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Rev. K Norelius, D. D., R. N. 0. 

A Brief Review of its History 








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When the Swedish Lutheran Augustana Synod decided to celebrate 
its Fiftieth Anniversary 1910, a Committee was appointed to mature 
plans for the publication of several volumes in honor of the occasion. 

; By this Committee the undersigned was charged with the preparation 

T of Historical Documents to be published in two Memorial Volumes 

4^ one in English and one in Swedish. 

* However, the preparation of several papers, designed at once to re- 
cord the history and illustrate the progress of the Augustana Synod, 
vMs committed to distinguished members of the Synod in different 
sections of the country. These papers are now presented to the public 
in a Memorial Volume; and as now completed, the volume is humbly 
committed to the favorable consideration of the friends of historical 

In the providential circumstances which led to the organization of 
the Augustana Synod, we recognize "the good hand of our God upon 
us," and devoutly acknowledge the important bearing which His 
favor has had upon our growth and prosperity as a Christian Church. 
As He prepared our fathers, by a gracious culture, for enlarged serv- 

j. ice, so "in the fulness of time," He prepared for them, by His prov 
.idence, a promising field, and laborers to enter it and gather "fruit 
life eternal." 

We have occasion for special gratitude to God whose wise fore- 
cast always provides for the exigencies of His people, that, under 
His supervision, our enterprise was inaugurated by men who were 
true Lutheran Christians; men, whose intrepid advocacy of evangel- 
ical doctrine and apostolic church polity made strong the defences 
of truth against the incursions of error; men, whose names and the 
memory of whose worth we charge the Swedish Lutherans of the 
next half century to transmit with our testimony to their successors. 

As nearly all of them "rest from their labors, and their works do 
follow them," we lay upon their graves a thankoffering to their Lord 
and ours, and consecrate ourselves anew to the service in which they 
lived and died. 

In a review of our work of fifty years, while we discover humiliating 
proofs of a faith too feeble, a consecration too reserved, and sacrifices 
too reluctant, and would penitently confess that our efforts have 
been commensurate neither with the demand nor with our ability, 
yet we find abundant occasion for thankfulness to "the God of all 
grace" for the distinguished success He has given us in many fields, 
and on which, with singular copiousness, He has proved the blessings 
of salvation. And we acknowledge to the honor of our God that 
our review supplies abundant encouragement, in the form of success, 
to proceed in our enterprise with redoubled zeal and earnestness; and 
we desire to pledge ourselves to Him who has made our service pro- 
ductive, and to one another as his servants, that, by the help of that 
Spirit who worketh in us mightily, we will rise to a higher standard 
of devotedness to the promotion of His cause on earth, and serve Him 
in the unity of faith. 

Moline, III, 1910. 




Swedish Lutheran Pioneer Missionaries 9 

A Brief History of the Augustana Synod 13 

jChureh Polity of the Augustana Synod ' 47 

The Missionary Enterprises of the Augustana Synod 73 

The Educational Institutions of the Augustana Synod 81 

The Charitable Institutions of the Augustana Synod 130 

The Publishing Interests of the Augustana Synod 173 

The Language Question 198 

The Union of the Augustaua Synod with the General Council 215 

The Significance of the Augustana Synod to the Swedish Lutherans in 

America 229 

Statistics of the Educational Institutions.. . 239 


Rev. E. Norelius, D. D 2 

Pioneer pastors present at the organiza- 
tion of the Synod 10 

Early church architecture in the Synod 

17, 2i, 24, 33, 51 

Laymen present at the organization of 

the Synod 26 

Sw. Luth. pastors ordained in I860.. 28 

Norw. Luth. church, Clinton, Wis 35 

Officers of the Synod, 1910 37 

Presidents of the Conferences, 1910.... 40 

Rev. P. J. Sward, D. D 42 

Prof. L. P. Esbjorn 46 

Recent church architecture in the Syn- 
od 55, 59, 65, 70 

Immigrant Home, New York 75 

Immigrant Home, Boston, Mass 78 

The new Augustana church at Samalkot, 

India 81 

Missionaries in India 82 

Missionaries in Porto Rico 84 

Missionaries in China 85 

Rev. Prof. T. N. Hasselquist, D. D 90 

Augustana College 97 

Rev. Gustav Andrecn, Ph. D 106 

Denkmann Memorial Library 109 

Gnstavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, 

Minn 113 

Rev. P. A. Mattson, D. D.. Ph. D 115 

Bethany College, Linds v ors:, Kans 117 

Rev. Carl Swensson, D. D., Ph. D 118 

The Carnegie Library, Bethany College.. 120 

Rev. Ernst Pihlblad. D. D 121 

Upsala College. Kenilworth, N. J 122 

Rev. L. H. Beck, Ph. D 124 

Luther College, Wahoo, Neb. . , 125 

Rev. O. J. Johnson 126 

Vorthwestcrn College, Fergus Falls, Minn. 128 

Prof. A. C. Youngdahl, A. M 129 

Minnesota College, Minneapolis, Minn.... 130 


Prof. Frank Nelson, Ph. B 131 

Rev. J. Alfr. Anderson 131 

Trinity College, Round Rock, Texas 132 

Coeur d'Alene College, Coeur d'Alene, Ida. 133 

Rev. J. Jesperson 134- 

Prof. O. E. Abrahamson 134 

North Star College, Warren, Minn 135 

Rev. Erland Carlsson, D. D 137 

Orphan Home at Vasa, Minn 141 

Orphan Home at Andover, 111 143 

Orphan Home at Mariadahl, Kans 144 

Orphan Home at Stanton, Iowa 140 

Orphan Home at Jamestown, N. Y 147 

Orphan Home at Joliet, III 149 

Orphan Home at Omaha, Neb 150 

Orphan Home at Avon, Mass 151 

Bcthesda Hospital, St. Paul, Minn 153 

Rev. C. A. Hultkrans 154 

Augustana Hospital, Chicago, 111 156 

Rev. M. Wahlstrom, Ph. D 157 

Immamiel Hospital, Omaha, Nebr 159 

Rev. P. M. Lindberg, A. M 160 

Rev. E. A. Fogelstrom 161 

Immanrel Deaconess Mother-House, Oma- 
ha, Nebr 162 

Bethesda Deaconess Home, St. Paul. Minn. 164 
Bethesda Old People's Home, Chisago 

City, Minn 165 

Immamiel Hospital, old building, Omaha. 

Nebraska 166 

Salem Home for the A -red, Joliet, 111.... 167 
Lutheran Old People's Home, Madrid, la. 168 
Augustana Home for the Aged, Brooklyn, 

N. Y 169 

Rev. Jonas Swensson 172 

Home of the Augustana Book Concern, 

Rock Island. Ill 187 

Mr A. G. Anderson 189 

Rev. S. P. A. Lindahl. 1). D 199 

Rev. O. Olsson. D. D., Ph. D 214 

Swedish Lutheran Pioneer Missionaries. 

HE SWEDISH LUTHERAN CHURCH in America has from the 
very beginning been a missionary church. The Spirit of 
God, a Spirit of Missions, has led her in the ways of the 
Master, who gave his life for the salvation of the world. 
The Swedish Lutheran Church of America, known as the Augustana 
Synod, was organized at a time, when the Swedish people in the 
Church of Sweden had been in an unusual manner touched by the 
power of God. The spiritual awakening in Sweden during the years 
1840 1860 had filled the people with an earnest desire to honor God 
and to promote the extension of the kingdom of heaven. The Augus- 
tana Synod is a child of the spiritual revival in Sweden during these 
years. Men came to this country with a spirit of true pietism, repre- 
sented by such men in the Church of Sweden as Dr. P. Fjellstedt, 
Eev. P. A. Ahlberg, Dr. P. Wieselgren, C. 0. Eosenius, and others. 
Many of the early settlers and many of the Swedish emigrants, who 
came to America before 1870, had been in touch with such men and 
were filled with the love of Christ. They were loyal to the church 
of their fathers and to the doctrines of the Lutheran Church. When 
they came to this country they not only felt the need of associating 
themselves into congregations, but also felt the great responsibility 
resting upon them for promoting the spiritual welfare of their fellow 
countrymen in the settlements in the different parts -of the country. 
The settlers in the different places felt a deep interest in their fellow 
immigrants in other settlements. They were all bound together in 
the closest friendship by the same faith, nationality, and language. 
Their library contained the Bible, the Psalmbook, the Catechism, and 

~- The Augustana Synod 2 


one or more postills. These books were diligently used, and many a 
time, having no church building or place of worship in which to 
assemble, they met in one of the lowly homes of the settlement to 
read and pray and sing. Among the early settlers many Christian 
laymen conducted these services, and it may truly and truthfully be 
said that the Augustana Synod was from the beginning a Laymen's 
Missionary Movement. The Church of Sweden manifested some in- 
terest in the spiritual welfare of her people in this country, but was 
in general both unable and unwilling to send any of her men. God 
in his gracious providence did not forsake our people in this new 
country. He sent a few of the most zealous and for this country 
best adapted men. Every one of the early pioneer missionaries seems 
to have been well adapted for his special place and calling in the 
establishing of the Swedish Lutheran Church in America. Had man 
selected the different men for their different work and place in the 
organizing of the Church it would certainly not have been so well 
done and carried out with such efficiency. It was the hand of God 
at work. And we of a younger generation and their successors in 
the work of the Church, cannot but in this day of jubilee thank God 
for the men and for the kind of men he sent, and we must surely 
reverence the names and the work of our early pioneer missionaries. 
These men came in response to God's call and they came with a 
burning desire to preach the Gospel of Christ to their countrymen. 
It must, however, be remembered that when the church in New 
Sweden, Iowa, was organized they selected one of their number, M. F. 
Hokanson, to act as their spiritual guide. He was afterwards or- 
dained to the ministry and was for many years an active and faithful 
minister within the Augustana Synod. In 1849 Eev. L. P. Esbjorn 
arrived from Sweden, and by his wise and influential work he is looked 
upon as the father of the Swedish Lutheran Church in America. 
He labored in Illinois. He began the educational work of the Synod. 
Rev. T. N. Hasselquist arrived in 1852, Eev. E. Carlsson in 1853, 
and iii 1858 Eev. 0. C. T. Andren and Eev. Jonas Swensson came to 
America and began an active pioneer missionary work. The other 
ministers from Sweden who arrived a little later were Dr. A. E. Cervin 
in 1864 and Eev. 0. Olsson in 1869. These men had been ordained 
by the Church of Sweden, and may be considered as a valuable gift 
from the Church of Sweden to the Swedish Lutheran Church in 

P. Carlson, 18221909. .1. P. 0. Bordn, 1824 1865. P. A. Cederstam, 1830 1902. 

E. Korelius, 1833. M. F. Hokanson, 181193. L. P. Esbjorn, 1808 70. A. Andreen, 1827 80. 

O. C. T. Andren. Erl. Carlsson, Jonas Swensson, P. Beckman, T. N. Hasselquist, 

18241870. 18221892. 18281873. 1822. 18161891. 

Pioneer pastors present at the organization of the Synod. 


America. As the settlements grew in numbers and the settlers became 
more numerous,, it became evident that these few men sent from 
Sweden could not care for the work as it must properly be done, were 
the Church to maintain itself and grow. So men within the Church 
in America were called to become missionaries and ministers. The 
aforementioned M. F. Hokanson was ordained in 1853, Eev. E. 
Norelius, Eev. P. A. Cederstam and Eev. A. Andreen were ordained 
in 1856, and Eev. P. Beckman, Eev. Peter Carlson and Eev. P. J. 
C. Boren in 1859. These men may by right be called the Pioneer 
Missionaries of the Swedish Lutheran Church in America. A few 
of these men are still living, the most noted among these the Presi- 
dent of the Augustana Synod, Dr. E. IsTorelius. Some of these have 
already gone to their reward; but the work they began continues in 
its influence and blessing. Surely, we must thank God for what he 
did through these men, and we shall most assuredly honor God and 
these pioneers by a loyal and faithful continuance of their missionary 

We should fail to state the whole truth were we to limit our thoughts 
and considerations to these early pioneer ministers. In the various 
settlements there were many laymen who, burning with a zeal for the 
Lord and his cause, labored faithfully for the upbuilding and the 
extension of the Church. They were not men with any theological 
training, but they knew their Bibles, loved the Catechism and ad- 
mired the hymns and songs of the Lutheran Zion, and, filled with 
the Holy Spirit, they practiced their faith, prayed to their God and 
preached about the wonderful riches of grace in Christ Jesus. They 
laid a good foundation for the future upbuilding and development 
of the Swedish Lutheran Church in America. The past history of 
the Augustana Synod has verified the wisdom and nobility of their 
labors. We their children will by the grace of God honor their mem- 
ories and faithfully maintain their godly life, their spiritual power, 
and loyally serve Christ and his Church. 


A Brief History of trie Augustana Synod. 

HE HISTORY of OUT Synod is the history of each conference, 
each district, each congregation, and each individual mem- 
ber. If the experiences of every man, woman, and child 
"the quick and the dead" - could be collected and 
related in a single narrative, that would be the real history of the 
Augustana Synod, and an exceedingly interesting story it would prove 
to be indeed. What the individual mind and heart has thought, en- 
joyed, and suffered are the things after all that really appeal to our 
interest and touch our sympathy. 

But as such a survey and summary is out of the question, and as 
there is little room in this "brief history" for such interesting details 
even where available, we shall have to content ourselves with the merest 
outline interlarded with only a few of the most salient "facts" and 
sprinkled with such of the common experiences of the individual as 
will give a picture in miniature of the larger chronicle. It is to be 
earnestly hoped, however, that such a meagre sketch will serve to 
inspire the reader with a desire to learn more of the exceedingly inter- 
esting history of our Synod and to fill in the details as accessible in 
the larger works on the subject, particularly, of course, the monu- 
mental work of Dr. Norelius. (The writer is indebted to Dr. Norelius 
for almost all the information contained in the present article, large 
sections of it being freely translated from his histories, articles, and 

The first exodus of Swedes to this country was that of the earlier 
part of the 17th century to Delaware. The second general exodus 
began in the 44th and 45th years of the past century, when a few 


families arrived from . Smaland and Ostergotland and settled in 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and New Sweden, Iowa. 

This blazed a trail for further arrivals from various other provinces. 
But because these emigrations were independent of each other and 
largely guided by mere circumstances, the currents diverged in differ- 
ent directions and deposited the segregated groups in widely separated 
parts of the new country. 

Want of space will not permit details of each of the following 
expeditions, but the experiences of these wayfarers in a strange land 
vary only in degree. They spent weary months at sea, tossed about 
in small sailing vessels, suffering all manner of hardships from 
storms, sickness, dirt and vermin, and sometimes from hunger and 
thirst. Hundreds died or were born on the way. And who shall tell 
of the anxiety of many a strong man and the heartache of many a 
silent woman ! 

When they finally landed in the different harbors strangers "took 
them in." Confidence-men, and all kinds of camp-followers took 
advantage of the guilelessness and the ignorance of the language on 
the part of these simple and honest pilgrims from the far North. 
Many lost everything they had. But in spite of disappointments and 
losses hope hovered high in their hearts, and with a patience which 
we of this present generation simply cannot understand they endured 
every inconvenience and every privation, keeping the even tenor of 
their way and forging ahead, often blindly, toward their divinely 
appointed goal. 

Permit us to give you here a glimpse or two of some of these cara- 
vans, not unique at all, but indicating the common experiences of 

On a canal-boat from Chicago to Peru, 111. One of the company 
had bought a cook-stove which he set up in the freight room. This 
gave them a little warmth and enabled them to bake a few pancakes 
on the stove-lids with the pinch of flour that was still left. But the 
worst part was to get a little sleep. They were too crowded to lie 
down on the floor. They therefore agreed to take turns. Two slept 
ten minutes at a time. If the sleeper refused to wake up at the 
appointed time, he was raised up in a perpendicular position to con- 
tinue sleeping or wake up as he chose, and another took his place. 

From Peru to Andover. Those who could afford it hired teams for 


which they paid $18. The rest, including women and children, 
walked. All were tired and many were ailing. Considerable difficulty 
was experienced in finding the way. Night overtook them, but they 
could not camp as the ground was wet and there was no fuel for a 
fire. Finally they arrived at a farm-house and asked by means of 
the sign-language for lodging in the house or barn, but were refused. 
A little farther on they came upon an old dilapidated school-house. 
The windows were out and the door was down, and even the logs in 
the walls were askew. But there happened to be an old rusty stove, 
though not enough pipe to carry the smoke out through the roof. 
Still they made a fire of corn stalks, brush and bark and managed to 
make themselves fairly comfortable. One man had a little flour left 
in one of his bags, and of this he cooked successive portions of mush 
in a long copper bottle for the crowd. While they were eating, a 
black-whiskered man provided with a gun and two dogs stuck in his 
head through the door and stared in speechless wonder at the motley 
group. They endeavored with their sign-language to assure him of 
their honest intentions, but he only shook his head and went his 
way. During the night they nestled as closely as possible around the 
humming stove to shield themselves from the cold. One of the men 
woke up to discover that his coat had been burned off his back. 

The breakfast menu was the same as that of the preceding evening. 
Those who traveled afoot started out in the early twilight. Later on 
they were overtaken by the wagons. The hired drivers were driving 
like Jehu, enjoying the alarms of the women, children, and old men 
perched on top of the towering loads. Along the sides the men, out 
of breath, were running trying to keep the loads from tipping over. 
Approaching a bridge two of the drivers tried to see which of them 
could arrive and cross first, with the result that one of the loads 
capsized and tumbled into a deep creek. An old man (Westerlund) 
fractured his skull, and his wife and daughter were seriously injured. 
W. died during the night in the kitchen of a neighboring parsonage. 
The others spent the night, shivering from the cold, in the hay of 
the barn. The corpse had to be left behind, and the minister agreed 
for $10 to take charge of its interment. Outside of Princeton a wife 
gave birth to a child. In the morning she took her place at the top 
of one of the loads and continued her way over a rough and frozen 


1854 was the terrible cholera year. It is estimated that about two- 
thirds of the immigrants that arrived that year perished in the 
plague. "Many literally walked about and died." A servant girl 
would look out through the window and see a hearse driving by, not 
knowing that the coffin contained the remains of her father or mother. 
Members of families were buried before the husband or father re- 
turned from work in the evening. The sufferings of those who re- 
mained or survived can only be imagined. Innumerable families 
were scattered. Orphans were sometimes sold as chattels and brought 
up without knowledge of their origin. 

Previous to this (1846 1852) several "cargoes" of immigrants 
arrived and settled in Chicago. These were of an enterprising and 
independent spirit. Here is a sample of their pluck : Some of them 
had contracted with a drayman to haul their belongings at so much 
per load. He happened to have an unusually large van, and after 
arriving at the destination he demanded double pay. When this was 
refused he declined to unload. Then the Swedes themselves proceeded 
to unload. The driver a boy presumed to give them a few cracks 
with his whip, while the owner stood on the sidewalk and vented his 
rage in oaths. This was more than the Swedes had bargained for. 
A couple of them jumped up on the load, threw the boy down from 
his seat into the street, caught the man by his coat-collar and held 
him, while the rest continued nonchalantly to unload their boxes, bags, 
and furniture. A group of policemen standing around only gave 
vent to their merriment at the episode and remarked: "Those Swedes 
are not an easy lot to tackle." 

But more serious times were coming. At first the men worked for 
50 cents a day while the women took in washing at 10 25 cents a day. 
Flour cost $7 a barrel, and rent was $20 for five or six poor rooms. 
In November (1854) one of them wrote: "Twenty-three of our 
small company have died ; the rest are unable to work ; our means are 
gone and winter is at hand." In 1857 came the financial crisis, when 
nearly all the banks collapsed and paper money (bills) became worth- 
less. Many of our people had to leave the towns and wander out into 
the country, where they planted corn and potatoes in spots to sustain 
life. In certain parts of Minnesota muskrat skins were used as cur- 
rency. Such were some of the experiences of the settlers far and wide 
in these early days. 

Vasa, Minn., (1856). 
Moline, 111., (1851). 

Andover, 111., (1851). 

Early church architecture in the Synod. 

Iininanuel, Chicago, (1848). 
La Porte, Ind., (1858). 


But, to resume. Successive groups continued to arrive and found 
colonies in different parts of the Eastern and Central States. Thus 
we find them settling in Sugar Grove and Jamestown along the 
borders of Pennsylvania and New York; at Chicago, Andover, Eock 
Island, Moline, and Galesburg, Illinois; at Burlington, Iowa, and 
Chisago Lake, Minnesota. 

In a few years Swedish Lutherans had arrived in sufficient numbers 
to feel that they were as flocks without a shepherd. A Swedish 
Methodist S'eamen's Mission in New York City under the leadership 
of 0. Hedstrom attempted to care as far as possible for the spiritual 
wants of those who had been scattered abroad and even sent mission- 
aries to colonies in the Central States. These efforts, though not 
entirely disinterested, were most laudable and should not be despised. 
At Chicago the Episcopal Church had begun a Swedish Mission, from 
which work was carried on by a certain TJnonius, ordained by the 
Episcopal Church. But it did not take long before it was evident that 
our Lutheran immigrants had deeper religious wants than these de- 
nominations could supply. 

In New Sweden, Iowa, the settlers had organized a Lutheran con- 
gregation as early as 1848. Not being able to secure a minister they 
appointed one of their own lay-members to serve as pastor and admin- 
ister the sacraments. This, of course, was an irregularity ; but in view 
of the circumstances and the crying need it must be considered as a 
legitimate exercise of a privilege granted by the Word of God, as 
also interpreted by Luther. Before long Methodist preachers arrived 
and caused considerable disturbance. They succeeded in dividing the 
congregation and gaining over large numbers on their side. Later on 
the ubiquitous Unonius from Chicago appeared on the scene and at 
once took the people to task for permitting an unordained man to 
administer the sacraments, severely censuring the latter (Hokanson) 
for his presumption in performing ministerial acts without ordination 
by a bishop. All this caused a great deal of anxiety and concern and 
threatened to bring about the dissolution of the first Swedish Lutheran 
congregation in America. Hokanson, being a conscientious man, con- 
cluded that he was a stumbling-block and determined to leave. "But," 
he asked, "how about these needy souls?" At this juncture Revs. 
Esbjorn and Hasselquist (lately arrived from Sweden) visited the 
congregation and succeeded in restoring order and harmony. 


Under the circumstances recounted above it must be looked upon 
as a special act of divine providence that the former, first of the two 
ministers just mentioned, Eev. L. P. Esbjorn of Gestrikland, felt 
urged to leave his home in Sweden and move to America. The needs 
of his scattered and neglected countrymen had made a profound appeal 
to his heart, and in the cherished hope of being able to serve their 
higher, spiritual interests he came over in the summer of 1849. Ac- 
companied by a few families from his native place he arrived after 
a tedious and distressful voyage to Illinois and settled in Andover. 
On the way he lost by death two of his children and was himself 
stricken with the dreaded disease cholera. The following spring he 
organized a Lutheran church in that place, and later on other churches 
at Princeton, Moline, Henderson, and Galesburg. Concerning the 
first he says, in an address delivered before a pastoral conference held 
at Uppsala, Sweden, 1865, that "it consisted of but ten members 
and the fear of 'the bonds and fetters' of the State Church of Sweden 
was so great, that though I had a bound Church Book with me from 
S'weden I did not dare to use it for entering the names of the members, 
but had to satisfy myself with writing them down on a slip of paper." 
The same feeling prevailed, created by factionists, in regard to the 
clerical robe, coat, and. bands. 

But the work of Esbjom was not limited to the places mentioned 
above. It extended far and wide into the surrounding country and 
brought him, as we have seen, as far west as Iowa. In the spring of 
1851 he undertook a journey to the Eastern States to solicit funds 
among the English and German-speaking Lutherans for the erection 
of churches in the newer and poorer settlements in the west. 
Wherever he found any countrymen he preached to them and endeav- 
ored to encourage them in their faith and their work. In Boston 
he was introduced to the famous singer Jenny Lind and received 
from her a gift of $1,500. The whole sum which he raised amounted 
to $2,200. With this he erected a small brick church at Andover, 
another of frame in Moline, and the remainder,, about $300, went to 
defray a part of the expenses of erecting a third at New Sweden, Iowa. 
He also encouraged the congregation at that place to continue un- 
daunted in their work and cheered them with the news that he had 
succeeded in securing from "The Joint Synod of Ohio" license for 
their leader, Hokanson, to act as pastor until regularly ordained. 


On this same trip Eev. Esbjorn with Norelius, then a student, 
preached to the Swedes in Burlington in the basement of a German 
church. While E. was in New Sweden Norelius preached again in 
a school-house outside of town, and on Esbjorn's return in the com- 
pany of Hokanson the three took part in a communion service in the 
same school-house. This to show how these pioneers made use of 
every available opportunity to care for the spiritual interests of their 
scattered countrymen wherever they happened to be. 

Of the remarkable zeal and ability of Esbjom in caring for the 
souls under his charge our historian, Norelius, writes in the following 
high terms : "He stood as a father among these dispersed people, 
especially in Illinois and Iowa. He was tireless in traveling about 
preaching the Word of God, administering the sacraments, advising, 
directing, and supervising almost all their interests. Often he was 
ill and had to contend with poverty and difficulties of every kind. 
Partisans also forced themselves in everywhere and tried to oppose 
his efforts. But with the help of God he gradually overcame all these 
difficulties, and the fruits born by his self-sacrificing labors proved 
to be of the greatest value for both the time being and the future." 

More and more it began to appear, however, that if the Swedish 
Lutheran congregations were to continue their existence, it would be 
necessary to have a stronger church-government and more pastors. 
When therefore the English Lutheran congregations of northern Illi- 
nois met at Cedarville in the fall of 1851 to organize a Lutheran 
synod, Esbjorn together with several Norwegian pastors met with 
them, took part in organizing "The Ev. Luth. Synod of Northern 
Illinois," and joined that Synod with the congregations they were 
serving. Esbjorn, it is true, entertained some scruples about this 
step. The English Lutherans of this body were not so established 
in the faith as he might have wished. But he hoped for better times 
in this regard. And, moreover, there was no other Lutheran Synod 
at that time and in that part of the country with which he and his 
people could have affiliated. For himself and his congregations, how- 
ever, he made the explicit reservation that they should be permitted 
to abide by the pure Lutheran confession of faith and that the synod 
should have no right to deny them this privilege. (This synod united 
with the General Synod in 1853.) 

To secure more pastors he looked up several students lately arrived 

Princeton, 111., (1850). 
Galesburg, 111., (1853). 

Rod Wing, Minn., (1856). 

Early church architecture in the Synod 

Spring Lake, Minn., (1871). 
Porter, Ind., (1859). 


from Sweden, who he thought might be of service in the religious 
work among our people. A few of these received license to preach 
and did valuable work. But some of them were found later on to be 
unworthy of the office and their licenses were revoked. A few others 
further on proved to be only additional trials that the new settlers 
had to endure. Evidently this kind of material could not supply the 

Meanwhile Eev. Esbjorn had arranged with the congregation at 
Galesburg to extend a call to Eev. T. N. Hasselquist of the diocese 
of Lund, Sweden. After much hesitation and many prayers Rev. 
Hasselquist accepted the call, arrived in 1852 and at once took charge 
of this and surrounding congregations. To a man of less love and 
faith his reception would have been discouraging indeed. He and 
his estimable wife arrived at Galesburg in a pouring rain. Eev. 
Esbjorn introduced them to the first Swede they happened to meet, 
adding : "This is your new pastor." To this the man simply replied : 
"What business has he here?" (Hvad skulle han har?) 

The coming of Hasselquist marks an epoch in the history of our 
Lutheran Church in America, The gifts and rare ability with which 
God had endowed this servant proved to be of exceptional value to 
the multiplying congregations. In consequence of the continual and 
ever widening stream of immigration the field of labor had steadily 
widened. The Swedes kept settling in new places, and Hasselquist 
was kept busy visiting them, preaching to them and organizing new 

Early in the year of 1853 he organized a congregation in the 
rapidly growing city of Chicago. But where get a suitable man to 
take charge? After conferring together and laying the matter before 
the Lord of the harvest a petition was sent to Dr. P. Fjellstedt in 
S'weden requesting him to seek out and send the man whom he con- 
sidered qualified for the place. And in this quest Dr. Fjellstedt was 
fortunate indeed. Eev. Erland Carlsson of the diocese of Wexib 
was found willing to come, "and it can be said, to the glory of God, 
that it would hardly have been possible to find a more suitable man 
than he." Carlsson arrived in the fall of 1853 and continued to 
labor in Chicago with unabated vigor for 22 years. How he shared 
the trials of the immigrants during the first years may be indicated 
by the following quotation from a letter of one of the church mem- 


hers : " - At this yearly meeting his salary was fixed at $400, but 
the pastor stated that he would be able to get along on $350." 

But the need of more pastors kept growing and from every quarter 
came the cry: "Come hither and help us!" Toward the close of 
1854 and in the early part of 1855 it became possible to ordain three 
young men, P. A. Cederstam, A. Andreen, and E. Norelius, all of 
whom had pursued studies in Sweden and the two latter also at insti- 
tutions in this country. The first was stationed at Chisago Lake, 
Minn., the second at Rockford, 111., the third at Lafayette, Ind. 
New calls were sent to Sweden, and in 1856 two gifted pastors 
arrived, 0. C. T. Andren and Jonas Swensson, the former taking 
charge of the congregation at Moline and the latter of the congrega- 
tions in Sugar Grove and Jamestown. The following year the school- 
teacher P. Beckman and the tract-distributor P. Carlson received 
license to preach, the former at Stockholm, Wis., and the latter at 
Carver, Minn. Again the following year the student J. P. C. Boren 
took charge of the congregation at Red Wing, Minn. The three 
received ordination at the meeting of the Synod in Chicago, 1859. 

In the meantime, besides the Swedes there were many Norwe- 
gian ministers and congregations who year by year had joined the 
Synod of Northern Illinois, so that toward the close of 1859 the 
Scandinavians constituted about one-half of the S'ynod. It was 
divided into several conference-districts. Of these, first two, and 
then three consisted of the Scandinavians. These districts were sup- 
posed to have geographical boundaries; but because of language and 
other practical considerations the Scandinavians were permitted to 
meet regardless of these boundary lines. The two original Scandi- 
navian conferences were "The Chicago" and "The Mississippi." In 
1858 "The Minnesota" was added. These met, at times singly, to 
edify the congregations where the meetings were held; at other times 
all three met together to confer about the common interests of the 

The Synod met in different places annually. Its officers were a 
president, a secretary, and a treasurer. At these meetings the presi- 
dent read his report, in which he merely related what he as a func- 
tionary had succeeded in accomplishing during the year and recom- 
mended for the deliberation of the meeting such subjects as he deemed 
practical and necessary. Then the new officers were elected, following 

Chisago Lake, Minn., (1856). Interior of first church at Andover, 111. 

Attica, Ind., (1859). 
Geneva, 111., (1854). 

Early church architecture in the Synod. 


which each pastor submitted a statistical report from his congrega- 
tion and field of labor. Finally the subjects suggested and other 
matters that might arise during the course of the meeting were dis- 
cussed. There was of course much to be desired as far as results 
were concerned, but it was an inestimable privilege for the scattered 
Scandinavians to have these opportunities of meeting together once 
a year to exchange ideas, share experiences and confer with each 
other in a common cause. The times were stormy and the issue at 
times more than doubtful, but within the circle harmony and broth- 
erly love prevailed. Everything was new and crude, the financial 
means exceedingly limited and each and all had many difficulties to 
contend with. 

The spiritual status of the different congregations varied exceed- 
ingly. Here is a picture of the discipline exercised within a northern 
settlement: The men gathered and went from place to place to 
punish individuals and "apply the law." One man had been guilty of 
adultery with another's wife. He was soundly whipped with sticks. 
And the castigating was so well received that the whole company was 
invited in for coffee. Another couple were living together without 
the bonds of holy matrimony. These were ordered to get married 
within a specified time and immediately obeyed. A third man was 
trying to appropriate the land of a widow. He was driven out of the 
settlement, whereupon the whole crowd plowed, sowed, and fenced in 
a considerable portion of the widow's land and promised to protect 
her rights. After it was all done the "committee" took a few drinks 
and "spent an enjoyable evening together." This, of course, was 
more on the order of "vigilance" than of evangelical church dis- 
cipline; but their motives seem to have been good, and it had at least 
one desired effect. 

Of another congregation its minister wrote : "After a few months 
they began to pay attention to the sermon." Of another it is related : 
"The people were beside themselves with joy (i. e. over the visit of a 
minister). Services were announced for the following day (a Satur 
day) in the school-house, and all who could crawl or walk assembled. 
Many of them had lived there five and six years and during all that 
time had never heard a sermon. When they began the service by 
singing psalm 328 : 'Blessed Jesus, at Thy Word we are gathered 
all to hear Thee' (Hit, o Jcsu, samloms vi att ditt helga ord fa bora) 

The Augustana Synod 3 



the singing was smothered by sobs and only after some minutes were 
they able to continue. - At another place, when a visiting 

minister arrived and introduced himself to one of the members, the 
latter replied : "Oh, that's d d fine ; now we can have communion/' 
At another the members invited all the strangers to share their frugal 
meals, showed a cordial interest in each other, associated as members 
of a single, happy family and shared their temporal and spiritual 
experiences with one another. The spirit resting over the little flock 
was that of the early church at Jerusalem. At another place, when 
the minister returned to his quarters after service, the host and a 
few of his confreres had placed a pan of whisky on the stove and 
set fire to the ingredient to prepare a hot drink "after church." The 
minister affected alarm, grasped the burning pan, rushed to the open 
window and launched the whole thing into space, calmly remarking: 
"A good thing I came, otherwise the house might have caught fire." 

J. Erlander. 
O. Paulsen. 

P. Palmquist. 
N. Dahlgrcn. Jonas Engberg 

Johan Jonason. 
0. Skold. 

Laymen present at the organization of the Synod. 


The disappointed "thirsty souls" looked hard at the floor and said 
nothing. In a letter from still another congregation we read in part 
as follows : "Lord, Thou Physician of Israel, Thou that art able to 
do far more exceedingly than we can pray or think, send us a shepherd 
according to Thy heart ! Lord God, do not permit Thy church to 
remain empty of both preacher and hearers, but be gracious unto us 
and hear the sighing of our hearts. Man does not live of bread alone, 
but of each word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord. Send 
us Thy word and Spirit; yea, send us what can save our souls. - 
When the watchman is absent, the deceitful tempter is not discovered 
so readily. Help us ere we perish !" We have room for only two 
more samples : In a certain other congregation the service was carried 
out by one of the members. When they were through and on the way 
home, he called out: "Hold on, boys; I forgot to read the benedic- 
tion," to which they shouted back : "Save it till next time !" But 
in yet another a few settlers gathered in a private house to celebrate 
Christmas. They had procured a tree, and candles were placed in 
the windows. No minister was present, but a leader read the Christ- 
mas story in Luke 2, spoke a few heartfelt words and led in earnest 
prayer; and the simple service made such a profound impression on 
those present that all embraced each other and wept like little 
children. the memories and emotions that must have swept over 
that little gathering of pilgrims in a strange land! 

But the Spirit of God was abroad winning signal victories, and 
those few ministers of Christ were a band of faithful servants unto 
the Lord. 

They, too, had to endure many privations. Not rarely they suf- 
fered actual want. Here is a picture of Eev. Hasselquist's first 
apartments : The family lived in two small rooms, constituting one 
half of the house. In the other half lived a drunkard, whose wife 
scolded from morning till night. The H. family slept on the floor for 
the simple reason that they had no bed. When it rained the floor 
was dotted with pretty little pools of water. The table consisted of 
the trunk in which H. had brought his library. These books, by 
the way, were called his "idols" by members of other denominations 
who thought that studies were a curse for a minister. In Eev. 
Hakan Olson's parsonage at New Sweden a small log-house one 
of the boards in the floor tilted as Hasselquist was crossing the 



room. Good-humoredly he clapped his hands together and exclaimed: 
"There's danger of breaking your legs in the parsonage." At Vasa, 
Minn., Eev. NoreJius and family lived in a single room, which also 
served as the church. The furniture consisted of a bureau, a stove 
and a bed. Later on they moved to better quarters a house provided 
with a tent-roof. When it rained they slept under an umbrella. 
When they moved to Bed Wing, there was no room to be had, and 
in all good faith a man told them : "I don't know anything else but 
for you to move into my pig-sty (a shed) for the present." It was 
a new one, however, and had not been used for its purpose as yet. 
But his hospitality was not put in requisition. 

The ministers' wives, of course, came in for their share of priva- 
tions and sacrifice. One was about to become a mother. Her hus- 
band, Eev. Hedengran, had to go two miles for help. There were 
no roads, and the snow was four feet deep. The return was made 

John Pehrson, 
1821 1901. 

H. Olson, 

G. Peters, 

John Johnson, 


C. A. Hedengran, 


Sw. Luth. pastors ordained in 1860. 


in such wise, that the help stood behind the pastor on the skis lie 
was using on the trip. Much of the time these ministers' wives had 
to stay at home alone far out in the woods or on the desert plains 
while their husbands were visiting other mission stations. One 
minister's family of eight members lived in a cellar 12 by 14. "Al- 
lowances" and "style" was not much in evidence. But they were 
"help-meets", and realizing their experience in small things as well 
as great we cannot refrain from exclaiming: "God bless them for 
their Christian patience and self-sacrificing fortitude !" 

The salary of one of these pioneer ministers was $270. He re- 
ceived only a part of it. Another received for three years $116, $180 
and $240 respectively. A third, $250, $185 and $75. A fourth 
received as salary for one year one bushel of beans and a few bushels 
of corn. This was 1854 1858. The fact of the matter was that the 
people had nothing to share with their ministers. But as far as the 
annals relate nobody seems to have complained. By the last year 
several ministers in Minnesota had been able to procure a poor jade 
and a rickety wagon to serve as a means of locomotion to their 
Conference meetings. Imagine them arriving in line at the place of 
meeting after a journey of perhaps 100 miles, or when a few of 
them camped en route for rest and "refreshments" from their ham- 
pers ! But "love conquers all things." In regard to individuals, how- 
ever, it is only fair to add, that "times change and we change with 

Other pioneer ministers ordained before 18G1, besides those already 
mentioned, were J. Pehrson, J. Johnson, and G. Peters. 

The days of all these pioneers were full of labor. They preached 
literally "in season and out of season," night and day, under the 
open sky, in barns, in dug-outs, in private dwellings. To have the 
use of a school-house or a church was a rare privilege. They traveled 
continually and very often great distances, sometimes on trains, 
steamers, canal-boats, but more often by team, on horseback or 
a-foot in all kinds of weather. Sometimes their traveling expenses 
were paid, more often not. But this was a secondary matter. During 
their peregrinations they frequently had to sleep out of doors in all 
kinds of weather, warm or cold, dry or rainy. Sometimes their slumbers 
were disturbed by a sod-roof leaking water and mud on their heads. 
"The rain out-doors," wrote one, "was clean." Sometimes they had to 


wade or swim flooded rivers. At the same time there was something 
romantic and cheering in this mode of life. And they were inspired 
by a freshness of } r outh, the energy of a "simple life", and the future 
prospect of victory over their untoward circumstances that made it 
possible for them to persevere and perform their strenuous work 
with patience, sometimes with joy. But more than all this it was 
the power welling up from within from a soul on fire with the love 
of Christ and the Spirit of God breathing upon them from above 
in response to prayers without ceasing that made it possible for them 
to endure to the end. Without this they certainly must have suc- 
cumbed. We of a younger generation are unable to appreciate all 
this. But when one of these older forerunners, worn out and weary, 
is laid to rest, let us call to mind what has been, what his work has 
meant to us, what he has done and endured in the early days of a 
long ministry. "Others have labored, and ye are entered into their 

In the opinion of the early settlers parochial schools was an in- 
dispensable means in bringing up their children in the faith of their 
fathers and in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. Usually the 
pastor was the teacher. The salary of one was $25 for the summer. 
Occasionally a layman was employed. One of these received in con- 
sideration of his services a few bushels of potatoes at the school- 
house, where they "froze to death." At times a barn would serve as 
school-house. Under such circumstances it is to be surmised that the 
instruction was not always all that might have been desired. Some 
of the teachers were also cruelly severe. As a sample of occasional 
order and discipline it is related of one teacher that he brought a 
sheep into the school-room and butchered it, the instruction pro- 
ceeding as usual. At the Conference meeting held in Chicago, 1860, 
it was resolved that "in our parochial schools the children shall be 
instructed both in our mother-tongue and in the language of this 

Quite early the Scandinavians began to feel their position in the 
Synod (of Northern Illinois) not altogether pleasant owing to the 
laxity in the faith which the other members of the Synod showed at 
every meeting. But as long as the former were not disturbed in 
their own persuasion, and as long as they could entertain the hope 
of arousing a spirit of greater fidelity to the Lutheran faith among 


the English and German members, they did not seriously contemplate 
any separation. They even succeeded in bringing about the adoption 
of the Augsburg Confession as "a correct and true summary of the 
teachings of the Christian religion." But during the following years 
some extreme "new-Lutherans" were received, who would not tolerate 
any formulas of faith and who did all in their power to tear down 
every bar that had even the appearance of limiting an arbitrary 
liberty of faith. When finally the Scandinavians saw from bitter 
experience that all hope of pure Lutheran doctrine and practice was 
gone, they decided to withdraw in a body and organize a new Synod 
among themselves. This was accordingly done at a general meeting 
of the Scandinavian members in the spring of the memorable year 

This step was hastened in the meantime by the manner in which 
the Scandinavian professor of theology was treated in the Seminary 
at Springfield, 111. Together with other Lutheran synods the Synod 
of Northern Illinois had founded at the capital of the State an 
institution for the training of pastors, and because the lack of min- 
isters among the Scandinavians continued to grow serious and only 
a few could be obtained from the Scandinavian countries, it was 
deemed necessary and expedient to establish a Scandinavian chair at 
this institution, partly on account of the language and partly to 
insure purity and stability in the faith on the part of candidates for 
the ministry. The question had been discussed at a meeting of the 
Synod at Waverly (now Leland) in 1855, and again at an extra 
meeting in 1856 at Geneva, 111. The idea met with great favor on 
the part of the other delegates also, and they seemed to approve 
highly of the motion. Eev. Esbjorn was appointed solicitor to gather 
funds and to awaken general interest in the cause among the Scandi- 
navian congregations. In this enterprise he succeeded so well that 
at the meeting of the Synod in 1857 it was considered advisable to 
proceed at once to elect the incumbent of the new theological chair. 
The Scandinavians were to have the right of nomination, and the 
Synod was to ratify that nomination by a formal vote. This was 
accordingly done, and Eev. Esbjorn, nominated at a Conference 
meeting in Eockford, was unanimously elected. He entered upon his 
duties at the institution in the fall of 1858. In the meantime he 
continued to travel around and solicit contributions to the fund. 


A few young men, Norwegians and Swedes, availed themselves of 
the opportunity and were instructed by Prof. Esbjorn in the two 
languages and in the theological branches. But before long it ap- 
peared that the Board of Directors did not -look with entire favor 
on the marked influence which Esbjorn was exerting on the students 
under his charge. They were careful, however, not to express their 
disfavor openly and directly, as that would have been too evident a 
breach of good faith. Instead he was loaded down with a number 
of extraneous subjects which seriously hampered and hindered him 
in the work he was supposed to do. The Scandinavian members of 
the Synod entered a complaint and received assurance that the matter 
would receive immediate and due attention. But instead of bringing 
promised relief the situation was made still more impossible by pro- 
hibiting Esbjorn and his students from holding communion service 
in their own language. In consequence of all this, and because he 
saw that he could not discharge his original commission as Scandi- 
navian professor of theology, Esbjorn resigned his position and re- 
moved to Chicago. All the Scandinavian students excepting two left 
the institution at the same time. These events occurred in the month 
of April, 1860. 

Quite naturally this step occasioned considerable commotion among 
the other members of the Synod. They looked upon it as "revolu- 
tion", even as "rebellion", and condemned it in the severest terms as 
"unconstitutional" and "un-Christian." The "Scandinavian Professor- 
Fund" had been entrusted to the Board. But these Directors had 
taken the liberty of using a part of it to pay off old debts of the 
institution. Now they attempted to keep what remained "to defray 
the expenses incurred on account of the Scandinavian students." 
According to the report of the treasurer of the University the fund 
amounted to $1,382.40. After considerable difficulty the Scandi- 
navians succeeded in securing about one half. 

Meanwhile the Scandinavians of the Synod held a general Con- 
ference in the Swedish Lutheran church of Chicago, April 23 28, 
1860, to consider what ought to be done. The most influential among 
the "Americans" also appeared at this meeting, partly to bring accusa- 
tions against Prof. Esbjorn, partly to justify themselves in this 
matter, but also to oppose the separation of the Scandinavians from 
the Synod which they had good reasons to fear would be a main 

Hessel Valley, Pa., (1854). New Sweden, Iowa, (1860). Kijoxville, 111., (1855). 

Early church architecture in the Synod. 


issue. Prof. Esbjb'rn made a detailed report of what had taken place 
at Springfield, stated his reasons for resigning his position at the 
institution, and appealed to the Conference to decide whether he had 
acted justly or not. After listening almost an entire day to the 
accusations and calumniations of the visitors against Esbjorn and 
their lame vindication of themselves the Conference passed a formal 
vote of thanks to E. and unanimously expressed its approval of the 
step he had taken. Without further delay it then proceeded to take 
up the question of withdrawing from the Synod. After mature 
deliberation it was unanimously decided to withdraw and organize an 
independent Synod with a seminary of its own. 

This important step marks the beginning of a new era in the 
history of the Scandinavian Lutherans of America. Meanwhile the 
period of discipline had been a most wholesome one. They had 
gained valuable experience in the organization and government of a 
Free Church. They had avoided the evils of a clannish separation 
from other nationalities and kept in touch with the general develop- 
ment. Above all they had tested and learned the value of a strong 
doctrinal foundation. Their faith by having to be defended had 
become stronger and more precious to their hearts, both as individuals 
and congregations. And now they rejoiced before the Lord in the 
prospect of being able to begin anew without being hindered by such 
Lutheran confessors as seemed to take pride in rejecting everything 
that distinguishes the Lutheran Church from other denominations. 

The Synod of Northern Illinois continued to look askance at these 
Scandinavian Lutheran congregations. Their church papers branded 
them as revolutionists, formalists, semi-Catholics, et cetera. But at 
the same time there were many Lutheran churches in the eastern 
states that justified their procedure and defended them. And this 
step proved to be a forerunner of the remarkable revolution which 
took place later on in the Lutheran Church of the East, as we hav 
reason to believe, to her great benefit. Shortly after the separation 
the Synod of Northern Illinois ordained a student that had been 
found unworthy by the Scandinavians and sent him out to range 
among the Scandinavian congregations. He met with poor success 
and soon returned to Sweden. Later on the same Synod ordained 
several other Scandinavian students who had embraced the American 
new-Lutheranism and sent them out to proselytize. One of these, a 



Dane, succeeded in causing dissension in the church at Galesburg, 
and several of the members withdrew and organized a "new-Lutheran" 
congregation. But on the whole these proselyters accomplished very 
little among our people. 

"The Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod" was 
organized in a Norwegian Lutheran church on Jefferson Prairie, near 
Clinton, Wisconsin, June 5, 1860. The name "Augustana" is the 
Latin term for the Augsburg Confession. It was proposed by Dr. 
Norelius as a suitable name for the new Synod which wished faith- 
fully to abide by this glorious confession to its whole extent. At 
this time the Synod consisted of 49 congregations, of which 36 were 
Swedish with 3,747 communicants, 17 pastors and 21 churches; and 
13 were Norwegian with 1,220 communicants, 8 pastors and 8 
churches. At this meeting 8 candidates for the ministry were or- 
dained, so that the whole number of ministers was 33. The license 
system in vogue up to this time was abolished, and the Synod ordained 
its candidates immediately upon their theological examination and 
before they were sent out to their respective charges. 

Norw. Luth. church, Clinton, Wis., where the Augustana Synod was organized. 


The business transacted at this meeting was: the organization of 
the Synod and the adopting of a constitution; the founding of a 
theological seminary; supplying vacant congregations with pastors; 
and the examination and ordination of candidates for the ministry. 
Kev. Hasselquist was elected president. That which weighed most 
heavily upon the heart of the Synod was the establishing of a sem- 
inary, because only by this means was it possible to supply the 
clamoring congregations with pastors. It was therefore decided at 
once to establish such an institution, and Prof. Esbjorn was elected 
as its instructor. For the present it was decided to locate the sem- 
inary at Chicago, where the First church offered its basement for the 

The Board of Directors elected at this meeting were commissioned 
to send out solicitors to gather funds in the eastern states and in 
Sweden and Norway for the new institution. In accordance with 
this decision the Board sent Eev. 0. C. T. Andren as its authorized 
agent to Sweden and Norway. He was instructed to petition the 
king for permission to receive collections in all the churches of these 
countries. Rev. Andren left for Sweden in the fall of 1860 and 
succeeded so well in his errand, that the king granted not only one 
but two collections to be received two years in succession. The zeal 
and perseverance which he showed in getting this contribution and 
his success in overcoming the obstacles placed in his way can never 
be sufficiently appreciated. Besides he was tireless in making ad- 
dresses and writing articles for the papers that the collections might 
be as large as possible. Professor Esbjorn joined him during the 
summer of 1862 and helped materially to increase the contributions. 
The whole sum raised in S'weden amounted to over 40,000 crowns, 
or $10,846.45. Eev. Andren also succeeded in getting a considerable 
number of books for the library. The king, Carl XV, donated over 
5,000 volumes that had belonged to the library of his father. All 
this was a great and valuable help in our time of need, for which 
we are under lasting obligation to the old mother Church. This 
evidence of sympathy with us occasioned deep gratitude and joy in 
the entire Synod. But the sense of loss was also great when the two 
men who had been the means of bringing about this happy result 
decided to remain in their native country. 

Our institution of learning was legally incorporated in 1863 under 



REV. E. NORELIUS, D. D., R. N. O., 

Vice President. 


Secretary. Treasurer. 

Officers of the Synod, 1910. 


the name "Augustana College and Seminary." The same year it 
was moved to Paxton, Illinois. The Illinois Central E. E. Co. had 
offered as inducement a certain commission on each acre of land sold 
by the Board within a certain radius around Paxton and a low price 
on the land that the institution might need for its own use. The 
citizens of the little town had also promised a considerable bonus 
toward the erection of buildings. There was also reason to believe 
that a large number of countrymen would settle in the immediate 
neighborhood. The railroad company redeemed its pledges, but not 
so the Paxton people. Neither did the expected number of Swedes 
settle in the vicinity. For the latter reasons, and because Paxton 
was situated too much apart from the s}oiodical center, it was decided 
to remove the institution to Eock Island, which took place in 1875. 

In Professor Esbjorn's stead Eev. Hasselquist was elected as pro- 
fessor of theology and entered upon his duties as such in the fall 
of 1863. The same year Eev. W. Kopp, a very able man, was called 
to instruct in the English language, but owing to illness he had to 
resign after two years and died in 1868. The Norwegian element of 
the Synod had considerable trouble in getting a man to serve its 
interests as instructor at the seminary. After repeated disappoint- 
ments they secured Eev. Wenaas from Norway in 1868, who proved 
to be a most suitable man for the position. The same year Eevs. 
S. L. Harkey and A. E. Cervin were called as instructors in the 
English branches and in mathematics and the classical languages 
respectively. The students numbered at this time about 40. Most 
of them received free tuition and board. In 1870, by mutual agree- 
ment, the Norwegians withdrew and founded an institution of their 
own at Marshall, Wis. In 1863 the Minnesota Conference established 
a school near Carver, Minn. It was intended and served as a feeder 
to the common seminary. It was called the Ansgar's Academy (now 
Gustavus Adolphus College). Eev. A. Jackson was its sole teacher 
for a number of years. But all this belongs properly to another 
article in this album. 

That the Synod has had to fight its- way through many a battle is 
evident. It has frequently come in contact with other church 
denominations; also with other Lutheran synods having different 
views in matters of doctrine and -constitution. And this has some- 
times meant differences and contention. Especially has this been 


true of its relations with "the Norwegian Lutheran Church of 
America." This Synod was severely orthodox and did not wish to 
know of any development of doctrine. It had petrified in the forms 
of the 17th century. Besides, it defended slavery in spite of the 
emancipation and the issue of the Civil war. The Augustana Synod 
on the contrary, says Dr. Norelius, "at the same time that it abides 
faithfully by the confessions of the Ev. Luth. Church, demands as 
its goal that this confession shall be the confession of a living faith 
and by no means only a dead letter; it insists on Christian church 
discipline ; it also believes that there is such a thing as a true develop- 
ment of doctrine, that is, that the eternal truth, though always the 
same as to its content, can be developed and understood ever more 
clearly and fully." 

Within the Augustana Synod no important differences of opinion 
have occurred either in regard to doctrine or church polity. Owing 
to differences of language and nationality which made it difficult to 
work together in entire harmony the Norwegians withdrew in 1870 
and organized "The Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod." The 
same year the Swedish Augustana Synod united with The General 
Council, organized in 1867. 

This latter connection has not been without beneficial results to our 
Synod. The men of 1870 entertained large hopes from this connection 
for the future, and many of them have been realized. At present 
the attachment appears to be only moderately strong, except for our 
mutual interests in the common mission-field in India, We are, how- 
ever, at one in the faith, and for the sake of the unity of our Lutheran 
Church in America our relation to the Council of 40 years' standing 
in perfect amity should not be permitted to suffer. There is enough 
estrangement between the several camps as it is. 

The subsequent history of the Augustana Synod enters very largely 
into the history of its Missionary Enterprises, its Educational Institu- 
tions, its Institutions of Mercy, and its Publishing Interests. But as 
this album contains a separate article covering this part of the work, 
\ve must not transgress. The Language Question and Our Church 
Polity are also treated separately. There is therefore comparatively 
little to add in this article. 

Outside of these special fields "great events" have been relatively 
few. Before mentioning these we call to mind the names of the 

Rev. G. A. Brandelle, D. D., Kansas. Rev. Jos. A. Anderson, A. M., Iowa. Rev. C. E. Frisk, Columbia. 

Rev. F. N. Swanberg, Nebraska. Rev. J. A. Krantz, D. D., Minnesota. Rev. F. A. Linder, Illinois. 

Rev. Philip Andreen, D. D., California. Rev. F. Jacobson, Ph. D., New York. 

Presidents of the Conferences, 1910. 


venerated and influential men who have served the Synod as its 
presidents: Dr. T. N. Hasselquist, 1860 1870; Eev. Jonas Swensson, 
1870 to his death in 1873 ; Dr. E. Norelius, 18741881 ; Dr. Erland 
Caflsson, 18811888; Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl, 18881891; Dr. P. 
J. Sward, 18911899; and again, Dr. Norelius, from 1899 to the 
present time. 

After years of deliberation and discussion a new Constitution was 
adopted in 1879. This Constitution made our Conferences practically 
district-synods. Much of the authority as well as the duties of the 
president of the Synod was placed in the hands of the Conference 
presidents. The meetings of the Synod took on more the nature of 
general conventions of the Conferences. Direct representation of the 
congregations was, however, continued until 1894, since which time 
there has been limited representation, the delegates being elected by 
the Conferences two delegates for each 1500 members. 

In 1883 the Synod celebrated the 400th anniversary of Luther's 
birth. Elaborate programs were rendered in various parts of the 
Synod, doing much to awaken and revive Lutheran faith and love 
for the Church that bears his name. 

In 1885 we commemorated the 25th anniversary of the founding 
of the Synod. Again in 1893 the Synod observed the 300th anni- 
versary of "Uppsala mote". This signally important event was cele- 
brated throughout our Synod in a very impressive manner. Dr. K. 
H. G. von Scheele, bishop of Visby, was the honored guest of the 
occasion as representative of the mother-church in Sweden and took 
an active part in our festivities, bringing a cordial greeting from the 
king and giving eloquent testimony of a common faith. These events 
contributed not a little to strengthening the ties of affection with 
the church and land of our fathers over the sea. 

The smaller events have been more numerous. These, of course, 
can not be enumerated. Many of them are not recorded. But they 
arc the events that have determined the course of our development 
and have been the bricks and mortar in our rapidly growing synodical 

New congregations have been organized, in ever widening circles, 
until to-day our territory extends from ocean to ocean and from the 
forests of Canada to the Gulf. Our three original Conferences have 
multiplied to eight, comprising 65 districts and 1,092 congregations. 

The Augustana Synod 4 



The total number of minis- 
ters is 611 ; members 254,645 5 
contributions $1,607,201.28; 
value of property $8,077,862. 
(Statistics of 1908.) 

In the local congregations 
the work has been carried on 
as at the present time. The 
children born to us have been 
received by Holy Baptism in- 
to the communion of Christ 
and his Church. Other ac- 
cessions have come to us 
mainly from Sweden. The 
Christian training of the 
children has been cared for 
in the Sunday-school, paro- 
chial school and the confirma- 
tion class. Too largely, how- 
ever, these means have been 
permitted to supplant the training that should have been supplied in 
the home and by the regular services of the church, and the results 
are not all that might be desired. 

The young people have been organized into Luther Leagues, Bible 
Classes and Mission Societies and are doing a noble work. The im- 
portance of caring for and interesting our young people is being 
recognized especially of late years. 

Ladies' Aid Societies are also making important contributions to 
the spiritual and financial returns of our work, and the women of 
our congregations are eminently deserving a special word of recogni- 
tion for their tireless loyalty, interest and sacrifice. The men con- 
tinue to share the burdens in this labor of love as far as time, oppor- 
tunity and means will permit, and are content to "shoulder the heavy 
end of the log without formal acknowledgment," though the im- 
portance of their part should not be, and is not, forgotten. At times 
we may be too much inclined to take it for granted. 

As a Synod we continue to be surrounded by numerous denomina- 
tions, and it is impossible to escape their influence altogether, even 

REV. P. J. SWARD, D. D., K. N. O. (18451901) 
President of Synod, 1891 1899. 


where it may be desirable. In doctrine we have remained anchored 
to the Word of God by the strong chain of our "Symbols" or common 
confessions. This has also been the tap-root of our existence and the 
secret of our growth and present strength. This is also the hope 
of our future. To become lax and indifferent in this regard would 
mean weakness, disease, and death. 

The spirit of our fathers, too, we have preserved as a rich and 
cherished inheritance. Their influence still abides with us. And 
we pray God to grant us more of their love for our spiritual mother, 
our Lutheran Church; their strong sense of duty; their staunch faith 
amid trials and temptations; their unwavering loyalty to the truth 
tested by time and experience; their spirit of reverence for sacred 
things, of devotion and prayer ! In our present concern about 
doctrine let us not forget the practical application of that doctrine 
to life. "Faith without works is dead" both as respects the individual 
member and the Synod. We cannot help observing on the one hand 
a certain self-satisfaction with creeds and ceremonies and statistical 
returns, and on the other a certain "reformed" atmosphere, a "liberal- 
ism," that is not always a sign of healthy and independent conviction, 
but as often an indication of a loss of connection, lack of religious 
interest, self-sufficiency and worldliness. We are in danger of ossi- 
fication on the one hand and of neurosis on the other. Formalism 
or cant, and laxity or irreligiousness are equally to be avoided. A 
Christian spirit of love directed by the pure doctrine of our inherit- 
ance is the truth to be jealously guarded and preserved. 

But the Lord of his Church is our hope. We need neither fear 
nor trust in men. He has already shown us that individuals are not 
indispensable. Such have come, have made their contribution, and 
have gone to their reward. They have been dear to us, and they have 
put the stamp of their character upon our Synod. And we thank God 
for the names recorded in our annals and for those only recorded above. 
But God has made it apparent that our Synod is not built upon any 
human being or beings. It is built upon the Bock of Ages. For the 
same reason we need not fear what men may do. "If this counsel or 
this work be of men, it will be ovei thrown; but if it is of God, ye 
will not be able to overthrow it." We believe that God deals with 
his Church as he deals with the nations. The waves of history rise 
and fall; the winds and the currents vary; sometimes storms arise 


and the sky is overcast. But through it all he keeps watch above 
his own and guides his Church ever nearer to the destined goal. 

As we look back upon the past, let us unite in grateful thanks for 
the great gifts and blessings we have received at his hands, for his 
unfailing patience and for his unvarying faithfulness toward us. 
And as we look forward into the future, let us also unite in humble 
prayer for his continued favor and guidance for the light and 
strength and grace we need to further his cause among those entrusted 
to our care ! 

It now devolves upon us, a new generation, to continue the work 
of our predecessors with the same vigor and in the same spirit as 
the}'. And in so far as we imitate their example, so eminently worthy 
of our emulation, we may still look forward to similar results. The 
same God and the same promises are ours. Our methods may vary 
and our language may change. We may even find it necessary to 
consider many a problem from a different point of view. But our 
goal is one and the same the salvation of souls, the glory of the 
Christ, and the coming of the Kingdom ! 

"He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, 
how shall he not also with him freely give us all things?" "In all 
these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us/' 


Prof. L. P. Esbjorn 

Church Polity of the Augustana Synod. 

I. Historical and Other Observations. 

The Augustana Synod in Line. 

OMPLAINTS suggestive of defects and shortcomings of our 
system of church government have time and again been 
made. But if it be characteristic of the Lutheran Church 
throughout that her doctrinal development was matured 
much sooner than her organization and polity, and that organization 
has never been a distinguishing glory of Lutheranism, the same is 
presumably true of the Augustana Synod also. Our pioneers might 
have adopted either the Territorial or Collegiate systems of Germany, 
or the Episcopal government of the Church of Sweden, or the Con- 
gregational system of America, and still be in the line of succession. 
Indeed, it is quite Lutheran to hold that "no specific form of govern- 
ment and discipline for Christ's Church was prescribed by the Scrip- 
tures," and in adopting, in the main, the principles of earlier organ- 
izers our fathers placed themselves on solid ground. 

Had the Church of Sweden taken hold of the emigration, things 
might have shaped themselves quite differently, but perhaps not more 
advantageously. As it was, Swedish Lutheranism was thrown on 
its own inventive resources. But in spite of its declaration of inde- 
pendence as to polity the Church of Sweden has awarded the Augus- 
tana Synod the much coveted relation of "Daughter Church in 
America," thereby ratifying anew the confessional principles that the 
Lutheran Church has no set system of church government or polity, 


though that venerable mother might have wished that her daughter 
had taken after her. Not even the smiling approaches by the Anglican 
Church could persuade the archbishop of Uppsala and his associates 
to accede to principles in any way detrimental to the Daughter Church. 
The Synod in its Formative Throes. 

From these prefatory remarks the inference is easily made that 
Swedish Lutheranism in its genesis was, if not "void", yet "without 
form," with a "darkness" of inexperience in ecclesiastic affairs "brood- 
ing" over its necessarily chaotic state. Conducive towards making 
difficulties still more difficult was the pioneers' coming here in separate 
groups, widely scattered, woefully straitened in their circumstances, 
without houses of worship and without pastoral oversight, without 
as has been intimated any ecclesiastical connection with their father- 
land, preyed upon by crafty impostors, worthless adventurers, deposed 
clergymen or such as claimed to be clergymen, but were not, with 
false brethren and fanatics, there not being a shadow even of organiza- 
tion. When the idea of organizing arose in their minds they were 
tantalized by the realization of being like scattered sheep, surrounded 
by wolves in sectarian garb at most a church in the wilderness. 
Yet so far from losing their ancestral faith, or being alienated from 
the religion of their childhood, our pioneers were animated with the 
earnest longings for the "order and fellowship" of their own Church. 
They brought with them the pietism then aglow in the fatherland. 
Thus it was that one warm heart met the other everywhere, drawing 
nearer and nearer, until the Pentecostal flame arose on Jefferson 
Prairie in the blessed year of our Lord 1860 and united them "with 
ties that bind" into "the Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Augus- 
tana Synod", later on "the Augustana Synod", from which event the 
polity of the Synod properly dates, though splendid feats of righteous 
diplomacy were recorded previously, as gathered from our relations 
with the Synod of Northern Illinois as well as with other bodies. 
Specific Form of Christian Life. 

The polity of a given Church is always an index and an expression 
of its inner life. Then, if it be true as has been admirably set 
forth by competent writers that Lutheranism is a specific form of 
Christian life and a mode of giving and receiving and living the 
truths of Christianity, the same is eminently true also of Swedish 
Lutheranism in America. The specific mission of the Augustana 


Synod could not be out of harmony with and certainly not antagonistic 
to the Church in its entirety. The religious life imbibed by it would 
naturally be effective in moulding and giving color to its polity. We 
must confess to several divergences, but may there not be discerned 
a providential guidance in this also? Experiences, environments, 
education, national peculiarities, personal gifts, etc., have, so let us 
hope, in our case worked together in making us a salt unto others. 
In order that we might more effectively serve our Lord and Master, 
we have found it best, in quite a number of instances, to temper 
our zeal with discretion, as is indicated by attempted or effected 
changes in our older Constitutions, or in explaining certain features 
in them, to wit, our position towards secret societies and our ex- 
tending to women the right of voting in congregational affairs. But 
in the main we have adhered quite rigidly to the principles set forth 
from the very outstart. 

"Peace, not Pieces." 

Our polity in regard to sister synods may at times have been char- 
acterized by an uncouthness peculiar to the Viking blood, but beneath 
this uncouthness ran, if we understood our own hearts, the deep and 
steady irenic undercurrent of "peace, not pieces". Even in our rela- 
tions to other Protestant communions we strive to be irenic, though un- 
compromising in doctrinal questions and unionistic movements, and 
the bitter controversies that raged at times and the equally bitter words 
that fell are mere incidents in the Synod's history. But our love for 
peace has rendered us cautious as to false peace a "peace when there 
is no peace." Our effort was to be candid and honest we certainly 
were outspoken. Our standpoint concerning secret and other ir- 
religious societies sufficiently marks our dealings in our councils of 
war and of peace in relation to the unchurched and unchurching sur- 
roundings, while our uncompromising stand in reference to pulpit 
and altar fellowship in consonance with the Galesburg Rule and in 
other quite drastic measures on the floor of the Synod places us on 
record as squarely antagonistic towards the latitudinarian unionistic 
tendencies within non-Lutheran communions. Turning over the leaves 
of our Constitutions reminiscently we find that their different articles 
and paragraphs mark so many battlefields where the Synod fought 
the battles of the Lord, while at the same time they are the Lord 
of Hosts having spared us the Waterloos so many and durable monu- 


ments of victories, each bearing the inscription : "And there's none 
other God, he holds the field forever." And still these monuments 
may after all be only a small part of the Synod's history, though 
hedges are not unimportant to vineyards. 

The Polity Congregational. 

Before the idea of Conference or Synod was conceived in the minds 
of the first settlers, there were congregations, and whatsoever there 
was of government within them originated with those scattered groups 
that, one way or another, organized themselves into congregations 
with perhaps no view of constitutionally uniting the one with the 
other into a general body. Each group made its own laws and en- 
forced them without any advice or interference whatsoever. Of some 
of them it might, indeed, be said in the words of St. Paul that they 
had not the law, but did by nature the things contained in the law, 
these, having not the law, were a law unto themselves. It was natural, 
therefore, that those particular churches in the diaspora were to oc- 
cupy an important part in shaping the destinies of the Swedish- 
American Church and her polity along the entire line until the final 
adoption of the Synodical Constitution in 1894 and the Congrega- 
tional Constitution in 1907. 

The polity was so markedly congregational that the Synod con- 
tinually stood dangerously near being an advisory body only. The 
individual churches adopt their own Constitution and define their 
own position doctrinally and otherwise. The wording is dictated by 
the Synod, and it does, indeed, enjoin its adoption, but the individual 
churches do the adopting in such a manner that one is often reminded 
of the saying, "Man proposes but God disposes." In the words of Dr. 
Jacobs on the position of synods "the Synod has no more power than 
the congregations uniting in synod confer when they accept the 
synodical constitution, the final decision resting in all cases with the 
congregation." A telling illustration of this self-asserting inde- 
pendence was in evidence when the individual churches either directly 
refused to accept or silently passed by the New Britain Constitution., 
this feature of individualism reaching its culmen in an entire Con- 
ference refusing to receive congregations that had adopted the New 
Britain Constitution, hardly excusable even in the light of jealously 
clinging to the prerogatives, real or presumed, vouchsafed by the 
fathers. On the other hand such congregations that accepted said 

Pccatonica, 111., (1857). 

Rockford, 111., (1856). 
Lindsborg, Kans., (1869). 

Berlin, 111., (1858). 

Early church architecture in the Synod. 



document evidenced their liberty of action in so doing. Obstinate 
congregations and Conferences might, of course, be disciplined, but 
as such action would be productive of much strife, the Synod ac- 
quiesced to the extent of referring the Constitution to a committee 
for revision. Whether such independence will prove detrimental or 
not remains an unsolved problem. It certainly is not an ideal con- 
dition of things, but it nevertheless exists. 

II. The Congregational Constitution. 

Built on a Rock. 

The peaceful and successful development of governmental prin- 
ciples, "proving all things, holding fast that which is good and 
abstaining from all appearances of evil", apparently centers in the 
hope and the surety that the congregations adhere to the Word of 
God as the supreme rule of faith and works and to the standards of 
the Lutheran Church. And, indeed, on this point there has been no 
wavering. By their Constitution the congregations bind themselves 
"as Christian churches in general, and as Evangelical Lutheran 
churches in particular" to hold fast to the "Holy Scriptures as the 
revealed Word of God and as the only sufficient and infallible rule 
and standard of faith and practice", also to accept and confess not 
only the three oldest Symbols (the Apostolic, the Nicene and the 
Athanasian), but also the "unaltered Augsburg Confession as a brief 
and true exposition of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, 
said Confession being understood in accordance with the further de- 
velopment of these doctrines in the other symbolical books of the 
Lutheran Church." Furthermore the congregations bind themselves 
to "use orthodox books at divine services as well as for the instruc- 
tion of the young." 

From this it will be seen that the congregations, each and every 
one, have placed themselves, voluntarily and irrevocably and without 
one dissenting voice, on the Eock of Ages. Out of this fertile ground 
grew all other rules and regulations in the past, and it is an inspira- 
tion at the end of these fifty years to know that no congregation, or 
any member thereof, was in any way or manner coerced to make this 
declaration of faith. This steadfastness was neither a product of 


"stale orthodoxy" or "inherited dogma", for they "believed, therefore 
have they spoken", individually and collectively. And out of this 
fulness of living conviction came also the earnest desire of uniting 
into a Synod, thus safeguarding against detrimental individualism,, 
schism and other disintegrating agencies. 

In referring to our church polity as "congregational" it must, how- 
ever, be borne in mind that it is not Congregationalism in the sense 
of the go-as-you-please arrangement of the Congregationalists, where- 
by each individual congregation may or may not, as the case may be, 
teach and practice anything and everything that comes along. This 
idea is so far from being an integral part of our Constitutions that 
they, on the contrary, vigorously repel the very shadow of the same, 
it being firmly and irrevocably established that those Articles (I and 
II) which concern doctrine and the preaching of that doctrine, also 
the use of orthodox books at public services and in teaching the 
young, "sliall never be altered or amended." 

Qualifications and Duties of the Pastor. 

Next to having the gospel of salvation in its purity is having a 
"minister of the sanctuary", who has "prepared his heart to keep the 
law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judg- 
ments." And very properly the Congregational Constitution provides 
that the pastor be duly tried ("behorigen profvad"), legally called 
and properly accredited to perform the duties of his office. He shall 
be a member of the Lutheran Synod with which the congregation is 
connected, or become such at the next meeting of that Synod ; preach 
the Word of God and administer the Holy Sacraments in full accord- 
ance with the Confession of the congregation; be a true and sincere 
Christian; lead a pious and edifying life; visit the sick and the 
needy; be diligent in the religious instruction and proper training of 
the young; comfort, teach, reprove, admonish, exhort and warn, both 
publicly and privately, as the Word of God directs (1 Tim. 2). 
Organizing a Congregation. 

It is of interest in this connection to observe the importance the 
Synod attaches to the organization of a congregation. No congrega- 
tion may be organized unless worthy material is in evidence, and no 
organization can be effected unless directed by a pastor who conducts 
religious service and explains the importance and privileges of having 
an organized congregation. The names of the persons desiring an 


organization are then recorded, upon which a formal resolution to 
organize is passed. The Constitution having been formally adopted, 
the organization document is signed by each person or by the officers 
elected and empowered to do so. No congregation may be received 
into the Synod unless it is incorporated in accordance with the laws 
of the state where it is located. 

The Pastor's Privileges. 

First of all he is the chief member of his congregation and its 
leader. The members are to respect him, follow him, obey him, and 
to provide for his proper support. He is the president ex officio of 
the church council and calls the executive body of the congregation 
together whenever he sees fit, and no business relating to government 
or discipline shall be transacted without his knowledge and assent 
or in his absence. He may also ad interim exclude unworthy members 
from the Lord's table. He calls all the corporation meetings of the 
congregation, annual as well as extra, and presides over them ex 
officio and holds the deciding vote in case of a tie, and exercises other 
ruling functions within the congregation. Charges against him shall 
not be entertained unless supported by testimony of two or three 
trustworthy witnesses. 

The Election of Pastor and His Installation. 

The Church Council has the right of nominating the candidate, 
and may, if need be, invite a Lutheran minister or a candidate for 
the ministry to preach a trial eermon, that the congregation, may be 
given opportunity to know him; or, it may surrender its right to the 

It is the accepted sense of the Constitution that only one candidate 
at a time may be invited to preach a trial sermon, and that only one 
candidate may be nominated and voted on at one and the same meet- 
ing. If the candidate be voted down, the same procedure has to be 

But in cases where the choice of candidate was left with the congre- 
gation, liberty was often taken to invite several ministers to preach 
before nominating and voting, and as far as the tacent clamant theory 
goes this procedure has been legal, for no complaints have, as far 
as known, been made or entertained. 

To make the election legal the congregational meeting for that 
purpose must be announced on a Sunday and not less than ten days 



Zion, Rock Island, 111., (1907). Paxton, 111., (1908). San Francisco, Cal., (1305). 

Recent church architecture in the Synod. 


previously. The voting is done in. the following manner. The pre- 
siding minister calls the names of the voters and each person gives 
his yea or nay, a two-thirds vote of those present being required for 
election. Absent persons may, however, vote by certified ballots. A 
certificate of election, signed by the presiding minister and the record- 
ing secretary, shall be left with the Church Council, who shall issue 
the call to the person elected. 

Should neither the Church Council nor the congregation know 
whom to call, the president of the Conference or of the Synod may 
be appealed to for advice. 

When possible the pastor thus called shall be solemnly installed 
into his office by the president of the Conference, assisted by other 
ministers. At the installation the pastor shall solemnly bind himself 
to teach, publicly and privately, in accordance with the Word of God 
and the Confession of the congregation, and to hold his ordination 
vows and the Congregational Constitution inviolate, upon which the 
care of the flock is officially entrusted to him in the name of the 
triune God. 

Discipline of the Pastor. 

Should the pastor be guilty of negligence in his office, or of un- 
becoming actions the Church Council and, as the case may develop, 
the president of the Conference shall earnestly admonish him. Should 
such admonition prove ineffectual, and should the welfare of the 
congregation require a change of pastor, a motion to that effect shall 
be entertained at a congregational meeting. As previously stated, 
charges against him shall not, however, be entertained unless sup- 
ported by the testimony of two or three trustworthy witnesses (1 Tim. 
5: 19), and he shall not be dismissed unless two-thirds of those voting 
shall be in favor of dismissal. 


Should difficulties arise within the congregation which it is unable 
to adjust, the congregation or any part thereof may appeal to the 
Conference. Should the decision of the Conference prove unsatisfact- 
ory, appeal may be made to the Synod. Disciplined parties, pastor 
or members, may appeal to both authorities in the order designated, 
but the decision by the Synod shall be final in all instances. 

In all cases to our knowledge civil courts have upheld our Consti- 


The Church Council, Its Qualifications and Power. 

The executive government of each congregation is vested in the 
Church Council, of which the pastor is president ex officio. Its members 
are, with the help of God, to live a Christian life in their own house 
and before the entire congregation; conduct, in the absence of the 
pastor or in case of vacancy, the public devotion; in general to ex- 
hort to and promote a true and living piety; visit the sick and pro- 
vide for needy and destitute members; see to it that the pastor, in 
accordance with the Word of God, receives his proper maintenance; 
also that the children and the youth of the congregation are instructed 
in Christianity, and that schools for this purpose are established and 
maintained; with the pastor to constitute the school-board; together 
with the pastor work for the advancement of missions ; in general see 
to it that everything within the congregation, especially at the divine 
services, is conducted decently and in order. 

The temporal affairs are entrusted to the Board of Trustees, and, 
with the Deacons, they constitute a General Board. The Trustees, 
however, have no power to interfere with the spiritual affairs of the 
congregation, or to exclude the congregation from the church, or the 
pastor from the pulpit, or in any other way hinder him from exercis- 
ing his duties. Deacons as well as Trustees are to be installed in their 
office. ' 

Discipline of Deacons and Trustees. 

Should a deacon or trustee make himself guilty of carelessness in 
his conduct or negligence in performing his official duties, the Church 
Council shall earnestly admonish and warn him. Should this not have 
the desired effect, the Church Council is empowered to suspend him 
from office and, if need be, appoint some other competent person in 
his place until next annual meeting of the congregation, when his case 
shall be taken up, and, if he be found guilty, he shall be deposed. 
Reception of Members., Their Duties and Discipline. 

Children and unbaptized adults are received through baptism. Bap- 
tized and confirmed persons, however, who are morally and otherwise 
qualified and not members of Masonic or other secret and irreligious 
fraternities, arc publicly received in accordance with a prescribed rit- 
ual similar to that for confirmation. This mode of receiving as mem- 
bers non-Lutheran persons has the validity of confirmation. 

This rule, however, was modified in 1895, at the instance of the 

The Augustana Synod . 5 


New York Conference, to the effect that persons coming attested by 
the mother Church in Sweden may be received as members on sub- 
scribing, in the presence of the Church Council, to the Constitution 
of the congregation. 

As a matter of course children of non-members become members 
by baptism, but it is nowhere stated that such children are to be 
enrolled in the Church Eecord, and consequently their names are 
entered on the Eecord of Baptism only. 

It is the sacred duty of the members to lead a Christian life; to be 
in their intercourse with one another affectionate, meek, and peaceable, 
endeavoring, with admonition, consolation and encouragement to edify 
one another in their holy faith ; to promote the unity and welfare of 
the congregation; diligently and prayerfully read and search the Word 
of God and to keep the Lord's day holy; diligently to attend the 
public services and devotional meetings of the congregation; make 
reverent use of the Holy Sacraments ; be instant in private and family 
prayer, in order that they themselves may grow in grace and sanctifi- 
cation, and the kingdom of God and his holy name by them be 

It is the duty of every member, when summoned, to appear before- 
the Church Council and to submit to the regulations and discipline of 
the congregation; according to their ability to contribute to the sup- 
port of the pastor and to all other objects of church work. 

Members neglectful of their duties are to be warned and admonished 
by the Church Council. Should any one thus warned and admonished 
persist in neglecting the public services or other duties heretofore re- 
ferred to, such person shall not remain a member, but be stricken from 
the list of members and his dismissal be announced to the congrega- 
tion. Such persons forfeit all claim to any share of the real or per- 
sonal property of the congregation. Discipline reaches its culmen in 
excommunication. Among causes for excommunication may be men- 
tioned abandonment and misinterpretation of, or open opposition to 
the doctrines of the Church, falling into gross transgressions, such as 
drunkenness, licentiousness, profanity, malice, slander, or Sabbath- 
breaking, or uniting with Free Masons or any other secret or irreli- 
gious society, or a conduct that causes offence and distress to the 
Church of Christ. 

The Church Council shall, however, restore to the full enjoyment 



Iinmanuel. Kansas City, Mo., (1900). New Scandia, Minn., (1908). Pittsburg, Pa., (1908). 

Recent church architecture in the Synod. 


of all the privileges of the Church such suspended persons as give 
satisfactory evidence of true repentance and reformation. 

Right of Property, 

In case of a division Avithin the congregation its personal property or 
real estate shall forever belong to those who faithfully adhere to the 
Constitution and remain in connection with the Synod to which the 
congregation helonged before the division. 

III. The Sy nodical Constitution. 
A Bond of Unity. 

For this document it may be assumed that it embodies the ripened 
fruit of experimental church government of the half century just com- 
pleted, and it certainly bears the marks of earnest efforts towards a 
goal. It may not be final in its details but its earnest tone throughout 
is the voice of one crying : "Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his 
paths straight", in fact the glory of it is the unifying spirit pervading 
the same. In every paragraph we behold anew that same Christian 
spirit which during these blessed years of endeavors actuated our 
people gathering themselves into congregations, and we find it strong 
enough to unite these congregations into that Congregation of Con- 
gregations the Si/nod. If ever a feeling of disappointment, over 
the fact that the Synod had no power above what the congregations 
conceded was productive of misgivings, as it undeniably was with a 
strong minority, this ''book of the covenant" sufficiently demonstrates 
the solid fact that our congregations could and would, without sur- 
rendering any of their inherited or acquired prerogatives, extend 
governmental rights and functions to the Synod to make it legislative 
enough and supervisory enough and disciplinary enough for all practi- 
cal purposes. And may we not say of it, vox populi, vox Dei? 
What Constitutes the Synod. 

In the wording of this Constitution the Synod shall consist of all 
the clergymen and congregations in regular connection with the same. 
Congregations within a given territory shall unite into Conferences, 
the number and boundaries of which are to be decided by the Synod, 
and shall be represented at the Synodical meetings by an equal number 
of clerical and lay delegates, elected, with their alternates, at the an- 


iiual Conference meeting, the number not to exceed two delegates (one 
clergyman and one layman) for every fifteen hundred communicants or 
larger fraction thereof. ISTo one not a voting member in some congre- 
gation within a Conference shall be elected delegate. These delegates, 
together with the members of the Synodical Council, the officers of 
the Synod, the members of the Theological Faculty, the President of 
Augustana College and Theological Seminary, a delegate from each 
of the boards of directors of the different departments of activity 
under the direct control of the Synod and which are duly incorporated, 
and a delegate from each of the boards of directors of the Conference 
institutions of learning shall constitute the voting members of the 
Synod in session. In case of changes in officials the receding officers 
retain the right to vote until the adjournment of the meeting. Two- 
thirds majority of the elected delegates shall be present to make the 
meeting legal. 

In these vigorous strokes of the pen the Synod emerges from what- 
ever may have been uncertain in the polity of years past. The mutual 
relations between the pastor and the congregation, their relation to 
the Synod and the Conference, the relation of the respective Confer- 
ences to each other and to the Synod, and the position of the institu- 
tions of learning is hereby firmly established, giving marked promi- 
nence to the ministerial office of the Church. 

Diverging views have with us, as elsewhere, been held on the min- 
isterial office, and it has been claimed that former Constitutions had 
not given due prominence to the ministry. The unappreciative stage 
reached its Canossa when one of the founders of the Synod could not 
retain his seat in the Synodical meeting because he, for the time 
being, and that too from overwork, was without a pastorate, and when 
an attempt was made to relegate pastors without pastorates to the 
category of "honorary members", thus excluding them from the Synod 
and the Church of Christ, unless they formally, like perfect strangers 
and laymen, joined some local church within the realm, leaving to 
them as a heritage from their ordination and as a reward of their 
strenuous labor in the vineyard the empty title of - - "pastor", but 
otherwise practically putting them under the ban. 

Considered in this light this "new" Constitution is to all intents 
a repetition, clothed in dignified language, of the famous declaration : 
"JSTach Canossa gehen wir nicht" (To Canossa we go not). Guarding 


on the one side against hierarchism and on the other against sep- 
aratistic arbitrariness, the Synod, consisting of an equal number of 
clerical and lay delegates with equal rights, assumes the power of 
governing the Church, thereby preventing disorganizing legislation. 
It also establishes that synodical form of church government is in 
full harmony with the principles of polity set forth in the Lutheran 

Scope and Purpose. 

The purpose of this Synod is to ward and promote the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. To this end it shall have the power : 

To have in charge, control and direct, the general mission work 
Home as well as Foreign ; 

To maintain and regulate the common educational institution 
The Augustana College and Theological Seminary; 

To regulate in general the educational work within the Synod; 

To adopt, improve and enjoin the uniform use of liturgical and 
other books for the public services and for the instruction in Chris- 

To see to it that edifying and orthodox religious papers and books 
are published ; 

To arrange for theological discussions, and to preach the word of God ; 

To examine, improve and adopt proposed amendments to Congrega- 
tional and Conference Constitutions; 

To entertain and pass upon questions referred by the Conferences 
to it, as also cases of appeal from parties dissatisfied with decisions 
by the Conferences, such appeals to be made in writing and in com- 
pliance with the Constitution of the Conference, and 

To appoint delegates to other Synods and to the General Council. 

It will readily be seen that each and every clause opens up avenues 
towards almost unlimited possibilities and opportunities. In calling 
into view at the outstart the entire "Evangelical Lutheran Church" 
the Synod not only renews its allegiance to the "Mother of Prot- 
estants," but it also officially pledges its hearty sympathy with and 
its co-operation in furthering the kingdom of Christ in all lands. 
If the field of the Lutheran Church be "the world", the Augustana 
Synod desires to be in the midst of it, sowing the good seed until the 
"end of the world", when the "reapers" shall put an end to all human 
efforts in time. 


The S'ynod does not in its Inner or Home Mission confine itself 
to its "kinsmen according to flesh", but through its Americanizing 
and Americanized members it extends a helping hand, in common 
with other Synods, towards other citizens in the land of adoption who 
know not the Lord who "standeth in the midst of them", or through 

y c 

negligence or indifference of "riotous living'' have "wasted their sub- 

In the foreign field the Synod is represented in India and in China. 

But the scope is widening in other directions. The Synod, in the 
wording of the Constitution, regulates not only the principal Institu- 
tion of learning in Eock Island, the property of the entire Synod, but 
it regulates also all other educational interests within its territory. 
This responsibility naturally covers the creation and maintenance of 
new Colleges and Academies, not to forget the parochial schools. It 
imposes the duty upon the Synod to control the courses of studies and 
their quality, the character of the teachers and professors, the trend 
of the books used, as the President of the Synod at its last meeting 
very properly emphasized all to the end that the minds of the 
young be not poisoned by the narcotics of the "profane babblings and 
oppositions of the knowledge, falsely so called", thus forestalling the 
calamity of "making spoil of them through philosophy and vain 
deceit, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ." 

This "regulating" the Synod performed indirectly, almost perfunc- 
torily, through its hitherto orthodox and zealous Boards and the 
Boards of the Conferences, which in their turn presumably relied upon 
their corps of professors. But this question of educating the young 
men and women is so serious in its character, involving, as it does, such 
momentous possibilities one way or the other, that heeding the letter 
of the law might prove beneficial in more than one direction. "An 
ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure'' in ever so many 
instances. ' The character of the theological instruction imparted in 
the Seminary may be ascertained through the Colloquium held with 
candidates for the ministry, but the results of the College education 
are not so easily determined. As a matter of fact neither the Synod 
nor the Conferences have so far realized the full import of the pro- 
vision in the Constitution: "To regulate in general the educational 
work within the S'ynod" (I allmanhet reglera undervisningsvasendet 
inom synoden), and consequently there is a lack of harmony in 


method as well as courses, not mentioning the establishment of Colleges 
and Academies at will to the extent of almost flooding certain local- 
ities with such institutions, thereby creating a rivalry not productive 
of good will, nor the raising of educational standards. The enactment 
that the congregations and the Conferences live up to the Synod's 
Constitution and its decisions certainly gives the Synod the right to 
be heard, being a corrective of detrimental enterprises. 

The provision concerning the publication of books, papers, etc., has 
seemingly been better understood and enforced. 
The Mission Board. 

In this connection the Mission Board might advantageously be 
brought into view. The enactments concerning the same are that 
the Synod shall, in order to effectually prosecute its missionary work, 
at every regular meeting appoint a Mission Board, consisting of the 
President and the Vice President of the Synod, four ministers and 
four laymen. It is also provided that only such persons be elected to 
this Board as reside near each other, in order that its meetings may be 
frequent and inexpensive. In case of vacancy the Board completes 
itself. The President is ex officio its chairman. Its duties are the 
calling and sending of missionaries to fields that do not come under 
the care of the Conferences; to decide upon the salaries and the duties 
of the missionaries; to awaken and maintain a missionary spirit 
in the congregations through articles in the church papers and 
through reports on conditions of the field; to make a complete report 
to the S'ynod of its doings, its receipts and disbursements; in general 
to execute all decisions concerning Home and Foreign missions. 
At each annual convention the Synod fixes the amount needed for 
carrying on the general mission work, and the contributions are dis- 
tributed between the Conferences. 

Qualifications and Duties of Officers. 

All the officers of the Synod, excepting the Treasurer (who may 
be a layman), must be clergymen, and are to be elected for a term of 
two years, a majority of votes cast being necessary for election. They 
are to serve until their successors have been elected. 

The qualifications to be taken into consideration, particularly with 
reference to the President, are piety, steadfastness in the Evangelical 
Lutheran doctrines, learning and good judgment. His duties and 
privileges are: 


First, Jamestown, N. Y., (1893). Ebenezer, Chicago, 111., (1904). 

Recent church architecture in the Synod. 


To ordain candidates for the ministry; 

To make a report, at the beginning of each ordinary meeting, of the 
condition of the Synod, and at extra meetings of the conditions that 
brought them about; 

To make a report, at the beginning of each regular meeting, of the 
Synod and the kingdom of God; 

To take part in all deliberations, and to cast his vote; the opinion 
he entertains, in case of a tie vote, being decisive; 

To appoint all committees not otherwise provided for by the Synod ; 

To guide and counsel the ministers in their pastoral duties, and, if 
need be, to exhort them to fidelity and a holy life; 

To devote his attention to affairs ecclesiastical, religious and moral, 
within the Synod, not neglecting to give timely warning against 
things that lead astray; 

To see to it in general that enactments by the Synod are lived 
up to; 

To attend, if possible, the meetings of the Conferences and assist 
them in their deliberations and in their work, and 

To exercise a general supervision over the Synod. 
His Discipline. 

With the power invested in the President follows great responsi- 
bility, public and private, and the Constitution provides that he, in 
case he be reputed erring in doctrine or life, be subjected to inquiry 
before the Synodical Council, convened by the Vice President, and, 
in case of conviction, be suspended from his office until the next 
synodical meeting whose decision is final. 

Qualifications of Ministers. 

These are practically the same as set forth in the Congregational 
Constitution, providing, however, that ministers from other than 
Lutheran bodies, as well as those from other Lutheran synods, shall 
subscribe to the Doctrinal Articles of the Synod (identical with that 
of the Congregations), adding that they must possess necessary educa- 
tion and other requisites for the office, also that those from non- 
Lutheran communions be re-ordained, stress being laid upon non- 
membership in secret or other irreligious fraternities. 
Conditions for Ordination. 

Canditates for ordination must hold a regular call from some con- 
gregation or pastorate or from the Mission Board of the Synod or 


a Conference; be well founded in the doctrines of the Lutheran 
Church, and to have led a life that bespeaks a living faith and true 
piety; hold a certificate of having acquired an education required by 
the Synod, a two-thirds majority vote of the ministerium, i e., the 
ministers present at the meeting, being required for admission. 

As to studies, it may be remarked, the requirements are a complete 
College and Seminary course (the latter being three years). 

The Synod has, however, found it advisable, on account of insuf- 
ficient supply of ministers, in extraordinary cases to make exceptions 
to this rule, and has ordained elderly, experienced, able and practical 
men who have been recommended by a Conference or the Synod's 
Mission Board and have held certificates from the Theological Faculty 
concerning needful equipments for the holy ministry. 
Discipline of Ministers. 

The Synodical Constitution reaffirms the right of the Church to 
take the preliminary steps in disciplining the pastor, which may, in- 
deed, result in severing him from his pastorate. Should the offense, 
however, be of such a nature as to involve suspension or deposition 
from the ministerial office, the matter must be referred to the Confer- 
ence. Should the accused minister have his field outside the Confer- 
ence, his case is to be brought before the President of the Synod; and 
in all cases the accused may appeal to the Synod as the highest 
tribunal, have his witnesses heard, etc., but he cannot employ a lawyer. 
Two-thirds majority is required for suspension, deposition or sever- 
ance of his connection with the Conference or the Synod. 

Lay Preachers. 

Lay preaching is not expressly mentioned in the present Constitu- 
tion, but it has its own interesting history in the development of the 
Synod. This history might be expressed in the one word 
Necessity. The Synod was imbued with the spirit of compassion that 
was in Jesus when he beheld the multitudes without shepherds and 
"appointed seventy others and sent them two and two before his face 
into every city and place, whither he himself was about to come" 
(Luke 10: 1). The harvest indeed was great, but the laborers were 
few. The dangers besetting an uncritical and uneducated lay preach- 
ing without systematic training were fresh in the minds of those 
pioneers, and they stepped very cautiously, as is gleaned from the 
original Constitution of 1860. This document authorizes the use of 


licensed lay preachers or, as they were named, catechists, with the 
right to preach, catechise, hold devotional meetings and privately en- 
courage a godly life. The licerfse was to be issued by the President 
to worthy persons, especially theological students, for a certain lim- 
ited period. This catechist was to be given a congregation under 
supervision of a pastor, or serve as traveling preacher in fields with- 
out pastoral care ("sjiilavard"). It was his duty to keep a diary of 
the work performed, and at each annual meeting of the Synod he 
must deliver a sermon written by himself. In case of unavoidable 
absence he was to send his diary, his sermon and his excuse to the 

In conceding the right to the Conferences to retain the institution 
and in allowing the congregations to employ students from our S'emi- 
nary and our Colleges during their vacation, the present Constitution 
practically ratifies the original enactments to employ pious, orthodox 
and gifted laymen, giving preference to theological students, in vacant 
congregations or as assistants to pastors, or on the mission field. 
A venia concionandi is to be given to them. 

It is expressly enjoined that they perform their duties faithfully, 
preach and instruct in accordance with the Confessions of the Church, 
obey their superiors, attend the mission meetings of the District (each 
Conference being divided into so many "Mission Districts"), and, if 
necessary, the Conference meetings, report in writing to the President 
of the Conference previous to the annual meeting, keep the Church 
Records in vacant congregations, report their arrival to and removal 
from the place to the President of the Conference, in the latter 
instance giving a complete report of their work. They are not author- 
ised to perform ministerial acts (with the exception of funerals) or 
to organize congregations, nor to act as chairmen in the Church 
Councils, at congregational meetings or at the election of pastors. 

In this connection it may be stated that quite a number of the first 
pastors have served as catechists. 

The Synodical Council. 

This Council shall consist of the President and Vice President of 
the Synod, the Conference Presidents and a lay delegate from each 
Conference. The President of the Synod is ex officio its Pracscs. 
The duties of the Council are to convene at the call of the President; 
to prepare the business to come up before the synodical meeting; to 


take up and decide, in behalf of the Synod, matters entrusted to it 
by the Synod and such other matters as are not in conflict with the 

From this it will be gleaned that this Council is quite a repre- 
sentative body and in some functions occupying the position of a 
Consistory. It certainly is, initiatively at least, the maker of church 
history, inasmuch as it plans the proceedings of the synodical meet- 
ing, receives reports and passes upon them and upon all other papers 
and documents to be laid before the Synod, formulates the resolutions 
to be considered and adopted by the meeting. It furthermore passes 
upon the calls and the certificates of the candidates for the ministry 
and recommends them for colloquium, and often nominates members 
on important committees and delegations. It may also be powerfully 
influential in uniting the different and at times antagonizing interests 
within congregations and Conferences. 

The Conferences. 

The names of the Conferences are not given in the Constitution, 
neither are the states belonging to each of them designated therein. 
The plan was, however, to name them after the stats having a majority 
of Swedes. Thus they came to be named the Minnesota, the Illinois, 
the New York, the Iowa, the Kansas, the Nebraska, the Columbia, 
and California Conferences. 

The Constitution enacts, that a Conference shall consist of all the 
clergymen and congregations within its limits, regularly connected 
with the Synod, and they shall be represented at Conference meetings 
by such delegates as the Constitution of the Conference determines. 
No person shall have the right to vote as a delegate who is not a 
voting member of the congregation lie represents. The business of 
the Conferences shall be to ward the interests of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church within their territories. They shall receive congre- 
gations into the Conference and the Synod, see to it that the "Con- 
stitution for the Evangelical Lutheran Congregations in North 
America," approved by the Chicago and Mississippi Conferences, 
March 18 23, 1857, at Andover in 1870, and revised at other 
synodical meetings, be accepted by all the congregations already 
belonging to or desiring to be connected with the Conference and the 
Synod; to decide all matters referred to them by congregations or 
parts thereof, or by church councils, when they are brought before 

New Britain, Conn., (1906). 

Great Falls, Mont., (1907). 

Bethel, Chicago, 111., (1909). 
Taylors Falls, Minn., (1903). 

Recent church architecture in the Synod. 


the Conference in a legal way; to examine into and decide upon all 
complaints preferred against ministers serving congregations within 
the Conference; to further missions, Christian schools and institu- 
tions of mercy, also to take measures productive of true faith and 
living piety; have theological discussions and preach the Word of God. 

The Conferences shall hold at least one meeting every year and 
as many more as are decided upon. The officers are to be a President, 
a Vice President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall serve for 
the term they are elected. 

The President of the Conference shall install ministers, consecrate 
churches, hold visitations in congregations, report annually his official 
doings and the condition of the congregations to the President of the 
Synod, this report to be accompanied by complete statistical reports 
and a copy of the minutes of the transactions of the Conference. 

Each Conference has the power to adopt and alter its own Con- 
stitution, but no provisions therein must be antagonistic to the 
Synod's Constitution, and all changes must be approved by the Synod. 
The General Institutions. 

The Synod shall own and control the Augustana College and Theo- 
logical Seminary, and, in a manner heretofore indicated, control 
other institutions of learning; the Augustana Book Concern; the 
Church Extension Society; the Belief Fund for ministers, and the 
Deaconess Institute at Omaha, Nebraska. 

Other Constitutions. 

Along with the development of the Synod into Conferences and 
the founding of the varied synodical and Conference institutions 
came the need of new Eules and Eegluations, all presumably in 
harmony with the principal codes, only varying in minor details 
as state laws may have required. Thus sprung into existence the 
Constitutions of the Synod's eight Conferences with the rules for 
the Mission Districts, the Constitutions of the Synod's Theological 
Seminary and its nine Colleges, its thirty Benevolent Institutions, 
its Publishing House in Bock Island, and of the Church Extension 
Society. The history of each of these Constitutions would make 
interesting study, as they all contain some traits of the Synod's polity, 
but steps have only of late been taken to have them codified, and at 
the present time several of these Constitutions have not yet been 
translated into English. 


From what has been said it may be gleaned, however, that the 
Augustana Synod is a well organized body and that its polity is 
reasonably defined. Voices have, indeed, been heard in favor of 
episcopal government, but have so far not gathered sufficient strength 
to cause a movement towards that goal. A polity that had strength 
to create and during half a century to uphold a union comprising 
the entire Union from sea to sea, is likely long to be a warning 
against putting a piece of undressed cloth upon an old garment. 
Patriotic men will think twice before they put new wine into old 
wine-skins, thereby bursting the skins and spilling the wine. Pros 
and cons might be brought to bear on past polity, but they will unite 
in ratifying the experience that unity in faith, the pure preaching of 
the Word of God and the S'criptural administration of the Sacra- 
ments is the center of gravity in every Lutheran Church government. 
Knowing this we may meet the future with hopeful assurance, inas- 
much as 

"God is in Hie midst of her; slic shall not be moved; God shall help 
her, and that right early." 


The Missionary Enterprises of trie 

4-f\-trtf\ ^^-* 7--f ^-v/-i 

tana Synod. 


"True Christian Mission work is a work of life in two respects : it implies 
life as its cause, and it imparts life. The Christian life of a congregation, 
or a denomination, is measured by its missionary activities." 


"What a privilege to he permitted to send out living voices to seek the 
lost and erring from our common native land ! We owe it to them ; we 
owe it to ourselves ; still more do we owe it to our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
lias bought them and us with his own precious blood." 


HE MEN of heroic faith, who fifty or more years ago volun- 
teered to come to the wilds of the new world to seek for 
the lost sheep of our mother church of Sweden, were in- 
spired by the true missionary spirit. Our countrymen, 
who made up the weak Swedish communities of that day, were by 
circumstances prepared for the gospel message. The long, trying 
voyage, the toilsome journey, disease and want made the immigrant 
think less of earthly things. These experiences called to them : "What 
shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole world and lose his soul?" 
Hence our history begins as a history of missions. 

Already at the organization of the Synod in the little Norwegian 
church on Jefferson Prairie in 1860, this resolution was offered by 
Rev. E. ISTorelius and unanimously carried by the Synod : 

1) That a committee of three be appointed to have general charge 
of the home mission work. As members of that committee were 
elected: T. N". Hasselquist, 0. J. Hattlestad, and Ole Paulson. 

2) That this committee be authorized to call a missionary, espe- 
cially for Minnesota. 

The Augustana Synod 6 


3) That the President of the Synod appoint one of the brethren 
to preach a missionary sermon at the next meeting of the Synod. 

The home mission work of the Synod had thus been started. It 
stands first, during the first half century of our Synod, among all its 
activities. It will still continue to stand first. Through its home 
mission work our Synod will gather the material and lay the founda- 
tion for all the other work. We shall therefore choose to speak of 
that work first. 

Rev. E. Norelius has the distinction of being the first home mis- 
sionary called by the first mission committee of the Augustana Synod 
The second convention resolved that he be retained with a salary of 
$400.00 a year, at least during the four remaining months of the 
year, "if there be any hope of raising his salary." It seems that the 
salary could not be raised, and so he was obliged to leave the field. 

The third convention of the Synod reported that the President had 
appointed Abr. Jacobson missionary at Montreal, with no expense 
to the Board. The next report tells us that A. Jackson is on the field, 
and that Rev. John Johnson had undertaken "the long, perilous, and 
toilsome journey to our countrymen in Kansas, at an expense of 
$39.00 to the Board." During the following years A. Jacobson, 
G. Peters, and others are* giving more or less of their time to the 
home mission field. 

The Conferences are now beginning to send out missionaries on 
their respective fields. In 1868 the Mississippi Conference sends 
Rev. S. G. Larson to Kansas and Nebraska. New York had hitherto 
proven a difficult field. It is reported in 1868 to have cost the Board 
two thousand dollars besides over six hundred dollars from Foster- 

There is a marked change in the management of the home mission 
in 1870, when the original mission committee is superseded by the 
Central Mission Board, consisting of four pastors and four laymen. 
Each Conference is also given an auxiliary Board of two pastors and 
two laymen. The Board of Deacons is also made a Mission Board 
in each individual congregation. The Norwegians now separate from 
the Synod and take up their work independently. With a Board in 
each congregation and in each Conference, whose chief duty it was 
to arouse and maintain interest in the great cause, the Synod takes 
up the great task of gathering our countrymen within the fold of 



our Church with renewed vigor. Each Conference President is the 
chairman of a Mission Board, and feels a direct responsibility for the 
work. These chairmen were in 1871: E. Norelius for Minnesota, 
N. Th. Winquist for Illinois, H. Olson for Iowa, A. W. Dahlsten for 
Kansas, and C. 0. Hultgren for New York. That same year it is 
reported that P. A. Cederstam had been on the field in Minnesota 
and S. P. A. Lindahl had been touring Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota, 



Kansas, and Missouri. He had preached 130 sermons, baptized 71 
children, administered the Lord's Supper 20 times, organized 3 con- 
gregations. Rev. J. Magny had been on the field in Minnesota, 
Berggren in New York, S. G. Larson in Kansas and Nebraska. 
Besides each pastor was expected to spend one month on the mission 
field. The receipts for the year amounted to $3,415.99. The next 
year thirty new congregations were received into the Synod. 

In the evolution of the work it became necessary to give more 
authority to the Conferences and place more responsibility upon them. 
The field of the Synod is gradually limited to such territory as is not 
included within the boundary of any Conference. While this has 
taken the most promising field from the Synodical Board it has not 
made its work any less important. It still remains for that Board 
to see that in our onward march for Christ and our beloved Church 
we neglect no field, however hard it may be and however distant from 
our center it is located. In 1874 Eev. C. P. Rydholm carries our 
banner into Colorado. In the meantime a new field is opening on 
the Pacific coast. Eev. J. Auslund spent some time in San Francisco 
in 1874 and preached to the countrymen there. Eev. Eydholm was 
there in 1875. Eev. J. Telleen from Denver is there in 1882 and 
organizes the Ebenezer church. He became its pastor the next } r ear 
and pushed the work on the coast. About the same time the old 
veteran Eev. P. Carlson from Carver goes to Washington and lays 
down a second life's work there. He struggles alone for many a year, 
until he is reenforced by G. A. Anderson, L. 0. Lindh, Skans, Hoikka, 
and others. The field expands to the north into Canada, to the south 
into Florida, to the east to Portland, Maine. The Pacific Conference 
is organized in 1890. It would be in vain to attempt to follow in 
detail the home mission work of the Augustana Synod during the 
last decades. Volumes could be written. We wish that we could 
mention the men who have given their lives to this work, and men 
such as S. P. A. Lindahl, C. W. Foss, P. J. Brodine, P. Sjoblom, and 
a host of others, who have served on the Board for many a year. 
But our limited space does not allow it. God knows of their work 
and will reward it. 

We must, however, mention one more field. Hundreds of our 
countrymen from the States and from the mother country had flocked 
to the gold fields of Alaska. In the summer of 1900 Dr. S. P. A. 


Lindahl was sent out to explore this distant field. He visited Dawson, 
Nome, Bayam Creek, Douglas Island, Skagway, and other points. 
On his recommendation the work was taken up on Douglas Island with 
Juneau and S'kagway as auxiliary stations. Mr. Holmberg, a student 
from Augustana, was sent out. He was succeeded by Rev. J. N". 
Sundqvist and he again by Eev. J. A. Levin. We have now a beau- 
tiful little church at Douglas. 

During the first thirty-five years of its history our Synod expended 
for home mission work, including the Utah mission, $96,309,98; for 
foreign missions, $30,342.90. During the last fifteen years of the 
half century the expenditures for home missions amounted to $160,- 
468.30; for foreign missions, $154,550.19. This gives for the fifty 
years, $256,778.28 for home missions, $184,893.09 for foreign mis- 
sions, or a total of $441,671.37 for missions. During the last thirty 
years only a fractional part of the money given by our people for 
home missions has come to the treasurer of the Synodical Mission 
Board; the most has been expended on the fields of the respective 
Conferences. Thus in 1878 these Conferences expended for their work 
$3,499.93; in 1888, $11,073.72; in 1898, $22,348.65; in 1908, $48,- 
900.66. If the increase were uniform, it means that the Conferences 
have during the last thirty years expended for their own missions 
$596,120.50. Previous to thirty years ago the Conferences did not 
spend much money directly. Adding the money spent by the Synod 
during these fifty years to that spent by the Conferences during the 
last thirty years, it gives us a total approximate expenditure for 
home mission work of $852,896.70 for the first half century of our 
history. No one can measure the results of this work. Still allow 
us to give just a few figures. At the organization of our Synod, there 
were reported 49 Swedish and Norwegian congregations with a mem- 
bership of 4,967 communicants. Ten years later the Swedish churches 
alone numbered 16,376 communicants. Another ten years and the 
Synod reported 39,979 communicants. In 1890 the number was 
78,295; in 1900, 118,149; in 1908, 163,473 communicants, with an 
entire membership of 254,645. During the fifty years of her history 
the Swedish Lutheran Church of this country has organized on an 
average each year 21 congregations, built 18 churches, increased by 
5,000 members, added $153,300.00 to the value of its church property 
and $35,000.00 to the financial value of its institutions. 



The field, however, has grown much faster. Thirty years ago it 
was hinted that the home mission work of the Illinois Conference 
would soon he finished; now Chicago alone has 150,000 Swedes. 
About the same time it was reported that the territory of the Minne- 
sota Conference numbered about 13,000 Swedish people; now the 
Twin Cities alone number 100,000. Our work is but begun. We 
have a little over a quarter of a million in the churches of the Augus- 
tana Synod out of two million Swedish-Americans, or one out of 
every eight. It remains to organize, to work, and to pray as never 
before : "Thy kingdom come !" 

The Utah Mission. 

The Mormon missionaries, sadly enough, had been quite successful 
in their proselytizing efforts among the people of Scandinavia. Thou- 
sands of misguided souls from these countries were found in Utah. 
Some were still loyal to the pagan errors into which they had apos- 
tatized ; others had lost faith in all religion ; others, again, had plunged 
into the grossest superstition. Could something be done for the saving 
of these benighted souls? 

Dr. J. Telleen inspected the field in 1881, and reported his obser- 
vations in our church paper. The wretched conditions of these our 

countrymen touched a chord in the 
hearts of our people as nothing be- 
fore had -done. The convention of 
the Synod resolved in God's name 
to take up the work and sent out 
Mr. S. M. Hill. He organized the 
congregation at Salt Lake City. 
The Mission Board realized from 
the beginning that only through 
school work would it be possible to 
reach the rising generation. Mr. 
Hill and later Eev. J. A. Krantz 
carried on very successful school 
work with telling results; but 
when the American public school 
was established it became difficult 
IMMIGRANT HOME, BOSTON, MASS. to compete with it along educa- 


tional lines, and our schools like those of other denominations de- 
clined. When Mr. S. M. Hill resigned, no less than six calls were 
issued by the Board, and each and all declined. Eev. H. 0. Lindeblad, 
Eev. L. G. Abrahamson, and E. Edman labored on the field during 
the vacancy that ensued. 

Eev. J. A. Krantz, ordained on a call from the Mission Board in 
1885, labored six years on the field. He was assisted by Mrs. Hilda 
Carlson, whose husband, Eev. A. B. Carlson, had died on the mission 
field in India, also by Mr. Bernard Anderson, who conducted a very 
successful school at Salt Lake City. Eev. E. Hedeen was for a time 
at Provo and Eev. G. A. Stenborg at Mt. Pleasant. When Eev. Krantz 
resigned, Eev. F. A. Linder was transferred from Ogden to Salt Lake 
City. Eev. A. P. Martin followed Hedeen and Stenborg as missionary 
at Provo and Mt. Pleasant. At the convention of the Synod in 1893 
it was reported that all the missionaries had resigned. Mr. A. J. 
Westerlund was stationed at Ogden for some time. Two students, 
J. A. Mattson and E. J. Peterson, served during the vacancy. Of the 
thirty candidates ordained in 1894 two had accepted calls to Utah, 
Eev. Peter Peterson to Ogden and Eev. A. Gunberg to Provo. Sick- 
ness compelled the former to leave the field after one year; the latter 
remained for many years, preaching not only at Provo and Santaquin, 
but at Ogden and other places. He was assisted by a deaconess from 
Omaha. Eev. P. E. Aslev succeeded Eev. A. P. Martin at Salt Lake 
City, and he again was succeeded by Eev. Emanuel Eydberg. Eev. 
0. A. Elmquist finally took up the work at Ogden and labored for 
several years there. It is a well known fact that this has been our 
hardest mission field. It is a field peculiar to itself. The work was 
first classed as foreign mission work, inasmuch as the Mormons had 
apostatized from the Christian religion. Later it was coordinated 
with the foreign mission as a branch of "yttre missionen," and still 
later it was designated as home mission. After nearly thirty years 
of great financial expenditure, hard work, prayers, and tears, the 
results, if measured by the number of church members, is small in- 
deed. But the result cannot be measured in that way. Individuals 
have been won for Christ, although conditions were such that they 
could not affiliate with the Church. Large numbers have been taught 
in our Sunday-schools and in our confirmation classes, who after- 
Avards moved to other places. The work has not been in vain. The 


Great Day will show results; the men, who during long, weary years 
stood alone and disheartened on that dismal field, shall "come re- 
joicing, bringing in their sheaves." The Utah District has now a 
communicant membership of 464 and a total membership of 791. 
The value of its church property is $55,350.00. 

The Immigrant and Sailor Mission. 

The early pioneers had learned by experience what a great blessing 
an immigrant mission would be. Where they stood some years before, 
friendless and homeless, strangers in a strange land, they well knew 
that others were standing now. The pastors, who were stationed in our 
seaport towns, became, by the very nature of their home mission work, 
immigrant and sailor missionaries. The need of the sailor mission 
in the city of New York was early brought to the attention of Evan- 
geliska Foster] andsstiftel sen, and in 1874 the President of the Synod 
could report that this missionary organization had sent Eev. P. J. 
Sward to -Brooklyn and C. F. Johansson to Boston. Their work 
was most closely connected with our Synod from the beginning, and 
both these men early united with it. The churches in these cities and 
other seaport towns have done mission work of this kind from the 
very beginning. The Synod appropriated money for this work to 
these churches from time to time. Thus in 1879 $400.00 was appro- 
priated for the church in Brooklyn; Eev. E. A. Fogelstrom, then city, 
immigrant, and sailor missionary of that place, reported that as 
many as three to four hundred immigrants arrived in a single day. 
Philadelphia received two hundred dollars a year for its sailor mis- 
sion for a number of years. Eev. C. E. Lindberg and Eev. C. J. Petri 
preached to the sailors there every Sunday afternoon. In 1880 two 
hundred dollars was appropriated for the work in Castle Garden, and 
five hundred dollars for the work in other seaport towns, especially 
for literature. Later the Synod decided to station a missionary at 
New York. It is not a part of this paper to speak of the Immigrant 
Home; that will no doubt be done when the institutions of our 
Church are pictured. Yet we cannot forego to mention that the 
immigrant mission was long hampered by the want of a home. Our 
immigrants were long cared for in the General Council Home, and 
the Mission Board of that Lutheran body for a number of years ap- 
propriated money for part of the salary of our immigrant missionary. 



The building now owned at No. 5 Water st., New York, was long 
rented, and when it could no longer be so rented it was bought. We 
have therefore a suitable home, conveniently located for our work. 
In Boston we have an Immigrant and Seaman Home, and the pastors 
C. W. Andeer and Rubert Swanson have served there as missionaries. 
Many throughout the length and breadth of our land will gratefully 
remember the helpful services of A. Eodell, E. Schuck, and A. B. 
Lilja in New York. No one doubts the importance of this work. 
We only regret that we have not been able to do more for the sailor. 
The Church should extend to him a warm helping hand, when he 
comes into port after his long and wearisome voyage, subject as he 
is to all the vile temptations of the seaport city. The immigrant 
comes to stay; he should be made to feel at home. The seaman 
comes for a short visit; he should be entertained in a manner that 
tends to his edification. He needs the gospel; he needs counsel; he 
needs a home; he needs rest. He needs to feel that on the distant 
shore, to which his perilous calling has brought him, there are men 
and women, churches and individuals vitally interested in his welfare. 

The Foreign Mission. 

No church can afford to neglect her solemn duty to the heathen. 
The pastors who founded the Swedish Lutheran Zion of America had 
taken a great interest in the foreign mission work as 
carried on by the people of Sweden. They brought this 
interest for the saving of the heathen with them into the 
wilds of America and transplanted it here. Already at 
the third convention of our Synod, held in Vasa, 1862, 
a resolution was passed requesting every congregation 
to hold foreign missionary services and take up contri- 
butions for the saving of the heathen. In 1865 there 
were 750 dollars in Uni- 
ted States bonds for this 
work. The next conven- 
tion appropriated two 
hundred dollars for the 
Hermannsburger mis- 
sion, for Fosterlandsstif- 
telsen's mission in Africa, TH E NEW AUGUSTANA CHURCH AT SAMAI.KOT, INDIA. 



and for the Swedish mission in India, respectively. A foreign mis- 
sion committee was also appointed. The Synod continued to make 
appropriations from time to time for these and other missions. 

The Mission in India. 

In 1867 our Synod together with other Lutheran synods in America 
organized the General Council. The Pennsylvania Ministerium, the 
Lutheran mother synod of America, had previously been a part of 
the General Synod with its foreign mission field in southern India. 
When the Ministerium severed its connection with that body it re- 
ceived a part of that field. This mission field it brought with it into 
the Council. Our Synod, as a part of the General Council, became 
jointly responsible with the other synods for the saving of the heathen 
of that field. When one of our own men, Eev. A. B. Carlson, went 
to India, labored and died there, it brought the work closer to our 
hearts than it had ever been before. In 1889 the Synod recommended 

Charlotte Swenson, 1870 1908. Betty Nil 
Rev. E. Edman, M. D. Rev. O. O. Eckardt. 

M. D. Rev. H. E. Isaacson. 

Rev. O. L. Larson. Rev. A. B. Carlson, 

Missionaries in India. 


Eev. E. Edman, M. D., to the Board; he was called and accepted. 
The next year the Synod sent all its foreign mission funds to India 
The pioneer in the Zenana work on the field, Miss Charlotte Swen- 
son, was from our Synod. S'he went to India twice, died and is 
buried there. Eev. H. E. Isaacson and wife are the pioneers among 
the Swedish missionaries on the field at present. Others are Eev. and 
Mrs. 0. 0. Eckardt, Eev. and Mrs. 0. L. Larson, Miss Wahlberg, the 
nurse, and Dr. Betty Nilsson. The contributions from the Synod have 
steadily increased until they are now the largest among all the synods 
of the General Council. In 1907 they were larger by over eight 
thousand dollars than in 1904, or $15,575.21. 

A very extensive school work is carried on, largely by native teach- 
ers. We have now three lady medical missionaries on the field, and 
will soon have a well-equipped hospital. The gospel is increasingly 
manifesting its power to save. The following are the statistics of the 
mission two years ago : 

Number of congregations, 241 ; number of church members, 13,513 ; 
number of communicants 7,036; number of missionaries, 16; number 
of native helpers, 314; number of pupils in mission schools, 5,735. 

The Porto Rico Mission. 

When the Spanish-American war closed in 1898, which liberated 
beautiful Porto Eico from the misrule of tyrannical Spain, and 
Americans flocked thither, there was a student from Augustana Col- 
lege among them. This student, Mr. G. S. Swensson, engaged in 
mission work, although commissioned by no board. He established 
Sunday-schools and preached the gospel to the benighted people of 
the island. His work was reported to the Mission Board of the 
General Council. The Board did not shirk the new responsibility 
thus unexpectedly thrust upon it. It sent out missionaries and made 
liberal appropriations for the work. All the workers at present on the 
field are from our Synod. They are: Eev. and Mrs. Alfred Ostrom, 
Eev. A. P. G. Anderson, Miss May Melander, the teacher. Others 
from our Synod who have labored on that southern field are Miss 
Wahlstedt and Miss Hazelgrecn. At present there are congregations 
at S'an Juan, one Spanish and one English; one at Catano, one at 
Bayamon, and one at St. Thomas, besides a number of missions. 
God has clearly called the General Council to establish the Lutheran 



faith on this island, and among the synods of the Council it seems 
that the Augustana Synod has been chosen to do the work. This has 
become an Augustana Synod field by preeminence. May the mission 
come ever closer to the hearts of our people ! 

The Mission in China. 

At the convention of the Synod in Chicago in 1908, the Synod 
received as its own the mission field in China, already established 
by a mission society with headquarters in the Twin Cities. We un- 
derstand that there will be a special paper on this subject, and 
it will therefore serve the purpose of this paper to make a mere men- 
tion of it here. There are already on the field Eev. and Mrs. Edwins, 
Eev. and Mrs. Trued, Dr. and Mrs. Friberg, and Sister Ingeborg 
Nysted, a deaconess from Bethesda Deaconess Institute. Several 
native helpers are also engaged. God has graciously assigned to this 
mission a most populous and promising field. The great need at 

Annette Wahlstedt. May C. Mellander. 

Rev. G. S. Swensson. Rev. A. P. G. Anderson. Rev. A. Ostrom. 

Missionaries in Porto Rico. 



present is men and money. Our Synod is able to furnish both without 
neglecting any of its other work, if it is truly aroused to its great 
opportunity and grave responsibility. Let us pray and hope, let us 
give ourselves and our own for God's great work ! 

The Persian Mission. 

Many years ago, in 1887, Rev. Knanishu Moratkhan of the 
Nestorian Church of Persia visited our country to enlist the in- 
terest of the Lutheran Church in his mission schools. His efforts to 
infuse new life into that old historic church appealed very strongly 
to the leading men of our Synod, especially to Dr. 0. Olsson, and for 
a long time the Synod appropriated three hundred dollars annually 
for the support of these schools. Rev. Moratkhan sent his son, 
Joseph Knanishu, to be educated at Augustana College and Theol. 
S'eminary. He spent twelve years here, was ordained in 1902 for the 
mission in Oroomiah, Persia, and died in 1909. In 1906 Isaac Yo- 
hannan, also educated at Augustana College and Theol. Seminary, 

Sister Ingeborg 1 Nysted. 

Rev. A. W. Edwins. Rev. A. E. Tnicd. 

Missionaries in China. 

C. P. Friberg, M. D. 


was ordained and returned to his country for -missionary work. Again 
in 1908 George Azoo was likewise ordained and sent out. Our Synod 
has not assumed the responsibility for the salary of these missionaries, 
but has, nevertheless, liberally supported the mission. The Students' 
Mission Society at Augustana College has been liberal toward this 
mission. The mission does not aim to found a new church in Persia, 
but rather to infuse new life into that old historic church. Besides 
the preaching of the gospel the mission lays great stress on Christian 
education. The blessed results are already manifesting themselves. 

Other Missions. 

Under this caption we wish to mention, not what our Synod has 
actually done, but what it has made some efforts to do. There was a 
time when our Synod was much interested in carrying the gospel to 
the liberated slaves of the South. Eev. P. Ahlberg of Sweden, who 
took such a vital interest in the early work of our Church in this 
country, conferred with our Synod in 1868 with a view of establishing 
a mission among the negroes of the South. Our Synod took up the 
matter at its convention, and Texas was recommended as a very prom- 
ising field. We only mention this as one of the many good intentions 
of our Synod that were never carried out. 

Our Synod was for a number of years very much interested in the 
conversion of the Indians and took steps towards establishing a mis- 
sion among them. In 1875 the Synod decided to establish a mission 
among the Delaware Indians of Indian Territory, just as soon as 
suitable men could be obtained. Dr. 0. Olsson was sent out to inves- 
tigate the field ; he gave a most interesting account of his experiences, 
how he was entertained by the Indian chief, Journey Cake, who him- 
self was a Baptist minister, and most deeply interested in the con- 
version of his people. This chief recommended that we establish a 
mission among the Pawnees. The Synod decided at its next meeting 
so to do as soon as suitable men could be obtained. Dr. Telleen and 
Dr. Norelius also visited the Indian Territory with the view of recom- 
mending some certain place for establishing of the mission. A com- 
mittee was appointed to go to Washington to apply for an Indian 
Agency, but owing to a change at this time in the administration of 
Indian affairs, such an agency could not be obtained. Dr. Telleen 
had recommended some Indian youths' to Augustana College, and 


these pursued their studies there for a number of years, supported by 
our Sunday-schools. In 1879 the Mission Board called Matthias 
Wahlstrom missionary to the Comanche Indians of Indian Territory, 
Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. He was ordained on that call, 
but just then war broke out among the Indians and it became neces- 
sary to wait for a more opportune time. Rev. Wahlstrom was employed 
by the Mission Board on the Home Mission field while waiting for 
the realization of his fond hopes to carry the gospel to the natives of 
our country. Other hindrances arose, one after another, and finally 
the missionary had to choose other work in the service of his Master 
and our Church. It is with regret that we record this untimely end 
of a missionary enterprise once so hopeful. Next to the Utah mission, 
no mission has so touched the hearts of our people as this Indian 
mission, and it seemed at one time as though it might have become 
a source of inestimable blessings to the Indians and to our Synod. 

Our Synod has shown marked interest in the saving of the Jew, 
although it has not as yet seen its way clear to take up an inde- 
pendent mission among God's covenant people. Donations came in 
from time to time to the Mission Board for this purpose. The Board 
sent this money to such Lutheran missions among the Jews as stood 
closest to our Synod. In 1898 the S'ynod recommended the Lutheran 
Jewish Mission in Chicago, Rev. E. N. Heimann missionary. We 
still continue to support this mission. 

The spiritual condition of the Finnish people of this country ap- 
pealed very strongly to our Synod nearly thirty years ago. In 1883 
there were only two Finnish Lutheran pastors in this country. Eev. 
Hoikka was sent out to preach the gospel to them in Astoria, Oregon. 
In 1885 J. Lahde was ordained for work among the Finnish people 
at Ashtabula, Ohio. Later on pastors were coming from Finland and 
the work was organized independent of our Synod. We still have a 
number of Finns in Michigan and other places connected with our 

The English Mission. 

Some twenty-eight years ago the Mission Board of the General 
Council took up English mission work in the Twin Cities and Red 
Wing. At the convention of the Synod in 1882 it was resolved, first. 
"That we approve of the mission of the General Council at Minne- 


apolis, St. Paul, and Bed Wing, provided that said mission will stand 
in an ecclesiastical connection with and be regulated by our Synod; 
second, That the Home Mission committee of the Augustana Synod 
be and is hereby authorized to enter into correspondence and coopera- 
tion with the English mission committee of the General Council in 
order to establish an English mission in the cities above mentioned." 
In accordance with these resolutions English churches were organized, 
not only in these cities, but at other places. These congregations 
later on severed their connection with the Augustana S'ynod and 
formed The Synod of the Northwest. The attempt to solve the 
English question by inviting men from other synods to do the work, 
under the leadership of another Mission Board, has proven a failure 
so far as our Synod is concerned. It therefore became necessary for 
the Augustana Synod to begin its English Mission a second time. 
The work has been taken up earnestly and prayerfully. Our object 
is to retain the children in the Synod organized by the fathers, even 
though they cease to speak the language of their fathers. There are 
now, connected with our Synod, eleven English Lutheran congrega- 
tions with a total membership of 2,163. There are besides some ten 
English missions conducted with a view of establishing congregations. 
There are eleven pastors engaged in this English Mission work. Be- 
sides these independent English churches and missions, many of our 
congregations are fast becoming bilingual, and we have every reason 
to believe that the work, as now started, will be permanently con- 
nected with our Synod and will perpetuate our history. 

At the close of these first fifty years, looking back upon what we 
have been permitted to begin and to accomplish, through God's in- 
finite grace, we pray as did Moses at the close of his life, and at the 
close of his forty years of wanderings with the covenant people: 
"Let Thy work appear unto Thy servants, and Thy glory unto their 
children. And let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us; and 
establish Thou the works of our hands upon us : yea, the work of our 
liands establish Thou it." Ps. 90 : 16, 17. 


The Augustana Synod 


Rev. Prof. T. N. Hasselquist, D. D. 

The Educational Institutions of the 
Augustana Synod. 

OVE OF LEAKNING is a characteristic of the Swedish people. 
The very excellent and efficient system of public education 
in Sweden is too well known to require discussion. So 
likewise is the fact that illiteracy is almost unheard of 
among Swedish immigrants who enter our American ports. The 
institutions of learning which have sprung into existence in the 
Augustana Synod within the last half century prove further that the 
Swedish immigrants who have become American citizens have abated 
nothing in their appreciation of sound culture. 

And yet for all this it was not the general appreciation of culture 
which led to the establishment of the first institutions of learning. 
More deep-seated even than their regard for learning were the venera- 
tion of God and the love of the Lutheran faith with which these 
immigrants of fifty years ago were inspired. Thrown into the be- 
wildering novelties of a new and cosmopolitan country, confronted 
by the relentless struggle for existence, and surrounded by influences 
which made for the undermining of their faith, these immigrants 
were chiefly concerned about their religion; they were anxious to 
take measures by which the distinctive elements of their Christian 
faith might be safeguarded and perpetuated for themselves and for 
their children. They were Lutherans; they lived in scattered com- 
munities most of them in the Upper Mississippi Valley; they spoke 
as yet chiefly or only the Swedish language; and they had but few 
pastors or other spiritual leaders. They therefore felt the need of 
communion with others of the same faith; and so, as early as 1851. 


we find them beginning to affiliate with the Evangelical S'ynod of 
Northern Illinois. 

As an adequate supply of pastors for these pioneer congregations 
could not be obtained from the mother country, the idea was con- 
ceived of establishing a Scandinavian professorship in the Illinois 
State University at Springfield, Illinois. This institution was a col- 
lege and theological seminary owned and controlled by the Synod of 
Northern Illinois and the Illinois Synod. 

The request for the establishment of such a professorship was made 
by the representatives of the Swedish and Norwegian congregations 
of the Synod of Northern Illinois at a joint meeting held by them 
in Waverly, Illinois, October 2, 1855. It met with a hearty approval 
by the synod at its next meeting. The professorship was established, 
and the Swedish and the Norwegian congregations were authorized to 
nominate a candidate for the new chair. At a meeting held in Eock- 
ford, 111., in September, 1857, Eev. Lars Paul Esbjorn was nomi- 
nated, and at a meeting of the synod in Cedarville, 111., the same year, 
he was duly elected. Eev. Esbjorn accepted the call and entered upon 
his duties at S'pringfield in the autumn of 1858. 

It soon became evident, however, that for various reasons, chief of 
which were doctrinal differences, this arrangement of a Scandinavian 
professorship at the Illinois State University could prove satisfactory 
neither to Prof. Esbjorn nor to his constituents. It is not within 
the scope of this paper to enter into the merits of this controversy. 
Be it sufficient to say that circumstances brought matters to a crisis 
in the early spring of 1860, when Prof. Esbjorn resigned his profes- 
sorship at the Springfield institution and at once removed to Chicago, 
followed scon afterwards by all but two of the Scandinavian students 
at Springfield. 

April 23 27, 1860, the Scandinavian Conferences of the Synod of 
Northern Illinois (the Mississippi Conference, the Chicago Conference, 
and the Minnesota Conference) held a joint meeting in the Swedish 
Lutheran church in Chicago. At this meeting the whole matter was 
canvassed at length; Prof. Esbjorn's resignation was approved; a 
committee was appointed to draft a constitution for an independent 
synod to be organized at a meeting to be held at Jefferson Prairie, 
near Clinton, Wisconsin, June 5, 1860; and another committee was 
appointed to draw up a constitution for an institution of learning 


to be owned and controlled by the synod about to be formed. The 
resolutions to appoint these committees on constitution were adopted 
April 27, 1860; and as this action implied a determination to found 
an institution of learning, this day is annually celebrated as Founders' 

Conformably to the resolutions adopted at the joint meeting of 
the three Scandinavian Conferences in Chicago, a convention of 
Scandinavian Lutheran pastors and lay delegates was held at the place 
and time specified. The result was the immediate organization of 
the Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod of North 
America and the adoption of two constitutions., one for the Synod and 
one for its institution of learning. The first paragraph of the latter 
reads as follows : "The Augustana S'ynod shall establish and maintain 
a theological seminary, which for the present is to be located in the 
city of Chicago, state of Illinois, and shall be called the Augustana 

As the founding of this institution may well be considered as the 
inception of our entire educational system, it is interesting to note 
the purpose for which it was founded as expressed in the constitution 
adopted Friday, June 6, 1860. Article 2 reads as follows: "The 
purpose of this institution of learning shall be to educate young men 
for the gospel ministry in the Lutheran Church, particularly in the 
.congregations which belong to the Augustana Synod, and also to pre- 
pare young men for the profession of teaching." 

It is safe to say of the oldest of our educational institutions and 
we believe that the statement will apply to the several institutions 
subsequently established that it has never swerved from the honest 
attempt to fulfil its original purpose. Should it be weighed in the 
balance and found wanting in this respect, it will have forfeited its 
prime reason for existence. The 700 men who within its walls have 
been trained wholly or in part for the gospel ministry and who have 
entered into the service of the Synod bear eloquent testimony to the 
faithfulness with which the institution has responded to the expecta- 
tion of its founders. That the number of candidates for the ministry 
presented to the Synod by the institution each year is not increasingly 
large is due to a complexity of causes, the simple elements of which 
baffle analysis; nor is it possible to determine the precise force of 
each of these deterring causes. Again, the number of young men 


and women who have qualified for the teaching profession and who 
have actually rendered service to the S'ynod along this line can scarcely 
be estimated. 

However, it was no breach of trust or failure to execute the original 
specific purpose of the institution which led its management at an 
early date to widen the scope of the school and extend the sphere of 
its usefulness. As early as 1876 we read in the catalogue of the 
institution over the signature of its venerable president, Dr. T. N". 
Hasselquist, the following discussion of the various departments 
into which the institution at that time had been organized: 

"The sole purpose of the Theological Seminary is to afford 

the necessary culture for the future pastors of congregations. 

"The College in common with other similar institutions of learn- 
ing is designed to impart that elementary scientific culture which is 
the indispensable foundation of all the special or professional studies 
requisite as well for the proper^ prosecution of the work of church 
and state alike as for the development of science and art . 

"The aim of the Preparatory Department is in the first place 
preparation for College. - - Another aim is to make this depart- 

ment a high school for the general public. - To this end 

instruction is given in such subjects as may be of general utility to 
all classes and conditions of men, in order that they may be the better 
qualified to take an intelligent part in the affairs of society as a whole 
and to engage in the various callings in the industrial and commercial 

The development of Augustana Seminary as well as the origin and 
growth of the various institutions of learning within the Augustana 
Synod will be discussed in outline below. Here it may be said in 
general that as a rule the development of all our educational institu- 
tions has been marked by a careful conservatism quite in accordance 
with the general character of the Swedish people. Hampered as they 
were by financial conditions, the founders took new steps only when 
experience plainly indicated that such steps were imperatively neces- 
sary to maintain and promote the effectiveness of their institutions. 
Hence in reviewing their history we may expect to find (and we do 
find) a steady development, an addition here and there of a new de- 
partment, an increase in the teaching force, and an improvement or 
adaptation of the curriculum to present day demands. It naturally 


follows that such a method should result in a thoroughness of aca- 
demic work that would challenge the respect and recognition of older 
institutions of learning. Such a recognition came from the mother- 
country as early as 1879, when the king of Sweden by an edict 
granted to graduates of Augustana College the privilege of pursuing 
studies and passing examinations at the universities of Sweden without 
entrance examinations. In other words, by this edict graduates of 
Augustana College are subject to precisely the same conditions for 
matriculation at the Swedish universities and enjoy the same rights 
and privileges there as the graduates of the time-honored colleges of 
Sweden. Similar privileges are accorded the graduates of our colleges 
also at the foremost universities of America. Of these privileges 
many of the graduates of our several colleges have availed themselves, 
and the sequel has proved that the elementary training received by 
them in the colleges of our Synod has been eminently satisfactory. 

With reference to the improvement to the curriculum, both quan- 
titatively and qualitatively, our schools have steadily endeavored to 
offer the best series of courses which the limitation of their means 
would permit. Over against the extreme views which have recently 
obtained in the educational world we have assumed a conservative 
attitude, believing a middle course to be the safest and sanest. In 
the past it was the rule in all schools to offer but one course, so that 
all regular students at the time of graduation would have pursued 
the same studies. During the last half century, owing to the great 
advancement of science, the domain of learning has been so much 
extended that it has been deemed not only advisable but even neces- 
sary and inevitable that a large number of branches of studies, un- 
heard of in the olden time, be introduced into the college curriculum. 
But it was out of question for each student to pursue all these branches 
of study. Differentiation of courses was the only solution of the 
problem. Yet, even when the principle of differentiation was admit- 
ted, there still remained the serious question of the best and most 
effective manner of carrying out the principle in practice. Some 
educators were in favor of dividing all the subjects of study to be 
pursued in college into groups, the studies of each group then being 
prescribed for the student throughout the four years of his college 
course. Other educators conceived the plan of allowing each student 
upon entering college to select for himself out of all the subjects in 


which instruction was given such subjects as he himself preferred to 
pursue. Strong arguments have been made for and against both 
plans. Our colleges have solved the problem for themselves by a 
middle course, as was said. Believing that the average youth upon 
entering college is 'hardly qualified to pass judgment upon the use- 
fulness of the individual subjects of study offered, the authorities 
have outlined various groups of study, some of which emphasize the 
study of ancient classical languages, others the modern languages, 
others the sciences, etc., etc. Each of these groups possesses a certain 
homogeneity conducive to a broad, liberal culture. This would rarely, 
it is believed, be the case if each student were to select his studies at 
random. In order that the student may not be hampered by a too 
rigorous prescription of studies, he is allowed upon the completion 
of his second college year to choose with considerable freedom the 
subjects he wishes to pursue during the remaining two years of his 
college course. In this way, whatever the group he chooses upon en- 
tering college, he will be assured of a well-rounded, liberal education, 
and at the same time he may during his junior and senior years 
select such studies as may seem to him of particular benefit in the 
profession which he may then be presumed to have chosen. 

At each of the schools of our Synod various student organizations 
and societies have been established, the purpose of which is to supple- 
ment the work of the class-room with such exercises as shall in one 
way or another make for the upbuilding of its members along spiritual, 
intellectual, aesthetic, or physical lines. Thus in the very first year 
of Augustana Seminary (1860 1861) a society was established which 
aimed to afford its members the opportunity for practice in debate, 
extempore public speaking, the delivery of set speeches, and for ac- 
quiring a practical knowledge of the processes of parliamentary bodies. 

That musical organizations have flourished at Swedish institutions 
goes without saying. A separate chapter in the history of our educa- 
tional institutions should be devoted to the invaluable services of Dr. 
0. Olsson, who, inspired by the rendering of Handel's oratorio, "The 
Messiah", to which he listened in London in 1879, conceived the idea 
of introducing our college youth to this glorious form of music. 
Upon returning to Eock Island he carried out this idea in the best 
and most practical manner by causing college students actually to 
render "The Messiah". The effects of this movement have been benef- 


icent and far-reaching beyond all expectations. Not only at Augus- 
tana College has the interest in oratorio music thus engendered con- 
tinued to manifest itself by annual concerts, but it has been taken up 
by other institutions of our Synod, notably at Bethany College, where 
the rendering of oratorio music has attained to a surpassing degree 
of perfection. 

As regards physical exercises be it remembered that it was a Swede, 
Per Henrik Ling, who devised what is probably the most rational 
system of gymnastics ever invented. Hence it is only to be expected 
that his fellow-countrymen should provide the students at their schools 
with every opportunity for judicious physical exercises. 

For spiritual upbilding a vast amount of good has been accom- 
plished by the students' missionary societies, Luther Leagues, Bible- 
study classes, as well as by the prayer-meeting conducted by the stu- 
dents themselves. 

As we are now to turn our attention to the very gratifying develop- 
ment of our educational institutions and to observe how the resolu- 
tions of April 27 and June 6, 1860, have born fruit in a complexity 
of schools, each doing its own particular work, and all contributing 
to the general welfare of the Synod, it must not be forgotten that the 
course of this development, while eminently satisfactory on the whole, 
has not been without its serious lets and hindrances. In aggregate 
the movement has been forward and onward, but we must be free to 
admit that there have been educational ventures here and there which 
came to grief. It is not necessary to maintain that the opening 
sentence of this sketch is untrue. The Swedish people do stand for 
learning. But it is only fair to take into consideration that the 
Augustana Synod has grown to its present proportions by continued 
accretions of immigrants who in a majority of cases were forced to 
wage a protracted struggle for existence, financially considered. Prac- 
tically all our educational institutions were founded in the midst of 
this struggle, and therefore it is not strange that some few of the 
educational ventures failed to receive the support which they deserved ; 
it is rather to be wondered at that so large a number of schools 
organized within the Synod have been supported loyally supported, 
too, and that often at no little sacrifice on the part of a people for 
the most part in small circumstances. 

Within a half century the educational institutions of the Synod 


have grown from a single school in 1860 with 21 students, one regular 
professor and two assistants, and no buildings whatever, to nine insti- 
tutions with over 3,000 students, 172 professors and instructors, and 
property to the value of nearly $900,000 (or to a net value, over and 
above all indebtedness of about $750,000) with current annual ex- 
penses of over $163,000. 

During this time about 700 men have been prepared for the gospel 
ministry; 900 persons have been graduated as bachelors of arts or 
sciences from our colleges; more than 2,000 have completed the 
courses of the commercial departments ; about 400 have completed the 
courses of the departments of music; and about 22,000 persons have 
for a longer or shorter period received some instruction in one or 
more of the departments of our institutions of learning. 

With these figures before us (set forth in detail in the statistical 
tables below), it may not be impossible to form some sort of a con- 
ception of the work accomplished by the educational institutions of 
the Synod and of the significance of that work. When it is borne 
in mind that the expense of establishing and maintaining these insti- 
tutions for upwards of fifty years mounts into the millions and that, 
with a few notable exceptions, the funds required to meet this expense 
have been contributed by the rank and file of the Synod, it is quite 
evident that these generous contributors and patrons have a right to 
ask, Does it pay? And especially in our day, when we are no longer 
strangers in the land or unacquainted with its language, and when we 
consider the very excellent public high schools and universities which 
we in common with our fellow citizens possess, the question presses 
for an answer, Does it after all pay? In the case of the founders, 
the establishment of Augustana Seminary was an act of self-preserva- 
tion. They realized that if Swedish Lutheranism in the West was to 
escape the fate of Swedish Lutheranism on the Delaware, the one 
thing necessary was a ministry educated within the Augustana Synod 
of America. And we believe this principle remains equally irrefutable 
to-day. Were we to look for our supply of clergymen to the number 
of those of our young men who have received in secular schools the 
education required for admission into a theological seminary, the 
already insufficient supply of candidates for the ministry would 
dwindle into a negligible quantity. And then ? We need not theorize ; 
we may read the answer in history. 


Again, we have seen that the scope and purpose of our institutions 
was at an early date widened. Our fathers realized the necessity of 
basing the education of their sons and daughters upon a more abiding 
foundation than that which it was in the power of secular public 
schools to furnish. Hence, augmented by geographical considerations, 
the multiplication and the rapid extension of our colleges and acade- 
mies. Now, .we may well ask, what has all this educational work, 
based upon Christian principles and carried on under an environment 
of Christian influence, what has it all meant in the life and growth 
of the Synod itself? The Christian educational work carried on at 
our institutions of learning is at once the result of the Christian life 
of our Synod and a powerful reacting force upon that life itself. 
What has it meant to the prosecution of energetic, aggressive work 
that for about fifty years a band of 14 or 15 men on an average has 
each year entered the ministry within the Augustana Synod? And 
aside from the supply of ordained ministers, what has it meant to 
the Synod that during this half century hundreds upon hundreds of 
its j'outh have issued from these institutions with increased powers, 
with a more conscious and intelligent appreciation of the religion of 
their fathers, and with a determination to lend their own abilities 
as laymen more or less directly to the service of their Church? These 
are matters which statistics can never reach. Let us not, however, 
be misled by the fact that not all those who have received the ad- 
vantage of an education within our institutions have allowed the seed 
sown in their heart and mind to spring forth and bear fruit for the 
kingdom of God. In the work of the Christian school, as in that of 
the Christian home and of the Christian Church generally, we meet 
with the same experience : we can but sow the seed, it is God who 
giveth the increase. And who shall deny that God has vouchsafed 
unto us an abundant increase and that he has blessed in a marvelous 
degree the efforts of our educational institutions ? Is it to be imagined 
that our Synod could have grown to its present vast dimensions, 
stretching over almost the entire United States and considerable por- 
tions of Canada, without the services of the ministers and Christian 
students who have been fitted for this service in the schools of our 
Synod? Or can it be presumed that the Synod could have obtained 
an equally numerous and efficient corps of workers if it had neglected 
to establish and maintain for this very purpose schools of its own? 


Or if it be conceived that this were possible, is it not certain that the 
present character and spirit of our Synod would in that case have 
been quite different from what it is to-day? Every one knows that 
each institution of learning has a character quite its own, that it is 
the embodiment of a certain idea and trend of thought, and that 
as such it molds and influences the character of its students so that 
they become the living exponents of the ideas and dominant principles 
of which the institution itself is an expression. Now if the institu- 
tions be an expression of the religious life and spiritual attitude of 
the Synod, and if they do their work effectively, it follows that they 
will be a powerful medium or agency for propagating that religious 
life and that spiritual attitude; for the students whose character is 
molded in these institutions will in their turn become the active 
leaders in the Synod and will thus perpetuate the distinctive and 
characteristic features in the faith and traditions of the founders of 
the Synod. And we may confidently assert that only through these 
means i. e. by the precaution of having the coming leaders of the 
Synod educated within the institutions of the Synod only so can the 
Synod have any assurance of perpetuity along the lines already laid 
down and established in the first half century of its existence. 

If, then, the Augustana Synod really has characteristics which are 
deemed of such great value that it would be an inestimable loss should 
they perish from the earth, then, we repeat, it pays to maintain those 
institutions which are the most effective instruments for perpetuating 
these characteristics, whatever be the cost. And we believe that the 
Augustana Synod has such characteristics. We believe that the repre- 
sentatives from every civilized, Christian country who have come to 
make America their home are each in possession of some distinctive 
excellence either not possessed at all by immigrants from other lands 
or in not so marked a degree. The best of each should therefore be 
scrupulously guarded as a sacred treasure, should be protected from 
extinction when the other elements of foreign nationality are lost, and 
should be contributed to the common fund of American culture, re- 
ligion, and citizenship, so that the civilization about to be evolved in 
America may become, under the providence of God, in its complexity 
and cosmopolitan character better than anything heretofore produced 
in history. 

The people of the Augustana Synod owe it as a debt to their 


children to hand over to them the good which they have themselves 
brought from overseas or have inherited from their Swedish- 
American fathers; they owe it to the Synod, under the influence of 
which rich spiritual blessings have come to themselves, to perpetuate 
that Synod; and they owe it to the American nation, as above indi- 
cated, under whose beneficent government and liberal institutions 
they have enjo} r ed and still enjoy inestimable privileges, to contribute 
to the character of American civilization all that which is best in 
Swedish Lutheran faith and church practice, which we firmly believe 
is represented by the Augustana Synod and its institutions of 

When at the celebration of the semi-centennial of our Synod and 
its first institution of learning we look back and take an inventory 
of results attained, and when we particularly scrutinize the achieve- 
ments of our educational institutions, studying them in the light both 
of statistics and of personal observation, there can be but one con- 
clusion : The good seed has been sown, with such infirmity, it is true, 
as ever attaches to the best efforts of men, but with noble intent and 
pious resolve; and God has graciously blessed the seed so that it has 
borne an abundant harvest. 

Fifty years constitute a long period in human life, but in the case 
of institutions of learning they are but the period of infancy. Let 
us hope that the efforts of the educational institutions of the Augus- 
tana Synod have already in the first stage of their development shown 
that they are a powerful agency for good, that they have vindicated 
their right to existence and to the continued support of their patrons. 
Let us devoutly pray that under the guidance of God they may con- 
tinue their development into a period of maturity indefinitely pro- 
longed ; that among the variously shifting skepticism of the ages they 
may ever stand firm as the champions of a true, liberal, God-inspired 
culture, reflecting accurately and consistently the Christian faith and 
doctrine of their founders; and that in ever widening circles of in- 
fluence they may prove powerful factors in disseminating sound 
Christian culture among the sons and daughters of the Augustana 


Synopsis of the History of the Various Educational Institutions 
within the Augustana Synod. 

Augustana College and Theological Seminary. 

The oldest of the educational institutions of the Augustana Synod 
was founded, as above set forth, in 1860 under the name of Augustana 
Seminary and was first located in Chicago, Illinois. Prof. Lars Paul 
Esbjorn was made the first president. Twenty-one students were in 
attendance during its first year. It is interesting to note that from 
the very outset, though there was but one regular professor, instruc- 
tion was given in all the following subjects : Sacred History, Hebrew, 
Greek New Testament, Pastoral Theology, Homiletics, Symbolics, 
Church History, Dogmatics, English Grammar, Swedish Grammar, 
Norwegian Grammar, German, Logic, Latin, Khetoric, Arithmetic, 
Geometry, Algebra, Trigonometry, History, and Geography. Five 
candidates for the ministry, who had completed a satisfactory theo- 
logical course at the seminary during its first year, were ordained 
in 1861. 

At the meeting of the Synod in Chicago, 1863, after the members 
of the Synod in a body had had the opportunity to visit the proposed 
new site for the seminary at Paxton, Illinois, it was resolved to move 
the institution to that place. At the same meeting the Synod was 
constrained with much regret to accept the resignation of Professor 
Esbjorn, who was then about to return to Sweden. Eev. T. N. Has- 
selquist, at that time in charge of the congregation at Paxton, was 
elected temporarily to fill the vacancy at the seminary. He was subse- 
quently elected to this position permanently, and served the institu- 
tion ably and faithfully as professor in the Theological Department 
and as president of the institution until his death in February, 1891. 

In the year in which it was moved to Paxton the institution was 
incorporated and its name was changed to Augustana College and 
Seminary. In 1865 it received its charter. The charter was amended 
by a special act of the legislature in 1869. In this charter the name 
was again changed to Augustana College and Theological Seminary, 
by which name it has since been known. 

The externals of the institution during its early days at Paxton 


were certainly unpretentious. During the first year an old school- 
house was purchased by the Board of Directors and a modest "board- 
ing-house" was erected upon a lot donated by Professor Hasselquist, 
The attendance this year was only ten, seven Swedes and three 
Norwegians. Professor Hasselquist was the only regular instructor. 
During the academic year 1865 1866, however, the number of stu- 
dents increased to forty. 

The institution continued to grow, and in order to meet the de- 
mands placed upon it at that time, it was organized into three depart- 
ments, the Theological, the Collegiate, and the Preparatory. The 
teaching force was augmented in 1864 by the election of Eev. William 
Kopp as English professor. When he resigned in 1867, Eev. S. L. 
Harkey was elected to succeed him. Eev. Harkey resigned in 1870 
and was succeeded by Eev. Henry Eeck, who served from 1871 to the 
time of his death, in 1881. 

In 1868 two new professors were added to the faculty, viz. : Eev. 
Dr. A. E. Cervin from Sweden and Eev. A. Wenaas from Norway. 
By the appointment of Eev. Wenaas the original idea of having at 
least three professors one Swedish, one Norwegian, and one English 
was realized. 

In 1870 the Norwegian pastors and congregations of the Synod, 
deeming it consistent with their best interests to organize an inde- 
pendent Norwegian Synod, withdrew from the Augustana Synod. 
Consequently Prof. Wenaas and the Norwegian students withdrew 
from the institution. Nevertheless the number of students the year 
following was about fifty, and during the last year of the institution 
at Paxton (1874 1875) the attendance was over eighty. 

When it was decided to remove the school from Chicago to Paxton, 
it was supposed that the latter place would soon be the center of a 
large Swedish population. This did not prove to be the case. So 
the reports of the conventions of the Synod in 1869, '70, '71, and '72 
show a discussion of the question of again removing the school to a 
more central location. In 1872, at its meeting in Galesburg, Illinois, 
the Synod authorized the Board of Directors to remove the institu- 
tion to Moline or Eock Island. 

In March 1873 a suitable location consisting of 18% acres of 
picturesque bluff land was purchased in Eock Island at a cost of 
$10,000. At its meeting in Paxton the same year the Synod author- 


ized the erection of a suitable building. In the fall of 1875 the institu- 
tion was moved to Eock Island ; the school year was opened September 
22; and the new, commodious, and beautiful building was dedicated 
October 14. 

From time to time smaller buildings, designed as residences for 
professors, were built. Thus there are on 35th street two frame 
buildings, and east of the Old College Building a brick house, long 
used as the home of Dr. Hasselquist and Dr. Weidner, later as the 
home of Dr. Olsson, and now serving as a Ladies' Hall. In 1883 a 
temporary frame building, called Jubilee Hall, with a seating capacity 
of about 3,000, was erected to provide a suitable place for celebrating 
the fourth centennial anniversary of the birth of Martin Luther. It 
was also used as a gymnasium. 

As the institution continued to grow more room was needed. The 
Old College Building, spacious as it had seemed in 1875, proved inade- 
quate to supply the increasing demands for larger class-rooms, as- 
sembly hall or chapel, library, laboratories, etc. Hence at the meeting 
of the Synod in 1883 at Bed Wing, Minnesota, it was determined to 
erect a new college building at a cost of about $100,000 as soon as 
the necessary funds could be raised for this purpose. It was not, 
however, until in February 1888 that this building was ready for 
occupancy. It was dedicated in 1889 in connection with the meeting 
of the Synod, which this year convened at Eock Island. This New 
College Building is a magnificent stone structure of the Eenaissance 
style. The basement and first floor contain recitation rooms and 
lecture halls of the Collegiate, Academic, and Conservatory depart- 
ments, the Biological Laboratory, and the president's and the treas- 
urer's offices. The second floor contains the lecture rooms of the 
Theological Department, Cable Hall, and the Chapel, which occupies 
two stories in the east end of the building. The Art Department, the 
Library, and the Museum occupy the third floor. 

The building latest erected is the Gymnasium, a fine brick structure 
It is located immediately south of the New College Building. The 
erection of the various buildings above referred to is an evidence of 
the inner development which the institution was undergoing during 
these years. No buildings were erected in advance of existing needs. 
But an active and efficient president and a corps of faithful profes- 
sors, alert to the needs and demands of the people of the Synod, were 

The Augustana Synod 8 



ever adapting the courses of in- 
struction to the need of the time. 
That their efforts were well di- 
rected is evidenced by the con- 
tinued increase of students and' 
the consequent need of increased 
facilities for carrying on the work. 
While during the first years of 
the institution there had been a 
theological department with a 
sort of general preparatory de- 
partment, especially designed as 
a pro-seminary school, a differen- 
tiation into a Theological Depart- 
ment, a Collegiate Department, 
and a Preparatory Department 
was made as soon as it was 
deemed possible and expedient. 

In the Theological Department 
during the first years of the insti- 
tution the course of study covered 
but one year. From 1874 to 1890 
the course was made to extend 
over two full years. In 1890 the 
course was rearranged on the 
university plan in such a way 
that the instruction was divided into fourteen independent divisions 
called "courses". This was approved by the Synod in 1891. Since 
that time various extensions have been made,so that since 1900 the full 
theological curriculum embraces twenty "courses"', and the student who 
has successfully covered this course of study is graduated with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Divinity. Owing to the great need of ministers 
in the rapidly growing Synod, a so-called "minimum course" was 
established in 1880 for the benefit of those candidates for the ministry 
whose age rendered it inexpedient or impossible for them to complete 
the full course. This "miniirmm course" was, however, abrogated in 
1898, since which time no student not a graduate of a recognized col- 
lege has been matriculated in the Seminary. 

President of Augustana College. 


The building up of the College Department was a slow but, we 
believe, a thorough process. Instruction in the lower college classes 
was begun as early as 1866, but it was not till 1876 that a senior class 
was formed. The members of this class were graduated in 1877, and 
were the first to receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts from this 

In the College Department ten specific departments of instruction 
have been established. These are Swedish, English and Philosophy, 
Latin, Greek, Modern Languages, Christianity, History and Political 
Science, Biology and Geology, Physics and Chemistry, and Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy. 

For the sake of meeting modern demands upon a college education, 
the various subjects included in the above ten departments have been 
arranged into six parallel courses or "groups", viz. : The Classical A, 
The Classical B, The Modern Language, The Latin-Scientific, The 
General Science, and The Mathematical. These groups all extend 
over a four-year period of study and are assumed to be equally diffi- 
cult and honorable. They are designed to afford the student a liberal 
education, while at the same time they give him an opportunity to 
shape his collegiate studies with a view to his prospective lifework. 
In each of the six, groups a certain proportion of the studies is 
prescribed and a certain portion is elective, the institution believing 
that this is the golden mean between the widely divergent radical 
views with reference to electivism. 

In the Academic Department (originally called the Preparatory 
Department) the course of instruction covers three years. The sub- 
jects pursued in addition to Swedish and Christianity are those com- 
monly studied in schools which prepare their students for entrance 
into college. For students who may not be prepared to enter the 
Academy a Preparatory course of one year has been established. In 
this course instruction is given in the common elementary branches. 

Interest in music has always characterized Swedish Lutherans. Dr. 
Hasselquist early in his career as president of the institution called 
the attention of the Synod to the importance of instruction along 
this line. In January, 1886, the Augusta-na Conservatory of Music 
was established. Its aim was originally to provide facilities for those 
who desired to become church organists. While keeping this aim in 
view the^ Conservatory has enlarged its scope to include the various 


departments usually found in first class conservatories of music. In 
connection with the Conservatory is a Department of Elocution and 
Physical Culture; also a School of Art, which was established in 1895. 

In October, 1888, a Commercial Department (the present Business 
College, School of Phonography, and School of Penmanship) was 
established in order to afford to young men and women the best pos- 
sible opportunities for acquiring a thorough business training under 
Christian influences. That the instruction given in this department 
has been of a thoroughly useful kind is attested by the demand for 
its graduates on the part of prominent mercantile establishments as 
well in the Tri-cities as elsewhere. 

In 1891 a Normal Department was established. The aim of this 
department is specifically to qualify students for the profession of 
teaching in the parochial and public schools. The course of study 
embraces three years. 

The institution is fortunate in the possession of a Museum con- 
taining very valuable and comprehensive collections which facilitate 
the study of zoology, botany, geology, and kindred sciences. It has 
also Ethnographic and Numismatic collections, the latter numbering 
over 1,200 specimens of coins, medals, and tokens. Another collec- 
tion, called "The Historical Collection of American Lutheran and 
Scandinavian-American Literature", has already grown to consider- 
able proportions and will prove exceedingly valuable to future his- 
torians. The Library of the institution contains at present nearly 
25,000 volumes. When the library shall be settled in its new home 
in the Denkmann Memorial Library Building it is to be hoped that 
friends of the institution may help to increase its effectiveness by the 
generous contribution both of reference books and of general litera- 

In addition to the regular courses of study in the different depart- 
ments, various means have been used to surround the students with 
the best possible facilities for improvement along spiritual, intellec- 
tual, and physical lines. Thus in the very first year of the institution 
(1860) the PlirenoTcosmian Society was founded for the purpose of 
affording its members literary development as well as the opportunity 
for practice in extempore debate and public speaking. This society 
continues to flourish at the present time. Various other societies 
with similar aims have in the course of time been established and have 


contributed largely towards affording students an opportunity of be- 
coming acquainted with parliamentary practice by actual participa- 
tion in the proceedings of deliberative bodies. 

In 1898 the Concordia Society was organized by the theological 
students. Its aim is to work for the promotion of Evangelical Lu- 
theran theological culture and the strengthening of Evangelical Lu- 
theran faith. All students of the Theological Department are eligible 
to membership. 

The Augustana Foreign Mission Society was organized in 1886 
and incorporated in 1895. Its aim is to arouse and maintain among 
the students a lively interest in the extension of God's kingdom in 
heathen lands, and by means of membership fees, contributions, and 
bequests to render aid to the Synod in its foreign mission work. 
Through the efforts of this society about $15,000 have been raised for 
the furtherance of foreign mission work and 13 of its members are 
now serving as missionaries in foreign fields. 

The Handel Oratorio Society, originally called The Augustana 
Oratorio Society, was organized in the fall of 1880. This was the 
first society of its kind in this section of the Mississippi Valley. The 
influence of this society in developing in its members a taste for 
sacred classical music cannot be overestimated. Hundreds of students 
are under the deepest obligation to Dr. 0. Olsson, its founder and 
stanch supporter, for affording them an opportunity to become ac- 
quainted with that which is best in the noble art of music; and 
through them this influence has passed on to the remotest corners 
of our Synod. 

As stated above, when the Synod determined to move the institu- 
tion to Bock Island, 18% acres of land was purchased. In 1886 
Dr. A. W. Williamson presented to the institution five acres of land 
adjoining the college campus on the south. The grounds of the college 
were further enlarged in 1900 through a splendid donation by the 
Augustana University Association. This association, incorporated in 
May, 1891, with the express purpose of promoting the growth and 
higher development of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, 
though entirely independent of the college and of the Synod, seized the 
opportunity of purchasing for a sum of $25,000 a beautiful tract of 
level land situated north of the college grounds and consisting of about 
ten or twelve acres together with a large brick residence building. This 


was a large undertaking and owing to the financial stringency during 
the following years it seemed almost impossible for the Association 
to carry out its contract. But in the summer of 1898, Senator C. 
J. A. Ericson of Boone, Iowa, promised a donation of $12,800 to the 
Association on the condition that the Association would raise the re- 
maining portion of the indebtedness ($12,800). In October, 1899, 
this condition was fulfilled and the property, henceforth known as 
Ericson Park, was donated by the Association to the Board of Directors 
of Augustana College and Theological Seminary. The grounds of the 
institution accordingly consist of about thirty-six acres of land. 

The history of the finances of the institution, interesting and im- 
portant though it be, can here be merely alluded to. The institution 
was founded by a comparatively small band of immigrants, devoted 
to their Lutheran faith and zealous for its maintenance, but as a 
rule at least in the earlier years handicapped by poverty. Never- 
theless they undertook the support of a school in order that they might 
be supplied with ministers and teachers. Under the providence of 
God they have been successful in carrying out their purpose. With 
the exception of a few notable donations in larger sums, the vast 
amount of money required to erect and maintain the necessary build- 
ings and to meet the running expenses of the institution for a period 
of fifty years has been faithfully we might say heroically contrib- 
uted by the rank and file of the Augustana Synod. Special and 
grateful mention must be made, even in this brief sketch, of the gift 
of $25,000 by Mr. P. L. Cable of Eock Island, Illinois, in 1885, by 
means of which the erection of the new main building was facilitated ; 
also the gift of 160 acres of farm land in Iowa and of the coal rights 
in 120 acres of land (also in Iowa) by Senator C. J. A. Ericson of 
Boone, Iowa; further of the donation through friends of the institu- 
tion in Sweden of $27,000 for a fund to be called the "Oscar II 
Professorship"; and, finally, of the splendid gift of the Denkmann 
family of Eock Island. Public announcement of this donation was 
made January 28, 1909. The gift consists in a memorial library to 
be erected on the campus immediately west of the main building at 
a cost of not less than $100,000, in honor of Mr. and Mrs. F. C. A. 
Denkmann, the parents of the donors. 

In addition to these donations, many other gifts have been received 
from generous friends and patrons of the institution. 


The great value of endowment funds for institutions of learning 
has long been recognized by the authorities of Augustana College and 
Theological Seminary. No definite action, however, was taken towards 
the realization of such a fund until the meeting of the Synod in 
Paxton, 1903. The final decision as to details was made at New 
Britain in 1907. By these resolutions the Synod has expressed its 
determination to collect a fund of $250,000 as a general endowment 
fund for Augustana College and Theological Seminary; and, as the 
fund is to be raised by the time the Synod convenes in June, 1910, to 
celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of its founding and of the establish- 
ment of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, the fund was 
called the "Jubilee Fund". The Iowa Conference as early as 1906 
pledged itself to raise $40,000 for this fund; Illinois followed in 1907 
with a promise of $140,000; and in 1908 Minnesota promised to con- 
tribute $50,000, Kansas $7,000, Nebraska $10,000, New York $20,000 
and California $1,000. The work of collecting this fund has been 
vigorously prosecuted for several years; old as well as new friends 
of the institution have made generous contributions; and it is to be 
hoped that the plans of the authorities of the institution and the 
resolutions of the Synod with reference to the Jubilee Fund may be 
fully realized and that Augustana College and Theological Seminary 
may thus be placed upon a secure financial basis for the future. 

Gustavus Adolphus College. 

At a meeting of the Minnesota Conference in East Union in Octo- 
ber, 1862, the following resolution was adopted: "Whereas the need 
of school teachers in our congregations is so pressing that we can no 
longer endure it, therefore be it resolved that Brother Norelius be 
requested to assume the duty of instructing such young men as the 
congregations may send to him, in order that by means of such in- 
struction they may be prepared to teach school both in the Swedish 
and in the English languages." 

To this request Eev. Norelius responded affirmatively. During the 
fall of this year only one student presented himself. This was J. 
Magny, now the Eev. J. Magny, D. D. The following spring term, 
however, ten students appeared, so that the total attendance the first 
year was eleven. 

In 1863 the school was moved to East Union, the fall term begin- 



ning in September. Five acres of land were purchased by members 
of Company II, Ninth Regiment of Minnesota Volunteers, and do- 
nated to the school. Rev. A. Jackson, who was compelled to abandon 
his missionary work in Kandiyohi county owing to the hostilities of 
the Indians, was placed in charge of the school as president and 

As this was the first of the institutions of learning within the Synod 
not directly established by the Synod, it is very interesting to note 
its earliest relation to the Synod. At the meeting of the Synod in 
1863, the Minnesota Conference reported the establishment of a school. 
The Synod at once expressed its approval of the steps taken by the 
Minnesota Conference. As the Synod, however, had but three years 
before founded its own institution of learning and realized that the 



interest taken in the one institution might possibly prove detrimental 
to the other, the following resolutions were adopted : 1. That the 
Synod rejoices to hear of the school recently established in Minnesota, 
on the condition, however, that it be placed in the right relation to 
the Synod; 2. That the Synod therefore desires the Minnesota school 
to be placed in the same relation to the Synod as the Augustana 
S'eminary ; 3. That a committee be appointed to draw up a proposed 
constitution for the above mentioned school and report the same to 
the Synod. 

In accordance with these resolutions a committee was immediately 
appointed, which prepared a constitution and reported it to the Synod 
at a subsequent session, June 27, 1863. The proposed constitution 
was adopted by the Synod. The representatives of the Minnesota 
Conference in attendance at this convention of the Synod then pro- 
ceeded to elect a Board of (8) Directors for their school. This 
action was then reported to the Synod and received its sanction. 

The name of the institution was at first "Minnesota Elementar- 
skola". It was incorporated in 1865. As this year was the thousandth 
anniversary of the death of St. Ansgarius, the "Apostle to the North", 
the name of the institution was changed to "St. Ansgar's Academy". 

After some time it was found that East Union was not the most 
advantageous location for the school, and in 1873 the Conference 
resolved to move it to some other place. The determination of the 
place to which it should be moved proved a very perplexing question. 
For some time the idea of placing the Academy in Minneapolis, in 
close connection with the University of Minnesota was seriously enter- 
tained. Under this plan the students were to be under the immediate 
supervision of the Academy, in which also they were to receive instruc- 
tion in the Swedish language and in religion as well as in the common 
branches required for admission to the undergraduate course of the 
University. College subjects were to be studied at the University. 
Various causes, however, prevented the realization of this plan. In 
the meantime Mr. Andrew Thorson of St. Peter had energetically set 
to work to raise by subscription the sum of $10,000 in St. Peter and 
vicinity for the Academy in case the Conference should locate its 
institution at that- place. This sum was accordingly offered to the 
Conference. It was accepted on the condition that the $10,000 thus 
raised be used for the erection of suitable buildings and that the 


people of St. Peter and vicinity donate a sufficient amount of land 
for a campus. A new corporation composed of the pastors of the 
Minnesota Conference was formed in 1874 under the name of "The 
Swedish Lutheran Board of Educa- 
tion." This corporation was tech- 
nically to own and control the in- 

In 1875 the first building now 
known as "Old Main" was erected 
at a cost of $26,000. It was dedi- 
cated October 31, 1876. The name 
of the institution was now changed 
to Gustavus Adolphus College. 

The development of the institu- 
tion has always been along safe, con- 
servative lines, characterized by a 
thoroughness which has placed it in KEY. p. A. MATTSON, D. D., PH. D., 

-i ,i i President of Gustavus Adolphus College. 

a conspicuous place among the de- 
nominational colleges of the country. During the long and successful 
administration of President M. Wahlstrom, Ph. D., a period of 23 
years the institution developed into maturity as a full-grown college. 
The first college class was organized in 1885 and the first senior class 
in 1889. The latter class, consisting of eight persons, was graduated 
in 1890, its members receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

The College Department offers at present four "groups" or courses 
of study: the Classical, the Modern, the Science, and the Historical. 
These courses are so arranged as to secure in the opinion of the man- 
agement "the best development of the mind, furnish the broadest cul- 
ture, and afford the student an opportunity to select a course best 
adapted to the vocation in life that he intends to pursue." All these 
groups lead to the A. B. degree. 

The Academy offers three groups of study, representing the Clas- 
sical, Modern, and Science courses. 

The school of Pedagogy, organized in 1893, offers in the main the 
same courses of study as those given in the Academy and the Fresh- 
man class of the college together with special instruction in the theory 
and art of teaching. 

The School of Commerce was established in 1887. It offers five 


courses of study : a Commerce Course, a Post-graduate Commerce 
Course, a Shorthand and Typewriting Course, an Agricultural Course, 
and a short Business Course. 

The School of Music was established in 1887. It offers five courses : 
a course in Piano, a course in Pipe Organ, a course in Violin, a course 
in Voice, and a Special Course. The Special Course affords instruc- 
tion on cello, clarinet, and other instruments. 

The institution has a library of about 10,000 volumes, a museum 
well equipped with ethnographic, numismatic, zoological, geological, 
and botanical collections. It has seven buildings: the Old Main 
Building, the Auditorium (the new main building), the School of 
Commerce Building, North Hall, South Hall, the President's res- 
idence, and the Gymnasium. There is now in process of erection a 
dormitory, made possible by the gift of $32,500 by Andrew Carnegie. 

Bethany College. 

The first step taken towards the establishment of an institution of 
learning among the Swedes in Kansas was the action of the Bethany 
congregation in Lindsborg at its annual meeting in 1879. It was 
then resolved that some of the land belonging to the congregation 
should be sold as city lots and that half of the receipts accruing from 
such sales should be set aside as the foundation of a fund for an in- 
stitution of learning to be located in Lindsborg. Nothing further 
was done, however, till in 1881. After the meeting of the Synod at 
Lindsborg in this year, the pastor, Bev. C. A. Swensson, determined 
to carry intd execution the idea of establishing a school at Lindsborg. 
He succeeded in interesting the other pastors of the Smoky Hill dis- 
trict in the project, but they were unwilling to share with him the 
financial responsibility involved in the venture. Kev. Swensson there- 
fore assumed this responsibility himself. October 15 was the day set 
for the beginning of the term. Prof. J. A. Udden, who had been 
graduated the same year at Augustana College, was engaged as in- 
structor. When on the specified day and hour Eev. Swensson appeared 
at the church to bid the new students welcome, no students had 
appeared. But they came later, and the first year's enrollment 
reached the not inconsiderable number of twenty-seven. Prof. Udden 
taught all subjects with the exception of religion. This subject was 
taught one hour each day by Eev. Swensson. 



In the spring of 1882 an old pnblic school building was purchased 
from the village of Lindsborg for the use of the new institution. The 
local congregation at its annual meeting the same year resolved that 
a portion of the land called the "Park" be given to the new school as 
soon as it was incorporated, on the condition that the school be 
located at Lindsborg. 

During its first year the institution had been looked upon as an 
experiment. The experiment proved successful beyond expectation. 
Hence at its meeting in Marion Hill in 1882 the Smoky Hill mission 
district adopted the new school as its own and a board of directors 
consisting of four pastors and four laymen was appointed. 

In September of this year (1882) the institution received its char- 
ter, under the name of "Bethany Academy," to be owned and eon- 
trolled by the Smoky Hill district of the Kansas Conference. 

In connection with the opening of the second academic year, Octo- 
ber 9, 1882, the first building of the Academy was dedicated. Im- 




mediately, however, the 
need of another building 
to be used as a dormitory 
and dining-hall was felt, 
and a subscription was 
begun to raise funds for 
such a building. The lo- 
cal congregation again 
demonstrated its gener- 
osity and its kindly in- 
terest in the school by 
donating a suitable site 
for the new building. In 
the fall of the year 1883 
the building was com- 
pleted and dedicated. It 
was used almost from the 
beginning as the Ladies' 

In March, 1884, the 
Kansas Conference at its 
meeting in Mariadahl 
adopted the institution. 
At the same meeting Lu- 
ther Academy in Wahoo, 
Nebraska, was also adopt- 
ed by the Kansas Confer- 
ence. It was therefore resolved that Bethany Academy was to be 
supported by the Smoky Hill, Clay Centre, and eastern districts, and 
that the Conference petition the Synod to be allowed to retain a 
portion of the so-called "twenty-five-cent fee" for the support of the 
two conference schools. In the spring of this year (1884) a class of 
five young men was graduated from the Academy. 

As the need of teachers for the parochial and public schools was 
felt to be very urgent, the authorities of the Academy so changed the 
courses of study as to make the institution a training school for teach- 
ers. The new arrangement went into effect in the fall of 1885, and 
the name of the school was changed to "Bethany Normal Institute." 

REV. CARL SWENSSOX, D. D., PH. D., R. N. 0. 
Founder of Bethany College. 


The institution continued to grow and in consequence another 
building was needed. In the spring of 1886 the building was begun, 
but it was not completed till the following spring. It was dedicated 
June 2, 1887. This is the main building of the institution. It is 
a plain but substantial and commodious building, five stories in height. 
The basement has ample space for a large dining room and kitchen, 
a museum, a chemical laboratory, and three recitation rooms. In the 
first story are placed the library, the faculty room, the treasurer's 
office, the Commercial Department, and six recitation and lecture 
rooms. The second story contains the president's office, the Conser- 
vatory Department, one room for the Commercial Department, rooms 
for students, and the chapel. The chapel also occupies a portion of 
the third story. The rest of the building, except the fifth floor which 
is used for laboratories, is mostly devoted to rooms for students, the 
number of these rooms being about 100. 

In the year 1886 the course of study was extended so as to include 
a freshman class, and the name of the institution was again changed 
to "Bethany College and Normal Institute." A sophomore class was 
added in 1888; a junior class in 1889; and a senior class in 1890. 
The institution had now grown into a complete college, and in 1891 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred upon the four members 
of the first class to be graduated from the institution. 

Naturally the courses of study have been changed and improved 
from time to time and additions made to them. In 1889 a full 
Scientific Course was organized. The College of Business was estab- 
lished in 1884; the Musical Conservatory in 1885; the Model School 
in 1886; the School of Art in 1890; the Department of Oratory and 
Elocution in 1896; the School of Shorthand and Typewriting in 
1898; and the School of Sloyd, Pyrography, and Embroidery in 1901. 

By a recent amendment to its charter the name of the institution 
has again been changed, this time to "Bethany College." 

The institution is well equipped with a library of about 12,000 
volumes and pamphlets; a Museum of Natural History containing 
ample illustrative material for the study of the natural sciences, etc. ; 
also laboratories for the study of chemistry, physics, and biology. 

In addition to the buildings referred to above mention must be 
made of the Auditorium, the Swedish Pavilion and the Carnegie 
Library. The Auditorium is a commodious assembly room with a 



capacity of nearly 3,000. It was necessary to erect this building in 
order to accommodate the great number of visitors on the occasion of 
the Messiah Concerts for which Bethany College is justly famous. 
Space forbids a discussion of these concerts, but it is mere justice to 
remark that had Bethany College accomplished nothing else, the 
institution would still deserve the gratitude of all lovers of music as 
well for the marvelous work it has done in fostering upon the 
western prairies a love for oratorio music as also for the splendid 
manner in which it renders these great creations of the masters. 

The Swedish Pavilion is a memento of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition at St. Louis. It was presented to Bethany College by 
Hon W. W. Thomas in 1905. It is of quaint architecture, repre 
senting an ancient Swedish manor. It is used as an assembly hall 
and as a gymnasium for the lady students. 

The Carnegie Library is a fine, new building 76 feet long by 67 





President of Bethany College. 

feet wide, and consists of a basement and two full stories. It is the 
gift of Andrew Carnegie, who in April 1907 donated to Bethany 
College $20,000 with which to erect a library building. 

Bethany College comprises at present the following departments : 

1. The Graduate Department 
offers opportunities for advanced 
work with or without reference to 
the attainment of a degree. 

2. The College of Liberal Arts 
and Sciences. The courses in this 
department are so arranged that 
nearly all the required work is done 
during the first two years, leaving 
the student to elect such studies 
during his last two college years as 
will bear more directly upon the 
profession he aims to follow. 

3. The School of Education fur- 
nishes full professional training for 

4. The Academy furnishes preparation for college. It consists 
of a three years' course and corresponds in general to a high school. 

5. The College of Music and Fine Arts offers complete courses 
in piano, organ, voice, violin, wind and. reed instruments; also in 
painting, sketching, sloyd and art needlework. The School of Ex- 
pression affords training in public speaking. 

6. The School of Business offers the courses usual in a commercial 

7. The School of Law, organized in 1902, prepares candidates for 
admission to the practice of law in district and state courts. 

8. The Model School is the practice school for the normal stu- 
dents. It gives to the pupils composing it a complete common school 

9. The Summer School. Instruction is given in the Normal, 
Commercial, Music, and Art departments during the summer months 
for the benefit of those primarily whose connection with the public 
schools makes it impossible for them to attend during the regular 
academic year. 

The Augitstana Synod 9 



Upsala College. 

The New York Conference was organized in 1870. At an early 
date it was apparent that the absence of an institution of learning 
was a serious handicap to the rapid and vigorous development of itb 
church work. Owing to various causes chief of which was the 
fact that a very large portion of the membership in the churches of 
the Conference consisted of recent immigrants from Sweden 
nothing definitely was done towards establishing a conference school 
until 1887. A committee was then appointed to take steps toward 
ihe realization of this purpose. This committee reported, however, 
the following year that nothing could be done owing to the large 
indebtedness of the Conference resulting from the establishment and 
maintenance of the Orphans' Home of the Conference. 

Another committee was appointed in 1892, and in 1893 yet an- 
other. This year (1893) the committee was authorized to determine 
the place and the time for opening a school. June 14, 1893, this 
committee met at Augustana College, Eock Island, Illinois, and decid- 
ed upon Brooklyn, New York, as the place and October of the same 
year as the time for the opening of the school. They also determined 
that the name of the new institution should be Upsala College. This 



name was especially appropriate as the year 1893 marked the third 
centennial celebration of the famous decree of Uppsala in Sweden. 

The school was opened October 3, 1893, in the Sw. Ev. Luth. 
Bethlehem church in Brooklyn. The first academic year was spent 
here. The next four years the institution was located in a large 
building on McDonough street, the property of the St. Paul congre- 

It was apparent that this was but a temporary arrangement; hence 
the management was continually on the lookout for a suitable per- 
manent location. In 1897 "The New Orange Industrial Association'' 
made an offer to the Conference of fifteen acres of land and a cash 
bonus in addition, if the college were located upon a tract of land 
then known as New Orange and owned by the association in Union 
County, New Jersey. This offer was accepted by the Conference and 
the college in the fall of 1898 was moved to New Orange the 
name of which place was later changed to Kenilworth its present 
home. The Main Building was erected in 1899. It is a three-story 
building of brick, of only moderate size, but convenient and well 
adapted to its purpose. A second building, known as Crescendo Hall 
and designed as a ladies' dormitory, was built in 1906. It is a frame 
building of three stories and contains 26 rooms. A third building 
was added in 1907. This is a commodious structure of four stories 
and contains 43 full-sized rooms. It is used as a men's dormitory, 
but contains in addition room for the Commercial Department. The 
basement is used for the dining hall and kitchen department. 

At the opening of the institution two departments were at once 
organized: a Preparatory Department (Acadamy) and a Musical 
Department. It was also decided to establish a Commercial Depart- 
ment as soon as practicable. This was effected at the beginning of the 
second term of the first year. The second academic year a fresh- 
man class was added. The students of the institution, as had been 
anticipated, were of great help in serving the congregations of the 
Conference; hence the Conference was -loath to lose the services of 
these students upon the completion of their freshman year. For this 
reason together with others, the Conference in 1902 resolved to add 
a class each year until the institution should have the regular num- 
ber of classes required in a college. This was done and in 1905 the 
first class was graduated from the college, its four members receiving 



REV. L. H. BECK, PH. D., 

President of Upsala College. 

the Bachelor of Arts degree. Begin- 
nings have also been made looking to 
the establishment of departments of 
Art and S'loyd. 

The college does not yet possess a 
large library or museum, but it has 
a good nucleus from which it is hoped 
these necessary adjuncts to a progres- 
sive school may develop. 

At present courses are offered in 
the following departments: 

1. College Department. This con- 
sists of three parallel groups, viz. the 
Mathematical-Science, the Modern 
Language, and the Classical. The 
first leads to the degree Bachelor of 
Science, and the last two to the degree Bachelor of Arts. 

2. Academic Department. The course in this department covers 
a period of three years. It is designed to prepare students for enter- 
ing college. 

3. Preparatory Department. This department offers instruction 
in the common school branches and prepares students for the Aca- 
demic Department. 

4. Tlie Music Department. This department aims to prepare 
teachers of music, organists, and choir leaders, and in general to 
afford its students a musical education. 

5. The Commercial Department. The aim of this department 
is to train young men and women for a business career. 

6. The Stenographic Department. In this department students 
are prepared to fill positions as stenographers and private secretaries. 

Luther College. 

The idea of establishing a school in Nebraska antedates the organ- 
ization of the Nebraska Conference itself. While the Swedish 
Lutheran congregations of this state still constituted the Nebraska 
district of the Kansas Conference, as early as 1881 some of the 
Nebraska pastors conceived the idea of a local school for teachers as 
well as a preparatory school for young men of Christian character 



with the gospel ministry in view. This idea was discussed at a 
district meeting held in Kearney and Phelps counties in May, 1882. 
In November the same }-ear, it was determined to make preparations 
for the establishing of a school. In March 1883 at a meeting in 
SaronvilJe it was decided that the school be located in Wahoo and 
that its name be Luther Academy. A board of directors was also 
elected consisting of five pastors and four laymen. The first build- 
ing was erected during the summer of 1883 at a cost of $6,911.50. 
Rev. M. Noyd was the first president. The school opened in the fall 
of 1883 with one instructor, viz. the president, and five students. 
During the course of the year the number of students increased to 
36 and the first regular instructor (aside from the president), Dr. 
S'. M. Hill, entered upon his duties. The first building was dedicated 
on jSTov. 10, 1883, the 400th anniversary of Martin Luther's birth. 
As it was necessary to provide a place of residence for the president 
as well as rocms for the lady students, another building, now known 
as Ladies' Hall, was erected at a cost of over $4,000. 




In March, 1884,, at the meeting of the Kansas Conference in 
Mariadahl, Kansas, Luther Academy was adopted by that Confer- 
ence. S'ince the first meeting of the Nebraska Conference after the 
organization of this Conference, in 188G, the institution has been 
owned and controlled by the Nebraska Conference. 

In 1892 the Conference author- 
ized Rev. J. Torell, the treasurer of 
the Academy, to erect a new build- 
ing to contain a dining hall and 
rooms for the lady students, provid- 
ed he could do this without debt to 
the Conference. In this effort he 
was successful. 

As the institution continued to 
develop a new main building be- 
came a necessity. Plans for this 
building were laid before the Con- 
ference at its meeting in Saron- 
ville, 1902. It was resolved that 
the Board of Directors be authorized 
to erect a building in accordance 
with these plans at an expense not to" exceed $25,000. Through the 
efforts of the president of the Academy, Prof. 0. J. Johnson, the 
money Avas collected to defray the total cost of this new building 
together with a surplus of nearly $2,000. The building was com- 
pleted in 1903 and contains class rooms, the Library, Music Studio, 
Gymnasium, Laboratory, Chapel, and Business Hall. Since then a 
central heating plant has been built and various improvements have 
been made in other buildings. 

The institution has two funds, one a general endowment fund, 
and one a fund for needy and deserving students. 

In 1886 the Business Department was organized, and in 1893 the 
Music Department. Eecently the Normal courses were increased so 
that this Department is authorized to issue state diplomas. 

At the meeting of the Conference in 1909 the name of the insti- 
tution was changed to Luther College. 

The institution has a Library of over 3,000 volumes; also a Museum 
containing collections valuable to the student of natural history. 

President of Luther College. 


Luther College comprises the following departments : 

1. The 'Academy. Two parallel courses are offered, each preparing 
for college and requiring twenty-eight credits for graduation. One 
of these is called the Classical Major; the other, the Classical Minor. 
The former requires three years of Latin and two years of Greek. 

2. The Normal School. The purpose of this department is to 
train those who intend to become teachers in the public schools. The 
course required consists of three years' work above the eighth grade, 
and leads to a second grade state certificate. 

3. The School of Business. This department aims to give its 
students a practical course in the subjects which pertain to the busi- 
ness world. It offers three courses of study : the Commercial Course, 
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Accounts; the Shorthand and 
Typewriting Course; and the Agricultural Course. 

4. The School of Music. This school offers courses in piano, pipe 
organ, voice, violin; also in sight-singing and ear-training, harmony, 
science of music, and history of music. "Luther Academy School of 
Music aims in the most enlightened sense to make musicians of its 
piano students, and pianists of such of its music students as study 
the piano." 

5. The School of Art. A three years' course is offered in art. 
This includes charcoal practice from antique fragments, pencil sketch- 
ing, clay modeling, out-door sketching, still life and landscape in 
water-color and oil, etc.; also the history of the various' forms of art. 

Northwestern College. 

In the northwestern portion of Minnesota known as the Red Eiver 
Valley and the Park Region, Swedish Lutherans began to settle in 
considerable numbers about forty years ago. As they were about 300 
miles removed from the college at St. Peter and as it was imprac- 
ticable or even impossible for many of the sons and daughters of 
these settlers to attend that institution, the need of a local school 
was early felt. No school was established, however, until in 1888. In 
this year Hope Academy was opened in Moorhead. The success of 
this institution seemed assured until the great financial crisis of 1893, 
when, hampered by insufficient encouragement and support, it became 
apparent that the school must eventually close its doors. This 
occurred in 1896. Hope Academy had, however, demonstrated during 



its eight years of activity that a great deal of good could be accom- 
plished by a school in that section of Minnesota; and there were men 
who continued to believe that a school ought to be maintained there. 
Prominent among these was Eev. S. J. Kronberg. He continued to 
agitate the school question and even maintained for two years in the 
schoolrooms of his own church and at his own financial risk a school 
which he called Lund Academy. 

The belief that a school was needed increased in strength and 
finally the Alexandria District of the Minnesota Conference appointed 
a committee to decide upon a suitable location for a new school. In 
February, 1899, it was decided to locate the school in Fergus Falls. 
The organization was effected January 17, 1900; the institution was 
to be owned by a corporation, consisting of four pastors and seven 
laymen, and it was to be named Northwestern College. 

The first building a brick structure, 76 by 4-1 feet, and three 
stories in height was erected in 1900, and the first term opened 




January 3, 1901. In 1903 a sec- 
ond building was erected, to be used 
as a dormitory. 

The institution can now easily 
accommodate 250 students, so far 
as instruction is concerned, and 
100 students may find lodging in 
the dormitory. 

In 1903 the first classes were 
graduated from the Academy, a 
class of three from the Academic 
department and a class of fifteen 
from the Commercial department. 
Since that time there have been 
graduating classes each year. 

Northwestern College has won a reputation for substantial, thor- 
ough work and is recognized by the University of Minnesota as well 
as by the higher institutions of the Augustana S'ynod. 


President of Northwestern College. 

Minnesota College. 

At the meeting of the Minnesota Conference in St. Peter, May 
17 23, 1904, it was resolved to establish an institution of learning 
in the twin cities, Minneapolis and St. Paul. A committee consist- 
ing of five pastors and four laymen was also appointed to carry out 
this resolution; and it was further empowered to serve as the Board 
of Directors of the new school until the next annual meeting of the 
Conference. The committee determined that the school should be 
located in Minneapolis and that its first term should begin during 
the fall of 1904. Accordingly the new institution, under the name 
of Minnesota College, was opened October 4, 1904, in a building 
situated on the corner of Franklin and 17th avenues, Minneapolis. 

At the very beginning three departments were established, the 
Academic, the Commercial, and the Conservatory. Xo less than 23 
students were enrolled on the opening day, and this number was 
swelled to 166 during the first academic year. 

The next year (1905) a beautiful school building at the corner of 
Harvard and Delaware streets, S. E. Minneapolis, was purchased for 



a gum of $17,000. In this building its present home the insti- 
tution entered upon its second academic year. 

During the past school year (1908 1909) a new building has been 
erected and an additional block of land has been purchased. The 
institution, which within the relatively short period of its existence 
has shown a remarkable and very gratifying growth, has now ample 
room and facilities for still further development. It has a Library 
containing about a thousand volumes and the nucleus for a good 
working Museum. Its departments and courses are as follows: 

1. Academic Department. A three years' course which includes 
the subjects commonly offered in a high school together with practical 
instruction in Swedish and Christianity. 

2. Normal Department. This offers a three years' course of in- 
struction to those who are aiming at the profession of teaching. 

3. Preparatory Department. The aim of the instruction in this 
department is to prepare students for the Academic Department. 



President of Minnesota College. 

4. Swedish-English Department. 
The work here is especially adapted 
to the needs of those who have been 
in this country but a short time and 
who wish to learn the English lan- 

5. School of Commerce. The 
aim of this department is to give to 
its students a practical business edu- 

6. School of Expression. This 
school gives special attention to all 
forms of public speaking. 

7. School of Music. This depart- 
ment offers courses in piano, organ, 

violin, voice, sight-singing, etc. ; also in harmony, counterpoint, fugue, 
composition, orchestration, and musical history and psychology. 

8. Art Department. Instruction is here given in drawing, paint- 
ing, etc. Special attention is given to oil painting. 

Trinity College. 

On the 28th of August/1 9 04, the pastors of the Austin Distrist of the 
Kansas Conference held a meeting in Hutto, Texas, for the purpose of 
establishing an institution of learn- 
ing within their own district. At 
this meeting it was resolved that 
the pastors of the Austin District 
should serve as a temporary Board 
of Directors for the new institu- 
tion; further that an appeal should 
be made to the various cities with- 
in the district to submit bids for 
the new school; and also that Eev. 
J. A. Stamline be requested to 
gather funds. At a meeting held in 
Austin February 1, 1905, lay del- 
egates from the congregations of 


the district were also elected to the president of Trinity college. 



Board of Directors. As the city of Round Rock had submitted the 
most advantageous bid, viz., $7,000 in cash and eight acres of land 
for a campus, it was resolved to locate the school at this place. 

The institution was incorporated under the title, The Evangelical 
Lutheran Trinity College, Round Rock, Texas, of the Kansas Con- 
ference of the Augustana Synod of North America. 

During the summer of 1906 the first building was completed at 
a cost of approximately $19,000. It is a two-story building with 
basement, and is 147 feet long, 40 and 60 feet wide. It contains an 
auditorium, 24x60 feet, two office rooms, six lecture and recitation 
rooms, and twenty rooms for students. 

The first school-year opened October 2, 1906. Thirty-eight stu- 
dents were enrolled at the beginning of the first term; this number 
was increased to 61 before the close of the same term; and during 
its second term the new school was encouraged by a proportional 
increase in its enrollment. 

The institution comprises the following departments : an Academy, 



a Commercial School, a Conservatory of Music, and an Evening 

Dr. J. A. Stamline was elected to be the first president of the 
college, and has served in this capacity during the years 1906 1909. 
At present Eev. J. Alfr. Anderson is the president. 

Coeur d'Alene College. 

This institution, owned and established by the Columbia Con- 
ference, is located at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, and opened its doors 
January 7, 1907. Twelve students were enrolled the first day, and 
by the end of the first month 56 students were in attendance. 

At the very beginning instruction was offered in but one depart- 
ment the Commercial School ,but during the first month a De- 
partment of Music was added. 

During the first term the institution was without a home of its 
own, but during the following summer (1907) a commodious and 
well equipped building of brick, two stories high with basement, was 
erected and was ready for occupancy at the opening of the next 
school-year, September 16, 1907. 

The basement of this building contains a large room for the 
Commercial Department and four ordinary class.-rooms. The upper 




President of Coeur d'Alene College. 

floors contain 26 students' rooms. Two 
smaller buildings were also erected, 
one for the heating plant and the 
other for the kitchen and dining hall. 
In the fall of 1908 a second large 
building corresponding to the one 
first built was erected. The two up- 
per floors are used as a Ladies' 
Dormitory and the ground floor is 
devoted to class-rooms. 

The Commercial Club of Coeur 
d'Alene donated to the college dur- 
ing the past year 16 acres of land. 
This makes the campus consist at 
present of 26 acres. 
Rev. J. Jesperson is the president and treasurer of the institution. 
The following have constituted its teaching force during the year 
just closed (1908 1909) : Messrs. Alfred Lawrence, Thure Hedman, 
F. J. Lindblom, S'. 0. Johnson, R. Oslund, L. Schade, Miss Hattie 
Baity, Mrs. C. Nordquist, Miss Angelica Anderson, and Miss Ada 
Anderson. Rev. Litherland succeeded Mr. F. J. Lindblom at the 
opening of the spring term. 

North Star College. 

For a number of years our people 
in the Red River Valley considered 
the advisability of establishing a 
school in their section of the coun- 
try. In the early eighties Mr. J. P. 
Mattson conducted a private class in 
academy subjects, but no institution 
was organized. In the early part of 
the year 1908 the Red River Valley 
District of the Minnesota Confer- 
ence decided to establish a school at 
Warren, Minnesota. In March the 
new school was incorporated under 
the name of North Star College. 

President of North Star College. 



Prof. 0. E. Abrahamson was called to be -the principal of the school. 
Later Mr. C. E. S'jostrand was placed in charge of the Commercial 
Department, and Miss Olga Hermanson was engaged as teacher for 
the Music Department. 

October 1, 1908, was set as the day for the opening of the school. 
On that day a number of students arrived and work was begun. At 
the end of the year the number of students in attendance amounted 
to fifty-four. 


Miss Minnie Tullar had also been engaged to teach in the Music 
Department; Mr. J. A. Wennerdahl assisted during a part of the 
year in the Commercial Department; and Eev. E. 0. Chelgren assisted 
in the Academy. 

To the departments already organized, Academic, Preparatory, 
Commercial, Stenographic, and Music, another will be added next 
year. This new department will offer courses in Domestic Science, 
and it is the intention of the institution to make these courses emi- 
nently practical and valuable for girls and young women. 


The Charitable Institutions of the Augus- 
tana Synod. 

IIRISTIAN CHARITY is coeval with Christianity. In the early 
days of the Church, the widows and orphans were called 
treasures of the Church, and were supported and cared 
for by the same. Necessarily this charity work was re- 
stricted to those who were members. But Christ had given the key- 
note to universal charity in his narrative of the man who on his way 
from Jerusalem to Jericho fell into the hands of thieves. As the 
scope of the Church widened and it understood better what its Master 
expected from it, the great truth of universal charity was put into 

By the side of Christian charity there has sprung forth an eleemos- 
ynary movement, prompted mainly by humanitarian motives, which 
we call by the highsounding name philanthropy. These two forces 
often work side by side for the same result. This is especially the 
case where Church and State are separated, so that the Church can- 
not reach far enough with its charity, but must be complemented or 
even supplanted by individual, associated, or governmental philan- 
thropy. It is nothing more than right that the government takes 
care of its wards, and the different associations of their members, 
and relieve the Church of a burden that would be too onerous to bear. 
The world needs all the charity it gets and a great deal more. 

It shall be the purpose of this article to give a brief sketch of 
each of the charitable institutions of our Augustana Synod. These 
can be divided into four groups : Orphanages, Hospitals, Homes for 
Aged, and Deaconess Houses. Under synodical or Conference control 
there are : 

Rev. Erland Carlsson, D. D. 

The Augustana Synod 



Eight Orphanages: 

At Vasa, Minnesota, established in 1865. 
At Andover, Illinois, established in 1867. 
At Mariadahlj Kansas, established in 1880. 
At Stanton, Iowa, established in 1881. 
At Jamestown, New York, established in 1886. 
At Joliet, Illinois, established in 1892. 
At Omaha, Nebraska, established in 1901. 
At Avon, Massachusetts, established in 1907. 

Three Hospitals: 

Bethesda, St. Paul, Minnesota, established in 1882. 

Augustana, Chicago, Illinois, established in 1884. 

Immanuel, Omaha, Nebraska, established in 1890. 

There are a number of local hospitals more or less controlled and 
supported by Lutherans, but as they are not directly under Conference 
or synodical authority, we can only mention them : Swedish Hospital, 
Minneapolis, Minn. ; Moorhead Hospital, Moorhead, Minn. ; Washing- 
ton Park and Englewood Hospitals, Chicago, 111.; and the Lutheran 
Hospital, Kansas City, Mo. 

Two Deaconess Houses: 

.Immanuel Deaconess Institute, Omaha, Neb., established in 1890. 
Bethesda Deaconess Home, St. Paul, Minn., established in 1902. 

Five Homes for Aged: 

Bethesda, Chisago City, Minnesota, established in 1904. 
Nazareth, Omaha, Nebraska, established in 1901. 
Salem, Joliet, Illinois, established in 1905. 
Lutheran Home, Madrid, Iowa, established in 1906. 
The Augustana Home for the Aged, Brooklyn, N. Y., established 
in 1908. 

I. Orphan Homes. 
The Orphanage at Vasa, Minnesota. 

This is the oldest charitable institution in the Augustana Synod. 
It started like a mustard seed. In 1865 a family by the name of 
Mikolo E. Erikson from Dalecarlia, Sweden, had emigrated to Amer- 


ica. Both parents died soon after their arrival and left four young 
children forlorn and destitute. Hearing their story, Dr. E. Norelius, 
then pastor at Red Wing and Vasa, prompted by an inner voice, took 
them home to Red Wing, presented them the following Sunday to 
his congregation, and called for aid. The church responded with a 
handsome contribution. The basement of the old church in Vasa 
was put in order to domicile them, and "Aunt Brita" from Stock- 
holm, Wis., was installed as matron. Two more orphans came soon. 
"Aunt Brita" tells very graphically in one of her letters of their 
lack of bread at one time. She told them to pray to God for bread. 
About eleven o'clock in the evening a man knocked on the door and 
said: "Open, and I will give you a sack of flour, which I think you 
need." This came as a godsend, for the flour-barrel was empty. This 
noble woman continued amid hardships and privations to take care 
of the home for four years. 

During the first eleven years of the home Dr. E. Norelius was sole 
proprietor and manager. In 1876 he offered the home to the Min 
nesota Conference, and the gift was accepted and was duly taken 
care of. A small farm of ten acres of land had been purchased for 
$150 by Dr. Norelius and a small cottage erected thereon. Miss 
Carolina Magny, sister of Rev. J. Magny, now had charge of the 
home. Everything began to look brighter. But alas, not long. 

The night between the 2nd and 3rd of July, 1879, a cyclone swept 
over Vasa, razed the orphan home to the ground, three children were 
killed outright, a great number were wounded, and two died after- 
wards of their wounds. Five other persons were killed by the storm. 
On the 4th of July the remains of the victims of the storm were 
buried, a day which Vasa will long remember. 

Appeals for aid were sent in all directions. Churches, aid societies; 
and individuals responded liberally, so that the home could be rebuilt 
larger and better than before, and even the old debt could be paid. 

Another sad day in the history of the home was January 16, 1899, 
when fire broke out at the noon hour and destroyed the main building 
completely. A small, imbecile boy, inmate of the home, had kindled 
fire in one of the wardrobes. Even this calamity seems to have been 
a blessing in disguise, for contributions came in so freely that a 
much better main building could be built than the one destroyed 
and the finances placed on a better footing. 



The history of this orphanage is rich in vicissitudes and reverses, 
yet the Lord has not withheld his rich blessings. 

The home can now take care of some 75 children. Its value in 
dollars and cents stands at $27,595.75 and its current expenses at 
$7,547.98 according to last report. 

The following persons have served as superintendents and matrons : 
"Aunt Brita" 1865 1869; Miss Carolina Magny, afterwards Mrs 
Strandberg, together with her husband 1869 1880; Mr. and Mrs. 
J. A. Hultgren 18801888 and 18951905; Mr. and Mrs. Lewis 
Mellin 18881895; Bev. and Mrs. J. E. Hedberg 19051909. 

The home has its own school building and permanent teacher, who 
divides the work between the common school studies and those of 
the parochial school. The ownership is vested in the Minnesota 
Conference and the management in a Board of six Directors elected 
by the Minnesota Conference. Additional land has been purchased, 
so that the home owns and cultivates a farm of about 200 acres. 
This farm gives employment to the children as they grow up and 
furnishes in part the support. Besides the proceeds from the farm, 
the Sunday-schools of the Minnesota Conference make an annual 
contribution about Thanksgiving time. 



The home has been a refuge and a blessing to many. May the 
good Lord shield, protect, and bless the home and its work. 

The Orphan Home at Andover, Illinois. 

This home started as a synodical institution and continued as such 
until 1876, when it was transferred to the Illinois Conference. Its 
history, briefly told, is as follows : At the synodical convention in 
Chicago, in 1863, a resolution was adopted to establish an orphan 
home. Dr. Passavant was present and urged and recommended the 
establishing of such a home. The plan was to purchase suitable farm 
property near Paxton, 111., and a committee was appointed to begin 
the work. The following year the committee could report that 
$1,829.50 had been contributed by the churches. In 1865 the report 
showed $3,000 in the treasury. The same year 160 acres of good 
farmland had been purchased near Paxton for $3,520. The follow- 
ing year the committee reported that the land was paid for and a 
surplus of some $520 was found in the treasury. 

Evidently there must have been a change of opinion as to the 
locality. The leaders of the Synod wanted the home in the midst of 
some large settlement with a cluster of Lutheran churches on all 
sides. Accordingly the orphan home committee was instructed in 
1867, at the meeting in Swedona, to secure a suitable farm either 
in Andover or Swedona and to sell the Paxton farm. At the same 
time it was decided to open the home without delay. Pursuant to 
instructions, an acre lot was secured near Swedona and a house 
erected. Three boys had been admitted to the home. 

In 1870 a farm of 160 acres was purchased for $5,150 by Eev. 
Jonas S'wensson, about two miles southwest of Andover. Thus the 
home was permanently located. More land has been purchased ad- 
joining the original property, so that the home now owns 440 acres 
of fine land. The property has been pronounced one of the best 
stock farms in Henry county. The plant is valued at $50,000; the 
current expenses for last year were $5,105.16. The home can accom- 
modate 75 orphans. 

The following persons and families have served as superintendents 
or stewards: Mr. and Mrs. S. P. Lindell 18671881; Mr. and Mrs. 
J. S. Swensson 18811889; Mr. and Mrs. L. Hoogner 18891892; 



Mr. and Mrs. Gustaf Johnson 18921894; Mr. and Mrs. A. E. 

Monell 18941895; Mr. and Mrs. A. Lincoln 18951904; Rev. 
and Mrs. N. Gibson 19041907; Eev. and Mrs. A. G. Ander 1907 
1908; Deaconess Elisabeth Anderson 1908 . 

The pastors of Andover, Eevs. Jonas Swensson, Erland Carlsson, 
V. Setterdahl, and C. P. Edblom, have all taken a most active part 
in the work and development of the home, so has also the church 
at Andover. The' home has been a refuge for many waifs and a 
blessing to the communit} 7 . From among the orphans we have both 
pastors, professors and other men of influence and marked ability. 

While the matron and all the children from the home were attend- 
ing the children's Christmas festival in the church at Andover in 
1908, a fire broke out in the home and burned it to the ground com- 
pletely with all its contents. Only one boy was home, because of 
indisposition. He could only report the disaster. The loss was great, 
although partly covered by insurance. Plans of a new building have 
been prepared and the Board authorized by the Illinois Conference 
to rebuild on a larger scale. 

Saviour, who Thy flock art feeding 
With the Shepherd's kindest care, 
All the feeble gently leading, 
While the lambs Thy bosom share. 




The Orphan Home and Farm School at Manadahl, Kansas. 

At the request of Rev. Drs. 0. Olsson and A. W. Dahlsten the 
Union Pacific Ry. Company donated a piece of land in Fremont, 
Kansas, for a future orphan home. This aroused the interest of the 
people for charity work, and steps were taken at once to carry out 
the plan. 

Nothing definite, however, was done until in 1875, when a govern- 
ing Board of five persons was elected to push matters. The Board 
consisted of Revs. 0. Olsson, A. W. Dahlsten, Messrs. C. J. Brodine 
of Salemshorg, John Rodell of Fremont, and J. A. Nilson of Linds- 
horg. In 1878 the Board was instructed to ascertain where the home 
could be located to the best advantage. After careful investigation, 
the Board recommended Mariadahl, both because of the interest the 
people had shown there and the opportunity of purchasing a suit- 
able farm property for a very small price. This farm contained 280 
acres of land, with suitable buildings, and was purchased for $5,100. 
The home was dedicated and opened for reception of orphans in 



1880. It has accomodations for about thirty orphans. The total 
number received since it opened is one hundred and twenty. The 
value of the home is about $22,000, with no debt, and a current 
annual expense of $3,500. The name is: "The Orphan Home and 
Farm School of Mariadahl, Kansas". 

The following persons have served as superintendents and matrons : 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Haterius, Mr. and Mrs. B. Berg for 20 years, Mr. 
and Mrs. A. G. Johnson for 4 years, and Mr. and Mrs. N. H. Young- 
berg for 5 years. 

The home is supported by the farm and Sunday-school and church 
contributions. Eevs. Hakan Olson, C. J. E. Haterius and, in fact, 
all the pastors of Mariadahl have spared neither time nor labor to 
make the institution a real home for the orphans. What the father- 
less and motherless need above all is love and paternal care. 

The Orphan Home at Stanton, Iowa. 

This home for orphans is situated one mile south of the village of 
Stanton, where it owns and cultivates a farm of 240 acres of choice 
land, and is encircled by the flourishing churches of Stanton, Fre- 
mont, Red Oak, Bethesda, and Essex. 

The first measures taken by the Iowa Conference towards estab- 
lishing an orphan home date back to the year 1870, when at the 
convention in Des Moines a committee was appointed to initiate the 
movement. As soon as this committee had agreed upon the present 
site, it at once opened negotiations with the Burlington and Missouri 
Eiver Eailway for the purchase of 160 acres of land. After waiting 
in vain for a donation in land from the railroad company, the land 
was purchased in 1871 at $14 an acre, on ten years' time, at 6 per 
cent, interest. To begin with the farm was rented to different parties, 
but with little financial success. The proceeds did not even cover 
the interest. Appeals were time and again made by Eev. B. M 
Halland, the prime mover in this enterprise, as well as in the coloniza- 
tion of southwestern Iowa, to the churches for aid, but with little 
success. Each one seemed to have enough to care for himself in 
those pioneer days. As the orphan home at Andover still belonged to 
the whole Synod, and the financial conditions in those early colonies 
were not the best, the contributions were small and far between. 
Everybody hoped that the farm would pay for itself and leave a 



surplus for buildings. This was not to be. In 1876 more active 
measures were taken to open the home, and Eev. M. C. Eanseen was 
appointed solicitor for the home. In 1879 the greater part of the 
debt on the land was paid. In 1880 the Conference decided to build. 
The building cost a little over $2,000, the furnishings of the same and 
the necessary farming inplements, stock, and houses for the same 
about $2,000 additional. Eighty acres of adjoining land were pur- 
chased later, so that the home is now a valuable property, rated at 
$31,000, with a current annual expense of about $5,000. It has 
accommodations for fifty orphans, and is supported by the income from 
the farm and the annual contributions from the Sunday-school child- 
ren and the churches of the Iowa Conference. 

The superintendents and matrons, changes occurring frequently, 
have been Mr. and Mrs. P. Bingberg, Mr. and Mrs. Dahlstrom, Mr. 
and Mrs. Frank Lindberg, Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Nimrod, Mr. and Mrs. 
C. G. Lind from 18921908, and Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Liljegren. 




In 1907 a separate school building was erected, with spacious 
recitation and school rooms on the first floor, sleeping rooms on the 
second floor, and play and recreation room in the basement. Seven 
months of public school and two months of Swedish school are taught 
each year, giving to the orphans a good and timely education. 

The Iowa Conference is caring for its orphanage with parental 
tenderness and devotion. The home has its trials, like all similar 
institutions, but these trials only call forth the Christian love and 
faith into greater activity. What we do for Christ and the little ones 
who believe in him will not be without its temporal as well as 
eternal reward. 

The Orphan Home at Jamestown, New York. 

This home is the fifth in order of establishment of the orphan 
homes. Because of 
the large and pop- 
ulous cities within 
its territory, the 
New York Confer- 
ence needed a large 
and commodious or- 
phan home. After 
preliminary work 
covering several years 
and gathering some 
$3,553.45 as founda- 
tion fund, the New 
York Conference de- 
cided to start the 
work. The corner 
stone was laid amid 
great festivities July 
14, 1884. The 27th 
of January, 1886, 
the home was form- 
ally opened to rereive 

The first superin- ORPHAN HOME AT JAMESTOWN, N. Y. 


tendent and matron were Rev. and Mrs. T. 0. Linell; they were 
followed by Rev. and Mrs. M. J. Englund. The present incumbents 
are Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Swensson, brother of the late Dr. C. A. 
Swensson. The home was undoubtedly, at the time of its erection, 
the most expensive, the largest, most modern, and best equipped of 
all our orphanages. The value is conservatively placed at $45,000, 
its current annual expenses are about $7,500. It is owned and con- 
trolled by the New York Conference and supported by the churches 
and Sunday-schools of the Conference that lie outside of the New 
England states. These support the home at Avon, Mass. 

The Orphan Home at Joliet, Illinois. 

As the Illinois Conference increased its territory and established 
new congregations, it became necessary either to increase the accom- 
modations at the orphan home in Andover or locate a new one in 
some other part of the Conference. As the home in Andover was 
located in a farming community, it could only train the children in 
work on the farm. An industrial school in connection with the 
orphan home became the leading thought in the Conference. 

At the convention of the Illinois Conference in Ishpeming in 
1887 the subject was warmly discussed. A committee was appointed 
to prepare the whole question for definite action at the next meeting. 
This committee consisted of Drs. Erl. Carlsson, L. A. Johnston, L. 
G. Abrahamson, and Revs. H. P. Quist and M. Frykman. This com- 
mittee reported to the convention held in St. Charles in the fall of 
1888. Another, larger committee was appointed, which reported the 
following year as follows: 

1) That a new orphan home be established; 

2) that its location shall be within the Chicago or Rockford dis- 
tricts ; 

3 ) that the churches within these districts be asked to pledge them- 
selves as to the amount they may be willing to raise to secure the 
home in their vicinity. 

Joliet and Rockford vied with each other, the former place leading 
with a definite promise of $8,000, provided $7,000 would be raised 
by the churches elsewhere in the Conference. The offer of Joliet was 
accented, a Board of Directors elected, authority given to purchase 
ground and proceed with building as fast as money was gathered. 



Mr E. G. Peterson of Englewood, Chicago, drew the plans and 
superintended the construction. The corner stone was laid in August, 
1892; in 1893 the building was enclosed, and in 1896 the new home 
was opened under the corporate name: "The Orphan Home and In- 
dustrial School of the Illinois Conference of the Scandinavian Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Augustana Synod." Sister Frida Schelander from 
the Immanuel Deaconess Institute of Omaha, Nebraska, was chosen 
as matron and superintendent. She continued in this capacity until 
1908. Her place is now (1909) filled by Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Johnson. 
The home can easily accommodate over 100 children. It is beauti- 
fully located on the outskirts of Joliet. The street-car company has 
built and maintains a spur out to the orphan home and carries the 
inmates to and from school and church free of charge. The value 
of the property is rated at $36,000, the last year's current expenses 
were $7,267.20; number of children cared for during 1908 was 101. 
At the Conference meeting in Bethlehem, Chicago, in 1909, it was 
decided to consolidate both homes under one Board of Directors. 




The industrial school has not yet been started in earnest, but it 
is the purpose of the Board to do so at as early a date as possible 
The plan is an excellent one. When the boys and girls are ready to 
leave the institution, they have learned some trade by which they can 
earn a livelihood more easily than were they to begin the battle for 
bread wholly unprepared. 

The home is supported partly by paying orphans and partly by- 
contributions from Stmday-schools and churches in the Illinois Con- 

"Let your light so shine before men that they may see your good 
works and glorify your Father which is in heaven." 

The Immanuel Orphan Home, Omaha, Nebraska. 

This home is a branch of the complex Immanuel institution at 
Omaha, which comprises a hospital, a deaconess mother house, an 
old people's home for invalids, and an orphan home. The latter 
dates back to 1901, when it was erected at a cost of $3,500. This 
branch entered, as a matter of course, into the original plan, but could 
not for financial reasons be taken up earlier. It can accommodate 
about twenty-five orphans ; is owned, controlled, and supported by tho 
Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod; the orphans are taken care 
of by the deaconesses of the institution; its annual expenses aggregate 
$1,600 1,700. The Sunday-schools of the Nebraska Conference are 
particularly active in the support of the home. 

Superintendent emeritus of this branch and the whole establish- 
ment was Rev. E. A. Fo- 
gelstrom, until his death 
in 1909 ; superintendent 
in charge is Rev. P. M. 
Lindberg ; sister superior, 
Deaconess Anna Flint. 

The Immanuel insti- 
tution is patterned after 
the German institution 
at Kaiserswerth, modi- 
fied, however, to suit 
the American Lutheran 
ORPHAN HOME AT OMAHA, NEB. ideas and conditions. 



The Lutheran Orphan Home at Avon, Massachusetts. 

The New York Conference, comprising all the New England and 
Middle Atlantic states, covers so large an area that one orphan home 
cannot fill the needs, especially as the traveling distances are so great. 
The orphan home at Jamestown being filled to its capacity, it be- 
came necessary either to enlarge it or to locate a second home. 
Taking the traveling distances into account, it was thought the wiser 
policy to establish another home. A very beautiful homestead, owned 
by an eastern capitalist, near Avon, Mass., was found to be for sale 
at a very low figure. The property could not be duplicated for 
$50,000. The purchase price was $12,000. The owner deducted 
$2,500, so that the actual cost is only $9,500. The property consists 
of 60 acres of land with fine fruit orchards, artistically arranged 
parks, walls and fences. The buildings are of the old Colonial style, 



airy, spacious, substantial. The electric tramway between Boston and 
Brockton runs close to the premises, so that it has the best of commu- 

There are ample accommodations for forty orphans. The home was 
opened April 8, 1907, is owned and controlled by the New York Con- 
ference, and supported by that part of the Conference which lies 
within the New England states. The name is: "The Lutheran Or- 
phans' Home, Incorporated". Its location is at Avon, Massachusetts, 
16 miles from Boston and 3 miles from Brockton. 

Superintendent and matron is Miss Amelia Eabenius, a graduate 
of the sloyd schools of . Sweden. She will make all kinds of sloyd 
a special feature of the home. 

II. Hospitals. 
Bethesda Hospital, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

The first step by the Minnesota Conference toward officially taking 
up hospital work was taken at the convention in Fish Lake, Minn., 
in the fall of 1880 by the establishment and incorporation, according 
to the laws of the state, of the Tabitha Society. The purpose was 
to make the scope of this society so wide that it could own and control 
any kind of charitable institutions, like hospitals, orphan homes, 
refuge and rescue homes, homes for the aged, etc. It is possible that 
Francke's numerous "stiftungen" in Halle served as models in the 
minds of the originators. Eev. A. P. Monten, then pastor of the 
First Swedish Lutheran church in St. Paul, advised and assisted by 
Revs. Norelius, Sjoblom and others, was the most active in this move- 
ment. The hospital idea was then in its infancy both as to the 
financial side and as to the care and treatment of the sick. Had the 
minds of the people been better prepared, the work had undoubtedly 
progressed much better and faster. It was, indeed, to break new 
ground. Eev. Monten's vision was clear enough to see what was 
coming. His unceasing labors for this and other enterprises have 
been little appreciated hitherto. In the light of present developments 
it is easy to see how much more farsighted he was than the majority 
of his contemporaries. 

In 1881 a property situated on the little beautiful lake Como, where 
now the idyllic Como Park is located, was purchased for $6,000. 


April 4, 1882, the hospital was opened to receive patients. The work 
continued until in February of 1883. During this time 156 patients 
had been received and treated. We must remember that surgery was 
just then beginning to be recognized as a powerful factor in removing 
man's woes. The value of rigid, surgical cleanliness, i. e. sterilization 
of everything that would come in contact with a wound, was then 
less well understood than now. As a result many died from septic 
infection, and the people lost confidence in surgery. This made it 
impossible to continue the work. The hospital had to close its doors. 
But the originators as well as the Conference never entertained a 
thought to give up the work, only to rest it a while, until the public 
mind could look at a hospital in another light. 

In the meantime the Hospital Board issued call upon call to dif- 
ferent persons to take hold of the work, but with no result, until in 
1891, when a call was sent to Eev. C. A. Hultkrans, then pastor at 
Geneseo, 111. He accepted the call after some hesitation and com- 
menced his labors already in October the same year. He succeeded 

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The Augustana Synod 







so well that the hospital could be opened again March 8, 1892. Al- 
ready in 1891 a commodious residence, centrally located, was purchased 
for $16,000, remodeled and furnished as a hospital. The work has 
since that time steadily progressed. The building was again re- 
modeled in 1904, enlarged and one 
story added to make room for more 

A home for the superintendent 
was built in 1894, a deaconess home 
was purchased in 1901, another lot 
adjoining the hospital, formerly 
owned by the railroad magnate J. J. 
Hill, has been purchased, and a large 
spacious, new hospital valued at 
about $70,000 is now (1909) in 
course of construction. 

The nursing was carried on by 
deaconesses from the Immanuel 
Deaconess Institutue and their help- 
ers until 1903, when a school for deaconesses was started, and since 
that time the Bethesda deaconesses do all the nursing. Eev. C. A. 
Hultkrans has proved himself an efficient and progressive superin- 
tendent. The work has been most abundantly blessed by God. 

The hospital with accessories, not counting the new addition now 
going up, is worth $70,000 and has room for about 100 beds. It is 
centrally located and enjoys a good reputation for fine surgery and 
careful nursing. The annual expenses are approximately $37,000. 
The institution is supported by paying patients and by church contri- 
butions as well as by donations in larger sums from individuals. The 
superintendent is ably assisted by Eev. A. F. Aimer both in spiritual 
care of the sick and the instruction of the deaconesses in training. 
Much credit is due to the superintendents of deaconesses, especially 
Sister Bothilda Swenson and Sister Eleonora S'lattengren. 

The Lake Como property is still owned by the hospital. It may in 
the near future be used as a home for incurables. 

The institution is a veritable Bethesda where the sick are waiting 
for a ministering angel to come and trouble the waters and deal out 
health, cheer, and comfort. 


Augustana Hospital, Chicago, Illinois. 

The Augustana Hospital, of the Deaconess Institution of the 
Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church, is a corporate institution 
according to the statutes of the State of Illinois, and is owned and 
controlled by the Illinois Conference of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Augustana Synod. It is located in Chicago, on the North Side, on 
the presidential corner, i. e., the intersection of Lincoln, Garfield, and 
Cleveland avenues. The direct management is vested in the Board 
of Directors of nine members, elected by the Illinois Conference to 
serve for three years. 

The first attempt by Lutherans in Chicago to care especially for 
the sick and suffering was made by the Eev. Dr. Erland Carlsson, 
who early in his pastoral career, probably about the year 1860, 
opened a home for sick and destitute immigrants. His enterprise 
was merged with the charitable institution of Dr. Passavant. The 
great fire of 1871 destroyed this hospital, but it was soon rebuilt, and 
is known to-day as Dr. Passavant's Memorial Hospital. 

In the year 1880, Prof. 0. Olsson, upon his return from abroad, 
resuscitated the idea that the Swedish Lutheran Church ought to have 
a charitable institution in Chicago. With him were such men as 
Eevs. Abrahamson, Eanseen, Evald, Peters, Lindeblad, Eydholm, 
Boman; Messrs. P. Colseth, C. P. Holmberg of Chicago, and J. Er- 
lander of Eockford, Illinois, and others. The various ladies' aid 
societies in the Chicago churches took the matter up in earnest. That 
of Immanuel church, with Mrs. Evald at the head, was the first to 
act by donating $70 for the enterprise. It was the intention to unite 
with the hospital work that of a deaconess' home. The location 
should, as a matter of course, be Chicago; but the exact place was a 
question of dispute. The Illinois Conference of the Evangelical Lu- 
theran Augustana Synod now became sponsor for the new-born child. 

In 1882 the leaders of the movement decided to locate in Lake 
View, and efforts were made to secure ground through Dr. Passavant. 
Failing in this, Dr. Erland Carlsson's home, at the corner of Lincoln 
and Cleveland avenues, was at first rented, and later, in 1887, pur- 
chased for about $35,000. The first Board of Directors was composed 
of Eevs. E. Carlsson, 0. Olsson, M. C. Eanseen, C. B. L. Boman, 
and Messrs. C. P. Holmberg, G. A. Bohman, and John Erlander. 



February 13, 1882, the articles of incorporation were adopted and 
recorded. May 28, 1884, the institution was formally dedicated, and 
with Dr. T. M. Miller as physician and surgeon, Mrs. Hilda Carlson, 
wife of the late Eev. A. B. Carlson, missionary to India, as matron, 
and Miss Lotta Frejd, assistant, started out on its career of useful- 
ness. The first patient was a young lady who came to attend the 
dedicatory services, but who broke her leg in stepping from the cable- 
car. Fifteen beds were in readiness at this time, and all were soon 
occupied. In October, 1884, a fire damaged the building, so that it 
had to be rebuilt, but no one was injured. The fire insurance covered 
the financial loss, and the building was soon rebuilt and reoccupied 
by patients. The most serious question confronting the authorities 
was how to secure more room, as the accommodations were quite inade- 
quate. In February, 1893, the corner-stone of a new building, 68x84 
feet, six stories in height, was laid, and the work of gathering funds 
pushed, so that the building was completed in the fall of 1894. Room 
had thus been provided for some 125 beds, but in less than ten years 
the building was found to be inadequate, and in 1903 an addition of 
nearly the same dimensions, in like architecture, was begun on lots 
adjoining the older buildings. This addition was finished and ready 




for occupancy in the fall of 1904. Ample room was thus provided 
for some 200 beds. 

In 1894 a training school for nurses was started with a two years' 
course of study and training. In 1904 it was increased to three years. 
In 1896 the first class was graduated. Since that time 213 nurses 
have received their diplomas. Some of these hold positions of trust 
and responsibility in the various 
hospitals of this country; some 
have gone out as wives of mission- 
aries to the foreign fields. 

The spiritual care of the patients 
has always received much atten- 
tion by the authorities. During the 
early history of the institution the 
Lutheran ministers of the city vis- 
ited the hospital in turn. In 1890 
and 1891 Eev. P. Thelander, now 
of Batavia, Illinois, served as the 
first superintendent and pastor; 
Eev. S. G. Ohman, now at New 
Britain, Connecticut, followed in 
1894; in 1898 Eev. H. 0. Linde- 
blad, now of La Grange, Illinois, held the position; in 1903 Eev. 
G. Peters of Eockford, Illinois, officiated; and in 1904 Dr. M. 
Wahlstrom, then the president of Gustavus Adolphus College at St. 
Peter, Minnesota, accepted and still holds the position. Jacob Soder- 
berg has for twenty years devoted much of his time and attention to 
spiritual work among the patients. He has been a patient of the 
hospital since February, 1904. When his health permitted he visited 
the sick in the wards and private rooms with the Word of God, prayer, 
exhortation, and song. Many will rise and call him blessed. Now 
he has gone to his eternal rest. May 3, 1909, his summons came. 
For the people of God there remaineth a rest. 

Morning chapel services are held every week-day with the nurses, 
morning devotions are held in the wards as far as time and conditions 
permit, and in the private rooms whenever desired. Divine services 
are held with nurses, convalescent patients and other friends in the 
Swedish and English languages alternately every Sunday evening; 




private and general communion is celebrated as occasion demands; 
holy baptism is also administered. 

The following statistics for 1908 will show the magnitude of the 
work done : 

Patients admitted during 1908 2,483 

Male Patients 1,114 

Female Patients 1,369 

Children under 12 years of age 301 

Medical cases during 1908 437 

Ophthalmic and Otological 41 

Obstetrical 219 

Surgical cases 1,786 

Discharged patients 2,423 

Deaths 142 

Death rate 5.7% 

Number of days of treatment in 1908 61,604 

Average cost of maintenance of patients, per day $ 1.35 

Total earnings of hospital for 1908, from all sources. . . . 114,129.25 
Total cost of maintaining hospital, interest and deprecia- 
tion included 82,902.25 

Ratio of operating expenses of 1908 72.6% 

Charity to patients 12,696.91 

Cash income from patients 101,523.43 

Cash income from donations, church collections 1,744.33 

Cash income from all sources 105,041.26 

Total cash disbursements 103,734.69 

Bonded indebtedness 70,000.00 

The hospital comprises the following eleven departments : Depart- 
ment of General S'urgery, Internal Medicine, Ophthalmology and 
Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, Dermatology, Neurology, Ob- 
stetrics, Gynecology, Children's Diseases, Pathology, Dentistry. 

Since the opening of the hospital, in 1884, up to January 1, 1909, 
24,898 patients have been treated, and of these 2,483 during the past 
year, 1908. 

The institution is valued at $250,000 and is supported by paying 
patients, church and private contributions. 



Immanuel Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska. 

The originator, promoter and leading spirit in this institution with 
its accessories has been the Eev. E. A. Fogelstrom. His early life he 
spent as a sailor and had opportunity to learn to know the deep, groan- 
ing wants of humanity. He left the sailor's life to enter the ministry 
and was ordained in Burlington, Iowa, in 1877. His first years of 
pastoral work were spent in Brooklyn, New York, and afterwards in 
Omaha, Nebr. Within him there ripened a conviction that he should 
devote his life mainly to charity work. But in what form ? The field 
of useful activity for the young women of our Synod had hardly been 
touched. The young men went to the seminary and thence into the 
Lord's vineyard, but why not open an avenue for the women? His 
thought was directed to the deaconess work in this country and other 
countries, especially Germany. He had found the field. He had as 




his intimate advisers men like Drs. Hasselquist, Lindahl and others 
He resigned his charge in Omaha, much to the regret of his flock, im- 
posed upon himself and family the severest selfdenials and entered 
with his whole soul into the work. Very soon he saw that his plan 

could best be realized by founding 
a hospital. He solicited funds for 
this enterprise among his American 
friends as well as his own people. 
He succeeded in raising $25,000. 
In 1890 Immanuel Hospital was 
built at a cost of $30,000. Two 
years previous he together with ten 
"close friends" had organized "The 
Evangelical Immanuel Association 
for Works of Mercy." The move- 
ment was duly incorporated accord- 
ing to the laws of the state of Ne- 
braska. Later he gathered around 
himself a large circle of experienced 
persons, men and women, as advisers, 
selected a staff of the most eminent surgeons, physicians and specialists 
of Omaha. The hospital was a financial, surgical and medical success 
from the beginning. Only one wing of the building, as planned, was 
erected. The nursing was carried on from the beginning by deaconesses. 
At several conventions Rev. Fogelstrom had petitioned the Augusta- 
na Synod to take charge of his growing institution, especially the 
Deaconess Institution. At the convention in Paxton, 111., in 1903 the 
Synod took the preliminary measures to adopt the work, and in 1904 
at the Synod in Lindsborg the establishment with all its branches be- 
came a Synodical institution. Eev. Fogelstrom was to remain its per- 
manent head. In 1906 his health failed and he was succeeded by Eev. 
F. N. Swanberg as temporary superintendent and in 1908 by Eev. 
P. M. Lindberg, the present incumbent. The superintendent is also 
pastor of the whole institution. In these duties he is ably assisted by 
the Sister Superior and the supervising deaconesses under her. A very 
valuable assistance in the spiritual work has been rendered by the Rev. 
Peter Carlson, pioneer pastor from the 50's and 60's in southern 
Minnesota, who died August 13, 1909. 





The hospital has a staff of seventeen surgeons, physicians and 

The value of the institution in dollars and cents is placed at 
$80,000; the hospital current expenses for 1907 were $23,116.67. It 
takes care of 600 to 800 patients a year. The location is in Monmouth 
Park, several miles from the heart of the city. When the contemplated 
parks, avenues and driveways are completed the institution will have 
a beautiful location. 

Immanuel, God with us. 

III. Deaconess Institutions. 

The Immanuel Deaconess Mother House in Omaha, Nebraska. 

Within the Augustana Synod Eev. E. A. Fogelstrom can with 
propriety be termed the "father of the deaconess cause." He first 
made himself acquainted with the deaconess work in the Eastern 
States, especially the work of the Mary Drexel institution in Phila- 
delphia. He made several journeys to Europe and studied the charity 
work of Wichern, Bodelschwing, Fliedner and others. The establish- 
ment of the latter in Kaiserswerth aroused in the bosom of Pastor 
Fogelstrom a strong desire to transplant Fliedner's ideas with neces- 
sary modifications to the soil of the United States and the Augustana 
Synod. The deaconess institutions 
in S'weden, Norway and other coun- 
tries were also studied. 

As the nursing at the hospital 
was to be carried on by deaconesses, 
it was necessary to make prepara- 
tions early. Already in 1887, three 
years before the hospital was opened, 
Eev. Fogelstrom had found a young 
woman, Miss Bothilda Swenson, who 
was ready to become the first dea- 
coness. For training she was at 
sent to the Mary Drexel 


mother-house in Philadelphia. The 
following year four more sisters 

(1850 1909), Founder. 



were sent there. Bothilda and one of the sisters spent some time in 
the deaconess school in Stockholm, Sweden. On the return of Sister 
Bothilda to this country, she was consecrated deaconess, the first in 
our history. She was for many years matron at Immanuel Home and 
sister superior at Bethesda Hospital, St. Paul. 

As soon as it could be done, a school for training deaconesses was 
started in the institution. Sister Martha Soderbaum from the deacon- 
ess institution at Stockholm took charge in 1899. Her successor and 
the present sister superior is Sister Annette Flint. In 1901 a separate 
building was erected as the first mother-house or home for deaconesses. 
Its size is 40x50 and was erected at a cost of $5,000. In January, 1892, 
the Swedish Evangelical Deaconess Congregation of Omaha, Nebr., 
was organized. The same year dates the organization of "The Im- 
manuel Deaconess Association." Twenty pastors, two college pres- 
idents, and more than one hundred other friends of the cause partook 
in the organization. Of course when the Synod became sponsor for 



the institution, this association was dissolved. But it was this organ- 
ization that gave new impetus and new life to the work. 

The number of deaconesses now reaches nearly fifty with fifteen 
stations that employ one or more deaconesses in the work. This work 
comprises nursing of the sick, rescue work, missionary work, teaching, 
superintendency of institutions of mercy, and the like. The Imman- 
uel Deaconess Home is not only a training school for deaconesses, it 
is the central institution from which they are sent out, and to which 
they return, when the work is finished; the source from which they 
obtain their clothing, yearly allowance in cash, etc.; the place where 
they can retire in sickness and old age and find home and shelter. It 
is their home. 

The home is supported by private donations, by contributions taken 
throughout the whole Augustana Synod and by the earnings of the 
sisters in all outlying stations, which in 1909 number not less than 
thirteen. These pay a stipulated price weekly, monthly, or annually 
which is all paid into the treasury of the home. The annual expenses 
stand at $10,656.95. 

There is surely a 'great future in store for this work. Its usefulness 
can barely be said to have started. It is a Lutheran movement with 
the whole country as its field of operation. 

Bethesda Deaconess House, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

The great problem that confronted Eev. C. A. Hultkrans when be 
took charge of Bethesda Hospital was: How shall we nurse the 
patients, by trained nurses or by deaconesses? He wisely chose the 
latter. The Deaconess Mother-house in Omaha was appealed to for 
workers and with success. Sister Fredina was first sent, She proved 
herself a most capable sister superior, but her health failed, and 
she died after little more than a year's service. Her place was next 
taken by Sister Emma Skagerberg and then followed in succession 
Sister Cecilia Nelson, now Mrs. Eev. J. E. Hedberg, Superintendent 
of the Orphan Home at Vasa, Minn., Tina Peterson, Bothilda Swen- 
son. The latter has served in this capacity for seven whole years. At 
times Bethesda Hospital has at one and the same time had as many as 
six deaconesses from the Omaha mother-house. 

But the hospital grew and the mother-house could not furnish dea- 



conesses in sufficient number to supply the want. It then became 
necessary to employ paid helpers or assistants to the deaconesses. 
These proved both expensive and inefficient. The superintendent or 
rector, as he is sometimes called, much to the chagrin, dissatisfaction 
and even against the protest of the mother-house at Omaha, prepared 
for the establishment of a school for deaconesses. In 1901 a spacious 
and elegant residence adjoining the hospital was unexpectedly offered 
for sale at a very low figure. Without much hesitation this property 
was purchased as a deaconess home. In 1902 the Minnesota Confer- 
ence ratified the purchase and gave the superintendent authority to 
establish a school and home for deaconesses. In the summer of 1903 
the first probationers were received, in 1905 the school numbered 
eighteen deaconesses and probationers in training. Now (in 1909) 
there are some twenty-one deaconesses connected with the home. 
The rector is Eev. Carl A. Hultkrans; assistant, Eev. A. F. 




Aimer; sister superior, Eleanor Slattengren. The home with equip- 
ments is easily worth $10,000. 

The deaconesses assemble every morning in the chapel at 7 :30 for 
devotion, which is led by the sister superior or her appointee. In the 
sickrooms the day's work is begun by morning prayer, which is con- 
ducted by the deaconess in charge of the floor. Sunday services are 
held on every Lord's Day, weekly services are also held on Wednesday 
evenings, Bible study and prayer meeting on Friday evenings. Thus 
the work is sanctified by the Word of God and prayer. 

IV. Homes for the Aged. 

The Bethesda Old People's Home at Chisago City, Minnesota. 

This home is a branch of the Bethesda Hospital of St. Paul, Minn. ; 
is owned and controlled by the Minnesota Conference and is under 
the direct management of the Board of Directors and Superintendent 




of Bethescla Hospital and Deaconess Home. It was opened November 
10, 1904, has room for twenty-four old people, is valued at $10,000. 
The manager and superintendent is Eev. C. A. Hultkrans, matron 
Mrs. Martha Mattson. 

The home is supported by the inmates, who pay a certain sum 
upon entering, by church and society contributions, and by personal 
gifts, donations, and legacies. 

The location is beautiful, close to Green Lake in Chisago City. 

Nazareth, Omaha, Nebraska. 

This home is incorporated with and a part of the Immanuel Hospi- 
tal and Deaconess Mother-house in Omaha. It is located on the hos- 
pital grounds, was opened in 1901, and is intended to be a refuge for 
old people who are invalids or have become incurable. The ownership 
and control is the same as for the remainder of the institution. The 




superintendent is Rev. P. M. Lindberg, sister superior is sister Anna 
Flint. Its value is placed at $500; the current expenses are apprpx- 
imately $4,000. In its present condition it can only accommodate six 
to eight persons. The authorities hope soon to be able to enlarge it, 
so it can accommodate about twenty persons. 

The Swedish Evangelical Luth. Salem Home for the Aged, Joliet, Illinois. 

For a long time the need of a home for the aged was felt very 
keenly in the Illinois Conference. Various offers of parcels of land 
were made in Chicago and suburbs. These were all, wisely or un- 
wisely, rejected, and the committee entrusted with the preliminaries 
decided to locate it on the ground belonging to the orphan home in 
Joliet, 111. Its founding dates back to 1905 while its incorporation 
occurred in 1906. Midsummerday, 1908, it was dedicated and declared 
opened. The home is owned and controlled by the Illinois Confer- 
ence, the immediate management being vested in the Consolidated 
Board of Directors for both orphan homes in Andover and Joliet, and 
the Salem Home for the Aged. The superintendent is Mr. A. E. 
Johnson. The matron is Mrs. Alma Enberg. 

The home can accommodate twenty-four people; its value is placed 
at $28,000, its current expenses at $8,000. It is supported by the 




inmates who turn over a certain amount of cash or property to the 
ho/ue, by regular church contributions and by individual donations 
and legacies. 

Lutheran Old People's Home, Madrid, Iowa. 

In 1904 at the convention of the Iowa Conference at Essex, Iowa, 
we first hear officially of the institution, although the idea antedates 
this by many years. In 1905 a Board of six members was elected 
with orders to incorporate and to receive offers of donations from 
different localities. Madrid, Iowa, came promptly to the front with 
a bonus of $1,200 and four acres of land near the church. In 1906 
the offer was accepted and the Board authorized to open a home in 
rented quarters without delay. In 1908 the Conference gave to the 
Board permission to build and on November 17, 1908, the home was 

The structure is of brick, 36x100 ft. in size, two stories and a base- 
ment, with all the modern improvements, heated by steam, lighted 
by electricity. The cost of the structure was $13,000, with grounds 
and equipments it is valued at $17,000. 




The home is presided over by Sister Christine Monson from the 
Immanuel Deaconess Institute, assisted by Sister Alma Olofson from 
the same institution. 

The home can accommodate some twenty-five inmates. 

All the churches of the Iowa Conference have helped to build the 
home, they are also contributing liberally toward its support. The 
inmates pay a certain sum upon entering. 

The Augustana Home for the Aged, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Some members of the Sw. Luth. Bethlehem church, Brooklyn, N". 
Y., mindful of the need of a home for old people with no one to 
care for them, organized themselves into a society on Sept. 25, 1908, 
for the purpose of establishing such a home. In November, the 
same year, a conveniently located property was bought for $11,500, 

The Augustana Synod 


and the ownership transferred to the Bethlehem congregation. At 
the meeting of the New York Conference in April, 1909, the Home 
was offered to the Conference, which gratefully accepted the offer and 
took charge of the institution. A committee was appointed to attend 
to the legal procedures in transferring the property. This com- 
mittee duly fulfilled the charge entrusted to it, and the Home is 
now owned and controlled by the New York Conference. Ten per- 
sons have, so far, found a home and shelter at this institution. 

At all these homes for the aged a great deal of charity is done, 
although they are not intended to be almshouses in the common sense 
of the word. 

The Kansas Conference has taken steps to establish a home for the 
aged somewhere in the Smoky Hill Valley, most likely at Lindsborg, 
but plans have not yet taken definite shape, so we can only report the 
good intentions of this Conference. 

There can be no 'better evidence of the good fruits of the gospel 
than such works of charity ly the church. By them it proves its right 
to call Jesus, the Son of God, who is Love, its Master. 


Rev. Jonas Swensson 

The Publishing Interests of the Augustana 


HE HISTORY of publications within the Evangelical Luther- 
an Augustana Synod of North America antedates the 
synodical organization itself by a number of years. The 
first missionary to the scattered Swedish immigrants to 
this country, Eev. L. P. Esbjorn, saw the need of reaching his people 
by means of some publication which could be sent to those whom he 
was unable to visit personally. He, therefore, published in 1851 
a small tract with the title: "Valkomst-Helsning Till den Svenska, 
Norska och Danska Emigranten" (Greetings of Welcome to the 
Swedish, Norwegian and Danish Emigrant), printed by H. Ludvig & 
Co., Vesey Street, New York, in an edition of 4,000 copies to be dis- 
tributed among the immigrants. This tract contained advice in spir- 
itual matters and information regarding the Swedish settlements in 
Illinois. As far as can be learned, this tract is one of the very first 
publications, possibly the first, in the Swedish language in this coun- 
try during the nineteenth century, and is the first seed sown by means 
of the printed word among the people that later formed the Augusta- 
na S'ynod-. 

Another tract appeared, somewhat later, most probably in the begin- 
ing of 1854, entitled: "Nagra enkla Fragor och Svar rorande D6- 
pelsen" (A few simple Questions and Answers with regard to 
Baptism). Its author was Eev. L. P. Esbjorn, and it was called forth 
by the Baptist propaganda of those days. 

The same year, 1854, the minutes of the proceedings at the joint 


convention of the Chicago and Mississippi Evangelical Lutheran Con- 
ferences, held at Chicago, January 4th 9th, 1854, were published, 
which were the first minutes of any church convention published in 
the Swedish language during the nineteenth century. 

The need of a paper in the Swedish language for the Swedes in 
America was felt early both among pastors and laymen. Exchanges 
of views on this subject were heard at various places and especially 
during the conventions of the Conferences. The best place to publish 
a paper was considered to be Chicago, that city being justly deemed 
to be the gateway to the West. Rev. Erland Carlsson was urged to 
start a paper, .but owing to his many duties, not only as pastor of the 
Immanuel church, but also in caring for the hundreds of immigrants 
that were constantly arriving, he found it impossible to take upon 
himself the work and cares of publishing a paper. The duty of start- 
ing the paper fell, therefore, upon Rev. T. N". Hasselquist, then pastor 
of the Swedish Lutheran church at Galesburg, Illinois. In the fall 
of 1854 Eev. Hasselquist sent out an announcement, dated October 1, 
1854, of a paper soon to appear bearing the name "Den Svenska 
Posten". The first issue was published January 3rd, 1855, but the 
name had been changed, the paper being called : "Hemlandet, Det 
Gamla och det Nya." It was a religio-political four page paper of 
four columns a page, and 11x16 inches in size. Before the end of 
the year it was enlarged to 13x20 inches. The second number was 
dated February 24 and the third March 10, after which time the 
paper appeared regularly every other week. The editor and publisher 
was Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, and the place of publishing was Gales- 
burg, Illinois. The subscription price was one dollar a year. In 
order to procure the necessary equipment, type and press, an extra 
fee of fifty cents was solicited with the agreement that the printing 
equipment should be the property of the Conference. Contributions 
flowed in quite freely enabling the publisher to procure without great 
difficulty the necessary type as well as a printing press, primitive in 
character, indeed, and yet adequate for the immediate needs. 

"Ilemlandet became a welcome visitor in many homes. It served 
as a bond of union among the Swedes, who, though separated by 
hundreds of miles, still felt drawn toward one another by kindred ties. 
It also became a means of communication between them and the 
friends and kindred forever left behind in the dear old "homeland." 


Again, it served to instruct the newcomers in the political, social, 
and religious questions of their "new homeland." They had come 
here to make this country their home, and they were anxious to do 
their duty as citizens of their adopted country. Those were stirring 
times. The greatest events in our history were about to occur. On 
the great moral and political questions of the day slavery, know- 
nothingism, and temperance Hemlandet gave no uncertain sound. 
The most complicated questions were discussed by the editor in that 
clear and simple style which was so peculiar to him. The Luther- 
an Swedes placed themselves in a body on the side of liberty. But 
they were no abolitionists. With Abraham Lincoln, they looked for 
a peaceable solution of the problem a gradual emancipation. The 
political tendency thus given to the Swedes has affected their party 
affiliation to the present day." (C. W. Foss.) 

Soon the opinion arose that two weeks to wait for the next issue 
of the paper was too long a time, and requests were made that 
Hemlandet be published weekly. The publisher did not consider 
this advisable, owing to the additional expense this would incur. A 
new, purely religious paper was, therefore, started in July, 1856, by 
the same editor and publisher as of Hemlandet, namely Rev. Hassel- 
quist, bearing the name "Det Rdtta Hemlandet,'' sixteen pages large 
octavo, issued every other week, alternately with Hemlandet. The 
subscription price for the two papers taken together was $1.50, or 
$1.00 for the new paper and 75 cents for the older when taken 
separately, per year. This new paper was the beginning of what is 
now known as Augustana, the official organ of the Augustana Synod. 
Its stages of development we shall find occasion to note later. 

The needs of the Swedish settlers religiously and politically as 
well as from the view-point of news were by these two papers well 
taken care of. 

Among other publications during this period we note the following : 

"50 Sanger. Svenska Boktryckeriet. Galesburg 1856." (50 Songs. 
Swedish Bookprinting Office. Galesburg 1856.) 'This was a small 
collection of songs gathered from "Ahnfelts Sanger" and others to 
be used at divine services, and was, as far as can be learned, the first 
song-book published in the Swedish language in America. 

"Enchiridion eller Luthers Lilla Cateches. Pa Svenska och Eng- 
elska. Noggrann ofvers. af L. P. Esbjorn. Galesburg. Svenska 


Boktryckeriet, 1856." (Enchiridion or Luther's Small Catechism. 
In Swedish and English. Careful translation by L. P. Esbjorn. 
Galesburg. Swedish Bookprinting Office, 1856.) 

"Forslag till Constitution for Evangelisk-Lutherska forsamlingar 
i Norra Amerika. Godkandt och antaget vid den forenade Chicago 
och Mississippi Conferensens sammantrade i Chicago den 18 23 
Mars 1857. Svenska Boktryckeriet. Galesburg, 111., 1857." (Pro- 
posed Constitution for Evangelical Lutheran Congregations in North 
America. Approved and accepted at the joint Chicago and Mississippi 
Conference Convention at Chicago, March 18 23, 1857. Swedish 
Bookprinting Office. Galesburg, 111., 1857.) Twelve pages octavo. 

"Augsburgiska Bekannelsen." (The Augsburg Confession.) Print- 
ed at the same place 1857, fifteen pages, including only the 21 

"Dokt. Martin Luthers Sandebref till tvanne kyrkoherdar om 
vederdopet. 1528." (Doctor Martin Luther's Letters to two pastors 
in regard to anabaptism. 1528.) Printed at the same place 1857; 
38 pages. 

A few small tracts such as "Bor man lasa mer an Bibeln?" (Ought 
one to read more than the Bible?), "Den Eatta Enfalden" (True 
Humility), etc., were published the same year from the same place. 

In 1857 an A-B-C-book, or Swedish Primer, prepared by Dr. A. R 
Cervin, was published, also at Galesburg. 

November 7th, 1857, the first number of a new paper appeared at 
Red Wing, Minn., its name being Minnesota Posten, edited and pub- 
lished by E. Norelius and J. Engberg, the former as editor and the 
latter as printer. The paper sought to assist with valuable advice 
the Swedes of Minnesota during those trying times. The program 
and tendency of the paper were similar to those of Ilemlandet. The 
paper was issued every other week until Oct. 13th, 1858, after which 
time it was consolidated with Hemlandet, when that paper was moved 
to Chicago. 

"Luther-Boken eller Den dyre Gudsmannen Doktor Martin Luthers 
Lefverne och Gerningar af Herman Fick. Ofversattning fran tyskan. 
Galesburg, 111. Svenska. Boktryckeriet, 1858." (The Luther-Book 
or the Life and Work of the dear man of God Doctor Martin Luther 
by Herman Fick. Translated from the German. Galesburg, 111. 
Swedish Bookprinting Office, 1858.) The work contained 38 pages 


octavo, a good biography of Luther, well translated, the translation 
being most probably executed by Mrs. T. N. Hasselquist. 

"Salems Sanger" was a small collection of songs by E. JSTorelius, 
published 1859 at Chicago, with music for four parts. Of this col- 
lection Dr. Norelius himself says: "utan nagot varde" (of no worth). 

"Konung Oskar den Fridsalles Minne. En enkel historisk teckning 
af hans lif och regeringsverksamhet. Chicago, Hemlandets Office, 
1860." (In Memory of King Oscar, the Lover of Peace. A plain 
historical presentation of his life and work as ruler. Chicago, Hem- 
landet's Office, 1860.) This work of 91 pages was a reprint from 
an unknown Swedish author. 

The Swedish Lutheran Publication Society in the United States. 

The great importance of publishing good literature, both books and 
papers, was more and more realized and often discussed by the 
leaders, both clerical and lay, and in order to accomplish the plans 
proposed and procure necessary funds, it was agreed that a publi- 
cation society should be organized. The foundation for such a soci- 
ety had practically been laid when contributions had been solicited 
and received from the members of the congregations for the equip- 
ment of the office at Galesburg, whereby this concern had be- 
come the property of the congregations. At a meeting of the 
Mississippi Conference at Galesburg in April, 1858, it was decided 
to organize a stock-company bearing the name: "The Swedish Lu- 
theran Publication Society in the United States." Subscriptions for 
stock were solicited during the following months. The movement 
met with considerable favor, and yet at a joint meeting of the Chicago 
and Mississippi Conferences at Princeton in September of the same 
year it was found that only about two-thirds of the required stock 
had been taken and that most of the subscribers found themselves 
unable to make the required payments, owing to the financial strin- 
gency of the times. However, further efforts were decided upon. 
A committee was elected to ascertain the status quo of the papers 
Gamla och Nya Hemlandet and Minnesota Posten and of the book 
store, some time previously started by Rev. Hasselquist at Galesburg. 
At a meeting held in Chicago, December 6 9, 1858, the organization 
of the Publication Society was effected. The plan of a stock company, 


however, was abandoned, and it was decided that the society should 
consist of the representatives of the congregations, clerical and lay, 
that the property be the property of the congregations, and that the 
affairs of the society be managed by a board of eight members, four 
pastors and four laymen. The first members of the Board were: 
Pastors T. N. Hasselquist, E. Carlsson, E. Norelius, and A. Andreen 
and Messrs. C. J. Anderson, Chicago, Carl Stromberg, Chicago, John 
Johnson, Knoxville, and P. Fagercrantz, Princeton. The paper 
Minnesota Posten with its equipment was purchased and likewise 
the stock of the book-store owned by Eev. Hasselquist at Galesburg, 
and the office of the society was established at Chicago with the be- 
ginning of the year 1859. Eev. Erland Carlsson was elected man- 
ager of the book store and Eev. E. Norelius editor of the papers. 
Minnesota Posten was "united with Hemlandet, which was now 
changed into a weekly; while the church paper, Ratta Hemlandet, 
was made a monthly; both, however, retaining their former size and 
form." Through the efforts of Prof. L. P. Esbjorn the society was 
duly incorporated by special act of the legislature of the State of 
Illinois in February, 1859. "After the organization of the Augustana 
Synod in 1860, the society was composed of all the Swedish ministers 
of the Synod and all the lay delegates to the synodical conventions, 
and the meetings were held immediately after the adjournment of 
the Synod." (C. W. Foss.) 

Developments during the ensuing years we will give in the words 
of Dr. C. W. Foss (The Alumnus, January, 1893) as follows: 

"On account of failing health, Dr. Xorelius was compelled to re- 
sign, after nine months, and Dr. Erland Carlsson was elected his 
successor. He was assisted in his labors by Jonas Engberg, who had 
lately been associated with Dr. Norelius in the publishing of Minne- 
sota Posten. In October, 1864, Dr. A. E. Cervin, who had come to 
America in 1856 and returned to Sweden the following year, arrived 
in America the second time and at once assumed the editorship of 
the two papers. At the meeting of the Synod in 1868, he was elected 
professor at Augustana College and Theological Seminary, and in 
July the same year, he laid down the editorship of the weekly paper, 
while he still retained that of Ratta Hemlandet. The new editor of 
Hemlandet, the Hon. P. A. Sundelius, does not appear to have en- 
tered very fully into the spirit of the Synod, and, though the paper 


almost doubled its size during his editorship, yet his management 
of it does not seem to have met with any general approbation. In 
December, 1869, he very abruptly resigned. The vacancy thus 
caused was filled by the temporary appointment of Dr. J. A. Enander. 
In a few weeks he was duly elected editor of the paper, which position 
he continued to hold until his election to the chair of the Swedish 
language and literature at Augustana College, in 1890. 

As Hemlandet was becoming more and more a purely political 
paper, and Ratta Hemlandet was devoted wholly to religious literature, 
the Synod, in 1868, authorized the Publication Society to begin the 
issuing of a church paper that could serve as a synodical organ. The 
first number of the new paper, a church monthly known as Augustana, 
appeared in October, 1868. It was edited by Dr. T. N. Hasselquist, 
and was published in magazine form, each number containing sixteen 
pages of about the same size as Ratta Hemlandet. In December of 
the following year, the two monthlies were united into one and known 
as Ratta Hemlandet och Augustana, and as such continued to be 
published until the end of 1873. It was edited the first two years 
by Dr. T. N. Hasselquist and Dr. A. E. Cervin, and the last two 
years by Dr. Hasselquist alone. 

The need of a missionary paper was felt early in the Synod, and 
in 1863 a separate missionary department was added to Ratta Hem- 
landct, and from that time to its union with Augustana the paper 
was known as Ratta Hemlandet och Missionsbladet. But this new 
department involved additional expense, and, hence, when the two 
papers were united, it was decided that the missionary department 
should go out, and that those who desired a missionary paper in 
Swedish could order one from Sweden. This plan, however, did not 
meet with popular favor, and, hence, it was decided, early in 1870, 
to issue a separate missionary paper. The first number bears the 
date of January, 1870. The paper was known as Missionaren, and 
was edited for the first two years by Dr. Xorelius and for the follow- 
ing two years by Rev. J. P. Nyquist. In the meantime Dr. Norelius 
had started a new church paper known as lAitliersk Kyrhotidning. 
It was a semi-monthly, and was printed by A. C. F. de Bemee, in 
Eed Wing, Minn. The first number appeared in January 1872. 
Dr. 0. Olsson had also started a church paper, in 1873, known as 
Nytt och Gammalt. Only six numbers \vere issued. In the fall of 


1873, it was decided to unite all these papers, Rdtta Hemlandet och 
Augustana, Missionaren, Luthersk Kyrkotidning , and Nytt och 
Gammalt, into one paper to be known as Augustana. The new paper 
was issued semi-monthly, and was edited by Drs. Hasselquist, Nore- 
lius, and Olsson. Dr. A. E. Cervin was employed as office editor. 
The first number appeared in January, 1874. It was printed by 
A. C. F. de Eemee, in Moline, 111. Augustana is still published. It 
is now a weekly of four times its original size." (So far C. W. Foss.) 

In the great Chicago fire, October, 1871, the printing office and 
book store of the Publication Society were completely destroyed. 
Fortunately a large consignment of books ordered from Sweden had 
not reached further than Xew York. The society at once set about 
to procure a new place and equipment for printing office and book 
store, and in six weeks it again carried on its business with renewed 
hope and vigor. 

At its annual meeting at Galesburg, 111., October 2, 1872, the 
society decided to turn over all its affairs to the Board of Directors 
of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, the business to be 
conducted for the benefit of the salary fund of the institution. A 
few weeks later the Board sold Hemlandet to Enander & Bohman of 
Chicago, the new owners pledging themselves to continue the paper 
in the same spirit as heretofore, and the Board on the other hand 
pledged itself not to publish any political paper as long as Hemlandet 
was continued as agreed. From that day Hemlandet, which is still 
being published, has been a private enterprise, the pledges on both 
sides having been and being fulfilled. 

At its annual meeting in Rockford, June, 1874, the Synod author- 
ized the Board of Directors of Augustana College and Theological 
Seminary to dispose of the book store for a price, however, of not less 
than $15,000.00. And a few months later the Board sold the book 
store to Engberg, Holmberg, and Lindell of Chicago. This trans- 
action, which, to say the least, must be considered injudicious, was 
of such far-reaching consequences, and the bill of sale is such an 
interesting historical document, especially in view of later develop- 
ments, that we feel constrained to copy it in extenso : 
''Instrument of Conveyance. 

Know all men by these presents, that the Swedish Lutheran Publi- 
cation Society, a Body Corporate and Politic, existing and doing 


business in the City of Chicago, under a special Charter from the 
legislature of the State of Illinois, in consideration of the sum of 
Seventeen Thousand ($17,000) dollars to us in hand paid by Jonas 
Engberg, Charles P. Holmberg, and Charles 0. Lindell, partners 
composing the firm of Engberg, Holmberg, and Lindell, doing busi- 
ness in said Chicago, do sell and convey to them all the rights and 
privileges of the said corporation, its present publications, copy 
rights, plates, stock of books, store-fixtures, safe, printing-office and 
appurtenances, its outstanding accounts and its rights to the column 
of advertisements in the newspaper known as Hemlandet, with the 
exception of the monthly paper Augustana. And in consideration 
thereof said firm agrees to pay said sum of Seventeen Thousand 
($17,000) dollars in manner following, viz.: Five Hundred ($500) 
dollars every six (6) months for the five years ending August 1st, 
A. D. 1879, and Six Hundred ($600) dollars every six months there- 
after until the remaining Twelve Thousand ($12,000) dollars shall 
be fully paid, all payments to be without interest. 

And the said firm do also, as further consideration for their afore- 
said purchase, agree to pay all debts of said corporation and to in- 
demnify said corporation against the same, and do further agree to 
keep constantly for sale the standard theological and religious works 
of the Lutheran Confession, and that they will not keep on hand or 
expose for sale any immoral books. 

And it is mutually agreed that the members of said firm shall 
execute and deliver to Eev. Erl. Carlsson, who in receiving the same 
shall represent said corporation as Trustee, all securities necessary 
to carry out the above stipulation. 

In witness whereof, said corporation hath hereunto caused its Pres- 
ident to affix his name and the Secretary his countersign in token of 
the execution thereof, and the members of said firm have hereunto 
sot their hands and seals this 29th day of September, A. D. 1874. 


President Board of Directors of the Swedish Lutheran Publication Society. 


Secretary Board of Directors of the Swedish Lutheran Publication Society. 



"Thus the Publication Society ended its history after an existence 
of fifteen years. Even from a financial point of view, the society 
had been successful; but its noblest and greatest achievement cannot 
be measured in money. Besides its own valuable publications 
papers and books it also imported large quantities of the best pub- 
lications of the old country, which soon found their way into thou- 
sands of homes, and the knowledge and culture thus disseminated 
among the scattered families and churches of the Synod will continue 
to bear noble and blessed fruit for many years to come." (Dr. C. W. 

The proceeds of the above mentioned sale were paid to Augustana 
College and Theological Seminary. 

Upon the dissolution of the Publication Society followed a period 
of fifteen years of comparative inactivity. And we cannot suppress 
the thought that it was fortunate that at least the Augustana was 
saved from the general wreck of the sy nodical -publishing work. The 
Augustana, the official paper of the Synod, was continued semi- 
monthly without interruption, being published by the Board of Direc- 
tors of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, which now 
constituted the Publication Board of the S'ynod. A separate semi- 
monthly missionary paper known as Missionaren, which had been 
started, was also published, this paper being considered the official 
paper of the Synod. With the beginning of 1879 the two papers 
were consolidated into one, bearing the name Augustana ocli Missio- 
ndren. The financial profit of the papers, as a rule quite a sum from 
year to year, was used for Augustana College and Theological Semi- 
nary. Dr. T. 1ST. Hasselquist served, after the consolidation previously 
mentioned, as editor-in-chief of Augustana och Missionaren until 
1889, when owing to many other duties and failing strength he re- 
signed. The editors of Missionaren while that was a separate paper 
were Rev. Erland Carlsson and Eev. A. G. S'etterdahl until June, 
1878, and Dr. A. R. Cervin and Rev. C. P. Rydholm until the end 
of that year. 

The associate editors with Dr. Hasselquist were : 

18741875 Dr. E. Norelius. 

18741882 (June) Dr. 0. Olsson. 

1878 (July) 1880 Rev. C. P. Rydholm. 

18761878 (June) ; 1882 8/31883 7/11 Rev. Erland Carlsson. 


18781883 Dr. A. E. Cervin. 
18761878 Eev. A. G. Setterdahl. 

1883 7/181885 9/7; 1889 1890 Prof. A. 0. Bersell. 

1884 11/191886 5/5; 18891890 Prof. C. M. Esbjorn. 

1885 7/151896 Dr. L. G. Abrahamson. 

At the synodical convention 1889, held at Bock Island and Moline, 
111., a new and very comprehensive plan for the publication of the 
official paper was laid. The name was changed to read: "Augustana, 
tidning for den svenska lutherska kyrkan i Amerika, grundlagd af 
d:r T. N. Hasselquist, och utgifven af den Skandinaviska Ev. Luth. 
Augustana Synoden," which title the paper to this day retains, the 
only change being the change in the name of the Synod. A program 
was arranged including not less than eleven different departments. 
Dr. E. Norelius was elected editor-in-chief, with Dr. A. E. Cervin 
as office editor, and an associate staff of not less than twenty-three, 
besides reporters from the various Conferences. 

The editor-in-chief also appointed Eev. C. 0. Lindell as office 
editor, who served until 1892, when Eev. A. Eodell succeeded to the 
position, which was held by him until his death August 23rd, 1897. 

This plan was "tried and found wanting." In June the following 
year Dr. Norelius resigned, owing to failing health. The paper, which 
was now published by The Lutheran Augustana Book Concern, the 
new publication house of the Synod, burdened the publishers with 
a financial loss of $2,990.62, which the Synod at its convention 1890 
voted to pay out of the synodical treasury, but which has not been 
paid yet. The elaborate impractical plan laid in 1889 was abolished 
at the synodical convention in 1890, the resignation of Dr. Korelius 
was accepted, the office editor and all associate editors were sum- 
marily dismissed, and it was resolved to elect an editor-in-chief and 
grant him full control of the editorial work even to the extent of 
appointing his assistant. Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl was elected editor-in- 
chief, in which capacity he served until his death March 27, 1908. 
With him served as office editors the following : 

18901892 Eev. C. 0. Lindell. 

18921897 8/23 Eev. Albert Eodell. 

1897 8/231898 (first part) S'. M. Hill, A. 0. Bersell, A. P. Aimer. 

1898 (Aug.) 1900 (Sept.) Grant Hultberg. 
1900 12/11908 12/1 Eev. C. J. Bengston. 


After the death of Dr. Lindahl, his assistant editor, Eev. C. J. 
Bengston, was appointed by the president of the Synod to serve as 
editor-in-chief until next synodical meeting. At the convention of 
the Synod in Chicago June, 1908, Dr. L. G. Abrahamson was elected 
editor-in-chief, and he assumed the duties of the editorship partly in 
July and wholly in October, 1908. He chose as his assistant Dr. M. 
J. Englund, and these two, Dr. Abrahamson and Dr. Englund, con- 
stitute the editorial staff of Augustana at the present time. 

Naturally, the Synod worked under special difficulties during this 
period, between 1874 and 1889, not having any printing office of its 
own, but always being obliged to turn to private parties and firms 
for all mechanical work connected with its publications. Conse- 
quently the publications during this period were not many. In 
addition to Augustana, whose history has already been given, con- 
stitutions for churches and Synod, catalogues of Augustana College 
and Theological Seminary, tracts and circulars of various kinds, we 
would mention the following: 

During the years 1878 1880 a little paper known as Skolvannen 
was published in the financial interests of Augustana College and 
Theological Seminary and was edited by Dr. 0. Olsson, assisted by 
A. H. Randahl and C. A. Swensson. This paper aroused a great 
deal of enthusiasm and brought in large sums of money. When its 
mission had been fulfilled it died a natural death. Its first number 
was dated May 1st, 1878, and its last May, 1880. In 1883 when 
funds were solicited for the new college building, Skolvannen was 
again published during a period of Aug. 15th Dec. 19th, edited by 
Dr. 0. Olsson. 

In October, 1879, Luther's Small Catechism with explanations, a 
volume of 139 pages 16mo to be used as a text-book in Sunday- 
schools, Parochial schools, and Confirmation classes, was published. 
This book was the result of many synodical resolutions and much 
work in committee during several years, and a "trial edition." It 
was the official text-book in the systematic Christian instruction of 
the children within the Synod until 1902 when a similar revised 
Catechism took its place. 

In 1887 a Bible History, a volume of 199 pages Ifimo, containing 
52 stories from the Old Testament, together with a short history of 
the Jewish people during the four centuries immediately preceding 


the birth of Christ, and 60 stories from the New Testament, was 
published to be used as text-book in Sunday-schools, Parochial schools, 
and Confirmation classes. This book is still the official Bible History 
of the Synod. 

The revised Catechism mentioned above was translated into English 
and published in 1902. And the English translation of the Bible 
History was published in 1898. 

Augustana College and Theological Seminary still retains the 
ownership of the Catechism and the Bible History in Swedish while 
Augustana Book Concern owns the English translation of the Cate- 
chism and the Bible History. 

"Concordia Pia," containing all the Confessional writings of the 
Lutheran Church and the Declaration of Faith and Doctrine at 
Uppsala, Sweden, 1593, was published in 1878. It was edited by a 
committee consisting of Drs. 0. Olsson, T. 1ST. Hasselquist, Erl. 
Carlsson, and P. Sjoblom. This publication is now the property of 
Augustana Book Concern. 

In 1887 a work entitled "Becords of Ministerial Acts" (blank 
book for said purpose) was published to be used by the pastors of the 
Synod. The plan for such records laid down in the original edition 
is still being followed. 

A small annual calendar, known as "Korsbaneret," containing 
religious and historical articles, poems, etc., was begun in 1880 by 
Drs. 0. Olsson and C. A. Swensson. The next three years the 
calendar was published by the society "Ungdomens Vanner," 1884 
by Augustana Tract Society, 1885 1889 by Augustana Book Concern, 
and from that time to the present day by the Synod. The original 
plan has ever been followed and the original size, small 16mo, has 
been maintained uniformly, though the number of pages has varied 
from year to year. Drs. Olsson and Swensson edited the first three 
volumes, but from that time on a number of different men have, from 
year to year, been employed in the editorial work. 

"Korsets Predikan", a collection of sermons, following our third 
series of texts for morning'services, written by a number of the pastors 
of the Synod, was published in 1885 under the auspices of the Illinois 
Conference, the financial profit, however, being donated to Augustana 
College and Theological Seminary. This is the only collection of 
sermons by pastors of the S'ynod ever published. 

The Augustana Synod 13 


In January, 1886, Eev. S. P. A. Lindahl and Eev. H. P. Quist 
started a Sunday-school paper known as Barnens Tidning. It was a 
private enterprise, but the proceeds were donated to the Augustana 
College and Theological Seminary, and at New Year 1890 the paper 
itself was donated to the Lutheran Augustana Book Concern, and 
thus became the property of the Synod, the Lutheran Augustana 
Book Concern assuming the liabilities of the paper, amounting to 

Augustana Book Concern. 

There were many among the members of the Synod who deplored 
the step taken in 1874 when the Synod sold its publishing business. 
And some held the view that the Synod would be justified in estab- 
lishing a publishing house again and ought to do so, while others 
claimed that the S'ynod had through the sale forever blocked its way 
for resuming the business. The "Instrument of Conveyance," given 
above, clears the true situation to every impartial mind. 

December 14, 1877, a society, known as "Ungdomens Vanner," was 
formed for the purpose of "promoting the true spiritual as well as 
temporal welfare of the children and the young people''; and, ap- 
preciating the value of good books and tracts as a means toward 
this end, the society aimed to publish wholesome literature. The 
original members were Professors T. 1ST. Hasselquist, C. 0. Gra- 
nere, 0. Olsson, and C. P. Rydholm and students C. M. Esbjorn, 
J. H. Randall], C. J. Petri, C. A. Swensson, and M. Wahlstrom. 
Others joined from time to time. We cannot relate the history of this 
society in detail. We note the following. It existed as a society 
until 1884 (having changed its name to Augustana Tract Society 
in 1883), when, in August, 1884, it was reorganized into a stock 
company and incorporated under the laws of the State of Illinois, 
its corporate name being Augustana Book Concern, and the incor- 
porators being Joshua Hasselquist, Carl P. Eydholm, Constantinus 
M. Esbjorn, Anders 0. Bersell, Andrew G. Anderson, and Josua Lin- 
dahl. The purpose of this corporation was to do a publishing busi- 
ness. Of the net profit one-third should be divided among the stock- 
holders and two-thirds be paid into the treasury of Augustana College 
and Theological Seminary. Among the publications we note : "Vid 



Korset", "Beformationen och Socinianismen", "Kyrkohistoria" (Ton- 
der Nissen), "Vara Sanger", "Luther-kalendern", "Fjclsltedts skrif- 
ter", the papers Ungdoms-Vannen (started January, 1879,) and Olive 
Leaf (started 1883). In August, 1884, Augustana Book Concern 
bought the printing office of Thulin & Anderson of Moline, Illinois, 
and in September the same year the company established its business 
(printing office and book-store) in a building located on the corner of 
7th avenue and 38th street, Bock Island, Illinois, recently erected by 
Drs. T. N. Hasselquist and S. P. A. Lindahl, which property (lot 
and building) was bought by the company. Augustana Book Concern 
continued to do business there until in 1889, when all its property 
was taken over bv the Svnod. 



The tacit intention of the promoters of Augustana Book Concern 
was to turn the business over to the Synod as soon as the Synod would 
be willing and able to accept it. The Synod favored this new pub- 
lishing house. Augustana College and Theological Seminary held a 
number of shares in the company, whereby the Synod was already 
part owner, and two-thirds of the net profits were used for the benefit 
of said institution. The minutes of the sy nodical conventions during 
the years 1884 1889 were printed there. Beginning with 1885 the 
official paper of the Synod, Augustana och Missionaren, was published 
from its press, the company paying $500 annually for this privilege. 
In other respects it was also evident that Augustana Book Concern 
tended towards becoming an institution of the Synod, and the com- 
pany sought in every way, both in the business principles followed 
and in the character of the literature published from its press, to 
promote the true interests of the Synod. 

At the synodical convention in June, 1889, held at Bock Island 
and Moline, Illinois, a "Board of Publication" was elected. The mem- 
bers were: Pastors S. P. A. Lindahl, M. C. Banseen, Y. Setterdahl, 
and C. J. Petri and Messrs. C. G. Thulin of Moline, C. G. Chinlund 
of Chicago, and Nels Kelson of Galesburg. Bev. Setterdahl failed 
to serve, and Bev. L. G. Abrahamson was chosen by the Board to fill 
the vacancy. The duties of the Board, as established by the Synod, 
were to seek to bring about more uniformity in the use of textbooks 
in the parochial schools and institutions of learning within the Synod, 
to publish and spread such books and papers as the Synod might 
decide upon, and to purchase, if possible, for the Synod the property 
and publishing rights of the Augustana Book Concern. 

This "Board of Publication" held a meeting in Chicago July 9, 
1889, and resolved to incorporate under the laws of the State of 
Illinois, the corporate name to be The Lutheran Augustana Book 
Concern. It was also resolved to approach the Augustana Book Con- 
cern and learn whether said corporation would be willing to sell out, 
and, if so, on what terms. A second meeting was held at Bock- 
Island, August 7, 1889, at which meeting articles of incorporation 
were adopted and an agreement was made with the Augustana Book 
Concern to buy all the property belonging to said corporation, the 
terms being 80 per cent, of the par value of all paid shares, to be 
paid in five years, interest at the rate of 6 per cent., the new corpora- 




tion to collect outstanding accounts and assume all liabilities. As 
soon as the charter had been procured, the Board met again, September 
3, 1889. Officers were elected, Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl being made 
president, Dr. M. C. Eanseen, vice president, and Mr. ISTels Nelson, 
secretary. Mr. A. G. Anderson, who had served Augustana Book 
Concern in the capacity of foreman 
of the printing department and as- 
sistant manager, was chosen as treas- 
urer and manager. The purchase 
was consummated, to be dated on the 
1st day of August, 1889, the date 
upon which the inventory of Augus- 
tana Book Concern was taken. Thus 
the Synod again owned a printing 
office, publishing house, and book 
store, and a new era in the history 
of the publications of the Synod was 
ushered in. Since that time the pub- 
lishing business of the Synod has 
enjoyed a continuous and healthy Manager of A e ustana Book Concern - 
growth in all respects, assuming proportions far beyond the most 
sanguine hopes of its promoters twenty years ago. 

At the synodical convention at Lindsborg, Kansas, in June, 1892, 
Constitution and By-Laws were adopted. These served as rules for 
the management until the synodical convention at Bed Wing, Min- 
nesota, in June, 1909, when a new Constitution and By-Laws were 

In 1903 the corporate name was changed to Augustana Book Con- 
cern, omitting the word "Lutheran." 

The main office has from the beginning been located at Rock Island, 
Illinois, corner of 7th avenue and 38th street. The Board came 
before the Synod at its convention at Lindsborg, Kansas, 1892, with 
the proposition to move the business location to Chicago. But the 
proposition was not concurred in by the Synod, the Synod resolving 
that the main office should be retained at Rock Island. The building- 
purchased in 1889 was in use until January, 1899, when the new, 
modern, fire-proof building, three stories with basement, the erection 
of which had begim in June, 1898, was ready for use. The bindery 


had been moved into the new building in November, 1898. The old 
building, moved to the rear of the lot, has since been used for store- 
room purposes. 

At a meeting of the Board July 10, 1895, it was resolved to pur- 
chase The Globe Bindery from Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl and Mr. C. G. 
Thulin, who had recently bought it from Mr. Joshua Hasselquist, 
who had for a number of years conducted a book bindery business, 
and on the first of August of the same year the bindery was incor- 
porated with the business of the Book Concern. 

In December, 1891, a branch book store was opened in St. Paul, 
Minnesota. This branch was continued there until in August, 1908, 
when it was moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota, and located at 417 
Fourth street South. In August, 1907, the stock and rights of the 
Minneapolis Book Concern, a company doing business in Minneapolis, 
was bought. A branch business was conducted in Minneapolis which 
was merged into the St. Paul branch when that was moved to Min- 
neapolis. Since the removal of the St. Paul branch, book deposi- 
tories have been maintained in the stores of the Bodin-Sundberg Drug 
Co., St. Paul. For a number of years a book depository has been 
maintained at Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota. 

In the fall of 1903 a branch book store was opened in New York 
City, at 377 Broadway, Avhich is still being maintained. 

In the fall of 1906 a branch book store was opened in Chicago, 79 
Dearborn street, and this branch is also still maintained. 

We have previously mentioned Augustana and Barnens Tidning. 
Other papers and periodicals published by Augustana Book Concern 
are the following : 

Tidskrift for teologi och kyrkUga frdgor (The Augustana Theo- 
logical Quarterly) is, as the name indicates, a theological and 
church quarterly. It was begun in 1898. The editors have been the 
following: Dr. E. Norelius (18981899), The theological faculty, 
Rock Island, and the president of the Synod, Dr. Norelius (1900 
1902), Dr. E. Norelius and Dr. N". Forsander (19031909). 

The Alumni Association of Augustana College started a paper in 
1892 known as The Alumnus, published in the English language. In 
1894 the name was changed into The Augustana Journal, In the fall 
of 1895 the Association transferred this paper to the Lutheran 
Augustana Book Concern without conditions or considerations. Since 


that time the paper has been published up to 1906 semi-monthly, 
since then weekly, as a young people's paper in the English language, 
and has been considered, justly so, the English official organ of 
the Synod. In January, 1907, the name of the paper was changed 
to The Young Lutheran's Companion. The following have served 
as editors since the transfer: Prof. C. L. Esbjorn, with Eevs. A. P. 
Fors, P. M. Lindberg, and A. Eodell as associates (18951896) ; 
Dr. G. A. Brandelle (18971905) ; Rev. 0. V. Holmgrain, with Eevs. 
A. Hult and C. J. Sodergren as associates (19061908) ; Rev. C. J. 
Sodergren, with Eev. C. J. Bengston as office editor (1909) ; Dr. C. 
W. FOBS, staff correspondent (19081909). 

The Olive Leaf, a Sunday-school paper in the English language, 
started in 1883 by the Augustana Tract Society and published month- 
ly, has since the purchase of Augustana Book Concern been published 
continuously, and is now being published semi-monthly. 

Ungdomsvdnnen, a literary monthly magazine, which had been 
started in 1896 by C. A. Hultkrans, F. M. Eckman, J. L. Haff and 
others, has been published by Augustana Book Concern since January, 
1900. Dr. S. G. Youngert has been editor-in-chief all these years, 
assisted by a number af associate editors. 

The Augustana Book Concern has published from its presses many 
books, pamphlets, and tracts. In fact, they are so many that it would 
be futile to attempt to recount in detail the publishing work accom- 
plished in that line. We must bear in mind that this publishing house 
has for more than twenty years been the publishing house of the 
Augustana Synod and as such has sought diligently to supply the 
needs of the church, the home, the parochial and Sunday-schools, and 
the higher institutions of learning. It has been wide awake to the 
needs of the times. The needs for literature in both the Swedish 
and the English language it has sought to supply. The books used 
by the professors and the students at our theological seminary, col- 
leges and academies it has supplied to a great extent. Into the book 
store have been brought enormous quantities of books, in quite a 
number of different languages, as the demand has called for, large 
quantities of these having been imported from foreign countries, 
especially Sweden, Germany, and England; and through the book 
store these books have been distributed to thousands /of homes, churches 
and schools, and many higher institutions of learning throughout 


the length and breadth of this land. Large quantities of the Augus- 
tana Book Concern's own publications have been exported to other 
countries, especially to the homeland of our fathers, Sweden. From 
time to time the Augustana Book Concern has also gathered, and 
preserves in safe keeping, many valuable historical documents, books, 
pamphlets, letters, etc., written or printed, relative to the history of 
our people in this country. May it suffice to state, further, that up 
to December 31, 1909, the aggregate number of new works, books, 
pamphlets, and tracts that had during the preceding twenty years 
come from the presses of Augustana Book Concern was 335, and the 
total number of copies printed was 2,195,164. 

The following table of figures, indicating the scope and character 
of the business, will strongly accentuate the above made statements: 


YEAR. Total Output. Total Output. Total Sales. 

December 31, 1889 - 

December 31, 1890 - 

December 31, 1891 - 

December 31, 1892 $26,578.84 $46,950.33 

December 31, 1893 26,476.29 54,078.53 

December 31, 1894 23,620.60 Aug. l Dec. 31 44,016.70 

December 31, 1895 21,914.54 $3,368.70 48,216.32 

December 31, 1896 25,624.72 8,025.63 47,919.61 

December 31, 1897 21,794.72 8,956.80 48,133.83 

December 31, 1898 23,039.74 8,608.07 53,173.13 

December 31, 1899 23,676.94 9,241.46 55,448.27 

December 31, 1900 27,138.54 12,356.38 55,474.95 

December 31, 1901 29,377.45 12,331.11 54,579.68 

December 31, 1902 36,215.43 15,381.23 63,077.29 

December 31, 1903 34,594.60 16,836.15 74,230.09 

December 31, 1904 37,988.84 18,324.54 70,991.22 

December 31, 1905 43,676.59 18,752.85 82,578.28 

December 31, 1906 ; 47,809.54 19,282.14 83,652.79 

December 31, 1907 45,736.53 20,470.41 88,054.97 

December 31, 1908 53,038.33 21,203.60 95,468.34 

December 31, 1909 52,869.84 24,668.04 93,074.37 





Number issued. 

No. of copies 

No. of copies 



































































































































2,195,164 34,335,116 

The following sums have been paid out of the earnings for each 
year to the treasury of Augustana College and Theological Seminary 
as follows : 

1896 $2,000.00 

1897 1,000.00 

1898 2,000.00 

1899 2,000.00 

1900 2,000.00 

1901 2,000.00 

1902 3,000.00 

1903 3,000.00 

1904 3,000.00 

1905 3,000.00 

1906 4,000.00 

1907 4,000.00 

1908 4,000.00 

Total.... $35,000.00 

* For 1889, from August 1st only. 


A word must also be said in regard to the profits derived from 
publications. The publishing business always being in a state of 
growth, the greater part of the earnings has been applied in the ex- 
tension of the business, in securing property, necessary equipments, 
and stock, in order to keep pace with the growing demands in all lines 

The profits which, in the judgment of the Board, could from time 
to time be set aside, have been paid over to the treasury of Augustana 
College and Theological Seminary, as has already been shown in the 
table given above. This has been done pursuant to the principle laid 
down by the pioneers, that the profits should be used for said institu- 
tion, in order that all the members of the Synod might, through its 
publishing business, be blessed in a two-fold measure; firstly, through 
the books and periodicals and papers published and circulated; sec- 
ondly, through the seat of learning, whose influence extends to every 
nook and corner of the Synod. 

We find in the Articles of Incorporation of the Augustana Tract 
Society, the first incorporated forerunner of the Augustana Book 
Concern, the following stipulation: 

"The whole of the net proceeds and earnings that may or shall 
come or arise to said society from gifts and donations and the print- 
ing, publication and sales, as aforesaid, shall be used for the benefit 
of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, as said society may 
from time to time determine." And when stock was solicited for the 
Augustana Book Concern, the successor to the Augustana Tract So- 
ciety and the forerunner of the present Augustana Book Concern, it 
was expressly provided that the profits should be divided as follows : 

"One third to the stockholders, and two thirds to Augustana Col- 
lege and Theological Seminary." And the president of the Lutheran 
Augustana Book Concern, Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl, reported to the 
Synod in June, 1897, from the meeting of the Board in March, said 
year : "Out of the net gain - - $2,000 were, as the first fruits, 

appropriated to the Synod's institution of learning." And this in- 
herent principle, that the profits should accrue to Augustana College 
and Theological Seminary, has ever been diligently upheld and applied 
by the Synod and the Board of Directors of Augustana Book Concern. 

The members of the Board of Directors of the Augustana Book 
Concern, and their respective terms of office, counted from June each 
year, have been as follows : 


S. P. A. Lindahl 18891908 

M. C. Kanseen 18891890, 1891189-1 

L. G. Abrahamson 1889 (August) 1894 

C. J. Petri '.. .1889 1890, 19071910* 

C. G. Thulin 18891896 

C. G. Chinhmd 18891890 

Nels Nelson 18891893, 18941900 

L. A. Johnston 18901910* 

P. J. Kallstrom 18901892 

Gust Bengston 18901891 

S. M. Hill 18921901 

P. A. Pihlgren 18921895 

C. F. Anderson 18921894 

G. Bodin 18931896 

C. A. Hemborg 18941906 

C. E. Cesander 18941900 

M. Noyd . 18951898 

Julius Johnson 18961899 

J. S. Carlson 18961908 

S. G. Youngert . .18981901 

A. Schon 18991911* 

C. A. Swensson 19001904 

C. W. Foss 19011910* 

J. A. Sandell 19011907 

C. J. Sodergren 19041912* 

F. A. Johnsson 19061912* 

I. M. Anderson 19061912* 

Philip Thelander 19081911* 

A. A. Stomberg 19081911* 

Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl served as chairman from the beginning of 
the Angustana Book Concern until his demise. 

Dr. C. W. Foss served from March 27, 1908, until July 14, 1908. 
Rev. F. A. Johnsson, the present chairman, has served since July 
14, 1908. 

As vice presidents of the Board the following have served : 

M. C. Eanseen 18891890 

L. A. Johnston 18911894 

* Term expires. 


C. A. Hemborg 18941904 

C. W. Foss 19041908 

I. M. Anderson 19081910 

The secretaries of the Board have been the following : 

Nels Nelson 18891893, 18941899 

S. M. Hill 18931894 

S'. G. Youngert 18991901 

Anders Schon 19011910 

Three members of the Board died during their incumbency, viz. : 
Dr. C. A. Swensson, February 16, 1904; Eev. J. A. Sandell, March 
24, 1907; and Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl, March 27, 1908. 

Mr. A. G. Anderson has served continuously as manager and treas- 
urer since the establishment of the Lutheran Augustana Book Con- 
cern, and still holds that position. 

Mr. C. A. Larson has been employed since 1883 and as foreman 
of the composing room since 1886, and still holds that position. 

Mr. C. L. Ackerlind has been foreman of the press room since 1886, 
and still continues. 

Mr. Henry Stahmer served as foreman of the bindery until January, 
1903, and since that time the present foreman, Mr. S. Benson, has 

Mr. Gustaf Bodin has been manager of the St. Paul branch (now 
the Minneapolis branch) since its establishment (1891), and still 
holds that position. 

Eev. Alfred Nelson served as traveling representative from No- 
vember, 1893, until the establishment of the Chicago branch (1906), 
when he became manager of said branch, which position he now holds. 

Mr. Carl E. Bohman has been manager of the New York branch 
since its establishment (1903), and still retains that position. 

Rev. 0. V. Holmgrain was procured as publishing editor in April, 
1900, which position he still holds. 

Mr. Grant Hultberg was appointed assistant manager and chief of 
the Circulation Department in 1907, entering upon his duties in 
October said year, and still continues. 

Eev. C. J. Bengston was elected literature secretary in July, 1908, 
which position he now fills. 

In conclusion, we desire to accentuate one fact, strongly evident 
from the foregoing history, viz., that all the proceeds from the pub 


lishing business of the Synod which could be spared by the business 
have been paid over to Augustana College and Theological Seminary. 

The blessing of the Lord has been spread in a rich measure over 
the publishing interests of the Synod. The great importance of the 
publication and circulation of books and periodicals and papers, 
proven at all times through the wholesome influence upon the hearts 
and minds of the members of the Synod, the rich blessing from the 
Lord brought through these channels, in the past, in the present and 
for the future, cannot be overestimated, and it behooves every member 
of the Synod to grant the Augustana Book Concern hearty support, 
in word and deed, knowing that thereby the true welfare of every 
member of the Synod, and of the Synod as a whole, will be promoted. 

May God grant continually in an increased measure this blessing 
to the publishing interests of the Augustana Synod. 


The Language Question. 

HE COXSEQUEXCES of the foolhardy attempt of the early 
Eace to build, upon the plain of Shinar, a tower, which 
should "reach to Heaven," cannot be calculated. The 
motives, which actuated the primitive builders did not 
please the Lord. They wanted fame ; furthermore they did not wish to 
become scattered over the earth. They imagined that a beautiful city 
with a high and commanding tower in it would kindle a patriotism 
strong enough to hold the people to that one locality. This principle 
is strangely applicable to the Orient. Hark, the song of sorrow, the 
longing of the Jews in captivity for the Temple. "If I forget thee, 
Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. Let my tongue 
cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I prefer not Jerusalem above my 
chief joy." The pilgrimage of Mohammedans to Mecca has become a 
proverb in literature. The Orientals are fanatic patriots. The verdant 
plain of Shinar was ideal for permanent settlement. But the world 
lay open before them, and its beauty and attractiveness was alluring. 
Why not keep the people together and form a mighty nation ? Why not 
build a monument which by its uniqueness and stupendousness would 
compel a return, if for any reason some might wish to go away? 
"The whole earth was of one language and of one speech." The con- 
ditions were perfect for a united and solidified people. But as the 
construction of the tower proceeded "the Lord came down." He 
understood the true situation. "This is what they begin to do, and 
now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to 
do. Let us therefore confound their language, that they may not un- 
derstand one another's speech. And from thence did the Lord scatter 

Rev. S. P. A. Lindahl, D. D. 


them abroad upon the face of the earth." It is evident that the 
"confounding of language" was meant as a check to an inordinate 
pride, and must be viewed as a punishment. However, divine chas- 
tisement is always followed by salutary results. It is God's purpose 
that all things shall work together for good. It is also a part of his 
plan to have us work ourselves out of difficulties and tight places. 
The aim of this particular visitation of Providence was accomplished : 
"And they left off to build the city." The ultimate blessings have 
been developed gradually. As time speeds along and the world 
hastens on to its glorious consummation, the folly of the plain of 
Shinar will have been outweighed by the innumerable benefits of a 
healthful competition among all peoples to reach the highest 
standard of excellence, in which language takes a most conspicuous 

We cannot ignore the fact that the difference of language has 
presented many difficult problems in the world's history. In com- 
merce, education, and the work of evangelization there have been 
tremendous obstacles to overcome. But the trophies of victory have 
been worth the battle. The world has become enriched by the 

Language is a reflection of the temperament and soul life of a 
people. In the multitudinous languages and dialects, living or dead, 
the world's literature, thought, song, and music are treasured. These 
expressions are as natural as the prattle of the babe in the language 
of its father and mother. It is the outburst of soul in its own 
spontaneous fashion. As a natural product, it has adaptability to its 
own home. The nation makes the language. Language does not 
make the nation. The best knowledge of a people is through its own 
language, customs, history, and traditions. We have our grave doubts 
that any one language, hitherto used, could have reflected correctly 
the characteristics of all the different races of earth. If, out of the 
languages now spoken, a new one can be evolved, which readily adapts 
itself everywhere, is a question for speculation. At the present, time 
the world is polyglot, and richer for it. 

May a word be said at this point about the language which our 
fathers, the pilgrims fr ^m out of the Northland, spake and which their 
children love? As the sail at sea catches the breeze, and is borne on- 
ward, so has the mother-tongue caught the harmony and melody of 

The Augustana Synod 14 


sighing forest, clanging steel, roaring torrent, whispering zephyr, and 
of the warbling songsters. The clear waters of the North reflect the 
matchless sky, the glorious sun, the drooping lily; it gathers in the 
rays of the flaming Aurora Borealis and drinks the light from 
myriads of constellations. Can you hear it; can you see it in the 
language of that land? Dare anyone say that the world owes not a 
debt to the Vikings? To their language? To the Eddas? To 
Frithiof's Saga? To the Surgeon's tales? To the hymnology, to 
the music of the North? Is it to be deplored that such wealth of 
genius has been brought over oceans and seas into other countries? 
Is it to be regretted that there is an international exchange of in- 
tellect? Has not the Augustana Synod performed a splendid mission 
in keeping alive and making known the rich heritage from S'vea-land ? 
Our love for the native tongue, while citizens of a foreign country, 
has brought us into a perplexing situation, not as individuals, but as 
an organization. I do not belittle other problems, when I say that 
the Language question is the one of paramount importance for the 
present and for the future. It is within the memory of even those 
among us who are still young, when the vital question was, Whence 
the men and means ? Every year brings a new answer in consecrated, 
Christian ministers and offerings of money. We can use more, but 
we thank God for what we get. The congregations are settled in 
doctrine and firmly rooted in the faith. The Word is preached in 
truth and purity. All reports bear testimony to the loyalty of pastors 
and parishes. The real, living, practical issue is : How shall we keep 
what we have and still grow, and how shall a Swedish religious body 
live in new surroundings and under Americanizing influences? In 
other words, can a church, using a foreign tongue, having a mem- 
bership of 250,000 souls, working among the 1,500,000 of its own 
nationality, 1,000,000 of whom are born in the United States, and 
surrounded by approximately 80,000,000 fellow citizens speaking 
another language, can a Swedish church under such conditions be 
assured of permanent success by clinging to its historic language? 
Or, is it not reasonable to suppose that in the process of construction 
of a new citizenship, the tendency is toward one language, which is 
a necessity, and that all other languages will be mere accomplish- 
ments, without any direct value? And does not necessity rule? Are 
not accomplishments the boon of a few ? 


The history of the Augustana Synod is wonderful. The statistics 
for 1860, the year of organization, show that then there were 27 
ministers engaged in the work, 17 of whom were Swedish and 10 
Norwegian; 49 congregations, of which number 36 were Swedish 
and 13 Norwegian; 4,967 communicants, 3,753 Swedish and 1,214 
Norwegian. That same year marked the birth of "a theological semi- 
nary to educate pastors and teachers for our congregations", the 
beginning of our own Augustana College. These were our assets. 
Not all, however. We must not forget the contingencies, the prom- 
ising field of labor and its future possibilities, God's additional 
gifts to the young Synod. After 49 years of work, the stewards 
present the following table of results: 611 ministers, 1,092 congrega- 
tions, 965 churches; value of property, $8,077,862. The communicant 
membership is 163,473, entire baptized membership 254,645, and the 
contributions for the fiscal year 1908 were $1,607,201. The Synod 
supports 20 eleemosynary institutions, one publishing house, and 
9 colleges and lower schools of learning, a marvellous record of 
industry for Swedish immigrants and their descendants. 

How has it become possible? Here we must remind ourselves that 
the mother-country has been favored with the gospel of Jesus Christ 
for many centuries. Through that powerful agency, ennobling forces 
have been put in operation in the kingdom of Sweden with telling 
effect. The tribes have been made over into a nation. In times of 
war the nation has been brave, in times of peace it has been diligent 
in the cultivation of arts, letters, sciences, and above all to create a 
high standard of Christian life, in the home and in public. Slowly 
this process has been going on. Every new generation has received an 
added impetus from the foregoing one. There is nothing which can 
equal a good pedigree. When our fathers came to the new shores, 
they brought not riches, not escutcheons from noble houses, not 
elaborately prepared charts of an illustrious family-tree, but they 
did have something infinitely better. They were the products of 
plain and righteous living. They were brought up to fear and love 
God. Their first lesson was to learn God's law, the second, to keep 
it. That was the chief characteristic of the simple homes. Oh, the 
glory of such an ancestry! True, God-fearing, and strong! Such 
was the training of the children in the Northland, the children who 
were eventually to be the founders of the Augustana Synod. 


In the middle of the past century the "vandringslust" seized upon 
the inhabitants of the North. The roving spirit of the Vikings had 
been cooled by the ordered state of society, and with the exceptions 
of the big military campaigns and the attempt at settlement upon 
the banks of the Delaware, the descendants of the Vikings had been 
living in quiet. The rumors of glowing possibilities in the great 
western republic reached Sweden, where the prospects for the future 
seemed doubtful, and a pilgrimage to America was begun, which has 
continued up to the present day, sometimes stronger, sometimes weaker 
in numbers, but never ceasing. It is an eternal farewell to the 
native land. It means a new home for all time. We travel, we visit 
often, but we emigrate only once. Our fathers have even sworn off 
allegiance to their former ruler, the Swedish king. They remained 
loyal, however, to the King of kings and the Lord of lords. They 
brought with them centuries of religious training and yearning, 
which coursed in their very blood. They did not quench the fire of 
spiritual intelligence which had been kindled in their souls. The 
Swedish pilgrim fathers were as pious as their cousins who stepped 
out from the Mayflower upon the granite surface of Plymouth Rock 
many years before. The meeting-house was as necessary as the 
dwelling. Such was the actual beginning of the Augustana Synod, 
That body existed in the hearts of the Swedish pilgrims long before 
it became a reality. 

The field of labor of the Augustana Synod has been among the 
Swedish immigrants and their children. It was not the purpose of 
our pioneers to establish a mission for the native, American popula- 
tion. It was their burning desire to minister to their countrymen 
and to aid them to remain faithful to the Church of their fathers. 
The immigrants could be reached only in their own language. It 
was the only one they knew, and in many instances it has been the 
only one they ever did learn. The gospel was preached by Swedish 
pastors to Swedish listeners in the Swedish language, and no person 
with unimpaired reason will for a moment doubt the wisdom and 
benefit of such a course. To have followed the advice given by raVjid 
quasi-patriots to attempt to Americanize immediately the incoming 
foreigners by depriving them of the privilege of speaking their lan- 
guage and prohibiting the organization of congregations where the 
new citizens might worship God in the only fashion they understood, 


would have been a wholesale massacre, intellectually and spiritually, 
of what is now a creditable portion of the best element in the American 
nation. The United States is better to-day for the German, Nor- 
wegian, Danish, Dutch, Swedish and other preaching within its 
domain. Imagine the possibility of coercing these sturdy, liberty- 
loving people to forget ! Or that they could occupy pews in churches 
where they could not worship ! In such a process of acclimatization 
they would have frozen to death. There would not have been that 
healthy, vigorous life, that excellent citizenship, that devotion to duty 
and that reverence for God, which characterizes the Protestant foreign 
element which has settled in our adopted country, if they had not 
begun as they did. Before God and the Constitution, our fathers did 
what was the only natural thing to do. They commenced their work 
in Swedish and taught their children to love Sweden's interesting 
history and its language. "They builded better than they knew." 
In many of the Swedish Baptist churches in the United States, the 
services have been conducted in the mother tongue, but Sunday-school 
work has been carried on in the English language. The whole de- 
nomination to-day deplores this circumstance as a mistake. Steps 
have been taken to remedy it by introducing Swedish day-schools 
and Sunday-schools and by encouraging study of the forgotten and 
neglected language. The experiences of others justify the action of 
the founders of our Synod. Ah, my beloved kinsmen from the North ! 
Would you have had your birth-right sold? Would you have had 
effaced from your memory the recollections of a childhood made 
beautiful by the wonderful tales of that far-off land where your fore- 
bears lived and died? If you could, would you destroy the incom- 
parably sweet harmony in Northland melodies which oft-times sweeps 
through your souls, as the wind through the forest, refreshing, in- 
vigorating, and strengthening? Methinks I hear the answer as the 
roar of many waters. It is the chorus of the Young Augustana, true 
scion of the old, and its shout is strong in praise of the fathers' work 
well done. 

In common with all other human activity, the work of the Augus- 
tana Synod is marked by some imperfections and mistakes. But the 
general result has been splendid. We need not bow our heads in 
shame while our history is being read. The errors appear only as 
defective type upon an otherwise well-printed page. The good intent 


is everywhere evident. The whole story indicates a reaching out 
after the best. The mistakes are those of judgment, not of the heart. 
The sum total is so great that we forget the insignificant subtractions. 

To such a past those now in the work must pledge themselves to 
be true. We cannot rest upon laurels already won. We cannot always 
sing songs of grief or praise upon the graves of the fathers, we must 
press on, as they did, and pass the well-kept vineyard on to a coming 
generation. New days bring new problems, but they must be grap- 
pled with in the old faith. The spirit of 1910 should be the spirit 
of 1860, with new strength for new issues. We cannot shirk our 
plain duty. The future belongs to us, and past successes are indica- 
tions of what is in store for an active, clear-eyed Synod. We must 
grow as long as we exist. It is surely God's will that we shall continue 
to be a power for good, and this must be made plain to the whole 
Synod during the year of Jubilee. 

The Census of 1900 reports the presence in the United States of 
574,625 persons whose native country is Sweden; 86,304 born in the 
United States of one Swedish parent, the other native; 998,538 born 
in the United States of Swedish born parents; in all 1,659,467 in- 
habitants of Swedish ancestry. The religious census of the Swedes 
in the United States is as follows: 

Augustana Synod 163,473 

Swedish Covenant, including Congregationalists and Free 

Church 46,000 

Methodists .'. 20,500 

Baptists 27,000 

Other Swedish denominations (estimated) 6,000 

Swedish members of English speaking churches outside of 

Synod (estimated) 10,000 

Sunday-school children (estimated) 150,000 

Children under S'unday-school age (estimated) 35,000 

Total 457,973 

These figures can be only approximately correct, but will serve 
for illustration. Accepting- the estimate of 457,973 as the number of 
Swedes and their descendants in the United States who are affiliated 
with any church, and subtracting that sum from 1,659,467, the 


number found by census enumerators in this country, we find that 
1,201,494 Swedes are not taken up in any religious statistics, an 
astounding figure. 

How can we explain the cause of such a disproportion? In a 
degree it has been a lack of an adequate working force of ministers 
in our Synod to care for the incoming countrymen. But we have also 
been the victims of a dual misrepresentation, the effects of which 
have been keenly felt. There was, formerly, at least, a tendency in 
the Church of' Sweden to repudiate the Swedish Lutheran Church 
of the United States, and, strange to relate, the other extreme, the 
Free Church, would have nothing in common with our work. The 
operation of this logic has been thus: The Church of Sweden (or, 
rather, men in it) would say, "Beware of Augustana, for that is the 
Free Church movement in the States," and the Liberal element would 
warn, "Look out for Augustana, for it is like the discredited Estab- 
lished Church." Another reason for the lethargy of the Swedish 
immigrants, too little taken into account, is the sudden escape from 
the duties to the Church to which every Swedish subject is pledged. 
They will enjoy that liberty ! From figures which have been produced 
and from what we have just written, the conclusion might be arrived 
at, that the great majority of Swedes and their descendants in this 
country are an irreligious class. That is not true. The Augustana 
Synod is bigger than it appears upon paper. As a class the Swedes 
are churchly and devoted to the faith of their fathers. The peculiar 
expression is true of them, "They are members of our congregations, 
but not of the organization." As proof of this statement we submit 
statistics. In 1907 our pastors baptized 5,259 children, whose parents 
are members of the Synod, and 7,126, whose parents are not members. 
This may safely be taken as an indication of the strength of our 
organization and as a correct measurement of the field open to us. 
One pastor performs eleven times as many christenings outside of 
the stated membership as within it; another can multiply his figures 
by 7, another by 6, and so on in nearly all large settlements. We 
are inclined to place the real strength of the Synod at a figure con- 
siderably higher than is shown by the table of statistics. Very few, 
if any, religious bodies have a field so full of promise and possi- 
bilities as the Augustana Synod. A million Swedes to gather in, 
many of them ready to come for the asking. It is their old faith and 


their religious home. Will anyone deem it a vain boast to say that 
to the Augustana Synod, more than to any other agency, must be 
entrusted the duty of conserving and uniting the Swedish nationality 
in the new world. Is it not true that this Synod, with its churches, 
colleges, Sunday-schools, parochial schools, press and institutions, has 
been able to accomplish as much in this direction as all other forces 
combined, and more? We shall gladly give credit to any effort to 
keep and lift up our people, even though it has not the mark of 
Augustana upon it, but shall at the same time maintain that the 
working force and field have been such, that the biggest results are 
apparent from the efforts of the Swedish Lutheran Church in the 
United States. 

The process of creating a new nation in this country is steadily 
going on. It has a distinctive name, American. In characteristics 
it is unlike any other on earth. It consists not of any one people, 
but of many, gradually being made into one. The official language 
is English. That is the language of the Declaration of Independence 
and the Constitution which governs us. How English came to be 
the language of the land, is familiar to every school-boy. It was done 
through the right of possession. The commands to the Continental 
army were in English. The coming to our shores of different peoples 
after the revolution did not alter the situation. Consciously or un- 
consciously they were made Americans in heart and utterance. What- 
ever their mother tongue, they understood that the privileges of 
American citizenship were enhanced by a knowledge of the official 

The American citizen is a new creation in the history of the world. 
He has no counterpart. From 1789 to 1908, 27,000,000 foreigners set- 
tled in America. One glance at them will tell us that they are made 
over. The American is a composite character. Here the nations of 
the world are thrown together to give and to take. The result is a 
combination of the best of what comes here and what is already here, 
blended under favorable conditions and matured in our atmosphere 
of freedom. You know how the model of a perfectly formed body is 
obtained. One man has the correct poise of the head; another, grace- 
ful body-lines; another, a well developed arm; another, a fine pair of 
shoulders ; and so the search is carried on, until by measurements and 
observations a form can be made, and in it is cast the figure of the 


ideal physical man. The ideal American will be a combination of the 
good traits of the best people who settle here. Eventually we shall 
lose our former identity, but we shall find a new one. After a two 
years' residence in the United States, the Swedish emigrant cannot 
return to his native land without betraying some American char- 

We are also drifting towards a common language. The Swedish, 
German, Dutch, French, Hebrew, Eussian, etc., channels converge 
into English. As well try to hold roaring Niagara back with the 
palm of one's hand, as to prevent this change. One solitary argument 
is sufficient to substantiate this statement our compulsory education 
law. In New York State all children under 14 16 years of age 
must attend school 160 days each year, and there every branch is 
taught in English and, on top of them all, that language itself. 

This phase of our national life presents a problem to the foreign 
people who have become citizens of the republic and are keeping up 
their own language. It concerns the Augustana Synod. The fact 
that the editor of this publication has invited a discussion of the 
question indicates that we see something coming. It is the problem 
of to-day to some extent, of a near-at-hand to-morrow to a greater 
extent. How soon we shall see that to-morrow we cannot say def- 
initely,, but the infallible signs of its approach are plain. Will the 
Synod read them ? Let us point out a few : In 1907 the immigra- 
tion from Sweden was 20,589, in 1908 only 12,809, an immense 
falling off from former years. A supreme effort is being made to 
discourage emigration, and it will be more or less successful. The 
Swedish language is now an optional study in our colleges, where it 
formerly was obligatory. A demand has been found for a Church 
paper, published in the English language, The Young Lutheran's 
Companion. The organization of English Lutheran churches upon 
Swedish fields. The need of instruction in the English language 
in our Swedish Sunday-schools. The gradual disappearance of the 
Swedish summer schools. The occasional English service in Swe- 
dish churches. The use of the English ritual at baptisms, marriages, 
and funerals. The difficulty to secure Sunday-school teachers in 
the cities, who know Swedish well enough to instruct children. 
The preference of English by our young people as a conversational 
medium. The prevalence of anglicisms in the sermons of a majority 


of our younger pastors. The numerous applications by catechumens 
for instruction in English. The increasing number of intermar- 
riages. The apparent difficulty of the younger laymen to express 
themselves in Swedish at congregational business meetings, and the 
ease with which they do this in English. Such conditions are actually 
found in our Synod, in some localities more pronounced than in 
others. Even though some peculiar circumstances may have been for- 
gotten in the above recital, we feel that in the main the picture is 
true. That there are congregations, to which the description does not 
apply, only proves that the process is slower there than elsewhere. 
Time will make the change. Such is the situation after fifty years. 
Has there been an over-zealous anxiety for Swedish and tardiness 
in taking up English work, and have we lost thereby? We do know 
of a few instances of impatience with us for the slowness of transition 
into English work which have resulted in a severance of membership 
in our Synod, but they are exceptions. In most of such cases there 
have been other considerations. The history of the Augustana English 
congregations is both interesting and instructive. They have grown 
steadily but slowly. In the nature of things this is to be expected. 
Our English work must not be compared with the Swedish in results 
for at least a few years to come. The demand for it will not be 
sudden, it is gradual. There cannot be a phenomenal growth, such 
as the Swedish churches enjoyed when immigration was at its height. 
There is perhaps no Swedish church in the Augustana Synod which 
to-day could adopt the use of English entirely without sustaining 
a loss of membership and without crippling itself. Yet there are very 
few congregations, if any, where some English work, in a true and 
sensible proportion, would not bear good fruit. One danger to be 
avoided is precipitation. Hesitation and stagnation are equally fatal. 
General legislation is impossible. It is the unequivocal duty of each 
pastor to keep a sharp lookout upon the field entrusted to his care. 
He must grasp the opportunity and strike out at the right moment. 
The Synod seems to be agreed that the proper solution is the organiza- 
tion of independent English-speaking congregations under the super- 
vision of the mother church. One thing is certain, it must be an 
Augustana Church. An effort by other bodies will not succeed among 
the Swedes. As a nation we have our own temperamental character- 
istics, religiously and socially. So have others. They have inherited 


them; so have we. What we have is a part of us. We also want an 
unbroken line of memories. I am not alone in giving expression to 
the hope that when the transition takes place, it may be in language 
only, without one other sacrifice than the mother tongue, and God 
knows that will be hard enough. Our liturgy, familiar to every 
Swede, our music, our hymns can be adopted. Then old and 
young will experience a home-like feeling in entering a new Augustana 
church. This need not be a blow at unity nor a reactionary attempt 
against present relationship with other Lutheran bodies. A time may 
come later, when a new liturgy can be compiled, which shall include 
features from the ones now in use and where all of us may find a 
reminder of home. To many this may seem puerile reasoning, but 
there are thousands in our Synod, to whom the language question 
presents no other solution. Our Book Concern has printed an edition 
of the Swedish liturgy translated into English. A beginning has been 
made to give us the Swedish hymns in English. We have literature 
enough for the beginning. Let us use it. A discouraging feature of 
literary work in the Augustana Synod is the hypercritical spirit, 
which manifests itself, and centers its attack mainly upon efforts in 
English. Augustana English is not bad ; it is as good as any. People 
understand it and it obeys the rules of grammar. Why there should 
be such violent criticism by our Swedish-American people of their 
own kind, is almost inexplicable. Away with it! It has become a 
bad habit. 

It is with some trepidation that I begin this paragraph, for I fear 
that I shall be misunderstood. I would say a word about our theo- 
logical seminary. I need scarcely assure two former teachers, the 
venerable seniors in the faculty; a school-mate; and a former co- 
laborer in the New York Conference that no disrespect is intended. 
But the matter can be discussed with them in all friendliness. The 
courses of study are arranged with great care. They are compre- 
hensive, complete, and compare favorably with what is offered in 
any institution of its kind of which we have any knowledge. The 
professors are earnest, pious men, masters of their subjects and aglow 
with enthusiasm for their branches. The instruction is orthodox and 
thorough. The seminary is what it has been designed to be. But 
has the Synod forgotten something? Is there something lacking in 
our Seminary, for which provision has never been made ? Our S. M. 


candidates are good scholars; they read Greek and know Hebrew 
roots; the difference between peccatum originale originans and pec- 
catum originale originatum is clear to them; they can enumerate the 
important dates in Church history; they can detect the discrepancies 
in creeds, but have we not a feeling that something can be added to 
round the young men out? To give them a clear conception of the 
world and the people in it? To help them to a better understanding 
of the rightful claims of the common people upon the Christian 
minister in the rapid whirl of practical, everyday life? To widen 
the young man's horizon ? This would have a most important bearing 
upon the solutions of many problems, the language question included. 
As clergymen we are daily thrown in contact, I might say competi- 
tion, with others. We should be prepared and be conscious of our 
fitness and strength. I am just now wondering if lectures at regular 
intervals before our theological students by men with a clear vision, 
with big hearts and brains, in the best sense men of the world, who 
have seen life and who have a wide experience with the needs of the 
brother, would not fill the gap? There are Christian, churchly 
Supreme Court justices, statesmen, lawyers, clergymen of long and 
fruitful service, who in an hour's time could give an awakening to 
a young man's ambition that would help him throughout his career. 
I am a child of our institutions, and after 16 years in the ministry 
it seems to me that one of our dangers is exclusiveness, and that is 
applicable to the seats of learning as well as to the pastors of our 
Synod. If we fail to reach the people, we fail miserably in our work. 
A reputation for learning and an orthodox faith is valuable only when 
it is coupled with a burning desire to reach humanity, to help and 
cheer by the practical application of the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

Our new aim in 'the year of Jubilee is a united, strong Augustana 
Synod. The harvest is ripe. Shall we gather it in? We have the 
laborers. S'hall they be equal to the task? In that new nation that 
must be formed on American soil of the peoples now here, shall not 
some Augustana traits be found, and in that new, grand, future 
republic, where our descendants shall live, shall not they have some- 
thing to thank their Swedish ancestors for ? It may not be language ; 
then let it be steadfastness, earnestness, and a strain of Lutheran 
Christianity and old-fashioned Swedish piety. 


Rev. 0. Olsson, D. D., Ph. D. 

The Union of the Augustana Synod with 
the General Council. 

HE AUGUSTANA SYNOD has been united with the General 
Council for forty years. During these four decades the 
growth both of the Synod and of the Council has been 
remarkable. The progress made has not been by leaps and 
bounds but gradual along conservative lines, in full accord with the 
principles of the organization both of the Synod and of the Council. 
The early beginnings of both had much in common. Their early 
history is one of storm and stress and noble heroism. At a time of 
confessional indifference the founders of the Augustana Synod rose 
up in manly protest against the confessional laxity of the Synod of 
Northern Illinois, with which the S"wedes and the Norwegians were 
affiliated from its organization in 1851 until 1860. They had taken 
part in its organization and supported it liberally, according to their 
means, but, becoming more closely acquainted with the leading men 
of the Synod, they found them to be pseudo-Lutherans, who cared 
very little for any definite doctrinal basis, and were even hostile to 
the conservative Lutheranism of the Scandinavian pastors, and hence 
they withdrew in 1860, and organized the Scandinavian Ev. Luth 
Augustana Synod. 

Their position was similar to that of the Pennsylvania Synod in 
1864, when the Franckean Synod was admitted into the General 
Synod, without having previously adopted the Augsburg Confession. 
They realized that there can be no true union, only a false unionism, 


where there is no common faith, and hence they withdrew from the 
Synod of Northern Illinois, just as the delegates of the Pennsylvania 
Synod withdrew, on the same basis, from the General Synod. 

That little band of pilgrim fathers few in number and poor in 
earthly goods, but firmly rooted and grounded in the Lutheran faith 
met at Jefferson Prairie, Wisconsin, on June 5th, 1860, in a small 
Norwegian church, and organized a Synod of their own, for mutual 
help in ministering to the spiritual wants of their countrymen, who 
were then pouring into this country in large numbers from Scan- 

From that time on, during a decade, the Swedes and the Nor- 
wegians labored together in love and harmony, until a friendly separa- 
tion between them took place at Andover, Illinois, on the 17th of 
June, 1870. At that memorable meeting the following resolutions 
were, adopted : 

1. That the Augustana Synod separates into two independent 
synods, each one electing its own officers. 

2. That the Norwegian branch forms the Norwegian-Danish 
Augustana Synod. 

3. That the two synods, the Swedish and the Norwegian-Danish, 
both being founded on the pure Lutheran doctrine and confession, 
regard each other with mutual love as sister-s}Tiods, aid each other 
and send delegates to each other's meetings. 

4. That the one Synod will not admit pastors or congregations 
of the nationality of the other, except by mutual agreement. 

5. Where there are few Swedes, Norwegians or Danes living in 
one community, they are advised to join the local congregation, 
whether that be Swedish or Norwegian. 

Not only do these resolutions clearly indicate the friendly spirit 
in which the separation took place, but the very fact that six Nor 
wegian congregations protested against the separation clearly proves 
that the union had been one of faith and love. The action of those 
congregations merits a special mention here and especially the written 
protest from the Norwegian Lutheran church of Chicago. That 
protest is a noble document, and as it has never been reprinted during 
these forty years, as far as I know, I will insert it here in full, for 
the benefit of all who love to delve into that early history of our 


"To the Venerable Augustana Synod. 
Fathers and Brethren in Christ : Grace and Peace ! 

Having learned with deep regret that there is a movement on foot 
to divide the Augustana Synod, by the withdrawal of the Norwegian 
congregations and ministers from said Synod, for the purpose of 
forming a new Norwegian Synod: 

We, now therefore, deeming such a withdrawal at this time inex- 
pedient and derogatory to the best interests, both of the several in- 
dividual congregations connected with the said Augustana Synod, 
and also to the Church at large. 

We, the undersigned, in our own behalf and also in behalf of those 
with whom we are associated, to wit. : the old Norwegian Ev. Luth. 
church of Chicago, whose Deacons and Trustees we are, do hereby 
enter our most solemn and earnest protest against such withdrawal; 
hoping that the Norwegian congregations, hitherto associated with us 
in connection with said Synod, will heed this our protest, and also 
exculpate ourselves from any and all participation in said movement 
to withdraw. 

Praying for divine guidance on your deliberations, and for Heaven's 
richest blessings upon the Church at large, 
We are, in the bonds of Peace, 









Deacons and Trustees of the Norwegian Ev. Luth. church of Chicago." 

The reply of the Synod to these friendly protests was an advice 
to all the Norwegian congregations to unite with the .Norwegian 
Synod. When the motion to separate had been carried, then the Nor- 
wegian pastors and delegates withdrew and held their meetings in 
the Old Swedish church at Andover. In the afternoon of the 21st 
of June they took a formal farewell. Rev. 0. J. Hatlestad spoke, 
thanking the Swedish brethren for all their kindness and brotherly 

The Augustana Synod 15 


love. The Eev. Erl. Carlsson and the newly elected president, Eev. 
Jonas Swensson, replied, wishing the new Synod much success and 
hoping that both would always continue to regard each other as sister 
synods. The sainted Dr. Passavant was also present and spoke a few 
words, and then prayer was offered, after which all joined in singing 
the last stanza of number 124 in the Swedish Hymnal. All were 
deeply moved, and bidding each other a hearty farewell, the Norwegian 
brethren departed. Had the excellent advice, given by the Synod to 
all the Norwegian churches, been heeded, they would have been spared 
twenty years of heartaches and they would have had a United Norwegi- 
an Church, dating from June 17, 1870, instead of from June 13, 1890. 
At the morning session on June 21, 1870, at that same synodical 
meeting, a report was read and adopted, by which action the destiny 
of the Augustana Synod was for all time to come, as we hope, inclis- 
solubly linked with that of the General Council. That report read 
as follows : 

-"To the venerable Augustana Synod: 

We, the undersigned, have carried out the instruction given us by 
the Synod to attend the meeting of the General Council, held last 
fall in the Swedish Luth. Immanuel church, Chicago, and beg to 
report as follows: 

We have from its very inception rejoiced at this new movement 
within the Lutheran Church. The General Council has not only 
taken its stand wholly and unconditionally on the confessional basis 
of the Lutheran Church, but it has also called forth new activity, 
greater liberality, more interest in higher education, greater zeal for 
organizing and supporting (maintaining) new congregations, and 
also a greater interest in Foreign Mission work, to state it briefly: 
a greater zeal for Home and Foreign Missions. All this indicates that 
there is a new life-energy at work and that a new day is dawning for 
our Lutheran Zion in this land. 

The committee takes the liberty to propose that the Constitution of 
the General Council now be adopted by the Synod and our union with 
the Council now be fully established. 




Then followed the reading of the Constitution of the General 
Council, and each article was approved as read, and finally the whole 
Constitution was ratified and the union of the Synod with the General 
Council was consummated. 

The following delegates to the next meeting of the General Council 
were thereupon elected: 


President Jonas Swensson, ex officio. 

Prof. T. N". Hasselquist. 
Erl. Carlsson. 
E. Norelius. 

Lay delegates: 

H. Olson, from Red Wing, Minn. 
G. Johnson, from Altona, 111. 
J. Engberg, from Chicago, 111. 
G. Johnson, from Jamestown, N". Y. 

Alternates, Clerical: 
G. Peters. 
C. 0. Hultgren. 
A. Andreen. 

Alternates, Lay: 

John Carlson, Carver, Minn. 
0. Hedlund, Altona, 111. 
P. L. Hawkinson, Chicago, 111. 
P. Blomstrand, Campello, Mass. 

In glancing back over these forty years we doubt that there has 
ever been a motion made and carried at any of our synodical meetings 
of greater importance than the one that placed us in organic unity 
with the General Council. 

It seems providential that just at the time, when the bond of union 
between the Scandinavians of the Augustana Synod was severed, that 
we were then ready to enter into a more lasting, and may we not say 
a more important Union, in which the German, the Swede and the 
American should form a Triple Alliance, not only for self-protection, 


but also for the propagation of Lutheran Faith and Doctrine, and 
the establishing of the Lutheran Church in this N"ew World. 

It is self-evident that our Synod could not have voted so intelligent- 
ly and unanimously at that memorable meeting, forty years ago, had 
not the proper preliminary steps been taken looking towards the 
L T nion. 

Ten years before the General Council was organized, the Founders 
of the Augustana Synod adopted a constitution based on the same 
confessional basis as that of the General Council. As early as 1856 
in Galesburg, 111., they appointed a committee consisting of L. P. 
Esbjorn, E. Xorelius, Erl. Carlsson, and 0. C. T. Andren to draft a 
constitution for the use" of the congregations. The work was done 
by E. Norelius, and at the Chicago meeting in March the following 
year the report of the committee was discussed for two and a half 
days and finally adopted. With some minor changes that constitution 
has since then been in operation in our congregations. 

The second article, dealing with the Doctrine, is formulated thus : 

"This Ev. Luth. Congregation holds that the Holy Scriptures are 
the revealed Word of God, and the only sufficient and infallible rule 
and standard of faith and practice. 

We also accept not only the three General Creeds (the Apostolic, the 
Xicene, and the Athanasian) but also the unaltered Augsburg Con- 
fession as a brief but true statement of the main doctrines of the 
Christian Religion ; this Confession to be understood in accordance 
with the development thereof, contained in the other Symbolical 
Books of the Lutheran Church." 

This is the fundamental article of the constitution, and this especial- 
ly unites all our congregations into one Synod. Comparing this 
article with the 8th and 9th article of "The Principles of Faith" 
approved by the General Council, ten years later, we find that the 
founders of our Synod and those of the Council were one in Spirit 
and Faith. Articles VIII and IX read as follows: 

"We accept and acknowledge the doctrines of the L T naltered Augs- 
burg Confession in its original sense as throughout in conformity with 
the pure truth of which God's Word is the only rule. We accept its 
statement of truth as in perfect accordance with the Canonical Script- 
ures : We reject the errors it condemns, and believe that all which it 
commits to the liberty of the Church, of right belongs to that liberty." 


"In thus formally accepting and acknowledging the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession, we declare our conviction, that the other Con- 
fessions of the Ev. Luth. Church, inasmuch as they set forth none 
other than its system of doctrine, and articles of faith, are of necessity 
pure and scriptural. Pre-eminent among such accordant, pure and 
scriptural statements of doctrine, by their intrinsic excellence, by the 
great and necessary ends for which they were prepared, by their 
historical position and by the general judgment of the Church, are 
these : the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the Smalkald Articles, 
the Catechisms of Luther, and the Formula of Concord, all of which 
are, Avith the Unaltered Augsburg Confession, in the perfect harmony 
of one and the same spiritual truth." 

That the Confessional basis of our Synod has been conservative 
Lutheran, reacting back into the decade prior to 1860, when the Chi- 
cago, the Mississippi and the Minnesota Conferences organized them- 
selves into the Augustana Synod, is due partly to the education re- 
ceived by those early pioneers in Sweden, but especially to the in- 
fluence of one man, whose ministry among us has spanned more than 
half a century. We refer to our venerable patriarch Dr. E. Norelius. 
He received his theological training at Columbus, Ohio, under the 
instruction of Prof. W. F. Lehman and other conservative and able 
Ohio Synod men. There he became thoroughly indoctrinated with 
pure Liitheran doctrine. 

Being also endowed with a clear judgment, with a remarkable 
memory and with an unfeigned piety he has wielded an influence 
for good, far beyond what we of a younger generation are at present 
able to comprehend. He alone warned against and opposed consist- 
ently the union with the Synod of Northern Illinois, and he has been 
for forty years a staunch and unfaltering upholder of our union with 
the General Council. 

But those early years, with their bitter experiences of unionism, 
paved the way for the true union with the General Council, just as 
truly as the bitter experiences of the Pennsylvania Synod led to the 
organization of the General Council. 

The withdrawal of our men from the Synod of Northern Illinois in 
April 1860, when Prof. Esbjorn, for valid reasons, withdrew with 
his students from Springfield to Chicago, created a great stir not 
only in the West, but also in the East. 


In May of that year, Dr. W. A. Passavant wrote from Pittsburg to 
Dr. E. Norelius : "May the Almighty God most graciously lend the 
aid of his Holy Spirit to your deliberations at your coming conven- 
tion. I hope that nothing will be said or done with violence or 
passion. Would to God that 'you could see your way clearly to come 
into the General Synod fully on the Augsburg Confession. It would 
greatly strengthen our hands in that body. But if not, let nothing 
be done against it, or a new issue be made. Go on quietly, attending 
to your appropriate work, and God will raise up friends and funds 
on every side. Yours, 


This good advice was followed by our men. They organized an 
independent Scandinavian Synod and attended to their "appro- 
priate work," and five years later Dr. Passavant was among those 
who withdrew from the General Synod and invited our men to 
come and take part with them in organizing the General Council. 

None of our men could be present at that preliminary meeting 
at Reading, Pa., in December 1866, but the printed proceedings of 
that meeting state at the close of the. 5th session : 

"Before adjournment a communion from Eev. Prof. T. N. 
Hasselquist, of the Augustana Synod, was read, expressing regret 
that he is unable to be present, and invoking the blessing of the 
Highest on both the Convention and its efforts towards Union in 
the Church and Faith of our fathers." 

At the meeting of the Synod at Berlin, 111., June 1867, Dr. Has- 
selquist refers to the Reading Convention in his report, as follows: 

"No one from our Synod could attend the important Lutheran 
Convention at Reading, Pa. We fully endorse the basis on which 
they reached an agreement for organizing a new General Synod. 
As God's Church, according to God's Word, must be a communion 
in order to exert as great an influence as possible, both inwardly 
and outwardly, therefore it will be an important topic for consid- 
eration at this meeting, to appoint delegates to represent the Augus- 
tana Synod at the coming convention when the organization of the 
New General Synod will be perfected. 

The committee on the President's report that year made the fol- 
lowing recommendation which was adopted: 


"That three delegates be elected to represent our Synod at the 
coming meeting of the New General Synod, to take part in organ- 
izing it and to report to our Synod at its next annual meeting." 

The following delegates were elected: 

T. N. Hasselquist; 0. J. Hatlestad; Ola Paulson; 
alternates : 

Erl. Carlsson; Am. Johnson; C. 0. Hultgren. 

In the register of delegates to the convention at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., in November 1867, the Scandinavian Evangelical Augustana 
Synod is represented by: 

Kev. Prof. T. N. Hasselquist; Eev. 0. J. Hatlestad; Eev. Erl. 

Immediately after the register we find the following statement: 

"On motion, Eesolved, that since the proper documents did not 
reach the Augustana Synod in time for their adoption, and as the 
purpose of that body is manifest in the presence of a delegation in 
our midst, that its delegates be received as members of this con- 

When the Synod met at Carver, Minn., in June 1868, the delega- 
tion to the "New General Synod, or the General Council of the 
Lutheran Church in America," presented the following report: 

"To the Venerable Augustana Synod : 

The delegates, elected last year, and who were able to attend the 
convention, held at Fort Wayne, Ind., for the purpose of organ- 
izing the General Council of the Lutheran Church in America, re- 
spectfully submit the following report through the undersigned: 

The delegates of our Synod were received most cordially as mem- 
bers of the convention and took part in all the deliberations from 
the beginning. The Council consisted, at its organization, of 11 
synods, including the Augustana Synod; it had in all about 130 
thousand communicant members, 1,000 congregations and 500 pas- 
tors. Its purpose is to embrace all those Lutheran Synods in Amer- 
ica that cling to the venerable and biblical Confession of our Church, 
and to become the bond of union between them for mutual encour- 
agement, strengthening in the truth, and for cooperation in their 
common work. The most important business was the discussion and 
adoption of the Constitution which contains the doctrinal basis, on 


which the Council stands, and the Church polity that the Council 
wishes to follow, and to have also others follow. 

We wish and hope that our Synod will declare at this meeting its 
fully established union with the General Council, in which body is 
centered the hope of all true Lutherans, of uniting in this country 
the separate divisions of the Church of the Reformation. 

It is the revealed will of God, that those who stand on the foun- 
dation of his pure Word, should not stand apart, but be united as 
members of one .body, support each other, present a united front 
to the enemy, sbare the cross and bear each others burdens, with one 
mind striving together for the faith of the gospel. 

Finally, it may be added, that on the agreed basis of representa- 
tion the Augustana Synod is entitled to send ten delegates, and that 
the next convention of the Council will be held at Pittsburg, Pa., 
the officers to decide on the time of meeting. 



The report was read and adopted, but concerning our union with 
the General Council it was on motion, Resolved: 

1 :o That, as the condition of union with the General Council is 
the formal adoption of its Articles of Faith and Church Polity, and, 
as many members of this Synod are not yet ready to do so, while the 
above named documents have not been translated into our languages 
(Swedish and Norwegian), be it therefore resolved that these docu- 
ments be translated and made known to our congregations. 

2 :o That delegates be now elected to attend the next meeting of 
the General Council, and that they be instructed to translate and 
print the above named documents and to furnish all necessary in- 
formation in this matter before the end of this year. 

3 :o That this matter be taken up for final action at the next 
meeting of the Synod." 

Then followed the election of the delegates. 

T. N. Hasselquist, ex officio; 0. J. Hatlcstad; A. Wright; Erl. 
Carlsson; T. G. Pearson. 

Alternates : 

0. Paulson; J. Amundson; Jonas Swensson; J. Engberg. 
The register of the delegates who attended the Pittsburg con- 


vention shows that Eev. T. N". Hasselquist, President, and Eev. Erl. 
Carlsson were present as the representatives of the Augustana Synod. 
That they were very active members is evident from the number of 
committees on which they served. That their arduous duties did 
not end with the convention is evident from the following statement 
on p. 36 of the minutes : 

"An abstract of the minutes of the First Convention was ordered 
to be published with the German minutes of the present Convention, 
and Eev. Prof. T. N. Hasselquist and Erl. Carlsson were instructed 
to translate both the Fundamental Principles and the Constitution 
of the General Council, and have them printed in the Swedish and 
Norwegian Languages." 

The report of the delegation, at the synodical meeting at Moline, 
111., in June 1869, was as follows: 

"To the Venerable Augustana S'ynod: 

The undersigned, who attended the Convention of the General 
Council, held at Pittsburg, Pa., last year, respectfully report as 
follows : 

The expectations to be able to unite the different genuine Luther- 
an Elements in America have been more than realized through that 
meeting. Some questions, the so-called Four Points, were brought 
up, seemingly in order to cause confusion, if not disruption, but even 
the enemies of the General Council were surprised at the calm and 
friendly manner in which the discussion was carried on, and at the 
important decisions 'arrived at by the Council. The whole convention 
was intensely in earnest in its efforts for the welfare of the congre- 
gations, and especially for the Home Mission work in the West. 

The Council decided, that in order to become more familiar with 
the needs of that great field, it would hold its next annual Conven- 
tion in our Swedish Luth. Immanuel Church at Chicago, 111. The 
Principles of Faith and Church Polity and the Constitution of the 
Council have been translated, and published in Augustana, and we 
recommend that they be acted on now according to the resolution of 
the Synod at its meeting last year. 




The report was received and adopted, but the question of uniting 
fully with the Council was postponed until the following year. Dele- 
gates were elected to attend the next Convention of the Council: 

Prof. T. N. Hasselquist, ex officio; Prof. A. Weenaas; Eev. Jonas 
Swensson; Rev. Erl. Carlsson; Prof. S. L. Harkey; Eev. 0. J. Hat- 

Lay delegates : A. A. Klove, from Leland, 111. ; P. Colseth, Chica- 
go, 111. ; N". A. Nilson, Milwaukee, Wis. ; T. G. Pearson, Vasa, Minn. ; 
Gustaf Johnson, Altona, 111.; W. 0. Holcomb, Burlington, Iowa. 

At the Chicago Convention we had a large delegation including 
the visiting pastors. 

Delegates: Prof. T. 1ST. Hasselquist; Eev. S. G. Larson; Rev. Erl. 
Carlsson; Rev. 0. J. Hatlestad; Prof. S. L. Harkey; Prof. A. 

Lay members: A. A. Klove; P. Colseth; N. A. Nilson; P. L. Haw- 

Visiting pastors: A. Johnson; A. W. Dahlsten; S. P. A. Lindahl; 
John S. Benzon; N". Th. Winquist; P. S'joblom; A. Andreen; C. 0. 
Lindell; B. M. Halland; 0. Paulson; A. R. Cervin; A. G. Setter- 
dahl; H. 0. Lindeblad; P. M. Sannquist. 

The report of our delegation was presented and acted on by our 
Synod at its meeting in Andover, 111., in June 1870, when the Union 
of the Augustana Synod with the General Council was consummated. 

To an impartial observer it is evident, that under the Providence 
of God, this Union has been of inestimable value to our Synod. 

We escaped the bitter experience of our Norwegian brethren, who 
affiliated with the German Missouri Synod, and found themselves 
entangled soon, not only in the Predestination Error, ~bui also in 
the heartless dogmatic orthodoxism and objectivism of that Synod, 
and in the self-satisfied exclusivism of that body, which, to most of 
our Norwegian brethren at last became unbearable, and compelled 
them to withdraw and form an organization of their own. 

It is very doubtful if our Synod could have withstood "the on- 
slaught of Waldenstromianism, and held the fort and waxed strong- 
er," during the years 1872 75, when that stream of misguided 
pietism overflowed Sweden, swept across the Atlantic, and beat upon 
our Synod if we had not been united with the General Council. 
That union, based on the unchangeable confessional foundation of 


our Church, had much to do with saving us from the threatened 
danger of the Waldenstromian sectarianism. 

During these forty years we have had no doctrinal controversy 
which in itself is ample proof of how well the foundation was laid 
by the fathers of the Council. 

In the sphere of Church Polity there has been some friction, due 
to the troublesome language question, and to the overlapping of 
mission fields, but these troubles have, on the whole, been amicably 
settled. The need af a very aggressive English Home Mission work 
becomes more apparent, as the younger generations take the place of 
the fathers. 

One of the greatest blessings that our Synod has derived from its 
union with the General Council is the preservation of the Synod 
itself as a united body. Should that union ever be broken, which 
God in his mercy forbid, then the unity of the Synod would become 
a thing of the past. The Synod would then lapse into a dangerous 
exclusivism, which would lead to petty tyranny and eventually to 
disruption. In our union with the General Council the most pro- 
gressive and also the most conservative Lutheran body in the U. S. 
we have also a feeling of solidarity, which is growing stronger in 
proportion as we learn to know each other better, and the language- 
barriers disappear, and we realize more fully the great and glorious 
mission of our Lutheran Church in the Western Hemisphere. 

The Luther League Movement, with its educational agencies; our 
Graded Sunday School System, the best in the world; our Home, 
Foreign and Inner Mission Work, and other great undertakings, are 
all paving the way for a future United Lutheran Church of North 
America. That seems to have been, as it were, a future prophetic 
vision of the founders of the Council, and the signs of the times 
seem to point to its realization. Even independent synods are be- 
ginning to realize that the mission of the General Council is to 
preserve sound Lutheranism in the English language, although the 
Council has from the beginning been a polyglot body. As English 
has become the universal language of our age, and as the territory 
of the Council extends across this continent, it is self-evident that 
the position and influence of the Council is not local or sectional, 
but national, and is even becoming international. 

Furthermore, it may become necessary, in a not remote future, for 


Lutherans and all other Protestants of these United States, to de- 
fend their civil and religious rights, for the policy of Rome to usurp 
political power is becoming dangerously aggressive. Somehow we 
feel, that if such a struggle should come, our Church will take a 
lead in this New World in the defence of the pure faith once deliv- 
ered to the saints, just as, in times past, she took such a lead in the 
Old World. It may be that nothing else can fully unite us as a 
Church, than such a great crisis threatening our very existence. 
Come what may, AVC know that, "In all these things we are more 
than conquerors through him that loved us." Rom. 8: 37. 


The Significance of the Augustana Synod 
to the Swedish Lutherans in America. 

ULLY ninety per cent, of the Swedes that left their native 
country about the middle of the last century had been 
brought up in the Lutheran Church. In the homeland 
they were more or less active members of this communion. 
Coming to this country they were strangers not only to its industrial 
and social ways ajid customs, but also to the prevalent mode of re- 
ligious worship. The Swedish immigrant of those days was as 
religious as any other class of immigrants, and in many instances 
a great deal more so. In his heart there was a deep-seated love for 
the Church of his mother country and the faith of his childhood. 
For this reason did the many and multicolored missionaries of the 
various denominations of this land find it an unusually difficult task 
to turn his mind from the Lutheran Church to some other com- 
munion. There were then no Swedish Lutheran congregations organ- 
ized on this side of the Atlantic, but the Swede resolutely stuck to 
the faith wherein he had been fostered and refused to cast his lot 
with any other religious body. 

This would seem to indicate that the Swedish confessor of the 
doctrine of Luther' was set adrift and coldly told to shift for himself. 
Not so. Messages went across the waters to men of spiritual mind 
asking that Lutheran ministers be sent to the New World. The cry 
for help was not sounded in vain. Revs. L. P. Esbjorn, T. N. Hassel- 
quist, 0. C. T. Andren, Erland Carlsson and Jonas Swensson went 
to the Macedonia of the Great West for the purpose of breaking the 
bread of life to those among the Swedes that were spiritually hungry. 


These men sought localities where the Swedes had settled in larger 
numbers. In a short time they had succeeded in organizing congrega- 
tions that adopted the unaltered Augsburg Confession as their con- 
fession of faith and practice. But they were not satisfied with this 
alone, they forthwith laid plans for the securing of more ministers 
that were to go forth and herald the gospel of the Kingdom to the 
Swedes in dispersion. If godly men in the mother country could be 
persuaded to come over and minister to their brothers and sisters in 
America, good and well, if not, they would seek out spiritual-minded 
men among the immigrants themselves, whom they would educate and 
set apart for the cure of souls. Before long the pioneer ministers 
among the Swedish Lutherans of the United States realized that they 
were forced to the latter alternative. In a way it was a disappoint- 
ment for it entailed any amount of worry and hard work, and some- 
times the material at their disposal was not the most desirable. The 
developments of the last half of the past century have shown, how- 
ever, that this mode of procedure was in the end the very best for all 

Under these conditions the work of gathering in the scattered 
Swedes went right on. In but a few years there was quite a num- 
ber of Swedish Lutheran congregations in the land. Before long 
it began to be noised about that these organizations were fast 
becoming the nucleus for the Swedes in Xorth America. And as 
soon as the number of congregations became at all respectable, the 
question of federation arose. It was thought that by combining with 
each other and forming one strong general body, the work of the in- 
dividual congregations would be benefited and the extension of the 
Kingdom would be much facilitated. Ideas of this sort began to 
fill the minds of prominent leaders, both among the ministers and 
the laymen, and resulted in the formation of the Augustan a Synod in 
the year 1860. 

From now on the endeavors were united as they had never been 
before. The people began to realize. that it was possible, by combin- 
ing its efforts, to become a great power for good among the Swedes 
of the land. The non-churchly element, and there was quite a sprink 
ling of it, looked askance at the strivings of the church people. It 
was well satisfied that the work of the Augustana Synod was but 
temporary and that before long it would go down. And why shouldn't 


it? This was a free country, there was no need of serving God here, 
every one was privileged to do just as he chose in this respect, and 
hadn't a respectable number of them left S'weden ostensibly for the 
very purpose of getting out of reach of the gospel of Christ? Why, 
then, should they permit themselves here to be bored to death by that 
very thing ? This class of people therefore put up a stiff fight against 
the work of the Church. All their efforts, however, went for naught. 
The ruling spirit of the Augustana Synod was evidently another than 
the one with whom its enemies professed an intimate acquaintance. 

The Augustana Synod continued not only to hold its own, but it 
persisted at all times to move on the breastworks of the enemy. Many 
a citadel was carried by assault. The number of congregations, min- 
isters and communicants was constantly growing. Whenever a good 
and relatively competent man was found, he was prevailed -upon to 
take up the work of preaching the pure and unadulterated gospel to 
his countrymen. A constant stream of laborers came in and was 
sent out to do valiant work in the vineyard of the Lord. Up to the 
present time this mode of work has been pursued, and to-day 
there are comparatively few Swedish settlements of any importance 
which have not been offered the services of a Swedish Lutheran min- 
ister of the gospel. Years ago it was conceded, by those who were 
supposed to know, that the Augustana Synod had accomplished along 
these lines, among the Swedish Lutherans in America, what no other 
denomination had done or ever could do. It has to a very great 
extent become the bond of union between the Swedes of the United 
States. It has furnished, and still continues to furnish, a spiritual 
home to a vast number of the S"wedes of the land. Its churchly work 
commands the respect even of those that profess to believe but in 
themselves. If one were to-day to lift out of the life of the Swedes 
of this country the Augustana Synod, in reference to its Christian 
and spiritual work, it were tantamount to the removal of the back- 
bone from the moral body of the people. 

But the Augustana Synod has done vastly more than to preach the 
gospel of Jesus to the people and to organize congregations. It has 
been one of the several bodies to bring over from Europe the 
preaching of the kingdom in harmony with the unaltered Augsburg 
Confession. In reference to our Synod there has never been any 
wavering at all on this point. The great doctrines of original sin, 


repentance, justification, faith, and sanctification have ever been 
held forth in the simplicity, clearness, and strength of this Con- 
fession. Never has the Synod shown the least leaning towards any- 
thing that might be interpreted as a yielding to the "up-to-date" 
spirit in religious matters. The Synod has always believed that the 
revelations of God were for all mankind and for all times, and that 
these revelations cannot be changed according to the will of man. 
In other words, God is never to accommodate himself to men in this 
respect, but it is always incumbent on man to yield himself entirely 
to God. The teaching of the Word of God and the Augsburg Con- 
fession with reference to the sacraments has also been adhered to 
with strictness. The Synod does not presume to act as a reviser for 
God, it simply seeks to be used as his mouthpiece. For this reason 
it believes that the declarations of Christ and the apostles, in respect 
of these means of grace, should ever be permitted to stand. 

In this way the Synod has always been to the Swedes within its 
territory a conservator of the doctrines and traditions according to 
which so many of our people have been brought up beyond the sea. 
It has been a lighthouse giving out a steady and reliable light to those 
embarking upon the sea of life. From this point of view, it has been 
of inestimable benefit to all S'wedes that seek reliable spiritual 
guidance and a spiritual home in the full sense of the word. 

From its entrance upon the arena, the Augustana Synod was pro- 
vided with a complete moral code. At the start it set its face reso- 
lutely against the sins of the day. Drunkenness, immorality, dancing, 
and all its concomitant evils, have always been under the ban of the 
Synod. No one has ever been able to arise and say that the Synod 
has in one way or another minced words about these evils. Never 
has it treated lightly any of these "shortcomings" of men and women. 
This is the main reason why in certain circles of the present day the 
Synod is more or less unpopular. "The Synod is all right, if only 
it were not quite so strict in these and kindred matters." Such ex- 
pressions are frequently heard in the quarters of those that love a 
free and easy life and whose moral code is more or less elastic. And 
yet, when many of these people fall ill and are about to die, they 
place more confidence in the ministration of one of our ministers than 
in any others. The Swedish people as a whole are with the Synod 
in this respect. We know this in this way: Every time we go into 

a community where there has been no Swedish Lutheran organization 
and begin to preach the gospel and organize a church, drunkenness, 
dancing, and immorality begin to decrease. In the course of a few 
years the community has been so changed that one who has been 
absent from it for some time and returns to it, does not recognize 
it as the one he left some years ago. And wherever we go in and 
remain there is a marked uplift of the people. The common schools 
do a good work in raising the standards of life and in bringing in 
refinement, but we have noticed many a time that a community may 
have all the advantages offered by the schools and the communities 
in general, if there is no Swedish Lutheran church there, the refine- 
ment is not what it will be in a few years after the Church has 
gone in. The Swedish people of this country owe any amount of 
gratitude to our Synod only for this. 

It was the work of the preaching of the gospel that called our 
Synod into existence. Along with it has gone, however, the task of 
giving the children born to parents speaking the Swedish language 
in this country, a Christian education. Our fathers and mothers 
had in Sweden received not only a general secular education, but 
also, and chiefly, religious instruction. By reason hereof they were 
well informed as to the truths of the Christian religion and the 
teachings of the Lutheran Church. They felt that it was morally 
incumbent on them to provide as good a bringing up along these 
lines for their children as they themselves had received. Hence the 
establishment of the parochial school. A generation ago very few 
congregations of any importance could be found that did not provide 
in this manner for the children of the community, it mattered not 
whether their parents were formally connected with the church or 
not. It is to be regretted that as much cannot be said of our congre- 
gations of the present time. Many of these have now, for one reason 
or other, become lukewarm in their relation to the parochial school. 
Many hundreds of thousands of the children of former days received 
religious training in these schools. They were grounded in the truths 
of the Bible and in the main tenets of the Lutheran Church. To 
estimate the benefits of this schooling is manifestly impossible. 
Suffice it to say that in this manner hundreds of thousands of men 
and women that are now living among us have received impulses 
that for their entire lives have made them better men and women, 

The Augustana Synod 16 


better citizens and better Christians than they otherwise would have 
been. Coupled with this training is also that of the Confirmation 
class. Here is, so to speak, the place where the finishing touches 
are put on. And these classes are attended, and have always been 
attended, by a great number of boys and girls whose parents never 
belonged to any of our churches. A host of these boys and girls 
manifest just as much interest in this work as do those that have 
been born inside the Church and always enjoyed the benefit of its 
care. Many tens of thousands of young people of this class have 
during the years been sent out into the world carrying in their heads 
and hearts more or less of the Christian truths that have been im- 
parted to them during the time that they prepared for confirmation. 
Every year several thousands of young people are trained in this 
manner and taught the way in which they should walk in order 
that they may develop into good fathers and mothers, good citizens 
and finally attain unto life eternal in heaven above. In this manner 
has the Augustana Synod laid a broad and lasting foundation 
for a moral and religious life in the hearts of a vast army of young 
people belonging to our nationality in this land. Will some one 
rise up and declare that this work has been a failure? Is there 
one so lost to all sense of propriety and moral honesty that he will 
insist that the Augustana Synod has not been a great power for good 
along these lines among the Swedes in the land of their adoption? 
If the Christian religion counts for anything, if the doctrines of the 
Lutheran Church are of importance, if morality among the peopL: 
is a desideratum, then it must be admitted by all who know the facts 
that the Augustana Synod has in this respect proved itself a work- 
man that needeth not be ashamed. 

The Lutheran Church, however, has never been one-sided and 
fanatical. It has ever felt called upon to care for the souls of men. 
But this has never been done at the expense of the intellect. No 
Church has more positive convictions along this line than has the 
Lutheran Church. And the Augustana Synod has been true to the 
traditions of the mother Church also in this respect. Fifty years 
ago it began to inaugurate a system of general higher education. 
True enough, the beginnings were small, as small as the traditional 
mustard seed. But like it, they contained a germ of life that was 
powerful. Augustana College and Theological Seminary sprang into 


existence half a century ago. Its first and prime object was to 
prepare men for the ministry of the Church. These men were to 
meet the Lutheran immigrant as he came from Sweden and offer 
him spiritual food and guidance. The courses of those days at Augus- 
tana were not the courses of to-day at the same institution. Neither 
were the requirements of the students at Yale at that time those of 
the Yale of 1910. But the intentions were good and the line of 
energy true. It is doubtful whether the fathers of those days thought 
for a moment that the state of development of the present would 
ever be reached. One thing is certain, though, and it is this : The 
leaders of our Synod of half a century ago bent all their energies 
to as sound and as rapid a development of the plan of a general 
higher education as was possible. The grass never grew under their 
feet in respect of this matter. And what is the result? Four full- 
fledged colleges and six academies. And more yet to come. Thou- 
sands of young men and women have in the course of the past half 
century passed through, the halls of learning of these institutions 
and acquired more or less of an education. Hundreds of these have 
entered the ministry, thousands are scattered all over our broad 
land and engaged in various occupations, all of them imbued, more 
or less, with the spirit instilled into their hearts while they were at 
these schools. And every one of these institutions has stood, and 
stands to-day, squarely on the basis of the Christian religion and the 
Lutheran interpretation of the same. Moral influences of the very 
best have continually streamed forth from these educational centers, 
and it is not possible that the students should have been able 
entirely to free themselves from the impressiors received. Who can 
compute the worth of this work to the Swedish Lutherans of the land ? 
It can never be measured in dollars and cents. Its best fruits and 
recompense are men and women morally and intellectually sound, 
and people of this stamp arc worth more than material wealth to 
any community. The service rendered in this respect by our Synod 
to the Swedish Lutherans of America is absolutely beyond com- 

Along with this schooling of the children and the youth has gone 
the preservation of the S'wedish language and the best Swedish 
national traits. There has been no systematic attempt whatever on 
the part of the extra-church Swedish population of the country to 


preserve the language of our forefathers among the immigrants. 
The pulpits and the schools of the Augustana Synod have done 
far more for this cause than all the other Swedes of America 
put together. We are not inclined to minimize in the least the aid 
given this work by other Swedish denominations of the land, but 
we are not oblivious of the fact that these are merely appendices to 
the respective English churches with which they are affiliated. Under 
such circumstances they cannot, of course, pay the attention to this 
matter that they possibly might desire. When one works for wages, 
one must heed the behests of one's master. The Augustana Synod has 
ever been working for itself, that is, for the best interests of the 
Swedish people of America. 

Many there are, of course, that incline towards ascribing to the 
Swedish press of the land the credit for the maintenance of the 
Swedish language. But, pray, who started the Swedish press in the 
United States? Did not Dr. Hasselquist publish the first Swedish 
newspaper on this continent? And if you eliminate the Augustana 
Synod people, and all that are influenced by the Synod in one way 
or another, how many of the remaining would read a Swedish news- 
paper, how many of them would be interested in any manner in 
that Avhich is specifically Swedish? Had it not been for the work 
of the Synod, the Swedish language would be spoken to-day by 
very few people in our land. If you know anything at all about 
the matter, you know that influences were brought to bear on the 
pioneers of our Church of a nature to do away with the Swedish 
at once. Who counteracted that movement? Not the easy, happy- 
go-lucky Swedes, but the Augustana Synod ministers and laymen. 
He who places any value whatever on the Swedish language, must 
admit that the Augustana S} r nod has been the greatest factor in this 
country for its preservation. This has been to the Synod purely 
a labor of love, but, notwithstanding this, of great value to our 
countrymen living throughout the length and breadth of our land. 

Then there are the national traits. In a sense you might say 
that these are not of special importance, since these must of necessity 
be somewhat similar the world over. Admitting that you are right 
in the main, we feel that we must, nevertheless, dissent to some 
extent from your view. Come, now, be honest, you know that the 
national traits of the Swede and the Italian are not the same. You 


know also that there is in some matters quite a dissimilarity between 
those of the Swede and the Simon pure Yankee. If you do not 
know it, you ought to by this time. As a rule the Swede is honest, 
industrious and frugal, and religious as well. Every observant 
traveler says that of the people of Sweden. But traits of this sort 
are easily lost. There are a host of influences in America that have 
the tendency to rob the Swede of these qualities. The Augustana 
Synod has always stood for their preservation and increase. It has 
sought to effect this by a true presentation of the teachings of the 
Bible. True Christianity will make a person honest, frugal, and 
industrious. Many of the S'wedes themselves have stood for another 
mode of life. There are plenty of influences at work to-day among 
the Swedes of this land whose object is to turn away from right 
living. We do not claim that the open and avowed aim of many 
organizations is this, but the result of their endeavors amount to it 
just the same. 

There is just one more, thought and we are through. The Augus- 
tana Synod has placed the greatest stress on the salvation of the 
soul, the training of the intellect, and the inculcation of morals. 
We are pleased to say that it has not neglected the body. Several 
of its Orphan Homes came into existence almost a half century ago. 
Its eight homes of this character have brought up hundreds and 
thousands of boys and girls. It has made men and women out of 
much material that otherwise would have gone to waste. From 
this point of view it has saved many bodies and souls of our country- 
men. Its Hospitals have done and are constantly doing a great 
work for the sick and dying. The Homes for the Aged, although but 
recently organized, have already been of great service and are 
destined to do much good in the near future. Its Deaconess and 
Inner Mission work purports to be of service not only to the souls, 
but also to the bodies of those who are more or less unfortunate. 
The Augustana Synod has entered nearly every department of service. 
It proposes never to withdraw from any work which it has under- 
taken, but on the contrary to expand and to enter still other fields 
of service as the opportunities present themselves. 

The sketch of the work of the Augustana Synod, as it is given 
above, is necessarily brief and incomplete. Enough has been said, 
however, to indicate the position of the Synod among the Swedes 


of the United States. That it has been of immense service to our 
people in a religious, moral, and intellectual manner, none will deny 
save those who are inexplicably obtuse and morally degenerate. 
In the future the Synod will, in substance, follow along the route 
mapped out in the past and constantly endeavor to widen its circle 
of usefulness. If we know it aright, it will never recede from its 
position on Christianity, morals, and education. Its spirit of con- 
stantly reaching out for the purpose of bringing the gospel to all 
those that understand the Swedish, will be rigidly adhered to. 
Neither will it permit its own children to shift for themselves. 
These will be looked after according to its best ability. It will con- 
tinue to be a power for good in the home, the Church, and the State. 
As the years go by systematic and persistent efforts will be made 
to increase this power. Great things have been accomplished in the 
past, the prospects for the future were never brighter. The Augus- 
tana Synod is still young, lusty, and energetic. God has been with 
it in the past. He will certainly be with it in the future as well. 
"Come thou with us, and we will do thee good." Numb. 10: 29. 


Statistics of the Educational Institutions. 

1. Total number of persons graduated from each department. 






atory & Artj 



Sloyd and 
Art Needle- 













Gustavus Adolplius. . . . 
















































Coeur d'Alene 





North Star 



Grand Total . . 



2. Total number of Individual persons wbo bave been enrolled. 










Gustavus Adolphus 


1 741 

































Coeur d'Alene 





North Star 




Grand Total . . 





3. Number of students in the College Department year by year. 



Gustavus Adolphus 





























71 1 
100 1 
















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'O to to to to CO tO to l~ I- I- i^ I- t'- t~ t^ l~ I- OC 00 <X OO 00 00 00 00 00 CO C-. C-. C: CV C~. C: S C-. c: S O C O C O O O O O 



5. Classification of graduates of the College Department with 
reference to the vocation which they have followed. 




& Dentists 



Journalists ] 

ts c 


S D 

-Q o 

Governm't.l 1 


not known 















Gustavus Adolphus.. 















Upsala . 





6. A Register of Presidents and of all Permanent Professors 
Arranged Chronologically. 

a) Augustana College and Theological Seminary. 


Rev. L. P. Esbjorn 

Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, D. D. 

Rev. O. Olsson, D. D., Ph. D. 

Rev. Gustav Andreen, Ph. D., R. N. O. 




Rev. L. P. Esbjoru 
Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, D. D. 
Rev. W. Kopp 
Rev. A. Weuaas 
Rev. A. R. Cervin, Ph. D. 
Rev. S. L. Harkey, D. D. 
Rev. A. J. Lindstrom, Ph. D. 
Rev. H. Reck, A. M. 
Rev. C. O. Granere, Ph. D. 
Rev. P. E. Melin, Th. Ph. Cand. 
Rev. O. Olsson, D. D., Ph. D. 
Rev. C. P. Rydholm 
Josua Lindahl, Ph. D. 
A. O. Bersell, Ph. D. 
A. W. Williamson, Ph. D. 
Rev. R. F. Weidner, D. D., LL. D. 
Rev. C. M. Esbjorn, Ph. D. 

Term of Service. 

186874; 7578 

187688; 9100 
187780; 8390 


1875, 1891 




C. W. Foss, Ph. D. 
Rev. G. W. Sandt, D. D. 
C. L. E. Esbjorn, A. M. 
G. Stolpe, D. Mus. 
Rev. E. F. Bartholomew, D. D., Ph. 
Rev. P. J. Sward, D. D. 
J. A. Udden, Ph. D. 
J. E. Gustus, M. Accts. 
Rev. N. Forsander, D. D. 
Rev. C. E. Lindberg, D. D. 
J. A. Enander, LL. D. 
A. Holmes 

Rev. P. M. Lindberg, A. M. 
V. O. Peterson, A. M. 
P. G. Sjoblom, A. B. 
W. Swensson, D. Mus. 
Rev. E. A. Zetterstrand, L. H. D. 
A. D. Bodfors, B. Mus. 
Rev. C. J. Sodergren, A. M. 
Rev. S. G. Youngert, Ph. D., D. D. 
I. M. Anderson, A. M. 
Rev. J. G. Dahlberg, A. M. 
L. W. Kling, A. M. 
Rev. J. G. U. Mauritzson, B. D. 
Rev. C. A. Blomgren, Ph. D. 
John Peter Magnuson, Ph. D. 
Rev. A. W. Kjellstrand, A. M. 
W. E. Cederberg, Sc. B., Ph. B. 
S. J. Sebelius, B. D. 

Term of Service. 



188081 ; 8283 ; 84- 

D. 1888 

















1899; 1904 OG 





189597: 1903 




-SO ; 87 188(5 

b) Gustavus Adolphus College. 


Rev. E. Norelius, D. D., R. N. O. 1862 63 

Rev. A. Jackson, D. D. . 186372 

Rev. J. J. Frodeen 187274 

Rev. J. P. Nyquist 187681 

Rev. M. Wahlstrom, Ph. D., R. N. O. 188104 

Rev. P. A. Mattson, Ph. D., D. D. 1904 


Name. Term of Service. 

Rev. E. Norelius, D. D., R. N. O. 186263 

Rev. A. Jackson, D. D. 186372; 7476 




Term of Service. 


Rev. J. J. Frodeeii 



Rev. J. P. Nyquist 



A. W. Williarnsou, Ph. D. 



Rev. M. Wahlstrom, Ph. D., R. N. 

O. 188104 


Rev. J. A. Bauman, A. M. 



Rev. J. P. Uhler, A. M., Ph. D. 



Rev. W. K. Frick, A. M., D. D. 



Rev. G. A. Anderson, D. D. 



Rev. C. J. Petri, A. M., D. D. 



Rev. E. j. Werner, D. D. 



Ture Norman 



J. S. Carlson, Ph. D. 



O. E. Allen, M. Accts. 



Rev. John Sander, L. H. D. 



J. A. Edquist, A. M. 



It. Lagerstrom, D. Mus. 



Rev. H. K. Shanor, A. M. 



K. A. Kilander, A. M., Ph. D. 



J. D. Spaeth, Ph. D. 



A. C. Carlson, A. M. 



Inez Ruudstroui, Ph. D . 



I. M. Anderson, A. M. 



A. A. Stomberg, M. S. 



Alfred Pearson, A. M., Ph. D. 



Gabriel H. Towley, M. Accts. 



J. A. Youngquist, A. M. 



Edwin J. Vickner, Ph. D. 



Rev. P. A. Mattsou, Ph. D., D. D. 



E. C. Carlton, A. M. 



c) Bethany College. 


Rev. E. Nelander, Ph. D. 

Rev. C. A. Swensson, D. D., Ph. D., R. N. O. 

Rev. Ernst Fredrick Pihlblad, A. M., D. D. 



Name. Term of Service. Elected. 

J.A.Udden, Ph.D., F.G.S.A., F.A.A.A.S. 188189 1881 

Rev. Edward Nelander, Ph. D. 188289 1882 

Rev. Philip Thelander, A. B. 188589 1885 

N. A. Krantz 188590; 189196 1885 


Name. Term of Service. Elected. 

Rev. Gustav Andreen, Ph. D., R. N. O. 188594 1885 

William A. Granville, Ph. D. 188693 1880 

Rev. A. W. Kjellstrand, A. M. 188695 1886 

Rev. Carl Swensson, Ph.D., D.D., R.N.O.1887 88 ; 18891904 1887 

Victor Lund 188793 1887 

P. H. Pearson, A. M., L. H. D. 1887 1887 

C. F. Carlbert, Ph. D. 1889 1889 

J. Westlund, Ph. D. 188996 1889 

A. A. Abercrombie, M. Accts. 188996; 1906 1889 

Rev. J. E. Floren, Ph. D. 189093; 190007 1890 

J. E. Wei in, A. M., M. S. 1891 1891 

Rev. Ernst F. Pihlblad, D. D. 189293; 1895 1892 

Frank Nelson, Ph. B. 189297 1892 

Franz Zedeler 189297 1892 

Samuel Thorstenberg, B. M. 1892 1909 1892 

George Eberhardt, M. Accts. 18931906 1893 

Rev. John Ekholm, Ph. D. 18931906 1893 

Olof Grafstrom 189397 1893 

Sigfrid Laurin, Dir. Mus. 189498; 18991903 1894 

Birger Sandzen, A. M. 1894 1894 

Theodore Lindberg, B. M. 18971906 1897 

Vivian Henmon, Ph. D. 1897 1904 1897 

Gottfred E. Anderson, A. M. 19001908 19CO 

Hagbard Erase, Dir. Mus. 1900 1900 

Jens Stensaas, M. Accts. 1900 1900 

Rev. William Augustus Sadtler, Ph. D. 190609 1906 

Gustaf Adolf Peterson, A. M. 1907 1907 

d) Upsala College. 


Rev. L. II. Beck, Ph. D. 1893 


Name. Term of Service. Elected. 

Philip A. Andreen, A. M. 189397 1894 

V. II. Hegstrom, Ph. D. 189498 1894 

P. A. Rydberg, Ph. D. 189596; 189799 1897 

E. C. Carlton, A. M. 18981904 1904 
A. R. Wallin, A. M. 1902 1906 
John Eastlund. B. S. 1904 1906 
L. J. E. Hallancler, Ph. D. 1898 Ifi02; 1905 1906 

F. II. Krantz. B. Accts. 1904 1908 
S. Froeberg, Ph. D. 1908 1910 



e) Luther College. 


Rev. Martin Noyd, A. M. 188385 

Prof. Samuel M. Hill, L. H. D. 188602 

Rev. Oscar J. Johnson, A. B., B. D. 1002 


Name. Term of Service. 

Rev. M. Noyd, A. M. 188385 

Samuel M. Hill 1884 

P. A. Rydberg, Ph.D. 188493 
Rev. A. P. Fors, Ph. D. 

Rev. John Ekholm, Ph. D. 189293 

Julius Flodman, A. M. 1890 

Rev. Joshua E. Erlander 189599 

Joseph M. Ohslund, M. Accts. 1893 

Frank J. Johnson 18941901 
Rev. Oscar J. Johnson, A. B., B. D. 1902 

Linus Bonander, A. M. 1901 

Albin O. Peterson, B. Mus. 1902 

C. E. Sjostrand 190507 

Aleda C. Johnson 1906 

Emma W. Peterson 1907 

f) Northwestern College. 



Prof. A. C. Youngdahl, A. B. 



A. C. Youngdahl, A. B. 1901 

A. C. Holmquist 1902 

Rev. E. Floreen, A. B. 190205 

A. Quello 190305 

Katherine Goetzinger 1905 

Rev. James Moody, A. B. 1906 

J. G. Lundholm 1907 

g) Minnesota College. 


Rev. E. O. Stone, Acting President 190405 

Dr. P. M. Magnupson, Acting President 1905 06 

Dr. Joshua Larson, Acting President 1906 07 

Prof. Frank Nelson, Permanent President 1907 



Frank Nelson, Ph. B. 1907 

Joshua Larson, Ph. D. 1908 

Elsie Barquist 1908 

Medora Anderson, A. B. 1908 

Louella Tornell 1908 

h) Trinity College. 


Rev. J. A. Stamline, D. D. 1904 09 

Rev. J. Alfred Anderson, A. B., B. D. 1909 


Anna L. Palm 

Anna I. Blomquist, A. B. 

Isidore J. Broman, A. B. 

Carl G. F. Franzen, A. B. 

Rev. J. Alfred Anderson, A. B., B. D. 

i) Coeur d'Alene College. 


Rev. J. Jesperson, A. B. 1907 



j) North Star College. 


Prof. O. E. Abrahamson, A. B. 1908- 





7. A List of all Assistant Teachers ( Exclusive of Students who 

have taught while they were themselves enrolled 

as Students) in Chronological Order. 

a) Augustana College and 


Rev. A. Jacobsen 
Rev. J. Olsen 
C. G. Linderborg 
L. Haldin 
Rev. F. Lagerman 
A. Wihlborg 
N. Nordene 
Rev. W. F. Eyster 
Rev. O. V. Holmgrain 
Rev. G. A. Anderson 
Rev. G. A. Andreen 
J. A. Stroburg 
Miss Emilia Meggle 
C. W. Fenii 
Miss Hilma Ohlin 
J. Westlund 
Philip Dowell 
Miss Cora Eldridge 
P. C. Freytag 
Miss Anna Westinan 
G. E. Griffith 
Miss Alma Larson 
G. N. Benson 
K. A. Linder 
Win. J. Hall 
Henry Schillinger 
Jcsua Liudahl 
C. A. Wendell 
Joshua Larson 
W. H. Halladay" 
Mrs. Edith Wilkins Gustus 
Miss Mae Munro 
Rev. Carl Elofson 
E. M. Wheeler 
Rev. A. W. Kjellstrand 
J. A. Bexell 
Mrs. Edla Lund 
C. F. Toenniges 
Miss Sophia Swanstrom 

Theological Seminary. 

Term of Service. 




















189294; 189697 















189597; 190300 








F. B. Peterson 
Franz Zedeler 
O. J. Penrose 
Miss Hannah Anderson 

C. L. Krantz 
O. Grafstrb'm 

Mrs. Mary Searles Penrose 
Miss Katherine Gest 
Miss Effie Johnson 
Miss Anna Olsson 
Miss Florence Bollinger 
Miss Cotta Bartholomew 
Mrs. Alma Sophie Bodfors 
Miss Lillie Cervin 
Miss E. C. Mertz 
Miss Etta Setterdahl 

D. E. Wahlberg 
Peter Benzon 
W. E. Cederberg 

E. A. Edlen 

J. F. Lindblom 
Theodore Lindquist 
Louis Ostrom 
Rev. C. A. Blomgreu 
Miss Ethel Daugherty 
Miss Gertrude E. Don 
Andrew Kempe 
Miss Eva Hasselquist 
Christian Oelschlagel 
Martin Olander 
Wilhelm Lamprecht 
Emil Larson 
Mrs. Anna Noack 
John Peter Magnusson 
Axel William Pierson 
Mrs. Emma Westerberg 
Miss Iva Carrie Pearce 
Winfield Leroy Ohmert 
Sigfrid Laurin 
Arthur T. Grossman 
Rev. E. K. Jonson 
Miss Gertrude Housel 
Grant Hultberg 
Peter Johnson 
Einar Joranson 

The Augustana Synod 

Term of Service. 























190304 ; 1909. 





190406; 1907 

1904; 190507 




















b) Gustavus Adolphus College. 


S. M. Hill, A.B. 
Mrs. J. A. Bauman 
C. L. E. Esbjorn, A. B. 
P. T. Lindholm, B. E. 
P. J. Johnson 
G. A. Anderson, A. B. 
K. Westerberg 
Edna Kneeland 
J. W. Lundholm 
A. Bernays 

John A. Alander, A. B. 
Thomas C. Jones, B. M. 
Joseph E. Osborn 
Mrs. Viola A. Jones, B. M. 
Emma Green 
E. A. Palenius 
Johan W. Swanbeck, A. B. 
Grace McMillan 
Frederick J. Downie 
Rev. Mauritz E. Carlson, Dir. Mus. 
Nils E. Kron, A. B. 
John L. Hallstrom, M. Accts. 
P. M. Magnusson, A. B. 
Esther T. Jackson 
G. W. Johnson 
Minnie B. Davis, B. Accts. 
John Buschers, B. Accts. 
J. M. Peterson 
Albert Lagerstrom 
Andrew Kempe, A. B. 
Anna M. Pehrson 
Georgia Lester 
Aaron E. Pearson 
Anna B. E. Olson 
Ella J. Peterson, B. Mus. 
Albin O. Peterson, B. Mus. 
Medora C. Anderson 
A. Elmer Turner, M. Accts. 
Daniel T. Sandell, A. B., B. Mus. 
George C. Bergluud, B. Accts. 
Alfred C. Holmquist, B. Accts. 
Bjorn Christiansen, B. Accts. 

Term of Service. 

































189596; 190407 













Edith A. Quist, B. Mus. 
Fridolph Lindholm 
Peter C. Langemo, B. L. 
Hannah K. Sandell, B. Mus. 
Steingrimur K. Hall, B. Mus. 
Josephine Menth 
Bernard A. Bonstrom, A. B. 
Victor E. Holmstedt, A. B. 
Alma O. Almen 
Emil O. Chelgren, A. B. 
Etta L. Aldrich 
Charlotte L. Anderson 
George R. Peterson, B. Com. 
Carl E. Sjostrand, B. Com. 
A. Marie Christofferson, B. Com. 
Ernest B. Berquist, A. B. 
Gustaf B. Peterson, A. M. 
Gustaf Theodore Almen, A. B. 
J. F. Wojta, B. S., M. S. A. 
Olaf J. Towley 
Magnus Magnusson, A. B. 
Ansgar T. Lagerstrom 
Adolph C. Schroeder 
C. Harry Hedberg, A. B. 
A. C. Krebs 

Hulda S. Magnussou, A. B. 
Ruby A. Phelps 
Josephine Powell 
Frederick P. Bailey 
Carl Ostrum, A. B. 
Rev. Luther Malmberg, A. B. 
C. Fritz Malmberg, A. B. 
Nannie F. Freeman 
Josephine Swenson 
Algert Anker 
Esther Soderman, B. Mus. 
Carl J. Knock, A. B. 
Clara M. Sander, A. B. 
Hattie M. Griffith 
Jessie M. Foster 
Anna C. Johnson, B. C. 
Eva T. Eaton 
Mrs. Katherine Gray 
Louis Ambrosch 

Term of Service. 
1904 OG 
Iy04 05 
1905 OG 
190507; 1909 
1907 08 



c) Bethany College. 


J. Hasselquist, A. B. 
John T. Anderson 
C. G. Norman 
P. T. Lindholm 
Hulda Peterson-Norman 
Alma C. Swensson 
Ella Lawson 
J. E. Gustus, M. Accts. 
Charles Purdy, Dir. Mus. 
Ella Bengston-Hawkinson 
Josephine C. Harper, A. M. 
Martin Osterholm, Ph. D. 
C. Lander 
Jesse Lewis, A. B. 
Anna Swenson 
Victor Swanson 
Mary Strand-Andreen 
Amelia Jaeger 
Anna Olsson, A. B. 
N. Lehart, A. M. 
C. S. Carver 
K. Dome Geza 
Anna Anderson 
Elise Wetterstrom -Anderson 
Anna Sandberg 
Hilma Blomgren-Welin 
Hannah C. Anderson, M. Accts. 
P. E. Mellin, Ph. D. 
Edla Lund 

Ernst Linnarsson, B. S. 
Margaret E. King 
Anna S. Anderson-Stone 
George Hapgood 
Addie Covell 

Rev. Julius Lincoln, A. M. 
C. A. Stone, A. B. 
Charles D. Wagstaff 
Wilhelm Lindberg 
Anna Swanstrom 
Catharine Pearson-Oberg 
Marie Ma 1m berg- Jones 
Oscar Sell berg, A. B. 
Xonna D. Crawford, M. O. 

Term of Service. 


188588; 9293 
' 388587 

188687; 9293 




Ernestine Cotton 
Anton Ostlund 

Gertrude Emrnert-Thorstenberg 
Rev. Bmil Lund, Ph. D. 
Carl G :son Lotave 
J. P. Wedel, A. B. 
Hugo Bedinger, Dir. Mus. 
Rosa Fahring 

Gertrude Florence Smith, B. M. 
Katharine Gentry 
O. H. Thorstenberg 
Carl O. Johns, Ph. D. 
Nora B. Gentry, M. Accts. 
Sigue Bedinger, B. M. 
William Barharn, B. M. 
Amanda Barham 
Thomas F. Hughes, B. M. 
Inez Francisco-Hughes, B. M. 
Fredrik Holmberg, B. M. 
James A. Harris 
Amalia Rabenius 
Alfrida Sandzen, B. M. 
Harold Gallander 
Walter McCray 
J. A. Nordmark, A. B. 
Helen E. Hobbs 
Anna Albertina Carlson 
Minnie Nelson 
Vendla Wetterstrom-Wilber 
Oscar Lofgren, B. M. 
John Hermann, B. M. 
Frances Brundage 
Oscar Thorsen, B. M. 
Thure Jiiderborg, B. M. 
Lennard Gunnerson, A. B. 
Henry Edward Malloy, B. P. 
Cora May Jones 
Myrtle Sundstrom-Verner, B. M. 
Tillie Nelson-Ellison, A. B. 
Arvid Pihlblad, A. M., M. D. 
Henry Nathaniel Olson, A. B. 
George S, Anderson, A. B. 
Ben G. Owen 
Gustaf Lund, A. B. 
Hjalmar Wetterstrom 

Term of Service. 
18981900; 190102 
1902 OG 



Term of Service. 

Emil O. Deere, A. B. 


Adolph Jean Friedman 

1904 OG 

Joseph Fogelberg, Ph. D. 


Carl Edwin Anderson, A. B. 


Selmar Janson, A. B. 

1905 OG 

Alma Luise Olson, A. B. 


Bertha Swensscn- Vest! ing, A. 

B. 1905 6 

Lillian Rcsberg-Mouson 


Samuel Holmberg 


Mary Lucile Freeman 


Olinda Bockemohle 


Ellen Strom 


Julia Parsons-Lofgren 


Anna Larson 


Edith Starner 


Annie Theadora Sweusson, A. 

B., B. 0. 190709 

Stanley Levy 


Robert K. Wattson 


Thomas Allpress 


Lydia Sohlberg 


Beda Murk 


Emil Fallquist 


Eva Stenstrcm 


Earl Rosenberg 


Roscoe Peterson, A. B. 


Alice Johnson 


Amanda Maguuson 


Jessie Brown 


Anna Anderson 


d) Upsala 



Term of Service. 

Rev. F. Jacobson, Ph. D. 


J. R. Brown, A. B. 


Albertina Holm 


Anna Westerberg 


Mrs. Alma Westliu 


O. T. Westlin 


Ph. A. Dowell, A. M. 


A. J. Pearson, Ph. D. 


Joseph Hagstrom 

189899; 1907 

Andrew Kempe, M. Accts. 


Emil Allison, A. B. 





Anna Westlund 
Gustav Stolpe, Mus. Dir. 
Mrs. Anna Calleberg 
Ruth Wikberg 
Aron S. Pearson 
F. J. Johnson 

Rev. N. W. Swenson, B. D. 
Theodore Bjorksteu 
Louis Ostrom, M. D. 
Mrs. Agnes Wallin 
R. Westerlund, Ph. D. 
Ivan E. Wallin, A. B. 

E. W. Carlson 
Anna Freudenthal 
A. D. Udden, A. B. 
Sarah Lund, A. B. 
Therese Gyllenram 

F. A. Linder, A. B. 
Algert Anker 

L. A. Lawson, A. B. 
Matthew Lundquist 

Term of Service. 


e) Luther College. 


Rev. Dayton Andrus 
G. W. Slater 
Miss C. L. Johnson 
Emil Reichert 
Prof. Bristow 
Mrs. A. E. Nyquist 
A. L. Scott 
Anna C. Westman 
N. Lehart 
Oscar Sellberg 
Mathilda Malm-Benson 
Sadie M. Seablom 
Clara Sandahl-Johnson 
Martin Dalton 
Fred B. Peterson 
P. O. Bersell 
Hulda Stenholm-Wiley 
David T. Sandell 
Esther Monteen-Andreen 

Term of Service. 





















Name. Term of Service. 

Frank Tornholrn, M. D. 190204 

Amelia Larsou 1903 04 

Cora A. Babbit-Johnson 1903 04 

Catharyn Larson-Enger 1905 

Ellen Stenholm-Nelson 190500 

Esther Torell-Swenson 1905 06 

Addie Lynian-Green 1905 OG 

Harriet McCandless 1907 

E. Carrol Beach 190008 

Frank Hudson 1900 

Mrs. E. Bird 1907 

S. M. Partridge 190708 

Emil Benson 1907 

Melicent E. Thorstenberg 1908 

Bernice M. Chambers 1908 

Vivian Elarth 1909 
Raymond Orr 

Lillie \vahlstrom-Johnson 1909 

Edward Frantz 1909 

f) Northwestern College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

Clara M. Olson 190102 

Martha I. Anderson 1902 03 

Lillian Rosberg 1903 05 

Beda Murk 190200 

Albert Hegstrom 1905 00 

Eva Hasselquist 1906 07 

E. Louise Aldrich 1906 08 
Florence Youngdahl 1908 09 

F. A. Linder, A. B. 1909 
Alma Videen 1909 
Leonard Lake 1909 
W. L. Tambling 1901 
Mabel Vaughn 1901 
Tobias Tjornhom 1901 04 
J. A. Abrahamson 1903 
Bert C. Hoyt 190204 
J. J. Rendahl 190406 
Selma B. Malmgren 190500. 
Clara M. Hoorn 190508 
L. E. Kleppe 190709 
E. T. Ernlund 1908 
Amanda Anderson 1908 


g) Minnesota College. 

Name. Terra of Service. 

Prof. J. S. Carlson 1905 OC 

Prof. H. C. Carel 190500 

Prof. Martin Pihlgren 100G 

Prof. C. J. Lamp 1907 08 

h) Trinity College. 
None reported. 

i) Coeur d'Alene College. 


Alfred J. Lawrence, A. B., M. Accts. 
Thure Hedmau 
Leopold Schade 
J. F. Lindblom, A. B. 
Mrs. Chas. W. Norquist 
Mrs. Hattie Hedrnaii 
Oscar S. Johnson, A. B. 
Robert Bernhardt Oslund 
Alexander Litherland, A. B. 
Angel ika Anderson 
Ada Anderson 
Raymond Fahringer 
Rev. H. A. W. Yung 
Elyne E. Walin 
Emily Johnson 
Amelia Bengtson 

j) North Star College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

O. E. Abrahamson, A. B. 1908 

C. E. Sjostrand 3908 

Rev. E. O. Chelgren, A. B. 1908 

Miss Olga Hermanson 1908 

Miss Minnie Tullar 1908 

J. A. Wennerdahl 1908 

Miss Inga Pederson 1909 



8. Register of Directors.* 

a) Augustana College and Theological Seminary. 


Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, D. D. 
Rev. E. Carlsson, D. D. 
Rev. O. Andrewseu 
Rev. O. J. Hatlestad 
Rev. C. J. P. Petersen 
Rev. J. Johnson 
Rev. J. Swensson 
Rev. A. Andreen 
Rev. A. G. Setterdahl 
Rev. S. P. A. Lindahl, D. D. 
Rev. H. O. Lindeblad 
Rev. J. Jesperson 
Rev. C. J. E. Haterius 
Rev. P. A. Pihlgren 
Rev. J. G. Dahlberg, A. M. 
Rev. J. E. Erlauder 
Rev. L. A. Johnston, D. D 
Rev M. C. Ranseen, D. D. 
Rev. C. J. Petri, D. D. 
Rev L. Holmes, L. H. D., D. D. 
Rev. A. P. tfors, Ph.D. 
Rev. M. Noyd, A. M. 
Rev. E. Norelius, D. D, ex officio, 

President Augustana Synod 
Rev. O. Olsson, D. D., ex officio, 

President of the Institution 
Rev. L. G. Abrahamson, D. D. 
Rev. P. J. Brodine, D. D. 
Rev. Gustav Andreen, Ph. D., ex officio, 

President of the Institution 
Rev. L. P. Bergstrom 
Rev. Jos. A. Anderson, A. M. 
Rev. J. A. Krantz, D. D. 
Rev. P. M. Lindberg, A. M. 
Rev. N. P. Sjostrom 
Rov. C. P. Edbloni 
Rev. C. J. Sodergren, A. M. 
Rev. J. Torell 

Term of Service. 

1860 G4, 180588 

186061, 186569 

186465, 186973 














* The names are arranged chronologically, so far as possible, with each 
director's period of service. 





Term of Service. 

F. Langeland 

I860 G3 

S. Gabriel sen 

I860 G3, 186870 

C. Stromberg 

I860 G7 

C. J. Anderson 

18GO Gl 

J. Field 

1861 G5 

J. Amundsen 


O. Moline 


Iver Larsen 


P. Person 


A. A. Klove 


N. P. Nilson 


P. L. Hawkinsou 


J. Engberg 


C. P. Holmberg 


J. Samuelson 


J. H. Wistrand 


N. Chester 


S. P. Johnson 


G. J. Samuel sou 


P. Colseth 


G. Johnson 

188185, 188799 

O. Stepheuson 

188589, 189498 

P. Westerlund 


C. G. Thulin 


P. Nelson 


O. Hult 

1892 9G 

J. G. Spencer 


A. P. J. Col berg 


Samuel Anderson 


G. N. Swan, A.M. 


J. Westerlund 


J. B. Oakleaf 


J. Stenvall 


A. G. Anderson 

189701, 1903 

J. A. Alander 


C. G. Johnson, M. D. 


F. A. Landee 


C. R. Chindblom, A.M. 


G. L. Peterson 


C. J. Olson 


N. A. Lindquist 


L. L. Malm 


P. E. Flodman 


Andrew Peterson 





Term of 


A. T. Larson 


N. A. Nelson 


John A. Benson 


b) Gustavus Adolphus 



Term of 


Rev. E. Norelius, D. D., R. N. O. 


Rev. A. Jackson, D. D. 


Rev. C. A. Hedengran 


Rev. Ola Paulson 


Rev. Aron Johnson 


Rev. Peter Carlson 


Mr. Johan Johansson 


Mr. H. L. Swedberg 


Rev. Johan Carlson 


Rev. Nils Olson 


Rev. Hakau Olson 


Rev. John Pehrson 


Rev. Sten Olson 


Mr. J. Lindstrom 


Rev. Carl Lagerstrom 


Rev. Olaf Wahlstrom 


Rev. John Hult 


Mr. P. Thompson 


Rev. Jonas Auslund 


Rev. J. J. Frodeeu 


Rev. P. Sjobloin, D. D. 


Rev. L. A. Hocanzon 


Rev. P. A. Cederstam 


Rev. C. M. Ryden 


Rev. J. G. Lagerstrom 


Rev. A. Wahlin 


Rev. John E. Nil son 


Rev. C. A. Evald, D. D. 


Rev. A. Engdahl 


Rev. Fr. Peterson 


Rev. C. L. Beckstrom 


Hon. John Peterson 


Rev. J. Fremliug, D. D. 


Rev. L. O. Lindh 


Rev. P. Beckrnan 


Rev. J. Magny 


Rev. J. O. Cavalliu 


Rev. A. F. Tornell 




Rev. Efr. N. Jorlander 
Mr. Andrew Thorson 
Mr. L. Larson 
Rev. A. G. Linden 
Mr. N. Liljequist 
Rev. J. Ternstedt 
Rev. A. P. Monten 
Mr. A. Mellgren 
Mr. John Mallgren 
Rev. N. G. Dahlstedt 
Rev. B. S. Nystroin 
Rev. E. Hedeen 
Mr. John Webster 
Rev. P. J. Sward, D. D. 
Rev. C. B. L. Boman 
Rev. J. L. Haff 
Mr. J. Bodin 
Hon. C. A. Smith 
Rev. C. J. Petri, D. D. 
Rev. G. H. Trabert 
Rev. J. H. Randahl 
Mr. J. E. Holmberg 
Rev. S. C. Franzen 
Rev. J. Th. Kjellgren 
Hon. Otto Wallmark 
Rev. G. Rast, D. D. 
Rev. L. J. Lundquist 
Mr. C. J. Larson 
Mr. A. J. Carlson 
Rev. A. E. Ericsson 
Rev. L. A. Johnston 
Dr. A. Lind 
Rev. J. A. Levine 
Hon. C. J. Swendsen 
Rev. Eric J. Werner, D. D. 
Rev. P. J. Eckman 
Mr. Olof Sohlberg 
Rev. L. P. Bergstrom 
Hon. C. G. Schulz 
Mr. P. P. Quist 
Rev. J. A. Nyvall 
Prof. J. S. Carlson, Ph.D. 
Mr. N. R. Nelson 
Rev. S. A. Lindholm 
Dr. J. J. Eklund 

Term of Service. 

1874 7G 

1875 CO 

1875 7G 

1875 7G 











188892; 1904 


188997 . 














189498: 190105 
















Name. Term of Service. 

Mr. A. P. Mellquist 189903 

Rev. F. M. Eckrnan 1900 04 

Rev. A. Bergin, l j ii. D. 1900 04 

Rev. L. G. Almeu 190108 

Mr. H. N. Benson 1901 

Rev. S. G. Sweuson 1903 

Rev. 3. H. Nelson 1903 

Hon. P. H. Stohlberg 1903 

Mr. C. A. Johnson 190306 

Mr. Victor E. Olson 190409 

Mr. Andrew Lindgren 1904 

Rev. Carl Solomouson 1904 

Rev. Carl Kraft 1905 

Mr. A. P. Safe 1907 

Prof. A. A. Steinberg 1908 

c) Bethany College. 

Name. Term of Service. 
Rev. Carl Swensson,Ph.D.,D.D.,R.N.O. 18821904 

Hon. C. J. Stromquist 18821902; 190308 

John Thorstenberg 188286 

A. Lincoln 188292 

Rev. P. M. Sannquist 188288; 1891 

Rev. A. W. Dahlsten, D. D. 188297; 18951902 

John A. Swenson 188283 

Rev. J. Seleen, D. D. 188295 

J. O. Sundstrom 188495 

Hon. N. J. Thorstenberg 18861908; 1909 

Francis Johnson 188691 

Rev. J. E. Floren, Ph. D. 18881904 

Gustaf Johnson 18881901 

Rev. J. Holcomb 188889 

Rev. C. J. E. Haterins, D. D. 188889 

Sven Bnrk 188889 

Rev. E. Nelander, A. M. 1889 

Rev. C. Walleen 188990; 1894 

Rev. O. Olsson, Ph. D., D. D. 188990 

John Ekblad 18901904 

Rev. Theodore Kjellgren 189091 

Rev. J. Wikstrand 189094 

Rev. J. Telleen, D. D. 189192 

Rev. Erland Carlsson, D. D. 189293 

Hon. R. A. Thompson 18921906; 100709 

Rev. J. Ekholrn, Ph. D. 1895 



Name. Term of Service. 

Rev. J. A. Hemborg 1896 98 

Rev. G. A. Brandelle, D. D. 18961909 

J. P. Grant 18961900 

Rev. J. A. Holmen 18991902 

Rev. G. A. Dorf 19001909 

Rev. J. A. Engwall, A. M., D. D. 19021909 

Dr. Arvid Pihlblad, A. M., M. D. 190205 

Rev. G. A. Ekrnan 190306 

Rev. Enrst F. Pihlblad, A. M., D. D. 390409 

Rev. Alfred Bergin, Ph. D. 1905 09 

Hon. Charles Lander 1906 09 

Rev. A. W. Liudquist, A. M., B. D. 190709 

G. O. Maxell 190709 

d) Upsala College. 
Ex Officio Members. 


Rev. G. Nelseuius, D. D. 
Rev. L. P. Ahlquist, D. D. 
Rev. L. H. Beck, Ph. D. 
Rev. F. Jacobson, Ph. D. 

'Reg'ular Members. 
Rev. G. Nelsenius, D. D. 
Rev. L. H. Beck, Ph. D. 
Hakan Johansen 
C. A. Peterson 
Rev. N. G. Johnson 
F. Westerberg 
Rev. A. A. Magnusson 
Rev. C. A. Blonigren, Ph. D. 
Rev. M. Stolpe, D. D. 
Rev. C. G. Norman 
Elias Johnson 
Rev. Victor Tengwald 
N. Rems 
Emil Reims 
Rev. G. E. Forsberg 
John Anderson 
Rev. F. Jacobson, Ph. D. 
O. P. Knudson 
Rev. P. A. Fail- 
John S. Carlson 

Term of Service. 

189497; 190309 




189394; 18971903; 190{i 








18931903; 1904 















Rev. J. S. Brodeen 
Rev. J. G. Danielson 
P. A. Rydberg, Ph. D. 
Rev. S. Pearson 
Rev. S. C. Franzen 
Rev. P. V. Ljung 
Rev. C. F. Sandahl 
Rev. Alfred L. Scott 
C. Peterson 
Rev. N. W. Swenson 
W. Hotter 
G. A. Anderson 
Rev. Augustus Nelson 
Carl E. Bohnian 
Charles G. Anderson 
Rev. L. Holmes, D. D. 
Rev. J. E. Lorimer 
Joshua Larson, Ph. D. 
Rev. E. S. Ternberg 
C. E. Nordenberg 
Sven Swenson 
Aron Johnson 
Rev. P. Froeberg 
Rev. E. A. Zetterstrand, L. H. 
Rev. F. A. Alford 
Rev. Aug. S. Pearson 
Rev. E. A. Ericsson 
A. Jackson 

Term of Service. 

Honorary Members. 

Hakan Johansen 1902 

Hon. A. E. Johnson 1907 

Rev. L. Holmes, D. D. 1908 

e) Luther College. 


E. A. Fogelstrom 
J. P. Nyquist 
John Torell 
C. J. E. Haterius 
J. E. Nordling 
M. Noyd 

Term of Service. 


188386; 188709 

188398; 190108 




Term of Service. 

F. N. Swanberg 

188492; 189501; 190205 

S. A. Lindholm 


J. E. Swanbom 

188586; 1906 

V. N. Thoren 


G. Peters 


Dr. P. J. Brodine 


O. A. Johnson 


C. G. Widen 


Dr. P. Sjoblom 


J. E. Erlander 


C. E. Elving 


C. Christenson 


L. Hokenson 


B. S. Nystrom 


C. A. Randolph 


P. M. Lindberg 


E. G. Chinlund 

190102; 190308 

O. J. Johnson, ex officio 


C. G. Olson 


M. Th. Andren 


Dr. John Ekholm 


C. E. Lindsten 


J. E. Rydback 


Dr. C. A. Hemborg 


F. W. Wyman 


John Erikson 
N. P. Hult 
Abraham Helsing 
P. X. Henning 
Johannes Olson 
Peter Gibson 
Otto Abrahamson 
Victor Anderson 
A. Larson 
j. F. Helin 
^>els Bengtson 
Nels Eliason 
Peter Colseth 
Truls Hakanson 
Dr. S. M. Hill, ex officio 
Alfred Frostrom 
J. A. Anderson 
C. J. Olson 

The Augustana Synod 

188388; 1901 

188384; 190208 


188384; 188997 


1884 8& 

188586; 189697 













Name. Term of Service. 

John Nordstrom 1899 

Bengt Nelson 1907 08 

Henry Holt 1907 

S. L. Wallerstedt 1908 

A. A. Gustafson 1908 

Frank W. Anderson 1909 

C. E. Tornblom 1909 

f) Northwestern College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

James Moody, ex officio 1900 

John Anderson 1900 

L. P. Stenstrom 1900 02 

Martin Nelson 1900 

August Nygren 1900 

C. J. Enstrom 190004 
L. P. Holmquist 1900 06 
S. J. Nylauder 1902 

D. J. Chelgren 1904 
A. C. Holmquist 1906 

g) Minnesota College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

Mr. Axel Anderson 1904 

Mr. J. M. Carlson 1909 

Rev. E. G. Chinlund 1909 

Mr. E. G. Dahl 1907 

Rev. F. M. Eckman 1904 

Mr. John Hedman 1904 (died) 

Mr. C. J. Johnson 1908 

Rev. S. Johnson 1908 

Mr. Erland Lind 1904; 1908 

Dr. P. M. Magnusson 1904 07 

Mr. John Ogren 1009 

Dr. C. J. Petri 190408 

Rev. Peter Peterson 1904 

Dr. G. Rast 1904 

Rev. E. O. Stone 1904 

Dr. Olof Sohlberg 1906 


h) Trinity College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

Rev. C. G. Widen 190607 

Rev. A. L. Scott 1906 

Rev. O. H. Sylvan 1906 

Rev. L. J. Sundquist 190608 

Rev. O. M. Bloom 1906 

Mr. J. A. Nelson 1906 

Mr. A. K. Anderson 1906 

Mr. A. Bergstrom 1906 08 

Mr. A. Ekstrom 1906 

Mr. John Nelson 1906 

Mr. John Snygg 1906 

Mr. J. E. Gustafsou 1908 

Rev. A. A. Swanlund 1908 

Rev. E. Swenson 1908 

i) Coeur d'Alene College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

Rev. N. J. W. Nelson 190708 

C. B. Green 190708 

Dr. G. A. Anderson 190708 

Rev. J. Jesperson 1907 

Rev. C. J. Renhard 1907 

Rev. C. E. Frisk 1907 

John Erickson 1907 

P. P. Johnson 1908 

Rev. B. Westerlund 1909 

Rev. H. A. W. Yung 1909 

j) North Star College. 

Name. Term of Service. 

John Lindberg 1908 

Alfred Johnson 1908 

P. B. Mai berg 1908 

Rev. E. O. Chelgren 1908 

August Lundgren 1908 

John P. Mattson 1908 

L. M. Olson 1908 

Rev. Kr. Rosenthal 1909