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Old Series, ) Continuation of the 

Vol. XXIX. ') Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. \ Vol. XXI 

( New Series, 

The Auk 

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The American Ornithologists' Union 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 



In Memoriam : Thomas McIlwraith. By A. K. Fisher {with 

portrait). .......... 

On the Habits of the Laysan Albatross. By Walter K, 

Fisher. (Plates II- VII.) 

Nesting Habits of the Herodiones in Florida. By A. C 

Bent. (Plates VIII and IX.) 20 

Summer Birds of the Leech Lake Region, Minnesota. By 

Edtnonde S. Currier. ......... 29 

Bird Migration Phenomena in the Extreme Lower Missis- 
sippi Valley. By Henry H. Kopman. .... 45 

The Correct Name of the Pacific Dunlin. By S. A. Buturlin. 50 
An Abnormal Bill of Melanerpes fortoricensis. By B. S. 

Bow dish. (Plate XI) 53 

Some Nova Scotia Birds. By Spencer Trotter. 55 

The Exaltation of the Subspecies. By Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 

M. D 64 

Yosemite Valley Birds. By O. Widmann. ..... 66 

Twenty-first Congress of the American Ornithologists' 

Union. By John H. Sage. 74 


White-winged Scoter in Colorado, 78 ; Occurrence of the Knot (Tringa 
canutus) at San Diego, California, 78 ; A Sanderling with Hind 
Toes, 79; Black-bellied Plover and Hudsonian Godwit on Long 
Island, N. Y., 79; The Ani in Florida, 79; The Pileated Wood- 
pecker in the District of Columbia, 79; Empidonax griseus 
Brewst.=2?. canescens Salv. & Godm., 80; A Preoccupied Generic 
Name, 80 ; Extension of the Breeding Range of the Prairie 
Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris praticola) to the Eastern Coast, 
81 ; Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker and Evening Grosbeak 
at Wellfleet, Mass., 81 ; The Evening Grosbeak in Presque Isle 
Co., Mich., 82; The Bachman Sparrow (Pencata aestivalis bach- 
manii) in the Vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio, 82 ; Kirtland's War- 
bler (Dendroica kirtlandi) on the Coast of South Carolina, 83 ; 
A Few Southern Michigan Notes, 84 ; Occurence of the Ruff 
(Pavoncella pugnax) and Other Birds in Rhode Island, 85 ; The 
Black-bellied Plover, Road-runner, and Black-throated Green 
Warbler in Kansas, 85. 


Walton's 'A Hermit's Wild Friends,' 87; Fisher's Birds of Laysan, 
90; Jones's 'The Birds of Ohio,' 91 ; Anderson and Grinnell on 
the Birds of the Siskiyou Mountains, California, 91 ; Sharpe's 
' Hand List of the Genera and Species of Birds,' Volume IV, 92 ; 

iv Contents of Vol Jim e XXI. 

Ridgwayon New American Birds, 93; Nelson on New Birds from 
Mexico, 93; Oberholser on a New Wren from Texas, 94; Hartert's 
' Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna,' 94 ; ' The Avicultural Mag- 
azine,' 95 ; Seth-Smith's Handbook of Parakeets, 96. 


Report of the A. O. U. Committee on the Protection of 
North American Birds for the Year 1903. By William 
Butcher. (Plates XII-XVII.) 97 



Masked Bob-white (Cplinus ridgwayi). By Herbert Broxvn. 209 
Curved-billed and Palmer's Thrashers. By Josiah H. Clark. 

(Plate XVIII.) 214 

San Clemente Island and its birds. By George F. Brenin- 


A List of Land Birds from Central and Southeastern 

Washington. By Robert E. Snodgrass 223 

Birds of Allegany and Garrett Counties, Western Mary- 
land. By G. Eifrig. 234 

The Obligations of the Student of Animal Behavior. 

By William Morton Wheeler. . . . . . . .251 

Unpublished Letters of John James Audubon and Spen- 
cer F. Baird. By Ruthven Beane. . . . . . . 255 

Nesting Habits of the Herodiones in Florida. By A. C. Bent. 

(Plates XIX-XXI.) 259 

The Rhythmical Song of the Wood Pewee. By Henry Oldys. 270 

The Status of Melospiza lincolni striata Brewster. By Joseph 

Grinnell. . . . . . . . . . . .274 


Holboell's Grebe at Niagara Falls, 276; Holboell's Grebe and the 
White Pelican at St. Mary's, Georgia, 277 ; Another Ohio Record 
for the Knot (Tringa cantetus), 277 ; The Red-backed Sandpiper 
in Massachusetts in December, 277 ; Capture of Krider's Hawk 
at St. Mary's, Georgia, 277 ; The Great Gray Owl near Boston, 
278 ; The Pileated Woodpecker in Anne Arundel County, Md., 
278; Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus), a New Bird for 
Colorado, 278; Another Abnormal Bill, 279; The Western 
Meadowlark {Sturnella magna neglecta) in Southern Georgia, 
280; The Evening Grosbeak near Quebec, Canada, 280; The 
Pine Grosbeak on Long Island, N. Y., 280, 281 ; White-winged 
Crossbill — A Correction, 281; The Lark Sparrow in Oneida 
County, N. Y., 281 ; The Chewink in Winter at Ashland, Mass., 
282 ; Another Nest of the Philadelphia Vireo, 2S2; The Phila- 
delphia Vireo, 283; A Winter Record for the Hermit Thrush 

Contents of Volume XXI. 

{Hylocichla guttata pallasii) in Eastern Massachusetts, 284 ; Two 
Additions to the Bird Fauna of Kansas, 284; Mortality among 
Young Birds, Due to Excessive Rains, 284 ; The Rapidity of 
Wing-beats of Birds, 286 ; A Correction, 286 ; Audubon's Orni- 
thological Biography, 286; Delaware Bird Notes, 286; Bird 
Notes from Shelter Island, Long Island, N. Y., 287 ; Notes Con- 
cerning Certain Birds of Long Island, N. Y., 287 ; British 
Columbia Notes, 289; The Ipswich Sparrow, Kirtland's Warbler, 
and Sprague's Pipit in Georgia, 291. 


Coues's ' Key to North American Birds,' Fifth Edition, 292 ; Chap- 
man's 'Color Key to North American Birds,' 296; Dawson's 'The 
Birds of Ohio,' 297 ; Mrs. Bailey's ' Handbook of Birds of the 
Western United States,' Second Edition, 299; Mrs. Wheelock's 
'Birds of California,' 299; Torrey's 'The Clerk of the Woods,' 
300; Mrs. Miller's ' With the Birds in Maine,' 301 ; Kumlien and 
Hollister's ' The Birds of Wisconsin,' 301 ; Silloway's ' The Birds 
of Fergus County, Montana,' 302 ; Oberholser's ' Review of the 
Wrens of the Genus Troglodytes, 303; Oberholser on the Amer- 
ican Great Horned Owls, 304; Snodgrass and Heller on the 
' Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago,' 305 ; Shufeldt on the 
Osteology of the Halcyones and Limicoloe, 306 ; Evans's ' Turner 
on Bird's,' 306; Recent Papers on Economic Ornithology, 307; 
Audubon Societies in their Relation to the Farmer, 309 ; Sum- 
mary of Game Laws tor 1903, 309. 


Obituaries: Gurdon Trumbull, 310; Josiah Hooper, 311 J Lyman 
S- Foster, 312. Ornithological Works in Prospect, 312. 


The Biology of the Tyrannid^e with Respect to their 

Systematic Arrangement. By Dr. H. von Ihering. . . 313 
A Discussion of the Origin of Migration. By P. A. Taverner. 322 
Extracts from an Unpublished Journal of John James Audu- 
bon. By Ruthven Deane. ........ 334 

The Effect of Altitude on Bird Migration. By Wells W. 

Cook 338 

Spring Migrations of 1903. By Elon Howard Eaton. . . 341 

The Case of Megalestris vs. Catharacta. By J. A. Allen. . . 345 
Additional Notes on the Birds of the Upper Pecos. By 

Florence Merriam Bailey. ........ 349 

The Origin and Distribution of the Chestnut-backed Chick- 
adee. Joseph Grimiell. ........ 364 

vi Contents of Volume XXI. 


Black-capped Petrel in New Hampshire, 383, PI. XXII; Holboell's 
Grebe in Lancaster, Mass., 383 ; European Widgeon in Southern 
California, 383 ; On the Evanescent Ground-tint of Woodcock's 
Eggs, 384 ; How an Abnormal Growth of Bill was Caused, 384 ; 
The Evening Grosbeak in Central New York in April, 385 ; The 
Evening Grosbeak at Beverly, Mass., 385 ; Nelson's Sharp-tailed 
Sparrow in North Dakota, 385; Henslow's Sparrow in Chester 
County, Pa., 386; Henslow's Sparrow at Bethlehem, Pa. — A 
Correction, 386 ; What has happened to the Martins? 387; Breed- 
ing of Lawrence Warbler in New York City, 387; Myrtle War- 
blers Wintering in Maine, 388 ; Phyllopsuestes versus Phyllosco- 
flus, 390; Peculiar Nesting-site of the Bluebird in the Bermudas, 
390; Dates of Nesting of Bermuda Birds, 391; Unusual Records 
near Boston, Mass., 391 ; Scott Oriole, Gray Vireo and Phoebe 
in Northeastern New Mexico, 392. 


Hoffmann's 'Guide to the Birds of New England and Eastern New 
York,' 393; Hornaday's 'The American Natural History,' 394; 
The ' Baby Pathfinder to the Birds,' 395 ; Proceedings of the 
Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, 396; Oddi's ' Manuale d' 
Ornitologie ltaliana,' 396 ; Boardman's ' The Naturalist of the 
Saint Croix,' 397 ; Pearson's ' Three Summers among the Birds 
of Russian Lapland,' 398; Jacobs's 'The Haunts of the Golden- 
winged Warbler,' 399 ; Scott on the Rearing of Wild Finches by 
Foster-parents of other Species, 399 ; Scott on the Inheritance of 
Song in Passerine Birds, 400 ; Rhoads on the Extinction of the 
Dickcissel East of the Alleghanies, 401 ; Silloway's Additional 
Notes on the Summer Birds of Flathead Lake, 401 ; Swarth on 
the Birds of the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, 401 ; Bartsch on 
the Herons of the District of Columbia, 402; Nelson on New Birds 
from Mexico, 403; Nelson's Revision of the North American 
Mainland Species of Myiarckus, 403 ; Bangs on Birds from 
Honduras, 404; McGregor on Philippine Birds, 404; Code of 
Botanical Nomenclature, 404. 

A Method of Obtaining a Temporary Stability of Names, 406. 


Obituary : Edwin Sheppard, 407. Field Work of the Biological Sur- 
vey, 407 ; The Thayer Expedition to Central America, 408 ; 
American Museum of Natural History, 408; New Ornitholog- 
ical Publieations, 409; Michigan Ornithological Club, 410; 
Marking Young Birds, 410. 

Thirteenth Supplement to the A. O. U. Check-List. . . 411 

Contents of Volume XXI. vii 


A Fortnight on the Farallones. By Milton S. Ray. . . 425 
Additions to Mitchell's List of the Summer Birds of San 

Miguel County, New Mexico. By Florence Merriam Bailey. 443 
A Preliminary List of the Birds of Leon County, Florida. 

B v R. W Williams, Jr 449 

Nesting Habits of the Woodpeckers and the Vultures of 

Mississippi. By Charles R. Stockard ..... 463 
The Birds of West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. By 

Andrexv Allison. .......... 472 


Curlew Sandpiper in New Jersey, 485 ; Occurrence of the Spotted 
Sandpiper in Kent, England, 485; Killdeers at Allen's Harbor, 
R. I., 485 ; Note on the Generic Names Bellona, Ortkorhytichus, 
CJirysolampis, and Eulampis, 485; On the Proper Name of the 
Tody of Jamaica, 486 ; The Bobolink in Colorado, 486 ; Henslow's 
Sparrow in Munroe County, Pa., 486 ; Breeding of the Dickcissel 
in New Jersey, 487 ; Another Nest of Kirtland's Warbler, 487 ; 
An Interesting Variation in Seiurus, 488 ; Warblers and Grapes, 
489; The Raven in Southern New Hampshire, and Other Notes, 


The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 494 ; Cooke's 
' Some New Facts about the Migration of Birds,' 501 ; G. M. 
Allen's 'The Birds of New Hampshire,' 503; Todd's Birds of 
Erie, Pa., 505 ; Hartert's, ' Die Vogel der Pal&arktischen Fauna,' 
505 ; Kirtland's Warbler, 506 ; Forbush on the Destruction of 
Birds by the Elements, 507; Judd's 'The Economic Value of the 
Bobwhite,' 509; Elrod on Birds in Relation to Agriculture, 509. 


Obituaries: John Fannin, 510; James M. Southwick, 511. Worthing- 
ton Society for the Investigation of Bird Life, 511 ; Twenty-sec- 
ond Congress of the American Ornithologists' Union, 512. 

Index 513 

Contents of Volume XXI iii 

Officers, Committees, and Members of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union ix 

viii Contents of Volume XXI. 


Plate I. Portrait of Thomas Mcllwraith. 

" II. Finale of Albatross Dance — The Duet. 

" III. Fig. i, Rookery of Laysan Albatross ; Fig. 2, Near the Lagoon, 

u IV. Fig. 1, A Corner in one of the Rookeries, Fig. 2, Among the 

Laysan Albatrosses. 
" V. Fig. 1, First stage in Dance, Fencing; Fig. 2, Second step in 

" VI. Fig. 1, Last stage in Dance — one singing, the other snapping 

beak ; Fig. 2, Portrait of young Laysan Albatross. 
" VII. Fig. 1, Young Albatross asking for Food; Fig. 2, old bird 

starting to disgorge. 
" VIII. Fig. 1, The Arrival of Breakfast ; Fig. 2, Diomedea nigripes 
punishing strange young. 

IX. Nest, Eggs, and Young of Roseate Spoonbill. 

X. Nest and Eggs of White Ibis. 
" XI. Bill of Portorican Woodpecker. 

XII. Launch 'Audubon ' used by Warden in Southern Florida. 

XIII. Bird Key, Florida, a protected Tern Colony. 

XIV. Sooty Terns on Bird Key, Florida. 

XV. Sooty Terns and young, Bird Key, Florida. 

" XVI. Fig. 1, Puffins, Matinicus Rock, Maine; Fig. 2, Nest of 

American Eider, Maine Coast. 
" XVII. Fig. 1, Herring Gull, caught by foot in spruce stub, Great 
Duck Island, Maine; Figs. 2 and 3, Black Giullemots, or 
Sea Pigeons, on a protected Island in Maine. 
" XVIII. Nest and Eggs of Curve-billed Thrasher. 
" XIX. Young Great White Herons. 
" XX. Nests of Louisiana Heron. 
" XXI. Fig. 1, Little Blue Heron Rookery, Fig. 2, Nest and Eggs of 

Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 
" XXII. Black-capped Petrel. 1 
" XXIII. The Farallones, from the East. 
" XXIV. Finger Rock, Farallones. 
" XXV. Great Murre Cave, Farallones. 
" XXVI. Gulls on WestfEnd, Farallones. 

11 XXVII. Portion of the Brandt's Comorant Rookery, Farallones. 
" XXVIII. Fig. 1, Rock Wren ; Fig. 2, Farallon Cormorant. 

1 The date of capture given on the plate should be 1893 instead of 1896. 





1 90-1 


Expiration of Term. 
Cory, Charles B., President November, 1904. 

Batchelder, C. F., 1 TZ . e, .7 , 

' > Vice-Presidents " 1004. 

Nelson, E. W., ' i y ^ 

Sage, John H., Secretary " 1904. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., Treasurer " 1904. 

Additional Members of the Council. 

Chapman, Frank M November, 1904 

Deane, Ruthven 

Dutcher, William. 

Fisher, A. K 

Richmond, Charles W 

Roberts, Thomas S 

Stone, Witmer 

Allen, J. A 

Brewster, William 

Elliot, D. G 

Merriam, C. Hart 

Ridgway, Robert J 

Editorial Staff of ' The Auk.' 

Allen, J. A., Editor November, 1904. 

Chapman, Frank M., Associate Editor " ^9°-\- 


Committee on Publications. 

Cory, Charles B., C/iairman. Allen, J. A. 

Sage, John H., Secretary. Chapman, Frank M. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Jr. 

Committee of Arrangements for the Meeting of 1904. 

Cory, Charles B., Chairman. Batchelder, Charles F. 

Sage, John H., Secretary. Bishop, Louis B. 

Brewster, William. 




OCTOBER, 1904. 1 


[Omission of date indicates a Founder. An * indicates a Life Fellow.] 

Date of 

Aldrich, Hon. Charles, Boone, Iowa — 

Allen, Dr. J. A., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City — 

Anthony, A. W., 900 Thurman St., Portland, Ore 1895 

Bangs, Outram, 240 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1901 

Barrows, Prof. W. B., Agricultural College, Mich 1883 

Batchelder, Charles Foster, 7 Kirkland St., Cambridge, Mass ... — 

Beal, F. E. L., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1901 

Belding, Lyman, Stockton, Cal 18S3 

Bicknell, Eugene P., 32 Nassau St., New York City — 

Bishop, Dr. Louis B., 356 Orange St., New Haven, Conn 1901 

*Brewster, William, 145 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass .' . . . — 

Brown, Nathan Clifford, 218 Middle St., Portland, Me — 

• Chadbourne, Dr. Arthur P., 225 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. . 1889 

Chapman, Frank M., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1888 

Cooke, Prof. Wells W., 1328 12th St., N. W., Washington, D. C . . . . 1884 

*Cory, Charles B., 160 Boylston St., Boston, Mass — 

Deane, Ruthven, 504 N. State St., Chicago, 111. 18S3 

Dutcher, William, 525 Manhattan Ave., New York City 1886 

Dwight, Dr. Jonathan, Jr., 2 East 34th St., New York City 1886 

Elliot, Daniel G., Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 111 — 

- Faxon, Dr. Walter, Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass 1896 

Fisher, Dr. Albert K., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. . . — 
Gill, Prof. Theodore N. , Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. . . . 1883 

Grinnell, Dr. George Bird, Audubon Park, New York City 1883 

Grinnell, Joseph, 572 N. Marengo Ave., Pasadena, Cal 1901 

Henshaw, Henry W., Hilo, Hawaiian Islands 1883 

Lawrence, Newbold T., 51 Liberty St., New York City 1883 

1 Fellows and Members of the Union, and Subscribers to ' The Auk ' are 
requested to promptly notify Jonathan Dwight, Jr., Treasurer, 2 East 
34th St., New York City, of any change of address. 

Honorary Fellows. xi 

Loomis, Leverett M., California Acad. Sci., San Francisco, Cal. . . 1892 
Lucas, Frederic A., Museum Brooklyn Inst., Eastern Parkway, 

Brooklyn, N. Y 1892 

Mearns, Dr. Edgar A., U. S. A., War Dept., Washington, D. C — 

Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. . . — 

Nehrling, H., Palm Cottage, Gotha, Fla 1883 

Nelson, E. W., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1883 

Oberholser, Harry C, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C . . . 1902 

Palmer, Dr. T. S., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1901 

Palmer, William, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C 1898 

Purdie, Henry A., 48 Bolyston St., Boston, Mass — 

Richmond, Dr. Charles W , Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C- '1897 

Ridgway, Prof. Robert, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C — 

Roberts, Dr. Thomas S., 1603 4th Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn ... .1883 

*Sage, John H., Portland, Conn 1883 

Saunders, William E., 352 Clarence St., London, Ontario 1883 

Shufeldt, Dr. Robert W., 471 W. 145th St., New York City — 

Stejneger, Dr. Leonhard, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C 1884 

Stone, Witmer, Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Pa 1S92 

Widmann, Otto, 5105 Morgan St., St. Louis, Mo 1884 


Berlepsch, Count Hans von, Schloss Berlepsch, per post, Gerten- 

bach, Cassel, Germany 1890 

Blanford, Dr. William T., 72 Bedford Gardens, Kensington, 

London, W 1895 

Bocage, Prof. J. V. Barboza du, Royal Museum, Lisbon 1883 

Cabanis, Prof. Dr. Jean, Friedrichshagen, near Berlin 1 ^3 

Dresser, Henry Eeles, 28 Queensborough Terrace, London, W. • 1883 

Finsoh, Dr. Otto, 19^ Altewickring, Brunswick, Germany 1883 

Giglioli, Dr. Henry Hillyer, Director Royal Zoological Museum, 

Florence l ^3 

Hartert, Ernst, Zoological Museum, Tring, England 1902 

Harvey-Brown, John A., Dunipace House, Larbert, Stirlingshire, 

Scotland 1902 

Hume, Allan Octavian, The Chalet, Kingswood Road, Upper Nor- 
wood, London, S. E 1 ^3 

Meyer, Dr. A. B., Director of the Royal Zool. Museum, Dresden 1900 

Newton, Prof. Alfred, Magdalene College, Cambridge, England.. .1883 

xii Corresponding- bellows. 

Reichenow, Dr. Anton, Konigl. Mus. fiir Naturkunde, Invaliden 

Str., 43, Berlin 1891 

Salvadori, Prof. Count Tommaso, Royal Zool. Museum, Turin 1883 

Saunders, Howard, 7 Radnor Place, Hyde Park, London, W 1884 

Sclater, Dr. Philip Lutley, 3 Hanover Sq., London, W 1883 

Sharpe, Dr. Richard Bowdler, British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, London, S. W 1883 

Wallace, Prof. Alfred Russel, Broadstone, Wimborne, Dorset, 

England 1883 


Alfaro, Anastasio, San Jose, Costa Rica 1888 

Arrigoni Degli Oddi, Count Dr. E., University of Padua, Italy. . . 1900 

Blasius, Dr. Rudolph, Brunswick, Germany 1884 

Blasius, Dr. Wilhelm, Brunswick, Germany 1884 

Bryant, Walter E., Santa Rosa, Cal 1900 

Buller, Sir Walter Lawry, 81 Eaton Terrace, London, S. W 1883 

Bureau, Dr. Louis, Ecole de Medicine, Nantes, France 1884 

Butler, Lieut. -Col. E. A., Plumton House, Bury St. Edmunds, 

Suffolk, England 1884 

Buttikofer, J., Zoological Gardens, Rotterdam, Holland 1886 

Campbell, Archibald James, Melbourne, Australia 1902 

Chamberlain, Montague, Cambridge, Mass 1901 

Clarke, Wm. Eagle, Science and Art Museum, Edinburgh 1889 

Collett, Prof. Robert, Zoological Museum, Christiania, Norway.. 1883 
Dalgleish, John J., Brankston Grange, Bogside Station, Stirling- 
shire, Scotland 1883 

Dole, Sanford B., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 1888 

Dubois, Dr. Alphonse, Museum Nat. History, Brussels 1884 

Duges, Prof. Alfredo, Colegio del Estado, Guanajuato, Mexico. . . .1884 

Echt, Adolph Bachofen von, Nussdorf, near Vienna 1883 

Evans, Arthur H., 9 Harvey Road, Cambridge, England ^99 

Fatio, Dr. Victor, Geneva, Switzerland 1884 

Feilden, Lieut. -Col. H. W., West House, Wells, Norfolk, England. . 1884 
Ferrari-Perez, Prof. Fernando, Naturalist Mexican Geol. Expl. 

Commission, Pueblo, Mexico 1885 

Freke, Percy Evans, 7 Limes Road, Folkstone, Kent, England 1883 

Furbringer, Prof. Max, Director Anatom. Institute, University of 

Heidelberg, Germany 1891 

Gadow, Dr. Hans, Zoological Museum, Cambridge, England 1884 

Girtanner, Dr. A., St. Galle, Switzerland 1S84 

Godman, F. Du Cane, 10 Chandos Street, Cavendish Sq., London. . 1S83 
Godwin-Austen, Lieut. -Col. H. H., Shalford House, Guilford, Eng- 
land 1884 

Goeldi, Dr. Emil A., Para, Brazil 1903 

Corresponding Felloivs. xiii 

Grandidier, Alfred, 6 Rond-Point des Champs Elysees, Paris. . . . 1883 
Grant, William R. Ogilvie, 29 Elvaston Place, London, S. W.... 1899 

Gurney, John Henry, Keswick Hall, Norwich, England 1883 

Harting, James Edmund, Linnsean Society, Burlington House, Pic- 
cadilly, London 1883 

Hayek, Dr. Gustav von,* Vienna 1884 

Hellmayr, Dr. E. C, Munich, Germany 1903 

Henson, Harry V., Yokohama 1888 

Hudson, William Henry, Tower House, St. Luke's Road, West- 
bourne Park, London, W 1895 

Ihring, Dr. Hermann von, Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil 1902 

Knudson, Valdemar, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands 1888 

Krukenberg, Dr. E. F. W., Wtirzburg, Germany 1884 

Kruper, Dr. Theobald J., University Museum, Athens, Greece 1884 

Legge, William V., Cullenswood House, St. Mary's, Tasmania 1891 

Leverkuhn, Dr. Paul, The Palace, Sophia, Bulgaria 1890 

MacFarlane, Robert, Winnipeg, Manitoba 1886 

Madarasz, Dr. Julius von, National Museum, Budapest, Hungary. . 1884 

Menzbier, Dr. M., Imperial Society of Naturalists, Moscow 1884 

Namiye, M., Tokio 1886 

Nicholson, Francis, 84 Major St., Manchester, England 1884 

North, Alfred J., Australian Museum, Sydney, New South 

Wales 1902 

Oates, Eugene William, i Carlton Gardens, Ealing, London, W. . 1884 
Oustalet, Dr. Emile, Jardin des Plantes, 55 Rue de Buffon, Paris.. 1888 

Palmen, Dr. J. A., Helsingfors, Finland 1883 

Philippi, Dr. R. A., Santiago, Chili 1884 

Pycraft, W. P., British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, Lon- 
don, S. W 1902 

Ramsey, E. P., Sydney, New South Wales 1884 

Ringer, Frederic, Nagasaki 1888 

Rothschild, Hon. L. Walter, Zoological Museum, Tring, Eng- 
land 1898 

Schalow, Herman, 15 Schleswiger Ufer, Berlin, N. W 1884 

Shelley, Capt. G. E., 39 Edgerton Gardens, South Kensington, 

London, S. W., England 1884 

Sucshkin, Dr. Peter, Imperial University, Moscow, Russia 1903 

Theel, Dr. Hjalmar, University of Upsala, Upsala, Sweden 1884 

Tristram, Rev. Canon H. B., The College, Durham, England 1884 

Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Victor Ritter von, Hallein, (Villa 

Tannenhof), Salzburg, Austria 1884 

Waterhouse, F. H., 3 Hanover Square, London, W 1889 

Winge, Dr. Herluf, Copenhagen, Denmark 1903 

Woodhouse, Dr. Samuel W., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Worcester, Prof. Dean C, Manila, P.I 1903 

Zeledon, Don Jose C., San Jose, Costa Rica 1884 

xiv Members. 


Allen, Francis H., 4 Park St., Boston, Mass 1901 

Allison, Andrew, 630 Pine St., New Orleans, La 1902 

Attwater, H. P., Box 697, Houston, Texas 1901 

Bailey, Mrs. Vernon, 1834 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C 1901 

Bailey, Vernon, 1834 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C 1901 

Baily, William L., 421 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Barbour, Prof. Erwin H., Sta. A., Lincoln, Nebraska 1903 

Bartsch, Paul, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C 1902 

Beebe, C William, N. Y. Zoological Park, New York City 1903 

Bent, Arthur C, Taunton, Mass 1902 

Beyer, Prof. George E., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, La 1901 

Bond, Frank, 1412 15th St., N. W., Washington, D. C 1901 

Braislin, Dr. William C, 217 St. James Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1902 

Brown, Herbert, Yuma, Arizona 1901 

Bruner, Prof. Lawrence, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb 1901 

Bryan, William Alanson, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H. 1 1901 

Burns, Frank L., Berwvn, Pa 1901 

Butler, Amos W., 52 Downey Ave., Irvington, Indianapolis, Ind-.i90i 

Cherrie, George K., 27 Fairview Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1901 

Clark, Prof. Hubert Lyman, Olivet College, Olivet, Mich 1902 

Daggett, Frank S., 341 Rialto Building, Chicago, 111 1901 

Deane, Walter, 29 Brewster St., Cambridge, Mass 1901 

Evermann, Prof. Barton W., Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, 

D. C 1901 

Fisher, Walter Kenrick, Palo Alto, Cal 1901 

Fleming, James H., 267 Rusholme Road, Toronto, Ontario 1901 

Forbush, Edward H., Wareham, Mass 1903 

Fuertes, Louis Agassiz, 13 East Ave., Ithaca, N. Y 1901 

Gault, Benjamin True, Glen Ellyn, 111 1903 

Goldman, Edward Alfonso, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1902 

Hardy, Manly, Brewer, Maine 1901 

Hoffmann, Ralph, Belmont, Mass 1901 

Howell, Arthur H., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1902 

Jeffries, William Augustus, Box 2013, Boston, Mass 1901 

Job, Rev. Herbert K., Kent, Conn 1901 

Jones, Lynds, 160 N. Professor St., Oberlin, Ohio 1901 

Jordan, Prof. David Starr, Stanford University, Cal 1901 

Judd, Dr. Sylvester D., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C-.-i9oi 

Knowlton, F. H., U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C 1902 

Mackay, George H., 114 State St., Boston, Mass 1901 

Mailliard, John W., 307 Sansome St. , San Francisco, Cal 1901 

Mailliard, Joseph, San Geronimo, Cal 1901 

McGregor, Richard C, Philippine Museum, Manila, P. 1 1901 

Miller, Mrs. Olive Thorne, 827 De Kalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1901 

Associates. xv 

Morris, George Spencer, Olney, Philadelphia, Pa J 903 

Murdoch, John, 38 Whiting St., Roxbury, Mass 1901 

Norton, Arthur H., Westbrook, Maine 1902 

Osgood, Wilfred Hudson, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C • 1901 

Pearson, T. Gilbert, Greensboro, N. C 1902 

Pennock, Charles J., Kennett Square, Pa 1901 

Preble, Edward A., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1901 

Price, William W., Alta, Cal 1901 

Ralph, Dr. William L., U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C...1901 

Rathbun, Samuel F., 202 Marion Block, Seattle, Wash 1902 

Rhoads, Samuel N., Audubon, N. J 1901 

Rives. Dr. William C, 1723 I St., N. W., Washington, D. C 1901 

Robinson, Capt. Wirt, U. S. A., Wingina, Va 1901 

Seton, Ernest Thompson, Cos Cob, Conn 1901 

Silloway, Perley Milton, Lewistown, Montana 1902 

Snodgrass, Robert Evans, Stanford University, Cal 1903 

Sornborger, Jewell D., ioi Hammond St., Cambridge, Mass 1901 

Stephens, Frank, University and Fillmore Aves., San Diego, Cal.. 190 1 

Strong, Dr. Reuben M., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111 1 9°3 

Thayer, Abbott H., Monadnock, N. H 1901 

Todd, W. E. Clyde, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa 1901 

Torrey, Bradford, Wellesley Hills, Mass 1901 

Townsend, Charles H., Aquarium, Battery Park, New York City. . 1901 

Trotter, Dr. Spencer, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa 1901 

Whitman, Prof. Charles Otis, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111 1902 

Wolcott, Dr. Robert H., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb I 9°3 

Wright, Mrs. Mabel Osgood, Fairfield, Conn 1901 


Abbott, Clinton Gilbert, 153 W. 73rd St., New York City 1898 

Adams, Emily Belle., 167 Maple St., Springfield, Mass 1900 

Adams, C. Wallace, 947 Rhode Island Ave. N. W., Washington, D. C . 1901 

Adams, Mrs. Emma S., 439 Elm St., Chicago, 111 1899 

Aiken, Charles Edward Howard, 2 E. Iowa St., Colorado Springs, 

Colo 1898 

Allen, Clarence Jones, Box 528, Milwaukee, Wis 1899 

Allen, Glover M., 16 Oxford St., Cambridge, Mass 1896 

Allen, Walter Fox, 62 Prospect St., Trenton, N. J 1902 

Ames, J. H., 96 Bay St., Toronto, Ontario 1895 

•Anderson, Mrs. J. C, Englewood, N. J 1903 

Angell, Walter A., 37 N. Main St., Providence, R.I 1901 

Archibold, J. A., 84 Highland Ave., Buffalo, N. Y 1903 

Arnold, Edward, 126 Van Buren St., Battle Creek, Mich 1894 

Arnow, Isaac F., St. Marys, Ga 1903 

xvi Associates. 

Atkinson, Dr. Daniel Armstrong, Wilkinsburg, Pa 

Atkinson, George E., Portage la Prairie, Manitoba 

Babson, W. A., South Orange, N. J 

Bacon, Carrington C, Imboden, Ark 

Bagg, Egbert, 424 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y 

Bailey, Charles E., Manning Manse, N. Billerica, Mass 

Bailey, Harold H., 54th St., Newport News, Va 

Baird, Miss Lucy Hunter, 1708 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Baird, Robert L., Oberlin, Ohio 

Baker, Arthur Benoni, 1845 Lanier Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Ball, Carleton R., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

Ball, Miss Helen Augusta, 43 Laurel St., Worcester, Mass 

Bancroft, Miss Harriet E., 159 N. Monroe Ave., Columbus, 


Bangs, Edward Appleton, 501 Pemberton Bldg., Boston, Mass. . . . 

Barbour, Rev. Robert, 62 Walnut St., Montclair, N. J 

Barbour, Thomas, 13 Conant Hall, Cambridge, Mass 

Barbour, Mrs. William D., 235 Madison Ave., New York City. . . . 

Barnard, Job, 1306 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C 

Barnes, Hon. R. Magoon, Lacon, 111 

Baxter, George Strong, Jr., 17 William St., New York City 

Beard, Daniel Carter, 204 Amity St., Flushing, N. Y 

Beck, Rollo Howard, Berryessa, Cal 

Beers, Henry W., 91 Denver Ave., Bridgeport, Conn 

Bennetts, William J., 154 U. St. N. W., Washington, D. C 

Benson, Frederick G., 845 Broad St., Newark, N. J 

Bergtold, Dr. W. H., 1460 Clayton Ave., Denver, Colo 

Berier, De Lagnel, Ridgwood, N. J 

Biddle, Miss Emily Williams, 2201 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bigelow, Edward F., Stamford, Conn 

Bigelow, Henry Bryant, 251 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass- 

Bigelow, Homer Lane, 511 Washington St., Boston, Mass 

Bigelow, Joseph Smith, Jr., 251 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Bignell, Mrs. Effie, 135 College Ave., New Brunswick, N. J 

Blackwelder, Eliot, 10906 Prospect Ave., Morgan Park, 111 

Blain, Alex. W., Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich 

Blake, Francis G., 57 Addington Road, Brookline, Mass 

Blatchley, W. S-, 1725 Broadway, Indianapolis, Ind 

Bloomfield, Mrs. C. C, 723 Main St. W., Jackson, Mich 

Blunt, Miss Eliza Sinclair, Elizabethtown, N. Y 

Boewe, Max, 15 King St., Taunton, Mass 

Bohlman, Herman T., 46 Ninth St., N., Portland, Oregon 

Bond, Harry L., Lakefield, Minn 

Bowdish, B. S., 50 W. 98th St., New York City 

Bowditch, Harold, Jamaica Plain, Boston, Mass 

Bowles, John Hooper, 401 S. G St., Tacoma, Wash 



















Associates. xvii 

Bracken, Mrs. Henry Martyn, ioio Fourth St., S. E., Minne 

apolis, Minn 

Bradford, Mrs. Mary F., 3804 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, La. . 

Bradford, Moses B. L., Concord, Mass 

Bradlee, Thomas Stevenson, Somerset Club, Boston, Mass 

Brandreth, Franklin, Ossining-on-Hudson, N. Y 

Brennan, Charles F., Mount Carmel, 111 

Breninger, George Frank, 560 N. 6th Ave., Phoenix, Arizona 

Brewster, Edward Everett, 316 C. St., E., Iron Mountain, Mich. 

Bridge, Mrs. Lidian E., 52 Wyman St., West Medford, Mass 

Bright, Miss Anna L., Green Hill Farm, Overbrook, Pa 

Brock, Dr. Henry Herbert, 687 Congress St., Portland, Me... 

Brooks, Allan, Comox, B. C 

Brooks, Rev. Earle Amos, Waverly, W. Va 

Brooks, Clarence Morrison, 105 West St., Keene, N. H 

Brown, Edward J., Lemon City, Florida 

Brown, Hubert H., 70 Collier St., Toronto, Ontario 

Brown, Stewardson, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa 

Brown, Wilmot W. , Jr., 52 Trowbridge St., Cambridge, Mass 

Brownson, W. H., Advertiser Office, Portland, Me 

Bryant, Owen, 56 Plympton St., Cambridge, Mass 

Buck, Henry Robinson, Box 213, Hartford, Conn 

Bumpus, Dr. Hermon C, Am. Mus. Natural History, New York City . 

Burgess, John Kingsbury, Dedham, Mass 

Burke, Wm. Bardwell, 130 Spring St., Rochester, N. Y 

Burnett, Leonard E., Little Medicine, Wyo 

Burnett, William L., 128 N. Sherwood St., Fort Collins, Colo. . . . 

Burnham, John, Jackson , Mich 

Burtch, Verdi, Branchport, N. Y 

Burtis, Henry Mott, Babylon, N. Y 

Buxbaum, Mrs. Clara E., 2305 Niles St., St. Joseph, Mich 

Callender, James Phillips, 603 Springfield Ave., Summit, N. J.. 

Cameron, E. S., V. Ranch, Terry, Montana 

Carleton, Cyrus, 69 Vinton St., Providence, R. I 

Carpenter, Rev. Charles Knapp, Polo, 111 

Carroll, James J., Camden, Texas 

Cary, Merritt, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

Case, Rev. Bert F., Middle Haddam, Conn 

Case, Clifford M., 100 Ashley St., Hartford, Conn 

Cash, Harry A., 37 N. Main St., Providence, R. I 

Chamberlain, Chauncy W., 36 Lincoln St., Boston, Mass 

Chapin, Prof. Angie Clara, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. . . 
Chase, Mrs. Agnes, 59 Florida Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C . 

Childs, John Lewis, Floral Park, N. Y 

Christy, Bayard H., 403 Frederick Ave., Sewicklej-, Pa 

Chubb, Samuel H., 468 W. 153d St., New York City 

























xviii Associates. 

Clapp, Miss M. G. B., 163 East St., Pittsfield, Mass 

Clark, Austin Hobart, 107 Audubon Road, Boston, Mass 

Clark, Edward B., 341 Oak St., Chicago, 111 

Clark, Josiah H., 238 Broadway, Paterson, N. J 

Clarke, Dr. Charles K., Rockwood Hospital, Kingston, Ont. .. . 

Clarke, Miss Harriet E., 9 Chestnut St., Worcester, Mass 

Cleveland, Dr. Clement, 59 W. 38th St., New York City 

Coale, Henry K., Highland Park, 111 

Coggins, Herbert Leonard, 5025 McKean Ave., Germantown, 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Colburn, Albert E., P. O. Box 212, Santa Barbara, Cal 

Cole, Roy Nall, Newnan, Ga 

Colvin, Walter S., Osawatomie, Kansas 

Comeau, Napoleon A., Godbout, Quebec 

Comey, Arthur C, 54 Concord Ave., Cambridge, Mass 

Commons, Mrs. Marie A., 2437 Park Ave., Minneapolis, Minn 

Conant, Mrs. Martha W., 243 W. 98th St., New York City 

Congdon, James W., 202 S. 9th St., La Crosse, Wis 

Cook, Miss Lilian Gillette, 165 W. 82d St., New York City 

Coolidge, John Templeton, 3RD, 114 Beacon St., Boston, Mass — 

Coolidge, Philip Tripp, 17 Garfield St., Watertown, Mass 

Cope, Alb an, Butler Hospital, Providence, R. I 

Cope, Francis R., Jr., Dimock, Pa 

Copeland, Dr. Ernest, 141 Wisconsin St., Milwaukee, Wis 

Copeland, Manton, 40 Winthrop St., Taunton, Mass 

Coues, Dr. William Pearce, 90 Charles St., Boston, Mass 

Cox, Ulysses O., State Normal School, Mankato, Minn 

Cram, R. J., 26 Hancock Ave., W., Detroit, Mich 

Crandall, C. W., Woodside, N. Y 

Crolius, Miss Anne A., 815 Carnegie Hall, New York City 

Crone, John Valentine, 13 19 8th Ave., Greeley, Colo 

Cummings, Miss Emma G., Kennard Road, Brookline, Mass 

Currie, John D., 2006 Laurel Ave., Minneapolis, Minn 

Currie, Rolla P., U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C 

Currier, Edmonde Samuel, 607 S. J. St., Tacoma, Wash 

Daniel, John W., Jr., 1794 Lanier Ave., Washington, D. C 

Dart, Leslie O., 1603 4th Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn 

Davenport, Mrs. Elizabeth Braxton, 45 Green St., Brattleboro, 


Davis, Miss Mary A., 26 W. 97th St., New York City 

Davis, Stewart, Narragansett Pier, R. I 

Davis, Walter R., 139 Park St., Newton, Mass 

Davison, Donald B., 204 Prospect Park, Davenport, Iowa 

Dawson, Rev. William Leon, 129 E. 7th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 

Day, Chester Sessions, 280 Newbury St. , Boston, Mass 

Day, Frank Miles, Mt. Airy Sta., Philadelphia, Pa 

























Associates. xix 

Dean, R. H., U. S. Weather Bureau, Lexington, Ky 

Deane, George Clement, 80 Sparks St., Cambridge, Mass 

Dearborn, Ned, Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 111 

De Haven, Isaac Norris, Ardmore, Pa 

Derby, Richard, 3 E. 40th St., New York City 

De Vine, J. L., 5478 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111 

Dewey, Dr. Charles A., 53 S. Fitzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y 

Dewey, Miss Margaret, Great Barrington, Springfield, Mass 

Dike, Archie C, Bristol, Vt 

Dille, Frederick M., Longmont, Colo 

Dionne, C. E., Laval Univ., Quebec 

Dixon, James B., Escondido, Cal 

Dixon, Frederick J., Elm Ave., Hackensack, N. J 

Dobbin, William L., 7 Beverly St., Rochester, N. Y 

Dodge, Charles W., Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y 

Dodge, Fred Clinton, 125 Milk St., Boston, Mass 

Dodge, Julian M., Wenham Depot, Mass 

Doubleday, Mrs. Frank Nelson, hi E. 16th St., New York City. . 

Dougherty, Col. William E., 253 Cadiz St., Dallas, Texas 

Drowne, Frederick Peabody, 20 Benefit St., Providence, R. I 

Dugmore, Arthur Radclyffe, Newfoundland, N. J 

"Dull, Mrs. A. P. L., 211 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa 

Durfee, Owen, Box 125, Fall River, Mass 

Dutcher, Dr. Basil Hicks, U. S. A., War Dept., Washington, D. C. 

Dyche, Prof. L. L., Lawrence, Kansas 

Dyke, Arthur Curtis, Bridgewater, Mass 

Eastman, Harry D., Framingham, Mass 

Eaton, Elon Howard, 209 Cutler Bldg., Rochester, N. Y 

Eddy, Newell A., 615 N. Grant St., Bay City, Mich 

Edgar, Newbold, 28 E. 39th St., New York City 

Edson, John M., 2210 Victor St., Whatcom, Washington 

Eiche, August, i 133 O St., Lincoln, Neb 

Eifrig, Rev. Gustave, 210 Wilbrod St., Ottawa, Quebec 

Elrod, Prof. M. J., 205 S. 5th St., Missoula, Montana 

-Ely, Mrs. Theodore N., Bryn Mawr, Pa 

Embody, George Charles, Bethel College, Russellville, Ky 

Emerson, Guy, 685 Boylston St., Boston, Mass 

Emlen, Arthur Cope, Awbury, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. . . . 
-Emory, Mrs. Mary Dille, 156 Foundry St., Morgantown, W. Va. • • • 

Eppinger^ Louis J., 516 Chene St., Detroit, Mich 

Ericson, Lawrence, 155 Rogers Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Eustis, Richard Spelman, ii Wadsworth House, Cambridge, 


Evans, Charles H., Townshend, Vt 

Evans, Ernest Merwyn, Awbury, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa.. 
Evans, William B., 205 E. Central Ave., Moorestown, N. J 




















xx Associates. 

Everett, William M., 200 W. 99th St., New York City 

- Everett, Miss Christabel M., 200 W. 99th St., New York City. • . 
Farr, Marcus S., 12 Maple St., Princeton, N. J 

""Farwell, Mrs. Ellen Drummond, Lake Forest, 111 

n Farwell, Mrs. Francis Cooley, Lake Forest, 111 

Faulks, Emory N. , Madison, N. J 

Felger, Alva Howard, North Side High School, Denver, Colo. . . . 

Fell, Miss Emma Trego, 1534 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Fernald, Robert Heywood, Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo 

Ferry, John Farwell, 50 State St., Albany, N. Y 

Field, Edward Bronson, 981 Asylum Ave., Hartford, Conn 

Field, Eugene Dwinell, 200 Beacon St., Hartford, Conn 

— Finney, Mrs. William W., Churchville, Ind 

"* Fisher, Miss Elizabeth Wilson, 1502 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa- . • 

Fisher, William H., 1318 Bolton St., Baltimore, Md 

Fisher, William Hubbell, Wiggins Block, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Flanagan, John H., 392 Benefit St., Providence, R. I 

" Fletcher, Mrs. Mary E., Ludlow, Vermont 

Flint, Harry W., Yale National Bank, New Haven, Conn 

Foote, Miss F. Huberta, 90 Locust Hill Ave., Yonkers, N. Y 

Fordyce, Geo. L., 40 Lincoln Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Fowler, Frederick Hall, Palo Alto, Cal 

Fowler, Henry W., Acad. Nat. Sci., Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fox, Dr. William H., 1826 Jefferson Place, Washington, D. C 

Fraser, Donald, Johnstown, N. Y 

Freeman, Miss Harriet E., 37 Union Park, Boston, Mass 

Fuller, Charles Anthony, Sumner Road, Brookline, Mass 

Gammell, Ives, 170 Hope St., Providence, R. I 

Gano, Miss Laura, Richmond, Ind 

Gardiner, Charles Barnes, Norwalk Natl. Bank, Norwalk, Ohio. 

Gath, John, Torrington, Conn 

Gaut, James H., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

Germann, F. W., 214 S. Geneva St., Ithaca, N. Y 

Gesner, Rev. Anthon T., Shattuck School, Faribault, Minn 

Gilbert, Clarence H., Portland, Oregon 

Gilman, Harris Hunt, Middlesex School, Concord, Mass 

Gillet, Louis Bliss, North Wilbraham, Mass 

Gleason, Rev. Herbert W., 83 Pinckney St., Boston, Mass 

Goddard, F. N., 33 E. 50th St., New York City 

Goodale, Dr. Joseph Lincoln, 397 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 

Goss, Mrs. Aletta W., 5475 Ridgevvood Court, Chicago, 111 

Gould, Henry, 648 Dundas St., London, Ontario 

Gould, Joseph E., Lima, Ohio 

Granger, Walter W., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 

Greenough, Henry V., 48 Mt. Auburn St., Cambridge, Mass 

Griffing, Moses Bowditch, Shelter Island Heights, N. "V 


















Associates. xxi 

Griffiths, Bartram W., 4024 Green St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Hales, Henry, Ridgewood, N. J 

Hall, Charles K., 54 Tweedle Bldg., Albany, N. Y 

Hambleton, James Chase, 212 E. nth St., Columbus, Ohio 

Hamfeldt, A., Morris, 111 

Hamlin, George L., 16 Division St., Dan bury, Conn 

Hankinson, Thomas Leroy, Charleston, 111 

Hann, Herbert H., 700 Springfield Ave., Summit, N. J 

Harriman, Miss Cornelia, 229 Madison Ave., New York City 

""Harriman, Miss Mary, 229 Madison Ave., New York City 

Harris, John Campbell, 119 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Hartley, George Inness, 159 Grove St., Montclair, N. J 

Harvey, Herbert A., 86 Boylston St., Bradford, Pa 

Harvey, Miss Ruth Sawyer, Bond Hill, Ohio 

Hathaway, Henry S., Box 498, Providence, R. I 

Havemeyer, H . O., Jr., Mahwah , N.J 

Hazard, Hon. R. G., Peace Dale, R. I 

"""Head, Miss Anna, 2538 Channing Way, Berkeley, Cal 

— Hecox, Miss Laura J. F., Light House Keeper, Santa Cruz, Cal 

Hedges, Charles F., Box 24, Miles City, Montana 

Heermance, Edgar Thornton, 364 Palisade Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. . 

Heimstreet, Dr. T. B., 2217 15th St., Troy, N. Y 

Helme, Arthur H., Millers Place, N. Y 

Henderson, Judge Junius, Boulder, Colo 

Hendrickson, W. F., 130 12th St., Long Island City, N. Y 

Henninger, Rev. Walther F., 206 Jefferson St., Tiffin, Ohio 

Higbee, Harry G., 13 Austin St., Hyde Park, Mass 

Hill, James Haynes, Box 485, New London, Conn 

— Hill, Mrs. Thomas R., 1825 Greene St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Hindshaw, Henry Havelock, N. Y. State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

Hine, Prof. James Stewart, State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 

Hine, Mrs. Jane L., Sedan, Ind 

,—Hinton, Miss Susan McV., 41 W- 32d St., New York City 

Hitchcock, Frank H., Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Washington, 
D. C 

Hodge, Prof. Clifton Fremont, Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. 

- Holden, Mrs. Emeline T., 13 E. 79th St., New York City 

"^Holden, Mrs. Edwin B., 353 Riverside Drive, New York City. ...>.. 

Holland, Dr. William J., 5th and Bellefield Aves., Pittsburgh, Pa.. 

Hollister, Ned, Delavan, Wis 

Hollister, Warren D., Care of Cont. Oil Co., Albuquerque, N. M. 

Holmes, La Rue Klingle, Pine Grove Ave., Summit, N. J 

-^-Hooker, Mrs. Charles Parker, 67 Chestnut St., Springfield, Mass. 

Hornaday, W. T., N. Y. Zoological Park, New York City 

— — Horton, Mrs. Frances B., 13 Brook St., Brattleboro, Vt 

Howard, Ozora William, 853 S. Olive St., Los Angeles, Cal 




























xxii Associates. 

Howe, Carlton D., Essex Junction, Vt 

Howe, Reginald Heber, Jr., Longwood, Brookline, Mass 

Howes, Archie Milton, 1109 State St., Erie, Pa 

Howland, Randolph H., 130 Grove St., Montclair, N. J 

"Hubbard, Mrs. Sara A., 177 Woodruff Ave., Flatbush, N. Y 

Hubel, Frederick C, 112 Alexandrine Ave., W., Detroit, Mich 

Hughes, Dr. William E., 3945 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Hull, Walter B., Box 1234, Milwaukee, Wis 

Hunn, John T. Sharpless, 1218 Prospect Ave., Plainfield, N. J 

Hunt, Chreswell J., 1306 N. 53rd St., West Philadelphia, Pa 

— Hunter, Miss Susan Morrison, 51 Hunter Ave., Newport, R. I. . . . 

Hunter, W. D., Box 174, Victoria, Texas 

-Hyde, Miss Hazel R., 45 Pine St., Waterbury, Conn 

Ingalls, Charles E., East Templeton, Mass 

Ingersoll, Albert M., 818 5th St., San Diego, Cal 

Irving, John, 550 Park Av., New York City 

Isham, C. B., 30 E. 63d St., New York City 

Jackson, Thomas H., 343 E. Biddle St., West Chester, Pa 

Jacobs, J. Warren, Waynesburg, Pa 

Janney, Nathaniel E., 112 Drexel Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa 

Jenkins, Hubert Oliver, Stanford University, Cal 

Jesurun, Dr. Mortimer, Douglas, Wyoming 

Johnson, Everett Edwin, East Hebron, Me 

Johnson, Frank Edgar, 747 Warburton Ave., Yonkers, N. Y 

Johnson, James Howard, Bradford, N. H 

Johnson, Walter Adams, i Rutherford Place, New York City 

Johnson, William S., Boonville, N. Y 

Jordan, A. H. B., Lowell, Wash 

Judd, Elmer T., Cando, N. Dakota 

Keays, James Edward, 328 St. George St., London, Ontario 

Keim, Thomas Daniel, 405 Radcliffe St., Bristol, Pa 

Kelker, William A., Box 114, Harrisburg, Pa 

Kellogg. Prof. Vernon L., Stanford University, Cal 

Kendall, Dr. William C., U. S. Fish Comra., Washington, D. C. . 

Kennard, Frederic Hedge, Brookline, Mass 

Keyser, Rev. Leander S., 108 Third St., Canal Dover, Ohio 

King, George Gordon, 16 E. 84th St., New York City 

King, Le Roy, 20 E. 84th St., New York City 

Kirkwood, Frank C, 1811 Maryland Ave., Baltimore, Md 

Knetsch, Robert, Nunda, 111 

Knight, Ora Willis, 84 Forest Ave., Bangor, Me 

Knolhoff, Ferdinand William, 28 Winans St., East Orange, N. J. 

Knox, John C, 14 State St., Auburn, N. Y 

Knox, John Cowing, Jackson , Minn 

Kobbe, William H., 125 High St., New Haven, Conn 

Koch, Prof. August, Williamsport, Pa 












89 1 




Associates. xxiii 

Kohn, Gustave, 136 Carondelet St., New Orleans, La 

Kopman, Henry Hazlitt, 5509 Hurst St., New Orleans, La. 

Lacey, Howard George, Kerrville, Texas 

Lano, Albert, Aitkin, Minn 

Lantz, Prof. David Ernest, Agl. Exper. Station, Manhattan, Kan. . 

Larabee, Austin P. , Gardiner, Me 

Larkin, Harry H., 237 North St., Buffalo, N. Y 

-* Latimer, Miss Caroline P., 19 Pierpont St., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Laurent, Philip, 31 E. Mt. Airy Ave., Philadelphia, Pa 

Lee, Prof. Leslie Alexander, 3 Bath St., Brunswick, Me 

— kLee, Miss Mary, 241 W. Seymour St., Germantown, Pa 

Leutloff, Herman C. A., 626 E. 135th St., New York City 

Levering, Thomas Henry, 3327 17th St., Washington, D. C 

Leverson, Dr. Montague R., 81 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y-. . 

Libby, Orin Grant, Grand Forks, N. Dakota 

■""-Linn, Miss Henrietta, 2378 N. 42nd Court, Chicago, 111 

— Linton, Miss M. J., 163 East St., Pittsfield, Mass 

Lloyd, Andrew James, 308 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 

Loom i s, John A., Mereta, Texas 

Lord, Rev. William R., 9 Park St., Boston, Mass 

Loring, J. Alden, Owego, New York 

Loucks, William E., Care of J. K. Armsby Co., 134 Market St., San 
Francisco, Cal 

Lowe, Willoughby P., Okehampton, Devon, England 

"•—Lyman, Miss Emily R., 121 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa 

MacDougall, George R., 131 W. 73rd St., New York City 

Maher, J. E., Windsor Locks, Conn 

Mann, James R., Arlington Heights, Mass 

March, Prof. John Lewis, Union College, Schenectady, N. Y 

Marrs, Mrs. Kingsmill, Maitland, Fla 

Martin, Mrs. Maria Ross, Box 365, New Brunswick, N. J 

Maddock, Miss Emeline, 2025 DeLancey PI., Philadelphia, Pa 

Maitland, Robert L., 30 Broad St., New York City 

Marsh, Daniel J., Springfield, Mass 

Masterman, Elmer Ellsworth, New London, Ohio 

Mathews, Miss Caroline, 41 Cool St., Waterville, Me 

Maynard, Henry W., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D, C. . . . 

McAtee, Waldo Lee, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

McClintock, Norman, Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 

McCook, Philip James, 32 E. 45th St., New York City 

McEwen, Daniel C, 160 Stirling PI., Brooklyn, N. Y 

McHatton, Dr. Henry, Macon, Ga 

McIlhenny, Edward Avery, Avery's Island, La 

McKechnie, Frederick Bridgham, Ponkapog, Mass 

McLain, Robert Baird, cor. Market & 12th Sts., Wheeling, W. Va. . 

McMillan, Mrs. Edith E., Gorham, N. H 




















xxiv Associates. 

McNulty, Henry A., Gen. Theol. Seminary, Chelsea Sq., N. Y. City. 1900 

Mearns, Louis di Zerega, 313 S. Court St., Circleville, Ohio ^99 

Meeker, Jesse C. A., 746 E. Main St., Bridgeport, Conn 1899 

Merrill, Harry, Bangor, Maine 1883 

Miller, Andrew James, 18 Washington St., Montgomery, Ala 1903 

Miller, Frank M., 309 Hibernia Bank, New Orleans, La 1901 

Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr., U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C 18S6 

Miller, Miss Mary Mann, 827 De Kalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1898 

Miller, Waldron De Witt, 309 E. 7th St., Plainfield, N. J 1896 

Mills, Harry C., Box 218, Unionville, Conn 1897 

Mills, Prof. William C, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, 1900 

Mitchell, Mrs. Mina Baker, Care of Plow Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.1898 
Mitchell, Dr. Walton I., Metropolitan Hospital, Blackwells Island, 

New York City 1 893 

Montgomery, Thomas H., Jr., Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas !§99 

Moore, Robert Thomas, 67 Dana St., Cambridge, Mass 1898 

Moore, William Henry, Scotch Lake, New Brunswick 1900 

Morcom, G. Frean, Care of C. O. Davey, 18 Endsleigh Place, Ply- 
mouth, England 1886 

Morgan, Albert, Hartford Fire Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. . . . 1903 

Morris, Robert O., Springfield, Mass 1888 

Morse, George W., Box 230, Ashley, Ind 1898 

Morton, Dr. Howard McIlvain, 316 Clifton Av., Minneapolis, Minn .1900 

Mjjmmery, Edward G., 24 E. Atwater St., Detroit, Mich 1902 

Murphy, Dr. Eugene E., 444 Tellfair St., Augusta, Ga 1903 

Myers, Miss Lucy F., "Brookside," Poughkeepsie, N. Y 1898 

Nash, Herman W., Box 264, Pueblo, Colo 1892 

Nelson, James Allen, Biol. Hall, Univ. of Pa., W. Philadelphia, Pa. 1898 
Newman, Rev. Stephen M., 1818 M. St., N. W., Washington, D. C. .1898 

Nicholas, Ross, Abington Bldg., Portland, Oregon 1901 

Nichols, John Treadwell, 42 W. nth St., New York City 1901 

Nichols, John M., 46 Spruce St., Portland, Me 1890 

Nolte, Rev. Felix, St. Benedict's College, Atchison, Kan J 903 

Norris, J. Parker, 723 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1886 

Norton, Arthur Henry Whiteley, Box 918, San Antonio, Texas- 1894 

Nowell, John Rowland, Union College, Schenectady, N. Y 1897 

O'Connor, Haldeman, 25 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa 1S96 

Ogden, Dr. Henry Vining, 141 Wisconsin St., Milwaukee, Wis 1897 

Olcott, Theodore F. , Box 176, New Dorp, N. Y 1901 

Oldys, Henry, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1896 

Oliver, Daniel Leet, 701 Ridge Ave., Allegheny, Pa 1902 

Oliver, Henry Kemble, 2 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 1900 

O'Neil, Edward, Sewickley, Pa • • . 1893 

Osburn, Raymond Carroll, Columbia Univ., Dep't. Z06L, New 

York City 1899 

Osburn, Rev. William, Belmont Ave., Station K, Cincinnati, O. . . . T890 

Associates. xxy 


Osgood, Henry W., Pittsfield, N. H 

Owen, Miss Juliette Amelia, 306 N. 9th St., St. Joseph, Mo 

Page, Mrs. Alice Wilson, Englewood, N. J 

Paine, Augustus G., Jr., 311 W. 74th St., New York City 

Palmer, Samuel Copeland, Swarthmore, Pa 

Pardee, Dr. Lucius Crocker, Highland Park, 111 

Parke, Louis T., 4038 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Patten, Mrs. Jeanie Mawry, 2212 R St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Paulmier, Frederick Clark, State Museum, Albany, N. Y 

Peabody, Rev. P. B., New Castle, Wyo 

Peabody, William Rodman, 70 State St., Boston, Mass 

Peavey, Robert W., 497 Franklin Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Perry, Elton, i 10 Baylor St., Austin, Texas 

Pettis, Miss Grace L., Museum Nat. Hist., Springfield, Mass 

Phelps, Mrs. Anna Bardwell, Box 36, Northfield, Mass 

Phillips, Alexander H., Princeton, N. J 

Pierce, A. K., Renovo, Pa 

Poe, Miss Margaretta, 1500 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md 

Pomeroy, Harry Kirkland, Kalamazoo, Mich 

Poole, Alfred D., 401 W. 7th St., Wilmington, Delaware 

Porter, Louis H., Stamford, Conn 

Praeger, William E., 5535 Monroe Ave., Chicago, 111 

Proctor, Miss Mary A., Franklin Falls, N. H 

Purdum, Dr. C. C, Tyler Bldg., Pawtucket, R. I 

Purdy, James B., Plymouth, Mich 

Rann, Mrs. Mary L., Manchester, Iowa 

Raub, Dr. M. W., Board of Health, Lancaster, Pa 

Rawson, Calvin Luther, Box 33, Norwich, Conn 

Read, Albert M., i 140 15th St. N. W., Washington, D. C 

Reagh, Dr. Arthur Lincoln, 39 Maple St., West Roxbury, Mass- . • 

Redfield, Miss Elisa Whitney, Seal Harbor, Me 

Redington, Alfred Poett, Box 66, Santa Barbara, Cal 

Reed, J. Harris, Aldan, Pa 

Reed, Hugh Daniel, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y 

Rehn, James A. G., Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa 

Rhoads, Charles J., Bryn Mawr, Pa 

Ribyn, Albert L., 219 E. Boston St., Michigan City, Ind 

Richards, Miss Harriet E., 36 Longwood Ave., Brookline, Mass. . . 

Richards, John Bion, Box 32, Fall River, Mass 

Richardson, C. H., Jr., 435 S. El Molino Ave., Pasadena, Cal 

Richardson, John Kendall, Wellesley Hills, Mass 

Ricker, Everett Wilder, Box 5083, Boston, Mass 

Ridgway, John L., Chevy Chase, Md 

Riker, Clarence B., 48 Vesey St., New York City 

Riley, Joseph H., Falls Church, Va 

Ritchie, Sanford, Dover, Me 


























xxvi Associates. 

Robbins, Reginald C, 373 Washington St., Boston, Mass 1901 

Robins, Mrs. Edward 1148.21st St., Philadelphia, Pa 1895 

Robinson, Anthony W., 409 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Roberts, William Ely, Swarthpiore College, Swarthmore, Pa 1902 

Robertson, Howard, Station A, Box 55, Los Angeles, Cal 1901 

Roddy, Prof. H. Justin, State Normal School, Millersville, Pa 1891 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, Hyde Park, N. Y 1896 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Jr., White House, Washington, D. C 1902 

Rotzell, Dr. W. E., Narberth, Pa 1893 

Rowland, Mrs. Alice Story, Public Library, Plainfield, N. J 1897 

Rowley, John, Jr., Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y 1889 

Sabine, George K., Brookline, Mass 1903 

Sage, Henry M., Care of H. S. Sage & Co., Albany, N. Y 1885 

Sampson, Walter Behrnard, 921 N. Monroe St., Stockton, Cal. . . 1897 

Samuel, John Hughes, 58 Church St., Toronto, Ontario 1902 

Sand, Isabella Low, Ardsley-on-Hudson, N. Y 1902 

Sands, Austin Ledyard, Greenough Place, Newport, R.I 1902 

Sanford, Dr. Leonard C, 216 Crown St., New Haven, Conn 1902 

Sargent, Harry Cleveland, Chocorua, N. H 1900 

Savage, James, 134 Abbott St., Buffalo, N. Y 1895 

Savage, Walter Giles, Monteer, Mo 1898 

Schmitt, Dr. Joseph, Laval Univ., Quebec ••••.... 1901 

Schmucker, Dr. S. C, 610 S. High St., West Chester, Pa 1903 

Schoenebeck, August John, Kelley Brook, Wis 1898 

Schurr, Prof. Theodore A., 164 Linden St., Pittsfield, Mass 1888 

Schutze, Adolph E-, 2306 Guadalupe St., Austin, Texas 1903 

Seale, Alvin, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H.I 1900 

Seiss, Covington Few, 1338 Spring Garden St., Philadelphia, Pa... 1898 

Severson, Henry P., Winneconne, Wis 1902 

Shattuck, Edwin Harold, Granby, Conn 1898 

Shaw, Holton A., 610 4th Ave., Grand Forks, N. Dakota 1898 

Shaw, Louis Agassiz, Chestnut Hill, Mass 1901 

Sheibley, S. B., Dept. of Justice, Washington, D. C 1903 

Sherrill, W. E., Haskell, Texas 1896 

Shields, George O., 23 W. 24th St., New York City 1897 

Shoemaker, Frank H., Care of Gen. Auditor U. P. R. R. Co., 

Omaha, Neb 1895 

Shrosbree, George, Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis ^99 

Silliman, Harper, 562 5th Ave., New York City 1902 

Smith, Charles Piper, 2106 Central Ave., Indianapolis, Ind 1898 

Smith, Rev. Francis Curtis, Boonville, N. Y 1903 

Smith, Horace G., 2918 Lafayette St., Denver, Colo 1888 

Smith, Dr. Hugh M., 1209 M St. N. W., Washington, D. C 1886 

Smith, Louis Irvin, Jr., 3908 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Smith, Philo W., 209 W. 6th St., St. Louis, Mo 1903 

Smith, Robert Windsor, Kirkwood, Ga 1895 

Associates. xxvii 

Smith, Theodore H., 58 William St., New York City 1896 

Smyth, Prof. Ellison A., Jr., Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, Va 1892 

Snow, Prof. Francis H., Lawrence, Kan 1903 

Snyder, Will Edwin, Beaver Dam, Wis 1895 

Soelner, George W. H., 1513 Meridian St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C 1903 

Spaid, Prof. Arthur R., 1819 Delaware Ave., Wilmington, Del 1901 

Spaulding, Fred B., Lancaster, N. H ^94 

Spinney, Herbert L., Seguin Light Station, Popham Beach, Me. . .1900 

Sprague, Lynn Tew, 16 W. 5th St., Jamestown, N. Y 1903 

Sproull, Mrs. Grace H. , Greeley, Colo 1903 

Stack, Frederick William, 824 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J 1900 

Stanton, Prof. J. Y., Bates College, Lewiston, Me 18S3 

Stebbins, Miss Fannie A., 480 Union St., Springfield, Mass 1903 

Stephenson, Mrs. Louise McGown, Helena, Ark 1894 

Stone, Clarence F., Branchport, N. Y 1903 

Stone, Dwight D., R. F. D. 3, Owego, N. Y 1891 

Sturtevant, Edward, St. George School, Newport, R. 1 1896 

Styer, Mrs. Katharine R., Concordville, Pa 1903 

Surber, Sherrard McClure, Taos, N. M 1902 

Surface, Harvey Adam, Dept. of Agric, Harrisburg, Pa 1897 

Swain, John Merton, Skowhegan, Me 1899 

Swales, Bradshaw Hall, 46 Larned St., W., Detroit, Mich 1902 

Swarth, Harry S., 356 Belden Ave., Chicago, 111 1900 

Swezey, George, 61 Polk St., Newark, N. J 1901 

Talley, Prof. Thomas Washington, Tuskegee, Ala 1896 

Taverner, Percy A., 95 N. Grand Boulevard W., Detroit, Mich 1902 

Taylor, Alexander O'Driscoll, 132 Bellevue Ave., Newport, R. L1888 
Test, Dr. Frederick Cleveland, 4401 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111.. 1892 

Thayer, John Eliot, Lancaster, Mass 1898 

Thomas, Miss Emily Hinds, Bryn Mawr, Pa 1901 

Thompson, Miss Caroline Burling., W. Clapier St., Germantown, 

Philadelphia, Pa 1900 

Toppan, George L., 18 E. 23d St., New York City 1886 

Townsend, Dr. Chas. Wendell, 76 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass.1901 

Townsend, Wilmot, 3d Ave. and 75th St., Bay Ridge, N. Y 1894 

Trotter, William Henry, 36 No. Front St., Philadelphia, Pa 1899 

Tudbury, Warren C, 47 W. 126th St., New York City 1903 

Tufts, La Roy Melville, Farmington, Me 1903 

Turner, Howard M., 10 Francis Ave., Cambridge, Mass 1903 

Tuttle, Dr. Carl, Berlin Heights, Ohio 1890 

Tweedy, Edgar, 336 Main St., Danbury, Conn 1902 

Underwood, William Lyman, Mass. Inst. Technology, Boston, Mass. 1900 

Van Cortlandt, Miss Anne S., Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 1885 

Van Denburgh, Dr. John, 1626 Turk St., San Francisco, Cal 1893 

Van Name, Willard Gibbs, 121 High St., New Haven, Conn 1900 

xxvili Associates. 

Van Norden, Warner Montagnie, Rye, New York 1899 

Van Sant, Miss Elizabeth, 717 N. Y. Life Bldg., Omaha, Neb 1S96 

Varick, Mrs. John B., 1015 Chestnut St., Manchester, N. H 1900 

Vetter, Dr. Charles, 152 Second St., New York City 1898 

Walcott, Frederick Collin, New York Mills, N. Y 1903 

Wales, Edward H., Hyde Park, N. Y 1896 

Walker, Dr. R. L., 355 Main St., Carnegie, Pa 1888 

Wallace, Miss Louise Baird, Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley, 

Mass 1903 

Walter, Herbert E., Lyndonville, Vt 1901 

Walters, Frank, 7 W. 103d St., New York City . 1902 

Warren, Dr. B. H., Box 245, Westchester, Pa 1885 

Warren, Edward Royal, 20 W. Caramillo St., Colorado Springs, 

Colo 1902 

Watson, Miss Sarah R., Clapier St., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 1900 

Webster, Mrs. Mary P., 1025 5th St., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn 1900 

Weir, J. Alden, i i E. i 2th St. , New York City 1899 

Wells, Frank S., 916 Grant Ave., Plainfield, N. J 1902 

Wentworth, Irving H., Matehuala, E. de S. L. P., Mexico 1900 

West, James A., 706 S. Morris Ave., Bloomington, 111 1S96 

West, Lewis H., Roslyn, N. Y 1887 

Westfeldt, Gustaf Reinhold, Box 601, New Orleans, La 1902 

Wetmore, Mrs. Helen H., 343 Lexington Ave., New York City. • • • 1902 
Wheeler, Edmund Jacob, 84 Pequot Ave., New London, Conn .... 1898 

Wheeler, John B., East Templeton, Mass ^97 

Wheelock, Mrs. Irene G., 1040 Hinman Ave. , Evanston, 111 1902 

Whitcomb, Mrs. Annabell C, 721 Franklin St., Milwaukee, Wis... 1897 

White, Francis Beach, 6 Phillips Place, Cambridge, Mass 1891 

White, George R., P. O. Dept., Ottawa, Quebec 1903 

White, W. A., 158 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y 1902 

Wickersham, Cornelius W., 5 Linden St., Cambridge, Mass 1902 

Wicks, M. L., Jr., Hellman Block, Los Angeles, Cal 1890 

Wilbur, Addison P., 4 Gibson St., Canandaigua, N. Y 1895 

Wilcox, T. Ferdinand, i 15 W. 75th St., New York City 1895 

Wilde, Mark L. C, 315 N. 5th St., Camden, N.J 1893 

Willard, John Melville, Univ of California, San Francisco, Cal . 1902 

Williams, J. Bickerton, 24 Ann St., Toronto, Ontario 1S89 

Williams, Richard Ferdinand, Box 521, New York City 1902 

Williams, Robert Statham, Botanical Gardens, NeAv York City. . 18S8 

Williams, Robert White, Jr., Tallahassee, Fla 1900 

Williams, W. J. B., Holland Patent, N. Y 1893 

Williamson, E. B., Bluff ton, Ind 1900 

Wilson, Sidney S., 310 S. nth St., St. Joseph, Mo 1S95 

Winkenwerder, Hugo August, High School, Sheboygan, Wis 1900 

Wisler, J. Jay, Columbia, Pa. 1903 

Wolfe, William Edward, Wray, Colo 1900 

Deceased Members. xxix 

Wood, J. Claire, 179 17th St., Detroit, Mich 1902 

Wood, Nelson R., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C 1895 

Woodcock, Arthur Roy, Corvallis, Oregon 1901 

Woodruff, Edward Seymour, 14 E. 68th St., NeAv York City 1899 

Woodruff, Lewis B., 14 E. 68th St., New York City 1886 

Woodworth, Mrs. Nelly Hart, 41 Bank St., St. Albans, Vt 1894 

Worthen, Charles K., Warsaw, 111 1891 

Worthington, Willis W., Shelter Island Heights, N. Y 1889 

Wright, Frank S., 51 Genesee St., Auburn, N. Y 1894 

Wright, Horace Winslow, 82 Myrtle St., Boston, Mass 1902 

Wright, Mrs. Jane Atherton, 2 Main St., Greenfield, Mass 1902 

Wright, Sam, Conshohocken, Pa ^95 



Date of Death 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton Aug. 19, 1887 

Bendire, Charles E Feb. 4, 1897 

Coues, Elliott Dec. 25, 1899 

Goss, N. S March 10, 1891 

Holder, Joseph B Feb. 28, 1888 

Jeffries, John Amory March 26, 1892 

McIl wraith, Thomas Jan. 31, 1903 

Merrill, James C Oct. 27, 1902 

Sennett, George Burritt March 1 8, 1900 

Trumbull, Gurdon Dec. 28, 1903 

Wheaton, John M Jan. 28, 1887 

Honorary Fellows. 

Burmeister, Hermann May 1 , 1892 

Gatke, Heinrich Jan. 1, 1897 

Gundlach, Juan March 14, 1896 

Gurney, John Henry April 20, 1 890 

Hartlaub, Gustav Nov. 20, 1900 

Huxley, Thomas H June 29, 1895 

Kraus, Ferdinand Sept. 15, 1890 

Lawrence, George N Jan. 17, 1895 

Milne-Edwards, Alphonse April 2 1 , 1900 

xxx Deceased Members. 

Parker, William Kitchen July 3, 1890 

Pelzeln, August von Sept. 2, 1891 

Salvin, Osbert June 1, 1898 

Schlegel, Hermann Jan. 17, 1884 

Seebohm, Henry Nov. 26, 1895 

Taczanowski, Ladislas Jan. 17, 1890 

Corresponding Fellows. 

Altum, C. A Jan. 1, 

Anderson, John Aug. 16, 

Baldamus, Eduard Oct. 30, 

Blakiston, Thomas W Oct. 15, 

Bogdanow, Modest N March 4, 

Cooper, James G July 19, 

Cordeaux, John Aug. 1, 

David, Armand Nov. 10, 

Haast, Julius von Aug. 15, 

Hargitt, Edward March 19, 

Holub, Emu Feb. 21, 

Homeyer, E. F. von May 31, 

Layard, Edgar Leopold Jan. 1, 

Lyttleton, Thomas, Lord Lilford June 17, 

Marschall, A. F Oct. 1 1 , 

Malmgren, Anders Johan April 12, 

Middendorff, Alexander Theodor von Jan. 28, 

Mosjisovics, F. G. Hermann August Aug. 27, 

Philippi, R. A Aug. — 

Prejevalski, N . M Oct. 20, 

Prentiss, D. Webster Nov. 19, 

Pryer, Harry James Stovin Feb. 1 7, 

Radde, Gustav Ferdinand 

Schrenck, Leopold von Jan. 20, 

Seleys-Longschamps, Edmond de Dec. 1 1 , 

Severtzow, N Feb. 8, 

Stevenson, Henry Aug. 18, 

Wharton, Henry T Sept. — , 

























Adams, Charles F May 20, 1S93 

Allen, Charles Slover Oct. 15, 1S93 

Atkins, H. A May 19, 1S85 

Avery, William Cushman March 1 1, 1S94 

Deceased Members. xxxi 

Barlow, Chester Nov. 6 

Baur , George June 25 

Beckham, Charles Wickliffe June 8 

Bill, Charles April — 

Birtwell, Francis Joseph June 29 

Boardman, George A Jan. 1 1 

Bolles, Frank Jan. 10 

Brackett, Foster H Jan. 5 

Breese, William L Dec. 7 

Brokaw, L. W Sept. 3 

Brown, John Clifford Jan. 16 

Browne, Francis Charles Jan. 9 

Cairns, John S June 10 

Call, Aubrey Brendon Nov. 20 

Campbell, Robert Argyll April — 

Canfield, J. B. Feb. 18 

Carter, Edwin 

Clark, John N Jan. 13 

Colburn, W. W Oct. 1 7 


Corning, Erastus, Jr April 9, 

Coe, W. W April 26 

Daffin, Wm. H April 2 1 

Dakin, John A Feb. 2 1 

Dexter, Newton July 27 

Elliott, S. Lowell Feb. 1 1 

Fairbanks, Franklin April 24 

Fannin, John June 20 

Fowler, J. L July 1 1 

Gesner, A. H April 30 

Goss, Benjamin F July 6 

Hatch, Jesse Maurice May 1 

Hoadley, Frederic H Feb. 26 

Hoopes, Josiah Jan. 16 

Howland, John Snowdon Sept. 19 

Ingersoll, Joseph Carleton Oct. 2 

Jenks, John W. P Sept. 27 

Jouy, Pierre Louis March 22 

Knight, Wilbur Clinton July 8 

Kumlien, Ludwig Dec. 4 


Lawrence, Robert Hoe April 27 

Linden, Charles Feb. 3 

Mabbett, Gideon Aug. 15 

Marble, Charles C Sept. 25 

Marcy, Oliver March 19 


:88 9 


:8 Q 7 

c8 9 3 

t 88 5 


:88 9 


:S 99 


:3 9 3 



:8 94 
:8 97 

xxxii Deceased Members. 

Maris, Willard Lorraine Dec. 1 1 , 1895 

McKinlay, James Nov. 1, 1899 

Mead, George S June 19, 1901 

Minot, Henry Davis . Nov. 13, 1890 

Morrell, Clarence Henry July 15, 1902 

Nichols, Howard Gardner June 23, 1896 

Nims, Lee March 12, 1903 

Northrop, John I June 26, 1891 

Park, Austin F Sept. 22,1 893 

Ragsdale, George H March 25, 1895 

Ready, George H March 20, 1903 

Richardson, Jenness June 24, 1893 

Selous, Percy Sherborn April 7, 1900 

Slater, James H Feb. — , 1895 

Slevin, Thomas Edwards Dec. 23, 1902 

Small, Edgar A April 24, 1884 

Smith, Clarence Albert May 6, 1896 

Southwick, James M June 3, 1904 

Stowe, W. H March — , 1895 

Thorne, Platte M March 16, 1 897 

Thurber, E. C Sept. 6, 1896 

Vennor, Henry G June 8, 1884 

Waters, Edward Stanley Dec. 26, 1902 

Willard, Samuel Wells May 24, 1887 

Wood, William Aug. 9, 1 885 

Young, Curtis C July 30, 1902 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate I. 



Vol. xxi. January, 1904. No. 1. 

Born 25th December, 1824. — Died 31st January, 1903. 


With Portrait. 

Since the last memorial address was delivered the American 
Ornithologists' Union has lost two of its Fellows. Scarcely had 
it recovered from the shock caused by the death of Doctor Merrill 
when the sad announcement came that our venerable Canadian 
Fellow, one of the Founders of the Union, Thomas Mcllwraith, had 
passed away at his home in Hamilton. For a year or more there 
had been a gradual breaking down of the system and while many 
at a distance had no idea that he was seriously ill those close to 
him felt assured that the final dissolution was inevitable, and it 
came quietly and peacefully. Four sons and three daughters sur- 
vive : Thomas F. Mcllwraith of Hamilton, H. P. Mcllwraith of 
Newcastle, Penn., J. G. Mcllwraith of Anderson, Ind., Dr. K. C 
Mcllwraith of Toronto, Mrs. Service of Detroit, Mrs. Holt of 
Quebec, and Miss Jean Mcllwraith, the authoress. Another 
daughter died in infancy, in 1864, and death did not again enter 

1 An address delivered at the Twenty-first Congress of The American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Philadelphia, Penn., Nov. 17, 1903. 

2 A. K. Fisher, In Memoriam : Thomas Mcllwraith. | Tan 

this happy household until 1901 when his good wife passed away 
— a calamity from which he never fully recovered. 

The genial influence of Mr. Mcllwraith's life has been associ- 
ated with my own for many years. Early in the seventies, while 
the nucleus of my natural history library was forming, there came 
into my possession a paper entitled ' A list of Birds observed near 
Hamilton, Canada West/ by Thomas Mcllwraith. This publica- 
tion, although not exhaustive, for some reason appealed to me and 
I often wondered about the personality of its author, then a stran- 
ger. I was much impressed with his account of the capture of a 
fine Eagle having the bleached and weathered skull of a weasel 
attached to the skin of the throat by its locked teeth, and shared 
the interest and surprise he must have experienced when this odd 
memento of a former struggle came to his notice. Later when 
this genial-hearted Scotch-Canadian came to New York in 1883 to 
assist in organizing the American Ornithologists' Union, this early 
association, simple as it was, had the effect of bringing us together 
and soon paved the way to lasting friendship. 

Mr. Mcllwraith was born in Newton, Ayrshire, Scotland, on 
Christmas day, 1824, and therefore at the time of his death, Janu- 
ary 31, 1903, was a little over 78 years old. Early in 1846, soon 
after he became of age, he went to live in Edinburgh where he 
remained for nearly three years completing his education and 
fitting himself for the varied duties of life. At the end of this 
period he returned to his native town to assume the management 
of the gas works. 

In October, 1853, he married Miss Mary Park, daughter of 
Baillie Hugh Park, and sailing with his bride for America reached 
Hamilton, Canada, on November 9. He was called to that city to 
superintend the gas works, as manager of the corporation, and 
served in that capacity until 187 1, when he bought the Commer- 
cial Wharf with the coal and forwarding business connected with 
it. He continued in this business until about ten years ago, when 
he retired and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas F. Mcll- 
wraith. Besides being successful in private business, he held 
prominent positions on the boards of directors of banks and insur- 
ance companies, and was for many years president of the Mechanics 
Institute. Mr. Mcllwraith was a Liberal in politics and in 1878 
took an active part in municipal affairs, representing his ward in 

Vol. XXI 

A. K. Fisher, In Memoriam : Thomas Mcllwraitk. 

the city Council. He was a prominent member of the Central 
Presbyterian Church of Hamilton. When the American Orni- 
thologists' Union established the Committee on the Migration of 
Birds he became a member and was appointed Superintendent of 
the Ontario District, which position he held for a number of years. 
In 1889 he was elected a member of the Council of the Union for 
that year. 

It is stated that his early interest in Canadian ornithology was 
aroused by seeing some stuffed specimens, including a Flicker and 
a Kingfisher, which had been brought from the Provinces to 
Scotland. Although actively engaged in business enterprises of 
various kinds he nevertheless was able to devote odd moments 
to his favorite study of ornithology, and before he had been long 
in Hamilton had formed quite an extensive collection of mounted 
birds. This collection, which grew to be a representative one, is 
said to have been made up of selected specimens and included 
many birds that are very rare or no longer found in Ontario at the 
present day. 

Mr. Mcllwraith's home, 'Cairnbrae,' was situated on the shores 
of the bay, and, surrounded as it was by extensive grounds filled 
with trees and shrubbery, formed an ideal home for a student of 
ornithology. It was a natural resting place for numerous migrants, 
and there in the early morn or cool of evening he secured many 
rare specimens with which to enrich his cabinet. There on May 
16, 1884, he found the remains of a Yellow-breasted Chat, and thus 
added a new bird to the list of Ontario species. But though 
much of his material was drawn from this place, yet it must not be 
understood that other collecting grounds were neglected because 
they were less promising or more difficult of access, for he knew 
every nook and corner of the surrounding country where the 
rarest species might be found, and he did not hesitate to brave 
exposure and fatigue in search of them. It was not until his 
youngest son, Kennedy C. Mcll wraith, became interested in 
ornithology and accompanied him in field excursions that the 
collection of bird skins reached any considerable proportion. 
Association with his young companion increased his enthusiasm 
for collecting and made field excursions much more attractive to 

A A. K. Fisher, In Memoriam : Thomas Mclhvraith. I £^ k 

Mr. Mcllwraith evidently worked out his early ornithological 
problems alone and had to depend largely on his own resources for 
the identification of the specimens he was collecting and mounting. 
His ' List of Birds of Hamilton, C. W.,' published in the Canadian 
Journal, in July, i860, was arranged after the system of Audubon, 
showing pretty conclusively that the personal aid and encourage- 
ment of Professor Baird, that great man to whom so many natural- 
ists are profoundly indebted, had not reached him, though he 
probably had some of Professor Baird's publications in his library. 
The absence of published records of the birds of Ontario, and of 
ornithological companions did not discourage him, for with patient 
observation and study he soon was able to outline a list which 
served as a foundation for his later works. This experience, 
coupled with his genial, friendly nature, made him ever anxious 
to give encouragement and advice, and many there are who will 
miss his long and instructive letters. My own correspondence 
with him commenced in the winter of 1884. In the course of 
time his letters came with a good deal of regularity and were 
always interesting whether they related to field experiences, the 
routine of everyday life or were more strictly personal in their 
character. Our intercourse closed with a letter which I wrote 
about a month before his death, for on the double anniversary of 
Christmas and his birthday I rarely neglected to write to wish him 
the compliments of the season. I afterwards heard through his 
son that he was pleased when he received the letter but was too 
indisposed to pen even a brief acknowledgment. 

His style was always lucid and entertaining, whether in private 
correspondence or in published papers, and it is much to be 
regretted that his publications were not more numerous. His 
earliest contribution to ornithological literature appeared in the 
' Canadian Journal of Industry, Science and Art,' for July, i860, 
under the title ' List of Birds observed in the vicinity of Hamilton, 
C. W., arranged after the system of Audubon.' "The object," 
he says, "in preparing the following list, has been to afford such 
information as may be of use, should inquiry at any future period 
be made regarding the birds frequenting this part of the country. 
In its present state, the list has been drawn up from observations 
made during occasional excursions within a period of four years. 

Vol. X 

XI ~| A. K. Fisher, In Me mo Ha m : Thomas Mclhvraith. 

Those who are acquainted with the subject will see that it is 
necessarily incomplete ; but it will be easy to add the names of 
such species as may yet be found. In order that the list may be 
strictly local, no species has been mentioned which has not been 
found within six miles of the city limits." 

The list included 202 species, which speaks well for his ornitho- 
logical activity during the four years prior to its appearance. 
Many of the annotations are of interest from the standpoint of dis- 
tribution and abundance forty years ago. Under the capture of 
Lanins ludovicianus he says : " Two individuals shot in April, i860. 
Not observed prior to that date." In a footnote he makes the 
following statement : " It is possible that this may prove to be the 
Colly rio excubitoroides of Baird, as, according to that author, L. 
ludovicianus is found only in the South Atlantic and Gulf States ; 
while C. excubitoroides has been gradually advancing from the west, 
and might be expected to occur about this time. Without compar- 
ing specimens, it is difficult to distinguish between the two." 

It is of interest to note that the only trinomial appearing in the 
list (in the case of the Lesser Scaup Duck) is written in the recent 
approved style, without the interpolation of var., comma, or Greek 
letter. In the 'Canadian Journal' for January (pp. 6-18) and 
March, 186 1 (pp. 129-138), appeared 'Notes on the Birds 
observed near Hamilton, C. W.' In these notes Mr. Mcllwraith 
gives a most entertaining account of the birds found in the vicinity 
of his home, treated in groups and prefaced by remarks on Wilson, 
Audubon and the recent ornithological activity in the United 

The following extract relating to Grebes is of interest at the pres- 
ent time : "In some parts of the European continent the skin of 
the Grebe is much prized as trimming for ladies' dresses ; and in 
olden time, when the fowling piece was a less perfect instrument 
than at present, considerable difficulty was found in supplying the 
demand, as the Grebe being a most expert diver, disappeared at 
the first flash of the gun, and was under water ere the shot could 
reach it. Since the invention of the percussion cap, however, they 
are more readily killed, and were any of our Hamilton ladies desir- 
ous of having a dozen or two of Grebes skins for trimming, I have 
no doubt the birds would be forthcoming. At present there 

6 A. K. Fisher, In Memoriam : Thomas Mcllvoraith. |~f uk 

|_ j an . 

being no demand for the skins, and the flesh being unsuitable for 
the table, they are not much disturbed." 

In 1866 he published in the ' Proceedings of the Essex Institute ' 
(Vol. V, pp. 79-96) an annotated ' List of Birds observed near 
Hamilton, Canada West,' which included 241 species. This list 
was prepared in the same careful manner as his previous papers, 
and its wide distribution brought Mr. Mcllwraith more prominently 
to the notice of leading ornithologists in the United States, with 
many of whom he maintained a life-long correspondence that 
proved of mutual benefit. A few notes followed in the ' Bulletin 
of the Nuttall Ornithological Club,' Vol. VIII, pp. 143-147, in 
'The Auk,' Vol. I, pp. 389, 395, and in the \ Canadian Sportsman 
and Naturalist,' Vol. Ill, pp. 198-200, 207. Finally in 1887 he 
published his most important work, ' The Birds of Ontario.' On 
April 2, 1885, he had read before the Hamilton Association a 
paper entitled ' On Birds and Bird Matters ' which was most 
enthusiastically received and the Association at once requested 
the privilege of publishing the communication with any additions 
which he cared to furnish. Accepting the offer he promptly pre- 
pared the manuscript, but delayed publication so that the new 
arrangement of the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List, 
then in press, might be adopted. In the twenty-one years that had 
elapsed since the previous list was prepared 61 species of birds 
had been added to the fauna of Ontario, making a total of 302 spe- 
cies for the Province. This publication was so highly appreci- 
ated, and the consequent demand for copies so great, that the 
edition was speedily exhausted and a new one was of necessity 
planned. Thus was evolved the enlarged and revised edition of 
the 'Birds of Ontario,' covering 317 species, which appeared in 
1894 and formed a most fitting and lasting monument. 

A reviewer in ' The Auk ' speaks of this work as follows : "It 
is with great pleasure that we welcome this valuable handbook, 
revised to date, much enlarged, and in a dress more befitting its 
scientific importance and popular interest. In place of the intro- 
ductory essay ' On Birds and Bird Matters ' of the first edition, we 
have here a few pages on the general subject, with special refer- 
ence to migration, followed by a dozen pages of directions as to 
how to collect and prepare specimens for the cabinet. 

igJ XI l A. K. Fisher, In Memoriam : Thomas Mcllwraith. *7 

"The species treated number 317 as against 302 in the first edi- 
tion, to which nearly 400 pages of the work are formally devoted, 
giving about a page and a quarter to each species. The techni- 
cal, descriptive portion of the text is printed in small type, the bio- 
graphical in much larger type. The whole has evidently been 
carefully revised, and much new matter added to the biographies, 
which in many instances have been to a large extent rewritten, the 
recent literature of the subject having been placed under contri- 
bution. As the author himself says: 'In the present edition, it 
has been my object to place on record, as far as possible, the 
name of every bird that has been observed in Ontario ; to show 
how the different species are distributed throughout the Province ; 
and especially, to tell where they spend the breeding season. To 
do this, I have had to refer to the notes of those who have visited 
the remote homes of the birds, at points often far apart and not 
easy of access, and to use their observations, published or other- 
wise, when they tend to throw light on the history of the birds 
observed in Ontario.' Credit is of course duly given for the infor- 
mation thus obtained. 

" As ornithologists well know, the author of the ' Birds of 
Ontario ' is well equipped for his task, and, as would be expected, 
has done his work well, the second edition being fully abreast of 
the subject, the few faults of the first edition having been cor- 
rected, and the more important recent discoveries in the field here 
covered being duly incorporated. The text is illustrated with 
numerous cuts, though none of them appear to be here for the 
first time published. An excellent portrait of the author forms a 
fitting frontispiece to the volume, which will doubtless prove a 
boon to the bird lovers of Outario and adjoining Provinces and 

8 W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. [~f uk 




Plates II- VII 

The magic name of Laysan x will ever bring to my mind the 
picture of innumerable Albatrosses thickly scattered in reposeful 
attitudes over a broad stretch of bare phosphate rock, near the 
southern extremity of the islet. Here in years past the indefati- 
gable Japanese laborers had scraped a plain quite free of all the 
marketable phosphate rock, and had left about the borders several 
piles of the valuable mineral. Since then the gonies have made 
themselves at home, and have completely preempted the site. 
From the top of one of these hillocks I spent odd breathing 
moments, watching the life in this largest rookery of the island, 
because even the slight advantage of fifteen feet would bring much 
into view that before was hidden. We were agreed in calling this 
the rookery, since here in a given space were more birds than 
elsewhere on the island. And besides a very convenient road led 
to it from Mr. Schlemmer's quarters. One might ask, "Why 
mention the road ? " The Bonin Petrels (sEstrelata hypoleucd) 
tunnel in the soft soil in countless numbers, and if one crosses 
the upper slopes of the island he must walk at least one half mile 
before gaining the solid ground near the lagoon. Nearly every 
other step through this area will carry him abruptly into the sub- 
terranean tunnels of these sobbing birds, and as one of our party 
suggested the novelty quickly wears off in the midday sunshine. 
So it happened we patronized the road, and our eager strolls often 
either ended or began near the rookery, where also there was a 
brackish water pond much frequented by curlews and ducks. 

1 Although the notes which form the basis of this paper have already been 
published in ' Birds of Laysan and the Leeward Islands, Hawaiian Group ' 
(U. S. Fish Commission Bulletin for 1903, pp. 1 to 39, plates 1 to 10), the 
writer believes an account of the peculiar habits of the Albatross, with illus- 
trative photographs, will be of interest to readers of ' The Auk.' For a short 
note descriptive of Laysan and its bird life the reader is referred to the Octo- 
ber, 1903, issue of this journal, page 384. Unless otherwise stated the plates 
refer to Diomedea immutabilis Rothschild. 









Vo1 'q^ XI 1 W< K - FlsHER > Habits of the Laysan Albatross. 

1904 J 

The Laysan Albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) , however, is dis- 
tributed all over the island with the single exception of the sea 
beaches, which on all sides saving the west are colonized by the 
Black-footed Albatross (Z>. nigripes). The former species far 
outnumbers nigripes, and if actually not the most numerous 
inhabitant of the island is at any rate the most conspicuous and 
interesting. The Laysan Gony, or ' Gooney ' as sailors pronounce 
it, very evidently prefers the open to the bushy area, for the flat 
plain surrounding the lagoon is its favorite habitat, and we found 
.the young here in far the greatest numbers. This great colony 
extended all the way around the lagoon, but certain portions were 
more congested than others, as 'the rookery' for example, spoken 
of above. Young immutabilis were also found sprinkled rather 
thickly over the remainder of the island through the bushy grass 
area, preempted by petrels, and they even affected the windy 
slopes above the beaches. Only a very few nigripes, however, 
were detected in the central portion of the island, and these of 
course were widely scattered among immutabilis. 

The rookeries present a very lively scene. At certain times of 
day the greater number of the adults are off to sea fishing, but 
there are always enough left at home to constitute about one third 
of the total number, the remainder being the young. If these are 
not disporting themselves in ridiculous attitudes, the old birds 
form a sufficient diversion with their endless dance and song. In 
Plate III, figure 1, a view is given looking over the rookery. 
Most of the birds here are young, the old ones being away at sea. 
Figure 2 is a characteristic scene on the shore of the lagoon, the 
picture having been taken in the afternoon when most of the old 
birds had returned from their morning's fishing. The dark area 
to the left is covered with beautiful purplish-pink flowered Sesuvium 
portulacastrum . 

At the time of our visit the young were nearly four months old, 
and were quite as heavy as the adults, although the permanent 
feathering was present only on the lower parts. They were every- 
where. My impression every time I crossed the petrel cities was 
that each great tussock of grass harbored a young Gony in its 
shadow, ready to dart forward and try the quality of my trousers. 
Mr. R. H. Beck has suggested segments of stove pipe as an 
effective armor in crowded bird colonies, especially as proof 

IO W. K. Fisher, Habits of ike Laysati Albatross. \_Un 

against boobies, and I am inclined to agree with him. If we 
brushed too near the young Gonies they were quick to resent the 
intrusion, and flew into a rage, leaned forward and snapped their 
beaks rapidly in an attempt to strike terror to our hearts. Or 
frequently they would waddle out of their shady retreat and 
attack us, as it were, on our own ground, stumbling forward in 
wabbly efforts to reach us. Sometimes they would trip up in a 
petrel's hole or fall clumsily forward on their chins, and promptly 
disgorge their breakfast at us. Unless my observation is lacking, 
they always seemed to stumble preparatory to this fusillade, which 
once delivered left them looking very dejected indeed, as hunger 
is their chief trouble. Usually after the first paroxysm is over 
one can stroke them with little danger of scratched hands. They 
maintain a small fire of objection, with impotent nips, or try to 
sidle off. But occasionally a youngster is fully aware of his 

When undisturbed these absurd creatures sit for hours on their 
heels with their feet tilted in air, gazing stupidly ahead, with 
little intelligence in their stolid countenances. (Plate VI, Fig. 2.) 
They are peaceable as a rule, but sometimes engage in mild squab- 
bles with youthful neighbors. The shallow basin-like hollow in 
which the egg is deposited is the young Albatross's home, and it 
usually does not stray far, except on these little forays. But later 
the same feeling of growing strength leads them to slowly fan their 
wings from time to time. During a light shower we saw a consid- 
erable colony thus engaged, the wave of motion passing far away, 
as new companies caught the enthusiasm. The movements were 
kept up for some minutes and proved a novel sight. I have seen 
young birds collect dried grass and similar material, which hap- 
pened to be within reach, and carefully cover the hollow in which 
they were sitting, as if trying to form some sort of cushion. 

A spirit of inquiry also sometimes leads the young Gony into 
trouble. We found one buried to its neck in a collapsed petrel bur- 
row, yet still living. From the condition of the surrounding soil 
it was evident that the creature had been in this predicament for 
some time, and had been faithfully tended by its parents. Nor 
did it fancy being dug out, but objected most vigorously to our 
interest. When finally restored to a normal position, it took a 

The Auk, Vol. XXT. 

Plate III. 



Vol XXI 


W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. I I 

better view of matters and began to preen its feathers. But even 
with these vicissitudes, and the persecution of jealous mothers of 
other young (to be related presently) they have few amusements 
to vary the monotony of the long day, for in this topsy-turvy land 
it is the grown-up folks who play while the young are grave and 

The old birds received us at once on equal terms with any 
feathered inhabitant of the island. They did not care a whit for 
our presence, and continued their domestic occupations and 
amusements as if we were part and parcel of the community. 
They would not tolerate any familiarity, however, and if we 
attempted to stroke their plumage they backed off with agility, 
unless hindered by some obstructing grass tussock, when their 
surprise was amusing to witness. They have a half-doubting 
inquisitiveness, and if we sat quietly among them, they would 
sooner or later walk up to examine us. (Plate IV, Fig. 2.) 
One bird became greatly interested in the bright aluminum top to 
my tripod, which it carefully examined from all sides. Finally it 
tested the cap with its beak, and appeared much surprised, yet 
pleased, with the jingling sound, repeating the experiment until 

The old birds have an innate objection to idleness, and so for 
their diversion they spend much time in a curious dance, or per- 
haps more appropriately a 'cake-walk.' This game or whatever 
one may wish to call it, very likely originated in past time during 
the courting season, but it certainly has long since lost any such 
significance. I believe the birds now practise these antics for the 
pure fun they derive, and should anyone challenge my belief that 
birds are capable of such a high degree of intelligence as to dis- 
criminate so finely, I would be tempted to answer : " Go to Lay- 
san and be convinced." Let us imagine we are on the island, and 
can stop for a moment to watch a pair of Gonies close at hand. 
We will have some difficulty in choosing, for from where we are 
seated, among the grass, near the edge of the plain, we can 
eisily count twenty-five couples hard at play. This is what we 

At first two birds approach one another, bowing profoundly and 
stepping heavily. They swagger about each other, nodding and 

12 W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. [fan 

courtesying solemnly, then suddenly begin to fence a little, cross- 
ing bills and whetting them together, sometimes with a whistling 
sound, meanwhile pecking and dropping stiff little bows. (Plate 
V, Fig. i.) All at once one lifts its closed wing and nibbles at 
the feathers beneath, or rarely, if in a hurry, quickly turns its head. 
The partner during this short performance, assumes a statuesque 
pose, and either looks mechanically from side to side, or snaps its 
bill loudly a few times. (Plate V, Fig. 2.) Then the first bird 
(to the left of the picture) bows once, and pointing its head and 
beak straight upward, rises on its toes, puffs out its breast, and 
utters a prolonged, nasal, Ak-h-h-h, with a rapidly rising inflection, 
and with a distinctly 'anserine ' and 'bovine' quality, quite diffi- 
cult to describe. While this 'song' is being uttered the compan- 
ion loudly and rapidly snaps its bill. (Plate VI, Fig. 1.) Often 
both birds raise their heads in air as shown by Plate II, and either 
one or both favor the appreciative audience with that ridiculous, 
and indescribable bovine groan. When they have finished they 
begin bowing to each other again, rapidly and alternately, and 
presently repeat the performance, the birds reversing their role in 
the game or not. In the most successful dances the movements 
are executed in perfect unison, and this fact much enhances the 
extraordinary effect. The pictures convey but a poor likeness of 
the actual scene ; the wonderful sky and sunshine, the spotless 
and shining plumages, the droll cries, and most important the 
actual living presence of the splendid birds themselves. It is an 
experience never to be forgotten. 

There seems to be no very hard and fast lines to these antics, 
but variations occur, and certain stages may be abbreviated or 
prolonged to suit the whim of the individual. The majority of 
cases, however, follows the sequence I have indicated. The 
attention of the reader is called to the fact that Plate V, Figs. 1 
and 2, together with Plate II, form a series, taken in rapid succes- 
sion, of the same pair of individuals. Plate VI, Fig. 1, represent- 
ing the more usual finale of the dance, is from a pair of birds very 
near the above, and was taken a few moments later. The pair 
represented in Plate II, after their splendid exhibition, as if having 
knowingly done their best for me, quit entirely and walked delib- 
erately away. It is possible that this figure represents the ' grand 
finale ' of the whole performance, but I have only this observation 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate IV. 



Vol. XXI 

W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. I 7 

to offer. In the numerous other cases in which I saw both birds 
* sing/ I do not remember whether they continued thereafter or 

It is very amusing to watch three engage in the dance, one 
attempting to divide its attention between two. This ' odd ' bird 
starts by bowing to the first partner, whom he suddenly forsakes 
with a final deprecatory nod, and takes up the thread of the dance 
with the second. The latter always seems ready to join in, since 
he has been keeping up a sort of mark-time in the movements. 
Thus the single one keeps switching back and forth, trying as it 
were, to be on good terms with both partners at once. Three do 
not keep this up very long, however, since the odd bird either 
shows a preference for one of the partners and ignores the other 
entirely, or walks off to seek a new acquaintance. But through- 
out it all they are always exceedingly polite, and never lose their 
temper in any way. 

Occasionally while ' cake-walking ' one will lightly pick up a 
straw or twig, and present it to the other, who does not accept 
the gift, however, but thereupon returns the compliment, when 
straws are promptly dropped, and all hands begin bowing and 
walking about as if their very lives depended upon it. 

Several times at this stage of affairs I have walked quietly 
among a group of the busy creatures, and have begun to bow very 
low, imitating as nearly as possible the manner of the Gonies. 
They would all stop and gaze at me in astonishment, but recover- 
ing their usual equanimity almost at once would gravely return 
my bows and walk around me in puzzled sort of way, as if won- 
dering what kind of a bird I might be. I thought of trying this 
because in Rothschild's 'Avifauna of Laysan' (which we had 
taken with us on the steamer * Albatross ') the following extract 
is given from Kittlitz's notes on the birds of Laysan. 

"When Herr Isenbeck met one he used to bow to it and the 
Albatrosses were polite enough to answer, bowing and cackling. 
This could easily be regarded as a fairy tale ; but considering that 
these birds, which did not even fly away when approached, had 
no reason to change their customs, it seems quite natural." 1 

1 Extract from Avifauna of Laysan, etc., p. iii, (F. H. v. Kittlitz in : 
Museum Senckenbergianum, I, pp. 117 et seq.) 

1 4 W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. [jan* 

I found that in most cases the birds would bow to me if they 
were interrupted in their dance, or if they had very recently been 
playing, but would not bow at all if accosted near their young, or 
when standing idle. Unusual as this trait may appear it exempli- 
fies again what extraordinary birds Albatrosses really are. 

I saw the Black-footed Albatrosses (D. nigripes) rather seldom 
engaged in the dance, and indeed they impress one as more mat- 
ter-of-fact creatures. The only difference which was observed in 
the ceremony as carried out by the two species, is that nigripes 
spreads its wings slightly (the metacarpus or ' hand ' being folded 
closed) when it lifts its head to utter the nasal song. 

If we wander over the island on a moonlight night a strange 
scene greets us. Nocturnal petrels and shearwaters are wide- 
awake and are sobbing and yowling as if all the cats in a great 
city had tuned up at once. Back and forth in the weird light 
nutter shadowy forms, and from beneath our feet dozing young 
Gonies bite at us in protest. Down by the lagoon where the 
herbage is short we can see for some distance, and the ghostly 
forms of Albatrosses shine out on all sides, busily bowing and 
fencing, while the nasal sounds of revelry are borne to us from 
far across the placid lagoon, and we know that in other parts of 
the island the good work is still progressing. And so in the leis- 
ure moments of the long summer days, and far into the night, 
these pleasure-loving creatures seem to dance for the joy of danc- 
ing and only work because they must. 

But in their hours of toil they hie themselves off to sea, and 
scour the waves for the elusive squid, which is a staple article of 
diet for the larger members of the vast bird population, the gan- 
nets, perhaps, excepted. About sunrise the main body of the 
white company begins to return, and for several hours they strag- 
gle in, tired but full, and seek their sleepy children, who are soon 
very much awake. Although the Laysan Albatrosses undoubtedly 
do a small part of their fishing during the day, I cannot help but 
feel, from the nocturnal or crepuscular habits of their food — cer- 
tain cephalopods — and the prevalent feeding hours, that the 
major portion is done in the very early morning, perhaps from 
just preceding dawn till light. I noted particularly during the 
one day I was on the steamer, while she was dredging in the 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate VI. 



Vol. XXI 

W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. I C 

vicinity of Laysan, that very few Laysan Gonies were seen at sea 
after about 9 a. m. That same day we sighted the island about 5 
a. m., and when I arrived on deck about 5.30 I distinctly remem- 
ber seeing many of the white species {immiitabilis) circling about 
the vessel. Later in the morning immutabilis almost entirely dis- 
appeared, but some nigripes remained with us all day. On the 
following morning we landed and I had no further opportunity to 

As Prof. C. C. Nutting, one of the naturalists of the expedition, 
has said, 1 "the most conservative estimate of the necessary food 
supply yields almost incredible results. Cutting Mr. Schlemmer's 
estimate [of the total number of albatrosses on the island] in two, 
there would be 1,000,000 birds, and allowing only half a pound 
a day for each, surely a minimum for these large, rapidly growing, 
birds they would consume no less than 250 tons daily." From 
rather extended observations on the feeding habits I would place 
the quantity fed each young bird every morning at nearer one or 
one and a half pounds of squid {Ommastrephes oualaniensis Less., 
O. sloanei Gray, and Onychoteuthis banksi Fer. 2 ). I believe Prof. 
Nutting's estimate of a million birds is not too great. Thus in 
one day the Albatrosses alone would consume nearer 600 tons of 
squid. Think of the amount all the shearwaters must consume, 
and the tons of fish, large and small, eaten by boobies, frigate 
birds, noddies, terns, and tropic birds ! 

As indicated above, breakfast may be ready almost anytime 
during the early forenoon, for the mother does not invariably feed 
the baby immediately on returning. However, when all is ready 
she alights near the impatient and greedy child, who immediately 
takes the initiative by waddling up and pecking or biting gently 
at her beak. (Plate VII, Fig. 1.) This petitioning always takes 
place, and acts perhaps as some sort of stimulus, for in a few 
moments she stands up, and with head lowered and wings held 
loosely at the sides (Plate VII, Fig. 2) regurgitates a bolus of 
squids and oil. Just as she opens her beak, the young one who 
has been standing ready, inserts its own crosswise, and skilfully 
catches every morsel, which it bolts with evident relish. (Plate 

1 Popular Science Monthly, Aug., 1903, p. 324. 

2 Schauinsland : Drei Monate auf einer Koralleninsel, p. 92. 

1 6 W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. lun 

VIII, Fig. i). After the process is repeated at intervals of a few 
minutes, some eight or ten times, the meal is over. The last two 
or three ejections of this oily pabulum cost the Albatross consid- 
erable muscular effort, and the last time nothing came but a lit- 
tle oil and stomach juices. As Prof. Nutting aptly expressed it, 
a she pumped herself quite dry." The attention of the reader is 
again called to the fact that this series of three pictures, illustrat- 
ing the process of feeding, is taken from the same pair of birds. 

This domestic duty was one of the common morning sights on 
the island, and we had not been ashore but a few moments before 
we witnessed it close to the lighthouse. The mother bird 
seemed to take quite kindly to the circle of interested men, and 
fed her offspring, as if it were the most natural thing in the world 
to have an audience. In fact, I may mention in this connection 
that the Albatrosses nest all around Mr. Schlemmer's door yard, 
and from a little distance appear like unwieldy goslings before the 
door-step. The petrels, also, burrow in front of the house, but of 
course are not evident in the daytime ; and if one strolls out in 
the wonderfully soft tropical moonlight, he can see the little fiddler 
crabs scuttling here and there, resuming the work of ' autograph- 
ing ' the white coral sand where the numerous finches, honey- 
eaters, and rails have left off at sundown. Through the night 
the island is nearly as lively as at sunrise. 

After the Albatross has finished feeding, the young bird is not 
at all backward in asking for more, but keeps on petitioning and 
working its head back and forth as if suggesting to its mother a 
further means of obtaining food. The old one now pecks back in 
an annoyed manner, and if the baby still urges, she rises from her 
sitting posture and walks off, usually to vent her morning ill humor 
on some neighboring young. Often I have seen her dash over to 
an inoffensive and unprotected ' Gonylet,' and give it a most unde- 
served trouncing, mauling and ' wooling ' it in a pitiful manner. 
The unfortunate thing never knows what to do, so it tries to peck 
back, but is soon worsted, and cries in a plaintive squeak for 
relief. After a while the ill-natured creature returns to its own 
exacting offspring, sometimes to feed it again, or only to start off 
for another strange baby. Although the Albatrosses are gentle 
in their demeanor, this punishment is not carried on in a playful 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate V. 



Vol. XXI 

W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. 17 

spirit, but is a thoroughly ruffian-like proceeding. We were all 
agreed that nigripes indulged in it rather more than i7nmutabilis, 
and was likewise more savage. Dr. Gilbert observed a Black- 
footed Albatross take in a circle of about twenty young immntabi- 
lis and wool them soundly. Finally, however, the bully arrived 
at a youngster whose parent, being unexpectedly near by, set upon 
the persecutor with disastrous effect, and in the ensuing scrimmage 
put ?iigripes completely to rout. Not a few of the young die as a 
result of this treatment. I am just now at a loss to suggest an 
explanation for the prevalence of such heartless behavior. 

Near the forms or nests one not infrequently finds solid pellets, 
disgorged by the Albatrosses, consisting entirely of squid beaks, 
and the opaque lenses of the eyes. These lenses become very 
brittle and amber-like under the action of the stomach juices, and 
show a concentric structure. Candle-nuts, the large seed of Aleu- 
rites molluccana, were found by Prof. Snyder in the interior of 
the island and were almost undoubtedly ejected by Albatrosses. 
As is well known, Albatrosses pick up all sorts of floating material, 
and candle-nuts are frequently seen on the ocean, having been 
swept to sea by mountain streams. The nearest trees are on 
Kauai, about 700 miles east. This suggests a means by which 
many hard floating seeds might be carried into the interior of 
islands by albatrosses, shearwaters, petrels, and frigate birds, and 
thus obtain a foothold, whereas if swept ashore on barren rocks or 
beaches they would stand little chance of ever germinating. 

In large colonies of animals, it has always been something of a 
problem how a parent is able to find its young among so many of 
its kind. The voice is probably responsible in some cases, but 
as birds are extremely keen of sight and evince a positive genius 
for discriminating landmarks, I believe the Albatrosses must in 
some way depend upon peculiarities in the surroundings of their 
young. It is worthy of record, however, that the young often 
' sing ' in a thin, high squeak, which is kept up continuously for 
periods, and may be of service in guiding the parent, though I 
could not distinguish the slightest individuality in tone. I do not 
know whether they do this when the old birds are present, but 
remember that very many were engaged in the cricket-like song 
when we visited a populous colony late one moonlight night. 

1 8 W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. ["fan* 

I frequently saw the young sleeping, their eyes being tightly 
closed and bill tucked under the wing, the usual bird fashion. At 
night I was much surprised to walk up to the sleeping youngsters, 
and see how they slumbered on oblivious to the various distractions 
of their surroundings — the startled cries of terns, the Ah-h-frs of 
Albatrosses, and caterwauling of shearwaters. The feeling of 
absolute safety has evidently dulled that characteristic alertness, 
which we are apt to associate with sleeping wild creatures. I 
have even succeeded in sitting down beside them, without disturb- 
ing their slumber, but when I at last patted their heads they very 
suddenly came to, and the awakening was highly diverting. They 
appeared confused for a moment, and would then back off most 
rapidly, snapping the beak with remarkable speed. The old birds 
seem to be wide awake at night, but about ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing they frequently sleep near their young, with the bill and one 
eye covered by the wing. 

Albatrosses are inquisitive creatures, especially on the ocean. 
Anything unusual will immediately attract them, and on land I 
have had them come trotting up evidently actuated by some other 
motive than the search for food. One day the dory, rather over- 
loaded, was making for the beach through a choppy sea. Sud- 
denly a wave curled aboard, and then the boat capsized, leaving 
the occupants struggling in the water. A Gony at some distance 
perceived the disturbance, and came flapping in great haste over 
the waves, hoping perhaps for a tender morsel. It settled near 
the plumpest member of the party, and swam about on a little tour 
of inspection. The look of anticipation on the creature's face v/as 
so unmistakable, that the carpenter at length became uneasy, and 
exclaimed, " Can't you wait till I croak." 

The Albatrosses live on Laysan nearly ten months of the year. 
During the last days of October, before the winter storms set in, 
the first vanguard of the mighty army appears, and for days they 
continue to flock in from all points of the compass. Dr. H. 
Schauinsland, who witnessed their advent, says that in exposed 
places the island becomes literally white with the countless throng, 
as if great snow-flakes had suddenly descended upon the scene. 
So vast is the number of birds that many are obliged to be con- 
tent with rather unsuitable nesting spots, while late-comers must 

The Auk. Vol. XXI. 

Plate VII. 



The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate VIII. 



Vol. XXI 

W. K. Fisher, Habits of the Laysan Albatross. IQ 

leave the overcrowded area. Loving couples defend their rights 
against the tardy ones, and it is several days before all have set- 
tled their respective claims. 

The white Albatross lays one egg, on the ground, usually in a 
slightly raised mound with a shallow basin in the top. We saw 
numbers of these ' forms ' almost worn out by the young birds. 
According to Mr. Max Schlemmer, the representative of the guano 
company, the egg is laid about the middle of November. We 
were of course out of season to secure any, although we saw 
numerous spoiled ones half buried in the sand. The ground color 
is usually dirty white, with irregular patches and spots of brown- 
ish maroon at the larger end. Eggs of this type usually average 
1 1 1.5 mm. in length by 62.5 mm. in width. There is another type, 
very short and thick (100 mm. by 70), uniform brownish buff with- 
out any markings whatever 1 . The young are not hatched until 
February (Schlemmer) and then begin the six months of hard 
work to feed the hungry babies. They grow slowly, for birds, 
and it is not till the last of July that the most venturesome follow 
their parents on short nights to sea. A few weeks later all are 
on the wing, and with the old birds they scatter far and wide over 
the Pacific. Then for two months at least they take a vacation, 
as it were, before undertaking the cares of the next nesting season. 
They have been found in their wanderings as far away as Myiake- 
jima, Japan, and Guadelupe Island off Lower California. Besides 
on Laysan, Dio?nedea immutabilis makes its home on Midway, 
Lisiansky, French Frigate Shoal, Necker and Bird, and D. fiigripes 
is likewise found on these islands, but very sparingly on the last 

After the Albatrosses leave Laysan the broad rookeries are bare, 
and with the advent of the fall rains a fine grass springs up all 
over the deserted cities, forming delicate verdure where recently 
the ground was packed hard by busy feet. The ancestral home 
is now bereft of its greatest attraction, and surely the face of the 
island must seem entirely changed. 

Mr. Dutcher in a recent article on the Herring Gull well says 
that not even the most facile pen can describe the life and beauty 

X I am indebted to Rothschild's 'Avifauna of Laysan,' p. 291, for this 
description of the eggs. 

20 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodio?ies. [f^ 

of a great bird colony. Thus in attempting to indicate something 
of the life of the Albatross I have wholly failed to include the sub- 
tile charm which reaches one through the soft tropical sky, the 
salty breeze, the sparkling lights on waves, now green now pur- 
plish, as they break on the coral reef ; and the wilder scenes in 
the tossing surges that assail the eastern shore with booming roars 
and clouds of flying spray ; and the darting, screaming multitude 
of sea fowl gleaning their living prey from the tumult of waters, 
or winging their certain way to the expectant nestlings. Every 
sight and sound leaves a lasting impression, and yet, perhaps, it 
will be the mystery of those myriads of sentient beings that will 
linger when all else has been forgotten. 




Plates IX and X. 

During the past two seasons, April and May, 1902 and 1903, 
I have had excellent opportunities to study the nesting habits of 
all the species of this order known to nest within the limits of the 
State of Florida, with the exception of the Glossy Ibises and the 
Reddish Egret, the former being very rare in the regions visited, 
and the latter being practically confined to the Florida Keys 
where it is by no means common. The season of 1902 was spent 
in Brevard County, at various points along the Indian River from 
Titusville to Sebastian, and in the interior, among the marshes 
and cypress swamps of the upper St. Johns River, this latter 
locality proving most fruitful. The river at this point is spread 
out over a marshy area about three miles wide with a narrow 
open channel and a series of small lakes or ponds in the center. 
Except in these open places the water is very shallow, from one 

Vol. XXI"| Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodioms. 2 1 

1904 J ' o i J " ■*■ 

to three feet deep, with a treacherous muddy bottom, making 
wading impossible. The marsh consists of broad areas of saw 
grass among which are numerous tortuous channels overgrown 
with a rank growth of coarse yellow pond lilies, locally known as 
' bonnets,' through which we had to navigate by laboriously 
poling a shallow, pointed skiff. The channels are still further 
choked by small floating islands, made up of bushes and rank 
aquatic vegetation, which drift about more or less with the 
changes of the wind. There are also many permanent islands 
overgrown with willows which serve as rookeries for thousands 
of Louisiana Herons, Little Blue Herons, Anhingas, and a few 
Snowy, Black-crowned and Yellow-crowned Night Herons. Least 
Bitterns, Red-winged Blackbirds and Boat-tailed Grackles nest 
in the saw grass, Coots, Purple and Florida Gallinules, frequent 
the 'bonnets,' and large flocks of White Ibises, Wood Ibises, 
Cormorants and a few Glossy Ibises fly back and forth over the 
marshes, especially at morning and evening. 

The season of 1903 was spent in the extreme southern part 
of the State, cruising in a small schooner from Miami to Cape 
Sable, visiting nearly all of the keys and making several trips 
inland to the southern edge of the everglades in Monroe County. 

The whole of the Bay of Florida, from the outer keys to the 
mainland, is extremely shallow, so that cruising in a boat drawing 
more than three feet of water is out of the question ; I should say 
that fully one half of the bay would average less than three feet 
deep ; the bottom is covered with soft, slimy, whitish mud which 
discolors the water and at certain times makes it quite opaque. 
There are three types of keys in this region, mud keys, sand 
keys, and coral keys. The mud keys are by far the commonest 
type, the natural result of the prevailing conditions, and they are 
constantly increasing in size and number. They owe their origin 
and their increase to the agency of the red mangroves and their 
long-tailed seeds, which float about until they find a foothold in 
the mud where they germinate and grow to maturity, spreading 
out from year to year over more and more territory until an incip- 
ient key is formed. This incipient key is locally known as a 
' bush,' having no dry land under it, the trees growing in water 
from one to three feet deep. As the key grows older and dry 

22 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. \ P \m 

land forms, the red mangroves in the centre are gradually replaced 
by black mangroves. 

On some of the largest, and probably the oldest, keys there are 
dry, open areas overgrown with grasses and underbrush, the red 
mangroves remaining only in a narrow strip around the shores. 

There are very few sand keys, which are merely modified mud 
keys, having beaches of coarse shelly sand replacing the man- 
groves for portions of their shore line. Most of the outer and 
lower keys are of coral formation ; they are the most picturesque, 
the most interesting and the most tropical in appearance of all the 
keys. They are but scantily covered with a thin, light soil, the 
coral rock showing through it everywhere, but they generally 
support a rich tropical vegetation, consisting of cocoanut palms, 
tamarinds, sapadillos, oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, pine- 
apples, pawpaws, sisal and various cacti. On the larger keys the 
edible fruits are largely cultivated by the native ' conchs ' and 

The mainland, for many miles into the interior, is low and 
flat ; the lakes and streams are shallow and brackish ; and the 
absence of any good drinking water, together with the omnipres- 
ent swarms of mosquitoes, make collecting in the interior anything 
but a pleasure. Red mangroves line the shores of all the lakes 
and streams, and the forests consist mainly of black and white 
' buttonwoods,' black mangroves and a few rubber trees. There 
is a narrow strip of prairie along the southern coast of Monroe 
County, between the muddy shore and the forest, and at Cape 
Sable there is a long stretch of high, sandy beaches, these two 
being the only habitable localities on the mainland. 

I shall now take up the various species of the Order Hero- 
diones, giving my experience with them, as I found them in 
Florida, without attempting to describe their habits or distri- 
bution elsewhere. 

Ajaia ajaja. Roseate Spoonbill. 

This beautiful species, which must be seen in life to be 
appreciated, is confined, during the breeding season at least, to 
the extreme southern portions of Florida. The Spoonbills are 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate IX. 



VoI i' ? XI ] Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 23 

fairly abundant on the southern coasts of Florida during the 
winter, feeding in large flocks in the shallows of the Bay of 
Florida, in the muddy inlets along the shore, and in the shallow 
lakes and sloughs in the interior. One of their favorite feeding 
grounds is a large, so-called 'slough' near Cape Sable, but very 
different in character from the typical western prairie slough. 
This is apparently a submerged forest, killed by inundations 
from the sea, the remains of which are still standing, tall dead 
trees, many of them of large size, bare and bleached. During 
the fall and early winter the slough' is full of water but at the time 
we were there, in April, it was partially dry in spots, but mostly 
soft and boggy, with sluggish streams and numerous shallow 
muddy pools scattered through it, forming fine feeding grounds 
for Spoonbills, Ibises and other water birds. There is another 
favorite resort of the Spoonbills on one of the keys which has a 
fair sized lake in the centre. Large flocks of ' Pink Curlews', as 
they are called by the natives, had been seen almost daily 
flying to and from this lake. Owing to this fact we were lead to 
suppose that we might find a breeding rookery here, but a day's 
search failed to reveal even a single bird. I am inclined to infer 
that they come here only to feed in the shallow muddy waters of 
the lake or to roost in the mangroves around it. 

We found the Roseate Spoonbills breeding in only two localities, 
in large mixed rookeries with several other species. The first 
locality was a small island, not over two acres in extent, in the 
centre of a large lake in the interior, Cuthbert Lake, about seven 
miles back from the coast and almost on the edge of the everglades. 
It was covered with a thick growth of black mangroves, mixed 
with white ' buttonwoods' and a few black ' buttonwoods,' in 
the centre and surrounded by a wide belt of red mangroves 
growing in the mud and water up to three feet in depth. 

As we approached the island an immense cloud of birds arose, 
with a mighty roar of wings, and circled about us in a bewildering 
mass. We estimated that there were at least 4000 birds nesting 
on the island, principally White Ibises and Louisiana Herons, 
with a great many Little Blue Herons, Anhingas and Florida 
Cormorants, and a few American Egrets. But conspicuous 
among them all was a little party of twelve Roseate Spoonbills ; 

2 4 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. If 

they perched for a few moments in the mangroves, their gorgeous 
nuptial plumage showing to advantage against the dark green 
foliage, then rose, gradually circling higher and higher, the sun 
illuminating their delicately rose-colored wings, as with out- 
stretched necks and legs they seemed to fade away into the sky. 
We did not see them again that day. 

Though we searched carefully and thoroughly, we found only 
three of their nests. These were all built in red mangrove trees 
on the edge of the water among the nests of the White Ibises ; 
they were all on nearly horizontal branches, from 12 to 15 feet 
from the ground, and were all similar in size and construction, 
easily distinguishable from the others. They were larger than the 
Ibises' nests or the smaller Herons' nests and about as large 
as the Anhingas' nests, but more neatly made than the latter, 
without the use of dead leaves, which are so characteristic of the 
Snakebirds' nests ; they were well made of large sticks, deeply 
hollowed and lined with strips of bark and water moss. One nest 
contained only a single, heavily incubated egg, one a handsome 
set of three eggs, and the other held two downy young, not 
quite half grown. 

The single egg has a dirty white ground color with only a few 
irregular blotches of raw umber and mummy brown about the 
larger end; it measures 2.58 by 1.72 inches, being somewhat 
elongated ovate in shape. The set of three eggs have a pinkish, 
creamy white ground color, more or less uniformly covered with 
dashes and spots of lavender, purple and drab, over which spots 
of various shades of brown are quite evenly distributed. 

The eggs somewhat resemble those of the White Ibis, but can 
always he easily distinguished by their larger size ; they will 
average one quarter of an inch larger each way. 

The two young, in the feeble, helpless stage, unable to stand as 
yet, were curious looking birds, flabby and fat, with enormous 
abdomens and soft duck-like bills ; their color, including bill, feet, 
legs and entire skin, was a beautiful, deep, rich salmon pink ; they 
were scantily covered with short white down which was insuffi- 
cient to conceal the color of the skin ; the wing quills were well 
started, but still in sheaths. The first plumage, acquired before 
the young leave the nest, is mainly white with a slight suffusion 
of pink under the wings and tail. 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate X. 



Vol. XXI 


Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodioues. 2 C 

The principal breeding ground of the Roseate Spoonbills was 
a great morass on the borders of Alligator Lake, a few miles back 
from the coast near Cape Sable, where the mangrove islands in 
which the birds were nesting were well protected by impenetrable 
jungles of saw grass, treacherous mud holes, and apparently bot- 
tomless creeks. The various members of the heron family were 
nesting here in countless numbers, White Ibises, Roseate Spoon- 
bills, Louisiana Herons, Snowy Herons, and American Egrets ; 
one might toil here for many hours and never get beyond the sea 
of nests and hosts of young birds in all stages of growth ; the 
area was too vast and the traveling too difficult to arrive at any 
reasonably accurate estimate of the numbers of birds breeding in 
this great rookery. The Spoonbills were here in abundance and 
had eggs and young in their nests in all stages, as well as fully 
grown young climbing about in the trees. The old birds were 
tamer here than at Cuthbert Lake, and even allowed themselves 
to be photographed at a reasonable distance. 

The Spoonbills will probably be the next to disappear from the 
list of Florida water birds ; they are already much reduced in 
numbers and restricted in habitat ; they are naturally shy and 
their rookeries are easily broken up. Their plumage makes them 
attractive marks for the tourist's gun, and they are killed by the 
natives for food. But fortunately their breeding places are remote 
and almost inaccessible ; and through the earnest efforts of the A. 
O. U. wardens they are now protected. It is to be hoped that 
adequate protection in the future will result in the preservation of 
this unique and interesting species. 

Guara alba. White Ibis. 

The White Ibis, or ' White Curlew ' as it is called by the natives, 
is universally abundant throughout all portions of Florida that I 
have visited, but especially so in the southern portions of the 
State. Both this and the preceding species are highly esteemed 
by the natives as food ; the old birds are shot at all seasons and 
the young are taken from the nests in large numbers. 

The ' conchs ' and negroes of southern Florida also eat the 
young of all the smaller herons and do not draw the line even at 
young cormorants. 

26 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. iTa? 

On the upper St. Johns we saw large flocks of White Ibises 
daily, flying to and from their feeding grounds at morning and at 
evening ; we also found them feeding in large numbers in the 
shallow pools in the cypress swamps, but we were not able to 
locate any breeding rookeries in this region. 

In Monroe County they were the most abundant species of the 
order, breeding in immense colonies of countless thousands. We 
found them on all the inland lakes and streams, feeding in the 
shallow, muddy lakes and flying out ahead of us as we navigated 
the narrow creeks. 

The first breeding colony we found was in the Cuthbert Lake 
rookery referred to above ; as we approached the little island the 
Ibises arose in a great white cloud from the red mangroves and 
circled about over our heads, uttering their peculiar grunting 
notes of protest. We estimated that there were about iooo 
Ibises in the colony. They soon settled down into the trees 
again where we landed and were constantly peering at us through 
the foliage while we were examining their nests. 

The Ibises' nests occupied the intermediate belt, on the outer 
edge of the larger trees on the dry land and on the inner edge of 
the red mangroves over the mud and shallow water, the interior 
of the island being occupied by the herons and the outer edge of 
the mangroves by the cormorants. 

The nests were rather closely grouped, at heights varying from 
8 to 15 feet, on the horizontal branches of the mangroves, often 
on very slender branches ; only a few were placed in the white 
' button woods.' They were very carelessly and loosely made of 
dry and green leaves of the mangroves, held together with a few 
small sticks and lined with fresh green leaves. The nests are 
probably added to as the eggs are laid or as incubation advances. 

The nests which contained only one egg were very small, flimsy 
structures, hardly large enough to hold the egg, often measuring 
only 6 inches across, while those with three eggs were larger, 10 
inches or more across, and better made. They generally lay four 
or five eggs, and in sucjh cases have large and well built nests. 
At the time of our visit, May 1, 1903, the Ibises in this rookery 
were only just beginning to lay, as most of the nests contained 
one or two eggs, none more than three, and all the eggs we col- 
lected were fresh. 

Vol. XXI 

Bent, Nesting- Habits of Florida Herodio?ies. 2 7 

This was rather remarkable, considering that fifteen days later, 
at Alligator Lake, where these Ibises were breeding in immense 
numbers, they had young of all ages, many of them able to fly. 

There are several very large breeding rookeries of White Ibises 
on the lower west coast of Florida which we did not have time to 
visit, but we were told by our guides that they are much larger 
than any we had seen. 

The eggs of the White Ibis are subject to great variation in size, 
shape, and color, making a handsome series. The ground color 
varies from pale blue to dull white or deep cream color. Some of 
the eggs are nearly immaculate, with a few small spots or blotches 
of various shades of brown. Some are boldly spotted or heavily 
blotched with chestnut or chocolate brown, and some profusely 
washed or stained with russet or burnt sienna. In shape they 
vary from ovate to elongate ovate. 

A series of six sets selected at random exhibit the following 
measurements: length, 2.47 to 2.17; breadth, 1.61 to 1.47; aver- 
age, 2.33 by 1.53 inches. 

The White Ibises are so extremely abundant that there seems to 
be but little danger of their extermination, at least for a long time 
to come, in spite of the fact that they are shot in large numbers 
by sportsmen and tourists, as well as by the residents for food. 
Their rookeries are generally difficult of access, and they are not 
sought after by the plume hunters. 

Tantalus loculator. Wood Ibis. 

This interesting species is fairly common in nearly all the fresh 
water lakes and marshes in the interior of Florida, and, owing to 
its large size and striking colors, is always conspicuous. During 
the winter months it is abundant all along the Indian River, where 
it may be seen in large flocks along the muddy shores feeding on 
small Crustacea and batrachians ; its actions at such times are gro- 
tesque and amusing as it dances along over the mud, beating the 
ground with its feet to drive the little crabs from their holes. As 
the breeding season approaches the Wood Ibises disappear from 
their winter feeding grounds and resort to the cypress swamps in 
the interior to breed. There are several small breeding rookeries 

2o Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. \ y 


a few miles back from the coast along the Indian River in Brevard 
County, where they nest in small cypress swamps. 

In the big cypress swamps in the upper St. Johns region there 
are more extensive rookeries. We saw the birds here frequently 
flying to and from their rookeries, especially at morning and at 
night, in long lines high in the air, alternately flapping their wings 
or sailing, all in perfect unison, and all following their leader with 
military precision. Their pure white plumage, contrasted with 
their jet black remiges served to identify them at a long distance. 

Sometimes we saw them sailing about in great circles high above 
us, their necks and legs outstretched and their long wings motion- 
less, giving a fine example of their wonderful wing power. 

They were extremely wary, and, except in their breeding rook- 
eries, they never came near us or allowed us to approach within 
gunshot. Their nests were placed in the tops of the tallest 
cypresses, and far out on the horizontal limbs, in the very heart 
of the big cypress swamp. The trees here were the largest I have 
ever seen, measuring six feet or more in diameter at the base, 
tapering rapidly to about three feet in diameter, and then running 
straight up at about that size for seventy-five or one hundred feet 
to the first limb. The nests were practically inaccessible by any 
means at our disposal, so we remained in ignorance as to their 

In Monroe County we were more fortunate, as the absence of 
cypress swamps in this region compelled the Wood Ibises to nest 
in smaller trees. We found a small colony of Wood Ibises breed- 
ing on an island in Bear Lake, about two miles back from the 
coast. The birds were very shy, leaving the island when we were 
about one hundred yards away, and not coming within gunshot 
afterwards. There were about twenty nests in the tops of the 
red mangroves, from twelve to fifteen feet from the ground ; they 
were large nests, about three feet in diameter, made of large sticks, 
very much like the nests of the larger herons, and were com- 
pletely covered with excrement. All the nests held young birds 
in various stages of growth, covered with white down ; only the 
foreheads were naked. The bills were pale yellow, the eyes dark 
and the feet pale flesh color. They were grotesque looking 
objects, squawking loudly to be left alone. A party of Fish 

Vol. XXI 

Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. 20 

Crows made their lives miserable as long as their parents were 

The Wood Ibises are not in need of protection ; they are 
extremely shy and wary and well able to take care of themselves ; 
they are not sought after by the plume hunters and are useless 
for food. 

Plegadis autumnalis. Glossy Ibis. 

I have very little to add to the life history of this species in 
Florida where it is undoubtedly rare and of local distribution. 
We saw a few Glossy Ibises flying over the marshes of the 
upper St. Johns, but found no evidence of their breeding there. 

The White-faced Glossy Ibis has been once recorded from this 
vicinity near Lake Washington, where a female was shot on a 
nest containing three eggs (see Brewster, Auk, III, 1886, p. 481). 
We were unable to shoot any of the birds we saw and therefore 
could not determine the species with certainty. In Monroe 
County we saw only one flock of five birds flying over, high in the 
air, at Lowes Lake near Cape Sable. Our guides told us that 
they were rarely seen, and none of the guides with whom I corre- 
sponded seemed to know them at all. 




In 1902 I was in this region from May 26 to June 10, and 
again, in 1903, from May 22 to June 8. Almost the entire time 
was devoted to the birds, particular attention being given to the 
breeding species. 

I made my headquarters in the little city of Walker during both 
visits. In 1902 I was by myself the greater part of the time, but 

?0 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. \\ 


was accompanied frequently by my friend Mr. Thompson who, 
although not particularly interested in birds, helped me in many 
ways and was good company. In 1903 Mr. Phila W. Smith, Jr., 
of St. Louis was with me, and we lost little time. Mr. Smith is 
an experienced field man, and being also energetic and tireless 
we covered the immediate country around Walker thoroughly. 
Our time was too limited to allow us to explore the entire lake 
as we desired to do, so we confined ourselves to the western end. 

The town of Walker is on Walker Bay, the latter forming the 
western extension of Leech Lake proper. Walker Bay, itself, is 
no inconsiderable body of water, as it is from ten to fifteen miles 
in length, by one to three in width. Leech Lake is one of the 
largest lakes in Minnesota and has over five hundred miles of 
shore line. It is in the north-central part of the State, just north 
of the 47th parallel, and between 94 and 95 west longitude — 
not far from the source of the Mississippi. 

The lake is a beautiful body of water, clear, cold, and pure, 
with sandy shores and bottom, the former riprapped with great 
granite boulders. Many beautiful forest-clad headlands project 
out into the lake, forming protected bays of varying size. Several 
small rivers, such as the Shinobie, Kabakona, Steamboat, and 
Benedict, enter Walker Bay, carrying the surplus water from 
numerous small lakes and ponds back in the hills. At the mouths 
of these streams, and in places along their course, are marshes 
of greater or less extent, with beds of wild rice and cane. 

The Leech Lake Indian Reservation, occupied by the Pilger 
tribe of the Chippewas, takes up the greater part of the lake and 
surrounding country, and on their lands the forest is in its nat- 
ural beauty. Where the land is not thus protected the destruc- 
tive lumberman has left nothing but unsightly pine stumps and 
mutilated standing trees ; and as this section was only cut over 
from three to five years ago, nature has not had time to cover the 
scars. In many places great fires have swept through in the 
wake of the lumbermen leaving nothing but desolation. Some of 
the places are so recently burned over that nothing green has 
started from the crisp, ash covered ground, and such localities are 
shunned by birds and insects. 

Back from the lake is a succession of hills, with small lakes or 

i o 1 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. ? I 

'pot-holes ' between. On many of the larger hills are depressions, 
some water-filled, forming lakes of several acres. Another pecu- 
liarity of the country is the great number of boulders of different 
sizes scattered haphazard over the landscape. The lake beds 
and shores are strewn with them, they protrude from the marshes 
and swamps, and are plentiful on the hilltops. In places they 
are piled up as if they had drifted there. 

In its primitive state the forest is heavy, the principal trees 
being white, Norway and jack pines, balsam, cedar, tamarack, 
hemlock, poplar, birch, sugar and soft maple, oak, linn, elm and 
black ash. The hills become covered with birch and poplar after 
the pines are cut away. 

The low growth consists of black alder, hazel, wild raspberry, 
currant and gooseberry. A wild rose is also numerous. The 
ground in the clearings and old burns is carpeted with winter- 
green, wild strawberry, and the abundant blueberry. The great 
' brakes,' and more delicate species of ferns are in profusion every- 

The country is wild and new, and fences are few and far 
between, as little land is under cultivation. The soil is very 
sandy with much gravel, and looks unpromising. 

i. Colymbus holboellii. Holbcell's Grebe. — A colony of from six 
to ten pairs was found breeding in a bay formed by Minnesota Point in 
both 1902 and 1903. In 1902 I saw the following nests, with contents as 
stated : June 2, two nests, each containing one egg, and one nest contain- 
ing six eggs ; June 10, three nests, containing four, five, and seven eggs 
respectively. In 1903 we saw the following: May 31, two nests, each 
with one egg, one with three, and another with four eggs ; May 24, two 
nests, each with one egg, and two containing three eggs each. 

One nest was high and dry on a muskrat house — a hollow in the side 
of the house, and about ten inches above the water. The muskrat house 
was in a patch of tall canes, growing in deep, open water, forming a small 
island. The other nests were similar in situation, style of architecture, 
and material used. They varied only in size, and this depended upon the 
time the birds had been laying. Nests containing only one egg were 
simply irregular piles or rafts of floating flags, soft and rotting, with the 
egg often awash and covered with foam. In more advanced sets the nests 
formed quite a mass of material, with a deep cup above water line. No 
birds were seen on the nests, or leaving them, but in 1902 I saw one swim- 
ming away from a patch of canes in open water that contained a nest. 

3 2 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. [f^n 

When there was but one egg in the nest this was left uncovered, but in 
larger sets the eggs were at least partially covered, and in some cases 
entirely so. The nests were all placed at the edge of deep and open water 
so that the bird could dive directly from them. 

In 1903 the birds were very quiet both times we were there, and kept 
out of sight, or at a great distance. I think this was because they had 
been disturbed, as nests containing eggs May 24 were either deserted or 
contained fewer eggs when we visited them again on the 31st. The Indi- 
ans have a village on Squaw Point, a few miles across the bay, and they 
were seen paddling around these rice beds, and it may be that they take 
the eggs. In 1902 I did not notice that any nests had been disturbed. 

In 1902 they were very noisy both days I was in the vicinity, and 
although wary and keeping at a distance, were constantly in sight in the 
open waters between the rice beds and cane islands. They are much 
given to short flights, resembling a loon while on the wing. In taking 
wing they patter along the water like a coot. The cry is loon-like also, 
and very striking. It begins with a shrill wail, drawn out, and ending 
with more rapid notes, and can be heard a great distance over the water. 
When at a distance they sit high upon the water like a duck, but with the 
neck held stiffly at a right angle to the body, and the bill at a right angle 
to the neck. When nearer they swim with the back awash or only the 
head above the surface. 

We did not see any other grebe around Leech Lake, and it was only in 
this one place that this species was found. 

2. Gavia imber. Loon. — Common, and seen every day on or about 
Leech Lake, or flying overhead to or from the smaller lakes back in the 
forest. Cry frequently heard. No nests seen either year. 

3. Larus argentatus. Herring Gull. — Seen on Walker Bay on the 
following dates in 1903: May 21, 24, 29, and 31. Not over two seen at 
one time. 

4. Larus franklinii. Franklin's Gull. — May 27, 1902, several were 
flying over Walker Bay, and on the same date in 1903 we saw one at the 
eastern end of the same water. 

5. Sterna forsteri. Forster's Tern. — A white tern seen on Walker 
Bay, May 30, 1903, was probably this species. It was not obtained. 

6. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. Black Tern. — A colony of 
perhaps 200 pairs was seen on the marsh extending along Minnesota 
Point from Kabakona Bay out into the lake. They seemed to be in about 
the same numbers in 1903 as in 1902. In the former year I found no nests 
although I saw them carrying material, but this year we found them 
breeding on the 6th of June. The nests almost invariably held three 
eggs, most of them fresh, but some had been incubated for several days. 
The nests were on little islands of moss, or occasionally on rafts of float- 
ing grass. Some of them were quite deeply cupped and dry, others were 
made of reeds and flags, on the beds of grass, and looked rather neat ; but 
in some instances the eggs were half buried by their own weight in the 

Vol. XXI 

Currier, Summer Birds, of Leech Lake, Minn. 77 

wet slime, with only three or four short pieces of cane or reeds for a 
nest. Not more than one nest was on the same bed, nor did we find two 
nests near together. 

The majority of the birds were in full plumage, but a few were much 
mottled with light. The clamor made by their jerky cries, the harsh, 
scolding of the Yellow-heads, and more vigorous protests of the Red- 
wings, the cries of the Sora, and the 'jumping ' of the Bitterns, together 
with frequent shouts from Holbcell's Grebe, made this marsh very inter- 

7. Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. American White Pelican. — June 
6, 1902, I saw a flock of eight over Squaw Point flying towards the main 
lake. None were seen by us in 1903. 

8. Anas boschas. Mallard. — Seen in several places about Walker 
Bay in both 1902 and 1903. June 6, 1903, I found a nest on Kabakona 
marsh recently left by a brood. It was a hollow filled with down and egg 
shells, between two ash stumps in rank grass, in a dry place on the marsh 
and only a few yards from the railroad. 

9. Querquedula discors. Blue-winged Teal. — A pair heard and 
seen at Minnesota Point June 6, 1902. None seen in 1903. 

10. Aix sponsa. Wood Duck. — June 6, 1902, at Minnesota Point, a 
pair flew around me in evident excitement. I suppose they had young 
near by. 

11. Branta canadensis. Canada Goose. — May 31, 1902, an old bird 
with young was seen near the mouth of Steamboat River. 

12. Botaurus lentiginosus. American Bittern. — Common at every 
point visited. No nests were seen in 1903, but June 6, 1902, I saw a nest 
containing five eggs. 

13. Ardea herodias. Great Blue Heron. — Common about the lake. 
No nests seen. 

14. Porzana Carolina. Sora Rail. — Abundant on all suitable marshes. 
Many nests seen in 1903, one containing eighteen eggs, another seventeen. 
The average number of a set seems to be about ten. 

15. Steganopus tricolor. Wilson's Phalarope. — Common on the 
rice beds at Minnesota Point in both 1902 and 1903. No nests seen. 

16. Macrorhamphus scolopaceus. Long-billed Dowitcher. — One 
was taken May 24, 1903, at Minnesota Point. It was standing on the 
edge of a rice bed, near deep water, and allowed us to row within a few 
yards, merely crouching down and showing little fear. As we were not 
sure as to the bird's identity Mr. Smith shot it from the boat. It was a 
beautiful bird in high plumage. 

17. Actodromas minutilla. Least Sandpiper. — June 6, 1902, a 
flock of ten or fifteen was feeding on the beach along Minnesota Point. 
At the same place, May 24, 1903, another flock of about the same size 
flew bv us. 

18. Ereunetes pusillus. Semipalmated Sandpiper. — May 27, 1902, 
one was seen along the beach near Walker. May 23, 1903, another was 
flushed from a bog near the railroad above Walker. 

-3 A Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. Man 

19. Calidris arenaria. Sanderling. — June 10, 1902, one was seen on 
the beach near the end of Minnesota Point. The wind was high at the 
time, and I was rowing as close to the shore as possible to avoid it, and 
the boat passed within a few feet of this bird. It seemed to be too busy 
searching for food to notice me. May 24, 1903, another was seen near the 
same place on the beach. 

20. Bartramia longicauda. Bartramian Sandpiper. — I saw but one ; 
this was on June 9, 1902, on a small marsh near the mouth of Kabakona 

21. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — Abundant about the 
lake shore. Two nests, each containing four eggs, were seen in 1903. 

22. Oxyechus vociferus. Kildeer. — Common near the lake, par- 
ticularly in the evening when they seemed to come from the interior to 

23. iEgialitis semipalmata. Semipalmated Plover.— May 24, 1903, 
one was seen on the beach near the end of Minnesota Point. 

24. Arenaria morinella. Ruddy Turnstone. — May 24, 1903, one was 
seen on the beach near the end of Minnesota Point. We passed in the 
boat within a few yards of where it was busily engaged in turning over 
pebbles and pieces of bark without flushing it. It stopped and looked at 
us several times but did not seem timid. 

25. Canachites canadensis canace. Canadian Spruce Grouse. — I 
think I flushed one of these birds from a poplar wood on a hillside near 
Walker, May 26, 1902, but we could find none in 1903, although we looked 
particularly. The people there say that the "Spruce Hen" is only with 
them in the winter, when it is common in the jack pine woods. 

26. Bonasa umbellus togata. — Canadian Ruffed Grouse. — Com- 
mon and tame about Walker. Heard drumming, or seen almost every 
day. No nests seen. The people call them "Partridges," and they are 
the chief game bird of that region. 

27. Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. — Several were seen both 
years about Walker. June 9, 1902, a pair passed low over me at Kaba- 
kona Bay, and May 27, 1903, three were in sight at one time over Shinobie 
River. They are generally seen singly, and cannot be called common. 

28. Circus hudsonius. Marsh Hawk. — In 1902 I saw this bird on 
almost every suitable marsh around the lake, but in 1903, strange to say, 
we did not see a single one anywhere. 

29. Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. — One seen May 27. 
1902. In 1903 we saw several. 

30. Buteo borealis. Red-tailed Hawk. — Several seen in both years 
about the lake. 

31. Buteo lineatus. Red-shouldered Hawk. — June 8, 1902, one 
crossed the railroad so near me I could see it plainly. Several seen in 

32. Falco columbarius. Pigeon Hawk. — May 27, 1903, a pair was 
seen sitting, not far apart, on the extreme tops of two spire-like balsams 

Vol. XXI 

Currier, Summer Buds of Leech Lake, Minn. 1C 


on the Shinobie River. They acted very much at home and no doubt 
had a nest not far away. 

33. Falco sparverius. American Sparrow Hawk. — None seen 
about Leech Lake in 1902, but in 1903 we could generally find one about 
some old stubs two miles south of Walker, along the lake shore. Others 
were also seen in 1903. 

34. Syrnium varium. Barred Owl. — One was seen crossing an arm 
of Walker Bay, at twilight, June 7, 1903. Two downy young were also 
seen in captivity in Walker while we were there this year. 

No other owl was seen or heard either year. I was told that Screech 
Owls were often heard, but we were not fortunate enough to hear any. 
The people say that the Snowy Owl visits them in the winter, some years 
in numbers. 

35. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. Black-billed Cuckoo. — Fairly 
common around Walker. First heard June 3, 1902, and May 25, 1903. 

36. Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Very abundant around 
the lake, and seen near every body of water visited. Many nesting cavi- 
ties seen. 

37. Dryobates villosus leucomelas. Northern Hairy Woodpecker. 
— -The Hairy Woodpecker of the Leech Lake region is very much larger 
than the one I am familiar with in Iowa and Missouri, and I do not hesi- 
tate to list it as D. v. leucomelas. Several nests full of noisy young were 
found in both years. 

38. Dryobates pubescens medianus. Downy Woodpecker. — Seen 
frequently about Walker but nowhere nearly so common as in the wood- 
lands of Iowa. Several nests seen in the two years. 

39. Picoides arcticus. American Three-toed Woodpecker. — Two 
fine males were seen along Shinobie River, May 27, 1903. We located 
what we supposed was the nest of one of them, but not having climbers 
along at the time and it being in an almost impassable pine stub, limb- 
less, and charred by forest fires, we had to give it up. The cavity was 
fifty feet, at least, from the ground in the main trunk and was plainly 
new, and much worn about the entrance, where the birds in alighting had 
brushed off the black. Rapping on the trunk failed to bring out the 
female, but the nest was at such a height it would not be likely to. 

The birds were very beautiful, with their black backs and yellow crowns. 
They were both very busy as long as we saw them, lighting on a tree trunk 
or snag they would work upwards, almost from the ground, frequently 
giving a rather shrill cheep, cheep. 

40. Sphyrapicus varius. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. — Quite 
common in 1902, but not so many were seen in 1903. A nest containing 
six fresh eggs was seen, May 31, 1902. This was about twelve feet from 
the ground in the main trunk of a live poplar. We saw another nest 
June 1, 1903, about 30 feet up, also in a poplar. The birds were about 
this nest, but it was empty. 

41. Ceophlceus pileatus abieticola. Northern Pileated Wood- 

^6 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. flan 

pecker. — I saw or heard none in 1902, but this was simply bad luck, as 
in 1903 we heard three or four at different times around Walker, and May 
22 Mr. Smith caught a glimpse of one as it left a snag on a hilltop. 
Their work on stumps and snags was frequently seen, and several times 
the quavering song was heard near at hand, but the trees were so close 
together it was no trouble for the bird to remain hidden. There were at 
least three pairs breeding within a few miles of Walker. 

42. Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Redheaded Woodpecker. — 
A rare bird about Leech Lake. Only one was seen in 1902, on May 27, 
near Walker. June 1, 1903, we saw one near the same place, and a few 
days later saw it again. 

43. Colaptes auratus luteus. Northern Flicker. — Could he called 
fairly common. Several nests seen both years. 

44. Antrostomus vociferus. Whip-poor-will. — I heard but one in 
1902. This was on June 8, on the hillside back of Walker, and although 
I was in the same locality several evenings after that 1 did not hear it 
again. In 1903 I heard the first call in the evening of May 23. No more 
were heard until the 26th, when two or three could be heard calling. 
After that two or more were heard every evening. 

45. Chordeiles virginianus. Nighthawk. — Very common in the 
evenings over the lake. We saw four nests in 1903, on the cleared hills 
back of Walker. 

46. Chaetura pelagica. Chimney Swift. — Quite common about 
Walker and frequently seen over the forests miles from the settlements. 
Many must nest in hollow trees, as they do in the southern swamps, 
because this region is very thinly settled. May 26, 1903, we found one 
building a nest on the wall inside of a vacant shanty on Kabakona Bay. 
Several were seen descending brick chimneys in the town of Walker, but 
there certainly are not enough chimneys to go around in that locality. 

47. Trochilus colubris. Ruby-throated Hummingbird. — A com- 
mon bird about Walker. In greatest numbers during the last week in 
May, showing that migrations were on then. 

48. Tyrannus tyrannus. Kingbird. — Seldom out of sight along the 
lake shores, and railways, and near the cabins of the settlers. Several 
nests were seen both years. 

49. Myiarchus crinitus. Crested Flycatcher. — Frequently seen 
and heard. In 1902, first heard on May 27 ; in 1903. one on May 22. 
No nests seen. 

50. Sayornis phcebe. Phoebe. — A common bird around the lake 
shores. 1 saw a nest containing five speckled eggs May 27, 1902. 

51. Nuttallornis borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. — None seen 
by me in 1902, but, May 30, 1903, the loud call of one attracted us to it in 
a dry ravine back of Walker. We saw it, or others, in that vicinity for 
several days, and June 7, the females seemed to have arrived, as we saw 
two birds in pursuit of another. They were very active and noisy, and 
would not allow a near approach. The cry is one of the wildest of all 

Vol. XXI 

Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Mint/. 1*1 

small bird calls, and is not to be confused with that of any other species, 
at least in the Mississippi Valley. 

52. Contopus virens. Wood Pewee. — Heard every day we were in 
the woods about Walker. 

53. Empidonax traillii. Traill* s Flycatcher. — Two seen and heard 
in the low thicket along the shores of the lake, June 5, 1902. I heard the 
low fizveet of another May 25. 1903, in the same place. The form here 
may be referable to the northeastern form, E. t. alnorum, but we did not 
procure any specimens. 

54. Empidonax minimus. Least Flycatcher. — An abundant bird, 
particularly in 1902. In that year, from May 26 to June 1, thev were the 
most abundant bird, the ckebick, chebick being constantly heard during 
daylight. They were not so numerous after June 1, but still could be 
called abundant. In 1903 they did not appear in such numbers, but we 
heard and saw them every day. 

55. Otocoris alpestris praticola. Prairie Horned Lark. — I saw 
but one of these birds in 1902, and in 1903 we saw none. The one seen 
was near the Great Northern depot at Walker, June 5, after a shower. 
It was soaring and in full song. The country in that section is not suit- 
able for this bird, and to that fact no doubt is due its scarcity. 

56. Cyanocitta cristata. Blue Jay. — Frequently seen and heard, but 
not in such numbers as further south. 

I was told that the 'Camp-robber' (Perisoreus canadensis) appears 
about Leech Lake in cold weather, but does not remain during the 

57. Corvus americanus. American Crow. — Common everywhere 
about the lake. Several occupied nests were seen both years. One pair 
in particular had our sympathy. They had a nest full of young in a 
scrub oak standing alone out on the marsh, where several pairs of King- 
birds, and thousands of Redwings were breeding. Every time a Crow- 
made a move it was pounced upon by from two to a dozen of the smaller 
birds and forced to light for a time. The Yellow-heads would also join in 
at times, but they were not so persistent. The Redwings seemed to be the 

58. Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Bobolink. — Only one seen near Leech 
Lake in the two years. This was on June 9, 1902, at Kabakona Bay, and 
was a male in song. 

59. Molothrus ater. Cowbird. — Very common in the clearings and 
along the railroads, but were in greatest numbers in the town of Walker 
and vicinity, where they were in flocks of from 25 to 50, familiarly lighting 
in the streets and roads. Eg^s of this bird were seen in nests of Melos- 
fiiza cinerea melodia, Melospiza georgiana, Dendroica pensylvanica, 
Seiurus aurocapillus and Wilsonia canadensis. 

60. Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. Yellow-headed Blackbird. — 
Seen on all the marshes about Leech Lake, and there was a large colony 
at Minnesota Point. The full plumaged male is a striking bird with his 

3 8 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. [~f Uk 

abruptly contrasting colors, and the noise made by a colony of them, 
when intruded upon, is rather exciting. The cries are rather unpleasant, 
being harsh and grating, yet after one has been with them a little time 
they do not seem out of tune with the wind's whistling over the grass and 
through the canes. Many beautiful nests were seen, one in particular I 
would have liked to have taken, but it contained young at the time. This 
was in a patch of canes at the edge of open water and was unusually large. 
What made it so handsome was that the bird had woven into the nest from 
the top several long stalks of a species of fox-tail grass, leaving the heads 
on, and five or six of these stood erect, plume like, around the edge of 
the cup. The usual number of eggs in a nest was three or four, but we 
saw one containing five. 

61. Agelaius phceniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. — Abundant 
throughout that country. Every suitable place had its pair or colony. A 
great many nests were examined. They usually contained four eggs or 
young, often only three, and frequently five. In 1902 I saw one nest con- 
taining six eggs, and this year two nests with the same number. 

62. Icterus galbula. Baltimore Oriole. — Common about the lake, 
but not as many were seen in 1903 as in 1902. All the nests seen were 
in birch trees. 

63. Quiscalus quiscula aeneus. Bronzed Grackle. — Abundant in 
the village of Walker and along the lake shores and in the marshes. 
During the two years many nests were seen and they seem to vary consid- 
erably in situation in that country. While the majority were open nests 
placed in forks or crotches of limbs or trees, several seen in 1902 were in 
cavities of trees and stubs. I found one nest in 1903 out on the open 
marsh, with a colony of redwings. This nest was woven together in the 
top of a clump of flags, and its weight had lowered it to Avithin a few 
inches of the water. Its greater size than the near by redwings' nests 
attracted my attention, and I went to it. The nest contained two young, 
and two eggs on the point of hatching, and both grackles were there. 

64. Carpodacus purpureus. Purple Finch. — Common in 1902, but 
not so many were seen in 1903. Only one nest was seen in the two 
years. This was placed near the extreme top of a very tall balsam, and 
was found by Mr. Smith's seeing the female fly directly to the spot. 
We then saw that she was building, and we watched her at work for some 
time. This was on the 22 d of May. On May 30, after a hard climb, 
Mr. Smith reached the nest, but it contained but one egg- 

65. Loxia curvirostra minor. American Crossbill. — May 29, 1903, 
while on a pine covered ridge on the Indian Reservation, near Kabakona 
Bay, a new note attracted our attention to the top of a tall Norway pine. 
Looking it up we found a party of three or four Crossbills industriously 
at work amongst the cones at the ends of the branches. We watched them 
for quite a while, they apparently giving us no thought. They were still 
in this tree when we left them. 

66. Astragalinus tristis. American Goldfinch. — Common in all 
places suited to the bird. 

i * XI 1 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. T.O 

67. Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. — I found this bird not uncommon, 
in parties of from 6 to 30, in the tamarack swamps in 1902. In 1903 we 
did not see any. I have no doubt they bred there in 1902, as on the 8th 
and 9th of June I saw several groups feeding near the ends of branches 
of balsam trees. The whole flock seemed to keep up a twittering sort of 
a conversation, and at times one would break into a low, rather sweet 

68. Poaecetes gramineus Vesper Sparrow. — In 1902 they seemed 
to be rather scarce. That year I saw but one tiest ; this was on June 3, 
and it contained three young. In 1903, we found them to be common 
around Walker in the bare or cleared places, along the railroads or wagon 
roads. This year we saw six nests, five containing four eggs each, and 
one four young. 

69. Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated Sparrow. — Abundant 
in the partially cleared country about Walker, and often heard in the 
wilder forest regions. 

We saw many nests containing from three to six eggs. May 31, 1903, 1 
found one nest containing four newly hatched young, but this seemed to 
be an unusually early pair. At that date most of the nests had incomplete 
sets or the eggs were fresh. The nests were all much alike, being sunken 
to the brim, and as a rule well hidden under brush or a rank growth of 
ferns, plants, etc. Several were placed just at the foot of small white 
pine shrubs and in such cases were completely concealed. There were 
exceptional cases where the nest could be looked into without disturbing 
any of the surroundings. One nest in particular, along a path, was in 
plain sight with no concealment, but the owners had deserted it before 
laying. There were other nests that were hard to find even after flushing 
the bird. One I saw in 1902 was well under a dead tree top and I did not 
find it until I had removed some of the brush. The bird does not flush 
directly from the nest like the Vesper and Song Sparrows, but runs off 
like a mouse. 

70. Spizella socialis. Chipping Sparrow'. — Common about the 
settlements, and along the railroads and wagon roads. Found with, but 
not nearly so numerous as the next. Many nests found, usually placed 
in small pine shrubs. 

71. Spizella pallida. Clay-colored Sparrow. — A plentiful bird 
in the brush land around Walker and along the railroads. It is a pretty 
little sparrow, with a confiding manner, but an unpleasant song. They 
were constant singers, too, while we were there, and it is one of the few 
bird songs I have found disagreeable. It is a buzzing, rasping noise, a 
little like the song of the cicada, but not so musical, and given with 
much vigor. A friend who was with me part of the time in 1902, would 
call the bird nothing but the "rasper," and I thought the name very 

They inhabit much the same kind of a country as does £\ pusilla 
further south, and they nest in much the same manner. As a rule the 

zLO Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. jy" 



nests were placed within a few inches of the ground, and if a scrub white 
pine bush was handy it would invariably be used. I have seen no nest 
over three feet above the ground, and several were resting upon the 
ground in a clump of wintergreen or other rank growth. The nest 
resembles that of ^>. socialis in general style, but has less of the hair 
lining so characteristic of that bird. As a rule 6". pallida uses a very 
fine, light-colored wire grass for this purpose. The number of eggs was 
usually four, sometimes only three, and only once did I see a nest contain- 
ing five. 

72. Melospiza cinerea melodia. Song Sparrow. — The most abun- 
dant songster of that country. Found everywhere, but in greatest 
numbers in and near the settlements. Common also on the marshes 
with M. georgiatia and on the dry hillsides and in the 'burns 1 with 
6". pallida and Z. albicollis. Every cabin or shack had its pair near by, 
and they were always within sight and hearing along the railroads. 

73. Melospiza lincolnii. Lincoln's Sparrow. — This bird was first 
seen on the marsh at Minnesota Point May 24, 1903. I heard it from the 
boat as we approached land and noticed that the song was something I 
had never heard before. The bird would allow quite a near approach, and 
was in full song from the top of one of the small birch shrubs scattered 
over the marsh. We spent an hour or so in the immediate vicinity trying 
to flush his mate but without success. The bird was there when we left, 
but upon another visit to the same place, May 31, he could not be found. 
May 27, 1903, we found another in song in a similar locality; this one 
also seemed attached to the place but was not seen there on May 31. 

74. Melospiza georgiana. Swamp Sparrow. — Abundant on all the 
marshes. A vigorous singer, but the song is lacking in sweetness and 
is rather monotonous. Many nests were seen in the tussocks, usually con- 
taining four or five eggs. 

75. Passer domesticus. House Sparrow. — Common about the 
streets of Walker. 

76. Pipilo erythrophthalmus. Towhee. — Fairly common on the 
cut-over hills back of Walker. Several nests seen in 1903 contained each 
three or four young or eggs. 

77. Zamelodia ludoviciana. Rose-breasted Giosbeak. — June 5, 
1902, I heard one but saw none. In 1903 we found them fairly common. 

78. Cyanospiza cyanea. Indigo Bunting. — Only one seen in the two 

79. Piranga erythromelas. Scarlet Tanager. — Seen and heard fre- 
quently both years. 

80. Progne subis. Purple Martin. — Common about the settlements 
and along the lake shores. At a distance from human habitations, they 
were using cavities in stubs for nesting places. One oak stub in par- 
ticular was in demand on Minnesota Point. It was standing by itself on 
the lake shore, at a distance from other trees, and a pair of martins and a 
flicker were battling for possession of a cavity, with a pair of Tree Swal- 
lows flying around in a wistful manner. 

Vol. XXI 

Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. A\ 

81. Tachycincta bicolor. Tree Swallow. — Seen about the ponds- 
and smaller lakes near Walker and along the shores of Leech Lake. In 
1903 we saw three cavities in use as nesting places. They were in stubs 
standing at the edge of the water. 

82. Riparia riparia. Bank Swallow. — An abundant bird about 
Leech Lake. 

83. Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwlng. — A plentiful bird, but 
much more numerous in 1902 than in 1903. 

84. Vireo olivaceus. Red-eyed Vireo. — Abundant throughout that 
region. It seems to be as numerous about Leech Lake as it is in Iowa 
and Missouri, and certainly is one of the best distributed birds of the 
Mississippi Valley. 

85. Vireo gilvus. Warbling Vireo. — But one was seen near Walker. 
This was May 27, 1902, when one appeared in song. Thirty or forty miles 
southwest of Walker, I found them to be a common bird May 29, 1902, 
and several were seen near Brainerd sixty miles south of Walker by Mr. 
Smith May 21, 1903. In both localities the country is well cultivated. 

86. Vireo solitarius. Blue-headed Vireo. — Several seen May 23, 
1903, but could not find them later. Both sexes were represented. 

87. Mniotilta varia. Black and White Warbler. — Common in 
1902, and one of the most abundant of all warblers in 1903. 

88. Helminthophila chrysoptera. Golden-winged Warbler. — May 
22, 1903, I found one — a male in song — in a small swamp along the 
railroad near Walker. 

89. Helminthophila rubricapilla. Nashville Warbler. — We found 
this species to be quite common. June 17, 1903, Mr. Smith flushed a 
female from a nest containing five incubated eggs. The locality was a 
small swamp along a brook near Walker, and the nest was sunken into a 
hummock of moss near the foot of a balsam. A clump of Dalibarda, 
growing just in front of the nest, completely hid the eggs from view 
with its big leaves. 

90. Compsothlypis americana usneae. Northern Parula War- 
bler. — Found in every swamp where there were balsam and tamarack. 

91. Dendroica tigrina. — Cape May Warbler. — But one seen. This 
was on May 25, 1903, near Long Lake, southwest of Walker. It was with 
a group of other warblers of which there was a great flight that morning. 

93. Dendroica aestiva. Yellow Warbler. — One of the most nu- 
merous of all the birds, keeping to the partially cleared hills and ' burns,' 
with their thickets of hazel and alder. Many nests were seen. 

94. Dendroica caerulescens. Black-throated Blue Warbler. — 
First found May 22, 1903, and at a later date it was in the same place. 
This was a male in song, and from his staying in the vicinity we supposed 
there was a nest near, but we did not see it or the mate. 

95. Dendroica maculosa. Magnolia Warbler. — One seen May 28, 
1902, and several seen during our stay in 1903. During 1903 one male in 
particular attracted our attention by his great beauty and sprightly song 

A 2 Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. fin 

and movements. We saw him several times at the edge of a woodland 
along a brook near Walker. The last day we were there, June 7, he was 
still in the same place, and I have no doubt had a mate and nest in the 

96. Dendroica pensylvanica. Chestnut-sided Warbler. — Perhaps 
the most abundant member of the family. Found in all the alder and 
hazel thickets, and around the clearings and in the 'burns.' Very tame 
and pretty. Many nests seen contained from three to five eggs. 

97. Dendroica striata. Black-poll Warbler. — Scarce in 1902, but 
fairly common in 1903 throughout our stay. I have no doubt it breeds 
there, although we saw no nests. 

98. Dendroica dominica albilora. Sycamore Warbler. — This bird 
was first seen May 26, 1903. Its song attracted us to the locality, and we 
spent perhaps two hours watching him. During this time he moved 
around slowly from one perch to another, constantly singing, often com- 
ing down on the lower branches above us, where we could see him quite 
well. The beautiful yellow throat, the triangular spot of black on the 
side of the head and the white spot on the eyelid could plainly be seen. 
This bird visited not over half a dozen trees while we were there, spend- 
ing most of his time in an oak and a large white pine. June 1 we went 
back to the same locality and found him there again, and he spent his 
time in exactly the same trees. Once Mr. Smith saw him chase a bird, 
perhaps his mate, off into the undergrowth, soon returning. We saw no 
nest, but there must have been one at no great distance — we thought in 
the white pine. 

99. Dendroica vigorsii. Pine Warbler. — One of the common War- 
blers around Leech Lake. In spite of this bird's abundance but one nest 
was seen in the two years. This was placed in the tuft at the end of a 
branch of a Norway pine and could not be seen from the ground even 
after we knew where it was. If all were hidden like this it is not surpris- 
ing we saw no more. 

100. Seiurus aurocapillus. Oven-bird. — Seemingly as numerous on 
the birch and poplar clad hillside about Leech Lake, as under the white 
oaks and maples of Southern Iowa. Several beautiful nests were seen, 
containing from three to five eggs each. 

101. Geothlypis Philadelphia. Mourning Warbler. — A common 
bird about Walker. I had understood this species confined itself to wet 
woodlands, as does the Kentucky Warbler of the South, but such is not 
the case about Leech Lake. They were on the dry hillsides, about the 
burns and clearings, and about the alder and hazel thickets. They inhab- 
ited the same territory as Zonotrichia albicollis, Wilsonia canadensis, 
Hylocichla fuscescetis, Dendroica cestiva and Dendroica pensylvanica. 
Occasionally we saw them along old logging roads crossing the swamps, 
but the greatest numbers were on the higher ground, seemingly prefer- 
ring brush to timber. 

I saw several nests both years and they are all much alike in construe- 

Vol. XXII 


Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake, Minn. A 7 

tion and situation. They are placed like the Kentucky's, on the ground, 
at the foot of a clump of rank growth, such as wintergreen, wild straw- 
berry, wild currant, grass, etc., sometimes resting in the growth so that it 
raises the nest a little from the ground as it grows. The nest is often in 
plain view from one or more directions, its concealment depending more 
upon its color and the leaves growing around it than upon any particular 
care of the birds. The number of eggs laid seems to be four, as I saw 
only one nest containing five. 

102. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. — 
Very common in suitable places. The bird around Leech Lake may be 
the newly recognized northern form G. t. brachidactyla, but we did not 
take any of the birds. 

103. Wilsonia canadensis. Canadian Warbler. — Quite common 
on the partially cleared hillsides near Walker, and along the railroads. 
They inhabit much the same country as the Mourning Warbler around 
Leech Lake, but are more frequently found at the foot of the hills, along 
the brooks, and at the edge of the damp places. 

In 1902 I saw only two nests, but in 1903 I saw several. One nest seen 
in 1902 was placed in a clump of long dead grass, and almost on the 
ground after the manner of a Yellow-throat. This nest was in the middle 
of an old road on the top of a low hill in brush land and was very differ- 
ent in construction from those seen this year. It was composed entirely 
of long dry grass, without any dead leaves, while those seen in 1903 were 
built principally of large dead leaves. The other nests varied considerably 
in situation, the most of them being several inches above the ground in 
low growth — one at least ten inches up. One nest seen in 1903 was 
placed on the ground at the side of a stock path in a dense growth of wild 
currants and was the only one completely hidden. The number of eggs 
laid was usually four and in only one case did I see five. 

104. Setophaga ruticilla. American Redstart. — Very common. 
Several nests seen. 

105. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Catbird. — Fairly common along 
the wooded lake shores and in the thickets around Walker. Several occu- 
pied nests were seen containing from three to five eggs. 

106. Toxostoma rufum. Brown Thrasher. — Not uncommon about 
the thickets and clearings around Walker in 1903. In 1902 they were 
scarce. Several nests seen, and all of them were sunken in the ground 
after the manner of a Towhee's. In Iowa I have seen the nest thus placed, 
but it is very unusual, and it is strange that the Leech Lake bird should 
prefer such a situation, though there must be a reason. 

107. Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Western House Wren. — Com- 
mon alike about the settlements and in the woodlands along the lake 
shores. Several occupied nests seen. 

108. Cistothorus stellaris. Short-billed Marsh Wren. — Quite a 
colony on the marsh around Kabakona Bay in 1902, but this was burned 
over during the winter and this season (1903) we found but one male 

A A Currier, Summer Birds of Leech Lake. Minn. |~^ uk 

singing in the whole place. This year we found a small colony along 
the Shinobie River, May 27. Several nests were seen, but only two 
were occupied. One contained four and the other six delicate white eggs. 

Like T. falustris, the males are great singers at their summer homes, 
but the song is less pleasing. In the rank grass and sedge the bird would 
be singing almost at one's knees and yet out of sight. Occasionally one 
would mount to a higher perch to sing, after the manner of the Grass- 
hopper Sparrow. 

109. Telmatodytes palustris. Long-billed Marsh Wren. — Scattered 
in single pairs amongst the cane beds about Minnesota Island. Several 
nests seen but only one containing eggs. This was on the 2d of June* 
1902, and there were six fresh eggs in the nest. A great singer with a 
sweet voice. 

no. Certhia familiaris americanus. Brown Creeper. — One seen 
and heard in song, May 2$, 1903, at the edge of a small lake along the 
Great Northern Railroad two miles west of Walker. 

in. Sitta carolinensis. White-breasted Nuthatch. — Several were 
seen both years, but it cannot be called a common bird about Leech Lake. 

I was rather disappointed in not finding 5 1 . canadensis, as I expected to 
meet with it. 

112. Parus atricapillus. Chickadee. — Frequently seen and heard 
but not abundant. 

113. Hylocichla fuscescens. Wilson's Thrush. — The abundant 
thrush of the region. 

We saw a great many nests containing three or four eggs, and one 
containing five. The nests were placed on the ground, in a clump of 
black alder near the ground where sprouts had shot out from a stump, 
on top of low stumps, or four feet up in shrubbery. When the nests 
were on the ground they were fairly well hidden, but several we saw were 
placed on top of stumps in plain view, and at the side of paths. Many 
of the eggs had small dots of brown scattered over them, and several were 
freely freckled. 

114. Hylocichla aliciae. Gray-cheeked Thrush. — Very abundant 
in 1902, from May 26 to 29. None seen after the first of June and none 
at all in 1903. While they were passing through in 1902 the low, pleas- 
ant song reached one from dozens of places on all sides. 

115. Hylocichla guttata pallasii. Hermit Thrush. — Rather rare 
about Walker and more retiring than the Veerv. It seemed to prefer 
the wilder forests and was very shy. We saw several nests containing 
three or four eggs each. The nests were on the ground, or a few inches 
from it, and w r ere exactly like those of H. fuscescens. The eggs also 
looked alike, those of this species being slightlv larger and a shade lighter 
in color. 

116. Merula migratoria. American Rohin. — Common about the 
settlements and in clearings. Several occupied nests seen about Walker. 

117. Sialia sialis. Bluebird. — Several pairs seen about Walker. 
Thev were nesting in dead stubs about the clearing*. 

Vol. XXI 


I KOPMAN, Bird Migration in the Lower Miss. Valley. A^ 



It can be imagined easily enough that to take up all the con- 
siderations suggested in the title set to this article would be 
beyond the possibilities of a single paper for ' The Auk.' My 
intention is simply to pick out from among the general phenom- 
ena of southern Louisiana and southern Mississippi bird migra- 
tion those important facts to which the general attention of the 
ornithological world has never been drawn. Aside from the 
ornithologists of the Department of Agriculture, to which several 
observers in this section have reported regularly every spring and 
fall for the past ten years, scarcely any of our ornithologists are 
acquainted with the striking peculiarities detected in bird migra- 
tion in this latitude. One of the prominent tendencies, noted by 
me in a former brief communication to ' The Auk ' (Vol. XX, 
July, 1903, pp. 309, 310), is procrastination in spring migration. 
A corresponding tendency is seemingly premature arrival in the 
fall. Under the first head, a very striking case is that of the 
three transient thrushes of this latitude, the Wilson's, the Gray- 
cheeked, and the Olive-backed. The case of these birds comes 
very readily to mind because it was only the past spring that I 
settled an important phase of their migrations through Lower 
Louisiana. Every spring for the past ten years, and not infre 
quently in the fall, I have been puzzled by a querulous whistle, to 
be heard, with few if any exceptions, in heavy night migrations 
the latter part of April and the early part of May, and again the 
latter part of September. As my knowledge of the conditions of 
migration have grown I have attributed this note to several spe- 
cies, each time discovering the impossibility of the suspected 
bird being the author, until I hit upon the Yellow-breasted Chat 
as the chief actor in the heavy migrations of the late spring and 
of the middle fall. In this belief I rested with fair security, so 
like the mellow whoort of the Chat was the oft repeated note of 
the night migrations. My first record of this note was the night 
of April 25, 1894. Heavy rains and an electric storm early in 

A 6 Kopman, Bird Migration in the Lower Miss. Valley. [~£ u 


the evening had made the conditions excellent for migration. 
The tremulous whistle was caught up as frequently as the notes 
of Yellow Warblers, Indigo Buntings, Sandpipers, Green Herons, 
and Night Herons. More than nine years later, May 9, 1903, I 
settled the mystery that had perplexed me more than any ques- 
tion that had come up in my experience. I caught one of the 
birds making the same note in the day-time. It was a Wilson's 
Thrush. Of all the guesses I had made, I had been unsuspi- 
cious of the thrushes. The abundance of the birds heard in 
night migration had led me off the track. As a bird of the 
woodland, the Wilson's Thrush is so retiring, and therefore seen 
so infrequently that one would scarcely hit upon it as the inces- 
santly heard migrant. Once I had heard the note, however, I won- 
dered that I had not before recognized the famous whew or whoit 
by which John Burroughs characterizes the voice of the Veery. 
It was dumbfounding to think that while in all my ornithological 
observations in this section I had never seen a score of Veeries 
in the course of ten springs, I had heard countless hundreds. 
Since the spring of 1897 I had known that both the Gray-cheeked 
and Olive-backed, especially the former, might appear in astonish- 
ing numbers as transients in late April and the first week of May. 
In hedges, weedy places, and willow thickets in pastures and 
other open places, I had seen scores of Gray-cheeked Thrushes in 
a single day the early part of May, but the Wilson's Thrush had 
been a consistent rarity. For the latter part of spring, in this sec- 
tion, it may be stated as a general proposition that these three 
transient thrushes will be found migrating together. I have come 
across heavy waves of the Gray-cheeked and the Olive-backed on 
various occasions the latter part of April and the early part of 
May. Usually at the same times the note of the Veery may be 
heard in night migration. The past spring I observed both the 
Gray-cheeked and the Wilson's together in a thicket of willows 
and hackberries between the new and the old levee at Audubon 
Park, New Orleans. The birds were detained by a slight tempo- 
rary fall in the temperature that first became apparent May 9. 
I spent half a morning watching just these thrushes, and it was 
after watching for some time that I first heard the note of the 
Wilson's. The first day I could not see any of the Wilson's 

i 04 1 Kopman, Bird Migration in the Lower Miss. Valley. A J 

Thrushes as they made the note, but the next day one called as I 
watched it through my glass. The Gray-cheeked were present 
only the 9th and 10th, but I last observed the Wilson's in the 
woods May 13, and the last were heard in night migration mid- 
night of May 16. This is the latest the Wilson's Thrush has 
ever been recorded in southern Louisiana, as the 10th of May is 
the latest for the Gray-cheeked Thrush. The Olive-backed prob- 
ably remains as late, but there is no later record than May 4. 

As the abundance of these rarer thrushes is often a characteris- 
tic feature of the late spring migration of this section, so the 
absence of most of the less common Dendroicce is also characteris- 
tic. When they do occur, however, it is almost entirely very late 
in the season, as in the cases of the thrushes. The Black-throated 
Blue W r arbler is an exception to the latter statement. It is rare, 
but of the two records of its occurrence of which I know, both 
fell before the first of April. The Magnolia Warbler, however, 
the Blackburnian, the Chestnut-sided, the Bay-breasted, and the 
Black-throated Green, are usually seen, if at all, in the late spring. 
At New Iberia, La., in the south central part of the State, where 
the prairies begin to encroach, I have seen a female Bay-breasted 
Warbler May 15. Strange enough, the weather at the time did 
not show the usual fall in the temperature that accompanies, or, 
perhaps, causes the tarrying of the spring travelers. A majority 
of the few records for the occurrence of the Bay-breasted Warbler 
at this latitude in spring occur between the 25th of April and the 
10th of May. The appearance of the Redstart at New Orleans 
and other points near it in spring occurs mostly at the same time. 
With the Bay-breasted Warbler seen at New Iberia there was a 
male Redstart. The Tennessee Warbler has recently been proved 
to have the same propensity. The past spring the only Tennessee 
Warblers I saw at New Orleans, and among the few of which I 
have any spring records, were noted between April 26 and May 9. 
Some were present almost every day of that period, and they 
seemed to be lingering contentedly. 

Outside of the Warblers and Thrushes, there are other species 
that loiter unaccountably. For several years in succession the 
American Pipit was seen in abundance at New Orleans as late as 
the 20th of April. Small flocks would be seen even until the end 

A.O Kopman, Bird Migration in the Lozver Miss. Valley- \ ^ l,k 

of the month and the last date has twice been set at May 2. The 
Savanna Sparrow always remains until after the first of May, and 
the last has been seen May 9. Like the Pipit, the Rusty Black- 
bird has been seen as late as May 2, and small singing flocks have 
been on hand at New Orleans until the very last week of April. 
May 7, Andrew Allison has seen the last Water Thrush (Seiiirus 
noveboracensis) at New Orleans. It was with a week's wave of 
warblers, thrushes, and a sprinkling of a few other species, nota- 
bly the Rose-breasted Grosbeak and the White-crowned Sparrow. 
The White-crowned Sparrows, four of which were seen May 1, 
were the only ones I have ever observed at New Orleans, and the 
only ones I have seen in this latitude in spring. Noted a month 
after the latest date I should have expected to find them, these 
birds have always seemed to me remarkable instances of the ten- 
dency towards retarded migration. The greatest of all the loiterers 
are the Waders. Almost no date is too late for some of the species, 
and it is doubtful whether all individuals of certain of the species 
believed to breed only in the far North ever leave the region of the 
Gulf Coast in summer. At Cameron, La., on the southwest coast 
of Louisiana, I saw four or five Sanderlings on the beach June 30, 
last. While the return of the waders to the lower Mississippi val- 
ley begins very early, I am hardly disposed to believe that these 
birds were returning migrants. Whether there had been any at 
Cameron earlier in June I was unable to know, as I had not been 
there before. The earliness of the fall migration in southern 
Louisiana and Mississippi, however, is remarkable. Pectoral, 
Solitary and Bartramian Sandpipers are almost certain to be back 
by the middle of July, and other species return in quick successive 
order. From the nature of their flight, however, the early return 
of the waders is to be expected, but how are we to explain the 
presence of the Black-throated Green Warbler in southern Missis- 
sippi July 30 ? In 1897 I took one on that date, during a very heavy 
migration at Beauvoir, Miss., on the Gulf Coast. Redstarts, 
Black-and-White, Cerulean, Yellow, and Prairie Warblers, which at 
the most are very rare breeders in southern Mississippi, the Red- 
start certainly not breeding that far south, appeared in considerable 
numbers at the same time and some had appeared two weeks or 
more before. Aug. 1 1 , the Water-Thrush (S. noveboracensis) fol- 

Vol. XXI 

Kopman, Bird Migration in the Lower Miss. Valley. AQ 

lowed. August 1 2 I took a specimen of the Golden-winged Warbler. 
At Bay St. Louis, Miss., Andrew Allison has taken Blackburn's 
Warbler, Aug. n. While it is not always the same species that 
shows this unexpected tendency, it happens in one case or another 
with too much frequency to be disposed of on the ground of fortuity. 
It is obvious also that birds of about the same class have been 
participant in the tendency. These early movements have been 
known to include the rarer vireos also. In 1893, the Philadelphia 
Vireo, which had appeared furtively during the last days of 
July in a heavy growth of willows on the batture land of the Mis- 
sissippi at Convent, La., forty miles up the river (west) from New 
Orleans, appeared in astonishing abundance August 2. I took one 
specimen, but there was no need of killing more, as the birds were 
about me on all sides. In spring, during the time of abundance of 
the Warbling Vireo, which is a common breeder along the Missis- 
sippi in southern Louisiana, I have never seen the Philadelphia 
Vireo, but beside the record just noted, I have several other rec- 
ords of its occurrence in this section in fall, always later, however, 
than on the above occasion. As for the Blue-headed Vireo, H. L. 
Ballowe (now Dr. Ballowe), of Diamond, La., on the Mississippi 
thirty miles south of New Orleans, sent me in 1893 a specimen of 
this bird that he killed August 4. Taken all in all, this is prob- 
ably the most remarkable of these early records. The Blue-headed 
Vireo is a winter resident in the wet woods of southern Louisiana, 
but it commonly appears only at the beginning of the winter. The 
August record seems more in the nature of a ' freak ' record than 
do any of the other records. A rare bird in this part of the South, 
whose case, nevertheless, is very clearly indicated as that of a bird 
preferring early fall migration, is the Olive-sided Flycatcher. In 
1894 Mr. Ballowe sent me a specimen he had killed at Diamond, 
August 31. Andrew Allison recorded the Olive-sided Flycatcher 
at Bay St. Louis, August 29, 1902, and the present season I saw 
one August 16, at Covington, La., like Bay St. Louis, in pine woods. 
Covington is less than forty miles north of New Orleans. 

One of the strange features of the early fall migration of this 
latitude is that it is composed chiefly of those species that in spring 
give little of their presence here, especially in the fertile alluvial 
of the Mississippi delta. Such are the Yellow Warbler, the Red- 

^O Buturlin, Correct Name of the Pacific Dunlin. Tfai^ 

start, the Black-and-White Warbler. The Yellow Warbler appears 
at New Orleans from further north about the middle of July, and 
by the last week of the month Yellow Warblers are present by 
hundreds. Even when appearing in waves in the spring, the Yel- 
low Warblers are always restricted in their numbers at that season. 
As for the Black-and-White Warbler and the Redstart they are 
rarities at New Orleans in spring. Not so after the first of August. 
They are always to be found in reasonable numbers in the woods 
after that date and sometimes in large numbers. The Tennessee 
and Magnolia Warblers do not agree with the foregoing in being 
particularly early fall migrants, but they do agree in being the most 
abundant of our birds in the fall, and among the rarest in spring. 
The time of their arrival in fall approximates September 20. 



When publishing, in 1902, Part I of my ' Limicolae of the Rus- 
sian Empire,' it was not without much hesitation that I proposed 
to give a new name to the Fantail Snipe of East Siberia, 1 as 
Vieillot's old one, Scolopax sakhalina, was a very suggestive one. 
But Vieillot's ' Nouveau Dictionnaire ' was not to be found in 
Russia (not even in the Academical Library), and as H. Seebohm, 
R. B. Sharpe and others quote " Sc. sakhalina " invariably with 
a " ? " , I preferred to give a new name to the East-Siberian 

Through the extreme kindness of Mr. Charles W. Richmond,. 

1 Scolopax {Galliuago) galiinago raddei nests from Yenesei eastward ; differs 
from Sc. (G.) gallinago Linn, in having more white on the wing-lining and 
axillaries ; the chest not so mottled with brown ; feathers of the upper parts 
somewhat more mottled with rufous ; the sandy buff edges of the scapulars 
and the feathers of the upper back much broader, some .08-. 16 inch broad ;. 
pale central stripe along the crown also broader. 

Vol. XXI 

Buturlin, Correct Name of the Pacific Dunlin. C I 

of the U. S. National Museum, Washington, I received afterwards 
(in litt.) a copy of Vieillot's description. As the work is rare ; it 
is better to quote fully. 

"La Becassine sakhaline, Scolopax sakkalina, VieilL, (pi. 85 
d'un ouvrage russe publie par Sakhalin), se trouve en Russie. 
Elle a le dessus de la tete, du cou, des ailes et de la queue d'un 
fauve rougeatre varie d'un grand nombre de taches brunes ; le 
tour du bee et la gorge blancs et bruns ; la poitrine de cette der- 
niere couleur, mais uniforme ; les cote's du ventre, les plumes de 
l'anus et le bord des grandes pennes alaires blancs ; le bee et les 
pieds bruns." (Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., III. 18 16, 

P- 359-) 

"Breast uniformly brown" cannot possibly be intended for a 

Fantail Snipe {Gall, gallinago Linn, or subsp.), and is a gross 

exaggeration even for a Solitary Snipe (G. solitaria Hodgs. et. 

subsp.). Amongst Palaearctic waders only to the Dunlin (Tringa 

or Pelidna alpina Linn, et subsp.) the above description applies 

better. The including of the Dunlin in one genus with snipes is 

not to be wondered at, as Pallas (Zoogr., 1811, II, p. 176) did 

the same. 

Vieillot's description, however, is none too good, though plainly 
referable to the Dunlin ; so it was necessary to inquire the source 
of his information, " un ouvrage russe publie par Sakhalin." 
Scientific books of Natural History or Travel previous to 181 6 
(date of Vieillot's work) were rarely published in the Russian 
language, but I tried in vain to trace Mr. Sakhalin, a name of a 
Russian writer or artist quite as unknown to my friends as to 

At last I thought of Gray's splendid work, and my friend 
M. N. Michaylowsky has sent me the following quotation (from 
St. Petersb. Akad. Library) from Gray's Gen. Birds, III, 1849, P- 
283. " ?25- G. sakhalina (Vieill.) N. Diet. d'Hist Nat. iii, 359, 
Krust. Voy. t. 86." 

Here Vieillot's somewhat vague original quotation of a " Russian 
work by Mr. Sakhalin " is rendered quite clear, as the name of 
the gallant Captain Krusenstern, first Russian circumnavigator of 
the Globe, is well known to all interesting themselves in Natural 
Science. The copies of the original (Russian) edition of his 

£^2 Buturlin, Correct Name of the Pacific Dunlin. Tf^ 

1 Voyage ' are very rare, but Mr. Af. Al. Illyne in St. Petersburg 
most kindly sent me a copy. 

The text (Russian) is in three small quarto volumes, issued, 
Vol. I in 1809, Vol. II in 1810, and Vol. Ill in 1812. The first 
two contain the Narrative of the voyage round the World in 
1803, 4, 5 and 6, and the third contains some of the scientific 
results. The botanical and zoological results were intended to 
be published in Vol. IV (see Vol. Ill, pp. iii and iv), but unfor- 
tunately it was never published. From pp. iv and 7 of Vol. I we 
know that plates of natural history objects were drawn by Dr. 
Tilesius of Leipsic, the naturalist of the expedition. 

To the text is adjoined a big in-folio Atlas of XCVIII Plates, 
issued in St. Petersburg in 18 14 and bearing the following title: 

Atlas I zur | Reise um die Welt | unternommen auf Befehl | Seiner 
Kaiserlichen Majestat | Alexander der Ersten | auf den Schiffen Nadeshda 
und Neva | unter dem Commando | des Capitans von Krusenstern. | St. 
Petersburg. | 1814. 

Curiously enough, Gray must have quoted Tab. 86 by a lapsus 
calami (or a typographical error), — as Vieillot also quoted Tab. 
85 : Tab. LXXXV of Krusenstern's Atlas represents a Wagtail 
(perhaps M. leucopsis Gould) and a Titmouse, and Tab. LXXXVI 
is a bad figure, that I take for a young Heteractitis brevipes Vieill. 
(it is termed " Tringa meleagris" on the plate, or " Die Braune 
Weispunctierte Meerlerche "). 

But Plate LXXXIV represents very well the type of Vieillot's 
description ; it is a fairly accurate, natural size (I presume) figure 
of the Pacific Dunlin in breeding dress, with the typical, for the 
Pacific form, pure white band across the chest, above the black 
patch. The wing is 121 mm. (4.76 inch) long, and the culmen 
38.5 mm. (1.51 in.); in the right upper part of the Plate the 
bill is drawn as seen from above and nearly 1.5 : 1 of the natural 
size (55.5 mm.) ; the outlines are clearly those of the Dunlin bill, 
only it is made too straight. The bird on the plate bears not 
only a Russian name, 1 but also " Tringa Variegata oder der Bunte 
Sachalinische Strandlaufer " ; it is stated also that the plate is by 
Dr. Tilesius (" Tilesius p : PetrotT sc : "). 

indicating that the bird is from the island Saghalien. 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate XI. 

3- 4 


Figs, i and 3, deformed ; figs. 2 and 4, normal. 

i o 1 Bowdish, Ab?iormal Bill of Melanerpes portoricensis. C 7 

I am quite satisfied now, that Tringa alpina var. americana 
Cassin, B. N. Amer., p. 719 (1858) , Pelidna pacifica Coues, Pr. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 189 (1861), and the much earlier 
Scolopax sakhalina Vieillot, N. Diet, d' Hist. Nat., Ill, p. 359 
(181 6), are only synonyms of Tringa variegata Tilesius, Atlas 
Krusenstern. Reis., PL LXXXIV (1814). 

I think that Tilesius's name must be accepted for the Pacific 
Dunlin, 1 as Tringa variegata of Gmelin (Sys. Nat., I, p. 674, 
1788) is not a Tringa at all, but (being a synonym of his Tringa 
virgata, ibid.) a type of quite a distant genus of waders: Aphriza 
Audubon (1839). But those who consider that Gmelin's Tringa 
variegata invalidates Tilesius's name must accept Vieillot's name 
and call the Pacific Dunlin Tringa {Pelidna) alpina sakhalina 

I add to this note an accurate photograph (nearly 1 : 1.4 nat. 
size) of Tilesius's Plate. 
1903, Oct. 7, 

Russia, Esthonia, Wesenberg. 



Plate XI. 

On June 27, 190 1, I shot a male Melanerpes portoricensis from 
a tree in a coffee plantation on a hillside near Mayaguez, P. R. 
The specimen is No. 177842 of the National Museum collection 
and was loaned to me for the purpose of making illustrations and 

This bird, which was in company with an apparently quite nor- 

1 And it should stand as Tringa {Pelidna) alpina variegata Tilesius, as it is 
only subspecifically distinct. I must add, that I see no reasons for even sub- 
generically dividing Dunlins, Knots, Purple and Curlew Sandpipers, etc. 


Bowdish, Abnormal Bill of Melanerfies fiortoriccnsis. 


mal female, possessed a beak abnormally developed in a most 
interesting manner. An injury near the base of the lower man- 
dible, partially breaking it away, as a shot might do, seems to 
have caused this growth. 

The theory that I have evolved to account for it, is that as the 
wound healed the edges contracted, warping the mandible toward 
that side and tending to the corkscrew-shaped growth that the 
mandible exhibits. The bird was debarred from hammering by 
the weakened and misshapen bill, and the growth which normally 
would have replaced wear, abnormally prolonged both mandibles, 
though why the lower so much more than the upper I cannot 
readily understand. 

The measurements of this bill are : length of upper mandible, 
(exposed culmen), 1.33 in.; lower mandible from symphysis, 1.85 
in. ; width at base, .34 in. 

The extent of the abnormal growth can be better appreciated 
by a comparison of a table of measurements of bills of nine spec- 
imens in my collection : 

Lower mandible 




Upper mandible. 

(from symphysis). 



Aug. 27 

. 80 i n . 

.50 in. 

.30 in. 


Dec. 1 

.85 " 

•57 " ■ 

.30 " 


Aug. 25 

.9S " 

.60 " 

■35 " 


Sept. 6 

1. 00 " 

.62 " 

T-. " 


Jan. 31 

1. 10 " 

.70 " 

•33 " 


Sept. 25 

1.96 " 

.60 " 

•34 " 


Feb. 10 

1. 10 " 

.68 " 

■35 " 


Dec. 28 

1.06 " 

.72 " 

•33 " 


Aug. 14 

1.02 " 

.6s " 

.36 " 

This table shows the average length of the upper mandible to 
be about 1.00 in.; length of lower mandible, .67 in.; and the 
width of bill at base .^t,. Thus it will be seen that in the spec- 
imen under consideration, while the width of the base of bill is 
about normal, the upper mandible is a third of an inch longer 
than the average, and the lower nearly three times the average of 
these nine specimens. 

The illustrations show very well the form of the beak. It will 
be noticed that the lower mandible makes a half turn, so that 
what should be its lower surface is, at the tip, the upper ; while 

Vol.XXr Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. c;^ 

1904 j 

slender it is not characteristically sharp pointed. The upper 
mandible is much more curved than normally, probably from lack 
of the support of the lower mandible, and in place of the normal 
sharp, chisel-shaped point, the tip much more resembles that of 
a snipe's bill. 

Where the edges of the mandibles meet at the crossing they are 
worn to a slight notch. 

It would be interesting to know whether this bird subsisted 
entirely on fruit and seeds, which normally form a large percent- 
age of the food of the species, or whether it was fed by the mate, 
with insects. Obviously this bill was not adapted to obtaining 
insects for itself in the usual manner. Unfortunately the bird's 
stomach when procured was empty. The stomach of the female 
contained the remains of a dragonfly. 



The peninsula of Nova Scotia has a ragged coast-line ; the land 
is deeply invaded by the sea through many fiord-like inlets. Four 
rocky headlands, scarred and worn, alternate with stretches of 
sand and shingle ; bowlder-strewn ledges fringe the shores and 
submarine banks reach far seaward. These sands seem to have 
impressed the early French explorers who gave the name " Sable ,: 
to the southern cape of the peninsula, as well as to a river and 
also to a group of low islands which lie at some distance off the 
eastern coast. The edge of the great Atlantic fog bank hovers 
over these shores, and creeping in with the southerly wind wraps 
the land in its gloomy mists, often for days at a time. 

Back of this coast the voyager along the southern shores sees a 
land of pointed trees — spruce and balsam fir — rising into a low 
ridge that is succeeded inland by other similar ridges ; a vast, 
unbroken stretch of evergreen wilderness from shore to shore 

Cj6 Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. Man 

across the peninsula, with wide savannas of sphagnum bog, 
swampy jungles of alder and tamarack, rocky ' barrens ' covered 
by a growth of dwarf blueberry, and here and there, in the hollows 
between the ridges, the waters of a glacial lake. Many streams 
head in the bogs on the low divides, their waters dark with the 
leachings of the peat, and flow west toward the Bay of Fundy and 
east into the long inlets of the Atlantic. They widen out into 
lily-covered ponds where the moose wades and feeds, and in 
places the ancient building of the beaver has blocked their course 
with meadows. Each spring the salmon, running up from the 
ocean to spawn, stem the rapids of these rivers and leap their 
waterfalls, and the angler will find the brook trout from the foam 
flecked pools of the lower reaches to the head streams far back in 
the bogs. 

Along the shores of the bays are the scattered settlements of a 
fishing folk, hemmed in landward by the wilderness of evergreens. 
Atone of these — the village of Barrington, just back of Cape 
Sable Island — I spent the past three summers. It was mid-June 
when we reached there and lilacs and horsechestnuts were in 
bloom in the dooryards; a week or so later the air was sweet with 
the blossoms of the May or English hawthorn, hedges of which 
had been planted about some of the old houses. This renewal of 
the spring was very pleasing to us who had come from the early 
summer of southeastern Pennsylvania. Back in the woods we 
traced the footprints of spring where the dainty twin flower 
{Linncea) showed in patches of faint rosy bloom above the moss. 
The dense thickets of Labrador tea {Ledum) and Rhodora, that 
grew along the boggy waysides, were in blossom, and here and 
there the chokeberry {Primus virginiana) showed its flowers. In 
old clearings a profusion of wild strawberries were slowly ripening. 
The white flowers of the bunchberry {Cor tins canadensis), the 
chick weed wintergreen {Trientalis), and the two-leaved Solomon's 
seal ( Unifolium) showed everywhere through the woods. The 
undergrowth of this region, except where dense forests of balsam 
fir had excluded sunlight, was for the most part made up of brake 
{Pteris) , bayberry {Myrica), sheep laurel {Kalmia angustifolia), 
and blueberry bushes ( Vaccinium ca?iadense and V. petinsyl- 
vanicani) . 

V °l 9 ^4 Xl ] Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. 57 

During these June days and through the first half of July the 
land was ringing with bird songs. Along the village highway, 
from every piece of garden shrubbery, every patch of swamp 
tangle and thicket came the sweet, homely notes of Song Spar- 
rows, Maryland Yellow-throats, and Summer Warblers. In the 
woods back of the village the loud, clear whistle of the White- 
throated Sparrow, calling Old Sam Peabody-Peabody-Peabody, 
struck the keynote of all that was wild and delectable in these 
solitudes. The song of the Olive-backed Thrush sounded far and 
near over the tree tops and across clearings, while from all about 
the woods came the dry, monotonous ditty of the Black-throated 
Green Warbler. These three songs were the dominant notes of 
the woodland. This is far from saying that other bird notes were 
not appreciably present to the attentive ear. The rapid chipping 
song of the Junco, the tiny tin trumpet of the Canada Nuthatch, 
the wiry notes of the Hudsonian Chickadee, the screeching calls 
of wandering Whiskey Jacks, to say nothing of the more familiar 
notes of Robins, Flickers, and Crows, all these and others fell 
upon the ear with more or less frequency, but back in the woods 
from dawn to sunset, you were rarely if ever out of hearing of 
some Peabody song, some Olive-backed Thrush, or some member 
of the ubiquitous and tireless tribe of Vireos. 

For several reasons I have not attempted to present the birds 
of this interesting region in the form of a list of species. In the 
first place I was only a casual observer of the birds during three 
summers and only an indifferent collector during my third and 
last sojourn. In the second place the bird fauna of the region is 
already well known, and a list at the hands of one who took life 
easy would necessarily be imperfect. What I have tried to do is 
to record my impressions of the bird life as a whole and what 
facts fell in my way that related to certain birds in particular. 

The shores of Barrington Bay are largely tide -washed beaches 
of coarse gravel, loose rocks, and bowlders covered with brown 
rock weed. The ebbing tide lays bare extensive ' flats ' of eel 
grass and exposes numerous ledges on which many harbor seals 
gather to sun themselves. Here and there a bar of sand affords 
a haunt for the restless flocks of shore birds, while the Herring 
Gulls and the Terns settle in long rows on these sand strips at 

^ 8 Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. If™ 

low water, their white breasts glistening in the sunlight. While 
at Barrington I saw an occasional Black-backed Gull. Some years 
before (1897) I visited a gull rookery at Cape Split where the 
waters of the Bay of Fundy spread into the Basin of Minas, a 
point much farther north than Barrington. Here the ' Coffin- 
carrier ' was quite abundant and nested in the colonies of Herring 
Gulls on the narrow basaltic edges of the high Cape wall. In the 
clefts and crannies of this rocky wall many wild roses were in 
bloom which added a charming effect to the scene. I saw the 
two species feeding together ; a number of gulls would swim in a 
wide circle, apparently ' rounding up ' their prey, while several 
individuals in the center were actively engaged in diving after the 
fish. When seemingly satisfied the divers would drop back into 
the circle of swimmers and others would take their turn at diving 
and feeding. As far as I have been able to learn this rookery at 
Cape Split is one of the most southerly breeding places of the 
great Black-backed Gull, which is at home with the Ice Gulls and 
KiUiwakes of Baffin Bay. 

The terns, or ' Mackerel Gulls,' as they are called by the fisher- 
men, are reasonably abundant in Barrington Bay and probably 
breed on the shingle and sand beaches of Cape Island. All that 
I saw appeared to belong to the common species — Wilson's Tern. 

The Black Duck was the only species of its kind that bred in 
this part of Nova Scotia ; its favorite nesting haunts were the bogs 
about lake shores and it was fairly abundant in these situations 
during the early part of the summer. 

One of the most conspicuous inhabitants of the tidal marshes, 
that formed wide stretches of shore land in many places along the 
bay, was the Willet. These birds nest on the inland border of the 
marsh where the swampy undergrowth of woods met the salt grass. 
I had no success in finding nests and was probably too late in the 
season. Fully fledged young birds were about early in July ; one 
of these was shot by my son with an air rifle. The old birds were 
noisy and vigilant until midsummer, when they disappeared from 
these haunts and in small flocks frequented the mud flats and 
beaches at low water. Earlier in the summer, as we tramped 
along the inner edge of the marsh, or skirted its outer edge in a 
boat, the shrill pill-will-willet call was sure to greet us ; one or 

Vol XXI 

Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. CO 

more individuals would follow, hovering with dangling legs on 
broad, outstretched wing, close at hand, or perched on some stake 
or the top of a spruce tree, restless, uneasy, and vociferous until 
we had gotten well away from the devoted spot. 

Certain birds were remarkable for their scarcity, though abun- 
dant enough in other sections of the country. I saw but few 
Chimney Swifts during my three visits ; this is undoubtedly due to 
the fact that most of the chimneys are small and are more or less 
continually in use during the summer. The Kingbird, save in one 
instance, was not observed about Barrington until the latter part 
of the summer when it appeared sparingly in old fields bordering 
the salt marshes and shores. In the extensive apple orchards 
about the Basin of Minas I found these birds nesting in 1897 — 
and they were fairly abundant. The majority of the Kingbird 
population undoubtedly finds more congenial nesting sites in the 
agricultural portions of the Province, and the birds appear in the 
wilder tracts of the southern part only after the breeding season. 
The same observations are true of the Bobolink. I found this 
bird nesting abundantly in the lush grass meadows of the Habi- 
tent that flows through an old Acadian dyke into the Basin of 
Minas, but only saw one individual during my three summers' 
stay at Barrington ; a male bird in changing plumage, which I 
secured on July 30, 1903. 

The only flycatcher aside from the Kingbird that I found at 
Barrington was the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii alnorum). 
Most of the individuals seen were low down in the dense growth 
of alders along a sparsely traveled road. The solicitous actions 
of several of these birds on August 8 betrayed the nearness of 
young. They kept well out of sight, only occasionally revealing 
themselves on the edge of the alders and all the while uttering a 
succession of piping chirps. 

A small colony of Rusty Crackles frequented the inner edge of 
a salt marsh and several individuals were seen on June 17, 1902, 
in a fresh bog on Barrington River. 

I had read Bradford Torrey's account of his hunt after Ravens 
in the country about Highlands, among the mountains of western 
North Carolina. I spent two summers at Highlands, and like Mr. 
Torrey had no success in meeting with this interesting bird. But 

60 Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. r^ uk 


fortune changed when I visited Nova Scotia. Under date of July 
ii, 1 90 1, is the following entry in my note book : "On the beach 
of a small island [in Barrington Bay] saw four Ravens. They 
were feeding on the head of a sheep. First heard the ' croak/ 
then saw the four large birds slowly take wing and flop heavily 
across the bay toward the further shore." There was no mistaking 
the ominous croak for the caw of a Crow. At first we thought it 
was the hoarse bark of a seal on the outer reefs. The Ravens 
took a direction quite different from that which the Crows took 
when leaving this small island. The Crows were numerous all 
about the bay and would fly to the nearest point of the main land, 
but these Ravens steered for a wild tract of woodland on the far- 
ther side of the bay which I afterwards learned was known to be 
a haunt of the weird bird. During the following summer (1902) 
I again heard the Raven's croak, several times, from the heavily 
timbered ridges about the less frequented parts of Shelburne 

Some northern members of the finch family were at home in 
this evergreen wilderness ; birds which, until my visits to Nova 
Scotia, I had never seen alive before. One of these was the 
Pine Grosbeak. 

All that I had read and heard from those who had observed 
the bird during its occasional winter wanderings to more southern 
latitudes led me to believe that it was almost foolishly tame and 
unsuspicious. In its breeding grounds, however, I found it just 
the reverse. The bird was far oftener heard than seen, and always 
appeared shy. The clear, loud whistling song would sound for 
long distances over the woods and open savannas. Every little 
while during the day one or more of these birds would be singing 
from the top of some tall spruce or fir. After delivering its song 
for some time the bird, when undisturbed, would suddenly fly 
down into the dense cover of the woods, but if suspicious of an 
intruder into its haunts it would frequently fly a long distance 
from the spot. Like the Goldfinch, the Pine Siskin, the Cross- 
bills and others of its tribe, the Pine Grosbeak often utters its 
whistling notes while on the wing At first I used to think of this 
song as resembling that of the Goldfinch, only of greater magni- 
tude, but later I came to recognize a quality in it that was 

Vol. XXI 


Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. 6 1 

strangely suggestive of the whistle of the Greater Yellowlegs 
( Tot anus mela?ioleucus) . 

From time to time we would fall in with wandering flocks of 
Crossbills, the dipping flight and twittering notes on the wing call- 
ing to mind the Goldfinch. They appeared to be exceedingly 
irregular in their movements, disappearing from a locality for days 
at a time. In the summer of 190 1 I saw them first on July 7, and 
after that more or less frequently during my stay of three months. 
I have seen those birds feeding in the public road like English 
Sparrows. The past summer (1903) I did not see or hear Cross- 
bills until the 13th of August. After that they appeared irregu- 
larly. Many of the birds were young and a few individuals of the 
White-winged species were mixed in with the flocks. The birds 
seemed stupid in their tameness. I fired three or four times into 
a flock that had settled in a black spruce, the birds busy shelling 
the cones, without causing any disturbance to the majority, which 
continued to feed unconcernedly. These flocks are eminently 
restless, sweeping about over the tree tops with their constantly 
uttered tweet-tweet. 

Another finch of exceedingly irregular distribution locally was 
the Pine Siskin. I frequently heard its canary-like song during 
the latter part of the summer of 1901 and saw the birds a number 
of times. In 1902 I saw several individuals on the 18th of June, 
but never afterwards. Last summer the bird was conspicuous by 
its absence in the neighborhood of Barrington, and was seen only 
once, in the early part of September. 

The Purple Finch was fairly abundant and its rolling carol was 
one of the charming songs of these woodlands. At Bedford 
Basin, near Halifax, N. S., where I spent one summer, this bird 
frequented the neighborhood of houses, like its western cousin. 
I have seen two males almost within hand reach of my window 
trying to outrival each other in singing. 

The Acadian Sharp-tailed Finch (Ammodramus caudacntiis sub- 
virgatus) was an inhabitant of the tidal marshes about Barrington. 
The bird's notes are like the noise made by sucking in through 
the teeth, a wet sound that savors of the oozy marsh. 

During the first two summers I had my mind set on finding Lin- 
coln's Sparrow. It was not until last summer, however, that I 

62 Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. \^ 



came upon the bird. My wife and I had wandered far back in a 
boggy savanna after blueberries — the largest berries I think I have 
ever seen — and growing weary of picking I took up the gun and 
began poking along the edge of a dense clump of bushes. Pres- 
ently a bird showed itself and on being shot proved to be a young 
male Lincoln's Sparrow. This was on August 29, and a day or 
two later I secured another young individual in the same locality. 
Whether the birds breed in this region I am not prepared to say. 
The two individuals secured, though evidently not long out of the 
nest, may have been migrants from farther North. 

The Red-eyed and Solitary Yireos were the only two species 
of their kind that I found about Barrington. The Hudson ian 
Chickadee was common everywhere through the spruce and fir 
woods and the Black-capped Chickadee was also fairly abundant, 
though far less so than the Hudsonian species. Golden-crowned 
Kinglets were frequently heard all through the summer, and Red- 
breasted Nuthatches were about as common. 

Among wood warblers the Black-throated Green, the Maryland 
Yellow-throat, the Myrtle, and the Black and Yellow were by far 
the most abundant; the Black and White Warbler and the Redstart 
were not uncommon. The Chestnut-sided and the Yellow Palm 
Warblers were also observed. The Oven-bird was oftener heard 
than seen, and one Wilson's Black-capped Warbler was taken 
toward the end of the summer. A pair of Nashville Warblers were 
seen on the edge of an alder and tamarack swamp on the 27th of 
July, and several others were heard at the same time ; one male was 

The Cliff Swallows had established colonies under the eaves of 
a number of the barns in the village. On my first visit I noticed a 
rather odd departure in the housekeeping habits of the Tree 
Swallows. A pair of these birds had taken up their residence in a 
deserted Cliff Swallow's mud house on the lintel over a cottage 
door. Probably the Cliff Swallows found communal life more to 
their liking and deserted the solitary dwelling to join some nearby 

Young Robins, just out of the nest and not yet able to fly, were 
found on the 22nd of August, which struck me as rather a late 
date for Robin fledglings. One cause of these delayed broods is- 

Vol i9o 4 XI ] Trotter, Some Nova Scotia Birds. 6$ 

probably the great abundance of berries in the late summer on 
which the young birds are fed. 

The two species of the Hylocichla group of Thrushes which I 
found in this part of Nova Scotia, presented some interesting facts 
in local distribution. On the west side of Barrington Bay I found the 
Olive-backed Thrush the predominant species, while on the eastern 
side, the Hermit was the only one noticed. I cannot account for 
this on any other ground than the tendency of individuals of the 
same species to congregate in the same area. My observations 
lead me to believe that the Olive-backed Thrush is the shyer of 
the two. I saw the Hermit a number of times close to dwellings 
and it seemed to choose the more open woodland tracts, while the 
Olive-backed Thrush frequented the heavier growth along the edge 
of clearings. I have approached quite close to the Hermit and 
listened to his matchless song delivered from a fallen tree or stump 
in the clearings at noon-day, but the Olive-backed Thrush was 
always difficult to approach, and so far as my observations go, is a 
much wilder bird in its habits. Its favorite post when singing is 
near the top of some tall spruce or fir ; the bird diving into the 
undergrowth on the slightest suspicion of an intruder. 

The song of the Olive-backed Thrush seemed to me to be 
inferior to that of the Hermit ; it starts out well but is finished in 
a series of squeaky notes. My ear for music, however, is unculti- 
vated and I am told by those who have a good ear that the Olive- 
backed Thrush is really the better performer of the two. The 
Hermit's song appealed to me as a sustained melody throughout ; 
as though the musician had the ear to appreciate as well as the 
power to express. Aside from their relative merits as musicians 
both birds are charming songsters, voicing the very spirit of 
wilderness solitudes. 

The alarm notes of the two species are quite different. The 
Olive-backed Thrush when disturbed utters a metallic note, short 
and sharp, often ending in a curious rolling, querulous call. This 
note is uttered constantly while the bird is fidgeting about in the 
cover near by. I have several times mistaken these short pucking 
notes of the Olive-backed Thrush for the alarm calls of the 
Ruffed Grouse to her scattering brood. The alarm note of the 
Hermit has a Catbird quality about it, lower pitched and less 

64 Dwight, Exaltation of the Subspecies. [fan 

metallic than that of the Olive-backed Thrush. On the 10th of 
August I found a Hermit calling to her brood in the undergrowth 
with a low cluck that was instantly changed to the alarm note 
when my presence became known. 

On the wooded slopes about Shelburne Harbor the Hermit 
Thrush was apparently abundant. In the hush of the long twi- 
light we would drift far out toward the edge of burnished water, 
listening to the vesper strains of some late singer that came with 
infinite sweetness out of the gathering gloom of the farther shore. 



Whatever may be the intrinsic worth of the subspecies, signs 
are not wanting, at the present time, that its value, especially in 
the domain of ornithology, is impaired by the undue prominence 
which it has attained. Some of us hold it so close to the eye that 
all fields beyond are obscured and the one near object becomes 
not a part of ornithology but the aim and end of all our 
research. Our efforts are so one-sided that minute variations of 
dimension or color are magnified by their very proximity until 
they afford foothold for the rising flood of names that threatens to 
undermine the very foundations of trinomial nomenclature. It 
seems to be forgotten that the subspecies is only a convenient rec- 
ognition of geographical variation within the limits of the species. 
Its rise began when the distribution of the species of many parts 
of the globe had been thoroughly determined, and systematists 
welcomed it as a new and useful outlet for activity. Since that 
time down to the present, the dividing and re-dividing of old 
species into geographical races or subspecies has gone on apace 
— not as a matter of making two blades of grass grow where one 
grew before but of splitting the one blade. 

The luxuriant growth of the subspecies, while unquestionably 

Vol. XXIJ D wight, Exaltation of the Subspecies. 65 

due to numerous and complex causes, depends, in a large degree, 
upon man's natural and proper desire to bestow names upon the 
objects about him. Unfortunately the giving of a name, be it 
ever so scientific, is hedged in by no prerequisites of scientific 
training, and many have been the blunders committed through 
ignorance and haste. We are, after all. only human, but one of 
the greatest misfortunes that can befall is when a dim conception 
of evolution leads us to confuse plasticity of a form to its environ- 
ment with plasticity in our own brain. We must beware lest we 
name that which exists only in our expectant mind. A subspecies 
potential is a fact, a subspecies named, an opinion, for in giving a 
name we express an opinion which may or may not fit the fact. 
As a working hypothesis, it is convenient to consider the sub- 
species as an incipient species, but to name every degree of 
incipiency is pushing matters to a point where the name, by over- 
shadowing the fact, ceases to be the convenient handle for which 
it is primarily intended. The tail begins to wag the dog, and, in 
the eyes of some, it really seems to be more important than the 

Another, but less potent cause for the rise of the subspecies is 
found in the unnecessary prominence accorded it in our books and 
other publications. Wherever we turn we find it, to all appear- 
ances, on equal terms with the full species. It is clothed in the 
same type, while descriptions, measurements, synonymy and other 
matters are displayed independently as if every name were of 
equal value. No wonder the impression is created that the sub- 
species is quite as important as the species and deserving of the 
same treatment. W T e forget that, as names multiply, they lose in 
definiteness of meaning, and that the standard by which races are 
measured falls in direct proportion to the number of names 
resulting from new campaigns over old ground. Ornithology, in 
North America at least, is suffering from too many campaigns. 

But, the mind of the young ornithologist is strongly influenced 
by what his elders do, and if they make much of the subspecies 
he is likely to do the same. Hence, if we expend so much effort 
in seeking new lines of geographical cleavage, it is not inconceiv- 
able that our successors may reduce our splinters to sawdust and 
bestow a name upon each and every grain. It is to be hoped, 

66 Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. I tan 

however, that the limits of the human eye and of the vernier scale 
will not be the only goal of the ornithologist, for true science does 
not receive much uplifting from the mere renaming of a few 
handfuls of skin and feathers. How well revision and renaming 
have worked in the past, when species were the units, is shown by 
the long array of synonyms that burden many a page. Synonymy 
might fittingly be called the science of the blunders of our pre- 
decessors, and we ourselves shall need deliverance from an intol- 
erable load of names unless our fragile subspecific refinements are 
woven of stronger threads. We discover and name trivialities 
because we like to do it, and new names loom very large even if 
they mean little. We confuse nomenclature and ornithology, for- 
getful that names which should be the tools of the ornithologist 
may easily become the playthings of the systematist. If the sub- 
species be relegated to its proper place and held in proper per- 
spective, we shall neither flounder in a flood of names nor fail to 
perceive the opportunities which lie open before us. There is 
more serious work on hand than the naming of subspecies if the 
advance of ornithology is to keep pace with that of kindred 



To demonstrate the efficacy of bird protection by exclusion of 
firearms the Yosemite Valley is an excellent example. During a 
short stay of three and a half days, from noon of May 21 to early 
morning of May 25, 1903, fifty-seven species were noticed. The 
valley is seven miles long by a width of one half to one mile, but 
only a part of this area in the vicinity of the so-called village was 
subjected to a close scrutiny, and no attempt was made to inves- 
tigate the bird fauna of the surrounding higher regions. 

Discovered in 185 1, the valley with its enclosing peaks was 
granted by Congress in 1864 to the State of California on condi- 
tion that it should be held as a " State Park for public use, resort 

V °l *^ 4 XI ] Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. 6j 

and recreation for all times." This carries with it the prohibition 
of introducing firearms. From November till April shootists are 
kept out by the deep snows, which make access to the valley dif- 
ficult. When the season opens in spring a detachment of U. S. 
cavalry assists the State guardian in the work of policing the park, 
and the great number of birds speaks well for their efficiency. It 
is not only the comparatively large number of species that sur- 
prises the visitor, but still more so the great number of individuals 
of many of these species, and their extraordinary tameness. From 
the veranda, there called piazza, of the Sentinel Hotel annex I 
could easily count from one to two dozen species any time of the 
day, and among them such woodland birds as the Pileated Wood- 
pecker and Hermit Thrush. The Ruby-crowned Kinglet had its 
bulky nest on the very next tree, an old incense cedar (Libocedrus 
deairrens), not more than thirty-five feet from the veranda and on 
the side of the tree nearest to the house. 

Not far from it a pair of Brown Creepers went in and out feed- 
ing young in a nest only six feet from the ground under the bark 
of another old Libocedrus. At one time a Green Towhee, a 
Spurred Towhee, a White-crowned Sparrow and a Thick-billed 
Fox Sparrow were feeding peacefully together on one square yard 
of ground under the veranda, while half a dozen Juncos and Chip- 
pies were also hopping about. 

Part of this richness of the ornis may be attributable to weather 
conditions, in so far as some of the birds may have been driven 
down from the neighboring peaks by the snow which fell on the 
day of our arrival, May 21, 1903. In fact, all forenoon, from 
seven, when we started in the open stage from Wawona, till our 
arrival at the Sentinel Hotel at noon, snow fell continually, some- 
times at a lively rate, and mixed with hail on the highest point of 
the stage route, said to be seven thousand feet above the sea. 
The valley itself is only four thousand feet high, but the enclosing 
peaks average four thousand feet higher and form with their 
nearly vertical walls and magnificent waterfalls the sublime 
grandeur for which the valley is deservedly world-renowned. 

But while the lofty peaks and granite domes, the spiry pinnacles 
and roaring cataracts make it grand and glorious beyond descrip- 
tion, it is the rich organic life, the great variety of beautiful forms. 

68 Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. ff u 



of trees and flowers, and the unusual tameness of the many birds, 
which make this paradisaic spot particularly dear to our heart. 
Those who expect to see only cold majestic grandeur are most 
agreeably surprised to find in the heart of the Sierra such a gentle 
garden spot, full of mellow sunshine, benevolent quiet, and bliss- 
ful joy. 

It took only one hour of sunshine to melt most of the snow in 
the valley on the afternoon of May 21, and though the nights 
during our stay were frosty, the days were mild and pleasant with 
a maximum temperature of 6o° in the shade. 

List of Birds Observed in Yosemite Valley. 

1. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — Though the swift-run- 
ning water of Merced River was of icy coldness, four Spotted Sandpipers 
were busily engaged feeding at favorable spots along its banks. 

2. Oreortyx pictus plumiferus. Mountain Partridge. — Seen only 
in two places, but feathers found on the ground and some interwoven in 
birds' nests show that they may be more numerous than it seems. 

3. Columba fasciata. Band-tailed Pigeon. — Daily seen on wing 
or resting in high trees (yellow pines)in parties of 2 to 5. A flock of about 
30 were disturbed at their roost near the Bridal Falls early on May 25. 

4. Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. — Only one seen, May 21. 

5. Elanus leucurus. White-tailed Kite. — About 9 A.M. on May 
24 a great commotion was heard in a clump of trees near the Yosemite 
Falls, and presently a White-tailed Kite, chased by two Vireos, flew out 
and across an opening into a tall yellow pine. 

6. Accipiter velox rufilatus. Western Sharp-shinned Hawk. — One 
(female) going slowly over the valley, 6.15 p. m. May 23. 

7. Falco sparverius deserticolus. Desert Sparrow Hawk. — Twice 
seen May 23, and again on the 25th. 

8. Dryobates villosus hyloscopus. Cabanis Woodpecker. — Two 
males seen May 22 and 24. 

9. Dryobates pubescens turati. Willow Woodpecker. — Male and 
female in two localities along Merced River, May 23. 

10. Xenopicus albolarvatus. White-headed Woodpecker. — Only 
one seen in the valley near Camp Currie, but several crossed our way 
between the Yosemite and Wawona on the 25th. 

11. Ceophlceus pileatus abieticola. Northern Pileated Wood 
pecker. — Males and females seen in different localities. 

12. Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. California Woodpecker. — 
One pair stationed not far from hotel. 

Vol. XXIJ Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. 69 

13. Colaptes cafer collaris. Red-shafted Flicker. — Often heard; 
several present but rather shy. 

14. Aeronautes melanoleucus. White-throated Swift. — Only two 
seen, flying together over valley, May 24. 

15. Stellula caliope. Caliope Hummingbird. — Quite numerous in 
the valley ; conspicuous and excited ; on two occasions males went straight 
up some sixty feet, there remained suspended at the same place for half a 
minute, dropped down and rose again to repeat the performance ; also 
seen to dart up from prominent station into the air, catch an insect and 
return to same perch like a flycatcher. 

16. Sayornis nigricans semiatra. Black Phcebe. — Only once met 
with, near Pohono Bridge. 

17. Contopus richardsoni richardsoni. Western Wood Pewee. — 
One of the common sounds heard in the valley was the note of this bird, 
perched high up in trees ; while feeding they were often low down near 
the ground. A nest in a California black oak was nearly fifty feet above 
the ground. 

18. Empidonax difncilis. Western Flycatcher. — Among several 
Empidonaces seen, this is the only one identified with certainty, while 
among the others were probably Wright's Flycatcher. 

19. Empidonax wrighti. Wright's Flycatcher. — Identification open 
to doubt. 

20. Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis. Blue-fronted Jay. — Pretty com- 
mon, but rather quiet and retiring. 

21. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Brewer Blackbird. — A small 
troop was always on the meadow near the village. 

22. Coccothraustes vespertinus montanus. Western Evening Gros- 
beak. — One pair near hotel. 

23. Carpodacus purpureus californicus. California Purple Finch. 

24. Carpodacus cassini. Cassin Purple Finch. 

25. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch. 

This being my first acquaintance with the western Carfiodaci the iden- 
tification of the different species gave me considerable trouble and my 
notes on this genus are somewhat clouded, but it appeared to me that all 
three species were present. On the 24th a female House Finch was busily 
engaged building a nest in a maple near the hotel, while the mate indulged 
in song flights. 

26. Astragalinus tristis salicamans. Willow Goldfinch. — Only once 
seen, May 21. 

27. Astragalinus psaltria psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. — Four 
together on the 21st. 

28. Spinus pinus. Pine Siskin. — Several pairs in immediate vicinity 
of the hotel doing much singing and often hopping on the ground in the 
street, so tame that they could almost be touched with the foot. 

29. Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 
— Single individuals in half a dozen places, often in song, which does 
not at all differ from that heard in the Mississippi Valley. 

^O Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. ("fan* 

30. Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. — 
Like the Robin, generally distributed and numerous. 

31. Junco hyemalis thurberi. Sierra Junco. — Very numerous; 
always a few together, sometimes as many as 20 to 30 on the ground 
feeding in openings and on meadows. 

32. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. Thick-billed Fox Sparrow. — 
Only once seen, May 21. 

33. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred Towhee. — Apparently a 
common breeder; several males singing all day at their stands. 

34. Oreospiza chlorura. Green-tailed Towhee — In 6 or 7 places, 
a diligent musician whose song reminded me strongly of Cko?idestes 
gramma cus. 

35. Zamelodia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. — The 
most prominent of all songsters in the valley, where at least fifty individ- 
uals were present, and females as well as males everywhere in sight ; two 
males found singing on nests less than eight feet from ground. 

36. Cyanospiza amcena. Lazuli Finch. — Three pairs were located; 
song differed much individually ; one's song was remarkably like that of 
the Indigo Bird, another's more like a Goldfinch's. 

37. Piranga ludoviciana. Western Tanager. — Quite abundant after 
the 22d ; not only old males as before, but females and young of last year 
of different patterns of coloration in small troops, singing and mating. 

38. Tachycineta lepida. Violet-green Swallow. — When after the 
frosty mornings the sun began to warm the valley half a dozen swallows 
were hunting over the meadow behind the village or resting on the fence 
wires for an hour or two On the afternoon of the 24th a large number 
of swallows was seen, perhaps fifteen hundred feet above the valley, 
hunting on the sunny side between Union and Glacier Points. 

39. Stelgidopteryx serripennis. Rough-winged Swallow. — Two 
(probably a pair) hunting with Tachycineta over meadow, May 22. 

40. Vireo gilvus swainsoni. Western Warbling Vireo. — One of 
the common songsters, heard everywhere and often seen. 

41. Vireo solitarius cassini. Cassin Vireo. — Almost as numerous 
as the Warbling Vireo and nearly as musical; their pleasing song one of 
the common sounds in the valley and the musicians themselves easily 

42. Helminthophila rubricapilla gutturalis. Calaveras Warbler. — 
With the Vireos and Yellow Warbler, one of the common songsters. 

43. Dendroica aestiva morcomi. Western Yellow Warbler. — 
Generally distributed and an industrious songster. 

44. Dendroica auduboni. Audubon Warbler. — This is the only 
warbler yet in troops of twenty and more, while single individuals and 
pairs were scattered all over the valley. Two individuals were noticed 
in which it required a good light to discover yellow traces on the white 
throat, and thus could easily have been mistaken for D. coronata. 

45. Dendroica nigrescens. Black-throated Gray Warbler. — 

Vol.XXI-| Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. 7 1 

Quite a number of this beautiful warbler were at home in the valley ; 
they were often seen, and their song, which varies much, was freely given. 

46. Dendroica occidentalis. Hermit Warbler. — Only in two local- 
ities ; a singing male and a female. 

47. Geothlypis tolmiei. Tolmie Warbler. — The interesting song of 
this warbler was heard at several places along Merced River and it did 
not take long to see the bird itself, as it was not at all shy ; sometimes 
their sharp alarm note betrayed them. 

48. Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. — One of the 
birds often seen and heard ; their song contributed not a little to the gen- 
eral concert of the morning hours. 

49. Cinclus mexicanus. American Dipper. — Returning from a 
visit to the beautiful Cascade Falls at the lower end of the valley Dr. J. 
A. Allen saw a dipper fly across Merced River and immediately thereafter 
Mrs. Allen discovered the mossy nest on a big boulder in the river. No 
others were noticed. 

50. Catherpes mexicanus punctulatus. Dotted Canon Wren. — At 
the foot of the Yosemite Falls, where giant boulders are piled mountain 
high, a Canon Wren had his home and gave a performance in play and 
song; another was heard on Coulterville Road near Pohona bridge. 

51. Certhia familiaris zelotes. Sierra Creeper. — Often heard and 
seen. Feeding young in nest under bark of Libocedrus. 

52. Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. — Generally distributed, 
but rather quiet. 

53. Regulus satrapa olivaceus. Western Golden-crowned King- 
let. — In two localities; one at the foot of Eagle Peak had so much 
black on its forehead, through and behind the eye, that it reminded me 
of pictures of Audubon's cavieri. 

54 Regulus calendula calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — A 
breeder, and one of the most industrious songsters; its song louder, but 
less sweet, than in the Mississippi Valley. From a distance some of its 
notes resembled the whistle of the Tufted Tit. 

55. Hylocichla aonalaschkae sequoiensis. Sierra Hermit Thrush. 
— Numerous and singing toward evening. An imitation of its peculiar 
whistling call-note never failed to attract one or more individuals, who 
came within a few yards and remained there in plain view for a long 

56. Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. — One of the 
most conspicuous birds, not only near the village, but also in the forest 
far from human habitations. 

57. Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. — At one place only; near 
village on way to Mirror Lake. 

I'n Wawona, where we made a halt of one day and from where 
we visited the famous Mariposa Grove of Big Trees, the following 


Widmann, Yosemite Valley Birds. 


species were noted, some of them not found in the Yosemite 
Valley. Wawona is twenty-six miles south of the Yosemite on 
the south branch of Merced River in the high forest region. It 
lies in the National Park and would be an excellent place for 
birdlovers to stay a week or more; it has a very good hotel, in 
fact a better one than the Sentinel Hotel in the Yosemite Vallev. 









Birds Observed May 20 at Wawona. 1 

15. Zonotrichia leucophrys, male 

1. Zenaidura macroura, one. 

Ceryle alcyon, one. 

Ceophlceus pileatus abieti- 
cola, one. 

Sphyrapicus varius daggetti, 

16. Spizella socialis arizonae, 
*i7. Melospizacinereaheermanni, 
male in song. 

Colaptes cafer collaris, one. * 18. Melospiza lincolni, male in 
Sayornis nigricans semiatra, song. 

19. Zamelodia melanocephala, 
several in song ; also female. 

20. Vireo gilvus swainsoni, male 
in song. 

21. Helminthophila rubricapilla 
gutturalis, male singing. 

22. Dendroica aestiva morcomi, 
male singing. 

23. Dendroica auduboni, male. 

24. Troglodytes aedon aztecus, 
male in song. 

25. Certhia familiaris zelotes, 

26. Merulamigratoriapropinqua, 


Contopus borealis, one. (Also 
at Maimi Mill.) 

Contopus richardsoni, sev- 

Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis, 

Scolecophagus cyanocepha- 
lus, several. 

Carpodacus cassini, 2 troops 
of 10 and 12 birds. 

Carpodacus mexicanus fron- 
talis, one. 

Astragalinus psaltria, one. 

Ammodramus savanna alau- 

dinus, two. 

Birds seen in Mariposa Grove, 2 May 20. 

""i. Empidonax hammondi, one. 

2. Junco hyemalis thurberi, a 

3. Vireo solitarius cassini, one 
in song. 

4. Dendroica auduboni, male 
and female. 

5. Dendroica occidentalis, male 
in song. 

6. Parus gambeli, one. 

7. Regulus calendula, singing. 

8. Hylocichla sequoiensis, very 

9. Merula migr. propinqua, one. 


1 Those marked * not seen in Yosemite. 
2 Eight miles southeast of Wawona. 

Vol i'£ XI ] WidmaSn, Yosemite Valley Birds. 73 

In descending from Wawona into the San Joaquin basin, by way 
of Awahnee, the change in the flora and fauna from the forest 
region through the arid chaparral into the cultivated land at the 
base of the foohills is extremely interesting and would be well 
worth a detailed description, but when traveling in the stage one 
car only enjoy the most salient points, and much is lost through 
unnecessary haste on the part of the driver. 

Half way between Wawona and Raymond there lies in the 
valley of the Fresno River, Awahnee, one of the stage company's 
stopping stations, with a good hotel. Situated near the chaparral 
region, but itself surrounded by cultivated fields and woodlands, 
it seems to be a fine place for a few days of birding, but unfortu- 
nately our time-table allowed only a short hour for dinner, May 25. 
On the barn of the hotel was a lively colony of Petrochelidon luni- 
frons, with fifty finished nests. A Screech owl, Megascops ash 
bendirei, flew up from the ground and disappeared in a treehole 
by the wayside. 

In the brushy foothills a number of birds not seen in the high 
forest region were more or less common, among them : 

Lophortyx californicus valicolus. Valley Partridge. Very common. 
Buteo borealis calurus. Western Redtail. Three on wing. 
Tyrannus verticalis. Arkansas Flycatcher. Several. 
Myiarchus cinerascens. Ash-throated Flycatcher. Several. 
Aphelocoma californica. California Jay. Very common. 
Melanerpes formicivorus bairdii. California Woodpecker. Very 

Progne subis. Several at Grub Gulch and along Fresno River. 
Pipilo crissalis. California Towhee. A few. 
Toxostoma redivivum. California Thrasher. A few. 

At Raymond, May 25, 6. p. m. 

Icterus bullocki. 

Sturnella neglecta. In song. 

Astragalinus lawrenci. 

■*7 A Sage, Twenty-first Congress of the A. O. U. ("j 



The Twenty-first Congress of the American Ornithologists' 
Union convened in Philadelphia, Pa., Monday evening, Novem- 
ber 16, 1903. The business meeting was held in the Council 
Room, and the public sessions, commencing Tuesday, November 
17, and lasting three days, were held in the lecture hall of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Business Session. — The meeting was called to order by the 
President, Dr. C. Hart Merriam. Nineteen Fellows were present. 
The Secretary stated that at the opening of the present Congress 
the membership of the Union numbered 775, constituted as fol- 
lows: Fellows, 47; Honorary Fellows, 18; Corresponding Fel- 
lows, 61 ; Members, 63 ; Associates, 586. 

During the year the Union lost sixty members, eight by death, 
seventeen by resignation, and thirty-five for non-payment of dues. 
The deceased members include one Fellow, one Corresponding 
Fellow, one Member, and five Associates, as follows : Thomas 
Mcllwraith, 1 a Fellow, and one of the Founders of the Union, who 
died in Hamilton, Ontario, January 31, 1903, in his 79th year; 
Dr. Gustav F. R. von Radde, 2 a Corresponding Fellow, who died 
early in 1903 at Tiflis, Russia, in the 72d year of his age; John 
N. Clark,3 a Member, who died in Saybrook, Conn., January 13, 
1903, at the age of 72; and the following Associates: Ludwig 
Kumlien, 4 who died in Milton, Wis., Dec. 4, 1902, in his 50th 
year; Edward S. Waters, 5 who died at Holyoke, Mass., Dec. 27, 
1902, aged 71; Thomas E. Slevin, 6 who died in San Francisco, 
Calif., Dec. 23, 1902, in his 32d year ; George H. Ready, 7 who 

1 For an obituary notice, see Auk, XX, p. 242 ; also Memorial Address in 
the present number. 

2 For an obituary notice, see Ibid., XX, pp. 458, 459. 

3 For an obituary notice, see Ibid., XX, pp. 242, 243. 

4 For an obituary notice, see Ibid., XX, pp. 93, 94. 

5 For an obituary notice, see Ibid., XX, p. 243. 

6 For an obituary notice, see Ibid., XX, pp. 326, 327. 

7 For an obituary notice, see Ibid., XX, p. 327. 

Vol. XXI 

Sage, Twenty-first Congress of the A. O. U. *1 C 

died in Santa Cruz, Calif., March 20, 1903, in his 45th year; 
and Prof. Wilber C. Knight, 1 who died at Laramie, Wyoming, July 
28, 1903, in the 45th year of his age. 

The report of the Treasurer showed the finances of the Union 
to be in a satisfactory condition, much better than ever before. 

Charles B. Cory was elected President ; Charles F. Batchelder 
and E. W. Nelson. Vice-Presidents ; John H. Sage, Secretary ; 
Jonathan D wight, Jr., Treasurer ; Frank M. Chapman, Ruthven 
Deane, Witmer Stone, A. K. Fisher, Thos. S. Roberts, William 
Dutcher, and C. W. Richmond, members of the Council. 

Dr. Samuel W. Woodhouse, of Philadelphia, Pa. ; Prof. Dean C. 
Worcester, of Manila, P. I.; Dr. E. C. Hellmayr, of Munich; Dr. 
Emil A. Goeldi, of Para, Brazil ; Dr. Peter Sucshkin, of Moscow, 
and Dr. Herluf Winge, of Copenhagen, were elected Correspond- 
ing Fellows. One hundred and four Associates were elected, and 
the following eight persons were elected to the class of Members, 
namely : Prof. Erwin H. Barbour, of Lincoln, Nebraska ; C. 
William Beebe, of New York City; Edward H. Forbush, of 
Wareham, Mass.; Benjamin T. Gault, of Glen Ellyn, 111.; Geo. 
Spencer Morris, of Philadelphia, Pa. ; Robert E. Snodgrass, of 
Stanford University, Calif. ; Dr. Reuben M. Strong, of Chicago, 
111. ; and Dr. Robert H. Wolcott, of Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Drs. Allen, Dwight, Merriam and Richmond, and Messrs. 
Brewster, Ridgway and Stone, were reelected ' Committee on 
Classification and Nomenclature of North American Birds.' 

Public Session. First Day. — The meeting was called to 
order by Vice-President Batchelder. The papers read during the 
morning session were as follows : 

A Memorial Address on Thomas Mcllwraith, a Fellow, by 
Dr. A. K. Fisher. 

' Notes on the Bird Colonies of the California and Oregon 
Coasts,' by Dr. T. S. Palmer. 

' New Bird Studies in Old Delaware,' by Samuel N. Rhoads and 
C. J. Pennock. 

' Notes on the Protected Birds on the Maine Coast, with Rela- 
tion to Certain Economic Questions,' by Arthur H. Norton. Read, 
in the absence of the author, by Mr. Dutcher. 

1 For an obituary notice, see Auk., XX, pp. 457, 458. 

76 Sage, Twenty-first Congress of the A. O. U. [^ a u n k 

'Two Neglected Ornithologists — John K. Townsend and Wil- 
liam Gambel,' by Mr. Witmer Stone. Remarks followed by Dr. 
Merriam and the Chair. 

The papers of the afternoon session, all illustrated by lantern 
slides, were : 

' Exhibition of Lantern Slides of Young Raptorial Birds, photo- 
graphed by Thomas H. Jackson, near West Chester, Pa. r 
Explained by Mr. Stone. 

' Views of Farallone Bird Life,' by Frank M. Chapman. 

' The Bird Rookeries of Cape Sable and the Florida Keys,' by 
the Rev. Herbert K. Job. 

' A Winter Trip in Mexico,' by E. W. Nelson. 

Second Day. — The meeting was called to order by Vice-President 
Batchelder. The papers read during the morning session were : 

' The ^Esthetic Sense in Birds,' by Henry Oldys. 

' Nesting Habits of the Whip-poor-will,' by Miss Mary Mann 
Miller. Remarks followed by Messrs. Beebe and Job and Mrs. 

' Some Nova Scotia Birds,' by Dr. Spencer Trotter. Remarks 
followed by Prof. Cooke, Drs. Dwight and Merriam, and Messrs. 
Todd, Rhoads, and Fleming. 

' Some Variations among North American Thrushes,' by Dr. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

'Warbler Migration in the Spring of 1903,' by Prof. W. W. 
Cooke. Remarks followed by Messrs. Baily, Rhoads, Brewster, 
Job, Trotter, Powell, Dutcher, and the Chair. 

' A Reply to Recent Strictures on American Biologists, ' by Dr. 
Leonhard Stejneger. 

The following papers — all illustrated by lantern slides — were 
given at the afternoon session, viz. : ' Variations in the Speed of 
Migration,' by Prof. W. W. Cooke. 

' An Ornithological Excursion to the Pacific,' by Frank M. 

' Bird Life on Laysan Island,' by Walter K. Fisher (presented, 
in the absence of the author, by Dr. A. K. Fisher). 

' Ten Days in North Dakota,' by Wm. L. Baily. 

Third Day. — The meeting was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent Nelson. Before proceeding to the reading of papers resolu- 

Vol. XXI 

Sage, Tiventy-first Congress of the A. O. U. HH 

tions were adopted thanking the Academy of Natural Sciences 
for the use of a hall for a place of meeting for the Union, and for 
other courtesies extended ; to the Local Committee and other 
Philadelphia ornithologists for the cordial welcome and most gen- 
erous hospitality shown visiting members and friends of the 
Union, and to the Zoological Society of Philadelphia for its kind 
invitation to visit the Gardens of the Society. 

The following resolution of thanks to Dr. J. A. Allen for twenty 
years' services as Editor of ' The Auk ' was passed : 

"Whereas, for a period of twenty years Dr. J. A. Allen has 
performed the laborious duties of Editor of ' The Auk,' the official 
publication of the American Ornithologists' Union ; and 

"Whereas, by reason of his ability and training as an Editor, 
and his high standing as an ornithologist, he has brought ' The 
Auk ' to the front rank among the ornithological publications of 
the world ; be it 

" Resolved, that the American Ornithologists' Union hereby 
extends to Dr. Allen its appreciative and grateful thanks for his 


A resolution of thanks to William Dutcher, for many years 
Treasurer of the Union, was also adopted : 

"Resolved, that the thanks of the American Ornithologists' 
Union be extended to Mr. William Dutcher for his long and 
arduous services as Treasurer." 

These resolutions will be engrossed and presented, respectively, 
to Dr. Allen and Mr. Dutcher. 

The following papers were read : 

'The Exaltation of the Subspecies,' by Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
Remarks followed by Drs. Merriam and Stejneger, Messrs. Brew- 
ster and Stone, and the Chair. 

' Bird Life at Cape Charles, Va.,' by Geo. Spencer Morris. 

' The Origin of Migration,' by P. A. Tavernier. In the absence 
of the author it was read by Dr. Palmer. Remarks followed by 
Dr. Trotter. 

' Yosemite Valley Birds,' by Otto Widmann. Read by Dr. 
Dwight in the absence of the author. Remarks followed by 
Dr. Merriam. 

The fifth paper ' Mortality among Young Birds due to Exces- 

7 8 General Notes. [£J 

sive Rains,' by B. S. Bowdish. Read by Mr. Stone, in the 
absence of the author. Remarks followed by Messrs. Stone, 
Coggins and Baily. 

The papers of the afternoon session were : ' Some Birds of 
Northern Chihuahua,' by Dr. W. E. Hughes. 

' Collecting Permits : Their History, Objects and Restrictions/ 
by Dr. T. S. Palmer. 

The following papers were read by title : 

' Nesting Habits of Florida Herons,' by A. C. Bent. 

' The Spring Migration of 1903 at Rochester, N. Y.,' by 
E. H. Eaton. 

' San Clemente Island and its Birds,' by Geo. F. Breninger. 

' A Contribution to the Natural History of the Cuckoo,' by Dr. 
M. R. Leverson. 

As the concluding paper of the day, Mr. Wm. Dutcher, Chair- 
man of the Committee on ' Protection of North American Birds,' 
presented the report of his Committee for the previous year. 

The next meeting of the Union will be held in Cambridge, 
Mass., commencing November 28, 1904. 

The Congress was most successful, the papers presented being 
of a high order, and the attendance of members larger than ever 

Jno. H. Sage, 



White-winged Scoter in Colorado. — The undersigned takes this chance 
to record the occurrence of another White-winged Scoter {Oidemia deg- 
landi) in Colorado. The bird, a mature female, was given to the writer 
by E. L. Bostwick of Denver, who secured the specimen Oct. 11, 1903, at 
Loveland, Colo. This makes the ninth record, so far as the writer knows, 
for Colorado. — W. H. Bergtoi.d, Denver, Colo. 

Occurrence of the Knot {Tringa cafititus) at San Diego, California. — 
Three specimens of the Knot, taken by Mr. H. W. Marsden, have recently 

V0l i' 9 £ XI ] General Notes. 79 

come into my possession, and as the species is of comparative rarity on 
the Pacific coast, its occurrence at San Diego seems worthy of record. 
The three birds are in juvenal plumage, with a few feathers of the first 
winter dress beginning to appear, and were obtained, a male and a female 
October 7, and a female October 9, 1903. — Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. r 
New York City. 

A Sanderling with Hind Toes. — On September n, 1903,1 obtained 
from a gunner at Ipswich, Mass., a Sanderling (Calidris arenaria) which 
had rudimentary hind toes. The bird was one of eleven shot in my pres- 
ence out of a passing flock. None of the other birds secured had this 
peculiarity. The hind toes are only about .05 of an inch in length and 
have no claws but they were very noticeable in the fresh bird and are 
equally so in the skin, which is now in the collection of Dr. Charles W. 
Townsend of Boston. I suppose this to be a case of reversion, as the 
ancestors of the Sanderling were doubtless four-toed sandpipers. — 
Francis H. Allen, Boston, Mass. 

Black-bellied Plover and Hudsonian Godwit on Long Island, N. Y. — 
On July 1, 1903, while walking along the beach at Quogue, Long Island, 
I shot a young Black-bellied Plover (C/iaradrius squatarola). It was 
quite tame but in good condition. None have been taken here before 
July 20, and they do not occur regularly until later. 

On August 31, a flight of Hudsonian Godwits (Limosa hcemastica) 
occurred. Many gunners shot a dozen or more. Such a flight of these 
rare birds has not taken place within the memory of the oldest gunners r 
and they will probably not come again after their warm reception. — T. W. 
Kobbe, New York City. 

The Ani in Florida. — Mr. Thomas Barbour has sent me an Ani (Croto- 
phaga ani) which he shot in Brevard County, Fla., during the winter of 
1901. The bird was taken in either February, March or April ; the exact 
date was lost. — Reginald Heber Howe, Jr., Concord, Mass. 

The Pileated Woodpecker in the District of Columbia. — On the 21st 
of November, 1903, while hunting in a piece of woods adjacent to Mt. 
Pleasant, a local name for a suburb lying just north of Washington, Mr. 
H. J. Saers of this city secured a fine male specimen of Ceo-phloeus pileatus. 
Subsequently it was learned through Mr. H. C. Oberholser that Mr. F. H. 
Kent of the Biological Survey had seen an individual of this species, pre- 
sumably the same bird, in approximately the same locality, on the 8th of 
last August. 

The capture of this wild, forest-loving bird so close to Washington is a 
matter of considerable interest to local ornithologists, as it is somewhat 
doubtful that this species has actually occurred within the limits of the 
District, during the last forty-five years. Drs. Coues and Prentiss, in 

80 General Notes. \_^ 

'Avifauna Columbiana,' state (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 26, 1883, p. 81) : 
"It was rare in 1862, having already responded .... to the encroachment of 

the city upon its favorite haunts The only one we remember to have 

ever seen alive was in a piece of heavy timber known as ' Gales' Woods ' ; 
but that was about 185701- 1858." They state further : " Mr. Shoemaker 
informs us that one was seen a year or two ago," wmich was in 1881 or 
1882. As there was no locality given with this last record, it is somewhat 
difficult to say whether the bird recorded was seen within the District or 
in the surrounding country, as the authors in listing the rarer species, 
frequently gave records for the vicinity as well. However, giving the 
record the benefit of the doubt, it is quite safe to assert that until the bird 
forming the subject of this note made its appearance, the species had not 
been observed for the past 21 or 22 years. — George W. H. Soelner, 
Washington, D. C 

Empidonax griseus Brewst. — E. canescens Salv. & Godm. — In the 

* Biologia,' II, p. 79, March, 1889, Salvin and Godman described 
Empidonax canescens from specimens taken at Mexicalcingo and vari- 
ous other places near the City of Mexico. 

In 'The Auk' for April of the same year (p. 87), Mr. Brewster described 
Empidonax griseus from specimens taken at La Paz, Low r er California. 

The Biological Survey Collection contains specimens of canescens from 
near the type locality in the Valley of Mexico which have recently been 
compared with the type by Dr. Sharpe and his assistant, Mr. Chubb, of 
the British Museum, and pronounced to be identical with it. 

Before these specimens were sent for comparison with the type of 
canescens they were compared by Mr. Brewster with the type of griseus 
and pronounced to be indistinguishable. It follows, therefore, that griseus 
and canescens apply to the same bird, and the latter name has a month's 

The range of E. canescens extends from southern Puebla through the 
Valley of Mexico north westerly to southern Sonora, and from Cape St. 
Lucas north through Lower California into southern California. — E. W. 
Nelson, Biological Survey, Washington D. C. 

A Preoccupied Generic Name. — Mr. G. E. Shelley in Vol. Ill of his 

* Birds of Africa' (London, 1902) founds a new genus Botha (to Louis 
Botha) for a new species of Lark from the Orange River Colony, — Botha 
difficilis. Nearly a century ago Rafinesque (Caratteri di Alcuni Nuovi 
Generi, etc., 1810, p. 23) proposed the generic name Bothus for flounders 
allied to the European turbot (Pleuronecles). As these two terms (Bothus 
and Botha) are practically almost identical, it would be better to drop 
Botha and take for this Lark another generic name, for instance Deivetia 
(to Christian De Wet, another gallant Oranjestaat chief) . — S. A. Butur- 
lin, Wesenberg, Esthonia, Russia. 

VoK XXI 1 General Notes. 8 1 

1904 J ^ x 

Extension of the Breeding Range of the Prairie Horned Lark (Otocoris 
alpestris praticola) to the Eastern Coast. — On August 9, 1903, at Ipswich, 
Mass., Mr. Ralph Hoffmann saw two adults of this species with a fully 
grown young bird. Two days later, on August n, Mr. Thomas L. 
Bradlee shot, at the same place, two young birds, both females, and saw 
three other individuals. They were near a road in open fields not far 
from the sea. Again two days later, on August 13, I secured a young 
male of this species that was alone on the upper edge of Ipswich beach. 

The specimens secured by Mr. Bradlee were examined by Dr. J. 
Dwight, Jr., who stated in a letter to Mr. Bradlee that the birds "were 
undoubtedly praticola " and "were in juvenal plumage, moulting into 
first winter dress, only two or three primaries and a few rectrices remain- 
ing. In this condition this species (or any sparrow 7 ) does not and 
probably can not migrate, so I have no doubt the birds were hatched near 
where they were found." 

My own bird may have been from another brood, as although it was 
taken four days later, its plumage is more juvenal, being more spotted 
above, and having 9 juvenal rectrices and 4 juvenal primaries, against 
5 rectrices and 3 primaries in Mr. Bradlee's birds. It was taken three 
miles from the first station. 

The Prairie Horned Lark has been seen at Ipswich before in the fall 
migrations, but this is the first time it has. been found there in the breed- 
ing season. At last this enterprising bird in its progress eastward has 
reached the sea. Formerly a bird of the western prairies, it was recorded 
as breeding near Troy, N. Y., in 1881 (Park, Bull. N. O. C, VI, 1881, p. 
177). Its first recorded breeding in New England was at Cornwall, Vt., 
in June, 1889 (C. H. Parkhill, O. & O., XIV, 1889, p. 87). In 1890 speci- 
mens were secured in the breeding season in Williamstown and North 
Adams, Mass., by Mr. Walter Faxon ( Faxon, Auk, IX, 1892, p. 202 ), and 
a nest and eggs were found near Pittsfield by Mr. C. H. Buckingham 
July 10, 1892 (Brewster, Auk, XI, 1894, p. 326). 

In 1891 it was observed in June and July at Franconia, N. H. (Faxon, 
Auk, IX, 1895, p. 202). The foregoing records are from Faxon and 
Hoffmann on 'The Birds of Berkshire,' 1900, p. 138. They state that the 
bird is a "rare summer resident at Williamstown, North Adams, Lanes- 
boro, Pittsfield." 

In 1899 the bird was found breeding as far east as Hubbardston in 
Worcester County, Mass., Mr. Frederick Cunningham, Jr., in July of 
that year "finding a nest with eggs from which the young were safely 
reared" (Howe & Allen, ' The Birds of Mass.,' 1901, p. 81). — Charles W. 
Townsend, M. D., Boston, Mass. 

Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker and Evening Grosbeak at Well- 
fleet, Mass. — In the vicinity of Wellfleet, Cape Cod, December 5, I killed 
a Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker {Picoides arcticus), which is now 
in Mr. William Brewster's collection, and saw an Evening Grosbeak 

82 General Notes. \^ 


(^Hesperiphona vespertz'ua). The Grosbeak was in the open near one or 
more buildings. I saw it close enough to be sure of the identification. It 
was a striking looking bird and could have been nothing else. Assuming- 
it was the same individual all the time, it was very loath to leave the 
vicinity. I thought it had left, and departed myself, but came back later 
and found it again. I shot at it several times, but unfortunately did not 
secure it. The white wing patches were perhaps its most striking feature. 
It called (whistled) a great deal. — John Treadwjell Nichols, Cambridge, 

The Evening Grosbeak in Presque Isle Co., Mich. — Mr. O. S. Burton 
of Millersburg, Presque Isle County, Mich., informs me that the Evening 
Grosbeak (Hesperip/iona vespertina) has put in an appearance in consid- 
erable numbers in his vicinity. These feed on the berries of the mountain 
ash. It has been a number of years since this species has been reported to 
me in the Lower Peninsular except an occasional bird. — Bradshaw H. 
Swales, Detroit, Mick. 

The Bachman Sparrow {Peuccea aestivalis backmanii) in the Vicinity of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. — On April 25, 1901, as I strolled about Rose Hill — a 
lately plotted subdivision of Avondale, Cincinnati, Ohio, and a region 
favored by the birds from primeval times — I heard a song from a spar- 
row, very sweet and unlike the songs of familiar resident or migrant spar- 
rows. In the approaching dusk of evening it seemed to resemble a Field 
Sparrow in size and general coloring, as the bird flitted along from one 
low point to another, finally dropping into a bramble patch where the 
dimming light made it useless to follow. 

On April 27, 1901, at a place three to four miles from Rose Hill — also 
a high, lightly wooded pasture, called Groesbeck Hill — a number of spar- 
rows were singing similar songs to that heard on April 21. We were able 
to approach and examine several from close range as they sat singing- 
most varied strains — never twice alike in opening, general composition, 
nor close of song, yet each repetition equally attractive. After careful 
observations with an opera glass, I felt reasonably certain of the Bachman 
Sparrow, heretofore on the hypothetical list for Ohio. It is one of the 
dullest and most inconspicuously plumaged of the ' sparrowy ' arrayed 

On May 3, 1901, I visited the vicinity of Rose Hill again and did not 
fail to hear and see the Bachman in song. The opening notes of their 
songs are frequently exquisite, indrawn strains, of the quality of the 
Chickadee's daintiest phebe whistle, followed by a lower-pitched trill with 
perhaps several Goldfinch-like notes introduced. The whole is superior 
in quality, variations and a certain plaintive cadence to any sparrow song 
I know. 

The birds are quiet and with an almost passive manner. If undis- 
turbed, they perch for a comparatively long interval on the same spot 

VO i9?4 XI ] General Notes. 83 

(preferably an open perch), lifting up their heads and voices in song, 
sometimes running one song into another with scarce perceptible inter- 
val between. One can approach very close to the bird — within three feet 
and less — when they are settled in low situations, and they often rise 
from almost under foot if you pass through their haunts in the long grass 
or rank melilot. To escape, they will flit down into the grass and run 
away. They will perch for singing as high as thirty feet, but the usual 
situations are bushes and fences. 

About Cincinnati, I am glad to say, this sweet-voiced sparrow is becom- 
ing more abundant yearly. In the spring of this year (1903) I began 
hearing them in full song April 18, and by May 1 met them in almost 
every direction in the country, singing from rail fences, wayside thickets 
and telegraph poles or wires. They especially abound in grass fields and 
old pastures northeast of the city, where their notes seemed the most 
familiar sounds, on the days I passed that way. 

1 am indebted to Mr. W. L. Dawson of Columbus, Ohio, for securing 
a specimen from near Rose Hill for me — a male in full song at the time 
he was shot; and also thank Mr. Wm. Hubbell Fisher for making a care- 
fully finished skin, and Dr. Josua Lindahl for preserving tongue and con- 
tents of crop. — Laura Gang, Earlham Place, Richmond, Ind. 

Kirtland's Warbler (Deudroica kirtlandi) on the Coast of South Caro- 
lina. — On October 29, 1903, I shot near Mount Pleasant, S. C, a superb 
specimen of Kirtland's Warbler from the top of a water oak tree about 40 
feet from the ground. 

It was about 11 a. m., when I heard a chirp which I thought was that of 
a Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor) and as it was a very late date for a 
Prairie Warbler to be here I went in search of the bird. 

The sound ceased entirely, but I kept looking into the water oak tree 
and did not move far away. At last I saw a small bird near the top of the 
tree behind a cluster of leaves, and when it moved it wagged its tail in a 
most deliberate and studied manner. The tail seemed to be dispropor- 
tionately long and the body altogether unsymmetrical in contour. I at 
once realized that it was a Kirtland's Warbler — a bird that I had looked 
for in vain for twenty years. The bird kept constantly behind a limb or 
a cluster of leaves or twigs and remained in this position nearly all the 
time I was watching it. At last it changed its position and with its 
breast toward me I fired and found that I had secured a superb specimen 
of this rare Warbler. 

The specimen is a young male, and had not entirely completed the 
moult, and was very fat. This bird makes the third specimen captured in 
South Carolina, and, if I have read the record correctly, makes the third 
specimen taken in the United States during the autumnal migration ; 
while it is the latest fall record for the presence of the bird in the United 
States by eighteen days. 

84 General Notes. [^ a u n k 

Previous to the capture of the bird heavy frosts were noted, and on the 
day of the capture there had been a heavy frost. — Arthur T. Wayne, 
Mount Pleasant, S. C. 

A Few Southern Michigan Notes. — Vireo philadelphicus. Philadel- 
phia Vireo. — I shot a finely marked male August 28, 1896, in St. Clair 
County. This bird was feeding in a small piece of woodland with a num- 
ber of Red-eyed Vireos. I am positive that several other Philadelphia 
Vireos were present but as I obtained but one am not certain. 

Cardinalis cardinalis. Cardinal. — On January 1, 1903, I observed two 
birds at Belle Isle, the river park of Detroit. We have but few records of 
this species here and these have been of birds seen in winter, with but 
one exception. 

Antrostomus vociferus. Whip-poor-will. — On October 5, 1903, I 
flushed a late bird from a thick undergrowth at Belle Isle. This is the 
latest date that I have ever recorded this species here. 

Nyctala acadica. Saw-whet Owl. — A male of this species was shot 
April 10, 1903, in the northeastern part of Detroit by R. E. Russell. He 
presented the specimen to me, but it was too badly decomposed to save it. 
This little owl is seldom seen here although this rarity may be more 
apparent than a fact. 

Bartramialongicauda. Bartramian Sandpiper. — Mr. C. Stenton shot 
a bird of this species east of the city October 20, 1902. 

Olor columbianus. Whistling Swan. — Unusually abundant during 
the past spring, especially at the St. Clair Flats. The first brought to 
my attention was a bird shot in Macomb County, bordering Lake St. 
Clair, by Ernest Ford. On March 14, while duck shooting at Bryant's, 
near the Middle Channel of the Flats, I watched a flock of fifteen feeding 
out in the lake. These were very wary anil could not be approached. 
Various observers at the Flats reported to me large flocks being seen at 
different localities, and several were secured by the hunters and sportsmen. 
During April 1-10 several small flocks were reported to me. On April 17 
I saw my last birds of the season — a small flock of eight feeding out in 
the lake near Avery's. 

Sterna tschegrava. Caspian Tern. — While in Charlevoix County, 
bordering Lake Michigan, on August 16, 1903, I observed two of these 
birds. They were perched on the rocks bordering the shore and allowed 
a near approach. I watched them for some time through a Bausch and 
Lomb binocular. 

Larus Philadelphia. Bonaparte's Gull. — On October 17 and 18, 
1903, I witnessed a very unusual sight, to me, with regard to this species. 
Large numbers were migrating down the St. Clair River, the main body 
consisting of immature birds. The flocks passed all day on the 17th and 
were quite numerous on the 18th. Now and then a flock would remain 
near where I was stationed to feed, giving me a fine chance to watch 
them. With these birds were a few L. delawarensis. 

Voi xo£ X1 ] General Notes. 85 

Colymbus auritus. Horned Grebe. — Very abundant during- the 
migrations during last fall and this spring. I first observed them October 
18, 1902, near Fair Haven, on Lake St. Clair. In April, of this year, I 
found them common in the Detroit River above the city. On the 27th 
I saw about fifty birds, on May 4 about sixty. They were generally 
unsuspicious and allowed a near approach. I saw the last May 10, twelve 
birds. — Bradshaw H. Swales, Detroit, Mich. 

Occurrence of the Ruff [Pavoncella pugnax) and Other Birds in Rhode 
Island. — Larus atricilla. Laughing Gull. — I observed two birds of 
this species on a marsh at Seaconnet Point on Aug. 24, 1903. One of the 
birds was in adult plumage, but the other seemed immature. This spe- 
cies is not often seen in Rhode Island, there being but one instance of its 
capture in the State recorded in 'The Birds of Rhode Island' by Howe 
and Sturtevant. 

Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. Black Tern. — A fine male of 
this species was shot near Newport on July 30, 1903. It was just begin- 
ning to lose the black plumage. 

Ardetta exilis. Least Bittern. — A bird of this species was shot on 
July 18, 1903, on a salt marsh near Newport. It is now in my collection. 
The Least Bittern, although formerly common near Newport, seems to 
have become rare during the last five years. 

Micropalama himantopus. Stilt Sandpiper. — This species occurred 
in greater numbers than usual near Newport in August and early 
September, 1903. It seems to be a very irregular migrant, varying in 
numbers from year to year. 

Limosa haemastica. Hudsonian Godwit. — Eighteen 'Ring-tail 
Marlins' were observed at Point Judith on August 30, 1903, and six were 
shot. Three of these latter, which I obtained, proved to be adult birds, 
two being males and one a female. They were changing into winter 
plumage but still had many traces of the reddish summer plumage on the 
breasts and flanks. The birds were seen during a severe northeast gale 
and were easily approached as they stood huddled together in a pool of 
water about five inches deep. This species is rare in Rhode Island, not 
more than one or two being shot each year. 

Pavoncella pugnax. Ruff. — An immature female of this species was 
taken at Point Judith, R. I., on August 31, 1903, by a local gunner. I 
obtained it of him and it is now in my collection. The bird, which was 
flying alone, was shot over decoys. I believe this is the second record for 
this bird in Rhode Island. — LeRoY King, Newport, R. T. 

The Black-bellied Plover, Road-runner, and Black-throated Green 
Warbler in Kansas. — I wish to restore to my 'Catalogue of the Birds 
of Kansas' the Black-bellied Plover (Ckaradrius sqiiatarola). It was 
omitted from my 5th edition (May, 1903) because I had no personal 

86 General Notes. ["f J* 

L Jan. 

knowledge of the capture of this species in Kansas. On the 22d of May 
I received from Dr. R. Matthews a mounted specimen from his own col- 
lection. It was captured at Wichita in 1896 by Mr. Ed. Goldberg. 

I am also almost ready to add to my list the Road-runner or Chaparral 
Cock {Geococcyx calif ornicus). Additional evidence of its having been 
" seen" is afforded by the statement of Prof. Chas. N. Gould of the Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma, whom I met during a collecting expedition to south- 
west Kansas in May and June of the present year. He says : "In the 
summer of 1894 I saw a Chaparral Cock in the canons west of Ashland, 
Clark Co., Kansas. In 1897 Dr. Lester F. Ward and I saw this bird at 
Belvidere, Kiowa Co., Kansas. But a single specimen was seen in each 
instance. The one at Belvidere was seen repeatedly in the evening, 
remaining around camp for several days." And finally, the 'Kiowa Sig- 
nal, ' published at Greensburg, Kiowa Co., Kansas, in July, 1903, gave an 
account of the capture of a "chaparral or snake-killer" by W. H. Wilbur 
of Kiowa township, who was said to have the bird in captivity. Letters 
addressed both to the newspaper and to Mr. Wilbur have thus far failed 
to elicit a reply. 

Postscript. — Since sending the above to 'The Auk ' for publication I 
have visited the ranch of Mr. W. H. Wilbur, in the southwest corner of 
Kiowa County, Kansas, and have secured evidence of the capture in that 
locality of a specimen of the Road-runner {Geococcyx californium* s). 
The bird was found in the chicken yard of Mr. Wilbur one morning 
during the last week of June, 1903. This yard is surrounded by a coarse 
wire netting and the bird when discovered was making strenuous efforts 
to find an opening for escape by running along the fence in search of 
an opening. Mrs. Wilbur caught the bird with her hands and placed 
it in a cracker box covered with an old stove grate. She fed it for two 
weeks upon grasshoppers and other insects until, becoming weary of the 
labor of providing its daily food, she turned it loose upon the prairie. 
Mrs. Wilbur was with her brother, Mr. Oris Ham, when the latter shot a 
specimen of the Road-runner on January 24, 1901, in Oklahoma, about 
thirty-five miles south of the Kansas line. The wings and tail feathers 
of this specimen were preserved so that the identification was entirely 
satisfactory. The date of capture of the Kansas specimen indicates that 
the species breeds in Kansas. 

I wish also to put on record the capture, in Kansas, of a specimen of the 
Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens). I received the 
fragmentary skin of this specimen, which has been identified by Mr. J. A. 
Allen, from Mr. F. F. Crevecoeur of Onaga, Kansas, who states that it 
"was shot, as near as I can remember, in 1890 on French Creek, three 
miles north of Onaga." 

The addition of the three species thus reported, the Black-bellied Plover, 
the Road-runner, and the Black-throated Green Warbler, increasesmy list 
of birds personally known by me to have been captured in Kansas, to 345 
species and varieties. — F. H. Snow, Lawrence, Mass. 

VOl i 9 $ XI ] Recent Literature. 87 


Walton's ' A Hermit's Wild Friends.'' x — As a popular work on out-of 
door 'wild things' this collection of well-intentioned sketches will doubt- 
less meet with many admirers, being printed on heavy paper in large 
type, with broad-margined pages embellished profusely with marginal 
cuts, and copiously illustrated with full-page plates, many of them after 
drawings by Fuertes, and others by Kennedy, with still others that 
have seen previous service. It is written, however, with a know-it-all 
cocksureness that only lack of knowledge ever prompts, and doubtless no 
amount of proof of error in the author's statements would in the slightest 
degree affect his attitude in the case. The author's "eighteen years of her- 
mit life" in the woods on Cape Ann, Massachusetts, have given him 
opportunity for intimate acquaintance with the birds, small mammals 
and reptiles to be found in such localities, and he evidently knows them 
well. It is therefore the greater pity that through his wealth of imagi- 
nation and predilection for humanizing his birds and mice and squirrels he 
should, perhaps unconsciously and therefore without dishonest motive, 
so often turn his sketches into incredible natural history romances. It 
would take too much space to itemize this general charge, but in the case 
of ' Wabbles,' a male Song Sparrow, alleged to have lived in his imme- 
diate neighborhood for u fourteen years" and "eleven years .... with his 
second wife," we begin to wonder if the author knows the size of a No. 4 
shot, a no inconsiderable pellet of lead he claims to have removed from 
"the muscle of the wing-joint" of 'Wabbles' when he first made his 
acquaintance. If he had been satisfied to call it a No. 10, or even a No. 
8, it would take less imagination to conceive of its arrest by and lodg- 
ment in "the muscle of the wing-joint" of a Song Sparrow. And we could 
then have been better prepared to take a little stock in Wabbles's setting 
up a little family singing school and teaching "his boys to sing the 
mating-song of his species"; and also that on one tenth day of March, 
twelve years before the close of the author's related association with 
Wabbles, he might have "brought with him from the South a male 
linnet," and that "a week later Mrs. Wabbles returned, and with her was 
the mate of the linnet," in consequence of these four birds having "met 
in the South," and because : "In the course of bird gossip either the lin- 
nets or sparrows had announced that the summer home was on Cape 
Ann." In this romance of Wabbles a series of events is narrated with 
all the seriousness of positive knowledge, yet many of them are of such 

1 A Hermit's Wild Friends, or Eighteen Years in the Woods. By Mason 
A. Walton (The Hermit of Gloucester). Boston: Dana Estes and Company, 
Publishers. "Published October, 1903." 8vo, pp. i-x, n-304, with numer- 
ous full-page illustrations and text-cuts. 

88 Recent Literature. v" 

L J ar 



a nature as to be outside the realm of the least shadow of proof, and can 
only rest on belief or on the promptings of the imagination. 

This sample from the Hermit's repertoire is only one of many that 
adorn his chapters ; indeed, it is a fair illustration of the general character 
of the book. His dogmatism in the chapter on ' The Instinct of the Cow- 
bird ' is only a further illustration of the cocksureness of ignorance. 
Apropos of young Cowbirds flocking together, and with the older mem- 
bers of their kind, in the fall, it is enough to quote : "I will say now, that 
long before I had opportunity to study the bird, I did not believe it 
possible for a young bird, by its own knowledge, to hunt up and associate 
with birds of its kind." Any one approaching an intricate question with 
this condition of mind can readily see, or imagine (perhaps unconsciously) 
that he sees, just what he desires to see. So our Hermit finds no trouble 
in solving, to his "belief," all the problems of the Cowbird question. It 
appears, however, that his first young Cowbird "was big and black," and 
he "thought it was a male. I made it a male," he says, "in my note-book. 
While the bird was in the nest I fastened a bit of copper wire to its leg, 
and the next spring when it returned, I found the bird was a female. I 
saw her with another female, I think it was the mother, visiting birds' 
nests. So the young Cowbird was educated to lay its eggs in other birds' 
nests. Nesting is educational and not instinctive." That is his answer 
to his question, "Why do young Cowbirds lay eggs in other birds' nests 
instead of building nests for themselves? " First, young Cowbirds, as all 
ornithologists know, but as many of Hermit's laj' readers may not know, 
are brown and not black. Second, he saw his marked young Cowbird the 
next year, which proved then to be a female, going about with another 
female, presumed to be her mother, visiting other birds' nests and being 
thus "educated "as to what to do with her eggs, when in the course of 
natural events she should have eggs to dispose of! This is a sample of 
the Hermit's evidence and of his wonderful logic. 

'A Hermit's Wild Friends ' is not all bad; it has many delightfully 
written pages, but it is so obviously permeated with romance that one 
never knows when to take its pages seriously. It is noticed here not as a 
contribution to natural history, but as an example of a class of so-called 
'nature books' that is misleading hosts of credulous readers who are 
unable to discriminate fact from fiction. Such books have thus a per- 
nicious influence in giving wrong conceptions of the faculties and habits 
of animals. Nor is such writing confined to books, but leaves its nauseous 
trail over our magazines and newspapers. A fine example of this kind 
of literature appeared recently in 'The Outlook,' entitled 'Animal Sur- 
gery.' 1 The surprise is that such reading matter should find place in so 

1 Animal Surgery. By William J. Long. Author of "Beasts of the Field," 
"Secrets of the Woods," etc. The Outlook, Vol. LXXV, No. 2, Sept. 12, 
1903, pp. 122-127. 

V °l' £ X1 ] Recent Literature. 89 

intelligently conducted a journal. In this article is related a tale of two 
female Eider Ducks seen in a freshwater pond, "acting queerly," dipping 
their heads under water, etc., where the water was too deep for them to 
be feeding. As darkness came on speedily the mystery of this curious 
behavior could not be solved. A few weeks later, however, another bird 
of this species, an old drake, was seen in the same pond acting in the 
same queer way, and in this case the bird was shot, and found to have 
been caught by the tongue by a large saltwater mussel. Counsel was 
sought of an old fisherman, who had witnessed similar behavior by salt- 
water ducks on a few occasions, but he had no explanation of it to offer. 
On being shown the mussel taken from the drake's tongue, he said : 
"Mussels of that kind won't live in fresh water." Then both Mr. Long 
and the fisherman had an inspiration. The ducks caught by the tongue 
by mussels repaired to freshwater ponds to kill the mussels by drowning 
them ! On this single case was built at once a theory to explain why 
saltwater ducks visit freshwater ponds and thrust their heads under water 
in such a queer way. "I have," he adds, "seen three different eiders 
practice this bit of surgery myself, and have heard of at least a dozen 
more, all of the same species, that were seen in fresh water ponds or 
rivers dipping their heads under water repeatedly." But in onlv one 
case, according to his own showing, did he know that the bird had a 
mussel on its tongue. The assumption is made that the case is proved, 
and the questions are raised as to how a bird found out "that certain 
mussels will drown in fresh-water," and "how do the other birds know it 
now when the need arises unexpectedly"; but, strange to say, they are 
left without an answer, — a golden opportunity neglected. Mr. Long 
does not claim to know, even, "whether all the ducks have this wisdom, 
or whether it is confined to a few rare birds." 

The way in which a Woodcock proceeded to mend a broken leg is 
detailed with great minuteness. As witnessed by Mr. Long, the bird 
applied a bandage of clay and fibers of grass and rootlets with his bill to 
the wounded member, and after it had hardened enough to suit him flut- 
tered away and disappeared in the thick woods. This bit of clever sur- 
gery was seen from "across a little stream," "too far away for me [him] 
to be absolutely sure of what all his motions meant." But then, some years 
afterward, Mr. Long, after examining hundreds of woodcock in the mar- 
kets, at last "found one whose leg had at one time been broken by a shot 
and then had perfectly healed. There were plain signs of dried mud at 
the break; but that was also true of the other leg near the foot, which 
only indicated that the bird had been feeding in a soft place." The final 
proof came still later, through a lawyer friend of his who once upon a 
time had shot a woodcock which had a lump of clay on its leg, on the 
removal of which the leg was found to have been broken. The lawyer 
did not see the woodcock apply the clay, as did Mr. Long in his first case, 
nor was it suggested that the oozing fluids from the wound might cause 
the clay or earth to adhere and harden in a perfectly natural way. So, 

QO Recent Literature. [f U n 

Mr. Long was now emboldened, "since proof is at hand" to relate his 
observation, made so many years before, of how he saw a woodcock put 
its broken leg in splints. 

These are only samples of the deplorable kind of ' natural history ' 
writing that is now so rapidly coming into vogue, of which Mr. Walton's 
'A Hermit's Wild Friends' and so much of Mr. Long's writings form 
striking examples. An active imagination, a slight knowledge of the 
subject considered, a clever knack at writing, a few pictures, make up the 
necessary capital for any amount of natural history romancing, and from 
the infliction of which upon the public publishers and editors seem to 
interpose no relief, either through ignorance or the consideration that 
such yarns meet with ready sale. — J. A. A. 

Fisher's ' Birds of Laysan.' — In a paper of some forty pages, illustrated 
with ten plates, Mr. Walter K. Fisher has given a very interesting account 
of his ornithological work in the Laysan and Leeward Islands of the Haw- 
aiian Group, 1 which he visited in the summer of 1902, on the expedition 
of the ' Albatross ' to Hawaiian waters for the purpose of deep-sea explo- 
rations. Although the cruise lasted from March to August, there seems 
to have been very little opportunity for on-shore work. The 'Albatross ' 
reached Laysan on May 16 and remained there till the 23d, during which 
period Mr. Fisher, with Mr. J. O. Snyder, was detailed " to make observa- 
tions on the bird life of the island and collect such specimens as seemed 
desirable." Later brief stops were made at French Frigate Shoals, Necker 
and Bird Islands, but a landing was made only at Necker. In 'The Auk ' 
for October, 1903 (pp. 384-397), Mr. Fisher gave an illustrated account of 
the forms of bird life peculiar to Laysan, and has contributed to the pres- 
ent number of this journal (pp. 8-20) a paper on the Laysan Albatross. 

In the present official report some ten pages are devoted to the itinerary 
of the trip, including a general account, with illustrations, of the islands 
visited, and the more striking features of their bird life ; this is followed 
by a systematic list of the 27 species observed, giving detailed accounts of 
their manner of life on these remote islands. The paper is illustrated 
with a colored plate of the Necker Island Tern (Procelstema saxatilis 
Fisher) discovered on this trip, and 52 half-tones made up into nine plates. 
It is thus an important contribution to the history of island bird life, and 
especially to that of Laysan and the other islands visited. — J. A. A. 

Jones's 'The Birds of Ohio.' 2 — The first twenty-two pages of this 

1 Birds of Laysan and the Leeward Islands, Hawaiian Group. By Walter 
K. Fisher. U. S. Fish Commission Bulletin for 1903, pp. 1-39, pll. i-x. 
Washington : Government Printing Office, 1903. 

2 The Birds of Ohio. A Revised Catalogue. By Lynds Jones, M. Sc, 
Oberlin College. Ohio State Academy of Science, Special Papers No. 6. 8vo, 
pp. 141, with map. Oct. 15, 1903. 

Vol / XXI l Recent Literature. Q] 

1904 j y 

extensively annotated catalogue of Ohio birds state the scope and pur- 
pose of the paper, explain the terms used to indicate relative abundance, 
give a rather detailed account of the topography and physical conditions 
of the State, including a consideration of faunal areas, etc., and finally a 
statement of the author's sources of information, with acknowledgments 
to contributors for assistance. There is also a bibliography at the close 
■of the list, giving five pages of titles of works and papers relating to the 
birds of Ohio. 

The list includes altogether 338 species, of which 299 are given as found 
more or less regularly in the State, 15 as merely accidental visitors, and 
4 as extinct, making 318 indigenous species as of actual record for the 
State ; there are 2 introduced species, and a hypothetical list of 18 spe- 
cies, the whole number being thus 338, as against 298 given by Dr. 
Wheaton in 1882. 

The annotations give the manner of occurrence of the species as regards 
season and abundance, and their range within the State ; there is also 
more or less reference to their economic status, there being generally a 
paragraph under each family heading relating to the food, and often 
a more detailed statement under many of the species. In addition to the 
A. O. U. Check-List names are given the synonyms, both technical and 
vernacular, of the species used in other works, and a reference to Dr. 
Wheaton's catalogue. 

"This catalogue," says the author, "is a revision of Dr. J. M. Wheaton's 
catalogue issued in 1882 as a part of Volume IV of the Ohio Geological 
Survey. An attempt has been made to draw comparisons between the 
conditions prevailing then and now, especially as regards the bird life, 
and to add such facts as further study and improved methods have 
brought to light." In the Introduction, the changes in range of certain 
species within the State are considered, in connection with the probable 
invasion of the State by several species since Dr. Wheaton wrote. It is 
needless to say that Professor Jones's ' Catalogue ' is a most trustworthy 
and highly important contribution to Ohio ornithology, being based in 
part upon special field work he has been able to conduct through a grant 
by the Ohio State Academy of Sciences from the ' Emerson McMillin 
Research Fund,' through which also the expense of publication was met. 
-J. A. A. 

Anderson and Grinnell on the Birds of the Siskiyou Mountains, Califor- 
nia. 1 — This is a record of birds collected or observed by Mr. Anderson in 
the extreme northwestern part of California between September 6, 1901, 
and March 10, 1902, with "critical remarks on specimens and distribu- 

1 Birds of Siskiyou Mountains, California: a Problem in Distribution. By 
Malcolm P. Anderson and Joseph Grinnell. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences of 
Philadelphia, 1903, pp. 4-15. April 17, 1903. 

Q2 Recent Literature. \\tn 

tion" by Mr. Grinnell. A couple of pages descriptive of the limits and 
physical characteristics of the region, with a list of the trees, is followed by 
an annotated list of 43 species of birds and a ' summary ' of the principal 
points relating to their distribution. The list shows a mixture, at least in 
winter, of humid coast forms and arid Sierran forms, the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains being "evidently on the narrow line of mergence between the 
humid coast fauna and the arid Sierran fauna." — J. A. A. 

Sharpe's ' Hand List of the Genera and Species of Birds.' — Volume IV. 
— Volume IV l continues the list of the Passeriformes, and includes the 
families Timeliidae (with six subfamilies), Troglodytidae, Cinclidae, Mim- 
idae, Turdidae (with nine subfamilies), Sylviidae, Vireonidae, Ampelidae, 
Artamidae, Vangidae, Prionopidae, Aerocharidae (with a single species), 
Laniidae, Paridae, Chamaeidae, Regulidae, Sittidae, and Certhiidae. A fifth 
volume has been found necessary to complete the work, and its publication 
is promised in the course of a few months. 

The present volume is fully up to the high standard of its predecessors, 
being in every sense fully up-to-date. As in previous volumes, the proof- 
sheets have been revised by a considerable number of the leading orni- 
thologists of Europe and America, and the author makes numerous 
acknowledgments of indebtedness for suggestions thus received. 

As regards American birds, it may be noted that Anorthura is retained 
for the Winter Wrens, since "the only bird in Rennie's mind [when he 
proposed the genus] was certainly the European Wren." "The arrangement 
of the Turdinae, as here set forth, is founded on the scheme proposed by 
Dr. Stejneger in 1883, with certain changes and modifications.... The 
arrangement of the true Turdidae into Thrushes ( Turdus) and Blackbirds 
{Merula) breaks down on close examination ; but a more prolonged study is 
necessary before an arrangement, satisfactory to all ornithologists, can be 
arrived at. . . . The distinctive characters between the genera Turdus and 
Merula are very slight, and the difference in colour of the sexes in the lat- 
ter genus is of no account. The proportion of the primary-quills empha- 
sized by Dr. Stejneger is also an unstable character," etc. Just what is 
the basis of Dr. Sharpe's present arrangement is not quite clear, nor are 
the ieasons for some of the new associations and dissociations at all 
evident. Between Tardus and Merula are interposed nearly a dozen other 

X A Hand-List | of the | Genera and Species | of Birds. | [Nomenclator 
Avium turn Fossilium | turn Viventium.] | By | R. Bowdler Sharpe, LL.I)., | 
Assistant Keeper, Department of Zoology. | British Museum, j Volume IV. | 
London : | Printed by Order of the Trustees. | Sold by | Longmans & Co., 39 
Paternoster Row, E. C; | B. Quaritch, 15 Piccadilly, W. ; Dulau & Co., 37 
Soho Square, W.; | Kegan Paul & Co., 43 Gerrard St., W.; | and at the | Brit- 
ish Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W. | 1903. | All rights 
reserved. — 8vo. pp. i-xii, 1— 391 . 

Vol. XXI J Recent Literature. 93 

genera, while some of the species of these two groups are most certainly 
much more nearly related to each other than they are to any of the inter- 
posed groups. Our Robin group is allotted to Turdus, and forms the 
•only American species of the genus, except T. rufitorques of Mexico and 
Central America. 

It seems like returning to the 'good old times ' to see such groups as the 
Mimidse, Regulida?, Paridre, Certhiida, etc., installed again as full-fledged 

Parus is restricted to a group of Old World Titmice, the American spe- 
cies hitherto referred to Parus being placed in Pfecile Kaup, except P. 
gambeli, for which the new genus Poecilodes Bianchi (1902) is adopted. 

The recent additions to the list of described forms are given at their face 
value, with, however, references to adverse opinions when any such have 
been made public. In short, the care, thoroughness and fairness of Dr. 
Sharpe's great work will long render it a most invaluable aid to every 
systematic ornithologist. — J. A. A. 

Ridgway on New American Birds. — Mr. Ridgway, in preparing Part 
III of his ' Birds of North and Middle America, 1 has found it desirable to 
describe a number of new genera, species, and subspecies. 1 The new 
genera comprise the following four genera of Swallows, as follows: 
Alopochelidon, type, Hirundo fucata Temm. ; Orochelido?i, type, Petro- 
chelido7i murina Cass. ; Diploc/ielidon, type, Hirundo melanoleuca Wied ; 
Lamprochelidon, type, Hirundo enc/irysea Gosse. The new species and 
subspecies, 29 in number, are mostly from Mexico and Central America, 
but the following come within the scope of the A. O. U. Check-List: (1) 
Budytes flavus alasceusis. Western Alaska; (2) Vireo kuttotti cognatus. 
Cape district of Lower California ; (3) Vireo belli/' arizonce, western 
Texas and Arizona ; (4) Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi, San Clemente and 
Santa Margarita Islands, L. Cal. ; (5) Bceolophus iuomalus restrictus, 
vicinity of San Francisco Bay, Cal. ; (6) B. i. murinus, northern Lower 
California; (7) Psaltriparus minimus satura tits, Mount Vernon, Wash. ; 
(8) Chamcea fasciata rufula, central coast region of California ; (9) Miss- 
issippi Valley and Great Plains region, north to Alberta. — J. A. A. 

Nelson on New Birds from Mexico. — The 13 new species and sub- 
species here described 2 were mainly collected by Messrs. Nelson and 
Goldman in southwestern Mexico during the winter of 1902-03. They 

1 Descriptions of New Genera, Species, and Subspecies of American Birds. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XVI, pp. 105-113, Sept. 30, 1903. 

Diagnoses of Nine New Forms of American Birds. Ibid., pp. 167-170, 
Nov. 30, 1903. 

2 Descriptions of New Birds from Southern Mexico. By E. W. Nelson. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XVI, pp. 1 51-160, Nov. 30, 1903. 

Recent Literature. ["Auk 

QA Recent Literature. j 


include a Quail-Dove, a Grouse (Dactylortyx), an Owl, 10 species of Pas- 
serine birds, of which several are given the rank of full species. — J. A. A. 

Oberholser on a New Wren from Texas. — Mr. Oberholser has 
described \ the Long-billed Marsh Wren of eastern Texas and Louisiana 
as Telmatodyies -palustris thryophilus, it differing from T. palustris in. 
smaller size, paler and grayer coloration. — J. A. A. 

Hartert's 'Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna.' 2 — Mr. Hartert's 
Birds of the Palaearctic Fauna is to comprise two volumes of about 650- 
pages each, to be issued in ten parts, at four marks each, and to be com- 
pleted during 1905. Part I consists of an introduction of twelve pages 
and the first 112 pages of the text, and comprises the families Corvidae, 
Sturnidse, Oreolidae, and the first part of the Fringillidae, numbering 
altogether 184 species and subspecies. In the introduction the author 
clearly defines his attitude as regards 'lumping' and ' splitting,' and on 
various questions of nomenclature ; he takes Linnaeus at 1758, adheres 
strictly to the rule of priority, and employs trinomials in the most 
approved way for subspecies. These he recognizes with great liberality, 
but displays much conservatism in respect to genera. For example, 
under Acanthis he would combine Carduelis, Chrysoniitris, Linota t 
Spinas, Astra galinus, and Hylocanthus, and similarly under Corvus 
various allied groups that are often given generic rank. He emphatically 
disapproves of the supposition that birds can change the color and 
markings of their plumage without a renewal of the feathers, and in 
other respects stands in the front rank of the new school. 1 

Passing now to the systematic portion of the work, the higher groups 
are briefly characterized, and under the genera there are keys to the 
species, but, generally, not to the subspecies ; there is no generic synon- 
ymy, and the citations under the species and subspecies are restricted to 
the first mention of the names adopted, and their synonyms. The 
characters of the species are quite fully given, with a brief statement 
of their geographical ranges, manner of nesting, character of the eggs, 
etc., and under the subspecies their distinctive characteristics and 

The geographical scope of the work is sufficiently indicated by the title, 
but the southern boundary of the Palaearctic Region is not very sharply 
definable. In general terms the region includes all of Europe, northern 

1 Descriptions of a New Telmatodyies. By Harry C. Oberholser. Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., XVI, pp. 149, 150, Nov. 12, 1903. 

2 Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna. Systematische Ubersicht der in 
Europa, Nord- Asian und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vogel. Von 
Ernst Hartert. Heft. I. Mit 22 Abbildungen. Berlin. Verlag von R. Fried- 
lander und Sohn. Ausgegeben in November 1903. Large 8vo, pp. i-xii, 
t-i 12. 

V0l i' <S X1 ] Recent Literature. g$ 

Africa to the Sahara, and Asia south to northern Arabia and the Hima- 
layas, and China to about the latitude of Pekin. A few North American 
forms are included when they belong to circumpolar species, for the pur- 
pose of completing the account of the group, as in Pica pica and the genus 
Acanthis but not in the case of Corvus corax, although this species is cited 
in the introduction as an example of this treatment. It is to be noted that 
the name Jiamniea [Fringilla jlammea Linn.) is substituted for the familiar 
linaria (F. linaria Linn.) for Acanthis linaria, on the basis of precedence 
on the same page. Several subspecies are also here described for the 
first time. 

Although we have a recent popular manual on the birds of the same 
region, the present work is to be most heartily welcomed as an exposition 
of the subject from a technically up-to-date standpoint. — J. A. A. 

'The Avicultural Magazine.' — 'The Avicultural Magazine' 1 is the 
journal of the Avicultural Society, which has for its object "The study of 
foreign and British birds in freedom and captivity," exclusive of "Poul- 
try, Pigeons and Canaries." 

It is published monthly, forming an annual volume of about 450 pages, 
with numerous colored and other plates, and also text figures. It is 
devoted, as the name implies, largely to the habits and rearing of wild 
birds in captivity, but contains also papers on birds observed in a state of 
freedom ; the present volume including a series of illustrated popular 
papers by Mr. J. Lewis Bonhote on birds observed by him in the Baha- 
mas (already noticed in this journal, XX, 1903, p. 230); on ' Birds in 
Towns,' by John Sergeant; 'The Late Rains and their effect on Bird 
Life' (in England), by E. G. B. Meade-Waldo, etc. Besides the general 
articles, there are departments for 'Reviews,' ' Bird Notes,' ' Correspond- 
ence,' etc. 

An interesting note from a bird-dealer on ' British Birds in New Zea- 
land,' states that Goldfinches, Redpolls, Chaffinches, Greenfinches, Hedge 
Sparrows, Thrushes, Blackbirds, Yellow-hammers, Buntings, and Gray 
Linnets, liberated some twenty-five years ago, have become very abundant 
so that a catch of "fifteen dozen Goldfinches a day," or seventeen dozen 
Redpolls, is easily made, while Chaffinches, Greenfinches and Hedge Spar- 
rows may be had in "any quantity." 

The magazine is largely taken up, as would be expected, with the 
habits and care of birds in captivity. There are several very interesting 

1 The I Avicultural Magazine, | being the Journal of | the Avicultural Society 
for the Study of | Foreign and British Birds | in Freedom and Captivity. | 
Edited by | D. Seth-Smith, F. Z. S., M. B. O. U. | New Series, Vol. I. | Nov- 
ember, 1902 to October, 1903. | London: | R. H. Porter, | 7, Princes Street, 
Cavendish Square, W. I 1903. — 8vo, pp. i-xx, 1-431, 32 pll. (12 colored) 
and 18 text figures. Annual membership subscription, 10s. 

o6 Recent Literature. f^J 


communications on the nesting habits of a number of species, and some 
discussion under 'Instinct and Nest-building' of Wallace's theory that 
young birds learn to make their nests because they have themselves been 
reared in one, the experience of various contributions being to the effect 
that birds in captivity nest ' true to type' when the conditions are favor- 
able, regardless of whether reared in a typical nest of their own species 
or not. 

The magazine is evidently an authority in its own field, and an 
invaluable medium of communication and bond of union between the 
members of the Avicultural Society, which was founded in 1894, and has 
shown substantial and steady growth. — J. A. A. 

Seth-Smith's Handbook of Parrakeets. 1 — Part VI, concluding this 
excellent work, 1 has been received, comprising pages 217-281, i-xx, and 
three colored plates, representing five species. The scope of the work, 
as defined by the author, is as follows : "Scientifically speaking, there is 
no distinction between a ' Parrot' and a ' Parrakeet,' the latter word being 
purely a popular term used for the smaller Parrots. It cannot be applied 
to any particular family," or subfamily, nor to those species with long or 
short tails. The gigantic Macaws are never called Parrakeets, but they 
are closely related to the Conures, and possess the long tails that one 
generally associates with Parrakeets. The title of this work, must, 
therefore, be interpreted in the sense in which it is generally used by 
aviculturists — that is, to mean the smaller Parrots, whether they possess 
short tails or long, whether they have ordinary or filamented tongues." 
The work, however, is not intended as a monograph of all the species, 
but only of the imported species, or those known to the author to have 
been imported. The number included in the present work is 131 species, 
of which colored figures are given of 33, and text figures of 23, mostly 
additional to those shown in the colored plates. 

The general character of the work has already been given in our notice 
of Parts I-V (Auk, XX, pp. 322, 323), and we need add little more than 
to say that the author has provided for the large number of aviculturists 
and others interested in this class of popular cage birds a manual giving 
a large amount of interesting information concerning their habits and 
distribution in a wild state, their proper treatment in confinement, descrip- 
tions by which they may be easily identified, and very useful colored fig- 
ures of many of them. — J. A. A. 

1 Parrakeets. | A Handbook to the Imported Species. | [Vignette] By | 
David Seth-Smith, M. B. O. U., F. Z. S. | With Twenty Coloured Plates and 
other Illustrations. | London : | R. H. Porter, | 7, Prince's Street, Cavendish 
Square, W. | 1903. — 8vo, pp. i-xx -f- 1-281, with 20 colored plates and num- 
erous text-figures. 






Plates XII-XVIII. 

The Audubon Societies and the generous subscribers to the 
Thayer Fund have every reason to congratulate themselves upon 
the steady progress of bird protection work in the United States 
during the past twelve months. The present outlook of the work 
is like the intermittent notes of birds before the break of day, or 
the first gleam of Heaven's amber in the eastern gray; if those 
who are now working may not see the full meridian sunlight yet 
the results of 1903 are an earnest of what we hope may be accom- 
plished in th£ next decade. After all, it is honest love for our 
work, honest sorrow for the ills which we see about us in the bird 
world, honest work for the day that is present with us, and honest 
hope for to-morrow that must govern our actions. When we rise 
above the sordidness that so often hinders spiritual work, and learn 
to believe that it is better sometimes to invest in deeds of mercy to 
God's helpless creatures than it is to invest in the best of securities, 
we will find that our works of love are better paying investments 
and will bring us in something far higher and nobler. Our labors 
will go forth to bless our country and make the world about us 
fairer and better ; in addition it will react and make ourselves not 
only happier but better, as we will realize that unselfish work is far 
better than work for personal display or self aggrandizement. 

The year's results have been so full of interest, have developed 
so rapidly, and bid so fair to develop more rapidly in the future, 
that it becomes necessary to make a very detailed report under the 
head of each Commonwealth ; this is done in order that each soci- 
ety may have a general idea of what each other society is doing, 
and thus the strong, aggressive bodies become an example and 
lesson to those that are not so successful ; new ideas of work are 

08 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \\^ 

also thus suggested. In this connection the work of the North 
Carolina Society, in securing funds from their sustaining members, 
is certainly commendable and is an object lesson of the greatest 
force to other societies who complain of the difficulty in securing 
funds for their work. If in a State that is comparatively poor, 
331 sustaining members can be secured for the asking, what would 
be the result of the same effort in the more wealthy and thickly 
settled States ? 

The activities of the past year have been confined to three 
channels, as heretofore : Legislation, Warden Work, and Audubon 
or Educational Work. The legislative branch has been particu- 
larly successful, inasmuch as the A. O. U. model law has been 
adopted in nine States, as follows : Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, Minnesota, Colorado, Oregon, and 
Washington (see map). 

Besides this, the influence of the National Committee was given 
to the bettering of the game laws, in stopping spring shooting, 
preventing sale and transportation of game, and in other direc- 
tions. In five States we were unsuccessful in our efforts to im- 
prove the non-game bird law ; the reasons for our failure are given 
later under the heads of the following States, namely, California, 
Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, and Oklahoma Territory. 

The Warden Work of the year was largely increased over that 
of previous years and will be still further broadened during the 
coming year, provided sufficient funds are furnished to enable the 
National Committee to carry out its present plans. 

Audubon and Educational Work go hand in hand and are 
really the foundation of the great economic movement that is now 
going on ; prohibitive laws and the actual guarding of breeding 
birds by wardens are important, but unless these are upheld by a 
moral sentiment in the public mind, the goal that we are aiming 
at may never be reached : 

" Books ! ' t is a dull and endless strife : 
Come, hear the woodland Linnet, 
How sweet his music! on my life, 
There's more of wisdom in it. 
And hark ! how blithe the Throstle sings ! 
He, too, is no mean preacher: 
Come forth into the l'ght of things, 
Let Nature be your teacher." 

Vol. XXI 

DuTCHER, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 


IOO Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. v" 

Audubon societies are educating both adults and children ; it is 
teach, teach, teach, both in the field and by libraries, pictures, 
lectures, and every method to make the masses acquainted with 
the bird in life. Day by day and year by year there is a steady 
growth of sentiment in favor of bird protection ; this can be seen 
on every hand. Unfortunately there are a few unsympathetic and 
doubting people who say all this work is not necessary because the 
fashion is changing and the use of birds' plumage is not very popu- 
lar at the present time; this, however, we believe is not a fact. 
The reason there is less plumage now used is simply because the 
Audubon sentiment is increasing ; it is more difficult to obtain 
wild birds' plumage ; protective laws are being passed in the 
country ; and, as is reported by the Wisconsin Audubon Society, 
milliners say it is impossible to sell a hat trimmed with wild birds' 
plumage to the mother of a child who belongs to an Audubon soci- 
ety, or who is taught in the school about birds. 

During the year new Audubon societies have been organized in 
the following States: Michigan, Georgia, North Dakota, and Colo- 
rado, and it is found that there is a steady and persistent growth 
of the Audubon movement in other localities (see map). 

One of the greatest gains of the past year in educational lines 
was the educational leaflets issued by the National Committee ; 
these have been found to fill a long-felt want and are practical 
methods of teaching not only the aesthetic but the economic value 
of birds. 

It is most unfortunate that these leaflets cannot be distributed 
gratuitously; requests are made almost daily for them from schools 
or individuals which cannot be met, and it dampens the ardor of 
the inquirer when we cannot freely give them our literature with- 
out charge. 

Probably one of the most important advance movements in the 
history of bird protection was the agreement made in April last 
between the Millinery Merchants Protective Association, the New 
York Audubon Society and the American Ornithologists' Union. 
This agreement was concurred in by the Western Millinery Asso- 
ciation, and has been so widely noticed in the press of the country 
that it is unnecessary to do more than give the actual text of the 

Vol. XXI 


Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. IOI 

102 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. |~f uk 

Agreement between the Members of the Millinery Mer- 
chants Protective Association of New York and the 
Audubon Society of the State of New York. 

The members of the Millinery Merchants Protective Association hereby 
pledge themselves as follows : 

To abstain from the importation, manufacture, purchase or sale of gulls, 
terns, grebes, hummingbirds and song birds. 

To publish monthly in the Millinery Trade Review a notice informing 
the millinery trade in general that it is illegal to buy, sell or deal in gulls, 
terns, grebes, hummingbirds or song birds, and that no means will be 
spared to convict and punish all persons who continue to deal in the said 
prohibited birds. 

To notify the millinery trade by printed notices as to what plumage can 
be legally used. 

To mail printed notices to all dealers in raw materials, importers and 
manufacturers of fancy feathers and to the millinery trade in general that 
all violations of the law will be reported to the proper authorities. 

It is further agreed on the part of the Millinery Merchants Protective 
Association that on and after January i, 1904, the importation, manufac- 
ture, purchase or sale of the plumage of egrets or herons and of American 
pelicans of any species shall cease, and the said birds shall be added to the 
list of prohibited species mentioned above. 

It is understood and agreed that the restrictions referred to in this 
agreement as to gulls, terns, grebes, herons and hummingbirds, shall 
apply to the said birds irrespective of the country in which they may 
have been killed or captured. 

The Audubon Society of New York State on its part hereby agrees as 
follows : 

To endeavor to prevent all illegal interference on the part of game. ward- 
ens with the millinery trade: to refrain from aiding the passage of any 
legislation that has for its object restrictions against the importation, manu- 
facture or sale of fancy feathers obtained from domesticated fowls or of the 
plumage of foreign birds other than those specifically mentioned above. 

It is agreed by each of the parties that this contract shall remain in 
force for a period of three years from the date of its execution. 



Frank M. Chapman, George Legg, President, 

Chairman of the Charles W. Farmer, Secretary. 

Executive Committee . 

The above agreement, is concurred in by the American Ornithologists' 


William Dutcher, 

Chairman Protection Committee. 

Vol. XXI 

] Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 103 

This agreement, it is believed, is being lived up to by the 
milliners with very few exceptions, a notable one being the refusal 
of three firms in New York who are not members of the Associa- 
tion, and who refuse to be governed by the agreement in respect 
to the use of aigrettes. 

The further use of the aigrette in the United States, therefore, 
becomes a matter of ethics. The women who will not wear the 
aigrette are upholding every good impulse and are living up to 
the sentiment expressed by Coleridge : 

He prayeth well, who loveth well 
Both man and bird and beast. 
He prayeth best, who loveth best 
All things both great and small; 
For the dear God who loveth us, 
He made and loveth all. 

On the other hand the women who still persist in wearing the 
aigrette, no matter whether it was secured in this country or any 
other, does so at the cost of a life taken in the cruellest possible 
manner- The plume when worn is not an emblem of grace and 
beauty, but is a badge of cruelty and inhumanity. 

The National Committee offers the following suggestions for the 
work of the coming year : 

A decided and energetic effort must be made to prevent the use 
of automatic guns. Birds and game are disappearing quite rapidly 
enough by the use of the ordinary shot gun, but if the magazine 
gun comes into general use, it simply multiplies enormously the 
present means of destruction. 

Every State should be urged to follow the example set by 
Pennsylvania and Delaware in appointing an Honorary Consulting 
Ornithologist; he may be connected with the Board of Agriculture 
or with the Fish and Game Commission, and all matters relating 
to the bird life of the State, or the laws governing the same, should 
be referred to him for expert opinion. In every State may be 
found ornithologists of note who would be willing to contribute 
their services without compensation. 

The Audubon societies should affiliate closely with the Humane 
societies; many of these throughout the United States are now 

I 04 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [j 


doing excellent bird protection work, and as the objects of both 
societies are in the main similar, the good work of the Humane 
societies should be recognized. 

Farmers' organizations should be encouraged (see Illinois) ; 
if the owners of land will band together to prevent illegal shooting 
upon their properties and thoroughly post and police their farms, 
much illegal killing of both game and non-game birds will be the 
result; this is especially important in localities adjacent to the 
large cities where the foreign population is numerous. As many 
of these people do not readily understand English, it is of the 
utmost importance that warning notices printed in Italian, Polish, 
and Scandinavian should be freely distributed in suburban local- 
ities. Only fifteen States are without trespass laws as follows : 
Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Maine, Mary- 
land, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South 
Carolina, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming. 

In many of the States Sunday shooting is strictly prohibited ; 
this gives absolute rest to bird life for one day in the week, and 
the Audubon societies should see that this law is complied with ; 
the twenty-one States and Territories that have no law prohibiting 
Sunday shooting are, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, 
Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, 
New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, 
Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, and in these 
Commonwealths such a law should be passed at once. 

Another subject that should engage the attention of the Audu- 
bon workers is, the feline hunter ; in other words, the house cat 
run wild, for there is no doubt that millions of birds are killed in 
the United States and Canada every year by cats. This is a sub- 
ject that has never received the attention its importance warrants. 
Most States provide for a license or tax on dogs, so that the num- 
ber is kept within reasonable limits, and none are permitted to run 
wild as cats do ; there is no good reason why a tax should not be 
placed on cats. 

The National Committee feel very strongly that all of the 
Audubon societies should heartily support our organ ' Bird Lore/ 
This magazine is conducted with the sole purpose of educating 
the public, especially the children of the country, about birds ; 

i o I Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. IOC 

nothing is admitted to its pages that is not scientifically correct, 
and everything is presented in a popular and interesting manner. 
It is always beautifully illustrated, and gives reviews of new bird 

During the coming year each issue will furnish interesting news 
regarding the work of the National Committee ; besides this, every 
number will contain a new educational leaflet which will afterward 
be printed as a ' separate ' for general distribution. The more 
widely our magazine can be distributed the greater will be the 
progress of our work. 

During the past year the Committee has received in contribu- 
tions for the various branches of work the sum of $3,756.85, which 
has been expended with the greatest care and economy ; notwith- 
standing this, at the close of the year, the Committee was con- 
fronted with a deficit of $158.90. 

It is absolutely necessary that the Committee should have at its 
disposal for the year 1904 a sum not less than $5,000, and it is 
desirable that even a larger amount should be provided by those 
interested in the furtherance of this great economic work. The 
Committee should be in a position to distribute its leaflets free, 
otherwise its educational work will be seriously hampered. 

The territory to be covered by wardens during the coming year 
will be very much larger than heretofore. In addition it is of the 
utmost importance that the National Committee shall be able to 
send into the State of Louisiana at the next session of the Legisla- 
ture some of its best speakers and most active bird protection 
workers, in order to secure the passage of the A. O. U. model law. 
For generations the indiscriminate slaughter of birds of all kinds 
in Louisiana has been permitted; this must be shown to be waste- 
ful and wrong. 

A material increase in the Thayer Fund is earnestly urged upon 
the thoughtful consideration of those who have so generously sup- 
ported it in the past. If every one of our loyal friends will secure 
an additional subscriber the necessary working fund can be 
readily secured. 

The Subcommittee on Foreign Relations present the following 
report of its work for the past year. 

Io6 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [fan 

Philippine Islands. — A Committee was appointed at the last 
annual meeting to take measures to prevent the use of the birds 
of the Philippine Islands for commercial purposes. 

A memorial was prepared and sent to the Honorable Secretary 
of War, as follows : 

Sir: — 

At the Twentieth Congress of the American Ornithologists' Union, 
held in Washington, D. C, November 17-20, 1902, the following preamble 
and resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas, During the past twenty years there has been an alarming 
decrease in the wild birds of the world, and 

Whereas, The said decrease has been largely occasioned by the use of 
birds' plumage for millinery ornaments, and 

Whereas, Scientific study of bird life by experts reveals the fact that 
wild birds are of great economic value, and 

Whereas, A systematic effort is now being made for the preservation of 
wild bird life in this country as well as in foreign countries, therefore 

Be it resolved, That a Committee of five Fellows of the American 
Ornithologists' Union be appointed by the President, to take such action 
as will best conserve all bird life. 

In accordance with these resolutions the Committee respectfully invites 
your attention to the importance of taking steps to prevent the export 
from the Philippine Islands of game and birds, more especially of those 
species w r hose plumage is used for millinery purposes. Laws prohibiting 
export are considered indispensable in bird protection, and are now in 
force in all but four or five States and Territories of the United States. 
Such a law was also enacted by Congress in June, 1902, for the protection 
of birds in Alaska. 

At present there is an enormous demand for the plumage of birds used 
by the millinery trade, and much of this plumage is obtained from birds 
of the East Indies, Australia, and New Guinea. Birds are now protected 
in most of the colonies of Australia, in India, and Burma ; steps have 
been taken to protect certain species in British New Guinea; and within 
the past year the export of birds and plumage from India has been 
absolutely prohibited. Apparently in most countries of the Orient under 
British rule efforts are being made to curtail the wholesale destruction of 
birds for millinery purposes, and the enforcement of existing laws will 
inevitably drive the plume hunter to new fields, including the Philippine 
Islands. While it is not probable that many birds are now shipped from 
the Philippines, it seems desirable to prohibit such export before the 
plume trade has gained a foothold in the islands. 

The Committee therefore respectfully requests your cooperation in this 
matter, and also requests that the subject be brought to the attention of 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 07 

the Philippine Commission with a view to taking such action as may 
be possible to prevent the destruction of birds for export from the islands. 

Wm. Dutcher, Chas. W. Richmond, 

Theodore S. Palmer, Ruthven Deane, 

Frank M. Chapman. 

Committee on Foreign Relations. 

Action on the memorial was taken as per the following letters : 

War Department, 

Bureau of Insular Affairs, 

Washington, D. C, February 9, 1903. 
Gentlemen : — 

By direction of the Secretary of War, I have the honor to acknowledge 
the receipt of your communication to him of January 31, setting forth 
the preamble and resolutions adopted at the Twentieth Congress of the 
American Ornithologists' Union. 

You are respectfully informed that your communication has this day, 
been transmitted to the Hon. William H. Taft, Civil Governor, Manila, 
P. I. 

Very respectfully, 

Clarence R. Edwards, 

Colonel, U. S. Army, 

Chief of Bureau. 

Department of the Interior, 

Manila, June 24, 1903. 
Sir : — 

Replying to your letter of January 31, 1903, addressed to the Secretary 
of War, a copy of which was forwarded to me, I beg to say that there will 
be, in my judgment, no difficulty whatever in securing the adoption by 
the Philippine Commission of legislation to insure the protection of 
wild birds in the Philippine Islands. 

There is at present, to the best of my knowledge and belief, no expor- 
tation of bird skins from these Islands. 

I should appreciate it if you would send any literature on this subject 
which you have available. 

Very respectfully, 

Dean C. Worcester, 

Secretary of the I?iterior. 

New York, August 27, 1903. 
Dear Sir : — 

In response to your favor of June 24, I beg to enclose you herewith 

Io8 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \ P \ X ^ 

copies of game laws as follows : Two Acts of India; Two Acts of New 
Zealand; and One Act of South Australia. 

I also enclose a copy of the A. O. U. model law. 

From all of this matter I think that you will be able to formulate a 
good law for our Philippine possessions. 

Very respectfully, 

William Dutcher, 
Chairman A. O. U. Committee on Protectio?z 
of North American Birds. 

From the tenor of the above correspondence it may be safely 
concluded that the bird life of the Philippine Islands will never 
be offered as a sacrifice on the altar of fashion or to the greed of 

Midway Islands. — The Midway Islands are a station of the 
new Pacific Cable Company and belong to the United States. 
They are the homes and breeding places of countless seabirds, 
among them a species of pure white tern. Thousands of these 
birds suddenly appeared in the millinery market about a year 
since, under the trade name of ' Albinas ' and it was feared that 
these terns would shortly be as nearly exterminated as were the 
terns of the Atlantic coast. 

The following correspondence shows what the Committee has 
done to preserve these birds. 

New York, July 2, 1903. 
Hon. Wm. H. Moody, 

Secretary of the Navy, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir : — 

I am informed that large numbers of seabirds breed and make their 
home upon the Midway Islands in the Pacific Ocean. 

As these islands are under the jurisdiction of your Department, I beg 
in behalf of our Society that you will establish such rules and regulations 
as will prevent the killing and taking of the resident birds for commercial 
purposes, and also to prevent the taking of the eggs of the said birds dur- 
ing the breeding season. 

I am informed that the Japanese people have been in the habit of visit- 
ing these islands for the purpose of killing birds for their plumage. 

It is known that during the past few years enormous numbers of sea- 
birds have been killed by the Japanese and have been shipped to the 
Paris, London, and New York markets for millinery ornaments ; among 

Vol. XX 

I Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. IOQ 

these birds were great numbers of a very beautiful form of the tern 
family known as Gygis alba. 

Our Society is under many obligations to your Department for your 
hearty cooperation in our work for the preservation of sea-birds, the 
latest and one of the most notable instances being your order of April 24 
in re the birds on the Dry Tortugas, Florida. 
I am, with great respect, my dear Sir, 

Very truly yours, 

Wm. Dutcher, 


Navy Department, 

Washington, July 3, 1903. 
Sir : — 

Replying to your letter of the 2nd instant, requesting the establishment 
of rules and regulations to prevent the killing and taking of the resident 
birds of the Midway Islands for commercial purposes, and also to prevent 
the taking of the eggs of said birds during the breeding season : I have 
to inform you that your letter has been referred to the Commandant, 
Naval Station, Hawaii, for report. Upon receipt of his report, the 
Department will advise you more fully in the matter. 

Very respectfully, 

W. H. Moody, 


Alabama. — There is great need of a new bird law in this State. 
The present law, passed in 1899, seeks to protect quite a long list 
of birds a portion of the year only, but it is practically valueless, 
as the provisions of the act do not apply to 60 of the 66 counties 
in the State. There is no session of the legislature until 1905. 
There is no Audubon Society in the State, and so far as known no 
bird students. 

At the request of Mr. George W. Carver, Director Department 
of Agriculture and Experiment Station, Tuskegee Normal and 
Industrial Institute, a package of Educational Leaflets, Nos. 1 to 
4, were sent for him to distribute at the Summer School. 

Subsequently he wrote : " I have distributed them among our 
teachers and they take to them most heartily. I am sure they will 
do a great deal of good as each teacher will go into a community 
that has not been touched by them. Trusting I can be of further 
service to you in pushing this grand movement," etc. 

IIO Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \\\ 


There is a great field for educational bird work in this State ; 
will not some generous reader of this report furnish a fund that 
will enable the National Committee to send to every teacher in 
Alabama bird leaflets that will enable them to teach the children 
in their charge the great economic value of the wild birds. 

Arizona. — This territory has a very imperfect non-game bird 
law, although it was passed as late as March, 1901. The next 
session of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

There is seemingly little interest taken in birds or bird protec- 

Arkansas. — Legislation. — No change has been made in the 
law, which is practically the A. O. U. model. The game laws 
were improved by non-export and sale clauses. The next session 
of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — There is no organized society in the State, but 
a great deal of splendid work is accomplished by Mrs. Stephenson 
of Helena, who is a member of the A. O. U. Protection Committee. 
She writes : 

"Since work of whatever kind is best measured by its results, 
mine, which is mostly of a personal character, and too often un- 
fruitful, seems hardly worth mentioning. However, as sponsor 
for Arkansas something must be said. 

"Pearly in the year, the game bills referred to above were pre- 
sented to the legislature, and after many weeks passed. Later, it 
was reported that U. S. Judge Trieber (Judge of the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Arkansas) had been asked to declare this new law unconsti- 
tutional, and that he had done so. In answer to that report he 
wrote the following letter : 

" ' In reply to your inquiry I would state that I made no decision 
whatever in regard to the game law. An injunction was asked 
from me, and to have me declare the game law of the State pro- 
hibiting non-residents from hunting unconstitutional, but I declined 
to do so, stating that perhaps some State Judge could be induced 
to take that view, but in my opinion the law is constitutional. 
Thereupon, Senator Clarke did apply to Judge Hughes in Critten- 
den County, and he declared it unconstitutional. The only thing 

Vol. XXI | Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I I T 

I ever did was to grant an injunction, temporarily, to prevent the 
so-called game wardens, which means the dead beats, acting as 
constables and deputy constables in Crittenden County, from tres- 
passing upon private lands for the purpose of annoying the negro 
tenants, but that has been dismissed now for want of prosecution. 
In my opinion, all game belongs to the State absolutely, and it has 
a perfect right to prevent anybody from killing, catching, keeping, 
buying or selling it, shipping or receiving it, and not only that, but 
the State can allow its own citizens to kill it and still refuse non- 
residents the same privilege. As to the wisdom of it, that is a 
matter with which the courts have nothing to do, but if the State 
expects to preserve any of the game there will have to be a more 
stringent enforcement of the law than there is at present. 

" ' As to the so-called sportsmen : In my opinion there is very 
little difference between those residing in the State and those out 
of the State; they enjoy sport because they can see blood. They 
care nothing for game for the purpose of eating it, but it is consid- 
ered a noble sport to kill helpless things ; all of which only tends 
to show that our boasted civilization is a very thin veneering and 
the least scratch takes it off. 

" i With some men all you have to do is to yell " sport " ; with 
others, "war"; and still others, "lynching"; but whatever it is 
when you boil it down it is nothing but the wild animal that is in us/ 

"By constant watching and complaining when it is violated, I 
have upheld the protective law for song birds, and am glad to say 
there is a perceptible increase in their numbers in my field this 
past year. All work outside has been done through letters and the 
distribution of literature." 

The following sentiment expressed in an editorial in the Helena 
' Soliphone ' deserves wide publicity : " Let it be the unwritten law 
of America that no gentleman will kill a non-game bird, and that 
no lady will allow her hat to be decorated with the plumage of 
the innocent warblers." 

California. — Legislation. — There has been no change for the 
better in the non-game bird law and no further effort can be made 
until the next session of the legislature, which will be held in 1905. 
In the interim, however, a strong public sentiment must be created 
in favor of the A. O. U. model law. As proposed in the last 

112 Dutcher, Report of Committee, on Bird Protection. |~^ u 


annual report, an effort was made for a new law ; a bill was care- 
fully prepared, and was introduced and favorably reported by the 
Senate Fish and Game Committee. Owing to opposition from an 
entirely unexpected quarter, one in fact that should have given 
support rather than opposition to the bill, it was not pushed. It 
was thought better not to have any legislation rather than an 
unsatisfactory law. 

Audubon work. — While no society has been formally organized, 
a great amount of very valuable bird protection work is being done 
by interested citizens. California is deeply indebted to Mrs. 
Josephine Clifford McCrackin of Wrights, for her noble and praise- 
worthy efforts to preserve the birds and trees of her State. One 
of her friends writes: "This good woman, one of our earliest lit- 
erary workers and a former associate of Bret Harte on the old 
4 Overland Monthly, 1 despite her age, has done our State more 
good than a thousand prominent citizens. After having saved 
several of our noblest groves of redwoods {Sequoia gigantea) by 
having bills passed for their purchase by the State is now turning 
her attention to the preservation of our beautiful song birds. Her 
energy is tremendous and she carries through all she proposes to 

Mrs. McCrackin 's story of the ' Ladies Forest and Song Bird 
Protective Association of Santa Cruz County ' is of so much inter- 
est that it is given in some detail: 

"This Association was organized in December, 1901, through 
the efforts of Walter R. Welch, Deputy State Game Warden. His 
successor, C. A. Reed, felt the same interest in the preservation of 
song birds, and used his influence with the supervisors of this 
county to make the ordinance protecting birds of some effect, and 
as each member of our Association became at once an active 
worker in the cause, the song birds soon returned to their former 
haunts in the vicinity of Santa Cruz City. It is different in the 
country, I am sorry to say, though a number of our members live 
in my immediate neighborhood, in a grape and fruit-growing sec- 
tion, and like myself are convinced that the cherry crop, for which 
many song birds suffer death, is not in any measure made less by 
the alleged depredations of the birds that are with us at the time 
when cherries are ripe, yet the rancher, to his own detriment, with 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 113 

the instinct of the savage, will persecute and kill every bird that 
dares to make the county its home. 

" From the very beginning our aim and object was to awaken 
interest and find representation in the public schools, and I was 
instructed to write individually to each teacher, 109 in number; 
in most cases I received courteous assurances that kindness to all 
God's helpless creatures was taught to the children in charge. In 
the Parochial school, the 'Address to School Children,' which I 
had w r ritten, fell on such fruitful soil that a number of really 
excellent, thoughtful essays were written by some of the pupils, 
not one of whom had reached the age of fourteen. The public 
schools evaded and avoided us, giving as a reason that the 
teachers were already overburdened with studies. (Many of the 
teachers, let me say, are members of our Association.) Game 
Warden Reed had 500 copies of the address struck off, at his own 
expense, and these have been distributed as far as they would go. 

" The ' Pastime ' of San Francisco republished some of my 
earlier articles from the ' Sentinel,' and its successor, 'Western 
Field,' brought out an article of mine on the subject in its first 

"The ' Pacific Fruit World' of Los Angeles, readily consented 
to publish a strong protest I wrote against the barbarous course, 
pointed out by one contributor, to rid the country of the bird pest 
to hang wide-mouthed bottles filled with poisoned water up in the 
trees where the birds would come to quench their thirst. 

"Later the ' Breeder and Sportsman,' San Francisco, published 
two articles ' Save the Song Birds,' in the second of which I spoke 
in the most uncomplimentary manner of women who still insist on 
having our best friends, our greatest solace in our quiet country 
homes, the song birds, tortured and murdered in order to wear 
this badge of heartlessness on hat or bonnet. 

" Having been asked by the Woman's Club of San Jose to speak 
before the Alliance of Clubs on bird protection I gladly answered 
the call, as it is most desirable to interest the ladies of Santa Clara 
County, for the line of that county runs through this part of the 
Santa Cruz Mountains, and we cannot protect birds in this county 
when they can shoot across the line from the other county into 
ours. We of Santa Cruz had made an appeal to the Santa Clara 

II4 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. rf uk 

supervisors to pass a protective ordinance in their county ; to 
which they replied that such an ordinance had been passed in 
1896. That it has been a dead letter so far is evident from the 
fact that that last relic of barbarism, robin pot-pie, is still existent 
in some households where they choose to believe that no protec- 
tive ordinance was ever passed. 

" What We Purpose to do in 1Q04. 

" If my life is spared, and I am left in my position as President 
of our Association, I will propose to the members a line of work 
which shall have for its ultimate object the passing of a protective 
law by the legislature of California. Our foremost aim must still 
be the introduction of bird protection and bird study into the pub- 
lic schools. Education is better than prohibition. 

"We expect to make a Club effort at the next session of the 
State legislature, and to work for the forming of a State Audubon 
society, with one president, and 'secretaries for the different dis- 
tricts or counties. So much for the State organization. At the 
present time, or rather with the opening spring, our offorts will be 
directed toward making it known, and felt, that there is a protec- 
tive ordinance both in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, and 
our association must prevail upon the ladies of San Jose, Santa 
Clara County, to help us. Any person can be appointed Deputy 
Game Warden without pay in this State ; the San Jose Woman's 
Club will have some member so appointed ; I too M'ould seek a like 
appointment in Santa Cruz county, and together we might succeed 
in getting the supervisors to have notices printed, to be posted on 
trees and fences, to the effect that a bird protecting ordinance was 
in force in both counties. 

" I shall make it my duty to write to the people in this State who 
are interested in bird protection, as one as old as I may venture 
on writing suggestions. 

" Mr. Leonard Coates, an authority on fruit and fruit pests, is 
our faithful ally, for he is a firm friend of the song bird and has 
helped protect them. 

" I am to address a few lines to the sportsmen who hold their 
meeting at Paso Robles next month. All the more willingly do I 
write to them since I wish to make a plea for the better protection 

V °i o4 XI l Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I I C 

of Mourning Doves, killed off now in this portion of California at 
a shameful rate. For quail too I will make a plea, though I would 
hardly venture on this if I did not know that true sportsmen are 
gentlemen, for I have the honor of being a member, the only lady- 
member, of the California Game and Fish Protective Association. 

"At present our Association numbers nearly fifty regular and 
over twenty honorary members. We confer honorary membership 
not only on those who have aided and are kindly disposed toward 
us, but to those who are indifferent to the cause we sometimes pay 
a like compliment. An honorary member of a ' bird society ' will 
learn, after a while, to take just a little interest in birds, and see 
that they are protected. 

" Mr. Samuel Leaske, Trustee of the Carnegie Library, has 
kindly promised that a space shall be set aside in the new library 
building for our literature, and there will be a reading room for 
children, where humane literature of every character will be 
received and kept for the perusal of the little ones. 

"The dues of our association are* merely nominal, 25 cents. 
What we ask of our members is that they abstain from wearing 
feathers on hats or bonnets except those of the ostrich or the 
chicken, and that they induce their friends to use no other kinds." 

Another devoted friend of the birds of California is Mr. W. 
Scott Way of Pasadena, who is alive to his civic duties and writes 
as follows : " I shall be very glad to take up, with other earnest 
workers, the organization of an Audubon society. I have had the 
thing in mind for some time. I will join anything or go into any- 
thing, that is alive, for bird or game protection. I am in the 
Pasadena Humane Society because it is working on broad lines, 
and as the bird protection matter is left in my hands you may be 
sure that that end of the work will not be neglected. I am also 
working the local Farmers' Clubs for all there is in it in the way of 
bird protection. 

"There is much need of faithful, persistent work here in the way 
of getting better bird and game laws, and in enforcing those we 
have. There has been much unlawful shooting in this country 
during the present month, and the protective association does not 
seem to have done anything to check it. When the annual 
meeting is held I expect to ' put up a fight ' for better things. In 

Il6 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protect ion. |~ A ^ 


the meantime, I am ready to take on any new work, that I can 
possibly undertake, and if you can put me in communication with 
the right persons I will gladly aid the formation of an Audubon 

" You will see by the enclosed clipping that I have a county 
bird protection ordinance in course of preparation. Soon as the 
local Farmers' Club acts* on it I will take it before the supervisors. 

"Please send me ioo copies of your Flicker leaflet. I want 
them for the next Farmers' Club meeting." 

The California State Floral Society purchased for distribution 
among its members and others 1,000 copies of the National Com- 
mittee Educational Leaflets and its secretary writes: "Our 
society most heartily approves of your method of education to 
protect the valuable birds of the country." 

Colorado. — Legislation. — During the last session of the legis- 
lature the A. O. U. model law was adopted. The next session of 
legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden work. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — A society was organized during the past year 
and is now doing effective work. The juniors of the organization 
have their own officers and manage their own business, with some 
supervision and advice from the parent society, whose secretary 
writes of the boys as follows : 

" I am very proud of the boys and am confident that the work 
they are doing will be of much benefit for the protection of the birds 
of Colorado. 

"Their meetings have been held once in two weeks, until lately 
they have decided that it is best for them to meet weekly on account 
of the large amount of work they have to do. There are visitors at 
each session and much encouragement is given to the boys. Mrs. 
Mackenzie, a prominent teacher of Wyoming, was in attendance at 
the last two meetings to' gain information that would assist her in 
organizing a like society at her home. Miss West of Pueblo, Col- 
orado, a teacher of much influence in that city, spent an hour with 
the juniors two weeks ago to secure advice that would enable her 
to organize an Auxiliary. 

"The juniors, which I so justly and proudly claim, have the State 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I I 7 

organization, and have decided that all others must be auxiliaries 
to theirs. 

" It is a surprise and satisfaction to many who visit the boys 
while they are in session to note the very intelligent manner in which 
they handle parliamentary rules. It has required much of my time 
to coach them in their work, but I am well satisfied, for they never 
forget the advice once given. 

" The secretary also contributes the following encouraging infor- 
mation : ' If you have any literature to distribute free kindly send 
some to Mr. Geo. J. Spear, Greely, Colorado. Mr. Spear is one of 
the directors of our State organization, a prominent fruit grower 
and nursery man, and has applied for the appointment of Deputy 
Game Warden without pay, that he may prosecute parties in Gree- 
ley who are killing robins.' 

" I think I have written you of the Freemont County Audubon 
Society, organized by the Hon. B. F. Rockafellow, which now 
numbers considerably over 300 members. There are several aux- 
iliaries organized in the State and all are doing good work." 

Connecticut. — Legislation. — The A. O. U. model law is in 
force. Next session of legislature, 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens employed by the Thayer Fund. 
Audubon work. — The Connecticut Society is very active, espe- 
cially along educational lines, as the following extract from the 
Secretary's report shows : 

"We have not a large number of new members to report; about 
125 juniors, six teachers and eight other members, besides 700 
associate members ; these sign a pledge and receive a button, but 
do not pay or have a certificate. These members do not represent 
the work of the society ; we have in circulation 70 sets of bird charts, 
and 20 libraries, besides our three illustrated lectures and reading 
cards. During the past year the society has spent for libraries, 
bird charts and other educational work $170.28." 

It is pleasing to note the growth of interest in bird protection and 
allied subjects, as indicated by the proclamation of Governor 
Chamberlain in setting apart May 1 as Arbor and Bird Day. He 
says: "The importance of preserving and multiplying forest and 
shade trees cannot be overestimated, and it is to be feared that we 
do not fully appreciate the great advantages to be derived from tree 

I I 8 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Iran 

and plant culture. Many of the trees which beautify our grand 
old State were planted by our fathers — let us, in our turn, plant 
trees, in whose branches song birds may build their nests and 
whose grateful shade coming generations will enjoy. 

" I further request that the teachers in our schools endeavor to 
stimulate their pupils to an interest in the study of ornithology. 
It is surely an imperative duty to impress upon the boys and girls 
of to-day the sinfulness of robbing birds' nests and snaring wild 
birds. Such acts of wanton cruelty should not go unpunished/' 

North and South Dakota. — Legislation. — Non-game bird 
laws in both the Dakotas are lacking. A few birds are protected, 
but the present statutes are entirely inadequate. The citizens of 
these two States, which are so prolific of bird life, should awaken 
to the necessity for their preservation. The next session of the 
legislature will not be held until 1905. 

Will not the press of these two great agricultural States in the 
interim awaken the citizens to the value of birds to all classes of 
agriculture ? The National Committee holds itself in readiness to 
furnish information, on request, to the editors of the Dakotas, 
regarding the economic value of birds. 

Delaware. — Legislation. — No change in the bird law, the A. 
O. U. model law being in force. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed under the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports as follows: "The 
County Superintendent of schools, Mr. A. R. Spaid, gave his bird 
lecture at Dover during July and succeeded in obtaining the names 
of 25 teachers as members of the Audubon Society. 

"Two arrests have been made during 1903 for shooting robins; 
the fines and costs in each case amounting to over $10.00. 

"The State Board of Agriculture has expressed its intention of 
sending literature on birds to the teachers of the Delaware schools 
and asks their cooperation in distributing it among the children. 

"The Society has had copies of the bird laws of the State 
placed in all the stations of the Delaware railroads, and in all the 
post offices of those towns and villages where we have members, 
and permission to post the laws could be obtained. 

"Our Society thinks that constant agitation through the press 

Vol. XXI 


] Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I IQ 

should be its aim during 1904, and to strive to enroll children as 
members. It has other work under consideration, but as no defi- 
nite plan of action has yet been decided on it would be unwise 
to present it in this report." 

A most important and advanced step in bird protection work 
has been taken in Delaware during the present year in the appoint- 
ment by the State Board of Agriculture of an Honorary Consult- 
ing Ornithologist. The selection of Mr. Charles D. Pennock, a 
member of the American Ornithologists' Union, to this important 
position gives assurance that the farmers who listen to his addresses 
on birds will learn scientific facts of great value to them. 

District of Columbia. — Legislation. — None. A. O. U. model 
law in force. 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports as follows : 
"This Society was organized for the study and protection of 
birds. Under the heading of study, the work accomplished has 
been through lectures, monthly meetings for members, classes for 
the instruction of teachers conducted by different ornithologists, 
members of this Society, for which no charge is made. Fifty or 
sixty teachers have been taught. In these classes illustrations are 
made by means of bird skins owned by the Society. Classes for 
popular instruction were held through the spring. These were 
well patronized and created great enthusiasm, especially the out- 
door classes, realizing for the treasury a considerable sum. 

" Field meetings were held through April and May for members 
and their friends, each personally conducted by two or three 
trained ornithologists. Leading, as they did, through the beauti- 
ful woods around Washington, so easy of access, to which was 
added one water excursion, these meetings are said to be the 
crowning pleasure of the year's work. 

" For the protection of birds, examination of millinery stores has 
been made by officers of the Society ; cooperation with the Audu- 
bon Society of the State of Virginia, to secure the enactment of 
an adequate law for that State ; cooperation with the game war- 
dens of Montgomery County, Maryland, to all of whom copies of 
our game laws were sent. Occasional examinations of the markets 
and commission houses revealed no flagrant violation of game laws, 
and no song birds offered for sale. 

I 20 Dutcher, Report of Committeee on Bird Protection. ^ 

"Protection has been given to two breeding colonies of Night 
Herons near the Eastern Branch of the Potomac. The existence 
of breeding colonies so near the city of Washington is of great 
interest. All sale of grebes in the market has been effectively 
stopped. The sale of live native birds has been reduced to a 
minimum. The laws for the protection of birds and game have 
been generally well observed. 

" The Audubon Society of the District of Columbia begins its 
seventh year with renewed activity. The remarkable spread of 
bird protection sentiment manifested in the greatly increased 
interest in nature books and nature study, the rapid growth of 
bird-protective legislation, and the organization of new societies 
throughout the land, is both gratifying and stimulating. The 
ready response of the people to organized effort clearly indicates 
that energy and persistence are alone needed to awaken that 
enthusiasm through which protection of the birds becomes an 
assured fact. The District Society, which has so well borne its 
part in the past, purposes to conduct a yet more vigorous cam- 
paign during the coming year." 

Florida. — Legislation. — The A. O. U. model law is still in 
force, although it had a narrow escape from a serious amendment. 
Fortunately through the vigilance and very active work of Mr. R. 
W. Williams, Jr., the Florida member of the A. O. U. Protection 
Committee, the amendment was killed in the Senate after it had 
passed the House. 

The amendment was known as House Bill No. 561 and was 
introduced by Mr. McNamee of Hillsboro, as follows : " A bill to 
be entitled an act to exclude that certain family of sea fowls called 
the tern family from the provisions of all statutes forbidding the 
killing of plumage birds and providing penalties for a violation for 
said killing." It was referred to the Committee on Fisheries, 
which reported it favorably. Mr. McNamee stated in his speech 
for the measure in the House, that "these birds were a nuisance 
to man and destroyed the fish industry in Florida ; that their pelts 
were of commercial value and there is no reason why the citizens 
of Florida should not be allowed to reduce them to money." He 
also said : " No one knows from whence they come, they are only 
with us a short time, and it is senseless to protect them." The bill 





i— * 









i oo 1 1^ UTCHER ' Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 12 1 

passed the House by a vote of 32 yeas to 26 nays. In the Senate 
the bill was referred to the Judiciary Committee, on motion of 
Senator Harris of Key West, where it remained when the legisla- 
ture adjourned on June 5. This narrow escape forcibly empha- 
sizes the fact that every legislative session must be closely watched 
in order to prevent the assaults of the ignorant and perhaps the 
venal. As there will not be another session of the legislature un- 
til 1905, the present excellent bird law will remain unchanged 
until then. 

Warden work. — In the report for 1902 the Chairman urgently 
recommended the purchase of a naphtha launch for the use of the 
warden who has charge of the district at the extreme southern 
part of the Florida Peninsula, and the thousands of Keys and 
small islands in that section. The Executive Committee of the 
Florida Audubon Society promptly took the matter in hand, with 
the result that a special fund of $300 was raised, and a seaworthy 
launch 23 feet long, with a 3 horse-power engine was specially 
built and is now in daily use. The boat is capable of making 
seven miles per hour, and has traveled hundreds of miles since it 
went into commission shortly after May 1. The boat bears the 
name of the great artist-naturalist ' Audubon,' and is the property 
of the Florida Audubon Society and is loaned by them to the 
National Committee for the use of warden Bradley, who is paid 
for his services by the Thayer Fund. 

Four paid wardens are employed in Florida. Paul Kroegel 
has been placed in charge of the Pelican Island Reservation on 
Indian River. As stated in the report for 1902, the Committee 
thought it very important that this interesting island should be pur- 
chased in order that perpetual protection should be given to the 
colony of pelicans that had so long made it a breeding place. After 
many months of effort and an expenditure of considerable money 
in surveys and other necessary red-tape, an appeal was made to the 
President of the United States, through the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, to have Pelican Island set aside as a public reservation. 
President Roosevelt, with his well-known promptness in all matters 
relating to the preservation of wild life, issued the following order: 

122 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protectio?i . [ f"n 

White House, March 14, 1903. 
It is hereby ordered that Pelican Island in Indian River in section nine, 
township thirty-one south, range thirty-nine east, State of Florida, be, and 
it is hereby, reserved and set apart for the use of the Department of Agri- 
culture as a preserve and breeding ground for native birds. 

(Signed) Theodore Roosevelt. 

Pursuant to this order the Secretary of Agriculture appointed 
as the Keeper of the reservation Mr. Paul Kroegel, the warden 
employed by the Thayer Fund. 


April 4, 1903. 
Mr. Paul Kroegel, 

Sebastian, Florida. 

Sir : — 

Under an order signed by the President, on March 14, Pelican Island has 
been reserved as a breeding-ground for native birds under the charge of the 
Department of Agriculture. This island, as you are aware, has been under 
the care of the Committee on Protection of Birds of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union for the last two years. For the present the Committee 
will cooperate with the Department in preserving the birds, and upon 
recommendation of the Chairman of the Committee you have been 
appointed as Warden in charge of the reservation. 

No shooting will be allowed on the island or in the vicinity and no one 
w T ill be allowed to land on the island without permission from you or from 
this department. Any infraction of this rule should be reported promptly 
with a statement of your action. You should make every effort to make 
the fact generally known that the object of establishing this reservation is 
to preserve the pelicans, and you should strive to secure the cooperation 
of the public so that the birds may be protected, not only on their breed- 
ing grounds but also after they leave the island. 


(Signed) James Wilson, 


Two large signs were painted and placed at the edge of the 
island where all who approached could not fail to see them, the 
signs reading as follows : 

Vol. XXI I d UTCHERj Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 12 3 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

(Established by Executive Order, March 14, 1903.) 

No Trespassing Allowed, nor Firearms Permitted on the Island. 

The Birds Must Not Be Disturbed. 

Persons Desiring to Land Must Obtain Permission From the 

Warden at Sebastian. 
By order of 

James Wilson, 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

The fact that this island is a reservation was advertised in the 
local press and the result has been most satisfactory, as the 
following report made by Mr. Kroegel shows : 

Sebastian, Fla., Aug. 25, 1903. 

Department of Agriculture, Biological Survey, 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of Division. 

Dear Sir : 

By request of Mr. William Dutcher, of the American Ornithologists' 
Union, I beg to report that the nesting season on the Pelican Island Res- 
ervation is now over. It has been one of the longest seasons known, 
commencing Dec. 1st and ending July last. During the season there have 
been between three and four thousand young birds raised, as near as I 
could judge. I have endeavored to carry out the rules laid down for the 
protection of the island to the best of my ability, and am glad to say that 
I have been fairly successful in preventing trespassing. Of course the 
amount at present available will not allow me to keep as close a watch on 
the island as should be, but the mere fact that some one has the oversight 
of the island is enough to prevent serious depredations. I will of course 
keep an eye on the island until nesting starts again, so that what birds 
remain near the island will not be molested. 

Yours respectfully, 

(Signed) P. Kroegel. 

The following letter from Mr. C. W. Beebe, of the New York 
Zoological Society, under date of New York City, Sept. 30, 1903, 
confirms the report of Warden Kroegel. He says : 

"Let me congratulate you on the success attending the protec- 
tion of the Brown Pelicans at their breeding resort on Pelican 
Island in the Indian River, Florida. 


I 2A Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I . ai 

" I visited the Island in February of the present year and found 
the warden alert, warning notices posted, and the birds fearless 
and greatly increased in numbers, both on the island and espe- 
cially in the neighboring overflow colonies." 

Capt. C. G. Johnson, Keeper of the Sand Key Lighthouse r 
was re-employed for the past season. He reports that the three 
species of terns breeding at his station had a most favorable sea- 
son and that no eggs were taken nor old birds shot. From a 
description of the three sizes of terns breeding on this Key, sent 
to me by Mr. Johnson, I suspect that the one he calls "Kill-em- 
Peters" must be the Least Tern {Sterna antillarum). They 
numbered this year at the close of the season some 3,000 birds, 
and it is therefore one of the largest colonies of this species 
remaining in the United States, and is deserving of special pro- 
tection, from the fact that on the Atlantic coast the Least Terns 
more nearly approached extermination than any of the other 

That the large and important colonies of Noddy and Sooty 
Terns breeding upon Bird and other Keys, in the Dry Tortugas, 
should again have protection, application was made to the Honor- 
able Secretary of the Navy for permission to establish a warden 
on Bird Key. In compliance with this request the following 
order was issued : 

U. S. Naval Station, 

Key West, Fla., April 24, 1903. 


Bv direction of the Secretary of the Navy, and in deference to a request 
by the Chairman of the Protection Committee, North American Birds, 
American Ornithologists' Union, New York City, in the State of New 
York, all persons connected with the Navy of the United States or the 
Marine Corps, or citizens of the United States, temporarily in the vicinity 
of each, any, or all of the islands, keys, or above-water shoals in the group 
geographically called Dry Tortugas, are hereby prohibited from dis- 
turbing, during the nesting period, any sea birds, such as sooty and noddy 
terns, on the small island known as Bird Key; and all persons, whether 
foreign or domestic, are hereby prohibited from taking eggs from any 
non-domesticated birds from any of the islands, keys or shoals of the 
Tortugas group. It must be understood that the molestation of birds by 





Vol. XXI 

1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I2C 

word or gesture, or by the use of any weapon, trap or missile, or device 
whatever, is in violation of the law of the land, except at certain times 
and under certain circumstances strictly defined by law. 

(Signed) George A. Bickne*ll, 

Captain U. S. IV., Commandant. 

Thereupon Mr. VV. R. Burton was appointed special warden and 
was directed to proceed to and remain on Bird Key. 

The following letter of instructions was given the warden : 

This is to certify that the bearer, Mr. W. R. Burton, is the duly author- 
ized representative of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

He is appointed by the said Society for the purpose of protecting the 
birds that breed on the several keys in the Dry Tortugas. 

The said warden, has the permission of the Hon. Secretary of the 
Navy, to camp upon any of the keys or islands of the Dry Tortugas 
for the purpose above stated. 

The said warden is directed to report to the Commandant of the Naval 
Station at Key West for transportation to the Tortugas and on his arrival 
at the Tortugas is to report to Lieut. R. B. Sullivan, U. S. M. C, Com- 
manding the Marine Barracks, Dry Tortugas, Florida. 

The said warden, Mr. Burton, is instructed to enforce the law of the 
State of Florida, which makes it a misdemeanor to take the eggs of any 
breeding bird, or to disturb them in any manner, or to kill them at any 

The said warden will report his arrival at the Tortugas to the under- 
signed by letter, and will follow such further instructions as he may 
receive from time to time. 

By order of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

(Signed) William Dutcher, 

Chair man of the Protection Committee. 

Mr. Burton made the following interesting report at the close of 
the season, July 15. when he left the Tortugas: 

Dry Tortugas, July 15, 1903. 

I arrived at Bird Key on June 19, in company with Mr. Herbert K. 
Job; I found that the birds had been laying some time, and that some 
eggs had been taken ; there were probably 200 eggs on the ground when 
we arrived ; the birds continued to lay until as late as June 15, in consider- 
able numbers. It was impossible to count the eggs on account of the 
manner in which the Sooties lay ; they deposit their eggs on the ground 
without any attempt to build a nest, and a great many lay on the open 
beach without any cover of any kind, but the majority deposit their eggs 

126 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I ^ uk 

under a clump of grass, weeds, or the cedar bushes with which the key is 
nearly covered. Mr. Job and I estimated that there were about 3,600 of the 
sooties and about 400 noddies, but as a great many eggs were deposited 
after he left, I think there must have been at least 5,000 of the sooties and 
600 noddies. There are no other birds that nest, although the man-o'-war 
birds roost there; there were about 300 of them, but they do not molest 
the gulls in any way, nor do they eat the eggs or young, as reported ; 
the gulls easily drive them away when they wish, as they can whip the 
man-o'-war birds easily. I did not see a single crow while I was at 
Tortugas, nor are there any animals of any kind on Bird Key to eat the 
eggs or young. The only enemy they seem to have are the sea and land- 
crabs with which the island is infested ; they undoubtedly eat a great 
many eggs. 

The birds are partly protected by the efforts of Capt. Geo. A. Bicknell, 
Commandant of the Naval Station at Key West, of which Tortugas is a 
part ; he is a fine officer and has done everything he possibly could to 
assist me in protecting the birds. An order was posted by his direction 
at the Fort and the Key, prohibiting any one from landing without 
special permission. If the terns are protected during the time that they 
are laying and until the eggs hatch, they will increase very fast, as the 
mortality is very small. 

The birds arrive at the Key about the middle of April and leave from 
August 15 to the first of September; I am told that they all leave at one 
time and in the night. The eggs were all hatched on the date I left the 
N Key, July 15. 

Our fellow member, Rev. H. K. Job, who accompanied Mr. 
Burton, supplements the statements of the warden in the following 
letter : 

I went with Mr. Burton, the new warden, to Bird Key, Dry Tortugas, 
arriving there May 19. I was with him the first four days of his stay, 
instructing him in scientific observation and in photography. 

There are two species of birds breeding, the Sooty Tern and the Noddy. 
The former are by far the more abundant, numbering, at a guess, five to 
six thousand. Of the Noddies, I should say, there were hardly a thou- 
sand. There were also some Man-o'-war Birds resorting to the key, but 
not breeding. 

At the time of our arrival, most of the Noddies had a fresh egg in each 
nest, and perhaps about half the Sooty Terns had also a fresh egg. 
Some eggs had already been taken, it was said, by a party. This, how- 
ever, did no damage, for by the end of my stay, the 22nd, nearly all 
seemed to have laid, and they were protected thereafter. No noddy had 
more than one egg, and in only three of the Sooty Terns' nests, out of 
thousands inspected, did I find as many as two. 


















)— i 








i * XI I Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 12^ 

The nests of the Noddies possibly could be counted, being built upon 
the bay cedar bushes, but to accurately count those ( of the Sooties, on the 
sand under this thicket, would be next to impossible. 

The opportunities for bird-photography upon Bird Key are simply 
amazing. The Noddies are perfectly fearless, and the Sooty Terns, 
though more nervous, are yet very tame indeed. I could focus, even upon 
the latter, on their nests, at a distance of only three or four feet. 

As the warden will be able to make a more complete report, I will not 
attempt to describe the habits of the birds. 

Upon my return, stopping at Key West, I called upon Commandant 
Bicknell, in command of the Naval Station. He was very kind, express- 
ing sympathy and great interest in the work of bird protection, regret- 
ting that many of the people of Florida seem "determined to make of 
their beautiful State a lifeless, treeless desert as fast as they possibly can," 
and promised to do all in his power to prevent this sad issue. 

I also made a tour through the Key West markets, and found one stand, 
kept by a negro, where eggs of the Sooty Tern, locally called "Egg Bird," 
were on sale, at 15 cents a dozen. The man had only a few dozen on 
hand, and said they were brought from the Bahamas. 

During my short stay on Bird Key warden Burton stopped several 
parties of marines from the fort in attempts to gather eggs, and was 
doing his work faithfully and intelligently, entering into the spirit of it. 

Bird lovers will profoundly sympathize with him in the tragic death of 
his little son upon the lovely key, sacrificed in the cause of bird protection. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Herbert K. Job. 

Our warden in Monroe County, Mr. G. M. Bradley, has been 
continuously employed since the last report, during which time 
he has cruised hundreds of miles along the coast and among the 
keys where thousands of birds still breed. He has also patrolled 
on foot the swamps where boats could not penetrate. On one 
occasion he just escaped being bitten by a large cotton-mouth 
moccasin snake. He has every part of the territory under his 
care posted with warning notices and has watched and warned 
many boat loads of cruising tourists and hunters. Many visits 
have been made to the city and island of Key West, which is in 
Monroe County, although it is over 70 miles from his home.. 
His excursions have extended as far north as Chokoloskee on the 
border of Lee County, 60 miles away, and eastward his patrol has 
extended to Key Largo. There is no doubt that it is well known 
in all that district that a deputy sheriff is continually on the look- 
out for game and bird law violations and the moral effect is excel- 

I 2o Dutcher, Report of Co?nmittee on Bird Protection. X j 


lent. Prior to June all of the wardens' journeys were made in a 
row or sailboat which was found to be too slow to be effective. 
Since that date Mr. Bradley has been using the launch 'Audubon ' 
which was provided by the Florida Audubon Society. His move- 
ments now are much more rapid and plume hunters could not 
escape arrest should any come into his territory. 

In May two members of the American Ornithologists' Union, 
Messrs. H. K. Job and A. C. Bent, visited this section of Florida 
to study and photograph birds and while there spent a great deal 
of time with our warden. At the request of the Chairman they 
reported on the condition of bird protection work in Monroe 
County. The report is so interesting and valuable that it is 
embodied herewith. 

My Dear Mr. Dutcher : — 

In response to your request we will try to briefly describe the conditions 
as we found them, in southern Florida this spring. Under the guidance of 
your wardens, Messrs. Guy M. Bradley and Wm. R. Burton, we visited and 
inspected during April and May, quite thoroughly, nearly all the principal 
rookeries in southern Monroe County, from Whitewater Bay and the ever- 
glades southward to the coast, and on the mangrove keys from Cards 
Sound to Indian Key and Cape Sable. 

Our first trip, two miles inland to Bear Lake, served to locate a small 
rookery of Wood Ibises, consisting of about 20 nests, from 12 to 15 feet up 
in the tops of red mangroves, on a small island. The nests at this time, 
April 27, all held young birds of various ages. In order to reach this rook- 
ery Bradlev had to carry our canoe on his back for two miles through a 
thick tangle of mangrove forest, which is enough to discourage the average 
native nest robber. 

It required three days of hard work to visit the big rookery at Cuthbert 
Lake, which lies about seven miles inland, nearly on the edge of the ever- 
glades, and can be reached only by laboriously poling and sculling a small 
skiff through a chain of six lakes connected by narrow, tortuous creeks, 
overgrown with a thick tangle of red mangroves. The rookery itself is a 
mangrove island of less than two acres, on which we estimated that there 
were at least 4000 birds nesting. About one half of the colony were Lou- 
isiana Herons, of which fully three quarters had young of various ages on 
May 1. The White Ibises of which we estimated that there were about 
1,000, were just beginning to lay and had from one to three eggs in each 
nest. There were about 600 Florida Cormorants, about 200 Anhingas, and 
about 100 Little Blue Herons in the colony, all of which had nests with 
eggs and with young. We counted 18 American Egrets, and found their 
nests with eggs, as well as with young of various ages, some of which were 

V °!'^ XI 1 Dutcher, Report of Committee, on Bird Protection. I2Q 

nearly grown. We also counted 12 Roseate Spoonbills, as they left the 
island, but found only three of their nests, two with eggs and one with two 
young birds less than half grown. A small flock of Wood Ibises flew from 
the rookery when we arrived, but we found none of their nests. A few 
Everglade Kites came here to roost at night. 

But even this great rookery was far surpassed by one discovered in an 
almost impassable morass at Alligator Lake, about four miles inland from 
near Cape Sable; the mangrove islands, on which the birds were nesting, 
were well protected by impenetrable jungles of saw grass, treacherous mud 
holes, and apparently bottomless creeks of soft mud. The various species 
of the Heron family were nesting here in countless numbers, White Ibises, 
Louisiana Herons, Roseate Spoonbills, Snowy Herons and American 
Egrets ; there was a perfect sea of nests and hosts of young birds in all 
stages of growth, most of them being hatched at this time, May 16; but 
the area was too vast and the traveling too difficult to arrive at any accu- 
rate estimate of their numbers or relative abundance. We were able to 
spend but one afternoon in the actual rookery and could get to but a small 
part of it. Wood Ibises were probably nesting beyond where we pene- 
trated, and possibly other species. 

Among the small rookeries we found a few things of special interest, 
notably a small colony of half a dozen pairs of Great White Herons, nest- 
ing on one of the smaller mangrove keys; the nests, on April 29, ail held 
young birds, some just hatched and some fully grown. 

These birds are common among the Keys and we frequently found 
nests of this species and Ward's Heron from which the young had 
flown. Both of these species are extremely wary and do not need much 

On a large, partly sandy key we found a colony of Laughing Gulls pre- 
paring to breed ; also a breeding colony of about 40 pairs of Least Terns, 
a few Wilson's Plovers, and a few Black-necked Stilts, all of which had 
fresh eggs on May 8. 

A flock of about 100 Black Skimmers constantly frequented a flat, muddy 
island in one of the bays, but we could find no evidence of their 

We made a special effort to locate the breeding grounds of the Man-o'- 
War Birds, which were everywhere abundant among the Keys, but were 
unsuccessful. We discovered several of their roosts, one of which con- 
tained from 1,000 to 1,200 birds. We were forced to conclude that they do 
not breed in this region at all or that the}' breed at a much earlier or a 
later date. 

In Southern Florida, as elsewhere, the plume hunters have done their 
work thoroughly, but there is not much to be feared from them in the 
future, simply because there are very few desirable plume birds left for them 
to hunt. The American Egrets and Snowy Herons are so reduced in 
numbers that it does not pay to hunt them. There are, however, a few of 
these birds still left in nearly all of the less accessible rookeries, so that, 

I ?0 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. fy 

under adequate protection, they ought to increase sufficiently to partially 
restock their former haunts. 

The Louisiana and Little Blue Herons, particularly the former, are still 
very abundant and as they are not sought after by plume hunters, they will 
continue to hold their own for a long time to come. 

The White Ibises are still very abundant, but as they are killed in large 
numbers by gunners in the winter and the young are much sought after 
by the natives for food, they need protection. 

The Roseate Spoonbills are steadily decreasing in numbers from the same 
cause and certainly need most stringent protection to save them from 
extinction. Their breeding grounds are restricted to the most inaccessible 
localities from which they can be very easily driven by persecution ; their 
beautiful plumage makes them attractive prey for the sportsmen and 

You are certainly fortunate in your selection of wardens for the protec- 
tion of this inaccessible region, and it would be hard to find better men 
for this work than Messrs. Bradley and Burton. The rookeries are so 
widely scattered and traveling is so difficult, either on land or water, 
that it is almost impossible for two, or even three, men to cover this 
whole region at all thoroughly. The native conchs and negroes, many of 
whom are desperate characters, can, by watching the wardens' move- 
ments, visit the rookeries with impunity and make wholesale depredations 
on the young herons, ibises and even cormorants for food. Several expe- 
ditions of this kind have already been broken up by the judicious employ- 
ment of negro spies, who have kept the wardens informed. 

The most effective work against the plume hunters can be done by 
working against the purchasers of plumes, thus destroying the demand, 
rather than against the hunters themselves, who are expert woodsmen 
and very difficult to catch. All of the principal rookeries and roosts have 
been thoroughly posted and whenever we went to explore a new one, 
Bradlej' always carried a supply of warning notices, which he nailed to 
trees or stakes in conspicuous places. 

The natives are beginning to realize that the birds are to be protected, 
and that the wardens are fearless men who are not to be trifled with. 

The Bradleys have the reputation of being the best rifle shots in that 
vicinity and they would not hesitate to shoot when necessary. The 
Bradleys and Burton together would be more than a match for any party 
they are likely to meet. 

A power launch of light draft would aid them materially in moving 
about quickly, as many days are wasted in trying to beat through the 
narrow channels in a sail boat. 

We sincerely hope that no efforts will be spared to thoroughly protect 
these rapidly diminishing colonies of interesting water birds, some of 
which are not to be found elsewmere within the limits of the United States. 

Very truly yours, 

A. C. Bent. 
Herbert K. Job. 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 7 I 

Andubo7i aud Educational Work. — The report of Mrs. Kingsmill 
Marrs, Chairman of the Executive Committee, gives in detail the 
activities of the Society for the past twelve months. 

"I can report progress for the year in increasing membership 
by which the work has spread into eleven new counties ; much 
interest has been aroused in the State which we hope will help 
the introduction of Nature Study, including bird study, in certain 
grades of schools. This matter is left optional with County 
Boards, but its adoption and incorporation in the " State Course 
of Study " is a cause for congratulation considering the antagon- 
istic attitude by many toward bird protection three years ago when 
the society was founded. 

" There should be no feeling of discouragement if our member- 
ship does not increase as rapidly as like societies in other States. 
Present membership, 656; gain in the year, 256. Leaflets dis- 
tributed, 3,500. 

" Warning notices sent out, 250 exclusive of those posted in post- 
offices and those placed by courtesy of the Southern Express 
Company in its offices. Local secretaries, 8. Massachusetts 
Audubon Charts, 15, in charge of local secretaries who lend them 
to schools. During the summer vacation several charts have been 
retained for bird classes. Four prizes were given, at close of 
school year in Orlando, to children of ten or twelve years for bird 
chart compositions ; the list for competition was open to any 
school using the chart, but few teachers interested their pupils, 
fearing local prejudice against bird protection. We have 53 
teachers as members ; 36 have joined the past year. 

" Some 300 letters have been sent to members of the Legislature, 
horticulturists, agriculturists, principals of schools and individuals, 
with educational or statistical leaflets. Many articles have been 
written on bird protection, bird study, and the value of birds to 
farmers and fruit growers ; these have been published in the 
' Times Union ' by the courtesy of the editor, Mr. Wilson, in 
' The Agriculturist ' by Mr. Painter, and in ' The Southern School 
and Home.' Frequent editorials, the value of which in reaching 
homes where our leaflets might not, are greatly appreciated. 
Money to the amount of $300 was chiefly subscribed by members 
of the Society for building a naphtha launch for the use of the game 

172 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. |f n 

warden in Monroe County. Contributions have also been given 
by various members and friends of the Society to defray the salary 
of the warden at Cape Sable from September to December, other- 
wise a most efficient and valuable man could not have been kept 
at his post, owing to lack of money in the Thayer Fund. A more 
liberal support of the Thayer Fund is urged. 

"The Florida State Federation of Women's Clubs have a sub- 
committee for the preservation of birds, and its chairman, Mrs. 
Graves, has done efficient work at Greencove Springs and Ormond, 
our Society helping by leaflets, charts, etc. 

Thanks are due to our vice-president, Mr. R. W. Williams, Jr., 
of Tallahassee, who has rendered our Society and the State most 
efficient aid toward bird protection, and for the efforts of Mr. W. N. 
Sheats, State Superintendent of Instruction, in behalf of '• Nature 
Study for Schools,' whereby the introduction of bird study is now 
a possibility." 

Mr. R. W. Williams, Jr., the Florida member of the A. O. U. 
Protection Committee, says: "The sentiment against the useless 
slaughter of birds in my State is growing and I believe I foresee 
an awakening to the true value of our avifauna. I was delighted 
to receive information, a short time since, that ' bullbat ' shooting 
had almost entirely ceased in my county. I wrote a very strong 
letter of condemnation of the practise to an influential friend in 
Tallahassee and requested him to use his utmost efforts to dis- 
countenance the 'sport.' I was greatly pleased and gratified to 
receive an assurance that he would do all in his power to discour- 
age it. This, coming as it does from an old offender, is cheering. 

"During the last session of our Legislature in April and May, 
1903, persistent effort was made to exclude from protection the 
terns. Through the earnest effort of Dr. DeWitt Webb, a repre- 
sentative of St. Johns County, we were able to defeat the measure 
in the Senate, notwithstanding its passage by the House. I would 
be ungrateful if I did not also acknowledge with gratitude the 
splendid service of Hon. W. Hunt Harris, the senator from Mon- 
roe County, without whose assistance the bill might have passed 
the Senate. The vote in the House was astonishingly encourag- 
ing to those interested in bird protection, for, while the bill 
passed that body, the minority vote nearly equalled that of the 

V °l <^ XI 1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 1^3 

majority. It demonstrates the lively interest that is taken in bird 
protection, even by men who ordinarily would vote for a bill at the 
request of a fellow legislator when doing so would in no way reflect 
upon them in the eyes of their constituents. 

"During the year a prosecution was instituted in Jacksonville 
against a young man for removing some young mockingbirds 
from their nest. The prosecution was based upon a mistaken set 
of facts and was forthwith dismissed. The young man, instead 
of removing the birds from the nest, was endeavoring to replace 
them, a sudden gust of wind having dislodged them. This, too, 
demonstrates some progress in protection. 

"The Florida Audubon Society is very active and is accom- 
plishing a great work in the right direction, i. e., educating the 
people to the value of birds ; the time is not far distant when the 
subject will form part of the school and college curriculum. 

"Progress in this direction must be slow. Prejudices and 
instincts of generations must be overcome ; all the signs, however, 
are encouraging." 

Georgia. — Legislation. — After a long, hard fight, extending 
over three legislative seasons, the A. O. U. model bill became a 
law by approval August 15, 1903, but by its own provisions does 
not go into effect until January 1, 1904. In addition to the non- 
game bird law the game law was greatly improved by materially 
shortenimg the open seasons. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund, but during the coming season it is proposed to extend the 
system on the Georgia coast to all localities where birds are found 
breeding in colonies of such size as to warrant the necessary 

Audubon work. — In June last Dr. E. E. Murphey, of Augusta, 
wrote the Committee as follows : " Within the last few days I 
have been approached by several of the most influential and prom- 
inent people of our city in regard to inaugurating the Audubon 
movement here. I believe that the time is ripe for us to do this 
and trust that within a very few weeks you may shade Georgia on 
your map." 

Later a letter was received from Prof. Starnes, of the Experi- 
ment Station, saying, "I shall endeavor to push matters on to a 

I 1A Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \\ 


thorough organization. I am so greatly interested in the subject, 
and feel so strongly the importance to the agricultural interests of 
the State of a working Audubon Society, that I cannot cut adrift 
until one is fairly underway. Do not conclude, therefore, that 
nothing will be done in Georgia to further the cause, if we appear 
somewhat inactive for a while. Our efforts shall now be directed 
to getting the Mourning Dove transferred from the game list, and 
the Meadowlark from the proscribed list to the protected list." 

The above interests coalesced, resulting in the organization of 
a society which already numbers among its members some of 
Georgia's best and most public spirited citizens. There is a great 
work for them to do which will need all the push and energy that 
can be gathered together. One of the most important activities 
of the Society will be to see that the provisions of the two new 
bird and game laws shall be presented by the Judges of the Supe- 
rior Courts to the Grand Juries at each regular term of said courts. 
A second and no less important matter is to see that large num- 
bers of the educational leaflets issued by the National Committee 
are distributed throughout the State among the agriculturists, the 
press, and especially among the schools, in order that the public 
m ly be fully instructed regarding the great economic value of the 
birds of Georgia. 

Hawaii. — The following letter from Mr. Henry W. Henshaw, 
a Fellow of the American Ornithologists 1 Union, gives a clear and 
interesting outline of bird matters in the Hawaiian Islands. He 
says : 

"Yours at hand. I framed a bill for the protection of the 
island birds, which was practically an embodiment of the A. O. U. 
model law. Unfortunately it failed of passage, being killed by the 
sportsmen of Honolulu, or more particularly by one sportsman. 
This was particularly exasperating, as in framing the statute I 
kept specially in mind the needs of the sportsmen, well knowing 
that without their approval it was hopeless to present the bill. 
Had I been in Honolulu I have no doubt the bill would have 
become a law, as it was probably through a misapprehension of 
the facts that any opposition to the clauses affecting game birds 

"I may attempt another bill, practically the same one. this 

Vol. XXI 

I Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. I 7 C 

session, but not unless I can be down there to explain away any 
opposition. However, I must say that the passage of a law for 
protection is not of so much importance in the islands as would 
appear, simply because its provisions cannot be enforced. Game 
wardens are quite out of the question. There is no money to pay 
them, and practically very little game to preserve or to regulate 
the shooting of. The small insectivorous birds, which it is of the 
greatest importance to protect and preserve, all live in the remote 
and dense, uninhabited forests, where surveillance is impossible. 
Nevertheless the fact that there is a law with penalties for infrac- 
tion is of itself a certain though insufficient protection, and can be 
invoked in such extreme cases as the collection of birds for 
millinery purposes. 

"The most hopeless feature of the whole business is the 
undoubted fact that Hawaiian birds are fast dying out from some 
one obscure cause or from a combination of causes. There is 
now, so far as I can ascertain, no indiscriminate killing of the 
native birds, and very few are sacrificed by the leis hunters. 
Under similar conditions our birds would increase fast enough, 
but both large and small are disappearing and no one has sug- 
gested an adequate cause. About five y ears a g° Perkins col- 
lected in a certain locality in Kona, where he found three rare 
species to be quite common while the commoner species were in 
swarms. He says the locality was simply a bird Paradise. Last 
year I visited the place, in which probably a gun has not been 
fired since Perkins was there. Ten days of the most careful 
search failed to discover a single individual of either of the three 
species, and the common birds were anything but abundant. It 
was a cattle range in Perkins's day and is now, and the only change 
I was able to note was an abundance of the Mynah which in 
Perkins's time was probably not there at all. v Yet the Mynah, so 
far as I can see, does not meddle with the native birds. 

"I have gone into this subject at some length in my recently 
published 'Birds of the Hawaiian Islands,' though about all I say 
is that I do not know anything about the matter. 

" So it is a bit discouraging to try and frame laws for the pro- 
tection of birds from men when, as a matter of fact, they require 
to be protected from an unknown enemy rather than from man." 

I? 6 Dutcher, Re fort of Committee on Bird Protection. \] r 


Idaho. — Legislation. — The non-game birds of this State have 
no legal protection whatever. Next session of the legislature, 

Audubon work. — There is no organized society at the present 
time, although quite recently the Committee received an inquiry 
from a citizen in Weippe asking for information regarding 
Audubon work and method of organization. 

Illinois. — Legislation. — No change in the non-game bird law. 
The A. O. U. model law is in force. 

At the session of the legislature last winter the game laws were 
amended so as to prohibit the shooting of Ruffed Grouse and 
Prairie Chickens for four years. Another amendment prohibits 
the sale of Illinois killed ducks, and limits the bag which any one 
man may make in a day. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund. However, the State game wardens are very active and 
there have been a number of prosecutions of men who have dis- 
regarded the Prairie Chicken law. Fines were inflicted and a 
salutary lesson taught. One Chicago millionnaire who went to the 
scene of his shooting in an automobile was captured on the way 
back with Woodcock in his possession. It was before the open- 
ing of the season and the man was fined. 

The small boy has been taught to respect the song bird in 
Illinois. It is the Italian workman who is the worst offender. 
He goes out Sunday and shoots everything in sight. Many of 
these Italians have been caught and fined, but their fellow country- 
men are slow to learn a lesson. 

With the exception of one dealer, the bird sellers of Chicago 
have ceased to traffic in native American birds. The one offender 
was fined heavily at one time but he still plies his trade, though 
he does it half secretly. It is more than probable that ere long a 
means will be found to put an end to his illegal business. 

Audubon work. — Mr. E. B. Clark, the Illinois member of the 
A. O. U. Protection Committee, says: "The year in Illinois has 
been marked by an increase of interest in the preservation of 
bird life fully as great as in any year since the phenomenal change 
in public sentiment regarding bird protection which took place a 
few years ago. The agreement with the millinery manufacturers 

Vol. XXI 

1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 1^7 

is shown to have had excellent results. There is an almost utter 
absence of gulls, terns and other protected birds from the hats 
shown in the great stores where the women in Chicago and of 
the country round about do the greater part of the purchasing. 

" The gulls and terns have been unusually plentiful during the 
fall migrations along the west coast of Lake Michigan. I have 
seen more Bonaparte Gulls than during any season for twelve 
years past. 

"The protection situation in Illinois may be summarized under 
the one word, progress." 

The Secretary reports a rapidly growling interest in Audubon 
work throughout the State, that the membership is increasing, and 
that branches are being established in some of the larger cities, 
although this special feature does not grow as rapidly as could be 
hoped. Large numbers of leaflets have been distributed, 1500 
having been sent to milliners in the State, 2000 to State Superin- 
tendents of schools for teachers, and many to Farmers' Institutes, 
for distribution. A generous and public-spirited woman, a mem- 
ber of the society, presented 56 colored slides to illustrate a lecture 
which is now in use and is making many friends for the birds. 

The press of the State is giving material aid by the publication 
of articles about birds ; bird charts are being placed in schools. 
The Federation of Women's Clubs is helping, every club having 
had at least one bird program, and many having had. special 
meetings ; in Ravenswood the club members passed resolutions 
strongly condemning the wearing of plumage. 

Miss Drummond, the Secretary, from whose report the above 
facts are gleaned, very pertinently quotes : " Plenty of people 
wish well to any good cause but very few care to exert themselves 
to help it. Some one ought to do it, so why not I ? " 

The Farmers of Rockford Township have taken such a splendid 
advance step in forming an association for controlling and regulat- 
ing hunting on their farms that their Constitution and By-Laws 
are given in full in the hope that the farmers of other States may 
follow this most excellent example. 

1^8 Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protectio?i. |~f uk 

Constitution and By-Laws of the Rockford Township 
Farmers' Association. 

This Association is formed for the purpose of controlling and regulating 
hunting on and over farms owned by or rented by us. 

Article I — That the name of this Association shall be the Rockford 
Township Farmers' Association. 

Article II — The officers of the Association shall consist of a President, 
Vice-President, Secretary, and Treasurer, who shall be elected annually 
on the first Monday of December of each year by a majority of members 

Article III — The President shall preside at all meetings and upon 
request in writing of five members shall call special meetings at any 
time. The Vice-President, in the absence of the President, shall take the 

The Secretary shall keep all records and any or all correspondence, shall 
collect dues and other income. 

The Treasurer shall receive from the Secretary all moneys of the Asso- 
ciation, and shall pay out the same on warrant of the Secretary. He 
shall make an annual statement which shall be verified by the books of 
the Secretary. 

Article IV. — This Constitution may be altered or amended at any 
annual meeting or adjourned session thereof by a majority of members 


Article I. — Any farmer may become a member of this Association upon 
payment of a fee of 75 cents to the Secretary. 

Article II — Each member shall post in five or more conspicuous places, 
notices prohibiting hunting or trespassing upon the premises. 

Article III — Each member shall interview, as far as possible, any per- 
son found hunting upon the premises, and if after the interview such per- 
son persists in hunting, such member shall go before the nearest justice 
of the peace or magistrate and cause to be issued a warrant for trespass 
against the offending person. 

Article IV. — Each member shall use especial effort to prevent hunting 
on Sunday on his premises, as such hunting is particularly objectionable 
to the members of this Association. 

Article V. — Any member may grant any person well known to him 
the privilege of hunting on his farm; provided, that he accompany 
such person. 

Article VI. — Each member shall use every effort to prevent the wan- 

Vol Xin Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 39 

ton destruction of birds, and promote the strict enforcement of the game 
laws of the State of Illinois. 

The Mayor and Council of the city of Evanston, appreciating 
the economic and aesthetic value of birds in the parks and city 
limits, passed a special ordinance prohibiting their molestation by 
the use of firearms, slingshot, bow and arrow, pelting with stones 
or otherwise, and also forbade the taking of eggs or nest under a 
penalty of not less than five nor more than twenty dollars for each 

The Governor, also, in his Arbor Day proclamation called the 
attention of the citizens to the necessity for bird protection and 
asked that exercises tending to show the value of birds be held in 
connection with the tree exercises. 

Indiana. — Legislation. — There has been no change in the non- 
game bird law, the A. O. U. model being still in force. The next 
session of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden work. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary makes the following admirable 
report of progress : 

"1 have been in the thick of the work, troubling myself not at 
all with the way what we accomplished might work up into a report ; 
chiefly concerned in getting in what work I could in ways that 
seemed to me most likely to count for the birds. 

' Do you know Indiana ? It is admirably located to ' work 
out ' the old Roman idea of development from a center in Aubu- 
bon work, as in many other things, and so a story of Indianapolis 
work serves as a sort of type story for a good many cities and 
villages in the State. 

"Here we have a strong Audubon Society ; not large in num- 
bers, but large in accomplishment, considering the number. 
Every one works; no one has to be entertained. We have a 
number of open meetings in the year with interesting and timely 
talks or papers. Aside from this the Society expends its effort 
in two directions, work in the schools and in the press. 

'The school work is very interesting. Every spring we muster 
all our members capable of being used in this way, to give one or 

1 40 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. |T k 

more afternoons each week to the school work. Then we give 
' bird talks ' in schools. The School Superintendent so arranges 
that the talks work in with the nature study the pupils are doing 
in their regular school routine. There were seven of us giving 
talks last spring, and from chance meetings with them I find that 
they all feel that this work among the pupils is of great value. 
Pupils give close and intense attention to 'bird talks,' lasting from 
thirty to forty-five minutes ; they stay after the talk, and school is 
dismissed, to ask questions about the birds they have seen, nests 
they have found. The teachers enjoy the work almost as much 
as the pupils ; through this work a good deal is achieved for the 
birds, but as one watches the interest and enthusiasm developed 
by the boys and girls, one cannot but see that the study of the 
birds does much for them. I was pushing my wheel along the 
banks of a creek in one of the parks, when two boys came running 
toward me and called as soon as within hailing distance to know 
if I was not the lady who talked about the birds to school 38. As 
soon as I said that I was they shouted 'Wait a minute; we'll 
boost your wheel up that bank for you,' and they not only 
' boosted ' the wheel but staid with me all afternoon, and I learned 
while with them how very much the bird work does in the way of 
broadening the horizon for these little ones who have so little of 
opportunity and know so little how to use what they have. Some 
of the teachers told me that the pupils had been impatient more 
than a month for their ' bird lecturer.' As far as we can, the 
State Society tries to have the bird talks given in the schools 
throughout the State ; they were given in a good many schools 
last year, other than Indianapolis schools, and will be given in 
more next year. 

" Prof. Amos W. Butler is one of our strong working members, 
and as Secretary of the State Board of Charities is about the 
State a good deal ; incidentally, he gets in touch with a good 
many people interested in bird work and serves as a sort of Field 
Secretary for the Audubon Society ; besides this, he starts, at 
every opportunity, an interest where none exists. 

"Besides the school work and the work of the various societies 
and individuals we have attempted some work through the press. 
The newspapers are glad to publish anything of interest we can 
furnish them. 

Vol. XXI"| £) UTCHERi Report of Committee on Bird Proteetion. 1 4- 1 

"In the year just closing Mr. Woollen furnished a series of 
papers regarding the birds and plants around Indianapolis. These 
were so timed that they could be used in the nature study work in 
the schools. I furnished a series of 'City Bird Sketches,' from 
week to week, very simple and non-technical, written after talking 
with some of the supervising principals, to make a sort of local 
guide for the teachers and pupils of the birds to be found about 
the city at the time. For instance, in January winter birds were 
discussed; in February, ' Birding on Washington Street ' (Birds 
of the Bonnets) ; late February, the Bluebird ; then the Robin 
and Meadowlark. 

"This newspaper work has proved of a good deal of value and 
we are now planning to extend it through the State. We shall have 
sketches in as many of the State papers as we can get the material 
for, and also in at least one set of ' patent insides.' The only limit 
to this sort of work is the getting people who can and will write 
the sketches. Almost all our people are so busy that they think 
they cannot take the time to write ; indeed, what Audubon work 
is done in Indiana is done by busy people who have to slip it in 
as best they may, with their regular work. 

"The work in the schools receives such recognition that the city 
librarian has agreed to add enough bird books to meet the demands 
of the teachers and pupils, at least in part. This year the attend- 
ants at the library tell me that the stock of bird books was only 
a drop in the bucket, compared to the demand. I am now work- 
ing out a list of books, numbers of copies of each needed, etc. 
They agree that these books shall be in and ready for distribu- 
tion by the time the spring nature work opens in the schools. 

" I do not know how many societies we have in the State, but 
the bird work, organized or not, is progressing. I had a report last 
week from a bird club in Hanover. This week I am correspond- 
ing with some of the teachers and newspaper people in Noblesville, 
looking toward an organization among those interested in the 
work there. 

" I greatly regret that all I can give you now in the way of a 
report is this inadequate and informal letter. Another time, with 
the work in hand, I trust that I may be able to meet your require- 
ments and send a report that can be properly so called." 

I A 2 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Tv 1 " 


Iowa. — Legislation. — There will be a session of the legislature 
in 1904, commencing in January, when an effort will be made to 
have the A. O. U. model law adopted. Inasmuch as only a few 
non-game birds are now protected, the passage of a new and com- 
prehensive law is very important. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary of the Schaller Society reports 
as follows : " As to our work : We have one illustrated lecture in the 
field and have distributed many of the excellent educational leaflets 
issued by the National Committee. 

"Our proposed work for the coming winter will center in the 
one object to get a bill passed in our Legislature prohibiting trap 
shooting in our State. 

" We would suggest and beg that the National Committee take 
up the subject, and publish some literature upon the matter of live 
bird shooting from traps, that could be used for distribution in 
all States where the barbarous custom is not prohibited by law. 
Nebraska passed such a law last winter and the ' sports ' all come 
across the river and hold their shoots in our own State, at Council 
Bluffs and Sioux City. I wish you would send me a strong argu- 
ment to be put into a circular for distribution for our campaign." 

There are indications that Audubon work will soon be greatly- 
extended in Iowa by the organization of other societies, which may 
be joined in a State body. 

Kansas. — Legislation. — The non-game bird law is totally 
inadequate as it only protects eight species and two of these may 
be killed, provided the owner of an orchard is willing to say that 
he thinks the said birds are harming his trees. An effort was 
made by our fellow member, Prof. D. E. Lantz, to attach the main 
features of the A. O. U. model law to a game bill that had already 
been introduced. In this he was successful, but the bill was killed 
owing to determined opposition to some of its other provisions. 
The next session of the legislature will be in 1905. 

Warden system'. — None employed. 

Audubon work. — There is no society in the State, although there 
is great need for one. Prof. Lantz wrote the National Committee 
Feb. 12 that he was shipping daily from the laboratory of the Agri- 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 14-3 

cultural Experiment Station nearly $200 worth of rodent poison 
sold to the fanners at actual cost of the materials. This was used 
to kill pocket gophers arid prairie dogs. There is certainly need 
for educational work among the farmers of Kansas who permit and 
probably themselves kill every hawk and owl they see, not knowing 
that these birds live very largely upon the very rodents that they 
buy poison to kill, at the rate of almost $200 per day. It would be 
a far wiser and more economic movement to spend this daily sum 
in bird literature to circulate in the rural districts in order that the 
agriculturist may learn the good that the 354 species of Kansas 
birds are doing for the farm interests. Let some of the bird lovers 
of the State take this matter to heart and organize for the protec- 
tion of the birds and the conservation of one of the most important 
assets of the Commonwealth. The press should also take up this 
matter, for Kansas is far behind some of her sister States whose 
agricultural interests in no way compare with hers. 

Kentucky. — Legislation. — The A. O. U. model law is in force. 
The next session of the legislature will be in 1904. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The society is small and rather inactive. 
However, there are some individuals in the State who are doing 
excellent work for the birds. Mr. C. W. Wilson of Mayfield writes 
as follows : " I am resolved to remain, or get in close touch with 
your grand work, and to do at all times all I can for the protection 
of our birds ; I want to be used. When our County Teachers 
Institute convenes this summer I want to distribute some suitable 
literature and get one of the teachers to make a talk on the sub- 
ject. We must reach the children of Kentucky in the common 
schools. I feel sure of this." 

Mr. R. H. Dean of the U. S. Weather Office, State College, 
writes: "I have been requested by the Dean of the State Normal 
School to lecture before the school on birds. There are teachers 
in the school from over the State generally, and such a lecture 
properly prepared will no doubt do much good." Later he wrote : 
"Much interest was taken in the talk and the pictures. It is my 
intention to obtain as complete a set of bird slides as possible and 
to repeat the lecture at intervals in this institution, State College, 
and at other places." 

I44 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \ P \ X ^ 

Louisiana. — Legislation. — There was no session of the legis- 
lature during 1903, but one will convene in May, 1904, when a 
renewed and determined effort will be made to pass the A. O. U. 
model law. It is vitally important that Louisiana should have the 
very best of bird and game laws, so many of the northern birds 
make this State their winter home. It is useless to try to pre- 
serve birds at their breeding homes if they are to be wantonly 
slaughtered at their winter homes. 

Warde?i system. — None can be employed by the Thayer Fund, 
although the extensive coast line, which is an ideal place for water 
birds, should be systematically patrolled. Without legal backing 
money spent for warden service is simply wasted. 

Audubon work. — The report of the Executive Committee is 
here given in full, as it is very interesting and complete: 

"Work accomplished'by the Louisiana Society since the date of 
incorporation, November 22, 1902. Giving due consideration to 
the difficult conditions to be met in a fight for bird protection in 
southeastern Louisiana, and especially at New Orleans, the Lou- 
isiana Audubon Society may be allowed to feel some little satisfac- 
tion over the work accomplished during the last year. In one 
particular, the curtailment of the shooting of song birds under 
fancy French names at certain seasons of the year, the Audubon 
Society has had to face the prejudices and traditions of at least 
five generations. The Wood Thrush, or Speckled Caille, the Cat- 
bird, or Black Caille, the Tanagers (in fall plumage), or Yellow 
Cailles, the Kingbird, or Black Grasset, and the Red-eyed Vireo, 
or Green Grasset, have been the prey of many of the so-called 
sportsmen of Louisiana, but particularly of New Orleans, since the 
days of the first French establishments. As far as securing a pro- 
hibition of this kind of shooting is concerned, so far the Audubon 
Society has been unsuccessful. The ignorant interposition of the 
local trappers of birds, and dealers in live birds, men whose inter- 
ests are affected in the case of only a few species, has defeated 
practically in toto the Audubon Society's efforts at restrictive legis- 
lation. The same interests that defeated a bird protection bill 
introduced at the 1902 session of the Louisiana General Assembly 
by Mr. Frank M. Miller, now President of the Audubon Society, 
prevented the passage of a city ordinance introduced before the 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee ou Bird Protection. 14^ 

City Council of New Orleans August 25, 1903, since the organiza- 
tion of the Audubon Society. Protection for a host of insectivo- 
rous birds could almost certainly have been secured in either case 
had the Audubon Society been willing to compromise matters with 
the bird dealers. The crux was the trapping of Cardinals and 
Mockingbirds. The proposed bill in either case would have been 
the A. O. U. model law, and as this prevented the killing and trap- 
ping of any song or insectivorous bird whatsoever, the bird dealers 
stepped in and used their influence to secure the substitution of a 
bill drawn up in an ignorant and careless manner, and from the 
very nature of the point of view of its framers, giving practically 
no protection to song and insectivorous birds, except in the case 
of the city ordinance, which prohibits the sale of all birds save a 
few excepted species, for ornamental purposes. The few non- 
game birds protected from the gunner are those that happen to be 
the desiderata of the trappers. As these birds had to be men- 
tioned to entrench the privileges of the trappers, it was no trouble 
to mention that they should be protected from the gunners. The 
assortment is, nevertheless, rather a peculiar one : Cardinal, 
Mockingbird, Oriole, Bluebird, Nighthawk, and Whip-poor-will. 
When the bird dealers drew up their law before the Louisiana leg- 
islature, they appeared to throw in with the names of the cardinal 
and the mockingbird, which are not to be molested except for 
i domesticating purposes,' the names of a few other birds of which 
they happened to think, so as to appear to be concerned in the 
protection of the song and insectivorous birds of the State. In 
the matter of general protection of non-game birds, the city ordi- 
nance copies the State law. 

" Though the actual results of legislation in favor of non-game 
birds is small, the question has been thoroughly ventilated, and the 
moment of the whole matter has been impressed on some part of 
the population. Education as to bird protection has been secured 
and their integrity and not the stock of their information will be at 
fault if legislators before whom the question is brought in future 
do not uphold the decision of enlightenment in half the States in 
the Union. 

"As to the protection of game, the society has been able to pur- 
sue an active course, as the game laws of the State are more nearly 

IA.G Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. fy 

_ Auk 

adequate for the conditions. Prosecutions for killing deer and 
papabottes (Bartramian Sandpipers) out of season have been 
secured, and a wholesome fear of violating such laws as do exist 
has been easier to secure than the winning of councilmen and 
legislators to the views of bird protectionists, or for that matter, 
in getting them to take any view but a jocular one, and even in 
some instances, any view but an unprincipled one. 

" Five hundred appeals to the people of Louisiana have been 
issued since last December, and the better part of them have been 
circularized. A part of this appeal was published in ' Bird Lore T 
shortly after the appeal was issued. To facilitate the observance 
of the game law, the Society has issued ioo large cards giving the 
closed seasons. These have been distributed to postmasters and 
clerks of courts over the State. One hundred cards of the same 
size offering a reward of $25.00 for the arrest and conviction of 
anyone violating the non-game or game provisions of the State law 
have also been issued. 

" The Educational Leaflets received from the National Committee 
have been distributed among the members. Local secretaries 
have been appointed in several parts of the State. The member- 
ship of the Society at present, including associates and life mem- 
bers, is about eighty. 

" Between the present time and the convening of the Louisiana 
General Assembly for the session of 1904, the Audubon Society 
will have a great work on its hands in bringing the question of bird 
protection before the legislators of the State. From the work 
along this line that has already been done, there will not be a great 
deal of difficulty in convincing the law makers from the country 
districts and from the smaller towns that bird protection is an 
essential for any civilized community. There are no indications 
that there will be any serious opposition from any part of the State 
except the southeastern, and the interests of the other sections 
properly aggregated will outweigh any combination of bird dealers, 
market hunters, misguided ' sportsmen,' and corrupt and indiffer- 
ent legislators. 

" One pleasant feature of the work of the past year is that the 
milliners of New Orleans have established with the Audubon Soci- 
ety the same cordial relations as have been established between 

i o I Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 147 

the New York Society and the milliners of the metropolis. The 
recently enacted law for bird protection in New Orleans carried its 
one good feature, the prohibition of the use of birds for ornamental 
purposes, to an absurd extreme, and as the law stood at first, mil- 
liners could not even handle duck, goose or turkey feathers. With 
the help of the Audubon Society the law was amended to protect 
all native birds except the above species and the dove, which 
practically means pigeon. 

"Several considerations, including financial ones, have made it 
impossible for the Louisiana Audubon Society to have a delegate 
to represent it this year at the deliberations of the several Audubon 
Societies convened in Philadelphia. The executive committee 
trust, however, that by submitting the foregoing report they will 
be able to expose the conditions in Louisiana almost as clearly as 
if the committee were represented in the person of any of its 

Maine. — The non-game bird law is still satisfactory, no changes 
having been made in it by the legislature of 1903. An effort will 
be made to protect the beneficial hawks and owls as soon as pub- 
lic opinion is educated sufficiently to warrant the movement. The 
attention of the sportsmen of Maine is called to the fact that the 
game laws give no protection whatever to any wild ducks except 
" wood duck, black duck, gray duck and teal" ; all the other species 
of the Anatidaeare left without legal protection : This is wrong and 
should be remedied. The American Eider was formerly a common 
breeder on the Maine coast but is yearly becoming more rare owing 
to the fact that almost every set of eggs that is laid is at once taken 
by some fisherman. Unless a law is passed making a close season 
for a term of years, this splendid duck is doomed to extinction in 
this State. The spring shooting of plover, snipe and sandpipers 
should be abolished, as it is wrong in principle. 

Warden syste?n. — The result of the work of the ten wardens 
employed is very satisfactory, showing on their part great fidelity 
to and an intelligent interest in the trust committed to them. 

Mr. A. H. Norton, a member of the Union, at the request of the 
Chairman, visited every portion of the coast and thoroughly 
inspected the wardens' work. He states : " While all of the war- 
dens were very kind and interested in the success of my inspection, 

IA.S Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \\£x 


I would like to make especial mention of Mr. Fred Rackliff, who 
rendered gratuitously invaluable aid ; Capt. Hall of Matinicus Rock, 
for making my stay there successful and pleasant ; Mr. Martin 
Talmon and wife of the same place for entertainment and many 
kindnesses ; Mr. and Mrs. Robinson of Libby Island for acts of 
courtesy, and Capt. and Mrs. Small of Cross Island for entertain- 
ment and aid- of much value. The work was indeed pleasant and 
one in which I take great interest." The report of Mr. Norton is 
so exhaustive and interesting that it is thought best to quote from 
it very freely : 

"On June 20, 1903, I paid a visit to the Night Heron colony in 
Falmouth. This is on the main land, upon the estate of Gen. John 
Marshall Brown, of Portland, which is his country home, known as 
Thornhurst. This colony is within ten minutes' walk from a much 
traveled town road, traversed by an electric car line. Under date 
of Feb. 7, 1903, Gen. Brown wrote me that the birds have been in 
his woods for twenty-five years, to his knowledge, where they have 
been protected by him ; he thinks they occupy twenty acres. 

" On the date of my visit the birds seemed to be enjoying secu- 
rity ; no evidence of shooting (which is the real danger threatening 
the nesting species) was observed. The nests were built near the 
tops of tall, slender pines and many of the young were large enough 
to clamber from the nest out on the branches. The crows, which 
were abundant, seem to destroy some of the eggs, as I found a 
number of shells that clearly had been broken by these birds. I 
visited the tern colony in charge of Mr. Cushman and found it in 
good condition. 

" Mr. G. E. Cushman, warden, has charge of the above men- 
tioned colony, also of the tern colony on Bluff Island. He reports 
an increase of six hundred terns during the season, and adds : 
1 The eggs were so plenty one had to walk carefully to prevent 
stepping upon them.' 

" On June 30, I boarded at Portland the little packet ' Mineola ' 
for a trip of 65 miles east to Port Clyde. Passing the Outer Green 
Island, six miles east of Portland, about half-a-dozen terns were 
seen over the shore of the island, one of which was carrying fish. 
The war manoeuvres on this coast this summer, it is to be feared, 
may again cause these birds to abandon the place, as it is used as 
a base for the targets for the heavy guns at the forts inshore. 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I4Q 

"Whenever outside islands or ledges were passed in Casco and 
Sheepscat Bays, flocks of from seventy-five to four hundred Herring- 
Gulls were seen resting upon them, though none are known to breed 
west of No-Mans-Land off Penobscot Bay. 

"At Metinic, in a swamp well protected by undergrowth and 
very difficult of penetration, fresh signs of Black Ducks were found, 
and near the house of Mr. Snow, owner and warden, several nests 
of Savanna Sparrows and Spotted Sandpipers were seen. He then 
took me to Metinic Green Island, the home of thousands of terns, 
the only Laughing Gulls now known to breed in Maine, and of a 
good number of Sea Pigeons and a few Leach's Petrels. This is 
one of the largest Tern colonies in Maine, vying with Machias 
Seal Island for second rank to Matinicus Rock. A very large pro- 
portion of these are the Arctic Tern but the Common Tern is in 
good numbers. None of the young were yet large enough to fly 
but were in well fledged condition, while many nests with eggs 
were still to be found, and one had to walk with care to avoid 
stepping on nest or young. 

"The adults were very tame, and this applies also to the Sea 
Pigeons and even the Laughing Gulls. Quite a number of the 
Pigeon's nests were found but none had hatched. 

Eight Laughing Gulls were counted at one time, and three nests 
were found containing eggs. The colony was in an excellent con- 
dition at the time of my visit. Mr. Snow had a notice posted 
at each landing, and Metinic was well supplied with them. With 
the protection now afforded it is to be expected that the Laughing 
Gull, now nearly exterminated in Maine, may again become well 

"I then proceeded to Deer Isle as a base of operations in Pen- 
obscot and Jerico Bays. Mr. Fred RacklifT, who is well acquainted 
with the sea birds and their ways, and is a boatman of excellent 
skill and judgment, most generously supplied a small boat and 
outfit and accompanied me on this trip, making it possible to 
cover much more satisfactorily than could have been done with a 
sail boat, these bays of small and rough ledges. 

"We visited in Jerico Bay, Southern Mark Island, on July 4. 
Two Eider Ducks were seen to leave the shore. One nest was 
found containing two eggs ; by placing one of these in a pool of 

ICO Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. j j " 


water it was found to be nearly or quite fresh. An empty Black 
Duck's nest was also found here. 

"On the western point a colony of about 200 Common Terns 
was found. These had been robbed of eggs, as two empty nests 
to one with eggs were found, and no young were discovered. 

"Mr. Rackliff visited this island last year and found that only 
a few pairs were there then. On the same day we found at White 
Ledges, locally called Way or Whale Ledge, an Eider Duck's nest 
with four eggs, also two empty nests. We saw a small flock 
feeding, which swam away, but four ducks with one drake 
remained not far away, and were supposed to be birds making 
this ledge their home. This small ledge is in two parts, each part 
containing less than half an acre. The birds all breed on the 
southern one, which is low ; it is covered with coarse gravel and 
small pebbles, bound together with a small amount of turf, sup- 
porting five or six species of sea plants. 

"This is rapidly yielding before the storms of winter, and pos- 
sibly one or two winters may close the history of this resort. With 
the influence of protection there is much probability that the birds 
will adopt one of the near islands or ledges as a breeding place ; 
without this these ducks will no doubt leave the bay entirely, thus 
reducing the number, already small, very seriously. Here we 
found five gulls' nests, in one of which the eggs were just hatching. 

"The l Three Ledges' just east of Fagg Island, where we 
camped, and the Green Ledge, a little south of the three, where a 
small number of terns were breeding last year, showed only two 
or three empty nests ; it seemed reasonable to suppose the new 
colony at Southern Mark Island was composed of the birds which 
were here last year. 

" On Saddle-back Ledge, where one or two pairs of Eider Ducks 
are said to breed, we saw no ducks nor found any nest ; one or 
two could easily have been overlooked. On the northern part of 
this island we estimated the terns at 300, and on the southern part 
at 100 ; some eggs had evidently been taken, but the condition was 
better than at Southern Mark Island. Quite a number of young- 
terns were found and the adults, though wilder than at Metinic 
Green Island and Matinicus Rock, were less so than at Southern 
Mark Island. 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate XVI. 

J6 ♦ 

.Most southerly breeding place on North Atlantic Coast. 


Vol. XXI j Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I C I 

"At Great Spoon Island we found only Petrels, Spotted Sand- 
pipers, Song and Savanna Sparrows. At Little Spoon Island, we 
found two pairs of terns and about four hundred adult gulls, which 
had hatched well, and seemed to have suffered little or no dis- 

" Gulls were still breeding on the Black and the White Horse 
Ledges, but no young were seen nor were any empty nests 
observed. Cormorants were present but no nests were found. 

" At Spirit Ledge no gulls nor terns were breeding, but we saw 
four Eider Ducks and found three nests, the eggs in neither of 
which seemed advanced in incubation, while one of them con- 
tained an incomplete set of eggs. A few Sea Pigeons were 
probably breeding, but it was impossible to find a nest. 

" At Black Rock we found two gulls' nests with eggs, and four 
Sea Pigeons were probably breeding. 

" On Heron Island we found a colony of gulls numbering a 
thousand or more. This colony was in excellent condition, very 
few eggs being found. The gulls were tame and the young were 
abundant. We found two Night Heron nests here, and it seems 
likely that this bird may increase. 

" At Haulibut Ledge about one hundred Common Terns were 
breeding on the southeastern ledge. No young were seen. Here 
we saw no Eider Ducks nor any nest, but Capt. Conary informed 
me that notwithstanding the fact that none have bred here for a 
few years, he discovered a nest this year with five eggs which he 
believed would hatch. As I found the excrement of a brood of 
young birds, not terns, in several spots under flat rocks on the 
shore, there seems little doubt that this nest hatched as predicted. 

"In concluding with Jericho Bay, I found that while the birds 
seem to be shifting to some extent, they are also collecting into 
better colonies for protection, and are increasing quite rapidly. 
The Southern Island colony is practically a new one and probably 
a permanent one. At both Saddle-back and Haulibut Ledge the 
increase since your first report is gratifying. 

"The same may be said of the Herring Gulls, i. <?., they are 
uniting and increasing quite rapidly ; while decreasing on the 
smaller ledges, for instance White Ledge, and disappearing from 
Spirit Ledge, on Heron Island the increase is decided and grati- 

1^2 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \\ 

fying, the colony containing not far from a thousand adult gulls 
against four hundred in your first report. (Cf. Auk, XVIII, p. 


"The increase at Little Spoon Island is less decided, probably 

owing to the fact that this is an outside island and suffered less 
(than Heron Island) before protection became so well established. 

"The few Eider Ducks here are the remnant of a once goodly 
number breeding in this section. I think they are still robbed of 
their eggs. Every effort must be made to save this noble duck as 
a summer resident and breeder, not only for Maine but the 
United States. If it could be possible to give the breeding colony 
absolute protection for a few years we could reasonably expect a 
good result, as has been shown by the gulls and terns. Though 
this bird, within the memory of the present generation of middle- 
aged men, bred from the western side of Penobscot Bay easterly 
to the present location of the colony, and at several other places 
east to Machias Bay, it is now reduced to the small number 
breeding in Jericho Bay, and a colony on Old Man Island. 

" With the exception of the extinction of the Masons Ledge and 
Green Island colonies, the Sea Pigeons seem to suffer no moles- 
tation. In this bay their nests are nearly inaccessible. 

"Finishing the inspection of this bay July 13, we went to 
Penobscot Bay to investigate the condition of the colonies under 
the care of Capt. H. T. Ball of Eagle Island. 

" Sheep Island was occupied by a colony of Fish Hawks which 
had ten nests which I saw. 

Colonies of Terns were found on Sloop Island and Channel 
Rock on July 17. On Sloop Island fifty nests with eggs or young 
were found ; probably 75 to 100 pairs breed here. On Channel 
Rock, a small pinnacle-like ledge with grassy top, about fifty terns 
were breeding. I was convinced that some eggs had been taken 
from these islands. Notwithstanding these facts many small 
young were seen, and the adults were moderately tame. 

"At Bradburys Island it was impossible to get ashore without 
finding one of the warning notices well placed. That the colony 
of Herons had not been disturbed seemed certain. The luxuriant 
undergrowth had not been trampled around the rookery, and we 
found the Great Blue Herons pleasingly tame. A few young were 







































H w 
5 * 

o ^ 





Vol. XXI 

ig0 4 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I C 2' 

taking short flights from the nest, and most of them were well 
grown. Every nest seen was clearly occupied. Here the birds 
breed in a piece of woods extremely difficult of penetration by 
reason of fallen logs and a dense undergrowth of shrubs and 
weeds. In a two acre lot 20 nests were counted, and this was a 
small section of the area, covered by the birds. Capt. Conary 
informed me that a small colony of these birds had started 
breeding upon White Island, owned by himself. 

"July 18, 1903, we visited Great Duck Island, and it seems 
needless to say that the colony was in excellent condition. Not a 
nest containing eggs was seen. The adult gulls allowed one to 
approach within 36 feet in some instances, and settled again as 
soon as we had passed. The young ran before us like flocks of 
hens, whenever we rounded a turn in the road. Mrs. Stanley, 
wife of the warden, said, ' We had as soon any one would come 
ashore and carry off one of our hens as to take one of the gulls.' n 

Great Duck Island is probably the most ideal spot on the Atlan- 
tic coast for a bird colony, as it is some distance from the main- 
land. The birds all congregate at the southernmost end of the 
island, where the Great Duck Lighthouse is located. The head- 
keeper of the light is the warden and is deeply interested in the 
welfare of the colony. He reports : "The area occupied by the 
birds this year is materially larger than during 1902, and as near 
as I can judge, about 3,000 young gulls were hatched and reached 
maturity. In addition to the gulls some 2,000 Leach's Petrels 
were also raised, besides numbers of several species of land birds. 
The mortality among the adult and young gulls was quite heavy ; 
the former were killed by being caught in brush or trees and the 
latter principally by being dashed against the rocks by the heavy 
surf. I estimate that not less than 500 gulls were killed by these 
several causes." 

There is also a large colony of Herring Gulls on Little Duck 
Island, the increase of the colony in 1903 being about 1,300 birds. 
The warden, Mr. D. Driscoll, reports that the birds were not 

Resuming Mr. Norton's narrative : "On July 22 I was landed on 
Matinicus Rock ; fog, heavy sea and wind combined to keep me 
here until the 28th, giving ample time to observe this interesting 
resort for birds. 

I C A Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [^an 

" The mortality of Terns at this rock, as at all other places in 
Maine, has this year been very slight. Capt. Hall and his assis- 
tants have observed that during a brief period of mortality, earlier 
this year, the old birds were bringing very little food ashore. 

" Capt. Hall has the esteem of his assistants, and they all take 
a personal interest in the birds, and it is evident that the latter 
receive absolute protection. They are almost without fear of man, 
and I had an excellent opportunity to observe them at short range ; 
large flocks could be gathered at the boat slip by use of fish livers 
or anything that would float. As they alighted upon the rocks or 
hovered close at hand, the field glasses made their identification as 
Arctic Terns positive. It was only the day before I left the Rock 
that a small number of Common Terns were found. These were 
back of the beach on the inside of the northeast point. Many of 
the young terns were on the wing, some being with their parents 
as far away as Matinicus. 

" Nearly all of the Sea Pigeons had young and were busy bring- 
ing food ashore. This seemed to consist entirely of rock eels 
( Gunnellus gunnel/us) . 

" Four Puffins are here this year, an increase of one pair since 
last year. These were so tame that I crept, mostly in open sight, 
within thirty feet of them, focused my camera, and secured a pho- 
tograph of the whole group. I did not see them carry fish ashore 
and doubt if they had young at that time. Mr. Talmon, one of the 
light-keepers, is sure that he had seen them carry food this year. 
There being no mistake about this, it is my opinion that the young 
died of some natural cause. Their nest, if they had one, had not 
been discovered. It is much to be hoped that these birds shall 
receive especial care, and none be taken for any purpose whatever 
until a safe increase has occurred. 

"It is interesting to note that six Laughing Gulls paid a tempo- 
rary visit of a couple of days to the Rock this spring. 

"On July 28, Mr. Martin Talmon of Matinicus Rock Light took 
Capt. Mark Young and myself to No-Mans-Land. We were under 
obligations to Capt. Hall for his naphtha boat on this occasion. 
Capt. Young took much pains to show us about the island, and his 
gulls. These latter were in their usual excellent condition, showing 
the unmistakable evidences of unmolested birds. The young were 

Voi. XXI 

Ditcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \ C C 

everywhere to be found, often running before us in little flocks, 
while the earliest ones, just beginning to fly, rose and circled over 
the island or settled again a short distance away. Some were a 
short distance from shore with the old birds. These were the first 
young gulls seen on the wing. Capt. Young justly takes consid- 
erable pride in the magnitude and good condition of this colony ; 
he runs a gang of lobster traps around the island this summer, and 
while attending to the business of fishing, pays almost daily visits 
to the place. This constant oversight, coupled with his determina- 
tion to protect the birds, insures them absolute security. 

"A few Petrels were to be found breeding here. Colonies of 
from 10 to 40 Sea Pigeons are on Green Ledge, east of Matinicus, 
Two Bush, and Two Bush Ledge, between Matinicus and No-Mans- 
Land. These have not been disturbed. 

" July 29, from the steamer ' Frank Jones,' examination was made 
of the colonies of Terns on Ship and the two Barge Islands. On 
Ship Island a colony of some size, fully equal to that seen last 
year, was observed, and on the Western Barge 50 to 75, while on 
the Eastern Barge 20 or 30 were ashore, and rose as we passed 
near their resort. 

" This day was consumed in reaching Jonesport ; the following 
one, July 30, was lost owing to a dense and persistent fog, my 
boatman not being willing to go out. The next morning was clear 
and an early start was made for Cone and other islands. 

" Cone Island is the least satisfactory of all the colonies. Capt. 
O. Cummings informed me upon my arrival at his station, that the 
gulls have not bred well this year, but many use the island as 
a resting place. This I found to be true. Indeed, only three or 
four gulls acted as though they were breeding, by hovering over 
the island and cackling at our approach. The ground was so 
swampy that no nest was found. These were the only gulls ashore. 
On the knolls, several different ones, on the sea beach and at cer- 
tain wet places the quantity of freshly dropped feathers bore 
indisputable evidence of the visits of gulls habitually. It was said 
that these visits were made during the high water, at which time 
the birds do less fishing than on the low water. 

" I found the notices well posted. Capt. Cummings said that 
the^only explanation he could offer for the few birds breeding was 

I ^6 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [fan 

that his station, which is one-half a statute mile (coast survey measure 
by me) from their breeding ground has been receiving extensive 
repairs, the carpenters making the usual noise of this trade. He 
also stated that the foxes liberated there some time ago are dead. 
This I could not verify. I was also told by him that about 200 
gulls were breeding upon Flint Island, and about 100 terns on Pot 
Rock; the former is quite a high, large island. I took considerable 
pains to go here and land, and walk across the island and up on 
its highest part, but no gulls were to be found at this time. Pot 
Rock is very small, and landing was impossible, but by passing 
near it, I am sure that no terns were breeding there. I found 
Capt. Cummings very kind, obliging, and seemingly anxious to do 
his duty to you. Yet his manner made me especially particular to 
investigate each statement made by him. 

"To summarize: There are practically no gulls breeding on 
Cone Island this year, nor are there, so far as I now know, any 
between the Duck Islands and Pulpit Rock. Many Gulls con- 
tinue to rest on Cone Island. 

"After visiting these places I directed our course to Egg Rock, 
which was swept by sea during June, 1902, causing the terns to 
abandon it ; a colony of several hundred terns is now re-estab- 
lished. These I believe to be mostly Common Terns. This rock 
is much exposed and surrounded by a shallow shore, and as the 
sea was extremely rough I was not able to land ; leaving the 
launch, I rowed in a small boat as near as possible and discharged 
a gun. This caused all of the old birds to rise from the rock at 
once, giving a view of the entire colony. This rock is but one 
and a half miles from Capt. O. B. Hall's station and in open view 
of it ; it is very well located for protection. 

" Proceeding from here to Freemans Rock the same results 
were experienced. No young terns were seen at sea in this sec- 
tion of the coast nor indeed at Libby Island. The Freemans 
Rock terns are largely Arctic Terns. In addition to the terns and 
guillemots on this rock, terns on Egg Rock, and Black Ducks on 
Great Wass Island, Capt. Hall has a colony of about a dozen Blue 
Herons on Great Wass Island. 

"July 3 1 I started from Jonesport for Cross Island, and all 
colonies between these points. The sea had abated during the 

Vol. XXI 


Ditcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. I S7 

night, and with the assistance of Mr. Daniel French, warden and 
deputy sheriff, a thoroughly skilful surf and boatman, I was able 
to land on all rocks and islands where birds were breeding. 

"Pulpit Rock was the first in the course. This at high water 
forms two separate rocks, but at a little ebb tide the connection is 
completed; nevertheless owing to the perpendicular walls of the 
outer rocks one cannot reach its top from the inner one, but must 
make a separate landing at a particular shelf, and even this is 
done at some hazard in calm weather, and not at all in moderately 
rough weather, hence the central part is seldom visited, judging 
from appearances. The inner part is much easier to land upon 
and I believe that some eggs have been taken from it. As we 
approached about 50 Double-crested Cormorants rose from the 
rocks and flew about for a few moments before leaving. A 
thorough search of both parts of the rock revealed none of their 
nests, and Mr. French said they had not been known to breed 

" A few Sea Pigeons breed here, fifteen old birds being seen 
and one nest with young was discovered. 

" While the gulls present were estimated at eight hundred to a 
thousand, I think that comparatively few of the number breed, for 
if they did one could not step upon these small rocks without 
walking on the nests ; in reality the nests are quite scattering. 
Almost all had hatched, and the young were hiding in clefts of 
the rocks on the outer rock, which is the highest and largest, and 
is devoid of all vascular plants. On the inner rock they also hid 
in clefts, and under the vegetation, which was rather abundant. 
Here we found two nests with eggs. 

" Most of the young were nearly large enough to fly, and fre- 
quently with startling screams leaped over the crags, using their 
wings to break the fall, landing rather clumsily, but unharmed on 
the covered rocks below. 

" On the outer rocks the birds, I think, had been practically 
unmolested and not seriously on the inner one. Probably the 
number of gulls breeding is between two and three hundred. It 
is five nautical miles from Libby Island Light and a little more 
than ten from Crumple Island. 

" Our next stopping place was the Brothers, two islands of high 

I C8 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [f^ 

granite ledge covered with vegetable loam, and the decaying 
remains of a spruce forest. At half tide, or even higher, they are 
connected by a bar. On the western one possibly two pairs of 
gulls were breeding, but the nests or young were not found. On 
the eastern one a good sized colony of gulls was breeding, prob- 
ably a thousand or more. The southern seaward side of this 
island presents a perpendicular wall of granite nearly a hundred 
feet in height, and many gulls breed in perfect security upon its 
rifts and shelves. Many young were seen here nearly full grown,, 
hiding upon the gray rocks where their colors were in harmony 
with their surroundings. On the top of the island, among the 
fallen logs and elsewhere, many nests were found ; quite a number 
still contained eggs and some had clearly been robbed. I believe 
that more eggs had been taken here than at any other gull colony 
in Maine. Yet many young were also found, showing that the 
egging had been sporadic. The birds were, on the whole, not 
seriously interfered with and were tame. I also discovered that 
some Petrels breed here. 

"It is a fact of interest that as I walked over the top of the 
western island a gull dashed many times at me, coming within 
five or six feet of my head. Terns frequently do this but gulls 
very seldom. 

"Libby Island Light was next visited. We were directed to 
North Libby Island where the terns breed. This is an excellent 
island for their needs and probably iooo to 1500 terns of both 
species are here. Mr. French who kept Libby Island light for 
eleven years previous to 1895, and visited the place on this date, 
the first time since leaving there, assured me that the increase 
since that time is at least 75 per cent. The colony occupies the 
entire eastern end of the island, which is a quarter of a mile wide, 
while the length of their area is somewhat less. Most of the 
young were fully fledged and sat upon the rocks of the shore, 
flying as we approached ; a few small young and a few eggs were 
also seen. 

" From here we went to Cross Island, where I remained with 
Capt. Small at the Life-saving station. He very kindly gave me 
much aid in securing a boat for Machias Seal Island. 

"As the next morning (August 2) afforded a 'good chance' to 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 1^9 

go there, well knowing that it might be days before another oppor- 
tunity came, we took an early start. When half way across two 
young terns with their parents were seen at sea. When about four 
and a half miles from the island the first Puffin was seen flying 

" Machias Seal Island consists of the island which bears the 
name, containing about twenty acres, and Gull Rock, containing 
about two acres. They are separated by a shallow passage, pass- 
able to small boats at low water. Gull Rock lies a quarter of a 
mile east of the northeast point of Seal Island. This is a low 
granite ledge without soil, much seamed and cracked. The seams 
in a few instances afforded nourishment for beach plantains and 
Tissa marina. The rock is covered with a greenish yellow 

" This ledge is completely swept, it is said, by the sea during 
heavy weather, and was swept during the rough weather experienced 
July 31 while I was at Jonesport. Notwithstanding this statement 
many young terns of various stages of growth were seen here, and 
indeed the colony seemed to be in a good condition. 

"These islands are little visited except by the lighthouse attend- 
ants, and this rock is exempt from the causes which have acted on 
Seal Island. This rock affords no opportunity for other birds to 

"Machias Seal Island is also a low island with an abundance of 
vegetable loam and is well clothed with herbage, chiefly grass. 
The variety of plants is surprisingly small, and most of the charac- 
teristic ones of the region are absent. It rises like an isolated hill- 
top from the deep, submarine plain, and is swept on all sides by the 
powerful tide current from the Bay of Fundy. Indeed, this current 
is one of the potent factors to be considered in reaching the island, 
for in a calm a craft is at its mercy, being borne onward as it hap- 
pens to run. 

"The island has no beaches, the only semblance to one being 
strewn with angular blocks of granite. The southern and south- 
western end is a mass of granite, presenting an impassable barrier 
to the ocean's storms. This rises not more than forty feet above 
sea level ; yet, though so fully exposed, the sea is never known to 
have broken across the island, as it frequently does at Matin icus 
Rock which is much higher. 

l6o Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. f fan 

" History shows that two centuries ago hundreds of seals resorted 
here to rear their young. 

"Of the birds the most interesting are the Puffins. These breed 
in a pile or windrow of large angular blocks of granite, which have 
the appearance of a sea wall. Doubtless the wall was formed by 
the action of the sea during tempests of extreme violence, but at 
ordinary times the sea does not come within two hundred yards of 
it, and between it and the sea line grow grass and other land plants. 
I am told by Mr. Everett Smith of Portland, who visited the island 
about twenty years ago, and Mr. A. C. Bent of Taunton, Mass., 
that no Puffins breed elsewhere in the vicinity of Grand Manan. 
This fact gives an additional interest to this colony and emphasizes 
the importance of having it thoroughly protected. 

"The Puffins are much tamer than Sea Pigeons and are 
possessed of great curiosity, or, it might be said, they are less pru- 
dent than Sea Pigeons. From the edge of the rocks where they 
breed it is certain that their nesting will not be much interfered 
with, but shooting the birds must be constantly guarded against. 

" Inspection of the mass of rocks where they breed shows con- 
siderable quantities of straw scattered in every passage to the bed 
rock, dropped by the birds in building their nests. By watching 
them go in and out to feed their young, one could easily see that 
every opening of the wall leads to several nests, probably a nest at 
the extremity of every passage. While 33 Puffins was the largest 
number seen by me at one time, Mr. John Ganang, superintendent 
of the masonry of the Lighthouse Department, who had spent 
more than a week here in his official capacity, told me that three 
hundred is the number resorting here. Mr. Ganang's statement I 
considered entitled to confidence as I found him to be a gentleman 
of candor, judgment and refinement, and with a fondness for birds 
and plants. 

"This indicates an increase in the number of Puffins during the 
twenty years that have elapsed since Mr. Smith's visit, when sixty 
was the number. But this is the natural outcome of the protection 
afforded them by Captain Seeley, a protection which seems to have 
been absolute. 

" It was a most interesting spectacle to see the top of the wall 
adorned by the above-mentioned 33 Puffins, resting here seemingly 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee 0;/ Bird Protection. ID I 

and probably in social enjoyment before leaving for the fishing 
grounds. They were more restless than Sea Pigeons and moved 
about with an awkward walk, and frequently flapped their wings. 
On leaving they went away from the island entirely, and for the 
next three hours, had one arrived here only two or three would 
have been observed. 

"After the time mentioned one came from the sea and circled 
about, then another and another, until ten were circling. In this 
flight they passed over their nests and then circled towards the sea, 
which limited the outer edge of the circle, then returning to repass 
the nest, thus describing a perfect circle or, as Dr. Coues expressed 
it, a 'wheel'. But frequently they took a course across the center 
of the wheel, and described a letter S. Often as they passed over 
the nest they uttered a deep sound, which though in several sylla- 
bles had a resemblance to a groan issuing from the chest. I could 
not determine whether each bird held several small fish in its bill, 
or a squid with dangling arms. From the direction they came, the 
northward, it would indicate that their feeding ground was in the 
direction of Grand Manan channel and the course of the several I 
have seen at sea supports the indication. 

"Upon alighting they hurried without delay into the wall of 
rocks, often two or three into the same opening, and with little 
pause they reappeared and put out to sea. Hardly had these dis- 
appeared when another party returned, and so onward ; they did 
not arrive in these compact groups, but came singly and in pairs, 
and being delayed by our proximity, gathered into flocks. 

"Common and Arctic Terns evidently were the only terns 
breeding here, and this year I did not see even the Sterna port- 
landica phase of the latter. These birds occupy the entire island 
for breeding, but have decreased since my last visit. Those 
remaining were quite tame, and no dead ones were seen to indi- 
cate shooting. The lightkeeper keeps a dog and a cat, and I was 
told that the dog ate many eggs and the cat caught quite a num- 
ber of birds. The wife of the assistant keeper told me that they 
had killed their cat, owing to its destructiveness to the birds. I 
asked the value of the dog, suggesting that we would be glad to 
have it off the island. His answer was evasive, but he said he 
would make provision to send it ashore. Owing to the lateness of 

162 Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. Man. 

the season and the delay incident to communicating with the shore 
it is doubtful if this is done. If another year could be begun free 
from such drawbacks it is probable that the birds would abun- 
dantly prosper. 

" Probably 3000 terns are still upon the two islands. As the 
Seal Island is covered with grass the young are not easy to find, 
and very few were seen ; some had already flown, as I saw them 
at sea. 

"The Light is supported by the Dominion Government and it 
seems quite important to impress upon, not only the keepers of the 
lights, but also the inspector of the district, the need of protecting 
the birds here now. The keepers are furnished not only with 
rations but drinking water from ashore, requiring frequent trips of 
the supply vessel. The discipline is less strict than on our light- 
house boats and the crews, in part at least, wander over the island 
at will, and it was insinuated that the birds are the sufferers. I 
posted three notices here and one on Gull Rock as you wished. 

" This island is the location of some of the largest Petrel colo- 
nies of Maine, the birds burrowing into the soft earth on every 
part of the island. These had suffered some destruction, as the 
wings of a number were seen near the buildings, no doubt having 
been caught by the cat, as the burrows had not been disturbed. 

"Owing to the distance of this place from any shelter, sailing 
men are not willing to remain out over night, and indeed few are 
willing even to go there except with perfect weather conditions. 

"At five p. m. we started on our return, reaching Cross Island 
at midnight. Curiously enough, the next day dawned calm, and 
a trip to the Seal Island would have been impossible. 

"This morning Capt. Small took me over to the Old Man 
Island where we were able to land and examine the condition of 
the gull colony. Everywhere among the trees the ground is 
covered with a dense tangle of brambles and weeds making travel 
very difficult. There were here no indications of any disturbance 
of the gulls or their nests. The latter were placed along the shore 
on the edge of the precipice and on shelves of the cliffs. Search 
among the weeds showed many young concealed there. This 
island is in direct view of Capt. Small's station. 

"Capt. Small told me that a good-sized colony of Eider Ducks 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 6 3 

breed here. On this particular morning (Aug. 3), none of the 
birds were at the island, only one having been seen in the channel 
half way across to Cross Island. The morning previous, how- 
ever, as I sailed for Machias Seal Island, about a dozen females 
were seen close to the shore of the Old Man, and flew about as 
we passed it. It affords secure concealment for their nests, none 
of which we saw. I was told by two other men, Capt. Fred Wal- 
den of Cross Island, and Capt. Ackley of Cutter, neither having 
any knowledge of Capt. Small's statement, that this duck breeds 
on the Old Man. Unmolested ducks would have been hatched 
some time previous to this visit, so no time was spent in looking 
for their nests. 

" On the same morning we visited the Double Headed Shot. 
The outer one of these islands only is inhabited by the gulls, per- 
haps fifty in number. This colony, although near Capt. Small's 
station, is not increasing. My attention was attracted to the signs 
of minks on this island, and as it is said that ground or beach 
nesting birds cannot increase where these mammals exist, I was 
led to account for the small number of gulls here through this 
cause. It is to be expected that this island will be abandoned by 
the birds in a short time. 

"On August 8 I inspected the last colony, that at Bluff Island 
in Saco Bay. This is a colony of Common Terns, probably num- 
bering now nearly a thousand. Strattons Island, which is close at 
hand, is not inhabited by the birds. These terns have long been 
protected by the owner of the island, Mr. Jordan. Their feeding 
grounds extend from near the Saco River to Cape Elizabeth, the 
largest number resorting to the river mouths at the Scarborough 
marshes. At the time of my visit large numbers of the young 
were fishing here with their parents, and at low water they sat in 
large numbers upon exposed sand spits. On the island some 
young were just hatching, and all stages of growth were still to be 
found. Quite a number of abandoned nests with faded eggs were 
found. Haying operations were in progress and a number of dead 
young were found which had been accidentally killed. Upon the 
whole the colony was in good condition and the increase has been 
a positive one. 

"I took the opportunity of posting muslin warning notices on 
all of the islands visited. 

164 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Tv^ 


" At one point I was told that gull shooting was still practised 
at Eastport ; while waiting at Lubec for the steamer to Portland I 
made a trip to Eastport, but I saw no shooting. The City Mar- 
shall there was well acquainted with the law and assured me that 
no shooting is done now. The conditions certainly are gratifying, 
and it is the subject of general comment all along the coast that 
the birds are much more numerous and tame than they have been 
for years." 

Mr. Norton has also prepared a special report on the ' Food of 
Protected Birds on the Maine Coast,' which on account of its 
great interest and importance is here subjoined in full. 

" Notes on the Protected Birds on the Maine Coast with Relation 
to Certain Economic Questions. 

"The most important determination concerning the food of the 
protected bird was the demonstration, in support of previous obser- 
vations, that the Gulls and Terns are insectivorous to a considerably 
greater extent than has generally been supposed. 

" I have known for several years that the Common Tern feeds, 
in this State, to a great extent upon the large winged ants which 
swarm along the coast. Other insects often occurred in the 
stomachs examined. 

" The Arctic Terns were supposed to be more thoroughly piscivo- 
rous, but the examination of six or seven stomachs last year 
showed that they also eat ants to some extent. One of the four 
stomachs examined this year was filled with adult moths belonging 
to the Noctuidae. 

"Wishing to preserve a series of young Herring Gulls, half a 
dozen of different sizes were taken on Little Spoon Island. Upon 
examining their stomachs it was found that this series, taken on 
the low water, contained almost no fish, but all contained ants in 
varying quantities, only one being full. The contents of this full 
stomach was analyzed by Dr. Sylvester D. Judd of the Biological 
Survey, with the following result: 1 bug, 12 carabid beetles, 1 click 
beetle, 1 scarabaeid beetle, 1 cerambycid beetle, and 384 ants, 
Camponotus pennsylvanicus. Dr. A. K. Fisher informs me that 
' These insects are all neutral and of no great economic impor- 

Vol. XXI 


Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 6^ 

tance.' However true this latter statement is generally, locally 
the ants are regarded as injurious to the white spruce and fir 
which compose the largest part of the arboreal flora of the coast 
of Maine. While there is no proof that they kill the trees, they 
quickly fill the dead trunks with their burrows and impair the 
value of the wood for fuel. The fact that Gulls feed upon grass- 
hoppers is variously attested at Matinicus. 

" From the very complex conditions governing the habits of 
marine animals, little of a positive nature can be derived from the 
fishing habits of these voracious, almost omnivorous, birds. 

" It is, however, stated by the United States Fish Commission 
that the 'Gulls probably feed more upon herring food than herring 
themselves.' (Cf. Moore, Rept. U. S. Fish Com., 1896, Appendix 
9, p. 404.) It might with much truth be said enemies of the her- 
ring. The squids, Loligo peali and Ommastrephes illecebrosus, are 
acknowledged as the natural enemies of this fish. Both gulls and 
terns feed upon squid, the extent undoubtedly being governed by 
their abundance and the ease with which they are to be captured. 
Both at Little Spoon Island and No-Mans-Land pieces of large 
squid, Loligo peali, were seen in the nests of gulls, with the young 
birds. Both at Matinicus Rock and Machias Seal Island, squids, 
Ommastrephes illecebrosus, were found to enter into that of the Arc- 
tic Tern. While these creatures are enemies of the herring, they 
are an important article of bait for the fishermen, and enter to an 
important extent into the diet of the codfish and pollock. 

"While it is probable that the gulls do not seriously trouble lob- 
ster fry, it is, on the other hand, clear that they render the lob- 
ster fishery a service in destroying large quantities of sea urchins 
at certain seasons. It is an acknowledged fact among lobstermen 
that the lobster is partial to rocky bottoms well clothed with kelp 
(Zaminaria), where hiding places are abundant amid protectively 
colored surroundings. 

"The herbivorous sea urchin {Strongylocentratus drobachiensis) 
cleans the bottom of marine vegetation, to the detriment of the 
lobster's interest. The Eider Duck and American Crow also feed 
extensively in winter upon the echinoderms. 

" It is by some claimed that the gulls are injurious to pasture, and 
even that they kill the trees where they breed. Concerning the last 

I 66 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Fird Protection. ["f^ 

statement, it is based upon imperfect observations, for while it is 
true that the gulls seem to be very partial to areas of dead and 
decaying wood lots, as they are at Little Spoon, Heron, Duck, 
Otter and Brothers Islands, and also formerly Cone Island, it is 
highly probable that they are attracted there by the security they 
afford, and in no small degree by the abundance of insect food, as 
I have just observed they use. On the other hand, it has clearly 
been determined that the spruce is subject to the attacks of several 
insects, to a serious extent. This matter has been made the sub- 
ject of a bulletin by the United States Department of Agriculture 
(Bulletin No. 28, Division of Entomology, 1901, N. S.). 

" Not only are the lumber regions affected, but the islands as well; 
two instances having fallen under my notice. One of these cases 
was a tract of several acres of standing spruce on Metinic Island, 
certainly not used by any sea-birds. The other one is the island 
of Seguin, once heavily wooded but now, through the attack of an 
insect, entirely devastated. Beyond the possibility of a question, 
no birds were instrumental in this destruction. The other islands 
named, where the gulls now breed, undoubtedly owe the death of 
their timber to a similar cause and in no way to the birds. 

" Here it might be emphasized that these dead trees are often 
riddled by the large ants, which are eaten so extensively by the 
gulls and terns. 

"Concerning the question of the birds injuring the pasture, the 
belief is based upon equally unscientific grounds. I have observed 
that some of the islands having a surface soil composed of deposits 
of drift, gravel and loam of varying coarseness, yield an abundant 
return in hay or vegetables. As instances, I can mention Bluff, 
Metinic, Metinic Green Islands, the two Green Islands east of 
Metinic, parts of No-Mans Land, Matinicus, Seal and Libby 
Islands. Of this list Bluff, Metinic Green, and Libby Islands are 
now the homes of many terns, which cause no complaint from 
sheep raisers on account of the pasture. 

"Metinic Green Island, which has only three sheep, has a stand 
of hay waist high, while Bluff Island returned a profitable harvest 
of the same product this year. 

"The two Green Islands formerly supported large colonies of 
terns, w r hile the smaller one had, in former days, a colony of about 

Vol. XXII 


Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. 1 67 

50 Laughing Gulls. One of these has for many years been used 
as a farm and the other as a pasture, but no complaint was ever 
heard of this richly soiled island being injured by birds. Seal 
Island was also similarly inhabited by terns, previous to the millin- 
ery demand for their skins, but now is without birds, except 
Petrels ; yet it has an abundance of grass and clover in spots. 

" Certain other islands, as Otter Island, Great Spoon, Cone, and 
the Brothers Islands, and a large part of Little Spoon Island, are 
covered with a deep stratum (in some places certainly three feet 
deep) of red vegetable loam, quite unproductive. 

" As striking instances of the unproductiveness of the pure 
vegetable loam, Matinicus Rock and Machias Seal Island are to 
be mentioned. At Matinicus Rock successful gardening is con- 
fined to three or four vegetables, cabbage, endive, parsnips, and 
perhaps another, potatoes, beans, etc., dwarfing. In such crevices 
and pockets as contain soil, it is wholly of the kind under con- 

" At Machias Seal Island the soil is quite similar, and similar 
results were found until gravel from the ash heap was abundantly 
supplied, when the conditions improved. 

"The complaint against pasture damage was from Little Spoon 
Island. This is an island of diversified conditions, forest or vege- 
table loam, shallow gravel over ledges, and some profitable drift 
loam. The pasture is not abundant, and the complaint is wrongly 
placed upon the birds. 

"In conclusion, Heron Island affords interesting conditions. 
There the grass crop was good, but not equal to that of many 
other islands. The flock of sheep was not equal to its pasturing 
possibilities, much of the grass maturing and raising seed. It was 
there very noticeable that the sheep fed very largely in the prox- 
imity of the gulls' nests; that part of the island where fewest gulls 
were breeding was little grazed by the sheep. There it was quite 
evident that the gulls did not render the feed distasteful to the 
sheep, as the latter could have abandoned the part of the island 
where the birds were abundant." 

Audubon work. — The Society was organized late in 1902 and 
now has a membership of 200, scattered throughout the State. 
One of its objects is " To cherish an interest in birds and encour- 

I 68 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. y^^ 

age the study of Natural History/' It now has six local branches. 
During the year large numbers of warning notices, furnished by 
the National Committee, have been distributed. By the courtesy 
of the Vice-President of the Maine Central R. R. Co. warning 
notices were displayed in all of the steamers of the line and also 
on the steamer ' Frank Jones ' of the Portland, Mt. Desert and 
Machias Steamboat Co. 

Massachusetts. — Legislation. — During the session of 1903 
several improvements in the bird laws were made; herons and 
bitterns are now protected and the possession of any such bird or 
part thereof, whenever or wherever taken, shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding ten dollars for every bird or part thereof ; the 
open season for snipe and plover is shortened six weeks in the 
spring, shooting not being allowed after March 1. The anti-plum- 
age wearing clause is made to include birds not heretofore pro- 
tected. The legislative sessions are held annually. 

Warden system. — One warden was employed on the Weepecket 
Islands, who reports that the terns breeding there passed an undis- 
turbed summer and made a normal increase. In this connection 
it is a pleasure to refer to an article by Prof. Lynds Jones in ' The 
Wilson Bulletin,' No. 44, September, 1903, pp. 94-100, entitled, 
' The Terns of the Weepecket Islands, Massachusetts.' This 
paper is a very valuable contribution to the life history of the 
terns and confirms in every respect the report of warden Charles 
O. Olsen. 

Mr. George H. Mackay, who has so long and successfully pro- 
tected the gulls and terns of the Muskegets, writes: "They have 
enjoyed the same protection as heretofore, having been cared for 
as usual. Both the Terns and Laughing Gulls have had a good 
season and the latter especially show a very considerable increase. 
I think, regarding bird protection as a whole, that we now have 
the public pretty well on our side. It has taken some years to 
accomplish it, but we are practically there. Little remains to be 
done now in this State except to prohibit the sale during the close 
season of shore, marsh, and beach birds taken outside the State." 

At the suggestion of Mr. Mackay the special report of Mr. 
Frederick A. Homer regarding the terns of Penikese Island is 
appended in full. This report shows so conclusively what perfcet 

i o 1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. l6o 

protection will do for a colony of birds, and is so encouraging to 
all bird lovers, that it is with pleasure the Committee gives it the 
widest publicity : 

New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 8, 1903. 
Mr. George H. Mackay, 
My Dear Sir : — 

Yours of Sept. 30 at hand and noted. 

This has indeed been an exceptional year for the terns of Penikese. 
Their number seems to be increasing yearly, and all the people who have 
had occasion to notice them say, as I do, that they have never seen so 
many before. Having been disturbed but little during their breeding 
season the result was an early hatch of great numbers and a very early 
departure for their southern home. There have been no crippled young 
this year, as we had no sheep, and we have had to destroy only about 
half-a-dozen for damaged wings, etc. 

A boatman of this city who displayed about a dozen eggs was arrested 
and fined $20. He probably will not take any more eggs, and it will be a 
warning to others. 

The writer spends four or five days of each week at the island from 
first of April to last of November, and there is hardly a person lands on 
the island without his cognizance or permission, and there is no reason 
why these birds should not increase rapidly. My observation leads me to 
state that they do increase, and if they were not molested at the south, 
where I understand they are captured in great numbers for their wings, 
Penikese would not be large enough for them. I have noticed for the 
past few years an increasing number nesting on the neighboring islands 
and on the main land to the north of them. 

Of course one must take some interest in these creatures who visit you 
yearly whether you are willing or not, but I can see that in a few years, 
unless we extend our cultivated land, we shall have more of them than we 
care for; this is in the future, however. 

My notes very carefully taken record the following : 

May 7. — Early in the morning, weather cool and hazy with wind very 
light from the east, the terns arrived in full force. 

May 24. — The first egg was found by the writer. 

June 25. — The first young tern was found. 

July 14. — Some of the young could fly. 

August 4. — The terns commenced to leave in small flocks. 

Sept. 14. — They had deserted us entirely. 

My brother and myself have had a very enjoyable season at the island 
in spite of the rather unfavorable ^summer weather; now we are having 
the weather of the year for our pleasure. 

We have had no plover at the island yet, in fact very few shore birds 
stopped here. 

Yours, with kind regards, 

(Signed) Fredk. A. Homer. 

I^O Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Iran 

Mr. Jno. E. Howland of Vineyard Haven, a true sportsman who 
takes great interest in the protection of birds, writes: "We had 
more Heath Hens on the Island the past fall than in any season 
for fifteen years past. I was at the South Shore a number of 
times, and should say unquestionably all gulls that summer with 
us were more numerous than a year ago. I have never seen more 
Laughing Gulls about than this year. 

" Regarding the rookery of Night Herons, I am pleased to say 
that, as far as I know, not a gun was fired or an egg taken. Our 
club own both sides of this rookery and we hope to purchase this 
piece; we have about four hundred acres in two plots. The 
Heath-hen if let alone for a few years will be quite plenty. Quail 
were more numerous than any season in ten years past." 

Mr. Ralph Hoffmann, a member of the A. O. U. Protection 
Committee, reports as follows : " The beneficial hawks and owls 
are still outside the pale. We hope to do something for them this 

" The question of further protection for shore birds is one that 
has especial interest for the writer of this report. I should like 
to see the open season for the big birds shortened, and the little 
birds, including the Least, the Semipalmated, Bonaparte's, Solitary, 
and Spotted Sandpipers, the two Ring-necks and the Sander- 
ling, excluded from the list of game birds and protected through- 
out the year. These confiding birds do not offer sport in the 
sense in which the more wary birds are said to offer it, and a 
community that is becoming steadily more interested in living 
birds can put these birds to a better use than as food. I venture 
to prophesy that it will at some future time seem as strange to us 
to offer peep in the market as it does now to see sky-larks in the 
French and Italian markets. 

, "Capt. Collins has, as heretofore, seen to it that existing laws 
for the protection of birds are well enforced." 

Audubon work. — The report of the Society shows continued 
and successful activity. " Since the last report the Society has 
gained 346 members, making the total number of persons enrolled 
5,708. There are now 116 local secretaries, covering 117 places. 

"The work of distributing circulars, including a large number 
of Educational Leaflets, has been carried on as extensively as last 

Vol. XXI 

1 Dutcher, Report of Committee 011 Bird Protection. I 7 I 

year, and a good number of copies of the laws have been posted. 
Two illustrated, traveling lectures have been almost constantly 
in use, and many expressions of appreciation have been received. 
Four traveling libraries have been circulated continuously. 

" All violations of law brought to the notice of the Society have 
been reported to the State officers, the Fish and Game Com- 

"There has been a good demand for the two bird charts pub- 
lished by the Society, and a new calendar for 1904, is to be issued 
this fall. 

"The following meetings have been held: A course of six 
lectures, by Mr. Frank M. Chapman ; a free lecture or public 
meeting, by Mr. William Lyman Underwood, which was much 
enjoyed ; and a field meeting, or bird walk, open to Associate 
members, to which a few Junior members were invited. 

"A suggestion received by us could, perhaps, be best carried 
out by the National Committee, if it approved the plan, and I am 
asked by our Directors to refer it to you for consideration, namely, 
an exhibit at the World's Fair in St. Louis, in 1904. Such an 
exhibit, if participated in by all, or by most of the societies, would 
show something of the work that is being done, and open the eyes 
of those who have not yet considered the subject. The leaflets 
and specialties (such as our bird charts and calendars) published 
by each society could be shown, and the addition of stuffed birds 
from which the feathers most objected to are taken, together with 
a few beautiful hats that are approved (with perhaps a few objec- 
tionable ones as a contrast), would make it interesting and striking/' 

Maryland. — Legislation. — The next session of the legislature 
will commence in January, 1904, and an effort should be made to 
amend the present law so it will follow more closely the A. O. U. 
model law. 

Two of the most valuable birds in the State, i. e., the Flicker 
and Mourning Dove, do not receive full protection. This is a 
short-sighted policy, as both are far more valuable as insect and 
weed-seed destroyers than they are for food. The State Fish and 
Game Protective Association should take this matter in hand and 
urge the substitution of the A. O. U. model law for the present 

I 7 2 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [y 


Warden work. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Society seems to have become moribund. 
This is to be regretted, as the necessity for active protection and 
educational work was never greater than at the present time, nor 
was there ever a period in the history of bird protection when so 
many people are ready to take an interest, if the matter is prop- 
erly presented to them. The National Committee is small in 
numbers and has so large a field to cover that it necessarily 
depends upon local effort to accomplish local good. 

Michigan. — Legislation. — As proposed in the last annual 
report, an effort was made to amend very slightly Section 14, 
Public Acts of 1 90 1. The amendment passed the House but was 
not successful in the Senate, therefore the non-game bird law is 
unchanged. The next session of the legislature will be in 1905. 

Warden work. — One warden was employed to guard a very 
large colony of Herring Gulls, which occupy a rocky island in the 
northwestern part of Lake Superior, just south of the International 
Boundary. These birds had an uninterrupted breeding season 
and consequently a normal increase. 

It was discovered that a taxidermist of Detroit was preparing 
for millinery use gulls and terns contrary to law. The matter 
was brought to the attention of the proper authorities, and they 
interviewed the party, who did not deny the fact, but promised not 
to offend any longer. 

Audubon work. — During the present year the Michigan Orni- 
thological Club was reorganized. One of its objects is the study 
and protection of birds. It publishes a quarterly journal devoted 
to birds and is thus doing a valuable educational work. 

Minnesota. — Legislation. — During the session of 1903 the 
A. O. U. model law was adopted. The next session of the legis- 
lature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports: "During the year 
several articles on care and protection of birds have been pub- 
lished in our papers, upon request of the Society. 

" A society has been organized by Mrs. Mary E. Lewis at 
Grand Rapids, Minn. 

Vol. XXI"] 


J Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 7 3" 

"Mrs. J. B. Hudson, of Lake City, again exhibited her collec- 
tion of birds' nests at the State Fair, while Mrs. Chas. W. Aker 
exhibited weeds furnishing food for birds. 

" Next year we hope to obtain slides for stereopticon lectures." 

The Duluth Humane Society is taking an active interest in bird 
protection and offers a reward of $10 for information which will 
lead to the arrest and conviction of any person killing song birds 
or robbing nests. 

Mississippi. — Legislation. — Section 1134 of the Annotated 
Code, 1892, protects three species of non-game birds, i. e., the 
Mockingbird, Catbird and Thrush; all of the other valuable non- 
game birds are without protection. 

There is ample reason for the following editorial in ' The Meri- 
dian (Miss.) State': "Bird protection is going to be made an 
economic issue in every Southern State before many days, and 
the army of sentimental advocates will be reinforced by the utili- 
tarians, who, while caring nothing for the beauty of the feathered 
songster or the music he makes, are very much alive to his useful- 
ness in exterminating insects that kill crops, and are determined 
to stay the hand of the snarer and wanton bird killer before it is 
too late and the insects have taken possession of the land. 
Wherever common sense prevails, this cause will find advocates, 
and the 'State' would like to see bird protection made an issue in 
Mississippi politics next year." 

The next session of the legislature will commence in January, 
1904, and it is the imperative duty of the members to pass the 
A. O. U. model law, which has already been adopted by the fol- 
lowing Southern States : Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Georgia, Florida, Arkansas, and Texas. 

South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana are the 
only Southern Coast States that give none or but little protection 
to their valuable birds. 

Missouri. — Legislation. — None was accomplished. Why the 
effort for a satisfactory law was defeated is best told by officers of 
the Audubon Society. 

" And what of Missouri ? Solitary and alone she stands in her 
humiliation and helplessness. Her general assembly has 
adjourned with contemptuous indifference toward her needs in 

I 74 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [~t uk 

this regard, leaving the song birds of her forests, the game birds 
of her fields and mountains, and the fish of her sparkling streams 
at the mercy of the market hunter and the ruthless destroyer, the 
patrons of cold storage warehouses, the trapper and the dynamiter, 
all of whom may soon be expected to wipe out what little wild life 
yet remains in the State, after the previous years of unbridled and 
defiant slaughter. 

"Why does Missouri occupy this unenviable position? For a 
year or more the Secretary of this Society, assisted by the two 
other members of its Executive Committee, has been laboriously 
at work drafting and creating a bill which has been pronounced 
nearly perfect by the judicial and expert authorities of other pro- 
tected States, by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and by 
various Agricultural and Horticultural Societies of Missouri. The 
bill was submitted to the Joint Committee upon bird and game 
legislation in the Senate and House at Jefferson City and, with a 
few unimportant changes, adopted as their own. The two com- 
mittees were not only satisfied with the bill, but were in a measure 
enthusiastic over it. No doubts were expressed about its passage ; 
but, in the meantime, delegations from the game dealers and 
patrons of cold storage warehouses visited Jefferson City to 
oppose the bill. Immediately after their departure enthusiasm 
for the bill waned in the Senate, and when it was reported a furi- 
ous onslaught was made upon it by a senator who led the opposi- 
tion to a similar bill two years ago. The bill was loaded down 
with injurious amendments, and sent back to the committee, where 
it slept forever afterwards, despite the efforts of the Audubon 
Society to have it reported ; the bill died with the session without 
the Senate getting an opportunity for a final vote. 

" In the House the bill was never reported, but remained in the 
hands of the committee. It is unnecessary for us to make any 
statement as to why the bill was not pushed in the Senate for he 
who reads can understand. 

"Gov. Dockery's request in a special message to the General 
Assembly for effective game and bird legislation, the pleadings of 
thousands of Missourians and the Press throughout the State to 
enact better protective laws, were treated with the utmost con- 
tempt and disregard by the joint committee on bird and game 

Vol. XXI j Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I >i C 

Some further light is thrown on this matter by the St. Louis 
'Star' in its edition of July i : " About the crudest thing perpe- 
trated by the boodlers in the last Legislature was to defeat the bill 
of the Audubon Society for the protection of the birds. Men 
must be greedy indeed, when protection must be bought for the 
feathered songsters." 

The next session of legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens employed by the Thayer Fund. 

Audubon work. — The officers of the Audubon Society, with 
commendable pluck and nerve, say : " Notwithstanding the failure 
to get legislation at the recent session, the Audubon Society does 
not purpose to give up the fight. It believes the great majority of 
the people of Missouri are in favor of bird, fish and game protec- 
tion, and it further believes that their voice must finally be 

Montana. — Legislation. — The non-game bird law is imperfect, 
inadequate and not enforcible, as the penalty is altogether too 
severe. The ordinary juryman will not convict when a penalty is 
out of all proportion to the magnitude of the violation. 

The next session of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — There is no society in the State, and seemingly 
little interest exhibited by the citizens, either in bird study or 

The press of Montana should agitate the matter and enlist the 
sympathy of the public in this important subject. 

Nebraska. — Legislation. — No change in the non-game bird law. 
At the last session of the legislature a law was passed prohibiting 
pigeon shoots at traps. This excellent measure was the result of 
the united efforts of the Nebraska Humane Society and the Omaha 
Audubon Society. 

The next session of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed in this State. 

Audubon work. — The Nebraska Ornithologists' Union is doing 
excellent work in popularizing the study of birds in the State and 
in uniting all the students in a Union that cannot help exerting a 
good influence for bird protection. " At its last annual meeting the 

1^6 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. |~ j u 


Union elected enough new members to make the total present 
membership reach the goodly number of nearly two hundred, and 
it has also ratified all that has been done in connection with estab- 
lishing an Audubon auxiliary in the State. 

"The amount of bird protection sentiment which we found in 
the State Legislature was something most gratifying. There are 
three members of the present State Legislature who are members 
of our Society. 

"At the State Horticultural Society the sentiment in favor of 
bird protection developed in the discussions was not only unani- 
mous but surprisingly strong." 

The Department of Public Instruction has issued a pamphlet for 
the use of the schools of the State, entitled ' Special Day Programs/ 
among which is ' Bird Day '. Thirty-three pages of valuable orni- 
thological matter is presented in a popular form that teachers can 
use to advantage to interest and instruct the children. 

An independent society has been organized in Omaha that has 
been doing an aggressive work among the children. The Secretary 
presents the following very interesting report : 

"The Omaha Audubon Society was organized June 23, 1902. 
In looking back over the fourteen months of the life of our Society, 
the Secretary is more gratified than otherwise, not that we have 
accomplished so very much, but that we are in a way now to do 

"Our energies so far have been expended upon the children; 
and we consider our greatest accomplishment the enrolling of over 
ten thousand junior members last spring. More than fifteen 
thousand Audubon buttons were sold to school children in the 
year. We have chosen the Meadowlark as our representative bird ; 
and his friends are many in the State. We enjoy the enthusiastic 
cooperation of the teachers, many of whom are numbered among 
our members. 

" During the year some thirty-five different schools were visited 
by our President, Dr. Towne, and Vice-Presidents, Arthur Pearse 
and Rev. John Williams. The children have taken up the work 
with an enthusiasm very gratifying. We have gained the friendly 
cooperation of the police and have printed over the signature of 
the Chief of Police, warnings against the destruction of birds, their 

Vol. XXI 


Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. I 77 

nests and eggs. These warnings are posted in the parks, woods, 
and all places frequented by birds. We discovered there was a 
veritable egg collecting industry among boys ; this we reported 
to the game warden and the police of the city, and it will be 

"We have no arrests to report, but a number of ' conversions ', 
results of mild persuasion. 

"We were instrumental in the passing of the Loomis bill pro- 
hibiting live bird-trap shooting. Another bill of ours, prohibiting 
the plucking of live birds or fowls, was passed and went into effect 
the first of last July. We presented a resolution at the last general 
meeting of the Woman's Club endorsing the action of the New 
York Audubon Society and Millinery Merchants Protective Asso- 
ciation, which was passed ; nearly all the women present pledged 
themselves not to wear the plumage of any of the prohibited birds. 
We are now trying to bring about an agreement with the retail 
millinery trade of this city. 

"This may look like a small year's work, but it was done by 
busy people. We have been sorely hampered by lack of funds, 
and for that reason, our distribution of circulars and literature has 
been far from what we would have wished. 

" We have great hopes for the coming year. We intend this 
winter to extend our paying memberships and otherwise increase 
our treasury that we may be able to carry out our plans for litera- 
ture, tracts, etc. We are desirous of placing the charts of the 
Massachusetts Society in our schools." 

Nevada. — Legislation. — In some respects the non-game bird 
law is good, but it needs to be made more comprehensive in 
order to protect the beneficial hawks and owls, and doves at all 
times instead of only a portion of the year. The next session of 
the legislature convenes in 1905. 

Warde?i system. — No wardens were employed. There are many 
shallow lakes and tule marshes in Nevada where large numbers of 
birds still breed. If the funds at the disposal of the Committee 
during 1904 will permit the expenditure, wardens will be engaged 
to protect the grebes, gulls, terns, ducks, avocets, herons, pelicans 
and other water loving birds during the breeding season. 

Audubon work. — No society has as yet been organized in this 

1^8 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [ f A " k 

New Hampshire. — Legislation. — No change in law. A. O. U. 
model law in force. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary submits the following resume : 
"The work of the Audubon Society has been substantially a con- 
tinuation of that of last year. 

"The illustrated lecture entitled 'Our Personal Friends, the 
Birds,' with the accompanying lantern, has been loaned to all who 
applied for it. The circulating library has proved to be very wel- 
come in the small town where books concerning birds are difficult 
to obtain. Leaflets and circulars have been distributed at large. 
Publications which have been specially in demand are Mr. Hoff- 
mann's 'Help to Bird Study,' Miss Merriam's ' How Birds affect 
Farm and Garden,' and Prof. Weed's ' Mission of the Birds.' 
Other pamphlets issued by the Biological Survey and the A. O. U. 
have proved to be of great interest. Special effort will be made 
next year to circulate the series of Educational Leaflets published 
under the auspices of the National Committee of Audubon 

"The Bird Charts are still in demand and have been supplied 
free of cost to schools which were not in condition to purchase 

"The 'Outline of Bird Study,' prepared by our Society and 
adopted by the school committee of Manchester, has been intro- 
duced into several other cities and towns. 

"The State Fish and Game Commission has cooperated with 
us in the enforcement of the existing bird laws, which are in con- 
formity with the A. O. U. model law. Fines have been imposed 
by the commissioners. As there has been no appeal from their 
action no cases have as yet come into court." 

New Jersey. — Legislation. — The A. O. U. model is still in 
force. During the legislative session of 1903 the clause in the 
game law permitting the killing of Flickers for two months in the 
year was repealed and spring shooting of snipe or shore birds was 
stopped. These amendments were decidedly advance movements. 
New Jersey will do well to follow the example of New York and 
Virginia in stopping spring shooting of wild ducks and geese. It 

i o 1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 79 

is wrong in principle and wasteful to kill any game birds while 
they are on their northward migration to their breeding homes. 

Warden system. — Two wardens were employed and were visited 
by Mr. W. D. W. Miller, a member of the x\. O. U., who makes 
the following exhaustive report. 

"Beach Haven. — On July 6 I arrived at the breeding grounds 
below Beach Haven, which are under the protection of Captain 
Rider of the United States Life Saving Station at this point. 
Here I saw over one hundred Laughing Gulls flying about over 
the grassy marshes where they breed. Noted less than half as 
many terns. All of whom I inquired told me that the latter were 
scarce. Clapper Rails were common. With Captain Rider I 
searched for nests but was unable to find a single one of any kind. 
The reason for our failure was, according to the Captain, that the 
unusually high tides in June had swept away all the eggs and 
young of the gulls and rails. Why we could find no nests of the 
tern he was unable to say, as this bird nests on higher ground than 
the others. 

"Of other birds noted the most interesting was the Piping 
Plover, and as there were two of these birds together it seems 
probable that they were breeding. Ospreys are scarce here. 

" Stone Harbor. — I arrived at Captain Ludlam's station at 
Stone Harbor on July 7, and stayed until the 9th. I found this 
warden greatly interested in the birds and their preservation, and 
from all I could hear he had strictly protected the birds in his 
vicinity. According to him the number of Clapper Rails which 
started to breed had been very large this year and the gulls had 
been of about the same abundance as the year before. The num- 
ber of gulls' nests had been approximately three hundred, but all 
of these, together with the young rails, had been completely 
destroyed by the abnormally high tides of June 22 to 25. 

"I saw several hundred gulls at one time over the breeding 
marshes here. Found none of their nests, however. The captain 
had been told that the gulls do not make a second attempt to breed 
if their first set is destroyed, and he now believes this to be true, 
for he had seen no signs of rebuilding since the tides had subsided 
nearly two weeks before. Clapper Rails were heard commonly, 
and with little effort we found two nests, containing six eggs each. 

l8o Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [~t Uk 

Terns were very scarce here, apparently even more so than at 
Beach Haven, for I saw not more than fifteen all told. 

"I noted no Least Terns nor Black Skimmers at either locality 
visited. Both species formerly occurred at these points. 

" As being practically the only breeding grounds of Laughing 
Gulls and Common Terns on the New Jersey coast at the present 
time, it seems to me very desirable that the protection of these two> 
colonies should be continued. The success of the terns largely 
depends upon the prohibition of all spring shooting after they have 
reached their breeding grounds. I was informed by Captain Lud- 
lam that large numbers of terns arrived at his locality in the spring 
but were driven away by the shooting, a very small number 
remaining to breed. If spring shooting is stopped and the birds 
rigorously protected the terns will undoubtedly increase in 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports as follows: "The 
Audubon Society has 566 members, the greater part of the new 
ones being children. During the past year two leaflets have been 
written by members of the Society. Altogether over 1,000 leaflets 
have been sent out, and about 125 letters written. 

"An effort will be made during the coming year to insure the 
protection of Robins, and also to create more interest in birds 
among the children in the State. 

" Fifty-three towns and fifteen counties are represented in the 

New Mexico. — Legislation. — The non-game bird law of this 
State is fairly comprehensive and if properly enforced will protect 
the birds. In addition, Sec. 3, of Chapter 51, Acts of 1899, gives 
authority for any owner or lessee of lands to post his premises and 
thus prevent any person shooting thereon. A violation of this 
provision is a misdemeanor. 

The next session of legislature will be held in 1905. 
Warden work. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon Society. — There is none at present in the Territory. 

New York. — Legislation. — No change was made in the non- 
game bird law ; however, the game law was greatly improved by 
the passage of a bill introduced by the Hon. Elon R. Brown abol- 

Vol iq* XI l Dutciier, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. l8l 

ishing spring shooting of ducks and geese. These birds cannot 
now be legally killed in New York State between January first and 
September fifteenth. Other beneficial amendments were made 
regarding possession, sale and transportation of woodcock, quail 
and grouse. 

Sessions of the legislature are held annually. 

Warden system. — Three wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund to care for the breeding colonies of terns on the north and 
south ends of Gardiner's Island and on Fisher's Island. The 
latter colony suffered somewhat from the swarms of rats on the 
island. The warden used poison to destroy them and in one day 
found 47 dead ones near the nesting grounds. The south colony 
on Gardiner's Island was flooded early in the season and many eggs 
were destroyed, while the north colony was raided by a boat's crew 
from the U. S. vessel 'Chesapeake', who took many eggs. Not- 
withstanding these unfortunate incidents the birds made a fine 
increase. During the southward migration in September larger 
numbers of terns were seen on the New York coast than for many 
years. In New York Harbor, as far up as the Jersey ferries, it 
was not unusual to see a score or more of them while crossing the 
Hudson River. 

During the past year suits were commenced against two of the 
large department stores of New York for having on sale protected 
birds. In both cases the defendants settled by payment of a 
nominal fine and the entire costs in the cases, thus establishing the 
legal fact that protected birds cannot be sold for millinery orna- 
ments in New York. These suits were started before the agree- 
ment was made between the Millinery Merchants Protective 
Association and the New York Audubon Society and the American 
Ornithologists' Union. 

In many parts of the State the farmers and sportsmen are organ- 
izing associations for the protection of game and birds in their 
several localities. These societies will be the means of doing a 
great amount of real protective work. 

The Chairman of the National Committee has suspected for 
some time that illegal shipments of live native birds were being 
made from the port of New York. This suspicion was verified 
last spring when he caught a dealer, one G. Sebille, with a large 

l82 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Ii^f 

number of Bluebirds, Red-winged Blackbirds, Song and Savanna 
Sparrows in his possession. The arrest of the dealer followed ; 
he escaped from the State and is now a fugitive from justice. 

Audubon work. — The Society is aggressively active, as its 
report shows: "The Society has kept steadily at work during 
the past year, but there is no gauge to measure the annual har- 
vest. It is to be hoped that the seed sown may be of a perennial 

"Immediately following the annual meeting last year in October, 
1500 warning notices to dealers were sent out, calling the atten- 
tion of the entire millinery and game trade of New York to the 
law of the State for the protection of birds, and stating that the 
New York Audubon Society would bring action in every case of 
violation brought to its notice. The determined and dignified 
stand thus taken was, undoubtedly, directly responsible for the 
proposition made last spring by the wholesale milliners of New 
York which resulted in the step, considered by many the most 
important event in the history of bird protection, namely, the 
agreement between the Millinery Merchants 1 Protective Associa- 
tion on the one hand, and the Audubon Society of the State of 
New York on the other. The conditions of this agreement saves 
our American song birds from the clutches of the millinery trade, 
and banishes from the American market all gulls, terns, grebes, 
hummingbirds, and after January, 1904, even the ' Bonnet Martyr/ 
the egret, for the term of three years. 

"In addition to the ' Warning to Dealers,' this year the Society 
has issued ' The Aigrette : Aji Appeal to Women,' by Mrs. May 
Riley Smith. 

" The Educational Leaflets issued by the National Committee, 
of which we are sending out 10,000 copies, we find invaluable. 
Would that every child in the State might own a set of them ! 

"The law posters have been more widely distributed this year 
than ever. Finding that lack of sufficient appropriation would 
prevent the Forest, Fish and Game Commission from complying 
with our request that the law should be posted on all lands 
belonging to the State, the Society furnished 1,000 muslin posters, 
which the Commission placed throughout the Adirondack region. 
The secretary of the Adirondack Guide Association was also sup- 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protectio?i. I 8^ 

plied with 100 muslin posters, which were scattered throughout 
the Fulton Chain. In all nearly 4,000 posters have been distrib- 
uted throughout the State by the Society. 

"That the attempt to place them in all stations of the New 
York Central R. R. system met with failure is a matter of regret. 

"A large quantity of our literature was sent to the State Fair 
at Syracuse. 

"The total number of leaflets distributed during the year is over 

"A lecture by Miss Mary Mann Miller, especially adapted to 
children, has been added to our lantern outfit. Not as many 
applications for the use of the lantern and slides have been 
received this year as might be wished, but we hope, by means of 
this new lecture, to greatly increase the demand for them. The 
outfit will be loaned to any responsible person in the State of New 
York, who will comply with the conditions. 

"The Society has given out many more sets of the colored wall 
charts issued by the Massachusetts Audubon Society. Besides 
being loaned to school and club rooms, these charts have been 
placed, in many instances, during the summer months, in public 
libraries, thus keeping them constantly in use. Most gratifying 
reports come to us of the pleasure they give and the interest in 
bird study they arouse. 

"Twelve new Local Secretaries have been appointed during the 

"The New York Society grows slowly ; the total membership is 

"Mr. Chapman kindly gave a lecture for the benefit of the 
Society, at Delmonico's, which netted over $350. This financial 
help enabled the Society to contribute $100 toward the funds of 
the National Committee, and no money has been more gladly paid 
out from the treasury of the New York Audubon Society. 

"The marked increase in requests for lecturers that have come 
to the Society during the year, indicates a strong advance in pop- 
ular interest in bird study. 

" ' The New York State Assembly of Mothers ' annually sends 
for a report of the Society's work. This organization is one with 
which it is most important to be affiliated. 

1 8-1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. l~Auk 

" A constant watch is kept at Albany upon all bills introduced 
in the legislature, that no backward step shall be taken to disturb 
the present law. 

"Owing, undoubtedly, to the general circulation of the ' posters,' 
many complaints of illegal shooting have been reported. In one 
instance a farmer was charged with boasting of having shot 25 
robins in one morning ; due steps were taken, the local warden 
informed, and Audubon leaflets sent to the offender. A letter has 
been received from the latter saying that he had been maligned, 
that he realized now the value of the birds to agriculture ; whether 
this change of opinion is due entirely to the higher education pro- 
duced by reading Audubon leaflets, or comes from a salutary fear 
of legal action on the part of the Society, the result is satisfactory, 
in that the popping of the gun is diminished. 

"The New York Society has lately run upon a rock which has 
for a time wrecked our hopes in one community. A local secre- 
tary had succeeded in attracting a little group of children and was 
entering enthusiastically upon the work when a man appeared 
shooting promiscuously, and telling the inhabitants the secretary 
had no business to interfere with him, as he had a 'permit.' In 
a short time the town was demoralized, and the secretary disheart- 
ened. The matter ought to meet with the utter disapprobation of 
all bird lovers, for it shows a serious danger which in its moral 
effects might prove of even greater harm than ' murderous 

North Carolina. — Legislation. — During the last session of 
the legislature a game and non-game bird law was enacted which 
embodied all the main features of the A. O. U. model law. In 
other respects the game law is far in advance of any law that has 
ever before been in force in this State. 

Warden system. — During the past breeding season three wardens 
were employed, all of whom did effective and valuable service. 
From their very frequent reports to Secretary Pearson of the 
Audubon Society, under whose direction they worked, we have the 
assurance that the coast breeding birds, such as gulls, terns, skim- 
mers and snipe, have enjoyed a freedom from persecution that has 
long been absent. The reports show a very material increase in 
the bird life of the coast region. It is proposed, as far as the 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I^S 

funds at the disposal of the National Committee will permit, to 
continue the protection in order to save from destruction the water 
birds that migrate from the north and winter on the North Carolina 
coast. It seems unwise to preserve the bird life on the North 
Atlantic coast if it is not to be cared for in its winter home. Of 
one of the wardens Secretary Pearson says: "We must keep this 
valuable man in our service. I have never met a man who knows 
him who does not declare him an exceedingly strong and fine 
character. I believe most profoundly that he is doing a grand 
work in educating public sentiment in that coast country. " 

The shallow sounds and water ways of the North Carolina coast 
are so very extensive that it seems imperative that the chief warden 
should be furnished with a good seaworthy power boat, in order to 
move rapidly from place to place. The naphtha launch experiment 
in Florida has proved so very successful that the National Com- 
mittee feels warranted in urging the friends of bird protection to 
make special contributions toward a fund for the immediate 
purchase of two 25-foot naphtha launches, one for use in North 
Carolina, and the second in Northampton and Accomac counties in 

Audubon work. — - Audubon work is progressing finely in this 
State. Some details are furnished by the Secretary: "The work 
of the Audubon Society of North Carolina for the past year may 
be summed up under four heads. 

" First, the securing of legislation which extends protection to 
the non-game birds, and gives the Audubon Society the power of 
naming game wardens throughout the State. 

" Second, Efforts to build up the membership of the Society. 

" Third, The cultivation of a better sentiment throughout the 
State for bird and game protection. To this end over fifty thou- 
sand circulars have been distributed, articles prepared and pub- 
lished in the press of the State, and the Secretary has given more 
than thirty public lectures and talks on the subject. A junior 
department has been established, with Mrs. W. C. A. Hammel, of 
Greensboro, as Secretary. 

"Fourth, The securing and paying of Bird and Game Wardens. 
By the aid of the Thayer Fund three wardens were kept on the 
coast the past summer with the result that about two thousand 

I 86 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. j~ ^ 



Wilson's Terns, Royal Terns and Black Skimmers were reared, 
where heretofore probably not over one hundred have been reared 

" Eighteen wardens with full police powers are now in the field. 
Within the last four months these wardens have secured twenty-two 
convictions for violations of the Bird and Game laws. 

Regular members (annual fee, 25c.) . . . 350 

Junior members ( u " 10c.) . . . 400 

Sustaining members ( " " $5.00) . . . 331 

Life members ($10.00, paid once) ... 25 

Total . . 1 106" 

Ohio. — Legislation. — No change in the law, the A. O. U. 
model law being still in force. Next session of legislature, January, 

One of the most important duties of the Audubon Society during 
the coming legislative season will be to see that no amendments 
are made to the present perfectly satisfactory non-game bird law. 
Extreme vigilance and the examination of every game or bird bill 
that is introduced is the only way to prevent adverse legislation. 

The following item appeared in the 'Citizen' of October 30: 
"Game Law Changes. The coming legislature will be asked to 
repeal the dove clause in the game law." To offset the above the 
Audubon Society should circulate freely throughout the State 
Educational Leaflet No. 2, which conclusively proves that the dove 
is one of the most valuable birds existing, as it is the greatest of 
the weed-seed destroyers. 

The narrow escapes in Florida and Wyoming should be an 
object lesson to the Audubon societies in all the States that have 
legislative sessions in 1904. 

Warde?i work. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund. However, those employed by the State are extremely active 
and are enforcing the statutes. 

Audubon work. — The comprehensive report of the Recording 
Secretary is herewith submitted: "The Ohio Society has grown 
rapidly during the past year, having now a membership of about 
350, exclusive of junior members and of the chapters which have 
this year been formed in Cleveland, Columbus and Home City ( 

Vol. XXI 1 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Io7 

Increased attendance at our monthly meetings and the constantly 
increasing demand for literature made on the Corresponding Sec- 
retary indicate the growing influence and force of our work. 

"One public meeting was held during the year, an illustrated 
lecture by Mr. William Hubbell Fisher, the President of the Society, 
on the ' Folk-lore of the Stork.' The lecture was preceded by a 
few remarks on Audubon work, thus bringing the matter of bird 
protection before many to whom it was a new subject. 

"The lecture was well attended and greatly enjoyed, and its 
results were seen immediately in the admission of many new mem- 
bers, the formation of a branch society in a suburban town, and a 
large influx of back dues from delinquent members. A small 
admission fee was charged, and the proceeds considerably 
increased the funds of the Society. 

"In addition to Mr. Fisher's lecture, addresses at the monthly 
meetings have been made. The public are always invited to the 
meetings, at which the business is disposed of as quickly as pos- 
sible in order to give time for the address, field notes, and general 
discussion. The members of the Society give frequent talks in 
the schools of Cincinnati and suburbs, and assisted the schools in 
the celebration of Arbor Day by supplying speakers and sending 
to each school a copy of a circular letter to be read in connection 
with the exercises. A circular letter was also sent by the corre- 
sponding Secretary to the various Teachers' Institutes held 
throughout the State. The result was especially encouraging at 
Trimble, Ohio, where the wish to form a branch society is 

"The warning notices furnished by the Thayer Fund have been 
posted widely through the State, and a large amount of literature 
has been distributed by the Corresponding Secretary. The 
schools, especially in Hamilton County, work with us, and the 
results are encouraging, though we constantly feel that the most 
which we can do is much less than is needed for the work. 

"The Cuvier Club of Cincinnati has worked with us on many 
occasions, furnishing us with a meeting place, and doing splendid 
work last year in the enforcement of the bird law. The A. O. U. 
law has been a great satisfaction to all interested in bird protec- 
tion, and milliners throughout the State have been successfully 
prosecuted for its violation. 

I 88 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 


"In the ensuing year the Society expects to continue the same 
lines. We shall repeat and extend our aggressive work in the 
schools. Most of the members of the central society are Cincin- 
natians, but we hope this year to extend our work more widely 
through the State and form more branch societies, which can 
assist us in this. A law committee will be appointed to take 
charge of all questions that may arise in the enforcement of the 
bird laws." 

Oklahoma Territory. — Legislation. — An effort was made to 
pass the A. O. U. model law, but it was not successful, notwith- 
standing it was advocated by some very earnest people. 

The present law is worthless, but it cannot be improved until 
the next session of the legislature, which will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed in this Territory, 
owing to lack of legal backing. 

Audubon work. — The Society is local and seemingly inactive ; 
no reports or communications have been received recently from it 
by the National Committee, 

Oregon. — Legislation. — During the present year the A. O. U. 
model law was adopted in this State. Fortunately for the pro- 
tection Committee and the citizens of Oregon one of our members 
is a resident. He took the legislative work in charge and without 
any compensation except that which always is received by a per- 
son who performs a civic duty, camped over four weeks at the 
Capitol. His experiences, which are not strange to other mem- 
bers of the Committee, are so instructive to the public, that they 
are given in some detail : " The A. O. U. Bird bill passed the 
lower house to-day (Feb. 4, 1903). This is my fourth week here 
and I think the last, as the senate will not take so much time to 
consider the bill. I had the bill all but passed but found that the 
committee had cut it up so that its author would not know it. In 
Section 7 they wished to include the crow among the prohibited 
birds, to which I made no objection and told them to insert the 
name after the English Sparrow but otherwise to let the section 
remain unchanged ; a few moments before the bill was to come up 
for final vote I learned the committee had also included "All kinds 
of hawks, owls," and ending with the words " Passer domesticus n 
as a kind of amen, to give an air of wisdom to the rest of the 

iqo4 XI l Butcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 8o 

work, though the "English Sparrow" was the first bird mentioned 
in the excluded list. My only recourse was to have the bill 
referred again to the committee, and we began all over. To pre- 
vent opposition from those bound to consider certain species 
harmful, I revised the section and put in a clause legalizing the 
killing of birds when in the act of catching domestic fowls or 
destroying growing crops, throwing the burden of proof on the 
defendant ; this pleased the committee and passed the bill." 

Warden work. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The State Society still continues its activity T 
especially along educational lines, as its report shows: "The A. 
O. U. model bird law has passed the legislature this year and 
Oregon is now one of the States whose bird laws are entirely sat- 
isfactory. It is largely due to the efforts of Mr. Clarence Gilbert 
and Mr. A. W. Anthony that this improvement has become 

" A large number of notices have been placed throughout the 
country giving a list of birds protected by the model law ; these 
have proved particularly effective. During the occasional storms 
along the coast towns the Alaska Thrush and Meadowlarks are 
driven to the tide lands where formerly they were slaughtered in 
great numbers. This year very few were killed, the Alaska 
Thrush being seen in numbers about the homes. 

"Six Bird Clubs are in active work in the State. In several of 
these societies prizes have been offered to the school children for 
the best essays on Oregon birds and their habits. The John Bur- 
roughs Club of Portland offers an annual prize to all school chil- 
dren of Oregon of the ninth grade for knowledge of native birds, 
and has, within the past few weeks begun a regular department in 
the ' Club Journal ' ; other literary work is also in progress. 

" The State Society was this year handicapped in its work, but 
hopes next year to carry out the following plan : to reach by per- 
sonal correspondence the teachers of the rural districts, so widely 
scattered throughout the State, and to offer special prizes to the 
pupils for the best essays on personal observations of the birds. 
The writer of the best essay is to receive a special prize. 

" In regard to work in rural districts and small towns, it is sug- 

I QO Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. |~£^ 


gested that the National Committee send to the country papers 
from time to time short news items of interest relating to its work, 
and request publication of same. We believe that especially in 
small towns throughout the West such a course would be 

Pennsylvania. — Legislation. — There has been no change in 
the law ; the same doubt as to which non-game law is in force still 
exists. This matter should be settled by a test case. The next 
session of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The report of the Secretary is as follows: 
"There has been the usual increase in membership, and several 
new local secretaries have started to work in towns that have here- 
tofore had no members. Educational leaflets have been distrib- 
uted and copies of the bird laws posted wherever it has been 

" Miss Justice continues her good work with the traveling libra- 
ries, and reports 14 libraries of 10 books each, which have been 
sent to 1 1 counties during the year." 

The society issued the following excellent circular of instruction 
to its members : "The constable of each township or borough in 
Pennsylvania is the person authorized by law to arrest violators of 
the bird laws, and he must make a report under oath to the Court 
of Quarter Sessions of his county at each term, of all violations 
occurring in his township or brought to his notice. 

" Members of the Audubon Society wishing to have violators of 
the law arrested should bring the matter to the attention of the 
constable of their township and see that he follows it and reports 
on it as required. If he fails he should be reported to the Judge 
of the Court. A constable failing in his duty can be prosecuted 
and fined $50." 

The National Committee commend this plan to the other Audu- 
bon societies. 

Prof. H. A. Surface, of the Pennsylvania Department of Agri- 
culture, is doing a most excellent educational work. He is issuing 
for free distribution in the State, monthly bulletins of the Division 
of Zoology. These are filled with just the kind of scientific 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. IQ^ 

knowledge put in popular form that the citizens should have, 
especially those that live in the rural districts, or are interested in 
any branch of agriculture. It would be a very wise expenditure of 
public money for every State to follow the example set by Pennsyl- 
vania and Delaware. 

Rhode Island. — Legislation. — There was no change in the 
law at the session of the legislature. At the next session an effort 
should be made to protect all the beneficial hawks and owls. 
Sessions of the legislature are held annually. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports: "The work of the 
year has been confined to the regular work of the Board of Directors 
and of the various committees. We have seven local secretaries 
in the State. Our traveling lecture has been used in many places 
and our library is constantly loaned. In Providence two lectures 
have been given under the auspices of the society, ' The Bird Life 
of Islands,' by Mr. Frank M. Chapman, and another by Mr. F. 
Schuyler Mathews. We have assisted financially in placing bird 
charts in the country schools of the State. 

"A millinery committee has sent circulars to all the local milli- 
ners, but it was thought best not to go on with the work when the 
Board of Directors voted to concur in the action of the National 
Committee and the Milliners' Protective Association. 

"We have distributed Audubon literature throughout the year. 

"For the coming year the Board of Directors feel strongly that 
our work should be chiefly in the line of strengthening our own 
Society by appointing more local secretaries, by securing new 
members, and stimulating interest throughout the State. We have 
been asked by the Bird Commissioners to assist them by securing 
deputies in various towns. W 7 e are at present striving to find per- 
sons ready to act in this capacity." 

Later the Secretary wrote: " Since I sent the report of our Society 
we have secured four new local secretaries in towns previously 
without branches and have aided the Bird Commissioner in finding- 
persons to act as deputies. Just at present there is a good deal of 
interest in bird protection because of the wholesale slaughter of 
Robins and other song birds by Italians." 

IQ2 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [~^ u r 


South Carolina. — Legislation. — The present law is unsatis- 
factory in that it is not comprehensive. During the 1904 session 
of the legislature an effort will be made to have the A. O. U. 
model law passed. South Carolina is the only Atlantic Coast 
State that has not adopted the model law. It is therefore very 
important that this extensive gap in the coast line should be 
closed, in order to fully protect all the existing breeding colonies 
of sea birds. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund, nor can any money be used until legal protection is given 
the sea birds ; as soon as this is done wardens will be secured to 
see that the laws are properly enforced. 

Audubon work. — The small society that formerly existed has 
given no evidence of activity for a year or more ; however, the 
press of the State shows an intelligent interest in bird protection. 
The following editorial from the ' State ' of Columbia, of July 2, 
is worthy of the careful consideration of the citizens: "With the 
disappearance of bird life there has been a vast increase in 
uncanny insects. Almost every fruit, vegetable, shrub and flower 
has its own enemy, and gardeners are compelled to spend much 
time and money in fighting them. The shade trees of Columbia 
are dying rapidly and no one can or will check the disease. 
Something must be done at once to arrest the further march of 
destruction. A few thousand dollars a year, with the enforcement 
of laws against animal pests and human marauders, may result in 
the saving of millions of dollars to South Carolina. The respon- 
sibility rests with the legislature, and it cannot be laughed away." 

Tennessee. — Legislation. — During the session of 1903 the 
A. O. U. model law was adopted. This admirable improvement 
was due entirely to the devoted and energetic work of Senator 
J. M. Graham, who introduced the bill in the Senate, assisted by 
Representative Birdsong in the House. 

The initial movement in this great work was made many months 
before the legislature convened, by Senator Graham, who wrote to 
the National Committee for information regarding good bird leg- 
islation. From that day until the law went into effect he was 
untiring in his labors to give legal protection to the birds of Ten- 
nessee, thus conserving one of the best assets of the State. The 
next session of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Vol.XXI"! Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. I Q? 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund. The State officials, however, are alive to their duties. 
Mr. J. A. Acklen, State Game Warden, writes as follows: "The 
enforcement of our laws for the protection of both game and non- 
game birds is a difficult task in this State. I have labored for 
years on the subject, and only succeeded in our last Legislature in 
establishing the Department of Game, the whole expense of which 
Department I am bearing out of my individual means. You may 
judge from this as to how I feel on the subject." 

Audubon work. — There is practically none done in the State at 
the present time. The following editorial from ' The Nashville 
American,' of March 19, is such excellent advice to farmers that 
it is given in full in the hope that many thousands of the tillers of 
the soil will read and follow its counsel : "A birdless land is a 
dreary land ; where the silence is unbroken by the song of birds 
there is loneliness that is oppressive. Imagine a farm without the 
cheering presence and music of birds. Think of the fields and 
woods barren of feathered songsters. They are well worth pro- 
tecting and preserving on purely sentimental grounds, but aside 
from sentiment they are worth protecting because of their great 
value to the farmer and gardener and to nearly every tree and 
flower that grows. They are as truly the friends of the farmer as 
the seasons — the wind and the rain and the sunshine, the light 
and warmth, the frost and dew, and all the elements of nature's 
alchemy. He is a primitive farmer who does not appreciate the 
value of birds." 

Texas. — Legislation. — During the legislative session of 1903 a 
game and bird law was adopted that is one of the best in force in 
the United States. Section 2, which covers the non-game birds, is 
the A. O. U. model. The radical change caused by the passage 
of this most excellent and much needed legislation has caused a 
flutter of organized opposition to the enforcement of the law by the 
pothunters and market shooters, who are combining to test the 
constitutionality of the law. On the other hand, the true and 
enlightened sportsmen of the State, together with the bird lovers 
and others who believe that birds have an economic value, are 
prepared to defend the law and propose that it shall be upheld by 
the best legal talent obtainable. That the Commonwealth owns 

1 94 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. It", 

the wild birds and animals found within its borders there is no 
doubt, and consequently has full police powers over them, and can 
say through the legislature when they can be killed and by whom, 
or can say that they shall not be killed at all, as has just been pro- 
vided in the case of the non-game birds. (See the opinion of 
Judge Treiber, under Arkansas, antea, p. in.) 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 
Fund, owing to the fact that the new law did not go into effect 
until after the breeding season was finished. In 1904 it is pro- 
posed to carefully guard any and all of the colonies of coast birds 
that are large enough to warrant the expenditure. 

Audubon work. — There is one local society in the State ; how- 
ever, there is a great and growing interest in bird protection which 
must eventually result in the formation of a strong society. The 
limits of the State are so large that it seems desirable that at least 
four societies should be organized. The women's and farmers' 
clubs are doing effective work in the study and protection of birds. 
In this connection mention must again be made of the great ser- 
vices rendered to the State of Texas by Prof. H. P. Attwater, a 
member of the A. O. U., whose efforts were untiring to pass the 
new game law, and to bring to the knowledge of the agricultural 
folk of the State the true relation of birds to crops. Three thou- 
sand warning notices were furnished by the Thayer Fund and sent 
to Prof. Attwater, who has had them distributed throughout the 
State. The officials of the Southern Pacific and the San Antonio 
and Aransas Pass Railway Co., voluntarily offered to distribute 
and display in all of their stations in Texas copies of the warning 
notice. By this means a very wide distribution was given to the 
provisions of the new game law. This important and public spirited 
action should be followed by the officers of other railroad corpora- 
tions, not only in Texas but throughout the United States. 

Under the Federal Law, known as the Lacey Act, transportation 
companies are liable for carrying illegally killed game and birds, 
and therefore they should, as has been done by the above men- 
tioned companies, make the game laws as widely known as possible, 
especially those laws that seek to prevent market shooting and pot- 
hunting for cold storage houses. 

It is stated that the Mexican Boll WeeviK destroyed 940,000 

Vol. XXI 

DuTCHER, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. IQS 

bales of Texas cotton in 1902, and a much larger amount in 1903. 
Is not this a reason for caring for Texas birds ? 

Utah. — Legislation. — Although the non-game bird law was 
passed as late as 1899, it is not at all satisfactory, only a portion 
of the birds being given protection. 

The agriculturists of the State, having the most direct monetary 
interest in this subject, should take the matter up at the next ses- 
sion of the legislature, which convenes in 1905. 

Warden work. — No wardens were employed. 

Audubon work. — There is no Audubon Society at present in 
the State. The press from time to time calls the attention of the 
citizens to the necessity for bird protection. The following 
excerpt from an editorial in the ' Utah Herald,' Salt Lake, is 
excellent : 

" Protect the Birds. It is to be hoped that people who make a 
practice of killing the birds will not need more than a warning to 
induce them to desist. Should they continue, however, prosecu- 
tions should be instituted and convictions secured wherever 
possible. These birds are not fit for food. They serve a useful 
purpose in the destruction of insects that destroy fruit, grain and 
other necessary agricultural products, and they are entitled to the 
full protection of the law." 

Mr. John A. Widtsoe, Director of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station at Logan, voices the true idea in the following words: "In 
the arid States, where animal and plant life is less abundant than 
in the humid States, it is very desirable to use every endeavor to 
protect the animals as well as the plants that we possess." 

Vermont. — Legislation. — The effort to pass the A. O. U. 
model law during the 1902 session of the legislature was not suc- 
cessful ; the present law in many respects is a good one. 
Warden system. — No special wardens were employed. 

Audubon work. — The Corresponding Secretary gives the fol- 
lowing report of the year's work: "The year 1903 has brought 
much encouragement to those interested in Audubon work in the 
State. Membership has not increased as rapidly as we could 
wish, but a sustained effort has been made to broaden the interest, 
and encourage among all our people a living interest in the living 
bird, for the enrichment of life from the aesthetic side. 

I q6 Ditcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. |~ f U n k 

"The subject of bird protection by the farmer, not legal protec- 
tion, but individual protection, such as can result only from an 
intelligent comprehension of the economic value of birds to our 
agricultural interests, was ably presented by our member, Amos J. 
Eaton, at the Dairymen's meetings held last winter under the 
auspices of the State Board of Agriculture. No topic awakened 
a deeper interest. Mr. Eaton had only the Massachusetts charts 
for illustration. A lantern and slides would have been of great 
value, and we earnestly hope financial aid may come to us in this 
matter. Our wish is that this feature of the work may be extended 
through the Granges of the State. 

"We have had the hearty co-operation of our State Superinten- 
dent of Education, Hon. Walter E. Ranger, who has also furnished 
us with much valuable printed matter for distribution, which was 
issued by the Board under his direction. The interest of bird 
study is deepening in our schools. We number among our mem- 
bers teachers in our normal schools, which will insure definite aid 
to those soon to be enrolled among our teachers. 

" During the month of August the interests of the Audubon 
Society were presented at several of our summer schools, and met 
with much intelligent appreciation. Nature work in its largest 
sense, which means one's relations to the world about him, is the 
growing idea underlying the world of our educators. 

"We have now three libraries in circulation among our schools. 
We place a copy of ' Bird Lore ' upon the table in the reading 
room of our town library." 

Virginia. — Legislation. — During the last session of the legis- 
lature an excellent game law was adopted, including the main 
features of the A. O. U. model; besides this, spring shooting of 
snipe and shore birds was stopped, the open season for wild 
fowl and upland game birds was materially shortened, and the 
sale and export of game from the State was prohibited. For this 
admirable legislation special mention is made of the intelligent 
work of Senators Keezell, Halsey and Mcllwaine, and Delegates 
Caton, Christian and Mathews, who were untiring in their efforts 
to make the game laws of Virginia stand in the front rank of 
modern and enlightened protective statutes. The next session of 
the legislature will be held in 1904. 

Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I 97 

Warden work. — Eight wardens were employed, as usual, to 
guard the very extensive series of breeding grounds in Northamp- 
ton and Accomac Counties, which extend from the mouth of 
Chesapeake Bay northward to the Maryland line. Warning 
notices were prepared and were liberally posted throughout the 
State. The new law unfortunately did not go into effect until 
too late to prevent some egging ; however, the breeding birds 
had a reasonably favorable season and some increase was made. 
Before the next breeding season the public will have learned 
about the law and the penalties for its violation, and the moral 
effect will be good. The territory to be guarded is very large, 
is distant from dwellings, and it is difficult to prevent egging, a 
custom that has been followed by the bay men for generations. 
There is urgent need for a naphtha launch, in order to have a 
single warden who can move rapidly from place to place. The 
warden should be appointed by the State authorities with full police 
powers ; his compensation can be provided for by the Thayer 
Fund. From the reports of wardens and several well-known 
ornithologists who visited this territory during the past breeding 
season there seems to have been little or no mortality from shoot- 
ing the adult birds. The bird colonies above referred to suffered 
an excessive mortality of young or unhatched eggs by reason 
of some exceptional high tides during June. Such mortality must 
be expected almost annually at breeding grounds that are at best 
not over one or two feet above the normal high tide mark. A 
severe and continued easterly storm on the Virginia coast brings 
in a tide that usually covers all but the highest portions of the 
beach and marshes. For this reason it is imperative that these 
colonies of sea and marsh birds should be carefully watched and 
protected from the raids of eggers and gunners. 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports as follows : " The 
Audubon Society of Virginia was organized Sept. 29, 1903, and 
has distributed a large number of warning notices supplied by the 
National Committee. 

"A mass meeting of school children was held at Falls Church, 
when the school was presented with the Massachusetts Audubon 
Society Bird Charts. 

"The Society is now planning to print copies of the game laws 

Io8 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. [~j 


in full for distribution throughout the State, and expects during 
the coming year to establish a large number of local societies, 
particular efforts being made to enlist the school children." 

Washington. Legislation. — During the 1903 session of the 
legislature the A. O. U. model law was adopted. The next ses- 
sion of the legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — There is no society at present organized in 
the State, although inquiries have been made by persons interested 
in bird protection work in the schools which may result in one 
being formed at no very distant day. 

West Virginia. Legislation. — The present law is somewhat 
uncertain in its terms, but until the adoption of the A. O. U. 
model law can be secured, it will protect the valuable birds of 
the State, if it is properly enforced. The next session of the 
legislature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — There is no society of this name in the State, 
although the West Virginia State Protective Association is 
reported to be doing an excellent and aggressive work ; it has 
not as yet become affiliated with the National Committee. 

Wisconsin. — Legislation. — No change was made in the law; 
the A. O. U. model law is in force. The next session of the legis- 
lature will be held in 1905. 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed by the Thayer 

Audubon work. — The Secretary reports as follows : " During 
the year our Society has conducted the usual bird-study classes ; 
the publication of its monthly magazine, ' By the Wayside,' has 
been continued, as has the circulation of the Society's slides and 
lecture; and the signing of an Audubon pledge by 1260 children 
in our public schools has been secured. 

" The only work at present planned for the coining year is that 
of getting new lectures to send out with our slides. The school 
children are now so interested in birds that it no longer seems 
necessary to offer prizes for essays on birds. A milliner recently 

Vol. xx r 

Dutcher, Report of Committee ou Bird Protection. IQQ 

said that she could no longer sell a hat with even a portion of a 
bird on it to any woman who had a child in our public schools. 

"We are hoping to be able to get some one prominent in orni- 
thology to lecture at our annual meeting next spring. 

"The membership is now 22,214." 

Wyoming. — Legislation. — No change; the A. O. U. model law 
is still in force. The next session of the legislature will be in 

Warden system. — No wardens were employed under the 
Thayer Fund. 

Audubon work. — Eternal vigilance is the price of good bird 
laws. How the Wyoming Audubon Society prevented the passage 
of an outrageous amendment to the present perfect law is best 
told by President F. E. Bond : " I learned from my home paper 
that three gun clubs in Cheyenne had held a mass meeting and 
adopted resolutions recommending amendment of a new game 
bill then pending in the legislature. One of these resolutions 
demanded that the Mourning Dove, which was protected by our 
' model law ' of 190 1, be placed upon the list of game birds where 
it might be shot for sport and the table. I at once wrote to the 
Game and Fish Committee of both houses, the introducer of the 
bill, some influential State senators, and the officers of the Audu- 
bon Society, asking that the dove be let alone. My correspon- 
dence arrived too late to accomplish anything in the House for 
the bill had passed that body, with a dove slaughtering amend- 
ment, before the letters arrived. However, our friends lost no 
time when they understood the situation. They succeeded in 
making quite a sortie on the ranks of the enemy. The Senate 
struck out the obnoxious amendment and the House afterward 
concurred without a fight. I think from the letters I received 
that the protection people put up a good fight. 

" We are glad that the model insectivorous and song bird law 
of Wyoming is still intact and believe we can so maintain it 
against all comers. The law is strengthened by every failure in 
attempts to amend it. 

" Some effort was made to amend the game bird law by making 
the close season cover the months of spring migration, but this 
failed, owing to the efforts of the gun clubs, and because no one 

200 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. ["t^ 

was on the ground to lead the fight against them. The leaven is 
working, however, and I should not be surprised if we were strong 
enough to abolish spring shooting of water fowl in two years more. 
At any rate we will try it with better hopes of success than we had 
this year. 

" Although no new Audubon societies were organized in Wyo- 
ming in 1903, public sentiment favoring bird protection has 
increased throughout the State. 

"The effect of protection upon the wild birds could not be more 
pronounced than in Cheyenne, except in a locality where birds, 
under similar conditions, were more abundant. During the breed- 
ing season a number of the common forms are gradually assuming 
the aspect of indifference to man which is characteristic of the 
common fowl and pigeon, fearlessly occupying boxes and coigns of 
advantage about out-buildings, porches, etc., or nesting in the 
trees and vines of the dooryard. Foraging about the lawns in the 
immediate presence of the children of the household, is a daily 
occupation of the Robins. It has been surprising to observe how 
soon these common favorites respond to the laissez faire treatment 
and show their confidence in immunity from molestation. The 
fearlessness, one might almost say domesticity, of the Robins in 
Cheyenne is a matter of common knowledge among the people 
who are becoming pardonably proud of an uncommon condition,, 
and jealously defend the law and doctrine which makes it 

" The Wyoming Society offers no suggestion for future work of 
the National Committee. Our population is sparse, and scattered 
over an area of about 98,000 square miles, and we are not in 
financial condition to offer aid to National work, although greatly 
interested in it. No doubt that a wide circulation of the educa- 
tional leaflets would greatly assist us in the formation of new 
societies, but we are not now able to afford them in any considera- 
ble quantities. 

" I hope the time will come when the annual report of the- 
National Committee on bird protection can be published in quan- 
tity and given wide circulation through the Audubon Societies. It 
would materially encourage and aid bird protectionists every- 

i 04 I Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 201 

The Thayer Fund. 

The Chairman submits the following statement of subscriptions 
and disbursements for the fiscal year ending November 1, 1903, to 
the correctness of which he certifies. 

New York, Nov. i, 1903. 

William Dutcher, Chairma?i, 

In Account with Thayer Fund. 
Balance brought forward from 1902 


Thayer, A. II. 
Thayer, J. E. 
Fay, Mrs. S. B. 
Freer, C. L. 
Hemenway, A. 
Macy, Mrs. V. E. 
Warren, Miss Cornelia 
Stone, Mrs. E.J. 
Dodge, W. E. 
Warren, S. D. 
Dodge, C. H. 
Vanderbilt, G. W. 
Fuertes, L. A. 
Raymond, C. H. 
Hecker, F.J. 
Sage, Mrs. S. M. 
Elliot, Mrs. M. L. 
Osgood, Miss E. L. 
Kennedy, Mrs. J. L. 
Robbins, R. C. 
Parker, E. L. 
Eno, H. C. 
Sharpe, Miss E. D. 
Pinchot, Mrs. J. W. 
Dorr, G. B. 
Hoyt, F. R. 
Crane, Miss C. L. 
Shaw, Mrs. P. A. 
Conn. Audubon Society 


Su b script io ns . 


Watson, J. S. 



Greene, Miss M. A. 



Van Name,, W. G. 



Smith, W. M. and wife 



Parsons, Mrs. M. L. 



Baird, Miss L. H. 



Herrick, H. 



Hicks, J. D. 



Emery, Mrs. L. J. 



Gelpcke, Miss A. C. 



G wynne, E. A. 



Wads worth, Mrs. W. A. 



McEwen, D. C. 



Collins, Miss E. 



Dickerman, W. B. 



Gatter, E. A. 

1 0.00 

25 00 

Shiras, G., 3rd. 



Derby Peabody Club 



Robbins, R. E., 



Varick, W. R. 



Day, F. M. 



Chamberlain, L. T. 



Van Orden, Miss M. L. 



Taylor, Mrs. L. 



Thomas, Mrs. T. 



Gray, Mrs. F. T. 



Shattuck, G. C. 


20 00 

Howland, Miss 1. 



Howland, Miss E. 


202 Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 


Holt, Mrs. H. 
Brooks, S. 
Nicoll, B. 
Lord, Miss C. 
Willis, Mrs. A. 
Wheeler, S. H. 
Cox, J. L. 

Fairbanks, Mrs. E. C. 
Students, Miss Baldwin's 

Chafee, Z. 
Bowman, E. A. 
Duncan, A. B. 
Ricketts, Miss J. 
Hardy, Mrs. R. 
Fairbanks Museum 
Donaldson, J. J. 
Weld, G. F. 

5.00 Sand, Miss I. L. 



19 contributions from 
$3.60 to $1.00 each 

Sale of Leaflets. 

Nat' 1 Committee No. 2 

11 a u , 

Ed. Leaflet No. 1 



Protection Com. Reports 
Florida Audubon Society 
for payment of warden 
" purchase of launch 


4- 6 5 










California. — Printing and bird book 

Colorado. — Warning notices 

Bird books for Junior Audubon Society 

Connecticut. — Chairman, trav. expenses 

District of Columbia. — Telegrams 

Florida. — R. D. Hoyt, trav. expenses 
J. O. Fries, exp. in re Pelican Island 

" affidavits " " 

Map .... 

Signs, Pelican Island 
Wardens, four . 
Purchase of launch ' Audubon ' 
Expenses " " 

Georgia. — Printing- 
Printing and distributing 8,000 copies of Ag 

Exp. Station Bulletin advocating model law 
Certified copy of law 













1. 00 





575 -oo 










Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. 202 

Illinois. — Printing ...... 

Express ........ 

Telegram ........ 

Kansas. — D. E. Lantz, trav. exp. to Legislature . 
Louisiana. — Express ...... 

Maine. — Wardens, eleven ..... 

A. H. Norton, trav. exp. inspecting breeding colo 
nies ........ 

Warning notices ...... 

" " posting same, D. S. Conarj 

Express ........ 

Telegrams ....... 

Massachusetts. — Warden, one 





Michigan. — Printing 
Warden, one 

Nebraska. — Express 

Neiv Jersey. — Trav. exp. W. De W. Miller, inspecting 
colonies ......... 

Ac. cost lantern at lecture ..... 

Chairman, trav. expenses ..... 

Telegram ......... 

Wardens, two . . . . . 

New York. — Chairman, trav. expenses 

E. Hicks, trav. expenses ...... 

Telegrams ........ 

Express ......... 

Sebille case in police court ..... 

Wardens, three ....... 

North Carolina. — Warning notices 

Printing ........ 

T. G. Pearson, trav. expenses 

Telegrams ....... 

Express ........ 

Wardens, three ........ 304.00 

Ohio. — Express ........ 

Oregon. — A. W. Anthony, trav. exp. to Legislature 
Pennsylvania. — Printing ...... 

Express ......... 










































Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protectio 

Tennessee. — T. G. Pearson's trav. exp. to Legislature 
Express ..... 
Printing ..... 
Telegram ..... 

Texas. — Warning notices 

Printing ..... 
Express ..... 
Telegrams .... 

Vermont. — Printing 

Express ..... 

Virginia. — Warning notices . 

Charts ..... 

Express ..... 
Printing ..... 
Chairman, trav. exp. to Legislature 
Telegrams .... 

Wardens, eight .... 

Wyoming. — Express 

General Expenses of Committee. 

Printing 100,000 educational leaflets and other leaflets 
and circulars .... 

Advertising ..... 

Postage ...... 

Protection Committee Reports (5000) 
Slides for Audubon Societies 
Clasp envelopes .... 

Press clippings .... 

Letter cases ..... 

Card cabinet and cards 

Maps and Charts .... 

Bird Drawings for educational leaflets 
Express ...... 

Memorial to War Dep't in re Philippine Islands 
Sundries ........ 

tec t ion. 








1 1 .50 










4- J 3 



230 00 








II. 17 






Audubon Society Subscriptions to Fund for Clerk Hire 

Vermont .... $25.00 District of Columbia 


New Hampshire 

Massachusetts . 

Pennsylvania . 


Rhode Island . 






New York 






North Carolina 






Vol. XXI 

Dutcher, Re-port of Committee on Bird Protection. 20C 



Total amount of Fund, November 1, 1902 . . 227.58 

Interest earned . . . . . . . . .9.18 

Total amount of Fund, November 1, 1903 . . $236.76 
Deposited in Freestone Savings Bank of Portland, Connecticut, by 

direction of Council of American Ornithologists' Union, incorporated 

in 1888 at Washington, District of Columbia. 


I do hereby give and bequeath to "The American Ornithologists' 
Union " of the City of Washington, District of Columbia, for the Endow- 
ment Fund for the Protection of North American Birds, 



A. O. U. Protection Committee for 1904. 

William Dutcher, Chairman, 525 Manhattan Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Abbott H. Thayer, Monadnock, N. H. 

Arthur H. Norton, Westbrook, Maine. 

Ralph Hoffmann, Belmont, Mass. 

James H. Hill, New London, Conn. 

William L. Baily, Ardmore, Pa. 

Frank C. Kirkwood, Baltimore, Md. 

T. Gilbert Pearson, Greensboro, N. C. 

Robert W. Williams, Jr., Tallahassee, Fla. 

Frank M. Miller, New Orleans, La. 

Frank Bond, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Mrs. Florence Merriam Bailey, Washington, D. C. 

Edward B. Clark, Chicago, Ills. 

Mrs. Louise McGown Stephenson, Helena, Arkansas. 

H. P. Attwater, Houston, Texas. 

A. W. Anthony, Portland, Oregon. 

Subcommittee on Laws. 
Theodore S. Palmer, M. D., Washington, D. C. 

2o6 Dutcher, Report of Committee o?i Bird Protection. [~f uk 

A. O. U. Committee on Foreign Relations. 

William Dutcher, New York, N. Y. 
Frank M. Chapman, New York, N. Y. 
Charles W. Richmond, M. D., Washington, D. C. 
Theodore S. Palmer, M. D., Washington, D. C. 
Ruthven Deane, Chicago, Ills. 

National Committee of Audubon Societies. 
William Dutcher, Chairman, 525 Manhattan Avenue, New York. 

Subcommittee on Relations with Millinery Trade. 

Theodore S. Palmer, M. D., Washington, D. C. 
Frank M. Chapman, New York, N. Y. 
William Dutcher, New York, N. Y. 


California. President, Albert K. Smiley, Redlands ; Secretary, Mrs. 
George S. Gay, Redlands. 

Colorado. President, W. G. Sprague, Denver ; Secretary, Mrs. M. A. 
Shute, Capitol Bldg., Denver. 

Connecticut. President, Mrs. M. O. Wright, Fairfield ; Secretary, Mrs. 
W. B. Glover, Fairfield. 

Delaxvare. President, A. D. Poole, cor. Seventh and West Sts., Wil- 
mington ; Secretary, Mrs. W. S. Hilles, 904 Market St., Wilmington. 

District of Columbia. President. Gen. G. M. Sternberg, U. S. A., 
Washington ; Secretary, Mrs. J. D. Patten, 2212 R St., Washington. 

Florida. President, L. F. Dommerich, New York, N. Y. ; Secretary, 
Mrs. I. Vanderpool, Maitland. 

Georgia. President, Dr. Eugene E. Murphey, Augusta ; Secretary, 
Prof. H. N. Starnes, Ga. Exp. Station, Experiment. 

Illinois. President, Ruthven Deane, 504 No. State St., Chicago; 
Secretary, Miss Mary Drummond, 208 West St., Wheaton. 

Indiana. President, William Watson Woollen, Commercial Club, 
Indianapolis; Secretary, Florence A. Howe, Hillside Av., Indianapolis. 

Iozva. President, Mrs. James B. Diver, Keokuk; Secretary, Mrs. L. 
E. Felt, 524 Concert St., Keokuk. 

Schaller Audubon Society, Iowa. President, Mrs. H. A. McLaughlin, 
Schaller ; Secretary, Miss J. E. Hamand, Schaller. 

i o I Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird. Protection. 20'J 

Kentucky. President, Mrs. Montgomery Merritt, Henderson ; Sec- 
retary, Ingram Crockett, Henderson. 

Louisiana. President, Frank M. Miller, 203 Hennon Bldg., New 
Orleans ; Secretary, Miss Anita Pring, 1449 Arabella St., New Orleans. 

Maine. President, Prof. A. L. Lane, Waterville ; Secretary, Mrs. C. 
B. Tuttle, Waterville. 

Massachusetts. President, William Brewster, Cambridge; Secre- 
tary, Miss H. E. Richards, Society of Natural History, Boston. 

Maryland. President, W. C. A. Hammel, State Normal School, Balti- 
more; Secretary, Miss A. W. Whitney, 715 St. Paul St., Baltimore. 

Michigan. President, ; Secretary, Alex. W. Blain, Jr., 131 

Elmwood Av., Detroit. 

Minnesota. President, John W. Taylor, St. Paul; Secretary, Miss S. 
L. Putnam, 229 Eighth Av., S. E., Minneapolis. 

Lake City Audubon Society, Minnesota. President, Mrs. G. F. Benson, 
Lake City; Secretary, Mrs. C. A. Koch, Lake City. 

Missouri. President, Walter J. Blakely, St. Louis ; Secretary, 
August Reese, 2516 North 14th St., St. Louis. 

Nebraska. President, Dr. Robert H. Wolcott, Lincoln ; Secretary, 
Wilson Tout, Dunbar. 

Nebraska, Omaha. President, Dr. L. R. Towne, Omaha; Secretary, 
Miss Joy Higgins, 544 So. Thirtieth St., Omaha. 

New Hampshire. President, Mrs. Arthur E. Clark, Manchester ; 
Secretary, Mrs. F. W. Batchelder, Manchester. 

New York. President, Morris K. Jesup, New York; Secretary, 
Miss Emma H. Lockwood, 243 West 75th St., New York. 

New Jersey. President, Alexander Gilbert, Plainfield ; Secretary, 
Miss Julia S. Scribner, 510 E. Front St., Plainfield. 

North Carolina. President, J. F. Jordan, Greensboro; Secretary, T. 
Gilbert Pearson, Greensboro. 

North Dakota. President, ; Secretary, Mrs. C M. Cooley, Grand 


Ohio. President, Wm. Hubbell Fisher, 13 Wiggins Block, Cincin- 
nati ; Secretary, Miss Gertrude Fay Harvey, Bond Hill. 

Oklahoma. President, H. D. White, Enid; Secretary, Mrs. Adelia 
Holcomb, Enid. 

Oregon. President, E. W. Tallant, Astoria; Secretary, Mrs. J. E. 
Gratke, Astoria. 

Pennsylvania. President, Witmer Stone, Academj r of Natural Sci- 
ences, Philadelphia; Secretary, Mrs. Edward Robins, 114 South 21st 
St., Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island. President, Prof. Alpheus S. Packard, Brown Uni- 
versity, Providence ; Secretary, Miss Martha R. Clarke, 89 Brown St., 

South Carolina. President, Miss C. H. Poppenheim, 31 Meeting St., 
Charleston ; Secretary, Geo. S. Holmes, Charleston. 

20o Dutcher, Report of Committee on Bird Protection. (ran 

Te?messee. President, Prof. Charles A. Keffer, Univ. of Tenn., 
Knoxville; Secretary, Mrs. C. C. Conner, Ripley. 

Texas. President, Miss Millie Lamb, La Porte; Secretary, Miss 
Hope Terhune, La Porte. 

Vermont. President, Mrs. Frances B. Horton, Brattleboro ; Secre- 
tary, Mrs. Fletcher K. Barrows, Brattleboro. 

Virginia. President, John B. Henderson, Jr., Washington, D. C. ; 
Secretary, Mr. E. C. Hough, Falls church. 

West Virginia (branch of Pennsylvania Society). President, Wither 
Stone, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Secretary, Mrs. E. 
Robins, 114 S. 21st St., Philadelphia. 

Wisconsin. President, Prof. O. B. Zimmerman, 222 Charter St., Madi- 
son ; Secretary, Mrs. R. G. Thwaites, 260 Langdon St., Madison. 

Wyoming. President, Frank Bond, Cheyenne ; Secretary, Mrs. N. R. 
Davis, 2216 Ferguson St., Cheyenne. 




Vol. xxi. April, 1904. No. 2. 



One of the rare, if not the rarest, native birds in Arizona to-day 
is the Masked Bob-white {Colirius ridgwayi). It is not only rare 
in Arizona but also in the Mexican State of Sonora, the original 
habitat of the bird. For the past several years it has been safe- 
guarded by law in this Territory, but unfortunately there are none 
left to protect. 

I have been told by men who were familiar with the Sonoite and 
Santa Cruz valleys, in the early sixties, that these birds were then 
common thereabouts. I have also been told that "in early days" 
they were plentiful in Ramsey's Canon in the Huachucas, and also 
on the Babacomori, a valley intervening between the Huachuca 
and Harshaw ranges. I remember hearing of them being there 
in 1 88 1, but did not see them. Some ten years ago a market 
collector worked the Ramsey Canon country and reported that he 
had not only taken the bird but an egg also. That he did these 
things I am extremely doubtful. To say positively that he did 
not would be to bump against a serious proposition, but he so 
warped the truth concerning other alleged remarkable finds that 
the late Major Bendire, one of the most honorable of men, upon 
the discovery of attempted fraud, refused further to examine mate- 
rial sent him by the party in question. I am, however, of the 
belief that these birds were in the canon when white men first 

2IO Brown, Masked Bob-white. T^ril 

entered that section of country, and it is possible that a few were 
still there on the discovery of the Tombstone and Harshaw mines, 
but if so they were speedily trodden out of existence by the inrush 
of fortune hunters. I mention this Ramsey Canon business for the 
purpose of establishing the eastern boundary line of their former 
habitat in Arizona. 

Prior to 1870, but just when I cannot now say, Major Bendire, 
then a Lieutenant of Cavalry, was stationed at Camp Buchannon, 
on the Sonoite, almost in the very heart of the country where the 
Bob-whites used to be, but, oddly enough, he did not see or hear 
them. At that time the valley was heavily grassed and the Apache 
Indians notoriously bad, a combination that prevented the most 
sanguine naturalist from getting too close to the ground without 
taking big chances of permanently slipping under it. For many 
years Indians, grass, and birds have been gone. The Santa Cruz, 
to the south and west of the Sonoite, is wider and was more heavily 
brushed. Those conditions gave the birds a better chance for life 
and for years they held tenaciously on. Six or seven years ago I 
was told by a ranchman, living near Calabasas, that a small bunch 
of Bob-white Quail had shortly before entered his barnyard and 
that he had killed six of them at one shot. It was a grievous 
thing to do, but the man did not know that he was wiping out of 
existence the last remnant of a native Arizona game bird. Later 
I heard of the remaining few having been occasionally seen, but 
for several years now no word has come of them. 

I never found them west of the Baboquivari Mountains, and from 
my knowledge of the country thereabouts I am inclined to fix the 
eastern slope of that range as their western limit. Between that 
and Ramsey's Canon, in the Huachucas, is a distance of nearly 
one hundred miles. Their deepest point of penetration into the 
Territory was probably not more than fifty miles, and that was 
down the Baboquavari or Altar valley. 

In Sonora, Mexico, where I first met with the bird, it was known 
as Perdice, a name equally misapplied to Cyrtonyx tnontezumce. 
Just why it, or in fact either of these birds, should have been so 
termed I do not know, but think it was probably a localism used 
by the rancheros to distinguish it from Codornice, by which two 
other species of quail were commonly known. It is not easy to 

Vol. XXIJ Brown, Masked Bob-white. 211 

describe the feelings of myself and American companions when 
we first heard the call bob white. It was startling and unexpected, 
and that night nearly every man in camp had some reminiscence 
to tell of Bob-white and his boyhood days. Just that simple call 
made many a hardy man heart-sick and homesick. It was to us 
Americans the one homelike thing in all Sonora, and we felt thou- 
sands of miles nearer to our dear old homes in the then far distant 
States. The omnipresent hope of "striking it rich" has made 
life's burden light to many a weary man, and when the ' Perdice ' 
made its sweet call only those who have been similarly circum- 
stanced can appreciate it as we did. Then, though but a young 
man, I had spread my blankets over much of the frontier West, 
and no one felt that letter from home more than I did. This I 
know has but little to do with the subject at issue, but I wish to 
show my familiarity with the bird at the time its identity was later 
called into question. True, I believed it to be Ortyx virgia?iianus, 
"the Bob-white of the States," the same bird I had known as a 
boy in West Virginia, and as such I called attention to its being in 

In the spring of 1884 a man by name of Andrews, then living in 
the foothills of the eastern slope of the Barboquivaris, brought me 
a pair of these quail to Tucson. As I was on the point of leaving 
town for a business trip through the Territory I took the birds to 
the office of a friend and he promised to make them up as best he 
could for me. I then wrote a note to ' The Citizen,' a newspaper 
with which I was connected, stating that a pair of Bob-white Quail 
had been brought in, and so on. This note was subsequently 
republished in 'Forest and Stream,' where it was seen by Mr. 
Robert Ridgway, of Washington. He replied that there was no 
such thing as a Bob-white in Arizona and that the writer of ' The 
Citizen ' article had probably mistaken some other well known 
form of quail for them. On being advised of this by Dr. Geo. 
Bird Grinnell, editor of ' Forest and Stream,' I went to my friend 
for the skins he had promised to make for me. To my regret 
I learned that the birds had been allowed to spoil and were then 
thrown out. Fortunately, or rather unfortunately as it turned out 
afterwards, portions of the birds were still to be had. These, 
through the kindness of Dr. Grinnell, were sent to Mr. Ridgway- 

212 Brown, Masked Bob-white. \ k^\ 

and were by him identified as Ortyx grays oni, a Mexican species 
found in the neighborhood of Mazatlan. He expressed surprise 
at the bird being in Arizona. For my own collection I at once 
procured another pair. These latter birds were seen, examined, 
and commented on by W. E. D. Scott, E. W. Nelson, F. Stephens, 
and H. W. Henshaw, none of whom, with the exception of Scott, 
questioned the correctness of Mr. Ridgway's identification. 
Scott's remark was, after he had examined the birds a number of 
times, " I think they ought to be further inquired into," or words to 
that effect. Stephens was then in the country collecting for Mr. 
Brewster, of Cambridge, Mass. When in Sonora, just south of 
the Arizona line, he killed a male. On his return to Tucson we 
compared it with my specimens and found it to be the same bird. 
Mr. Stephens did not see the fragmentary skins that were sent to 
Mr. Ridgway through Dr. Grinnell, as stated erroneously by Prof. 
J. A. Allen in his very excellent article on ' The Masked Bob- 
white of Arizona, and its Allies,' l but he saw and compared his 
bird with a pair of perfect skins then in possession of the writer. 
Later, Stephens sent his bird to Mr. Brewster, by whom it was 
described as a new bird and named in honor of Mr. Ridgway ; 
hence we have Colinus ridgwayi. 

It was never my good fortune to see an egg of this bird. When 
the late Major Bendire was stationed at Camp Buchannon, he 
found a broken shell of what he then judged to have been the egg 
of an Ortyx. The Ramsey Canon collector, elsewhere referred to, 
claimed to have taken an egg from the body of the bird he said 
he had killed, but as his one story rests on no better foundation 
than the other it can be taken for what it is worth. About 1885, 
I think, I offered to Mexican vaqueros, riding the Sasabe Flat and 
Altar Valley ranges, one dollar per egg for the first nest of Bob- 
white eggs found for me. Word was subsequently sent to me that 
a nest containing six eggs had been found on the mesa near the 
mouth of Thomas Canon, on the eastern side of the Baboquivari 
Mountains. Unfortunately these precious things were lost through 
the cupidity of the finders whose expectations ran to more eggs, 
but while waiting for the increase the nest was robbed of the eggs 

1 Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. I, No. 7, 1886, pp. 273-290. 

Vol. XXI 

Brown, Masked Bob-white. 2 I 7 

that were then in it. I was, however, notified of the find, but 
when I reached there I found only an empty nest, a bowl-shaped 
depression in a bunch of mountain grass. I have regretted many 
times that I did not dig up the "situation " and take it home with 
me, but I did not then dream of their future rarity. The eggs had 
undoubtedly been taken by some reptile or animal, as no broken 
shells were found to indicate that they had hatched. Later I 
offered five dollars for the first egg of a Bob-w^hite brought to me. 
I received a quail egg from a party by the name of Sturgis, then 
living at La Osa, a few miles north of the Mexican line. He 
claimed to have personally taken the egg from the nest and knew 
it to be that of a Bob-white. Although I had my misgivings I 
paid the money and then sent the egg to Major Bendire for exam- 
ination. He reported it to be nothing more than a very pale egg 
of a Callipella squamata. I then wrote to friends in Sonora, but 
they never succeeded in getting me the much coveted egg. 

The causes leading to the extermination of the Arizona Masked 
Bob-white {Colhms ridgwayf) are due to the overstocking of the 
country with cattle, supplemented by several rainless years. This 
combination practically stripped the country bare of vegetation. Of 
their range the Colinus occupied only certain restricted portions, 
and when their food and shelter had been trodden out of existence 
by thousands of hunger-dying stock, there was nothing left for 
poor little Bob-white to do but go out with them. As the condi- 
tions in Sonora were similar to those in Arizona, birds and cattle 
suffered in common. The Arizona Bob-white would have thriven 
well in an agricultural country, in brushy fence corners, tangled 
thickets and weed-covered fields, but such things were not to be 
had in their habitat. Unless a few can still be found on the 
upper Santa Cruz we can, in truth, bid them a final good-bye. 

214 Clark, Curved-billed and Palmer's Thrashers. lAriJ 



The following is a comparison of the measurements of the eggs 
of the Curved-billed Thrasher (Harporhynchus curvirostris) from 
Ramos, State of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, where the elevation is 
about 8,000 feet, with those of Palmer's Thrasher {Harporhynchus 
curvirostris palmeri) from El Plomo, Sonora, Mexico, where the 
elevation is about 1,200 feet. 

Having been located as a mining engineer in the above men- 
tioned localities, I had the opportunity of making a study of these 
birds. I am aware that the same variety of birds under dif- 
ferent conditions of altitude or latitude will vary both as to the 
time of nesting and the number of eggs to a set. So that two 
men may describe the nesting habits of a bird, and though they 
may agree as to the composition and position of the nest, they 
will give a different average for the number of eggs to the set, 
the date of nesting, and their measurements. 

For example, Mr. G. B. Sennett says the Curved-billed Thrasher 
along the Rio Grande in Texas commences to breed in March 
and lays four eggs. Mr. Charles J. Maynard says that it lays 
four or five. 

I examined over one hundred nests of this bird during the 
years 1899 and 1900 and in all only three times were there more 
than three eggs, and these were, one nest with four young, and 
two nests with four eggs each. For Ramos I would say that the 
average was less than three, also their earliest nesting in May. 
The reason that the birds do not nest earlier is because April and 
May are the hottest months of the year in this locality, and there 
is not so much for the birds to eat ; the rains begin in June. An 
example of late nesting at Ramos is the Scaled Partridge. The 
natives tell me it never nests before the middle of July. I found 
nests of fresh eggs August 1 and August 25. From this it shows 
how important it is not to rely too much on facts from any one 
locality, but as these two localities are especially favored by these 
birds, and as they outnumber all other birds almost two to one, I 
could not help comparing them, and I would like very much for 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate XVIII 

Fig. i. NEST AND EGGS OF CURVED-BILLED THRASHER. Typical nest in a Nopalo Cactus.] 

Fig. 2. NEST OF CURVED-BILLED THRASHER. Typical next in Cholla Cactus. 

Vol. XXI j Clark, Curved-billed a?id Palmers Thrashers. 2 I C 

1904 j J 

any one who may have notes on these birds further north to com- 
pare them with the following. 

Although these localities are separated by over eight hundred 
miles, the climate is the same and the country looks the same ; in 
both cases we have a few mountains between which lie immense 
mesas and valleys which are mostly timberless and waterless, but 
covered with a curious growth of cacti in which the birds nest. 
The cacti of each place are different with the exception of the 
cholla, which is common in both places, and singularly enough it 
is the most common nesting site. 

The new nest of both birds is generally near the old one, usually 
in the same cactus, and sometimes the old nest made over. 

Sometimes the nest is completed two or three weeks before the 
eggs are laid. Then again, if the nest and eggs are taken the 
birds will have another nest and eggs in from twelve to fifteen 
days, and the new nest is usually about fifty feet from the one 
taken, but if the first nest is not disturbed the new nest will usu- 
ally be about five feet from the old one. 

The nests of both birds are the same, made of thorny twigs ; 
in fact, nothing grows there without thorns on it, so they can get 
nothing else. These sticks are six to ten inches long, and form 
the outside of the nest, which is lined with wire grasses ; some- 
times horse hair is used in place of the grass, or with it. The 
nests are externally about ten inches in diameter and eight inches 
deep ; internally about three and one-half inches, both in diameter 
and depth. 

These birds are common permanent residents of these respec- 
tive places and may be seen in pairs throughout the year, using 
their old nest for a roost. 

The following sets do not represent average sets, but I have 
selected them to show the range in measurements. 

Following are the measurements in millimeters of ten sets of 
the Curved-billed Thrasher. 

30.83 X 19.05 29.45 x 19.20 

29.05 x 19.52 28.03 x 19-75 

29.30 x 19.65 28.40 x 19.33 

27.95X19.46 27.48 X I9-7 1 
4 33-5o X 2!. 08 32.12X21.54 

Set No. 6 

30.95 X 19-05 


29.81 X 19.00 

" 27 

29.80 X 19.45 


28.29 X 19.45 


Clark, Curved-billed and Palmer' 's Thrashers. Ia "l 

Set No. i 

26.82 X 19.98 

26.21 X 20.46 

24.26 X 19.62 


28.72 X 20.65 

28.40 X 20.47 

28.IOX 20.68 


28.95 X 19.90 

28.67 X 20.13 

28.52 X 19.94 


30.57 X 20.64 


29.85 X 20.33 

29.69 X 20.23 


28.08 X 21.05 

28.03 X 20.75 

26.63 X 20.38 

The average size of 158 eggs is 28.97 x 20.37 millimeters. 

Of the above sets, numbers 6, 9, 27 and 57 were laid by the 
same bird, numbers 6 and 27 were from one nest and numbers 9 
and 57 from another nest. 

This shows how these birds retain the same nest from year to 
year. The dates were No. 6, May 28, 1899; No. 9, June 11, 
1899; No. 27, May 19, 1900; No. 57 June 5, 1900. Though 
the dimensions of these four sets vary, the color and markings of 
all are the same. This fact has often been mentioned in regard 
to Hawk eggs taken from the same nest on consecutive years. 

Following are averages taken from fifty-eight sets, taken during 
two years. Average number of eggs, 2.72. Average height of 
nest from ground. 3.9 feet. Of these nests, forty were in cholla 
cactus, sixteen in nopalo cactus, and two in palma trees. 

My earliest and latest records for fresh eggs were May 17 and 
July 2. The first brood is hatched about June 1 and leaves the 
nest in twelve days. The second nest is usually built by this time 
and the eggs are deposited shortly after. 

On May 28, 1899, I found a nest with four young about two 
days old. This same pair of birds on June 11 had a new nest 
with three eggs. The male bird assists in incubation and also in 
care of the young. 

Following are the measurements in millimeters of ten sets of 
Palmer's Thrasher. 

Set No. 4 

28.78 X 19.07 

28.46 X 18.97 

27.57 X 18.91 



29.20 X 1927 

29.16 X 19-61 

28.56 X 19.40 



28.85 X 19.69 

28.27 X 19.25 

26.67 x 19-54 



29.91 X 20.69 

29.20 X 21.13 



30.71 X 20.44 

30.32 X 20.43 

29.19 X 20.63 


l 3 

30.95 X 19-82 

30.85 X 19.82 



28.13 X 19.60 

26.14 x 19.23 



30.78 X 20.52 

30.52 X 20.45 

30.00 X 20.20 



32.60 X 20.00 



28.76 X 19.80 

27-33 X 19-66 

27.32 X 19-35 

The average size of 79 eggs is 28.68x20.05 millimeters. 

Vol. XXI 

Clark, Curved-billed and Palmer's Thrashers. 2.\ h ] 

Of the above sets, numbers 4, 18 and 27 were laid by the same 
bird, a new nest being built for each set. The dates were March 
14, 1898; March 30, 1898; and April 19, 1898. 

The similarity of these nine eggs is very striking, and they dif- 
fer a little in shape, which is elongate ovate, from all the other 

Following are the averages taken from thirty-one sets. Average 
number of eggs in a set, 2.55. Average height of nest from 
ground, 4.2 feet. Of these nests twenty-seven were in cholla 
cactus, three in sibiri cactus, and one in palo verde tree. My 
earliest record for eggs was March 1, and most birds were nest- 
ing by March 14, and the second set is laid about April 20. 

Generally the spots or specks are more thickly sprinkled on the 
eggs of the Curved-billed than those of Palmer's and the ground 
color is a little darker. But the description of one will do for the 

The shape of the eggs varies a great deal, from ovate to elon- 
gate, or elliptical ovate. 

The ground color is generally light bluish green, sometimes 
light green, bluish white or grayish white, minutely specked or 
spotted with cinnamon brown and lavender. In some eggs the 
markings are like fine pin points. The less the number of spots 
the larger they are. Usually there are not as many spots at the 
small end, and the spots are uniform over the middle and large 
end of the egg. In some eggs most of the spots are at the large 
end and in very few we have a wreath. In some the spots are 
so faint that they can just barely be seen. In no case are the 
markings so thickly sprinkled as in the average egg of the Brown 

2 1 8 Breninger, San Clemente Island Birds. |~A^rii 



San Clemente Island lies fifty miles to the south from San 
Pedro, California, well out on the broad bosom of the Pacific. 
Midway is Catalina Island, that noted summer resort ; and to the 
west, seventy-five miles from San Pedro, is San Nicholas. These 
islands, though distant by at least one hundred miles from Santa 
Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel Islands, are known collectively 
as the Santa Barbara group. It is but reasonable that they bear 
considerable affinity one with another in their flora and fauna, and 
while this is true in a way, there are instances quite to the con- 

Geologically speaking these islands are the exposed tops of 
mountains, a sunken chain that ran parallel with the Coast Range. 
San Clemente Island, of which this paper treats, has an altitude 
of nearly 3000 feet, and a length of twenty-three miles by five 
miles wide. Frost is unknown, and in consequence vegetation 
grows rank most of the year. 

Early in February of the present year (1903) I was instructed by 
the curator of the ornithological department of the Field Columbian 
Museum to make a collection of the birds on San Clemente and 
visit the other islands if possible. In accordance therewith I 
secured passage on a 33-foot gasoline schooner that made period- 
ical trips to the island in quest of fish. 

The length of my stay was guaged accordingly. On the island 
accommodations were secured with the man in charge of the San 
Clemente Wool Company's sheep. This man and his wife are the 
only inhabitants of the island, apart from a Chinese camp whose 
occupants remain on the island only during certain periods of 
fishing. The island is one of great interest alike to the ornitholo- 
gist, botanist, and student of pre-historic man. 

I found the rocky, surf -beaten shore tenanted by thousands of 
Black-bellied Plovers (Squatarola squatarold) in winter dress, and 
Black Turnstones (Arenaria melanocephala). A number of each 
were taken but proved so excessively fat that it was thought best 
to use the limited time on better material. The gulls found about 

i ^ X *l Breninger, San Clemente Island Birds. 2 I Q 

the island were the Western Gull (Zarus occidentalis), Heermann's 
Gull (Zarus heermanni), California Gull (Zarus californicus), and 
the Glaucous-winged Gull (Zarus glaucescens). The few individ- 
uals seen of Zarus glaucescens were immature birds. Those seen 
of Zarus californicus were migrating northward in small bunches. 
I had hoped to learn something of the nesting of Zarus heermanni 
on the island, but in this I was disappointed. My host, who had 
spent most of fifteen years on the island, often found pleasure, 
from his solitary occupation, in noting the time different birds 
laid eggs. Z. heermanni has never been known to nest on the 
island. Z. occidentalis is the only one that brings forth its young 

Out in the channel several lone individuals of the Black- 
vented Shearwater (Puffinus gavia) were seen skimming the swells. 
None were seen near land. A few California Pelicans (Pelecanus 
californicus) were seen among a number of Cormorants (Phala- 
crocorax penicillatus and P. pelagic us resplende?is) . Both of the 
cormorants nested on the island, but the pelicans are said to nest 
on some of the other islands. While rowing around the north 
end of the island my host pointed out to me nests of Fish Hawks 
(Pandion haliaetus car o linens is), Bald Eagles (Haliceetus leucoceph- 
alus), and Ravens (Corvus corax sinuatus), built on some pro- 
jecting ledge or hole in the seawall. Our objective point, that 
morning, was a large rock, a mile distant from the end of the 
island, where my host said there was an eagle's nest, and at that 
date there should be eggs. As we neared the rock the huge nest, 
with a white head protruding, was outlined against the sky. Great 
seas broke about this time-worn mass of granite. A landing 
can be made only in calm weather. After the force of three or 
four swells had been broken, the boat was run up to the rock, and 
I jumped ashore and hastened upward while my man pulled the 
boat away to save it from being broken. The nest held two eggs, 
which were taken, but the one parent shot at was lost, falling in 
the surf or on the end of the island. Rough seas prevented a land- 
ing being made. 

Up on a hillside, among green grass, my host pointed out 
another eagle's nest. The accumulation of years' repairing of the 
old nest had given it such height that a man standing by its side 

2 20 Breninger, San Clemente Island Birds. CA^ril 

could not see into the cavity. There were no indications of the 
occupancy of this nest. Very old birds prove vicious antagonists. 
A pair of eagles had used two nests alternately, one on each side 
of a deep gorge. As they have used one or the other during the 
past fifteen years they were known to be old birds, with a bad record. 
One season, at sheep-shearing time, one of the employees of the 
Wool Company, fresh from a land where there were no eagles, 
essayed to ride to the edge of the barranca and have a look at the 
young eagles. From above the old eagle swooped with unerring 
aim, and it was fortunate the grasp was not deeper, as with angry 
screams she flew away with his hat, dropping it into the sea. It 
was with this same eagle I was dealing. My man had gone down 
after the eggs, and while I was giving some minor directions, in an 
unguarded moment, a little dog that had followed from the house 
ran with a pitiful whine under my legs and curled up there in mor- 
tal terror. I had sat down on the ground, perhaps on account of 
proximity to the edge of the abyss and at the same time to have 
'full swing ' at rapid shooting. A moment after the dog had taken 
refuge an eagle came within a foot of striking me in the face with 
its wing. My gun came to my shoulder instantly. Bang ! and a 
fine white-headed bird lay dying at the bottom of the barranca. 
The female, too, was secured. 

Ravens (Corvus corax sinuatus) were numerous about the island ; 
thirty-eight were seen circling over a small interior valley at one 
time. It was yet too early for eggs, though nests of previous 
years were seen along the seawall and in the side of the barran- 
cas. At one place seven nests were seen in a space of less than 
one hundred yards. Even in this unfrequented spot the raven 
maintains his time-honored trait of the preservation of its kind 
by placing its nest in inaccessible places. Although shy birds at 
all times, curiosity gets the best of them now and then, and for 
this reason I brought away two fine skins. 

One Western Red-tailed Hawk {Buteo borealis calurus) and a 
pair of Duck Hawks (Falco per egr inns anatuni) were seen, and a 
male of the Duck Hawk was secured. White-throated Swifts 
{Aeronautes melanoleucus) were seen darting up and down some 
of the deep canons. Hummingbirds were also detected, but the 
species could not be determined while in flight. 

Vol. XXI"j Breninger, San Cleme?ite Island Birds. 221 

1904 J " ■" •* 

Particular interest attaches itself to many of the land birds. 
Centuries of isolation has developed habits and features quite dif- 
ferent from the same species or closely related forms of the main- 
land. From association with most of the geographical races of 
Melospiza I have learned to frame Song Sparrows in the same 
scene with rippling brooks, moist meadows, and tule-bordered 
lagoons. Over the whole length and breadth of San Clemente 
Island there is no fresh water, except what may gather after a 
rainfall in the rock basins at the bottoms of the washes. There is 
absolutely no swamp ground, yet Song Sparrows are there in 
thousands, from the shores to the highest point of the island, feed- 
ing and nesting among the bushes of the hillsides, along with 
Bell's Sparrow (Amphispiza belli). On the mainland Bell's Spar- 
row marks the other extreme, making its home on the dry sage- 
covered mesas. Another departure is that of the San Clemente 
Wren (Thryomanes leucop/irys), a numerous bird on the island, 
where it nests in the holes and crevices of the rocks. I am 
inclined to believe it also places its nest amid the protective arms 
of the prickly pear. T. bewickii spilurus and T. b. leucogaster, two 
closely allied forms of the mainland, both nest in holes in trees. 
The change is probably due to the conditions, for on most of the 
island there are no trees. 

The same is true of Carpodacus, the form inhabiting the island 
being known as Carpodacus frontalis cle7nent<z. The sheep-sheds 
at the ranch were lined with nests of this bird, old and new, and 
at that early date I took several sets of four and five eggs. There 
were some nests built among the spiny leaves of the prickly pear, 
but by far the greater number were built in holes in the rocky 
wall of the sea. A pair built their nest in the interstices between 
the sticks of an eagle's nest. There were at the time of my visit 
no eggs in the finch's nest, though the eagle's nest was tenanted. 
The question naturally arises, does this species pass back and 
forth from the mainland to the island? 

To a bird having the power of flight, as in Carpodacus, this is 
not at all impossible. On clear days Catalina Island is clearly 
visible from the mainland, only twenty-five miles away, while the 
channel between Catalina and San Clemente is but twenty-two 
miles wide. The House Finch nest built in an eagle's nest, of 

2 22 Breninger, San Clemettte Island Birds. \ a^ 

which mention was made, was on a rock a mile from the island. 
These birds when disturbed flew without hesitation direct to the 
island. At Monterey, Cal., I have seen Robins (Mcrula migra- 
toria propinqua), and Rufous Hummingbirds, in their northward 
movement leave the land at Point Pinos, flying directly out to sea, 
crossing the bay. Later while out three miles from shore, I saw 
Hummingbirds pass at the rate of one every five minutes. The 
distance from Point Pinos on the south to Point Santa Cruz, the 
north side of the bay, is thirty miles. While the migration of 
Carpodacus from the mainland to the nearer islands is possible, 
I think it very improbable. Migration is prompted largely by 
meteorological changes and food supply. On San Clemente 
Island food is abundant and the weather conditions are much the 
same the year round and whatever migratory instinct the House 
Finches ever possessed has been lost. 

The Horned Lark, set apart as Otocoris alpestris insularis, a 
common bird on the island, is the most intensely colored variety 
of this species I have ever taken. The same is true of the Bur- 
rowing Owl {Speotyto cunicularia hypogcea) found on the island. 
Specimens compared with some from San Pedro, shows the island 
bird to be much darker. 

One solitary Mountain Plover {Podasocys tnontana) was seen and 
taken. My host told me they wintered on the island in incredi- 
ble numbers. Flocks of Sanderling (Ca/idris arenaria), and a few 
Hudsonian Curlew (Nttmenius hudsonicus) were seen on the beaches. 
Black Oyster-catchers (Hcematopus bachmani) were said to inhabit 
the island, but I was not favored with a glimpse of these "birds 
with redlegs," as they are known to the fishermen. 

I am at a loss to account for the mortality among the Auklets 
{Ptychoramphus aleuticus) frequenting the water about the island. 
Along the shores and on the water dead Auklets were seen every- 
where. Eagles and Duck Hawks fed on those that were not yet 
dead, while ravens and gulls fed by day on the dead that were 
thrown up among the rocks, and the foxes foraged over the same 
ground at night. 

A flock of Meadowlarks (SturneHa magna neglectd) was encoun- 
tered well up toward the top of the island. These were resident 
and bred on the island. Contrary to the habits of most birds that 

V °iqo4 XI J Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. 2 2 2 

are never molested by man, it was absolutely impossible to 
approach these birds except by stealth. I met the birds each 
morning, and as many times tried to secure a specimen ; one 
hundred to two hundred yards was the nearest approach per- 
mitted before they resorted to flight. One was finally secured 
by taking advantage of a board fence that crossed the island and 
some intervening bushes ; creeping forward as far as was safe 
without being seen, a 75-yard shot with No. 5 shot secured the 
long sought for bird. 

Rock Wrens (Salfiinctes obsoletus) were fairly numerous but dif- 
fered in no way from the same species on the mainland. A pair 
of Large-billed Sparrows (Passercuhis rostratus) were seen in a 
patch of salt grass and one of the two secured. Black Phcebes 
(Sayornis nigricans) Say's Phoebe (Sayomis say a) were both pres- 
ent, probably migrants from the mainland. 

Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos leucopterus) breeds sparingly 
on the island, perhaps less than a half dozen pairs. Only one 
was seen and taken. One shrike (Lanius) was seen but not taken. 
A Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) was seen at different times, 
but always alone. 



The list of birds here given is the ornithological result of a 
collecting expedition sent into the field during the summer of 
1903 by the Washington Agricultural College. The expedition 
started from Pullman and, going westward through Connell and 
across the White Bluffs Ferry on the Columbia River as far as the 
town, of North Yakima, traversed the southern part of Whitman 
County, the southeastern corner of Adams County, Franklin 
County, the extreme south end of Douglas County, and the north- 

2 2z|. Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. \ t^\ 

eastern part of Yakima County. Returning it crossed the central 
and southeastern part of Yakima County, Walla Walla, Columbia 
and Garfield Counties, and the southeastern part of Whitman 
County, coming by way of Prosser, Wallula Ferry on the Colum- 
bia River, Walla Walla, Bolles, Dayton, Pomeroy and Almota 
Ferry on the Snake River. 

The collectors were Mr. C. V. Burke, Mr. E. A. MacKay, Mr. 
E. Crawford, and the writer. Specimens were obtained of nearly 
all the birds recorded. 

The area covered embraces several very different sorts of 
country. It is all, geologically, a part of the great Columbia lava 
sheet, but climatic and altitudinal conditions have formed two very 
distinct biological zones. 

The eastern part of Whitman County is a rich wheat-growing 
section having a comparatively heavy-rainfall and an altitude of 
2000 feet or more. It is treeless, except in the canons, and its 
original predominant vegetation was bunch-grass (several species 
of Agropyroti) which grew luxuriantly everywhere. A character- 
istic member of the fauna is the extremely abundant Columbian 
Ground Squirrel (Citellus columbianus) , and one of the commonest 
birds in the summer time is the Catbird. As one goes west the 
climate becomes dryer and a small stunted sage-brush replaces the 
bunch-grass. The large Columbian Ground Squirrel abruptly dis- 
appears and a smaller, grayer species (C. townsendi) takes its place. 
One is here on the transition area between the narrow fertile strip 
along the eastern border of the State and the great arid region of 
the middle part. 

Franklin County is excessively arid. The eastern half is partly 
under cultivation, large tracts being ploughed and planted to 
wheat. Water, however, is so scarce that the farmers have to haul 
all that they use from the few wells and springs that occur. Many 
have to go ten and twelve miles for their water, transporting it in 
large wagon tanks. The country about the town of Connell pre- 
sents a scene of utter desolation. During the summer there is no 
solid ground anywhere — all is dust ; there is not a green thing 
in sight and scarcely a stump of anything that ever was green. 
The dried-up sage-brush is only a few inches high. Most of the 
country west of Connell is still an unbroken desert. The sage- 

i * X 1 Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. 22 £ 

brush here is larger, however, and growing with it is considerable 
bunch-grass, so that this region does not look quite so desolate as 
the Connell district. Twelve miles west of Connell on the road 
to White Bluffs Ferry — a distance of nearly thirty miles — there 
is a spring located in a deep coulee. This is the only water to be 
had until one gets to the Columbia River. West of this spring 
the country is covered with sand that has drifted east from the 
river, and which has buried and obliterated almost every plant 
form except what sage-brush has been able to continually push up 
through it. The sand becomes deeper as one approaches the 
river, but several miles inland it has drifted up into great dunes. 
The sand, together with the lack of water, makes a journey across 
this region an extremely hard one on horses. Bird and insect life 
is almost absent. Occasionally one meets with a few Horned 
Larks or Sage Sparrows and now and then a Meadowlark. 
Rather frequently the Pigmy Horned Toad (Phrynosoma doug- 
lassii) and a small lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) are seen. Near 
the Columbia also another lizard ( Uta stansburiand) occurs. 

Along the banks of the Columbia at White Bluffs there is no 
more fertility than farther inland. A few scattered willows grow 
close to the water. Birds, however, are more abundant. Besides 
the Sage Sparrows, Horned Larks, and Meadowlarks, there occur 
here Sage Hens in abundance, Mourning Doves, Sparrow Hawks, 
a few Burrowing Owls, many Magpies, numerous Nighthawks, a 
few Kingbirds, Red-winged Blackbirds, Brewer's Blackbirds, 
many Shrikes, and a few Rock Wrens along the cliffs facing the 

Yakima County is more diversified. High hills form the divide 
between the Columbia and Yakima Rivers. These hills contain 
almost no water and support the ordinary desert fauna and flora. 
The narrow Yakima valley, however, is very fertile and, in the 
neighborhood of North Yakima, the country is covered with large 
groves of trees — principally cotton woods. This region is also 
extensively irrigated and, hence, presents a striking contrast to the 
region east of it. Although there is a rich bird-fauna here, one 
is surprised at the absence of a number of common birds. For 
example, during nine days of collecting, from July 4 to 13, we 
saw no Owls, Horned Larks, Orioles, Vesper Sparrows, Tanagers, 

2 26 Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. ["^ril 

Shrikes, or Bluebirds. On the other hand, one bird, the Ash- 
throated Flycatcher, occurs here but was observed nowhere else 
in the State. The Yakima Ground Squirrel {Citellus mollis yaki- 
mensis) is not numerous but is characteristic of the Yakima River 

South of the North Yakima country trees are less abundant 
along the river, and the fertile country forms only a narrow strip 
through the sage-brush. A small gray chipmunk {Eutamias 
pictus) and the lizard Uta stansburiana are common. 

At Prosser we left the Yakima Valley and, after ascending the 
bluffs south of the town, came out upon the high plateau known as 
the " Horse Heaven " country. This is a most arid region occu- 
pying the area east of the Yakima Indian Reservation and south 
of the Yakima River. Bunch-grass grows amongst the sage-brush 
(whence probably the name of " Horse Heaven " ), but the country 
is almost devoid of water. From one well, operated by a company, 
water is sold to the settlers for miles around. Others haul water 
ten or fifteen miles out of the Yakima Canon ! We traversed 
" Horse Heaven " from Prosser to Wallula Ferry, and here crossed 
the Columbia into Walla Walla County. On both sides of the 
river from White Bluffs Ferry to Wallula Ferry the country presents 
the same desolateness as it does farther inland. Just below Wal- 
lula the Columbia enters a deep, walled canon of basalt. 

The western part of Walla Walla County is the same sort of 
desert as the region west of the river. The surface is formed 
mostly of a fine, white, chalky tufa deposit. This same tufa for- 
mation occurs all along the Yakima Valley south of North Yakima 
interbedded between layers of basalt. Narrow, horizontal beds of 
it also give the white appearance to the cliffs on the Columbia 
known as White Bluffs. For about fifteen miles up the Walla 
Walla River from Wallula the sage-brush prevails. Only along 
the narrow river bottom are there a few trees and bushes. Here 
also are a few small alfalfa fields and orchards. Birds are 
extremely scarce — no Sage Sparrows or Sage Thrashers were 
seen on this part of the desert. 

Near the city of Walla Walla, however, one comes again into 
the wheat-growing region where water can be obtained by means 
of wells, and where Citellus columbianus flourishes. From here 

V °iqo4 XI J Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. 22 7 

eastward moisture and fertility rapidly increase. Groves of trees 
fringe both the Walla Walla River and the Touchet Creek and 
all the hills are covered with flourishing wheat fields. In all of 
the arid region wheat grows from a few inches to a foot in height. 
The Walla Walla wheat-growing country is said to have been orig- 
inally clothed with bunch-grass. From Bolles to Dayton the nar- 
row canon of the Touchet supports a thick growth of trees and 
underbrush. Outside of the canon the country is treeless and 
covered with wheat-fields. 

From Dayton on through Columbia and Garfield Counties the 
surface is cut by extremely deep canons through which the Tucan- 
non, Pataha and Deadmans streams flow northwest into the Snake 
River. This country is also treeless, except in the canons, and 
the higher parts are covered with bunch-grass, much of it still 
unbroken. In the canons, however, one descends again upon the 
Upper Sonoran desert forms. The canon of the Snake River is 
an enormous gorge about 2000 feet deep. Its climate is much 
warmer and more arid than that of the surrounding country, so 
that within two or three miles one can descend from one biological 
zone into another very distinctly different one. 

On crossing the Snake River from the south and coming into 
the elevated region of the Palouse River one is again within the 
country of the Catbird. The abrupt contrast between the pro- 
ductivity of this country and of that to the west and south is most 
striking, and shows the great superiority of the Palouse region as 
a wheat-growing country. The fauna and flora are also richer 
and more varied, and a list of the birds would show a greater 
number of species here than occur anywhere in the arid parts. 

The following list does not include the Palouse region species. 

1. Pedicecetes phasianellus columbianus. Columbian Sharp-tailed 
Grouse. — Not seen in any of the sage-brush region of Franklin or Yakima 
Counties; abundant along the Touchet Creek in Walla Walla County ; a 
few seen in Garfield County. 

2. Centrocercus urophasianus. Sage Hen. — This species occurs 
throughout the entire sage-brush area of central Washington. It was 
found especially abundant on the sandy desert region along the White 
Bluffs of the Columbia River in the southern end of Douglas County. 

3. Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. — Common almost every- 
where ; observed throughout Whitman, Franklin, Yakima, and Walla 
Walla counties. 

2 28 Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washing-ton. L April 

4. Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. — A few seen in Franklin 
County, about North Yakima in Yakima County, and in Walla Walla 

5. Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail. — Common every- 
where throughout the eastern central and southeastern parts of the State. 

6. Falco mexicanus. Prairie Falcon. — Found rather common at 
Almota along the bluffs of the Snake River Canon. 

7. Falco sparverius phalcena. Desert Sparrow Hawk. — Common 

8. Megascops asio macfarlanei. MacFarlane's Screech Owl. — 
Two immature specimens taken on the Touchet Creek near Bolles in the 
eastern part of Walla Walla County, but the species was not seen else- 

9. Bubo virginianus lagophonus. Western Horned Owl. — Several 
seen at White Bluffs on the Columbia River, southern Douglas County. 

10. Speotyto cunicularia hypogsea. Burrowing Owl. — Extremely 
abundant in the southwestern part of Whitman County; occurs all the 
way across Franklin County ; comparatively scarce in Yakima and Walla 
Walla Counties. 

11. Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Occurs along nearly all 
streams. Observed on the Columbia, Yakima, and Walla Walla Rivers, 
and on the Touchet Creek. 

12. Dryobates pubescens gairdnerii. Gairdner's Woodpecker. — 
Common in the trees along the Yakima River at North Yakima. 

13. Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis's Woodpecker. — Extremely 
abundant in the groves of trees along the Yakima and Walla Walla 
Rivers and the Touchet Creek. 

14. Colaptes cafer collaris. Red-shafted Flicker. — Found wher- 
ever trees occur. 

15. Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. — Com- 
mon everywhere throughout Whitman, Franklin, Yakima, and Walla 
Walla Counties. In the more desert places, such as at White Bluffs on 
the Columbia River and in the dry "Horse Heaven " country in southern 
Yakima County, it has the habit of flying about a great deal at all times 
of the day. It was not observed to do this nearly so much in the less arid 
or tree-covered regions about North Yakima and along the Touchet Creek 
in Walla Walla County, or in the more humid region of Columbia, Gar- 
field, and Whitman Counties. 

16. Trochilus alexandri. Black-chinned Hummingbird. — Common 
at North Yakima. No other species of Hummingbird seen anywhere. 

17. Tyrannus tyrannus. Kingbird. — Common almost everywhere 
throughout Whitman, Franklin, Yakima, Walla Walla, Columbia, and 
Garfield Counties. 

18. Tyrannus verticalis. Arkansas Kingbird. — This species is 
much more local in its distribution than the last. It is abundant in Whit- 
man, Garfield, and Columbia Counties, but very rare about North Yakima, 

Vol. XXI 

Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. 2 2Q 

and in the "Horse Heaven" country of Yakima County. It was found 
rather numerous in the Yakima valley south of Toppenish, and a number 
were observed between Wallula and Walla Walla in Walla Walla County,, 
but about Bolles none were seen. 

19. Myiarchus cinerascens. Ash-throated Flycatcher. — This 
species was found only along the Yakima River; several specimens were 
secured at North Yakima. It was not common, however, and has not 
been reported from any other part of the State. 

20. Sayornis saya. Say's Phcebe. — Common everywhere east of the 
Columbia, and north of the Snake River. Very rare in Yakima County 
— one individual seen near the station of Satus in the Yakima River val- 
ley. Common also in Garfield County between Pomeroy and Alnota 
Ferry. It is curious that this bird should be so scarce in the fertile and 
wooded country along the Yakima River and yet be found all over the 
desert region east of the Columbia River. Elsewhere it does not shun 

21. Empidonax difficilis. Western Flycatcher. — Common in all 
suitable country where there are at least a few trees. Observed at North 
Yakima; along the Walla Walla River; on the Touchet Creek; in 
Columbia and Garfield Counties, especially in the deep canons of the 
Tucannon, Pataha and Deadmans streams ; and found very abundant at 
Almota in the Snake River Canon. 

22. Otocoris alpestris merrilli. Dusky Horned Lark. — Abundant 
everywhere; the prevailing bird in nearly all desert places; no matter 
how arid and desolate a region may be the larks are sure to be there, even 
when other birds are almost entirely absent. Found especially numerous 
on the sand and sage-brush covered region east of White Bluffs, in the 
excessively arid "Horse Heaven" country of Yakima County, and in 
.Garfield and Columbia counties. 

23. Pica pica hudsonica. American Magpie. — Common in all of the 
lower or wooded parts of the region traversed. Abundant along the 
Columbia River at White Bluffs; in the trees along the Yakima River at 
North Yakima ; along the Walla Walla and Touchet streams ; and in the 
deep canons of the Tucannon Creek and Snake River. 

24. Corvus americanus. American Crow. — Not found abundant 
anywhere. A few small bands and single individuals seen at North 
Yakima and in Walla Walla Count}'. 

25. Molothrus ater. Cowbird. — Common in Whitman County. A 
few seen in Yakima and Walla Walla Counties. 

26. Agelaius phceniceus neutralis. San Diego Red-wing? — Lack- 
ing material from other localities for comparison, the writer cannot state 
definitely to what variety the Red-wing of the inland Northwest belongs. 
It is not very abundant anywhere in the central or southeastern parts of 
the State since marshes and swamps are scarce. A few, however, occur 
in congenial places. 

27. Sturnella magna neglecta. Western Meadowlark. — Common 
everywhere in all kinds of country. 

2^0 Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. TA^ril 

28. Icterus bullocki. Bullock's Oriole. — Scarce over all the region 
traversed. None were seen anywhere in the open, sage-brush desert areas, 
nor were any met with in the fertile, tree-covered country about North 
Yakima. Several individuals were seen farther south in the Yakima 
valley at Prosser. A few also occur in the strips of trees and brush along 
the Walla Walla and Touchet streams in Walla Walla County. Common 
in eastern Whitman County. 

29. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Brewer's Blackbird. — Abun- 
dant almost everywhere, except in sage-brush regions where there is no 
near access to water. 

30. Astragalinus tristis. American Goldfinch. — This species is 
common in Whitman and Garfield Counties, but it is almost rare in the 
arid regions to the west. A few were seen at North Yakima and in Walla 
Walla County. 

31. Pocecetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. — The 
distribution of this bird in the central parts of the State is rather curious. 
It is abundant throughout all the sage-brush country of Lincoln County 
and the northern half of Douglas County from the edge of the timber 
west of Spokane to Waterville. Here it is the predominant bird of the 
sage-brush and wheat fields. To the south, however, in Franklin, Yakima, 
and Walla Walla Counties, we did not meet with it, and the Chipping 
Sparrow was the predominant bird. In Whitman and Garfield Counties 
both of these species are common field birds. 

32. Chondestes grammacus strigatus. Western Lark Sparrow. — 
A common bird in Whitman, Garfield, and Walla Walla Counties, and a 
few individuals were seen at North Yakima in Yakima County. Generally 
it avoids the dryer desert regions. 

33. Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. — 
Abundant over all the region traversed : in the tree-covered country 
about North Yakima and along the Walla Walla and Touchet streams of 
Walla Walla County; on the sage brush deserts of Franklin and Yakima 
Counties ; and on the bunch-grass or wheat regions of Columbia, Garfield, 
and Whitman Counties. Very rare in the northern half of the desert 
regions of the central part of the State. None were seen last summer 
during a trip through Lincoln County and the Grand Coulee region of 
Douglas County. 

34. Spizella breweri. Brewer's Sparrow. — This bird has, very curi- 
ously, almost the same distribution over the desert region of the State 
as has the Vesper Sparrow. In Lincoln and northern Douglas Counties 
the two invariably associate together. In Franklin and Yakima Counties, 
where the Vesper Sparrow is apparently absent, Brewer's Sparrow is very 
rare. We obtained one specimen of the latter at North Yakima and saw- 
one or two small birds at White Bluffs that appeared to be this species. 
On our way east from Wallula, through the southern tier of counties, 
we came upon the Vesper Sparrow again in Garfield County and, simul- 
taneously with it, we found Brewer's Sparrow. 

Vol. XXI 

Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. 2 3 1 

35. Amphispiza belli nevadensis. Sage Sparrow. — In going west 
through Franklin County we first came upon this bird just a little to the 
east of Connell. One is here, also, well within the arid desert region. 
West of Connell the Sage Sparrow became the predominant Fringillid of 
the sage-brush. The Horned Larks outnumber them everywhere, but the 
latter are numerous everywhere else as well and are, hence, in no way 
characteristic of the desert. In Yakima County we found the Sage Spar- 
rows abundant all the way from White Bluffs Ferry on the Columbia to 
the cultivated parts about North Yakima. Here they were absent. To 
the south again, across the "Horse Heaven" arid country and in the west- 
ern half of Walla Walla County, they prevailed everywhere. During the 
previous summer we found this bird between Adrian and Ephrata on the 
Great Northern Railway and about Loop Lake in the southern end of the 
Grand Coulee but nowhere to the north of here. Hence, their range 
northward is not coincident with the extent of the desert. 

During the summer the Sage Sparrow is a very quiet bird. None were 
heard singing and the only sound they uttered was a low peet-Wke note. 
They generally associate in small flocks composed of both adult and imma- 
ture birds. The food consists of seeds and insects. 

36. Melospiza cinerea montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. — There 
appears to be only one form of Song Sparrow occupying the entire east- 
ern, southeastern and central part of the State. Comparisons of a large 
number of specimens from Whitman, Lincoln, Douglas, Yakima, and 
Walla Walla Counties show an absolute uniformity of color and propor- 
tions in the specimens from all the localities. 

Abundant in Whitman County; absent on desert regions ; extremely 
numerous about North Yakima; a few along the Walla Walla and 
Touchet streams in Walla Walla County. 

37. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred Towhee. — A few Black 
Towhees occur about North Yakima, and a few were found in the thickets 
along the Touchet Creek in Walla Walla County. The same form 
occurs in eastern Whitman County, along the Snake River, and along 
the Clearwater River in Idaho. Comparison with specimens from other 
localities shows that the eastern and central Washington form is probably 
P. m. megalonyx. 

38. Zamelodia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. — Com- 
mon at North Yakima, less abundant in Walla Walla County, common 
in eastern Whitman County and in the Snake River canon at Almota. 

39. Cyanospiza amcena. Lazuli Bunting. — Common everywhere 
except in arid sage-brush regions. 

40. Piranga ludoviciana. Louisiana Tanager. — Rare on all the 
region traversed. One specimen obtained at Prosser in Yakima County 
and another at Bolles in Walla Walla County. 

41. Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. — Common wherever 
swallows occur. 

42. Hirundo erythrogaster. Barn Swallow. — Occurs almost every- 
where but is less abundant than the last. 

2^2 Snodgrass, Land Birds of Central Washington. |a ril 

43. Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwing. — Common at North 
Yakima but not seen elsewhere. 

44. Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. White-rumped Shrike. — 
Occurs on all arid sage-brush country. Extremely numerous on the very 
desolate desert to the east of White Bluff on the Columbia River. Scarce 
in the fertile and cultivated country about North Yakima. 

45. Vireo olivaceous. Red-eyed Vireo. — Found along the Touchet 
Creek in Walla Walla County and in the Snake River canon at Almota. 
Neither seen nor heard at North Yakima. 

46. Vireo solitarius cassinii. Cassin's Vireo. — Found only at North 
Yakima, and not common there. 

47. Dendroica sestiva. Yellow Warbler. — Common in all suitable 
places — never seen on open desert country. 

48. Geothlypis tolmiei. Macgillivray's Warbler. — Found at North 
Yakima, and at Bolles on the Touchet Creek in Walla Walla County. 
Not common at either locality and always found in dense thickets. 

49. Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. Western Yellow-throat. — 
Abundant at North Yakima. 

50. Icteria virens longicauda. Long-tailed Chat. — Occurs in all 
suitable localities in the central and southeastern parts of the State. 
Excessively abundant about North Yakima. Almost everywhere else 
they are extremely shy and retiring, but here they continually exposed 
themselves and sat openly in the trees while singing. Their notes were 
the most numerous of all bird sounds heard. 

51. Oroscoptes montanus. Sage Thrasher. — Not observed on the 
desert of Franklin County, but rather numerous on the west side of the 
Columbia River between White Bluffs and North Yakima, especially on 
the Yakima side of the divide. A very few inhabit the tree-covered area 
along the Yakima River near North Yakima. Numerous in the arid 
"Horse Heaven" country of southern Yakima County. None observed 
in the desert western part of Walla Walla County. None heard singing 

52. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Catbird. — Common in the eastern 
part of Whitman County, but not observed in any of the other counties 

53. Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. — Common in all deep canons 
and in rocky places. Observed at White Bluffs on the Columbia River, 
in the canon of the Tucannon Creek in Columbia County, in similar 
canons in Garfield County, and in abundance in the Snake River canon at 

54. Catherpes mexicanus punctulatus. Dotted Canon Wren. — 
One specimen taken at Almota in the Snake River canon. Only one 
other individual seen here. It occurs also at Wananai Ferry a few miles 
farther up the river. Not observed elsewhere. 

55. Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Western House Wren. — Rather 
common at North Yakima where four specimens were taken. Not 

1004 J Snodgrass, Land Birds, of Central Washington. 27 7 

observed elsewhere on the trip, although a House Wren occurs in the 
eastern part of Whitman County. The three adult specimens are very 
pale grayish-brown above and, hence, probably belong to the variety 
aztecus rather than to parkmanii. 

56. Parus atricapillus occidentalis. Oregon Chickadee. — Common 
everywhere in trees and bushes along streams. Taken at North Yakima 
and at Bolles. 

The specimens appear to belong to the variety occidentalis rather than 
to septentrionalis. The tail is equal to the wing or is slightly shorter. 
Fall specimens taken at Pullman in Whitman County have the back a 
brownish olive-gray, the sides and flanks widely and strongly shaded with 
brownish, the white being reduced to a small median area on the breast 
and upper part of the belly; tail feathers without whitish terminal mar- 
gins. Compared with specimens of P. a. septentrionalis from Colorado 
they are decidedly darker above and more fulvous on the sides. The 
summer specimens are in poor and ragged plumage. 

57. Hylocichla ustulata. Russet-backed Thrush. — Excessively 
abundant in the groves and thickets along the Yakima River near North 
Yakima. Their clear, loud, ringing, metallic notes to be heard everywhere 
and at all times from early in the morning until late in the evening. A 
common song resembled rhya-cka-veel'-ya, rhy a-cha-veeV-ya. The bird 
itself was much less frequently seen than heard. They were extremely 
wary and always kept themselves concealed in a thick bush or densely- 
leaved tree. They seemed always to know just when they were discovered r 
for invariably when one had just about located a bird after long looking 
the latter would suddenly but quietly dart out of its concealment to some 
other bush or tree some distance off. The same form occurs at Pullman 
in eastern Whitman County, and this is probably the thrush commonly 
met with in any part of the State. 

58. Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. — Occurs every- 
where except in desert regions. Common at North Yakima, especially 
amongst the trees in town ; rather scarce in Walla Walla County. 

234 Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. \ t^%. 



The topography and physiography of the two westernmost 
counties of Maryland are very complex and interesting, and 
accordingly the faunal and floral life-zones and areas are cor- 
respondingly complex and interesting. The lowest point that I 
can find on the beautiful maps lately published by the Maryland 
Geological Survey is 500 feet above sea level. This is in the 
extreme southeastern corner of Allegany County, on the Potomac 
River, and is the only point so low in the section under considera- 
tion. From this the elevation rises at many places very rapidly to 
2500-3000 feet and attains the greatest height, 3400 feet, on the 
summit of the Great Backbone Mountain in the southwest corner 
of Garrett County and of the State. Cumberland is 800 feet, 
Frostburg, both in Allegany County, 2000 feet, rising rapidly to 
the top of the Big Savage Mountain, on whose side it lies, to 3000 
feet. Oakland, Accident, and Finzel, Garrett County, lie in the 
broad glades and basin between the high ridges, all being 2400 
to 2600 feet in elevation. These higher ridges, such as the 
Backbone, Big and Little Savage, Negro, Meadow, and Dan's 
Mountains, the last with Dan's Rock, from which a sublime view 
is to be had, are 2800 to 3400 feet high. 

The lower parts, of which Garrett County has next to none, are 
in the Upper Austral or Carolinian life-zone, as is plainly to be 
seen by birds like the Cardinal, Tufted Titmouse, Carolina Wren, 
and Bluebird being permanent residents, and by trees like the 
tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), sassafras (S. sassafras), dog- 
wood (Cornus florida), and black gum (JVyssa sylvatica). The 

1 Since Maryland is very narrow in its western part, being at Cumberland 
only five miles, and as many of these observations have been made along the 
two boundaries of the State — the Potomac River on the one side and the 
Mason and Dixon line on the other — and have been frequently corroborated 
on the other side of each, this list holds good also for the adjoining part of 
West Virginia and for Somerset County, Pennsylvania. 

V °lg£ X1 ] Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 235 

hills and mountains from about 1500 feet upwards, except some 
southern mountain sides, and about all of Garrett County, are in 
the Alleghanian division of the Transition zone, characterized by 
an intermingling and overlapping of northern and southern types 
of the fauna and flora. The tops of the highest mountains, those 
in the neighborhood of 3000 feet, contain a strong admixture of 
high Transition and even Boreal species. This is especially evi- 
dent in the sphagnum, alder, and cranberry swamps on the tops 
of some of these mountains and in the small depressions between 
them, e. g., in the one between the Big and Little Savage Moun- 
tains, near Finzel, Garrett County, or the one on top of Negro 
Mountain near Accident, at both of which places I have fre- 
quently been. There are also some dark, virgin tracts of fine 
tall spruce and hemlock here, soon to be desecrated by the ax, 
where Boreal conditions of fauna and flora exist. In such places 
may be found, of birds, the Carolina Snowbird {/unco hy emails 
carolinensis), Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius), Magnolia War- 
bler (Dendroica maculosa), Canadian Warbler (Wilsonia cana- 
densis), Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadeiisis), and the Hermit 
Thrush (Hylocichla guttata pallasii) ; of mammals, the Redbacked 
Mouse (Evotomys gapperi), Canadian White-footed Mouse (Pero- 
myscus canadensis), and Varying Hare (Lepus americanus virgini- 
anus) ; of "trees and other plants, the tamarack (Larix lariciana), 
black spruce (Picea mariana), golden club (Orontium aquaticum), 
cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpo?i), wild calla {Calla palustris), 
gentian (Gentiana angustifolia), etc. 1 

Thus, while it may in general be said, that the fauna of Alle- 
gany County is a mixture of Carolinian and Transition, and that 
of Garrett County Transition, high Transition, and even Boreal, yet 
these zones and areas overlap, intergrade, and run into each other 
in a most surprising and very interesting way. Tongues of Caro- 
linian fauna and flora run into the Transition and Boreal belts. 

1 For some of these statements, notably for those on mammals, I am 
partly indebted to an excellent paper in the Maryland Geological Survey 
Report on Allegany County, entitled: 'The Fauna and Flora,' etc., 'The 
Summer Birds of Western Maryland,' by C. Hart Merriam and Edward A. 

236 Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. [A^ril 

especially along the creeks and rivers ; e. g., the Louisiana Water- 
Thrush (Seiurus motacilla) follows up the water courses into the 
domain of the Water-Thrush (Seiurus noveboracensis), and the 
Catbird is found side by side with the Alder Flycatcher, Carolina 
Junco, and Hermit Thrush. On the other hand, tongues of the 
Transition zone extend far into the Carolinian, as, e. g., the Chest- 
nut-sided and Golden-winged Warblers (Dendroica pennsy/vaniea, 
Helminthophila chrysoptera) bred quite plentifully this year right 
near Cumberland, and plants like the clammy azalea (Azalea vis- 
eosa), turk's cap lily (Lilium super bum), Maia?ithemum canadense, 
etc., follow rivers and cool northern mountain sides far down, where 
they do not seem to belong. I can recommend Oakland, and the 
glade district of Garrett County in general, as a veritable natura- 
lists' paradise, as it is also a place where coolness reigns in sum- 
mer and pure, delicious, ozone-laden air is found in abundance. 
There many beautiful and some rare plants flower in profusion ; 
for instance, the wood lily (Lilium philadelphicum), the turk's cap 
lily (Z. superbum), and the meadow lily (Z. canadensis) can be 
found at the end of July, blooming side by side, and while hearing 
or seeing the Magnolia, Cerulean, Blackburnian, Black-throated 
Blue and Green Warblers, Wilson's and Hermit Thrushes, and the 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak, one may pluck, if he likes, indian-pipe 
{Mo?iotropa uniflora), sweet pine-sap (Hypopitys hypopitys), rattle- 
snake plantain (Goody era pubescens), purple and green habenarias, 
or three orchids blooming simultaneously (Cypripedium aeau/e, 
pubescens, and parvifloruni) . 

As to the following list of birds, I wish to bespeak reliability for 
it. All of the species mentioned, excepting fifteen, can be seen 
in my collections of either mounted specimens or skins or in both, 
and about half of those fifteen species I saw in the flesh in some- 
one else's possession. I have seen a few more species than those 
mentioned, but since I could not take them and they must be con- 
sidered rare or accidental visitants here, I did not include them in 
the list. A few species I mention on the authority of others, but 
they are such as undoubtedly occur here and every sportsman 
knows, but there being some room for doubt, I have marked them 
as uncertain. 

Of literature on the birds of this region, I know of two sources 

Vol. XXI 

Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryla?id. 2 77 

only, one being: ' A List of the Birds of Maryland,' etc., by F. C. 
Kirkwood, Baltimore, Md., 1895, which, however, contains but 
little available material for this section, since Mr. Kirkwood spent 
only a few days here, June 5-14, 1895, and had no correspondent 
here. Then there is the excellent treatise by C. Hart Merriam 
and Edward A. Preble of the Biological Survey, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, of whom the latter was detailed to work over this 
section for the Maryland Geological Survey. He spent some 
weeks here in May, June, and July, 1899, and that he worked very 
thoroughly is attested by his fine list of 100 species, which, how- 
ever, he had to call ' Summer Birds,' on account of the season of 
the year, in which his stay here fell. 

The dates I have given under the several species are not the 
only ones I have for them, but merely characteristic or somewhat 
unusual ones. 

Permanent Residents. 

1. Colinus virginianus. Bob-white. — Some years ago, I am told, this 
species was nearly or quite exterminated by severe and adverse winter con- 
ditions, whereupon local sportsmen imported and liberated about 100 
pairs, and now they are plentiful again at most points. 

2. Bonasa umbellus. Ruffed Grouse. — Still common in spite of 
the persistent hunting. I encountered many families this spring (1903) 
on the wooded ridges and hillsides, whereas in Pennsylvania I rarely 
flush one. The farmers there ascribe this to the fact, that no bounty is 
paid any longer for foxes, etc., which is done this side of the Mason and 
Dixon line. 

3. Meleagris gallopavo silvestris. Wild Turkey. — Well able to keep 
his own on the long, densely-wooded and sometimes almost inaccessible 
ridges. Many are sold in the local market in winter. 

4. Buteo platypterus. Broad-winged Hawk. — Not common. 

5. Syrnium varium. Barred Owl. — Seems to be about as common 
as the next species. Occasionally one is shot in the city. 

6. Megascops asio. Screech Owl. — Not as common as in other 
States, since there is a bounty paid here for all hawks and owls, still it is 
not scarce. Both color phases occur. 

7. Bubo virginianus. Great Horned Owl. — Common over the 
whole territory. They are often caught in traps by farmers and brought 
alive to the city. 

8. Dryobates villosus. Hairy Woodpecker. — Abundant in migra- 
tion, rather rare otherwise. 

2 3 8 

Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. \ t^ 


9. Dryobates pubescens medianus. Downy Woodpecker. — Very 
abundant some days during migration (Oct. 24, 1900), otherwise about 
as rare or common as the preceding species. 

10. Ceophlceus pileatus. Pileated Woodpecker. — Rare, except in 
some of the higher parts. Locally called Indian Hen and sold as a game 
bird in Cumberland. April 19, 1903, I watched a pair for a long while at 
Accident. They were feeding on the ground and often hopped or flew 
against a stump or decayed tree as though hiding there what they found. 
Took one August 1. 1901, at the same place. 

11. Otocoris alpestris praticola. Prairie Horned Lark. — Many 
flocks on hills and roads about Cumberland in winter, often together with 
Tree Sparrows, Juncos, etc. Breeds in the higher parts. 

12. Cyanocitta cristata. Blue Jay. — Common in the higher parts all 
the year, scarce during summer in lower parts. 

13. Corvus corax principalis. Raven. — A colony of about twenty-five 
pairs nest in the cliffs at Rocky Gap, six miles east of Cumberland. 
Mr. Preble notes a pair nesting in a large hemlock near Finzel, Garrett 
County, May 15, 1903; saw a pair chasing each other on Will's Mountain, 
giving vent to notes like the loud howling, whining and barking of a 
large dog, sounds I would not have expected from any bird. Saw the 
same pair often. 

14. Corvus americanus. Crow. — Very abundant; form large colonies 
in winter, which roost at certain places for weeks, on the wooded hillsides 
near the city. 

15. Astragalinus tristis. Goldfinch. — In large flocks all the year 
except July and August, when they are in pairs. 

16. Junco hyemalis carolinensis. Carolina Snowbird. — Breeds in 
numbers in the highest parts of Garrett County; in winter seen in lower 
parts also. 

17. Melospiza cinerea melodia. Song Sparrow. — Very abundant at 
all times. Seem to winter also in higher parts. 

18. Cardinalis cardinalis. Cardinal. — Very abundant in lower parts, 
a few also in higher. In winter they are in flocks about Cumberland, 
and in places are as plentiful as Juncos. 

19. Thryothorus ludovicianus. Carolina Wren. — This cheerful 
whistler can be heard along large and small water courses any day of the 
year, cold or warm, rain or shine. Common in lower parts only. 

20. Sitta carolinensis. White-breasted Nuthatch. — Abundant in 
winter in lower parts, scarcer in the higher; in summer the opposite is 

21. Sitta canadensis. Red-breasted Nuthatch. — Not common 
during winter in lower parts. "A small flock of these birds, evidently a 
family, was seen on the branches of a tall dead tree, in the deep woods 
near Bittinger. It was also seen near Finzel about the middle of May,, 
where it was doubtless breeding." (Preble.) On account of this record 
I give it as permanent resident. 

Vol. XXI 

Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 2 39 

22. Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted Titmouse. — Common at all times 
and over the whole territory. 

23. Parus atricapillus. Chickadee. — Equally abundant in both 
counties, summer and winter. Many seem to approach P. carolinensis f 
but all my skins were pronounced P. atricapillus by Mr. Ridgway. 

24. Parus carolinensis. Carolina Chickadee. — Mr. Kirkwood says: 
"On Dan's Mountain, June 6, '95, young were in the nest of the only pair 

25. Sialia sialis. Bluebird. — An abundant summer resident over 
the whole area, and in the lower parts, at least around Cumberland, many 
brave the inclemencies of the generally not very harsh winter. They may 
be seen any bright day in January or February, even if rather cold, in 
most of the small sheltered valleys about the city. Oct. 24, 1900, hun- 
dreds were in the clearing adjoining Allegany Grove. 

Irregularly or nearly Permanent Residents, or of Uncertain 


26. Gallinago delicata. Wilson's Snipe. — Abundant during migra- 
tion and apparently must sometimes breed. I have dates from April 10 
(1901) to May 21 (1903), and Mr. Kirkwood gives them for Cumberland 
from Feb. 28 to June. 

27. Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. — Common in both 
counties. March 15 to Dec. 6, on which latter date a flock of about 30 
was seen in a field. 

28. Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. — The most common of 
the hawks, probably because it is able to escape the hawk-hunters, that 
shoot hawks and owls to secure the 50 cents bounty foolishly paid in 
Allegany County for each hawk and owl. Breeds in the hills of Cumber- 
land ; took two full-grown young Aug. 3, 1900. 

29. Buteo borealis. Red-tailed Hawk. — In spite of the bounty act, 
it may be heard or seen now and then. Many are caught in traps put up 
by farmers on poles, of both this and the next species. 

30. Buteo lineatus. Red-shouldered Hawk. — Rarer than preceding 
species, but may be met with over the whole territory. Dates: Jan. 27 r 
Feb. 17, 1900; July 1, 1901 ; May 8, 1902. Mr. Preble noted a noisy pair 
near Finzel, and others near Grantsville and Bittinger, all in Garrett 

31. Falco sparverius. Sparrow Hawk. — Not common in lower parts, 
common in higher ; I observed several families near Accident each sum- 
mer. Abundant during migration at Cumberland. I have two winter 
dates: Dec. 23, 1899, and a male taken at Lonaconing Feb. 15, 1902. 

I suppose the preceding four species should be classed as permanent 
residents, but since I have no winter dates for them, excepting the last 
two, I thought it safer to place them here. 

2A.O Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. \t*%. 

32. Nyctala acadica. Saw-whet Owl. — The only record I have for 
this is July 6, 1903, when a full-grown young one in good condition and 
plumage was brought to me alive. It had been caught in a tree in the 

33. Carpodacus purpureus. Purple Finch. — I do not know whether 
to class this as a migrant, a permanent resident, or a winter resident, as 
witness the following dates: Nov. 11, 1899; Feb. 10, 1900 (big flock); 
Feb. 24, 1900; Mar. 11, 1900; April 24, 1900; Nov. 23, 1901 ; Dec. 6, 1901 ; 
Jan. 15, 1902; Feb. 15, 1902; May 6, 1902; April 6 and 11, 1903; and on 
July 27, 1903, while in an alder swamp along Bear Creek, near Accident, a 
fine male flew into the top of an alder bush before me, and looked and 
acted as though he was fully at home there and thought I had no business 
intruding. To make the identification sure I took him. 

34. Certhia familiaris americana. Brown Creeper. — I would class 
this as a winter resident, having dates from Oct. 19 (1902) to April 28 
{1900), were it not for the fact that Mr. Preble took a female in heavy 
hemlock woods near Bittinger, Garrett Count}', on June 28, 1899. This 
renders its status doubtful. 

35. Regulus satrapa. Golden-crowned Kinglet. — The dates I have 
for this species also makes its status doubtful. Some of these dates are : 
Jan. 15 and 27 (1902, 1900); Feb. 15 (1902); April 7 and 12 (1900, 1902); 
May 1 (1901) ; May 23 (1903). This last specimen was seen and taken at 
Cumberland, in full song. Aug. 7 (1901); Oct. 5, 19, 27 (1900, 1901); 
Nov. 16 (1901) ; Dec. 6 (1902), etc. 

36. Merula migratona. Robin. — Large flocks of this bird staj late 
into November and return end of February. A few stay all winter in 
favored localities. 

Summer Residents. 

37. Aix sponsa. Wood Duck. — A scarce breeder but a common 
migrant. March 18 to April 8, 1901 ; Sept. 5, 1901, etc. 

38. Botaurus lentiginosus. American Bittern. — Not common. 
March 30 (1901) to Sep. 16 (1899). June 30, 1902, a full-grown one was 
brought to me. 

39. Ardetta exilis. Least Bittern. — Rare; two dates only — May 
30, and Aug. 26, 1901. 

40. Ardea herodias. Blue Heron. — A somewhat familiar figure 
along the creeks; scarce in the higher parts. 

41. Butorides virescens. Green Heron. — Not rare, at least in lower 

42. Philohela minor. Woodcock. — Common resident over both 
counties. It stays so late and comes so early, that it may almost 
be counted a permanent resident. 

43. Bartramia longicauda. Bartramian Sandpiper. — Common in 

V °igo4 XI l Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 2\\ 

migration, not so common as a breeder, perhaps on account of the lack 
of large meadows. Found a pair at Vale Summit (alt. 2000 ft.) on May 
30, 1902 ; May 21, 1903, I found nine or ten pairs at the so called Swamp 
Ponds, on the other side of the Potomac River, and the same number 
July 13, the young having undoubtedly been drowned or killed by the 
heavy rains of this season. 

44. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — Abundant over the 
whole region, at all large and small watercourses, ponds and waterholes. 

45. Oxyechus vociferus. Killdeer. — Common in both high and 
low parts. Stays late and comes early, like the Woodcock. About Octo- 
ber 1 they come to town in numbers and stay along Will's Creek until 
Nov. 22 (1902). 

46. Cathartes aura. Turkey Buzzard. — Cannot be called common, 
nor rare. A pair evidently nests each year on Will's Mountain, near 
Cumberland, and several pairs at Rocky Gap, with the Ravens. 

47. Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. — Rather scarce. A young 
one, full grown, was brought to me at Accident July 22, 1903, and Mr. 
Preble notes one near Swanton. 

48. Coccyzus americanus. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. — Not rare in 
both counties. 

49. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. Black-billed Cuckoo. — In lower 
parts during migration only, and then not common. Breeds in higher 

50. Ceryle alcyon. Kingfisher. — -Common in all parts. Dates: 
Mar. 25 (1902) to Sept. 28 (1901). On Aug. 26, 1901, one was killed by 
flying against a telegraph wire in the city. 

51. Sphyrapicus varius. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. — Not uncom- 
mon, notably in higher parts. Dates : April 6 (1903) to Oct. 24 (1900). 
On April 20, 1903, the woods were full of them at Accident. 

52. Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Red-headed Woodpecker. — Has 
become rather rare in the lower parts, although a pair breeds here and 
there, but very abundant in the higher parts, where there are many ' dead- 
enings.' Dates: April 17 (1903, Accident) to Sept. 15 (1899). 

53. Colaptes auratus. Flicker. — Common over the whole area ; 
especially abundant in higher parts and during migration, when the 
black gum and other trees entice him to stay long and in large numbers. 
Dates: Mar. 1 (1902) to Nov. 15 (1902). Its numbers are increasing 
around Cumberland. 

54. Antrostomus vociferus. Whip-poor-will. — Evenly distributed 
over the whole territory; plentiful in some parts. Dates: April 21 
(1902) to Sept. 14 (1899). 

55. Chordeiles virginianus. Nighthawk. — Not as common as last 
species, except during the last week in August, when they appear in large 
numbers, flying over the house-tops after insect food. Dates : May 3 
(1902) to Sept. 2 (1903). 

56. Chaetura pelagica. Chimney Swift. — Common breeder over 

2A 2 Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. ["April 

the whole region. They can be seen in vast numbers over Centre Street 
Public School, darting out of and into the capacious chimney. Dates : 
April 16 (1901) to Aug. 27 (1903). 

57. Trochilus colubris. Ruby-throated Hummingbird. — Common 
over the whole area. 

58. Tyrannus tyrannus. Kingbird. — Not common at Cumberland, 
plentiful in the higher parts. 

59. Myiarchus crinitus. Great Crested Flycatcher. — Not com- 
mon, except locally. 

60. Sayornis phcebe. Phozbe. — Common in all parts, from Mar. 11 
(1902) to Oct. 19 (1902). 

61. Contopus virens. Wood Pewee. — Common. May 3 (1902) to 
Oct. 19 (1901). 

62. Empidonax alnorum. Alder Flycatcher. — Although I have 
looked high and low for this species in the alder-swamps, for hours at a 
time, I have not had the good fortune to see it, at least well enough to 
positively identify it. But Mr. Preble saw it and took it in the same and 
similar localities, June 3 and 4, 1899. 

63. Empidonax minimus. Least Flycatcher. — Common as a 
migrant, but much rarer as a breeder, in both the low and high parts. 
Dates : April 30 (1903) to Sept. 14 (1899). 

64. Corvus ossifragus. Fish Crow. — I saw what I took to be a pair 
of this species March 21 and May 21, 1903. Am familiar with their 
appearance and note from several visits to Washington, where they are 
plentiful in the parks. 

65. Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Bobolink. — More of a migrant than 
breeder. Saw five or six on May 21, 1903, and Mr. Preble found them at 
Grantsville, June 23, 1899 ; am also told that they breed, some years, in 
the large meadows near Frostburg, which is very probable. 

66. Molothrus ater. Cowbird. — Not very common, except in migra- 
tion ; Nov. 3, 1901, thousands of this species, together with Redwings and 
Grackles, covered the fields along Eavitts Creek. March 22 (1901) is the 
earliest date I have. 

67. Agelaius phceniceus. Red-winged Blackbird. — Abundant in 
suitable places over whole area. March 14 is my earliest date. 

68. Sturnella magna. Meadowlark. — Of uniform abundance over 
the whole area from Mar. 1 (1902) to Oct. 23 (1901). May 21, 1903, two 
nests with five eggs in each. 

69. Icterus spurius. Orchard Oriole. — Not common except some 
days in spring migration. Nearly absent from the higher parts in sum- 

70. Icterus galbula. Baltimore Oriole. — Common over the whole 
area. Earliest date, April 27, 1902. 

71. Quiscalus quiscula. Purple Grackle. — Plentiful everywhere 
from March 14 (1903) to Nov. 3 (1901). All that I have taken seem to 
belong to this eastern species, none to the western. 

Vol. XXI' 
1904 . 

Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 2A.7 

72. Pocecetes gramineus. Vesper Sparrow. — Very common breeder 
in higher parts, from 2000 ft. up. In Cumberland they can be seen only 
in migration and now and then a stray one in summer. 

73. Coturniculus savannarum passerinus. Grasshopper Sparrow. 
— Very common, especially in the higher parts, from May 1 (1902) to 
Sept. 5 (1901), but most disappear before the end of August. 

74. Chondestes grammacus. Lark Sparrow. — Know of only one 
colony, which I found July 23, 1901, four miles from Accident, Garrett 
County. This year (1903) I visited the same place, and after much search- 
ing found only one bird ; there may have been more near by. 

75. Spizella socialis. Chipping Sparrow. — Very abundant every- 
where. Appears to be becoming also a bird of the woods, for I find nests 
in the middle of second growth woods. March 21 (1903) to Nov. 1 (1901). 

76. Spizella pusilla. Field Sparrow. — Same as 6". socialis. March 
21 (1903) to Nov. 4 (1899). May 10, 1901, nest with five eggs on ground; 
May 21, 1902, nest, one foot high in laurel bush, with three young and one 


77. Melospiza georgiana. Swamp Sparrow. — Not rare where con- 
ditions are favorable; Mar. 30 (1901) to Oct. 3 (1901). 

78. Pipilo erythrophthalmus. Towhee ; Chewink. — One of the most 
abundant birds here, especially in the thickets of scrub-oak, etc., with 
which large parts of the hills and mountains are covered. In September 
and October hundreds, if not thousands, are to be seen. Dates : April 22 
(1900) to Oct. 28 (1899). 

79. Zamelodia ludoviciana. Red-breasted Grosbeak. — Rare in 
lower parts, even in migration ; rather common breeder on higher 
ground, from 2000 feet up. 

80. Cyanospiza cyanea. Indigo Bunting. — Common, more so in 
lower than higher parts, from beginning of May till Oct. 15 (1902). In 
fall they associate in flocks with the Song Sparrows in the bushes along 
rivers and creeks. 

81. Piranga erythromelas. Scarlet Tanager. — Common, especially 
on wooded tops of mountains. May 1 (1903) to Sept. 27 (1902). 

82. Piranga rubra. Summer Tanager. — Saw and heard this fine 
whistler only once, July 1, 1901. 

83. Progne subis. Purple Martin. — Common over the whole area, 
often in middle of cities, where martin-houses are put up. April 2 to 
Aug. 27, 1903. Usually, however, they come a few days later and depart 
several days earlier than this year. 

84. Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. — Common where- 
ever it can build its nest. 

85. Hirundo erythrogaster. Barn Swallow. — Like the last species, 
abundant, especially in farming districts. April 12 (1901) to Aug. 14 
(1903), at which latter date hundreds of this and the preceding and fol- 
lowing species were assembled in the bushes on a small island in the 
lake at Mt. Lake Park, Garrett County, evidently preparatory to going 

244 Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. [Aril 

86. Riparia riparia. Bank Swallow. — Not as common as the preced- 
ing species. 

87. Stelgidopteryx serripennis. Rough-winged Swallow — More 
common than the Bank Swallow, but not as common as the Barn 

88. Ampelis cedrorum. Cedarbird. — Very abundant over the whole 
area. Mar. 24 (1900) to Oct. 19 (i9oi-'o2), at which latter dates the woods 
were full of old and young. Its numbers seem to be increasing from year 
to year. 

89. Vireo olivaceus. Red-eyed Vireo. — One of the commonest 
summer birds. May 2 (1902) to Sept. 4 (1901). 

90. Vireo gilvus. Warbling Vireo. — Not common. Earliest date, 
April 26, 1902. 

91. Vireo flavifrons. Yellow-throated Vireo. — Not common, 
except in migration. May 30, 1902, nest, fifteen feet up in a small oak, 
female sitting. 

92. Vireo solitarius. Blue-headed Vireo. — While I have found this 
species only as a migrant (May 8, 1902, many; May 15, 1902; Oct. 12, 
1901 ; Oct. 19, 1902), Mr. Preble has found it a rather common resident at 
Finzel, Grantsville, Bittinger, Kearney, Swanton, and Dan's Mountain. 
This was in June, 1899; so there can be no doubt that it is a breeder in 
the higher parts. 

93. Mniotilta varia. Black and White Warbler. — Common at 
all points. May 1 to Sept. 22 (1900). 

94. Helmitherus vermivorus. Worm-eating .Warbler. — To be 
found in proper locations in both counties. May 8 (1902) to Sept. 20 

95. Helminthophila chrysoptera. Golden-winged Warbler. — An 
abundant migrant and becoming a common breeder, also in lower parts. 
During migration (from May 2 on) they prefer to sit on dead saplings to 
utter their monotonous tsee, tsee, tsee. Quite a number bred this year on 
Will's Mountain, Cumberland, where I saw old and young out of nest on 
June 19; also at Frostburg, July 17- It frequents the same places as the 

96. Compsothlypis americana. Parula Warbler. — Rare as a breeder 
and migrant. 

97. Dendroica aestiva. Yellow Warbler. — Abundant as a migrant, 
not so abundant as a breeder in low parts and still less in high parts. 
Still it cannot be called rare anywhere. In Cumberland they seem to dis- 
appear about the end of July. April 23 (1902) to July 31 (1902). 

98. Dendroica caerulescens. Black-throated Blue Warbler. — 
Abundant migrant, notably in fall. In spring it, together with its com- 
panion, D. virens, seems to skip the lower parts and fly directly to high 
ground. There it is a very abundant breeder and its note, dill, dill, dill, 
tree, rapid and ascending, is heard into August. Other notes are : a 
shrill tssee, tssee ; and dee deree' di. Dates: May 16 (1903) to Sept. 28 

Vol. XXI 

Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 2zl£ 

99. Dendroica maculosa. Magnolia Warbler. — Fairly numerous 
migrant and breeder; the latter in high parts only. May 18 (1901) to 
Oct. 19 (1902). Song : irree deree' di, not so loud as that of D. ccerulescefis. 

100. Dendroica rara. Cerulean Warbler. — Of about the same 
frequency as the preceding species, only they are much more in evidence 
during the spring migration and breed as low as Cumberland. This 
species seems to be extending its breeding area. I found them numerous 
near here June 19, 1903, when their song — ree, ree, reer (last note high) 
— could be heard frequently. They seem to disappear, however, as soon 
as their young can fly away. Dates: May 2 (1902) to July 19 (1901, 

101. Dendroica pensylvanica. Chestnut-sided Warbler. — Seems 
to frequent the same places as the Golden-winged Warbler, but is much 
more common over the whole region, breeding from 2000 feet up. It 
stays in low thickets of oak, laurel, locust, etc. Dates: May 2 (1902) to 
Sept. 21 (1901). 

102. Dendroica blackburniae. Blackburnian Warbler. — Com- 
mon migrant and breeder in higher parts ; fall migration seems to be 
chiefly of birds of the year. May 3 (1902) to Sept. 24 (1900). 

103. Dendroica virens. Black-throated Green Warbler. — This 
apparently inseparable companion of D. ccerulescens is generally to be 
seen in the same places and numbers and at the same time as that species, 
only it frequents the trees rather than underbrush. April 20, 1903, I saw 
and heard it on Negro Mountain, near Accident, where there was yet no 
sign of opening vegetation, whereas here at Cumberland, I saw none till 
May. My latest date for it is Oct. 19. 

104. Dendroica vigorsii. Pine Warbler. — Very common in migra- 
tion, especially the young in fall. It nests very sparingly. Dates : 
March 20 (1903) to Oct. 19 (1900). 

105. Dendroica discolor. Prairie Warbler. — Common breeder in 
low land, not in high. Its queer note can be heard from May 2 ; after the 
end of June it is no longer in evidence. 

106. Seiurus aurocapillus. Ovenbird. — One of the most common 
birds in low parts ; not nearly so common in higher parts. May 1 (1900) 
to Sept. 29 (1899). 

107. Seiurus noveboracensis. Water-Thrush. — I have so far found 
only one in migration (May 16, 1903) and one in its breeding places in 
high ground (July 17, 1903), but Mr. Preble reports it fairly common 
about Finzel, June, 1899, when every stream had a pair or two. 

108. Seiurus motacilla. Louisiana Water-Thrush. — Rather com- 
mon throughout the range; more so in the Carolinian parts of it. April 
7 (1900) to July 30 (1902). After the end of July they are not to be seen. 

109. Geothlypis trichas. Maryland Yellow-throat.- — Perhaps 
the most abundant warbler here, even in the high alder and sphagnum 
swamps. April 26 to Sept 12 (1902). 

no. Icteria virens. Yellow-breasted Chat. — Common in scrubby 


Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. La rU 

underbrush over the whole area, but more common in lower than higher 
parts. The earliest date I have is Maj 2 (1902). 

in. Wilsonia mitrata. Hooded Warbler. — Rather common over 
the whole area, but more so in the lower parts. Its penetrating song — 
pea'ry, pea'ry pie'ak, or sharp call-note, tsink — can be heard on most hill- 
sides about Cumberland. Dates: May 2 (1902) to Aug. 14 (1901), at 
which latter date I saw a full family. 

112. Wilsonia canadensis. Canadian Warbler. — Common mi- 
grant, and more common breeder in high parts. It seems to be fond of 
rhododendron thickets. They arrive at Cumberland about May 8. 

113. Setophaga ruticilla. Redstart. — Common throughout the 
region, locally abundant. May 1 (1900) to Sept. 20 (1902). 

114. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Catbird. — Abundant throughout, 
even in high alder-swamps. April 28 (1900) to Sept. 29 (1900). 

115. Toxostoma rufum. Brown Thrasher. — Almost as common as 
the preceding. April 19(1902) to Oct. 12 (1901). April 18, 1903, there 
were some at Accident, although there were none at Cumberland till 
several days later. 

116. Thryomanes bewickii. — Bewick's Wren. — Common in the 
whole section. Mar. 12 (1901) to Oct. 19 (1902). 

117. Troglodytes aedon. House Wren. — Common throughout the 
section. Arrives beginning of May; latest date I have is Oct. 19 (1902). 

118. Polioptila caerulea. Blue-gray Gnat-catcher. — Strange to 
say, this species is very rare here; I have two dates only: May 27, 1900, 
and May 18, 1901. 

119. Hylocichla mustelina. Wood Thrush. — Very common over the 
whole section. May 1 (1900) to Sept. 3 (1901). 

120. Hylocichla fuscescens. Wilson's Thrush. — While this species 
breeds plentifully at Frostburg, 11 miles from here, I have never yet been 
able to see or take it here in migration. May 23, and June 16, 1903, there 
were many in full song on Savage Mt., near Finzel. 

121. Hylocichla guttata pallasii. Hermit Thrush. — Have been able 
to see this only once in migration here at Cumberland, whereas they are 
common in high ground. April 20, 1903, I saw about a hundred on 
Negro Mountain but not one here, before or after that date. The latest 
date is Oct. 19, 1902. 


122. Podilymbus podiceps. Pied-billed Grebe. — Common in 
migration even in the city, on Will's Creek, where two were caught alive, 
Oct. 8, 1901. Dates: Mar. 18 (1901) to April 20 (1903, Accident) and 
Sept. 18 (1900) to Oct. 8 (1901). 

123. Merganser serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. — Have only 
one date for this, Dec. 23, 1901. 

V0l i' 9 $ XI ] Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 247 

124. Lophodytes cucullatus. Hooded Merganser. — Rare. A 
female specimen was shot on the Potomac, March 16, 1901. 

125. Anas boschas. Mallard. — This can be seen now and then all 
winter, so that it may perhaps be classed as a winter resident. Nov. 11 
(1902) to May 23 (1901). May 13, 190 1, a big flock was on the Potomac. 

126. Anas obscura. Black Duck. — This is seen mostly with the 
Mallard, same places and times. April 24, 1903, there was a big flock on 
the Potomac. Jan. 17, 1903, I watched five at a distance of ten feet 
feeding in a hole in the ice near the bank. 

127. Mareca americana. Baldpate. — Scarce; only one date, April 
8, 190 1. 

128. Querquedula discors. Blue-winged Teal. — Plentiful in April ; 
have no dates for fall migration. 

129. Dafila acuta. Pintail. — One is shot now and then. Got a 
male March 21, 1902. 

130. Aythya marila. American Scaup Duck. — Plentiful in spring 
migration, April 8 to May 24 (1901). May 13, 1901, about thirty were 
swimming on the Potomac, and May 22 a fine one was seen all day 
within the city limits. 

131. Aythya affinis. Lesser Scaup Duck. — Rare. April 8, 1901. 

132. ? Clangula clangula americana. Golden-eye. — Hunters tell me 
that they take this species now and then, which is very probable. I think 
all species of ducks that frequent Chesapeake Bay come here occa- 
sionally, if not regularly. 

133. Charitonetta albeola. Bufflehead. — Rather common migrant. 
Dec. 19, 1901, one killed itself by flying against a telegraph pole in the 
city. April 8, 1901 and 1902 ; March 21, 1902. 

134. Harelda hyemalis. Old-sqijaw. Rare. Dec. 19, 1900, one was 
brought to me that had been killed with a stone on Eavitt's Creek. 

135. Branta canadensis. Canada Goose. — Common in spring 

136. Porzana Carolina. Sora. — May 23 and 30, 1901, I found very 
many at the "Swamp Ponds," but they were not there in summer. Are 
here again Sept. 5 (1901) to Oct. 3 (1901). 

137. Totanus flavipes. Yellow-legs. — Not rare during migration. 

138. Helodromas solitarius. Solitary Sandpiper. — This species, 
locally called Black Snipe, is shot much during migration. I am almost 
certain, however, that it breeds in the high parts, since I saw a pair of 
what I took to be this species July 25, 1903, at Friendsville, Garrett Co. 
At Cumberland I have taken it as late as May 23 (1901), and again 
Aug. 31 (1901). 

139. Empidonax acadicus. Acadian Flycatcher. — Seems to be a 
rare migrant in lower parts. I have only one date, Sept. 3, 1901. It may 
also be a rare breeder, since Mr. Preble saw one at Oldtown in June. 

140. Scoleocophagus carolinus. Rusty Blackbird. — A migrant 
that I have never found common. Spring dates: April n, (1903) to 
April 26 (1901) ; fall : Nov. 22 and 23, (1901) ; snow on last date. 

248 Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. ["a^S 

141. Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. — A rather 
rare migrant. These are all the dates I have for Cumberland : April 26, 
1901, two pairs ; May 2 and 7, 1902; May 4 and 13, 1903; and Oct. 12, 

1901. No records for the higher sections. 

142. Zonotrichia albicollis. — White-throated Sparrow. — Common 
Mar. 21 (1903) to May 2 (1900), and Sept. 25 (1900) to Oct. 25 (1902). 

143. Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln's Sparrow. — Rare migrant; I 
took one Oct. 19, 1900. 

144. Passerella iliaca. Fox Sparrow. — Not as common as Z. albi- 
collis, yet by no means rare. March 14 (1901) to April 6 (1903), and 
Oct. 27 (1900) to Nov. 4 (1900). 

145. Vireo philadelphicus. Philadelphia Vireo. — Very rare ; took 
one May 8, 1901, when there was a big bird wave on Will's Mountain, 

146. Helminthophila ruficapilla. Nashville Warbler. — I saw none 
of this species until May 3, 1902, when Will's Mountain was full of them. 

147. Helminthophila peregrina. Tennessee Warbler. — The only 
date I have for this rare species is May 6, 1901, when Mr. V. Laney 
took one for me. 

148. Dendroica tigrina. Cape May Warbler. — Numerous in fall 
migration. Sept. 21 (1900) to Oct. 27 (1900), mostly young. May 21, 

1902, is the only spring date I have. 

149. Dendroica coronata. Myrtle Warbler. — Scarce; have 
two dates only : May 5, 1900, and Oct. 25, 1900. 

150. Dendroica castanea. Bay-breasted Warbler. — Rare; saw 
one May 8, 1902, and another May 17, 1902. 

151. Dendroica striata. Black-poll Warbler. — Plentiful on certain 
days during migration. It is a late comer in spring; May 16, 1903, and 
May 18, 1901, the woods were full of them. In fall, Oct. 2, to Oct. 19 ; 
only young ones seem to come through here. This year (1903) some 
lingered at Cumberland till May 21. 

152. Dendroica palmarum. Palm Warbler. — Very rare; saw and 
took one only, May 3, 1902. 

153. Geothlypis formosa. Kentucky Warbler. — Very rare here, 
while it was a common breeder at my former home near Pittsburg, Pa. 
Have two dates only, Sept. 22 and 29, 1899. 

154. Wilsonia pusilla. Wilson's Warbler. — Rather scarce. Sept. 
4 (1901) to Sept. 21 (1900). No spring dates. 

155. Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — I believe this 
comes near to being a winter resident, if it not actually is one. Kinglets 
may be seen all winter, mostly R. satra-pa to be sure, but undoubtedly 
there are some of this species with them. Oct. 19 (1900) to May 3 (1902). 

156. Hylocichla alicise. — Gray-checked Thrush. — Rare. Sept. 15 
(1902) to Oct. 6 (1900). No spring dates. 

157. Hylocichla ustulatus swainsonii. Olive-backed Thrush. — 
Common only in fall migration. Sept. 9 (1901) to Oct. 6 (1900). It is 
then colored red inside and outside with the juice of the pokeberry. 

Vol. XXI" 
1904 . 

Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. 24O 

Winter Residents. 

158. Gavia imber. Loon. — A few stay around here all winter, if the 
river is not frozen over, which is not often. April 10, 1901, an extraordi- 
narily large one was taken; it measured 39 in. from tip of bill to end of 
toe, 34 in. from bill to end of tail. April 9, 1902, one was swimming on 
the Potomac within the city limits, above the dam for the Chesapeake 
and Ohio canal, enjoying himself dodging bullets and stones of foolish 

159. Merganser americanus. American Merganser. — Can be seen 
throughout the winter, if the river is not frozen over. Dates I have 
extend from Feb. 7 (1903) to April 8 (1902). 

160. Spizella monticola. Tree Sparrow. — Common from Nov. 16 
(1901) to April 12 (1902). 

161. Junco hyemalis. Snowbird ; Junco. — Very abundant, Oct. 12 
(1901) to April 21 (1903). Dec. 14, 1900 and April 17, 1903, also common 
at Accident. 

162. Troglodytes hiemalis. — Winter Wren. — Not common. Sept. 
21 (1901) to April 8 (1901 ). 

This looks like a small list of winter residents, but when the permanent 
and occasionally permanent residents are added to it, it becomes plain 
that bird life is not at all rare here in winter, at least around Cumberland. 

Accidental and Erratic Visitants. 

163. Gavia lumme. Red-throated Loon. — On Dec. 19, 1900, one 
was brought to town and kept in a box in front of a store for some days, 
that had landed on the ground and been unable to take wing again. 

164. Larus argentatus. Herring Gull. — One or more are seen now 
and then after hard storms. On April 21, 1901, e. g., about six were 
flying over the river with about fifty of the next species. 

165. Larus Philadelphia. Bonaparte's Gull. — Seen now and then 
after storms, as, e. g, April 21-24, : 9 01 5 at tne same time a pair were 
taken at Accident on a little fish pond. April 8, 1902, 25-30 were over the 
Swamp Ponds. 

166. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. Black Tern. — Observed 
only one so far, May 30, 1901. 

167. ? Nettion carolinense. Green-winged Teal. — Mr. McKee of 
Cumberland tells me that he took one some years ago. 

168. Olor columbianus. Whistling Swan. — Saw the feet of several 
nailed against a building, that Mr. Goss had taken a year or two before. 
On Dec. 16, 1902, the papers reported that a swan measuring 6 ft. 10 in. 
from tip to tip, had been shot near Oakland, Garrett Co. 

169. Nycticorax nycticorax naevius. Black-crowned Night Heron. 

250 Eifrig, Birds of Western Maryland. ["April 

— On May 5, 1901, Mr. Baker shot a young one of this species. This 
points to it being at least a rare summer resident. 

170. Fulica americana. Coot. — April 25, 1903, a female was shot on 
Will's Creek, in the middle of the city (Cumberland). 

171. Phalaropus lobatus. Northern Phalarope. — May 23, 1901, 
Mr. V. Laney took one for me at the Swamp Ponds, and said he saw 
another one like it in its "company. 

172.? Ectopistes migratorius. Passenger Pigeon. — This region was 
formerly one of its favorite haunts, there being an immense roost near 
Oakland, Garrett Co. Farmers and others that know them well from 
former times, tell me that they now see small flocks of from 2-12 occa- 
sionally. I think I saw five on Keyser's Ridge July 19, 1901, and a pair 
on Savage Mountain, July 17, 1903. 

173. Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. — This is a not uncom- 
mon resident in the mountain fastnesses of West Virginia and occasion- 
ally one is seen and taken at or near Cumberland. On Sept. 17, 1902, a 
young one was captured alive while fighting with a Wild Turkey, on 
Knobley Mountain across the river. 

174. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. Osprey. — Now and then seen 
over the river and fish ponds, e. g., April 22, 1901 and April 19, 1903. 

175. Nyctea nyctea. Snow\ Owl. — One is seen or taken now and 
then by hunters. Mr. McKee shot one Nov. 25, 1901. 

176. Centurus carolinus. Red-bellied Woodpecker. — I have never 
seen this species here, but one was brought to me Dec. 29, 1900, that had 
been shot on Iron Mountain, this county. There were then said to be 
several more there. 

177. Loxia curvirostra minor. American Crossbill. — Saw five or 
six Feb. 5, 1902 ; took a pair out of about 25 Feb. 28, 1902 ; saw one in 
company of Snowbirds Jan. 17, 1903. 

178. Acanthis linaria. Redpoll. Observed a flock of eight at a dis- 
tance of twenty feet through a glass Dec. 6, 1901 (Auk, XIX, p. 212). 

179. Passerina nivalis. Snowflake. — Saw this species only on two 
days : Nov. 16, 1901, and Feb. 8, 1902 (Auk, XIX, p. 212). 

180. Lanius ludovicianus. Loggerhead Shrike. — Despite diligent 
searching for this species, in the kind of places I know it frequents in 
other localities, I have found it only once, March 30, 1901, at the Swamp 

Vol. XXI "J Wheeler, The Study of Animal Behavior. 2 £ I 




It is well known that every common or conspicuous animal, 
like every eminent human personage, is destined sooner or later 
to become the nucleus of a myth-nimbus. An innate love of the 
marvellous stirs our fancy to invest all creatures with extraordinary 
powers, till we learn, with Lessing, that "it is the greatest of 
miracles that the real miracles can and must become such every 
day occurrences." This nimbus of myth is not entirely the work 
of the ignorant and child-like observer. The savant himself, from 
the days of Aristotle and Pliny down to the present era of 
abounding ' nature-books,' has contributed not a little to the hero- 
worship of animals. 

In view of these conditions, the student of any science of animal 
behavior or comparative psychology worthy of the name, has a 
two-fold duty to perform. This is both destructive and con- 
structive ; destructive, in so far as he is compelled to submit 
traditions concerning animals to searching and depurative criti- 
cism ; constructive, in so far as he is obliged to rebuild our knowl- 
edge of animal behavior on the securer foundations of careful 
observation and experiment. Destructive criticism, especially of 
the thorough-going kind which seems to be provoked by the now 
fashionable methods of studying animal behavior, is not a very 
agreeable undertaking. The scientific critic, if he is noticed at 
all, will be described as 'technical,' ' dry-as-dust,' and ' colorless ' 
by those who are incapable of appreciating the beauty and interest 
attaching to the simplest of Nature's activities, but feel compelled 
to create wonders, like the child who lies for the sake of producing 
an impression on the too stolid adults of his environment. A 
moment's reflection, however, will show that until all that has been 
claimed for the behavior of animals has been tried as by fire, till 
it has been passed through the hot alembic of scientific criticism 
and the metal of truth has been separated from the slag of fiction, 
it shall form no part of enduring knowledge. 

Not less laborious than the destructive are the constructive 

2C2 Wheeler, The Study of Animal Behavior. \ &*%. 

efforts of the comparative psychologist, involving as they neces- 
sarily must, the endless drudgery of observation and experiment 
to establish the simplest facts. The kind of training required in 
such work is not necessarily given by any term of years spent in 
camping in the American forests, nor in the arrogant conviction of 
surpassing one's fellow men in keenness of insight into the animal 
mind. No such conviction necessarily carries with it a grain of 
authority. There is no short-cut to a knowledge of animal 
behavior in the sense of a trajectory which o'er-leaps a humble 
and diligent apprenticeship in the methods of correct observation 
and reflection. In no science is it more true than in comparative 
psychology that "every man shall not go to Corinth." 

There are a few simple considerations which, the objective 
student of animal behavior must constantly bear in mind. A 
moment's reflection shows that all we can really perceive of animal 
behavior is certain movements of the creatures in time and space. 
As soon as we attempt to assign causes to these movements we at 
once pass into the province of pure inference. This, of course, 
holds good also of human actions, but in this case we are at least 
dealing with organisms essentially like ourselves in structure and 
development. All animals, however, differ more or less widely 
from man. They have neither the power of concealing nor of 
revealing their mental processes, by means of speech, and, 
although their actions are, in a sense, frank and undisguised, and 
often resemble human actions which we have learned to associate 
with certain feelings, volitions and thoughts, we can never do more 
than infer a similar association in animals, since we are forever 
debarred from knowing what is actually taking place in the animal 
mind. It follows, therefore, that we can have no such thing as an 
animal psychology or science of animal behavior, unless we accept 
these inferences from analogy as a valid scientific method. Thus 
the science resolves itself into a critical treatment and testing of 
these inferences. And it is just here that the tendencies of the 
true and the false students of animal behavior diverge. The 
latter, consciously or unconsciously, construe the predicament of 
our inability to know what is going on in the animal mind, into a 
license for all kinds of fancies and a safeguard for unremitting 

Vol. XXI 

Wheeler, The Study of Animal Behavior. 2 C 2 

The conscientious student, however, is not without a means of 
circumventing, so to speak, all these tactics of the pseudopsycholo- 
gist. He can apply another principle within easy reach, namely 
"Occam's razor": "Complicated explanations are inadmissible 
when simpler ones will suffice." We are not, for example, to 
accept human reasoning as an explanation of any animal behavior, 
till simpler processes, like instinct and associative memory, have 
been tried and found wanting. At the present time all cool-headed 
students are unanimous in the opinion that animals show no evi- 
dences of being able to form abstract concepts, much less to con- 
struct judgments and draw conclusions from them after the manner 
of reasoning human beings. In so far as they are not instinctive 
those animal actions which are commonly attributed to reason 
may be completely or almost completely explained as the result of 
associative memory (association of ideas), or at most as an exercise 
of what has been called the " practical judgment." All of these 
processes, however, are much simpler than human ratiocination. 1 

The fact that in man the reasoning powers are the latest to 
develop and, in cases of mental disease, the first to disintegrate, 
leaving nearly intact the emotional and volitional processes, indi- 
cates that the reason has been a late acquisition during the history 
of animal life. It may well be peculiarly human. And while it is 

1 Interesting treatment of this and many other subjects relating to animal 
behavior will be found in the following important works : C. Lloyd Morgan's 
' Habit and Instinct ' and ' Comparative Psychology ' ; W. Wundt's ' Lectures 
on the Human and Animal Mind'; L. T. Hobhouse's ' Mind in Evolution' ; 
A. Forel's ' Psychic Powers of Ants, etc' (translated in 'The Monist', 1903- 
1904) ; J. Loeb's Physiology of the Brain'; H. Driesch's ' Die Seele als ele- 
mentarer Naturfaktor' (not yet translated); E. Wasmann's 'Instinct and 
Intelligence.' The works of Morgan, Wundt, Hobhouse and Forel deserve 
the first rank on account of their sanity and philosophical breadth of view. 
Loeb's work is remarkable on account of its original and destructive criticism. 
Driesch's work is noteworthy for its highly, not to say ultra-, objective method. 
Wasmann's work abounds in keen and instructive criticism of the humanizing 
school of animal psychologists. He is an advocate of the mediaeval psychol- 
ogy of the church. Although his persistent efforts to crush the facts of modern 
psychology into the Procrustean bed of scholastic definition and terminology 
will certainly not meet with general approval, his above mentioned work as 
well as his numerous papers on the behavior of ants, etc., contain many valu- 
able observations. 

2^zL Wheeler, The Study of Animal Behavior. \ &*%. 

assuredly a matter of importance to determine whether rudiments 
of reason exist among animals, and to study this wonderful power 
in its incipient stages, it is equally true that the comparative psy- 
chologist may lay too much stress on the intellectualistic aspects of 
the animal mind. Of far greater importance is the study of those 
processes which lie at the very foundation of our own, as they do 
of the animal's mental constitution, namely, the feelings and the 
will, and their manifestations in instinct. Nor should it be forgot- 
ten that to reason is itself, in a sense, instinctive. It is probable, 
therefore, that the science of animal behavior will, in the future, 
lay less stress on the rationalistic side and more on the more pro- 
found and no less wonderful phenomena. To this great value of 
the study of instinct the philosopher Schelling bears witness when 
he says : " The phenomena of animal instinct are of the greatest 
importance to every thinking man — they are the true touch-stone 
of a genuine philosophy." 

In view of the preceding statements, it is not surprising that the 
study of animal behavior has passed out of the anecdotal stage. 
This fact seems not to be realized by many of the authors of 
" nature-books " in this country. At the present time the animal 
anecdote is admissible only in works of art, like the fable, the ani- 
mal epic or the animal idyll, or for the purposes of destructive crit- 
icism. In other words, its chief scientific use is negatively didactic, 
or for the purpose of illustrating how not to study and describe 
animal behavior. 1 

The constructive work of the student of animal behavior is not 
completed with the accumulation of knowledge in conformity with 
true criteria. He may be expected to present the truths thus 
acquired in clear and attractive form for the purpose of encourag- 
ing others to continue the great work in this limitless field of 
observation and experiment. Few authors have been able to do 

1 Those who cannot repress a feeling of disappointment on learning that 
there is no evidence to show that animals can reason like themselves, may 
find consolation in the fact that the very naivete - of animals — their limitations 
and stupidity, humanly speaking — is a fact of great interest and beauty. 
Who will deny that the very absence of the reasoning and reflective powers 
enters very largely into our aesthetic appreciation of the actions of our domes- 
tic animals and of our own children ? 

V °iqo4 XI J Deane, Letters of Audubon and Baird. 2CC 

this and avoid the pitfalls of malobservation on the one hand and 
those of poetic distortion on the other. Among the few may be 
mentioned Maurice Maeterlinck in his ' Life of the Bee ' and Jules 
Fabre in the eight incomparable volumes of his ' Souvenirs Ento- 
mologiques.' Unfortunately only a single volume of the latter's 
work has been translated into English, and even the original is far 
too little known and appreciated. Those who are feeding the 
American public with false animal psychology done up in tinselled 
English interspersed with seductive half-tones, would do well to 
study the methods whereby the young Belgian mystic and the aged 
French observer contrive to satisfy the reader's aesthetic sense 
without departing from the truths of rigid observation and experi- 
ment. While it is not given to all to succeed like these, it is cer- 
tainly possible for any one to repress a striving for aesthetic effect 
at the expense of truth. 



The following correspondence between John James Audubon, 
at the age of sixty-two years, and Spencer F. Baird, a young man 
of nineteen years, cannot fail to be of interest to the readers of 
' The Auk.' The letters are of peculiar interest, as they touch 
upon Audubon's proposed trip to the Missouri River and of 
Baird's great desire to accompany him, and show the deep interest 
and affection each held for the other, though there was a dif- 
ference of forty-three years in their ages. 

The original letter from Baird has come into my possession 
through the generosity of Miss M. R. Audubon, and I am under 
great obligation to Miss Lucy H. Baird for a copy of the original 
Audubon letter and recommendation, which she found among her 
father's correspondence. 

256 Deane, Letters of Audubon and Baird. X P^%. 

Baird to Audubon. 

Washington, July 27, 1842. 
My Dear Mr. Audubon. 

After making several unsuccessful efforts to get a second sight 
of you day before yesterday, I was obliged to give up the attempt 
in despair. I went to the Capitol at half past twelve and 
wandered over the whole building, Library, Senate Chamber and 
House, without being able to see or hear anything of your 
excellency. In the evening as in the morning I was again at 
Fuller's x without avail, went up the street, listened a while to the 
Circus music, came back, you were in bed. 

One thing I wanted to ask you about, was respecting your pro- 
posed trip next spring. In the first place the expense. The 
Pennsylvanians have been all so much affected by the derange- 
ments in the Currency of our state, stocks, banks, etc., that when 
in former years dollars were thrown away, cents are now carefully 
looked to. Nothing would delight me more than to go, if I can 
afford it. Next what preparation would I have to make to fit 
myself to accompany you. The journey ought to be a sort of 
" Humboldt & Bonpland " one, for the purpose of increasing the 
general sum of knowledge in every department of science, physical 
as well as natural. Will you please write and tell me all about the 
matter, route &c. If there is anything I can do for you here, do 
not hesitate to command me. It would require a good many 
drafts on me to wipe off the heavy load of obligation I am under 
to you for your kindness to me in New York, by sympathy and 
assistance in more ways than one. I have influential friends and 
relations here who, if occasion demands, may forward some of 
your views. By the by, a gentleman asked me yesterday several 
particulars about your proposed work, as to time of commence- 
ment, finishing and probable cost, intimating at the same time an 
intention of becoming a subscriber. Will you enable me to give 
him some information on the subject. 

1 The old City Hotel kept by A. Fuller and known as "Fuller's," situated 
at the northwest corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Fourteenth St., where 
the Willard Hotel now stands. 

Vol. XXI"| Deane, Letters of An dub art and Baird. 2^7 

I have spent my time since I have been here principally 
between the Treasury Building and the Patent Office. I have a 
strong desire to spend a few months among the collections of the 
Exploring Expedition, 1 with the privilege of overhauling the arti- 
cles. This my uncle Mr. Penrose, 2 solicitor of the Treasury, says 
I will be enabled to do by being connected in some way with the 
corps to be employed under act of Congress the ensuing winter. 
He says that if I could get a note from Mr. Audubon intimating 
in general terms, that from his knowledge of my qualifications, I 
would make a competent assistant to those gentlemen already 
engaged, that there would not be much trouble about the matter. 
Will you do me the favor to write something or other to this effect 
which he may use for this purpose. A few lines from you will be 
of more avail with the Secretary of Navy, or State, than a whole 
folio would be from anybody else. Will you ask Major Le Conte 
to send me a few of those very fine steel pins, tightly packed up, 
directed to me in an enclosure to Chas. B. Penrose, Solicitor of 
the Treasury, Washington, D. C. With my best respects to 
Mrs. Audubon and all your family, I remain, 

Yours sincerely, 

Spencer F. Baird. 

P. S. Please address anything to me under cover to Chas. 
B. Penrose. 

Audubon to Baird. 

New York, July 30, 1842. 
My Dear Young Friend, — 

Your letter of the 27th Inst, reached me yesterday. I am 
truly vexed that I should have missed you at the Library or the 
Congress Chambers, where I went (perhaps too late) between 3 

United States Exploring Expedition, during the years 1838-42. Under 
command of Charles Wilkes, U. S. N. 

2 Charles B. Penrose of Pennsylvania, Solicitor of the Treasury from 1841 
to 1845, appointed to office by President William H. Harrison. 

2^8 Deane, Letters of Audubon and Baird. [a r^l 

and 4 o'clock of the afternoon, having been detained at the differ- 
ent Departments of State where it was my duty to call, preparatory 
to next coming Great Western Journey. 

Now it proves by your letter that you feel favorably disposed to 
accompany me on this long-thought-of and contemplated Tour, 
and wish me to give you some idea of the expenses, attached to 
such an undertaking ; but to this question I am quite unable to 
reply at present, although I may do so in a few weeks, and which 
I shall do, provided you write to me again on the subject. 

I have no very particular desire to embark as deep in the Cause 
of Science as the great Humboldt has done, and that, simply 
because I am too poor in pecuniary means and too incompetent; 
but I wish nevertheless to attempt to open the Eyes of naturalists 
to Riches untold, and facts hitherto untold. The portions of the 
country through which it is my intention to pass, never having 
been trodden by white Man previously. 

I have some very strong doubts whether the results of the 
Antarctic Expedition will be published for some time yet ; for, 
alas, our Government has not the means, at present, of paying 
some half a Million of Dollars to produce publications such as 
they should publish, and connected with the vast stores of Infor- 
mation, collected by so many Scientific Men in no less than Four 
Years of Constant Toil and privation, and which ought to come to 
the World of Science at least as brightly as the brightest rays of 
the Orb of Day during the Midsummer Solstice. O, my dear 
young friend, that I did possess the wealth of the Emperor of 
Russia, or of the King of the French ; then, indeed, I would 
address the Congress of our Country, ask of them to throw open 
these stores of Natural Curiosities, and to Give away Copies of 
the invaluable Works thus produced to every Scientific Institution 
throughout our Country and throughout the World. 

As you however appear desirous to present my thoughts of your 
capabilities as one of the assistants in that Stupendous undertak- 
ing, I send you enclosed what I hope most sincerely may prove 
beneficial for such purposes. 

Now as you have been kind enough to offer me your services 
at Washington, I ask you to call upon Mr. Cushing, M. P., of 
Massachusetts, and to ask him to have the goodness to forward 

Vol "* XI ~] Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 259 

me the Letter promised me by the president of the U. S., for, as I 
have not yet had it, I somewhat fear that it has been missent. 
Write to me at once, and believe me, 

Your friend, John J. Audubon. 

Audubon's Recommendation of Baird. 

New York, July 30, 1842. 
Knowing, as I do, Spencer F. Baird, Esq., as a Young Gentle- 
man well qualified to assist in the arrangement, description, etc. of 
the specimens of Natural History brought home by the Exploring 
Expedition, and deposited in the National Institute at Washington 
City for the purpose of being published and thereby rendered 
useful to the world of Science ; I take great pleasure in recom- 
mending him as a most worthy, intelligent, and industrious student 
of Nature, both in the field and in the museum, and I would feel 
great satisfaction in hearing that our Government had employed 
him in this national and important undertaking. 

John J. Audubon. 



Plates XIX-XXI. 
{Concluded from p. 2(p.) 

Botaurus lentiginosus. American Bittern. 

This species seems to be sparingly but generally distributed 
throughout the fresh water marshes of Florida, where it undoubt- 
edly breeds. We did not find any of its nests but, as we spent 
very little time in suitable localities, this is not strange. We 
flushed a few American Bitterns from the saw-grass marshes on 

260 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. |A ril 

the St. Johns River and from similar locations on Merritts Island. 
It probably nests in the saw-grass with its small relative, the 
Least Bittern, where its nest must be securely hidden. 

In Monroe County, where there are practically no fresh water 
marshes south of the everglades, we failed to see an individual of 
either species of Bittern. 

Ardetta exilis. Least Bittern. 

We found this little Bittern a common resident in all suitable 
localities — fresh water marshes — in Florida that we visited. It 
is so shy and retiring in its habits and so hard to flush that we 
undoubtedly overlooked it many times ; if we had spent more 
time in exploring the saw-grass sloughs we should probably have 
found it very abundant. None of the birds that we saw seemed 
to be referable to Cory's Bittern. 

We found nests containing fresh eggs in the St. Johns marshes 
on April 18 and 22 and on Merritts Island on April 26, 1902, 
four nests in all. The nests were all built in tall, thick tussocks 
of fine grass, higher than a man's head, growing in saw-grass 
sloughs. The nests were merely crude platforms of straws, 
measuring about 7 by 4 or 7 by 5 inches, well concealed in the 
centers of the tussocks and from 24 to 30 inches above the 
ground or water ; they were exceedingly frail structures, barely 
able to hold the four bluish white eggs. Boat-tailed Grackles 
generally frequent the same localities as the Least Bitterns. In a 
small slough, about 30 yards square, on Merritts Island we found 
two nests of the Bitterns and five nests of the Grackles. 

Ardea occidentalis. Great White Heron. 

Since the days of the illustrious Audubon very little has been 
written about this magnificent Heron, the grandest, the hand- 
somest, and the shyest of its tribe. Its range within the United 
States is confined to the extreme southern coast of Florida and 
the mangrove keys, where it is really abundant and forms a 
striking feature in the landscape. It is no uncommon sight to see 
ten or twelve of these great birds standing in the shallow water 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate XIX. 



Vol. XXI 


Bent; Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 26 1 

around the shores of some small estuary, patiently awaiting the 
approach of their prey, as motionless as white marble statues. 
When not fishing they may be seen perched on the outer branches 
of the mangroves, their pure white plumage standing out in 
marked contrast against the dark foliage, making them very 
conspicuous even at a great distance. 

It is utterly useless to attempt to approach them at such times, 
for their eyesight, as well as their hearing, is very acute ; they are 
extremely shy and will fly at the sight of an approaching boat half 
a mile away. It is almost as difficult to approach them on land, 
even under the cover of the mangroves, where the slightest noise 
will send them flying away croaking hoarsely. Only once was I 
able to outwit them, on one of their favorite roosting keys, where, 
after stalking them fruitlessly for several hours, I finally concealed 
myself among some thick underbrush and awaited their return ; 
I was rewarded by securing two fine specimens as they flew over 
on their way to their evening roost. In all their movements they 
are deliberate and dignified ; in flight they are slow, direct and 
powerful, with steady strokes of their great wings, the head drawn 
in upon the shoulders- and the long legs stretched out straight 

On several of the Keys we found empty nests of large Herons, 
some of which were probably referable to this species, but we 
found only one of their breeding colonies. This was on one of the 
Oyster Keys where on April 29 we discovered a small rookery of 
half a dozen pairs of Great White Herons and one or two pairs of 
Ward's Herons. The key was very small, less than an acre in 
extent, of the mud key type with a little dry land in the centre, 
overgrown with a thick tangle of underbrush ; the usual strip of 
red mangroves occupied the whole of one end of the island where 
we nearly overlooked the little colony of nests which were all 
grouped about a small inlet or bay. The Herons had all left the 
island, silently and unobserved, long before we landed, and an 
occasional glimpse of a great white bird in the distance was all we 
saw of the parents of the helpless young, whose identity fortu- 
nately was beyond question. A Ward's Heron flew over us within 
gunshot, but the Great White Herons never came anywhere near 


262 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. |~A^ril 

There were four nests of the Great White Heron, all on the outer 
ends of the horizontal branches of the mangroves, over the water 
and from 10 to 20 feet above it. The nests, much resembling 
those of the Great Blue Heron, were large flat platforms of large 
sticks, smoothly lined with coarse twigs and dry mangrove leaves. 
The only one that I measured was about 35 by 28 inches outside, 
and the inner cavity about 15 inches in diameter. This nest con- 
tained two eggs and one young bird, just hatched, covered with 
white hair-like down. A nest near by held two young, about one 
quarter grown, and one addled egg. Another nest contained three 
young birds, about half grown, pure white and very pugnacious ; 
they bristled up their plumage, squawked and snapped their bills 
vigorously, while their throats were vibrating rapidly as if panting 
from fear or excitement ; sometimes they would lie on their sides 
as if completely exhausted, panting rapidly all the time. They 
objected decidedly to having their picture taken and refused to 
pose at all gracefully. 

The most interesting nest of all was about twenty feet up on the 
outer end of a leaning red mangrove and the two large white birds 
in it could be plainly seen from the ground ; they were nearly fully 
grown, fully feathered and pure white all over, almost indistin- 
guishable from adults. When I climbed the tree one of them 
stood up in the nest and posed gracefully in dignified silence, while 
I took as many photographs as I cared to of the beautiful picture. 

The eggs of the Great White Heron are not distinguishable 
from those of the Ward's Heron in size, shape or color, though 
they are somewhat larger than those of the Great Blue Heron ; 
the only two I collected measured 2.67 by 1.84 and 2.60 by 
1.8 1 inches ; they are of the usual heron's egg color, pale greenish 
blue. But the young are always distinguishable by their pure 
white color from the day they are hatched. 

The Great White Herons are well able to take care of them- 
selves, as they are very difficult to shoot and not in demand for 
millinery purposes. Their rookeries are small and too much 
scattered to offer much temptation to nest robbing negroes. 

Vol i' ? XI ] Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 263 

Ardea herodias wardi. Ward's Heron. 

The southern representative of the Great Blue Heron is one of 
the characteristic birds of Florida and for so large a bird is decid- 
edly abundant ; especially so along the Indian River where it is 
usually the first of the Herons to be seen ; as the train runs along 
close to the river, just above Titusville, the shore seems to be 
lined with Ward's Herons, standing like sentinels at frequent 
intervals or flapping lazily away for a short distance ; sometimes 
one will scale along on motionless wings close to the water until 
it can drop its long legs down and alight on some favorite bar. 
While fishing it stands quite motionless for a long time, waiting 
for its prey with dignified patience, well becoming the largest 
member of its group. In general habits it closely resembles its 
northern relative, but it is not so shy as the Great Blue and not 
nearly as difficult to stalk as the Great White Heron. 

I believe the Ward's Heron is evenly distributed all over the 
State of Florida and is everywhere common. We found them 
breeding in small willow hammocks on the prairies of the interior 
and in the larger willows along the St. Johns River, where nests 
with newly hatched young were found on April 21. The nests 
were bulky affairs, made of large sticks about like those of the 
Great Blue Heron, and were placed in the largest willows, about 
10 or 12 feet from the ground. They do not nest in colonies 
here, or elsewhere that I have observed them, but the nests are 
scattered about singly or in disconnected groups. The young are 
grotesque and homely, being but scantily covered with filamentous 
down of a dirty grayish color. 

In Monroe County we found them breeding with the Great 
White Herons in small numbers and we saw them or their empty 
nests on many of the keys. Here their nests were built in the red 
mangroves or on the tops of bushes, never more than half a 
dozen or so in a group. We found only one occupied nest in this 
region, which on April 29 contained two small young; the nest 
was about 25 feet up in a red mangrove in the Great White 
Heron colony. Both of these large Herons are early breeders 
and, as we generally saw both species together, it was impossible 
to identify the many nests from which the young had flown. 

2bA. Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiofies. [~A^riI 

Probably the young learn to fly soon after leaving the nest, for we 
found no young birds in the trees about any of the nests, as we 
did with all of the smaller Herons. 

Herodias egretta. American Egret. 

This beautiful plume bird is, I am sorry to say, fast becoming a 
rare bird in Florida, though it still occurs in small numbers all 
through the interior of the State. It is by no means wary, is so 
strongly attached to its home and is so courageous in the defence 
of its young that it has been an easy matter for the plume hunters 
to annihilate rookery after rookery. In Brevard County we visited 
two localities, small cypress swamps, where the year before large 
breeding rookeries of Egrets existed, but not an occupied nest 
was to be seen and only two or three scattering birds flying off in 
the distance. On the upper St. Johns we saw a few American 
Egrets but found no nests. It is known here as the "big white 
heron " and can be distinguished at a distance from the Snowy or 
Little Blue Herons by its slower and heavier flight. Undoubtedly 
a few Egrets still breed in this region in the rookeries with other 

In Monroe County we found the American Egrets breeding 
sparingly in the large rookeries with the White Ibises and the 
smaller Herons. Among the 4000 birds at the Cuthbert rookery 
we counted 18 American Egrets and found seven nests. The 
birds were very tame, constantly alighting in the trees near us, 
and we could easily have killed as many as we wanted, but the 
A. O. U. warden, Mr. G. M. Bradley, who acted as our guide, was 
so solicitous for their welfare that we refrained from shooting a 
single bird ; one wounded bird, unable to fly, was the only speci- 
men we obtained. Most of the nests were in the low red man- 
groves over the water, but one was near the top of a black 
mangrove on a horizontal branch 15 feet from the ground. 

The nests were about as large as Night Heron's, loosely and 
poorly made of coarse sticks and not as smoothly lined as most 
Heron's nests. Three of the nests held eggs, one set of two and 
two sets of three, of the typical color, light greenish blue varying 
in intensity. The other nests had young of various ages, from 

Vol. XXI 

Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 26^ 

one quarter to two thirds grown, covered with pure white down 
until the white plumage appears. 

The young were very precocious, even when half grown, leaving 
the nest at the slightest provocation and climbing nimbly over the 
surrounding branches ; it was surprising to see how fast and how 
far they could travel without falling ; they were so lively that it 
was a difficult matter to photograph them successfully. 

I cannot too strongly urge the necessity of protecting this 
species and its smaller relative, the Snowy Heron, if they are to 
be saved from utter extinction. These two are the principal suf- 
ferers from the destructive persecution of the plume hunters ; but, 
fortunately for them, they are now so rare everywhere, except in 
the most inaccessible localities, that it hardly pays to hunt them ; 
though an increased demand for aigrettes at higher prices might 
prove disastrous. Under adequate protection, with a thorough 
posting of the rookeries and with strict enforcement of the very 
good laws now in force, there are probably enough Egrets left to 
partially restock their former haunts. 

Egretta candidissima. Snowy Heron. 

What I have already said about the disappearance of the Egrets 
is also true of this species. Although once very abundant all 
through Florida it has now been nearly exterminated, com- 
paratively speaking, but I am hopeful enough to think that the 
work of destruction has been checked in time to save this beauti- 
ful species from extinction. There are still a few Snowy Herons 
left in the big rookeries of the upper St. Johns, and a number of 
them still breed in the more inaccessible rookeries of the Cape 
Sable region. In the former locality we spent all of one day and 
part of another in the largest of the rookeries at Braddock Lake, 
where hundreds of Louisiana Herons and many Little Blue 
Herons were breeding, trying to identify the nests of the various 
species among which were a few Snowy Herons. We were 
unable to determine how many of this species were nesting there 
and I succeeded in positively identifying only two nests of the 
Snowy Heron. This rookery was on a small muddy island, in 

266 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. ["^wii 

the middle of the great marsh, covered with a thick growth of 
small willows from 12 to 15 feet high. 

Although all three species of Herons were very tame, alighting 
on the trees all about us, they were very careful not to settle down 
on to any of the nests within sight of us ; it was only by lying for 
hours carefully hidden under some thick clumps of large ferns that 
I was able to satisfactorily identify a few nests. The first nest of 
Snowy Herons, containing four eggs, was placed 8 feet up in a 
slender willow and was merely a flimsy platform of small sticks. 
The second nest held five eggs and was located only 5 feet up in 
a leaning willow ; it was made of larger sticks and lined with fine 
twigs. Neither the nests nor the eggs of the Snowy Heron are in 
any way distinguishable, so far as I could determine, from those 
of either the Louisiana or the Little Blue Herons. It is necessary 
to see the bird actually sitting on the nest to make identifi- 
cation sure ; even then young Little Blue Herons in the white 
phase are liable to lead to confusion and it is necessary to 
see the black legs and yellow feet or the graceful plumes of the 
Snowy Heron. We did not see any Snowy Herons anywhere 
except in the breeding rookeries and even there they were very 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis. Louisiana Heron. 

This beautiful and graceful little Heron is by far the most 
abundant of its family in all sections of Florida that I have 
visited. Fortunately its beauty is not expressed in plumes, hence 
it has escaped the merciless persecution of the plume hunters ; 
but it is not without plumes, such as they are, which may lead to 
its destruction when the white aigrette supply is exhausted. Like 
all the small Herons its flight is light, rapid and graceful, the head 
drawn in upon the shoulders and the legs stretched out behind. 
While fishing it stands erect and motionless until some small 
fish swims within reach, when it crouches down close to the water, 
takes a few rapid steps forward and darts out its sharp bill like a 
flash, usually catching the fish near the surface. 

We found the Louisiana Heron breeding very abundantly on 
the upper St. Johns; sometimes they were in rookeries by them- 

The Auk, Vol. XXI 




Vol. XXI~| Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 267 

selves and sometimes in company with Little Blue and Snowy 
Herons, where all the nests held eggs during the latter part of 
April. In the big rookery at Braddock Lake, referred to above, 
the Louisiana Herons occupied all the central portions of the 
rookery, forcing the other species into the outskirts. Their nests 
were built in the willows in every available spot and at every 
height from 2 to 12 feet above the ground, often several nests in 
the same tree ; they were neatly and well made of small sticks 
and smoothly lined with fine twigs. Most of the nests contained 
four or five eggs and one held six. The eggs were practically 
indistinguishable in size, shape or color from those of the Little 
Blue or Snowy Herons. 

As evidence that they do not always live in perfect harmony 
with their neighbors, I saw, while lying concealed in the rookery, 
a Louisiana Heron alight on a Little Blue Heron's nest and 
deliberately poke the eggs out on to the ground, with her bill, one 
after another ; the owner of the nest did not appear during the 
process. All of the smaller Herons suffer from the depredations 
of the Fish Crows which are constantly sneaking about in all the 
rookeries ready to pounce upon and devour, or fly away with the 
eggs as soon as the owners give them a chance. 

In Monroe County we found the Louisiana Herons everywhere 
abundant, breeding in all the inland rookeries as well as on many 
of the mangrove keys. At the Cuthbert rookery they formed at 
least half of the colony, where we estimated that there were about 
2000 of them. Here they occupied the centre of the rookery 
filling all the trees with nests, most of them from 6 to 1 2 feet from 
the ground in the black and red mangroves, a few being in the 
'buttonwoods.' At the time of our visit, on May 1, fully three 
quarters of the nests contained young birds of various ages. The 
young bird is covered at first with dark gray filamentous down ; 
the down on the head soon forms a prominent upright tuft of 
wood brown hairlike filaments, giving the young bird a very 
curious expression ; later on, as the bird attains its growth, it 
begins to assume the white breast plumage of the adult, starting 
as a narrow line down the centre of the breast and neck. When 
about two thirds grown the young begin climbing out of the nests 
and along the branches of the trees ; they are quite expert at this 

268 Bent, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. \ £*%. 

and can cling on quite tenaciously with their big awkward feet 
and bills. But they often pay a severe penalty for their precocity 
by falling and becoming entangled. Their parents seem unable 
to help them in such predicaments, as we saw a number of their 
dead bodies hanging by one foot from the edges of the nests. 

Florida cserulea. Little Blue Heron. 

Next in abundance to the Louisiana Heron comes the Little 
Blue, with which it is intimately associated and practically identical 
in distribution. Both species have escaped destruction by the 
plume hunters, for the same reason, the lack of marketable 
plumes, and they are very much alike in general habits. They 
fish in the shallow waters along the shores of the Indian River 
and in most of the small pond holes in the interior. They are 
very active while fishing, walking about constantly but standing 
erect occasionally and darting straight down upon their prey. 
Birds in the blue phase predominated, but we saw a great many 
in the white phase even in the breeding rookeries. 

On the upper St. Johns we found them breeding commonly on 
the willow islands with the Louisiana Herons, but never in 
rookeries by themselves. So far as we could judge, from what 
few nests we were able to identify and by watching them rise from 
their nests as we approached the rookeries, the Little Blues 
always nested in the smaller willows on the outer edges of the 
islands. The nests were usually placed very low down, mostly 
from 2 to 4 feet from the ground, in small trees or bushes or on 
the lower branches. Their nests and eggs were practically indis- 
tinguishable from those of the other small Herons and positive 
identification was difficult, as they were very shy about alighting 
on their nests, though tame enough in other respects. 

In Monroe County we saw Little Blue Herons feeding in all the 
shallow estuaries and lakes and found them breeding in the big 
rookeries with other species. Their nests here also were confined 
to the outskirts of the rookeries where they were bunched 
together in compact groups. We did not find them breeding on 
any of the keys. 

There is little danger, under the protection now afforded them, 

The Auk, Vol. XXI. 

Plate XXI. 



Vol. XXI 

Bknt, Nesting Habits of Florida Herodiones. 2DQ 

that either this or the preceding species will be exterminated for 
many years to come, though the young are taken from the nests 
for food by the natives of southern Florida. 

Butorides virescens. Green Heron. 

The status of this widely distributed species is about the same 
in Florida as elsewhere throughout its range. It is nowhere 
abundant but evenly distributed in all suitable localities. We 
found scattering pairs of Green Herons breeding on Merritts 
Island and in the interior of Brevard County, nesting in little 
clumps of willows about the small pond holes. A few were seen 
on the upper St. Johns and a few in Monroe County, among the 
keys as well as along the streams in the interior. Among the 
hosts of other interesting species we paid but little attention to 
the Green Herons and noticed nothing new about their nesting 
habits, which are practically the same here as elsewhere. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius. Black-crowned 

Night Heron. 

I shall not prolong this paper with an account of this well 
known species. It is enough to say that we found it nearly every- 
where that we went. A few Black-crowned Night Herons were 
breeding in the rookeries with other species on the St. Johns 
River, one or two pairs in almost every rookery. In Monroe 
County it was fairly common in the interior. We started a flock 
of about 75 birds off one of the keys where they probably had a 
fair sized breeding colony, though we did not have time to explore 

Nyctanassa violacea. Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 

This handsome Heron was nowhere very common in the 
regions we visited, though, I believe, in certain sections it is quite 
abundant. In its full breeding plumage it is a striking and con- 

2^0 Oldys, Song of the Wood Pexuee. X £*%. 

spicuous bird. It is by no means shy, especially near its nest, 
where it will stand in the top of the nearest tree silently watching 
the intruder. 

There were one or two pairs of these birds in nearly every 
rookery on the St. Johns, but in spite of our efforts, we succeeded 
in finding only two of their nests, both on April 21. 

The first nest was on the outer edge of the rookery on a leaning 
willow and only four feet above the water. It measured 20 by 16 
inches, was made of large sticks and lined with fine twigs; the 
five eggs in it were on the point of hatching, some of them already 
pipped, so we contented ourselves with photographing it while the 
bird was flying about anxiously. The second nest was within a 
few yards of a Ward's Heron's nest, these two being the only 
nests in the vicinity ; it contained two eggs and two young birds, 
scantily covered with grayish down ; it was placed 8 feet from the 
ground in a small willow, near the end of a long narrow island. 

In Monroe County we saw a few Yellow-crowned Night Herons 
on the inland streams, both young and adult birds, but found 
no nests. 

Although not much in demand for its plumes, it is so tame and 
unsuspicious that it should be protected, especially from the 
natives among whom both of the Night Herons are highly 
esteemed as food. 



The usual phrases of the Wood Pewee are well known. The 
bird sings so persistently through the summer, when most birds 
are silent, that its melancholy rising and falling tones are familiar 
to all that frequent the woods during the milder season. But that 
these detached phrases are combined into a rhythmical song, 
uttered during the twilight hours of morning and evening, is a 
fact that seems generally to have escaped observation. 

I first heard this interesting utterance in 1894, and not again, 

Vol. xxii 
1904 J 

Oldys, Song of the Wood Pewee. 


although I was carefully listening for its repetition, until 1899, 
five years later. Every year since 1899 I have heard it with 
growing frequency, until now it is one of the ordinary bird songs 
of spring and summer. 

The song is remarkable in that it is constructed in the form of 
the ballad of human music. I have elsewhere shown the signifi- 
cance of this fact, 1 and will not repeat the deductions to which 
it gives rise ; but it may be well here to explain the identity of 

The arrangement of the ordinary ballad frequently consists of a 
musical theme for the first line, an answering theme for the second 
line that leaves the musical satisfaction suspended, a repetition of 
the first theme for the third line, and a repetition of the second 
theme, either exactly or in general character, but ending with the 
keynote, for the fourth line. An example will make this clear. 
Let us analyze the first four lines of ' 'Way Down upon the 
S'wanee River.' 

Note the symmetrical repetition of phrases, giving a pleasing 
balance to the composition. Observe also that the note marked 

1st theme. 

^ — . — — ^ — 9. — # J_^ ! ^_J 

2d, or answering theme. 




1st theme repeated. 

1 — G- 



2d theme repeated (in 




a that ends the second line does not satisfy the musical sense, 
but leaves the listener in suspense, with the expectation of more 
to follow ; but the note marked b at the end of the fourth line is 
the keynote, and is completely satisfying ; there may be more to 
the song, as in the case of the example quoted, but it is not 
necessary that there should be. The effect is as though a semi- 
colon, a colon, a semicolon, and a period were placed at the ends 
of the respective lines. 

1 Harper's Magazine, August, 1902, pp. 477-478. 


Oldys, Song of the Wood Pewee. 

r Auk 


The Wood Pewee's continuous song is governed by the same 
principles. As I first heard it, it was rendered as follows : 


1st theme. Answering theme. 1st theme 2d theme repeated 

repeated. (in character). 

108. _*_ _(2- ~.fz m jgl. - 9 - _|C_ 

—1 y — I 1- 1 h- 






£ 7 



The notes marked a and b, the closing notes of the second and 
fourth lines, have the same character as those in the corresponding 
positions in the human ballad given. 

In the many times I have heard this song there have been 
numerous variations, such as 







in which the third line and the passing note in the first line are 
omitted ; 


-!*- S7\ -#"- -h-l*- rrs +--,-1*-/"^ -l*-(— I*- fs 

-I*- /T\ -I — --F- /TS -F- 4 iTs H — _ -F- 











in which an extra set of the first and second themes is given ; 



:^Vf^=^===F^"E== =^te==gp"E 


S=±=t=£ZI f 


in which the last line ends with the second of the scale, instead 
of with the tonic or keynote (metronome number not taken) ; 


• -*- 

r^ TOT^^ 


-**i — 


CH=*= i 

Vol. XXI 

Oldys, Song of the Wood Petvee. 
almost identical with the preceding example ; 

J — 80. 

2 73 


w &=*=^- 

a very melodious song, one of three that were heard simultaneously; 

= 84. 






in which the repetition of the first phrase is omitted — pitch a 
shade flatter than E ; final note very lightly touched, the stress 
falling on the preceding F#; and 

in which the tempo is somewhat more strenuous than in the pre- 
ceding examples. 

In addition to these and other variations that have come under 
my personal observation, there is a very peculiar one reported to 
me by Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. A Wood Pewee near his home 
in Alexandria County, Va., occasionally rendered the rhythmical 
song in a much higher key and in what Mr. Miller calls a falsetto 
voice — very light and high. 

The song is usually sung over and over in strict time and with- 
out pause between verses. I have known it to continue for fifteen 
or twenty minutes at a time. It is usually preceded, and often 
followed, by the ordinary detached phrases. According to my 
experience it is never sung after dark, though the usual song may 
frequently be heard through the night, but seems to be confined 
almost entirely to dawn and dusk. It is not peculiar to any 
particular season during the Wood Pewee's stay with us, as I 
have noted it from shortly after the bird's arrival in spring to 
at least as late as September 7. 

In closing this brief account I would call attention to the 

2 74 Grinnell, Status of Melospiza lincolni striata. \ A Au H 


remarkable fact — perhaps a joke on us — that a bird which we 
have classed outside the ranks of the singers proper should deliver 
a song that judged by our own musical standards takes higher 
technical rank than any other known example of bird music. 




Melospiza lincolni striata Brewster. 

Melospiza lincolni striata Brewster, Auk VI, April 1889, 89 (original 
description, based on September birds from Comox, B. C.). — Chapman, 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Ill, 1890, 148 ("standing doubtful").— 
Rhoads, Auk X, Jan. 1893, 21 (characters not considered good). — 
Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1893, 5 1 (characters considered "slight 
and variable "). — McGregor, Condor, II, March 1900, 35 (skins from Red- 
wood City, San Geronimo, St. Helena, and Battle Creek, California). — 
Grinnell, Pac. Coast Avif. No. 3, June 1902, 57 (winter visitant in Cal- 
ifornia "south through the coast belt to the San Francisco Bay region "). 
— Brewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XLI, Sept. 1902, 150 (specimen from 
Victoria Mountains, L. Cal. ; "I see no reason why the existence of inter- 
mediate specimens, such as those to which Mr. Chapman calls attention, 
should be necessarily prejudicial to the recognition of the form as a sub- 
species, although its standing cannot perhaps be regarded as assured until 
its breeding-grounds are definitely known, and fully mature birds in sum- 
mer plumage have been examined."). 

Melospiza /««C(?/«//* Grinnell, Auk, XV, April 1898, 128 (found breed- 
ing at Sitka, Alaska, and a juvenile one-third grown secured; Mr. Brew- 
ster comments on an adult bird submitted to him as follows: "Your 
Lincoln's Sparrow from Sitka, Alaska, agrees closely with my types of 
M. c. [sic] striata in respect to the streaking of the upper parts, but it is 
less olivaceous and the buffy is less rich and deep. Making due allowance 
for seasonal and individual variation, I should think it not improbable 
that it may represent the breeding plumage of striata, but it would be of 
course unsafe to assume this positively on the strength of a single speci- 
men." [Mr. Brewster's wise but cautiously-made conjectures have proven 
correct]). — Ridgway, Bds. N. & Mid. Am. I, 1901, 382 {striata doubtfully 
synonvmized under Melospiza lincolnii). 

Vol. XXI 

Grinnell, Status of Melospiza lincolni striata. 2 7 S 

As shown by the above references, the validity of a Northwest 
Coast race of Melospiza lincolni has been as often doubted as 
affirmed. Ever since I began the systematic study of west- 
coast birds, this question has particularly interested me, and I 
have seldom neglected an opportunity to secure relevant specimens 
or information. As a result there is now at hand material which 
clearly demonstrates the existence of the form striata, as described 
fifteen years ago by Mr. Brewster. 

It seems that heretofore breeding birds have been wanting; but 
fine specimens, now available, from Sitka and Wrangel show the 
summer habitat of striata to be the Sitkan District, of Nelson, in 
southeastern Alaska. A sharply defined winter habitat, also, is 
constituted by the humid coast belt of California (San Francisco 
Bay Region, Santa Cruz and Northern Humid Coast Districts, as 
mapped in Pacific Coast Avifauna Number 3). Melospiza lin- 
colni lincolni occurs commonly in other parts of California in win- 
ter and especially during migration, and a few breed in the Sierras. 
But Melospiza lincolni striata seems to be the only form wintering 
in the above indicated habitat, and does not regularly move beyond 
its limits. These statements are drawn from about forty-five skins 
of both forms examined from California. Mr. McGregor has 
recorded a specimen of striata from Battle Creek, while Mr. Brew- 
ster refers a single skin from Lower California to the same form ; 
but these may be considered exceptional. I may here remark that 
I have so far failed to find a really satisfactory " intermediate," 
though alleged cases have been recorded. Mr. Brewster's type 
was a male in fresh fall plumage (Comox, B. C, Sept. 8). His 
painstaking and detailed description applies precisely to a speci- 
men (o*, No. 5016 Coll. J. G. ; Pacific Grove, Monterey County, 
California; Dec. 26, 1901) which is selected as being representa- 
tive of my winter series. The summer plumage of striata (£ ad. 
No. 5341 Coll. J. G. ; Wrangel, Alaska; June 25, 1902 ; collected 
by M. P. Anderson) differs from the winter plumage in greater 
conspicuousness of black markings, and in paleness and restriction 
of buffy suffusion, both evidently due to abrasion and slight fading. 
Compared with lincolni of equally worn plumage the upper parts of 
summer striata are much more broadly black-streaked, the olive 
edgings worn to such narrowness that the black predominates ; 


General Notes. 

T Auk 

L April 

pectoral and lateral streaking also broader ; central tail-feathers 
with much broader shaft-streaks. Briefly, color-differences are pro- 
nounced, and as far as present material goes, constant at all sea- 

The small size of striata is an especially good character, as 
shown by the accompanying table of measurements (in inches) 
made from selected specimens. Decreased wing and tail lengths 
seem to be an accompaniment of shorter yearly migration, here, as 
in Hylocichla guttata verecunda, Regulus calendula grinnelli and 
Hesperocichla nczvia nczvia, of corresponding summer and winter 

ATelosfiiza lincolni striata. 


Coll. J. G. 





Palo Alto, Cal. 

March 29, '01 





Pacific Grove, Cal. 

Dec. 26, '01 




534 1 

Wrangel, Alaska 

June 25, '02 




455 1 

Palo Alto, Cal. 

Jan. 19, 'oi 





it it a 

a u << 





a a a 

Dec. 20, '01 




3 6 4i 

San Geronimo, Cal. 

Sept. 15, '98 




1 179 

Sitka, Alaska 

June 25, '96 



Melospiza lincolni lincolni. 



Average of 7 $ $ from So. Cal 




Holbcell's Grebe at Niagara Falls. — While on a trip to Niagara Falls 
this past fall (Sept. 20, 1903) in company with Mr. Frederick C. Hubel, I 
picked up a fine specimen (ad. $) of HolboelTs Grebe (Colymbus kolbcellii) 
on the Canadian side just opposite the American Falls. Upon question- 
ing the proprietor of a curio shop, a few leet from the spot, he informed 
me that he shot the bird early that same morning swimming out in the 

Vol i*£ XI ] General Notes. 2JJ 

rapids. Personal examination proved that the grebe had been dead only 
a few hours. — Alexander W. Blain, Jr., Detroit, Mich. 

Holbcell's Grebe and the White Pelican at St. Mary's Georgia. — On 

February 18, 1904, I shot a Holboell's Grebe (Colymbus kolbcellii) in the 
mouth of Cumberland River, only about one mile from Florida waters. 
Mr. Chapman in his 'Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America' 
(the latest authority I have) gives South Carolina as the southern limit 
of its range. 

During the fall migrations (1903), three American White Pelicans 
(Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) were taken within a radius of twenty miles of 
this place — one in the St. Marys River opposite Kings Ferry, Fla.; one 
in the Satilla River, about Satilla Bluff, and one at Stafford Plantation 
on Cumberland Island. All three, I believe, were in such an exhausted 
condition that they were taken alive. — Isaac F. Arnow, St. Marys, Ga. 

Another Ohio Record for the Knot (Tringa canutus). — Authentic 
records for the occurrence of this bird in Ohio are few and far between. 
It gives me great pleasure to add at least one more record. While going 
over a small lot of Sandpipers and Plovers in the museum of Heidelberg 
University, I came across a specimen of this bird, shot in the spring of 
1894 on the banks of the Sandusky River, here at Tiffin. — W. F. Hennin- 
ger, Tiffin, Ohio. 

The Red-backed Sandpiper in Massachusetts in December. — Mr. 
George C Shattuck gave me a Red-backed Sandpiper {Pelidna alpina 
pacifica) which he shot on Barnstable Neck, Mass., on December 23, 1903. 
It was in company with another of its kind. — Reginald Heber Howe, 
Jr., Concord, Mass. 

Capture of Krider's Hawk at St. Marys, Georgia. — I take pleasure in 
recording the capture of a male Krider's Hawk {Buteo borealis kriderii) 
in the extreme southeastern corner of Georgia on February 3, 1904. 
In the winter of 1901-02 Mr. A. H. Helnn, of Miller Place, N. Y., and 1 
were hunting on Point Peter, a Government reservation a few miles down 
the river from this place, and saw two apparently very light colored Red- 
tailed Hawks but failed to get a shot at them. He remarked that they 
looked as light as Krider's Hawk. This winter I found that one at 
least was there again and I made several trips there trying to get a shot, 
but while I would see him on every occasion he was too wary for me to 
get what I considered a sure shot, and I would take no chances at him. 
On February 3, 1 decided I would try him again. Just before reaching my 
landing place, and while just opposite his haunt, I saw a hawk coming 
across from the Florida side of the river and scarcely had time to throw 
down my oars and get a suitable shell in my gun when he was abreast of 
me. I shot and he fell in the river about 100 feet astern. I found him 


General Notes. [ A ^f 

to be the hawk I was looking for, and a beauty, and I have added him to 
my modest collection of skins. He was evidently living high on Clapper 
Rails, as he had one in his stomach and another freshly eaten in his crop. 
— Isaac F. Arnow, St. Marys, Ga. 

The Great Gray Owl near Boston. — On February 7 of this year I saw 
a Great Gray Owl {Scotiaptex nebulosa) in Dedham, Mass. I was 
attracted to the spot by a great clamor of Crows and soon found my bird 
perched on a low limb of a white pine in open mixed woods. It held in 
its claws a dead and partly eaten crow, which when it was finally dropped 
by the owl in flight, I found to lack the head and fore part of body and 
the viscera. The owl seemed perfectly fearless of me, but showed ner- 
vousness when the crows cawed near by, and followed with its eyes the 
flight of the single crows that flew over its tree from time to time. I 
drove it about from tree to tree with snowballs. It flew low and always 
took a rather low perch, — from ten to twenty feet from the ground, and 
usually on a large branch of a pine tree, near the trunk, though twice it 
alighted on the very top of a red cedar. I could get as near as the height 
of its perch permitted and was frequently within twenty feet of it during 
the hour or two that I spent in its company. — Francis H. Allen, 
Boston, A/ass. 

The Pileated Woodpecker in Anne Arundel County, Md. — Upon read- 
ing the note of Mr. George W. H. Soelner in 'The Auk' for January, 
1904, recording the Pileated Woodpecker {Ceofthloeus pileatus) in the 
District of Columbia, it put me in mind of a record I made November 25, 

As I was crossing a field bordering some low swampy woodland along 
Rogue Harbor Creek, I heard the familiar note of this species, and look- 
ing up saw one with its broad sweeping flight almost directly over my 
head, about fifty feet up. This locality was on the line of the Annapolis, 
Baltimore and Washington R. R., about midway between Odenton and 

For the last twenty years, I have found this species to be fairly common 
while on shooting trips in Somerset County, Maryland, during the 
months of November, December, and January, always counting upon 
seeing one or two each day, but on my last trip of ten days' duration, in 
December, 1903, I neither saw nor heard a single bird. — William H. 
Fisher, Baltimore, Md. 

Whip-poor-will (Antroslomus vociferus), a New Bird for Colorado. — A 
specimen of this species was found nearly dead in an orchard at Fort 
Collins, Colorado, about September 14, 1903, by Mrs. R. J. Tenny, who 
presented it to the Agricultural College. It was given to me for identi- 
fication and mounting, and after its preparation was sent to Washington 
for more positive determination, where it was pronounced to be Antros- 

Vol. XXI] 
1904 J 

General Notes. 


tomus vociferus, thus adding another species to the list of Colorado birds. 
At least it is not given in Professor Cooke's list, nor in Mrs. Bailey's 
' Birds of the Western United States.' The specimen was in good plum- 
age, but greatly emaciated, although I found no signs of its having been 
injured. — L. E. Burnett, Taxidermist and Collector, State Agricultural 
College, Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Another Abnormal Bill. — The character of the malformed bill sub- 
mitted by Mr. B. S. Bowdish in the last number of ' The Auk' seems a 
common type in abnormalities of that kind. I have in my possession 
the head of a Crow (Corvus americanus) afflicted with the same kind of 
malformation. In this case, however, the upper mandible is bent com- 
pletely down and around so as to point over the bird's shoulder. The 
lower mandible is not so greatly elongated as in Mr. Bowdish's speci- 
men, however, but the notches he speaks of where the mandibles cross 

Malformed Bill of Crow (Corvus americanus). Nat. size. 

are very deep. There is no sign of injury to account for the peculiar 

It raises an interesting conjecture in regard to the winter and early 
spring food supply of these birds. It was killed early in March near 
Port Huron, Mich., 1901, and was evidently starving to death when the 
shot gun put it out of misery. Its plumage, however, was in good shape, 
not quite as glossy perhaps as some, but it was quite evident that the 
bird did not suffer from lack of food at the time of its last moult. What 
food it could have lived upon during the winter is a subject for specula- 
tion. It was an impossibility to pick up anything from the ground with 
such a bill, and whatever its diet was during the winter, it could not be 
found in the more northern ranges in early spring. — P. A. Taverner, 
Chicago, III. 

280 General Notes. [a^HI 

The Western Meadowlark (Stumella magna neglecta) in Southern 
Georgia. — In a small series of Meadowlark s from Southeastern Georgia, 
I find three or four that appear to approach the western form neglecta. 
One specimen, a female, taken March 16, 1903, at ' Mush Bluff ' (about 
four miles from St. Marys), is a typical neglecta, and is apparently indis- 
tinguishable from specimens of this bird taken in North Dakota. — *j.\, H. 
Helme, Miller Place, N. T. 

The Evening Grosbeak near Quebec, Canada. — On the 24th of Nov- 
ember, 1903, four specimens of the Evening Grosbeak {Hespert'pkona ves- 
fertina) were brought to me — three males and a female. They were 
killed in the woods in the vicinity of Quebec. Later, about the end of 
January, 1904, five others, of which one was a female, were shot in the 
same neighborhood. To my knowledge these are, with the exception of 
one killed in 1890, the only specimens ever met with here. — C. E. 
Dionne, Quebec, Can. 

The Pine Grosbeak on Long Island, N. Y. — It is so rarely that Long 
Island is favored with the presence of the Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enu- 
cleator canadensis) that their occurrence here in considerable numbers 
during the past winter is worthy of record. During the last twenty five 
years there have been few winters that I have not spent considerable time 
in the field at this place, but I have never been able to meet with this bird, 
to be certain of its identity, until the past winter. I have heard of a few 
instances of its occurrence on Long Island in former years, as at Miller 
Place, Cold Spring, Middle Island, and Terryville. At Miller Place, on 
November 26, 1903, three Grosbeaks were noted in an orchard near my 
house, and later a red male was seen flying westward. I was told of a 
"flock of Butcher Birds " that were seen here about a week prior to this 
date. From the description given me I have little doubt that they were 
Pine Grosbeaks. While perched on the top of a tree, and in their undu- 
lating flight, they bear a strong resemblance to shrikes, and if seen singly 
by one unfamiliar with them might readily be mistaken for these birds. 
From November 13 to 25, I was away from home and cannot tell at what 
time they began to arrive. I am inclined to think that some birds I 
heard early in the month were Grosbeaks, but I was not then familiar with 
their notes and did not recognize them. November 27, I left Miller Place 
and did not have another opportunity to look for them until December 4, 
when I met with a small flock in a cedar grove not far from my house. 
In this grove, from this time on until about the middle of February, 
Grosbeaks could be found in varying numbers. The last one was seen 
on February 28. On February 1 and 6 they were more plentiful than at 
any other time, and appeared to be migrating. Not more than two per 
cent were in the red plumage. Their food consisted almost entirely of the 
seeds of the red cedar. The seeds were nearly always crushed before 
they were swallowed, only the inner portions of the seeds being eaten. 

Vol. XX 

I General Notes. 2oI 

Occasionally a few would come into the orchaH and pick among the 
frozen apples left on the trees. While feeding they were very gentle and 
I had no difficulty in catching several in a small scoop-net, made of fine 
wire, attached to a pole. Four that I have in a large cage are very fond 
of sunflower and hemp seeds. They will eat canary and rape seed but 
prefer chat of the sunflower. Millet seed they will not eat if they can get 
anj other food. They appear to have four distinct sets of notes, — a low 
querulous note uttered while feeding ; another, somewhat resembling that 
of the Goldfinch, uttered both on the wing and while sitting in the trees; 
and a longer drawn whistle that reminds one of a Cedar-bird. This 
appears to be their usual call-note when restless and alarmed. Several 
times I heard an attempt at a song, consisting of three or four finch-like 
notes. During the winter I met with a few Grosbeaks at Rocky Point, 
and heard of their presence at several other places on Long Island. — 
A. H. Helme, Miller Place, N. 2'. 

The Pine Grosbeak on Long Island, N. Y. — After years of waiting I 
am at last able to positively record this species on Long Island. Three 
specimens were seen at Southold, February 2, 1904, by Mrs. A. F. Lowerre 
who is an unusually careful observer. Her report is as follows: "Tues- 
day morning I saw three birds in a neighbor's honeysuckle. Took my 
opera glass and went close to study them. Found they were Pine Gros- 
beaks, either all females or young male birds. There were no carmine-red 
adult males to be seen. I never saw or heard of them here before." 

February 12 Mrs. Lowerre wrote: "I saw the three grosbeaks again 
yesterday ; the only places they seem to visit are the honeysuckle vines. " 
Subsequently Mrs. Lowerre reports that she did not see the grosbeaks 
after February 11. 

All Giraud says of them is : "In the autumn of 1827, large flocks of pine 
grosbeaks visited Long Island .... Since that period until the present 
year (1844), I have not seen or heard of its occurring on Long Island." — 
William Dutcher, Netv York City. 

White-winged Crossbill — A Correction. — Mr. Spicer of Goodrich r 
Genesee Co., Mich., has requested me to correct a misleading record 
attributed to him by Professor Cook in his k Birds of Michigan,' p. 108. 
Cook quotes him as finding the White-winged Crossbill breeding at Good- 
rich, Mich., but the note in question (O. & O., 1889, p. 43) refers to the 
American Goldfinch. Unfortunately this record is quoted in my recent 
'List of the Birds of Southeastern Michigan' (Bull. Mich. Ornith. Club, 
IV, 38) and is very misleading as to the southern breeding range of 
Loxia leucoptera. — Bradshaw A. Swales, Detroit, Mick. 

The Lark Sparrow in Oneida County, N. Y. — June 13, 1903, in the 
extreme northeastern corner of this county, I saw, and positively identi- 
fied, a Lark Sparrow {Ckondestes grammacus). A week later I visited 

282 General Notes. X_&% 

the same locality, but failed to get a glimpse of the bird again. This, I 
believe, is the first record of the occurrence of the species in this State, 
outside of Long Island. — W. S. Johnson, Boonville, Oneida County, 
N. Y. 

A Chewink in Winter at Ashland, Mass. — On December 29, 1903, at 
Ashland, Middlesex, Co., Massachusetts, I had the good fortune to run 
across a male Chewink (Pipilo erythrophthalmus). He was trying to find 
food in the snow-covered road, and was so tame that I approached within 
a few feet before he flew off to some nearby shrubbery. I watched him 
closely for some time to see whether he was injured, and so unable to 
migrate, — but he seemed, on the contrary, very active. He uttered the 
usual call-note once or twice. — Roger N. Baldwin, Cambridge, Mass. 

Another Nest of the Philadelphia Vireo. — I was very much interested 
in William Brewster's paper relative to Vireo philadelphicus, owing to the 
fact of having personally found an occupied nest of the species. With a 
view to helping along the good cause by one more step toward establish- 
ing the average nesting site I take the liberty of submitting my experi- 
ence. The exact date is not known, but it was during a sojourn in Lee- 
lanau County, Michigan, extending from the 12th to the 21st of August, 
1890 At that particular point the rocks arose from the water edge of 
Traverse Bay, on an angle of 45 degrees, until a height of 30 feet was 
attained; then came a level stretch of three to four hundred yards densely 
covered with blackberry bushes, and terminating at the base of a perpen- 
dicular bluff about fifteen feet high. The top of this bluff was covered 
with a second growth of poplar that in turn margined a forest of large 
white pine trees. We ran a survey line through this poplar belt and it 
was here I discovered the nest, and quite accidentally, as I was not look- 
ing for nests so late in the season. The nest was suspended from the 
horizontal crotch of a poplar branch which overhung the bluff, but was 
not more than five feet higher than the bluff top, and I could easily reach 
into it. In shape, size and construction it resembled the establishment 
of Vireo olivaceus but the exterior was thickly covered with curly pieces of 
silvery white poplar bark, suggesting, at a short distance, the structure of 
V. Jiavifrons. The male was not seen, but the female was in evidence 
and fearless, often approaching to within four or five feet of me. The 
species was recognized at first glance, indeed, it cannot be mistaken by 
anyone who has handled the skins. The nest contained two young, but 
as I reached for them they fluttered out and flew about fifty yards before 
striking the level of the berry bushes below. This find cannot, of course, 
be considered strictly authentic, as the birds were not secured, but person- 
ally I am as positive of the identity as of that of the Passer domesticus 
that perched upon the window sill a few moments ago. — J. Claire 
Wood, Detroit, Michigan. 

V °ig? XI ] General Notes. 283 

The Philadelphia Vireo. — Mr. William Brewster's article on this vireo 
in 'The Auk,' 1903, pp. 369-376, is very full and interesting, but at the 
same time throws discredit and lack of accuracy on other observers. For 
example, I am absolutely certain that the nest I took at Lansdowne, Ont., 
in 1895, was not a Red-eyed Vireo's ; at the same time I am as positive as 
it is possible to be without having the bird in hand that it belonged to the 
Philadelphia Vireo. 

Mr. Brewster assumes that I do not know the Red-eyed Vireo. I prob- 
ably know it as well as he does ; as it is a very common bird in Ontario, 
and not a year passes but that I see its nest. This year, for example, 
I found a nest in a small maple. I watched the birds closely to be sure 
of the species, and noted the habits of the pair. This pair was very shy 
and retiring, whereas the pair of vireos I noted at Lansdowne, in 1895, 
were demonstrative and noisy. The location was very different as was 
the finish of the nest, the latter being smaller and not so well finished off 
and adjusted as the first. I knew from the location my birds were not 
Warbling Vireos, for which the location was not adapted, — a rough pas- 
ture field with swampy places grown up with willow, spruce, etc., and 
in the drier places, poplar, and no large woods near. 

A characteristic of my nest was the presence of shreds of birch bark, 
which as there were no birch trees near, must have been brought from 
some distance. I am quite satisfied, in spite of Mr. Brewster's strictures, 
with my nest and its identification, which was a careful one, just as he no 
doubt feels satisfied that he has the first authentic nest and eggs of that 
species on record. 

With regard to the yellow shading of the breast, Mr. Brewster must 
know that the intensity of coloring in both vireos and warblers is a very 
uncertain element. — C. J. Young, Sharbot Lake, Ontario, Can. 

A Winter Record for the Hermit Thrush ( Hylocichla guttata fallasii) 
in Eastern Massachusetts. — This species is sufficiently rare in winter in 
Massachusetts to make it of interest to record one seen by the writers in 
Longwood, Brookline, Mass., January 1, 1904. The bird was not at all 
shy, and was observed for several minutes within a distance of a few feet, 
so that its identification was easily determined. It was hopping about in 
a clump of trees and bushes at the edge of a small pond, now and then 
uttering its characteristic chuck. 

Another Hermit Thrush, or possibly the same one, was observed at 
Chesnut Hill, Mass., on January 8, 1904. It was watched for several min- 
utes while it was picking at a small crust of bread which lay on the snow. 
As the two localities mentioned are at least three miles apart, it is impos- 
sible to, tell whether this was the same bird as the one seen on January 
1 or not. Messrs. Howe and Allen in their 'Birds of Massachusetts,' p. 
95, give only three winter records for the Hermit Thrush for this State. — 
Francis G. and Maurice C. Blake, Brookline, Mass. 


General Notes. \_t% 

Two Additions to the Bird Fauna of Kansas. — I wish to record the 
addition of two species to the bird fauna of Kansas. They are as follows : 

1. Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus). — A young male was 
captured along the Kansas River near Lawrence on October 10, 1898, by 
Banks Brown. The specimen was mounted by Leverett A. Adams and is 
now in the museum of the University of Kansas. This species not hav- 
ing been previously reported as "seen "or "likely to occur in Kansas" 
is an absolute addition to our avifauna. 

2. White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera). This species was 
inserted in my first editions of ' The Birds of Kansas,' in 1872, on the 
authority of Dr. T. M. Brewer, and was omitted from my fifth edition 
(May, 1903) because its occurrence in Kansas had not been verified by 
actual captures. I am glad to report two recent captures. The first was 
that of an adult male in fall plumage, shot by Leverett A. Adams near 
Lawrence, in Douglas County, November 4, 1899. This specimen, 
mounted by E. D. Bunker, is now in the museum of the University of 
Kansas. The second capture was that of a young male, taken at Hays 
City in western Kansas, September 15, 1902, by C. W. Miller, who has 
the specimen in his own collection. 

These two additions, together with the three recorded in the January 
number of 'The Auk,' increase to 347 the number of species and varieties 
of birds personally known to me as occurring in Kansas. — F. H. Snow, 
Larvrence, Kan. 

Mortality Among Young Birds, Due to Excessive Rains. — During the 
summer of 1903, prolonged dry and warm weather, lasting through the 
greater part of May and the first week of June, was followed by an exces- 
sive rainfall. From June 6 to 14, inclusive, I was at Demarest, N. J., and 
from the evidence that there came under my notice, I became convinced 
that the mortality among young birds in the nest was far beyond normal, 
owing to the heavy rains which so closely succeeded each other. 

Wishing to see how extensive this abnormal mortality might be, I wrote 
to some thirty ornithologists in various sections of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New Jersey, inquiring regarding this subject. To a number 
who furnished interesting information, I am greatly indebted, as well as 
to others who courteously replied to my queries, stating that they were 
unable to furnish any information on the subject. 

The deductions which may be gathered from the data thus collected are, 
first, that there was, at least in some sections, an unusually heavy mor- 
tality among young birds as a result of exposure, cold, and in some cases 
drowning, due to heavy rains, as well as an unusually large number of 
nests with eggs which were deserted because of the eggs becoming wet 
and chilled ; second, it would appear that in other sections such mortality 
was not evident. This may be due to the difference in the predominating 
species of the different localities, or to difference in environment of nests, 
in the sections covered by the observers so reporting. 

Vol.XXH General Notes. 28 C 

1904 J o 

A few examples of cases coming under my notice at Demarest, are as 
follows : on June 7 a Field Sparrow's nest was found in a weed clump in 
a meadow, containing three young. On the 13th three lifeless, water- 
soaked bodies lay in the nest, which the birds would have left in a few- 
days. On June 11 a Kingbird's nest was found just completed, and this 
nest was subsequently deserted by the birds before any eggs had been 
laid, apparently as a result of its continued soaked condition. On the 
same date, and in the same orchard I examined a Bluebird's nest, in a 
knot-hole in an apple limb, their second nest for the season, and contain- 
ing at this time four eggs. On July 4 I visited this nest again, and the 
wet, decaying, and deserted eggs were still in the nest, which had evi- 
dently been partly filled with water. 

On June 13 I photographed a nest of four young Chipping Sparrows, 
in a grapevine, close to a house. The situation of this nest seemed ideal 
for withstanding the weather, a number of large leaves sheltering it very 
well. The young were then almost ready to leave the nest. On the 
morning of the 15th, following a day and night of hard rain, these birds 
were found dead. 

Mr. S. H. Chubb, of this city, reported to me a case on Staten Island, of 
the drowning out of a family of young of the Tufted Titmouse. 

Mr. S. N. Rhoads wrote me that though he could not doubt that there 
had been an unusual mortality among young birds owing to the heavy 
rains, he had not, in his limited field work, seen any evidence of it. Mr. 
William B. Burke, writing from Rochester, N. Y., said that this subject 
had been brought up at a meeting of the Ornithological Club, and that 
the consensus of opinion was "that there had been no perceptible loss 
among young birds as a result of excessive rains in this region." He 
added that living adjacent to a ninety acre beech wood, he had seen no 
evidence of unusual mortality among young birds, and that friends from 
Canada reported that there was no apparent loss there. 

Mr. Josiah H. Clark, of Paterson, N. J., reported that at Crystal Lake 
the prolonged rains flooded a Bluebird's nest in a hole in a stump, caus- 
ing the birds to desert the four eggs that the nest contained. He also 
cited the case of a House Wren's nest which had been flooded and 
deserted in the same manner. 

Mr. T. H. Jackson, of West Chester, Pa., writes : "Although I kept no 
record, I noticed that a great many nests were broken up by the cold 
rains during the early summer of 1903. Approximately I should say at 
least fifty percent among the smaller species failed to mature in the nests. 
Am sorry I can not give you more accurate information." 

Mr. John Lewis Childs, of Floral Park, N. Y., writes that on Long 
Island he had been unable to find any evidence of unusual mortality 
among young birds. He further adds, however : "At a recent visit with 
John Burroughs up the Hudson Valley, 1 learned that he had examined a 
great many nests this fall, and in a large number of them found the 
remains of young birds, and he is of the opinion that large numbers of 
nestlings died, perhaps as high as twenty-five percent." 

286 General Notes. [^ 

I have in the past fifteen years examined a very considerable number 
of nests, and it has been my experience that normally it is an unusual 
thing to find dead young in the nest. I should say that each such find 
the past season was so much evidence indicating an unusual mortality, 
and I am of the opinion that could such data all be gathered, it would be 
found that the effect of the unusual season of 1903 on bird life was very 
marked. — B. S. Bowdish, New 2'ork City. 

The Rapidity of the Wing-Beats of Birds. — Attention may well be 
directed to a neglected phase of the problem of flight, for while foreign 
observers have devised graphical methods for measuring wing movements 
too swift for discernment by the human eye, little or nothing is known 
about our birds of slow flight, in which it is possible to count the wing- 
beats. On several occasions, I have had opportunity for watching 
Herring Gulls {Larus argentatus) following in the wake of a steamboat 
running at the rate of ten or twelve miles an hour, and on calm days I 
find the wing-beats in this species average about one hundred and eighty 
to the minute. Varying conditions make difficult even such simple 
observations as these ; but the cooperation of many observers in this 
almost untouched field may some day furnish valuable data. Laboratory 
experiments abroad, with harnessed birds, show that the wing-beats of a 
Sparrow are 780 a minute, of a Duck, 540, of a Pigeon, 480, and so on,, 
while at home we only know that wings are too swift for most cameras. 
The subject is a large one and I merely wish to stimulate interest in it, by 
thus lightly touching upon it. — Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M. D., Nexv- 
York City. 

A Correction. — In 'The Auk,' Vol. XIX, No. 3, July, 1902, p. 331, in 
the first line, "Faxon and Allen" should read Faxon and Hoffmann. — 
Reginald Heber Howe, Concord, Mass. 

Audubon's ' Ornithological Biography.' — I have just purchased a copy- 
of the above work, the first volume of which bears the imprint, 

Philadelphia : | Judah Dobson, Agent, 108 Chestnut Street ; | and | 
H. H. Porter, Literary Rooms, 121 Chestnut Street. | MDCCCXXXI. 

Coues's Bibliography makes no mention of this imprint, nor can I find 
another set the first volume of which bears such a one. — Reginald 
Heber Howe, Jr., Concord, Mass. 

Delaware Bird Notes. — A hasty visit to Lewes, Del. — Cape Henlopen. 

on February 5, 1904, admitting of but an hour's walk across the frozen 

marsh and barely into the cedars and pines bordering the ocean sufficed 
to note the following, amongst the species: — Myrtle Warblers, numer- 
ous ; Robins and Bluebirds, abundant ; several Savannah Sparrows, a 
flock of 18 Snow Buntings, one Catbird, a single Brown-headed Nut- 
hatch, and two Red-breasted Nuthatches. — C. J. Pennock, Kennett 
Square, Pa. 

Vol ;* XI ] General Notes. 287 

Bird Notes from Shelter Island, Long Island, N. Y. — Lesser Scaup 
Duck {Ay thy a affinis). — This duck has been noted in this vicinity several 
times in midsummer. A specimen was shot by a friend of mine on Aug. 
18 of last year (1903). A pair were seen by Dr. Braislin and myself at 
Napeague Harbor on June 20, 1902. None of these were crippled birds, 
and all possessed normal powers of flight, so that their failure to migrate 
with their fellows was surely owing to no physical disability. 

Wilson's Warbler {Wilsonia pustlla). — A specimen was taken on 
August 22, 1903, — the earliest I have ever observed it in the autumnal 

Water Thrushes (Seiurus noveboracensis) arrived on the same date 
as the last. 

Willet (Symphemia semipalmata). — A single specimen was taken 
Aug. 22. This bird has become very rare in this vicinity of late vears. 

Maryland Yellowthroat (Geothlypts trtckas). — A fine male of this 
species was noted and watched for some time on November 13, 1903. 
His late stay was owing, no doubt, to the congenial surroundings, formed 
by a thick growth of a species of wild honeysuckle, covering the ground 
and low bushes in a sheltered spot, remaining green late in the winter, 
and containing many warm and sunny sheltered nooks. 

Pine Grosbeak {Pinicola enucleator). — A few of these rare visitors 
from the north have been about this winter. A single one was seen 
November 28, 1903. I received a pair to mount, shot on Dec. 22, the 
male in the full red-washed plumage, the female gray. They were found 
feeding around a garbage heap near the back door of a dwelling house, 
and were very tame. Two more were seen near the same place, but not 
taken, on January 3, 1904. 

Hermit Thrush {Hylocichla guttata pallasii). — Very scarce during 
their usual migration dates. For some unaccountable reason their move- 
ments to the south seem to have been postponed so long that, by the advent 
of severe weather, many of them came to grief. A single specimen was 
noted on Nov. 13, 1903; next seen on Dec. 26, and again on Dec. 31. 
The weather was then very cold, the ground covered with snow, and the 
specimens were in an emaciated condition. The last chapter in the 
tragedy was revealed by a specimen found under the edge of a sheltering 
embankment, frozen to death, on January 5, 1904. The ground was then 
covered with snow, about a foot deep on the level, and traveling was very 
hard, so that I covered only a small section of country during my obser- 
vations, but, judging by the several instances in which I noted the birds, 
many hundreds must have perished, in the aggregate. — Willis W. 
Worthington, Shelter Island Heights, N. Y. 

Notes Concerning Certain Birds of Long Island, N. Y. — Puffinus 
borealis. Mr. Andrew Chichester shot two birds {$ and $) of this spe- 
cies on the ocean some distance off Fire Island Inlet, on Oct. 4, 1902, and 
sent them to me in the flesh. 

Cathartes aura. Mr. Robt. Peavey, who killed the two specimens of 

288 General Notes. \_t?x\\ 

this species before recorded by me, shot two additional specimens, one of 
which he has presented to the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences. 

Anas obscura rubripes. Soon after the publication of Mr. William 
Brewster's description of this newly defined subspecies I made inquiries 
regarding the presence of a Black Duck on Long Island answering the 
description of rubripes. I found that the difference in external character- 
istics was sufficient to have attracted the notice of certain sportsmen and 
baymen. Mr. Brewster found that the red-legged form is well known to 
baymen in Massachusetts and that it is regarded by them as a distinct 
variety of the Black Duck. I find substantially the same facts to apply 
on Long Island. In answer to my request, from one of whom I had 
made inquiries, that specimens of this variety of Black Duck be furnished 
me, I received a few days later two fine specimens answering in every 
respect to Mr. Brewster's description. This subspecies is, therefore, here- 
with definitely recorded for Long Island. 

Anas penelope. A specimen of the European Widgeon was killed on 
Gardiner's Island, Feb. 5, 1902, by Hiram Miller, of Springs. The cap- 
ture of this bird was reported to me by Mr. Ivan C. By ram, a taxidermist 
of Sag Harbor, who mounted the bird and who identified it. To meet the 
question of possible error in identification I requested and received from 
Mr. Miller the following description: "Wing patch green; longer wing 
feathers and tail dark brown; head and neck chestnut shading to buff on 
forehead; breast gray shading to white belly; under tail-coverts black; 
legs and feet dusky lead." He adds : "There was another killed the 
autumn before I killed mine here, and another this autumn here." He 
states that the specimen in question was killed from a large flock of 

Aythya vallisneria. The Canvas-back is sufficiently rare on Long 
Island to be worthy of record. It is perhaps unnecessary to say that 
the not infrequent reports of large flocks of Canvas-backs on Long 
Island sent from gunning resorts to the daily press, with the evident 
desire of attracting the city sportsmen thither, may safely be set down 
to the presence of its near relative, the Red-head. I have never interro- 
gated a reliable Long Island gunner, bayman or guide, who had ever 
observed a flock of any considerable number of Canvas-backs on Long 
Island. Abundant as this bird is on the Chesapeake, its rarity on Long 
Island is very firmly established. Mr. Andrew Chichester, a veteran 
gunner of Amity ville, sent me a pair {$ and ? ) of fine, fresh birds shot 
by his son Arthur at that place, March, 1903. 

Chen hyperborea nivalis. A Goose ($ im.) sent in the flesh, by Mr. 
Ivan C. Byram of Sag Harbor, was shot Nov. 18, 1903, at Noyac, a hamlet 
three miles west of Sag Harbor, by Cornelius Bennett. I refer the bird 
to C. hyperborea nivalis, since it more nearly approaches the description 
of the immature of this species than that of C. ca^rulescens in the same 
stage of plumage. 

V0l i 9 £ XI ] General Notes. 289 

As the bird represents an interesting phase of plumage the following 
details are given : Top of head and back of neck slaty black shading to 
lighter on sides and in front except some of the feathers of the fore neck 
which are dark like the former. The tips of some of the (new) dark 
feathers of this region are whitish. Back, grayish blue, the tips of these 
broad feathers edged with gray. Lower back and rump and upper tail- 
coverts white. Wing-coverts grayish blue to fuscous and edged with 
white. Tail fuscous gray, edged broadly with white. Chin, sides of 
head, neck, breast and belly washed with bright ochraceous buff, most 
deeply so on the head. Length, 29.50; wing, 16.25 \ tail, 5.50 ; bill, 2.50 ; 
tarsus, 3.12. 

Crymophilus fulicarius. Three Red Phalaropes (females) which struck 
the Montauk Point Light were picked up at the foot of the tower, Nov. 
27, 1902, by Capt. James J. Scott, the Keeper of the Lighthouse, and 
kindly forwarded to me. 

Numenius borealis. A bird of this species {$) was shot at Rockaway 
Beach Sept. 14, 1902, by Mr. Robt. L. Peavey of Brooklyn and is now in 
his collection of mounted birds, and has been examined by the writer. 
Mr. W. F. Hendrickson in a recent communication to Mr. William 
Dutcher referred to a strange bird which was shot from a flock of about 
fifteen as they were passing along the beach, near Zach's Inlet Life 
Saving Station on August 29, 1903. From the description furnished 
Mr. Dutcher was inclined to believe the bird one of this species and 
referred the matter to me for investigation. The captain of the life 
saving crew, Philip K. Chichester, who saw the bird, is certain the bird 
was an "English Fute," that is, an Eskimo Curlew. The life-saver is an 
old-time gunner who in former times saw the bird in much greater num- 
bers than it is now known to occur anywhere. There seems to me no 
reasonable doubt that this bird, which unfortunately was promptly 
plucked and eaten, was also a specimen of the Eskimo Curlew. 

Sturnus vulgaris. As a fulfillment of predictions that the Starling 
would gradually widen its range on Long Island, it is perhaps worth 
while to note that a specimen has been taken as far east as Hicksville. 
Mr. Lott, a taxidermist of Freeport, informed me that a bird strange to 
him had been sent for mounting, with a report that it had been shot at 
Hicksville. On examining the specimen I found it to be a Starling. — 
William C. Braislin, M U., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

British Columbia Notes. — The following records were made at Comox, 
Vancouver Island, B. C, during the latter part of 1903 and early part of 

Larus barrovianus. Point Barrow Gull. — I shot an immature 
specimen of this gull in Comox bay, on the 15th December, the first 
record for the Province. 

Sterna hirundo. Common Tern. Two adults taken on the 24th Sep- 
tember by Lieutenant E. N. Carver, R. N. 

Branta bernicla. Brant. — On the 13th December I noticed a bunch of 

29O General Notes. \k"% 

six Brant that kept separate from the large numbers of Black Brant in 
Comox harbor ; after a hard bit of work I managed to kill one of them, 
which proved to be an adult female of the Atlantic species. The others 
were undoubtedly an old male and three young of the same species as 
they all looked very light colored. The specimen secured is in everyway 
typical bernicla, with interrupted collar, and sharply defined black breast, 
against the pale grayish lower surface. It was very fat. 

I have since found that the Eastern Brant is a fairly common migrant 
on the Pacific Coast. Since shooting the first specimen, I have killed 
seven others, and have seen a number of small bands that, as a rule, keep 
separate from the Black Brant. 

I should say about eight percent of the Brant in Comox bay are the 
Eastern species. Only once have I killed both species out of the same 
flock. There seems to be no tendency to intergradation, unless the unit- 
ing of the neck patches in one bernicla might be so considered. This 
was an adult male, in all other respects typical bernicla, and the collar was 
barely united by the slightest white tipping. 

Actodromas acuminata. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. — On the 4th 
October I saw a Sharp-tailed Sandpiper with three Pectoral Sandpipers 
near the mouth of Campbell River. I had no gun, so was unable to 
secure it, but as I was within four yards, was able to identify it with 
certainty. It was a young of the year with white supercilium and throat, 
and warm buffy, slightly streaked jugulum. 

Pelidna alpina. Dunlin. — Atypical Dunlin taken the 5th December 
out of a small troop of pacijica. This is a bird of the year with a few 
feathers of first plumage left in upper parts. The crown and foreneck 
are much more conspicuously streaked than in pacijica, the pectoral 
band being nearly as heavily streaked as in maculata. Measurements 
taken in the flesh: — $ , Length, 7.75 ; wing, 4.60; culmen, 1.35. 

Charadrius dominicus fulvus. — Pacific Golden Plover. — Whether 
typical dominicus occurs on the Pacific coast is doubtful, but I have never 
before taken such absolutely typical fulvus as some that I collected here 
on and after the 3rd November. These are bright enough for the Euro- 
pean species and I almost expected to find the axillars white. Two taken 
the 4th November had already acquired some of the feathers of the 
summer plumage on the mantle ; these are broadly margined, not 
spotted, with bright yellow. 

Falco islandus. White Gyrfalcon. — A fine adult female White 
Gyrfalcon was brought to me on the 4th December. It had been killed 
by a boy with a 22 rifle. 

Falco peregrinus anatum. Duck Hawk. — So far this is the only 
species of Peregrine I have been able f o secure here. I expected pealei 
to be the common form on Vancouver Is; nd. 

Nucifraga columbiana. Clark's Crow. — I shot an adult female here 
on the 18th February. This is a very rare straggler to Vancouver. 

Vireo huttoni obscurus. Anthony's Vireo. — This vireo evidently 

Vol /* XI ] General Notes. 29 1 

winters here, as I took a specimen the 4th December. In life it is 
impossible to distinguish it from a Rubycrest, and like that bird associates 
with flocks of Chestnut-backed Tits. — Allan Brooks, Comox, Van- 
couver Island, B. C. 

The Ipswich Sparrow, Kirtland's Warbler, and Sprague's Pipit in 
Georgia. — Along the eastern shore of Cumberland Island, Georgia, are 
long stretches of sand flats and dunes covered with a scattering growth of 
beach-grass. On April 14, 1903, in one of these spots, about two miles 
south of the inlet separating Cumberland Island from Little Cumberland 
Island, I flushed and shot an Ipswich Sparrow (Passerculus princeps). It 
proved to be a female, very fat, and had not quite completed its spring 
moult. This I believe is the most southern point from which this species 
has been reported, and the date (April 14) is rather late to find this bird 
so far from its summer home. 

On April 12, 1902, I shot a female Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirt- 
landi'i) from a small water oak standing near the border of an old field at 
the north end of Cumberland Island. Its large size at once attracted 
my attention, as it leisurely and silently hopped about among the 

On January 16, 1903, near the north end of Cumberland Island, I flushed 
a small light colored bird that I suspected to be Sprague's Pipit (Antkus 
spragueii). It flew but a short distance, but upon my attempting to 
approach it at once took flight, and joining a Common Pipit that chanced 
to be passing at the time was soon lost to view. Its mate somewhat 
resembled that of the Common Pipit, yet was readily distinguishable 
from it. Jan. 19, I again found it in the same locality and shot it, thus 
confirming my conclusions as to its identity. My next opportunity to 
look for these birds was March 27, when I found three and secured two of 
them. From this time until April 3, several more were noted and six 
specimens secured. They were all found singly among the short grass on 
the dry sandy flats between the marsh and the ocean, and did not appear 
to mingle with the Common Pipits, which were common in the vicinity. 
I did not see any perform the towering flight which is said to be so char- 
acteristic of this species. Nine specimens in all were taken on the follow- 
ing dates: January 19, one ; March 27, two ; March 28, three; March 30, 
two; April 3, one. All were females, and with the exception of the one 
taken January 19, were in the prenuptial moult. — A. H. Helme, Miller 
Place, N. Y. 

2Q2 Recent Literature. ["April 


Coues's ' Key to North American Birds,' Fifth Edition. 1 — " The present 
work constitutes the completion of Dr. Cones' life-long labors on behalf 

of the science of ornithology In preparing it for publication the 

publishers have suffered extraordinary expense, difficulty, and delay by 
the loss of Dr. Coues 1 assistance in tbe proof-reading and illustrating of 
the book. The manuscript was finished but shortly before his death, and 
though fortunately complete in this form, was left in such shape as to 
present almost insuperable difficulties to the compositor or proof-reader, 
who lacked the author's direction and supervision " (Publisher's Preface, 
p. iii). 

About four years elapsed between the death of Dr. Coues and the appear- 
ance of the Fifth Edition of the ' Key.' Doubtless if Dr. Coues had lived 
to see the work through the press, and it could thus have received his 
final touches in the proof, it would not have been materially different from 
what it is at present, but it must have undergone many slight modifica- 
tions, and have been left fully abreast of the subject, instead of four years 
behind, as now. The publishers, under the circumstances, were most for- 
tunate in securing the services of Mr. J. A. Farley, to superintend the 
carrying of the work through the press, and their acknowledgment of 
their own and the reader's indebtedness to the "painstaking care,.... 
scholarly zeal and conscientious spirit of fidelity and accuracy" with 
which he performed the task, is most certainly a deserved tribute to his 
editorial skill and care. 

1 Key | to | North American Birds. | Containing a concise account of every 
species of Living and Fossil | Bird at present | known from the Continent 
north of the Mexican and United States Boundary, inclusive of Greenland and 
Lower California. | With which are incorporated | General Ornithology : | an 
outline of the Structure and Classification of Birds; | and | Field Ornithology, 
| a Manual of collecting, preparing, and preserving Birds. | The Fifth Edition, 
| (entirely revised) | exhibiting the Nomenclature of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, and including | descriptions of additional species. | In Two Vol- 
umes. | Volume I. | By Elliott Coues, A. M., M. D., Ph. D., | Late Captain 
and Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army and Secretary U. S. Geological Survey; 
Vice-President of the American | Ornithologists' Union, and Chairman of the 
Committee on the Classification and Nomenclature of North American Birds ; 
| Foreign Member of the British Ornithologists' Union ; Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Zoological Society | of London ; Member of the National Academy 
of Sciences, of the Faculty of the National | Medical College, of the Philo- 
sophical and Biological Societies of Washington. | Profusely illustrated. | 
[Vignette.] Boston: | Dana Estes and Company. | 1903. — Roy. 8vo, Vol. I, 
pp. i-xli -f- 1-535, col. frontispiece, portrait of author, and text figs. 1-353; 
Vol. II, pp. i-vi -f- 537-1152, col. frontispiece, and text figs. 354-747. 

Vol. XXI j Recent Literature. 293 

The ' Key ' was first brought out in 1872 (1st ed.) ; a revised and greatly 
enlarged edition (2d. ed.) appeared in 1884, so different from the first as 
to be essentially a new work. There was a reissue of this, printed from 
the same plates (3d. ed.), in 1887, with the addition of an Appendix; and 
another reprint from the same plates (4th ed.) in 1890, with the addition 
of a second Appendix. The present (5th) edition (Dec. 1903), with the 
systematic portion rewritten and greatly augmented, is thus in reality 
only the second revised edition of the original ' Key' first issued in 1872. 
The last edition is so radically different from the second and subsequent 
reprints that it is practically a new work. While the plan and general 
make-up are the same, and while Part I, ' Field Ornithology,' and the 
greater part of Part II, ' General Ornithology,' are textually the same, 
Part III, the ' Systematic Synopsis,' constituting the main body of the 
work, is wholly rewritten and greatly enlarged; the classification and 
arrangement are somewhat altered, and the nomenclature is revolutionized, 
to conform with that of the A. O. U. Check-List, the author, when nec- 
essary, often waiving his own opinions and preferences for the sake of 
conformity with the Check-List. The change in the number and charac- 
ter of the illustrations is also conspicuous, many of those used in the 
earlier editions having been discarded and hundreds of new ones added, 
most of them drawn expressly for the work by Mr. Fuertes, the general 
excellence of which is thus sufficiently assured. In consequence of the 
addition of about 250 pages of new matter, the ' Key ' now appears in two 
volumes (continuously paged) instead of one, which, from the point of 
convenience for the user, is greatly to be regretted. If the same weight 
of paper had been used as in the 2d~4th editions the increase in bulk, in a 
book already so large, would not have been a material disadvantage, 
and would have been more than offset by the convenience of having the 
index always at hand instead of at the end of a second volume. 

Volume I opens with a new frontispiece, a beautifully colored plate of 
the Starling, by Fuertes, in place of the former colored illustration of the 
4 Anatomy of the Pigeon.' The ' Publisher's Preface ' is followed by the 
prefaces to the fourth and third editions, and the ' Historical Preface ' 
(pp. xi-xxx, which includes the preface to the second — 1884 — edition), 
all naturally without change. Next stands the contents, followed by a 
portrait of the author, and Mr. D. G. Elliot's memorial address, both from 
'The Auk' for January, 1901. Part I, 'Field Ornithology' (pp. 1-58), 
is reprinted without change. In Part II, 'General Ornithology' (pp. $9- 
241), the first forty-four pages have been reset, to admit of various minor 
changes, partly for literary improvement, partly for needed changes in 
technical names, and partly for the insertion of some six pages of wholly 
new matter, including a characteristic paragraph (p. 80) on the A. O. U. 
Code of Nomenclature. Pages 82-89, the section on 'The Feathers or 
Plumage,' have been rewritten and much new matter added, while pp. 92- 
94 are also mostly new, and include about two pages of new text on 
4 Aptosochromatism,' much of which is positively erroneous and had bet- 

294 Recent Literature. [a^HI 

ter have been omitted. Dr. Coues invented the term ' aptosochromatism,' 
and was peculiarly sensitive to criticism of its significance and use, as 
from time to time defined and applied by him, he finally looking upon 
such criticism almost as a personal grievance. This new exploitation of 
the subject abounds in positive misstatements and erroneous inferences. 

Pages 113-235 are apparently from the original plates, without change. 
The 'Artificial Keys' and 'Tabular View' (pp. 236-241) have been recast 
and considerably modified, through changes in the names of groups and 
the admission of one new order, 6 new suborders, 7 new families, and the 
reduction of the subfamilies from 77 to 71, through the raising of 6 sub- 
families to the grade of families. This of course implies considerable 
change in the classification followed in Part III, in comparison with pre- 
vious editions. 

Part III, ' Systematic Synopsis of North American Birds,' has been 
rewritten and greatly altered, not only through the admission in their 
proper sequence of the many species and subspecies added to the North 
American list of birds during the sixteen years between 1884 and 1900, but 
through many changes in classification and nomenclature involving the 
status of subgeneric and generic groups, as well as the status and relation- 
ships of the higher groups. As an illustration of the general character 
of these changes, we may take the family Turdidse. In the 1884, and 
later editions down to the present, it included six subfamilies, as follows : 
Turdime, Miminse, Cinclinse, Saxicolinae, Regulinte, and Polioptilinae. 
In the present edition the Turdidae include the two subfamilies Turdinse 
(= Turdime, 1884), and Myiadestime, formerly placed under Ampelidae ; 
while, of the other subfamilies, Miminse is transferred to the Troglody- 
tid?e ; Cinclinae is raised to the rank of a family ; Saxicolime is merged in 
Turdime; Regulinse and Polioptilince are placed in a separate family 
Sylviidas. There are other similar changes in other families of the 
Passeres, involving new associations of groups. Among changes of 
names, it may be noted that Sylvicolida? now becomes Mniotillidae, — 
only one among many changes in the names of higher groups, including 
those of all grades from subfamily to order. 

To continue the comparison further, all of the species included in the 
Turdinse of the earlier editions were placed under the single genus Turdus, 
divided into the three subgenera Turdus, Merula, and Hesperocichla. In 
the present edition Merula, Hesperocichla, Turdus, and Flylocichla stand 
as full genera, and Saxicola, Sialia, and Cyanecula are transferred from 
other associations to the Turdinae. The species and subspecies formerly 
placed under Turdus are now distributed among four genera, and the 
number and status of the species and subspecies are in conformity with 
the A. O. U. Check-List as it stood at the time the revision of the manu- 
script for the new ' Key ' was completed. 

When the 1884 ' Key ' was published there was no A. O. U. • Check- 
List of North American Birds,' nor any A. O. U. ' Code of Nomenclature.' 
It therefore reflected the close of a preceding period in the history of 

Vol i 9 ^ XI ] Recent Literature. 295 

North American ornithology ; and unfortunately continued to do so, as 
regards both classification and nomenclature, until the publication of the 
present revised edition. It is therefore gratifying to find how closely this 
new edition of a work that has done so much for the younger generation 
of ornithologists accords in both these features with the latest edition of 
the Check-List and its supplements down to the year 1S99. There are 
discrepancies here and there between the two in the matter of higher 
groups — as under the 'Order Picarias,' for example — and occasionally 
in the recognition and designation of species and subspecies, but they are 
surprisingly few, in view of the author's declared independence in matters 
of expert opinion. (See Preface to the third edition, p. ix of the present 
work.) Apparently very few forms recognized by the A. O. U. Com- 
mittee prior to 1900 are here omitted, while many the Committee had 
declined to recognize, or had not yet passed upon, are also admitted. A 
large number of groups rated by the A. O. U. Committee, down to the 
year 1900, as subgenera are given full generic rank, including not only 
those thus raised by the Committee itself in 1903, but others, many of 
which the Committee will doubtless soon accord the rank of genera. A 
few subgenera additional to those of the A. O. U. Check-List are also rec- 
ognized, of which four appear to be new, namely : Stellerocitta (p. 495), a 
subgenus of Cyanocitta for the Steller's Jay group ; Sieberocitta (p. 499) 
as a subgenus of Aphelocoma for the Arizona Jay group ; Dilopholieus 
(p. 963) and Viguacarbo (p. 965) as subgenera of Phalacrocorax for, respec- 
tively, the Double-crested Cormorant and the Mexican Cormorant. 

In respect to matters of nomenclature, and recent additions to the list 
of North American birds, the new ' Key' has been brought down to date 
through Mr. Farley's carefully prepared 'Appendix' (pp. 1145—1152), in 
which he has given all the additions made in the Tenth, Eleventh, and 
Twelfth Supplements to the Check-List (July, 1901-July, 1903), and 
arranged, in parallel columns, all changes from the nomenclature of the 
' Key ' made by the A. O. U. Committee since Dr. Coues finished his 
work on the manuscript. 

The additions in the text of Part III, aside from those above noted, 
'consist in the amplification of many of the diagnoses ; many essential 
modifications in the statement of ranges, in conformity with our increased 
knowledge of such matters ; the addition of bibliographical references, 
and much critical and historical comment on questions of nomenclature 
— matters almost wholly excluded from former editions; the addition of 
many — perhaps too many — vernacular synonyms; and the more 
elaborate and often greatly extended characterizations of the higher 
groups. These are considered from the point of view of the birds of the 
world, and the relationships of their different components are stated with 
masterly clearness and comprehensiveness. In illustration of this the 
' Order Picarige ' may be especially cited, where (pp. 537-543) the group as 
a whole and its subdivisions are considered at length. Although he 
retains the group, he says: "I have no faith whatever in the integrity of 


Recent Literature. IA ril 

any such grouping as ' Picarise ' implies; but if I should break up this 
conventional assemblage, I should not know what to do with the frag- 
ments ; . . . . The A. O. U. ignores the major group, and presents instead 
three orders — Coccyges, Pici, and Macrochires. With this procedure I 
have no quarrel, as the three are precisely coincident with my three 
suborders, Cuculiformes, Piciformes, and Cypseliformes." 

Part IV, ' Systematic Synopsis of the Fossil Birds of North America' 
(pp. 1087-1097), brings this important feature of the work also down to 
the close of the. year 1899. An index of 48 pages, three columns to the 
page, completes this masterpiece of mature ornithological work, which 
alone would long keep green the memory of its gifted author. 

In the way of criticism, we note with some surprise the fact that the 
matter relating to the general anatomy of birds is left as published in 
1884, notwithstanding the many important contributions to the subject 
since that date. We cannot help feeling that if Dr. Coues had lived to 
carry the new ' Key ' through the press this part of the work would also 
have received due revision at his hands. In regard to the publishers' 
share in the work, they have certainly been liberal in their expenditure 
for illustrations, but unfortunately the paper selected for the work is 
poorly adapted for the reproduction of half-tones in the text, and many of 
Mr. Fuertes's beautiful drawings have suffered sadly in the printing. 
Also, as already said, it is a decided inconvenience to have the 'Key' 
issued as a two-volume work, and it is to be hoped that when the next 
edition is called for it will be found practicable to use both a lighter- 
weight and a smoother-finished paper, so as to give greater sharpness to 
the half-tones and at the same time render it practicable to issue the work 
in a single volume. If the two volume form should seem necessary, it 
would be a great convenience to have the index inserted in both volumes. 

In regard to the ' Key ' itself, it is a well-known and an old favorite, 
whose thirty years of practical usefulness have won for it unstinted and 
well-merited praise, and in its new form will prove for many years to 
come a boon alike to the amateur and the professional student of North 
American birds. The ' Key ' of 1872 was an innovation and an experi- 
ment in ornithological literature ; its practicability was evident from the 
outset, and it proved to be the forerunner of almost numberless succes- 
sors of ' key' manuals in various departments of zoology. The author's 
final revison of this greatest of his many contributions to ornithological 
literature will make a new generation of bird students his debtors and 
admirers. — J. A. A. 

Chapman's 'Color Key to North American Birds.' 1 — The sole pur- 
pose of the present book, according to the author, is "the identification of 

'Color Key to | North American Birds | By | Frank M. Chapman | Associ- 
ate Curator of Ornithology and Mammalogy | in the American Museum of 

Vol. XXII Recefit Literature. 297 

the bird in the bush," — that is, to assist the many who aspire to a knowl- 
edge of the names of the wild birds they see about them, but who are 
deprived of access to specimens. For this purpose tinted figures, giving 
in color those markings which most quickly catch the eye, are given on 
the margin of the pages opposite the descriptions, which latter are brief, 
giving only the most prominent characteristics of the species and sub- 
species, and (in smaller type) a concise statement of their ranges, without 
biographical matter. A short introduction tells ' How to learn a Bird's 
Name ' and ' How Birds are Named,' followed by a 'Synopsis of Orders 
and Families of North American Birds ' (pp. 9-40), illustrated with figures 
of bills, feet, heads, etc., mostly life-size. Then follows the ' Color 
Key ' to the species (pp. 41-255), with full length colored figures in the 
text. The orders are arranged in the sequence of the A. O. U. Check- 
List, but the species within the orders have been grouped according 
to their color markings, for convenience of illustration. Each species, 
however, is designated by the A. O. U. number, and at the close of the 
' Key ' is a ' Systematic Table' (pp. 257-289), giving the classification and 
nomenclature of the A. O. U. Check-List, including both the common and 
the scientific names. The drawings are in every way creditable, but the 
coloring is not put forth as giving "perfect reproductions of every shade 
and tint of the plumage of the species, but aims to present a bird's charac- 
teristic colors as they appear when seen at a distance." The author and 
the artist are both to be congratulated on the very satisfactory manner in 
which they have performed their respective tasks, whereby the student of 
' birds in the bush ' has been presented with seemingly as efficient an aid 
as can readily be conceived. The paper and presswork, however, are not 
satisfactory, and it is hoped will be materially improved in the later 
editions, for which there will most surely be demand. — J. A. A. 

Dawson's 'The Birds of Ohio.' — The title-page 1 of this excellent work 

Natural History | Author of u Handbook of Birds of Eastern North Amer- 
ica," I "Bird-Life," Etc. | With Upward of 800 Drawings | by | Chester A. 
Reed, B. S. | New York | Doubleday, Page & Company | 1903. — 8vo, pp. 
vi-f-312, colored frontispiece, and about 800 text cuts, the greater part 

1 The Birds of Ohio | a complete, scientific and | popular Description of the 
320 Species of Birds | found in the State | By | William Leon Dawson, A. M., 
B. D. I With Introduction and Analytical Keys | by | Lynds Jones, M. Sc. | 
Instructor in Zoology in Oberlin College. | Illustrated by 80 plates in color- 
photography, and more than 200 | original half-tones, showing the favorite 
haunts of the | birds, flocking, feeding, nesting, etc., from photo- | graphs 
taken by the author and others. | Sold only by subscription | Columbus | The 
Wheaton Publishing Co. | 1903 | All rights reserved. — 4to, pp. i-xlvi +1-671, 
80 three-color process plates and 200 -j- half-tone text cuts. Author's edition, 
1000 numbered autograph copies, full morocco, full gilt. 


Recent Literature. |~A^rii 

very fully and correctly indicates its general character — a copiously illus- 
trated, scientifically trustworthy popular manual of the birds of Ohio, 
with analytical keys, and colored figures of eighty species. The scope of 
the work "is strictly Ohioan," and the birds are described "as any one in 
Ohio might see them," although something is generally said of their 
habits and range as found outside of Ohio. The nomenclature is that 
of the A. O. U. Check-List and its supplements, down to the last of the 
series, but the order of sequence is reversed, the Passeres, and of these 
the Raven, being placed at the head of the list and the Loons at the end. 
The number of species authentically recorded for the State, and hence 
here formally treated, is 320 ; descriptions are given of 13 others, 
"believed to occur or to have occurred in Ohio," forming a ' hypothetical 
list'; which is followed by a "conjectural list " of 13 more, reported from 
adjacent States and supposed, with good reason, to occur "at least casu- 
ally." Many of these will doubtless be added, sooner or later, to the 
birds of the State on the evidence of actual capture within its borders. 

Following the author's preface and the introduction are the analytical 
keys, prepared by Professor Lynds Jones, of the orders, families and 
species, occupying pp. xxiii to xlv. The main text gives a short descrip- 
tion, in small type, of each species, including its nest and eggs, and its 
range, both within and outside of the State, and, in larger type, a short, 
well prepared biographical account, having special reference to the spe- 
cies as a bird of Ohio. The volume closes with three appendices, the first 
two of which consist respectively of the ' hypothetical 1 and ' conjectural ' 
lists already mentioned, while the third, ' Appendix C ' (pp. 647-660), gives 
migration tables "for the approximate latitudes of Cincinnati, Columbus 
and Cleveland." These are arranged in the order of the A. O. U. Check- 
List, and are based partly on the author's own observations and partly on 
those of other well known observers, as Henninger, Jones, Wheaton, and 
Mosely, as duly explained. There is also a good index. 

As regards plan, literary execution, typography and general make-up, 
Dawson's ' The Birds of Ohio ' is an exceptionally attractive volume and 
is entitled to high praise as a trustworthy popular manual of the birds 
of the region to which it relates. There is, however, one disappointing- 
feature, and that is the character of the colored plates, for which the three- 
color process is not wholly to blame. When we state that they are a selec- 
tion of eighty of the best of a series of some two hundred or more that 
were available, and that this series was originally published in a Chicago 
bird magazine, variously known at different times as 'Birds,' 'Birds and 
Nature,' etc., and also already used elsewhere as book illustrations, most 
bird students will be sufficiently aware of their character without further 
comment. While the greater part, and perhaps all, of those used in the 
present volume are sufficiently approximate to nature to be serviceable as 
an aid in identifying the species represented, very few of them are pleas- 
ing, owing mainly to the bad mounting of the specimens selected for 
photographing. Such illustrations may be accepted as perhaps much 

Vol. XXII Recent Literature. 2QQ 

better than none; and we fancy that this fact, and their comparatively 
small cost, accounts for their presence in a book worthy of a far better 
accompaniment. The half-tones in the text, on the other hand, are for 
the most part well reproduced, well selected, and appropriate to the text, 
giving characteristic views of the haunts of many species, as well of many 
nesting sites, nests and eggs, and of living birds. — J. A. A. 

Mrs. Bailey's ' Handbook of Birds of the Western United States,' 
Second Edition. — The "second edition, revised" 1 differs from the first 
mainly through a revision of the matter relating to the Horned Larks 
(genus Otocoris, pp. 266-269), which has been rewritten and brought down 
to date, and the addition of Addenda (pp. 486-488) giving a list of the 
alterations in the names of western birds made by the Nomenclature 
Committee of the A. O. U. since the publication of the first edition in 
1902, and also correcting the few omissions and errors of the first edition 
that could not readily be made in the text. The generous commendation 
given the work in our notice of the first edition need not be here repeated. 
The early call for a second edition shows that the work is appreciated and 
meets a real need. — J. A. A. 

Mrs. Wheelock's ' Birds of California. 1 2 — In this attempt to provide a 
non-technical manual of three hundred of the commoner birds of Califor- 
nia the author has attained a high degree of success, and has also pro- 
duced a work of much permanent value on account of the many original 
field observations, which add to the sum of our knowledge of the life his- 
tories of many of the species considered. As to the plan of the work : 
"Keys have been avoided and a simple classification, according to habitat 
or color, substituted," following a plan used by a previous author, here 
adopted and commended. Under the head of 'Contents,' the species are 
enumerated under the English names of the A. O. U. Check-List, beginning 
with the k Water Birds,' which are grouped into sections according to their 
haunts, followed by 'Land Birds,' grouped as (1) 'Upland Game Birds,' 
(2) ' Birds of Prey,' and (3) ' Common Land Birds in Color Groups,' 
which latter are divided, on the basis of color, into eight minor groups. 
The species are arranged in the same incongruous order in the text, but 
are designated by the A. O. U. Check-List numbers and names, both tech- 

1 For collation and review of the first edition see Auk, XX, 1903, pp. 76-78. 

2 Birds of California | An Introduction | to more than Three Hundred 
Common | Birds of the State and Adjacent | Islands | With a Supplementary 
List of rare migrants, accidental | visitants, and hypothetical subspecies | By 
Irene Grosvenor Wheelock | author of " Nestlings of Forest and Marsh " | 
With ten full-page plates and seventy-eight drawings | in the text by Bruce 
Horsfall | [Vignette] Chicago | A. C. McClurg & Co. | 1904 — Sm. 8vo, pp. 
xxviii -f- 578, 10 half-tone plates, 78 text figures. 

^OO Recent Literature. \k%. 

nical and vernacular. The descriptions are in small type and very brief, 
giving only the most characteristic features, the geographical distribu- 
tion, breeding range and season, and nest and eggs. Then follows, in 
larger type, a short, well-written biography of the species. No original- 
ity, of course, is claimed for the technical descriptions, and many of the 
biographies of the water birds, and of some others, are compiled, and 
often in part quoted, with due credit, from previous authors. But a large 
proportion of the land birds have come within the personal experience of 
the writer, whose researches, begun in 1894, have extended throughout a 
large part of the State, and hence her biographies are based on original 
observations and contain much new information. The work closes with 
a briefly annotated 'Supplementary List' of the species and subspecies 
thus far recorded from California in addition to the three hundred form- 
ally treated, the list being compiled from authentic and accredited sources. 

In the introduction the author makes some generalizations respecting 
the feeding habits of young birds that are to a large extent new and some- 
what surprising ; their confirmation or disproval opens up an interesting 
field of research. She says : "Long and careful study of the feeding habits 
of young birds in California and the Eastern United States has led the 
author to make some statements which may incur the criticism of orni- 
thologists who have not given especial attention to the subject. For 
instance, — that the young of all macrochires, woodpeckers, perching birds, 
cuckoos, kingfishers, most birds of prey, and many seabirds are fed by 
regurgitation from the time of hatching through a period varying in 
extent from three days to four weehs, according to the species. . . . Out of 
one hundred and eighty cases recorded by the author, in every instance 
where the young were hatched in a naked or semi-naked condition they 
were fed in this manner for at least three days. In some instances the 
food was digested, wholly or in part ; in others it was probably swal- 
lowed merely for convenience in carrying, and was regurgitated in an 
undigested condition." A few specific instances are cited here in illustra- 
tion, and many others are given in the biographies. 

Mrs. Wheelock*s manual is in several ways noteworthy, and should 
prove most welcome to would-be bird students of the Pacific coast, and of 
interest to ornithologists in search of fresh information on the life histo- 
ries of California birds. — J. A. A. 

Torrey's 'The Clerk of the Woods.' 1 — The thirty-two short essays 
here brought together received previous simultaneous publication in the 
'Evening Transcript' of Boston and the 'Mail and Express 1 of New 
York. Those familiar with the author's previous books do not need to 

'The Clerk | of the Woods | By | Bradford Torrey | . . . . | Boston and 
New York | Houghton, Mifflin and Company | The Riverside Press, Cam- 
bridge I 1903 — i6mo., pp. i-viii, 1-280. $110 net, postage extra. 

V °!'<£ XI ] Recent Literature. 3OI 

be told that they will find in 'The Clerk of the Woods' a series of out- 
of-door sketches of literary merit, and well adapted to furnish enter- 
tainment, as well as much information, to lovers of nature who enjoy 
what might be rather commonplace incidents and observations to the 
trained field naturalist when given the literary flavor Mr. Torrey is so 
skilful in imparting. The chapter entitled' Popular Woodpeckers' tells 
at length of the nesting of a pair of Red-headed Woodpeckers in New- 
ton, Mass., and incidentally pleasantly emphasizes the great popular inter- 
est in birds and their protection that has so happily of late been shown 
by the general public. It is a good commentary on the faithful work of 
the Audubon Societies. The chapters run through the year, from May 
to May, and include a record of trips to the seashore as well as inland, 
and while recording little that is new as natural history, serve to awaken 
pleasant reminiscences, or to incite the desire for future excursions to 
fields and woodlands to commune with Nature through "her visible 
forms." —J. A. A. 

Mrs. Miller's ' With the Birds in Maine.' 1 — The studies recorded in the 
fifteen chapters composing the present book were made, with two excep- 
tions, in Maine, and are based on the experiences of the author during 
ten summers spent in different parts of the State. The localities include 
several points along the coast, and others situated far in the interior, so 
that shore birds, marsh birds, and the characteristic birds of the wood- 
lands come within the purview of the work, the general character of which 
is suggested by such chapter titles as ' On the Coast of Maine,' ' Upon the 
Wood Road,' ' Mysteries of the Marsh,' ' In a Log Camp,' 'The Wiles of 
Warblers,' ' Flycatcher Vagaries,' etc. The table of contents includes 
the names of birds especially mentioned, and there is a good index. 
The book is written in the author's well-known agreeable style and its 
perusal will doubtless give pleasure to the many bird lovers who like 
detailed accounts of field experiences with birds. — J. A. A. 

Kumlien and Hollister's ' The Birds of Wisconsin.' 2 — Respecting the 
present list the authors state : " We have made no attempt at descriptions 
of birds, nor have we gone to any length in discussing their habits. Our 
whole aim and object has simply been to bring our knowledge of Wiscon- 

1 With the Birds | in Maine | By | Olive Thorne Miller | [Vignette] Boston 
and New York | Houghton, Mifflin and Company [ The Riverside Press, 
Cambridge | 1904 — i6mo., pp. ix-f-300. $1.10 net. 

2 The Birds of Wisconsin. By L. Kumlien and N. Hollister. Bulletin of 
the Wisconsin Natural History Society, Vol. Ill (N. S.), Nos. 1-3, Jan., 
April, and July, 1903, pp. i-iv, 1-143, with 8 half tone plates. Published 
with the cooperation of the Board of Trustees of the Milwaukee Public 

3O2 Recent Literature. [April 

sin ornithology, as regards occurrence and abundance, up to date, and to 
present a carefully compiled list of all those species and subspecies which 
have positively been known to occur within the limits of the State at any 
time, with as exact, simple, reliable and accurate an account of such occur- 
rence as possible." " Starting in 1899, with a list of 365 species and sub- 
species that had been recorded from, or were supposed to have occurred 
at some time within the State, the number has fallen away from time to 
time, until now we recognize but 357 in all, that we believe are really 
entitled to a place, and are therefore embraced in the list proper of the 
present paper." 

The list proper is followed by a 'Hypothetical List' of 21 species. 
Several of these have been attributed to the State, but on what the authors 
consider unsatisfactory evidence. In several cases, if not in most, their 
occurrence in the State is not improbable, and therefore the rigid conserva- 
tism that has led the authors to exclude them, and thus draw a sharp line 
between the known and the unknown, is to be emphatically commended. 
Specimens difficult of determination appear to have often been referred 
to experts for identification. Thus a number of western forms, included 
on the basis of one or two specimens taken in the State, rest on the author- 
ity of Mr. Brewster, as Emfiidonax traillii, Junco montanus, Hylocichla 
ustulatus almce, etc. 

Among the half-tone plates is one showing ' Nest and Eggs of Blue- 
winged X Nashville Warbler,' with a statement in the text of the evidence 
for the belief in this alleged strange parentage. It is also stated that the 
Short-eared Owl is destructive " to smaller birds during the breeding sea- 
son," and a list of some thirty species is given of victims identified from 
wing and tail feathers taken from a mass of such debris on which a 
family of young owls was resting. 

It is only necessary to add that the list is liberally and judiciously anno- 
tated, that the authors appear to have strictly adhered to the plan outlined 
in the foregoing extracts from their prefatory note, and have thus given to 
the public a resume of Wisconsin ornithology entitled to take its place, for 
accuracy and authoritativeness, in the front rank of local lists. The paper 
is well printed, and exceptionally free from typographical errors, notwith- 
standing the lamented death of the senior author, Mr. Kumlien, before the 
manuscript was completed, and the absence of the junior author, Mr. Hol- 
lister, in Alaska while the paper was passing through the press. — J. A. A. 

Silloway's ' The Birds of Fergus County, Montana.' 1 — Fergus County, 

1 The Birds of Fergus County, Montana. By P. M. Silloway, Member of the 
American Ornithologists' Union, Author of Sketches of Some Common Birds, 
Summer Birds of Flathead Lake, etc. Bulletin No. 1, Fergus County Free 
High School, Lewistown, Mont., 1903. 8vo, pp. yy, 17 half-tone plates and 

Vol / g * XI J Recent Literature. 303 

in central Montana, is varied in its physical features, its western portion 
including several outlying spurs of the Rocky Mountains, with also two 
rather isolated groups of mountains, the Judith and Moccasins, in its 
central portion, while the eastern half is plains and ' bad lands.' The 
elevation varies from three thousand to eight thousand feet. The bird 
fauna is correspondingly varied, consisting of the usual species of the 
northern plains region, with a mixture of alpine forms that extend east- 
ward from the Rocky Mountains. 

The present list numbers 179 species, divided into: "Residents, 30 
species ; summer residents, 101 species; migrants, 31 species; winter 
residents or visitors, 13 species ; other visitors, 4 species." 

The list is based partly on the author's observations made during several 
years' residence in the county, and partly on the published records of 
other observers. 'A Partial Bibliography of Montana Birds' occupies 
three pages preceding the list, l and there are two pages descriptive of 
the topography and boundaries of the county. In addition to the usual 
annotations, a short description (usually of two to four lines) is given of 
each species, for the convenience of "teachers and others interested in 
nature study." In many instances, in the case of the lesser known west- 
ern species, much original biographical matter is included. The large 
number of half-tones are from photographs of living birds, by Mr. E. R. 
Warren of Colorado Springs, and of nests and eggs, by Prof. M. J. Elrod 
of the University of Montana. An interesting feature of the work is its 
publication as a special 'Bulletin' by the Board of Trustees of the Fergus 
County Free High School, of which Mr. Silloway is the Principal, appar- 
ently for free distribution to those interested, and as a part of the educa- 
tive mission of the school. The list, while not presumed to be complete, 
is believed to be as nearly so as present information will permit, and will 
serve as an excellent basis for further investigation. — J. A. A. 

Oberholser's ' Review of the Wrens of the Genus Troglodytes.' 2 — The 
strictly American genus Troglodytes, as here defined, includes not only 
the species usually heretofore referred to it, but also many West Indian 
forms which have been commonly referred to Thryopkilus. The one 
exception of exclusion is the Troglodytes broivni Bangs, from the 
mountains of Chiriqui, Panama, which is made the type of a new 
genus Thryorchilus. Thirty-seven forms are recognized, of which 18 
are given the v ank of species, and 19 that of subspecies, three of the 
latter being described as new. The status and nomenclature of the North 

1 By a curious typographical error Coues is uniformly entered as "Coues, 
Elliott B.," though the name is elsewhere correctly given. Also, on p. 36, 
Melanerpes " erythrophthalmus" is evidently a lapsus for erythrocephalus. 

2 A Review of the Wrens of the Genus Troglodytes. By Harry C. Ober- 
holser, Assistant Ornithologist, Department of Agriculture. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. XXVII, No. 1354, pp. 197-210, with map. Feb., 1904. 

304 Recent Literature. T^ril 

American forms remains unchanged. The group ranges from southern 
Canada to Cape Horn, including the West Indies. — J. A. A. 

Oberholser on the American Great Horned Owls. 1 — Mr. Oberholser 
considers the Great Horned Owls of America — North, Central, and 
South — as all referable to a single species, which he regards as divisible 
into 16 subspecies, of which 7 are restricted to Mexico, Central America, 
and South America, the remaining 11 coming within the limits of the A. 

0. U. Check-List — an increase of 4 over the number hitherto recognized 
in the Check-List. He follows Mr. Stone (Auk, XX, 1903, pp. 272-276) 
in adopting Asio in place of Bubo for the name of the genus, and takes 
the name magellanicus in place of virginianus for the species, the former 
having one page precedence over the latter in Gmelin's ' Systema 
Naturie,' where both names were originally given. Both names have 
heretofore been in current use, but the forms to which they were given 
have generally been held to be specifically distinct. Now that it is found 
necessary to unite them, magellanicus becomes, unfortunately, the cor- 
rect name for the group, thus replacing the long familiar designation 
virginianus for the North American forms. Mr. Oberholser' s revision 
is based on an examination of "more than 200 specimens, representing 
all but one of the American forms." The North American forms recog- 
nized are the following : 

1. Asio magellanicus pallescens (Stone). "Western Texas to southeast- 

ern California ; south to northern Mexico." 

2. Asio magellanicus pacijicus (Cassin). "California, except the south- 

eastern part and the northern and central coast districts ; extending 
northward to Fort Klamath, Oregon, eastward to San Francisco 
Mountains, Arizona." 

3. Asio magellanicus elachistus (Brewster). "Southern Lower Cali- 


4. Asio magellanicus icelus Oberholser. "Coast of California, north of 

about 35 north latitude." 

5. Asio magellanicus lagopkonus Oberholser. "Washington and north- 

ern Oregon (excepting the coast region), with Idaho ; north through 
eastern and Central British Columbia to Cook Inlet and the interior 
of Alaska." 

6. Asio magellanicus saturatus (Ridgway). "Pacific coast region, from 
Washington (and probably at least northern Oregon) north to south- 
ern Alaska." 

7. Asio magellanicus ieterocnemis Oherholser. "Labrador, including 
at least the north coast of the Territory of Ungava." 

1 A Revision of the American Great Horned Owls. By Harry C. Oberholser, 
Assistant Ornithologist, Department of Agriculture. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , 
Vol. XXVII, No. 1352, pp. 177-192. Feb. 1904. 

Vo1 i'q^ XI ] Recent Literature. 305 

8. Asio magellanicus virginiauus (Gmelin). "Southern Canada and 
eastern United States, west to Ontario, Wisconsin, Iowa, and eastern 
Texas; accidental in Ireland." 

9. Asio magellanicus algistus Oberholser. "Northwest coast region of 


10. Asio magellanicus occidentalis (Stone). "Western United States, 
from Minnesota and Kansas to Nevada, southeastern Oregon, Utah, 
and Montana; south in winter to Iowa." 

11. Asio magellanicus ivapacuthu (Gmelin). "Northern Canada, from 
Hudson Bay to the Valley of the Mackenzie River; south in winter 
to the northern United States, from Idaho to Wisconsin." — J. A. A. 

Snodgrass and Heller on the ' Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago. 1 x 
— This new revision of the birds of the Galapagos Archipelago recognizes 
80 species and 30 additional subspecies. The synonymy, and the biblio- 
graphical references that refer especially to the Galapagos, are given for 
each, with its range, and especially its distribution and manner of occur- 
rence in the Archipelago, together with biographical observations, often 
extended, notes on the color of the naked parts, etc., and many tables of 
measurements of large series of specimens. The authors follow rather 
closely the nomenclature of Rothschild and Hartert, using trinomials for 
insular forms when their variations overlap, "regardless of the possi- 
bility or impossibility of their interbreeding." The Geospiza group, 
sometimes separated into four or more genera, is treated as a genus with 
three subgenera. Six different phases of plumage are described, and 
denominated ' stages,' and numbered I to VI; three of these are found to 
coincide with the differences in the form of the bill, on which the sub- 
generic groups have been principally based, while the other three are 
immature phases characterizing young birds, shared unequally by the 
members of the several subgenera. The discussion of this group, with 
the voluminous but important notes on habits, song, etc., occupies 75 
pages, or nearly one half of the entire memoir. 

Although Snodgrass and Heller have described (in previous papers) a 
number of new species and subspecies from the Galapagos, the number 
of forms (no) now recognized exceeds by two only the number given by 
Rothschild and Hartert in 1899, 2 quite a number of the 14 added by these 
authors being here reduced to synonyms. 

1 Papers from the Hopkins-Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1 898-1 899. 
XVI. Birds. By Robert Evans Snodgrass and Edmund Heller. Proc. 
Washington Acad. Sci., Vol. V, pp. 231-372. Jan. 28, 1904. 

2 For a notice of Rothschild and Hartert's ' Review of the Ornithology of 
the Galapagos Islands,' see Auk, XVII, July, 1900, pp. 300-303; for a notice 
of Ridgway's 'Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago' see ibid., XIV, July, 
l8 97, PP- 3 2 9> 33°- 

3° 6 

Rece?it Literature. [ April 

This is the third extended memoir on Galapagos Islands birds pub- 
lished within the last seven years, each based on extensive material, and 
each marking an important advance in our knowledge of this peculiarly 
interesting ornis. In the memoir now under review there is no reference 
to previous work in the same field, beyond the bibliographical citations 
under the species and in the general text. Some reference to the general 
history of the subject, and some statement of their opportunities and 
resources, and of the results reached, would have been a good addition to 
this important contribution to the literature of Galapagan ornithology. — 
J. A. A. 

Shufeldt on the Osteology of the Halcyones and Limicolse. — In the 
' American Naturalist ' for October, 1903, Dr. Shufeldt devotes con- 
siderable space to a consideration of the Kingfishers, 1 with reference to 
their osteology and systematic position. It is in the main an amplifica- 
tion of his paper on the ' Osteology of Ceryle alcyon,' 1 published in 1884 
(Journ. Anat. and Phys., XVIII, 18S4, pp. 279-294, pi. xiv), with the 
same illustrations, here reproduced in half-tone. The structure of this 
species is compared with allied forms, but not much new light is thrown 
upon the relationships of the group, nor is any very positive opinion 
advanced as to its nearest affinities, though believed by the author to be 
most nearly related to the Galbulidse, an opinion shared by previous writ- 
ers on the subject. 

Respecting his paper on the osteology of the Limicolse, 2 his own 
opinion is to the effect that "it is probably the most extensive contribu- 
tion to the osteology and taxonomy of the Limicolse that has appeared 
from the pen of any writer on the subject up to the present time." The 
1 skeletology ' of each of the principal types is described in considerable 
detail, the paper closing with a synopsis of their leading osteological 
characters, and a review of their affinities. The Limicolse are regarded 
as a suborder of the Charadriiformes, and are divided into eight families, 
which correspond to those adopted in the A. O. U. Check-List, except 
that the subfamily Arenariinse of the Check-List is given the rank of a 
family. — J. A. A. 

Evans's ' Turner on Birds.' ;i — This is a republication, with translation 

1 On the Osteology and Systematic Position of the Kingfishers. (Halcyones.) 
By R. W. Shufeldt. Amer. Nat., Vol. XXXVII, Oct. 1903, pp. 697-725, 
figs. 1-3. 

2 Osteology of the Limicolae, By Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., Vol. II, 1903, pp. 15-70, pi. i, and 27 text figures. 

3 Turner on Birds: | a short and succinct history | of the | principal birds 
noticed by Pliny and Aristotle, | first published by | Doctor William Turner, 
1544. I Edited, with Introduction, Translation, Notes, and Appendix, | by | 
A. H. Evans, M. A. | Clare College, Cambridge. | Cambridge: | At the 
University Press | 1903 — 8vo, pp. i-xviii, 1 1. (transcript of original title page) 
+ PP- 1-223. 

Vol. XX 

I Recent Literature. 3 0^7 

and notes, of one of the most noteworthy early publications on birds, 
and has thus not only a peculiar interest, but is full of suggestive and 
interesting information, bearing especially upon the origin and early use 
of many of the present technical names of birds. Of this work, the 
translator tells us : " Turner's object in writing the present treatise is 
fully set forth in his' Epistola Nuncupatoria ' prefixed to it. While 
attempting to determine the principal kinds of birds named by Aristotle 
and Pliny, he has added notes from his own experience on some species 
which had come under his own observation, and in so doing he has 
produced the first book on Birds which treats them in anything like a 
modern scientific spirit and not from the medical point of view adopted 
by nearly all his predecessors ; nor is it too much to say that almost every 
page bears witness to a personal knowledge of the subject, which would 
be distinctly creditable even to a modern ornithologist." 

Turner was one of the most learned men of his time. The date of his 
birth is not given ; he graduated a B. A. from the University of Cam- 
bridge, of which he was elected a fellow in 1530. He was a zealous 
student of botany, and in 1538 published a work on plants, and later 
others on the same subject. He traveled extensively on the continent, 
where he met and became a personal friend of Gesner, to whose ' Historia 
Animalium ' he made contributions. He was, first of all, a religious 
reformer, and, "his scientific work apart, nearly the whole of Turner's 
life was spent in religious controversy." In the dedication of his book 
on 'The History of Birds' (mentioned above) to the then Prince of 
Wales, he says, in it "I have placed for your pleasure the Greek, German, 
and British names side by side with the Latin " ; and he proposed, under 
certain conditions, to "bring to the light of day a further edition of this 
little book with figures of the birds, their habits, and curative properties, 
as well as another book on plants." 

It is hard to characterize the peculiar interest this "little book" 
has for the present day bird student ; but not least of course is the 
antiquarian, from its curious revelations of the beginnings of modern 
knowledge of birds, the conjectures that prevailed in place of positive 
information, and the early application of many names now so differently 
employed in technical nomenclature. The editor and translator, seconded 
by the Syndics of the University Press, has opened to the general reader 
a previously inaccessible and practically sealed book of unusual interest, 
for which service we owe a debt of gratitude. — J. A. A. 

Recent Papers on Economic Ornithology. — In 'Birds of a Maryland 
farm ' 1 Dr. Judd has presented us with a study of local conditions as pre- 

1 Birds of a Maryland Farm, A Local Study of Economic Ornithology. By 
Sylvester D. Judd, Ph. D., Assistant, Biological Survey. U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. Division of Biological Survey — Bulletin No. 17, Washing- 
ton, 1902. 8vo, pp. 116, with 17 half-tone plates and 41 text figures. 

3 o8 

Recent Literature. f April 

sented at the Bryan farm, at Marshall, Md., situated about fifteen miles 
south of Washington. The farm contains about 230 acres, of which 150 
are cultivated and 80 are in woodland. A study of the food habits of the 
birds was continued at frequent intervals from July 30, 1895, to July 24, 
1902, including every month of the year except January. The method of 
investigating the food of birds by examination of the contents of 
stomachs, says Dr. Judd, in which the material has been collected from 
all parts of the United States, may give misleading results ; "the relation 
of birds to a certain locality or particular farm cannot always be exactly 
tested by conclusions drawn from a large range of territory. The exact 
damage to crops is not revealed by stomach examination. A bird may 
have punctured several grapes in each of a hundred clusters and yet 
betray to the microscope no sign of its vicious habits," etc. In the 
present paper Dr. Judd gives us in detail the methods and results of his 
work on a Maryland farm, and here attempts "to determine whether 
a given species is, on the whole, helpful or harmful to the farm in 
question." The principal species are reported upon in detail, with finally 
a general statement of his conclusions as to what birds are really injurious, 
what beneficial or neutral, and the manner in which their food habits 
affect the question of their utility. 

' Two Years with the Birds on a Farm,' by Mr. Edward H. Forbush, 1 
recounts observations made by him on a farm in Wareham, Mass., and is 
a valuable contribution to the subject of economic ornithology. The 
ways in which certain birds are useful to the farmer are stated with 
convincing detail, and the reprehensible traits of some others are not 
concealed, especially the nest-robbing proclivities of crows, jays, and 
crow blackbirds. While the crows and jays are useful as insect destroy- 
ers, they are held to be "very largely responsible for the decrease of the 
smaller birds." 

' Boll Weevils and Birds ' is an address delivered by Prof. H. P. 
Attwater 2 at the Texas Cotton Growers' Association Convention held at 
Dallas, Texas, Nov. 6, 1903. It is an earnest appeal for the legal pro- 
tection of birds in Texas for the aid they render in checking the increase 
of noxious insects, including the cotton boll weevil. The address is 
published and given free distribution by the Passenger Department of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

1 Two Years with the Birds on a Farm. Lecture by Edward Howe Forbush, 
Ornithologist, Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, delivered at the 
public winter meeting of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture at 
North Adams, Dec. 2, 1902. Reprinted from Fiftieth Ann. Rep. Mass. State 
Board of Agriculture. 8vo, pp. 53, with 8 half-tone plates, and 6 text figures. 

2 Boll Weevils and Birds. Address by Prof. H. P. Attwater, Industrial 
Agent Southern Pacific, at the Second Annual Convention of the Texas 
Cotton Growers' Association, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 6, 1903. 8vo. pp. 11. 

Vol. XXII Recent Literature. 309 

'Audubon Societies in their Relation to the Farmer.' — In a paper of 
about a dozen pages, 1 with the above title, Mr. Oldys has given a clear 
and succinct account of the Audubon Societies and their work. After 
referring briefly to the economic value of birds, and to the causes that 
have operated to effect their decrease, he proceeds to an account of the 
Audubon Societies, beginning with the first national movement in 1886, 
and the reawakening of bird protection sentiment in 1896, resulting in 
the founding of some thirty societies with, in 1902, a joint membership 
of 65,000. Their purposes and methods of work are detailed and a 
resume is given of the results of their efforts, with finally a statement of 
' The Farmer's Interest in Bird Protection,' or, rather, of why he should 
be interested in it. — J. A. A. 

Summary of Game Laws for 1903. 2 — This presents, in a brief form for 
ready reference, "the provisions of the various State laws which primarily 
form the basis of the Lacey act and which govern the trade in game, 
namely, those relating to close seasons, licenses, shipment, and sale." 
The scope of the summary includes the United States and Canada, and it 
being necessary to condense as much as possible, the matter is mostly 
presented in tabular form, and in a series of maps. The tabulated matter 
shows: (1) the close seasons for game in the United States and Canada 
(pp. 9-19); (2) export of game prohibited by State laws (pp. 22-26); 
(3) restrictions on sale of game (pp. 32-35) ; licenses for hunting game 
(pp. 37-40) ; (5) close seasons for game in the United States and Canada, 
by States and Provinces (pp. 44-48) ; (6) close seasons for game under 
County laws (pp. 48-53) ; summary of the principal restrictions by non- 
residents (pp. 53-56). Five maps show which States and Provinces 
(1) require nonresidents to obtain hunting licenses, and the amount of 
the license fee; (2) which prohibit export of game; (3) which permit 
export of game for propagation; (4) which prohibit sale of game at all 
times ; (5) which limit the amount of game that may be killed. All the 
States, except Kentucky and Mississippi, have some kind of a nonexport 
law, varying in scope in respect to the kinds of game thus protected. 
All the States and Territories now prohibit the export of quail, except four, 
in one of which no quail occur, and in two of which there is no nonex- 
port law; in the other, several counties prohibit such export. "Nearly 

1 Audubon Societies in their Relation to the Farmer. By Henry Oldys, 
Assistant Biologist, Biological Survey. Yearbook of Department of Agricul- 
ture for 1902, pp. 205-218, with 2 plates and 2 text figures. 

2 Game Laws for 1903. A Summary of the Provisions relating to Seasons, 
Shipment, Sale, and Licenses. By T. S. Palmer, Henry Oldys, and R. W. 
Williams, Jr., Assistants, Biological Survey. U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Farmers' Bulletin No. 180. Washington: Government Printing Office, 
1903. 8vo, pp. 56. 

3IO Notes and News. [jtpla 

every State in which Prairie Chickens occur now has a nonexport law, the 
effect of which, combined with sale restrictions, is to make the sale of 
Prairie Chickens illegal outside of their normal range." Only fourteen 
States and Alaska permit the export of game intended for propagation; 
only six of these States are east of the Mississippi River. "Thirty-four 
States and Territories and most of the Provinces of Canada now prohibit 
the sale of all or certain kinds of game at all seasons." The Ruffed 
Grouse cannot be legally sold in eleven States and three Provinces. A 
steady increase in the prohibitions against the sale of game has continued 
during the last three years, and the general outlook is hopeful for the 
preservation of most kinds of game animals and birds, many of which 
were so recently threatened with speedy extermination. This Bulletin 
gives a most interesting and valuable summary of the present status of 
game protection in the United States and Canada. — J. A. A. 


Gurdon Trumbull, a Fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union, 
died at his home in Hartford, Conn., Dec. 28, 1903, in his sixty-third year, 
being the last of three brothers, each of whom was distinguished in his 
own way, Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, the philologist, and Rev. H. Clay 
Trumbull, a well known editor and writer. 

He was born in Stonington, Conn., May 5, 1841, and early in life 
showed a natural fondness for art. He studied under various teachers in 
Hartford and also with James M. Hart in New York, progressed rapidly 
and soon became prominent as a painter of fish, his principal pictures in 
that line being 'Over the Fall,' 'A Plunge for Life,' and 'A Critical 
Moment.' These were extensively copied, and many chromos were made 
that had a large sale. Perhaps the best of his smaller pieces — a perfect 
gem — was a painting of the common sun fish. 

While always a lover of nature, and for many years an ardent sports- 
man, he later in life became especially interested in ornithology. He 
wrote 'Names and Portraits of Birds which Interest Gunners, with 
Descriptions in Language Understanded of the People,' published by 
Harper & Brothers in 1888. He contributed to ' Forest and Stream ' for 
Dec. 11, 1890, a notable paper on the 'American Woodcock,' which con- 
tained the first record of a bird's power to curve the upper mandible, and to 
4 The Auk' in 1892 and 1893 (Vol. IX, pp. 153-160, and Vol. X, pp. 165- 
176) two articles on ' Our Scoters,' giving careful and detailed descriptions 
of the species from fresh specimens. 

V °l' 9 o^ XI ] Notes and Ne ™ s ' 311 

Mr. Trumbull was an enthusiastic collector, and an excellent judge of 
china, and his cabinet contained some of the choicest specimens extant. 
About his last art work was the illustrating of the book written by his 
sister, Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson, 'The China Hunter's Club,' pub- 
lished in 1898. 

,He was deeply interested in the welfare of the lower animals and wrote 
much on humane subjects. Although seldom seen at the Annual Con- 
gress of the Union he always had the best interests of the Society at heart. 
He was of a quiet, retiring disposition and highly esteemed in the com- 
munity in which he resided. In his death "the world lost a man who 
daily made it better." — J. H. S. 

Josiah Hoopes, an Associate of the American Ornithologists' Union, 
died at his home, Westchester, Pennsylvania, on January 16, 1904, in the 
seventy-second year of his age. Although not a contributor to ornitholog- 
ical literature, Mr. Hoopes was from boyhood deeply interested in birds 
and was ever ready to aid any investigator by drawing upon his store of 
notes or specimens. In early life he was associated with several of the 
ornithologists of the Philadelphia Academy, notably Cassin, Turnbull, 
and Bernard Hoopes; and took much interest in the institution. Later 
he began the formation of a collection of eggs and skins of North Ameri- 
can land birds. Of the latter he accepted only first class specimens, and 
in particulars of arrangement, labelling, etc., his collection was a model 
of neatness. A special room was added to his house for the reception of 
his ornithological treasures and cases were prepared to accommodate a 
series of every species and subspecies in the A. O. U. list. The great 
majority of these were secured, and Mr. Hoopes's greatest delight was to 
show to visitors of kindred tastes his beautiful specimens. Some years 
ago this collection, numbering nearly 8000 skins, was purchased by the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and the specimens have since 
been used in many investigations. 

Mr. Hoopes was born in Westchester, November 9, 1832, the son of 
Pierce and Sarah A. Hoopes. He was educated in Philadelphia, where 
his family resided during his boyhood, and in 1850 returned to West- 
chester. He had always been deeply interested in botany and deciding 
to make this his business he opened in 1853 a small greenhouse, which 
to-day has grown into one of the largest nursery establishments in the 
United States, under the firm name of Hoopes Brothers and Thomas. 
Mr. Hoopes spent some time in travel, visiting the various botanic gar- 
dens of Europe, and contributed numerous articles to horticultural 
journals, besides writing the 'Book of Evergreens.' He was a member 
of the Society of Friends and one of the leading citizens of his native 
town, ever as ready to aid in public work as in furthering the studies in 
which he was interested. 

? I 2 Notes and News. \_k%. 

The influence of such men as Josiah Hoopes in advancing scientific 
work is hard to estimate, and all Pennsylvania bird students have lost a 
staunch supporter, while to those who knew him personally he will ever 
be remembered as a generous host and a true friend. — W. S. 

Lyman S. Foster, for a time an Active Member of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, died of pneumonia at St. Luke's Hospital, New York 
City, January 6, 1904. Mr. Foster was born at Gloucester, Mass., Novem- 
ber 25, 1843, but the greater part of his life was spent in New York City, 
as a stationer and dealer in natural history books, and from 1886 to 1900 
he was the authorized agent of the A. O. U. for the sale of its publica- 
tions and the distribution of 'The Auk.' He took an active interest in 
ornithology, and from time to time contributed short papers on North 
American birds to various natural history publications, including 'The 
Auk,' and the ' Abstract of Proceedings ' of the Linnsean Society of New 
York, of which society he was for some years treasurer. His principal 
contribution to ornithological literature is a minutely detailed bibliog- 
raphy of the ornithological writings of the late George N. Lawrence, 
published in 1892, forming No. IV of the series of ' Bibliographies of 
American Naturalists,' issued by the U. S. National Museum. 

A proposed general work on birds, in large quarto, with plain or 
colored plates, as may be required, is announced, to be prepared by a 
"Committee composed of the best Ornithologists of the World." Each 
family will be published separately, with separate pagination, and will 
include synoptical tables and descriptions of the genera, species and sub- 
species, references to the original descriptions, the synonymy, and geo- 
graphical distribution. The work will be published entirely in English, 
and the drawings will be by Keulemans. A specimen part, on the 
Eurylsemidoe, by E. Hartert, of the Zoological Museum of Tring, has 
been issued, and will be sent for inspection, post free, on application. 
This sample part shows that the work will prove of great convenience 
and value as a technical synopsis of the birds of the world. Subscrip- 
tions will be received only for the complete work, on the basis of 4 cts. 
per page of text, 30 cts. per plain plate, and 60 cts. per colored plate. 
Subscriptions should be addressed to P. Wytsman, 108, Boulevard du 
Nord, Bruxelles, Belgium. The New York agents are G. E. Stechert, 
and Westermann & Co. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman requests the cooperation of ornithologists in 
the preparation of a proposed work on the Warblers of North America. 
Information in regard to those phases of the life-history of these birds on 
which observations are particularly desired will be gladly furnished by 
Mr. Chapman, who may be addressed at the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City. 



Vol. xxi. July, 1904. No. 3 





The systematic arrangement of animals is usually based on 
morphological characters only, but biological observations may 
often give us precious hints which may help us to settle difficult 
questions in this respect. Considering that the present systematic 
arrangement of the genera belonging to the great family of 
Tyrannidae is far from being a satisfactory one, I have thought 
it useful to study in a comparative way the biology of the members 
of this family. 

Of the four subfamilies accepted according to the classification 
of Mr. Sclater, at least one seems to be unnatural as well as 
regards morphological as biological characters ; that is to say, the 

In my paper on eggs and nests of Brazilian birds (Revista do 
Museu Paulista, IV, 1899, p. 226)1 described the nest and eggs 
of Platyrhy7ichns mystaceus and expressed my surprise at their 
great difference when compared with the nests and eggs of the 
allied genera. Having obtained this year an authentic nest of this 
species I am able to state that as regards the first described nest 
there was a mistake. The nest of the above mentioned species of 
Platyrhynchus, which will be fully described in Vol. V of the 

2 I A. Von Ihering, Biology of the Tyrannidce. ("july 

1 Revista do Museu Paulista,' is purse-shaped and suspended at 
the extremity of a branch. It has a round opening in the middle 
protected by a shelter above. I have quite similar nests of Todi- 
rostrum cinereum, Orchilus auricularis, Hemitriccus diops, and of 
different species of Euscarthmus. The same form of nest is, 
therefore, common to the genera Platyrhynchus, Todirostrum, Eus- 
carthmns and Orchilus. Moreover, the eggs of the members of all 
these genera are yellowish white or brownish with very fine points 
on the larger end. 

On the other hand the nests of Serphophaga are placed among 
the diverging boughs of a branch and are cup-shaped, while the 
eggs are of a uniform yellowish white. Of the same type are the 
nests and eggs of Anceretes and Hapalocercus. The nest of 
Phylloscartes ventralis, however, as Mr. Krone assured me, has 
one wall of the nest elongated above and recurved, forming a 
somewhat globular, domed structure. 

A form of nest like that of Serphophaga is found in the genera 
E/ainea and Phyllomyias, and in other Elaineinae, among which, 
however, occurs also a second form of nest. This form is illus- 
trated by the nest of Ornithion obsoletum which I have recently 
examined. It is of a pear-shaped form, similar to that of Euscarth- 
mus, but not suspended from the top of a twig but fixed at differ- 
ent points on the branches. 

Euler has described the nest of this species differently, but the 
nest observed by him, which was much hidden between masses of 
Tillandsia, was not probably of a normal form. Besides, O. obso- 
letum does not occur in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, where the spe- 
cies is represented by O. cinerascens (Wied), which, in opposition 
to Mr. Allen, I do not doubt is identical with O. imberbe Scl. A 
similar nest is built by Mionectes rufiventris (Licht.), as has been 
observed by Mr. Krone. 

The nest of Omithion forms the transition between that of 
Serphophaga and that of Euscarthmus. We may be justified to 
assume that such an artificial and wonderful construction as the 
nest of Euscarthmus is not the work of free invention but is to be 
considered as the result of development from a previous form of 
nest. We have but to suppose the nest of Ornithion % instead of 
being fixed on various branches successively, to be placed on one 

Vol. XXIj y ON j HERINGj Biology of the Tyratitiidce. 3IC 

branch only and we have the suspended nest of Euscarthmus. A 
very remarkable form of suspended nest among the Tyrannidae 
occurs in the genus Rhynchocydus, but I believe it to be nothing 
more than an extreme modification of the Euscarthmine nest type. 
In this respect it is remarkable that the much bristled and flat- 
tened bill of Rhynchocydus is very like that of P/atyrhynchus, and 
quite different from that of the typical Elainece. 

Although the predominant form of nest among the Tyrannidae 
is certainly the cup-shaped one, we meet also with very different 
structures in this family. Covered nests occur in the genera 
Phylloscartes, Arundinico/a, Pitangus, and Myiozetetes, leading us 
on to the nest of Ornithion above described, and to the suspended 
nests of Euscarthmus and Rhynchocydus. According to Euler 
Myiobius barbatus has a suspended, purse-shaped nest, while the 
nest of Myiobius ncevius is cup-shaped, but is fixed suspended 
within the fork of two diverging branches in the manner typical 
of the nests of Thamnophilus and other Formicariidae. On the 
other hand we find nests of very slight structure made of a small 
number of slender sticks and roots in the genera Tyrannus, Empi- 
donomus, Myiodynastes, Megarhynchus, and others. These nests 
are extremely flat and apparently not well suited to retain the eggs 
in safety. 

Among the Taeniopterinae, inhabitants of the open plains, there 
are species which breed in holes in banks, as is said to be the case 
in Argentina with Tcenioptera nengeta by Mr. Hudson, while in 
Brazil this species builds its nest on trees. The species of Copu- 
rus and Machetornis breed in holes of trees, as also does Tce?iiop- 
tera irupero. The last-named species likes to appropriate the large 
covered mud-nests of Eur/iarius, and Machetornis prefers the 
large thorny nests of Atlumbius. Thus we see among the Tyran- 
nidae the most different forms of nest structures represented. 

In general the nests of species that inhabit the woods are well 
built, and covered carefully with dry plant material in order to 
be well hidden. Some of them, such as that of Elainea, are true 
masterpieces of art, being generally ornamented externally with 
pieces of lichen carefully fixed on by spiders' webs. On the other 
hand, the Taeniopterinae and Tyrannidae, inhabitants of the pam- 
pas and campos, contrary to what would be expected, take little 

3 1 6 Von Ihering, Biology of the Tyrannidce. V\v\ 

care to hide their nests. Everyone would suppose that these 
birds should prefer to build their nests under cover of the grass 
and form simple structures of dried grass, as do the species of 
Sycalis, Ammodromus, Pmbernagra, Emberizoides and other 
Fringillidae of the campos. Except, however, in the genus 
Alectrurus, I do not know any other example among the Tyranni- 
dae of this form of nesting. In general these birds are not very 
careful to hide their nests. On the contrary the large species of 
Tyranninae, and the species of the allied genera Myiozetetes and 
Pitangus, seem to prefer to place their nests on isolated trees, as 
much exposed as possible. This custom corresponds well with 
the bold characters of these birds. 

Taking a general view of the eggs of Tyrannidae, we find a uni- 
formity in coloration which is in strong contrast to the variety of 
forms of their nests. The eggs in this family, as a rule, are white 
or cream-white with reddish brown spots at the larger end. These 
spots are small and pointed in the Euscarthminae, while they are 
obsolete in the buff eggs of the Serphophaginae. The occurrence 
of pure white eggs is limited to the genera Copurus, Arundinicola, 
and a few others. In the genus Muscivora the ground color is 
somewhat dark brownish. The eggs of the genus Myiarchus are 
remarkable for the elongated form of the numerous red-brown 

If we compare the color of the eggs with the mode of con- 
struction of the nests no pronounced correlation is to be found. 
Uniformly white or cream-colored eggs exist in the genera Copurus 
and Arundinicola, which are deposited in covered nests, while the 
similar eggs of the Serphophaginae are laid in open nests. The 
eggs of the Euscarthminae, though deposited in closed nests are 
adorned with numerous red spots, while those of Myiozetetes and 
Pitangus, which are laid in closed and domed-shaped nests, have 
the same large, reddish brown spots as those of the genera Tyran- 
nus, Milvulus, and others, the nests of which are wholly open. 
Similar cases prevail in the eggs of other South American birds. 
In this respect the example of the American Gallinae is instructive, 
for while as regards the careless construction of the nest no differ- 
ence is noticeable, the eggs of the Brazilian representatives of 
the Gallinae are white, while those of the Crypturi are distin- 

V °!g?4 XI ] VoN Ihering i Biology of the Tyrannidce. \ I y 

guished by the most brilliant colors of brown, red, blue, and green. 
It is true that the Pici, Psittaci, and other birds that lay their eggs 
in hollow trees, all have white eggs, but eggs of the same color 
are found also in the open nests of the Trochilidae and of the 
Columbae. Returning to the Tyrannidae we find the egg of Mache- 
tortiis rixosa wholly different from those of the true Taeniopterinae, 
and resembling in its numerous, large, somewhat elongated brown- 
ish spots the eggs of the genera Empidonomus and Myiarchus, 
especially those of the latter. These facts throw doubt on the 
correctness of the generally accepted systematic position of Mache- 
tornis. So far as regards the egg of Tyrannus aurantioatronotatus 
Lafr. & D'Orb., it belongs to the genus Tyrannus and not to 

These differences, therefore, cannot be explained by the so- 
called law of 'natural selection,' but bear relations to the genetic 
affinities and the inner movements which, independently of the 
supposed ' natural selection,' determined the individual variation 
as well as the phylogenetic development of the organisms. 

After what I have stated it is evident that the systematic 
arrangement of the Tyrannidae in its present form can only be 
considered as provisional, and it may be well altered when a gen- 
eral anatomical study of the whole group has been made. At 
present the systematic sections are only based on a restricted 
number of external characters, principally on the form of the 
tarsi, feet and bills. These characters are in intimate connection 
with the manner of life. In this way we are exposed to the 
danger of confounding essential typical characters with adaptive 
ones. I think that such a mistake took place on the occasion of 
the formation of the subfamily Taeniopterinae. This section 
embraces forms with strong feet, strong and elongated tarsi, and 
slender elongated bills, characters which seem to result from the 
life on the ground on the pampas and campos, which these birds 

In general this subfamily may be considered a very natural 
one. The predominant colors of the species are gray, white, and 
black. These colors are not common in the family Tyrannidae as 
a whole, and they are evidently to be considered as being acquired 
characters and not of a phylogenetic value. This is proved by 

"2 I 8 Von Ihering, Biology of the Tyrannidce. \jv^ 

the fact that in the species of Cnipolegus, Lichenops, and others in 
which the males are wholly black, the females and young are of a 
brownish color or have a spotted plumage. Among the more or 
less similar members usually placed in this subfamily two mono- 
typic genera are completely different in their coloration, namely, 
Sisopygis and Machetornis, which in my opinion do not belong to 
this subfamily, but to the Elaineinae. Machetornis seems to me to 
be allied to Pitangus, and Sisopygis to Mionectes, Capsiempis, and 
similar genera. While Machetor?iis, at least in its mode of life, 
resembles the Taeniopterinae, Sisopygis inhabits the woods like the 

That the Platyrhynchinae really consist of two different subfam- 
ilies, Euscarthminae and Serphophaginae, we have shown above. 
With the biological differences correspond such important morpho- 
logical ones, principally those of the form of the bill, that the 
separation here proposed will probably be accepted as being 
naturally founded. 

In order to obtain a natural classification of the Tyrannidae it 
is necessary to get an idea of the phylogenetic development of 
the family. In this respect the Tyranninae, judging from their 
large dimensions and their large, somewhat depressed bills, do not 
represent the original form, but, as I think, an extreme branch of 
the family. Other specialized branches are found in the Euscarth- 
minae and Taeniopterinae. The latter offer not only a coloring 
somewhat uncommon in this family, but also cases of decided 
sexual dimorphism, which evidently represents a specialization 
acquired within the subfamily. 

Excluding from the Elaineinae the Pitanginae — large birds with 
strong bills that biologically much approximate to true Tyranninae 
— the Elaineinae evidently represent the group most nearly allied 
to the ancestors of the Tyrannidae. These forms are also those 
which have the nearest relations with the Pipridae. Strongly 
developed syndactylism, which is one of the characters distinguish- 
ing the latter, is also very remarkable in many genera of the 
Elaineinae, as for example in the genus Tyranniscus. 

Among the Pipridae the same fact is observable as in the Tyran- 
nidae, namely, that sexual dimorphism in coloration exists only in 
the more highly organized forms. In the subfamily of Piprinae 

iqo4 1 ^ r ° N I HERING ^ Biology of tke Tyrannidce. 3*9 

the very striking and beautiful coloration is found only in the 
adult males, while the females and young males retain uniform 
olive colors, and it is also only among the adult males that we 
meet with such abnormal characters as enlarged stems of the pri- 
maries and secondaries, erect frontal feathers, and elongated tail- 
feathers, while the Ptilochlorinae resemble the Elaineinae not only 
in coloration, but also in the rather small and bristled bill. These 
facts induce us to conclude that the Pipridae and Tyrannidae have 
descended from a common ancestral form, the nearest relatives of 
which are the Elaineinae among the Tyrannidae with the Ptilochlo- 
rinae among the Pipridae. The common ancestors must have been 
birds of small size, with pronounced syndactylism of the outer 
toes, with rather small, somewhat compressed and bristled bill, 
and of uniform olive color. The frequent occurrence of a yellow 
coronal patch among the Pipridae as well as the Tyrannidae leads 
us to suppose that this ornament may have been transferred from 
the common ancestors, which were inhabitants of the woods. 
From the Elaineine branch of the Tyrannidae originated, besides 
the Euscarthminae and Serphophaginae, whose biological conditions 
are nearly the same, two great sections of inhabitants of the 
campos, mostly large-sized birds, the Taeniopterinae and the Pit- 

With these general results the geographical distribution accords. 
As is generally the case with the wood-inhabiting birds, the dis- 
tribution of the Elaineinae of Brazil is a somewhat restricted one. 
While a number of species are distributed through the forest region 
of Brasil, only a few range through Guiana and Central America 
to Mexico. The Euscarthminae in this respect also do not diverge 
much from the Elaineinae, but the Serphophaginae, preferring 
open plains and river banks, do occur not only in the campos 
but the majority of them is restricted to the Andine Region. 
These two groups of campos inhabiting Tyrannidae are wholly 
different not only in their way of life but also in their geographical 

The habits of the Taeniopterinae are terrestrial. They run on 
the ground and have in relation therewith elongated tarsi and 
strong ambulatorial feet, seeking their insect food on the ground. 
They inhabit the pampas and the campos of central Brazil, being 

2 20 Von Ihering, Biology of the Tyrannidce. Ijulv 

represented in the littoral zone by but few species. On the other 
hand, many species and genera are adapted to live in the Andes, 
where they occur from Patagonia to Colombia, but no species of 
these Andine forms passes into Mexico and Texas. For this rea- 
son I think it to be right to separate the genus Sayornis from the 
Taeniopterinae, and to unite it to the Tyranninae, in the society of 
which it is found in North America and from which it does not 
differ regarding its biology. 

The Pitanginae and Tyranninae, on the contrary, are of very wide 
geographical distribution. Though preferring the campos, they 
avoid the treeless plains. They are not ground-walkers, but cap- 
ture insects as they fly like Flycatchers. They are very active, 
courageous birds of large size and good flight, and their geograph- 
ical distribution therefore, as a rule, is very wide, some of them 
occurring from Argentina to North America. Among the seventy- 
eight species of Tyrannidae living in the State of S. Paulo forty- 
three belong to the Elaineinae and the allied groups of arboreal 
life, and of these ten, or 23 per cent, have a relatively wide geo- 
graphical distribution. Among the six Pitanginae only the two 
species of Co?iopias and Sirystes are restricted to Brazil, while the 
species of Legatus, Myiozetetes, Pitangus, and Myiodynastes are 
represented even in the southern parts of North America by the 
same species or by little different local races. Among the sixteen 
Tyranninae of S. Paulo all have a very extensive geographical 
distribution except Blacicus cinereus (Spix) and Tyr annus albo- 
gularis Burm., so that more than 80 per cent of the Pitanginae 
and Tyranninae of S. Paulo have very wide geographical 

These facts of geographical distribution show us that the only 
system of nomemclature well applicable to the discussion of zoo- 
geographical problems is the trinomial. 

The use of binomials as employed in the excellent Hand-list of 
Dr. Bowdler Sharpe may be more advantageous for collection 
purposes, but it combines in a very inconvenient manner well- 
defined species with local races. Such facts as the vast distribu- 
tion of Pitangus sulphuratus (L.) and Myiozetetes similis (Spix) 
are completely hidden by the use of binomial nomenclature. 

It is also among these birds that we meet true migratory forms, 

Vol. XXI 

Von Ihering, Biology of the Tyrannidce. X2\ 

so far as such exist among the Tyrannidae. This fact is in inti- 
mate relation with the special biological conditions of the campos. 
No migratory birds at all exist among the wood-inhabiting Tyran- 
nidae, nor among the Pipridae, Formicariidae and other families of 
the forests. 

True migratory birds are scarcely represented in South America 
and are essentially restricted to two families of insectivorous birds, 
the Hirundinidae and the Tyrannidae. In South Brazil, from Rio 
Grande to S. Paulo, I have observed migratory habits in the fol- 
lowing species: — 

Myiodynastes solitarius (Vieill.). Tyrannus melancholicus Vieill. 
Pyrocephalus rubineus (Bodd.). Muscivora tyrannus (L.). 

As I am preparing a paper on this subject to be published in 
' Aquila ' I will not discuss it in the present paper. It is evident, 
however, from the preceding deductions, that in biological respects 
the family of Tyrannidae is one of the most interesting of the 
Neotropical Avifauna, strongly contrasting with the uniformity 
which in this regard prevails in most of the other characteristic 

Although the object of this essay was only to refer to some 
general biological features and habits common to certain sub- 
families I nevertheless think it useful to give briefly the results 
of my observations, as they may be of service to a subsequent 
worker who will undertake the necessary systematic revision of 
the family Tyrannidae. They are as follows : 

(1) The Taeniopterinae represent a very natural systematic 
group but as usually arranged include some strange elements, 
such as Sayornis, Sisopygis, and probably Machetomis, which 
should be removed to other subfamilies. 

(2) The Platyrhynchinae of the systematic arrangement of Mr. 
Sclater contain two quite different sections, the Euscarthminae 
and the Serphophaginae. 

(3) The Elaineinae contain some aberrant forms which should 
be removed to other subfamilies. For example, the genus Rhyn- 
chocydus should go to the Euscarthminae, and the genera Legatus, 
Myiozetetes, Conopias, Pitangus, Sirystes and Myiodynastes should 
form a subfamily, Pitanginae, a section which biologically is inti- 

3 22 Taverner, The Origin of Migration. ["july 

mately related to the Tyranninae, while morphologically it is 
intermediate between the latter and the Elaineinae. 

(4) The Tyranninae form a natural section with which perhaps 
the Pitanginae should be united. 

5". Paulo, Brazil, g Nov., 1Q03. 



One of the first, if not the very first, phenomena of animate 
nature to be noticed by primeval man, must have been that of 
migration ; and from that day to this it has been, to a greater or 
less extent, a subject of great interest to students. In the present 
day it has been approached from many different sides, and 
though many points have been pretty well cleared up, others are 
still enveloped in a haze through which the fundamental princi- 
ples are but barely visible, while others still remain shrouded in 
a dense, impenetrable cloud of mystery. 

The methods by which birds find their way to far distant points, 
the manner of their migrations, etc., lie without the scope of this 
paper, and will not be referred to here. Upon these points we 
all await the publication of the results of the investigations now in 
progress, when probably many obscure points will be cleared up. 

Migration consists of two movements, one in the spring, away 
from the winter station ; and the other in the fall, towards it again. 
The reason of the latter is self-evident. There is a lack of food. 
If they did not return in the fall they would perish of hunger, if 
not of cold. From general observations, it seems as if the former 
had a larger influence than the latter, and it is the northward 
movement that needs explanation. Why should a bird leave a 
warm land of plenty to journey to a country but half recovered 
from the frozen embraces of an arctic climate ? It seems 

Vol. XXI 

Taverner, The Origin of Migration. 3^3 

improbable that the birds themselves realize why they migrate, or 
what benefits are to be thus gained or enemies escaped. When 
the proper season comes, "the spirit moves them," and they go or 
come, as the case may be. However instinctive their habit 
may now be, there must have been a time when migrations were 
intelligent movements, intended to escape some danger or secure 
some advantage; and through generations of repetition they have 
become fixed into hereditary habits, closely with reproduction and 
reproductive seasons. In time the two habits became so inter- 
dependent that the awakening of the sexual desires sympathetic- 
ally affected the migratory instincts and caused restlessness and 
a desire that was only to be satisfied by the accomplishment of 
the same long journey that their progenitors had taken for 

Of the many theories that have been advanced to explain this 
question, I will mention a few that seem the most important and 
the most generally received. While advancing nothing abso- 
lutely new, I wish to call attention to one factor in the question 
that has not, in my estimation, been given its due importance, 
nor has it been recognized, as far as I am aware, that therein lie 
possibilities probably capable of producing all the phenomena of 
migrations as we now see them. Of this, more anon. 

There is a theory extant, supported by W. K. Brooks in his 
' Foundations of Zoology ' that has received a considerable 
amount of attention. This ascribes migration to a desire to 
find nesting sites secure from arboreal Mammalia and Reptilia. 
This supposes, and perhaps correctly so, that the northern nest- 
ing stations are safer from these enemies than the tropical ones; 
though any one familiar with our northern woods, and acquainted 
with our ubiquitous red squirrel, may have good grounds for 
doubting the general statement, as far as it relates to mammals, 
at least. 

There are certain facts of distribution, however, that this theory 
fails to explain, and which seem, indeed, to be in direct antago- 
nism to it. Typical instances of this can be seen in the distribu- 
tion and ranges of the families of Cuckoos and Doves. Also the 
occurrence of such an elaborate and careful nest builder as the 
Baltimore Oriole, as far north as the Transition fauna. Surely, 

^2A Taverner, The Origin of Migration. \_U^ 

such a nest as this bird builds would be as secure from these 
enemies in the heart of the tropical forests as in the temperate 
ones. Therefore, safe nesting sites could not be the object of 
their migrating, — unless the peculiar form of nest was evolved 
after the migratory habit had been formed. This, however, does 
not seem to have been the case. Such a likeness is exhibited in 
the forms of the nests throughout the whole family, that we are 
forced to conclude that this type of nest was used by the common 
ancestor of Icterus, which must have been before the Baltimore 
Oriole became migratory. 

The cuckoos and doves above mentioned, are notoriously care- 
less nesters, and under this hypothesis, we would expect that 
migration would have been forced upon the whole of these fami- 
lies, or at least upon a considerable number of the species com- 
posing them. Contrary to this, we find that these are peculiarly 
tropical and subtropical families, and but a very small percentage 
of them ever get up into northern latitudes. 

It may be held that the above cases are exceptions, caused by 
varying local conditions, but it still remains to be proved that the 
generality of tropical nesters take any greater nesting precautions 
than northern ones of the same class, as would assuredly be the 
case if the above were the correct solution of the problem. 
Furthermore, there are grave reasons, to which I will refer later, 
for doubting that inadequate nesting habits could ever be the 
cause of migrations. 

A second theory, advanced under the auspices of Mr. Chas. 
Dixon, refers the movement to a natural desire of the individuals 
of a species to disperse during the breeding season, and draws 
attention to the fact that the bird population is more scattered 
during the breeding season than at other times. He utterly 
refutes the idea that adverse circumstances of either food, tem- 
perature, or enemies can force a bird to change its range, and 
cites instances of the Great Auk, Labrador Duck, and other spe- 
cies that have suffered extermination rather than forsake their 
accustomed habitat. Mr. Dixon evidently regards this dispersal 
as effecting a reduction in the density of the population. It 
certainly does result in this among the adult inhabitants, but it 
is open to question if we assume that the total population is 

Vol. XXI j Taverner, The Origin of Migration. 325 

thus affected. His conclusion is apparently based upon the well 
known and indisputable fact that birds are harder to find during 
the breeding season than at other times. It must, however, be 
remembered that for each pair of breeding birds observed, there is 
somewhere about a nest full of young that are not seen at all. 
These young are of as much economic importance in reckoning 
population as the adults, and as such must be taken into consid- 
eration. On the whole, I doubt very much whether the bird pop- 
ulation in the breeding season is any less per given unit of territory 
than at other times. 

That migration is caused by a natural dispersal of the adults 
during the breeding season must be admitted. But this is beg- 
ging the question. Migration is a dispersal ; and conversely, this 
dispersal, as it manifests itself, is migration. The author fails to 
explain the cause of the natural dispersal. The object of this 
scattering may be seclusion, either for privacy or safety. If for 
privacy, it seems to defeat its own ends when such birds as the 
herons, swallows, and like gregarious n esters congregate in great 
communities to perform their marital duties. If safety is sought, 
it presupposes that all the safe nesting sites are monopolized by 
other species and the migrants are crowded out. 

In our own country, we can readily see that but an infinitesimal 
fraction of possible sites are thus occupied. How rare it is for a 
nesting place to be used a second time by different individuals, — 
except in the case of woodpeckers' holes, where it is obvious that 
the supply is limited, — any field worker knows. If desirable 
forked branches, etc., were at such a high premium, this would 
occur frequently. If, then, the above is true in our own country, 
how much more must it be true in the tropical stations, where, 
though the population of both birds and their enemies is greatly 
increased, the luxuriant vegetation affords an infinitely greater 
number of desirable sites for nesting. Crowding in this sense 
seems impossible. 

That individual birds cannot be driven from what they regard 
as their proper stations, may possibly be admitted ; but that spe- 
cies cannot (when the adverse changes in surroundings take place 
gradually enough), is absurd. As far as I am aware, there are 
three principal ways by which geographical distribution can be 

226 Taverner, The Origin of Migration. ft" 14 

effected. One is the sudden irruption of a species, when it sud- 
denly appears in numbers in a territory where it had been either 
extremely rare, or entirely absent. Examples of this are to be 
seen in the sudden occurrence of the Sand Grouse in Europe in 
1888; the appearance of great flocks of Brunnich's Murre on 
Lakes Ontario and Erie, 1894-97, and the great movements 
occasionally noted in Lemmings. Of the underlying causes of 
these strange migrations, whether they are due to inner psycho- 
logical or outer physical phenomena, we are ignorant. These 
strange overflows seem so erratic and abnormal in the light that 
invasions of this kind do not succeed in forming permanent settle- 
ments on the new grounds, that it would be reckless at present, to 
use them as a basis for theorizing, until all other means fail. 

The second method is by a force exerted from within an estab- 
lished range ; and the third, an attractive one acting from with- 
out. These two, however antagonistic as they may superficially 
seem, are, at root, one and the same. They are both caused by 
differences in the desirability of two stations. One is caused by 
a decrease in the desirability of a present, and the other by an 
increase of the same quality in an adjoining territory. They are 
but ratios of desirability, and can both be expressed by fractions 
whose values depend upon the relative, not the numerical size of 
their terms. If, then, attraction is but a phase of driving, and 
birds cannot be driven from their haunts, we are forced to discard 
all our present theories of geographical distribution and return to 
that of special creation, or found our science upon the unknown 
quantities of general irruption probably caused by psychological 
disturbances of whose origin and intent we are ignorant. 

Ranges can be, have been, and in the course of time, must many 
times have been, changed by necessity when the changes in con- 
ditions occur slowly enough so that, though individuals may not, 
the whole species might have advanced or retreated. In this 
same manner, we know that even our forests have migrated back 
and forth across the continent before the face of the glacial ice, 
climbed mountains and descended valleys, though each individual 
tree or plant remained rooted for life to the spot where it origi- 
nally sprouted. If plants can and have done this, I see no reason 
why birds could not also, as even in the most extreme case of local 

Vol. XXI 

Taverner, The Origin of Migration. 3^7 

attachment, a bird can never be as firmly fixed to its station as 
trees and plants are to theirs. 

The cases of extermination cited are where the changes had 
come too suddenly, or where the species had become stereotyped 
or inflexible in habits and structure by too long and great success 
under peculiar conditions, and so lacked the elasticity of nature 
necessary to modify itself and its life to slight changes of 

A. R. Wallace has outlined another idea on the subject. He 
suggests, in ' Island Life,' that the migrants are in search of soft- 
bodied insects suitable for nestlings ; that, as the season advances 
in the tropics, it becomes dryer and dryer, and such insects soon 
disappear. According to this view, it seems at first sight to be a 
seeking after food of a certain quality. Reduced to its lowest 
terms however, it appears as a very different matter, namely, a 
question of quantity. It is admitted that, even in the tropics, 
there is at least a short season when there are insects of a suitable 
quality for nestlings. That this season is long enough to raise 
birds, is evident, for many species closely related to our migrants 
successfully nest and raise their broods there. If all birds bred 
there at this same period, there would be suitable food there and 
migrations would be unnecessary. That they do not, is an indica- 
tion that some other factor enters into the question, and it seems 
very probable that all birds breeding contemporaneously would 
exhaust the supply of such food. The question, then, is one of 
quantity more than quality. 

It may be objected that each species requires its own special 
food at the critical nesting period, which may not be obtainable 
everywhere. Now, if there is any truth in our present evolution- 
ary theory, great changes in food habits have occurred in all our 
species. But the new food supply must, in each and every case, 
have occurred before the habits and structure for utilizing it 
appeared. Therefore, food habits could never have originated 
migrations, though migration undoubtedly has had a great influ- 
ence in modifying food habits. 

It must be remembered also, that migration is a dangerous 
undertaking to a race. A journey covering thousands of miles, 
to be performed against innumerable enemies, both personal and 

328 Taverner, The Origin of Migration. [ju\' 

elementary, into a country just recovering from the rigors of winter, 
is a very hazardous solution of any problem. Especially must 
this have been true in the early days of the habit, when the races 
were much less adequately provided with hereditary experience 
and structure necessary for its successful conclusion. In this 
light, it seems highly improbable that anything short of the stern- 
est necessity would favor the development of a habit so fraught 
with danger to the individuals of a species ; and that, if any less 
hazardous solution were possible, it would have been taken advan- 
tage of. 

The great diversity of food and nesting habits exhibited by 
closely allied species, shows how easily, comparatively speaking, 
these habits are modified. Therefore, if any peculiar nesting or 
food requirements menaced the welfare of tropical residents to the 
extent that must have been necessary to produce migration, it is 
reasonable to suppose these habits would have been altered to 
suit surroundings long before such a dangerous habit as migra- 
tion could have been adopted. 

The natural inference is that the problem was something that 
could be solved in no less hazardous way. For it would be much 
easier for birds to learn to build woven pensile nests at the end of 
long slender branches, or to adopt food that closely allied species 
found acceptable, than to create all the elaborate instincts, powers 
and structures necessary to enable them to traverse great stretches 
of country unguided, and in the face of meteorological disturb- 
ances, new enemies, strange foods, and all the dangers attendant 
upon migration. These grounds, then, alone seem sufficient to 
discredit any such phenomena as the foregoing, as prime causes 
in the origination of this habit. 

The one cause that seems adequate to produce such great 
results, is that one which ultimately rules the whole animate world 
— the sufficiency of the food supply. Admitting that in the trop- 
ics there is, at any time, or more especially during the migration 
seasons, a lack of, or a severe struggle for food, and we have a 
necessity sufficiently imperative to cause the origin of any habit 
that it is possible to form. Mr. J. A. Allen, and others, have 
shown that the usual struggle for existence, always and every- 
where intensely severe, is sufficient to cause an overflow into an 

V °igo4 XI J Taverner, The Origin of Migration. 3 2 9 

adjoining area whenever that area assumes conditions favorable 
for the support of an increased population. The return of spring 
causes the favorable conditions in the north, and the spring migra- 
tion is the evidence of the overflow. The approach of winter influ- 
ences life in the same manner, but the overflow, or migration is in 
the opposite direction. 

Mr. Allen has very aptly applied the saying that " Nature abhors 
a vacuum," and suggests that migration is the only manner in 
which a zoological vacuum, in a country whose life-supporting 
capacity is a regularly fluctuating quantity, can be filled by non- 
hibernating animals. 

That this view is correct, I do not think can be doubted, but 
there is another factor in the case that does not seem to have 
been generally perceived, — a fact that strengthens the foregoing 
reasoning manifold. True, Mr. Newton, in his ' Dictionary of 
Birds ' has suggested it, but without apparently perceiving what 
a powerful factor it must prove in the case. I refer to the effect 
of the large increase of life in the breeding season, in an already 
thickly populated country, such as the southern stations must be 
just previous to the spring migration, coincident with the opening 
up for settlement of a vast adjoining and practically unoccupied 
territory, by the seasonal recession of the winter ice cap. Under 
the "Law of Malthus" we find a country to the south of us, popu- 
lated to its fullest extent during the winter. Spring comes, and 
nearly every pair of birds has a nest full of young, requiring 
great quantities of food. The food demand must be increased to 
many times what it was before. There would, of course, be an 
increase in this food supply, due to the influence of spring, but it 
would not be in proportion to the demand. This inadequacy of 
the food supply is brought home to us very clearly if we reflect 
upon the fact that it takes the whole northern hemisphere to sup- 
port the species in the summer that all through the winter were 
confined to a very limited territory ; and that even then, during 
the time of greatest dispersal and food supply, the competition is 
always keen. Considering, then, that this great increase in popu- 
lation happens contemporaneously with an equal growth of the 
food producing territory due to the return of spring, it does not 
seem at all wonderful that the birds should migrate to utilize a 

l^O Taverner, The Origin of Migration. \J\^\ 

plentiful food supply and escape death by the causes attendant 
upon the evils of insufficient nourishment. 

Migration, if the outcome of these phenomena, probably would 
have originated in the following manner. In the beginning of the 
breeding season, the competition would originate in the areas 
containing the earliest breeders, and would be severest in the 
most productive districts. Here the strongest species would soon 
drive out the weaker ones and the later breeders, which, having 
no parental ties to bind them to any one locality, would be more 
easily forced to leave than those already possessing nests — all 
other things, of course, being equal. These species, driven away, 
would encroach on others, forcing them out, in their turn, to tres- 
pass upon a wider circle of species. Thus the pressure arising 
from the congestion originating probably in the center of the win- 
ter residential area, would be felt to the farthest points of the 
populated territory. Any stringency of food supply invariably 
causes greater exertions on the part of the inhabitants, and hence' 
wider ranging; and the slightest increase in sustaining power of 
adjoining lands would be immediately found and taken advantage 
of. As these species moved into the new country, their places 
would be quickly taken by those behind, and as the congestion 
was relieved, the impelling force would be constantly reinforced 
by the nesting of the later breeders as the season progressed. 

The increase of population and life-supporting area would pro- 
ceed regularly and evenly, so that the pressure would never exceed 
the relief. This nice balance would, of course, have been secured 
according to the laws of survival of the fittest — undesirable forms 
that would disturb the equilibrium, being either modified or elimi- 

Thus each species, crowded on by those behind, and enticed by 
the advance of those in front, would proceed onward until their 
own particular station had been reached. This point would be 
determined by one or more of several factors. The most obvious 
of these would be the failure of their particular food, the arrival 
of their nesting season, and the absence of superior competitors. 
When a species had reached this stage in its own particular migra- 
tion, it would settle down and nest, and from then, to the end of 
its nidification period, would be fixed, and by its own increase 

Vol. XXI 

Taverner, The Origin of Migration. 3^1 

aid in driving forward those that had not yet found suitable con- 
ditions for nesting. 

In the incipiency of the migration habit, the individual move- 
ments would be small, perhaps originating in a pair of birds 
discovering an unexpected store of food on the side of a hill 
opposite their usual haunts. The birds that were bred here 
would find their way back the next year with greater ease than 
their parents did originally, and would be in a position to make 
further advances to the hill beyond. So each year, as the glacial 
ice receded, the territory suited for summer occupancy would be 
slightly enlarged, and the birds would each succeeding year, 
during the period of greatest stress, find sustenance a little to the 
northward of the preceding season's uttermost range. 

The migratory movements and the differentiations of the 
breeding season are so closely connected that it is difficult to 
determine which originated first. Migration would delay breeding 
in the species that showed the slightest inclination towards the 
habit ; and conversely, a delayed breeding season would actively 
assist the evolution of migration. The origination of both may 
have been simultaneous, though it is hard to imagine a time when 
some slight traces of migration would not have been beneficial to 
the races. At any rate, their effects would have been cumulative, 
each increasing and fixing the others. Once started, then, either 
or both would be rendered more and more pronounced, through 
natural selection, until the extreme limit profitable for each 
species was reached. 

The gradual extension of the extreme summer range, as the 
glacial ice cap retreated, would most probably have been by 
means of the younger individuals, or birds in their first breeding 
season, of each species, as these would be weaker, and more easily 
driven than the older ones that would have become more attached 
to their local habitats. It seems universally true that young 
birds do not often return to breed in the immediate vicinity of the 
place where they are raised. There is a dispersing influence of 
some sort at work here. It is said that the older ones drive their 
offspring away from their hunting grounds when those offspring 
are able to take care of themselves. I cannot say from actual 
experience that they do this, but it seems so advantageous a 

•2? 2 Taverner, 7V/<? Origin of Migration. Xj\\L 



habit that its development is not only possible but very probable, 
and just what the student of evolution would expect. 

This scattering of the younger individuals, however it was 
brought about, would then favor the extension of the migration 
range by the ones thus driven to wander from their accustomed 
haunts. As further substantiation of this, it is to be noticed that 
birds found far from their natural haunts are usually immature 

A young bird on its first spring migration, would naturally 
return to the familiar place where it was raised. Being driven 
away from here, it would wander about until it found a suitable 
location for its own breeding — perhaps a mile, perhaps two, may- 
be less, away from its original home. The succeeding years, 
it would return to this new haunt, and the range of the species 
could be extended by its offspring. Thus, each bird would follow 
the route taken by its parents, and thus each point on a migration 
route would indicate the place that was once the ultimate goal of 
the migrations of its ancestors. 

Migrations to true oceanic islands are more difficult to explain 
along these lines, but I do not think that they invalidate the 
reasoning in any way. Migrating birds certainly have wonderful, 
and as yet mysterious, senses of location and direction, and it is 
not too much to say that a bird, once it has traveled a certain 
journey, is usually able to find its way over the same path again. 
A pair of birds have only to be storm-blown to one of these 
isolated spots, breed there, and return with its progeny, to start a 
tendency in their offspring to migrate to the same place again. 
As long as the least tendency to an advantageous migration were 
started, natural selection would confirm, increase, and fix the 
habit firmly ; and along with this, the new senses, structures and 
habits necessary to their accomplishment. It is unlikely, however, 
that this type of migration could be started until after certain 
powers and senses had been developed by migrations to other 
localities. They must, therefore, be regarded as secondary move- 
ments originally, though in some cases they have become now the 
prime or only migrations of the species by the extermination of all 
those individuals that adhered to the original routes. 

The return movement in the fall is the same thing, nearly, as 

Vol ioo tXI l Taverner, The Origin of Migration. ^33 

the spring migration, but reversed. The shortage in food, how- 
ever, is not caused, except indirectly, when the first migrants 
encroach upon those below them, by the increase of population, 
but by the direct failure of the food supply. It is perfectly 
evident that certain species must return south again, or stay and 
surely starve. The total population, however, of any area, cannot 
permanently remain greater than the number that can be sustained 
through the season of least food supply. During the height of 
the breeding season, there are many more birds than can be 
carried through the winter in the restricted southern stations, and 
if they are to return there again, the excess must be got rid of. 
Many of them are killed off at a very tender age — probably the 
great majority of them fail to survive the fledgling stage. Many 
more, young and inexperienced, must perish when first they leave 
the protecting influence of the parent's care. Others are bat- 
tered about by the storms and destroyed by the perils incident to 
the fall migration. The few surplus that remain are subjected to 
a stricter and stricter process of selection as they reach more con- 
gested areas ; and, in the end, the total population fits into its 
place in the winter quarters, to the extreme limit of the sup- 
porting powers of the land. 

These migrations, in their earliest stages, must then have 
originated in a conscious seeking for food — not special food, but 
any food that would support them. Accidental wanderings taught 
them where to find it, and experience suggested their return there 
on the first approach of a stringency in the food supplies. In 
course of time, the movement became habitual, and generations 
of repetition rendered it instinctive. Instinct, having the same 
relation to judgment as automatic machinery has to ordinary 
mechanism, would be favored through natural selection ; and as 
the birds acquired the peculiar powers necessary, migrations 
assumed all the varied phenomena that they exhibit to-day. 

334 Deane, Unpublished Extracts from Audubon's Journal. Llulv 



The Journal from which these extracts are taken, covers the 
period from October 12, 1820, to December 30, 182 1. This 
would have been included in ' Audubon and his Journals ' but un- 
fortunately it did not fall into the hands of the author until more 
than a year after this work had been completed and published. 
I am under many obligations to Miss M. R. Audubon for the 
privilege of publishing fourteen days of this diary, covering dates 
between October 12, 1820, and November 25, 182 1. As there is 
now but little unpublished Auduboniana, excepting family letters, 
this portion of the Journal is of peculiar interest. It shows that 
period of the great naturalist's life, eleven years before the publi- 
cation of the first volume of his ' Ornithological Biography,' when, 
without money and living where his talents were not appreciated, 
he was making a fight in which few could have conquered under 
similar conditions. To fully appreciate the ' Birds of America ' 
one must read the early life of the author. 

From Audubon's Journal. 

Oct. 12th, 1820 (On the Ohio). Shot an Autumnal Warbler 1 
as Mr. A. Wilson is pleased to designate the young of the Yellow 
rumped Warbler ; this was a young male in beautiful plumage for 
the season, and I drew it, as I feel perfectly convinced Mr. Wilson 
has made an error in presenting the bird as a new species. 

1 As is well known, Wilson's Autumnal Warbler {Sylvia autumnalis) is 
the Bay-breasted Warbler {Dendroica castaned) or the Black-poll Warbler 
{Dendroica striata), according to different authors, in first winter plumage, 
while Audubon, detecting the fact that it was a young bird of a known spe- 
cies, failed to identify it correctly. This was not at all strange, for at that 
early date much had to be learned of the immature plumages of our birds. 
I have good cause to state that some people are too ready to call Audubon 
careless when it was not carelessness but ignorance, which was perfectly natu- 
ral and excusable in those days, and which he had neither time nor opportu- 
nity to correct until later. 

°iqo4 J Dkane, Unpublished Extracts from Audubon's Journal. 3 3 S 

Oct. 14th, 1820. We returned to our boat with a Wild Turkey, 
a Telltale Godwit and a Hermit Thrush which was too much torn 
to make a drawing of it ; this was the first time I had met with 
this bird and I felt particularly mortified at its condition. 

Nov. 2nd, 1820. Floated down slowly within two miles of Hen- 
derson, I can scarcely conceive that I stayed there eight years 
and passed therein comfortably, for it is undoubtedly on the poor- 
est spot in the country, according to my present opinion. 

Nov. 3rd, 1820. We left our harbor at daybreak and passed 
Henderson about sunrise. I looked on the Mill 1 perhaps for the 
last time, and with thoughts that made my blood almost run cold, 
bid it an eternal farewell. 

Nov. 23rd, 1820. I saw two large Eagle's Nests, one of them 
I remembered seeing as I went to New Orleans eighteen months 
ago. It had been worked upon, and no doubt young were raised 
in it. It is in a large cypress tree not very high, made of very 
large dead sticks, and about eight feet in diameter. 

New Orleans, Jan. 12th, 18 21. Early this morning I met an 
Italian painter at the theatre. I took him to N. Berthoud's 2 
rooms and showed him the drawing of the White-headed Eagle. 
He was much pleased took me to his painting apartment at the 
theatre, then to the Directors, who very roughly offered me $100 
per month to paint with Monsieur lTtalien. I believe really now 
that my talents must be poor. 

Jan. 13th, 1821. I rose up early tormented by many disagree- 
able thoughts, again nearly without a cent, in a bustling city where 
no one cares a fig for a man in my situation. I walked to Jarvis 3 
the portrait painter and showed him some of my drawings. He 
leaned down, and examined them minutely, but never said they 
were good or bad ; merely that when he drew an Eagle he made 
it resemble a Lion, and covered it with yellow feathers, or rather 
hair, not feathers, curious speech. Some people entered and 

1 The Grist Mill erected by Audubon and Bakewell was completed in 181 7 
and still stands as a part of and adjoining the warehouse of Mr. David Clark, 
and is used for the storage of leaf tobacco. 

2 Nicholas Augustus Berthoud, brother-in-law of Audubon. 

3 John Wesley Jarvis, a self-taught portrait painter, who lived in New 
Orleans, Louisiana, in 1820-1821. Born 1780, died 1834. 

33^ Deane, Unpublished Extracts from Audubon's Journal. Lhliv 

were so well pleased with my Eagle that they praised it, and Jarvis 
rudely whistled. I called him aside while Joseph [Mason] 1 rolled 
up my papers, and told him I had heard he required assistance to 
finish his portraits, i.e., clothing and ground, and added that I 
had received good lessons from excellent masters. He asked me 
to come the next day and he would talk about it. 

Jan. 14th, 1821. Called on Jarvis and did some work for him, 
but was but poorly paid, and found him so discourteous I shall 
not go again. 

March 31st, 1821. I have spent my time these three days 
more at thinking than anything else, and often indeed have I 
thought my head very heavy. This morning I waited on Mr. Gor- 
don 2 with a wish to receive from him an amendment to my letter 
to the President for all in my head is the Pacific expedition. I 
called on Mr. Vanderlyn,3 the historical painter with my port 
folio, to show him some of my birds, with a view to ask him for a 
few lines of recommendation. He examined them attentively and 
called them handsomely done, but being far from possessing any 
knowledge of Ornithology or Natural History, I was quite satis- 
fied he was no judge, but of their being better or worse shaded. 
Yet he spoke of. the beautiful coloring and good positions, and 
told me he would with pleasure give me a certificate of his having 
inspected them. Are all men of talents fools and rude naturally, 
or intentionally? I cannot assert, but have often thought they 
were one or the other. 

April gth, 1821. Saw many birds of which I made a list, there 
are thirty-three. To see these in their haunts I was since half 
past two o'clock this morning until five this afternoon, wading 
often to my middle through the swamps, and then walking through 
the thickest woods I believe I have ever seen. Here is my list : 

1 Joseph Mason, son of a gentleman in Cincinnati, Ohio, of whom Audu- 
bon writes in his Journal: "October 12, 1820. Left Cincinnati today with 
Capt. Cummings and Joseph Mason, a youth about 18 years of age, he is 
intended as a companion and friend as well as a pupil." He remained with 
Audubon until July, 1822. 

2 Alexander Gordon, a Scotchman, who married Ann Bakewell, youngest 
sister of Mrs. John James Audubon. 

3 John Vanderlyn, an historic painter, born 1776, died 23 September, 1852. 

Vol. XXI 

Deane, Unpublished Extracts from Audubon 's Journal. 3^7 

Mocking Birds, Orchard Orioles, Painted Buntings, Maryland 
Yellow-throats, Marsh Wrens, Water Crake, White-crowned Bunt- 
ings, Indigo Buntings, Scarlet Tanagers, Turtle Doves, Tell-tale 
Godwits, Solitary Snipes, Bartram Snipes, Comorants, Sprig-tail 
Ducks, Purple Grackles, Blue Yellow-backed Warblers, Cardi- 
nal Grosbeaks, Yellow-billed Cuckoos, Large-crested Flycatchers, 
White-eyed Flycatchers, Nighthawks, Turkey Buzzards, Carrion 
Crows, Common Gulls, Carolina Wrens, Partridges, Cliff Swallow, 
Barn Swallow, Green-blue Swallow, 1 White-bellied Swallow, Bank 
Swallow, besides a species of Heron new to me, and to all the 
hunters here. I killed it near Lake Barataria. I have drawn it 
in an awkward position. 

Aug. 21st, 1821. Watched all night by the dead body of a 
friend of Mrs. Percy 2 ; he was not known to me and had literally 
drunk himself to an everlasting sleep. Peace to his soul. I made 
a good sketch of his head as a present for his poor wife. On 
such occasions time flies very slow indeed, so much so that it 
looked as if it stood still, like the Hawk that poises over its prey. 

Nov. 2nd, 1821. Finished my drawings of the Crested Hawk,^ 
which proved a female. How rare the bird is I may not say be- 
ing the only specimen I have ever seen, though I once before 
found some tail feathers of another killed by a squatter on the 
Ohio, which tail feathers having been kept compared exactly with 
these of the present bird. 

Nov. 10th, 1821. Continue my close application to my orni- 
thology, writing every day from morning until night, omitting no 
observation, correcting, re-arranging from my notes and measure- 
ments, and posting up ; particularly all my land birds. The great 
many errors I found in the work of Wilson astonished me. I try 
to speak of them with care, and as seldom as possible, knowing 

1 In 'Birds of America,' 8vo, Vol. I, 1840, p. 176, we read "Green-blue 
or White-bellied Swallow, Hirundo viridis, Wils. Amer. Orn. Vol. Ill, p. 44." 
This shows that Audubon knew that these names referred to the same spe- 
cies and the enumerating of both in this list was evidently unintentional, 
though written at an earlier date. 

2 Mrs. Charles Percy of Bayou Sara, Louisiana, in whose home Audubon's 
wife lived while he was abroad from 1826 to 1830. 

3 No previous mention of this Hawk is recorded in this Journal. 

338 Cooke, Eject of Altitude on Bird Migration. \av\ 

the good wish of that man, the hurry he was in, and the vast many 
heresay accounts he depended on. 

Nov. 25th, 1821. Since I left Cincinnati I have finished 62 
drawings of birds and plants, 3 quadrupeds, 2 snakes, fifty por- 
traits of all sorts, and the large one of Father Antonio, besides 
giving many lessons and I have made out to send money to my 
wife sufficient for her and my Kentucky lads, and to live in hum- 
ble comfort with only my talents and industry, without one cent 
to begin on. 



Surrounded by mountains, Asheville, North Carolina, is situ- 
ated in the valley of the French Broad River, at an altitude of two 
thousand feet. Directly east is Raleigh, at about three hundred 
feet above ocean level. This difference in altitude causes quite a 
difference in the climate of the two places; the average tempera- 
ture at Raleigh is about 6o° F., while at Asheville it is five degrees 
colder. The former is in the Austro-riparian life zone, the latter 
at the extreme upper limit of the Carolinian. A difference in the 
avifauna naturally follows these variations in climate. The higher 
altitude of Asheville prevents some birds from occurring there that 
are found in summer at Raleigh. Among these may be mentioned 
the Chuck-wilPs-widow, Blue Grosbeak, and the Prothonotary War- 
bler. In a larger number of cases, birds remain through the winter 
at Raleigh that are seldom if ever found at Asheville during this 
season. Examples of this class are the Swamp Sparrow, Chewink, 
Brown Thrasher, and Ruby-crowned Kinglet. These all appear 
at Asheville as spring migrants. 

A few mountain-loving species are regular visitors at Asheville, 
but occur as rare stragglers only at Raleigh. The Baltimore 
Oriole is a striking example, and the same preference is shown by 
the Olive-sided Flycatcher and the Blackburnian Warbler. 

Vol. XXI j Cooke, Effect of Altitude on Bird Migration. 339 

As would be expected, spring migration is, on the whole, later 
at Asheville than at Raleigh, and the voluminous records of the 
Biological Survey furnish data for a quite exact statement of the 
amount of variation in the times of arrival at the two places. 
The late J. S. Cairns sent migration notes for the years 1890 to 
1894, inclusive, from the town of Weaverville, ten miles distant 
from Asheville ; Minot Davis recorded the dates of arrival of the 
birds at Asheville in 1899, and W. M. Rackett the same data for 
1902 at Weaverville. These seven years of observation furnish a 
satisfactory basis for estimating the average dates of arrival in 
this district. From C. S. Brimley, at Raleigh, the Biological 
Survey has received a very full report on migration for eighteen 
years, from 1885, the whole forming, probably, the largest amount 
of migration data ever recorded by one person at any one locality 
in the United States. With this amount of material at command, 
the movements. of the birds at Raleigh can be ascertained with 
great accuracy. 

Twenty-one species of common birds arrive in the spring at 
Raleigh, on the average, 3.6 days earlier than at Asheville, or one 
day earlier for each 1.4 F. that Raleigh is warmer than Asheville. 
Most of these birds were migrating during April, and for this 
month the temperature of the two localities differs scarcely four 
degrees. Therefore, it can be said that with reference to these 
two localities spring migration is delayed one day for each degree 
of cold. This relation, of course, would not hold good for other 
localities, though the migration between Raleigh and Washington 
is not much different. During April Raleigh averages six degrees 
warmer than Washington, and the birds average eight days in 
making the journey of the two hundred miles between the two 
places, or one and a third days for each degree of temperature. 
The trip from St. Louis to St. Paul is performed at a rate of about 
a day and a half for each degree of difference in temperature. 

These statements are the averages of such widely differing 
quantities that they cannot be used to ascertain even approxi- 
mately the time that any particular species requires in its passage 
from one locality to another. 

The following dates show how greatly the different species vary 
in the time of their arrival at the two places, Raleigh and 


Cooke, Effect of Altitude on Bird Migration. 



Black and White Warbler 
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher 
Parula Warbler . 
Rough-winged Swallow 
Summer Warbler 
Red-eyed Vireo . 
Yellow-throated Vireo 
Wood Thrush 
Ruby-throated Hummer 
Great Crested Flycatcher 
Hooded Warbler 
Summer Tanager 
Wood Pew T ee 
Chat . 

Indigo Bird • . 
Black-poll Warbler 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 


Average of the first seen. 


March 26 
" 26 

April 9 


" 15 

" 15 

" 17 





" 20 

" 20 

" 24 

" 24 


May 3 

" -. 

April 17 


April 2 

March 28 

April 16 








2 2 

" 30 

May 5 


April 21 



In addition there are three species that move much more 
slowly ; the Yellow-throated Warbler appears at Raleigh March 
26 and is not seen at Asheville until April 21, a difference of 26 
days. The corresponding dates for the Maryland Yellow-throat 
are March 30 and April 18, a difference of 19 days. For the 
White-eyed Vireo the times of arrival are April 2 and April 15, a 
difference of 13 days. These three are all early migrants, and it 
is true in general that the earlier a species moves northward in 
the spring the slower will be its average daily advance. All three 
find near Asheville their highest extension into the mountains, and 
it is possible that this fact may account for their delayed arrival. 
Though when birds are migrating in a level country the opposite 
is true, — they migrate more rapidly as they approach the northern 
limit of their range. 

The most interesting phase of the comparison of migration at 
the two localities is connected with the time of arrival of the 
following species: 

Vol. XXI] 
1904 J 

Eaton, Spring Bird Migration, 1903. 

34 1 


Average of the first seen. 





Solitary Vireo .... 
Worm-eating Warbler 
Scarlet Tanager. 
Black -throated Blue Warbler . 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak . 

March 26 

April 24 

" 28 

" 28 

May 2 

March 10 

April 20 

" 20 

" 24 

" 23 




Each of these species appears at Asheville, in the mountains, 
before being seen at Raleigh, on the plains. The probable expla- 
nation of this anomaly is that each of these species breeds com- 
monly at Asheville, and rarely or never at Raleigh. There is 
here a striking and unexpected exemplification of the rule that the 
southernmost breed i?ig birds constitute the van in spring migration. 
While the present sum of knowledge is not sufficient to warrant 
the statement that this rule is universal, and very likely further 
investigation will show some exceptions, yet the above facts furnish 
strong evidence in its favor. 



Bird migration is a very elusive subject. At least we have 
found it so in western New York, after trying for years to deter- 
mine its times and seasons, bird routes and isopiptoses, causes and 
results. Even if one could be everywhere all the while at the same 
time, it would be difficult to run down the last factor in this com- 
plex problem. Meanwhile we are after facts. 

The writer has been greatly disappointed to find how imperfect 
are the records of observers in determining the presence of a bird 
at any given station, rendering it almost impossible to draw cor- 
rectly the lines of simultaneous arrival. Consequently at Roches- 

1^.2 Eaton, Spring Bird Migration, 1903. j~ A ^ k 

ter we have taken the observations of several workers at the same 
time, and thereby seek to determine the true time of arrival and 
degree of abundance of each species. It is quite surprising at our 
weekly meetings to learn that some common bird has been in the 
environs of the city for four or five days, perhaps, before many of 
us have seen it at all. By comparing and verifying observations 
we get much closer to the real facts. 

Without burdening any one with a mass of detail, we wish to 
present some of the conclusions which have been reached as the 
result of observations made near Rochester during the spring of 

First, regarding the yearly migration of hawks, it has been con- 
firmed that an incredible number of these birds pass each spring 
along the southern shore of Lake Ontario and move toward the 
east over the country south of the lake, evidently making their way, 
around its eastern end, toward the north. The height of the mi- 
gration occurs during the latter part of April and the first week in 
May. The birds are mostly Sharp-shinned and Broad-winged 
Hawks. A sprinkling of Marsh and Pigeon Hawks is always pres- 
ent, but surprisingly few of the Cooper's Hawk when its general 
abundance in many parts of the State is considered. It also seems 
unusual, at a time when Red-tailed and Red-shouldered Hawks are 
nesting in western New York, to see many of these species also, 
soaring high in the air and wheeling tow r ard the east. This is not 
like the spring soaring of the Buteos over their nesting woods. 
Many are often seen together or in the same field of view and, as 
far as I have noticed on these occasions, they are absolutely silent, 
and when one party has passed off the scene another appears going 
in the same direction. Thus there is a constant whirling stream 
passing over, sometimes during the greater part of the day. When 
the wind is high the Hawks fly low, with less circling. The Sharp- 
shinned species flies lowest of all, and even in calm fair days, when 
Buteos are circling almost out of sight, this hawk moves mostly 
within gunshot. One morning at least one hundred of these birds 
passed over a single observer within two hours, and on another 
occasion we saw twenty-five of this species lying in one pile back 
of the little hotel on Buck Pond, where the proprietor had been 
trying his marksmanship after breakfast. 

Vol. XXI 

Eaton, Spring Bird Migration, 1903. 343 

The writer was surprised to learn how many of these migrants 
are Broad-winged Hawks, but they were certainly a conspicuous 
part of the procession, from the 21st of April to the 17th of May. 
We were again reminded of this fact while spending the month of 
August near Lake Restoule in Canada, where the Sharp-shinned 
and Broad-winged Hawks were the commonest of the family. 
None of this latter species breeds about Rochester, and it is either 
of irregular distribution or much more a bird of the Northern For- 
ests than we had previously supposed. 

During the spring of 1903 there was a striking scarcity of some 
birds which are usually very common at our station. Among this 
number may be placed all warblers with the exception of the 
Myrtle Warbler, Mourning Warbler, Yellow Warbler, and Redstart. 
The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker was not more than one-fourth as 
abundant as in the preceding year ; the White-throated Sparrow 
much less abundant than usual, and the Baltimore Oriole was, per- 
haps, sparingly represented. 

Among the birds which were noted as unusually common were 
the Crested Flycatcher, Phcebe, Purple Finch, Junco, Indigo Bird, 
Yellow-throated Vireo, House Wren, Winter Wren, Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet, and Bluebird. The last-named species was certainly three 
times as abundant as in any spring since 1895. As many as 
twenty-seven of these birds were noticed in a single flock during 
the latter part of March. Their notes were everywhere heard 
along the roadside as one journeyed about the country. 

The most peculiar feature of the spring migration of 1903 was 
the striking manner in which the general relationship between 
weather and bird waves was illustrated. During the third week 
in March a remarkably warm wave brought us the Phcebe and the 
Great Blue Heron on the 20th, at least a full week ahead of time ; 
while the Robins, Bluebirds, Grackles, Blackbirds, and Meadow- 
larks, which had first appeared early in the month, became very 
common. Then as April progressed the season seemed to halt 
and falter. Although the average temperature was as high as 
usual, there was no decided warm wave. The early flowers came 
on in due time, but the leaving out of the trees was slow. April 
29th found the shadbush just coming into bloom. On May 10 the 
foliage of the maples was about half out. Beeches, hornbeams, 

344 Eaton, Spring Bird Migration, igoj. [julv 

and ash trees were just bursting the leaf buds. On May 12 apple 
orchards were in the height of bloom. But no great migration 
wave had reached us. Nearly all the May migrants were from 
four to nine days behind time. Twenty-five observers from the 
Bird Section of the Rochester Academy of Science were scouring 
the fields and groves, eager to make a full record of the migrations 
at our station. The birds did not escape us unless they did it at 
night. The nearest thing to a migration wave came on the 3rd of 
May when forty-eight species of birds, including five species of 
warblers, were seen by a single observer. These species were not 
all new arrivals, but many of them were. A southerly wind had 
prevailed throughout the preceding day and evening, but ended in 
cool, lowering weather. Two nights before ice had frozen one- 
fourth of an inch in thickness. 

In 1902 the greatest bird wave of the season likewise occurred 
on the 3rd of May, when the same observer above referred to re- 
corded seventy-five species of birds, including nineteen species of 
warblers. That, however, was a perfect day, warm and sunny, fol- 
lowing a low cyclonic center moving from the southwest and cul- 
minating in a shower during the night. During the warbler season 
of 1903 there was no decided southwest cyclonic storm and no 
remarkable warbler wave. All concomitants of the season con- 
spired to retard and dissipate any wave of migrants in early May. 
No warm southwest wind swept them upon us. The gradual 
unfolding of the leaves furnished no sudden opportunities of shel- 
ter and insect food. The nights, being uniformly clear and free 
from storms, did not compel the migrating hosts to halt in our 
territory. The northern species which came to us were only those 
which were induced to stop for rest and food as they leisurely pur- 
sued the journey toward their breeding grounds. The result of 
all of these causes was a gradual and uninterrupted stream of mi- 
gration with little dash and rush and concentration. 

These facts tend to show that the shyer, foliage inhabiting birds 
travel largely on the crests of warm waves advancing from the 
south, and as in western New York these waves usually come from 
the southwest, it is undoubtedly true that our birds mostly come 
from that direction. It is not true that birds migrate o?ily with the 
aid of favoring winds ; nor when the weather gets warm enough to 

V °! 04 XI 1 Allen, Megalestris vs. Catharacta. UC 

be grateful to their sensibilities ; nor at night, coming to the earth 
when the rain or storm overtakes them ; nor when a certain kind 
of food first makes its appearance. Nevertheless all these factors 
doubtless enter into the problem. Certainly there is a sudden in- 
crease of foliage-hunting insects when the leaves unfold. The foli- 
age unfolds when the heat, moisture, and sunshine become favorable. 
Insectivorus, foliage-inhabiting birds would show little adaptation 
to their environments if they did not attend the feast spread for 
them. The food, protection, and grateful temperature are there all 
at the same time. The birds are there also as sure as the unfold- 
ing of leaves follows the advent of springtime, and the increase of 
insects accompanies the unfolding of the leaves, and the predacious 
insects the development of their prey. Thus natural selection 
has finally evolved a large number of species of birds with migra- 
tory habits. 



It is claimed by Mr. Franz Poche in the ' Ornithologische 
Monatsberichte ' for February, 1904 (Jahrg. XII, No. 2, p. 23), 
that the name Catharacta Briinnich, 1764, should replace Megales- 
tris Bonaparte, 1856, on the ground of priority, and that Briin- 
nich's name should be orthographically improved to stand as 
Catarracta. As this name has, by different authors, been used 
for several different groups and spelled in many different ways, 
its history has, in the present connection, considerable interest. 
It appears to have been first used, in what may be considered a 
generic sense, by the pre-Linnaean author Moehring in 1752, and 
in a subsequent edition of his work issued by Nozeman and Vos- 
maer in 1758. There is necessarily no reference in either edition 
of Moehring's work to the tenth edition of Linnoeus's ' Systema 
Naturae,' even the second edition being essentially prior to the 
beginning of the binomial system. Also, Moehring was not a bi- 

7J.6 Allen, Megalestris vs. Catharacta. [""jill* 

nomialist. His form of the word was Cataractes, and it was used 
for the genus of Guillemots now currently known as Uria. 

It was next employed by Brisson in 1760, as Catarractes, 
for the ' Gorfou ' {Phaethon demersus Linn.), a Penguin, now 
known as Catarractes chrysocome ; and this constitutes the only 
tenable application of the name. In 1764 the same word, in 
the form Catharacta, was used in a generic sense by Brunnich 
for the Skuas. He refers in a footnote to the fact that Brisson 
had previously made use of the name as a generic designation 
for Phaetho7i demursus Linn. (= Catarractes chrysocome auct., but 
which should stand as Catarractes demursus ex Linn. 1 ), but 
adopts it, notwithstanding, for the Skua Gull because he thinks 
the name as used by the old authors referred to this bird. It- 
should be noted that he renders Brisson's name, in this connec- 
tion, with an //, — Catharractes, — further evidence that the two 
names are simply variants of the same word, the Cataracta of 
Pliny. The following is a list of some of the variants of it which 
have been used by different systematic writers : 

Cataracta Retzius, 1800; Bonap., 1838, 1856, etc. 

Catarracta Pallas, 181 1; Leach, 1819; Poche, 1904. 

Catharacta Brunnich, 1764. 

Catharractes Brunnich, 1764. 

Cataractes Moehring, 1752; Fleming, 1819; Gray, 1841. 

Catarractes Brisson, 1760; Gray, 1846; Bryant, 1861. 

Catarhactes Brandt, 1847. 

Catarrachtes Hombr. & Jacq., 1841 ; Ogilvie-Grant, 1898. 

As to the generic name of the Skuas, it cannot be Cataracta, 
nor Catarracta, nor Cataractes, nor Catharacta, each of which has 
been used for them, as all are preoccupied by Catarractes Brisson, 
which also has several variants, for a genus of Penguins ; all are 
merely variants of an original Cataracta used by Pliny and other 
early authors for some apparently unidentifiable large oceanic bird. 
Catharacta Brunnich, were it otherwise tenable, is a synonym 

1 The name demersus appears to have been rejected for this species on 
account of a previous Diomedea demersa Linn. = Spheniscus demersus auct. 
mod. ; but as Phaethon demersus Linn, and Diomedea demersa Linn, refer to 
species belonging to different genera, there is no reason why the specific 
name demersa is not tenable for both. 

Vol. XXI 

Allen, Megalestris vs. Catharacta. 347 

of Stercorarius Brisson, which he intended it to replace, as shown 
by his citation of Brisson, although he included in it the Skua 
Gull, left in Larus by Brisson. His first species is Catharacta 
skua, and his second, C. cepphus, which he figured, including 
structural details, which thus renders it properly the type of 

Brisson (1764) founded the genus Stercorarius for the Jaegers, 
but left the Skuas in Larus. Illiger in 181 1 proposed Lestris for 
the Jaegers and Skuas, citing both Catharacta Briinnich and Ster- 
corarius Brisson, but recent authorities agree in considering Les- 
tris a synonym of Stercorarius. Coues in 1863 adopted the name 
Buphagus for the Skuas, taking it from Moehring, 1752, but sub- 
sequently abandoned it, Moehring's names being pre-Linnaean 
and hence not available. 

The first tenable generic name for the Skua Gulls is thus Mega- 
lestris Bonaparte, 1856, as now currently recognized. 

The case of Megalestris vs. Catharacta temptingly offers a text 
for further remarks on general questions here involved. Catha- 
racta presents a good example of the results of emendation, for 
whether used as a generic name for Penguins, Guillemots, or 
Skuas, the word occurs in several forms in each case, while the 
same form is found applied to more than one of the generic 
groups, the form employed varying with the preferences of the 
authors using the word. The forms Catharacta, Cataracta, Catar- 
racta, Cataractes, and Catarhactes have, for example, all been ap- 
plied to the Skuas, and also catarrhactes in a specific sense. As 
cases like this are frequent in zoological nomenclature, it is mani- 
festly best to employ only the original form, even if faulty, and to 
apply the rule of priority to the forms of names as well as to the 
names themselves. Further, it is emphatically evident that of 
variants of the same word only the form having priority should be 
available, while all the others should be rejected. 

^he ' Code of Botanical Nomenclature,' prepared by a Nomenclature Com- 
mission of the Botanical Club of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, has been published since this article was sent to the printer 
(see notice of this Code in 'Recent Literature'), in which, under Canon 15, 
which deals with the selection of a nomenclatorial type of a genus or subgenus, 
it is provided : " (b) A figured species is to be selected [as the type] rather 
than an unfigured species in the same work." 

"2,4.8 Allen, Megalestris vs. Catharacta. Chli* 

On* the other hand, names closely similar in form but known to 
be different etymologically and in significance, as Pints and Pica, 
Simia and Simias, should be accepted, but knowingly to add to 
the list of such names must be considered highly undesirable. 
Such cases are fortunately few, and afford no support for the re- 
cently proffered ' one-letter ' rule, which would admit any number 
of literal variants of the same word, even where they fall not only 
into the same class of animals but even into the same family, as 
sometimes happens. Even the most strenuous supporters of this 
innovation are compelled to admit exceptions to its uniform appli- 
cation ; and among those who accept it in a modified sense there 
is lack of agreement as to where the limit should be placed. The 
' one-letter ' rule would not only admit variants due to gender end- 
ings {cf Poche, /. c. 1 ), but to different connecting vowels in com- 
pound words, the use or non-use of the aspirate in certain classes 
of words of Greek origin, the use of / or //, r or rr in many words, 
the use interchangeably of i and y, etc. Some who reject differ- 
ences in gender endings as insufficient differentiation, like Chlo- 
rurus and Chlorura, admit differentiation due to the use of a 
different connecting vowel, as in Contopus and Contipas. It seems 
therefore more conducive to uniformity to maintain the usages of 
the A. O. U. Committee on Nomenclature in treating as homo- 
nyms all variants of the same word, as is generally the custom 
among naturalists at large, and also exclude emendations, and 
take names as first proposed by their originators, even if some- 
times obviously faulty in construction, and extend, as already said, 
the rule of priority to the forms of names as well as to the names 

1 Many cases can be cited where the same generic name has been used in 
all three genders by the same author in the same work or paper, or in differ- 
ent papers within a short period of time. On this point see Palmer (Index 
Gen. Mamm., 1904, p. 28) on the case of Pogonias. See also the same author 
(/. c, p. 23) on ' emendations.' 

V °! 9 £ XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 349 




In 1883 Mr. H. W. Henshaw and Mr. E. W. Nelson spent 
three months in New Mexico, on the Upper Pecos River which 
cuts through the southern end of the Rocky Mountains between 
the desert valley of the Rio Grande on the west and the high 
plains of the Rocky Mountain plateau on the east. Their camp, 
which, as Mr. Henshaw says, was the focus of their operations, 
was only a few miles north of a road that is now being made 
across the mountains connecting Santa Fe and Las Vegas. The 
bird notes taken during their stay were published in ' The Auk ' 
under the title, 'List of Birds observed in Summer and Fall on 
the Upper Pecos River, New Mexico,' 2 but as their observations 
were restricted to an area of five square miles, more extended 
work in the region was left, as Mr. Henshaw explains, for "the 
labors of future investigators." 

While engaged in Biological Survey work last summer, Mr. 
Bailey and I crossed from the Staked Plains to the southern end 
of the Rocky Mountains and spent six weeks on the Pecos Forest 
Reserve, following the Pecos Canon through the section covered 
by Mr. Henshaw's notes (his camp was located at 7800 feet), 
packing up the mountains to the actual sources of the river, and 
climbing to the summits of Pecos Baldy, and the Truchas Peaks 
which, at an altitude of over 13,300 feet, mark the vertical faunal 
terminus of the region. As we entered the Pecos Canon from the 
south on July 11, and after working up to the peaks left it again 
on August 24, we did not see the later migrants recorded by 
Mr. Henshaw, and since the bird work was only a part of the 
general biological work to be done, we, in turn, had to leave much 
to 'future investigators.' The species that we added to Mr. 
Henshaw's list were mainly Upper Sonoran foothill birds or those 

1 Published with the permission of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the 
Biological Survey. 

* ' The Auk, ' II, 1885, pp. 326-333 ; III, 1886, pp. 73-80. 

3 CO Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. \_Hly 

of the Hudsonian and Alpine zones found on or near the peaks. 
By reason of our more extended vertical work we were able to 
throw new light on the distribution of the species noted by Mr. 
Henshaw, fixing altitudes, and in some instances correcting 

As the mountains are pointed with peaks reaching up to twelve 
or thirteen thousand feet, they attract abundant rains and are 
supplied with innumerable glacial lakes and streams, and con- 
sequently afford a rich vegetation and a wealth of insect life, 
which, in turn, support a numerically rich avifauna. Vertically 
the mountains offer congenial homes for a wide range of species, 
as they include, from the foothills to the peaks, the Upper 
Sonoran, Transition, Canadian, Hudsonian, and Alpine zones, 
with their characteristic trees from low pinones and junipers 
through yellow pines, spruces and firs, dwarf timberline pines and 
firs, dwarf willows fruiting at three inches, and finally on the 
peaks, dense mats of arctic plants. Correlated with the floral 
zones the birds range from Upper Sonoran Pifion Jays to Alpine 
Pipits and, in rare instances, Ptarmigan. Species like the Vesper 
Sparrow and Horned Lark, unusual mountain birds, find suitable 
homes on the broad, treeless, grassy mesas that, lying above ten 
thousand feet, extend for miles along the range, for, at this 
southern end the range is already beginning to broaden out into 
the Rocky Mountain plateau. 

The exact locality covered by our list of birds is the core of the 
extreme southern end of the Rocky Mountains, that is, the north 
and south section drained by the Pecos River, specifically from 
the source of the Pecos at the foot of the Truchas Peaks south- 
ward to the mouth of the Pecos Canon at the village of Pecos. To 
this is added an east and west section seven miles along the foot- 
hills on the lower edge of the Transition zone, from Pecos to 
Glorieta, where the Glorieta divide, on the Santa Fe' R. R., 
separates the drainage of the Rio Grande from that of the Pecos 

The foothill notes in the list that follows were made before 
entering the mountains, while the mountain list was made, as 
stated above, between July n and August 24, 1903. 

Vol i'<^ 4 XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 35 I 

Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — Two families of young were 
found at 8000 feet in the Transition zone where Mr. Henshaw found 
breeding birds. One brood left the nest on July 15, the other probably a 
week later. An adult male in beautiful, fresh winter plumage was shot 
on August 15 by the lake at the foot of Pecos Baldy, at 11,600 feet, and 
another, August 24, on the Pecos at 7200 feet. 

Dendragapus obscurus. Dusky Grouse. — Grouse were found through- 
out the Canadian and Hudsonian zones, but the total number seen by our 
party during the month that we were in their country was only eleven 
cocks, nine hens, and six small broods of young. As the birds are sup- 
posed to lay from seven to ten eggs and the number of young attributed 
to four out of the six broods seen was respectively one, two, three, and 
four, we surmised that the severe mountain hailstorms had depleted the 
families. Near our camp at the foot of Pecos Bald}', Mr. Bailey discov- 
ered a winter roosting tree of the grouse. The tree was on a sheltered part 
of the wooded slope and was so densely branched that after a prolonged 
rain the ground beneath was perfectly dry. The earth was strewn with 
winter droppings, composed entirely of leaves of conifers. Conifer 
needles had also been eaten by three of the grouse that were taken, under 
our collecting permit, in July and August, but at this season the birds 
were living principally on such fresh food as strawberries, bearberries 
{Arctostaphylos uvaursa), shepherdia berries, flowers of the lupine and 
paint brush, seeds, green leaves, grasshoppers, caterpillars, ants, and other 
insects. One crop contained twenty-seven strawberries, twenty-eight 
bearberries, and twelve shepherdia berries, besides flowers, leaves, and 
insects, while the accompanying gizzard was filled with seeds, green 
leaves, and insects. 

Lagopus leucurus altipetens. Southern White-tailed Ptarmigan. 
— A cattleman and one of the range riders of the Reserve both reported 
having seen a few ptarmigan in previous seasons on the highest peaks, 
but although Pecos Baldy (12,600 feet) was climbed seven times by differ- 
ent members of our party and Truchas (13,300 feet) three times, our 
anxious search for the birds Avas not rewarded. It must be said, however, 
that on several of our ascents the wind was blowing a gale that would 
have driven most birds to cover. As this is the extreme southern limit 
of the Alpine zone in the Rocky Mountain system, and as there is a break 
of approximately thirty or forty miles in the Hudsonian zone between 
the high peaks of the Pecos Mountains and the Taos Mountains thirty or 
forty miles farther north, the range sweeping down to 9300 feet in the 
lower Canadian zone at Taos Pass, it is hardly to be expected that ptar- 
migan would be abundant on this isolated southern extremity of the 
range. There are, however, undoubtedly a few of the birds on the south- 
ernmost of the high peaks. At the southern end of the gap in the Hud- 
sonian zone, the game warden told us, eleven years ago he found two 
of the ptarmigan near Mora Pass at an altitude of more than 11,000 feet. 
We did not succeed in finding any of the birds, however, even in the Taos 

352 Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. \\$l 

Mountains north of the pass, but, convinced that they must be there, Mr. 
Bailey, on leaving an assistant, McClure Surber, to collect in the region 
during the winter months, gave him special instructions to hunt for 
ptarmigan. The last of January Mr. Surber made a two days' snowshoe 
trip around the high peaks in the neighborhood of Gold Hill, where the 
snow had thawed and frozen until, as he said, "the surface crust was 
more slippery than ice." Here he finally discovered a flock of ptarmigan. 
One of the birds separated itself from the flock and led him up near the 
top of the peak, to about 12,500 feet he thought, when it lit within 
shooting distance. In describing it Mr. Surber says, "I was standing 
on an ice-covered boulder and just as I got a bead on it one of my feet 
slipped and in trying to save myself I dropped my gun. For a wonder 
the bird did n't fly, but my gun was about thirty feet below me and I 
didn't dare wait to get it. So pulling my revolver I fired and killed the 
ptarmigan." The specimen which, as Mr. Surber remarks, is a "good one 
in spite of the bullet," is a male in beautiful winter plumage and is now 
in the Biological Survey collection substantiating the previously vague 
reports of ptarmigan in New Mexico. 

Meleagris gallopavo merriami. Merriam Turkey. — For Colorado, 
Mr. Drew gives the breeding range of the turkey as 7000 feet, but in Mr. 
Mitchell's list of the birds of San Miguel County, New Mexico, he states 
that they are "common from 8000 feet to timberline." In the Pecos 
Mountains we were told that they were still common at 11,000 feet, but 
by the time we reached that altitude, as the game warden explained, they 
were probably on their way down the mountains. At all events, only 
four were seen by our party. Mr. Vilas, a cattleman of the country, told 
us that in the fall they go down to the nut pine and juniper mesas in the 
Glorieta region and, gathering at the few springs that furnish drinking 
places, are shot by wagon loads by the Mexicans. The only specimen we 
obtained was taken July 27 at over 11,000 feet. Its crop and gizzard held 
mainly grasshoppers and crickets, but also grass seed, mariposa lily buds, 
and strawberries, while its gizzard contained in addition a few beetles. 

Columba fasciata. Band-tailed Pigeon. — Mr. Henshaw found the 
pigeons feeding on elderberries and acorns, but in the scarcity of acorns 
last summer there were few pigeons. Less than a dozen were seen by us 
in the mountains, though it must be said that we did not do much work 
in their section. All but two of those seen were at about 10,000 feet on 
the upper edge of the Transition zone, the others being at 11,400 feet, 
evidently only flying over. The only specimen secured had nothing but 
insects, mainly grasshoppers, in its gizzard. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. — The unmistakable voices of 
Mourning Doves were heard at Glorieta on July 8. 

Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. — Mr. Henshaw reported the Vul- 
ture as common, but we saw only a few of the birds, and most of these at 
11,000 feet, when the mammalogists were running a line of meat-baited 

V0l i'£ XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 353 

Accipiter cooped. Cooper Hawk. — One was seen near Glorieta on 
Jul j 4 flying with a small mammal in its claws. 

Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-Tail. — Red-tailed Buteos were 
seen about our camps at 8000 and 11,000 feet. 

Aquila chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. — Several eagles were observed 
over the highest peaks. A young one was seen soaring over Pecos Baldy 
August 18, the white base of its tail showing brilliantly in the sun. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. — Two or three Bald Eagles 
were reported at about 8000 feet on the Pecos August 20. 

Falco mexicanus. Prairie Falcon. — A Falcon that Mr. Bailey took 
to be the Prairie was seen August 14 beating up against a storm, attempt- 
ing to round the peak of Pecos Baldy. 

Falco sparverius phalcena. Desert Sparrow Hawk. — Near Glorieta 
a pair of Sparrow Hawks were feeding young inside a cottonwood knot- 
hole on July 8. Of the few individuals noted in the mountains one was 
seen August 11 flying over Truchas Peak (13,300 feet) and another Au- 
gust 13 flying over Pecos Baldy (12,600 feet). Twice the hawks were seen 
disputing with Clarke Crows, once at our Hudsonian camp when the hawk 
and nutcracker took turns chasing each other out of camp. 

Bubo virginianus pallescens. Western Horned Owl. — The remains 
of a Horned Owl were found near Glorieta and the birds were heard at 
8000 and 11,000 feet, while a feather of one was found halfway up the 
peak of Pecos Baldy. 

Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Mr. Henshaw states that although 
several kingfishers were seen along the Pecos in the fall they did not 
breed in the locality, but we found them on the Pecos July 11 and 16 at 
an altitude of about 7800 and 8000 feet. 

Dryobates villosus monticola. Rocky Mountain Hairy Wood- 
pecker. — Hairy Woodpeckers were noted at different altitudes, from 7400 
feet on the lower edge of the Transition zone to 11,600 feet in the Hud- 
sonian zone. The gizzard of a young male shot was full of hard-bodied 
insects. At 1 1,600 feet on August 15 a family of grown young were going 
about feeding themselves, calling and drumming. In watching them 
the red crown patches of the young were so conspicuous as they turned 
their heads in pecking at the bark that they suggested a possible advan- 
tage as recognition marks. Does a parent coming with grubs distinguish 
its son from its mate a tree away by the red crown? It is certainly a con- 
venient mark from the foot of the tree. 

Picoides arcticus dorsalis. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker. — A 
pair of Three-toed Woodpeckers were feeding young about our Hudsonian 
camp at 11,600 feet August 14. An old male and one of the brood were 
seen on the same tree, the young one picking about for itself while its 
parent dug larvce out of the live bark and fed them to it. A young Dryo- 
bates flew down while they were enjoying the meal and finally succeeded 
in driving them off, although they scolded angrily as they went. The 
stomachs of two adults and one young were full of the larvae of tree 

354 Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. [£j» k 

Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. Red-naped Sapsucker. — Nuchalis was 
seen on the Pecos in the Transition zone at 8000 feet. 

Sphyrapicus thyroideus. Williamson Sapsucker. — A pair of thyroi- 
deus, collected at about 8000 feet, had their stomachs full of ants. The 
highest altitude at which the birds were seen was 9500 feet. 

Melanerpes formicivorus. Ant-eating Woodpecker. — A single indi- 
vidual was reported near Glorieta about July 8. 

Colaptes cafer collaris. Red-shafted Flicker. — Flickers were fairly 
common in the mountains from 7400 to 11,600 feet, where we found a pair 
feeding young nearly ready to fly on August 16. The adults were then 
calling vociferously. At 11,000 feet an old bird was feeding full grown 
young, out of the nest, August 6. At 13,000 feet, in a protected timberline 
alcove on the south side of Truchas, a flicker was seen on August 11 with 
a party of migrants. 

Phalsenoptilus nuttallii. Poor-will. — A Poor-will was heard at dusk 
near Glorieta early in July. 

Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. — Nighthawks 
were heard booming near Glorieta about July 8. 

Aeronautes melanoleucus. White-throated Swift. — A single swift 
was seen flying over the top of Pecos Baldy on July 31. In San Miguel 
County, Mr. Mitchell says, it is "not common." "Breeds in cliffs during 
May from 8000 feet to timberline." 

Selasphorus platycercus. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. — The Broad- 
tail was fairly common from 7000 feet at Glorieta to 11,600 feet at the foot 
of Pecos Baldy, where numbers were seen as late as August 16. Others 
were noted the second week in August flying over the saddle of Pecos 
Baldy at 12,000 feet, at timberline on Truchas at 12,300 feet, and going 
over the peak of Baldy at 12,600 feet. The throat of one shot was full of 
honey and long-tailed, wasp-like insects. On August 25 two young platy- 
cercus were taken from a flock of hummingbirds three miles south of Pecos 
in the juniper and pinon pine belt. 

Selasphorus rufus. Rufous Hummingbird. — The large numbers of 
hummingbirds recorded by Mr. Henshaw were absent from the section of 
the mountains that we visited. On July 25 we made an eight mile horse- 
back trip to secure a pair that Mr. Bailey had located at some flowering 
spirea and holodiscus bushes at 10,200 feet. Later on we found the birds 
as high as 12,600 feet, above timberline, on Truchas Peak, and saw one 
flash across the saddle of Baldy at 12,000 feet. The species does not occur 
at all in Mr. Mitchell's list of the birds of San Miguel County, which in- 
dicates at least that it is not abundant on the east slope of the range in 
this region. The only large gathering of hummingbirds that we encoun- 
tered was on August 25 at the southern base of the mountains, three miles 
south of Pecos. Here a patch of thistles in the bottom of a dry wash had 
attracted about thirty hummingbirds of various species. As they were 
nearly all females or young we could not tell what they were, but there 
was one adult male rufus, and young of platycercus and calliope were both 

V °lg£ XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 355 

Stellula calliope. Calliope Hummingbird. — Two specimens were se- 
cured during the summer, one at 11,000 feet on August 8, and one three 
miles south of Pecos on August 25. 

Tyrannus vociferans. Cassin Kingbird. — Reports of vociferans were 
brought us by McClure Surber from Glorieta on July 8, and from 8000 
feet on August 19. 

Myiarchus cinerascens. Ash-throated Flycatcher. — In the juniper 
belt near Glorieta Myiarchus was found about July 8. 

Sayornis saya. Say Phosbe. — On August 14 Mr. Bailey found a Say 
Phoebe on an open ridge at 12,000 feet, where Afyadestes, Anthus, and 
Otocoris had been found previously. At Glorieta one had been seen 
around an adobe about July 8. 

Nuttallornis borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. — Nuttallornis was 
found in the Canadian and Hudsonian zones from Willow Creek at 7800 
feet to the foot of Pecos Baldy at 11,600 feet, its familiar call often coming 
from the tip of a picea spire. 

Contopus richardsonii. Western Wood Pewee. — Richardsonii was 
seen in the Transition zone from 7000 to 8000 feet. 

Empidonax difncilis. Western Flycatcher. — Common from 8000 
to 11,000 feet, evidently breeding at 11,000 feet on July 15. Mr. Henshaw 
saw young accompanied by the parents July 19, and on Jack Creek, at 
11,000 feet, Mr. Bailey found a nest containing four young on August 5. 

Otocoris alpestris leucolaema. Desert Horned Lark. — At least half 
a dozen Horned Larks, among them full grown young, were found with 
a band of Pipits on a broad open slope at 12,000 feet. They were dis- 
covered on July 28, on our first visit to timberline, and found in the same 
place a number of times afterwards. Two specimens were secured which 
Mr. Oberholser identified as leucolcema. 

Pica pica hudsonia. Black-billed Magpie. — Four magpies and 
three or four ravens were seen August 6 sitting on a corral on the open 
mesa at 10,400 feet. The carcass of a cow was evidently the attraction 
and the ravens were trying to drive off the magpies when discovered. 
On being disturbed the birds all flew off down into the timber. 

Cyanocitta stelleri diademata. Long-crested Jay. — Cyanocitta was 
found from the lower edge of the Transition zone yellow pines through 
the firs and spruces of the Canadian zone, but at 11,000 feet it was largely 
replaced by Perisoreus. At 7000 feet, near Glorieta, about July 8, a 
family of six were seen going around together. At 8000 feet, on July 16, 
an old jay brought its brood into the bushes on the edge of camp, 
running out into the grass a few yards from our tent to pick strawberries 
for them. On August 21, at the same altitude, we found another pair of 
jays going about with their young. 

Aphelocoma woodhousei. Woodhouse Jay. — On the Pecos zvood- 
housei was found as high as 7000 feet, for although the cold slopes of the 
canon walls are pineclad at this altitude, the warm slopes are covered 
with Upper Sonoran junipers and nut pines. 

35 6 

Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. \ P \^ 


Perisoreus canadensis capitalis. Rocky Mountain Jay. — Perisoreus 
was common from 11,000 to 11,600 feet. At n,ooofeet a family of young 
was found out of the nest on July 23, and on August 4 a full grown young 
one was caught in a meat trap. Two old birds were also caught in traps 
baited for martins and foxes, although the traps were partly covered up 
in the daytime to protect the jays. At this camp the birds stopped only 
as they went by and did not come within several rods of camp. When 
we moved up to the foot of Pecos Baldy, however, camping among the 
dwarf spruces of the Hudsonian zone, the jays flocked around us, joining 
us at meals with characteristic fearlessness. The only wild food that we 
saw them eat was toadstool. On our way down the mountains, August 
17, we found Perisoreus as low as io,Soo feet, near the junction of the 
Canadian and Transition zones. 

Corvus corax sinuatus. American Raven. — A family of ravens was 
seen near Glorieta July 10, and another at the foot of Pecos Baldy, 11,600 
feet, on July 23. Other ravens were seen flying over the peak. At our 
11,000 foot camp sinuatus, like the jays and vultures, was attracted by the 
line of meat baited traps, going so far as to spring some of them and take 
the bait. 

Corvus americanus. Crow. — -Although Mr. Henshaw thought the 
Crows did not breed at this altitude, a few were seen on the Pecos near 
El Macho, at 7200 feet, and on July 16 two or three families were noted 
five or six miles above El Macho at about 7600 feet, squawking young 
being led about by their parents. 

Nucifraga columbiana. Clarke Nutcracker. — At our Canadian 
zone camp a few nutcrackers stopped in the treetops to inspect us in 
passing, but at our Hudsonian camp they came familiarly for food with 
the Rocky Mountain Jays. While not so tame as Perisoreus they would 
come within two or three rods of us. They abounded at this level and 
frequented the dwarf pines near timber^ine above us. One of the birds 
w r as seen shooting down over the top of Pecos Baldy in characteristic 
fashion. In the woods two of the nutcrackers were seen by Mr. Bailey 
running up and down a log bordered by blooming larkspurs, chasing 
sphynx moths that were feeding from the flowers. The moths were 
darting about and Mr. Bailey did not see any caught. On leaving the 
mountains in August we found the nutcrackers in the pines as low 
as 8000 feet, and in rounding the south end of the range, on the way to 
Las Vegas, the last of August we saw a few scattered individuals as low as 
6000 feet in the pinon pine and juniper belt. 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Pinon Jay. — At 7000 feet, on the 
upper edge of the Upper Sonoran zone, a large flock of Pinon Jays was 
seen flying high overhead on August 11, and on August 12 a flock of six 
or eight wanderers was found feeding on the ground at timberline, 12,300 
feet, on the side of Truchas Peak. 

Sternella magna neglecta. Western Meadowlark. — Mr. Mitchell 
says the meadowlark breeds as high as 8000 feet in San Miguel County, 

V °iq£ XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 357 

but we saw it last a few miles north of Pecos, as in following up the Pecos 
Canon there were no suitable breeding grounds for it. 

Hesperiphona vespertina montana. Western Evening Grosbeak. 
— Along the Pecos at about 8000 feet Evening Grosbeaks were found 
near the middle of July going about in flocks and feeding on the ground 
around roadside springs. The birds, as we inferred from their actions 
and as their stomach contents proved, were eating small insects which 
they picked up from the surface of the ground or dug up from under 
roots or stones. When first discovered they were so tame that we could 
get within a few feet of them. In a flock of twenty or thirty males only 
two females were seen. In going up the mountains we found a few pairs 
at about ten thousand feet near the junction of the Transition and 
Canadian zones. On our return down the mountains in August only one 
or two individuals were noted where the large flocks had congregated in 
July, and as grosbeak voices were heard below Pecos we inferred that the 
birds had gone down into the juniper and pinon pine country to gather 

Pinicola enucleator montana. Rocky Mountain Pine Grosbeak. — 
Two pairs of Pine Grosbeaks were seen in the Canadian and Hudsonian 
zones, and one family with grown young was found by Mr. Bailey on 
August 14 near the Truchas lakes at the head of the Pecos River 
at 12,000 feet. Both adult and young were taken. The crop and giz- 
zard of the young were stuffed full of small white oval seeds, while the 
stomach of the adult contained the same seeds with the addition of a 
few spruce needles, a spruce flower, and a small green caterpillar. 

Carpodacus cassini. Cassin Finch. — In a flock of Evening Grosbeaks 
feeding at a spring on July 15, we discovered a solitary male Cassin 
Finch, the only one seen during the season. 

Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch. — In Colorado the 
House Finch breeds up to 8000 feet, but on the east side of the Las Vegas 
range Mr. Mitchell did not find it "to any great extent"; in the Pecos 
Mountains Mr. Henshaw did not find it at all, and we saw it only at the 
base of the range between Pecos and Glorieta. 

Loxia curvirostra bendirei. Bendire Crossbill. — At 11,000 feet the 
crossbills were common, flying about among the cone-laden spruce tops 
and, hunger appeased, stopping to sing their quaint, pleasing song. At 
11,600 feet they were occasionally heard flying over, and on our way 
down the Pecos, August 21 and 22, they were seen at 8000 feet and again 
at 7400 feet. 

Astragalinus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. — Goldfinches were 
found in the cottonwoods at Glorieta July 7. 

Spinus pinus. Pine Finch. — Siskins were seen from 7500 to 11,600 feet, 
but they were most abundant at 11,000 feet, where they were constantly 
singing and flying about in small squads, which were probably families. 
On August 17, as we came down the mountains, a family of young was 
found out of the nest at 10,400 feet. 

35 S Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. [^ U j k 

Pocecetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. — Mr. 
Henshaw secured a single individual which, he says, "was doubtless 
merely a migrant which had strayed from its proper territory lower down 
on the plains." The broad grassy mesas of the upper parts of the moun- 
tains, however, are ideal breeding grounds for the Vesper Sparrow, and 
on one of these meadows, at 10,400 feet, the birds were found singing a 
number of times between July 25 and August 17, one being taken on 
July 25. In Colorado the Vesper Sparrow breeds commonly to 9000 feet,, 
and sometimes up to 12,000 feet. 

Coturniculus bairdii. Baird Sparrow. — On August 11 Mr. Bailey 
took a Baird Sparrow on one of the open mesas near timberline. Others 
were secured September 2 on the high plains north of Las Vegas. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. — Mr. Henshaw 
states that the White-crown is "present only as a rare migrant, it being 
too far south for the species to breed." Of course it is now known that 
the breeding range extends, as Mr. Ridgway gives it, "southward to New 
Mexico and Arizona (San Francisco Mountains)," but had Mr. Henshaw 
visited the higher levels of the Pecos Mountains he would have extended 
the range himself, for he would have found the birds abundant breeders 
there. As in the Sierra, leucophrys is one of the commonest and most 
characteristic birds of the Hudsonian zone. The birds were singing up 
to timberline on Pecos Baldy as late as the middle of August, and the 
willows at the base of the peak were alive with them. A molting adult 
was found carrying food on August 8. In the willows bordering Jack 
Creek, at 1 1,000 feet, a nest contained one egg and two young nearly ready 
to leave the nest on July 27. In watching the parent birds I was struck 
by their use of their crest. We had been told of a bird with a white 
crown and I found that when wanting to attract attention, to draw one 
from the nest, leucophrys often spreads its crown so wide that the black 
bordering stripes might easily be overlooked, the white then serving as a 
good recognition mark. But, on the other hand, when the birds wanted 
to steal unobserved through the willows to the nest, they lowered the 
crown so flat that the black and white lines were of almost equal width. 

Spizella socialis arizonae. Western Chipping Sparrow. — Mr. Hen- 
shaw found arizonce "an abundant summer resident " of the Transition 
zone, and we found a nest with nearly grown young at Glorieta July 8, 
and found the birds common at 11,000 feet, where young, out of the nest, 
were being fed on July 23. The sparrows were fairly common in the 
Hudsonian zone the second week in August, and were seen August 11 at 
timberline, 11,300 feet, on the south side of Truchas. 

Junco dorsalis. Red-backed Junco. — A single specimen of dorsalis 
was taken at 8000 feet on July 13. It was taken near a nest from which 
we had flushed a Junco the day before. 

Junco caniceps. Gray-headed Junco. — Juncos were breeding abun- 
dantly at 11,000 feet, nests being found everywhere in the open. On July 
22 a nest was found containing partly feathered young ; on July 24 one 

vol. xxr 

Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 3S9 

nest of three eggs, and two broods out of the nest were found ; on July 25 
young were seen going about with their parents ; on July 30 a nest was 
found with one egg and newly hatched young ; on July 31 a nest of four 
eggs was discovered ; on August 6 an old bird was seen feeding young in 
a tree ; August 7 a nest was found with four eggs, and on August 15 an 
old Junco was seen collecting food. All of the nests were on the ground, 
completely hidden by tufts of grass or bunches of weeds, being discov- 
ered only by flushing the brooding bird. When the Junco is not flashing 
its white tail feathers its rufous back may well serve its relatives as a 
recognition mark, especially in the dull light on the edges of clearings 
where other small birds gather. 

Melospiza lincolni. Lincoln Sparrow. — This was the only Melospiza 
found in the mountains, although we were on the lookout for Montana, 
and in San Miguel County Mr. Mitchell says it breeds from 7000 to 9000 
feet. Mr. Henshaw says that lincolni "evidently does not occur in sum- 
mer," but we found it breeding in the higher parts of the mountains, 
both on Jack Creek at 11,000 feet, and by the lake at the foot of Pecos 
Baldy at 11,600 feet. Young were being fed out of the nest at 11,000 feet 
on July 29. 

Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred Towhee. — Mr. Henshaw 
found only one or two pairs of megalonyx and we saw the bird only once 
or twice in the mountains, but found it fairly common in the foothills 
between Pecos and Santa Fe on the lower edge of the Transition zone. 

Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus. Canon Towhee. — Mesoleucus is one of the 
common canon birds of the Upper Sonoran juniper and nut pine belt and 
follows its zone up the Pecos to its limit at 7200 feet. 

Oreospiza chlorura. Green-tailed Towhee. — We obtained a single 
specimen of chlorura on July 13 at 8000 feet, and Mr. Henshaw found one 
brood and saw a few migrants. 

Zamelodia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. — A male gros- 
beak was taken July 15 at 8000 feet, one was seen July 20 at 8700 feet, and 
a female was obtained at about 10,000 feet, near the upper limit of the 
Transition zone. 

Guiraca caerulea lazula. Western Blue Grosbeak. — A Blue Gros- 
beak was reported on August 6 about eight miles north of Pecos in the 
Upper Sonoran zone. Another was seen earlier in the season between 
Glorieta and Pecos. 

Piranga ludoviciana. Western Tanager. — At 8000 feet we found a 
pair of tanagers feeding young on the edge of camp July 16. The song 
and call notes were constantly in our ears. When the female was away 
the male would sit on a branch and call pit-ic, pit-ic, pit-ic by the half 
hour. He would call in the same way when hunting for food, moving 
slowly and quietly over the cottonwood branches. The female often gave 
a three syllabled call of pit-er-ick, pit-er-ick. A nestling that I suc- 
ceeded in catching in my hand, much to the temporary distress of the old 
birds, was, as Mr. Ridgway says, marked much like the female. Its upper 

3 6 ° 

Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. \ ^ k 


parts were olivaceous and the wings were crossed by two yellowish bars. 
The throat, but not the chest, was streaked, and the belly was whitish, its 
median line and the under tail coverts being bright yellow. Tanagers 
were seen on July 19 at 8700 feet and July 25 at 10,200 feet, on the upper 
edge of the Transition zone. Before this they had been found in the foot- 
hills between Santa F^ and Glorieta. On August 27 we saw one as low 
as 6350 feet at the foot of the pine-covered Bernal mesa. 

Progne subis. Purple Martin. — Martins were found near Glorieta 
July 10. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. — Seen between Glorieta 
and Pecos on July 4. 

Hirundo erythrogastra. Barn Swallow. — At 7200 feet Barn Swallows 
were seen on August 24, and they were common about Mexican adobes at 
the base of the mountains during the summer. 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida. Northern Violet-green Swallow. — 
Tachyci7ieta was found from near Glorieta at the base of the mountains 
up to 11,000 feet, but was most abundant at 8700 feet. Near Glorieta on 
July 10 we found the Violet-greens nesting in cottonwoods ; at 8700 feet 
on July 19 they were evidently breeding in crevices in the rocks, flying 
about the brow of a cliff in great numbers ; and on July 25 we found a 
large community of them breeding in an aspen grove on the mesa at 
10,300 feet. A grown young was secured in this place on August 14. 
Mr. Henshaw found the swallows principally in the pine woods. 

Vireo gilvus swainsoni. Western Warbling Vireo. — At Glorieta 
the Warbling Vireo was singing in the cottonwoods on July 7, and at 
8000 feet one was singing and carrying food on July 15. Others were 
found as high as 10,300 feet in the poplars on the mesa. 

Vireo solitarius plumbeus. Plumbeous Vireo. — Mr. Henshaw speaks 
of plumbeus as "rather common in summer," being "almost exclusively 
restricted to the pines"; but we found it only on the lower edge of the 
pine belt at the base of the mountains in a cotton wood grove near Glorieta. 

Helminthophila virginise. Virginia Warbler. — Mr. Henshaw was 
surprised at the absence of the Virginia Warbler, which "breeds abun- 
dantly in middle Colorado," and suggested that "it may possibly summer 
in the foothills." That this is the case we proved by taking a specimen 
on July 10 near Glorieta on the lower edge of the Transition zone. 

Helminthophila celata. Orange-crowned Warbler. — Taken at about 
8000 feet on the Pecos July 16. 

Helminthophila celata lutescens. Lutescent Warbler. — Taken at 
8000 feet on August 19. 

Dendroica auduboni. Audubon Warbler. — These warblers were found 
from 7000 to 11,600 feet, where, on August 12, they were going about in 
fall flocks of Juncos, Kinglets, and Warblers. 

Geothlypis tolmiei. Macgillivray Warbler. — Mr. Henshaw, while 
expecting to find tohniei breeding, saw it only as a migrant late in August^ 
but we secured a specimen on July 15 on a branch of the Pecos at 8000 
feet, so it doubtless breeds in the vicinity. 

y0l i 9 £ XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 36 1 

Wilsonia pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. — Mr. Henshaw 
says, "So far as we could ascertain, this bird did not breed in the locality," 
but higher up the mountains, at 11,000 feet, on July 23, we found it feed- 
ing young in the willows along Jack Creek. The parent bird was, at the 
time, in the middle of its molt. When we came down the mountain the 
latter part of August we found pileolata in the alders along the streams in 
the same surprising numbers that Mr. Henshaw had noted. 

Anthus pensilvanicus. Pipit. — Instead of the Ptarmigan and Leucos- 
ticte that we had hoped to discover on the peaks, we found the Pipit, the 
one Alpine bird. This was not surprising, as the snow had melted back 
to small patches on the cold slopes in time to give it an open breeding 
ground. From a little below timberline we found the birds ranging to 
the highest peaks, actually encountering them in a fierce wind within fifty 
feet of the summit of Truchas, at an altitude of 13,250 feet. From the top 
of Pecos Baldy another day I discovered, high in the air, a Sparrow Hawk 
pursued by a Pipit. As this was on the thirteenth of August the Pipit 
was probably guarding his brood, for we had found young being fed as 
late as July 28. The breeding ground where we discovered them was a 
broad grassy slope, an ancient ' burn ' near timberline where Otocoris was 
going about with grown young. Some of the Pipits had food in their 
bills and they did individually what they do in flocks after the breeding 
season, — rose from the ground, flew out and circled back, uttering their 
plaintive cheep. In this case they often lit on old gray stumps and logs. 
On July 31 we found the birds on both sides of the knifeblade rocky ridge 
connecting the east and west peaks of Pecos Baldy flying about cheeping, 
blown by the wind, and lighting on the rocks and tipping their tails ; but 
though they acted most suspiciously, we did not succeed in finding nests 
or young. 

Cinclus mexicanus. Water Ouzel. — The Ouzel was seen on the 
Pecos from 7200 to 8700 feet in July and August. At 8700 feet we left the 
Pecos, following up Jack Creek to the foot of Pecos Baldy. This stream 
probably had too few cascades to suit the ouzels, but on the north slope of 
Baldy, at 10,000 feet, Mr. Bailey again encountered them. The gizzard of 
one collected was full of small insects. 

Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. — Mr. Mitchell says that the Rock 
Wrens breed "most commonly from 8000 feet down, and although a few 
individuals were seen by us in the mountains, one being met at 12,550 
feet, fifty feet from the top of Pecos Baldy we missed the friendly little 
fellows in the high country, for they had met us at every turn along the 
sandstone of the low country. 

Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Aztec Wren. — On July 10 we found two 
wren nests in holes in cottonwoods at our Glorieta camp, and on July 14, 
at 8000 feet, were shown a family of nearly fledged young which the chil- 
dren of the range rider had rescued from a snake that climbed to its nest. 
On August 9, wrens were singing at 11,600 feet. 

Certhia familiaris montana. Rocky Mountain Creeper. — Young 

3 6: 

Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. [jui* 

creepers were seen at 11,600 feet on August 14 and 16, and one was taken 
at 8000 feet on August 18. 

Sitta carolinensis nelsoni. Rocky Mountain Nuthatch. — Ingoing 
about the mountains we thought a number of times that we detected the 
notes of nelsoni at a distance, and we were doubtless right, for Mr. Hen- 
shaw found them breeding abundantly in the pines. They were, more- 
over, taken at our Glorieta camp on the lower edge of the yellow pines as 
well as on pineclad mesas on the plains. 

Sitta pygmaea. Pygmy Nuthatch. — During July and August the 
Pygmy was found throughout the limits of the Transition zone from 7400 
to 9800 feet. 

Baeolophus inornatus griseus. Gray Titmouse. — As griseus is a 
common bird of the pinon pine and juniper belt and was found in the 
Glorieta region, it would doubtless have been found on the Upper Sonoran 
slopes of the Pecos canon had we stopped to work them. 

Parus atricapillus septentrionalis. Long-tailed Chickadee. — A family 
of nine were seen August 17 at 8000 feet, and one was taken at about 10,500 
feet. Its gizzard was filled with minute eggs and some insects. 

Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. — While septentrionalis was 
seen only twice, gambeli was common at Glorieta and on the mountains 
in the Canadian and Hudsonian zones. 

Psaltriparus plumbeus. Lead-colored Bush-Tit. — Like Bazolophus, 
a typical bird of the juniper and nut pine country, Psaltriparus was found 
in the Glorieta foothills, and was undoubtedly on the Upper Sonoran slopes 
of the Pecos Canon. 

Regulus satrapa. Golden-crowned Kinglet. — A young satrapa in 
pinfeathers was taken July 31 on Pecos Baldy. As this gives a breeding 
record it makes a long southward extension of the breeding range. 

Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — On July 21, when we 
camped in the spruces at 11,000 feet, the Kinglets were in the height of 
their song, their cheery round being heard all through the day as they 
made their circuits of the spruce tops above camp. By August 1 their 
songs were much less in evidence, probably for good family reasons. By 
August 9 their songs were so rarely heard as to be notable, and before we 
left the foot of Pecos Baldy, August 17, the young were flying about quite 

Myadestes townsendii. Townsend Solitaire. — A pair of Myadestes 
was seen about July 15 at 8000 feet, and a grown young one was shot July 
28 at 11,000 feet. On the same day a nest with four fairly fresh eggs was 
found at 12,000 feet. The nest was on the same grassy ridge where Anthus 
and Otocoris were flying about. As we rode along on horseback the bird 
flew from under an old gray log at our feet, and on dismounting we found 
the nest on the ground roofed over by a cavity burned in the log just about 
large enough to give head space to the Solitaire. The nest was made wholly 
of grass and weed stems and lined with fine grass. On the side of Pecos 
Baldy Myadestes was seen above 12,000 feet, and on Truchas above timber- 

Vol i? 4 XI ] Bailey, Birds of the Upper Pecos. 363 

line on straggling dwarf spruces at 12,600 feet. At our Hudsonian zone 
camp at 11,600 feet we saw a number of the birds up to the time of our 
departure, on August 17. On our way down the mountains we found it as 
low as Sooo feet, whether having bred there or having come down after 
the cold storms we could only surmise. 

Hylocichla guttata auduboni. Audubon Hermit Thrush. — When we 
camped in the spruces at 11,000 feet Hermit Thrushes were singing in 
chorus in such unusual numbers that we called the place Hylocichla Camp, 
but by August 1 the thrushes had almost stopped singing. On July 23 
we found a young bird out of the nest, and from that time on encountered 
bob-tailed young in the woods until August 15, just before our departure 
for the lowlands. The stomach of a thrush shot contained insects and a 
few berry seeds, probably strawberry. 

Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. — Mr. Henshaw says 
the Robin "was not detected breeding, although it probably summers 
here." During our stay the birds were found from Pecos to the foot of 
Pecos Baldy. At 8000 feet, on July 15, we found young being fed out of 
the nest ; on July 16 we found a pair just about finishing a nest; on July 
23 a nest was seen with eggs at 11,000 feet; on August 20, young were 
found being fed in the nest at 8000 feet. On August 16, at 11,000 feet, we 
saw a tailless old bird in the midst of its molt. 

Sialia mexicana bairdi. Chestnut-backed Bluebird. — On July 10 
bairdi was found nesting in a cottonwood near Glorieta. In the moun- 
tains it was seen as high as 10,200 feet. 

Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. — Mr. Henshaw says, "Appar- 
ently the Sialia arctica does not breed here"; but Mr. Mitchell gives it 
as breeding "up to 9000 feet" on the east of the range, and we found it 
common at Glorieta July 8 and on the open mesa at 10,300 feet, where 
we found a nest in an aspen on July 25. At the same time families of 
young and old were going about together up at n,ooofeet. By August 
5, numbers of Bluebirds, with Flickers, Chipping Sparrows, and Juncos 
were wandering about in families, the woods as well as the meadows being 
filled with birds. On August 11 we found a flock of the Bluebirds w r ith 
Chipping Sparrows and Flickers at 12,300 feet, on a protected slope in the 
dwarf evergreens of timberline on the south side of Truchas. 

364 Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. [*M k 



The Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Pants rufescens) is a boreal 
species of peculiarly limited distribution. It is almost exclusively 
confined to the humid Pacific Coast region of North America, 
within which it is the most abundant, and in many places the only, 
member of the genus Pants present. We find it characteristically 
at home within the densest coniferous forests, or along their edges, 
where there is much shade and an even temperature. 

The range of the Chestnut-backed Chickadee is nearly two 
thousand miles long north and south, extending from a little north 
of Sitka, Alaska, to some forty miles below Monterey, California. 
(See Map I.) But its width is very narrow, only within the confines 
of Oregon and Washington exceeding one hundred miles and else- 
where usually much less, save for one or two isolated interior colo- 
nies to be mentioned later. 

The influences determining this queer-shaped distribution area 
may be safely assumed to be atmospheric humidity, with asso- 
ciated floral conditions. For this habitat coincides quite accu- 
rately with the narrow coastal belt of excessive cloudy weather and 

The specific character distinguishing Partis rufescens from all 
other American chickadees is the color of the back, which is an 
intense rusty brown approaching chestnut. It is of common note 
that the most evident effects of similar climatic conditions on 
other animals is a corresponding intensification of browns, espe- 
cially dorsally. We may therefore consider the Chestnut-backed 
Chickadee, as indicated by its chief specific character, to be a prod- 
uct exclusively of the peculiar isohumic area to which we find it 

Parus rufescens, from Sitka to Monterey, has a chestnut-colored 
back. And from Sitka to Point Arena, between which we find the 
extremest humidity, another conspicuous character is uniform, — 
the color of the sides, which are also deep rusty brown. But from 
Point Arena south to San Francisco Bay (Marin District), these 

Vol. XXI J Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 365 

lateral brown areas suddenly weaken to pale rusty ; while from 
San Francisco south past Monterey (Santa Cruz District), adult 
birds have the sides pure smoke gray without a trace of rusty. 
(See Map II.) 

The species thus presents geographic variation within itself, and 
three distinguishable forms have been named, respectively, the 
Chestnut-sided Chickadee {Paries rufescens rufescens), the Marin 
Chickadee {Parus rufescens neglectus) ,and the Santa Cruz Chicka- 
dee {Parus rufescens barlowi). But all three subspecies are unmis- 
takably the Chestnut-backed Chickadee {Parus rufescens). (For 
detailed descriptions, distribution and synonymy see beyond.) 

This southward paling of the lateral feather tracts seems to be 
parallel to the relative decrease in the humidity of the regions 
occupied. But still, even the Santa Cruz District with its gray- 
sided barlowi has very much greater rainfall and cloudiness than 
regions immediately to the southward and interiorly. The too 
abrupt aridification with accompanying sudden floral changes 
apparently forms the present barrier to further distribution in 
these directions. 

The paling of the sides in the southern bird seems to be a sec- 
ondary condition, as I hope to show further on by age comparisons. 
We can reasonably infer that Parus rufescens rufescens was the 
ancestral form from which Parus rufescens neglectus and then Parus 
rufescens barlowi successively arose through exodus distally from 
its point of differentiation further north, where the faunal condi- 
tions were doubtless then as now most effective. 

First, as to the origin of the species, Parus rufescens. Can we 
find a chickadee now occupying a faunal area which can be con- 
sidered as nearer the common ancestral form than rufescens now is ? 

An affirmative answer seems plausible when we come to consider 
Parus liudsonicus, which occupies the interior of Alaska and Brit- 
ish Columbia east to Labrador and Nova Scotia. This wide- 
ranging boreal species also affects coniferous forests, and according 
to my own experience possesses life habits quite similar to those of 
Parus rufescens ; in fact to me indistinguishable. The latter differs 
from Parus liudsonicus in smaller size and particularly in shortness 
of tail. The color areas on the two species are coextensive, but 
the colors themselves are different in intensity. The top of the 

3 66 

Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 



Map I. 
( Dotted area = range of Parus rufescens . ) 

Vol. xxq 
1904 J 

Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 


P„*t Artn.0. 


P. r. Yutacens x «ej/«cf«s^ 
P. r. xegUctus 
V r. a r /o (v « 

■ record stations 


3 68 Grinnell, Chest?iut-backed Chickadee. Vy^ 

head in hudsonicus is broccoli brown, while in rufescens it is dark 
hair brown. The back of hudsonicus is pale grayish olive brown, 
while in rufescens it is chestnut brown. The sides and flanks of 
hudsonicus are rather pale hazel brown, while in rufescens they are 
deep hazel brown approaching chestnut. Otherwise the two spe- 
cies look practically alike. 

These differences are just those we find so commonly in two 
conspecific representatives, one occupying an arid habitat, the 
other a comparatively more humid one. Indeed we can find 
exactly parallel cases in certain other bird races occupying the 
same two regions as the chickadees in question, but which as yet 
are not disconnected by intermediates, and in which the degree of 
difference is not so great. (For example, Melospiza lincolni lin- 
colni and Melospiza faicobii striata, and Regulus calendula calendula 
and Regulus calendula grinnelli.) It is the same story, of intensi- 
fication of browns and decrease in size under the conditions of a 
moist climate. 

As to the greater relative decrease in length of tail in rufescens, 
it may be suggested that it is an observed rule among the Paridae 
(and in some other birds of similar habits, though not without 
exception) that those species which habitually forage highest 
above the ground in the foliage of tall trees possess the relatively 
shortest tails, while conversely those which haunt low thick trees 
or underbrush exhibit the greatest caudal development. (For 
example, Psaltriparus and Chamcea.) These conditions doubtless 
bear some definite relation to mode of flight. The shorter the 
flights the slower they are, and therefore the greater must be the 
tail surface distally in furnishing sufficient opposition to the air to 
direct or arrest flight. At any rate, rufescens haunts much higher 
and more open trees than hudso?iicus. 

It seems to me reasonable to suppose that Parus hudsonicus 
approaches closely the common ancestral form. Its wide range, 
which, if we take the Old World Parus ductus of such close resem- 
blance as conspecific, is almost holarctic, favors this idea. At 
some early period there may have been no representative of Parus 
in the Northwest Coast belt. By a process of invasion of indi- 
viduals of the hypothetical stock form (which we may call Parus 
pre-hudsonicus) from the adjacent region, and their subsequent 

ida? 1 ] Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 3^0 

gradual response to the new set of environmental factors, a geo- 
graphical race became differentiated which might have then been 
properly called Par us pre-kudsonicus rufescens. 

Unfortunately this process, which I believe to be constantly 
going on among all animals, is so slow that its actual operation 
under natural conditions has so far defied direct observation and 
measurement during a man's lifetime. But it seems quite logical 
to consider the natural process identical with that under ' arti- 
ficial ' conditions, where the rate is readily perceptible. 

We seem warranted in considering all observed living forms, 
including ' species,' and completely isolated (insular) as well as 
intergrading ' races ' as just a momentary glimpse, so to speak, of 
a tree-like branchwork slowly rising through time, some of the 
limbs ramifying freely and rapidly, others growing slenderly with- 
out offshoots, but all advancing continually, though changing in 
outward appearance at different rates ; only we at our brief glance 
can see but a horizontal section, that is, only the set of tips of this 
otherwise ancestral tree. 

Accepting this standpoint as the most reasonable hypothesis yet 
presented, and moreover not at variance with our facts, I feel justi- 
fied in judging of the methods of ramification and progress through 
time from observation of the existing set of ' tips ' (== species and 
subspecies). Among these, from the nature of the case, we should 
be able to recognize various stages in the process of species forma- 
tion, and from these judiciously selected steps demonstrate the 
completed stairway which leads up from the very incipiency of 
differentiation (as impossible of ultimate detection by us as the 
vanishing point) to the complete separation of two distinct species. 
The steps are of course really infinite in number, like the points 
in a geometrical line ; the transition proceeds gradually without a 

In tracing the hypothetical lines of development of the chick- 
adees, I do not feel guilty of bold speculation ; for I am only 
attempting to express in a selected case what is to me clearly 
evidenced from a survey of bird races in general. 

As has already been asserted, Parus rufescens doubtless arose 
as a geographical race of Parus pre-hudso?iicus. It is now called 
a 'species' because intermediates have dropped out; in other 

'X'lO Grinnell, Chesttiut-backed Chickadee. \ P \^\ 

words, the divarication is now wholly complete and there are two 
separate twigs. The area of intermediate faunal conditions be- 
tween the humid coast belt and the arid interior region of British 
Columbia and Alaska is very narrow, consisting, in places per- 
sonally traversed by me, of but a few miles over a mountain ridge. 
This very narrowness of the area of faunal mergence probably 
accounts for the lack of intermediates at the present day between 
hudsonicus and rafescens. 

The center of distribution of any animal is where the greatest 
rate of increase is. The greatest rate of reproduction is presum- 
ably where the species finds itself best adapted to its environment; 
and this is also where the death rate is least, unless an enemy 
rapidly multiplies so as to become a serious check. In a wide- 
ranging species, or one that is rapidly spreading over a region of 
varying climatic and associated conditions, sub-centers of distri- 
bution will arise at points which prove to be more favorable, in 
point of food supply and minimum of enemies, than intervening 
areas. From each of these new centers of distribution there will 
be a yearly radiating flow of individuals into the adjacent country, 
so as to escape intra-competition at any one point. 

Such centers of distribution will obviously, as time goes on, har- 
bor only locally pure-bred individuals, for foreign individuals will 
not stem the tide of population from season to season slowly 
emigrating. This will amount to operative isolation and allow of 
the time necessary for the impress, by local factors of environment, 
of incipient characters, which, through cumulative inheritance as 
the element of time further increases, become to us perceptible 
and characterize this set of individuals as a geographical race or 
' subspecies.' 

Let us suppose that descendants from the interior Partes pre- 
hudsonicus from season to season pushed their way further and 
further into the primaeval coast belt until the latter supported a 
vigorous colony. The coastal humidity was very likely at that 
time but slightly greater than that of the interior, having gradually 
increased through slow shifting of ocean currents or other causes, 
so that the faunal boundary was not so abrupt and did not then as 
now constitute a formidable barrier to invasion. 

Faunal conditions are without doubt undergoing constant alter- 

Vol. XXI j GriiSnell, Chestnut-bached Chickadee. 37 I 

ation. Endemic animals must adaptively respond or else be exter- 
minated or restricted to the places where faunal change is slowest. 
The possibility at once presents itself of Parus pre-hudsonicus 
having been already native of the coast before the latter became 
faunally distinct from the interior. But in either case the original 
populating of the region must have been through invasion from 
elsewhere, as effected by shifting climatic conditions. 

At any rate a center of distribution must have arisen in the new 
region of different faunal conditions. Just as quick as the new 
colony began to reproduce fast enough to furnish a return flow of 
individuals the immigration of individuals bearing the inherited 
stock characters from the parent region would be checked. This 
would mean that the new colony would become a new center of 
differentiation because of the isolation thus afforded. (As to what 
brings about the acquisition or change of innate characters, whether 
by natural selection or some other more direct cause, we need not 
here try to discuss.) 

As the dissemination of individuals to prevent congestion of 
population will be continually away from the centers of distribu- 
tion, it follows that the characters newly acquired at the centers 
where the rate of differentiation is greatest will be constantly car- 
ried away from those centers. If the region of intermediate faunal 
conditions were narrow, as in the present case, individuals bearing 
the inherited characters impressed by their separate areas of differ- 
entiation would from generation to generation invade toward each 
other until intermediates would be swamped, or there might be an 
unfit strip left between where neither would flourish. This might 
be bridged over by hybrids for a while. But the specific charac- 
ters becoming strengthened by time would make hybridization less 
and less likely to take place, and there would result the two dis- 
tinct species as we now know them. 

In the case of Parus rufescefis and Parus hudsonicus there seems 
to be now a narrow hiatus between the two. At least I can find 
no record of the two species having been found in the same local- 
ity. The narrowness of the region of intermediate faunal condi- 
tions may therefore be considered as the reason why we do not 
find connecting links between hudsonicus and rufesce?is at the pres- 
ent time. For the amount of difference between these two chicka 

37 2 Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. [f^ 

dees does not strike me as any greater than, for instance, between 
Melospiza cinerea tnontana and Melospiza cinerea rufina, between 
which there is continuous distribution and free interosculation. 
But we cannot expect any two species of birds or other animals to 
present the same degrees of differentiation in the same length of 
time or under the same conditions, much less under different con- 
ditions. For in no two animals is the physical organization in all 
respects exactly the same. 

In a given aggregation of individuals constituting a new colony 
a certain amount of time is necessary for the set of environmental 
factors to become operative in bringing about new inheritable 
characters to a degree perceptible to us. Then the inherited 
effects of invasion and crossbreeding from season to season from 
the adjacent parent center of differentiation will be evidenced less 
and less, as time elapses, as the distance from this center increases. 
The offspring of successively further removed unions will, of course, 
inherit to a less and less degree the distinctive characters of the 
ancestral stock on one side and more and more of the incipient 
ones on the other. 

If, now, the distance is great enough to permit of the time re- 
quired for adaptive manifestations to become innate, then we would 
find new characters making their appearance distally nearest the 
new center of differentiation. If the distance were too short we 
would not find new characters showing themselves because they 
would be constantly crowded down by the influx of the old. The 
time factor may therefore be reduced by the intervention of an 
impassable barrier. As an instance we find three (and there are 
probably two other) insular forms of the Song Sparrow within a 
limited distance among the Santa Barbara Islands, while through 
the same distance on the adjacent mainland there is but one. Or 
in the case of continuous distribution the time element may be 
comparatively lessened by the great distance between the range 
limits, and it may be still further decreased as these limits lie in 
faunal areas of more emphatically different nature. The Horned 
Larks as well as Song Sparrows furnish us several good examples 
of the latter two rules. 

It is isolation, either by barriers or by sufficient distance to more 
than counterbalance inheritance from the opposite type, that seems 

Vol. XXI~j Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 3/3 

to me to be the absolutely essential condition for the differentia- 
tion of two species, at least in birds. 

A strong argument in support of this conviction is that we never 
find two ' subspecies' breeding in the samefaunal area, and no two 
closely similar species, except as can be plainly accounted for by 
the invasion of one of them from a separate center of differentia- 
tion in an adjacent faunal area. An appropriate instance in illus- 
tration of the latter is the occurrence together in the Siskiyou 
Mountains of northern California of the brown Parus rufescens of 
the wet coastal fauna and the gray Parus ga?nbeli of the arid 
Sierran fauna. (See Anderson & Grinnell, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 
Phila., 1903, p. 13.) The Siskiyou Mountains occupy a line of 
mergence between the two faunae, and the two respectively repre- 
sentative chickadees have evidently extended their ranges toward 
each other until now over this one small area they occupy com- 
mon ground. Several parallel cases could be cited ; their signifi- 
cance seems obvious. 

We come now to consider the origin of the races of Parus 
rufescens. In a species of recent arrival into a new region (by 
invasion from a neighboring faunal area), as it adapts itself better 
and better to its new surroundings, granted the absence of closely 
related or sharply competing forms, its numbers will rapidly 
increase. This means that there will be increased competition 
within the species itself, on account of limited food supply. The 
alternative results are either starvation for less vigorous indi- 
viduals during recurring seasons of unusual food scarcity, or dis- 
semination over a larger area. In a way the first might be 
considered as beneficial in the long run, as doubtless leading to 
the elimination of the weaker ; such a process evidently does take 
place to a greater or less degree all the time, and is important for 
the betterment of the race. But as a matter of observation Nature 
first resorts to all sorts of devices to ensure the spreading of indi- 
viduals over all inhabitable regions ; in other words, the extremest 
intra-competition does not ensue until after further dissemination 
is impossible. In birds we find a trait evidently developed on 
purpose to bring about scattering of individuals. This is the 
autumnal ' mad impulse ' which occurs just after the complete 
annual moult, when both birds-of-the-year and adults are in the 

7 J A. GRINNELL, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. \^\ 

best physical condition, and just before the stress of winter food 
shortage. Even in the most sedentary of birds, in which no other 
trace of a migratory instinct is discernible, this fall season of 
unrest is plainly in evidence. I may suggest not unreasonably 
that autumnal migration may have had its origin in such a trait as 
this, the return movement in the spring becoming a necessary 
sequence. (See Loomis, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc, 3rd Series, Zool- 
ogy, II, Dec, 1900, 352.) It is a matter of abundant observation 
that autumn is the season when we find the most unlooked-for 
stragglers far out of their normal range, and when sober, stay-at- 
home birds, like Pipilo crissalis and the chickadees, wander far 
from the native haunts where they so closely confine themselves 
the rest of the year. It is also the experience of collectors that 
the greatest number of these stragglers are birds-of-the-year, 
which thus, obeying the ' mad impulse,' are led away from their 
birthplace into new country, where they may take up their per- 
manent abode, and be less likely to compete with their parents 
or others of their kind. Then, too, crossbreeding of distantly 
related individuals is more likely. The records of the Santa Cruz 
Chickadee outside of its regular breeding range are all of August 
to October dates (Haywards, Gilroy, San Jose, etc.). 

Thus, as above indicated, by the occupancy of new territory the 
number of individuals which can be supported will correspond- 
ingly grow. Hence a vigorous colony will spread out along lines 
of least resistance, being hindered by slight faunal changes, but 
completely checked only by topographic or abrupt climatic barriers. 
Parus hudsonicus and its near relative Parus rufescens are boreal 
species, the former inhabiting the Hudsonian Zone and the latter 
a certain portion of the Canadian. It seems reasonable to suppose 
that rufescens differentiated in the northern part of the humid coast 
belt, which has been called the Sitkan District. This is a faunal 
subdivision of the Canadian Zone, and its northern part approxi- 
mates more closely Hudsonian conditions than southerly. Grant- 
ing that the early center of differentiation and distribution of Parus 
pre-hudsonicus rufescens was in the northern part of the Sitkan 
District, then the route of emigration would be confined to the 
narrow southward extension of that faunal area. The habitat of 
Parus rufescens thus gradually acquired the long north and south 

Vol. XXI "J Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 37 S 

linear appearance as shown at this day. But when the pioneer 
invaders at the south reached the vicinity of Point Arena, they 
met with somewhat changed temperature and consequent floral 
conditions, but not so abrupt as to constitute a permanent barrier. 
Doubtless the progress of invasion was retarded until adaptive 
modifications evolved, which correlatively allowed of further inva- 
sion, until the abrupt limits of the Santa Cruz District were 

San Francisco Bay and the Golden Gate seem to now form a 
pretty effectual barrier between neglectus on the north and barlowi 
on the south. At least, among the large number of skins examined 
by me with this point in view, I can find none from one side that 
can be confidently determined as being identical with the race on 
the other. Neither chickadee has been found east of the bay, nor 
anywhere nearly so far from the coast belt, except for one record 
of a specimen taken in the fall at Haywards. This has been 
reexamined and proved to be barlowi, as was to be expected from 
its contiguity. However, the Golden Gate is so narrow that an 
occasional crossing may take place. This was more probable 
formerly, when the redwood timber grew up to the Gate on both 
sides. Heermann in 1853 recorded the species from " San Fran- 
cisco." But now, I think, the bird is unknown for several miles 
on either side of the Gate. Doubtless this barrier accounts in 
part for the origin of the distinct form barlowi within so short a 

As to the distance to which a species may invade, we can surmise 
that, topography permitting, theoretically there is no limit so long 
as adaptive modifications continually take place. The geographic 
variation in Melospiza may be called to attention as an extreme 
illustration. But practically, in the case of Parus rufescens bar- 
lowi, much further invasion is improbable, because in adjoining 
areas are already firmly established members of the same family 
(Bceolophus, Psaltriparus, Chamced) thoroughly adapted to prevail- 
ing food conditions. No one of these could probably be successfully 
competed against by a foreigner. Every animal tends to increase 
at a geometric ratio, and is checked only by limit of food supply. 
It is only by adaptations to different sorts of food, or modes of 
food getting, that more than one species can occupy the same 


Grinnell, Ckestnut-backed Chickadee. 


igo4 XI ") Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. Xl*l 

locality. Two species of approximately the same food habits are 
not likely to remain long evenly balanced in numbers in the 
same region. One will crowd out the other ; the one longest 
exposed to local conditions, and hence best fitted, though ever so 
slightly, will survive, to the exclusion of any less favored would-be 
invader. However, should some new contingency arise, placing 
the native species at a disadvantage, such as the introduction of 
new plants, then there might be a fair chance for a neighboring 
species to gain a foothold, even ultimately crowding out the native 
form. For example, several pairs of the Santa Cruz Chickadee 
have taken up their permanent abode in the coniferous portion of 
the Arboretum at Stanford University, while the Plain Titmouse 
prevails in the live oaks of the surrounding valley. 

In accordance with the above outlined theories of distribution 
it is easy to account for isolated breeding colonies, such as that 
of Panes rufescens rufescens in northern Idaho (Fort Sherman and 
Cceur d'Alene Mountains). Fall stragglers, wandering unusually 
far and finding themselves suddenly amid familiar conditions, 
would tarry there to breed, and with the continuance of a favor- 
able state of affairs, and with no serious competition, might soon 
result in a well-established colony, itself a center of distribution. 
The record of ?-ufescens from Mt. Shasta (July 14) seems to have 
been based on a lone straggler, for the species has not been found 
there since. (For references and localities see beyond.) 

As has become a generally accepted idea, the young plumages 
of birds, if different at all from those of the adults, present a gen- 
eralized type of coloration ; or, to express it in another way, the 
young more nearly resemble recent ancestral conditions. The 
familiar examples of the spotted, thrush-like plumage of the young 
robin and the streaked, sparrow-like plumage of young towhees 
and juncos are cases in point. Accepting this phylogenetic 
significance of ontogeny, we find the chickadees giving some 
interesting illustrations. 

Although the adult of barlowi has the sides pure smoke-gray, 
the juvenal plumage possesses pale rusty sides. This points 
towards a rusty sided ancestor like neglectus. This also agrees 
perfectly with the distributional evidence of origin. The adult of 
neglectus has pale rusty sides ; the young also has rusty sides, but 


Grinnell, Chestnut-bached Chickadee. 


somewhat darker than in the corresponding age of barlowi, and 
moreover is more nearly like the ju venal plumage of rufesce?is. 
But the sides in adult rufescens are deep brown, almost chestnut, 
while the young has much paler, merely dark rusty sides. And 
what is most significant is that the young of rufescens and hud- 
sonicus are much nearer alike than are the adults, the former 
having only very slightly darker rusty on the flanks. The young 
of hudsonicus in respect to intensity of browns almost exactly 
equal the adults of the same species, showing that the present 
coloration is of very long standing, and offering further evidence 
that hudsonicus is nearest the common stock form of all the chicka- 
dees under consideration. Juvenal characters, resembling ancestral 
conditions, lag behind the newer acquired adult characters. 

To repeat : The young of barlowi has the sides paler rusty 
than neglectus, neglectus slightly paler than rufescens, but rufescens 
has the sides slightly more rusty than hudsonicus, a sequence 
which accords well with the present theories of origin. (See 
Map III.) 

Measurements (in Inches and Millimeters) of the Races of 

Par us rufescens. 

Parus rufescens rufescens. 

Parus rufescens neglectus. 

Panes rufescens barlowi. 







( max. 

2.50 (63) 

2-33 (59) 


5* av - 

2.38 (60) 

2.21 (56) 



2.36 (59) 

&& ( min. 

a. 42 (61) 

2^8 (56) 

2-35 (59) 

2-17 (55) 

2 5 Jav. 

2.42 (61) 

2.26 (57) 

2.38 (60) 

2.08 (53) 

a ( m in. 


2-07 (53) 

c?cf (min. 

2-32 (59) 


( max. 

2.41 (61) 

2.21 (56) 




( max. 

2.45 (62) 

2-24 (57) 

9 9 av .' 

+ ( min. 



p 5 o av. 
* + ( min. 

2-24 (57) 

2.12 (54) 

10 < av. 
V V ( min. 


2-13 (54) 


2.03 (52) 

2.21 (56) 

2.08 (53) 

2.22 (56) 

2.05 (52) 

Vol. XXI"] 
1904 J 

Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 


Comparative Coloration 1 of the Races of Parus rufescens. 

Pants rufescens rufescens 

Parus rufescens neglectus. 

Parus rufescens barlowi. 

(cf ad.; No. 5623, Coll. J. 

G. ; Seiad Valley, Siskiyou 

Mountains, California; Dec. 

12,1901; collected by M. P« 

Top of head and hind neck 

dark seal brown ; ocular 

stripe sooty. 
Mantle chestnut, inclining 

slightly toward hazel ; 

rump the same. 
Sides of head and neck white, 

forming a wedge-shaped 

patch from bill to shoulder. 
Chin and throat dark seal 

Sides and flanks chestnut, 

inclining slightly toward 

Wings and tail fuscous, pale- 

(cf ad.; No. 5624, Coll. J. 
G. ; San Geronimo, Marin 
County, California; Feb. 
13, 1902; collected by J. 
& J. W. Mailliard.) 

Top of head and hind neck 
dark seal brown ; ocular 
stripe sooty. 

Mantle chestnut, inclining to- 
ward hazel; rump slightly 

Sides of head and neck white, 
forming a wedge-shaped 
patch from bill to shoulder. 

Chin and throat dark seal 
brown, very slightly paler. 

Sides and flanks pale hazel. 

Wings and tail fuscous, pale- 

(cf ad.; No. 4425, Coll. J. 
G-; Stevens Creek Cafion> 
Santa Clara Co., California ; 
Oct. 13, 1900; collected by 
J. Grinnell. [Type.]) 

Top of head and hind neck 
dark seal brown, very slight- 
ly paler; ocular stripe sooty. 

Mantle chestnut, inclining 
strongly toward hazel ; 
rump paling to clay color. 

Sides of head and neck white, 
forming a wedge-shaped 
patch from bill to shoulder. 

Chin and throat dark seal 
brown, very slightly paler. 

Sides and flanks pure smoke 

Wings and tail fuscous, pale- 

(c? juv. ; No. 1194, Coll. J. 

G.; Sitka, Alaska; June 

26, 1896; collected by J. 

Similar to adult, but : 
Top of head and hind neck 

dark hair brown. 
Mantle burnt umber; rump 

inclining toward hazel. 

Chin and throat dull seal 

Sides and flanks dark hazel. 

(cf juv.; No. 5625, Coll. J. 

G.; San Geronimo, Marin 

Co., Cal. ; June 30, 1903 ; 

J. & J. W. Mailliard.) 
Similar to adult, but : 
Top of head and hind neck 

dark hair brown. 
Mantle dull burnt umber; 

rump slightly paler. 

Chin and throat dull seal 

Sides and flanks pale hazel. 

(cf juv.; No. 4684, Coll. J. 

G. ; Palo Alto, Santa Clara 

Co., Cal.; May 11, 1901 ; 

collected by J. Grinnell.) 
Similar to adult, but: 
Top of head and hind neck 

dark hair brown. 
Mantle pale burnt umber, 

merging into pure hazel on 

the rump. 
Chin and throat dull seal 

Sides and flanks very pale 


1 Color names taken from Ridgway's ' Nomenclature of Colors. 1 

3 8o 

Grinnell, Chestnut-backed Chickadee. IT 1 

Localities of Occurrence. 

Parus rufescens rufescens. 

Specimens examined. — Sitka, Alaska. British Columbia: Mt. Leh- 
man; North Saavich, Vancouver Id. Fort Canbj, Wash. Oregon: 
Cedar Mill, Washington Co. ; Salem ; Butteville ; Upper Klamath Lake. 
California: Siskiyou Mts. ; Eureka; Healdsburg ; Mt. St. Helena. 

Other stations (mostly from published records). — Alaska: Juneau; 
Portage Bay ; Lituya Bay ; Haines; Skaguay ; Glacier. Queen Charlotte 
Ids., B.C. Washington: Seattle; Ft. Steilacoom ; Ft. Vancouver; 
Gray's Harbor ; Cape Disappointment; Stehekine Valley, Okanogan Co. 
Idaho: Coeur d'Alene Mts. ; Ft. Sherman. Oregon: Wilbur; Yakina 
Bay; Dayton; Sheridan; Portland; Corvallis ; Clatsop Co. California: 
Cahto, Mendocino Co. ; west base Mt. Shasta. 

Partis rufescens neglectus. 

Specimens examined (all from California). — Marin County: San 
Geronimo ; Nicasio ; Fairfax. Sonoma County: Sebastopol (interme- 
diate, toward rufescens) ; Cazadero (intermediate, toward rufescens). 

Record station. — Ukiah, Mendocino Co. 

Parus rufescens barlowi. 

Specimens examined (all from California). — San Mateo County: San 
Mateo ; King Mt. ; Woodside ; Pescadero Cr. ; La Honda. Santa Clara 
County: Palo Alto; Stanford University ; Stevens Creek Canon ; Gilroy. 
Alameda County: Haywards; Alvarado. Monterey County: Monterey; 
Pacific Grove ; Carmel Bay. 

Other stations (from published records). — San Francisco. Santa Cruz 
County: Boulder Creek; Santa Cruz; Saratoga; Watsonville. Little 
Sur River, Monterey Co. 


Parus rufescens rufescens. 

Parus rufescens Townsend, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. VII, 1837, 190 
(orig. descr. ; "Inhabits the forests of the Columbia river "). — Audubon, 
Orn. Biog. IV, 1838,371. — Townsend, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. VIII, 
1839, 152. — Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, So. — Nuttall, Man. Orn. I, 1840, 
267, part (notes and habits). — Audubon, Bds. Am. 1841, 158, pi. 129. — 
Cassin, Bds. Cal. & Tex., 1S53, iS.— Baird, Pac. R. R. Rep. IX, 185S, 
394, part (Ft. Vancouver; etc.). — Cooper & Suckley, Pac. R. R. Rep. 
XII, i860, Zool. Rep., 194 (Ft. Steilacoom). — "Sclater, Cat. Am. Bds., 
1861, 14, No. 86." — Baird, Rev. Am. Bds., Aug. 1864,83, part. — Brown, 

V °I *^ XI ] Grinnell, Chestnut-bached Chickadee. 38 1 

Ibis, 2nd Ser. IV, Oct.