River (or some distance 

above St. Anthony Falls (Minnr.i; 



The Season 



■ ail of lime, and 
that d Herring Gulla were »een 

t he gorge . look i 
food among the floating ice bum 

a neat of the Horned Lark. 
if birda just hatched, was 
found at t'ambndge Kinti t'ounty. some 
mile* north of Ntinncapoli*. by 
I-»v» r- i bird will 

as aooo aa the ground is bare of snow, 
regardless of temperature, and mat 
the earlier nests are destroyed b) 
infc weather and snows. 

nd of l he iirsl week in April, 
tie large lakes in the latit 
• apoli* was adrift and rapidly break- 
ing up. Farther north it was still i 

! and absence of snow the 
II still 
..'Kith water to the thickness of m 

manner in whh h this 
•ecame honeycomb< . 
disappeared was meal ihi.k. 

•olid ire, loosened from the land 

>ds some i: rk terrible 

havoc along the snores "i out larger 

Mar* h i". at .Minneapolis, KoOins 

Mine 
had paired and were examining 
possible lencnv i lies were 

•ted; flock* of Ku«t> B 
aakingmusii in I he groves; male Ke<l 
wing* were conspicuous in the swamp-.. 
Song Sparrow* ■ few 

rushes were silently sear 

vere beginning their 
love making, and the bushes were 

me on I he regular procession of the 
'hat move on a tern 
than a fixed •• I 
usual order but a «< ahead 

i omspondeni c ail h i 
Sanson Pied- 

<«. April o. a I i 4 

..rant 

Shovellers. Pintail*. Itil.lpati. and (tad 
>i a large slough, some ten mile- 



Minn » and 

seemingly mat' 

• he miiblle of April 
fairly started, hepai 
tail's pasque flower 

trees, and the hazelnut being in full 
• m. 

Minnesota 
date. rmi. h more winir> 
iw yet remain in 
the nights at 

rj high with thick masses of winter 
ii from the frigid waters of Lake 

ih<- Robin, the laiTOW, and the 

irn: have rental 
S k Mnsfum. 

. of MinnrM>la. A/iNWrdSo/ti. 

are tol.l that 
there | inting (or ! 

I think that thcr >r the 

seasonal distribution of our birds 
antn ipated an early return of our birds 
isssos be 'he mild 

Hawks were not early in getting here but. 
rather, were a little behiad the usual 

\a» not until \pril ; that 

legged and Sparrow I 
the souther in the 

hand the Irsf Sage Thrasher 

was on tiin 
friends rep 
inont! ! ist year at t hi - 

in th* 
■ parks of ll hive 

ulterl. 

autumn At il> 

ill the specie* 

. unusttsl 
rfaca they linger 
well on toward the 
a mallei 

that. »hlle a (e*» MSS*Jo« 

remain in i 

■STSi thai 

proper; this *pr 

of my home about lata i a dale • hate lo 






Bird -Lore 



the average of tbr peat eight fMl 
had anticipated and ripened teeing them 
two week* cutter. The American Rough 
legged Hawk and the Northern Shnkr 
were prompt in leaving on time. whi 
Mountain Bluebird waa Ute in arriving, 
both in tbr and in the parks and 

Ml tbeae remark* arc baaed i 
on my own peraonal observations and 
records, which might easily conflict 
those of someone who had more time snd 
opportunity (or held work. The gist of all 
these remark* is that birds which I hsd 
looked for < I rhspa 

a little late, while »|iecie» whi.h I thought 
would leav< early, departed 

as usual, hence my opening paragraph. 

about in tbj 
of the city on April (.during a fairly heavy 
snowstorm. I was aurprised to see several 
different flocks of Robins, at different 
times, migrating mtrlkwcrJ, despite the 
*t«.rm It i> probable that the atorm waa 



purely local, prod ut ing lit 

on the birds as they traveled 

i, the wet 
was ideal, and we had our uaual number of 
Robins in our pj hat night 

red a heavy snowfall extending • 
large area sdja 

lay was clesr and cloudlet* 

>und. at <1 all ol 

remained all i 
iiegan leaving short unaet 

that night, and one could hear 
ing, as they winged away, until 

( 1 beard them from my 
sleeping pon h until nearly midnight 

The mild weather here in March teemed 
to accelerate the ne*t re spedes: 

I 

i).— W. II. Brir 



TO AN UNSEEN SINGER 

Acrostic) 

Why do you tempt me when I may l 
Have you no heart beneath thai >ice, 

Insistent singer? Do you e'en rtjd 
Persisting when the sleeping world is dumb? 

Persuade me not to try to find your home! 
Oh leave me to my work, for tho' my choice, 
O Temptress, were to follow you, the pr 

r*in» me. Go, whence ever you may come! 

Would you be quieted, or louder csll 

»>ould tell you that I toss, awske. 

■ing to catch your song across the brake- 
Losing e'en thst, and sleeping not at all? 

— Joseph C, « 




2tooli $etog anb Oiebietoa 



cans. Jan 
photograph* ami lim 

prr^rnt (taper tins beoi prepared. 
the author , response to tun 

ram school*, nature Id 
•vert, and other*. It is based in |mrt 

the li*t» of Louisiana birds by Beyer and 
l>man. and upon Howell'* 'Notes on 
• 'rthcrn LosJelei 
8 species and subspecies 
j somewhat general point of 
lieing practically no exact dati 

the migratory 

spedse. Brief descriptioai of pbnslffl 

and notes upon numbers and haunt* make 

'position of the l.ouitiana 

ma rather than a scientific treatise 

\M suih it should reveal to the 

r«*id(IJt» of the »talr thr wraith ..f their 

ie and the responsibtlr 
upon them f.»r the innervation of the 
vhiih winter in their waters. 

ii IK r 
**ok. Ill 

■nd half 

Ml Pearson here re« . 
rues the individual experiences, st 
more generalised hi*tor% 
t HI known birds. The method 
followed, while not obviously intended to 
fence book information con- 
<m* much 
designed to hold the attention of 
than a more formal pres- 
n of the *amc i 

■ ke Ihr I.hjI CflSM of thr 

n the South, in wWcn 
Pearsoq achieve* a success that suggests 
that he may later give us the feathered 
counterpart of I 



Mr Bui 
I M 



<li| mm h to the 
of thr I* 



The Ornithological Magaxines 

I he January issue opens 
with an obituar 
Mearns, I. ota, \\ U hi 

-ait of 

nithologist who was 

of the school that bfidjtii i he gap 

between the older and younger men who 

have devoted themselves to their f.i 

stu<! 

Mr Ki, har.l (\ Harlow's 'Notes on the 

lag Bfada resale ji> 

Jerse> • ••mmi-mlnl to the atten- 

tion of oologists, as it 

that is really worth publishing. The 
earlier breeding of i: | 

inland marshes, as compared with those of 
the salt marshes, is interesting M 

l that the sea-breeze* are responsible 
for a cooler and later season? 

In Tncolored Print* from Ha\ ells 
I'.nicr.i Is of 

Mr BSJH jIU alien 

10 the part played by Mr Hovel in 
the prod uit ion of the plate* of thi* monu- 
mental work, and two of them. |g 
■ 

Mr \ Wright write* on the 

'Labrador (hi.ka.ler i/'mfiofo km J 
iim.Ki nigtU4n>< in it» Return Flight 
lr..m thr rail Migrating • ' I Mr 

II Mousley, in a I a, records 

'The Breeding of the Migrant shnke at 
llallry. QsjohOl \n ann 

list ot 

Columbia • ^eastern U 

■n," b begun b) Mi Lot K nice. 

rviskm of the Races of feeetieaM 

. 

Oberkolser, reduce-* them to three M> 
OberboUcr also bos o fourth instalment 
of hi* 'Notes on Nor < .1* ' 

The account of the ih Mated 



(«J$) 






Bird -Lore 



og of the from the pes of 

irks a new era in the 

(<>rtunr» of the Union. Our previous 

Seem John I! Sage, who haa 

since the infant) of the organization, has 
been elected to the presidency, and ■ I 
well hope that his mantle haa fallen hi-.ii 
a« willing » boulders. 

Among the many items that may l« 
found among the dosing pages of thil 
issue, special attention should I 
to the list of member* 'railed to the 
colors' which doubtless will be much 
retary i» given the 
names of those who should be added to t his 
honor roll by those who can furnish the 
imation. 

■I issue of 'The Auk.' while 
I in illustration*, contains a Urge 
a mou i nation. Many readers will 

be interested in 'The Kvening (irosbeak 
</rV<*«Tf***«e seiarr. with 

Remarks on it Mr 

Arthur II. Norton. This striking and 
irregular wanderer from the North 

•I that always justly esdtan the 
imagination of field obser\ 

II Kennard discusses 
kins on Waterfowl.' and 
shows that a difference in feeding habit* 
•r some species being stained and 
other* not. for 'diggers' have stains and 
'croppers' do not. The stain itself i« 
oxide of irut ag in the water where 

the birds gather 

;udy Of the Yellow Lillet! C* 
■■ k Hayiias, i* a pictureaque 
account of the growth and habits of young 
birds in a nest under ot. 'The 

Description 

Reubr ins some useful 

hints (omerning this most dirTuult 

h Hir.l NotOl bj l»r 
Charlr *nsend. adda something 

to his earlier list of the birds of this part <if 
Massachusetts. 

Mr • ibcrholser. in 'Notes on 

<>f .Vm «sw j in tmrrnammi 

Kethslein.' readies the • •inclusion (earlier 

advanced by Dr. I H Itishop) that thin 

Curlew is represented by two i 



amrruammt and *rri*7aJ*/i 

few I from being convinced that 

the question Is 

of the array of I- .late*, and 

figures present. 

presents a fifth instalment of 

\ . ri . 
emit I >pnsed 

gOi in the \ 
Amrn.in H 
not the rank and file dcspai 
\ it I rommittei hat 

I is than about 50 per 
proposed changes. 

ki« liar. I (' Harlow con' 
Hat of the bird« 

'.: i 
linues hi* on I 

Waahington. 'A New Speciea of 
{Gawia rifiJir;. 

.hi. 
.•us departments closing the 
inane are full of vain • 

■ .•( those \ 
called 
I D 

I 
naturalists, 
forms the opening .1 
numb 

panted by an excellent portrait at 
bibliograpl 

Joseph (irinnell. This is followed by an 
account of the habit 

1 throats of San Franci- 

b called 1 
fart that the pra< 
cutting wire-grass in the 

I for binding vegetables probably 
in the •! -if numl" 

eggs and young ami 

. asjble tules in the Lai 
in the thickets hi. .ink*. 

The ■ ontinued arti. 1' 
The Return to the Dakota Lai 
b devoted mainly to the birds along 
rhalarope Slough and those ob* • 
the fartuh" 

Ray contribute* an interesting act 
of the : 4boe region em 



Book News and Reviews 



»37 



at unit of the l>ir«U 

begin I t it ill 

the ground. A month 

i and eggs of Mountain 

I. iy v and S 
nd at the base • 
at an altitude of 8.000 feet, when 
the region was covered with << 

Sell r< nut* of data relating to 

■ 

•r no lest than nine mouninl 



il> not to rar< 

• of the Oregon Jay' 
tied by < 1 

and the differ 
lusions reached by thcac 
wo ornithologists arc commented on 
eicty th In Hit from 

"orre»ter Idaml, Alaska,' made 

en specie* to thr idand 
hear 

VUaka. A* a n 

f add work in Mono and I 



> .>n j mint Mourn 
Mountain*, are de* - 
produ< first time of the breeding 

forma, and 1 • I ki Mountain 1'igrm 



bee are »pctic« new to the *tatc I 

'«i» recent addition 
•logiial msgariaes l* 
the organ ^rnitbologi 

rmitti, thr <»xrn lif.i oN of 
• ml well V 



■ 1917, ha* 
admirable 
aims of tl presents for the 

.md for arousing an 
thrm in Argentina and the 
t»oring countries, al 
number of tr<hni<al and popular art 
the well V- 
Ornitholog) in thr Musco 
nal at Rurno* Aircv ami president 

Of thr 

illustration* and a key. of th< 

in of birds from lh. 

in the Kio <Jc la Plata. 

M hodlo-Jurado writes at length on 

thr liir.N of Puerto Deseadooff Patagonia. 

led notes on nesting- habits arc 

• llrnt photographs. 

I 
most inter. .lata concerning 

• 
birds and bird collections. Manuel 
discusses in a suggestive manner a 
cJaasiti birds based on haunts and 

nesting habit*, and there I 

Nmhrosctti, and 
I ubbene whi. h. together with 
• I |>age» of new* items, show that 
u king in mater 

M»h t hi* magazine aad the Society 
of whi >rgan every possible 

success. —I M 

Book News 

he coloration of birds will 
an article by In tt H 
Longlcy. entitled studies upon the Bio- 
Infjgnj Siemtnanieof Nmmai Coioration,' 

1 appeared in The Amen 
rali»t stf). 

The Bluebird.' publishr land. 

thai on and I 

1 it. >r4f <|4ion price will be 

increased to $1 $0. that single copica will 

be 15 l that no free copies will 



a 3 8 



Bird - Lore 



tfirb lore 

A Hi Munitily Msasnna 
I «• Um Study as*, r is s s ct io ti el Bits* 
orrKtAL oioah ot mi acotsos s oua i ia s 
E4lt*<J br FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

l.ioc MABKLOSGOOD WRIGHT 
br D. AFW.ETON *> CO. 



v.. I. XX 



Juae I. m$ No. 3 



SUBSCKIIIION MTM 






Btrai^ot* » Motto: 
A rW M » *» «-•• /• M.M* T«« it (or floW 



Wins Ihc I. -jn.tujry and 

Muieum was evolved under t>. 

bd Osgood Wright, tome three 
years ago, we unreservedly expressed our 
belie! that, in its field, thr enterprise was 
one of the most important practical steps 
to pr«»m<>tc an interest in the study of 
birds with whirh wr 

It rrt|uir< little i magma 

tion to see the bright future which by 
ahead of this n<< 
museum of dead birds with an 

t bdess, we read wit h 
satisfa light*! report • 

' nterprise and 
tng bold upon the locality in wh 
4ted. 
Birdcraft, having passed the ev 
mental stage, b row a convincing demon- 
stration of what may be accomplished 
with a comparatively small outlay in any 
suburban iomm 

It was not necessary to acquire square 
miles of territory — ten acres were enough 
—nor was a Urge and imposing edifice 
essential A modest building, enlarged as 
circumstances required, baa answered 
purpose. 

in lies Birdcraft '» chief value as an 
' lesson — it was not planned on a 
which prohibits duplicate 
What we now hope to sec is the adop- 
tion of the Birdcraft idea throughout the 
country Here b a mark for every pu 
spirited nature-lover, Audubon Society, 
and bird dub to aim at. One b not re- 



theory- for i Mr creates! do 
that I 

I U an abiding pL 
natural history society, and a I 

ry phase of community life which has 
to do with n.i to any 

OtgRBsMtiM "I .1 hORM « hrrr it mtrn • 

may be developed fiomessioni 

deposited b too wdl known 

comment. Hut we |»erhaps do not si 

realize how greatly 

who are aiming, to at 

cooper f the 

lommon good, 

influent e of i 
< hildrcn tannnt wdl be 

:ui, ai M ' says, 

it is a "rural, cottage an* 
favor. A visit to a neigh 
its great museum ma 

village n; 

hanccs are that, 

ill he gai 
than from the Urge genrr 

far as we are a« 
in thi* lountry has 
making its exhibits speak I 

pains spared to word tin 

and print them ciearlv Hut too of< 

happen* that he who run* does not read and, 

at the best, the average mind eoor 

in it* sear 

our opinion, lies the very essen 

:i» are n 
peeled to tell their »tory merely thi 
the printed, but also through ' 

unles* it tmludes, besides its speci 
stuffed and living, a i 
curator, call him what you will, who can 
and will speak with authority and sympa- 
thetic understanding of the 

'tie*, concerning the museum and 
sanctuary of which be has chni 
dentally, »uch a position offers wide oppor- 
tunity for an intensive study of bit 



Cfje Hububon &otittit& 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Itfltad by ALICE HALL WALTS* 

AiSii all c— ■■IttttiM nUthr* to Um work of this ftaptrt- 
■nl lo tSa Editor. 67 OrwU A«««m. Ft u »<*«■«. K 

AWAKE TO THE TIMi 



the duty that lies nea was 

this admonition more needed than now, when duties of many kinds crowd u|*>n 
ing one's accustomed habits of action, upsetting, as it were, for the 
moment, all preconceived ideas of personal preference and estimates of ser 

ides come install t ions as to what to do, how to do, when to do, where 
to do, and from all sides, too, come appeals so urgent that only the selfish, 
indit: 1 idle can hear them and shirk the responsibility they impose. 

>ne is swept from the familiar moorings of even-da;. 
helplessly groping for some stable anchor. The kaleidoscopic changes in world 
issues from day to day grow in numUr and intensity until one i> 

ice nanism of mind and nuw lc, to keep abreast of the whirl 
•ns. Once wide awake, howevi r. to the fact that, shaken 
be very foundations of life, a sublime reconstruction of soci. 
in the making, we look forward with hope to new ideals and a new goal, 
useless to cop up the old life so rapidly vanishing, or to attempt t>> 

understand the onrushing events, which outline daily more dearly the new life 
ahead, by means of processes now outgrown. 

• day has come when one and all must act tof/etktr, think I s f s f Osr and 
tker the old and the new. Are you personally a wak< trues? 

e scope of rea- 1 necessary to accomplish this personal reconstruc- 

v broad, so broad, indeed, that it reaches out to t he small interests of 
life as well as embrai in* the larger. In the storm of events of world-wide boar- 
1 rough which we are peojbg, there may seem t.» be little place for bird- 
and smaller need for effort m Audubon Society work. It b a mistake. 
lea that people are too busy to pay attention to the 
birds or to nat the field or along educational lines. A 

moment's reflection will convince anyone of the importance and bene) 
pushing steadily ahead in all of these undertakings -ms from the front 

are as good as mor. bat bird-study and bird -work are of value 0*. 

is stated, on authority, that Canarfc trenches, fata « th 

< loathsome ami poisonous gases, which are a constant menace to millions 
eft, before any human being is aware of the danger, and that thus these 
songsters act as a safeguard, not only to soldiers, but also to civilians in 

O39) 



?4o Bird - Lore 

Of quite as great service, mho, are the migrating and nesting I 
a member of an important commission, i 1m the lull 

of the booming artillery I heard the birds singing in tin- few reman 
of the It was the sweetest musk lha ars." 

This observer also made the statement that from an eminence wher< 
eight villages were visible before the war nothing is to be seen now except shell- 
holes and ashes, dotted here and there with patches of green containing rows of 
white crosses. Far below the surface of what once could be a artk, 

■ hich now bears no resemblano ire soldi* itches, son 

whom have not had even a days furlough in fourteen moot I 
songs of wild birds, as well as of Canaries, mean to these dauntless heroes! 
What, too, must be the strength of th< of those feathered traveler- 

afar, who, returning to their accustomed haunts, find only here and there a 
of a tn-t . still struggling to put <>ut leaves, where they may rest and break 
forth into song. The thought of the birds' constancy and cheer in those areas 
of utter desolation, where only soldiers remain, living like the cavern* 
old, fills one with wonder and gladness. 

an Audubon Society mass meeting in Tremon 
especial emphasis was laid upon the relation of binfa to gardens, orchards, 
crops, and forests, and tin unusual opportunity now before us o 
relation better understood and more widely appreciated. 

hnut multiplying instances further, let the facts be accepted that I 
are of probably greater value than before the war, and that there has I 
been a time when bird-study and l.ird-work were more needed, both ol 
and m y. than now. In i three ma tiers make a parti 

appeal at the moment 1 ng: 

>nmrdiatt nred of establishing the most practical relation- 
birds and man in agriculture. Thousands of home gardens are I 
addition to the cultivation of thousands of extra acres for cereal crops. Birds 
can do much to help and somewhat to harm if left to themselves. An inu-lli 
gent gardener, hortu ulturist, farmer or forester will study the birds « 
their food and make their nests in his especial precinct, and after obser 
at first-hand their habits, will seek to take advantage of their h< i hods 

and to protect his fruits or crops in case he discovers any harmful practices 
on their part. 

To aid him, as well as to stimulate healthful competition in bird 
the graded schools, the scheme of charting the food-supplies grown within 
stated areas, such as towns or counties, might very profitably be undert 

Charts of local, areas should form the basis of county arts. 

In order to make the survey successful and the charts of value i es of 

actual comparison, the following points are suggested for the consideration of 
teachers or directors of Junior and Adult Audubon Societies. 



The Audubon Societies 

i I'rrp i >utline maps of t he state in which you live, having as many maps 

as lh. .ntic* in the st 

ap* on a scale corresponding to that <>( the state maps. 
Indicate in different colon, on both state and county maps, the distribution of the 
principal food-crops of the state, such aa grains, potatoes, hay, sugar, garden vegetables, 
elding, also, forested areas, water areas, and orchards and forests. Study the dis- 
tribution of minerals and indicate the location of mines or veins of minerals. 

When these maps have been carefully worked out in as complete a manner as 
mpoae each county map, in its proper position, on a state map and 

I 'owns and villages in the same manner, with rcfern nty maps, 

drawn to sufficiently large scale to be easily seen when hung on the wall. 

tail, until you are rmed aa to the natural 

resources of the state as a whole. 

When the resources of your own state are exhausted, try comparing them with 
I ban of adjoining states. 

8. So far aa possible, determine the birds which are distributed in the various parts 
of aay particular county, keeping a record of the habits and occurrence of each ipocka 
i gardens and cultivated areas throughout the stat irti» ularly 

the differences in «i i..nof foroted. vet an<l«lry.. ultnatrd ami un. ulti\atr»i arra« 

Make a state. county, and town or village record of the average annual rainfall. 
all. and extremes of heat and cold, and of humidity and ari«i 
to. Study soils, learning to recognise different degrees by means of analyx 

iag the composition of soil*, and make a village or town chart, showing the location of 
reaa. Look up a few facts about the difficulty of "clearing" land 
aad of the rapidity with which neglected farms or gardens go back to a state of nature. 
If possible, assemble such village or town maps by counties, and then groups of count > 
maps by states. Where possible, use modeling clay to make topographic maps instead of 
ordinary ch 

In a general way, gain an idea of the humid and arid areas in th< 

he location of forested areas, large bodies of water, average rainfall. 
snowf.. retries of temperature. Isothermal (equal heat) and isohyetal (equal uin 

hull are loll <•( interest and are not difficult to understand. 

knowledge as a background, review the migration and netting dis- 
tribution d ive birds. Try to find out some reasons why birds frequent the 
ular areas where they are most commonly found. 

tin following works will be hcl; 

JStoUi.) Merriam. Hulletin 

to. Division of Biological Survey. ' .rtment of Agr> 

Uwt a TtmptrMmrt ( ValrW •/ ikt CMfrsSmcof Dtiiribnimn 0/ Ttrttit*. 
•md Merriam, ffafSffssJ CfgrtpkU U*t***' 

fibmtiim 0/ Amimslt tmd FUmtt •« S~lk Amrrua. Yearbook of the 
Department of 

and also, Gsss* rWi. Witd Jen* saw* 5asv# Mr*. 
bush. Ifasssch artment of A* 

hliographirs in Chapman's Jfsadssei 0/ JWi e/ rT n s n wn Smth. \m 
aad C0I00 Key «« N0Hk Amutuam Bird,. Weed and l>esrbom s Hsrdi •• 
JtWeiss* 10 Mm, and also. Yearbooks of the U. S Department of Agriculture, as 
1 ss bulletins aad reports published by State Departments of Agriculture. 



Bird - Lore 

A second matter of unusual, indeed, of pressing importance a 
turd legislation. Scarcely a state b safe from the influence of various claases 
of selfish or ignorant and wilful people who want laws sufficiently lax to enable 
them to shoot, trap, or destroy birds and their eggs without penn i here, 

apparently is the feminine public as yet educated to toe necessity and desira- 
bility of eliminating the plumage of birds from hats. 

To destroy birds for the purpose of using their plumage as trimming 
hats, or neck-scarfs and capes, b becoming more and more a crime tg;< 
which every reasonable person should enter a protest. This spring, women 
of all ages and classes are appearing in hats decorated with wings. < 
elaborate feather-garlands ad nauseam, to say nothing of a superabundance of 
ornaments in the similitude of aigrettes, which are too inar ulorn the 

hat of anyone who has regard to her appearance. 

There b a warning we should all heed now, in the terrible and apparently 
unending destructiveness of war, and that is, that part of the depr.i 
ing such appalling waste comes from the encouxagemen i 
unlawful practices in the economic world, of which every purchaser of a 
bird's feather on a hat, as well as of garments made in sweat-shops <• 
< luM-labor, b as much a part as the owners of stores or factories dealit 
these articles or conscienceless dealers who profit by the plunder of nal 
resources at the ultimate expense of the put 

The trade in bird's plumage b absolutely unjustifiabk loes, 

not only the destruction of a valuable natural resource, but, also, cruel pra 
which debase the ignorant or lawless creatures who are tempted to them for a 
pittance. 

Far greater progress has been made in raising the standard of con< i 
factories than most people are aware of. It b ea idea) 

conditions in such places, and it b not diffn ult to point 
but in the matter of traffic in the plumage of birds, aside from that in o 
plumes, nothing in favor of it can be said. It b a lasting disgrao 
woman that such a traffic exists. Will the girls of this coming generation put 
the stamp of disapproval upon it and banish forever the plumag< birds 

from their wardrobe? 

Why not at thb critical juncture lend our influence toward fin 
of support for the t hot wands upon thousands of refugees and crippled sol. ! 
who from now on will be forced to a restricted livelihood, by offering to a 
hats with simple but artistic ornaments which they could make - reate 

such a demand, we might relieve an unlimited number ot cases of d< 
and assist materially in lightening the burden ot the Red Cross and other 
relief societies, and even of governments. Everyone must have a chance to 
live, and we must learn to help more than everbef ore those who have l>ecn made 
helpless. The decoration of a woman's hat might become an insignia of noble 
service instead of a disgraceful badge of perverted vanity . Shall we redeem the 



The Audubon Societies 24J 

past by renouncing forever the traffic in bird's, plumage and by substituting for 
a ill bring hope as well as financial return to thousands who 
1 our assistant 
One further matter is urgent, and that is the training of nature -study 
icrs. Aside from the fact that many teachers have gone into govcrnm< 

is an hCNMbg need for well-trained instructors in nature 
More than ever, the appeal of Nature cOflKi now as a source of stable, 
and sure comfort. In our preset ought condition, everyone needs 

r and healthful influences of outdoor life and associations. 
It will l»e wise, therefore, to make provinioa for thi> need by assisting teachers 
ke special training in bird- and nature >tu«ly work. Realizing this need, 
ummer schools are offering uncurtailed courses, in the face of 
large deficits. Will our State Audubon Societies not take up this matter and 
tabic teachers to attend these schools? 
■n has been made I i rimrid BOfl l»e overlooked. 

A. II f 

JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 

Kxercisc XXXIX: Correlated with Home Gardening, Civics, History 

and Field Observation 

1 quaint old volume entitled 'Annals of Salem.' t here are many references 
inga sufficient mpprjf of tood raised to save the pioneer 
population from distress in the early days when our country comprised l»ut a 
■«• of seaboard colonies along the bleak Atlantic. Governor I 

■!i -missing Court until 
Men's labour is precious here in corn setting time, the 
irtg yet so wen. 
-tame so scarce, owing to (need pest*, frosts, and drought*, that 
'•many families m most towns had none to eat. hut ««r- li\e of clams, 

cataos, dry fial those early day* the raising of wheat was an 

•mem, although the annalist observes that Massachusetts promised to 
become a wheat-growing colony. Then, as now, in times of food-shortage, 
in selfishness was on the alert for gain, and l>encvolcncc cast int oth« liack- 
he ignoble profiteer was not an uncommon member of sodi 
luirreb were said to "devour the corn exceedit tnention 

seems ide of Crows. Some of the farmers dug trenches around their 

fields t the corn, and more especially, wheat and barley, from ravage* 

of cankerworms. Under date of July 10. 1770, cankerw o r ms were extensively 
oestri, ating houses, rooms, and bed* l> hinder this an- 

noyance, houses were tat vera! decades earlier, the Bishop of Uusanne 



344 Bird -Lore 

"gravely pronounced sentence of excommunication against the multitudes of 
caterpillar* which desolated his diocese/' The annals I 
countrymen have belie ich means as efficacious. They have devised 

to destroy them ail they could and then war liaappear- 



There was a general impression that cankerworms ran out in seven years. 
At any rate bail numbers were smaller," a 

bod. 

So destructive were some of these pests that fasts were held from time to 
un account of caterpillars and "palmer wor imlwrs of 

these insect foes were alarmingly great seems evident from the i 
of those who journeyed from one locality to anoth- 

for exaggerated descriptions, it is hardly likely that anyone would ■ 
l summer multitudes of flying caterpillars arose >c ground and 

from roots of corn, making such a noyse in the aire, that tia peak 

loud to bear one another, yet they only seazed u|x»n the trees in the wilderness," 
unless great numbers of locusts were pre- 

The struggles of our forefathers to establish an adequate and increasing 
food-supply, we, in our day and generation, shall never be a alizc. 

Without proper and time-sa\ing implement*, or suffici< ■erial, 

and probably with very little if any idea of intensive cultivation, tl 
in productive agriculture were rigorous and more often than not, unrcwar 
How ample to them would seem the food-supply of to-day, and how simple and 
easy the requirements for food-conservation laid down I wise 

administrators! 

It Is interesting to find references to nesting and trans in these 

forgotten annab of olden times I ountess of Lincoln in 

Governor Dudley said: "Upon the 8 of March from after it was faire fla- 
unt ill about 8 of the clock in the forenoon, there flew over all the towns i 
plantacons aoe many flocks of doves, each flock conteyning m >ands 

and some soe many that they obscured the light, that passeth credit, 
the truth should bee written." Doubtless the "doves" mentioned were Pas- 
senger Pigeons, lost to us and to all who come after us. The migration of 
birds was little understood in those early days, so it is not surprising that the 
appearance of such large flocks of Pigeons was though- nd some great 

event. 

Boar great the changes are that have come to our land since its pi< 
settlement, we can grasp more clearly by studying graphic chart- read- 

ing statistics. In the editorial of this number "Awake to the limes," 

is a suggestive outline by means of which fairly accurate comparisons of pres- 
ent conditions can be made. When you have a general idea of these conditions, 
a mental picture, as it were, of the resources of your home state and adjoining 
states, add to it, from a study of early American history, such facts as will show 



The Audubon Societies >45 

Togress made in agriculture, horticulture, (arming, forestry and the con- 

ol natural and cultivated resources. Some very startling discoveries 

n the course of this study and some very hopeful signs. We have 

reached a |*»int now, where everyone**. «lut> is to become well informed as to 

ea of the world's food-supply, and measures to increase and conserve 

SUOOESTIONS 

I ook up i be meaning of iiotkrrmal mod issayrss/. 

' «»n»ull the Centur) Dictionar) under the words sWssrr and se/sser-eww 

!c uruler Jod i :4 aini a :rs, also Amos 4:9. for further references to 

(■i.m.t uorm> 

mtid metht What harm docs it do to apple trees in June? What 
m? 

rm molk and **«r (aection 6, cut of 
common yellow boat tmctk in its larval stage). 

most common insect pests o( our garden* and grain field*, learn whet h«-r 
indigenous) or introduced, and, also, what spedes of birds destroy them, 
grains are native and which are introduced? 

I of unusual value and usefulness in the United States? 

•wing lesson on the Blue Jay is an admirable outline to take up at 

this season - ■• Lir ICMQm have- p uc rfwl thi> and it would bo well to refer t.» 

again as well as to work out some lessons of your own. With the bulletins 

h are available through the federal and state Departments of Agriculture, 

no one need be at a loss to determine the common insect pests of this cou 

a special effort to correlate bird- >dy of insects and 

lay every home-gardener succeed this season and every home- 
garden yield a store of knowledge as well as of food !— A 1 1 \\ 



Suggestive Lessons in Bird-Study 
THE BLUE JAY 

By WttXIAM OOULD VINAL 

til KSMW I.U..1 S..tm.l Vkanl 

1. FIELD OBSERVATIONS 

There b only one practical use to which you can put these suggestions. Make them 

1 rsions. nc>< -r individuals and assail group* 

■>e should try to lea. h • hat he docs not know, but there u a groat deal about a 

Blue Jay that one can hr> spirit before the lesson, and a single 

•e woods of autumn or winter will g> >>e Blue Jay is a permanent 

resident You ought t» hear his notes ring through the silence of the October I 

' »t ill and sec if yon can discover his b usi n ess. 

what sort of a U sJHj do yon discover him* 
I >escfibe Ins method of flight 
•oea be walk or nop? 
What doss he tat? 



*40 Bird -Lore 

Bi 1 .! •• . other I 

1 1 1 doc* 1 he Jay break off at 
II does he open the ac« 
S. Where doea be hide the aroma? 

I Bird*' nests are more easily found in winter than in »ummrr. and th 
time in *iudy them, aa one can id observe the r 

ihr tenant* 1 

Where do you nod I be Blue J a 
10. In what kind of a t 
11 How nig! the ground? 

t in the Iree, on a b- 

hal material is it M 
« the material arran. 
■ hat holds the neat toge- 

In the api > find a Blue Jay building hi» hon 

work at the nest building? 
18. When do they commence to build their 1 
iq. How doea the Jay get twigs? 
.•o Where are the twigs obtained and how • he neat? 

i« a kind of n.. icr* from moat school studies in lh. t ' .tines 

right at the beginning of the su' 
it gives the child an experience of his own. He has v.mething int. 

\t really the only kind of a sul it It 

gives him an opportunity for self -expression, something diftV 
method by which someone else's ideas are repeated. !>o not let him 
glasses or stuff . his ears after be has observed these t uld be 

anting twenty seeds in a garden an<i king at them again. Some 

have bees observing the Blue Jay 1 irs or more, at 

Blue Jay sounds and tricks to bear and see. Here, again. i» the difl 

and nature study. A lest in 1 1 >ly. but it 

opening the way for a lifelong examination, besides being a great deal more fun. I 
latter method, one's failures are not proclaimed, and hJasncceieri are a point taped, 
for other subj« 

2. BLUB JAY EXPERIENCES. A Character Stu 

As I do not know the Blue J nces of other people. I shall h . 

mine. They started on a farm it lass. The Blue Jays 

corn, and that was an unpardonable sin on the farm. There arc 1 

tory of whiih I will simply give the tit n the 

Bush >ns of the Blue Jay> (all. A Dead Blue Jay. This paragraph wo. 

have to be writ ten bad I been given the opport unities that boys and girls ha\ • 
tudy. 

Right here I want to say that I do not belittle the opportunities of the farm. One has 
to *n<nr tkimgt to succeed on the farm. He muit plant, harvest, prepare, and u 
the city it i« a little money, a store, and a car 

share in the experience of the great out-of-doors, he only needs to the parks 

and use his senses. Thus be may acquire some real knowledge by observation, a funda- 
mental principle in educat 

Aa a farmer-boy I knew the Blue Jay. his haunts and his failings, and 



The Audubon Societies 247 

to in sal I needed was • teacher, someone to organise, direct, and guide (not 

The next notable Blue Jay experience that I recall was when I had a dass on a field- 

to a field to watch *«>me Purple Crackle*. One of the Crackle* flew to a 

of a white grub which be had excavated from the ground. Just as 

e landed, a Blue Jay flew down, snatched the grub, and flew to another 

••weeded to beat the worm against the tree. When this juicy morsel had 

been devoured, the Jay flew again, this time to where its nest was located. This whole 

re was run off in about two minute* The incident showed the thieving insl 

' at the same time his fondness for grubs. We had bis character 

nutshefl. 

Th« is also a big tease, at times a bully. The house across the street has a 

r along the side of the lawn. One day in the fall we saw a cat sitting peace- 

x-r ledge of the feme. Suddenly, two Blue Jays appeared on the scene. 




A Kg 

ru t egmaas d ay Mr Vaa u \ts*l 

■ nd perched three or lour feet away (mm titn. 
ing down at it. being perhaps within a foot abovr if \»*n\ «*< 

bit shaded the Im.r \..w and then th. I 

tnance seemed to be a game, and was seen at two different times and seven 

September *ent .»n .. -w Brunswick It was a 'cane 

more (un than shooting with • gun The cruise led Iwi 
rami house and settlement, right into the woods 00 the bondwatt 
n at an old a b a n doned lumber cam, 
gavon on* day. we cooked our noon meal at the ju 
reams. From our torn meal allowance we had made some bano.- 
tidered rather valuab < provisions on our backs, carryi« 



:*s Bird -Lore 

for a week which b quite a lux. I had forded one of the streams to g< 
the fire, and, upon turning toward the place where our provisions were spread 
saw a bird making away with our golden bannock. I decided that r as good to 

the bird as it did to me. he would return, m> I hit! in t he tall grass and focuaeed my earners 
on a tin cup which held the disputed food. I did not have to wait long before be 
hack. Without following even woodsman et. <l m ee snm 

stand on the rim of the cup, which upset both of our plans, blurring t h 
to make Suih little unexpected or unplanned incidents, however, only add • 
ment. This was the first time that I had ever seen the I 1 remember' 

re and knew that it was the Canada Jay. On return 
learned that the lumbermen call it the Moosc-bi- .tiled Meat 

Hawk hiskey-Jaik kmnimii ^uw Wis* 

n. was probabh and then 

Many of the strange noises we beard in « amp. near sundow 
bears or wildcats but the Moose-bird. We later made friends at camp. I would place 
bait oo one of the lumber-camp stools and sit eight feet away on an -hoot 

with the camera. As the picture shows, the bird had no fear of tl. 
ate a little and then would carry off a large piece. He gave a sort of whining tone as he 
returned from one tree and then aaotlm 

king up an acquaintance with city Blue Jays is easier than one would suppose. 
l^ut spring one sunflower seed was planted near our grape-arbor. Jays came 

regularly to get the sunflower seeds. To take a i .rape 

arbor and had a thread leading into the bouse. When the Jays came I pulled the thread. 
year we plan to have a row of sunflowers by the arbor for the Hlue Ji 
My last experience was in a Providence park, while tai 

An old gate was used for a ladder, and after I had climbed up int a Jay 

came and perched overhead. Soon I saw another Jay 
Jays had a sort of military bearing, with their blue uniforms, whi 

The patrol of the branches, however, was more alert than his mate below, and 
I waa not called upon to explain my presence in the tree. 

3. BLUE JAY ECONOMICS. Debit and Credit Acco 

My early impression of Jay morals was that they were not as 'true blue' u 
dress. I am not so sure now but what the Jay had a right to some of the 

res a Jay sucking an egg and » have seen it go its re 

a not I lay, and suck the newly laid eggs." Barrows, b< higan 

ays that these robberies are r. particular Jays and are not general. 

-.' says that "Jays eat the cgg» 
;>illar moth and the larva- of the gipsy moth and other hairy caterpillar- II' 
concludes that it should not be allow ma at the expense of smaller birds 

I the bulletin entitled. The blue Jay and its Food' (published b> 
rtment of Agriculture), says: "Jays do not eat the seeds of the poison 
r*4it«nt) or poison sumac (Rhus serai'*)." The Blue Jay helps in forest a 
aeeds of various trees, such as nuts and the like. Thus, on the whole, and aside from the 
ment we get from his beautiful color, his neighborliness an. II, we may- 

say that there is a great deal to be added to his credit account, and that he i» a good 
I to man. 

4 THE BLUE JAY IN LITERATURE 



«|o 



lo the different poets tell us about the Blue Jay? 

ppreciate what they write if you had not heard and seen the 



The Audubon Societies 249 

>rds that <Icm nl>r him. 
Thi* i» what a few writer* think the Jay says: 

tly. 
' tydjay, let-ar tet-tr leerr, toovkredU loo-tckffd.- whi< h Mfl 
the creaking of a wheelbarrow. 
Matthews: J-44-yj-*a-y. t fr *llup, gr rul lup, h'lthho. 
ids: Whtf-irkefo- «•»«•<•<• 

• • > lie. 

■.1 ur Jay, 

.•I in blue with soow-white trimmin. 

I n\k lt>LL«S. 
Hlue Jay 

lows the trumpet of win! 

— Th-ih 
■ie brazen trump of the impatient }a 

— Ti 
Kobin and the Wren arc flown, but from the *hrub the Jay, 
I from the wood-top ralU the (row through all th< 

— It 

iriMilliol ar»h purloined. 
The Jay screams ho.i 

— GlSBOKNE. 

who makes his native wood 
md his screaming, harsh and rude, 

i*l y the season through, 
eh scarce hi* painted wing you'll I 
sable barred, and white and grey, 

— Bishop Mant. 



FOR AND FROM ADULT AND YOUNG 
OBSERVERS 

COMMUNICATION FROM CANADA 

Would you awe to hear from a rural school in OBtario vfcfch, though a 
rum the I Mate*, got into tDUCh with the WluU.n 

AMoriation and has now a very interesting Jul abon Sot k 

W( gan our meetings in the spring of 1916, using the leaflet supi 

lassroom og .-ur own I <b when time and 

went working outside. All the puptli in the school who wrr. 

enough (twenty-six) became members, but we had a faithful and ml cresting 
imong the younger pupils. 

we held a meeting in our classroom, to w \m h |iarenls and friends 
The room was decorate! with evergreens, binl house*, a collec- 
tion of nests made in the late fall, and our colored bird pictures. 



2$o Bird - Lort 

The program consisted of solos and duets, both vocal i >tal, 

choruses, readings, and an address by our president (a boy of thil 
ing the nature of on and the work covered. Several pupils had colored 

the drawings provided with the leaflets, and prizes were given pul 
the ihree best. 

The parents and friends have, as a result, taken more interest in us ami 
.subjects of our »t li- 
vable than those* ious 
year, and we are planning a public meeting for this coming spi 
feel sure will add to the interest taken in our feathered friends. 

As teacher of the school I very much appreciate Bikd-Lork. The 
fad it m<»st interesting. AMELIA Leas, Courtke, OtUtir 

(The writer of this admirable report says: "In many ways I feel a 
Association (Audubon) and Us ideals, but h«>|»c to become better ««quair> 
dose of 1918." It baa been suggested before in thi» Department that an ■ 

rigs and reports of work and common interest* of study bet n tUa 

country and other countries would be helpful and especially stimulal 
Junior Audubon Society in the United States • orrespon the school 

\ H W.| 

NESTLING CHIPPING SPARROWS 

Some Chippy Sparrows built their nest in a potted 
and a few weeks ago they flew from the neat It was in the m o rning, and as I 
walked past their nest out they flopped. 

I was afraid they would be hi en killed but they were not I 

sat down to watch them. One of them hopped up into my lap and as it sea 
so tame I had its picture taken with the other two. There s . but 

we could not tind the other one. The one that sat on my finger was so tame 
that 1 could feed it bits of bread 

When I went in I set it down in the shade of a bush, and when I came 
back it was gone.— Helen Grew. 

(It b characteristic of many young nestling 
disturbance will cause them to spring prematurely out of the n< 
an extreme return them to thci 

oait to plarc the nestlings where the parents can easily find and fret! them. A young 
Baltimore Oriole waa picked up and brought to the writ 

a distance from the place where it was found, it was returned to a bough near Um 
where it was first discovered and after twenty minutes ol ig" on the 

Utile orphan, the male bird arrived with food \ II 

INTERESTING IXPaUUEMC 

I thought that you might be interested to know how a female Red-eyed 
Vireo once proved to me her courage and devoti- 

I was out one afternoon with a party, assembled for the purpose • 



The Audubon Societies 

ing birds, when we ran across the Vireo's nest, about ti\ >m the ground 

We moved a little closer, and focused our glasses upon the 
sad there she was sitting upon the nest The leader of the party moved 
still farther toward the tree, and although he did not wish to frighten or dis- 
turb I id want to test her courage. I do not believe that he was more 
than ' a her before she flew away. Her courage, in my mind. 
was remarkable, and the sense of dut >he showed in guarding and ear- 
ing for those eggs is a good lesson by which human beings may profit . 

■vitnessed a sight about which I have often read. 
4 the party aU»ut which I have just spoken called m 
■ ■ • a female Oven-bird in the grass near where we stood. Upon approach- 
ing she flew away, keeping about a foot from the ground and spreading her 
wing while she did so. I was then informed that she was making out to 
» that we should follow her and so draw our attention from her 
young ones. Sure enough, there were the yOQBg l>ird> in the grass, wil 
leathers on. 

It te such in< idents as these, and I think that one can 

I birds with ■ bird-beta. I aaapiy purchased 
a large, inexpensive pan, and put it in a place which I had dug in the ground 
I sprinkled a little gravd in the pottoea, put a few stones around 
lgc, and tilled it with water. I had tixed the pan so that one end was 
shallower I observed the birds bathing in it. They would 

ily hop first upon the stones on the edge, and then, gradually becom- 
ing more courageous, they would plunge into the water. It is very amusing 
ilarly large Robin takes a very long bath and uses the whole 
plashing about, w ■ or five smaller birds are impatiently waiting 

on the edge for this most important individual to (ornpltte its toilet. — 
U \\ II 

>« always a pleasure to receive observation* which have been made at tint-hand 
la the true spirit neeraing the fear of brooding bird* j4ain* 

to us in hi nudity ami 

pi through whfa i paiwal birds paaa while nesting. la studying the habits of birds 
rb birds which are seal or which are just be- 

ginning to br... as they b eco ssw more attached to the seat and eggs, they 

usually show Icm frar \ M \\ 



SLATE-COLORED JUNCO 

By T. OtLBBRT PBABBOH 

d)f .National Hasoctatton of clububon >ocirtirs 

EDUCATIONAL LIAFLET NO. W 

H|H ug of autumn brings many changes in 

H tlul.ir.) I he Orioles and Tanagers depart. 

rMers leave a I* of 

H summer disappear. 
D comes 
^ . Sparrow, the Sapsucker, and othei 

i the North. Among these nc% 
_^8bI ^^^^^ m ,„,, , nt . IiiM t(1 ap|K-ar. is tin- Slate-colored 
^^M^ Juno In thousands of dooryards they are 

^^^^ rarely seen until the first fall of snow. Upon 

looking out of the window some 
may see a dozen or more lit 1 1 « 
in the shrubbery or hopping around the door 
looking for seeds or stray crumb* 
^™ birds have this hali t at times, but 
ing signs you may know the J unco: 

b very nearly the size of an English Sparrow, with this difference 
b not so large and its tail is slightly longer. Its general color is dark 
except the belly, which is * <• bill is flesh-color, and when it flies ■ 

feathers are shown at the sides of the tail. This description fits no •• 
Bear these points in mind, and you cannot miss recognizing the Junco wh< 
come sou. 

Thai little bird of the winter has many friends. Coming as it does at a 
season when other birds are few, and visiting the dooryard, a 
does, there is small wonder that -eopte know it and hail with pleasure 

its appearance from year to year. 'Snowbird' it b often called. 

After the summer birds, and the migrants that are with us on 
have departed, and the bird-life has settled down to the usual scant a 
population, thejuncos appear more in evidence than wl I late 

; .tembcr. Then you will find them associated in flocks numbering froi 
fty or more along the roadside skirted by thickets or in overgrown fence 
corners. Fields grown up in shrubbery and the borders of woodlands are also 
favorite haunts for these small winter neighbors. Here you will see them hop- 
ping about on the ground or alighting on limbs or stakes. Always they seem 
to be in such places that upon the call of danger they can dart, by a short 
flight, into the friendly cover of shrubbery or trees. 

(*s») 




JJ jj*v<-fc M»*. 



SLAT* 



ONh-Fmmiii 



Slate-colored J unco 253 

As they feed they continually utter quiet little notes of contentment, wl. 
upon being alarmed, change to sharp hissing sounds that I have known people 
at were caused by the bird snapping its bill 

Is that spend the winter where snows fall, there come times when 

these J uncos are hard pressed for food, and probably never a winter panes 

>ut many of them dying from exposure and lack of food. Thus one may see 

good reason exists why people should put food where they can readily 

I hese birds will often eat bread-crumbs, but small seeds are what they 

he kind of bird seed one may buy at a store is good for hungry J uncos, 

<eds raised in the garden will answer the purpose just as well. I will name 

some of them: sunflower seeds, poppy seeds, millet, oats, cracked wheat, and 

>rn will readily be taken by them. A little trouble and a very little 

nst is all that is necessary to tide the Juncoa through a time of famine and 

e and well until Utter time> an 

borne in mind that all small birds are in constant danger of be- 
ing captured and killed by Hawks, Owls, cats, and other creatures that 
upon A hen weak from lack of food, the little Junco is in poor condition 

to escape its enemies. I recall one February when snow fell heavily for two or 
•lays ami was followed by asleet that left a cr he topof the snow; 

also it broke down and buried the weed-stalks whiih -till held re of 

seeds. Throughout the whole country there was practically no food for the 

e evening, upon returning late to the house, I caught -ivrtit of a small l»inl 

t he top of one of the pillars supporting the wide veranda 

. home. On the lit tU- | perhaps three inches wide and 

the wind, it crouched down to spend the night. An hour lata I came 

out v. t and approached close enough to sec that m \ -little visitor was a 

put some cracked wheat on the wide veranda railing dose by and 

hope. I would find it when it awoke in the morning, but the wind in- 

creaw - nee and more sleet fell during the night, so I am sure not a grain 

visitor when be opened his eyes at daylight. 

o chanced that the next evening, just as I came up the steps, the Junco 

ted on the veranda railing and attempted to fly up to the top of the pillar, 

it was now so weak that it was unable to gain its perch, and fell to the floor. 

ujusly I advanced, thinking to secure the bird and feed it m the house. 

he yard, however, and was soon lost in tome low shrubbery. The 

morning it* feathers were scattered over the veranda. A cat had caught it 

rough t it there to eat. 

vibon, writing of the Junco as be kne uisiana, said: 

..iw-birds live in Utile families consisting of twentN 

duals, they seem always inclined to keep up a certain degree of 

imong themselves, and will not suffer one of their kind, or indeed any 

other bird, to come into immediate contact with them. To prevent intrusions 



114 



Bird -Lore 



01 iiu* Kino, wnen a himht tttbtt ioo near, incir iimc oius arc ihm- 
opened, their wings arc extcn<lc<l. ih> 

« Uing tound |Kt ulur t«> themselves on such occasions. 

I hey are aware of the advantages to be d< ' 
scratching the earth, and in some degree keep con 

rys, and I the |>urj*>se 

animals may deem beneath the r tnore easily observ i 

those which frequent the farm-yards, where the domestic fowl- i s r ular 

purveyors to them. The report of a gun, or the ui 




causes the little flock to rise and perch, either on the fences or on an 
tree, where, however, they remain only for a few minutes, aft 

I heir avocatioi are particularly fond of grass-seeds, t 

which th« <ap up fan nd and dexterously sei, 

jmniil«-> 

is a true hopping bird, and perfon tit- leaps wit! 

appearance of moving either feet or legs, in wh . | t ce cuib* 1 

Sparrows. Another of its habits, also indicative of affinity to theae 
its resorting at night, during cold weather, t<> stacks of corn or h 
forms a hole that affords a snug retreat during the continuance of such wet 
or its recurrence through the winter. In fine weather, however, it ] 
evergreen foliage of the holly, the cedar, or low pines, among w 
Its flight b easy, and as spring approaches, the males chase each • wing, 



Slate-colored J unco 255 

U being lulls expanded, tin white ami black colours displayed 
m then preset e remarkable contrast 

migration of these birds i> performed by night, as they are seen in a 
ud have disappeared the m >now- 

»na, hut may be followed, as the season 
eating towards the mountains of the middle <hetr* ta, whirr 1 
and bra I 
ir the close of Audubon's narrative he makes this significant statenv 
r flesh is ( delicate lad juicy, and on this account small strings 

ten in the New Orleans market, daring the short period 

Of their sojourn in that dtstl 

irse, was written many years before the AuduUm 1-aw, which 
Is, was ei ia. 

J unco passes the winter in t hroughout eastern Unite* I 

>rn the GuH of Mexico 00 the south tO southern Canada 0B the north 

ttitisdistribul iDyfron] I northward thnraghool 

west as Alaska. They also breed in the upper parts of the Cats- 
kill Mountains and along the ridge of the Appalachian Mountain- tooth t.» 
^ia. On many of the mountains of w< Worth Carolina I have found 

these birds a most abundant species in summer. In fact on KBM of the MOW 
tains one may en> nore Snowbirds on a day's tramp than all other 

*|>ccic* combined. Muebefffa i are very common in these mountains, and in 
sumi Snowbird varies its usual di< hi with theac wild fruits. 

1 depression in the grand, often on the side of some 
g the mingled roots and sod of an upturned tree. If, du 
the summer, one comes upon a J th a little worm <>r the larva? of some 

insect in its bill, he need only wait a few minutes and the bird a ill probably be- 
••st by going to feed its young. I ha bad this experiem 

I's nest has been, for me, one of the easiest to 
iastai watchng the bildl going to it. The nest itself is 

usually well hidden, and the small amount of dried grass and moss of whii h it 
is composed blends so well with the surroundings that one would hardly expect 
idle with c speckled eggs or young, 

pring the J unco has a song. It is not very loud and is not very long, 
■ . as one usually does, when few other birds a | voice to 

rakes a strong appeal to the ear of the bird lover, 
tc-coloral J unco (J unco kyematis) is the common Junto with wfc 
lieople are acquainted In the southern Alleghany Mountains, and breed- 
ing as far south as northern Georgia, there b a race of Juncos (J. h. caniimmtis) 
> slightly larger and its markings are a little from the common 

other ra- ntana Junto {J. h. numlanms) , \s \ou 

I unuins, breeding from southern Alberta to Idaho and panning the 
is, ami Mexico, 



Cfje Hubufjon Societies; 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

I4M*4terT.OtLBS8TPmASSON.a«cr«tftry 



* mmmbm 



Fft ftMUC A- Loc Aa . Attimt tmUmt 

t lWMi S. Pauibs. P«ril YH-r**tid—t J- »»!■»» bwioar. /ft.. T tm m hw 
Sauckl T. Cams*. J«-. Ammwty 

y la •ymp.tby vita tbeobjtcti of (hi. Aeftadatloa aajr 

Ufao*! Aftftorlftltnft of Aadaboa Sodotlaft far tat Pro««t«. of WU 

io for • I 





Pom o« BftQCftftt — I da korabr Jp>t ftad boqooftta to Um N'«tio«*l Ao ncfad ftft of Aodaboo 
iotiftft toe tte Protoctioo of Wse Bkoft sad AaUftte (UoorporsUd). of iIm City «, 



ran be car- Ml »umn 

n formally received and fthown about 

the work, residing for the season at thr 
Audubon I i 
This season. Mr J 

will rrtiiM-n th- 

June i. for thr 

will alto be open, at a urn 

per day for room and boar- 

. «;ni;!i in- i! V '(• \ i-l ilx.n llou«r arc 
. ■ -!!••. tsMM tti MOWIt- r-l .iti-l 



A SUMMKK OUTING FOR BIRD-STUDY 

Our reader* have noted, from time t a» headquarters, and has equ 

time, mention* of the progress of our new 
riment Station in applied ornithology 
research » 
conducted in »■ rotncfJag, and 

increasing wild birds, and in the propaga- 
lion of the so-called game specie* and wild 

timer, further i 
ment will Ik- tried, a comln 
tional and recreational tinea. 

TbJs great estate, owned ea M. 

Ams, and representing an investment of 
ti <l<.llar», covers 
three square miles of beautiful coun I 
charming glacial lake over a mile long, with 
good boating, bathing, and fishing 

varied and abundant Many bird 
boxes are occupied by bluebird* 
Swallows, Wrens, and other species. I 
U a convenient breeding colony of thr 
rather rare H endow* Sparrow near one of 
Bank Swallow*. Herons and wild I 
frequent the lake, and last summer 
was on the latter an old white-headed Bald 
Kagle. 

Ants, who is a 'her of the 

Association, and i» willing to share thr 
pleasure of his estate with the reputable 
fraternity of bird-lover*, baa given to 
the Association the use of the Audubon 



to make use of these and 
Audubon li 

poses. Work in attra<ting bird 
breeding and rearin. ids of 

game-bird* will be under way. I 
fowl pond, with some fifteen spede* 
unusual opportunit) 

■ 
at the Inn are welcome, and will he fthown 
the *> 

Beginning on Saturday. Jul 
finite Summer School session will 
with cUftftc* and evening lectures by 
spcdaluts. The formal i rati an will con- 



(*S6) 



The Audubon Societies 



and tirl.i photography 

ar«e will be nude, ui 
form (or all. and students may Ul 
or alt the course*, and be admitted m I 
further charge • urea. The Inn 



simple .ui"l un|>rrtrnti«>uv the- rt»>m» »mall. 
hut everything it freah and neat, and the 
food is good. A prospectus with full 
will be furnished on application, either to 
I (roadway 
Job at Weal Haven. 



STINKING LAKE A BIRD SANCTUARY 



■ 1 the killing ol 
linking Lake, and thus make of 
as been wi 
ing Lake is located in northern 
.1. for hundreds ol mil' 
probably do region < 
that harbors such a large number of breed - 

i unities for gunners in autumn. 

car* ago the United States 
bureau of Biological Survey sent a repre- 

<•. and 
the question at that time was brought up 
of making it a I nil. Ur.il Mir. I 

. atioa uadcr the car* .-part- 

meat of Agriculture. This was found in 
expedient for the reason that the lake lay 
ndaries of the Jicarilla- 
lian Reservation, and the 
was not a part of the frr. .main 

\ at ions have always 

fall thr matter waa brought to a 

■ imrSan. ; 

>m the Indian Servic. 
hooting privilege* M BttoMaa 
rt urn or they offered 

4WBV 



-ail b 



■ 







writer, after entering a protest with 
the Interior l>c|>artmcnt and rcteiviag 
no aati • sponse. went to \\ ashing- 

ton and had a conference with Mr. 
I \ ogdsang. Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Interior, and the official who 
has oversight of several branches of the 
Interior licpartmcnt wor» ng the 

Indian him was submitted 

a request that the lake be not leased, 
an<l that, using his authority, he should 
bit all sh<» he lake. It was 

r. that he had been so 
thoroughl> ml philanthropic 

intentions of these Colorado sportsmen 
that he had already given his coos« 
the leasing of the lake to them. 

nded visit, during ■ 
ti facts, with which he was more or 
less unfan. drawn to his alien 

lion, be readily agreed to reopen the esse. 
Later, he stated that, upon reflection, he 
hanged Us former position In the 
matter, and, as requested by the Audubon 
Association, would in future allow no 
to shoot oa thi* asked 

the writer to make suggestions retail 

easoa aad bag-limit, which the 
i 

regarding shooting on other small bodies 
I boundaries of this 
Indian Reservation This request was. 
of coarse, promptly complied with. 

to be brought to bear oa the ln< 

m the West. The JkariUa 

utuary Association seal a 

rrt.fOM-ntat.vc from I oU.ra.lo on al lea.t 

two occasions to plead iheir cause The 

M Warden and another 
offsets! from New Mexico visited Wash 



•sfl 



Bird -Lore 



i ag too «nd worked toward the 
end 

Oa March jq. if was filed 

• ith the Indian Serviic the followinit 
memorandum 

UHEBBAS. The Ji.anlb V 
Sanctuary Association has »ulimitted lu 
the Bureau id Indian Affair* a proponed 
king Las. 

\\ hebbas, i 
against the granting of said lease; and. 

uebeas. Pending the contra 
which has arisen, no a< 
tskea by said bureau relai i 

ir.»»As. an adjustment and 
promise has been reached by all int. 
heretofore opposed to the grant 
lease, and concerned therewith, and. 

II I. Hall. 

duly authorised reprrx 

and. 
hebbas, The undersigned Theodore 
Koua . 

authorised 
r epr ese ntative of the New ,\|. 

I'ri'lti 1 1 \ «• \>>«kuIiciIi anil 

in i» the dul\ 
. .it... n/.-i inmimailiiii i of the I 






ion is most can 

ictr.l 



TfeBOOOnJ k<a ai it. Jk " 

irments ■ 
in at least one particular, as the National 
Association of Audubon Societies had not 
withdrawn its opposition, and these g. 
men were so informed. 

m came to New York for a 
conference with the writer in the hope that 
the one remaining obstacle might be re- 
moved. He proved to be a very broad- 
minded gentleman, greatly interested in 
conservation, and in the end stated that if 
he ennJd not »r. ;rr tin* ...n.c*»i..n bawl 



•vernment hr ng t.. 

»rd the maintensii 
the warden which the Audubon Associa- 
tion hopes soon to see placed < 
Lake. 

> the end came speadfly 

■ ni ssio ner of Indian Affair*, 
under date of M he fol 

lowing letti 



My 4 


furtl 

ry Aasoci 

iblishinK' s shooting 
«g Lake, on tl. 


ivc careful 
and, in view of 




t advi 
















taker. 





tng pi 



iws: 



l/v d< 






h.it N« 



WJBB "t eTBBting a |m •• 

privilege »f establishing ssh«»ot 

! ■ 

onsidered, >■ beei 

• sted bj 



In view of 

it ad visa hi 

>>n this lake, and ;• 
i tat all sh. 
whites or Indians, ant 

ise every precaution 
ruling. 

You are hereby autb- 
responsible par 
privileges on other Ukn on the ■ 

law as to the se.. -.ami 

• ■ State La 
to the bag-limit 

nod advi*. 

nisea. 
In this connection you are request 
submit your views and recommend 



The Audubon Sock 



*59 



toll u 






•i b 



■ 

u« ted above. 

: mm. 



1 \ ...-. 

The Biological helpful in 

re, already has a man on the 

[round trapping • latory animals 



are injurious lo the breeding wild 
fowl and will. this summer, have a man 
eating further the I the 

r. k 'i.»n 

king l-.ikr i% now a bird sanctuary 
and b the only one of the lirM importance 
■ vast area of our southwestern 
country. Its value as a breeding- pl.t 

and as a haven of refuge for them 
during migration can hardly be 



A BIRD HOSPITAL 

By DR. W W. ARNOLD 



■ number of > cars my attention has 
been direi I e targe numbers of 

maimed bird* e\cr procnt here in Colorado 
Springs, and greatly augmented after the 
migrator) waves of bird life in the spring- 
time and early autumn. That it was 
<l to these un- 
fortunates a rescuing hand did not grasp 
say mind until one day a tender-hearted 
lassie brought to me a Nighthawk with a 
<1 with tearful voice shot 
at me the question can't you 

•ken wing well just 
n arms of the littlr 
boys and girU'" I hi« <>|>enc.l a doot Into a 
i 'rid in which I have now been 

< ars, deluged with delights 
•irprbes foreign to 01 

•nystery of eternal yout h. 
<»mmodious aviary was er< 

p u rposes of a general 
hospital, wherr the atrial voyagers, 

»me unfortunate accident, 
>derly as though so 



numerou 

>d happiness of mar 

of the hospital, ar 

pair processes arc completed. 
nate relationship rsUhHshsd 



with ! 

irious dis. 
phases and secrets of bird lib- obtainable 
in no other way and flashing with constant 

varieties of feathered pat 
brought to the hospital represent about all 
the bird families of the Pikes Peak region. 




UgADBD GftOSggAK 



found in summer a n<< >m the rare 

mmingbird. the 
coesm <t of the region. 

kg Raven and Golden Eagle. 

cry satisfactory percentage of the 
Is recover and are .mi back 




WESTERN MEADOWLAXE 
GwMfcot woaad of viae Rccotrrtd 




ONE DAY'S WORK BV THE V 



(»6o> 



do-ev jf imvw*.*.Y 



j-*+ J 97- 



I MMINUBIRD. THIRD RECORD FOR COLORADO I II K 
8MALLBS1 I'M U.M 










Bird - Lore 



heir native h* uiw their 

blessed sets half of their greatest 

enemy — man 

The task of collcrtinK the unfortunate 
cripple* i» gladly iMumni by the | hildren 
of the city and adjacent region*, wh- 
in the hospital r\cr> disabled feathered 
brother found. I endeavor to show my 
>n of lhe*e humane 

k- the school*, taking with me tome 
of the recovered patient*, and recounting 
their 1 
impressing upon the hearts of the ch 

nendous interest in ml a 

burning <; .n. 

tful work 
naturally bring* I act with the lost 

darling* of the home n«l in the spring and 
summer, so an orphanage wa* demanded 
and provided, where scores of fledglings 

nderly cared for during the season. 
This work of rescuing injured helpless 
bird* from t he t laws and jaws of the heart- 
less cat and the preferable ending of 
ion is my rrtrtatiom, 
an antidote to an- and ha* 



proven a min 
pleasure that I am f 

in fullest measure of usefulness 

re ftbould be hundred* 

bospitah scattered "w-r .»..r ImI I Uml 

i..r ■BsOJH Of l'it«l» |K-rt»h ann u.ill ■. •:■■•• 

accidents of diii 

percentage might be restored to normal 

condition if afforded care and 

in one of these hospital*. 

t»ird hospital should I 
person familiar with min 
almost any intelligent l> 
<iui«kly become proficient in I hi 
of broken win* ai 

img the food necessary and si 
priate for the healthy susten.i 
differ. iff of feat 

■ thirty patients on hand all th< 
constantly augmented and decreased. 

ting to the seasonal movemr 
the armies of birds. 




THREE 0*t M\hv IMOEBES 






The Audubon Societies 



*J 



TO STOP THE SALE OF GAME 



it pending ia Cob- 

I he prohibition 

4 the sale of Kamr in 

olumbia. It ; r.»:hei a MKnituant '•" ' 

states of the 

n exists on the sa! 

apparent 
' hat as long as there it an open 

I 
net so long will these various game- 
lirds be hunted with the greatest energy 
»y men who. as a class, have little regard 
or game taw*, and whose desire is to make 
nancy by marketing the productt of their 

■inK the tale of game it the 
me of the most important principles 
the subject of wild-life pres- 

' he markets, much at 
I could throughout the country during 
loose days when wild Pigeons used to be 



ongremm <ms. hat been 

rented in the *uhjr< t t.< 
introduce a bill in Congress to restri< 
traffic. Kcirntly, however, Rcprcserr 
Graham, of Illinois, launched such a bill. 
Mm !. i. Mr \\ i' i 

i* persistent etT 

behalf of this measure . On April 13. 1018. 

a hearing was given on the bill before the 

rnbta Committee, Among 

who appeared in behalf of the bill 

was I N, representing the 

ial Association. Reports of what 

took place that day all indicate that the 

nittee will shortly rc|»ort the bill for 

favorable considerati 

v the question is, will it be possible 
to get it up for a vote before Congress 
adjourns. With all the war measures 
crow.i attention, there it a pos- 

sihility that it may be side-tracked until 
another session of Congress. However, 
the bill will be pushed if neressa- 
years until success comes. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA PLUMAGE LAW 



II licensed taxidermists in 
Pennsylvania, bearing the da 

'i 8, has been issued by Dr. Joseph 
nttsyivsnia 

it called to a 

1 change in the laws of that state in 

• > the aafc lumagc of 

wild birds ' old law the Preai- 

Hoard of Game Commissioners 

discretion, to permit 

in mist to sell mounted specimens of 

1 ier legally or accidentally killed 

There was also no law 

against the sale of feathers of foreign 

>«• belong! ng to ihr same 

irds protected in th. 

- vet notice that such sales, 
1 tiderrmsts or milliners, are no 

rbids the 

rrs taken from 



out qualification, so that at thit time you 

would have no right to sell, or offer to sell, 

or have in possession for sale, a Crow, or a 

Hawk, or a Hlue- Jay. or a Kingfisher, or 

1 her bird without first securing per 

mlndnn to do m President of the 

Board of Game Commissioners of Penn 

uia, and such pmnisslnn will not be 

d, except in instances whet< 

Commonwealth itself may be benefited. 

1 instance, a sale to a public museum. 

hook, or for educational 

The new law proh > the 

sale of the feathers of alt wild birdt In 

Penntylvania. The contention of l>r 

• us, txprewrt In a personal letter. 

that this plates Pennsylvania in the lead of 

stns in the Union In the matter of 

the fr> he. most 

to borne out by the fads in the 






Bird - Lore 



There was a li 
\ 

impaign to suppress the sal 
feafh< ■ inia. when thi* 

I hotbed for the wholesale millinery 
l this country that had 

>j the 
Audubon Law. Tbi» was not so many 
years ago either, and Penn»>lvania i« 

be sd 
vanced stand it has taken on thr matter 
of bird pr<> Mfl |>srt of lUf 

to the Ionic rdutational s 
us, who for nearly two decsdes has 
occupied his present posi 

the Hoard «if (iimr I 

Summer Schools lor Bird-Study 

The Ass<> II coOperslc with the 

following colleges and universities in 
presenting courses in bird-study during 
the summer of 1918: 

k rnc SoJOf, inati, 

Ohio. 

will give s lot bird- 

ies ted 
at (>.i 

will 
conduct a foi <• at the 

Summer School of the South, knoxville. 

Miss Hr 

will h 

Normal and Industrisl College. 

Hill l month. 

Miss Mary Bacor 
will give .1 ;n bird-study tl 

• orgia during the tumnwr 
session (mm July t to August 

Ralph Hubbard. Of 
a member of th< 

lorado. will gi r in bird- 

study again 

her. of th< 
• • - and Sciences, will 
tod) in the Addpht '(rook- 

lyn. during the summer session, from July 

wie r'crnebougb. of Baltimore. 
• ill give the bird-course this summer at 



the I 

Game-Law Enforcement tn New York 

with headi|uart< rig the 

present sdndnini it inn h 
wonderful work 

it b enforcing all the bird- and game 

laws. 

npttshmenl 
fully to the att< 
mouth 

g a detailed at > 
notation of th. 
the smount of tine* paid w I 

*ig tbeom 
1 qi 8. for example, we find 
154 arrests and r thr 

month. The fines paid in these cases 
amounted 1 000. 

The char he offenses included 

illegal killc i'beasants.song 

1 ring animals, and rabln 

•lating the fish laws. Those who 

traffic in the feathers of « 

In learning that the law against 
the sale of aigr 
forced, During 

First State Cat Law 

passed foe 

<gjsla- 

srording ■ statute 

•ws: 

kmntint or kiilimt 
son over thr a. 

i valid h 
(ling In rn- 

of s game protr bet peace o 

hunting or killing a; 

Isw or with a dea< 

protected by law in its poss essi on, 



The Audubon Societies 



265 



i«e» thai! be maim 
t immedUl 

Another Bird Sanctuary 

ttngton, ! 
v ears or more has been an 

xailion ai I 
oral Land Office has been 
the cstab- 
Bsnnv ' <Ute 



...!• 






nd in 



n crop whi 

•^•i«al purj*>M-%and for gut 

the battalion which savr 

m which we get the luml 

build great ship* and air-planes. 

-cen officially n 

-vernment 
lor thnr valuable aid to agriculture and 
ulture. Thi» fountain i* placed here 
■ personal recogi due." 

The fountain is made of 
It i» five feet in height, with an octagonal 
base six feet in diameter T* 
are so moulded as to form the shaft support 
for tin isin. 

The bowl b three inches deep and 
twenty-six inches in diami m the 

as if just alighting, is an \m< 
Hit tern with a tiny l>eak. The 

1 the mouth of the fi.*h into 
the bowl at \* into the <•< (agonal 

basin, which is thro 

■ the 
ground. 



it 



. • • • ■ • 

A New Bird-Fountain 

In r 

ithered « 

unveiled and «!• handsome 

-it ion Park 

makinit the presental 

1 us against enemies ns 

■ 

<ur bird*, divii) it hattal 

km* of battle train*! enemies of the crops. 

our wheat crops for the 

-«n. r It is for the !*»<• 



Bird Day in South Carolina 

has been 
issued by 1 1 

Whi 
and 

Wlllkl v 

'- are the d< 

uc proves that game 
may be made a valuable adjun. t to 
our food *upply; and tentinv 

happiness. 

\\ 11 
that • 

observe said day and to dsvot 

formation of llirdHuU among.!. » ■ > 
of our schools for the purpose 1 
operating with the 

* of these feathered 



:bt, 



Bird -Lore 



my hand sad the seal of 

• ■■• 

tAftO I M 
(iotcrmor «•/ South Carolina 

"Bobbie in Birdland" 
\\ < ii.i «uccess the 

(or I hi* were especially i They 

were made by the Household Art* and 
Hone Economies I>c|>artment of our 



school, tad 

1 • hind the scenes, 
made the bird* M real. I wonder if 

there are not other Audubon Club* 

Natfa| the *amc plsy. Our t 

had W 

ly aroused 
on thr tufa • • I ! ■' 
imitating < 



NEW LIFE MEMBERS 
Enrolled Irom March 1 to May 1. 1918 



Adam*. Jo»rph 

\ 
.He* 

■*. MissC. Kliaaheth 
r.l II 
ltu»hnell. Mr* I 

COOMfi \lr> I hrrrv.i ll 

' . I ' 

F«>rt (71.11111 Ilrll ' 



hn 
Ham II K 

Ham W I* 

llanten, M 
Urn. .am 



l.im Iiiih- 
lUMJMUl Mi 



n 

Jr 



n II 
rs, Tbfim.. 

Sarmi- 



iMinnK thr Mi 
enrolled 1 54 new Su- 
1 j new Contribui 



Alt 



CONTRIBUTORS TO 1 UND 

March 1 to May 1. 1918 



» Kdi 

•n\ moti* 
hint |o*». Mi 





1 1.600 65 
t 00 




2 40 

5 00 




5 00 




1 00 




5 °° 




to 00 




5 00 




5 00 

2 00 
4 OO 


ifiaa 1. 


10 OO 



brown 
Campbell. Donald 

Cohen, Judge William N. 

I lib 

:mbia Auil 

l)ougla»a, Mr*. Charle* 
Durban: J I 
!■'. mln. 



$10 


00 




JO 




00 




oc 


10 


oc 




OO 



50 00 

5 °° 
2 00 
< 00 



The Audubon Socu 



267 





n ii 1 


$3 OO 






1 OO 
1 OO 




Miu Josephine . . . 


5 00 

a 00 
1 00 

J SO 
4 00 
t OO 




MNfC W 


.» 00 
10 00 

3 00 
10 00 






2 00 
1 00 






IS 00 
10 00 






10 00 






a 00 
10 00 




••liege 


1 00 

15 00 

SO 00 

1 00 




m. Myron Ii 


5 00 
l 00 




mm M 


SO 00 

5 00 
3 00 
5 00 


K 1 '.■!••'■ •': 




t 00 
S 00 

2 so 
10 00 




il 


5 00 

3 00 
10 00 
10 00 




1 ' 


3 OO 






5 oc 
SO 00 
SO 00 

3 00 
10 00 

1 00 




1 


3 00 

2 00 
5 00 

s 00 






>M Young Bird Student* 



in* •>' 

Win* 

• ami > ott 1 annul Ml 



him very well. He makes a funny noiae, 
and be keepa flying around in a ring by 
tbe chicken-coop and cornea nearer 1 
time he goes an > ild like to know 

h this year. 
' Ictfland, Okie 

■>irdt lor 
• lay*. I know some winter birds, 
i 1 s ks. Sparrows, Snowbird*. 
Crows. Bluebirds, and Doves. I would 
like to know bow you DfOttd the bil 
the winter. I have read in the /'' 
>f a Crow, and will now tell it to 
re was a Utile girl who had a birth- 
day. Her aunts gave her some books, and 
her father and mother gave her som< 
gold beads. Then she was happy when she 
saw them and she laid tbem on the table 
and went out into the barn and while she 
was there the Crow hid II 

the last three days we have been 
r.U. I was talk- 
ing about the 9 wings and 
tail are black and its back is brown. 

; .in«l it ha» 
a red d tag tell 

me bow you take care of tbe win! 

What do 
the Kaglcs, Set ml Hawk- 

fed on and »h< it not 

bird pktttTM .>ut - Hananam II * 
L Inland, I 

Many people think that birds nave no 
tor each <•' do. Once 

there were some birds and tne> 
ing something from the ground, but one 
could not get anything because Ida bill 
Mrtacdand he *a» the biggest because 
the other one bad fed him so w«U. 

> a»k you a fear question* 

about birds. What do you do to protect 

What kind have you? We nave 

and I am vrr> mu. h interested in them.— 
I IfmUmd, f>4»». 



JOIN THIS ASSOCIATION 

AND 

HELP THE CAUSE OF BIRD-PROTECTION! 



X 






The Educational Leaflets 

OF THE 

National Association of 
Audubon Societies 



^ The beat aseaas of I— raiag ike birds of year 
Mtghberieod. aad of iBirfcJao, yoar thidraa 
4 Each leefet describe* the habile aad abut? of 
oae bird, aad coetaias a delsrhad colored pleas aad 
•a oatbac sketch ol ala eebicct* 
q The Cs/oreef Ptoses arc fakhrai portraits of the 
bird*, vol I re eled artattkaJly. as it show a by i - 
staples is the border. No belter p*ciere* of their 
kiadexiat. (Plale* aot told eepsreldjr.) 
•J The Oatliaea are aaahaded eopie* of the plates. 
laieaded to be colored— ibe beat seethed of foiag 
facta ia a yoeag saned. 

•I These lealeu. 94 ta eesaber . are sold at 3 ceats 
A list of these Lealets. aad other peblica- 
i.om. well be seat oa rs n asal la the 

National Association of Audubon Societies 
1*74 Brosawsy. New Term City 






A ; -i- 



SUBSCRIBE TO THE MAGAZINE 

BIRD- LORE 

COLORED PLATES ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR 




ifmif^ 



NORTHERN SHRIKE. AMt 3. NORTHERN SHRIKE. Yo 

X LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE 
(Otw-latf MMl Nw) 






^trbUore 

A BI-MONTHLY MAOAZINE 
DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRO* 
•l Auouroi. •©cm tt 



Vol. XX July— AUOU8T. 1918 No. 4 



Notes on the Nesting of the Nashville Warbler 

By H. E. TUTTLE. L*k« Forest. III. 
pkotocrapk* by tW Author 

I A \n mi<l June at lake Forest, III., and a heaviness hung in the air 
laden with the sweetness of the ! -season was draw- 

■ close. I was strolling along a steep side hill, where birches and 
azalea bushes made the walking difficult when, from U-tween my feet, there 
fluttered forth a little green bird which flew in the topi of the birches 

and disappeared without a note of protest. To make assurance doubly sure I 
looked for a nest and presently found it — a grassy cup set in a bit of moss under 
raves and crisp twigs. Wintergreen leaves and the withered 
ends of the spring's arbutus carpeted the immediate surroundings. So well 
hidden was it that I had to remove the roof of dead leaves, letter to takr my 

en the live eggs had hatched, I returned with an umbrella tent ■ bit h I 
a yard of the nest and inside of wl tailed my camera, 

as I did M> I had my second glimpse of the bird and knew it lot tht- Nash 

i- her by its lifelessness of the 

innoceno tentions, I wandered down the side hill to an open glade 

wher- vhee nested under the dead bracken, and the Indigo Bunting 

•morn ung sprouts, and wher some lay of the Chestnut-sided 

rose like a -lay and night. An hour la <ited the blind 

and discov e r e d the brooding. Slipping under its far side, I 

was soon insert ing a plate-holder, and shortly after took a ten se c o n d exposure 

of thr bird I made other exposures of equal length, and in only one out of 

lid she move, and this was because a young bird underneath tried to 

change its position. A buy little song from the birch tops, which caused the 

nest to jerk her head up quickly and fly away, led me 

Sieve that Nashville pht was not overmuch interested to his growing 

In a few moments his better half was back with a bunch of green ea 



*7<> 



Bird - Lore 



|n1Ui>. all short lengths- or so they teemed- and del; 

the open mouths that greeted her. Th< ».«!. l>ui she no longer 

irift***^ that, for as an extra precaution I ha< 




KTLV BR<> 

until the ceased to jump at the sound, I* in I had inserted I 
holder. Of course there were lots of failures— plates were fogged, the Nash\ ilk- 
moved too quickly, or the light was poor—but there were good picture- 
a reward for sitting hunched up under an unbreua with one knee crooked 



Noies on ihc Nesting of the Nashville Warbler 



371 



• a sapling to stay on the hillside and endure in silen mllv 

iwled down the tack eck, n«»t to speak of mosquitos 

whose numU-r was legion. The nest was in deep shadow during the greater 

part of the da risequence, I attempted slow exposures when the 

hir«l brooded I the edge of the 




nest or led the young Omot Ihc mn -truck so M ^mall l»irds that I 

m*r^ tmAm of dry leaves to shield thrm from the heat. 

him pod 1 am sure 

-nale must have shared in providing the larder) delivered food on an 

and a quart. -. with an occasional interval of 

tea or longer. The nest was cleaned every third or fourth n 

•me unusual habit scribbled into mv ItM no te boo k Sometimes the 



»7* 



Bird- Lore 



bird pokes its bill deep into the grasses of the nest's bottom, poking sod shov- 
ing herd sgsinst the lining until I can plainly hear the impact I Vash- 
vflle '• chestnut crown, so prominent in the descriptions of the bird-book i 
more or less concealed patch, like t ird's, or perhaps the male 

shows it to advantage and I was wrong in supposing that he shared in thr 
domestic duties. I never saw a real touch of brow i > a suggestion of it, 

except once, and then before I could make m rd had flown, this, too, 

although my observations were made at a distance of tn 
Nashville was not an expert at broken winged tactics wh< n the 

nest, but soon desisted and flew into a nearby bush, where she lisped a 
monotonous protest. There were few disturbances in the bi 
hillside. Once, at a most awful outcry among the denizens of the open 
glade, I lifted the tent flap, whereat a i-shouldd rk vaulted 

upward from a low birch tree and left for fresh woods and pastures new. 

I used the blind at intervals during three days, and then, having secured 
as many pictures as I wanted, I picked up my tent and wandered out of the 
Inn h thickets into the dusty road. The nesting season was over as far as I 
was concerned, and, in he mosquitos and exploring ants, I was sorry. 

But before many days I paid a farewell visi' Naahvflli e thr 

azaleas gave way before the ranks of the white birches, there was desol. 
wrought. Whether a stray cat, curiously following the trail of a man, had in 
the stillness of the nighttime scooped Nashville mother and half-fledged ) 
from the depths of their grassy nest, only the es know. 




THE BLUE |ArS w 

PlHXocr.pWd by A»«l S. MStr. Sprii 



w 
. Pi 



How I Mothered a Pair of Hummingbirds 

By P. OREQOKY CARTLIDOB. Or*«on City. Ore. 

Till tree*, shrubs, and vines about my Oregon home grow in M h pro- 
•\ that many species of wild birds have chosen my gar 
domain. This not only affords me the pleasure of studying them, hut the 
opportunity to protei t them and otherwise to advance their welfare. 

Otv as I sat sewing at my open window, enjoying 

the fragr.i the rose-garden and tented twitter of fledglings, 

suddenly' bird distress! »m a nest near me in the honey- 

suckl- 1 looked milhwli iboat, to see if some pr- 

could be ■wwylng, but Ban 1 attributed the incessant squeaks 

the noise) to baby-bird hunger and went to 
: the house where the distressing Cries were inaudible, to remain 
until their inpatient wants were satis- 

Hut it was not long until I returned to my delightful window and found 

racking than befo thing was wrong, but 

I went he lawn and stood peering up at the n< M&- 

a dark something tumhled to the ground near me 1 tenderly 

lifted it and hel<l it in the [>alni tad. It was a tiny Hummingbird 

larger than a bumhietjcc — just a w< onbei bit of lift- that I might 

h between my fingers. 

The warmth of my hand soothed but did not qjbji I with a feeling of 

ssness I climbed to the nest to replace it, and there another little mite, 

hardly as large nor as strong a- that had fallen, but with squeaking 

abilities second to none, peered up at me and opened its tiny beak so 

I knew it must be ravenously hungry Hut where was the mother? What 

r away from her nestlings? 

It til not time later that perhaps I could feet! the 

birds— I was willing to attempt anything to stop the noise. Knowing that 

ivned tome honey with water and was ready to begin. 

K> small a beak before I was not a little piusled to know 

how I strenuous moments spent in experimenting. 

Is emerged wet and sticky, I was on the verge of giving up 

hancedtospysom* arly resembled 

the n so I made a final attempt 

was pleasing indeed. 

t that meal was 1 lie birds had never been so hungry 

befbr e both thoroughly satisfied I replaced them in the neat, 

r had not returned and, finding them 

Hut not long. Then I did not know what 

was !>rst to do The shadows wrre lengthening QB tin lawn, and ihr l>rrr/r 



»74 Bird - Lore 

that hail lum so soft all afternoon was waf ting th n the far-off snow- 

dad peaks. Something surely had happened to the moth* I had she 

neglected them More. 

an away from the cries of the birds, as I had done bet 
hut I found myself listening anxiously— the farther away I got th. entry 

last I realised that I could not leave them so, and retun 
the nest and fed them again. Hut I earnestly hoped that the -vould 

appear before feedtmg-time again came round. II it hope — 

she had gone on her last errand of l< 

Twilight was falling fast as I went into the rose-garden for flowers, and. 
passing a climber that had fallen on one of my choice shrubs, I again • 
what I had failed to accomplish that morning — to tit- the rose 
gola. I had worked but a few moments when I found the expla • the 

neglect of the wee bird babies. There, entangled in th. 
bird, a sacrifice to mother love! She had come to the sweet-flowering shruo t<> 
get nectar for her precious little ones, her buzzing wings had tangled in the 
string, and her little body was cold and rigid. 

Just at dusk I loosed the moorings of the small but beautifully made nest 
on the porch, and took the little ones into my home. But just what to d<> 
them was perplexing. I sought my books and turned to the cha; rcgon 

birds. But it told me nothing of the fine art of mothering such dt: rgan- 

isedl 

length, left to my own initiative, after feeding, I placed them in the nest 
on the mantle in t! and covered them with soft 

would be safe, if they lived— but would they I; 

- v early the next morning I hastened to the nest, expecting to 
lifeless forms. Careful! the cotton, and beheld two wide-open beaks 

greeting me and sending in a hurry call for breakfast 

This was the first order, and it was by no means the last. lean 
many meab they had that day. They averaged one about e> n minutes 

until darkness fell. The imperative way they had of announcing the 
period was not to be disregarded. And what appetites th* So greedy 

were they that neither would wait for the other to be fed, so I was com; 
to take both of them in the palm of my hand and alternate the doses until 
each was satisfied 

But hooey became an expensive diet, and someone suggested that hrown 
sugar was good enough "for those ugly bugs." So I tried sugar and water, and, 
to my surprise, they liked it better than honey. 

As the weeks passed, the meals became less frequent but greater quant 
were required. The birds began to develop rapidly, and I nest soon 

became too small. Then I gave them a new home — a shoe-box filial with 
cotton — and they were as happy in their new quarters as birds could be. 

By this time they began to be very interesting. They would strett h th« ir 



How I Mothered • Pair of Hummingbirds 275 

necks an m a dozen different angles; at other times they 

would snuggle down in the cotton and go to sleep. But when they surveyed 
Bed them. One discovery made at such a time startled me extremely. 
Holding them to the light to enjoy their coloring. 1 not the first time, 

that their little bodies were translucent— I could see into them, if not ent 
through them. The sunlight X-rayed them, making the fragile bone-structure 

Tlv active now and, in exercising their little wings, learned to 

make a tremendous humming noise, which warned me that they needed a 
cage. I made one, some 6 feet square, of ordinary wire window-screening, 
not at all ornamental hut excellent for them; ami. by the end of the first six 
< d to the limits of their little world. 
The days as they came and went found my chid delight in these birds, 
so when two months had passed — busy, busy months in whu h my attention 
had been so centered that duties in other directions had suffered — I del 
to devote less time to them. By making little grooves in beeswax and tilling 
them with sweets. I tried to teach them to care for themselves. But it was a 
mistake, they would not touch it. Gathering deep flowers, honeysuckles and 
the like, I hoped further to entice them, but this, too, was a failure. Having 

<m in this manner, I often left them for an aftern«»on. in an 1 
to teach them self-reliance. But on my return, the firot step on the DOfCh told 
of their utter dependence on me, for I could hear thei : demands in 

Although my needlework, music, and household cares were 
neglected in my desire to raise these helpless little creatures, I did not begrudge 
thr t. I m joyed the experience in a way I cannot relate. 

It was interesting to watch the birds develop. The larger of the two became 
a most beautiful bird. As he dashed wild 1\ roi the cage and hovered 

momenta: some flower I had pla< < ating his wings rapid I > . 

he seemed to diffuse an iridescent glow; becoming calm, his little body radiated 
ones with each quiet movement. The smaller bird was not so 
m her coloring or conduct; she was by nature modest ami ret 
and delicate, she was, perhaps, as beautiful. 

three months m m\ home, they seemed full\ <!< 

and I thought how happy they would DC if free. I tides 

o tamed though I tared for them so constantly. True, I found 

submissive a unger wa* appeased I became a 

ge monster, and when allowed a flight through the rooma, Eeedmf 

come again to recaptn Ight, I asked myself, to imprison 

these little . reatures, now mature, « mserves— 

• r tould 

Having made u; « hose a beaut hich 

M them, a splendid time m western Oregon, lor flowers still bloom and 

nectar is still plentiful I - mwe the morning, for many hours would pass before 



tj6 Bird -Lore 

twilight fell, ami. if in need of help after the- n of the world 

would come home to me. 
And to the last little meal of » partook from my hands was a i 

ftfTtpn"^ 1 affair. Often 1 |>ausrd for a loving caress ami i 
strange world they would soon enter and how very much I should miss • 

k seemed to sense wha and I fancied looked alert and eager 

for the adventure awaiting hit tile companion seemed thoughtful. 

I«ting imaginary troubles ahc he shudder at the contact with 

the world? Did she long to stay with me? Was she think : tie home 

good enough for her? 

At last, the impressive meal over, I partially enclosed them in my hands 
and went to the rose-garden— down to the very shrub* r had 

last sought sweets. With joy 1 noted them as perfect, as beautiful as she was. 
Then mu- rewell, little friends, you have a mission in life as well as I; 

.sefulness to you is past," I tossed them lightly to the |>ergola, and simply 
amid, "Gol" 

Scarcely realizing their new strange freedom they nestled for a 
on the sweet climber, then, with a wild humming sound as he dashed t 
right and the left to get his bearings, Dick disappeared. I never saw him again. 
Then, suddenly, the little female followed, and when she too was go 
waited anxiously an hour or more for their return <ned more 

intently to the sounds of the air. hut there was no message 

Feeding-time came and went, the second one came — an< th it 

came the call! Quickly I ran into the yard and found that the little one had 
come home. Perched on the clothes-line, pitifull-. 
when I raised my open hands, she fairly fell into them and nestled oontenl 
.1 : I low lovingly I held her least I ga 

it hopefully, I again opened my hands to the heavens, and this 
time she dashed happily away to th- •■* of her own little world 




The Black-billed Cuckoo 



By C. W. LEISTER. Ithac*. N 
» ilk phM»«wp>i by Um Author 

THI ( koo is a bird of mystery. He glides from place to place through 
recs with an ease and quietness that is uncanny. Along with 
irdlike chara< he fa a prist Oil hear hi* 

repeated kukkuk, kukkuk, but it i> very difficult t.> till how far away 
what find him. 

'ing on a bra: head slowly from side to side; bis sharp 

-on sees the caterpillar eating the leaves. There fa a quick bob I 
beak, and the caterpillar disappears down his throat, with a gleam in his red- 
dish eye, and the Cuckoo 
b ready for another victim. 
Always hungry, and with 
trs forming the 
ijial part of hi> 

-eems to like 
is one of the most 
valuable birds we have. 

ic family, 

the 

American Cuckoo to lay 

eggs in the nests of • 

birds, but they have been 

-»os' nests, a; 

parasitic habit, so 

i known throughout the country and for some peculiar reason, 
probably that he fa supposed t otes before a storm, he b 

commonly called 'Rain-Crow' or 'Rain 

I was eager to study this interesting bird, so, when 1 found a neat of the 

led species in a small clump of wild cfcsrr) and young elm trees, I 

he nest and take some photographs. 

ntained three dull bluish eggs, and the female had been incu- 

g them for they were quite warm. But she had doubtless hear 

«ach and i>cst. The next day a make-believe 

■ ra, made re sticks and an old oil-can, was set up nearby, so that 

<«77) 




filt ttrtiilw icwm cVm* uoiil It* UrJ to M*ftjr r»»4jr 
b* mi. iIm* ofm wltMa • ftw Imw 



»7« 



Bird -Lore 



the old bird would get accustomed to it ami < camera that was 

to be substituted later on. 

In a few day* all the eggs had hatched. The young grew raj 
dbl of tent caterpillars, and several photographs were taken of the adult - 
feeding them. When the old bird returned to the nest an<i 
she would fluff out her feathers, droop her wings, and flue i through 

the branches, appearing three times her normal size and hukktuking her 
alarm all the while 

Young Cuckoos are peculiar-looking little fellowi 
feathers growing out gradually, as is the case with other birds, they grow out 
enclosed in a quill-like sheath. After a time these sheaths break open, a 
a few hours the young bird ■ fully feathered. I wanted very much 
this process but was disappointed, for when the young were almost ol 
to change, they seemed to get the wanderlust and would n the nest. 

They scrambled to the edge, hung there for a time, and finally dropped t 
ground. One was more precocious than the other two and caused the most 
trouble. I found him under the nest several times by following up his call. 
I took a picture of him in his suit of quills and placed him back in the neat. 
When I came back the next day it was cmj. 

The young also have peculiar spcn the mouth. These dis- 

appear after a time, and no one knows wht arc com 

with some body function. 




Bird Walks 

By CHARLES B. FLOYD. Pr««id«nt of tht Broohlin* Bird Club. Brooklin*. Mat* 

4 e most successful and popular act i Krookline Bird 

r\ Club ut the frequent afternoon walks in the field. They were first 
lertaken to interest the members and to teach them where to find 
birds and how to study ami ide ntify them. During the spring, autumn, and 
r these walks have been conducted every Saturday afternoon, and during 
the height of the migration in May. twice a week, for several years past. They 
in opportunity for the bird student, whether he knows much or little 
aU»ut birds, to observe them in the ojK-n and to impart or to receive knowl- 
edge of bird ways. 

*>n walks, all-day trips are planned for holidays to 

more distant places, as Ipswich, Mount Greylock, and Cape Ann. Members 

I) who are interested in flowers, trees. t'crns. moans, <>r other branches 

of nature • sure to find congenial company on these excursions ami 

much to study besides birds. 

A small committee is appointed each year by the president to arrange a 
schedule of walks. This committee selects the leaders and arranges all the 
detail the meeting-points, transportation, p rotable expense, and 

whether <»r not a supper shall be taken, and a printed notice covering these 
details is sent each member ree months. In making up such a sched- 

' onsiders the possibilities of each location at the particular 
time chosen and also what birds in all likelihood may be found and what the 
walking conditions may be. If possible, the walk is so planned that if a 
the members wish to leave before the tramp is completed they will find them 
selves within reasonable distance of a car-one 

\ .. .1 i. ■ elected who is thoroughly familiar with the b 

the walk is to extend and who has a good knowledge of the fa 
haunts where parti ular birds may be expected. While the leader cannot, of 
course, guarantee the presence of any special bird at a me and place, 

much access of the walk depends upon him, and be should have the 

cooper all those who accompany him. The functions of the leader are 

to sel. xact ground to be covered, keep the party together, idem 

possible, whatever is seen, and to make sure that everyone observes the birds 
that tie found during I >> hould also keep a record of the birds seen 

and of everything connection with their observation. 

urns ways of searching for birds in the field. Some prefer 

to select a likely spot and wait for whatever I nay send along. Others 

walk along, qv Owing up whatever birds are flushed or beard singing. 

i some tact on the part of the leader to keep the trampers from advanc- 

10 feat while others are loitering needlessly, and he must be alert to restrain 

eagerness of this nature. All should have an opportunity to tee the 

(•70) 



j8o Bird - Lore 

birds found and have their field-marks and distinguishing characteristics 
pointed out if they do not already know them. Slow, quiet walking, no • 
movements, modulated voices, eyes and ears alert, are the instructions 
should be given before the start. Formality should be done awa> d the 

opportunity taken for self -introduction and acquaintance-making amor 
members on the walks. 

Having noted how the schedule is prepared and the duties of the leader 
us now n I bulletins for a sample year and see how the progr.< 

worked out. We will begin with the walk* in quest of winter birds. 
dents and visitors. 

For the winter water-birds like the Scoters, Old-Squaw, Bufflehead, Golden- 
eye and Scaup Ducks, Red-breasted Mergansers, Loons and Grebes, Squantum, 
Devereaux, Nahant, Lynn, or the beach at Swampscott furnish a wide range 
of possibilities o, the Snow Bunting and Horned Lark i 

and perhaps some of the rarer winter visitors like the Iceland Cull 
Murre, Red-throated Loon, or Purple Sandpiper. There is always the chance, 
too, that even rarer birds will appear, whkh adds zest to the hunt though 
wintry winds sweep in over the ocean. When, percha Gull, 

Snowy Owl, Rough-legged Hawk, or Goshawk is seen, the bowl of happiness 
runs over. 

For the winter land-birds one walk may be as good as an< 
thickets »f Urn -bearing trees and shrubs offer the greatest at 
red cedars, sumac, bay berries, box elder and hawthorns each have their 
devotees, attracting the Evening and Pine Grosbeaks, Siskins, Re« 
Waxwings, while the stubble-fields and weed-patches draw Sparrows, Juntos, 
and Goldfinches. The commor < kadees, Creepers, 

Golden-crowned Kinglet, Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers— are to be t 
in every favorable place, but there is always the possibility 
a rare Hawk, a Winter Wr- .bird, or even an Acad kadee 

or Orange-crowned Warbler. A list of the summer birds that have occasionally 
wintered here b interesting, including besides the Robins, Meadowlarks, Song 
Sparrows and Bluebirds, Bronzed Crackles, Hermit Thrushes, Brown Creepers 
and Baltimore Orioles. 

When the spring walks are planned, they are arranged with the dates of 
various arrivals in mind so that the migrants may be found before they pass 
along on their northward journey. Since they remain longer in some places 
than in others on their migration, and since the weather may retard or hasten 
them, some of the rarer ones may be missed en tirely. Walks near small streams 
that are well bordered with under bush, or near marshy land where the sun 
can beat down and arouse the insects as well as warm the air, will be found to 
contain more birds than the exposed locations. Walks are taken at this season 
to Arlington, Belmont, Wellesley, and the Felsway. When May arrives with 
its rush of Warblers, few better places can be found than the Parkway, and, 



Bird Walks 281 

strange 11 it may seem, the Public (Sudan in Boston. In the Garden alone 
splendid lists of birds are made each year, including a number of the rarer 
during the night to rest ai lays. 

In tht Parkway near Longwood is a sheltered - re a few large red 

oaks grow, an- ; rni and other small trees with a pr< 

shrul \ irblers seem to be espc ed to this spot. Appar- 

ling buds exude a sap that attracts the insects, and they in turn 
make easy foraging for the northbound \\ Standing lure in an open 

'.ast spring. Cape May, Tennessee, Nashville, Hlackburnian and Bay- 
brea> >lers were in sight at one time, while most of tin- commoner 

specie Thrush, were in the immediate vicini: 

such a favorable locality is discovered it is well to approach it qu then 

remain in one place and identify the birds as they pass. 

To see certain species that are only found locall ivored sp< 

of course, necessary to take special walks, and trips have been made in search 

.'■ 
i hats, and Orchard Orioles. 

sufficiently warm, suppers are carried so that more 

time may I* sjK-nt in the field and an early start for home will not be necessary. 

tig songs of many birds can be enjoyed while the party stops to rest 

Bit sup|»er and to wait for the BOCtOrnal birds— the Whip-poor-will, 

. Woodcock, and Owls. A marsh haunt' .eat Hlue, 

Little Green and Nigh! I ; Rails, Gallinules, or Marsh v. an inter- 

-ig place at thi ire greatest at dusk. 

June, Ji tun the nesting season i> in full sway, 

I songs will be heard, and at this time, too, many of the club members are 
1 is b the season for acquiring an insight into the family cares and prob- 
lems 1 irds, and 1 real and profit can be learned. But great 
care should \x used at all times in approaching w ds, that they may 

<-achcs for tin- first <>f tin- returning migrants, the 
shorebirds or waders. Although the spn to look for th * 

Plovers, Sandpipers, and other waders, as th* he land birds, are 

mg plumage, without the confusing coloring of tlv imma- 
•irds to puzzle the observer, more varieties of shorebirds at 
1st and Sej The weather, too, is cooler along the bra* he* than in 

■pen fields, an acre comfortable for trampuig. I 

<wieh, and Nahant beachea may furnish surprises at this time. 
Iter with their clear, cold nights bring great waves of 
ling migrants and splendid, comfortable walk enjoyed. A special 

h should *e birds which only make their appearance d 

dl migration, using another roir 4 the long spring journey. Con- 

and Orange crowned Warblers, Pipits, Longspun, and Ipswich Spar- 



a8 2 Bird -Lore 

rows may be found, and a study of the call-notes of the migrating birds at 
night is of great it \t this seaaoi be ponds are visited for thr 

freshwater Ducks, and Jamaica, Fresh, a I'uodsand Hill 

Reservoir are eagerly scanned for Teal, Mallard, Black, > head. 

Baldpate, Ruddy and Wood Ducks, Coot, and Mergansers, and occasionally 
even a Canvasback, Shoveller, or Ringneck is revealed. Even after the ponds 
are mostly frozen over, some of thr Ducks remain in the small open spaces 
and may then be observed at very dose range and even photograph' 
I h the final freezing of these ponds the last of the migrants lea\ 
south, and only the winter residents are left behind wit h begin an 

year of bird-study. But each year brings new names to tl b and 

new facts concerning the old familiar friends, and so the interest never wane* 
though Maaon cfcaage. 



Spotted Sandpiper Colonies 

By ). W. LIPP1NCOTT. C*mdrn N j 
Witt • photograph by tW Art tor 

Tll\ I Sand|>i|KT ~-M;« times associates wit) 

kind and may be found breeding in a restricted area, is a: 
fact, but I believe, however, that this habit is the exception rather than 
the rule with these birds. 

In the spring of 1913, I discovered Spotted Sat 
in two widely different kxa 1 of Canv 

other in the wilds of Pike < I 'a. 

There lies in the city mentioned a piece of marshland, almut 20 acres in ex; 
which has defied the encroachments of the contractor and I > >• .ugh sur- 

rounded on all sides by city improvements, this low meadow probably presents 
about the same appearance it <1 ars ago. A tidal ditch, an 

mud-flat, on which for some reason vegetation does not grow, and a 
elevation, sparsely grown with weeds, and compare t . are some of 

the features which make it an ideal spot for the Spotted Sandpiper. 

A short time after the birds arrived this spring, they seemed to develop a 
particular liking for the elevated portion of the marsh, and whet spot 

was invaded, several Sandpipers flew up from the weeds and. with shrill pip 
ings, circled off to the flat. Suspecting that they were nesting, I made a ca 
search of the surroundings, but failed to locate any nests until the last week in 
May, at which time incubation had already commenced. 

After locating the first nest, I discovered three others within a week, and 
later on two more. Five of the nests were located within a space of one- 
fourth acre, placed among weeds of rather a scattered growth. The other 
neat was built in a thick growth of short grass and was the best constr 



Spotted Sandpiper Col' 



a«3 



-erved. prot>ahl\ liecause of the abundant nesting material near 
at ha nests appeared to be composed of material, scraped tog< 

•i the nest. If in the weeds, tin mM was built 
D the grass, dried grass became the nesting material. 

rain complete! ;ited all sign> 

be located by the mark which had been placed I 
ig were seen out of MOOnd week in June, ami I con- 

stages of growth until July 15. at whirh 




K Willi 
«tt U«J I* tht 4bc*VOTjr oi iIm y aws »hkh tm mat tmm ■•itl I hrmt 

m I" IUMM ifc* »m" 

h was un.ili- to tl> . running about on the 
if Sa n dpip er s con- 
narsh until the mul«IU >>i \i*c f all aud- 

it 

hitch of eggs 
of eggs was apparently deserted because of the dampnc*» of 
good perceniagr 
nest tragedies arc .im unable to tell 

ing were • it the nr •buerved 

K birds a were able t.. tK 



;> 4 J -Lore 

The third week in June I spent b nnsylvania, a 

there discovered the other colony of Sandpipers mentioned. It was lota t 
what wasoneethebotiomof a lumberman's 'splash dam po water had 

been drawn off early in the spring, leaving the ground Uttered with dead - 
Ml km, ux) -tin r rviux Hon tht B andp ip m made no pretense of oe«t-l> 
ing, simply placing their eggs in a hollow among the stick* 
I located three families in different stages of develop! 
one family being almost ready to fly. 1 think that there were at least a dozen 
pairs of birds occupying this locality, but la« > m any 

very careful search for nests. Strange to say, the young birds seen 
just as far advanced as the young of the Camden colo t-ason 

b much later (about two weeks) in the mountains. 

Two localities could hardly present a wider difference in appeara 
Over one blows the breath i y, laden with smoke and nausea* 

from neighboring chemical plants; over the other blows the breath of the 
hills, permeated with the ozone and the fragrance of the woods. I 
eating little Sandpiper, however, seems to be content 
about on the banks of a sluggish drainage- 
stone in the bed of a rushing mountain stream. A safe bree< 
plentiful food-supply are tb .int factors in his choice of a n< 








E? 



ml 



s 



• i 






The Migration of North American Birds 

SECOND SEK1U 

V. THE SHRIKES 
Compiled by Harry C. Ob«rholMr. Chie0y from Data In the Biological Survey 

NORTHERN SHRIKE 

The Northern Shi ike / mkjm bar, 
t'ngava <«. southern Kecwatin. northern Macki 

Alaska; south to southern Alaska, central Saskatchewan >. and 

-•uthem Quebec. In the L'nited Sta anging as 

far south as Virginia, \ 
rnia. 

SPINS.. UII.KUI 



M I I \ 



Number 
•J >*»r» 



•priee »' 






(KMtbout. Quebr. 
>imptoo, stack 



\|.ril 



\pril 



\pril 4 

\pril i' * 



Mil \ 



Nu«U» 
••I >**r» 



Wasaiaftoi 

Raaovo, i - 

• flh. \l 

• Iwilc 
SI. Joseph \ 

• Mia* 



\ \ 



<l i ••tin 
N II 



>«a 



Onait.i 
Vcrn. 



. 



h :o 



\| 
\l 

\pril 10 









\pril 14 
h 11 



'■ ;o 



fi .-o 1004 

, n ill 



\pril 
\pril 

soo 

April 






The Migration of North Americin Birds 



*7 



SPR!N<. Ml 


mntinued 




LOCA1 


VumSer 
of >r 


<C« 't»<* of 


L«t«< 4at« ol 

. i » t oft* ofitf r> #*«i 


Fort Wnipj-: \ 

h 

Okanajran La ml in it. M < 




h jo 

\|>nl 1 1 


DOJ 

March 10. 1010 
March is, 1850 

! 0. 1858 
\|>ril jo, igi.' 



i \l I Ml 



LOCAI 


Su-ber 

..( VMM 

mtrni 


- 


Lair* date ol 








mbrr 5. iooj 


. 






iSja 






r 10 


S56 




8 






: 




. -mbrr 1 1 


jOQ 








BOO 

101a 






t-mbrr 14 




Block l%lan<4 k 1 














<on 






rmbrr 10 


1 mlnf 1. IQOQ 








x>5 
189 j 




10 


• mbrr 10 




'. 






1891 
mbrr 4. 1887 


- 






1887 








"^JO 
OO 1 
























>06 

IQO6 

101 


MinnratMili* Minn 






100$ 










* * 






JOO 






'•rr 


tojoa 


1 1 






too 




1 1 




















•»rk, Cireen ki\rr I t«h 






1870 


Laa V«sm \ m 






tail 


Okanagaa Lan<1i' , h • 

1 




October 1 


^rptrmbcr ly. loo* 











iH Bird - Lore 

LOOOBRHBAD SHRIKE 

The Loggerhead Shrike (Lamku Iwdetuianms) as e species occupies prac- 
tically all of th ct and Mexico and southern Canada. It separate., 
however, into six subspecies, all out one of which occur America. 
This one. the Mexican Shrike (Lamitu ludoricianus mexkamus) is 00 
ico. The distribution of the North American forms is as follows: 

The Southern Loggerhead Shrike (Lamms ludovuianus Imdowkianu 
resident in the southeast ern I'nited States and breeds north to east- 
Carolina, northern Sooth Carolina, central Georgia, central Alabama, central 
M ississ i pp i, and northern Louisiana; west to Louisiana; and south to the coast 
of the Gulf of Mexico and to Florida. 

The Migrant Shrike | I^nius ItuUmdamm migrans) breeds in the north 
easier I States and southeastern Canada, north to New Brunswick, 

Prince Edward Island, southern Quebec, southern Ontario, Michigan, Wiscon- 
sin, and Minnesota ; west to Iowa, eastern Kansas, and eastern Oklahoma ; south 

Wkansas, western Tennessee, Kentucky, western North Carolina, and 
southern Virginia; and east to Virginia, Maine, and New Bruns* titers 

south to the Gulf States, west to Texas. 

The White-rumped Shrike {Lanims Indent ianus excuhUorides) brec<' 
ica, north to south 
wan, and central Alberta; west to Alberta, Montana, souther >r cgon, 

i la, northeastern and southeastern California ; south to Tepic and Durango 
in Mexico, and east to central Texas, central Oklahoma, central Kansas, N 
Dakota, and South Dakota. It winters south over all hmus 

CC in the state of Oaxaca. 

The California Shrike t.onius luikmaanus %ambeli) breeds in tl 
Coast region, north to southern British Columbia; south to n< Lower 

>rnia; and east to central eastern California, central Oregon, a 
ington. It winters south to southern Lower California and through we 
o to the state of Morelos. 

The Island Shrike (Unius Imdonciamu anikonyi) is resident on the Santa 
Barbara Islands in California and on Santa Margarita Island, Lower ( 

Only three of these subspecies are migratory, and these three in sj>: 
autumn, and winter become so intermingled with other race each 

other that it is often difficult to separate their migration notes. In the follow- 
ing tabular arrangement records of the White-rumped Shrike are marked with 
an asterisk (*); those of the California Shrike with a dagger (t); and all the 
others refer to the Migrant Shrike. 



The Migration of North American Birds 



a«0 



SPRING V 






NumUr 







Auburn. 


\ \ 






Rutland, 




riMjiii 




wO0Wf| 

■ 


| 






Cbfcafo, 
















Ma.iiM.n 




Lancer 




«»t>.i.v. K 




•. 




Wrmr 


Man • 


Vi'Jr; 




< hocnn 




Mitanula 


M • ■ ■ * 



5 

7 
4 
9 

8 

to 

ii 
It 

10 
IO 

8 

9 
8 

J 

it 

6 

2 



Ha*»i 

fhilli. 



Aran* oata at 


■arttaat data ol 


•priag arrival 


•priac arrival 


1 


April ti, iooo 
March 18, 1884 


April i 


> 24. 1886 


'•■ 


1007 


\ 


March 29. 1914 


»9 


1003 




1887 


March to 


March 9, iqoj 


March 2, 1001 


April : 






h 15, 1887 




March 8, 1006 


h %i 


1 to, 1804 


b i \ 


1890 




1 18. 1888 




h IQ, IQOJ 




h 15. 1889 


h 8. 1808 




191 s 




1 8. iooq 


April 24 


1 2. 1897 


1 '7 
M.y 5 


1 3. iooo 


*>} 


May 3 


*i, 1908 


19, 1889 




\|.ni 


QIC 
1 9. 1888 





■nbtr 
ol ft 


Avaraat dau of 

'»«t nnc nUfrw ' 


I iii 4ala ol 




4 
| 


1 21 

1 l8 


1 1. 191$ 

March j, 1892 
iO. 1866 
20, 1890 



TALL MIGRATION 



m in 



torm 

• * 



A**ra«« 4al« ol .1 «Ui. ol 

hat oaa olairw* Uat — i wrnil 









to 

■ 

vcptcmUr > 1 
"6 



;IO 

Aufuat if. 1906 
October »R. i. ; n 
September 4. ||M 
October t$, 1904 
October 4. «oo? 
November 11. 1900 
October 31. 189ft 
October to. 1891 
October aft, 1889 
October 29. il 
October 8, 1899 

to. 1914 



*9° 


Bird - Lore 
FALL migration, continued 






W«p ! ITZJZZ 


Ulr.1 4fU«< t 


Pumpkin Hult< 
Fort La ram 

Yum 

l»rn\rr. Colo • 


J 










M II\ 
K.lci. 







Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

FORTY-NINTH PAPER 
By FRANK M CHAPMAN 

Northern Shrike I anius borcalt In not ling plumag* 

Northern Shrike i> brownish grmy above, paler awl wit h dusky wavy mar 
below; the prominent black cheek-stripe* of the adult are dusky an< 
are grayish. The wings and tail are dusky black, the w 
qaflb and central tail-feathers being tipped with r 

the postjuvenal molt the wings and tail are retained an. I I 
plumage replaced by the first winter dress. This bears a general n- 
to that of the adult female. Breeding plumage isa mitcd an. 

of feather change about the front (tart of the head and by loss through wear 
of the brown wash on the hack and dusky markings belou 
now differs from the adult male mainly in the brownish wings and tail. 

the postnuptial (second fall) molt these, with the rt 
are shed and the second winter or fully adult plumage gained. The U 
paases through a similar series of plumage changes, but it is alwa> 
leas barred below and in first winter dress is decidedly brownish aU > 

males and males in first winter plumage (Fig. 2) may be known 1 
Loggerhead or the Migrant trger si/< -h upper] 

and wave-marked underparts; adult males, by their larger size, paler U] 
parts, and grayish, not black, lores and forehead. 

Loggerhead Shrike / anim ludatUianus, Fig. 3).— The nestling 
head has the brownish wash and dusky wavy markings of the Northern Shrike. 
These are especially noticeable on the underparts, but they practically disap- 
pear with the postjuvenal molt which, according to I) wight in •- tail 
and the rest of plumage but the wing-quill*. First winter plumage is ; 
tically indistinguishable from that of the adult. mptial molt I 
st rated to the front parts of the head, and, as the season advances, the 
plumage shows the results of wear. L'nlike the Northern Shrike, the ma!> 
female are alike in plumage. 

•Fi«. I rr ^m m mU Ikt UD> dull auk > « i tbr )u«(| «l bold war* ■• fcr»l wtalrr plu' 



Jlotcs front initio anb J>tubp 



Summer Record* ol Winter Birds in 
the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 

ire in 

Ihr upper peninsula of Mb hik'an the writer 

bad the opportunit) of observing some 

regard to the habits 

•ne of the northern specie* of birds. 

r n |h niriMila has been very little 

studied by ornithologists, but it offers a 

effort in bird 

eems to be a converging point 

tern, northern and southern 

spado. The following observation* 

the northern species were made in l.u< <• 

-.Bl \k. 

* common usually r 

K mostly about November and 

individuals 

•liferent habits or habitat (In July 

a number of males. 

females, and young of the year were seen. 

The birds allowed close obscr 

\ug 18. ioij. s. rcn. six being in 

oac flock. Aug. to, : were seen. 

ml <>n July jo 
again 

■ 
• 

lumagc was carefully <\a mined 
tied plumage of 
the same species Measurement 
made and they corresponded pert' 
tin the night of Aug. 15. a bird, supposed 
to be of this species, was ti- 
ll is usually 
ted with being a winter visitor 

■ that 
the greater number do come at this time, 
but during a long resident e I seldom failed 
to and a few birds in JuU or August 
The following are some dates of «r 

1900. J" 1 i'. <Qt'. 

1 



"CES of 

fair size were teen June 9 and 21, 1912, 
and May 1;. 18, 20, 21. 26, and 27. 1914. 
records of the Kvening Grosbeak 
seem particularly interesting as it seems 
■ that the birds neat somewhere in 
the middle west. — Ralph Hrtar, 600 
Hiligrr Arrnn> 

A Santa Barbara Hummer 

beautiful little Hummingbird chose 
r home a « ra|>e myrtle tree in .1 
ira rose-garden, and all who have 
been in Santa Barbara in the winter and 
■pilag know what a feast of beauty that 
mean' .Ming her dainty 

ind a half in diameter. 
in color and 
decorated with lichen, — she probably knew 
that she would have daily song r 
of Mockingbirds such as would make 
mortals despair in their vain effor 

I was m I the bird 

itiding that I was able to put up my 

• m the nest, and 

give one-second exposure without her 

moving. The neat was aboot 5 feet above 

the grand Wkm <»»«• !«•• little birds 

I was anxious to get .1 
the mother feeding them 

ending on the edge 
neat and running her long bill most 
k'eticatiy away down ale. 

When the mother was away foraging. I 
coveted the camera with green leave*, 
focus* I the nest, then «!• 

thread. whi.h I had attached I 
shutter, into a room that looked down 
upon the neat, and there awaited the 
moth nner-hour I am sure 

that she carried a watch, for dinner Mai 
always served promptly between 1 to and 

She wa* inchteaedon seeing the camera, 
and for some time surveyed It sospiciowxly 
her perch on a tel eph one wire. Then, 
knowing that her little famiK 



*>> 



Bird - Lore 



depended upon her. »hc bravei> new all 
around the camera, ciamming it t nlically 
•ad lighting upon the edge of ibc not. and 
gave taem ibc feast for which their wide 

ibc dinner hour I pulled the thread just 
a* tbe mother lit upoa the edge of the 
MM. !• another ciposurc I caught her 
feeding tbe young bird (one bad dis- 
appeared when very •mall but a* the 
light was poor, aa exposure of one-fiftieth 




\STA MkMM Ml uv 

of a second gave little detail I'nfortu- 
aatdy, confidence and want of suspicion 
in building her neat to near the earth (and 
the untaught »roall boy) brought a and 
tragedy, aa a boy took tbe neat and bird, 
and they were both found oa a path not 
far distant -the bird dead. 

<ly, through the tpleadid work of 
the Audubon Society aad nature study 
in the schools, together with many charm 
iag bird book*, we may hope that our 
bird*, our tree*, and our flowers may aooa 
be appreciated aa blessing* that will need 
no protection of the law. hut. until that 



time arrive*, let intelligent inal 

our home* and acboob go band in hand 

with mfotiti I.. iioated 

to protect forests, aad might it not I- 

to have such warning*, or at leaat »ugge» 

tioas for the protection of bird*, pl.t 

our schools aad libraries? — <>•». \% K 

MM B*tb* 

The Black-chinned Hummingbird 

I had an enjoyable experience 
aummcr. at Kugcnc 
chinned Hummingbird, whuh will 
hap*, be ol 

day. earl wc spied l 

of tboae living jewel* darting about thr 
loganberry buahea. 
female came often about the buahea, but 

l er again aaw the male. I hav< 
told that he never shares in any • 
domestic affair* of hi* kind 
neat — feeda no youn. b that 

thi* one shirked all responeibili 

Little lady turd chose a moat uncommon 

location for her nr*t. selecting a bush that 

lose beside thr walk, where wc pa seed 

a doaea times a day, within 6 feet of thr 

tempt waa m. 
•hield or h: waa placed 

<m the \cr alk. 

king to encourage her to remain 
we might watch the process of nest- 
tmilding. m> friend hung bit* of < 
battintc and *ilk threads in the buahea. 
These the bird used almost t 
I doubt the wisdom of 
when a long rainy spell 
neat waa soaked, and became so heavy aa 
to be almost dislodged fron .pport 

But, when newly made, a m 
bird- home cannot be imagine-! 
dollar would easily cap the top. John 
burroughs tells u* we should not attri- 
bute any artistic sense to bird*. I do not 
question that high authority, but I am 
glad this Hummingbird'* "inherit. 

prompted her 
of her neat with gray green moss or bits of 

Icaaa 

tinv home bur 



Notes from Field ind Study 



■QJ 



bat in a few days tiie neat wu corn- 
white 

• rl« in a \el\rt jewel-case. 
Urger than navy 

«n an anxious season, at least 
Thr rain and cold continued, 
inshinr ever reached the 
be north aide of the bouse 
and hail brat upon it I ..r days the 

soggy hum. and, wont of all, little 
aa my friend had 
named her would be Rone from the MM 
! a time Repeatedly we 
hone egg* will 

But .» her businesa better 

that ;h we had declared her a 

th in the dsoic* of loca 

' of her egg*, for 

in just two weeks from the day the first 

egg ■ riend called to me 

rat egg is hatched! 

The neat 

morning the other egg was hat 

Such funn> little birdlings. no larger 
than >ell. with no hint of a 

•r on their wrinkled bodies, except 
: .ish barbs on each wing. 

-» weak to 

hands and were blind as little 

ndered how the mother 

icceeded in feeding them during that 

but could never happen to l»« 

rnt at mealtime Perhap* little 

ns, require little or no food hi llM 

Lag**, «hm thr) vart >tronger, and 
eye* open, we had several glimpse* at the 
feeding pence**. Perched on the edge of 

all length into the gaping Mouth* 
and went t hrougb a pumping, ramming pro 
'tat seemed certain to piercr 

"■ just what the food con- 

we were m ■ <. . r able to determine. but 

«*f whatever nature, the hirdling. thrived 

duall) the xnnkled bodies grew 

plume <- greenish barb* on each 

wing showed where feather* would 

bain . then 



flossy, golden green with minute leather* 
eg, they dosely resembled 
the mot I 

I had always supposed that Humming- 
bird* were very shy. but we found this 
one quite approachable and very curious, 
.m hour of quiet, patient maneuver- 
ing, my friend si. .lading thr 
l»ird t.. »i|i li..m-> tr..m lowen in her hand, 
and later fed her with felly, *hilr 

I made sever*! unsuccessful attaaxf 

iosity and some - ■ and ag.i . 

! arouml it. < ••ming closer each time, 
till finally, having several time* t.i|.|«.i it 
daintily with her bill, she seemed satiated 
it meant no harm, so settled 
her neat. 

All during the nr*ting time. Lady Betty 
seemed to consider the h her 

special property, and waged instant and 
■ warfare on all intruders, big or 
little, bee or bird. 'Twas quite fur> 
watch her when she discovered a bee in 
the flower she wished to antlv 

she became a little fjsjj Her leathers 
stood out. and the humming became 
double-quick and so loud that the in 
tied in terror f \m thr >»allows sTxsfl 
housekeeping in a bird-house nearby, 
appeared to reapet t her right*, and <j 
withdrew when that fiery dart hurled her 
self at them. I. too. have flinched when it 
seemed aimed straight at my eye*. 

I know of no Humming 

bird* to build near *j 
when those tiny creatures favor you as we 

to wat.h (hem close! -. 
IT. y.mm 



Hifi!« and 



three seasons now we have had 
rather unusual bird tragedian in our garden. 
Although our house is set on a lot of only 
about one- half ipaat* 

in thr rbird. and Martin house., 

and there are Red beaded Wondpeck. 
the soft maple* In our bach yard wi 
a great may colonies of bees, and a day In 



194 



Bird -Lore 



••bra the blooming apple trees re- 
sound »nh their murmuring hum of 
industry, combined with the rich pla 
warble of Ibr Bluebird*, tbe joyou* gurgle 
of tbc Martin* and tbe inceaaaat singing 
of tbc Wren* ihnll tbe heart of a nature- 
One day in tbe summer of 1015. when thr 
<4de*t of the Woodpecker* left the neat 
and bopped and flew from fence-p 
tree. I noticed be waa getting rather near 
aome proapcffotta colonic* of bees, and. 
thinking to turn him bark. I approached 
carefully, but be flopped down onto tbe 
entrance of a very strong colony, and in 
'tan a minute they pounced on him. 
I removed him with all haste possible, 

ring him with a burlap aj 
■top the advance of tbe enemy, but be soon 
• I in (real agony. He waa a sccthinjc. 
hming mass of angry bees, and 
co ve t ed with be. dwere 

tbe beea that those who had lost 
stings (for a hone> oing only 

the (rather* and 
biting with thrir mandiblr*. Tbe move 
ment of thrir wings rubbing againat tbe 
feathers made a noisr not unlike escaping 
steam. I did not fed so grieved about him. 
aa hi* parcnia had often snapped up my 
virgin queens when tbey led their 
for tr *ting me $1.50 

per snap. I felt that tbe Woodpecker 
family deserved some punishment for 
their treatment of royalty, though it waa 
rather a severe revenge. 

Last season, when the Bluebird family 
Irft their borne, two out uf thr rivr young 
ones act tbe same fate as the Woodp- 
In crossing tbe garden tbe young birds 
bopped onto tbe doorsteps of tbe bee- 
hive*, when tbe occupant* rushed out by 
tbe doactts and pierced tbe dainty visitors 
with their deadly stings. 

In the winter months of 1916-17 we 
•pent considerable time constructing a 
fancy Martin bouse to take tbe place of 
tbe old soap-boa borne which bad col- 
lapsed in a winter »torm. and erected it 
with due ceremony in tbe garden near tbe 
jrape vine* when spring came. Our 
labor waa rewarded by the Martina accept- 



ing it, on thru am 1 we 

enjoyed bearing their gurgles of appi 
Sometimes there would b. • more 

inspecting all the rooms ai 
roof having a friendly cba' 
a way of visiting all tbe bouse* in tbe neigh 
boffcttod batata acce p tin g <>nr («>f not 
building. Later in the season we noticed 
that the birds had dim. sight 

ing on tbe bou 

suing them. As soon as tbe M 
would circle about the bouse, an an 
beea would follow, but tbc fail 

1 head of them and > m to 

notice them while in th< when 

they would aliicht on the bouse, tbc bee* 
appeared to settle on ihcm. and 
would fly away with frightened squawk*. 
Only one pair remainrd in the hou»> 
only by rushing through tbc nil 
ping into tbe opening, nil shting 

outsi'i •■> keep bouse at 

all. Tbey managed fairly well until thr 
young needed constant feeding, when thr 
battle for existence bega 

- less than a doaen angry beea hover- 
ing about tbe entrance, and when< 
parent bird would leave the bouse, more 
joined in tbe purtm g, the 

birds would sometime* make M 
attempt* to entrr before being successful, 
so persistent were tbc I* U thr 

Martin* became discouraged and (rd thr 
young only rarly in the morning and latr 
in tbe evening, when the bees w • 
Tbe birds would ma k m thr 

morning, and I could bear tri- 
ed tbe young aa tbey m 
when the angry hordes gathered, tbe par 
enta disappeared, and I saw no m 
them all day until just about sunset, when 
tbey would return and make a few I. 
trips, remaining with tbe young at night 
ng bird* sat with his head 
just showing in the doorway of tbe bonne, 
chirping hungrily, (or three day*, but tbe 
parent* never came near, eiccpt a* 
above, and finally tbey failed to ape 

he chirping of tbe young grew I 
and fainter, and on the fourth day all wa» 
silent about tbe bouse, though n 
angry bees kept up tbe unceasing ■ 



Notes from Field tnd Study 



*05 



(all thr h<>u«r was taken down and 

4\r mute evidence of 

the unequal conflict that was waxed under 

the summer ak) P\rker. 

The "Stake-Driver" Again 

id »everal accounts uf the 
booming of t he I 
inj( lft \«»* Burgh in 

June number I'rrmit me to add an impor- 
tant detail Dot mr- 
Burgh - well written <le» 
concluding with the "plunk" position, the 
<-sts for some time. then, as though 
a new thought had suddenly occurred to 
him. be begin* to pump in air. appar- 

•h hi.* 

roat begins to swell, and hi> beak 

'plunk" position (as shown in 

Other "gulp," at a higher 

an th,- tir»t increases the size of the 

throat and raises the beak to the "plunk" 

position. Other gulps follow, successively 

successively in a higher 

>nd with ever higher angle of beak, 

the throat constantly enlarging to an 

immense sice The sound suggests to the 

Hefner 60 feet away the tilling up of a 

jug with ■ e beak is more 

than shown in Mr. vos 

Burgh rawing, and the m 

.e as that of the throat of 

the aysWei before peeping, the real stake 

K begin% The bird seems to have 

tappe rforc beginning the hard 

raining blo»»' llr\^ 

A Unique Wren Meat 
It seems that birds, copying after man. 

At least one pair <>( House Wrens at Quincy. 
•me as far as the iron age and 
nst rue ting their nests with an idea 
of having thrm tirrpr..,.! 

>( Illinois 

Museum si ( hampaign was the recipient 

n nr«t || was found 



«* Jessie Brackensick, o< • 
an angle of the top sill and braces under the 
roof of a chicken-bouse. In the fall of 1915 
a tangle of m (ting was 

thrown behind the shed, and the following 
spring a pa in search of 

nesting material found that the wire would 
break cam! ml suiting- 

purpose. They used this wire to the prac- 
usual materials 




- 

Pbotocrspard by W.lt.r A. GoalUa 

and formed from it a very sold but rather 
bulky nest. To smooth the cavity some- 
what, the birds used a few gram stems and 
long black horse-hairs, also one small mass 
of cobweb the list of 

materials. The Wrens have used this same 
nrM f..r two *e*»on» *n«l prnhahU *oul«i 
have occupied it again this year had it 
not been collected and donated to the 
Mu»eum \V\iria \ « .. >» 1 r rr. Cheat 
»«IM. 111. 

The Blue Jay Will Murder 

It reading the war news, the mur 
dtfom cry of a Blue Jay was heard, and. 
pitiful notes of a pair 
of Robins came to my ears Upon invest* 
gallon I found that the Jay had hustled a 
young Robin out of It* neat in an adjacent 
tree and as soon as he ground 

• a. pulling .hrr.ii of rlc»h from fa hrr*.i 
Wmm driven away, the Jay railed out a 
deheat note, as though it wort part of Its 
daily duties to ml am 



:</> 



Bird 



Robin* For ma known 

that the old squawker Jay «a* gu 
Mealing Ibe egg* of other it we 

at be 
■U a murderer, ami 
the Blue J* i*n blue I 

From Sunset to Sunrise with the 
Martin* During the Plocking-time 

i meek |irrviou» I" I al«.r I 
number* of Fur trung 

along the telegraph line* and hoi 
near certain abode* in North Lvanston, 
III . near Sheridan Road. (Hi Lai* 
it wa* derided t<> « ., t . h then- thousand* 

c al thc»cene 

in the afternoon great number* were 

«een wheeling in thr *ing them. 

me to a woodland wh- rnber* 

i<kle> had darlrd ii 

•>g t hi* spot from qua tound 

that the descending in 

great companies. Though the air wa* 

ly filled with bird*, and the greatest 

'.tinty seemed I in their 

wheeling and soaring, yet at a certain 

moment a command wa* seemingly given. 

for all at oner they began to take refuge 

bt night in the top* of tree*. 

The woodland occupies nearly a square 

block, and is a dense undergrowth of 

elder below young tree*, mostly elms. 

To say that the tree* *wayed with the 

weight of the bird* will perhap* give *ome 

idea of their number* The sight wa* 

»u. h that we marveled that people did 

me from far and wide t 
to intent are human being* in pur- 
their own particular plan* that party 
after party motored by without one paus- 
ing to look U the *( nge sounds 
from the gallery like the buxa of a n 
bee*, so did the whir of wings and bird 
et< tarnation thrill and stir the air 
grant* of cxrry nation, all babbling in a 
corner .Id scarcely have 
caused *uch a din yet underneath was a 
sense of law. order, and definite plan. 
Feeling that this was a rare oppor- 
of us ardent bird-lovers decided 



i all night tool- 
ed the birds during the nig I 
i» the 

spite all the other sound*, the morner 
human footstep* were heard, the : ; 
ing would begin, bird* would fly Imm their 

< *. and a general commotion foil 
Obaervalion*. there) 
outside the cop*' 
4 and 4. .to, th< 

prep.i' 

their wings coul 
(tared with that of a huge thrashii . 
1 hine running at !••; 

•.000 
•ailing into line lea wood. 

definite wa* one* plan that 
•uld almo«t imagine h«- 

■ 
l«-rf..rman until 

the fir It * hen U ipan> 

departs : \\ I 

Swallow* Flocking 

■mpanying photograph wa* 
made in the middle and show* 

Swallow* on Black River Bay. 
* hi. ti is an arm of La. 
lountv N N I nil lot * ***» m.« 
largely of Tree Swallows, but includ- 
Bam and Rank ■ most 

interesting member of all. to me at 
was a single Rough- winge 
have not found this specie* at all common 
in this part of the state. 

This picture wa* made on th< 
of a large marshy *tretc h known 

•rnsiveflag 
and reed-beds of this lotalitv ma. 
>w* and 
winged Bl congregate an 

while the birds are aasemhiing in late 
summer and early fall. Incidental 
plentiful growths of wild rice among the 
patches of arrowhead and pickerel weed 
bring many wild Dock* to the same 
mar*he» 

I have *een the Swallow | mass 

from the place of their nu 
investigation have found a ronsid 



Notes from Field and Study 



*)7 



section of the cattail bed bent down in a 
. ontinuom litlrrr.) mi*v a» thourh it hj.l 
been the bed of tome ureal bird instead of 
that of hundred' dividual* closely 

huddled The Swallow* all lea ve these sleep- 

• soon after daybreak 
instead o( leaving thr mar*h entirely, they 

tree* 
aad h< 'f an hour or I 

nag over the neighboring country 



%een these bird* here or anywhere 
else is this north country in numbers whirh 
compare with the nrwratJ of Swallows 1 
have observed near the Hackraaarfc 
meadow* near New \ ->rl City No doubt 
northern New \ far toward the 

northern limit of the Swallows' tummrr 
range to ever witness flocks of these bird* 
of the *ize they form a* they pragma 
farther southward, adding to their number* 







rhatasmnni I 

•I through the mat of the da» It 
was at this time, or about 7 or » * « 
that I rowed my b. Kin several 

yards of the bird* assembled on a few low 
willow trees, landed and made the |- 
here shown These bird* were rem*' 
tame, allowing me to approach to » 

•f them ami to thrust my ram 
art, almost la their facu*. 

« allow, in these 
marshes may weH be called large I ha»c 



* 11 



A Scene from the Home-hie of the 
Chestnut-sided Warbler 



nest here shown »•• found at 
It wasoa 

a htlltide covered with 'slash' from old 

lumtwrinc m»cf»tii«n« I hi* 
up to a tangle of 



«l 



Bird -Lore 



lb and raspberry bushes. The Mat 
waa la one of Ibr latter, about , feet from 
tbr ground. 1 1 was well built. The founda- 
tion waa made of coarse grain and mot 
lrt». lined with finer grasses » nd fiber*. 
It waa not so bulky and much firmer than 
that of none of our other W When 

we came up the mother bird flew away. 
revealing four downy young about three 
day* old. 

r taking a position near the neat. I 
found that a blind would not be needed to 



h bird* fthared in the work 

the young and keeping the neat scrupu- 

intil the male became 

accustomed to the camera !r wa* 

somewhat overworked, because the had to 

tic young and keep tnem warn 
He made up for his not working somewhat 
by singing almost i 

favorite tree nearby. The I . h» to 

the young consisted roost I > of pU 
and the Ian* of leal eating 

< u 




US 
»pWd by C W Lsaasr, ttkara. \ Y . Jaat *o, M 



«at(h and record the activities of the 
let family. The young were quite 
«mall. and the mother bird soon came back 
and began brooding tnem. Her parental 
instinct quite overcame her (ear of the 
camera and of man, allowing me to come 
within s feet of the neat and set up the 
camera. With the male bird it was quite 
different, for he would not cone near the 
neat unless I partly c on ce al ed myself in a 
• lump of bushes to to is feet awl 
*tring was »t retched from the camera to 
the hiding place, and moat of the pi 
were taken by pulling it. 



The Bandit.— A Street Scene from 
Birddom 

Walking in Virginia Park one morning. 
> eased the following amusing little 
scene in bird life, illustrating the au< 
and impudence of the omnipresent Eng- 
lish Sparrow. 

A Robin was working hard to get a 
worm out of the ground. After much 
picking, pulling, and jerking it finally 
succeeded, and. raising its head hi. 
add the worm in it* bill rea'1 
a •ell-earned meal. 



Notes from Field and Study 



I'lO 



it lie Sparrow, sit ting 

I watched the i 

•rrr>t. and no sooner 

did be sec the «mI in its bill, 

than thr lit it an arrow 

the worm from 

it* bill aad flew swiftly about .*o feet away, 

other hand, wa» to 

trad motlonhi' 
second* after thr receding bandit, and 
then kl 

\iick. 

n, a Housebreaker 

Bluebird 
poascaaioo of a box on a slender pole in t h< 
garden at 

vt day 
•bina began t«. build on a platform 
••n th- 

; »ics came house - 
K and finally chose a very bushy 
nson rambler, high up in 
the rose-trellis on the front porch. About 
tbe same time a Wren came to the box be- 
longing to a small boy some >oo feet away. 
ard occasionally 
but was promptly (based out agaio by 
r the mother Robin, 
me* quiet lilt hippy 

joined in tbe • hase. 

Jun luebird* went away with 

•pecklcd babies, and then tbe 
ard and garden. 
>w him fly from tbe grape- 
arbor into tbe ro*c-trelli% but supposed 
or tbe aphides which nn 
laafl on the crimson rambler 
tbe mother had been sitting for 

lotked one afterno. 

•ewing. that abe 

■ tnrcequarter% 

r bad passed without bringing 

hippy to her neat. I iuveetigair 

the nr «o cold eggs. One was all 

other had a small, dean cut 

•oe lay on the gronnd 

I tbe Wren. b< 

almost a»harned <>f mT.elf for doing *. 



The last of Jun Irfrds came back 

for a second nesting, and at 4 over 

the new box p n, decided 

that ti I one better, and the 

m the neat. 
One morninK sfter I knew thrrc were ewe* 
in thr neat, I heard th« >lding 

in tbe gan Bluebird^ 

away the upper back 

1 where he was and found him on 
the wire running between the two Blue 
l>inl Im.\ ( ». I threw a stone at him !• 

/him him at all. and he wrnt on into 
the Blurbir rned away 

to go down and drive him off, he camr to 
the door of the box and threw out an egg. 

-harp pull. setting thr box to swaying, and 
the lit tic* Wren tumbled out and flew 
away. On the ground beneath thr box lay 
three broken egK A *» empty 

I know why Uh 
thr Wrrn and chase him away when he 
comes to the yard. I should like I 
Bom-Lou whrthrr thi> is a trait 
Wrrn fami 

degenerate member of the family.' Mas. 
AtTHt R F. Oak ; \taplr Arrant . 

A Family of Brown Thrashers 

Brown Thrasher is usually l 
uncompanionable bird, displaying none 
of thr fhrndttneas for people so nota 1 
the Robin and 1 frequent I > 

seen about mil roadside under- 

fiord ample means of con- 
cealment He tin* »h>!\ j U. ut at s safe 

r ning brushwood, and as he is trident 
seen a » not easy to obeervi him 

doeely. 

The p rm n c e of a pair of Thraabers 
about a brushwood in my laid lad to tbe 
diacoeery of a neat deep among the dead 
branchee, and it contained three newly 
hatched young. Desiring an acquaifl 

his Interesting family. I frequently 
visited them during tbe day r he old bird. 
walnH at a distance until I was within 



joo 



Bird -Lore 



5 or 6 feet of the ne»t. thru the Bother 
darted into the brush and covered the 
young while the male flitted about the 
other aide of the pile, trying to decoy me 
from the I *i» repeated at 

>l» during several day*, while the 
bird* gradually crew ■ l.ttlr lew timid at 
my presence The mother always to- 
•cat while the male, when I allowed him 
lo draw me in the other aide of the brush 



with a piece of apple which, after a tenia 
>»e would peck eager 

ng my ru h hi* 

breast or ba<V The photograph w»* 

I time, a* the the young 

bird* were gone from the ne*t. and 

though I occasionally *aw the old 
bird*. I could never again appr 
M v, 




I \UISc. \ HK'itt \ I I 

would ait motionless on a twig, mam 
afraid but determined to Hand hi* ground 
if only he could keep me away from the 
ne»t. After repeated viait* he would per- 
mit me to come gradually nearer till I 
stood within 7 feet of him. Hoping to 
induce him to eat from my hand. I offered 
Urn grain and angleworm*, but though be 
would not atir till my hand nlmoat 
.touched him. he refuted to be conciliated 
and would peck at my hand and Urn hi» 
dejire that I ahould go. I won him at la»t 



The Language of Robina 

Robin* 

rner of <• laxxa. 

■at in lonttant u*e. and many 
times the moth- 

gfcl there Pt hnpa she kn< 
that time it wa* a 
rear a faro 

home neat, and when four baby I 
»he took good care of ther 
fa*t and crowded »o far over th- 
that we often wondered wher< 
room t<> May there at night 
them. After they were feathered 
little fellow tumbled down on the porch- 
rug, and though he teemed almoat large 
and strong enough to take mself, 

we put him back in the ne*t. ! 
*o for food that the parcrr 

•riding worms and ■ 
them 

One afternoon, when I was preparing the 
strawberries for supper. 1 found a number 
of soft ones and decided to give them to 
the young birds myself. I stood on a 
which raised me high enough to re*. 
ne»t and also to see the fun. All »• 
hungry and evidently all liked straw t 
raised up. opened th<. 
mouth*, and I ne\er <ould tell whi 
them got anything, for they all grabbed at 
rai h piece I held out. 

ppoae the old birds were not far 
away and beard the noise and chatt< 
soon, from the pine tree whose bra 
hung near the ; 
of chatter — a shrill, o,uick, <M 

bisf, caw, — tki.tk ha — 

repeated again and again till the > out . 
beard and noticed it and then. hum 



Nores from Field and Study 



*oi 



they »eemed. every bird quieted j/ eaMO, 
ikml Ikrir momtki. and lowered themselves 
m the nr»t. till ooly I ulc head* 

Kfmnl to \tr || I and Hied 

could r- of them to take another 

oil mouth* 

> not understand the language o( 

' «ff(nt there must be something 

of Ihr ink the mothrr 

i t take another thing from 

that girl." and the> did not (all it what 

you » mpt obedi- 

r a few days the) •• 

not ate them leave the nr.t but uw the 

parent walk ahead, about t. and 

' a time after hrr till she 

had taught them to walk, from the porch, 

>ehind the garden, where they had 
their flying lesson* in the appl< 

tUh.im. \ 

Our Summer Visitors. — A True Story of 
Some Nova Scotian Birdi 

us no notice of any kind. The frst 
intimation wr had of their presence «u 
the «ound of a great chattering outside 
of the front door Whoever you arc 
thought, "your tonea are not 

med to be quarrrl« 
•ened the door, and there they were. 
1 oo a (if ■!« h nearby, and 

looking very belligerent a pa>- 
bird*. dressed and silver 

«opknot» on their bends and white 
ring* around I In ey had actually 

most on a level *ttb our 
eyes, and we bad never noti<rd then 

belon g ed to the > 
family. a* we had seem tig e like 

them rieforc, and watched them 

rent opportunity of g< 

'id not obac r ve them more or ken. 
Sometime* there would be a fearful 
motion, and we would look out to •*■• 
chasing a Robin frort 



to any small bird who approached too 

Me would be routed »r nony 

Robins appeared to be their chief enemies. 

• \. hearing the usual riot, we 

saw two Robins and the tiair of king 

birds in pursuit of ea« h other around the 

The perpendicular red line in their 

forehead* shoved very plainly, as it al» ay* 

does when they are angry. The Robins, 

<-r. had the best of it thi* time. 

As soon aa they were 

of the tree, they would dart back to the 
other side. This game was kept up until 
another Kingbird came to the rescue, and 
the three succeeded in driving their 
enen I he lawn. 

tined eggs, 

nidged from the birds' bcha\ior. the 
male always watching the nest when the 
female went in : food, which *he 

did at «hort interval*. He vat nearly 
always on the same branch, *» that he 
<ould look into the nest, and waited pa- 
tiently till *he was on her way home, when 
off be went, and she won' n the 

nest in a business- like manner Sim- 
he lingered, and she chattered 00 

^ile he li»tened in a dignihe.) 
and vaid nothing. 

What convrr* | had when the 

young bird* were hat n the 

edge of the nest together, and turning their 
hoods first on one side nod then on the 
other, with *uch an air of pri<! 

iiently the little ones m 

nsects. From an upstair* window we 
could look right into the nest, and m 
0001 dragonfly we u« dissected ali\e. a 
kg to one sod • »mg to another Some- 
time* one had the whole insect and the rest 
opened their wide mouth* in vain. One 
poor baby bird • *• neglected, perhap* 

mouthful \t lost n. goof httle dead body 
und on the lawn, whether murdered 
by unnat ural parents, or by some marauder 
In their absence, we never knew. There 
•ere very few mosquito* in the garden 
that year, aod we believed the Kingbird* 

(light thry we old *nap op a June bug. a 
or a bee, hardly ever 



*oi 



Bird - Lore 



•ad return to thrtr perch without 
ond's pause. 

At last Tag-raff' and Bobt 
• ailed Ibrm. (mm thrtr disheveled appear- 

«rrr taught to flap their wh . 
•It on the edffe of the seat. and. 
much eahortation and eiampte from 
lurrr -Hi <>n the nearrat twig; 

then to make little- (light, of a Irw in. hr» 

<>thrr's hack, thrn to fl\ 
branch to branch; fmthrr and mother all 
thr time going *>« rfc * n,! r the 

routr they viaaed thr little ones to takr. 
< hattrrinff in a peculiar lanjcuai 
never used l>c<ore 

.picioua of thr 
big aettrr who 

la step, and who seemed aa intrr 
e»ted in the show aa anyone; and at last 
the male bird, hi* forrhrail blazing red, 
flew riffht into thr d 
atood laal. and thr bird* continued thr 
tijt 

Thu> far had their education gone one 
rvrninff when we badr them good night, 
and the neat morning, hearing the aame 
peculiar note, we looked out to find they 
had accompliabrd the flight to a nearby 
md before noon they had worked 
their wiv out of our neighborhood Onlv 



Off* I '"'.re «Im1 «r behold them a few d«>% 
«n .. irrr in the garden. «i 
I 'Tag rag' and 'Bobtail' with real 

ud tool twaj rearj thread «.f the ne.t 
to build one (or themaelvrv althouffh it 
seemed rather Lite in the aaaaot 



Robin Neattnff on Ground 

«»n Mi> J*. miS. I di»<ii\rrrd a k 

■ • lilt rial u|M.n thr ground, in a dump 
It wit locatrd in an 
»hi«h there were numerous g«*»d n< 

other I t-*U. 

neat waa o( thr • 
art hit' th thr usual mud 

and tontainrd (our rgga. thr«- 

• d, and, ao far aa I I vouag 

While I have ' 
neat within a foot o( thr ground upon rail 
(encea. I havr nevrr In-i 
buildinx right upon thr groir 
Veaper Sparrow 

P«. 



THE SKASON 
VIII. April 15 to June 15. 1918 



Two coatributora to tab depart mrnt 
xo-Loac have been "called to the 
- ii k./ 
the Nrw York City region, and also 
editor of the Department, i> now in tamp 
ia Georgia, and Df Wlaaof M 
reporter (or the Boston region, b now a 
Captain in the medical 
sta t ioned at Newport. W'hrrrvrr they go 
and whatever be their dui\ we may be 
sure that their interest in bird life will 
prove a welcome source of relaxation 
from the strenuous demands of the. 
leaaion -F M 

Boston Rscion.— The aeaaon. delayed 
by cold and rainy weather, made little 



progress during the latter h.i 
it was scarcely mor< 
than the extremely late season of 

;>ring remained backward 
7, when a few daya of summrr temperature 
stimulated such a rapid gr 

kfay it, judged by the Uoa- 

| of thr horse-cheat nut u 
waa three weeks in advan 
daya latrr thr country had assumed almoat 
the appearance of summer, the full 
grown leaves casting dense shade. Thus 
in two werks a backward spring was 
transformed into summer. 

•mg the last daya of April, there 
came an unusual flight of Yellow Palm 
Warblers • both 



The Season 



3©3 



in son. in numbers far above 

normal. exhibited a marked habit of 

insects on the wing. The 

tie beat following May 6 brought a 

lelayed summer n» 

and transient* compri si n g many ipedei 

irpriaingly few individuals. I 

were in active migration, but 
they passed northward so rapidly and 
inconapicuoualy that many ob* 
reported that there were no birds to be 
teen 1 there was so little 

lence of migration. 
In this hurried migration, the 
starts lagged noticeably behind ; Tennessee, 
(ape May and Bay-brca*tcd Warblers. 

.*h promt. <lid not •« . ur ir 
number* .1 . r ago; all 

•mmoncr than 
it baa been for the last few year- 

ind chiefly along the border* of 
woodland and meadow, instead <>f in 
garde r merely a local condi 1 

By the first of June, the song-period of 
many resident birds had begun to wane, 
owing doubtless to the cares of nest; 

M.I) 1 ■ ringtom. 

The ten 

lure 1 ti slightly above normal. 

The noteworthy feature* of the month 

ware s la ebes— only 

one noted April 10; the abundance of 

WHso the 10th to the joth 

n April jo to May 20. 

va«i. Of Mar! 

Informed me that his Martin- bouse was 

occupied by only about half the number 

of birds present bat spring, and that soma 

houses In his neighborhood, which were 

eaaated a year ago, had none at all. 

rated to have the. 

winged Teal, two Ipland 
Plover and a small flock of Pipit* 
obacrvad at Salem, N J . April «S. 

> ondftions for May wera almost 

age temperature being five 



above normal. The unusual warmth, 
together with frequent rains, caused 
vegetation to grow rapidly, and by the end 
was said to be two weeks 
ahead of the average. The trees were in 
full lei k foliage made 

It to see, and favoring weather 
caused migrants to paas through without 
stop. These facts may a« mmw 

extent, for the unprecedented scare i- 
some birds, especially Warblers. Obscr 
far and near all tell the same gem 
few Warblers seen 

tory Warbler 

• is.n Have not seen a single Magnolia 

ated 

Green or Magnolia Warbler." The 

-pent some time of each day in the 

and 

• r the season for some of the 

>mmon species are: Black -throated 

Blue. 1. Magnolia, o I sided, j; 

Black : kedstar 

Canada, o. Black and Whit. 

How Palm, and Black-poll 
Warblers were apparently as numerous aa 
usual. 

Miss Anna Decter, of Reading, 
writes that M> Rose- 

breasted Grosbeaks were more than ordi- 

ommon this spring, and that the ■ 
Warbler %e.i*on was disappointing!) short, 

practically ending M c at 

Camden, the latest transient (Black 
•ler) was noted Msy 

exception of the House W 
and the Maryland Ycllowthroat the breed- 
ing birds seem about as abundar 

iiiKoroN Rbojom.— So far aa bird 
migration is c o n cer ne d , April and May are 
the mo»t interesting month, of the year 
about Washington Of this period the 
weeks b et w e en April 1 $ and May M 
in normal seaso ns , the moat impor 
The height of the spring migration, 
individual, and gfgejti both tonsiderr.1 
is ordinarily from May to to May > 
The present spring has been, on 

• hole an unu.uallv gnmj waw.n for bjgdj 
and both species and individuals have been 



-4 



Bird - Lore 



numrruut Vt *ith*taoding this. MNM 

birds haw been remark*) 

i* not »m- with all l he Swallows, 

the Carolina Wren, the Solitary V 

Lamat Flycatcher, Blur (ray OMtottchar, 

Vaapcr Sparrow, Solitary Sandpiper, and 

the l.easer Yellow leg*, the laat mentioned 

of which has en' 

It would lie interesting rminc 

whrthrr this scarcity U mrrrl 

more or lea* general, aa tome epedea 

affected are transient*, others are summer 

rr»j.lrnt» 

ther hand, a number of specks 
cen more than ordinarily numerous; 

notably the Tennessee, Kentucky, Hay 

breasted. Blue- winged and Wfl 

bier*. Baltimort uagcr. 

Grosbeak 
h. Bob-white, and Bonaparte » Cull 

The first- mentioned 

rare bird during the spring migration but 

this year it ha* been one asamon 

A few birds thi* season have appeared 
in great numbers for a short period, 
apparently representing waves of migra 
nil affected but a species or t* 

spit uous among these have been 
the Purple I 1 wager, 

md indigo Bunting 

however, has been ususlly but a day or 

In ptnnt 

bee been about normal, though, 
aa is often the esse, somewhat irregular. 
The remn.i 

that wintered on the Potomac I 
lingered rather long in thrir winter haunts, 
a few species longer than < 
Baldpate, the latest previous spring record 
of which was March ti, 1912, was seen by 
Ludlow rjriscom on April 14. and 
I he same observer also on 
April 14 (latest previous dat< 

the 1 anvssback remained until 
which is the latest definite date, 
although there b an old record for some 
time in April, 1S4 >boemakcr 

also reported the Red breasted Merganser 
on April it, which constitutes our only 



• l.l. tul. s.rit>»; re..,r.| l..r tl»r »|»o ic» 

• 

observed on Ma> 1 1. more than a n 
beyond it* previously recorded 
date, iftov. Some of 

and Bonaparte'i t.uit M 

a few a 
putting in their spring *| 

• >n April 16 < average date 
\pril 

\ 

<avcr... 
winged Swallow 

numrr -.il of then 

Louisiana rush was ot>- 

on March ji (earliest previous date, 
\pril ink Swallow on 

.'•us date. April 10. 1004); 

ous dj 

' mous date. 
April so, 1HM5;. A single Indigo li 
was noted on April 1 - \ s ahead of 

its pt- 
li ut n 

;o. Two of our rarest *; 
also appeared earlier th 

I hiladrlphia Vireo on M 
date of « 
1902. and the I'rothon 

it. Ludlow (iriuan an< 

28, two days ahead of its earlit 

published I 

early birds were thi 

April 

a. April 14. Yellow -throated '•■ 
April 

Uy6. 

1 h*. ipfssnaaca of t*<> i»ir<i» rerj rar<- 



The Season 






trrov was observed at 
Rcnstngto | Mr. Ray men 

Moore oa May 1. This is a specks which 
seems but cached the 

umbia. (or no obs er v er s 
reported it until within the past few years, 
ill very rar xpian Tern 

was seen at Ptummer Island oo M 

more, which i» its second 
known local spring occurrence. 

Another interesting manifestation of 
<c during this spring, to whirh the 
good weather has doubtless contributed. 
»» the rather unusual song activity, par- 
ticular sin species. This has been 
eapscislly noticenhlt in the Olive-backed 
-cbreasted (.rosbeak. the 
Warbler, and many of the other 
Warblers. Kven on the warmest days their 
tinging has continued throughout a much 
of the afternoon than is 
commonly the case. This has aided much 
in making daily observations, and is 

leas partly responsible for the i 

lent records of numbers of species and 

individuals noted that many o b s er ver s 

nog the 1918 migration 

y of Washington. — 

unusually mild weather and the early 
spring n wakening of March and the first 
nl was checked by a cold spell 
that lasted from April 16 to Ma ■ 
frosts and freezing temperatures prevailed 
throughout the state, and on the jjd the 
the r mo me ter registered 13 degrees at 
th snowfall along the Canadian 
boundary This put a check on both 
vegetation and bird arrivals. Than fol- 
lowed a week of very warm weather. 
ft being the hottest May Sunday oa 
record in Minneapolis—*© degrees at noon 
Following this came another interval of 
chilly weather terminating Ma> ij »ith 
heavy froat and ice at Minneapolis and 
at dngmi up at Lake Superior. From this 



lime on continuous warm weather pre- 



and April more than the usual amount of 
rain fell in May. which, with the hot days 
that ushered in and completed the month, 
caused the waiting vegetation fairly to 
spring forward and burst into a rapid 
luxuriance that quickly more than made 
up for the delay caused by the frosty 
weath. rly June, vegetation 

was some days ahead of the normal sched 
ule. and by mid- June, white water lilies, 
tiger lilies, and linden trees were in bloom 
nearly two weeks ahead of time. 

The following are the dates of blooming 
of a few of the common flowers at Min- 
neapolis: April tj, marsh marigold and 
wood anemone; May 2. greater bell wort 
and rue anemone, May 5, nodding tril 
Hum; May 0, first plum and crab apple 
trees; May in, puccoon (hoary and long- 
flowered), spiderwort, three flowered 
grnmi, ginger root; May 16, showy orchis; 
June 6, great -blossomed pentstemon and 
pale larkspur. 

In regard to the birds, it seems to be 
the general consensus of opinion of obe er 
aj Minneapolis that 
there has been something seriously amiss 
with the customary' spring movement thai 
after day the usual waves of 
migrants filling the tree- tops and thickets 
were waited and watched for. but as the 
season waned, it became all too plain! > 
appareet that the pitiful r epresentation 
of species ordinarily abundant was all 
that we were to see. In only a few instance* 
were there anything like 
numbers. All the various 
doubt present but in many cases so spar- 
ingly and so widely scattered that they 
easily eluded o b oe r vs tfon , and it was only 
by comparing notes whh several obeervsrs 
that their presence was made known. 
The always abundant Warbler 
Myrtle. Palm. Tennessee. Nashville. Black 
and • leckpotl. and Maryland 

Yellow-throat were far below the usual 
number. Others leas common. like the 
Una. Illackbumian. Black throated 
Urena, Magnolia. Cape Ma> WiU.n. 
Blackcap, etc.. were represented by only 
oat or two individuals, or not at all 
much watching la favorite haunts The 




«* 



Bird -Lore 



mm b true of the Spam 

kinglets. Thrushes, and ot her groups of 

•mailer land bird* Of the water bird* the 

- eu speak less definitely a* oppor- 
tunity for thorough observation wu 
limited, but it wa» noted that the al 
common Spotted Sandpiper waa almmt 
absent. 

r the end of the migration, con- 
siderable time has been spent in the held 
and it i» plainly evident that our land 
birds at least, with but few rxceptior 
greatly reduced in numbers this year. 
MeadowUrks. Song Sparrows, Chipping 
Sparrow*. 1 anagcr*. Catbirds, 

and Robins, are possibly nearly a* numrr 
ous as usual, but the woods and held* are 
for the moat part strangely silent and 
deserted. Of course tended to 

tie impression that there are no bird*, 
for all specie* are represented, but the 
bulk of b. i far as individuals 

arc concerned, is far below what it ha* 
been of late years, to say nothing of thirty 

t y years ago. Why this should be so 

i« Mill a my»tcry but the (ait remains that 

but a small portion of the birds that left 

v of Minneapolis last fall re 

turned this spring. Reports from other 

tics are awaited with much in: 
—Taos. S. Roaatrs, Zoolotital Museum, 
I nr.tr lit of \l imuftotti , 

n the usual haunts of the Mixking 
bird and bears each year the wonderful 
exuberance of it* nesting-song, can feel 
with me the pleasure 1 have bad • 
K real influx of Mockingbirds to this region 
during this season. It is now more than 
twenty years since 1 have seen so many 
of these birds in the neighborhood of 
I bear one singing 
lustily in the adjoining park — a rare treat. 
I have always believed that we would have 
many more with us regularly if the;. 
not sear ch ed for and disturbed so per- 
sistently during the nesting-seasot 
soon as a pair or two appear in a neighbor- 
hood, everybody seems to desire a young 
bird for a , tabic locality within 

a radios of twenty five miles of Denver has 



failed to *how a Nfi* kingbird 
arrival of the first wave of Ma 

Warblers this season ; perhaps 1 
them, but at any rste the only mir 
Warbler* I have seen this »i 
Macgillivray'* and Virginia, and during 
the same time 1 «ingle 

a Hronzcd Oratklc I have always seen 
these species in the neighborhood of my 
present home, without making any special 
effort. There ha* been an unusual number 
of Bullock'* Orioles. House W 
Plumbeous Vireo*. The i the 

House Wren in my vicinity last year and 
its recurrei hope that 

it will become a regular breeding bi 
our park. Night hawk* reached us about 
on time i May ;a), and again a l*< 
visited Chessman Park, the secoi 
eight years, coming ot 
Pewec was the last of th< 
appear in I 

ive often wondered what m 
become of an escaped Canary, and I 
had an answer I I male has 

been I house 

for several weeks, singing 1 get- 

ting its own living of weed and dandelion 
seeds as cleverly as our nat 
• v with whii h it ha» con* 
of the time 

1 bad looked forward with a great deal 
of anticipation to the tin 
clip*. iat I m\%\ 

the behavior of birds on the approa 
and during, the transitory night. To our 
great disappointment, the afternoon was 
cloudy, and we were not treated to that 
rare phenomenon which comes w 
total eclipse and an uncloudo 
sodden and awesome chanj 
night. Nevertheless, during tot ■ 
seconds) the mountain* and plain 
cov er ed by a striking and 
ness, end as it approach 
I -ark* became more vol u hi 
hawks took up their crepuscular ways, only 
to roost again on the fence- posts, srhet 
light once more prevailed \\ if I 
told. M.D., Denser, Cafe. 



-3oofc .fietus anb ftetiictus 



n's Labbadob. B> 
rowxsBXD, M.D. Houi(hti<n 

uir 

I BM 

us thai ever 
hi* boyhood he ha* longed to follow 
Audubon* f<>ot*tep* in Labrador. Thi» 
•irrrforr. not onl> mark* thr 
realization of an rarly ambition. I 
terve* dual purpose 

in* muih interesting and valuable in 
ng, the region to whit h it 
* and of bring an illuminating and 
always »ympathcti. rommeatory on the 
n» of the great ornithologist, 
htlessther better qualitied 

hi* nature than Dr. 
>rnd \ bo) 'i imagination, *tirred 
.raphit d< 
i* doubtless further stimulated 

ipanion*. after- 
a well know 
under whom, many year* ' I own 

1 sa bouse officer at the Maasa- 

.»tan«r* a kern intrrr*t in bird life 

.>mr* from 

l idcul that 

•end. so far a* Labrador i« 

»enta 

naend docs not coonnc him 
• writes also of plant* and 
of people, and always there is an historical 
background in which so compar 

ha* the *-ene r hanged in it* major 
•he past I* brought singularly 

Biaos of LkwisTun AvaViN IM 



■ tattr II. 
it the 



i-th an Introduction by I'sorasaoB 
\xtox. Lewistoa Journ 

Uine. timo. to page*, i 

Ail t-»n<r* 

Hi b > thoroughly well ann 

: loarks in whi«h the author'* 



enthuaiastic love of birds Bads frequent 

HOB Hrr remarkv therefore, are not 

<d to mere statements of manner of 

with dates, at how s 

keen ■ nga of birds and 

a discriminating 

I M 

r*tv s 

■61 paajai 

■ sM>r Traiton, drawing on hi* own 
- tperience. here write* a book for 
teachers on method* <ng science. 

The book has six major headings as 
follow "dagogy of S 

ln*tru. tioB II It,. I. li HI 

i\ Bygbn* 

- nil, i \ I ( luthn. 

There i* no padding, but a wraith of 

tkal suggestion and information based 

not on theory but on pra« I hould 

say that no teacher of elementary science 

rxaminatioB of 

thi* \olum. I M 

The Ornithological Magatines 

hja general art 
and a number of short notes make up the 
tents of the May number of 
•The I In a brief a««ount of 

'The Short «an 

as the aesting 
on the open prairies aad the finding of 
.1 nests, one of which, containing nine 
eggs, is r eprodu c e d from a photograph. 
One of the moat interesting arti. 
Bradbury • 'Notes oa the Nestlag II 
of the ■ Colorado/ 

wall illustrated with Ave views of get ti n g - 
aad owe photograph of a aest aad 
eggs collected tQto. Bear 

i paper aad 
Uuu'. arti.tr on the Swift la the aumber 



J<* 



Bird - Lore 



for January. 1017, art substantial cootri- 
button* to our knowledge of the natting 
habit* of (hi* characteristic spades of the 
mountain* of the West. 

Mrs. Bailey's paper 00 'A Return to the 
Dakota Lake Region' it continued with an 
account of the 'Birds of the I'nbroken 
Prairie.' TV type, locality, early history, 
of Costa'* Hummingbird are 
by the present reviewer, who 
shows that the spades was described from a 
a •pecimen collected in all probabit 
Ifagdalena Bay, Lower California, and 
that the bird was not taken in 
until twenty years later, and Us eggs not 
until nearly half a century after the dis- 
covery of the aperies. 

In sn interesting review of 'The Di»- 

-n of the Subspedea of the Brown 

Towhee' (Pipil >. based 00 a 

atudy of j8j aped men*. Sir art h shows that 

the three forms of thia bird in Cab- 

1'i^iJo e. rrmn/u. P. c. ceraAs, and P. c. 

stmkmla) occupy well defined areas 

are outlined 00 an accompanying map. 

itber remarkable that, although thi* 

Towhee i» so characteristic of the coast 

regioo, so apcrimens from Lake Napa, San 

Francisco, San Mateo, or Santa 

counties teem to have been examined in 

the preparation of the paper. In view of 

the recent tMs citation concerning the 

I v of the Brown Towhee oni 1 
Francisco peninsula it would have been 
interesting to have had some explanation 
or Mention of the local rarity of the bird 
in this part of it* ra» 

The brief notes include Hunt'* in- 
genious reconstruction of certain evidence 
of the pr esence of a Short-eared Owl near 
the University campus at Berkeley (an 
addition to the species of the local list) and 
Bryant'* snmmary of the content* of 18 
sto ma chs representing it apadea of 
Hawk, and Owls from California— T. S. P. 



and years of constant noise and flames, 
gaaea and dangers, wild birds have shown 
an astonishing disregard of these supreme 
efforts of maak | *oar and vol- 

plane, they seek thdr food, q 
one another, carry on thdr courtship, male 
and rear families in dose prosit 
actual fighting and exploding thri 

heu numbers have increased near 
ruined villages where they nest in the 
shattered houses and in cathedra! 
smoking from devastating bombard r 

The Twenty-*- nual Report of 

the Royal Soricty fur t! 
Bird*, presented at the general meet 
March 1 a, 1918, recounts the effort* 
Society in combating the popular but 
thoughtless dev food- 

supply at the expenv 
time when birds are of exceptional impor- 
tance to our agricultural inter- 
Fortunately, the efforts of the S. 
■varmly supported by th< 

;>calcd through a special leaflet, 
entitled Birds, Inac- ops.' The 

Society remarks with m> 
doubt edly this was a dut hould 

have been fulfilled by tl »ment 

department* entrusted with axruultural 
and educational interests snd with : 
money for such purposes; but 
had systematically neglect 
with an income less than that of many an 
Individual salaried oflidal had I 
the rev 

The spring and summer, 1918, issue of 
\udubon Bulletin' 
Audubon Society contains 48 page* 
with interesting matter relating 
birds and bird-con* ia Illinois. 

The address of Miss Amalie Ilannir 
treasurer of the Society, is 164.. 
Building, Chicago. 



Book News 



In the May issue of the New York 
Z oological Society's 'Bulletin,' William 
Beebe. writing on 'Animal Life at the 
Front,' says that "In spite of the month* 



The Department of Fish and Game of 
the slate of Alabama, has issued its usual 
'Bird Day Book,' a pamphlet of r 
six pages containing selections in prose 
and verse on the beauty and value of 
biada, 



Editorial 



3«? 



A 1 St—SSll IU|UtM 
Dovotod I* ttst Study and Protection el Blrsw 
«"OU o«o*« or rat icmni Macros 
I br PRANK M. CHAPMAN 
r Mitt*. M ABU. OSGOOD Wl IO HT 
*T D. APPLF.TON As CO. 



Vol. XX 



I. i»il No. 4 



am ruM ■ chap-ma* 



Bird-Lore . Motto: 
A B.*d m r*» B—b h Wmtk Tmm m Itt /*W 



migrstory birds have been 
•ccorded * full national citizenship \ 
longer at the mercy of this state or of 
that; no longer the victims of laws made 
with a view to their destruction rather than 
now wards of the 
Federal Government. And. within the 
limits of thr United States, have certain 
clearly denned rights whirh are legally 

M a* they 

these rights will be main 
tained in the interest of the birds, not of 
t ho r enemies. The species classed as game- 
birds will still have to contribute their 
share to gratify the love of sport whi 
many generations will doubtless continue 
to be an inherent human attribute. But 
their contribution will be made with due 
regard to maintaining the source of 
supply and not to gratify the selfish 
thoughtlessness of the passing generation. 
When on July 3. 1918. President 
Wilson signed the Enabling Act making 
effective our trraty with Canada for the 
protection of migratory bird*, he com- 

I the past 

third of a the friends of birds 

• ly been endeavoring to build. 

•hose familiar with the history of 

bird legislation and who have been engaged 

more or lent pr olonged period in the 

fight to secure for our bird* a satisfactory 

legal. t>egin to realise the sigulfi- 

cance of the vii tory which places thru « arr 

in the bands of the National Government. 

For year rue. certain of our 

have recognised the claims of birds 

I protection of the law Hut 



protection extended only to the limits of 
atn that gave it while in the neighbor 
ing stste the bird could, perhaps, not only 
be legally killed, but a price might 
lly be placed on its bend! 
'1 every state making its own lawn — 
or failing to make any— uniformity of 
treatment of the subject of bird consens- 
us out of the question. The first 
man to give public etprassion to the 
inadequacy of state game laws was 

ho. on Decern 
1004. introduced the original 'Migratory 
Kml Hill into Congress. The ideas it 
embodied were too novel to !.r irnmedi- 
but. at least, they were 
presented for the consideration of the 
public, to live or die on their mrr: 

Bird n were quick to sec the 

far-reaching importance of Federal legis- 
lation; while those sportsmen who think 
only of the number of days of shooting 
they can crowd into each year were equally 
quick to realise how materially it would 
restrict their si I dcral bird legis- 

lation therefore, soon developed many 
enemies as well as many friends 
side fully understood the nature of the 
struggle and was determined to fight to a 
finish. Fortunately the cause of the birds 
has never lacked for earnest and efl< 
lenders. Shiras was succeeded by W 
and Lacey and McLean, and finally a 
biU bearing the latter's name was passed on 
January jj. tqn. snd approved by the 
President on March 4 following. 

Beaten In Congress, the enemies of the 
birds soon stta mstitutlonality 

of the law. This que sti on was finally 
brought before the Supreme Court which 
gave no de ci sion but called for n rehearing 

Meanwhile in January, 1913, the sines 
of the birds, r eprese n ted by Senators 
Root and McLean, had taken the initial 
steps toward the pessnge of n migratory 
bird treaty which should embody the pro- 
vision! of the Shira» Week* LggM Mi lean 
law. It i. the Knabling Act' making this 
treaty effective which* has become the law 
lea to he administered by the 
Biological Survey of the I'nited Si 
Department of A gr i cu l tu re , 



Cf)c Hutmtion ^onctieg 

HOOL DEPARTMKNT 

Mill by AUCS MALL WALTM 

M inm «n t i ■ ■■■Icid— » tgffa* to IW *ot k o« i k« 4*mm 
MM to Im B4itof« ♦? OvfcuM A>iim« PtovMraKt. K I 

PRACTICAL CONSERVATION OF BIRDS 

Th- tendent of Public Sth«*»ls in Wilm; 

Mew Hanover, a Bird ton- 
lion < *vro sides we have the sea, and on the other, 

\ numlit-r of migratory birds spend the winter h< n We MU 
tinue our work through the schools, and to make it effective and |>erma»< 

In suggestion*, in the last issue for maki 

county tad village census- maps of bird-populations, for purpose 
i omj orison is this practical plan of setting al*»ut systema 

life within a single county There oooJd be DO better way to make a real 
In-ginning in conservation than to start all the K&ooll within a limited area in 
■ stuoS of t he ditTcrent species of birds found there throughout the year 
with the best methods of attracting and protecting Um ire l*»und 

■me more rapidly in this wi menltaUd rtfori is an essential 

in any successful undertaking 

Think what it would mean in any state, if individual counl >wns 

determined to tind out more accurately the kinds and numl>er* of birds present, 
the kinds of food preferred by them, the enemies and dangers about then 
the laws governing their relations to man' Within a short time the public 
would lietomc far more wide awake to the conditions n 
and man alike, and measures of | e control wool thout 

the opposition, now so unhappily and disastrously raised by ignorant or unprin- 

I politiciaav A n ish pajx-r mentions the wholesale c\ 

.lis vfxs from neightforing islands, due to the unusual demands ma<' 
the war. Just how far such utilization of a natural resource can 
allowed, responsible persons in authority should know definite! 
country, the national food-administrator, recognizing the val< 
man, particularly through their relations to agriculture, has urged u| 
one the importance of conserving bird-life. We have the opportunity now, as 
at no other time within our memory, to make use of every natural rev 

fullest value. Instead of minimizing the necessity of bird-study, the 

I I moment has arrived when we should strain every nerve to gar 
advantage which birds can help to give us. 

It is gratifying to receive reports that birds seem unusually abundant this 
season. At the moment of writing in northeastern \ 

(Jio) 



The Audubon' Societies 

ig with much cquency that iden 

decrease. laughing (iulls were seen along the shores of Rhode Island in early 

hlcr was recorded not far inshor species as 

these, whose numbers or distribution are varying, arc singled out -imply as 
implo of Ixrnencial species which show a rapid increase or 
MO, according able or unfavorable conditions. 

t possible to take up careful limited ana studies more generall) 
<>nl> dobs and communities, s> ti own. 

\r shall have a continuous link of thorough 

•rder to aid thi- n ;ies would 

i loser touch with each Junior Audut- thin their 

v, ap|K-aU come to the St hool I >cpartmcnt (of informa- 

get matt <i assistance in 

\Vh> not mid i »ir> ular of 

ool in tli> \u«lu- 

>tahlish, not only acquaintance l>m a working relation, 

uch ix»l.i lea might well 

be applied to liinl-Muilv un<l l>iril-cu!w-r\ \ li \\ 



JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 

cise XL: Correlated with Music. Basket -making, and English. 
Summer Bird Music. Part III 

C season has com- til to take the keen interest in 

lure is \t r\ much 
hear throughout July ami < who really wish 

-•come thorou. hovld m i mtdsun 

ingle vantage p.. int a li*t •ecics may U 

rvided the locality b ■ Cavoeabk ti than to 

iirt> or less species, a great deal OOdld be learned shout then 

:ht on the habits ami movement* of many 

upecies. t random li>t of birds seen or heard from a piaxxa 

rainy Jul\ morning illuAtra iluc of hot-weath< The 

1 1 it v was possibly more than ordinarily favorable, since 

nbtned a Milt water inlet «nh a somewhat shaded roadside bordering on a 

woodlan old apple trees, several large locusts, a 

a ted once, pcrhap rubs and road- 

■veeds ma general the vrgrt.i e large Uhu-.! akme offered 

opportunity for obaervati. Utrk. t> breasted Nut 

rperwere 



ju Bird-Ior« 

busily engaged, uttering their variou - season of 

ear, the Creeper gives two tongs, one far less rasping than its common 
awr-MV, s ww r, w m tm . Should there happen to be a bevy of young 
about, their notes night so much resemble those of a soft-toned Chipping 
Sparrow as to deceive one unaccustomed to them. 

Flitting about in the highest branches of the locust were Baltimore Orioles, 
mostly silent except for a lisping call-note or brief chat 
to their full-throated, ringing whistles uttered in nun Droppfa 

with them for a bn< «»f the available food-supply on ami in the wea 

worn locust were a late-nesting pair of Chickadees, than whom no bir<) i 
are more dear or constant. Just how frequently the ptwee song of Uus sp 
b given as compared with its chuk-o-Jre -dre note throughout the year, won 
sn interesting observe. Heard in the evergreen woods of more n 

em localities against the high, flute -like notes of the White-throated Sparrow, 

.ideeV plaintive song takes on a tly minor character 

by the snore, in the open covers of the locust, the ear noted only major cadences. 

The Yellow Warbler shows brilliantly against the soft, waving, green leaves 
of the locust in the sunlight, but on this wet morning one would m 
suspected that it had any color aside from green. For a week or more during 
midsummer, the penetrating song of this Warbler suddenly stops, when 
the keenest eye can delect the molting bird tucked away in some shady nook, 
moping and evidently far from its normal vivacity. The Yellow-throated, 
eyed and occasionally o frequented the locust a 

boring shrubs, although the presence of all three on this particular morning 
cannot be affirmed. It is always a pleasure to train the ear by timing the 
number of phrases given per minute by the different Vinos. Should one lu 
discover their nests, there is an added pleasure in detecting minute d 
in the shape and construction of them as well as in the materials used in mak- 
ing them. The call-notes of young Virco- Of ju>t out of the nest, add 
another point of interest to these leaf-frequenting species. 

In the lilacs and syringas under the locust. Catbirds abounded, singing less 
and less and uttering their notes in more whispered tones with the advance of 
summer, while from the woods to the west the call of the Wood Thrush was 
heard most frequently in the early, dewy morning or toward dusk. Now and 
then the note of an Oven-bird might be heard, although, after early I 
species is seen much oftener than heard. If not too busy a thorou. 
may even be found along the roadside, where overshadowing trees an 
Gol dfinch es, now setting about mating and nest-building, ga 
sweet call-notes, as they kept unremittingly at their task of selecting a suit 
site for their home and a suitable food-supply. Back and forth on undulating 
wing, these beautiful songsters constantly engaged the eye as well as the ear 
of the observer. 

I h Chimney Swifts and Barn Swallows twittering and gyrating overhead, 



The Audubon Societies 313 

rasional kingbird, or, possibly a Red-shouldered or Sharp-shinned Hawk, 

the air above seemed full of life as well as trees and shrubs. The Kingbird is 

especially attractive when poising high up or breaking forth into infrequent, 

musical though brief song. It i> likely, however, to confuse one who is unaware 

1 appearance in midair or its song. 

The Scarlet Tanager and Crested Flycatchers are a delight during the sum- 
mer months, and the Purple Finch also, if one is so fortunate as to be in its 
Tanager 's fragile nest is rather easily discovered, and, like the 
and attentive male makes a picture not soon forgotten, 
1 arries food to the young, or, in the latter instance, to the female as well. 
nust not forget the humble Sparrows either, for without the familiar songs 
of th> ig and Song Sparrows, a summer bird-chorus would seem thin 

and lacking in quality. Up «>n the dry pastures, Grasshopper Sparrows give 
I buzzing notes, and occasional flight-songs of more musical 
valui he salt-water inlet which I am describing. th« 1 hipping and Song 

Sparrows most commonly represent the great family of fringilline birds. 

ens find this environment congenial, especially House Wrens, which 
chatter and scold on the slightest provocation. When a big Carolina I 
chanced that way on its rather erratic wanderings, excitement prevailed, for 
its notes awaken even the careless onlooker of Nature. The Wood Pewee is 
one of our most delightful summer birds. When Phcebe has become silent and 
b sec r >g on* its last brood, the Wood Pewee is pursuing household 

duties with unfailing care and charm. A Pewee's nest is almost as beautiful a 
.1* a Hummingbird's. Forget an aching neck if the opportunity 
comes to watch one in the making or the using. 

Around the honeysuckle and cr eeper s about the locust, Hummingbirds 
came regularly. They seemed to have each desirable flowering plant or shrub 
located, so constant were their visits. In contrast to these minute rapid crea- 
tures were the slou rons on the inlet at low tide, whose raucous notes 
are familiar to all who visit the neighborhood. Sometimes an early migrating 
(irea ron chanced in the A u h Kingfishers and a flock of Laugh- 
an occasional Tern CM | Gull, and Spotted Sandpipers, the 
he road was equally attractive Indeed there is always so much 
to see and to learn, one can hardly afford to give up bird-study because of 
When early fall comes, conditions change and migrating birds of 
many species confuse the observer. It b wise to improve each day in Jul) 
and August \ II \\ 

For and From Adult and Young Observers 
MEANS OF SECURING INTEREST IN BIRD-STUDY 

As a first step in securing interest in our spring bird-study, I niggriud to 
. rade pupils that they form a Junior Audubon Club Having 



JU 



Bird -Lore 



tome of the ample pictures and kail wercgls' lb and became 

enthusiastic when I allowed them to choose a name for the ing, as 

well as to elect their own officers. Interest in the dob did not lewn. Iwcausc 
of the regular meetings for which a program was arrange 
who srt ured the material and selected the pupils who were to take pa 



]JtW * ** 




< 






IK I. HOI 

accounts of these meetings were kept by thr wen 

' guests of another clul> whit h t-nu-rtained us quite pleasing 
\ mm birds loaned by the Museum i 

nt families and ga\< »h« in an idea 
sixes of various birds whiih COold not bt obtained from pi< 
of these I a good i which 

followed as soon as the weather |»ermitt< 

msidering bird-houses from the standpoint of U 
mcasuren houses which might be tenant- I the 

method of construction was (fiKUMed Meanwhile the children place< 

I the early builder*. A few of the house- made 

at home, are pictured \ result* were purposel] than 

ornamental. One lad made a house from an old China teapot * • 
ingenious if not altogether a work of art. It is hoped that next year 
strut lion of prai tiial I »ird- houses may be included in our manual 

\\< related our bird-work with dra .iper 

and also by drawing tht a ii»>; thi<« by coloring them. The CO 

tary's book was also designed by on< 1 1 phases • 

bird-work formed a basis t n as well as for oral work in 

In literature Celia Thaxter's poem "The Robin" took on added meaning 

had actually heard a Robin singing during a spring sht 
became familiar with the calls and songs of some of our common birds thi 
the entertaining medium of thr victrola. This trained then 



The Audubon Societies 



Ji5 



songs more carefully and more intelligently. The garnet suggested in Bikd- 
were always i as well as was the spare time when Biao-Loaz was 

the popular reading. Always when it was a case of attention to a lesson or 
watching or listening to a l»ir*i from the windows, our little feathered friends 
won out. But was not ihi> the enthusiasm I had been striving for? That they 
might learn to know and to love 

if bluebird balanced on tome topmost spray. 
Flooding with melody the neighborhood, 
linnet and meadow lark, and all the throng 
That dwell in nests and nave the gift of «n»." 

—Susan C afield, Mass. 

(tointt in this admirable outline of work are important to notice particularly. 
One i» ation of bird study with drawing. Another is the systematic organiza- 

tion of the lubon Club which is so actively and interestingly managed. Profit 

also \> r that pictures of birds are deceptive in the matter of - mfor 

lunate that the illu«trations in many bird-books give so little idea of the relative sises 
of different spede*, since size is an especially good field mark.— A II \\ 



BIRD-HOUSES 

ends with the birds because they eat insects and make 
life more pleasant. We can attract birds to our homes by making bird-houses, 
and I t bread for them in the wintertime. You can have a Blur 

1 -house or a House Wren. 
ave no cracks in 
the wood where drafts may come 
The hole must be sandpapered 
so the bird will not catch any of 
■••at hers. The roof must come 
ml the tack so the wster will 
run off the roof. 

house must be made so it 

can be taken a|>art to be cleaned. 

I of birds do not like perches 

because English Sparrows can get 

on and chat and bother the birds 

ou are going to put your 

1 -house on a pole, paint 
white, if on a tree, paint it a 
Mull color. -Wilfred Beaumtd, 
rjiWrf, Stats. 

OV AND HIS SIRD. 




ji6 Mlrd-Lore 

AN AUDUBON LIBRARY EXHIBIT 

Because these boys in the picture are more interest* -1 id birdi than I 
rr, and liccausc they read 
rary where this exhibit was held, we are sending 
you. 

There was no prize at all, and yet many boys responded. 
All the books and articles from magazines were utilized, a 
tried original models. 



I wk tnJKs^M 4 » - » 
M -™ 1K 5 *j^s^M B - - tnV 

^K BT ' _T Br BV 



uid-K)\i M\i'i w 1 1 ii ind witboui modbu 

w we are looking for simple bird-ltaihs. Kach one of these boys, and 
many others, have gardens of their own and Mr. Fuller; that 

each garden needs a bird-bath. Most models are too elabor 

There never have been so many beautiful birds here befon 
because boys everywhere, who used to shoot them, are now their prote. 
—A. H. Thompson. WhiUston, I 

(More bird* than usual at tab season of the year are reported in 
Island and elsewhere It it to be hoped that rontinurt) protection of bird* in thr 
will increase their number* in the ' 

MY FIRST BIRD TENANTS 

When, on June i, I reached Sorrento was to spemi 

summer, I was delightfully surprised to find that many summer birds had 
already arrived. The Robins had begun to build their nests, and some had 
laid their eggs. That same day about ten Tree Swallows came and inspected 
the bird-boxes I had made and put up the year before. They seemed 
specially attracted by a box which was made out of a hollow log which I had 
gotten at a nearby sawmill. By night it was plain that one pair had decided 



The Audubon Societies 

to build in it. T> hey began to bring bits of grass and straw, 

although it air ' sawdust in the t> The nest was lined with 

fcath< il«l easily make these observations, as the roof of the box was 

hinged on 1 did not put my hand in tin- Im>\ or disturb the nesf in any way, 
but just looked er leaving in a minu: 

day one egg was laid until there were four. I I looked in 

I saw that the red squirrels had made a visit. The eggs were broken and the 
nest destroyed. I half expected something of the kfc ! had seen the 

squirrels around the box and been obliged to drive them away. Another of 
•oxes was inhabited by Tree Swallow- I i er saw the young birds, but 
when I i leaned out the box in the fall. I OOUld find DO trace n eggs, SO 

I think that brood was successfully hum 

I also made a bird-bath by digging a shallow hole of the right size and 
shape, and coating the sides of it with cement Robins, Chipping Sparrows, 
White-throated >|iarrows, Song Sparrows, Juncos, a kibler 

rd-!>ath this sumn 
I had a self-tilling food-box outside the window on the sj<h- of the house. 
Sparrows came to it mostly, but 1 saw a few Chipping Sorrows in it. 
fall I took down the boxes, cleaned them out. and put 
them up again for the birds to use for ihelter this wit 
the trees for them. 

lght species of birds last summer. Among them, at Wash: 

Bfau k throated Green Warbler, 
k-throated Blue Warbler, Bmck-pol Warbler. 
•--breasted Nuthatch, Tufted Titmouse and Brown Creeper. At 

headed \ at Blue Heron, and Sandhill Crane (?). 

earliest record for this year is a Robin • nkcrs, N. N 

s were seen the following week. — Giitomi | 

I hi* kind should be more and more encouraged. The list of birds given 
not dated, but is probably a migration rather than a n< 
Hat, since moat of the species mentioned neat farther m record of a Sandhill 

^ probable for several nafAM record of this spedes for 

that state U known »econd. thi* < ranc has become t\ alilics 

wherr -mrrly common, and. thir<l. its normal range is not aJong the Atlantic 

aeaboarti in thr \i. nut\ .1 M u hat a Green I Irr 

or black-crowned Night Heron was seen by the observer. A good rule to follow in »• 
ing birds b to look up thr normal rssp of a species when ant Identifying it , and la cast of 
a doubtful record, to conault aa many reliable lists as possible to discover its regular 
m what n* to expect la nay locally.— A. H. W.) 

A FEATHERED PATIENT 

rbaps you would like to hear about something that happened yesterday. 
I was going through a field when I saw a Robin lying on the ground. I ran 



Bird -Lore 

quickly and picked it up and looked at it. It had a broken wfc tight 

it homr. but did not know what to do to hclj i awhilt- 

haps Doctor Michaud would be abl< him 

and asked him but the doctor said he could n< ike thr K 

and leave it in the woods so the cats would not p« I did this and I soon 

saw three Robins come with the Robin that had the broken wing. I frit 1 
because I thought they would take care of it. 

V. I have an Audubon Class in School, and like to have things read 
of Brao-Loax. — Gebard Dubois (age, 10 years), Sacred Heart School, 
fiaikmrst MS. 

| Bird botpttah arc among the latest advances in protective «•>■ feathered 

friend*. It would be a good thing if someone mmunity knew how to save a 

bird with • broken leg or winic \ M \V.| 

A TRUE BLUEBIRD STORY 

More than threescore years ago, two little girls, Jane a . site, 

lived in a rural district in New York. In summer they or ving. 

Late one afternoon they discovered a Bluebird s nest in the ca 
containing three baby birds. After admiring them, Jane a -e decided 

the babies would make most desirable pets. They carried then home car 
and showed them to their mother. Mrs. Waite was shocked at the thoughtless- 
ness of her little daughters. Kindness to birds and animals had always been a 
principle in the household. Although twilight was deepening, the mother bade 
her children take the little birds back to the nest. They he parent 

birds in great distress. When the baby birds were safe in 1 1 
and father Bluebird manifested so much joy and love for their habies that 
Jane and Phcebe sat down and cried, realizing how nearly they had In- 
causing a tragedy in the home of their bird friends, You may be sure they 
never carried away any more baby birds.— Mas. D. Bi v mbUdon, ' 

(Frequently boy* and girU or even adult*, pick up nestlings with the idea of caring 
for then for a time. Unless the birds are injured and helpless, it is a far better ■ 
leave them with their parents, and to observe their habits at a safe dinar. 
ev ery one who has vines about a porch will discover there a Robin's nest or s Chipping 
Sparrow's. These familiar species readily adapt themselves to rather dose CM 
people. It is not difficult to become intimate with many shy joy of 

such acquaintance can only be appreciated by those who ezperien s \ H u 

A BIRD STORY 

One day when I was out in the back yard, I saw a Wren and her young ones. 
She was up in a tree and her young ones were on the ground. I was near the 
tree. The babies thought that I was a tree, so they bopped up on my legs as 
if they were trees. The mother of the baby birds did not like it at 



The Audubon Societies 310 

*he saw that I was not going to hurt them, she stopped scolding. Then 

she cmilrtl hrr young ones to her and they flew away and I went into the house. 

true D eland, (age, 8 years), Lincoln, Neb. 

(The little boy'* mother adds: "I mw the two baby Wrens alight oa his legs, one on 
each leg, as he was standing still, eating cherries from the tree in our back ym 
1* a member of our Twentieth Street Audubon Society and is much interested in hi 
This b a valuable observation with reference to the actions of young birds. — A. H. W.j 

MY FRIEND. JIM CROW 

abtless, when you read the title of my story, some of you will tay, "She is not 
very careful in her selection of a friend." However, in spite of the bad reputation of t hi- 
ll not change it. for, judging from my personal acquaintance with these 

I know that, like tome human beings. Crows are not as black as they appear. 
Their intelligence and cleverness cannot help but win the admiration of those who know 

thrra »rll 

I have had the pleasure of taming three (rows, but I shall tell only of some of the 
experiences with the one that I had :wo years, the one which was so faithful 

that he refused to associate with any of the Crow family who tried to coax him away, 
but remained with me during two cold winters. 

■aintance began when he was pushed out of the nest, a baby Crow, so young 
that all he knew was to open his mouth wide and call for food as soon as I appeared. 
M so helpless, he could not even walk, but would flap his wings and call until hi* 
hunger was satisfied with a liberal supply of bread and milk. 

he was able to travel, and would follow me about, but began to depend 
more upon him* -II t<> find food 

was my faithful attendant to and from *<h.. lage, watching from 

the pine tree in the yard, and flying to meet me at noon and night when I returned home. 

ere was any special work to be done. Jim was there to superintend it and nothing 

seamed to escape his bright eyes, as be sat with his head cocked oa one side, closely 

Mr was fond of bright colored objects, and nothing of the kind wa» safe with him, 
■ was a thief. 

a neighb- d he had entered an opea window 

rat sitting 00 the sewing-machine with a silver thimble in hi >re I could 

rescue it, he • wallowed it. Thinking about what the owner would say (for she was not as 
taped him by the throat and choked him until he spit out the thim 
»a angry squawk, he flew away, refusing to notice me for a long time. 
! of work, in whit h Jim was especially interested, was the washing, aad at this 
! watching, for no sooner ware the clothes pinned to the line, than he was 
u-h he carried away to soma hiding place, lomi ti moj lurking 
shingles oa the roof, sometimes la trees near the house, where we after- 
ward found ihrm If discovered at this mischief, he would as/ •*/ s* if it waft a goad 

humor of it . and one washday, saying "Old fallow, wall see I" 
pinned some of the clothes to the line with common $•» t there would he ao 

more n was equal to the occasion, and a! * row of pin* was dis- 

covered oa the ground beasath the clothe* line 

labnrs of the family ware not the only victims of Jim's thievish praaks—evea the 
cat did not escape. One day, Jim spied her playing with a mouse, aad the temptation to 



310 Blrd-Lort 

»a» too atroag to reebt, but bow, was the qmatlon. He strutted back «• 
frost of her, ulkiag ail the w hi tag uage, but keeping well out of reach • 

(liwi 

This plan not seeming «• hereeolve*! 

< vrwr.l her tail in hi* bill, pinching it till () M released the mou« 

angrily turned to »trikc at him. Jim was loo qt mouse 

in hia possession, flew to a nearby tree, where be aat and watched the diagust 
rat below him. 

Like other Crown, Jim wae interested h l>raochea of agr 

them, he turned hi» attention to the onion bed, w»l 
Large bed of onions arte, — but that waa not all! Aa father put out r.. 
waa following quietly behind him, pulling out »et aft that when father tur- • 

look at hi» work, retry act lay on top of the ground. Aa thia waa the first ofl< 

it waa ovcrlookctl. and after Jim waa driven away, the 01 put in 

the ground as t>< • ral days later, when fall look at hi 

found the sets up. i ! in little heap- • of thr l>< 

much for the patience of any man • and Jim was <• 

to death, hut m> strong a plea for hi» life waa made, that th< 
imprisonment until the garden was well start' 

Theac were only a I many pranka, ■ ;n-nd all < 

in mmhief 

waa an act ompUshcd min lainly and Uugb so much 

like a person aa to deceive anyone. His imitation of th< 

that be deceived some of the family who hunted in thr woodshed, t <>uml 

came, to find a neat. No neat was I n waa cat 

upon being diacovered. abowed hi* appreciation of 
nly one attempt aa an imitator waa Jim a fail 
singly at it, brings success." did n 
a Turkey, though in vain. I have seen him, an hour at a I 

, ; f n how to gobble but h< 
pluhm 

In the early part of the second win 

seemed to sober him and cause him to lose many of 1 
day be failed to appear, and be was found on thr hill, caught in a rah! 
nearl. a few tears were shed, for fear he won 

wound healed, and Jim. though in followed me about. 

Th< ii diaappeared, and in apite of all our efforts, hr 

be found, but in a few days we learned hi 1 1 had been found in an.it l 

a trapper, who mercifully ended hia suffering. 

So because of my affection for this m< roar fa mi I 

have charity for others, regardless of the questionable traits 

Thia b a true account u I am sorry I ha 

of the amusing incidents. — M 

(If birds are kept aa peta, aa in thia ca- be to select a spede* 

whose habits cannot be too thoroughly investigated. Personal lb the 

clever and highly intelligent Crow prove more conclusively than argun 
intimate study of this much-discussed and too often misunderstood bird In t hi 
section look up the bulletins on the Crow pwb&bhed 
\ 11. W.| 




s I R(»fc-liRRAVrtt> OtOStlAK 






Cf)C Hububon Societies 



EXECUTIVE DEPAKTMhNT 

byT.OILBEKTPBUUttOM.*Wcr«tary 



B?K& i ' uuiL rtaL ,, flag&rwaas; astr. 



ftSSj 

- 



Kmy v m r m* . dab. *caool o» coapaajr ia *y»*pata? »»«* tk»ob|»<u a* 
4 *MSSbar -t it. *•<! ail ar* »«k u wM 

CUaa** of MeabsrsMp ia tk* N.ifeaal Aamdartaa ol Aadaboa Sodatlaa lor taa Prouctioa of 114 
BMi tad Aaiasak: 

■■■alii aaya far a BaatsiniM Mi 
IsMei W. tea ONttiMW a L*r. V 
i a aaraaa a Pstroa 




Pom or B tort .t -I do k«rrby giv« aad baoMat k «*1 A-ocU6oo of Aadaboa 

Sedatiaa far Um PNtscUaa o< WUM and Aalatsl* (laoscporaud). • 

THE ENABLING ACT BECOMES A LAW 



The Enabling Act to nuke operative the 
treaty between the United State* and 

Britain regarding migratory bird* 
nada and the United State*, after I 
final, bitter, two day*' fight in the House 
of Representative*, recently was petted. 
On July j. 191g.it was signed by President 
Wilson and b now a law. Thus ends the 
strugg re Government control of 

migratory birds which began away back 
in 1004 when the first migratory bird bill 
was introduced in Congress by Represent*- 
I •eorge Shims jd, of IV: 

omplete I, be long struggle 

'hat has since ensued for the support of 
this measure will here be given, but 1 
it may be »tated that, although the bill 
advocated by Mr. Shims did not become 
a law. other* were inspired to follow his 
*wsm|4t in the succeeding sessions of 
Congress, and the McLean bill finally was 
enacted, and signed by President Tsft 

I 4. IQ» J- 

In the minds of some people there was 
doubt aa to the constitutional 
■e n su re. At least two Federal judges took 
this position in cases th.» .ught 

before them. One case finally went to the 
Supreme Court. This body, apparently 
unable to agree, referred the matter back 



to tl tes Depa: 

Justice with the suggestion that it again 
be brought before the Supreme Court at a 
later date 

in the meantime a movement had been 

set on foot to secure a tree 1 1 this 

•>■ and Great Britain, covering the 

protection of migratory birds in Canada 

and the United 

given by lawyers of high standing that 
alter a treaty covering the pnncip! 
I in the McLean Law should I" 
summated I ike the p 

McLean Law and would not be sub.' 
revision by the Stapeasm 
treaty was finally mi 
August jo, 1916. But this did not end 
the mstter, (or until Congress »l 

aid be no fund* 
available for enfor<ing the provisions of 
the treaty, nor would any department of 
the Government be authorised to admin- 

h has 
been banging I tigress for thr 

past two years, is the one which has ju»t 
become a law. 

This new »tat 
Depart mr 1 npl<>> 

wardens and to make and execute regula 
ig out the provisions 



(jaa) 



The Audubon Societies 



3*3 



*kes the place 
of the -.1.1 McLean !-»». and the machinery 
created under that law. therefore, cornea 
to an cod. 

In the history of thb 00 N baa 

■ matter before 
Congress whuh ha* attr.ii ted suth wide 
attention and baa b rough 
aach vaat numUr- of organisations and 
individual* connected with conser 
as haa this ooe for Federal protection of 
■Ifmtorj Ma* 

let opposition, cunningly marshaled, 
hurled against tbe move- 
ment bas time and again block* 
progress. Tbe writer, wbo bas been inti 
mately as*- illy all the 

moves tbat have been made by friends of 
the measure the past fourteen year* 
poe i t i o o to • ' he real forces 

r»een behind it Offhand I can 
name at le rganiaat ions and sev- 

eral hundred people wbo time and again 

worked arduoi. 
ment control. I hope someone with an 
impartial pea will write the complete 
permanently record the 
efforts made by pabih spirited mm and 
women to help win this tight 

■ny mind, towering above all others, 
stand three men whose names we should 

i hold in grateful remembrance 

influence collected tbe forces la 

«-s» and passed his original migrat«»rv 

oagh a Republican and 

de to a successful conclu 

it tbe very bat mo- 
was about 

to be passed. hi« watihful c>e fell u|N»n 

two very harmful Amendments that had 

ted by the Coafereace Com 



mittee, and by prompt actioa he secured 
their withdrawal. 

Second. John B. Burnham. President of 
\mericaa Gaaae Protective Associa- 
tion. He, more than any other man out- 
side of Congress, has been responsible for 
the success of this vaat campaign. I ! 
ganixed the first important hearing 
on the hill in Washington, aad for six 
years has made the matter hb chief work 
in life, lie visited Canada and, more than 
•ther person in thb country, was 
reapoasible ng a correct under 

standing of the principles involved before 
the Canadian authorities and se> 
their coop* irnham has led 

toasucce* -urn the most impor- 

tant measure ever enacted in the world 
for the pr rds. 

Thir.1 I \V lief of the Bur 

eau of Biological Survey. Through him 
and his assistants invaluable aid bas 
furnished the workers for thb 

beginning, and his aid to 
Senator M Burnham. and other 

workers has been of the utmost importance. 

If time permitted, other senators and 
congressmen should be mentioned, who at 
■ times have rendered most valuable 
should be included Con- 
gressman Charles M. Stedman, of v 
Carolina, without whose splendid efforts 
in tbe House of Representatives the Enabl- 
ing Act would not have been passed st 
thb session of Congress. 

The National Association of Audubon 
Societies has, of course, always beea ne- 
twork, and through 
the home office, add agents, atl 
societies, sad general membership haa 
time aad agaia labored to briag pressu r e 
to boar oa Co agr ess, sad to arouse the 
public sentiment of the coi 

the mea.ure* involve.! 



A JUNIOR CLASS IN THE MOUNTAINS 

Junior Audubon Class, whuh Tbe afternoon s essio n was givea to the 

ro s spri i c i pupil* from the three district iMic lsoa. The entertaining school had 

school, m the valley of the <atakl!b, held decorated the room sti 

h annual meeting on April i y. i vi » green*, flags, sad liberty Loan posters. 



i*4 



Bird -Lore 



Good work was reported of winter feed- 
log and bird-observation. One pupil had 
noted twrnivooe varieties of birds tab 
tpring; another tners less. 

Calendar* bad been . Recitations 

were given and compositions read on the 
•object of bird* and their service to us. 
The second part of the program was given 
to patriotic exercises, reviewing work that 
had been done already, and suggesting 
further effort, in Red Cross « 
•aving, gardening, and buying of Thrift 



Stamp* On a poster showing our soldiers 
going '"ver ttv bad been 

toes," sod this suggestion was emphaaisod. 
At thr dote of this brief address the whole 
. took the pi' 

Admirable composi t ions on pat 
re read b 

. :. . t. ■ ..f nftV Stl tbt r\rr<i»c» wrrc (,.i 

lowed by games and refreshmrt 




■ Utll M» 

ELGIN. (ILL.) AUDUBON SOCIETY'S ANNUAL EXHIBIT 



The Elgin Audubon Society nel 
second annual eshibit from April 
in the parlors of the Young Women's 
Christian Associat i on building, during 
which time it is estimated that at least 
i.ooo interested visitors availed them- 
selves of the privilege of examining the 
of 



of native birds, tht interesting 

groups of birds from Mexico, Australia. 
South America. Europe, and India 
Through the influence of one of our mem 
bers, who b on the staff at 1 -cum 

Chicago, we had the loan of a vrr 
collection of fifty-three bi- 

The part that bird-study is taking in the 
schools was shown by the display of 




Mftl is AND MOUNTED BIRl 

UBIT 

PHnto»r»pbr.J t.y Henry Qwil 









» EfLV COLLECTION. ELGIN (ILL) AUDUBON »am EXHIBIT 
(J>5) 



s* 



Bird - Lort 



palattngs, and short «m»ji on 
birds-all work door by tbr school chil- 



The ethibit was oot confined to birds, 
but included a beautiful collection of sea- 
shdk collected from all over the world, 
loaned by Field's Museum, Chicago, sev- 
llcctioosof well- ntountrd and cUed- 
6ed moth*, butterflies, insects, sbdls. fish, 
fossils, nwnorals, fungi, and plant 
collect ion of hornet »" nest 
the sise of a peach to t hat of a half bushd 
basket, were arranged on a tree, together 
with aeveral nes t s. There were photo* 
graphs of birds taken by some of the 
and a group from the Laysan 
taken by Homer Dili, curator of 
Iowa S three 

collections of eggs, ooe of which bore a 
sign saying they were collected o* er t went y 
years ago, before the value of bird-protec- 
tion was realised, and that it was now 



against the law to rob the neat of any 

which a license has to be proc 

Hill's nursery of Dundee eon- 
box of boshes ettra 

rial Association of Audubon Societies 
sent quantities of free literature which «a» 

uteii. and the local book 
furnished samples of all I 
and bird record* for the victrola. 

On the walls were many sign* calling 
attention to the value of protection of our 
feathered friends, and the aims of the 

Thirty-seven new member* were added 
to the club which brings the membership 
to no. 

The Elgin Society justly feds it* annual 

it was a great success, and that out 

of it has come, and will continue to come, 

an added interest and appreciation of all 

wild! 



BIRDS AND CATS 



The nesting season of the birds has 
•!. Whether or not there will be the 
desired increase in birds this are eon de- 
pends very largdy on the protection whit h 
will be received by the adult birds during 
the batching period, and the young birds 
until they can fly and have learned to 
shift for themselves. 

One of the greatest menaces to the bird- 
life of the country today i» the house-cat. 
There are very few cat* which, if given 
the opportunity, will not kill a mother 
bird on the nest or a helpleas fledgling 
fluttering around on the ground. The 
treat tragedy is as likely to occur in the 
rienmtii along the porch, or in the flower- 
garden, as it i» in the remote places fre- 
quented by the so-called 'wild' hunting 

This b no attempt to in. : 
have great sympathy for and appreciation 



of the affection between Tabby and her 
owner. We are simply asking that at this 
crucial period the birds be given all benefit 
of the doubt. 

We earnestly ask the owner of every 
house-cat during the next three mon 
assume the responsibility of seeing that 
the cat will not be given an oppor' 
11 birds. 

The country is at war. To win the war 
we must have food. It is common know! 
edge that the birds are a tremendous 
in the protection of the food-*uppl\ 
insects. Cats, if unrestrained, especially at 
this season, will tremendously weaken that 
protection. The logic i» »implr 

ing to do their us all hdp 

them— Issued by the Counts' 
Fiusmiss amd Game for th< 
Massachusetts, May 15. 1918. 



The Audubon Societies 



3*7 



REPORT OF JUNIOR AUDUBON CLASSES 



Despite all the distracting influences the 
past year, the formation of Junior Audubon 
Societies has gone steadily on as h< 
fore. The systematic plan of supplying 
chBdrcn with first-class material for doing 
simple drmentary work in bird-st. 
appreciated by school men and women in 
■.(ate in the I nion and in Canada. 

One evidence of how the Junior Audubon 
work holds in a school where 
established is shown by the many IM 
in the grades who have formed a Junior 
Society every season for the past u 

that the teachers have a new set of children 
ear, but their interest in the work 
causes them to encourage each group 
conaing under their care to organise for 
In many other instances, 
«bere a Junior Class has been form 
one of the lower grades, the children have 
insist fid oe reorganising year after year, 
although the dass continually passes on to 
the care of different teachers. 

This year, as heretofore, immense num- 
bers of bird-boxes have been built, and 
around thousands of scboolhouses birds 
have been fed in winter. Many attractive 
programs have been rendered, and the 
rest in bird-preservation kept 
md stimulated by the little folk at 
school. 

the school year ending June i, 1918, 
damn wet 

in the different states and Canada, as 
shown in the following summ > 



•n*ty jot Y**r Ending J mm* 1, 
Claeats M 



Iffll 
na 






I 
4* 

1 

jo 

57 

toy 
lift 



I918 



S.678 
7,608 

£ 

«.SJO 
7,»S 

J.099 
J.OJI 



M*tr 


Cham 


Membrr. 


|flf»ff|f 


65 


a, 009 


' 




851 


Louisiana 






Maine . . 




856 


Maryland ... 


46 


Mat 


Massachusetts 


J»o 


S.ato 


in 


196 


5.090 


Minnesota 






Mississippi 

Missouri 


100 


484 

• 


Montana 


66 




-ka 


78 


».995 


Neva 




JO 


,lTi 


91 






1 74 


4.885 




3 


9» 




891 










Dakota 


JO 


ajl 




81s 


i8,aa7 


Oklahoma 


an 


814 


Oregon 


00 




Pennsylvania 


460 




Rhode Island 


• 9 


548 


South Carolina 




901 


South Dakota 




S.Sg 


Tennessee 




69J 


I am 


45 






J7 


8a6 






707 


iia 




7«5 


Washington 
West Virginia 




t,a6o 


Mb 


J.981 


ning 






la 




8.763 


China 


1 


*S 




IM !\ 1 



1 r in the history of our c«> 
school children been called upon to con- 
tribute to so many projects, and so con- 
tinuously, as of late. The campaign in the 
school Saving Stamps, for mem- 

bership in the Junior Red Cross, seeds for 
war gardens, and other war activities 
been tremendous. Giving continue 
these most worthy causes has had a very 
decided effect on the enrollment of the 
Junior Audubon members. Scores of 
teachers have reported that they found it 
to collect the 10 
(or the Junior lee*. 
In one targe school building in the Middle 
a teacher who had asked that the 
children In the various grades bring their 



5*8 



Bird - Lore 



Audubon fees to send to on a certain date. 

found « hen »be west to collect the m that 

n had brought their money, but 

that at the but moment the principal of 

bool had inatructed thorn t. 
t hi. money to the Red Cross. 

Thi» b only one of many instanc ea of a 
more or Ira* similar character Aa a result 
of tbeae cauaca. enrollment of the Junior 
members showed a marked falling off from 
the year previous when the number reached 
the high- water mark of 161,654. 

This work with the young people waa 
made possible by the following contri 



Unnamed Benefactor . . . 


$ 3 O.OOO OO 


Mn R used Sage 


•00 00 


General Coleman dul* 


1.000 00 


(ieorge Eastman 

ns . 


1,000 00 


150 00 


' 


;oo OO 


Jamea H. Barr 

Richard M 1< 


100 00 


too 00 


100 00 


Edward I. Parker 


100 00 


lbridge Torr. 


too 00 




100 00 




SO 00 


Miss M >mond 


50 00 


Albion E. Lang . 


50 00 


1 w sludm 

hell 

nan 


SO 00 
SO 00 


SO 00 




2$ OO 




as 00 


,ur 


35 00 


a$ 00 




35 00 




3$ OO 


Mrs. Willi.* 


20 OO 


John D. Williams 
Mm Lean* W 


JO 00 


10 00 


t Johnson 


10 00 




10 00 


Mtol Rostoa C li..ar.iro.in 


5 00 


John 1 Ii Briatol 


S 00 




-Ao 00 



New Lite Members 

Enrolled from May t to July, 1018. 
Baldwio, - 
Dunbar, I 

Harnma: low 

Huntington. Howard 
Lancaahi' II 

Lippitt, Mrs I 



in \ v. 
Rum* 

Sped. Mr> J II 

ring the same period 
enrolled u. <>( members and 

Contributors to the Egret Fund 



May 1 to July 1, 1018 




Previously scknowledged ... ft 




Anderson. V. A ... 


3 00 


Ander*«n. MUa MB. 


3 00 


Auchinilov 


s 00 


Audubon S 


5 00 


Ballani 


2$ 00 








5 00 


II 


5 00 




a 00 


lenjamin 


10 00 




10 00 


Case, Mr* Jame. B 


10 00 


• M \ 


5 00 


5 00 


k 


2 00 


Miss Margar. \\ 


1 00 


Evart* 


S 00 


(iarat, Juliu 


3 00 


Henderson, Alexander 


a 00 


Hewenbru. 1 Mr II 


S 00 


Hupfs 


5 00 


I.anjc. I i 


5 00 








5 00 


Lewie, Mrs. August 


10 00 


Luttgen. Walther 
Mansneld. Miss Heir- 


5 00 

a 50 


• 
Mason. Mr*, (ieorjre (;. 


5 00 


to 00 


Meek, Mrs \ II - 


S 00 




S 00 




3 00 


Raht, Charles . 


S 00 


Redmond. Miss i 


10 00 




IS 00 




a 00 


Sampson Misa Lucy ! 


1 50 




10 00 




a 00 


Upham, Miss K 

Walk II 


1 00 


S 00 


5 00 


Wart* Jr 


S 00 


1 lizabeth 


t 00 
S 00 


Wmm\ Ifjej A.J.:. 


IS 00 


Wright, Mrs. William 1' 


S 00 



Total 



$3,000 as 




/' '-,*■'/ 



t. ISLAND HORNED LARK 
2. RUDDY HORNED LARK 
y BLEACHED HORNED LARK 

COM-MI 



4. PRAIRIE HORNED LAK 

5. PRAIRIE HORNED LARK. WfcMr 

6. HORNED LARK 



A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

D8VOTBD TO THE STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIROS 

Of»ici»i Oa«*M or Tmc IwDUfO* leer i» 



Vol. XX September- October, 1918 No. 5 



The Oven-bird in Minnesota 

By THOMAS S. ROBERTS. M D . Mmn«apolU 
I pSM«g»|iM by the Author 

Sirs ago, n il>. «>n the last day of September, by 

a k>: own wood-road that skirted one of 

the back bays of beautiful Lak. m the path a 

small, dull-colored flitted silently to a tangle d branches not 

far distant in the thick underbrush. I 4 carefully. an<l peering intently, 

glass in hand. I soon discovered the unknown ..; cautiously away It- 

anded head and its dain 
ally it \*. tallen leaves, avail and then 

of a half-buried log h as a 1 I pathway, until. I 

concealed behind a lit! :i- and twigs* it i«iused. ever eyeing 

arough the netlike interstices of the tangled growth that inter- 
vened between but with I 
aid the >uspicious I railed the whereabouts 

always anxious owner we stood for • 

each %-n wearied first, or, becoming reassured, resumed his 

pretty walk, tl openly and rapidl) . until at la-t lu took wing and, 

trnsh, passed out of sight and away from the fancied 

was bright and his plumage fresh, suggestive of spring 

butt) «*ls, with leaves and odor of decay, were silent and. 

despite his presen< no long* rated with his ringing 

crescendo or knew his wonde rfu l flight -.n*? TlMM fading WOOdl and shorten - 

tulling winds that make life hard and dangerous, warn him that 

imself away to that far southern borne where, * 

tamed and pipe not at N await* in silence fresh promptings to begin 

life a lie warmer suns and softer winds of the late vernal season 

again made green and joyous and fragrant the wooded hillsides in the 

come on- % ith quickened pulse and swelling breast 

ild that will send him madly chasing In hot amid the 



Mo 



Bird -Lore 



burning trees, impelled by a spirit of c« at finds I and 

anon in as joyous and triumphant and melodious an outburst as the wild 
woods know. 

h i* the Ova I 

variously called. A plain, modi >hy and suspi 

in the presence of man; a l< t deep woods, from the protecting shades 

of which it rarely ventures; often heard, seldom seen, except 
graceful walker instead of a hopper; and poss es sed of a voice a 
of spirit during courting-timc that marks it amon. as it 







intimate aequaint- 



may be. time is well spent by tht D making 

ance of this phantom bird of the woodland depths. 

The Oven-bird comes to southern Minnesota about tl seek 

in May, sometimes a little later, less frequently a little earli< 
records in 1884, one from Red Wing and one from Lanesboro, are very unt. 
and that same year it was not repen 

'teacher' song commonly comes from the budding spring woods just a> 
are thickening sufficiently to cast th. >ade upon the newly opened 

beUworts, wood anemones, and yellow violets below, and usually on tht 
day that the rich notes of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak and Bait in. 
and the cheery song of the House Wren are first heard in the land. The main 



The Oven-bird in V 



33* 



tar wave is villi a little way bet. ugh spring must be well assured 

•1 ventures to appear. If the data at hand are to be relied 

•rogress northward is unusually slow, for ten days or two weeks elapse 

< it reaches the Canadian boundan in abundant breeding bird 

wooded portions of the state. Farther northward many 

uluals penetrate the fur countries, even to Hudson Bay and westward to 

Alaska, while tattm Canada and Newfoundland arc the ■"""■"*■ home of 

the far travelers through the eastern states. The courting season b as brief 

■ ardent, for during ordinary seasons mating is accomplished, nests built, 

and egp deposited by the third week in May. in the vi nneapolis. 




mn <»» the cowsitu 

r nest is always on the ground, more or less buried beneath fallen leaves 
ami withered grasses, and is usually in a little opening rest or along a 

trail or wfraiyV^wd wood-road. As Frank Holies says in his pretty poem 
about this be 

; he (orc»t • 



■■.« lavn be tiptoot, 
rnr.ih t hrm build* bit ova; 

*»t yssr'i os* Uavss, 
Roofed sad wattsd sgalast tat raindrop*." 



Bird -Lore 

The nest is constructed of dead leaves, dry grasses, and slender weed-sulks, 
sometimes almost < the other material, the lining is fine grass, 

rootlets, and hair. It b completely roofed over, s phe ric al or sh 
in outline, and is entered by an opening in one side, thus resembling a m 
lure Dutch oven, whence the common name of t) 
slight and j^—fi*™**** mound above the general leaf-bed, it is almov 
possible of detection unless the bird is flushed from the nest. Seeming to realize 
her* he mother bird is a very dose sitter and will not ll Imost 

stepped upon. Then, if the eggs are near hatching or there are young h 
nest, the will often flu- md run away over the ground with trailing 

wings and complaining note, feigning injur tiopeof ei 

from her treasures in a vain chase after h< ii also resorted 

to for some days after the young ha\ < 
iij«.n 

The eggs are three to six in number, commonly foui itc with 

chestnut and lilac-gray markings, sometimes small and evenly ed, at 

other times more or less aggregated about the larger end* gular 

blotches and occasionally wreaths. The acuteness of the Cowbird as a 
hunter is shown by the its eggs are f«»un<l beside those of 

the Oven-bird. Indeed, in my own experience it has been an unusual ih 
find an Oven-bird's nest without one or more of the parasr three 

alien eggs, besides an equal nun 

reports finding an Oven ubating two eggs of her own an<) three of the 

Cowbird, but when a fourth Cowbird 's egg was deposi' ,i was too 

great, and she deserted the nest. As many as five in one nest have beet) 

The ordinary song by which the C) pres- 

ence in the woods is an empbat 

deliberately, increasing in pitch, intensity, and ra utterance until it 

ends with a vigor that sends the last notes echoing among the txee-topfl 
Burroughs' happy rendering of this song long ag< 
since met with the approval of nearl ten and ha> gi 

its name of 'teacher I >; i one of these birds sta 

of the deep woods, it is at first difficult to locate him, as the song has a m. 
ventriloquous character, caused, perhaps, by the great increase in in 
the song proceeds. To quote Bolles again : 

r iluquout his music, 
away when close beside • 
Iff st hand when teeming dbta 
Weird hb plaintive sccresceado." 

But the Oven-bird has another very different utterance whs 
song— its love or passion song. It is known to but compar.. 
some observers believe that in proper season and place it is to be beard as 



The Oven-bird in Minnesota 



355 



lo call. It has beat stated that it is del ly at nightfall 

and a tree-tops, but t may be heard in deep, 

0M <>f tin- love season at any fa ay, as the 

impet 

est canopy. When thus del nay d t her be preceded 

tall; Bwst frequently, however, these fragments 

is always uttered on t! ; is probable that in its 




I 














5 '* '** 



it. 




rx 



• 



. * 



Sfi 




4# 







!• 






♦.■» v 



" 



full deve l opment it b always an accompaniment of a soaring flight above the 
ids Jones say- VI rigs,' 1000): "I have seen the Oven- 

air, mounting to I ing wings, 



then dart bad and forth in a rigag OOOTM 

swiftness, hut 
diminuendo as thr perfonBCI li^htk tout! 
rigid wings held high. I have MM thr < h 



: as an arrow, and finally burst 
g teams to swing once round a 
xx ease, ending in s babbling 
be perch or ground with half- 
ird. early in July, thus disport - 
raced spires of the tall 



||4 



Lore 



spruces on the west shore of Lake Itasca, mingling its dashing melody with the 

wonderful, serene anthems floa ting down from thr Hermit Thrushes |x 

aloft in the great pines. Ernest Thompson Set 

states that "this lark-like song may be heard at almost an 

in the grove where a pair of these birds have - 

BoIm relates. 

am the Whip-poor-will U 
en the bats unfurl their canvas, 
When dim twilight rule* the (• 
Soaring toward* the hi. 
Far above the highest tree top. 
Singing goes the sweat Accei 

The middle of July closes the song-sens' I hereafter th- 
rarely observed. 

If of the Oven-birds leave dur. September, and by the 

close of that month only stray individuals. and at the 

beginning of this article, ar< ire then 

way leisur er abode in Mexi ral America, the 








> I> MS I'I'IPER 



A Day's Sport with the Red-backs and Greater Yellow-legs 

By VERDI BURTCH. Braocbport. N Y 
Whb phoCocraph* by the Aatboc 

Owl arrived with its reds, golds and browns; the day was 
warm and mellow. It was the thirteenth of the month, and the most 
t he birds had already passed on to the southward. The soft, muddy 
shores of the marsh, where a month ago numbers of Solitary, Least, Semipal- 
matr . toral Sandpipers, Yellow-legs, Killdeers, Semipalmated Plover, 

rons, Mourning Doves, Grackles, Cowbirds, Red-wings, Robins, and 
a host of Sonv and Savannah Sparrows were feeding was now almost 

deserted. Onl did it show signs of its former art; 

k-s, Cowbirds, and Grackles stopped then- to get a lunch 

the cattails. Hut during the day only a few 

•rals and Yellow-legs that had escaped the gunners were * < 

was nm« I e a day to loaf around home, so, taking my Grades, 

hkyde and rode two miles down the lake to a small marsh * 

ike by a long gravelly bar. Earlier in t he season this marsh 

rjr beautiful. « .-at masses of yellow water-lilies and floating alga* 

all through the «n -edges, cattails, great burr reed, sagittaria. sweet 

B the shores into the shallow water. 
But at th leaving wide, muddy shores which were 

cover he stranded aljta* and various water-weeds. 

As the shooting season was on and most of the shore- birds were gone, I 

(MS) 



u* 



Bird -Lore 




hard! see any birds, or, at most. 

■i torals. But, at I neared the swamp, three Red-backed Sandpiper* 
ug along the ihore of a little shallow lagoon. Dismounting 

way slowly through the bushes 

and cattails on the border of t 

swamp and obtained my first shot 

when they stood in a row fan 

me from the opposite side of thr 

little pon«i had seen mc, 

however, and began to move off, 

slowly. Cautiously following and 
ting them to fly i 

moment, I made two more shots 

as they were in retreat and was 

rather surprised that they did not 

fly. As they were now well aware 

of my presence, I crossed boldly 

in the open and sat down on the 

clean gravel >ar wher< 

could watch their every move. Tl calmly 

working back and forth in front of me, probing in the mud with t 

black, slightly curved bills and seemingly ignoring my prcsen 

when they passed they would shy out around me. m the 

tails of their eyes. I had been seated but a short time when I hear' 

musical whistle of a Greater Yellow-legs, and it came wheeling down from the 

upper air and alighted gracefully on the beach some ten rods awa 

it stood, bowing with quick little jerks an 



1! H\Uk 




GaEATEt YELLOW 



A Day's Spori with the Red-backs and Greater Yellow-left 337 



€ 



moment, and then nVw away, to alight farther up the beach, then, seeming to 
gain began to work toward n : been abl 

•graph this wary bird, and exp iat it would fly away, I wasted 

several plates on long shots, hut 
it came steadily on and joined 
the Red-backs scarcely a rod away 
timea belorc had 
I tric<l to photograph a Yellow- 
legs but without success, and now 
as it mingled with the Red-backs 
I had my chance. It was not a 
question of getting near enough, 
hut rather of catching a good 
pose at one bird out 

alone or all of them in the same 
plane n uld all I* in good 

focus. Aiwa e, with little 

ky moves, the Red-backs went 
about pr obing in the loll nan 
rig out in the shallow a ^mutinies swimming a little. Th» 

low-legs was more deliberate but always moved with infinite grace. Oi 
the most graceful moves of a bird is the stretching 1 Yellow- 

er, and some day I hope to catch it on a photographic 










IN Tilt gun w v • 



Ill Bird -Lore 

plate. Before noon I had wed all of my doaen plates, and when I left the beach 
the bird* wet « feeding. 

When I came back with plate-holder* reloaded, they wen stifl there, and 
I took my position on the bar without disturbing them. The Red-back* a 
kept close together, so all show in each d • pt one. This 

they all came along the beach toward m< ng as they drew near 

made a detour out into the water, filing past fa me and so close that I 

could hardly rack my lens out far enough to get them in sharp focus. 

The Yellow-legs kept mostly to the little lagoon close m> 
it scampered zigzag after the minnows or poUywogs, or probed in the m 
bottom, causing rings of ripples in the quiet water. 

As the shadows lengthened across the clear waters, I used my la 
but still I was loth to leave. I had spent more than seven hours with these 
interesting birds, and made twenty-four shots, and, as devclopn ward 

proved, had bagged fifteen beautiful pictures, and my game was still ah 
enliven the shores of other lakes and marshes, and let us hope that they reached 
their winter homes in the far South without accident. 



A Tragedy 

By LOUISB FOUCAR MARSHALL. Tucton. A 

Till II oh Finch bride stood for a moment on the fig tre< 
a drink from the bucket of water under the <1 i Vrhaps it 

was a Hummingbird, poised before a rosebu n and 

out of the rose-vine, that persuaded her to fly over ami investigate. A little 
spot at an intersection of the trellis, hidden by rose-leaves, seemed an ideal 
building-site. She started immediately to homestead it by bra I few 

sticks which she arranged for the bottom of her nest, unmim!- 
that the trellis was but eight inches from the porch window, and that her nest, 
just at a convenient height, had no protecting leaves to shield it from full 
from within the porch. 

The next morning (March 28, 191 7) she came again, and with little twigs 
built up half of the skeleton framework of her cuplike nest. She worked until 
noon, alone and untiringly, her mate sitting on the fig tree singing his delight 
Then they disa p pea r ed until evening, when she came to see if all was will 
The next morning she was at work again. The place seemed more enchanting 
than ever, for there were strings arious lengths hanging all about the 

trellis, and wonderful buds of cotton-wool on the rose-thorns; even a few stray 
horsehair and downy chicken feathers were miraculously convenient - 
until noon fin i shi ng the framework, now using sticks, strings, and horw 
Before bedtime she came to see that nothing had been disturbed. 

The third day she worked from morning till night, strengthening the f ra 1 



A Tragedy 339 

work .us and string, stuffing the little cracks and hollows with wool 

and feathers, covering every rough t* e> during the day she would 

dip into the not to try it. that it should be the right shape and size and height. 
This seemed an important part of her i <• trials she would 

remedy some defe rig and weaving with the materials already in the 

lently considered the nest finished, as she came but few times 
durii t few days, then only putting in a few downy feathers or a<! 

ing i). wool lin; r mate coming 

no nearer than the tig tree, where he sat singing incessantly while she was 

\ ril 3 she came early and sat quiet 1 nest, her 

mate as usual singing 1 m the nearby fig tree. About 7.30 she hopped 

the nest, calling loudly for her n rv fiber of her body aquiver with 

tint He came like a 1 braced her with great fluttering of wings 

and excited twitterings, and then they looked into the nest. Wonder of won- 

ale bluish green egg with a few dark brown spots and lines at the 

larger n to the nest, twittering snatche- from lullabies, while 

he went back to the tree to tell the world of the great event. Was then 

so much ex< itenui • ness, and romance contained in such a little scrap 

of flesh and blood! In about an hour they U>th left, returning two or three 

times during the day to look at the wonderful egg. 

The next morning she was on the nest again, and at 8.15 she called her 
mate to see the second egg; and after sitting faf a half hour upon the eggs, 
twittering and crooning, she left with her mate, returning from time to time 
to admire her eggs. The next day at about <> 1 J the third egg was laid, and the 
program of the previous days repeated. The fourth and last egg, which was a 
la smaller than the others, was laid the next morning at 8 o'clo< 

ime that she laid her egg she called her mate with excited, urgent 

">. Always he came likr the wind from his perch nearby; always they 

buttering of wing- ngs, and embraces before flying up i< » the 

the eggs; always, after the inspection, she would sit on the nest 

for about a half hour, whispering ami baf mate was ann< 

ie good news to the bird-world and singing his gratitude and joy to his 
little bride. 

rth egg was laid she settled down to incubate, calling her mate 
few hours, and then with a dist ierent note asking for food. She 

always hopped off the nest to meet him whenever he came to feed her. If he 
saw anyone approach the rose-vine, or when within the porch we would cone 
near the window, be would allay her fears with encouraging nwangra and she 
would answer with brave 1 rpa, 

afternoon of April 8 a severe windstorm came up. with a downpour 
of rain and hail. She was exceedingly frightened at the violence of the wind 
and the large hailstones striking her neat and herself. She called anxiously; 



44o J - Lore 

her mate came and ait beside the neat da -at in an un- 

shell. >f the gale, bruiae 

u> the ski: he storm was over and the sun came out aga 

in the tree. -Irving hit feathers; she called to 

roundelay, t>u - notes came rning his cold, lifeless 

lay beneath the fig tree. The rain and hail and cold had pro. 
and his love and di < his mate had coat him hi- 

lt took some time b*i she was i 

In the morning the began calling, insistently, impa 
finally hopelessly. Whenever she saw a scarlet -capped Finch con 
drinking bucket she would call to him and fly into tl. 
and sorrow. Many, many times during her days of incubat 
with her tale of hunger an re a respooae 

passing males. A little food-shelf with canary teed and brea I was 

hung near the nest, but only twice was she seen to ca 
she grew weaker and more dejected. Could she hold out until the cgg> 

Ten days had pasaed since she began incubating, and there set 
for those four egg- f had often been chilled, as the weather wa 

usually cold; an- 1 d >ues say that eggs were usually kept at a 

lure of too degrees and hatched in about ten days? Fortunately she ha 
read about it and stayed on her eggs until the thirteenth day, « 
bird emerged from the shell; the next day two more came out I •> the 

little mother's heart, for she who was always so chatty, always 

with joy, had become sad and silent, and even when the littU 
hmllings came her broken heart could whisper no w« mly feed 

and keep them warm. 

On the second day after the little ones were hatched she met another n 
on the fig tree by the water bucket, a somber, joyless mate. Perhaps he 
had suffered until his voice was silenced, or perhaps his sense 
bereavement impelled him to feed the widow and orphans. For two da 
silently fed both mother and babies, and then during th NMMtMng 

happened, — for in the morning the neat was empty— no trace • 
mot) ioubt she, too, shared the same fate as her family, for she : 

returned. The falling rose-leaves have filled the nest, and the ra 
• lcM-rted 





MIST AND BOGS or »l 



(341) 



Some Notes on the Ruffed Grouse 

■ r H. B TUTTLB. B.m.bury. Cms. 

0\ I K ihe ridge that brimmed the glade a hen Partridge was hurrying. 
id not walk with noiseless step nor did she keep a constant watch 
I possible enemies. Her footsteps or leaves rustle. 

her head swung forward and back as she walked, like a barnyard km 
she stopped, but only for a moment, then the noise of patt< I ills began 

again as she ran toward a laurel t hi. kit that flanked the gb glade was 

a bowl-shaped hollow, free from underbrush, with here and there a good-sued 
chestnut tree. On one side was the laurel thicket, intersperse. rches, 

tiehind which rose the steep sides of the bowl. One n tat it 

was an amphitheatre set for a play, an.i not have great 

ly spectator was lying flat beneath the low-spre nds of a 

young hemlock which grew near the laurels, halfway up the bt eld a 

bit of cord gripped tight in his hand, and in spite of his difficult position on the 
hillside he did not move. He had lain there four hours i heen th< 

see. you would have noted, on following up the length of 
leaves support * hree-legged branch. The bum h < 4 leaves was a camera, 

the three-legged branch a trij 

The Grouse had reached the laurels and had stopped within their sha<t 
reconnoitre her position before traversing that last in the op 

spot that had claimed her sole attention for the past half mot 

her ten eggs lay in the hollow at the foot of a little rotted stum; 
faced the open woods, and in front stood the three-legged bunch of leaves. 
its baleful glass eye glaring down into the hollow. The bunch of leaves, like a 
Cyclops, had stood guard over the nest for a week, and the hen Partridge had 
begun to regard it as a natural part of the scenery. She was a bit I 
sometimes as the cord tightened she spread her tail and with ruffs extended 
hissed into the glass eye, while, unknown be spectator umler the hem- 

lock frond was hoping and praying that she would step back inl 

This time she stepped out of the laurel thicket with just a touch of defiance 
in her pose The watcher from where he lay lost sight of her after 
under the stump, so that his shots were in a large part lucky, if th< 
any way successful. He saw her disappear under the stump, threw a loop of 
slack down the cord in the hope of provoking a new pose, then drew it tight. 
The shutter clicked, and the Grouse ran out from the stump and roared up in 
flight. 

I had been trying for two days to secure a picture of the Ruffed Grouse as 
she approached her nest. It was quite easy to snap the brooding bird; that 
merely involved leaving the camera for an hour, to return at the end of that 
time and pull the shutter by means of a long thread. I had secured some good 
pictures in that way a week previous. This new game, although it included 

(34a) 



Some Notes on (he Ruffed Grouse 



MJ 



- and personally conducted tours by ants, was more fraught with 
failures, but more exciting. 

I was very much surprised when I first saw this hen return to her nest, her 

reps were so noisy. She was not at all the 'each-step-taken-with-care' kind 

it I had always pictured. She reminded me very much of a broody 







Later observations have persuaded me that individual 

• r very greatly in this. One Grouse that I watched and photographed 

last spring approached her nest so cautiously that I was unable to detect her 

slightest footfall until she had approached within f the spot where I 

was hiding.) I watched her for an hour one day as she budded a poplar 

ing parr- ■ 1Mb to limb with the aid of her stout beak, nearly 

losing her footing on more than one ocrasirm as she reached for a calk in high 



344 Bird - Lore 

above her head. I wmtched how, when the camera was point.-, 
left of the not, she invariably entered on the right, an 
apparently appreciated the territory swept by the lens. 

Once when I had seen her approach as far as the laurel thicket and had 
heard no further footsteps for half an hour, I pushed aside the hemlock bra 
to see, if possible, what had frightened I re was a rush of air tfai 

s»l showed rnd a Red-should* dead 

limb where he had been sitting, to wing his way swift l> the woods. 

At another time I surprised a fat woodi hut k within a yard of the nest 
he intended harm he beat a ha 

could satisfy my curio itched this Grouse in her < 

tear from n o'clock in the morning till 3 o'clock in the afternoon, an 
of four shots got one good ; She was not absent from her nest during 

this entire time, for in order that the eggs should not get cold and that she might 
acquire confidence, I allowed her to brood at intervals. The weather was warm 
and the eggs were due to hatch in a few days. (It seems necessary to note here 
that all the eggs hatched in due course of time.) 

I have, in the not very remote past, walked the crisp autumn hillsides with 
my gun held in readiness, and, though a poor shot, have enjoyed my occasional 
kills with the pleasure of an amateur and the ensuing repertoire of a veteran ; 
but birds are scarcer now, and the Ruffed Grouse, even it 
could for years wage an equal battle in the fight for existcn 
go the way of the Heath Hen and the Prairie Chicken, unless, 
laws adequate to protect it and an honest effort to enforce them, there is 1 
to abide by the closed season which shall become part 01 
man who calls himself a sportsman. 

As the bird disappears from the coverts that knew !. the sa! 

shooting loses its savor, and there is little pleasure in exchanging the roar of 
its wings as it bursts from cover and rockets upward through t tops, 

or bores its way, bullet-like, through a tangle of underbrush, for the fa 
colors of a reminiscence. For the Ruffed Grouse is an inspiration; his t\ 
drumming wakes the old desires toward a life in the open, and the roar 
wings among the dry leaves of the <r woods qu 

delight the hearts of wayfarers on the upland trails. 




The Migration of North American Birds 

SECOND SERIES 

VI. HORNED LARKS 
Compiled by Harry C. Oberholser. Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

The Horned Larks are among the most puzzling as well as most interesting 

rth American birds. They are the only native Larks in North America, 

but have not the usual gift of song that has made famous some of the European 

members of the family. All the American Horned Larks belong to a single spe- 

t geographic variation to a degree shown by few birds. No less 

than twenty-three subspecies of Otocoris alpestris inhabit America, and they 

range as far south as Bogota in Colombia, and north to the •< ean. 

All bn in North America proper, and there are others 

I. The distribution of the North American races is as follows: 

The Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris alpestris) breeds in northeastern 

erica, north at least to Hudson Bay; west to Hudson Bay; south to 

the southern end of James Bay and to Newfoundland; and east to Labrador. 

i west to Manitoba and Nebraska, south to Louisiana and South 

Carolina; and is of casual occurrence in Greenland and the Bermuda 

IsJaada 

Hoyt's Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris hoyti) breeds in middle northern 
Canada, north to the Boothia Peninsula; west to the valley of the Mack en zie 
. south to Lake At ha bask a; and cast to Hudson Bay. 1 south to 

■da, Kansas, Ohio, and Long Island. N I 

The Pallid Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris arcticola) breeds in north 
western North America, north to northern Alaska; west to western Alaska; 
south to southern Alaska and central British Columbia; and east to Yukon 
It ranges in winter south to Oregon, I'tah, and Montana. 
The Saskatchewan Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris enihymia) breeds 
il Saskatchewan; west to eastern Montana, eastern Wyoming, 
and eastern Colorado; south to northwestern Texas; and east to central Kansas, 
.rbraska, and central North Dakota In winter it ranges south to 
southern Texas, and casually west to Utah and Arizona. 

The Prairie Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris praticota) breeds in the north- 
easte: States and southeastern Canada; north to southwestern Quebec 

and central Ontario; west to western Manitoba, eastern North Dakota, and 
eastern Kansas; south to central Mis* ral Ohio, and Long Island. N \ 

lew Brunswick. It winters south to Texas and South Carolina: 
casually southwest to Colorado and Arizona. 

The Texas Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris f ir s— V ) is a permanent 
resident in the coast region of Texas and northeastern Tamaulipaa. 

The Desert Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris lemoUoma) breads in the 

(34S) 




•SEEDING AMEAS OP THK WttUK AN K 

i A*4wa Htm < L*ik 
-uca Hanwd Urt 

Vfukaa H o c — d I 

'IMHNMd 

hikMlMu Hof n.4 L.,i 

i Smote Honwd Urk 

«. MtrUkM Homd Uik 
• o hluk4 Bonod U* 
n CriHfJa Hoc— d Uffc 
U Moj.vt Horaod I 



uuc 

ij. It— cbod Hor—d Urk 

■ 



(346) 



The Migration of North American Birds 347 

ales, and north to southern Alberta; west to 
western Montana an-i wotcm Ne\a<la. south feo HOnVcefttal N>\a'ia. 
. southern Colorado, eastern and central southern New Mexico, 
• rural western Texas; and east to central northern Texas, central Colorado, 
A voming, and central Montana. In winter it ranges south to south- 
eastern California. N.n.-ra. Chihuahua, and southern Texas 

The Montezuma Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris occidentalis) breeds 
■ \ Mexico, west to central Arizona. It ranges south in winter to 
northern Sooora, northern Chihuahua, and central western Texas. 

The Chihuahua Horned Lark (Otocoris alfxstris aphrasta) is resident in 
the southeastern corner of Arizona, the southwestern corner of New Mexico, 
and southeast through Chihuahua to Durango and southern Coahuila. 

The Scorched Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris adusta) breeds in central 
south >na and winters south to northern Sonora and northern Chi- 

huahua. 

The Bleached Horned Lark i Otocoris alpestris UucansiptiUs) is resident 
in the southwestern corner <>f Arizona, the northeastern corner of Lower 
mia. an<l north through the extreme western edge of Arizona, and the 
southeastern bordi MJBtlMM Nevada. 

The Mojave Horned Lark ( Hocoris alpestris ammophila) breeds in south- 
rnia from the Mojave Desert north to Owens Valley, and winters 
south to the Mexican Bon: 

The California Horned Lark (Otocoris alpeslris actio) is resident in middle 
and ■ mia, north to San Francisco, and south to the Pacific side 

The Magdalena Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris enertera) is resident on 
the Pacific akk of central and southern Lower California. 

The Island Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris insularis) is resident on the 

The Ruddy Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris rubra) b resident in the mid- 
Sacramento Valley in central northern California. 
Merrill's Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris merritlt) breeds in the north- 
west 1 ites, and north to south central British Columbia; west to 

il Washington and central Oregon; south to northeastern California; and 
east to northwestern Nevada, central Idaho, and northwestern Montana. In 
goes as far south as central California. 
The Streaked Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris strigata) breeds in west 
•n and western Oregon. It ranges south in winter to northern I 
fornia and caM to eastern Washington and eastern Oregon. 

«• accompanying map shows more graphically the breeding ranges of the 

various North American Horned Lark*. Some of the western races seem to be 

>ident; but most of the other* are more or leas migratory, and several 

subspecies thus may be found at the same season in one locality. Owing to 



I* 



Bird - Lore 



great seasonal and other variation among the Horned Larks, their 
movement* are in moat caeca impossible to trace excq>t by the examination 
«>f s|>ct imcnv 

In the following table* record* of the typical Horned Lark arc ma; 
Boned Lad lomedLi the Prairie Honed 1 

.ind the Desert Horned Lark (• ). All thr other records are not with 
unty subapectncally determinable. 



s 



I rhruarv 
M 





tn 




L0CA1 


■nbtt 


Avwaat «uu «l 
U»i mm obwnwd 


■1 <Ul« of 
UiIoh ob— nnd 


(trccosboro, \\* * || 

Charleston. ' 


4 


•»fy J 


January »«. »*M 
January ao, i - 



1891 



3 

ii 

S 



Chilli* 



b as 

March o 

April 6 
b jo 

< »ft 
b 14 
h a 

•iry 18 
»ry ij 



30. IBQ9 

1900 

.'O, t 5QO 

■VOO 

10. 1909 

:<*09 

906 

«o, 1895 
1 r. 1894 
• 189O 






Montreal. Qw 

faOlltlfMll C WlfHaT 

ParadiM, Labrador 

lort Simpv.n. Ma.k J 
r.»rt Simpv.r. M i • 
Forty- mile, Yukon J 



SumUf 






April 10 
March 8 
\j.ril g 






7, 1908 
. 1894 

. 1888 



May 10, 1898 



The Migration of North American Birds 



W 



MIGRATION 





SmmUt 

of » < 

rr»or.l 


t* <l»U of .idiUol 
U.i ch»» obwrvvd Um om ibwiild 


Ticoralak. Labrador 
Indian Hci -■ 


6 

IO 

8 
4 


I9IJ 

■ mber j 1913 

«f 30 1008 

1898 

nber ig November 24, 1000 






rcxof.i 



H-.»t..n 


Mim 




»*.• 


!'•.■ • ' 




k .•.'•.► ■ 




l.rtingt 


.». 








. 



1.11 .rnv.l 



<er 21 
•cr is 
cr 13 



October aa 

iber 9 



•iber 15 
.lier q 

•iber 1 1 
August j8 

October 



Euttsst dai«o< 
fall * ' 



October 7, 1909 
October 19, 1907 

1905 
October jo, 18S9 
August 11, 1 8*9 

H86 

1888 
mber 30. 1007 

1 00s 

1891 

1S96 

1904 

Sept. 100.1 

August at, 1907 

August ai, 1889 

1908 
mber 3, 1889 
October 8, 1893 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 
rtr-riBTH paps* 

By PRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(Sw PraaUapim) 

In on and geographic variations the Horned Lark is among 

\roerican birds. The facts that it is the only 

■can mcT family of some aoo species, and that, in spite of its 

plasticity, none of the American races have become specifically distinct from 

aa a group, from the Old-World species, lands us to believe that 

1 Lark has reached this countr> m. g eol o gically speaking, compara- 

( times. 



j$o Bird - Lore 

verthekas, it hat become widely di> and where local conditions 

are suited to its peculiar needs as a terrestrial bird, it thrive* in widel 
climatic surroundings from the cold, moLv mdras to the burning deserts 

It is common even on the Andean plateau of Bogota, Colombia, though 
between this distant locality and southern Mexico no form of the species b 
known. And here we have an ornithological index of climatic change- 
significance of which strongly trmpts speculation. With birds which vary 
geographically as much as <i -ned Larks, the problem of field : 

tion becomes difficult and its solution b apt to be far from satisf . 
nately, however, many of these forms are restricted to certain areas, and while 
in the winter the more northern races invade the ranges of those to the south. 
the student may, at least in the nesting season, nan . the 

locality in which it b found. I make no attempt, the: racial 

differences but refer the student to the map accompa 
paper. As the race which will doubtless come to thr attei he largest 

number of Bird-Lore's readers, I describe the plumage change 
ed l<ark. 

Prairie Horned Shore Lark (Olocoris alpestris praiicola; Figs. 4. v> In 
nestling plumage a Horned Lark looks more H kk of some ga< 

bird than the young of a passerine species. Or, expressed I I sug- 

gests a precocial rather than an altricial bird. Thb juvenal plumage b brownish 
above, the feathers being tipped with buffy spots, the breast b paler, with an 
admixture of black, the throat and abdomen whitish, the former being some- 
times slightly tinted with pale yellow. 

The postjuvenal (first fall) molt b complete. The first winter plumage 
resembles Fig. 5. Male and female are much alike, but the former has 1 
black on the forehead and usually fewer streaks on the breast There b no 
spring, or prenuptbl molt, and the summer dress b acquired by wear v. 
more dearly reveals and more sharply defines the black areas of the breast 
and hra.l 

• h the fall molt feathers are acquired with fringes which partly conceal 
these areas. There b now little or no difference between young and adult 
birds, but the latter, as a rule, have fewer streaks on the breast. 

As the frontispiece shows, the Pra <i Lark inly 

smaller bird than the Horned Lark (Fig. 5), from whi 

I the forehead postocular region and line over the eve white instead of 
yellow, and there b less yellow on the throat. 

The character of the variations of the other races of thb species are indie. 
by the remaining figures in our plate, from the bleached ra- 
the deeply colored ones of more humid regions. 



<f)otrg from irtelb anb J>rubp 



Memories ol the Passenger Pigeon 

The U*t flock of Passenger Pigeons that 
■ember seeing was about 1886-7. 
It was in the late sutumn. after the leaves 
bad fallen from the tree* There were 
•■Is in the flock. They 
lighted in the top of a large beech tree, 
nding that the beechnuts had fallen 
the hulls, dropped in rapid succes- 
sor) from branch to branch till all bad 
reached the ground. I never have seen 
more Intense activity or seeming «. 
in feeding than those birds displayed. 
worked in a wing-shaped group, 
moving nervously forward in one direc- 
tion around the tree, gleaning the entire 
vered space as they went. Those 
falling to the rear of the flock, where the 
nuts were picket t flopping across 

t so as to get the advantage of 
ed ground. A few that wandered 
apart in search of scattered nuts kept 
about and tilting as they 
I them up and then hurried back to 
the fl feared that the 

would soon be through feeding and off 
00 the wing. I hi* restless, voracious 
M continued till the flock took 
fright and the air. to fly away 

^appear aa a small cloud 

i*ain? — HiaaABO J. 

Notes from Canandaigua. N Y 

re appeared in the Brigham 
grounds, May t8, 1917, a bird seldom 
•ecu north of %ey — the Blue 

rr,— a male in fine plum 

Thi< her is a tiny bird, not 

much . bee in length, having an 

long Id 

mglet relatives. 

twig t<> twig. 
noted his fly catching habit of tak 



ing insects on the wing with wonderful 
dexterity, and saw that, at all times, he 
kept his tail sticking up in the air. The 
Blue-gray Gnat remingly, b a 

bird of the tree-tops, for be remained in 
them most of the time he was under our 
observation. At times, be was not un 
■ tiling to show off his delicate, trim body, 
was whitish underneath and blue- 
gray above, by coming down among the 
lower branches and to the shrubber\ 1 1 
was then we could plainly distinguish the 
narrow black band « renead and 

eyes. 

her sang its rather feeble 
luisitely finished song, many times. 
.ill-note was heard, too. 1 

and sounded a bit like the 
squeak of a mouse. 

Its dainty coloring, sweet, w hi spered 
song, graceful posture, and constant 
motion would be sure to attract attention 
at any time. 

mm Canandaigua records of this 

nmon summer visitsnt. given in 

* 'Birds of New York.' are of two 

e. ure«l June j, 1886, and one seen 

\(>nl if, 1006. 

This year's record would seem to prove 
beyond a doubt that the Blue-gray 
• r was seen by the same 
observer It II ( Burgess, at M rig ham 
Hall last season. Because amateurs see 
rare birds not seen by ex p e rience d ob- 
servers, they M could 
not possibly have seen that urges* 
det ec ted the p resence of the bird again 
this spring and spread the good news by 
the t elephon e , so that many bird lovers. 
Including the 'experienced' observers, 
were given ..p|«irt unity to Ik- . onsin.cil 
that the Blur gr uherwasreaUy 
in our midst. It remained three days. 

A pair of Red bellied Woodpeckers 
made their first appea ra nce In Canan 
dalgua the Utter part of December. igto. 
and spent the winter. They visited UN 
feeding • stations In the city The male 



On) 



JS» 



Lore 



waa found dead on our Mala Street, hav 
lag psraihed ia a sleet storm Msr. 
1917. The female «u about until 1 

Oa February 16, 1917. the European 
« made iu ant appearance in our 
n below -arro weather. It was found 
ia aa ei ha noted coaditina oa the porch 
of the home v. ibaoa 

It «aa feeding oa woodbine 
berries Bread-crumbs were thrown 00 the 
porch floor. It partook of these freely. 
It remained all day. The following, morn- 
ing, with mercury at »ii below bsj 
breakfasted at the aame place. 

.nf ita a|> ilew away aad 



■Una Wreaa (May 1$), Saw Whet 
Owl*, a young Golden Eagle, aad aa 
American Three toed Woodpecker (May 
ro to aj) were rare birds observed by 
Kraeat I! Watts aad Addison P v. 
about the (rounds at S o a a eaben . Mrs. F. 
•mpson '• estate st the edge 1 
during the spring migration — 
aaatfanjM 

Mockingbird in Iowa 

One day. about the middle of May. my 
husbaad aad I were visiting Cottonwood 
Cemetery It waa a »unny afternoon, and 
a number of us had gathered tb< 
clean ap the ground* for Decoration Day. 
Aa I was wandering about the ground* I 
was attracted by a bird singing oa the top 
of a tall pine tree dose by. I s u pposed the 
bird to be a Thrasher aad sat down to 
Ustea to his soag. but soon di s c o v ere d that 
it was ao Thrasher thi» time. Becoming 
more interested, I ventured nearer, and 
after a long wait I found that my bird waa 
a Mockingbird, trilling, warbling whist- 
hag aad calling like a Jay. a Crow, aad 
mocking many other birds. Being a bird- 
lover. I stood s pell bou nd as I listened to 
the wonderful m od if y of soag. aad after 
•eeiag the bird aad his manner of flight, 
color, etc.. I waa convinced that it was • 
•out hem Mockingbird, aad ao doubt had 
a aest in the pine and a mate sitting, but I 
coald not discover the nest. Ob Decora- 



tion Day morning we visited Cottonwood 
Cemetery, and what waa my *ui 
delight to again see aad hear my be 4 

Although he seemed m 
aad Bervous, he stayed by aad I.- 
sang. He sometimes gave an tiara 
bat soon iMBid to gather courage aj 
to assure himself aad mate that all was 

%pitc of the commotion going- 
beating of the drum, the shrill music of 
the fife, the marching of men, women, and 
children, and the parting salute of the 
rifles. I ha irue that the young 

bird* have hatched and an 
asat. I hope to be sble to go to aee the 
family again before they l< 
the honor of being the discover' 
Mockingbird*, the tr heard 

or seea.— Mas. Joan Faaajfa*, Lakr 
/ems. 

Feeding the Blue Jay* 

Siace the days of John J. Audubon the 
Blue Jay has been considered a thief, 
robber, and undesirable it Ita 

beautiful plumage and modest habit* make 
it really a' 1 

Laat winter a pair of Blue Jays afforded 
a great deal of amusement and taught me 
many things of 1 -ig observed 

two Blue Jays flitting about in the 
aad listening to their shrill screams. 
was a real pleasure to me. and thinking 
they might appreciate s change in their 
place of boarding. 00 October 1 4 I 
•mall shelf oa the sill of my window and 
placed oa it a few peanuts. On October 
18 the Blue Jays visited the bod 

I tret time and ate or carried away 
all the peanut*. Tt 

quent the »helf aa long a* any feed was 
placed oa it. The birds social 

visitors, frequenting the food shelf st 
Irregular intervals and becoming rather 
tame. Snow began to fall on 1 
of November 1 >. The aest day there were 
about two laches of snow oa the ground, 
and it waa very cold. Karly in the morn- 
ing I placed about a doaen peanuts on the 
food shelf aad noticed that the Blue Jay*, 
first one, then the other, then both, came 



Notes from Field and Study 



353 



food-shelf In a short lime the pea- 
nut* were all rone and I put out more. I 
continued hem until they bad 

as I supposed, a pint or mora of pea- 
that each bird hew away 

ne or two peanut* in its bill and soon 
rerun ting that there must be 

something wrong with the birds' appetites, 
I went out to observe where they wrnt 
when they flew away and what they did 



One day I tied several peanuts on a 
and left them on the food »helf. The 
first Blue Jay to arrive took the string of 
nuts and flew away to a nearby house- roof 
and ate them. No other birds found the 
food-shelf until December to, when a Red- 
wefHert Woodpecker began coming for 
feed, but it was always shy. Nuthatches 
found the shelf late in January.— A J 
13MAM, Uortantotrn. II 







found that the birds 

nuts away and hiding them. They hid 
them under thr »now. on the ground under 
leaves, under some weeds close to 
the aide of a house, under loose shingle* 
on a house-roof, and under leaves I 

l«d away the snow 

nut and found several which had been 
hidden When there was no food on the 
shelf the birds would search out the pea- 
nuts whi> h they hid several days before. 



Ntghthawk in New York City. March 2$ 



\ \ . ihawk was observed by the 
l . flying at> 

the afternoon of March jS. io»* 
call note wa* also heard several times. This 
is a month earlier than the earliest 
r ecorded for the species wear Orient. I I 

Mr. For bush, in the extremely u 
estiag Bulletin of Informatiot 
report* one in Demar 

JO. i (huml. I I. 



354 



I - Lore 



Are Starling* •• Hardy aa Engli.h 
Sparrow*? 



TV flock of Starling* about 

km*, ct during tbc season ol 

They bad probably beea iberc tome 
nmr and early ia December war* tryiag 
e the Kogiish Sparrow* from the 
belfries of ibe cborcba* aad tbc school 
Tbarc b abo another flock that 
or rooaU about Patten* Mill*, 
perbapa ia tbc bdlry of Ibi three 

ir aailc* weal of Uagsbury Str< 
During the winter of 1016-17— aot a 
severe winter here— Starting* would 
sionally cook about tbc houac aad or. 

» nd a flock of 1 1 l>lrds came 

the latter part of January for frozen apple*. 
They were rather *hy and easily frightened 
away. Dec. 18. 1917. there was a flock of 
thirty Starling* about, and, two day* later, 
two bird* came. Nothing more was acea 
of them until March ij. 1918, when two 
birds came and remained about the*, r 
tree* for half an hour. 

Tbc extremely cold wave of the 
of 1917-18 was from Decen 
January 5. when the mercury went as low 
as 40 degrees below aero ia this vi 
aad only a few hours during that i: 
of time registered above sero. At the 
village of Fort Aaa. Mb* 1 Hum 

ham said several Starlings were found 
perishing from the extreme temperature, 
aad although brought into the bouse near 
a are, the birds very soon died, 
under tbc impression that many of the 
:<g»ia thb region succumbed because 
of the severe cold weather of the past 
! hb section b about 43.5* north 
ic. aad I doubt very much if the 
inf caa hold its own. thrive, and do 
wall at a much higher latitude as the 
Eagttsh Sparrow moat certainly does. 

Tbc Starling b a more attractive bird 
than the hngtbh Sparro iudsoa 

Falb. I have been told that the Starttag 
drives away aad usurps the acarlaf 
places made by tbc Woodpeckers. At 
Sbaabaa, tbc southern part of Washington 
Coui .nk Dobbin writes me that 

tbc StsrfiagS, during January, 1918, 



feeding oa tbc 'bobs' of the ttsghora 
sumac, aad that a Starling had beea seen 
topu- «0W. 

rr of 1917-ia has beea made 
notable here by the presen 

1 occasionally would 
come about the house an.: 
Sparrows up from their 'hayseed' 
>n the garden.— St r. wart II 
lludicm Fai 

Two Corrections 

The August issue of Bird- Lose contain* 
two errors for which t) 
spoasi) 
entitle 

as grvt 

• 
Warbler were made at Simsbi. 
ike Fore«t, III., as staled 

House Sparrows Robbing Robins 

In the July-August number 
Lock b a note by C. Bon 

ng of »ceing a House Sparrow 
steal aa angleworm from a Robin — a 
common sight thb summer on the Iswns 
of thb ci: infrequet. 

Sparrows, instead of one, gather about s 
feeding Robin and accompany it as it 
runs from place to place ->ggiag 

operation* are in progress, lb 

l>ectantl> around, not far from the 
Robin's head, watching for result* and 
ready to swoop ia the moment the worm 
appears. Sometimes the Robins are so 
annoyed by the pestiferous band that they 
give up the quest aad go hungry 1 
time. It is strange that a bird as big as a 
Robin has ao more 'spunk .1 while 

they will resist aad a rough 
fight will take place, but the Spar- 
more than likely to come off 
the booty in it* bill. 

I have abo seen the Robin syatet 
robbed by the Red-winged 
bird in exactly the same way when it was 
digging tbc big white grubs of th< 
chafer from aa infested lawn. Ia thb case 



Notes from Field and Srudy 



35* 



the Blackbirds wailed cUmt by until thr 
bed. when they rushed' 
the Robins. »hich always retreated, and 
pulled out the grubs t hrmselves. I (ear 
that the Kubin. despite our love for him, 
is but an arrant 'pacifist' at heart. — Thos. 
•skstv Mkmmpdh, Mimm. 

An Orefon Oriole 

The place is a veritable paradise for 
birds. An old brown house, half bidden 
by giant rose bushes climbing to the roof; 
wide lawns with open »t retches, where sun- 
shine and shadow play hide-and-seek; 
towering maples, locusts, and 
poplars for shade; hedges of roses and 
sweet peas to shut out the du»t of the 
>ol water under 
•ing tap. where the birds come often 
ink and bathe 
There I hrst heard of the Oriole, not an 
Oriole, but the Oriole Six summers 
before, a boy threw a stone at him and 
his wing. The brown-bouse people 
found him in time to save him from 
• und up his broken wing. 
and now receive yearly reward, for he 
returns each season and builds nearby. 
They know him by bis wavering flight 
and the cluster of white feathers that 
smoothly on the broken wing. 
x* catling at the brown bouse one 
May afternoon, when a flash of yellow past 
the window caught ay eye. and an instant 
• oice rang out a song of 
grating The lady of the house ran to 
the window, saying, "That must be our 
Oriole" I asked why she M >ole." 

got his story. 
Tins b about as she told it to me: 

r several weeks following his injury 

we fed the Oriole from a window-ledge, 

the going-away time in the 

fall he seldo m failed to appear at a regular 

hour for his break! t 

I next spring my husband built 
a cooler-cupboard over the north V 
window, and for a temporary protection 
tacked a mosquito netting loosely o> 



'It was early strawberry season, and I were 



had a dish of choice ones set there beside 
a bowl of cream, ready for lunch. Going 
to the cupboard on some errand, I saw 
my luscious berries all nibbled raw, and 
the cream spotted with pink. 'A mouse,' 
I cried. We searched cupboards, pantry, 
and closets but found no four-footed thief. 
The strawberry and cream episode re- 
mained a mystery. 

:iink it was the next morning as we* 
were eating breakfast, a slight tapping on 
the window glass made us glance that 
way. There on the ledge sat an Oriole, hi* 
cocked bead and twinkling eyes seeming to 
say, 'Don't you know me? Don't you 
know t 

r tint thoughts and words were, 
'Can it be our On cautiously 

opened the window, and be promptly flew 
away, though only to the nearest tree. 
That settled our doubts, for he flew in the 
old zigzag manner. 

were pleased as two children snd 
immediately laid out a tempting tidbit 
for our traveler. Meanwhile he watched 
from the tiptop branches, pouring out his 
joy in the clearest, purest notes you ever 
heard. A flash and twitter, and, lo. two 
Orioles were where one had been before. 
He had brought his mate, but we couldn't 
be sure whether she was the old wife or a 
new. 

e morning, a little later, my 
neighbor's little daughter was playing 
about the kitchen while I did my morn- 
ing work. Suddenly she gave out s funny 

M ueal. and cried, 'Oh. look Auntie. 
look (look!' A chubby finger pointed to the 
cooler-cupboard. There, in the very center 
of a fresh currant pic. stood Mr. Oriole, 
filling his 'tummie' and likewise that of bis 
more timid mate, who fluttered and coaxed 
and chirped just outside the danger 
Use. The mystery was solved; but what 
was to be done with the beautiful, daring 

• II, we put up s wire netting, for 
such Impndoare was past our endurance 
For days be fought that netting like a 
thing alive, beat ■ bank and daw. 

la some way we disc ov ere d that If a berry 
the screen, the 



35* 



Bird - Lore 



bird muuifd to get the greater port 
t hrougb the mesh of the wire*. 

"Siace then be and hu mate bave come 
every season to be led (rom the cooler- 
cupboard, aad every year tbey bave 
raised a family in t heir hanging nest some 
-hrrr herein 1 he \»rt| M Kit a GrrCtUttX, 
WiUm+r, Mimm 

Memories of a Rainy Day 

Today at I lit thinking of many things 
aad Hstealng to the patter of the raindrops 
without, the character of the day calls to 
my mind another rainy day in the spring 
when 1 spent two ol the moat delightful 
hours ol my life looking in upon a err 
bird - 

It was about j o'clock in the afternoon 
when Sam and I set out to a pond nearly 
a miles east ol town which is known as the 
'Lily Pond' because ol the large water 
lilies found there in summer. We 'plopped' 
along In the mud and ■ ugh a 

slow, drizzling rain. A great many heavy 
raias bad fallen that spring, and i 
little d epre s si o n ia the ground was stand- 
ing full of « 

I r nearly an hour ol wading through 
the mud we arrived at the pond, which, 
oa account of the heavy raias, was higher 
than usual. It b a shallow, marshy pond 
soo yards long aad 50 yards wide. The 
water extend* so to 30 leet back among the 
masses of sedges snd rushes. Itbaa ideal 
place for marsh birds. About 6 leet 
the north bank, projecting out ol the water. 
b a ridge | *ide and over so leet 

long. Upon this ridge, aad about jo leet 
from a small branching willow tree 
Urge isle of brush. 

trawled along through the sumac 
bashes and high gram oa the north until 
we got dose to the pond. Hiding behind 
a clump of little scrubby tree* near the 
adga, we saw a large number of Coots aad 
spoonbill, or Shoveller Ducks — 
three drakes and two hens. 

A great amount of bird-life was oa the 
pood Looking east I could see the I 
snd down in the west end I discovered so 
old Mallard hen. I counted the Mod bens 



ota. There were between 1 
and U I looked serosa the poad 

a Ian came over from th- 

and alighted among the sedges, 
time to lime I could see him stepping 
shout, searching lor hb evening meal, and 
once • 1 beard hb hoarse squawk. 

ng a noise st my left 1 turned snd 
saw a reddish brown bird with a lot 
aad moderately long legs sitting upon the 
brush 1 bead was drawn 

■f* ***** hb shoulders, aad he appear 
have a very short sal thrrr 

calmly gating out across the pood snd 
often uttering s aim 

timilsr in quality to that • 

hawk, bur 
was a puzzler to me I had never seen one 
like him nor beard the call bef 

About Ik ng darker 

The rain had sL 

mi all part - 
marsh came the rapid rat flings snd 
lags which 1 ki 

the Kails then feeding 1 p and 

peeping* of Sandpipers and PhaUropes 
could be beard along the ridge. Across the 
pond from me a Hock ol leaser Yellow- 
lags walked about scare) . fof food. 
Their Ions leg* seemed almost 

too weak and unsteady to hoi 
weight. I heard a splashir <■ east. 

A flock of bird* 

out from the weeds along the north bank, 
aad sitting low in the wai 
hardly showing, glided • I the 

middle ol the pond. They swam in the 
shape ol a large V, a Urge oae leading 
Again a splash and tbey could not be seen. 
In a lew seconds tbey appeared again 
widely scattered over th< 
poad. They continued the leaping, splash 
ing, and diving as if they heart 
it and were having a good recog- 

nized them as Pied '«*. 

The Coot* scattered snd some came so 
dose that I could have tou< hed them 
Spoonbills came back down the pond and 
named me not 15 feet away. Another 
splash, as a musk rat, cle *ster, 

swam up the pond, carrying a piece 
•adga for hb house, I could see the C*ro- 



Note* from Field and Study 



357 



Una ami Virginia RaiU now They were 
along the edge* 
of the ruahev gathering teed* and insects 
ails do nearly all of their feeding 
toward du brown bird on the 

brushpile Mopped his calling . »t ret c hed out 
hit neck, and, with the moat fastidious 
placing of hi* >cd off the old 

dead limb*. Behold, a King Rag 
recognised it instantly, although it was 
the first that I had ever »een. I then got a 
better view with my naked eye than I 

- he walked 
to the edge of the ridge, twain across 
to the main bank, and came down along 
the edge, not 6 feet awayl What a 
beauty! He walked along without con- 
cern, hardly giving me a glance, closing the 
toes of each foot as it was raised and slowly 
opening them again as they were carefully 
placed upon the ground. He looked like a 
creature from another world. Could any 
bird be as smooth, as neat, as clean, or as 
beaut > 

It grew darker and the rain increased. 
The bird-songs gradually ceased. One 
by one the birds disappeared. The Grebes 
returned to the sedges, the Ducks to the 
other end of the pond, snd the Rails and 
sank back into the rushes, 
ra could be seen no more. The 
Coots drew into the weeds for the night and 
sll was still. The surface of the pond was 
calm and unbroken, save by i 
increasing fall of the run How u 
vo. OiUua. Kant. 

Wild-Fowl of the Susquehanna Plats 

On December $, I revisited, after an 
absence of five years, that great paradise of 
the wild fowl, the Susquehanna Flats, 
head of the Chesapeake. 
where the Susquehanna broadens out 
he Flats arc a somewhat 
obscurely defined tract of waters about 
roo square miles in area, 3 to 6 h 

is in; and the whole 

! 
famous as ducking grounds ever since 
Colonial days, not only be»«u»e nj the 



great abundance of wild-fowl which the 
natural food of the waters attracts, bat 
because of the prime quality of the celery* 
fed r.i 

I have looked in vain th r ough my 
unbroken set of Bud Loses for a note or 
record about the region by souse orni- 
thologist who is closely familiar with the 
- ivjuehanna Flats. Surely 
there are few regions in t * states 

offer greater scope for observation 
and study of water-birds of all kinds. 

To me an expedition to the Flats. 
50 miles from my home, is an event pre- 
ceded by days of happy anticipation and 
followed by permanent memories. I go 
as a sportsman, but most of the thrills of 
my day in the boat come to me from the 
birds that are not shot. To get the real 
spirit of the Flats it is necessary to be on 
them before the hills of the eastern shore 
are sharply defined against the brighten- 
ing sky. Then, in the vanishing gloom, s 
consciousness of the presence of the wild 
life about almost imperceptibly passes 
into glimpses of shadowy. movements, until 
a swish of wings helps the eye to s vague 
flock in the gray. Gradually the picture 
esque scene unfolds. There are Canvas- 
backs, snd again and again Canvasbacks. 
thousands upon thousands of them, in 
curving, reforming lines, there sre quick- 
beating Blackheads (Scaups), Black Ducks. 
Bull- heads (Golden-eyes), South Souther- 
lies (Old Squaws), and several other 
species restlessly moving about over the 
feed in g-grounds; there are many rigid 
formations of Canada Geese; and there 
ittered flocks of Swans moving along 
like great snowy aeroplanes It is all s 
joyously Impressive sight. The voices, 
the forma, the spirit of bird life are 
glorio u sl y staged at sunrise in 
on the Susqu eh a nn a I 

I strong element of my 
my recent visit was the notable 
of wildfowl since I had Inst been to the 
region, Canvasbacks seem to be four or 
mes more plentiful Kveu the market 
. ho st first 
bitterly o p posed spring shooting lows and 



JS* 



Bird - Lore 



time honored 
lights, are enthusiastic about the increase 
in I »ucka. and at tribute it soldy to the new 
IfgbUiioa. Id spile of widespread decoy 
shooting during the season, la spite of the 
siok box man who Draft of bit »oo head 
par day. aad to spite of occasional 'big 
guaaing' of the Dock* at oight (aa evil 
practice that »till persists), tbe Ducks are 
oot oaly holding their owa ia Dumber* but 
they are obviously increasing. 
The Federal Coveromcnt which ha* 



•»l. b ao» 
subject the ducking (round to a tupremc 
teat. For to mile* aloag the wot ttr a thorc 
the lead hat been taken over aad It being 
made ready for an ordnance proving 
ground It will be intcrr»tiru 
the effect of the heavy cannonading on 
the wild (owl Will the birds 
away or will they be at unmindful 
crash aad roar at were tbe Blackbird* 
aloag the bate 
Major Brook* has to) 
reader*?-!! II. Beck. Lsncei/er, fa 



THE SEASON 

IX. June IS to August IS. 1918 



Mr. Joh tt, of the Amerkaa 

hf useum of Natural History, hat conseoted 
to attame Mr. Rogers' duties at Editor of 
this Depart meat and reporter for t r 
York Region, and I M Allen 

replace* Dr Tyler in the Bottoo Region. 
— F. U 

Boston Rkcion.— Karly tummer was 
notable for the thtcace of long-continued 
ttmran, aad to ha* been favorable for oest- 
iag. The occ a ai o n a l tevare thuader- 
fttorm* that followed ia late July aad 
August t at a t to have done do noticeable 
barm to the birds, despite their fury. 

By the third week of July aa interesting 
Robin aad Broased Crackle roost was dis- 
covered st Lexington, to which already 
nearly too Robin* nightly retorted at well 
as *o me what lest than half that Dumber of 
Broased Crackles. The spot ftclected wat 
a rltrm dasap of small red maples sad gray 
birches, bordered by thrubt. tad nearly 
surrounded on three sides by open meadow. 
The Crackle* arrived, mainly in a body, 
a few minutes before sunset, followed 
shortly by a few late individual* ia groups. 
These cither lit oa neighboring tree-tops 
sad. after s brief rest, betook themselves 
la the drnamt part of the roost , or some- 
tiatet kept oa past aad returned a! 
brief survey of the country. Meaawhile, 
Robia* ware already arriving singly or in 



small scattered group* of three or 
coming mainly from the of the 

center of the towo or the thin 
portion to the ea*t. Few came from the 
open country to the west. Some pi 
at once into the deose growth sod sooo 
settled down; others alighted, fir 
nearby trees sad, later, after preliminary 
challenging note* betook fhrmtflvf* to 
rest. The last bird* came in 
light. The whole company took barely 
three-quarter* of an hour to aaaeanl 
tbe night. These were appar< 
from the imm< within a 

radius of perhtpt a mil The 

vies bad oested in the pine* less than 
a mile away earlier in th< \mong 

the Robins, tbe voices of young birds of the 
now strong on tbe » occas- 

ionally distinguishable. Apparently the 
Robins that still were busied with 
in the Dear countryside did not join in thr 
flocking to this roost at the time Absence 
from town prevented further obterv.. 

Starling* have been seen in small flock* 
throughout early aad late summer io the 
lowland market-garden country 01 
moot, but are seldom seen hack on the hills 
to the north of Bottoo. They feed much 
oo the ground aad teem to had consider- 
able insect food. No reports of damage to 
*mall fruits have been received fro: 
vidoity. Id late August they are fouod 



The Season 



w 



with the Robins and Cedar-birds, eating 
the wild I »«. 

Bluebird* are io (air number* and seem 

to nave brought their brood* through well. 

, i dr Sparrow* appear more abundant 

than usual and in August are seen in flock* 

of old and young, with the Blucbir 

pastures and fields or along the roadsides. 

ing Gulls than 

usual have been sees on the water* of the 

Kay Basin this summer. In previous 

years one or two ha \< > to rest on 

its qui iftrr summer storms, but 

this season few days have passed when 

from one to half a dozen might not be 

sees twinging in or out again to the harbor. 

hem, as was true of numbers 

•cen on the coast at Essex in late A ugus t, 

s ee me d immature birds. 

fall migration of Warblers has 
already started at this writing (August 27) 
in normal fashion. On Use coast multi- 
cllied Swallow* are 1 
rtuous fair weather should 
be favorable for their safe passage south 
II. Allen, Boil**, Mass. 

> GIOM. — After a cold spell 
in April, the spring and summer came on 
Ally and steadily until June. June 
and July were cool and backward, there 
being little hot summer weather until 
about Auk 

mer resident birds arrived on time 
and were present in about their usual num- 

ary year more laughing I 
sumnv July 6 and 7 of 

ear a flock of about fifty were noted 
I 
Wave* <>( spring transients, Warblers, 
r re notably absent Two hypotheses 
>>een advanced in explanation: That 
these birds arc actually decreased in num 
- that there were lacking warm 
mulate lbs rapid advance of the mi' 
1 and cold waves to bold them up.in 

v was the abundance and late 
ness of north bound shore birds, several 
•pedes lingering through June, the last of 
tub spring flight being a single Ring-neck 



Plover at Long Bench on July 3 

As the Least Sandpiper had 
returned there from the North on that 
same date (about its usual time of ar.- 

and south-bound birds actually met 
in this latitude It is assumed that the 

was a straggle: 
the northward flight, a* that species had 
been present through the month of June. 
It would be interesting to know whether 
this individual continued northward until 
it met member* of it* own species return 
ing, remained in this vicinity until they 
•I. or turned southward at this point 
with Least Sandpipers and other birds 
with which King-necks associate. The 
late summer occurrence of young Little 
Blue Herons on Long Island i* greater 
than that of last year (a flock of eight 
observed st Mastic, 60 or 70 mile* east, 
August 3), but there have been fewer 
American Egrets reported from nea 
■Ota, #«» Perl 

Philadelphia Region.— June end July 
averaged about normal as to weather con- 
ditions. On June 14 s severe thunderstorm 
occurred, accompanied by hail, yet in spite 
of this occurrence several nests which I had 
been watching were unharmed. A mother 
Killdecr must have endured a severe pelt- 
ing but apparently with no ill effect to her 
eggs, which all hatched, or to herself. 

Purple Crackles, mostly immature birds, 
tir»t noticed flocking in coeaiderabb 
numbers June S. 

On June 16 a small ron colony 

near the city, containing sixteen nests, was 
visited That they had done very well 
was shown by the fact that twenty-eight 
young were counted perched about near the 
nests. So me flew away at my approach. 
Only one dead youngster was d isco ve r ed, 
probably having fallen from Use nest. 

produced few interesting features. 
Bank Swallow* first appeared flying over 
the m*r*hm la ronaplruous numbers 
J«iy». 

The abundance of Nlgutuawks flying 
about the city this rammer b worthy of 

menii.n I heir harsh .lie. .oul.l he heard 

In almost any part of the dty from twi- 



00 



Lore 



light ob through the ni« ian K 

Pomi. C*md< 

Washington Rr<ii«iw — Ornithological 
lupptiaiagi about Washington during 
June and July MM »ut of the 

ordinary- A very hot * K thr 

last week of May sent practically all thr 
oof t hern migrar h of a morr con 

genial climate, so that by June i almost 
none but tunmcr resident bird* mnained. 
A lew note*, however, acem worthy of 



The Lea* 1 appears to be rather 

unusually numerous this summer, for many 

ren at Wellirw 

June m and Jul \merican Bl 

was also heard by them, pumping in a 
marsh at Wellington on June 14, an 

of some interest, since this species 
has been uncommon here in summer dur- 
ing r< r». The same observer* 
report 1 seen at 1 
Chase, Md., on July 1; and an adult male 
Horned Grebe at Wellington 
June Mi the latter doubtless a crippled 
They also saw the Prothonotary 
Warbler at Dyke on June 1, and observed 
it at Warwitk. Va . June 15. which datea, 
taken together with reports from other 
obe en r cr t this summer, seem to indicate 
that the species is breading la thin vicinity. 
On July 19 the writer found several 
Long- billed Marsh Wrens in an unim- 
proved part of Potomac Park. The ground 
here ia entirely dry, with no ponds < 
tails, but to covered with a rank growth of 
weeds 4 to 7 feet in height, composed 
• hiefl\ <i( varjnu* »j>e< ir» <>( Rnldenrod. in 
eluding the giant species. Solid* t» «4j«- 
efeja. Ilerr the Wrens were quite at home 
and in full song, though it to a place much 
more suited to the Short-billed Marsh 
than to the other species. These 
birds have been here through June and 
July, and inquiry among local ornitholo- 
gists developed the fact that many years 
ago birds of the same species inhabited 
the same place when it was damper than 
at present and interspersed with a few 
[loads that had a sparse growth of 



it appears that thr 
lung to the same ha 
httanding the changes that it ha* 
undergone, or returned to it on aco 
the destruction of much cattail ma.; 
the dredging operations now reclaiming the 
•'at* in the vicinity of Washington. 
The Purple Martins have again begun 
to roost in Washing 1 
than last year. They hr*t appeared oa 

iQ, and since that time have 
steadily on the increase in numl 
Hat* HOLSCK, fiiclotual .Surrey, 

' C. 

MlMNKAFOU* 

portion of the summer covered bj 
report has been unusually cool a 
ful, broken by only an occasional real 
day or two Rain has fallen in suit 
quantity so that the whole state ha* been 

and beautiful, and, as a rr 
of all essential kinds have developed be- 
yond the ordinary, both in quantity and 
. and are just now, when of all 
times they are most welcome, being gar- 
nered in glorious abunda 

It may be interesting to 
freak spell of weather that July 1 

up along the northwestern bor 
state Snow fell there on that < 
depth of 4 inches, and photograph ^ 
lished in the papers at that time »how men 
shoveling the snow from the sidewalks end 
streets of Fargo as in wintertime. 

Much of my last report was d 
a consideration of list 
of birds in this locality the present year. 
Further observation confirms this impres- 
sion. Certain usually common summer 
residents have been almost entirely absent 
hereabouts. As examples: The writer ha* 
not aeaa or beard this year a single Tow- 
bee, the aotes of which ordinarily come 
from almost every suitable woodland; and 
the frequent haunts of the Oven-bird have 
been silent and deserted. True, an .occa- 
sional lonely individual of these tpfrJes 
has been reported, but the normal resident 
population failed to appear. A careful 
observer reports that the White throated 
Sparrow and the Junco were much less 



The Season 



.tfi 



abundant than usual in thr 

rn (omit, an 
tallies ;>aMcd 

through the southern part of tl. 

:> ci I number*. 

is general paudty of 









• ■ 
<rrc constantly abundant along all 
reams and bushy lakeside 
height of the migration being about May 
•ien often %e\eral could be seen at 
in some favored haunt, daintily wad- 
ing and wagging along through the shal- 
lows • to stone, for all 
the world dpi per*. This 
ish b a migrant in southern 
sola, passing northward to the 
-ipany with 
the C»na and Sparrows. 
astern Minnesota b, however, the 
summer home of a considerable nun 
Louisiana Water Thrushes which push 
northward from the normal Carolinian 
surroundings of the species, through the 
wooded bottomlands of the Mississippi 
h themselves at posts well 
within the \ leghanun Fauna of the 
t a few of these pio- 
neering birds leave the Mississippi and 
ley of the 

■ Wisconsin and Minnesota, dis- 
tributing themselves to neat alon. 
deep gorge aa far north as Taylor's Falls, 
•boat latitude 45 degrees, so minutes 
north, just on the southern edge of the 

•an Zone at this pt lously 

enough, on r aggler now and t hen 

continues the direct course up the Missis 
sippi The or three stray 

and this yr the neat of 

the Loubiana Water Thrush was found In 
thU region Thil ne»t «u situated in thr 
hank <>f a brook running through a wooded 

■ tome to miles south of Minneapolis 
dbcovere. on jane 6, 

it contained nearly fully judged young, 



indicating a surprisingly early date for 

the ar is species in this latitude. 

that was unusually com 

moo this spring was the Solitary Sand 

h the scarcity of the 

ordinarily abundant Spotted Sandpiper. 

I species were to be seen in 

mid-May along the wooded waterways. 

•ant in the Canadian 

r« waa als- 

few days, a great flight of Wilson's Snipe, 

* of these 
re mar d in this The 

Lesser <-gs was also common in 

migration, and, ** usual, a few stragglers 
have remained through the summer — un- 
mated or barren birds. On August t two 
Least Sandpipers were seen feeding on a 
mud-flat along the Minnesota River, either 
very early returning migrants or unmated 
birds summering far south of their n< 
fellows. These summer vagrants among the 

ri are of frequent occurrence and 
caution must be exercised lest exceptional 

;ig records be thus established Thus 
in mid-June of IQ15. the writer found a 
Ruddy Turnstone at Lake MilleLac, Minn. 
When shot, on June 33, it proved to be a 

reeding female, summering amid the 
colony of Common Terns T»j»g on 
Island in that Ink* Fiona- 

(lulls in immature plumage were 
also present. Again, on June 3 3. 1916, two 
Sanderiings were found on Gull Rock in 
Lake of the Woods, at home, apparently, 
among the breeding Herring (lulls and 
Double-created Cormorants. One of them 
waa shot and showed no signs of being a 
nestinx bird 

Very few of the returning migrant land- 
birds have reached the southern part of 
Minnesota before the middle of August. 
An o cca sions ! Tennessee Warbler may be 
found during the first days of the month 
and. a little later, the nrst Magnolia and 

bnrniaa Warblers. These birds nest 
in the northern part of the .tat. 

nsonly l>> w\» S. Roasar*. */«■•#• 
«*Wu. Mtmm 



2*ooU flrtos anD Ctcbirlu^ 



The Ornithological Machines 

July bsjj '»an Trogoo, 

open* with an 

by V Khoads. entitled 'Georgia's 

Ran- n a Second should n< 



irtant 



\mrn. jn Portfolio »i John Abbot's Bird 
Plate*.' A volume containing isa hand- 
colored plate* dm been found in a private 
v, and our curiosity is aroused as to 
ances of other bits of the work of this 
IKWtrayer of birds and insects turn- 
ins; up. Two of the plates are reproduced 
in half- lone as a frontispie ce . 

n will be arrested by a 
careful study, accompanied by tables, of 

•arrow and 
the Hermit Thrush. Msd M I 

It is concise, omitting non-essen- 
tials that often burden similar studies, and 
it is a clear statement of facts that speak 
for themselves, and should be of interest 
to many of us. Another' readable i 
butioi tes and Observa- 

tions on the Birds of Hat ley. Stanstead, 
Quebe i Mousley, a list 

annotated in considerable detail. 

'The Distribution of Nut tail's Sparrow 
in California,' by Mr bbs. shows 

this race to be closely confined to humid 
coast areas which are not swampy, but 
regularly swept by moisture -laden winds. 
He points out the abrupt change that takes 
■I Point Conception. Another con- 
tribution to the northwest coast orni- 
thology is by J. H. Bowles on 
colas of the State of Washington,' a group 
of birds about which information b always 
welcome. There is also an annotated list, 
by Mr J k Jensen, entitled Notes on 
the Nesting Birds of Wahpeton, N 
Dakota,' a region that has received little 
attention of late years; and one of rarities 
in southern New England, by A. A Saun- 
ders, entitled 'Some Recent Conne 
Bird Note*.' 

The Birds of Desechco Island, Porto 



seek to kci 
ornitholog 



to 



h CONDOk 
The Con.: 

equal parts devoted 
reviews and minute 
and a 'Directory of Men 
article, contain 
of the Redpoll,' by 
records of three nests observed in i 
the north fork of the Kuskok . 
Alaska. Lea* than thirty da> ■ 
between the time of the completion 
nest and the date when the . 
he nest. Because of a tri| 
just when the eggs were h.. 
precise period of incubation wa 
mined. A third part of Mrs. ii 
Return to the Dakota Lake Regi 
• !■■...?<••! larger] to s a p er ien ce s »»th \\ hitr 
winged Scoters, Go! 

Joseph Mailliard com 
description of a new subspecies < 
Sparrow, the Yolia Boll arrow 

a brnicamda), the type of 
h was collected near South 
Bolly Mountain, Tri 
Aug. 7, 1913. 

The reviews 1 
on several recent j> 
D wight's paper 

1 'Catalogue of Bird* of the Americas.' 
The steady growth 
thologica! Club is shown by th- 
of Members' which contains the names of 
600 members, six of whom are honorary 
member*. The club now has n< 
third more members than tl 
Omit hole*-. (Is as 

many members as the American 
thologbu' Union.- 



(JO*) 



Editorial 



363 



#irt>=Horc 

A 1 Sfswialy hUcaalM 
Dss-s S sw to tho Study u4 P i MTU — Of 
ommi ososh or t«i aiocsoii wamtt 
I »r KRANK M. CHAPMAN 
I fcdltor.MABKL OSGOOD WRIGHT 
», D. APPLKTON *, CO. 



Vol. XX Pubh.hfd October 1. I9IS No. S 



,,,.», F..~ • 



Bird Uor« ■ Motto: 
A B,r4 MlOt flw.i /. H~l6 T.~ ... rfc. //««W 

To many of tl I friends it bat 

•een quite clear why an ornithologist 

should have been called to serve in the 

ugh reflection will show 

that the editorial problems presented by 

ations are not unlike, 

whether the subject matter relate to birds 

or to sunncal dressings. However, in a 

new position in the Red ( ross to which the 

Editor has recently been appointed, the 

relation between bis profession and present 

duties b somewhat dearer. 

wledge of the country gained during 
ornithological explorations in South Amer 
■ combination with experience ac- 
ing the past year in th> 
Cross, has. in the opinion of th< 

he post of Red 
missiooer to South America, 
and In that capacity he leaves this count r\ 
October 3, for an absence of several 
months, to visit the Chapters of the 
American Red Cross which have been 
formr outh American republics 

• Red 
Cross gear uriag this period his 

editorial labors for Biu>Loas will be 
performed by Mr. John T. Nichols, of the 
Museum of Natural History. 
While it is not etpected tbst a Com- 
missioner of the Red Cross will have much 
>t his disposal for the study of bird 
nhereat Interests and the habits 

the absorliinK character ■•( Red (him 
work, and it is proposed, therefore, to 



send to Rtan-LoM some account of the 

nines visited 
appears to the ornithologist en route. Our 
itinerary leads b saw to Panama 

and thence to Lima, Valparaiso, Santiago, 
Buenos Aires. Montevideo, snd Rio de 
Janeiro, with dc< r.and 

should therefore afford wide opportunity 
for casual observations of the most char- 
ts of Und and sea. 
These sketches will be illustrated by Mr. 
Louis A. Fuertes. We regret to say that Mr 
Fuertes will not be a member of our party, 
but his own wide experience in tropical 
America has given him a large fund of in- 
formation conc er ning the appearance in life 
of many specie* \merican birds. 

The soldier members of the ornithologi- 
cal department of the American Museum 
will recall with regret that th< 
Ornithologists I'nion will hold its annual 
Congress at the Museum in November of 
this year of their absence Hut vWtfaoj 
members may be assured that Messrs. 
Allen. Waldron Miller, I > wight, and 
Is will accord them a hearty wd- 
come to the department of birds. Mean- 
while let us hope tbst all members of the 
A. 0. U. absent on war duty may answer 
the roll-call at the meeting of 1910. 

The Biological Survey bss issued ex; 
regulations regarding the enforcement of 
the laws protecting migratory bird* 
provision is made for the issuan 
properly accredited persons, of i.crmn% to 
collect specimens for scientific pu rp oses. 
It should, however, be dearly understood 
that these permits do not do awtg 
the necessity of s state permit, but are 
required in addition to thr permit* issued. 
a% heretofore, under state laws. The regu- 
lations are printed on a swecs odmg page. 

Unosa the head. Our Native l< 

urgh Ckrtnut* TsiVgreSS pub 
tithes, eacb Saturday, articles on birds of 
general and local interest, replies to ques- 
tions, helpful suggestions, etc. The estab- 
lishment by bird-dobs of similar depart- 
ments in their local press would do much to 
r snd extend sn interest bj bird study . 



Cije Hububon Societies; 

school departmknt 

IMttd by ALICE HALL WALTER 

I ro**«ak«lk>M rtUtiv* to I W w ptkafthk 4n»rt- 

I s# l.'tt!«»f. p| Oriole AtrDuc. rfovKlciwc R I 



Adirr*. alt 



PRESENT AND FUTURE RESPONSIBILITIES 

One has only to glar ^h the pages, or even the table 

of most of our weekly and monthly papers and magazine- it the 

press b striving unremittingly to acquaint the public with than; 
and responsibilities, in the endeavor to educate as well as to interest its readers. 
Running through The Scientific Monthly, for example, appear such articles as 

at ion of the Public and Conservatior aural 

Museums and Their Relation to Public Kdu< The Bana 

Food of Exceptional Value;' 'The Conservation of Plat in 
Value to Farmers. apest Source of Increased Food 

•nal Health;' 'Zoology and th< 

Source of Food;' 4 A Natiot 
of Museums in Wartime.' 'The Application of Organized Knowle< ional 

ire;' 'Beekeeping and t; Plant and Animal Life in i 

of a Polluted Stream,' etc. These few titles are cited to ill t range of 

subjects which affect human welfare and in u ryone ought to take an 

interest. It is not necessary t a publication bearing the name 'sciei 

to find articles dealing with topics of this nature, since. 

appear increasingly for the benefit of all classes and ages of pa 
significance of Uus condition is that in times like the present, it is a national, 
yes, and an international necessity that everywhere, even in the remote- 
tricts, enlightenment along broad lines with referet ire responsil • 

be furthered in the most practical and beneficial wa> I any 

nation is secure, if it lives np to its possit [ts national problems will be 

solved and solved thoroughly and in- ." says an English wr 

sidering that, on the average, without special in nations as m 

individuals do not attain to naif their possibilities, it becomes clear that in 
periods of stress like the present, not only nations but also ev< 
member of them must rise to a higher level of intelligence, training and act 
if the problems and responsibilities so constantly multiplying are to be 
sanely and successfully. Through education alone, "without any unusual 
incentive" it » stated that one may improve to the point where he may I 
to 60 or perhaps 80 per cent of his possibilities, by the aid 
upon whom would devolve the task of mapping out a sy ribk 

and thorough to attain such a result. 

(364) 



The Audubon Societiet 365 

.ml look allu 1 promise of results, but it also 

ir radical changes which must come about in our somewhat conserva- 
»erning the meaning and aim of education. A keen observer 
realize the instrumental character of ideas, or 
>f knowing arises either to satisfy a need or to meet a new 
situation and that the failure of education is due largely to the neglect of these 
considerations. . . . The m needed at present is to form a clear 

idea of what education really is, to understand that it takes place only when 
our pupils an- U-ing trained to think out solutions to real problems, 
c means to meet real situations. 
"Generally, we must ever keep in mind that education is taking place only 
when the pupil is thinking; that thinking arises only when there is some problem 
to solve, some new d to meet or some obstacle to remove, and that 

e conditions are absent, all instruction becomes and must become, 
mere unintelligent memorizing which develop neither the intellectual powers 
to meet the after demaml 
Should this dictum appear to minimize the purely cultural side of educa- 
■nd to savor too sti 1 utilitarian ends, recall the instructions that 

Paste to his student mess, your especial business, must In- 

to have nothing in common with those narrow minds which despise everything 
in science which has no immediate a here between the 

id narrowed strictly to practical, visible ends and that of a 
pagination with whiih one in ten thousand pamUkj, like a Pa- 
lowed, must our ideal system of education for the masses be moored, 
erlook the fact that while the narrow mind can never solve 
roblems of the larger world, the creative vision of a Pasteur encompasses 
•<1\ large hut small problems, even those of humblest needs. It was such 
mind as his that opened up vistas of research leading to modern 
surgery, and, at the san taught the vinegar makers of Orleans how to 

increase t) ance how to pre\< tig of her 

wines, and hrl|*ed the brewers of London" by showing them the importance of 
veast, all practical problems in his day. 
reat deal of discussion is going on just now about what shall be taught 
-hall be omitted in a thorough education. This b especially c 

re confronted with great needs in s* aining and attain 

I here b altogether too much uncertainty as to how best to accomplish 

inks before us, and, in consequence, our schools fall below the standard of 

efficiency demanded of them \N t proposing to settle the disagreement as 

r general science, elementary science, or a single science b the best 

mean- <nd ( or whether nature-study shall be confined to the so-called 

"natural history " method or be based more thoroughly upon a foundati 

moment let the nerd of training be emphasised. 
At thb instant, in a single one of the allied nations, 50,000 tpcdalbts await 



3 66 J - Lore 

•'., >.ii; flf :'\i;: .....:.•••. • : .i:» i':« .t ■ i% m m:\i.i llOftf Inn- l\ ■ r vMcll IflSf lid 

thorough training has prepared them. The supply of such workers for public 
welfare must be augmented. Many teachers are leaving schools and colleges to 
take up Government service, but instead of fewer teachers, more are const- 
needed to carry on the program called for in a complete education. Vocational 
training has possibilities as beginning to be fulfilled. Whether 

pupib in public schools, or the teachers guiding their education, vocationalists, 
industrialists or, higher up in the scale of training, specialists of university and 
research grade, everywhere more workers and better training are demanded. 
By better training is meant not only a firmer grasp of the facts under 
knowledge but also a breadth of vision which applies that knowledge 
alone to physical and mental development but to spiritual upgrowth as 

ticizing present-day methods, especially of training in sciet ill 

Johnston addressed to the Association of Public School Science Masters these 
expressive words: "It is almost universally agreed that the education of the 
impressionable young cannot be confined to the cultivation of the muscles 
and the steadying of the nerves, to the care of the teeth and removal of ade- 
noids, to the initial he mechanical arts and the decorat 
the filling of the mind with an encyclopedia of useful information. You have, 
in addition to caring for mind and body, to impart such education as ma> 
with great, there with only partial success, turn the raw materia 
pupils into good men and women, honest servants of the state, en 
patriots and law-abiding citizens, obeying, however, wise and humane laws 
which they are competent to frame and understand. 

lis third great branch of education (that of the education of 
soul) science, founded on demonstrable truth alone, ■ ;«r>tition 

must be banned. The scientific basis and authority for temperance an 
must be explained; children must be shown that wrongdoing aga 
or the community does not pay in the long run; that against one's < 
and mind it is rapidly punished; that against the community v are 

there unpleasant consequences through the enforcement of laws which we have 
made for the protection of the community, but, also, that the wrongdoer him- 
self would suffer in security and happiness were there no such laws." 

It is, perhaps, due as much to this one great lack in the educational system 
of our present foe, namely, the neglect of the education of the soul, as to any 
cause, that mental perspective has become so out of alignment and spiritual 
sympathy and common humanity so startlingly absent among a peopl 
many of whose methods of training universal respect has hitherto been < 
tamed. There is much I e in our own system, so much, indeed, that we 

will do well to take the matter up intelligently and conscientiously. I 
schools in your vicinity been brought up to as high an average standard as is 
consonant with the needs of the times? Are you resting satisfied with bodily 
and mental training, the removal of adenoids and condensed, encyclopedic 



The Audubon Societies 367 

•ire lhat you art ig the raw material of 

■emMp oi vision, a sense of duty, responsibility. 1 reative thought 

lie value instead of 
thr dread of laws, the inrvilableness of the it I ransgression instead of 

fear of those results? This is not a sermon nor is it intended to be • 
a pica for the highest standards of education by means of the applii. 
ighoot the world of knowledge to human welfare. 
Especially urgent at this time seems the need of training with regard to 
the relation between natural resources and human welfare. On every hand we 
are asked to conserve without always un mg the reason. A carefully 

prepared brochure from the Conservation Department of the (ieneral Fe 
tk>n of Women's Clubs states that "these rev f phase of 

DC point iat they arc vitally 

essential to thr prosecution of thr war."" Knumeratin ater- 

ways, water-power. mineral-*, natural SO tlowcrs and wil<l 

as related ma h as good roads an 1 the planting of 

the Lincoln Highway, food production and the conservation of human as well 

as material resources, an appeal is made for a "practical, comprehensive -tudy 

ma) I>art of the publi< school course," on the ground that 

aural ol odd is essential to 

ilanced, rational mental development 

.mly at hand, and 
lone boards of education, but you and I, as citizens and a* memb« 
ics for tl iitions. should Stand ready to help thi> 

menl \udubon Societies are particularly responsible in this mat' 
urn and education for present needs and future- demand > \ II W. 



JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 

XLI: Correlated with Geography. Elementary Agriculture, 
and Conservation 

\ t nkisssj example of the need of some imperative necessity to awake: 

ir grasp is the relation of the war to agriculture and 
conservation of re> 1 n 1808 a report of existing conditions in the I 

1 showed that "for several years prior to 1807 the price ol wheat in the 
West was so low as hardly to cover the cost of harvesting 

enough was raised for local consumption," so that the 
was more than double in that sect i« At the same time, 

1. the staple crop of the South, was so low in price as "to yield no pr< 
at was so high 'thai if a fair division ol acreage had been made 



;6S Bird - Lore 

between the two, the southern planter* would have realised handset 

< ad of suffering financial distress." 

At the same North, 11 rk and Wisconsin, for exan 

dairying, and especially cheese-making, were men, 

although the price of cheese was only eight or nine cents a poo a lew 

years earlier, even as low as four cents. Most of the same la 

ively devoted to feeding stock for dairy purposes lay in the sugar 
belt and was also suitable for growing wheat and other paying crops. 

Today, owing to the requirements of war measures, a farmer mu 
informed corretUy as to what to plant and what not to plant, as well as t« 
to plant, when to plant, and when to change crops. The Government 
an almost endless amou •rmaiion with regard to these m '-sides 

having established in every state a thoroughly equipped school of agriculture 
in which some of the finest instructors anywhere are to be t said. 

Th< I States Department of Agriculture, under the I>i\isi<>i 

Biological • Iocs a work so invaluable that every sch< cry school 

should at least know of its existence and have some idea of 

Take a geography and look at a map of North America nth 

no states < i ies are marked. What idea have you concern ature 

of the soil, the amount of forested area as contrasted with great plains or 
i ultivated land, the relative amount of rainfall or the extren ature 

at any point which this map represents? 

haps you know the names of large cities, of im|*»rtant seaport- 
gable rivers, of mountain ranges and lakes of considerabl< 
know wfctn wfctaj en bi - icoessfuUj grown, and, if so, what kind of wheat, 
or where cattle can be raised to advantage, or the sugar Ik< cereals of 

all kinds, and upon what conditions the nation's supply of fish and shel 
dspends? 

These are questions of very great interest to every man, woman and child 
today, and, as time goes on, they will become far more im| n ccause, as 

people increase in numbers, here as well as all over the world, a food-supply 
must be produced which will keep them strong and in constant health. At the 
same time, this food-supply must be grown with such attei 
distribution that the possibilities of each particular soil and climate be taken 
advantage of to the utmost. In this way, all classes of people w h e wv t a tiny 
may live, will be able to get food of healthful quality a; .< >unt 

to meet their necessities, and, particularly, by this means will ssing 

co mp lications of transportation, which now cause hardship to many, be la 
avoided 

The time and place for every boy and girl to make a start in ti. 
valuable kind of knowledge are in our public schools. With an isothermal map 
of North America and a handful of colored crayons at hand, a class can <r 



The Audubon Societies 369 

<>-< ailed "life-zones," that is, the land areas where crops can be grown, 

erica, with especial emphasis upon the arrangement of 

those tones in the I'nited States. Bulletin No. 1 < Ebfl M«rriam. 

3o8 by the I' S. Department of Agriculture (Division of Biological 

contains a map of the United Static opon which these life-zones are 

traced in color, and on which the humid and arid portions of them are also 

in lii 

: three great divisions of temperature: cold rth. 

.iii.l high up along mountain-ranges even in o; temperate (austral) 

throughout th> es and Mexico, except on the cold mountain heights 

or in the hot lowlands; and hoi tropical) in southern Florida, the edges of 
Texas, and Southern California, th. Lower California, and mast of 

ral America, with a part of 1 1 

<• regions of heat, cold, and partial heat and cold. tain 

vegetation will grow or particular forms of animals th 1 the 

rth there are almost endless stretches of ice and snow, along the southern 
limit of which, during midsumr ompcrature rises to about 50 1 

Below this frigid zone, which may be described as I and where no 

trees can grow, and only a few rugged, dwarfed plants, beautiful beyond de- 
luring the period of bloom, comes a broad transcontinrntal Ik 

•rests that bears the name of the great ba> I hern 

shores of which it only partially surrounds, namely the llu U.nian ZoM. IK «1 . 
also, it is too cold to raise any but the hardiest crops. Indeed, in a climate 
est summer temperature is only a lit 1 ' f* Fahr., one would 

to find crops of any amount or value. So, vast as the land-area 
in these zones may appear on the map, they are as yet of little value to man in 
producing food-supplies beyond fish or wild game, and these only in lit 
quant inadian Zone, which forms the extreme southern part 

of the Boreal Region, except along mountain-heights farther south \< 
we may begin a survey of agriculture. Before making a 1st of t h> 

.od-supply found in this zone and the more temperate one>, it will 

ike a simple t he kinds of soil in which crops grow. So 

important is this matter of soils that the U. S. Department of Agriculture has 

a special staff of workers whose business it is to chart different kinds of soil on 

large colored maps. You will find it interesting to look at such maps, where the 

nent feature is the soil. Here you will find the location of swampy areas, 

tidal fftfrfhff, coastal beaches, meadows, muck -beds, rough stony land, fine 

sandy or gravelly loam or varieties of these types of soil. On page fta* in Mrs. 

I omstock's 'Handbook of Natur. pott 1 ill discover a helpful 

«d of becoming acquainted with the earth beneath you, and if you will, in 

um.bring- ■ r own home grounds a few handfuls of earth to compare 

samples which your state boards of agriculture will doubtless be glad to 

loan or give you, in a short time you will be able to tell one soil from another. 



37o Bird -Lore 

8UOOESTION8 

t In what region do you live, bored, austral, or tropi. 
hat i» your Mam of a lifesooe? 

Jdest paru of the United States? 
a beat and other cereal rropa grow anywhere? What kind of aoil do 
need' 

5. What determine* their distribution? How much frost, rainfall, and drought 
they sum 

l>oea wheat grow where you 1 <>u know how much w> Mat* 

produces annu other cereal crops? 

1 >o you know how many bushels of these various crops are raise.! 
your si os the amount vary from year to year? Is it possible to increase the 

amount raised 00 an >w? 

8. Where are the largest « heat-belt* of the world? V. 
wheat to the acre raised? 

9. Is it possible for the United States to raise all the wheat needed at home as well 
as what is demanded for export to other nations? Should ■ Paint as m> 
possible or just what is needed? What is a aui know bow larr 

of wheat o >ent hopes to h I want m«.rc yet in 1 

10. What bird* injure cereal crops? What I 

you name all the countries and states as well as the water hisch 
the ttol.'.. annual mil 

would it pay as well as all othei 

gener the eastern hcmi»|< 

meet our Golden Pk B think it migli «■ anyone 

•Iden Plover goes so far north to nest and so far south » 
What do you know about the insects upon whit h it 
other kind of food? « II the difference between different I 

and locu»i a bow many kinds there arc in thr 

14 (. <>m|>are the 1 tie Bobolink in the North and in t) 

ng, summer, fall, and win ■ and wb< t be o/w«j 

In 1865, i860, and 1886, locusts appeared in devastating, num» !>raaka, at 

place* so many as to darken the 1 

headed Blackbird, Plover. Quail. Curlew and real crops would 

bean lost. A fanner in Fremot • -tion about thr 

birds and the locusts. I must say thl ■ farmer that shoots birds must be ■ 

I had wheat this spring on new breaking. The grasshoppers came on 
as the wheat itself, and indeed much tl ip that heJ 

then great numbers of Plovers came, and Bocks of Blackbirds and some 1 
■raced feeding on this field. They cleaned out the locusts so well that I had ul 
three-fourths of a crop, nod I know that without the birds, I >i any. 

I know other farmers whose wheat was saved in the same » 

From Fall River, Mass., comes this surprising record of the beneficial a 
ed Sandpiper in a garden and orchard about 1.500 feet from tl 
pairs nested in a young orchard behind my house and ad 

see them once go to the shore for food, but I did see them many times make faithful 
search of my garden for cutworms, spotted squash bugs, and green flies am and 

cabbage worms were their especial prey. After the young could fly. they still kept at 
work in my garden and showed no inclination to go to the shore until s 
Tbey'andfa flock of Quail just over the wall helped me wonderfull > A 1 1 



The Audubon Societies 



37 « 



For and From Adult and Young Observers 
OUR BIRD EXHIBIT 

A bird exhibit was held by the Junior Audubon Society of Grades V and VI, 
elds School, Wollaston, Mass., on May 6. Bird records were played on 
i, and the children enjoyed them very much, 
tied birds were loaned y Jones, and four or five came from the 

iston School. Among the birds there were the Blue Jay, Flicker. King- 
fisher, Loon, Rail, Barred Owl, Cedar Waxwing, and many others. 




(L'srrrs fields school, grades v ucdvi 

ere were some nests brought in by the children, although Miss Thayer 
brought most d them There were nests of the Baltimore Oriole, K 
wallow, Chipping Sparrow, and others, too. 
On the wall there were pictures from the Audubon Leaflets and drawings 
colored by the children. Booklets written by the class on "How Bin! 
be War" were displayed, 
e dollars was rece » the exhibit Half of it was donated to the 

<)« and half to the Massachusetts Audubon SodttJ I 
ii Moaais (age u years). 

|The tea. hrr of these pupil* The boys ami girl, have enjoyed very mm* 

-rk on birds this year. Meeting have bee* held vmy weak sin. ciiuU.iol March. 

upils look forward to Tuesday afternoons when one of their member* presides. 

We have found t he \ udubon leaflets aad the outline drs wings very helpful In another 

column of i hi. Department special I sf st e m s Is made to the value of these outline draw* 

lags. Any tea. her who grsaps the ehjnisVaaKe of /svm and #*♦»#*/„• in I don Ufy lm j 



Bird- Lore 

bird* ha* gone a long way in solving the problem of teaching other* how to become 
■met certain of bird neighbors la ail condition* of advene lie >d unusual 

;■!••»»«•» of |>lumage 

The enhfbftrwt described above has aa added iotereat »der* becauae < 

judicious aad patriotic disposal of the proceeds of the cntcrtainnu 
too much of this cooperation between Junior and State Societies. \ 1 1 



BIRD EXHIBITS IN PUBLIC LIBRAKi 

Marian A. Wet <1 . writes of a propoaed pbv 

bold bird exhibits in the public libraries of Indian lea is an 

..nr 

(For many reason es. and pa 

them, are moat advantageously situated (or the displa 
reaching a large number of people in a short time. Now that thr 
instruction in many essential points relative to national welfare and conser 
libraries throughout the land would do well to discuss some font 
in this connection Food conservation exhibits ar< quant in publi* 

like museum* and libraries, and attract large number* of int. 
wish to learn the essential facts about present methods and r>< 
lions which shall insure *-. irseJves and all nation* now dependent ■) 

food. As time goes on, and the requirements of all t r i are beinj; 

fully systemaliacd, it becomes i 

information which h Many who have neither 

perhaps, who cannot read the various conservation bulletin* which are going broa 
through the land, will gr.. ah and heed.the warning cor 

arranged at Not alone bird* but many other natural resou- 

■ view to wise conservation, and, for many person*, an i 
•ent* the actual state of affairs now existing, without comment or antagon 
meat, t* more effective than lectures, bulletin*, or personal appeal* 
thousand* of adults and children came into sympat h with the national 

tion last year, aa well aa with future national necessities, through the clear and truthful 
n of the matter in the detailed exhibit *hown in the main entrance hall of 
the American Museum of Natural 1 

ftmall it* scale, can reach the p illustrates s fact truthfully. The coopc 

of libraries and museums b greatly to be desired at this juncture \ II v 

ATTRACTING BIRDS TO MY HOME 

I would like to tell readers of Bird-Lore my 1 
to attract Use birds to my borne. 

Our home, with its yard of trees, shrubtx . and ga cs a 

small lake. The first summer we lived there we ha 
next year we put up nesting-boxes and began feeding the fa 
feel we were their friends. The food we used was only the left m the 

table, such as cereals, crumbs, and dry bread, which they carried awn 
babies as fast as we put it out. This summer we had thirty-six varieties, m 
can see what protection and food means to the birds. 



The Audubon Societies 






place, we could y 
nest* of seventeen different kin. I- <>i l>ir<t>. 

I am a lit 1 1' years old, and a member of the Audubon Society of 

II < colored plates a great hel | ving the birds. I wish 
1 could kaii -Elizabeth Foist, Akron, 

haps do more apprc »ment could be made upon this atti >ugh 

unerabcJttthad statement of home experience* wit I an to add a letter from a 

little girl farther west who i» taking up bird photography with the same pure and sane 
enthusiasm of the real nature-lover. In U»th instances, k indings arc made the 

,uaintance with birds, and. in both instances, that apparently oar- 
row horiaot who as long ago as 1 768 wrote of his 
Ml nature is so full that that district produces the greatest 
most examint quite safe to say that patient observation in 
<d areas leads eventually to records and discoveries of secrets apparently 
hidden from those who survey Natttl .|>erncially here, there, or an) ■ 
or chance may lead. The summer bird- imputation with which the writer is most familiar 
might almost be compared with that of a strictly home-plot, so intimately associated 
are the birds with particular and probably preferred nesting and feeding areas lb 
Potair stances may never again combine so favorably as to make another 
oppor acquaintance with bird neighbors as fortunate as I 
never duf particular spot \ II W.| 




I 

1 .1111 



AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY 

mow that such a profitable rnaglftne as Bm» 
! now I am anxious to 1 ' wme of my kodak pk tuns 



i and am especially fond of birds. My 

com prtion, but not until last year did I realise 

now how to get BtatvLoaa. 

r. AJt< i*riences, and my failing results 






Bird -Lore 



•long Uu» line of work, I have learned that to obtain a good bird pit 
ret one to nave the pai Job. 

-all enclose a picture of a little Wren and its house, which took me two 
hours before I was able to get it, but when finally I saw the resul 

I think it was worth all my time and 
There is never a bird too small nor too ta 
U- unworthy of my attention; I love especially 
R -ens. 
I was never so surprised in my life as 
when a companion and myself took a stroll 
through a woods, and without any tr 
were able to obtain the picture of an Owl, 
h seemingly sat on a tree-stump posing 




I hope that other bird-lovers will «i 
their interest to bird-photography, as the re- 
sults, when good, are an everla 
— Fkjei Jianapolis, ltd 

(The contributor does not give the species • 
Owl and Wren photographed, but apparent 
are the s« rm h Owl and Bewi 
it is better to know a Wren simply as a Wren, and 
know it well because of its family ch > 
than to think you know the difference between a 
use and Bewick's Wren, with ring able 

iistinguish tbr M0, tail and ■ 

/arm */ •aW, ata r i— < and fwe/sfy of *»*t Once acquainted with a Wren as a \ 
the task of deciding its specihe name becomes simplified- \ II U 1 



BIRDS OF THE FAR WEST 

I 

I have seen a great many birds in this eastern Oregon country— ever so 
many more than I expei 

started on Wednesday afternoon, June 20, and went as far as Hood 
- that evening. The birds seen that far were about the same as in i 
land. The next morning we got an early start, and motored, on a side u 
the 1 inch-Bowl,' a beautiful waterfall in the shape of a put 

not far from Hood River. It was here that I had the first 
experiences. Near Hood River I saw a kind of Junco that, so far, 1 ha\< 
been able to ident ittle farther along we saw several beautiful 1 

mens of the Lewis' Woodpecker. At the 'Devil's Punch Bowl' in which the 
water b very swift, we saw a Dipper 'swimming' in and out. 1 was rca 
little anxious for its safety in that swift falls, but it seemed not 
the least. 



The Audubon Societies 375 

iking th« 'i- Bowl' as a side trip, wc went on to Maupin. 

Dalles for lunch, and that was about the beginning of the 

sagebr re we began seeing several new birds not found in the 

Nsing the Cascades I had my first, and very enthu- 

luaintance with the Mountain HI Though I had always 

thought it beautiful. I had no idea it was as beautiful as it really is. The 

i's 'West. ate, and even the 

as did not paint to me such a pretty pic tun- a> fiere, 

also, I had my first acquaintance with Say's Phoebe and (*as>. 

ul. though the bird that was the most numero 
Meadowlark. One peculiar thing that came i >tice was 

ird. The telegraph poles in this di 
-mailer posts some five feet high, directly alongside, and I saw 
two nests ol Cassin kin-bird, placed on the tup of the smaller p.M with 

rn wind this district, through 

also saw several Mourning Doves. 

rolling plateaus covered with low sagebrush and 
small, fine grass. Shortly before ranching Maupin I saw the first 1> 

a the trip and om 1 ever seen, and it 

was very obliging and allowed me to get a good look at it . 

r. and as it grew dusk 1 went 
down to t i "see what I could see." Abou it hawks were 

ing over the wi ling the many mosquitoes. 

lowing da rom 

rolling plateaus c here, 

he more desert types of birds became abundant. Cassin s Kin^' 

k, Vesper Spam Dove, a itain 

were abundant, while several Burrowing Owls, Cowbirds, Bank 

Swallows, Rough winged Swallows, and Killdeer were seen. Going through a 

mountainous region covered with Pip*, 1 ->aw my first White-headed Wood- 

unset we came to a place called 'Buttermilk (anon.' This canon 
b al» ilea long and very winding. A number of birds were teen 

rds, (among these I saw a freak with a white tail), 
:is, and Dusky Horned Larks. I do not think, however, 
that I ever saw such a magnificent sun* «m the rolling plateaus 

mding us was wonderful, and just as dark nearly closed in around us, 
coming up a hill, wc cm »ll view of Ml. Hood, half enveloped in dark- 

ness, i a beautiful pink haxe covering the summit, and Mt. Adams 

was a solid mass of glowing color— oran. Mue, purple, and gray, all 

blended together. 

iving stopped for the night at Hcppoer, we went or 
Pendleton It »,^ here that we met many Magpies. We also saw a number 



;;<• Bird -Lore 



out of Pendleton, much to my surprise, I taw several K i 
Pheasants. 

On the 2$th we went to LaGrande, crossing the Blue Mountains. 
birds were about the same here, with the exception of an«> <-aded 

The following day we went on to Baker. The most common birds ■ 
Brewers Blackbirds, though Redwings, and Barn and Cliff Swallow* 

On ed back for LaGrande but were marooned by the I- 

Creek flood caused by the dam break ek was 

washed away, and thecoun: ■miles around was flooded, so we decided 

! .iker. The only things I noticed which w« 
were the Barn Swallows. They seemed much disturbed 
about, dipping into the water now and then. On the way back to Bar 

I saw something which made me feel well repaid e marooned 

by the flood, and that was four Bobolinks not far from Bak 
first ones I had ever seen, and I understand they are quite n egon. 

1 saw them m and had the good fortune to hear them wk 

Today we came on to LaGrande, and saw the Bobolinks again 
I saw not far from Cove was the California Quail which I had not seen 
before in eastern Oregon. 

So far this year (since Jan. i I have seen ua varit 

and I'm going to raise that number before I get home— M U 
Portknd, Ore. 

II 

I live in Vai .mbia Ri 

-ate bridge is finished between Oregon and Wash 
ton, we often go to Port Ian • ' mobile, it is such a lo\ \ 

we cross the sloughs of the river we see the Great Blue Herons eat« 
They seem to like it there, and we usually see two or three every time we pass. 

Mother and I go out into the woods to watch the br 
are so interesting. 

The Oregon Towhees are plentiful out here, and the WObw (ioldtinches are 
nearly as thick as the English Sparrows. I have tw ur garage, 

and there is a family of Bluebirds that build there even- yea tieen 

building there cars now. They usually raise several broods a season. 

The little Martins also build in one of my boxes. They g< 
and keep it clear of all insects that would harm my plants. Last summer I 
raised and canned twenty-one quarts of tomatoes and had all we wanted to 
eat fresh, from a dozen plants of tomatoes, while some of my neighbors had a 






The Audubon Societies 377 

n account of some kind of an insect that ate the tomatoes. I think 
it was my Martins and Bluebirds that kept mine frit* from insects, became 
I did not use anything to keep the insect* 

1 have just put up a Wren-house. I am hoping some lit t U- Wren will make 
re next summer, 
have a vine on our front porch, and a Robin built there last summer 
r little Robins. We are hoping that the\ ne back again 

<• Oregon Chickadees are very numerous here. You can hear them almost 
any time you go out. 

Meadowlarks stayed here all winter, and so did the Bluebirds an<! I 
It snowed for about a week here, but we fed them and they just swarmed around 
the back porch where there was food. As we are only ioo miles from the coast, 
and on a river, Sea Gulls stay here for the smelt in the ri\ 

I have a kodak and try to take pictures of birds but have never had very 
much luck. 

The Flicker, or more commonly known Yellow-hammer, is a familiar bird 
in these parts. We also have the Allen Hummingbird, as well as the King- 
fisher. There are also lots of Thrushes here and plenty of Sparrows.— Maiy 
h«ny, (age, 13 years), Vancouver, Wash. 

»tcrn reader* to look up the aperies and varieties of the 
romnwn birds noted in theie letter* from the Far West. t. t , the Chickadee. Goldfinch. 
<1 bluebird, and. also, to study the occurrence and distribution of Humming 
\merica, and more particularly, in the United State* Especially note- 
1 of the beneficial food habit* of birds in the garden. The tomato- 
worm may have been the pest injuring the plants. — A. II I 

NESTING RECORDS 

ir I found seventy-one ne- four of them were found back 

w Jersey before the middle of June, when I came home. There, although 
it was rather late for nests, I found seventeen nests, exclusive of two largt 

I have a notebook in which I keep a record of all the nests that I find. I 
each nest a number and record each observation of that nest uml< 
own number. In the first entry for each nest I describe the location carefully 
ture rrferrn is just a sample, showing the records of the first 

•bin in apple tree nearest barn la back orchard. Saw her lay the fast 
piece of *trin( in the <r 

rbe 00 »teel girder under first bridge west of hospital. Two eggs. 
I neat on another girder. 

Kobin in bush in front of Olne house. No eggs. 

Big bunch of grass, no mad lining 

Purple Crackle in small cedar on edge ol our orchard. Three ecc* 



gjfl Bird -Lore 



». April ftl 

$. April >8. Robin ia the bit maple One ca . 
6. April at. Song Sparrow la Reed's badge. Tbrrr 
1 1 iril jo Two eggs, bat ao atud lining. 

3. M« killed one of the biid* aad pullrf ne*t down. 

■inf. 
6. May a. Four egg*. Silling. 

1. May 8. Four egg* 

5. Ma ;-t> Think ihey were stolen. 

a. M hree young ju»t hatched and two eggs. 

. 16 Three young ju»t hatched aad oae egg. 

4. V >ung three or (our days old. 

6. May jo. Only three young; pin-feather* ready to bw 
a. May aj. Feather* not 

6. May ij Ready to leave neat. 

a. May 24 Feather* all out. 

4. M b|| neat. 

1. May 14. Three young left neat. One unhatched egg in neat. 

a, June j. Four young left neat. One unhatched egg left ia neat. 

To find the history of any nest, first find its number and then go down 
rading wherever that number is repeated. In this manner I have all my 
nesting records in a compact form, where they are readily access 
ie end of the year a summary may be made: 
j Robins ^ong Sparrow 

ackle 1 Phoebe 

This shows how roach more common the Robin nests are than any others. 

A Robin takes five days to build a nest. 

Phctbes build under the same bridge year after year. 

A Song Sparrow builds its nest, incubates, and young leave nest in about 
a month. 

A Phoebe lays an egg every other day. 

These and more facts can be obtained from the records of these six nests, 
so it is easy to see what records can be obtained through a study of se\ • 
one nests.— James W. Cuss, Jr. (age 15 years), Wilhwmoor Forms, Red- 
mond, Wash. 

(Observation* of amting operations are espeda: D* met disturb tkt 

sareaf birds. It is eacailant practice to keep brief records like the above, which can be 
easily tabulated for reference— A. H. W.) 

BIRDS 

Birds are a help, especially to the farmers. They help by eating worms and 
insects. Then, too, everybody likes to hear their sweet songs. Is are 

pretty, even the little English Sparrow which we hate so much. 

The birds help us, why not let us help the birds? We can tie a bell around 
the cats neck so that when it chases birds the bell will ring and grn the 



The Audubon Societies 370 

birds a warning- In the winter the birds have to have food as well as we, so 
throw out the crumbs when we brush the table-cloth. Another way to 
help birds is to put out horse-hairs, because they like them for their nests. 
There is another that boys do 1 often pay any attention to, that is, 

not to rob their rusts. You shouldn't doit, boys. Do not shoot or throw stones 

a see anybody doing harm to birds, tell them that they our 
be like Mr >n and love and care for them instead of harming them. If 

you see a bird with a broken wing or leg take it and care for it as though it 
had always lived with you. — Dorcas Davis, (age 10 years), Fourth Grade, 
DtUnan. U 

(If we could only get the feeling that birds Man always Ihed with us we should feel 
mm h more interest in them and we should certainly protect them with far greater care. 
\ I! • 

AN OPPORTUNITY FOR HELPFUL EXCHANGE 
CORRESPONDED 

I am forwar >u urvler separate cover three school papers, and the 

supplement of the official organ of the Education Department of South 

.ilia. They may interest some of your members, in so far as they indicate 

the steps we are taking educate the 'young idea' up to bird 

At are our American cousins doing in this <iir< 1 <>uld any of them 

send a written message of encouragement, to be printed in the Children's ; 
in this state? I'm sure our boys and girls would be most appreciative. Yours 
sincerely.— Alfyed Geo. Edquist, Adelaide High School, Education Depart- 
ment, Adelaide. South Australia. 

A STRAY VERSE 

1, happy Rot 

ou how to smooth your pretty feathers! 
Who gave you hay to stuff your breast out 1 
T was God! 'twas God! 

by a little girl of eight, whose name was n«t Ml VMM .nging the 
t'»miMf Irt U t all • ..; h the spirit of these charming, naive lines.— A II 



LEAST TKRN 

Br T. OILBBRT PIAKION 

dr .flational Hssocwition of Hububon >ocifttf8 

BUUCATJOHAL LBAFLBT MO. 97 



One of the daintiest and moat confiding of our sea-birds is the Least I 

here they have been extensively shot or otherwise d they 

often exhibit a lark of fear that is astonfel 

On the North Carolina coast I have frequently seen them Ugh 
beach within 15 or 20 feet of where I was standing in I Their aggres- 

sion, when one approaches their nests, is equaled onl) 
the An- tic Tern. 




Ffc*«*«i»pWd bjr E. H Forfeit a* u Ua»4 of thr Mmtrtw Ui Coa* 

Forty yean ago Least Terns were among the most numerous sea-birds 
inhabiting the North American continent. Their colonics, situated on islands 
or points of sandy peninsulas, could be found with great frequency as one 
traveled along our eastern coast from Maine to Texas. They were also ft 
interiorly in some places, especially up the Mississippi River and, to a lis 
extent, its tributaries. Here the birds bred on small shoals in the 1 
those days they ranged as far north as Nebraska, Missouri, and Iowa. 

Their beauty of plumage, the ease with which they might be killed, and t 
vast numbers all contributed to their popularity with the feather- trade, and 

(i«o) 




V 



> 




LIAST T**N 

■*;•■•» mw • • 



Mi'. ■«» *t»o •»'! I r A»J»»'«^ I MM 



Lcist Tern jSi 

i the 'So*. bafOM the Audubon work became ei ■ heir slaughter 

constituted one of the blotches on our American I 

It wa> the custom in those times for men to fit out vessels with provisions, 
ammunition, and collecting materials sufficient to last them for days, or even 
weeks. These piratical crews sailed the coast, killing and skinning the Least 

her l>ir«l- k millinery houses. 

it shooting was carried on almost entirely in spring and summer when 

the birds were gathered in colonies for the purpose of rearing t) 

was very easy to kill them in numbers, as they flew in screaming clouds low 

eggs and young that dotted the breeding territory. In fact, it was not 

always necessary to use a gun. So dense were the clouds of birds that the 

hunters frequently would hurl clubs or short poles among the flying hosts. 

two to a half-dozen birds could easily be disabled at a stroke. A half - 

i work at clubbing and sho« I wo of three men was often sufficient 

to secure several hundred birds— all that the crew could skin during the 

remaindt lay. 

hod the colonies on L* 1 were exterminated in a short 

A big killing went on along the coast iia. On Cobbs Island, 

10,000 specimens were taker ^le season. A woman representing a 

millinery house directed this he took with her two or three 

skinners and employe* I the local gunner* t>» kill the liir«l>. paying them ten Cent* 
for each one brought in. 

So rare had the Least Tern become on Cobbs Island in i8q. when the w 1 

visited the place during the height of the breeding season that less than a half - 

iab were seen. The terror of man was so strong upon them that 

v caught sight of two of us coming down the beach they flew with 

led cries toward the open sea, and we did not see them again during our 

subsequent excursions along the beach the next three or four days. 

habitants of Morehea 1 and Joseph 

'1. were famous slaughterers of birds in those days, and the numbers of 
rets that these two men and their crews gathered for the feather 
business ran into the hundreds of thousands. 

h of these men I have been given intimate, detailed descriptions of 
rig and »1 ruises. From them I learned that they frequ. 

found the shooting of Terns profitable at other places than on the brer- 

ids. The Terns often gathered in numbers about inlets to the sea where 
•nstant ebb and flow of the tide evidently furnished excellent oppor- 
tunities f<>r feeding. 

As soon as one bird was shot down on the water, the others in the neighbor* 
hood would come flying about overhead, dipping down and shouting at the 
strange appearance of their helpless comrade. It was then easy to make a 
large bag of birds in a few minutes If the flock was wild and difficulty was 
experienced in getting down the first bird, all they needed to do was to tie a 



* 



Lore 



handkerchief to a stick tad throw it in the air. This decoy, fallin ater, 

was sufficient to bring the nearest 1 within rang. 

Because of its small size, the entire skin of the Least Tern was usually won 
hat-decoration. In the case of the larger Terns it was often custom.. 
only the wings. 

For many years the killing of these birds has now been illegal, and 
wardens of the National Association of Audubon Societies and, in two cases, 
the wardens of state game commissions have been guarding the summer colonies 

of Terns along 
coast. In some sec- 
tions the Least 

numbers to a li 

extent. 

ample, when the first 

Audubon warden 

began guarding the 

colonies on the 

h Car> 
coast, which was in 
the year of 1003, so 
KafCi had the Least 
become that 
only 1 eggs 

were laid that year. 
By careful guarding, the birds increased until three years la 
accurate count made by the warden in charge, 577 Least Terns are bel 
to have been raised. The numbers steadily increased another year or two, 
when heavy storm-tides, sweeping the low-lying islands, destroyed the eggs and 
young alike and for a time prevented fur 1 ase. 

The Audubon Law in North Carolina put an end to this slaughter, hut 
when the Least Tern had decreased almost to the poi: 
the other Terns of the region had become vastly reduced in numb* 

This killing also went on along the coast of South Carolina. Georgia 
and Louisiana. In fact, wherever the Least Tern was found there cam. 
with guns, ammunition, arsenic, and plaster of pans, ready to transform the 
living bird into a hat-decoration. 

On the coast of Massachusetts, chiefly as a result of numerous cats brought 
by summer residents, the Least Tern appears to be passing away. Aco 

I i Forbush, who in 191 7 carefully examined the few remaining Massach- 
usetts Tern islands, the principal colonies are now located at Cape Cod and on 
and in the neighborhood of Martha's Vineyard. 

There is a small colony on the sandy point of Raccoon Island, S. C, and a 




M K.rth 



Lcisi Tern 383 

few are breeding at Dry Tortugas, Fla. In June, 1918, Carlos Earle reported 
that there were a number of Least Terns breeding on one or more islands near 
thr mouth of Tampa Bay. On June 30, 1918, 1 found a group of perhaps 
pairs icf 1 young on a small sandy island in Caxambas Pass, Lee 

County, Fla. There are some colonies on the islands in Mississippi Sound, and, 
on Jta >i8, while cruising with Stanley (\ Arthur. I found about one 

hundred birds that had their nests on some small islands in Calcasieu Lake, 
Cameron County. La. A few still persist along the out er islands off the coast of 
Texas, especially in thr in Antonio Bay. Some fairly healthy 

colonies exist on the coast of southern California. Outside of the United States 
•irds breed in limited numbers in the Bahama Islands, West Indies, 
lezuela. 
The m- I .east Tern, like that of many other sea-birds, is of a most 

character. It consists chiefly <>f a slight hole in the sand, without any 
U lining. Most authorities give the numln-r of eggs deposited as three 
or four. Of the hundreds of nests that the writer has examined, more contained 
r. Occasionally single nests of drift-weed or grass are found. 
m thr Least Terns select as a breeding-place an island occupied 

ieir colony is always, as far as I have observed, situated in an 

area quite to itself. In other words, Least Terns seldom, if ever, lay their eggs 

•se proximity to nests of other birds. The eggs are about an inch and a 

quarter long and nine-tenths of an inch wi r they are brownish white, 

spotted and dotted with chocolate. 

In common with the Black Tern, these exquisite little birds at times feed 
to some extent on insects, but their food in the main appears to consist of 
minnows and small shrimps. I have often watched them along our southern 
coast as, in little companies, they fit along over the creeks and wind for miles 
through the extensive salt-marshes. They wander -outhern bays and, 

DCS, up the rivers, but along our Atlantic seaboard appear never to breed 

<-y begin I ration northward in April, and by the middle of V 

ually well di* hnmghout their summer home. June and July are 

the months when the duties of rearing young go forward. Apparently these birds 
do not rc ar two broods in a season, but if the eggs or young are destroyed by high 
tidev ws, crabs, or other causes, a second laying shortly takes place. 

accompanying illustrations will show, the general appearance of the 
Least Tern suggests a white bird with a black cap. In reality the wings, back, 
and tail are of a pearlbh gray and the underparts are pure 

in length from lull tip to tail-tip it b 9 inches, or an inch shorter than the 
ige Robin. Its m tip to tip, b so inches, or 4 inches more 

than the expanse of the 1 I wings. 

east Tern belongs to the order of Umgipenmts, the l o n g -w in ged 
timers, and to the family lAridat. 



Z\)t Hufaufaon Societies 

EXICUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

K4>udbyT.OILBKKT PKAKSON. t«<r«t*ry 

AIiIum All niiiaunailiatu, sad **ad aH whine for dasa and cooir.but »«» u 
STiblUAMdMU* efAudeeee l odntw. 1*74 Broad.ajr. N. 

Wiuj*m In ti»i» fmUtml 

■ 



Aajr prr*o«. club, m boot or mail 
awaWf ol it . and tit art w*Uom* 
Is lb* N 

nnu.IS p«T. for * 

said MNtiM 



VUrdaaad* 



paay •• .ymp.iby «iib tb* obfm. of laia Aamdalioa May become 
atsaaal AaaarisHna ol Aadaboa Soeiatke lor tb* ProtacfJoe <• 




POM or lnom>-l do brr *by gi v. aad ban.** ■ i loaal Aiaoejallof 

fetita for tbr rrotectio* o. Wad Birds aad AaUala (lacorparstad). of ia« - York. 



ANNUAL NG 



n of the fourteenth 
annual meeting «>1 the National Aaaocia- 
tioo of Audubon Societies which ■ 
held in the American Muieum of Natural 
on a October ao, 
1918. 
The basinet* ■ciion will open at 10 
\ tcr luncheon the Kduca- 
I tuna at 1 r.u. 

■ planned to hold a public meeting 



in the main lecture hall I i*eum 

the evening bef 

ginning at 8 Mi At tl ng no 

business will be discuses gram 

will be of an entertaining char a 

member* and friend* soda- 

lion who can find it 

- all of these session 
present. 



A REDDISH EGRET COLONY IN 



The Reddish Egre t is today undout 1 
one of the rarest Herons in the I 
States. Occasionally a few are seen in 
Florida and Loobiana, but these reports 
are rare. No breeding colony of the hjfdg 

• my knowledge, been discovered of 
recent years. It was, therefore, a source of 
much satisfaction to find a large colony of 
them the past summer. 

June 10, 1918, 1 visited the "Chain- 
of Islands" lying between Meaquitc Bay 
and San Antonio Bay, Tex. Thi* 
miles north and east of Rock ford I 
islands constitute the group, ranging in 
aiic from 1 to a acres. They are composed 
of mud snd oyster shells. The most notice- 



able vegetation is stunted mr 
: us, and S 

inR on nine 

• >i these hdtmft Kgret at 

everywhere in the cactus or met- 
al heights var> 

7 feet from the groi; 

following numbers of birds breeding on 

these islands: Louisiana 3.000 

pair*, Reddish Egrets, 1.150 pa 

crowned Night Herons, 600 pa 

Herons, aoo pairs; and A 

S pairs. Probably too pairs of Great -tailed 
let were also breeding tl 

small strip of beach I counted 85 nests 

of the Black Skimmer containing eggs. 



O84) 



The Audubon Societies 



.05 






Night all thr ll.-mns were found, and numerous 
neat* containing eggs were examined. 

note of the Reddish 
is appeared to be at the height Egret b of a Melodious trumjH 
■( thr '•toon, as man 





KMTEI 

< II 






4 by 1 




Pkoto C r»|.h»«J t rl r«im 




r-4» \ 

MtST Or CRF.At TA I THE 

Rl 
Pkolo«r»pW<l by T. Clb«rt tonea 



(J«6) 



The Audubon Societies 



J«7 



MIGRATORY BIRD TREATY ACT 

I Approved July J. 1*11 Public. No. 116. 65th Con«r*.. S. 1S5J; 



•1 for the |>r<' 

it Wash- 
it h. nin< 
hundred and >ther 

pOfpOMi 

U tnaded by ike Sen*U and Hams* of 



Rtprt$mtmUm 

■ 
.llbeki 

lure or kit 



the 



and 



encpt 



as 
i-in- 

ike. 
m-II. 



for shipment. »hip. .au«r to Ik- ship,,ed. 

to be transported, cany or cause to be 

memos whatever, receive 

lor shipment, transportation or carriage, 

any rt uluded in the terms 

of thr ion between the I 

nn for the protection 
of migratory birds concluded August 
nineteen hundred and kit 

■ KjC of any such birds. 
ed to the provisions 

carry out toe purposes of 
toe convention, the Secretary of Ag> 

1 authorised and directed, from time 
to time, having due regard to toe tones of 
re and to toe distril 
nomic value. 

<-S of migratory 
■agkt of tuch birds, to determine when, t<> 
it afl. and by what means 
rm* of the con- 
hunting, taking, cop' 
M, sole, purchase, ship 
ment. transportation, carriage, or export 
of ao> 

Ming tad ► rrning the same, in 
h tuck determinations. 

> approved by the President. 

i>ort. or carry, by any meant 
ry, or 

to or through a 

■ bird, or any part, 
•-eg thereof, . ai.tured, killed. 

t he laws of toe State, 
I^Heory. or District in which it was 



captured, killed, or taken, or from which 
it was shipped, transported, or earrir 
shall be unlawful to import any bird, or 
any part. not. or egg thereof, captured 

I, or 
carried contrary to the laws of any 
Province of the Dominion of Canada in 
which the same was captured, killed, or 
taken, or from which it was shipped, trans- 
ported, or earn. 

5. That any employee of the De- 
>-nt of Agriculture authorized by 

provisions of th >!l have power, 

1 arrest any person 

l and to take 
person immediately for examr 

• ompetent 
jurisdiction; shall have power 
any warrant or other process is* 
officer or court of competent j 

e enforcement of the provisions of 
tab Act; and shall have authority, with a 
search warrant, to search any place. 
The several judges of the courts established 
the laws of the United States 
i States commissioners may. within 
their respective jurisdictions, upon proper 
oath or affirmation showing, probable 
cause, issue warrants in all such ca s es . 
All birds, or parts, nests, or eggs thereof, 
captured, kflled, taken, shipped, trana- 

the provisions of r of any regula- 

tions made pursuant thereto shall, when 
found, be seised by a nployee. or 

by any marshal or deputy marshal, and 

judgment of a court of th 

re captured, killed, 
taken, shipped, transported, carried, or 
pponourl contrary to toe provisions of 
of any regulation made pursu- 
ant thereto, shall be forfeited to toe 
nd disposed of as directed 
I he court having jurisdiction. 
Stc. o That any person, association, 
partnership, or corporation who shall 
violate nay of toe prov isi ons of said coo- 
n or of this Act, or who skall 
violate or • 

shall 
be deemed guilty of a m il rim —nr sad 

not more than t<oo or be imprisoned not 

more than .it month., or both 

be construed to prevent the several 



8v 



,1 - Lore 



law* or regulation* not Incnnnnlsal 

r regulation* which shall i 
protection to migratory bird*. 

and egg*, if such laws or regulation* 
do o< 'he open eeusot 

bird* beyond the date* approved b 
Presi. texordance with section 

three of thi* A 

1. That until the adoption and 
approval, pursuant to tcction thrrr i 

i regulations dealing with migratory 

l.ird* and thru nc*t» an. I cgg». »uih 

migratory birds ami 

rn.M and used • 
i>< or prop, 
be taken, cat 

poses if and to 

■ 

which they are taken, 
<apt ii- possessed, sold, or pur 

chased or in or from which they are 
•hipped or transported if the packages con- 
taining the dead bodies or the nests or eggs 
of »uch birds when shipped and transported 
shall be marked on the outside thereof so 

uratrlv and dearly to snow the 
name and address of the snipper and the 
content* of the package. 

of any sums appropriated by the agri- 
cultural appropriate - the fiscal 
years nineteen hundred and "seventeen 
co hundred and eighteen, for 
enforcing the provision* of th< 
4j.|»r-.\..I M • ■ i., ••: mi rtreg hundred 
I to the pmt. 



Ol micr.it. .r> K amr an. I inM-iti 
are nrirliv rrappr.tpriatrd 
available ui 

^illations an 

and means, aa th< 
may <l 
Columbia and el- 

miieratory birds, and necensa 

ti..n» «..nnr. tr.| therewith /' 

m panon wh-> i-. Milijr. t t.. 

' 

o( 



»vmc 









Stc. io. Th> 
paragraph %hall, 

v reason, be ad 

of CO! 

idgmcnt shall 

• 
shall be confine 

in whi shall havr 

rendered 
Set. ii. That all Acts or pai 

i with the provisions of 

construed 

serves and the sal' 

under proper regulation for the purpose of 

increasing • 

ill become 

and approval. 



MIGRATORY BIRD TREATY ACT REGULATIONS 
iMsctiv* July a. ma) 



the ransi: 

Til 

A PBOCt 

Whkrcas, section thrr 
Congress approved July third, nineteen 
hundred and eighteen, entitle 
To give effect to the convention between 

ainforthe 
protection of migratory birds concluded 
hinglon. August sixteenth, nineteen 
hundred and siiteen. and for other pur 
pose* Congress). 

provides aa follow* 

That subject to the provisions and in 
order to carry out the p ur poses of th« 



is authorized and 

temjx 

I times and lines of migr 
flight 

il all, and by what means, 

convention to allow takir 

it aa 

.. 

riac rt of aa 

any part, nest, or egg 

regulations permit < 
gov. 

••> rmination*. which regul. 
shall become ef!' en appro\. 

the Presid 



The Audubon Societies 



* 



pursuant to said section and 
- he bobcs of Ufll 

nd to ihr 
economic value, breeding habit*, and time* 
and lines ol migratory flight of migratory 
birds included in the term* of the conven- 
tion bct»cm thr States and Great 

n for the protection of migratory 
birds concluded August sixteenth, nine- 
teen hundred and sixteen has determined 
when, to what extent, and by what means 

mpatible with the terms of said con- 
vention to allow hunting, taking, capture. 
killing, possession, sale, purchase, 
ment, transportation, carriage, and export 
rds and parts thereof and their 
nests and eggs, and in accordance with such 
determinations has adopted and subr 
to me for approval regulations, which the 

try of Agriculture has determined to 

table regulations, permitting and 
governing bunting, taking, capture, kill 
ing. possession, sale, purchase, shipment, 
transportation, carriage, and export of 
said birds and part* thereof and I 
and eggs, which said regulations are as 

REGULATIONS. MIGRATORY BIRD 
TREATY ACT 

Regulation 1 Definitions of Migratory 
Birds 

t», included in the terms 
tionofmixra rds, concluded \u>cu»t 

lading 

ding Utile 
dhill. and whooping cranes. 

* rails, indading coots, 
galltnules. and tors and other rails. 

or shorebirds, including 
lowitcbcrs. god wit. 

and yeUowlegs. 

flicker* tl 

■ gists, martins. msadowUrks. 



nighthawks or bull-bats. nuth.. 
orioles, robins, shrikes, swallows, i 
tanagr thru.hr*. vireos. 

warblers, waxwings, « 

Ckers, and wrens, and all other pel 
_ birds which feed entirely or chiefly 
on in»ett» 

4. Other mieraior? montamt bit is: \ 
ulraars. gannets, grebes, 
Kuillemots, gulk, borons, jaegers, loons, 
murres, petrels, puffins, shearwaters, and 
terns. 

Regulation 2.- Definitions ol Terms 

thr pur|ioacs of these regulations 
the following terms shall be construed 
ly, to mean — 

«• Secretary of Agriculture 
< d States. 

IT, SS 

the case deman 

• I corpora- 
tions, unlr.. ihr i ..nt< v- •tirrwi.r require* 
f —The pursuit, hunting, capture. 
• >r killing of migratory birds in the manner 
> the means specifically permitted. 
t jeeiesi.— The time during which 
migratory birds may be tnj 

Tfnipot; rans porting, 

ing, export 
ing for shipment, transportation, carriage, 
or export. 

Regulation 3. — Means by which Migra- 
tory Game Birds May be Taken 

The migratory game birds specified in 
Regulation 4 hereof may be taken dur- 
ing the open season with a gun only, not 
larger than number 10 gauge, fired 
from the shoulder, except as spent 

tied by Regulations 7, 8. 0, and 
10 hereof; they may be taken 
open season from the land and water. 
from a blind or floating device (other than 
an airplane, powerboat, sailboat, or any 
boat under sail), with the aid of a dog, 
and the use of decoys. 



Re 



4.— Open flsssons on and 
of Certain Migratory 
Oame Birds. 



the purpose of this reguh 
period of time herein prescribed as 



A n ..jK-n ictvin »h*ll be « »n%lrued loin, ludr 
1 last days thereof 
tccpt wood d 
ducks, and •- 
black bellied and golden plovers, greater 



or iacksnipe. and 



gsflng 

white- winged doves may be taken 

day from naif an hour before 



Bird -Lore 



■I um open seasons urencril 
therefor in this regulation, by the met 
and in the number* permitted by Regula 
lion* \ and < hrrr..(. rr%|*-« lively, and * ■ 
so takes, each spades may be possessed 
any day durint I 

prescribed therefor and for an 
additional period of 10 day* next succeed- 



trW 4* 

end rwrnut), cent, plUnmUt, and 

n imi>< or m siais*.— The open 

seasons for wat< wood du«k. 

». and swans), coot, gallinules, 

and Wilsoi hall be aa 

In \Uu 

. 

ronain. Illinois. Minnesota. Iowa, Mis 

th I>akot 

braska, Kansas. Colorado, Wyoming, 
Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and that portion 
of Oregon and n lying east of 

vimmit of the Cascade Mountain* 
the open season shall be from September 

16 to I>rccmhr t 

In Rhode Idand. Con: 
and that portion of Oregon and Wash- 
ington lying west of the summit of the 
ide Mountain* the open season 
shall be from October t to January 

In that portion of ' ■ known as 

«1. snd ii 

Arizona, and California the open season 
thai] be from October 16 to Januar \ 

Carolina. South Carolina, 
Georgia. Florida, Alabama. Mississippi. 
Tenneasee. Arkansas, snd Louisiana the 
open season shall be from November i t<> 
January at; and 

In Alaska the open season shall be from 
Sc|»lrmber « to December t<. 

Rails (rxttpi toot mmd tauinmJts.) — The 
open season for sora si - rails 

(except coot and galHnuJea) shall l>« 
■Ax-t i to November 30, < 
as follows: 

In Louisiana the open season shall be 
■ mlM-r 1 to January 

bUtkbfllud end toUen pUnert and 
grttUr end Utter yruox 
■e asoa i fos blach-beffied and golden plovers 

an-l tmur an.) Irwr veil.. »!«•»> shall l>e 
as follows: 

la Maine. New Hampshire, Massarhu 
land. Connr. 

ry. Oelaw 

and Virginia the open season shall be 



North 



kansas. Oklahoma. S 

and .Masks the open season 
shall be from September 

nesot.t 
Montana, Idah< 



M. i>-.i. h 



open ffs t* 
from August 16 to November 30, 
Columbia, 
Carolina. South Carolina 



lion of Oregon and >g 

of the summit of the Cascade M 
•m season shall be from s ; ' 

In I'tah and in that portion 
Aashingtoi. 
mit of the ('»»■ 
season shall be from «». t..bcr 1 t.i Jam 

Georgia, Florida, Alabama Miss 

open 
season shall !>• 
Januar 

itotk. — The open seasons for wood 
hall be a" 

.mia, 

hfidntjBi UlnoaMlsm, Illinois. Ifflvnottri, 

■ «• braska, a 
season shall br 
r 30; and 
In l>ela» 

Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, 
Mlisiisiinil rmaasirr vrkansaa, Loot* 
ana, Texas, and < 
season shall be fr< 
mber 31. 

Dow. -The open seas 
ing and white- winged doves shall be as 
follows: 

In Drlau 

noma, Texas. 

., and 
Oregon the open season shal 
September 

in S 

la, Alabama, M 
and Louisiana I -r.is..n shall be 

from S< 

Regulation 5. Bag Limits on Certain 
Migratory Game Birds 

rson may take in any one da 
ins: the open seasons pi 

Regulation 4 I tin- 

following numbers of migratory game 

Putki rut pi wood duck and rider <: 

d the aggregate of all kinds. 



The Audubon Societies 



391 



! iicht in the aggregate of all 

■ 

i, tod, and taliimmits. — Twent 
e aggregate of all kinds. 
KijtkbtUifd and toUrm plotrn and 

ij>e.— T» 

D*Ki momrmtnc and trktie-wimted). — 
e in the aggregate of both 

kind* 



Regulation 6.— Shipment and Tranapor- 
>n of Certain Migratory Game 
Bir 

wood d 

ails, coot 

•1 and golden plovers, greater 

•vlegv woodcock, Wilson 

and mourning and 

• d doves and parts thereof 

c transported 
State where taken during the 
>pen seasons in that State, and 
1 1 ported from Canada during 
rason in the ! where 

radar week than the 
number that may be taken under these 
regul.r 

da or parts 

ring the open season 

ia transit such additional 

time imnv needing such open 

-tina 
i migratory 
are trans- 
! shall ha 

nsignee and an 

of the numbers and 

contained therein dearly 

birds shall be trans- 
'V, or 
ugh another State. 
• strict, or to or 

> minion of Canada 

Mt of the 

vnada in 



Regulation 7 Taking of Certain Migra- 
tory Nongame Birda by Eskimo, and 
Indians in Alaaka. 

- ami Indians may 

ukr ' hemselves and their 

immedi.it ( families, in any manner and at 

and possess and transport 

Kuillemotv rourresTiand 

putl.nv an.! tlMil cms f., r MO* and thru 

skins for clothing. 

Regulation 8. — Permits to Propagate 
and Sell Migratory Waterfowl 

>ay take in any manner 
*nd ftj me migratory waterfowl 

propagating purposes 
authorised by a |». 

and their eggs 
•*sessed by th. 
and may be sold and transported 
purposes to any 
holding a permit issued b] 
iry in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this regular 

\ I rxon authorized by a permit 
issued ay possess, buy 

sell, and transport migratory waterfowl 
snd 1 1 m and eggs in any manner 

and at any time for propagating 
* n(1 ■ ;>t the birds 

taken under paragrap 
so possessed may be killed by him in anv 
mann ng, and the un 

•d carcasses and the j.: 
castes with heads attached th< 
birds so killed may be sold and u 
ported by him in any manner and at any 
to any person for actual consumption, 
r of a not« 
boarding house, retail dealer in meat or 

natrons, who may possess such carcasses 

•orted shall ha 
spicuously marked on th. 
the name and address of the permittee, 
the number of his permit, the name and 
address of the consignee, and a 

neat of the number and kinds of 
hirdt or egg» i untamed therein 

Applications for permits must be 
■d d iisai J to the Secretary of Agriculture. 

formation Name and address 

of applicant ; puce where the business is 

mber of acres of land 

or leased by the applicant, number of 
each species of • at tacaejon of 

applicant ; n i m ea of species and number of 
birds or eggs of each species If pan 



39* 



Bird -Lore 



i« «%ked to take waterfowl or i 
•ad toe particular totality where 
desired to take sues waterfowl or egg*. 

\ person mated a permit under tab 

regulation »hall keep book) a*d retold* 
•hick tball fonr.il the total 

number of each apedea of vat< 

nd their r«K» j-.^rxwd on the date of 

applkatioa Tor the permit end oo the tint 
dav of January 

.alendar \car for »huh permit «i. i»»ued 
tbe total number of each apedea reared aad 
killed, number of each species aad 
egg* told end transported, mean 
which tuck waterfowl and egga watt 
transported, name and address of each 
pcraoa from or to whom waterfowl and 
eggs were | i with 

number and apedea and whether sold 
or dead; and the date of each trans- 
action \ Mitlrn repor . set- 
ting forth this n shall be fur 
nished tbe Secretary during the month of 
January next following the issuance of the 
t«ern 
6. A permittee shall at all reasonable 



hours allow any authorized employee of 

tultur sad inspect the premises 

where operations arc being carried on 
under this regulation and to inspc 
books and records of such permittee relat- 
ing th< 

shall be valid only during the calendar 
year of issue, shall not be transferable, and 
may be revoked by the Secretary, if the 
I ■ 
ratorv Bird Treaty Act or of 
>ns there u 
8. A person engaged in the i»r..pa. 
of migratory waterfowl on the d 
wkick these regulations become ei ; 
will be allowed until September 30, 1018. 
to apply for the permit • 
regulation, but be shall not take an 
gratory waterfowl without a permit 

Re eolation 9. Permits to Collect Migra- 
tory Birds lor Scientific Purposes 

< rson may take in any mann* - 
at any time migratory birds and 
nests aad egga for scientific purposes when 
authorized by a permit issued by the 
Secretary, which permit shall be carried 
oa his person w hen be b colic, 
mens thereunder and shall be exhibi I 
any person requesting to sec the same. 

Applkatioa for a permit must be ad- 
dreaaed to the Secretary of Agriculture. 
Washiagtn n ,j must contain the 

following information Name and address 
of applicant and name of State. Territory, 
or District in which specimens are pro- 



to be taken and the purpo«< 
which the> 
shall be accompanies 

applicant b a fit person I 
with 1 

The permit will 1 
thereof to pose res, I 
port in any manner and at an> 
migratory birds, par- 
nests and egga for scu 

1 any manner and ftf 

and tl nd eggs f 

■ 
shall be taken with. 

nits shall 
calendar year of issue, ah. 
ferable. and shall be r 
tion of the 
permit -h. 

before January 10 fol 
tbe number of 
each apedea Co 
tran- 

ry package in » 
or tl or egga are tran», 

shall 

marked on the outside thereof the name 
and address of tbe sender, the nun. 
the 1- 

b required, the name and address • 
consignee, a statcnv 
specimens 

scientific purposes, ai 
package i» l 



States into the 

itc statement of tbr 

Regulation 10. Permits to Kill Migra- 
tory Birds Injurious to Property 

When inform. 1 
retary that any specie 
haa become. 

:10ns, seriously injurious to 
tultur 



whether th< 
doing tbe damage should I 

ring what times and I nean*. 

Upon bis determination an appr<>; 
order will be made. 

son. Pbesiden i 1 ran or 

do Hr.er.BY am .< rao- 

u the foregoing regulations. 




Amis Q) an, 4 &*4rk\. 



i«*3. MAcne 



3. YELLOW.BILLED MAGPIE 

111') 



A BI-MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

OBVOTKO TO TMK STUDY AND PROTECTION OP MUM 

Omcitk Oa«*M or Tmc Awovto* •ocinut 



Vol. XX November— December. 1918 No. 6 

Notes from a Traveler in the Tropics 

By PRANK M. CHAPMAN 

I DOWN THK COASTLINE TO CUBA* 

Is of submarines, the coastline route to Cuba, by way of Key 
has certain obvious advantages over the voyage by sea. The 
necessity of stopping at I ■«' Training Camp, on Paris Island, off 

Beau: , however, left me no choice in the matter, though I am free to 

confess that a strong desire to avoid meeting a submarine, added to a keen wish 
to see the southern states in October, — even if only from a car-window, — would 
have prompted mc to make the journey by land. To paraphrase Dr. Van I > 
remark to the effect that he did not care to climb a mountain unless there was 
something very pleasant at the top and something very disagreeable at the 
bottom, a sea-voyage offered only objectionable possibilities, while the trip 
by rail promised to be exceptionally interesting and attractive. Most of my 
many journeys to and from Florida have been made in the winter or early 
spring, when some of the most characteristic trees are leafless and the crops 
of the country have been gathered; in short, when the region through which 
one passes is at its worst. It was a surprise to me, for example, to see sugar-cane 
and well-developed banana plants near Beaufort— though I assume that the 
latter do not bear fruit -while the cotton-fields, with their green leaves, pop- 
corn-like cotton-bolls and occasional corn-colored blossoms, poss esse d small 
resemblance to the dreary rows of brown stalks, with an o cc asi on a l wisp of 

the winter traveler sees. 
Fallow fields and waysides were yellow with goldenrod, wild sunflowers, and 
numerous flowering plants new : re was an abundance of green grass 

instead of brown sedge, and this general air of greenness was the dominant 

erywhere impressed me. Cypress, china-berries, and scupper- 

nong grape-vines, all of which are leafless in winter, were fully foliaged, and the 

y oaks, which flutter their dead leaves depreutngly in the winter, were 

clad rllow-gNML 

*T1m lew of • prupuwJ ww of wwi by the Editor of Si.o Lo*t. vrittw •«!• m • 
to Seat* Aworka tor tka Aawricaa Had Croat. 



394 Bird -Lore 

There b no reason to be surprised at all thb; 
between winter and late summer, but many persons who go south in the 
winter express disappoint mm t in the vegetation. Florida, for instance, as 
rnd of Flower*," is expect. i*rpetual sta 1 <>reacence; 

but even in the tropics vegetation must have its periods of i 
bear brftstftiwf and fruit continually, any more than a bird can nest thr< 
out the year. 

The bird population of the southern states is probably smaller in early 
October than in any other part of the year. The mign er, the 

summer residents have gone, and, like tl er will H<m k south, 

the winter residents have not 001 

Mourning Doves, which are doubtless mor 
than any rth American bird, flew, usual rs, as th 

were hurrying to keep an appointment somewl I a tries and 

Loggerhead Shrikes, both of which hunt in thr open, were n 
there were occasional Turkey Buzzards. A scattered company of about t p 

rons animated the marsh near Beaut-. • 
mature Little Blues. About a charming old hotel in 4 thr 

real south. Mockingbirds were singing delightful! 
burst of n< me, but a subdued mel< i »ugh, so to speak, the 

were 'running over the keys' rem 

Grackles, feeding on the berries of a tree • w in the hotel ya 

the wide second-story, with its broad outlook over the bay to the sea islands, 
one could almost touch them 

The journey down the east coast of Florida was made at i 
awoke at sunrise we were already i: 

id gone from I migrate to the Stlbtro) 

as favorable to plant-growth as i ^ht have! 

As it is, the growth b dense and luxuriant, if low. hut is cleared 

limestone b revealed, and one marvels that the trees can i hold 

or food. 

ler the best conditions for exploration I have never found birds a 
in Florida Keys, and it b therefore not to be expected that many species would 
be seen from a train. Ospreys and Herons were the chara. .irds. 

Of the latter I saw Lit t I^ouisiana, and Yellow-crow 

Ward's and the Great \\ ran; while one Individual, quite near 

had the whitehead which marks the puzzling intermediate between the* 
so-called, 'Wuerdemann's Heron 

There was but a single Brown Pelican, one Duck Ha rous Sparrow 

Hawks and Florida Red-shoulders; a few Gulls (evidently Ltngl 
the upright boards driven to the water's edge, which retain the gi D this 

remarkable railroad, were occasionally perched rows 
with reas o na ble certainty, Dowitcher, Turnstone, and Black- 1 



Notes from • Tnveler in the Tropics 



395 



hut t near — not more than 20 feet from the train — that we 

passed thrm too qu >ermit a satisfactory view. 

The bcauu mming hour, the lure of an unnamed bird darting 

from one thicket to another, made me long to 1*- afoot, hut the Mght of two 

negroes standing near a Mnndge ami making violent, ami signititant. gmtVH 

ated that life on the Keys is probably not as rosy as it 

looks from a car-window. 

As we near West, a flying form of wide wing-spread, swept • 

head, and soon I counted five hydroplanes, adjuncts of the military Aviation 

1 aster the air. 




B OK MANC-WAt BIRDS ROOST I 

I Willi WHITE HEADS AM 

When I was last in k- . \\ est, twenty-six years ago, I doubt if the moat 

husiastk prop! would have ventu t that 

11I, or that on arriving I should find men soaring 

The voyage from Key West to Havana was made at night. Early m o rnin g 

r.ls oil the coast or in Havana harbor. The Prado, parks, and 

yas of Havana contain, appa> try HoOM StWffOJl .ced at an 

I >atn. The sur- 
ndings of ire almost equally unat t rn I he bird studei 

i ssion en the Isle of Pines, 60 miles ofl the 

them coast .1, opposite Havana A motor-ride of 38 mites across 

island rt of Bataoano, over a road continuously lined with arching 



Jo6 



Bird - Lore 



tree*, in the hill* wind* through forests of royal palms with tome under- 
growth, and although the early tropical morning had pasted, enough 
were heard and teen to indicate a place of promise. 

In view of the character oi the coast, with its shallows and mud-flats and 
abundance of fish-life, there were surprisingly few birds off the coast at Bata- 
bafto, and fewer still near the Isle of Pines. Indeed, the lack 
everywhere suggested some seasons I reason for their, abtr? 
Pelicans, three is, about fifteen Laug alf a 

doten Cormorants constituted the entire 










nd excellent roads permitted me to see a large part of the northern 
half of the Isle of Pines, but nowhere did I observe an apparently n 
sble place for birds than the immediate surroundings of the home of William 
L. Pack, at La Cciba, near Santa Fe\ where it was my good fortune to spend 
three days. In the prevalence of birds and the general flatness of the land, the 
Isle of Pines suggests parts of Florida. There are, however, small h 
singly or in snort ranges, arise abruptly to a height of several hundred feet, 
giving, in some cases, a suggestion of mountainous horizons. The exceptional 
charm of Mr. Packs home is due to the hilly surroundings and t } more 

tropical growth, with numerous royal palms which flourish along the streams of 
the narrow bottomlands. 

The house itself b set in a grove of grapefruit and orange trees, frequented 
by numerous Prairie Warblers, with occasional Yellow-throated Warblers 



Notes from a Traveler in the Tropica 397 

(whether icmimca or albiloro I could not distinguish), while in the high grass 
between the trees were Grassquits (Tiaris) and a few Maryland Yellow- 
throats. Large Red-bellied' Woodpeckers {Centurus) hopped around among 
thr hunches of fruit which they are said to puncture, though I did not catch 
them in the act. I'itirris (Pita*gus) took the place of Kingfishers, and Bobitos 
(Blocicus) equally suggested Wood Pewees. 

\ large mango overhanging the house made a one-night dormitory for a 
flock of about fifteen Anis. I found them there early one morning, roosting so 
closely together that a peck-measure would have covered them all. Their daily 
range was evidently limited, and their long-drawn, whining whistle was one of 
the most conspicuous bird-notes. It is to me one of the few thoroughly un- 
pleasant, disagreeable b es, wholly in keeping with the appearance of 
the bird, and me redeeming feature. 

t beautiful blue Thrush (Mimocickla) was tame and common, and cheer- 
fully uttered a series of squawking calls exactly resembling the distress notes 
of a 1 >in struggling to regain its freedom In the Bahamas 

I have heard a closely allied species sing delightfully ; but October is apparently 
no more the song-season in Cuba than it is in the United States, and the early 
morning hours were comparatively quiet. Ground, Zenaida, and Mourn- 
ing Doves cooed softly; the Cuban Meadow lark sang its brief wte-chm<ket- 
chuggU-<hfe, far less musical, but suggesting in tone and form the song of our 
lowlark rather than that of the Western species (negUcta) ; the 
too (Saurotktra), like a Yellow-billed, but half again as long 
hulk, sprang his weird rattle, while, at intervals, there was 
a sudden and surprising outburst of screams and calls from a flock of rose- 
breasted Parrots, White-crowned, climbing alxiut in the pine trees— pines and 
Parrots are not commonly associated. The first is here at the southern limit of 
its sea-level range; the second goes but little farther north, but, from force of 
instance*. frequent this tree of boreal origin more often than any 

Seeing a little flock fly from a pine into a small tree, thinly branched, but 

rather dense foliage at the ends of the limbs, we decided to inspect the 

at dose range. At a distance of 30 yards, close examination, with and 

ut a glass, revealed only five birds, but as we clapped our hands seven- 

U flew from the tree I 

n to the Isle of Pines in April, when the Thrushes are 
(leas singing and possibly thousands of north-bound migrants make it 
resting-place. 

(kl-brr | 7 , |Q|8 



When the North Wind Blows 

By A A ALLSN. Ph D . A»»t>nt Professor of Ornltrtolocy. Cornell V 
Wkk pBotogrspka by the Author 

TH1 
eassocLv .Is with flowers and green trees is so much a 

par- ( -n a flock of Larks whisks by in a snowstorm, or 

near his window, it gives him a 
thrill qniti keeping with the weather. So strong is the association of 

ideas in the human race that it is ditfk nil >ons that there 

ii cold weather ami that pr inga northern 

he sunny South. S ri think that the birds found 

-•or weaklings that have been left behind, whs hcrc- 

be cared for until spring. 

is were asked the best time to study birds, we would answer, 
with one i -he month of migration, when the woods and fields are 

h their songs. Perhaps it is, at 
least for those who need thi r and musk and abundance 

a can escape the charm ol bird -migration. Hut the 
>an hardly wait for the migration to cease and 
rds to begin nesting. And when the nasi 
Augusta: il*er. an- ds become unint. n>plc 

.iid tlats, the marshes, and the shores that 
b to lie in wait for the returning Sand| i 
talk the Herons and the Rails! Then comes the fall migra- 
urpriscs. and, followii he time to get 

out t! he beginner to practise to his heart's content 

ding-stations offer numberless opportun 
catastrophes to young birds that sometimes 
d persons try to learn bird -photography in the summer, 
rings something new, and the sport never becomes monotonous. 
ne has photographed a Chickadee fifty times before? Each win 
behaves differently, and one can always Imps o w 09 the pictures he alrea.lv has 

■ 
Longspurs; last winter it was North. kei It is never twice the same. 

birds to por* i pictures 

most resourceful, winter aft< 
general methods of procedure >hotograt 

:>g the birds up to you at permanent feeding-stations, and the 
articular birds and baiting them on their own ground at 
ling-stations. In the first method we usually establish a number 
stations early in the season in promising places and keep the food 
replenished The regula birds soon find these, and if any unusual 

(Jtt) 



4O0 



Bird -Lore 



in () icy arc apt to follow the other birds and remain 

them. If the feeding-stations are properly scattered about the < early 

every bird can be secured in this way. On the tip end of one log in a 
where we kept food for two years, we secured photographs of sera 
fcrcnt kinds of birds, and a few others, that v. eedinph 

ing, visited the log. 

The other method is to wait until one discovers where the dc- are 

feeding and then replenish their supply with as nearly the same kind ot 
as cor Usually they will keep returning to the same spot until tl>< 

b exhausted, and w i ome back to it fmm time i 




I BIRDS 
APPEALS TO ONE" A WIMTBI 

replenish the supp example, a small flock of Pra: >ed Larks, 

containing a single Lapland Longspur, was discovered feeding in a pat 
weeds. The weed seed would soon have become exhausted 
have gone elsewhere before becoming accustomed to a camera had w 
tramped down the snow in the I nd sprinkled chick-feed. This supply 

was maintained from day to day, and the birds soon formed the I 
there to feed. Others followed them until there was a flock ■ hundred 

Larks, five Lapland Longspun, and a few Snow Buntings. Had we at this time 
put up a camera focused on the grain, in an attempt to photograph th< • 
would probably have frightened them all away. Instead, a box was placed 
in the snow when the feed was first put out, and the birds were accustomed to 
it from the beginning. Another box, with a hole in one end through which the 






When the North Wind Blows 401 

camera could be pointed was placed u\ A hen the camera was put in place, 

the I' ticed the different were not frightened away, and 

tie was lost waiting for them to become accustomed to it. It was merely 
necessary to wait for the birds to arrange themselves properly before pulling 
the : 

asion arose during the past winter. A Northern Shrike was 

obser ■ nto an arborvitss hedge near the house in pursuit of some 

vs. Investigation showed the wings of four Sparrows on the snow 

beneath the h< that the Shrike bad been there before and would 

probably come again. A dead Sparrow was, therefore, fastened to the tip of a 







■ 



i' LONGtruas AND prairie horned larks AT A FECI' 

YV BIRDS TO SB PHOTOGRAPHED 

branch near the hedge. Two weeks passed, and the frozen Sparrow dangled 
in the wind until one morning all but the leg by which it was fastened dis- 
appeared, loiter in the day the Shrike was seen fluttering at the tip of the 

he leg. No more Sparrows were available, but a 
furnished a piece of flesh with feathers attached. This was 
fastened in the place of the Sparrow, and the camera, covered gray 

box, was focused u| I he Shrike soon returned, but since it was beginning 

to snow and the branch was swaying in the wind, conditions were impossible 
hotography. A 4-foot stake was therefore driven into the snow below the 
bram c piece of Duck nailed to the top of it, so that there would be no 

It was now snowing hard and so dark that an exposure of one 
of a second with the diaphragm at stop //6j was necessary, but when the Shrike 
ncd, he remained quiet enough to give a fairly satisfactory picture. 



4 



Hird-Lorc 



The Shrike teemed unable to bold the food beneath his feet and tear off 
pieces as do the Hawks and Owls, or even the Chickadees. The post was not 
large enough for him to perch beside the meat as he woul<l have done, 







■!»:.'.:., U|i 



mi it. It b k 



TIm UM tomU set pal of tte Mte «4 m 
rvtfiag bcti 

so in order to get it. he cither hovered before it like a Hummii . lung 

to the post like a Woodpecker, as shown in the accompanying photo*: 
Later on, he gave us many opportunities to observe this habit, for we fed him 



\Xhcn the North Wind Blows 



403 



and Sparrows for two weeks. In every case he perched at one tide of the 

ad of din tit. When he secured a piece too large to swallow, 

instead of holding it beneath his foot, as might be expected, he flew to a nearby 

pear tree and wedged it in a narrow fork so that he could get sufficient leverage 

occurred to roe 

that this might be the origin, if not the 

c cause, of the habit shared 

es, of impaling food upon 

liat is ordinarily spoken of as 

'.',.. therefore, brought in a 

snail thorn tree and impaled a mouse 

upon one of its thorns, thinking it might 

auto-suggestion to inspire him 

lished the mouse 

-eemed rather clumsy in the bush, 

as though he did not care for thorns, 

and even when opportunity offered 

ike advantage of them but flew 
be pear tree and wedged his food in 
>rks according to his cus- 
tom. The southern Migrant Shrikes 
and Loggerheads, however, are more 
torn trees and may have 
learned to use the thorns as more con- 
venient than tl 

illy made regular \ 
ur meat-market and did not mind 
appearance of an umbrella blind. 
of a motion-put ur«- 
camera. Thanks to his fearlessness, we 
now have a permanent rn «>r<l in motion- 
al how the Shrike eats, as 
as a partial record of just how he 
irrow, by making a head- 
long dash at it, relying upon the surprise 
1* onrush to put tl it a disad 

ceros to realize that he has I 
pursuit further. On one occasion he 
trap and, when uasoccesM 

•ars, as a Sparrow Hawk wc 
back to hit pen h and waited for the exci 
It was interesting to see the rea c t i o n s 
ise Sparrows all rushed for the 




ttm tk» a ll^mwubM o» perch 

A. chance and does not carry 
lash at some Sparrows in a 
list and try to get si them 

done, but immcdiatrU nVw 



Bird -Lore 



branches, chippcring excitedly, hut the native birds, at the first alarm, froze 
immovable wherever they happened to be. A Song Sparrow on an ope: 
shell, a Junoo on a bare branch, and several J uncos on the open snow remained 
motionless for twenty minutes and as long ai Eke was quiet. As soon 

•a he moved or darted at a bird, they all made for the hc<lge, excej 
pursued, which made off through the often. The Chickadees, among the m 
birds, were an exception. They could not remain more than a few 

minutes without getting nervous, when they would fly to the tree over the 
Shrike's head and scold him. 

That the freezing method had its advantages was evidenced 
that all of the birds captured b> Ike, in so far as any traces wen 

were all male Sparrows. 

Dg drew attei 
themselves, and 

than the native birds 
that it in 

the open when ; 
mad 

The per ma i 
feeding-stations > 
many advantages 
the temporary ones 
that one establish 

titular 1 

mat 

Icadee barn' can 

be i 

.•tit- CU mi with his 

camera an«l photog- 
raph to his heart's • 
thout sea 

FEEDING-STATIONS OFFEt J 

TO THt PHOTOGRAPHER . hlkwl t* ix>ar<i> one 

T. ikM a of Uh 4mtimahn Hib W . *«!•• la mm pkKo«t.pli 

■ i'i>4 4ml m !■■■■>» Hi n«ti— r* t— n M — .— can use an 




When the North Wind! Blows 



405 




DO. !KY WOODPECKERS AT A SUET-M 

Uo.bltbcxkn' ofar » ■>«« Md toe taoM wbo kavt pkolofr.phed »U tke bird. U»t com 

te tWir («*diag-«UtioM 

it Ls rather cold and cramp* iter use and does not 

last long if left in a permanent position. A box to conceal the camera, which 

I from a distance by a thread or ele* next most 

satisfactor ate, the blind or box should be kept permanently 

in place so that the birds will be accustomed to it and no useless waits ensue. 

tbition of the winter bird photographer is naturally to secure 

ture as possible of each bird that comes to tin in-, ling-station. 

these ha\ « been secured, however, one has really only begun. One pose 

of s bird will not show all of its distinctive marks. If one wishes to show well 

the spot on the breast of the Tree Sparrow, for example, he must take a front 

will not reveal the conspicuous wing-bars nor dispb 

to advantage. Again, photographs of the Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers 

look very mu« -cause there is ordinar .« in the photograph by 

h one can judge si ok a good deal of pleasure, therefore, at one 

>ng a hole clear through a small sapling and filling it 

*o that a bird could feed on one side of the tree without disturbing 

I tmth In- m focus at the same time. In mil way many 

iderV were H as some time before we got the Downy 

together and showed, photographically, the difference in sise of 

the two birds. (f, * e^mdmdtd) 



Homeland and the Birds 

By MA ML OSGOOD WRIOHT 

41.1. the land » astir, tad val heart in it is si 

r\ of the (ircat War that shall make the earth sat 

college, laboratory, workshop, field, hospital and topic 

are nocking to make the winning sure and lend aid 

women. « hildren, all eager to do their part in the way that seems best, those 
who cannot go over seas, often doing double tasks to release those who can 
go forth. 

\\ c are lending our mom-;, need; we arc- 

sugar t<> help the shell-shocked soldier boys grow strong aga naorv- 

ing every scrap of food that it may lie used as a bulwark again- 
but are we stay-at-homes, whose part is equally neceasa i great war t inn- 

fabric, doing all we can to keep the Homeland at its too \>< 
we doing our best to keep alive the organize • onserva: 

which so much time, money, and personal effort ha 
l»a>t M..r»- ol years? 



Last spring, at twilight, a mother stood in her garden near he;' 
the coming of ha ion just grown a man, who was to say goodbye )» 
'over the: 

« flower-beds showed bare spots; such blooms as wi <• looked 

straggly and uncared for. Presently a step came U hind her 
arms that at first nearly crushed her relaxed and led her to one of the garden 
seats, while in the content of being there, the young man's eyes st.i 
h<»mc at re>. 

U ' ■ what is the matter with the garden, Mothe: 
have gone at it at all, and you've always been so kc« • n. >t ill , are > 

• tiding his searching eyes by shading them with her hand, she answered 
with a forcedly stead) 

You will not be here to see them, so I meant to let the flowers go t 
or else plant food-stuff in their place. It seems to be right these days th.i 
should only give our time to useful things, my ton 

"Useful things! Nonsense, V e is always useful and something 

that will help a fellow as much as food. That is. I know that 
Wherever I am I want to be able to dose my eyes and see you her 
garden. I want to see the breakfast table with the rosea on it but— 
as much of dad's bead as can be seen above the newspaper 
sake, Mummie, wa be Quail that nested down beyond the brush- 

lot— draw them up this wa rig and later d hose scamps across 

the river break up the cove In t think someone would look after mv 

real home country, I couldn't bear to leave it 



Homeland and the Birda 407 

hi the between tiroes, when her fingers were 

cram; ind her e ill to sec the needle's • ile as 

it dreaded across th< rowd, they fell and kept away after one 

>man who was feeding the Ouail as a In 
ip with I hands on the wood-lot 

edge. The poachers, finding to their cost that at least when it comes to keep- 
to a very fthatl Hnmm that I would preach to 
' hi- Homeland of the men and women 
:u-ir return t( Gad it the land of joy, 

- as it uvea m their boboi 
plea I ird and its preservation and tin trees th 

incral understand the double menace to bird life that 

with the approach of the winter to. the withdrawal of 

who were also the chief legal pi >irds) 

eat cost and difficulty of obtaining 

ton. 

h these two dangers may return that of last year, when the 

ing hoitk Eran the north, the 

ti the game-birds, ami the Northern Shrike to prac- 

r-bird habits, that 

ers seek to de 

such as at allows the Fish ami (fame Commission 

example, comes from the licenses of 

hunt. tost wholly drawi re from those of draft 

r are or will be absent, and I must -up|>osc th * 1 lrie m 

states. Also, alrea ■■vend sUtes, pi laws 

the ifffriatrvr balance and pretended sportsmen who are 

isguised pot-hunters at heart, are .-hi to 

*>d-suppl 1 all future game- 

in the same wa) .1- the Passenger Pigeon was slaughtered. 

d-protection is now a law. as well as the Emabiinj 
< and not dead measures? 
air to whom tkmmsiwmcn ruin, re ami tousenation af 

by our sotiier boys, 
should do this work, mot in the plate of other net r nary war reouirrmemts, but as 
I from them. 
nong many ardent patriots is to rush to something n< 
organised, if it |tartn ularlv appeals 1 f h>r the hcrou . rather than 

rp of old, well-considered and time 

md II. •« ' .. 



4o8 Bird -Lore 

In the 6ret place, when necessary. P ut lnc <*** <* ' ' 
warden service fairly before your various legislatures, asking for a wartime 
appropriation for the d« 

i.ring influence to bear upon all those who, from necessit 
aiing down woodlands and brush lots for fuel, asking thai 
reasonable care against the destruction of mere saplings that 

bird she vour home district among I 

«.f the place for the purpose of winter feeding, and send out appeals to ot 
to do likewise. 

In regions infested by Starlings, or in windswept and birdless str< 
country usually snowed under, make up parties to gat hi ■ bay- 

berries, also the seed-cones of the composites of the sunflower tribe Ihf 
relished by all the winter birds. 

In short, double all your former efforts to cherish these i weepers, 

Seed-kUlcrs and Weed-warriors, in their perpetual and ha 
do their work of keeping the Homeland green and fruitful. 

Then let those of you who have I i compelling or ■ 

speech go into the schools and gathering-places of 
and repeating again and again the story of the be.i 
birds and their wartime necessities, wca u talk t! 

Homeland itself, to its soil, as the foundation of all lasting patri 
not ask them for money for this thing or that in connection a 
at this time— this year the pennies belong to Uncle Sam. Ask them lot p>> 
service— for at eb time — the bit of themselves that is most worth while 

and will count for more than their pennies in the end. 

tend, save the birds during the stress that is even 
need their presence to keep our courage up, the courage it take* 
the courage to keep the even balance when victory b won. 
b help for our soldiers at their home com 

<• birds that make sweet music for us all 
In our dark hour* — as David did for Saul." 






WIUIU.I. . h \NK 
n»lo«r*pWd by II ud »: fill-** MuttoW. C«m<U 

- 4Mm«m Im<»«m Cam* aa4 H«»m m« »•«» mm pmmmumi la Ik* jp««m >»►•« •• ,h » 

Mi Uvt • <!»•»? ultl pU*Mt »Ml CM IN •»••« ■••• •!»» M U MNJ. «ktW H lWM 
•'• bora <oap«r*liv«ljr hM M4 MCM) MVWtJ «WM> !• t»t MM 



(409) 







* w 



.*:•. *u& «»* 4 v t* 






hk\- 



A Wild Duck Trap 

By VERDI BUKTCH. Br.nchport. N Y 
ft ilk Fbotacnpte by Ik* \utfc.f 

Tllr harborat Bramh|« r \ \ , on Lake Keuki 
a long sand-bar through which a channel ha* l>een dredge 
enable the boati ajud does not freeze 

n the coldest winter, as there is a 
and out, keeping a small area free from ke all through the wim 
area is a veritable trap for the wild Ducks, as in n< 
lake is frozen over, a U death. 

The wti 1112 was particularly disastrous. January was v< 

ami the lake froze over early in the month, aero weatl 
ruary. when I heard from the fishermen that there was a la 
in the channel. On the i:th I went down and found thai 

I hicks, n iivasbacks, with many American Scaup* 

Golden-eyes and a single Bufflehead, in the channel. As we nea . the 

■lsbacks took to wing, the Scaups and Golden-eyes crowding to the 
opposite side of the channel. The Canvasbacks soon came back, circled ar 
a few times, and dropped in with the others. One female, howt weak 

and could not sustain her (light long enough to reach the water, hut dropped 
on the ice and flopped along until she was again in the wai 

^, there were about 150 Ducks in the channel, imlu 



A Wild Duck Trip 



411 



Amer V large box with sides of strawhoard, in which holes 

■'scrvation and for the len* iflcx, made me an excellent 

This was pushed out to the edge of the ice I g but 

1 now had hflfBr >an 500. I had bu1 

elf when a bunch < came ha I. and my 

r a caught a female Scaup to the water on a turn, wings fully 

I wide apart, with the toes spreading the web to the uti 
a> >he back-pedtjed to the watei nun cum tin- Canvubai ka, 1 ir« Ifcn ajaja 
and again rig in each time around, their wings forming a parachute 

eared the water and the toes turning up as they tobogganed into it. 
made s* >uik> with wheat. 10m. and t hopped 

cabbage. This WM thrown out into the water, and while we did not tec them 
I think that they did . I 

took a dead ( ,< ■ n eye from one of the 6sh-hnes that i|j let through the ice 
net It was hooked through tl ■ truck 

the hook 

mesa large flock of th< -ut on the ice in the mid 

of the lak- e. and one da\ we went out to them. As we drew 




£•***« 



. c 






*« 









near, all new away except a fen 

• d her home and fed her 1 

minnow was forced down her thn 

at our fingers 

finger v were oil 



to il\£ind we 

now <« from our 
late, and 



4i a Bird -Lore 

Coming back to the channel, we found one poor Canvaaback fl oati n g on 
the water, dead, and another struggling to keep her head above the a 
but she soon gave up, turned on her side, and alter a few gasps was 

.vere more dead Ducks. They floated to the edge oi 
ice, t .-ills and Crows coming and draggin. 

where they picked the meager flesh from their bones. Some animal a 
carried the bones away, for after a few days a few feathers 
remained on the blood-stained snow. It has always been a i 



1 



- -w * 



TOBOGGAN INTO I 

these Ducks remained here, slowly starving to death, « a Lake, 

its open water, was only 1 2 miles away, and it would seem that 
this water when they were up in their flights. 

February ai brought a thunderstorm which was followed by high wi 
and intense ool \ of the Ducks must have been up in the air and got 

caught in the wind and blown away over to Seneca Lake as, when the calm 
came on the 23d, there were but forty or fifty Ducks left in the chann l 
picked up three Canvasbacks (two drakes and a duck) that were stranded on 
the ice, and soon had them eating oatmeal gruel. They were fed and cared for 



A Wild Duck Trap 413 

until the v were sent to the New York Zoological 

icks were in the channel Februar 1 Can va sharks, 6 

can Scaups, and the Bufflehead. March 5. the little Bufflehead was the 
sole survivor t dock of 500 or more Ducks that were in the channel 

early e she stayed on, and on March to was tluhM from the 

water and made a sustained Hii;l there 

ebe will) ived until the 16th. The Bufflehead 

was last seen March 17, when the ice began to break up, and, as oil 
(Mallards, Scaups, Baldpates, Mergansers, and G< 



I 




D BOLBOLL'S GREBE MAR' HACK- 

i have no doubt but that the little Bufflehead fully leco v ered and joined 
their northern migration. 

ive so many Ducks been caught in this trap, but a 

few do get caught there every winter. Canvasbacks and Scaups are the prin- 

ims, and sometimes we find dead Golden-eyes and Black Ducks. 

and Redheads sometimes stop in the channel for a day or 

es after a severe storm a Holtxell's Grebe b found the 

v cold, with high winds and much 
snow \ i i a* brought to me the 10th that was found on the 

snowinanorchanl scraps of beef and minnows, but it survived only a 

channel the iQth. It was vary cold, the 
registering only a few degrees above aero, and the open area in 



4u J -Lore 

the channel was the smallest that leversnw it. U-n long and 

i rod wide An American Scaup drake was out oa ind as we came up 

he managed to fly back to the open water. The water was shall 
wade out and crowd the Scaup to one end of the opening until he wa 
pass close by me, making a fine target for my Graflev 
consent to be crowded, but would dive, remaining under water for a long 
sometimes so long that I was afraid that it had got caught under thi 
However, it always managed to come up in the open. 

Man the ■hoot i n g hum «.i- shortened (closing January t5),any Ducks 
that remained after the lake was frozen were soon killed or driven aw 
hunterv so it is only of late years that they have r< 

at in which the Eatalil 




l«lS 



The Migration of North American Birds 

SECOND SERIES 

VII. MAGPIES 
Compiled by Harry C. Oberholser, Chiefly from Data in the Biological Survey 

AMERICAN MAOPIE 

The American Magpie /'»<<; pUa hudsonia) breeds in »« \>>rth 

rural \ll»crta. 
-ka; west to the islands 
I in Brit i>h Columbia, western Washing- 
Miuth to northern AlMOM. 
ast to western Kansas, we- ' >raska, and central 

range it is resident, except possibly 
nmost areas: but in winter it wanders more or less, south to 
centra \as, and east to Indiana >ntario. It also has 

slrajtL' real, Quebec; Albany Port, northern Ontario: and \ 

tnRoba. 
f the easl rds are: Parker's Prar lesota, December. 

Missouri, \ 

-r. W i s con s in , 
County, Wiscoi I84; Chicago, 

i illr. Illinois, \: liana, 

irv 10, 4, iooq; and Odessa. Ontario, Man) 

I.LOW-BILLKD MAGPIE 

The Yellow-billed Magpie [Pk* mulUillii) is confined to tin- state of 

esfcfteat, though apparently less numerous 

and less widely distributed than in fanner tfana [tapra* ipal raagc 10 warn the 

valley* <>f the Sacramento ami San Joa«i 1, but it has been reported 

I chama < e>t to San Francisco and M <>ut h 



Note. — For a photograph of a Magpie at a * 
m iiiKi> Lou Noveml* 



(41s) 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

FirTT-fl«»T PAPER 
By PRANK M CHAPMAN 



American Magpie (Pica pica hudsonia. Figs, t . ! «• male and female 
Magpie are alike in plumage, and the young bird when it leaves the n< 
in color from it* parents only in having all the black area* <iull instead of glossy, 
the white scapular patches tinged with huffy. an<l 

through the black feathers of the throat and breast. The wing- 1 .uilk 

while not fully grown, resemble those of the adult, and at \\ m«>lt 

these feathers alone are retained, while those of the body are the 

b now indtM inguishable in color from the adult. There is no s|»- 
and summer plumage closely resembles that of winter. The postnuptial i 
as usual, is complete but produces no change in appearan 

The plumage and plumage changes of the Magpie are therefore as s 
arc those of any other bin!. 



Bird-Lore's Nineteenth Christmas Bird Census 

BI K I su.il Bird Census will be taken as usual on Christmas 

M near that date as circumstances will permit ; in no case should 
it be rarlirr than December 22 or later than the 28th -in tb 
Mountains and westward, December 30 to 26. Without wishing to appear un 
grateful to those contributors who have assisted in making the Census so remark- 
successful, lack of space compels us to ask each census taker to send < »nly 
one census. Furthermore, much as we should like to print all the record* 
the number received has grown so large that we shall have to 
do not appear to give a fair r e pre se n tation of the winter bird-life of the !<• 
in which they were made. Lists of the compar <w species tha 

feeding-stations and those seen on walks of but an hour or two are usualh 
far from representative. A census-walk should last four hours ai the wry 
and an all-day out is far preferable, as one can then cover more of th< 
types of country in hi* and thus secure a list mor 4 the 

birds present. Each report must cover one day only, that all the censuses may 
\>c m<>rr (.om| arable. 

Bird dubs taking part are requested to compile the various lists obi 
their members and send the result as one census, with a statement of the nu 1 
of separate ones it embraces. It should be signed by all the observers who 
contributed to it. When two or more names are signed to a re; 
be stated whether the workers hunted together or separately. Only censuses 

(4««) 



Bird- Lore's Nineteenth Christmas Bird Census 417 

that rover area-* that are contiguous and with a total diameter not exceeding 

ilea should be combined into one census. 
Each unusual record should be accompanied by a brief si et ement as to the 

i cation. When such a record occurs in the combined list of parties that 

hunted separat < irnes of those responsible for the record should be given. 

binary numbers of Bird-Lore, 1901-18, will acquaint one 

the nature of the report that we desire, but to those to whom no- 
these issues is available, we may explain that such reports should be headed by 
the locality, datr, hour of starting and of returning, a brief statement <•: 
chara e weather, whether the ground be bare or snow-covered, tl 

os of the wind, the temperature and the distance or area covered. 
Then should Km « the order oftkeA.O.U. 'Check-List' (which is followed 

oat standard bird-books), a list of the species noted, with, as exactly as 
practicable, the number of individuals of each species recorded. A record should 
read, therefore, somewhat as follows: 

Yooken Bronx ville and Tuckahoe and back).— Dec 35; 8 a.m. to 4:30 

r m I of snow; wind west, light, temp. 38* at start, 4»* »t return. Kleven 

mile* on foot. Observer* together. Herring (lull. 75; Bob-white, 1 1 (one covey); (Sharp- 
thinned;' 1 Bawl by-crowned Kinglet, 1. Total, 27 species, about 470 
rowa was studied with 81 glasses at ao ft. , eye-ring, absence of 
head-stripes and other points noted.— James Gates and Job* Rand. 

These records will be published in the February issue of Bird-Lore, and 

particularly requested that they be sent to tl (at the American 

tory, New Yorh City) by \ht first possible mail. It will 

tarn the Editor much clerical labor if the model here given and the order of the 

f closely followed. 

Those readers who take part in the Christmas census this year will find 

to examine the censuses from their part of the country 

ears gone by, which will be found in back volumes of Bird-Lore, and 

ow the northern birds vary in the different winters. Reference to 

Department of the present issue will show that up to the 
is October .id been no incursion of the Pine Siskin or other 

northern Finches, as during some autumns, and observers fortunate enough 
icse on the Christmas Census should take particular pains with 
I he Red-breasted Nuthatch, on the other hand, has 
•ved south Wc also would call to the special site 
vho arc al be held this winter, the article on winter 

.ubhshed elsewhere in this issue of Bird-Loss.— 
J 1 



Jlotrsi from iritlb anb £tnlp 



Red Crossbill* in Seattle 

Seattle ha* had aa unu%ual » i 
the erratic kr.l Crowbill* thi* > • 
<»< these bird* ha n and about the 

re month* of May and June 
and are Mil gsd thi» n 

the »hadc and orchard trees, and have been 

hear.! man) time* Ijfef oxrrhrad. thnr 
metallic link itmk beinK unmi»lakat 

nmce here *eem* to be an • 
proof that the birds come when we need 
them most. The aphis have been •warm- 
ing over all forms of vegr- 
and r ase where »bUU 

'►ren found feeding, thry »rrr rating 
In thr elm trees and thr fruit 
the aphis injure the leave*, causing thrm 
v:|> \- I stood under an elm tree, 
where the Crossbills wen these 

leaves kept dropping at my feet, and in 
had been cleaned of the 
Bg thrm to 
get a better grip they had torn thr ' 
off. 

The birds are in various colored dress, 

but many arc in thr mature plumage, and 

one wonders when and whrrr thry *ill 

M at all. pairs 

liirdsalway* l>eing in 

flocks of from ten totwenty. — M I < 

I j. a. 

Mstne Notea 

This has been a fine year for birds in 
Maine All the u*ual species are abundant, 
while several rarer ones have bees seen. 
<ht my premises there are three tree* 
waa occupied this season, one by a pair of 
Bluebirds, the second by Robin*, and the 
third 

joyed watching these bird* for hours, and 
all have safely raised one brood, and the 
Watwings and Robins are feeding their 
second (August 8). 

Probably the place that is resorted to 



moat by bird lover »n i* 

along the ba: 
ndroscoggin k 
spot and ideal for bit 
my walk* there I idef 
species. On this walk I saw an 
the Golden- winged V 

I am glad to be ah' ■ 

are on thr increav 
of the »ta- I was camping at 

Takoma, Me., I saw and heard a great 
many of thrm. whil' 
ejuilr r.ir. II 
ton, U 

Golden-eye Duck Carrying Young 

following observation* u|>on tin 
method by whirh tree-ne*; 
their young down to water m.» 

I have a «>ummrr 

thr township of Dun 

fret from the front door ttagc. 

Thr | 

t from thr ground, thr o|>rnin»; 
barely largr rnough to admit the , 
I . • . 

I -died also ' 
tier, from thr *ound of their wing* in flight 
The drake had a black head 
with the net k. lower part*, and a pa' 
thr cheek of wh I had a red- 

dish brown head and the upper portion of 
the body mottled gray inatea- 
itoth had ' 

bright yellow eyes I think it b impossible 
that there was an> 
the aperies. ThU Duck i 
breeds in this section, though I 
moo summer resident. 

I had every opportunity, together with 
other members of my fat- bsenre 

the Ducks closely, but wt make 

the matter public lest th< ght be 






Notes from Field and Study 



4IQ 



-*tl or th« cd. The brood- 

absolutely 
motionlr»v apparent t winking 

*i her bead out of the eni 
<obk length of 

thC \ttCS4 

the cam|KT< hut when she left the nest 

■ d wanly around the 

; time* before re entering 

today afternoon, while the 

feeding in the hay in front 

miscreant tired at the 

drake with a rifle, whereupon he squawked. 

nd the drake was seen 

her he wa«> injurni 

moo i rtain »im-< 

might pos- 
hy he left his mate. 

'. was seen attending 
ieg as usual, and the in. ul 
r>intcrru|>tc<l On the afternoon of 
was seen at the foot 
of th< ding on the ground 

• i low <jua<k* <.r . .illv .ind out 

hole in the tree overhead promptly 

tumbled about a baker's dosen of tlcdgting 

t were 
Ik- ahlc to ca^ 
fall to the earth, and. not unlike a ii 

tame down |*ell-mell. 
fluttering and tumbling. *ome of them 
- bead, until they reached the 
ground, ui. 

unabh 

'hem in a humh and \ 
. 
• they 

n the water and the duik 

be took them across the bay to 
rush es , some 10 rods d| 
f diMp|ir *iKht \n 

>t the brood but 

Bg the in 
no effort waa made i 
.htening U 
I idence of unhatrhed egg% was ob 



CWfaHy botched Whether the 
•I adopted of bringing down the 

young was the usual and i uMomary one 
•-rwise. I am unable to say, but that 

this was the plan adoi i 

instance is established beyond question. — 

u N Macai mfaf- 

■ 1 

The Birds I Watch from My Window 

.ire ago, when we moved from 
llage to a new house on the hill, the 
■ree of any sire that graced (or dis- 
! some people thought) our lawn. 
was a weather-beaten old apple tree, so 
old that the trunk was split through the 
r t.i the ground, causing each 
half to lean drunkenly in an opposite 
ion. It was so rotted and worm- 
eaten that scarcely anything but the shell 
remained— too far gone to be cemented 
and reclaimed. I "fuel conserve - 

(he old tree still stands, and though 
I wind shakes it to its roots, it 
*till *«-r\rs a- a tine lumh-table to all the 
>od. I fasten suet on 
• r limb; also, a lid from a tin pail 
was nailed fast to the same branch, and 
makes a 6n acked 

tad the ! M and 

many CfSCkl in the bark I nil with pea- 
ked hickory nuts, and oihrr 
ind the feast is rea 
morning until rundown there 

m that from three I fereot 

.( bird* may not he »een feeding bap- 
was the banner 

rat kinds morning of 

December 10 a lone Robin made bis nrst 
appearance. It waa extremely cold, and 
poor Redbreast looked decidedly unhappy 

•ugh be realiaed be bad made 
ioun arista- .nmenting « 

.me ot rationally 
hut MM not a regular visitor. 

•4 Kagtish 
unlike many other oUct 
never seen them drive away other 
though they quarrel icrcdy 



420 



Bird - Lore 



tbemsdves for a coveted nond, so I wd 
com eveo Um Kogbsb Sparrow-— for 

net tbc dainty HOT, and 

also the Song Sparrow, that in cold weather 
mm wflMag to chum » »glish 

1 have been Much imud whoa 
ng • pair of Downy Woodpr 
Evidently equal suffrage has not become a 
. the bird-world, for when Mr. and 
A oodpecher come together (< -r lunch. 
if My lady trim to get a crumb from the 
oppoaita tide of the awn from which her 
lord and maatcr is feaaUng, he MM at her 
in auch a threatening manner that the 
hurriedly takes refuge on an upper branch 
and patiently waits until his maj« 
satisfied and flies awsy. Then Mrs. W. 
flies down and nU as fast as she can. 1 
have wstched this instance of fa mil 
dptine many times, and never has the lady 
of the family been allowed to eat at the 
same time as her husband— though he 
never interfere* with the Nuthatch or 
Chickadee that perch by hi* side an<! 
awsy so sociably at the f rosea sue 
day long the Nuthatches will work, pick- 
ing nuts from the shells, addom stopping 
to eat, but flying away to hide thdr treas- 
ure in the bark of a neighboring walnut or 
cherry tree, then hurrying back for an- 
other morsd. The cheerful little Chick, 
dees are constant visitor*, and as I watch 
them— even though they wear a bla 
and necktie— 1 always think of a dainty 
old-time Quaker lady— they are »< 
and neat in their soft gray garb. I have 
been unable, as yet, to coax the Meadow- 
lark to my tree, though I often bear him 
calling io the neighboring wood. This year 
the Blue Jay has come several times and 
taken an early breakfast, and though be 
han't a vary good reputation, br 
very handsome that I am willing to for- 
give Us many sins, and eves his harsh call 
sounds good to me. 

Fouowing is a list of winter birds that 
have come More or less regularly to par- 
take of the hospitality of the old apple 
tree, soms even coming to the window-sill 
and peering with bright eyes into our din- 
ing-room, as though asking us not to for- 



get that we have hungry neighbor* 
ing outdde for crumbs. 

breasted Nutbstch, Red-breasted 
hatch (one ' •odpeckcr, 

row, Fos Sparrow, Vesper Sparrow 
Song Sparrow, English Sparrow 

Coldnn. 
about twenty) Kinglet, Blue Jaj 
Mas I U OOSJUIS, K*ton;> 

Bird Horuons in the Ban Franc 
Bar Region 

A summary of what birds can be * 
the San Francisco Bay region in a series of 
spring trips afidd may be of 

sioo dass, taking the course 
! rips Anci 
was successful in noting oo diffcrci 
cie* of birds. The trips taken with thr 
total number of birds seen on 
were ss follows 
of California campu* 16 specie*; 

b 16, 1918, Bay Farm Islam! 
Alameda, 37 sp< hjo, ioi- 

wood Canyon, Alameda < 
des; April 13, 1918, Goldn 
Frandsco, so spedes; May 18, injfl 
nel Road Canyon, B 
des; May 30. 1918, Mill 
xanita via Big Lagoon, 5? spedes. 

All trips occupied U >rs on 

•lay afternoons, with the t 
the last one, which wss an all 

A composite Hat of the it ss 

follows. Spedes. the nests of 
inspected, are marked with an 

tern Grebe Numebeed. 

«d bitted Grebe. 16. Wh>< 

.rebe. Scoter. 

idflc Loon. 

ilifnmu Mum 18 Ruddy Dock. 

Black -crowned 

roo. 
x> California Ciappor 



T.Ws 

» CaWctfoia Gull. 

p BeadngOafl 

10 Forstcr Tern. 

.rallooe Conno- 



u bfsBat** 

ij. Caavaaback. 

• |OMB Duck. 



<ot- 

< jfthern Fhsia- 

rope. 
' 1 udeaeiaa Curlew. 
\l California Q 



Notes from Field and Study 



4*« 



WHta MesXwfes] 






row. 


USSl 


to. Hulikii uueaod 


" 


Sji*m>« 








Sparrow. 


' 


i 


Barn* 


»nt* Cna Sane 


! 


Sparrow. 


Wdi... Wood 


64 Sail Mirth Son* 


K-> :..::■■•, 


Sparrow. 
larin Son* Spar- 


flur | T'r'---hi 


66. F.nemh Sparrow. 




67- Saa Francisco Tow 


Allen Mummime- 


km. 




68 California Towbe* 


ku! ... Ilummin; 


ack-headed 




Grosbeak. 


OUve-Mdcd Fly* 


7 o LaniU Bunt inc. 


JV»rr 




Black !*bir<-r • 




Cattfor 










1 alifornia Yellow 


Hnu J 


Warbler 




78 Audubon Warbler. 


Hki'!' (•■ ! Kedairu; 


79 IMeoUtnJ Warbler. 




-.3 put 


lark 




Brewer BUck- 


8j. Western House 




Wrm 


California I'urj^ 


R j Plain Titmouse 


Fnwh. 


&a Santa CnuChkka. 


H»u*r J inch 




GrornUUed 


8s Marin Chickadee 


Cohwmch. 


86. Coast Bush • 




87. Intermedial 






I' - . ' M-iri.N 


88 Weatsrn Ruby• 
{r•>wl>edkln£lcl 


■ r\im. 


Wetfern Lark 


80. RuMrt -backed 




Ihrud, 




90. Western Room.* 



I if. 

ord of the Bald Eagle from 
Champaign County. Ill 

agios 
Ipeered northeast of Raatool, 111 . and 

mained in the vicinity until one of the 
lit «u tbot. 

>at tbey were MM several time* in 

ird and a big grove 
rated. A farmer in the 

righborhood finally »hot one of them on 

I < n hed in a low tree near 

bog-pasture, after it had tried to take 

■ weeks later, a secood F-agJe was 



shot about s miles south of the place 
where the first was killed. Presumably 
these two birds lulled were mates, for the 
Bald Eagle is not such a common visitant 
to the central Illinois prairies that three 
would likely be seen within such a re- 
in so brief a time. The 
1* record was in 191 5. — Sidney 

* w, //;. 

The Blue Grosbeak in Central Illinois 

Marly on the morning of May 3. this 
year, while our family was at breakfast, 
we heard bird-notes new to us, so often 
repeated that they could hardly be unfa- 
miliar notes of any of our known bird 
friends. 

Upon investigation, a quick flash of 
dusky blue in a low plum bush attracted 
my attention to the bird from whence the 
notes came. Careful stalking brought not 
his bird, but another of even brighter 
blue, into plain view, so that I had no 
difficulty in identifying them. They were 
the Klue Grosbeak. 

rive days .they stayed about the 
place, as leisurely at home as if they had 
ted the place for summer residence; 
then they were gone agai 

This was the first time in many years of 

observation of birds about my home that 

we had recorded this bird, so I was elated 

at my good i< seeing them — 

• law, RmmUmt, IU. 

Our Summer Boarders 

Last winter I hung the usual piece of 
suet on a tree near the porch of our bouse, 
but we had very few winter birds — an 
occasions! Downy, but no Chickadees or 
Nuthatches. I left the suet bang during 
the summer, and It has certainly been 8 
source of enjoyment One farm 
atbird families. Blue 
and Redheaded Woodpeckers have feasted 
upon it. which shows it docs not alto- 
gether serve as winter food. 
The suet b suspended from a branch on 
ing, and the Downy, in his Wood- 
00 the 






Bird -Lore 



looked at the twist- 
ing suet many time*, and at la»t. to our 
amaaemmt perched oo the suet a* did 
the Woodpecker, bat perhaps not with 
such firmness -alt- I U km 
GUmttt. lit 

Our Winter Bird Neifbbora 

you feeding the bird* tbcae snow- 
bound, aero day*? I often wonder i 
i» in tbr greater need — the birda in the 

i the cold wave or we in the k 
these heart chilling wartime*. But when 
it cornea to the question of whi 
the greater reward, there b no doubt in 
my mind— the bird* pay a big rate of 

TU* b the way it began. The hooae b 
reopen libit for the first suggestion, for the 
•me eighty year* back. »tartled 
thb little village by departing from the 
Colonial and daring Pleach window* and 
Italian balconies What could be better 
adapted for feeding the bird*? In la 
not balconies in the light of their being 
othcrwisc impractical for everyday use. 
proclaim themselves, above all. 

- The nest <uggeation came from the 
bird* themselves when. u|mn the first soft 
fall of anow, just before Thanks? 
there waa disclosed from the dining- room 
a Ucework of tiny footprint* on the bal 
cony, leading right up to the srindow. To 
disregard such an appeal *e e m e d o 
the quc»tion. and I made all h.. 
•null chunk of suet to a comer bal 
post In lea* than tea minute* a pair of 
breaatcd Nuthatches were vors 
cioualy tearing out tiny chunks, flying off 
to the maple-pole, lodging them t<> 

n the bark, and 'hatching' at 
them fiercely with their long bills. I 
the tray of ■sized bird seeds lound to 
way outside the window, however, they 
transferred their interest at once and 
daintily chose the sunflower seeds, paying 
attention to the suet only rarely During 
our own Thanksgiving dinner we wml 
them with great satisfaction and agreed 
that their yeel, yawl on arrival and 



departure was their formal thm 
sunflower seed m eived. 

Close upon the heels of thb succe* 
other dining-porthc* 
the south and one on the west *ide i 
bouse. The balcony first commissioned, 
being on the east, serves a* their sunny 
break' .Ua*i 

appear* on the table each m 

the tray of seeds, newly repln 
and generously sprinkled hand- 

some, striped sunflower seeds 
imagine anything more delightful than 
break lasting wit 
put one in a better humor t 
to be able to mingle with the delightful 
taste of the bre.i 
delightful 

l»er. friendl). little v 
faib to greet you wi( >us thank* 

aa he arrive* and d< 
strengthen one's lurking suspi. I 
is after all the gueat who should n 
the thanks rather than the hostess 

Their midday meal b spread upon the 
southern balcony and supper on law 
era. where the thill ••( the coming evening 
is tcm|>cred by the last t 

attend a sort of movim- 
l might wi 
their meab around th< 
reminds me of the story of a hush., 
the modern srife wh 
dined in all the rooms in his bouse in rota- 

wa* reported to ha 
signed tone. Well. I 
eating in the cellar > 

first day • 
teeing about the house 
|>eering from behind « urtains to see 
my guesU might be The whole hou- 
on an eape ■ the cook, 

obdurate soul, became infr 
whose first pose was that 

-•ward a household of feeWe minds. 
was discovered, during the put 
her daily- routin« 
at the bin) 

ted an admission from I. 
the other hand, there have beei 
di cat ions of a change in temper that could 
point only one way. The birds di<i 



Notes from Field and Study 



4>< 



Ipciker. the 

[>K Mgllt 

rae of 

f hereditary nervo in the Wood- 
i«c h ocrarions the feverish 
mg and swaying of the head from 
ride to ride before the vigorous attack 
upon the suet, or do you think that it fa 
all done for effect to display to full ad- 
it flashing crest in the >unlight ' 
that hi* spouse does not 
ponstss that distinguishing brilliance make 
% eyes? Of course, we 
will have to admit, will we not his • 
tins case are her eye*, for how could hr 
know about hi* superior marking i 

kadees we have watch* 

md late, avowing them to be aaso- 

•owny, but 

not until today did they put in their 

hat« h brought 

them down from the woods and intr<> 

duccd them to the »uet right before my 

f balls of fea- 

Small wonder they seek shelter in the 

against the winter Kale* While I 

jpon the Urge maple 

low and see the Downy 

ij(h up the tree trunk, holding 

below him cad down, 

rigorously claiming with bis long bill the 

lion of Mime grab imbedded in the 

on the cod of a branch 

bang the two Chickadees, giving a demon- 

m in tumbling that wool 

of a Swedish gymn 

*ee I have begun with our feathered 

m we love but who do not 

ifford us the rami amusesnent 

the proletariat of the 

'row. They, as could 

thing coming their way, but all the 

i when sign* of lit 

appeared at the window — like guilty con- 

sormes in dirt> fa. r.l little ragamumn. 






amusing tntng noosji 



all rrait\ t<> 
and be off. 

was the apparent utter astonishment they 
displayed at being treated so ■ 
week after our trays went out they stood 
singly and in groups, gaping in at the win 

and chattering diinisrioni as to the 
probable meaning of such a phenomenon. 
I think their • on venation must have run 
M.methinjt like t What"* 

•track these folks anywu - been 

in these parts long enough to lose 

k kney accent and nothing has hap- 
pened like this before. Rumple our feath- 

■ we can make out what s up. One 
thing's sure we've got to keep our weather 
r any minute they might turn 
Katmmi Bi 
Mat k in/on. IT. 

Northern Shrike Visits a Feeding-shell 

I have a bird feeding-shelf just outside 
my window, attached to the window sill, 
where Downy Woodpeckers. Chickadees, 
ire daily visitant* Yester- 
day (Dec. i], 1917) I noticed an excite- 
ment among my Canaries which were on 
a table just inside the window. Upon 
investigation I discov er e d a Northern 
Shrike trying to get through the window, 
evidently determined to make a dinner of 
one of my birds. I stood by the window 
and watched him for nearly five minutes— 
within \ feet After making persistant 
efforts without success, he perched on the 
feeding »hdf . cocking his bend on one ride 
and the other, turning himself about as 
much as to say, "Look at me if yon want 
to, I will bear inspection" when, suddenly 
in disgust, he new away -Mas 
■ C«. fares*), C»mm 

Observations on a Food-Shell 

The shelf measure, j by r feet, is iH feet 
from the ground. I feet from a corner of 
the house f orsned by ay study and an en- 
closed porch (into whose open door many 
a bird files hastily, only to be esaarined 
by me at leisure*, and is jo feet from s 






Bird -Lore 



balsam hedge (partly dead). From the 
windows of study or porch I have seen 
v seventy different species. S »um 
ber which would be slightly larger if ! 
could haw differentiated the Duck* that 
have flown by overhead. Thirt j 
catca Iron the »hdf. with aa additional 
seven which have either catca from the 
crumb* that fell from this rich bird*' 
table or have bathed in or drunk from the 
bath placed halfway betwe en the shelf 
and the hedge. 

One of the curious things about such • 
shelf (after three year*' observation) is the 
frequency with which one species is seen 
one season sad the scarcity or absence of 
it in the same season of the succeeding 
year. la the winter of 1916-17 a pair of 
nals never missed a day (after the 
first week when the male tested the food 
alone before allowing his more sober- 
colored mate to eat thereof) from Jan- 
uary aa to March at. In a similar fashion, 
the lii tic Red-breasted Nuthatch ('Mouse 
bird' we call him in our household, so 
much does he resemble that animal as he 
run* over the shelf) was aa occasional visi- 
tor in 1915-16, and unintermittently the 
at from November 21 to May 3. 
But neither of these has been seen at all 
during the last winter (though at least 
four pairs of Cardinals have wintered in 
the village). The Chickadees 
slant friends the first two years, but this 
year they stayed with me a scant week in 
December. The Evening Grosbeak 
never be depended on • avoid the 

shelf itself, though profiting by what falls 
from it and by the bath. Similar varia- 
tions are recorded of the Hudsooian 
Chickadee, the Redpoll and the \\ 
crowned Sparrow. The White- throated 
Sparrow, that companionable little min- 
ister with his small white necktie, is nearly 
as dependable as the calendar. 

In the early summer the variations de- 
pend on what is nesting ia the neighbor 
hood, and one season I can see on the shelf 
what the next year I will look for in 
This was noticeably true of the Red- 
headed Woodpecker. My shelf has fur 
Biased nothing more comical than s 



■sCliwi fnwsf "f iin» »|*. ic» panting ovei 
the edge as it cliags to the si<<< 

.mere caught an 
than the same young being fed, unless it 
is s whole fan -ackles 

being fed in turn 
Thrasher (whom I coultl 
nest), the Houv Wood- 

pecker (bow unapproachable compared 
with bis replica in mi 
Downy, friendly the year round 
Mourning Dove, the Rose-breasted 
beak and the Wood Thrush, arc among 
those whose nests, being near, have been 
regular visitors to the shdf one year and 
iy unseen the 1. 

The early days of May see the bushes 
and trees alive with V 
them, which is nearly equivalent to seeing 
thirty-eight, so different are the two sexes, 
in color at least), snd yet only five have 
taken a meal at my rests u 
throated Blue, the Black-throated Green, 
the Myrtle, the Magnolia, and th- 
start (the latter most frequently). That 
is not as long a list as the Sparrows, and 
the difference is due, of course 

■ in food ferent 

families. I m the sun- 

flower seed, millet, hemp, and suet 
are tbe staple articles of food 
with side-dishes of nuts, bread, sssat 
the like. And, oh, if only U 
would grace the table instead 
their attentions to probing my lawn, nest- 
ing in my trees, and tapping on m> 
And why did it take tbe i 
several of them, within 50 feet 
tree against which the sh< 
summer and a half to care, or ffaj 
eat of tbe delectable sue: other 

hand, why should tbe Cowbirds come ia 
from tbe fields, a mile or more aw.. 
spend so much time eating millet in the 
center of a city like village? Is the buy 
habit seen in its egg laying spread 
its eating habits? These arc questions I 
cannot answer, but then 
makes the presence of the shelf an unfail- 
ing delight. 

But I must pass on to telling a few 
curious or otherwise, concerning my 



Notes from Field and Study 



4*5 



(em l here*] ( Heads attracted to the neigh- 
borhood of my window » And, rao* 
loot of all, to roe. u the frequent \ 

feeds Jay Wh) in the dead 
i the spring (April 7 
\act in two cases), should 
one Jay give another Jay a sunflower seed, 
the latter being apparently as well able to 
help himself (or herself 1 from the table as 
- Or why should one fly off to 
alow. ■ the hedge to be promptly 

approached, as if by prearrangement, by 
another to which he gives some morsel 
taken from the 1 nnot tell, I only 

know it is done. Sometimes the re. 1 
immediately eats the tidbit; sometimea it 
take* it between it- feet to crack it open, 
igain, when the camera has caught 
from three to five Jays feeding together, 
why there should be times when there 
seem to be two laws, well-observed 
at a time, j»lr*«- I he line forma on 

this aide?" That is, one Jay feeds for 
rty seconds and then flies 
n mediately it is succeeded by a 
second that has been perched just above 
the shdf; when this one has finished a 
third cornea down and takes its place; and 
this may go on for as long as twenty mm 
■ t ea a veritable bread-line. That other 
<-p off when the Jays are 
feeding is not to be wondered at; and yet 
rsal rule— the Jays do not 
seem me summer 

eft its bath when a 
Robin one May aj a single 

female Root b reasted i.rosbeak success- 
fully kept three Jays (apparently not 
young ones* from coming on to the shelf, 
aad her belligerent spirit continued when 
a male and female of bar own species later 
appeared; but she soon relented and the 
get her. For June 4 
• 

ccasful peatedly drives off, aad 

keeps off, Jay from shdf, then, proud of 

his powers, he also drives off a mala Roee- 

• rosbeak." The Doves proved 

» keeping the Jays 

followed their parents' example. (What a 
difference between a family of noisy, cry- 



ing, whining. Jays, looking too old to be 
fed. and a family of silent «>king 

too young to feed themselves!) To 1 
to the Jays. 1 tind that the (irackles are 
not afraid of them at any time, and that 
the Jays pj uate when a Crackle 

appears. In fact, moat birds leave the 
shdf when the metallit -headed, rvil-eyed 
Blackbirds come to eat. save list 
to whom color resemblance may perchance 
allow an enirte. And th< casted 

Nuthatch, who almost runs between their 
legs in his clumsy little way of trying to 
walk horizontally after ceasdessly running 
.illy, up or down, is unafraid in the 
pr es e nce of these swarthy and larger 
birds. And shall I r mica) 

expression on the face of a Nuthatch which 
flew on to the shelf when a J unco was feed- 
ing. The kyrmalit promptly dropped to a 
lower branch, and the little Nuthatch 
turned and looked at him, as if to say, 
"You were not afraid of me, were you?" 
and then went about his business of eating. 

Some time in 191s a young Grackle 
appeared one day (when the shdf was at 
my window) with a sore foot. A little 
later a second one appeared with the same 
afflict on. Later in the summer one of 
them had entirely lost the foot; the other 
seemed unaltered, and the foot seemed 
'withered' and was never used. They were 
both frequent feeders until November. 
In 1916 the one with the 'withered' fool 
returned and was here all summer. It kept 
constant I \ by ttsdf, and in October 
I returned from a month's absence) I wrote 
"It has grown quite white on the 
shoulders and upper back, and look* likr 
apatnir ! I his year I have not seen it. 

And so one could go on almost endlessly. 
What a red letter day when two sprightly 
little- Ruby crowned Ringlets (whose song 
had been to of taw heard earlier) decided to 
try my restaurant What a haajtaer of 
spring-fever the sight and sound of Tow- 
hew aad Fox Sparrow t< rairhing among the 
dead leaves. What music to the ear* the 

card fraWy song of the W 
throat, even though when first hear- 1 . 
never completed. How unusual to see a 
Downy suddenly leave the suet on the tree- 



uA 



1 - Lore 



trunk i passing insect in a 

n..l m..n..t..fi.ui»' thr Hf..«n < rrrjKT. 

nearly as silent a» thr \V*i»ing — a mod- 
her» Hon can one be annoyed 
when be look* out and sees the hulk of a 
gray squirrel M)uattcd on thr shelf. 
9m &^ Sparrow* ibal my bullet* havr 
missed rating food not art hem. 

and jrrt it b because of what they displace 
that one does become angry, and m 
rid of them in «■■ 

• men bird* around the 
house, useful. h< 

Snowy Owl in Iowa 

I >et ember is, lyi 7, during a typical 
Iowa bliasard, I chanced to look upward 
and foil above thr chimney -tops, seem- 
ingly born out of the throes of the storm. 
I saw a great white bird with a wir 
pause of about luring 

mu week, a record of another 
Snowy Owl was telephoned me from a 
farm some u miles east of O* 
\t Trrrti raw*. 

American Egret in Pennsylvania 

Bird l.os». reader* will lie interest 
know that the writer had the good fortune 
mg an American Egret on July 
'J. 191°, at Hlue Marsh, Berk« County. 
Pa. (about 7 miles from Reading 

I .ret was first observed in flight, com- 
ing ttnirally winging along with its char- 
1 leron like flight. The *un being 
propitious, I had as admirable oppor- 
tunity to identify the bird for an American 
yellow Nil. black legs, 
and white plumage. 

I also wish to report that a friend and 

the writer identified eighty species of 

j. 1017. at the same Blue 

Marsh (from Sinking Springs to Blue 

Marsh and return. 7 to 8 mJlca). 8 

I you may suppose, was the making 
of an interesting day I Will be delighted 
to furnish the li«t if it can be of an> 
And again may I report that a Black - 



n colony 

referred to as being 4 1 Knl Mill 
Aognsl 

> successful season, sn<! 

nve nests, with ss many pairs breed- 
ing, by a con* 
k 1 '• rrittovm, I 

banding 

I part of certain in> 
being carried on by the Departm- 
Biology of th 

birds were marked during taw 

user. A small, white celluloid ring was 

placed ujM.n the right leg ol 

Most of th 

other migratory *pe« 1 

block of the campn hoped that 

ume data con ce rning the m ove menu and 
habit* of the young bird* n the 

nest and during th< at may be 

obtained. If anyone who o b s er ves 
marked a- will let u* 

know, it will be very hclpf 

Uatornb. Ill 

rtain kinds of valuable and inti 
ing data 'relative to age and n 
inttance) can best t>« 

Idual bir«l 
Banding Assort.. leaves, 

issues aluminum ba 
Hacing on the legs of wi 
band bears a serial number, with request 
that in case of recovery, law 
Museum of Natural 

I record of 
placed i» kept by the As* 
catalogue form, and can be ref 
a band is recovr- ■< *sly stated 

that under no circumstances should I 
bird be killed for the purpose of 
a band, but a certain nun sds are 

recovered from bird* kil 

1 find a dead bird in the field*, 
look at its legs. It may be the bear* 
band which will establish son. 



Notes from Field and Study 



4*7 



<-*ent preparing a report of 
the work of the Birr! Banding \«.%-. 



will present m % data 

already obtained b anding in 

America. 



THE SEASON 
X. August 15 to October 15, 1918 






nmcr 
«t passed with 1: 
the general obaervcr. The fall 

■ 
th dull wr.it her between 

rnber il, but otherwise 
vat not unusually col 
lat have been the many 



occasional frosts, of late 
mber and early Oct<> 

iwal of the summer 
igust and early Sep- 
tember, and the a|>|>arenl ab*en<e of mi 
nh may have 
«ecming great dearth 
rough, nit mmi of the latter 
month As a mean- -Mining the 

eofdepar local 

appearance of those that summer on the 
Public (iarden 1 <>n in the heart 

of Boston is important. A number of 

i*-fio live constant! 
these green oases during t he « ummer. rais- 
ing their young in the midst of tl 

Their numbers gradually dwindle 
in lat' hut a few in-li 

•■- seen up to Sept cm I » 
familiarly hopping or walking abo 
the gram, sometimes accompanied by full- 
young. It was at about this same 
n- roost, previously noticed 
ungton. was abandoned, though up 
tuguet it had become the 

is a plana 

more Oriole was beard buglinc 

\ ireo sang gail> illage elms 

ungton and was heard by another 



observer a few da > \ Yrllow- 

throated Vireo was heard in full soni 
tember it, near the same pi 
species have been rare with us the last two 
in part, perhaps, of the 
thorough spray 1 hard and shade 

trees t the insect pests or bene 

! elms about Boston have 
>rs so that 
the few still remaining in Cambridge 
long since ceased to attra rbling 

'■ 

September r biers 

were seen at Lexington, feeding in the red 
cedars at the edge of a pine wood, the first 
northern migrants to be I It was 

that 
migrants appeared with a ru»h, when, on 
the wings of clear weather following 
cessioi 1 lement d. 

mcos. 
anil \\ sparrows, and a num 

Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers appeared 
suddenly, and with them a few Red- 
breasted Nuthatches, a I •< gular 

appearance here. In il alf of 

October, the two species of Warblers Just 
have swarmed over the country. 

ng n» mil 
J uncos abounded in the weed-acids 

markedly common, their notes being coo 
I small flocks passed 
over in the early mornings. In finding 
they haunt the pastures and gather with 

rbisrs 

Palm Warblers In small numbers ha 
times accompanied them. The first one 
seen was ■ 
Bluebirds. Chippies, and v • blcrs. 

on the smooth, brownish 



4*a 



Bird -Lore 



among grass and wee ds At this sea- 
m. A second bird wu seen < i 
Brows Creeper* were seen on I 

The sunny day* of early October teem 
to have favored the late stay of aeveral 
bird*. A Niffhthawk wu seen at Islington 
o« October $, aod a second reported the 
following evening, in character 

I meadow, t'herbes were in e% 
•l least till the second of the month. A be- 
lated * was found 
on the morning of the uth. and was 
watched for half an hour aa he busily caught 
flying insects from a perch in the topmost 
twigs of a maple. A few Sharp thinned 
Hawks have passed through, taking toll of 
the migrating hosts the last few weeks. 
Song and Savannah Sparrows swarm to- 

r on the edge of wee. Marks 

in small flocks have lately appear 
plowed grounds, and a few Rusty Black- 
birds have been seen. Altogeth 
half of October has fully redeemed the 
poverty of Septeml. *ts of mi- 

grating birds (it <>\ r.t If. Allen. Bottom. 
Jafejf. 

New York Rectos for a short 

hot period in August, the summer was, on 
the whole, a cool one. and signs of autumn 
appeared at about the customary dates. 
Ob Long Island, the Black Tern, generally 
present in late summer, ■ >tc in 

putting in an appearance, and the birds 
'here a comparatively short time, 
although one, seen on September ta (at 
Mastic;, is Inter than they genera! 
main with us. The Red breasted Nuthatch 
almost completely absent last year, has 
been present in fair numbers, a single bird 
recorded from Long Island on September 1, 
and a flight of them reported from various 
points by various observer* in Con 

Jersey the end 
of September. The V 
row, in the end of September, was some- 
what more common and more generally 
•listributed than usual at this time. The 
southbound flight of small arboreal birds, 
especially Warblers, was less scant than a 
vear previous, the usually abundant Black- 
poll Warbler being fairly numerous (in 



and the Magnolia app.> 
scarcest of those which should have been 
common 

general I > and is common This species 

waa absent from its usual winter haunts the 

latter part of la and was < 

unusually scarte in the »pr 

s, Sew 1 

\ugust has 
brought the hot' 
the history of I 

when the thermometer soared to 106 de- 
grees (August 7 \t this tin 
peraiure averai o to to degrees 

normal for about a « 
heat had a decided effect on the 
scarcely a note of any kind t>< 

i*h Sparrows being much less 
noisy than is their habit. Toward the 
end of the month cool days prevailed, and 
some few migrants were noted 
the ti <-ment 

was not observed till Sept 
that date, the '■' 
their usual numbers, the s. 
spring having no apparent eff ei t on the 
numbers this fall, which would *« 
indicate that the birds were not as - 
thb spring as they were reported, or that 
the breeding-season was 
for the iacreaai 

Herring (iull* werr 

Red-headed Woodpeckers and 
Goldfinches were somewhat mon 
merous than usual tin 
tember. 

It might not be on' 
that there is a very apparent increa 
fall in unlawful shooting in this region. 
I have not only observed a good deal of 
this myself but several people ha\ 1 
me the same thing. I am glad to say that 
our local game-warden Charld 
very much alive and has already • 
headed a number of these indiscriminate 
ing and lawless sh 
POTTZB, Coma 

Washington Region 
Washington, though situated in the valley 
of the Pot o ma. apparen* 



The Season 



4»9 



the main north and tout) 

antic coast Thus we get here 

(he overflow traffic from the 
main highway. As a consequence, during 
Vr, the . 
n is not a very favorable place 
for bird-observation. 

n* these two months in the present 
year tl e been three definite mi- 

■ tember i. 

another about the middl< mber, 

' during the last week of 

me month. These waves brought a 

number of birds down from the north 

Tim«>n. yet no eai 

record ten. The Lesser Yellow 

legs appeared on August 24, three day* 

erage date of arrival; the 

00 September t 

appearance, Septem- 

■ml Junto, on Sep- 

tember jS (average r 8); the 

I (average, 
rbler, Sep- 
■ 

aver- 
The Red-breasted 
Nuthal on August 31, nearly a 

month in advanie of |fj time. wM 

•id it was fairly common 
-mber. whi 
welcome information, as it was almost 
luring last fall and last 

mild, pleasant weather of Sei 
<-d some speci' 

Balti- 

<-*t previous date of 

. 1887, was observed 

ivmond W. Moore on September 7; 

■ previous date being Sep- 
the Olive sided Fly- 

>o*d W. Moore on September u. tl •■«• 
autumn record being an 
rd in Sei 

American Redsiar 

leparts alx 



September a8, whereas its average date of 

■ 

the migration wave of the middle 

• t ember came a large flight of Ameri- 

and this species was 

abundant in the city on September 14. On 

Cooke observed 

a flock of about a thousand Broad-winged 

Hawks, and another of some two hundred. 

These birds were driving in a southerly 

<>n at a great altitude over the 
and apparently made par' >uth 

ward migration of the species. Thr 
billed <.r«-l>e first appeared on September 
24, and since then has been uncommonly 
numerous for this season of the year. The 
Black Tern, first observed on Aug. 
at Chesapeake Beach k Fisher, 

ikewise been present on the larger 
streams near Washington in unusual 
numbers during the latter half of August 
and most of September. The American 
which has been rare of late about 
m, was seen on the Anacostia 
mber i by Raymond W. 
• only thl duals were 

An interesting incident was observed by 

thewr ; in the wooded, 

ry along S . near the 

A fine, adult Bald Eagle, 

sailing about majestically at a moderate 

-.was spied by a big Red- tailed Hawk, 

soaring at a much greater altitude 

if about for a time over the Eagle, 
the Hawk suddenly dosed its wings and 
plunged almost vertically, with incredible 
Eagle, checking 
himself only when a short distance away. 
<-n p ro c eeded to chase the Eagle out 
of sight. 

I l.rre «ere in the . it\ during lugWSl 

September, the customary Purple 

as usual. There 
no Urge roosts of European Starlings 
observed, such as were noted last year. 
I the month of Nugu.l. hOWt 

■ear < 

Appeared from this \mnitv poealbly tak 
lag up their abode elsewhere 



4JO 



Bird - Lore 



resorted to the Capitol (round* near the 
secondary I'ur, >n r«»l. Thr 

Purple Martin* returned this year la mm h 
greater number* than in August o< 
but they rootled in another place, aa will be 
morr fully described latrr m Hikd-Lom - 
Haii IMtm, Bi*UgU*l Smnry. 

MixkeapoUS Ri I weather 

durinc the hvat two week* of Augu 
tinued cooler than uaual. BnJ 
tember heavy f roata began to appear in t hr 
northern part of the Mate, id forming in 
Itaaca Park on September j. and freezing 
temperatures prevaOinit throughout the 
northern counties on the totfe 
tember i 7 the first froat orcurred at 
nenpolia. but it waa light, and even the 
tendereat garden plant* are »till uninjured 
in thia locality at the present date. In the 
middl t»efore the 

opening of Duck-shooting, the southwest- 
ern part of the state experienced several 
sharp, froat y nights which Lake. 

were supposed to account (or the at 
of local birds, especially Teal. During the 
third week of September, cold, raw days 
predominated all over the state, followed 
by beautiful, warm "Indian Summer" 
weather that has continued to the pre se nt 
time. Aside from a few local heavy down- 
pours in August, there has been but little 
rain. Lakes, streams, and sloughs al 
ceptionally low, and the uplands dry and 
parched, which co nd it i ons have prepared 
the way for the widespread and trrrihU 
forest fires that are at present cauaing the 
greatest loss of life and property in the 
history of Minnesota The devastated 

x tends over several large 
the heart of the Canadian Zone, and • 
thing in the path of the fires baa been swept 
dean. In addition to the destruction of 
vegetation, the loss of animal I: 
conflagrations must be enormous. 

The crop of wild rice this year has been 
unusually large and luxuriant. 1 \rn in 
the almost dry slough* it stands tall and 
dense and heavy with seed. It would seem 
as though this should have a beneficial 
effect on the vast numbers of birds, both 



uther U**\ 

late to save the fan rn thr 

nng hordes < 
damage is wrought by these birds w h 
corn and grain a - 
The most in 
study in the fall 1 •( thr 

migrant*. In thia conne. 1 |»er 

ennial loans how 1 

the far northern breeding waders arc 
back again at their old spring haum 

pipers waa seen feeding it 

many I.e» 

along the ' 

thia city On thr 15th a coupl< 

bird* kept muih by themselves an 

not seem to be in pai 

with the other*. In general .> 

resem bled eery dam 

piper. Both ran 

for their food by a ra 

with the slendn 

up in 'the larger 

spedes present. August 15 a si> 

winged Teal waa seen on I 

company with a brood of ten 

Blue wings. Th 

rare breeder in *outhcrn Minnesota 

as a migrant, the bul 

A flock of twelve Horned Larks, old and 
young, and several single 
near t 

stranv 
years. 

Late in August the u*ual mi 
assemblages of migrating and resident 
birds appeared in the woodla; 
about, feeding and calhnj.- 

it hither and thithi 
the tree-tops. Thr 

- is always a curious and 
study. Often they number several hun- 
dred individuals and I 
species may be represented, ranging all the 
way from Woodf* 

Young and old are alike pr< rblers, 

Vireos, and I 

' ring migrant* are 1 



The Season 



4\« 






iatr« 

rr»i.i. 



idee*, and even an occasional Blur 

lier collecting days of thr 

- rrogeneous autumn flocks 

il s ourc e * of many fall speci- 

mm &. Tamarack *w 

around central open 
arena. haunts, and as the 

birds went round and round it was an 
ea*y matter, by heading them off b> 

md fro across the open 
i < ome fully acquainted with thr 
personnel and many a choice rind 
in species or new plumage was the result, 
tiling of the leaves in late Sep- 
tember and early October these parties 

up and the migrating poi 
pom on th< their winter homes in 

the South 

irw of the limited numbers that were 

obeert it spring, it was 

"ting to sec the abundance of White 

; •arrow*, J uncos. Fox Sparrows, 

ttlers that paased here tab 

in the seasonal 

rep r esen tation of birds are rather puzaling 

i fall. 
• "pfirg °f tn * ■—son in mi-' 
temlx meag e r bags were at 

at all point* of af thr 

opinion of both huntrr* and guides that 
ere lew numerous than 
naval. Just at thi* writing it i» rrported 
that the n- r ning down 

in ronsidcrablr numlirr* hut it i« too Oarf) 

■ ity 0) 
Uimm. 

Ac Martins left 
I) on thr la»t day of August 
nore Oriole* were in full song until 

< ptember 7. whirb is unusualK 

tember * in n.imi.«t >bcr 7, the 

en and Bay 
breasted Warhlrr* wrrr noted, and. on 



October 14, the first Hermit Inrush, 
colored J 
reasted N 
throated Sparrows were flrst noted on 

•nber it), but they probably art 
a few days earlier than that. 

It has not been possible for the writ 
keep careful note of the birds during the 
summer and autumn, but the general im- 
pression which he has gained is that the 
singing of most of the Sparrows and the 
Orioles has continued much later than 
usual, and that the departure of thr insect- 
rating birds, notably the Swifts and Swal 
lows, came much earlier than usual — 
h latter was the case last \ 

Birds have been about as numerous as 
usual during the summer, and Robins and 
Bronzed Grackles have been so abundant 
that many hundred dollars worth of gar- 
den fruits and corn must be credited to 
their insatiable appr' ^lish Spar- 

rows damaged the wheat to a less extent 
than usual. — Lysds Jones, Obrrlin, Ohio. 

Hamas. < m Rki mi«i not 

able evrnt of the season was the finding of 
n nest of Blue Grosbeaks about a mile 
east of the southeast corner of th. 
The nest was 10 to n feet from the 
i. in a peach tree, and contained 
young. The owner of the orchard would 
low of a close inspection of the neat, 
but the bobbing beads of at least thrre 
young could be seen in open-mouthed 
clamor for food on each arrival 
female. The male sang almost cootinu 
oualy for nearly an hour, and came near 
the nest several times with food, but was 
too timid at our presence to feed the young. 

Urd, hkr thr Br 

know ward 

in western Mi» ihi» is the flrst 

authrntn nesting record Kansas 

(•flog It has bom obse r ved In thi* 

very noticeable since the new law wen 

•rol thrspodea 
that formerly n e st e d note. Fortunately, 
they are still able to And soluble 






Bird - Lore 



a Ibc MiMouri \ alley, in northwest- 
ern \|i«v..uri aivi rj.irrn KuMI, • here 
l hey may rear ihrir younjt »ith some de- 
greenf%r« -r|x>rted from several 

points in tht» ui that Blue- 

winged Teal lad «ood I' r»tr<t 

in number* thit season, and a few I 
able reports have been received as t 
lard*. Pintail*, and Shovellers. It U re 
! that no apparent increase in the 
Geese can be noted R. P. II 
Atchison, reports that a pair of Canada 
Geeae remained to breed near law 
line this summer, and that while the male 

;!led by *ome unknown farmer, there 
was evidence that the female brought off 
her brood of young. All this is ver 
couraging to the very few wdl-wishers of 
law in this region. 
The flocks of migrating Pelican* usually- 
looked for on the Missouri River from 

nber i j to j 5 did not appear until 
October j. when the fir»t of these m.. 
birds was seen making their way »outh. 
high overhead, like a string of glist 
war-planes. 

< ral *mall, »cattered flock* o( 
coin's Sparrows were seen on September 29. 
an unusual ite for these birds in 

this region, as they usually arrive near the 
middle of Octobei HaJOrl lUaais. 
A'«*u«i City, Mo. 

vga Rrc.ioN.— The writ 
duties in U <lo not take him en 

tirdy out of the Denver Region, but they 
have curtailed considerably his chances of 
noting bird-life abaci August 15 

The early impressions of the year, that 
some birds were not up to the normal in 
number, and also queer in distribution, has 
been confirmed during the past weeks. 
Thus, only one large flock of Bronaed 
lea was seen, to wit, on August tj, 
and. again, the writer was surprised to see 
* Main Woodpetker ip his yard on Aug- 
: a very rare occurrence for that 



in an 

uing hat 
•>f Warbler*, bot 
than to mile* away 
higher 

appeared about my yard 00 An. 
wae last teen in the 1 
October 15. while thr 
Warbler was detected < 
;8 and jo. 

a brood of young I 
was noted, all bar> 
plaint of the ne-- 

lata for this spedes to finish the 
season's netting work. I \ugust, 

and early 
iin.hr* were seen, all having been what 

»rrr ..»l|r«i \|. vi, .in GoldiM tiro year* ago 

while at the van 1 none 

of the Arkansas specie*, though the . 
common breeders earlier in the season. 
n is but one of a similar 
nature made in the past, and lends support 
to the suggestion ma 
that this form is not with us early in the 
season, and probably is really a «i 
species, not a form of the Arkansas Gold- 
see the previously called 
Mexican Goldfinch here in the 

summer or early in the fall, and I 
feel dubious as to its being a 1 
Arkansas Goldfinch. 

On September 0, many large fl<> I 
Robins were seen flying southward 
could not have bet rvere 

weather driving them south, for the sea- 
son here has been mild and eiceedingly 
pleasant. 

The writer has seen, thi* fall, more Barn 
Swallows, often in considerable nocks, 
than in several years past. 

rds have begun to at 
the Grey-headed Junco getting h< 

and today (<>• 
some Tree Sparrow* were seen in the 
suburb*. — \\ H 



2*ool. .Ottos anb l\rUicU)£f 



m liKEBK. 
1018. 
ill page platen 

l book U ■ w the 

i jungle at 

seen by the philosopher naturali-t. It is 

not a | i, but there are birds 

in th< (he eleven chapters 

ral one of seven- 

In the author > .v..r!- The hoat 

he most remarkable ami inter 

the earth today." The 

■ins studied was over the 

edge of a river in "an almost solid li 

bunduri pimpler or thorn tree. This was 

the real home of the birds, and this plant 

forma the background whenever the 

hoatzin cornea to mind." The methods of 

>ung of this bird using the 

■I digits at the bend of the wing in 

climbing, and alv> of <li\ ing into t he water 

beneath to escape capture, are described 

( bird life in temperate 
• limes will find in the many alluai 

•ics the tang of the unfa- 
miliar, yet m». h that parallels and 
fresh meaning to thing* which he know* 
are all ■ i with the 

heterogeneous asscx . adee. 

*hich 

,:h the winter woodland, and 

road with interest (pag< Little 

assemblages of flycatcher* tana- 

•Is, manakJns, woodbewers. snd 

rs are drawn together by some 

intangible but very SOda! 

hese fragile frs- 
ternitles which drift along, gleanim 
leave* runks, or 

ording t 

«o held to 

gether by an intangible gregarious instinct 

»y the Sams hotsrogenoooj 

flock may be observed, identifiable by 



r several of its mem- 
The only recognizable bond h 
vocal — a constant low calling; half uncon- 
abvnt minded little signals which 
keep the members in tou« h with one 
another, spurring on the laggards, retard- 
ing the overs* r 

'Jut is delightful reading in 

part or t! The thread which 

subtle, perhaps the 
author s persona -ha|» the many 

'he jungle itself. We are 
told that most ipters ha 

peared independently in the AlUnlit 
Monthly, and that the one on the Hoat 
irom a pul >f the 

New York Zoological Society. In any 
-m an harmonious whole 
from the initial ones which carry the 
reader southward into the tropics, across 
- irgasso Sea and through the West 
Indies, to the final 'Jungle Night.' which 
leaves him in moonlight stillness of the 
jungle with the weird cry of the big goat- 
sucker like poor-me-one ringing in his 
ears. Looked at as a picture, the light 
snd shade values are the elements best 

The Ornithological Magazines 

TzW Atra.— In the October issue wr 
read a valuable contribution on 
Nesting Grounds and Nesting Habits of 
the Spoon-billed Sandpiper' by Joseph 
Dison, who shows its a half-tone of the 
country and of the eggs and neat of tab 
little-known bird, as wel. as diagrams of 
it* nuptial flight and a sketch map of 
this very rare 
Sandpiper .-culler, spade shaped 

bill, is accidental on the Alaskan coa 
it has been taken in migration a* ml 
as Rangoon, Burma. In contrast t 

of a rare bird in the fsr north, wr 
have observations mad* on the common 

in Maseachusr Chat. W. 

Townisad, under the title \ 



(43J) 






Hird-Lore 



rt nn one despair of oppor- 
lunity. (or if one is denie. ,4ora 

lion, one may find MMMthinjt new about 
home, sad !>r. Townsend show* u» what 
ouy br learned of the humble Crow when 

then nigli 

• of black wing* " We learn that 

i » take no intereat in food conaerva- 
tioa" and cjnt pelietft like thr Owl 
in nutriment when berries are plentiful in 
the fall, but conaiatiag only of akin* and 
hu«kft when food become* scarce in thr 
winter. Aithur T. Wayne, with 'Some 

...n» and Other .. the 

<4ogy of North Carolina/ alao 
•how> how much may be learned in a 
limited area by eonatant and careful 
observation. 

Chaunccy J. Hawk. W% at ureal 

length ftome of the proa and CM 
'Sexual Selection and Bird-Song.' addtn* 
aome theoriea of lib own which, although 
they are not altogether convincing, are. 
»u(»ern< ially at leant, aa plaaaiblc aa aome 
other* that have been advanced in the 
pant. 

Prof. Hubert I., (lark discusse* 

lash of the Wild Piiteon' baaed on 
material in the Agassi* Muaeum «l 
fortunate in possessing alcoholic apecimen* 
of an extinct \< ■ 

In a 'List of lice ted on the 

lition of iQift' 
are included a number of new forma. A 
ftitth |>apct 

bj II < nherbober briefly di» 
cusses and summarily settles the status of 
the Belted kingfishers, the Barn OwU. the 
Brown Creeper*, the Redpoll*, the V 
Warbler*, and the Carolina Chickadr 
also, in another extensive paper, resusci- 
tates 'The Subspecies of Larmt kyfirr- 
Serrwi, Gunnerus' (i. e the Point Barrow 
which the present reviewer had the 
tcrncr it rest a dozen year* ago. 

It b merely a question of opinion as to 
difference in ftize we care to 



I hr ilrjiif t mrfi! - ■•! \<>trx ami nf kr 

view* art filled with item* showing the 
interest of numerous ohnerv er a and work- 
er* in many channels of J If 



Tm r» tent » of the 

inber nun 
unusually varied and interesting. Brad 
bury'* 'Note* on the Nesting of the 

eight 
excellent photograph*, contain* an account 
of the finding of six acta of eggs of thu 

M 
prairie about ;o miles eaat of Denver 
A brief autobiography of I 
accompanied by a p ill be read 

with much inter. 
this veteran field nat 

the first of "a series of n nt obiog f ip hifa of 
the older ornithologist* of the Weal," will 
we hope, be followed by others at Ire 

from those baaed on ordinary field 
rience* is discussed in Wills rd* ' Evidence 
That r«l» Remain M 

< nee prex 
1 1 ummingbirds. 
Woodpeckers. I)ovc- 

K in southern Arizona, while Mrongly 
presumptive, suggest* that more 
elusive data for certain apedea mi i 
d by banding birds and obv 
them from year to year. I 

> • 
Lake Regjon' b to a moat 

■n of the habit* nj 
with the Silver monl) 

known a* the Westr- 

••urton contributes a »ugK< 

Coast of Washington and \ 
Island.' Auklet*. Albatrosses 
Puffins. Shear* ias and 

tailed Petrels were ob»< ng a 

week spent on a halibut fishing laumh 
from June jo t 

mean* of transportation were utiliaed more 
frequently, a valuable neriea of obeerva- 
tions on the sea-birds of the fishing-bank* 
could readily be collected. 

Two rather more U apers are: 

Oberbolser'* description of a new sub 
species of Blue throated llummi: 
baaed on a specimen from the Chiricabui 
Mountain* 

forty specJea of 'Summer Bird* of 
Bay, Britifth Columl 



Editorial 






2Wrb Uoif 

A at Monthly MuniM 
O M i iM al «o Um Study and Fiofctssw of Mr** 

OffKWl OIO*» OF TBI tlDCMI M CUIUI 

Bdittd br FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

[B4tior.MABKLOSCOODWRIGHT 
by D. APPLKTON Av CO. 



Vol. XX 



I. !«!■ No. 6 



KATKS 



Bird-Lore • Motto: 
A H-..4 n fit B»*o /• »..•::■ Ti.« m lb, H«nd 

I the publi.ation of this number, 
twentieth year. 
'he ninet. 
fallow*. i» the lineal descendant 

predecessor, each one has 
eaaor without loss to 
and Hibi> Lore at two years re 
mains as tangible an entity a* limn 
now becomes. So we may 
perhaps be permitted to etprr»» the *ati» 
faction with which our eyes rot upon the 
row of volumes that mark the years of 
th their thousands of 
pages ml thousands of 

photograph* and their hundreds of colored 
rm not only a permanent 
ur knowledge of bir 
but they also contain a detailed history of 
bow our birds ha\c gradually won trior 
proper i>lare in the aeertsof the people and 
■inally been accorded their rights as 
car* of BtSD Lou's 
second of 
mj periods which mark the i 

of these periods wa» 

n in 1S84 ll 

included also the organisation of the 

•n Society, la effect a branch 

.ml 1895. Then 
began the second movement . which, under 

Audubon Societies. 



It w 

shoot, the Biological S hat laid the 

foundation on »rn. 1 tin* itractart oaaid 
be raised; it ■ 

> brought a knowledge of bird* I 
people; it was the response of the people 
that made bird , 

Bird Law 
an accomplished fad 'tonal Asso- 

• i the necessity 
of watching the legi 
and of com bating the numberless at t< 
to legalise the destruction of birds for 

the most profitable field 
it ha* !>• lie development 

•vork with ihildren. Trior to the war. 
the growth of the Association s cooper 
with schools was advancing at a p h en ol 
enal rate, but with the establishment of the 
real the attention of the 
children has naturally and properly been 
focused on various phases of war 
work. 

The Red Cross, how ninds 

teachers, through its 'Teachers' Manual.' 
of the importance of studying conser 
problems and. in thi* coat 
mends the efforts of the National Associa 
tion to place a knowledge of the val 

birds to man within rcai h of every « hild 

l>efore the end of the war. thrr 
we may expect to sec our work in the 
schools develop at its former rapid r 
increase, which means that the 
growth will be marked only by the extent 
of the resources of the National Associa- 
tion 

The influence of the work itself cannot 
be overestimated. The school is often the 
most direct aad effective road to the home 

ia homegsrden*. aad with them come all 
1 >ght ful possibilities of making friends 
with the birds. 

I aad there will flame ap the divine 
spark' which is the priceless heritage of the 
bora ornithologist . bat everywhere we amy 
hope to see thai mtima. % »ith our more 
familiar birds which make* them the toast 
potent bond* b e tana maa aad nature 



Cfje Hubufion ^octettes! 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

B4lt«4 by AUCS HALL WALTER 

A44raM sll f ■■■■IcsHhm rrt»tiir« to tWt work ol iH«« dentrt- 
MM to ito gtftor. 6; OrUt Aran. htrUnn. I 

CHRISTMASTIDE REFLECTIONS 

•t of the harvest of the war-gardens upon which I have looked through 
shortening autumn days is now safely un hut here and there a : 

nipped slick or crackling stalk that has escaped the 1 the 

the gardens were made, attracts a p 
or a flock of a> dish Sparrows. One lone cornstalk recalls to mind 

the lines of the poet La vhom every swaying bough or growing blade, 

every glow of color in sky or sea or on rb I ruth 

in measures of his universal language— nv 

"I wander to the xigaag -cornered fence 
Where sassafras, intrenched in brambles den 
Contest* with solid vehemence 

The march of culture, setting limb and t • 

As pikes against the army of the corn. 



"Look, nut of line one tall corn-captain stands 
.rued beyond the foremost of his bands, 
And waves his blades upon the very edge 
And hottest thicket of the battling hedge." 

—From "Corn," by Sidney Leal 

On the walls of the early home of a more familiar American poet are these 
words, written by Stephen Longfellow in 1824 to his soi 
in college: "1 am happy to observe that my Miration has 1 

lulate wealth for my children, hut to cultivate their mind> in the best 
possible manner and to imbue them wit). igious 

ipies, believing that a person thus educated will v. 
certain of attaining all the wealth which is necessary to happiness." 

To the stranger looking, as the poet so often did. out u(>on the nar 
walled-in garden of this simply furnished home, comes back the glow < 
even through the medium of these treasured relics of his past, whi 
lover of nature felt as he watched the falling leaf or mused \i\» 
rain. Seen through the poet's eyes, how dearly is the truth revealed ! 

(4J6) 



The Audubon Societies 437 

NEW STANDARDS IN A NEW ERA 

m illun. 

efccts in American 
i and the Remedies for Them" (later published as Teachers' Leaflet, 

- ere frankly stated and 'K^ffH 
ence to tl our educational system, and particularly 

that part of it represent e<l schools. 

toted were classified under eleven headings, of which 
the last three are: (o) No manual skill, the rem. e deveJop- 

! of ocular and manual skill, which may be attained not alone 
thmugh mechanical drawing and th« s of free-hand drawing, both of 

i are desirable in elementary and secondary schools, but also, the elements 
physics, and biology in an experimental and concrete manner, 
partly for the reasoning of these sciences, of course, but also for the train b 
the senses which comes through the proper study of them;" (10) uttlk 
op the SENSES, again the remedy for which lies in systematic train- 
ing, and (n), HO hahiilal ACCUBAC1 <»f OMBVAllOM and RATHHMT, tor 
i what letter training could be offered than nature-study? Indeed, the 
last three defects enumerated find much of their antidote in nature-study. 

observes that "it is the men who have learned, probably 

to see and hear correctly, and to reason cautiously from facts 

observed, that can u>tries of the country and make possible 

great transportation systems and international commerce," and although we 

take some exception to this opt i nevertheless based upon a wide 

and impartial e>timatc of actual conditions. 

>>ur school-systems, admirable as they seem in 

»n and equipment, must be subjected to a very searching investiga- 

cy arc to fulfil the needs of a new era. It would be well if in every 

scho. ■«• posted, for the benefit of each pupil, these words of President 

I boy and girl in school should learn by experience how hard it is 

utely one short sentence just listened to, to describe cor ret tl\ the 

colors on a bird, the shape of a leaf or the design on a nickel," and for each 

teacher "every child should have had during its school-life innumerable lessons 

mtal truth seeking and truth tellm. 

v b that we do not recognize the unlimited opportunity in bird- and 
natur. to-be-destred training, and enter into this inheri- 

schools, but normal schools, colleges, and universities 

r .rig and are rapidly coming to it through the exigencies of the war. 

To-day between five and six hundred of our higher institutions of learning are 

n with the War Department, having in charge the Students' Army 

ing Corps. Time-honored currieulums are being completely revamped. 



J - Lore 

in the interests of overcoming » 

• ••Urge* and universities can M willmgh 

more practical and concrete training out pobl 

schools follow their patriotic cxampl- ire leading the way a> I 

propheaied 1 1 and we may fool 

much new apparatus" also, ihu* "hroadminf, but not excluding book work" 
\ II \\ 



JUNIOR AUDUBON WORK 

For Teachers and Pupils 

Exercise XLII: Correlated with History. Geography, Physiology. 

and Conservation 

.rkcy *hould ha\c been ihc cmblcr: 
Benjamin Franklin The Turkey i» the national bird, truly indijrenou 
beyood the limit* of that tontinrnt; he i» the herald uf the mon 
log-bouse of th< M *imilar to those ; 

lag «i the cock around the cottage iropean farmer. 'I was swak< 

uyt Bartram. 'in the morning earl\ averse of the ••• 

saluting each other from the sun-brightened top* of the lofty cypres* sad m a gno lia. 
They begin at early dawn, and continue till »unri*c. The high forest* ring with the 
aoist of theae social the watchword being ought and repeated from i 

another, fur hundreds of miles around, insomuch that the whole co 
or more, in an universal si 



!,.r Jn hum 



'On the top 
I magnolia, the loud Turkey'* voice 
raiding the dawn; from In 
ds the wakening watch-note*, far and w 
Till the whole woodlands echo with the 

—From The Naturalist* l.ibrar\ Vol 1 1 1 



THE MEAT-SUPPLY Oh THE WORLD 

rr.. — Referring to the preceding exercise, let cmpha»t» again be place*! 
value to both teachers and pupil*, of becoming familiar with the work and p 
of th< ate* Department of Agriculture. At the public need 

and instruction b ecom e s more urgent, not only with reference to t 
world, but also to much of the essential business; of living, the Hureau of I 
under the Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the 
Administration, has undertaken a series of "Lessons in Community and National 1 
graded from the intermediate demos of the grammar school I 
Maa school. 

This fu n da men tal subject of food involves a great deal of the business of the ■•■ 
as well as matters pertaining to business organization, national standard* 
and de velo pmen t of large industries, national i sad methods and pro 



The Audubon Societies 439 

rs of government In these Bulletins is a simple, clear presentation of facts which 

MB of America should know. The Com- 

xthington. I). C, has charge of these Bulletins. They 

ild be wide 



•*e who have taken up the matter <>f the world's MBpty ol cereals, such 

ill have discovered how complex the subject is, whether 

1 fmm the point of natural and cultivated varieties, distribution and 

demand from country to country, and by race to ran-, or the gigantic business 

mechanism whi rob the production, and trade-distribution of this prac- 

.1 of human diet. 

econd important subjei t ii the mot iupply of tin- world. 1 'hat 

cgetarians by habit, arc learning to eat less meat and more 

vegetables, but meat has become so favored an ar net that, generally 

speak an essential food I < ■< are imp ltd for meat 

should learn I as meat remains on our menus, \\ is 

well histor>' and use. 

r as we arc with the appearance of cooked meat on the table, and 

cat in the market, perhaps n<» one oi us could 

describe the most notable meat 1 Of properly 

r present meat-supply. We ha\e heard, iierhaps, of the 

vast cat tic -ranges and large ranches which a generation ago occu ^reat 

I States; we may have pictured rather dimly in our D 
the ru h pampas-lands of South America <>r the far-straying flocks of Australia, 
j write down or mark on a map the places where beef, pork, 
and mutt large quantities? Could we name even a few of the 

differ. and hogs which furnish our meai->uppi 

tell ■ < n you sec a cow, a lamb, or pig, does it « 

m that eaih has ■ history worth look with 

food-supply, but also a history in connection with animal 
. ami human civilization? 

me have had on \ f steak which you 

beard described as a pi< \asbeef.' Could you havewat. mbus 

loading his frail ships for a second voyage I later, colonists 

iscovered West Indies, you might have seen the ancestors 

ring taken from the Old Worl 

y spread ; domesticated and partly in wild sUtc, at last reach- 

x.th north and south Mm us of Panama B 

i, Mexico, and thence doubtless found its way 
gradu o Texas. Travelers and settlers returning to the Old World, 

»rth America to Spain. 

probably became domesticated as far north as Great Britain, and was 

I mes retaken to America by colonists who ver new nothing of 

, Baronet oi Scotland. 



440 Bird - Lore 

Turkey ha* now been dome- » almost « lized pat 

world, and it it probable that it will be sooner extirpated fr cater part 

of its native wilds than from the poultry-yards of the opulent and I 

Bonaparte observes, that it b now extremely rar. 

in the northern and eastern parts of the I'nited Stat* 

even appears to have been already destroyed one hundred a i ears back. 

u . d •• anti ijiate a day, at no distant period, wi 
seek the Wild Turkey in vai 

It seems a long step from our common barnyard : 
India where some of its ancestors had their native haunts, or from th< 
grunting pig of our farms to the fierce wild boar> 
perhaps, i e so difficult a strt 

cattle and sheep of our pastures with the huge musk < 
and the water-buffalo of the Philippines and East Indies, or with the gra 
pronghorn of the Rocky Mountains, and even with the mon 
has only to study the origin and distribution of any domestica' 
learn much of interest and value in the 
animals than those already domesticated might have been tan. 
vice of man, we can only test by experiment. Those animals and 
which man has thus far trained to live under his care are the ones upon 
which we most depend for food. It will be useful in j 
this coming year to read all you can about these ft* • 
and to write compositions describing their native haunts and neat 
tives, as exercises in English, geography, and 

Many boys and girls nowadays are y 
to help themselves and others learn to properly conserve and increase these 
valuable sources of meat-supply. All that you can find out I - and 

poultry, for example, will add to the interest of your Club met 
aid your own intelligence in selecting and breeding good stra 
It might be stated as a rather important point that many of * 
poultry-raisers and stock-owners are the result of lack of knowledge 
were space to make this matter more emphati> i ailed 

illustrations, it would 1* d to go more deeply intu th< -say, 

of a Jersey cow, a Shropshire sheep, or a common black pig I 
hen. But this you can do for yourself, if you will take the pains to ask 
public librarian to assi^ write to the U. S. Dej lture 

ushington. In any case, renumber bow much there is to be learned i 
live animals before they become part of our marketable food-supp 

Considering now these same animals as a source of mca 
first lay stress on their value as food for man, as compared with the vai 
cereals, vegetables, fruits, or various other accepted articles of d 

Meat is rich in protein and fat, but lacks carbohydrates, while cereals 
contain the latter and protein, but lack fat. In determining the value • 



The Audubon Societies 441 

' kinds ol food icmical ingredients, such ss water, mineral matter, 

and refuse are tested before it can be known exactly how much furl-value 
may be reckoned to each pound of a given food. This furl-value is set down in 
terms of calories, a convenient method of getting at the relative fuel-value of 
such different kind> of food as we are accustomed to eat In studying physiology 
you will learn about the organs of digestion, their proper use and the harmful 
ir abuse, with reference to these foods. 
he science of physiological chemistry has made it possible for us to 
know beyond any doubt what kinds of food are needed to make up a whole- 
tome diet, and what kinds are not necessary, or are possibly harmful, and also, 
how much is needed of certain kinds of food to maintain health, it is extremely 
important tha- ri should learn something about these matters. 

Just U-cause we may like some ki han others is 

<lf a reason for eating them instead of other kinds, although one's 
taste is usually a fair in in health, of desirable foods for the system. It 

b a good thing to lie adaptable and to learn to eat a variety, so that if one thing 
another may be substituted in its place. 

neat in Kngland was cut d um- 

ng the war, it was decided by the Food Administration Commit- 
who needed meat the most and then to make it possible for 
the s« 1 >ly to U- distributed where it would do the most good in produc- 

ing humar It was found that "l>efore the war, the consumption of meat 

jland was as follows:" 
it consumed per week, per person: 

• up I, artisans, mechanics, laborers I lbs. 

; ' , lbs. 
xktte class »'» lbs. 

;>per class '.lbs. 

•*te consumption per person «X lbs. 



1 



I Rhonda's food-regulations, the meat-ration of all groups was 
week pes prison, and in no case could anyone get more, 
M h as munition workers, who are known 
■ to need a larger meat-ration. 

all that only 35 per « ->d eaten in Great Britain 

is bread, while in Frame it is about 50 per cent and in some other countries 
on the continent 60 per cent, or even 70 per cent, we begin to realise what a 
renui • English people made in tl and to realise that 

the small ■crifice we are called upon to make, in decreasing our accustomed 
neat, b hardly to be compared with so radical a cut as that to which 

tmding out just how much a nation needs for food-supply, many factors 
in. win. bi tan n..t in the habit of thinking about For example, we are 






443 Bird -Lore 

told that we mutt give up the highly fattened prize beef, mutton, and |*>rk. 

which have made our markets famous, became the fodder 

•beep, and hogs must be reckoned more carefully m real 

a certain point in fattening stock for ma: teed so large a 

ration as is necessary to add still more fat to mai, already sumo 

fattened for food-purposes. 

- only must we learn to cut down our ration of meat at need, I >u • 
also learn to give up over-fattened meats and to take su as to 

add new kinds of meat to our present varit ary s art 

appear walrus and seal meat, which he describes as making a "healths 
not relished by white men as much as by Eskimos"; musk-ox 
bear meat, "all delicacies for any table;" harp and square-flipper seal meat, 
which is not as strong as the walrus and other seal meat; and amon 
variety of northern species upon which human life depends I 
existence in latitudes where no cereal crops are known. Fish also enl 
let 

The possibilities of the prairie-dog, the muskrat (sold under the nam 
"marsh rabbit"), of horse-flesh, a hippopotamus, are to 

known to us. Some oft! American Indians found dog-meat w 

while we recall the birds-nest soup of tin Chinese made from the nest of as] 
of Swift, and the cultivated taste of the Boers in South Africa forO eggs. 

One Ostrich egg weighs from two to three pounds and is equivalent in quan t 
two dozen hens' eggs. Daniel Lewis Noyes, writing ai> 
Wartime Table" says that eggs of the Ostrich are being canm it the 

shell of course, and shipped to London to be used asasul. i ilut< eggs. 

This leads us to call attention to the possibilities of adding to our neat- an<l 
l>oultry->upply by proper means of rearing certain edible birds in domestica- 
tion, in addition to the common forms of fowl now in use. S 
pagation calk for much skill and knowledge and is worthy the ambition of Un- 
careful student. At preeeal Iwy and girl on a farm sh«>ul<i at least 
learn to care successfully for a dozen or more hens, or for enough to supply home 

Ben ;>wn t some people are producing their own egg 
supply by using the portable houses which shelter a dozen 
are remarkably good, and one looks with envy at the young i 
record shows that from the mid> I ember to 

eggs were produced from twenty-two hens, kept in a small chi ne on 

the back of a narrow I 

By actual tests, boys and girls who have become active mcmt>crs of 
Clubs, as well as of I'ig C lul»>, have improved in so many ways I 
cannot be said in favor of these Clubs where they are conducted by an in- 
formed and responsible person. 

In our study of the meat-supply of the world, there art 
of great interest and value, namely, the investigation of diseases among cattle 



The Audubon Societies 44 * 

bi m*| h-« t he market in relation to human 

ou will look in the Yearbook of the D\ S. 1 ». ■; 1 
of Agriculture • and read the article entitled, "Animal Diseases and Our 

Food- will find many facts desirable to know. The discovery of the' 

carriers of malaria, yellow fever, and bubonic plague was led up to by investiga- 
tion* on cattle stance, while the figures of annual loa* 
diseases of animals and poultry, with statistics of work already done in sup- 
pressing them or producing immunity to them, show what a great Opportunity 
man \ 1 these common creatures may have, in a< i 
edge, economic resources, and human welfare. Begin now to study with a 
desire to find out the truth of the world about you in a practical, thorough 
manner ; learn to eat properly a sufficient am< >un t < >f wholesome food, and, 1 

'titivate happiness in whatever you undertake These three maxims of 
og ami right thinking will do much to assure you perfect health, 
con- : ul anticipation of each coming day. — A. H \\ 

SUGGESTIONS 

Make a series of charts to represent the distributions of cereals. Have a wheat - 
chsrt, a corn chart, a rye-chart, etc. Hang each one up in turn, with a picture of the 
of crop, and pass around s bottle of the seed, showing what part or parts are used 
in making flour, meal, canals, etc Make this study a preparation for Bird and Arbor 
identally. 
" is a ruminant? an ungula 
I low many different animals can you name which are ruminants? 

many breeds of cattle can you name? 
A here do Ayrshire and polled Angus cattle come from? What is each most useful 
•1 our food-supply? 

>rsey and Guernsey cattle and give their history. 
Which breeds of sheep have fine wool? Which are most used to produce mutton? 
tome of the best known breeds and tell lometliing about the value of each one. 
S. To what kinds of birds does the term poultry apply? Is poultry a meat, or a 
meat substitute.:* Look up the use of the term "meat ," 

tsiest to raise, turkeys, chickens, docks or geese? What are guinea t 
10. Look up the development of agriculture In Argentina. What was the original 
bread here? Why were Durham, Shorthorn, Hereford and other breads intro- 

duced? How much wheat and com are produced there? 

e used in India? Did you ever see cows used in the harness? or 
< bullocks attached to wheeled carriages? Have the great famines of India 
c supply of cattle there? 

I ou know of aoy cattle with humps oa their backs? Where are such cattle 
four other kinds of animals arc humped? Are they related to can 

owe cared at is much of their milk used for? 

he history of the pig In Scrvia. of poultry in France, sheep la Australia 
of goats in Switaeriaad. (See "Encyclopedia Britannic* 

my birds protect or help protect cattle from the insects which annoy them 

lid the Cowbird get its name? 
Leant something of the life-history of cattle ticks, sheep ticks, and of "!• 
head" among poultry, especially among turkeys. 



444 Bird *Lore 

iS. Learn something about the regulations of our federal inspection of «- 
it good meat? bod meat? Be careful to define the latter com 

ranch do you know about tbe artificial propagation of wild bi 

to »ociation of Audubon Sodetiea doing in 

Private game-preserve bolder*? Tbe Government of th»» and other count n< 

Get all tbe information you can at nr»t hand through i .leral 

bulletin* already mentioned, Failing in theae tourer*, tbe School Depart met 
try to refer you to other source*.- A I i w 



For and From Adult and Young Observers 

ROBIN 

Black back, wings, tail and head, 
Has Mr. Robin, with breast of red. 

B that little tree, 
With Mrs. Robin and babies three. 

»u want to see him, just remember, 
\;>ril till 'round September, 
He stays in the north and is so gay, 
Caring for his wife and family. 

en the babies learn to fly 
Way up into the bright blue sky, 
Then to the south the Robins go 
To get away from the ice and snow. 

—Donald H. Robinson, Audubon School, Scranton 

WORD FROM SCRANTON, PA. 

Being a tea* \ udubon School and an organizer of Jons 

in Scran ton, I am very much interested in the School Department of 
BnuvLoaz. 

Our Club in Audubon School consists of 01 members, and all are 

very enthusiastic. We have made bird-boxes and placed them in Nay Aug Park. 
We have a feeding-station there, and each club member takes a turn in placing 
food there during the winter months. Our last meeting was held in the park, 
and more than a hundred attended. We launched a floating bird-bath on 
Lake Everhart. Several boys gave bird-calls. The older pupils were given the 
privilege of joining the Scranton Bird Club, which is for adults.- ! 
Scramlon, Pa. 

(The Robin Is so much beloved by tbe majority of observer*, both young and old, 
that the verses sent by this teacher from one of her pupil* will give pleasure to other 
of BnuvLoaa. 



The Audubon Societies 445 

Once more President Knot's words should be recalled with rtlsfcs to the difficulty 

r* of * bird's plumage. As a teat, sec bow many of us, teacher* as 

. aa describe with some degree of a he colors and markings of 

the Robin ..mulling a book or pi the Sckotl Dtfriwunt would 

welcome a picture of the floating bird-bath as well as one of the Club woo launched 



HOW WE STUDY BIRDS IN OUR ROOM 

rds in our room is very interesting. Last fall we made 
colored paper. At the top we printed the ward Birds" and on 
the I- ■■ n names. We selected a bird we liked, painted and < 

out, then placed it in the center of our covers. Kach week we add a plate to 
■nsists of a piece of drawing paper with an inch mar cm 
the upper half for the re and 

the lower half for the description. We draw the bird and paint it in natural 
<>ns, we write out all we have learned about the color, 
ts, and range of the bird. We get a great deal of help from 
the little sets of birds that Church and 1 Cedar 

i ork, issues. By sending them six cents in stamps or money, they 
a set of thirty colored birds, with descriptions. We took up a col- 
lection in oar room and bought a bird-guide. We also get heap from Bran-Lou, 

«cause we are members of the Junior 

days we have oral composition on the bird we drew. On the following Monday 

wehi - n compositions on our bird. W . the best essa 

of class, and the winning ones are sent to the different local papers to be 

i :« a great honor to get your essay in the paper, so every one tries, 

it (age 12 years), Seventh Grade. I mrr son School, Mmy- 

(Tt. i his plan has been such a success in arousing interest in birds, 

and has caused the pupil- date such a fund of information concerning birds, 

that we dscsdsd to tell others sbout it through the pages ol Bud Lose The special 
advantage <>( tail plas It would seam, is the correlation of bird-study with 
andh. Simple as the hook* may be which are thu» made, they offer consider! 

And neatness, in addition to mental drill."— A if 

N FROM THE WINDOW OF A RURAL SCHOOL 
IN VERMONT 






apt. 



rf birds, a doughnut had been slipped on to 
ranch, far enough from the tip to prevent its being blown or 

Uscovered by the birds, who had 

lmlc feasts from t rumba, scattered by the school children, on the 

newall. In a short time a lordly Blue Jay came to regard the 

'nut as belonging solely to him. One day an unusual commotion called 



44 r> Bird - Lore 

us to the window. The Jay was alternately scolding and pecking vigorously 
at the doughnut, while a red squirrel, on the under sid< 
gnawing the wood just at one side of the cake. Suddenly the twig fell apart, 
the doughnut slipped off, and was caught in a twinkl 1 1 1 

ran over the apple tree, leaped upon ■ se, and from that to a stone wall, 

and. Mill running on the wall disappeared ew over a hill, — al 

pursued by the Jay shr and making vicious thrusts at 

ictorious maurauder.— Lella J. Webster, East 

(Here it observation and composition "on the • might say. A delightful 

method of teaching birds is to seUe nay opportunity for observe though it 

disturb the school routine for a few monv anobsen to make the 

popib remember the day, the lesson taught by Nature at well as the one given out by 
the teacher, and the schoolroom with pleasure.— A II 1 

A I NG STATION 

I think you may be interested to know some things we observe that the 1 
do while eating crumbs. The birds that come most i 
and Chipping Sparrow ft, Brown Thrashers, Starlings, and Crackles. 

I think I have read that Brown Thrashers are shy, hut they com 
awhile. This mom iced the English Sparrows were flying ar 

excitedly and a Robin was chasing a Blue Jay, and I suppose when tht 
flew away from the Robin the Sparrows thought he was chasr h was 

the reason for the excitement. About a week ago mother called n 
a female Robin with four fairly young birds around her. Two she was feeding, 
one she chased away, and the other didn't have an 1 1 all. 

We have had Robins and Sparrows feeding young birds in front <>! tl. 
The Robins seem tamer than Sparrows and cor ! U . 

had a Chipping Sparrow's nest about ten feet from the porch in the fr< of U • 
used to be out on the porch a great deal and the birds were remarkably tame, 
even allowing us to approach about one and a half yards from the tree while 
feeding was going on. Last year Starlings were in a nest I 
our yard by a boy who lived in the next house, 

I want to end the letter by telling how much I enjoy Bird- Lore and I do 
wish it would come of tener — Noel Sauvage, GUr. 

(The home feeding -station is perhaps the moat attractive form of bird-study for those 
who have only spare moments to gi ntimacy hard to duplicate else 

soon springs, up between the observer and his bird -pensioners. 

In the above communication, dates are not given as to the precise time when tin- 
birds ceased frequenting the feeding-station, but it was presumably a little later in the 
se as on than usual, owing to the cold, backward spring. The actions of parent 
toward their young just out of the nest are less generally understood than those of 
lings, esp eci a ll y with reference to birds raising more than one brood. In the case described 
above, larking the actual identity of the four young birds, one might hazard a guess 
that the parent paid most attention to those leaving the nest last, althout 






The Audubon Societies 447 

;ih in what we may call their intelligence, that their action* an not 

plained in the tame way. Robins vary greatly in their nest-bufldinf 

instinct. For rumple, one find* their ne»U at almost any distance from the ground up 

to 50 t re in height, and thr nests themselves in all degrees of completeness and 

from a shallow, hastily fashioned structure, with so little 

mud as to puzzle thr obs er v er , to a high, shapely nest, made solid with a plaster-likr 

founda t ion. Our readers send us many ci u on the Robii ring let us 

follow with sharp eyes the moveme n ts of the parents and young as the latter 

• neat \ h 

ACTIONS OF A CHIMNEY SWIFT 

I have seen lots of Chimi 1 and know where there are lots of neat* 

but never had a Swift in my hands until the other day. There is a pair that 
: r chimney. One of them got down the stove-pipe and flew about 
in th< a whole became curious, so I rapped on the pipe 

and it be^an t<» flutter 1 turn, i the damper off. The little fellow was frightened 
and flew around inside the stove I caught him and got a good look at him and 
let him g«>. He was not hurt and flew away. — Rot.) Lancaster, 

X II 

ney Swifts arc far from beautiful objects, and they arc extremely diffi- 
•o feed, but their actions are of mu A II 

NOTES ON THE FLOCKING OF SWIFTS IN FALL 

are all watching for the return of the Chimney Swift, which has been 
noted as early as April 10. He is an April comer that never fails us. October 12 
was the last night he spent here hat there had been a remarkable tight 

1 circled around one of the tall chimneys 

k school building : »•* high), at tir>t in wide sweeps — 

; iad been gathering in the neighlwrhoodsii lock. They came closer 

until there was an unbroken, moving, twittering 

ring. nd a dozen or more would sink into the open mouth of the 

1 all had vanished and stillness reigned.— Miss Lucy Upton, 

Providence, R. I. 

ton's reminiscences, besides giving us pleasure, always add to our knowl- 
edge.- \ II W 

PREFERENCES OF CLIFF SWALLOWS IN NESTING 

id in BntO-LOBB last fall that a man who was lecturing said Cliff Swal- 

lows never built their nests on painted buildings, so I have watched to tee, and 

ippened to notice where they had built on six or seven different 

building* 

re is a barn here near our schoolhousc where there are *r csta 

under both caves, and the barn is painted red, and I know five other buildings 



448 J - Lore 

painted ml am! white where there are several neaU on each of them.- < 

- I // 

(Have any of our reader* information to offer on this matter? i'\ 
let u» remember, me now very rare a* compared 
East I H 

LITTLK BIRD STOK11 
THE CARDINAL 

One afternoon I was sitting on the porch when a in-' tpin 

a tree right near our house. I hunted in the woods an< ' 
were three egg* When we came back home we saw the fat! ial.— 

■ \ Himykr (Grade 5A). 

THE CROW 

One day we were out in the wood- \\ e saw a baby 

Crow. Then we tot «r hands and we played with it. Then it cawed and 

some Crows came and then we let it go.— NV 

OUR BIRDS 

We had honeysuckle near our fence. There were many birds art 
house. A pair of Sparrows built the 

away and left the little birds there. One day I went there and looked in. I 
found the little birds in the not. They had very few 
back*. 

Later I looked into the nest again. I found I 
spider's web. 

\\ e took the nest from the honeysuckle and found the Lit all dead. 

What do you think killed them? M IS1 Brass (Grade j 

[Lack of food, if the parents met with an accident, may ha\ 
or possibly some form of bird disease doe to parasites, but mor< 
starvation.— A. H. W.) 

THE RABBIT 

One day when I was out in the woods I saw a young n sscd 

the path in front of me. I followed it and saw it go into a hole in the g: 
under a stump. I watched there a little while and saw another 
go into the same hole— Thomas Tvlly (Grade 5A). 

(The family of harm and rabbits baa at least twenty different species 
America. Soma make burrows, others sleep on the flat ground, while others make 
"forms" in herbage and there squat to rest, sleeping with eyes open, it is said. They 
may be found in marshes, dense swamps and canebrakea, in woodland and 
places or even in prairie wastes and sterile deserts, or in alpine areas- ■ A I ! 



The Audubon Societies 449 

THE SIGNAL 

mother walked part way to school with me. As we were walk- 
ing along, mother called my attention to a gray squirrel which had an enormous 
toadstool in his paws. He was nibbling away at it as though his life depended 

A little way off another squirrel, evidently his mate, had scampered up a 
tree. ve amid see was the tail, for the tree hid the rest. It was wildly 

waving its tail as though signaling to the mate to hurry and get away from us.— 
ade 5B). 

(The writer knows of a box turtle that was teen to eat part of a toadstool.— A . II v. 

THE TANAGERS 

id a pleasant cxrx :h birds. 1 1 t « »ok place in the woods, 

and while I was walking. I suddenly noticed, sitting on a tree in front of me, 

irlet Tanagers, one large and the Other >maller. I walked quite 

dose to them before they flew to a m stayed around the place 

minutes, as if wishing to be friends with me, but not knowing how to begin. 

ten they had made up their minds that no good was to come from a 

stran. reature like me, they flew away without further investigating 

the matter. M ak\ Betts (Grade 5 A 

is pleasant to imagine that the birds recognise us, but it is safer B Ebutc 

m any human actions A H. W.l 

THE STORY OF A ROSB 

■ as once a little seed and I grew and I grew until I was out of the ground. 
:i warmed me and I grew and I grew until all of a sudden there 
e leaves on my stem. 

e next morning there was a bud. The next day the sun warmed me, and 
<-d on my head till I was wet. 
to sleep. Then in the morning the sun warmed me again 
bud was a full-grown rose. 

began to grow cold, then all my leaves 
. pt all winter nil next spring.— Aoms Flywn (Grade 

tories of Nature coma from fifth grade pupil, in a school to Grant 
e range of observation and Imagination which pupils el 
have, ami ile the variety of objects Ukeiy to I .Mention 

ace does not permit printing all of the stories.— A. H W.l 



Cijc Hububon ^octcttcst 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Mm* by T. GILBERT PBARBOM. •acnsary 

sys Ai iLui. ^ ijSL J aig7;,%^:^f gyms 

William I»i i< atr P—iim* 

tlUltK A LOCA*. -!"<•« rnnd** 

I». •■ > ..«" ...... : - ..: j. /r,.,.,,, 

&*«■ . d *»»— y 

/Urpmc. <Lb. mWooI or co-p-.y i. . T »p.tby «iib ikeoN«u <X lata AamkUoa My 
jSli rrfat— tutlSj ia tkT NatJoaal AawiCMtloa of Awfoboa SocWti* Jor tW Protection 
■■■■ B y roy* for • " 








Pom or lMtm)-l 4* b**»by «>« aa4 b«»«ih «■• tb* N»t».n»I Ar*oc*»ttV> 
rallss l*r tbrfrotactfaa of ffll Mr* aad SmIi (laowporaud). ©f th< 






NO ANNUAL MEETING 



The annual meeting of the National 
Auoctation scheduled for Octob. 
*nd >q. 1018, «m not held because of the 
■criousneas of the widespread epidemic 
of influenza 

Quite aside from the question as to 
whether it would be wise to ask a large 
number of people, many of these from a 
distance, to come to a public meeting, 
there was also the very strong proba 
that either the State Board of Health. 
<>r th ty authorities would 

prohibit public gatherings, as was being' 
done hi many other states at the time. 
Due notice of this action waa x 
advance of the date to all members of 
the Association, and, from the many 
words of com m end ation we have received, 
it fa) evident that the decision of the Board 
met with the approval of the members. 

The annual convention of the American 
Ornithologists' Union, scheduled to meet 
ark City the week beginning 
November 10, was called off for the same 
reason. Many of us exceedingly regret 
the necessity of such action, for attending 
meetings of this character always results 
in much inspi rat ion and a general quick- 



ening of i- the subject of orni- 

thology. 

The Board of Directors of tl 
Association met on October ao, when it 
pawed on the reports of the Secretar 
Treasurer, reelected the officers of the 
previous year, and transacted much 
business in connection with the Associa- 
tion's welfare. 

The reports of officers, held ag< 
and a large numl- 
affiliated with the National A«*c* 
will be found published elsewhere in t hi* 
issue of BiBO-Loac. If al labor- 

ing under the impression that war 
ties the past year have serio 
fered with the movemrn- 
and wild- life conservation in this country. 
let him turn and read these r 
will be seen that groups of people in all 
parts of the country have been acti 
carrying forward tl 
much as hereto' 

should like particularly to 
attention to the huge number of life 
member* enrolled the past year. The 
number wl I his means that 

this source the sum of $16,100 was added 



(4SO) 



The Audubon Sock-tics 



4Si 



the permanent Endowment Fund. 

bequr received during the 

\ssociation wii made 

residuary legatee by the will of Edwin 



Reynolds of Providence, R I We are 

informed, however, that there will prob- 

!>e no residuary estate after the 

spc. iti. Icga.ies have hern paid 



THE COMING YEAR 



The ly and 

m of this country «»«, . 
strong thr hearts and minds of 

the pcop!< practical value is 

the growing crops of a 
million farms, and the flowers and vege- 
tables nillion gardens In the 
national struggle through which wc 
been passing, as Dr. Swope says, 
is have vali 
fought the pro- Hun Esjm 

Bigger crops mean more food for insects, 
and more food for insects means more 
insects, and more insects mean the need 
and to have mort- 
al students 
and b ton and for those engaged 

•paganda i - ion. 

of the most unpopular words in thr 
PngHsh language is duly. When a man 
says he does a thing from the standpoint 
re is an implied n that 

he is not doing it for pleas ur 

man or woman who can get pleasure 
and a sense of d ) ' med Ixith <>ut of 

the same \ well-organized 

ing a solem the lens enlig) 

<f a coron it is also doing 

\ • 
knti». oce said of Ambassador 

Page that he was a man i rig at 

his worl 1 have known 

oncerning whom the name 

asnodaiion vita others ■• >tpers>- 

roent has long been recognized, sn 

gether of membsrs of bird- 

mutating a deeper love for the 
icir mutual interest. 
I have just bens Improssiid anew with 



this fact as a result of a visit from W. A. 
who is leaving for France to engage 
in war-work. M M for two 

been chairman of tr 

His account of the met ho.: < they 

havc aroused inter 

Tort land |h< ! -• irnUSBtt others tesimil • 



Two years ago they engaged the use of 
a room in taw \ M C \ bod img. to 
I members of the 
Audubon Society and others to attend bi- 
weekly meetings. During the first 
the at i rarely rea about 

15, and sometimes not a third of this 
number. The next year they started in by 
holding tl> Saturday 

night and ran a column in the local paper 

1 secured a 
Baloptii on by means of » could 

throw pictures on the screen, either 
slides or from photographs. The attend- 
ance at once began to increase, and it 
was soon necessary to move to a larger 
hall. During U and until late 

in June, the hall, seating 230, was packed 
rday night by the people who 
came to bear and learn about birds and 
take part in the discussions that followed. 

As a result, there is in Portland and the 
surroundin, today a very wide- 

spread interest in bird-study and bird- 
protection. If it were possible to srJdrem 
In one sudience the officers of all the 
Audubon Societies and Bird Clubs of the 

the consi deration of two mgjgeillnni to 



be borne In mind during the co min g year: 
the great sconossac importance of 
keeping the orgs niss tlo n going, and, 
second, the great pi one er s and profit 
derived by frequent gatherings of the 



45* 



Bird -Lore 




- 




WALTER F :AN McMAHON 

Killed in Prance. August 28, 1918 



This Association has sustained a great 
toss in the death of V 
McMshoa, who formerly occupied the 
position of Chief Clerk it 

ofllCC 

Mr. 14 cMahon left his dutie* here to go 
amp on March 15, 1918, and in less 
than sixty day* his company was or 

■a lie saw much active service 
is the trenches, where he was connected 
with a machine-gun squad. Because of 
hit knowledge and experience in outdoor 
he was q • the 

dangerous position of scout for his pla- 
toon. It was while on a dcsi 
mission, alone, in No-Man's Land that 



he met his death from thr bullet 

I! oveloped a 

rest in natural fa 
years he served as s ecret I ward 

rbush, and for a year ai 
of the Maasachuset 

Protective Association. 1 1 posi- 

tion he resigned to come with t). 
Association in January, 191 7. 

In .1 • being one of the most 

promising of the young ornithology - 
was a writer, speaker, and artist of 
ability, and gave great promise of useful- 
ness in the cause of •• 



Annual Report of the National Association of 
Audubon Societies for 191 8 

CONTENTS 

kt Pear kf.tary 

■ Agent* > and Bird Cum. — 

■Kr.Mi: \ 

BOM CLAE&ES. — M ISCELL ANEOU* Fait Eft. 

ENE SW" m | 11 KOBVOM 

est I Job. 
iejct or Columbia vneseer. ! 

M ASSACHl T 8ETT> 

LLO N N 

Hutu I..\ i.k -s.) Bird 

N \ 

• 

-COCOA- 

IETV. 

Itcliui hon Society. — Erasmus 

II v ••».— For* -tiENft 

II v 

»nr. — Mavwh- Hibo 

II Bttfi (mi. RftMMI I] 
i -Minnesota CJame-Pbotective I 

tiRiriMi I 

kt M-...N 

■ 

Til II 

-SUSSEX 

■CtETlES AND Bill • 

i 

Memmeie.— Amnoal M 
C OM T BJSU TOftJ TO TME l>Ef*«Tw 

l omiihtoM TO m Eoi> 

(45J) 




Actiag-PtwMaai 



I>E tkl.Oi.ki 
ot tte Nttfaatl AmxiaUo* o4 



AuJub... ^K.ct-e. 



(454) 



i'ORT OF T. GILBERT PEARSON, SECRETARY 

INTRODUCTION 

Mates Food Admi the 

'io\r closely rtlatt ration of food- 

and encouragement of ms< 
an<l i 

ie members of the 
v xluhon Socit 
asso< :i it in tl d the past year. Increased 

aurally means more insects, and more insects, 
in tur need for more bird] .it them, i i« greater 

than mtry, there has been a net 

rmined effort on the part of certain land agent 

ii the Government the tin math 

r« I refuges may be 

into ran. b< The Asso. these 

an. I M our Oregon agent, is now 

i law in Oregon which will save 

has arisen of late that a the islands 

• I because of the pretence of the Herring 
mi II Norton was m igatc the matter, and 

to show that the pre^< the GoHl 

lands is rcsponsi! • grass-supply rather than 

the 

• eding-haliits of tl an along 

1 

work In- had the COflpera I 
i-iana, and Flori«! wn breeding coloi 

«st wa« * • fa r less 

f adult hir«N I *ing estimated at 65,000. 

I was found to consist almost wholly of fish man. 

. estigations will probal 

. xpense of ihb undertaking was bot c income 
1 

retary also engaged in a lengthy controversy with 
hat sough ny ton ngLakc, N Mex.,a 1 

fog-preserve In tlu end, the I »epartment r, which controlled the 



456 






decided to follow tin 
made of it a bird sanctuary. 

ich effort was put forward by the Association and cooperating organiza- 
tions in helping to secure the passage by Congress • 
force and power to the treaty for the protection of migratory birds brt 
the I ites and Canada. The final triumph of the mca- 

!qi8, marks a most important turning-j>oint in th< 
protection. 

The Association has also been at I her matters whi- 

times required the presence of the Secretary in Wa* 1 One was the 

bill, which passed Congress, to prohibit the sale of game in t 




MO BROWS r\ AT MOOT 

fkoiocnplMd l t Pc«rtoa 

nbia, and another concerned the prohib 
deen, Md. ( Testing Grounds. During the year much correspondence has 
carried on from the home office, and literature, cloth warning notices, 
charts, and other material distributed. All departments of the Associa 
undertakings have gone forward as in I are, despite the n 

trading influences due to war and its attending a 

The Association and the cause of bird-protection in general has i 
a severe loss in the death of Walter Freem.. hon, who has re« i 

fallen in France. Mr. McMahon was born in Chelsea iSHq. 

He early developed a strong interest in bird-study and : al years I > 

his death was actively engaged in work of this chara two yea 

served as secretary to E. H. For bush, State Ornithologist of Mass.: 
Following this, for one year he was Secretary of the Massachusetts Game and 
Fish Protective Association. He resigned this position to come with the 



Report of the Secretary 457 

7 , and served in the home office unt il 

Nfahon was not only a man 
accomplishments, but possessed a most unusually attractive per- 
sonality. As far as can now be ascertained, the date of his death was Aug- 
:&, 1918. He was killed while on scout duty at the front. 

FIELD AGENTS 

men and women who have of] 1 work in 

! the country. During the year that has just closed, Edwai 
! Agent fc gland, has continued his 1 

rrespondence work, and was of very great service for the 
in Congress. 
Packard, Agent for Massa again directed the si 

ties in Junior organization. >uciessfully « the 

to a large correspondence, gave lectures, wrote an 
ess, and made trips to Washington and elsewhere in the discharge 
ties, 
gene Swope, Agent for Ohio, directed the campaign in Ohio 
■luUm Classes, solicited and secured adult . lectured 

ward a heavy correspo . addition to giving a four weeks' 

jam I Igent for the Padfic Coast 

was a* Junior work, lectured all 01 :ate, took 

as been tireless in his efforts to save, as Federal bird 
il Klamath. 
S. Sage continued h< ate until 

she left the eni|<I< 1 h, 1918. She is now engaged in 

rork in \\ashingt< 

working, as her- \pplicd Ornithology," has 

conducted the experimental farm at Amston, Conn., run a successful summer 

same place, lectu >ving pic- 

and has given much advice to pco|> g to engage in the propaga- 

tion oi Is and game. 

hui il N has been car word an 

porlant in\ . ligation of the feeding habits of >g (iull on the coast of 

the relation ie colonies of these birds to 

sheets raising on the outer islands, 

bat we record the dea *. Granville Rosa 

\gcnt for the sute of Was! H death occurred at her home 

rth Yakima, Wash., on August jo, 1918. She was one of the most 
cessf ul bird-workers among children that we have ever kn« 



4>S 






AFFILIATED SOCIETIES AND BIRD CLUBS 



The numerous demands of various war have »<! 

the efforts of the organised bird- wort ntry much less than was to 

Inrrn true <»f the older an<! 
bboa S«Kicti«, where the f< ed that n 

was their work needed. 

rious local organisations have ceased to fun 
was to be exp* < km of the great demand for active a . 

The organizations now affiliated with t ) il Associa 

is of good organized work don 
past year, and these will be found published with thai 

It i> wrll worth the lime of any oonsei hese 

carefully; in i. can one get an idea 

omoii tttdy an.i 

ward by these numerous organuations. 

Recently the Association has been pleased to oootributi 
i of affilia < me was a gift of $500 < iame 

< Association, to aid in putting a lecturer in t r was 

a contribution <>f $:>o toward the expense of a 

.1). 
On the other hand, some of the societies have contributt 
he Association's * taction. 

SUMMER SCHOOLS 

During the sumi urth year, the Association arra- 

directors of summer schools for courses in bin : 

he expense of 
and the » ■ ! institul 

wi with good i 
M Johni \ V., gave a 

Summer Sch<* h at the I 

eral illustrated evening lectures were also <1 

■ Mary Bacon, of Athens, Ga., represen 
of enthusiastic bird-work at the I'm 

■ Belle Williams, of < la f<»ur . 
at the Winthrop Normal ( 

Ralph Hubbard continue I -work of last yeai 

ated at Boulder, 
■gene Swope, of Cincinnati, again worked 
Florida, conducting bird-courses and giving illustrated put res. 



Report of the Secretary 459 

rncybou: was again at 

near Char bttcsvflle, 
h —d rede <>t teachers gathered at these vari< learning 

D and had their it bird-etnd ird-protec- 

tion greatly quickened. 

AUDUBON WARDEN WORK 

.il number h.' 1 during the year u> 

guar- reeding colonies of wa There are three groups of 

these agents. First, then an: th<»s<- wygpH l>\ tin- \-mh iati»>n in COflpe ra tJOB 

beat men protect certain Federal 
ions. Second, there are the wardens who guard Egret colonies, 
third, th« 
alon. rolina t<> M 

<- past season appears to have been only an average one for the nesting 

\ e done well ; at «»t hers, owing to various natural 

l»ment of the young were s* .vith. 

wardens .mII indicate something of 

1 in various prote< lies. 

:ntf would ha food 

had not been so scarce. I hcl|>cd feed them as far as I was able." 

g Gulb this year drove all the I - 
9 the island r, they settled near 

Mtofjunei. :oo eggs 

ea that broke over the 

Owing to the sea: >.hh1 this summer 

ias been a great increase ot I his 

year umber at 100,000 then were about 15,000 N 

lands: "High tides di ic eggs and young 

T< I s arc graduall) •lecreasing. There 
were : his scasoi 

Islands of Mississippi Sound: "All the birds sen increasing. I esti- 

ceding birds as follows: Laughing Gull, 04,000; Royal 

52,000; B 000, Cabot* Tern. 16.000; Ca*j 600; 

oo;Lea*t ,000; Black -crow i m.Q.ooo; 

1 M.ooo; and Brown Pelican, 50.000 - g »mething 

than 450,000." 

The Egret colonics, as a whole, fared better this year than did the sen- 



4 6o Bird - Lore 

birds ilr killing of I* wu report* 

o( many of the feeding-grounds in central Florida caused some 
their accustomed haunts and seek nesting-places in new territories. 

In protecting the hard-press* p is also 

many other water-birds that assemble with them in their rooka is on 

Xssodatkm's Bird Island in Orange Uk< large 

is and 300 Snowy large numbers ol 

amnn \ .• ■• Seroa Greea Heron* little Blue Herons, Ward's Herons, 
Water Turke>-s, Boat-tailed Crackles, Purple anil Florida Gallin. 
Bitterns, Florida Ducks, ami Whin t t In- 

rare Glossy Ibis (probably the White-faced) also < nd of 

ife. In all. forty-seven wardens were env car. 

REPORT OF JUNIOR AUDUBON CLASSES 

Despite all the distracting influences the pa be forma' 

Audubon Societies has gone steadily on as 1 plan 

of supplying children with first -class material for d< lementary 

work in bird-study is appreciated by school men and wonu 
the Union and in Canada. 

One evidence of bow the Junior Audubon work holds in a m 
b once established is shown by the many teachers in the grades 
formed a Junior Societ - the past 

lasses move on so that the teachers have a new s< 
but their interest in the work causes them to encourage each group coming 
under their care to organize inces, w) 

Junior Class has been I n one of the lower grades, 

insisted on reorganizing year after year, although the class continually pos s es 
on to the care of different teachers. 

Thb year, as heretofore, immense numbers of bird-boxes ha\ lilt, 

and around thousands of schoolhouses birds have been fed in win: 
attractive programs have been rendered, and the local interest reser- 

vation kept alive and stimulated by the little folk at school 

the school year ending June classes were formed and • 

bers enrolled in the different states and in Canada, as shown in the following 
summary: 

Summary for the year ending June 1, 1918: 



!,!. 


( lift 


M— ■« 




( U.%*« 


MMftM 


Alabama 


1 


«47 


f Columbia 


I 




Arizona . . . 


1 




Florida 




tfi 


Arkanaat 


1 




Georgia 


JO 


038 


California 


»97 


S.67S 


Idaho 






Colorado 




1.4*7 


Illinoit 








• 


7,608 


Indiana 


•Op 


3.999 


Delaware 


I 


5« 


Iowa . 




J.oa I 



Report of the Secretary 



46t 



LoUtMARA 

Mi«i< hu«.ctt» 
*ola 

na 
<.ka 

Hampshire 



« !»t,c. 


MmAm 


'■(•ic 


6 S 


1.009 




• »9 


851 


Oklahoma 




312 


Oregon . . . 




856 


Pennsylvania 


46 




and 




8, a 10 






5.009 


kota 






Tennessee 




4>4 


Texas . 


. 100 


1.658 


. 


. 66 


1,630 


Vermont 




1.995 




9> 


jo 


•linjjton 
..ma 




4,885 






9* 


Wyoming 


*<>i 




Canada 


4» 


».»45 


M 


JO 


0J8 





Totals 



( lllHI 


MfWn 


815 


18,337 


■i 


814 


OO 




460 




«9 


548 




901 




889 


so 


693 


45 


1,169 


37 


836 


37 


797 


»5 


7tS 


3«4 






1,360 




3.981 


5 




3«i 


8.763 


1 


«5 


6,071 


i59.o8j 



of our country have school children been called upon 
utr to so many projects, and so continuously, as of late. The cam- 
paign in the scho< ir Savings Stamps, for membership in the Junior 
Cross, seeds for war gardens, and other war activities, have been tre- 
mendous. Giving continually to these most worthy causes has had a 
deckled effect on the enrollment of the Junior Audubon members. Scores of 
teachers have reported that they found it absolutely impossible to collect the 
10 cents necessary for the Junior fees. 

In one large school building in the Middle West, a teacher who had asked 

that the children in the various grades bring their Audubon fees to send in on 

?ain date. found when she went to collect them that the children had 

money, but that at the last momeir cipal of the school 

had instructed them t< 1 - money to the Red Crow. 

14 is only one of many instances of a more or less similar character. As 
a result of these causes, enrolln 1 Junior members showed a marked 

■ the year previous when the number reached the high-water 
mark of 261,654. 

young people was made possible by the following con- 



Russell Sage 

General CottSSM i| u l'..nt 
Goorge Eastman ... 
Other Subscribers 

Total 



|; 0.000 


00 


>.500 


00 


I.OOO 


00 


1.000 
l.SHo 


00 
00 


fjo.oSo 


00 



MISCELLANEOUS FACTS 

n ear we have issued four new Educational Leaflets, publishing 
them I .our., and afterward separately. These were Leaflet No. 94, 



462 Bird - Lore 

Least jwrcs. Of Educa- 

tional Leaflet*. rq>rints were made to the nun 

announcing the plan of our Junior work to teachers 100,000, letterheads and 
envelope 155,111. Other miscellaneous items such as gum la I 
ship blanks. Pigeon folders, and nottl 00. 

1 slides to the numU-r live been sold at ■ lit: 

iml our ■ 
a nominal rental. 

KINANCK 

The Astoria' Med during the year 1 at $100 « 

The funds ret' n this * 

payment » on life menil <-*, makes a total of $16475 added t- 

mam irment Fund. 

During the year tl invested $10.00 

amount in Third and PotUtl 

The sustaining membership, the fee t <^ annually, ha> 

year numbered 3,800. The total in- 
been $121 




NESTS Or BROUN fELI- 

PbotocnpWd by T. OUbett PwiwMi 



Reports of Field Agents 463 



REPORTS OF FIELD AGENTS 

REPORT OF WINTHROP PACKARD. FIELD AGENT 
FOR MASSACHUSETTS 

e good work that the National Associa \ udutmn Societies has 

at years throughout Massachusetts certainly has a rirm found 
in the hearts of the pe of war conditions. in the 

! birds continues. 
lias been able, during the past year, to idd to the BMoriNoUp 
list of the Association 31 life members and 101 sustaining mcmUrv In the 
iss work, 8,210 new Juniors have been added. The interest of the 
ause has been shown in the continued calls 1 eft, exhibi- 

tions, information, and personal advice and assistance in bird-work. In this 
rias worked with various influential and im|>ortant societies. It gave 
hibition at Worcester in conjunction with the and the 

•titultural Hall at Boston it joined with the M assa- 
ult ural Society in trition and instruction work for home- 
gardens, making a display of bird-protactka material during the spring and 
summer monti ned with the State Grange and State Audubon Society 
in a i >n and lectures. The requests for traveling exhibits 
material to be shown in various parts of the state, and 
indeed througf ^land, have been numerous. These requests 
led, as have those for I ires. 
throughout N land has been carefully watched, and 
to state that no bills advene to I n have passed. 
I, last year, passed through the tevi 

he request sent out by him that the birds be ia\ with 
1 usual care, and which received a hearty response, was effect 1 
■ eS of ma ir winter birds which M-emed to have I 

successfully. 
rith its exhibitions, has been very popular with visiting Ji 
teachers, and the mutual good-will that is established has 

•nortorepre md Audubon Soci< 

I rtgland at Washington daring the campaign ;«ssage of the 

and was present when the House tinal! B favor of this 

measure for bird-protection. He it proud to say that then was nodis- 
ig voice among on .gland rcpresentat I 

1 losing, he wishes to express his appreciation of the unfailing wisdom 
riendly guidance ol Mscretary of the National Astoria- 

and that of Edward Howe Forbush, the New England Agen Aaso- 

> whom such measure of success as has been achieved is largeb 



4' 4 Bird- Lore 

cl, here in Massachusetts, that bird-work is war-work, and d« 
to carry it hopefully forward toward ir. 

REPORT OF EU< SWOPE. FIELD AGENT 

FOR OHIO 

ember 15, 1917, the Junior Class work in I ;>assed all 

records for the stat • hat date. This was accomplished at the saim- 

that I Red Cros- 

progress. Then came the seven id shortage, closed schools 

pended Audubon work for nearly three months. 

h the coming of spring, your agent again pushed the Jun .is a 

"win the war" measure and was able how a 

record not much behind that of the previous year. 

Valuable assistance was rendered by county 
and especially by Dr. J < HambJetoo, Nat 
schools, and President of the Columbus Auduboi 
edited th< ntendent's annual pul 

had been largely devoted to Arlx -rases, and made it a I 

It was almost wholly de v o te d to appeals and ai 
of wild birds and for their pr 
the Association's work and greatly aided it, for w! 
of all bird-pro- .Miration contained ar 

Q soman and T. Gilberl Pearson. 

Many newspapers of the state pul uch news items an<! n 

your agent sent them, thereby keeping the work of the As- 
public. One point urged was bird-conservation as 1 
against pro-German insect ravages. This received -. 
pied 

During the year, there have been more than the usual number of mi 
laneous calls upon your agent for assistance and advice in the matters of 
attracting, feeding, and protecting the wild birds. These calls ca: 
conceivable source and ience of the widespread in] i the 

confidence in the Associate y call was answered promptly. 

In all probabilit ts will be made in the next leg. 

certain protective laws. For instance, the lake fishermen have ret 1 
covered that Terns, Kingfishers, and Blue Herons coi 
fish." As early as July they began a campaign of education ad\ 
"extermination" of these birds. 

Ohio Audubon people saw to it that their representatives at 
favored the Enabling A 

One summer month was devoted to conducting a large bird-study class 
the Teachers' College at the Florida State University and giving public k 



Reports of Rcld Agents 



46s 



vas the class that five members earned college credits, 
1 apply on grees. A numl^r >>f others earned the regular summer 

scho< c class was composed of teachers from every section of 

Florida. 1 he summer school instructors regularly attended the field- 

work rfassrs It seems that the Association's efforts in Florida might give a 
ly and protection of the wild birds of that sta 
me, and under no circumstances, did your agent fail to disseminate 







REPORT OF ARTHUR H. NORTON. FIELD AGENT 

FOR MAINE 

of iqi8 was one of unusual se\ low temperature and 

vast quantity of sea-io the closing of Bach Cove, Portland, an 

I 'resumpscot River, the greater part of the thousands of Black Ducks 

h annually winter - t for the outer islands. SUU, s few hundreds 

remained st their usual resorts and were fed daily for about five weeks by the 

loca Audubon Society and a con si de r a ble number of individuals. As a result 

s constant attention, relatively few perished. Not only in the vicinity 

rtland, where this large number was under constant observation, but 



466 Bird - Lore 

from the Penobscot region, came reports an<l inquiries as to methods • 
in* for the Ducks. 

knlilv <luc t«» the exceptionally warm, dry weather of M 

numbers a week or more earlier than usual r the 

season was wet and lacking in sunshine, it is known that a fair nut 
reached mat ur mg Gulls have done well, and this summer a i 

within i> miles of the city of Portland, a range extension of about 60 1 
Laughing Gulls have been seen at several points sot 

tig a slight increase of these birds. An inspect 
colonies < Bi in the region of Jericho Bay was ma 

At this date none of th< • .tills had left the rookeries, and the a 

' h old ami young Gulls showed the result of a season free from molest 
in. The birds have increased considerably in the region te last 

general inspect the- advance in the prices of wo« 

profitless custom tig sheep tnds seen 

promise I an. With this promise has arisen, in ; this 

inspection, a claim that the sheep will not lead u: it the 

Jed by their presence, and that < I 
raisers' interests. 

It was found that much of the soil of these islands is 
largely of poorly decomposed wood, many of the depo 
deep. destitute of mineral « 

when lis were abundant, and others where 1 

t was possible to make a comparison of th< 
at the two different locations. On the islands * 
the \ > was poor, closely grazed, an 

moreover, the sheep there were eating the coar^ 
untouthed on the islands where the Gulls van numerous 
numerous, the vegetation was in 
On each < if the latter were areas nearl 

preference m locations, l found t<» feed it 1 the 

colonies as dm* en more, than in the pa 

absent. On these islands the coarse flags, sedges, rushes, and grasses 
ad l»y the sheep. 
One cause for the alarm-cry, that the Gulls art- rail 
and in the fact that many of these outer islands 
of a n 1 kweed (Cfrastinm arvense), whith is j»ari 

I ahit is low and matt; ng large areas, but 

growth, cause it to attra n in the grazed pas- With I 

ening" of the soil, this native duckweed has begun to disappear, and in its 
place has come an introduced rest 1 media, a km 1 

here reaches a length of near . and is of a yellow-green color 

ing contrast to the color of the grasses. This is an annual plant, and should the 



Reports of Field Agents 467 

land occupied l> •• rCfBMOQ with ^r.i^s <>r clover, the improvenn v • ' '■ < 

. r c would no doubt be excel thing 

has been done to improve the-*- |*asture>, though graaod l>> iheep for years. 

REPORT OF WILLIAM L. FINLKY, FIELD AGENT 
FOR THE PACIFIC COAST STATES 

past yea rat, mostly illustrated with moving 

res, have igent through the Pa» 

numi the benefit of the soldiers in the cat 

<• country an<l were enthusiastically received. Lei 
he auspices of tht •tandthi 

in the achoob < ly $1,000 was raised for these organizations. 

iong many of the schools, there has been very creditable bird-work 
during the past yea iland. the pupil- of tl. 1 School reproduced 

I in the woods. M ares were also made of some 

of the manual : classes build houses and the children put 

up these houses along the Columbi ay. These, with other 

■vork, are to be used for educational purposes in the schools. 
r work among the school children during the past year for the Oregon 
Audi ias been in charge \ I. Campbell. She has vi 

many different schools, giving bird-talk 

•logical Survey of the 
\ rd and animal life 

il being carried on in conjunction with thr 
Daring the past sum lor has been work- 

Ilege. Inasmuch as the 

disappearing, and since there are approximately 

lundred of these animal* in the state of 

it being made to secure an area of land, partly in southern 

Nevada, where these animals range and set it aside as a 

>is area is also the home of large flocks of Sage 

i .Ian are being worked ou t I > y 1 >r. George W. Field, 

• » (logical S 

■romotcr* have been trying to get the right t.» 
water an the surrounding marshland, advocating 

would make a valuable area for agri »e other hand 

area is very 1 n character, and experiments on similar areas b> 

Depa Iturc show that it is »rno value from 

iltural standi were once drained, the whole place would 



#61 



Bird- Lore 



aooo revert to a desert and Oregon would lose one of iU roost valuable assets. 
At the coming session of the Oregon legislature an effort will be made to « 
-usage of a law ceding all state jurisdiction over this area 
tea. 

It is very interesting to note that the only colony of Egrets (Ardta egrdta) 
nesting in Oregon have at last taken up their permanent home on 
Reservation. In my annual report, published in the 

issue of Bied-Lorx, I told of a visit to this colony which had a short 




ML DUCK. 



M.M.HLIR BIRD k» 

N»tacrspfc*d by li 1. 



I >rcviously been discovered on an island i I I -ike. There were c 

or twelve Egret nests at that time. Two or three years law 
up and they moved. In 191 vara reported to be nesting in the willows 

in the northern part of Malheur Lake Reservation. George VYillett, who was 
in charge of the reservation during the past season, reported that the number 
of nests had doubled since o » the colony in 10 IS. The* 

Klamath Lake Reservation has been lower this year than at 
time, on account of closing the dyke between the lake and Klanv. 
In order to prevent the destruction of Klamath Lake Reservation also, it will be 
n eces s a ry to get a law pasted in both the Oregon and California legislature 
ceding jurisdiction to the United States. 



Reports of Field Agents 469 

PORT OF EDWARD H. FORBUSH. GENERAL AGENT 
FOR NEW ENGLAND 

he task of securing the passage of the Migratory 

he most imperative matter regard protection for 

lias merely assisted the well-directed efforts of your 

who has reported in detail upon the campaign and its successful 

result. An attempt has been made also in Massachusetts to secure better 

ns that have colonized on our shores. The Least 

>ow has been reduced to comparatively few individuals in the 

teast, has been decreasing in numbers during the past three years. The 

larger species have been troubled by encroachments on some of their breeding- 

<is, and may have been crowded off Muskeget Island to some exu 
the increase there of the Laughing Gull, although no direct evidence that the 
-sts them has been submitted. About thirty years ago, this Gull i> 
said to have been reduced in N and to some twenty pairs of birds — 

the remnant Muskeget Island. I' rider protection they have since 

increased so that now there are many thousands breeding there, and they 
now appear along the coast in the breeding-season from Conn. 

is on this island have rather decreased in numbers. 

In t) of 191 7 Adams, Chairman Massachusetts 

ries and Game, proposed to give some of the principal 

-pedal protection during their coming breeding-season. It was 

recommended that wardens be allotted to guard five of the principal colonies 

and to destroy cats and skunks that were decimating them. This was done, 

apparently, as a result of this treatment, the birds have increased in 

number and at least two new colonies have been started on Cape Cod, where 

man. rds were successfully reared this season. Many of the eggs were 

destr 1 storm and high tide but the birds nested again successfully. 

There has been a noticeable increase in the numbers of Common and Roseate 

! a lesser increase- <»f I .east Terns. Arctic Terns also have been rc- 

1 from time ing Gulls along the Maine 

Coast probably is responsible for an sew si ion to the number of this species 

summering in Massachusetts. Many hundreds now remain on our coast all 

summer and a few breed here. 

REPORT OF HERBERT K JOB, DEPARTMENT 
OF APPLIED ORNITHOLOGY 

[last year request* for practical inforroatiou about attracting 
or propagating birds, or both, have continued to come from all over this 



470 rd« Lore 

country mod Canada, and even from abroad. In reply, Bull 
are lent free under the Applied I an. I letters accot 

nded "speefficatiot ance, a gentleman in < 

wrote that he had a "farm' of tSo acres, enclosed wit! 
ao-acre pond. He wanted to breed various upland game-birds and 
tnd t«» tr> t«» make the place a wild- 1 >ird |»ara«l \ carefully, 

he asked me ti n what I would do if I owned it myself and lurk- 

ing on such a plan. The variety in these inquiries n 
another from a woman 
a \\l 

noise that her summer boarders could not sleep, re was da; 

breaking up I >s! 

As usual, a numU-r « en pers*' 

• I 
Long Island, • laid out as a wild-bird san 

have been given from - inducting a CO 

agation at Cornell l'ni\ mo lectures at Obcrlin I 

riousscho 
other institutions. 

uner School \ 
has developed in a uur. 1'upils unn 

as far aw. igo, and < 

enthusiast ngs were spent afield, rctui 

at 1 1 . until the dim 

coUectio -land birds. 

: at the lake, or in photo- >. There were occasional p 

suppers at the lake, and moonlight boating excursion- 
night sounds. About one hundred species of birds w« 

ary in July. The experim rk was sucoo 

bird -boxes were wt 
were reared, the latter including Wood Ducks, Redheads acks. 

\ j*-r cent of th< ed were reared to maturi'