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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




L I B R. A R. Y 



MUSEUM or OOMPAEATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



ALEX. AGASSIZ. 



- (Ddd^ 



'^, /"for 



Old Seriks, | Continuation of the / New Series, 

Vol. XXIII j Buli-ktin oi" riiic Nutt;\ll Ornitmolooical Clum. I. N'ol. XV 

The Auk 

a iBuavtcrl^ gioiirnal oif €)ttntl)olo9t 

EDITOR 
J. A. ALLEN 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
FRANK M. CHAPMAN 




VOLUME XV 

PUBLISHED FOR 

The American Ornithologists' Union 



NEW YORK 

JLi. S. F-OSTEK, 

1898 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XV. 



NUMBER I. 



In Memoriam : Charles Emil Bendire. By J. C. Merrill. 

(Frontispiece.) 

The Cayenne Swift, Panyptila cayennensis (Gmelin). Bv Charles 

W. Richmond. (Plate I.) ." . 

William Swainson to John James Audubon. (A hitherto un 

published Letter.) By Dr. Elliott Cones. .... 
Notes on the Birds of Fort Sherman, Idaho. Bj J. C 

Merrill, Major and Surgeon, U. S. Army. (Concluded.) 
The Great Roosts on Gabberet Island, opposite North St 

Louis, Mo. By Otto Widmann. 

The Breeding of the Carolina PARoquET in Captivity. By 

Dr. Noxvoiny. .... ...... 

Description of a New Amazilia. By Harry C. Oberholser. 
Two New Birds from the Pacific Coast of America. By A 

W. Anthotiy. .......... 

Four Sea Birds New to the Fauna of North America. By 

A. W. Anthony. ......... 

Syrnium occidentale caurintim., A New Owl From the Puget 

Sound Region. By C. Hart Merriam. .... 

The Terns of Great Gull Island, N. Y., during 1897. By /. 

Harris Reed. .......... 

Fifteenth Congress of the American Ornithologists' Union 

By John H. Sage. ......... 



14 
22 

28 
32 

36 

38 

39 

40 

43 



GENERAL NOTES. 



«, Notes on the Egg of the Marbled Murrelet, 49; Gull Dick, 49 ; An Un- 
common Gull in Massachusetts, 50; Leach's Petrel in Massachusetts, 
50; The Redhead {^Aythya atnericatia) in post-nuptial plumage in 
Autumn, 50 ; The Glossy Ibis in Western New York, 50 ; The Amer- 
ican Egret at Maplewood, N. J., 51 ; Virginia Rail killed bv striking 
a Telephone Wire, 51; Baird's Sandpiper {Tringa bairdii) on the 
California Coast, 51 ; The Greater Yellow-legs catching Minnows, 
51 ; Spotted Sandpiper removing its Young, 52; The 1897 Migration 
of the Golden Plover ( Charadrius dominiciis) and the Eskimo Curlew 
Numeniiis borealis) in Massachusetts, 52; The Turkey Vulture in 



Contents of Volume XV. 

Connecticut, 53; A Black Vulture near Qiiebec, Canada, 53; Black 
Gvrfalcon {Falco rusiicolus obsoletus) in Rhode Island, 54 ; Golden 
Eagle in New Jersey, 54; A New Name for Dryobates v. montanus, 
54 ; Sennett's Night-hawk ( Chordeiles vtrginiamis setmetti) at Madi- 
son, Minn., 54; The Northern Raven breeding in New England, 55 ; 
The Starling (Siurnus vulgaris) on Long Island, N. Y., 55; The 
Song of the Western Meadowlark, 56; The White-crowned Sparrow 
{^Zonotrichia leiicophrys^ on Long Island, N. Y., 58; The Rank of the 
Sage Sparrow, 58 ; The Blue-winged Warbler {Helmitithophila finus) 
in Eastern Massachusetts, 59; The Chestnut-sided Warbler in Eastern 
Kansas, 59; The Aerial Song of the Maryland Yellow-throat, 59; 
Mockingbird [Mimjts polyglottos) at Taunton, Mass., 59; Late Nesting 
of the Carolina Wren in Monongalia Co., W. Va., 60; Hemiura 
leucogastra (Gould) — A Correction, 60; Bicknell's Thrush on Mt. 
Ktaadn, Maine, 60 ; Two species new to the List of Birds found in 
West Virginia, 61 ; Lake Michigan Notes, 61. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Elliot's Shore Birds, 2d Ed., 63 ; Elliot's Gallinaceous Game Birds of 
North America, 63 ; Gibson's 'Studio Neighbors,' 65 ; 'Bird Neigh- 
bors,' 66 ; The New ' Birdcraft,' 66 ; Dixon's ' Migration of Birds,' 67 ; 
Marsh on the Affinities of Hes^perot-nis, 70; Stone on the Genus 
Sturnella, 70; The Proper Name of the Western Horned Owl, 71 ; 
'Nature's Diary,' 71; Baskett's 'The Story of the Birds,' 71 ; Chap- 
man's 'Bird-Life,' colored edition, 72; Montgomery's ' List of the 
Birds of West Chester, Chester Co., Pa.,' 72; Grinnell on the Birds 
of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, and San Clemente Islands, California, 
73; Publications Received, 73. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Habits of the Maryland Yellow-throat, 75 ; the Fauna of Muskeget 
Island — A Protest, 75. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Public Meeting of the New York Audubon Society, 78; Miss M. R. 
Audubon's 'Audubon and His Journals,' 78; Personals, 79; New 
York Zoological Society, 79; A. O. U. Committee on Bird Pro- 
tection, 80. 

Report of the A. O. U. Committee on Protection of North 
American Birds. . . . . . . . . . .81 



Contenis of Volume XV. V 

NUMBER II. 

With Boii-wiiiTE in Mexico. By E. W. Nelson. (Plate II.) • 115 

C^SuMMEK Birds OK Sitka, Alaska. Hy Joseph Grinnell. . . . 122 

The Summer J3iri)s of the West Virginia Si'Ruce Belt. By Williavi 

C. Jiives, M. D 131 

Nesting Habits of Anthony's Vireo. By C. TV. and J. H. Boxvlcs. 138 
Petrels of Southern California. Bj A. W. Anthony. . . 140 

The Economic Value of the White-bellied Nuthatch and 

Black-capped Chickadee. By E. Dxvight Sanderson. . . 144 
Notes on Certain Species of Mexican Birds. By E. JV. Nelson. 155 
Breeding Habits of the American Robin {Merulu migratoyia) 

IN Eastern Massachusetts. "Qy Reginald Ileber Iloxve, Jr. . 162 
The Terns of Muskeget Island, Massachusetts. By George H. 

Mackay. . 16S 

- Some New Races of Birds from Eastern North America. By 

Outram Bangs. . . . . . . • • . -173 



GENERAL NOTES. 

Brunnich's Murre (Uria lomvia) at Ottawa, Canada, 183; Ross's Gull 
{Rhodnstethia rosea^ on Bering Island, 183; The Scarlet Ibis — A 
Correction, 1S3; Colinus virginianus in Peculiar Plumage, 184; The 
Passenger Pigeon {Eciopisles migratorius) in Wisconsin and Ne- 
braska, 184; Geotrygon chrysia again at Key West, 185; The Cali- 
fornia Vulture in Santa Barbara Co., Cal., 185 ; Occurrence of the 
Spotted Screech Owl {Megascops aspersus) in Arizona, 1S6; Great 
Gray Owl {Scotiaftex cinerea) in Minnesota, 186; Note on Speotyto 
cunicularia obscura Stephens, 187 ; Amazilia cerviniventris chalconota 
— A Correction, 18S ; Lewis's Woodpecker Storing Acorns, 18S ; 
Occurrence of Leconte's Sparrow {Ainmodrainiis leconteii) at Ithaca, 
N. Y., 188; The Sea-side Sparrow on Cape Cod in Winter, and other 
Notes, 189; Lincoln's Sparrow in New Brunswick, 1S9 , Rank of the 
Sage Sparrow, 190 ; Wintering of the Towhee [Pipilo erythrophthal- 
mus) at Rockaway Beach, L. I., 190; The Rose-breasted Grosbeak in 
California, 190; The Philadelphia V^ireo [Vireo philadelphicus), 191 ; 
Cairns's Warbler {Dendroica ccericlescens cairnsi) in Georgia on 
Migration, 192; Carolina Wren at Lyme, Conn., in Winter, 192; 
Long-billed Marsh Wren in New Brunswick, 192; Birds Nesting 
under Electric Arc-light Hoods, 193 ; The Use of Hornets' Nests by 
Birds, 193; Some Corrections, 193; Revival of the Sexual Passion 
in Birds in Autumn, 194; Remarkable Ornithological Occurrences 
in Nova Scotia, 195; Occasional Visitants at San Geronimo (Nicasio 
Township), Marin Co., California 196; California Bird Notes, 197. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Audubon and His journals, 198; Miss Merriam's 'Birds of Village and 
Field,' 206; Hair and Feathers, 207; Baur on Birds of the Galapagos 
Archipelago, 207 ; Bulletin of the B. O- C, 208; Publications Re- 
ceived, 20S. 



vi Contettts of Volume XV. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Fauna of Muskeget Island — A Reply, 210; The Short-eared Owls 
of Muskeget Island, 211 ; An Untrustworthy Observer, 213. 

NOTES AND NEWS. 

Obituary. — Dr. Andreas Johan Malmgren, 214; Dr. F. G. Herman August 
Mojsisovics, 215; New Pnblications, 215; Ornithological Societies, 
216. 



NUMBER III. 



The Imperial Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Campefhilus imferialis 

(Gould). By £^. W. Nelson. Plate III 217 

Descriptions of Supposed New Genera, Species, and Sub- 
species OF American Birds. I. Fringillid.^. By Robert 
Rtdgivay. ............ 223 

■ Notes on the Nesting of the Fork-tailed Petrel ( Oceano- 

droma furcata). "Qy Joseph Mailliard. ..... 230 

Land Birds Observed in Midwinter on Santa Catalina 

Island, California. "Qy Joseph Grinnell. ..... 233 

Geographical Races of Harporhynchus redivivus. By Joseph 

Gritinell. ............ 236 

The San Nicolas Rock Wren, ^y Joseph Gritinell. . . . 237 

A Month with the Goldfinches. By Mary Emily Bruce. . . 239 
Our Small Eastern Shrikes. By JVi'lltam Palmer. . . . 244 

Descriptions of Two New Birds from the Santa Barbara 

Islands, Southern California. By Edgar A. Mearns. . 258 

Young Plumages of Mexican Birds. By Richard C. McGregor. 264 
Description of a New Ammodramus from Lower California. 

By Richard C. McGregor. ........ 265 



GENERAL NOTES. 

The Pacific Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla pollicaris) in Lower California, 
267 ; Capture of the Short-tailed Albatross on the coast of Southern 
California, 267 ; Wilson's Phalarope (^Stegajiopus tricolor) at Ocean 
City, N. J., 268; Unusual Nesting Site of Kingbird, 268; Early 
Arrival of the Kingbird at Cambridge, Mass., 268; Habits of the Blue 
]s.y,26(); Probable Polygamy of the Great-tailed Grackle {J^uiscalus 
macroitrus), 269; McKay's Snowflake {Plectrophe/iax hyperboreus) at 
Bethel, Alaska, 269; Notes on the Black Seaside Finch {^Ammo- 
dramus }iigrescens), 2']o; Nesting Instincts of Swallows, 271; Nates 
on Generic Names of Certain Swallows, 271 ; Accidental death of a_ 



Contents of Volume XV. vli 

Hooded Warliler {Sylvautd mitrata), 2']2; Notes on the Nesting of 
Piilincr's Thrasher at El Plomo, Sonora, Mexico, 272 ; Carolina Wren 
at Lyme, Conn., 274; Nesting Habits of tlie Robin, 274; Notes from 
Ontario, 274; An Addition and a Correction to the List of North 
Carolina Birds, 275. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Two New Popular Bird Books, 275 ; Cory's Ducks, Geese and Swans, 278; 
Chapman on Mexican Birds, 279 ; Hornadaj on the destruction of 
our Birds and Mammals, 280 ; Sketches of Some Common Birds, 
281; Oological Abnormalities, 2S1 ; Rowley's 'Art of Taxidermy,' 
282; Birds of Los Angeles Co., Calif., 283 ; Sage's List of Portland, 
Conn., Birds, 2S4 ;' Worcester and Bourns's Contributions to Philip- 
pine Ornithology, 284 ; Publications Received, 285. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Obituary, — Osbert Salvin, Dr. George Baur, 286; Ornithological Explo- 
rations, 287 ; Connecticut Audubon Society, 288 ; Wisconsin Bird Day 
Law, 288. 



NUMBER IV. 



Kirtland's Warbler {Dcndroicn kirflandi). By Frank M. Chaf- 

man. Plate IV. .......... 289 

Canon XL, A. O. U. Code. By D. G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. . . 294 

A Defense of Canon XL of the A. O. U. Code. '&y J. A. Allen. 29S 

Description of a New North American Thrush. By Harry C. 

Obcrhohcr. ........... 303 

The Summer Birds of San Miguel County New Mexico. B}' 

Walton I. Mitchell. \ 306 

Avifauna of the Revillagigedo Islands. By A. W. Anthony. . 311 
^ New Species, etc., of American Birds. — II. Fringillid^ (con- 
tinued). Bj' Robert Ridgxvay. ....... 319 

Description of a New Species of Hummingbird from Arizona. 

By Robert Rido-xvay. ......... 325 

Description of a New Species of Gymnostinops. By Charles W. 

Riclimond. ........... 326 

Breeding Habits of the Solitary Sandpiper ( Totamis soli- 
tar ius). By C. K. Clarke, M. D 32S 



Contents of Volume XV. 



GENERAL NOTES. 

Antrostomus caroli)ic)isis Devouring other Birds, 330 ; Tyran^ms magni- 
rostris d'Orb. Renamed, 330; Nest Building under Difficulties, 330; 
HemUhraiipis: — a Correction, 330 ; Kirtland's Warbler {Dendroica 
l-ij-flandi) in Florida, 331 ; Dciidroicn k/rtlaiidi in Pennsjlvania : — 
A Correction, 331 ; The Pine Warbler {Do/dro/ca vig-ois/'i) a Breeder 
in Ohio, 331; The Yellow-breasted Chat in Oneida County, N. Y., 331 ; 
Curious Nesting of American Redstart, 332 ; Nesting of the Robin, 
332 ; A Note on the Wood Thrush, 332 ; Notes from Chateaugaj 
Lake, New York, 333; Rcfofistes migratoriu^^ Mimns -polyglottos, 
and Sfiiri/clla tnagi/a neglecta in Bristol Co., Mass., 333. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Davie's Nests and Eggs of North American Birds, 334; Bird-Nesting with 
a Camera, 334; Butler's ' Birds of Indiana,' 335 ; Blanford's 'Birds of 
British India,' 336; Gurney's 'The Economy of the Cuckoo,' 337; 
Eastman on 'Struthious Birds,' 338; Bangs on Birds from Colombia, 
339; Nelson on New Birds from Mexico, 339; Cooke's 'Birds of 
Colorado,' 340 ; Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological 
Club, 341 ; Kearton's ' With Nature and a Camera, 342; Publications 
Received, 342. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Meeting of the Sixteenth Congress of the American Ornithologists 
Union, 343; Biographical notice of Osbert Salvin, 343; Personals, 
346- 



OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES OF THE AMERICAN 
ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1S97-9S. 



Expiration of Term. 

Brewster, William. President November, 1898. 

Merriam, C. Hart, | Vice-Presidents " 1898. 

RiDGWAY, Robert, ' 

Sage, John H., Secretary " 1898. 

Dutcher, William, Treastirer " 1898. 

Additional Members of the Council. 

Batchelder, C. F. November, 1898 

Chapman, Frank M " '898 

Cory, Charles B '" 1S9S 

Deane, Ruthven " ^898 

DwiGHT, Jonathan, Jr., '" ^^98 

Fisher, A. K " '^98 

Stejneger, L " ^^98 

Allen, J. A \ 

CouES, Elliott Ex-Presidents. 

Elliot, D. G -* 

Editorial Staff of ' The Auk.' 

Allen, J. A., Editor November, 1S9S. 

Chapman, Frank M., ^55oc/rt/ei?^iV<3r " 1898. 

Committees. 

Committee on Publications. 

Brewster, William, Chairman. Allen, J. A. 

Sage, John H., Secretary. Chapman, Frank M. 

Dutcher, William. 

Committee of Arrangements for the Meeting of iSgS. 
Brewster, William, Chairman. Coues, Elliott. 

Sage, John H., 5ecre/'«o'. Fisher, A. K. 

Merriam, C. Hart. 



X Active Members. 

MEMBERS! OF THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' 
UNION. DECEMBER, 1S97. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS. 

[Omission of date indicates a Founder.] 

Date of 

Election. 

Aldrich, Hon. Charles, Des Moines, Iowa — 

Allen, Dr. J. A., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York Citj — 

Anthony, A. W., 1929 Front St., San Diego, Cala. 1S95 

Barrows, Prof. W. B., Agricultural College, Ingham Co., Mich 18S3 

Batchelder, Charles Foster, Cambridge, Mass — 

Belding, Lyman, Stockton, Cala 1S83 

Bicknell, Eugene P., P. O. Box 2958, New York City — 

♦Brewster, William, Cambridge, Mass — 

Brown, Nathan Clifford, 85 Vaughan St., Portland, Me — 

Bryant, Walter E., 1352 Franklin St., Oakland, Cala. 188S 

Chadbourne, Dr. Arthur P., 225 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. .1889 
Chamberlain, Montague, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass... ■ — 

Chapman, Frank M., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. , New York City iSSS 

Cooke, Prof. W. W., State Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colo. 1SS4 

*CoRY, Charles B., Boston, Mass — 

*CouES, Dr. Elliott, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C... — 

Deane, Ruthven, 24 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111 1S83 

DuTCHER, William, 525 Manhattan Ave., New York City 1886 

D wight. Dr. Jonathan, Jr. , 2 East 34th St. , New York City 18S6 

Elliot, Daniel G., Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 111 — 

Faxon, Dr. Walter, Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass 1896 

Fisher, Dr. Albert K., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.... — 

Foster, Lyman S., 33 Pine Street, New York City 1888 

Gill, Prof. Theodore N., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D. C 1883 

Grinnell, Dr. George Bird, 'Forest and Stream' Office, New York 

City 1883 

Henshaw, Hentry W., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C 1883 

Lawrence, Newbold T., 51 Liberty St., New York City 1883 

LoOMis, Leverett M., California Acad. Sci., San Francisco, Cala.. 1892 

^ Members of the Union and Subscribers to ' The Auk ' are requested to promptly 
notify the publisher of ' 'I'he Auk ' of any change of address. 
* Life Member. 



Iloiiortiry Members. xi 

Lucas, Frederic A., U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C 1892 

McIlwraith, Thomas, Hamilton, Ontario — 

IVIearns, Di-. Edcjar A., U. S. A., Fort Clark, Texas. — 
Mkrriam. Dr. C. Mart, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C . . — 
♦Merrill, Dr. James C., U. S. A., Army Med. Mus., Washing- 
ton, D. C 1883 

Nehrling. H., Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis 1883 

Nelson, E. W. , Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1883 

PuRDiE, Henry A., Room 36, State House, Boston, Mass — 

Richmond, Dr. Charles W., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D. C 1897 

Ridgway, Robert, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C — 

Roberts, Dr. Thomas S., Minneapolis, Minn 1883 

*Sage, John H., Portland, Conn 1883 

Saunders, William E., London, Ontario 1883 

*Sennett, George B., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1883 

Shufeldt, Dr. Robert W., U. S. A., Washington, D. C — 

Stejneger, Dr. Leonhard, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D. C 1884 

Stone, Witmer, Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Pa. 1892 

*Trumbull, Gurdon, 970 Asylum Ave., Hartford, Conn 1888 

Widmann, Otto, Old Orchard, Mo 18S4 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Berlepsch, Count Hans von, Miinden, Germany 1890 

Blanford, Dr. William T., 72 Bedford Gardens, Kensington, W., 

London, England 1S95 

Bocage, Prof. J. V. Barboza du. Royal Museum, Lisbon 1S83 

Cabanis, Prof. Dr. Jean, Alte Jacobsstrasse, 103 a, Berlin 18S3 

Dresser, Henry Eeles, TopclyfFe Grange, Farnborough, Becken- 

ham, Kent, England 1S83 

Finsch, Dr. Otto, Zoological Museum, Leyden, Holland 18S3 

GiGLion, Dr. Henry Hillyer, Director Royal Zoological Museum, 

Florence 1883 

Hartlaub, Dr. Gustav, Bremen 18S3 

Hume, Allan Octavian, The Chalet, Kingswood Road, Upper Nor- 
wood, London, S. E 1S83 

Milne-Edwards, Prof. Alphonse, Rue Cuvier, 57, Paris 1883 

Newton, Prof. Alfred, Magdalene College, Cambridge, Eng 1883 

Reichenow, Dr. Anton, Konigl. Mus. fiir Naturkunde, Invaliden 

Str., 43, Berlin 1891 

* Life Member. 



xii Corresponding Members. 

Salvadori, Prof. Count Tommaso, Zodl. Museum, Turin, Italy. . .1883 

Salvin, Osbert, Hawksfold, Fernhurst, Haslemere, England 1883 

Saunders, Howard, 7 Radnor Place, Hyde Park, London, W 1884 

ScLATER, Dr. Philip Lutley, 3 Hanover Sq., London, W 1883 

Sharpe, Dr. Richard Bowdler, British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, London, S. W 1883 

Wallace, Prof. Alfred Russel, Coi-fe View, Parkstone, Dorset, 

England 1883 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Alfaro, Anastasio, Director National Museum, San Jos6, Costa 
Rica 

Altum, Dr. C. A., Eberswalde, Germany 

Anderson, Dr. John, India Museum, Calcutta 

Blasius, Dr. Rudolph, Brunswick, Germany 

Blasius, Dr. Wilhelm, Brunswick, Germany 1884 

Brooks, W. Edwin, Mount Forest, Ontario 1886 

BuLLER, Sir Walter Lawry, Wellington, New Zealand 

Bureau, Dr. Louis, Ecole de Mddicine, Nantes, France 

BuTLER, Lieut. -Col. E. A., Brettenhani Park, Bildeston, Suffolk, 
England • • • 

BiJTTiKOFER, Dr. J., Zoological Gardens, Rotterdam, Holland 

Clarke, Wm. Eagle, Science and Art Museum, Edinburgh 1889 

CoLLETT, Prof. Robert, Zoological Museum, Christiania, Norway. 1883 

Cooper, Dr. J. G. , Haywards, California 

Cordeaux, John, Great Cotes, Lincoln, England 

Dalgleish, John J., Brankston Grange, Bogside Station, Stirling, 
Scotland 

David, L'Abb^ Armand, Rue de Sfevres, 95, Paris 

Dole, Sanford B., Honolulu, Hawaiian Ids 1888 

Dubois, Dr. Alphonse, Museum Nat. History, Brussels 

DuGES, Prof. Alfredo, Co legio del Estado, Guanajuato, Mexico... 

EcHT, Adolph Bachofen von, Nussdorf, near Vienna 1883 

Fatio,. Dr. Victor, Geneva, Switzerland 

Feilden, Lieut.-Col. H. W., West House, Wells, Norfolk, Eng 

Ferrari-Perez, Prof. Fernando, Naturalist Mexican Geol. Expl. 
Commission, Pueblo, Mexico 

Freke, Percy Evans, Rosemount, Dundrum, Co. Dublin, Ireland.. 

FiJRBRiNGER, Dr. Max, Jena, Germany 

Gadow, Dr. Hans, Zoological Museum, Cambridge, England.... 

GiRTANNER, Dr. A., St. Galle, Switzerland 

GoDMAN, F. Du Cane, id Chandos Street, Cavendish Sq., London .. 18S3 

vGoDWiN-AusTEN, Lieut-Col. H. H., Shalford House, Guilford, Eng- 
land , 1884 



Associafc Members. xiii 

Grandidier, Alfrkd, 6 Rond-Point des Champs Elvsces, Paris 1883 

GuRNKY, John IIknry, Keswick Hall, Norwich, En.<,'land 1883 

Hartkrt, Ernst, Zoological Museum, Tring, England 1891 

Harting, Jamks Edmund, Lininean Society, Burlington House, Pic- 
cadilly, London 1883 

Harvie-Brown, John A., Dunipace House, Larheit, Stirlingshire, 

Scotland 1883 

Hayek, Dr. Gustav von, Vienna 1884 

Henson, Harry V., Yokohama 1888 

HoLUB, Dr. Emil, Vienna 1884 

Hudson, William Henry, Tower House, St. Luke's Road, West- 
bourne Park, London, W 1895 

Knudson, Valdemar, Kauai, Hawaiian Ids 1888 

Krukenberg, Dr. E. F. W., Wurzburg, Germany 1SS4 

Krijper, Dr. Theobald J., University Museum, Athens, Greece 1884 

Layard, E. L., Budleigh Salterton, Devonshire, England 1884 

Legge, William V., Cullenswood House, St. Mary's, Tasmania 1891 

Leverkijhn, Paul, Sophia, Bulgaria 1890 

MacFarlane, Robert, Winnipeg, Manitoba 1886 

Madarasz, Dr. Julius von. National Museum, Budapest, Hungary. 1884 

Menzbier, Dr. M., Imperial Society of Naturalists, Moscow 18S4 

Meyer, Dr. A. B., Director of the Royal Zool. Museum, Dresden 1884 

Namiye, M. , Tokio 1886 

Nicholson, Francis, Oakfield, Ashley Road, Altrincham, England. 18S4 

Gates, Eugene William, Mandalay, Burma 1884 

Oustalet, Dr. Emile, Jardin des Plantes, 55 Rue de Buffon, Paris. 1888 

Palmen, Prof. J. A., Helsingfors, Finland 1883 

Philippi, Dr. R. A. , Santiago, Chili 1S84 

Prentiss, Dr. D. Webster, Washington, D. C 1S95 

Radde, Dr. Gustav Ferdinand, Tiflis, Russia 1884 

Ramsey, E. P., Sydney, New South Wales 1S84 

Ringer, Frederic, Nagasaki, Japan 1888 

Schalow, Dr. Herman, 105 Rathenowerstrasse, Berlin 18S4 

Selys-Longschamps, Baron Edmond de, LiSge, Belgium 1884 

Shelley, Capt. G. E., 10 Thurloe Square, London, S. W 1884 

Theel, Dr. Hjalmar, University of Upsala, Upsala, Sweden 1S84 

Tristram, Rev. Canon H. B., The College, Durham, England 18S4 

TscHusi zu Schmidhoffen, Count Victor Ritter von, Hallein, 

(Villa Tannenhof), Salzburg, Austria 1S84 

Waterhouse, F. H., 3 Hanover Square, London, W 1S89 

Zeledon, Don Jose C, San Josd, Costa Rica 1S84 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 

Adams, Stephen J., Cornish, Me 1893 

Allen, Francis H., West Roxbury, Mass 188S 



xiv Associate Members. 

Allen, Glover M., 83 Perkins Hall, Cambridge, Mass 1896 

Allen, William G., i Edward St., Worcester, Mass 1893 

Allender, Henry, 307^ Broad St., Newark, N. J 1896 

Allison, Andrew, 630 Pine St., New Orleans, La 1897 

Ames, J. H., 85 Bay St., Toronto, Can 1895 

Archer, W. C, 45 Chambers St., N. Y 1888 

Ardell, Herbert Stacy, 221 Dean St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1897 

Armstrong, Edward Henry, 32 Dexter Ave., Providence, R. I.... 1897 

Arnold, Edward, 126 Van Buren St., Battle Creek, Mich 1894 

Ashcroft, Ralfe Wolfe, 383 6th Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1897 

Atkins, John W. , Key West, Florida 1887 

Attwater, H. P., San Antonio, Texas 1891 

Averill, C. K., ji-., Bridgeport, Conn 1885 

Bacon, Carrington C, Imboden, Arkansas 1890 

Bagg, Egbert, 191 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y 1883 

Ball, Miss Helen Augusta, Worcester, Mass 1893 

Bailey, Vernon, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1887 

Baily, Charles E., Maiden, Mass 1890 

Baily, William L., 421 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1885 

Baker, Carl F., Auburn, Alabama 1893 

Baker, Frank Collins, Acad. Sci., Lincoln Park, Chicago, 111 1894 

Bangs, Edward Appleton, 22'Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass 1884 

Bangs, Outram, 22 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass 1884 

Barbour, Prof. Erwin H., Univ. of Neb., Lincoln, Nebraska 1892 

Barclay, Robert Cochrane, Cazenovia, N. Y 1896 

Barlow, Chester, Santa Clara, Cala 1894 

Barnard, Job, 5005th St., N. W., Washington, D. C 1886 

Barnes, Hon. R. Magoon, Lacon, 111 1889 

Barney, Everett H., Springfield, Mass 1891 

Bartsch, Paul, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C 1896 

Baskett, James Newton, Mexico, Mo. 1892 

Bassett, Henry Frankland, Taunton, Mass -1895 

Bates, Abby Frances Caldwell, Waterville, Maine .1894 

Baur, Dr. G., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111 1892 

Baxter, George Strong, Jr., i8 Wall St., New York City 1894 

Beal, F. E. L., 1516 Kingman Place, N. W., Washington, D. C 1887 

Bean, J. Bellfield, Nicollet, Minn 1892 

Beard, Daniel C, iio Fifth Ave., New York City 1887 

Beck, Rollo Howard, Berryessa, Santa Clara Co., Cala 1894 

Beebe, Charles William, 73 Ashland Av., East Orange, N.J 1897 

Beers, Henry W., Bridgeport, Conn 1895 

Behr, Edward A., 428 Henry St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1892 

Bellows, Edward D., 215.^ 4th St., Jersey City, N. J 1889 

Benners, George B., 2018 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1S89 

Bent, Arthur Cleveland, Taunton, Mass 1889 

Bergtold, Dr. W. H. , 1460 Clayton Av. , Denver, Colo 1889 



Associate Members. 

Eerier, DeLacnel, Ridgewood, N. J 

BiGELow, Mexry Bryant, 251 Commonwealth Av., Boston Mass... 
BiGELow, Joseph Smith, Jr., 251 Commonwealth Av., Boston, Mass. 

Bill, Gurdon, Springfield, Mass 

BiRTWELL, P'rancis JosEiMi, 8o Glcndale St., Dorchester, Mass 

Bishop, Dr. Louis B., 77 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn 

Blackwelder, Eliot, Morgan Park, Cook Co., Ill 

Blatciiley, W. S., State Geologist, Indianapolis, Ind 

BoARDMAN, George A. , Calais, Maine 

Bond, Frank, Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Bond, Harry L., Meriden, Iowa 

Bovvers, Lionel F., Columbia, Lancaster Co., Pa 

Bowles, John Hooper, Tacoma, Wash 

Bracken, Mrs. Henry Martyn, ioio Fourth St., S. E., Minne- 
apolis, Minn 

Brackett, Foster H., Box 214S, Boston, Mass 

Bradford, Mrs. Mary F., 3804 St. Charles Av., New Orleans, La.. 

Bradford, Moses B. L., Concord, Mass 

Braislin, Dr. William C, 217 St. James Place, Brooklyn, N. Y.... 

Brandon, John A., 739 28th St., Milwaukee, Wis 

Brandreth, Franklin, Sing Sing, N. Y 

Brewster, Everett Edward, Iron Mountain, Mich 

Brimley, Clements., Raleigh, N. C 

Brock, Henry Herbert, M. D., Portland, Me 

Brooks, Earle A., 275 Ridge Av., Allegheny, Pa 

Brown, A. D., Pipestone, Minn 

Brown, Edward J., 820 20th St., N. W. , Washington, D". C 

Brown, Herbert, Tucson, Arizona 

Brown, Hubert H., 70 Collier St., Toronto, Ontario 

Brown, John Clifford, 267 5th Av. , New York City 

Brown, Stewardson, Germantown, Pliiladelphia, Pa 

Brown, Wilmot W., Jr., Somerville, Mass 

Browne, Francis Charles, Framingham, Mass 

Bruce, Mary Emily, Easthampton, Mass 

Bryant, John A., 915 Main St., Kansas City, Mo 

Bryant, Dr. Wm. Sohier, 53 State St., Boston, Mass 

Buck, Henry Robinson, Wethersfield, Conn 

Bullard, Charles, Cambridge, Mass 

BuLLEY, Reginald H., Canton, Ohio 

Burchfield, Dr. Charles Edward, St. Joseph , Midi 

BuRCHFiELD, Samuel William, Ann Arbor, Mich 

BuRDicK, Adin, Lake City, Minn 

Burnett, William L., Fort Collins, Colo 

Burns, Frank L., Berwyn, Chester Co., Pa 

Burtch, Verdi, Penn Yan, N. Y 

BuRTis, Henry Mott, Babylon, N. Y 



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xvi Associate Members. 

Burton, H. C, 228 South St., New York City 1893 

BuswELL, Walter Mardin, Charlestown, N. H 1897 

Butler, Amos W., Biookville, Ind 1885 

BuxBAUM, Mrs. Clara E., Santa F^, N. Mex 1895 

Call, Aubrey Brendon, Peterboro, N. H 1894 

Carpenter, Charles Knapp, Bailey ville. 111 1894 

Carruth, Charles Theodore, 4 Fajerweather St., Cambridge, 

Mass 1891 

Cary, Clinton de la Montaigne, 181 W. 135th St., New York 

City 1894 

Case, Clifford M., 54Babcock St., Hartford, Conn 1892 

Case, Ralph Ernest, Avon, Conn 1894 

Chamberlain, Chauncy W., 51 Lincoln St., Boston, Mass 1885 

Chamberlain, Francis Asbury, 1758 Hennepin Av., Minneapolis, 

Minn 1897 

Chapin, Prof. Angie Clara, Wellesley, Mass 1896 

Chase, Mrs. Agnes, 200 Honore St. , Chicago, 111 1896 

Chase, Virginius Heber, Wady Petra, 111 1892 

Cherrie, George K., Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 111 1891 

Chubb, Samuel H.,8W. 115th St., New York City 1894 

Clark, Hubert Lyman, 906 McCulioh St., Baltimore, Md 1886 

Clark, John N., Saybrook,. Conn 1885 

Clark, Josiah H., Paterson, N. J 1895 

Clarke, Miss Harriet E. , Worcester, Mass 1896 

Clearwaters, Rev. John Fred, Indianola, 111 1895 

CoALE, H. K. , 1305 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111 1883 

Cohen, Donald A. , Alameda, Cala 1895 

Colburn, Albert E., 72 M St., N. \V. , Washington, D. C 1891 

CoLBURN, W. W. , Springfield, Mass 1889 

Cole, Leon J., Agricultural College, Mich 1896 

Collett, Alonzo M. , High School, Denver, Colo 1897 

Colt, William C, 59 Pleasant St., Worcester, Mass 1892 

CoLViN, Walter S. , Osawatomie, Kansas 1896 

CoMEAU, Napoleon A., Godbout, P. Q^ 1885 

Congdon, E. Morgan, Ripon, Wis 1896 

Congdon, Herbert Wheaton, 194 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. ..1893 

CoNKLiN, Charles E., Roslyn, N. Y 1892 

Cook, Albert John, Claremont. Cala 1894 

Cope, Alban, Hartford, Conn 1885 

Cope, Francis R., Jr., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa 1892 

Copeland, Dr. Ernest, 362 Juneau Av., Milwaukee, Wis 1897 

CouES, Dr. William Pearce, 90 Charles St., Boston, Mass 1888 

Cox, Ulysses O., State Normal School, Mankato, Minn 1894 

Cram, R. J., 26 Hancock Ave., W., Detroit, Mich 1893 

Crandall, C. W., Woodside, Queen's Co., N. Y 1S91 

Crandall, Silas W., Winnetka, 111 1896 



Assocta/r Members. 

Crolius, Miss Anne A., 53 W. 53d St. New York City 

Cronk, John V., Sheridan, Wyoming 

CuRRiE, RoLLA P. 1133 13th St., N. W., Washington, D. C 

Currier, Edmonde Samuel, Keokuk, Iowa 

Daenzer, Carl, St. Louis, Mo 

Daffin, W. H., 5CXX) Franklin St., Philadelpliia, Pa 

Daggett, Frank S. , Pasadena, Cala 

Dakin, J. A.. Syracuse, N. Y 

Danby, Dur.ward E., Custer City, South Dak 

Daniel, John W., Jr., Lynchburg, Va 

Davis, Clarence N., Gujanoga, N. Y 

Davis, Dennis Barnes, Si6 Colfax St., Toledo, Ohio 

Davis, George A., Mexico, N. Y 

Davis, Minot, Cambridge, Mass 

Dawson, William Leon, Oberlin, Ohio 

Day, Chester Sessions, 280 Newburj' St., Boston. Mass 

Dean, R. H., 22 Qiiincy St., N. E., Washington, D. C 

Deane, Walter, 29 Brewster St. , Cambridge, Mass 

De Haven, Isaac Norris, Ardmore, Pa 

Denne, David, 100 St. Francois Xavier St., Montreal, Can 

Dewey, Miss Margaret, 168 Pearl St. , Springfield, Mass 

Dickinson, Edwin, West Springfield, Mass 

Dickinson, Joseph A., Gresham, Nebr 

Dickinson, Joseph Edward, Rockford, 111 

Dickinson, W. S., Tarpon Springs, Fla 

DiLLE, Frederic M., 406 McPhee Bldg., Denver, Colo 

DioNNE, C. E., Laval Univ., Q^uebec, Can 

Dixon, Frederic J., Hackensack, N.J 

Dodge, Frederick Clinton, 125 Milk St., Boston, Mass 

Doubleday, Mrs. Frank Nelson, hi E. i6th St., New York City.. 

Dougherty, Capt. W. E., U. S. A., Hoopa Valley, Cala 

Douglass, Bert H. , Burlington, Kansas 

Durfee, Ovven, Fall River, Mass 

Dutcher, Dr. Basil Hicks, U. S. A., Fort Grant, Arizona..'. 

Dyche, Prof. L. L., Lawrence, Kansas 

Eames, Dr. Edwin H., Bridgeport, Conn 

Eastman, Harry D., Framingham, Mass 

Eaton, E. Howard, Canandaigua, N. Y 

Eddy, Newell A., 615 North Grant St., Bay City, Mich 

Edgar, Newbold, 28 E. 39th St., New York City 

Edson, John M., New Whatcom, Washington 

EpwARDS, William Seymour, Charleston, W. Va 

Elrod, Prof. M. J., Univ. of Montana, Missoula, Montana 

Emerson, Charles J., Strmeham, Mass 

Emery, Mrs. Annie C, Ell-worth, Me 

Emlen, Arthur Cope, Awoury, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa... 



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xviii Associate Members. 

EvERMANN, Prof. Barton W. , U. S. Fish Comm., Washington, D. C. 1883 

Fannin, John, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C 1888 

Fanning, Jed Frye, 216 Spring St., Portland, Me 1895 

Farley, John A., Newton, Mass 1892 

Farwell, Mrs. Ellen Drummond, Lake Forest, 111 1896 

Ferguson, Chauncey Coffin, Merrimac, Mass 1894 

Fernald, Robert Heywood, 366 Amesburj Av., Cleveland, Ohio.. 1890 

Ferry, John Farwell, Andover, Mass 1894 

Fisher, Miss Elizabeth Wilson, 1502 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. ...1896 

Fisher, William H., 1602 Mt, Rojal Avenue, Baltimore, lV[d 1895 

Fleming, James H., Toronto, Can 1893 

Flint, Harry W., Yale National Bank, New Haven, Conn 1888 

Flint, William R., Oakland, Cala 1890 

FooTE, Miss F. Huberta, 105 W. 43d St., New York City. 1897 

Forbush, Edward H., Maiden, Mass 1887 

Foster, Francis Apthorp, Cambridge, Mass 1893 

Fowler, Frederick Hall, Fort Logan, Colo 1892 

Fowler, Major J. L., 2d Cavalry U. S. A., Fort Logan, Colo 1892 

Fox, Dr. William H., 1826 JefFer^son Place, Washington, D. C 1883 

Frost, Albert H., 255 W. 74th St., New York Cit}- 1893 

Fuertes, Louis Agassiz, Scarborough, N. Y 1891 

Fuller, Charles Anthony, Brookline, Mass 1894 

Garman, Prof. H., State College, Lexington, Ky 1893 

Gault, Benjamin T., Glen EUyn, DuPage Co., Ill 1885 

Gill, Miss Eliza Anne, Kemper Hall, Kenosha, Wis 1897 

Gillet, Louis Bliss, 131 E. 76th St., New York City 1895 

GiLMAN, Philip Kingsworth, Palo Alto, Cala 1897 

Gleason, Rev. Herbert W., 728 E. i8th St., Minneapolis, Minn.. 1894 

Goldman, Edward Alphonso, Alila, Cala 1897 

Goodale, Dr. Joseph Lincoln, 3 Fairfield St., Boston, Mass 1885 

Gould, Joseph E., Dennison, Ohio 1889 

Granger, Walter W., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1891 

Gray, Ralph W., 5 Gloucester St., Boston, Mass 1896 

Green, Morris M., 706 E. Fayette St., Syracuse, N. Y 1S86 

Gregg, Dr. William H., Port Chester, N. Y 1883 

Gripping, Moses Bowditch, Shelter Island Heights, N. Y 1897 

Grinnell, Joseph, Pasadena, Cala 1894 

Hahn, Rev. Benjamin Daviese, 266 Union St., Springfield, Mass.. .1894 

Haines, Edwin Irvine, New Rochelle, N. Y 1896 

Haines, Dr. Samuel S., Moorestown, N. J 1897 

Hales, Henry, Ridgewood, N. J 1890 

Ham, Judson Baxter, Johnson, Vt 1894 

Hamfeldt, a., Ottawa, 111 1892 

Hamlin, George L., Bethel, Conn 1893 

Hamand, Miss Jennie E., Schaller, Iowa 1897 

Hankinson, Thomas Leroy, Agricultural College, Mich 1897 



Associa/c Afembers. 

Hargitt, Prof. CnAKLi>:s VV., 909 Walnut Ave., Syracuse, N. Y 

Hardy, Manly, Brewer, Maine 

Harris, William C, Utica, N. Y 

Hartzell, Prof. Joseph Culver, Johns Hokpins Univ., B:iltimore 

Md 

HATCit, Jesse Maurice, Escondido, Cala 

Hathaway, Henry S., Box 498, Providence, R. I 

Havemeyer, H. O., Jr , 244 Madison Av., New York City 

Hazard, Miss Mary Peace, Peace Dale, R. I 

Hazard, R. G., Peace Dale, R. I 

Hecox. Miss Laura J. F., Light House Keeper, Santa Cruz, Cala... 

Heimstreet, Dr. T. B., 14 Division St., Troy, N. Y 

Heller, Edmund, Stanford University, Cala 

Helme, Arthur H., Millers Place, Suffolk Co., N. Y 

Hendrickson, W. F., 130 1 2th St., Long Island City, N. Y 

Henning, Carl Fritz, Boone, Iowa 

HiGGiNS, Henry C, Cincinnatus, N. Y 

Hill, James Haynes, New London, Conn 

HiNDSHAw, Henry Havelock, Univ. of W^ashington, Seattle, Wash.. 

HiNE, J. Brainard, East Onondaga, N. Y 

HiNE, Mrs. Jane L., Sedan, Ind 

Hitchcock, Frank H., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

HoDGDON, Miss Mary Josephine, Nashua, N. H 

Hoffman, Ralph, Belmont, Mass 

Holden, Edward Freeman, Melrose, Mass 

HoLLiSTER, Ned, Delavan, Wis 

Holmes, F. H., Berryessa, Cala 

HoLZNER, Frank X., San Diego, Cala 

Homer, F. L., West Farmington, Ohio • 

HooPES, JosiAH, West Chester, Pa 

Hoover, Walter W. , Wellsville, Pa 

HoRNADAY, W. T., 69 Wall St., New York City 

HoRNBROOKE, Mrs. Orinda Dudley, Newton, Mass 

Hough, Romeyn B., Lowville, N. Y 

Howe, Clarence P., Waukesha, Wis 

Howe, Reginald Heber, Jr., Longwood, Mass 

Howell, Arthur H., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

HoYT, William Adams, North Brookfield, Mass 

HoYT, William H., Stamford, Conn 

Hubbard, Mrs. Sara A., 39 33rd St., Chicago, 111 

Hughes, Dr. William E., 3726 Baring St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Hull, Walter B , Box 47, Milwaukee, Wis 

Hunn, John T. Sharpless, Plainfield, N. J 

Hunter, Miss Susan Morrison, Newport, R. I 

HvosLEF, Dr. J. C, Lanesboro, Minn 

Ingalls, Charles E., East Templeton, Mass 



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XX Associate Members. 

Ingersoll, Albert M., 8i8 5th St., San Diego, Cala 1885 

Ingersoll, Joseph Carleton, Bowie, Md • 1895 

Ingraham, D. p., Beulah, Colo 1889 

Irving, John, 550 Park Ave., New York City 1894 

IsHAM, C. B., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York Citj 1891 

Jackson, Thomas H., West Chester, Pa 18S8 

Jacobs, J. Warren, Waynesburg, Pa 1889 

Jeffries, William Augustus, 78 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass 1883 

Jesurun, Dr. Mortimer, Douglas, Wyoming 1890 

Job, Rev. Herbert K. , North Middleboro, Mass 1896 

Johnson, Albert I. , Des Moines, Iowa 1885 

Johnson, A. W., Waterside, Marple, Cheshire, England ••1893 

Johnson, Everett Edwin, Lewiston, Me 1896 

Johnson, Frank Edgar, Yonkers, N. Y 1888 

Johnson, James Howard, Francestown , N. H 1894 

Johnson, Wm. S., Boonville, N. Y.. 1893 

Johnston, Charles Haven Ladd, Cambridge, Mass ^894 

Jones, Lynds, College Museum, Oberlin, Ohio. 1888 

Jones, Prof. Marcus E., Salt Lake City, Utah 1890 

Jordan, A. H. B. , Lowell, Wash 188S 

Jordan, Prof. David Starr, Stanford University, Cala 1885 

JUDD, Elmer T., Cando, No. Dak 1895 

JuDD, Sylvester D., Georgetown Univ., Washington, D. C 1893 

Justice, William W., Jr., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa 1895 

Kaeding, Henry Barroilhet, 1616 Steiner St., San Francisco, Cal.1897 

Kelker, William A., Harrisburg, Pa 1896 

Kellogg, Vernon L., Stanford University, Cala 1888 

Kendall, Dr. W. C, U. S. Fish Commission, Washington, D. C...1886 

Kennard, Frederic Hedge, Brookline, Mass 1892 

Keyser, Rev. Leander S., Dayton, Ohio 1891 

King, George Gordon, Newport, R. 1 1888 

Ktrkpatrick, Harry C, Meadville, Pa 1891 

Kirkwood, Frank C, P. O. Box 364, Baltimore, Md 1892 

Knight, Ora Willis, Bangor, Me 1893 

Knolhoff, Ferdinand William, 28 Winans St., East Orange, N.J. 1897 

Knowlton, F. H., U. S.Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C 1883 

Koch, Prof. August, Williamsport, Pa 1891 

Koch, Frederic W., Merced, Cala 1891 

KoHN, GusTAVE-, i4Carondelet St., New Orleans, La 1886 

Koumly, Rev. Pirmine M., St. Benedict's College, Atchison, Kansas. 1892 

Kraemer, Frederick L., Box 198, Williamsport, Pa 1893 

Kumlien, Ludwig, Milton, Wis 1895 

Ladd, Samuel B., West Chester, Pa 1889 

Lahee, Eugene H., Alton, III 1893 

Lange, Dr. Charles J., 50 Juneau Av., Milwaukee, Wis 1897 

Lano, Albert, Aitkin, Minn 1890 



Associate Members. 

Lavvricnck. IIiram v., 203 Bedford Ave., l'>io()klvn, N. Y 

Lawrence, Robert B., Flusliing, N. Y 

Lemmon, William P., Eii,u;levvood, N. J 

Leutloef, Herman C. A., 611 E. 136111 St.. New York Citv 

Lewis, William IL, Pawtucket, R. I 

LiNSKiLL. David J., Plymouth, Pa 

Long , Horace B. , Worcester, Mass 

Loomis, Miss Edna, Jackson, Mich 

LooMis, John A.. Paint Rock, Concho Co., Texas 

LoRiNG, J. Aldex, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

Lowe, Willoughby P., Goodpasture, Colo 

LuHRMAN, John, Jr., 158 Pacific Ave., Jersej' City, N.J 

LusK. Richard D., Tucson, Ariz . . . . 

MacDougall, Geo. R., 112 Wall St., New York City 

Mackay, Dr. A. H., Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Mackay, George H., Nantucket, Mass 

Maddock, Miss Emeline, ioi So. 2ist St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maguire, Dr. J. R., Lewistown, 111 

Mailliard, John W., 307 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cala , 

Mailliard, Joseph, San Geronimo, Cala 

Maitland, Robert L., 10 E. 35th St., New York City 

Mali, Charles M., 93 Willow St., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Marble, Charles C, 6126 Ingleside Av., Chicago, 111 

Marcy, Prof. Oliver, Evanston, 111 

Marsh, Daniel J., Springfield, Mass 

Mason, Edward Campbell, 76 Johnsons Park, Buffalo, N. Y 

Mason, Howard Harris, 34 Mawney St., Providence, R. I 

Masterman, Elmer Ellsworth, New London, Ohio 

Maule, William Maris, Swathmore College, Pa 

Maxon, William Ralph, 132 Main St. , Oneida, N. Y 

May, Frank Dwight, Jr., 17 Huntington St., Hartford, Conn 

Maynard, Colton, 1407 15th St., N. W., Washington, D. C 

McCook, Philip James, Cambridge, Mass 

McCoRMiCK, Louis M., Glen Island, N. Y 

McGregor, R. C. , Palo Alto, Cala 

McIlhenny, Edward Avery, Avery, La 

McKenzie, Peter, 4492 St. Catharine St., Montreal, Can 

McLain, Robert Baird, Palo Alto, Cala 

Merriam, Miss Florence A., 1919 i6th St., N.W., Washington, D.C, 

Merrill, Harry, Bangor, Maine 

Metcalfe, William C, 21 Cortlandt St., New York City 

Miller, Gerrit Smith, Jr., Peterboro', N. Y 

Miller, Harry Edward, Derby Conn 

Miller, James Henry, Lowville, N. Y 

Miller, Mrs. Olive Thorne, 628 Hancock St., Brooklyn, N. Y 

Miller, Waldron Dewitt, Plainfield, N. ] 

Mills, Harry C, Unionville, Conn 



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xxii Associate Members. 

Mitchell, Walton I., Santa Fe R. R., East Las Vegas, New Mex... 

Moore, J. Percy, Wayne, Pa 

MoRCOM, G. Frean, 406 So. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cala 

MoRisoN, George Abbot, 34 Shepard St., Cambridge, Mass 

Morrell, Clarence Henry, Pittsfield, Me 

Morris, George Spencer, Olnej, Philadelphia, Pa 

Morris, Robert O., Springfield, Mass 

Morrison, George A., Fox Lake, Wis 

Mummery, Walter S., Flint, Mich 

Murdoch, John, Roxbur^-, Mass 

Nachtrieb, Prof. Henry F., Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn.... 

Nash, Herman W., Pueblo, Colorado 

Neal, Albert Edward, 98 Exchange St., Portland, Me 

Newbury, Frederick Earl, 105 Mathewson St., Providence, R. L. 

Nichols, Eugene C, Flushing, N. Y 

Nichols, John M., Peabodj, Mass 

NoRRis, Guy Brunaitgh, Garden City, Kansas 

NoRRis, Rev. James Avery, Glen Cove, N. Y 

Norris, J Parker, 723 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Norton, Arthur H., Westbrook, Maine 

Norton, Arthur Henry Whiteley, Hanover, N. H 

Norton, Richard, Cambridge, Mass 

Nowell, John Rowland, Anderson , S. C 

Oberholser, Harry C, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C- 

O'Connor, Haldeman, 25 No. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa 

Ogden, Dr. Henry Vining, 300 Goldsmith Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Olds, Henry Worthington, Woodside, Md 

O'Neil, Edward, Sewickley, Allegheny Co., Pa 

Orth, George S., 341 6th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 

OsBORN, Chase Salmon, Sault Ste. Maiie, Mich 

Osburn, Rev. William, Nashville, Tenn , 

Osgood, Fletcher, Chelsea, Mass 

Osgood, Wilfred Hudson, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Owen, Charles C. , East Orange, N. J 

Owen, Miss Juliette Amelia, St. Joseph, Mo 

Owen, Virgil Williams, P. O. Box 774, Los Angeles, Cala 

Page, Mrs. Alice Wilson, 9 Riedesel Ave., Cambridge, Mass 

Paine, Augustus G., Jr., 17 W. 45th St., New York City 

Palmer, Dr. Theodore S., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C . 

Palmer, William, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C 

Palmer, William M. , 84 Beekman St. , New York City 

Pape, Charles Wesley, Manhattan, Kansas 

Parker, J. Grafton, Jr., 100 Washington St., Chicago, 111 

Parker, Wendell Philips, 89 Lincoln St., Worcester, Mass ■ 

Pattie, Frank Benjamin, Valley Spring, Cala 

Payne, E. B., Cat) in, 111 



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Associate Members. 

Peabody, Rev. P. B., llallock, Minn 

Peabody, William Rodman, Cambridge. Mass 

Pennock, Charles J., Kennett Square, Chester Co., Fa 

Perkins, Charles E., Hartford, Conn 

Pkrrior, Albert William, 316 E. Kennedy St., Syracuse, N. Y.... 

Perry, Joseph P'rancis, 198 Pearl St., Providence, R. I 

Peterson, J. P., West Denmark, Polk Co., Wis 

Phelps, William Henry, Cambridi^e, Mass 

Philip, Hoffman, Metropolitan Club, Washington, D. C 

Phillips, A. H., Princeton, N. J 

Pierce, A. K., Renovo, Pa 

Piers, Harry, "Stanyan," Willow Park, Halifax, N. S 

Pomeroy, Harry Kirkland, P. O. 80x575, Kalamazoo, Mich 

Popenoe, Prof. Edwin A. , Topeka, Kan 

Porter, Louis H., 313 W. 75th St., New York City 

Potter, Raymond B., Nyack, N. Y 

Powers, William Lincoln, Gardiner, Maine 

Praeger, William E., University of Illinois, Urbana, 111 

Pratt, Rev. George B., 61 Laflin St., Chicago, 111 

Preble, Edward A., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 

Prentiss, D. W., Jr., 12189th St., N. W., Washington, D. C 

Price, William W., Stanford University, Cala 

Purdy, James B., Plj'mouth, Mich 

Ralph, Dr. William L., 26 Court St., Utica, N. Y 

Rann, Mrs. Mary L., Manchester, Iowa 

Rathbun, Frank R., 42.^ Franklin St., Auburn, N. Y 

Rathbun, Samuel F. , Seattle, Wash 

Rawson, Calvin Luther, Norwich, Conn 

Read, Albert M., 1140 15th St., N. W., Washington, D. C 

Reagh, Arthur Lincoln, 39 Maple St., West Roxbury, Mass 

Redfield, Miss Elisa Whitney, 107 No. 34th St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Redington, Alfred Poett, Santa Barbara, Cala 

Reed, J. Harris, Beverly, N. J , 

Reed, Howard S., 1320 Gaylord St., Denver, Colo 

Rhoads, Charles J., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Rhoads, Samuel N., Haddonfield, N.J 

Richardson, John Kendall, Wellesley Hills, Mass 

Richardson, W. M., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 

Ricker, Everett Wilder, Jamaica Plains, Mass 

RiDGWAY, John L., U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington. D. C 

Riker, Clarence B., Maplewood, N. J 

Riley, Joseph H., Falls Church, Va 

Rives, Dr. William C, 22 VV. 33d St., New York City 

RoBBiNs, Linville Wadsworth, Gardiner, Me 

Robins, Julia Stockton, 114 S. 21st St., Philadelphia, Pa 

Roberts, George W., West Chester, Pa 

Roberts, W. F., 1421 G St., N. W., Washington, D. C 



891 
S90 
888 
886 
897 
897 
8S5 

S95 
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891 
891 
S94 
888 

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890 
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893 

S83 

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89 1 
894 
890 
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xxiv Associate Alembers. 

Robinson, Lieut. Wirt, U. S. A., Hubbard Park, Cambridge, Mass. 

Roddy, Prof. H. Justin, Millersville, Pa 

Rood, Mrs. E. Irene, 552 Chestnut St., Chicago, III 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, Hjde Park, N. Y 

Roosevelt, Hon. Theodore, Oyster Baj, Queens Co., N. Y 

Roth, Paul Wagner, Butler, Pa 

RoTZELL, Dr. W. E., Narberth, Pa 

Rowland, Mrs. Alice Story, Plainfield, N. J 

Rowland, Russell Sturgis, Ann Arbor, Mich 

Rowley, John, Jr., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 

RozYCKi, Stephen, Navy Dept., Washington, D. C 

Russell, Waterman S. C, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass 

Russell, William Black, Fiskdale, Mass 

Sage, Henry M. , Albany, N. Y.. 

Sampson, Walter Behrnard, Stockton, Cala 

Sanford, Frank Elwood, Supt. Public Schools, La Grange, 111... 

Savage, David Lewis, Salem, Iowa 

Savage, James, 134 Abbott St., Buffalo, N. Y 

Schaler, John, Stamford, Conn 

Schrage, E. B., Pontiac, Mich 

Schurr, Theodore A. , Pittsfield, Mass 

Schwab, Rev. Lawrence H., ioi Lawrence St., New York City.... 

ScuDDER, Bradford A., Taunton, Mass 

Scull, Andrew Stewart, 262 Mt. Vernon St., Camden, N.J 

Sharpless, Robert P., Elgin, 111 

Shattuck, George Cheever, 506 Craigie Hall, Cambridge, Mass.. 

Sheppard, Edwin, Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Pa 

Sherrill, W. E., Haskell, Texas 

Shields, Alexander M., Crocker Bldg. , San Francisco, Cala 

Shields, George O., 19 W. 24th St., New York City 

Shoemaker, Frank H., Hampton, Iowa 

Shores, Dr. E. I., West Bridgewater, Mass 

Shryock, William A., 823 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa 

SiLLOWAY, Perley Milton, Rood House, 111 

Simpson, R. B.. Arches, West Va 

Small, Alberto William, Antrim, N. H 

Small, Ernest William, Monmouth, Me 

Smith, Horace G., 2918 Lafayette St., Denver, Colo 

Smith, Dr. Hugh M., 1248 New Jersey Ave., Washington, D. C 

Smith, Robert Windsor, Kirkwood, Ga 

Smith, Theodore H., Orange, N. J 

Smith, S. Sidney. 59 Wall St., New York City 

Smyth, Prof. Ellison A., Jr., Agr. and Mech. Coll., Blacksburg, Va.. 

Smyth, Hiram G., Locust Ave., Troy, N. Y 

Snyder, Will Edwin, Beaver Dam, Wis 

SoRNBORGER, Jewell D., Cambridge, Mass 

SouTHWiCK, E. B., Arsenal Bldg., Central Park, New York City 



897 
891 

893 
896 
888 
895 
S93 
897 

895 
889 

894 
896 

893 

S85 

897 
S97 

894 
895 
893 
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892 

893 

897 

894 
S96 



S96 
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883 

893 
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895 
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888 



89s 



' Associaie Alembers. xxv 

SouTHWiCK, James M., Mus. Nat. Hist., Providence, R. T 1896 

Si'AULiMNG, Fred.. B., Lancaster, N. II 1894 

Spelman, IIicnky Munson, Cambridge, Mass 1883 

Sprague, John C. 93 Wall St., New York City 1891 

Spratt, Chesman Chadwick, North Bridgton, Maine 1894 

Stanton, Prof. J. Y. , Bates College, Lewiston, Me 1883 

Stephens, Frank, San Diego, Cala 1883 

Stephenson, Mrs. Louise McGown, Helena, Ark 1894 

Stickney, Myron Wilder, 62 George St., Providence, R. 1 1895 

Stone, Clarence Freedom, Branchport, N. Y 1894 

Stone, Dvvight D., Lansing, N. Y 1891 

Stoneburn, Fred H., Newark, N. J 1893 

Streator, Clark P., Santa Cruz, Cala 1S89 

Strecker, John Kern, Jr., Waco, Texas 1S94 

Strong, Reuben M., Oberlin, Ohio •'.1889 

Studer, Jacob Henry, 114 Fifth Ave., New York City 1888 

Sturtevant, Edward, Brookline, Mass 1S96 

Surface, Harvey Adam, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y 1897 

Sutton, George Byron, Newark Vallej', N. Y 1896 

Swinburne, John, Guernsey, England 1887 

Talley, Prof. Thomas Washington, Tallahassee, Fla 1896 

Tatlock, John, Jr. , Mutual Life Ins. Co. , New York City i887 

Tatum, Joseph William, 843 No. 41st St., Philadelphia. Pa 1897 

Taylor, Alexander O'Driscoll, 124 Bellevue Ave., Newport, R. I. 1888 

Taylor, H. H., 63 Park Place, Bridgeport, Conn 1S93 

Test, Dr. Frederick Cleveland, 4048 Indiana Ave., Chicago, III..1S92 

Thayer, Abbott H., Scarborough, N. Y 1S96 

Thomas, John, Sharon, Pa 1895 

Thompson, Ernest E., Tappan, N. Y 1883 

Thomson, Prof. George S., Walden, Colo 1892 

Todd, Louis M., Calais, Me 1S87 

Todd, W. E. Clyde, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 1890 

ToppAN, George L., 294 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 18S6 

Torrey, Bradford, Wellesley Hills, Mass 1883 

TowNSEND, Charles H., U. S. Fish Comm., Washington, D. C 1S83 

TowNSEND, WiLMOT, Bay Ridge, N. Y 1S94 

Treat, Willard E. , Silver Lane, Conn 1S85 

Tremblay, Dr. Joseph Euclide, Esquimaux Point, Qi^iebec, Can...iS95 

Trombley, Jerome, Petersburg, Mich 1S85 

Trostler, Isador Siaiox, 4246 Farnam St.. Omaha, Neb. • 1S97 

Trotter, Dr. Spencer, Svvarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa 1S88 

Tuttle, Dr. Carl, Berlin Heights, Ohio 1890 

Upham, Mrs. Mary C, Marshfield, Wis 1897 

Van Cortlandt, Miss Anne S., Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 1885 

Van Denburg, John, Acad. Sci., San Francisco, Cala 1893 

Van Sant, Miss Elizabeth, City Hall, Omaha, Neb. 1896 

Van Winkle, Edmund, Warsaw, Ind 1894 



xxvi Active Members. 

Vaughan, Clifford Wheaton, 47 W. 83d St., New York City 1894 

Velie, Dr. J. W., St. Joseph, Mich 1886 

ViCKERS, Ernest W., Ellsworth, Ohio 1896 

ViLARO, Dr. Juan, Tampa, Fla 1888 

Walcott, Robert, ii Waterhouse St., Cambridge, Mass 1893 

Wales, Edward H., Hyde Park, N. Y 1896 

Walker, Dr. R. L., Carnegie, Pa 1888 

Warren, Dr. B. H., West Chester, Pa 1885 

Warren, Oscar Bird, Hibbing, Minn 1892 

Waterman, William, Hay Springs, Neb 1896 

Waters, Edward Stanley, Holyoke, Mass 1894 

Watkins, L. Whitney, Manchester, Mich 1894 

West, James A., Bloomington, III 1896 

West, Lewis H., Roslyn, Queens Co., N. Y 1887 

Wheeler, Rev. Harry Edgar, Huntsville, Ala 1897 

Wheeler, John B., East Templeton, Mass 1897 

Whitaker, William Lincoln, Cedar Grove, Philadelphia, Pa 1894 

White, Francis Beach, Cambridge, Mass • 1891 

Whitcomb, Mrs. Annabell Cook, 721 Franklin St., Milwaukee, 

Wis 1897 

Whitman, Prof. Charles Otis, Univ. of Chi , Chicago, Ills 1896 

Wholey, W. N., 78 Grape St., Rochester, N. Y. 1891 

Wicks, M. L.,Jr., Los Angeles, Cala 1890 

Wilbur, Addison P., Canandaigua, N. Y 1895 

Wilcox, T. Ferdinand, Princeton, N. J 1895 

Wilde, Mark L. C, Merchantville, N. J 1893 

Williams, J Bickerton, 32 University St., Montreal, Can 1889 

Williams, Robert S., 408 ist Ave., S. Minneapolis, Minn 1888 

Williams, W. J. B., Holland Patent, N. Y 1893 

Wilson, Miss Lilian Barton, 728 Marcy Av., Brooklyn, N. Y 1S97 

Wilson, Sidney S., St. Joseph, Mo 1895 

WiNTLE, Ernest D., ii Hospital St., Montreal, Can 1887 

Wood, Nelson R., Smithsonian Institution, Washington D. C 1895 

Woodruff, Frank M., Acad. Sci., Lincoln Park, Chicago, 111 1894 

Woodruff, Lewis B., 14 East 68th St., New York City 1886 

Woodworth, Mrs. Nelly Hart, St. Albans, Vt 1894 

Worcester, Prof. Dean C, Ann Arbor, Mich 1895 

WoRTHEN, Charles K., Warsaw, 111 1891 

Worthington, R. B., Dedham, Mass. 1893 

Worthington, Willis W., Shelter Island, Suffolk Co., N. Y 1889 

Wright, Frank S., 51 Genesee St., Auburn, N. Y 1894 

Wright, Mrs. Mabel Osgood, Fairfield, Conn 1895 

Wright, Miss Nora Giralda, Olneyville, R. 1 1896 

Wright, Samuel, Conshohocken, Pa 1895 

Yeaton, Arthur Charles, Deering, Me 1895 

Yorke, Dr. F. Henry, Foosland, 111 1891 

Young, Curtis Clay, 395 Clermont Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1891 



Deceased Members. xxvii 

DECEASED MEMBERS. 
Active Members. 

Date of Death. 

Baird, Spancer Fur lerton Aug. 19, 1887 

Bendire, Charles E Feb. , 1897 

Goss, N. S March 10, 1891 

Holder, Joseph B Feb. 28, 1888 

Jeffries, John Amory March 26, 1892 

Wheaton, John M Jan. 28, 1887 

Honorary Members. 

Burmeister, Hermann May i, 1892 

Gatke, Heinrich Jan. i, 1S97 

Gundlach, Juan March 14, 1S96 

GuRNEY, John Henry April 20, 1890 

Huxley, Thomas H June 29, 1895 

Kraus, Ferdinand Sept. 15, 1890 

Lawrence, George N Jan. 17, 1895 

Parker, William Kitchen.. Julj 3, 1S90 

Pelzeln, August von Sept. 2, 1891 

ScHLEGEL, Hermann Jan. 17, 1SS4 

Seebohm, Henry Nov. 26, 1895 

Taczanowski, Ladislas Jan. 17, 1890 

Corresponding Members. 

B \LDAMUS, EdUARD Oct. 30, 1893 

Blakiston, Thomas W Oct. 15, 1891 

BoGDANow, Modest N March 4, 1S8S 

Haast, Julius von Aug. 15, 1S87 

Hargitt, Edward March 19, 1S95 

Homeyer, E. F. von Mav 31, 1S89 

Lyttleton, Thomas, Lord Lilford June 17, 1S96 

Marschall, a. F Oct. 1 1 , 1887 

Malmgren, Anders Johax , 1S97 

Middendorff, Alexander Theodor von Jan. 28, 189.^ 

Mosjisovics, F. G. Hermann August Aug. 27, 1897 

Prejevalski, N. M Oct. 20, 1887 

Pryer, Harry James Stovin Feb. 17, 1S88 

ScHRENCK, Leopold von Jan. 20, 1S94 

Severtzow, N Feb. 8, 18S5 

Stevenson, Henry Aug. 18, iSSS 

Wharton, Henry T Sept. — , 1S95 



V 
\ ^ xxviii Deceased Members. 



A 



Associate Members. 

Adams, Charles F Maj 20, 

Allen, Charles Slover Oct. 15, 

Atkins, H. A May 19, 

Avery, William Cushman March 1 1 , 

Beckham, Charles Wickliffe June 8, 

Bill, Charles • • • • April — , 

BoLLES, Frank Jfin. 10, 

Breese, William L Dec. 7, 

Brokaw, L. W Sept. 3, 

Cairns, John S June 10, 

Campbell, Robert Argyll ; April — , 

Corning, Erastus, Jr April 9, 

CoE, W. W April 26, 

Elliott, S. Lowell Feb. 1 1 , 

Fairbanks, Franklin April 24, 

Gesner, a. H April 30, 

Goss, Benjamin F July 6, 

Hoadley, Frederic H Feb. 26, 

HowLAND, John Snowdon. Sept, 19. 

Jenks, John W. P Sept. 27, 

JouY, Pierre Louis March 22, 

Kumlien, Thure Aug. 5, 

Lawrence, Robert Hoe April 27, 

Linden, Charles Feb. 3, 

Mabbett, Gideon Aug. 15, 

Maris, Willard Lorraine Dec. 11, 

MiNOT, Henry Davis Nov. 13, 

Nichols, Howard Gardner. . June 23, 

Northrop, John I June 26, 

Park, Austin F Sept. 22, 

Ragsdale, Geo. H March 25, 

Richardson, Jenness June 24, 

Slater, James H Feb. — , 

Small, Edgar A April 24, 

Smith, Clarence Albert May 6, 

Stowe, W. H March — , 

Thorne, Platte M March 16, 

Thurber, E. C Sept. 6, 

Vennor, Henry G June 8, 

Willard, Samuel Wells May 24, 

Wood, William Aug. 9, 



893 
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885 

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OAN 19 1898 



THE AUK : 

A CLUARTERLY JOURNAL OF 

ORNITHOLOGY. 
VOL. XV. January, 1898. no. i. 

IN MEMORIAM: 
CHARLES EMIL BENDIRE.^ 

Born 27TH April, 1S36. Died 4TH February, 1897. 

BY J. C. MERRILL. 
Frontispiece. 

The American Ornithologists' Union has again suffered the 
loss of a prominent member and officer, and, in accordance with 
a standing resolution, the President has called upon the writer to 
prepare a memorial of the life and work of Charles Emil Bendire, 
Captain United States Army, retired, brevet Major, who, after an 
illness of several months, died of Bright's disease at Jacksonville, 
Florida, on the fourth of February, 1897. This is undertaken not 
as a perfunctory duty, but as a tribute to one I have known for 
more than twenty-two years, first as a correspondent, later as an 
intimate personal friend, our intercourse closing with a letter 
written by him a few days before his death. 

Karl Emil Bender was born at Koenig im Odenwald in the 
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt on April 27, 1836. The eldest 
of a family of two sons and three daughters, of whom two of the 
latter now survive, he received private instruction at home up to 

^ An address delivered at the Fifteenth Congress of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, at New York, Nov. lo, 1S97. 



2 Merrill, In Memoriam : Charles Eniil Bendire. \_lt\\. 

the age of twelve years, and then passed five years at a theological 
school at Passy, near Paris. Leaving suddenly, it is understood 
on account of some boyish escapade, he returned to his home for a 
short time and then, upon the advice of a friend and accompanied 
by his younger brother Wilhelm, sailed for New York in 1853. 

Upon arrival the new world did not meet their glowing expecta- 
tions, and in a short time Wilhelm Bender sailed for home, but 
was lost overboard during the voyage. 

Not long after this young Bender enlisted, changing his name 
to Bendire and dropping his middle initial, which he reassumed 
about fifteen years ago in correspondence and in his published 
notes ; but to the time of his death he was known officially as 
Charles Bendire and his name so appears upon the title pages of 
his ' Life Histories.' 

As the greater part of Major Bendire's life was passed in the 
Army, it is fitting to briefly recount his services and stations. 

Enlisting at the age of eighteen years on June 10, 1854, he 
served for five years as a Private and Corporal in Company D, 
First Dragoons. Remaining out of the service for a year, he again 
enUsted June 8, i860, in the 4th Cavalry, serving as Private, 
Corporal, Sergeant, and Hospital Steward until September 9, 
1864, when he was discharged by reason of appointment as 2nd 
Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry, of date May 18, 1864. He was trans- 
ferred to the I St Cavalry September 9, 1864, promoted ist Lieu- 
tenant, November 12, 1864, Captain, February 21, 1873, and 
placed upon the retired list for disability contracted in the line of 
duty, April 24, 1886. 

He was brevetted ist Lieutenant, June 11, 1864, for "gallant 
and meritorious services in the battle of Trevillion Station, Va.," 
and Major, February 27, 1890, for "gallant services in action 
against Indians at Canyon Creek, Montana, September 13, 1877." 

During his first enlistment his company was stationed in New 
Mexico — then including Arizona — but he did no collecting then 
nor during the Civil War, through which he served, as an officer, 
in the Army of the Potomac. 

After the war he passed three months in 1867 at his former 
home in Germany, and after this — omitting mention of temporary 
details and duty — he was stationed in Louisiana until December, 



i8fS 1 Mkkrii.I,, Jn Meinoridiii : C/nirlfs fiinil Bcndirr.. "2 

1865; at Drum liarracks, California — now San Pedro — until 
April, 1868 ; at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, to June, 1871 ; and at (.'amp 
Lowell, xA-rizona, to January, 1873. He was on recruiting service 
at St. Louis until September, 1874; at Camp Harney, Oregon, to 
May, 1878; at Fort Walla Walla, Washington, to May, 1882; at 
Fort Klamath, Oregon, to September, 1883 ; in the East for about 
one year, and at Fort Custer, Montana, to December, 1885, being 
retired in the following spring. 

From this record it will be seen what exceptional facilities 
Major Bandire enjoyed for collecting birds and studying their 
habits in regions then but little known to ornithologists. During 
these years he saw much hard field service which he performed 
with the care and fidelity that characterized all that he did. It 
should be recorded that the testimony of those who accompanied 
him while in the field is unanniious to the effect that he never 
allowed his interest in birds to interfere in the least vdth the 
strict performance of duty ; and more than one anecdote is related 
of his losing valuable specimens through his unwillingness to 
delay his command for a few moments. 

It is probable that while stationed at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, from 
1868 to 187 I, Major Bendire first began the systematic study and 
collection of objects of natural history, and that he was led thereto 
by his fondness for hunting and interest in the haunts and habits 
of game mammals and birds. During the early period of his 
work Major Bendire, while a most assiduous and successful 06I0- 
gist, paid little attention to collecting birds except for the purpose 
of identifying sets of eggs. This was unfortunate, because he 
thus failed to add a number of southern species to our fauna in 
localities where, at a later period, many such were secured by 
other collectors. Still, he first obtained in the United States 
several Mexican species and discovered certain new ones, as 
Peiiccea carpalis, and Harporhynchiis bendirei; he was also the first 
to investigate the breeding habits and procure the eggs of a con- 
siderable number of our western birds. 

Many ornithologists do not, perhaps, realize that Major Bendire 
was an assiduous collector in other fields and that at the instance 
of Professor Baird he sent much good material to the National 
Museum. In addition to the three species of birds that were 



A Merrill, /« Memoriam : Charles Emil Bendire. "j^J^ 

dedicated to him, viz. : Megascops asio hendirei Brewster, Loxia 
curvirostra bendirei Ridgway, and Harporhynchus bendirei Coues, 
his name will be remembered in other branches of science. Thus, 
a mammal bears the name Atophyrax bendirei Merriam ; a fish, 
Potamocottus bendirei Bean, and three fossil trees are Acer bendirei 
Lesquereux, Rhus bendirei Lesquereux, and Mars ilea bendirei 
Ward. He also first cleared up the life history of the ' Red 
Fish ' of Idaho, showing that the supposed little land-locked red 
salmon, Oncorhyncluis kejmeriyi^ is really the young breeding male 
or grilse of Oncorhynchiis nerka. 

While in Wa^shington on leave of absence and on duty from 
September, 1883, to August, 1884, Major Bendire, at Professor 
Baird's request, assumed charge, as Honorary Curator, of the 
Department of Oology in the U. S. National Museum, which was 
in a neglected condition. Most of the eggs of North American 
land birds were stored without order and very many were of more 
or less doubtful identification, but the latter have since been elim- 
inated from the collection ; the eggs of the water birds were in a 
somewhat more satisfactory condition, and many are still retained. 
With his characteristic energy. Major Bendire at once went over 
this material and incorporated with it his private collection of about 
8,000 specimens, which he presented to the Museum, and which 
is the basis of the present collection of about 52,000 specimens, 
acquired largely by his personal efforts and by the gifts of his 
friends and correspondents. This collection is the culmination of 
Major Bendire's life work as an oologist ; its excellent arrange- 
ment, the fine condition and careful identification of the speci- 
mens, and the full series of most species being too well known to 
the members of the Union to need detailed description. There 
are few of us who have not gladly contributed sets of especially 
rare eggs, knowing that they would nowhere be of more real sci- 
entific use and value than in our friend's custody. 

Having rearranged the collection of eggs to his satisfaction 
and made it available for study while constantly adding to it, he 
was prepared to undertake a work which he had long had in mind, 
and which was suggested to him by Professor Baird. This was 
to be an Oology of North American birds, but as notes and 
material gathered by an extensive correspondence and careful 



Vol. XV 



I Merrill, In Mcmoiium : Charles liviil Bcndire. 



search of the records were accumiUaied, it was found advisable to 
extend the scope of the work which, in its final form, is well 
described by its title ' Life Histories of North American Birds,' 
though this name was not decided upon until much of the first 
volume was written. In the preparation of this volume a great 
deal of material for the succeeding volumes was gathered, and it 
should be here recorded that had more encouragement been given 
to the work in certain quarters, the subsequent volumes would 
have appeared promptly, and the proposed five, or possibly six, 
volumes might have been almost, if not quite, completed before 
the author's lamented death. The resulting logs to American 
Ornithology is greatly to be deplored, for the two volumes which 
have appeared fill a place peculiar to themselves and no other 
publication is in any way a substitute. The first volume, issued 
in July, 1892, was greeted with the greatest satisfaction by orni- 
thologists, and while it met with scant notice in 'The Auk,' 
foreign journals gave it a most cordial welcome. This was fol- 
lowed in September, 1896, by the second volume, which fully 
sustained the author's high reputation, and upon these will rest 
Major Bendire's secure fame as an ornithologist. 

Besides the uniform excellence of the work, two points deserve 
especial mention, although this is not the place for a general 
criticism, nor are trite expressions of praise needed to enhance 
the high appreciation of the work by ornithologists. One is the 
care exercised in giving the geographical distribution of each form 
and the extent of its breeding range ; these, based upon the latest 
and most reliable data and the personal identification or reidentifica- 
tion of specimens, are beyond comparison the best ever published. 
This necessary examination of specimens was most fortunate, for 
it had much to do with extending the scope of the work as orig- 
inally planned, and gave the author an enviable position as an 
ornithologist of sound judgment. The second point is the large 
amount of fresh, unpublished material incorporated in the ' Life 
Histories ' ; much of this is based upon the author's ow^n observa- 
tions during his long residence in the West supplemented by 
information derived from his extensive correspondence, the 
authority and credit for which are carefully given. 

A word as to the plates cannot be omitted. No superior work 
has. ever been done, and no praise can be too great to apply to 



6 Merrill, In Mcmoriam : Charles Emil Bendire. Fjan 

them. The present writer was in a position to know with what 
painstaking care and accuracy Major Bendire compared the suc- 
cessive proofs of the plates in the first volume with the individual 
eggs selected as types, and how often he returned the ' final ' 
proofs to the lithographers for changes in some minute detail that 
his critical eye detected. It should be stated emphatically that 
Major Bendire is in nowise responsible for the many serious and 
inexcusable typographical errors that so disfigure the second 
volume. \ 

There are few Active Members of the Union who were not 
personally acquainted with Major Bendire, as he was one of its 
founders and rarely failed to be present at the annual meetings. 
On different occasions he was a member of several of the' Com- 
mittees, and at the time of his death was one of the Council of 
the Union. 

Major .Bendire was not a voluminous writer. His earlier 
records were mostly in letters to Allen, Baird, Brewer, and Coues, 
who sometimes, beginning about 1872, published them as special 
notes, at others brought them together as a local list. Later he 
wrote more freely over his own signature, publishing brief records 
as well as longer articles, as oh the breeding habits of Sphyrapiais^ 
Passerella^ Glaucidium^ and others. His correspondence increased 
to burdensome proportions before his death, but he attended to it 
faithfully and gladly, not only obtaining good material for his 
work, but doing much to establish Oology on a broader and safer 
basis, and to impress upon the younger collectors the paramount 
importance of properly identifying such specimens as they might 
collect. He was often consulted as to the identification of eggs, 
and did not hesitate to expose such men as he was convinced 
were given to fraudulent practices. This detestation of fraud 
and insincerity was a marked feature of his character. Frank 
yet reserved, bluff, honest and truthful to bluntness, he had 
the courage of his convictions, which he did not fail to make 
clear when occasion required. Simple in habits, unselfish, and 
always ready to help others. Major Bendire is sincerely mourned, 
not only by the members of this Union, but by all those to whom 
he was known only by correspondence or by his secure title to 
scientific remembrance, his 'Life Histories of North American 
Birds.' 



^"iSgs'^] RiiHMONi), riir Cayonic Svjift. 



THE CAYENNE SWIFT, PANYPTILA CAYENNENSIS 

(GMELIN). 

BY CHARLES W. RICHM(3ND. 
Plate I. 

This elegant little Swift, although described and figured over 
a century ago, and ranging over a large portion of tropical Amer- 
ica, has always been a scarce bird in collections, while its habits 
and manner of nesting are as yet very imperfectly known. It was 
introduced to naturalists as the Afa7-tinet h collier^ de Cayenne'^ by 
Buffon, who gave a recognizable colored figure of it, and Gmelin 
in 1788 gave it the name Hirtmdo cayennensis. 

This species, which is the type of the genus Patiyptila^ ranges 
from Nicaragua to southeastern Brazil, and from the fact that it 
has only recently been found to occur in Central America, north 
of Panama, it is to be expected that future observations will con- 
siderably extend the range. The only other species of the genus 
is the remarkable P. sancti-hieronymi^ confined, as far as known, 
to certain mountains of Guatemala. It is very much larger than 
the first-named species, but of precisely the same coloration. It, 
also, is very rare in collections, much more so, in fact, than the 
Cayenne Swift, due to its inaccessible habitat, and to the meteor- 
like flight, which renders its collection a matter of extreme 
difficulty. 

References to the Cayenne Swift are few and far between in 
ornithological literature, and information respecting its life history 
is very meagre indeed. Messrs. Salvin and Godman in review- 
ing the species recently in their great work on Central American 
birds,'^ wrote : " We have no specimen from our countr}-, but 
Salvin was shown by Mr. Lawrence in 1874 a specimen with its 
nest which was found near the Chagres River by Dr. T. K. 
Merritt, the discoverer of Microchera a/bocoronata. ^^'riting in 
1884, Mr. Lawrence says that the bird was captured in its nest, 

* Planch. Enlum., pi. 725, fig. 2. 
-Biol. Cent. Am., Aves, II, p. 371. 



8 Richmond, The Cayenne Sxvift. FAuk 

LJan. 

the latter being a remarkable structure, composed of some kind 
of silk-weed, and, being probably waterproof, was used by the 
bird as a domicile in the rainy season. Its shape was like a 
sleeve, three or four inches in diameter and nine or ten inches 
long. This nest was, therefore, somewhat similar to that of P. 
sancti-hieronymi but a good deal smaller, and had probably been 
attached to a rock in a similar way." The nest of the Guate- 
malan species is described as follows : " The nest of this species 
is a remarkable structure, made entirely of the downy seeds of 
some plant ; these are glued together, doubtless by the saliva of 
the bird, so as to form a long bag-like structure with the opening 
below. The nest itself is near the top of the inverted bag, and 
the bird on entering the mouth must climb to the top by its feet. 
The eggs are not known." 

Up to 1892 the Cayenne Swift had not been traced north of 
Panama, but during the summer of this year while collecting birds 
in eastern Nicaragua I had the good fortune to find the species 
quite abundant on the Escondido River, at a point about 50 miles 
from its mouth. At that locality, on the ' I. P.' plantation, three 
species of Swifts were common, but from its high-flying habits 
the Panyptila was for a time overlooked. It was not long, how- 
ever, before the presence of a fork-tailed species was detected, 
owing to its habit of frequently spreading the tail during flight. 
On June 28, or about a month after I began to shoot at Swifts, 
my efforts to bring down a specimen were finally successful. 

The great difficulty in securing specimens was not due to the 
rapid flight of the bird, but to the high altitudes at which they 
ordinarily passed the time. In fair weather it was utterly impos- 
sible to shoot any species of Swift, but on cloudy afternoons or 
just before dusk, following long rainy spells, all three species 
would frequently descend within range of our guns. Even 
under the most propitious conditions for shooting Swifts, it was 
no easy task to recover the , 'dead birds ; those falling in the river 
were liable to be devoured by voracious fishes, or if dropping 
elsewhere than on the small grass plot in front of the house were 
almost certain to be lost in the heavy grass and weeds which 
grew everywhere. Wounded birds falling some distance away 
were invariably lost. After many trials, at favorable times 
between May and October, and an expenditure of about three 



i«g8 1 Richmond, The Cayeiuie Szvifi. Q 

hundred cartridges, I was the possessor of nine Cayenne Swifts 
and about a dozen of the two species of Chceiura. 

From the little information available, and from my own experi- 
ence, it would seem that this SwiTt is rather local in its distri- 
bution, a colony of the birds being found in one locality and none 
at all a few miles distant. Mr. Chapman found them to be 
common at La Brea in Trinidad ^ but observed none at other 
localities on that island. The ' I. P.' plantation was the only 
place in Nicaragua where I noticed them, and none were seen 
on the Rio Frio in Costa Rica, although a large assemblage of 
other species was found late one afternoon on that river. 

These birds pass the day executing their gyrations high in the 
air, often considerably above the other species, at times, however, 
freely associating with them. They work over a considerable 
area in search of food, usually in loose flocks. One moment 
many Swifts will be over head, a little later none are to be seen 
except at the opposite end of the plantation or across the river. 
In a short time — ten minutes or so — they are back again, and 
the manoeuvre is repeated. Thus while shooting Swifts, we will 
have many opportunities to bring down birds for a short time, 
followed by an intermission in which to look for lost ones. In 
my case the intermission was usually passed in marveling over 
my inability to shoot specimens with cartridges which had been 
soaked for a week or more in salt water. 

In ordinary flight the tail is closed, and the bird cannot easily 
be distinguished from the spiny-tailed species, but individuals 
often pause in their evolutions and soar for a brief interval at 
which time the tail is widely spread. 

The note usually uttered by this Swift is a pleasing, rather 
long-drawn chee or chee-ee^ at other times a chee-wee-ti.'ee-zvee^ given 
in a shrill pitch. Wounded birds have a squeeky, clicking note, 
several times repeated. 

Although the birds were so numerous, the thought of finding 
a nest did not occur to me. Nests of many of the tropical birds 
are so well concealed, so carefully protected from the invasions 
of snakes, ants, monkeys, and other animals, and the vegetation 
is so very dense that one has little chance of finding them except 

iBull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VI.. 58. 



lO Richmond, The Cayenne Szvift. Fja'^ 

by mere accident. It was, then, quite a surprise to meet with a 
nest during one of my daily collecting trips. Early in the morn- 
ing of August 23, while returning from a short tramp, I had 
almost reached the edge of the forest, when my attention was 
drawn to a mixed company of birds feeding in an immense tree 
which stood directly in my path. Among the birds were Monte- 
zuma Yellow-tails, two species of Toucans, and some small 
Parrots. Wounding a Yellow-tail, I was endeavoring to keep it 
in sight, when a small bird dashed in from an opening in the 
forest and with an upward sweep disappeared on the trunk of the 
tree at a point about 70 feet from the ground. Its movements 
were so sudden and unexpected that by the time I realized just 
where the bird had disappeared, it had entered its nest, a 
peculiar structure eight or nine inches long, which was attached 
to the under surface of the trunk, and so nearly resembled it in 
its smooth grayish appearance that under other circumstances it 
would have escaped notice. When first observed, the nest was 
still quivering from the ingress of the bird, proving it to be of a 
soft yielding nature. It was attached to the trunk, probably by 
the saliva of the bird, but this point could not be definitely learned. 

It was of almost exactly the same color as the bark ; the 
entrance, at the bottom, was very large, nearly the diameter of 
the nest at the lower part, which appeared to be about three 
inches, with a slight bulging at the upper end. 

On shooting at the nest there was a struggle inside, which 
shook it considerably, and presently the bird appeared at the 
entrance and fell to the ground. To my astonishment, it was a 
Cayenne Swift, and on dissection proved to be a male. There 
were no indications that the bird was nesting, and the probabil- 
ities are that it was simply using the nest as a place of refuge 
during rainy weather. 

On visiting the place next day with a pair of field glasses, I 
could determine little concerning the composition of the nest, 
except that it had the appearance of being stuccoed with some 
material resembling the bark in color. 

The plate accompanying this number of 'The Auk' gives a 
very life-like figure of the bird and its nest, although the bird in 
flight, as above mentioned, spreads its tail only at irregular 
intervals. 



^°o?^1 COUKS, Lcllvr from JV. Sxv,ii>isoii lo J. ,/. Aiuluhon. II 

WILLIAM SWAINSON TO JOHN JAMES AUDUBON. 

(^A hitherto Jinpublished letter.) 

BY DR. ELLIOTT COUES. 

William MacGillivray's collaboration with Audubon in tlic 
production of the ' Ornithological Biography' and of the ' Synop- 
sis ' is already well known. The case is properly set forth in 
Audubon's preface, and still more fully in Audubon's Journals, 
now in process of publication by Miss M. R. Audubon. I have 
also had more than one occasion to characterize the happy com- 
bination of these two great ornithologists.^ 

But few can be aw^are that in 1830 there was some chance of 
William Swainson's becoming Audubon's collaborator, and no 
little danger that a classification of North American Birds might 
be made in the mystical jargon of that quinarian fad which 
Macleay, Vigors, and Swainson had taken up. The following 
letter, which Miss Audubon has kindly allowed me to copy and 
use, shows that Audubon had made certain propositions to Swain- 
son, touching the latter's collaboration ; and that Swainson, who 
evidently thought no small beer of himself, would enter into no 
arrangements unless his name should appear as that of co-author 
with Audubon's. We see him holding off for some such under- 
standing as that which resulted in Swainson and Richardson's 
'Fauna Boreali- Americana.' 

" Having sufficiently shuddered at the thought of what we 
escaped, we can read at our leisure and pleasure Swainson's stiff 
declination of Audubon's terms, as follows — the letter being 
printed literally and punctually true to the original in Swainson's 
handwriting : 

" Tettenhanger Green 

2d October 1830 
«' My dr Sir 

" I have refrained from replying to your letter until I thought 
you had returned to London. 

" Either you do not appear to have understood the nature of my 



iBull. Nutt. Orn. Club, V, 1880, p. 201 ; Key N. A. Birds, 2d ed., 18S4, 
p. xxii. 



I 2 CoUES, Letter from W. Srvainson to J. J. Audubon. fj^ 

proposition on supplying scientific information for your work, or 
you are very erroneously informed on the manner in which such 
assistance is usually given. Dr Richardson, and a hundred 
others, similarly situated, might with equal justice say that no 
name should appear but their own ; as it would rob them of their 
fame, because notes are furnished by one or two other persons, 
your friends would tell you, if you enquired of them., that even ^_y 
name would add something to the value of 'The Birds of America 
You pay me compliments on my scientific knowledge, and wished 
you possessed a portion ; & you liken the acquisition of such a 
portion to purchasing a sketch of an eminent painter — the simile 
is good, but allow me to ask you, whether, after procuring the 
sketch, you would mix it up with your own, and pass it off to your 
friends as your production ? I cannot possibly suppose that such 
would be your duplicity and I therefore must not suppose that 
you intended I should give all the scientific information I have 
laboured to acquire during twenty years on ornithology — conceal 
my name, — and transfer my fame to your pages & to your 
reputation. 

" Few have enjoyed the opportunity of benefiting by the advice 
and assistance of a scientific friend so much as yourself ; and no 
one, I must be allowed to say, has evinced so little inclination to 
profit by it. When I call to mind the repeated offers I have 
made you to correct the nomenclature of your birds, from the 
first time of our acquaintance, and recollect the dislike you 
appeared to have to receiving any such information or correction, 
I cannot but feel perfect surprize at your now wishing to profit 
by that aid, you have hitherto been so indifferent about. 

" Let me however urge upon you one advise which, for your own 
sake, I should be sorry you despised. It is to characterize your- 
self, or get some friend to do so for you, all your new species. 
The specimens, you tell me, are now in England, & the task 
will be comparatively easy. I urge this, because you may not be 
aware that a new species, deposited in a museum, is of no 
authority whatsoever, until its name and its character are published. 
I have repeatedly set my face against such authorities, so has 
Mr Vigors, so has Ch. Bonaparte, and on this head we are all 
perfectly unanimous. Unless, therefore, this is done, you will, I 



^"iSoS^J ^-'oi-'KS, Letter from W. Sivainsou to ,/. ./. Aiidnho)!. \ ^ 

am fearful, loose the credit of discovering nearly all the new 
species you possess, and this I again repeat, for your own sake 
I should be sorry for. To me, individually, your not doing so, 
would rather be advantageous. 

"The more a book is quoted, the more is its merits admitted, 
and its authority established, it was on this account I so 
repeatedly requested the use only, of a copy of your book, that it 
might have been cited in " Northern Zoology " not having it — I 
could not therefore mention it 

" I shall always be as thankful to you as formerly for any 
information on the habits, economy, and manners of birds; but, 
as to species, I want not, nor do I ever ask, the opinions of any 
one. that is quite a different matter, and entertaining peculiar 
ideas on that subject, you must not feel surprised at my differing 
from you in almost every instance. My reasons will always be 
laid before the public. In the present case, we totally differ 
about species of Woodpeckers. I shall not, however propitiate a 
favourable opinion from you, or any one, by a compliment and 
therefore I will wait for some species which you yourself will 
admit, which I shall then give your name to, I am rather glad you 
did not accept my offer, for I am noiv assisting in bringing out an 
Octavo edition of Wilson, by Sir W Jardine which will be 
arranged according to my nomenclature. 

Yours my dr Sir 

Very faithy 

W SWAINSOX" 

Though the proposed literary partnership thus fell through, the 
two men continued on the most friendly personal terms. Audubon 
repeatedly speaks handsomely of his friend Swainson in his 
Journals ; they were often together, both in England and in 
France ; each dedicated a new species to the other ; and one of 
the most complimentary reviews Audubon's work ever received 
was from Swainson's pen. 



I A Merrill, Birds of Fort Sherman, Idaho. [jaii. 

NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF FORT SHERMAN, IDAHO. 

BY J. C. MERRILL, 

Major and Surgeon, U. S. Ar7ny. 
{Concluded from Vol. XIV, f. 3^57.) 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus. — The well-known song of the Bobolink was 
heard in Julj at a i-anch on the St. Joseph River, and an old settler told 
me that the birds were quite common there each year. 

Molothrus ater.— As in most parts of the Northwest, the Cowbird is 
rare at Fort Sherman. A single specimen only, a female, was taken May 
25, 1896. Among the many nests of small birds examined none contained 
either egg or young of this parasite. 

Agelaius phceniceus. — One of the first migrants to appear, as I have 
seen it on February' 22. After remaining two or three weeks these early 
birds seem to pass on to the north and none are seen until about the first 
of May when others, apparently the birds nesting here, arrive. Breeds 
sparingly about the lake, more commonly on the Coeur dAlene and St. 
Joseph Rivers. 

Sturnella magna neglecta. — Arriving early in March, the Meadowlark 
is very common during the suminer. I found it nesting at the summit of 
Mica Peak. 

Icterus bullocki. — Breeds sparingly' in cottonwoods along the river, 
especially after it enters Spokane prairie. 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. — A few pairs breed in bushes along the 
river bank near the fort. Occasionally a small fiock may be seen about 
the stables throughout the winter. 

Coccothraustes vespertinus montanus. — I am soinewhat uncertain as 
to the true status of this species at Fort Sherman. Mr. Shallis, a local 
collector, informs me that it usually occurs from May to July and that it 
is absent during the rest of the year. In 1895 I did not observe any but 
Mr. Shallis, who knows the bird well, told me that he saw three small 
flocks about the middle of August. This Grosbeak was first seen by me 
on May 28, 1896, though their loud whistling notes had been heard a few 
days earlier. June i many were seen in pines and firs across the river, in 
twos and threes and in irregular flocks; they were restless, whistling con- 
stantly, and kept high up in the trees. Common during the next few 
days, they were scarce but not absent from about June 10 till early in July 
when they were again common in small flocks, which at first consisted 
exclusively of males, joined soon after by females and young. They were 
now quite tame, coming about the houses and feeding much on the 
ground, permitting a close approach. I was absent from July 29 until 



^^IsgS^] Merrill, liin/s of Fort S/icninm, Idaho. \C 

August 19 and saw none after my return. It is probable tliat this bird is 
a common but irregular summer visitor, nesting in the high pines and firs 
in the hills surrounding the lake, to the borders of which many return as 
soon as the ^■oung are fledged. 

Carpodacus cassini. — Arriving aliout the middle of April, this line 
songster is one of the most abundant summer birds at Fort Sherman, 
breeding commonly about the houses as well as on the surrounding hills. 

Loxia curvirostra minor. — As before stated, the occurrence of the 
Crossbill at Fort Sherman is irregular; they are sometimes as common 
and fearless as the English Sparrow. I have seen them in the fort every 
month in the year, but in summer most of them are in the neigliboring 
hills. On warm bright days in February and March their pleasing song 
may be heard in every direction, and I have been informed that their nests 
with eggs have been found here in the former month, placed in tamaracks 
at a height of thirty or forty feet from the ground. The heavy pines and 
firs collect and shed the snow to a considerable extent, often leaving a bare 
spot around the base of the trunk Avhile between scattered trees the snow 
may be one or two feet in depth. In these bare places, early in Mai-ch, 
I have watched male and female Crossbills collect building material, both 
pine needles and dead grasses, a constant habit being to do this at a con- 
siderable distance from the nest for they always carried their loads out of 
sight, though I have watched them, for several hundred yards when the 
woods were open enough to permit this. During the latter part of sum- 
mer there is a marked resumption of their song as heard in earlv spring. 
Mr. Brewster informs me that specimens taken here are tvpical of the 
former subspecies bendirei. 

*Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis. — There is a specimen in a small 
collection of birds in the local post oflice. Apparently an irregular fall 
and winter visitant, known to many of the settlers from its tameness and 
presence about farm yards. None were seen during the winters of 
1894-95 and 1S95-96, although careful search was made by myself and 
others. On November 3, 1S96, a flock of about fifty was seen on a hillside 
near the fort. None Avere obtained, but they once flew vei^v near to me 
and they were certainly not L. atrata, which Dr. Merriam found in the 
southern part of the State. 

* Acanthis linaria. — A regular winter visitor, but varying greatly in its 
abundance. Their numbers are much increased about the middle of March 
by arrivals from the South. I have seen them as late as April 11. 

Spinus tristis. — A fairly common summer resident. 
Spinus pinus. — Resident. In summer it occurs quite commonlv on 
Mica Peak, from about 1500 feet above the lake to the summit. 

* Plectrophenax nivalis. — An irregular winter visitor, sometimes occur- 
ring on the prairies in large flocks. 

*Calcarius lapponicus. — A single specimen taken November 13, 1S96. 

Poocaetes gramineus confinis. — Breeds sparingly. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus. — Arriving early in May, it 



1 6 Merrill, Birds of Fori Sherman^ Idaho. Vlzxx 

passes through in moderate numbers, a few remaining to breed on the 
prairie. In September and early in October it is very common, especiallj' 
so on the marsli. 

* Ammodramus leconteii. — A specimen taken on tlie marsh September 
28, 1S96. It arose from tall marsh grass and alighted on a neighboring 
swamp willow, from which a hasty shot dropped it ; great was my sur- 
prise to pick up a Leconte's Sparrow. I do not think it has previously 
been taken west of the Rocky Mountains. Careful search on several sub- 
sequent days in the same locality failed to reveal other specimens. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia. — Fairly common in spring and fall. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. — Rare in winter. 

Spizella socialis arizonae. — Arriving about the last week in April, this 
Sparrow is one of the commonest summer birds. 

Junco hyemalis connectens. — Arrives during the last week of February 
or early in March, many returning from the north about the middle of 
September. On April 3 a small flock was observed near the top of a 
large pine tree; they were searching for insects near the ends of the 
branches, assuming the various attitudes of Titmice for which, although 
having watched them for some time, I mistook them until one was shot 
and picked up. 

* Melospiza fasciata merrilli. — This new subspecies'. is a common sum- 
mer visitor at Fort Sherman, frequenting the shores of the lake and 
inflowing rivers, and following the smaller streams up to their sources in 
the surrounding hills. Careful search during two winters failed to reveal 
the presence of this bird, yet I am inclined to think that a few do pass 
that season here in favorable localities; and that while the great majority 
certainly do leave on account of the great depth of snow, their migration 
is a short one to the southwest, where in eastern Washington and Oregon 
the snow fall is much less and food more easily obtained in winter. I 
have seen one as late as December 10, and have heard their song as early 
as the last week in February ; by the middle of March they are fairly com- 
mon. There is nothing in their notes or general habits to distinguish 
them from the Song Sparrows of other parts of the country, but their 
partiality to the immediate vicinity of water is very marked, and most of 
the nests found during the seasons of 1895 and 1896 were in bushes grow- 
ing in water. In 1896, a cold, backward season, a female taken April 24 
had deposited her eggs and was incubating; and on May 25 a brood of 
fully fledged young was seen. 

All the nests I have found were above the ground, one reason for 
which is probably the great rise of water in the lake and rivers about 
nesting time, a rise that yearly destroys many nests of this and 
other low building species. Various kinds of bushes, and sometimes 
small trees, are selected as suitable building sites for the nests; some- 
times in the dense top of a wild rose on the river bank; sometimes in 

' See Auk, XIII, p. 46. 



^"iScs"*'] Mkkku.i., Hinh of Fort Sherman. Idaho. I 7 

bushes growiiiif in water; a favorite place is among tlie debris lodged in 
a bush during high water of the previous year, where the nest is admira- 
bly concealed and readil}' escapes notice. Two nests were found in 
voung cottonwoods where a cluster of small branches grew out from 
the main trunk. The nests, in whatever situation, are unusually large 
for a Song Sparrow and composed chieti-y of dead leaves and strips of 
Cottonwood bark, deeply cupped and lined witii liner materials of the 
same general kind. The thirty-two eggs collected appear to average a 
trifle larger than those of other subspecies of the Song Sparrow, and are 
more uniformly greenish in their general appearance. Two broods are 
raised ; live is the usual number of eggs in the first, three or four in the 
second. As soon as the young are fledged these birds leave their nesting 
haunts along the river and are to be found among the willow thickets on 
the marsh. 

* Passerella iliaca schistacea — A rare migrant, taken in May. 
Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. — Arriving in April, this bird is gener- 

allv but sparingly distributed during the summer. 

Zamelodia melanocephala. — Not uncommon. While examining a 
nest with eggs on June 25, the male alighted on the bush and sang almost 
continuouslv while I was there. 

Passerina amcena. — Not common. 

Piranga ludoviciana. — Arrive during the last week in May and are 
quite common among pines during the migration, though but few breed 
here. A nest found June 29 was in a small pine about thirty feet from 
the ground and about six feet from the 'trunk, on a branch so slender 
that it seemed as if the weight of the nest and sitting female would break 
it. 

Petrochelidon lunifrons. — Common summer visitor, arriving about 
the last of April and leaving suddenly about the middle of August. 

Chelidon erythrogaster. — Not observed about the fort or town during 
the breeding season but occasionally seen about ranches near the prairie. 

* Tachycineta bicolor. — Arrive from the middle to the end of March, 
according to the season, and breed abundantly in cottonwood trees 
along the lake and river, forming quite a colonj- at the outlet of the 
lake. 

Clivicola riparia. — -Many seen July 16 on the Coeur d'Alene River, the 
low banks of which in places were perforated by their excavations. 
Seerj only during migrations at the fort. 

Ampelis garrulus. — -An irregular winter visitor, taken in January and 
March. 

Ampelis cedrorum. — Arriving irregularly in April and May, the Cedar 
Bird becomes quite common by the end of the latter month and remains 
until about the 20th of August. Unlike my previous experience with 
this species in the West, it is here very tame. Several nests were found 
in thorn bushes at the edge of the river; these were essentially alike in 
construction and as compared with eastern ones, rather loose and bulky. 



1 8 Merrill, Birds of Fort Sherma7i, Idaho. I f "'^ 

Thej were composed externally of light colored strips of bark and 
flood debris, among masses of which thej were placed — as are many of 
those of the Song Sparrow — and very well concealed. They were lined 
with the long black fibrous moss so common on pine trees in this 
region, interspersed with a few blades of dry grass, rootlets, and broken 
pine needles. One nest was built in a cottonwood sapling, and its 
exterior much resembled a nest of Swainson's Thrush, for which I mis- 
took it until I saw the eggs. 

Lanius borealis. — Common in the fall, arriving early in November. 
A few remain throughout the winter. 

*Vireo olivaceus. — An abundant summer visitor, arriving about the 
2oth of May, and frequenting cottonwood and aspen groves in company 
with the next species, which it much exceeds in numbers. Several nests 
were found, all within six feet of the ground, in bushes or young trees 
among larger cottonwoods, in which the birds were to be heard singing 
throughout the day. 

Vireo gilvus. — Arrives in May in considerable numbers and breeds 
somewhat sparingly. 

Vireo solitarius cassinii. — Arrives about the loth of May and is soon 
common in pine woods, to which it shows a marked partiality ; breeds in 
moderate numbers. 

* Helminthophila rubricapilla gutturalis. — Not uncommon during May, 
the song of the male being frequently heard on the hillside across the 
river. Breeds. 

* Helminthophila celata lutescens. — Several specimens taken in May. 
Dendroica aestiva. — Abundant during the summer, arriving early in 

May. Of many nests examined the majority contained five eggs or young. 
Dendroica auduboni- — Arriving about the middle of April, Audubon's 
Warbler slowly increases in numbers, and \>y the first of May is common. 
Many pass through during this month, but not in such numbers as I 
have seen in other parts of the Northwest, nor does it breed here very 
commonly. It was not more plentiful on Mica Peak than at lake 
level. Early in August the fall migration is noticeable and by the loth 
is usually well marked, continuing until the end of September. Else- 
where I have found Audubon's Warbler very partial to coniferous trees, 
and nesting in them almost exclusively. Here a majority of the nests I 
found were in deciduous trees and bushes, generally but a few feet from 
the ground. One was in a small rose bush growing at the edge of a cut 
bank overhanging a road where Avagons daily passed close to it. Such 
nests as were found here, while varying considerably as to exterior, 
agree in having a lining in which black horse hairs are conspicuous, and 
in which feathers are looseh' attached, not well woven in as is usual in 
most small nests. Occasionally one was seen in deep woods by the road- 
side near where hay had been brushed off a load on a passing wagon ; 
this was utilized for the entire nest except lining, making a conspicuous 
yellow object in the dark green fir or pine in which it was placed. 



^"s9s'*'] Merrill, Birds of Fort S/irnnan, Idaho. jc) 

*Dendroica townsendi. — Durinic the sprin;,' of 1S95 I frequently 
heard the note of a Dendroica that I could not identify, though much 
time was de\oted to tiiis end. Two or three males were to be heard 
dail}' in their respective ranges, which were among large firs growing on 
the hillside across the river. They seemed to haunt exclusively the tops 
of these trees, flitting from one to another at such a height as to make 
their identification by sight impossible, and their capture a very difficult 
matter. They were active and restless, passing rapidly from tree to tree 
along the hillside for a few hundred'yards and returning over the same 
route, this habit lieing observed at all houi-s of the daw The few shots 
obtained were at such distances as to be ineffectual. The birds were 
evidently nesting, the song gradually diminishing in frequenc\- until 
the end of June when it ceased. 

On May 21, iSy6, it was again heard and almost daily subsequentl\-. 
At last, on June 2, a lucky shot brought down a line male D. to-vnseiidt 
which, although not in the act of singing when shot, is, I have little 
doubt the author of the song. This usually consists of five notes — 
dee dee, dee, — de, de all, especially the first three, uttered in the peculiar 
harsh drawl of D. virens. Later in the season this song changes some- 
what at times — at least I think that both are uttered hy the same species 
— and on June 29, I shot a male in the act of singing this later song, and 
a few minutes later his mate. Their nest was evidently near as they 
scolded me with the usual Dendroica chip of alarm, and the abdomen of 
the female was denuded. These two birds were among a low growth of 
firs and pines and were shot without difficulty. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi. — Arrives about the middle of May and 
breeds rather commonly. 

Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. — Arrives in May, and breeds spar- 
ingly. Common in the marshes in September. 

Sylvania pusilla pileolata. — -Taken occasionally in spring and autumn. 

Setophaga ruticilla. ^ Abmidant summer visitor, arriving about the 
last of May. 

Anthus pensilvanicus. — -Decidedly rare in spring, a few passing 
through about the middle of May. In the autumn they are very abundant, 
returning about the first of September, and a few lingering until earlv 
in November. At this season they frequent the dry, open prairies as well 
as the marshes about the lake, where they gather in large flocks. 

Cinclus mexicanus. — Fairly common along suitable streams flowing 
into the lake. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis. — Common summer visitor. 

Salpinctes obsoletus. — A pair found July 2, among the rocks on the 
summit of Mica Peak, where they were evidently nesting. 

* Troglodytes aedon parkmanii. — Breeds rather commonly. Mr^ 
Brewster informs me that Fort Sherman birds are nearer to parkmanii 
than to aztecus. 

Troglodytes hyemalis pacificus. — Rather common resident : found in 



20 Merrill, Birds of Fort Sherman, Idaho. \^t^ 

suitable localities at all seasons. A series of skins sent to Mr. Brewster 
were pronounced by him to be "ultra typical," being darker than birds 
from the Pacific coast. 

Cistothorus palustris paludicola. — Rare in autumn, among long grass 
and swamp willows in the marsh. None appear to breed at this end of 
the lake. 

Certhia familiaris montana. — Abundant during winter. This is the 
orAy part of the Rocky Mountain region where I have found this species 
to be other than uncommon. During the month of April they gradually 
disappear, and only one was seen near the fort during the breeding 
season. It was not observed on Mica Peak, though it might easily have 
escaped notice ; nor were any seen until about the middle of September, 
when they again appeared in company with Kinglets and Chickadees. 
While watching a Creeper one day at a distance of a few feet it suddenly 
flew and alighted on my leg for a second or two. 

Sitta carolinensis aculeata. — ■ The least common of the three species of 
Nuthatch, and usually associating with the Pygmy, but is hy no means 
raye. Breeds rather sparingly about lake level and in the hills. 

Sitta canadensis. — A common winter resident, breeding less plentifully 
near the fort and among the surrounding hills. Local specimens have 
imusually long bills. 

Sitta pygmsea. — Probably the most abundant resident bird at Fort 
Sherman, in winter gathering in flocks with the other Nuthatches, Tit- 
mice, and Kinglets. Each year one or more pairs placed their nests 
within the weatherboarding of some of the buildings within the fort, 
entering through knotholes in the boarding. White-bellied Swallows, 
Wrens, and Western Bluebirds also did the same. 

* Parus atricapillus. — A common resident. Its favorite breeding 
locality is among the swamp willows on the marsh, where a number of 
pairs gather each year, nesting in dead willow branches, sometimes scarcely 
three inches in diameter, and but little above the surface of the water. 

In regard to the identification of this species Mr. Brewster writes me as 
follows : 

" After carefully examining your series of Black-capped Titmice from 
Fort Sherman and comparing them with all the material contained in the 
National Museum, as well as in my own collection, I have come to the 
conclusion that they must be referred — at least provisionally — to Parus 
atricapillus. They are of practicallj' the same size and proportion as our 
eastern bird, save in respect to the bill, which usually — but by no means 
invariably — -is shorter and more conical in shape. In coloring, also, they 
resemble true atricapillus very closely, but as a rule they have less white 
on the wings and tail, more brownish on the sides, and deeper, clearer 
black on the crown and throat. These differences, however, are compara- 
tively slight and inconstant, and do not seem to me to entitle the bird to 
separation under a distinctive name. It is awkward, of course, to cite it 
as atricapillus, but I see no alternative. One thing is certain, namely. 



^".sris^l Merrill, Birch of Fort Shrriiuni, Idaho. 



1898 J 



21 



that it is distinctly unlike either occidoifalis or sepientrionalis, despite the 
fact that it occupies a region lying between the respective ranges of these 
subspecies and far removed from the known western limits of the range 
of atricapillii$y 

Parus gambeli. — Abundani resident. Common in and ahfuit the fort 
in winter, most going to the adjacent hills to breed. 

Parus rufescens. — This Chickadee is a fairly common resident in the 
vicinity of Fort Sherman, though more frequently seen in the hills than 
at lake level. Mr. Brewster informs me that local specimens are " iden- 
tical in every respect" with skins from the coast of British Columbia. 

Regulus satrapa olivaceus. — Common resident, especially in winter, 
most going up the surrounding hills to breed. A brood of fully fledged 
young seen at the fort on June 19. 

Regulus calendula. — Arriving about the middle of April, this Kinglet 
is verj' abundant by the first of May. A large number pass through to 
the North, returning in September, but many remain to breed, and until 
the middle of June the song of the males may be heard in every direction. 

Myadestes townsendii. — Not uncommon during the migrations, and I 
found one pair nesting near the summit of Mica Peak. It is an early 
migrant, arriving about the fiist of April, and I have taken a specimen as 
late as December 22. 

* Turdus fuscescens salicicola. — Arriving about the twentieth of May, 
this Thrush is rather common among cottonwoods bordering the lake 
and river, where its sweet song may be heard towards evening. Nests 
found here were from two to seven feet above the ground, and in con- 
struction were essentially like those of the eastern form. 

Turdus ustulatus swainsonii. — Breeds rather commonly about the 
lake and on Mica Peak up to the summit. 

Merula migratoria propinqua. — Usually arrives during the last week 
in February and is abundant during the summer. 

Hesperocichla naevia. — First noted during the first week of March 
when quite a number of males were found on the hillsides across the 
river, and also among the thickets under cottonwoods at the outlet of the 
lake. In 1896 the first were seen on April 3. They w^ere generally 
flushed from the ground among dead leaves and alighting on a branch, 
uttered their peculiar cluck which, among the dense underbrush or young 
pines, often first attracted attention to the birds' presence. None were 
observed in autumn, but their habits are such that they might easily 
escape notice, and I have little doubt that some breed at no great dis- 
tance f]-om the fort. 

Sialia mexicana bairdi. — Arrives late in February or early in Maich 
and is abundant during summer. Some specimens taken here are. in 
coloration, nearer occidentalis than bairdi. 

Sialia arctica. — Usually arrives a few days later than the preceding 
species, and is less common at lake level, but is more generally distri- 
buted and more common in the hills. One pair nested on the sheltered 
corner of a rafter on the hospital porch. 



22 WiDMANN, Gabberet Island Bird Roosts. I Jan. 

Note. — Since most of this paper was put in type, I have 
received from Dr. C. Hart Merriam some unpublished field notes 
on Idaho birds made since the appearance of his report upon the 
subject. He kindly allows me to make the following extracts in 
order to bring the lists up to date : 

Sphyrapicus thyroideus. — New to Idaho. Sawtooth City, Mr. ^Ever- 
mann. Near Coeur d' Alene, August, 1895; Messrs. Bailey and Howell. 

Sayornis saya. 

Icteria virens longicauda. — Both recorded as common at Coeur d' 
Al^ne. These three species are therefore to be added to the list of birds 
found in the vicinitj- of Fort Sherman. 

I may say that early in 1897 about ten pairs of Oreortyx pictus, cap- 
tured near Puget Sound, were liberated near the northern base of Mica 
Peak, and it was proposed to introduce the Bob White. 



THE GREAT ROOSTS ON GABBERET ISLAND, , 
OPPOSITE NORTH ST. LOUIS, MO. 

BY O. WIDMANN. 

For certain reasons, probably very ' mity ' ones, the Martins 
{Pro^ne sudis) are anxious to leave, as early as possible, the 
narrow quarters in which they rear their brood, and to spend the 
night in the open air in company with others of their kind. The 
father absents himself from home at nights before the brood is 
fully fledged, and when the young are on the wing the mother, 
too, tries to steal away, but not until it is nearly dark, and when 
the darlings are safely lodged in the old quarters, and well fed. 
Of course the parents return with the dawn of day, long before 
the sun is up, to feed and lead them. 

After about a week of practice in catching insects on the wing, 
the young nee,d no more help from their parents and accompany 
them to the roost, but the whole family returns to the old home- 
stead early in the morning, to spend a few hours in play and 
merry-making. By and by these visits become shorter and shorter, 



^"soS^^l WiDMANN, Gabbarci hland Bird Roosta. 22 

€ven irregular, and after the middle of August they cease alto- 
gether. To the casual observer the species may now become one 
of uncertain occurrence, but so much more certain and numerous 
are they to be found in the evening at their common roost. JJut 
where is the roost ? 

The experience of former years has taught us to look for it in 
the large willow tracts along the banks of the Mississippi ; but it 
cannot remain long in the same place. The willows must be of 
a certain age and from ten to twenty feet high. At that period 
they form a heavy thicket, standing as close together as one sap- 
ling to every square foot. Of course not all of these can thrive 
for many years ; many become sickly and succumb, leaving only 
the strongest to grow to trees. Therefore, if for no other reason, 
the Martins could not use the same tract for more than a few 
years. 

Twelve years ago the roost was on Arsenal Island, ten miles 
below the present location ; in the meantime it was above the 
•city, near the mouth of the Missouri ; the last two seasons it has 
been on Gabberet Island, opposite the northern end of St. Louis. 
The island is nothing but a long and narrow sandbank of 
extremely variable dimensions according to the stage of the river 
The highest part, less than a quarter of a mile in width, and 
twenty to twenty-five feet above the low water mark, is covered 
by the willow thicket. During the flood of last spring the whole 
island was under water, but with the falling of the water during 
the summer an immense sandbank arose all along its western 
side, as well as at its foot, and continued growing until with a 
stage of three feet above low water in September it reached, in 
places, a width of a quarter of a mile. 

On the east the island is separated from the Illinois shore by a 
narrow and shallow arm of the river, forming large mud flats in 
July and August, and drying up more and more, as the low stage 
of water continued through September and October. The highest 
part of the island, an area of about twenty acres, is where the 
willows stand thickest, and the number of Martins that resorted 
there nightly was beyond computation, especially during the latter 
half of August, when they were most numerous. After the first 
of September it became soon evident that they were on the 



2 A. WiDMANN, Gabberet Isla7td Bird Roosts. I Jan." 

decrease, though still plentiful until a cool spell about the middle 
of the month, after which only a few hundreds were remaining, 
and the last were seen on the 24th. In July and August some of 
the Martins arrive in the vicinity of the roost as early as an hour 
before sunset, alighting on isolated trees along the shores, or 
soaring high above the island. Half an hour before sunset some 
begin to alight on the sandbank, preferably on parts lately 
exposed and still damp. From now on Martins are pouring in 
from all sides, sometimes in regular streams, some more or less 
high, others low over the water, on which innumerable splashes 
reveal their presence at long distances. 

At sunset a glance over the sandbank reminds one involuntarily 
of a sheet of sticky fly-paper, well covered with flies, so thickly 
dotted is the sand with Martins on areas of ten to twenty acres in 
extent. After the sun has set the Martins leave the sand in 
detachments and begin to mass and revolve above the willows. 
During the following ten or fifteen minutes there is a constant 
flying up from the sand and a coming of new arrivals, which take 
their places on the sand. 

While the host on the sand is getting slowly smaller, the cloud 
above the island grows fast and forms a whirling mass of excited 
birds, uttering low and short, though melodious, calls ; everyone 
moving in circles of its own, but the whole cloud swinging hither 
and thither, now low, then high, now contracting, then expanding, 
sometimes almost disappearing in the distance, then rolling back 
again in an instant, only to enact another stampede in another 
direction. 

About twenty minutes after sunset the first Martins descend 
into the willows. This descent reminds one of that of Swifts into 
a chimney. The revolving cloud becomes funnel-shaped, almost 
touching the treetops, and a number of birds drop from the funnel 
into the willows, while the rest of the birds sweep on, rushing 
out and scattering in all directions, but in a moment all are flowing 
back, and the performance is repeated again and again until all 
are down. 

During the early part of the evening we notice hardly any other 
kinds of Swallows among the Martins, but after sunset, when they 
begin to circle, we become suddenly aware of the presence of a 



^iSS^"^] WiUMANN, aahherct Island Bird Roosts. 25 

number of Bank Swallows {Clivicola riparia). They arrive low 
over the water in laro;e droves and immediately mix with the flying 
Martins, taking; part in all their evolutions and manoeuvres, and 
their squeaky voices become soon prominent amidst the soft notes 
of Progne. 

Just before dark the region along the water's edge is fairly 
swarming with new arrivals, and in the same degree as the descent 
of Martins progresses, the proportion of the little Bank Swallows 
increases until toward the end they constitute the majority of the 
whirling birds. A few troops even arrive after all are down 
behind the willow tops, when night is getting ready to cover the 
island with her protecting wings. But even now are the roosting 
birds not yet at rest, and there is considerable stir and commotion 
going on among them. Numbers of restless birds are fluttering 
among the willow tops, apparently exchanging uncomfortable 
perches for more desirable ones, and a strange, confused noise is 
heard. 

Martins and Bank Swallows are now sitting promiscuously in 
the upper branches of the willows, often half a dozen in one 
treetop and several on one little branch. This good-fellowship 
lasts throughout the season from the time they leave the nest 
till their common departure in September. 

Swallows belong to our most sociable birds ; not only do they 
vastly congregate among themselves, they also associate with other 
birds of gregarious habits, especially Blackbirds. 

Since the feeding habits of the two families differ widely, the only 
opportunity for their association is to be found in the roost, and 
our great Gabberet roost bears splendid witness of such an affili- 
ation, for the same willows that harbor the Martins and Bank 
Swallows are the nightly resort for thousands of Bronzed Crackles 
and Cowbirds. 

There are plenty of Crackles' roosts scattered over the 
country, and they are a common occurrence in the larger river 
bottoms, but the arrival of the big flocks on the island in the 
evening is nevertheless a very pretty sight and an acceptable pre- 
lude to the grand spectacle to follow. They come to the roost 
pretty early in the evening, when the sun is yet above the horizon, 
and all the flocks that come from the Missouri side invariably 



26 WiDMANN, Gabberet Isla?id Bird Roosts. \ ^^^ 

^^ L Jan- 

cross the river at the same spot, flying at a height of several 
hundred feet until near the island when they swoop down and in 
a bold curve, almost touching the water, rush over the sandbank 
and enter the willows at once. Here they begin their usual con- 
certs, and the din of their unmelodious voices may, at a distance, 
be likened to escaping steam. 

Of infinitely more interest than the Crackles are their relatives, 
the Cowbirds, because, like the Martins, they make themselves 
interesting at this particular season by their absence from most 
places where they were common a short time before. That this 
pronounced socialist and plebeian seeks the company of the aris- 
tocratic, high-born, purple-robed Martin may be a fact ; the 
association seems to be intentional, not accidental. Years ago, 
when on Arsenal Island, the Cowbirds were with them ; willow 
tracts are plentiful along the river, but our Cowbirds choose now 
that on Gabberet, the one in which the Martins roost. And they 
do not only roost together in the same thicket, they also visit the 
same sandbank before retiring. 

The Crackles fly directly into the willows, but the Cowbirds, 
which also arrive in large, unmixed flocks, after alighting at the 
edge of the willows, come down upon the sand and stay there a 
few minutes. While the Martins keep more to the water's edge, 
the Cowbirds prefer the vicinity of the willows, into which they 
retreat at the approach of danger. In some spots they actually 
mingle, but the Cowbirds never stay long and have all retired 
before the Martins descend. Though they are all Cowbirds, no 
other Blackbirds among them, they show, at this time of molting, 
such a great variety of dresses, that it is hard to believe they 
belong all to one species. There are some old males in fine 
feathers with the chocolate head, but there are others with the 
chocolate entirely replaced by light gray in sharp contrast with 
the black of the rest of the body. This is a very striking dress ; 
but there are many others much quainter, though not easily 
describable, where gray, in some almost whitish, blotches occur 
irregularly on different parts of the body, which has already 
assumed the glossy black of the adult male. Then there are the 
different shades of brown, gray and bufif of the old and young 
females in different stages of molt. The Cowbirds are fre- 



iSgs^^l WiDMANN, Gabheret Island Bird A'oos/s. 27 

quenters of the roost for the same period as the Martins, 
beginning early in summer and deserting it, with the last 
Martins, about the middle of September. 

About a mile north of this great roost is the Crow's roost, 
where the Crows of the neighborhood, some 400-500, congregate 
all summer and form the nucleus of a much larger gathering later 
in the year. 

The mud fiats which separate the island from the Illinois main- 
land are the favorite feeding grounds of the Killdeers {y^gialitis 
vocifera)^ Spotted, and Solitary Sandpipers (^Adiiis macuJdria and 
Totanus soUtarms)^.2.\\6. they roost on the large sandbank, where 
their voices are heard after nightfall. In daytime, as well as at 
night, they act as decoys for the hordes of northern Plovers and 
Waders, which are trooping down the great thoroughfare during 
August and September. On some days the mud flats are fairly 
swarming M'ith the most interesting bird life, when Pectoral, 
Baird's, and Least Sandpipers (Tringa maculata, bairdii and 
minutilld) feed harmoniously with Semipalmated and Belted Piping 
Plovers {^gialitis seviipabnata and AL. meloda circumcinda) in 
the same pools. 

On September 7 the island enjoyed the visit of a distinguished 
guest, the Turnstone {Arenaria interpres), a lovely bird with a 
strikingly beautiful dress and melodious voice. 

The two most interesting summer sojourners of Gabberet 
Island are the Song Sparrow (^Melospiza fasciata) and the Least 
Tern (^Sterna anti//ariim) . The former finds here his most 
southern record for this section of the country, and the latter 
is remarkable for his good luck in escaping so long the notice of 
the egg-hog and pot-hunter in close proximity to a big city. The 
high water of early summer retarded nesting so much that the 
young were still begging for food in the latter part of August, 
and the species remained until the second week in September. 



28 NowOTNY, TJie Carolina Paroquet in Captivity. Ffai^ 

THE BREEDING OF THE CAROLINA PAROQUET 
IN CAPTIVITY.i 

BY DR. NOWOTNY. 

At the end of October, 1878, I bought a pair of Carolina 
Paroquets in Vienna. At first they were foolishly shy and very 
much worried, dashing about and huddling together. Soon, how- 
ever, by quiet, gentle treatment, they became > tame, the female 
sooner than the male ; and in three months I had succeeded in 
taming them to such an extent that both would take to my hand, 
the female would fly on my head, and both would take their food 
from my hand or mouth. Gradually they became tamer, and now 
they fear me very little ; and when I return from some trip, they 
fairly bow, rejoicing, and at the same time raising up their wings. 
At first their noise was often unbearable, but this has changed 
completely. Since the close of their breeding period they seldom 
scream ; I hear only faint, pleasing sounds or angry notes from 
the female, at times a short call or cackling during copulation. 
Before and during the breeding period they were passionately 
fond of chewing up soft wood, especially limbs of poplar as thick 
as a finger. Every day a perching stick of soft wood one and a 
half times the thickness of a finger was destroyed. The female 
was the destroyer, the male being less destructive. This, too, 
has now changed, but I dare not allow them to remain unwatched 
when I open the cage (which is done every forenoon). The 
perch is not molested, but the curtains, wall paper, doors, win- 
dows, and the like are not safe from the attacks of the female.. 
The male destroys nothing. 

They are very fond of music. When my wife places the zither 
table near the cage in the evening, lights the lamp and begins to 
play, then rejoicing, headraising, bowing and wing beating takes 
place without measure. Similar pleasure was expressed by both 
when we lit the Christmas tree, December, 1878. The male is 

' Translated for ' The Auk ' by Paul Bartsch from Die Fremdlandischen 
Stubenvogel, ihre Naturgeschichte, Pfiege und Zucht, by Dr. Karl Russ,. 
Vol. Ill, pt. ID, pp. S3S, et seq. 



°8g's J NowoTNY, Tlic Cafolhid Paroquet in Captivity. 2Q 

more virtuous than the female. He possesses only good qualities. 
The female pilfers, is jealous of my attention, jealous of food, and 
curious. When I hold a hand mirror before her and then move 
away she flies after it and upon it and gazes at her own picture 
with great interest. 'I'hey are both very susceptible to praise. 
They know exactly whether I praise, threaten, or reprimand them, 
and fly into the cage as soon as I raise my hand, at times, how- 
ever, with slight resistance. In the cage they are more confident 
than they are outside, and permit themselves to be taken by the 
feet, to liave their heads scratched, and allow me to play with 
their bill with my finger, etc. 

As to food, they like variety. I have tried many things, and 
found that they love 'to eat occasionally hemp, oats (this they pre- 
ferred shelled), sunflower seed, Senegal, glanzsamen \PhaIarisI\ 
beachnuts, seeds of Finns abies, rice (especially in the ear) , maize 
(especially half ripe), bread, the soft parts of light bread, but only 
when fresh, and not old, and soaked in water or milk ; also many 
kinds of berries, as berberitzen \_Berberis vulgaris']^ schlehen 
[Frtmiis spinosa\ weissdorn [hawthorn], etc. Tidbits for both 
are the seeds of Pinus ceinbra., fresh cherries, grapes, and rose 
pods. They are especially fond of the fruit of Thuja, but most 
of all they love the fruit of the sycamore {Platanus) ; with these I 
have been feeding them from August until now (December) , and 
they do not tire of them. As soon as I enter the room with these, 
they leave all other food and fly toward me at once, the female 
perching on my head, the male on my hand, from which he takes 
the food and flies avv^ay, with it. The other ball I then give to 
the female ; and now they clean them completely with great zest. 
I have, however, never been able to observe them swallowing any- 
thing, although they whet their tongue on the pulled off material. 
They may eat and waste burdock, apple seeds, maize, and wheat 
in their native haunts when forced by hunger ; mine refused all 
these, as well as spinach, lettuce, and other vegetables, also white 
millet, fruit, ant larvs, and red millet. 

In February, 1879, I desired to allow them to nest. They 
entered the breeding box, and became more shy, but soon the box 
was demolished, although made of hard wood. As they made no 
attempt at nesting, I removed the breeding box after about two 



■20 NowoTNY, The Carolina Paroquet in Captivity. LJan. 

weeks. On May 22, 1879, ^ separated them, and placed each in 
a separate cage. This caused much lamentation. May 24 I 
hung another breeding box in a new square tinned cage; the 
edges which were turned toward to the cage, as well as its open- 
ing, were capped with tin. I lined it with wood shavings mixed 
with insect powder. I placed the cage, as well as the breeding 
box, in a gloomy place, and the pair soon became reconciled. 
On June 17 I noticed a sagging on the female; from this time 
until the beginning of August she ate much mortar in the morning 
before she touched food, preferring this to sepia, which she only 
bedaubed ; she also eagerly crushed limbs of poplar (less so those 
of willow, and other kinds not at all) , but scarcely touched soaked 
feed and ant larvae. During the entire breeding time she favored 
the above mentioned food. She lost many feathers from the 17th 
to the 2gth of June, almost daily two or three large ones, and on 
the 28th of June eight ventral feathers. On June 29 I found two 
' eggs on the bottom of the cage (not in the breeding-box) . Both 
birds sat outside of the box in the cage upon the perch. I placed 
the eggs in the breeding box, they watching. In the afternoon of 
the same day, the female sat on the bottom of the cage (the male 
beside her) , having a third egg beneath her. I also took this and 
placed it in the box, where I found three eggs, four in all. On 
this day the female lost about twenty ventral feathers. On June 
30 a fifth egg lay on the bottom of the cage, and this I likewise 
removed to the breeding box. At ten a. m. the female bathed her 
head, and both birds remained outside of the box, as well as the 
whole day of the ist of July. This was very aggravating to me. I 
looked into the breeding box and found that all the eggs had been 
picked and sucked ; very likely this was the first set. They were 
unable to effect copulation in the beginning, in January, which 
was now accomplished with ease. Between the 2d and 6th of 
July the female deposited two more eggs, these being the sixth 
and seventh. These I took away from them, as I was in doubt 
of good results, to have them hatched by a hen ; they were 
destroyed, however, through carelessness. 

On July 19 the female laid another egg, and soon after, I do 
not know when, a ninth and tenth. These three were deposited 
in the breeding box and now both birds sat on them assiduously, 



iSqS 1 NowoTNY. The Carolina Paroguct in Captivity. -3 l 

especially the female who was never seen to leave the box. ()\\ 
August 9 I heard a young one scream, and on the loth two were 
calling; I do not know when the tiiird was hatched. On the 6th 
of September 1 found the smaller of the three young ones on the 
floor of the cage. I returned it to the breeding box. Soon after 
I saw the larger one lying on the floor. It is very likely that the 
old birds had thrown them out of the box. I now removed the 
nesting box entirely, thinking that the parents did not wish to 
have them in there and fearing that, if I left them on the floor of 
the cage and allowed the box to remain, the old ones would 
remain in it and leave the young ones to perish. I therefore 
constructed a nest of wood shavings for them on the bottom of 
the cage and placed both young ones on it (the third one had 
died in the meantime, perhaps of starvation) . The old ones 
immediately sat near them and fed them well until the 17th of 
September. 

On this day we departed from Vienna for Meran. The two 
had already attained green wings and tails ; the older one also had 
red feathers above the bill and on the under parts. I placed all 
four in a transportation box supplied with shavings, and did not 
allow them to leave my hands during the entire trip, which, how- 
ever, only lasted twenty-four hours. They arrived very well in 
Meran, but, alas ! the parents refused to feed the young. I now 
fed them with shelled hemp, light bread and shelled and cut sun- 
flower seed. All seemed well, but on the morning of the 23d 
of September the younger one appeared as if dead. We warmed 
it and fed it but the feet remained lax and motionless. At night 
it was dead. It had a yellow blister in the throat. The oldest 
one was lively and well. It moved about in the sun and ate 
heartily. But on the eve of the 24th it was taken sick, presenting 
similar symptons, and also died. The old ones remained well ; 
they mated again on the 2nd of October. 

My female does not differ from the male either in the color 
of the inner vane or in the distribution of the orange red ; I have 
only noticed a difference in the fact that its head is round, while 
that of the male is somewhat flattened ; further differences can 
be noted in their ways, eyes and manner, which cannot be 
described. The oldest young one had already attained many 



•2 2 Oberholser, Description of a Nexv Amazilia. \]L\ 

dense strong red feathers above the bill at the age of eight 
weeks. It was very tame at this age and when I placed it on 
the ground and walked away ten steps, it followed me and 
crawled upon my shoe. It partook by itself of the offered food. 
The old birds are very devoted to each other and are always 
together, and if one flies away the other follows immediately. 
They stand cold very well, but enjoy having their under parts 
touched by warm breath, for which purpose they cling to the wires 
and permit me to breath upon them, pecking me on the nose 
tenderly at the same time. In the cage I can play with them as 
I wish and even take them in my hands, but I dare not grasp 
or close the hand, for then they slip away at once, screaming.' 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW AMAZILIA. 

BY HARRY C. OBERHOLSER. 

" A COMPARISON of specimens of Amazilia cefviniventris Gould, 
from Texas, with examples from the State of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
seems to indicate that there exist two geographical races of this 
species, one of which is without a name. As the type of A. 
cerviniventris came from Cordova, Vera Cruz,^ it is proposed to 
characterize the Texas form as 

Amazilia cerviniventris chalconota, subsp. nov. 

Chars. SUBSP. — Amazilia A. cervitiiveiitri ajftjiis, sed abdomine crisso 
que consficue dibitioribus ' notaeo paulo magis aureo tincto. 

Al., 52-59 (55.2) mm.; caud., 31-38 (33.9) mm.; cvilm. exp., 20-22 (21) 
mm. 

Habitat. — Valley of the Lower Rio Grande, with the coast region of 
southern Texas, north to Bee County, and south in winter into eastern 
Mexico. 

'Carolina Paroquets have been living in the Zoological Garden at Frankfort 
a. M. for ten to twelve years ( according to the report of Dr. Max Schmidt) . 
— Karl Russ. 

2 Gould, Proc. Z06I. Soc. Lond., 1856, 150. 



°i89^^] Ohkkiiolser, Description of a Nexv Atnazilia. 33 

Description. — Tjpe, male adult, No. 134941, U. S. Nat. Mu.s. ; Beeville, 
Texas, May 29, 1894; F. 15. Armstrong. — Upper parts bronze green, the 
cervix less golden ; tips of coronal feathers broadly slate color, giving to 
the head a dingy appearance; feathers of the superior tail-coverts edged 
with chestnut. Wings dull, dark, metallic purple; tectrices, except the 
primary coverts, bronze green like the back. Tail chestnut, the two cen- 
tral rectrices greenish bronze, all the others externally margined, and the 
outer ones narrowly, the inner broadly, tipped with the same color. 
Throat and breast glittering green ; central portion of abdomen ochraceous 
buff, lower tail-coverts somewhat darker ; two pure white down tufts, one 
on either side of anal region, these almost wholly concealed by the con- 
tour feathers; flanks pale cinnamon rufous, mixed, especially on the 
anterior portions, with bronze green; under wing-coverts and axillars 
greenish bronze; edge of wing light cinnamon rufous. 

From Amazilia cerviniventris this new subspecies may be readily 
discriminated by the much Ughter color of the posterior lower 
parts, in this respect there being more difference than exists 
between true Amazilia cervifiiventris and A. yucatanensis. Among 
the birds from Texas (16 in number) this character is quite 
constant. The upper parts are appreciably more golden in hue, 
although this can be regarded as only an average distinction, for 
some examples of cerviimientris are fully as golden bronze above 
as is chalconota. There seems to be little if any difference in size. 

A specimen from Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, on the Rio 
Grande, has the abdomen more deeply colored than the Texas 
birds ; in fact, almost as dark as the palest examples of cervijii- 
vejitris. It is thus rather intermediate between chalconota and 
cerviniventris., but is apparently nearer the former. A specimen 
from ' Mexico ' (No. 38635, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.) is quite indis- 
tinguishable from some examples of chalconota., and, although no 
date is attached, may very safely be considered a migrant and 
referred to this form. 

Among the Texas specimens there is evident considerable indi- 
vidual variation, part of which is undoubtedly due to age. Some 
have the posterior lower parts much lighter than others, the type 
representing in this respect about the average. But even the 
darkest specimens are easil)^ separable from typical cerviniventris. 
The extent of the bronze on the tail-feathers is quite variable. 
In one bird (No. 142258, U. S. Nat. Mus.) this color is much 



7 A. Oberholser, Description of a New Amazilia. ff^'^'^ 

reduced, for, with the exception of the extreme bases of the cen- 
tral feathers, and very narrow edgings to the exterior rectrices, the 
entire tail is chestnut. In some examples, as in the one just 
mentioned, this bronze green on the rectrices is partially or wholly 
replaced by a dark metallic purple, very like the color of the wing 
quills. Some specimens have the rufous margins to the upper 
tail-coverts much broader and more conspicuous, this being pos- 
sibly an indication of immaturity, although in none of the birds 
examined is this marking entirely absent. The color of the upper 
parts presents quite an appreciable variation, being in some cases 
much less golden than in others. Owing to narrower slate col- 
ored edging of the feathers on the crown, that part in some 
specimens is very nearly like the back, although in many it is 
noticeably even duller than in the type. An individual difference 
is apparent in also the shade of the throat, some having the green 
much more yellowish than others. 

This Hummingbird was first recorded from the United States 
by Dr. J. C. Merrill,^ who captured a specimen at Fort Brown^ 
Texas, in 1876. While it is at some places within our borders an 
abUndant summer resident, its range seems to be quite restricted, 
for in very few of the numerous papers on the birds of Texas is 
any mention made of the species. So far as the present writer 
has been able to ascertain, there are in the State only four locali- 
ties where Amazilia c. chalconota has been taken. These are Fort 
Brown, Brownsville, Corpus Christi, and Beeville. Of the last 
mentioned, which is the northernmost record, there appears to be 
no published account. There are a^vailable no specimens from 
the State of Tamaulipas, in Mexico, so that it is impossible to 
determine to which form the breeding birds from this region 
belong. 

True Amazilia cerviniventj-is exhibits a range of individual vari- 
ation similar to that existing in Amazilia c. chalconota. Only two 
of the specimens here referred to cervinitsentris are with any diffi- 
culty to be distinguished from chalconota. One of these, from 
Tlacotalpan, Vera Cruz, is apparently an immature bird ; and 
though spmewhat intermediate in the color of the abdomen, seems 

' Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, 1877, 26. 



Vol, XV 



J ' Ohkriiolser, Dc^cripiio)! of a New Atnoziliit 'IC 



be nearer cerTi/i/Tc/ifn's. Tlie other example is a female from 
the same locality, and was taken on May 28, 1894. ' So far as the 
color of its posterior lower parts is concerned, it can scarcely be 
separated from the darker examples of chaicohota,- thou<;h the 
lower tail-coverts are more like ccrvinivc)it7-is ; but in view of the 
date and locality it would appear to be considered better as an 
unusually pale cerviniventris than as a belated migrant of chakoiiota. 

One specimen of A. cerviniventris (No. 38634, Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist.) is from Cordova, Vera Cruz, the type locality, and is one 
of the specimens obtained by Sallts the collector of Gould's type 
specimens. It may therefore be regarded as typical of this form. 
The two darkest birds in the series are respectively from Coatzo- 
cualcos and Tlacotalpan, Vera Cruz, but others from both of these 
localities are noticeably less deeply colored. 

In Amazilia yucataneusis the posterior lower parts are almost 
ferrugineous, quite different in appearance from the cinnamon 
rufous of the two dark Vera Cruz examples of cerviniventris ; 
though in respect to the shade of this color, these latter more 
nearly approach yucatanensis than any of the other specimens 
now at hand. But the~extension of bronze green over the breast 
and sides is very strongly indicated in these two birds, leaving no 
doubt of their correct identification with cerviniventris. Only one 
example from the cerviniventris series shcnvs a marked approach 
X.0 yucatanensis in the lateral extension of the green of the breast. 
This specimen (No. 155313, U. S. Nat. Mus.) is from Ocozucu- 
antla, Chiapas, Mexico, and was collected Aug. 19, 1895. At 
first sight it shows scarcely more green upon the sides than do 
the specimens of Amazilia yucatanensis examined, but upon close 
inspection this color is seen to extend as a very slight wash con- 
siderably farther back than in yucatanensis. Furthermore, this 
Chiapas bird is so very much duller and paler below th?iX\ yucatan- 
ensis that its identity Avith cerviniventris can hardly be questioned. 
The evidence presented by the specimens above mentioned seems 
not sufficient to establish intergradation between cerviniventris and 
yucatanensis, and both are therefore here accorded full specific 
rank. 

The author's thanks are tendered to INIr. Robert Ridgway for 
the use of the National Museum series of Amazilia: to Dr. C. 



36 



Anthony, Ttvo Netv Birds from the Pacific Coast. 



r All 

Lja 



Hart Merriam for a similar favor with regard to the collection of 
the Biological Survey ; to Dr. J. A. Allen and Mr. F. M. Chapman 
for the loan of material from the American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Measurements of Amazilia cervitiive?itris cervi}iive?ttris. 





Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
Culmen. 


Average of ten specimens . . 

Maximum 

Minimum 


55-1 

S3 


34-9 

37 

34 


20.7 
21.5 
20 



Measurements of Amazilia cervi?iiventris chalconota. 





Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
Culmen. 


Average of thirteen specimens 

Maximum 

Minimum 


55-2 

59 

52 


33-9 

38 

31 


21 
22 
20 



TWO NEW BIRDS FROM THE PACIFIC COAST 
OF AMERICA. 



BY A. W. ANTHONY. 



Anous stolidus ridgwayi, subsp. nov. Ridgway's Noddy. 

Subsp. char. — Much darker and I'ess brown than A. raussaui,vQSQmh\\ng 
in this respect A. galapagensis, from which it differs in much paler cap. 

Type No. 8220, collection A. W. A., Socorro Island, Mexico, May 5, 
1897. Chin, throat, neck, and chest uniform deep brownish slate, but 
darker on the lores and above the eyes. A small white spot on the 



^°g^^| yVnthony, Tivo New Birch from the Pdcijir Codst. 'in 

upper posterior border of the eyelid. I^ower lid white toi- nearly its 
entire length. Cap delicate pearlj' gray, almost silvery white on the 
anterior portion, in some H.L^hts gradually blending with color of nape on 
the occiput. Rest of plumage deep slaty brown : primaiMes blackisii. 
Wing, 263 mm. Tail, longest feather, 160; graduation, 53 ; cuhnen,4o; 
depth, II ; tarsus, 25. 

Hal)., Cocos and Socorro Islands, Pacific Ocean. 

Named in honor of Mr. R. Ridgway, whose notes on the Cocos Island 
birds (Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago, p. 645) first called my atten- 
tion to this undescribed form. 

Ridgway's Noddy was nesting in abundance on a small rock 
almost a mile west of the western end of Socorro Island. After 
several unsuccessful attempts, a landing was made at the risk of 
life and limb, and a series of eggs obtained. They were all laid 
on bare rock without any attempt at nest building ; often placed 
on protruding shelves but little wider than the egg, and how they 
escaped rolling off into the sea is a mystery. Nearly all of the 
eggs taken May 12 were fresh, though several downy young ones 
were seen, together with the hundreds of young Sooty Terns 
(^Sterna fuUginosa var. crissalis Baird) that swarmed all over the 
top of the rock. The Noddies were not seen at San Benedicte 
Island, 35 miles north of Socorro, nor at Clarion Island, 240 
miles west. 

Oceanodroma kaedingi, sp. nov. Kaeding's Petrel. 

Sp. char. — -Similar to O. leucorhoa, but much smaller with much less 
deeply forked tail. Type No. 8718, coll. A. W. A. At sea near Guada- 
loupe Island, Lower California, July 25, 1897. 

General plumage sooty black. Head and neck more plumbeous, greater 
and median wing-coverts pale sooty brownish. Longer upper tail-coverts 
white with black shafts. Lateral lower coverts edged with white. Rec- 
trlces sooty black, to base. 

Wing, 145 mm.; central rectrices, 73; lateral rectrices, S3; tarsus, 21 ; 
middle toe and claw, 20; culmen, 15. 

Hab., from Socorro and Clarion Islands to Southern California. 

There seems to be considerable variation in the extent of the 
white on the upper tail-coverts in the series before me. A few 
have the coverts black with whitish patches on the sides, while 
one has totally black coverts but is otherwise similar to the white- 



7 8 Anthony, Four Sea Birds neiv to North America. \\txv 

rumped birds. A parallel example is found in a large series of 
O. socorroefisis, the type of which has whitish patches On the sides 
of the rump (lateral upper coverts). In a series of over loo skins 
I only found about 3 per cent, so marked. A few are nearly as 
white on rump as true leucorhoa^ but the largest part of the series, 
fully 95 per cent, have sooty black coverts above and below- 
Two or more species might easily be made from the series, but 
unfortunately the light rumped birds are found in the same bur- 
rows with the other birds. 



FOUR SEA BIRDS NEW TO THE FAUNA OF NORTH 

AMERICA. 

BY A. W. ANTHONY. 

During the past spring and summer the following species were 
noted between San Diego and Cape San Lucas. All are new to 
our fauna and one, at least, Phaethon rubricaudus is a decidedly 
unexpected addition to our birds. 

On March 17, between San Geronimo Island and Guadalupe 
Island, a small white-bodied Albatross several times circled about 
the schooner but left us before any one could obtain a shot. Half 
an hour later it reappeared and was killed proving to be an adult 
specimen of Diomedea immtitabilis Rothschild, described from 
Laysan Island, between Hawaii and China. 

In April, 1887, I saw a white Albatross within five miles of the 
spot where the above specimen was taken, and the following year 
two were seen off San Quentin, fifty miles further north. As none 
were taken the identity is in doubt but I am inclined to think they 
were the present species. 

About Cape San Lucas Fuffimis aitrkularis Townsend, was 
fairly common April 23, and again in early June. Associated 
with them were two species, one of which agreed very well with 



^"iSoS^l Merriam, a Ne-iv Oxvl from Pitgct Sound. IQ 

the descriptions of P. bulleri., but as none were taken it would be 
unsafe to venture an opinion as to its identity. The second 
species was seen again about San Benedicte and Socorro Islands 
where it was nesting. It proved to be Puffinus ciineatus Salvin, 
heretofore known only from the Bonin Islands south of Japan, 
Krusenstern Island, and the Hawaiian Islands. 

On July 23, a Red-tailed Tropic Bird, Phaethon rubricaiidus, was 
shot a short distance north of Guadalupe Island, thus adding the 
third species of the genus to our fauna. The Red-tailed Tropic 
Bird has, I think, heretofore been known only from the South 
Pacific. Whether it is of regular occurrence in our southwestern 
waters will be ascertained when we have a better knowledge of 
the pelagic species of this little known region. 



SYRNIUM OCCIDENTALE CAURINUM, A NEW 
OWL FROM THE PUGET SOUND REGION. 

BY C. HART MERRIAM. 

In the last edition of the Check- List of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union (1895), and the second edition of Ridgway's 
'Manual of North American Birds' (1896), California is given as 
the northern limit of range of the Spotted Owl, Syrnium occidejitale. 
But in ' The Auk ' for January, 1893 (Vol. X, pp. 17-18) , Mr. S. N. 
Rhoads records two specimens from twelve miles east of Tacoma 
— a locality, by the way, some miles distant from the alleged 
'' western foothills of the Cascades." The only other Puget Sound 
specimen of which I have any knowledge was killed in the city 
•of Seattle a year or two ago, and was obtained by Mr. Henry W. 
Hindshaw, who mounted it for the Museum of the University of 
Washington, where it was recently examined by Dr. A. K. Fisher 
and myself. 

On June 22 of the present year (1897), one of my assistants, 
Mr. E. k. Preble, killed an adult female at Mt. Vernon, in Skagit 



40 Reed, The Terns of Great Gull Island, N. T. \j^n. 

Valley, Washington, A couple of months later I saw a specimen 
nailed up on a log cabin in the valley of the Soleduc River, at 
the north base of the Olympic Mountains, and about the same 
time (the last week of August) saw two living owls in the 
Olympic Mountains which I believe were unquestionably this 
species. Owing to the density of the forest and great height of 
the trees, owls, though common, are seldom seen in this region. 

Comparison of the northwestern Spotted Owl with the type 
specimen of S. occidentale shows it to be a well-marked subspecies, 
differing, like so many birds of the same region, in darker and 
richer coloration. 

Syrnium occidentale caurinum, subsp. nov. 

Type from Mt. Vernon, Skagit Valley, Washington, No. i57473> ? 
ad., U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey Coll. Collected June 32, 1897 by 
E. A. Preble. Orig. no. 344. Wing 320 mm., tail (middle feathers) 205 
mm. 

Characters. — Similar to 5. occidentale but everywhere darker. In 
general the white spots and markings are smaller; the dark areas larger 
and darker This is especially noticeable on the head and back where 
the white spotting is reduced to a minimum. The dark markings on 
the sides of the breast, flanks and feet are very much darker and more 
extensive than in occidentale. But perhaps the most striking difference 
is on the wings. The primaries are not only very much darker but the 
broad whitish tips have disappeared and are represented by an indistinct 
pale band mixed with a little whitish on the outer side of the vane and on 
some of the feathers a faint whitish terminal edging. The three or four 
pale bars nearest the tips of the feathers are also obsolescent. ^ 



THE TERNS OF GREAT GULL ISLAND, N. Y., 
DURING 1897. 

BY J. HARRIS ReED.1 

Great Gull Island is the smallest of the group of islands 
situated at the eastern end of Long Island, and contains about. 



' Read before the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, Oct. 21, 1897. 



^"Ihc^^ J 1^"-EI), The Terns of Circa t Cull hluiiJ, N. Y. 4 1 

eleven acres. Its shape is -Jong and narrow, with an irregular 
shore line, especially on the south side, and varies in width from 
about three hundred feet across its centre, to long narrow ends, 
making a total length of about three-quarters of a mile. The 
beach is rough and stony, and contains a great many large 
boulders scattered along the shore, especially at the east end, 
where they form, as it were, a broken reef reaching from the 
main land to the lighthouse, about a mile distant. At low tide 
these rocks stand well out of the water, and present a very con- 
spicuous appearance, with their white caps, stained and streaked 
with the excrement of the Terns, from their constant use as rest- 
ing places from year to year. 

The main land rises abruptly from the beach, with a perpen- 
dicular bank, from ten to fifteen feet high ; its surface is treeless, 
but is clothed with a coarse growth of grass and wild flowers, and 
a few small patches of shrubs or low bushes. Much interest has 
been taken during the last few years, in the protection of the 
colony of Terns, which makes this island its breeding grounds, 
and we are informed (Auk, Jan., 1897) that last year their num- 
bers reached about seven thousand pairs of birds. The Light- 
house Board has been called upon to assist in this work, and the 
keeper of the light has placed rude signs at different points along 
its banks, with a notice prohibiting the disturbing of their eggs. 

During the present year, the United States Government has 
ordered the erection of a fortification on this island, the work 
being contracted for by J. W. Hoffman & Co., of Philadelphia, 
Pa., who last April took possession of the island and made prep- 
aration for erecting the work. The plant consisted of a wharf on 
the north side of the island, about its centre, with a derrick there- 
on for the unloading of vessels. Five other derricks were also 
erected at different points on the island, for the construction of 
the work. Among the buildings erected, were a boiler house, 
storage house for the cements, tool house, blacksmith shop, oil 
house, steam concrete mixer, water tanks, cracked stone bin, hay 
shed and stable for a dozen horses, ice house, commissary, com- 
prising a store, two dining-rooms, two wash rooms, and a kitchen, 
with sleeping apartments above, eight shanties for the accommo- 
dation of a hundred or more workmen, an office for the contractors, 



42 Reed, The Terns of Great Gull Island, N. 2'. \^f^^ 

and three shanties for the use of the Government engineers. A 
line of railroad tracks was also run from the wharf to different 
parts of the work, for distributing materials with the aid of a 
small locomotive. A small electric light plant was also run, for 
the accommodation of the night workmen. Piles of various kinds 
of materials were also scattered about the island, such as stone, 
sand, coal, lumber, etc. 

The whole plant took up over one-half of the area of the island, 
leaving only a small portion of the two ends for the accommoda- 
tion of the Terns, who were compelled to divide themselves into 
two distinct colonies of about one thousand birds each. In these 
crowded quarters they congregated and laid their eggs, some in 
the grass, while others took to the bare patches of sand and tops 
of the large boulders along the beach. No sooner had the work- 
men discovered this than they began collecting them for eating 
purposes, as fast as they were laid. This was principally done 
by the negroes and Italians, who provided their own meals, and I 
was told by them that in some instances as many as a dozen eggs 
were eaten daily, by an individual. A great many were also col- 
lected out of curiosity, which were blown and carried away as 
keepsakes. On one occasion, a New York man visited the island, 
and collected a large basketful, which he was permitted to take away 
with him, with a promise not to return again. The crews of the 
vessels which landed there also participated in this shameful work. 

This wholesale robbery was kept up the entire season, and not 
a Tern's egg was permitted to hatch on the main land during the 
whole period ; and but few, if any, escaped undisturbed among 
those which nested on the boulders. I would say that it was 
almost impossible for Capt. Henry P. Field, or any one else, to 
do any protective work, under the circumstances, this season, 
for most of the depredations were done about daybreak, before 
the officials were up. Discouraged with such a reception, fully 
one-half of the colony of Terns disappeared, probably to breed 
elsewhere, but about eight hundred birds remained until late in 
September when they disappeared after the line storm, which 
occurs at this season. 

The Terns at all times seemed to be unsuspicious of harm, and 
could often be seen sitting on the guy ropes of the derricks about 



°8gg J Fifteenth Couffi-css of the A. O. U. A'l 

the work, or flying to and fro overhead, keeping up tlieir continual 
cries from sunrise to sunset. At low tide they congregated along 
the beach in search of food, or sunned themselves from the tops 
of the large boulders. I have observed them at times following 
up and feeding on the schools of mackerel, which is certainly a 
beautiful sight, reminding one, as they dodge about each other, of 
a kaleidoscope in rotation. 

The five weeks which I spent on the island, from August 26 
to October i, inclusive, being after the breeding season had 
closed, my information has been carefully collected from a large 
number of persons whose statements I have no reason to doubt, 
and who were not only eye witnesses, but participants in the 
spoils. 

I am also informed by good authority that the Government 
intends erecting another gun on the east end of the island ; if 
such be the case, it will consume all the earth from the remaining 
portions of the island, to form the breastworks, which will virtually 
leave nothing of Great Gull Island beyond the fortifications, and 
will completely destroy it as a resort for Terns. 



FIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF THE AMERICAN ORNI- 
THOLOGISTS' UNION. 

The Fifteenth Congress of the American Ornithologists' 
Union was held in New York City, November 8-1 1, 1S97. The 
business meeting took place on the evening of November 8 in the 
' Board Room ' of the American Museum of Natural History. 
The public sessions, lasting three days, were held in the Library 
of the Museum. 

Business Session. — The meeting was called to order by 
Vice-President Dr. C. Hart Merriam, in the absence of the Presi- 
dent, Mr. William Brewster. Eighteen Active IMembers were 
present. The Secretary's report gave the membership of the 
Union at the opening of the present Congress as 679, constituted 
as follows : Active, 46 ; Honorar3% iS ; Corresponding, 68 ; Asso- 
ciate, 547. 



44 ' Fifteenth Congress of the A. O. U. \¥^^ 

During the year the Union lost sixty-two members — seven by 
death, thirteen by resignation and forty-two were dropped for 
non-payment of dues. The members lost by death were Hein- 
rich Giitkei, an Honorary Member, who died on the Island of 
Heligoland, January i, 1897, aged 83 years; and Maj. Charles 
E. Bendire, U. S. A.,^ one of the Founders, an Active Member, 
and a Councillor, who died at Jacksonville, Fla., February 4, 
1897, aged 61. Also the following Associa.tes : Capt. Platte M. 
Thorne, U. S. A.,^ who died in Rochester, N. Y., March 16, 
1897, aged 59 ; Robert Hoe Lawrence,^ who died at Danville, 
111., April 27, 1897, aged 35 ; Charles Bill, of Springfield, Mass., 
who died in April, 1897 ; Louis W. Brokaw, who died at Carmel, 
Ind., September 3, 1897 ; and Robert A. Campbell of Phoenix, 
Arizona, particulars of whose death have not yet been received. 

The report of the Treasurer showed the finances of the Union 
to be in good condition. 

The officers of the previous year were all re-elected, with Mr. 
Ruthven Deane as a member of the Council, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Maj. Bendire. Dr. Charles W. Richmond, 
Assistant Curator, Department of Ornithology, U. S. National 
Museum, was elected an Active Member, and eighty-eight new 
members were added to the list of Associates. As a direct 
result of the Audubon Society movement, creating a popular inter- 
est in the study of birds, more women than usual were elected 
to associate membership. The usual reports of Standing Com- 
mittees were received. 

Public Session. First Day. — The meeting was called to 
order by Vice-President Merriam. Dr. J.'^A. Allen read a letter 
from Mr. Morris K. Jesup, President of the American Museum, 
welcoming the Union to the Museum. 

The reading of scientific papers began with one by Mr. Sylvester 
D. Judd on 'Protective Adaptations of Insects from an Ornitho- 



' For an obituary notice, see Auk, XIV, p. 254. 

^ For an obituary notice, see Ibid, p. 253; also Memorial Address in tlie 
present number. 

■'For an obituary notice, see Ibid, pp. 254-255. 
^ For an obituary notice see Ibid, p. 342. 



^"iSgS^J Fifteenth Congress of the A. O. U. 4c 

logical Point of View.' Remarks followed by Drs. Allen and 
Fisher, the author, and the Chair. 

Next came a commemorative address prepared by Dr. J. C. 
Merrill, U. S. A., entitled ' In Memoriam : Charles Emil JJendire.' 
In the absence of the author, it was read by Mr. D. (}. Klliot. 

The third title was ' Summer Birds of the West Virginia Spruce 
Belt,' by Dr. William C. Rives. Remarks followed by Dr. Coues, 
Messrs. J. A. Dakin, S. N. Rhoads, and the author. 

The opening paper of the afternoon session was by Frank M. 
Chapman, entitled ' Experiences of an Ornithologist in Mexico.' 
Remarks followed by Messrs. Elliot, Nelson, Oberholser, and the 
author. The members and visitors then repaired to the Lecture 
Room of the Museum, where Mr. Chapman illustrated the pre- 
ceding paper by lantern slides showing characteristic scenes of 
the life-zones of the State of Vera Cruz. Mr. Chapman then gave 
an exhibition of lantern slides of ' Birds in Nature ' from material 
contributed by himself and other members of the Union. This 
was followed by Professor A. S. Bickmore, with colored lantern 
slides showing recent advances in methods of visual instruction. 

Second Day. — The meeting was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent Merriam. The Secretary read a letter from the President, 
Mr. Brewster, who regretted that ill health prevented his attend- 
ance at the Congress. 

Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., gave, as the first paper of the morn- 
ing, * Is Uniformity in Local Lists Possible?' It was discussed 
by Drs. Faxon and Allen, Messrs. Baskett, Oberholser, and the 
author. 

The second title was ' Auduboniana and other Matters of present 
Interest,' by Dr. Elliott Coues. The portfolio carried by John 
James Audubon in Europe and America, and the original MS. of 
the first volume of his ' Ornithological Biography ' were exhibited 
by Dr. Coues. Two original bird-drawings by John \\'oodhouse 
Audubon, and some unpublished paintings of birds by Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes were also shown. 

The next paper was 'Ten days among the Birds of Northern 
New Hampshire,' by Judge John N. Clark. Remarks followed 
by Mr. William L. Baily. 

The fourth title was ' Some Notes on Liberian Birds,' by Harry 
C. Oberholser. , 



^6 Fifteenth Congress of the A. O. U. Ft n^ 

The first paper of the afternoon was ' The Great Roosts on 
Gabberet Island, opposite North St. Louis,' by Otto Widmann. 
In the absence of the author, it was read by Mr. Dutcher, who 
also remarked upon the paper. 

The next title was 'The Terns of Gull Island, New York,' by 
J. Harris Reed. As the author was not present, the paper was 
read by Mr. Dutcher. Remarks followed by Messrs. Dutcher and 
Chapman. 

The third paper, ' The Petrels of Southern California,' by A. W. 
Anthony, was read in his absence by Mr. Chapman. Remarks 
followed by Messrs. Chapman and Osgood, and Dr. Bishop. 

Then followed a paper by Rev. H. K. Job, entitled ' The 
Northern Raven breeding in New England.' In the absence of 
the author it was read by Mr. W. H. Osgood. 

Mr. Chapman gave further information regarding some of the 
slides shown by him on the previous day. 

The fifth title was the ' Breeding Habits of the Common Robin 
in Eastern Massachusetts,' by Reginald Heber Howe, Jr. The 
author not being present the paper was read by Mr. Harry C. 
Oberholser. Remarks followed by Messrs. J. Newton Baskett 
and Louis Agassiz Fuertes. 

Mr. Abbott H. Thayer, the eminent portrait painter, then gave 
an out-of-door demonstration of the underlying principle of pro- 
tective coloration, in continuation of his remarks on the subject 
at the previous Congress. Mr. Thayer showed a pair of decoys 
with the belly part cut off, so that in lying on the cut-off side they 
represented crouching birds or mammals. He then repeated 
upon them the coloring which he had exhibited at Cambridge 
upon entire decoys (decoys poised a few inches above the 
ground) . This, he said, was to more clearly illustrate what he 
stated in his first paper on protective coloration, namely, that the 
normal gradation of the sky's lighting is effaced by the color grada- 
tion of the animal at every point, the median dorsal line having the 
darkest markings, so that the gradation toward the white of the 
belly begins close to this dorsal line. Mr. Thayer placed the two 
decoys side by side on a plank, and covered one of them uniformly 
with the same dry earth which he spread about it on the plank, 
so that all of its visible surface and that of the plank on which it 



'*'°89^'^] Fifteenth Congress of the A. O. U. 47 

lay were absolutely of one tint — monochrome; yet it was con- 
spicuously visible at a long distance, because of its normal 
gradation of shading from the sky's light, although there was no 
underside visible to show a culmination of shadow. The other 
decoy he painted in imitation of a hare's or snipe's gradation, and 
so successfully that it became totally invisible at a distance of 
four or five yards. He explained that the statement in his first 
paper that not a feather of the upper surfaces of the woodcock 
and grouse had been artificially colored referred only to the 
feathers along the median dorsal region. 

The skin of a cottontail rabbit was exhibited, showing a most 
perfect gradation from black hairs of the middle of the back and 
over the shoulders to the white of the belly. 

This communication, in connection with that given at Cam- 
bridge a year ago, completes Mr. Thayer's admirable demonstration 
of his theory of the great underlying principle of protective color- 
ation in animals. 

In the evening an illustrated lecture on ' A Naturalist's Expedi- 
tion to East Africa' was given in the large lecture hall of the 
Museum by Mr. D. G. Elliot before an audience of some 1200 
persons. 

Third Day. — In the absence of the President and both Vice- 
Presidents, the meeting was called to order by the Secretary. 
Ex-President Allen was made Chairman pro td?n. Before proceed- 
ing to the reading of papers, resolutions were adopted thanking 
the Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History for a 
place of meeting and for other courtesies tendered to the Union ; 
and to the Linnaean Society of New York for generous hospital- 
ities extended to the Union during its Fifteenth Congress. 

The first paper of the morning was by Edwin I. Haines on 
' The Summer Birds of the Catskill Mountains, with remarks 
upon the Faunae of the Region.' Discussion followed by Messrs. 
Elliot, Butcher, and Batchelder, Drs. Coues and Dwight, and the 
author. 

The second paper was ' The Terns of Muskeget Island, Mass.,' 
by George H. Mackay. In the absence of the author, it was read 
by Mr> Butcher. Remarks followed by Mr. Fuertes. 

The third title was ' Remarks on an Exhibition of certain 



48 Fifteentk Congress of the A. O. U. Y^"^ 

Laridae,' by Dr. Elliott Coues. Discussion followed by Messrs. 
Dutcher, Elliot, Fuertes, and the author. 

As the opening paper of the afternoon, Mr. William Dutcher, 
Chairman of the ' Committee on Protection of North American 
Birds,' read the report of his committee for the past year. The 
report is published in this number of ' The Auk,' and will be 
issued separately as a pamphlet for free distribution. 

The next title was ' Remarks on a New Theory of the Origin 
of Bird Migration,' by Dr. J. A. Allen. Discussion followed by 
Dr. Coues, Mr. Dutcher, and the author. 

Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., showed a specimen of a Petrel 
(^Piiffinus assimilis) new to North America. Remarks followed 
by Dr. Coues, 

An informal talk on the Gyrfalcons was given by Mr. Chap- 
man, who exhibited specimens from Greenland and Lp-brador. 
Remarks followed by Dr. W. E. Hughes, who accompanied the 
first Peary expedition to North Greenland. 

The Union then adjourned to meet in Washington, D. C, 
November 14, 1898. 

Jno. H. Sage, Secretary. 

Portland, Conn.., Nov. 30, 1897. 



Vol. XVn r- 1 \T 4 ' .^ 

,8^8 J General Notes. 49 



GENERAL NOTES. 

Notes on the Egg of the Marbled Murrelet. — While collectinif this 
season off the Alaskan coast in the Prince of Wales Archipelago, it was 
my good fortune to take an &^^ of the Marbled Murrelet {Brachyrum- 
phiis tnarmoraius), the first I believe that is known to science. Mv head- 
quarters at that time were at the Indian village of Howkan, on Long 
Island, near the open end of Dixon's Entrance. The birds had been very 
abundant all winter and b}^ May had taken on their rusty summer dress. 
Females taken at that time plainly' indicated that they were about to nest, 
the ovaries containing eggs nearly formed. A careful w-atch failed to 
reveal any nesting sites and on inquiring of the Indians about it, thev 
told me that they had always supposed the bird to breed high up on the 
mountains in hollow trees; one old fellow declared he had found the 
young in such places. As I had previously noticed the birds flying about 
high overhead at dusk I resolved to look into the matter, and spent many 
hours searching for them in the woods, but without success. 

One day, the 23d of May, an Indian boy came to the cabin and 
wanted to borrow my ' scatter gun ' to shoot ducks. I gave him the gun 
and some shells, I also asked him to bring me back some 'divers' if he 
could. He returned in the afternoon with four Marbled Murrelets and 
said, in Chinook, that "he thought one had an egg in it," and suiting 
the action to the word, squeezed the bird's abdomen, and before I could 
prevent it I heard the egg break Taetween his fingers. On opening the bird 
I found the remains of a large clear green ttgg spotted with black and 
brown, which I patched up the best I could and sent to the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

By a promise of a reward for eggs I soon had all the Indian boys of the 
place after them. Many of the birds they got had incomplete eggs in 
them and others had already laid, but I never secured another perfect 
specimen. 

The birds were in the channels the entire summer, and on August 5 
I noticed the first young in the immature white plumage, and by the 
middle of October the old birds had also assumed the Avinter dress. — 
Geo. G. Cantwell, y««ert?<, Alaska. 

[The above mentioned egg, kindly sent to the National Museum by 
Mr. Cantwell, measures about 2.4S inches (length) and 1.3S (width). In 
shape it is elongate- ovate. The color is a greenish yellow, w-ith brownish 
violet and dark brown spots, the latter being larger at the base. — • "\V. L. 
Ralph ] 

Gull Dick. — The American Herring Gull (^Larus argentatus smiik- 
sonianus), known as ' Gull Dick' (see Auk, Vol. IX, p. 227 ; Vol. X, p. 76; 

/ 



50 General Notes. \^^^^ 

Vol. XI, p. 73; Vol. XII, p. 76; Vol. XITI, p. 78), was . observed for the 
last time in the vicinity of the Brenton Reef Light-ship on April 7, 1896, 
making twenty-four summers the bird had passed in this immediate local- 
ity. Captain Edward Fogarty, at present in charge of the ship, has 
known Dick for ten years. 

The failure of this bird to put in an appearance as usual in October,. 
1896, and his continued absence ever since, leaves but little doubt that he 
is dead, as are all the captains of the Light-ship except the present 
incumbent. Captain J^ogarty. Having recorded this bird's movements 
while alive for several years past in ' The Auk,' I now feel called upon to 
recoi-d his probable demise. — George H. Mackay, Na?itucket, Mass. 

An Uncommon Gull in Massachusetts. — On Maixh 24, 1897, I 
received from Manomet, Plymouth, a specimen of the Glaucous Gull 
(^Larus glaucus), shot several days before. It is in nearly full plumage, 

— creamy white all over, save for faint, indistinct markings of brownish 
on the wing-coverts and lower parts. — Herbert 'K. ]o^, JVorth Middle- 
boro, Mass. 

Leach's Petrel at Lancaster, N. H. — October i, 1897, a pair of 
Leach's Petrels {^Oceanodroma leucorhoa) were seen on a small pond in 
this town ; one of them was shot, and its skin is now in my possession. 
The bird was very fat, and it seems remarkable that it should be found 
here, at least 100 miles from the nearest coast. — F. B. Spaulding, Lan- 
caster., IV. H. 

The Redhead {Aythya americana) in post-nuptial Plumage in Autumn. 

— On November 10, 1896, I received from AValter I. Jackson of Havre-de- 
Grace, a male Redhead (AytJiya americana^ shot the day previous on the 
Susquehanna flats. This bird, for some reason, had failed to moult at 
the proper time, and appears in the old worn-out feathers characteristic 
of the post-nuptial period. All the feathers are verj' short, but those on 
the head and the tail-feathers show most abrasion, being reduced to less 
than one-half the usual length. Examination showed the bones perfect 
and the flesh norinal, though without a particle of fat, indicating that the 
bird was not a ' crippler.' It was flying with the other ducks when shot. — 
F. C. KiRKWOOD, Baltimore, Md. 

The Glossy Ibis in Western New York.- — ^ During the second week 
of October, 1897, J. W. Ware shot and killed a Glossy Ibis {Plegadt's 
aututnttalis) in the upper end of the harbor at Dunkirk, N. Y. I have 
examined the bird carefully and can vouch for its identity. It is an adult 
bird in excellent plumage, the chestnut and green being very pronounced. 

— H. D. KiRKOVER, Jr., Fredonia, N. T. 



Vol. XV"! 

1S9S J 



General Notes. 



51 



The American Egret at Maplewood, N. J. — On July 27, 1897, Mi-. 
Alfred Brower, my cousin, shot two specimens of the American Egret 
(Aydea egretta) on his pond in Maplewood, New Jersey. They were 
both young birds, although full grown. — Charles C. Owen, East 
Orange, N. J. 

Virginia Rail killed by striking a Telephone Wire. — On September 8, 
a specimen of the Virginia Rail {Ralliis virginianus.) was found in a 
yard in the centre of Englewood, N. J. The bird was stunned and had 
evidently come in contact with a telephone wire. During the day it 
revived and when I received it the next morning was apparently all 
right, although occasionally it showed a weakness in the legs, accom- 
f)anied by an apparent dizziness. It lived for several daj-s, when it was 
killed and preserved. Several photographs were taken, which are of 
some value in showing natural positions. 

The above is a rather curious incident, as the wire which the biid must 
have struck is only about fifty feet from the ground, and is in the centre 
of a town of some six thousand inhabitants. The night was perfectly- 
clear, and it is very hard to account for the bird's presence there. One 
or two of these birds are killed every year on the Hackensack and Eng- 
lish Creek marshes, but thev are considered rare. — Wm. P. Lemmon, 
Englexvood, N. J. 

Baird's Sandpiper {^Triiiga bairdii") on the California Coast. — I 
desire to put on record the capture of a male Baird's Sandpiper on the 
ocean beach south of Pt. Pinos, near Monterey, California, August 25, 
1897. Noticing two birds larger than the rest in a small flock of Tringa 
mitirctilla flying past, I singled ovit and brought dow-n one with each 
barrel. One proved to be a male Arenaria interpres and the other a male 
Tringa bairdii. 

The only other record of the occurrence of this species in California 
that I have found is one in the ' Catalogue of the Birds in the British 
Museum,' Vol. XXIV, p. 573. — Joseph Mailliard, San Geroninio, Cal- 

The Greater Yellow-Legs Catching Minnows. — While hunting along 
the shore of Lake Chautauqua one dav during the first week of October 
just past, I discovered three Greater Yellow'-legs ( Tetanus melanoleucus) 
wading in about three inches of water. They were evidently feeding, so 
I stopped to watch them. They would run along with their bills just 
beneath the surface of the water. After w-atching them for some time, I 
killed them. When I cleaned the birds, I found minnows (about \h. 
inches in length) in the stomachs of two of them. In looking this matter 
up in the different works on ornithology, I failed to find any mention of 
this bird feeding on fish. I recite this incident as a fact of probable 
interest. — H. D. Kirkover, Fredonia, N. Y. 



5 2 General Notes. [^^^_ 

Spotted Sandpiper removing its Young. — A clearly observed case of 
the Spotted Sandpiper {Actitis jnaciilaria) removing its young by flight 
recently came under my notice, and I place it upon record, as such 
instances are rarely seen, though they are, perhaps, of tolerably frequent 
occurrence, as in the case of the Woodcock. 

Last summer, in the month of July, I frequentlj' landed on a little rocky 
islet near the head of the Saguenay River, shortly after it issues from 
Lake St. John. Each time a Spotted Sandpiper showed much concern for 
her young, which were often seen running about and were a few days old. 
On one of these occasions, the mother ran ahead of me to a point of rocks 
near which I stopped to fish. A few moments later she flew, circling in 
the usual manner, and as she passed in front of me and within a few feet, 
I saw one of the young beneath her body, apparently clasped by her 
thighs; its head was directed forward, somewhat outstretched, and was 
seen with perfect distinctness. The parent's legs were apparently hanging 
down as she flew, though I am not positive that what I saw were not the 
legs of the young. The mother was in sight for about sixty yards, flying 
heavily and silently, and landed on a large island, though I could not see 
her at the moment of alighting. — -J. C. Merrill, Washiiigton, D. C. 

The 1897 Migration of the Golden Plover {Cha7-adriits domhitcus) and 
the Eskimo Curlew {Numenius borealis) in Massachusetts. — Were it not 
for the reason that I desire to keep up the continuitj^ of my migrating 
record on these birds, I should scarcely consider the data I have for this 
season worth recording. Up to August 22, no Golden Plovers or Eskimo 
Curlews had been observed at Nantucket or adjacent islands. On this 
date the wind was southwest, with rain commencing at 9.30 o'clock a. m. , 
accompanied at intervals with lightning. I drove all over the western 
plover grounds but did not see any birds. I was informed that a flock 
of thirty Golden Plovers had been seen there later in the day. The wind 
finally came from the northeast and in the evening two or three persons 
informed me that they had heard the birds passing over the tower. 
Although on the alert, I did not hear any. Again, after 10.30 at night, a 
good many birds were reported to have been heard from several points 
as they passed over head, but none stopped. At Chatham, Cape Cod, 
Mass., on this same date (August 22), the first Golden Plovers (four) 
of the season, as far as I know, were shot, and many others Avere noted 
as they passed during the day, on migration. This was Wx^ first move- 
ment going south this season. 

I again drove all over the western grounds on Nantucket August 23 
seeing four Golden Plovers, flying towards the west; later in the day two 
others were noted. On the 24th, I am informed, three flocks of Plovers 
were observed at the westward, one of twenty-five, one of fifteen, and 
one of thirty, the numbers being estimated. A small flock of six Plovers 
was also observed at Tuckernuck Island. The wind was easterly on this 



V°'8,r] General Notes. 53 

date, and it rained at intervals from six o'clock a. m. until twelve o'clock 
noon, at which time the wind ciianged to southwest and the weather 
cleared. 

One small Hock of eight Eskimo Curlews (the only ones noted hei-e 
for the entire season) was seen well up in the air, flying on migration, 
headed towards the west. No birds stopped on the islands, and none 
were killed. 

On the afternoon of August 27, a flock of twelve Plovers was seen, 
and on the 29th, eleven' Plovers were domiciled in a certain protected 
field on the Kimball farm. On September 17, five Plovers were noted at 
the western end of Nantucket. The ground on the island this season is 
in poorer condition than usual, owing to the wet weather, which has 
enabled the grass and weeds to grow profusely; in addition to this, there 
has been no ground burned off this year. 

I made inquiries several times in the Boston markets in order to 
ascertain if any of the above birds had been sent in from other localities, 
but could hear of none. Personally, I have not shot any. It is doubtful 
if over twelve Plovers have been taken during the entire season on 
Nantucket and adjoing islands, and not an Eskimo Curlew. 

I can but regard with solicitude the killing of these birds in such im- 
mense numbers, as also the Bartramian Sandpipers, as they pass north- 
ward on migration through the Mississippi Valley in the spring or. 
their way to their breeding grounds; many of the females having eggs 
quite well developed in their ovaries at the time. This has been going 
on for a number of years. (I called attention to it in Auk, Vol. VIII, 
p. 24, January, 1S91.) How long can it continue.^ It has been several 
years since any considerable numbers of these birds have landed on the 
Atlantic seaboard during August or September. I believe the danger 
line has been passed long since. Protection is generally the laggard in 
the race. Our Western Associates should look to this matter and 
endeavor to put a stop to such annihilation if possible. — George H. 
Mackay, Nantucket, Mass. 

The Turkey Vulture in Connecticut. — While out driving in Old 
Lyme, Conn., August 31, I was much surprised to note a Turkey Buz- 
zard (^Cathartes aura) in company with a Red-shouldered Hawk flying 
around a small patch of woods. This is the first one I have seen so far 
north as Connecticut. — Arthur W. Brockway, Lyme., Conn. 

A Black Vulture near Quebec, Canada. — On the 28th of October last 
a Black Vulture {Catharista airata) was killed on the beach at Beauport, 
about six miles from Qiiebec ; the bird was shot as it was flying towards 
a carrion. The man who secured the bird thought he had shot a young 
Eagle, but on seeing its black and unfeathered head and upper neck, I 
ascertained it was a Black Vulture. This is, I believe, the first record 
of a bird of this species being found so far north. It was an adult male. 
— C, E. DioxxE, .Quebec, Can. 



CA General Notes. \^^ 

Black Gyrfalcon {Falco riisticolus obsoletus) in Rhode Island. — In 
looking over some newly-received bird skins in the collection of Mr. Jas. 
P. Babbitt of this city, I came across a specimen, a fine female in nearly 
full plumage, of this rare Falcon, which I succeeded in purchasing and 
added to my collection. It was sliot by Mr. Arthur Scudder at Tiverton, 
R. I., on December 26, 1896. He was duck shooting from a boat over 
wooden decoys, and at the time the Gjn-falcon Avas shot it was hovering 
over the decoys, as if preparing to pounce upon one of them. I refen-ed 
it to this form by Ridgway's ' Manual,' and after carefully studying over 
Mr. William Brewster's five series of Gyrfalcons, I felt still more certain 
of its identity. — A. C. Bent, Taunton, Mass. 

Golden Eagle in New Jersey. — Mr. J. H. Fleming of Toronto writes 
me that August 9, 1897. a live immature Golden Eagle {Aqutla chryscetos) 
was offered him for sale by its captor, a colored man, who had recently 
caught it near Long Branch, New Jersej'. — Frank M. Chapman, Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Neiv York City. ' 

A New Name for Dryobates v. montanus. — Since the name montanus 
seems to be preoccupied in the genus, I would suggest that the name 
monticola be adopted for the Rocky Mountain race separated by me 
under the name of montanus (Auk, XIII, 1896, p. 32). So far as I have 
been able to ascertain, monticola has not been used in the genus Dryobates. 
— A. W. Anthony, Sa7i Diego, Cal. 

Bennett's Nighthawk ( Chordeiles virginianus sennetti) at Madison, 
Minn. — August 13, 1891, 1 secured a Nighthawk that is very much lighter 
in color than any specimen of C. v. /lenryi that I had ever seen. I was 
inclined to believe that it was a juvenile of the latter. 

On August 15, 1894, 1 secured another specimen of this very light form. 
Last spring I sent the latter specimen to Professor Robert Ridgway, who 
pronounced it C. v. se?ifietti. 

As Mr. L. B. Bishop states (Auk, Vol. XIII, p. 134), Sennett's Night- 
haM'k cannot be mistaken for henryi. Both of my specimens are very 
light colored, and lack the white (in $) and tawny throat patch (in $) 
of C. virginiamis and C. v. henryi. 

My first specimen was a wounded bird when secured. I kept it caged 
for 24 hours, and when it died and I dissected it I found its stomach full 
of small insects and a few small grasshoppers. 

The following are the data of the two specimens : 

Collection Albert Lano, $ : Length, 9.25 ; extent, 24.00; wing, 10.00; 
tail, 4.32. Weight, 2^ ounces. August 13, 1891. Collected at Madison, 
Minnesota. 

Collection Albert Lano, $ : Length, 9.00; extent, 22.25; wing, 8.25; 
tail, 4.00. Weight, 2k ounces. Collected at Madison, Minnesota. 



"^"/gg^^J General Notes. 55 

It gives me pleasure to add this new species to tiie list of biids of Min- 
nesota. — Albert Lano, Aitl-i/t, Alinn. 

The Northern Raven breeding in New England. — During a trip to 
the outer islands of Penobscot Bay, Maine, I found on June 15, 1S97, a 
brood of three j'oung Ravens (^Corvus corax princi-palis), fully fledged 
and grown, in the possession of two fisherman's boys. They were taken 
from a nest in a spruce tree on a small uninhabited island about the 
middle of May, being at tiiat time about ready to fly. One of the old 
birds was seen hovering at a safe distance. In captivity they each had a 
wing clipped, and remained at large about the house, though one, wilder 
than the others, escaped several times to the woods. 

One of the boys conducted me to the nest. It was about twenty feet 
from the ground, two-thirds way up the tree, in a crotch close to the 
trunk, and was a great accumulation of gnarled, crooked sticks, some of 
the largest at the bottom being as thick as a man's thumb. Some two 
feet across on top, its size was about that of the nest of the Red-tailed 
Hawk. It Avas deeplv hollowed, profusely lined with grass and especially 
sheep's wool, and emitted a strong, disagreeable odor. On the branches 
below were caught numerous sticks, which evidently the birds had 
dropped. A few days later I examined a nest of the Common Crow on a 
neighboring island from which the young had recently left. It was 
almost exactly like the Raven's nest, except that smaller sticks were used, 
wool was entirely absent, and the strong odor was lacking. 

I purchased the young, and took them home with me alive. Two of 
them are still (September 10) in health ; the other died August 5 from 
«ome bowel trouble. Moulting was first noticed about July 20, when 
blue-black feathers began to appear in the dull brownish under parts. 
They are still moulting, the head being the part most affected. 

Their habits in captivity are not unlike those of the Common Crow, 
■especially in reference to their hiding of objects. But they manifest 
more decided carnivorous tastes, preferring flesh to evervthing else, and 
tearing up bodies of birds or mammals like veritable hawks. A live 
voung Marsh Hawk incarcerated with them in their roomy cage was next 
day killed and entirely devoured, save the leg bones and quills. They 
afe very noisy when hungry, and their harsh croaking is audible at a con- 
siderable distance. — Herbert K. Job, North Middleboro, Mass. 

The Stariing (^Sturnus vulg-art's') on Long Island. — The European 
Starling seems to have successfullv established itself on Long Island. 
In the summer of 1S96 I was informed that this bird was nesting in the 
tower of the Boys' High School Building at Marcy and Putnam Avenues, 
Brooklyn. Of the accuracy of this report I was unable at the time to 
acquaint myself personally. Lately, however, the Starlings may be seen 
perched on, and flying about this tower at almost any time. It is appar- 



c6 General Notes. j^j^J^ 



entlj a place in which they have taken up a permanent abode. Flying 
from these high perches they look not a little like Martins, and might be 
mistaken for them at a season when the latter birds are present. 

A Starling was killed about a year ago in the immediate outskirts of 
Brooklyn by a boy who knocked it down with a stone. I am unable to 
give the date. 

I first noted the Starling in the field on October 8, this year, when a 
flock of a dozen or more was seen perched in a tree by the roadside near 
the Kensington Station. During this and the next month I saw them in 
this locality several times. Once or twice one or more birds were seen 
on the piazza roof of a suburban cottage in apparently frtetidly com- 
pany with English Sparrows. On October 22, about thirty individ- 
uals of this species were seen in this neighborhood. Two specimens 
were shot, the stomachs of which were sent to Dr. Merriam, chief of 
the United States Biological Survey. 

The bill of fare of the Starling has not been materially changed by its 
transportation to another continent. It enjoys in England at about the 
same time of j'ear, about the same food. In the one full stomach ex- 
amined (the other was nearly empty), ninety-five per cent of the contents 
was animal matter, mainly insects (multipeds and beetles, larval lampyrids^ 
grasshoppers, crickets, ichneumonid, caterpillar), but also included two- 
small pieces of bone, " probably belonging to some batrachian." The 
five per cent was merely vegetable rubbish. Dr. Merriam kindly stated 
that the contents of this stomach, examined hy Prof. Beal, agree essen- 
tially with those of three stomachs taken in England in October. 

The bird will doubtless widen its range on Long Island, though its 
extension in this direction since its introduction into New York Citj', 
in 1890, has not as yet been rapid. — William C. Braislin, M. D.,. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Song of the Western Meadow Lark. — In 'The Osprey' of July- 
August, 1897, Rev. P. B. Peabody must refer to me as the recent writer 
in the 'The Auk,' in connection with the song of the Western Meadow- 
lark {Sturfiella tnagna neglecta). The twelve examples which were 
copied by me at Gridley, Cal., and published in the ' The Auk' of Janu- 
ary, 1896, had been heard year after year by me, some of them at least a 
thousand times, and were very carefully copied with the help of pitch 
pipe and paper, and I should have stated in the most positive manner 
that I had heard them sung perfectly many times, although I had 
heard them sung imperfectly oftener than otherwise. In the brief 
note which accompanied those twelve examples of musical notation 
in ' The Auk,' I said I had heard more luriteable songs at Gridley 
than in any and all other places where I had been in California. The 
truth is that I have never heard these songs outside of the township of 
Gridle}', excepting two of them which I have heard near Stockton, where^ 
as at Gridley, I have spent much time. 



^°'g^^^] General Notes. 57 

•I am not surprised at Mr. Peabody's unsatisfactory comparison of 
these Gridley songs with the songs of the Minnesota Meadowlark. 
They do not sing alike, and probably none of our California birds sing 
or use such language as Mr. Peabody says the Minnesota birds use, for 
he says those birds say naughty words. Ours never do that, nor do they 
even use such language as : '■'■ Sci'eep-a-rip-ple-rip 1 1 Take a little si-p^^ t 
nor '^ Jehu, jaa-hii drink a little!" Those Minnesota birds must be 
totally depraved. Ours are always well behaved. 

Possibly Mr, Peabody does not interpret them rightl}', and it is quite 
certain that no two persons would interpret that song language just alike 
— neither in Minnesota nor in California. Something would probably 
depend on- the mood that happened to possess the interpreter. 

So much for language songs. If Mr. Peabody, or any one who has a 
little knowledge of music, will take 'The Auk' of Jan., 1896, to Gridley, 
on the ranch of Charles Belding, he or they will hear Meadowlark songs 
that will just fit the musical notations in it, and there will be no doubt 
about the song or songs I intended to represent, although the second note 
in number nine should be sol, or a fifth instead of a third; I believe I lost 
the true pitch in recopj'ing that number. 

Several of those twelve songs have a compass of just an octave, and 
this is a rather common feature of our Sturnella songs in different parts 
of California. 

There are several good points in Mr. Peabodv's article in 'The Osprey,' 
and one of them is his suggestion of using the phonogi-aph in reproduc- 
ing bird songs. With its aid we may have the pleasure of comparing the 
notes of the Spade-footed Toad, the Burrowing Owl and the Pigmy Owl 
with those of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 01 those of the Burrowing Owl 
with the notes of the European Cuckoo. 

Dr. Coues says in his 'Birds of the Northwest,' "The hooting of the 
Burrowing Owl is so similar to the notes of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
that I should have been deceived myself on one occasion had I not been 
forewarned by my friend Cooper ; and secondly, as this gentleman 
remarks, the noise made by the Spade-footed Toad {Scaphiopus') is also 
very similar." 

When I first heard the Pigmy Owl I thought I heard a Yellow-billed 
Cuckoo, and I was then familiar with the notes of the latter. 

Verbal descriptions of bird songs are probably, in most instances, more 
interesting to the writer of them than to any one else and any one who 
has been reading such descriptions, without end, during more than half 
a life time, is apt to w-eary of them and yearn for something more definite. 
If the phonograph should prove to be unsatisfactory in reproducing bird 
songs w-e might adopt Lieut. Derby's system of using figures as qualifiers : 
for instance, a middling good bird song would be a fifty beautiful song; 
an unsurpassingly beautiful song would be one hundred beautiful; any- 
thing for even a moderate degree of precision. — Lyman Beldixg, Stockton, 
Cal. 



58 



General Notes. Y]l^ 



The White-crowned Sparrow {Zoiiotrichia leucophrys). on Long Island, 
N. Y. — I am permitted to record the capture at Parkville, L. I., of the 
White-crowned Sparrow on April lo, 1897. I consider noteworthy the 
early date of the record. — William C. Braislin, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rank of the Sage Sparrow. — The particular piece of countrj^ of inter' 
est in the present connection is near the head of the Little Tujunga 
Canon, in the mountains of the central part of Los Angeles County, 
California, at an elevation of 4000 to 6000 feet. It is well on the Pacific 
side of the divide, but the Mojave Desert is not more than ten miles to 
the northeast, while the fertile plains of the Pacific slope are about the 
same distance southwestward. The rolling mountain ridges, especially 
on their southern sides, are covered with a more or less heavy growth of 
brush, composed of several kinds of dwarf trees and shrubs, such as 
manzanita, scrub-oak, greasewood, buckthorn, etc. 

In the vicinity of this semi-arid tract of limited extent, I spent the 
month of July, 1897, collecting birds. Along with Spizella atrigidaris, 
Sptzella bretveri, Chamcea fasciata henshaxvi, and others of the brush- 
loving birds, I was surprised to find quite numerous both Amphisfiza 
belli s.\\d A. (belW) nevadensis. The former is a common bird in the foot- 
hills nearer the coast, but the latter I had previously supposed to be 
exclusively a bird of the sage-brush deserts. Indeed, here its light colors 
did not well harmonize with the deep shades of the brush, and it was 
rendered quite conspicuous, much more so than the darker-colored Bell's 
Sparrow. The Sage Sparrows have evidently extended their range up 
over the mountains, so that here the habitats of the two forms overlap. 

What was most interesting was that the two forms were inhabiting the 
same locality and breeding, and yet I saw or obtained no specimens of an 
intermediate character. I secured adults and young of both forms, and 
none showed any evidence whatever of intergradation or even 'hybridiza- 
tion.' The far lighter tone of coloration of nevadeitsis and its larger size 
rendered both adults and young readily distinguishable from those of 
belli., even at a long distance. The call-notes of the two birds were 
slightly different in quality, and the Bell's Sparrow seemed the more 
retiring, keeping itself groundward among the brush, while the Sage 
Sparrow was prominent, perching at the tops of the bushes and flying 
from one to another frequently. 

These observations have led me to conclude, as others have surmised, 
that these two forms are specifically distinct. I have never learned of 
any intermediate specimens having been taken, and Mr. Walter E. Bryant, 
who has seen and taken many of these birds, tells me that he has never 
found an intermediate, and he fully agrees with me as to their distinct- 
ness. I therefore propose that these two forms be considered hei-eafter 
as separate species. According to the A. O. U. Check-List, the group 
should, therefore, stand as follows: — 



V°'3,r] General Notes. 59 

574. Ampliispiza dcHi (Cass.). 

574rt. Ampliispiza belli cinerea (Townsend). 

574.1. Amphispiza nevadensis (Ridgw.). 

The question might .arise as to which species the form cinerea belongs 
as a race. I have learned nothing definite in regard to this, so until 
someone finds otherwise, it might stand as it is, though the probabilities 
point toward its relationship with A. 7tevadensis. — Joseph Grixnell, 
Pasadena, Cal. 

The Blue-winged Warbler (Hehninikop/iilu pinus) in Eastern Mass- 
achusetts. — On the afternoon of May 15, 1897, while collecting among 
some scattered bushes and low trees on the edge of a swampy wood in the 
section of Boston known as Dorchester, near the West Roxburj and Hyde 
Park lines, I came across a bird of this species. When first seen the bird 
was sitting on the outer branch of a small bush about ten yards from me. 
While I was watching, it suddenly flew directly toward me for about ten 
or twelve feet after an insect, which it caught while on the wing, poising 
itself for a moment in the air and then returning to the same bush, imme- 
diately passing through to the other side where it was lost to view. 

Although this species has been taken in West Roxbury and also in 
Dedham, it is a rare bird in Massachusetts and worthy of note. — Foster 
H. Brackett, Bosfo?i, Mass. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler in Eastern Kansas. — While collecting birds 
on Oct. 12, 1S96, I shot an adult male Chestnut-sided Warbler {Dendroica 
j>etisylvafiica) in the fall moult, near Chestnut's Ford on the north bank 
of the Pottawatomie River, one mile southwest of town. It was feeding 
among some maple bushes at the water's edge when I first noticed it, 
being attracted b}' its familiar note. 

There are only two other records, to my knowledge, of the capture of 
this bird in Kansas, which I quote from Goss. "Taken at Leavenworth 
in May, 1S71, by Prof. J. A. Allen, and near Topeka, May 2, 1873, by Prof. 
E. A. Popenoe." — Walter S. Colvin, Osaxvatomie, Kans. 

The Aerial Song of the Maryland Yellow-throat. — The flight song of 
the Maryland Yellow-throat (Geotkylpis trichas) one finds stated in 
many of the leading manuals as never heard until late July or August. 
This miss-statement, known to be such bv many ornithologists, I have 
never seen questioned. 

I have noted this flight song in Eastern Massachusetts as early as 
May 16, only about a week after their arrival, and heard it off and on 
throughout the rest of May, June, and July. — Reginald Heber Howe, 
Jr., Longxvood, I\/ass. 

Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos') at Taunton, Mass. — Mr. A. R. 
Sharp of this city shot and presented to me a fine specimen of this bird 



6o General Notes. f^"'' 

LJan. 

on Nov. II, 1897. It proved to be a female in good condition and its 
stomach contained a number of seeds and part of the skin of a tomato.. 
The plumage showed no signs of wear and tear which would brand it as 
an escaped cage bird. 

It was killed just outside of this city near Mr. Sharp's farm, and was^ 
mistaken for a Shrike at the time. 

This is very late in the season for a Mockingbird to be found so far 
north, yet I cannot think that it had recently been in captivity. — A. C. 
Bent, Tautttoti, Mass. 

Late Nesting of the Carolina Wren in Monongalia Co., W. Va. — On 

August 21, 1897, while driving along the road near Morgantown, W. Va. 
I discovered, among the dangling roots on the upper side of the road, a 
nest of the Carolina Wren (^Thryothorus ludovicianus) containing five 
fresh eggs. The position of the nest very much resembled that of the 
Louisiana Water Thursh (^Seitirus motactlla) and had I not got out to 
positively identify tlie nest, would not have known it was occupied. 
The old bird allowed me to approach very closely, placing my hand on 
the side of the nest before she left. She then fluttered out and down 
along the side of the road into some bushes. — J. Warren Jacobs,. 
WayHeshurg-, Pa. 

Hemiura leucogastra (^Gould) — A Correction. — In 'The Auk ' for 
October, 1897 (Vol. XIV, pp. 409, 410) I maintained that Baird's determi- 
nation of Troglodytes leticogaster Gould should be accepted, since Baird 
had Gould's type before him, while Messrs. Sclater, Salvin, and Godman 
who determined Gould's bird differently, did not have the advantage of 
an acquaintance with the type. Mr. H. C. Oberholser has called my atten- 
tion to the fact that Gould's type afterwards came into the possession of 
the British Museum (as shown in Vol. VI of the Brit. Mus. Cat. of Birds, 
p. 285, 1881) and proved to be the CypJiorliinus pusilhis of Sclater, con- 
firming the determination made by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin in 1873. 
That Baird had what purported to be Gould's type of Troglodytes letico- 
gaster cannot be doubted ; that he could have confounded a Hemiura 
and a Thryotkorus is incredible; the natural inference is that some con- 
fusion of labels among the skins received from Gould may have been the 
cause of Baird's wrong identification. — Walter Faxon, Miisemn of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Bicknell's Thrush on Mt. Ktaadn, Maine. — On June 22 and 23, 1897, I 
made a short visit to Mt. Ktaadn, Maine, partly for the purpose of orni- 
thological observation. On the 22d I heard three Bicknell's Thrushes 
(Tardus alicicE bicknelli) singing, along the Southwest Slide, and on the 
23d I heard the same three and two more besides, one pretty well up the 



"^"'gg^^] General Notes. 6 1 

Slide and the other on the Table Land at an altitude of a few hundred feet 
lower than the top of the highest peak (5,215 feet). Unfortunately I was 
unable to obtain a specimen, but a familiarity with the song of this bii'd 
acquired in the White Mountains and during the migrations, leaves no 
doubt whatever in my own mind of the identification. This subspecies 
has never been reported from Maine, I believe, though it is included in 
the 'hypothetical' list in Mr. Ora W. Knight's recent list of Maine birds. 
The only other birds nofed on the mountain which I did not also find in 
the lowlands about there were Dendroica striata, which were common 
along the Slide, and Dendragapus canadensis., one female of which I 
observed on the Slide. Ktaadn affords but little cover for birds, the upper 
three thousand feet being for the most part very steep and rocky, giving 
no chance for trees. The trees along the Slide are almost entirely decidu- 
ous, and no coniferous woods were to be seen at anj' height except those in 
the great South Basin on the northeast side of the mountain, about 2300 feet 
below the highest summit or about 3000 feet above sea-level. It is quite 
possible that these Basin woods may have contained some more northern 
forms, but I was unable to visit them. Some one should go there in the 
breeding season. The Basin is best visited from the east side. The scrub 
fir on the Table Land harbored Tiirdus alicice bicknelli and Zonotrichia 
albicollis, and doubtless y««ct> /lyemalis too, but it is too low to make very 
good cover. — Francis H. Allen, West Roxbiiry, Mass. 

Two Species new to the List of Birds found in West Virginia. — 
Chuck-will's-widow (^Antrostomiis caroli?iensis), $ adult. Picked up 
in a grove, apparently benumbed by cold, by Mr. John H. Crawford, near 
Lewisburg, Greenbrier Co., W. Va., on April 23, 1897. Now in Mr. Craw- 
ford's possession. 

Swainson's Hawk {Buteo szvainsoni), $ adult. Shot by Mr. M. ^L 
Collins four miles north of White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., September 16, 
1897. This hawk is now being mounted for Mr. M. M. Collins of Cov- 
ington, Va. 

I believe that, heretofore, Nashville, Tenn., has been about the farthest 
north, in the interior, from which Antrostomus cdroli>iensis has been 
recorded. — Thaddeus Surber, White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. 

Lake Michigan Notes. — Larus glaucus. Glaucous Gull. — While 
walking along the beach of Lake Michigan, east of Millers, Indiana, 
August 8, 1897, in company with Mr. J. G. Parker, Jr., and jSIr. Fred 
Hilgard, I had the good fortune to take a fine female of this species. It 
is in the pure white plumage of the young of the second year ; it is 
immaculate, with the exception of a few feathers on the wing-coverts, 
■which are of a pale brownish gray. I believe this is the first record of 
capture for the Calumet Region and Indiana. 



62 General Notes. ff"'' 

LJan. 

Tringa canutus. Knot. — There has been quite a large flight of Knots 
this fall, and I have obtained three. The hunters from the gun clubs 
along the beach have shot a large number of this species, all of which are 
in the juvenile plumage. One of my birds, taken August 21, shows a 
Avash of pale brick red over the lower parts. It is rather strange that 
none are observed in the adult plumage. Although the majority of the 
maritime birds observed are juveniles, there are always (excepting in the 
case of T. camittis) a few adults among them. 

Macrorhamphus griseus. Dowitcher. — On August 21 my friend, 
R. A. Norris, shot an adult of this species, which was flying with a flock 
of ten or more along the beach at Whiting, Indiana. 

Symphemia semipalmata. Willet. — On August 14, at Millers, I 
obtained five of these birds from a flock of twelve, as they were feeding 
on a sand bar along Lake Michigan. Much to my surprise they would 
return to my call, and I could have obtained nearly the whole if I had so 
desired. 

.^gialitis meloda circumcincta. Belted Piping Plover. — This 
species has become very rare in the last fifteen years, and on hearing that 
a gentleman had obtained a pair on the 27th of September at Millers, I 
went down there on the following Saturday. I obtained an adult male, 
and also found two pairs of young in the down, the mother bird having 
been shot on the 37th. I was attracted to them b}' their plaintive piping 
and found them almost dead from starvation. While this record of find- 
ing the young is a rare one, being, I believe, the first one for this region, 
both the gentleman who shot the old birds and myself regret the taking 
of the breeding birds. The group is mounted and in the collection 
of the writer in the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. — On the 21st of August, at 
Millers, I obtained a juvenile Bald Eagle and saw five more which had 
nested in that locality. Even at this late date they were still in the vicin- 
ity of the nest, which I found. This is the second brood of Bald Eagles 
which have nested at Millers this year, and the record is a rather unusual 
one, the locality being so near the railroads and the city of Chicago. — 
Frank M. Woodruff, Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, III. 



^iLis^] Recent Literature. dx 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Elliot's Shore Birds, 2d Ed. — -Our extended notice of this work (Auk, 
Jan. 1S96, pp. 64-66) leaves little to be said now, bejond renewing our 
felicitations on the success which Mr. Elliot's lending a hand to popular- 
ize ornithology has achie\ed, as witnessed by the call for another edition 
in a year from original date of publication. The second edition remains 
substantially the same as the first, though, as stated by the author in his 
new preface, "the letter press has been carefully examined and the few- 
typographical errors that m.ay have existed in the first edition have been 
corrected. The kindly criticism, also, of my colleagues on these matters 
has been of considerable assistance. In the Appendix the Key to the 
Families has been slightly rearranged, but not changing in any way the 
definitions." The omnipresence if not omnipotence of the printer's devil 
is displaced in this new preface, which leaves the misprints Squaturola 
and Helodromus to be corrected in the next edition of this admirable work, 
which we expect to see in due course. — E. C. 

Elliot's Gallinaceous Game Birds of North America.' — Seldom are 
the original and next edition of a book on birds published so almost sim- 
ultaneously as to reach an active reviewer's desk together, but such is the 
result of a happy conjunction of authorial and publicational ability in the 
present instance. We understand that the first edition was exhausted in 
a month; the second immediately appeared. We believe it is identical, 
except in the appearance of the explaining words on the title-page, there 
having hardly been time for sandpapering, even had any places needing 
that process been observed. The plain form of the book is well made in 
all its appointments, presenting a very attractive appearance, like most 
of Mr. F. P. Harper's issues; the large paper copies are sumptuous, 
almost to be st3'led luxurious. 

' The I Gallinaceous | Game Birds | of | North America | including the Par- 
tridges, Grouse, Ptarmigan, | and Wild Turkeys ; with accounts of their dis- | 
persion, habits, nesting, etc., and full descrip- | tions of the plumage of both 
adult and young, to- | gather with their popular and scientific names. | A book 
written both for those who love to seek these birds afield with | dog and gun, 
as well as those who may only desire to learn the | ways of such attractive 
creatures in their haunts | By | Daniel Giraud Elliot, F. R. S.E., etc. | [Etc. 
5 lines of titles.] | With forty-six plates j New York | Francis P. Harper | 
1S97 I — I vol., 100 large-paper copies, numbered and signed by author, roy. 
8vo, others Svo., both with rubricated title, ist and 2nd eds. pub. nearly 
together, Oct. and Nov., 1897; pp. i-xviii, 19-220, pll. 1-46, and colored charts 
inside back cover. 



64 



Recent Literature. Ft 

LJan. 



After what we have said in 'The Auk' regarding Mr. Elliot's 'Shore 
Birds,' it will suffice to inform our special clientele that ' Game Birds' is 
constructed in precisely the same fashion ; the subject is changed but not 
the mode of treatment, and the two books form companion volumes 
which every sportsman, and all others whom Mr. Elliot describes upon 
his title page, will delight to possess. If the present work somewhat 
outstrips the former one in popularity, it will probably be because more 
persons go into the dry woods and fields than into the " demnition moist, 
unpleasant" haunts of the Limicolce. Mr. Elliot is happy in giving a for- 
mal didactic treatise, satisfactory to the technical expert, an entertaining 
turn that will make his reputation as a popular writer. Amateurs can 
always amuse one another, but it takes a professional who knows a great 
deal to write for people who do not known much in the way they ought 
to be written for. What the public ought to want is seldom what that 
huge blundering collective animal does want; and he is a wise man who 
knows how to take the creature by the ear and keep out of the way of its 
business end — its heels. 

Thus implying if not expressing all that need be conveyed in general 
regarding the present work, we turn to some particularities which we 
should hardly bring up if we were not writing in a journal mainly occu- 
pied with technicalities. The Turkey Qiiestion which we lately raised 
(Auk, July, 1897, pp. 272-275) seems to have exercised the author's patience, 
but he falls in line with our contention that g'alloJ>avo belongs to the Mex- 
ican species, and adopts sylvestris for the U. S. bird. This is a point of 
variance from the A. O. U. Check-List but in strick conformity with the 
A. O. U. Code ; the change must be made in our next edition. We 
should be sorry to see M. sylvestris ellioti disappear from our list, but 
believe its proper name to be M. s. intermedia., for reasons which will 
be apparent on looking up Sennett's record of 1879. There are, no 
doubt, too many Ptarmigan in the book; Mr. Elliot says so, expressly, as 
on p. 149; but by a device which we are hardly free to criticise, because 
we have resorted to it ourselves too often, such a form as Allen's Ptarmi- 
gan is capitally affirmed and textually denied. One who will study the 
latest British Museum Catalogue of these birds will be inclined to sus- 
pect that the A. O. U. list of Ptarmigan is shaky in some other case or 
cases. We are pleased to find the author agreeing with us (Auk, June, 
1897, p. 214) on the generic validity of Lophortyx, ^h.\z\\. the A. O. U. 
were ill-advised to degrade from its long-accustomed rank. Another 
good point Mr. Elliot scores is insistence upon the generic distinction' 
between Dejidragafus and Canachites — surely he should know what 
he meant himself when he founded the former genus more than 30 years 
ago. As we have remarked elsewhere (Science, July 2, 1897, p. 10), Den- 
dragapus was founded for the express purpose of distinguishing certain 
Grouse from cei'tain other Grouse ; and for us to use it for the opposite 
purpose from that intended by its founder " is simply nomenclatural 



°gyy J Rcrriit Li/cni/iire. 65 

liociis-poius, and :is siuli it i?. piic-i ilc, iinscieiUilic, ami iininoral." Wc 
shall long stand disconsolate ontside the pearly gales of paradise, like 
the Peri of oriental allegory, if we try to enter the blessed abode of 
nonienclatnral stability on an\' such shifty tack as liiat I ' In some other 
resjiects Mr. Elliot ties (ire-brands to foxes' tails and turns them loose in 
the stubble of bad names on our Check-List, with a cool audacity to be 
expected hy those who know him, and to make him a holy terror, some- 
thing like the undersigned, to those who mistake misspelling for stability 
of nomenclature. Baird, for example, could he speak now, would thank 
nobody for perpetuating his blunder of Pedioccsies; Mr. Elliot corrects it 
to Pedicecefes, uniformly with our 'Key' since 1872, unconformably with 
our Check-List. Of what use is our obnoxious Canon XL, if it cannot be 
enforced.'' Tyros and amateurs, virtuosos and ignoramuses, may respect 
it, because they know no better; but it is a dead letter to such as Mr. 
Elliot, who will continue to disregard it with imperturbable severity. 
We trust that the dignified weight of his example will not be lost upon 
those who have need to feel its force. 

Mr. Elliot's two books, ' Shore Birds' and ' Game Birds,' are, we believe, 
the first appearance of a veteran technicist in the distinctive role of a 
publicist. Their success is assured. We point to the A?iseres as other 
suitable subjects upon which to exercise a facile pen, aud trust that the 
work required to complete a trilogv may soon appear. — E. C. 



Gibson's ' Studio Neighbors.'* — The late William Hamilton Gibson, as 
a reporter with pen and brush of the life-histories of our familiar birds, 
beasts, and flowers, was without a rival. There have been and are greater 
writers and more talented artists than he, but in no one man was the gift 
of observing animals and plants and the power of describing what he saw, 
both verbally and pictoriall} , so well developed. His death was an irrep- 
arable loss to the cause of popular nature study, a loss with which we are 
impressed anew as we examine this posthumously published volume of 
his writings. It is only in part devoted to birds, for in the later years of 
his life Mr. Gibson's attention was largelj' given to flowers, but the charm 
with which he invested his subject is well illustrated here in the chapters 
entitled 'A Familiar Guest' and 'The Cuckoos and the Outwitted Cow- 
bird.' 

While we must regret Mr. Gibson's premature death, we have reason to 
give thanks for the legac}' he has left us. In addition to the present work, 



[' See also Science, July 2, 1897, p. iS. — J. A. A.} 

^ My Studio Neighbors | By | William Hamilton Gibson ] Illustrated by the 
Author I [Seal] | New York and London | Harper & Brothers, Publishers — 
1898. — 8vo., pp. X -|- 237. Numerous illustrations. 



66 Recent Literature. \!}^- 

he was the author of some six others,' all containing original observations 
on the habits of our birds. — F. M. C. 



'Bird Neighbors."- — This is an interesting addition to the rapidly 
growing list of bird books, designed to popularize ornithology, by an 
author whose name was previously unknown to naturalists. It is evi- 
dent, however, that she understands the needs of the audience to whom 
her book is addressed, and the key-note of the book is to simplify the 
problem of identification. This is done by grouping the species treated 
according to their haunts, characteristic habits, season, and finallj- color. 
About a page is devoted to the life-history of each species, and here the 
author shows that not only has she a practical grasp of her subject but 
also fully appreciates its aesthetic and poetic sides. 

Fifty-one of the species are represented in color by plates which have 
appeared in the Chicago magazine 'Birds.' They are of special interest 
as showing the most recent development of the three-color printing 
process. It is evident, however, that poor taxidermy and lack of taste in 
composition have combined to furnish originals whose faults the process 
has reproduced with painful accuracy. — F. M. C. 

The Nev(^ Birdcraft.^ — It is not often a reviewer's pleasure to have a 
publisher accept his advice in so literal and liberal a sense that its sound- 
ness is more than vindicated. We would not claim undue credit for the 
appearance of this beautiful book in its present form, but so fully does it 
now meet our ideas of what it should have been that we cannot forbear 
quoting from our review of the iirst edition'* with its inharmonious 

1 ' Eye Spy ' ; ' Sharp Eyes ' ; ' Strolls by Starlight and Sunshine ' ; ' Happy 
Hunting Grounds'; Highways and Byways'; 'Pastoral Days' — all pub- 
lished by Harper & Brothers. 

- Bird Neighbors. An | Introductory Acquaintance | with one hundred 
and fifty | Birds Commonly Found in on the gardens, meadows, and | woods 
about Our Homes. | By | Neltje Blanchan | with Introduction By John Bur- 
roughs I and Fifty Colored Plates | New York | Doubleday & McClure Co. | 
1897. — 8vo., pp. xii-l-234, Colorotype plates, 51. 

^ Birdcraft | A Field Book of two hundred Song | Game, and Water Birds | 
By I Mabel Osgood Wright — Author of ' The Friendship of Nature,' ' Tommy 
Anne' | 'Citizen Bird,' etc. | With Eighty Full-Page Plates by | Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes | New York | The Macmillan Company | London : Mac- 
millan & Co., Ltd. 1897 | All rights reserved — | 8vo. pp xvi -f- 317 ; colored 
frontispiece and 79 full-page half-tones. 

"The Auk, XII, 1895, p. 283. 



^"s.s^n Recent Lileyaline. 67 

colored figures, in criticizing Avliich we said : " We can wisli Mi-s. Wright's 
book no better fortune than tiiat in tiie futine editions it is sure to reacli, 
it may have ilhistrations in keeping with the exceptionally high char- 
acter of the text"; and no better compliment can be paid to either than 
to add that this hope has been fully realized. Mr. Fuertes's drawing.s, 
Avhich so vivify the pages of 'Citizen Bird,' are here reproduced for the 
most part as full-page plates, -which in size are obviously more just to 
the originals than the smaller text iigurcs of the wc^rk in \\lii< li tiiey first 
appeared. — F. M. C 

Dixon's Migration of Birds.' — The 'amended edition ' of Mr. Dixon's 
book, ' The Migration of Birds,' is \e,v\ different from the original, pub- 
lished in [892 {cf. Auk, X, 1S93, pp. 70-73). Many of the theories and 
statements then put forth with so much confidence are now discarded, 
the book having been not only, as claimed on the title page, " entirelv re- 
written," but rewritten from a wholly different standpoint. His views are 
perhaps still subject to change, as he says that in writing the present book 
he w-as compelled to modify his views as expressed in his recent w^rk on 
'The Migration of British Birds,' published in 1S95, wherein he pro- 
pounded "a hitherto undiscovered Law of Dispersal." This law he 
looks upon as his " first original attempt to solve the problem of bird 
migration." Although written with the same confidence in his own 
conclusions as was the first, the present is a vastly better work, both in 
matter and method, for he now deigns to give his readers references to 
some of his sources of information. He also displays much greater 
familiarity with the literature of the subject, and has evidently greatly 
profited b}' works that were quite unknown to him, although previously 
published, when his first book was written. We miss many of the ideas 
so strikinglv G^tkean met with in the first edition, manj^ of which are 
now not only discarded, but formally controverted at considerable length. 
Especially is this the case with Gatke's " assumption" that " j'oung birds 
migrate absolutely before their parents" (p. 113), where several pages 
are devoted to a critical analysis of Gatke's evidence. 

The author states in his preface: "In some respects the present volume 
may be regarded as an effort to stem the torrent of mystery which 
bids fair soon to overwhelm the subject of Migration ; to explain its 
varied phenomena by an appeal to natural laws and to common sense; 
not by the invocation of esoteric influences and supernatural impulses." 
Again he says (p. 125) : "The effort to increase the mystery of Migra- 

' The I Migration of Birds : | an attempt to reduce Avian Season Flight 
to Law. I By | Charles Dixon. | — | Amended Edition. | Entirely rewritten 
in accordance with the Author's latest Discoveries and | Views respecting the 
Subject of Avine Dispersal. | — | London : Horace Cox, | Winsor House, 
Bream's Buildings, E. C. | — | 1S97. — S\o, pp. xix-(-426. with 2 maps. 



68 Recent Literature. I Jan 

tion seems little short of a fascination with some naturalists, and promi- 
nent amongst these, we deeply regret to say, must be included such a 
veteran and accomplished observer as Herr Gfitke, whose anti-Darwinian 
and anti-evolutionistic views may very probably be responsible for the 
position which he has taken tip with regard to this portion especially [of 
how birds find their way] of the phenomenon of avine season-flight." 
Consequently it is not surprising to find many pages devoted to an 
exposure of the fallacies contained in ' Heligoland,' and an attempt to 
counteract the undesirable effect of copying as " ex cathedra " these " wild 
speculations," and "startling estimates of the speed at which birds fly," 
into many popular works on the subject of migration. This lament is 
doubtless widely shared by thoughtful students of the subject. 

Mr. Dixon here offers us, however, a new theory of the origin 
of migration in birds, all previous theories, in his opinion, proving 
untenable. The new hypothesis is founded on what he claims " to be a 
hitherto undiscovered law governing the geographical distribution of 
^species," which he terms " the Law of Dispersal." This law is based on 
the following assumptions: (i) That there was formerly a vast extent of 
intertropical land, stretching continuously around the globe, in which 
life originated and from which life has spread in the direction of the 
poles. A former extensive antarctic continent, which some writers believe 
■once existed, he considers as having no bearing on the question ; from 
his point of view, the form.er great extension of land must have been 
equatorial. The very general belief in the comparative permanence 
■of the principal oceans and land masses, held so firmly by nearly all 
geologists of high standing, he thinks is without foundation, and that 
this erroneous view is responsible for the mistaken opinions now so gen- 
erally held on the subject of the origin and cause of migration. (2) He 
affirms that the Glacial Epoch could not have been the inducing cause of 
migration in the northern hemisphere; the belief that species began "to 
reti-eat or emigrate beyond the influence of the adverse conditions of 
existence, as the climate changed and became more severe " is absolutely 
opposed, he says, by all the facts ; in other woi'ds, as he repeatedly 
afliirms, an emigration southward to escape the adverse conditions of the 
advancing ice' age, is a myth. There was no movement southward of 
any species ; they were simply exterminated ; "the only forms that sur- 
vived this several times repeated glacial invasion were those whose 
pre-glacial breeding range extended beyond its influence." The current 
opinion "that species evacuated their northern homes as the glacial 
periods came on, and returned to them, more or less modified, as the 
climate ameliorated," is, in his opinion, "an entirely erroneous inter- 
pretation of facts." (3) Migration, he claims, is the corollary of emigra- 
tion ; both are due to an effort to increase the breeding range of the 
species, and the lines of migration are always along the old routes of the 
gradual range extension of the species. (4) Spring migration is due 



^°'g^^^^] Recent /J/mifure. 69 

entirolv to the impulse to breed. (5) Tlie true home of tlie species is its 
winter area, tiiis being also its original centre of dispersal. (6) Autumn 
migration is thus a return to winter haunts or centres of dispersal, undci' 
what he terms a nostalgic impulse, or homesickness; scarcity of food, 
either present or prospective, decrease of temperature, or any other adverse 
conditions, have nothing whatever to do with the inception of this 
autumnal movement. 

This is a brief outline of Mr. I^ixon's premises and conclusions. \n 
analysis of his evidence shows that they rest mainly on personal ' belief,' 
and novel assumptions unsupported by any considerable array of facts. 
He makes repeated reference to -his study of " pre-glacial distribution," 
and to his " investigation of post-glacial emigration," as having con- 
vinced him respectively that a southern emigration, or a southern 
migration, "to escape adverse climatic conditions is a myth," and that 
"range extension trends in only two directions," namely, fiom the 
equator towards the poles. Unfortunately the evidence that has led to 
these convictions is not disclosed, at least in any formal way. 

In discussing his ' law of dispersal,' he says it elucidates "almost innu- 
merable facts of dispersal which have hitherto baffled all attempts to 
explain them." Among these is the absence of tropical forms in tem- 
perate latitudes, etc. It is "obvious, however, that the influence of 
temperature in limiting the dispersal of species is a factor in the problem 
that has either never occurred to him, or else is one which he chooses 
to studiously ignore throughout his work. 

It is, on the whole, perhaps hardly worth while to take Mr. Dixon 
seriously, inasmuch as he shows no great knowledge, in the first place, 
of the elements of the problem he proceeds to treat so confidently, which 
is no less than the origin of life in genei-al and an explanation of its 
present geographical distribution ; yet, so far as his book shows, he has 
never thought of it in that light. To him it is simplj- the migration of 
birds, which involves incidentally questions of their geographical origin 
and distribution, although he mav be supposed to refer to life in general, 
especiall}' in speaking of his grand discovery of what he terms the "Law 
of Life's Dispersal." Birds of course are not to be treated as a group apart 
from the rest of the animal kingdom, but as subject to the same general 
laws of dispersal as other animals, and even plants. On this an appeal to 
the geological record is fatal to our author's grand conceptions, who, 
though referring often to his " preglacial investigations," gives no evidence 
of knowing anything of either geological or biological conditions prior 
to the Ice Period. He is thus free to construct, remove, or transpose con- 
tinents and seas to suit his hypotheses of bird migration, as well as to 
assume breeding areas that do not exist, simply because there should be 
such breeding areas to render his theories of both migration and dispersal 
in any degree tenable. 

It is therefore to be reoretted that a work so full of information for the 



^O Recent Literature. [j^^"J' 

general reader on the various phases of bird migration should be more 
or less vitiated throughout by the ill-devised theory which pervades and 
colors an otherwise praiseworthy book, — a work, in other respects, as 
regards its general character, far in advance of Mr. Dixon's previous one 
bearing the same title. — J. A. A. 

Marsh on the Affinities of Hesperornis.^ — Professor Marsh here reaf. 
firms the correctness of his conclusion, published in 1880, that "the 
Struthious characters, seen in Hesperornis, should probably be regarded 
as evidence of real affinity, and in this case Hesferornis would be essen- 
tially a carnivorous, swimming Ostrich." Authors who had not seen the 
original specimens, says Prof. Marsh, "seem to have accepted without 
hesitation the striking adaptive characters of the posterior limbs as the 
key to real affinities," till soon "the Ratite affinities of Hesperornis were 
seldom alluded to in scientific literature." He has remained silent, " leav- 
ing to future discoveries the final decision of the question at issue." This 
decision, Prof. Marsh thinks, is now on record, Prof. Williston having 
discovered near the original tj^pe locality a remarkably perfect specimen 
of Hesperorjiis, with the feathers in place, showing that Hesperornis had 
"the typical plumage of an Ostrich." Reference to Prof. Williston's 
paper (Kansas University Quarterly, Vol. V, No. i, Juh^ 1896, pp. 53, 54, 
pi. ii) shows that there is still ground for a difference of opinion as to 
the Struthious character of the downy feathers found on the tarsus and 
head of Prof. Williston's specimen of Hesperornis. — J. A. A. 

Stone on the Genus Sturnella.^ — Mr. Stone's paper has relation mainly 
to the forms referred to 5. magna mexicana, the Rio Grande Valley phase 
of which group Mr. Stone now separates as a new subspecies, under the 
name .S. w. hoopesi. This form resembles magna in the coloration of the 
lower parts, it lacking the yellow on the malar region, while the upper 
plumage is lighter even than in neglecta, with the tail bars " more distinct 
than in any of the other races." True 6". m. mexicana thus becomes 
restricted to southern Mexico and Central America, >S. m. hoopesi taking 
its place in the A. O. U. Check-List. The Florida bird, which has some- 
times been referred to mexicana, Mr. Stone finds is not separable from 
Louisiana examples, and that these latter differ but little from specimens 
from southern Indiana and southern Illinois. He considers it therefore 
inadvisable to separate this Gulf coast phase from magna. — J. A. A. 



^ The Affinities of Hesperornis. By O. C. Marsh. American Journal of 
Science, III, April, 1897, pp. 347, 348. 

^ The Genus Stiirnella. By Witmer Stone. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1897, pp. 146-152. 



^°i8q8^] Recent TJtrralurc. 7 I 

The Proper Name of the Western Horned Owl.' — In a jiaper in ' Tlie 
Auk' for April, 1S96 (p. 153), Mr. Stone proposed tiie name occidctUalis 
in place of stiharcticiis Hoy, the latter being a synonym of arctirus Swain., 
selectiniic a type specimen from Mitchell Co., Iowa. This specimen, how- 
ever, proved not to belong to the form he intended to name (see Auk, 
Jan., 1S97, p. 134), and he therefore now renames it pallescens {Bubo vir- 
gi)iiani(s pallescetis), selecting as type an example from near San Antonio, 
Texas. 

With this change the Horned Owls would stand in the i\. (). V . Clieck- 
List as follows : 

375. Bubo vtrginianus (Gmel.). Great Horned Owl. 

375 re. Bubo virginianus pallescens ?)\.ox\&. Western Horned Owl. 

375/'. B/iho virghiianns arcticus {S\\Vi\ns.). Arctic Horned Owl. 

375 c. Bubo virginianus saturatus Ridgw. Dusky Horned Owl. 

375^. Bubo virginianus pacijjcus Cuss. Pacific Horned Owl. — J. A. A 

' Nature's Diary.'- —Under this title Mr. Francis H. Allen has brought 
together a large number of selections from the works of Thoreau, Bur- 
roughs, Torrej, Bolles, LoAvell, Hawthorne, Emerson, and others — in all 
379 quotations from 14 wellrknown authors — one or more for each day 
of the year. Nearlj- two-thirds of the quotations are from Thoreau, and 
about one seventh from Burroughs. They relate primarily to birds and 
flowers, but many are general, or relate to the season rather than to any 
individual species of bird, beast, or plant. The work is not paged, and 
has no index. The' quotations are printed on the left hand page, two days 
being allotted to each page, and the right hand page is a "Calendar of 
the arrival of birds and the first blooming of flowers." The locality to 
which most of the quotations refer is "the neighborhood of Boston. 
This -\\\\\ doubtless prove a welcome anthology to lovers of nature. — 
J. A. A. 

Baskett's ' The Story of the Birds.' ^ — Mr. Baskett's ' Story of tlie Birds' 
does not pretend to tell the whole story but attempts " to present in a 

' Proper name for the Western Horned Owl of North America. By Wit- 
mer Stone. American Naturalist, March, 1897, p. 236. 

^Nature's Diary | Compiled by | Francis H. Allen | " A minstrel of the nat- 
ural year." | [Seal] Boston and New York | Houghton, Mifflin and Company [ 
The Riverside Press, Cambridge | 1897 | — i2mo. pp. v + about 190II., un- 
paged, with 8 photogravure pll. 

3 Appleton's Home Reading Books | — \ The | Story of the Birds | By | 
James Newton Baskett, M. A. | Associate Member of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union | [Vignette] New York j D. Appleton and Company | 1897 — 
i2mo, pp. XXX -f- 263, with 20 full-page illustrations and numerous cuts in 
the text. 



7 2 Recent Literature. ■ \!\^ 

rather unusual jet popular way the more striking features of their prob- 
able development." The chapter headings are too numerous to quote in 
full, but the following will give an idea of the style of treatment : I, A 
bird's forefathers ; II, How did the birds iirst fly, perhaps ? V. The cut of a 
bird's frock; VI, About a bird's underwear; VII, A bird's outer wrap; 
VIII, A bird's new suit ; IX, 'Putting on Paints and Frills' among the 
birds ; XI, War and weapons among birds; XIV, Freaks of bachelors and 
benedicts in feathers ; XXIII, Tools and tasks among birds ; XXV, A little 
talk on birds' toes ; XXVIII, What a bird knows about geography and 
arithmetic ; XXX, A bird's modern kinsfolk. 

Mr. Baskett has treated the various topics relating to birds, — their 
structure, functions and various adaptations, — in a manner likelj^ to 
interest the general reader, and for the most part has shown a creditable 
familiarity with his subject. He has, however, a prediliction for hjpoth- 
esis, and thinks every fact relating to habit or structure should be 
accounted for, and that even a poor theory is better than no theory at all. 
A good square admission that there are still some things we do not know 
is not to be tolerated. In the main, however, our author may be taken 
as a safe leader, and his little book should do much toward enlightening 
the general reader about birds and their relation to their surroundings. 
The last 20 pages consist of notes on birds as seen ' Through the Window 
Pane' of the author's study. The illustrations are largely from Chap- 
man's ' Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America,' to which they are 
duly credited in the Publishers' Note. — J. A. A. 

Chapman's ' Bird-Life', Colored Edition. — In the new edition of Chap- 
man's 'Bird-Life' (see Auk, XIV, July 1897, pp. 336-339) the text has been 
revised, and the size of the book increased to a full octavo, and the plates 
enlarged and beautifully reproduced in colors, adding greatly to the value 
of the work as an aid to the identification of the 100 species thus figured. 
The publication of ' Bird-Life ' in its present form thus well meets the 
demand for a popular work on our common birds, illustrated with col- 
ored plates, at a reasonable price. — J. A. A. 

Montgomery's List of the Birds of West Chester, Chester Co., Pa. ' — 
This is a carefully annotated list of 145 species observed in the immediate 
vicinity of West Chester, Chester County, Pennsylvania, during the years 
1885-91, and 1895-97. Most of the observations were made within an area 
of only five miles' radius from West Chester, and no species is included 
in the list which was not either taken bj' the author or seen by him in the 

^ A List of the Birds of the Vicinity of West Chester, Chester Co., Pennsyl- 
vania. By Thomas H. Montgomery, Jr., Ph. D. American Naturalist, 1897, 
pp. 622-628, 812-814, 907-911. 



V^lgg^V] Recenl Lite, a tu re. 73 

flesli. For iT.any of the inigratorj species tktailid rccoriis are given of 
the spring arrivals. The list is tliiis a welcome addition to an exact 
knowledge of bird distribution in Pennsylvania. — J. A. A. 

Grinnell on the Birds of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas and San 
Clemente Islands, California.' — Tliis 'Report' foi-ms the first of a 
series of papers giving the results of the work of a scientific exploring 
party to the southern Santa Barbara Islands, sent out by the Pasadena 
Academy of Sciences, in charge of Mr. Grinnell, and mainlv through the 
generosity of Mr. Halett C. Merritt. It also is noteworthy as forming 
the first brochure of this young Academy. Mr. Grinnell was assisted 
in his ornithological work by Mr. Horace Gaylord. The report is based 
on the field notes of the party and on a collection of 450 birds' skins and 
many eggs, and consists of four separate lists, as follows: (i) 'The 
Land-Birds observed [May 13-18] on Santa Barbara Island,' numbering 
14 species; (2)' Land-Birds observed [May 19-26] on San Nicolas 
Islands,' numbering 9 species; (3) 'Land-Birds observed [May 29-June 7] 
on San Clemente Island,' numbering 25 species; (4) Entire list of 
Water-Birds observed,' numbering 24 species. These lists are quite fully 
annotated, and give much interesting information regarding the breeding 
habits of many of the species observed. One new species [Pipilo clem- 
ent(B Grinnell, described in this journal (Vol. XIV, p. 294), was secured, 
and it is suggested that the Rock Wren observed on San Nicolas Island 
is worthy of separation from the mainland bird " as a new species." 
The trip was made during the interval from May 11 to June 9, but the 
birds observed on a previous trip to San Clemente, March 26 to April 4, 
are also included. The notes on several of the Water Birds are of 
special interest. — J. A. A. 

Publications Received. — Allen, Francis H. Nature's Diary. i2mo, 
Houghton, Milflin & Co., Boston and New York, 1S97. Price, $1.25. 

Baskett, John Newton. The Story of the Birds. i2mo, pp. 263. D. 
Appleton & Co., New York, 1897. Price, 65 cts. net. 

Blanchan, Neltje. Bird Neighbors. Roy. 8vo, pp. 233, 50 col. pll. 
Doubleday & McClure Co., New York, 1S97. Price, $2.00 

Chapman, Frank M. Bird-Life. Edition in Colors. 8vo, pp. xvi-f- 
195, 75 col. plates. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 189S. Price, $5.00. 

Cory, C. B. How to Know the Ducks, Geese and Swans. Sm. 4to, pp. 
95. Illustrated. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1S97. 



' Report on the Birds recorded during a visit to the Islands of Santa 
Barbara, San Nicolas and San Clemente, in the spring of 1S97. By Joseph 
Grinnell. 'Publication No. i' of the Pasadena (California) Academy of 
Sciences. 8vo, pp. 26. August, 1S97. 



74 Recent Literature. \_\^- 

Elliot, Daniel Giraud. The Gallinaceous Game Birds of North America. 
8vo, pp. 220, 46 pll. Francis P. Harper, New York, 1897. Price, $2.50. 

Gibson, William Hamilton. M.y Studio Neighbors. Bvo, pp. x -{-237. 
Numerous Illustrations. Harper & Brothers, New York and London. 
189S. Price, $2.00. 

Grinnell, Joseph. Report on the Birds recorded during a Visit to the 
Islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, and San Clemente, in the Spring of 
1897. (Publication No.i, Pasadena Academj' of Sciences, Pasadena, Cal., 
Aug., 1897.) 

Lee, Oswin A.J. Among British Birds in their Nesting Haunts, Fol., 
pts. vi and vii. David Douglas, Edinburgh, 1897. 

Marsh, O. C. The Affinities of Hesperornis. (Am. Journ. Sci., Apr. 
1897.) 

Meyer, A. B. and F. Helm. Jahresbericht (1891-1894) der Ornitholog- 
ischen Beobachtungstationen im Konigreiche Sachsen. 4to, pp. viii + 
162. R. Friedlander & Sohn, Berlin, 1896. 

Montgomery, Thomas H. A List of the Birds of the Vicinity of West 
Chester, Chester Co., Pennsylvania. (Am. Nat., July, September, and 
October, 1897.) 

Schalow, Herman. Ueber die Vogelfauna des Slidpolargebietes. (Journ. 
fiir Orn., Oct., 1897.) 

Shufeldt, R. W. Chapters on the Natural History of the United States. 
Roy. 8vo, pp. 4S0, 130 illustrations, Studer Brothers, New York, 1897. 
Price, $3 'SO net. 

Stone, Witmer. (i) The Genus Sturnella. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., 1897, pp. 146-152.) (2) Proper name for the Western Horned Owl 
of North America. (Am. Nat., March, 1897, p. 236.) 

Shelley, G. E. On the Birds collected by Mr. Alexander Whyte, F. Z. 
S., during his Expedition to the Nyika Plateau in North Nyasaland. 
With an Introduction by P. L. Sclater. (Ibis, Oct., 1897.) 

Actes de la Societe Scient. du Chili, VI, livr. 4-5, VII, livr. 1-3, 1897. 

American Journ. Sci., Oct.-Dec, 1897. 

American Naturalist, Oct.-Dec, 1897. 

Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist., Oct., 1897. 

Aquila, Jahrgang IV, 1897. ' 

Australian Museum, Records, III, No. 2, 1897; Memoir III, 1897; An- 
nual Report, 1896. 

Birds, Oct.-Dec, 1897. 

Bulletin Wilson Orn. Chapter Agassiz Assoc, No. 17, Nov., 1897. 

Bulletin British Orn. Club, Nos. 47, 48, Oct., Nov., 1897. 

Forest and Stream, XLIX, Nos. 14-26, 1897. 

Iowa Ornithologist, III, No. 4, Oct., 1897. 

Journal Cincinnati Soc Nat. Hist., XIX, No. 3, 1897. 

Knowledge, XX, Oct.-Dec, 1897. 

Medical Age, XV, Nos. 17-22, 1897. 



Vol- XV J Corrr.podcnr. 75 

Naturalist, Tlic, ;i Montli. Jouni. ot' \;it. Hist, lor NorUi of England, 
Oct. -Doc, 1S97. 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte, V, Nos. 10-12, i8<>7. 

Osprey, The, II, Nos. 2, 3, 1897. 

Ottawa Naturalist, XI, Nos. 5, 6, 1897. 

Our Animal Friends, XXV, Nos. 2-4, 1S97. 

Science, (2) VI, Nos. 141-153, 1897. 

Shooting and Fishing, XXII, Nos. 21-25, XXIII, Nos. 1-8, 1897. 

Zoologist, The, (4) Nos. 10-12, 1S97. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Habits of the Maryland Yellow-throat. 

Editors of 'The Alk': — 

Dear Sirs: — If the correspondence pages of 'The Auk' are open to 
minor matters of this kind, I should like to ask if the note on 'Peculiar 
Nesting of the Maryland Yellow-throat' b}- Mr. Walton I. WhitehilP in 
the October issue of 1897 makes a correct statement in regard to the 
Maryland Yellow-throats of Minnesota when it says " the nests are usually 
to be found in dense woods far from water." This is certainly diametri- 
cally opposite to the habits of this bird in the eastern part of its range, 
for here in New England I am sure that all observers will bear me out in 
saj'ing that GeotJilypis trichas is verj- rarely and perhaps nevei- found 
breeding at any distance from water. 

Yours very truly, 

Francis H. Allen. 

l]'est Roxbury, Mass. 

The Fauna of Muskeget Island — A Protest. 

Editors of ' The Auk ' : — 

Dear Sirs: — In a recent paper on the Terns of Muskeget Island,- Mr. 
George H. Mackay records the extermination of a family of Short-eared 
Owls that had established themselves on the island during the summer 

' [For Whitehill read Mitchell, Whitehill having been printed through 
error. — Edd.] 

^ Auk, XIV, pp. 380-390. October, 1897. 



76 



Correspondence. ^ 



LJan. 



of 1896. "I devoted much time in trying to shoot them" he says (on 
page 3S8) ; and in a footnote : " All but one were shot before the close of 
the season." 

All'friends of bird protection must recognize with gratitude the work 
done by Mr. Mackay and his associates in protecting the colonies of 
Terns and Laughing Gulls on Muskeget — work which can scarcely be 
appreciated by one who has not seen the teeming life which in summer 
now covers the barren sand hills of the island. But when bird protection 
results in the destruction of a family of Owls, which, notwithstanding its 
numerical insignificance, far outweighs in biological interest the largest 
Tern colony on the entire Atlantic coast, it is necessary to enter a protest. 

The vertebrate fauna of Muskeget may be roughly divided into two 
groups: 1st, animals which there find conditions essentially normal and 
similar to those to which they are subjected throughout their range; 
and 2nd, animals which there find essentially abnormal conditions, that 
is, conditions which distinctlj' differ from those to which they are else- 
where exposed.' To the first class belong most of the breeding birds, 
among which may be mentioned : Sterna hirtittdo, S. dougalli, S. para- 
discea. Lams atricilla, ^^gialitis nieloda, Actitis niacularia, Agelaiiis 
ph<eniceiis, Stur?ieUa magna, Ammodramus catcdacutus, A. sand%vlcke?ists 
savanna, and Melospiza fasciata!^ The coast form of the common toad 
probably belongs also in this category. In the second class we find the 
two mammals of the island, a Vole and White-footed Mouse, and only one 
bird, the Short-eared Owl. It is to the members of the second class that 
the chief interest attaches, because they are rapidly undergoing modifica- 
tion to fit them to the needs of their peculiar environment, while no such 
process is taking place among the inhabitants of the island that find 
there their normal surroundings. The process of change has progressed 
furthest with the Vole, Microtus bre%veri (Baird), which is now so 
much differentiated as to be readily separable from the wide-ranging 
Microtus pennyslvanicus of Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard and the 
adjacent mainland. The White-footed Mouse, Peromysctis leucopus 
(Rafinesque), is beginning to undergo a series of changes which if not 
interruped will doubtless eventually result in the formation of a new 
species.''^ A similar process would doubtless take place in the Owls if 
they were strictly protected and allowed to become firmly established on 
the island, for the bare glaring sand and scant vegetation among which 

* A similar classification could probably be made with the plants, but here 
the preponderance of the first class would be even greater than in the case of 
the land Vertebrates. 

^ This list is taken from a summary of the Muskeget fauna published in 
1896. Miller, Proc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVII, pp. 79-83- 

3 See Miller, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVII, p. 80. 



Vol. XV-| n ^ J 

,x jj J Corresponaetice. >jh 

thcv arc there forced to live, places tliein in a very ciiftcreiU environment 
from that of the rest of their kind. The importance of a careful histori- 
cal record of a case like this can scarcely be estimated; and are ornitholo- 
gists and intellii^ent bird protectors to be reckoned as one with market 
hunters and idle gunners in destroying the opportunities for obtaining 
such data? 

That the Muskeget environment is sullicientiy potent to produce a 
recognizable local race of the Short-eared Owl is shown hy the former 
existence on the island of such a form. In his 'Birds of Eastern North 
America' (iSSi), Mr. C. J. Majnard says (p. 264): "I had an excellent 
opportunity of studying the habits of these Owls when camping .... on 

the island of Muskegat during the early part of July, 1S70 During 

the first few hours of our visit, we discovered two or three huge nests 
placed in the tops of this dwarfed shrubbery [beach plum bushes], but 
could not, at first, make out to what birds they belonged. The island 
was swarming with three species of Terns, and, after a time, we saw a 
cloud of these birds gathering around some object which was suspended 
in air, but the Terns were so numerous that we could not see what it was 
engaged their attention until it moved onward, when we saw that it was a 
Short-eared Owl. We afterwards found that there was quite a colonv of 
them on the place ; in fact, we secured four or five specimens." On 
page 263, Mr. Maynard says that these specimens are so bleached as to 
appear nearly white in the distance. Of course, at so early a period in 
the summer, this bleaching could hardly have been due to a mechanically 
abraded condition of the .plumage, and indeed Mr. Maynard has personally 
assured me that such was not the case, but that the birds i-epresented a 
pale, resident race. This race has long since been exterminated. During 
my three visits to Muskeget in 1892 and 1893, I searched carefullv, but 
unsuccessfully, for the birds, and am confident that I should have found 
them were they then on the island. 

While the Owls unquestionably destroy many Terns, the latter are now 
so well re-established on Muskeget that a colonj' of the former would be 
no more a menace to their welfare than it was thirty years ago ; and by 
helping to offer direct historical proof of the rapidity at which modifica- 
tion may progress under natural conditions, the Terns would be fulfilling 
a more important end than in gladdening the eye of the visitor to Mus- 
keget, and the heart of the reader of Mr. Mackay's progress report. 

Muskeget is probably only one among hundreds of natural biological 
laboratories. Ornithologists can do valuable work in preserving the 
natural conditions in such places ; but a great danger is that, under the 
influence of lesthetic and sentimental considerations, bird protection will 
become so one-sided as to lose its scientific value. 

\try truly ^yours, 

Gerrit S. Miller, [r. 
Peterboro. JVetu I'ork. 



78 



Notes and Nexvs. [^",|^ 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

As THESE pages go to press we are in receipt, through the kindness of 
the publishers, of Miss Maria R. Audubon's 'Audubon and his Journals.'' 
A hastj examination of these sumptuously printed volumes is sviificient 
to show that Miss Audubon has presented us with a work of fascinating 
interest to all ornithologists and bird-lovers, and one which must also 
appeal strongly to the sympathies of the general reader. The story of 
his romantic life, told briefly in the first volume, is of absorbing interest. 
Following this are the European, Labrador, and Missovn-i River 'Journals,' 
and the 'Episodes,' the latter for the first time collectively reprinted from 
the first three volumes of the ' Ornithological Biographies.' The illus- 
trations include a dozen portraits of Audubon, most of them heretofore 
unpublished, and also portraits of his wife, and his sons, John and Victor. 
There are also views of his mill in Kentucky and of his home mansions 
in Pennsylvania, besides various camp scenes and previously unpublished 
sketches of birds, including a pencil sketch of Townsend's Bunting. 
The geographical and zoological annotations by Dr. Coues add further 
interest to the work. 

The Audubon Society of the State of New York held a public meeting 
in the large lecture hall of the American Museum of Natural History on 
the afternoon of December 2. Addresses were made by Morris K. Jesup, 
President of the Museum and of the Audubon Society; Henry S. 
van Dyke and Frank M. Chapman, of the Society's Executive Committee ; 
George L. Davis, representing the Superintendent of Schools of the 
city ; and A. S. Bickmore of the Museum's Department of Public 
Instruction. 

Mr. Jesup spoke of the Avork of the Society and its desire to create a 
public sentiment against feather wearing which will result in the proper 
enforcement of the laws protecting birds. Dr. van Dyke made a plea for 
the birds as "messengers of beauty and good cheer," and referred to their 
place in literature, concluding his eloquent address with the reading of 
two original bird poems. Mr. Chapman presented statistics showing the 
alarming extent to which the traffic in feathers has assumed, and urged, 
as a means of protecting our birds from wanton destruction, that their 
zesthetic and economic value be made a part of our cominon school 
curriculum. Mr. Davis expressed the willingness of the Board of Educa- 
tion to introduce bird-study in their course of instruction and dwelt upon 
the elevating and humanizing influence of nature studies, while Pro- 

' Two vols. 8vo., illustrated. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 1897. 
Price, $7.50 net. 



Vol. XV 

uS,,S 



I Noh's and Ncivs. hQ 



fessor Bickmore exhibited a series of slides in illustration of a method by 
which bird-studies could be tauji^ht. 

The meeting was attended b_v about looo people, doubtless liio larjjest 
audience which has ever assembled in this country to listen to addresses 
relating to bird protection, and the interest and enthusiasm shown were 
excellent evidences of the appreciation of the importance of this subject. 

Mr. George K. Cherrie has resigned his position of Assistant Cura- 
tor of Ornithology in the Field Columbian Museum and in October 
sailed for Bolivar, Venezuela, which he proposes to make the base of 
explorations in the upper Orinoco region for a period of a vear or more. 

Dr. J. BuTTiKOFER, SO wcU-known for his ornithological work at the 
Leyden Museum, has resigned his cui-atorship in that institution and 
accepted the appointment of Director of the Zoological Garden at Rot- 
terdam. He has nearly completed his report on the ornithological results 
of the Borneo Expedition, which he accompanied as zoologist. 

Dr. Otto Finsch, the eminent ornithologist and anthropologist, has 
been appointed, we are informed, to succeed Dr. Biittikofer at the Leyden 
Museum. 

Prof. R. A. Philippi, for fortj-three years Director of the National 
Museum at Santiago, Chili, and well-known as an authority on Chilean' 
ornithology, has retired from active work at the age of ninety years, his 
son succeeding him in the office of Director. 

We HAVE learned of the recent death of two of our Corresponding 
Members, but no details have yet reached us, — namely. Dr. A. J. Malm- 
gren of the University at Helsingfors, Finland, and Dr. X. von Mojsiso- 
vics. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at the University 
of Gratz, Austria. Some notice will be taken of their ornithological 
work in a later number of this journal. 

The final plans for the location of the buildings, ranges, dens, aviaries 
and other enclosures for animals, and the ponds, walks, roadwavs, 
entrances, etc., for the Zoological Park in South Bronx Park, New York 
City, were lately submitted by the New York Zoological Society (see Auk, 
XIV, July, 1S96, p. 344) to the Department of Parks and approved and 
adopted by the Park authorities. The Society has raised $65,000 toward 
the $100,000 necessary to receive from the city an appropriation of 
$125,000 for laying out the grounds and providing drainage and water 
supply. The funds provided by the Society — namely, $250,000 to be raised 
during the three year limit — are to be applied to the erection of buildings 
and the purchase of collections. It is a work that may well interest people 



8o Notes and Nezvs. [^"^ 

residing bej'ond the limits of New York City. The area allotted to the 
Zoological Park is four times larger than that of the largest zoological 
garden in Europe, and with the care that has been bestowed upon the 
plans, in order to secure the best results attainable, there is no reason 
why this country should not in due time be in possession of the best zoolog- 
ical garden in the world. It is hoped that the necessary financial support 
will be given the Society. The annual membership fee is $io; $200 consti- 
tutes the fee for a life membership; a gift of $1000 renders the donor a 
■ patron, while a gift of $5000 entitles the contributor to be enrolled as a 
founder. As neither the influence of the Society nor its work will be local, 
it is quite fitting that its appeal for financial aid should not be restricted 
within narrow limits. Persons interested in the work of the Society are 
invited to apply to the Director, Mr. William T. Hornaday, 69 Wall St., 
New York City, for copies of the Society's ' Bulletins,' giving reports of 
pi'Ogress and plans of the work. 

An edition of 1000 copies of the report of the A. O. U. Committee on 
Protection of North American Birds will be reprinted from the present 
number of ' The Auk' for free distribution. 

Owing to the pressure of business engagements Mr. William Dutcher 
has been compelled to resign from the chairmanship of the Committee 
and Mr. Witmer Stone has been appointed in his place. The Committee 
as now constituted is as follows : 

Witmer Stone, Chairmatt, Academy of Natural Sciences, Logan 
Square, Philadelphia, Penn. 

George H. Mackay, 218 Commonwealth Av., Boston, Mass. 

E. H. FoRBUSH, Maiden, Mass. 

William Dutcher, 525 Manhattan Av., New York City. 

Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller, 628 Hancock St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mrs, Julia Stockton Robins, 114 South 21st St., Philadelphia, Penn. 

Miss Florence A. Merriam, 1919 i6th St., Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Theodore S. Palmer, Biological Survey, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C. 

RuTHVEN Deane, 24 Michigan Av., Chicago, 111. 

Mrs. E. Irene Rood, 552 Chestnut St., Chicago, 111. 

Otto Widmann, Old Orchard, Mo. 

Mrs. Louise McGown Stephenson, Helena, Ark. 

Leverett M. Loomis, Academy of Sciences,. San Francisco, Cal. 

A. W. Anthony, San Diego, Cal. 



°8 8 J ]\cport oj Coiiimiitec on JWrd I'rolvrtiuii. 8 I 

REPORT OF THE A. O. U. COMMITTEE ON PROTEC- 
TION OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

By a resolution duly carried at the last annual meeting of the 
American Ornithologists' Union, the Committee on Protection of 
North American Birds was authorized to increase its numbers 
from members of the Society, and by such vested authority the 
following named persons were added to the Committee, viz.: Mr. 
Otto Widmann, Old Orchard, Mo.; Mr. A. W. Anthony, San 
Diego, Cal.; Mr. E. H. Forbush, Maiden, Mass.; Mrs. E. Irene 
Rood, Chicago, 111. ; Mrs. Julia Stockton Robins, Philadelphia, 
Penn. ; Miss Florence A. Merriam, Washington, D. C; Mrs. 
Olive Thorne Miller, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Mrs. L. M. Stephenson, 
Helena, Ark., and Dr. T. S. Palmer, Washington, D. C. 

All of the members have been actively engaged during the 
past year in advancing the work of this Committee in its various 
channels, and we feel that the very largely-increased interest 
taken in birds and in their protection has been in great measure 
the result of these efforts. 

While thousands of leaflets have been distributed and column 
after column has appeared in the public press relative to the 
frightful cruelty necessitated by the use of wild birds' feathers 
for millinery ornaments, yet the plea of the great majority of the 
women who still continue to use feathers is that of ignorance. 
This is largely due, I think, to an unwillingness to assume an 
individual responsibility. They are like the Buddhist priest who 
had been preaching strongly against the use of animal food, 
although he sometimes ate it himself. In explaining what his 
religion required in the matter, he said : " I must not have any 
animal killed that I may eat it, yet if it is served at the table in 
any house where I am staying, and it is not provided expressly 
for me, but in the ordinary course of things, then I may eat of it, 
because then I am not personally responsible for the death of the 
animal." This certainly is the position that women occupy rela- 
tive to bird slaughter ; most of them know of the cruelty, and not 
only the cruelty but the injury to agricultural interests, yet they 
excuse themselves, as did the Buddhist priest, by saying: "The 



02 Report of Committee 0)1 Bird Protection. ! Tai 

birds are not killed for me personally ; they would be killed at 
any rate." In other words, unless the wearer has a particular 
bird killed for her particular use, she will not assume any respon- 
sibility. It certainly is a curious inconsistency to visit a church 
or a lecture room and listen to a discourse on some philanthropic 
subject and note the extreme sympathy displayed by scores of 
women, while at the same time their hats are decorated with 
plumes and feathers that could only have been obtained by acts 
of the extremest cruelty. 

The work is extending so rapidly, and interest is becoming so 
widespread, that it requires a greater amount of labor and time 
than the members of the Committee should be called upon to 
give. In fact, the work has now reached such a stage that, if 
possible, it should be transferred to some individual who could 
devote his or her whole time to it. The members of the Com- 
mittee are all engaged in other pursuits, and therefore find it 
impossible to devote but a small amount of time to the work, and 
consequently cannot advance it as rapidly as would otherwise be 
possible ; however, notwithstanding these drawbacks, your Com- 
mittee feels that the year 1897 closes with an ample reward for 
the labor bestowed, and sees great cause for congratulation in 
the very greatly, increased interest manifested. 

With these few introductory statements, your Committee submits 
a r^sum^ of the work done in each State. 

Maine. 

Miss Edith J. Boardman of Brunswick, Maine, reports : " We 
are just about making an attempt to organize an Audubon 
Society. Professor Leslie A. Lee of Bowdoin College will^'assist, 
and we hope that we will be able to report a full organization in a 
few weeks. A systematic study of birds has not been introduced 
into the schools of the State, so far as I know, but occasional 
talks on birds have been given in the schools, and attempts have 
been made to call the scholars' attention to the subject, and an 
hour is occasionally given for recitations about them. No steps 
have been taken, however, towards establishing a Bird Day." 



°g 55 J Report of Committee o>i Bird Protection. (S 'I 

Massachusetts. 

Audubon work in Massachusetts has advanced more rapidly 
and has attained a higher degree of efficiency than in any other 
portion of the country. The Secretary of the Society, Miss 
Harriet E. Richards, sends the following interesting statement of 
the work done by that Society during the past year, and of its 
present status. 

"The Massachusetts Audubon Society began to enroll members 
February lo, 1896, each person paying one dollar for life-mem- 
bership, excepting teachers and scholars, who paid twenty-five 
cents. February 10, 1897, the Directors reduced the membership 
fee to twenty-five cents, and created two new classes of members, 
viz., Associates, to pay one dollar annually, and Life Associates, to 
pay not less than twenty-five dollars at one time. The Associates 
are to be notified of all meetings and to receive all publications 
by mail. All the publications are free to members upon appli- 
cation. This plan of membership was inaugurated to induce 
more people to join as working members, and also to insure a 
permanent fund. While we realized the need of such a work, we 
did not know that so much interest would be taken in it by all 
classes, and so many ways opened to extend it. 

"March 15, 1897, the day the new membership fee came into 
operation, the Society had 1284 members, 358 of which were 
school mera'bers. October 15, 1897, there were 183 1 members, 
364 associates, and 23 life associates. The Society has no local 
secretaries. 

" In response to a Bird Day circular that we issued in March, 
we received letters from about twenty teachers, telling of the suc- 
cess of the plan in their schools. The past year the Secretary 
has addressed twenty-two clubs, schools, and societies in the 
interest of the work. 

" We have freely distributed a circular stating the purpose of 
the society ; also the following named leaflets : ' To the Members' ; 
' Hints to Bird Students ' ; 'To Save Our Birds ' ; ' The Balti- 
more Oriole ' ; and a card entitled ' The Bird's Christmas.' Also 
a Bird Day circular, reprinted from the Journal of Education ; 
Miss Merriam's ' How Birds affect the Farm and Garden ' ; Mr. 



O/L Report of Commiitee on Bird Protection. r " 

Chapman's 'The Wearing of Heron's Plumes or Aigrettes ' ; 'An 
Artist's Appeal,' by Abbott Thayer, and many of the Government 
pamphlets. We have also prepared for sale an Audubon Calendar 
for 1898. 

" In June a law was passed by our legislature to prohibit the 
use of Massachusetts song birds in millinery. It has been impos- 
sible to enforce this law, but its enactment has aroused much 
interest in the subject, and brought to the Society both friends 
and enemies. 

" We are convinced that there is great need of the work, but 
are certain that it will take time and much patient, earnest effort 
to accomplish it, and only by the hearty co-operation of all persons 
interested in birds can we hope to overcome this long-established 
but barbarous custom of wearing feathers for ornamentation." 

In addition to the work of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, 
Mr. George H. Mackay, of our Committee, has done exceedingly 
valuable work, which is detailed in his report herewith attached : 

" In submitting my report for the year ending November, 1897, 
I beg leave to state that the number of things calling for experi- 
enced attention during the past year has been unusually large. 

" After much thought, I formulated a protective bill for our 
birds in general, based on investigations made in Washington and 
elsewhere. This bill was presented in the Senate at the begin- 
ning of the session (being bill No. 17). After much preliminary 
work, under adverse conditions — my own senator and the House 
Chairman and Senate Chairman of the Fish and Game Committee 
being antagonistic — ■ I succeeded in getting it through the Com- 
mittee, and afterwards through the Senate, only to meet defeat 
later on in the House, in consequence of the influence of cold 
storage and market men, who were strongly opposed to the bill. 
The work entailed, under the circumstances, having been con- 
siderable, the disappointment was commensurate. I shall try it 
again the coming winter, which will be the third attempt. 

" In order to better carry out certain protective work I have 
had a Deputy Fish and Game Commissioner appointed for the 
past two years. 

" At the hearings given by the Committee on Fisheries and 
Game on the nineteen bills which were presented, some of them 



8 8 I Report of Commitlcr on liird Protci lion. O^ 

with adjournments, I was present and spoke at eleven ot them as 
your representative. 

" No seriously-objectionable legislation has been enacted dur- 
ing tlie past year, and the amount of ornithological information 
which has been imparted to some of our legislators at these hear- 
ings has been considerable, and cannot but result in good. Very 
late in the Session of 1897 a bill prohibiting the wearing of, or 
having in possession the body or feathers of, any of our birds 
now protected by law, was enacted. Although making a long 
argument in its favor, I doubted its efficiency. Complaint hav- 
ing been made to me regarding the killing of certain small birds 
near Boston, I made application to the Chief of the District 
Police, who furnished me with two officers in order to make inves- 
tigations, but no evidence of sufficient strength to convict was 
obtained. 

" In my last report I referred to a colony of Terns on Penikese 
Island, Massachusetts, which were in need of protection. I am 
happy to state that the owners of the island granted me all the 
authority asked for, and by the time the birds had commenced 
laying I had, in conjunction with Capt. W. H. Proctor of the 
Buzzard's Bay police boat, prepared and put up a number of 
signs on the island giving warning notices, printed in Portuguese 
and English, in parallel columns, against the taking of eggs, kill- 
ing of birds, and trespassing on the island, Capt. Proctor having 
the island under surveillance during the breeding season. The 
result has been satisfactory ; no eggs in quantity were taken, as 
has been the custom heretofore. The following letter from Mr. 
H. A. Homer, one of the two owners of the island, may prove of 
interest. 

" ' I know of no attempts to gather eggs in quantities. Sev- 
eral parties have been to the island for a few eggs for curios- 
ities, and some for scientific purposes, and they have taken them 
for such purposes, but only a few by each party. My man at the 
island lodged one gentleman who had spent a day at Gull Island 
and on Penikese Island investigating the Gulls : he was up until 
II o'clock that night making notes. I did not learn his name. 
He reported many dead Gulls, young and old. on the island, but 
I have failed to see many. A few have been killed by Hawks ; 



86 Report of Committee on Bird Protection. Ff"^ 

the sheep have trodden a few to death, and some have been 
crippled. These latter I have put to death, as they never could 

fly- 

" ' I should judge, taking the number of old Gulls, that there 
was a greater percentage of young than for years. Old residents 
of Cutyhunk and the local fishermen say there are more Gulls 
than ever. Of course their judgment has little weight with me, 
but having given the matter some attention, I am willing to state 
that there are more old and many more young Gulls than last 
year. 

" ' Two weeks ago, before the young could fly, I saw ten in a 
space about a yard square, and I counted 500 of the young, 
large and small, on the northern part of the island in a space of 
about five acres. 

" ' These Gulls, when they begin to move about, walk in the 
sheep tracks and rest there and will not stir without being 
kicked out ; they are consequently trodden upon by the sheep, 
and many get crippled in the wings. I made way with fifteen, last 
Saturday and Sunday, maimed in this way, and I saw more that 
I could not get, as they made for the water and swam away out 
of my reach. 

" ' I have no means of estimating the number of young Gulls 
already on the wing, but there are enough to satisfy any lover 

of the creature 

" 'A few Summer Yellow-legs came into the island Sunday but 
were driven off again by the Gulls, who pursued them in multi- 
tudes. Hawks are now also driven away, so that I think there 
will be a large increase in the Gulls, large enough to suit the 
desires of their best friends.' 

" No decision having been handed down by the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts regarding the status of the town of 
Nantucket and the owners of an undivided part of Muskeget 
Island, Massachusetts, until Sept 10, 1897, I found myself at the 
commencement of the breeding season in quite a quandary, 
especially as at the last moment the former warden was incapaci- 
tated for the situation, and another man (a fisherman), without 
consulting with me, had himself appointed without remuneration. 
Being somewhat doubtful of the results of such an appointment, 



^°i8g8"^] Report of Commiltcc on Bird Pro /re (ion. 87 

with the aid of a friend in Washington, I had the matter brought 
to the attention of the Hon. Secretary of the Treasury, as also of 
the General Superintendent of the Life Saving Service, who con- 
siderately granted permission to the Captain of the Life Saving 
Station on Muskeget Island to serve in the capacity of warden 
during the two months of June and July (the breeding season of 
the Terns and Laughing Gulls), when the life saving crew were 
off duty. In order that the Captain might have the necessary 
authority to arrest without warrant in this State, I made application 
that he be appointed a Deputy Fish and Game Commissioner, 
which appliciation was most considerately granted by the Hon. E. 
A. Brackett, Chairman of the Commissioners on Island Fisheries 
and Game. Under this arrangement the birds breeding there 
have been cared for during the past season. I personally 
visited and remained in Muskeget and adjoining islands July 
3, 4, and 5, 1897, and made, as has been my custom here- 
tofore, a detailed examination of all the breeding ground. I 
found to my regret that great changes had taken place, especially 
on Muskeget Island. All the Laughing Gulls had abandoned 
their old breeding haunt, as had also pretty nearly all the Ternn ; 
of the latter's eggs I did not observe over 100, where on July 8, 

1895, I checked off 1280, and where in 1896 I found them too 
numerous to check off alone. On Gravelly Island, formerly the 
home of the beautiful Roseates, my especial pleasure and care, 
I am now compelled to write that this season they are only to be 
observed in greatly diminished numbers, this island, their par- 
ticular resort, having been usurped to a large extent by the 
Common Tern. I find by actual count that the total nests and 
eggs noted here on July 3, 1897, are below what they were on July 
26, 1896. On South Point Island, on July 4, 1897, there were 20 
per cent, less nests, and 50 per cent, less eggs than on June 26, 

1896. I found about 15 pairs of Laughing Gulls breeding here, 
and six or eight pairs breeding on Gravelly Island, which are all 
there are in this neighborhood at the present time. 

" Last autumn the United States Government built a new life 
saving station (the former one having been burned a number of 
years ago) in the centre of the breeding resort of the Terns and 
Laughing Gulls on Muskeget Island proper. The occupants of 



88 Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \_\L\. 

this station were on duty prior to, and for one month after the 
arrival of the birds, and probably as a consequence prevented 
them from using their old haunt for breeding purposes. An 
interesting question is, Where have these Muskeget birds gone ? 
The figures show a decrease this season for all the other breeding 
grounds in Muskeget waters. I have not before noted fewer birds 
since the first few years when private protection was extended 
to them. 

" The coming winter in Massachusetts promises to be as pro- 
lific of legislative schemes, good, bad and indifferent, as was last 
winter, and it requires experienced persons to give their time 
and attention to the same. I would respectfully suggest that 
whoever represents your Committee should be empowered by 
vote at the coming meeting of the American Ornithologists' 
Union to act for and represent absolutely the society in New 
England in all matters relating to bird protection and bird legis- 
lation. It is clearly impossible to present each matter in detail 
to the Committee for consideration, for the conditions are con- 
stantly changing. I see no other course for the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, if it desires to maintain its present, and advance 
its future influence. 

" In Massachusetts there has been heretofore two powerful 
factors in bird legislation, especially that affecting game birds, 
viz., the Fish and Game Protection Association, and the market- 
men and cold storage interests. It seems to be acknowledged 
that a third interest has been added, viz., the American Orni- 
thologists' Union. 

" Since spring shooting was prohibited in Massachusetts, Black- 
bellied Plovers, or Beetle Heads, as the young are called, have 
continued to increase in numbers, both in spring and autumn. 
This gain was noticeable in 1890, since which time large gains 
have been observed. I wish to call the attention of our west- 
ern associates living in the States of Nebraska, Missouri (St. 
Louis), and Texas (Fort Worth), that parties there have been 
for a number of years killing and shipping thousands of Golden 
Plovers, Eskimo Curlews, and Bartramian Sandpipers in the 
spring, at the period when these birds are passing northward 
to their breeding grounds, many of them having eggs in the 



^°8gf ^J Report of Committer on Bird Protection. So 

ovaries at the time. For over two years I have been endeavoring^ 
to get our State hiw repealed which gives the right to sell the 
above birds during our close season. I have thus far been unsuc- 
sessful, one of the arguments of my opponents being that they 
will be shipped just the same to other States, and that unless the 
killing and shipping can be stopped it will prove of no avail. 

" I called attention to this state of affairs several years ago ; 
from that time to the present we have had none of these birds to 
speak of in New England, for the best of reasons, as it is unreason- 
able to expect the old birds and their increase to pass by our 
shore in the autumn on their return migration, going south, if you 
kill the old birds on the way north to breed. These birds have 
long since passed the danger mark, and if anything is ever to be 
done in their behalf, it should be done now." 

Mr. Forbush, of the Committee, joined Mr. Mackay in urging 
the adoption by the legislature of his bill for the protection of 
birds, and has also given a large amount of information to speakers 
who have addressed Women's Clubs and other organizations in 
behalf of the protection of birds ; he has also mailed reports and 
ornithological matter for use in school work. His own work as 
Ornithologist to the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture lies prin- 
cipally with the agricultural population, and he has spoken at 
farmers' meetings on the subject of the usefulness of birds, and 
has always advocated their protection ; he also reports that the 
Massachusetts Fish and Game Committee has supplied him with 
notices warning against wild bird shooting, and these have been 
posted on the land of people who have been troubled by boys and 
gunners ; he also reports that the Metropolitan Park Commissioner 
of Massachusetts has taken several tracts of woodland and set 
them aside as public parks, in which no gunning is allowed, and 
for the past three years the birds have been increasing in these 
parks. In the Middlesex Fells region, comprising thousands of 
acres, a large part of which has been seized by the Commis- 
sioner, Grouse, Quail, Crows, and Jays have greatly increased. 
The results of the protection of birds in these forest parks will 
be watched with interest. 



QO Report of Committee oti Bird Protection. 1 y 

New York. 

Miss Emma H. Lockwood, Secretary of the Audubon Society 
of the State of New York, reports as follows : 

" The Audubon Society of the State of New York for the pro- 
tection of birds was organized February 23, 1897, and works in 
co-operation with the American Museum of Natural History, the 
President of the Museum, Mr. Morris K. Jesup, being also Presi- 
dent of the Audubon Society. 

"The Executive Committee believes that the work is essen- 
tially an educative work ; therefore, to have any permanent 
result, the establishment of Bird Day in the schools throughout 
the State of New York, w.as made a primary principle of the 
organization. To attain this end the aid of Mr. Chas. R. 
Skinner, State Superintendent of Public Instruction was enlisted. 
He wrote a letter, addressed to the principals and teachers of 
the State, endorsing the work and aims of the Society ; this 
letter was sent, together with a letter from the Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, and copies of the Society's prospectus, to 
1 167 superintendents and principals of schools throughout the 
rural districts of the State. Circular No. 10, a 'poster,' giving 
the law of New York on bird protection enacted May 22, 1897, 
was sent to 36 11 postmasters in the State, enclosed with a letter 
from the Chairman requesting that the ' poster ' be hung in the 
post-offices under their charge. 

" Circular No. 4, ' The Wearing of Heron's Plumes or Aig- 
rettes,' has been widely distributed by other State Audubon 
Societies, the Massachusetts society ordering over 1200 copies, 
and subsequently having 1000 additional copies printed under 
their own seal and heading. This circular has also been used 
by the Audubon Societies of New Jersey, the District of Colum- 
bia, Wisconsin and Iowa. 

"The general literature of the New York Society has also been 
furnished on order from St. Louis, Baltimore, St. Paul, Tacoma 
(Wash.) and Redlands (Cal). 

"The Society has at present 241 members. The work of the 
past few months has been aimed directly at the cause of bird 
protection rather than towards the mere increase of member- 



^°8 ^^1 l\cpoyt of ( 'oiiiiniltrr on Bird Pro/rr/iini. Q I 

ship; it is hoped, however, that with the help of an efficient 
local secretary at all the important cities and towns of the State 
that this Society may soon be placed in the prosperous condition 
the work demands and deserves. 

" The Society has issued the following circulars and leaflets : 

No. I. Prospectus of the Society, giving its objects and principles. 

No. 2. A circular letter to 150 editors of newspapers in the State. By 

William Dutcher. 
No. 3. ' An Appeal to Boys.' By Mrs. J. A. Allen. 
No. 4. 'The Wearing of Heron's Plumes or Aigrettes.' Bv Frank M. 

Chapman. 
No. 5. ' An Artist's Appeal.' By Abbot H. Thayer. 
No. 6. 'Bird Day in the School.' Republished from Circular No. 17, of the 

United States Department of Agriculture, by permission. 
No. 7. 'Economic Value of Birds.' By Frank M. Chapman. Reprinted 

from ' Bird Life.' 
No. S. Circular letter of Charles R. Skinner to Principals and Teachers 

of New York State. 
No. 9. Circular letter of the Chairman, sent with No. 8. 
No. 10. Poster — Extracts from the Law on Bird Protection. 
No. II. Circular letter of Chairman to Editors, sent with No. 12. 
No. 12. Notice of Work and Aims of the Society, sent to Editors by the 

Chairman. 
No. 13. Circular letter of Chairman to the Postmasters of the State, 

sent with No. 10. 
No. 14. 'Elsie in Birdland, — An x\ppeal to Girls.' By Mrs. J. A. x\llen 
Of the above circulars 26,767 copies have been distributed." 

In addition to the work done in the State of New York by the 
Audubon Society, the American Museum of Natural History 
conducts a department of educational work under the direct 
chairge of Prof. A. S. Bickmore ; this is devoted exclusively to the 
education of teachers in various branches, including the eco- 
nomic and aesthetic value of birds. Large numbers of accu- 
rately-colored lantern slides of birds have been prepared for dis- 
tribution to the public schools throughout the State, thus bring- 
ing to the attention of the teachers and scholars, in a most satis- 
factory and beautiful way, this interesting and popular subject. 

The Chairman regrets to report that the large colony of Terns 
on Great Gull Island, New^ York, that has been so carefully 
protected for a number of years, has, during the past season, 



02 Report of Committee on Bird Protection. ! Jan. 

been entirely broken up, as the United States Government is now 
building upon that island extensive fortifications. While no 
adult birds, so far as learned, have been shot, yet no young 
birds have been hatched on that island during the past season. 

The Chairman, accompanied by the State Game Protector for 
this district, visited a number of bird dealers in New York City 
during the past summer to ascertain whether wild birds were 
being caught and caged ; they found a very few in the possession 
of dealers. Their attention was called to the new law and they 
were warned that any infraction of the same would be prosecuted. 

Rhode Island. 

In October an Audubon Society 'was organized, with Dr. 
Hermon C. Bumpus of Brown University as President, and Mrs. 
H. T. Grant, Jr., 187 Bowen St., Providence, R. I., as Secretary. 
It has about 75 members. While they have thought best not to 
require any pledge from members, nor to especially mention their 
objection to the use of birds for millinery purposes, yet they feel 
that the subject is amply covered in Articles II and III of their 
By-Laws, which are as follows : " The purposes of the Society are 
declared to be the promotion of interest in bird life, the encour- 
agement of the study of Ornithology, and the protection of wild 
birds and their eggs against unnecessary destruction. A declara- 
tion of sympathy with the objects of the Society shall be a 
sufficient requisite for membership therein. 

Connecticut. 

Up to the time of making this report, an Audubon Society has 
not been organized, although considerable correspondence has 
been had on the subject by your Chairman, and there is every 
probability of one soon being formed. 

Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Witmer Stone, of our Committee, reports as follows : 
" A new game law was passed by the last legislature, which 
prohibits market gunning or the sale of game shot in the State,.. 



^"sgS^l Report of Coiiniiillcr on liird I'rolci I ion . Q'2 

and limits the number of game birds siiot by one man in a single 
day. 

"It also forbids the killing, selUng, or having in possession any 
song or wild birds (except P^nglish Sparrow, Kingfislier, and some 
Hawks, Owls, and Herons) as heretofore. In tiie main, the law 
is excellent, but as no wardens are provided for, it cannot be as 
well enforced as it should be. 

"The age at which permits for scientific collecting is granted 
is very properly reduced to 15 years, but the annual fee for the 
license is raised from one to five dollars, which is a very bad 
alteration, as many persons who cannot pay this high fee will be 
induced to collect without a license. 

"The Pennsylvania Audubon Society has been active through- 
out the year, and has enrolled a membership of 2000, besides 
distributing about 20,000 circulars and pamphlets. The press 
throughout the State has given the Society cordial support, and 
has done much to spread its influence. 

" Acting upon the suggestion of the United States Department 
of Agriculture, a bill providing for a Bird Day in the schools was 
introduced in the last legislature and was passed, only to be 
vetoed by the Governor." 

New Jersey. 

Early in the year your Chairman visited Plainfield, N. J., at the 
invitation of some of its leading citizens, and lectured on the sub- 
ject of bird protection before a large audience. On the 8th of 
May, 1897, the Audubon Society of the State of New Jersey was 
organized, with Alexander Gilbert of Plainfield, N. J., as Presi- 
dent, and Miss Mary Abigail Mellick of the same place as 
Secretary ; among its large number of Honorary Vice-Presidents 
is Governor John W. Griggs and Bishop Scarborough, also the 
President of the New Jersey Fish and Game Association. 

Mr. Witmer Stone, of our Committee, who is also much inter- 
ested in bird protection in lower New Jersey, reports as follows : 

"In New Jersey, where no provision w^hatever is made for 
scientific collecting, a new bill was introduced during the year 
with the object of making such provision, and providing protec- 



OA. Rep07't of Co7nmittee on Bird Proicctioft. iTa 

tion for certain birds not now protected. So many amendments 
were proposed, however, that it was thought, if passed, it would 
be worse than the present law, and it was dropped. 

" The game wardens of New Jersey, under the direction of Mr. 
Charles A. Shriner, have done excellent work and have made so 
many arrests that very little illegal gunning is done, and many 
birds which are not really protected by the law are unmolested 
from fear that arrest may follow if they are harmed. 

" The Gulls and Terns remain in about the same numbers as 
last year, but the Clapper Rails show clearly the effects of the 
enormous slaughter of September, 1896, and the high tides at the 
nesting season last summer, and have been very scarce." 

Michigan. 

I 

Mr. L. Whitney Watkins reports as follows : " I am pleased 
to state that a general feeling of enthusiasm prevails among the 
ornithologists of Michigan in the observance and enforcement 
of the laws protecting our native birds from wanton slaughter, 
and women wear birds upon their hats less than formerly ; but 
here as elsewhere they are the last to think that the poor birds 
suffer on account of their own selfish vanity. The Michigan 
Academy of Sciences has appointed Prof. Walter B. Barrows of 
Lansing, Prof. Dean C. Worcester of Ann Arbor, and L. 
Whitney Watkins of Manchester, a Committee to advise and 
formulate better means for the protection of our song and insec- 
tivorous birds. 

"The Michigan Ornithological Club, through its official quar- 
terly bulletin, to which I have the honor of serving as editor-in- 
chief, has fearlessly and persistently stood for the protection, of 
birds, and at the next annual meeting of our club we shall, I 
trust, start a branch of the Audubon Society, regarding which 
you have already heard from me. 

" State Game and Fish Warden, Chas. S. Osborne of Sault Ste. 
Marie, who, like myself, is a member of both the above-mentioned 
societies, as well as of the American Ornithologists' Union, has 
done great good for the cause in the enforcement of the statute 
respecting our song and insectivorous birds, and in the great 



i8o8 1 Report of Committee on Bird Protection. QC 

care with which he issues permits for scientific collectors, and 
bars those who make skins to sell. These permits are usually 
limited to one or two counties, and to one pair of each species. 
They run from one month to a year. The Michigan statute 
reads : ' No person or persons shall at any time or in any man- 
ner whatever injure, kill or destroy or attempt to injure, kill or 
destroy any robin, night hawk, whipporwill, finch, thrush, lark, 
swallow, yellow bird, blue bird, brown thrasher, cat bird, wren, 
martin, oriole, sea gull, woodpecker, bobolink or any song or 
insectivorous bird excepting blackbird, bluejay, English sparrow 
and butcher bird.' Their nests and eggs are also protected. 

" I wish we could get an ornithologist in the legislature., You 
may depend upon me for anything possible." 

District of Columbia. 

On May i8, 1897, an Audubon Society was organized, with 
Surgeon-General Geo. M. Sternberg, U. S. Army, as President 
and Mrs. John Dewhurst Patten as Secretary. In its prospectus 
particular emphasis is laid upon the fact that if women could 
only realize the cruelty necessary to obtain wild birds" feathers 
they would find it impossible to wear any feather to obtain which 
a bird has been killed ; at the present time they have 74 mem- 
bers. The Secretary reports : " We have now in press two good 
leaflets, and it is proposed to have a circular letter from the 
Principal of the Public Schools, commending the objects of the 
Society, and to have a general meeting of the teachers, with a 
view of arousing their interest in the Society. We desire, if 
possible, to establish a normal course of ornithology similar to 
that in botany. I believe there is a growing sentiment in favor 
of bird protection, and I do not think there is as general use in 
millinery of wild birds' feathers as there was last season. We 
have one milliner on our list who has promised not to keep such 
feathers in stock ; the others say they must supply what is 
demanded. We propose to have a pin for the Society as an 
especial attraction for children, with whom we feel the greatest 
work can be done for the future, especially if we succeed in 
getting a course of bird study in the schools. We do not feel 
at all discouraoed but realize fuUv that all reforms are vervslow." 



q6 Report of Covimittec on Bird Protection. fTa 

Illinois. 

Mr. Ruthven Deane, of the Committee, reports as follows ; 
" Since rny last report, a year ago, affairs with regard to bird pro- 
tection have assumed, in most particulars, an encouraging aspect, 
yet a few statements will show that our Committee, and Audubon 
Societies still have plenty of work to accomplish. One of the 
most important features since rny last report has been the organiza- 
tion of the Illinois Audubon Society on April i, 1897. While 
the intervening summer months have scattered many of the 
officers and working committee, yet much good work has been 
accomplished. Several leaflets have been distributed, schools 
have been visited, and some already have adopted a Bird Day, 
and copies of the game laws have been posted in conspicuous 
places. At the present date the Society has a membership of 500 
adults and 2500 children in the public schools, and has estab- 
lished 14 branch societies. On October 28, the first public meeting 
was held and was well attended. In the past few weeks I have 
carefully observed the present style of ornamentation for hats and 
bonnets; I find that not less than 75 per cent, are trimmed with 
feathers, but only 25 per cent, are those of wild birds, and in no 
instance did I detect a song bird. The fall fashions here call 
eagerly for feathers of our game birds and of several species of 
our Hawks and Owls, yet there are hundreds of styles made up 
from the feathers of our domestic fowls and pigeons dyed in all 
colors of the rainbow. Now as to the aigrette, — I am informed 
by the proprietor of one of our largest wholesale millinery estab- 
lishments that the demand for these plumes has been greater this 
fall than for several years, and that the supply was fully equal to 
the demand, their aigrette sales this fall amounting to ^5,000. 
It is very discouraging to learn this fact, as more stress has been 
laid upon this species than any on the list. The general influence 
of Audubon Societies is, I am sure, having its effect upon the 
small boy, and many cases are cited where he now loves and 
respects the bird, when a short time ago, with blow-gun and sling 
shot, he persecuted them. The heronries on the Kankakee River, 
which I reported upon last year, have been unmolested the past 
season, and the birds have been unusually abundant there. Since 



*i8g8 I Rfport of Connnitlcc on liiid I'rotcrlioii. Q7 

bird protection has been so tliorouglily brought l^efore tlio general 
pubHc, it has awakened an interest in luindreds who previously 
were but casual observers, but are now true bird lovers, and look 
at nature's gifts in a different light than ever before. From my 
correspondence with the secretaries of your various eastern soci- 
eties, it is delightful to see what extensive progress they are all 
making. We must all work to increase our memberships, for the 
more we can enroll, the greater will be the scope of our work." 

In addition to the work done by Mr. Deane and the Illinois 
Audubon Society, I wish to call particular attention to the excel- 
lent individual work done by one of the members of the Union, 
the Rev. George B. Pratt of Chicago ; his example could be 
followed to great advantage by the members of the Union in 
other portions of the country. He says in a recent letter: "I 
addressed 75 women and 50 children the other day on bird pro- 
tection, and next week I go for four days to a girls' school at 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, to take classes out for observation ; I have 
done this for three years past, and have reaped splendid results 
in awakening interest. In connection with my sacred church, God 
gives me magnificent blessings among the kingdom of the blessed 
birds. 

Wisconsin. 

The work in this State has progressed very rapidly and sys- 
tematically, and is in a more advanced condition than in many of 
the other States. 

Prof. H. Nehrling, an Active member of the Union, reports as 
follows : " An Audubon Society was founded April 20, 1S97, with 
Mrs. Mary Gifford Peckham of Milwaukee as President, and 
Miss Madge Anderson of the same city as Secretary. Mrs. 
Henry F. Whitcomb, one of the Directors, has given bird lectures 
for three or four years, making protection her main plea, and it 
is due to her good work, that an Audubon Society could be 
founded. Like societies have been created in four cities in 
Wisconsin. 

" To Mrs. J. J. Upham, the wife of a former governor, is due 
the passage of a law for Bird Day, now celebrated in our State, 
together with Arbor Day. 



-. q8 Report of Committee on Bh-d Protectio?i. LJan. 

"The bad small boy still continues to kill birds with his sling 
shot, and as a rule the police do not stop it; several letters have 
been written to the Chief of Police in reference to the matter,/ 
and also to the Game Warden, asking protection for the birds, 
but so far without any result. 

" A few weeks since the Audubon Society had an exhibition of ■ 
millinery without birds, except feathers of ostriches and game: 
birds ; shortly after this display one of the largest firms in the." 
city announced that they would sell only feathers that were not 
objectionable. Several of our clergymen have compUed with the^ 
wishes of our Society and have spoken on the subject of Bird 
Protection. 

" Since my taking charge of the Public Museum, I have made- 
it my special object to interest the schools in our birds and ini 
bird protection ; the teachers call upon me frequently in order to: 
obtain information about our more common species. During the 
last few years 50 sets of birds, comprising nine familiar species, 
have been mounted and are now used in nature study in the pub- 
lic schools. 

" Our present Superintendent of schools is especially interested 
in this bird work, and he does all he can to make it valuable and 
pleasant to the children." 

A law establishing a Bird Day was passed in 1889, and was 
amended in 1897, authorizing the Governor to designate and set 
apart a day each year for its observance. In conformity with 
the law. Governor Edward Scofield issued the following proc- 
lamation : 

" I do hereby designate and set apart Friday, April 30 next, as Arbor 
and Bird Day, and recommend that all public schools, colleges and other 
educational institutions of the State and citizens generally do observe the 
same in a proper manner. 

"I recommend that the day be devoted to the planting o£ trees, shrubs 
and flowers in, school grounds and public parks, to the end that these pub- 
lic grounds may be permanently beautified; and I also recommend that in 
all school and other public exei-cises held upon that day special attention 
be paid to our native birds, in order that the children of the State may 
learn to find pleasure in a knowledge of the habits and characteristics 
especially of the various song birds, and that there may be cultivated a 
higher regard for bird life. 



', "(Sgy J Jicfort of CoiiunHtcc on Bird Pyotcrtioii. Qrt 

" /« Tcstitnoiiy Whereof, 1 have liereunto set mj liand and caused the 
Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin to be affixed. Done at the Capitol, 
in- the Citj of Madison; this 24th day of March, in the year of our Lord 
one Thousand Eight Hundred and Ninety-seven. 

\Sear\ Edward Scomki.d. 

By the Go\ernor : 

Henry Casson, Secretary of State," 

Mr. George A. Morrison, of Fox Lake, gives a very interesting 
account of the influence of Bird Day on the boys of his town : 
" Bird Day was observed here this year April 30, in connection 
with Arbor Day. This was in compHance with an act passed Ijy 
our last legislature, setting aside a day for the special study of 
birds and trees in the schools of the State. 

"The exercises were held in the college chapel, and all depart- 
ments of the public school participated. At the close of the 
program I gave a little talk on birds, their habits, and need of 
protection. 

" For some time previous there had seemed to be a growing 
interest manifested on the part of a number of the boys in the 
characteristics and habits of several of our more common birds. 
This program seemed to awaken them still more, for, in the suc- 
ceeding weeks, during the spring migration, they often came to my 
store, asking about the song of some bird they had undoubtedly 
frequently heard before, but now it was heard in a diflferent way ; 
it had a meaning, and they learned to recognize the songs of 
several birds. One species with which they became acquainted 
last winter was the Evening Grosbeak, a little flock of which 
remained with us from February 13 to April 20, so the bovs had 
ample opportunity to observe the habits of this winter visitor. 

" During the nesting season I think there were but few nests 
robbed, and fewer birds killed just for fun, which goes to show 
that the small boy, however malicious, can be taught to respect 
and love the friends of the air, if the right course be taken. 

" In the near future I hope to see a society formed here for the 
study and protection of our birds. This may be accomplished 
this winter, as several have indicated a willingness to lend thein 
assistance in this movement. I hope to be able to give you ^i 
more complete report next year.'' ..- r - 



lOO Report of Committee oti Bird Protection. Ff"^ 

Minnesota. 

Mr. T. A. Abbott, Secretary of the Minnesota Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty, writes : " An Audubon Society has been 
started and partly organized here, but a full list of officers has not 
as yet been named, but will be chosen at the November meeting. 

" The Local Society for the Prevention of Cruelty has about 
400 members, and has had printed and posted in conspicuous 
places throughout the city and suburbs notices warning all persons 
against killing wild birds. The study of birds has been taken up 
in some of the schools in connection with humane societies estab- 
lished among the children, but this is the work of individual 
teachers and has not as yet been generally taken up, though I 
hope it will be. No formal or organized effort has been made 
towards establishing Bird Day in the schools, though certain 
teachers have attempted to add something in the way of instruc- 
tion in the exercises of Arbor Day." 

Miss Bertha L. Wilson, Supervisor of Nature lessons in Minne- 
apolis, writes : " During the past year we have introduced the 
study of birds into our public school system ; indeed, the primary 
grades have studied them for several years. Although we have 
no regular Bird Day, I may say that all the spring days, from 
Easter on, are Bird Day ; then also in the fall. Although we pay 
more attention to insects, we refer to the migration of birds and 
speak of them often. I can safely say that many of the teachers, 
as well as the children, are really interested in this subject. The 
State law is generally enforced in regard to game birds on their 
breeding ground, but I think very little attention is paid to the 
protection of small birds, and I think many useful ones with their 
nests are destroyed by boys and would-be collectors." 

Iowa. 

A great deal of good work has been done in Iowa, principally, 
however, by individuals, as no State Audubon Society has as yet 
been formed. Mr. M. H. Leitner of Sioux City, Iowa, wrote in 
August for the literature of the Audubon Societies, and said : " I 
am very much interested in the bird questions of to-day. I am 



°ggj5 J Report of Committee on Bird Protect ion. lOI 

teaching in the schools of Sioux City, and at a meeting of the 
N. W. Iowa Teachers' Association I will be able to reach one- 
fourth of the entire State; there were over looo teachers in 
attendance last year. Through the public schools on liird Day 
we ought to be able to turn public opinion against the wearing of 
feathers, wherein death or cruelty is necessary to obtain them." 

One of the members of the Union, Mr. Wm. E. Praeger of 
Keokuk, has done a large amount of excellent work, especially in 
lecturing in his locality, and also in contributing matter on bird 
protection to the public press of Iowa. He summarizes the work 
as follows : '■ I do not know that an Audubon Society has been 
started, but I have heard that the subject of bird protection is 
being agitated in a number of large cities in the State. Fort 
Madison has the honor of being the first city in Iowa to establish 
a Bird Day in its public schools; this was in 1896 ; last May an 
afternoon was devoted to birds in our Keokuk schools ; the 
observance was a success, and Bird Day will probably be an 
annual institution here and in other cities of our State. I had 
the pleasure of speaking twice in public on the subject of bird 
protection last spring, and I am glad to know that my efforts have 
been rewarded, not only by the observance of Bird Day, but by 
the awakening of considerable interest in and sympathy for the 
birds. This shows itself in many ways. I may mention that a 
few days since a leading milliner in the town told me that the 
reduction in the demand for feathers was very noticeable in his 
business, many ladies refusing to wear them. He also said that 
if he could only get rid of his present stock he would not be sorry 
for this, as ribbons and flowers were more easily and profitably 
handled than feathers." 

Miss J. E. Hamand, a member of our Union, of Schaller, Iowa, 
has also done excellent individual work ; she writes : " A local 
Audubon Society was founded in June of the present year ; we 
have had four regular meetings, and have a membership of 104; 
we have secured the co-operation of our teachers, who are taking 
up the work in our schools. Our milliners gave no bird orders this 
fall. I have talked at two County teachers' meetings when 60 or 
70 were present ; also distributed the United States Department 
of Agriculture Circular No. 17, with bird leaflets. 



I02 Report of Cbmviitiee on Bird Protectiott, ^^^ 

" At a pistrict Convention, representing 32 clubs, held at 
Cherokee, a paper prepared by our President was read and disr 
cussed. I then made a plea for our fellow citizens of the air and 
told of the work of our Society ; this was followed by the reading 
of a poem — ' A Robin Pie,' the story was called, as this prompted 
the poem — and it was found it would make an excellent leaflet, 
which will soon be published. The following resolution was 
unanimously carried : ' Resolved : That this , Association is in 
thorough sympathy with the work of the Audubon Society, dis- 
couraging the use of aigrettes and birds for ornamentation, and 
condemning the cruel destruction of bird life to supply the 
demands of fashion.' 

" Several ladies expressed their determination to organize 
Audubon Societies in their various towns. 

" Permission was obtained from the Superintendent of the 
Northern Iowa Division of the Chicago and Northwestern R. R. 
to post the literature of the Audubon Society in the depot; the 
Chapman aigrette leaflet was framed, and a large number of 
other leaflets were hung from corners like almanacs. We hope 
to get a bill through the legislature this coming winter establish- 
ing Bird Day in the schools. I also hope to address the County 
Farmers' Institute in January, realizing that many farmers have 
destroyed, through ignorance, their best friends, Hawks and 
Owls. At that time we hope to have enough of Miss Merriam's 
pamphlets to distribute with the Circular No. 54 of the Agricul- 
tural Department. We have had cards printed, with sections of 
the bird laws on them, which were posted in our parks and else- 
where. I am hoping another year we will have a State Society. 
We feel greatly indebted to the secretaries of the various State 
Societies for their timely and prompt responses, their suggestions 
and leaflets and their many encouraging words." 

Arkansas. 

Mrs. Louise McGowen Stephenson of Helena, a member of 
our Committee, has by her own unaided efforts, aroused a senti- 
ment for bird protection, by her continuous and emphatic appeals 
through the public press, sufficiently strong to carry successfully 



"^°8^^] Report oj Committee on Bird Protection. IO3 

through the legislature a bill which was subsequently signed by 
the Governor and made a statute March 12, 1897. It is as 
follows : 

"It shall be unlawful for any person within the State of Arkansas to 
kill, wound or injure any wild bird other than the game birds, or to de- 
stroy, disturb or rob the nest of any such bird, or to sell or expose for 
sale, either dead or alive, any such bird, and it shall be unlawful for 
any railroad company, express company, steamboat company or other 
company or corporation, or private person, their agents, employes or ser- 
vants to have in possession or receive for transportation or carriage or 
for an^s other purpose whatever, any such birds or eggs; but this section 
shall not only apply to English sparrows, crows, blackbirds, hawks, owls, 
eagles and other bird of prey, nor shall it pi-ohibit any person from kill- 
ing any such birds on his own premises, when in the act of destroying 
fruit or other crop." 

In justice to Mrs. Stephenson's excellent work I cannot do 
better than to give in full the two reports she has made to your 
Committee. She writes : " How to protect the birds has been 
with me the subject of grave consideration for many years, and 
although willing and anxious to render service, I did not see 
how to go about it until Circular 17, U. S. Agricultural Depart- 
ment, came to me. The plan there suggested seemed a feasible 
method of popularizing bird protection. Fifty-six of them were 
sent out September, 1896, with the following circular of my own : 

"' Dear Sir: — I enclose a circular with the plea that its sub- 
ject matter be given careful attention. 

" ' If you recall the fact that there are very few Mockingbirds 
left in this country to day, you will not only agree something 
should be done to protect this small remnant, but that the surest 
way to accomplish that something is to teach the young people to 
spare the lives of all birds. 

" ' Believing that with your aid, and that of other progressive 
teachers, we can make Arkansas the Banner State in this line, I 
beg you will permit me to add your name to the list of those 
willing to cooperate with Messrs. Palmer and Babcock in their 
noble work.' 

" But two replies were received to these, so from that date 
personal letters were enclosed, and more circulars were asked for 



I04 Report of Committee ofi Bird Protection. I J^i- 

from time to time. Altogether 114 letters have been sent to 
residents of 65 Counties on the subject of Bird Day in schools. 
In about half of these it was 'announced that an effort would be 
made to secure favorable legislation during the winter, and those 
addressed were asked to interest the members from their district 
in the subject of bird protection. As a result of the interest 
awakened, in March, 1897, the amendment to the game law was 
passed. Since that time I have been in communication with the 
Hunters' Clubs in Arkansas, urging them to join with other 
friends of the song birds in having the law printed in large type 
and posted in every post office in the State. Thus far polite 
answers have been received promising cooperation. 

" As to Bird Day in the schools, much interest has been aroused 
and I trust will result in good. The State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction called attention to the matter through the pub- 
lic print, and also arranged interesting programs for five consecu- 
tive Fridays, beginning with March 26 and ending April 23,, 
which, at my request, he designated Bird Day proper. 

'•' So far as the legislation is concerned, I am aware that little 
can be hoped for in the way of bird protection unless the law is. 
reinforced by healthy public sentiment. This, in my opinion, 
can be aroused in no better way than through the medium of 
schools." 

Later Mrs. Stephenson writes : " There are some experiences 
which are so hopeful in their promise for the future that I ven- 
ture to send them. Late in September I received a letter from a 
friend who is the principal of a female seminary in Tacoma, 
Washington, which ran thus : ' I see in the last report of the 
National Science Club that you have succeeded in getting Bird 
Day inaugurated as a regular thing in the public schools in 
Arkansas. Is it asking too much for you to tell me just what is 
done on this day and just how it is carried out? I am down for 
a paper on birds in our club, and as I have no personal observa- 
tions to report I am trying to get what information I can on the 
subject that may be of interest ? ' 

" You would smile if you could see the list of questions which 
she added, since they covered two pages of her letter, but the 
above is all that seems pertinent. Of course, I answered at once,, 



8q8 1 Report of Committee on Bird Protection. IO^n 

and made as many suggestions as I could, as well as enclosing a 
very comprehensive plan suggested by our State Superintendent. 

"The next experience had to do with the articles I am pre- 
paring every week, and as you already have copies up to date of 
the papers which contain them, you will be able to judge how 
very effectual my clippings may prove. After the first article I 
met an acquaintance who did not wait to greet me, but exclaimed 
impulsively : ' Oh, Mrs. Stephenson, I read your article, and am 
so glad you wrote it. I never felt like wearing a bird, but did 
not realize how cruel it was before.' 

" The past week, after the appearance of ' The Cruel Through 
Ignorance ' article, a fashionable acquaintance said : * Those arti- 
cles you are writing are doing a great deal of good, I know. 
Why, I took out my last winter's hat, with its aigrettes and birds, 
and I could not think of wearing it again after the " As Others 
See Us " appeared.' 

" A friend in a neighboring village told of his boy's reading it 
at their Friday exercises in their schools, and that as soon as they 
had finished, the principal gave the school a genuinely fine lecture 
on the subject of cruelty toward birds. 

" These are little straws, but they help to show how small a 
wind sets them in motion, do they not ? 

" These last quotations from a letter would not be made if it 
were not that the position of the writer makes its promise 
mean very much ; she is a wealthy young lady who supports, as 
well as teaches in, a Kindergarten in Leavenworth, Kansas, among 
the poorest class of miners ; she knew nothing whatever of birds, 
but in her anxiety to instill her poor little barbarians with some 
ideas of mercy, sought to learn about the birds so that she might 
interest them through her personal observations. She sent for 
Chapman's ' Hand- Book ' and, with opera glasses to aid us, we 
had many a lovely day with the birds. She said, ' How I did 
enjoy my summer, and how much you did for me. But your 
reward will not come here, unless you count it rew^ard to enthuse 
one more to bird study.' 

"These are all the crumbs which have come back, but I know 
there must be more, and shall do all I can in every way possible. 
My efforts to unite wdth the Hunters' Clubs for the enforcing of 



Io6 Re;p07-t of Conunittee on Bird Protection. Ljan. 

the law have not resulted in anything save some promises of aid 
and have helped in interesting other clubs ; that was last spring. 
After a few weeks I shall begin again to claim their attention." 

Missouri. 

In Missouri no organized effort has been made, although some 
individual work has been done. Mr. O. Widmann, of our Com- 
mittee, reports : " No Bird Day has been established in Missouri, 
neither do I think that, unassisted by regular teaching, it would 
be of much more good than creating another half-holiday for the 
teachers and pupils, something like Arbor Day. Mr. Baskett 
.made some effort in its behalf in the Missouri 'School Journal ' 
last June, and he says that the press of the State took it up for a 
little while, but nothing came of it. The introduction of the study 
of birds in schools has never been discussed anywhere in our 
State, which does not yet seem to be ripe for such accomplish- 
ments. There is no zoology taught in our schools, not even in 
the high schools. 

" No attempt has been made toward establishing an Audubon 
Society, but in the show-windows of the St. Louis milliners, more 
birds are to be seen on the hats than ever before, and in their 
advertisements they boast of an immense stock and very low 
prices. We have certainly bird laws in the State of Missouri, but 
who ever heard of them ? They are good enough as far as they 
go, though they make bad blunders, as for instance placing the 
Meadow-larks among the game birds. These bird laws have 
never been enforced, and nobody pays the least attention to 
them. In some Counties they try to stop Sabbath shooting ; 
that is about as far as they can hope to get. The hunting itself, 
and the slaughtering of innocent birds, is such a sacred priv- 
ilege of the son of this ' land of the free ' that nobody dares 
to interfere. Our colored brothers are especially prominent 
in the enjoyment of this privilege, and with many of our white 
as well as colored citizens the right to slaughter is the ideal pre- 
rogative of the American and the true exponent of liberty. The 
acknowledgment of this right to hunt and shoot seems to be uni- 
versal. Only a few weeks ago a five year old girl was killed by 



"j! 'j. Report of Committee on Bird Protection. I07 

a negro shooting Meadow-larks on a vacant lot in the city of 
Kirkwood, a suburb of St. Louis. Nobody thought of prosecut- 
ing the negro ; it was simply an accident. The negro saw the 
children, but his excuse was, that he did not know his gun would 
carry that far. 

" What will you do with Bird Days and Audubon Societies 
among a population which allows negroes to shoot Meadow-larks 
on city lots, and does not even think of punishing those who 
carelessly destroy precious human life. 

" Finally you ask for suggestions : here is one of a radical 
nature. Get Congress to put enough taxes on the manufacture 
and sale of gunpowder to raise its price to at least tv.-o dollars a 
pound, and put a revenue stamp on every shell and cartridge. 
If the government can control the liquor traffic why not also gun- 
powder ? The one is as bad as the other." 

Colorado. 

Early in the year the Chairman addressed a letter to the Presi- 
dent of the Woman's Club, Denver, Colorado, asking for the co- 
operation of that Club to create a sentiment against the use of 
feathers of all wild birds for millinery purpose. The matter 
seems to have been taken up by the Colorado Humane Society. 

Mrs. Francis B. Hill, the Secretary of the El Paso branch, 
writes : " The subject of Mr. Butcher's letter is one that has 
engaged the earnest attention of this society for several years 
past; literature on the subject has been generously distributed, 
and the sympathy of the local press enlisted, which has helped 
the cause by frequent articles. It has been brought to the 
notice of the superintendents of all the schools, and this year 
our society was instrumental in organizing an Audubon Society, 
of which Mr. F. O. Wood of Colorado Springs is President." 

Mr. Whitehead, the General Secretary of the State Society, 
writes : " In Denver we have done about what has been done in 
Colorado Springs except that we have no organized Audubon 
Society. Two ordinances, copies of which are attached, we had 
passed last spring, and they are read occasionally in all the city 
schools with remarkable results. 



lOo Report of Committee on Bird Protection. iTam 



LJan. 



" Ordinance No. 2g. Series of iSgy. 



"Be it enacted by the City Council of the City of Denver : 
Section I. — ^It shall be unlawful for any person within the corporate 
limits of the city of Denver to have in possession or to make, use, sell 
or offer for sale, any instrument, toy or weapon commonly known as a 
pea-shooter, sling or beany, made for the purpose of throwing project- 
iles by means of elastic rubber cords or bands, or other india rubber 
parts, by means of springs, or any air gun, whether such instrument is 
called by any name above set forth or by any other name ; and every per- 
son convicted of a violation of this ordinance shall be fined in a sum 
not less than one dollar nor more than twenty dollars for each offense. 

" Ordina?ice No. jo. Series of i8gj. 

" Be it enacted by the City Council of the City of Denver: 
^'■Section i. — It shall be unlawful for any person at anytime within 
the corporate limits of the city of Denver to frighten, shoot at, wound,. 
kill, capture, ensnare, net, trap, or in any other manner molest or injure 
any robin, lark, whip-poor-will, finch, sparrow, thrush, wren, martin, 
swallow, snow-bird, bobolink, red-winged blackbird, crow, raven, oriole, 
kingbird, mocking bird, song sparrow, or other song or insectivorous 
bird ; or in any manner molest or injure the nest, eggs, or young of any 
such bird, or to have in possession the nest, eggs, young, or body of 
any such bird. 

" Section 2. — Any person violating the provisions of Section i of this 
ordinance, upon conviction, shall be fined in a sum not less than one 
dollar nor more than fifty dollars for each offense. 

" The daily press will publish anything asked relative to bird 
protection which is furnished them." 

California. 

In this State we have two members of the Committee, Mr. A. 
W. Anthony and Mr. Leverett M. Loomis. Mr, Anthony reports 
as follows : " A few shipments of plumes have been sent to this 
port (San Diego), from western Mexico, but I have been unable 
to learn the extent or nature of the consignment. The milliner 
who received them denies that any were received; nearly all who 
handle plumes seem ashamed of the business and anxious to 
cover then guilt. 

" I did not visit the region of any Heron rookeries last summer,. 



^°8q8^1 Report of Commiitcc on Bird Protcrlion. I OQ 

SO I could not learn of any parties who might be killing |)lume 
birds. One boat with two men has been in the Gulf of California 
for two seasons ; I cannot learn the full extent of their slaughter 
until their return." 

Mr. Loomis reports : " The California Academy of Sciences's 
bill for the protection of birds, before the last legislature, did not 
reach the stage of final consideration. I was absent at the East, 
and therefore could not press the matter ; the bill will be intro- 
duced again at the next session, over a year hence. Some 
protection, however, was secured through another bill that was in 
advance of the Academy's. Fewer Murre's eggs were offered for 
sale last season than usual ; one large dealer in poultry and eggs, in 
the Union Square market, told me that he had ceased to handle 
Gulls' eggs since the Government had prohibited their collection 
on South Farallon Island, for those obtained from other localities 
were generally stale when they reached the market. With the 
passage of a State law prohibiting the sale of wild birds' eggs, the 
sea birds on this coast will be comparatively free from molesta- 
tion, except where rookeries are easy of access. I am not aware 
that any special effort is being made to introduce the study of 
birds into the schools, or that there is any movement towards 
forming Audubon Societies other than the one at Redlands." 

Your Chairman, in his report of i8g6, referred to an appeal 
that had been made to the Lighthouse Board to prohibit the col- 
lection of eggs on the South Farallon Islands by the lighthouse 
keepers stationed there. I am pleased to state that the Board, 
in response to our appeal, prohibited in the most positive manner 
the collecting of eggs by the following order : " The Board directs 
that all egg and bird business of the kind in question on the 
Farallon Islands, California, so far as outside parties are con- 
cerned, be prohibited ; as to the collection of eggs and birds by 
the lighthouse employes, you are also directed to take steps for 
the proper regulation of this matter, subject to the Boards' 
approval." Signed, Geo. F. F. Wilde, Commander, U. S. Navy, 
Naval Secretary. 

By a further order, dated December lo, 1S96. directed to Com- 
mander Frank Courtis, U. S. Navy, Inspector, 12th Lighthouse 
District, the lighthouse keepers themselves were debarred from 



IIO Report of Committee on Bird Protection. TAuk' 

collecting eggs under the following order : " The Board desires 
that the lighthouse keepers shall be prohibited from engaging in 
the business of collecting or selling wild birds' eggs on these, 
islands, in any form." Signed, Geo. F. F. Wilde, Commander, etc.. 
At the suggestion of Mr. Anthony, your Chairman addressed a 
letter to Porfirio Diaz, President of the Republic of Mexico, call- 
ing his attention to the fact that white and Indian hunters from 
the United States were visiting Mexico for the purpose of plume 
hunting. It was called particularly to his attention that Mexico 
derived no benefit from the traffic, but suffered a direct loss. No 
response to this appeal was received, but as it was quite detailed, 
it no doubt had its effect. 

North Carolina. 

Mr. T. K. Bruner, Secretary of the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, attempted in the last session of the legisla- 
ture to have an act for the preservation of birds passed. . The' 
penalties were a little too severe for the temper of the people, so 
the passage was lost. The next session of the legislature is not 
held until January, 1899. 

In its report for 1896 your Committee stated that it firmly 
believed that the true solution of the problem!. would be. the educa- 
tion of the children of our schools in every grade from the kin-: 
dergarten to the college, not only in the Eesthetic but the eco- 
nomic value of our birds. They are ^ more firmly convinced that 
this is the true solution than ever before'. Everything points to 
it as the only means through which the desired end may be 
attained. It is found to be extremely difficult to convince the 
great bulk of the adults of the present day of the economic value 
of birds, and that they should not be destroyed. In a generation 
it will be possible to so change this sentiment that every adult 
will recognize the importance of birds as aids in preserving the 
economic balance of nature. 

Miss Merriam, of our Committee, who unfortunately is not 
able to be present at this meeting, very forcibly expressed her 
sentiments on this subject in the following letter ; it is so 
earnestly and clearly expressed that I submit it in detail : 



^i8^^1 Report of Coin mi/ fee on Bird Protection. Ill 

. "In the clays of the old original Audubon Society, I did cjuite 
a little work up here [Lewis Co., N. Y.], and got two or three 
local secretaries for the neighboring villages who secured goodly 
membership lists. 

" With the revival of the work I have tried to bring the people 
back into line, and in that attempt have had my eyes opened to 
the value of local work such as we did in those days. In our 
village nearly all the members have broken their pledges and are so 
utterly indifferent to the matter that the former secretary thinks 
she could not get them back on the membership list even if the fee 
were only twenty-five cents. She says they were never very 
much interested, and now care nothing about the subject. 

" Now we don't want to repeat this history, and as Chairman 
of the Protection Committee I look to you to warn our workers 
from the past and help them to work more wisely in this new 
movement that promises to go from coast to coast. 

" We do not want it to be a passing enthusiasm, but a vital 
growth. Bird protection must be the outgrowth of public intelli- 
gence rather than sentiment ; this intelligence can be secured by 
lectures and the wide distribution of eco7ioniic statistics such as 
the New York Society is sending out, and such as every society 
should disseminate ; and it can also be secured by teaching the 
school children the interest and value of birds. Make the adults 
intelligent ; interest the children in birds. Bird protection should 
b,e like vaccination ; as soon as people understood the value of 
that there was no further question. When, people are taught the 
economic value of birds — ^ that bird destruction is a matter of 
dollars and cents to them — bird protection will be assured; and 
when children are interested in birds they will not want to shoot 
them with sling shots. 

" Just here we have a mission, an opportunity which I hope 
very earnestly you will point out to all the ne,wly formed a,nd^ 
forming societies — an opportunity to make our movement Audu- 
bon work in very fact as in name — to spread the true spirit of 
Audubon, to implant the love of nature in our children's hearts. 
Let our Audubon societies be not only for the Protection, but the 
Study of Birds. Let us work to introduce bird study into the schools 
along with botany. 



112 Report of Cotnintiiee on Bird Protection. F Tan. 

^' There is a new and wide-spread interest in Nature Study as a 
means of observation, etc., in our scliools, and in our country 
schools at least there is every opportunity for bird work. But 
while bird songs are coming in through the windows, the chil- 
dren's attention is concentrated upon a crab^ which inland children 
may know only through books. 

" Country children are pecuUarly in need of this bird work. 
Boys need the guidance of a teacher to give names and point to 
their own discoveries, to change their egg collecting interest to a 
naturalisf s interest. And girls need the teaching to give them an 
out-door interest in Nature : they are our future farmers' wives ; 
more farmers' wives go insane than any other class — from dearth 
of interests. Here we have an opportunity to give them some- 
thing that will lend value and meaning to woods and fields — that 
will widen their horizons and lighten their drudgery, 

" A man was lecturing in Albany this summer on nature work, 
going from place to place in the State with the avowed purpose of 
interesting country people in the life about them in order to pre- 
vent their exodus to the cities. This is certainly a wise sociological 
movement, and we have it in our power to help enormously. 

" In fact, this Audubon movement in the United States may be 
an ephemeral enthusiasm, or it may do most important humani- 
tarian work. It may mean nothing, or it may mean great things. 

" I would urge wise, broad, philanthropic work by every society 
that is formed. Specifically, I would say : i. Let us disseminate 
economic literature. 2. Let us establish bird work in the schools 
on a footing with botany. 

" To make this bird work possible, we must teach the teachers, 
and so must aim to establish bird courses in the normal and high 
schools, have bird examinations part of the Regent's examinations ; 
every teacher who gets a certificate should have enough knowledge 
of the subject to teach the children the common birds ; field 
work, of course, should be the basis in every possible case." 

Your Committee has the following recommendations to make 
to the members of the American Ornithologists' Union : 

I. — That it is the duty of each member to instruct himself as 
to the economic value of birds by reading all the publications on 



°i898 J Report of Committee on Bird Protection. j i -? 

the subject, that he or she may be prepared to instruct and interest 
anyone with whom they may be thrown in contact. 

2. — Members should also be prepared and willing at all times 
to address farmers' institutes, women's clubs, and any other gath- 
ering of people where the subject of bird protection and the value 
of birds to the people can be urged. 

3. — Another duty is for members of the Union to urge upon 
their representatives in their State legislatures the advisability of 
passing proper laws for the protection of birds, including the so- 
called birds of prey ; this can be done on" the ground of their 
economic value to the agricultural districts if for no other reason. 

4. — Members should take every opportunity to talk to edu- 
cators urging them to teach the children about bird life, and to 
that end should prevail upon as many teachers as possible to join 
this society. Could the Union have four or five thousand mem- 
bers scattered throughout the country, largely among the teachers, 
it would be financially able to have a department devoted exclu- 
sively to the furthering of this special work. 

5. — Your committee find that the bird laws of the various 
States are so unlike in their provisions, and in most cases so 
worthless, that it, urgently recommends that it would be advisable 
to have made a complete compilation of the laws relative to birds 
throughout the United States. 

6. — After such compilation, the Committee further recom- 
mends that a draft of a uniform law be made that can be safely 
recommended for enacting in all portions of North America. 
This law should, if possible, prevent the transportation by public 
carriers or individuals from one State to another. 

7. — It is further recommended that a uniform law establishing 
Bird Day in conjunction with Arbor Day be urged for passage in 
all the States where such a law does not now exist. The very 
simple but clear law now on the statute books of Wisconsin is 
recommended as a model. It has been urged that two holidays 
are objectionable, therefore, as Arbor Day and Bird Day are 
allied in purpose a law making both observable on the same day 
is advisable. The following is recommended. 



114 Report of Committee on Bird Protection. \j^ 

Arbor ^^nd Bird Day Law. 

Section i. The governor is hereby authorized to set apart each year by 
proclamation, one da^', to be designated an Arbor and Bird Day, and to 
request its observance by all public schools, private schools, colleges and 
other institutions, by the planting of trees, the adornment of school 
and public grounds, and by suitable exercises having for their object the 
advancement of the study of arboriculture, the promotion of a spirit of 
protection to birds and trees, and the cultivation of an appreciative senti- 
ment concerning them. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 
passage and publication. 

8. — Your Committee further recommends that as far as possi- 
ble uniform circulars and leaflets should be issued by the Audubon 
Societies ; to that end a clearing house should be established and 
the leaflets and circulars be printed from stereotyped plates, thus 
securing published matter at the minimum of cost. 

9- — Your Committee further recommends that an Audubon 
badge be adopted and issued instead of certificates of member- 
ship. These might be worn and thus serve to remind the Audu- 
bon member of his or her pledge, and they would also excite 
interest in others and thus spread the good influence of the work. 

lo. — Your Committee further urgently recommends that all 
permits issued by the proper authorities for collecting birds and 
their eggs should be absolutely confined to scientific purposes, 
and that in no sense should they be construed to permit collecting 
for commercial purposes. And further, it is the duty of all mem- 
bers of the American Ornithologists' Union and members of 
Audubon Societies to urge this matter upon the authorities issu- 
ing such licenses. 

Finally, your Committee finds itself in great need of aid in 
many parts of the United States and calls for volunteers for the 
work from members of the Union. Such members would be 
expected to assume the direction of the work in the manner out- 
lined above in territory assigned to them. 

Very respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM DUTCHER, 

C/iairman- 



APR 29 1898 

THE AUK: 

A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF 

ORNITHOLOGY. 

VOL. XV. April, 1898. no. 2. 

WITH BOB-WHITE IN MEXICO. 

BY E. W. NELSON. 

Plate II. 

While traveling in Mexico a few seasons ago, I arrived at a 
small town near the southern end of the tableland in the State 
of Puebla. The first business in hand was to secure suitable 
quarters for myself and assistant. Having accomplished this I 
was ready at an early hour the following morning for a tramp 
into the surrounding country. It chanced to be market day, and 
passing the outskirts of the town I met a straggling procession of 
Indians, in picturesque costumes, some driving heavily loaded 
donkeys, others carrying on their own backs crates of fruits, 
vegetables, handmade pottery, and other simple wares. All were 
pushing forward eager to take part in the keenly relished pleas- 
ures of petty chaffering, which would enable them to return home 
M'ith a few deciinos knotted in the ends of their sashes. Some of 
the men saluted me with a polite " bueilos dias senor,"' but I 
noted that their conversation was carried on in the Aztec tongue, 
as spoken by their fathers centuries ago. 

Once free of the last houses a convenient opening in the fence 
was soon found, and I crossed into a great field which reached 
for miles down the broad, open valley. Areas covered with 
wheat and corn stubble indicated the character of the last crops, 



Il6 Nelson, With Bob-tvhite in Mexico. [apHI 

while farther away broad belts of brilliant green sugar cane were 
in vivid contrast to the dry browns and yellows of the general 
surface. The sun was shining brightly, and the fresh balmy air 
seemed full of life-giving power. The musical notes of Meadow- 
larks were heard at intervals, and on one side of the valley flocks 
of Red-winged Blackbirds were swirling back and forth over some 
small marshy spots grown up with tules. Through the valley 
bottom flowed a little stream of clear, sparkling water, which, 
before reaching the distant shore of the Pacific, runs a wild 
course through the mountain gorges of Guerrero. Behind me 
arose the mysterious pyramid of Cholula, crowned by a white 
walled chapel, which now occupies the place of ancient sacrifice. 
Over to my right stood the gigantic form of the Smoking Mount- 
ain — hoary old Popocatepetl — with the gleaming robe of the 
White Lady — Iztaccihuatl — shining over his shoulder. In 
front a sweeping plain descended for many miles through a 
district of great sugar estates to the far horizon, where it was 
walled in by the blue front of distant mountains. 

Turning to one side I approached some scrubby bushes which 
appeared to offer shelter for birds or other game. Suddenly the 
familiar accents of my mother tongue fell on my ear. I listened 
with bated breath. Again arose in clear, round tones, the calls 
so familiar in my boyhood days, ' Bob White,' ' Bob White.' 
With eager steps I hastened forward to a small group of acacias, 
and there, quietly perched on top of a bush, was an old friend, 
the author of the notes. It is difficult to describe the mingled 
pleasure and exultation caused by this unexpected meeting. It 
proved to be the Puebla Bob- white {Colinus graysoni nigripectiis 
Nelson) and during the following days a number of others were 
seen, and it became evident that my friend of the first morning 
was one of a colony located in the neighborhood. 

Afterwards, during my Mexican travels, I learned that the Bob- 
whites are widely spread in that country and although many of 
them have changed the color of their dress more or less, yet their 
customs and tricks of speech remain much the same as in their 
northern home. 

At a later date during this same season, while working down 
the eastern slope of the Cordillera in Vera Cruz, near the City of 



^'Isg's^l Nelson, Wi'f// Boh-ivhite in Mexico. 



117 



Orizaba, we found otliers of the family, known as the Black- 
breasted Bob-white \_C()/i>iiis pectoralis (Gould)]. They were 
living in brush-grown and weedy old fields — sometimes straying 
about the coffee plantations — and were on friendly terms with 
most of their tropical neighbors. Fortunately, in these parts guns 
and dogs are few, and mostly harmless, so that Bob's days were 
generally peaceful and contented. But even here life was not 
without its cares, for the spotted tiger cats and woolly-haired 
opossums, with sad lack of consideration, were given to noctur- 
nal raids that filled them with terror and sometimes lessened 
their numbers. 

From Orizaba our wanderings led far away over plains and 
mountains to the City of Tehuantepec, on the hot lowlands 
bordering the Pacific coast. There we found our friends again 
but known as the Coyolcos Bob-white \_CoIinus coyolcos (Miill.)]. 
They were common, and although their garb had changed con- 
siderably, yet their voices and mode of life remained true to the 
family traditions. Indeed, so fixed are old habits among them 
that even long association with the suave and politic Mexican 
has failed to cure Bob of one custom that I often deplored during 
my youthful days, when, gun in hand, I sought to make his 
acquaintance. I refer to that abruptness of manner which is 
shown in such a disconcerting way when one comes upon him in 
his favorite haunts. 

Near Tehuantepec their home is on the partly wooded and 
partly grassy plains. Old fields and grassy prairies, that extend 
irregularly amid the scrubby forests of that district, are their 
favorite haunts. Here the mesquites, mimosas, acacias, cassias, 
Brazil wood, ebony, mahogany, Spanish cedar, and other tropical 
trees and bushes, give the landscape quite a different aspect from 
that wdiich Bob is accustomed to see in his northern home. Old 
cornfields and weedy indigo plantations are popular resorts and 
furnish an abundance of food. Brush fences of thorny scrub are 
built about these fields and serve as fine places of shelter in times 
of danger. The Quails do not penetrate heavily wooded bottoms 
along streams, where the moisture causes a vigorous tropical 
forest growth, unless some farmer hews out a clearing for his 
cornfields. In these forest belts the Motmots, Trogons. Red- 



Il8 Nelson, Witk Bob-zvhite in Mexico. \ k^A 

and-Yellow Macaws, several species of Parrots and other tropical 
birds aboLind, and a little farther south troops of spider monkeys 
are encountered. In many places it is but a few steps from the 
dense shade of the bottoms, where the harsh screams of the 
Macaws dominate all other woodland notes, to the borders of 
grassy prairies where our friends pass their sedate lives associated 
with Meadowlarks and Sparrows. Throughout this region where 
deer, peccaries, Tree Pheasants and other game is plentiful, 
smaller birds are considered unworthy of powder and shot, all of 
which conduces greatly to peace of mind among the Bob-whites. 
While traveling down the coast from Tehuantepec into Chiapas 
we found them numerous most of the way, and they were a 
constant source of interest and pleasure. Their cheerful notes 
were frequently heard from the scrubby bushes near the trail, 
and the neat, trimly built little fellows carried on their small 
affairs with little regard for our presence. While riding at the 
head of the pack train I frequently found them scratching in the 
sandy trails, dusting themselves or searching for food. At such 
times it was amusing to note the pretty air of doubt and hesitation 
with which they awaited my approach before finally moving 
rather deliberately a few yards to one side, when I came too near. 
Now and then the male could be heard uttering little querulous 
notes as if in subdued protest at being disturbed. After entering 
Chiapas, the coast was left behind and we passed into the interior 
through a series of beautiful open valleys ornamented with scat- 
tered bushes and belts of trees. It" was during the rainy season 
and the vegetation was growing luxuriantly ; everywhere were 
myriads of flowers, and the innumerable plume-like heads of tall 
grasses nodded gracefully in the passing breezes. In these 
valleys the Bob-whites were very common. It generally rained 
during the night, but the clouds broke away at dawn leaving a 
brilliantly clear sky. We were up and on our way at sunrise, 
amid the invigorating freshness of early morning, when every leaf 
and twig bore a pendant water-drop that sent out quivering rays 
of light with the first touch of the sun. On every hand were new 
flowers and strange birds. Now and then the Central American 
Mockingbird, in full-throated ecstacy, poured out its rich song, 
and over it all, at short intervals, the clear call of ' Bob White ' 



^°898^] Nelson, Wil/i Bob-xvkiie in Mexico. 



119 



arose from a bash or low tree. At an altitude of about 3000 feet 
we passed out of their range and did not find them again until we 
readied the valley of Comitan, on the Guatemalan border, where 
their notes were heard. A few miles farther on, just after enter- 
ing Guatemala, a single female, which proved to be quite different 
from those taken in Mexico, was brought me by an Indian. This 
specimen served as the type of the Guatemala Bob-white {Colhius 
insignis Nelson). Beyond this nothing was learned of them in 
these remote parts. 

From Comitan valley we made a long circuit over the Guate- 
malan highlands and reached the Pacific coast again on the 
border of Chiapas. There, on some grassy prairies in the midst 
of the forested coast plain, a few miles back from the sea, we 
found many Bob-whites of a previously unknown branch of the 
family.^ In this vicinity an attempt was made many years ago 
to establish a large colony of Americans. They came with great 
flourish of trumpets and large expectations, but the climate did 
its silent work so effectually that two or three stranded relics 
were all that remained. Over the desolate sun-scorched flats 
near by, the same cheery call of the Quail sounded in the ears 
of the Mexican ox-drivers and muleteers as they carried their 
cargoes of coffee and cacao to the coast, that I had heard from 
many a field and thicket over thousands of miles of varied 
country to the north. Among these sturdy little Americans there 
appeared no sign of degeneration, and it was pleasanter to meet 
them than some of my countrymen of a larger growth. So many 
failures at colonizing people from the north in these hot southern 
lands had come to my notice that I had become skeptical of 
its successful accomplishment in any instance ; yet here in the 
tropics were the Bob-whites, essentially a group of the temperate 
regions, living as cheerfully as possible and upsetting my pre- 
conceived ideas. 

After passing some time in this district we hired an ox cart 
one evening and were trundled across the plains to the coast 
during the cool hours of the night. There, on the sandy shore, 
we waited ten days for a steamer which finally carried us back to 



' Colimes salvini Nelson. 



I20 Nelson, Wiik Bob-rvhite in Mexico. fAprU 

Tehuantepec. From this place a railroad crosses the Isthmus 
to the port of Coatzacoalcos on the Gulf of Mexico, and we took 
advantage of it to reach the eastern coast. Coatzacoalcos is a 
curious little town destined to play an important part in the 
development of southern Mexico and western Guatemala. It i*> 
one of the few places in Mexico where small frame houses are 
the prevailing style and reminds one more of some small mining 
camp in the Far West than of a seaport on the Gulf of Mexico. 
Here where yellow fever, malaria, and other ills stalk about 
according to the season, we heard of howling monkeys, jaguars, 
tapirs and other tropical creatures with which we still desired to 
become more familiar. For this purpose we ascended the Coat- 
zacoalcos River about twenty miles to the town of Minatitlan, a 
place once noted for its enormous trade in Spanish cedar and 
dye woods. We remained here some days in the midst of the 
coast lowlands where the tropical forest is interrupted by grassy 
prairies of considerable extent. In visiting these prairies we 
were surprised and delighted to find another of the Bob-whites 
that had not been previously known even to those most familiar 
^ith the ramifications of this good old stock. ^ Afterwards we 
found them a few miles out of Coatzacoalcos, and they were seen 
a little farther north in the open country about the shores of 
beautiful lake Catemaco. This latter point is probably near their 
limit in that direction. The handsome appearance of this unex- 
pected species is shown in the accompanying drawing (Plate II) 
by Mr. J. L. Ridgway. 

The distribution of the Mexican Bob-whites is curious and 
shows that the family has been long in the land. They range 
over parts of the cool tableland and extend down to the tropical 
lowlands of both coasts, but are unaccountably absent from many 
apparently suitable places. 

Many changes have taken place in their garb owing to the 
influences and requirements peculiar to such varied situations, 
but the general style is retained so that their relationship cannot 
be mistaken. 

A representative of this group lives in Yucatan which, it is said 



^ Godman's Bob-while, Colinus godmani Nelson. 



^°i8i^^l NiCLSON, Wifh Boh-ivhitc in Mexico. 121 

by some, belongs to the family proper, but if this is so, tliere must 
be a bar sinister on its escutcheon to account for some of its 
peculiarities. 

At present eleven branches of Bob-whites are known to live in 
various parts of Mexico, and our work has enabled us to intro- 
duce four of them to the friends of the family. Wherever they 
were encountered over this great area it was interesting to observe 
how closely they continue to resemble one another in notes and 
habits. From the border of Canada to Guatemala they hold true 
to a general style of speech and manners that always betrays their 
connection ; with the possible exception of the Yucatan branch, 
of which I am unable to give any definite information. 

For the charming qualities and pretty ways of these little 
friends of the field, I trust their days may be many and their 
numbers never grow less. 

As it is quite possible that some of our mutual friends may 
have the opportunity to call upon these Mexican connections of 
'our Bob,' I have taken some trouble to secure their names and 
addresses which are given below. The directory is complete, I 
believe, up to date. 

1. Colinus ridgrvayi"BYe\\?,i&Y. Ridgwav's Bob-white. Sonora ; rang- 
ing south from the Arizona border. (Between looo and 2500 feet above 
sea level.) 

2. Colinus virginia7ius texaiius (Lawr.). Texas Bob-white. North- 
eastern Mexico ; Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. (From near sea level up 
to 2500 feet.) 

3. Coh'jtus g-raysoiii (L,diV{Y.). Grayson's Bob-white. Southern part of 
tableland ; from San Luis Potosi and northern Jalisco to Valley of Mexico. 
(3000-7500 feet.) 

4. Coli)ius graysoni 9iio-ripecttisl\&\son. Puebia Bob-white. Tableland 
of southern Puebia. (3000-6000 feet.) 

5. Colinus pectoralis (Gould). Black-breasted Bob-white. Eastern 
base of Cordillera in Vera Cruz ; from Jalapa to Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 
(500 to 5000 feet.) 

6. Colinus g-odmani Nelson. Godman's Bob-white. Lowlands of south- 
ern Vera Cruz ; probably also ranging into Tabasco. (From sea level to 
1500 feet.) 

7. Colinus coyolcos (Miill.)- Coyolcos Bob-white. Pacific coast of 
Oaxaca and Chiapas ; from City of Tehuantepec to Tonala. (From sea 
level to 3000 feet.) 



122 Grinnell, Summer Birds of Sitka. \ K%\ 

8. Coliniis atriceps (Ogilvie-Grant). Black-headed Bob-white. Putla, 
western Oaxaca. (About 4000 feet.) 

9. Coliuus salvifiil>ie\sor\. Salvin's Bob-white. Coast plains of south- 
ern Chiapas, near Guatemalan border. (Sea level to 500 feet.) 

10. Colinus iusi^-uis Nelson. Guatemala Bob-white. Valley of Comitan 
in Chiapas, into adjacent border of western Guatemala. (3000-6000 feet.) 

11. Colinits nigrogularis (Gould). Yucatan Bob-white. Yucatan. 
(Sea level to 500 feet.) 



-^ SUMMER BIRDS OF SITKA, ALASKA. 

BY JOSEPH GRINNELL. 

The well-known humidity of the Northwest Coast appar- 
ently reaches its extreme in the region about Sitka. Tlie temper- 
ature is moderate throughout the year, and this, together with the 
excessive moisture, favors the growtli of the heavy coniferous 
forests which cover almost every bit of land from the sea-level up 
to the lower limit of the summer snows on the mountains. Every 
one of the hundreds of small islands which convert Sitka Bay 
into an intricate network of narrow channels, is densely tim- 
bered, even to the water's edge. 

However, along the shores, especially at the heads of the 
numerous inlets where the streams enter the ocean, are narrow 
strips of shorter vegetation, such as alders and salmonberry 
bushes. These small tracts of deciduous growth, together with 
the taller timber immediately adjoining, are the localities most 
frequented by the smaller land birds. In fact, the dark mossy 
forests but a few rods back from the coast are almost destitute of 
bird life. 

For the most part the shores are rocky and the land rises 
directly out of the water, so there are few beaches. Indian 
River is a swift mountain stream which rises among the snow- 
capped peaks scarcely ten miles to the northward, and enters the 
sea a half mile east of Sitka. At its mouth are rather extensive 
sandy tideflats and bars, which are about the only ones in the 
vicinity and so form an important attraction to the Waders. 



^"iSy's^J Grinnell, SiDiuiier Birds of Sitka. \2'l 

A few of the smaller islands farthest out to sea, are inhabited 
by water birds. St. Lazaria Island is twenty miles southwest of 
Sitka, and is the one in this region chosen by thousands of sea- 
birds as a breeding-ground. It is irregularly shaped, about a 
quarter of a mile in length by three hundred yards in its broadest 
part. The rocky sides are broken and precipitous, and are the 
resorts of the Murres, Guillemots and Cormorants. The island 
is mostly crowned by a heavy growth of large firs and hemlocks, 
but around the margins sloping down to the brink of the cliffs 
there is a rank growth of tall grasses. The Gulls and Pufiins 
prefer these grassy banks as nesting places, while the Petrels' 
burrows are most numerous within the timbered portion. 

My observations in the vicinity of Sitka were continuous from 
June 8 to August 24, 1896. During that time I collected many 
birds nearly all of which were summer residents, a few early 
migrants being taken during the last few weeks of my stay. 
The present list is the result of these collections and observa- 
tions, and its value principally lies in the fact that the known 
geographical and breeding range of several of the species is more 
or less extended. 

No birds are included of which specimens were not taken, so 
that the identity is correct, so far as I am aware. Pigeon Hawks, 
presumably Falco columbarius siickleyi, were observed on several 
occasions but were not secured. Also a Duck Hawk was noted. 
Ptarmigan and Grouse were reported as being common, the 
former breeding at the snow line on the mountains immediately 
back of Sitka. All my efforts to obtain specimens, either per- 
sonally or from the Indians, were unsuccessful. The ' Siwashes ' 
always brought them in with their necks wrung and most of 
the feathers plucked. 

Unless otherwise noted, all specimens were taken in the vicin- 
ity of Sitka. 

Professor H. H. Hindshaw of the University of Washington, 
Seattle, who was at Sitka during part of the summer, collected 
many birds and he has kindly allowed me to use his notes. 
Credit is duly given him for such as are included in this list. 

I here have an opportunity to express my thanks to Mr. Fred 
Frobese of Sitka for his aid and friendship during my residence 



I 24 Grinnell, Summer Birds of Siika. I ^p"ji 

there, and I would recommend him to anyone visiting Sitka as a 
most hospitable gentleman, and one who will give heartily any 
needed information or assistance. 

Finally, to Mr. Robert Ridgway and Mr. William Palmer of the 
National Museum, I am greatly indebted for the identification of 
specimens, and for suggestions in regard to this paper. 

1. Gavia imber. Loon. — Several seen ; the Indians brought them in 
frequently- 

2. Gavia pacificus. Pacific Loon. — One specimen, a female, Avas 
shot June 26, by Dr. Wilber, of the Mission Hospital. It is in full adult 
plumage. 

3. Gavia lumme. Rkd-throated Loon. — Prof. Hindshaw took a fine 
pair of 'these Loons, together with a single downy young, on a grass-mar- 
gined pond a few rods back of Sitka. No nest was seen, and the young 
bird, though apparently only a few days old, was able to dive in the most 
energetic style. Previously there had been no sign of the Loons about 
the^lake during the day, but every morning and evening one of them 
would be seen flying to or from the lake, circling high overhead, and 
utteringlits lunatic laugh. 

4. Lunda cirrhata. Tufted Puffin. — Swarming by the thousands 
and breeding on St. Lazaria Island. Every grassy bank on the sides of 
the island were riddled with their burrows. On June 17, these burrows 
contained fresh eggs, and on July 7, the eggs contained large embryos. 

5. Fratercula corniculata. Horned Puffin. — Not at all common; 
12 were taken at St. Lazaria Island, and but a few others seen. I saw 
them enter crevices in the cliffs, and in one instance a burrow in a steep 
bank, among those of the Tufted Puffin. So they were probably breeding. 

6. Cerorhinca monocerata. Rhinoceros Auklet. — Two pairs of 
these Auks were taken out in the bay on July 21, by my Indian, and sev- 
eral more were seen. The state of the reproductive organs and the bare 
area on the breast indicated that these birds were incubating, though 
where, I did not ascertain. 

7. Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus. Paroquet Auklet. — A single adult 
male was taken June 8, by Mr. Frobese, and presented to me. It was the 
only one seen. 

8. Brachyramphus marmoratus. Marbled Murrelet. — Very com- 
mon about the numerous inlets and bays, and a large series was taken, 
including several in immature plumage. They were evidently breeding, 
though, as I learned afterwards, on some islands over thirty miles dis- 
tant. (See 'Osprey,' May, 1897.) 

9. Cepphus columba. Pigeon Guillemot. — Very common along the 
rocky shores of the outlying islands. On August 4, these birds seemed 
about to begin nidification, as they were carrying grasses to nests in 



Vol. XVI 
1898 J 



Grinnkll, Stdiniirr liirds of Silkd. 



125 



niches under honldcrs ami on tlie sides of the ciitTs. I t'ound no eggs, 
although nlan^• nests \vere examined. 

10. Uria troile californica. Californi.\ Mukrk. — Nuinerons among 
tiie ontlyinii; islands. Many nearly fiosh egt^s were secured on July 28. 

11. Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. Pacific Kittiwakk. — Common 
about the inland bays and narrows; although many specimens were 
taken, not only in immature plumage, but in full adult, none showed any 
signs of breeding. 

12. Larus glaucescens. Glaucou.s-winged Gui,l. — The common 
Gull of Sitka Bay, and the only one found breeding. The nests were 
slight hollows in the ground among the tall grass on the higher parts of 
the islands. These nest-hollows contained a slight lining of dry grasses. 
Two or three eggs constituted a set. Fresh eggs were found from June 16 
to August 4. 

13. Larus Philadelphia. Bonaparte's Gull. — One specimen, an 
immature male, was brought in by my Indian July 21. It was shot out 
in the open bay and was the only one seen. These small Gulls were very 
numerous on some parts of the steamer passage from Killisnoo and 
Juneau, south to Qiieen Charlotte Sound, August 25-27. 

14. Puffinus griseus. Dark-bodied Shearwater. — A female was 
brought in by the Indian on July 15, and another, July 21. He reported 
seeing several others. They were in the open baj'. As far as I am aware, 
this is the first recorded instance for Alaska. 

15. Oceanodroma furcata. Fork -tailed Petrel. — Breeding in con- 
siderable numbers on St. Lazaria Island, where on June 17, most of the 
eggs were badly incubated, and several young were taken. (See 'Nidolo- 
gist,' March, 1S97.) 

16. Oceanodroma leucorhoa. Leach's Petrel. — Breeding in im- 
mense numbers on St. Lazaria Island, where the eggs were fresh on 

Measurements of O. leiccorhoa from St. Lazaria Island. 



No. Coll. J. G. 


Sex. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Forking 
of Tail. 


Tarsus. 


1 138 


$ 


June 17 


5.70 


3.00 


•75 


.92 


1307 


$ 


July 7 


5-75 


3.10 


.So 


.84 


1309 


$ 


July 7 


5-S5 


3.10 


.70 


.87 


1310 


$ 


July 7 


5.85 


3.10 


.70 


.90 


1437 


$ 


August 5 


6.10 


Z-Z^ 


.90 


•95 


1440 


$ 


August 5 


5.90 


3.10 


.80 


.87 


1441 


$ 


August 5 


6.00 


3.20 


.70 


.92 


1438 


? 


August 5 


5-75 


3.10 


.70 


.90 


1439 


? 


August 5 


6.10 


3-30 


.90 


•93 


1311 


? 


July 7 


5.60 


2-95 


•65 


.89 


Aver 


ap'e 




5.86 


3.12 


.76 


.90 







I 26 Grinnell, Summer Birds of Sitka. 1_ April 

June 17. This Petrel outnumbers the last approximately 5 to i. (See 
'Nidologist,' March, 1S97.) 

Mr. Palmer, on comparing my Sitka birds with Atlantic specimens, 
finds the former averaging smaller, but otherwise similar. About half 
have considerable dusky white at the base of the rectrices. 

17. Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus. Violet-green Cormorant. — 
Breeding abundantly on the more exposed outlying islands. The imma- 
ture birds and others not breeding remained in flocks about the rocks and 
reefs further inland. The nests were usually situated on the shelves of 
rock on the perpendicular sides of the islands. I noted a row of 15 nests 
in a single ti-ansverse crevice on the face of a promontory. The nests 
are deeply saucer-shaped and compactly made of grass and tui-f. The 
eggs are 3 to 4 in number, oftener 3, and resemble other Cormorants' eggs 
except in size, being on an average considerably smaller. Six selected 
sets containing the extremes measure : 2.20 X 1-38, 2.08 X 1.41, 2.19 X 1.50, 
2.26x146; — 2.05 X 1.40, 2.09 X 1.39,2.17 X 1.44, 2.15 X 1.46; — 2.13 X i.37> 
2.07x1-38, 2.10 X 1.37; — 2.22 X 1-49' 2.28x1.43. 2.23 X 1.48;— 2.42 X 
1.47, 2.43 X 1.40, 2.37 X 1.45; — 2.52 X 144. 2-1 1 X 14O' 2.07, X 1.42. The 
average of fifty eggs is 2.19 X 142. This Cormorant nests late; a few 
fresh eggs were taken on July 8, and many slightly incubated, on July 28. 

18. Merganser senator. Red-breasted Merganser. — One shot on 
August 18, by Professor Hindshaw, and others seen. Young in down 
were brought in by the Indians early in July. 

19. Aythya marila nearctica. American Scaup Duck. — Large num- 
bers in flocks remained all summer among the inside islands. Apparently 
but a few bred. A juvenile nearly fledged was brought in on July 15. 

20. Histrionicus histrionicus. Harlequin Duck. Quite numerous 
on the most exposed outlying reefs about which large flocks of nearly 
fledged young appeared by August 5, when many were shot. I saw an 
adult in June, two or three miles up Indian River, where it was probably 
nesting. 

21. Oidemia deglandi. White-winged Scoter. — Common among 
the outlying islands in flocks of six to a dozen. No young seen. 

22. Oidemia perspicillata. Surf Scoter. — An adult male, taken 
July 28, was the only one observed. 

23. Ardea herodias. Great Blue Heron. — Frequent along the 
secluded inland shores. Nearly fledged young brought in July 2. 

24. Phalaropus lobatus. Northern Phalarope. — Arrived August 3, 
after which it became very numerous about the kelp-beds and tidedrifts 
out in the bay. 

25. Tringa bairdii. Baird's Sandpiper. — Prof. Hindshaw took a 
specimen August 16, the only one observed. 

26. Tringa minutilla. Least Sandpiper. — First specimen taken 
July 2, after which it became common in small flocks on the sandbar at 
the mouth of Indian River. 

27. Ereunetes occidentalis. Western Sandpiper. — First specimens 



°8g8 J Grinnkli., Siiiiuihr Birds oj Sitka. \i'l 

taken July 6. Soon afterwards common on tlic santlliars al Indian Kiver. 

28. Heteractitis incanus. Wandering Taitlkr. — A pair taken on 
an exposed rockj- islet 28 miles south of Sitka on August 4, and two 
others seen. 

29. Charadrius dominicus. — American Golden Plovkr. An imma- 
ture male, taken bj Prof. Ilindshaw on August 16, was the only one 
observed. 

30. .ffigialitis semipalmata. Semipalmated Plover. — Common after 
July 25, in company with Ereunetes occide7italis, on the sand-ljar at 
Indian River. 

31. Aphriza virgata. Surf Bird. — Sixteen taken from a flock on a 
rocky islet on July 21. These were all apparently immature birds, that 
is, non-breeders of the second year. 

32. Arenaria melanocephala. Black Turnstone. — Several taken 
July 21, and a few others noted occasionally afterwards on the bar at 
Indian River. Single individuals were quite frequentlv flushed from the 
rocky reefs at low tide. The specimens obtained are in slightly woin 
adult plumage. 

33. Haematopus bachmani. Black Oyster-catcher. — Companies 
of from three to a dozen or more were common on all the exposed reefs 
and rocks. Broken egg-shells were found in a depression among the 
pebbles on an islet on June 16. 

34. Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. — Noted on several occa- 
sions on the wooded mountain sides. Noisy young were following their 
parents on August 5. 

35. Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. — Several seen during the 
second and third weeks of August. A badly decomposed specimen, the 
wings and feet of which are saved, was found on the beach August 20. 

36. Accipiter atricapillus striatulus. Western Goshawk. — Mr. 
Frobese shot an immature male on August 5, and others were seen after 
that date. 

37. Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascesis. Alaskan Bald Eagle. — 
Common along the coasts throughout the Sitkan District. The nests 
were to be seen built in tall fir-trees on nearly everj- promontory. The 
young had not left their nests on August 5. 

38. Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Tolerably common along 
the coasts after its first appearance, July 28. 

39. Dryobates villosus harrisii. Harris's Woodpecker. — A few seen 
in the scattering timber in the immediate vicinity of Sitka, where thev 
doubtless breed. The only specimen secured was an adult male, on July 4. 

40. Colaptes cafer saturatior. Northwestern Flicker. — Noted 
occasionally about Sitka in the dense forest a mile or more back from 
the beach. I was informed that both this form and Colaptes auratiis 
became quite numerous in the fall. The fancy dance costumes of the 
Indians were often ornamented with the tail-feathers and wings of bolh 
species. 



128 Grinnell, Summer Birds of Sitka. I April 

41. Selasphorus rufus. Rufous Hummingbird. — Tolerably common 
in the more open clearings about Sitka, and along the quiet shores of 
secluded inlets. A nest containing eggs nearly hatched was found on 
June 10. It was 5 feet above the ground on the horizontal bi-anch of a 
small fir. 

42. Empidonax difficilis. Western Flycatcher. — Common through- 
out the deep forests which border the streams. Thej' remained for the 
most part in the upper foliage of the tall trees, and consequently were 
not easily seen, but their characteristic notes nearly always betrayed their 
presence. A female Avas taken June 30 which contained an egg ready to 
be laid. By the first of August the young with their parents appeared 
about Sitka in the clearings, and were then easily observed. The habits 
and notes of E. difficilis in Alaska seemed to be substantially the same as 
those of our Southern California birds. 

43. Cyanocitta stelleri. Steller's Jay. — Common along the edge of 
the timber near the shore wherever I landed. By concealing one's self 
and imitating their callnote, their curiosity seemingly overcomes them, 
and they quietly come within a few feet to investigate. In this way I suc- 
ceeded in collecting a series of 30 birds which are usually very war_y and 
difficult to approach. The first young were taken on July 4. 

44. Corvus corax principalis. Northern Raven. — An abundant 
and well-known scavenger. It congregates about the streets of Sitka and 
along the beaches with as much familiarity as Black Vultures are said to 
do in the South. Although apparently so tame they are extremely cau- 
tious and Avary, and the mere sight of a gun is sufficient to send every 
Raven flopping off with loud calls of alarm. I did not learn of its 
breeding anywhere about Sitka. 

45. Corvus caurinus. Northwest Crow. — Common on the small 
islands in the bay, especially so on St. Lazaria Island where the young 
and eggs of the Sea-birds constituted its staple articles of food. Nearly 
fledged young were observed on June 17, on that island. 

46. Loxia curvirostra minor. American Crossbill. — Flocks of 
these birds frequented the tops of the tallest firs, where on account of 
their quietness that may easily escape notice. The six specimens taken 
are of the small Northwest Coast form. 

47. Junco hyemalis oregonus. — Oregon Junco. — Numerous in the 
open brushy localities. First juveniles, just out of the nest, taken 
June II. This Junco was one of the commonest land-birds about Sitka, 
and by the first of August had gathei-ed into small flocks which came 
into town and foraged familiarly about the streets. 

48. Melospiza fasciata rufina. Sooty Song Sparrow. — Tolerably 
common in the brushy or grassy margins of the forests along the 
beaches. They were most numerous on St. Lazaria Island in the tall 
grass which grows so luxuriantly on portions of the island. Fully 
fledged young were taken on July 7. 

49. Melospiza lincolnii. Lincoln's Sparrow. — Two or three pairs 



°g g J Grinnkll, Siiniiiicr /iirds of S//Ati. j 2Q 

I)icil in llic grassy margins of the poiul liack of Sitka. A juvenile alxnil 
one tliiid gi-ovvn was taken on June 25. It was iiidden in the matted 
grass, and was discovered by following the call-note, which was a ven- 
triloquial, insect-like chirp, hard to locate. A single adult bird was 
secured, a female, on June 25. In a letter to Mr. Palmer, Mr. William 
Brewster writes concerning this specimen : — 

"Your Lincoln's Sparrow from Sitka, Alaska, agrees closely with mv 
types of M. c. striata in respect to the streaking of the upper parts, hut 
it is less olivaceous and the butfy is less rich and deep. Making due 
allowance for seasonal and individual variation, I should think it not 
improbable that it may represent the breeding plumage of striata, but it 
would be of course unsafe to assume this positively on the strength 
of a single specimen." 

50. Passerella iliaca unalaschcensis. Townsend's Sparrow. — Com- 
mon in tall grass on St. Lazaria Island, where half -fledged voung were 
observed on June 16. The song of this Sparrow is verj^ musical, being 
loud and full like that of a Grosbeak, and j^et with the intonation of a 
Song Sparrow. 

51. Chelidon erythrogastra. Barn Swallow. — Breeding abundantly 
about town under the eaves of buildings; a few pairs found nesting on 
cliffs on the islands out in the bay. 

52. Tachycineta bicolor. Tree Swallow. — Breeding commonly in 
old woodpecker holes in the tall dead firs at the foot of the mountains 
back of Sitka. Full-grown young with their parents appeared along the 
beaches by July 15. Soon after, they gathered in small flocks and were 
not seen after August i, having evidently migrated. 

53. Helminthophila celata lutescens. Lutescent Warbler. — Tol- 
erably common about clearings, and in the low growths of firs which 
border the beaches at the mouths of the streams. The males were in full 
song until the last, of July. Full grown young observed on August 17. 

54. Dendroica aestiva rubiginosa. Alaskan Yellow Warbler. — A 
single adult male taken June 23, and a few others heard previously in 
the dense firs along Indian River. 

55. Dendroica townsendi. Townsend's Warbler. A single adult 
female taken August 14, and two others seen at the same time. They 
were in company with a flock of Chickadees and were rapidly hunting 
insects towards the extremities of fir boughs. Thej' -were probablv 
migrants. 

56. Sylvania pusilla pileolata. Pileolated Warbler. — An adult 
male was taken on August i8, and several others, including juveniles, 
seen on August 21. They were in low brush along the shores of a 
secluded bay where they had probably bred. 

57. Anthus pensilvanicus. American Pipit. A pair seen on a grassy 
tideflat beyond Indian River on June 10, and the female secured. From 
the condition of the ovaries, I judged that it Avould have laid eggs within 
a week. 

9 



I^O Grinnell, Siimtner Birds of Sitka. \ a^\ 

58. Troglodytes hiemalis pacificus. Western Winter Wren. — 
Tolerably common in the more open forests, particularly where there 
was much recently-fallen timber. Especially numerous on St. Lazaria 
Island where their clear sprightly songs constantly' uttered, seemed 
scarcely in accord with the harsh cries of the thousands of Sea-fowl. 

59. Certhia familiaris occidentalis. Californian Creeper. — Seen 
only in the tall timber along Indian River where I secured six specimens 
and saw several others. On July 2 took two scarcely fledged juveniles, 
apparently just out of the nest. 

60. Parus rufescens. Chestnut-backed Chickadee. — Common 
everywhere, especially in the younger firs at the heads of the bays and 
inlets. First young fully fledged, taken June 26. 

61. Regulus satrapa olivaceus. Western Golden-crowned King- 
let. — Common everywhere, particularly in the dense fir thickets along 
the streams. On June 22, 1 observed the first young. On that date, as I 
was carefullj' picking my way through a clump of firs, I chanced upon 
six of these mites of birds sitting in a row close together on a twig; but 
when one of the parents appeared and discovered me, her single sharp 
note scattered them in all directions with a chorus of squeaks, and then 
in a moment all was quiet and not one to be seen, although all Avere 
probably watching me intently within a radius of ten feet. The call- 
notes of these Golden-ci-ests resemble closely those of the Creepers. 

62. Regulus calendula grinnelli.' Sitkan Kinglet. —This Kinglet 
was not very common, and I only observed it along Indian River in the 
tract of tall firs. Their beautiful song could frequently be heard during 
June and the first part of July from the upper foliage of the dense fir- 
trees, where the birds were exceedingly hard to locate. I saw them in 
pairs on two occasions, but I secured no young. This Kinglet doubtless 
breeds, though not in abundance. Three adult males were secured. 

63. Turdus ustulatus. Russet-backed Thrush. — Tolerably com- 
mon along Indian River and on some of the small islands in the hay. 
No young were obtained but they certainly breed. Their beautiful songs 
were heard until the middle of July. 

64. Turdus aonalaschae. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. — Very common 
everywhere, especially on the small wooded islands. At low tide they 
were frequently to be seen feeding among the kelp and rock-weed along 
the shores. The first young were taken July 2, and young only half- 
fledged were taken on August 15. The song of this Thrush is most 
exquisite. Mr. Palmer informs me that one of my specimens approaches 
T. a. auduboni quite closely. 

65. Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. — A f eAv adults 
were observed throughout the summer among the more open parks three 
or four miles inland from Sitka along Indian River. Several large flocks 
of juveniles appeared on July 25, and were thenceforth common. 

' Wm. Palmer, Auk, XIV, Oct. 1897, p 399. 



^"iSgS^l Ri\-K.s, Siuiiiiicr Birds of West Vir^niia. I '^ I 

66. Hesperocichla njEvia. N'akikd Turisii. — Tcjlcrahl v coiinnon in 
the deeper woods ; ilrst; young, scarcely feathered, taken on July 2. I5y 
August 1, the young began to gather in considerable nuinl^ers and 
together with the Robins and other Thrushes were feeding on the 
blueberries. 



THE SUMMER BIRDS OF THE WEST VHiGINIA 
SPRUCE BELT. 

BY WILLIAM C. RIVES, M. D. 

The portion of the mountain region of the Virginias to 
which the present paper relates, is spoken of in the following 
terms in an amusing sketch in ' Harper's Magazine ' for Decem- 
ber, 1853 (Vol. VII, p. 18). "In Randolph county, Virginia, 
there is a tract of country containing from seven to nine hundred 
square miles, entirely uninhabited, and so inaccessible that it has 
rarely been penetrated even by the most adventurous. The set- 
tlers on its borders speak of it with dread, as an ill-omened region, 
filled with bears, panthers, impassable laurel brakes and danger- 
ous precipices. Stories are told of hunters having ventured too 
far, becoming entangled, and perishing in its intricate labyrinths." 
Its features are also depicted in a volume called ' The Black- 
water Chronicle ' (New York, 1853), which treats of a hunting 
trip to the locality in question, and a brief allusion will be found 
in 'Picturesque America,' Vol. I, pp. 390, 391. It is now partlv 
within the limits of Tucker County, and forms, or we shall soon 
be obliged to say formed, a part of the black spruce belt of West 
Virginia. " It is probable," says Major Hotchkiss, an authoritv 
on the natural resources of the Virginias, " that nowhere in the 
United States are now existing denser forests than those of black 
spruce in the belt of country, more than 100 miles in length and 
from 10 to 20 in breadth, that extends through Greenbrier, Poca- 
hontas, Randolph and Tucker Counties. Only the northern end 
of this vast spruce forest has been penetrated by railways, the 



1^2 2 Rives, Summer Birds of West Virgiftia. April 

West Virginia Central and Pittsburgh R. R. being the only one 
that has yet really entered into it." 

The region of spruce thus described, consists of a lofty plateau 
lying almost exclusively to the west of the main Alleghany range, 
varying in altitude from 2500 to 3000 feet and traversed in a 
general northerly and southerly direction by various mountain 
ridges five to fifteen hundred feet higher, the maximum elevation 
above sea level being about 4700 feet. It contains in its north- 
ern portion the sources of the Cheat and North Branch of the 
Potomac Rivers and in its southern, the head waters of the 
Greenbrier, a branch of the New River. 

The area of which in particular I speak is drained by the 
Blackwater River with its tributaries, which rising in the so-called 
Canaan valley flows tranquilly at an unusually high altitude for 
nearly a dozen miles, with a fall of probably not more than one 
hundred and fifty feet in that distance, until reaching the steep 
western edge of the plateau it plunges swiftly downwards to enter 
the Dry Fork of Cheat River. The sources of the Blackwater 
and of the North Branch of the Potomac, it may be remarked, 
are separated by an almost imperceptible difference of level. 
This section of the country maintained its primitive wildness 
until about fifteen years ago, when the West Virginia Central and 
Pittsburgh R. R. penetrated its forests and the town of Davis was 
established at the junction of Beaver Creek with the Blackwater, 
not far from the picturesque falls of the latter stream. In com- 
pany with Mr. Bancel LaFarge I spent the period from June 4 
to June 12, 1 89 1, at Davis, finding the general aspect similar to 
that of Maine or northern Wisconsin, rather than in accordance 
with one's preconceived ideas of a southern State, and the avi- 
fauna, as might have been anticipated, markedly Canadian and 
Alleghanian in character, whereas in most other parts of the Vir- 
ginia mountains, where the above faunae exist, we usually find 
them overlapped by the Carolinian. No one, however, who now 
visits the Blackwater country will find a region of exclusively 
virgin forests such as is described in the writings to which I have 
referred. Saw-mills, tanneries, pulp mills and lumber camps 
stand where the timid deer formerly came to slake its thirst and 
the ponderous and unwieldly bear found an unmolested abode, 



i8o8 J Rivi:s, Siniimcr Birds of West Viririnia. I -2 7 

and it is for the most part requisite to travel for many miles from 
the railway to find a place to which the wood cutter has not yet 
penetrated. 

With Dr. William C. Braislin, I revisited Davis last summer, 
staying from June 9 to June 15. The destruction of timber which 
had already begun before the time of my first visit had progressed 
with startling rapidity, during the six years that had elapsed, and 
instead of the more or less unbroken sea of green tree tops for- 
merly visible, the eye now rested upon a country disfigured by 
prostrate logs stripped of their bark, misshapen and unsightly 
stumps, and dead trees blackened and destroyed by fire. Rail- 
ways for getting out the timber, or tramways as they are locally 
designated, have been forced into the heart of the woods in sev- 
eral places and the spruce cut down for many miles. The Beaver 
Creek Railway starting from Davis has now, I believe, been con- 
structed for as much as eighteen miles, and a wide belt of timber 
on each side removed. In a few directions, however, it is still 
possible to reach the forest from Davis without great difficulty, 
the nearest point being about a mile and a half. These forests 
which are being thus so rapidly removed, consist principally of 
black spruce, hemlock and birch, the spruce being valued for its 
timber and the hemlock mainly for its bark. They are very dense 
and contain trees of magnificent proportions, while they are ren- 
dered practically impassable wherever it occurs, by the laurel 
{^Rhododendron max/mum) , which covers abundantly the extremely 
rough and uneven surface of the ground and forms continuous 
' brakes ' of great extent. The earth beneath is often carpeted 
with moss and lycopodiums, but with the exception of the Oxalis 
acetosella and an occasional trillium, no great variety of flowering 
plants was observed. The forests of evergreens do not, however, 
appear to occupy the country exclusively. A half mile or so to 
the north or northwest of Davis, the spruce seems to end and 
deciduous trees to be found, and we were told of the existence of 
beech woods, mention being also made of ' glades ' comparatively 
open, in a south-easterly direction towards the Canaan valley. In 
the streams of this region, trout are to be taken in numbers, but 
the various mills at Davis have destroyed the fishing in the 
Blackwater below the town, and it is necessary to go some dis- 



„ "^ ■.-. . T r Txr , t-r- ■ • r Auk 

134 Rives, Summer Birds of West Virginia. LApril 

tance to its head waters, to catch them. Amonglthe mammals 
showino- the northern character of the fauna, the Red Squirrel 
{S. hudsonicHs) is commonly found. As the timber is being cut 
out, a corresponding change is taking place in the avifauna ; 
many of the Warblers and other Canadian birds have naturally 
disappeared and the cleared land has been occupied in their stead 
by Towhees, Song Sparrows, Catbirds, House Wrens and other 
birds of the more open country, while the dead timber is very 
congenial to Woodpeckers, so that there was a marked alteration 
in the distribution of the birds in the vicinity of the town, between 
my first and second visits. The Snow Birds, however, were evi- 
dently little affected by the changes and were as abundant in the 
cleared land as in the forests. 

In exploring the country in search of birds, particular attention 
was devoted to the spruce forests, as likely to be the special home 
of the Canadian fauna, and time employed in searching the other 
woods would doubtless have been rewarded by finding there some 
additional species. Almost all of the birds were excessively shy ; 
the song of the Winter Wren constantly trilled forth from the 
depths of the rhododendron thickets, but the tiny songster him- 
self was seldom seen, and though the notes of the Magnolia and 
other Warblers were frequently heard, it was often a most difficult 
achievement and necessitated straining one's neck to the utmost, 
to get a sight of these interesting little birds, as they flitted from 
one lofty tree top to another. I append a list with brief notes, of 
the different species observed. 

1. Aythya affinis. Lesser Scaup Duck. — On June 11, Dr. Braislin 
obtained a Duck from a young man who told us it liad just been shot on 
the Blackwater River. It proved to be a Lesser Scaup, female. In this 
connection it is of interest, as Dr. Braislin has pointed out to me, that 
Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd has found this species in the breeding season in 
Western Pennsylvania. 

2. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — One or two noticed 
along the Blackwater. 

3. Bonasa umbellus. Ruffed Grouse. — Said to occur in the neigh- 
borhood. Reported to have been seen during our stay last summer. 

4. Cathartes aura. Turkey Buzzard. — Two were seen June 10, 
1897, if we were not mistaken, in the distance high in air. The rarity of 
this bird was especially noticeable. 

5. Dryobates villosus. Hairy Woodpecker. — Not uncommon. 



iSo^^l Rives, Sitiinncr Birds of Weft Viri^inia. I -? C 

6. Dryobates pubescens. Downy Wo(>iji'i:(kkk. — Only observed 
once or twice. 

7. Sphyrapicus varius. YKLLow-isKr.Liici) Woodimcckkr. — A fine 
male specimen was taken by Dr. Braislin, June I3, 1897. 

8. Ceophloeus pileatus. Pilkated Woodpecker. — Known to the 
residents of the region under the name of Woodcock. None, however, 
Avere seen during either of my visits. 

9. Melanerpes .erythrocephalus. Red-headed Woodpecker. — 
Apparently not uncommon in the clearings. 

10. Colaptes auratus. Golden-winged Woodpecker. — One or two 
noted. 

11. Chordeiles virginianus. Nighttiawk. — A few seen at evening. 

12. Chaetura pelagica. Chimney Swift. — Occasionally observed. 

13. Sayornis phoebe. Pewee. — Only once or twnce noted. 

14. Contopus borealis. Olive-sided Flycatcher. — One or two 
pairs were observed along the Blackwater River in June, 1S91, apparently 
breeding. None seen last year. 

15. Contopus virens. Wood Pewee. — The notes of this species 
were heard on one or more occasions. 

16. Cyanocitta cristata. Blue Jay. — Occasionally to be met with. 
Not uncommon. 

17. Corvus corax principalis. Northern Raven. — We saw on sev- 
eral occasions, last June, and heard the hoarse notes of birds which we 
had little hesitation in referring to this species, and though, as far as 
they w-ere concerned, we may perhaps be said like Mr. Torrey, who has 
lately described^ so pleasantly his experiences 'In Qiiest of Ravens,' to 
have brought back with us, strictly speaking, only interrogation points, 
yet I think our identification was undoubtedly correct. The bird, more- 
over, seemed to be well known to the dwellers in those parts, who 
informed us that there were no Crows in the region. This agrees with 
Mr. Brewster's observation that the two species do not occur together in 
the North Carolina mountains. The Ravens, we were told, came to the 
slaughter houses morning and evening for food, but as we were not 
quite so confident of the regularity of this habit as our informant, we did 
not test the accuracy of his knowledge, in the short time at our disposal. 
I think that I also saw Ravens 'on my former visit in 1S91. 

Mr. Kirkwood, in his 'List of the Birds of Maryland,' mentions, on the 
authority of J. H. Fisher, Jr., that during Christmas week, 1S92, about 20 
were seen at Bayard, W. Va., but that they could not be approached 
within rifle shot. On Dec. 6, 1S93, several were seen at the same place_ 
Bayard is a comparatively short distance north of Davis, at a somewhat 
lower elevation. 

18. Quiscalus quiscula aeneus. Bronzed Crackle. — Three observed 
together on June 12, 1S97, one of which was taken by Dr. Braislin. and 

' Atlantic Monthly, June, 1897. 



136 Rives, Snmine)' Birds of West Virginia. \ tv^\ 

proves on further examination to be, in some degree, an intermediate 
and not quite typical. 

19. Spiniis tristis. American Goldfinch. — Several were seen in 
the open on June 12, 1897. 

30. Passer domesticus. English Sparrow. — Common about the 
town of Davis. 

21. Spizella socialis. Chipping Sparrow. — Not vincommon. 

22. Spizella pusilla. Field Sparrow. — The notes of this bird were 
recognized by Dr. Braislin. 

23. Junco hyemalis carolinensis. Carolina Junco. — Abundant 
everywhere ; this and the Song Sparrow were the most numerous species 
observed. Birds from this locality approach the southern form of Junco 
more nearly than some of Dr. Dwight's Pennsylvania specimens, which 
he kindly showed me, and in fact appear to be decidedly carolinensis. 

24. Melospiza fasciata. Song Sparrow. — Abundant throughout the 
cleared land, in the underbrush. 

25. Pipilo erythrophthalmus. Towhee. — Rather common in the 
clearings. 

26. Progne subis. Purple Martin. — Last season, three or four 
pairs occupied Martin boxes in the town. Also seen on my previous 
visit. 

27. Chelidon erythrogastra. Barn Swallow. — A few individuals 
noted on the edge of the town by the river. 

28. Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Bird. — Not uncommon. Observed 
to be apparently nesting in 1891. 

29. Vireo solitarius. Solitary Vireo. — Very ^\\y. Certainly once 
identified in 1891. Notes attributed to this species not infi-equently 
heard. 

30. Dendroica caerulescens. Black-throated Blue Warbler. — 
Rather common in the forest. These Warblers usually had black on the 
back, but varied in the amount, some being almost tj'pical cairtisi, and 
others having little or no trace of it. 

31. Dendroica maculosa. Magnolia Warbler. — The commonest of 
the Warblers in the spruce forests. 

32. Dendroica virens. Black-throaTed Green Warbler. — Appar- 
ently the least common Warbler; extremely shy. 

33. Dendroica pensylvanica. Chestnut-sided Warbler. — Rather 
common in the half cleared land. Not found in the spruce forests. Not 
observed in 1891. 

34. Seiurus noveboracensis. Northern Water Thrush. — Very 
retiring but rather common along the streams. 

35. Geothlypis Philadelphia. Mourning Warbler. — Seemingly not 
rare in the clearings among the bushes. Individual males were singing 
within certain limited areas. The females kept themselves well con- 
cealed, for none were detected. This, I believe, is the furthest southern 
record for this species in summer. 



°8g« J Rives, Sit>nmcr Birds of West Virgiiiia. I 9 '7 

36. Geothlypis trichas. Marvlaxd Yellow-throat. — The notes of 
this bird were heard by ho\\\ of us on June 10, 1S97, and one was seen bv 
Dr. Braislin. Not recorded in 1891. 

37. Sylvania canadensis. Canada Warbler. — Not uncommon in 
the forest, sometimes occurring in pairs, which were doubtless, from 
their actions, breedir.i^-. 

38. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. Catbird. — Not uncommon. 

39. Troglodytes aedon. Mouse Wren. — Unusalij abundant among 
the stumps and half burnt trees of the cleared land, where its song was 
frequently heard. Dr. Braislin discovered a nest containing seven eggs, 
in a cavity at the end of a fallen partially burnt tree, on June 10, 1897. 

40. Troglodytes hiemalis. Winter Wren. — Abundant in the forest, 
finding a most congenial home among the rhododendrons, which for the 
most part effectually concealed its presence, until its proximity was dis- 
closed \)y its beautiful song. 

41. Certhia familiaris americana. Brown Creeper. — Not uncom- 
mon. Frequents the hemlocks. 

42. Sitta canadensis. Red-breasted Nuthatch. — Not uncommon. 
The drawling character of its notes distinguish it readily from the 
White-breasted, which was not observed. 

43. Parus atricapillus. Black-capped Chickadee. — Rather com- 
mon. 

44. Turdus ustulatus swainsonii. Olive-backed Thrush. — A male 
specimen was taken by Dr. Braislin, June 14, and others were heard. 
This is, so far, the furthest southern record of the species in summer. 
Owing to their excessive shyness and the very rough character of the 
country, it was almost impossible to obtain a sight of these birds, but I 
am inclined to consider them not uncommon. The measurements of 
the one secured are as follows: Wing, 3.9S ; tail, 3.12; tarsus, 1.06; cul- 
men, .50. 

45. Merula migratoria. American Robin. — Not very abundant; 
seen in suitable localities. 

46. Sialia sialis. Bluebird. — A few seen in the cleared land. 

During our stay at Davis, Dr. Braislin and I also saw one or 
two small Hawks, of what species we were not quite certain, and 
were shown a Hawk's nest in a lofty tree, but did not see either 
of the pair to which it belonged. On June 13, we noticed a small 
bird on a telegraph wire in the town, apparently a Wren with 
rather a long tail. Its song which we did not recognize, differed 
from that of any Wren we were familiar with. After a few 
moments, it flew to the top of one of the houses, and we were 
unable to observe it further. We were disposed to regard it as 
J3ewick's Wren. ■ 



138 Bowles, Nesting Habits of Anthony's Vireo. F April 



NESTING HABITS OF ANTHONY'S VIREO. 

BY C. W. AND J. H. BOWLES. 

In the vicinity of Tacoma, Washington, this Vireo, Vireo hut- 
torn obscurus, can scarcely be described as either rare or common, 
for the probability is that they are much more abundant than a 
casual, or even close, observer would be led to suppose. While 
we have noticed comparatively few birds, we have found several 
last year Vireos' nests so much resembling, in every detail, the 
identified nest described below that we feel little hesitation in 
thinking them the work of these birds. This, of course, cannot 
be considered a positive proof, for jumping at conclusions of this 
nature is extremely bad policy, but the theory seems all the more 
tenable for the two following reasons : First, this is the most 
unassuming and least noisy of any of the Vireos frequenting this 
locality ; in fact, we have never heard it sing a note or make a 
noise of any kind whatsoever. This causes one to feel positive 
that many of these birds must have been overlooked. The second 
reason is that the nest taken by us does not resemble in the 
smallest degree the nests of either the ' Warbling Vireo ( Vireo 
gihms) or the Cassin's Vireo (^Vireo soUtarius cassifiii), which are 
the only other Vireos known to breed in this section of the 
country. 

The nest under discussion is, we are given to understand, the 
only one known to science where the identity is clear and indis- 
putable. The situation from which it was taken is some eight 
miles from the city of Tacoma, in a thin fringe of small firs that 
border a rather extensive prairie. On this prairie are located the 
links of the Tacoma Golf Club, and, as these links are visited 
daily by large numbers of the players, it is fair to presume that 
the bird is not unsociably inclined towards mankind, as is its shy 
cousin, the Cassin's Vireo. 

Like other Vireos' nests it was hanging, though in a somewhat 
peculiar way, being suspended, not from the usual crotch, but 
from two green twigs that grew from a small limb at an interval 



^°S9^^] Bow'LKS, Nes/Z/ii,'- //„/,,7s of Afi/Z/ONvs Vireo. I^Q 

of an inch and a half. It was ph\ced nine feet up in a young fir, 
and five feet from the trunk of the tree. 

Its composition is, as above mentioned, aitOf,'ether different 
from that used by any other Vireo that has come under our notice. 
The outside material consists entirely of a long, hanging moss, 
which must be very closely allied to the C/s/iea of the Eastern 
States, very thickly and closely interwoven. The first point that 
strikes one, on looking at it, is the absence of outside patch-work of 
any kind, such as is almost invariably found on the nests of other 
Vireos. In fact, at first sight, there is a very striking similarity 
to many nests of the Parula Warbler {Co7nJ>sot/i/ypis amerita7ia) . 
Its entire Uning is composed of fine, dried grasses, thickly and 
neatly interwoven. The extreme outer dimensions in inches are : 
length 4}, width 3^, depth 2%. The inside dimensions in inches 
are: length 2^, width i^, depth 2. 

The eggs, of which there were only two, resemble more closely 
certain specimens of eggs of the Red-eyed Vireo ( Vireo olivaceus) 
than those of any other species in our collection that we have 
used in comparison. The ground color of both is a lustreless, 
milky white. In markings. No. I has a ring of dark brown dots, 
verging often into black, scattered sparingly around the larger 
end. Also one fine, hair-like line three eighths of an inch long, 
running between the dots like the lines on an Oriole's egg. 
No. II is simply and very sparingly marked all over the larger 
end with dots of the same color. Their measurements in inches 
are: No. I, .76X.56; No. II, .74X.55. 

Incubation was about one half advanced at this date, June 21, 
1897, which, if the date is not unusual, makes this bird breed 
later than either cassiiiii or gilvus, which commence incubation 
four and two weeks earlier respectively. 

The female bird was on the nest when first seen and, unlike 
the majority of our Vireos, flushed the instant the ascent of the 
tree was attempted. From the nest, she flew about twenty feet 
into a neighboring fir, where she looked down on our operations 
with apparently no concern whatever. Beyond rearranging her 
feathers from time to time, there was nothing to indicate that she 
had a nest anywhere in the vicinity, as she made no sound or 
complaint of any kind. Neither was there any of the nervous 



1A.O Anthony, Petrels of Southern California. |_ April 

hopping from twig to twig in the manner by which so many of 
the smaller birds as clearly display their anxiety as they do by 
their notes of distress. 

The male bird did not appear at all and, after waiting for him 
some three-quarters of an hour, we collected the female together 
with the nest and eggs. 



PETRELS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

BY A. W. ANTHONY. 

From the day that I saw my first Petrel dancing over the 
waves of the Pacific none of the birds of southern California so 
thoroughly interested me or so completely baffled all attempts at 
a more intimate acquaintance. Several species were often com- 
mon off shore and during such times dozens would pass and 
repass a sailing vessel but always keeping just out of gunshot. 
All of the coast islands were examined for breeding colonies but 
owing to my lack of experience and knowledge of their breeding 
habits, several years passed before any clue was found to their 
very restricted nesting grounds. In May, 1895, a small colony 
of Socorro Petrels was found on one of the Coronado Islands, 
but it was too early for eggs, and I was unable to revisit the 
island again at the proper season. Armed with the knowledge 
gained in 1895 I visited the island April 21, 1896, and camped 
five days, thoroughly exploring the northern and two middle 
islands of the group. On the first night of my sojourn I had 
scarcely fallen asleep, curled up on a rocky shelf just above the 
water, when I was suddenly recalled to my senses by a loud 
Tuc-a-roo., tuc-tiic-a-roo within two feet of my head. The call was 
repeated from half a dozen directions and as many bat-like forms 
were seen flitting back and forth in the moonlight along the cliffs 
and hillside. One or two attempts to shoot them proved utter 
failures and the black forms soon moved out to sea, returning 
at intervals of an hour or so all night. The next afternoon I 



^"sc^^l Anthony, Petrels of Southern Cdli/orina. lAI 

located one of the lairds in a burrow under an immense rock, as I 
passed on my way to camp. It several times uttered a clickinj^ 
note which I felt sure was that of a Petrel. During the evening 
I watched the hillside and discovered several burrows by follow- 
ing the direction of the call notes and watching the birds as they 
entered the holes, which were all under very large bowlders or in 
cracks in the ledges where it was impossible to secure eggs had 
there been any. From the large size of the Petrels I was reason- 
ably sure that they were Oceanodrovia melania^ and marking sev- 
eral of the most likely burrows I returned the following day with 
a shovel and undermined the bowlders, letting them roll down the 
hill, hoping to uncover the nests, but all were so far back in the 
rocks that I secured neither eggs nor birds, nor could I determine 
whether they were nesting. From what I afterward learned I now 
know that they were mating and I was much too early for eggs. 

On the 24th of April I visited the colony of Socorro Petrels 
discovered in 1895 and found a number of nearly finished bur- 
rows and one bird. I visited the same colony on June 12 and in 
each burrow found two Petrels, male and female, but no eggs. 
It was not until July 10 that I had an opportunity to again visit 
the island when I found both eggs and birds. Most of the eggs 
were more or less incubated, and two young ones were found 
not over two or three days old. They were mere little bunches 
of sooty down of uniform color, winking and blinking when 
brought to the light like little owls. In the same colony I found 
two Black Petrels with fresh eggs, confirming my identification of 
the birds seen on April 12. The eggs of Oceaiiodroma socorroensis 
were usually freckled with reddish spots in a more or less com- 
plete ring about the larger end, but those of O. vielania were 
unmarked, as have been all that I have subsequently handled. 

From the data I have accumulated I find that both of the 
preceding species inhabit the burrows for nearly three months 
before the egg is laid, usually both birds being found in the 
burrow until incubation begins. After the chick is a day or two ^ 
old the parent is seldom if ever found in the burrow in the da}' 
time. On Guadaloupe Island a colony of O. macrodacfyla were 
found breeding among the pines and oaks at about 2500 feet 
above the sea. Well incubated eggs were taken March 24. and 



1A.2 Anthony, Petrels of Southern California. F April 

well grown young the middle of May. The range of^variation 
in breeding in these three species of Oceanodroma presents an in- 
teresting study. The Guadaloupe Petrel, with a breeding season 
early in March, leaves the colony altogether by June lo, by which 
time O. socorroensis has not begun to lay, and O. melania is still 
later. I have found the last species incubating as late as Septem- 
ber 8. I am quite sure that only one young is raised each year, 
though each species seems to have a rather long nesting season. 

Little attempt is made at nest building by either the Socorro 
or Black Petrel, though a few sticks are often dtagged into the 
burrow with an evident desire to construct something resembling 
a nest. The Guadaloupe Petrel, however, nearly always has a 
few dry oak leaves or pine needles at the end of the burrows I 
have opened, it making a much better attempt at nest building, 
owing perhaps to the fact that the burrows are dug among the 
trees where this class of nesting material is abundant, whereas the 
other species nest on barren islands and cannot so readily obtain 
desirable material. 

In early June I have found the Least Petrel migrating along the 
coast of Lower California in company with the Socorro and Black 
Petrels, and in late July have found them nesting on the small 
rocky San Benito Island, fifty miles off the coast of the peninsula. 
So far I have never found the Least Petrel nesting in burrows. 
They have always been taken from the crevices in rocky ledges 
or among the loose stones. The pearly white egg is laid on the 
bare rock. Usually several are found within a few feet if desira- 
ble crevices are numerous. Young were taken as late as Septem- 
ber 7 or 8 that were but a few days old. They were like the young 
of the three species of Oceanodroma I have mentioned, except for 
size. All are covered with sooty or slaty black down, through 
Avhich the feathers appear when the bird is nearly or quite fully 
grown. 

For the past ten years I have at times seen a small white- 
rumped Petrel at sea as far north as southern California but more 
common perhaps about Guadaloupe and Cerros Islands. They 
were quite common in April and May about Socorro Island and 
a few were seen ofif Clarion but, like veritable will-o'-the-wisps, 
they were always just out of reach and all attempts to identify 



^"s's'^l Anthony, Petrels of Soii(//eni Cdli/oriiid. 1 43 

the species were unsatisfactory. No nesting colonies were found 
on the southern islands, — Socorro and Clarion, — all the birds 
seen at sea seeming to be migrants. July 15 found us becalmed 
in a fog not far from Guadaloupe Island, lilack and Socorro 
Petrels were seen at a short distance from the schooner, pass- 
ing and repassing, pausing for a moment at times to investigate 
objects thrown from the vessel. Several of the rare white-rumped 
form came and went with the rest but none ventured near the 
schooner. In hopes of getting at least a nearer view a skiff was 
launched and with my assistant, Mr. H. B. Kaeding, I spent two 
hours or more in drifting about a quarter of a mile or so from the 
vessel. In place of frightening the Petrels the smaller craft 
seemed to excite their curiosity and they often turned aside from 
their course to examine us. Several of the white-rumped birds 
were secured which have since formed the basis for a new species' 
named in honor of Mr. Kaeding as a slight recognition of his 
valuable services. 

The breeding grounds of Kaeding's Petrel are at present un- 
known, but I have reason for supposing that they nest on Guad- 
aloupe, in July. Those which were taken on the 25th of that 
month showed enlarged ovaries and the nesting season was but 
little if any passed. The wing of a small Petrel was picked up 
on Guadaloupe in September, 1896, and direct comparison made 
with specimens of O. hoinochroa, to which species I assigned the 
fragment after much hesitation. I am now reasonably sure it 
belonged to the new "species. All of the species mentioned in 
the present paper depend almost entirely upon the young of the 
spiny lobster for food while on our coast, both adults and young 
having their stomachs filled with the larval stage of that crusta- 
cean, which is extremely abundant about all of our outlying 
islands during the spring and summer months. 

In August and September Petrels are more abundant off our 
southwestern coast than during the rest of the year. The birds 
that have finished nesting congregate in regions where food is 
abundant, often following vessels for long distances to pick up 
what scraps of suitable food may be thrown over. I have on 



> Auk, XV, Jan. 1S9S, p. 3/ 



1^4 ^i\^T>-E.KSoi<i, Food of Niiihatchcs and Chickadees. \ a^x\\ 

several occasions hooked 0. 7)ieJania\\\i\\ a small hook baited with 
a piece of seal blubber, but as a rule they decline to be taken in 
by any such means. Both O. melajiia and O. socorroeiisis will at 
times dive a foot or more below the surface for a piece of meat 
that is sinking if they are hungry, but diving seems to be out of 
their usual line of business and is only resorted to when food is 
scarce. They seem to be unable to get below the surface of the 
water without first rising two or three feet and plunging or drop- 
ping, exactly as I have seen the Black-footed and Short-tailed 
Albatrosses dive under similar circumstances. 



THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF THE WHITE-BELLIED 
NUTHATCH AND BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE.^ 

BY E. DWIGHT SANDERSON. 

The value of our common birds as insect-destroyers has of 
late years come to be recognized as an important field of inves- 
tigation for the ornithologist and a large item in rural economy. 
Much valuable work has been done in determining their economic 
relations, but there has also been a large amount of assumption 
by various writers based on insufficient data. It is my purpose 
in this thesis to determine the character and amount of food and 
the economic relations of two of our most common residents, the 
White-bellied Nuthatch (^Sitta carolinensis Lath.) and the Black- 
capped Chickadee (^Pariis atricapilhis Linn.) from the analysis of 
the stomachs of 34 specimens of the former, and 28 of the latter, 
notes taken while collecting them, and incidentally from as much 
reliable data as could be found elsewhere. 

METHOD OF ANALYSIS. 

In no instance was any food found in the true stomach, mouth, 
or gullet, and the only part containing food was that ordinarily 

' A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Michigan Agricultural College. 



Vol. XV 



I'xys^^] '^■\K^n:Ksn>;, Food of A^u/Z/dic/ics fu/f/ Chirkadees. 14 r 

called the gizzard. This was removed and the contents carefully 
washed into a glass dish, in which it was spread out and exam- 
ined under a dissecting microscope. The per cent of matter was 
determined by dividing the whole contents into various equal parts 
of the different components, as accurately as possible. In many 
instances the food was so finely divided that only its most general 
nature could be ascertained, and hence a stomach was often 
tabled as containing only one insect of a certain order when it 
doubtless contained the parts of many more, which were indistin- 
guishable. Prof. E. H. Forbush states that Chickadees frequently 
pick out only the internal organs of larviE, and as these are easily 
digested and not individually recognizable, such work would es- 
cape observation. The seeds were kindly determined, as far as 
their mutilated condition would permit, by Prof. C. F. Wheeler and 
Prof. W. B. Barrows, while many of the eggs were identified by 
Prof. Th. Pergande of the Division of Entomology, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, to all of whom I wish to express my indebt- 
edness. Very little of the insect food could be named further 
than given, with any degree of accuracy, and often it was impos- 
sible to determine anything below the order. 

The specimens were all collected within a radius of five miles 
from the college. Record w^as kept of the sex, but no difference 
in the feeding habits was noticed, although most of the Nut- 
hatches were secured in pairs. Notes upon the weather were also 
kept, but specimens were secured under all conditions, — both 
during a bright February thaw and a March snow-storm, and 
except as caused by the ground being covered with snow, no 
difference could be seen, save as noted between different periods. 
Neither did the time of day seem to cause any variation. 

WHITE-BELLIED NUTHATCH. {Sitta cafoHfiensis Lath.). 

Thirty-four stomachs were secured, of which 23 were collected 
during the winter season (Jan. 14 to Feb. 24), snow covering the 
ground much of the time ; while the last eleven were secured 
during the spring (April 10-17), before the foliage was out. The 
contents were tabulated and two totals made, showing the differ, 
ence in seasons. I had wished to secure specimens during the 



146 Sanderson, -Food of IVuiiaJc/ies and Chickadees. I April 

early summer for further comparison along this line, but as the 
birds were becoming very scarce near the college and little time 
was available for the work, I was unable to do so. Such a series 
would doubtless give some interesting data. 

Vegetable Food. 

Misled by the name, it has always been stated that Nuthatches 
feed on the kernels of nuts which they break open. I was fortu- 
nate enough to secure one specimen while 'hatching' an acorn, 
which was done at the apex, and secured the fruit. It had been 
cracked in two, and was quite wormy. Careful analysis of the 
vegetable matter found in the stomachs — even by microscopical 
sections — failed to reveal a trace of any acorn meat (but showed 
that supposedly acorn to be Indian corn), and furthermore it 
would seem that if that was desired, a sound specimen would have 
been selected by the bird. In view of these considerations, I am 
led to believe that the nuts — such as acorns and beechnuts — 
are sought merely for the insects which they contain. 

During the winter the larger portion of the food was composed 
of seeds, which gradually decreased as insect life became more 
abundant. Those determined were : Zea mays in twelve stom- 
achs, A?}ibrosia artemesiafolia in eight, and two Helianthus sp ? 
Numerous other seeds were so badly broken as to be undetermin- 
able. All were digested, and none, whether of noxious or 
beneficial plants, were consumed in quantities of any economic 
importance. 

Insect Food. 

A remarkable increase in the per cent of insect food is seen in 
the second series over the first, it forming 79.5 per cent in the 
spring, while only 25.7 during the winter. Seeds, on the other 
hand, were just the reverse, forming 67.4 during the winter and 
only 13.5 in the spring. The proportion of gravel remained com- 
paratively constant at 6.2 and 7, as did also the amount of food at 
an average of .8 c.c. and .84 c.c. for the respective periods. In the 
latter series all the insects were adult, while in the former almost 
one-third were eggs or larvee. 



^°8g^^l '^^'SiiE.Ksos, Food of A''it///(i/c//cs (///ci Chii ktidces. \A'l 

Hemiptera, largely Piesnia dneria, were the most important in- 
sects in the first series ; with Goleoptera next. These two orders 
made up the bulk of insect food during this period with the ex- 
ception of a single stomach which contained some 25 Myrmicida,-. 
During the second period, Hymenoptera were found in considera- 
ble numbers, all being beneficial, and with about equal parts of 
Perlidai and Goleoptera constituted the greater part of the insect 
food. 

In the latter period there seemed to be a tendency to take 
larger insects, as evidenced by several good sized moths, which 
of course would lessen the number of individuals. Though the 
number of the insect forms eaten by the Nuthatches is compara- 
tively small to that of those eaten by the Chickadees, yet it is no 
doubt due to the fact that their insect food is much more rapidly 
digested by the aid of the gravel, than in the Chickadees, which 
have none. 

The following list gives in detail the insect matter found in the 
individual stomachs : Numbers i, 7 and 8 were collected on Jan. 
19 ; 9, 10, II and 14 on Feb. 2 ; 20 on Feb. 10 ; 21, 22, 23, 24, 
25 and 26, on Feb. 16; 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 on Feb. 
20; 43 on Feb. 22 ; 41 on Feb. 24. (It will be noticed that the 
numbers are not consecutive.) 44 to 52 inclusive on April 10; 
56 and 57 on Apr. 17. Only those partially or completely iden- 
tified are listed, while the totals include the whole contents. 

List of Insects Fou7id in jy Stomachs of the White-bellied Nuthatch. 

Hymenoptei-a : Evaniidpe, i in No. 45 ; Braconidse, 6 in Nos. 46, 
47, and ^S; Tenthredinida;, i in No. 47; Formicidce — Myrmica sp.' — 
25 in No. 22. Winter, 27 adults; spring, 14 adults. Total Hjmenoptera 
— 51 adults in 7 stomachs. 

Lepidoptera : Tineidte — Bucculatrix ?,^1 — i pupa in No. 22. Winter, 

1 pupa; spring, 4 adults . Total Lepidoptera — adults, 4; pupre : i, in 5 
stomachs. 

Diptera : Muscidje, 2 in No. 7; Syrphida^, i in No. 49. Winter, 

2 adults ; spring, 4 adults. Total Diptera, 6 adults in 4 stomachs. 
Goleoptera: Carabida?, 3 in Nos. 56 and 42 — Harpalus sp.' — 4 in 

Nos. 7 and S; — Pterostichns sp.^ — 2 in No. 32; Elateridte, i larva in 
No. 7; Buprestidre, i adult in No. 41; Scarabidoe, i adult in No. 48. 
Winter, 17 adults, 22 larvK ; spring, 12 adults. Total Goleoptera — 
adults, 29; larvce, 22; in 25 stomachs. 



148 SAND^RSOi^, Food o/ N'/ii/iaic/ies afid Chickadees. I April 

Neuroptera: Perlidas, 23 in Nos. 32, 31, 43, 51 and 52; Libellulidse, 
I in No. 45. Winter, 9 adults; spring, 17 adults. Total Neuroptera 
— 26 in 7 stomachs. 

Hemiptera : Tingitidze. Piesma cineria. — 37 adults in 8 stomachs; 
Reduviidse, 22 eggs in Nos. 11 and 24; Coreidie, 2 adults in No. 10; 
Jassidffi, 7 adults in Nos. ij- and 45. Winter — 46 adults, 21 eggs; 
spring, 5 adults. Total Hemiptera • — adults, 51 ; eggs, 21 ; in 13 stomachs. 

Orthoptera : 4 in Nos. 8 and 10 (winter), Nos. 45 and 48 (spring.) 

Total Insect Forms — Winter, loi adults, i pupa, 22 larvse, 21 eggs; 
spring, 60 adults. Adults, 161; pupae, i; larvse, 22; eggs, 21; =215. 
Ai-achnida, 7. Winter, 4 ; spring, 3. 



A glance at the list will show that almost no well known injuri- 
ous insects were found, the most common noxious form being 
Piesma cineria., which never does any considerable injury. As 
mentioned, one stomach contained a Myrmica sp ? which possibly 
may be considered noxious. On the other hand, a large number 
of beneficial forms, such as Braconids, Reduviids and Carabids 
were found, and many that may be considered neutral as Perlidae — 
and even those might be considered as valuable in the larval stage 
for fish food. 

Thus it is seen that the insect food is taken more or less indis- 
criminately and that the beneficial forms fully equal those more 
or less injurious, while there were none found feeding upon any 
insect pest. 

Habits. 

The birds are invariably found in pairs ; in only one instance 
did I find half a dozen together on a river bank, which doubtless 
were several pairs. The timber in this neighborhood consists of 
small lots of a few acres and each of these will ordinarily be 
occupied by only one pair of Nuthatches. They invariably feed 
upon rough barked trees ; half of my specimens being taken on 
elms, with almost equal parts of the majority of the remainder on 
ash and oak. Three specimens were secured in an old apple 
orchard quite distant from any dwellings, and no others were 
found around fruit trees, possibly on account of the aforesaid 
preference for rough barked trees. 



^°8^^1 Sa'!<!VERSO>!, F'ood 0/ JVui/iaic/ies fif/f/ Chickadees. 149 



Abundance. 

The aliundance of the individuals or aggregate niiniljcr per 
square mile is very difficult to determine. I generally secured 
about three for every two miles travelled. As I generally covered 
a radius of a quarter-mile each way from the straight line over the 
country travelled, I should think about five per square mile would 
be a fair average for this portion of the State. This would also, 
without doubt, be a fair sample of the greater part of the State, 
as there is only a moderate amount of bird life in this section. 
At Ithaca, N. Y., Mr. F. H. King found one for every two miles 
travelled. 

It is to be regretted that I have been unable to secure any 
specimens from any infested orchard, so as to ascertain whether 
or not they will eat the most abundant food offered them. 

Partial Dofnesticaiion. 

They have become very tame upon the campus and frequent 
the doors of the boarding-clubs; where they feed upon the refuse 
scraps. A pair of these have frequently been seen upon a porch- 
roof below my window, where they were feeding on the meat left 
in walnut shells, fruit, parings, and other refuse dropped there, 
and they would often come up and perch on the window sill. 
This would go to show that where protected, they would become 
permanent residents, quite soon, as they are not naturally of a 
timid disposition. Many authorities consider them highly bene- 
ficial, in fact class them with the Chickadees, but with the excep- 
tion of their being found eating Mytalaspis pomorii7ji by Professor 
Forbush in Massachusetts, there seem to be no satisfactory notes 
or data upon which to base this assumption. 

Value. 

Though, in view of these facts, I should desire to experiment 
somewhat with them in an infested orchard, before declaring them 
to be merely neutral, yet from all the data secured there would 



150 SA-ST>-E.n.&oti, Food of Niitkaiclies and C/iickadees. pA^ril 

seem to be but little doubt that the Nuthatch, both from its food 
and habits, is either absolutely neutral or of comparatively small 
economic importance. 

Black-capped Chickadee. {Farus atricapillus Linn.) . 

Twenty-eight stomachs were secured ; the first nineteen during 
the winter, and the last nine in the spring, being the same periods 
in which the Nuthatches were collected. The contents were tab- 
ulated as for the Nuthatches. 

Vegetable Food. 

During the winter 39.3 per cent of the food was vegetable, though 
one-third of the stomachs contained no seeds whatever, while in 
the spring the food was wholly insect. The seeds identified were 
one Avena sativa^ and one Ambrosia arte7nesiafolia., being practi- 
cally the same as those upon which the Nuthatch fed. 

Difference in Food as Affected by Season. 

The same increase of insect food in the spring over that in the 
winter is seen as for the Nuthatch. During the winter 70.7 per cent 
of the food was animal, while in the spring no vegetable matter 
whatever was eaten. No trace of gravel was found in any of the 
stomachs. This is doubtless due to the small amount of vegeta- 
ble food eaten, removing the necessity of a large amount of grind- 
ing to bring the food into a digestible condition. The total 
amount of food also remained nearly constant, being .48 c.c. in 
the winter and .53 c.c. in the spring. Even more markedly than 
in the Nuthatches, it is seen that in the spring far more adults, in 
comparison with the number of eggs and larvae, were eaten than 
in winter. Whereas in the winter about ^-3 of the insect forms 
were adult, -^^ larvae, and -^^ eggs ; in the spring, f were adult, J^ 
larvae, and \ eggs. While the total bulk of the food in the spring 
■was yL larger than that of the winter, yet there were over sixty 
times more forms eaten in the winter than in the spring, which 
was largely due to the enormous number of Reduviid eggs then 



Vol. XV 



I Sandicrson, Foo(/ of jVii/Z/ii/r/ics (Did C/iicA-tu/ces. I '^ I 



consumed. The fact that the spring hirvie liad not yet emerged 
to any extent and that the adults were becoming active must also 
be carefully considered. 

Character of Food. 

Hemiptera, eggs and adults, formed by far the greater part of 
the food of the first period, with Coleoptera and Lepidoptera next, 
or possibly from an economic standpoint of equal importance. 
During the second period, the greater part of the food was adult 
beetles, with a large portion of adult Lepidoptera. In two 
stomachs, parasitic worms of considerable size were found. One 
was of a small, white and cylindrical form, while the other was 
white, but more flattened, with longer segments, and a true tape- 
worm. 

Several well known insect pests were found in considerable 
numbers. Among them, four — Bucciilatrix sp .'' — pupa in two 
stomachs; 62 Noctuid larva in five; 105 Coleopterous boring 
larvae in two; 15 Aphis mali eggs in 28; and 77 Mytilaspis 
pomorum scales in four stomachs. (Each of the latter doubtless 
covered fifty to seventy-five eggs.) The only beneficial forms 
found were nine adult Carabidai in four stomachs and possibly 
the 450 Reduviid eggs secured from twelve stomachs may also 
be so considered, but the amount of their value is very uncertain. 
Thus it is seen, that injury done by eating beneficial insects is 
very small and of doubtful amount, while almost the entire food 
is composed of more or less noxious forms. The injurious forms 
were also eaten in large numbers, showing that the bird would be 
of considerable value toward their removal when placed among a 
large number of them, and undoubtedly would be especially- 
useful in destroying a pest during the winter season. In fact, 
Prof. Forbush has shown by actual experiment (Mass. Crop 
Report, July, 1895, Ser. '95, Bulletin No. 3. Noticed in Auk 
Vol. XII, p. 383, 1895) that when these birds are present in the 
winter the destruction of the eggs at that time rendered it possible 
for the summer birds to destroy all the larvae during a severe 
attack of the canker-worm, and the orchard thus produced a good 
yield, whereas elsewhere the trees were largely defoliated. The 



IC2 Sanderson, I^ood of N'lei/iaU/ies and Chickadees. lApril 

following list gives the contents in detail : Numbers 2 and 3 were 
secured on Jan. 19 ; 4, 5 and 6 on Jan. 20 ; 12, 13, 15, 16, 17 and 
18 on Feb. 21 ; 27 and 28 on Feb. 16 ; 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40 on 
Feb. 24; 42, Feb. 25 ; 53, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63 on 
Apr. 17. 

List of Insects Found in 28 Stomac/is of the Black-capped Chickadee. 

Lepidoptera : Tineidse — Bucculatrix sp .-' — 4 pupie in Nos. 28 and 
40; Ennomidse — Etmomos magnarius, — 27 eggs in Nos. 27 and 39; 
Noctuidse — i Catocala (.?) — egg in No. 27, 62 larvse in Nos. 2, i6, 
27, 28 and 38. Winter, 6 pupae, 66 larvae, and 26 eggs; spring, 6 adults 
and I larva. Total Lepidoptera: adults, 6; pupae, 6; larvae, 67; eggs, 
26 ; in 9 stomachs. 

Diptera : Adults, i ; larvae, 7 ; in 4 stomachs. All in winter. 
Coleoptera : Carabidae. — 9 adults in Nos. 6, 15, 40, and 43; Scara- 
ibidae, 3 adults in Nos. 53 and 60; Cerambicidae, 2 pupae in No. 39; 
iboring larvee, 105 in Nos. 27 and 28. Winter, 29 adults, 2 pupte, and 
J 18 larvae; spring, 18 adults. Total Coleoptera — adults, 7; pupae, 2; 
larvte, 118; in 16 stomachs. 

Orthoptera : 3 eggs in No. 12. (Winter.) 
• Hemiptera : Tingitidee — Piesma cineria — 3 adults in Nos. 27 and 
42 ; Reduviidae, 450 eggs of two species in 12 stomachs ; Pentatomidae — 
Stiretrus anchorago — 7 eggs in No. 5 ; Aphidae — Afhis malt — 15 eggs 
in No. 28; Coccidae — Mytilasfis fomorum scales, 77 in Nos. 15, 18, 
27, and 39. Winter, 108 adults and 461 eggs; spring, 5 adults. Total 
Hemiptera — adults, 93; eggs, 466; in 15 stomachs. 

Total winter, 125 adults, 8 pupae, 193 larvae, and 504 eggs; spring, 24 
adults, I larva, 5 eggs ; in 15 stomachs. Total Insect Forms — adults, 
149; pupae, 8; larvse, 194; eggs, 494 =845. Arachnida, 25. 

Habits. 

The Chickadee's habits of life also commend them as being 
beneficial. They are usually found in small flocks of from six to 
a dozen, of which the larger number are females. These often 
mix with those of Goldfinches and Tree Sparrows, or are found in 
company with a pair of Nuthatches, during the winter, but become 
more independent as spring advances and there is an abundance 
of bird life all about them. Over half of my specimens were 
secured in bushes on low, damp, marshy ground, or along a creek 
or roadside. They often descend to the ground in marsh land 



^"iSc^^l ^.\t^'i^VLKSOti, Food of Niit/tatc/tcs atid CliicK-adccs. ^53 

and scratch among the dead rushes for any insects there. 1 am 
incHned to think that most of the Reduviid eggs were secured 
on such marshy ground. Tamarack was a favorite resort with 
many. About one-fourth were taken from oak trees, but on these 
they searched for insects upon the tips of the smooth branches, 
rather than on the rough trunk as do the Nuthatches. Two were 
secured in an apple orchard, while five others were seen coming 
from one. Many times they were seen in orchards near dwell- 
ings, where I was unable to secure them by use of the gun. 
When feeding on heavy timber, they frequent only the edges, 
where the injurious insects are invariably the most plentiful. 

Abundance. 

Owing to the fact that they go in flocks and are therefore not 
so evenly distributed as the Nuthatches, it is more difficult to 
determine their abundance. Although, on the average, about 
two were secured for every mile travelled, yet as they go in small 
flocks several were generally secured in an immediate vicinity. 
A flock of seven Chickadees is doubtless a fair average for each 
square mile, and in some parts of the State, especially the south- 
eastern, I am sure that they are much more abundant in orchards 
than here. . 

Ability to Check Insect Pests. 

If fifty-five insects were consumed per day by each bird, as 
will be shown to be the case, 385 would be consumed per day, 
and about 137,500 per year in each square mile. Thus upon the 
land surface of Michigan there wdll annually be about 8,000,000,000 
insects destroyed by the Chickadees alone. Surely no mean 
number. 

During the summer after the young have been reared, the 
number of individuals should be for some time at least tripled, 
giving us 20 to 25 per square mile. The census of 1890 shows 
that there are about 8,500,000 apple trees planted in Michigan, 
and of the fruit trees, apple orchards are the Chickadee's favorite 
haunt. This would give an average of about 150 trees per square 



11^4 Sandersotss, Food of JVui/iaic/ies and Chickadees. |_ April 

mile — enough for four ordinary sized orchards — or the average 
conditions existing in the better part of the State. As the worst 
period of insect attack is during and after the breeding season, 
this would allow six birds to each orchard. 

Nineteen Chickadees contained a total of 830 insect forms, a 
large majority of which were noxious, and the remainder of a 
doubtful character as regards their value. Thus the Chickadees 
which it would be possible to secure in a fair sized orchard, a 
half-dozen, would consume at least 275 forms a day, but probably 
350 would be a much fairer estimate, as the larvae are quite 
rapidly digested and many were so finely divided as to render 
numerous individuals wholly indistinguishable. Now if these birds 
could be persuaded to nest here and rear their young, which 
would probably average five in number, 1200 insects would be 
required per day to feed the young and old birds. Professor 
Forbush states that 5000 canker-worms will strip a large apple 
tree. Thus the number of insects eaten would be sufficient to 
prevent the defoliation of a large tree every four days, and young 
trees in proportion, with no expense whatever to the farmer for 
labor or insecticides. Of course these compilations are largely of 
a speculative character, as unfortunately we have but few experi- 
ments and little- accurate data, but they cannot but be highly 
suggestive. 

Value of Winter Reside?ice. 

But this fails to take into account the large number of eggs 
eaten in the winter, from which the larvae, when hatched, might 
be impossible to destroy — as shown by the observations of Prof. 
Forbush cited above. Again, the destruction of adult insects and 
larvae during the winter is far more valuable than later, because 
they are mostly the ones which lay the eggs in the spring and 
thus keep up the life cycle. There are but few other birds 
present here in winter to perform this work, and these two birds 
also secure their food from places where no other birds present 
at that time of year would search for it. In this they form a 
well balanced couple, the Nuthatch securing his food from the 
rough bark of the main trunk while the Chickadee pecks away at 



Vol. xv"! ,,. 

1S98 J JNklson, iV(y/'<?.? on Mexica7i Birds. irr 

the small buds and joints, loose bark, etc., of the smaller, smooth 
limbs. In addition, it can be said in favor of both these birds 
that they are inclined to remain in one vicinity and do not 
wander far from it, but steadily and thoroughly work over one 
feeding ground. 

FossibilUy and Desirableness of Partial Domestication. 

Both these birds are very easily approached, and may readily be 
lured to orchards or shade trees, — they are quite common upon 
the shade trees of Lansing and, as stated before, are very tame 
on the campus. 

It is, then, self-evident, that by every means they should be 
encouraged, by placing food for them till they become at home, 
by erecting suitable nesting sites, and by careful protection, to 
feed and nest in the orchards. It might be interesting to try the 
experiment of destroying as many old Woodpecker holes as pos- 
sible and by placing suitable nesting sites in the orchard to thus 
entice them. Yet, in general, the old holes in which they nest 
should not be all cut out when securing fire wood, but a sufficient 
number be allowed to remain. If the farmer will take a very 
little time now and then in thus attracting these feathered insect- 
destroyers to his orchard, he will soon find very little if any need 
for insecticides except for extraordinary attacks. "An ounce 
of prevention is worth a pound of cure " is truly more applica- 
ble to the destruction of insect life than to almost any other phe- 
nomena. 



NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OF MEXICAN BIRDS. 



BY E. W. NELSON. 



The work done on Mexican birds for the Biological Survey of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture has added to the previously 
known range of many species and furnishes material for elucida- 
ting the relationships of others. 



iq5 Nelson, iVi9zfe5 on Mexican Birds. 1_ April 

In order to render some of this information available to those 
interested I have prepared the following notes. In connection 
with the extension of the range of various species previously 
unknown north of Guatemala it may be stated that the- highlands 
of Chiapas are a continuation of the elevated interior of the 
former country. The climate and vegetation of the two districts 
are essentially the same, and they are so much alike in general 
character that an equally close similarity is to be expected in the 
bird life. 

Oreophasis derbianus Gray. — We found this magnificent bii-d in the 
heavy forest on the west base of the Volcano of Santa Maria, near Que- 
zaltenango, Guatemala, and again in the similar forests below Pinabete, 
Chiapas. Previously it has been recorded, I believe, only from the 
Volcano de Fuego, Guatemala. 

Penelopina nigra {Fras.). — This beautiful species was not uncom- 
mon in the dense forest at Tumbala, Chiapas. Like the preceding 
species it was known previously only from Guatemala. 

Pharomacrus mocinno De La Llave. — A pair of Qj.ietzals was seen 
near Tumbala, in eastern Chiapas, Avhere they were reported to be 
resident in small numbers. I heard of them again in the mountain 
forests east of Tuxtla, Chiapas. 

Sittasomus sylvioides Lafr. — A single specimen was taken on 
March 17, 1897, at San Sebastian in western Jalisco, where it was very 
uncommon. This is its first record for northwestern Mexico. 

Pachyrhamphus major {Cab.). — A single specimen was obtained by 
us at Plomosas, Sinaloa, July 14, 1897, and adds the species to the fauna 
of this part of Mexico. 

Pyrgisoma rubricatum xantusi {Larvr.). — Pyrgisoma xantiisi was 
described by Mr. Lawrence (Ann. Lye. N. Y., VIII, 480, 1866) from a 
specimen taken by Xantus in the mountains of Colima. The type is in 
the National Museum and agrees with a large series of specimens from 
various localities between Colima and Mazatlan in western Mexico. 
These birds are distinguished from those found in southern Puebla, 
supposed to be typical, by their decidedly larger size and much browner 
colors. The difference is sutficient to distinguish them from the typical 
form as a well marked geographical race. I have specimens of P. r. 
xatttusi before me from the States of Colima, Jalisco, Sinaloa and the 
Territory of Tepic. 

The general resemblance is so close between the figure of Pyrgisotna 
kieneri Bp., in the 'Exotic Ornithology' (p. 130, pi. 65), and some of 
the larger specimens of Pyrgisonta rubricatum xantusi that it leads me 
to have a strong suspicion of their identity. Pyrgisoma kietieri vf&s pub- 
lished in a signature of the ' Conspectus Avium ' (I, p. 486), dated July 20, 



^"kis^'l Nelson, 7\We5 on Mcxinut Birds. jcy 

1850, and thus has priority over Atlapeics ritbricntus Cabanis, published 
in a signature of the 'Museum Ileineanuiii ' (I, \i. 140) dated May, 1851. 
Should mv surmise regarding; the itientitv of these birds prove to be 
well founded then P. riibricaium becomes a geographical race of P. 
kieneri <\.x\di P. rubricatiim xantusi is a pure sjnonjm of P. kietteri. In 
his description of the latter bird Bonaparte gives its habitat as western 
America. 

Pipilo maculatus Srv. — In our collection from Mt. Orizaba, Puebla, 
and the surrounding region are numerous specimens representing both 
sexes of Pipilo maculatus Sw. The females in this series are typical 
representatives of Pipilo orizabce Cox (Auk, 1894, p. 161), \vhich was 
described from a summer bird in worn plumage erroneously labeled 
male. The evidence furnished by a careful comparison of the type with 
our series is conclusive that P. orizabce is based upon a wrongly sexed 
specimen of P. tnaculatus and it becomes, in consequence, a synonym of 
the last named species. 

Arremonops rufivirgata sumichrasti (^Sharpe). — Einbernagra sumi- 
chrasti Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., XII, p. 762 (in text), 1SS8. 

Specimens before me from the west coast of Mexico show that 
Sharpe's bird is a well marked geographical race of Arremonops rufivir- 
gata. It ranges from the border of Chiapas north along the west coast 
of Mexico to the State of Colima. 

Arremonops chloronota Salvin. — We obtained this species at Yajalon 
in eastern Chiapas, thus adding it to the fauna of Mexico. 

Chlorospingus postocularis Cab. — The type of this species came 
from Guatemala, and I find that my C. atriceps (Auk, Jan. 1S97, p. 65), 
from Pinabete, Chiapas, is too closely related to it to be separated. The 
latter becomes in consequence a synonym of C. postocularis, the range 
of which extends through the mountains of southwestern Guatemala and 
Chiapas. 

Chlorospingus olivaceus (j5^).-- Not uncommon in the dense forest 
at Tumbala, Chiapas. 

Piranga bidentata Szvainson, and Piranga sanguinolenta Lafresnaye. 
— Recent writers agree in considering Lafresnaye's Piranga sanguino- 
lenta a synonym of Swainson's Piranga bidefitata. But the collections 
of birds made in Mexico for the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, contain material which, studied in connection with the specimens 
in the U. S. National Museum, appears to prove the specific distinct- 
ness of these birds. The misapprehension of their true relationship 
appears to have arisen from the rarity of P. bidentata in collections, 
whereas specimens of P. sanguinolenta have been common. The two 
species once confounded, the error has been perpetuated through lack 
of material for their proper discrimination. 

Piranga bidentata was described by Swainson in the 'Philosophical 
Magazine' for 1827 (p. 428) from a specimen taken b}- Bullock at Teinas- 
caltepec, Mexico. It was said to be "golden on head, neck and under- 



158 



Nelson, Notes on Mexican Birds. a "ii 



L April 



parts," and this description applies to the Tanagers inhabiting the arid 
tropical mountain slopes of southwestern Mexico only including the 
Tres Marias Islands. Temascaltepec is situated southwest of the City of 
Mexico, on the Pacific slope of the main Cordillera. 

Piranga satigiiinolenta was described by Lafresnaye in the ' Revue 
Zoologique' for 1839 (p- 97) as coming from 'Mexico.' It was said to 
have the head and neck blood red with the lower surface of body cinni- 
bar red. Tanagers with this style of coloration inhabit the humid tropi- 
cal region of Vera Cruz and range thence south through tropical Guate- 
mala and other parts of Central America to Chiriqui. During my field 
work in Mexico I have found each of these birds restricted to a definite 
faunal region, and apparently without intergrading, although further 
work may prove them to be geographical races of the same species. 

The most striking difference between the males is the distinctly orange 
shade of bidentata contrasted with the rosy-scarlet or red shade of sati- 
guinolenia. The two may be distinguished by the following descriptions : 

Piranga bidentata. — Adult male : Head, neck and lower partj, includ- 
ing under tail-coverts, rich cadmium orange, with a richer or more red- 
dish shade on crown, throat and breast; flanks duller or more brownish; 
feathers of back blackish brown edged with dark orange, and some- 
times greenish yellow; rump ochraceous brown; wings and tail blackish 
brown ; greater and lesser wing-coverts tipped with white spots, forming 
two well defined white wing-bands; outer pair of tail-feathers tipped with 
white for about one-third of length, mainly along inner web. Three 
adult males from Jalisco and Sinaloa average as follows : Wing, 98 ; tail, 
79.3; culmen, 17.3; tarsus, 21. i.' 

Adult female: The cadmium orange area of male is replaced by green- 
ish yellow with a faint orange wash on breast. Back, wings and tail 
grayish brown; rump brown, washed with dark greenish yellow ; outer 
tail-feathers with white tips much smaller than on males, occupying only 
about the terminal fifth of inner web. 

Piranga sanguinolenta. — Adult male: Head, neck and lower part 
orange vermilion, becoming intense, flaming rosy scarlet on many spec- 
imens ; back and rump brownish, heavily shaded with the general red 
color; wings and tail blackish brown; two conspicuous white wing-bands 
formed by white tips to greater and lesser wing-coverts ; outer web of 
tertials white-spotted at tips; outer pair of tail-feathers tipped with white 
spots about as \n P. bidentata Jlamniea. Four adult males average as 
follows: Wing, 97.2; tail, 79.7; culmen, 16.2; tarsus, 21.4. 

Comparing the measurements of the two species it will be noted that 
sanguinole7ita has a smaller bill and proportionately longer tarsus. The 
females of the two species are more nearly alike than the males, but those 
of sanguinolenta may be distinguished by their more intense coloration 
and the small amount of white on. the outer tail-feathers. 

'All measurements are in millimeters. 



^°i8 8^^! Nklson, A'^y/t'.? on Mexican Birds. I Co 

The synonomv of Piranga hidciilatu should sl;nul ;is follows : 

Pyraiiga bidcntata Svv. Phil. M.ng. 1827, p. ^28; Sci.. I'. Z. S. 1856, p. 
126 (part) ; 1857, p. 205 (part) ; 1859, p. 364 (part); Ibid. Sjn. Av. Tan. p. 
50 (part) ; Ibid. Cat. Am. Bds. p. 82 (part) ; Sci.. and Salvin, Nomencl. p. 
82 (part) ; FiNscii, Abh. Nat. Ver. z. Bremen, II, p. 3S8 (X. W. Mexico) ; 
RiDGw. Man. N. Am. Bds. 1887, p. 456 (part). 

The sjnonomj of Piraiiga sangiiinoleiiia is as follows: 

Pyranga sanguinolenta Lafr. Rev. Zoo). 1839, p. 97; Bp. Consp. I, p. 
241 (1850). 

Pyranga bidentata ScL. P. Z. S. 1S56, p. 126 (part — Jalapa) ; 1857, p. 
205 ; 1859, P- 364; Hid. Syn. Av. Tan. p. 50 (part) ; Ibid. Cat. Am. Bds. p. 
82, (part) ; ScL. and Salvin, Ibis, i860, p. 32 (Guatemala) ; Ibid. Nomencl, 
p. 82 (part); Cassin, Proc. Ac. Sci. Phil. 1865, p. 171 (Costa Rica); 
Salvin, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 187 (Chiriqui) ; Lawr. Ann. Lye N. Y. IX, p. 99 
(Costa Rica) ; Sumichr. Mem. Boston Soc. N. H., I, p. 549 (Vera Cruz) ; 
Frantzius, Journ. f. Orn. 1869, p. 299 (Costa Rica); Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Cent. -Am. Aves, I, p. 296 (part — all east Mexican and Cen- 
tral American references) ; Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, p. 456 1S87. 
(part); Chapm. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. X, p. 27 (Feb. 1898.) 

Ph [cenicosomal bidentata Cabanis, Mus. Hein. I, p. 24. (1850.?) 

Compsothlypis inornatus (Bd.). — Common in the high forests of east- 
ern Chiapas, near Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

Dendroica decora (Ridgw.). — -Specimens were taken by us near To- 
nala, Chiapas, and at Santo Domingo, Oaxaca, on the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec. 

Setophaga miniata flammea [Katcf). — Common in the highland for- 
ests of Chiapas. 

Setophaga picta guatemalae Sharfe. — Not uncommon in pine forests 
of interior Chiapas. 

Ergaticus versicolor Salv. — Common on the highlands of central 
Chiapas. 

Basileuterus culicivorus (Z/c/^^.). — Not uncommon in the mountains 
of western Jalisco ^vhere we took specimens near San Sebastian. We 
found it also at Pluma in Avestern Oaxaca. 

Basileuterus belli (G/V-.). — Common in the mountains of western Mex- 
ico. We took specimens near Chilpancingo, Guerrero, and at San Sebas- 
tian, Jalisco These records add the two last named species to the fauna 
of western Mexico. 

Mimus _gracilis lawrencei (^Ridgiv.'). — We found Minitis gracilis rang- 
ing over all the open parts of the interior of Chiapas and thence down to 
the Pacific coast, where in the region about the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, 
it merges into Miinus lmvre?icei. J\f. gracilis also ranges along the east 



l6o 'Nklson, JVoiles ou Mexican Birds. \ hv^\ 

coast of Mexico from Yucatan to the Isthmus. Specimens from the 
vicinity of Coatzacoalcos, Vera Cruz, are intermediate between gracilis 
and lawrencei. From the foregoing it becomes evident that M. lawrencei 
is merely a geographical race of M. gracilis. 

Heleodytes gularis (Scl.). — The collection made by us during 1897 
contains several specimens of this bird from the mountains of southern 
Sinaloa and the western slope of the Nayarit Mts. in the Territory of 
Tepic. The surmise of the authors of ' Biologia,' based on the make up 
of the skin, that the type came from Floresi probably gives the true 
source of this specimen. Floresi lived for years at Bolafios, Jalisco, on 
the eastern side of the Nayarit range, whence he obtained various species 
of birds, and Bolanos is, no doubt, the type locality of the present species. 

On comparing the type of ray Heleodytes occidentalis with the specimens 
taken in Sinaloa and Tepic I find that it is the same bird and must stand 
as a synonym of //. gularis. As the type of H. occidentalis came from 
the Sierra Nevada de Colima, Jalisco, and Salvin and Godman have 
recorded the capture of H. gularis in the mountains of Sonoi-a it gives 
this species a wide range in northwestern Mexico. 

Catherpes mexicanus albifrons (Gz>.). Certhia albifrons Giraud, 
Sixteen Sp. Tex. Bds. t. 18, 1841. 

The Canon Wrens of the lower Rio Grande Valley and northeastern 
Mexico are readily separable from typical C. mexicanus which occupies 
the Mexican tableland. As Giraud's Certhia albifrons was presumably 
from the southern part of Texas his name becomes applicable to distin- 
guish the bird of this region subspecifically from typical tnexica7ius. C. 
mexicanus albifro?is is found along the lower Rio Grande, in Texas, and 
in the States of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Thence south- 
ward over the tableland, to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, typical mexi- 
carius is the resident form. 

Parus sclateri Kleins. (J. f. O. XLV, 133 (in text) 1S97). — The spe- 
cific term meridionalis being preoccupied for an Old World species, as 
noted bv Kleinschmidt (loc. cit.) the latter author proposes the name 
sclateri to replace it for the Mexican Chickadee. 

Regulus satrapa oblivaceus Bd. Regulus satrafa aztecus Ridg. (ex 
Lawr. Mss.) Man. Bds. N. Am. p. 613 (appendix) 1887. 

An examination of the material at hand proves that Mr. Lawrence's 
' R. s. aztecus^ was based on a winter specimen of R. s. olivaceus. 

Polioptila ccerulea mexicana (Bp.). Little Blue.Gray Gnatcatcher. 
Culicivora mexicana Bp. Consp. Av. I, p. 315 (1850). 

In 1850 Bonaparte named a Gnatcatcher from Mexico which he de- 
scribed as being similar to ccerulea but smaller. This name has been 
treated as a synonym of the latter species by all recent writers. Our work 
in the lowlands of Vera Cruz, during the spring of 1894, revealed the 
presence of a small resident race of P. ccerulea which is undoubtedly 
Bonaparte's bird and worthy of recognition with subspecific rank. 



^°i8 ^^1 Nelson, N^oles on Mexican Birds. l6l 

Distribii/io/i. — Coast lowlands of \'era Cru/, south to eastern Chiapas 
and perhaps Yucatan. 

Description. — Similar to P.cccruleu from wliicii it differs in generally 
smaller size, proportionately longer bill, and the tendency to obsoles- 
cence of black border to forehead in breeding male. An autumnal male 
from eastern Chiapas lacks the black on forhead and has a large white 
tip on 4th pair of rectrices. The breeding birds from Vera Cruz have 
the white conlined to the first 3 pairs of rectrices. 

Averag-e measurements oi P. ccerulea from the eastern United States : 

Ad. J (5 specimens): wing, 53.4; tail, 50.2 ; culmen, 10.7; tarsus, 17.5. 

Ad. ? (s specimens): wing, 51.6; tail, 51 ; culmen, 10.3; tarsus, 17.8. 

Averages of P. c. tnexicana from lowlands of Vera Cruz and Yajalon, 
Chiapas. 

Ad. $ (5 specimens): wing,49.S; tail, 47.2; culmen, 10.6; tarsus, 1C.6 

Ad. $ (2 specimens): wing, 47.5 ; tail, 45 ; culmen, 10.5; tarsus, 16.5. 

Catharus frantzii alticola (Salv. & Godm.) — The specimens before me 
appear to prove that Catharus alticola is entitled to rank as a geographi- 
cal race only and its relationship is expressed in the name given above. 
We took specimens of it on the Volcano of Santa Maria, Guatemala, and 
at Pinabete, Chiapas, thus adding it to the fauna of Mexico. 

Merula leucauchen Scl. — This bird occurs northward from Guate- 
mala at least to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. In this latter district we 
obtained specimens near Santo Domingo, Oaxaca. Although recent au- 
thors have treated M. Ieucauche7i as a synonym of M. tristis the bird 
is certainly distinct. It^may be only a subspecies of tristis but the speci- 
mens at hand appear to indicatents specific distinctness. 

Merula plebeius {Cab.). — We took specimens of this species at Pina- 
bete, Chiapas, where it was rather common. Until we obtained the pres- 
ent specimens it was unknown north of Costa Rica. The birds from 
Chiapas are not typical and may represent a geographical race of the 
Costa Rican biid. 

Sialia sialis guatemalae Ridgzv. — Common on the highlands of 
Chiapas. 



162 llowK, Breedh/o- Habits of the Robin. FApril 



BREEDING HABITS OF THE AMERICAN ROBIN 

{MERULA MIGRATORIA) IN EASTERN 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

by reginald heber howe, jr. 

Arrival and Dates of Nesting. 

The arrival of migrant male Robins in Eastern Massachusetts 
occurs early in March, the females about a week later and gener- 
ally by the fifteenth of the month they are to be seen in fair 
numbers in their old haunts. By the tenth of April nests are to 
be found under construction — these early builders as often, I 
think, choosing the bare crotch of a maple, as the more protected, 
both from weather and sight, branches of a spruce or pine. 
Throughout the rest of April and fully two thirds of May we may 
find nests under construction that are to hold the first brood. I 
am inclined to beUeve that the first arrivals are the early builders 
and that the birds that arrive in late March and early April are 
the birds we find nest constructing in early or mid May. 

Mating. 

For the same reason that I believe individual Crows and Blue 
Jays are resident in a locality, I believe that a pair of Robins 
that have nested in a certain tree or in a certain area are the 
identical birds that have done so for years. In other words, an 
ornithologist continually in the field in one bit of country year 
after year comes to know the general habits of certain common 
birds, their special ways and traits, and with a degree of cer- 
tainty can assert that they are the same birds he sees the year 
round or that come to his locality yearly. For instance, I know 
of a pair of Robins that nested in a friend's garden three years 
in succession. Food was placed outside the dining room window 
during their first spring, of which they partook regularly. Each 
successive year they returned to the garden to breed, and on 
arrival would come to be fed at the window as they had been 
accustomed to do. The young were also brought by their parents 



^°8q^^] IIowi., firre<fi/i<r /fahih of th,: Ro/,i„. I 63 

to be fed, but I have every reason to believe that it was the 
parent birds that returned each year and not a pair of which 
either the male or female were one of the young of the previous 
year. (See Auk, Vol. II, p. 304.) Thus I feel confident that a 
pair of Robins once mated remain so for a number of years until 
separated by injury or death. I can well imagine it to be within 
the range of possibility, that a pair of birds leaving their summer 
home could keep together, joining some flock made up of other 
pairs, and migrate and winter in company; in fact, I think for a 
pair to separate, whose love for each other is as strong as we 
know it to be, and to wander apart never to meet again, seems 
harder to believe than disbelieve. 

The arrival of the males before the females can be explained 
by the male birds of the winter flock .starting in advance of their 
less hardy mates (for winter records in the north of various 
species are almost always of male birds), to be followed by the 
females a week or so later when the weather is less severe ; and it 
is probable that the more pronounced Robin courtships we see 
going on about us in the spring are the birds who lost their mates 
during the previous winter, remating, and the young of the year 
being wooed for the first time. 

The Choosing of the Nest Site. 

In my careful observing of Robins at the breeding season 
I have only once seen a pair choose a nest site. I chanced to be 
looking at a female Robin one day (1897) sitting in a crotch of 
a wild cherry tree when she flew to the ground and began chasing 
about a male, evidently her mate. In a minute they both flew to 
the crotch that she had just left and stood peering about; the 
male flew to the ground again in a few seconds and the female 
also flew, returning in a minute with the first few twigs that were 
to form the foundation "of the nest. I believe the female chooses 
the site, as it is she who does the greater part of the building. 

The Nest Site. 

The Robin's nest is too common an object to every observer of 
bird life to waste space in describing its various situations. Suf- 



164 Howe, Breedmg Habits of the Robin. [April 

fice it to say, I have found the nest from two to fifty feet eleva- 
tion, and in ahnost every growth of tree common to this locality, 
as well as on buildings, and others in such places as old carriages, 
wood piles, etc. 

Construction of Nest. 

Having watched a number of nests during construction, I have 
been able to determine a fair average of the time required, and 
other interesting points. 

After the site has been chosen the building of a substantial 
foundation of twigs, grasses, string, etc., is begun; this finished, 
finer grasses are brought and the bird standing in the centre of 
the foundation draws them round. After the sides of the nest 
have been fairly well made the bird by turning around in the 
nest shapes it to the exact contour of its body, and by pushing 
its breast far down into the nest and raising the primaries, it 
presses the nest with the wrist of the wing into a compact and 
perfect mass. The next work is the plastering with mud ; a rainy 
day is generally chosen for this work ; the bird brings the mud 
in its bill and, placing it on the inside of the nest, flattens it into 
shape by exactly the methods just described. All that remains 
now is the lining, which is made of fine grasses and which 
adheres to the mud, making a substantial though not a particu- 
larly beautiful nest. 

The average measurements of nest are ; depth, outside, 3 
inches ; depth, inside, 2^ inches ; breadth, outside, 6J inches ; 
breadth, inside, 4 inches. 

The average period for construction is about six days— -the 
longest period, fifteen days and the shortest, three days. The 
weather and whether the female is pressed to drop her eggs 
seem to be the chief explanation of the variation- in time. Both 
sexes build, but the bulk of the work is done by the female. 
After a nest has been finished, there is often, in fact generally, 
a delay of from one to four days before laying. 

Laying and Incubation. 

As far as my observations go, one egg is laid each twenty-four 
hours until the complete set is finished which consists of from 



^°898^] IIowE, Breeding: JIahih of the Robin. I 65 

two to four eggs (very rarely five in this locality); and if the 
weather is cold the bird often at once begins to set, that is, with 
the laying of the first egg. Otherwise, if the weather is mild, 
setting does not commence until the complete clutch is laid. 
The eggs are generally laid, I believe, between the hours of 
eleven p. m. and four a. m., but this is at least not always so. 
The average period of incubation is thirteen days, but a variation 
of nearly twenty-four hours is not very uncommon. The female 
incubates almost unassisted : the male, however, I have observed 
in a number of cases, upon the female leaving the nest, takes her 
place, sometimes on the edge of the nest, while at other times he 
settles himself upon the nest, somewhat awkwardly, but in no 
case have I ever seen a male sit for more than three minutes in 
succession. The female does not leave the nest at noon to feed, 
when the heat of the sun is the strongest, as one would suppose, 
but leaves the nest generally about nine to ten a. m. and five to 
six p. ]\i. I have never observed the male feed the female while 
incubating. 

Care and Growth of the Young. 

The young may all be hatched inside of twenty-four hours or 
during a space of three days ; this is governed by whether the 
female begins to incubate at the completion of the clutch or, by 
reason of cold weather, at the laying of the first or second o.^'g. 
As soon as the young are hatched both birds commence to supply 
them with food, the male doing his full share. For the first few 
days the young apparently do not need much nourishment only 
warmth, for the female leaves the nest but rarely during this 
period. The eyes of the young open on the sixth day, and from 
the third day on, the rapidity of feather growth is astounding. 
The parents are now kept busy from morn till eve supiMying the 
wants of the young, the birds bringing food to the nest nearly 
twenty times per hour. 

The method of keeping the nest clean from the excrement of 
the young is interesting. Each time the female comes to the 
nest with food she stands, after delivering the morsel, until one 
of the young, having elevated its hinder parts, excretes on the 
edge of the nest, when she stoops forward and apparently S7val- 



i66 



Howe, Breeding Habits of the Robin. 



r Auk 
L April 



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N 




N 
O 


C4 


. 
N 



M 


Body entirely 
feathered. 




M 


^3 
O 


o 


N 
. O 


lO 


o 


LO 

10 


Marked increase in 
feather development. 


C^ 


O 


o 


^3 
O 

n't 


O 


N 
O 


10 

M 


Marked increase in 
feather development. 


00 


o 


00 


o 


q 


N 
O 


M 

11 


Fairly well feathered ex- 
cept on abdomen. 


j:^ 


o 


O 


o 


00 


O 


00 




vjO 


N 
O 

I'-' 


O 

1— 1 


o 


O 


N 

o 




1— 1 


Eyes open, pin feathers 
appearing on tracts. 


LO 


N 
O 


o 

ON 


o 


o 


o 



On 




-^ 


O 

ml-* 




o 




N 
O 

iv^-* 






fO 


n3 
o 




s5 

o 

°°5 




n5 
o 

H 




Down appearing. 


N 


N 

o 

< 


o 


N 
O 


o 


N 
O 




M 


Naked except for a few 
tufts of down. 


l-H 
















tn 
a! 
Q 


T3 
■n 

ex 

C 
O 

o 


oi 
■a 
u 

0) 

O^ 

c 

o 
.a 

% 
o 


D 

Cu 

bO 
C 

O 

>^ 

<+H 

o 

A 


-a 

0) 

a, 

bo 
o 

% 

o 
O 


>-( 

&, 

bo 

O 
"-t-t 

o 
■53 


ni 

(U 

bp 

'? 







T3 

N .S 
^ 

'^ ^ 

^ ■? 5 

■53 bo 






-I 




N 




ro 





Vol. XV 1 
1898 J 



IIoWE, Breed hi !X I/n/n'/s of the Uohiii. 



167 



lows^ the excrement. I have also ol).servccl that at times she 
would not swallow the excrement but carry it in her hill from the 
nest. During the last few days the young are in the nest they 
spend most of their time preening themselves. 

During the period the young are in the nest I have never 
observed the male to sit, but I know of a reported instance where 
a male was known to do so. The young rarely all leave the nest 
at once, under natural conditions, but the nest is empty generally 
about fourteen days after the young hatch ; they remain, however, 
for over a week in the immediate neighborhood of the nest, cared 
for by their parents. Young birds in this locality may be seen 
on wing as early as May 15. 

Second Broods. 

The second brood is never, as far as my observations go, raised 
from the same nest but from another constructed in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the former one. I have no evidence and do not 
believe that a third brood is ever raised, but not uncommonly, 
fresh eggs are to be found late in July and young birds late in 
August. 



Nest 
No. 



Aver- 
age. 



Period of 


No. 


Construc- 


of 


tion. 


Eggs. 


15 days. 
3 '■ 


deserted. 


3 '■ 
6 " 
8 " 


4 
3 


3 " 


4 






deserted. 


4 days. 


4 


6 days. 


3 



Period of 
Incubation. 



12 davs 20 hrs. 



13 days, 
blown down. 
13 days 5 hrs. 

13 days. 

13 days. 

taken. 



13 days. 



> .a 



15 days. 



16 days. 

1 1 days. 
15 " 



14 days. 



Entire 
Nesting 
Period. 



45 days. 



38 days. 

36 days. 

35 " 
approx. 
; 30 days. 



3? days. 



Species of 

Tree 
Nest in. 



Spruce. 
( Woodbine, 
( piazza. 

Spruce. 

Spruce. 

Cedar. 
Wild cherry. 

Spruce. 

Apple. 
Oak. 
Elm. 
Oak. 



Elevation 
of 

Nest. 



i feet. 



16 feet. 



^ The bird may eject the excrement after flying to some distance from the 
nest. 



1 68 Mackay, Tertis of Muskeget Island, Mass. LADnl 

THE TERNS OF MUSKEGET ISLAND, MASSACHU- 
SETTS. PART IV.i 

BY GEORGE H. MACKAY. 

Although the readers of ' The Auk ' may be by this time 
familiar with my subject, I am nevertheless tempted to risk being 
thought monotonous in again presenting for their perusal further 
matter similar in character to some of my previous articles. I do 
this for the reason that the occupants of the breeding resorts to 
which my data relate may at any time transfer themselves to other 
places where perhaps such observations cannot be easily taken. 
Civilization is continually encroaching upon and appropriating 
such places along the coast until there remain at the present 
time few localities adapted for such breeding resorts. My desire 
to record what observations I have made in view of the possibility 
of the birds leaving us, is my excuse for the present contribution. 
The Muskeget Island Terns, Sterna /lirttJido, Ster?ia paradiscea^ 
•and Sterna dougalli, and the Laughing Gulls, Larus atricilla, under 
the protection extended to them by a few individuals for a series 
•of years, have increased from small numbers at the beginning to 
■colonies of magnificent proportions in 1896, at which time the 
Terns, S. hiriindo and S. dougalli, were beyond estimate, while the 
Laughing Gulls had increased to a fairly good sized colony, after 
having virtually abandoned these waters. The Terns of Penikese 
Island had never until 1897 enjoyed an entire undisturbed breed- 
ing season, when I interested myself in their behalf. As a result 
the increase has been a subject of remark among people living 
in the vicinity. At both Muskeget and Penikese Islands the sit- 
uation is precarious, inasmuch as the birds may be compelled at 
any time to seek new breeding grounds elsewhere. Life saving 
stations, fortifications, etc., located in their midst, are likely to 
prove disturbing factors. 

I visited and remained on Muskeget Island July 3-5, 1897, and 
while there made, as has heretofore been my custom, an exhaus- 

1 Read before the Nuttall Ornithological Club, October 18, 1897. 



Vol. XVI 
1898 J 



Mackay, Tcnis of Miiskcoet Isla>i(f, Afass. 



169 



tive examination of all the breeding grounds of the Terns and 
Laughing Gulls. I found on visiting Gravelly Island a consider- 
able falling off from the status of June 26, 1896, in both nests and 
eggs ; the occupants were also different, being now almost entirely 
Common Terns (S. hirundo) ^ its former possessors, the Roseate 
Tern {S. dougaUi) having to a large extent abandoned it, there 
being, by my estimate, not more than ten per cent, of the latter 
now nesting there. I endeavored for over an hour to procure a 
few specimens of Roseates having the basal half of the bill of a 
dark orange red, with legs and feet carmine. I have noted such 
fiying about in numbers during former years, they being noticably 
abundant July 29, 1895; some of these birds had slaty, while 
others had white underparts. I failed in securing any, obtaining 
only one bird with the bill partially so colored. 

I subjoin the following statement of nests and eggs noted here: 



Gravelly Lsland. July 3, 1897. 
Terns. 



12S nests 


with I ^gg 


each 1 28 I 


5 nests with i egg an 


d 


I chick 


232 " 
SI " 


" 2 eggs " 464 ! 
" 3 " " 153 


2 " "I " " 
4 " "2 eggs " 




2 chicks 
I chick 


7 " 
" 


" 4 " 
" 5 " 


28 


82 live chicks 










53 dead " 






41S 


773 








Laughii 


g Gulls. 








5 nests 


with 1 &^^ anc 


\ I chick in down, 10 








4 " 
II 


" 2 eggs " 
" I egg " 


1 " " 12 

2 chicks " 6 

28 







I have not before noted Laughing Gulls breeding here, 
although I have heard that they did so formerly. This year their 
nests were placed in the longest and thickest lodged beach grass, 
Atnmophila arundinacea, and were consequently well concealed. 
These birds undoubtedly came from their former haunt, Muskeget 
Island proper, which place they abandoned this season. 

On leaving Gravelly Island I rowed over and examined the 



lyo Mackay, Terna of Muskeget Island, Mass. [A^ril 

adjacent shoals, or more correctly speaking, pieces of the old 
south beach, which are now all that remains of the northwestern 
half, and which formerly served as a barrier on this side and pro- 
tected Muskeget and contiguous islands from the fury of the 
ocean. It will be seen that the conditions here are constantly 
changing to a greater or less extent, and I would refer those of 
my readers who may be interested to know how this locality 
looked, as also Penikese Island, at the time of the American 
Revolution, to the ' Atlantic Neptune,' an atlas published for the 
use of the Royal Navy of Great Britain, by Samuel Holland, Esq., 
London, 1777, Vol. II, Part 2. I found no birds nesting, nor 
chicks, nor eggs on these pieces of beach. Attempts at incuba- 
tion had been made, as shoAvn by the remains of &^^ shells, some 
nearly whole, with a good sized hole towards the larger end. 
This orifice had the appearance of having been gnawed or pecked 
to obtain the contents. Everything indicated that these places 
had been abandoned by the birds. 

My next stopping place was at South Point Island. Changes 
were also noticeable here, my check-list of eggs and nests show- 
ing five hundred less eggs, and nearly a hundred less nests than 
on June 26, 1896. I again tried, without success, to procure 
some of the Roseates with a deep orange colored bill. There 
was only a small number of Roseates nesting here, intermingled 
with the Common Terns and Laughing Gulls. These latter, 
about fifteen pairs, probably came from their old nesting place on 
Muskeget proper, they nesting here for the first time, in the 
thickest and tallest beach grass. This place was, until 1897, one 
of the strongholds of the Roseates, but this year these beautiful 
birds are not in evidence as formerly, a large part of the colony 
heretofore domiciled here having apparently abandoned these 
waters. I think there are more Common Terns breeding on 
South Point Island than in 1896, they having come, like their 
neighbors, the Laughing Gulls, from Muskeget proper, having, 
like them, also abandoned it. I also found here some empty egg 
shells of the Terns and one of a Laughing Gull which had holes 
apparently gnawed or pecked in them. The nests and eggs 
noted are as follows : 



^°i898 ^J Mackay, Terns of Muskeget Island, Mass. in l 

South Point Island, July 3, 1897. 



Terns. 



144 nests with i egg each, 144 

342 " " 2 eggs " 684 

68 " " 3 " " 204 

9 " " 4 " " 36 



5 nests with i egg ilv i chick in down 
3 " "I "2 chicks " 
I nest with 2 eggs and i chick " 
I " " no " 2 ciiicks " 
103 live chicks in the down 
67 dead " " " 



563 1068 

Laughi7ig Gulls. 

I nest with i egg each, i 
4 nests " 2 eggs " 8 

_7_ " " 3 " " 2} 
■.12 30 

On South Point (of Muskeget Island proper) , now united to 
South Point Island, I found very few eggs although the Terns 
used it as a nesting place. I observed no eggs this season but 
what were normal. 

I visited Adams Island but, as heretofore, found no birds nest- 
ing on it. This island has been considerably reduced in size 
since the washing away of the south beach. 

I surveyed Muskeget Island proper on July 4 and 5, 1897, with 
feelings of concern and regret, for great changes had taken place 
regarding the domiciled birds since last season, as I found that 
this great breeding resort of the Terns and Laughing Gulls had 
been practically abandoned, there being only a few Terns still 
nesting at the westernmost part of the island. The cause of 
this abandonment I attribute to the building of a new life saving 
station in the midst of their former breeding grounds on the 
northern side of the island, together with some minor causes. 
This particular area has been the stronghold of the Common 
Terns, where they congregated in thousands, as well as of the 
Laughing Gulls. I am of the opinion that a portion of these 
birds have re-located on some of the small adjoining islands, 
while others have apparently abandoned these waters. The com- 
paratively small number of the Roseates remaining, in comparison 
with 1895 and 1896, together with the diminished aggregate of 



172 ^Iackay. Terms or A/nsie^-ei IsIaMd. Afass. V 



Ar^3 



Laughing Gulls, indicate that they must have departed elsewhere. 

For the $rsr time to my knowledge, or so far as I can leam 
from orhers. 2. small colony of Terns nested this season on the 
Dry Shoal ^ without v^etation) located about half a mile from 
the nrrrh-^e^Trm end of Nantucket Island: about one hundred 
er^i _:r r. :rl there, but unfortunately a high course of tides 
swept over i^is shril md carried away the eggs. 

This season ::ir Ter-.s sxrived at Muskeget in large zicks. 
Ibousands dropriri,- :r:~ :ne sky when they were first observe i. 
similar arrivals as I am informed, not having been before noted. 
Up to the night of May 2. 1897. no Terns or Laughing Gulls 
-li zee- seen in the locality. Early on the morning of May 
;. T!ie T^rrs ~ere in evidence in large numbers, estimated at one 
tlruiir. i : .- wind had been easterly during the night. This 
iitJit eir/.rs: date of their arrival in Massachusetts of which I 
have ^z.J l-::-:~'_eire. At Penikese Island, the greater portion 
of the Ter-r e:: T^ie ir.zndon September i, 1897, the wind being 
southwesL ^::i :^r -_:aerSne. On the 4th and 5th a total of 
one hundred and twenty-five Terns, nearly all of them young 
hirds z~:z not strong on the wing, were counted at three different 
t; : :..:- : ;. tae island- These continued to decrease until the 24th. 
3.z.'L in tlie 25th not a Tern was visible in the neighborhood. The 
": zi" ; : : :rd5 — h:ch departed on migration September i resem- 
z.-L 'j- ^:ri: ... s-L 3.s they mounted into the air. The number of 
y;u- _ : :rfj5 was unusually large t hi s season, larger tlian has been 
zti.'t - :: ;ei by !Mr. Fred A. Homer, one of the owners of the 
isliz.- T ..; result is probably due to the protection which has 
been exrended to them throughout the breeding season, a condi- 
tion they have not before enjoyed, as far as I am aware. The 
writer avails of the present opportunity to express his acknowl- 
edgments of the considerate co-operation of the Messrs. Homer 

-iTi 'r^T-i-nrrn^ty ol^riTT— irnrf^^ fi^or^^^r^QrV ^eSUitS- 



8o8^^1 Bangs, -iVew Birds frojn Eastern North America. I 73 

SOME NEW RACES OF BIRDS FROM EASTERN 
NORTH AMERICA. 

BY OUTRAM BANGS. 

A GREAT many of the common or conspicuous birds of eastern 
North America were for the first time brought to the Ught of 
science through Catesbj-'s fine plates and careful descriptions, and 
a little later received binomial names from Linnaeus, often based 
solely upon Catesby's magnificent work. The tApe localit)' of all 
these is southern South Carolina. It is with such species that I 
have principally to deal in the present paper, and it becomes 
often a matter of difficulty to determine whether the original 
name shall be restricted to the northern or the southern sub- 
species, as southern South Carolina is in many instances neutral 
ground ; the greater differentiation of the species taking place 
both to the north and to the south, — that is in peninsular Flor- 
ida, and again north of the lower Austral zone. 

In nearly every instance a bird whose breeding range along the 
Atlantic tier of States extends over two or more of the principal 
faunal zones separates off into tenable subspecies in accordance 
^rith the zones which it covers. In a few cases three subspecies 
are recognized, as with the Hain,- Woodpecker and the Purple 
Grackle : but usually the breeding range of a species is not ex- 
tensive enough to admit of more than two valid geographical 
races. 

The three life areas potent in modifying the birds of eastern 
North America are tlie Boreal, the Austral, and the Floridian,i 
though the minor diA^sions of these more important faunal areas 
often have an effect, though lesser, upon a species. 

In studying the races of our eastern birds one must of course 
be sure one has breeding individuals, as migrants of many of tlie 
northern forms are found in winter associated with the southern 

^ I use this name for the Tropical belt of south Florida and lower part of 
lower Austral zone in Florida, as the range of the peninsular forms pecuUar 
to Florida usually extends north beyond tropical limits. 



174 Bangs, JVezv Birds from Easterii North America. \_h^^\ 

forms in Florida and Georgia. Thus Bluebirds taken in northern 
Florida in winter are often individuals of the northern form, 
as are most of the Great-crested Flycatchers, and Kingbirds 
found there in early spring. With birds that are non-migratory, 
or whose wanderings extend over a limited area, one need be less 
careful in this particular ; but even then it is better to compare 
only breeders. A rather interesting case in point was one I 
noticed at St. Mary's, Georgia, where, on the great salt marsh in 
early April, there were two lots of Seaside Finches. One was the 
dark colored breeding bird of the region, conspicuous in the 
drier short grassed parts of the marsh and the patches of rush, 
in full song and worn breeding plumage. The other consisted 
of northern birds, in winter plumage, songless, and skulking 
about the long grass at the edges of the creeks. The two lots 
kept as much removed as if they bore each other no relationship. 

There are more races of eastern birds worthy of separation 
than are included in the present batch, but those I deal with here 
are such as have been particularly brought to my notice in work 
that I have done in the field during the last few years. 

I have had ample material to work with and have been able to 
examine skins from nearly every place I have wished to see them 
from. Besides the comparatively small but carefully chosen col- 
lections Mr. W. W. Brown, Jr., and I have made in Georgia and 
Florida, in the last few years, I have had access to the private 
collection of William Brewster, Esq., and that of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, both containing enormous series of eastern 
birds from very many important localities. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., 
Esq., has also sent me specimens from his collection that I par- 
ticularly desired to see. 

All measurements are in millimeters and were taken with 
dividers. 



Haliseetus leucocephalus Washington! {Aud^., subsp. rest. 
Washington's Eagle. 

Type locality, Henderson, Kentucky. Subspecific characters. Size 
much larger than H. leucocephalus leucocephalus ; bill proportionately 
more slender ; upper mandible more abruptly curved downwards at tip. 



i8 ^^1 Bangs, A'erc/ Birds from Eastern North America. I^r 



CO.MPARATIVK M liASUREMENTS. 



Name. 


Locality. 


6 

12; 


•X 


ti) 


H 


3 
t 


•0 . 

c s 

w 3 


H. 7oas/iiiii^'to)ti. 
H. leticoceplialns. 


South Hancock', Maine. 
Fort Myers, Fla. 


19,805 ' 
44,245' 


? ad. 
? ad. 


606.3 

541 5 


279.4 
238-3 


94 
91 


70 
66.6 



(These measurements give but a faint idea of the actual differences in 
bulk of the two Eagles.) 

Remarks. — The Washington Eagle occupie.s the whole of 
northeastern North America north of the lower Austral zone. 
The southern Bald Eagle occurs only in the lower Austral zone 
(Fla., Ga., S. Car., La., etc.). 

The two eastern races of the Bald Eagle were clearly seen by 
Baird, who, however, supposed 7vashmgto?ii to be the more south- 
ern, while in reality it is the northern form. Since Baird's time 
ivashmgtoni has sunk, wholly without cause, into synonymy. The 
peculiar scaling of the tarsus and foot of Audubon's figure was 
either an accident in drawing or was abnormal. Audubon's figure 
shows the character of bill of washingtoni admirably as does 
Catesby's that of the southern form, true leucocephahts. 

No one familiar with these two birds in life can have failed to 
notice the great difference in size between them. The little fel- 
lows that breed in Florida and Georgia are often scarcely larger 
than Red-tailed Hawks and hardly need comparison with the 
magnificent Eagle of the north. There is also a difference in 
habits. The Florida Eagle is a noted Duck catcher, pouncing 
upon them in the water, and the appearance of an Eagle on the 
wing is enough to drive all the Ducks scuttling in every direction 
from a bay or creek that he is approaching. 

The Washington Eagle never, so far as I know, attempts to catch 
a Duck, contenting himself with fish or carrion. The Ducks 
know this and allow him to pass over them as unnoticed as a 



' Coll. of Wm. Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 



176 



Bangs, iVew Birds from Eastern North America. 



r Auk 
LApril 



Fish Hawk. Mr. C. H. Townsend ^ has lately described the Sea 
Eagle of Alaska as a new subspecies. He made his comparisons 
wholly with true leucocephalus^ entirely ignoring washingtojii. His 
bird is but slightly larger than ivashingtoni., though it may differ in 
some other characters enough to entitle it to stand as a sub- 
species. 

Ceophloeus pileatus abieticola, subsp. nov. Northern Pi- 
LEATED Woodpecker. 

Type from Greenville, Mame, ? adult, No. 3008. Coll. of E. A. and 
O. Bangs, collected Nov. 7, 1895, by C. H. Goldthv^^aite. 

Siibspecific characters. Much larger than Ceophlcens pileatus pileatus ; 
bill longer, of about the same breadth ; tarsus longer ; all the white 
markings more extensive; black color less sooty, more brownish or 
grayish black, feathers of sides more extensively tipped and barred with 
white. 

Comparative Measurements. " 



C. pileatus. 



C. abieticola. 



Locality. 



Fort Myers, Florida. 

Greenville, Maine. 
Lake Umbagog, Maine. 



~ 










"S c 






tuO 




3 







cJ} 


% 


I 


H 


g 
X 3 


44ii55^ 


d ad. 


224 


I49 


32.8 


4S 


44,154 


§ ad. 


22 1 


144 


33 


42.6 


(Type) 3,008 2 


d" ad. 


232 


159-4 


31 


52.2 


11,9868 


? ad. 


228 


161 


32.2 _ 


52 



pa 

16 

15 

16 
14.8 



Remarks. — Linnaeus based his Ficiis pileatus on Catesby and 
Kalm. Taking Catesby as the best authority, southern South 
Carolina must be considered the type locality of the species, and 
birds from this region are as extreme of the southern race as 
those from Florida. C. pileatus abieticola is still to be found in 



iProc. Biol. Soc. of Washington, Vol. XI, pp. 145-146, June 9, 1897. 

^ Coll. of Wm. Brewster. 

3 Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs. 



iSc8 J Hangs, iVietf Birds from Eastern North America. 177 

considerable numbers in the ])rimeval forests of northeastern 
North America, from Massachusetts north, but is of course 
extirpated over much of its former liabitat. I think it still, how- 
ever, meets the range of C. pileatus pilealus., and specimens from 
the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia are very good inter- 
mediates, though nearer abieticola than X.y^xz'^X pileatus. 

Colaptes auratus luteus, subsp. nov. Northern Flicker. 

Type from Watertown, Mass., $ adult, No. S30, Coll. of E. A. and O- 
Bangs. Collected May 2, 1S79, by E. A. and O. Bangs. 

Subspecific characters. Size larger than C. auratus atiratus; bill pro- 
portionally shorter, straighter, less curved. Colors much paler through- 
out; the brown of back and gray of top of head several shades lighter; 
black bands on back narrower and less conspicuous ; under parts more 
washed with yellow — much less black and white; shafts, etc., a much 
brighter yellow. 

Comparative Measurements. 





















































"Sr; 


•° -i 


Name. 


Locality. 


d 




be 


H 


3 

27 


X 3 


i 
— 

n 


C. auratus. 


Enterprise, Fla. 


30,0172 


,^ ad. 


14c;. 


92. 


35- 


q. 


u u 


East Peninsula, opp. Micco, Fla. 


3,014! 


d ad. 


142.2 


97-4 


26 


34- 


8.6 


(. (I 


" " " " " 


3.017 


V ad. 


MS. 


g8.8 


26 


35- 


9- 


C. luteus. 


Chatham, Canada. 


4i>i^35" 


fT ad. 


.q6. 


104. 


29 


34.6 


9-4 


" " 


" , " 


41.S34 


? ad. 


154. 


lot. 


28 


32. 


9- 




WatertowTi, Mass. 


830 (Type) 


cf ad. 


159. 


105. 


29 


35-2 


9.4 



Remarks. — Linnaeus based his Cuculus auratus wholly upon 
Catesby. The bird from southern South Carolina I have not 
seen, but birds from Mcintosh Co., Georgia, differ but little from 
Florida specimens. Specimens from northern North Carolina 
and Virginia are referable to subspecies luteus., which extends 
from thence northward to Canada. 

The differences between the two eastern races of the Flicker 
were very clearly pointed out by Dr. Merriam as long ago as 



' Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs. 
-Coll. of Wm. Brewster. 



1*78 Bangs, iVew Birds from Easterti North America. FApril 

1874,1 and it is the greatest wonder they have never been recog- 
nized by name till now. 



Tyrannus tyrannus vexator, subsp. nov. Florida King- 
bird. 

Type from Merrit's Island, Indian River, Florida, ? ^d.. No. 17S0, 
Coll. of G. S. Miller, Jr., collected May 13,1886, by C. J. Maynard. 

Siibspecijic characters. Size of T. tyrannus tyra?ifucs, bill very much 
broader; tarsus slightly shorter and stouter ; color of back usually darker 
and not so gray. In T. tyr. tyra?miis the top of head is black and back is 
dark gray. In T. tyr. vexator the whole back is but little lighter in color 
than the head, and there never is the marked contrast in the colors of 
head and back seen in T. tyr. tyratttms. 























































.Q . 










bi 






Is- 


'0 i 


Name. 


Locality. 


iz; 


Vi 


% 


E^ 


£ 

^ 


e 


■5 


T. tyrannus. 


Wayland, Mass. 


7052 


? ad. 


112. 


83.2 


18. 


17.4 


8. 


T. vexator. 


Merrit's Island, Fla. 


1,780 3 


? ad. 


112. 4 


79- 


17.4 


17.6 


y.8 



Remarks. — The name of the eastern Kingbird is considered 
to date from Linnseus's Xth Edition. Linnaeus, however, based 
his bird principally upon " The Tyrant " of Catesby. Catesby, 
while he may have included the eastern Kingbird in his account 
of " The Tyrant," figured under that name another sp"ecies. 

The first author who gave the eastern Kingbird unconfused 
with other species is, as far as I can assertain. Pennant, where in 
his ' Arctic Zoology,' on page 384, the " Place " is given as in 
New York and the date of arrival is said to be April. Pennant 
mentions the white-tipped tail and his description is clear and 
free from confusion with any other species. 



' American Naturalist, Vol. VIII, p. 88, 1S74. 

2 Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs. 

3 Coll. of Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. 



°J. ^1 Bangs, Ne-v Hirch from Eastern North America. 



179 



Ginelin, under Laniits tyrannus^ refers to Pennant, l)ut all his 
other references relate to either composite or underterminable 
species. It is therefore best to consider the type locality of the 
Kingbird to be New York. 

The Florida form is, easily recognized by its large bill, and is 
abundant in the breeding season throughout peninsular Florida. 
The northern bird, however, is extremely common in Florida in 
April, as it passes through, on its spring migration, and one 
must wait till these northern migrants have gone and the birds 
that breed in Florida have begun nesting in order to be sure to 
get there only specimens of T. tyrafmus vexator. 

The birds that breed on Cumberland Island, Georgia, are 
extremes of the Florida form as are also breeding birds from 
other parts of Georgia. I have seen no surely breeding birds 
from South Carolina, but undoubtedly vexator is the form that 
does breed there. 

Myiarchus crinitus boreus, subsp. nov. Northern Crested 

Flycatcher. 

Type from Scituate, Mass., $ ad. (one of a breeding pair), No. 713, 
Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs, collected June 28, 1883, by E. A. and O. 
Bangs. 

Subspeciftc characters. Size larger than M. crinitus crinitus; bill very 
much smaller; colors about the same. 

Comparative Measurements. 



Name. 


Locality. 


6 
iz; 




M 
^ 




3 
H 


p 

X = 


S 
.5 = 2 


M. criniijcs. 


New Berlin, Fla. 


3,001 1 


<S ad. 


106 


91 


21 


20 


10.4 


•' 


Miami, Fla. 


14,324- 


cf ad. 


101 


go 


22 


20 


10.2 


M. boreus. 


Scituate, Mass. 


(Type) 713^ 


cfad. 


log 


94 


22 


1S.6 


S.6 



' Coll. of E. A. aiid O. Bangs. 

^ Coll. Museum of Comparative Zoology. 



i«o 



Bangs, iWw Birds from Eastern North America. 



r Auk 
L April 



Remarks. — Linnseus's Turdus crinitus is based wholly upon 
Catesby, and the type locality of the species is therefore southern 
South Carolina. 

Breeding Crested Flycatchers from South Carolina and 
Georgia, though intergrades, are much nearer the southern ex- 
treme, and the northern form is the one to properly receive a 
new subspecific name. 

In the north M. crinitus boreus is rare or of local distribution, 
although it reaches southern Canada. A good many pairs breed 
every year in the neighborhood of the town of Scituate, Massa- 
chusetts, for which reason I have selected that place for the type 
locality of the subspecies. It is also a regular, though somewhat 
local breeder in other parts of Massachusetts. 

The principal character that separates M. crinitus crinitus and M. 
crinitus boreus is the different bill. This, however, is alone suffi- 
cient to always distinguish the two races, the enormous swollen 
bill of the birds that breed in Florida and Georgia being in 
marked contrast to the small slender bill of the bird of the north- 
eastern United States. 

Sitta pusilla caniceps, subsp. nov. Florida Brown-headed 

Nuthatch. 



Type from Clear Water, Hillsboro Co., Fla., $ ad., No. 3021, Coll. of E. 
A. and O. Bangs, collected March 25, 1874, by C. J. Maynard. 

Subspecific characters. Size smaller than S. pusilla pusilla j bill larger; 
top of head much lighter brown, the feathers tipped and edged still 

Measurements. 

















T3 . 





Name. 


Locality. 


6 


>5 




t 


3 
I 


° c 

w 3 


•5 • 


J". picsilla. 


Statesville, N. C. 


3,019^ 


s 


64. 


30- 


13-4 


13- 


3.8 


" " 


" 


3,020 


? 


66.8 


32- 


13-6 


13.2 


3-8 


S. ca7iiceps. 


Clear Water, Fla. 


3,021 


? 


60. 


27.4 


13- 


13-4 


4- 


" 


" " 


318 


? 


61. 


30. 


12.6 


13-6 


4- 



1 Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs. 



Vol. XV 
1898 



1 Bangs, A'i'n' Birds from Eaaicm N'orlk America. 181 



li"-litcr — often i,n-;i\ isli ; ' loral and jiost ocular streak dark lirown, in 
marked contrast to color of top of head; while spot on najie usually less 
extensive ; underparts sli<rhtly darker, more plumbeous. 

Rkmarks. — Sitta piisilla caniceps is wholly confined to penin- 
sular Florida. Specimens from St. Mary's, Ga., are rather nearer 
the more northern subspecies, true ///i-//Air, while the one skin I 
have examined from Screven Co., Ga., is true puxilla. The Flor- 
ida form, though widely distributed over lower Florida, is not a 
very common bird anywhere, not nearly so common as true 
piisilla is in the Carolinas. I have examined a large number of 
skins from many localities, the southernmost of which are Miami 
on the east side and Clear Water on the west side of the penin- 
sula. 

Parus (Lophophanes) bicolor floridanus, subsp. nov. 
Florida Tufted Titmouse. 



Type from Clear Water, Hillsboro Co., Fla., $ adult. No. 3021, Coll. of 
E. A. and O. Bangs, collected March 29, 1874, by C. J. Maynard. 

Subspecific characters. Size smaller than P. bicolor bicolor ; tail 
shorter; bill larger; color of top of head and upper parts of neck duller 
— less ashy; ci-est much shorter. 

Comparative Measurements. 



Name. 


Locality. 


d 
1? 


X 


1 




J 


•a J.- 

Il 
X 3 



•53 

a 


P. bicolor. 


Salt Sulpher Springs, W. V. 


344- 


S2 


70.6 


20.4 


10.8 


4.6 


" " 


Statesville, N. C. 


315 


<f 


82.2 


71 


21 


10.4 


4.4 


" " 


" 


317 


? 


S1.4 


70 


19. s 


10.4 


4.6 


P. floridanus. 


Clear Water, Fla. 


3,021 


cf 


75 


64.2 


19.4 


II. 4 


4.6 


" " 


Enterprise. Fla. 


5,248 3 


c? 


77 


65 


20.4 


II. 2 


4.8 



' This lighter tipping and edging to the feathers is apparently not due to 
fading or wearing; it gives a pale variegated appearance to top of bead, very 
different from the clear brown seen in S. pusilla pusilla. 

2 Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs. 

^ Coll. of Museum of Comparative Zoology. 



l82 



Bangs, Nexv Birds from Eastern North Ajnerica. 



r Auk 
LApril 



Remarks. — The geographic ranges of the two races of the 
Tufted Titmouse are the same as those of the Brown-headed 
Nuthatch. The Florida form is confined to the peninsula and 
intergrades with true bicolor in southeastern Georgia. Like the 
Nuthatch, it is not a very common bird. 

Sialia sialis grata, subsp. nov. Florida Bluebird. 

Type from Miami, Dade Co., Florida. No. 14258, $ ad., Coll. Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. Collected March 9, 1871, 
by Maynard & Henshaw. 

Subspecific characters. — Size of 5". sialis sialis ; bill larger and stouter ; 
tarsus and foot larger; color of upper parts clearer blue, less purple. In 
Siala sialis sialis about smalt blue, and in 6". sialis grata about French 
blue. ' 

Comparative Measurements. 



















_ 




































.Q 


Name. 


Locality. 









1 


a 


•0 . 

m (U 

"■3 


111 


.S". sialis. 


Belmont, Mass. 


226 2 


d ad. 


lOI. 


6, 


20.2 


1 1. 4 


5- 


" " 


Brookline, Mass. 


3,006 


cf ad. 


101.2 


65 


20.6 


11.6 


5- 


" " 


" " 


3,007 


$ ad. 


98. 


■;8 


20.8 


II. 


4.6 


S. grata. 


Miami, Fla. 


14,2588 


d ad. 


100.6 


66 


21.6 


12.2 


5- 


" " 


" " 


14,247 


cf ad. 


99-4 


64 


22. 


12.4 


5-4 






14,265 


? ad. 


98.2 


61 


22. 


13- 


5.6 



Remarks. — Linnseus based his Motacilla sialis on Catesby 
and Edwards. Although Catesby mentions seeing Bluebirds in 
several places, Bermuda, Maryland, etc., we must of course as- 
sume that the bird he figured came from southern South Caro- 
lina.* The birds of this region, as also those that breed in east- 

' These blues are hard to define exactly owing to the sheen of the feathers, 
and to the varying shades of the color when the skin is turned in different 
lights. 

2 Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs. 

3 Coll. of Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

* It is evident that Linnaeus took his description wholly from Catesby's 
plate, perpetuating the error of coloring of Catesby's figure, in his discription. 



Vo'g ^V-J General Notes.. 1 83 

ern Georgia, are iiitergrades, but those that I have seen are 
rather nearer the northern extreme than the Florida extreme, and 
I have therefore given the new name to the form inhabiting 
South Florida. Another reason that has induced me to do this 
is that the northern form never gets so far south as Miami in its 
winter migration while it is extremely common in winter in South 
Carolina ; therefore the northern extreme can easily be got at the 
type locality of the species, while the Florida form stands apart 
by itself. The Museum of Comparative Zoology is fortunate in 
possessing a fine series, including both breeding and winter speci- 
mens of the Florida Bluebird, collected in 187 1 by Messrs. May- 
nard and Henshaw, mostly at Miami — a point so far south that 
it represents the form in its extreme. 



GENERAL NOTES. 

Briinnich's Murre ( f/r/rt lomvia) at Ottawa, Canada- — On the 12th 
December, 1897, large numbers of this bird passed the city on the way 
South. The flight continued nearly the whole day . Quite a number of 
the birds were shot. — G. R. White, Oiiazva, Ontario, Canada. 

Ross's Gull {^RJiodostethia rosea) on Bering Island. — In my ' Ornith. 
Expl. Comm. Isls. and Kamtsch.' (1885), p. 315, I enumerated Ross's Gull 
among the birds of Kamchatka with some hesitation and without giving 
it a number since Saunders had queried the statement of Verreaux that 
the two specimens in the museum at Mayence actually came from tliat 
country. At the same time I pointed out that there was no improbability 
^er se in the alleged locality' being correct. I am now in position to 
affirm that this species occasionally straggles as far south on the Asiatic 
coast as Bering Island off the coast of Kamchatka. Last summer Mr. N. 
Grebnitski kindly presented me Avith a fully adult female of Ross's Gull 
obtained on Bering Island December 10, 1S95. It is now in the U. S. 
National Museum, No. 162785. This is a very interesting addition to 
the avifauna of the Commander Islands. — Leonhard Stejxeger, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

The Scarlet Ibis — A Correction. — In 'The Auk,' XIV, 1897, p. 316, is 
a record by the present writer of the Scarlet Ibis taken in 1S97 in the 
Arkansas Valley in Colorado. This was given on the authority of the 



184 



General Notes. [A^rU 



local taxidermist ^vho mounted the birds. Further investigation shows 
that thej are really the White-faced Glossy Ibis. — W. W. Cooke, Ft. 
Collins, Col. 

Colinus virginianus in Peculiar Plumage. — A Bobwhite recently killed 
in the vicinity of Washington, and now in the possession of Mr. Blair 
Lee of this city, presents such an unusual appearance as to seem worthy 
of permanent record. All the dark rufous tints of the normal plumage 
are replaced by pale fawn color, the buffy shades by white or grayish 
white. The ground color of the rump and tail is almost pure gray, and 
the bird is very much paler and more grayi.sh throughout than even 
Coltnus V. texamis. None of the black markings, however, seem to have 
undergone change; and especially on the lower surface, scapulars and 
innermost secondaries, they are brought out in conspicuous contrast by 
the lightening of the background. The pattern of coloration appears to 
be perfectly preserved, the black jugular band being, however, somewhat 
broader and the black markings on the breast more numerous than in 
ordinary specimens. — Harry C Oberholser, Washington, D. C. 

The Passenger Pigeon (^Ectopistes migratoi-ius^ in Wisconsin and 
Nebraska. — Our records of this species during the past few years have 
referred, in most instances, to very small flocks and generally to pairs or 
individuals. In ' The Auk ' for July, 1897, I recorded a flock of some fifty 
Pigeons from southern Missouri, but such a number has been very unus- 
ual. It is now very gratifying to be able to record still larger numbers 
and I am indebted to Mr. A. Fugleberg of Oshkosh, Wis., for the follow- 
ing letter of information, under date of Sept. i, 1897 : " I live on the west 
shore of Lake Winnebago, Wis. About six o'clock on the morning of 
Auo-ust 14, 1897, I saw a flock of Wild Pigeons flying over the bay from 
Fisherman's Point to Stony Beach, and I assure you it reminded me of 
old times, from 1S55 to 1880, when Pigeons were plentiful every day. 
So I dropped my work and stood watching them. This flock was fol- 
lowed by six more flocks, each containing about thirty-five to eighty 
Pigeons, except the last which only contained seven. All these flocks 
passed over within half an hour. One flock of some fifty birds flew 
within gun shot of me, the others all the way from one hundred to three 
hundred yards from where I stood." Mr. Fugleberg is an old hunter and 
has had much experience with the Wild Pigeon. In a later letter dated 
Sept. 4, 1897, he writes: "On Sept. 2, 1897, I was hunting Prairie Chick- 
ens near Lake Butte des Morts, Wis., where I met a friend who told me 
that a few days pi-evious he had seen a flock of some twenty-five Wild 
Pigeons and that they were the first he had seen for years." — This would 
appear as though these birds were instinctively working back to their old 
haunts, as the Winnebago region was once a favorite locality. We hope 
that Wisconsin will follow Michigan in making a close season on Wild 



^°^^] General Notes. 1 85 

Pigeons for ten years, ami tlius ,L;ive llieni a chance to multiply ami per- 
haps regain, in a measure, tlieir former ahiindance. 

In ' Forest and Stream,' of Sept. 25, 1897, is a short notice of 'Wild 
Pigeons in Nehraslca,' by 'W. F. R.' Through the kindness of the editor 
he placed me in correspondence with tlie observer, W. F. Rightmire, to 
whom I am indebted for the following details given in his letter of Nov. 
5, 1897: "I was driving along the highway north of Cook, Johnson 
County, Nebraska, on August 17, 1S97. I came to the timber skirting 
the head stream of the Nemaha River, a tract of some forty acres of 
woodland lying along the course of the stream, upon both banks of the 
same, and there feeding on the ground or perched upon the trees were 
the Passenger Pigeons I wrote the note about. The flock contained 
seventy-five to one hundred birds. I did not f^-ighten them, but as I 
drove along the road the feeding birds flew up and joined the others, 
and as soon as I had passed by they returned to the ground and con- 
tinued feeding. While I revisited the same locality, I failed to find the 
Pigeons. I am a native of Tompkins County, N. Y., and have often 
killed Wild Pigeons in their flights while a boy on the farm, helped to 
net them, and have hunted them in Pennsylvania, so that I readily 
knew the birds in question the moment I saw them." I will here take 
occasion to state that in my record of the Missouri flock (Auk, July, 
1897, p. 316) the date on which they were seen (December 17, 1896) was, 
through error, omitted. — Ruthven Deane, Chicago, III. 

Geotrygon chrysia again at Key West. — The last record of the occur- 
rence of the Key West Qiiail Dove in Florida was that by Mr. Scott 
(Auk, VII, No. I, Jan., 1890, p. 90), of a male (now in my collection) 
taken by Mr. Atkins at Key West, September 15, 1S89. During the past 
autumn Mr. Atkins secured two more specimens, which have also come 
into my possession. Both are females and both were taken on Key West, 
one by Thomas Moore, at Salt Pond Hammock, near the east end of the 
island, October 20, 1897, the other by James Moore, "quite near the 
town," November 12, 1897. They Avere shot on the ground in rather 
dense woods. Mr. Atkins received them in the flesh and skinned and 
sexed them. — William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 

The California Vulture in Santa Barbara Co., Cal. — On Feb. 21, 1898, 
the Zoological Department of Leland Stanford University received a 
specimen of Pseudogryphus californianus, in the flesh. It was presented 
by the collector, Mr. Holton Webb, who secured it at Lampoc, a small 
town near the coast, between the Santa Ynes Mts. and the Santa Ynes 
River, in Santa Barbara Co. The specimen is in excellent condition, and 
will make a fine specimen, though apparently not full grown, as it meas- 
ures but 7 ft. 8 in. in extent. — Robert B. McLain, Stanford University, 
Cal. 



1 86 General Notes. \^k^^\ 

Occurrence of the Spotted Screech Owl (^Megascops aspersus) in 
Arizona. — Mr. C. K. Worthen has sent me a pair of small Screech Owls 
which were taken in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, the male by 
Mr. R. Lusk August lo, 1891, the female (probably by the same collector) 
June 20, 1895. Both birds are adults, the female being in slightly worn 
breeding plumage while the n^^^ad nearly completed the midsummer 
moult, excepting about the head where the leathers are old, faded and very 
much worn. 

These birds do not belong to any form which is known to have been 
hitherto found Avithin the United States, but on comparing them with 
my type of Megascops aspersus^ (female. Chihuahua, Mexico, May 6, 
1884), I find that they resemble it very closely in general color and mai-k- 
ings as well as in the presence of a well-marked fringe of bristles on the 
sides of the head. The ground coloring, however, is slightly grayer, 
especially on the upper parts, and the dark markings are rather less coarse 
and numerous. The Arizona birds are also smaller, the male having the 
wing 5.18 inches in length and the female 5.27, whereas the wing of the 
type measures 5.66 inches. These peculiarities may prove to be charac- 
teristic of all the birds which inhabit the Huachuca range, but for the 
present, at least, it seems safest to regard them as representing mere 
individual variation and to refer the Arizona specimens to M. aspersus 
which, as has been just implied, is quite new to our fauna. — William 
Brew^STER, Cambridge, Mass. 



Great Gray Owl (^Scoiiaptex cinerea~) in Minnesota. — During the winter 
of 1896-97 I secured not less than five specimens of this immense Owl 
and know of one other capture, all in this (Aitkin) County. 

The winter just past, 1897-98, was not so cold, nor was there much 
snow as in the previous winter ; in fact, it was a remarkably open winter, 
with only occasional cold spells. This open season may account for the 
scarcity of the Owl, for I secured but one and know of two others 
captured. 

My friend, Mr. G. G. Cantwell, in his 'List of Birds of Minnesota* 
(O. and O., Sept., 1890) records this species as a " rare winter visitor," 
but it may be seen from my records that this Owl may be considered as a 
fairly common winter visitor, at least in the wooded parts of the central 
and northern sections of the State. 

It is interesting to note how small a body this species has in proportion 
to its length of body and extent of wing, compared with other large Owls, 
as may be seen by the following data, from a series of four specimens in 
my collection : 

1 Originally described in 'The Auk,' Vol. V, No. i, January, 1888, pp. 87 
and 88 and figured in Vol. VIII, No. 4, October, 1891, of the same journal. 



Vol. XV"] 
i,S9S J 



General Notes. 



187 



Coll. Albert Lano, $, length, 26.75; extent, 58.00; wing, 21.00; tail, 
12.00; weight, 2 lbs. 14^ oz. Collected at Aitkin, Minn., Jan. 5, 1897. 

Coll. Albert Lano, <y, length, 26.00; extent, 57.00; wing, 21.00; tail, 
12.50; weight, 2 lbs. 11 oz. Collected at Aitkin, Minn., Jan. 27, 1897. 

Coll. Albert Lano, $, length, 25.00; extent, 55.00; wing, 21.00; tail, 
12.00; weight, I lb. 15 oz. Testicles active, size of beans. Collected at 
Aitkin, Minn., March 3, 1897. 

Coll. Albert Lano, ?, length, 25.25; extent, 58.75; wing, 20.75; tail, 
12.50; weight, 2 lbs. 14 oz. Ovaries active, size of No. 4 shot. Collected 
at Aitkin, Minn., Jan. 19, 1898. — Albert Lano, Aitkin, Minn. 

Note on Speotyto cunicularia obscura Stephens. — Mr. Stephens de- 
scribed this subspecies of Burrowing Owl (5. c. obscura. Auk, XII, Oct. 
1895, p. 372), from a single male from Upper Lake, Lake Co., California. 
This has since stood as a doubtful form. Through the kindness of Mr. 
A. W. Johnson I have been able to examine two male birds from the 
type locality'. In coloration I cannot see that these birds differ from 
other Ground Owls from San Diego and Palo Alto Counties, California, 
and Washington. The measurements are fully as great as for birds from 
other localities. A table of measurements is here given. Mr. Richmond 



Number. 



151,022 
162,706 
162,707 
162,708 



162,709 
3.15s 



Sex. 



Locality. 



Upper Lake, Lake Co. 



Long Beach. 
Tiburon. 
Amador Co. 
Palo Alto. 
Pullman, Wash. 





Date 




May 


2Q, 


1894. 


Feb. 


10, 


1897- 


Mar. 


27. 


1897. 


Aug. 


IS. 


1S94. 


Sept 


26, 


1897- 


Jan. 


26, 


1896. 


Oct. 


IS, 


1897. 


Apr. 


7. 


894. 



Wing. 


Tail. 


6.20 


3.10 


6.96 


3-64 


6.96 


370 


6.90 


3-54 


6.80 


3-50 


7.10 


,3-S6 


6.78 


3-44 


6.58 

! 


3.28 



1.6s 

1.92 
1.97 
1.80 

1.90 

1.87 

1.60 
1.62 



has kindly compared these birds with the type and says : " Two Owls 
from Upper Lake, Calif., the tj'pe locality of Mr. Stephens's obscura, differ 
in no wav from the ordinary Speotyto of the West. The original speci- 
men of obscura, obtained by Mr. Stephens, is a very small bird, differing 
in color, when compared with western specimens, only in the dusky face 
and head, where the feathers are apparently stained. The measurements 
of the type of obscura, taken by Mr. Stephens, are added to the table be- 
low. The specimen from Palo Alto is fully as dark as some specimens of 
floridana, but lacks the bars on the under wing-coverts peculiar to that 
and the West Indian forms." — R. C. McGregor, Palo Alto, Cal. 



1 Coll. of H. B. Kaeding. 

'-'Coll. of Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

Mas. 



The others belong to U. S. Nat. 



1 88 General Notes. \_t^^\ 

Amazilia cerviniventris chalconota — A Correction. — The description 
of this new race, in the January number of ' The Auk,' contains an error, 
to which Dr. C. W. Richmond has kindly directed my attention. The type 
locality should have been given as Brotvnsvtlle, Texas, instead of Beeville, 
Texas. Then on page 32, second line of ' Habitat ' for Bee Coujity read 
Corpus Christi l page 34, line 23, for four read three; line 25, same 
page, insert a7id before Corpus Christi, and omit and Beeville, together 
with all of the following sentence. An inadvertence may also be here 
corrected : on page 34, line 28, for the State of, read ce7itral or southern ; 
since the statement in its present condition is contradictory to what has 
already been said on the previous page. — Harry C, Oijerholser, 
Washington, D. C. 

Lewis's Woodpecker Storing Acorns. — An interesting account has 
been furnished me by Mr. Manly Hardy of the storing of acorns by 
Lewis's Woodpecker, Melanerpes torquatus. The substance of Mr. Har- 
dy's communication is as follows : 

Sidney French, a i-elative of his, a lad of some sixteen years of age, 
while paying a visit in November, 1897, to Happy Canon, about twenty 
miles southeast of Denver, Colorado, amused himself by watching the 
Woodpeckers. Seeing one enter a hole in a big cotton-wood tree, he 
climbed up to see why it did so, when he found in the hole a lot of acorns. 
He then examined several other holes in trees near by, the names of 
which were not familiar to him, and found these, too, stored with acorns. 
Some of the holes were half the length and about the diameter of his 
finger, and contained five or six acorns each, tightly wedged in ; while 
others, three inches across and extending downward for six or eight 
inches, held much larger stores. It was evident that the birds brought 
the acorns to the holes and shelled them there before storing them, for 
the ground beneath was piled with the empty shells and the kernels that 
were packed away were mostly in quarters, some of them, however, being 
in halves. The acorns belonged to the scrub oak of that region and were 
small and i-ather sweet. 

The boy's careful description of the birds indicated pretty clearly that 
they were Lewis's Woodpecker but this important point was definitely 
settled when he sent the head and some of the breast feathers of that 
species to Mr. Hardy. 

Major Bendire in his 'Life Histories of North American Birds ' (Part 
n, p. 119) says that Lewis's Woodpecker has been seen sticking mayflies 
in'crevices of pines, but I can find no record of its storing acorns, while 
the fact that the acorns were shelled lends additional interest to the story. 
— William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 

Occurrence of Leconte's Sparrow (^Ammodramus lecotitii^ at Ithaca, 
N, Y. — While searching the large marsh at the head of Cayuga Lake 



^°'„^j\^^] General Notes. 1 89 

for fall miii^iants, I succeeded in securing a specimen of Leconte's Spar- 
row. The bird was taken at tiie edge of the marsh, where a stream had 
washeti up the mud, making a higher and diicr hank, ruid where, in con- 
sequence, the grasses were thicker and less aquatic in character. The 
specimen I obtained was a young bird, in the first plumage after the 
nestling plumage, thus, in all probability, showing that it had been bred 
at no very great distance from where it was taken. The date of its 
capture was October 11, 1897. Further careful search, both on the same 
day, and for many days thereafter, failed to reveal any more of the 
species. — Louis Agassiz Fuertes, ////«rrt, JV. T. 

The Sea-side Sparrow on Cape Cod in Winter, and other Notes. — I 
have been asked to report the following intei'esting records. Mr. llenrv 
B. Bigelow and Mr. George C. Shattuck while walking over the salt marsh 
on Sandy Neck, Barnstable, Mass., on February 9, 189S, started from the 
grass a single Sea-side Sparrow (^Ammodramus maritimus). Mr. Bigelow 
shot the bird at once and found it to be apparently in perfect health and 
without any marks of any old injuries. The sexual regions being 
badly torn by the shot, determination of the sex was impossible. 

This is the first record of the wintering of this species in New England 
to my knowledge, for the bird probably wintered, and the capture also 
suggests the idea that the bird probably bred during the past season. 
Besides Mr. E. Sturtevant's records of the jDccurrence of this species at 
Middletown, R. I. (A.uk, Vol. XIV, pp. 219 and 322) in May and July, 
18S9, 1896, 1897, we have Mr. J. A. Farley's record of its breeding at West- 
port, Mass. (Auk, Vol. XIV, pp. 323). Do these records signify the 
increasing number of competent observers in the field or the movement 
northward of the species's range from southern Rhode Island to Massa- 
chusetts ? 

On the same day, February 7, two Scaup Ducks (^Aytkya marila iiearc- 
ticaf) came in to the decoys put in the harbor of Barnstable, and although 
neither of the birds were taken, Mr. Shattuck feels confident of their iden- 
tit}' as lie knows the bird Avell. Tlie usual noi-thern limit of the Scaup 
Duck's winter range is Long Island, N. Y. Mr. R. W. Hall, Assistant 
in Zoology at Harvard Universitj-, tells me that he saw in Roxbui-y 
(Boston), Mass., on December 27, 1895, on tlie banks of Jamaica Pond in 
the shrubbery, a female Chewink {Pipilo eiytkrop/it/ialmus). This is 
the third winter record for Massachusetts for this species and the fourth 
for New England. — Reginald Heber Howe, Jr., Longzvood, Mass. 

Lincoln's Sparrow in New Brunswick. — On June 18, 1897, at Bright. 
York County, New Brunswick, my attention was attracted by a bird's 
song which reminded me both of the song of tlie Grass Finch and that 
of the American Goldfinch yet was different from either. The following 
dav I returned to the same place with mv gun and secured the singer, 



190 General Notes. \_t^^\ 

which was later identified for me by Mr. Frank M. Chapman, to wh<.!m I 
sent it, as Melospiza lincobii. 

This, I believe, is the first known instance of the occurrence of the 
species in New Brunswick. — -Willie H. Moore, Scotch Lake, N. B. 

Rank of the Sage Sparrow. — On page 58 of the current volume of 
' T-he Auk,' Mr. Joseph Grinnell states that he found Ainpkispiza belli and 
Amphisfiza belli 72 evadensis inhabiting the same locality at the head of 
the Little Tujunga Canon, Los Angeles Count}', California, in July, 1897. 
This area is on the western slope of the divide, though not more than ten 
miles from the Mohave Desert. Mr. Grinnell further states that he has 
never learned of any intermediate specimens between the two forms, and 
consequently argues that they are specifically distinct. 

On the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, Mr. Frank Stephens collected 
a number of specimens on the eastern slope of the Sierras, opposite the 
south end of Owens Lake, which I repoi-ted as being intermediate in color 
and size (N. Am. Fauna, No. 7, p. 98). 

Taking this into consideration and the fact that Amphispiza b. nevadensis 
had evidently wandered from their desert home, as Mr. Grinnell writes 
me they were fully fledged, I cannot agree with him that there is any 
reason for considering the two forms rnore than subspecifically distinct. — - 
A. K. Fisher, Washingtofi, D. C. 

Wintering of the Towhee (^Pipilo erytkropkthalmiis') at Rockaway 
Beach, L. L — On the 29th of January, 1898, I made a collecting trip to 
Rockaway Beach in the hope of seeing some winter birds, as the weather 
had been very cold for several days, and on the day in question the air 
was full of flying snow. While passing through a small thicket of 
brambles I felt sure I heard the Towhee's note, and started in to investi- 
gate. Although he was exceedingly wild, I at length caught a glimpse of 
him, and by remaining quiet for some time eventually secured him. 
Later in the day, I found three more, all males, as was the one I shot. 
It is quite evident that this bird occasionally winters much further north 
than is generally supposed, as there are also records from Longwood, 
Mass., on Christmas, and Bedford, Mass., on Jan. 2 (Auk, July, 1896). 

Mr. L. S. Foster informs me that he secured a specimen on Feb. 22, 
near Oradell, N. J. — Harry Webb Floyd, New York City. 

The Rose-breasted Grosbeak in California. — During a collecting trip 
last summer in northern California, Dr. C. H. Gilbert and a party of 
students secured some birds that were new to the fauna of the State. 
While at Meyer's, Humboldt Co., Cal., July i, 1897, the attention of the 
party was attracted by a string of strange birds that had been shot some- 
time before and were already in the early stages of decomposition. Not 
being able to decide what the birds were, several heads were cut off, 



^"'y^^^J General Notes. I g i 

brought back, and are now in tlie collection of the University'. The 
heads are male and female of tiie well-known eastern species, Zamelodia 
ludoviciana. How they came here is unknown. The farmer upon whose 
place the specimens were found declared thej were quite common about 
his orchard in spring and did considerable damage to cherries and other 
fruit, lie has promised to send specimens to Dr. (Gilbert this spring. — 
Robert B. McLain, Stanford University, Cal. 



The Philadelphia Vireo i^Vireo philadelphicus). — I read with mucli 
interest the article on the Philadelphia Vireo bj Dr. Jonathan Dwight, 
Jr., published recently in 'The Auk' (Vol. XIV, No. 3). It may interest 
many who have perused that article to know that I met with a pair of 
these birds and secured their nest within a short distance of Lansdowne 
Station, Ontario. This happened in June, 1895. I had never met with 
the species before, but knew of it as being an occasional summer visitant 
to the vicinity of Ottaw-a, Ont. The place where I met with the birds 
was a rough pasture with here and there a clump of young poplar trees 
on the drier ground, elsewhere there were wet boggy places of small 
extent -grown up with alders, an occasional tamarack, and a great deal of 
the well known plant, Spircea salisifolia ; some of this latter growing to 
the unusual height of four or even five feet. It was in a spray of the 
latter that I discovered the nest on the 14th of June, 1895. In it were 
two Cowbird's eggs, and one of the Vireo's. I removed the ^'ireo's egg 
and one of the Cowbird's, which had the effect of causing the birds 
to desert, for I visited the place a few days later and saw nothing of 
them. 

With regard to the nest (which I gave to Professor Jno. McCoun of 
Ottawa), it was scarcely so finished a sti-ucture as is the Red-eyed Vireo's. 
The outside was a little ragged, a few stalks of dried grass protruding. 
Though pensile, it was not so carefully finished off; the straggling 
nature of the shrub perhaps preventing this. A quantity of spider's 
webs, etc., completed the structure. 

With regard to the egg, it was marked exactly like that of the Red-eye, 
Vireo but was smaller, and according to its size was rather more globular 
in shape. 

My observation of the birds and their location agreed very nearly with 
Dr. Dwight's experience, and had he searched and watched the place per- 
sistently where on the loth July, 1893, he noticed what he took to be a 
female scolding and ruffling her feathers, he would probably have 
found the nest. I was attracted to the nest I found by the anxiety of the 
birds ; they scolded and were quite tame. I have not noticed the Red- 
e^'e act thus. They hopped from branch to branch of the neighboring 
alders incessantly; there were no high trees near by- I observed them 
through strong field glasses, and in describing the birds should say that 



igz General Notes. [apuI 

the}' were decidedly smaller than the Red-eye, more bulky in shape, with 
a somewliat shorter tail proportionately. The yellow shading of the 
breast was not very evident, but there was a tendency to a lighter shade, 
without being a definite mark, on the wings. The persistent scolding 
seems to be a marked characteristic, to which Dr. Dwight refers. 

The nest was located near the extremity of a stem of spiraea, about four 
feet from the ground, in a place that is always wet, except in very dry 
seasons. In searching for anotlier nest, like Dr. Dwight, I should not 
think of looking in large trees or even moderate sized ones. After locat- 
ing the bird, I should search in damp places among willows (where 
Mr. Thompson found the nest in Manitoba), among growths of alders, 
and as in the case of the nest I found, among straggling growths of 
spiraea, etc. I do not think they will ever be found to build high up in 
maples or hickories like the Warbling Vireo, nor yet on high ground 
among second growth maples and birches as the Red-eye very frequently 
does, at least in this neighborhood, or even in dense woods. — C. J. 
Young, Lansdoivtie, Out. 

Cairns's Warbler (^Detidroica cceriilesceiis cair?tsi) in Georgia on Migra- 
tion. — So little is known of the Alleghaney Mountains Black-throated 
Blue Warbler away from its breeding ground that it seems worth while 
to record its capture in spring upon Cumberland Island, Georgia. The 
bird (No. 3013, Coll. of E. A. and O. Bangs) was taken by W. W. Brown, 
Jr., April 9, 1897, at the northern end of Cumberland Island. It is an 
extreme example of subspecies cairnsi, a male in unworn newly acquired 
spring plumage. The back is nearly wholly black. It shows a character 
not mentioned by Dr. Coues, but which seems on examination of the 
type in Mr. Brewster's collection to be a mark of the race — a very much 
greater amount of white upon the outer pair of tail-feathers. — Outram 
Bangs, Boston, Mass. 

Carolina Wren at Lyme, Conn., in Winter. — On the morning of 
Dec. 17, 1897, I was surprised to see and hear a Carolina Wren {Tkryo- 
thorns hcdovicianus) sing his pleasing notes. As this is the first time I 
have seen the bird in Connecticut, this record may be of interest to 
readers of 'The Auk.' — Arthur W. Brockw^ay, Lyme, Cottn. 

Long-billed Marsh Wren in New Brunswick. — A specimen of this 
bird {Cistotkorics falustris) was taken by me on October 3, 1895, in a 
marsh near Fairville, a suburb of St. Johns, New Brunswick. This 
specimen was presented to Mr. John Brittain of the Provincial Normal 
School, who confirms my identification. Correspondence with members 
of the Natural History Society of St. John, develops the fact that there is 
no previous record of the capture of this species in New Brunswick. — 
Willie H. Moore, Scotch Lake, N. B. 



^°Sy8^J General Notes. 1^-^ 

Birds Nesting under Electric Arc-light Hoods. — The fact of the arc- 
li<;ht lioods hcin<r utilized foi- nesting purposes is common to most every 
city or town where this type of lamp is used. The House Sparrow 
{Passer doinesiictis) was no doubt the first bird to adopt them, and sub- 
sequently the Purple Martin {Progne subis) ; this is quite a common 
occurrence through southern New Jersey. But there jet remains another 
species, the fact of which may be new to ornithologists, which I observed 
at Atlantic City, N. J., about July, 1892. 

The Friends' Meeting House, corner of Soutli Carolina and Pacific 
Avenues, has been used as a breeding place by a colony of Barn Swallows 
{C/iclidoii erythrogastra) for a number of years, building their nests on 
top of the caps of the pilasters around the outside of the building. 
While watching their movements from the veranda of a cottage on the 
opposite side of the street, I noticed a Swallow fly out from under an arc- 
light hood which stood above the sidewalk. From the frequent trips to 
and fro, the nest I thus discovered no doubt contained young. — 
J. Harris Reed, Beverly, N. J. 

The Use of Hornets' Nests by Birds. — Miss Elizabeth A. Simons of 
East Clifton, Delaware Co., Penn., has in her possession a large hornet's 
nest, which was taken from a pear tree, in the vicinity, 'by her brother. 
A neat hole had been excavated in its side, directly under the comb, 
about tW'O and one half inches in diameter, with quite a good-sized cavity 
inside, which was bedded with slender fall-grasses and lined with body 
feathers from fowls. Upon inquiry they were not certain of its true 
occupants, but from a careful examination I would judge it to be a 
freshly built nest of the House Sparrow {Passer domesticus). It is to be 
regretted that it had not been found by a more careful observer. 

This is the second occurrence of the use of hornets' nests by birds, 
which has come under the writer's notice, the other instance being a 
House Wren (Auk, Vol. VI, p. 339). — J. Harris Reed, Beverly, N.J. 

Some Corrections. — In 'The Auk,' Vol. XII, pages 191 and 192, are 
some notes on Upper Peninsula Michigan Birds by the writer, which are 
here corrected. 

The specimens of supposed Yellow-headed Blackbirds taken by me, 
have later been identified as " heavily marked fall specimens of the Rusty 
Blackbird, Scolecophagus carolinus" by Prof. W. B. Barrows. This does 
not affect the specimen taken by E. E. Brewster of Iron Mountain, Mich., 
Avhich is a true Xaiithocephalus xaiithocefhalus. 

Also the Connecticut Warlslers have been identified by Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam as Geothlypis trichas, which they very closely resembled in this 
the first fall plumage. — Oscar B. Warrex, Hibbing, St. Louis Co., 
Minn. 



1 94 General Notes. \_t^^\ 

Revival of the Sexual Passion in Birds in Autumn. — Under the above 
heading two short notes have ah-eady appeared in ' The Auk,' for January, 
1886. The first (pp. 141, 142) is by Bradford Tori-ey who, on October 12, 
18S5, saw a pair of Bluebirds " toying with each other affectionately " and 
"once certainly .... in the attitude, if not in the act, of copulation," and 
he queries whether this may not account for the second period of song 
which many birds have. The other note (p. 286) is from Charles Keeler 
Avho noticed similar actions among some English Sparrows, which, in 
November and December, 1885, were even engaged in nest-building, the 
weather at the time being very mild. 

To these observations it seems worth while to add the following 
account of an experience which I had at Lakeside, Coos County, New 
Hampshire (at the southern end of Lake Umbagog), a little more than a 
year ago. I quote from my journal of August 22, 1896. 

At about sunrise this morning there were fully three hundred and fifty 
Swallows strung along on the wires of the fence in front of the hotel. 
I watched this flock for more than an hour (7 to 8 A. m.) and was amply 
repaid for the trouble. There had been a: heavy rain during the night 
and the road was very muddy. The birds alighted about the edges of one 
of the larger puddles in great numbers and walked slowly about fluttering 
or quivering their half-opened wings like so many big butterflies. At 
first I supposed that they were drinking or picking up insects, but what 
was my astonishment to find that the Eave Swallows were filling their 
bills with mud, and the White-bellied and Bank Swallows gathering 
pieces of hay or straw. The Barn Swallows did not visit the pool in any 
numbers, and I did not happen to see them pick up anything. Each bird, 
on obtaining a satisfactory load of mud or grass, flew with it to the fence 
and after shifting it about in its bill for a few moments, finally dropped 
it and at once returned to the road for a fresh supply. From fifty to a 
hundred Swallows were thus constantly engaged for half-an-hour or 
more. Not one of them took its burden elsewhere than to the wire fence 
or retained it for more than two or three minutes after reaching its perch. 
What did it all mean.'' Two facts which remain to be recorded will, 
perhaps, explain. 

The first is that, while the birds were clustered about the mud-puddle, 
scarce a minute passed when one or two pairs were not engaged in copu- 
lation. Perhaps I should say in attempted, rather than actual, copulation 
for, as nearly as I could see, the sexual commerce was in no instance 
fully and successfully accomplished. The females (or at least the birds 
that acted that part) submitted willingly enough to, and in some 
instances, as I thought, actually solicited, the attentions of the males ; 
the latter, however, displayed but mild sexual ardor and were very 
clumsy in their attempts at indulging it. Once I saw an Eave Swallow 
and a White-bellied Swallow in sexual contact. 

The second fact apparently supplies the key to the whole mystery. It 
is simply that every one of the Swallows which visited the mud-puddle 



^°'„^^'^] General Notes. I <^^ 

/ 
and engaged in collecting mud and stiaw or in attempted copulation, -was 

a yonng bird! Of this I made sure by the most careful scrutiny with a 
glass at a distance of only 15 or 20 feet. There were a few old birds in 
the flock, but they remained constantly on the fence. 

It seems evident, therefore, that the remarkable behavior of the birds 
which alighted in the road was simply an expression of premature devel- 
opment, in the j'Oimg, of the instincts and passions of nest-building and 
procreation. It is, however, the only instance of this kind that has ever 
come under my observation. — William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 



Remarkable Ornithological Occurrences in Nova Scotia. — Least 
Bittern (Botaurus exilis). — On March 16, 1S96, an adult male in full 
plumage was shot at Upper Prospect, Halifax County, N. S., and was 
brought to me for identification. This species has never before been 
taken in Nova Scotia and its occurrence is remarkable, particularly when 
we consider the early period of the year in which it was taken. It 
usually ranges only as far north as Massachusetts in the East, but 
stragglers have been taken in Maine and New Brunswick. In the latter 
Province some five individuals were killed between 1S77 and 18S1 on the 
Baj' of Fundy coast. 

Little Blue Heron (Ardea caerulea). — A male in adult plumage 
was killed at Lawrencetown, Halifax County, on March iS, 1S96 — two 
daA's after the Least Bittern was shot. The bird was very thin. Another 
specimen, also an adult, was taken at Shut Harbour, N. S., on April 10, 
1S97. Only once previously has the species been collected in this Prov- 
ince. In the summer of 1S84 an immature specimen was taken at Cole 
Harbour, near Halifax. 

Purple Gallinule (lonornis martinica). — This species is an acci- 
dental visitor. In 1S96 I saw an adult female which had been captured 
alive on Devil's Island, Halifax Harbour, about January 16 of that vear. 
It had probably been injured b}' striking the lighthouse upon that 
island. After being kept alive for about twenty-five days, it died and 
was mounted. I am told that another of the same species was found 
dead at Chezzetcook, Halifax Count}', in the same week as that in which 
the before-mentioned specimen was taken. Previous to this, two Speci- 
mens had been taken in the Province. One of these was shot near 
Halifax on January 30, 1S70 (Jones, American Naturalist, IV, 253), and 
the other was captured alive in April, 1889, and was kept for some time 
in an aviary by the late Mr. Andrew Downs {vide Transactions N. S. 
Inst. Nat. Sc, VII, 468). It has been reported as casual in the neighbor- 
ing Province of New Brunswick. 

Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata). — A partial albino was shot 
about October 11, 1894, at Canning, King's County. 

Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). — On March 17, 1S97, one of these 
birds was found, dead, on the sandv shore of Ketch Harbour, near 



196 



General N'ofes. I ^pril 



Halifax. I examined the bird before it was skinned. Death had evi- 
dently been largely caused by starvation, as the bodj was very thin. 
The occurrence of this European bird upon our coast is most remark- 
able. It is perhaps doubtful if there is another well-authenticated record 
of the capture of the bird in temperate America, for Mr. Ridgway queries 
"Long Island" in the list of localities given in his 'Manual.' There 
cannot be the slightest doubt about the identification of the present 
specimen. 

Black Vulture (Catharista atrata). — A Black Vulture was shot at 
Pugwash, Cumberland County, N. S-, on January 12, 1896, and was 
brought to Halifax where I identified it. Mr. Chamberlain (Nuttall's 
Ornithology, 1S91) states that it has been killed on Grand Manan in 
the Bay of Fundy. I think it has not been elsewhere met with in the 
Dominion of Canada. As in the case of the Least Bittern, the Little 
Blue Heron, the Gallinule, and the Lapwing, it will be observed that the 
present bird was taken at a very early period of the year. 

American Crow (Corvus americanus). — ^An albinistic Crow was 
killed near Halifax on October 6, 1896. Its general colour was brown, 
darker on the throat, cheeks and belly ; scapulars and feathers of back 
margined obscurel}^ -with whitish ; primaries mostly whitish ; tertials 
white; tail-feathers light reddish brown margined with whitish on outer 
edge ; legs, bill and iris, brown. 

Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis). — My brother and myself 
found a nest of this species, containing a number of young, at Spry- 
field, near Halifax, on June 11, 1S94. It was simply a cavity in moss, in 
situ upon the face of a rock close to the shore of a small lake. This moss 
■was constajitly saturated with w«/e^ which trickled from a bank above and 
slowly flowed over the stone on which the moss grew. There is not the 
least doubt as to identification, for one of the parent birds was seen 
entering and leaving the exit several times. We were close alongside and 
could distinctly see the bird. In May, 1891, we found a nest of the same 
species only a couple of feet from the site of the one just mentioned. It 
precisely resembled the latter in form, construction and materials, as well 
as in being saturated with moisture. A full description of the nest of 
1891, which contained a number of eggs, will be found in the ' Trans- 
actions ' of the N. S. Institute of Science, VIII, 203. — Harry Piers, 
Halifax, N. S. 

Occasional Visitants at San Geronimo (Nicasio Township), Marin 
Co., California. — Dryobates nuttallii. Nuttall's Woodpecker.— 
This bird is a common resident, though never numerous, about thirty 
miles north of this place, but only one specimen has been seen in this 
locality. This was a female taken Feb. 14, J884. 

Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. Red-naped Sapsucker. — Two speci- 
mens taken in 1894 and one in 1897 — all three shot in the family orchard 
adjoining the house. 



^°'g^"^] General Notes. igj 

Melanerpes torquatus. Licwis's Wooni'iccKicR. — -'I'liis is an ocxasional 
visitor in tlie fall or winter. Some years two or three will ajipear, and 
oilier years none at all. 

Dendroica nigrescens. Black-throated Gr.w Wauhlkr. — One 
taken, a male, Sept. iS, iSyy. Had never heard of one in Marin County 
before, and have seen none since. 

Dendroica townsendii. Townsend's Warbler. — The bird is of rare 
occurrence in this neighborhood, but almost every year two or three are 
taken. 

Mimus polyglottos. Mockinguird. — One specimen, a male, was 
taken here by Mr. C A. Allen on Dec. 30, 1S94, and is now in our collec- 
tion. There was no evidence of its having at any time been a caged bird. 

Myadestes townsendii. — Townsend's Solitaire. — On Feb. 14, 1880, 
while on top of our chaparral hills with Mr. C. A. Allen five or six of 
these birds were observed flying among some cedar trees. Three speci- 
mens were shot. Since then I have seen no more, although constantly 
on the lookout for them, until Dec. 20, 1S97. Long-continued cold 
weather had led me to believe that there was a liability of a visit from 
some of these birds, and on this date I caught sight of one flying across 
a canon. I was fortunate enough to locate it on top of a Douglas fir and 
to make the capture. It proved to be a male. Those shot in iSSo were 
J males and i female. — Joseph Mailliard, Sa/i Geronimo, Marin Co., 
Cal. 

California Bird Notes. — -On looking over my records for the past few- 
years I find some items that may be of service in indicating the geo- 
graphical distribution of the species mentioned. 

Synthliboramphus antiquus. Ancient Murrelet. — In December, 
1S95, I obtained three females of this species on Monterey Bay, off Paci- 
fic Grove, and in January, 1896, three males and two females in the same 
locality. In the California Academy of Sciences there is a fine series of 
these birds from Monterey Bay, taken by Mr. L. M. Loomis in December, 
1894, and January, 1895 (Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci. (2), VI, 1S96, pp. 
17-19.) 

Brachyramphus hypoleucus. Xantus's Murrelet. — On Dec. 2, 1895, 
I obtained a male of this species on Monterey Bay, and on Jan. 17, 1896, 
a female. Also one, taken on this bay by Mr. L. M. Loomis, is in the 
California Academy of Sciences. (Proc. Cal, Acad. Sci. (2), V, 1895, p. 

2X1. J 

Puffinus tenuirostris. Slender-billed Shearwater. — On Dec. 17, 
18, and 19, 1895, large bands of Shearwaters were feeding on Monterey 
Bay and out of the number that were taken fifteen proved to be of the 
above species. An immense flock of, presumabl_v, P. griseus and P. 
tenuirostris followed a school of sardines close into shore on Dec. 20, 
contrary to their usual habits, but unfortunately the necessity of return- 
ing to my business affairs by the early train the following morning 
prevented me from taking advantage of this flight. Had I realized at 



IQo Recent Literafure. LApril 

the moment their extreme rarity on this coast business matters would 
have been cast aside. Mr. A. W. Anthony of San Diego, on being noti- 
fied by letter of the presence of this species succeeded in shooting several 
specimens off San Diego Bay. Since then Mr. L. M. Loomis has taken 
one specimen on Monterey Bay, and I believe this completes the record 
for this coast. 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Pinon Jay. — In December, 1895, a 
large flock of these birds located in the vicinity of Pacific Grove, 
Monterey Co., Cal. This flock made a tour of the town nearly every day 
that I was there, flying from one pine tree to another and sometimes 
alighting on the ground, but never staying in one spot more than a 
minute or two. The oldest inhabitants could not remember having seen 
these birds before nor having heard their peculiar cries. I succeeded in 
securing six specimens, all females. From what observations I could 
make during their restless movements I should say that the majority, 
if not all, of this flock were females. 

Larus canus. Mew Gull. — There is in our collection an adult of this 
species taken upon San Francisco Bay, Cal., some years ago. Unfortu- 
nately, however, the label was accidentally torn off in moving the collec- 
tion, arid at that time no systematic record of specimens was kept. — 
Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo, Marin Co., Cal. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

'Audubon and His Journals.'' — In the brief space of 73 pages Miss 
Audubon has given the public for the first time a trustworthy biographj- 
of her illustrious grandfather, John James Laforest Audubon.^ ' The 
Life of Audubon the Naturalist, edited by Mr. Robert Buchanan from 

' Audubon and his | Journals | By | Maria R. Audubon | With Zoological 
and other Notes | by | Elliott Coues | Volume I [-II] | New York | Charles 
Scribner's Sons | 1897. — Two vols. 8vo, illustrated. Vol. I, pp. i-xiv, 1-532, 
22 ill., mostly full-page photogravure; Vol. II, pp. i-viii, 1-554, 15 photo- 
gravure ill. and 9 facsimiles of dijilomas. (Price, $7.50.) 

^Doubtless the name Laforest is little known as a part of Audubon's name 
but in a footnote to p. 5 of the biograjjhy Miss Audubon gives the following 
quotation from a letter of Audubon to Mrs. Rathbone, written in 1827, and 
adds that all Mrs. Audubon's letters to her husband address him as Laforest : 
" My name is John James Laforest Audubon. The name Laforest I never 
sign except when writing to my wife, and she is the only being, since my 
father's death, who calls me by it." 



^"sgS^J neccjit LllrralKie. IQQ 

material siip))licd 1)\' liis W'itiow,' puhlislicd in Londnii in 1868 and 
republished in New York in 1869, with additions, and the omission of 
some objectionable passafj^es, has been heretofore our principal authority 
on the life of the threat artist-naturalist, but it is said to contain many 
errors in dates and names, and is otherwise very unsatisfactory. 

Andubon was born in Mandeville, Parish of St. Tammany, Louisiana. 
The date of his birth remains in obscurity; it is usually given as Maj' 5, 
1780, though believed to be somewhat earlier. It was, however, during 
the time Louisiana was a Spanish colony, some twenty to twenty-five 
years before it became a part of the United States. Yet Audubon, in so 
often referring to himself in his European Journals as the American 
woodsman, is literally within the truth as regards the locality of his 
birthplace; and throughout his life ail his interests and sympathies were 
centered in the United States, v^-hich eventuallv came to include the land 
of his birth, his "beloved Louisiana." 

At an early age he, with his mother, went with his father to Santo 
Domingo, where the elder Audubon owned a large estate. Here his 
mother was soon after killed in a negro insurrection , the father and 
young Audubon, still a very young child, and some servants, escaped to 
New Orleans and thence went to France. Here Audubon lived for some 
years at Nantes, in the care of a fond stepmother, and later was put to 
school. He was not, however, especially studious. He says, " My father 
being mostly absent on dutj' [as a naval officer], my mother suffered me 
to do much as I pleased ; it was therefore not to be wondered at that, 
instead of applying closely to my studies, I preferred associating with 
boys of my own age and disposition, Avho were more fond of going in 
search of birds' nests, fishing, or shooting, than of better studies.' 
Again, speaking of liis school days, he says: "During all these years 
there existed withip me a tendency to follow Nature in her walks. Per- 
haps not an hour of leisure w^as spent elsewhere than in Avoods and fields 
and to examine either the eggs, nest, young, or parents of anv species of 
birds constituted my delight." When he was about eighteen years old his 
father found it necessary to send him back to his "own beloved country, 
the United States of America," and, he adds, "I came with intense and 
indescribable pleasure." 

From this time, with the exception of a business trip to France while 
still a youth, and his later visits to Great Britain and the continent, he 
lived in the United States, for which, in all his wanderings, he mani- 
fested the greatest attachment. 

The history of the first fort}' years of Audubon's life, as here given 
(pp. 7-38), is autobiographical, being from one of his journals ;• it brings 
the account down to 1S19, when he left Henderson, Kentucky. This is 

' Reprinted from ' Scribner's Magazine,' for March, 1S93, with some correc- 
tions. 



200 



Recent Literature. L April 



supplemented (pp. 39-4S) by extracts and much other information derived 
from some of his early journals, only two of which have escaped the 
ravages of fire. * The following thirty pages conclude this fascinating 
and all too briefly-told history of a career unusually varied and pictur- 
esque. This brevity is in large measure, however, compensated by the 
'Journals' that compose the chief part of these two large volumes, 
through which Audubon's charming personal character is revealed in all 
its simplicity and loveliness. His many struggles with adverse condi- 
tions, his mercurial temperament and versatility, his womanly tender- 
ness and kind regai-d for others, as well as his intense love of nature, 
stand forth prominently in the almost daily entries of passing events. 
The 'Journals,' besides giving an insight into the motives and character 
of the man, possess the charm of personal reminiscence and great historic 
interest, whether they relate to his sojourn in Edinburgh, London, and 
Paris, or to his various expeditions into then almost unexplored parts of 
this continent. The European Journals (I, pp. 79-342) cover the critical 
period (1826-29) of Audubon's visit to Edinburgh and London in search of 
subscribers to and a publisher for 'The Birds of America,' and introduce 
to t*he reader persons then prominent, not only in literatui-e and art, but 
as naturalists and natural history publishers. Audubon was received 
everywhere with great cordiality, and formed manv life-long friendships. 
The names of Lord Stanley (later Earl of Derby), the Rathbones, Traill, 
Roscoe, Jameson, Bewick, Children, Selby, Vigors, Sabine, Swainson, 
Nuttall, and others in England, and Cuvier in France, have either been 
given by Audubon to American birds, or are otherwise associated with 
their literary history. The Rathbones Avere his especial friends and 
greatly aided him in his canvass for subscribers and in securing the pub- 
lication of his work. This portion of the 'Journals ' abounds especially 
in passages it is hard to refrain from quoting, either from their revealing 
characteristic traits of Audubon himself, or as giving glimpses of many 
naturalists prominent in England during the first half of the present 
century. 

The following brief extracts will serve to illustrate the cordiality of his 
reception and the general character of his Journals. He thus relates for 
example, his first meeting with Lord Stanlej' : "In the afternoon I drove 
with Mr. Hodgson to his cottage, and while chatting with his amiable 
wife the door opened to admit Lord Stanley. I have not the least doubt 
that if m}' head had been looked at, it would have been thought to be 
the body, globularly closed, of one of our largest porcupines; all my hair 
— and I have enough — stood straight on end, I am sure. He is tall, 
well formed, made for activity, simply but well dressed; he came to me 
at once, bowing to Mrs. Hodgson as he did so, and taking my hand in 
his, he said : ' Sir, I am glad to see you.' Not the words onlj-, but his 

' Destroyed in the ' Great Fire ' that devastated New York city in 1835. 



^"'•^^l Recent Li/ryafiirr. 20I 

1S98 J 

manner put me at once at m j ease. My drawings were soon brought out. 
Lord Stanley is a great naturalist, and in an instant he was exclaiming 
over my work, ' Fine !'' Beautiful ! ' and when I saw him on his knees, 
having spread my drawings on the floor, the better to compare them, I 
forgot he was Lord Stanley, I knew only he too loved Nature. ... He 
cordiallv invited me to call on him in Grosvenor street in ioxvu (thus he 
called London), shook hands with me again, and mounting a splendid 
hunter rode off. . . . Oh! that I had been flogged out of this miserable 
shyness and mauvcxise /ionic when I was a 3'outh." 

He says again, " When I airi\ed in this city [Liveipool] I felt dejected, 
miserably so; the uncertainty as to my reception, my doubts as to how 
my work would be received, all conspired to depress me. Now, how differ- 
ent are my sensations ! I am well received everywhere, my works praised 
and admired, and my poor heart is at last relieved from the great anxiety 
that has for so many years agitated it, for I know now that I have not 
worked in vain." 

Under the same date he writes : " I have letters given me to Baron 
Humboldt, Genei-al La Fayette, Sir Walter Scott, Sir Humphry Davy, 
Miss Hannah More, Miss Edgworth, Sir Thomas Lawrence, etc., etc. 
How" I wish Victor could be with me; what an opportunity to see the best 
of this island; few ordinary' individuals ever enjoyed the same reception. 
Many persons of distinction have begged drawing lessons of me at a 
guinea an hour." Although entertained so constantly, his expenses were 
heavy, to defray which he spent much time painting pictures on orders, 
and also for presentation to the Rojal and other scientific societies as a 
token of his appreciation of the aid rendered him in making known his 
work to the educated, the elite, and the titled of England. Thus, under 
August 21, 1826, he says: "I painted many hours this day, finished my 
Otter; ... I was again invited to remove to Green Bank [to the Rath- 
bones], but declined until I have painted the Wild Turkey cock for the 
Royal Institution [of Liverpool], say three days more." 

Under date of Dec. 13, 1S26, he sajs : "I have spent the greater portion 
of this da}" in the company of Mr. Selby, the ornithologist. . . . We were 
together some hours at the Institution, — he was greatly pleased with my 
drawings, — and we then dined at Mr. Lizars' in company with Dr. Lizars, 
and we all talked ornithology. I wish I possessed the scientific knowl- 
edge of the subject that Mr. Selby does. He wished to hear my paper on 
the ' Buzzard,' and after doing so, took it with him to read to *S\r Wm. 
Jardine, to whom he goes to-morrow", but will return on Monday. Later 
Dr. Brewster came to my room with the proof of the paper on the ' Car- 
rion Crow.' He read it, and we both corrected. He told me it was a 
question whether or no I could be made a member of the Royal Academy 
[of Edinburgh], for only thirty foreigners were allowed by law, and the 
number was already complete; still he hoped an exception would be made 
in my case. He thanked me very cordially for my paper, and said Sir 



202 Recent Literature. \_k^^\ 

Walter Scott wished to meet me, and would do so on Mondaj^ at the 
Roj'al Academy." 

One more extract may here be given, to show the incentive that in- 
spired Audubon's efforts : " We [referring to his engraver, Mr. Lizars] 
then talked of the engraving of the HawVs, and it seems that it will be 
done. Perhaps even yet fame may be mine, and enable me to provide all 
that is needful for my Lucy [his wife] and my children. Wealth I do 
not crave, but comfort; and for my boys I have the most ardent desire 
that they may receive the best of education, far above any that I possess ; 
and day by day science advances, new thoughts and new ideas crowd 
onward, there is always fresh food for enjoj'ment, study, improvement, 
and I must place them where all this may be a possession to them." 

His real feeling toward Alexander Wilson, at this period of Audu- 
bon's life, is shown by his reference to "a new work on the Birds of 
England." He says, "I did not like it as well as I had hoped; I much 
prefer Thomas Bewick. Bewick is the Wilson of England." 

The fascinating pages of the 'European Journals' must now be left 
to the enjoj'ment of the reader, while we pass to a brief notice of 
the 'Labrador Journal' (1833), and the 'Yellowstone Journal' (1843). 
These have a different interest, being narratives of exploration, and 
hence, from the period when they were made, are of special interest for 
the historian and the' naturalist. The voyage to Labrador was made in 
the schooner ' Ripley,' in command of Captain Emery, which sailed from 
Eastport, Me., June 6, to which port Audubon and his party returned 
August 31. He had with him as companions and assistants his son 
John, and four young men from Boston — -Messrs. George Shattuck, 
Thomas Lincoln, William Ingalls, and Joseph Coolidge. Since the time 
of Audubon's Labrador expedition great changes have taken place in the 
bird fauna of the islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Labrador 
coast. This, for example, is his description of the Bird Rocks, north of 
the Magdalene Islands : " About ten a speck rose on the horizon, which 
I was told was the Rock ; we sailed well, the breeze increased fast, and 
we neared this object apace. At eleven I could distinguish its top plainly 
from the deck, and thought it covered with snow to the depth of several 
feet ; this appearance existed on every portion of the flat, pi-ojecting 
shelves. Godwin said, with the coolness of a man who had visited this 
Rock for ten successive seasons, that what we saw was not snow — but 
Gannets ! I rubbed my eyes, took my spy-glass, and in an instant the 
strangest picture stood before me. They were birds we saw, — a mass 
of birds of such a size as I never before cast my eyes on. The whole of 
my party stood astounded and amazed, and all came to the conclusion 
that such a sight was of itself sufficient to invite any one -to come 
across the Gulf to view it at this season. The nearer we approached, the 
greater our surprise at the enormous number of these birds, all calmly 
seated on their eggs or newly hatched brood, their heads all turned 
to windward, and towards us. The air above for a hundred yards, and 



^°898^] JRccctit Lilv rat lire. 203 

for some distance around the whole rock, was filled with (jannels on the 
wing, which from our position made it appear as if a heavy fall of snow 

Avas directly ahove us The whole surface is perfectly covered 

with nests, placed about two feet apart, in such regular order that you 
may look through the lines as you would look through those of a 
planted patch of sweet potatoes or cabbages. The fishermen who kill 
these birds to get their flesh for codfish bait, ascend in parties of six or 
eight, armed with clubs ; sometimes, indeed, the party comprises the 
crews of several vessels. As they reach the top, the birds, alarmed, 
rise with a noise like thunder, and fly off in such hurried, fearful con- 
fusion as to throw each other down, often falling on each other till there 
is a bank of them many feet high. The men strike them down and kill 
them until fatigued or satisfied. Five hundred and forty have been thus 
murdered in one hour by six men. The birds are skinned with little 
care, and the flesh cut off in chunks ; it will keep fresh about a fort- 
night." 

At another place they found two eggers collecting eggs of the Foolish 
Guillemot, their take for the season being estimated at about 2,000 dozen. 
With such inroads annually for almost a century upon the Sea Fowl, the 
wonder is that any are left ! 

On the coast of Labrador Audubon found the Pied or Labrador Duck 
( Camptolaimus labradoriiis) breeding on the top of low bushes, and 
among other noteworthy discoveries was the Finch, which he named for 
his young companion, Thomas Lincoln. 

The Labrador trip was undertaken for the purpose of making di-awings 
for the continuation of the ' Birds of America,' and although the journey 
was one of hardship, owing to almost continuous tempestuous weather, 
it was exceedingly profitable in results, despite the many unfavorable con- 
ditions for work. 

The Missouri River expedition was undertaken solely in the interest of 
the ' Qiiadrupeds of North America,' in which Audubon and his two 
sons, John and Victor, were then engaged, in conjunction with Dr. 
Bachman. As Miss Audubon tells us, "The journev has been onh" 
briefl}' touched upon in former publications, and the entire record from 
August 16 until the return home was lost in the back of an old secretary 
from the time of Audubon's return in November, 1S43, until August, 
1896, Avhen two of his granddaughters found it. Mrs. Audubon states in 
her narrative that no record of this part of the trip was known to exist, 
and none of the family now living had ever seen it until the date men- 
tioned." Its discovery was most fortunate, as its publication makes 
available a diar^' of the highest value, not only to the naturalist but to 
the historian. As here printed it occupies about 270 pages (Vol. I, 
pp. 447-532, Vol. II. pp. 1-195), and every page is replete with interest. 
Audubon left New York March 11, and reached St. Louis March 28; 
delayed here by the unfavorable weather of a late spring, final departure 
on the long journey up the Missouri was made April 25, on the steamer 



2 Oil Rece77t Literature. I April 

'Omega.' Fort Union was reached June I3. Of this slow, tedious 
journey, with the most primitive facilities for navigation, Audubon 
writes : " Our trip to this place has been the quickest on record, though 
our boat is the slowest that ever undertook to reach the Yellowstone. 
Including all stoppages and detentions, we have made the trip in forty- 
eight days and seven hours from St. Louis. We left St. Louis April 25th, 
at noon; reaching Fort Union June 12th, at seven in the evening.'" On 
the return journey the start was made August 16 from Fort Union, and 
St. Louis was reached Oct. 19, Audubon arriving at his home in New 
York Nov. 6. 

On this journey Audubon took with him as assistants and companions 
his friend Edward Harris of Philadelphia, John G. Bell, the well-known 
New York taxidermist, the botanical artist Isaac Sprague, and Lewis 
Squires. Bell, Harris and Sprague are each commemorated in the 
names of new birds discovered during the journey — in Bell's Vireo, 
Harris's Finch, and Sprague's Lark. The narrative of the expedition 
gives a vivid pictvu^e of frontier life a half a century ago, with much valu- 
able information resp.ecting the character and habits of the Indians and 
half-breeds met with, in addition to the natural historj^ notes and hunting 
episodes, of which the journal is largely composed. This was in the 
early days when Parrakeets were common as far north as Nebraska, and 
were met with by Audubon as far up the Missouri as Great Bend, South 
Dakota; wolves, elk, deer, antelope and bison abounded. Valuable obser- 
vations are recorded on the general character of the country, as well as 
on the birds and mammals. 

Volume II concludes with the ' Episodes,' fifty-eight in number. All 
but one were published in the first three volumes of the ' Ornithological 
Biographies,' but as they were not republished in the later ' Birds of 
America,' nor elsewhere till now, they will prove of special -interest, as 
well to the general reader as to the naturalist. They treat of a great 
variety of subjects, including incidents of personal adventure, and often 
show Audubon at his best as a strong and versatile writer, and reveal, 
quite as much as his 'Journals,' his kind-heartedness and keen apprecia- 
tion of the fancies and foibles of his fellowmen. 

Audubon was blessed with a strong constitution and remarkable phj'si- 
cal vigor and endurance. As early, however, as the Labrador journey he 
speaks of realizing that he was no longer young, and that he could not 
draw steadily for fourteen hours a day, as was formerly his custom. Yet 
ten years later, at the age of seventy, he undertook the arduous journey 
to the Yellowstone, and returned apparently none the worse for its inci- 
dents. In his younger days and till long after his return fi-om England, 
his usual allowance of sleep was four hours per day ; he Avas an early 
riser, and seemed rarely to experience fatigue. After a life of great activ- 
ity and varied experiences, his later days were spent in the quiet of his 
family in New York. To the last, says his biographer, "his enthusiasm, 
freshness, and keenness of enjoyment and pain were never blunted. His 



^".Si's^] liccput TJtcrature. 20C 

ease and sj^rncc of' speech and movement were as noticeable in tiie aj^ed 
man as tiiej had been in the happj youth of Mill Grove. His courteous 
manners to all, \\\^\\ and low, were always the same; his chivalry, gener- 
osity, and honor were never dimmed, and his great personal beauty never 
failed to attract attention ; always he was handsome." At last, " after a 
few days of increasing feebleness, for there was no illness," Audubon 
quietly passed away January 27, 1851. An appropriate monument, erected 
by the New York Academy of Sciences, marks his last resting place in 
Trinity Church Cemetery, near the place of his New York home. 

The two volumes, 'Audubon and His Journals,' are beautifully piinled 
and attractively illustrated, the illustrations including about a dozen 
portraits of Audubon, one of his wife, and several of each of his sons 
John Woodhouse and Victor Gifford. Also 'Mill Grove Mansion,' 
' Flatland Ford Mansion,' and Audubon's 'Old Mill' in Pennsylvania: 
the monument that marks his grave, and several sketches of birds and 
camp scenes not previously published. There are also facsimiles of sev- 
eral entries in his journals, and of diplomas received from various for- 
eign and American scientific societies. The publishers have thus done 
their share to give these memoirs a fitting dress. 

Great praise is due Miss Audubon for her labor in preparing the 
manuscripts for the press, and for her admirable biographv of her 
eminent grandfather, in which she has displayed rare good taste and 
judgment. The Missouri River Journals are enriched by footnotes 
giving extracts from the writings of contempoi^ary travellers, confirma- 
tory or explanatory of the text, and the European Journals by biographi- 
cal notes respecting the eminent persons mentioned in the narrative. 
Further value and interest is added by the annotations — zoologial, gee- 
graphical and biographical in character — furnished by Dr. Cones, — a 
task for which his special lines of research have given him eminent fit- 
ness. Miss Audubon also acknowledges indebtedness to him for other 
material aid and advice. She also refers feelingh- to the encouragement 
and assistance rendered by her sisters and other friends, and sa_ys, among 
her other acknowledgments: "Next to the memory of my father, Mr. 
Ruthven Deane has been the motive power which has caused this volume 
to be written." She is to be congratulated on thus having raised not 
onlj' an enduring" monument to the memory of an admirable man, but on 
having given to the world a fund of information so varied and welcome 
that it is hard to say to what class of readers it most strongly appeals. 
It must, however, especially awaken an ansAvering chord of sympathy in 
the ' born naturalist,' endowed with feelings and aspirations such as in- 
spired the great ' painter-naturalist,' whose life and works are here so 
fittingly set forth. — J. A. A. 



2o6 Receftt Literature. L April 

Miss Merriam's 'Birds of Village and Field." — Miss Merriam's hand- 
some volume is well designated ' A Bird Book for Beginners.' It treats 
of 145 of the more common species of the birds of eastern North America, 
which are grouped in various categories on the basis of coloration, in 
conformity with a ' Field Color Key-' This plan is of course no longer 
novel, it having been previously introduced in other similar bird books, 
and its efficiency well tested as an. aid in identifying birds in the field. In 
addition to the distinctive color markings, reference is also made in the 
key to characteristic traits of habit and habitat, and cuts are given illus- 
trative of form, structural details, and special markings, with a cross- 
reference in the key to the place in the book where the bird is described. 
The 'Introduction' contains, besides the key, directions for its use, under 
'How to find a Bird's Name,,' and tells 'Where to find Birds,' 'How to 
watch Birds,' 'How Birds affect Village Trees, Gardens and Farms,' and 
'How to keep Birds about our Homes.' The ' Appendix' gives instruc- 
tion about keeping migration records, and 'Migration Lists' are given of 
the land birds occurring in spring at (i) St. Louis, Mo. (based on Mr. 
Otto Widmann's observations), (2) Washington, D. C (made by Mr. 
William Palmer), and (3) Portland, Conn, (by Mr. John H. Sage). There 
is also a similar set of lists for the winter birds, based on the contributions 
of the same observers. This is followed by ' Outline for Field Observa- 
tion,' giving hints to assist beginners in field identification, relating not 
only to size, color and markings, but to movements and flight; to which 
is added a list of 'Points to note to add to knowledge of life histories.' 
The Appendix concludes with a classified list of books of reference. 

The main text (pp. 1-363) gives a very attractively" written''account of 
the habits of each bird treated, preceded by a brief statement of its diag- 
nostic features, and geographic distribution, with generally a full length 
figui-e of the species, and frequently other appropriate illustrations, as of 
bill, wing, head, tail or feet, or of insects of which the bird is a special 
enemy. 

A special feature of Miss Merriam's book is the particular emphasis 
with which she urges the utility of birds to agriculture, and hence the 
extreme importance of their preservation, aside from any motive of hu- 
manity or sentiment. For the most part her biographies are written 
with much feeling and evidently from the heart; there are lapses here 
and there into the perfunctory style of the book maker, but they are 
rare, for the author knows her birds and loves them. 

In this age of popular bird books, it must be becoming hard to intro- 
duce any novelties of treatment, or originality of expression, but Miss 

1 Birds I of Village and Field | A Bird Book for Beginners | By | Florence 
A. Merriam | Illustrated | [Vignette] | Boston and New York | Houghton, 
Mifilin and Company | The Riverside Press, Cambridge | 1898 — i2mo. pp. 
i-xlix, 1-406, 18 half-tone plates and 220 text cuts. (Price, $2.00.) 



Vol 



X VT 

'^^'f^ Rcroit Li'/rni/ii rr. 207 



Merriam sliows tlial tlierc aic si ill possibilities in hotli lines, ami that her 
book is not without raisoit (/'?/rr. It is adniirablj adapted as 'A Bird 
I?ook for Beginners," anti \\ e trust it will achieve the success it so well 
merits. — J. A. A. 

Hair and Feathers.' — Professor Kingsle}- here reviews recent investiga- 
tions regarding the development and structure of hair and feathers, no- 
tably those published in Germany, of which he presents a brief summary. 
lie makes special acknowledgment to the recent able review of the sub- 
ject bv Professor Keibel, in Merkel and Bonnet's 'Ergebnesse der Anato- 
mie und Entwickelungsgeschichte,' 1896. As is now well known, hair and 
feathers are not only unlike in structure and appearance, but in method of 
origin and growth. "According to Davies all contour feathers are pre- 
ceded by doNvn-feathers," or, in other words, "the germ of the definitive 
feather is a direct derivative of the germ of the down-feather." The 
process of formation is described at some length, concluding as follows : 
" With the withdrawal of the pulp from the feather there is no longer 
any nerve or blood supply to the parts of the feather. The cells of which 
it is composed are dead and dry so that it seems impossible that any 
change can take place in it. The whole question of change in color of 
the fully formed feather was recently reopened by Mr. J. A. Allen who 
maintained that, once formed, the feathers do not change in their mark- 
ings. The whole history of development seems to afford him full support. 
Yet this year [1897] the attempt has been made to show that feathers do 
change in their markings. In this, as the matter now stands, the burden 
of proof is upon those who support the possibility of change." 

Regarding the origin of hair and feathers, reference is made to the old 
view that they were of homologous origin, and that both were derived 
from the reptilian scale. "It may be said, however," says Kingslev, 
" that Davies, to whom we owe the most accurate account of the develop- 
ment of the feather declines to regard pin-feathers [filoplumes.?] as the 
simplest type of the avian tegumentary covering but rather as a retro- 
grade condition ; and farther, that he regards the scales upon the tarsal and 
digital regions of birds as secondary formations, agreeing in this with 
Jeffries." Again, "Maurer maintains that hair and feathers are not homo- 
logous structures. The feather, according to his view has been derived 
from the Reptilian scale while hair has arisen from the dermal sense 
organs of the Ichthyopsida as a result of a change in habits and conditions 
of life." A brief statement is given of Maurer's investigations and con- 
clusions, and the reader is further advised to refer to Keibel's summary, 
"with ifs bibliography of over one hundred titles." — J. A. A. 

Baur on the Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago. — Dr. Baur reiterates 

> Hair and Feathers. By J. S. Kingsley. Amer. Naturalist, Vol. XXXI, 
Sept. 1897, pp. 767-777, figs. 1-14. 



2o8 Recent Literature. \ t^^\ 

here ' his belief that Cactornis is generically separable from Geospiza, con- 
trary to the view of Mr. Ridgwaj, and claims that " the Cactornis propin- 
qua Ridgway from Tower Island in the north and Geospiza co?iirostris 
Ridgway from Hood Island in the south of the Archipelago have no 
relationship whatever." He believes that " all the plastic genera, which 
are represented only hy a single species on each island, as Nesotnimus, 
Certhidia, Pyrocephalus and Cactornis, show peculiar species on nearly 
CA'ery island," while there are genera, " like Geospiza and Cactornis, which 
have more than one species on one island, — two or three, perhaps four." 
In explanation of this he says we " simply have to imagine that alread}', 
before the splitting up of the Galapagos land area into distinct islands, 
there existed at least three species of Geospiza and Cajnarhynckiis, each of 
which became differeniiated on the different islands. This shows at once 
that we can not arrange these species in one series, [as done by Mr. 
Ridgway] but in three parallel series," etc. 

Dr. Baur makes a few remarks about the birds from Charles, Hood, 
Barrington, and South Albemarle Islands, and explains that the disappear- 
ance of the box of specimens at Guayaquil was not so serious a loss as 
supposed, only three species being lost instead of the much larger num- 
ber stated by Mr. Ridgway. Of the others alcoholic specimens were 
preserved. Dr. Baur also makes some additions to the lists of species 
given hy Mr. Ridgway from some of the islands. — J. A. A. 

Bulletin of the B. O. C— No. XLIX of this periodical, Dec. 29, 1897, 
contains among other novelties Phaeton americanus sp. n., the North 
American bird being distinguished from P. Jlavirostris by having the 
black on outer web of ist primary extending within 0.50 of the end, that 
on 2d and 4th primaries reaching almost to the tip, the whole outer web 
of the 3d black, and the bill entirely black, except above the nasal open- 
ing.— E. C. 

Publications Received. — Blasius, Rud. Die deutschen Grasmiicken 
(Sylviinse). (Jahresb. des Ver. fur Naturwiss. zu Braunsweig, XI, 1897, 
pp. 22-25.) 

Bocage, J. V. Barboza du. Jose D'Anchieta. (Jorn. de Sci. Math., 
Phys. e Nat., XVIII. 1S97, pp. 126-132.) 

Clark, W. Eagle. (1) On Some Birds from the Island of Negros, 
Philippines. Part III. (Ibis, Jan., 1898, pp. 1 19-124). (2) On Hybrids 
between the Capercaille and the Pheasant. (Ann. Scottish Nat. Hist., 
Jan., 1 898, pp. 17-21.) 

^ Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago : a Criticism of Mr. Robert Ridgway's 
Paper. By G. Baur, University of Chicago. Amer. Naturalist, Vol. XXXI, 
Sept., 1S97, pp: 777-7H- 



,j^ Ij Recent Literature. 200 

Lee, Oswiii A. J. Anionic liiilish Birds in lluii Nestiiif; IlamitK. 
Fol., pts. \iii ;nui i\. 

Merriam, Florence A. ]}ii(is of Villa-ic and I'"i\ld— A I'.iicl IJook tor 
Bej^inners. i2ino. Uoston, i8y8, Hongliton, Millln, lV Co. $2.00. 

Meyer, A. 1}. (editor). 22 Jahresversammlung dcr Deutsclien Ornitlio- 
loi^ischen Gesellsciiaft in Dresden voni 2S.-30. Mai 1S97. (yVbhandi. nnd 
Berichte des Konigi. Zoolog. und Antlirop.-Ethnol. Mus. zu Dresden, 
VII, 1S9S, No. 2, pp. i-viii, 1-83, pll. i-iii.) 

Sage, John II. List of Birds found about my house at Portland, Conn. 
i2mo, pp. 10. 

Salvadori, Reliquie Ornitologiche della spedizione Bottego. (Mus. 
Civ. di Stor. Nat. di Geneva, XVIII, 1898, pp. 652, 653.) 

Worcester, Dean C, and Frank S. Bourns. Contributions to Philip- 
pine Ornithology. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XX, No. 1134, 1898, pp. 
549-625.) 

American Journ. Sci., Jan. -March, 1898. 

American Naturalist, Jan.-March, 1898. 

Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist., Jan., 1898. 

Australian Museum, Records, No. 3, 1897. 

Birds, Jan.-March, 1898. 

Bulletin British Orn. Club, Nos. 49-51, Dec, 18^7, Jan., Feb., 1898. 

Bulletin Michigan Orn. Club, I, Nos. 3, 4. 

Bulletin Wilson Orn. Chapter Agassiz Assoc, No. 18, Jan., 1S98. 

Feather, The, III, No. 4, Jan., 1898. 

Forest and Stream, L, Nos. 1-13, 1898. 

Iowa Ornithologist, IV, No. i, Jan., 1898. 

Knowledge, XXI, Jan.-March, 1898. 

Maine Sportsman, III, No. 31-V, No. 55. 

Naturalist, The, a Month. Journ. of Nat. Hist, for North of England. 
Jan.-March, 1898. 

Ornithologischer Jahrbuch, VIII, Heft 6, IX, Heft i. 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte, VI, Nos. 1-3, Jan.-March, 1S9S. 

Osprey, The, II, Nos. 6, 7, 1898. 

Oregon Naturalist, IV, Nos. 8 and 9, Dec, 1S97, Jan., 1S98. 

Our Animal Friends, XXV, Nos. 5-7, Jan.-March, 1898. 

Ottawa Naturalist, XI, Nos. 7-10, Oct, 1897-Feb., 1S9S. 

Proceedings California Acad. Sci. (3) Zoology, I, Nos. 5, 6; Botanv, 
I, No. 2 ; Geology, I, No. 3. 

Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1897, pt. 3, Oct. -Dec, 1897. 

Proceedings and Transaction Nova Scotia Inst. Sci., (2) II, pt. 3. 

Science, (2) Nos. 154-168, 1898. 

Shooting and Fishing, XXIII, Nos. 9-22, 1898. 

Zoologist, The, (4) Nos. 13-15, Jan.-March, 189S. 



2IO CorresJ'ondence. L April 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Fauna of Muskeget Island — A Reply. 

Editors of ' The Auk ' : — 

Dear Sirs: — I take it for granted that I shall be allowed, with your 
accustomed courtesy, a little space in your Journal for the purpose of 
replying to the author of a letter entitled, 'The Fauna of Muskeget 
Island — A Protest,' which appeared in the number for January, 1898. 
This letter, I am free to confess, has given me a genuine surprise. It is 
only after some hesitation that I have decided to reply to it. I can but 
regard this ' Protest, ' with its accompanying inferences, as uncalled foi- 
b}' the facts in the case. I therefore beg your indulgence to take up some 
of the points in the order that they are presented in Mr. Miller's letter. 

I have shot but one Short-eared Owl for a number of years. I have 
had, however, in the Legislature for two years past, and again this winter, 
a bill in which there is a clause giving this Owl full protection. The 
above mentioned bird is now in Mr. William Brewster's collection, and is 
in the dark phase of plumage. It was one of a brood hatched on Mus- 
keget during the summer of 1896. I would have shot the entire family 
had I been able to accomplish \t at the time, for the reason that I had the 
interests of the Terns in view; hence all antagonistic elements, whether 
developed in man, mammals, or birds, were regarded as enemies and so 
treated. Bird protection is a complicated and difficult problem at best. I 
see no occasion for making it harder for those engaged in it. When a 
gentleman of Mr. Miller's ornithological knowledge expresses such senti- 
ments in print as the following : " But when bird protection results in the 
destruction of a family of Owls, which, notwithstanding its numerical 
insignificance, far outweighs in biological interest the largest Tern colony 
on the entire Atlantic coast," I think that lovers of bird life have a right 
to 'protest' with more reason than he. When bird protection embraces 
a remnant of Terns raised from a low ebb through years of tireless pro- 
tection, as it does in the present case, to colonies, the numbers of which 
are beyond estimate, I am of the opinion that such a condition outweighs 
any problematical biological interest likely to arise from Muskeget Island 
ever becoming a habitat of Short-eared Owls. Mr. Miller states that the 
vertebrate fauna of Muskeget may be roughly divided into two groups, 
viz., normal and abnormal. In the latter class he places the Short-eared 
Owl. From an ornithological standpoint this is surprising, for as far as 
I know it has no foundation in fact. I was not aware that Muskeget 
Island had ever produced any form of the Short-eared Owl that is dif- 
ferent from what is found elsewhere ; neither is there much likelihood 
of such a race occurring in the future on Muskeget. The conditions 



^°k,s^^] Corrcsfovdcuce. 211 

of environment, as (liey at present exist, are against such abnormal 
development. If, during the past, no such recognizable pale race has 
been produced by the conditions as claimed and presented, what ground 
or promise is there of 7101V establishing such a race amidst a shooting 
club, a life saving station, and fishermen who have numbers of cats to 
hold in check the vermin. These \'ermin are the direct result of those 
reintroduced on the island by Mr. Miller and associates several years ago. 

I fail to appreciate and dissent from the statement near the foot of 
page 77 that, " by helping to offer direct historical pi-oof of the rapidity 
at which modification may progress imder natural conditions the Terns 
would be fulfilling a more important end than in gladdening the e^e of 
the visitor to Muskeget, and the heart of the reader of Mr. Mackay's 
progress report." These beautiful birds are fulfilling at the present time 
a much more important end than the one suggested, by delighting the 
ej'e of every lover of bird life to whom the privilege of enjoying their 
companionship is given. Refining in their infiuences, what higher or 
better end can they serve ? 

George II. Mackay. 

Boston, Jiinttary 17, 1898. 



The Short-eared Owls of Muskeget Island. 

Editors of 'The Auk': — 

Dear Sirs: — I quite agree with Mr. Miller {cf. Auk, XV, No. i, Janu- 
ary, 1898, pp. 75-77) that the killing of the family of Muskeget Owls in 
1896, merely because they were preying on the Terns, was ill-judged. If 
Muskeget were my private property I should encourage and protect the 
Owls, and they would be made welcome to as many Terns as they chose 
to eat, for I should feel confident that howevei- fast they might increase 
the Terns would outstrip them in the race. As Mr. Miller says, bird pro- 
tection should not be made one sided for if it be so it is certain to lose 
not only its scientific but much of its aesthetic value, as well as some- 
thing, even, of its practical usefulness. Bird protectors, whether thev be 
sportsmen or pure bird lovers, Avould do well to study more closely the 
balance of nature, for it concerns the success of their enterprises far 
more closely than they seem to realize. Even the naturalists do not as 
yet fully understand the complex workings and delicate adjustments of a 
system which, Avhen not interfered with by man, seems invariably to 
result in the production and maintenance of the richest possible fauna, 
of which the predatory and non-predatory forms increase together to the 
full limits of the capacity for food and shelter which the country fiu^- 
nishes. No one who has ever visited a primitive region, well timbered, 
well watered and not too cold, can deny the truth of this, but it is cer- 
tainly' difficult to understand or explain how Hawks, Owls, Herons, 



212 Corresfondence. |_Aiiril 

Kingfishers and the various carnivorous mammals can exist, as thej 
so often do, in the greatest abundance without exterminating the defense- 
less creatures on v^diich they prey. 

Mr. Miller, however, bases his protest on the assumption that "a 
recognizable race" of the Short-eared Owl formerly existed on Muskeget, 
and that the birds which Mr. Mackay caused to be destroyed might have 
reproduced a similarly interesting form had they been left unmolested. 
In support of the former assertion he refers to Mr. Maynard's statement 
(Birds of Eastern N. Am., 1881, p. 264) that some specimens taken there 
in July, 1870 were so "bleached as to appear nearly white in the dis- 
tance" adding that "of course, at so early a period in the summer, this 
bleaching could hardly have been due to a mechanically abraded con- 
dition of the plumage, and indeed Mr. Maynard has personally assured 
me that such was not the case, but that the birds i-epresented a pale, 
resident race." 

I had the pleasure of accompanying Mr. Maynard to Muskeget in 1870, 
and my notes relating to our mutual experience state that but four Short- 
eared Owls were seen, and that all of these were shot. Thi-ee of the 
skins fell to my share when the spoils of the trip were divided, and are 
still in my collection. A male and female killed June 30 are, as Mr. 
Maynard says, very pale in general coloring but the third bird, a female 
taken Jul}' 2, is much darker. The plumage of all three birds is exces- 
sively ragged, many of the feathers having lost, by abrasion, nearly or 
quite one half of their normal area, while some of them are worn away 
almost to the shaft. But even the lighter .two birds have a number of 
scapulars and interscapulars which are perfect in outline and which are 
not only much darker than the worn portions of the plumage, but nearly 
or quite as dark as corresponding feathers of birds taken in autumn or 
winter at places hundreds or even thousands of miles distant from 
Muskeget. These feathers may have been of recent growth at the time 
when the birds were killed but it is more probable that they were old 
feathers which had been protected by the overlapping plumage from, the 
bleaching and disintegrating effects of the air and sunlight, for the inner 
quills, as well as the inner webs of the outer primaries and tail-feathers, 
are almost equally fresh and perfect, in striking contrast with the frayed 
and bleached outer portions of some of the wing and tail-feathers. 

It is, of course, quite safe to assert that at some time earlier in the 
season the general coloring of these birds must have been not unlike that 
which the unworn parts of the plumage now exhibit, and it seems not 
unreasonable to assume that even these unworn feathers must have lost 
something of their original depth and richness of tint. If this be granted, 
and a very slight allowance made for fading, I do not see how it can be 
maintained that the Short-eared Owls taken by Mr. Maynard and my- 
self on Muskeget Island in 1S70 wei-e in any respects peculiar. Even if 
the allowance for fading be not conceded it is quite possible, as I have 
already stated, to match the unworn feathers by corresponding feathers 



Vo'^^^^VJ Con;spon,lr,.,r. 2I3 

on linlit-colort'il l)ir(1s taki'ii duriiiL; llu' mitral ions in oIIkt parts of New 
ICiif^iaiul ami t'lscuiierc. It t'oiiows as a matter of course liiat liiere is no 
evicience, liistorieal or otlierwise, tliat Muskeget lias ever liarljored a " rec- 
Of^nizalile local race" of the Short-eared Owl. It would he indeed remark- 
ahle had such been the case, for the food resources of the island, except- 
intj; during the brief season when the Terns are breediiiff there, are not 
sulllcient to supply the wants of more than two or three families of Owls, 
and a local race which at no one period of its existence could have been 
represented by more than a score of individuals would be something of 
an anomaly. 

In this connection it may be worth remarking (since the fact seems to 
have been generally overlooked by American ornithologists) that there is 
a very decided and constant difference in coloring between the sexes of 
the Short-eared Owl, the males, when in fully adult plumage, being very 
much lighter-colored than the females. I have several males taken dur- 
ing the migrations at Ipswich, Massachusetts, as well asfrom the Pacific 
Coast, which are almost as pale as the Muskeget birds, and there is not a 
single fully adult male in vny large series which is as dark as the average 
female. Dresser, in his 'Birds of Europe' (V, p. 25S), states that the 
same sexual difference is found in Old World representatives of the Short- 
eared Owl. Very truly yours, 

William Brewster. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
March, 1898. 



An Untrustworthy Observer. 

Editors of 'The Auk': — 

Dear Sirs: — Those members of the A. O. U. who were present at the 
meeting last November will doubtless recall a paper read by Mr. Edwin 
Irvine Haines entitled 'The Summer Birds of the Catskill Mountains 
with remarks upon the Faunie of the Region.' The paper indicated a 
' chumminess ' on the part of the birds that enabled the writer to fairly 
rain down records of species that ordinarily, during the summer season, 
are satisfied to keep out of the Catskills. Several sets of eggs of the Soli- 
tary Sandpiper {Totatius solitariics), Canada Jay {Perisoreus canadensis), 
and Ipswich Sparrow [Aynmodramus princeps) had been obtained, while 
such species as the Hudsonian Chickadee (Pants hudsonicus^ and White- 
crowned Sparrow {Zo?iotric/iia albicollis) had been found hobnobbing 
with the equally abundant Dickcissel {Sfiza americana) and Tufted Tit- 
mouse {Partis bicolor). A tray full of skins, chiefly without labels and 
in winter plumage, was exhibited in support of the many extraordinary 
discoveries of which the above are samples. On asking Mr. Haines.for 



214 Notes and Neivs. Ya^AX 

the loan of his birds, he informed me that a portion of them had been 
sent to Dr. Merriam in Washington, but tlie following were submitted to 
me, viz. : White-crowned Sparrow (^Zonotrichia leiccoJ>hrys), Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet {Reg'iiliis cale?idula), Golden-crowned Kinglet {R. satrapa). 
Hermit Thrush {Tardus aotialaschkce pallasti), Gray-cheeked Thrush {T. 
alicice), Bicknell's Thrush (T. a. bicknelli), Olive-backed Thrush {Turdtis 
ustulatus szuaiiisonii), Tufted Titmouse (Parus btcolor), and Pigeon Hawk 
[Falco columbarius). Mr. Haines assured me the Thrushes had all been 
obtained between the middle of June and the middle of July ; the other 
birds (the Kinglets represented by no less than seven specimens) bore 
labels indicating capture in the Catskills on various dates between June 
ID and June 19, 1S97. Suffice it to say, not one of these birds was in 
breeding plumage! This statement will, I think, be borne out by Messrs. 
J. A. Allen and D. G. Elliot, who also examined them. 

Now the point of all this is that Mr. Haines's ornithological statements 
are not in accordance with facts, and as he has figured in print a number 
of times during the past year or two, it is but natural to view all of his 
work with suspicion. One article, ' The Kinglets and their Distribution,' 
(The Osprey, I, Feb. 1897, pp. 73-75), asserts that he has found both spe- 
cies breeding in the Catskills. As a matter of fact his "June" birds are 
ttot breeding birds. It is not likely now that his additions to the Catskill 
fauna will ever be published, nor will the breeding of Briinnich's Murre 
{^Uria lomvid) at New Rochelle, N. Y., as announced on a program of the 
Linnsean Society of New York, become a record, but it is time to put a 
check to such perverted ambitions, and while I am quite unbiassed by any 
f personal animus, I feel that my fellow members of the A. O. U. should be 
warned against a person who has shown himself to be so eminently unde- 
serving of credence. 

Yours very truly, 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

New York, N. T., 
Feb. 21, 1898. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Dr. Anders Johan Malmgren, a Corresponding Member of the 
A. O. U., who died in Helsingfors, April 13, 1897, was born in Kajana, 
Finland, in 1834. His life was quite eventful and successful in many 
directions. Thus, in 1S69, he became Professor of Zoology at the Uni- 
versity of Helsingfors; in 1874 he was made Commissioner of Fisheries; 
and in 1889 he was appointed Governor of the northernmost province of 
Finland. 

As a zoologist Malmgren paid most attention to the fauna of the boreal 
regions of Europe, and he made valuable contributions to our knowledge 



^°8fJ8^] ^'^^'^^ ""'^ News. 2 I 15 

of the niaiiimals, fislu's, ami especially ot^ tlic amuilata of tlic weslerii 
portion of tin- Aiilii- Ocean. To ns Maini^rcn is more particniarly intei- 
esting because of liis ornithological explorations in Spitzhergen. lie 
made no less than three trijis to that Ultima 'I'hule \\/.., in 1861, iS6| 
and iSfiS, the ornitliological lesnlts being puhlislied in Cabani.s's 'Journal 
tiif Ornithologie.' Mahngren clearly understood and distinguished the 
geographical forms inhabiting that interesting archipelago, and it is 
important to record that he was a trinominalist long before that form of 
nomenclature was accepted in this country. — Leonhard Stejxkger. 

Dr. Felix Georg Herman August Mojsisovics von Mojsv.\r, a 
Corresponding Member of the A. O. U., died on August 27, 1897, in the 
city of Graz, Austria, 48 years old. He was, at the time of his death, 
professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy' at the Imp. Technical 
High School; ' Privat Decent' at the University; and Curator of the 
zoological division of the ' Johanneum,' institutions all located at Graz. 

Mojsisovics von Mojsvdr was particularly interested in the fauna of 
Europe and the anatom_v of vertebrates, but he was not a prolific writer. 
As an ornithologist he contributed chiefly to the avifauna of Austria- 
Hungai-y, particularly' that of Styria and of southern Hungary and Sla- 
vonia. In 1S84 he undertook a trip to the latter provinces, the ornitholog- 
ical report upon Avhich contained a great deal of information interestingly 
presented. — I.,eonhard Stejneger. 

We h.\ve received the prospectus of 'A Monograph of the Turdidre, 
or Family of Thrushes,' by the late Henry Seebohm, edited and com- 
pleted after his death by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe. The work will be pub- 
lished by Henry Sotheran & Co., 37 Piccadilly, London, in 12 parts, at 
i£ i6s per part. The work will be in Imperial 4to, and each part will 
contain 12 colored plates, by Keulemans. The edition Avill be limited to 
250 copies. 

D. Appleton & Co. announce as in press and soon to be issued ' The 
Art of Taxidermy ' by John Rowley, Chief Taxidermist at the American 
Museum of Natural History. It will be profusely illustrated, and treat 
the subject from the standpoint of the latest and most approved modern 
methods. 

The Delaware Valley Ornithological Club held its eighth annual 
meeting January' 6, 189S, at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia, thirty-four members being in attendance. The club is in a more 
flourishing condition than ever before, the membership numbering 
seventy-five. During the past ^-ear sixteen regular meetings were held 
and one public meeting. 

Among the more important papers read were ' The Genus Sturnella' 
and 'Molting of the Sanderling,' by Witmer Stone; 'Brant Shooting,' bv 
I. N. DeHaven ; ' New Jersey Shore Birds,' by Wm. L. Baily; 'Local Rem- 
iniscenses of Audubon,' by Geo. Spencer Morris; 'Ornithological Photo- 



2 1 6 Notes and Nezvs. [^^^^ 

graphy,' by Wm. L. Whitaker ; 'Notes on Nests found in Salem Co., 
N. J.,' bj Wm. W. Justin, Jr. ; ' The American Barn Owl,' and ' Great Gull 
Island,' bj J. Harris Reed ; ' Fossil Birds and their Living Allies,' by 
S. N. Rhoads. 

The officers for the ensuing year are : President, I. Norris DeHaven ; 
Vice-President, Chas. J. Rhoads; Secretary, William A. Shryock; Treas- 
urer, Wm. L. Baily. 

A Section of Ornithology has been recently formed by the members 
of the California Academy of Sciences interested in the study of birds, 
with the following officers : President, Leverett M. Loomis ; Vice-Presi- 
dent, John W. Mailliard; Secretary and Treasui-er, Henry B. Kaeding. 

The meetings are held on the first Tuesday of each month for the pres- 
entation of papers, informal discussion of matters relating to ornithology 
and the examination of specimens. The collection and library of the De- 
partment of Ornithology have been placed at the disposal of the Section. 

The United Ornithologists of Maine held their second annual 
meeting at the roo'ms of the Portland Society of Natural History, Port- 
land, Maine, Dec. 31, 1S97, and Jan. i, 1898. Twenty-six new members 
were elected, and also the following officers for 189S: President, Ora W. 
Knight; Vice-President, Wm. L. Powers; Secretary-Treasurer, L. W. 
Robbins; Editor, James Carroll Mead; Councillors, Herbert L. Spinney, 
and Prof. Asa L. Lane. A plan for work for the ensuing year was 
adopted and the following papers read. ' How I became an Ornithologist, 
by Geo. A. Boardman ; ' Talks on Maine Birds, by Prof. A. L. Lane ; 
'Loons on our Inland Waters,' by James Carroll Mead'; Ornithology in 
our Public Schools,' by Principal Wm. L. Powers ; 'Migration of Birds as 
observed at Seguin Light," by H. L. Spinney ; ' Birds as Home Lovers, ' by 
Ora W. Knight. The recommendation that " the family of Ducks, Geese 
and Swans (Anatidie), and the Thrushes (Turdidee) be the special objects 
of studj'," during the ensuing year was adopted. The report of the 
meeting occupies three pages of the ' Maine Sportsman ' for February, 
1898 (Vol. V, No. 54, pp. 8, 20, 21), and includes in full the paper on 
'Migration of Birds at Seguin Light House,' by Herbert L. Spinney, 2d 
Assist. Keeper. 

The 'Maine Sportsman ' is the official organ of the United Ornitholo- 
gists of Maine, and contains a department of 'Ornithology,' devoted to 
the work and interests of the Society, and often includes notes and papers 
of permanent interest and value. In the number for May, 1S97, for 
example, is a 'Twenty Years' Review of the Scoter Duck' {Oidemia 
deglandi'), by Herbert L. Spinney. Also in earlier numbers, 'A Visit to 
Some Maine Heronries' by O. W. Knight (July, 1896); 'Breeding of the 
Northern Raven on Seguin Island,' by Herbert L. Spinney (Aug., 1896) ; 
' Randon Notes on our Sea Birds, by J. Merton Swain (Sept., 1896) ; and 
' The Ruffed Grouse of Maine,' by A. H. Norton. The Society also takes 
an earnest interest in the Protection of Birds. 



JUL 15 1898 

THE AUK: 

A Q^UARTERLV JOURNAL OF 

ORNITHOLOGY. 



VOL. XV. July, 1898. no. 3. 



THE IMPERIAL IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER, 
CAMPEPHILUS IMPERIALIS (GOULD). 



BY E. W. NELSON. 

Plate III. 



At a meeting of the Zoological Society of London, held on 
August 14, 1832, specimens were exhibited of a previously 
undescribed Woodpecker, remarkable for its extraordinary size. 
These specimens, the male of which measured two feet in length, 
were said to have been obtained by Mr. Gould from " that little 
explored district of California which borders the territory of 
Mexico" — a statement which serves as a good illustration of 
the vague ideas of American geography that prevailed among 
naturalists in those days. Mr. Gould made a felicitous choice of 
name when he called this bird Picus imperialis for it is by far the 
largest and most striking member of the Woodpecker family in 
the world. The authors of the 'Biologia Centrali- Americana ' 
say that Gould's original skins are made up like those of Floresi, 
a mining engineer, who collected birds in the Sierra Madre 
Mountains near Bolailos, Jalisco, early in the century. My own 
observations prove that the Imperial Ivory-bill is found near that 
place, and there is little doubt that it is the type locality. The 
home of this Woodpecker is in such a remote and rarely visited 
region that despite the large size and conspicuous plumage of the 
bird, many years passed after its discovery before any additions 



2l8 '^■EA.^.O^, The Imperial Ivoi-y-billed Woodpecker ■ \ji^M 

were made to its history and nothing has been published on its 
habits. In 1890 the British Museum Catalogue enumerated sev- 
eral additional specimens and gave its range as extending from 
Ciudad in the State of Durango, northward through Chihuahua to 
within fifty miles of the Arizona border. The latter record, first 
published in 'The Auk,' was made by Lieut. H. C. Benson, 
U. S. A., during a scouting expedition after Apache Indians in 
northern Chihuahua. Afterwards the late Dr. Audley C. Buller 
secured specimens about 150 miles south of BolaiTos, in the Sierra 
de Juanacatlan, western Jalisco, and Mr. W. B. Richardson took 
others in the Sierra cle Valparaiso in northern Zacatecas. 

During my visit to the former locality, in the spring of 1897, 
the residents told me that Ivory-bills were found sparingly in the 
surrounding mountains and exhibited the scalp of one that had 
been killed a few months before. In company with two natives, 
my assistant and I rode over the undulating mountain summits 
for an entire day on a fruitless quest for these birds. Several 
species of pines, oaks and madroiios made up the forest, and 
beautiful little park-like basins open here and there forming ideal 
spots for the big Woodpeckers, but we failed to see one. The 
people united in assuring us that the birds live there every sum- 
mer and it is probable that they lead a more wandering life dur- 
ing the winter months and sometimes absent themselves from 
their summer haunts ; but it is quite certain that they are not in 
any sense migratory. We found them in the state of Michoacan, 
considerably farther south than any previous record, and subse- 
quently visited other parts of their range. While collecting in 
the pine forest near Patzcuaro, Michoacan, during the summer of 
1892, a Mexican soldier brought in an Ivory-bill killed a few 
miles away, but it was not until later in the season that we had 
the satisfaction of seeing the bird in life. In the autumn of that 
year three of us left Patzcuaro on horseback to go back twenty- 
five miles into the forest to the Indian village of Nahuatzin. 
After leaving the shore of Lake Patzcuaro our trail led through a 
beautiful upland country of volcanic origin, overgrown with open 
pine forest, in which grassy parks opened here and there afford- 
ing charming vistas. We were riding quietly, at an altitude of 
about 7000 feet, when the flash of bird-wings was noted in the 



"^"is^^l Nklson, r//f Ini/^cridl Jx'ory-hllird Wuuilpeckcr. 219 

sunliglit. The next instant my listless attitude had vanisJicd, for 
a pair of Imperial Ivory-bills swung up and alighted near the top 
of a large dead pine on the border of an Indian cornfield. We 
stopped at once and after dismounting had no trouble in walking 
up within easy gunshot. As the male moved out on a large 
branch a charge of number five shot started him ofT in an erratic 
course and the second barrel brought him whirling to the ground. 
The female was clinging to the trunk near the top of the tree and 
at the report of the gun flew away over the cornfields and forest 
as if leaving the neighborhood. The male was only winged and 
as we approached threw himself over on his tail, with outspread 
wings, presenting a warlike front of threatening beak and talons. 
It was impossible not to admire the courage and defiance shown 
by the fierce glow of his golden-yellow eyes and upraised flaming 
crest. After stowing the prize carefully away in a saddle-bag we 
rode on, but chancing to look back saw the female returning at a 
height of two or three hundred yards looking for her mate. She 
passed over the tree from which the male was shot and after 
making a wide circuit again disappeared in the forest. 

Soon after sunset we approached Nahuatzin, a picturesque 
village of steep-roofed houses, situated in a long mountain valley 
and inhabited by Tarascan Indians. The houses were almost 
concealed by fruit trees through which rose long, slender columns 
of smoke that trailed off slowly in the calm evening air and 
settled in heavy banks in low parts of the valley. 

As the shadows of night fell on the bordering wooded hills we 
scanned with interest the fading outlines of our new field. One 
of my companions had been here before and his friends received 
us with much good will and gave us quarters for the night. The 
following morning our camp was made on the top of a high hill to 
the west of Nahuatzin, at the border of a little park in the midst 
of the pines. From the brow of the hill close by was a free out- 
look across the valley v/hence a billowy succession of pine covered 
hills extended away to the blue distance, broken here and there 
by dull yellow openings of the grassy parks. The first day in 
camp, just before sunrise, my curiosity was aroused by a succes- 
sion of queer, nasal, penny-trumpet-like notes from the summit of 
a rounded hill near by. The notes were new to me and I waited 



2 20 Nelson, The Imperial Ivory-billed Woodpecker. V^'^^ 

impatiently for the return of my assistant with the shot-gun so 
that I might investigate. The calls continued at short intervals 
until a little after sunrise and were the only sounds audible in the 
otherwise silent forest. Suddenly a cannon-like roar reverberated 
from the hillside above camp. A few minutes later my assistant 
came down the slope and told me that the curious notes were 
made by Ivory-bills. His attention had been drawn to them as he 
was coming in, and climbing the hill he found three of the birds 
close together on the trunk of a pine tree near the summit. In 
order to make sure of the lot he put two heavy charges in his gun 
and creeping up close to the base of the tree fired both barrels at 
once, with the result that the recoil almost kicked him off the 
hillside and the birds flew away unscathed uttering cries of alarm. 
A little later we found them again in the same place and several 
shots were fired wdthout effect. About nine o'clock five of the 
birds set out from the hill in straggling succession bound for the 
open pine forest of a neighboring park-like flat where during 
the day their odd cries were heard at intervals, now distinctly and 
again barely audible as they moved about among the trees. 

During the next few days this entire party fell victims to our 
guns, but so long as any were left they showed strange persistence 
in returning to their haunt on the hill. Just at sunrise each morn- 
ing the notes were heard and between eight and nine o'clock the 
birds flew out to their feeding ground among the dead pines on 
the adjacent fiat. On the north slope of the hill, near the sum- 
mit, were several large, prostrate and partly decayed tree trunks 
with their upper surfaces chipped and dug into for several inches, 
evidently by the powerful beaks of these Woodpeckers. The 
birds were suprisingly easy to stalk, even after being hunted and 
shot at for several days, but were difficult to secure because they 
are powerful, hard-muscled creatures possessed of remarkable 
vitality. They showed considerable attachment to one another 
and when one was shot the other members of the flock remained 
scattered about on the trees for a short time calling each other at 
intervals. Wounded birds fought with savage courage. The 
handsomely contrasted black, white, and scarlet plumage of the 
male Ivory-bill, with the bright gleam of his golden-yellow eyes 
make a fit combination for a habitant of one of Nature's wildest 



^°898^] 'i^TS.l^sOJi, The Tin/<crial Ivory-liillcd Woodpecker. 221 

and most secluded regions. They fly from tree to tree witli rather 
slow, heavy wing strokes similar to those of a Crow, and when 
about to alight, by an added impulse, glide upward along the 
trunk in a graceful curve and firmly grasp the bark or smooth 
wood. After a short pause and a glance around, they ascend the 
trunk in little runs of from one to three feet, with alternating 
pauses, usually keeping along the main stem of the tree, but when 
searching for food sometimes traveling out on the larger branches. 
At such times they were often seen clinging, back down, to the 
lower side of the branch, chiseling away with powerful blows. 
Now and then one ' drums ' for amusement upon a resonant 
branch or trunk after the manner of many smaller Woodpeckers, 
but the strokes are much louder and slower than those of the 
other species. 

For so powerful a bird their notes are weak, and have the 
peculiar nasal tone that is characteristic of the notes of Sap- 
suckers, but with a penetrating quality that renders them distinct 
for a long distance. I am certain they were frequently heard at a 
distance of a mile ; yet when the birds were nearby they did not 
sound very loud. When we had secured all the birds near camp 
another party of five or six was found in the hills a mile or so 
away, and the Indians told us of other places where they were 
common. 

One old Indian led me to a high point overlooking a great 
expanse of forested country and pointed out a number of park- 
like openings where he assured me the birds could be found. 
On the return trip to Patzcuaro, while passing the locality where 
our first Ivory-bill was taken, the note of another was heard, and 
riding into the open woods a short distance we came upon a 
party of eight or ten. My companion winged a fine old male as 
it fiew over and it came down uttering a loud, harsh squall, half 
in anger and half in fright. Another bird alarmed by the shot 
fiew to a tree near where I stood and alighted about half way up 
the trunk. After looking at me for a few moments it flew off 
through the trees. 

In this part of the forest we saw a large hole in a dead tree 
which was evidently an old nesting site of the Ivory-bills. The 
hole was about forty feet from the ground, in a large Montezuma 



222 Nelson, The Imperial Ivory-billed Woodpecker. fjuly 

pine from which the bark had fallen, and judging from the fresh 
color of the wood within it could not have been over a year old. 
The following year one of my companions, Mr. Winton, returned 
to this district and learned that the Ivory-bills breed there in 
February. An Indian boy employed by him managed to secure 
two eggs, one of which he broke descending the tree and the 
other was placed inside his shirt for safe keeping. On the way 
home he started to drive some cattle and while running after 
them fell and thus destroyed the only eggs of this species ever 
taken. A nest visited the first of March contained newly hatched 
young, and in April they had flown. One of the striking charac- 
teristics of these birds is their general custom of remaining in 
family parties during the fall and winter. They apparently have 
strong local attachments as shown by the persistence with which 
the party near our camp remained in its accustomed haunts 
although hunted for several days in succession. During our stay 
in this district these birds passed the middle of the day roaming 
through thin parts of the forest or about the borders of grassy 
parks. They seemed particularly partial to the dead trees along 
the borders of partly cleared cornfields. In the Nahuatzin district 
we found them only where the forest was almost entirely made up 
of Montezuma pine [Pitius montezujnce) and did not see them 
alight on any other tree. Their range in this region appears to 
be restricted to the rather narrow belt along the top of the main 
central ridge of the Sierra Madre which lies above an altitude of 
7000 feet. This belt is more like a rolling and irregular table- 
land than the summit of a great mountain chain, and its open 
pine forest, broken by grassy parks, reminds one strongly of the 
Mogollon plateau of northern Arizona. 

While in the northern part of the Territory of Tepic in 1897, 
we met a' trader returning from a trip to the City of Durango 
who showed us a roughly made skin of a male Ivory-bill which he 
had secured in the Sierra Madre of Durango and was taking as a 
great curiosity to his home in the hot country. 

The Imperial Ivory-bill is a bird of the pine clad mountains of 
the Transition life zone and although various naturalists have 
looked for it without success in the mountains of southern Ari- 
zona, there is still a probability of its occurrence there. 



'iSqS J '^^'^'>'-''^^'^^^ ^czv Ge7iera d- Species of American Birds 22? 

Its range, 'so far as known at present, extends from Patzcuaro, 
Michoacan, north to within fifty miles of the Arizona border in 
northern Chihuahua. This covers parts of the Territory of Tepic 
and of the States of Michoacan, Jalisco, Zacatecas, Durango and 
Chihuahua. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SUPPOSED NEW GENERA, SPECIES, 

AND SUBSPECIES OF AMERICAN BIRDS. 

I. FRINGILLID^.i 

BY ROBERT RIDGWAY. 

Curator of the Division of Birds, U. S. National Museum. 
(By permission of the Secretaiy of tlie Smithsonian Institution.) 

The present paper is the first of a series intended for the pub- 
lication of supposed new forms in advance of the larger work on 
the birds of North and Middle America upon which the author 
has been engaged for the past four years, the completion of which 
must necessarily be long delayed. Only brief diagnoses are here 
given, detailed descriptions being reserved for the larger work 
referred to. 

Several of the genera included here have usually been placed 
with the so-called Tanagridae ; but I am fully convinced, after 
long and careful study, that if it should prove practicable to 
retain a separate family equivalent, in part, to the usually accepted 
Tanagrida;, it can only be done by materially restricting its limits. 
At any rate, it is quite certain that the genera Pitylus (restricted 
to P. grossjis and F.fuliginosus) , Pezopetes, Buarremon, Arremon, 
Lysurus, and Pselliophorus are true Fringillids, and very closely 
related to such unquestionably fringilline genera as Cardinalis, 
Pipilo, Pyrgisoma, Atlapetes, Arremoiiops, etc. Some doubt is 
attached to such genera as Stelgidostomus, Heterospingus, Mitro- 
spingus, Rhodothraupis, and Hemithraupis, which certainly are 

['An author's edition of loo copies of this paper was issued May 13, 1S9S. 
— Edd.] 



224 RiDGWAY, Nevj Genera and Species ofAtnerican Birds. Ljuly 

not typically fringilline, at least ; but pending a conclusion as to 
their proper position it is considered best to include them here 
provisionally. 

Genus Melanospiza. (Type, Loxigilla richardsoni Cory.) 

Related to Euetheia Reichenbach, but bill relatively much larger and 
■with the subbasal angle of the mandibular tomium produced into a 
distinct point. 

Genus Brachyspiza. (Type, Fi-ingilla capensis Muller.) 

Related to Melospiza Baird, but tail shorter, tarsi longer and stouter, 
and st3'le of coloration very different. 

Genus Myospiza. (Type, FrvigiUa manimbe Lichtenstein.) 

Similar to Coiurnicnlits Bonaparte, but tail rounded or double-rounded, 
with all the rectrices broad and rounded at tips, and tarsus much longer 
than middle toe with claw. 

Genus Plagiospiza. (Type, Aimophila superciliosa Swainson.) 

Similar to Aimophila Swainson, but tail shorter than wing instead of 
longer, and wing much less rounded, the first primary longer than eighth 
instead of shorter than tenth, and second to sixth primaries longest and 
nearly equal. 

Genus Incaspiza. (Type, Hcejnophila pulchra Sclater.) 

Similar to Aimophila Swainson, in much rounded wing and propor- 
tions of feet, but with tail decidedly shorter than wing, maxilla narrower 
(vertically) than mandible, maxillary tomium without any convexity in 
middle portion and style of coloration very different. Coloration: Back 
and scapulars plain chestnut, rest of upper parts plain gray ; face black ; 
chest and sides grayish ; belly and under tail-coverts white or buffy ; lat- 
eral rectrices chiefly white ; bill yellow. 

Genus Rhynchospiza. (Type, Hcemophila stolz7nan7ii 
Taczanowski.) 

Similar to the shorter tailed, stouter billed species of Aimophila in 
proportions of toes, form of bill, and much rounded wing, but tail much 
shorter than wing, nearly even, and nostrils very small, circular, nearly 



^ -8 8 1 R'"(^WAY, Nexv Ge7tera atid Species of American Birds. 2 2^ 

hidden bj laterofrontal feathers. Coloration : Head and neck gray with 
two broad stripes of chestnut on pileum and a narrow postocular stripe 
of the same ; back grayish brown streaked with black ; lesser wing-coverts 
dark chestnut; edge of wing yellow; under parts mostly white. 

Genus Pselliophorus.^ (Type, Tachyphonus tibialis Lawrence.) 

Related to Bnarrenton Bonaparte, but mandibular tomium without dis- 
tinct subbasal tooth, feathers of forehead and lores stiff and erect, webs 
of rectrices semi-decomposed terminally, and feathers of tibia; developed 
into a conspicuous tuft entirel}' concealing the tibio-tarsal joint. 

Genus Lysurus. (Type, Buarremo7i crassirostris Cassin.) 

Similar to Arrcmon Vieillot, but nostril broader, more rounded, with 
superior operculum much less developed; wing much more rounded 
(first primary very much shorter than secondaries, the second about 
equal to secondaries or but little longer) ; tail more rounded, almost 
graduated, with the rectrices broad, though pointed at the tips, the webs 
semi-decomposed terminally; middle toe relatively longer, the lateral 
claw falling much short of base of middle claw. (Includes also Bnarre- 
nton casianeiceps Sclater.) 

Genus Serinopsis. (Type, Fringilla arvensis Kittlitz.) 

Resembling Sicalis Boie, but bill relatively shorter and deeper at base, 
more compressed terminally, with straighter outlines and more distinctly 
ridged culmen ; wing much longer and more pointed and claws relatively 
longer and more slender. 

Genus Heterospingus. (Type, Tachyphonus ?-Hbrifrons 
Lawrence.) 

Similar to Tachyphoims Vieillot, but nasal fosste densely feathered, 
concealing the nostrils; tail relatively much shorter, wing more pointed, 
tarsus shorter (scarcely exceeding middle toe with claw), and sexes alike 
in color or nearly so in pattern of coloration. 

Genus Mitrospingus. (Type, Tachyphonus cassini Lawrence.) 

Related to Eucometis Sclater, but bill much longer (nearly as long as 
head), nostrils very different, wing more rounded, tarsus relatively 
longer, claws stronger, occipital feathers very short (instead of the 
reverse), and style of coloration very different. 

^ From ^€\\io<)>6pos ', ^tWiov = arniilla. 



2 26 RiDGWAY, Nezv Genera and Species of American Birds. Ljuly 

Genus Rhodothraupis. (Type, Fringilla celceno Lichtenstein.) 

Similar to Caryothraustes Reichenbach, but tail much longer (nearly 
as long as wing) and decidedl}- rounded; first primary not longer than 
eighth instead of longer than seventh ; tarsus decidedly longer than middle 
toe with claw, and sexes different in color, though similar in pattern of 
coloration. 

Genus Hemithraupis. (Type, Aglaia cyanocephala Lafresnaye 
and D'Orbigny.) 

Similar to Tanagra Linnseus,' but tail much longer (equal to length 
of wing to tip of secondaries), wing more rounded (first primary shorter 
than seventh instead of longer than sixth), and rictal bristles much 
stronger. 

Ganus Stelgidostomus. (Type, Saltator maxillosus Cabanis.) 

Superficially closely resembling Saltator Vieillot, but bill very diff'er- 
ent, being much shorter and more tumid, with maxillary tomia strongly 
inflected, the mandibular tomia serrated, especially toward the base, and 
the inferior surface of the maxilla with a lateral series of sharp, trans- 
verse file-like ridges or corrugations. 

Aimophila^ ruficeps sororia. Laguna Sparrow. 

Similar to A. ruficefs in coloration ,of upper parts, but chestnut of 
pileum somewhat lighter or clearer, supraloral lihe Avhiter, and supra- 
auricular stripe lighter and grayer; smaller than A. ruficeps scottii, with 
back, -etc., less ashy with chestnut streaks darker and much narrower, and 
the under parts much more strongly tinged with buff; differing from all 
the other northern forms of the species in much thicker and relatively 
shorter bill. Wing, 2.20-2.4S (2.37) ; tail, 2.40-2.5S (2.49) ; exposed culmen, 
0.45; depth of bill at base, 0.25-0.27 (0.26) ; tarsus, 0.80-0. Si (o.So) ; middle 
toe, 0.55-0.60 (0.58). 

'The type of Tanagra Linnaeus is, according to the "process of elimina- 
tion," T. episcopiis. 

- 1 am at present unable to discover any characters sufficient to separate 
Peuccea from Aitnop/iila, unless the former be restricted to P. cBstivalis, P. 
hotteri, and P. cassini. Ainiophila ruficeps is connected with the type {A. 
rtcficanda) by such intermediate species as A. tncleodi, which Mr. Brewster 
described as an Ainiophila and Messrs. Salvin and Godman as a Peucaa {P. 
niegarhyncha). , 



/ 



Vol- XVj Kn)G\\AY, Ncxv Genera and Species of Aiiio-iccni Birds. 2 2 7 

Soutliern portion of Lower California, in mountains (Laguna; \\c- 
toria Mountains). 

Type, No. 90,063, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Victoria Mts., Lower Cali- 
fornia, Feb. 9, rSS3 ; L. 15elding. 



Aimophila sartorii. Huatusco Sparrow. 

Similar to A. botterii but very much darker, the ground color of the 
upper parts sootj' grayish or dark smoke-gra}' -with the darker markings 
very heavv ; under parts less buffy, the chest and sides varying from pale 
smoky buff to light drab-gray. Length (skins), 5.10-6.10 (5.73); wing, 
2.35-2.60 (2.42); tail, 2.25-2.52 (2.42); exposed culmen, 0.48-052 (0.50); 
depth of bill at base, 0.27-0.30 (0.2S) ; tarsus, 0.80-0.S7 (0.83); middle toe, 
0.62-0.68 (0.64). 

Eastern slope of Vera Cruz, Mexico (Huatusco, near Mirador), and 
south to northern Nicaragua (El Volcan, Chinandego). 

Type, No. 44,752, U. S. Nat. Mus., ? ad., Huatusco, near Mirador, Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, July 12; Florentin Sartorius.' 



This form resembles very closely in coloration " Ammodronuis " 
petejiicus Salvin, but is decidedly larger and the Vv'ing less rounded. 
The relationship is exceedingly close, however, and it would not 
be surprising should the two prove to be local forms of the same 
species. A. petenicus is certainly not an A?nmodra7Jws, but, should 
my view of the impracticability of separating Peuccea from Aimo- 
phila prove correct, it should be called Aimophila petenica. 

Owing to the circumstance that the single Vera Cruz specimen 
(the type) is in worn plumage, comparison between it and the 
two Nicaraguan specimens in the Salvin-Godman collection is 
unsatisfactory. The latter are in fresh plumage, and may be 
merely winter migrants, though it is very doubtful whether these 
birds perform more than local migrations. 

The Huatusco bird which has been selected as the type is, in 
part, the FeiiccBa cBstivalis var. botterii of the ' History of North 
American Birds' (Vol. II, page 38), and, exclusively, the P. bot- 
terii of the ' Manual of North American Birds ' (page 428) . The 
true P. botterii, it may be added, is the same species as that 
treated by American authors generally as P. mcxicaua or P. 
arizoticB^ as I have recently been able to determine by comparison 
of the types of the three supposed forms. 



2 28 RiDGWAY, Ne-w Genera and Species of American Birds. \ju\y 

Atlapetes pileatus dilutus. Chihuahuan Pileated Sparrow. 

Similar to A. pileatus (Wagler) but averaging smaller, with smaller 
and more slender bill, grayer upper parts, and yellow of under parts paler 
and duller. Wing, 2.45-2.65 (.2.53); tail, 2.35-2.60 (2.50); exposed culmen, 
0.40-0.47 (0.44); depth of bill at base, 0.25-0.30 (0.28); tarsus, 0.90-0.95 
(0.92); middle toe, 0.61-0.65 (0.63). 

Northwestern portion of Mexican plateau (Bravo and Jesus Maria, 
Chihuahua). 

Type, No. 99962, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Jesus Maria, Chihuahua, 
April 25, 18S4; R. R. McLeod. 

Arremonops venezuelensis. Venezuelan Striped- 
crowned Sparrow. 

Similar to A. conirostris (Bonaparte), but decidedly smaller, bill more 
slender, and color of upper parts of a duller, more brownish, olive-green. 
Length (skins), 5.S5-6.00 (5.92); wing, 2.77-2.83 (2.80); tail, 2.40-2.47 
(2.44) ; exposed culmen, 0.58-0.60 (0.59) ; depth of bill at base, 0.30; tarsus, 
0.99-1.01 (i.oo); middle toe, 0.63-0.65 (0.64). 

Venezuela (La Guayra; Puerto Cabello ; Carupano ; Tachira). 

Type, No. 1 19280, U. S. Nat. Mus., Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; received 
fi-om Count von Berlepsch. 

The synonymy of this form is as follows : — 

Embernagra conirostris (nee Arremon conirostris Bon AV arte), Sci^atkr 
& Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1868, 167 (Caripano, Venezuela). 

[Embernagra striaticeps.'\ Subsp. d. Embernagra conirostris Sharps, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XII, 18S8, 763, part (Carupano and Tachira, 
Venezuela. 

Arremonops richmondi. Richmond's Sparrow. 

Similar to A. conirostris (Bonaparte) but much brighter olive-green 
above, gray of head much deeper, and chest distinctly ash-gray. 

Honduras (Segovia River) to Veragua. 

Type, No. 126189, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Greytown, Nicaragua, Feb. 
16, 1892 ; C. W. Richmond. 

This is the Ember7iagra striaticeps of authors, but not of Lafres- 
naye, as I have been able to ascertain by examination of the 
type specimens of the latter, in the collection of the Boston 
Society of Natural History. The latter clearly are referable to 
the Colombian form known as Emher7iag7-a conirostris (Bona- 
parte) , to which Panama examples in the U. S. National Museum 



i8gS 1 RiDtiWAV, A^cw Genera (Old Species of American Birch. 2 20 

also unquestionably belong. A new name being therefore 
required for the Central American bird, I take pleasure in 
naming it after Dr. C. W. Richmond, Assistant Curator of the 
Division of Birds, U. S. National Museum, who procured a series 
of beautifully prepared specimens in Nicaragua. 

Cyanocompsa concreta cyanescens. Panama Blue 

Grosbeak. 

Similar to C. concreta (DuBus) but averaging smaller (the bill espec- 
ially), the male more decidedly bluish, the adult female and young less 
rusty brown. Length (skins) 5.60-6.50 (6.00); wing, 2.90-3.28 (3. 11); 
tail, 2.37-2.75 (2.62); culmen, from base, 0.7S-0.S9 (0.81); depth of bill at 
base, 0.60-0.70 (0.66); width of mandible at base, 0.49-0.54 (0.51) ; tarsus, 
0.76-0.87 (0.83) ; middle toe, 0.55-0.62 (0.59). 

Colombia (including Isthmus of Panama) to Venezuela and western 
Ecuador. (Specimens from Veragua, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and southern 
Honduras connect the typical Colombian bird with G. concreta of southern 
Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Honduras, the concreta type reaching its 
extreme development in southern Mexico. ) 

Type, No. 146x14, U. S. Nat. Mus., (J ad., Panama, 1877; A. Boucard. 

This is the Guiraca cyanoides of authors, but is not the Cocco- 
borus cyanoides of Lafresnaye, as has erroneously been supposed. 
I have examined the types of the latter, now in the collection of 
the Boston Society of Natural History. The female type is a 
young example of Guiraca cczriilea ; but the male type represents 
a very distinct species, of which I have seen specimens from 
Venezuela, Guiana, and the lower Amazon Valley (Santarem) . 
Cyanocompsa cyanoides (Lafresnaye) is a much more brightly 
colored bird than C. concreta cyanescens, the coloration of the male 
being far more like that of the smaller South American species, 
Cyanoco77ipsa cyanea (Linnjeus). The female, however, is very 
differently colored, being of a deep bistre-brownish or sepia hue, 
very different from the tawny color of C. cyanea. 

Amphispiza bilineata deserticola. Desert Sparrow. 

Similar to A. bilineata (Cassin) but averaging decidedly larger, with 
upper parts lighter and browner, and the white spot at tip of inner web 
of lateral tail-feather much smaller. Length (skins), 4.S0-5.45 (5.05); 
wing, 2. 45-2. 78 (2. 58); tail, 2.32-2.69 (2.45); exposed culmen, 0.36-0.42 



230 "iAK\\.\.\K-R.v>, Nesting of the Fork-tailed Petrel. X^"^^ 

(0.40); depth of bill at base, 0.22-0.25 (o--4); tarsus, 0.71-0.7S (0.73); 
middle toe, 0.49-0.55 (0.51); length of white spot on lateral tail-feather, 
0.10-0.45 (0.30). 

Arid plains from western Texas (west of 103" W. longitude) to coast 
of southern California (San Diego County, etc.), north to northern 
Nevada and Utah, south into Chihuahua and Sonora ; Lower California.' 

Type, No. 98884, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Tuscon, Arizona, May 12, 18S4; 
E. W. Nelson. 

Amphispiza belli clementeae. San Clemente Sparrow. 

Exactly like A. belli (Cassin) in coloration, but larger and Avith rela- 
tively larger bill. Length (skins), 5.20-5.70 (5.50); wing, 2.45-2.72 (2.61); 
tail, 2.30-2.68 (2.54); exposed culmen, 0.38-0.41 (0.39); depth of bill at 
base, 0.22-0.23 (o-23); tarsus, 0.79-0.85 (0.80); middle toe, 0.49-0.53 (0.52). 

San Clemente Island, southern California. 

Type, No. 117612, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., San Clemente Island, Cali- 
fornia, Jan. 25, 1889; C. H. Townsend. 



NOTES ON THE NESTING OF THE FORK-TAILED 
PETREL {OCEANODROMA FURCATA). 

BY JOSEPH MAILLIARD. 

At nine o'clock on the evening of June 17, 1896, our anchor 
was dropped at the island of St. Lazaria, a long, narrow rock lying 
in the mouth of Sitka Bay, Baranoff Island, Alaska. Landing at 
once, with my two assistants, we found ourselves upon a low bunch 
of rock between the two higher portions of the island. Here we 
shot some Glaucous-winged Gulls {Lams glaucescens), Violet-green 
Cormorants {Phalacrocorax pelagicus robtistits), Black Oyster-catch- 
ers {Hcematopiis bachniani), and Tufted Puffins {Lunda cirrhatd). 
About ten o'clock we discovered a way of reaching the top of the 
main portion of the island, and found the summit covered with 
peat in process of formation, out of which grew a rank sort of 
coarse grass and salmon-berry bushes, and in some places groves 
of fir and cedar trees. The highest portion is probably 200 feet 
above the sea, with perpendicular cliffs almost continuously around 



^°8g^^] Maii.i.iakd, AV.'i/'/V/i,'- (j/Z/zt' Fork-tailed Petrel. 2 ? I 

it. As we were following a narrow Indian trail near the top a faint 
but distinct squeakiiig was heard directly beneath our feet. It was 
a fogg}^ rainy night, and as the light was commencing to fail we 
had not noticed the small holes which on closer inspection showed 
themselves under every bush and tuft of grass. Upon falling on 
our knees to investigate this unusual sound we discovered these 
holes and at once commenced digging in the soft peat with our 
fingers. A moment's work unearthed a Petrel, and almost simul- 
taneously my two assistants sang out " I 've got a bird." My own 
catch was a Fork-tailed Petrel {Oceanodromaftircata), but one of 
the men captured a Leach's {O. leucorhod). Being naturally some- 
what excited at finding the eggs of the Fork-tailed Petrel we went 
to work rather wildly and frightened some of the birds from their 
eggs. As the two species were breeding in the same burro\vs the 
result was a feeling of despair about identification. However, we 
took a few eggs from under the parents, and as by this time it was 
growing too dark to see very distinctly we returned to the sloop 
and turned in for two or three hours. My two companions, 
stretched on the bottom of the boat, were soon sleeping audibly, 
fatigue having been a stronger factor than their intention to keep 
watch and watch in case our light rope cable should be cut by the 
rocky bottom. The uneasy jerking of the little craft and the 
danger of going ashore if the cable parted prevented me from 
sleeping. 

About twelve o'clock my attention was attracted by the notes of 
the Petrels on the shore, some hundred and fifty yards distant. It 
It was too dark to see clearly, but there were so many of these 
birds moving about that it was possible to discern a sort of com- 
motion along the rocks, and I arrived at the conclusion that the 
birds from the nests were meeting those coming in from the sea to 
exchange places with them. The twittering noise made on this 
meeting ground was something prodigious. It does not seem 
probable that the incubating birds left their nests until their part- 
ners came to replace them, but presumably the first ones to leave 
met and conversed with the later incoming ones. The noise we 
first heard under our feet w^as either made by birds getting ready 
to leave, or, more likely still, due to disagreement between the 
two species in the burrows. 



232 'hlhiiA.XKR.T), Nesting of the Fork-tailed Petrel. Vj"^ 

Mr. J. Grinnell visited this island a day or two later and passed 
the night upon the summit. He said that it was impossible to keep 
a fire alight in the middle of the night as the Petrels flew into it in 
such numbers as to extinguish it. We went ashore again at 3 
A. M., but not a Petrel was in sight. Their twittering had ceased 
about 1.30 or 2 o'clock, as it was getting rather broad daylight by 
that time. It would be interesting to know in the still higher lati- 
tudes, where there is no twilight, at what time this exchange of the 
duty of incubation takes place. 

Sending the men on a tour of investigation around the island, 
I went at once to work on the Petrels, unfortunately with no 
implements but fingers. The burrows seemed to run in any 
and every direction except directly downwards. The area that 
I worked in was covered with bunch grass and low salmon- 
berry bushes, the roots of the latter being greatly in the way. 
The peat was so loose and wet that it was difficult to clearly 
define the burrows, but it seemed certain that' they frequently 
intersected when on the same level, and also that there were 
tiers of them on different planes and running diverse ways. I 
could, however, form no idea of the length of any particular one. 
Their depth varied from four to eighteen inches from the surface 
of the ground. The diameter of the burrows was from about 2 J 
to 3^ inches, but frequently they were hollowed out in the interior 
to a greater size. The nests were merely small hollows in slightly 
enlarged portions of the galleries, with sometimes a little dry grass 
on the bottom, and were placed at irregular distances apart, — fre- 
quently an O. funata within a foot of a nest of O. leucorJioa, and 
then again perhaps several of one species in succession at varying 
intervals. It was difficult to discern much removed material at 
the entrances to the burrows, the same ones being in all probabil- 
ity used year after year, the excavated earth having in the course of 
time become assimilated with the surrounding surface. It seemed 
as if one could dig down and strike burrows anywhere, and in fact 
I gave up looking for the entrances proper, and simply dug up the 
peat in any spot that seemed likely to be free from roots. Unless 
violently disturbed each bird would be found sitting upon its &gg, 
or, perhaps it would back away a few inches. In some instances 
the bird had been frightened, and leaving its ^gg had run along 



Vol. XV 



J Grinnell, Winter Birch of Santa Catalina Is., L. Cat. 2 '^ 7 



the burrow and disappeared, in some of these cases being found 
on further excavation huddled up to its next neighl^or. 'J'here 
was no difficulty in catching any number of the birds in one's 
hand, and after selecting all that could be used the l)alance were 
thrown into the air when they flew away in a dazed manner as if 
unused to the light. The eggs of O. fiircata proved on comparison 
to be a little larger than those of O. leiicorJioa, and were more 
spotted at the large end. While those of the latter were fresh or 
nearly so, the eggs of O. fiircata were nearly all too far advanced 
m incubation to be saved. 

Besides the inhabited burrows there were a good many old 
ones, principally in well-defined areas of a few yards across, that 
were for some reason unused. The minks, of which there must 
be a large number on the island, judging from the piles of Petrel's 
wings found in some spots, may have systematically cleaned out 
these unused areas ; but as the mouths of these burrows looked 
old and neglected this hypothesis is a doubtful one. 



LAND BIRDS OBSERVED IN MID-WINTER ON SANTA 
CATALINA ISLAND, CALIFORNIA. 

BY JOSEPH GRINNELL. 

I HAD the good fortune to spend the last eight days of Decem- 
ber, 1897, on Santa Catalina Island, which lies about 25 miles 
off the coast of southern California. My ornithological observa- 
tions w^re confined to the east end of the island in the vicinity 
of Avalon. Catalina Island consists of a range of hills rising 
1000 to 3000 feet above the sea and very much resembling in 
formation some sections of the mainland Coast Range of which 
system it is evidently a part. These hills are furrowed by innu- 
merable ravines and canons, and are clothed more or less thickly 
with low brush and cactus. The shady north slopes generally 
present a heavy growth of larger bushes, which often reach the 
size of small trees. 



2^4 Grinnell, Wiiiter Birds of Santa Catalina Is., L. Cal. Ljuly 

Birds were most numerous in the larger canons, especially where 
there was any water. The majority of birds in point of numbers 
were winter visitants. Out of the 29 species identified, 14 are 
known to me to be resident on this island. They are : CalUpepIa 
californica valUcoIa^ Zenaidiira macroura, Buteo borealis calurus, 
Haliceetus leucocephalus, Selasphorus alleni, Sayorfiis nigricans^ 
Corvus corax sinuatus^ Carpodaciis viexicanus frontalis^ Pipilo 
fjiaculatus megalonyx^ Lanius ludovicianus gajnbeli, Salpinctes obso- 
letiis, Hebninthophila celata sordida, Mimus polyglotios, and Thryo- 
thorus bewickii spilurus. 

I was surprised not to find several birds which are numerous 
on San Clemente Island, for Catalina lies almost exactly between 
that island and the mainland. Song Sparrows and Horned Larks 
were remarkable by their apparent absence from Catalina, and 
besides these, the Chipping Sparrow, Meadowlark and Bell's Spar- 
row were not discovered. Horned Larks and Song Sparrows are 
also abundant on Santa Barbara Island which lies about 20 miles 
northwest of Catalina. The following is a briefly annotated list 
of the birds detected on Santa Catalina Island during my Decem- 
ber visit. 



Callipepla californica vallicola. Valley Partridge. — Verj abundant 
in the brushy canons. The 'Quail' is not native on the island, but was 
originally introduced from the mainland. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. — I saw several pairs among 
the hill-tops toward the interior of the island. 

Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail. — Scarcely a day passed 
but what two or three of these large Hawks were seen circling among the 
hills. An immature specimen in very dark plumage was brought in by 
a local hunter. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. — Common along the pre- 
cipitous margins of the island. 

Asio accipitrinus. Short-eared Owl. — I examined a newly-mounted 
specimen in a taxidermist's shop at Avalon ; it had been shot about a 
week before. 

Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. Burrowing Owl.— I saw a single 
individual on a hill-top in the interior. I was told that this Owl becomes 
quite numerous at times. 

Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Tolerably common along 
rocky shores. 

Colap'tes cafer. Bed-shafted Flicker. — Tolerably common, being 



^°i8 ^^'] Grinnell, Winter /ii'/y/s of Santa Catatina A., L. Cal. IT^^ 

usually thislied from the shady sides of the canons where thev di.LJ in the 
damp turf for insect larvie. 

Calypte anna. Anna's IIummin(;biri). — An adult female was taken 
and another seen, in a cafion in the interior. 

Selasphorus alleni. Allen's Hummingbird. — ^'ery abundant about 
the blossoming eucalyptus trees at Avalon, and in small numbers along 
the canons and ravines wherever there were flowers. The Allen's Hum- 
mingbird is a resident species on this island, as it is found breeding 
commonly in the spring months. On the adjacent mainland this species 
is found only during the migrations, and it seems rather strange that it 
should be so numerous as a permanent resident only tliirty miles 
distant. 

Sayornis saya. Say's Phcebe. — Tolerably common about the hill-tops. 

Sayornis nigricans. Black Phcebe. — I saw but three individuals 
and they were along the steep rocky cliffs near the beaches on each 
side of Avalon. 

Corvus corax sinuatus. American Raven. — Common. 

Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch. — Very numerous on 
the hill-sides in the interior of the island. The Linnets were feeding to 
a large extent on the cactus fruits, and there was scarcely a cactus thicket 
that did not harbor a flock of these birds. 

Spinus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. — I saw only three pairs, and 
thev were in the immediate vicinity of Avalon. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia. Intermediate Sparrow. — Very- 
common in brushy ravines. 

Zonotrichia coronata. Golden-crowned Sparrow. — Tolerably com- 
mon in thick brush in the canon back of Avalon. 

Melospiza lincolnii. Lincoln's Sparrow. — I saw an individual on 
two occasions in a door-yard in Avalon. 

Passerella iliaca unalaschcensis. Townsend's Sparrow. — Common 
in brushy canon-beds. 

Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. Thick-billed Sparrow. — Nearly as 
common as the last, and associated with it. Many specimens of both 
forms were secured. 

Pipilo maculatus megalonyx. Spurred Towhee. — Abundant in 
brush along dry water-courses. About 40 specimens were secured on 
Catalina Island. They are readily distinguishable from P. cletnentiv, and 
yet are slightly different from the mainland form. The bill is longer 
and proportionately slenderer than in the mainland bird, but in the male 
the upper and anterior parts are fully as jet black. The ' Catbird ' call- 
note of the Catalina bii-d is very different in qualit}^ from that possessed 
by the mainland bird. When I first heard it, I was positive that a Cali- 
fornia Jay was on a distant hill-side, although the Towhee was only a 
few yards from me. 

Lanius ludovicianus gambeli. California Shrike. — I did not see 
more than five individuals, and only one specimen was secured. 



236 Grinnell, Ne-w California Birds. \ji% 

Helminthophila celata sordida. Lutescent Warbler. — Tolerably 
common but very quiet and secretive. Nearly all the specimens secured 
had been eating the cactus fruits and their digestive organs and surround- 
ing tissues were colored a bright wine-color. A partial albino specimen 
Avas taken. 

Dendroica auduboni. Audubon's Warbler. — Probably the most 
numerous bird on the island and seen everywhere from the pebbly 
beaches to the highest hills. 

Mimus polyglottos. Mockingbird. — Common among the cactus 
patches from the canon-beds to the hill-tops. Their faces were in many 
cases brightly stained with the cactus fruit juice. 

Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. — Tolerably common on the cliffs 
and steep hill-sides. 

Thryothorus bewickii spilurus. Vigors's Wren. — Tolerably com- 
mon in the smaller ravines, but very shy. The 10 specimens secured 
agree in having the bill quite perceptibly longer than the mainland bird. 

Regulus calendula. Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — A very few were 
observed. 

Turdus aonalaschkae. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. — Tolerably common 
on the shady hill-sides, and in the deeper canons. They were feeding on 
the berries of the California holly. 



GEOGRAPHICAL RACES OF HARPORHYNCHUS 
REDIVIVUS. 

BY JOSEPH GRINNELL. 

Comparison of a series of Thrashers from northern and cen- 
tral California with one from southern California, as might be 
expected, discloses two slightly differentiated geographical races. 
This is another instance of the effect of the moist northerly 
Pacific coast climate in producing a soft brown coloration, as 
-contrasted with the leaden or ashy shades acquired by birds 
inhabiting the southern coast region where the rainfall is much 
less. As the type specimens of this species were obtained in the 
vicinity of Monterey, the name redivivus proper may be restricted 
to the northern race, while the southern form, which I believe to 
be sufficiently distinct, will require a ne\v name. 



iSq^^l G\u>i'^K-L\., T/ic Sail i\uo/(is /i'oiA- Wren. 27 J 

Harporhynchus redivivus pasadenensis, new subspecies. 

Southern California Thrashicr. 

Type, $ ad., No. 2056, Coll. J. G., Pasadena, California, Feb. 6, 1S97. 
General coloration similar to that of the northern form, but plumage 
ashler or less distincth- brown. Whole upper parts dark sepia, -where in 
the case of the northern bird there is a well-marked tinge of a brown 
approximating Isabella color; this difference is most noticeable on the 
top of the head. Lower parts likewise less brightl}' tinted; pectoi'al band 
darker and grayer; throat nearly pure white, this character being quite 
pronounced. 

Measurements. — Average of i3 specimens of //. redivirii": wing, 3.96; 
tail, 5.52; bill from nostril, 1.17; tarsus, 1.39. 

Average of 17 specimens of //. ;-. pasadc7iensis: wing, 3.92; tail, "5.30; 
bill from nostril, 1.2 1 ; tarsus, 1.36. 

Nearly all my northern specimens have the throat patch 
strongly suffused with Isabella color. Unfortunately, I have not 
been able to obtain specimens from Monterey, but birds from 
adjoining counties exhibit the character of true redivivus. Speci- 
mens from the Sacramento Valley (Amador County, etc.) show 
the most extreme brown type of coloration. My series of pasa- 
denensis is quite large, but there is remarkably little variation. 
Badly worn specimens of the two races, however, are scarcely 
distinguishable. 



THE SAN NICOLAS ROCK WREN. 

BY JOSEPH GRINNELL. 

San Nicolas Island lies between sixty and seventy miles 
from the nearest point of the southern California mainland, and 
is the most remote of the Santa Barbara Group. It is seven 
miles long by three wide, and resembles a huge sand-dune. The 
yellow shifting sands support but very scant vegetation, and conse- 
quently insects are few. Yet, in the spring of 1897, I found Rock 
Wrens to be quite numerous on most parts of the island, frequent- 



23 S GKm-ti^i.-L, The Sail Nicolas Rock Wren. [^^j^ 

ing ravines and the many gullies which cross the mesa at the sum- 
mit of the island. It is not unreasonable, therefore, that a resi- 
dent species on this isolated desert should become affected by 
these peculiar conditions, and prove somewhat different from its 
mainland counterpart. 



Salpinctes obsoletus pulverius, new subspecies. 

San Nicolas Rock Wren. 

Type, $ ad., in abraded breeding phimage, No. 2615, Coll. J. C, San 
Nicolas Island, California, May 19, 1897. 

Measurements: length, 6.12; wing, 2.S0; tail, 2.20; tarsus, .85 ; culmen, 
75 ; bill from nostril, .58; depth of bill at nostril, .18. 

Pattern of coloration similar to that of the mainland 5. obsoletus, but 
entire plumage, especially the upper parts, suffused with ochraceous 
or dust color, almost identical with the tint of the soil on San Nicolas 
Island. 

Unfortunately no San Nicolas Rock Wrens in fresh fall plum- 
age are available, and this yellowish coloration may be due in 
part to the bleaching and abrasion of the plumage, but the charac- 
ter is, nevertheless, quite apparent when compared with mainland 
specimens in correspondingly worn plumage. This is probably 
an instance of protective coloration, as foxes were found on the 
island, and small birds must form a good share of their prey. 

The best character of pulverius, however, is the notably greater 
size of the bill and feet, the measurements of which approach closely 
to those of 6". guadeloupensis. The appended table shows the com- 
parative measurements of specimens from the mainland and inter- 
lying islands, as well as the eight adult specimens of pulverius 
obtained on San Nicolas Island during the middle of May, 1897. 
The specimens from San Clemente and Santa Barbara Islands 
are intermediate in characters. 

Quite a large series of Rock Wrens from Western North 
America are before me, and very little variation is to be found. 
Southern California specimens are indistinguishable from those 
taken in the Rocky Mountain region and eastward into Nebraska, 
where, I believe, Say's type was taken. 



Vol. XV 



il xv-| 

I89S J 



Bruce, A Moiilh xvith the (ioldjuiciic^. 



239 



I am indebted to the National Museum officers for the loan of 
a series of Salpinctes. 

Measurements. 



Average of 8 specimens S. o. piilverhis from 

Sau Nicolas Island 

Average of 2 specimens (intermediate) from 

San Clemente Island 

Average of s specimens (intermediate) from 

Santa Barbara Island 

Average of 19 specimens 6". obsoletus from the 

adjacent mainland of Southern California. 



>H - '-' ' 





























M 














"a 


f. 


5 


"*" « 


(U 


> 


H 


a 




= c 


►J 











m^ 


6.00 


2-75 


2.17 


•85 


•72 


•57 


5-93 


2.71 


2.09 


.So 


.69. 


•57 


6.05 


2.77 


2.24 


•79 


.67 


•54 


5.86 


2.75 


2.18 


.78 


.67 


•54 



1^ 

• 17 
.16 

• 15 

•'5 



A MONTH WITH THE GOLDFINCHES. 



BY MARY EMILY BRUCE. 



The nesting season is nearly over and the air is full of the 
voices of young birds before the Goldfinches begin to build. In 
the leisurely golden time of the year, when the fields are yellow 
with grain and the roadsides gay with golden-rod, the dainty pair, 
in love with the summer, the sunshine, and each other, plan their 
home. True to their careless, happy natures they neither hurry 
nor overwork. A suitable place is chosen, the nest is built, the 
eggs are laid, and the little dame sits content in the sun, while 
her mate fills the air with music, as high over woods and fields he 
takes his undulating flight in search of food. To watch a Gold- 
finch's home is a privilege that brightens the whole summer, and 
one would like to write their story with a pen dipped in sunshine. 

It was late in July before I reached the farmhouse among the 
hills of Vermont where I was to spend my vacation, and I found 
the orchards near the house already full of young birds. Baby 



240 Bruce, A Month -with the Goldfinches. Y\^y 

Sapsuckers flopped about in the apple trees, young Vireos were 
followed here and there by anxious mothers, Catbirds uttered notes 
of warning by the roadsides, and infant Flycatchers and Thrushes 
regarded me with large inquiring eyes. A pair of belated Robins, 
nervous and overworked, were looking after their young ones, who 
were still in the nest, but for the most part family car£s were over, 
and my only hope of watching the home life of the birds was to 
find a Goldfinch's nest. 

In vain I searched the orchard near the house. Goldfinches 
flashed in and out among the branches, and sang of summer joys 
over my head, but they guarded well the secret of their homes. 
When I had nearly given up in despair, chance favored me, and I 
happened upon the object of my search in a maple tree in front of 
a neighboring farmhouse. Blessings never come singly, and just 
as I was rejoicing in this treasure trove the little daughter of the 
house pointed out another nest in the orchard. A third nest, also 
in a maple tree, was discovered a few days later, but this was 
already full of half fledged birds, and both maple tree dwellings 
were too high in the branches to be easily watched. 

Nothing could be better suited to my purpose than the home in 
the orchard. The Goldfinches had chosen a tiny pear tree quite 
close to the house, and the nest was barely four feet from the 
ground. There was something very charming in the confidence 
they had shown their human neighbors, and the pair won my 
heart from the first by their gentle, trustful ways. It w^as a satis- 
faction to watch a nest for once where I was not treated like a 
robber and murderer. I could draw my chair quite near to the 
little pear tree, and the mother bird would look at me without a 
shadow of alarm in her bright eyes. 

It was marvelous to see how quickly she recognized the voice of 
her mate in the Goldfinch chorus about her. Her neighbors in 
the maple tree might come and go, and she never stirred a feather, 
but a sudden quivering of the wings and a soft twittering response 
would announce his approach long before I could hear his voice, 
and as his song became audible to me, louder and more joyful 
grew her note of welcome. He would alight in a neighboring tree, 
speak to me first in a mild, questioning tone, like a pet canary 
talking to his mistress, and then fly down to the nest and feed his 



"s'gS J Bruce, A Month -mH/i the Goldjhtrhes. 2 A. I 

mate. After tlie dainty meal was finished tliey would talk 
together for a moment before he left her for another flight into 
the big sunshiny world. Life in this miniature home was very 
sweet and harmonious, and the golden bird in the tiny tree 
with its treasure of a nest made a charming picture. 

For the next four weeks I visited the orchard daily. They 
were quiet hours I spent there, but there was no lack of enter- 
tainment. For music the Field Sparrows sang to me their 
simple, plaintive songs, and from far up on the hills I could 
sometimes hear the chant of the Hermit Thrush. A pair of 
Chipping Sparrows in a neighboring apple tree were bringing up 
their only child wdth quite as much solicitude as if they were bur- 
dened with a large family. They were a striking contrast to the 
serene and happy Goldfinches, but, plain little brown folks as 
they were, I enjoyed watching them. Sometimes young Warblers, 
looking strangely unlike their parents, visited the orchard, or a 
bevy of Crows from a maple grove near by, disturbed by a pass- 
ing Hawk, startled me out of my day dreams. I wondered if the 
little Goldfinch had as many resources as I, or if the hours seemed 
long to her. Perhaps she too dreamed day dreams and listened 
to the music of nature. ' She seldom left the nest, though I 
occasionally startled her off by some sudden movement, when she 
reproached me for my carelessness in the sweetest of voices. 

When I first looked into the nest there were six eggs, white, 
with faintest tinge of blue, and pretty enough to satisfy any bird 
mother, but my little girl friend had told me that there were but 
two eggs laid when the bird began to sit, and I was curious 
to know whether there would not be a marked difference in the 
age of the young ones. After two week's patient waiting the 
little mother and I were rewarded by finding among the pretty 
eggs a very ugly birdling. On my afternoon visit there were 
three little birds, the next day four, and on the day following I 
counted five heads. By this time the mother did not sit con- 
stantly on the nest, but cunningly tucked the remaining egg under 
the little birds and went on short excursions into the countr}-. 
Whether the young ones did not do their duty, or whether it was 
another instance of the survival of the fittest I cannot tell, but 
when the oldest nestling was five days old I again counted heads 



242 Bruce, A Month 'vitk the Goldjinches. \j^-j 

and there were only four. The youngest child and the sixth tgg 
had both disappeared, and I decided that in the struggle for 
existence the older birds must have had too great an advantage 
in point of time. As it was, the nest seemed hardly large enough, 
and the four had a comical fashion of lying with their long necks 
stretched out and their heads hanging over the edge, their eyes 
half closed and their mouths wide open as if gasping for air. 
Certainly uglier birdlings never gladdened the hearts of deluded 
parents. 

For the first week they showed little intelligence. At the noise 
of a passing wagon four mouths would open as quickly as at the 
sound of the mother's voice, and they greeted me in the same 
ravenous manner. I responded by trying to feed them with 
crushed plantain seed, but though they opened their bills to 
receive the morsel, the experiment was not very successful. It 
would take the eye of faith to see in these atoms of birdhood the 
potential grace and beauty of a mature Goldfinch, and I sometimes 
fancied that the mother herself had doubts about them, for she 
would stand pensively on the edge of the nest in her visits to the 
home tree and look unutterable things. The little birds were 
fed very slowly and thoroughly about once an hour, sometimes 
by the father, sometimes by the mother. Possibly the par- 
ents came oftener during my absence, but from the time the 
sitting was over I saw them less and less frequently, though I 
was sometimes greeted on my arrival by a note of inquiry from 
the tree tops. I hope I proved myself worthy of the confidence 
placed in me. I did not sit too near the nest, and by moving 
quietly and speaking softly I tried, in my poor human fashion, to 
become a fit associate for my gentle friends. Though so seldom 
fed, the little ones seemed to thrive on fresh air and sunshine. 
Stretching matches and other gymnastics were practised daily, 
pretty feathers gradually appeared, and by the time they were ten 
days old they were bonny birdlings resembling their mother. 
From her they had inherited gentle manners and soft voices, for 
it was at that early age that they began to talk. They no longer 
mistook me for a parent bird, but seemed fond of me, trying to 
swallow the bits of hard ■ boiled ^^^^^ I offered them, and show- 
ing no fear when I took them out of the nest. 

When they were nearly two weeks old I visited the orchard 



^°Sy^^J Biu'CK, A Mouth -vtth the C;o/</jhiches. 243 

every morning before l)reakfast, expecting each clay to find my 
birdlings flown, but it was not until the sixteenth day that the 
event occurred for which I had been waiting. 

On this morning 1 was more grieved than surprised to Hnd only 
two little birds left in the nest. I spent the entire morning in the 
orchard, waiting to see the remaining birdlings take fiight. It 
seemed to be the policy of the parents to induce them to come 
out for something to eat, for they were not once fed during this 
time. I offered them morsels of egg, but they paid little heed to 
me. They were restless, and I saw that the old home and old 
friends had lost all charm for them. Suddenly while I watched, 
one of the two birdlings scrambled onto the edge of the nest, 
balanced himself for a moment, and then flew straight into the 
nearest apple tree. From this vantage ground he looked down 
into the tiny pear tree home that had once seemed all the world to 
him, and called back to his little brother that he had found a 
larger and greener world than that. The baby in the nest seemed 
half inclined to follow him, but at each attempt after much flutter- 
ing of the wings he would slip back into the old place. Presently 
the mother came with a morsel of food for the brave little bird in 
the tree, but no attention was paid to the pleading cry of his lazy 
brother, and very soon the venturesome young one found the use 
of his wings so pleasant and the food she offered him so tempting 
that he followed her across the orchard into the fields beyond. 

On my afternoon visit the poor little coward was still in the 
nest, apparently very hungry and teasing incessantly. He may 
have thought that he was forgotten, — and I confess that I had 
fears of this myself, — when late in the afternoon, brighter than a 
gleam of sunshine, doubtless, to the waiting bird, came the father 
to the nest. Only this encouragement was needed, the little fellow 
was not to be left alone again ; in a moment he was standing on 
a tiny twig above the nest, there \vas another moment of balanc- 
ing and indecision, and then taking heart he too flew across to 
the friendly apple tree. He was rewarded by the instant appear- 
ance of his mother who had doubtless waited for this evidence of 
courage on the part of her youngest darling. She first gave him 
a hearty meal, and then flew from tree to tree towards the fields 
beyond. My birdling followed her in pretty, undulating, Gold- 
finch fashion, and I was left alone in the orchard. 



2A.A. Palmer, 0//r Small Eastern Strikes. [july 



OUR SMALL EASTERN SHRIKES. 

BY WILLIAM PALMER. 

Three Shrikes are universally understood to occur in North 
America east of the Plains. The Northern Shrike {La>iius Iwfealis)^ 
a winter visitant in our eastern States ; the Loggerhead (Z. ludo- 
vicianus), which is considered a fairly common bird over most of 
the region between Maine and Florida and Ohio and Illinois to 
Louisiana; and the White-rumped (Z. /. exciibitoroides), which is 
supposed to inhabit Canada, Michigan, and westwards. 

An examination of considerable material, 176 specimens, com- 
pels me to relegate excnbitoroides to the Plains region west of the 
immediate Mississippi wooded drainage area ; Indovicianiis to the 
South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and Florida, and to recognize a 
new form as occupying much of the remaining region of the East. 

Historical Synopsis. 

The name Lanius ludoviciamcs was first given by Brisson ^ to a 
bird from the region then known as Louisiana. On his description 
Linnseus "- based his binomial name composed of the same words. 

Vieillot ^ describes two Shrikes, one Lanius borealis, the other 
Z. ardosiaceus, whose habitat he gives as Georgia, Florida, and 
Louisiana. 

Wilson knew but two Shrikes, one the northern, which he called 
Z. excnbitor, thinking it identical with the European bird, and his 
Lanius carolinensis'' which he found on his visit to South Carolina 
and Georgia. Of this he says : " This species inhabits the rice 
plantations of Carolina and Georgia, where it is protected for its 
usefulness in destroying mice." We may be sure that Wilson 

' Orn., II, 1760, 162, pi. 15, fig. 2. 

23. N., I, 1766, 134. 

3 0is. Am. Sept., I, 1807, Si. 

^ Am. Orn., Ill, 1811, 57, pi. 22, fig. 5. 



/oi. xvn 



Pat-micr, Our SiiHill Eastern Shrikes. ^d-S 



either knew nothing of a small Shrike occurring north of the 
Carolinas or that he confused it with the Northern. 

Bonaparte seems to have had no special acquaintance with the 
Loggerhead. In his 'Observations on the Nomenclature of Wil- 
son's Ornithology,' he states, ^ " 34. § L. carolmensis, vol. iii., p. 57. 
This species is peculiar to the southern parts of North America. 
Vieillot's name of ardosiaceus has the priority, and will, therefore, 
be adopted." He then gives " L. ludovicianus ? Linn" as a syn- 
onym of " L. ardosiaceus Vieill." In later publications he adopts 
Lanius liidoviciainis as the correct name for the Loggerhead. 

Swainson evidently knew nothing by practical experience of 
the Loggerhead Shrike. Apparently he had no specimens, but 
used the descriptions of his predecessors in distinguishing his 
Laiiius cxcnbitofoides from Z. ludoviciamis?- 

Audubon's knowledge of these birds was superior to all others 
but he fell far short of the real facts. He tells us, "The Logger- 
head Shrike is partially migratory in Carolina. A few may be 
found through the winter; but the number is ten times greater in 
summer."^ He also quotes Wilson as above. Audubon appears 
never to have suspected that his bird bred in Louisiana, for he 
says, " Seldom reaching farther eastward than North Carolina, 
or farther inland than the State of Mississippi, in which latter, as 
well as in Louisiana, it appears only during the winter months. 
Its chief residence may, therefore, be looked upon as the Floridas, 
Georgia, and the Carolinas.""* He also says: "This bird 
appears in Louisiana only at intervals, and seldom remains more 
than a few weeks in December or January."^ The original of 
Audubon's plate was procured by him in Louisiana. 

Professor Baird gave the range of the Loggerliead as " South 
Atlantic and Gulf States," and of Lanius excubitoroides as 
" Missouri plains and fur countries to Pacific coast. Eastward 
into Wisconsin, Illinois, and Michigan (.'').'"' This is the first 



' Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Ill, V. 

-Fauna Foreali Americana, II, 1S31, 115, pi. 34. 

■'Birds of America, Vol. IV, 1S42, p. 137. 

V, r., p. 135. 

5/. <:., 136. 

«B. N. A., 135S, y-i, 326. 



2A.6 Palmer, Ottr Small Eastern Shrikes. ■ |_July 

appearance of this last name for a bird east of the Mississippi 
River, a practice only too readily followed afterwards, for its use 
extended to Maine and Canada and even to the Carolinas. Pro- 
fessor Baird had five specimens of ludovicianus from Georgia and 
an imperfect series from Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan, 
besides a number from the West, and necessarily considered his 
southern specimens as distinct from the others. 

Dr. Coues, with all the work of his predecessors before him. 
and his South Carolina and western experiences, readily fell into 
the view of considering the Upper Mississippi birds as inter- 
mediate between L. ludovidamis and Z. excubitoroides, a conclusion 
which has since remained unchanged.^ His work had the effect 
of broadening the ornithological fieJdwork of numerous observers 
who based their identifications primarily upon his results. Some 
peculiar Shrike literature was thus encouraged, the effects of 
which will be noted later. 

The only Shrikes mentioned by Dr. Gadow '^ that are probably 
from the eastern States are two, a '^juv. sk." from Louisiana, and 
an ''ad. sk." from " N. America," which may be anything. All 
the others mentioned are from Mexico and Western America, yet 
all are placed under one name L. ludovicianus, though it is stated 
that Canadian examples " are very distinct from the extreme 
southern form, which is confined to the southern States and 
Mexico (Z. ludovicianus).'''' 

We now come to a phase of literature due to our increasing 
knowledge of the range of these birds, for, as the taste for orni- 
thology increased through' the middle and northeastern States, so 
accounts of these birds became numerous. At first they were 
ascribed to the larger species Z. borealis,, for we find records of 
this bird) breeding in the New England States and Pennsylvania, 
which were afterwards changed to ludovicianus or excubitoroides. 
Then notices of the capture of L. excubitoroides became common, 
though in many cases a wrong identification was later admitted 
and change made to ludovicianus. But the records increased, 

iRey toN. A. Birds, 1872, 125; 1890, 338; B. N. W., 1S74, 103; B. C. V., 
1878, 563. 

2 Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., Vol. VIII, 1S83, 246. 



^'iScjs^] Palmer, Our Small Easlem Shrikes. 247 

both names being variously used, even in one case, both of them, 
for the birds of a mated pair! until now it is considered that 
except in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Canada, ludovi- 
cianus is the only form found. 

Dr. Wheaton ^ gives Lanius ludovicianus as, a " Common sum- 
mer resident in Middle, less common in Northern and Southern 

Ohio First ascertained to occur in Ohio by myself in 1874, 

a female specimen, taken May 31, 1873, O'^ which my note in 
Coues' Birds of the Northwest was in part based, proving a nearly 
typical specimen of this variety. Her mate was an equally well 
marked individual of var. excubitor aides." On page 311, he says 
of this latter, " Rare in southern and middle Ohio, probably more 
common in northern Ohio. Summer resident from March to 
September. Breeds." On page 312 he says of excuhiforoides : 
" Thus it appears that this variety has extended its range east- 
ward from the Mississippi Valley mainly along the basin of the 
Great Lakes." 

Raymond VV. Smith, ^ speaking of the birds of Warren County, 
Ohio, gives Z. ludovicianus as " uncommon summer resident," and 
of L. 1. excuhiforoides as " resident, probably breeds." He also 
says : " The Shrikes of this locality are just on the border line 
between the Loggerhead and the White-rumps, and in many cases 
it is almost impossible to distinguish the variety." 

The A. O. U. Check-List of 1886 gave the range of ludovicianus 
as " Florida, the Carolinas, and the Gulf States east of Texas." 
In the list of 1895 this became "Eastern United States, west to 
the Plains ; north to northern New England. Breeds from the Gulf 
States to Virginia and casually north, on the Atlantic Coast to 
southern New Jersey ; in the interior, northward to the Great 
Lakes, and through western Pennsylvania and New York to New 
Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine." 

It would seem that, generally, the test of whether a particular 
bird belonged to either ludovicianus or excubiioroides.^ depended on 
the presence of dark, or white (= pale) upper tail-coverts, the 

1 Birds of Ohio, 1880, 309. 

* P- -dZ- 

•'Journ. Am. Soc. N. Hist., 1891, 122. 



248 



Palmer, Our Small Eastern Shrikes. iJulv 



universal ignorance of the real excubitoroides being sufficient to 
determine the issue. Also, identifications of excubitoroides from east 
of the Plains have been based on breeding birds, usually, some- 
times on winter specimens taken at the most northern part of their 
winter habitat. In no instance do these seem to have been com- 
pared with typical specimens of the form whose name they took. 

Taxonomic Differences. 

Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus Linn. 

Loggerhead Shrike. 

Subsfecific characters. — Adult $ : Above dark slaty; beneath almost 
immaculate white; bill large and stout, swollen toward tip; hook large 
and coarse, gently curved downwards; tail longer than wing. 

Adult $: Similar, but smaller. Type locality, " Louisiana." 

Lanius ludovicianus migrans, siibsp. nov. 

Migrant Shrike. 

Subsfecific characters. — Adult $ : Above bluish gray; beneath pale 
slaty; throat white; bill smaller, i-egularly tapering; hook delicate and 
sharply bent downwards; tail shorter than wing. Type, No. 163077, 
$, Kingston, Ontario, April 4, 1S98; Dr. C. K. Clarke. 

Adult $ : Duller, especially beneath, and smaller. 

Distribution. 

From middle Louisiana eastward along the Gulf Coast and its indenta- 
tions ; throughout Florida, and eastward into North Carolina. Extending 
from this range to an indeterminate distance up the vallej's, though gen- 
erally confined below the lOO-foot contour line.' Non-migratory except 
at its more northern and its higher habitat .... ludovicianus. 

^ It would seem desirable that the life distribution of forms should be con- 
sidered in relation to contour unes, altitude and the influences of the various 
kinds of forest distribution being the principal factors affecting them. The 
relative quiescent humidity of swamps and dense forests with their very slight 
interactions resulting from rapid general climate changes, plus the minimum 
amount of sunlight, produces results different from the dryer and more exposed 
elevations or depressions. The amount of sunlight, the character of the food, 
and the influences of a limited habitat seem more important in their results 
than degrees of temperature. Increase or decrease of the radiating powers of 
the ground surface destroys or drives out forms and necessarily influence 
those that remain, or replace them, and this radiating power is determined by 
influences other than mere temperature. 



°8g3 J Pai.mkk, Our Small Eastern Shrikes. 24O 

Froin Maine, Vermont, and Canada to Minnesota ; southwards into North 
Carolina and tlie Ohio Vailej to the Plains. Absent in winter from its 
more northern and higher liabitats and migrating in tlie autumn toward 
the Athmtic Coast and into the Carolinas, Tennessee, and lower Missis- 
sippi valley. Breeding almost entirely above the 500-foot contour in the 
valleys, casually up to about 2000 feet, and to within about 50 miles of 
the coast in Maine. From Canada and the edges of the plains intergrad- 
ing into exciibitoroides . ..... . . migrans. 

From the above it will be seen that hulovicianus is a resident of 
the seaward edge of the coastal plain, ranging up the valleys above 
the 100-foot contour in suitable places, especially where civiliza- 
tion has prepared a way. On the other hand, mig7-ans is a resi- 
dent of the Transition Zone between the Carolinian and the 
Canadian, affected in some places by the opening up of suitable 
breeding places by the agency of man. 

In Maine the Migrant Shrike does not seem to be uncommon. 
Mr. O. W. Knight has recently recorded it from numerous local- 
ities ^ and informs me that he can always find them in summer. 
He is sure of its breeding at Hampden, five miles south of Bangor 
and about 55 miles from the sea. Most of the records I have are 
breeding records, but the bird does not seem to winter. In New 
Hampshire and Vermont the bird is locally distributed in suitable 
places, nearly all of the ten localities I have being of breeding 
birds. Except one breeding record in northwestern Massachu- 
setts - the records from that State and from Connecticut, Rhode 
Island and New Jersey are either of winter visitants or of migrants, 
though Mr. Stone mentions its probable breeding in southern 
New Jersey,^ but this may be the southern form. In New V^ork 
it breeds in most of the middle and western counties, being a 
migrant or winter resident in the Hudson Valley and on Long 
Island. In Pennsylvania it breeds in the counties bordering the 
western boundary, but it is only a migrant or winter visitant in 
the rest of the State, apparently. I do not know of its breeding 
in Maryland, though Mr. Kirkwood informs me that in the manu- 

' Bull. Univ. Maine, 1S97. 

-Auk, 1SS7, iSo; Am. Nat. 1SS7, 90. 

^ Birds E. Penu. and N. J., 1S94, 125. 



250 Palmer, Our Small Eastern Shrikes. rtuiv 

scripts left by the late E. A. Small there is a note of its occurrence 
in Washington County in summer. In Virginia it is a winter 
visitor, and migrant over the whole tidewater region to the foot- 
hills of the Blue Ridge. In the valley of Virginia it is a summer 
resident, wintering in mild winters in the southern portion. It 
breeds commonly in Nelson County (W. R. Robinson ^); in War- 
ren County (G. S. Miller, Jr. -) ; in Rappahanock County (Prof. 
F. E. L. BeaP) , and in Fanquier County (R. Ridgway^). In 
North Carolina it is confined in summer to the western portion 
along the foothills. It is entirely absent in summer at Raleigh, 
though a winter visitor there (Brimley Bros.*), but is a common 
breeder further west at Statesville (R. B. McLaughlin*). It 
doubtless occurs further south, both as a breeder and winter resi- 
dent, but I have no sure instances. From Montreal (Wintle*) to 
Ottawa (Prof. Macoun -), County Perth (Kells), and Kingston, 
Ontario (Dr. C. K. Clark.*), it occurs through most of Michigan 
and Wisconsin to Minneapolis, thence to the Ohio River, almost 
every record being a breeding one. It has been recorded only as 
a migrant from Kentucky (Fulton, Warren, and Nelson Counties) . 
I have seen three specimens from Tennessee (Roane County 
and Nashville), all winter birds. West of the Mississippi it 
undoubtedly occurs in suitable places to the edge of the Plains, 
but records are very few and uncertain. 

The Loggerhead is abundant throughout Florida and along the 
Atlantic Coast into North Carolina, and probably into Virginia on 
the shores of the Chesapeake region. Robinson's record for 
Chesterfield County ^ may include this bird for the summer resi- 
dent. It occurs along the coasts of Western Florida and of Ala- 
bama, extending up the valleys of the latter State for a consider- 
able distance, probably above the 100-foot contour, Wilcox County 
(Rev. H. E. Wheeler"); Shelby County (C. F. Witherby"); and 
Butler and Antanga Counties (Dr. D. L. Wilkinson®), I have 

' In letter and specimen. 
* In person, 

^ In person, and Smith, Pastime, Oct., 1884, 27. 
■* In letters. 
^Auk, 1889, ^95- 
® In letters. 



^°ij^^] Palmkr, Our Siiuill Easfern S/i tikes. 2^1 

seen several specimens from Hale County, including young. Dr. 
Wilkinson took a set of eggs, March 29, 1888, in Gastonbury, 
Wilcox County, a set of three, and another of four eggs in Hale 
County, March 30, 1889.^ In Mississippi and Louisiana it is 
common along the coast and probably over the greater parts of 
these States in suitable . places along the watercourses, and for 
some distance up the Mississippi Valley. The Oxford record ^ is 
almost certainly this bird. It is replaced by another form in 
Texas. 

General Differeiices. 

In migrans the wing is longer than the tail, due to its migra- 
tory habit ; in ludoviciamis the tail is longest, thus indicating its 
fixed habitat. In consequence the third primary feather of the 
former is usually the longest, or is equal to the fourth ; in the latter 
the fourth is nearly always the longest. The forehead of ludovi- 
cianus is dark like the top of head, in migraiis it is nearly always 
paler. In the southern bird the underparts are usually almost 
immaculate, in the other the slaty of the sides of the breast 
extends across, especially in the breeding plumage. Usually a. 
faint trace of reddish is perceptible on the breast of ludovicianics ., 
but is stronger in migrans, especially in the females and immature.. 
Signs of immaturity disappear quickly in ludoviciamis, they soon 
assume adult plumage ; the reverse is true of migrans, the duller 
plumage, browner primaries, and paler edgings on the wing; 
coverts lasting longer. Larger areas of white marking occur on' 
individuals of both forms and are indicative of greater age but 
some immature are precocious. 

From L. I. exciibitoroides,^ migrans is distinguishable by its 
darker, duller plumage, especially beneath, by being stouter and 
longer, and by its larger bill, tarsi and feet. 

In ludoviciamis the upper tail-coverts are almost invariably- 
similar to the back in color, paleness when occurring being due to 

' In letters. 

2 Ragsdale, Auk, 1SS9, 224. 

^ To be treated in another paper. 



2^2 Palmkr, Our Small Easter7i Shrikes. [jiily 

bleaching and wearing. In viignins the male usually has pale 
upper tail-coverts, bleaching in the breeding season to a dull, 
dirty whitish. The stronger, duller colors of the females rarely 
bleaching as much. At the end of the breeding season the 
plumage usually presents a very ragged, bleached condition with 
all the colors very much faded. The great difference, usually, 
between the purer colors of the males and the darker, duller 
colors of the females, the difference in size and the consequent 
varying amount of bleaching of the sexes is responsible for the 
identification, so common, of excuhitoroides as an eastern bird. 
The plumage is always paler when fresh but soon darkens, 
especially in 7nigrans^ where the contrast is greater. In this also 
the contrast between the white throat and the darkish breast is 
nearly always evident, and exceedingly rare in the southern bird. 

Literniediates arid Variations. 

Specimens from Greensboro, Alabama, in the Tombigbee River 
Valley, are referable to ludoviciam/s^ but represent a tendency 
toward migrans.^ the bill being slenderer and more hooked. A 
specimen from Chester, South Carolina, is similar, as are also two 
in Mr. Kohn's collection from Covington, Louisiana. These last 
are evidently migrants from a more northern localit}', as breeding 
birds from tli^e same region in. Mr. Kohn's collection are typical 
ludoviciajius. In Dr. A. K. Fisher's collection are six specimens 
from St. Helena Island, near Beaufort, South Carolina. These 
also represent a variation in the direction of migrans. Though 
having the large bill, the hook is more curved and longer. 

Certain specimens of migrans from Southern Illinois have stouter 
bills than usual, as have also the birds breeding about Minneapolis, 
Minnesota. These evidently represent groups of individuals with 
restricted habitats in the valleys of large rivers. Their having 
the fourth quill longer than the third, or equal to it, would indi- 
cate that their migratory range is not extensive. 

Measure77ients. 

Measurements were made of nearly all the specimens grouped 
by States. These show that the birds taken at the most north- 



^°8q8^] Palmicr, Our Small Eastern SZ/iikes. 2 C "J 

ern parts of the range of //ligrans are the largest. The averages 
include all the specimens measured, no weeding out of the immature 
or smallest being done. The single measurements will show the 
usual range of size in fully adult birds. 



Averages of hidoTiciauus. 

Of 24 males, wings, 3.77 ; tails, 3.89 ; culmens, .60 ; tarsi, r.07. 
Of 13 females, wings, 3.69; tails, 3.79; culmens, .58; tarsi, 
1.05. 

Averages of vii grans. 

Of 35 males, wings, 3.88; tails, 3.78; culmens, .54; tarsi, 1.07. 
Of 24 females, wings, 3.78; tails, 3.66; culmens, .53; tarsi, 
1.08. 

General Considerations. 

Shrikes are inhabitants of open, wooded, scrubby country. 
The mixed praii-ie, savanna, open pine woods, and hummock 
lands of the southern coasts afford a congenial habitat for the 
Loggerhead, which is an abundant bird. Similar conditions but 
with a greatly different vegetation, prevail about tfie prairies of 
the middle States and the farms and open country of the summer 
habitat of the Migrant Shrike. From the distribution here given 
it will be noticed that there is a considerable hiatus ^ between the 
breeding ranges of these two forms. This is evidently caused by 
the fact that the interval between the 100-foot and the 500-foot 
contours is a part of the great coastal plain forest region of the 
south, a region unsuited to Shrikes, and in which they do not 
breed. It is possible that, as civilization reached the prairies of 
Indiana and Illinois, a passage eastward was afforded by which 
these birds extended their range eastward into Maine and south- 

' See, Ragsdale, Auk, 1889, 224-226, though his facts were niLxed, no hiatus 
really occurring between ttitgrans and exctibitoroides, but between the former 
and liidovicianits. 



254 



Palmer, Our Small Easter7i Shrikes. 



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Pai.mek, Oi/r Siitall Eastern S//rikcx. 



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2C6 Palmer, Our Small Eastern Shrikes. ft l*^ 

ward into the Carolinas along the foothills of the mountains, 
the early highways of the pioneers. The many records of the 
abundance now and former rarity of Shrikes may be thus 
explained, but the facts are far too few and too recent to be of 
much value in determining such a question. Dr. Ralph informs 
me that Shrikes have penetrated into the Adirondack region by 
means of the roads leading to settlements located in the dense 
woods at an elevation of 2,600 feet. 

The two birds are perfectly distinct and readily separable, but 
may meet in the lower Mississippi Valley, and in places where 
civilization has changed the former natural conditions, dense 
forests giving way to open country, old fields, bushes, etc. 



The Molt of the Adult. 

Adults begin to change in July or August, or later, according 
to summer habitat. Some begin to change before migrating, 
while in others it is delayed until they reach their winter habitat. 
An adult male that I took on Smith's Island, Virginia, in fall 
migration en August 30, 1895, evidently began to molt before it 
started, but the effects of the journey prevented its completion, 
though it permitted the new feathers to attain full growth. The 
four middle feathers of the tail are nearly full grown, while the 
outer four on each side are the old ones. In the wings the ter- 
tials are full grown and new, as are also the inner primaries, but the 
outer primaries and most of the secondaries are old. Very few grow- 
ing feathers are to be seen. Another taken in Alexandria County, 
Virginia, October 3^ 1889, is in full molt on the wings; the tertials 
and inner primaries and some of the secondaries are full grown and 
the others are of various lengths, the two outer old primaries 
being still in place. The tail-feathers are in various stages, the 
outer being the shortest, about an inch, while the central are full 
grown. The body plumage is nearly complete. Another taken 
in Maryland, November i , is further advanced. Specimens taken 
in January, February, and Aprjl show some growing feathers on 
the throat, and this seems to be the extent of the spring change 
in the males. I have seen no molting; females. 



^°8q8^1 Palmick, Our Small Eastern Shrikes. 257 



Molt of the Jiiunatiirc. 

When the flight feathers of the young are full grown new body 
feathers begin to grow on the back and breast. Those of the 
back are dullish slaty, faintly barred subterminally with blackish. 
Beneath they are whitish, tinged \vith' slaty on the sides and very 
slightly with brownish on the underbody except on the throat, each 
feather being subterminally crossed with a faint crescent of dusky. 
As the change continues much of this barring and the dull colors 
wear off, leaving the white and slaty purer. The last of the nest- 
ling plumage to disappear on the body is on the pileum, upper 
neck, and rump. The progress of the change of the flight feathers 
I have been unable to determine, specimens being too few. The 
nestling wing-coverts are retained for a long time and it is probable 
that, like the flight feathers, they do not change until the next 
summer's molt. An immature female taken November 11, in 
King George County, Virginia, has not changed its flight feathers, 
but many pinfeathers are concealed under the breast feathers and 
molting is evident on the throat. A series of ten specimens col- 
lected in the vicinity of Washington, D. C, by Mr. James Gaut, 
during the last week of March of this year, are all immature birds. 
Except two they are in various stages of molting change, both 
males and females, new feathers appearing on the throat and 
breast, on the face, and, in a few specimens, on the head and 
back. The wing-coverts still have the immature light patches at 
their tips though variously worn. No change in the flight feathers 
appears, and the primaries are usually considerably weathered. 

Specimens Examined. • 

L. I. jnigrans. 

Maine i Ohio . 

Vermont ..... 2 Indiana 

New York 12 Illinois 

Pennsylvania .... 3 Wisconsin 

Maryland 7 Minnesota .... 17 

District of Columbia . . 9 Tennessee .... 3 

Virginia 22 Canada 3 

North Carolina . . . i 

Total 104 

17 



258 



Mearns, Ttvo Nexv Birds from Santa Barbara Ids. 



r Auk 

Ljuly 



L. Indoviciantis. 



South Caro 


ina 








II 


Georgia 










TO 


Florida 


. 


. 






38 


Alabama 










3 


Mississippi 


. 


. 






2 


Louisiana 










8 






Total 
Total 


of both forms . 


72 
176 



I am under special obligations to many friends : To Mr. 
Ridgway for the use of the National Museum series ; to Dr. T. S. 
Roberts, of MinneapoHs, who sent me the entire Minnesota State 
collection ; to Dr. A. K. Fisher for the use of many specimens ; 
to Mr. Gustave Kohn, of New Orleans ; Mr. Ora W. Knight, of 
Maine ; Dr. C. K. Clarke, of Kingston, Ontario ; Mr. W. R. Robin- 
son, of Wingina, Virginia, and Mr. James Gaut, of Washington, 
D. C. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW BIRDS FROM THE 

SANTA BARBARA ISLANDS, SOUTHERN 

CALIFORNA. 

BY EDGAR A. MEARNS. 



Carpodacus dementis, new species. 
San Clemente House Finch. 

Carpodacus frontalis Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII, No. 799, 
1890, pp. 139 (Santa Barbai-a Island, California), 140 (San Clemente and 
Santa Rosa Islands, California). 

Carpodacus mexicamis frontalis Grinnell, Rep. on the Birds of Santa 
Barbara, San Nicolas and San Clemente Islands, Pub ication No. I of the 
Pasadena Academy of Sciences, August, 1897, pp. 6 (Santa Barbara Island, 
California), 10 (San Nicolas Island) 16 and 17 (San Clemente Island.) 

Type from San Clemente Island, California, adult male, No. 134,784, 
U. S. National Museum. Collected bj the author, August 25, 1894. 



"iScjS ] Me\rns, Txvo Nexv Birds from Santa Barbara Ids. 2 CQ 

(Original number, 11,345.) In somewliat worn and faded breeding 
plumage. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to Carpodacus mcxicanus frontalis (Saj ), but with 
larger legs and feet and heavier coloration. The striping of the under 
surface is much broader than in typical specimens oi frontalis from the 
eastern base of the Rockj Mountains. The wings are shorter, the tail 
perhaps a tritie longer, and the bill much larger and more convex above. 
It is, in fact, intermediate between the form oi frontalis inhabiting the 
neighboring mainland of California and Carpodacus tncgregori Knihonv,^ 
from San Benito Island, about twenty miles west of Cerros (or Cedros) 
Island, Lower California, which latter (C. mcgregori) is but another step 
towards Carpodacus ampins Ridgway of Guadalupe Island. 

C. dementis requires no comparison with typical C. 7)iexicanus or 
with the subspecies ruberrimus from the peninsula of Lower Cali- 
fornia. The form rhodocolpus, of the tableland of southwestern 
Mexico, is quite similar in coloration, but much larger, with a 
much smaller and differently shaped bill. 

Measurements. — Length, 162 mm.; alar expanse, 250; wing, 
80; tail, 65; chord of culmen, 13; height of bill, 9; width of 
maxilla, 8.8 ; width of mandible, 9 ; tarsus, 19 ; middle toe and 
claw, 20.5. 

Remarks. — This House Finch was obtained by Mr. Charles H. 
Townsend, in 1888 and 1889, on San Clemente and Santa 
Barbara Islands. In August, 1894, Mr. Anthony and myself 
obtained a good series of them on San Clemente; and, in 1897, 
Mr. Joseph Grinnell collected specimens on Santa Barbara, San 
Nicolas, and San Clemente. There are other specimens in the 
Smithsonian collection, gathered by Drs. Palmer, Henshaw, 
Cooper, and others from Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, San Miguel, 
and Santa Cruz Islands of the Santa Barbara group. 

Mr. Grinnell has published (1. c. pp. 16, 17, etc.) the following 
important notices of this bird : " The most abundant bird of San 
Clemente Island. Common everywhere, but most numerous in' 
the deep gorges, whose walls are broken by dark caverns and 
festooned with cactus. In such places, especially in the vicinity 
of the water ' tanks,' the linnets fairly swarmed, and their full, 
rollicking songs reverberated incessantly. Their food appeared to 
be mainly composed of the fleshy cactus fruits, of which there 

' Auk, XIV, April 1897, p. 165. 



260 Mearns, T-cVO Neiv Birds from Santa Barbara Ids. 



TAn 

LJuI 



was certainly an abundant supply. The nests are built either in 
cactus, or in niches in the roofs and walls of the caverns. In 
the latter places the nests vary much in bulk, being fitted to the 
cavities in which they are built. A large cavity is nearly filled 
with a mass of fine grasses, weed stems and wool, with only a 
narrow aperture left at the top. Nests in cactus are built in the 
center of a clump of spiny stems, from one to three feet above the 
ground. These can seldom be reached except by breaking down 
the cactus. They are more compact than those in the rocks, but 
made of the same materials. Two to five eggs form a full set. 
They are similar to those of the mainland bird except in size, 
being decidedly larger. A fresh set taken March 30, measure, 
.84 X .60 [inch], .80 X .63, .82 X .62, .80 X .63. A partially 
incubated set of five taken March 31, measure, .80 x .56, 
.80 X .59, .82 X .57, .85 X .56, .86 X .58. The nesting season 
begins early, as nearly-fledged young were noted on March 
28. On June 5, incubated eggs were taken. The House 
Finches on San Clemente Island average larger and brighter 
colored than those of the mainland. This case well illustrates 
the tendency of the insular birds to acquire larger proportions "of 
the bill or feet. In this genus, the extremes are reached further 
south in C. mcgregorl and C. ampins. The following are the average 
measurements of the bills of a series each of the San Clemente 
and mainland House Finches : 



San Clemente Is . 
Pasadena 



Gonys. 



.29 



Culmeu. 



■43 
.40 



Depth of bill 
at base. 



■iZ 



Width of upper 
mandible. 



.28 



" Forty-seven specimens of the House Finch were obtained on 
this island. 

On Santa Barbara Island, Mr. Grinnell found it "common on 
the eastern part of the island among the patches of choUa cactus, 
the fruit of which the linnets were eating. Juveniles were plenti- 
ful. A nest was found on the side of a ravine. May 17 ; it was 



Vol. XV 
iS9« 



I Mearns, T-vo AVti' Birch from Saiihi luirhara Ids. lC)\ 



built between the leaves [joints] of a cactus about eighteen inches 
above the ground, and composed entirely of fine dry grass-blades. 
It contained four badly-incubated eggs, three of which measure : 
.76 X .56, .75 X .59, .83 X .59. Fourteen House Finches were 
taken on this island." 

On San Nicolas Island, Mr. Grinnell notes that " only about 
twenty were seen during our stay on the island, so this bird is by 
no means common. Fully fledged juveniles were noted, and a 
nest found May 25. It was in a hole in the sand-stone bluff 
above the beach, but could not be reached. The female was seen 
to leave it on several occasions. Four specimens of the House 
Finch were taken." 

Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi, new subspecies. 

Island Shrike. 

Lanius ludoTHcianus gambeli Grinnell, Rep. on the Birds of Santa 
Barbara, San Nicolas, and San Clemente Islands, Publication No. I of the 
Pasadena Academy of Sciences, August, 1897, pp. 19, 20. (San Clemente 
Island.) 

Type from Santa Cruz Island, California. Adult female, No. , U. S. 

National Museum. Collected bj' Mr. R. H. Beck, May 6, 1S97. (Original 
number, 131.) 

Adult. — Upper surface of head and body, dark slate-gray, paler — but 
usually not whitish — on the scapulars and upper tail-coverts, and darkest 
on the head, which has the faintest trace of a hoary line behind the black 
rictus, extending above the eye. Wings and tail black and white, the 
former gra^' and white below; white areas on Avings and tail much more 
restricted than in the other forms of the La?tius ludovicia/ius group. The 
white on the upper surface of the wing is confined to the extreme base of 
the primaries and the extreme tips of the secondaries. The scapulars are 
edged externally with light gray — not white. Under surface of wing mostly 
gra}', but white along the bend of the wing and across the base of the 
quills. Tail-feathers all black at base, tipped with white, with white on 
terminal two-thirds of outer web of lateral feathers. The terminal white 
on middle pair of rectrices is confined to a narrow edging which soon dis- 
appears with wear. The under surface of body is gray, palest mesially, 
and becoming white on throat and crissum. Iris brown. Bill plumbeous 
black. Feet black. 

Young in frst plumage. — Pattern similar to that of adult, but Avith 
head and body everywhere vermiculated with dusky and pale fulvous, 
except on the chin, which is white. Wings and tail with the light areas 



262 Mearns, T-mo Nexv Birds from Santa Barbara Ids. rtuly 

increased in size and tinged with clay color; tips of middle rectrices and 
greater wing-coverts distinctly ferruginous. Bill broAvnish instead of 
plumbeous black. Feet and claws grayish instead of iet black. (No. 135, 
female, collected by Mr. R. H. Beck, on Santa Cruz Island, California, 
May 6, 1897. Length, 8 inches; alar expanse, 12.) 

An older female (No. 134,781, U. S. National Museum) taken by the 
author, on San Clemente Island, August 27, 1894, was acquiring the adult 
plumage at the date of capture. The new feathers indicate a very dark 
coloration, though the upper tail-coverts are white as in L. I. ffambeli, and 
its measurements are up to the average. 

'Measurements. — Average of 10 adults (4 males and 6 females): length, 
224 mm.; alar expanse, 313 ; Aving, 95; tail, 102; chord of culmen, 16.1 ; 
height of bill, 8.8; tarsus, 27. 8; middle toe and claw, 24. 

Cofnpariso7is. ■ — Some individuals have no trace of a hoary frontal 
area. The slate-gray of the upper surface varies somewhat in 
intensity, being plain slate-gray in some, and dark brownish slate 
in others. In one or two specimens the white at the base of 
primaries can scarcely be detected, while in others it forms a dis- 
tinct patch. In a few individuals the scapulars and upper tail- 
coverts are bordered with pale gray, almost whitish, and in others 
these parts are almost uniform with the back. A few (probably 
youngish) adults have brown vermiculations on the breast. 

This Shrike is naturally to be compared with Lanius hidoviciafius 
gambeli Ridgway, the form common on the adjacent coast of Cali- 
fornia, but differs in being very much darker as well as smaller. 
It is, in fact, darker than the darkest eastern specimens of L. 
hidoviciamis} It was next compared with Lanius robustus Baird, 
supposed to have come from California ; but, as Mr. Ridgway has 
stated (Auk, XIV, 323), the type of that species is wholly 

' Mr. Robert Ridgway, in a letter dated May 6, 1898, writes me as follows: 
" The type of L. /. anthonyi is a much darker and less brownish gray above 
than that of L. I. gatnbeli ; has the under parts more decidedly grayish laterally 
and lacks the brownish wash so conspicuous in all typical specimens of gambeli ; 
also has less white on wing and tail, though the latter character is quite variable. 
The type of gambeli, furthermore, has white upper tail-coverts, as do most 
examples of that form, as does also the young San Clemente specimen col- 
lected by you. The latter agrees otherwise with the Santa Cruz bird. 

" One specimen of a series from Pasadena agrees in every respect with the 
bird from .Santa Cruz Island, and therefore it seems the island bird occasionally 
straggles to the mainland." 



^"iScis^l ^li'-'^R^'s. Two New Birds from Sanln Barbara Ids. 263 

different from any of the American Shrikes, and is apparently 
closely related to Z. algcriensis. 

Remarks. — The Santa Barbara Island Shrike appears to be 
fairly common on San Clemente and Santa Cruz Islands of this 
group ; but all who have seen it regard it as one of the wildest of 
birds. On his visits to San Clemente, in 18S8 and 1889, Mr. 
Townsend was unable to obtain a specimen. In 1894, Mr. 
Anthony and myself procured a single one — with difficulty, 
although Shrikes were seen daily. At night, when we went out 
to shoot bats, Shrikes would dash about us, uttering loud, harsh 
screams, different from the voices of any Shrikes I have heard 
elsewhere. In the daytime they never permitted us to come within 
range of them. 

Mr. Joseph Grinnell carefully explored Santa Barbara and San 
Nicolas islands, in the spring of 1897, without finding this species ; 
but, on San Clemente Island, made the following observation : ^ 
" This bird was without question the shyest and hardest to be 
secured of any on the island. Indeed it was as shy as any hawk 
I ever saw. It was tolerably common ; that is, two or three could 
be generally seen during an hour's walk. There was a pair in the 
neighborhood of the windmill where we were camping, and nearly 
every morning a little after daybreak the male would perch either 
on the windmill or on the topmost twig of a brush pile on the 
opposite side of the ravine, and utter its defiant shrike notes. 
The rustle of the tent door or the click of a gun lock, however, 
was sufficient to send him up over the ridge, not to appear again 
for hours. On April 2, I found a nest and succeeded, after lying 
in ambush for a long time, in securing the female bird. The 
nest was in a small bush growing out from the side of a caiion, 
and was composed mostly of sheep wool, with an admixture of 
weed stems and grasses. Five slightly incubated eggs constituted 
the set. They are not different from eggs of true L. l. gambeli of 
the mainland, and measure: .97 X .72 [inch], .96 X .72, .95 X .71. 
•95 ^ -73' -96 X -72. During our last visit, Vlx. Horace Gaylord 
secured another adult female and a juvenile, and I took another 
juvenile, making four specimens in all obtained.'- This Shrike is 

' Publication I, Pasadena Academy of Sciences, August, 1897, pp. 19, 20. 
^ Mr. Grinneli kindly placed these specimens at my disposal. 



264 McGregor, Young Plumages of Mexican Birds. Ljuly 

not exactly referable to L. I. gavtbeli, but appears to be nearer 
that than either of the other U. S. forms." 

On Santa Cruz Island, May 6 to 11, 1897, Mr. R. H. Beck 
collected nine adult Shrikes and one young of the year, which 
were generously placed in my hands for description. These birds 
are marked as parents, respectively, of sets of 5, 5,4, and 2 eggs. 
In forwarding these Shrikes, Mr. Beck writes : " They were the 
wildest land birds I ever saw by far." 



YOUNG PLUMAGES OF MEXICAN BIRDS. 

BY RICHARD C. MCGREGOR. 

Pipilo carmani Lawrence. Socorro Towhee. 

This Towhee was the most abundant land bird on Socorro 
Island and in contrast to its mainland relatives it was not shy. 
Its general habits and notes are quite similiar to those of the 
Spurred Towhee. 

But one young bird was taken and it is nearly adult. 

No. 1289, $ juv., coll. R. C. McG., Socorro Island, Mexico, May 13, 1897. 
Plumage much as in the adult. Black throat and chin patch wanting ; 
tawny'patches on sides pale, indistinct, and small; feathers of other 
lower parts dirty white with long, dark, central spots ; tertials and feathers 
of mantle edged with tawny. White spot of tail on outer feather only 
9.5 mm. long. 

Ammodramus sanctorum Cones. San Benito Sparrow. 

The nest and eggs of the San Benito Sparrow have been 
described in the ' Osprey,' II, 42. It remains only to describe 
the young plumage. The youngest birds have no markings on 
the lower parts {v. Brewster, B. N. O. C, IV, 36) but the breast 
streaks soon appear. The youngest bird which I have is here 
described. 

No. 1058, $ juv., coll. R. C McG., San Benito Island, Lower California, 
March 30, 1897. Upper parts like adult in general looks, but somewhat 
lighter and less olivaceous ; feathers of head and neck broccoli brown 



lii ^^ 1 ^^'^'Gv.v.GOR, A Nczv Ammodraiiius from L. C(i/ifor?iicit zGc 

with small ilaik centres; feathers of scapulars and interscapulars centered 
by clove brow n with creamy margins. Lower parts pure white, except 
traces of faint spots across breast and on rtanks ; wings and tail 
resembling those of adult plumage; tertials widely bordered with 
cinnamon. 

Carpodacus mcgregori AntJiony. McGregor'.s Finch. 

We found examples of C. mcgregori distributed over the two 
large Benitos, but on account of their extreme shyness they were 
difficult to obtain. We were at the islands too late to collect 
eggs, but I secured three young birds abotit ready to leave the 
nest. The parents had constructed their nest about two feet 
above the ground in a century plant {Agave) . It was made after 
the fashion of C. fro7italis^ of a miscellaneous lot of bark, twigs, 
and fibre. The three young are of different sizes, of which the 
smallest is here described. 

I 

No. 1041, $ nestling, coll. R. C. McG., San Benito Island, Lower Cali- 
fornia, March 29, 1S97. The young plumage differs in coloration but 
little from that of the adult female. Upper parts heavily marked with 
clove brown, edges and tips of feathers cinnamon; lower parts streaked 
with clove and cinnainon ; tertials and rectrices broadly edged and tipped 
with wood brown. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW AMAIODRAMUS FROM 
LOWER CALIFORNIA. 

BY RICHARD C. MCGREGOR. 

Ammodramus halophilus,^ sp. nov. 

Lagoon Sparrow. 

Sp. char. — Most closely related to -i4. rostratus guttatns, but " uniformly 
larger and much darker; upper parts decidedly olivaceous instead of olive 
grayish." - 

' a\s, salt of the sea ; <j>i.\€w, to love. 

-From letter of Mr. R. Ridgway, May 12, 1S9S. 



2d6 McGregor, A Nezv Afntnodranius from L. California. 



TAuk 
Ljuly 



Zy/e, ad. $ , No. looi, coll. R. C. McG., Abreojos Point, Lower California, 
April 19, 1897. Dorsal surface olivaceous ; feathers of scapulars, inter- 
scapulars, occiput, and crown with clove brown centres. A line of chrome 
yellow extending from nostril over eve as in A. brya-nti. Forehead and 
side of head, including auriculars and malar region, tinged with yellow; 
throat white ; feathers of breast with a wash of yellow, centres with deltoid 
clove brow spots; markings of sides and flanks lighter and more cuneate, 
edged with wood brown; wings and tail near sepia, edges lighter. 

Wing, 6S.5 mm.; tail, 55.4 mm.; tarsus, 20.5 mm.; culmen, 13.2 mm.; 
depth of bill at base, 7 mm. 

Hab. Salt marshes in the vicinity of Abreojos Point, Lower California. 

Mr. Ridgway has kindly compared my series of Abreojos Point 
birds with the two examples of A. guttatus in the National 
Museum. He has sent me the following table of average 
measurements : 



A. halophihts. 
A. guttatus. 



Wing. 



•63 

■525 



Tail. 



1.92 

1-875 



Exposed 
culmen. 



0.51 
0.44 



Depth of bill 
at base . 



0.26 
0.23 



0.84 
0.825 



Middle toe. 



0.63 
0.605 



This Sparrow was found in a salt marsh about five miles long 
by half a mile wide. The common amphibious plant known as 
glasswort {SaHcornia amhigud) covers the moist ground. The 
entire marsh is cut by tide creeks, which empty into a salt lake or 
pond lagoon. As this marsh is surrounded by ocean on one 
side and hot desert on the others, it is probable that A. halophiliis 
is confined to this region. 

We stopped at Abreojos Point on April 19, when I secured 
sixteen Lagoon Sparrows, together with a nest and three eggs. 
Individuals were very abundant, but rather shy, keeping at such 
long range that my auxiliary barrel was useless. Most of the 
birds were in perfect spring plumage. 

On June 17 we made a second landing at Abreojos, and 
although we expected to secure young birds not one was taken 
by any of the party. The adults were in worn plumage, and in 
the oviducts of several females we found eggs on which the shell 
was formed. 



"sgs J General Notes. 267 

The three eggs collected April 19, 1897, measure, respectively, 
• 79 X -58; -So x-58; -78 X -58- The ground color is very faint 
bluish-white, 7— lighter than in A. sanctorum, — heavily marked 
all over with large blotches of raw umber and smaller spots of 
lilac ; these markings much heavier than in safuiorum. A few 
hairlike lines of blackish run over small end of one egg and about 
its small diameter. Nest larger than that of San Benito Island 
species, made of salt grass and lined with fine shreds of grass 
and a few feathers of Lams. 

The setting parent was flushed from this nest while I was about 
fifteen feet distant, and became very uneasy in voice and action. 
A careful search revealed the rest, sixteen inches from the ground, 
in a tall bunch of glasswort, the top of which was bent over and 
in to form a covering. The eggs were concealed from a top view, 
and entrance to the nest was possible from one side only. The 
taking of incubated eggs at this date, and of laying females in 
June, shows that two broods are raised in a year. 



GENERAL NOTES. 

The Pacific Kittiwake {Rissa tfidactyla pollicaris) in Lower California. 
— On March 17, 1897, I shot a fully adult Pacific Kittiwake, at San 
Geronimo Island, Lower California, about 200 miles south of the United 
States boundary line, thus extending the known range of that species to 
Mexican waters. 

For the past three winters I have found the Kittiwakes of regular, though 
not common occurrence, off San Diego, California, and about the Coronado 
Islands. — A. W. Anthony, PortUind, Oregofi. 

Capture of the Short-tailed Albatross on the Coast of Southern Cali- 
fornia. — The Zoological Department of Stanford University, California, 
has been recently presented Avith a fine specimen in the flesh of Diomedea 
albatrus. 

It was taken at San Pedro, Los Angeles Co., Cal., on April 3, 1S98, by 
Mr. Cloudsley Rutler, who shipped it to the Museum of the Department. 

This bird being of rather uncommon occurrence on our coast here, 1 
send this notice of its capture. — Robt. B. McLain, Stanford University, 
CaL 



268 General Notes. . . [^^'J 

Wilson's Phalarope {Steganopus tricolor) at Ocean City, N. J. — To 
the best of my knowledge the published records of Wilson's Phalarope on 
the New Jersey coast are limited to two specimens recorded by Dr. C. 
C. Abbott, as taken at Deal Beach, Monmouth Co. (Birds of New Jej-sey, 
in Cooke's Geol. of N. J., i86S). I was never able to trace up these speci- 
mens, and the many evident errors in the list in which they are mentioned, 
naturally casts some doubt on the validity of the record. It is with much 
pleasure, therefore, that I am able to place on record the capture of a fine 
adult female of this species by Mr. Gilbert H. Moore, at Ocean City, N. J., 
May 19, 1S98. The bird was in company Avith a flock of the smaller 
shore birds when shot. 

Mr. Moore has presented the specimen to the local collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. — Witmer Stone, ylrrt</. 
Nat. Science, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Unusual Nesting Site of Kingbird. — The following may be of some 
interest to the readers of 'The Auk.' It is certainly unique in my expe- 
rience There is a fence post within 50 feet of the Shady Hill Station, 
Bedford, Mass., and within 35 feet of the railroad, and immediately beside 
a road, over which men are travelling back and forth all day long, from 
the office and packing sheds of the Shady Hill Nursery. This post was 
made of an abandoned railroad tie, whose end had bee'n somewhat hol- 
lowed by decay; and in this hollow, in the summer of 1896, a pair of 
Kingbirds ( Tyrannus tyranttus) built their nest and raised four young. 

One would imagine, judging from the usual characteristics of the King- 
birds, that this pair might have been in constant trouble ; but Messrs. 
A. H. Kirkland, of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, and 
E. L. Beard, President of the Shady Hill Nursery, to whom I am indebted 
for thiis information, seem to be under the impression that, all things con- 
sidered, they got on very well. The top of the post was only about four 
feet above the ground, and being immediately beside the road, was, of 
course, a matter of some interest to the passers-by; but as orders had 
been issued by Mr. Beard to his numerous workmen, not to have the 
nest disturbed, the old ones were able to bring them up. 

I have no date except that of June 9, 1896, given me by Mr. Kirkland, 
at which time, he writes me, the nest "contained four young." 

Mr. Beard is responsible for the information that on days of extreme 
heat, the old birds could often be seen standing over their young, and 
with vibrating wings, sheltering and cooling them. — • Fred H. Kennard, 
— Boston, Mass. 

Early Arrival of the Kingbird at Cambridge, Mass. — I saw a Kingbird 
Saturday, April 16, in my yard. I suppose it is a very unusual date for 
the arrival of Tyrannus tyranmis. It has been seen there eleven other 
days; from the 23d to the 29th of April it was cold and rainy with north- 
east winds during which the bird was not seen. 



^"'gg^^] General Notes. 269 

I suppose it is tlie same Kint^birci which, with .iiuUlier, nests near by. — 
Thomas B. Bergkn, Cambridge, Mass. 

Habits of the Blue Jay. — It may be of interest to tlie readers of 'The 
Auk ' to learn that I can add, what is to me, a new bird to tiie list of those 
making their nests in or about buildings. We have a pair of Blue Jays 
(^Cyanocitta cristata") in Brookline, Mass., that have this year built their 
nest in a most conspicuous place, between the stems of a Wistaria vine 
and the capitol of a pillar, supporting a piazza roof. This piazza is in 
almost daily use, and the path leading immediately beside it is also used 
constantly. At the time of building, and even on June 3, when I saw 
the nest full of young ones, there were no leaves in the immediate vicin- 
ity to hide the nest, thus leaving it in a very conspicuous position. 

We all know that certain birds change their habits in accordance with 
the march of civilization, and I was not very much surprised a few years 
ago, when I knew of a Blue Jay building its nest in a maple tree, imme- 
diately beside our town hall, in the heart of the town ; but I was surprised 
at the above incident, and thought that it might be of interest to others. 

— Fred H. Kennard, ^(?5/o«, 71/(-?55. 

Probable Polygamy of the Great-tailed Grackle [^uiscalns macrourus). 

— As evidence bearing upon the supposed polygamy of the Great-tailed 
Grackle, some observations made at Orizaba, Mexico, in March, 1897, 
seem w-orthy of record. This species is an abundant bird in manv Mexi- 
can cities, finding in the plazas or parks suitable feeding and breeding 
grounds. In the small Zocalo or public gardens in the heart of the City 
of Orizaba, it happened that only one tree, a densely foliaged conifer, 
was available for nesting sites, and as an apparent result the gardens were 
inhabited by only one family of Grackles. I watched these birds for 
some time on March 15 and 16, seeing ten or twelve females, but only one 
male. The former were building ; and on one occasion I saw at least six 
different females bring nesting materials into the coniferous tree at inter- 
vals. This tree contained several nests ; how many it was not possible to 
determine, from the path at its base, and its isolation, in connection with 
the facts I have mentioned, lead me to believe that it constituted the harem 
of the male who generally' perched in an adjoining araucaria, assuming the 
ridiculously conscious pose so characteristic of this species. — Frank M. 
Chapman, American Museum of Natural History, Neiv Vork City. 

McKay's Snowflake {Plectrophenax hyperborcus) at Bethel, Alaska. — 
Two specimens of this rare bird were recently sent me from Bethel, 
ninety miles up the Kuskokwin River, in the western part of Alaska. 
This is probably the farthest inland at which the bird has yet been found. 

The specimens, both females, in full winter plumage, were taken Jan. 
4, 1S98. — WiTMER Stone, Acad. Nat. Scie/ices, Philadelphia, Pa. 



270 General Notes. Yy^-i 

Notes on the Black Seaside Finch (Ammodramus jiigrescens'). — Doubt- 
less no bird breeding in North America has a briefer history than has the 
Black Seaside Finch. Discovered in 1872 by Mr. C. J. Maynard at Salt 
Lake, near Titusville, Florida, and in the marshes of Merritt's Island 
and south of Dummitt's Grove on the opposite side of the Indian River, it 
has apparently been met with b}' no other ornithologist, and the sum of 
our knowledge concerning this interesting species is contained in Mr. 
Maynard's 'Birds of Eastern North America.' 

In March, 18S9, I looked for Ammodrajnus nigresceiis very carefully on 
the evidently favorable marshes near 'Oak Lodge' on the east penin- 
sula of Indian River, some fifty miles south of the point where Mr, 
Maynard found it, but without success. 

Returning to the Indian River in March, 189S, I determined to continue 
the search for this bird and securing a small sloop sailed from Titusville 
on March 2, for the mouth of Dummitt's Creek. Two da3's were passed 
at this point and Ammodramus ?iigrescefis was found to be a very common 
inhabitant of the adjoining marshes. Heavy rains prevented me from 
spending more than five hours in the marshes where, nevertheless, under 
the most unfavorable conditions seventeen specimens were secured, 
evidencing the abundance of the bird. 

The marshes here are covered with well-defined areas of a low branch- 
ing, matted grass, and a tall, single-stalked reedy grass, Avhile along the 
shores of the river, creek, and marsh ponds there is a fringe of bushy 
sedge {Borr/c/iia frutesce^is'). The Finches were found in the tall grass 
and in the sedge. They were not in song and the sexual organs of the 
specimens secured exhibited but little signs of enlargement, showing 
that the breeding season was not yet at hand. 

Savanna and Swamp Sparrows were also common in these marshes. 
The paler color and darting, more extended flight of the former at once 
distinguished them from nigrescetis, but the Swamp Sparrows were not 
so easily identified. One soon learned, however, to recognize nigrescetts 
by its darker color and by its flight, which was shorter and more hesita- 
ting than that of the Swamp Sparrow. 

Like the Seaside Finch {Ammodramus maritimus), ?iigrescens appears to 
possess considerable curiosity and could often be made to mount to the 
grass-tops by ' squeaking.' 

Mr. Maynard states that the birds were doubtless breeding in the latter 
part of April and that he believes them to be migratory, Avintering, 
probably, at some more southern point. 

Their abundance, and the fact that they have been found at no other 
locality, in connection with their occurrence in numbers so long before 
the breeding season, would tend to disprove this theory, and in my opinion 
Amtnodra7nus 7iigrescens will be found to be a permanent resident species. 
— Frank M. Chapman, American Museum of Natural History, Netv 
York City. 



^"'ggf^] General Notes. 27 1 

Nesting Instincts of Swallows. — As supplementing^ Mr. Brewster's 
record of the premature exhibition of the nest-buikiing and procreative 
instincts of Swallows (see Auk, XV, April, 1898, p. 194), I may add some 
observations made on Tree Swallows {Tac/iyci/iela birolor), at Leonia, 
N. J., during August and September, 1897. The extensive salt marshes 
in which myriads of these birds roost in July, August, and September, are 
here crossed by a road over which I passed almost daily and rarely with- 
out seeing in the road, one or more flocks of Tree Swallows, varying in 
size from eight or ten to several hundred birds. Without exception, as 
far as I observed, and I studied them very closely at short range, these 
birds were in the immature plumage of birds of the j-ear. By far the 
larger number seemed to have no special object in alighting in the road, 
they did not move about as though searching for food, indeed for the 
most part were practically motionless, but occasionally a pair would 
copulate, as described by Mr. Brewster, and more often a bird would pick 
up a bit of dried grass and fly up into the air with it, or sometimes it was 
carried fifty yards or more and dropped from the air; at others the bird 
would carry it to the telegraph wires bordering the road and drop it after 
perching a moment. 

Additional evidence of inherited knowledge was apparently given by 
many Tree Swallows which were often seen hovering about a pile driven 
in a creek which traversed these meadoAvs. I at first supposed these birds 
to be feeding on insects which presumably had alighted on the pile, but 
the number of birds, often a dozen or more were seen about the pile, and 
the persistency with which they remained there, forced me to conclude 
that in a wholly unreasoning way they were looking for a nesting site. — 
Frank M. Chapman, American Museum of Natural History, Nexv ,Tork 
City. 

Notes on Generic Names of Certain Swallows. — In the raid on nomen- 
clature made a few years ago Dr. L. Stejneger seems to have been 
peculiarly unfortunate. I have not yet trailed him anywhere without 
finding that either he did not go far enough in the right direction, or 
else he went in the wrong direction. The A. O. U. is to be commiserated 
in unwittingly adopting sundry changes Dr. Stejneger proposed and 
sought to impose on nomenclature. For example, he undertook to upset 
the established names Hirundo and Cotile hy substituting Chelidon for 
the former, and Clivicola for the latter, after Forster, 1817. It appears 
from Sharpe's introduction to the Monogi-aph of HirundinidcE, p. xxxv, 
that Hirundo Linn, was characterized by Schceffer, Elem. Orn. 1774, with 
H. rusti^a as tj'pe. If Dr. Sharpe's method of determining the type of 
a genus be not at variance with A. O. U. canons, this operation of 
Schteffer's throws out Forster's later attempt to transpose Hirundo and 
Chelidon, and we may happily revert to the status quo ante bellum. 
Again, Dr. Sharpe, p. xliv, shows that Riparia Forster, 1S17, has that 
sort of priority over Clivicola Forster, 1817, which results from previous 



272 General Notes. [J^",^ 

pagination, and I believe we recognize that m jth officially ; if so, the 
name of tlie Bank Swallow becomes the tautonjm Riparia rifaria, or 
else R. europcEa, or else R. cinerea. It is but justice to Dr. Stejneger to 
say that he was aware of this (Pr. Nat. Mus. V, 1882, p. 32), only he 
"preferred to accept the name Clivicola" though the reason for his 
preference is obviously a futile one by our rules. It is also due him to 
add, that he only " supposed " his generic synonymy of Swallows to be 
correct {ibid. p. 31). But neither supposition nor preference has any 
place in the A. O. U. Code. I can suppose a good many things that are 
not canonized in the code, and certainlj' prefer some things that are not 
canonized. For example, I "prefer" Riparia to Clivicola, and I 
" suppose " Dr. Stejneger wrong about Hirundo. The case thus raised by 
Dr. Sharpe should come up for consideration at the next meeting of the 
Union. — Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. 

Accidental Death of a Hooded Warbler (Sylvania niitrata).-- On May 
27, 1898, while wandering along a roadway in the vicinity of Great Timber 
and Beaver Swamp, Cape May County, New Jersey, in company with Dr. 
William E. Hughes, a male Hooded Warbler attracted our attention by 
its uneasiness. 

While searching the surroundings for its nest, the Doctor discovered a 
female Hooded Warbler suspended by a horse hair tighth' looped around 
the lower part of the neck, it having slipped up underneath the feathers, 
and the other end was tangled among some small twigs and briars, where 
it no doubt Avas caught while the bird was carrying the material to line 
her nest with. She was hanging about two feet above the ground with 
her head dropped back exposing her throat, the feathers of which were 
parted by the action of heavy rains of the past few days. The condition 
of the bird was apparently fresh, and no nests of this species were found 
containing more than one egg at this time. — J. Harris Reed, Beverly, 
N.J. 

Notes on the Nesting of Palmer's Thrasher at El Plomo, Sonora, 
Mexico. — Palmer's Thrasher {Harporhynchus ctirvirostris palmeri), is 
one of the most common birds in this region (100 miles southwest of 
Tucson, Arizona) ; they may be seen in pairs throvighout the year, and 
seem to remain around the old nest all winter, using it for a roost. The 
nesting site seems to be in any convenient place. In flat country any- 
where, but in hilly country generally at the foot of a hill, seldom over 
quarter way up on a hill or mountain, unless on the bank of some small 
arroyo. 

Some pairs begin building the latter part of Februarj'. The new nest 
is generally placed near the old one, often in the same cactus, and some- 
times on top of the old nest. The nests are large and well made. The 
body is composed of thorny sticks, three to ten inches in length ; then 



"^"'yy^^J General Notes. 273 

comes .1 layer of finer sticks, sometimes liark ; then grass for a lining, 
■which has more or less hair and sometimes rags, paper, twine or a few 
feathers added to it. In a few cases the grass lining is replaced by hair. 
The nests are externally about ten inches in diameter and eight inches 
deep, internall}' about three and one half inches, both in diameter and 
depth. 

In one instance I saw a series of five half completed nests built around 
the central stalk of a cholla cactus and resting on the branches that grew 
out from the main stalk; they were all connected, and made a platform 
two feet in diameter, and only about a foot and a half from the ground. 
It was built during the winter and was used only for a roosting place. 
The nest that was used as a breeding place was built five feet away in the 
top of a small cholla. 

The height of nests found containing eggs varied from two to seven 
feet, but most are built at about three feet. Nests are found in the cholla 
and sibiri cacti, and in palo verde and mesquite trees. Of fifty nests, in 
the average, forty will be in cholla, seven in sibiri, two in palo verde, and 
one in mesquite. 

Fresh eggs may be found on March i, and later, and the number of 
eggs in a set varies from one to three, — about two thirds are of three, 
one third of two, and very few are of one. The time of year has nothing 
to do with the number of eggs in a set as sometimes the first set is two and 
the next three; then again it is the reverse. Some birds Avill lay three 
sets of three each. The number of broods raised per year is two or three. 

If the eggs are taken the birds will build a new nest and use some of 
the lining of the old one, and will have another set of ^%^^ in twelve days 
(the shortest time noted) ; the new nest will be well built and resemble 
the other in every respect. I have known some pairs to take a month in 
which to build their first nest of the season. One peculiar thing is that 
the same pair builds its nests at the same height, if possible, but some 
build low and others high. In one instance the first nest was five and one 
half feet, the second was seven feet, the third was six feet from the 
ground, all in different chollas ; and as these Avere high for the general 
height of the cholla, the nests were further apart than usual ; they were 
in a straight line, the second fifty feet from first, and the third one hun- 
dred feet from second. 

Birds desert a new nest very easily, but if it contains eggs it can he 
moved from one branch to another without their deserting it. When 
squirrels or snakes take the first ^2,^ the bird will often lay the second 
and third in the same nest. 

The eggs vary in shape from oval-oblong to pyriform, and the ground 
color is generally light bluish green, sometimes light green, or bluish 
white, minutely speckled or spotted with reddish brown and lavender. 
The less the number of spots the larger they are. The size of the eggs 
varies, — 1.2S X .78, 1.15 X .83, and 1.05 X. 77; average, 1.15 X .78. The 
eggs are laid one each day; I never knew them to skip a day. 



2*1 A. General Notes. Ljuly 

The male assists in incubation, and also in taking care of the joung. 
Palmer's Thrasher is very bold when you are at the nest, and will often 
come Avithin a few feet, while Bendire's Thrasher will slip off the nest 
and you mav not see it even if you remain by the nest for a half hour 
or more. — Josiah H. Clark, Tucson, Arizona. 

Carolina Wren at Lyme, Conn., in December. — On the morning of 
December 17, 1897, I was surprised to see and hear a Carolina Wren 
{Thryothorus ludovichutus) at this place. As it is the first one I have 
ever seen in New England, it may be of interest to record the occurrence. 
— Arthur "VV. Brockway, Lyme, Conn. 

Nesting Habits of the Robin..— In Jslr. Howe's interesting paper on 
the ' Breeding Habits of the Robin ' I notice (Auk, XV, April, 1898, 
p. 167) that he has not observed an instance of a second brood being 
raised in the same nest. So it may be of interest to note that here a 
slightly different record can be made. 

I have under observation at this writing three nests in ^vhich second 
clutches of eggs have been laid and are now being incubated. One is in 
a window corner of my office, — and in this case the lining was not even 
changed. The first egg was laid just one week after the young of the 
first brood left the nest. 

Another nest is in the cornice of a stable building, and in this instance 
the lining was torn out and replaced by fresh material. The third nest is 
in a young linden tree, and I did not notice the house cleaning after the 
first brood left. 

Last year a Robin built her nest and raised a brood in the transom 
over the door of the Glen Island Museum. She returned about a week 
after the flight of the first brood, and laid three eggs, but deserted them, 
when about half incubated. I think I recognize her as the same one that 
has built in my office window this 3'ear. — S. M. McCormick, Glen Island 
Mnsetim, Westchester Co., JVerv York. 

Notes From Ontario. — The American Magpie (Pica pica hudsonica') 
is recorded as occurring on rare occasions in Algoma, northwestern On- 
tario. This season several specimens have wandered far east and south. 
On March 12, 1898, Chas. M. Clarke of Kingston, observed a Magpie near 
Odessa, and since that date two specimens have been shot and sent to the 
taxidermist. This is believed to be the first time Magpies have been 
recorded in Eastern Ontario. 

Horned Larks breed regularly in this district. Last year the Rev. C. 
Young, of Lansdowne, found a nest (eggs slightly incubated) on April 
5. This year I found a nest on April 3. The eggs were four in number, 
incubation almost completed. There is some doubt about the variety of 
the Horned Lark which breeds here, although I have little hesitation in 
classifying the eggs found this season as those of Otocoris alfestris prati 



^"ss^n Recent Literature. ^ 2"]^ 

cold, the pale color anci small size ot the hirds, Ijotii of which were closely 
observed for fully twenty minutes, making identification practically cer- 
tain. Snow is nearly always on the ground at this time of the year, and 
the birds search for hillocks of bare earth. The nests are beautifully 
cupped and carefully built of roots of grass. — C K. Clarke, M. D., 
Kingston, Ontario. 

An Addition and a Correction to the List of North Carolina Birds. — 
Bay-breasted Warbler {Dendroica castanea). — A female D. castanea 
was taken by myself at Chapel Hill, Oct. 2, 1897, and a male was secured 
on the Sth of the same month. Both specimens were in the immature 
plumage. They were identified by Prof. Robert Ridgway. I believe this 
to be the first record of this bird in North Carolina. 

Clav-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida). — In part second of the 
'Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society,' for 1887, published at 
Chapel Hill, Prof. Geo. F.Atkinson gives a ' Preliminary Catalogue of the 
Birds of North Carolina.' Under the name of 6". pallida he says : " Acci- 
dental. One taken at Chapel Hill, March 8th, 1886 (Univ. Coll.) " The 
specimen to which he refers is No. 1050 in the University collection. 

In two or more publications since, references have been made to this as 
the one record of this Sparrow's occurrence in the State. Upon examin- 
ing the specimen I became convinced that an error had been committed in 
the identification, and at once sent it to the Smithsonian Institution. 
Prof. Richmond identified it as being %\vci^\y Melos^piza georgiana. — T. 
Gilbert Pearson, Chapel Hill, N. C. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Two New Popular Bird Books. — Two more popular bird books have 
just been added to the -long series of hand-books for beginners. Though 
both are prepared with the same object in view, they differ radically from 
each other in style of treatment of the subject, and also are quite unlike 
any of their predecessors. One is the work of an enthusiastic ornitholo- 
gist of wide experience with birds in life, the other by a schoolmaster and 
an amateur, who has his subject Avell in hand, and who knows from prac- 
tical experience the needs of beginners in attempting nature studies. 
With points of view and previous experience so unlike, it is not surprising 
that the method of treating the subject here in hand — the birds of eastern 
North America — should also widely differ. 



2*7 6 Recent Literature. Ljuly 

Mr. Scott's 'Bird Studies'' is a quarto of 375 pages, illustrated with 
about 170 half-tone reproductions of photographs, about one half of them 
being full-page plates. As these are paged as part of the text, at least 
one third of the book is thus made up of pictures. "The object of the 
treatise," says the author, " is to place before students and others who 
wish to acquire knowledge on the subject, a means to that end. It is an 
invitation to a more intimate acquaintance with the Land Birds of East- 
ern North America. That is all." The area included is "that portion of 
the continent east of the Mississippi River, Lake Winnipeg, and the 
western borders of Hudson's Bav, together with Greenland and the islands 
Avhich naturally group themselves with the liiainland of the region." 
Later a second volume, on the Water Birds, is promised, should the 
present one meet with a favorable reception. 

Few ornithologists have had so favorable opportunities for studying 
the birds of eastern North America in life as Mr. Scott, who for the last 
thirty years has devoted a large part of his time to field work and during 
his long periods of sojourn in various parts of the eastern States, in 
southern Florida and in Arizona has been able to make the acquaintance 
in life of most of the species here treated. The accuracy of his text, and 
his evident familiarity with many birds of rare or local distribution, as 
well as with those of common occurrence, indicate how Avell he has 
improved his advantages and how little he is dependent on outside 
sources for information. He tells what he has to say of the habits of his 
birds very pleasantly, but adds, nevertheless, very little in this respect to 
the general stock of knowledge, and rarely introduces personal incident. 
This we may readily believe is due to lack of space, since not less than 
650 forms must be treated in an actual text space of about 250 pages. 

The make up of the book presents several rather strange features for 
a book intended as a guide to the birds of eastern North America, 
inasmuch as there are no 'keys' for the determination of the species, 
no generalities whatever, nor any classification beyond the division of 
the subject under some half dozen headings of such an indeterminate 
character as to be of very slight aid as a guide to where anv given bird 
may be found described. These headings, — 'About the House,' 'Along 
the Highwaj',' ' In the Woods,' 'Across the Fields,' 'In the Marsh and 
Swamps,' 'By Stj-eam and Field,' — while prettily suggestive, can prove 
of very little assistance to the beginner in finding his bird. If he knows 
it already, he can find it by the index, and then read what Mr. Scott has 
to say of it and enjoy his pictures. If he does not know it, the task of 



' Bird Studies | An Account of the Land Birds | of Eastern North America 
1 By I William E. D. Scott | — | With illustrations from original photographs 
I — I New York and London | G. P. Putman's Sons | The Knickerbocker 
Press I 1898. — 4to, pp. xii+363. Profusely illustrated with half-tone repro- 
ductions from photographs. $5. 00 net. 



Vo'^^VJ Recettt Literature. 277 

hunting for it without some Gort of introductory key is increased hy 
these divisions ratiier than lessened, for if all of the Sparrows and 
Warblers were in one place instead of in three or four the case would be 
more hopeful. Yet such great tenderness has the author shown for 
his readers that he has managed to do without not only keys and diagrams 
but all technical terms, even banishing such easy every-day expressions 
as primaries, secondaries, wing-coverts and tail-coverts, substituting 
therefor such circumlocutions as may seem to best fit the case. The 
descriptions of the birds are variously interwoven with the general text, 
all the matter being uniformly in large type. A novel feature has also 
been introduced into the illustrations, there being many reproductions of 
photographs of bird skins made up as cabinet specimens and of dead 
birds laid out in a similar attitude. However such illustrations may 
strike the reader from the sentimental side, especially the ' how-to-know- 
birds-without-a-gu-n ' class, it must be confessed that they can be made of 
verv efficient service as an aid in identification. There are many illustra- 
tions of young birds and birds' nests from life, but many of the full page 
plates are from mounted birds placed in natural surroundings. The 
effect in manv cases is excellent, but there is a tale-tale expression about 
the eves and head, if not elsewhere, that shows the bird is dead and not 
alive, however clever the artist's conception. 

One of the most valuable parts of the book is the ten pages devoted to 
the Blue Jay. The full page illustrations give, (i) the nest and eggs, (2 
and 3), the nest with young, (4) the 'Blue Jay hammering,' and (5) in 
repose. There are four other figures of young birds of various ages, 
from six to fourteen days old. The purpose of this digression is to give 
some account, "by word and picture, of how voung birds grow," and 
the details of the matter thus presented are especially interesting and 
instructive. Mr. Scott refers to the exercise of the muscles of the feet 
b}' the voung birds by constantly grasping, first with one foot and then 
the other, the twigs and rootlets composing the lining of the nest. As 
sho^"n by some experiments he relates, this constant exercise of the feet 
is necessary for the proper development of these members, it being, he 
believes, the natural function of the nest-lining to afford a grasping 
surface to the feet. 

As a contribution to popular bird literature Mr. Scott's book is excel- 
lent so far as it goes, but we believe its efficiency as a help to the student 
in finding out the name of an unknown bird would have been greatly 
strengthened by adding ' keys,' and consequently some sort of system in 
the arrangement of the species. The ' systematic arrangement,' is given, 
it is true, in the form of a list at the end of the book, including the 
names and classification, from order to subspecies, from the Gallinoe 
to the end of the song birds. The book is beautifully printed, and with 
its wealth of illustrations, presents a very attractive appearance. 

Mr. Apgar's 'Birds, of the United States east of the Rocky Moun- 



278 



Recent Literature. 



TAuk 

Lluly 



tains ' ' is compact and business-like, having quite the air and appearance 
of a scientific school manual, with its analytical keys, strictly systematic 
arrangement, and 'glossary.' The thorny road of technicalities is 
smoothed, not by omitting the technicalities, but by using them, with 
proper definitions and explanations, aided by cuts and diagrams when 
necessarv. Its purpose appears to be primarily that of a school manual, 
and for such use seems well adapted. The subject is reduced to simple 
terms, and is methodically presented. Even the scientific names are 
marked for accent. Part I (pp. 9-3S) treats of the external parts of birds 
and the terms needed for their description. The treatment is for the most 
part brief, but is abundantly illustrated by appropriate outline figures. 
Under the head of 'Nests and Eggs' some very good advice is given to 
would-be collectors, both as to the taking of eggs and the manner of the 
taking. Part II (pp. 39-348) treats systematically of the species, giving 
first a key to the families, with instructions for its use, and later, in their 
proper places, keys to the genera and species. About fifty to a hundred 
words, in large type, give the leading traits of the species, both as to 
color, markings and habits, the measurements and area of distribution 
being added in a paragraph of smaller type, to which also the various 
subspecies are altogether relegated. Each species is usually illustrated 
with a full-length wash-drawing — generally effective and helpful but 
rarely artistic and often quite otherwise, some of them' being the worst 
we have seen in a modern bird book. It is on the whole very carefully 
compiled, and therefore trustworthy^ though the paraphrasing some- 
times fails to fully conceal the author's sources of information. 

Part III (pp. 349-372) treats of 'The Study of Birds in the Field,' giving 
brief directions as to how, when and where to find birds, with keys for 
their identification ' in the bush,' the keys in Part II being for the iden- 
tification of birds 'in the hand.' Part IV (pp. 373-389) teaches the 
' Preparation of bird specimens for display or studj'.' This includes 
instructions for skinning and mounting, with illustrations, and the 
preparation of eggs and nests. A glossary and index conclude this very 
serviceable little volume, which will doubtless assist much in the intro- 
duction of bird study in schools. — J. A. A. 

Cory's Ducks, Geese and Swans." — Mr. Cory's 'How to know the 

^ Birds I of the United States | east of the Rocky Mountains | A Manual for 
the identiiication of species | in hand or in bush | By Austin C. Apgar | 
Author of "Trees of the Northern United States," etc.] — New York, 
Cincinnati, Chicago | American Book Company | — No date; copyright, 1898. 
Sm. Svo, pp. 415, numerous text illustrations. 

^ How to know | the | Ducks, Geese and Swans | of | North America | all 
the Species being grouped according to Size and Color | — | By Charles B. 
Cory I . . . . [ = 4 lines of titles] ....[= 5 lines of titles of the Author's previ- 
ous books] I — I For sale by | Little, Brown & Co. | Boston | 1897 — Sm. 
quarto, pp. 95, with 5 plates and numerous text figures. 



^°i8^^1 Recent Literaiiire. 2 70 

Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America' is modeled on the same plan 
as his 'How to know the Shore Birds,' noticed in a former number of 
this journal (Vol. XIV, Oct., 1897, p. 41S). It is therefore sufficient to 
say that by means of keys and a very liberal use of excellent cuts in the 
text, the matter of identification is apparently so simplified that even the 
most inexperienced bird student or sportsman can hardly fail to discover 
the name of any bird of these groups he may chance to have in hand. 
It is designed especially' for sportsnien and others interested in birds who 
find difficulty in identifying birds by the ordinary ' bird books.' The cuts,, 
executed with great faithfulness of detail, and generally with pleasing 
artistic effect, can not fail to guide the reader with great ease to the 
species sought. The text, aside from the elaborate keys, is confined to a 
brief description of the external characters, with the distinctive features 
emphasized by special type, and short statements of the birds' distribution 
and nesting habits. — J. A. A. 

Chapman on Mexican Birds.' — One of the greatest difficulties in the 
studv of Mexican Birds has been the lack of detailed reports on the avi- 
fauna of definite regions by competent ornithologists w^ho have visited 
the localities in person. Most of our knowledge of the birds of this 
country heretofore has been obtained from collectors' specimens often so 
meagerly or indefinitely labelled as to leave us in great doubt as to the dis- 
tribution and consequent relationship of the various species. Mr. Chap- 
man's paper is just such a contribution as we have needed and clears up 
many puzzling questions relative to the birds of Jalapa — a locality long 
known in ornithological literature but little understood faunally. The 
importance of exact localities with specimens from this region can be 
appreciated when we learn that owing to the steepness of the mountain 
slopes, a few hours' ride by rail either Avay from Jalapa will bring us to 
faunae as different as those of the northern and southern borders of the 
United States. "Indeed," says Mr. Chapman, "it makes a material dif- 
ference in the day's collecting whether you go south or north of the city." 
It is no wonder then that our 'Jalapa' specimens seemed to indicate a 
curious mixture of life when, as Mr. Chapman shows, they came from 
distinct faunal zones, hei-e onl}' a few miles distant from one another. 

In the first part of his paper the author treats of the Jalapan birds, of 
which 107 species are listed, accompanied by interesting annotations on 
their distribution, habits and songs. The second part deals Avith the 
birds of Las Vigas, in the humid alpine zone, nearly 4000 feet above the 
temperate zone of Jalapa, though only forty miles away in a straight 
line. Here 48 species were observed and interesting notes are added on 
the nesting season, which Avas here found to be much earlier than at 
Jalapa. — W. S. 

1 Notes on Birds Observed at Jalapa and Las Vigas, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
By Frank M. Chapman. Author's Edition, extracted from Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Vol. X", p. 15-43, Feb. 24, 189S. 



280 Rece7it LiteratKre. 1 July 

Hornaday on the Destruction of our Birds and Mammals.' — In 
this report Mr. Hornadaj has furnished us with a mass of information 
relative to the destruction of our wild birds and mammals which should 
demand the earnest consideration of every ornithologist and sportsman 
throughout the country, and which cannot fail to prove an important 
factor in encouraging Hie sentiment for bird protection which is beginning 
to make itself apparent. 

The bird report is based upon replies from correspondents in all parts 
of the country relative to the deb. -uction of birds, the most potent agencies 
in effecting destruction, species 'which are becoming extinct, and the 
number of birds to-day as compared wuh fifteen years ago. 

The most serious causes of the decrease of bird life seem to be : (i) the 
great increase in sportsmen or rather "so-called sportsmen"; (2) pot 
hunters; (3) plume hunters ; (4) egg collectors ; (5) English sparrow; (6) 
clearing away of timber, and (7) Italians, who kill all sorts of birds for 
food. 

The decrease of all kinds of game birds as evidenced by all the reports 
is startling, as is also the growing tendency in the South to regard 
various song and insectivorous birds as game, when the real game birds 
become scarce. As Mr. Hornaday truly says, " the protection of migra- 
tory birds must be general," we cannot protect our summer birds i'n the 
North if they are to be shot in winter in the South. 

In regard to the destruction of bird life in general, the figures given by 
Mr. Hornaday (Connecticut, 75% destroyed; New York, 48%; Indiana, 
60%, etc.) will hardly be accepted by those who have had experience in 
estimating the numbers of individual birds in the field. 

It is not possible to compare the birds of fifteen yearsago with those of 
to-day and say with any degree of accuracy that the decrease is one-half 
or two-thirds, relying solely on memory. As a matter of fact how many 
of the persons quoted can state the number of birds breeding in a definite 
area in their vicinity last year, not to speak of fifteen years ago.? It is one 
thing to guess and quite another to make an accurate census, and without 
definite figures we are practically stating the ratio between two unknowm 
quantities which we can only compare in memory. 

So many things have to be taken into considei-ation in estimating the 

abundance of our small birds that it is exceedingly difficult to hazard a 

comparison even between two successive years unless a person has been 

constantly afield and is conversant with the vagaries of migration, etc. 

It is significant that scarcely any of the more prominent field orni- 



' The Destruction of our Birds and Mammals. By WiUiam T. Hornaday, 
Director of the New York Zoological Park. Extracted from the Second 
Annual Report of the New York Zoological Society, pp. 77-126, March 15, 
1898. 



^°H9^^] Rece7tt Literature. 28 1 

tliologists, wliose names appear in the report, give tlie reinarkal)le figures 
wliich infiuence Mr. IIornacia3''s estimates. 

Game and plume birds are unquestionaljly on tiie liigli road to 
extermination, and certain species of our small birds are decreasing, but 
the general destruction in the latter class is probably not nearly so great 
as Mr. riornaday's figures imply^ 

This side of the question is of such especial importance to ornitholo- 
gists that it seems desirable to empha ize the difficulty of reaching 
accurate results from such data, — esj-ecially as sentiment often uncon- 
sciously leads us to make extreme ■ tatements. 

The estimates on page 95 to which we take exception do not, however, 
detract from the importance and beneficial effect of this valuable report, 
and it is earnestly to be hoped that Mr. Hornaday's closing suggestions, 
both as to birds and mammals, may be seriously Considered by our legis- 
lators, especially as to the suppression of promiscuous egg collecting and 
traffic in eggs, birds, and game. — W. S. 

Sketches of Some Common Birds.' — The author has here brought 
together a series of bird biographies most of which have been published 
previously in periodicals. They treat at considerable length of fifty-five 
species and, issued in book form, make a valuable contribution to our 
knowledge of the life-histories of our more common birds. 

They are based on observations apparently all made in central Illinois 
and evidently' extending over a considerable term of years. Mr. Silloway 
writes with the enthusiasm of a bird-lover and the care of a discriminating 
bird-student. He presents facts which we do not recall having seen before 
in print, but to our mind is rather further from the mark than most 
authors when he writes of birds' notes. Thus he states that the Bobo- 
links of his region are not superior as songsters to the Horned Larks or 
Dickcissels, the American Bittern's booming cry suggests to him the 
syllables "boo-hoo," and while his biography of the Least Bittern 
shows that he has had excellent opportunities to study this interesting 
species, he seems unfamiliar with its coo^ qua, and tut-tut-tut notes, saying 
that he has "never heard an individual utter a call or cry of any kind." 

The book deserves an index and in supplying it we trust that the author 
will also give a prefatory note stating where and when his observations 
were made. 

The illustrations are half-tone reproductions of interesting photographs 
of birds and nests from nature. — F. M. C. 

Oological Abnormalities.- — Having devoted much time to securing sets 

* Sketches | of | Some Common Birds | By | P. M. Silloway | Cincinnati, 
Ohio I The Editor Publishing Company | No. 327 Pike Building ( 1S97. 8vo. 
PP- 33i.pll- 17- 

^Gleanings from Nature, No. i. Oological Abnormalities. By J. Warren 
Jacobs. Published by the Author, Waynesburg, Pa. 1898. 8vo, pp. 36, half- 
tone pU. iv. 



282 Recent Liter atui e \j^y 

of birds' eggs exhibiting some abnormalism, Mr. Jacobs presents us with 
the results of his studies of one hundred and ten sets of eggs varying 
in whole or part from the normal in size, shape, or color. The four 
hundred and thirty-three eggs included in the one hundred and ten sets 
are tabulated in such manner as best to illustrate their departure from 
the normal, and under the heads of 'Time of Deposition,' 'Age of 
Females,' and ' Fertilit}' of Contents' the author discusses the proba- 
ble causes of abnormalism, giving much interesting and suggestive 
information. The paper is to be welcomed as an effort to raise the 
standard of contributions to oological literature, which too often consist 
of mere enumeration of sets and tables of measurements. — F. M. C. 



Rowley's 'Art of Taxidermy.' ' — The origin of the art of taxidermj' 
in this country could doubtless be traced to the establishment of Henry 
A. Ward of Rochester. Having among his customers museums, colleges, 
and other scientific institutions, which both demanded and could afford 
to pay for high-class material, the specimens leaving his shops were pre- 
pared after the latest and most approved methods. The house of H. A. 
Ward & Co. consequently became a school for taxidermists and when 
our museums first added taxidermists to their corps of assistants the 
positions were often filled with Ward's pupils. Thus W. T. Hornaday 
at the United States National Museum, and through him the late Jenness 
Richardson at the American Museum of Natural History, secured posts 
where, unhampered by commercial considerations, they could give 
free rein to their ambition as taxidermic artists. With the results of 
their work as it is displaced in their respective museums, the interested 
public is fully acquainted. In Hornaday's case there resulted not only 
series of beautifully mounted animals but a work on taxidermy^ which 
adequately represented the development of the subject treated at the time 
of its publication. 

About these two centers of activity in museum taxidermy there was 
gathered a force of assistants who were given every opportunity for study 
and experimentation. Among these was Mr. John Rowley who, as one of 
Richardson's aids at the American Museum of Natural Historj^, developed 
such marked talent for his chosen calling that on the lamented death of 
his chief, in 1893, Rowley was called on to fill his position. 



'The Art [ of Taxidermy | By | John Rowley | Chief of the Department 
of Taxidermy in the | American Museum of Natural History, New York 
City; I Member of the New York Zoological Society, etc. | [quotation, seal] | 
Illustrated with twenty full-page plates | and fifty-nine drawings in the text | 
New York | D. Appleton and Company | 1898. 12 mo. pp. xi-f-244, pll. xx, 
cuts 59. $2.00. 

" Taxidermy and Zoological Collecting. Scribner's Sons. 



^°'g^'^] Rccc7it Literature. 283 

Since that time Mr. Rowlej, assisted by a trained staff, lias added many 
noteworthy examples of taxidermic art to the museum collections, the 
most effective of which is the group of moose, doubtless one of the 
finest pieces of taxidermy in this country. 

In its preparation Mr. Rowley visited the region represented, and the 
bounds of his experience include many such expeditions to the lands of 
the animal afterward to be mounted in his laboratory. The book he has 
written reflects the wide scope of his training. It is arranged in eight 
chapters. The first treats of field-work, the outfit, hunting, trapping, etc; 
the second, of tools and materials; the third, of casting; the fourth, of 
birds; the fifth, of mammals; the sixth, of fish, reptiles, and crustaceans; 
the seventh, of skeletons ; the eighth, of the reproduction of foliage for 
use as accessories in groups ; and an appendix gives the names of reli- 
able firms from whom taxidermists' supplies may be purchased. 

Mr. Row-ley's distinguishing characteristics as a taxidermist are patience 
and originality. His methods are for the most part his own. Instead of 
the excelsior, clay-covered mannikin, described by Hornadaj', he makes 
a model of gauze-wire covered with plaster composition, practically as 
hard and dry as marble. Over it he places, not a pickle-soaked, and 
often discolored skin, but a tanned hide whose colors havs not been 
subjected to the action of chemicals. Thus shrinking, split-seams, and 
cracking are things of the past. Photographers should note Mr. Rowley's 
suggestion to use formalin in hardening gelatin films, while his chapter 
on artificial foliage describes satisfactorily for the first time the manner 
in which the accessories of our modern groups are produced. In short, 
this book fully presents the unequalled advance which has been made in 
the art of taxidermy during the last decade, and as such it must at once 
replace all other works relating to the subject. — F. M. C. 



Birds of Los Angeles Co., Calif.' — In his introduction the author 
states tliat the "present list, Avith the accompanying notes, is the result 
m.ainly of observations made by members of the Southern Division of 
the Cooper Ornithological Club, and cover little more than the past six 
or eight years." He is commendably conservative, entering only those 
species whose occurrence is beyond doubt, and submitting all difficult 
questions of identification for expert opinion. The list is therefore 
authoritative. It includes 300 species and subspecies, all being concisely 
annotated.— F. M. C 



'Birds of the Pacific Slope of Los Angeles County [Calif.], A List with 
Brief Notes. By Joseph Grinnell, A. B., Assistant Instructor in Biology, 
Throop Polytechnic Institute. Publication No. 2, Pasadena Academy of 
Sciences. 8vo. pp. 52. Press of G. A. Sweedfiger, Pasadena, California. 
March, 1898. 



284 



Recetit Literature. 



TAuk 

LJuly 



Sage's List of Portland, Conn., Birds." — The interest in the study of 
birds aroused by the exhibition of the Dr. William Wood collection of 
Connecticut birds in the rooms of the Hartford Historical Society has 
induced Mr. Sage, Avho is in charge of the collection, to print this list of 
birds as the most practical way of anSAvering the frequently asked question 
" What birds can we find around our houses ? " It is based on thirty years' 
observation and, as stated in a prefatory note, includes only the " birds 
seen to alight within the fenced enclosure about my house in the thickly 
settled portion of the town of Portland, Connecticut." No less than 
ninety-one species are given, each being briefly annotated as to the time 
and manner of its occurrence, twenty species having been found to breed. 
An additional list of ten species seen flying over is given. 

The notes here recorded forcibly illustrate the unexpected results 
which may follow careful observations under apparently very unfavorable 
conditions, and show that even the restrictions of town-life need not debar 
one from the pleasures of bird study. — F. M. C. 

Worcester and Bourns's Contributions to Philippine Ornithology. =^ — 

This paper consists of (i) 'A List of the Birds known to inhabit the 
Philippine and Palawan Islands, showing their distribution within the 
limits of the two Groups,' and (2) ' Notes on the Distribution of Philip- 
pine Birds,' the latter by Dr. Worcester alone. The first is a tabular list 
shoAving the distribution of the species among the islands. In the 
second paper the zoological affinities of the Palawan group are discussed, 
the conclusion being reached that their affinities are with Borneo rather 
than with the Philippines. The Philippines are then considered, each 
member of the group being passed in review, in respect to our knowledge 
of its ornithological fauna and its zoological affinities. A summary of 
conclusions is given, consisting of fifteen propositions. It is found that 
a "close relationship exists between the degree of difference in the 
avifaunje of any two groups [of islands] and their present and past 
geographical relationship, those islands which have been longest and 
most completely cut off from their neighbors showing the highest degree 
of differentiation." 

Steere's ' law of distribution' that "the genus is represented by but a 
single species in a place," is discussed at length, with a reexamination 
of the facts now available, including manj' data Dr. Steere did not have. 
The result is a disagreement with Dr. Steere on a number of minor 

' List of Birds found about my house at Portland, Conn. By John H. Sage, 
published by the Author. Pamphlet, i2mo. pp. 16. 

* Contributions to Philippine Ornithology. By Dean C. Worcester, A. B., 
Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Michigan, and Frank S. Bourns, 
M. D., Ann Arbor, Mich. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. XX, No. 1143, 1898, 
pp. 549-625. 



Vol. XVT 1? 4 T J J O 

iSgis J Jfecent Literai/ire. 2otJ 

points. Lack of space forbids a statement of- the problems, which, how- 
ever, are of great interest to students of geographical distribution. The 
paper is illustrated with a map, and a series of charts showing the distri- 
bution of certain genera and species in the IMiilijipiiK's with special 
reference to ' Steerc's Law.' — J. A. A. 



Publications Received.— Apgar, Austin C Birds of the United States 
east of the Rockv Mountains, A Manual for the Identification of Species 
in hand or in the bush. American Book Co., 1898. i2mo., pp. 416. 

Bangs, Outram. On Some Birds from Santa Marta, Colombia. (Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 189S, pp. 131-144.) 

Beal, F. E. L. Birds that injure Grain. (Yearbook Dept. of Agric. for 
1S97, pp. 345-354.) 

Blandford, W.T. The Fauna of British India and Cejlon. Birds, Vol. 
IV. London, 1898. 8vo., pp. xxi + 500. 

Cooke, W. W. Further Notes on the Birds of Colorado. Bull. No. 44, 
Colorado State Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colorado. March, 
1898. 

Grinnell, Joseph. Birds of the Pacific Slope of Los Angeles County, 
Cal. Publ. No. 2, Pasadena Acad, of Sciences, Cal. March, 1898. 

Hornaday, William T. The Destruction of our Birds and Mammals. 
(Second Ann. Rep. New York Z06I. Soc. pp., 77-126, March 15, 1898.) 

Huntington, Dwight W. Brush, Sedge and Stubble, Part I. The 
Sportsman's Society Cincinnati, 1898. Folio, pp. 16, illustrated. 

Jacobs, J. Warren. Gleanings from Nature, No. i. Oological x\bnormal- 
ities. Waynesburg, Pa., 189S, 8vo. pp. 36. 

Lee, Oswin A. J. Among British Birds in their Nesting Haunts. 
Folio, Pts. X, xi, 189S. 

Nelson, E. W. Notes on the Wild Fowl and Game Animals of Alaska. 
(Nat. Geogr. Mag., IX, April, 189S, pp. 131-132.) 

Newton, Alfred, (i) On Some New or Rare Birds' Eggs. (Proc. Zool 
Soc. Lond., 1897, pp. S90-894, pi. li.) (2) Preface to Lord Lilford's 
' Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British Islands.' 8vo. pp, iii-xviii, 
1897. 

Prazak, J. P. (i) Materialien zu einer Ornis Ost-Galiziens. (Journ. f. 
Orn., XLV, Oct. 1897, pp- 365-479.) (2) Ueber einen neuen Vogel vom 
oberen Yangtse Kiang und Tungting See. (Orn. Monatsschrift des 
Deuts. Vereinszum Schutze der Vogelwelt, XXII, No. 11.) (3) Ueber 
die Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Ornithologie in Bohmen, nebst 
einer Bibliographia ornithologica bohemica. 8vo. pp. 1-87, 1S97. 

Scott, W. E. D. Bird Studies, An account of the Land Birds of Eastern 
North America. With illustrations from original photographs. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, 1S9S. 4to. pp. xii+363. 

Silloway, P. M. Sketches of Some Common Birds. Editor Publishing 
Co., Cincinnati, 1S98. Svo., pp. 331. 



2 86 Notes and News. [^^"^ 

Abstract of Proc. Delaware Valley Orn. Club of Philadelphia, No. 2, 
1892-1897, 8vo., pp. 42. 

American Journ. Sci., April-June, 1898. 

Anales de Museo Nacional de Montevideo, II, fasc. viii, 1898. 

Annals of Scottish Nat. Hist., April, 1898. 

Aquila, Nos. 1-3, 1898. 

Australian Museum, Memoir III, 1898. 

Birds, April-June, 1898. 

Bulletin Brit. Orn. Club, Nos. 52-54, March-May, 1898. 

Bulletin Wilson Orn. Chapter Agassiz Assoc, Nos. 19-20, 1898. 

Canadian Record of Science, VII, No. 5, Jan. 1897. 

Forest and Stream, L, Nos. 14-26, 1898. 

Iowa Ornithologist, IV, No. 2, April, 1898. 

Knowledge, XXI, Nos. 150-152, April-June, 1898. 

Maine Sportsman, V, Nos. 56-58, April-June, 1898. 

Naturalist, The, a Month. Journ. of Nat. Hist, for North of England, 
April-June, 1898. 

Oologist, The, XV, No. 4, April, 1898. 

Ornithologischer Jahrbuch, IX, Nos. 2-3, 1898. 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte, VI, Nos. 4-6, 1898. 

Osprey, The, II, Nos. 8-10, April-June, 1898. 

Our Animal Friends, XXV, Nos. 8-10, April-June, 189S. 

Ottawa Naturalist, XI, Nos. 11-12, XII, Nos. i, 2, Feb.-June, 1898. 

Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1898. Pt. i, Jan.-March, 1898. 

Science, (2) Nos. 169-182, 1898. 

Shooting and Fishing, XXIII, Nos. 23-26, XXIV, Nos. 1-9, 1898. 

Wombat, The, III, No. 3, April, 1898. 

Zoologist, The, (4) Nos. 16-18, April-June 1898. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

Mr. Osbert Salvin, an Honorary Member of the A. O. U., died at 
his residence, Hawksfold, near Haslemere, England, June i, 1898, at the 
age of 63 years. In his death ornithology has sustained a great loss, and 
the A. O. U. one of its most eminent Honorary Members. A sketch of 
Mr. Salvin's life and scientific labors will be presented in a later number 
of this journal. 

Dr. George Baur, an Associate Member of the A. O. U., died at 
Munich, Germany, June 24, 1898. Dr. Baur was born in Germany, but 
had lived many years in this country, and at the timfe of his death was 
Associate Professor of Comparative Osteology and Palaeontology at the 



Vol- XVl ,17- . J ,r 

1 898 1 J Notes a tin News. 207 

University of Chicago, and was on a visit to his native land for recupera- 
tion and study. Dr. Baur is well known for his researches on various 
groups of recent and fossil reptiles, and in his special lines was an author- 
ity of high standing. His ornithological work was mainly incidental to 
other lines of research. His name, however, will ever be associated with 
the fauna of the Galapagos Archipelago, not only through his exploration 
of its reptilian life but of its bird life as well. His extensive ornithological 
collections made there in 1892, in conjunction with the late Mr. Charles 
F. Adams, formed the principal basis of Mr. Ridgway's recent ' Birds of 
the Galapagos Archipelago ' to which Dr. Baur has contributed some fur- 
ther information and criticism (see Auk, XV, 1898, p. 207). He has 
also written various papers on the origin of the Galapagos Archipelago 
and its fauna. 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert H. Smith, well known as expert natural 
history collectors through their labors in Brazil, the West Indies, and 
Mexico, are now in northern Colombia, with several assistants, working 
under the joint auspices of the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
the American Museum of Natural History of New York City. Mr. Smith 
and his party will give special attention to insects, birds, and mammals, 
and w^ill probably remain for a long time in the field, visiting other por- 
tions of northern South America after completing their work in Colombia. 

Messrs. Outram and E. A. Bangs have also an experienced collec- 
tor, Mr. W. W. Brown, Jr., in the Santa Marta region of Colombia, from 
whom they have recently received considerable consignments of birds 
and mammals, preliminary notices of wiiich have already begun to 
appear. 

Mr. George K. Cherrie, well known to readers of 'The Auk,' for 
his successful work in Costa Rica and San Domingo, has been for some 
months engaged collecting birds and other specimens for the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild for the-Tring Museum, in the Orinoco districts of 
Venezuela, where also the brothers Samuel N. and Edward Klages, of 
Crafton, Pa., have recently established themselves for natural historv 
exploration, partly under the auspices of the American Museum of Natu- 
ral History. While they will give their attention primarily to insects, a 
portion of their time will be devoted to birds and mammals. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild has recently announced the success- 
ful return of the Frank Blake Webster expedition from the Galapagos 
Islands, sent out at Mr. Rothschild's suggestion. He states (Bull. Br. 
Orn. Club, No. LIV, p. li) that "the collection is the largest and finest 
yet made in that group. The collectors stayed one day at Clarion Island 
and procured 85 birds, among which was a fine series of the new Sula 
[Sula %vebsteri'\ described hereafter. Of the 105 species enumerated by 



288 Notes a7id News. [|„"l^ 

Ridgway as occurring in the Galapagos Islands, good series of nearly 
all were obtained. ... In addition to nearlj' all the species known to 
inhabit the Archipelago, examples of several more were obtained, some 
seven or eight of which are new to science." Six of these are here 
described, and include a flightless Cormorant (^Phalacrocorax harrisi'), 
" the largest known Cormorant," with " wings of about the same size as 
those of the Great Auk." 

The first annual meeting of the Connecticut Andubon Society was held 
at Fairfield, Conn., June 4, 1898. The president, Mrs. Mabel Osgood 
Wright, presided, and the meeting was addressed by Messrs. John H. 
Sage, Frank M. Chapman, and Rev. Mr, Backus of Westport." 

Although the youngest of the dozen or more Audubon Societies now 
existing, the Connecticut oi^ganization has already reached a membership 
of over 300, while its financial condition will permit it to vigorously 
prosecute the objects for which it was formed. In awakening an interest 
in birds and extending popular knowledge concerning their value to 
man, this Society purposes to adopt a plan as yet untried by its sister 
Societies. Instead of expending its funds in printing and distributing 
leaflets, it purposes to secure a stereopticon and set of colored slides of 
birds, which, with lectures suitable for different audiences, will be loaned 
to teachers and other responsible parties throughout the State at the 
mere cost of transportation charges. 

The fifth edition of Chapman's ' Handbook of Birds of Eastern North 
America' has just been issued by its publishers D. Appleton & Co. It 
is printed from the same plates as the preceding edition except that the 
table of nesting dates on page 19 has been rewritten on the basis of 
additional data. 

In the ' Report of the A. O. U. Committee on Protection of North 
American Birds,' printed in the January Auk, I failed to mention that 
the Wisconsin Bird Day law was introduced in and successfully carried 
through the Legislature of 1897 hy Mr. John E. Morgan, member from 
Sauk County.' Although Mr. Morgan informs me that the bill "encoun- 
tered no opposition worth mentioning," yet he is entitled to the honor 
and credit of having placed upon the statute books of Wisconsin a most 
desirable law, one which I again urge upon members of the Union to 
have passed in all States where such a law does not now exist. — Wm. 
DuTCHER, N. V. City. 



7- 



OCT 14 !«»» 

IHE AUI< 

A qU x\ R T E R L Y J O U R N A L O F 

ORNITHOLOGY. 

VOL. XV. October, 189S. No. 4. 



KIRTLAND'S WARBLER {DENDROICA KIRTLANDI). 



BY FRANK INI. CHAPIMAN. 



Plate IV. 



The activity of tield ornithologists during the past fifteen years 
has deprived most North American birds of the distinction of 
being termed rare. Species which a score of years since were 
known from only two or three specimens are now represented 
in collections by large series, continued research showing that 
their supposed rarity was due to our ignorance of their true 
range. Particularly is this true of the Warblers, birds whose 
habits make them especially difficult to observe ; but one by one 
enthusiastic collectors have discovered their habitat, nests and 
eggs, until of all the North American members of this family, 
with the exception of several Mexican species just reaching our 
border, we can now write ' rare ; nest and eggs unknown,' only 
of Kirtland's Warbler. 

Forty-six years have passed since Kirtland's Warbler was 
made known to science. During this time nineteen specimens 
have been recorded from the United States and fifteen from the 
Bahamas. In addition to these specimens there exist thirty- 
three Bahaman specimens collected by C. J. Maynard making, as 
far as I can ascertain, a total of sixty-seven examples. A study 



2QO Chapman, Kirila?id's Warblei-. f Oct^ 

of the data attached to these birds fixes with considerable cer- 
tainty the winter distribution of this species and throws some 
light on its routes of migration and probable breeding range. 

Thus during the winter Kirtland's Warbler apparently ranges 
throughout the Bahamas, having been found from Caicos to 
Abaco, though it has not as yet been recorded from Inagua. 
Its northward migration begins in April, South Carolina being 
reached toward the end of the month, either by direct flight from 
the Bahamas, or, what is more probable, by advancing northward 
along the Southeast Atlantic Coast (St. Helena, April 29, 
Worthington) . 

This is the most northern, spring cis-Alleghanian record, the 
migratory route of the species now leading it northwestward into 
the Mississippi Valley. 

It is reported from Missouri, May 8 (St. Louis, Widmann) ; 
from Illinois, May 7 (Glen Ellyn, Gault) ; from Indiana, May 
4 and 7 (Wabash, Wallace) ; from Ohio, May 12 and 13 (Cleve- 
land, Pease and Chubb ; four other Ohio specimens without exact 
date) ; from Minnesota, May 13 (Minneapolis, Guilford), and 
from Michigan, May 11 (Battle Creek, Green), May 15, 16 (Ann 
Arbor, Covert; also one specimen about May i, Knapp) , and 
May 21 (Mackinac, Marshall). This last is not only the latest 
spring record but also the most northern record we have of the 
species. The specimen on which it is based was killed by 
striking the lighthouse situated at the Straits of Mackinac and, 
as I have before suggested, was doubtless en route to a more 
northern breeding ground in the Hudson Bay region. 

In the fall we have only two records for Kirtland's Warbler 
(Ft. Myer, Va., Sept. 25, Palmer, and Chester, So. Car., Oct. 
II, Loomis), suggesting that the species returns to its winter 
quarters over much the same route it selects for its northwestward 
journey in spring. 

Few of the ornithologists who have been so fortunate as to 
secure specimens of this rare Warbler have given us any account 
of its habits. Mr. Cory, however, states of a specimen he 
secured on Andros Island : " Its actions much resembled those 
of D. coronata, and it seemed to prefer thick brush." Mr. Wid- 
mann compares it to D. palmarum and says that it has the 



^°i8o8^1 Chapman, KirthuuVs Warbler. 2QI 

wagging motion of the tail, so characteristic of that species, that 
it appears to be terrestrial, and in the carriage of its body and 
manner of evading discovery by skilfully alighting behind a 
protecting object, it resembles Geothlypis agilis. Messrs. Smith 
and Palmer also mention the bird's habit of tail-wagging. Mr. 
W. O. Wallace states that the specimen secured at Wabash, Ind., 
May 4, was an active flycatcher, while the song of a second 
specimen consisted of " a loud, ringing note, repeated three times 
in quick succession. .... It is loud and rather musical." 

In addition to these records of collectors of the species we 
have several others by ornithologists who have observed but 
not secured it. Mr. Walter Iloxie states ^ that on St. Helena 
Island, South Carolina, May 3, when without his gun, he saw 
three Kirtland's Warblers, and gives his observations on their 
song and actions, as follows : "They were quite familiar, allowing 
me to approach cautiously within less than a rod. . . . The notes 
are of two distinct characters. The first, a song, was uttered 
with the head held forward and body quite erect. It bore a 
striking resemblance to the song of the Yellow-throated Warbler. 
The second was a loud chipping, uttered while moving about 
among the bushes, and was kept up for a space of one or two 
minutes at a time. Resting a few seconds the bird would begin 
again, creeping about the branches and ' swapping ends ' with a 
quick jerking movement all the time. Arriving near the top of 
the bush or the end of the branch he would settle himself and 
sing two or three times before fluttering to the next bush. All 
these specimens were in^ low bushes and seemed to prefer them 
to trees .... neither did I see any of them alight on the ground." 

Mr. L. S. Keyser, who observed a specimen of Kirtland's 
Warbler "one day in early spring" (locality not stated, but pre- 
sumably in Ohio) , describes its song as " a blithe, liquid melody," 
the tones being " full, clear and bubbling." (Bird-Dom, p. 63). 

These brief notes constitute our sole knowledge of the habits 
of this species, whose nest and eggs, owing to its rarity and the 
remoteness of its probable breeding range, will doubtless long 
remain unknown. 

'Auk, III, 1S86, 412. 



2Q2 Chapman, Kirtland's JJ^arb/er. [cm 



LOct. 



List of Recorded Captures of Kirtland's Warbler. 

1852. Baird S. F. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. V. V, 1852, 216, pi. vi.— 

Male, collected hy Charles Pease, May 13, 1851, near Cleveland, 

Ohio. 

Original description, wherein Prof. Baird dedicated the bird 

to J. P. Kirtland of Cleveland, not because he collected it, as has 

been uniforml}' but incorrectly stated, but because to him "we 

are indebted for a knowledge of the Natural History of the 

Mississippi Valley." 
i860. Kirkpatrick, J. [?]. Ohio Farmer, IX, iS6o, 179. — Collected by — 

Darby, May (.?), 1S60, Cleveland, Ohio. A specimen is also 

said to have been shot by Wm. Case but to have been too badly 

injured to be preserved. (See Wheaton, Birds of Ohio, 264). 
1865. Ba£RD, S. F. Rev. N. A. Birds, 206.— Collected by S. Cabot, Jr., 

at sea, near Abaco, Bahamas. 

This specimen was doubtless in existence ten years before the 

discovery of the tj-pe, having probably been secured by Cabot 

on his voyage to Yucatan about 1840. 
1877. Langdon, F. W. Cat. Birds Vicinity Cincinnati, O. (Salem, 

Mass.) 6. — Male, collected by C Dury, May 1872, Avondale, O. 
1879. Wheaton, J. M. Bull. NiM. Orn. Club, IV, 1879, 58.— Two 

specimens collected at Rockport, Cuyahoga Co., O., "during 

past season," by W. and J. Hall. 
1879. Cory, C. B. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, IX, 1879, 118. — Female 

collected on Andros Island, Bahamas, Jan. 9 (1879 .?J. 

1879. PuRDiE, H.A. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, TV, 1879, 185.— Two females 

collected by A. B. Covert, Ann Arbor, Michigan, May 15, 1S75, 
and May 16, 1S79, respectively. 

1880. Langdon, F. W. Journ. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1880, 123.^ Female, 

collected by H. E. Chubb, Cleveland, Ohio, May 12, 1880. 
1S84. RiDGWAY, R. Auk, I, 1884, 389. — Male, collected by N. Y. Green, 
Battle Creek, Michigan, May 11, 18S3. 

1885. Merriam, C. H. Auk, II, 1SS5, 376. — Male, collected by Wm. 

Marshall, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan, May 21, 1885. 

This is the most northern record for the species. The bird 
was killed by striking the lighthouse on Spectacle Reef, and 
was doubtless therefore en route to a more northern locality. 
18S5. Widmann, O. Auk, II, 1885, 382. — Male, collected at St. Louis, 
Missouri, May 8, 1SS5. 

1886. HoxiE, W. Auk, III, 18S6, 412.— Male, collected by W. W. Worth- 

ington, St. Helena, South Carolina, April 27. Also mentions 
3 individuals observed by himself, May 3, but not secured. 



^°8 ^^1 CiiAi'MAN, KirthunVs. Warbler. 20? 

i88S. Smith, U. M., and Palmer, W. Auk, V, 1888, 14S.— Collected by 
Wm. Palmer at Ft. Myer, Virginia, September 25, 18S7, wbere a 
second example was seen but not secured one week later. 

iSSS. Jennings, A. 11. Johns Hopkins University Circular, \'ol. A'll, 
No. 63. — Male, collected at New Providence, BabamaK, April 
iS, 18S7. 

1S89. LooMis, L. M., Ank, VI, 1889, 74.— Collected at Chester, South 
Carolina, Oct. 11, 18SS. 

1889. Washburn, F. L. Auk, VI, 18S9, 279. — Female, collected bv — 
Knapp, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, about May i, 188S. 

1891. Cory, C. B. Auk, VIII, 1891, 295, 297, 298. — Three specimens, 
collected on Bprry Islands, Bahamas, April, 1S91 ; two specimens 
collected by C. L. Winch in January or February on Caicos Island, 
Bahamas ; also recorded as collected by C. L. Winch on Abaco, 
Bahamas, in March. 

1891. RiDGWAY, R. Ank, VIII, 1S91, 337, 338. Four specimens, collected 
by naturalists of the Fish Commission S. S. 'Albatross,' on 
Wattling's Island, Bahamas, March 4-9, and two bv same col- 
lectors on Green Cay, Bahamas, April 12. 

1893. Guilford, H. M. Auk, X, 1893, 86. — Male, collected at Minne- 

apolis, Minnesota, May 13, 1892. 

1894. Gault, B. T. Auk, XI, 1894, 258.— Male, collected at Glen Ellyn, 

Illinois, May 7, 1S94. 
1897. Butler. A. W. Birds of Indiana, Report of State Geologist, 
1S97, 1070. — Two specimens, collected by W. O. Wallace at 
Wabash, Indiana, May 4, 1S92 and May 7, 1S95, respectivelv. 

In addition to the 18 or more' specimens herein recorded 
from the Bahamas, I have received a list of 33 specimens of 
this species collected in these islands bv Mr. C. J- Mavnard. 
which I append: Nassau, N. P., 1SS4, Feb. i, one: 12, two; 
13, two; 20, one; 27, two; March 1, one; 11, one; 13, one; 
15, two; 17, two; 22, two; 24, one; 26, three; 29, one; 1893, 
March 25, one; April 2, one; 1897, March, one; 4, one; April 5, 
one ; 6, two. 

Eleuthera Island, April 20, two ; 22, one. 

Athels Island, May 5, one. 

Note. — Since this paper was put in type we have received from Mr. 
C. B. Coiy a note recording the occurrence of Kirtland's Warbler at West 
Jupiter, Florida, in April, 1897, one example being seen on the 19th and 
one captured on the 27th of that month. See ' General Notes," this issue 
of ' The Auk.' 

' One record indefinite. 



2QA. Elliot, Canon XL, A. O. U. Code. loct. 

CANON XL, A. O. U. CODE. 

BY D. G. ELLIOT, F. R. S. E. 

The Code formulated by its Committee, and adopted by the 
American Ornithologists' Union has deservedly received the gen- 
eral approval of naturalists, not only of those devoted to the par- 
ticular science for which it was prepared, but also of those whose 
attention has been directed to other lines of zoological research. 
And while all zoologists may without reserve and with great profit 
to themselves cheerfully adopt and assist in maintaining the gen- 
eral doctrine and special precepts embodied in the Code, yet 
unhappily we find, like all human productions, it has its element 
of weakness which, in the opinion of a considerable number of 
naturalists, seriously impairs the general eftectiveness of its 
armor of proof. Amid so much that is excellent and conceived 
in judicial equity upon the broadest and fairest foundations, it is 
somewhat amazing to find that in one of its most important articles 
a premium is offered as a reward to ignorance, carelessness, and 
a general lack of ability to perceive that which alone is proper and 
right. To spell correctly is the first qualification of any one 
claiming to have received an education, and one who is unable to 
do this should not be encouraged to commit errors by the assur- 
ance of a committee of a scientific society that his faults should be 
made perpetual, and that all the efforts of those competent to cor- 
rect his blunders should be resisted to the utmost by the fulmina- 
tion of this extraordinary Canon XL of an otherwise excellent 
codification of rules. The writer imputes to those responsible for 
this Canon, only the best and purest motives, an honest, effort 
to establish a fixity of nomenclature, and if in the course of this 
paper his remarks may appear almost too earnest in his criticism 
of a proposition which he regards as a huge mistake and one apt 
to create more instabiUty in scientific nomenclature than any injury 
the abuse !!! of all the purists and classicists in the world could 
effect, yet he believes at the time this article was formed the 
majority of the committee considered they were acting in the true 



Vol- XV-] Elliot, Canon XL, A. O. if. Code. 20:r 

1 898 J ^ - ' 

line of advancement and scientific progress. Tliis acknowledgment, 
however, only emphasizes the fact that even good men can go 
very widely astray. 

Let us look at this Canon XL ana see what are the reasons 
adduced why errors should be permanent and all efforts to cor- 
rect them and in many cases cause terms that are simply gibberish 
to assume shapes possessed of intelligent meanings, be frustrated. 
The great and only evil feared is " the abuse on the part of 
the purists and classicists who look with disfavor upon anything 
nomenclatural which is in the least degree unclassical in form" 
and therefore, it continues, as may be naturally inferred from the 
rule that follows, let us place the results of ignorance and care- 
lessness beyond the reach of such learned marplots, so that no 
blunders may ever again be corrected, and in this way we Avill 
achieve an eternal stability in our nomenclature ! And so, if 
when the genus Somateria was first proposed, some printer's 
devil with a catarrhal affliction had caused it to appear as 
' Sobaberia,' under the dictum of this enlightened and highly 
classical Canon that extraordinary combination must remain for- 
ever as the author's idea of expressing a downy or woolly body ! 
Of course refuge might be taken in the provision afforded in 
Canon XL that typographical errors had been committed and 
therefore the spelling might be corrected ; but this opens a very 
wide door for the exercise of individual opinion, and unless an 
author's original MS. was accessible, proof for or against this 
fact could not be produced. And in reference to this point so 
Tittle has the Committee believed in the fact that typographical 
errors exist, that the writer is able to recall very few instances 
where on this account any word has been corrected by it. No 
doubt every one who has any knowledge of the matter, whether 
or not he belongs to the reprehensible and excommunicated bodies 
of purists and classicists, is convinced that sw/xa and Ipiov never 
could properly compose ' sobaberia ' neither could TreStor and 
oLK€Tr]? be correctly compounded into Pedioccetes, two blunders in 
one word; yet the latter is solemnly adjudged by this wise and 
strictly educational Article to be the only proper way of spelling 
the o-eneric term for the Sharp-tailed Grouse ! 

Is not this terror of the amount of damage these dreadful pur- 



2o6 Elliot, Canon XL, A. O. U. Code. I 



Auk 
Oct. 



ists and classicists may commit, who in the timid minds of the 
nifijority of this Committee, as originally composed, are rightly 
enough ever ready to overthrow nonsense words, and bring to the 
fold in their proper shapes, ungrammatical terms, rather strained 
and manufactured for the occasion ? Is there such a preponder- 
ance of ill-spelled words, and ill-formed compounds in ornithologi- 
cal nomenclature as would overthrow it if corrected ? Is it such a 
dreadful misfortune to be put right when one has gone astray ? 
And would chaos and confusion arise if occasionally a ' purist ' 
or a ' classicist ' should have the temerity to point out to an erring 
brother the faults that he in his happy unconsciousness of evil had 
committed ? Did the authors of this article stop to consider what 
effect it would have upon those same purists and classicists ? Did 
they for a moment suppose that these malevolent creatures, 
imbued, as the gentlemen of this Committee rightly supposed, 
with a settled antagonism to wrongdoing wherever it might exist, 
would meekly surrender their opinions and renounce their con- 
viction that right is right and error is error wherever found, and 
become advocates of the holiness of blunders at the command or 
teachings of this article ? And if they did not do this, where is 
the stability of nomenclature so much desired ? For the writer is 
happy to think there are more ' purists and classicists,' that is to 
say, educated men, to-day devoted to scientific ornithology, than 
there are of that class, who, in good faith but in all ignorance, 
commit the blunders that so sorely need correcting. 

For only one cause may an error be made right under the 
Canon introducing this rule, viz. : — when " a typographical error 
is evident." Who is to determine this .-^ Must all such apparent 
faults be submitted to this committee for their decision as to 
whether the error is a typographical one or an author's misspell- 
ing ? And suppose one has the audacity to form his own opinion 
from as good evidence as that at the disposal of the Committee, 
who is likely to be right if they disagree, and what is to be done 
with the obdurate (of course not with the Committee, Oh, no !) 
if he persists in his wilful way ? It is amazing in these days of 
public schools and general knowledge that a committee of a 
scientific society should solemnly announce as it does in this 
Canon that " correctness of structure or philological propriety be 



^°8q^^] Elmut, Canon XL, A. O. U. Code. 



297 



held as of minor importance and yield place to the two cardinal 
principles of priority and fixity," or in other words that the ability 
to spell properly or to write grammatically is of no consequence 
beside a Utopian effort to maintain a stability that is not stable 
and never can be under the teachings this article would inculcate. 
The writer understands perfectly well that Canon XL, as well as 
all the others in the Code, is not mandatory, the Committee would 
not for a moment consider them as presented to ornithologists in 
that spirit, but offered for their consideration as the best it was 
able to do in its judgment under the circumstance. All philolog- 
ical emendations are rejected, especial stress being placed on 
the change of the initial letter of a name, as when the Greek 
aspirate has been omitted, so that if it was English the Cockney 
pronunciation of ' Enery ' instead of Henry would be preferred 
if it only was first printed. And here perhaps it may be well to 
say something about the law of propriety in reference to this 
subject. It is very difficult to see in what way it could possibly 
be affected. The misspelt word or ungrammatical phrase when 
corrected would still be accredited to the original author. It is 
yet his child, even if its clothes do fit it better and give it a more 
respectable appearance, and no one else is likely to pose as its 
father, even if he had a hand in tidying it up a bit. 

Now let us come to the conclusion of the whole matter : This 
rule has been m print, it cannot be said in force, for nearly fifteen 
years. Has it accomplished the result contemplated or desired ? 
Is nomenclature by its assertions a greater fixity to-day than when 
this rule was promulgated ? Do those who know better accept 
bad spelling and employ ungrammatical phrases, because it 
advises them so to do? We know they do not. Has it made 
any converts among educated men, or has it been of any assist- 
ance to those not educated save to encourage them to continue in 
the valley and shadow of ignorance ? The doctrine it teaches is 
unworthy this age and the source from which it had its being. It 
has utterly failed to accomplish its purpose, and should be dropped 
from the Code. It is satisfactory to know that one at least of the 
Committee that assisted at the advent of its unlovely offspring, 
born out of due season, did not at the time, although an accom- 
plished accoucheur, regard with favor this result of combined 



29S Allen, A Be/ef/se of Co.no7i XL of the A. O. U. Code. Vq^. 

efforts, and. Dr. Coues of late both with tongue and pen has 
expressed his disapproval of this article and advocated its sup- 
pression. Let it therefore be eliminated from the Code. Let us 
instead of listening to its baneful teachings, advocate the beauties 
of grammatical construction, and the propriety of correct spelling 
and we will do more towards the stability of ornithological nomen- 
clature than any number of Canons XL, which teach the rightful- 
ness of wrongdoing. The writer has always repudiated this 
Canon.. He will always spell as well as he knows how, and will 
be as grammatical in his writings as he is able and will always 
reject misshaped compounds .and ill-spelt words, and when he 
errs and blunders he is thankful to the kind friend who sets him 
right upon his way, and he would strongly advise all young 
ornithologists, beginning the study of the most attractive of 
earth's creatures, to reject entirely this Canon XL and its advo- 
cacy of illiteracy, and when uncertain of any portion of their 
writings consult some one who can aid them, but in all cases, 
adopt only that which is grammatically, typographically and phil- 
ologically correct. 



A DEFENSE OF CANON XL OF THE A. O. U. CODE. 

BY J. A. ALLEN. 

In the foregoing article Mr. Elliot has, let us say unwittingly, 
given a very unfair representation of the purpose and results of 
Canon XL of the A. O. U. Code of Nomenclature. The members 
of the A. O. U. Committee who formulated Canon XL, instead 
of deliberately offering " a reward to ignorance, carelessness, and 
a general lack of ability to perceive that which alone is proper 
and right," are probably as much shocked by misspelled or 
wrongly constructed names in scientific nomenclature as is Mr. 
Elliot, and did not adopt Canon XL without careful deliberation 
and consideration as to which of two grave evils is the lesser, — 



^°89^^] Allen, A Defense of Canon XL of tlu: A. O. U. Code. H)^) 

namely, the emendation of thousands of names, some of them 
so radically that they retain little resemblance to their original 
forms, or the retention of a few gross and shocking verbal mal- 
formations against which their literary instincts must ever revolt. 

In the formation of the A. O. U. Code stability in nomenclature 
was the primary end sought, which is the avowed purpose of all 
modern codes of nomenclature ; and the authors of this code find 
themselves in most excellant company in the stand taken on the 
subject of emendation of names. They include a long list of 
authors who are eminent as scholars as well as naturalists, and 
" who know how to spell " in quite as many languages as Mr. 
Elliot and his few sympathizers in the matter of this " extraordi- 
nary " Canon XL. To charge the A. O. U. Committee with 
placing a premium on illiteracy through the adoption of Canon 
XL, as Mr. Elliot and Dr. Coues have done, is almost too absurd 
for serious consideration, as the article itself and the discussion 
and remarks thereunder abundantly show, to say nothing of the 
eight pages or more of the Code (pp. 58-66) devoted to ' Rec- 
ommendations for Zoological Nomenclature in the Future,' 
treating especially of the selection and construction of names. 
Under Canon XL it is said : " The permanence of a name is of 
far more importance than its signification or structure, as is freely 
admitted by the best authorities in both Botany and Zoology. 
Your Committee therefore restrict the emendation of names to 
the correction of obvious or known typographical errors .... They 
would therefore reject emendations of a purely philological char- 
acter, and especially all such as involve a change of the initial 
letter of the name, as in cases where the Greek aspirate has been 
omitted by the original constructor. It therefore follows that 
hybrid names [anagrams, ' nonsense names,' and barbarous or 
' exotic ' names] cannot be displaced ; although it is to be hoped 
that they will be strenuously guarded against in future ; and that. 
in general, word-coiners will pay the closest attention to philolog- 
ical proprieties." 

Nearly all modern codes of nomenclature agree that " A name 
is only a name and need have no necessary significance.'' In 
other words, while anagrams, hybrid names, nonsense names 
(many such have been purposely constructed), and barbarous 



^OO Allen, A Defense of Cano7i XL of the A. O. U. Code. Pq^J' 

or indigenous names should be avoided in future, those already 
in existence are not to be either rejected or emended, but treated 
as simply " arbitrary combinations of letters." 

On the other hand, extremists of the school Mr. Elliot repre- 
sents will tolerate only words of classical origin, or at least of 
Latin form, and of correct philological construction. One might 
infer from Mr. Elliot's remarks that this correct philological form 
was a very simple matter to attain ; that there was but one allow- 
able rule for transliteration from other languages into Latin ; that 
all scholars who " know how to spell " are agreed on the proper 
methods of compounding names under all circumstances ; that 
philological authorities were never at loggerheads as to the 
correct construction of names of doubtful etymology (of which 
there are many); and that emended and re-emended emendations 
were never heard of. Simple indeed, were all this true, would 
be this troublesome matter of " knowing how to spell " in a 
manner to please everybody. 

Between the rejection of names on account of their non-classi- 
cal origin, the emendation of classical terms improperly constructed, 
even to their complete transformation to practically ncAv words, 
and the thousand and one slighter changes that do not to any 
material extent alter the original word, there is no point at which 
a line can be drawn — the whole field is thrown open to individ- 
ual predilection, with no arbiter to decide between conflicting 
authorities, and no prospect of agreement in tastes or preferences, 
where more constructions than one chance to be allowable. Mr. 
Elliot may prefer one ' spelling,' Dr. Coues another. The result 
would be endless emendation and constant instability, each ' good 
speller ' following his own preferences as to whether or not a 
name is too bad to be tolerated, or whether it may not be accepted 
after the proper amount of " tidying up." In many cases it is 
purely a matter of choice, as custom goes, whether a certain word 
from the Greek shall be spelled with a ^ or a A;, an i or a y, an / 
or ay, etc ; while the etymology of many terms of questionable 
meaning and construction is a matter of pure guesswork. 

The extent of the breach advocated by Mr. Elliot is probably 
far greater than he supposes. Mr. Waterhouse's ' Index Generum 
Avium,' published in 1889, gives a list of about 7000 names 



^°Hg^^'J Allen, A Defence of C(uio>/ XL oj the A. (>. U. Code. y)\ 

employed as generic or subgeneric terms for birds between this 
date and 1766. A careful examination of the first 60 pages of 
the work (about one fourth) shows that about one eighth of the 
names there entered are merely variants or emendations of other 
names, while very many other variants have here escaped record. 
It also appears that some names have received as many as three 
or four renderings at the hands of as many expert ' spellers '; that 
in some cases the same author has spelled names of his own 
coining in two and sometimes in three different ways ; in one 
instance, at least, using the masculine, in another the feminine, 
and in still another the neuter form of the word ; that German 
and French writers have apparently certain national preferences 
in respect to the transliteration of Greek into Latin; that some 
prefer the full or expanded form in compounding names and 
others an abridged form, for the sake of brevity, llius we have 
Ant/ireptes, Anthor/ieptes, Anf/h>threJ>tus, and Anthothreptes ; Anod- 
orhy/ic/ius ^Lvvd Anodimfor/iynchiis ; Bajyp/ionus d.nd Barryp/ionus ; 
Bessoniis and Bessononiis; Bradornis and Bradyornis ; Calornis 
and Caniornis ; Calurus and Calliurus ; Caliptorhynchus and 
Caliptorrhynchus ; Calopsitta aiid Callipsittaais ; Cephahpis and 
Cephallspis ; Cephus z.nd Cepphus ; Chroicocephalus^ C/ircecocep/ialus, 
and Croocephalus, etc. But space cannot be given, nor is it nec- 
essary, for the further illustration of this and other cases where 
custom varies in respect to connective vowels, the doubling of 
consonants, as / and r, or the interchange of ai, ce, and a:, of /, _>-, 
and J, or of c and k, or the retention or the omission of the 
Greek aspirate, etc. 

Aside from these simple classes of variants, affecting probably 
at least an eighth of all the generic and specific names in zoology, 
the ' purist,' like certain German and some other authors that could 
be named, totally rejects not only hybrid names and names con- 
sisting of arbitrary combinations of letters, but all names based 
on indigenous appellations, as the native names of animals. To 
show what changes this implies, it may be stated that in the 
Psittaci alone the names of not less than 15 genera and sub- 
genera out of a total of 72, were rejected not long since bv a 
single author on the ground of faulty construction or barbarous 
origin, in several cases new names being given in place of the 



302 Allen, A Defense of Canon XL of the A. O. U. Code. [^"^^ 

name rejected, and in other cases the earliest synonym that 
chanced to meet the author's approval was taken. 

It was to avoid this uncertainty and instability that Canon XL 
was devised, which in reality is only the enforcement of the law 
of priority, literally as well as in spirit, to its finality, applying it 
to the form of the name as well as to the name itself. There 
can be no safe line of limitation in the case of emendation, where 
there are so many who pose as good spellers and yet so often 
spell the same name differently. In the only exception made — 
that of " obvious or known typographical errors " — the critics 
of Canon XL profess to see a great absurdity, although its mean- 
ing is sufficiently defined. By ' obvious' is of course meant the 
evident transposition of letters, or their inversion, overlooked 
in proof-reading ; by ' known ' cases where the error, clerical or 
typographical, has been corrected by the author himself, either 
later in the same publication, as in the index or by means of an 
errata slip, or elsewhere. The exception thus does not open 
" a very wide door for the exercise of individual opinion," nor 
are the known cases of such errors so rare as Mr. Elliot seems to 
suppose. 

Mr. Elliot asks regarding Canon XL : " Has it accomplished 
the result contemplated or desired? Is nomenclature by its as- 
sertions a greater fixity to-day than when this rule was promul- 
gated? Do those who know better accept bad spelling and 
employ ungrammatical phrases, because it advises them so to 
do? .... Has it made any converts among educated men?" etc. 
In answer it may be said that it has not accomplished all that 
was desired, but far more in, the line of its realization than its 
most sanguine advocates dared hope. It has practically thus far 
rendered fixed and permanent the nomenclature of North Amer- 
ican ornithology, in North America at least, in so far as the 
emendation or rejection of names upon purely philological 
grounds is concerned. It has among its supporters and advocates 
so nearly all of the leading authorities in vertebrate zoology in 
this country (they must include stmie " educated men ") that the 
few who reject this rule, like Mr. Elliot and Dr. Coues, are con- 
spicuous by reason of their exceptional position. Not only this, 
but converts have been made in this country in other departments 



^i8q^^J OiiKiuioLSKR, A Nciv North American Tlirinli. 'JQ^ 

of zoology, and its adherents include some eminent, and even 
"educated" naturalists abroad. Neither is it evident that its 
"baneful teachings" and "advocacy of illiteracy" have had, to 
any perceptable degree, any demoralizing infiuence upon the ris- 
ing generation of naturalists, or perceptably deteriorated the 
quality of their spelling when it has fallen to their lot to coin 
new names for the designation of newly discovered genera and 
species. 

Because the acceptance of Canon XL is not universal among 
naturalists is no reason for its elimination from the Code ; the 
progress it has made and the good that has already resulted from 
it is rather something for which we should be grateful. It is of 
course not compulsory, as no such rule can be arbitrarily enforced ; 
nor can Mr. Elliot ever expect that any rule for even such a 
simple matter as the transliteration of Greek and other names 
into Latin, to say nothing of the construction of names according 
to undeviating methods, will ever be in universal use. It is even 
" LTtopian" to expect all good spellers to spell alike. Therefore 
we may well rest content to tolerate in our Check-List a few mal- 
formations like Leptotila and PedioccEte.s, and even such an inept 
name as cafer for an American bird, than to open wide the door 
to the vacillating sway of the horrified emender. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW NORTH AMERICAN 
THRUSH. 

BY HARRY C. OBERHOLSER. 

The Olive-backed Thrushes inhabiting the Rocky Mountain 
region of the United States prove to be subspecifically separable 
from the eastern race, to which they have heretofore been referred. 
The name swaifisonii has undoubted application to the form from 
eastern North America, since Cabanis states ^ the habitat of the 

' Tschudi's Fauna Peruana, 1845-6, 190. 



304 Oberholser, a Nexv North Americati Thrush. \f^^ 

bird named by him to be northeastern North America, casually 
Peru, and furthermore evidently describes a specimen taken by 
himself during October, in New Jersey, which place may conse- 
quently be taken as the type locality. The Turdtis fjiijiimus of 
Lafresnaye, ^ if belonging here at all, probably refers to the 
eastern race, though its status cannot be determined with certainty. 
Swainson and Richardson's description of their Merula zvihonii^ 
probably belongs also to the eastern form, though even were such 
not the case the name would still be unavailable, being merely a 
misidentification of their bird with the Turdus wilsonii of Bona- 
parte {r^fuscesceiis of Stephens) . All other synonyms apply 
unequivocally to the eastern race, and the bird from the Rocky 
Mountain region being thus without a name, may be called 

Hylocichla^ ustulata almse, sabsp. nov. Alma's Thrush. 

Chars, subsp. — Hylocichla H. u. sivaiiisonii persuuilis, sed noiaeo hypo- 
chondriisque canescentioribus,. 

Geographic Distribution. — Rockj Mountain region of the United 
States, west to Utah and eastern Nevada; in winter south to Mexico, and 
east, sporadically, to Indiana. 

Description. — Type, male adult. No. 159053, U. S. National Museum, 
Biological Survey Collection; East Humboldt Mts , opposite Franklin 
Lake, Nevada, June 24, 1898; H. C. Oberholser. Upper parts hair brown, 
with a slight tinge of greenish ; just a shade darker and browner on 
forehead and crown; tail fuscous, the central feathers and external webs 
of all the rest identical in color with the back; wings fuscous, the lesser 
and median coverts, with outer edgings of all the other feathers, like the 
upper surface of the body ; basal portion of inner webs of secondaries 
and innermost primaries buffy. Lores, eye-ring, cheeks, jugulum and 
sides of neck buff, the lores, cheeks and auriculars much mixed with 
brownish, the jugulum, sides of neck, and sides of throat with more or 
less triangular spots of dark brown ; a dark brown sub-malar streak; 
chin and middle of throat buffy white, almost immaculate; remainder of 
lower parts white, the sides and flanks brownish gray, the breast spotted 
with same color; under wing-coverts fuscous, edged with buff. Wing, 
96 mm.; tail, 74 mm.; e^iposed culmen, 11.5 mm.; tarsus, 28 mm. 

' Rev. ZooL, XI, 184S', 5. 

^ Fauna Boreali-Americana, II, 1S31, 182. 

■^Hylocichla seems to be a perfectly good genus. The long tarsi, and 
broader, more depressed bill distinguish it sutificiently from Turdus, which 
thus becomes restricted to the Old World. 



^°8qS^^] OniciuioLSKU, A Ncxv North American TItnisk. iQcr 

YouuiT in first filumagc, sex unknown, No. 136318, U. S. Nat. Miis., 
Biological Survey Collection ; Thomp.son Falls, Montana, Aug. 1,1895; 
V. Bailey. Above greenish olive, most of the feathers, except on the 
lower back and rump, with shaft markings of buffy, these smallest on 
the head ; upper tail-coverts broadly tipped with ochraceous ; tail and 
wings fuscous, with edgings of greenish olive, the median coverts with 
shaft spots of buffy; sides of head buffy mixed with brownish; throat 
and jugulum pale buff, heavily marked with blackish ; rest of lower sur- 
face dull white, with transverse markings of dark brown, these larger 
and darker anteriorly, the sides and flanks washed with brownish. 

The present race differs from the eastern Hylocichla ustulata 
swahisoiiii in the more grayish, less olivaceous color of the upper 
surface, this being usually most noticeable on the rump and upper 
tail-coverts. The sides and flanks also average more grayish. 
No apparent difference in size exists. No comparison with H. 
iistulata proper is necessary, for Hylocichla tt. almoe, although 
geographically intermediate, is even less closely allied to ustulata 
than is swainsonii. 

Olive-backed Thrushes from western British America and the 
interior of Alaska, while not perfectly typical, are nearer swain- 
sojiii than to alma;. Montana, Colorado and Texas have both 
forms during migration, as the specimens at hand attest. Two 
examples collected by Mr. E. W. Nelson on the Tres Marias 
Islands, western Mexico, are typical almce\ but this form has not 
been traced farther south than the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, unless 
an intermediate specimen from Costa Rica be considered suffi- 
cient evidence. Two birds from Vincennes, Indiana, with one 
other from Wheatland, in the same State, apparently must be 
referred to ahncB, for they are absolutely indistinguishable from 
western examples. 

Young birds of H. u. alincB appear to be usually more greenish 
olive than those of swaijisofiii, though this is not diagnostic. 

Alma's Thrush is a common bird in eastern Nevada, where it 
inhabits the growth of trees and bushes that fringes the mountain 
streams. In the Monitor and East Humboldt Mountains, it is 
apparently the most numerous species of the family. 

The following list of localities from which specimens have been 
examined will give a fair idea of its range, breeding birds being 
indicated by an asterisk : 



'Jo6 Mitchell, Summer Birds of San Miguel County. Loct. 

Montana.— Flathead Lake*; Mjstic Lake * ; Dry Creek * ; Thompson 
Falls * ; Fort Custer. 

Colorado.— Clear Creek * ; Twin Lakes * ; Denver ; Colorado Springs. 

South Dakota.— Hill City. 

Wyoming. — Fort Laramie ; Fort Bridger.* 

Utah.— Parley's Park.* 

Nevada.— Mountain City* ; East Humboldt Mts.* 

Texas. — San Antonio. 

Indiana — Vincennes; Wheatland. 

Mexico. — Maria Madre, Tres Marias Islands; Japana, Oaxaca. 

The writer is indebted to Dr. C. Hart Merriam for use of the 
collection of the Biological Survey, and to Mr. Robert Ridgway 
for access to National Museum material. 



THE SUMMER BIRDS OF SAN MIGUEL COUNTY, 
NEW MEXICO. 

BY WALTON I. MITCHELL. 

The territory covered by this article includes the cities of Las 
Vegas and East Las Vegas and numerous trips all over the 
county, in the mountains, far from civilization. The altitude 
of the country varies from 6,000 to 12,000 feet, and the clima- 
tology in the summer months is very similar to that of the Pacific 
Coast region, the days being warm but not close, the nights cool. 
The rainy season begins the first of June, lasting through July 
into August, the rain coming about eleven a. m. and clearing up 
about one p. m., the remainder of the day being clear and bright, 
as a rule. The county is watered by the Galhnos and Pecos 
Rivers and numerous other small streams, none large enough to 
be called ' creeks ' in the East. 

The vegetation consists mostly of pine and spruce and scrub 
oak, alsogreasewood, cactus, and quaking aspens and cottonwoods 
in a few localities. Migration is completed by the 15th of May, 
most summer residents arriving between April 10 and May i. 



^ & H \ MiTCiiF.T.T., Siinimer Birds of San ATt'ffiicl County. 3^7 

I append short notes on species observed from January to the 
last week in June, 1898. 

1. Colymbus nigricollis californicus. American Eared GREnE. — 
Rare. One pair breeding on a small alkali lake at an altitude of 7,000 
feet. The only pair observed, but I am informed they are occasionally 
met with throughout the county. 

2. Anas carolinensis. Green-winged Teal. — Tolerably common. 
Breeds through the eastern part of the county. Common during migra- 
tion, as is also the Blue-wing, which does not remain to breed. 

3. Plegadis guarauna. White-faced Glossy Ibis. — Not uncommon 
on the small lakes in the southern part of the county. More common 
in the southern part of the territorj-, but only met with in certain locali- 
ties in this countj'. 

4. Botaurus lentiginosus. American Bittern. — Rare. One speci- 
men, killed on June 7 near Las Vegas, is the only one noted. 

5. Recurvirostra americana. American Avocet. — Summer resident ; 
common. Breeds commonly up to 8,500 feet. Arrives by the first of 
April. 

6. Himantopus mexicanus. Black-necked Stilt. — Tolerablj' com- 
mon. Often met with breeding in company with the Avocets. Arrived 
about the middle of April. 

7. Totanus solitarius. Solitary Sandpiper. — Fairly common. 
Breeds up to 8,000 feet. 

8. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — Common. Breeds 
throughout the country around small ponds. Arrives by May i. 

9. .^gialitis vocifera. Killdeer. — Common. Breeds in May up to 
11,000 feet. Arrives in March. 

10. .^gialitis montana. Mountain Plover. — Not common. Breeds 
in the eastern part of the county up to 8,000 feet. 

11. Callipepla gambeli. Gambel's Partridge. — Abundant through- 
out the county. Resident. 

12. Dendragopus obscurus. Dusky Grouse. — Common. A nest 
was taken with nine fresh eggs on May 16 on the top of Hermit Peak, 
10,000 feet altitude. 

13;. Meleagris gallopavo mexicana. Mexican Turkey. — Common in 
the mountains from 8,000 feet to timber line. Breeds early in April. 

14. Zenaidura macroura. ]SIourning Dove. — Abundant up to 11,000 
feet. Arrives in March ; breeds from April until July. 

15. Cathartes aura. Turkey Vulture. — Not common. Occurs up 
to 12,000 feet. Nests in April. 

16. Circus hudsonius. INIarsh Haw-k. — Not uncommon in the lower 
portion of the eastern part of the count}'. Breeds up to 8,000 feet. 

17. Accipiter cooperi. Cooper's Hawk. — Common. Breeds up to 
10,000 feet. 



3o8 



Mitchell, Suinmer Birds of San Miguel County. I q^(_ 



i8. Accipiter atricapillus striatulus. Western Goshawk. — One 
male shot January 9, and a female, doubtless the mate, in the same spot 
on March 7. 

19. Buteo borealis calurus. Western Red-tail. — Fairly common. 
Breeds up to timber line, early in April. 

20. Buteo swainsonii. Swainson's Hawk. — Common. Breeds up 
to 10,000 feet. 

21. Aquila chrysaetos. Golden Eagle. — Common; breeds up to 
timber line. Nesting begins early in March, usually in caves very diffi- 
cult of access. 

22. Falco mexicanus. Prairie, Falcon. — Fairly common in the 
eastern part of the county. Breeds up to 9,000 feet. Nests in May. 

23. Falco sparverius. American Sparrow Hawk. — Abundant. 
Breeds to 10,000 feet. Nests early in April. 

24. Asio wilsonianus. American Long-eared Owl. — -Rai-e. Have 
met with but three or four pairs. Breeds up to 10,000 feet, during April. 

25. Syrnium occidentale. Spotted Owl. — Rare. Have seen but 
two individuals — last December, about twenty miles from Las Vegas, in 
the pine district at an altitude of 9,500 feet. 

26. Megascops asio trichopsis. Mexican Screech Owl. — Common. 
Breeds up to timber line, early in April. 

27. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea. Burrowing Owl. — Abundant 
locally. Breeds up to 8,000 feet during May and June. 

28. Ceryle alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — Fairly common. Breeds 
up to 9,000 feet. Feeds on young mountain trout. 

29. Dryobates villosus harrisii. Harris's Woodpecker. — Abundant 
in the pines up to timber line. Breeds early in May. 

30. Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis. Red-naped Sapsucker. — Common 
but not nearly as numerous as the next. Breeds from 9,000 to 12,000 feet. 

31. Sphyrapicus thyroideus. Williamson's Sapsucker. — Abundant. 
Breeds from 7,000 to 11,000. A nest taken May 30, was built in a live 
quaking aspen, on a mountain trail, 9,800 feet altitude. 

32. Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. California Woodpecker. — 
Common. Breeds from 8,000 to 10,000 feet. 

33. Colaptes cafer. Red-shafted Flicker. — Abundant in the pines. 
Breeds up to timber line during May and June. 

34. Phalaenoptilus nuttalli. Poor-will. — Tolerably common. Breeds 
up to 9,000 feet. Arrives in May, breeding early in June. 

35. Chordeiles virginianus henryi. Western Nighthawk. — Abun- 
dant. Breeds to 10,000 feet. Nests in June. 

36. Aeronautes melanoleucus. White-throated Swift. — Not com- 
mon. Breeds in cliffs during May, from 8,000 feet to timber line. 

37. Trochilus alexandri. Black-cihnned Hummingbird. — Common 
up to 8,000 feet. Breeds late in June. 

38. Selasphorus platycercus. Broad-tailed Hummingbird. — Com- 
mon. Arrives in May, breeding most commonly at 9,000 feet. 



^"ik^^l MiTCHKLL, Summer Birds of San Miguel Comity. "^OQ 

39. Tyrannus verticalis. Akkansas Kingihkij. — Common. Nests 
in June, up to 9,000 feet. 

40. Sayornis saya. Say's Piicebe. — Common. Arrives the last of 
March. Breeds early in May. One nest, found May 8, was built in a 
knot-hole of a hollow oak tree, 30 feet up. 

41. Empidonax difficilis. Western Flycatcher. — Rare. Breeds 
sparingly' up to 10,000 feet. 

42. Empidonax wrightii. Wright's Flycatcher. — Common. 
Breeds most commonlj' at 9,000 feet. 

43. Otocoris alpestris arenicola. Desert Horned Lark. — Abundant. 
Breeds commonlj at from 8,000 feet down. 

44. Pica pica hudsonica. American Magpie. — Common from 7,000 
feet up. Breeds up to 12,000 feet. 

45. Cyanocitta stelleri macrolopha. Long-crested Jay. — The most 
abundant bird in the county. Breeds up to 10,000 feet. 

46. Aphelocoma woodhousei. Woodhouse's Jay\ — Not nearly as 
common as the last. Found only up to 8,000 feet, frequenting scrub-oak 
on hillsides. Breeds in May. 

47. Perisoreus canadensis capitalis. Rocky Mountain Jay. — Common. 
Found only from 9,000 feet up to timber line, where it breeds in May. 

48. Corvus corax sinuatus. American Raven. — Abundant from 8,000 
feet up. Breeds in May, most commonly at 8,000 feet. 

49. Nucifraga columbiana. Clark's Nutcracker. — Common from 
9,000 feet up to timber line. 

50. Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus. Pinon Jay. — Common among 
pifion pines from 8,000 feet up. Nests in April. 

51. Molothrus ater. Cowbird. — Abundant. The birds most often 
imposed on are the Green-tailed Towhee and Stephens's Vireo. 

52. Agelaius phoeniceus. Red-winged Blackbird, — Common, 
Breeds up to 9,000 feet. 

53. Sturnella magna neglecta. Western Meadowlark. — Abundant. 
Breeds up to 8,000 feet. 

54. Icterus bullocki. Bullock's Oriole. — Tolerably common. 
Breeds up to 10,000 feet. 

55. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus. Brewer's Blackbird. — Fairly 
common, breeding from the plains to 8,000 feet. 

56. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis. House Finch. — Abundant 
around Las Vegas and vicinity. Have not found it in the mountains 
to any great extent. In the city the House Finch takes the place of the 
the English Sparrow, which is conspicuously absent. 

57. Spinus psaltria. Arkansas Goldfinch. — Not common. Found 
breeding up to about 10,000 feet. 

58. Poocsetes gramineus confinis. Western Vesper Sparrow. — 
Common up to 8,000 feet. 

59. Chondestes grammacus strigatus. Western Lark Sparrow. — 
Abundant from the Plains to 8, 000 feet. 



?IO Mitchell, Summer Birds of Sail Miguel Coiuity. joct. 

60. Spizella socialis arizonse. Western Chipping Sparrow. — 
Abundant up to 9,000 feet, breeding most commonly at 7,000. 

61. Junco phaeonotus dorsalis. Red-backed Junco. — Abundant. 
Most common at 8,000 feet, breeding in clumps of scrub-oak on hillsides. 

62. Melospiza fasciata montana. Mountain Song Sparrow. — Com- 
mon, breeding from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Song differs considerably from 
that of the eastern species. 

63. Oreospiza chlorura. Green-tailed Towhee. — Common breeder 
from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Nests in pastures and cleared land. 

64. Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus. Canon Towhee. — Common. Breeds 
abundantly in scrub growths along the Gallinas Caflon, the last of April. 

65. Pipilo aberti. Abert's Towhee. — Fairly common but not nearly 
as much so as the two preceding species. Common up to 9,000 feet. 

66. Zamelodia melanocephala. Black-headed Grosbeak. — Only 
fairly common. Breeds from 8,000 feet down. 

67. Petrochelidon lunifrons. Cliff Swallow. — Abundant. Nests in 
cliffs and under eaves of residences in the county. Occurs up to 8,000 
feet. 

68. Tachycineta thalassina. Violet-green Swallow. — Abundant 
up to 8,000 feet and occasionally higher, but the bulk breeds at the above 
altitude. Hollow trees are sometimes resorted to for nesting. 

69. Vireo solitarius plumbeus. Plumbeous Vireo. — Common in the 
mountains up to 9,000 feet. 

70. Vireo huttoni stephensi. Stephens's Vireo. — Fairly common, 
breeding at 8,000 feet. 

71. Dendroica sestiva. Yellow Warbler. — Fairly common in settled 
localities but not found in the mountains. 

72. Dendroica graciae. Grace's Warbler. — Rare. Found a pair, 
evidently nesting, on June 12 at an altitude of 8,500 feet. Have seen 
very few and did not succeed in taking the nest. 

73. Cinclus mexicanus. American Dipper. — Abundant. Most com- 
mon from 8,000 feet up. Took several sets, from May 3 to May 16, each 
containing five fresh eggs. Two broods are raised, the second set of 
eggs being laid about July i- 

The Dipper is persecuted by the Mexicans who say it destroys young 
trout. 

74. Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. — Common. Breeds in crevi- 
ces of boulders and stone walls, most commonly at from about 8,000 feet 
down. 

75. Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Canon Wren. — Fairly com- 
mon, breeding commonly at 8,000 feet. 

76. Thryothorus bewickii leucogaster. Baird's Wren. — Common. 
Breeds in dead pine stubs and deserted Woodpecker and Nuthatch holes. 
The great bulk breed below 8,000 feet. 

77. Troglodytes aedon aztecus. Western House Wren. — Abun- 
dant up to 10,000 feet. Raises two broods. 



'iS<S J Antiionv, Ai'ifniDKi of tUc Revillairigedo hltuids. IJI 

78. Certhia familiaris montana. Rocky Mountain Creeper. — Fairly 
coinniou up to 10,000 feet, breeding between 7,000 and 9,000, occasionally 
up to timber line. 

79. Sitta carolinensis aculeata. Si.icNDER-ini.i.En Nuthatch. — Abun- 
dant. IJrceds commonly in pines from 9,000 feet down to 7,000. 

80. Sitta pygmsea. Pigmy Nuthatch. — Abundant. The only really 
common bird during the winter months. They go up to 9,000 feet to 
breed and come much lower during the winter. 

81. Parus gambeli. Mountain Chickadee. — Common. Breeds in 
May and June, from 9,000 feet up to timber line. 

82. Myadestes townsendii. Townsend's Solitaire. — Rare. Took 
a nest with four fresh eggs on June 7, at an altitude of nearly 10,000 feet. 

83. Merula migratoria propinqua. Western Robin. — Abundant. 
Arrives the latter part of February, breeding in April, May and June, 
ac ording to altitude. Common up to 10,000 feet. 

r|. Sialia mexicana bairdi. Chestnut-backed Bluebird. — Fairly 
ccmmon up to 12,000 feet. Breeds up to nearly 10,000 feet during May 
nndjune. Nests usually in deserted Woodpecker's holes or in hollow 
stumps. 

85. Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. — Common. Arrives early 
ill February, breeding in May up to 9,000 feet. 



AVIFAUNA OF THE REVILLAGIGEDO ISLANDS. 

BY A. W. ANTHONY. 

During the past summer (1897) a little over a month was 
spent in exploring the Revillagigedo Islands, lying to the south- 
west of Cape St. Lucas, Lower California, and as very little is 
known of the birds of this region I have thought it worth while 
to -put on record my notes taken while there. 

Socorro Island, the largest of the group, lies about 240 miles 
southwest of Cape St. Lucas and about 285 miles to the westward 
of Maria Madre, the largest of the Tres Marias group, off San 
Bias. 

Clarion Island lies approximately 200 miles to the westward of 
Socorro and somewhat further south, while San Benedicte is but 
35 miles north of Socorro. Rocca Partida (Divided Rock) is 



7 12 Anthony, Avifauna of the Revillagigedo Islands. I q"j 

the fourth of the group and is but a high rock having the appear- 
ance of a ship under jury masts, and lies 65 miles northwest of 
Socorro. 

The islands are all volcanic in origin and, in general, extremely 
rough and broken. On San Benedicte is found a heavy growth 
of coarse grass, wherever there is sufficient soil. But little other 
vegetation is found on the island. This grass, growing to the 
height of a man's head, made travel extremely disagreeable, as 
the barbed seeds penetrated our clothing by thousands and caused 
us much more trouble than the cactus thickets which we encoun- 
tered on Clarion later. San Benedicte is a small island about 
three miles in length with an average width of half a mile. 

Socorro Island was roughly estimated to contain 100 square 
miles, and to rise to a height of 4000 feet at its center, which is 
an extinct volcano. The greater part of the island is covered by 
a very dense growth of underbrush, the weather side (north and 
northwest exposures) being especially thickly covered, making 
travel, except in favored spots, well nigh impossible. Trees are 
abundant on the weather side of the island but on the south and 
east sides they are mostly confined to the cailons, and were smaller 
than on the northern slopes. They were nowhere seen over forty 
or fifty feet in height, though usually covering considerable^ area 
with their broad spreading branches. Three anchorages were 
made at Socorro, one on the north side and two on the south 
coast of the island. 

Clarion Island has little in common with the others of the 
group, either in flora or fauna. It is only about five miles in 
greatest length by a mile in width, rising about 1500 feet in alti 
tude. A few low trees or shrubs, the largest not over ten feet in 
height, are scattered along the main plateau, and in a few places 
reach the level ground that lies between the mesa and the coast on 
the south side. Nearly the entire flat between the mesa and the 
beach is covered with a dense growth of cactus (^Platofuntia) 
over which has grown a mass of vines. Passage through this belt 
is only accomplished with diligent and constant use of the bush 
knife. 

A short distance from the beach were found two small shallow 
ponds which contain water during the rainy season only, but as 



°g 8^J Anthony, Avifauna oj the Rcvillagigcdo hlatuls. -? i 9 

the high tides evidently wash over the barriers and flood them 
with sea water it is doublful if they are ever otherwise than 
brackish. At the time of our visit, in May, they had been dry 
for some months and no water was found anywhere on the island. 

As might be expected, from the position and vegetation of 
Clarion, its birds are quite different from those of Socorro or 
Benedicte. The only land bird, in fact, that was common to any 
two islands was the Raven, which was abundant on Clarion and 
not uncommon on San Benedicte but, strange to say, was not seen 
on Socorro. 

On the afternoon of April 27 we sailed from Cape St. Lucas 
for San Benedicte. At the Cape we left the last of the Larinse, 
the Western Gull being fairly common and one or two Heermann's 
Gulls being seen. 

Puffinus auricularis was not rare, and was seen at times all the 
way across to San Benedicte, becoming abundant on the morning 
of the 29th when we approached the island. P. cuneatus was also 
seen at the Cape but none were noted after leaving there until 
they became abundant near San Benedicte. Boobies and Man-o'- 
War Birds came off to meet us at daybreak while still some 35 
miles from the island and escorted us to our anchorage. 

The islands are treated separately for sake of comparison. 

San Benedicte Island. 

1. Puffinus auricularis. Eared Shearwater. — Small, scattered col- 
onies were found on top of the island, the burrows being generally in the 
thick grass, and but few — not over a dozen — in a colony. At the time of 
our visit most of the burrows contained young that were, in many cases 
nearly as large as the adults, but still covered with long plumbeous down, 
Ughter (whitish) on the lower parts. Most of the adults Avere at sea 
during the daytime, but a few were found with the smallest young, those 
but a few days hatched. A single egg was found addled, and is now in 
the U. S. National Museum. It is pure white like the eggs of the other 
species of the genus that I have seen. 

2. Puffinus cuneatus. Wedge-tailed Shearwater. — Seen about 
San Benedicte and Socorro Islands, but not common at the latter place. 
None were seen at Clarion or west of Rocca Partida. Both phases were 
seen, the sooty plumage outnumbering the light-bellied form about two 
to one. In a series of about 75 specimens all manner of intergrades can 



2 J A Anthony, Avifamia of the Revillagigedo Islands. loct 

be found, from those with pure white lower parts, including underwing 
coverts, to those having gray and sootj-brovvn plumage. In the upper 
surface there is very little variation. The species was not breeding to any 
extent at the time of our visit and but a single egg was secured, which is 
now in the U. S. National Museum. A more complete paper on the 
Shearwaters of our soutliAvest coast is contemplated, when the present 
interesting species will be treated more in detail. 

3. Oceanodroma kaedingi. Kaeding's Petrel. — A number were seen 
at sea off the island as late as June i. We found no evidence of the nest- 
ing of small Petrels on any of the islands of the group. It is possibly 
accounted for by the presence of vast numbers of large land-crabs that 
inhabit burrows all over the islands and would very likely destroy eggs 
and 3'oung of such species as Oceanodroma . 

4. Phaethon sethereus. Yellow-billed Tropic Bird. — Common 
about the cliffs, and at sea, between the islands. They were often seen to 
enter holes in the ledges, and were usually in pairs, chasing each other 
about with loud cries that have given them the name of ' Bo-son Bird, 
the note being a good imitation of a boat-swain's whistle. Many holes 
were examined but no eggs found. 

5. Sula cyanops. Blue-faced Booby. — Common. At the time of our 
arrival most of the birds were paired and were defending hollows in the 
sand Avhere they contemplated laying. Only two or three sets were found 
of one egg each. 

6. Sula brewsteri. Brewster's Booby.— About as common as the 
preceding species, nesting at the same time. The nests of this species 
were all made of sticks and coarse grass in a hollow in the sand or rocks. 
Fresh eggs were found on May 17, in nests that were unfinished on the 
first of the month, when we first called at the island. It is interesting to 
compare in this connection the dates on which Mr. Goss found eggs of 
this species in the Gulf of California (Auk, Vol. V, 1888, 243). 

7. Sula websteri. Webster's Booby. — By far the most abundant 
species on the island, nesting in the heavy growth of grass all over the 
island. Fresh eggs were taken the first of May, and on the 17th the 
same nests had second sets. A few young were found on the latter date. 
This species often took the liberty of perching on our heads and shoulders 
or lit on the rail of the skiff as we pulled ashore. 

8. Fregata aquila. Man-o'-War Bird. — A considerable colony was 
found on the top of the island and several nests were also found at the 
base of the cliff near the beach. Young birds were fully fledged, many 
of them flying on May i, and one or two fresh eggs Avere taken. On our 
second visit to the island, May 17, four or five sets were taken, evidently 
a second laying. 

At a considerable distance from the colony a bird was found that was 
unable to fly, and thinking that it had been recently injured, and must 
necessarily starve, where food was not easily obtained by even the 
best of fivers, I killed the cripple and made an examination of its injuries. 



i»(8 1 Anthony, Avijanua of the Rcvillagigcdu Islands. "2 I d 

One wing was withered and useless, — evidently the bird had never enjoyed 
its use, though it was fat and its stomach was well filled with flying 
fish. Those who know the feeding habits of Fregata need not be told 
that all their food is obtained on the wing, and a bird deprived of the use 
of its wings would speedily starve if not fed by its fellows. The precipi- 
tous sides of San Benedicte also made it impossible for a Man-o'-War 
Bird to gain the top of the island if deprived of its wings. So it was 
quite evident that the pensioner had never left the island, but had been 
dependent on the bounty of its fellows all of its life. From its excellent 
condition it was evident that even in that busy community of thousands 
some of them found time to feed the unfortunate, 

9. Heteractitis incanus. Wandering Tatler. — Several Tatlers were 
seen about the rocky shores of the island. 

10. Corvus corax sinuatus. American Raven. — Rather common 
on San Benedicte. During our two weeks stay at Socorro no Ravens 
were seen, which is a little strange since sheep are abundant and would 
furnish more food than can possiblj' be found on the barren rocks of San 
Benedicte. The fact of our not meeting with the species does not signify 
that it never occurs, however, for the islands are but 35 miles apart, and 
the distance could easily be traversed by a bird of such strong flight. 

11. Salpinctes obsoletus. Rock Wren. —Abundant. All of my speci- 
mens are in worn plumage and are unsatisfactory for comparison with 
mainland birds, but with the material at hand I see no reason for consid- 
ering the island birds different from those of the peninsula. 



Socorro Isla?id. 

On May 3 we left San Benedicte, anchoring the same afternoon 
on the southwest side of Socorro. The time until the i6th, was 
spent in exploring this island. No land birds were found that 
have not been recorded. All of the species are generally distrib- 
uted, and with the exception of Micropallas and perhaps Buteo 
all of the species peculiar to the island could be easily taken in 
an hour and within a hundred yards of the beach. At the time 
of our visit all of the land birds except the Doves had long since 
nested and young, fully fledged, were taken as often as adults. 
From the appearance of the organs I concluded that the Ground 
Doves were just beginning to lay. With the exception of Buteo 
socorroejisis land birds were remarkably tame. 

I. Larus occidentalis. Western Gull. — The fragments of a Gull 
were found on the beach at the southwest end of the island and I am 



n/ 

V 



^16 Anthony, Avifauna of the Revillagigedo Islands. Loct 

reasonabl}' sure that thej represented an immature bird of tiie present 
species. 

2. Sterna fuliginosa. Sooty Tern. — A large colony was found nest- 
ing on a rock a mile off the southwest point of the island. On May 12, 
we found most of the eggs hatched and many young were half-fledged. 
The eggs were single and laid on the bare rock. From the series of skins 
taken it would seem that ' var. crwirt//* Baird ' would eventually have to 
be recognized. The material is insuificient, however, to warrant a definite 
conclusion. 

3. Anous stolidus ridgwayi. Ridgway's Noddy. — A large colony were 
nesting with the preceding species. Most of the eggs were fresh on May 
12. They were laid on the bare rock with no attempt at nest building. 

Terns were not seen about any of the other islands of the group. 

4. Puflfinus cuneatus. 

5. Puffinus auricularis. — Both these Shearwaters were seen at sea about 
the island. No evidence of their nesting was noted, however. 

6. Oceanodroma kaedingi. Kaeding's Petrel. — Common at sea near 
the island. Apparently migrating. 

7. Phaethon sethereus. Red-billed Tropic Bird. — Common at sea 
and about all outlying rocks. 

8. Sula cyanops. 

9. Sula brewsteri. 

10. Sula websteri. — Boobies were much less abundant about Socorro 
than at San Benedicte. Quite a colony were gathered about the cliffs on 
the southwest end of the island, but elsewhere they were only seen in 
small numbers, as they followed the small fish on which they fed. 

11. Fregata aquila. Man-o'-War Bird. — Qiiite common with the 
Boobies, following them about the island and robbing them on all 
occasions. 

12. Ardea herodias. Great Blue Heron. — Not uncommon. Several 
were seen at each of our stations. 

13. Nycticorax violaceus. Yellow-crowned Night Heron. — Q^iite 
common all over the island. Fully fledged young were shot May I4_ 
They seemed to be feeding extensively on the land crabs, the shattered 
remains of which were often seen together with the tracks of this species. 

14. Heteractitis incanus. Wandering Tatler. — Occasionally seen 
all along the shore. 

15. Actitis macularia. Spotted Sandpiper. — A single bird was seen 
on the north side of the island May 14. 

16. Zenaidura graysoni. Grayson's Dove. — This species did not 
seem to be at all common, but was perhaps more abundant- in the higher 
parts of the island, which were very difficult of access. 

17. Columbigallina passerina socorroensis. Socorro Ground 
Dove. — Rather common everywhere on the island. 

18. Buteo socorroensis. Socorro Red-tail. — Not at all common and 
very wild. 



Vol. XV] Anthony, Avifainia of the Rcvillaiiiiiedo hlamls. 317 

19. Micropallas graysoni. CJrayson's Elf Owl.— A single specimen 
was shot on the south side of the island. 

20. Conurus holochlorus brevipes. Short-footed PARoquRT.—Qiiite 
common in several places. None were seen at the west end of the island, 
but on the north side, as well as near our anchorage on the south coast, 
we met with several flocks. 

21. Pipilo carmani. Carman's Towhee.— Very common all over the 
island. They were uniformly confiding and oft&n half a dozen would 
congregate within a few feet of a person, silently inspecting him with an 
air of trustful curiosity quite foreign to other species of the genus wilh 
which I am familiar. 

22. Compsothlypis graysoni. Grayson's Warbler.— Abundant all 
over the island but especially so in the trees on the north side. 

23. Mimodes graysoni. Grayson's Mimodes.— More common about 
the trees, but seen everywhere on the island. Most of our specimens had 
the feathers of the frontal region and about the bill glued together by 
some vegetable gum. One shot on May 14, contained in its stomach a 
large blue lizard over six inches in length. At the time of our visit the 
season of song was evidently passed, but occasionally a bird would favor 
us with a short song in the evening or early morning. The notes were 
soft and full of rich melody, somewhat suggestive of the song of Harpor- 
hynchus nifits but of superior quality. 

24. Troglodytes insularis. Island Wren.— Very abundant every- 
where, perhaps the most abundant species on the island. 

^ Clarion Island. 

1. Diomedea nigripes. Black-footed Albatross.— The only Alba- 
tross noted from south of Cape San Lazaro was seen a short distance from 
Clarion. 

A Jaeger was seen at sea near the island May 29, but the species was 
not determined. 

2. Puffinus auricularis. Eared Shearwater.— Several colonies were 
found on the island from which well grown young were taken May 27. 

3. Oceanodroma kaedingi. Kaeding's Petrel.— Seen at sea near the 

island. 

4. Phaethon sethereus. Red-billed Tropic Bird.— Common. 

5. Sula cyanops. Blue-faced Booby.— Much more abundant than at 
the island further east. Nests were found from the beach to the top of 
the island. 

Brewster's booby was not seen west of Rocca Partida, at which point 
one or two came off to inspect the schooner. 

6. Sula websteri. Webster's Booby.— Very abundant. The nests of 
this species were always placed in branches of low shrubby trees on Clarion. 
Those nesting on San Benedicte, where no trees were found, were content 



3i8 



Anthony, Avifautia of the Revillagigedo Islands. f Oct 



■with a rock or rank bunch of grass, on top of which the nest was built 
of twigs and coarse grass. 

7. Fregata aquila. Man-o'-War Bird. — Abundant. 

8. Ardea herodias. Great Blue Heron. — One or two seen. 

"* 9. Heteractitis incanus. Wandering Tatler. — Not uncommon. 
V 10. Charadrius dominicus, subsp. ? A Golden Plover was shot on a 
coral reef on the south side of the island. The specimen is inaccessible 
at the present writing and I am uncertain to which race it should be 
assigned. 

Accompanying this species was a large Plover that escaped me, and 
though seen on one or two subsequent occasions could not be secured. 
\l 11. Arenaria interpres. Turnstone. — Three Turnstones were seen in 

company with the Plovers above mentioned May 21. 

12. Zenaidura clarionensis. Clarion Island Dove. — Very common. 
On May 19, a fully fledged young bird was taken, and on the 23d, a fresh 
egg was found in a hollow in the ground from which the parent fluttered 
upon our approach. As Doves were often seen flying along the cliffs and 
entering the holes in the lava it is very likely many were nesting in such 
places. 

13. Speotyto rostrata. Clarion Burrowing Owl. — Abundant all over 
the island. At the time of our visit they were usually seen in pairs about 
the burrows which were often in colonies of a dozen, within a radius or 
fifty yards. Many burrows were opened and found to extend to a distance 
of from five to ten feet. They were very similar in all respects to the 
burrows of our ground Owls in western United States. From the bur- 
rows examined but a single set of 4 eggs was taken, the rest being empty. 
The eggs were not to be distinguished from those of 5". c. hypogcea. 

14. Trochilidse. — A Hummingbird was reported by one of our party 
but as it was not secured, nor others seen during our stay, the species is 
unknown and it can only be regarded as a wanderer. 

15. Corvus corax sinuatus. American Raven. — Abundant. 

16. Chelidon erythrogaster. Barn Swallow. — A number of Barn 
Swallows were seen on May 26, and one was shot; probably migrants. 

17. Troglodytes tanneri. Tanner's Wren. — Not uncommon. Seen 
all over the island. Many young taken between May 19 and 27 were 
scarcely to be distinguished from the adults. An old nest was found in 
a thick thorny bush. It was composed of material such as might have 
been selected by T. aedoit but the shape of the nest as well as its location 
might have been the design of a Song Sparrow. 



^°8 ^^1 RiDGW AY, JVdJV Sf cries of Amcriani Birds. 3^9 

Nl'AV SPKCIES, ETC, OF AMERICAN IJIRDS.— II. 
FRINGILLIDy^i (continued) .' 

BY ROBERT RIDOWAY. 

Curator of the Division of Birds., U. S. Natiofial Afiiseum. 
(Bj permission of the Secretary of the Smitlisonian Institution.) 

Pinicola enucleator alascensis. Alaskan Pine Grosbeak. 

Similar to P. e. canadensis but decidedly larger, with smaller or shorter 
bill and paler coloration ; both sexes with the gray parts distinctly 
lighter, more ashy. Male: Wing, 4.41-5.01 (4.61); tail, 3.34-4.04 (3.65) ; 
exposed culmen, 0.55-0.60 (0.57) ; depth of bill at base, 0.46-0.51 (0.48); 
width of mandible at base, 0.39-0.41 (0.40) ; tarsus, 0.87-0.92 (0.90) ; 
middle toe, 0.57-0.63 (0.60). Female: Wing, 4.49-4.74 (4.57) ; tail, 3.46- 
3.84 (3.68) ; exposed culmen, 0.57-0.61 (0.59) ; depth of bill at base, 0.46- 
0.50(0.48); width of mandible at base, 0.40-0.42 (0.41); tarsus, 0.87-0.92 
(0.89) ; middle toe, 0.58-0.60 (0.59). 

Type, No. 86510, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Nushagak, Alaska, June 9, 
1881 ; C. L. McKay. 

Ra7ige: Northwestern North America, including wooded portions of 
Alaska except Kadiak and the southern coast district; south in winter 
to Montana (Bitterroot Valley), eastern British Columbia, etc. 

Pinicola enucleator montana. Rocky Mountain Pine Grosbeak. 

Similar to P. e. californica but decidedly larger and slightly darker, 
the adult male with the red of a darker, more carmine, hue; wing, 4.50- 
4.86 (4.71) ; tail, 3.48-4.00 (3.72) ; exposed culmen, 0.59-0.68 (0.63); depth 
of bill at base, 0.45-0.49 (0.47); width of mandible at base, 0.3S-0.40 
(0.39); tarsus, 0.87-0.95 (0.92); middle toe, 0.64-0.69 (0.66).^ 

Type: No. 159689, U.S.Nat. Mus., ? ad., Bear Creek, Gallatin Co., 
Montana, Jul}' 28, 1890 ; F. H. Knowlton. 

Range : Rocky Mountains, breeding from Montana and Idaho to New 
Mexico. 

' Part I was published in the July Auk, pp. 223-230 under the title ' Descrip- 
tions of supposed New Genera, Species, and Subspecies of American Birds. 
I. Fringillidae.' 

^ Eight specimens ; four J', two $, and two of undetermined sex. 



^20 RiDGWAY, A^c7y Species of American Birds. foct' 

The remaining North American forms of Pine Grosbeak are 
the following : 

(i) Pinicola enucleator canadensis (^Brehni). 

(2) Pinicola enucleator flammula {Hoineyer), (= P- e. kadiaka Ridg- 
waj). 

(3) Pinicola enucleator californica Price. 

Astragalinus mexicanus jouyi. Yucatan Goldfinch. 

Similar to A. m. crocctis (Jouj) but smaller; adult male with under 
wing-coverts mostly white or light yellow, Avith little if any admixture 
of black; wing {$), 2.09-2.30 (2.25); tail, 1.32-1.49 (1.39); exposed 
culmen, 0.34-0.39 (0.35) ; depth of bill at base, 0.28 ; tarsus, 0.45-0.49 
(0.48); middle toe, 0.36-0.40 (0.38). 

Ty;pe: No. 106250, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Temax, Yucatan, Dec. 1884; 
Geo. F. Gaumer. 

Range : Yucatan. 

Calcarius lapponicus alascensis. Alaskan Longspur. 

Similar to C. lapponicus but decidedly paler, especially in winter 
plumage ; summer adults with ground-color of upper parts light buffy 
grayish brown, with little if any rusty tinge, even on wings, and the 
black streaks relatively narrower. 

Type: No. 1 18904, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., St. Paul's Island, Prybilov 
group, Alaska, June 5, 1890; Wm. Palmer. 

Range : The whole of Alaska, including Prybilov and Aleutian Islands, 
Unalashka, and the Shumagins ; east to Ft. Simpson ; south in winter to 
Nevada, eastern Oregon, Colorado, western Kansas, etc. 

Calcarius lapponicus coloratus. Kamtschatkan Longspur. 

Much darker than true C. lapponictis, with black prevailing on the 
back in summer adults, the black of chest usually broadlv confluent with 
that on sides of breast, and the upper parts strongly suffused with rusty 
(outer webs of tertials and greater wing-coverts bright rusty brown or 
light chestnut): adult female with a conspicuous collar of rufous-chestnut, 
pileum' uniform black except along median line, and picturce of anterior 
under parts much more strongly marked than in adult females of true 
C. lapponicus. 

Type: No. 89167, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad.. Copper Island, Kamtschatka 
May 6, 1882 ; L. Stejneger. 

Range: Commander Islands, Kamtschatka, in summer; Plover Bay, 
Siberia, and other parts of northeastern Asia in summer.'' 



i8qS 1 RiixJWAV, Netv Species of American Birds. '121 



Junco montanus. Montana Junco. 

Similar \.o J. orcganus shufeldti but much paler; adult male with the 
head, neck, and chest slate-color or slate-graj instead of black or slate- 
black; similar also toy. mearnsi, but wing and tail decidedly shorter and 
color ot head, neck, and chest much darker. 

Type: No. 133253, U. S. Nat. IMus., ^ ad., Columbia Falls, Montana, 
May 7, 1S94; R. S. Williams. 

Range : Breeding from northwestern Montana (Tobacco Plains, 
Summit, St. Mary's Lake, Columbia Falls, etc.) and northern Idaho 
(Thompson's PassJ north to Alberta (Edmonton); in winter south to 
northern Mexico, Texas, etc., and east, irregularly or casually, to the 
Mississippi Valley and even to Maryland. 

Brachyspiza capensis insularis. CURA9A0 Sparrow. 

Similar to B. capensis but smaller, with larger and proportionally 
longer bill and clearer coloration; gray stripes of head lighter and purer 
gray, and white of under parts purer: wing, 2.52-2.65 (2.56); tail, 2.20- 
2.40 (2.31); exposed culmen, 0.49-0.50; depth of bill at base, 0.29-0.32 
(0.30); tarsus, 0.80-0.83 (o-8i); middle toe, 0.54-0.60 (0.58). 

Type. No. 151724, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Curasao, July 28, 1895. 

Range: Island of Curasao. 

I have been able to make out the following geographical forms 
of this widely distributed species : — 

(i) Brachyspiza capensis {Muller). (Venezuela to Paraguay and 
Argentina.) 

(2) Brachyspiza capensis insularis Ridgzvay. (Curasao.) 

(3) Brachyspiza capensis peruviana (Lesson). (Peru to southern 
Mexico.) 

(4) Brachyspiza capensis chilensis {Meyen). (Chili.) 

(5) Brachyspiza capensis canicapilla {Gould). (Southern Patagonia.) 

Pyrgita peruviana Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1839, 45' ^^ apparently 
the earliest name for the form which Dr. Allen separated under 
the name Zoiiotrichia capensis costaricensis (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Ill, 1891, 375). I have carefully compared specimens from 
the two type localities (Lima. Peru, and San Jose, Costa Rica), 
and have been unable to discover any material difference. Frin- 



-2 2 2 RiDGWAY, New Species of American Birds. foct. 

gilla mortonii Andvihow (Orn. Biog. V, 1839,312; Birds Am. Ill, 
1841, 151, pi. 190) is also most probably the same form. 

Guiraca caerulea lazula (Z-<'55o«; Western Blue Grosbeak. 

The name Pitylus lazulus Lesson (Rev. Zool. V, 1842, 174) has 
usually been placed, with more or less doubt, in the synonymy 
of Cya?iocompsa parelliua. The type locality is San Carlos, Nica- 
ragua (Pacific side) . C. pareUina does not range farther south 
than southern Mexico, which fact alone should render this refer- 
ence of Lesson's bird most improbable; but Lesson's description 
removes at once all doubt in the matter, since it shows that the 
Western Blue Grosbeak is clearly indicated. The locality is also 
within its ascertained range. Giiiraca ccerulea eurhy?uiia (Coues), 
therefore, becomes a synonym of G. c. lazula (Lesson) . 

Euetheia coryi. Cory's Grassquit. 

Similar to E.lepida but smaller, upper parts decidedly more yellowish 
olive, lateral under parts less grayish olive, and median under parts more 
yellowish. 

Type: No. 9107, Field Columbian Museum, $ ad., Cayman Brae, 
March 31, 1888: C.J. Maynard. 

Range : Island of Cayman Brae, Caribbean Sea. 

Euetheia bryanti. Bryant's Grassquit. 

Similar to B. lepida but decidedly smaller and color much brighter 
olive-green above and the under parts more yelloAvish, the abdomen often 
light yellow. 

Type: No. 75351, U. S. Nat. :Mus., Porto Rico; Dr. H. Bryant. 

Range: Island of Porto Rico, Greater Antilles. 

Pyhrrulagra affinis {Baird)} Haitien Pyrrhulagra. 
Similar to P. ruficollis- in coloration, but decidedly smaller. Adult 



' Loxigilla ajjinis Baird, MS. 

'^{Tanagra'] ruficollis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, pt. ii, 17S8, 894 (Jamaica: 
based on Rufous-throated Ta?iager, Latham, Synopsis Birds, II, pt. i, 241). 

Both the Haitien and Jamaican Pyrrhidagrce are sufficiently distinct from 
the Bahaman form (P. violacea), the females and immature males being 
quite different in color. 



Vol XV"1 R\\)G\\\\\, New Sfecies of American Birds. 323 

male: Wing, ^.86-3.05 (2.97); tail, 2.45-2.S0 (2.55; exposed culmen, 0.56- 
0.60 (0.58) ; depth of bill at base, 0.45-0.52 (0.4S) ; tarsus, 0.80-0.87 (0.S3) 
middle toe, 0.58-0.62 (0.60). Adult female : Wing, 2.61-2.76 (2.69) ; tail; 
2.32-2.38 (2.35); exposed culmen, 0.49-0.50 : depth of bill at base, 0.41 
tarsus, 0.77-0.80 (0.79); middle toe, 0.52-0.54 (0.53). 

Type: No. 42465, U. S. Nat. Mus , " ? " (i. e. <? ad.?), Port au Prince, 
Haiti, May 8, 1865 ; A. C. Younglove. 

y?rt«^e : Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles. 

Pyrrhulagra dominicana. Dominican Pyrrhulagra. 

Similar to P. noctis (of Martinique), but adult male ^vith under tail 
coverts usually rufous or with rufous predominating; in the last respect 
like P. grejiadensis, but duller black and size greater, the wing averaging 
2.88 instead of 2.69, tarsus 0.78 instead of 0.75. 

Type; No. 77820, U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Dominica; F. A. Ober. 

/?rt„^e._ Islands of Dominica, Marie Galante, Desirade, Grand Terre, 
and Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. 

Pyrrhulagra crissaHs. St. Vincent Pyrrhulagra. 

Similar to P. grenadensis but rufous throat-patch extending farther 
backward (involving upper part of chest). 

Type: No. 740S3. U. S. Nat. Mus., $ ad., Cumberland Valley, St. 
Vincent, Oct. 22 ; F. A. Ober. 

Range : Island of St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. 

Pyrrhulagra coryi. Cory's Pyrrhulagra. 

Similar to P. ridg-vayi Cory, but decidedly darker ; adult male dull 
black above and on anterior under parts of body, becoming dull slaty 
on abdomen and flanks; under tail-coverts usually wholly chestnut- 
rufous, sometimes intermixed with dusky slate. 

Type : No. S0965, U. S. Nat. Mus., ^ ad., St. Eustatius ; F. A. Ober. 
Range: Islands' of St. JEustatius, St. Christopher, Saba ( .') and Angu- 
illa (.'), Lesser Antilles. 

Passerina vs. Cyanospiza. 
In the ' Bulletin ' of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, Vol. V, 
18S0, p. 96, Dr. Coues formally sets up the name Passerma A^ieil- 
lot, in place of Cyanospiza Baird, and gives the following reasons 
for doing so : " The genus Cyanospiza Bd., 1S58, is given in Gray's 
Hand-list, II, p. 97, as synonymous with Passerina Vieill., 1816. 
This is correct. The type of Passerina Vieill. as given in the 



"2 24 RiDGVVAY, A^ew species of Aiiiertcati Birds. Loct 

Analyse, 1816, p. 30, is " Le Ministre' of Buff on," etc. This 
conclusion has unfortunately been adopted by the A. O. U. Com- 
mittee, in whose Check-List the type of Passerhia Vieillot, is said 
to be "by elimination," Tanagra cyanea Linn. That this view of 
the case is quite wrong, however, I think may easily be shown. 
After the diagnosis of his genus Fasserina in the ' Analyse,' 
Vieillot mentions three species, in the following order : " Ministre 
[= Tanagra cyanea Linn.]. — Ortolan de riz [_-=zFringina oryzi- 
vora Linn.]. — de neige. Buff." {= Emberiza nivalis Linn.]. 
The first of these to be made the type of a new genus was Frin- 
gilla oryzivora (^Dolichonyx Swains., 1827); the next, Tanagra 
cyanea {Cyanospiza Baird, 1858), Fmberiza nivalis not having 
been made the type of a new genus until 1882, when Dr. Stejneger 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. V, p. 33), after demonstrating that the 
type of Flectrophanes Meyer, 18 15, is Fringilla lapponica Linn, and 
not Fmberiza nivalis, proposes for the latter the generic name 
Plectroph enax . 

The type of Fasserina Vieill., therefore, is, " by elimination," 
Fmberiza nivalis and not lanagra cyanea. If this view of the 
case is correct, we shall have to restore the unusually appropriate 
name Cyanospiza for the Indigo Bird and its congeners, and use 
Fasserina for the Snowflakes, the recognized forms of the two 
genera being as follows : 

CYANOSPIZA Baird. 

1. Cyanospiza cyanea [Linn.) Baird. 

2. Cyanospiza amcena {Say) Baird. 

3. Cyanospiza ciris (Linn.) Baird. 

4. Cyanospiza leclancheri (Lafr.) Duges. 

5. Cyanospiza versicolor (Bonap.) Baird. 

6. Cyanospiza versicolor pulchra {Ridg-iv.) Ridgw. 

7. Cyanospiza rositae La-ivr. 

FASSERINA Vieillot. 

1. Passerina nivalis (Z,«'««.) Vieill.^ 

2. Passerina nivalis townsendi (Ridozv.) Ridgzv. 

3. Passerina hyperborea {Ridgzv.) Ridgzv. 

' Faune Francj. '1S20, 86. 



Vol. XV 
i8g8 



1 KiDGW w, Vcscn'p/ioti of a A'civ lliuinnhiglnrd. 325 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF HUMMING- 
BIRD FROM ARIZONA. 

BY ROBERT RIDGWAY. 
(By permission of tlie Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. J' 

Atthis morcomi, sp. nov. Morcoim's Hum.mingiuru. 

Adult fejtiale (Type, No. 153SS6, U. S. Nat. Mus.. Huachuca Mts., 
Arizona, July 2, 1896; H. G. Rising) : Above bright bronzy green, duller 
and inclining to grayish brown on top of head, especially forehead; 
remiges plain purplish dusky; middle pair of rectrices mainly bronzy 
green, but much tinged with rufous on basal half, the outer web rather 
broadly edged with the same nearly to tip ; rest of tail-feathers clear 
cinnamon-rufous for basal half, this succeeded by a narrow bar of metal- 
lic green, then uniform black for about .20 of an inch, the tip white; 
this white tip broadest (about .20 wide) an outermost feather, obsolete 
on the fourth. Under parts white, except sides and flanks, which are 
light cinnamon-rufous, the under tail-coverts being very faintly tinged- 
with the same ; whole throat marked w-ith small tear-shaped streaks of 
dull bronze-green or olive-bronze, larger and more spot-like posteriorly. 
Length (before skinning), 2.95 ; wing, 140; tail, 0.77 ; exposed culmen 
0.50. 

Another adult female collected at same time andTplace differs in entire 
absence of streaks or spots on throat (though the sides of the neck are 
somewhat spotted) and in having the under tail-coverts more distinctly 
tinged with pale cinnamon-rufous. Length (before skinning), 3.02 ; 
Aving^, 1.50; tail, 0.80; exposed culmen, 0.50. 

The adult male of this species is unfortunately unknown. The 
adult female differs from that of A. heloisa in being pure bronze- 
green above instead of almost coppery bronze inclining ta 
greenish only on upper tail-coverts and middle tail-feathers ; in 
having the cinnamon-rufous on basal portion of the tail far more 
extensive, there being more on the middle retrices in A. heloisa^ 
while on the others it occupies very much less than the basal 
half, and is entirely hidden by the coverts ; the sides and flanks 
are less deeply, and apparently less extensively, cinnamon-rufous, 
and the under tail-coverts are white or but very faintly buffy, 
instead of being deep cinnamon-buff. 



rAuk 



926 Richmond, Nexv Species of Gyni7iostinofs. Yoti 

This new species is dedicated to Mr. G. Frean Morcom, of 
Los Angeles, California, to whom I am indebted for the privi- 
lege of describing it. The type was presented to the National 
Museum by Mr. W. B. Judson. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF 
GYMNOSTINOPSy 

BY CHARLES W. RICHMOND. 

Among the birds obtained by Lieut. Michler's expedition 
across the Isthmus of Panama, via the Atrato River, are two 
specimens of Gymnostinops, labeled in Cassin's handwriting 
" Ostinops guatimozinusr One is an adult female of the true 
G. giiatimozimis, the other is an adult male of a species more 
nearly related to G. tnonteziwice but quite distinct, and hitherto 
unnamed. The male was apparently the only specimen before 
Cassin when he reported on the Michler collection, as his remarks 
here quoted indicate : " One specimen, labeled as a male, in the 
collection of the expedition is distinct from any species in Acad, 
coll. or that we find described, except as above \Ostinops guati- 
mozinus Bonap.]. It is nearly allied to O. montezuma. of Mexico 
and Central America, and O. bifasciatus of Northern Brazil, both 
of w^hich are in the Acad. coll. and are distinct from each other. 

" The present bird differs from both of the above species in 
being larger, darker colored, and having a lengthened almost 
filiform crest. The bill also is disproportionately longer and 
wider at base, with a rounded termination in front. It is not 
without scruples that I apply the name above to this bird ; the 
description by the Prince-Bonaparte, as cited, not being sufficient 
or the recognition of any species nearly related to another." - 
The collector's notes are then given as follows : 

' By permission of the Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 
2 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, i860, 138, 139. 



iSgS J Richmond, iWw Species of Gytnnosiinops. '?2 7 

" At Camp Albert, on the Truando, before reaching the Cordil- 
leras, one specimen only seen, which was shot ; it was very shy 
and seemed to be a stranger." ' 

In a later paper Cassin refers to both skins, and writes of the 
male as the "younger" specimen, differing from the adult [the 
female] in having the '' sides purplish brown " but otherwise like 
the adult. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1S67, 71.) 

The Truando bird of Cassin's first paper, which is the basis 
of the extension of range of G. gualimoziiius to the Isthmus 
of Panama, is a new species, in some respects intermediate 
between that species and G. montezmncc^ but otherwise quite 
different. The female of Cassin's second paper is typical guati- 
moziniis, and was collected at Turbo, a small village on the Gulf 
of Uraba, on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus. 

The new bird may be briefly described as follows : 

GymnostinOps cassini, new species. Cassin's Oropendola. 

Type: U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 17S47, $ adult, "Camp Albert," Truando 
River, Colombia, Dr. A. Schott.- Original No. 162. 

Similar to G. montczuma:, but chestnut markings darker; crest feathers 
vei-y much longer and almost filiform ; base of culmen much wider. 
Under parts and thighs dull black; sides of bodj dark chestnut. Bill 
black, tip whitish (in dried specimen) for one inch ; a line bordering base 
of culmen and extending half wav to nostrils also whitish. The median 
pair of tail-feathers fall short of the outer ones by about three quarters 
of an inch, against two inches in G- tnontezumcs. 

Wing, 10.60 inches; tail, 7.S5 ; culmen, 3.35; depth of bill at base, 1.30; 
width of culmen at base, .82 (.55-.60 in G. niontezztmcc') ; tarsus, 2.40; 
length of crest a trifle over three inches. 

In size, length of crest, extent of light color on bill, and width 
of culmen at base, G. cassini stands first. It is intermediate in 
general color of plumage, and of thighs, and in the extension of 
the yelloAV tail-feathers beyond the black ones. 



ifbid., 139. 

-Cassin says the collection was made by Wm. S. and J. C. Wood of Phila- 
delphia, but in the museum register and on the labels of specimens the whole 
series is credited to Dr. A. Schott. 



-7 28 Clarke, Habits of the Solitary Sandpiper. loct 



BREEDING HABITS OF THE SOLITARY SANDPIPER 
{TOTANUS SOLITARIUS). 

BY C. K. CLARKE, M. D. 

Early this spring I became aware of the fact that at least one 
pair of Sandpipers, different from the Spotted Sandpipers, which 
breed commonly on Simcoe Island, had taken up their residence 
there. 

Although the habits of the Bartramian Sandpiper formed the 
chief subject of investigation, time after time I was attracted by 
a pair of small Sandpipers, invariably to be found perched on the 
fence posts in a certain locality. Just what the birds were could 
not at first be satisfactorily determined, and for a time I was 
inclined to think that they might prove to be Buff-breasted Sand- 
pipers. As it was evident that they were likely to breed, I returned 
time and again to the island, generally carrying a gun, so that the 
birds might be secured if the nest was found. At last, when 
accompanied by the Rev. C. J. Young, the birds flushed in the 
usual locality, and a depression in the ground, nicely rounded, 
was found and marked. I returned in a week's time fully expect- 
ing to take a set of eggs, but the birds had evidently deserted 
the place, and were no where to be seen. It was a disappoint- 
ment, as by this time it had become tolerably certain that the 
visitors were Solitary Sandpipers. 

On June lo, Mr. Edwin Beaupre and I went for a last look at 
the birds breeding on the island, but had given up all hope of 
finding the strange Sandpiper. We flushed a Bartramian Sand- 
piper, and were examining the nest containing three fresh eggs, 
when the little stranger rose within four or five feet of us, and 
there, in plain view not two yards from the Bartramian's nest, 
were the eggs. The Sandpiper flew a short distance without 
uttering a sound, and sat on a fence post watching us. Unfor- 
tunately the gun had been left at home, but we had two pairs 
of good marine glasses and were able to examine the bird at 
close range as it perched on the fence. There was no longer 



^".'hcs''] Clarke, Habits of the Solitary Sandpiper. 329 

any doubt about its identity, and it was easily classified as 
the Solitary Sandpiper. We watched it for some time, as 
it flew about, but its silence was remarkable, and in marked 
contrast to the noisy demonstrations of the Bratramian Sand- 
piper which had been disturbed. A glance at the eggs showed 
that we had a rarity. In the first place the number, five, in 
a Sandpiper's nest was a new experience, and the peculiar 
coloring and markings were interesting. The eggs when collected 
had the peculiar dark reddish ground color so frequently noticed 
in fresh specimens of the Bartramian Sandpiper, but like them 
soon lost this characteristic tint. Faint purple shell markings 
gave a pleasing contrast, but the grotesque brown figurings, 
somewhat similar in shape to those found on the eggs of the 
Purple Grackle, remain as the striking feature. These grotesque 
markings exist on three of the specimens. A comparison made 
with a large series of the eggs of the Spotted Sandpiper reveals 
the following differences : Solitary Sandpiper's differ from them 
in shape, size, ground color and markings. 

In the eggs of the Spotted Sandpiper the markings are gener- 
ally much thicker at the upper ends ; in the eggs of the Solitary 
Sandpiper the reverse is the case. The variations in shape in 
the set of the Solitary Sandpiper found, are somewhat remark- 
able as the measurements show. Incubation was well advanced, 
thus showing that the Bartramian had not been the first to 
commence nest building. The location of the nest was in a 
hilly field probably seventy-five yards from Lake Ontario. The 
measurements of the eggs are as follows: — 1.39 X .95, inches, 
1.32X.94, 1.30X.97, 1.30X.94, 1.29X.95. 



330 General Notes. \^^ 



GENERAL NOTES. 

Antrostomus carolinensis Devouring other Birds. — Dr. W. L. Abbott 
recently presented a specimen of Chiick-wilFs-widow to the Philadelphia 
Academy, which he secured on shipboard off Sagua, Cuba, Sept. 4, 1S98, 
and which contained in its stomach a partially digested Yellow Warbler 
{De?idroica (estiva). Dr. Abbott stated that quite a number of small 
Warblers had been flying about the ship for several days and probably the 
Antrostomus was hard pressed and devoured one of them in lieu of his 
usual food. Such records seem to be uncommon' and worthy of note. — 
WiTMER Stone, Academy of Natural Sci'efices, Philadelfhia, Pa. 

Tyrannus magnirostris d'Orb. Renamed. — The name Tyranmis 7nag7ii- 
rostris, given by d'Orbigny to the Cuban Kingbird in 1S39, is antedated 
by Swainson (Fauna Boreali-Americana, 1S31, 4S4), who, for some reason 
best known to himself, applied this name to Megarkyftckus fitangtia 
(Linn.), a common bird of the mainland of tropical America. A new 
name thus being necessary for d'Orbigny's species, it may be called 
Tyrantius ctcbefists. — Charles W. Richmond, U. S. National Museum., 
Washington, D. C. 

Nest Building under Difficulties. — While visiting a farmer living in 
Bucks County, Pa., I was shown a nest of a Field Sparrow {Spizella 
fusilla)^ which he accidently cut down while cradling rye. The nest, 
which contained fresh eggs, was built about two feet above the ground and 
was supported between the standing stalks of the rye. The bird evidently 
experienced some difficult}- in starting the structure, as the material kept 
sliding down loosely on the smooth stalks as fast as it was built. The 
bird, however, was determined to build it at the original height, which 
was finally accomplished, and when completed was about one foot deep, 
having a loose spiral appearance. This was no doubt the result of poor 
judgment, which is often seen among juvenile birds. — J. Harris Reed, 
Beverly, N. J. 

Hemithraupis: — A Correction. — In my paper describing new genera, 
etc., of Fringillidte and Tanagridse in the July Auk, I inadvertentl}' gave 
the generic name Hemithraufis to a genus of Tanagers, with Aglaia 
cyanocefhala Lafr. & D'Orb. as type, forgetting at the time that the 
sarne name had been given by Cabanis in 185 1 to the group having 
Hylofhilus ruficefs Max. as type (c/. Mus. Hein. I, p. 21); a strange 
oversight, since I have of course been long aware of the fact and have the 
genus elaborate under that name in my manuscript. The genus which I 
have separated as Hemithraupis Avith Aglaia cyanocephala as type requir- 



^°'8^fV] General Notes. 33 I 

ing a new name, I therefore propose Sporathraupis {(nTop(}.=-spH>iits, 
Bpavtria; ftom. J>ro/.) — Rouert Ridgwav, U. S. N'ational Museum, Jl'as/i- 
i/ii^/o/t, D. C. 

Kirtland's Warbler {Dendroica kirtlandi ) in Florida. — I saw a Kirt- 
land's Warbler on April 19, 1S97, at West Jupiter, Florida, and shot 
another at the same place on April 27, — the only specimen actually 
killed. Of course I may have been mistaken about the one seen April 19, 
but I myself have no doubt of its correct identification. — Charle.s B. 
Cory, Great Island, Hvannis, Jlfass. 

Dendroica kirtlandii in Pennsylvania : — A Correction. — In my ' Birds 
of Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey" published some j-ears since by 
the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, I omitted without comment 
Dendroica kirtlandii, which had been included in Dr. Warren's report on 
the 'Birds of Pennsylvania,' on the strength of information furnished him 
by Prof. H. Justin Roddy. My action was based upon a letter from Prof. 
Roddy in which he states that, owing to an unfortunate blunder, the 
notes given to Dr. Warren under head of Dendroica kirtlandii were 
intended for another species and that he had never seen or heard of 
Kirtland's Warbler in the State. Inasmuch as Mr. A. W. Butler has 
quoted Prof. Roddy's records of this bird in his recent ' Birds of Indiana' 
and based his remarks on the probable breeding range of the species 
partly upon them, it seems high time that the error should be corrected, 
as ought to have been done in my previous publication. — Witmer 
Stone, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Pine Warbler (^Dendroica vifforsii) a Breeder in Ohio. — On 
August 5 of this year, while out on a short collecting stroll, one of my 
companions, Prof. W. A. Chesroron of the Waverlj' High School, shot a 
Warbler out of a number of others and kindly presented me with the 
specimen. I identfied it as a Pine Warbler and Mr. H. C. Oberholser 
was so kind as to verify this determination, the bird being a young male 
still partially in first plumage, so that, as Mr. Oberholser said, " this fact 
makes it almost certain that it was reared in the neighborhood, for at 
that age it could not, or at least probably would not, have traveled far." 
Dr. Wheaton in his ' Birds of Ohio,' states that it is " a not common 
spring and fall migrant, but that there is no instance of its breeding in 
the State," and Mr. Oberholser adds that my record "appears to be the 
first instance of the breeding of this species in Ohio." My bird was shot 
in tall timber near the Waverly canal. No pine trees are to be found in 
this vicinity. The entire episode seems to be a circumstance of suflicient 
interest to be worth recording. — Rev. W. F. Hexxixger, Waverly, 
Ohio. 

The Yellow-breasted Chat in Oneida County, N. Y. — On June 6. 1S9S, 
in a pasture, situated on high ground, well filled with second growth 



332 General Notes. [q^J^ 

shrubs and bushes, and with a verj small spring brook flowing through 
the centre, I took a nest and four eggs of the Yellow-breasted Chat 
{^Icteria z'trens). Only one pair of birds was found, and I am assured by 
Mr. Egbert Bagg, of Utica, N. Y., who was the compiler of the list of 
Oneida County birds, that this is the first known record of the occurrence 
ot the Yellow-breasted Chat in Oneida County. 

A Whip-poor-will (Atiirosiomus vociferus) made his first stop here this 
season, although they are resident in localities twenty miles to the east 
or west. — W. J. B. Williams, Holland Patent, N. Y. 



Curious Nesting of American Redstart. — On June 5, 1898, while 
hunting through a great timber swamp in Yates Co., N. Y., in company 
with Mr. C F. Stone, I saw a Vireo's nest and the bird on it appeared to 
be new to me, but as I drew near it left the nest, dropped to the ground 
and fluttered away, when I recognized it as a female American Redstart 
{Setopkaga ruticilla). Mr. Stone then came up and we examined the 
nest and found it to be an old Red-eyed Vireo's ( Vireo olivaceus), newly 
lined by the Redstart with the fine red bark fiber that it usually uses to 
line its nests with in this locality, and it contained three fresh eggs 
of the Redstart. — Verdi Burtch, Penn Van, N. Y. 

Nesting of the Robin. — In 'The Auk' for Juh-, 1S98 (p. 274) I read 
Mr. S. M. McCormick's very interesting article on the ' Nesting Habits of 
the Robin,' and having found a rather unusual place for a nest I would 
like to report it. In Woodbourne, N. Y., Dr. Munson has a large dwelling 
with a piazza in front over which a honeysuckle has been trained, and in 
this vine, about eight feet up, on a branch three quarters of an inch in 
circumference, with six little runners, the nest was built, it being made 
doubly secure by the winding of grasses around the branches, covering 
the bottom entirely. But what struck me as remarkable was the almost 
perpendicular hanging of the nest, looking very much as a China saucer 
does on a bracket. The bottom partially rested against some wire that 
the vine ran on, but it was not fastened to it. Two broods were raised in 
it without any attempt at house-cleaning. Possibly they found there was 
no time for such a luxury. I was very sorry not to see the birds in it, 
but I did not get to the place in time. — A. A. Crolius, Neiv York City. 

A Note on the Wood Thrush. — It seems worthy of mention, that^on 
examining a large series of Wood Thrushes {Turdus mustelinus) taken 
throughout their range, the majority of specimens from west of, the 
Appalachian Highlands and the St. Lawrence Valley average much 
smaller in measurements (bill, culmen .56 in. and depth .18, tarsus 1.08, 
and wing 4.22), than those from east of the Highlands (bill, culmen, 
.63-!- and depth .21-I-, tarsus 1.15, and wing 4.31). Typical western 



^°g^^^] General Notes. ^ ^ o 

birds having been secured not uncommonly in the East, and vice versa, 
does not allow, however, the establishment of a western subspecies. — 
Rkchnali) Mkbkr Hovvk, Jr., Lougzvood , Mass. 

Notes from Chateaugay Lake, New York. — Duiing a collecting trip 
to Chateaugay Lake, Northern Adirondacks, last autumn (Aug. 24 to 
Sept. 7, 1897) I secured with Mr. G. C. Shattuck, a pair of American 
Three-toed Woodpeckers (Picoides atnericantis), a species not very 
uncommon about the lake. One specimen of the Wood Thrush (Turdus 
mitstelinus) was also taken. Mr. Shattuck had in previous years taken 
specimens. This bird was generally found in company with Hermits and 
Swainson's Thrushes behind the camp where the waste food was thrown. 
Its occurrence there seems to show that it is found along the western as 
well as eastern shores of Lake Champlain. Early during my stay I was 
pretty sure I caught a glimpse of a Philadelphia Vireo (l^reo fhiladel- 
fhicns), and after I left Mr. Shattuck secured a specimen. — Reginald 
Heber Howe, Jr., Longtvood, Mass. 

Ectopistes migratorius. Mimus polyglottos, and Sturnella magna 
neglecta in Bristol Co., Mass. — In company with a friend and my brother 
on August 23, 18S9, I was shooting on the mud flats around the reservoir 
at Norton, Mass. In making a detour of a small inlet, I flushed a Pas- 
senger Pigeon from among the low blueberry and bayberry bushes 
among which I was tramping. The bird alighted in a small white birch 
near at hand, seeming very unsuspicious, and I shot it. On dissection 
it proved to be a $ young-of-year and was in very good plumage. This 
is the last record I have of this species. The bird is now mounted and 
in my collection. 

April 30, 1S96, a Mockingbird appeared and established himself among 
the shrubbery in a neighbor's grounds. This was no escaped cage-bird, 
as his perfect, unfrayed feathers evinced. He was in constant song 
during his stay, frequently singing half the night when the moon was 
bright. After enjoying a week of Mockingbird music I was disappointed 
to find the singer gone, owing to a late driving snow storm, and he did 
not again appear. 

On April 9, of this year {1898) , a Western Meadowlark made a visit 
of a few days in the fields not far from my home. The bird was first 
seen by an acquaintance, who asked " what bird is it that resembles a 
Meadowlark in form and color, larger and darker possibly than the 
Meadowlark but with a wonderfully beautiful song." This bird 
remained in the same locality for four days, showing no signs of fear 
and offering an excellent opportunity for one to observe its habits. I 
was unable to shoot the bird, but identity is beyond all doubt, the song 
alone being sufficient to remove all queries on that score. — Bradford 
Alexander Scudder, Taunton, Mass. 



;34 Recent Literature. f^^^"^ 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Davie's Nests and Eggs of North American Birds.' — The fifth edition 
of this useful book contains seventv-nine pages more than the preceding 
edition, "^ the increase in size being due in part to tlie addition of new 
matter and in part to the introduction of many illustrations, some of 
which appear to have been drawn especially for this work but most of 
which are borrowed from other publications. Thev are very unequal in 
character and some of them might have been omitted to advantage, the 
attempt to print half-tones on uncalendared paper being particularly 
unsuccessful. 

The text is greatly improved, much that was wanting in the preceding- 
editions being supplied in the present one. In some instances, however, 
Mr. Davie does not appear to have availed himself of the most recent 
information concerning the species treated. Thus his remarks in regard 
to the Labrador Duck, Cory's Bittern, the Heath Hen, Ipswich Sparrow, 
Philadelphia Vireo, Bachman's Warbler, and Olive Warbler by no means 
represent our knowledge concerning these species. Jiinco hyemalis 
connectens is wrongly given as Junco hyemalis skufeldti and Platypsaris 
alaicB \sic\ is included presumably as a North American bird but on just 
what authority is not stated. 

These errors are obviously not of a serious nature and they detract 
but little from a book whose value is measured by its marked success.— 
F. M. C. 

Bird-Nesting with a Camera.'^ — Since our last notice of this fine 
work'* the parts have continued to appear with regularity and we now 
have before us Part XII, completing the third volume. Many of the 
plates are fully equal to those of volume I, of which we could not speak 
too highlj-, while others have lost in clearness of definition, apparently 
through too great enlargement, it being presumably the author's desire 
to make all the plates in the book of the same size without regard to the 

' Nests and Eggs | of | North American Birds | By | Oliver Davie j 
Author of " Methods in the Art of Taxidermy," etc. | — | The Fifth Edition 
I — I Revised, Augmented and Illustrated | — | Part II. Ornithological 
and Oological Collecting | (The preparation of skins, nests and eggs for the 
cabinet.) | — | Columbus: | The Landon Press | 1S9S. — Svo. pp. [i-xi] 
1-509, i-iS, i-xxi, numerous text cuts. 

2 Reviewed in ' The Auk', XI, 18S9, 32S. 

3 Among British Birds in their Nesting Haunts. By Oswin A. J. Lee. Illus- 
trated by the camera. 

■■ Auk XIV, 1897, p. 334: see also ibid., pp. 106, 247. 



°g 'jj 1 Recent Literature. ^ 1 S 

size of tlie negative from wliicii tliey are reproduced. The illustrations, 
therefore, in several instances (<?. ^., the Gannets on the Bass Rock and 
PutKns on Lunga) fail to do justice to the exceedingly interesting subjects 
they represent. However, the ditMculties to be encountered in photo- 
graphic -work of this nature are so innumerable that perfection is out of 
the question, and far from criticising Mr. Lee for a failure to alwavs 
reach his own high standard, we should remember that liis skill and 
energy has given us the best work of its kind which has thus far appeared. 
— F. M. C. 

Butler's ' Birds of Indiana." — In 1S90 Mr. Butler published an excel- 
lent, extensively annotated ' Catalogue of the Birds of Indiana' (See Auk, 
Mil, 1S91, pp. 3S3, 3S4), embracing 301 species, with a supplementary 
' Hypothical List ' of 79 species. The present ' Birds of Indiana' is a much 
more comprehensive work, the former enumeration being not only 
brought down to date, and expanded by the introduction of much new 
matter relating to the habits and nature of the occurrence of the species 
in Indiana, but by technichal descriptions and ke^s to the genera and 
species, and by many additional illustrations. It is thus well adapted to 
furnish the information demanded bj' the present greatly increased inter- 
est in birds, in the State of Indiana as elsewhere, in reference to their 
varied economic and other relations. In the present treatise of neaiiv 
650 octavo pages, the number of species recorded as positively known to 
occur in the State is 321, with a supplemental list of Si, given as of more 
or less probable occurrence, from their having. been taken in adjoining 
States. 

The work opens with an 'Introduction' (pp. 515-531), treating of the 
position and physiographic features of the State, and of the changes that 
have taken place in its bird life and their causes, and a comprehensive bib- 
liography (pp. 532-54S). While this report is based largely on the notes 
of the author, ■' made principally in southeastern Indiana within the past 
twenty-one years," all other available material bearing on the subject is 
apparently utilized, for which due acknowledgment is formallv made. 
Most of the ' keys,' for example, are (by permission) from Mr. Ridgway"s 
' Manual of North American Birds,' and the technical descriptions are 
in many instances transferred from the same or similar standard sources. 
Many of the cuts are from Dr. Coues's ' Kev to North American Birds.' 
while those of the publications of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
through the kindness of Dr. Merriam, have been extensively drawn 
upon, particularly those relating to the Hawks and Owls, the Wood- 

' The Birds of Indiana. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Birds that have 
been observed within the State, with an account of their habits. By Amos 
W. Butler. Report of the State Geologist of Indiana for 1S97, pp. 515-11S7. 
Indianapolis, Ind., 1S9S. Also separate, same pagination. 



2>?>^ 



Recent Literature. I q" 



peckers, and numerous other species whose economic status has been 
considered in the various 'Bulletins' and other publications of the 
Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy. Throughout the treatise 
the utility and economic status of the species is kept well in view, and 
the work therefore cannot be otherwise than educational in the best sense 
to the people of Indiana, whether as an aid in determining the species 
or as a guide to their proper treatment. It is a hopeful omen of better 
times, not only for the birds but for the people, that a State legislature 
proves itself sufficiently far-sighted to place within reach of the public 
such an admirable aid to a better knowledge of their natural surroundings. 
As is usual in recent works on North American birds, strict adherence 
is given to the nomenclature of the A. O. U. Check-List. — J. A. A. 

Blanford's 'Birds of British India.'' — The first two volumes of the 
' Birds of Britislj India,' by Mr. E. W. Oates, were published in 1883, and 
volume III, by Dr. Blanford, in 1895 ; the present and fourth volume, also 
by Dr. Blanford, completes the series, which furnishes us with a most 
convenient and useful work on the Birds of British India, including 
Ceylon and Burma. "The number of Indian birds regarded as distinct 
species in the present work," says Dr. Blanford, " amounts to 1626." 
" The precise number," he adds " is naturally dependent on a personal 
factor, some writers being more liberal than others in admitting the 
claims to specific rank of races which are distinguished by small differ- 
ences of plumage or measurement, or which are connected by intervening 
links with the typical form. Such races or subspecies, as they are called, 
have not, as a rule, been separately numbered and described in the 
present work, but they have received due notice and their characters , 
have been explained." In other words, subspecies are not formally 
recognized, and form no part of the 1626 species. And, as said by a 
friendly reviewer of the work, " modern vagaries in nomenclature are 
not usually countenanced." Linnreus is taken at 1766, and in other 
respects the nomenclature is in accord with what this implies. 

The present volume treats of 347 species (exclusive of 10 added in the 
appendix to those enumerated in the first three volumes'), beginning with 
the ColumbcC and ending with the Pygopodes. About a page is devoted, 
in the average, to each species, besides the space given to the higher 
groups; this suffices to give the principal bibliographical references, an 

' The Fauna of British India, | including ] Ceylon and Burma, | Published 
under the authority of the Secretary of | State for India in Council | Edited 
by W. T. Blanford, | — | Birds,— Vol. IV. | By | W. T. Blanford, F. R. S. 

I — I London: | Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, | 
Calcutta: I Thacker, Spink & Co. | Bombay: | Thacker & Co., Limited 

I Berlin: | R. Friedlander & Sohn, 11 Carlstrasse, ] 1S98.— Svo, pp. xxi -f- 
500, and 127 figures in text. 



'^°'g^^] Recetit Literature. -^ ^^ y 

adequate description, and a paragraph each on 'Distribution' and 
'Habits, etc' The work is thus in the nature of a 'hand-book,' and 
will prove invaluable to all interested in Indian ornithology'. — J. A. A. 

Gurney's ' The Economy of the Cuckoo.' — Although so much has been 
written about the Common Cuckoo of Europe ( Citctdiis canorus), theie 
are many points in its history, according to Mr. Gurnev, still not well 
known. " Cuckoo's eggs," he says, " and all that appertains to them, is an 
inexhaustible subject when naturalists meet in conclave, and it is one 
which has a fascination for e\'ery oologist .... Cuckoo's eggs often, hut 
by no means always in this countr\, whate^ei' ma\- be the case on the 
Continent, bear a curiously protective resemblance to the eggs of the 
.foster-bird. To the late August Baldamus belongs the credit of this 
discovery, though Professor Newton has pointed out thut in the second 
century CElian had almost arrived at the truth .... What is argued, bv 
Baldamus and others since him, is that each individual Cuckoo is parasitic 
to one or two species, and has power to lay onlv one tvpe of egg.... 
Further it seems reasonable to suppose that any Cuckoo will by prefer- 
erence lay in the nest of the species which brought her up. That each 
individual Cuckoo lays its own type of egg, season after season, and 
that in nineteen cases out of twenty it lays that egg on the ground, .... 
and taking it in its mouth flies or crawls to a nest already known, is 
established, and hardly requires any further proof .... That Cuckoos 
habitually carry away one or more of the fosterer's eggs is now bevond 
dispute, and they might be expected to continue watching a fosterer's 
nest which they had not yet robbed, in the hope of doing so." This is 
supposed to be their purpose when seen hanging about in the immediate 
vicinity of a nest they have chosen for the deposition of one of their own 
eggs, rather than solicitude for its safety. 

Much proof is also advanced as to the egg-eating propensity of the 
Cuckoo, the mashed shells of at least seven eggs having been takino- 
from the stomach of a single Cuckoo. The old Cuckoos are also accused 
of removing nestlings from the nest of the fosterer, and the charge is 
sustained by much circumstantial and some very satisfactorv evidence, 
the purpose being apparently to secure more abundant nourishment for 
their own young. 

It is a disputed question whether or not Cuckoos ever feed their own 
young. Mr. Gurney believes " that this departure from the Cuckoo's 
ordinary habits does take place under very rare circumstances.'" and that 
further verification of it will be forthcoming. Mr. Gurnev also refers 
to the "supposed pouch '" or " throat pocket" of the Cuckoo, for carrvino- 



'The Economy of the Cuckoo {Cuciihts canorus). By J. H. Gurney. F. Z 
S. Trans, of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' .Societv. Vol. VI, pp. 36c;- 
oS4- 



338 



Recent Literature. ' \\\ 



its egg, but seems to quite discredit its existence. He also leters to a 
kind of dimorphism in the plumage of the Cuckoo when joung, "for it 
sometimes has a rufous plumage, and sometimes a \^\-y dark plumage." 
The red phase appears not infrecpiently to have a height chestnut collar; 
" thev are then called Hepatic Cuckoos, and are more often females than 
males." — J. A. A. 

Eastman on ' Struthious Birds. ' — Dr. Eastman's paper consists of two 
parts, both of unusual interest. The first portion relates to a fossil egg 
of a Struthious bird found in the loess of northern China. This egg, 
with another which was broken, was found bj a Chinese farmer, some 
five years ago, who took it to Kalgan and disposed of it to the Rev. 
William P. Sprague, an American missionary' resident there. Last 
spring the egg was brought to this country by the Rev. James H. Roberts, 
by whom it was offered for sale in the interest of Mr. Sprague, and was 
eventually purchased for the Museum of Compai-ative Zoology, where it 
is now deposited. It has thus a thoroughly authentic history. The 
egg is about one third larger than the largest Ostrich egg, thus indicating 
that " the fossil egg must be the legacy of a larger bird than the Osti-ich, 
and very likely one differing in other respects as well as size." As early 
as 1857 a similar egg was discovered in the Government of Cherson, in 
South Russia. This egg later fortunately fell into the hands of Professor 
A. Brandt of Charkow, who described it, under the designation Struthio- 
litlms cherso7iensts, up to the present time a species known onh' from this 
fossil egg, and to which Dr. Eastman now refers the present specimen. 

Ostrich remains (fragments of bones) have also been found in the 
Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills of India and in the Lower Pliocene of 
Samos, indicating a wide distribution of Struthious birds in early times. 
In commenting on these facts, Dr. Eastman says: "The occurrence of 
fossil Ostrich remains in the loess of such widely separated regions as 
Northern China and Russia has a direct bearing upon the distribution of 
Struthious birds. It enables us to speak positively with regard to the 
former extension of the Struthionidte over Eur-Asia and x\frica since the 
Pliocene, and gives rise to some inferences, within duly circumscribed 
bounds, regarding the past history of Raft-breasted birds in general. It 
is necessary to distinguish between what can be affirmed of the Ostrich 
group, properly speaking, and what we can assume with more or less 
plausibility concerning the rest of the so-called Ratitae." He notes that 
"the best modern ornithological opinion holds that the division into 
Ratitae and Carinatae is unnatural, since the differences between existing 

' On Remains of StrtUhiolitJnis chcrsonensis from Northern China, with 
Remarks on the Distribution of Struthious Birds. By C. R. Eastman. Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zodl., Vol. XXXII, No. 7, pp. i -'7-144 (with plate). August, 
1898. 



^"iS^^l Recent Literature. ^39 

species of Raft-breasted birds are neaiiy as great as between any of the 
Ratitiv and Carinatre." He summarizes the views of leading modern 
authorities on the relationships of the various extinct types of formerly 
supposed Ratite forms, and adds: "Strong enough arguments, we think, 
have been put forward to show that the theory of a common origin of 
the Ratita; is untenable, and hence no single hypothesis of distribution 
is able to account for the facts of their distribution. We cannot imagine 
a race of Ostriches sprung from Hesferorriis or anything of like nature in 
the Cretaceous, spreading over the whole earth in the Tertiary, and then 
as decay set in, leaving its fragments scattered in remote corners of the 
globe To seek the nearest Carinate affinities for the different sec- 
tions separately; to develop the paljeontological history of each more 
fully: and to inquire into the physical and biological conditions Avhich 
led to their insulation, perpetuation, and differentiation in various 
provinces, — these are only a few of the points that invite an extended 
investigation." His review of the matter in the pages which follow is a 
suggestive and important contribution to the literature of the subject. 
-J. A. A. 

Bangs on Birds from Colombia. — Mr. Bangs has recently published 
two papers' on birds received from Colombia, from his collector, Mr. 
W. W. Brown, Jr. The first relates to a collection of nearly 700 speci- 
mens gathered during the two months from the middle of December, 
1S97, to the middle of February, 1S9S, within fifteen miles of Santa 
Marta, at elevations ranging from 500 to nearly 6000 feet. The number of 
species and subspecies reported upon in this paper is 126, of which 10 
are described as new, as follows : Galbiila riificauda pallefis, Melanerfcs 
-vagleri saiictcE-martte, Dendrocincla olivacea anguiiia., Sycalis brorvni', 
Cyanocomp^a coticreia sanctce-inarice, Arreiuonops conirostris canens, 
Piranga faceia, Cyclar/iis fia-oipectus canticus, Dacnis napfea, Mernla 
incompta . 

The second paper relates to a later sending, by the same collector, of 
birds taken '' at the little village of Pueblo Viejo, in the high Sierra 
Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia," at about 8000 feet altitude. This 
collection numbers 38 species, of which 4 are described as new, nameJv : 
Elccnia bro7v>u\ Aiitomolus rufipecius, Buarremoii basiltcics, Thryothorus 
livtus.—]. A. A. 

Nelson on New Birds from Mexico. — Further results of Mr. E. W. 
Nelson's ornithological work in Mexico have recently appeared. His 

' On Some Birds from Santa Marta, Colombia. By Outram Bangs. Proc. 

Biol. Soc. of Washmgton, Vol. XII, pp. 131-144, June 3. 1S98. 

On Some Birds from Pueblo Viejo, Colombia. By Outram Bangs. Ibid., 
pp. 157-160. Aug. 10, 1S98. 



Q^O Recent Literature \o^ 

first paper ' is based on his exploration, in company with Mr. E. A. 
Goldman, of the Tres Marias Islands. After summarizing the -work of 
previous explorers in these islands, he describes the following ii new 
subspecies, based on his own collections, made during May, 1S97 : — 
Columba flavirostris inadrensis, Leptotila ca^ttalis, Buteo borealis fumo- 
sus, Polyborus cherixvay pallidus, Trogoti ambiguiis goldmatit, Nyctidro- 
miis albicoUis instilaris, Alyiopagis placens minimus^ Cardinalis cardinalis 
tnarice, Vtreo hypochryscus sordidus, Melanotic ccerulescens lojigirostris, 
Thryothorus latvreticii magdah'ncs. The bird fauna as a whole will be 
treated later. In this connection he states that the study of his material 
in comparison with that from the mainland, shows " that most of the 

resident land birds of the islands differ in a more or less marked 

degree from their nearest mainland relatives. In most cases the island 
birds cannot be considered more than geographical races .... Not a 
single species has been found on the islands which has not a closely 
related form on the mainland." 

In a second paper" Mr. Nelson describes a number of new birds from 
various parts of Mexico, from the collections made by Mr. Goldman and 
himself, for the U. S. Biological Survey. In reference to the diversified 
climatic areas of Mexico, Mr. Nelson states that in addition to the " two 
main divisions of highland or temperate, and lowland or tropical," " the 
highlands contain several definite faunal areas, and the same is true of 
the lower tropical lands." The new form.s described are the following : 
Heleodytes b^-umteicapillus obscurus, from the Mexican tableland ; Mreo 
nanus, southern border of the tableland in Michoacan ; Prague sinaloce, 
Plomosas, Sinaloa; Pkcenicothraupis rubicoides rosens, Territory of 
Tepic; Amphispiza bilineata grisea, southern part of tableland; Guir- 
aca cktapetistx, Chiapas ; Grallaria ochracetventris, San Sebastian, Jalisco ; 
Ainazi'lia cifmamomea saturata, Chiapas ; Dactylortyx chiapensis, San 
Christobal, Chiapas ; Dactylortyx devius, San Sebastian, Jalisco. The 
paper also comprises a revision of the genus Dactylortyx, in which D. 
thoracicus (Gambel) and D. thoracicus lijieolatus (Gould) are recognized 
in addition to the two species here described. — J. A. A. 

Cooke's 'Birds of Colorado.'-^ — The publication in March, 1897, of 

' Descriptions of new Birds from the Tres Marias Islands, Western Mexico. 
By E. W. Nelson. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, Vol. XII, pp. 5-11. Jan. 
27, 1898. 

2 Descriptions of new Birds from Mexico, with a revision of the genus Dac- 
tylortyx. By E. W. Nelson. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, Vol. XII, pp. 57- 
68. March 24, 1S9S. 

•* Further notes on the Birds of Colorado. Bulletin No. 44, Technical 
Series No. 4. An appendix to Bulletin No. 37. On the Birds of Colorado. 
By W. W^ Cooke, Fort Collins, Colorado. March, 1S98, Svo. pp. 148-176. 



"j^^g I Rccetit Literature. "^41 

Prof. Cooke's 'Birds of Colorado '' having "led to quite an extensive 
correspondence and in several cases the examination or re-examination 
of large series of specimens." The new information thus obtained has 
resulted in increasing the list of Colorado birds from 360, as given in 
Bulletin 371, to 374, a revised summary allotting the fourteen additional 
species to the various categories in which thej belong. Additions are 
also made to the ' Bibliography of Colorado Ornithology," and further 
notes are given relative to the distribution of species pre\iously treated. — 
F. M. C 

Proceedings of the Delaw^are Valley Ornithological Club." — This is 
the second 'Abstract of Proceedings' issued by the Delaware ^'alley 
Club, the first having been published in 1892. In the future it is pro- 
posed "to issue a yearly number covering. the Proceedings with much 
greater detail." The present 'Abstract' shows an average attendance at 
the bi-monthly meetings of the Club of about sixteen members, gives the 
titles of the papers presented with references to their place of publication, 
if any, and other matters of interest to the Club, which is evidently a 
llourishing organization. — F. M. C. 

Kearton's 'With Nature and a Camera.'* — This is an unusual book: 
its author has made a large amount of valuable information readable ; its 
illustrator has accomplished surprising and inspiring achievements with 
the camera. We do not recall a more satisfactorily illustrated book^ 
although ffom frontispiece to tailpiece every picture was made through 
a lens, and they not only furnish a record of facts which the worker with 
brush or pencil cannot hope to equal, but many of them possess a beauty 
rivalling the best productions of the natural history artist. 

The first three of the eleven chapters of this noteworthy book treat of 
the human and feathered inhabitants of St. Kilda, the remaining eight 
are respectively entitled "Gamekeepers: Their Friends and Foes,"' 
"Nests, Eggs, and Young,"' "\Yhere Birds Sleep,"' "Sea-Birds and their 

' See ' The Auk,' XIV, 1S97, p. 331 . 

'-Abstract of the Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club 
of Philadelphia. For the years 1892 to 1897. Published by the Club, 1S9S. 
8vo. pp. 1-42. 

^ With I Nature and a Camera | Being the Adventures and Observations | 
of a Field Naturalist and an | Animal Photographer | By | Richard Kearton, 
F. Z. S. I Author of ' British Birds' Nests,' ' Birds' Nests, Eggs, and Egg-Col- 
lecting,' etc., etc. I Illustrated by 180 Pictures from Photographs ] by Cherry 
Kearton | Third Thousand | Cassell and Company, Limited | London, Paris 
& Melbourne | 1S98 | All Rights Reserved. — 8vo. pp. xvi + 36S, numerous, 
half-tone illustrations. 



7^2 Rece7it Literature, j q^^ 

Haunts," " How Cage Birds are Caught: A Day on Brighton Downs," 
"The Art of Duck-Decoying," "People We have Met," and "Our 
Methods of Photography." There is no padding, nor one poor or unin- 
teresting picture, and while the birds mentioned are for the most part 
strangers to American readers, we commend the book and its author's 
and illustrator's methods as stimulating evidences of the results which 
may be obtained in a previously well-worked field by diligent, careful 
observation and persistent, patient effort. — F. M. C. 

Publications Received. — Bangs, Outram. On Some Birds from Pueblo 
Viejo, Colombia. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 1898. pp. 157-160.) 

Blanford, W. T. The Fauna of British India. Birds, Vol. IV. 8vo, 
London, Calcutta, Bombay and Berlin, 1S98 

Butler, Amos W. The Birds of Indiana. (Rep. State Geologist for 
1897, pp. 515-1187.) 

Christie, Miller. Rockall. (Scottish Geogr. Mag., Aug. 189S, pp. 393- 

Davie, Oliver. Nests and Eggs of North American Birds. Fifth 
edition. Svo, Columbus, 1898. 

Eastman, C R. On Remains of Struthiolithus chefsone?ists from 
Northern China, with Remarks on the Distribution of Struthious Birds. 
(Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool, Vol. XXXII, No. 7, Aug. 1898.) 

Forbush, E. H. Nature's Forresters. (Massachusetts Crop Report 
for the month of May, 1S98, pp. 27-40.) 

Gurney, J. H. (i) The Economy of the Cuckoo [Ciiculus ca^wncs). 
(Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Soc, Vol. VI, pp. 365-384.) (2) 
The New Zealand Owl [Sceloglaux albifacies Gray) in captivity. {Ibid. 
pp. 154-158.) (3) The Tendency in Birds to resemble Other Species, 
{Ibid., pp. 240-244.) (4) Ornithological Record for Norfolk for 1896. 
(Zoologist, March, 1897, pp. 121-138.) 

Hose, Charles. On the Avifauna of Mount Dulit and the Baram Dis 
trict in the Territory of Sarawak. (Ibis, July, 1893, pp. 381-422, pU. x, xi.) 

Kearton, Richard. With Nature and a Camera. Svo. London, Paris 
and Melbourne, 1898. 

Lee, Oswin A. J. Among British Birds in their Nesting Haunts. 
Folio, pt. xii, 1898. 

Sharpe, R. Bowdler. (i) Descriptions of fourteen new Species of 
Birds discovered by Mr. F. J. Jackson in Eastern Africa. (Ibis, Jan. 1891, 
pp. 117-122.) (2) Bornean Notes; Nos. II and III. (Ibis, July and Oct. 
1894.) (3) On the Birds of Zululand, founded on Collections made by 
Messrs. R. P. and J. D. S. Woodward. Parts I and II. (Ibis, July and 
Oct., 1897.) (4) On a Collection of Birds from Witu, British East Africa. 
By F. J. Jackson, with notes by R. Bowdler Sharpe. (Ibis, Jan., 1898.) 
(5) On a Collection of Birds made by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith during 
his recent Expedition in Western Somaliland. (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1895, pp. 457-520, pll. XXVII, XXVIIL) 



^^'gg^^J Notes and News. -^^.^ 

American Journ. Sci., Julj-Sept., 1898. 

Annals ot Scottish Nat. Hist., July, 1S98. 

Anzeigeblatt der Orn. Monatsschrit't des Deiitsclien Verein.s zuin 
Schutze der \'ogelwelt, 1898, Nos. 1-9. 

Australian Museum, Records of, III, No. 4, 1898; Catalogue No. 4. 
Parts I and 2, Accipitres and Striges, 2d ed., 1898. 

Birds and All Nature, IV. Nos. 1-3, July-Sept., 1898. 

Bulletin Wilson Orn. Chapter Agassiz Assoc, No. 20, 1898. 

Canadian Record of Science, VII, Nos. 6 and 7, 1898. 

Forest and Stream, LI, Nos. 1-13, 1898. 

Journal Cincinnati Soc Nat. Hist., XIX, No. 4, July, 1898. 

Knowledge, XXI, Nos. 153-155, July-Sept., 1898. 

Maine Sportsman, V, Nos. 59-61, July-Sept., 1898. 

Naturalist, The, a Month. Journ. of Nat. Hist, for North of England, 
July-Sept., 1898. 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte, VI, Nos. 7-9, July-Sept., 1898. 

Ornithologischer Jahrbuch, IX, Heft 4, 1898. 

Our Animal Friends, XXV, Nos. ii-i2,XXVI, No. I, 189S. 

Ottawa Naturalist, XII, Nos. 4-6, July-Sept., 1898. 

Science, (2) Nos. 182-195, 1898. 

Shooting and Fishing, XXIV, Nos. 10-22, 1898. 

Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 
XI, 1S96-97. 

Zoologist, The, (4) Nos. 19-21, July-Sept., 1898. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Sixteexth Annual Congress of the American Ornithologists' 
Union will be held in Washington, D. C, beginning on the evening of 
November 14, 1898. This evening session Avill be devoted to the election 
of officers and members and the transaction ot the usual routine business. 
Tuesday and the following days will be given to public sessions for the 
reading and discussion of scientific papers. Members intending to 
present papers are requested to forward the titles of their papers to the 
Secretary, Mr. John H. Sage, Portland. Conn., prior to November 6. in 
order to facilitate the preparation of the program of papers to be read 
before the Congress. 

OsBERT Salvin. an Honorary Member, of the A. O- U., who died at 
his home, Hawksfold, near Haslemere, England, June i, 1898, was born 
at Finchley in 1835. A sketch of Mr. Salvin, published in 'The Zoolo- 
gist' for July. 1898, states that he was ''the only siu-viving son of Mr 



344 Notes and Ne-ws. \^^. 

Anthony Salvin, a well-known architect. Shortly after graduating at 
Cambridge as Senior Optirne in the Mathematical Tripos of 1S57, he 
made a Natural History Expedition to Tunis and Algeria, in the company 
of Mr. W. H. Hudleston and Mr. (now Canon) Tristram, both of whom 
survive. In the autumn of the same year he made the first expedition to 
a country with which his life's work was to be largely associated ; this 
was his visit to Guatemala, where he stayed chiefij' in company with the- 
late Mr. G. U. Skinner, the well-known collector of orchids, till the 
middle of 1858, revisiting the same region in about a year, and for a 
third time in 1861, in company with his friend and future coadjutor, 
Mr. F. D. Godman. After his marriage, in 1865, he with his wife made 
a fourth journey to Central America. . . . 

"From the foundation of the Strickland Curatorship in the University 
of Cambridge, in 1874, Mr. Salvin accepted and held that office until 
1883, when he succeeded to the family estate. . . . 

"In association with his life-long friend Mr. Godman we see a capacity 
and love for scientific zoology combined with the accident of wealth 
which are phenomenal. The publication of the ' Biologia Centrali- 
Americana' is an unique event both in project and realization. Its 
conception not only proclaimed a devotion to zoological labour on the 
part of its editors, but declared an optimism in the expected assistance 
of other workers, which was generally seen to be amply justified. The 
expense of production would have strained the available finances of a 
small state, and would have required a financial vote — not likely to have 
been granted — of an enlightened empire. Such amounts are privately 
wasted every year, but seldom contributed to science, especially to such 
a sober and non-advertising science as zoology. ... It is probable that it 
will be long before such an union occurs again as produced the ' Biologia,' 
and made the rooms in Chandos Street [10 Chandos Street. Cavendish 
Square, London] such a zoological rendezvous." 

Mr. Salvin was a lepidopterist of note, as well as an ornithologist, his 
special field in entomology being the Rhopalocera, which group he elab- 
orated in conjunction with Mr. Godman, for the ' Biologia.' His contribu- 
tions to American ornithology appear to have begun in 1859, in joint 
authorship with Mr. P. L. Sclater, in a series of papers entitled 'On the 
Ornithology of Central America,' contributed to the first and second 
volumes of 'The Ibis,' the first of which, by an interesting coincidence, 
formed the first article of the first number of this eminent journal. 
From this date onward contributions to the ornithology of Centi-al 
America, and later to that of South America by Mr. Salvin, either alone 
or jointly with Mr. Sclater, appear with great frequency in 'The Ibis' 
and in the ' Proceedings' of the Zoological Society of London, constitut- 
ing highly important and voluminous additions to the literature of 
Tropical American ornithology. In 1866-69 ^'^'as published the magnificent 
'Exotic Ornithology, containing figm-es and descriptions of new and rare 
species of American Birds,' a folio volume in thirteen parts, with one hun- 



^"^'g^^^J Notes and News. t^^c 

dred colored platen- In 1873 appeared the well-known ' Nomentlator 
Vvium Neotropicaliiim,' one volume, folio, by Sclater and Salvin. In 
1876 Mr. Salvin published an important paper 'On the Avifauna of 
the Galapagos Archipelago,' in tlie 'Transactions' of the Zoological 
Society of London. In the same vear appeared a series of papers in 
'The Ibis,' on various genera of Hummingbirds, under the joint author, 
ship of Mr. Salvin and D. G. Elliot. Mr. Salvin also later published many 
papers on Central and South American birds in conjunction with F. Du- 
Cane Godman, with whom he shared the editorship of that monumental 
work, the ' Biologia Centrali-Americana,' already mentioned. In 1876, 
'A Revision of the Neotropical Anatidse, by Sclater and Salvin, appeared 
in the 'Proceedings' of the Zoological Society, — a most valuable con- 
tribution to the subject. 

Among Mr. Salvia's more important later publications are his c(mtri. 
butions to the British Museum ' Catalogue of Birds,' of which his mono- 
graphs of the suborders Upup« and Trochili formed part of volume XVI 
published in 1S92 (reviewed in this journal, X, pp. 66, 67), and the Tubi- 
nares, forming part of volume XXV, published in 1S96 (reviewed in this 
journal, XIII, pp. 161, 162). The publication of the ' Aves ' of the 
' Biologia Centrali-Americana,' in joint authorsliip with Mr. Godman, 
began in 1S79, the first part appearing in April of that year, ^"olume P 
(4to, pp. 1-512, pll. i-xxxv) was completed in April, 1S87, and Volume II 
(pp. 1-598, pll. xxxvi-lx) in February, 1889. The first part of Volume III 
the last that has come to hand, was issued in November, 1897, carrving 
the subject to the beginning of the Accipitres. It is to be hoped that the 
completion of this great work will not be greatly retarded by the death 
of the principal author. In addition to his other scientific labors Mr. 
Salvin was editor of the third series of 'The Ibis' (1871-76) and joint 
editor with Mr. Sclater of the fourth series (1877-82). 

The unsurpassed collection of Central American and South American 
birds formed by Messrs. Salvin and Godman during their long period of 
exploration and study of the Tropical American avifauna was liberallv 
presented by these gentlemen to the British Museum in 1885, where it 
forms one of most important of the many magnificent gifts bv o-enerous 
Englishmen to the Ornithological Department of this great Museum. 

Mr. Salvin, although passing away at the comparatively earlv age of 
sixty-three, enjoyed a long period of scientific activity, including, Avhat 
few ornithologists have enjoyed, an extended field experience in Tropical 
America, and his name will ever remain among the most prominent of 
those w'ho have made this rich field the special subject of life-long 
research. 



'Parts I-IX were noticed in Vol. VI (July, iSSi, pp. 174-176) of the ' Bul- 
letin ' of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, and Vohmie I as a whole in • The 
Auk', VII, April, 1890, pp. 189-195. 



>46 



Notes and News. \q^<!. 



Owing to impaired health Mr. W. A. Johnson, editor of the ' Osprey,' 
announces that he is compelled to abandon the publication of this inter- 
esting and popular journal, which we trust may fall into equally com- 
petent hands. 

We le.\rn through the daily press that Mr. E. A. Mcllhenny and his 
associates have reached Seattle, Washington, homeward bound from 
their expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska. 

Mr. Harry C. Oberholser is at present engaged in a i-evision of the 
American Horned Larks, and finding himself in need of further material 
from Lower California would be glad to receive specimens from there 
for examination. They may be sent to him, care of the Biological Survey, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The specimens 
will be properly cared for and returned within a reasonable time. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XV. 



[New generic, specific and subspecitic names are printeii in heavy-faced type, J 



AcANTHis linaria, 15. 
Accipiter atricapillus striatulus, 
127, 30S. 

cooperi, 127, 307. 

\-elox. 127. 
Actilis macularia, 27, 52, 76, 134, 

307, 316. 
^gialitis meloda, 76. 

meloda circumcincta, 27, 62. 

montana, 307. 

semipalmata, 27, 127. 

vocifera, 27, 307. 
Aeronautes melanoleucus, 307. 
Agelaius phoeniceus, 14, 76, 309. 
Aglaia cvanocephalus, 226. 
Aimophila mcleodi. 226. 

petenica. 227. 

ruficeps, 226. 

ruficeps sororia, 226. 

sartorii, 227. 

superciliosa, 224. 
Albatross, Black-footed, 317. 

Short-tailed, 267. 

Allen, Francis H.,Bickneirs Thrush 

on INIt. Ktaadn, Maine, 60; notice 

of his ' Nature's Diary,' 71 ; habits 

of the Maryland Yellowthroat, 

75- 
Allen, J. A., a defense of Canon 
XL of the A. O. U. Code, 29S- 

303- 
Amazilia cinnamomea saturata, 340. 
cerviniventris, 34, 36. 
cerviniventris chalconota, 
32-36, 1S8. 
American Ornithologists Union, 
Fifteenth Congress of, 43-48 ; 
report of Committee on Protec- 
tion of North American Birds, 
81-1 14, 2S8 ; constitution of Com- 
mittee for Protection of North 
American Birds, 80. 
Ammodramus caudacutus, 76. 
guttatus, 266. 
halophilus, 265. 



Ammodramus leconteii, 16, 18S. 
maritimus, 189. 
nigrescens, 270. 
petenicus, 227. 
princeps, 213. 
sanctorum, 264. 
" sandwichensis alaudinus, 15. 
sandwichensis savanna, 76. 
Ampelis cedrorum, 17, 136. 

garrulus, 17. 
Amphispiza belli, 58, 59, 190. 
belli cinerea, 59. 
belli clementeas, 230. 
belli ne\'adensis, 59, 190. 
bilineata deserticola, 229. 
bilineata grisea, 340. 
nevadensis, 59. 
Anas carolinensis, 307. 
Anous stolidus ridgwayi, 36, 316. 
Anthony, A. W., two new birds 
from the Pacific Coast of Amer- 
ica, 36-38; the Petrels of South- 
ern California, 46; a new name 
for Df-yobates v. tnoiitanus, ^4; 
Petrels of Southern California, 
140-144; the Pacific Kittiwake 
(Rissa tridactyla pollicaris) in 
Lower California, 267; avifauna 
of the Revillagigedo Islands, 
311-31S. 
Anthus pensilvanicus, 19, 129. 
Antrostomus carolinensis, 61, 330. 

vociferus, 332. 
Apgar, Austin C., notice of his 
'Birds of the United States east 
of the Rocky Mountains," 278. 
Aphelocoma woodhousei, 309. 
Aphriza virgata, 127. 
Aquila chrysaetos, 54, 308. 
Ardea cterulea, 195. 
egretta, 51. 
herodias, 126, 316. 
Arenaria interpres, 27, 51, 318, 

melanocephala, 127. 
Arremon, 223. 



348 



Index, 



TAuk 
LOct. 



Arremon conirostris, 22S. 
Arremonops, 223. 

chloronota, 157. 

conirostris canens, 339. 

richmondi, 22S. 

rufivirgata sumichrasti, 157. 

venezuelensis, 227. 
Asio accipitrinus, 234. 

wilsonianus. 30S. 
Astragalinus mexicanus joxiyi, 320. 
Atlapetes, 223. 

pileatus dilutus, 228 
Atthis morcomi, 325. 
Audubon, John James, notice of his 

lite and work, 19S-205. 
Audubon, Maria R., notice of her 
'Audubon and his Journals,' 78, 
19S-205. 
Audubon Societies for the Protec- 
tion of Birds, 82-112, 288. 
Audubon Society of the State of 

New York, 78. 
Auklet, Paroquet, I2_|. 

Rhinoceros, 124. 
Automolus rufipectus, 339. 
Avocet, American, 307. 
Aythva atfinis, 134. 

americana, 50- 

marila nearctica, 126, 189. 

Bangs, Outram, some new races of 
birds from eastern North Amer- 
ica, 173-183; Cairns's Warbler 
(yDeiidroica ccerulescens cairnsi') 
in Georgia on migration, 192 ; 
notice of his papers on birds 
from Colombia, 339. 

Bartsch, Paul, see Nowotny, Dr. 

Basileuterus belli, 159. 
culicivorus, 159. 

Baskett, James Newton, notice of 
his 'The Story of the Birds,' 71. 

Baur, G., notice of his paper 
' Birds of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago,' 208 ; obituar}^ of, 286. 

Belding, Lvman, the song of the 
Western Meadow Lark, 56. 

Bendire, Charles Emil, memoir 
of, 1-6. 

Bent, A. C, Black Gyrfalcon [Falco 
rusticolus obsoleius) in Rhode 
Island, 54 ; Mockingbird (Mtnius 
foly\^lottos) at Taunton, Mass , 59. 

Bergen, Thomas B., early arrival 
of the Kingbird at Cambridge, 
Mass., 268. 

Bird, Cedar, 136. 



Bird, Man-o'-War, 314, 316, 318. 
Red tailed Tropic, 39. 
Surf, 127. 

Yellow-billed Tropic, 314, 
316, 317- 
Bittern, American, 281, 307. 

Least, 195, 2S1. 
Blackbird, Brewer's, 309. 
Red-winged, 309. 
Rust}', 193. 
Yellow-headed, 193. 
Blanchan, Neltje, notice of her 

' Bird Neighbors,' 66. 
Blanford, W. T., notice of his ' Birds 

of British India,' 336. 
Bluebird, 137, 174, 1S2, 194. 
Chestnut-backed, 311. 
Florida, 182. 
Mountain, 311 . 
Bobwhite, 1S4. 

Black-breasted, 117, 121. 
Black-headed, 122. 
Coyolcos, 117, 121. 
Godman's, 120, 121. 
Graj'son's, 121. 
Guatemala, 119, 122. 
Puebla, 116, 121. 
Ridgwaj's, 121. 
Salvin's, 122. 
Texas, 121. 
Bonasa umbellus, 134. 
Booby, Blue-faced, 314, 316, 317. 
Brewster's, 314, 316, 317. 
Webster's, 314, 316, 317. 
Botaurus exilis, 195. 

lentiginosus, 307. 
Bowles, C W. and J. H., nesting 
habits of Anthony's Vireo, 138- 
140. 
Brachyramphus hypoleucus, 197. 

marmoratus, 49, 124. 
Brachyspiza, 224. 
capensis, 321. 
capensis canicapilla, 321. 
capensis chilensis, 321. 
capensis insularis, 321. 
capensis peruviana, 321. 
Brackett, Foster H., the Blue- 
winged Yellow Warbler {Hel- 
minthopkila pintis') in eastern 
Massachusetts, 59. 
Braislin, Wm- C-, the Starling 
{Sitirfius vulgaris) on Long 
Island, N. Y., 55; the White- 
crowned Sparrow {Zonotrtchia 
leucop/irys) on Long Island, N.Y. 
58- 



Vol. XV ■ 



Index. 



349 



Brewster, William, Geotrygon chry- 
.<;i(i a^ain al Kev West, 185 ; 
occurrence of the Spotted bcreech 
Owl (A/egdscops (i//>c>-sits) in Ari- 
zona, 1S6 ; Lewis's Woodpecker 
storing acorns, iSS; revival of 
tlie sexual passion in birds in 
autumn, 194; the Short-eared 
Owls of Muskeget Island, 211. 
Brockway, Arthur W., the Turkey 
\'ulture in Connecticut, 53 ; Caro- 
lina Wren at Lyme, Conn., in 
winter, 192, 274. 
Bruce, Mary Emily, a month with 

the Goldfinches, 239-243. 
Buarremon, 223. 

basilicus, 339. 
crassirostris, 225. 
Bubo virginianus, 71. 

virginianus arcticus, 71. 
virginianus occidentalis, 71. 
\irginianus pacificus, 71. 
virginianiis pallescens, 71. 
virginianus saturatus, 71. 
virginianus subarcticus, 71. 
Burtch, \'erdi, curious nesting of 

American Redstart, 332. 
Buteo borealis calurus, 234, 30S. 
borealis fumosus, 340. 
socorroensis, 316. 
swainsoni, 61, 308. 
Butler, Amos W., notice of his 

' Birds of Indiana," 335. 
Buzzard, Turke_\-, 134. 

Cactornis, 20S. 

propinquus, 20S. 
Calcarius lapponicus, 15. 

lapponicus alascensis, 320. 

lapponicus coloratus, 320. 
Callipepla californica vallicola, 234. 

gambeli, 307. 
Calypte anna, 235. 
Camarhynchus, 208. 
Campephilus imperialis, 217-223. 
Camptolaimus labradorius, 203. 
Canachites, 64. 
Cantwell, Geo. G., notes on the 

Marbled Murrelet, 49. 
Cardinalis cardinalis mariae, 340. 
Carpodacus cassini. 15. 

dementis, 25S. 

frontalis, 25S, 

mexicanus frontalis, 234, 235, 
25S, 309. 
Catbird, 137. 
Catharisla atrata, 53, 196. 



Cathartes aura, 53, 134, 307. 
Catharus frantzii alticola, 161. 
Catherpes mexicanus albifrons, 
160. 
mexicanus conspersus, 310. 
Ceophlorus pileatus, 135, 176. 
pileatus abieticola, 176. 
Cepphus columl)a, 124. 
Ceroihinca monocerata, 124. 
Certhia albifrons, 160. 

familiaris americana, 137. 
familiaris montana, 20, 311. 
familiaris occidentalis, 130. 
mexicana, 160. 
Certhidia, 20S. 
Ceryle alcyon, 127, 234, 308. 
Chietura pelagica, 135. 
Chapman, Frank M., experiences of 
an ornithologist in Mexico (title 
only) 45 ; Golden Eagle in New 
Jersey, 54 ; notice of his ' Bird- 
Life,' colored ed., 72 ; probable 
polygamy of the Great-tailed 
Grackle {^uiscaliis mac7-oiiriis), 
269; notes on the Black Seaside 
Finch i^Avitnodramiis fiigrescens), 
270; nesting instincts of Swal- 
lows, 271 ; notice of his 'Notes 
on Birds observed at Jalapa and 
Las Vigas, \'era Cruz, Mexico,' 
279; Kirtland's Wavhlev (Defidro- 
tca kirtlandi), 2S9-293. 
Charadrius dominicus, 52, 127, 318 
Chat, Yellow-breasted, 331. 
Chelidon, 271. 

erythrogastra, 17, 129, 130, 
"193. 3"i8. 
Chewink, 1S9. 

Chickadee, Black-capped, 137, 144, 
150. 
Chestnut-backed, 130. 
Hudsonian, 213 
Mountain, 311. 
Chlorospingus atriceps, 157. 
olivaceus, 157. 
postocularis, 157. 
Chondestes grammacus strigatus, 

309- 
Chordeiles virginianus. 135. 

virginianus henryi, 308. 

virginianus sennetti. 54. 
Chuck-wiirs-wido%v, 61, 330. 
Cinclus mexicanus. 19. 310. 
Circus hudsonius, 307. 
Cistothorus palustris. 192. 

palustris paludicola, 20. 
Clark, John N., ten davs among the 



350 



Index. 



LOci. 



birds of northern New Hamp- 
shire (title only), 45. 
Clark, Josiah H., notes on the nest- 
ing of Palmer's Thrasher at El 
Plomo, Sonoro, Mexico, 272. 
Clarke, C K., notes from Ontario, 
274; breeding habits of the Soli- 
tary Sandpiper i^Totajius solitar- 
t'us), 328. 
Clivicola, 271. 

riparia, 17, 25. 
Coccoborus cjanoides, 229. 
Coccothraustes vespertinus mon- 

tanus, 14. 
Colaptes auratvis, 135, 177. 
auratus luteus, 177. 
cafer, 234, 308. 
cafer saturatior, 127. 
Colinus atriceps, 122. 

coyolcos, 117, 121. 

godmani, 120. 

gray son i, 121. 

graysoni nigripectiis, 116, 

121. 

insignis, 119, 122. 
nigrogularis, 122. 
pectoralis, 1 17. 
ridgvvayi, 121. 
salvini, 119, 122. 
virginianus, 184. 
virginianus texanus, 121. 
Columba flavirostris madrensis, 

340- 
Columbigallina passerina socor- 

roensis, 316. 
Colvin, Walter S., Chestnut-sided 

Warbler in eastern Kansas, 59. 
Colymbus nigricollis californiciis, 

307- 
Compsothlypis graysoni, 317. 

inornatus, 159. 
Contopus borealis, 135. 

virens, 135. 
Conurus nolochlorus brevipes, 317. 

ludovicianus, 28-32. 
Cooke, W. W., the Scarlet Ibis — a 

correction, 183; notice of his 

' Further Notes on the Birds 

of Colorado,' 340. 
Cormorant, Violet-green, 126, 230. 
Corvus americanus, 196. 

caurinus, 128. 

corax principalis, 55, 128, 135. 

corax sinuatus, 234, 235, 309, 
31.5. 318. 
Cory, Charles B., notice of his 
' How to know the Ducks, Geese 



and Swans of North America,' 
278; Kirtland's Warbler [Dendro- 
ica kirtlandi) in Florida, 331. 
Cotile, 271. 

Coues, Elliott, William Swainson 
to John James Audubon, a hither- 
to unpublished letter, 11-13; 
Auduboniana and other matters 
of present interest (title only), 
45 ; notes on generic names of 
certain Swallo-\vs, 271. 
Cowbird, 25, 26, 309. 
Creeper, Brown, 137. 
California, 130. 
Rocky Mountain, 311. 
Crolius, A. A., nesting of the 

Robin, 332. 
Crossbill, American, 128. 
Crow, American, 27, 196. 

Northwest, 12S. 
Cuckoo, European, 337. 
Cuculus auratus, 177. 

canorus, 337. 
Culicivora mexicana, 160. 
Curlew, Eskimo, 52, 
Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus, 19S, 

309. 
Cyanocitta cristata, 135, 269. 
stelleri 128. 

stelleri macrolopha, 309. 
Cyanocompsa concreta cvanescens, 
229. 
concreta sanctje-martre, 339. 
cyanea, 229. 
cyajiodes, 229. 
parellina, 322. 
Cyanospiza, 323. 

amcena, 324. 
ciris. 324. 
cyanea, 324. 
lelancheri, 324. 
rositffi, 324. 
versicolor, 324. 
versicolor pulchra, 324. 
Cyclarhis flavipectus canticus, 339. 
Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus, 124. 
Cj'phorinus pusillus, 60. 

Dacnis naprea, 339. 
Dactylortyx chiapensis, 340. 
devius, 340. 
thoracicus, 340. 
thoracicus lineolatus, 340. 
Davie, Oliver, notice of his 'Nests 
and eggs of North American 
Birds,' 334. 
Deane, Ruthven, the Passenger 



Vol. XV-1 
1898 J 



Index. 



351 



Pigeon (^Rciopiiies migratoriiis^ 
in Wisconsin and Nebraska, 184. 

Delaware Valley Ornithological 
Club, notice of eighth annual 
meeting of, 215; notice of its 
' Abstract of Proceedings,' 341. 

Dendragapus, 64. 

canadensis, 61. 
obscurus, 307. 

Dendrocincla olivacea auguina, 

339' 
Dendroica cestiva. 18, 310, 330. 

Ltstiva rubiginosa, 1:9. 

auduboni. iS, 236. 

cierulescens, 136. 

Cterulescens cairnsi, 192. 

castanea, 275. 

decora, 159. 

gracire, 310. 

kirtlandi, 2S9-293, 331. 

maculosa, 136. 

nigrescens, 197. 

pensylvanica, 59, 136. 

striata, 61. 

townsendi, 19, 129, 197. 

vigorsii, 331. 

virens, 136. 
Dickcissel. 213. 
Diomedea albatrus, 267. 

immutabilis, 38. 

nigripes. 317. 
Dionne, C E., a Black Vulture near 

Qiiebec, Canada, 53. 
Dipper, American, 310. 
Dixon, Charles, notice of his 'The 
Migration of Birds," amended 
edition, 67. 
Dolichonjx orjzivorus, 14. 
Dove, Clarion Island, 318. 

Gra\son"s. 316. 

Key" West Qiiail, 1S5. 

Mourning, 234, 307. 

Socorro Ground, 316. 
Dowitcher, 62. 
Dryobates nuttallii, 196. 

pubescens, 135. 

villosus, 134. 

villosas harrisii, 127, 308. 

villosus montanus, 54. 

villosus monticola, 54. 
Duck, American Scaup, 126, 189. 

Harlequin, 126. 

Labrador, 203. 

Lesser Scaup, 134. 

Pied, 203. 
Dutcher, William, report of the 
A. O. U. Committee on Pro- 



tection of North American Birds, 
81-1 14. 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., Is uniform- 
ity in local list possible.' (title, 
only), 45 ; a Petrel new to North 
America (title only), 48; an un- 
trustworthy observer, 213. 

Eagle, Alaskan Bald, 127. 
Bald, 62, 175, 234. 
Golden, 54, 30S. ' 
Washington's, 174. 
Eastman, C. R., notice of his paper 
on Struthiolithitschersonensis and 
on the distribution of Struthious 
birds, 33S. 
Ectopistes migratorius, 1S4, 333. 
Egret, American, 51. 
Ehenia browni, 339. 
Elliot, D. G., a naturalists' expedi- 
tion to East Africa (title only), 
47; notice of his 'Gallinaceous 
Game Birds of North America.' 
63; do. of his 'Shore Birds." 2d 
ed., 63; Canon XL, A. O. U. 
Code, 294-298. 
Emberiza nivalis, 324. 
Embernagra conirosti^is, 228. 

striaticeps. 22S. 
Empidonax difficilis. 12S, 309. 

wrightii, 309. 
Ereunetes occidentalis, 126. 
Ergaticus versicolor. 159. 
Euetheia bryanti, 322. 
coryi, 322. 

Falco columbarius, 214. 

columbarius suckleyi, 123. 
mexicanus, 30S. 
rusticolus obsoletus, 54. 
sparverius, 308. 
Falcon, Prairie, 308. 
Faxon, Walter, Hemiura leucogas- 

ira (Gould) — a correction, 60. 
Finch, Black Sea-side, 270. 
House, 235, 309. 
McGregor's, 265. 
San Clemente House, 25S. 
Fisher, A. K.. rank of the Sage 

Sparrows, 190. 
Flicker, Northern, 177. 

Northwestern. 127. 
Red-shafted, 234. 308. 
Floyd, Harry Webb, wintering of 
the Towhee [Pipilo erythroph- 
iJiahnns) at Rockaway Beach, 
L. I., 190. 



352 



Index. 



TAuk 
LOct. 



Flycatcher, Great-crested, 174. 

Northern Crested, 179. 

Olive-sided, 135. 

Western, 12S, 309. 

Wright's, 309. 
Fratercula corniculata, 124. 
Fregata aquila, 314, 316, 31S. 
Fringilla arvensis, 225. 

capensis, 224. 

ceUeno, 226. 

lapponica, 324. 

manimbe, 224, 

mortonii, 32 i. 

oryzivora, 324. 
Fuertes, Louis Agassiz, occurrence 
of Leconte's Sparrow {Aiiimo- 
d ramus lecontii) at Ithaca, N. Y., 
iSS. 

Galbula ruficauda paliens, 339. 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 19, 137. 
Gallinago delicata, 195. 
Gallinule, Purple, 195. 
Gavia imber, 124. 
lumme, 124. 
paciticus, 124. 
Geospiza, 20S. 

conirostris, 20S. 
Geothlvpis agilis, 193. 
macgillivraji, 19. 
Philadelphia, 136. 
trichas, 59, 75, 137, 193. 
trichas occidentalis, 19. 
Geotr_>-gon chrysia, 185. 
Gibson, Wm. "Hamilton, notice of 

his ' Studio Neighbors,' 65. 
Goldfinch, American, 136, 239-243. 
Arkansas, 235, 309. 
Yucatan, 320. 
Goshawk, Western, 127, 308. 
Grackle, Bronzed, 25, 135. 

Great-tailed. 269. 
Grallaria ochraceiventris, 340. 
Grassquit, Bryant's, 322. 

Cory's, 322. 
Grebe, American Eared, 307. 
Grinnell, Joseph, rank of the Sage 
Sparrow, 58; notice of his 'Re- 
port on the Birds .... of Santa 
Barbara, San Nicolas, and San 
Clemente,' 73; summer birds of 
Sitka, A_laskk, 122-131 ; land birds 
observed in midwinter on Santa 
Catalina Island, California, 233- 
236; geographical races of Har- 
porhvnchus redivivus, 236 : the 
San "Nicolas Rock Wren, 237-239 ; 



notice of his List of the Birds of 
the Pacific Slope of Los Angeles 
Co., Cal., 2S3. 
Grosbeak, Alaskan Pine, 319. 

Black-headed, 310. 

Panama Blue, 229. 

Rocky Mountain Pine, 319. 

Rose-breasted, 190. 

Western Blue, 322. 
Grouse, Dusky, 307. 

Ruffed, 134. 
Guillemot, Pigeon, 124. 
Guiraca cierulea eurhyncha, 322. 

cterulea lazula, 322. 

chiapensis, 340. 

cyanoides, 229. 
Gull, x\merican Herring, 49. 

Bonaparte's, 125. 

Glaucous, 50, 61. 

Glaucous-winged, 125, 230. 

Heermann's, 313. 

Laughing, 16S, 171. 

Mew, 198. 

Ross's, 183. 

Western, 313, 315. 
Gurney, J. H., notice of his 'The 

Economy of the Cuckoo,' 337. 
Gymnostinops cassini, 327. 

guatimozinus, 326. 
Gyrfalcon, Black, 54. 

H.EMATOPUS bachmani, 127, 230. 
Hffimophila pulchra, 224. 

stolzmanni, 224. 
Haines, Edwin I, the summer 

birds of the Catskill Mountains, 

etc. (title only), 47. 
Haliieetus leucocephalus, 62, 175, 

leucocephalus alascensis, 127. 
leucocephalus Washington i, 

174- 
Harporhynchus bendirei, 3, 4. 

curvirostris palmeri, 272. 

redivivus, 237. 

redivi\-us pasadensis, 237. 
Hawk, American Sparrow, 308. 

Cooper's, 127, 307. 

Marsh, 307. 

Pigeon, 215. 

Sharp-shinned, 127. 

Socorro Red-tail, 316. 

Swainson's 61, 308. 

Western Red-tail, 308. 
Heleodvies brunneicapillus ob- 

scurus, 340. 

gularis, 160. 



Vol. XV" 

189H _ 



Index. 



353 



llclcoiiytes occidentalis, 160. 
llcliiiintliophilii cclata liitescciis, 
18, 129. 
celata sordida, 23.4, 236. 
pimis, 59. 

ruhiiiapilla j^aitliualis, iS. 
Hemithraupis, 226, 330. 
Iloiniiira Iciicoj^astra, 60. 
llcmiiugcr, W. F., the Piiic War- 
l)lcr {Dc/i<froicu vii^orsii) a 
hieoder in Ohio, 331. 
Heron, Great Blue, 126, 316, 318. 
Little Blue, 195. 
Yelknv-crowned Niyiit, 316. 
Hesperociciila nievia, 131. 
Ilesperornis, atKnities of, 70, 339. 
Ileteractitis incanus, 127, 315, 316, 

318. 
Heterospingus, 225. 
Iliinantopus niexicanus, 307. 
Hirundo, 271. 

cayennensis, 7. 
Histrionicus histrionicus, 126. 
Ilornaday, William T., notice of 
his 'The Destruction of our 
Birds and Mammals,' 280. 
Howe, Reginald Heber, Jr., the 
aerial song of the Maryland Yel- 
lowthroat, 59; breeding habits 
of the American Robin (Alerula 
migratoria) in eastern Massachu- 
setts, 162-167; the Sea-side Spar- 
row on Cape Cod in winter, and 
other notes, 189; a note on the 
Wood Tlirush, 332 ; notes from 
Chateaugay Lake, New York, 

333- 
Hummingbird, Aden's, 235. 

Anna's, 235. 

Black-chinned, 30S. 

Broad-tailed, 30S. 

Morcom's, 325. 

Rufous, 128. 
Hylocichla, 304. 

ustulata almae, 304-306. 

Ibis, Glossy, 50. 

Scarlet, 183. 

White-faced Glossy, 184, 307. 
Icteria virens, 332. 

virens longicauda, 22. 
Icterus bullocki, 14, 309. 
Incaspiza, 224. 
lonornis martinica, 195. 

Jacobs, J. Warren, late nesting of 
the Carolina Wren in Monon- 



galia Co., W. Va., 60; notice of 
his ' (Cleanings from Nature, 
No. I. Oological Abnormaiilies,' 
281. 
Jay, Blue, 135, 269, 277. 

Canada, 213. 

Long-crested, 309. 

I'irKjn, 198, 309. 

Rocky Mountain, 3r)9. 

Steller's, 1 28. 

Woodhouse's, 3CJ9. 
Job, Herbert K., the Northern 
Raven breeding in New England, 
55; an uncommon (iulj in Mas- 
sachusetts, 50. 
Judd, Sylvester 1)., protective adap- 
tations of insects from an orni- 
thological point of view (title 
only), 44. 
Junco hyemalis, 61. 

hyemalis carolinensis, 136. 

hyemalis connectens, 16. 

hyemalis oregonus, 128. 

montanus, 321. 

phaonotus doi-salis, 310. 
Junco, Carolina, 136. 

Montana, 321. 

Oregon, 128. 

Red-backed, 310. 

Kennard, Fred H., unusual nest- 
ing site of Kingbird, 268 ; habits 
of the Blue Jay, 269. 
Killdeer, 27, 307. 
Kingbird, 174, 268. 

Arkansas, 309. 
Florida, 178. 
Kingfisher, Belted, 127, 234, 30S. 
Kinglet, Golden-crowned, 214. 
Ruby-crowned, 214, 236. 
Sitkan, 130. 

Western Golden-crowned, 
130. 
Kingsley, J. S., notice of his paper 

' Hair and Feathers,' 207, 
Kirkover, H. D., Jr., the Glossy 
Ibis in Western New York, 50; 
the Greater Yellow-Legs catching 
minnows, 51. 
Kirkwood, F. C. the Redhead 
{Ay thy a aniericaua) in post- 
nuptial pluiuage in autumn, 50. 
Kittiwake, Pacific, 125, 267. 
Knot, 62. 

Lanius ardosciaceus, 244, 245. 
borealis, 18, 244. 



354 



Index. 



TAuk 
LOci. 



Lanius caiolinensis, 244, 245. 
excubitor, 244. 
excvibitoioides, 245. 
ludovicianus, 244, 247. 
ludovicianus anthonyi, 261. 
ludovicianus excubitoroides, 

244, 247. 
ludovicianus gambeli, 234, 

235, 261. 
ludovicianus ludovicianus, 

24S; 254. 
ludovicianus migrans, 248. 
tyrannus, 179. 
Lano, Albert, Sennett's Nighthawk 
{Chordetles virginianus sennetti) 
at Madison, Minn., 54; Great 
Gray Owl (Scotiapiex cinerea) in 
Minnesota, 186. 
Lapwing, 195. 
Lark, Desert Horned, 309. 
Larus argentatus smithsonianus,49. 
atricilla, 76, 168. 
canus, 198. 
glaucescens, 125, 230 
glaucus, 50, 61. ' 

occidentalis, 315. 
Philadelphia, 125. 
Lee, Oswin A. J., notice of his 
'Among British Birds in their 
Nesting Haunts,' 334. 
Lemmon, Wm. P., Virginia Rail 
killed bj striking a telephone 
wire, 51. 
Leptotila capitalis, 340. 
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis, 

IS- 
Longspur, Alaskan, 320. 

Kamtschatkan, 320. 
Loon, 124. 

Pacific, 124. 

Red-throated, 124. 
Loxia curvirostra bendirei, 4. 

curvirostra minor, 15, 128. 
Loxigilla affinis, 322. 

richardsoni, 224. 
Lunda cirrhata, 124, 230. 
Lysurus, 225. 

Mackay, George H., the Terns of 
Muskeget Island, Mass., Part IV, 
168-172 ; Gull Dick, 49 ; the 1897 
Migration of the Golden Plover 
(^Charadrius domiiiicus) and the 
Eskimo Curlew {JVicmenins bore- 
alts) in Massachusetts, 52; the 
Fauna of Muskeget Island — a 
replj, 210. 



Macrorhamphus griseus, 62. 

Magpie, American, 274, 309. 

Mai I Hard, Joseph, Baird's Sand- 
piper (Tiinga bairdii) on the 
California coast, 51 ; occasional 
visitants at San Geronimo (Nica- 
sio Township), Marin Co., Cali- 
fornia, 196; California bird 
notes, 197; notes on the nesting 
of the Fork-tailed Petrel {Ocean- 
odroma fiircaia), 230-233. 

Malmgren, Dr. Anders Johan, 
notice of death of, 214. 

Marsh, O. C, notice of his 'The 
Atiinities of Hesferornis^ ']o. 

Martin, Purple, 22, 136, 193. 

Martinet a collier, de Cayenne, 7. 

McCormick, S. M., nesting habits 
of the Robin, 274. 

McGregor, R. C., note on Speotyto 
cunicularia obscura Stephens, 
187; young plumages of Mexican 
birds, 264; description of a new 
Ainniod ramus from Lower Cali- 
fornia, 265. 

McLain, Robert B., the California 
Vulture in Santa Barbara Co., 
Cal., 185 ; the Rose-breasted Gros- 
beak in California, 190; capture 
of the Short-tailed Albatross on 
the coast of southern California, 
267. 

Meadowlark, Western, 56, 309, 333. 

Mearns, Edgar A., descriptions of 
two new birds from the Santa 
Barbara Islands, southern Cali- 
fornia, 258-264. 

Megascops asio bendirei, 4. 
asio trichopsis, 308. 
aspersus, 186. 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus, 135. 
formicivorus, 308. 
torquatus, 188, 197. 
wagleri sanctpe-marths, 339. 

Melanospiza, 224. 

Melanotis cserulescens longirostris, 

34°- 
Meleagris gallopavo, 64. 

gallopavo mexicana, 307. 

sylvestris ellioti, 61. 

sylvestris intermedia, 61. 
Melospiza fasciata, 27, 76, 136. 

fasciata merrilli, 16. 

fasciata montana, 310. 

fasciata rufina, 128. 

georgiana, 275. 

incompta, 339. 



Vol. XVI 

1898 J 



Index. 



.rs5 



Melospiza lincolnii, 128, 1S9. 
liiicoliiii striata, 129. 

Merijaiiscr serrator, 126. 

Merganser, Red-breasted, 126. 

Meniain, C Hart, Syr/iitim occi- 
(h')itiilc cauriiniin.! a new Owl 
from the Puyet Sound Region, 

39- 

Merriani, Florence A., notice of 
her 'Birds of Village and Field,' 
206. 

Merrill, J. C, in memoriam : 
Charles Emil Bendire, 1-6; notes 
on the Birds of Fort Sherman, 
Idaho (concluded from Vol. XIV), 
14-22 ; Spotted Sandpiper remov- 
ing its young, 52. 

Merula leucauchen, 161. 

migratoria, 137, 162, 274, 332. 
migratoria propinqua, 21, 

130,3"- 

plebius, i6i. 

wilsonii, 304. 
Micropallas grajsoni, 317. 
Miller, Gerrit S., Jr., the fauna of 
Muskeget Island — a protest, 75. 
Mimodes graysoni, 317. 
Mimodes, Grayson's, 317. 
Mimus gracilis, 159. 

gracilis lawrencei, 159. 

polyglottos, 59, 197, 234, 236, 

333- 

Mitchell, Walton I., the summer 
birds of San Miguel County, 
New Mexico, 306-311. 

Mitrospingus, 225. 

Mockingbird, 59, 236, 333. 

Mojsisovics, Dr. Felix George Her- 
man August, notice of death of, 

215. 

Molothrus ater, 14, 309. 

Montgomery, Thomas H., Jr., 
notice of his 'A List of the 
Birds of the Vicinity of West 
Chester, Chester Co., Pa.,' 72. 

Moore, Willie H., Lincoln's Spar- 
row in New Brunswick, 189; 
Long-billed Marsh Wren in New 
Brunswick, 192. 

Motacilla sialia, 1S2. 

Murre, Briinnich's, 183, 214. 
California, 125. 

Murrelet, Ancient, 197. 
Marbled, 49, 124. 
Xantus's, 197. 

Myiadestes townsendii, 21, 197,311. 

Myiarchus crinitus, 179. 



Myiarchus crinitus boreus, 179. 
Myiopagis placens minimus, 340. 
Myiospiza, 224. 

Nelson, E. W., with Bob-white 
in Mexico, 115-122; notes on 
certain species of Mexican birds, 
155-161 ; the Imperial Ivory- 
billed Woodpecker, Campepka- 
lus imperialis (Gould), 217-223; 
notice of his papers describing 
new birds from Mexico, 339. 

Nesomimus, 208. 

New York Zoological Society, its 
work and plans, 79. 

Nighthawk, 135. 

Sennett's, 54. 
Western, 30S. 

Noddy, Ridgway's, 316. 

Nowotny, Dr., the breeding of the 
Carolina Paroquet in captivitv, 
28-32. 

Nucifraga Columbiana, 309. 

Numenius borealis, 52. 

Nutcracker, Clark's, 309. 

Nuthatch, Brown-headed, 180. 

Florida Brown-headed, 180. 

Pigmy. 3"- 

Red-breasted, 137. 

Slender-billed, 311. 

White-bellied, 145. 
Nycticorax violaceus, 316. 
Nyctidromus albicollis insularis, 
340- 

Oberholser, Harry C, description 
of a new Amazilia, 32-36 ; some 
notes on Liberian birds (title 
only), 45 ; Colinus virginianus 
in peculiar plumage, 184; Ama- 
zilia cerviniveiitris cfialcoiiota — 
a correction, 188 ; description of 
a new North American Thrush, 
303-306. 
Oceanodroma furcata, 124, 230-233. 
homochroa, 143. 
leucorhoa, 50, 125, 231, 232, 

233- 

kaedingi, 37, 314, 316, 317. 

macrodactyla, 141. 

melania, 141, 142, 144. 

socorroensis, 58, 141, 142, 
144. 
Oidemia deglandi, 126. 

perspicillata, 126. 
Oreophasis derbianus, 156. 
Oreortyx pictus, 22. 



356 



Index. 



pAuk 
LOct. 



Oreospiza chlorura, 310. 
Oriole, Bullock's, 309. 
Oropendola, Cassin's, 327. 
Ostinops guatimozinus, 326. 
Otocoris alpestris arenicola, 309. 
Owen, Charles C, the American 

Egret at Maplewood, N. J., 51. 
Owl, Burrowing, 187, 234, 308. 

Clarion Burrowing, 318. 

Graj'son's Elf, 317. 

Great Graj, i86. 

Mexican Screech, 308. 

Muskeget, 211. 

Short-eared, 77,210, 211,234, 
308. 

Spotted, 308. 

Western Horned, 71. 

Western Spotted, 39. 
Oyster-catcher, Black, 127, 230. 

Pachyramphus major, 156. 
Palmer, William, our sinall eastern 

Shrikes, 244-258. 
Panjptila cajennensis, 7. 

sancti-hieronjmi, 7. 
Paroquet, Carolina, 28. 

Short-footed, 317. 
Partiidge, Gambel's 307. 

Valley, 234. 
Parus atricapillus, 20, 137, 144, 150. 

bicolor, 181, 213. 

bicolor floridanus, 181. 

gambeli, 21, 311. 

hudsonicus, 213. 

meridionalis, 160. 

riifescens, 21, 130. 

sclateri, 160. 

(Lophophanes) bicolor flori- 
danus, 181. 
Passer domesticus, 136, 193. 
Passerella iliaca megarhyncha, 235. 

iliaca schistacea, 17. 

iliaca unalaschensis, 129,235. 
Passerina, 323. 

amoena, 17. 

hyperborea, 324. 

nivalis, 324. 
' nivalis townsendi, 324. 
Pearson, T. Gilbert, an addition 
and a correction to the list of 
North Carolina birds, 275. 
Penelopina nigra, 156. 
Perisoreus canadensis, 213. 

canadensis capitalis, 309. 
Petrel, Fork-tailed, 125, 230-233. 

Guadeloupe, 142. 

Kaeding's, 143, 314, 316, 317. 



Petrel, Leach's, 50, 125, 231. 

Least, 142. 

Socorro, 141. 
Petroclielidon lunifrons, 17,310. 
Peuca-a aestivalis botterii, 227. 

arizona?, 227. 

botterii, 227. 

carpalis, 3. 

mexicanus, 227. 
Pewee, 135. 

Wood 135. 
Pezopetes, 223. 
Phaethon aethereus, 314, 316, 317. 

americanus, 208. 

Havirostris, 20S. 

rubricaudatus, 38, 39. 
Phalacrocorax pelagicus robustus, 

230. 
Phalsenoptilus nuttalli, 308. 
Phalarope, Northern, 126. 

Wilson's 268. 
Phalaropus lobatus, 126. 
Pharomacrus mocinno, 136. 
Phoebe, Black, 235. 

Say's, 235, 309. 
Phoenicothraupis rubicoides roseus, 

340- 
Phoeniscoma bidentata, 159. 
Pica pica hudsonica, 274, 309. 
Picoides americanus, 333. 
Picus imperialis, 217. 

pileatus, 176. 
Piers. Harry, remarkable ornitlio- 
logical occurrences in Nova 
Scotia, 195. 
Pigeon, Passenger, 184, 333. 
Pinicola enucleator alascensis, 319. 

enucleator californica, 320. 

enucleator canadensis, 320. 

enucleator flammula, 320. 

enucleator kadiaka, 320. 

enucleator montana, 319. 
Pipilo aberti, 310. 

carmani, 264, 317. 

clementae, 73. 

erythrophthalmus, 136, 189, 
190. 

fuscus mesoleucus, 310. 

maculatus, 157. 

maculatus megalonyx, 17, 

23.5- 

orizabiE, 157. 
Pipit, American, 129. 
Piranga bidentata, 157, 15S, 159. 

faceta, 339. 

ludoviciana, 17- 

sanguinolenta, 157, 158, 159. 



Vol. XV-| 
1898 J 



Index. 



357 



Pitjliis, 223. 

fulif^iiiosus, 223. 

i^rossus, 223. 

Ifiziiliis, 322. 
Plagiospiza, 11^. 
Pleclroplieiiax hjperboreus, 269. 

nivalis, 15. 
Plegadis aiitiininalis, 50. 

guarauna, 184, 307. 

rubra, 183. 
Plover, American Golden, 127. 

Belted Piping, 27, 62. 

Cjolden, 52. 

Mountain, 307. 

Semipalmated, 27, 127. 
Polioptila cteiulea mexicana, 160. 
Polvborus cheriway pallidus, 340. 
Poocietes gramineus confinis, 15, 

309- 
Poor-will, 308. 
Progne sinaloie, 340. 

sidiis, 22, 136, 193. 
Pselliophorus, 225. 
Pseudogrj'phus californianus, 185. 
Publications received, 73, 208, 285, 

341- 
Putlin, Horned, 124. 

Tufted, 124, 230. 
Puffinus assimilis, 48. 

auricularis, 38, 313, 316, 317. 

cuneatus, 39, 313, 316. 

griseus, 125, 197. 

tenuirostris, 197. 
Pyrgisoma kieneri, 156. 

rubricatum, 157. 

rubricatum xantusi, 156. 

xantusi, 156. 
Pjrgita peruviana, 321. 
Pjrocephalus, 208. 
Pj'rrhulagra affinis, 322. 

dominicana, 323. 

coryi, 323. 

crissalis, 323. 
Pjrrhulagra, Cory's, 323. 

Dominican, 323. 

Haitien, 322. 

St. Vincent, 323. 

QuiscALus quiscula icneus, 135. 
macrourus, 269. 

Rail, Virginia, 51. 

Rallus virginianus, 51. 

Ralph, W. L., note on &^^ of the 

Marbled Murrelet, 49. 
Raven, 55. 

American, 235, 309, 315, 31S. 



Raven, Northern, 128, 135. 

Rccur\irostra amcricana, 307. 

Redliead, 50. 

Redstart, American, 332. 

Red-tail, Socorro, 316. 
Western, 307. 

Reed, J. Harris, the Terns of Great 
Gull Island, N. Y., during 1897, 
40-43; birds nesting under elec- 
tric arc-light hoods, 193; tlie 
use of hornets' nests by birds, 
193 ; accidental deatli of a Hooded 
Warbler {Sylvatiia mitrata), 272 ; 
nest building under difiiculties, 
330- 

Regulus calendula, 21, 214, 236. 
satrapa, 214. 
satrapa aztecus, 160. 
satrapa olivaceus, 21, 130, 
160. 

Rhodostethia rosea, 183. 

Rhodothraupis, 226. 

Rhynchospiza, 224. 

Richmond, Charles W., the Cav- 
enne Swift, Pcuiyptila cayenneu- 
sis (Gmelin), 7-10; description 
of a new species of Gyjnt/osiinops, 
326 ; Tyrajinus magniro&tris d" 
Orb. renamed, 330. 

Ridgway, Robert, descriptions of 
supposed new genera, species, 
and subspecies of American 
Birds. — I, Fringillidre, 223-230; 
new species, etc., of American 
Birds. — II, Fringillidte (con- 
tinued), 319-324; description of 
a new species of Hummingbird 
from Arizona, 325 ; Hcmit/irati- 
■pis — a correction, 331. 

Riparia, 271. 

cinerea, 272. 
europsea, 272. 
riparia, 272. 

Rissa tridactyla pollicaris, 125, 267. 

Rives, William C., summer birds 
of the West Virginia Spruce 
Belt, 45, 131-137- 

Robin, American, 137,162-167,274, 

33^- 
Western, 130. 
Rowlej', John, notice of his 'The 
Art of Taxidermy,' 2S2. 

Sage, John H., Fifteenth Congress 
of the American Ornithologists' 
Union, 43-48; notice of his 'List 
of Birds of Portland, Conn.,' 284. 



358 



Index. 



-Auk 

.Oct. 



Salpinctes obsoletus, 19, 234, 236, 

239. 310- 315- 
obsoletus pulverius, 238. 
Salvin, Osbeit, notice of death of, 
286; biographical sketch of, 343. 
Sanderson, E. Dwight, the eco- 
nomic value of the White-bellied 
Nuthatch and Black-capped 
Chickadee, 144-145. 
Sandpiper, Baird's, 27, 51, 126. 
Bartramian, 53. 
Least, 37, 126. 
Pectoral, 27. 

Solitary, 27, 213, 307, 328. 
Spotted, 27, 52, 134, 307, 316. 
Western, 126. 
Sapsucker, Red-naped, 196, 308. 

Williamson's, 308. 
Sayornis nigricans, 235. 
phcebe, 135. 
saya, 22, 235, 309. 
Scolecophagus carolinus, 193. 
cyanocephalus, 14, 309. 
Scoter, Surf, 126. 

White-winged, 126. 
Scotiaptex cinerea, 186. 
Scott, William E. D., notice of his 
' Bird Studies, an account of the 
Land Birds of Eastern North 
America,' 276. 
Scudder, Bradford Alexander, Ec- 
tofistes migratorius, Aliynus poly- 
glottos, and Sttirnella magtia 
neglecta in Bristol Co., Mass., 

333- 
Seiurus motacilla, 60. 

noveboracensis, 136. 
Selasphorus alleni, 235. 

platycercus, 308. 

rufus, 128. 
Serinopsis, 225. 
Setophaga miniata flammea, 159. 

picta guatemahe, 159. 

ruticilla, 19, 332. 
Shearwater, Dark-bodied, 125. 

Eared, 313, 316, 317. 

Slender-billed, 197. 

Wedge-tailed, 313, 316. 
Shrike, California, 235. 

Island, 261. 

Loggerhead, 244, 248. 

Migrant, 248. 

Northern, 244. 
Sialia arctica, 21, 311. 

mexicana bairdi, 21, 311. 

sialis, 137, 182. 

sialis grata, 182. 



Sialia sialis guatemala?, 181. 
Silloway, P. M., notice of his 
' Sketches of Some Common 
Birds,' 281. 
Sitta canadensis, 20, 137. 

carolinensis, 144, 145. 

carolinensis aculeata, 20, 311. 

pusilla, 180. 

pusilla caniceps, 180. 

pygmaia, 20, 311. 
Sittasomus sylvioides, 156. 
Snipe, Wilson's 195. 
Snowfiake, McKay's, 269. 
Solitaire, Townsend's, 197, 311. 
Sparrow, Black Sea-side, 270. 

Chipping, 136. 

Chihuahuan Pileated, 228. 

Clay-colored, 275. 

Curasao, 321. 

Desert, 229. 

English, 136, 309. 

F'ield, 136, 330. 

Golden-crowned, 235. 

House, 193. 

Huatusco, 227. 

Intermediate, 235. 

Ipswich, 213. 

Lagoon, 265. 

Laguna, 212. 

Leconte's, 188. 

Lincoln's, 128, 189, 239. 

Mountain Song, 310. 

Pine, 331. 

Richmond's, 228. 

Sage, 58, 190. 

San Benito, 264. 

San Clemente, 230. 

Seaside, 189. 

Song, 27, 136. 

Sooty Song, 128. 

Thick-billed, 235. 

Townsend's, 129, 235. 

Venezuelan, 228. 

White-crowned, 58, 213, 214. 

Western Lark, 309. 

Western Chipping, 310. 

Western Vesper, 309. 
Spaulding, F. B., Leach's Petrel at 

Lancaster, N. H., 50. 
Speotyto cunicularia obscura, 187. 

cunicularia hypogsea, 234, 
308. 

rostrata, 31 8. 
Sphyrapicus thyroideus, 22, 308. 

varius, 134. 

varius nuchalis, 196, 308. 
Spinus pinus, 15. 



Vol. XVl 
1898 J 



Index, 



359 



Spimis psaltria, 235, 309. 

tristis, IS, 136, 239-243. 
Spizeila inoiiticola ochracea, 16. 
pallida, 275. 
pusilla, 136, 330. 
socialis, 136. 
socialis arizona', 16, 310. 
Sporathraupis, 330. 
Starlini;, 55. 

Slfgaiiupus tricolor, 268. 
Slejiiener, Lfoiihard, Ross's Gull 
{^Rliodostethia rosea) on Behiing 
Island, 183. 
Stelgidostomus, 226. 
Sterna anlillarum, 27. 
dougalli, 76, 168. 
fuliginosa, 316. 
hirundo, 76, 168. 
paiadisiL-a, 76, 168. 
Stilt, Black-necked, 307. 
Stone, Witmer, notice of his paper, 
'The Genus Sturnella,'' 70 ; do. 
of his paper on the ' Proper 
name of the Western Horned 
Owl,' 71 ; Wilson's Phalarope 
{Steoa?iopus tricolor) at Ocean 
City^ N. )., 268; McKay's Snow- 
tiake {Plectrophcnax hyperboretis) 
at Bethel, Alaska, 269 ; Antrosto- 
mns cdrolinciisis devouring other 
birds, 330 ; Dendroica kirtlattdi 
in Pennsylvania — a correction, 

330- 
Struthiolithus chersonensis, 338. 
Sturnella magna, 76. 

magna hoopesi, 70. 

magna mexicana, 70. 

magna neglecta, 14, 56, 309, 

333- 
Sturnus vulgaris, 55. 
Sula cyanops, 314, 316, 317. 
brewsteri, 314, 316. 
websteri, 314, 316, 317. 
Surber, Thaddeus, two species new 
to the list of birds found in West 
Virginia, 61. 
Swainson, William, an unpublished 
letter of, to John James Audubon, 
11-13. 
Swallow, Bank, 25, 194, 272. 

Barn, 129, 136, 193, 194, 31S. 
Cliff, 310. 
Eave, 194. 
Tree, 129, 271. 
\'iolet-green, 310. 
White-bellied, 194. 
Swiff, Cayenne, 7-10. 



Swift, Chimney, 135. 

White-throated, 308. 
Sycalis browni, 339. 
Sylvania canadensis, 137. 

mitrala, 272. 

pusilla pileolata, 19, 129. 
Sympliemia scmipalmata, 62. 
Synthliboraniphus anliquus, 197. 
Syrnium occidentale, 39, 308. 

occidentale caurinum, 39, 40. 

Tachycinkta bicolor, 17, 129, 271. 

thalassina, 310. 
Tachyphonus cassini, 225. 

rubrifrons, 225. 

tibialis, 225. 
Tanagra cyanea, 324. 

ruficollis, 322. 
Tattler, Wan'dering, 127, 315, 316, 

318. 
Teal, Blue-winged, 307. 

Green-winged, 307. 
Tern, Common, 168. 

Least, 27. 

Roseate, 169. 

Sooty, 316. 
Terns of Great Gull Island, N. Y., 
40-43 ; of Muskeget Island, Mass., 
168-172. 
Thayer, Abbott II., the underlying 
principle of protective coloration 
(abstract), 46. 
Thrasher, Palmer's, 272. 

Southern California, 237. 
Thrush, Alma's, 304-306. 

Bicknell's, 60, 214. 

Dwarf Hermit, 130, 236. 

Gray-cheeked, 214. 

Hermit, 214. 

Louisiana Water, 60. 

Northern Water, 136. 

Olive-backed, 137, 214. 

Russet-backed, 130. 

Varied, 131. 

Wood, T,T>-!.,ZT:,. 
Thryothorus bewickii spilurus, 234, 
236. _ 

bewickii leucogaster, 310. 

lajtus, 339. 

lawrencii madalena?, 340. 

ludovicianus, 60, 192, 274. 
Titmouse, Florida Tufted, 181. 

Tufted, 181. 213, 214. 
Totanus melanoleucus, 51. 

solitarius, 27, 213, 307, 328, 
Towhee, 136, 1S9, 190. 

Caiion, 310. 



360 



Index. 



TAuk 

LOct. 



Towhee, Carmon's 317. 

Green-tailed, 310. 

Socorro, 264. 

Spurred, 235. 
Tringa bairdi, 27, 51, 126. 

canutus, 62. 

maculata, 27. 

minutilla, 27, 51, 126. 
Trochiliis alexandri, 30S. 
Troglodytes aedon, 137. 

aedon aztecus, 310. 

aedon parkmanii, 19. 

hiemalis, 137, 196. 

hiemalis pacilicus, 19, 130. 

insulnris, 317. 

leucogaster, 60. 

tanneri, 318. 
Tropic Bird, see Bird, Tropic. 
Tiirdus, alicire, 214. 

alicise bicknelli, 60, 214. 

aonalaschce, 130, 236. 

aonalaschtE pallasii, 214. 

crinitus, 180. 

fuscescens, 21, 304. 

minimus, 304. 

mustelinus, 332,333. 

swainsonii, 303. 

ustulatus, 130. 

ustulatus swainsonii, 21, 137, 
214. 
Turkey, Mexican, 307. 
Turnstone, 27,318. 

Black, 127. 
Tryannus cubensis, 330. 

magnirostris, 330. 

tyrannus, 17S, 268. 

tyrannus vexator, 178. 

verticalis, 309. 

United Ornithologists of Maine, 
notice of second annual meet- 
ing of, 216. 

Uria lomvia, 183, 214. 

troile californica, 125. 

Vanellus vanellus, 195. 
Vireo gilvus, 18, 138. 

button i obscurus, 138. 

huttoni stephensi, 310. 

hypochryseus sordidus, 340. 

olivaceus, 18. 

philadelphicus, 191, It^Z- 

solitarius, 136. 

solitarius cassini, 18, 138. 

solitarius plumbeus, 310. 
Vireo, Anthony's, 138. 

Philadelphia, 191, 333. 



Vireo, Plumbeous, 310. 

Solitary, 136. 

Stephens's, 310. 
Vulture, Black, 53, 196. 

California, 1S5. 

Turkey, 53, 307. 

Warbler, Alaskan Yellow, 129. 

Audubon's 236. 

Bay-breasted, 275. 

Black-throated Blue, 136. 

Black-throated Gray, 197. 

Black-throated Green, 136. 

Blue-winged Yellow, 59. 

Cairns's, 192. 

Canada, 137. 

Chestnut-sided, 59, 136. 

Connecticut, 193. 

Grace's, 310. 

Grayson's, 317. 

Hooded, 272. 

Kirtland's, 289-293, 331. 

Lutescent, 129, 236. 

Magnolia, 136. 

Mourning, 136. 

Pileolated, 129. 

Townsend's, 129, 197. 

Yellow, 310. 
Warren, Oscar B., some connections, 

193- 

Whip-poor-will, 332. 

White, G. R., Briinnich's Murre 
{Uria lomvia^ at Ottawa, Can- 
ada, 183. 

Widmann, O., the great roosts of 
Gabberet Island, opposite North 
St. Louis, Mo., 22-27. 

Willet, 62. 

Williams, W. J. B., the Yellow- 
breasted Chat in Oneida County, 
N. Y., 331. 

Woodpecker, American Three-toed, 

333- 
California, 308. 
Downy, 135. 
Golden-winged, 135. 
Hairj', 134. 
Harris's, 127, 308. 
Imperial Ivory-billed, 217. 
Lewis's, 1S8, 197. 
Northern Pileated, 176. 
Nuttall's, 196. 
Pileated, 135. 
Red-headed, 135. 
Yellow-bellied, 135. 
Woodruff, Frank M., Lake Michi- 
gan notes, 61, 



Vol. XVI 
189a J 



Index. 



361 



Worcester, Dean C, and Frank S. 
Bourns, notice of their 'Contri- 
butions to Philippine Ornithol- 
ogy,' 284. 
Wren, Baird's, 310. 

Cailon, 310. 

Carolina, 60, 192, 273. 

House, 137. 

Island, 317. 

Long-billed Marsh, 192. 

Rock, 236, 237, 310. 

San Nicolas Rock, 237, 238. 

Tanner's, 31S. 

Vigors's, 236. 

Western House, 310. 

Western Winter, 130. 

Winter, 137, 196. 
Wright, Mabel Osgood, notice of 
her ' Birdcraft,' 2d ed-, 66, 



Xanthocei'Halus xanthocephalus, 
193- 

Yellow-legs, 51. 

Yellowthroat, Maryland, 59, 75, 

137- 
Young, C. J., the Philadelphia 
Vireo {Vireo philadelphictis), 191. 

Zamelodia ludoviciana, 191. 

melanocephala, 17, 310. 
Zenaidura clarionensis, 318. 

graysoni, 316. 

macroura, 234, 307. 
Zonotrichia albicollis, 61. 

capensis costaricensis, 321. 

leucophrys, 58, 214. 

leucophrys intermedia, 16, 



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I'LAIK III 




IMPERIAL WOODPECKER S &? 
(CAMPEPHILUS IMPERIALIS GOULD.) 



The Auk, Vol. XV. 




KIRTLAND'S WARBLER 
(DENDROICA KIRTLANDI BAIRD.) 

NAT. SIZE. 



, ncen 5 Co.umace- 



Old I CONTINUATION OF THE | New 

w^,^T!mi' bulletin of the NUTTALL ORNITHOLOGICAL CLUB i u^'''l^' 
Vol. XXll' 



Vol. XV 



0AHi8ia.»xhe Auk 



^ iDuartcrl^ 3!ournal of €)nTitl)olo9^ 



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Vol. XV — JAITIJAS.'Y", 1898 



ITo. 1 




PUBLISHED FOR 

The American Ornithologists' Union 



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CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

In MeivToriam : Charles Emil Bendike. 'S^y J. C. Merrill. (Frontispiece.) .... i 

The Cayenne Swift, Panyptila cayemtensis (Gmelin). By Charles W. Richmond. (Plate I.) 7 
William Swainson to John James Audubon. (A hitherto unpublished Letter.) By Dr. 

Elliott Coites. . J J 

Notes on the Birds of Fort Sherman, Idaho. By/. C. Merrill, Major and Surgeon, 

U. S. Army. (Concluded.) . ,^ 

The Great Roosts on Gabberet Island, opposite North St. Louis, Mo. By Otto 

IVidmanp, 22 

The Breeding of the Carolina Paroquet in Captivity. By Dr. Nowotny. ... 28 

Description OF A Nbw Amazilia. By ffarry C. Oierholser. 32 

Two New Birds from the Pacific Coast of America. By A. IV. Anthony. ... 36 

Four Sea Birds New to the Fauna of North America. By^. IV. Anthony. ... 38 
Syriiium occidentale cater imcm, a New Owl From the Puget Sound Region. By C. Hart 

Merriam. .39 

The Terns of Great Gull Island, N. Y., during 1897. By J. Harris Reed. ... 40 

Fifteenth Congress of the American Ornithologists' Union. By John H. Sage. . . 43 

General Notes. — Notes on the Egg of the Marbled Murrelet, 49; Gull Dick, 49 ; An Uncommon 
Gull in Massachusetts, 50; Leach's Petrel iu Massachusetts, 50; The Redhead {Aythya americatta) 
in post-nuptial Plumage in Autumn, 50 ; The Glossy Ibis in Western New York, 50 ; The American 
Egret at Maplewood, N. J., 51; Virginia Rail killed by striking a Telephone Wire, 51; Baird's 
Sandpiper (r?-/«^« bairdii) on the California Coast, 51; The Greater Yellow legs catching Min- 
nows, 51; Spotted Sandpiper removing its Young, 52; The 1S97 Migration of the Golden Plover 
(Cliaradrius doininiciis) and the Eskimo Curlew {Numenius borealis) in Massachusetts, 52 ; The 
Turkey Vulture in Connecticut, 53 ; A Black Vulture near Quebec, Canada, 53 ; Black Gyrfalcon 
{Falco rttsticoliis obsoletits) in Rhode Island. 54; Golden Eagle in New Jersey, 54; A New Name 
for Dryobates v. montamis, 54 ; Sennett's Night-hawk {Chordeiles virginianus sennetti) at Madison, 
Minn., 54; The Northern Raven breeding in New England, 55 ; The Starling {Sturnus vulgaris) on 
Long Island, N. Y., 55; The Song of the Western Meadowlark, 56; The White-crowned Sparrow 
{Zonotrichia leucophrys) on Long Island, N. Y., 58 ; The Rank of the Sage Sparrow, 58 ; The Blue- 
winged Warbler {Hehnijithophila pimis) in Eastern Massachusetts, 59; The Chestnut -sided Warbler 
iu Eastern Kansas, 59; The Aerial Song of the Maryland Yellow-throat, 59; Mockingbird (y)//;«?M 
polygloitos) at Taunton, Mass., sg ; Late Nesting of the Carolina Wren m Monongalia Co., W. Va., 
60 ; Hemiura leiccogastra (Gould) — A Correction, 60 ; Bicknell's Thrush on Mt. Ktaadn, Maine, 60 ; 
Two Species new to the List of Birds found in West Virginia, 61 ; Lake Michigan Notes, 61. 

Recent Literature. — Elliot's Shore Birds, 2d Ed., 63 ; Elliot's Gallinaceous Game Birds of North 
America, 63 ; Gibson's ' Studio Neighbors,' 65 : ' Bird Neighbors,' 66 ; The New ' Birdcraft,' 66 ; 
Dixon's ' Migration of Birds,' 67 ; Marsh on the Affinities of Hesperornis, 70 ; Stone on the Genus 
Sturnella, 70; The Proper Name of the Western Horned Owl, 71 ; ' Nature's Diary,' 71 ; Baskett's 
'The Story of the Birds,' 71; Chapman's ' Bird-Life,' colored edition, 72; Montgomery's 'List of 
the Birds of West Chester, Chester Co., Pa., 72; Griunell on the Birds of Santa Barbara, San Nico- 
las, and San Clemente Islands, California, 73 ; Publications Received, 73. 

Correspondence — Habits of the Maryland Yellow-Throat, 75; the Fauna of Muskeget Island — 
A Protest, 75.. 

Notes and News. — Public Meeting of the New York Audubon Society, 78; Miss M. R. Audubon's 
' Audubon and His Journals,' 78 ; Personals, 79; New York Zoological Society, 79 ; A,. O. U . 
Committee on Bird Protection, 80. 

Report of the A. O. U. Committee on Protection of North American Birds . . Si 



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ORNITHOLOGISTS 

BIRD-STUDENTS 

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text-drawings by Ernest Seton Thompson. 
12 mo. Cloth, $1.50. 

( ^j ) BOOK designed for those who study birds in relation to 
jp-^ their environment. The opening chapter treats of •■• The 
Bird, its place in nature and Relation to Man,'" and is followed by 
others on the form and uses of the wdngs, tail, feet and bill, on 
" Color and Age," " Color and Climate," " Sexual Colors," " Pro- 
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by full-page plates of unusual excellence. 

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APR 2.1 IRSP 



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The Auk 



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Vol. S:V — AFRIIi, 1898 



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CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

With Bob-white in Mexico. By £. W.Nelson. (Plate II.) ' ii5 

Summer Birds of Sitka, Alaska. By Joseph Grinnell. .122 

The Summer Birds of the West Virginia Spruce Belt. By William C. Rives, M.D. . 131 

Nesting Habits of Anthony's Vireo. By C W. ^ud J. //. Bowles 13S 

Petrels of Southern California. By A . W. Anthony 140 

The Economic Value of the White-bellied Nuthatch and Black-capped Chickadee. 

By E. Dwight Sanderson. 144 

Notes on Certain Species of Mexican Birds. By E. W.Nelson 155 

Breeding Habits of the American Robin {Merula migratoria) in Eastern Massachusetts. 

By Reginald Heber Howe, Jr "... 162 

The Terns of Muskeget Island, Massachusetts. By George H. Mackay 168 

Some New Races of Birds from Eastern North America. By Ontrani Bangs. . . 173 

General Notes. — Briiniiich's Murre {Uria lomvia) at Ottawa, Canada, 183; Ross's Gull (Rhodos- 
tethia rosed) on Bering Island, 183; The Scarlet Ibis — A Correction, 183; Colimis virginiamism 
Peculiar Plumage, 184; The Passenger Pigeon \Ectopistes migrator ius) in Wisconsin and Nebraska, 
184; Geotrygon chrysia again at Key West, 185 ; The California Vulture in Santa Barbara Co., Cal , 
185 ; Occurrence of the Spotted Screech Owl {Megascops aspersus) in Arizona, 186 ; Great Gray Owl 
(Scoiiapte.v cinerea) m Minnesota, 186; Note on Speotyto atnicidaria obscura Stephens, 187; Ama- 
zilia cerviniventris chakonota — A Correction, 18S ; Lewis's Woodpecker Storing Acorns, 188; 
Occurrence of Leconte's Sparrow {A mrnodramus leconiii) at Ithaca, N. Y., 188 ; The Sea-side Sparrow 
on Cape Cod in Winter, and other Notes, 189; Lincoln's Sparrow in New Brunswick, igo; Rank of 
the Sage Sparrow, iSq ; Wintering of the Towhee {Pipilo erythrophthabnns) at Rockaway Beach, 
L. I., igo; The Rose-breasted Grosbeak in California, 190; The Philadelphia Vireo {Vireo phila- 
delphicus), igi ; Cairns's Warbler (Dendroica cceridescens cairnsi) in Georgia on Migration, ig2 ; 
Carolina Wren at Lyme, Conn , in Winter, 192: Long-billed Marsh Wreu in New Brunswick, 192 ; 
Birds Nesting under Electric Arc-light Hoods, 193 ; The Use of Hornets' Nests by Birds, 193 ; 
Some Corrections, 193; Revival of the Sexual Passion in Birds in Autumn, 194; Remarkable Orni- 
thological Occurrences in Nova Scotia, 195 ; Occasional Visitants at San Geronimo (Nicasio Town- 
ships Marin Co., California, 196; California Bird Notes, 197. 

Recent Literature. — Audubon and His Journals, 19S ; Miss Merriam's ' Birds of Village and Field,' 
206 ; Hair and Feathers, 207 ; Baur on Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago, 207 ; Bulletin of the 
B. O. C, 208 ; Publications Received, 20S. 

Correspondence. — The Fauna of Muskeget Island — A Reply, 210; The Short-eared Owls of Mus- 
keget Island, 211 ; An Untrustworthy Observer, 213. 

Notes and News.' — Obituary. — Dr. Andreas Johan Malmgren, 214; Dr. F. G. Herman August 
Mojsisovics, 215 ; New Publications, 215 ; Ornithological Societies, 216. 



' THE AUK,' published as the Organ of the American Ornithologists' 
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THE PERIGHN OliNITWOLOGISTS' UNION 

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SECOND EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED. 



The preface to this work defines its scope and object and includes selec- 
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present connection. The table of contents consists of a systematic list of tlie 
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CLOTH, 8vo, 372 Pages, Price, $2.00. 



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CHAS. R. SKINNER, New York State Superintendent of Schools. 

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PUBLISHED FOR 



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CONTENTS. 



The Imperial Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Campephilus imperialis (Gould). By E. IV. Nel- 
son. Plate III 217 

Descriptions of Supposed New Genera, Species, and Subspecies of American Birds. 

I. Fringillid.'E. By Robert Ridgway 223 

Notes on the Nesting of the Fork-tailed Petrel {Oceanodroma fiircaia). 'By Joseph 

MaUliard. ^3° 

Land Birds Observed in Midwinter on Santa Catalina Island, California. By 

Joseph Grimiell. ^33 

Geographical Races oy Harporhynchus redivivus. By Joseph Grinnell. 236 

The San Nicolas Rock Wren. By Joseph Grimiell ■ 237 

A Month with the Goldfinches. By Mary Emily Bruce. ....... 239 

Our Small Eastern Shrikes. By IVilliani Palmer 244 

Descriptions of Two New Birds from the Santa Barbara Islands, Southern Cali- 
fornia. By E dgar A . Mearns 258 

Young Plumages of Mexican Birds. By RicJiard C. McGregor 264 

Description of a New Ammodramus from Lower California. By Richard C. McGregor. 265 

General Notes. — The Pacific YJA'a.-visks: {Rissa tridactyla pollicaris') yn. Lower California, 267 ; Cap- 
ture of the Short-tailed Albatross on the coast of Southern California, 267: Wilson's Phalarope 
(Stegajwpus tricolor) at Ocean City, N. J., 268 ; Unusual Nesting Site of Kingbird, 268 ; Karly 
Arrival of the Kingbird at Cambridge, Mass., 268 ; Habits of the Blue Jay, 269 ; Probable Poly- 
gamy of the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscabis macrouriis), 269 ; McKay's Snowflake (Plectrop/ieHax 
hyperboreus) at Bethel, Alaska, 269 ; Notes on the Black Seaside Finch {Amiiiodrainus iiigrescens), 
270: Nesting Instincts of Swallows, 271; Notes on Generic Names of Certain Swallows, 271; 
Accidental death of a Hooded Warbler iSylvania jititraia), 272 ; Notes on the Nesting of Palmer's 
Thrasher at El Plomo, Sonora, Mexico, 272; Carolina Wren at Lyme, Conn., 274; Nesting Habits 
of the Robin, 274; Notes from Ontario, 274; An Addition and a Correction to the List of North 
Carolina Birds, 275. 

Recent Literature. — Two New Popular Bird Books, 275 ; Cory's Ducks, Geese and Swans, 278; 
Chapman on Mexican Birds, 279 ; Hornaday on the Destruction of our Birds and Mammals, 2S0 ; 
Sketches of Some Common Birds, 281 ; Oological Abnormalities, 281 ; Rowley's ' Art of Taxidermy,' 
282 ; Birds of Los Angeles Co., Calif., 283 ; Sage's List of Portland, Conn., Birds, 284 ; Worcester 
and Bourns's Contributions to Philippine Ornithology, 284; Publications Received, 285. 

Notes and News. — Obituary, — Osbert Salvin, Dr. George Baur, 286; Ornithological Exploration, 
2S7 ; Connecticut Audubon Society, 28S ; Wisconsin Bird Day Law, 288. 



'THE AUK,' published as the Organ of the American Ornithologists' 
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R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 

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THE BIRDS OF CELEBES 

AND THE NEIGHBOURING ISLANDS. 

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(figures of 'seventy-three species) , three plain plates (tails of four 
species), and seven coloured maps [three maps : Geographical Distri- 
bution of Loriculus, Cacatua, Bucerotidse in the Indian Archipelago; 
one map of Celebes ; one map of Celebes and neighboring islands ; two 
Meteorological maps (winds and rains of the Indian Archipelago], with 
letterpress of more than iioo pages. In Royal Quarto. 

PRICE, 58 DOLLARS. 

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tirely worthy of its cordial reception. 

J. A. ALLEN, Editor, 'The Auk'. 

This is one of the most beautiful and interesting publications yet at- 
tempted in this direction. It has other attractions in addition to its 
beauty, and it must win its way to popular favor. 

CHAS. R. SKINNER, New York State Superintendent of Schools. 

Most of these pictures are astonishingly good. I like them so well 
that I shall put them up on the walls of my rustic retreat 'Slab Sides'. 

JOHN BURROWS. 

When one considers the low price at which you sell Birds, the num- 
and excellence of the plates is surprising, and I trust that your efforts 
to popularize the study of ornithology may meet with the success it so 
well deserves. 'f. M. CHAPMAN, Associate Editor, 'The Auk.' 

Experts agree that the success of the delicate coloring in the Pass- 
enger Pigeon .(January, 1898) is the greatest triumph the art of print- 
ing has attained. 

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OCT ; ^. ms- 



Old I CONTINUATION OF THE ( New 

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V The Auk 

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Vol. 2S:V —OCTOBER, 1898 — 



Ho. -1 




PUBLISHED FOR 

The American Ornithologists' Union 



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CONTENTS. 



KiRTi.\ND^s Warblek (De/idraica Airtlandi). "Qy Frank M. Chapinati. Plate IV. 

Canon XL, A. O. U. Code. By D. G. Elliot, F. R.S.E 

A Defense of Canon XL of the A. O. U. Code. By/. A. Allen 

Description of a New North American Thrush. By Harry C. Oberholser. 

The Summer Birds of San Miguel County, New Mexico. By Walton I. Miichell. 

Avifauna of the Revillagigedo Island. By .4. IV. Antho?iy. .... 

New Species, etc., of American Birds. — II. Fringillid^ (continued). By Robert Ridgway 

Description of a New Species of Hummingbird from Arizona, ^y Robert Ridgivay. 

Description of a New Species of Gyimwstinops. By Charles W. Richmond. 

Breeding Habits of the Solitary Sandpiper (7'(7if«w»«' solitarius). By C. K. Clarke, M.D 



289 
294 
298 
303 
306 
3" 
319 
32s 
326 
328 



General Notes. — Antrostomus carolinensis Devouring other Birds, 330; Tyrannns inagnirostris 
d'Orb. Renamed, 330; Nest Building under Difficulties, 330; Hemithraupis : — a Correction, 330; 
Kirtland's Warbler (Z>e72rfrozV« ^/r^/««rfi) in Florida, 331 ; Dendroica kirtlandi hi Pennsylvania: A 
Correction, 331; The Pine 'Wa.rbXe.r {Dendroica vigorsii) di Breeder in Ohio, 331; The Yellow- 
breasted Cliat in Oneida County, N. Y., 331; Curious Nesting of American Redstart, 332 ; Nesting 
of the Robin, 332 ; A Note on the Wood Thrush, 332 ; Notes from Chateaugay Lake, New York, 
333 ; Ectopistes migratorius, Miin7is polyglottos, and Stiimella tnagna neglecta in Bristol Co., 
Mass., 333. 



Recent Literature. — Davie's Nests and Eggs of North American Birds, 334 ; Bird Nesting with a 
Camera, 334; Butler's ' Birds of Indiana,' 335 ; Blanford's ' Birds of British India,' 336; Gurney's 
'The Economy of the Cuckoo,' 337; Eastman on ' Struthious Birds,' 338; Bangs on Birds from 
Colombia, 339; Nelson on New Birds from Mexico, 339 ; Cooke's ' Birds of Colorado,' 340 ; Pro- 
ceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, 341 ; Kearton's ' With Nature and a Camera,' 
341 ; Publications Received, 342. 

Notes and News. — Meeting of the Sixteenth Congress of the American Ornithologists' Union, 343 ; 
Biographieal notice of Osbert Salvin, 343 ; Personals, 346. 



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