Skip to main content

Full text of "The Auk"

See other formats

4T < 'J 

^r *v > ^ 

^ ^1 1 j 

r <. 

f s 




*— ^ X 

————■- 4r ""* " Tri" - 


.' t (■ € < ri << «i 


( ff 1 

I T 1 

J « - 

« c 4 

1 £ " 

i i Hi ih\ 




Old Series, 
Vol. XL. 

Continuation of the j New Series, 

Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club / Vol. XXXII. 

The Auk 

a (Siuarterty 3ournal of ©rnttbolOQ^ 






The American Ornithologists' VfcJ&ho'L V^ x ~ 



Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 



On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. By Frederic H. Kennard. 

(Plates I-III) 1 

List of the Birds of Louisiana. Part VI. By H. H. Kopman 15 
Anatomical and Other Notes on the Passenger Pigeon {Ecto- 
■pistes migratorius) Lately Living in the Cincinnati Zoo- 
logical Gardens. By Dr. It. W. Shufeldt. (Plates IV-VI) . 29 
Ten Hours at Fernando Noronha. By Robert Cushman Murphy 41 
Notes on American and Old World English Sparrows. By 

John C. Phillips . . . . . . . . . 51 

A New Subspecies of Screech Owl from California. By /. 

Grinnell ........... 59 

Early Records of the Wild Turkey. III. By Albert Hazen 

Wright 61 

The Present Status of the Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator). 

By Henry K. Coale. (Plates VII-X) 82 

Notes on a Captive Virginia Rail. By Alvin R. Cahn . . 91 


Concealing Posture of Grebes, 95; The Double-crested Cormorant in the 
Chicago Area, 95; Note on the Feeding of the Mallard, 96; Piping 
Pover, at Cape May, N. J., 97; The Yellow-crowned Night Heron in 
Colorado. A Correction, 97; The American Bittern Nesting on Long 
Island, N. Y., 97; Cory's Least Bittern in Illinois, 98; Willow Ptarmi- 
gan in Minnesota, 99; Audubon's Caracara in New Mexico, 100; 
Actions of the Red-shouldered Hawk, 100 ; Richardson's Owl in Illinois, 
101 ; An albinistic Bobolink, 101 ; Leconte's Sparrow in Wisconsin, 101 ; 
The Evening Grosbeak at Portland, Maine, 102; Two Species of Cliff 
Swallow Nesting in Kerr County, Texas, 102; The Cape May Warbler 
in Eastern Massachusetts, 104; The Records of the Tennessee and 
Cape May Warblers in Southwestern Maine, 104; Cape May and 
Tennessee Warblers in Philadelphia, 106; San Lucas Verdin in Ari- 
zona, 106; Bluegray Gnatcatcher nesting in Wisconsin, 106; Robin's 
Nests, 106; Two New Records for British Columbia, 107; Some 
Unusual Breeding Records from South Carolina, 108; Notes on Some 
Birds of the Maryland Alleghanies: An Anomaly in the Check-List, 
108; The Status of the Song Sparrow and the Chipping Sparrow as 
Early Birds, 110. 


Cooke's 'Distribution and Migration of North American Rails,' 113; - 
Wetmore on the Growth of the Tail Feathers of the Giant Hornbill, 
113; Chapman on New Colombian Birds, 114; Shufeldt on the Young 
of Phalacrocorax atriceps georgianus, 114; 'Alaskan Bird-Life,' 114; 
Mrs. Bailey's 'Handbook of Birds of the Western United States,' 
Fourth Edition, 115; Mcllhenny's 'The Wild Turkey and Its Hunting, 
115; Mathews' 'Birds of Australia,' 116; Kuroda's Recent Orni- 
thological Publications, 116; The Annual Report of the National 

iv Contents of Volume XXXII. 

Association of Audubon Societies, 117; Recent Literature on Bird 
Protection, 117 ; Studies in Egg Production in the Domestic Fowl, 118; 
Birds as Carriers of the Chestnut-Blight Fungus, 119; Reichenow's 
'Die Vogel,' 119; Second Report on the Food of Birds in Scotland, 
121; Feilden on Birds of Trinidad and Tobago, 121; The Ornitho- 
logical Journals, 123; Ornithological Articles in Other Journals, 128; 
Publications Received, 131. 


Obituary Notices, 133; Time of Incubation, 134; Changes in By-Laws of 
the A. O. U., 134. 


Obituary: Theodore N. Gill, 139; The San Francisco Meeting of the 
A. O. IL, 140; Importation of Rhea plumage, 142; Full Names of 
Authors in 'The Auk,' 143; Book Notice, 144; Exhibition of Water 

colors of Birds, 144. 



The Classification of the Family Dendrocolaptid.e. By. Dr. 

Herman von Ihering. (Plates XI-XII) . . *. ' . 145 

The Okaloacoochee Slough. By Frederic H. Kennard. (Tlates 

XIII-XV) 154 

Cabot's Types of Yucatan Birds. By Outram Bangs . . 166 

The Atlantic Range of Leach's Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa 

(Vieillot)). By Robert Cushman Murphy . . A . 170 
Some Suggestions for Better Methods of Recording and 

Studying Bird Songs. By Aretas A. Saunders . . . 173 
List of the Birds of Louisiana. Part VII. By H. H. Kopman 183 
Phaethon catesbyi Brandt. By Gregory M. Mathews . . . 195 
Simultaneous Action of Birds: A Suggestion. By Winsor M. 

Tyler, M.D 198 

The Old New England Bob-white. By John C. Phillips. (Plate 

XVI) 204 

Early Records of the Wild Turkey. IV. By Albert Hazen 

Wright 207 


The Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) at Berwyn, Pa., 225; Mallards 
Wintering in Saskatchewan, 225; European Widgeon in Washington, 
225; Harlequin Duck in the Glacier National Park, Montana, 225; 
The Blue Goose (Chen ccerulescens) in Rhode Island, 226; Occurrence 
of the Pectoral Sandpiper (Pisobia metadata) near Salem, N. J., 226; 
The Wimbrel, Ruff, Buff-breasted Sandpiper, and Eskimo Curlew 
on Long Island, N. Y., 226; The Diving Instinct in Shore-birds, 
227; The Little Black Rail on Long Island, N. Y., 227; Richardson's 
Owl and Other Owls in Franklin County, New York, 228; Lewis's 
Woodpecker taken in Saskatchewan, 228; Prairie Horned Lark in 
Rhode Island in Summer, 229; Crows Nesting on the Ground, 229; 
The Bermuda Crow, 229; The Orange-crowned Warbler in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., in December, 230; A Winter Record for the Palm 

Contents of Volume XXXII. v 

Warbler on Long Island, N. Y., 230; The Blackburnian and Bay- 
breasted Warblers at Martha's Vineyard, Mass., 230; The Cape May 
Warbler (Dendroica tigrina) as an Abundant Autumnal Migrant and 
as a Destructive Grape Juice Consumer at Berwyn, Pa., 231; Cape 
May Warbler Eating Grapes, 233; Addendum, 234; The Rock Wren 
at National, Iowa, 234; Corthylio — A Valid Genus for the Ruby- 
crowned Kinglet, 234; A Note on the Migration at Sea of Shore Birds 
and Swallows, 236; Rare Birds near Waynesburg, Pa., 236; Some New 
York City Notes, 237; Notes from Wisconsin, 237; Changes and Addi- 
tions to the 'List of the Birds of Gallatin County, Montana, 238; 
What Bird Lovers Owe to the Late Professor King, 239; Morning 
Awakening Notes at Jefferson Highland, N. H., 240. 


'The Auk' Index, 1901-1910, 242; The New B. O. U. List, 243; Hankin 
on Animal Flight, 245; Snethlage's 'Catalogue of the Birds of Ama- 
zonia,' 247; Hornaday's 'Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Prac- 
tice,' 248; Hartert's 'Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna,' 248; 
Phillips on Experimental Studies of Hybridization among Ducks and 
Pheasants, 249; Allen on Pattern Development in Mammals and 
Birds, 249; Shufeldt on the Skeleton of the Ocellated Turkey, 250; 
Smith's 'Handbook of the Rocky Mountain Park Museum,' 250; 
Mearns on New African Birds, 251; Von Ihering on Brazilian Birds, 
251; Allen's 'Birds in their Relation to Agriculture in New York 
State,' 251; Simpson's 'Pheasant Farming,' 252; Recent Biological 
Survey Publications, 252; Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomo- 
logical Publications, 253; Two Recent Papers on Bird Food by Col- 
linge, 254; First Report of the Brush Hill Bird Club, 255; Recent 
Reports on Game and Bird Protection, 255; The Ornithological 
Journals, 256; Ornithological Articles in Other Journals, 261; Pub- 
lications Received, 263. 

A Bird Census of the United States, 267. 


Louis di Zerega Mearns, 268; 'The Auk' Review of Ornithological Journals, 
269; The Delaware Valley Ornithological Club's Quarter-century, 
269; Systematists and Experimental Biologists, 270; S. N. Rhoads' 
Expedition to Guatemala, 271; The A. O. U. California Meeting, 271. 



Some Birds from Sinai and Palestine. By John C. Phillips. 

(Plate XVII) 273- 

The Fossil Remains of a Species of Hesperorxis Found ix 

Montana. By R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. (Plate XVIII) . . 290 
Summer Birds of Forrester Island, Alaska. By George Willett. 

(Plates XIX-XX) 295 

Notes on the Rock Dove (Columba domestica). Bv Charles W. 

Townsend, M.D 306 

Contents of Volume XXXII. 


On the Nesting of Certain Birds in Texas. By George Finlay 

Simmons. (Plates XXI-XXII) 317 

The Bird Life of Trinidad Islet. By Robert Cushman Murphy. 

(Plates XXIII-XXV) 332 

Early Records of the Wild Turkey. V. By Albert Hazen 

Wright 348 


The Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) in Jackson Park, 111., 367; Another 
European Widgeon in Virginia, 367; Snow Geese and Swans in Massa- 
chusetts, 367; Wilson's Snipe Wintering in Nova Scotia, 368; Spotted 
Sandpiper and Water, 368; Gray Sea Eagle off Nantucket, 368; 
Young Kingbird on a Cherry and Dragon-fly Diet, 368; The Bohemian 
Waxwing (Bombycilla garrula) at Ithaca, N. Y., 369; Prothonotary 
Warbler at South Vineland, N. J., 370; Brown Thrasher Wintering 
in Mass., 370; Birds Observed in Trinity Church Yard, New York 
City, 371; Type Locality of Lewis's Woodpecker and Clarke's Nut- 
cracker, 371. 


Levick's 'Antarctic Penguins,' 372; Miller on Ptilosis, with Special Refer- 
ence to the Feathering of the Wing, 373 ; Cory on New South American 
Birds, 374; Shufeldt on the Tree Ducks, 374; Shufeldt on Fossil 
Birds in the Marsh Collection, 375; White on an Expedition to the 
Interior of Australia, 376; Cassinia, 1914, p. 376; Publications on 
Bird Protection, 377; Bird Enemies of two Beetle Pests, 377; Dis- 
semination of the Chestnut-blight Fungus, 378; The Ornithological 
Journals, 378; Ornithological Articles in Other Journals, 383; Publi- 
cations Received, 384. 


Obituary: Harry K. Pomeroy, 386; Lord Brabourne, 387; The Generic 
Problem, 387; Thirty-third Meeting of the American Ornithologists' 
Union at San Francisco, California, May 17-20, 1915, 388. 



In Memoriam: Theodore Nicholas Gill. By T. S. Palmer. 

(Plate XXVI.) 391 

The More Northern Species of the Genus Scytalopus Gould. 

By Frank M. Chapman 406 

The Plum Island Night Herons. By S. Waldo Bailey . . 424 
Bird Migration in the Mackenzie Valley. By Wells W. Cooke 442 
List of Water and Shore Birds of the Puget Sound Region 

in the Vicinity of Seattle. By Samuel F . Rathbun . . 459 

The Birds' Bath. By Hey ward Scudder 465 

A Four-winged Wild Duck. By Charles Eugene Johnson. (Plates 

XXVII-XXIX.) - . . .469 

Notes on Dichromatic Herons and Hawks. By Outram Bangs 481 
Fossil Remains of the Extinct Cormorant Phalacrocorax 

macropus found in Montana. By R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. 485 
Thirty-third Stated Meeting of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union. By John Hall Sage 488 

Contents of Volume XXXII. 


Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsi) in Colorado. — A Correction, 494; 
The Puffin (Fratercula arctica arctica) on Lond Island, N. Y., 495; 
A Near View of an Iceland Gull, 495; The Arkansas Kingbird (Tyran- 
nies verticalis) in Eastern Minnesota, 495; Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) 
in New Hampshire, 49G; Bachman's Sparrow near Chicago, Illinois, 
496; Leconte's Sparrow in Wisconsin, 497; Junco Breeding in Concord 
and Lexington, Mass., 497; The Indigo Bunting in Colorado, 498; 
Numerous Migrant Pine Warblers (Dendroica vigorsi) at Fort Lee, 
N. J., 498; Black-throated Blue Warbler in Colorado, 498; Cape May 
Warblers Destructive to Grapes on Long Island, 498; The Resident 
Chickadee of Southwestern Pennsylvania, 498; Winter Birds at Ware- 
ham, Mass., 499; Notes on Some Manitoban Birds, 500; Bird-Notes 
from Cambridge, Isanti County, Minnesota, 501. 


Dall's Biography of Baird, 505; Baynes' 'Wild Bird Guests,' 507; Job on 
Wild Fowl Propagation, 509; Laing's 'Out with the Birds,' 510; Cooke 
on Bird Migration, 510; Faxon on Relics of Peale's Museum, 512; 
Mathew's 'Birds of Australia,' 512; Recent Monographs by Ober- 
holser, 513; Nature and Science on the Pacific Coast, 513; Murphy 
on the Penguins of South Georgia, 514; Chapman on New Birds from 
Central and South America, 515; Cory on New South American Birds, 
515; Burns on Periods of Incubation, 516; Henshaw on American 
Game Birds, 517; Taverner on The Double-crested Cormorant and 
its Relation to the Salmon Industry, 517; Shufeldt on the Osteology 
of the Limpkin and Stone Plover, 517; Recent Publications of the 
Biological Survey, 518; Da Costa on the Economic Value of the Birds 
of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 518; Third Report of Food of Birds in Scotland, 
519; Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomological Publications, 
520; The Ornithological Journals, 521; Ornithological Articles in 
Other Journals, 528; Publications Received, 531. 

Method of Recording Bird Songs, 535. 


Obituaries: Graf Hans von Berlepsch, 539; Dr. Otto Herman, 539; Egbert 
Bagg, 540; Ewen Somerled Cameron, 540; Prof. Frederick Ward 
Putnam, 541; Frank B. Armstrong, 541; Appointment of Dr. T. S. 
Roberts in the University of Minnesota, 541. 


. 543 


. . 568 

Dates of Issue ...... 

. 568 

• . . . . i 

Officers and Members . 


viii Contents of Volume XXXII. 



Plate I. Nests of Audubon's Caracara and Florida Red-shouldered 

Hawk (two views) . 
II. Florida Wild Turkeys in Deep Lake Grove (two views). 
III. Peter Hogan and the 'Schooner': Deep Lake, Florida 
(two views) . 
IV-VI. Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 
VII-VIII. Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator) (four views). 
IX-X. Trachea and Sternum of the Trumpeter Swan. 
XI-XII. Skulls of Dendrocolaptidae and Formicariidae. 

XIII . Nests and Haunts of the Wood Ibis (two views) . 

XIV. Florida Burrowing Owls and Nests of Ward's Heron (two 
views) . 

XV. Bonnet Lake and Nest of Sandhill Crane (two views). 

XVI. Bob-white Skins. 

XVII. Butler's Owl, Strix butleri (Hume). 

XVIII. Remains of Hesperornis. 

XIX. Forrester Island, Alaska. 

XX. Forked-tailed Petrel and Horned Puffin (two views). 
XXI-XXII. Views in Harris Co., Texas (four views). 

XXIII. Map of Trinidad Island. 

XXIV. Boobies, Noddy and Trinidad Petrel (four views). 
XXV. Skins of Mstrelata. 

XXVI. Theodore Nicholas Gill. 
XXVII-XXIX. Anatomy of a Four-winged Duck (four views). 
XXX. Remains of Phalacrocorax macropus 
XXXI. Otto Herman. 


Outline Elevation of Fernando Noronha ..... 42 

Burrows of Florida Burrowing Owl . . . . . .156 

Song Records of the Purple Finch, Red-winged Blackbird and Robin 178 

Three Songs of the Meadowlark 180 

Migration Routes to the Mackenzie Valley ..... 443 
Breeding Range of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak .... 446 

Migration of the Red-eyed Vireo 448 

Migration Routes from the Pacific Coast to the Mackenzie Valley 453 
Migration Route of the Western Tanager 456 


Vice-Presidents . 

Fisher, Albert K., President. 
Henshaw, Henry W. 
Stone, Witmer. 

Sage, John H., Secretary 

Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., Treasurer. 


Expiration of Term. 
May, 1915. 

Additional Members op the Council. 

Deane, Ruthven 

Dutcher, William 

Grinnell, Joseph 

Lucas, Frederic A 

Osgood, Wilfred H 

Richmond, Charles W. . . 

Roberts, Thomas S 

Allen, J. A 

Batchelder, Charles F. 

Brewster, William 

Chapman, Frank M 

Cory, Charles B 

Elliot, Daniel G 

Merriam, C. Hart 

Nelson, Edward W 

Ridgway, Robert 



May, 1915. 

" 1915. 

" 1915. 

" 1915. 

" 1915. 

" 1915. 

" 1915. 

> Ex-Presidents. 

Editorial Staff of 'The Auk.' 
Stone, Witmer, Editor 

Committee on Publications. 

May, 1915. 

Fisher, Albert K. 
Sage, John H., Secretary. 

Stone, Witmer. 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr. 

Committee of Arrangements for the Meeting of 1915. 

Fisher, Albert K., Chairman. 
Sage, John H., Secretary. 

Fisher, Walter K. 

Mailliard, Joseph. 
Grinnell, Joseph. 




MARCH, 1915. 1 


Date of 

Allen, Dr. J. A., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City Founder 

Anthony, A. W., Ironside, Ore (1885) 1895 2 

Bangs, Outram, Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. . . (1884)1901 

Barrows, Prof. W. B., Box 1047, East Lansing, Mich 1883 

Batchelder, Charles F., 7 Kirkland St., Cambridge, Mass Founder 

Beal, F. E. L., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C (1887)1901 

Beebe, C. William, New York Zool. Park, New York City. . . . (1897)1912 

Bent, Arthur C, Taunton, Mass (1889)1909 

Bicknell, Eugene P., Box 1698, New York City Founder 

Bishop, Dr. Louis B., 356 Orange St., New Haven, Conn (1885)1901 

*Brewster, William, 145 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass Founder 

Brown, Nathan Clifford, 218 Middle St., Portland, Me.. Founder 

Chadbourne, Dr. Arthur P., 193 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. . . (1883)1889 
Chapman, Dr. Frank M., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 


Cooke, Prof. Wells W., 1450 Fairmount St., Washington, D. C 1884 

*Cory, Charles B., Field Museum Nat. Hist., Chicago, 111 Founder 

Deane, Ruthven, 112 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111 1883 

Dutcher, William, 939 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J (1883)1886 

Dwight, Dr. Jonathan Jr., 134 W. 71st St., New York City. . (1883)1886 
Elliot, Dr. Daniel G., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City. .Founder 
Fisher, Dr. Albert K., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. . . .Founder 
Fisher, Prof. Walter Kenrick, 1525 Waverley St., Palo Alto, Cal. 


Forbush, Edward H., 9 Church St., Westboro, Mass (1887)1912 

Fuertes, Louis A., Cornell Heights, Ithaca, N. Y (1891)1912 

Grinnell, Dr. George Bird, 238 E. 15th St., New York City 1883 

Grinnell, Joseph, Mus. Vert. Zool., Univ. Cal., Berkeley, Cal. (1894) 1901 
Henshaw, Henry W., The Ontario, Washington, D. C 1883 

1 Members of the Union, and subscribers to 'The Auk' are requested to promptly 
notify Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., Treasurer, 134 W. 71st St., New York City, 
of any change of address. 

2 Dates in parentheses indicate dates of joining the Union. 
* Life Fellow. 

Honorary Fellows. xi 

Jones, Lynds, Spear Laboratory, Oberlin, Ohio (1888)1905 

Loomis, Leverett M., Cal. Acad. Sci., San Francisco, Cal (1883)1892 

Lucas, Dr. Frederic A., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y. City. . . (1888)1892 

Mailliard, Joseph, 300 Front St., San Francisco, Cal (1895)1914 

McAtee, Waldo Lee, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. . . (1903)1914 

McGregor, Richard C, Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I (1889)1907 

Mearns, Dr. Edgar A., U. S. A., U. S. National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D. C Founder 

Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, 1919 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. Founder 
Miller, Waldron DeWitt, 309 E. 7th St., Plainfield, N. J.. (1896)1914 

Nehrling, H., Palm Cottage Experiment Gardens, Gotha, Fla 1883 

Nelson, E. W., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1883 

Oberholser, Harry C, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. (1888)1902 
Osgood, Wilfred H., Field Museum Nat. Hist., Chicago, 111.. (1893)1905 
Palmer, Dr. T. S., 1939 Biltmore St., N. W., Washington, D. C. . (1888)1901 
Palmer, William, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (1888) 1898 
Richmond, Dr. Charles W., U. S. National Museum, Washington, 

D. C (1888)1897 

Ridgway, Prof. Robert, Olney, 111 Founder 

Roberts, Dr. Thomas S., 1603 4th Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn 1883 

*Sage, John H., Portland, Conn 1883 

Saunders, William E., 240 Central Ave., London, Ontario 1883 

Shufeldt, Dr. Robert W., 3356 18th St., N. W., Washington.D.C.Founder 
Stone, Dr. Witmer, Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa.. . .(1885)1892 
Widmann, Otto, 5105 Von Versen Ave., St. Louis, Mo 1884 


Belding, Lyman, Stockton, Cal (1883)1911 

Lawrence, Newbold T., Lawrence, N. Y (1883)1913 

Stejneger, Dr. Leonhard, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington.D.C. (1883) 1911 


Berlepsch, Graf Hans von, Schloss Berlepsch, Post Gertenbach, Wit- 

zenhausen, Germany (1883)1890 

Dresser, Henry Eeles, care of Dr. Tattersall, Owen's College Mu- 
seum, Manchester, England 1883 

Dubois, Dr. Alphonse, Museum Natural History, Brussels. . .(1884)1911 

Finsch, Prof. Dr. Otto, Leonhardplatz 5, Braunschweig, Germany .... 1883 

* Life Fellow. 

xii Corresponding Fellows. 

Godman, Frederick DuCane, 45 Pont St., London, S. W 1883 

Hartert, Ernst, Zoological Museum, Tring, England (1891)1902 

Harvie-Brown, John A., Dunipace, Larbert, Scotland (1883)1902 

Hellmayr, Dr. Carl E., Neuhauserstrasse 51.11, Munich, Germany 

Ihering, Dr. Hermann von, Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil. (1902)1911 
Pycraft, William Plane, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Cromwell 

Road, London, S. W (1902)1911 

Reichenow, Dr. Anton, Konigl. Mus. fiir Naturkunde, Invaliden- 

strasse, 43, Berlin (1884)1891 

Rothschild, Hon. Lionel Walter, Zoological Museum, Tring, Eng- 
land (1898)1913 

Salvadori, Count Tommaso, Royal Zool. Museum, Turin, Italy 1883 

Schalow, Prof. Herman, Hohenzollerndamm 50, Berlin-Grunewald, 

Germany (1884)1911 


Alfaro, Anastasio, San Jose, Costa Rica 1888 

Alpheraky, Sergius N., Imperial Acad. Sci., St. Petersburg, Russia. 1913 
Arrigoni degli Oddi, Count Ettore, University of Padua, Padua, 

Italy 1900 

Bonhote, John Lewis, Gade Spring Lodge, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, 

England 1911 

Bureau, Dr. Louis, Ecole de Medicine, Nantes, France 1884 

Butler, Lieut.-Col. E. A., Winsford Hall, Stokesby, Great Yarmouth, 

land 1884 

Buttikofer, Dr. Johannes, Zoological Garden, Rotterdam, Holland. 1886 

Buturlin, Sergius A., Wesenberg, Esthonia, Russia 1907 

Campbell, Archibald James, Custom House, Melbourne, Australia. 1902 
Carriker, M. A., Jr., Cincinnati Coffee Co., Santa Marta, Colombia 


Chamberlain, Montague, Cambridge, Mass (Founder) 1901 

Chubb, Charles, British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Cromwell Road, Lon- 
don, S. W 1911 

Clarke, William Eagle, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh 1889 

Dalgleish, John J., Brankston Grange, Bogside Station, Alloa, 

Scotland 1883 

Dole, Sanford B., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 1883 

Echt, Adolph Bachofen von, Nussdorf, near Vienna 1883 

Evans, Arthur Humble, 9 Harvey Road, Cambridge, England 1899 

Feilden, Col. Henry Wemyss, Burwash, England 1884' 

Ferrari-Perez, Prof. Fernando, Tacubaya, D. F., Mexico 1885 

Freke, Percy Evans, Southpoint, Limes Road, Folkstone, England. 1883 

Corresponding Fellows. xiii 

Furbringer, Prof. Max, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 

Germany 1891 

Gadow, Dr. Hans, University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, 

England 1884 

Girtanner, Dr. A., St. Galle, Switzerland 1884 

Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. Henry Haversham, Nore, Hascombe, 

Godalming, Surrey, England 1884 

Goeldi, Prof. Dr. Emil A., Zieglerstrasse 36, Bern, Switzerland 1903 

Grandidier, Alfred, 6 Rond-Point des Champs Elysees, Paris 1883 

Gurney, John Henry, Keswick Hall, Norwich, England 1883 

Harting, James Edmund, Edgewood, Weybridge, Surrey, England . . 1883 

Hennicke, Dr. Carl R., Gera, Reuss, Germany 1907 

Henson, Harry V., Yokohama, Japan 1888 

Hudson, William Henry, Tower House, St. Luke's Road, West- 
bourne Park, London, W 1895 

Krukenberg, Dr. E. F. W., Wurzburg, Germany 1884 

Kruper, Dr. Theobald J., University Museum, Athens, Greece. . . .1884 
Legge, Col. William V., Cullenswood House, St. Mary's, Tasmania . . 1891 

Le Souef, Dudley, Zoological Gardens, Melbourne, Australia 1911 

MacFarlane, Roderick, Winnipeg, Manitoba 1886 

Madarasz, Dr. Julius von, National Museum, Budapest, Hungary. 1884 
Mathews, Gregory M., Langley Mount, Watford, Herts, England. . 1911 
Menzbier, Prof. Dr. Michael, Imperial Society of Naturalists, 

Moscow, Russia 1884 

Millais, John Guille, Compton's Brow, Horsham, England 1911 

Namiye, M., Tokio, Japan 1886 

Nicholson, Francis, The Knoll, Windermere, Westmoreland, Eng- 
land 1884 

North, Alfred J., Australian Museum, Sydney, New South Wales. .1902 
Ogilvie-Grant, William Robert, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 

Cromwell Road, London, S. W 1899 

Palmen, Dr. J. T., Helsingfors, Finland 1883 

Ramsey, E. P., Sydney, New South Wales 1884 

Ringer, Frederic, Nagasaki, Japan 1888 

Sclater, William Lutley, 10 Sloane Court, Chelsea, London, S. W . . 1906 

Sushkin, Dr. Peter, University, Kharkov, Russia 1903 

Theel, Dr. Hjalmar, University of Upsala, Upsala, Sweden 1884 

Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Victor, Ritter von, Villa Tannenhof, 

bei Hallein, Salzburg, Austria 1884 

Van Oort, Edward Daniel, Museum Nat. Hist., Leyden, Holland. .1913 

Waterhouse, F. H., 3 Hanover Square, London, W 1889 

Winge, Dr. Herluf, Univ. Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Den- 
mark 1903 

Worcester, Prof. Dean C, Manila, P.I 1903 

Zeledon, Don Jose C, San Jose, Costa Rica 1884 




Allen, Francis H., 4 Park St., Boston, Mass 

Allen, Dr. Glover M., 234 Berkeley St., Boston, Mass 

Anderson, Dr. Rudolph M., 901 Virginia St., Sioux City, la. . . 

Attwater, H. P., 2120 Genesee St., Houston, Texas 

Bagg, Egbert, 406 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y 

Bailey, Vernon, 1834 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C. . . . 
Bailey, Mrs. Vernon, 1834 Kalorama Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Baily, William L., Ardmore, Pa 

Barbour, Dr. Thomas, Mus. Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Bartsch, Paul, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C 

Bergtold, Dr. W. H., 1159 Race St., Denver, Colo 

Bond, Frank, 3127 Newark St., Cleveland Park, Washington, 

Bowles, John Hooper, Tacoma, Wash 

Braislin, Dr. William C, 556 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Brooks, Allan, Okanagan Landing, B. C 

Islands (1898 

Burns, Frank L., Berwyn, Pa (1891 

Butler, Amos W., 52 Downey Ave., Irvington, Indianapolis, Ind. (1885 

Cameron, E. S., Marsh, Montana (1903 

Chambers, W. Lee, Eagle Rock, Cal (1907 

Clark, Austin Hobart, 1726 18th St., N. W., Washington, D.C.(1899 
Clark, Dr. Hubert Lyman, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam 

bridge, Mass (1886 

Daggett, Frank S., 2833 Menlo Ave., Los Angeles, Cal (1889 

Dawson, William Leon, Santa Barbara, Cal (1895 

Deane, Walter, 29 Brewster St., Cambridge, Mass (1897 

Dearborn, Ned, Linden, Md (1902 

Eaton, Elon Howard, Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y (1895 

Evermann, Prof. Barton W., 343 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal 


Finley, William L., 651 East Madison St., Portland, Ore. . .(1904 
Fleming, James H., 267 Rusholme Road, Toronto, Ontario. . . (1893 

Gault, Benjamin True, Glen Ellyn, 111 (1885 

Goldman, Edward Alfonso, Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 

Hoffmann, Ralph, 11 W. Concord Ave., Kansas City, Mo. . . (1893 

Hollister, Ned, U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C (1894 

Howell, Arthur H., 2919 S. Dakota Ave., Washington, D. C. (1889 
Jacobs, J. Warren, 404 S. Washington St., Waynesburg, Pa . . (1889 







Members. xv 

Jeffries, William Augustus, 11 Pemberton Square, Boston, Mass. 


Job, Rev. Herbert K., 291 Main St., West Haven, Conn (1896)1901 

Jordan, Prof. David Starr, Stanford University, Cal (1885)1901 

Kennard, F. H., Dudley Road, Newton Centre, Mass (1892)1912 

Knowlton, F. H., U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, D. C (1883)1902 

Mackay, George H., 304 Bay State Road, Boston, Mass (1890)1901 

Mailliard, John W., 300 Front St., San Francisco, Cal (1895)1901 

Miller, Mrs. Olive Thorne, 5928 Hays Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. (1887) 1901 
Moore, Robert Thomas, King's Highway, Haddonfield, N. J. (1898) 1914 

Morris, George Spencer, Olney, Philadelphia, Pa (1887)1903 

Morris, Robert O., 82 Temple St., Springfield, Mass (1888)1904 

Murdoch, John, 16 High Rock Way, Allston, Mass (1883)1901 

Murphy, Robert C, Museum Brooklyn Institute, Eastern Parkway, 

Brooklyn, N. Y (1905)1914 

Nichols, John Tread well, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City (1901)1914 
Norton, Arthur H., Museum Natural History, 22 Elm St., Port- 
land, Maine (1890)1902 

Pearson, T. Gilbert, 1974 Broadway, New York City (1891)1902 

Phillips, John C, Wenham, Mass (1904)1912 

Preble, Edward A., 3027 Newark St., Washington, D. C. . . . (1892)1901 

Rathbun, Samuel F., 217 14th Ave., N., Seattle, Wash (1893)1902 

Rhoads, Samuel N., 81 Haddon Ave., Haddonfield, N. J (1885)1901 

Riley, Joseph H., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (1897)1905 
Rives, Dr. William C, 1702 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C. 


Robinson, Col. W«rt, U. S. A., West Point, N. Y (1897)1901 

Seton, Ernest Thompson, Cos Cob, Conn (1883)1901 

*Sherman, Miss Althea R., National via McGregor, Iowa. .(1907)1912 

Stephens, Frank, 3746 Park Boulevard, San Diego, Cal (1883)1901 

Strong, Dr. Reuben M., Univ. of Mississippi, University, Miss. (1889) 1903 
Swales, Bradshaw Hall, Mus. of Zool., Ann Arbor, Mich. (1902) 1909 
Swarth, Harry S., Mus. Hist. Sci. & Art, Los Angeles, Cal. (1900) 1909 
Taverner, Percy A., Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, Canada 


Thayer, John Eliot, Lancaster, Mass (1898)1905 

Todd, W. E. Clyde, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa (1890)1901 

Townsend, Charles H., Aquarium, Battery Park, New York City 

Townsend, Dr. Charles Wendell, 76 Marlborough St., Boston, . 

Mass (1901)1905" 

Trotter, Dr. Spencer, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. . (1888)1901 
Warren, Edward Royal, 20 West Caramillo St., Colorado Springs, 

Colo (1902)1910 

*Life Member. 

xvi Associates. 

Wayne, Arthur T., Mt. Pleasant, S. C (1905)1909 

Wetmore, Alex., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C (1908)1912 

Willett, George, 2123 Court St., Los Angeles, Cal (1912)1914 

Wolcott, Dr. Robert H., Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. .(1901)1903 
Wood, Norman A., Museum Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. . (1904)1912 
Wright, Mrs. Mabel Osgood, Fairfield, Conn (1895)1901 


Abbott, Clinton Gilbert, Plandome, N. Y 1898 

Adams, Benjamin, 476 5th Ave., New York City 1911 

Adams, Wallace, U. S. Indian Service, Florence, Ariz 1901 

Adams, Dr. Z. B., 42 Cottage Farm Rd., Brookline, Mass 1908 

Aiken, Hon. John, Superior Court, Court House, Boston, Mass. . . .1905 
Akeley, Carl E., American Museum Nat. Hist., New York City. . .1913 

Alexander, Miss Annie M., 92 Sea View Ave., Piedmont, Cal 1911 

Allen, Mary P., 206 Moon St., Hackettstown, N. J 1913 

Ames, John S., North Easton, Mass 1913 

Anderson, Mrs. J. C, Great Barrington, Mass 1903 

Andrews, Roy C, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1906 

Angell, Walter A., 33 Westminster St., Providence, R. 1 1901 

Anthony, H. E., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1911 

Anthony, Mrs. P. Reed, 113 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. . . . 1913 

Archbold, Joseph A., 107 Hodge Ave., Buffalo, N. Y 1903 

Armstrong, Edward E., 207 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111 1904 

Arnold, Edward, Grand Trunk R'y-, Montreal, Quebec 1894 

Arnold, F. E., 284 Pleasant St., East Providence, R. 1 1909 

Arnold, Dr. W. W., 504 N. Nevada Ave., Colorado Springs, Colo. . . 1910 

Avis, Edward, Box 56, Enfield, Conn 1908 

Babcock, Dean, Estes Park, Colo 1911 

Babson, Mrs. Caroline W., 182 Granite St., Pigeon Cove, Mass. . .1912 

Bailey, Dr. B. H., 1417 1st Ave., Cedar Rapids, la 1913 

Bailey, Prof. G. A., Geneseo, N. Y 1910 

Bailey, Harold H., 310 50th St., Newport News, Va 1903 

Bailey, Samuel Waldo, Box 212, Newburyport, Mass 1909 

Baker, Frank C, Chicago Acad. Sciences, Chicago, 111 1907 

Baker, John H., 7 Holyoke Place, Cambridge, Mass 1911 

Baldwin, Roger N., 600-911 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo 1904 

Bales, Dr. Blenn R., 149 W. Main St., Circleville, Ohio 1907 

Ball, Mrs. Bennet F., Oakville, Conn 1905 

Ball, David S., 622 W. 113 St., New York City 1913 

Ball, Miss Helen Augusta, 43 Laurel St., Worcester, Mass 1893 

Ball, Jas. P., 5001 Frankford Ave., Philadelphia, Pa 1911 

Banks, Miss Martha B., Westport, Conn 1911 

Associates. xvii 

Barbour, Rev. Robert, Y. M. C. A., Montclair, N. J 1902 

Barnard, Judge Job, 1306 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C. . .1886 

Barnes, Hon. R. Magoon, Lacon, 111 1889 

Barrett, Chas. H. M., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1912 

Barrett, Harold Lawrence, 704 Centre St., Jamaica Plain, Mass . . . 1909 

Barry, Miss Anna K., 5 Bowdoin Ave., Dorchester, Mass 1907 

Bartlett, Miss Mary F., 227 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. .1912 

Bartlett, Wm. M., 410 Hotel Princeton, Allston, Mass 1913 

Bartram, Edwin B., 131 Beech Tree Lane, Wayne, Pa 1913 

Batten, George, 93 Union St., Montclair, N. J 1911 

Batten, George, Jr., 381 Fourth Ave., New York City 1914 

Baynard, Oscar E., Box 328, Clearwater, Fla 1910 

Baynes, Ernest H., Meriden, N. H 1912 

Beck, Rollo Howard, San Jose, R. D. 21, Cal 1894 

Bell, Prof. W. B., Agricultural College, N. D 1912 

Bennett, Rev. Geo., Iowa City, la 1913 

Bennett, William J., 1941 1st St. N. W., Washington, D. C 1901 

Berier, de Lagnel, 171 Monte Vista Place, Ridgewood, N. J 1885 

Betts, Norman de Witt, Forest Products Lab., Madison, Wis 1908 

Bicknell, Mrs. F. T., 319 S. Normandie Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. . . . 1913 
Biddle, Miss Emily Williams, 2201 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. .1898 

Bigelow, Albert F., 84 State St., Boston, Mass 1910 

Bigelow, Henry Bryant, Concord, Mass 1897 

Bigelow, Dr. Lyman F., 80 Winter St., Norwood, Mass 1914 

Bigglestone, Harry C, 3918 Fourth Ave., Sioux City, la 1913 

Blackwelder, Eliot, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis 1895 

Blain, Merrill W., 1026 N. Coronado St., Los Angeles, Cal 1910 

Blake, Sidney F., 154 Walnut St., Stoughton, Mass 1910 

Bloomfield, Mrs. C. C, 723 Main St., W., Jackson, Mich 1901 

Boardman, Miss E. D., 416 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1906 

Bodine, Donaldson, 4 Mills Place, Crawfordsville, Ind 1913 

Bogardus, Miss Charlotte, Elm St., Coxsackie, N. Y 1909 

Bogert, William S., 1000 Garden St., Bellingham, Wash 1904 

Bolles, Mrs. Frank, 6 Berkeley St., Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Bolt, Benjamin Franklin, 1421 Prospect Ave., Kansas City, Mo. .1909 

Bond, Harry L., Lakefield, Minn 1908 

Bonfils, F. G., 1003 Corona St., Denver, Colo 1912 

Borland, Wm. G., 14 Wall St., New York City 1911 

Borneman, Henry S., 1613 Dyre St., Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. . . . 1912 

Bosson, Campbell, 722 Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass 1906 

Bourne, Thos. L., Hamburg, N. Y 1914" 

Bowdish, B. S., Demarest, N.J 1891 

Bowdish, Mrs. B. S., Demarest, N. J 1902 

Bowditch, Harold, 60 Harvard Ave., Brookline, Mass 1900 

Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass 1913 

Boynton, Chas. T., 1005 South Sheridan Rd., Highland Park, 111 1912 

xviii Associates. 

Bracken, Mrs. Henry M., 1010 Fourth St., S.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 1897 

Bradford, Moses B. L., Concord Public Library, Concord, Mass 1889 

Bradlee, Thomas Stevenson, Somerset Club, Boston, Mass 1902 

Brandreth, Courtenay, Ossining, N. Y 1905 

Brandreth, Franklin, Ossining, N. Y 1889 

Brewster, Edward Everett, 316 East C St., Iron Mountain, Mich. 1893 

Brewster, Mrs. William, 145 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Bridge, Edmund, 52 Wyman St., West Medford, Mass 1910 

Bridge, Mrs. Edmund, 52 Wyman St., West Medford, Mass 1902 

Briggs, S. Mendall, Manomet, Mass 1913 

Brimley, H. H., Raleigh, N. C 1904 

Bristol, John I. D., 1 Madison Ave., New York City 1907 

Britten, G. S., 302 University Bldg., Syracuse, N. Y 1913 

Brock, Dr. Henry Herbert, 687 Congress St, Portland, Me 1894 

Brockway, Arthur W., Hadlyme, Conn 1912 

Brooks, Rev. Earle Amos, 419 N. River Ave., Weston, W. Va 1892 

Brooks, Gorham, 37| Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Brooks, Lawrence, Milton, Mass 1912 

Brooks, Miss Martha W., Petersham, Mass 1913 

Brooks, Winthrop S., Milton, Mass 1907 

Brown, Miss Annie H., 31 Maple St., Stoneham, Mass 1909 

Brown, Edward J., U. S. Nat. Museum, Washington, D. C 1891 

Brown, H. A., 40 Talbot St., Lowell, Mass 1912 

Brown, Mrs. Henry T., Lancaster, Mass 1912 

Brown, Hubert H., Beamsville, Ontario 1889 

Brown, Mrs. J., Jr., 71 Bay State Road, Boston, Mass 1913 

Brown, Philip G., 85 Vaughan St., Portland, Me 1911 

Brown, Stewardson, 20 E. Penn St., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. . 1895 

Brown, Wm. James, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Quebec 1908 

Browning, Wm. Hall, 16 Cooper Square, New York City 1911 

Bruen, Frank, 65 Prospect St., Bristol, Conn 1908 

Bryant, Harold Child, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Cal 1913 

Burbank, Chas. O., 48 Glenwood Ave., Newton Centre, Mass 1912 

Burgess, John Kingsbury, Chestnut St., Dedham, Mass 1898 

Burleigh, Thos. D., 825 N. Wigley Ave., Pittsburg, Pa 1913 

Burnett, William L., State Agric. College, Fort Collins, Colo 1S95 

Burnham, John Bird, 233 Broadway, New York City 1912 

Burt, Henry P., 316 W. 93d St., New York City 1908 

Burtch, Verdi, Branchport, N. Y 1903 

Buxbaum, Mrs. Clara E., 4822 Grand Boulevard, Chicago, 111 1895 

Cabot, Louis, Brookline, Mass 1904 

Caduc, Eugene E., 563 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, Mass 1910 

Callender, James Phillips, 32 Broadway, New York City 1903 

Calvert, J. Fletcher, 596 Princess Ave., London, Ont 1912 

Campbell, Clara D., 1253 Beacon St., Brookline, Mass 1913 

Carpenter, Rev. Charles Knapp, 311 Park St., Elgin, 111 1894 

Associates. xix 

Carpenter, George I., 129 Dean St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1907 

Carriger, H. W., 5185 Trask St., Fruitvale Station, Oakland, Cal. . . . 1913 

Carter, John D., Lansdowne, Pa 1907 

Case, Clifford M., 7 Holcomb St., Hartford, Conn 1892 

Cash, Harry A., 54 Spring St., Pawtucket, R. 1 1898 

Chamberlain, Chatjncy W., 36 Lincoln St., Boston, Mass 1885 

Chapin, Prof. Angie Clara, 18 Morris Crescent, Yonkers, N. Y 1896 

Chapin, James, 330 W. 95th St., New York City 1906 

Chapman, Mrs. F. M., Englewood, N.J 1908 

Chapman, Roy, 2316 Pierce Ave., St. Anthony Park, St. Paul, Minn ... 1911 

Chase, Sidney, 244 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1904 

Cheesman, M. R., 55 W. 4th St., S., Salt Lake City, Utah 1911 

Chipman, Miss Grace E., Sandwich, Mass 1912 

Christy, Bayard H., 403 Frederick Ave., Sewickley, Pa 1901 

Clark, Clarence H., Lubec, Me 1913 

Clark, H. Walton, Fairport, la 1913 

Clark, Josiah H., 238 Broadway, Paterson, N.J 1895 

Clarke, Charles E., 11 Chetwynd Road, Tufts College, Mass 1907 

Clarke, Miss Harriet E., 9 Chestnut St., Worcester, Mass 1896 

Clarke, Rowena A., Kirkwood, Mo 1906 

Clarke, Dr. Wm. C, Tenafly, N.J 1909 

Cleaves, Howard H., Public Museum, New Brighton, N. Y 1907 

Cleveland, Dr. Clement, 925 Park Ave., New York City 1903 

Cleveland, Miss Lilian, Woods Edge Road, West Medford, Mass. . . 1906 

Coale, Henry K., Highland Park, 111 1883 

Cobb, Miss Anna E., 322 Broadway, Providence, R. 1 1913 

Cobb, Miss Annie W., 301 Massachusetts Ave., Arlington, Mass 1909 

Cobb, Stanley, 340 Adams St., Milton, Mass 1909 

Coffin, Mrs. P. B., 3232 Groveland Ave., Chicago, 111 1905 

Coggins, Herbert L., 2929 Piedmont Ave., Berkeley, Cal 1913 

Colburn, Albert E., 806 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal 1891 

Cole, Dr. Leon J., College of Agric, Univ. of Wis., Madison, Wis 1908 

Colvin, Walter S., Osawatomie, Kan 1896 

Commons, Mrs. F. W., 2437 Park Ave., Minneapolis, Minn 1902 

Coney, Mrs. Geo. H., R. F. D., Box 25, Windsor, Conn 1906 

Cook, Miss Lilian Gillette, Long Lea Farm, Amherst, Mass 1899 

Cope, Francis R., Jr., Dimock, Pa 1892 

Copeland, Dr. Ernest, 141 Wisconsin St., Milwaukee, Wis 1897 

Copeland, Manton, 88 Federal St., Brunswick, Me 1900 

Coulter, Stanley, Lafayette, Ind 1912 .-_ 

Craig, Wallace, Orono, Me 1912 

Craigmile, Miss Esther A., 24 S. Grant St., Hinsdale, 111 1910 

Cram, R. J., 26 Hancock Ave., W., Detroit, Mich 1893 

Crandall, C. W., 10 Third St., Woodside, N. Y 1891 

Crane, Miss Clara L., Dalton, Mass 1904 

Crane, Mrs. Zenas, Dalton, Mass 1904 

xx Associates. 

Crehore, Frederic M., 87 Milk St., Boston, Mass 1913 

Cressy, Mrs. N. S., Avon Road, Unionville, Conn 1912 

Crittenden, Viola E., Shelburne Falls, Mass 1913 

Crocker, Mrs. David, Barnstable, Mass 1912 

Crocker, Mrs. Emmons, 48 Mechanics St., Fitchburg, Mass 1912 

Crosby, Maunsell S., Rhinebeck, N. Y 1904 

Culver Delos E., Addingham, Pa 1913 

Cttmmings, Miss Emma G., 16 Kennard Road, Brookline, Mass 1903 

Currie, Rolla P., 632 Keefer Place N. W., Washington, D. C 1895 

Currier, B. H., 79 Milk St., Boston, Mass 1913 

Currier, Edmonde Samuel, St. Johns, Ore 1894 

Cushman, Miss Alice, 919 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1910 

Cutler, Mrs. Annie F., 117 Washington Ave., Chelsea, Mass 1908 

Dana, Miss Ada, 488 Centre St., Newton, Mass 1912 

Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Chestnut Hill, Mass 1912 

Davenport, Mrs. Elizabeth B., Lindenhurst, Brattleboro, Vt 1898 

Davidson, Mrs. Francis S., 1302 W., S. Grand Ave., Springfield, 111. . 1912 

Davis, Charles H., 515 N. Michigan Ave., Saginaw, Mich 1906 

Day, Chester Sessions, 15 Chilton Road, West Roxbury, Mass. . . .1897 

Day, Miss E. S., 339 Bainbridge St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1914 

Day, Frank Miles, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Dean, R. H., 300 St. Vincent Ave., St. Louis, Mo 1913 

Deane, Daniel Whitman, Box 425, Fairhaven, Mass 1913 

Deane, George Clement, 80 Sparks St., Cambridge, Mass 1899 

DeLoach, R. J. H., Georgia Experiment Station, Experiment, Ga. . . 1910 

Densmore, Miss Mabel, 629 4th St., Red Wing, Minn 1910 

Derby, Richard, 969 Park Ave., New York City 1898 

Derickson, Mrs. Geo. P., 238 W. Franklin Ave., Minneapolis, Minn . . 1910 

DeVine, J. L., 5319 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, 111 1903 

Dewey, Dr. Charles A., 78 Plymouth Ave., Rochester, N. Y 1900 

Dickerson, Miss Mary C, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City. . . 1908 

Dickey, Donald R., Box 701, Pasadena, Cal 1907 

Dickey, Samuel S., Waynesburg, Pa 1905 

Dille, Frederick M., 2927 W. 28th Ave., Denver, Colo 1892 

Dimock, Geo. E., Jr., 907 N. Broad St., Elizabeth, N. J 1911 

Dionne, C. E., Laval University, Quebec, Canada 1893 

Dixon, Frederick J., Ill Elm Ave., Hackensack, N. J 1891 

Dodson, Joseph H., Room 1201-19 S. La Salle St., Chicago, 111 1909 

Dorn, Prof. L., Concordia College, Fort Wayne, Ind 1912 

Downhour, Miss Elizabeth, 2307 Talbott Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. .1913 

Draper, J. Sumner, 16 State St., Boston, Mass 1908 

Drummond, Miss Mary, Spring Lane, Lake Forest, 111 1904 

Dull, Mrs. A. P. L., 211 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa 1900 

Dunbar, W. Linfred, U. M. C. Co., Bridgeport, Conn 1906 

Durfee, Owen, Box 125, Fall River, Mass 1887 

Duryea, Miss Annie B., 62 Washington St., Newark, N. J 1911 

Associates. xxf 

Dyke, Arthur Curtis, 205 Summer St., Bridgewater, Mass 1902 

Early, Chas. H., 185 Fairmont Ave., Hyde Park, Mass 1912 

Eastman, Francis B., Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y 1909 

Eaton, Miss Mary S., 8 Monument St., Concord, Mass 1909 

Eaton, Scott Harrison, Malcolm Hotel, Lawrenceville, 111 1912 

Edson, John M., Marietta Road, Bellingham, Wash 1886 

Edwards, Phoebe P., Brookline, Mass 1912 

Edwards, Vinal N., Box 54, Woods Hole, Mass 1912 

Ehinger, Dr. Clyde E., 100 Rosedale Ave., West Chester, Pa 1904 

Eiche, August, 1133 O St., Lincoln, Neb 1902 

Eifrig, Rev. C. W. Gustave, Concordia Teachers College, Oak 

Park, 111 1913 

Eimbeck, Dr. A. F., New Haven, Mo 1906 

Ekblaw, Walter Elmer, care of G. Ekblaw, Rantoul, 111 1911 

Eldridge, Arthur S., South Lincoln, Mass 1912 

Elliot, Mrs. J. W., 124 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Ells, George P., Norwalk, Conn 1904 

Emmet, Christopher Temple, Stony Brook, N. Y 1909 

Emmet, Robert T., New Rochelle, N. Y 1904 

Emmons, Rupert A., 17 T St., N. E., Washington, D. C 1913 

Emory, Mrs. Mary Dille, 156 Foundry St., Morgantown, W. Va. . .1899 

Enders, John O., 17 Highland St., Hartford, Conn 1904 

Evans, William B., Westtown, Pa 1897 

Farley, John A., 52 Cedar St., Maiden, Mass 1904 

Fay, S. Prescott, 3 Brimmer St., Boston, Mass 1907 

Felger, Alva Howard, North Side High School, Denver, Colo 1898 

Fell, Miss Emma Trego, 1534 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Felton, W. R., Lone Tree, Mont 1910- 

Ferguson, Mrs. Mary Van E., 5 Panoramic Way, Berkeley, Cal. . .1912 

Ferry, Miss Mary B., 19 Morgan Ave., Norwalk, Conn 1912" 

Field, Edward B., 30 Gillette St., Hartford, Conn 1898 

Field, Dr. Geo. W., Sharon, Mass 1910- 

Findlay, D. Douglas, Carleton Place, Ontario, Canada 1914 

Fisher, Miss Elizabeth Wilson, 2222 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. . 1896 

Fisher, G. Clyde, American Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1908 

Flanagan, John H., 89 Power St., Providence, R. 1 1898 

Fletcher, Mrs. Mary E., Proctorsville, Vt 1898 

Floyd, William, 84 William St., New York City 1913 

Folk, John P., 104 Franklin St., Suffolk, Va 1913 

Foote, Miss F. Huberta, 90 Locust Hill Ave., Yonkers, N. Y 1897 

Forbes, Alexander, Milton, Mass 1912— 

Fordyce, Geo. L., 40 Lincoln Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 1901 

Fowler, Frederick Hall, 221 Kingsley Ave., Palo Alto, Cal 1892 

Fowler, Henry W., Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa 1898 

Fox, Dr. William H., 1826 Jefferson Place, Washington, D. C 1883 

Francis, Nathaniel A., 35 Davis Ave., Brookline, Mass 1913* 

xxii Associates. 

Fraser, Donald, Johnstown, N. Y 1902 

Freeman, Miss Harriet E., 37 Union Park, Boston, Mass 1903 

French, Charles H., Canton, Mass 1904 

French, Mrs. Chas. H., Canton, Mass 1908 

Fuller, T. Otis, Needham, Mass 1904 

Fuller, Mrs. T. Otis, Needham, Mass 1909 

Funkhouser, W. D., 415 N. Tioga St., Ithaca, N. Y 1913 

Gabrielson, Ira N., 206 N. 1st Ave., Marshalltown, Iowa 1912 

Gardiner, Charles Barnes, 5 Minard Place, Norwalk, Ohio 1903 

George, Mrs. W. W., 1312 Market St., Parkersburg, W. Va 1912 

Gertken, Severin, Prof. St. Johns University, Collegeville, Minn. . . 1912 

Gianini, Chas. A., Poland, N. Y 1911 

Gibson, Langdon, 5 Union St., Schenectady, N. Y 1904 

Gilman, M. French, Fort Bidwell, Cal 1907 

Gladding, Mrs. John R., 30 Stimson Ave., Providence, R. 1 1912 

Gleason, Alfred D., Gleasondale, Mass 1912 

Golsan, Lewis S., Autaugaville, Ala 1912 

Goodale, Dr. Joseph Lincoln, 258 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1885 

Goodrich, Juliet T., 1210 Astor St., Chicago, 111 1904 

Gordon, Harry E., 313 Laburnum Ave., Rochester, N. Y 1911 

Gould, Dr. Alfred M., Maiden, Mass 1912 

Gould, Joseph E., 5 Clifton St., Norfolk, Va 1889 

Graham, Wm. J., Aledo, 111 1909 

Granger, Miss Helen, 65 Langdon St., Cambridge, Mass 1904 

Granger, Walter, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1891 

Grant, Wm. W., 489 Castle St., Geneva, N. Y 1910 

Graves, Mrs. Charles B., 4 Mercer St., New London, Conn 1905 

Gray, Miss Elizabeth F., 870 High St., Dedham, Mass 1913 

Gray, Miss Isa E., 5 Chestnut St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Green, Miss Mary Amory, Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 1911 

Greenough, Henry Vose, 23 Monmouth Court, Brookline, Mass. . . . 1909 

Gregory, Stephen S., Jr., 1349 Astor St., Chicago, 111 1906 

Griscom, Ludlow, 21 Washington Sq., N., New York City 1908 

Gronberger, S. M., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C 1909 

Gross, Alfred O., 17 McKeen St., Brunswick, Me 1907 

Grosvener, Gilbert H., National Geog. Soc, Washington, D. C. . .1913 

Guild, Henry R., 102 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Gutsell, James S., 301 College Ave., Ithaca, N. Y 1911 

Hadley, Alden H., Monrovia, Indiana 1906 

Hagar, J. A., 79 Washington Park, Newtonville, Mass 1914 

Hall, Fra;nk H., Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y 1910 

Hallett, Geo. H., Jr., Haverford College, Haverford, Pa 1911 

Hankinson, Thos. Leroy, Charleston, 111 1897 

Hardon, Mrs. Henry W., 315 West 71st St., New York City 1905 

Harper, Francis, 555 First Ave., College Point, N. Y 1907 

Harrington, Mrs. W. R., 11 Ave., and 47th St., New York City 1913 

Associates. xxiii 

Harris, Harry, Kansas City, Mo 1911 

Harvey, Miss Ruth Sawyer, 1203 Woodland Ave., Cincinnati, 

Ohio 1902 

Haskell, Wm. S., Woolworth Building, New York City 1913 

Hathaway, Harry S., Box 1466, Providence, R.I 1897 

Havemeyer, H. O., Jr., Mahwah, N.J 1893 

Hazard, Hon. Rowland G., Peace Dale, R. 1 1885 

Helme, Arthur H., Miller Place, N. Y 1888 

Hemenway, Mrs. Augustus, Readville, Mass 1912 

Henderson, Judge Junius, 627 Pine St., Boulder, Colo 1903 

Hendrickson, W. F., 276 Hillside Ave., Jamaica, N. Y 1885 

Hennessey, Frank, Winona Lake College, Winona Lake, Ind 1914 

Herrick, Francis H., Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio 1913 

Herrick, Harold, 25 Liberty St., New York City 1905 

Herrick, Newbold L., Cedarhurst, N. Y 1913 

Hersey, F. Seymour, 6 Maple Ave., Taunton, Mass 1911 

Hersey, L. J., Wray, Colo 1909 

Hess, Isaac E., Philo, 111 1909 

Higbee, Harry G., 13 Austin St., Hyde Park, Mass 1900 

Higgins, Henry Chas., Uxbridge, Mass 1912 

Hill, James Haynes, Box 485, New London, Conn 1897 

Hill, Mrs. Thomas R., 4629 Baltimore Ave., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Hinckley, Geo. Lyman, Redwood Library, Newport, R. 1 1912 

Hinckley, Henry H., 50 West Hill Ave., Melrose Highlands, Mass. . 1912 

Hine, Prof. James Stewart, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 1899 

Hine, Mrs. Jane L., Auburn, Ind 1890 

Hitchcock, Frank H., Metropolitan Club, New York City 1891 

Hix, George E., 100 W. 91st St., New York City 1904 

Hodge, Prof. Clifton Fremont, State University, Eugene, Oregon. .1899 

Holden, Mrs. Edwin B., 323 Riverside Drive, New York City 1903 

Holden, Mrs. Emeline R., 13 E. 79th St., New York City 1902 

Holland, Harold May, Galesburg, 111 1910 

Holland, Dr. William J., Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa 1899 

Hollister, Warren D., McPhee Bldg., Denver, Colo 1901 

Holman, Ralph H., 33 Chestnut St., Stoneham, Mass 1907 

Holt, Ernest G., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1911 

Holt, Mrs. Nancy W. C, 13 Chauncey St., Cambridge, Mass 1908 

Honywill, Albert W., Jr., 522 Holmes St., Wilkinsburg, Pa 1907 

Horsfall, Bruce, Princeton, N.J 1905 

Hotchkiss, Miss Julia R., 502 W. 113 St., New York City 1912 

Howe, Dr. Reginald Heber, Jr., Thoreau Museum, Concord, Mass. . 1895 

Howell, A. Brazier, Covina, Cal 1909 

Howell, Benj. F., Jr., R. F. D. 1., Boonton, N. J 1907 

Howes, Paul Griswold, Maplewood Biol. Laborat., Stamford, Conn. . 1913 

Howland, R. H., 164 Wildwood Ave., Upper Montclair, N.J 1912 

Hoyt, Miss Annie S., 160 Lexington Ave., New York City 1909 

xxiv Associates. 

Hoyt, William H., Box 425, Stamford, Conn 1907 

Hubbard, Dr. Lucius L., Houghton, Mich 1907 

Hubbard, Mrs. Sara A., 177 Woodruff Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1891 

Hudson, Mrs. K. W., The Bellevue, Intervale, N. H 1911 

Hull, Edwin D., 6024 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111 1913 

Hunn, John T. Sharpless, 1218 Prospect Ave., Plainfield, N.J 1895 

Hutchinson, Dr. W. F., Box 42, Portsmouth, Va 1910 

Ingalls, Charles E., East Templeton, Mass 1885 

Ingersoll, Albert M., 908 F St., San Diego, Cal 1885 

Irving, John, Glen Cove, N. Y 1894 

Isham, C. B., 27 W. 67 St., New York City 1891 

Ives, H. David, Southampton, N. Y 1912 

Jackson, Hartley, H. T., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1910 

Jackson, Thomas H., 304 N. Franklin St., West Chester, Pa 1888 

James, Norman, N. W. James Lumber Co., Baltimore, Md 1913 

Jarves, Miss Flora Amy, Box 151, Kingston Hill, R. I 1913 

Jenkins, Miss Ida G., 30 Dearborne St., Roxbury, Mass 1912 

Jenks, Chas. W., Bedford, Mass 1912 

Jenney, Charles F., 100 Gordon Ave., Hyde Park, Mass 1905 

Jennings, Richard D., 129 Harrison St., East Orange, N.J 1913 

Jensen, J. K., Westwood, Mass 1912 

Jewel, Lindsey L., Wytheville, Va 1910 

Jewett, Stanley G., 582 Bidwell Ave., Portland, Oregon 1906 

Johns, Erwin Wm, 19 West Market St., Iowa City, Iowa 1910 

Johnson, Chas. E., 714 16 Ave., S. E., Minneapolis, Minn 1912 

Johnson, Frank Edgar, 16 Amackassin Terrace, Yonkers, N. Y 1888 

Johnson, Mrs. Grace Pettis, City Library Asso., Springfield, Mass. . 1908 

Johnson, Julius M., 77 Herkimer St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1913 

Johnson, Walter Adams, 120 W. 32d St., New York City 1889 

Johnson, Wilbur Wallace, 144 Harrison St., East Orange, N.J 1914 

Johnson, William S., Lyons, N. Y 1893 

Jones, F. W., 563 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, Mass 1912 

Jones, Dr. Lombard C, Falmouth, Mass 1912 

Jordan, A. H. B., Lowell, Wash 1888 

Jump, Mrs. Edwin R., 59 Boyd St., Newton, Mass 1910 

Justice, Henry, Devon, Pa 1913 

Kalmbach, Edwin R., Biological Survey, Washington, D. C 1910 

Keays, James Edward, 328 St. George St., London, Ontario 1899 

Keim, Thomas Daniel, Fellowship Farm, Stelton, N. J 1902 

Kellogg, Ralph T., Silver City, N. M 1913 

Kent, Duane E., 47 West St., Rutland, Vt , 1913 

Kent, Edwin C, 90 West St., New York City 1907 

Kermode, Francis, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B. C 1904 

Keyes, Prof. Chas. R., Mt. Vernon, la 1904 

*Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton, Mass 1906 

*Life Associate. 

Associates. xxv 

Kihn, Wilfred L., 755 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y 1913 

Kilgore, William, Jr., 4304 Colfax Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn 1906 

King, Le Roy, 20 E. 84th St., New York City 1901 

Kirkham, Mrs. James W., 275 Maple St., Springfield, Mass 1904 

*Kirkham, Stanton D., 152 Howell St., Canandaigua, N. Y 1910 

Kirkwood, Frank C, Monkton, Md 1892 

Kittredge, Joseph Jr., U. S. Forest Service, Missoula, Mont 1910 

Kloseman, Miss Jessie E., 44 Bullard St., Dedham, Mass 1909 

Knaebel, Ernest, 3707 Morrison St., Chevy Chase, D. C 1906 

Knapp, Mrs. Henry A., 301 Quincy Ave., Scranton, Pa 1907 

Knolhoff, Ferdinand William, 40 E. 42d St., New York City 1890 

Kretzman, Prof. P. E., 1230 St. Anthony Ave., St. Paul, Minn 1913 

Kuser, Anthony R., Bernardsville, N.J 1908 

Kuser, Mrs. Anthony R., Bernardsville, N. J 1910 

Ktjser, John Dryden, Bernardsville, N.J 1910 

Kutchin, Dr. Victor, Green Lake, Wis 1905 

La Dow, Stanley V., 610 W. 116th St., New York City 1913 

Lacey, Howard George, Kerrville, Texas 1899 

Lamb, Chas. R., 159 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Lancashire, Mrs. James Henry, Manchester, Mass 1909 

Lang, Herbert, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1907 

Latimer, Miss Caroline P., 19 Pierrepont St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1898 

Laurent, Philip, 31 E. Mt. Airy Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. . . 1902 

Law, J. Eugene, Hollywood, Cal 1907 

Lawrence, John B., 126 E. 30th St., New York City 1907 

Lee, Henry E., Rapid City, S. D 1910 

Leman, J. Howard, 48 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Lemsen, Nicholas F., 34 Nassau St., New York City 1912 

Lengerke, Justus von, 200 5th Ave., New York City 1907 

Lewis, Dr. Frederic T., 76 Oxford St., Cambridge, Mass 1909 

Lewis, Harrison F., R. R. 2 Yarmouth, Nova Scotia 1912 

Lewis, Mrs. Herman, 120 Grove St., Haverhill, Mass 1912 

Lew t is, L. Alva, 608 Panama Bldg., Portland, Ore 1913 

Ligon, Stokley, Chloride, New Mexico 1912 

Lincoln, Frederick Charles, Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist., Denver, Colo. . 1910 

Lings, Geo. H., 208 Piermont Ave., Nyack N. Y 1913 

Linton, Clarence B., 125 West Ocean Ave., Long Beach, Cal 1908 

Linzee, John W., 96 Charles St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Little, Luther 2d, 1625 W. Adams St., Los Angeles, Cal 1913 

Longstreet, Rubert J., Stetson University, DeLand, Fla 1913 

Lord, Rev. William R., Dover, Mass 190K 

Loring, Marion B., 914 High St., Dedham, Mass 1913 

Low, Ethelbert T., 30 Broad St., New York City 1907 

Luce, Mrs. Frances P., 140 Washington St., Boston, Mass 1912 

*Life Associate. 

xxvi Associates. 

Lttm, Edward H., Chatham, N.J 1904 

Luther, Dr. Clarence H., 8 Mcllroy Bldg., Fayetteville, Ark 1910 

Mackie, Dr. Wm. C, 54 Coolidge St., Brookline, Mass 1908 

Maclay, Mark W., Jr., 830 Park Ave., New York City 1905 

Maddock, Miss Emeline, Hamilton Court, Philadelphia, Pa 1897 

Madison, Harold L., Park Museum, Providence, R. 1 1912 

Maher, J. E., 351 Communipaw Ave., Jersey City, N. J 1902 

Main, Frank H., Lanesboro, Mass 1913 

Maitland, Robert L., 141 Broadway, New York City 1889 

Mann, Elias P., Williamstown, Mass 1912 

Maples, James C, Port Chester, N. Y 1913 

Marble, Richard M., Woodstock, Vt 1907 

Marrs, Mrs. Kingsmill, 9 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass 1903 

Marshall, Ella M. O., New Salem, Mass 1912 

Martin, Miss Maria Ross, Box 365, New Brunswick, N.J 1902 

Marx, Edward J. F., 207 Burke St., Easton, Pa 1907 

Mason, Vinton W., 12 Davenport St., Cambridge, Mass 1913 

Mattern, Edwin S., 1042 Walnut St., Allentown, Pa 1912 

Mattern, Walter I., 1042 Walnut St., Allentown, Pa 1912 

May, Miss Adelina, 226 Ocean St., Lynn, Mass 1912 

Maynard, C. J., 447 Crafts St., West Newton, Mass 1912 

McClintock, Norman, 504 Amberson Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 1900 

Mi Connell, Harry B., Cadiz, 1904 

McCook, Philip James, 571 Park Ave., New York City 1895 

McHatton, Dr. Henry, 335 College St., Macon, Ga 1898 

McIlhenny, Edward Avery, Avery Island, La 1894 

McIntire, Mrs. Herbert Bruce, 4 Garden St., Cambridge, Mass. . .1908 

McIntyre, Mrs. J. W., 151 Franklin St., Newton, Mass 1913 

McLain, Robert Baird, Market and 12th Sts., Wheeling, W. Va 1893 

McLean, Hon. Geo. P., Simsbury, Conn 1913 

McMahon, Walt F., 74 Eddy St., West Newton, Mass 1913 

McMillan, Mrs. Gilbert, Gorham, N. H 1902 

Mead, Mrs. E. M., 301 W. 91 St., New York City 1904 

Means, Chas. J., 29 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Mengel, G. Henry, 739 Madison Ave., Reading, Pa 1913 

Merriam, Charles, Weston, Mass 1908 

Merriam, Henry F., 30 Clinton Ave., Maplewood, N.J 1905 

Merrill, Albert R., Hamilton, Mass 1912 

Merrill, D. E., State College, New Mexico 1913 

Merrill, Harry, Bangor, Maine 1883 

Mershon, W. B., Saginaw, Mich 1905 

Metcalf, Willard L., 16 Gramercy Park, New York City 1908 

Metcalf, Z. P., A & M. College, West Raleigh, N. C 1913 

Meyer, Lieut. G. Ralph, Ft. McKinley, Portland Harbor, Me 1913 ' 

Meyer, Miss Heloise, Lenox, Mass 1913 

Mills, Prof. William C, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, 1900 

Associates. xxvii 

Miner, Leo D., 1836 Vernon St., N. W. Washington, D. C 1913 

Mischke, Geo. M., 1122 49th St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1913 

Mitchell, Catherine Adams, Riverside, 111 1911 

Mitchell, H. H., 2337 Smith St., Regina, Sask., Canada 1913 

Mitchell, Dr. Walton I., 603 Beacon Bldg., Wichita, Kan 1893 

Moore, Chas. S., San Diego, Cal 1913 

Moore, Miss Elizabeth Putnam, 5300 Media St., Philadelphia, Pa. .1905 

Moore, Henry D., Haddonfield, N.J 1911 

Moore, William G., 257 W. Main St., Haddonfield, N.J 1910 

Morcom, G. Frean, Box 175, Huntington Beach, Cal 1886 

More, R. L., Vernon, Texas 1911 

Morgan, Albert S., Winfield, W. Va 1913 

Morley, G. Griswold, 2535 Etna St., Berkeley, Cal 1911 

Morse, Eliza A., 21 Elm St., Worcester, Mass 1913 

Morse, Harry Gilman, Huron, Ohio 1912 

Mosher, Franklin H., 17 Highland Ave., Melrose Highlands, Mass. . 1905 

Mtjnro, J. A., Okanagan Landing, British Columbia, Canada 1913 

Muries, O. J., Sellwood Y. M. C. A., Portland, Ore 1913 

Murphey, Dr. Eugene E., 444 Tellfair St., Augusta, Ga 1903 

Musgrave, John K., 3516 Shady Ave., Allegheny, Pa 1909 

Myers, Mrs. Harriet W., 311 Ave. 66, Los Angeles, Cal 1906 

Myers, Miss Lucy F., Brookside, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 1898 

Nelson, James Allen, Bethesda, Md 1898 

Newell, Mrs. H. S., 2431 E. 5th St., Duluth, Minn 1912 

Newman, Rev. Stephen M., Howard University, Washington, D. C. . 1898 

Nims, Mrs. Lucius, 5 Union St., Greenfield, Mass 1913 

Noble, G. Kingsley, 13 Howland St., Cambridge, Mass 1913 

Nolte, Rev. Felix, St. Benedict's College, Atchison, Kan 1903 

Norris, J. Parker, Jr., 2122 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa 1904 

Norris, Roy C, 725 N. 10th St., Richmond, Ind 1904 

Novy, Frank Oriel, 721 Forest Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich 1909 

Nowell, John Rowland, Box 979, Schenectady, N. Y 1897 

O'Connell, G. M., Cornell Heights, Ithaca, N. Y 1913 

Ogden, Dr. Henry Vining, 141 Wisconsin St., Milwaukee, Wis 1897 

Ohl, H. C, 1457 Jay St., Fresno, Cal 1913 

Oldys, Henry, Silver Springs, Md 1896 

*Oliver, Dr. Henry Kemble, 2 Newbury, St., Boston, Mass! 1900 

Ordway, Miss Elizabeth I., 20 Myrtle St., Winchester, Mass 1913 

Osborn, Arthur A., 58 Washington St., Peabody, Mass 1912 

Ottemiller, Free, 30 N. Pine St., York, Pa 1914 

Overton, Dr. Frank, Patchogue, N. Y 1909 

*Owen, Miss Juliette Amelia, 306 N. 9th St., St. Joseph, Mo 1897 

. Paine, Augustus G., Jr., 200 5th Ave., New York City 1886 

Paladin, Arthur, N. Y. State Museum, Albany, N. Y 1911 

♦Life Associate. 

xxviii Associates. 

Palmer, S. C, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa 1912 

Pangburn, Clifford H., Lawrence Park, Bronxville, N. Y 1907 

Parker, Hon. Herbert, South Lancaster, Mass 1904 

Parsons, John E., 30 E. 36th St., New York City 1912 

Paul, Lucius H., 19 Aurora St., Rochester, N. Y 1908 

Peabody, Rev. P. B., Blue Rapids, Kan 1903 

Peavey, Robert W., 791 Coney Island Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y 1903 

Peck, Morton E., 1458 Court St., Salem, Ore 1909 

Penard, Thos. E., 16 Norfolk Rd., Arlington, Mass 1912 

Penfield, Miss Annie L., 155 Charles St., Boston, Mass 1912 

Pennington, Fred Albert, 5529 Kenwood Ave., Chicago, 111 1910 

Pepper, Dr. Wm., 1811 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa 1911 

Perkins, Dr. Geo. H., Burlington, Vt 1912 

Perry, Dr. Henry Joseph, 636 Beacon St., Boston, Mass 1909 

Peters, Albert S., Lake Wilson, Minn 1908 

Peters, James Lee, Harvard, Mass 1904 

Phelps, Frank M., 212 E. 4th St., Elyria, Ohio 1912 

Phelps, Mrs. J. W., Box 36, Northfield, Mass 1899 

Philhower, Chas. A., Chatham, N. J 1913 

Philipp, Philip B., 220 Broadway, New York City 1907 

Phillips, Alexander H., 54 Hodge Road, Princeton, N. J 1891 

Phillips, Chas., 2506 Plymouth Ave., Minneapolis, Minn 1914 

Phillips, Chas. Lincoln, 5 West Weir St., Taunton, Mass 1912 

Pierpont, Anna H., 59 Chestnut Ave., Waterbury, Conn 1913 

Pinchot, Gifford, 1617 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C 1910 

Platt, Mrs. Dan F., Englewood, N.J 1913 

Poe, Miss Margaretta, 1204 N. Charles St., Baltimore, Md 1899 

Pomeroy, Harry Kirkland, R. F. D. 4, Kalamazoo, Mich 1894 

Pond, Miss Ellen J., 160 Lexington Ave., New York City 1909 

Pope, Alexander, 1013 Beacon St., Brookline, Mass 1908 

Pope, E. F., Colmesneil, Texas 1913 

Porter, Rev. E. C, 24 Randolph St., Arlington, Mass 1912 

Porter, Louis H., Stamford, Conn 1893 

Post, Wm. S., 347 5th Ave., New York City 1911 

Potter, Julian K., Camden, N.J 1912 

Praeger, William E., 421 Douglas Ave., Kalamazoo, Mich 1892 

Price, John Henry, Crown W Ranch, Knowlton, Mont 1906 

Price, Ligon, R. F. D. 1, Box 44, Dunmore, W. Va 1913 

Primm, Roy Lee, 1113 W. Dayton St., Madison, Wis 1912 

Proctor, Mrs. Henry H., 282 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. .1912 

Purdy, James B., R. F. D. 4, Plymouth, Mich 1893 

Putnam, Prof. Fred. W., Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Ramsden, Chas. G., Box 146, Guantanamo, Cuba .1912 

Rathborne, R. C, 18 Congress St., Newark, N. J 1911 

Rawson, Calvin Luther, R. F. D. 2, Putnam, Conn 1885 

Raymond, Mrs. C. E., 21 3d St., Hinesdale, 111 1910 

Associates. xxix 

Rea, Paul M., Charleston Museum, Charleston, S. C 1912 

Reach, Dr. Arthur Lincoln, 39 Maple St., West Roxbury, Mass. .1896 

Rector, Wilson Blaine, Belington, W. Va 1913 

Redfield, Miss Elisa Whitney, 29 Everett St., Cambridge, Mass. .1897 

Reed, Hugh Daniel, 108 Brandon Place, Ithaca, N. Y 1900 

Rehn, James A. G., 6033 B CatherineSt., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Renshaw, Miss Mary H., 2005 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, La. .1913 

Reynolds, Theo. E. W., R. F. D. 2, Box 92, Kent, Wash 1912 

Rhoads, Charles J., National Reserve Bank, Philadelphia, Pa 1895 

Rice, James Henry, Jr., Summerville, S. C 1910 

Rice, Ward J., Roachdale, Ind 1913 

Richards, Miss Harriet E., 36 Longwood Ave., Brookline, Mass. .1900 

Richardson, Wyman, 50 Claverly Hall, Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Rideout, Miss A. Lillian, 15 Farragut Rd., Swampscott, Mass. . . .1912 

Ridgway, John L., Chevy Chase, Md 1890 

Ricketson, Walton, 10 Anthony St., New Bedford, Mass 1913 

Riker, Clarence B., 43 Scotland Rd., South Orange, N. J 1885 

Ring, Clark L., Saginaw, Mich 1912 

Ripley, Chas., 173 Harvard St., Dorchester Center, Boston, Mass. . . 1912 

Ripley, Mrs. J. W., 67 Greenleaf St., Maiden, Mass 1912 

Robbins, Miss Almeda B., Y. M. Library Association, Ware, Mass. .1910 

Robbins, C. A., Onset, Mass 1914 

Roberts, James O., 821 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y 1912 

Roberts, William Ely, 5513 Irving St., Philadelphia, Pa 1902 

Robertson, Howard, 157 S. Wilton Drive, Los Angeles, Cal 1911 

Robinson, Anthony W., 401 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1903 

Rockwood, Mrs. Geo. L, 340 May St., Worcester, Mass 1912 

Roe, Chas. M., 3012 Bathgate St., Cincinnati, O 1906 

*Rogers, Charles H., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York City 1904 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, Hyde Park, N. Y 1896 

Roper, Kenyon, 509 N. 4th St., Steubenville, Ohio 1911 

Ross, George H., 23 West St., Rutland, Vt 1904 

Ross, Dr. Lucretius H., 507 Main St., Bennington, Vt 1912 

Rowley, John, 42 Plaza Drive, Berkeley, Cal 1889 

Rugg, H. G., Hanover, N. H 1913 

Sackett, Clarence, Rye, N. Y 1910 

Sage, Henry M., Menands Road, Albany, N. Y 1885 

Sanborn, Colin C, 224 East Park Ave., Highland Park, III 1911 

Saunders, Aretas A., West Haven, Conn 1907 

Savage, James, 1097 Ellicott Sq., Buffalo, N. Y 1895 

Savage, Walter Giles, Amity, Ark 1898 

Schantz, Orpheus M., 5215 W. 24th St., Cicero, 111 1907 

Schenck, Fredric, 52 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass 1912 

Schorger, A. W., Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wis 1913 

*Life Associate. 

xxx Associates. 

Scott, William G., Box 1954, Winnipeg, Man., Canada 1913" 

Shannon, Wm. Purdy, 1170 Broadway, New York City 1908 

Sharples, Robert P., West Chester, Pa 1907 

Shaw, Chas. F., 676 Bedford St., North Abington, Mass 1912 

Shaw, Dr. J. Holbrook, 43 Court St., Plymouth, Mass 1912 

Shaw, William T., 600 Linden Ave., Pullman, Wash 1908 

Shearer, Amon R., Mont Belvieu, Tex 1905 

Sheldon, Charles, 8 W. 9th St., New York City 1911 

Shelton, Alfred, Univ. of Ore., Eugene, Ore 1911 

Shiras, George, 3d, Stoneleigh Court, Washington, D. C 1907 

Shoemaker, Clarence R., 3116 P St., Washington, D. C 1910 

Shoemaker, Henry W., 26 W. 53d St., New York City 1912 

Shrosbree, George, Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wis 1899 

Silliman, Harper, 126 E. 22d St., New York City 1902 

Simmons, Geo. Finlay, 622 First National Bank, Houston, Texas. . .1910 

Slade, Mrs. Daniel D., Chestnut Hill, Mass 1912 

Smith, Austin Paul, 742 Pennsylvania Ave., San Antonio, Texas. . . 1911 

Smith, Byron L., 2140 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111 1906 

Smith, Miss Ethel M., Rome, Ohio 1910 

Smith, Rev. Francis Curtis, 812 Columbia St., Utica, N. Y 1903 

Smith, Prof. Frank, 913 West California Ave., Urbana, 111 1909 

Smith, Horace G.. State Museum, State House, Denver, Colo 1888 

Smith, Dr. Hugh M., 1209 M St. N. W., Washington, D. C 1886 

Smith, Louis Irvin, Jr., 3908 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Smith, Wilbur F., South Norwalk, Conn 1909 

Smyth, Prof. Ellison A., Jr., Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, Va. . . .1892 

Snyder, Will Edwin, 309 De Clark St., Beaver Dam, Wis 1895 

Souther, Arthur L., 38 Pleasant St., Stoneham, Mass 1913 

Spears, Miss Ethel D., 115 East 69th St., New York City 1913 

Speenburgh, D. C, 200 W. 95th St., New York City 1913 

Spelman, Henry M., 48 Brewster St., Cambridge, Mass 1911 

Spooner, Miss M. T., 381 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass 1913 

Stansell, S. S. S., Manly, Alberta, Canada 1913 

Stanton, Prof. J. Y., 410 Main St., Lewiston, Me 1883 

Stanwood, Miss Cordelia Johnson, Ellsworth, Me 1909 

Stearns, Geo. Cushman, 494 Washington St., Dedham, Mass 1913 

Stephens, T. C, Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa 1909 

Stevens, Frank E., 25 Hudson St., Somerville, Mass 1912 

Stevens, Dr. J. F., Box 546, Lincoln, Neb 1908 

Stiles, Edgar C, 345 Main St., West Haven, Conn 1907 

St. John, Edward Porter, 57 Farmington Ave., Hartford, Conn.. .1911 

Stockbridge, Chas. A., Fort Wayne, Ind 1911 

Stoddard, Herbert Lee, Field Museum Nat. Hist., Chicago, 111. . .1912 

Stone, Clarence F., Branchport, N. Y 1903 

Stone, H. F., Lawrence, N. Y 1913 

Stone, Wm. D., Fayetteville, Ark 1911 

Associates. xxxi 

Stover, Allan J., Kings Rd., R. F. D. 3, Corvallis, Ore 1912 

Strater, Francis A., 50 Sumner Rd., Brookline, Mass 1912 

Stratton-Porter, Mrs. Gene, Box 855, Rome City, Ind 1906 

Street, J. Fletcher, Beverly, N. J 1908 

Strode, Dr. W. S., Lewiston, 111 1911 

Stuart, Geo. H., 3rd, care of Girard Trust Co., Philadelphia, Pa. . . . 1913 

Sturgis, S. Warren, Groton, Mass 1910 

Sturtevant, Edward, St. George's School, Newport, R.I 1896 

Styer, Mrs. Katharine R., Concordville, Pa 1903 

Sugden, Arthur W., 52 Highland St., Hartford, Conn 1913 

Summers, John N., 17 E. Highland Ave., Melrose Highlands, Mass. .1912 

Surface, Harvey Adam, State Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa 1897 

Swain, John Merton, Box 633, Farmington, Me 1899 

Swenk, Myron H., 3028 Starr Street, Lincoln, Neb 1904 

Tate, C. W., 19 Norman St., East Orange, N. J 1914 

Taylor, Alexander R., 1410 Washington St., Columbia, S. C 1907 

Taylor, B. F., 1619 Green St., Columbia, S. C 1911 

Taylor, Lionel E., Kelouna, British Columbia 1913 

Terrill, Lewis McL, 53 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, Quebec 1907 

Thomas, Miss Emily Hinds, 2000 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa 1901 

Thompson, Chas. S., 1712 S. Grand Ave., San Pedro, Cal 1909 

Thorne, Samuel, 19 Cedar St., New York City 1908 

Thurston, Henry, Box 181, Floral Park, N. Y 1912 

Tilley, Geo. D., Darien, Conn 1910 

Tinker, Almerin D., 631 S. 12th St., Ann Arbor, Mich 1907 

Toppan, George L., care of Col. C. Pfaff, Framingham, Mass 1886 

Tourtellotte, A. J., 114 East Main St., Westboro, Mass 1913 

Tower, Mrs. Kate Denig, 9 Newbury St., Boston, Mass 1908 

Townsend, Wilmot, 334 80th St., Brooklyn, N. Y 1894 

Treganza, A. O., 614 E. 6th St., Salt Lake City, Utah 1906 

Trippe, Thomas M., Howardsville, Colo 1909 

Trotter, William Henry, 36 N. Front St., Philadelphia, Pa 1899 

Trumbull, J. H., Plainville, Conn 1907 

Tudbury, Warren C, 441 Consolidated Realty Bldg., Los Angeles, 

Cal 1903 

Tufts, Le Roy Melville, Thrushwood, Farmington, Me 1903 

Tufts, Miss Mary I., 1 Atlantic St., Lynn, Mass 1910 

Tuttle, Dr. Albert H., 1069 Boylston St., Boston, Mass 1908 

Tuttle, Henry Emerson, 253 Yale Station, New Haven, Conn. . . .1909 

Tweedy, Edgar, 404 Main St., Danbury, Conn 1902 

Tyler, John G., 1114 Belmont Ave., Fresno, Cal 1912' 

Tyler, Dr. Winsor M., 522 Massachusetts Ave., Lexington, Mass. .1912 
Underwood, William Lyman, Mass Inst. Technology, Boston, Mass. 1900 

Upham, A. W., 77 St. Botolph St., Boston, Mass 1914 

Valentine, Miss Anna J., Bellefonte, Pa 1905 

Van Cortlandt, Miss Anne S., Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 1885 

xxxii Associates. 

Van Name, Willard Gibbs, N. Y. State Museum, Albany, N. Y. . . 1900 

Van Sant, Miss Elizabeth, 2960 Dewey Ave., Omaha, Neb 1896 

Vantassell, F. L., 116 High St., Passaic, N. J 1907 

Vetter, Dr. Charles, 2 West 88th St., New York City 1898 

Vietor, Dr. Edward W., 166 St. James Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1911 

Vietor, Mrs. Edward W., 166 St, James Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1914 

Visher, Stephen S., 5725 Drexel Ave., Chicago, 111 1904 

Vrooman, Isaac H., Jr., 294 Hamilton St., Albany, N. Y 1908 

Wadleigh, Wm. G., 219 State St., Boston, Mass 1913 

Wadsworth, Clarence S., 37 Washington St., Middletown, Conn. .1906 

Walcott, Frederic Collins, 14 Wall St., New York City 1913 

Waite, Mrs. J. Gilman, 19 Pearl St., Medford, Mass 1912 

Wales, Edward H., Hyde Park, N. Y 1896 

Walker, Alexander, Hemlock, Ore 1913 

Walker, Ernest P., Fisheries Service, Wrangell, Alaska 1911 

Walker, Geo. R., R. F. D. 3, Murray, Utah 1909 

Walker, Dr. R. L., 355 Main Ave., Carnegie, Pa 1888 

Wallace, Chas. R., 69 Columbus Ave., Delaware, Ohio 1913 

Wallace, James S., 533 Front St., E., Toronto, Ontario 1907 

Walter, Dr. Herbert E., 53 Arlington Ave., Providence, R. 1 1901 

Walters, Frank, 40 West Ave., Great Barrington, Mass 1902 

Ward, Frank Hawley, 18 Grove Place, Rochester, N. Y 1908 

Ward, Henry L., 882 Hackett Ave., Milwaukee, Wis 1906 

Ward, Mrs. Martha E., 25 Arlington St., Lynn, Mass 1909 

Warner, Edward P., Concord, Mass 1910 

Warner, Goodwin, Concord Junction, Mass 1908 

Warner, Willis H., R. F. D. 2, Canfield, Ohio 1913 

Watson, Mrs. Alex M., 124 Hatton St., Portsmouth, Va 1910 

Weber, J. A., Palisades Park, N. J 1907 

Weir, J. Alden, 471 Park Ave., New York City 1899 

Wellman, Gordon B., 54 Beltran St., Maiden, Mass 1908 

Wentworth, Irving H., 245 Belden Ave., San Antonio, Texas 1900 

Weston, Francis M., Jr., Bureau of Lighthouses, Washington, D. C. 1913 

Wetmore, Mrs. Edmund, 125 E. 57th St., New York City 1902 

Weygandt, Dr. Cornelius, Wissahickon Ave., Mt. Airy, Philadel- 
phia, Pa 1907 

Wharton, William P., Groton, Mass 1907 

Wheeler, Edmund Jacob, 177 Pequot Ave., New London, Conn. . .1898 

Wheeler, Harvey, Elm St., Concord, Mass 1912 

Wheelock, Mrs. Irene G., 1040 Hinman Ave., Evanston, 111 1902 

Whitcomb, Myron L., 40 Westland Terrace, Haverhill, Mass 1912 

White, Francis Beach, St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H 1891 

White, George R., Dead Letter Office, Ottawa, Ontario 1903 

White, Dr. James C, 259 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass 1913 

White, W. A., 158 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y 1902 

White, W. C, Chester, S. C 1911 

Associates. xxxiii 

Wickersham, Cornelius W., Cedarhurst, N. Y 1902 

Wilbur, Addison P., 60 Gibson St., Canandaigua, N. Y 1895 

Wilcox, T. Ferdinand, 162 W. 54th St., New York City 1895 

Willard, Bertel G., 8 Everett St., Cambridge, Mass 1906 

Willard, Frank C., Tombstone, Arizona 1909 

Willard, Miss Helen, 25 Regent Circle, Brookline, Mass 1913 

Willcox, Prof. M. A., 63 Oakwood Road, Newtonville, Mass 1913 

Williams, Robert S., New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx Park, 

New York City 1888 

Williams, Robert W., Jr., Tallahassee, Fla 1900 

Williamson, E. B., Bluffton, Ind 1900 

Williston, Mrs. Samuel, 577 Belmont St., Belmont, Mass 1911 

Windle, Francis, 253 Dean St., West Chester, Pa 1909 

Wing, DeWitt C, 5401 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, 111 1913 

Winslow, Arthur M., 3 Lyford St., Worcester, Mass 1912 

Wood, Mrs. Geo., 1313 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa 1910 

Wood, J. Claire, 179 17th St., Detroit, Mich 1902 

Wood, Nelson R., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C 1895 

Woodruff, Frank M., 225 Wisconsin St., Chicago, 111 1904 

Woodruff, Lewis B., 24 Broad St., New York City 1886 

Worcester, Mrs. Alfred, Bacon St., Waltham, Mass 1908 

Wright, Albert H., 707 E. State St., Ithaca, N. Y 1906 

Wright, Miss Harriet H., 1637 Gratiot Ave., Saginaw, W. S., Mich. 1907 

Wright, Horace Winslow, 107 Pinckney St., Boston, Mass 1902 

Wright, Samuel, Conshohocken, Pa 1895 

Wyman, Luther E., 4911 Bridlong Ave., Los Angeles, Cal 1907 

Young, John P., 1510 5th Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 1911 

Young, Wallace Park, 73 Soramen Ave., Toronto, Canada 1913 

Zappey, Walter R., 25 Hammond St., Cambridge, Mass 1905 

Zimmer, J. T., 42 Holdrege St., Lincoln, Neb 1908 

xxxiv Deceased Members. 


Date of Death 

Aldrich, Charles March 8, 1908 

Baird, Spencer Fullerton Aug. 19, 1887 

Bendire, Charles Emil Feb. 4, 1897 

Coues, Elliott Dec. 25, 1899 

Goss, Nathaniel Sttckney March 10, 1891 

Holder, Joseph Bassett Feb. 28, 1888 

Jeffries, John Amort March 26, 1892 

McIlwraith, Thomas Jan. 31, 1903 

Merrill, James Cushing Oct. 27, 1902 

Purdie, Henry Augustus March 29, 1911 

Sennett, George Burritt March 18, 1900 

Trumbull, Gurdon Dec. 28, 1903 

Wheaton, John Maynard Jan. 28, 1887 

Retired Fellows. 
Gill, Theodore Nicholas Sept. 25, 1914 

Honorary Fellows. 

Blanford, William Thomas June 23, 1905 

Barboza du Bocage, Jose Vicente July — , 1908 


Cabanis, Jean Louis. Feb. 20, 1906 

Gatke, Heinrich Jan. 1, 1897 

Giglioli, Enrico Hillyer Dec. 16, 1909 

Gundlach, Johann Christoph March 14, 1896 

Gurney, John Henry April 20, 1890 

Hartlaub, [Karl Johann] Gustav Nov. 20, 1900 

Hume, Allan Octavian July 31, 1912 

Huxley, Thomas Henry June 29, 1895 

Kraus, Ferdinand Sept. 15, 1890 

Lawrence, George Newbold Jan. 17, 1895 

Meyer, Adolf Bernhard Feb. 5, 1911 

Milne-Edwards, Alphonse April 21, 1900 

Newton, Alfred June 7, 1907 

* List revised by Dr. T. S. Palmer from data collected by the Index Committee. 

Deceased Members. xxxv 

Parker, William Kitchen July 3, 1 890 

Pelzeln, August von Sept. 2, 1891 

Salvin, Osbert June 1, 1898 

Saunders, Howard Oct. 20, 1907 

Schlegel, Hermann Jan. 17, 1884 

Sclater, Philip Lutley June 27, 1913 

Seebohm, Henry Nov. 26, 1895 

Sharpe, Richard Bowdler Dec. 25, 1909 

Taczanowski, Ladislas [Casimirovich] Jan. 17, 1890 

Wallace, Alfred Russel Nov. 7, 1913 

Corresponding Fellows. 

Altum, [C. A. =] Bernard Feb. 1, 1900 

Anderson, John Aug. 15, 1900 

Baldamus, Auguste Karl Eduard Oct. 30, 1893 

Blakiston, Thomas Wright Oct. 15, 1891 

Blasius, [Paul Heinrich] Rudolph Sept. 21, 1907 

Blasius, Wilhelm August Heinrich May 31, 1912 

Bogdanow, Modest Nikolaevich March 16, 1888 

Bryant, Walter [Pierc]E May 21, 1905 

Buller, Walter La wry July 19, 1906 

Collett, Robert Jan. 27, 1913 

Cooper, James Graham July 19, 1902 

Cordeaux, John Aug. 1, 1899 

David, Armand Nov. 10, 1900 

Duges, Alfred Jan. 7, 1910 

Fatio, Victor March 19, 1906 

Haast, Julius von Aug. 16, 1887 

Hargitt, Edward March 19, 1895 

Hayek, Gustav Edler von Jan. 9, 1911 

Herman, Otto Dec. 27, 1914 

Holub, Emil Feb. 21, 1902 

Homeyer, Eugen Ferdinand von May 31, 1889 

Knudsen, Valdemar Jan. 8, 1898 

La yard, Edgar Leopold Jan. 1, 1900 

Leverkuhn, Paul Dec. 5, 1905 

Lilford, Lord (Thomas Lyttleton Powys) June 17, 1896 

Marschall, August Friedrich Oct. 11, 1887*^ 

Malmgren, Anders Johan April 12, 1897 

Middendorff, Alexander Theodorovich Jan. 28, 1894 

Mosjisovics von Mojsvar, Felix Georg Hermann August . Aug. 27,1897 

Oates, Eugene William Nov. 16, 1911 

Oustalet, [Jean Frederic] Emile Oct. 23, 1905 

xxxvi Deceased Members. 

Philippi, Rudolf Amandus July 23, 1904 

Prjevalsky, Nicolas Michaelovich Nov. 1, 1888 

Prentiss, Daniel Webster Nov. 19, 1899 

Pryer, Harry James Stovin Feb. 17, 1888 

Radde, Gustav Ferdinand Richard von March 15, 1903 

Schrenck, Leopold von Jan. 20, 1894 

Selys-Longchamps, Michel Edmond de Dec. 11, 1900 

Severtzow, Nicolas Aleksyevich Feb. 8, 1885 

Shelley, George Ernest Nov. 29, 1910 

Stevenson, Henry Aug. 18, 1888 

Tristram, Henry Baicer March 8, 1906 

Wharton, Henry Thornton Sept. — , 1895 

Woodhouse, Samuel Washington Oct. 23, 1904 

Herman, Otto Dec. 27, 1914 


Brown, Herbert May 12, 1913 

Fannin, John June 20, 1904 

Hardy, Manly Dec. 9, 1910 

Judd, Sylvester Dwight Oct. 22, 1905 

Knight, Ora Willis Nov. 11, 1913 

Pennock, Charles John (disappeared) May 15, 1913 

Ralph, William LeGrange July 8, 1907 

Torrey, Bradford Oct. 7, 1912 

Whitman, Charles Otis Dec. 6, 1910 


Adams, Charles Francis May 20, 1893 

Allen, Charles Slover Oct. 15, 1893 

Antes, Frank Tallant Feb. 6, 1907 

Atkins, Harmon Albro May 19, 1885 

Avery, William Cushman March 11, 1894 

Bailey, Charles E , 1905 

Baird, Lucy Hunter June 19, 1913 

Barlow, Chester Nov. 6, 1902 

Baur, Georg [Hermann Carl Ludwig] June 25, 1898 

Beckham, Charles Wickliffe June 8, 1888 

Bill, Charles April 14, 1897 

Birtwell, Francis Joseph June 28, 1901 

Boardman, George Augustus Jan. 11, 1901 

Bolles, Frank Jan. 10, 1894 

Deceased Members. xxxvii 

Brackett, Foster Hodges Jan. 5, 1900 

Brantley, William Foreacre Sept. 9, 1914 

Breese, William Lawrence Dec. 7, 1888 

Breninger, George Frank Dec. 3, 1905 

Brennan, Charles F Mar. 21, 1907 

Brokaw, Louis Westen Sept. 3, 1897 

Brown, John Clifford Jan. 16, 1901 

Browne, Francis Charles Jan. 9, 1900 

Brownson, William Henry Sept. 6, 1909 

Burke, William Bardwell April 15, 1914 

Burnett, Leonard Elmer March 16, 1904 

Butler, [Thomas] Jefferson Oct. 23, 1913 

Cairns, John Simpson June 10, 1895 

Call, Aubrey Brendon Nov. 20, 1901 

Campbell, Robert Argyll April — , 1897 

Canfield, Joseph Buckingham Feb. 18, 1904 

Carleton, Cyrus Nov. 15, 1907 

Carter, Edwin Feb. 3, 1900 

Carter, Isabel Monteith Paddock (Mrs. Carter) Sept. 15, 1907 

Chadbourne, Ethel Richardson (Mrs. Arthur Patterson 

Chadbourne) Oct. 4, 1908 

Charles, Fred Lemar May 6, 1911 

Clark, John Nathaniel Jan. 13, 1903 

Coe, William Wellington April 26, 1885 

Colburn, William Wallace Oct. 17, 1899 

Collett, [Collette] Alonzo McGee Aug. 22, 1902 

Conant, Martha Wilson (Mrs. Thomas Oakes Conant) . .Dec. 28, 1907 

Corning, Erastus, Jr April 8, 1893 

Daffin, William H April 21, 1902 

Dakin, John Allen Feb. 21, 1900 

Davis, Susan Louise (Mrs. Walter Rockwood Davis) . . . .Feb. 13, 1913 

Davis, Walter Rockwood April 3, 1907 

Dexter, [Simon] Newton July 27, 1901 

Dodge, Julian Montgomery Nov. 23, 1909 

Dyche, Lewis Lindsay Jan. 20, 1915 

Elliott, Samuel Lowell Feb. 11, 1889 

Fairbanks, Franklin April 24, 1895 

Farwell, Mrs. Ellen Sheldon Drummond Aug. 6, 1912 

Ferry, John Farwell Feb. 11, 1910 

Fisher, William Hubbell Oct. 6, 1909 

Fowler, Joshua Lounsbury July 11, 1899 

Fuller, Charles Anthony Mar. 16, 1906 

Gesner, Abraham Herbert April 30, 1895 

Goss, Benjamin Franklin July 6, 1893 

Hales, Henry Teasdel Nov. 6, 1913 

Hatch, Jesse Maurice May 1, 1898 

xxxviii Deceased Members. 

Hill, William Henry Oct. 14, 1913 

Hoadley, Frederick Hodges Feb. 26, 1895 

Holmes, LaRue Klingle May 10, 1906 

Hoopes, Josiah Jan. 16, 1904 

Howe, Florence Atjrella July 9, 1913 

Howe, Louise Sept. 13, 1912 

Howland, John Snowden Sept. 19, 1885 

Ingersoll, Joseph Carleton Oct. 1, 1897 

Jenks, John Whipple Potter Sept. 26, 1894 

Jestjrun, Mortimer (disappeared) Feb. 19, 1905 

Jouy, Pierre Louis March 22, 1894 

Kelker, William Anthony Feb. 15, 1908 

Knight, Wilber Clinton July 28, 1903 

Knox, John Cowing June 10, 1904 

Koch, August Feb. 15, 1907 

Kumlien, Ludwig Dec. 4, 1902 

Kumlien, Thure Ludwig Theodor Aug. 5, 1888 

Lawrence, Robert Hoe April 27, 1897 

Lee, Leslie Alexander May 20, 1908 

Levey, William Charlesworth July 5, 1914 

Linden, Charles Feb. 3, 1888 

Lloyd, Andrew James June 14, 1906 

Mabbett, Gideon Aug. 15, 1890 

Maitland, Alexander Oct. 25, 1907 

Marble, Charles Churchill Sept. 10, 1900 

Marcy, Oliver March 19, 1899 

Maris, Willard Lorraine Dec. 11, 1895 

Marsden, Henry Warden Feb. 26, 1914 

McEwen, Daniel Church Nov. 1. 1909 

McKinlay, James Nov. 30, 1899 

Mead, George Smith June 18, 1901 

Minot, Henry Davis Nov. 13, 1890 

Morrell, Clarence Henry July 15, 1902 

Nichols, Howard Gardner June 23, 1896 

Nims, Lee March 12, 1903 

Northrop, John Isaiah June 26, 1891 

Park, Austin Ford Sept. 22, 1893 

Paulmier, Frederick Clark March 4, 1906 

Pomeroy, Grace V May 14, 1906 

Ragsdale, George Henry March 25, 1895 

Rawle, Francis William June 12, 1911 

Ready, George Henry March 20, 1903 

Reed, Chester Albert Dec. 16, 1912 

Richardson, Jenness June 24, 1893 

Robins, Julia Stockton (Mrs. Edward Robins) July 2, 1906 

Sand, Isabella Low April 20, 1906 

Deceased Members. xxxix 

Selous, Percy Sherborn April 7, 1900 

Slater, James Howe Feb. 22, 1895 

Slevin, Thomas Edwards Dec. 23, 1902 

Small, Edgar Albert April 23, 1884 

Small, Harold Wesley Mar. 12, 1912 

Smith, Clarence Albert May 6, 1896 

Smith, Ruth Cook (Mrs. H. A. Hammond Smith) Jan. 2, 1912 

Snow, Francis Huntington Sept. 20, 1908 

Southwick, James Mortimer June 3, 1904 

Spaulding, Frederick Benjamin Oct. 22, 1913 

Stone, Willard Harrison March 15, 1895 

Sweiger, Helen Bronson (Mrs. Jacob L. Sweiger) March 24, 1907 

Taylor, Alex. O'Driscoll April 10, 1910 

Thompson, Millett Taylor Aug. 7, 1907 

Thorne, Platt Marvin March 16, 1897 

Thurber, Eugene Carleton Sept. 6, 1896 

Upham, Mary Cornelia (Mrs. William Henry Upham) . .Nov. 29, 1912 

Vennor, Henry George June 8, 1884 

Waters, Edward Stanley Dec. 27, 1902 

Welles, Charles Salter Feb. 24, 1914 

Willard, Samuel Wells May 24, 1887 

Wilson, Sidney Stewart Nov. 22, 1911 

Wister, William Rotch Aug. 21, 1911 

Wood, William Aug. 9, 1885 

Woodruff, Edward Seymour Jan. 15, 1909 

Worthen, Charles Kimball May 27, 1909 

Young, Curtis Clay July 30, 1902 



Vo I. XL ; i Vnl YVV 


The Auk 

a (Siuarterlp 3ournal of ©rnitboloo^ 


JANUARY, 1915 

No. 1 


The American Ornithologists' Union 


Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 


On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. By Frederic H. Kennard. (Plates I-III) 

List of the Birds of Louisiana. Part VI. By H. H. Kopman . 

Anatomical and Other Notes on the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) 

Lately Living in the Cincinnati Zoological Gardens. By Dr. R. W 

Shufeldt. (Plates IV-VI) 

Ten Hours at Fernando Noronha. By Robert Cushman Murphy 

Notes on American and Old World English Sparrows. By John C. Phillips 

A New Subspecies of Screech Owl from California. By J. Grinnell . 

Early Records of the Wild Turkey. III. By Albert Hazen Wright 

The Present Status of the Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator). By Henry K 

Coale. (Plates VII-X) ". 

Notes on a Captive Virginia Rail. By Alvin R. Cahn .... 





General Notes. — Concealing Posture of Grebes, 95; The Double-crested Cormorant 
in the Chicago Area, 95; Note on the Feeding of the Mallard, 96; Piping Plover at 
Cape May, N. J., 97; The Yellow-crowned Night Heron in Colorado. A Correction, 
97; The American Bittern Nesting on Long Island, N. Y., 97; Cory's Least Bittern 
in Illinois, 98; Willow Ptarmigan in Minnesota, 99; Audubon's Caracara in New 
Mexico, 100; Actions of the Red-tailed Hawk, 100; Richardson's Owl in Illinois, 
101; An albinistic Bobolink, 101; Lecontes Sparrow in Wisconsin, 101; The Even- 
ing Grosbeak at Portland, Maine, 102; Two Species of Cliff Swallow Nesting in Kerr 
County, Texas, 102; The Cape May Warbler in Eastern Massachusetts, 104; The 
Records of the Tennessee and Cape May Warblers in Southwestern Maine, 104; 
Cape May and Tennessee Warblers in Philadelphia, 106; San Lucas Verdin in 
Arizona, 106; Bluegray Gnatcatcher nesting in Wisconsin, 106; Robin's Nests, 106; 
Two New Records for British Columbia, 107; Some Unusual Breeding Records 
from South Carolina, 108; Notes on Some Birds of the Maryland Alleghanies; An 
Anomaly in the Check- List, 108; The Status of the Song Sparrow and the Chipping 
Sparrow as Early Birds, 110. 

Recent Literature. — Cooke's 'Distribution and Migration of North American Rails,' 
113; Wetmore on the Growth of the Tail Feathers of the Giant Hornbill, 113; 
Chapman on New Colombian Birds, 114; Shufeldt on the Young of Phalacrocorax 
atriceps georgianus, 114; 'Alaskan Bird-Life,' 114; Mrs. Bailey's 'Handbook of Birds 
of the Western United States' Fourth Edition, 115; Mcllhenny's 'The Wild Turkey 
and Its Hunting, 115; Mathews' 'Birds of Australia,' 116; Kuroda's Recent Orni- 
thological. Publications, 116; The Annual Report of the National Association of 
Audubon Societies, 117; Recent Literature on Bird Protection, 117; Studies in Egg 
Production in the Domestic Fowl, 118; Birds as Carriers of the Chestnut-Blight 
Fungus, 119; Reichenow's 'Die Vogel,' 119; Second Report on the Food of Birds 
in Scotland, 121 ; Feilden on Birds of Trinidad and Tobago, 121 ; The Ornithological 
Journals, 123 ; Ornithological Articles in Other Journals, 128 ; Publications Received , 

Correspondence — Obituary Notices, 133; Time of Incubation, 134; Changes in By- 
Laws of the A. O. U., 134. 

Notes and News. — Obituary: Theodore N. Gill, 139; The San Francisco Meeting of 
the A. O. U., 140; Importation of Rhea plumage, 142; Full Names of Authors in 
'The Auk,' 143; Book Notice, 144; Exhibition of Water colors of Birds, 144. 

'THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, is edited, beginning with the Volume for 1912, by Dr. Wither 

Terms: — $3.00 a year, including postage, strictly in advance. Single num- 
bers, 75 cents. Free to Honorary Fellows, and to Fellows, Members, and 
Associates of the A. O. U. not in arrears for dues. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to Dr. JONATHAN DWTGHT, Jr., 
Business Manager, 134 West 71st St., New York, N. Y. Foreign Subscrib- 
ers may obtain 'The Auk' through R. H. PORTER, 9 Princes Street, 
Cavendish Square, W., London. 

Articles and communications intended for publication, and all books 
and publications for notice, should be sent to Dr. WITMER STONE, 
Academy op Natural Sciences, Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manuscripts for general articles should reach the editor at least six weeks 
before the date of the number for which they are intended, and manuscripts 
for ' General Notes ' and ' Recent Literature ' not later than the first of the month 
preceding the date of the number in which it is desired they shall appear. 

■t ~.-^rr ^ Tm -if — — *T~ I 1 " " "' W 



Vol. xxxii. January, 1915. No. 1. 



Plates I-III. 

After years of looking forward to a hunting trip in the Florida 
Big Cypress Swamp, my hopes seemed about to be realized when 
on the 14th of February, 1914, the teamster, Peter Hogan, started 
from Fort Myers with our outfit, in a wagon very much like an old- 
fashioned prairie schooner, hauled by two good looking yoke of 
oxen; while my guide, Tom Hand, and I were to follow the next 
day in an automobile; it being our intention to catch up before 
Peter reached the Big Cypress, and leaving the machine at its edge, 
go on with him. 

The wagon was a stout, broad tired affair, with top like a prairie 
schooner, and easily held our outfit. We used oxen because, though 
slow, they could with their spreading toes, pull a wagon through 
places where horses and mules would be sure to bog down. 

Tom and I started the next day soon after daylight, for Immo- 
kalee, about thirty-two miles southeast of Fort Myers, running 
through rather uninteresting open pine woods for almost the entire 
distance. We bogged down just south of Immokalee, had to cut 
several trees to use as levers, and finally after building a miniature 
corduroy road, managed to pry the machine out of the mud and 
caught up with Peter about eight miles further south, where we 
camped for the night. 

When leaving Fort Myers in the morning, we saw a few Florida 
Grackles fussing about the orange trees in front of the hotel. A 

2 Rennakd, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. [j an . 

Mockingbird was warbling from a neighboring telegraph pole, 
Florida Bluejays were feeding among the palms, and a Loggerhead 
Shrike was singing somewhere in the grounds. Purple Martins 
were flying about the water tank at the rear of the hotel, and the 
omnipresent English Sparrow was yapping among the out-build- 
ings. In the bay back of the house was a bunch of about thirty 
very tame Lesser Scaup Ducks, close in by the sea wall, while just 
outside, a couple of big Brown Pelicans were wheeling about in the 
air, or flopping down into the water; and several gulls and some 
large terns were flying about. 

On our way through the pine woods we saw Turkey Buzzards, 
of course, and a few Florida Crows, Florida Jays, and Florida 
Bluejays, Flickers, Pileated, Red-cockaded and Red-bellied Wood- 
peckers. There were numerous warblers flitting about the tree 
tops, but in our hurry we only identified the Pine and Myrtle. 
There were a few sparrows also in the underbrush, which we 
had no time to identify. We saw Phoebes, Bluebirds, numerous 
Shrikes, Florida Red-wings, Mourning Doves, and several King- 
fishers flying about the sloughs or lakes that we passed in the open 
places. We saw several large herons, either Ward's or Great Blue, 
a small flock of Little Blue Herons, about half of which were white, 
one Louisiana Heron, and in the distance, one large white heron, 
probably an Egret. There were numbers of Florida Meadowlarks, 
and after we had passed Immokalee we began to get into the 
country of the Sandhill Cranes. 

About sixteen miles out from Fort Myers we discovered the nest 
of an Audubon Caracara, placed about thirty-five feet up in the 
top of a pine, just beside the trail. The nest was a rather bulky 
affair built of sticks, coarse beneath and finer above, with a depres- 
sion in the top about four inches deep, lined with weeds, and con- 
taining one fresh egg. The birds did not seem to be particularly 
wild, and at first watched us curiously from a neighboring tree, 
and later flew off to the edge of an adjoining slough. 

Immokalee is a typical little Florida hamlet and consists of a 
church, several houses, one of which contained a postoffice, a so- 
called store, and several small orange groves. Its oldest inhabitant,. 
Mr. W. H. Brown, an Englishman who has lived there for forty 
years trading with the Seminoles, boasted that the town was the 
highest in Lee County just twenty-one feet above the sea ! 

1915 J Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. 3 

The next morning, February 16th, we went on through the pine 
woods, about seven miles, to the "Rock Spring Crossing" at the 
edge of the Big Cypress, where we left our automobile in the woods, 
beneath an extemporized canvas tent. We bogged down twice, 
en route, and had to wait, both times, for the oxen to catch up and 
pull the machine out of the mud, a soft marley clay. 

The country had been very uninteresting, and comparatively 
birdless, only a few sparrows and a buzzard or two having been 
seen, and the tracks of a few turkeys. After caching the auto, 
and eating a hasty lunch, we took to the swamp, the main "strand" 
of the Big Cypress, and for four miles plodded, and waded, and 
cleared the trail of prostrate trees and overhanging boughs that 
threatened the schooner's superstructure. 

On the margin of the swamp and its bordering jungle, we saw a 
Catbird, a Brown Thrasher, and a few Florida Yellow-throats, 
but after we got into the swamp itself we saw not a bird until 
we reached a small cabbage hammock about half a mile from the 
other side, which was fairly alive with them. Chickadees (I do 
not know whether they were Carolina or the Florida sub-species), 
Tufted Titmice, many unidentified warblers, Pileated and Red- 
bellied Woodpeckers were flying about, while in the waters of the 
swamp adjoining there waded numbers of Louisiana Herons, 
Green Herons, Egrets, Wood Ibis, Black-crowned Night Herons, 
and large herons, either Ward's or Great Blues. 

On coming out of the swamp the trail led across a fine large 
hammock of open pine woods, interspersed with cabbage palms, 
live-oaks, and an undergrowth of saw-palmettos, dotted here and 
there with numerous depressions filed with cypress and jungle. 
Peter and I went ahead looking for a "burn" on which to camp, 
near water and pasturage, while Tom took my rifle, and soon 
brought in two turkeys which he had " roosted " in a cypress, near 
the edge of the swamp. 

In choosing a camp site in this country one should usually choose 
a "burn," or place that has recently been burned over, as otherwise 
one may return to camp, only to find that it has vanished in smoke. 

The natives everywhere in this region; cowboys, alligator hunt- 
ers, and Indians alike, seem to travel with boxes of matches in their 
pockets, which they distribute impartially as they ride through 

Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. Ljan. 

the country, generally in order to make better pasturage for their 
cattle; but in this particular region where there are no cattle, in 
order to burn out the thickets and jungle, which would otherwise 
become impenetrable, and to supply food and convenient hunting 
grounds for deer and turkey which come out on the "burns" to 
feed on the fresh young growth. 

We stayed here until the 19th, wading the swamps, beating the 
brush, or exploring the neighboring savannahs; collecting a few 
birds here and there, and filling our larder with turkeys and veni- 
son, both fresh and smoked, but always keeping in mind the main 
object of the expedition, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Pileated 
Woodpeckers there were in plenty, and I would not even try to 
guess the number of miles we foolishly traveled after large wood- 
peckers and strange noises that we thought might perchance 
emanate from an Ivory-bill. They were always Pileateds. 

In the swamps there were herons galore; Ward's, Louisianas, 
Little Blues, Greens, and Black-crowned Night Herons, Wood 
Ibis or Flint-heads as they are locally called, bunches of White 
Ibis, numbers of American Bittern, and an occasional Egret. In 
the main swamp also were numerous fresh tracks of otter, bear, 
several large alligators, to say nothing of flocks of little fellows. 
Along the edges the joyous Carolina Wren was almost always in 
evidence, while on the hammocks numbers of Florida Quail and 
Mourning Doves flew up almost from under our feet. Florida 
Barred Owls were everywhere, and as usual particularly loquacious, 
and Tom could talk their language better than anyone I ever heard. 
Turkey Buzzards were always soaring somewhere in sight, particu- 
larly when we had meat hung up; and a pair of Florida Sparrow 
Hawks had a nest in an old pine stub close beside the camp. There 
were warblers in the tree tops, particularly in the cabbage palms, 
where they, as well as almost every other bird in the vicinity, 
seemed to find food among the ripe fruit that hung there. Even 
the Pileated Woodpeckers fed freely on the berries. 

There were turkeys here, singly, in pairs and in flocks; some- 
times two or three of them would stampede right through camp 
while we were sitting there, perhaps skinning one of their relatives; 
while in the mornings and evenings we could always hear the old 
gobblers a-gobbling from their chosen perches. 

° 1915 J Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. 5 

I do not think that throughout the entire trip there was ever a 
morning in which we could not hear at least two or three gobblers, 
apparently vying with each other, and everybody else for that 
matter, as to which could make the most noise. If we had heard a 
gobbler in the distance and wanted to locate him, all we had to do 
was to let out a few unearthly hoots, like a very large Barred Owl, 
and he would invariably reply; and once I remember when Tom, 
at dusk, had shot a small turkey from the top of a cypress tree, the 
old gobbler that was sitting unobserved on a nearby pine, let out a 
series of record breaking gobbles in an apparent effort to outdo 
the shotgun. 

Right here perhaps a brief description of our methods of hunting 
turkeys may be of interest to those unfamiliar with this much 
written up subject. Briefly, we either "called," "roosted" or 
"still hunted" them. 

For " calling " or " yelping " we got up in the morning before day- 
light, and after making our way to a comparatively open space near 
which we knew some gobbler roosted, we would hide in the brush or 
behind a tree, and then imitating the call of a hen, coax him down 
from his perch and up within gun shot. Usually the smaller hollow 
wing-bone of a turkey hen is used asa" yelper " for this purpose; 
but Tom could conjure the most coaxing calls out of a piece of 
grass, a leaf or any thing. At this season of the year very little 
coaxing is really necessary, and the old gobblers would come in on 
the run at the slightest provocation. 

The hens usually roost in a tall cypress near the edge of the 
swamp, while the old gobblers, at this season seem exclusive, and 
prefer to roost alone; usually in some tall pine on the nearby 
hammock. Then when morning comes, after a few preliminary 
gobbles when the hens have flown down and begun to feed, the old 
gobbler comes down and is supposed to pay his respects to each of 
his consorts, or for that matter any other consort that happens to 
be near. 

When the birds are to be "roosted," if it is a gobbler you are 
after, it is comparatively easy to locate him by his gobbling. If 
there is any uncertainty as to his exact direction, gobble, or hoot like 
an owl, and unless he sees you he will invariably reply. Then 
work your way carefully in his general direction until you have him 

6 Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. [ Jan . 

located accurately, and then when it is sufficiently dark, creep up 
with infinite pains to some spot where you can shoot him in the 
head. It is hardly believable to one who has not tried to locate him 
how inconspicuous a very large old gobbler may be while sitting in 
perfectly plain sight, on the limb of a big old pine. My objection 
to this method of hunting is that when a large bird like a gobbler, 
weighing fifteen to eighteen pounds, falls seventy-five feet or so 
from the top of a tall tree he is likely to damage his plumage by 
striking the limbs and be ruined as a specimen. 

"Still hunting" hardly needs a description further than to say 
that one must know something of the habits of the birds and their 
daily haunts, and remember that a turkey's eyes are extremely 
sharp, and that it can run like a deer. There was one enormous 
old gobbler that I particularly wanted to bring home to an unbe- 
lieving friend of mine, and I laid for him on several occasions. 
I knew almost exactly where to find him at a certain hour in 
the afternoon, and would approach this particular hammock as 
stealthily as possible, only to be rewarded each time by seeing 
him scooting across the prairie to a neighboring swamp. Once, 
and only once, I chased him. He never seemed really to hurry 
and disdained taking to his wings. We named this particular place 
"the quarter mile run"; and yet I have on several occasions 
walked almost onto an old gobbler "a-droning" in the middle of 
the trail. 

The turkeys of this region are reputedly the smallest of the 
Florida subspecies; the hens that we shot weighing from five and 
three quarters to eight and a half pounds, but old hens, I am told, 
frequently weigh as much as ten pounds or more and I know of one 
big one that weighed eleven pounds. The young gobblers that we 
shot weighed from eight and a half to ten pounds, and I am in- 
formed, frequently weigh as much as twelve, or even in extreme 
cases, fourteen pounds. The old gobblers that we collected on 
this trip, and we did not kill any very large ones, weighed from 
fifteen to eighteen pounds, but I know of Big Cypress gobblers 
that have been weighed by friends of mine whose evidence is un- 
questionable, that weighed twenty-two, twenty-three, and in one 
extreme case, twenty-five pounds. 

On the afternoon of February 19 we broke camp for a hammock 

■>' " 

E* m 

.„3 .•• 4 » 

j« - ~*^ 






° i9i5 J Kennabd, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. 7 

about four miles away, where there was an isolated grove of orange 
and grapefruit trees belonging to Mr. Frank Van Agnew of Kissim- 
mee, Florida, who had very kindly offered me all the hospitality 
possible. This grove really was the objective point of our expedi- 
tion, for it was here in 190S, that a friend of mine had seen Ivory- 
bills, and had presented me with the skin of a beautiful male as a 
proof that these rare birds were still to be found in southern Florida. 
On the trail, which led through a fairly dry and more or less 
open country, we saw several deer and numerous turkeys, several 
bunches of Quail, and one Great Crested Flycatcher, besides the 
usual number of warblers, woodpeckers, etc. 

Upon arriving at Van Agnew's, we found, on the edge of the open 
pine woods, a very comfortable three room bungalow with an 
open hallway and piazza, built of cypress and set upon posts 
about six feet above the ground, which at certain seasons of the 
year is under water. A short distance away, across an open space 
and a piece of pretty wet cypress swamp, was the hammock, with 
about ten acres above flood level planted with a very healthy look- 
ing grove of trees. Somebody had been there ahead of us and 
abstracted the oranges. The grapefruit were however still there, 
the trees loaded with them ; and they tasted very good to us after 
the villainous water that we had been forced to drink for the last 
few days. Distances are great in Florida and the natives do not 
think much of them. It has been customary to drag this fruit to 
market sixty miles by ox team. 

I had come on ahead of the rest of the party, and while waiting 
for them, put in my time exploring the grove. On my entrance a 
whole flock of turkeys rose just in front of me, lit in some live oaks 
at the edge of the swamp, and I was lucky enough to knock over 
two of them with my rifle. 

The ground, except for little circles, which had been cultivated 
immediately about the trees, was waist high with a luxuriant 
growth of weeds, which were reported to be full of rattlers. The 
surrounding swamp I knew to be full of moccasins, and the prospect 
was creepy. There were a few cabbage palms and live oaks 
scattered through the grove, and about the edge of the clearing 
was an almost impenetrable jungle of live oaks, underbrush, vines, 
etc., which gradually merged into the more open cypress swamp 

8 Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. [j an- 

beyond. Even here the going was not any too easy; the cypress 
trees were very tall and I had an attack of cold feet every time I 
thought of the job I had before me, if by any chance I should 
happen to be lucky enough to discover that needle in a haystack, 
an Ivory-bill's nest, in the top of one of those trees. 

We camped here until March 1st, sleeping by preference on the 
piazza, and out of reach of the elements and things that crawl. 
Game was plenty, fine water in a cistern by the house, and the 
ever present grapefruit, with which to assuage our thirst. 

The only drawback was the sickness of one of Peter's oxen, 
which came very near dying, poisoned apparently by something 
it had eaten ; and the loss of which might, we were afraid, seriously 
handicap our expedition. It seems there is something that grows 
hereabouts, which if eaten by the cattle is apt to cause them to 
sicken and die, and which invariably seems to kill the calves. The 
cattle men have, on this account, not yet invaded this country. 

Pigs, too, find it unhealthy, as the bear and panther are apt to 
make away with them; and a "cracker" has little use for a region 
that is neither healthy for cattle nor pigs. 

The country is too difficult of access for the average sportsman, 
so that with the exception of a few Seminoles and an occasional 
alligator hunter or a few "crackers," who are "hiding out," the 
region is practically uninhabited, and one of the finest natural 
game preserves I have ever visited. 

Deer, turkey and quail abound. Signs of bear were all about us, 
and some of them big ones too; their tracks where they lumbered 
through the swamps and the marks where they had sharpened 
their claws on the cabbage palms, not infrequently helping them- 
selves to the very edible buds thereof. Peter, late one afternoon, 
found a nest where an old she bear had very recently had her cubs 
in some brakes on a cabbage hammock in the swamp, about half a 
mile from camp. 

On the 20th we hunted unsuccessfully all day for signs of Ivory- 
bills, but it was not until the afternoon of the 21st, while Peter and 
I were off hunting in another part of the swamp, that Tom, who was 
on the watch in the grove, was lucky enough to discover a female 
Ivory-bill, which he followed for four or five hours. There was 
considerable excitement in camp that night, when we all turned up 
for supper. 

vol. xxxin 


Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. a 

The next day, immediately after breakfast, the bird again ap- 
peared in the grove and from 8.20 till 8.40 A. M. clung to the side 
of a cabbage palm about fifteen feet up, and only about fifty feet 
from where Tom and I were hiding. She simply clung there 
uttering her call note, often accompanied by an upward and for- 
ward movement of her head, and sometimes by a sudden slight 
movement of her wings. 

The note was entirely different from anything I had ever heard, 
and reminded me of one of those children's toys that one squeezes, 
or better still a child's tin trumpet, for the note had rather a metal- 
lic ring. It was uttered at intervals, averaging about one second 
apart, though sometimes longer; once, twice, thrice or more in 
succession. Later in the day when the bird was hitching up the 
side of a tree, I counted one hundred and seventy-four calls in four 

Audubon says that the note resembles " the false high note of a 
clarinet," while Wilson describes it thus: "His common note, 
repeated every three or four seconds, very much resembles the tone 
of a trumpet or the high note of a clarinet, and can plainly be 
distinguished at a distance of half a mile, seeming to be immediately 
at hand; though perhaps more than a hundred yards off. This 
it utters while mounting along the trunk or digging into it." A 
good description of the note, and its ventriloquial peculiarities. 

At 8.40 A. M. the bird flew north, down into the swamp. Tom 
followed her through the jungle, while I kept watch in the grove, 
either for her return or the possible advent of her mate. She fed 
in the swamp quietly until 9.20, when she again started calling, 
and kept it up until 9.50 A. M., when she flew off north, further 
into the swamp, where we lost her. At 11.05 A. M. the bird again 
appeared at the edge of the jungle, and kept up her calling until 
2 P. M., when we went back to camp for lunch. At 3. P. M. we 
returned, this time accompanied by Peter, and though the three 
of us spent the rest of the day beating about the swamp, we were 
unable to find any trace of the bird. 

From now on there was always one of us on the watch in the 
grove for the Ivory-bill; while the other two spent their time 
cruising the adjoining country. On February 23, at 5.50 A. M. 
Tom heard a bird call three times from the cypress swamp south- 

10 Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. [jan. 

east of the grove, and a few notes at a time for the next thirty 
minutes. He did not get sight of the bird, and from then until the 
morning of March 1st, neither of us saw or heard her again. The 
male, if there was one, was never seen, though they should have 
been breeding at this time. We waded through miles of swamp, 
crawled through miles of jungle, dodging snakes, and devoured by 
red bugs, our necks stiff from searching the tree tops for possible 
nests. Pileateds were in abundance, and we found several of their 
nests, but no Ivory-bills. 

The grove itself and its immediate surroundings, were fairly alive 
with bird life; Mockingbirds, Redbirds, Catbirds, Florida Yellow- 
throats, Great Crested Flycatchers, and noisiest of them all some 
Vireos, none of which I collected, but which I suppose were the 
Key West Vireos. Turkey Buzzards were always soaring some- 
where overhead. Florida Red-shouldered Hawks were forever 
screaming, and even in broad daylight, the hooting of Florida 
Barred Owls could often be heard. Occasionally a beautiful Swal- 
low-tailed Kite could be seen overhead in swift and graceful flight; 
and that most characteristic of Florida woodpeckers, the Red-bel- 
lied, was always somewhere in hearing. Florida Grackles were 
wading about the mud in the swamp between the hammock and 
bungalow, and the croak of White Ibis could be heard deeper in the 
swamp. Brown-headed Nuthatches and chickadees were in the pine 
woods about the bungalow, while Tufted Titmice could often be heard 
in a willow thicket down by the edge of the swamp, and there were 
colonies of Boat-tailed Grackles in some of the many sloughs. 

On February 23 we saw our first Robins, a whole flock of them; 
and I shot a male Red-headed Woodpecker, which seems to be 
a rather uncommon bird in this vicinity. Of quail there were 
many bunches. 

On the morning of March 1, after we had become thoroughly 
disgusted and the sick ox seemed well enough to be led, we broke 
camp for a pine island five or six miles further south. Just before 
leaving Tom and I went over to the grove for a last look for the 
Ivory-bill and incidentally for a few grapefruit. We were picking 
the fruit, and had our bag almost full when we heard several very . 
loud woodpecker calls, closely resembling the "pump handle" 
note of the Flicker in the breeding season, and that lone widow 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate III. 

1. Peter Hogan and the 'Schooner.' 
2. Deep Lake, Florida. 



Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. 11 

"pecker bird" as Tom called her, flew out from the swamp and 
onto the side of a cabbage palm, only about sixty feet away from 
me. She joined her mate, if mate he be, in my collection. On 
dissection her ovaries showed no sign of the breeding season. 

We traveled about five miles across a very uninteresting country 
of scattered "pine islands," "cypress heads," "strands," and broad 
savannahs, until we came to a rocky "pine island," where we found 
a poor camping site on a "burn," near a depression in which we 
scraped a hole for some vile water. We camped here because it 
was centrally located in a country over which we wished to hunt. 

The next day Peter and I, leaving Tom at camp, tramped to 
Deep Lake about six miles, through more "pine islands" and 
" cypress strands," across prairies which were still pretty wet and 
on which we saw a few Killdeer. At Deep Lake there is a 
hammock with a fine grove of several hundred acres owned by a 
company, to the superintendent of which Mr. Walter G. Langford 
of Fort Myers had very kindly given me letters, and in whose care 
also I had had my mail sent. 

Here, while walking through the grove to the superintendent's 
bungalow, we saw several flocks of turkeys scurrying away across 
the aisles among the grapefruit trees, and counted over forty hens 
and one gobbler. These birds, which are here protected, become 
very tame and can be seen at almost any time from the piazza of 
the house running about and feeding among the trees of the grove, 
and the superintendent showed me one old cypress stub just back 
of the cook's camp where a little earlier in the season about sev- 
enty-five turkeys roosted nightly. 

Deep Lake is a beautiful little sheet of water entirely surrounded 
by huge cypress draped with hanging moss. Several alligators 
were sunning themselves upon the surface. Snake-birds were 
flying rapidly overhead or perching with the Turkey Buzzards 
who sat indolently on some of the overhanging boughs, while 
numbers of Black Buzzards were soaring high above. Florida Gal- 
linules were running or swimming about the edge of the lake, 
several Swallow-tailed Kites were flying about the nearby grove, 
Pileated and Red-bellied Woodpeckers seemed everywhere, and 
Florida Crows and Fish Crows were calling from a neighboring stub. 

March 4th all hands were up early, preparing to start north for 

12 Kennakd, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. [jan. 

Van Agnew's, when to our disgust we discovered that the oxen 
were missing. This was not an at all uncommon event, and while 
the men were off hunting them up, Charlie, the Deep Lake colored 
hunter-cook, wandered into camp with a letter for me, and a yarn 
to the effect that the teamster at Deep Lake had yesterday seen 
three Ivory-bills, just south of the grove. While I put no faith in 
the story, for no one hereabouts seems to know that there are two 
large species of woodpecker, I thought it best to change my plans, 
and as soon as the oxen were driven in, traveled south to Deep 
Lake, where we camped on a hammock just north of the grove. 
Here we stayed for a week, hunting the region as thoroughly as 
possible for signs of Ivory-bills, but without success. 

On the 7th, I went to Everglade, some fifteen miles south, over a 
new railroad they were constructing from Everglade to Deep Lake 
in order to be able to market the thousands of cases of fruit which 
had heretofore been allowed to rot on the ground. The railroad 
had already been constructed to within half a mile of the grove 
and Mr. John M. Roche, the principal owner, very kindly took me 
over the line on his "private car," a small flat car with a settee 
tied onto it. The rails were laid on ties of almost any kind of wood, 
laid flat upon the surface of the prairie, with long trestles over the 
numerous bog holes, and bridges over the creeks. As we traveled 
south from Deep Lake the cypress swamps rapidly dwindled both 
in number and in the size of trees, and gave place gradually to the 
mangroves, both black and red. The swamp immediately about 
Deep Lake seeming to mark the southerly boundary of the large 

The southern terminus of the railroad was on the north shore of 
Allen's Creek, about three quarters of a mile above Everglade, 
where besides a few scattered houses, there is a postoffice, store 
and a little hotel, all run by Mr. G. W. Storter. 

On March 8th, as we had found no signs of Ivory-bills and as the 
sick ox seemed considerably better, we yoked up the cattle and as 
the water had dried up considerably, were able to make the entire 
twelve miles to Van Agnew's in one day. Nothing of particu- 
lar interest happened on the road except that I slew a large mocca-. 
sin, the second largest I have ever seen. He was five feet six inches 
long, about three and one half inches in diameter, and contained a 

° 1915 J Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. 13 

recently swallowed snake three feet long and about two inches in 
diameter, and another partially digested, eighteen inches long, and 
about one and a quarter inches in diameter. 

We stayed at Van Agnew's until the 10th, replenishing our 
water and grapefruit supplies, hunting turkeys etc., and, of course, 
always on the outlook for a glimpse of an Ivory-bill. 

On March 10th we moved north to our first camping ground in 
the Big Cypress where we stayed for two days, hunting turkey 
hens of which we had hitherto secured but few good specimens. 
We had killed only gobblers at first thinking that we could get the 
hens at any time, but as the hens were now taking to the woods for 
their nesting season good specimens had not been so easy to secure. 

The next day, while Tom was again hunting hens, Peter and 
I explored the nearby strand of the big swamp in a last hunt for 
the elusive Ivory-bill but without success. Red-bellied Wood- 
peckers were breeding and in the woods only a little way from 
camp a Pileated Woodpecker was sitting on a nest, about seventy- 
five feet up in the top of a tall cypress. The nest was evidently 
very shallow, for the bird, a male, invariably sat with his head out 
of the window apparently examining the surroundings. One 
Florida Red-shouldered Hawk's nest that we investigated, con- 
tained a day old chick and one pipped egg. 

On Friday the 13th of March, we broke camp, and after crossing 
the main strand of the swamp, in which the waters had now sub- 
sided considerably, said goodby to the Big Cypress and its many 

In my early youth I had had a geography in which was a picture, 
supposedly of the Big Cypress Swamp, with an Indian magni- 
ficently gotten up in war paint, feathers, etc., just stepping 
into a birch bark canoe from a wooded bank. That picture, which 
at the time made a great impression on me, might have been fairly 
accurate except for the fact that the Seminoles neither wear war 
paint nor feathers, do not build birch bark canoes, and there are 
no wooded banks in the Big Cypress. The few Indians that we 
saw were much better dressed than I. Their canoes are long, 
very graceful dugouts, made from cypress logs. 

The region known as the Big Cypress covers a large area, extend- 
ing in a generally northeasterly direction from near the gulf coast to 
a point a few miles southeast of Immokalee, and is very different 

14 Kennard, On the Trail of the Ivory-bill. [ Jan . 

from those saw-grass areas, known as Everglades, which cover the 
greater part of southern Florida, and with which it is often confused 
by northerners. The Big Cypress consists of a series of swamps, the 
"main strand" with outreaching arms or "strands", and "cypress 
heads," interspersed with broad savannahs and prairies, with occa- 
sional sawgrass sloughs. All of these are under water for several 
months in the year; and are dotted here and there with small 
areas, elevated a few feet above the reach of the ordinary floods, 
known as hammocks, which are covered with a growth of pine, 
cabbage palm, live oaks, saw palmetto, etc., and to which, in time 
of flood, the game of the region resorts. 

Our trip, so far as Ivory-bills were concerned, had been pretty 
discouraging. We had secured one specimen, to be sure, but had 
found no nest, and had learned but little of the bird. 

I do not know any better description of the bird's habits than that 
given by Robert Ridgway in ' The Osprey ' for November, 1898, 
in which he says, " As a result of my three trips to southern Florida, 
I feel sure that the Ivory-billed Woodpecker is not only a rare, but 
very local bird in that part of the State, and that it only occurs in 
large cypress swamps or their immediate vicinity, its true home 
being within the cypress, and its feeding grounds the cabbage 
palmetto and live oak hammocks just outside." 

"Although a far more powerful bird, the Ivory-billed looks no 
larger at a distance than the Pileated Woodpecker, but its color, 
its actions (particularly its manner of flight), and its notes are so 
totally different that once seen it need never be mistaken for that 
species, or vice versa. The Pileated Woodpecker is a noisy, active 
bird, always in evidence from its loud yelping or cackling notes 
or its restless movements. The Ivory-bill, on the other hand, is 
comparatively quiet and secluded, and its notes would not attract 
attention except from one keenly alert for new sounds, being nota- 
ble for their nasal tone and perfect monotony rather than any other 
quality." Mr. Ridgway goes on to say that the notes "resemble 
nothing else so much as the toot of a child's penny trumpet, as 
described by Wilson, or a false high note on a clarionet as Audubon 
describes it, repeated three or more times (like pait, pait, pait), 
with absolute monotony ; but instead of being audible for a distance 
of half a mile as Audubon states, I am sure that those heard by 
me would have been inaudible bevond half that distance." 

1915 J Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 15 



The following list is a continuation of a list of the birds of 
Louisiana published in ' The Auk ' by the present writer and Messrs. 
Andrew Allison and Geo. E. Beyer in 1906-08. 1 The work of 
publishing this list was suspended with the appearance of the fifth 
instalment, which embraced the Pici. Owing to changes in the 
plans of the several authors of the original list, further co-operation 
became impractical. The present writer has for some time in- 
tended to complete the list, however, and has been prevented by 
other work from doing so earlier. He is glad to present now what 
he believes are the most important data on the species listed. The 
bulk of this material is obtained from his own notes and those of 
Mr. Andrew Allison, to whom, as well as to Prof. Beyer, credit is 
given in important specific instances demanding it. The migra- 
tion records from Ariel, Miss., and Lobdell, La., and most of those 
from Bay St. Louis and Ellis ville, Miss., were established by Mr. 
Allison, who is now living in China. 

186. Chuck-will's-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis) . Common sum- 
mer visitor in the higher parts of the State, especially where there are pines. 
Very rare in the fertile alluvial section of the southeast, and apparently 
occurring only as a migrant. Personally I have recorded it there only two 
or three times in over twenty years of observing. In the sections where it 
is common it arrives about April 10, usually appearing simultaneously with 
the Nighthawk. Earliest arrival: Covington, La., Apr. 7, 1901. Calls 
very little after the middle of July, and is little in evidence after Sept. 1. 
The latest date for departure is a Mississippi record made by Mr. Andrew 
Allison: Bay St. Louis, Sept. 25, 1899. 

187. Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus vociferus). A transient 
only. Rare in the fertile alluvial sections. Fairly common in the higher 
parts of the State. Usually commonest the latter part of September and 
early part of October. Data on its movements are limited, and comprised 
chiefly Mississippi records. Seen by Mr. Andrew Allison at Bay St. Louis, 
Miss., on Sept. 13, 1899, Oct. 21, 1902, and Apr. 1, 1902. Probably re- 
mains in the fall until the early part of November, or may winter rarely. 

188. Nighthawk (Chordeiles virginianus virginianus) . Common tran- 
sient visitor in most parts of the State. Its occurrence as a breeder in the 

i 1906, pp. 1-15! 275-282. 1907, pp. 314-321. 1908, pp. 173-180, 439-448. 

16 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [jan. 

extreme southeastern portion is, however, limited and local. At New 
Orleans it is not often seen after the spring migration, and is not conspicu- 
ous again until at least the middle of August. During the summer of 
1909, however, being often in the commercial section of the city in the even- 
ings, I noticed Nighthawks on numerous occasions, sailing above the taller 
buildings, the flat roofs of which are usually covered with broken shell, 
and the probability of the bird using such places to nest occurred to me. 
The majority of such structures, ten and twelve story office buildings, have 
been erected in New Orleans within the last decade, and they would furnish 
more nearly the proper nesting sites for the Nighthawk than any other 
character of surface in the region about New Orleans. 

The Nighthawk arrives in southern Louisiana with remarkable regularity. 
Out of twenty or more dates of arrival, fully two thirds are April 10-12. 
The remainder are a day or so earlier or later. In the fall, there is a decided 
increase of transients after the middle of August. The most remarkable 
flight I have ever seen was observed near Convent, in St. James parish, 
about fifty miles above New Orleans on the Mississippi river, on Sept. 11, 

1894. The flight was heaviest for the half hour preceding sun-down. 
The birds kept close to the river and were flying downstream, which at 
that point was about southeast. The Nighthawk becomes rather incon- 
spicuous after the 20th of September. The last are usually seen in the last 
week of October, and the latest date of which I have a record is Nov. 3, 

1895, at Chef Menteur, La. 1 

189. Florida Nighthawk (Chordeiles virginianus chapmani). This 
interesting subspecies has been observed on the shell reefs in the Gulf in 
the neighborhood of the mouths of the Mississippi which furnish suitable 
nesting sites. It is also very common in the prairie sections of central 
southern and southwestern Louisiana. Great numbers may sometimes be 
seen sailing low or at moderate elevations throughout the day in perfectly 
clear weather. The same is true of its habits about the Gulf islands. 

190. Chimney Swift (Chcetura pelagica). A common summer visitor. 
On the whole, however, I do not believe it is as abundant as formerly, at 
least in the immediate vicinity of New Orleans, which is doubtless due 
largely to changes in the method of construction of flues. The average 
date of arrival is about March 18 at New Orleans, though several seasons 
I have failed to see any until about March 25, and once or twice I have 
noted none up to April 1. The swift usually becomes common the last 
week in March. Several seasons its appearance became general March 26. 
The earliest movements of which I have a record occurred in 1897, the 
first appearing March 13, and the species becoming abundant March 19. 
The season was well advanced, but in 1911 which was one of the earliest 
springs I have ever known, practically nothing was seen of the swift until 

1 [According to Mr. H. C. Oberholser's ' Monograph of the Genus Chordeiles ' 
the Florida Nighthawk is the breeding bird everywhere in the lower Mississippi 
Valley north to southwestern Kentucky and extreme southern Illinois. It would 
seem therefore that all notes on summer resident birds in Louisiana must refer 
to this form and not to C. v. virginianus. Ed.] 

° '1915 J Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 17 

late in the season. As a matter of fact, an early spring in southern Louisi- 
ana, from the standpoint of temperature and progress of vegetation, seldom 
has a pronounced effect on the course of the migrations. 

The Chimney Swift is usually more in evidence after the latter part of 
June than in the late spring and early summer. Numbers are often seen 
sailing at a moderate height at this time, as though the more pressing 
duties of the nesting season had been concluded. The first week in July, 
1897, I noticed that during the daytime young swifts began to leave a 
chimney in which they had been reared. About August 15, the year preced- 
ing, I observed the same thing at the same location, and have concluded 
that a second brood is generally reared as soon as the first comes out. 
In the case of the young birds observed in August, of course, the first 
brood must have appeared somewhat earlier than in 1897, but I was not on 
the ground when the first brood might have been expected. In 1897, on 
the other hand, I did not observe that a second brood was reared where the 
first was noted. I think the observations of the two seasons, however, 
indicate very plainly that with the species as a whole, two broods are com- 
monly reared. 

The Chimney Swift is very common in southern Louisiana during the 
latter part of summer and in the early fall. It is usually common also 
in the early part of October, and in warm weather after the middle of the 
month, important flights are often seen. The normal date of departure 
is Oct. 25-28. The latest date of departure recorded is Nov. 4, 1896. 

191. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Common- 
est as a transient, but in the State as a whole it is a fairly common breeder. 
I have heard of one or two instances of its being seen in winter. In the 
southern section of the State it is decidedly uncommon as a breeder. Per- 
sonally I have seen but two nests, one in a live oak in St. James parish, 
and the other in an elm in St. Mary parish. The latter was found early 
in July and contained one fresh egg. 

While the Hummingbird usually arrives at the latitude of New Orleans 
within a day or two of March 20, the movements occasionally show consider- 
able aberration. For instance, in 1897, the first was seen March 7, and on 
the same date in 1902 at New Iberia, La. ; while in the latter year, the first 
was reported by Mr. Andrew Allison from Bay St. Louis, Miss., on Feb. 20. 
On the other hand, it is not observed some seasons until after the first of 
April. It usually becomes common, however, the last week in March. 
There are several decided transient movements later in the spring, and al- 
most invariably a decided influx for a few days between the 5th and 15th 
of May. These latter movements are always observed when the weather 
has become suddenly cooler. 

Hummingbirds usually show an increase the latter part of August or 
early part of September. The last is usually seen about the same time as 
the Nighthawk and Chimney Swift, that is, the last week of October, or 
first few days of November. 

The Hummingbird is often very conspicuous in September on the Gulf 

18 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. uan. 

Coast of Mississippi about the growths of "wild sage" (Calamintha coc- 
cinea) in the pineries. 

192. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Muscivora forficaia) . The occur- 
rence of this species in Louisiana, with the possible exception of the extreme 
western portion of the State, is decidedly infrequent, not to say casual. 
I have never had the good fortune to observe it, and I know of no one who 
has observed it more than a few times. I have seen a specimen killed near 
New Orleans in the fall, and 1 think its occurrence is most apt to be noted 
at that season. It is doubtless present sometimes as a breeder in the 
western part of the State. 

193. Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus). Common everywhere as a 
transient in Louisiana, especially in the fall, and common as a breeder in 
most parts of the State. Coastwise, it is commoner as a breeder in the 
prairie section of the central southern and southwestern portions of the 
State than in the wet, wooded alluvial region of the southeast. It is rare 
as a breeder at New Orleans; in fact, I have few records of its occurrence 
in the region immediately about the city in the breeding season. At 
various points within thirty miles to the east, south and west, however, 
I have found it fairly common in the breeding season on several occasions. 
It is regularly common as a breeder in extreme southern Louisiana, how- 
ever, west of the Atchafalaya river. 

The Kingbird usually arrives at New Orleans the last week in March, 
the earliest date of arrival being March 23, 1895 and 1904. While a few 
doubtless always arrive at this time, its appearance does not become general 
until April 4 or 5, which is the date when the first are usually seen on the 
Mississippi coast. 

The Kingbird is extremely abundant as a transient in southern Louisiana 
from about August 25 to Sept. 25. It is seldom seen after Oct. 1. I noted 
a straggler at Biloxi, Miss., however, on Oct. 23, 1905. 

In the piney sections of southeastern Louisiana and southern Mississippi, 
the Kingbird feeds extensively in the fall on the ripened seeds of the two 
common native magnolias (M. foetida and M. virginiana). Wherever it 
finds the former of these two species transplanted in the wet wooded allu- 
vial section of southeast Louisiana, it occurs in the greatest numbers. This 
is particularly true in the suburban sections of New Orleans, where M. 
foetida is a favorite shade tree, though not a native of the surrounding woods, 
or swamps, as commonly supposed. 

194. Arkansas Kingbird {Tyrannus verticalis). A specimen of this 
species taken at Mandeville, La., in September, 1914, is in the Louisiana 
State Museum. The specimen was taken by the taxidermist of that insti- 
tution, Mr. George Schneider. 

195. Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus). There is absolutely 
nothing exceptional with reference to the occurrence of the Crested Fly- 
catcher in Louisiana so far as I have been able to learn. It is not quite 
so common in the swampy section of the southeast as in other wooded 
portions of the State, but wherever there is any considerable growth of 

^ 0l 'l9L5 XI1 ] Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 19 

trees, it may be counted upon as a regular breeder. The movements in 
spring are almost identical with those of the Kingbird. The earliest date 
of arrival I have recorded is March 25, 1900, at Covington, La. The first 
has frequently been seen on March 30. 

This species becomes very inconspicuous after the middle of August. 
It departs apparently at the same time as the Kingbird, about the last 
week in September. The latest recorded date of departure is Oct. 15, 1897, 
when it was observed by Messrs. Andrew and W. B. Allison at Ariel, Amite 
county, Miss. 

196. Phosbe (Saijornis phoebe). A common winter visitor throughout 
the State. Arrives at the Gulf Coast, Oct. 5 or 6, the movement seldom 
varying a day from these dates. In 1897, however, I noted one at New 
Orleans Sept. 25. Departs from the same latitude about April 5 or 6, 
being as regular at this season as in the fall. 

197. Olive-sided Flycatcher (Nuttallornis borealis). Extremely 
rare. I have only three records of its occurrence in Louisiana. Mr. H. L. 
Ballowe took a specimen at Diamond, Plaquemines parish, Aug. 31, 1894. 
I noted one at Covington, La., Aug. 16, 1903. Mr. Andrew Allison noted 
one at New Orleans May 6, 1901. In addition, Mr. Allison has noted 
the species twice at Bay St. Louis, Miss.: On Mar. 31 and Aug. 29, 1902. 
It will thus be seen that there is a striking agreement in the records for 
the fall movement, and that like some other species breeding well to the 
northward, to which attention will be called when they are reached, it 
moves south very early. 

198. Wood Pewee (Myiochanes virens). A common breeder through- 
out the state. Most abundant, however, as a fall transient, occurring in 
greatest numbers during the first half of October. A heavy wave during 
this period always includes large numbers of Wood Pewees. 

The normal date of arrival at Gulf coast latitude is about April 5, its 
appearance is usually general about April 10. Occasionally the first is noted 
before April 1. In 1904, I saw one at New Orleans on March 30; in 1897, 
Mr. W. B. Allison saw one at New Orleans on March 27 and in 1906 at Bay 
St. Louis, Miss., on March 25; in 1901 Mr. Andrews Allison saw one at 
Bay St. Louis on March 31. On the other hand, I failed to see any at New 
Iberia, La., in 1902 until April 25, and for two successive seasons none was 
noted until that date at Ellisville, Miss. 

Transient Pewees in fall are brought to Gulf coast latitude by a decided 
wave that usually reaches there the last week in August. The species is 
common throughout September, and especially so whenever there is a wave 
during that month. It is sometimes remarkably abundant during the firsf 
important wave in October, usually occurring from the 5th to the 10th. 
The general transient movement is over by Oct. 20. The latest date for 
departure at New Orleans is Nov. 2. 

[Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris) . While this 
species undoubtedly occurs as a rare transient in Louisiana, I have never 
seen it in the State, and do not know of any well authenticated record of 
its presence.] 

20 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [jan. 

199. Acadian Flycatcher {Empidonax virescens). A common sum- 
mer visitor in swampy woods of every character. It is evenly distributed 
throughout the wet wooded lands of the fertile alluvial region, and occurs 
wherever there are river swamps and creek bottoms in other sections. It 
arrives at New Orleans about April 1 . The earliest arrival of which I have 
a record is March 30, 1904. It becomes common about April 8. It is seen 
occasionally through most of October. The latest date of departure is 
Oct. 27, 1900, at Convington. 

200. Traill's Flycatcher {Empidonax trailli trailli). 

201. Alder Flycatcher {Empidonax trailli alnorum). The similarity 
of this and the preceding form and the apparently indiscriminate way in 
which they associate in the lower Mississippi valley make it difficult to 
distinguish between them in their occurrence and movements. Specimens 
taken on the Mississippi coast, however, appear to be chiefly if not entirely 
of the latter of the two forms. Whichever one occurs in the fertile alluvial 
region of southeast Louisiana, and I am inclined to think it is true trailli, 
is rather rare. It has been noted at New Orleans May 2, and while I 
believe it has been observed on one or two other occasions, I fail to find any 
records of these observations. The Alder Flycatcher is rather a common 
fall transient on the Mississippi coast, where it arrives about Sept. 1. 
Earliest date of arrival: Aug. 27, 1896, Beauvoir, Miss. Latest date of 
departure: Oct. 18, 1901, Bay St. Louis, Miss. No records for spring 

202. Least Flycatcher {Empidonax minimus). Not particularly 
common at any points in southern Louisiana and southern Mississippi where 
I have made observations, and decidedly rare in the fertile alluvial region 
of southeastern Louisiana. Arrives at Gulf coast latitude the early part 
of September. Earliest: Sept. 1, 1900, Bay St. Louis, Miss. The only 
dates on which I have recorded it in spring in Louisiana are April 6, 1895, 
at New Orleans, and March 30 and May 9, 1902, at New Iberia, La. 

203. Prairie Horned Lark {Otocoris alpestris praticola). This is 
doubtless the form to which reference is had in a list of the birds of Louisi- 
ana by Prof. Geo. E. Beyer, who records the fact of a specimen having 
been taken and a number having been seen by Gustave Kohn along the 
shore of Lake Pontchartrain near Mandeville on Jan. 6, 1879. I do not 
know of any other record of the occurrence of this bird in Louisiana. 

204. Florida Blue Jay {Cyanocitta cristata florincola) . Whether the 
typical Blue Jay occurs in Louisiana I do not know, but this is undoubtedly 
the only form present in the southern section of the State. It is not so 
common in the fertile alluvial region of the southeast as elsewhere, its 
distribution being somewhat irregular in that section. A rather peculiar 
feature of its occurrence in this region is the fluctuation of its numbers in 
the suburban districts of New Orleans. For several years together, it 
may be rather common there, and then disappears almost entirely for an 
equally extended period. Thus, while a resident in this region it is evi- 
dently rather nomadic. In the prairie section of central southern Louisi- 


Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 21 

ana the Blue Jay is common wherever there are groves or patches of woods. 
In the town of New Iberia, I found it exceedingly numerous in the winter 
of 1901-02. 

205. American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos). A 
resident throughout the State but not quite as common coastwise as the 
Fish Crow, being confined in that portion of the State, as a rule, to well 
wooded or cultivated lands. Somewhat commoner coastwise in winter than 
at other seasons. 

206. Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus). Abundant coastwise, apparently 
not occurring very far inland. It is most abundant in wet, open grounds. 
Nesting appears to be somewhat later than that of the preceding species, 
beginning the latter part of March. 

207. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Appears with considerable 
regularity in the coast section in fall, especially in the rice fields. Rather 
rare during most of the spring, but sometimes occurring plentifully for a 
few days late in the season. 

The earliest record for fall arrival is Aug. 22, 1894, at Diamond, Plaque- 
mines parish. It becomes common about Sept. 20. I have no data on the 
departure of fall transients. 

The earliest date of spring arrival is April 4, 1894, at Avery Island, and 
the latest date of departure is May 2, 1903, at Lobdell, West Baton Rouge 
parish. Small flocks of transients in song are not unusual about May 1. 
about cultivated lands in the southeastern part of the State. 

208. Cowbird (Molothrus ater ater). Represented in the State by two 
distinct forms, typical M. ater, which in the southern section, at least, 
is only a winter bird, and a decidedly smaller bird, which I have found 
in summer in the southern portion of the State, especially to the north 
and west of New Orleans. This breeding bird is fairly common. The 
typical M. ater occurs rather irregularly in winter, sometimes in good sized 
flocks, from about the middle of November to the latter part of March. 
The form breeding in southern Louisiana is an inch or more smaller than 
typical M. ater. 

209. Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus). 
Except in the western portion of the State, where it is said to occur in winter, 
this species can hardly be considered as more than an accidental visitor. 

210. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus). 

211. Florida Red-wing (Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus). The com- 
parative status of the typical form and the Florida Red-wing as breeders 
I am unable to define. I know nothing peculiar with reference to the 
occurrence of this species as a whole in Louisiana. It occurs by myriads 
in the marshes in summer, and is found in winter in greatest numbers 
in the swamps and woods, where it occurs in large flocks, often mixed 
with those of Cowbirds, Grackles and Rusty Blackbirds. Nesting is 
usually well under way by the latter part of April. 

[Meadowlark (Sturnella magna magna). May occur as a winter visitor 
in the more northern parts of the State]. 

22 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [jan. 

212. Southern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna argutula). Common 
resident of the State, but rather irregularly distributed in the fertile region 
of the southeast. More or less common in that section in the neighborhood 
of cultivation, especially on the sugar plantations. Even among resident 
birds there are decided differences in size and coloring. In the Bayou 
Teche section I have taken some very small, dark-colored birds in summer. 
These are noticeably different from other specimens taken in winter in the 
southern part of the State, though I believe that the latter were of the same 
subspecies and represented a breeding form in some portion of the State if 
not in the localities where taken. 

213. Orchard Oriole {Icterus spurius). The most conspicuous sum- 
mer visitor in the fertile alluvial section of southeastern Louisiana. Occurs 
in the greatest profusion in practically all situations except the unbroken 
swamps, but is most abundant in the vicinity of habitation and cultivation. 
Is abundant along ditches, bayous, canals, etc., in the open marsh, and on 
grassy, bushy islands along the coast. Occurs also in greater or less abun- 
dance in all other portions of the State in the vicinity of cultivation, but 
seldom in the forests and swamps. 

Its abundance as a breeder in the southeastern portion of the State, how- 
ever, can scarcely be comprehended by those whose acquaintance with it is 
confined to its appearance in more northern localities. In one live oak in a 
plantation yard where there were many more trees of this kind I once 
counted nearly twenty nests of this species. 

The average date of arrival of the male at New Orleans is March 25. 
The first female arrives usually about April 5, and the male becomes 
common at the same time. The females become common in a few days. 
The first male may be either a second-year or a mature bird, but in either 
case is almost invariably singing. 

Nesting is usually started shortly after April 20. The construction of the 
nest is rather deliberate. While nesting is usually well started by the first 
part of May, there are decided discrepancies in the time. The three fol- 
lowing cases noted in a single season will illustrate these discrepancies: 
Nest No. 1 — May 9. nest discovered and apparently complete; May 13. 
contained 3 eggs; May 14, complement of 4 eggs complete; May 27, 
contained young, apparently two days old. Nest No. 2. — Discovered May 
22, contained no eggs. Nest No. 3 — ■ Discovered May 22, contained 
young about 5 days old. 

There is almost if not quite as much variation in the time of rearing the 
second brood. On July 8 1 have found a nest with a complement of fresh 
eggs and the next day two nests with young. 

Orchard Orioles begin to flock in southern Louisiana and Mississippi in 
the latter half of July. The song is seldom heard after Aug. 1. In 1912, 
however, I heard one sing on Sept. 12. 

This species becomes inconspicuous at Gulf coast latitude after the 
middle of August, though little companies of them may be in evidence for a 
few days at a time at intervals until Sept. 10 or 15. Such transients usually 

1915 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 23 

form part of slight waves including other species. The latest date of de- 
parture is Sept. 26, 1914, near Poydras, St. Bernard parish. The average 
date of departure is about Sept. 15. 

During 1912, 1913 and 1914 I made some notes on the time of the first 
singing of this species in the morning: 1912 — April 25, first song at 4.40, 
morning clear; April 26, first song at 4.50, morning cloudy; June 14, first 
song at 4.20, morning clear; July 14, first song at 4.40, morning partly 
cloudy. 1913 — April 27, first song at 4.50, morning clear; May 8, first 
song at 4.30, morning clear. 1914 — June 6, first song at 4.10, morning 

214. Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula). A rather common summer 
visitor in the northern half of the State; breeds sparingly as far south as 
the latitude of Baton Rouge and Opelousas. Throughout the remaining 
portion of the State, it is known only as a rather rare and irregular spring 
transient, being practically unknown in fall. A pronounced bird wave 
about April 20 will usually be found to include this species. The following 
records of the appearance of this species in Louisiana and Mississippi in 
spring were made by the writer and Mr. Andrew Allison: 1899, April 1, 
Bay St. Louis, Miss.; April 13, 1902, New Iberia, La.; April 14, 1902, Bay 
St. Louis. Miss.; April 10, 1906, Ellisville, Miss.; April 17, 1907, Ellisville, 
Miss.; April 6, 1908, Jackson, Miss.; April 9. 1911, New Orleans, La. I 
have also four or five records of its occurrence between April 20 and April 25 
at New Orleans and other south Louisiana points. The only record I have 
for fall transients near the Gulf coast is the occurrence of several at Biloxi, 
Miss., on Sept. 4, 5, 1905. 

215. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus). A common winter 
visitor, sometimes occurring in very large flocks, in fact I have seen flocks 
on the wing in the sugar country of southeast Louisiana in winter that 
stretched out for more than a mile. Frequents both the thick swamps and 
more or less open cultivated country, especially in spring. It becomes 
abundant in fall in southern Louisiana with the first heavy frosts the latter 
part of November or early part of December. The- earliest record for 
.arrival is Covington, La., Nov. 17, 1899. The earliest Mississippi records 
are, Ariel, Amite Co., Nov. 9, 1897, and Ellisville, Jones Co., Nov. 9, 1906. 

The Rusty Blackbird remains common late in the spring, and at New 
Orleans I have seen fair-sized flocks about the borders of pastures until 
April or even May 1. The latest date for departure at New Orleans is 
May 10, 1899. 

216. Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) , A rather rare 
winter visitor. I killed one from a flock of Rusty Blackbirds near Convent, 
St. James parish, on Dec. 23, 1893. ' 

217. Florida Grackle (Qiriscalus quiscula aglaius). This is the only 
form of the common Crow Blackbird that occurs in the swampy coastal 
section of the State, so far as I have been able to learn. It is abundant 
and occurs in practically all situations except the open marsh. It is often 
found in great flocks in the wet woods in winter and early spring. It nests 

24 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. ban. 

chiefly in the neighborhood of habitation, especially in groves of live oaks, 
and water oaks. Nesting begins early in April. The birds recorded by 
Dr. F. W. Langdon as Q. purpureus in the Journal of the Cincinnati 
Society of Natural History, Vol. IV, 1881, which were breeding at Baton 
Rouge were apparently referable to this form. 

218. Bronzed Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula arneus). Never occurs, as 
far as I have been able to determine, in the section where the Florida 
Grackle is found. It is a fairly common breeder in the interior and north- 
ern portions of the State. I found it breeding commonly in Madison 
parish in 1896. Its numbers doubtless increase in winter. 

219. Boat-tailed Grackle (Megaquiscalus major major). A strictly 
coastal species in Louisiana as far as I have observed. I doubt whether it 
ever occurs more than fifty miles inland. In summer it is confined to the 
marshes and very wet swamp lands. In the fall considerable numbers- 
move on to the drained and cultivated lands. As with the Florida 
Grackle, nesting begins in the early part of April. In Audubon Park, 
New Orleans, a curious relationship between the movements of these two 
species is noted at this time. The numbers of the Florida Grackles 
increase in the park, numerous individuals arriving from the swamps to 
nest in the oaks of the park, while the Boat-tailed Grackles, which are 
present in large numbers on the meadowy stretches of the park throughout 
the winter, move off to their nesting sites in the marshes south of the city. 

220. Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus purpureus) . Fairly com- 
mon winter visitor except in the southern portion of the State, where it 
has been found only in severe winters. Numbers were seen at several 
points in the suburbs of New Orleans and in the woods near the city after 
Jan. 1, 1895. The last were seen March 23. In 1897, the first arrived at 
Ariel Amite County, Miss.; on Nov. 13. In 1901, the first arrived at Bay 
St. Louis, Miss., on Dec. 4, and the species became common Dec. 16. 

221. American Goldfinch (Astragalinus tristis tristis). Common 
winter visitor in all sections of the State. Doubtless breeds sparingly 
in the northern counties, as it certainly does in corresponding latitude 
in Mississippi. Its movements southward in fall, however, are rather 
late. Some records of fall arrival follow: Ellisville, Miss., Nov. 6, 1906; 
Ariel, Miss., Nov. 10, 1897; Covington, La., Nov. 12, 1899; New Orleans, 
Nov. 19, 1898. In September, 1907, I noted Goldfinches about Jackson, 
Miss., and in August I had seen them very little further north. 

The latest date for spring departure at New Orleans is April 11, 1894 
and 1896. At Bay St. Louis, Miss., the latest date of departure is April 23, 

222. Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus). A rather irregular and usually 
rather uncommon winter visitor, seldom reaching the fertile alluvial region 
of southeastern Louisiana. The earliest date of arrival of which I have any 
record is Nov. 29, 1908, at Woodville, Miss., and the latest date of depar- 
ture is April 19, 1902, at Bay St. Louis, Miss. 

223. Vesper Sparrow {Po&cetes gramineus gramineus). A common 

° 1915 J Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 25 

but seldom abundant winter visitor. Least common in the fertile alluvial 
region in the southeastern part of the State. In 1899, the first was seen at 
Covington, La., on Nov. 2, and that is about the average time of arrival at 
that latitude. The last was reported in 1902 at Lobdell, West Baton Rouge 
parish on March 20, 1903. 

224. Savannah Sparrow (Passercxdus sandwichensis savanna). Com- 
mon winter visitor, particularly abundant in cultivated lands in the south- 
eastern part of the State. Arrives at New Orleans usually during the first 
week in October, and becomes common by Oct. 15 or 20. A few may 
arrive sometimes shortly before Oct. 1, but I have no satisfactorily veri- 
fied records showing such to be the case. Remains common until the latter 
part of April. Records for last seen are: May 9, 1897, New Orleans; May 
12, 1903, Lobdell. 

225. Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum australis). 
Probably occurs throughout the State as a summer visitor in the vicinity 
of cultivation. All records I have regarding it, however, were made in the 
fertile alluvial region of the southeast. It was formerly common in 
summer in the meadowy portion of Audubon Park, New Orleans, but I have 
not seen it there for ten or twelve years. Twenty years ago I found 
it most abundant on a sugar plantation in St. James parish. Though 
said to winter in Louisiana, I have never seen it except in summer. 
Records of arrival are: April 3, 1898, New Orleans; April 4, 1897, New 
Orleans (became common); April 4, 1903, Lobdell; April 8, 1895, New 

226. Henslow's Sparrow (Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi). Have 
noted this species on two occasions at Covington, and think close search 
would prove it to be fairly common and regular in grassy pine woods in 
winter. The dates of observation at Covington are Nov. 2, 1899, and 
Jan. 23, 1905. Mr. Andrew Allison noted it at Ariel, Miss., Oct. 9, 1897, 
and at New Orleans, Nov. 30, 1899. 

227. Leconte's Sparrow (Passerherbulus lecontei). I have never seen 
this species, but Mr. Andrew Allison noted one at Lobdell on April 23, 1903. 
He also saw about eight at Ariel, Miss., on Nov. 15, and made subsequent 
observations of it there. 

228. Nelson's Sparrow (Passerherbulus nelsoni nelsoni). I found this 
species in great abundance on Marsh Island on May 16, 1907, and on 
May 19 observed it and took a specimen at Sabine Pass. These may all 
have been migrants, as I have not observed it later in the year at other 
points on the coast, but on that supposition, the lateness of the date is 
rather remarkable. 

229. Louisiana Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus fisheri). 
An extremely abundant breeder in all tidewater marshes. I have seen 
scores at a time in the rushes and marsh grasses, perched just below the 
level of the grass tops, delivering in more or less regular concert their strange 
monotonous songs. The usual song sounds like "te-dunk-chee-e-e-e." 
Sometimes the trill alone is given. A nest found on Battledore Island, 

2b Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [jan. 

July 23, 1908, contained four young a few days old. It was built of grass 
and the opening, on the side, was rather large. It was four feet from the 
ground in Avicennia nitida, a bush that is common along the coast. 

230. Lark Sparrow (Chondestes gratnmacus grammacus) . Occurs casu- 
ally and at various seasons in the eastern part of the State. It is doubtless 
a resident wherever found, and I think it is likely it will be found fairly 
common in the western part as well. Have noted it also on the coast 
of Mississippi. In Louisiana I have seen it in Madison, Caldwell, St. 
James, Plaquemines and St. Mary parishes. 

231. White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys). 
A decidedly rare bird in most if not all parts of the State. Have noted it 
in the late autumn and late spring but never in midwinter. Noted several 
adult males in song at New Orleans on May 1 and 2, 1897, an immature 
bird at Covington, Nov. 25, 1899, and an immature bird at Biloxi, Miss., 
Nov. 10, 1905. 

232. White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). A very 
abundant winter visitor, especially in the wooded alluvial portion of the 
southeast. The earliest fully verified record of arrival is Oct. 13, 1900, at 
Covington, and it was seen on the same date in 1897 at Ariel, Amite county, 
Miss. It becomes fairly common about the end of October, and very 
common in November with the first cold weather. It remains common 
until the early part of April, and the last is usually seen a few days after 
April 20. The latest date of departure is April 27, 1903, at New Orleans. 

233. Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina passerina). This species 
is entirely absent from the fertile alluvial region of the southeastern part 
of the State, in the prairie section, and doubtless in all low wooded lands 
along the Mississippi river similar to those in the southeast. In the piner- 
ies and wooded uplands it is a common resident, increasing very much in 
numbers in winter, of course, especially in the pineries of the southern part 
of the State. It became common at Covington, Nov. 11, 1899, at Ariel, 
Miss., Oct. 25, 1897, at Bay St. Louis, Miss., Oct. 31, 1901, and at Biloxi, 
Miss., Nov. 15, 1905. The bulk of winter visitors left Ellisville, Jones 
county, Miss., April 15, 1907. 

234. Field Sparrow {Spizella pusilla pusilla). Never very common 
in the lowland sections of the State; breeds as far south as West Baton 
Rouge parish, however. Does not breed on the coast of Mississippi. The 
first was seen at Biloxi, Miss., Oct. 6, 1905, and there was a marked influx 
of winter visitors at Gulfport, Miss., Oct. 22, 1910. 

235. Slate-colored Jttnco {J unco hyemalis hyemalis). Decidedly 
rare in the extreme southern part of the State. Fairly common in winter 
at Covington. In 1897, the first was seen at Ariel, Miss., on Nov. 12. In 
1907, the last was seen at Ellisville, Miss., on March 31. 

236. Bachman's Sparrow (Peucoza aestivalis bachmani). A fairly com- 
mon resident in the pineries and in mixed upland growths of hardwood and 
pine, especially in small oak and pine thickets. Sings chiefly in the late 
winter, spring and early summer, being heard often in concert with the Pine 

1915 ] Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 27 

237. Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia melodia). A rare bird in the 
lowland section of the State. In fact, the only record of which I have any 
knowledge is that of a specimen taken near New Orleans in the early part 
of March by Mr. Andrew Allison. In the winter of 1905-06, I noticed the 
first at Biloxi, Miss., Oct. 24, and the last on March 12. 

[Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolni lincolni). This species, so far 
as I know, has never been observed in Louisiana. It has been taken in 
spring in north Mississippi, however, by Mr. Andrew Allison.] 

238. Swamp Sparrow {Melospiza georgiana). In suitable locations, 
this is probably the most abundant winter visitor to the southern section 
of the State except the Myrtle Warbler. It is remarkably abundant in 
fresh water marshes, the edges of swamps and all unchained, overgrown 
places. The earliest record of arrival at New Orleans is Oct. 3, 1894, and 
it was common there Oct. 9, 1903. The first is usually seen in southern 
Louisiana and southern Mississippi about Oct. 8. Like the White-throated 
Sparrow it remains common until the early part of April. The last is seen 
a little later, usually about May 1 . The latest date of departure is May 3, 
1898, at New Orleans. 

239. Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca iliaca). Rare in the southern part 
of the State. Several were seen and a specimen taken by Mr. Andrew Alli- 
son in a briery pasture on the edge of a wood on well drained land near New 
Orleans on Feb. 22, 1897. This is the only record of its occurrence in the 
southern part of the State of which I know. It has been reported as rather 
common in north Louisiana in winter. 

240. Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus) . Resident; 
fairly common in most sections of the State; in the fertile alluvial section 
of the southeast it is found chiefly about the plantations or in woods better 
drained than the average timbered lands. In the prairie section it is a 
common and rather conspicuous inhabitant of mixed growths of briers, 
canes, etc. Individuals show remarkable attachment to the comparatively 
few spots in the fertile alluvial region where they occur. An unusually 
well drained piece of woodland near New Orleans that I have visited re- 
peatedly in the past twenty years is practically the only spot in an area of 
15 or 18 square miles where I have always been practically certain of seeing 
this bird. 

241. Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis). Rivalled only by 
the Mockingbird and Carolina Wren among the smaller birds of the State 
in absolutely uniform abundance in every section. 

242. Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Zamelodia ludoviciana) . Occasion- 
ally common in migration, either spring or fall, for a day or two at a tjme. 
In southern Louisiana, it is most apt to be noted the latter part of April 
and early part of October. The latest date of its occurrence at New Orleans 
in spring is May 6, 1897. Have never noted it in early spring, and in fact 
have no record of its occurrence before April 21. The earliest date of its 
occurrence in fall at New Orleans is Oct. 6, 1894. One was seen at Ellis- 
ville, Miss., Oct. 19, 1897. 

2iO Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. LJan. 

243. Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca ccerulea cozrulea). Only transient in the 
southern part of the State, and never common in the fertile alluvial region 
and probably not common at any time in the prairie section. Just how far 
south it breeds in Louisiana I do not know, but it has been found breeding 
in central Mississippi. Has been found commonest in Louisiana about 
cultivated lands in the piney regions of the southern portion of the 
State. The earliest record of arrival at New Orleans is April 8, 1898. 
The latest date of occurrence in spring is May 7, 1897. The earliest date 
of arrival in fall at New Orleans is Aug. 28, 1899, and this has been found 
to be about the average date of its arrival on the coast of Mississippi, 
where it is fairly common in fall. In 1905, the last was seen at Biloxi, 
Miss., Oct. 22. 

244. Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea cyanea). Summer visitor, but 
not very common breeder in the southern part of the State; more com- 
mon, however, in the fertile alluvial section than in the piney regions, 
being found sparingly on the sugar plantations and about other cultivation. 
Extremely abundant as a transient in the fertile alluvial section in both 
spring and fall, and in the piney sections in fall. The earliest date of 
arrival at New Orleans is March 26, 1899, and the first usually comes about 
March 30. It becomes common about the end of the first week in April, 
and usually reaches the height of its abundance from April 15 to 20. In the 
fall, the first transient is usually seen at New Orleans about Sept. 22. It 
is usually most abundant the second week in October, but is variably plen- 
tiful from about Oct. 5 to Oct. 18 or 20. The last is usually seen at New 
Orleans a few days after Oct. 20. At Biloxi, Miss., I saw one Nov. 1, 1905. 
The following notes of its occurrence at Covington, La., were made in 
1899: "Greatest number came Oct. 6. Few of these were left Oct. 12. 
A second "wave" came Oct. 21. Last, Oct. 27." 

245. Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Summer visitor, commonest 
in the central southern and southwestern part of the State. In the prairie 
lands of St. Mary, Iberia, St. Martin and Lafayette parishes, it reaches its 
greatest abundance. It is decidedly common, however, throughout the 
cultivated lands of the fertile alluvial region of the southeast. The earliest 
record of arrival is March 23 , 1894, Convent, La. It is seldom seen after the 
latter part of September. One was noted, at New Orleans, however, Oct. 
26, 1895. Males in perfect plumage may be seen up to the time of the 
general departure of the species, and the late bird noted above was a male 
in full plumage. 

246. Dickcissel (Spiza americana). When I began systematic ob- 
servation of the birds of the State in 1893, this was a common spring tran- 
sient at New Orleans, being noted in that year, and in the two years follow- 
ing. Subsequent to 1895, however, none was seen at New Orleans until 
1899 and then not again until 1912. In all the seasons in which it was seen 
at New Orleans, it was present in Audubon Park as a late April transient. 
In some of these seasons, it was seen also elsewhere. Found this species 
breeding on the edge of a pasture in St. Mary parish in 1895, and the same 






1- m«^ o 





A ^ 


/ ^ 






u x9if 

0. _MM1L iil- 

\ , \ jf A Jfirfflmfll 

x , . ^ , 

u 1 =« s ^Ly jffi 

^ - *jfi 

v '/ HhSc^ 

x ■" ; >2 * \ * 


4- tfljfr ^( 






V \^— 



>*♦■■■-? - \ 

^^ 1. 




v '^K 


r \ ""A 


"*■ 1 HI 





^^RH^^^^^^bGI^. - ^^ii 




V0l 'l9i5 XI1 ] Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 29 

year I saw a female, apparently near a nest, in Audubon Park the latter 
part of May. I have found it in summer also in Cameron parish, near the 
mouth of the Calcasieu river. The earliest date of arrival at New Orleans 
is April 18, 1895. I have no records of the fall movements. 

(To be concluded.) 





Plates IV-VI. 

On February twenty-first, 1914, Mr. S. A. Stephan, General 
Manager of The Cincinnati Zoological Company, of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, wrote me that " Our Passenger Pigeon has been promised to 
the Smithsonian Institution when it dies. This bird is a female 
and now about 29 years old, and the last one of a flock of eight 
that we got in 1878." I have since learned that it was hatched in 
the Garden. 

The specimen of which Mr. Stephan speaks was, beyond all 
reasonable doubt, the last living representative of its race in the 
world, — the last, the very last, of the millions upon millions of 
those birds which were known to pass over certain sections of the 
United States during their migrations to and from their feeding 
and breeding grounds. Many of us, whose birthdays date back to 
the middle of the last century and before, and who resided in the 
districts where these vast unnumbered hosts of migrating "blue 
pigeons " darkened the heavens for days at a time, distinctly re- 
member the cruel, unnecessary slaughtering of those birds, untold 
thousands of which were never used for any purpose whatever; 
millions of others of which were slain for their feathers alone, while 
it is now impossible to form any correct estimation of the number 

SO Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. [jan. 

supplied to the markets of the time, or of those allowed to remain 
where they fell to the guns and other weapons of destruction of 
the army of slaughterers responsible for their extinction. All this 
is now past history, and will not be further touched upon in this 
article more than to say, that Ectopistes migrator I us is now extinct; 
and what is here set forth is but a brief account of my personal 
observations upon the last known example of the species. 

From Mr. Stephan, who wrote me on the 7th of September, 1914, 
I learn that " our female passenger pigeon died September 1st [1914] 
at 1 p. m. of old age, being about 29 years old." It was almost 
immediately packed in ice and shipped to the National Museum at 
Washington, D. C, where it was received in fine condition on the 
fourth of that month. On the morning of its arrival, Dr. Charles 
W. Richmond, Assistant Curator of the Division of Birds of the 
Museum, requested me, by telephone, to take part in making the 
record of the specimen. 

When first seen and examined by me, the bird was in the posses- 
sion of Mr. William Palmer of the National Museum, who had 
been delegated to skin it for Mr. Nelson R. Wood, of the Taxi- 
dermical Department, who, I was informed, was to have the honor 
of mounting it for permanent preservation in the Ornithological 
Exhibition Rooms of the museum. 

I found the bird to be an adult female in the moult, with a few 
pin feathers in sight, and some of the middle tail feathers, including 
the long, central ones, missing. The feathers of the abdomen, 
and especially about the vent, were soiled to some extent, otherwise 
the plumage of the bird was smooth and good. It had the appear- 
ance of a specimen in health, with healthy eyes, eye-lids, nostrils, 
and mouthparts. The feet were of a deep, flesh-colored pink, 
clean and healthy, while the claws presented no evidences indicative 
of unusual age, though not a few of wear. Its weight was not 

At my suggestion, the bird was taken by Mr. Palmer to the 
photographic rooms of the museum, where, at about 11 A. M., it 
was thrice posed by me for photography. Three (8 X 10) success- 
ful negatives were at once made by the assistant photographer of 
the institution, giving the specimen on anterior, posterior and lateral 
views, with about one-fourth reduction. 

1915 J Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 31 

Shortly afterwards (1.15 p. m.), Mr. Palmer and I arrived with 
the specimen at my home (3356-18th Street, Washington, D. C), 
and in one of my work rooms (on the third floor, back room) 
facilities were immediately given him to skin the specimen. Pre- 
vious to his commencing this operation, I made duplicate (5 X 8) 
negatives of the head of the bird with my vertical camera, and 
successfully developed them in the dark-room, next to where Mr. 
Palmer had started in to make the skin. 

Apart from the legs and wings, when Mr. Palmer had carried the 
skinning to the base of the mandibles, I made another exposure 
with the same camera, the subject being the body of the specimen, 
natural size, on left lateral view. A reproduction of this unusual 
photograph is shown in Plate I of this contribution, and is valuable 
on a number of accounts as exhibiting the size of the body; of the 
eye; position of the trachea; the great size of the pectoralis major 
muscle, etc. After this, the eyes and brain were consigned to 
alcohol; and while I was developing the aforesaid plate in the dark- 
room, Mr. Palmer completed the skinning of the specimen, having 
set the body aside for me for anatomical description. 

Immediately after this we partook of a "late lunch" in the 
dining-room below, and, at a little before 4 p. M., Mr. Palmer 
repaired to his home with the skin in his possession, while I went up 
to my laboratory on the third floor to make a preliminary survey 
of the body, prior to making any additional photographs that 
might be necessary for illustration. 

There was no fat present anywhere externally, where it occurs 
in birds to a greater or less extent, between the dermal tissues and 
the superficial muscles and other structures. I found, on the right 
side of the abdomen, a slit-like opening, one-half a centimeter in 
length, which led freely into the abdominal cavity, and from which 
blood was oozing. This opening I enlarged in order to withdraw 
the viscera for the purpose of making a photograph of them, 
previous to proceeding with the dissection of the organs within. 
This has been my practice for a great many years. I 

Much to my surprise, I found a quantity of blood (not clotted) 
in the abdominal cavity, and the right lobe of the liver and the 
intestine almost entirely broken up, as though it had been done 
with some instrument. As to the intestine, it was missing alto- 

32 Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. [jan. 

gether, while the right lobe of the liver was in scattered fragments. 
The firmer organs were apparently intact, but did not occupy their 
normal positions. This left but one course for me to adopt. I 
therefore evacuated the blood, washed out the abdominal cavity 
carefully, and consigned the entire body to a jar containing fresh, 
denatured alcohol, which I had purchased for the purpose. 

My hope was to have made a dissection, to be photographed 
similar to my colored plate of a female tame pigeon, which forms 
the frontispiece to the Key to North American Birds by Dr. Elliott 
Coues (Revised Edition, 1884), or to my dissection of the young of 
Phalacrocorax atriceps georgianus (PI. 18, Fig. 6), where, in either 
case, all the viscera are displayed and duly lettered. 1 

The colored pigeon plate I refer to should prove helpful to one 
not especially familiar with the organs and other structures in the 
ColumbidoE while reading the anatomical part of the present paper. 
There is an interesting contribution to the anatomy of Ectopistes 
migratorius in Audubon's "Birds of America," for which we have 
to thank the learned Scotch naturalist, William MacGillivray. 2 

This description is devoted almost entirely to the organs and 
structures included in the digestive system and to the anatomy of 
certain parts of the air passages. Up to the present time there has 
been nothing — so far as I am aware — contributed to the myology 
of the Passenger Pigeon, or to certain other parts of its morphology, 
while recently I have given a brief, illustrated account of its skele- 
ton. 3 

The Brain: As stated above, Mr. Palmer removed the brain as 
best he could, after skinning the head of the bird, and it was at 
once consigned to alcohol. 

1 Shufeldt, R. W. "Anatomical Notes on the young of Phalacrocorax atri- 
ceps georgianus." Science Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4. The Museum of the Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences, "A Report of the South Georgia Expedition." 
Edited by Robert Cushman Murphy. (Nov. 5, 1914), pp. 95-101. Pis. 17, 18. 

2 Audubon, John James. "The Birds of America from Drawings made in the 
United States and their Territories." Vol. V, New York, 1839, pp. 34, 35. Page 
35 is devoted to a drawing by MacGillivray giving — anterior view and somewhat 
enlarged — the digestive tract of an adult male specimen (preserved in spirits) of 
Ectopistes migratorius. 

3 Shufeldt, R. W. " Osteology of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). 
The Auk, Vol. XXXI, No. 3, July, 1914, pp. 358-362, Plate XXXIV. I have also 
published other papers on the osteology of this bird in the Proc. Zool. Soc. of Lon- 
don, Journal of Morphology, American Naturalist, etc.; these are duly cited in 
' The Auk ' article. 

° 1915 J Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. So 

I find the cerebellum to be 8 millimeters long and 6 mm. wide at 
its middle part. It projects posteriorly considerably beyond the 
cerebral hemispheres, and exhibits, on its strongly convex posterior 
aspect, six transverse sulci, in which minute vessels ramify. The 
optic lobes — one upon either side — are large and of an ellipsoid 
form; they cover, in either case, the point of radiation of the sulci 
laterally, which point (the flocculus) is frequently well exposed in 
tame or domesticated pigeons. 

Having the usual form as seen in the Columbidoe generally, the 
cerebral hemispheres are in contact with each other mesially and 
with the optic lobes below. The cerebral vessels ramify super- 
ficially upon the surface of each, while between them, posteriorly, 
the small pineal gland is in view. Upon direct superior view, the 
cerebral hemispheres nearly shut out the optic lobes from sight. 

Anteriorly, the olfactory lobes are well developed and project 
beyond the hemispheres, — the first pair of cerebral nerves were 
divided close to them. Likewise, the second pair of optic nerves 
were divided close to the rather large optic tracts at the base of the 

Measuring across the widest part of the cerebral hemispheres, I 
find it to be a distance of 18 mm., while the length of the cerebral 
sulcus is 9 mm. 

The Eye: In my above cited paper on the osteology of the 
pigeon, I have already noted the characters of the sclerotic plates 
(p. 360), and I may add here that the average antero-posterior 
diameter of the eye is found to be 14 mm., its transverse diameter 
being about 9 mm. There appears to have been nothing peculiar 
in the external musculature of this organ, beyond what we find in 
the typical eye of ordinary existing birds, — ■ the pigeons in particu- 
lar. Posteriorly, the optic nerve is not surrounded by an " osseous 
plate," as it is in the Raven. 1 

Internally, the pecten presents nothing unusual, and the lens has 
a diameter of about 4.5 mm. 

My next procedure in this dissection required me to separate t!he 
immense pectoralis major muscle from its origin upon the sternum 
on the right side, and to deal with the pectoralis secundus and 

« Shufeldt, R. W. "Myology of the Raven," p. 60, fig. 23. 

34 Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. Ljan. 

pectoralis tertius muscles in a similar manner. Following this 
operation, I disarticulated the four right costal ribs at the costal 
border of the sternum, and also the right coracoid at its sternal 
extremity. This allowed, in part, a turning of the sternum to 
one side, and permitted a better view of the interior of the thoracic 
and abdominal cavities. 

There was no evidence whatever of the presence of the intestine 
in any part of its continuity save a piece about 8 mm. in length, 
where it emerged from the gizzard and the ragged margin surround- 
ing the abdominal boundary of the vent. All the portion referred 
to was not in the abdominal cavity. 

The entire right lobe of the rather large liver was in a disintegrated 
condition, showing its internal structure, and exposing the organs 
usually concealed by it to view. 

The heart was in its normal position, while the gizzard was 
rotated to the left side. I discovered no blood clots or parasites of 
any kind in the abdominal cavity. 

Without making very complete dissections, it was nevertheless 
evident that the three pectoral muscles and the superficial muscles 
of the back made origins and insertions similar to those in existing 
Columbidce generally. 

Os furculum was next disarticulated at its right coracoidal ar- 
ticulation, and the usual muscles and ligaments in the vicinity 
divided at different points. This admitted of a far more extended 
view of the organs and structures within the thoracic and abdominal 
cavities. This view I at once made a five by eight negative of, 
the reproduction of a photograph of which is here seen in Plate V. 

Extremely simple in its network of nerves, the brachial plexus is 
primarily formed by the union of the last two cervical nerves and 
the first two dorsal ones. They soon unite as a single faciculus, 
from which, as usual, the branches are derived to supply the wing. 

Passing for the moment to the pelvic basin, I found the kidneys 
occupying their usual sites, and neither one appeared to present 
any atrophy or other evidences of disease; they are of equal size 
and each tri-lobed. 

On the other hand, a certain degree of atrophy characterizes the 
left ovary and its duct, — a condition we might naturally expect in a 
bird of this age, and one which had lived so long in confinement. 

1915 Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 35 

Beyond this atrophy, the organ is normal and presents nothing 
worthy of special note. The right ovary is quite rudimentary, so 
rudimentary, indeed, and associated as it is with the mutilation of 
the various organs of the abdominal cavity, referred to in a previous 
paragraph, that, in the absence of a microscopical examination, 
this ovary and oviduct might be mistaken for something else, 
though not likely, as I am familiar with its appearance in a great 
many species of birds, including the Pigeons. 

As I am unable to give any account of the intestine owing to the 
aforesaid absence, I will quote MacGillivray on the subject, his 
specimen having been an adult male in spirits. Omitting the 
reference letters to his figure, he says : " The intestine is 4 feet long, 
4 twelfths in width, at the narrowest part only 2 twelfths. The 
duodenum curves in the usual manner, at the distance of three 
inches. The intestine forms six folds. The cceca are extremely 
diminutive, being only \\ twelfths in breadth; they are 2 inches 
distant from the extremity; the cloaca [is] oblong." 

Neither the large lungs nor any of the air-sacs I examined pre- 
sented anything peculiar, nor do they depart in any way from those 
structures as they occur in ordinary large wild pigeons generally. 
The lungs were very dark, and appear to have been congested at 
the time of death. 

Posterior to these, the spleen, the ovaries, the adrenals, and the 
pancreas were all either broken up, as described above, or entirely 
removed, which was the case with the pancreas, as it, in pigeons, 
occurs in a loop or fold of the duodenal division of the intestine. 

For the purpose of further anatomical description, I determined 
at this point to remove from the trunk various organs and struc- 
tures that could not well be described in situ. These included the 
respiratory apparatus, the heart and great vessels, the digestive tract, 
remains of the liver, etc. 

Respiratory and Vocal Organs: As the 1839 octavo edition of 
Audubon's Birds (Geo. R. Lockwood ed.) is accessible but to the 
few, I am taking the liberty of quoting here the essential para- 
graphs of MacGillivray (as cited above) on some of the remaining 
organs, in that the student may note the agreement or disagreement, 
as the case may be, with my own observations as set forth below. 
Be it remembered, however, that MacGillivray's spirit specimen 
was a male bird, and the one here being described is a female. 

36 Shupeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. [ Jan 

Among other observations left us in the account, he said : " The 
mouth is very narrow, being only 4^ twelfths in breadth, but 
capable of being dilated to the width of 1 inch by means of a joint 
on each side of the lower mandible." The "joint" he refers to is 
the quadrato-mandibular articulation, and, so far as I am aware, 
the arrangement is the same in all pigeons. He continues by saying 
that "There are two thin longitudinal ridges on the palate, of 
which the sides slope upwards. The posterior aperture of the nares 
is j inch long, margined with pupilke. The tongue is l\ twelfths 
long, rather broad and sagittate at the base, with numerous small 
papilla?, but at the middle contracted to 1^ twelfths, afterward 
horny, very narrow, induplicate, and ending in a rather sharp 
point." l 

MacGillivray gave the shape of the tongue about as I find it in 
this specimen. It is distinctly longitudinally grooved upon its 
dorsal surface in the middle line, while it is convex from side to side 
ventrally. Posteriorly it is deeply and roundly concaved, the free 
margin of which is embellished with a fringe of minute and delicate 
papillae, which are white and about 32 in number. A row similar 
to these are found upon the posterior free margins of the upper 
larynx. The rima glottidis is of an elongate, cordate form, with the 
median apex behind. Its margins are thickened and raised. On 
its side, the horny part of the tongue measures 14 mm. and its 
middle longitudinal line 11 mm. Rima glottidis has a median 
longitudinal length of 5 mm. The laryngeal and hyoidean muscles 
present nothing peculiar or noteworthy. Behind, the larynx has a 
transverse diameter of six mm., and each lateral part is rounded 
posteriorly, being fringed as above described. 

William MacGillivray, when he described the anatomy of Ecto- 
pistes migratorius for Audubon, was entirely correct when he 
recorded that "The trachea passes along the left side, as usual in 
birds having a large crop; its length is 2§ inches; its breadth vary- 
ing from 2| twelfths to lj twelfths; its rings 105, feeble; the last 
ring large, formed laterally of two rings, with an intervening mem- 
brane. Bronchi of about 15 half rings and narrow. The lateral 

i In my former article in ' The Auk ' cited above, I have already given a brief 
account of the bones of the hyoid arches, so it will be unnecessary to say anything 
further about them here. R. W. S. 

1915 J Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 37 

muscles strong, as are the sterno-tracheal, which come off at a 
distance of \ inch. There is a single pair of inferior laryngeal 
muscles going to the upper edge of the last tracheal ring." (loc. 
cit., p. 34.) To this I may add that a pessulus does not form a part 
of the lower larynx in this pigeon; apparently there is not even a 
rudiment of one. 

The superior division of the oesophagus, twenty-five millimeters 
in length, is a strong, muscular tube of uniform caliber, and capable 
of considerable extension. Externally, its fibers run longitudinally. 
At the distance above mentioned from the buccal extremity, it 
suddenly dilates into an enormous crop, which, when filled, has an 
ellipsoidal form, with the major axis transversely disposed. This 
axis measures about 54 millimeters, while the minor axis or longi- 
tudinal one is about one-fourth less. 

In a male bird, MacGillivray found the crop much larger, or 63 
by 77 millimeters. Below, the crop in the present specimen has 
nearly a uniform caliber for a distance of 27 millimeters. It is 
strong and muscular, with muscular plica? longitudinally raised 
upon its extreme surface. Still further along, it gradually dilates, 
to become the proventriculus , which, terminally very considera- 
bly enlarged, enters the gizzard or stomach. This latter is placed 
obliquely in the abdominal cavity as shown in Plate V. 

MacGillivray found the gizzard in the male bird much larger 
than it is in the female here being described. He states that it 
was two inches and two-twelfths in breadth, and one inch and one- 
fourth in length. The gizzard at hand is but little more than half 
this size. It has the usual structure found in the Columbce, and I 
found its internal cavity to contain a dozen or more quartz pebbles 
of the size of coarse bird-shot. The musculus intermidias of this 
gizzard is strong and well developed; its form, from two views, is 
shown in the plates, as well as its internal structure on section. 

In a former paragraph I have already described the condition in 
which I found the right lobe of the liver, when I opened the abdominal 
cavity, and this leaves but the smaller left lobe for consideration. 
It has a transverse diameter of 21 millimeters, and an average 
longitudinal one of some 12 mm., not taking into consideration the 
three distal processes it presents: a small median one, and one 
upon either side of double its size. This distal margin is sharp, 

38 Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. [.Jan. 

which, to a less degree, is the case with the rounded or convex 
anterior contoural boundary. On the dorsal aspect there is a deep 
concavity, which allows the liver to fit itself upon the supero- 
anterior surface of the gizzard. 

The right and left bile ducts were not in evidence, and the various 
divisions of the peritoneum could not be worked out entirely. 

Coming to the heart, I find it to have an extreme length of 23 
millimeters, and a transverse diameter, above the ventricals, of 14 
millimeters. I examined with great care all the vessels entering 
and leaving its several cavities and their main branches; they are 
identically the same as they occur in Columba lima, as described by 
the late T. Jeffrey Parker in his admirable text-book entitled "A 
Course of Instruction in Zootomy (Vertebrata)," on page 241, 
Fig. 56. There is every reason to believe that the internal anatomy 
of the auricles and ventricles of this heart of the Passenger Pigeon 
agree, in all structural particulars, with the corresponding ones in 
any large wild pigeon, as for example C. fasciata. I therefore did 
not further dissect the heart, preferring to preserve it in its entirety, 
— perhaps somewhat influenced by sentimental reasons, as the 
heart of the last " Blue Pigeon " that the world will ever see alive. 

With the final throb of that heart, still another bird became 
extinct for all time, — the last representative of countless millions 
and unnumbered generations of its kind practically exterminated 
through man's agency. 

Were I to go as far as I could into this subject of the anatomy of 
the Passenger Pigeon, my collected observations would afford 
matter for several good-sized volumes. Even the mutilated mate- 
rial before me might furnish several chapters on the myology of 
this species; on the circulatory system; the nervous system; 
histology of the structures, and a great deal more besides. 

In any group of vertebrates, birds included, it is always an ad- 
vantage to have published the entire morphology of some particular 
species of a group, as for example a typical pigeon of the genus 
Columba. Then, with respect to the morphology of species be- 
longing to genera evidently closely related to Columba, it will but 
be necessary to make record of enough, with respect to their minute 
and gross anatomy, to establish the fact that our investigations 
have led us to a point where we can predict, with absolute cer- 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate V. 


Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 

Vol 'i9']^ X ] Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 39 

tainty, what the balance of the morphology will be in any particular 
case. It is always well, however, to make a careful comparison of 
the skeleton in the case of all the genera of a family, and it requires 
a comparative vertebrate morphologist, with a very vast and varied 
fund of knowledge of his subject, to decide, in any instance, just 
what amount of data to obtain, in the case of any particular species 
to be anatomically investigated, when the entire morphology of a 
typical representative of a closely related genus is known. 

If what I have thus far attempted to present of the osteology of 
Ectopistes migratorius, and of the rest of the anatomy of that spe- 
cies, — and knowing what he already knows of the morphology of 
Columba livia and other pigeons, — will enable the ornithotomist 
to surmise, perhaps with more than comparative certainty, what 
the undescribed parts of the anatomy of Ectopistes migratorius 
would reveal upon investigation, I feel that my researches have 
accomplished all that I could hope for in this regard, with respect 
to our now extinct Passenger Pigeon, and that my labor has been 
well repaid. 


(All the figures in the Plates are by the author, and made, either by draw- 
ing or photographic reproduction, direct from the subjects they depict.) 

Reference Lettering. 

aa. internal dermal margin of the auricular aperture. 

am. angle of mandible. 

c. complexus muscle (Figs. 2, 3.) 

cr. crop. (Figs. 3, 4 and 4.) 

ct. intestine cut away close to the external surface of the gizzard. 

dc. depressor caudae muscle. (Fig. 2.) 

e. eye. (Fig. 2.) 

el. internal view of eyelids. (Fig. 2.) / 

gp. gluteus primus muscle. (Fig. 2.) 

gz. gizzard. (Figs. 3, 4 and 5.) 

H. heart. (Figs. 3, 4 and 4.) 

hy. hyoid with muscles attached. (Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5.) 

ks. keel of sternum. (Fig. 3.) 

40 Shufeldt, Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. [j an< 

Icp. longus colli posticus muscle. (Fig. 3.) 

II. left lobe of liver. (Figs. 3, 4 and 5.) 

mi. museums intermedius of the gizzard. (Figs. 3, 4 and 5.) 

oc. oblique condyle of right humerus. (Fig. 2.) 

oc' oblique condyle of left humerus. (Fig. 2.) 

oe. oesophagus. (Figs. 3, 4 and 5.) 

of. os furculum. (Fig. 3.) 

P. pelvis. 

ph. pharynx or entrance to oesophagus. (Fig. 5.) 

Pm. pectoralis major muscle. (Figs. 2 and 3.) 

Pr. proventriculus. (Figs. 4 and 5.) 

pu. pubic bone of pelvis. (Figs. 2 and 3.) 

py. pygostyle. (Fig. 2.) 

r.c. right coracoid. (Fig. 3.) 

rg. rima glottidis. (Figs. 3 and 5.) 

rm. rectus capitis posticus major muscle. (Fig. 2.) 

s. lower larynx and bronchial tubes. (Fig. 5.) 

sk. skin of head and neck of the left side. (Fig. 2.) 

sk.p. parietal region of cranium. (Figs. 2 and 3.) 

T. tongue. (Figs. 3, 4 and 5.) 

tl. tracheo-lateralis muscle. (Fig. 7.) 

tm. teres et infraspinatus muscles. (Fig. 2.) 

tp. transversus peronei muscle. (Fig. 2.) 

tr. trachea. (Figs. 2, 4 and 5.) 

xa. anterior xiphoidal process of sternum of right side. (Fig. 3.) 

xp. posterior xiphoidal process of sternum of right side. (Fig. 3.) 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 2. Skinned head, neck and trunk of Ectopistes migratorius; nat. 
size. The reversed skin attached to the base of the mandibles. Humeri 
and femora still attached and partly covered with their muscles. Forearm; 
hand; the pelvic limbs below the knee, and the uropygial glands have all 
been removed. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 3. Neck and trunk of Ectopistes migratorius (same specimen). 
Skull and associated parts anterior to aural apertures have been cut away. 
Hyoidean apparatus, trachea and oesophagus drawn down considerably 
below normal position. Crop empty and wrinkled up. Os furculum dis- 
located at right shoulder, and right coracoid thrown out of its sternal articu- 
lation. Right pectoral muscles and other structures dissected away from 
sternum and drawn far to one side. Right side of sternum in full view. 
Thoracic and abdominal cavities opened up ventrally, and heart, left lobe 
of liver, gizzard, etc. exposed to view. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate VI. 

Anatomy of the Passenger Pigeon. 

VOl iSf XI1 ] Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. 41 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 4. Tongue, hyoid, trachea, heart, liver and digestive organs removed 
from their cavities and photographed on anterior or ventral view. The 
crop (cr.) has been turned around to occupy the posterior aspect of the 
windpipe or trachea, in order that the latter may be seen for its entire 
length. The cardiac extremities of the great vessels at the base of the heart 
can easily be recognized. The left lobe of the liver (11.) and the gizzard 
are in the normal relations to each other. 

Fig. 5. Same structures and organs as seen in Fig. 4. The tongue and 
pharynx are seen upon dorsal view; the crop and oesophagus are twisted 
about the trachea in order to show the reverse side of the first-mentioned 
organ. The lower part of the trachea (lower larynx) and bronchial tubes 
are seen. Heart and great vessels are shown upon posterior aspect. The 
left lobe of the liver is thrown forwards in order to give a complete view of 
the gizzard, which latter has been bisected and turned so as to show its 
dorsal surface. 

Fig. 6. Interior aspect of the anterior moiety of the gizzard exhibiting 
the muscular portion, with the central cavity filled with small pebbles. 

Fig. 7. Anterior view of the lower part of the trachea; the lower larynx, 
and the bronchial tubes. About twice natural size, and drawn by the author 
direct from the specimen. 


A Day's Collecting on the South Georgia Expedition of 

the Brooklyn Museum and the American Museum of 

Natural History. 

by robert cushman murphy. 

On October 15, 1912, the good whaling brig Daisy of New Bed- 
ford was running merrily across the trade wind just south of the 
equator. All day long, boobies and other passing sea birds Jold 
us that we were nearing land, and at nine in the evening we made 
out the twinkling, revolving light of an island lying under the bright 
quarter moon. We hauled aback our square sails and lay to for 
the night. 


Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. 


The bold, overhanging "Pyramid" of Fernando Noronha, a 
black, phonolite mountain which is the most conspicuous land- 
mark in all the South Atlantic, loomed out about nine miles distant 

in the following dawn. As we bore down toward the land in the 
hazy light, the long strip of rough hills, which had first seemed 
continuous, gradually broke up into the several islets of which the 
group is composed. The sun, leaping above the equatorial horizon, 
revealed a green lowland, well clothed with shrubs and small trees, 
and a higher zone of bare, weathered peaks. The four tall, skeleton 
" wireless " towers were probably the only features which had been 
added to the landscape since Charles Darwin in the Beagle visited 
this Brazilian penal settlement fourscore years ago. 

Fernando Noronha lies in latitude 3° 50' S., longitude 32° 25' W., 
two hundred miles off the South American mainland from which 
it is divided by a channel 13,000 feet in depth. The rugged group 
is only about seven miles long, by one and a half in width. The 
component islets, portions of the crater rim of an ancient volcano., 
are of basaltic rocks, without sedimentary deposits, but with in- 
jected dykes of phonolite or "clinkstone," the whole now almost 
worn away by the action of the denuding tropical rainfall and the 
battering seas, although the famous, columnar Pyramid still rises 
to a height of 1,089 feet. Most of the smaller islets are bare of 
vegetation except for a few grasses and sedges, some thickets of a 
low shrub (Phyllanthus), and several leguminous vines. Parts of 
the main island are covered by a variety of stunted trees and shrubs, 
including an endemic fig (Ficus noronhce) and a leguminous tree 
(Erythrina). There is a large percentage of widely distributed 
tropical weeds, and a remarkable number of plants having edible 
berries or seeds. Within the memory of man the leeward side of 
the land was heavily forested, but the larger trees have long since 



Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. 4d 

been felled in order that the exiled convicts, practically the only 
human beings to share the sea-beaten spot with countless nesting 
ocean birds, might not build rafts and escape to the shores of Brazil. 

When the Daisy had drawn within a couple of miles of the coast, 
whaleboats were lowered, and I went ashore along with a fishing 
party. On the way to the land we were surrounded by an enor- 
mous flock of Noddy Terns which stretched away to the far horizon 
until the birds appeared like tiny, swarming insects. Passing 
several conical inaccessible islets, on which Man-o' -war-birds were 
breeding, we entered a cove of grottoed rock ending in a crescent 
of sand. Behind the beach the fissured, yellow wall of a cliff, 
conforming with the semicircular outline of the cove, rose sheer to a 
height of four or five hundred feet, and clustering in thousands 
along its upper surface were graceful Noddies on their scaffold 
nests. Side by side on a twisted bough at the foot of the cliff sat 
two snow-white "Love Terns" (Gygis), antitheses of the black 

The cool water of the cove lured us to a swim, and, as several of 
us plunged in, the blurred image of a green turtle glided away be- 
fore us, and a shoal of porpoises see-sawed leisurely across the 
inlet. One of the sailors fired his gun from the whale-boat at some- 
thing or other (which he did not hit), and the roar reverberated 
from face to face of the curving wall, while a horde of screaming 
birds poured down off the rocks, adding to the bewildering echoes. 

Other inhabitants than the birds were also disturbed by the 
report of the gun. When we turned toward the beach a tall, 
black, muscular fisherman, with a tattered seine over one shoulder, 
and wearing not a stitch of clothing, stood eyeing us curiously. 
Presently out of the shrubbery below the cliff came a fellow of 
lighter skin, clad in short canvas trousers and a blue tam-o'-shanter 
cap, with a crude wicker basket slung over his back. The pair 
might have passed for Robinson Crusoe and his man Friday on 
washday. The cap of the second native came off obsequiously 
when we landed, while both men extended a right hand of welcome 
and ingenuously explained in Portuguese that they were murderers 
serving sentences on the isle. The quadroon had been there 
fourteen years, and his durance was to terminate at the close of 
eight months more when he would return to his native Pernambuco. 

44 Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. [jan. 

He directed us to a better beach around the westward promontory, 
where he said he would meet us. Accordingly we pushed off shore, 
while the poor islander, taking a pair of goatskin sandals from his 
basket, painfully toiled up a stony, winding path across the ridge, 
leaving his comrade to cast the net alone. 

After our whaleboat had rounded the point of rock there lay 
before us a charming bit of seashore. The broad beach of golden 
sand stretched in an even curve to another headland a mile beyond, 
and sloped gently into the sea which for a long distance from shore 
was wondrously transparent. The upper beach was a riot of vege- 
tation, among which the tropical morning-glory, Ipomoea pes- 
caprce, and a slender-stalked cactus (Cereus) were conspicuous; 
and still beyond, a thicket of brush and trees, filled with fruit- 
eating doves (Zanaida), concealed the base of the precipice. The 
latter ran parallel to the water-line as far as the distant headland. 
Its lower face was covered with vines which clambered up the 
seams, and its crest was bordered with pink and orange-colored 
blossoms of small trees whose roots drooped over the edge. Sharp 
slabs of rock projected here and there, offering perfect nesting sites 
for the birds which appeared in hosts whichever way we turned. 
The chattering Noddies, of two species, were most abundant, but 
large-eyed Gygis terns, and satin-feathered Bo'sun Birds (Phaethon) , 
trailing their comet tails, were flying to and from the niches in the 
cliff; a flock of migrating plover pattered along the edge of the sea; 
and boobies and Man-o'-war-birds came wheeling in fearlessly 
from their feeding grounds off shore. 

For the sea birds it is always springtime at Fernando Noronha, 
The year is divided into rainy and dry periods, January to July, 
July to December, respectively, but there is no fixed breeding 
season, and eggs and young can be found in every month of the 
twelve. For this reason the isle is a great center and source of 
avian population; even such maritime species as the bo'sun birds, 
which spend most of their lives in the remotest parts of the ocean, 
can here be seen in their cliff-built homes from the year's beginning 
to its end. 

Our volunteer guide had removed his carefully fostered sandals 
on leaving the rough rock, and now awaited us on the beach. The 
Daisy's cooper and I joined him, the rest of the boat party rowing 

V0l 'lfl^ XI1 ] Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. 45 

off to a reef to fish. The guide, who was informed of our mission, 
pointed out the nests of the various birds, and captured for us some of 
the small lizards which scurried over the sand and rock everywhere. 
He talked glibly in his Brazilian jargon, giving voluminous informa- 
tion concerning the severities inflicted upon the unfortunate exiles. 
We met a number of his equally unclad fellow prisoners, as well as 
several pitiful, rheumatic, illiterate boys, children of the convicts, 
who, like the adults, followed and assisted us for the sake of gath- 
ering our empty cartridge shells. Finally the Pernambucan took 
the cooper on a visit to some of the convicts' casas, miserable huts, 
half-thatched with cocoanut leaves and destitute of furniture. The 
women, some of them whites of unmixed blood, were almost as 
sparsely clothed and as woe-begone as the men. 

During the absence of my companions I climbed a rough, nearly 
perpendicular footpath into the woods. Thorn-shrubs, trailing 
vines, and numerous berry-bearing plants among which the wild 
doves were feeding, made a fairly dense cover. The "Pinhao" 
or pink-flowered tree (Jatropha gossypifolia) which we had noted 
from the beach, was leafless although in full blossom, just as on the 
occasion of Darwin's visit in 1832. I ascended as far as possible 
up the bare, steep side of the Pyramid. Directly below me lay 
the long, picturesque beach, with the fleet-winged birds crossing 
and recrossing it. Not a trace of the work of human hands was in 
sight. Here was Prospero's isle, cooled by a tireless trade-wind — ■ 
a land where fruit trees and melons flourish without cultivation, a 
land which might become a second Bermuda, yet for a hundred 
years it has been given up to wretched criminals under the callous 
regime of the Brazilian penal system. 

When we joined our fishing party late in the afternoon we found 
the whaleboat well laden with various brightly-colored tropical 
fishes and several sharks. The latter had been a great nuisance 
to the fishermen all day, biting many of the smaller fishes from the 
hooks before they could be drawn to the surface, and nipping the 
larger ones clean in half. ' 

As evening drew near we perceived the brig bearing down the 
coast toward us, and reluctantly we sailed off to join her, leaving 
the allurements and the misery of Fernando Noronha. At dusk 
we were running swiftly down the trade wind, the Pyramid behind 
us still showing faintly through a bluish haze. 

46 Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. [ Jan 


1. Webster, W. H. B. Voyage of the Chanticleer. London, 1834, Vol. 
II, pp. 326-339. 

2. Darwin, C. R. A Naturalist's Voyage in H. M. S. Beagle. London, 
1860. "Fernando Noronha" in Chapt. I. 

3. Branner, J. C. Notes on the Fauna of the Islands of Fernando de 
Noronha. American Naturalist, XXII, 1888, pp. 861-871. 

4. Branner, J. C. The Geology of Fernando de Noronha. American 
Journal of Science, XXXVII, 1889, pp. 145-161. 

5. Ridley, H. N. A Visit to Fernando do Noronha. Zoologist, XII, 
1888, pp. 41-49. 

6. Ridley, H. N., and others. Notes on the Zoology of Fernando Nor- 
onha. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology, XX, 1890, pp. 473-570. 

7. Ridley, H. N., and others. Notes on the Botany of Fernando 
Noronha. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany, XXVII, 1891, pp. 1-86. 

8. Ihering, H. von. Die Insel Fernando de Noronha. Globus, Vol. 
LXII, 1891, pp. 1-6. 

9. Moseley, H. N. Notes by a Naturalist during Voyage of H. M. S. 
Challenger. London, 1892, pp. 66-73. 

10. Nicoll, M. J. Ornithological Journal of a Voyage around the 
World. Ibis, IV, 1904, pp. 37-39. 

11. Nicoll, M. J. Three Voyages of a Naturalist. London, 1908, pp. 

12. Scharff, R. F. Distribution and Origin of Life in America. 1912, 
pp. 384, 385. 


1. Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl). A few Wilson's Petrels were 
seen from the whaleboat between our vessel and the shore. 

2. Phaethon lepturus (Lacep. & Daudin). Phaethon lepturus, 
Grant, Cat. B. XXVI, p. 453, Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 39. 

The Bo'sun Birds were nesting in niches of the cliffs along the 
beach, and they could be frightened from their eggs only with 
difficulty. Three breeding females, of which two are typical 
lepturus, were collected. The third specimen represents a phase 
of the species hitherto apparently undescribed. In this specimen 
the white feathers are replaced entirely by a plumage of pale pink, 
or pinkish salmon, slightly orange on the back but less so than in 
P. fulvus of the Indian Ocean. The pattern of light and dark 

° 1915 ] Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. 47 

coloration differs a little from that of the two white birds in that 
the black on the outermost primary extends to within 23 mm. 
(.9 in.) of the tip, and on the third from the outermost primary to 
within 8 mm. of the tip. It differs moreover in its smaller dimen- 
sions and in having the culmen horn-colored instead of yellow. 
Further collection may possibly show that this pink Phaethon is 
worthy of taxonomic distinction. 

Measurements of skins. 






9 (white) 





9 (white) 





9 (pink) 





An unsexed specimen 

of P. 

fulvus in collection 



Mus. Nat. Hist. 





3. Phaethon sethereus (Linn.). Phaethon oethereus, Sharpe^ 
Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 480. Grant, Cat. B. 
XXVI, p. 458. 

4. Sula leucogaster (Bodd.). Sula leucogastra, Sharpe, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 480. Sulafusca, Ridley, Zoologist, 
1888, p. 43. 

Boobies of this species were exceedingly abundant at the island. 
While we were passing to and from shore in the whaleboat, they 
flew about us closely, and three immature examples were collected. 

5. Fregata aquila (Linn.). Tachypetes aquila, Sharpe, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 480. Mosely, Notes by a Naturalist 
on H. M. S. Challenger, p. 71. 

We found the Frigate Bird abundant. Numbers were seen upon 
their nests about the summits of the smaller islets. 

6. Charadrius dominicus (Mull.)? 

A flock of seven plover, believed to have been of this species, 
were seen repeatedly along the shore of the inlets. Unlike the 
native birds these plover were very shy, and I could neither collect 
one nor approach the flock closely. Fernando Noronha is doubt- 
less a regular station for migrating shore birds, and several of the 
authors cited above refer to Limicolae at the island. 

48 Mukphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. [jan. 

7. Arenaria interpres (Linn.). Strepsilas interpres, Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 39. 

8. Sterna fuliginosa (Gm.). Sterna fuliginosa, Nicoll, Ibis, 
1904, p. 39. 

9. Anous stolidus (Linn.). Anous stolidus, Saunders, Cat. B. 
XXV, p. 141. Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, p. 38. 

10. Micranous leucocapillus (Gould). Anous melanogenys, 
Sharpe, Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 479. 

At the time of our visit Noddies of this species far outnumbered 
all other birds. Six breeding adults were collected. Several are 
in new, unworn plumage, and have the outermost remex only half 
grown or less. 

Measurements of 5 skins. 

exp. culmen 



















c? - 










11. Gygis crawfordi Nicoll. Gygis Candida, Sharpe, Journ. 
Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 480. Saunders, Cat. B., XXV, 
p. 149. Gygis crawfordi, Nicoll, Bull. B. O. C, XVI, 1906, p. 102. 

Nicoll, Ibis, 1909, p. 669, states, "Probably all examples of the 
White Tern from the Atlantic are referable to this species, as a 
glance at the map will show how completely it is isolated. A few 
pairs breed on Fernando Noronha Island, and it has been also 
recorded from St. Helena and Ascension as a breeding species." 

x\bout twenty examples of this tern were seen, mostly flying in 
pairs from shelf to shelf of the upper cliffs, or sitting side by side 
on the boughs of trees. Four breeding birds were collected, one 
of which was preserved as a skeleton. They agree in general with 
Nicoll's description, which, however, is not very detailed: — "Simi- 
lar to G. Candida, but may be easily distinguished by the following 
characters. Bill wholly black (not blue at the base, as in G. Candida), 
more slender and narrower at the base; nostril situated much 
nearer the forehead ; wing longer than in G. Candida; tarsi and toes 
pale blue, webs white." The species appears also to differ from 
G. alba (= Candida) in having a heavier ring of black around the eye. 

Vol. XXXIIl 
1915 J 

Murphy, Birds 

o/ Fernando Noronha. 


Measurements of skins 


tip of bill 


to nostril 


























9 of G. alba 

from Japan. 








The length in inches of the entire culmen of the cf from Fer- 
nando Noronha is only 1.8 as against "2.1" for the type specimen 
of Gygis crawfordi from Trinidad Islet. 

In one 9 of the Fernando Noronha birds the shafts of the pri- 
maries are white; the other two birds have the shafts marked with 
brownish pigment. 

It is interesting to note that this white-feathered bird has a 
heavily pigmented, coal-black skin, whereas the skin of the black 
tern, Micranous, is white in every part. The dermal melanin of 
Gygis doubtless bears the same relation to the absorption of ex- 
ternal heat, or the prevention of radiation of bodily heat, as the 
black plumage of Micranous. 

12. Zenaida auriculata (Temm.). Zenaida noronha, Gray, 
List B. Brit. Mus., 1856, Columbse, p. 47. Zenaida macidata, 
Sharpe, Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 479. Zenaida auri- 
culata, Salvadori, Cat. B., XXI, p. 384. Peristera geoffroyi, Mosely, 
Notes by a Naturalist, p. 71. 

This species is the most abundant land bird at Fernando Nor- 
onha. According to Moseley the doves sometimes breed on the 
ledges with Boobies and Noddies, the nests being intermingled 
with those of the seabirds. 

Of three specimens collected a c? and a 9 were breeding. 

Measurements of 


exp. culmen 



















These figures confirm the statements of Sharpe, 1. c, and of 
Salvadori, Cat. B., XXI, p. 386, that the dimensions of Fernando 

50 • Murphy, Birds of Fernando Noronha. [j an . 

Noronha specimens of Z. auriculata are somewhat less than those of 
birds from the South American continent. Probably the form is 
worthy of subspecific distinction, for according to the astronomer 
Halley " Turtle Doves " were abundant at Fernando Noronha at 
the time of his visit in February 1699. 

My specimens show three stages of the moult, the sequence of 
which seems to be as follows : — The inner primaries and central 
rectrices are first moulted; after the replacement of these by new 
feathers the remaining quills are lost, primaries 10 and 9 being the 
last to drop out. The moult of the contour feathers follows that 
of the quills. 

The female dove in the collection is as brightly colored as a male 
in new plumage. 

13. Elainea ridleyana Sharpe. Elainea ridleyana, Sharpe, 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1888, p. 107. 

This flycatcher and the following species of Vireosylva are 

14. Vireosylva gracilirostris (Sharpe). Vireo gracilirostris 
Sharpe, Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) XX, 1890, p. 478. 

Many of these greenlets were seen in the fig trees and in the 
thickets near the beach. A cf and a 9 , both breeding birds, were 
collected. Both were in fresh plumage, some of the body feathers 
not having lost the sheaths, while the quill feathers show only the 
slightest signs of wear. The contour feathers of the back measure 
up to 35 mm. in length. 

Measurements of skins. 

exp. culmen 














In addition to the fourteen species listed above, references are 
made in several of the works which I have cited to the following 
birds: — "small plover," "bird resembling a Yellowshank," 
"sandpiper," "curlew," and "a small species of Albatross." 

1915 J Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. 51 




In the spring of 1911 I undertook to collect skins of Passer 
domesticus from various parts of the United States with the object 
of studying any possible geographical or climatic effects which the 
species in its new surroundings might have undergone. For this 
purpose I communicated with a number of collectors, both pro- 
fessional and amateur (about forty in all) throughout the country, 
but the answers and especially the number of skins received were 
by no means encouraging. Many of these men had already gone 
out of business; others could not kill sparrows in places where 
these birds were confined to city limits; and still others no doubt 
thought the pursuit of a few specimens of this inglorious and un- 
remunerative species scarcely worth while. 

At the present my collection is stationary, and in these notes I 
shall simply give the meagre results as far as they have progressed. 
It is as well to state that although the enquiry was started as a 
study in variation, it would be better with the data now at hand to 
call it "A study of the stability of a species under wide-ranging 
climatic and geographical conditions." 

In July, 1911, four hundred and forty-six enquiries were sent to 
postmasters in the western states in order to get an idea of the 
distribution of the English Sparrow since the map of Barrows, 
1889, and also the length of residence of the species in various west- 
ern districts. Three hundred and twenty-eight answers were 
received, and these will be mentioned later. 

It is necessary at first to outline the native distribution of P. 
domesticus and its subspecies, giving a brief diagnosis of these as 
they are described by the latest authority on the Passerine birds 
of Europe, Hartert's ' Die Vogel der Palearktichen Fauna.' Har- 
tert says that P. domesticus is found over all of Europe except Italy, 
where it is very rare (less so in Friaul and Udine) . In Scandinavia 
beyond the Arctic Circle, all over the British Isles, but not on the 
Faroes, Madeira, Azores or Canaries. All over Russia and Siberia 

52 Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. LJan. 

to Irkutsk ; to Darien in East in cities and villages, (here only since 
permanent habitation) and not in territory of nomads. In South 
to Gibraltar, Spain and Portugal, to Tangiers, on Balkan Penin- 
sula, and on Balearic Isles. Also imported to New Zealand and 
Australia and North America. Male wing 76-82.5; rarely 83 
(E. Prussia). He says it was not easy to define the limits of P. d. 
indicus, an eastern race, on account of lack of material and the 
pronounced variation of domesticus, especially in the color of the 
back, lighter or darker, more or less mixed with white, and also in 
the size. He was not able to separate any races in Europe, but 
says more material may give other results. 

English, Irish, W. German and Dutch specimens he considers 
smaller, but there is no definite boundary line. The largest male 
is from Eastern Prussia. Specimens from S. E. Europe have 
brighter colors, but nothing constant. Caucasus specimens have 
grey ear coverts, very pure colors, and look like P. indicus, but 
cannot be separated as a race. Some specimens have fine black 
cross-bars on lower sides. Spanish spring birds are peculiar be- 
cause of light colors and chestnut brown on the lesser wing coverts 
and back. We thus see stability over a very large area, with 
tendency to certain variation. 

The following sub-species are recognized by Hartert : 

P. d. biblicus Subspec. nov. : size Wing 82-84; beak as large or 
larger, back light chestnut brown with no white ; grey of rump and 
head covered in fall with a pale brown tint. Wings and tail not as 
dark. Ear coverts not white as indicus, but light grey with brown- 
ish tint. Six specimens. (In the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
I have seen five males from near Jerusalem, Selah Merril Collie; 
all of them fall below the measurements given by Hartert except 
one which equals his smallest — Wing 78-82-77-80-79.) Distri- 
bution of this race: Syria, Palestine from Beersheba to Beirut. 

P. d. tingitanus Locke: Very much like P. domesticus but grey 
feathers of upper head in the male are black towards base; a fact 
only noticed in fresh feathers when they are raised up. In spring 
the worn head feathers look dotted with black; ear coverts not as 
grey, and lower parts somewhat lighter and cream colored. Rump 
somewhat lighter and wing a little longer. Females also somewhat 
lighter and less greyish. Distribution : Tunis and Algiers, Morocco. 

° 1915 J Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. 53 

Occasionally specimens of pure domesticus with head characters 
of this race are found in Germany. 

P. d. ahasver Kleinschmidt: Just like domesticus, but a round 
spot in center of the top of the head is grey, surrounded by a circle 
of brownish red which protrudes a little over the forehead. Author 
has only one specimen, so form is not definitely fixed. Distribu- 
tion: Countries south of Atlas. 

P. d. arboreus Bonaparte: A small and lively colored species of 
domesticus. Top of head a rusty brownish grey in fall; in spring 
a lively reddish, chestnut brown, with very narrow black stripes. 
In fall we can see light rusty brown feather tips which are soon 
worn off. Rump and upper tail coverts always show more or less 
rusty red spots. Wing of the male, 72-74; female only distin- 
guished from domesticus by smaller dimensions. Distribution: 
Nile, Dongola and Berber, south to twelve degrees. Found near 
Khartoum commonly. 

P. d. chephreni Phillips: This race, recently separated by myself 
(Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1913, p. 167), is like P. d. indicus but the 
cheeks and ear coverts are darker. Hartert noticed this difference 
but did not separate this bird. Its distribution is the northern 
Nile Valley. 

P. d. indicus Jardine & Selby : Noticeably smaller, Wing 74-78 ; 
light head areas pure white; upper ear coverts often of light grey 
tint and general colors lighter. Distribution: Cochin China^ 
Burma (in Terrasserim South to Moulmein), Ceylon, India, 
Turkestan, Transcaspia, Persia and So. Arabia. Transcaspian 
birds are sometimes intermediate to P. domesticus. 

P. d. Pyrrhonotus Blyth : A very small sparrow with a light grey 
center on the head, small black spot on throat and a chestnut 
brown lower back. Wing of male, 68-69. Distribution: Sindh 
(Narra) . 

Nicoll and Bonhote described another race, P. d. niloticus from 
the desert east of Cairo, which is apparently somewhat like P. d. 
arboreus. / 

I am not familiar at first hand with these races except biblicus, 
indicus, arboreus and chephreni. Indicus is a very strongly marked 
subspecies and is recognized at a glance, and so is arboreus. Some 
of the other races are less well marked. 

54 Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. [jan. 

Turning now to the series of Passer domesticus obtained in 1911, 
and that already in the collection of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, it is well to give a list of the specimens, and to mention 
some of the individual variations. 

Littleton, Colo., May, 1911, ten specimens, four adult males. 
These four males show rather marked differences in color. Speci- 
men A is an extremely buffy bird with a large amount of rich 
chestnut on head and neck, and very little black on back. Speci- 
men B is very blackish on the back, with very little buff anywhere. 
Taken as a whole, this series shows more color variation than any 

Denver, Colo., winter, 1911-12, F. C. Lincoln, collector, 23 
specimens, 12 males. These specimens are more or less soot 
stained, but two are bright and clean. (This soot staining is easily 
recognized after it has once been seen.) 

Nampa, Idaho, eight skins, two adult males, May and June, 

1911. Nothing of note. 

Tacoma, Wash., pair, March, 1909. These birds are very dirty, 
like the London ones. 

Blue Rapids, Kans., P. B. Peabody, collector, May, 1911, nine 
skins, four adult males. 

Excelsior, Minn., Albert Lano, collector, eighteen skins, eight 
adult males, May, 1911. This series presents, I believe, a slight 
difference in color. The males are very rich red on the post- 
ocular and neck patch, while the backs are strongly streaked and 
dark in color. I rather hesitate to mention this, but believe it to 
be a real fact. 

Mount Pleasant, S. C, A. T. Wayne, collector, May, 1911, 
three adult males. 

Warwick Co., Va., H. H. Bailey, collector, May, 1911, Feb., 

1912, eighteen skins, fifteen adult males. 

Brownsville, Tex., Armstrong, collector, 1889, one pair. The 
male shows pure white primaries and secondaries on both sides; 
also some white tail feathers. 

Mt. Carmel, 111., one male, 1878. 

Washington, D. C, 1900, one pair. 

Sing Sing, N. Y., four skins, two males, 1874-1879. 

Princeton, N. J., five skins, three males, 1879. 

Vol. XXXIIl 


Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. 55 

Boston and vicinity, 1878 to recent date, twenty-four skins. 

Boston, 1878, Bangs, collection, two males, Nos. 4746 and 4744. 
Both of these specimens show much chestnut on throat and breast, 
in specimen 4746 practically replacing the black of that region. 

Germany, two males, one female. 

Roumania, eight males. 

Pommern, Prussia, one male, 1871. 

England, eighty-six skins, sixty-six males. Many taken near 
London are very black all over, undoubtedly due to soot. This 
series shows well the characteristic age differences. The older the 
bird, the greyer becomes the pileum, the whiter the cheeks and the 
lighter the abdomen. All the males in immature plumage have an 
olivaceous pileum, approaching the color of the female pileum. 

From the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University of 
California, through the kindness of Mr. Joseph Grinnell, I have 
had the opportunity of examining the following large series : 

Tipton, Tulare Co., Calif., three males, April, 1911. Fine, clean 

Berkeley, Calif., eight skins, seven males, 1909-10, except one 
dated 1892. This series is all soot-colored, especially male 11618 

Raymond, Madero Co., Calif., one male, April 1911. A very 
bright clean skin. 

Oakland, Alameda Co., Calif., two females, Oct., 1908. One a 
partial albino, nearly white on dorsum except for primaries and 

Tower House, Shusta Co., Calif., two males, March, 1911. 

Honolulu, Oaha, June and March, 1910, sixteen males and ten 
females, collected by Miss Alexander. The plumage of this whole 
series has a very bright and clean look, due perhaps to a clean, 
showery climate. There appears to be, however, no essential 
differences either in measurements or color. 

As to the size of specimens from various localities, the table 
(p. 56) will show at a glance all I have been able to learn. / 

It will also be seen from the table that there is little choice in 
size either from single localities or grouped localities such as those 
found in the first part of the table. It is nevertheless apparent 
that sparrows from England are slightly smaller, a fact pointed out 


Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. 



Females & juvenile 























Roumania & 






New England 









West America 









South Atlantic 









Littleton, Col. 









Nampa, Idaho 









Blue Rapids, 





























Marshall Co., 






Mt. Pleasant, 





S. C. 

Warwick Co., 










Denver, Col. 



















by Hartert and noted above. My series from Denver run large, 
while those from Littleton, Colo., are small. New England and 
South Atlantic birds are large, especially three males from Mt. 
Pleasant, S. C, but all these differences are too slight to be of much 
significance. No birds as large as Hartert's maximum have been 

The series lent by the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology was not 
measured individually. 

Townsend and Hardy in 'The Auk' for 1909, p. 78, give some 
measurements for English birds and for recent and early New 
England birds. They notice the smaller size of English birds". 
They also obtained larger measurements for the bills of recent New 

° 1915 J Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. 57 

England birds than for older ones, 13.18 as against 12.64. I think 
this result must be accidental, as I have found no specimens with 
bills as large as 13 mm. It is not necessary to say, perhaps, that 
observers should be careful in comparing their own measurements 
with those of others, for meteods vary a great deal. 

It is not my intention to go into the dispersal of the sparrow in 
America. The map which I constructed from replies to my postal 
cards showed that the bird was present in all county seats through- 
out the entire west which replied to my query, except a few places 
in northern Idaho, northwestern and northeastern Oregon, north- 
western California, and some other scattered localities mostly in 
Nevada and Arizona. The literature teems with notices of the 
arrival of the English Sparrow at different places through the west, 
and a very fair map of its advance during the past twenty years 
could be constructed from this source. I find two notices which 
require special mention. In the 'Ottawa Naturalist' for May,. 
1909, Criddle expresses the opinion that sparrows of eastern 
Canada migrate in part, and that these migrants breed later than 
the local birds. 

Wood (Wilson Bull., XXIII, p. 103) noted at Charity Isle, Lake 
Huron, Oct. 8, 1910, a flock of several hundred P. domesticus, and 
another flock seen a few days before. He states that the bird does 
not breed there. Is it possible that the new environment of the 
English Sparrow will bring about migratory tendencies? One 
would not be inclined to attach much importance to isolated flights 
of sparrows like the above, for they may be due to purely local 

P. domesticus was also introduced about 1885 at Ivigut, Green- 
land, but the colony was said to be diminishing (Auk, 1889, p. 297) . 
It is present also in Bermuda, Cuba and at Nassau. Specimens 
from these places and also from the desert towns of southern Cali- 
fornia would be most interesting for comparison, but I have not so 
far been able to obtain any. 

Bumpus has given us two papers on variation in the English 
Sparrow which should be mentioned, because the second of these, 
'The Elimination of the Unfit as Illustrated by the Introduced 
Sparrow,' (Biol, lectures, 1898) has been quoted as an instance of 
natural selection in active operation. Bumpus' paper is of great 

58 Phillips, Variation in English Sparrows. [jan. 

interest to ornithologists. Briefly, he examined by careful meas- 
urements, 138 sparrows which were picked up during a severe 
storm in February, 1898. 72 of these birds revived while 64 
perished. Those birds which perished showed certain constant 
differences which held through the three following groups, adult 
male, young males, and females. These differences tend to show 
that the surviving birds are shorter, weigh less, have longer wing 
bones, longer legs, longer sternums and greater brain capacity. 
Some of these differences are very slight and some of the measure- 
ments are not the ones that ornithologists might pick out, e. g., 
alar extent and total length; but there seems to be no questioning 
the fact that the data point to a real difference in the two classes of 
birds. Even of greater interest are the figures brought forward in 
regard to extent of variation in these same birds. Those indi- 
viduals with any marked tendency towards maximum and mini- 
mum measurements nearly always fall into the "perished" class, 
and as a group the "survivors" are more uniform and conform 
more closely to the ideal species mean. 

J. A. Harris in the' American Naturalist ' for May, 1911, treated 
Bumpus' figures from a biometrical standpoint and came to the 
conclusion that they had a real significance. J. A. Allen also 
reviewed this paper in ' The Auk.' 

In an earlier paper, (Biol. Lectures, 1898) Bumpus reported the 
study of 1736 sparrow eggs, one half English and the other half 
American. This large series showed that the American eggs had 
become shorter, more spherical, and much more variable in color 
and pattern, and the conclusion is reached that American birds 
have been subject to a slightly changed and perhaps less selective 

It has been stated that albinism in the house sparrow is more 
common here than in the old world, but I do not find any compara- 
tive figures. 

We might expect that an imported species with a successful 
history like the sparrow would show an increase of variability in 
form and color. A well known example of this phenomenon is the 
land snail. Helix nemoralis which introduced from Europe pro- 
duced in a short time a large number of varieties unknown in its 
home. Another case is the snail, Littornia- littoria, which in its 



Grinnell, A New Screech Owl. 59 

new environment (America) took on a greatly increased variability 
of size. 

All we can say in conclusion is that the English Sparrow has 
changed very little in outward appearance and gross measurements 
during his sojourn in America. A careful study of a large series in 
the flesh would probably give results of interest, and perhaps 
demonstrate an increased variability in American specimens. I 
should like to add that sparrow skins from the southwest, from 
Cuba, Bermuda or other isolated points will be most gratefully 
appreciated by the writer. 



(Contribution from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of the University 

of California.) , 

Material representing the genus Otus has been very slow in 
accumulating from California. For some years local systematic 
workers have been of the opinion that two races exist in the region 
west of the desert divides, both being included in the literature 
under the name bendirei. The present writer is at last fortunate 
in having access to a sufficient series of skins to enable him to arrive 
at conclusions; and he is convinced of the desirability of recogniz- 
ing the two races under separate names, though the series is at the 
same time inadequate for working out properly their respective 
geographic ranges. The material for study has been brought 
together from the Morcom, Swarth, Grinnell and Mailliard col- 
lections, and from the California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. 
The latter institution has recently acquired some northern coast 
Screech Owls of particular value in the present connection. 

The two forms here separated belong to the humid coast belt of 
California, and to the more arid southern and interior parts of the 
same state, respectively. Since Scops [= Otus] asio bendirei was 
described (Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vn, January, 1882, p. 

60 Grinnell, A New Screech Owl. [jan. 

31) from Nicasio, Marin County, which is situated in the northern 
humid coast belt, it remains to name the southern race. 

Otus asio quercinus, new subspecies. 

Type. — Male adult, no. 5678, coll. J. G. ; Pasadena, Los Angeles County 
California; April 21, 1904; collected by J. Grinnell. 

Diagnosis. — Characters in general like Otus asio bendirei (see Brewster, 
1. c); differs in paler coloration: Light drab or ashy rather than hazel 
tones prevail dorsally, while beneath the black markings are sharper in 
outline, with very little or none of the ferruginous marginings. The restric- 
tion or absence of ferruginous on the chest, around the facial rim, and on 
the ear-tufts, is a good character. 

Geographical Distribution. — Records of Screech Owls are well dis- 
tributed over California west and north of the southeastern deserts, from 
the Mexican line nearly to the Oregon line. In absence of specimens from 
most of this area, however, it is impossible to fix the boundary lines accu- 
rately or to designate the strips of country where intergradation occurs. 
These can only be inferred, in a general way, from the behavior of better 
known groups of birds. The material at hand divides up as follows: Otus 
asio bendirei: Guerneville, Sonoma County, 1; Freestone, Sonoma County, 
1; Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, 1; San Geronimo, Marin County, 3; 
Nicasio, Marin County, 1; Oakland, Alameda County, 1; Walnut Creek, 
Contra Costa County, 4; Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, 2. Otus asio 
quercinus: west slope Walker Pass, Kern County, 2; Bodfish, Kern County, 
5; vicinity of Santa Monica, Los Angeles County, 2; vicinity of Los 
Angeles, 2; vicinity of Pasadena, 7; Mount Wilson, Los Angeles County, 1; 
Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, 1. 

Remarks. — Birds from the coast belt north of San Francisco Bay 
are most typical of the race bendirei as here restricted. Specimens from 
Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, and Walnut Creek, Contra Costa County, 
show more or less departure towards quercinus. The palest examples of 
the latter form are from Walker Pass, Kern County; but there is still 
plenty of difference between these and Otus asio gilmani, of the Colorado 
River valley. The darkest winter examples of quercinus, from Los Angeles 
County,. are darker than Palo Alto skins; but this darkness consists in 
extension of black and not in a pervasion of warm browns as in Marin and 
Sonoma County bendirei. The latter undoubtedly approach closely to 
Otus asio brewsteri, recently described by Ridgway (Birds N. and Mid. 
Amer., vi, 1914, p. 700). I have a topotype of the latter, from Salem, 
Oregon. This specimen is larger than average bendirei and is decidedly 
more pervaded with ferruginous tints on the posterior lower surface. There 
is thus a series of intergrading forms along the Pacific coast, with Otus asio 
kennicottii at the extreme north, succeeded towards the south by brewsteri, 
bendirei and quercinus. Of these, so far as yet known, only the latter two 
occur within the state. The form gilmani is distinct, there being no evi- 
dence of intergradation between it and quercinus. 



Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 6 1 



The following notes are classified according to political divisions 
and are arranged in chronological order. 


The Turkey was not a widely distributed bird in Canada and 
most of the Jesuit records are outside its confines. In their first 
note they speak of it in a mythical way. They recount how an 
Indian chief of the Tobacco Nation supposedly holds thunder in 
his hand. " This thunder is, by his account, a man like a Turkey- 
cock." l In another way, it enters the repertorie of the medicine 
men. One 2 "carried a Turkey's wing, with which he fanned them 
gravely and at a distance, after having given them something to 
drink." To his disciples or substitutes, "as a token — he left 
them each a Turkey's wing, adding that henceforth their dreams 
would prove true." About Lake Erie (1640), 3 "They have also 
multitudes of wild turkeys, which go in flocks through the fields 
and woods." One hundred years later (1749) in this same region 
Bonnecamp says, 4 " It is at this lake that I saw for the first time the 
wild turkeys. They differ in no way from our domestic turkeys." 

In the Niagara country, Hennepin, in 1698, 5 "saw great numbers 
of — Wild Turkey-Cocks." Between Lakes Erie and Huron 
"Turkey Cocks — are there also very common." And finally, in 
his "Continuation of the New Discovery (p. 130)," he writes 
"There are to be had — Turkies, which are of an extraordinary big- 
ness." Following Hennepin, comes Baron LaHontan (1703) who 

1 Thwaites, R. G. The Jesuit Relations and Other Allied Documents. i610- 
1791. Vol. X, Le Jeune's Relation, 1636, p. 195. 

2 ibid., Vol. XIII (1637), p. 241, 243. 

3 ibid., Vol. XXI (1640-1641), p. 197. 

4 ibid., Vol. LXIX (1710-1756), p. 161. 

6 Hennepin, L. A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America, etc. London, 
1698, pp. 40, 63. 

62 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [j a ^ 

notes along the north coast of Lake Erie, 1 "the great numbers of 
Turkeys, that we were obliged to eat upon the Spot, for fear that 
the heat of the Season would spoil 'em." " Upon the brink of this 
Lake we frequently saw flocks of fifty or sixty Turkey's, which 
run incredibly fast upon the Sands ; And the Savages of our Com- 
pany kill'd great numbers of 'em, which they gave to us in exchange 
for the Fish that we catch'd" Finally, in his list of the birds for 
the South Countries of Canada, he includes the Turkey. In 1760, 
T. JefTerys writes that 2 "turkies .... are found (in Canada), — 
except in the neighbourhood of plantations, where they never 
come." "The History of North America, London, 1776" credits 
(p. 235) Canada with " a great number of ... . turkeys . . . . " In 
1807, Heriot finds "The birds of the southern parts of Canada are 
.... turkeys, . . . . " 3 In 1820, Sansom gives among 4 " the feathered 
game, with which these woods and waters abound in their season, 
.... wild geese,. . . . wild turkies." Fifteen years later, Shireff 
states that 5 " The turkey is found only in the western district (of 
Canada) in limited numbers." "The turkey is said to inhabit this 
district (near the Detroit River) in considerable numbers, and the 
boy who conducted us out of Chatham plains told me he had come 
on a hen and her brood a short time before, but this bird was not 
seen by me." In Canada, Godley says 6 "The only birds which 
remain all the winter — in the west (are) a few wild turkeys." 
At Amherstburgh, Canada, " you have .... wild turkeys." Finally, 
in 1851, Smith (1. c, Vol. II, p. 405) writes of this form as follows: 
" In addition to these, we have the Wild Turkey, which, however, 
is confined to the southwest of the Province; .... The Wild 
Turkey, although the stock from whence our English domestic 
Turkey sprang, is rather difficult to tame, even when taken young 
from the nest, or reared from the eggs, under the fostering care of 
the domestic hen; and unless closely watched, they are apt to 

1 LaHontan, Baron. New Voyages to North America. London 1703. Vol. I, 
pp. 99, 82, 83; Vol. II, p. 237. 

2 Jefferys, T. The Natural and Civil History of the French "Dominions in North 
and South America. London, 1760. Part I, p. 39. 

3 Heriot, George. Travels through the Canadas, etc. London, 1807, p. 516. 

4 Sansom, Joseph. Travel in Lower Canada, .... London, 1820, p. 49. 

6 Shireff, P. A Tour of North America; .... Edinburgh. 1835, pp. 390, 214. 
6 Godley, J. R. Letters from America, .... 2 vols., London, 1844. Vol. I,, 
pp. 247, 248. 

VOl 'l?L5 XI1 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 63 

make their escape, and take to the woods in the following 
spring. The Turkey is naturally a very stupid bird." 

New England. 

In New England, most of the records precede 1800. The first 
note of this region is incidental in its allusion to the turkey. In 
" The Relation of Captain Gosnold's Voyage to the North part of 
Virginia" Gabriel Archer writes that on May 18, 1602, l "one of 
them (Indians) had his face painted over and head stuck with 
feathers in the manner of a turkey cock's train." The first note of 
real interest is Champlain's surmise of its occurrence in New Eng- 
land. In the voyage of 1604 we have the following: 2 " The savages, 
along all these coasts where we have been, say that other birds, 
which are very large, come along when their corn is ripe. They 
imitated for us their cry, which resembles that of the turkey. 
They showed us their feathers in several places, with which they 
feather their arrows, and which they put on their heads for decora- 
tion ; and also a kind of hair which they have under the throat like 
those we have in France, and they say that a red crest falls over 
upon the beak. According to their description, they are as large 
as a bustard, which is a kind of goose, having the neck longer and 
twice as large as with us. All these indications led us to conclude 
that they were turkeys. We should have been very glad to see 
some of these birds, as well as their feathers, for the sake of greater 
certainty. Before seeing their feathers, and the little bunch of 
hair which they have under the throat, and hearing their cry 
imitated, I should have thought that they were certain birds like 
turkeys, which are found in some places in Peru, along the sea- 
shore, eating carrion and other dead things like crows. But these 
are not so large ; nor do they have so long a bill, or a cry like that 
of real turkeys; nor are they good to eat like those which the 
Indians say come in flocks in summer, and at the beginning of 
winter go away to warmer countries, their natural dwelling-plade." 

In "A Description of New England (1616)" John Smith notes 

i Mass. Hist. Soc. CoUs. Third Series. Vol. VIII, 1843, p. 75. 

2 The Prince Society, The Publications of. Vol. 12, 1878, Boston, pp. 88, 89. 

64 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [f^_ 

turkeys. In his " New England Trialls, 2nd edit. 1622 " » he holds 
"no place hath more goose-berries and strawberries, nor better 
Timber of all sorts you have in England, doth cover the Land, that 
afford beasts of divers sorts and great flocks of Turkies, . . . . " In 
his "A Brief Relation of the Discovery and Plantation of New 
England. London 1622" he says, 2 "The country aboundeth with 
diversity of wild fowls as Turkeys, . . . ." In his "History of the 
Plymouth Plantation", Wm. Bradford, the second governor of the 
colony writes 3 " besides water fowle, ther was great store of wild 
Turkies of which they took many" in the fall of 1621. In "New 
Englands Plantation, London, 1630" Francis Higginson says 4 
" Here are likewise abundance of Turkies often killed in the Woods, 
farre greater then our English Turkies, and exceeding fat, sweet 
and fleshy, for here they have aboundance of feeding all the yeere 
long, as Strawberries, in Summer all places are full of them and all 
manner of Berries and Fruits." 

In 1632, the well known "New English Canaan" by Thomas 
Morton appears. 5 " Turkies there are, which divers times in great 
flocks have sallied by our doores; and then a gunne (being com- 
monly in redinesse), salutes them with such a courtesie, as makes 
them take a turne in the Cooke roome. They daunce by the doore 
so well. Of these there hath bin killed that have weighed forty 
eight pounds a peece. They are by mainy degrees sweeter then 
the tame Turkies of England, feede them how you can. I had a 
Salvage who hath taken out his boy in a morning, and they have 
brought home their loades about noone. I have asked them what 
number they found in the woods, who have answered Neent 
Metawna, which is a thousand that day; the plenty of them is 
such in those parts. They are easily killed at rooste, because the 
one being killed, the other sit fast neverthelesse, and this is no bad 
commodity." "They make likewise some Coates of the Feathers 
of Turkies, which they weave together with twine of their owne 
makinge, very pritily:" 

1 Force, Peter. Tracts Relating to America. Vol. II, Washington, 1838, pp. 
16, 14. 

2 Prince Soc. Publ. Vol. 18, 1890, p. 230 (orig. p. 26). 

3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. Fourth Ser. Vol. Ill, 1856, p. 105. 

4 Force, P. Vol. I (1836), p. 10. 
s Force, P. Vol. II, pp. 48, 22. 

° 1915 J Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 65 

Two years later, 1634, William Wood publishes in London his 
"New Englands Prospect" in which appears this curious and 
interesting statement. 1 "The Turky is a very large Bird, of a 
blacke colour, yet white in flesh; much bigger than our English 
Turky. He hath the use of his long legs so ready, that he can runne 
as fast as a Dogge, and flye as well as a Goose : of these sometimes 
there will be forty, three score, and a hundred in a flocke, some- 
times more and sometimes lesse; their feeding is Acornes, Hawes, 
and Berries, some of them get a haunt to frequent our English 
corne; In winter when the Snow covers the ground they resort to 
the Seashore to look for Shrimps, and such smal Fishes at low tides. 
Such as love Turkie hunting, must follow it in winter after a new 
falne Snow, when hee ma}' follow them by ther tracts; some have 
killed ten or a dozen in halfe a day; if they can be found towards 
an evening and watched where they peirch, if one come about ten 
or eleaven of the clocke he may shoote as often as he will, they will 
sit unless they be slenderly wounded. These Turkies remain all 
the yeare long, the price of a good Turkie cocke is foure shillings; 
and he is well worth it, for he may be in weight forty pound ; a Hen 
two shillings." In 1643, Roger Williams in his "Key into the 
Language of America" gives us two notes: The turkey is called 2 
"neyhom." "They (Indians) lay nets on shore, and catch many 
fowls upon the plains, and feeding under oaks upon acorns, as 
geese, turkies. ..." The other statement refers to " Neyhommau- 
shunck: a coat or mantle, curiously made of the fairest feathers of 
their Neyhommauog, or turkies, which commonly their old men 
make, and is with them as velvet with us." In " Good News from 
New England. London 1648 " we find 3 " The Turkies .... and their 
young ones tracing passe." In 1649, John Winthrop publishes his 
" History of New England from 1630 to 1649," and on Oct. 31, 1632, 
he speaks of a party who 4 " came, that evening, to Wessaguscus, 
where they were bountifully entertained, as before with store of 
turkeys . . . . " 
I — 

» Prince Soc. Publ. Vol. I, 1865, p. 32. 

2 Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. First Series. Vol. III. Reprint 1810, Boston, pp. 
219, 225. 

3 Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. 4th Series. Vol. I, p. 202. 

4 Winthrop, John. History of New England .... Edited by James Savage 
2 vols., Boston, 1825. Vol. I, p. 93. 

66 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [j^. 

John Josslyn Gent, already well introduced to ornithologists, in 
1675 presents a strange account. 1 "The Turkie, which is in New 
England a very large Bird, they breed twice or thrice in a year, if 
you would perceive the young Chickens alive, you must give them 
no water, for if they come to have their fill of water they will drop 
away strangely, and you will never be able to rear any of them: 
they are excellent meat, especially a Turkie Capon beyond that, 
for which Eight shillings was given, their Eggs are very wholesome 
and restore decayed nature exceedingly. But the French say they 
breed the Leprosie; the Indesses make Coats of Turkie feathers 
woven for their Children." Not long after, 1680, Wm. Hubbard 
in a "General History of New England" lists 2 "Turkies" among 
the birds of the region. In 1686, John Dutton in " Letters Written 
from New England, London 1705" speaks of the coat of turkey 
feathers. 3 " Within this Coat or Skin they creep very contentedly, 
by day or night in the House or in the Woods, and sleep soundly too, 
counting it a great happiness that every Man is content with his 
skin." The following year, 1687, Richard Blome alludes to this 
garment as follows: 4 The New England Indians "weave curious 
Coats with Turkey feathers for their Children etc." 

In the first part of the next century, we have little appertaining 
to the New England turkey. In 1720, Neal states that 5 "D. C. 
Mather (Phil. Transactions XXIX, p. 64) says, they have wild 

Turkies of 50 or 60 Pound Weight, " In 1741, Oldmixon, holds 6 

" there 's hardly greater Variety and Plenty of Fowl anywhere than 
in New England, as Turkies. ..." In travels made 1759 and 1760, 
Andrew Bernaby finds 7 " The forests abound with plenty of game 
of various kinds; hares, turkies, . . . ." and includes it in his cata- 
logue of birds as "Wild Turkey Gallo Pavo Sylvestris." In 1760, 
Paul Coffin "saw wild Turkey's Feathers here and there" near 

» Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. Third Series. Ill, 1833, p. 277 (orig. p. 99). 

* Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. Second Series. V, 1817, p. 25. 
3 Prince Soc. Publ. Vol. IV, 1867, pp. 224, 225. 

* Blome, Richard. The Present State of His Majesties Isles and Territories 
in America, etc. London, 1687, p. 235. 

6 Neal, Daniel. The History of New England. London, 1720, Vol. II, p. 572. 

* Oldmixon, J. The British Empire in America. 2nd edit. London, 1741. 
Vol. I, p. 186. 

> Bernaby, Rev. Andrew. Travels, etc. 3rd edit. London, 1798, pp. 13, 127. 



Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 6 / 

New Haven. 1 Ten years later, 1770, Wynne claims 2 "New Eng- 
land produces a great variety of fowls ; such as ... . turkies ....." In 
1782, Rev. Samuel Peters (A General History of Connecticut, 1782, 
p. 255) gives turkeys among the feathered tribe in Connecticut. 
Belknap 1792, in N. H. says 3 "Wild Turkies were formerly very 
numerous. In winter they frequented the seashore, for the sake of 
picking small fishes and marine insects which the tide leaves on the 
flats .... They are now retired to the inland mountainous coun- 
try." In 1819, Warden repeats the same for N. H. Williams, in 
his "History of Vermont", just mentions (p. 120) the "Wild 
Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo." Writing in 1807-1808, Edward A. 
Kendall, says the Turkey Mountains, (Connecticut) 4 "have their 
name from the flocks of wild turkeys by which they were formerly 
frequented, but of which none are at present seen." In New 
England, Timothy Dwight records, 8 "Turkies" among "the Land 
Birds principally coveted at the tables of luxury. The Wild- 
Turkey is very large, and very fine: much larger and much finer, 
than those which are tame. They are, however, greatly lessened 
in their numbers, and in the most populous parts of the country 
are not very often seen." Lastly, in 1842, Zadock Thompson 
writes of it as follows: 6 " The Wild Turkey. Meleagris gallo- 
pavo. The Wild Turkey, which was formerly common throughout 
our whole country, has everywhere diminished with the advance- 
ment of the settlements, and is now becoming exceedingly rare in 
all parts of New England, and indeed in all the eastern parts of the 
United States. A few of them, however, continue still to visit 
and breed upon the mountains in the southern part of the state. 
The Domestic Turkey sprung from this species, and was sent from 
Mexico to Spain in the 16th century. It was introduced into 
England in 1524, and into France and other parts of Europe about 
the same time." 

1 Colls. Me. Hist. Soc. First Series. Vol. IV, p. 264. 

4 Wynne, J. H. A General History of the British Empire in America; etc. 
2 vols. London, 1770, vol. I, p. 41. 

3 Belknap, J., 1. c. Vol. Ill, p. 170. 

4 Kendall, Edward A. Travels through the Northern Parts of the United States 
in the Years 1807 and 1S08. 3 vols. N. Y. 1809. Vol. I, p. 219. 

6 Dwight, Timothy. Travels; in New England and New York. 4 vols. 
New Haven, 1821-22. Vol. I, p. 55. 

6 Thompson, Zadock. History of Vermont, Natural Civil and Statistical. 
Burlington, 1842, p. 101. 

68 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [ Jan 

New York. 

Most of the notes come in the seventeenth century in the " Nar- 
ratives of New Netherlands." They begin with John de Laet's 
"The New World" in which (1625) he says that 1 "In winter 
superior turkey cocks are taken ; they are very fat, and their flesh 
is of the best quality." In 1628, a letter of Isaac de Rasieres to 
Samuel Blommaert recounts how 2 " some (Indians have) a cover- 
ing made of turkey feathers which they understand how to knit 
together very oddly, with small strings." In a "Narrative of a 
Journey into the Mohawk and Oneida Country, 1634-1635" the 
travellers 3 " went out to shoot turkeys with the chief, but could not 
get any. In the evening I bought a very fat one for two hands of 
seewan. The chief cooked it for us and the grease he mixed with 
our beans and maize." In the Vocabulary of the Moquas, "Scha- 
wari wane" is "Turkeys." In 1633-1643, David Pietersz De 
Vries finds the New Netherlands 4 " a beautiful place for hunting 
deer, wild turkeys, ..." Again he writes, "I returned home and 
on my way shot a wild turkey weighing over thirty pounds, and 
brought it along with me." Of the Indians, he remarks that 
"They .... wear coats of turkey's feathers, which they know how 
to plait together." He discovers that "Land birds are also very 
numerous, such as wild turkeys, which weigh from thirty to thirty- 
six and forty pounds, and which fly wild, for they can fly one or two 
thousand paces, and then fall down, tired from flying, when they 
are taken by the savages with their hands, who also shoot them 
with bows and arrows." The same author when at Wyngaert's 
Kill 5 " Went out daily, while here, to shoot. Shot many wild 
turkeys, weighing from thirty to thirty six pounds. Their great 
size and very fine flavour are surprising." In the year 1639, 
"They also had this year, great numbers of Turkeys." 

A "Journal of New Netherlands, 1647" gives 6 "The birds which 

i N. Y. Hist. Soc. Colls. Vol. I, 1841, p. 311. 

2 Narratives of New Netherlands, N. Y. 1909, pp. 106, 115. 

3 ibid., pp. 141, 142, 158. 

4 ibid., pp. 209, 215, 217, 221. 

s N Y. Hist. Soc. Colls. New Series. Vol. Ill, 1857, pp. 28, 37, 90. 
« Narratives of New Netherlands, N. Y. 1909, p. 270. 

V0l 'lfl^ XI1 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 69 

are natural to the country are turkeys like ours, . . . . " The Indians 
" go almost naked except a lap .... and on the shoulders a deer-skin 
or a mantle, a fathom square, of woven Turkey feathers . . . ." In 
1644, Johannes Megalopensis in "A Short Sketch of the Mohawk 
Indians" says 1 "There are also many turkies as large as in Holland 
but in some years less than in others. The year before (1641) I 
came here there were so many turkies and deer that came to the 
houses and hog pens to feed and were taken by the Indians with so 
little trouble. In "The Representation of New Netherland, 1650" 
by Adrian van der Donck we find 2 " The other birds found in this 
country are turkies, the same as in the Netherlands, but they are 
wild, and are plentiest and best in winter." and "others (Indians) 
have coats made of ... . turkey's feathers." The same gentleman 
in "A Description of the New Netherlands, Amsterdam 1656" 
calls 3 " The most important fowl of the country, .... the wild turkey. 
They resemble the tame turkeys of the Netherlands. Those birds 
are common in the woods all over the country, and are found in 
large flocks, from twenty to forty in a flock. They are large, heavy 
fat and fine, weighing from twenty to thirty pounds each, and I 
have heard of one that weighed thirty two pounds. When they 
are well cleaned and roasted on a spit, then they are excellent, and 
differ little in taste from the tame turkeys ; but the epicures prefer 
the wild kind. They are best in the fall of the year, when the 
Indians will usually sell a turkey for ten stivers, and with the 
Christians the common price is a daelder each." 

In the "Voyages Of Peter Esprit Radisson" we find that when in 
the Iroquois country (1653) he kills 4 "stagges and a great many 
Tourquies." In 1670, Daniel Denton in "A Brief Description of 
New York" says 5 "Wild Fowl there is great store of as Turkies 
....," and writes that the settler " besides the pleasure in Hunting, 
.... may furnish his house with excellent fat Venison, Turkies . . 
Montanus in his " Description of New Netherlands 1671 " finds 6 

i N. Y. Hist. Soc. Colls. N. S. Vol. IV, 1857, p. 150. 

2 Narratives of New Netherlands, pp. 297, 301. 

3 N. Y. H. S. Colls. N. S. 1841, Vol. I, p. 172. 

4 Prince Soc. Publ. 1885, Vol. 16, p. 66. 

s Bull. Hist. Soc. Pa. Vol. I, 1845-47, pp. 6, 15. 

e Doc. Hist. State New York. Vol. IV, 1851, pp. il8, 125. 

70 Weight, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [jan. 

" turkeys .... are, also easily obtained." " this country particularly 
abounds in turkeys whose number excites no less admiration than 
their rich flavour and their large size; for they go together in flocks 
of thirty and forty; they weigh some thirty or more pounds ; they 
are shot or are caught with a bait concealing the hook." The last 
note in this century is by Jasper Dankers and Peter Sluyter. In 
the fall of 1679, they l "had to go along the shore, finding some fine 
creeks well provided with wild turkeys." Again they "were .... 
served with wild turkey, which was also fat and of a good flavour." 
At the time of the French and Indian War we have two notes. 
In the " Journal of Gen Rufus Putnam kept in Northern New York, 
.... 1757-1760" he states 2 that "on our march in this river (near 
Dutch Hoosack) this day (Feb. 4, 1758) Capt. Learned killed two 
turkeys." On the following day, they " killed another turkey .... 
which we spared for necessity. We encamped this night with sad 
hearts and the countenance of every man shewed he was perplexed 
in mind, in consideration that the turkey was the chief of the pro- 
vision that we had." In Hugh Gibson's Captivity among the 
Delaware Indians, July 1756- Apr. 1759, we find that his captors 
when near Painted Post 3 "killed one turkey." Twenty years 
later, 1779, two other captives, John and Robert Brice, report that 
in their journey to Canada the Indians killed plenty of turkeys 
from Unadilla River to Chemung and Genesee Rivers. 4 In the 
time of Tom Quick, the Indian Slayer, or in the latter part of the 
18th century, we find that 5 " the wild turkey, from which Callicoon 
(N. Y.) derives its name had not yet fled, like the aborigine, to a 
more solitary and secure retreat." The Stockbridge Indian coun- 
try in 1804 is said to have 6 "Of the feathered kinds, turkies." 
The same year, Robert Munro in his Description of the Genesee 
country gives the turkey among the great variety of birds for game 
in this fertile region. 7 

« Journal of a Voyage to New York and a Tour in Several of the American Col- 
onies in 1679-80. Transl. by H. C. Murphy. Brooklyn. 1867, pp. 123, 145. 
» Journal, etc. Edited by E C. Dawes. Albany, N. Y., 1886, p. 53 
» Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. Third Series. Vol. VI, p. 147. • 

* Priest, Jos. Stories of the Revolution. Albany, 1838, p. 5. 

« Tom Quick the Indian Slayer Monticello, N. Y., 1851, p. 225. 

• Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. 1804. Vol. IX, p. 99. 

^ Doc. Hist. New York. Vol. II, 1849, p. 1174 (8vo edition). 

Vol 'i9i6 XI1 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 71 

Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. 

The first note discovered comes in 1634, when Capt. Thomas 
Yong, in his "Voyage to Virginia and Delaware Bay and R.," 
records 1 " an infinite number of ... . turkeys," in the latter region. 
Fourteen years later, 1648, in "A Description of the Province of 
New Albion" Beauchamp Plantagenet describes 2 "The uplands 
(as) covered many moneths with berries, roots chestnuts, walnuts, 
Birch and Oak Mast to feed them, Hogges and Turkeys, 500 in a 
flock,. ..." He repeats the same in several places and finds that 
" Here the Soldier, and Gentlemen wanting employment, .... with 
five hundred Turkeys in a flock got by nets, in stalling get five shil 
a day at least." In 1680, Mahlon Stacy writing to his brother 
Revell says 3 "We have. . . .of. .. .fowls, plenty, as. .. .turkies." 
Three years later, "A Letter from William Penn" holds that 4 
"Of the fowl of the land, there is the turkey, (Forty and fifty 
pounds weight) which is very great." The same year, a letter 
from Pennsylvania by Thomas Paskel mentions that 5 " There are 
here very great quantities of birds. . . . Turkeys (Cocqs dTnde) 
.... (I have bought) for two or three pounds of shot apiece." The 
following year, 1684, "A Collection of Various Pieces concerning 
Pennsylvania," has it that 6 " The woods are supplied with a quantity 
of wild birds, as turkeys of an extraordinary size, . . . . " About the 
same time, Pastorius writes 7 " There is, besides a great abundance 
of wild geese,. . . .turkeys,. ..." "When he first came into the 
country, an Indian promised for a certain price to bring him a wild 
turkey, but instead of that he brought him a snake, and wanted to 
persuade him that it was a real turkey." Towards the close of 
this century, Gabriel Thomas mentions among the fowl of 8 " Sus- 

i Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. Fourth Series, 1871. Vol. IX, p. 130. 

• Force, P. Vol. II, pp. 20, 27. 32, 34, 12. 

3 Raum, J. O. History of New Jersey. Phila., 1877, Vol. I, p. 109. 

4 Proud, Robert. The History of Pennsylvania, etc. Vol. I, 1797, p. 250.' 
' Penn. Mag. Hist, and Biog. Vol. VI, p. 326. 

• ibid., p. 313. 

i Memoirs Hist. Soc. Penn. Vol. IV, 1840, p. 91 (Part II) ; III, p. 117. 

» Thomas, Gabriel. An Historical and Geographic Account of Pensilvania; 
and of West-New Jersey in America. London, 1698. New York, 1848, edit., pp. 
13, 22. 

72 Weight, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [j^ 

kahanah" "Turkies (Of Forty of Fifty Pound Weight)," and lists 
them "among the Land-Fowl." 

Four years later in the next century, 1702, Holm finds 1 "of 
birds and fowls, there are. . . . turkeys, . . . . " The same year, Rev. 
Andreas Sandel tells a funny story of a fox mistaking a hidden man 
for a turkey. 2 In a "Journey from Pennsylvania to Onondaga," 
Conrad Weiser (1737) remarks' 3 the presence of turkeys along the 
trip. Six years later, 1743, John Bartram on a similar journey on 4 
"The 4th (July 1743), set out before day, and stopp'd at Marcus 
Hulin's by Manatony ; then crossed Skuykill, and rode along the 
west side over rich bottoms, after which we ascended the Flying 
Hill, (so called from the great number of Wild Turkeys that used 
to fly from them to the plains)." In 1748 (November), Kalm finds 5 
" The wild Turkeys, .... were in flocks in the woods." In a " General 
State of Pennsylvania between the years 1760 and 1770" 6 occurs 
this significant statement : " wild turkeys, among the winged tribe, 
were formerly very plentifull, but now scarce." In 1765 we find 
that Samuel Smith's " Nova-Caesaria or New Jersey" holds that 7 
"Of these birds there are great plenty: as the wild turkey,. ..." 
During the Sullivan expedition, Lieutenant Wm. Barton when at 
Tunkhannock, Pa., (July 3, 1779) finds 8 "This place very re- 
markable for deer. . . . turkeys, several of which were taken by the 
troops without firing a single gun, there being positive orders to the 
contrary: otherwise might have killed many more during our halt." 
In 1788, John Ettwein in his "Remarks upon the Traditions etc. 
of the Indians of North America" says 9 "Of that hemp (wild 
hemp) they made Twine to knit the Feathers of Turkeys, .... into 
Blankets." In "Indian Names of Rivers, Streams, etc." by 
Maurice C. Jones, Kenzua Cr. Kenjua Cr. (Kentschuak) is said to 

i Memoirs Hist. Soc. Penn. Vol. Ill, 1834, pp. 41, 117. 

* Penn. Mag. Hist, and Biog. Vol. XXX, p. 290. 

8 Penn. Hist. Soc. Colls. Phila. 1853, Vol. I, p. 22. 
4 Observations Made by Mr. John Bartram, etc. London, 1754, p. 9. 
« Kalm, Peter. Travels, etc. Transl. by J. R. Forster. Warrington, 1770, 
Vol. I, p. 290. 

• Proud, R. ibid., Vol. II, p. 263. 

' Smith, Samuel. The History of the Colony of Nova-Caesaria or New Jersey. 
Burlington, N. J., 1765. 2nd. edit. 1877, p. 511. 
8 N. J. Hist. Soc. Proc. Vol. 2, p. 26. 
» Bull. Hist. Soc. Penn. Vol. I, 1845-1847, p. 32. 

° 1915 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 73 

mean l " They gobble (viz wild turkies) The gobbling reply which 
the turkey cock makes to the call of the hen. The place which 
bears the name must have been a favorite place of the turkies." 
Of " Chiknicomika. Chikenecomike or Tschikenumik" it says 
"Place of turkies, where turkies are plenty." In another place, 
it appears " Chickahominy Chikamawhomy (Eng. idiom) Turkey 
lick. Tschikenemahoni (German idiom) Turkey lick, or the lick at 
which the turkies are so plenty. I know several places bearing 
this name for the same reasons. These turkies go there to drink," 
Of this form in Pennsylvania, William Bartram (1. c. pp. 286, 290) 
writes, " These breed and continue the year round in Pennsylvania." 
In the nineteenth century, we have more notes for Pennsylvania 
than for N. Y. or N. E. and doubtless the species held its own longer 
in this state. Thaddeus Mason Harris in 1803, when he reaches 
Laurel Hill, notes that 2 " For more than fifty miles, to the west and 
north, the mountains were burning. This is done by hunters, who 
set fire to the dry leaves and decayed fallen timber in the vallies, 
in order to thin the undergrowth, that they may traverse the woods 
with more ease in the pursuit of game. But they defeat their own 
object: for the fires. . . . destroy the turkies. . . . , at this season en 
their nests, or just leading out their broods." In 1804 (Dec. 20), 
Robert Sutcliffe 3 " came this day to Jersey town where I slept. 
In passing through the woods this afternoon I saw a flock of wild 
turkeys running along the ground." In an "Account of Bucking- 
ham and Solebury, Penn. 1806," Watson remarks 4 "Deer, turkeys 
and other small game made a plenty supply of excellent provision 
in their season." In 1810, F. Cuming (1. c. p. 37) finds that wild 
turkeys "abounds on these mountains" about Strasburg. In the 
same year, Christian Schultz publishes his "Travels." He says, 5 
"I had never seen a wild turkey before I descended this river 
(Alleghany), where I had an opportunity of shooting a great many. 

»ibid., Vol. I, pp. 127, 140, 141. 

2 Harris, T. M. The Journal of a Tour into the Territory Northwest of the 
Alleghany Mountains. Made in the Spring of the Year 1803. Boston, 1805, pp. 
22, 23. 

3 Sutcliffe, R. Travels in Some Parts of North America, in the Years 1804, 
1805, and 1806. Phila., 1812, p. 170. 

4 Mem. Hist. Soc. Penn. Vol. I, 1826, p. 303. 
» Schultz, Christian. Vol. I, p. 122. 

74 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [j^ 

They are very plentiful in this quarter, and considered the largest 
known throughout the western country, many of them weighing 
from thirty to forty pounds, and sometimes so overburthened with 
fat that they fly with difficulty." In 1818, Rev. John Hecke- 
welder's " History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations " 
speaks of the turkey coats. 1 "The feathers, generally those of 
turkey and goose, are so curiously arranged and interwoven to- 
gether with thread and twine, which they prepare from the rind 
or bark of the wild hemp or nettle, that ingenuity and skill cannot 
be denied them. 

Four years later, Wm. H. Blane (1. c. p. 88) when near Smithfield 
on the Youghiogheny River, writes " I observed that two hunters, 
who had just come in with some turkies they had killed, were each 
of them carrying one of the long heavy rifles peculiar to the Ameri- 
cans." In 1832, Mrs. Trollope when at Brownsville, was 2 "re- 
galed luxuriously on wild turkey . . . . " The same year, Vigne 
presents his " Six Months in America." When at Moshanan Creek 
he finds (Vol. I, pp. 88, 89) " The winged game of these forests are 
the wild turkey, which being pursued with avidity by the sports- 
man, is becoming more scarce every day: it is larger than the tame 
turkey and its plumage closely resembles that of the dark-coloured 
domesticated bird, but is rather more brilliant." The third note 
to be presented in 1832 is the rather general account of Hinton. 3 
"The native country of the wild turkey extends from the north- 
western territory of the United States to the Isthmus of Panama. 
In Canada, and the now densely-peopled parts of the United States, 
they were formerly very abundant; but like the Indian and the 
buffalo they have been compelled to yield to the destructive in- 
genuity of the white settlers, often wantonly exercised, and to 
seek refuge in the remotest parts of the interior. On hearing the 
slightest noise, they conceal themselves in the grass, or among 
shrubs, and thus frequently escape the hunter, or the sharp-eyed 
birds of prey: and the sportsman is unable to find them during the 

« Memoirs Hist. Soc. Penn. Vol. XII, 1881, p. 203. 

8 Trollope, Mrs. Domestic Manners of the Americans. 4 edit. London and 
N. Y., p. 162. 

3 Hinton, J. H. The History and Topography of the United States. London, 
1832, 2 vols. Vol. II, p. 177. 

vol. xxxin 


Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 75 

day, unless he has a dog trained for the purpose. When only 
wounded, they quickly disappear, and, accelerating their motion 
by a sort of half flight, run with so much speed that the swiftest 
hunter cannot overtake them. The traveller driving the declivity 
of one of the Alleghanies, may sometimes see several of them before 
him, evincing no desire to get out of the road; but on alighting in 
the hopes of shooting them, he soon finds that all pursuit is vain." 
Finally, in 1843, Maximilian, Prince of Wied, when at Borden- 
town, Penn., says ! " Fans, are, in fact, an article of luxury, and are 
purchased in the towns; they are made of the tail feathers of the 
wild turkey, the crane or the swan, 

Virginia and Maryland. 

These furnish numerous records in the seventeenth century. 
Only one note precedes this period and this occurs in Thomas 
Heriot's " A Briefe and True Relation of the New Found Land of 
Virginia, London, 1588." He gives 2 "Of Foule. Turkie cockes 
and Turkie henncs." The first note of the 17th century is that of 
Master George Percy in his "Observations gathered out of A 
Discourse of the Plantation of the Southern Colonie in Virginia by 
the English 1606" wherein he asserts 3 "We found store of Turkie 
nests and many egges." "A Gentleman of the Colony" (Gabriel 
Archer) in " A relay tion of the Discovery" 4 "founde (1607 May 22) 
a,n Uet, on which were many Turkeys" and later he again writes 
"we come to the Ilet mentyoned which I call Turley He." In 
1612, Captain John Smith in " A Map of Virginia With a Descrip- 
tion of the Countrey " remarks 5 " wilde Turkies as bigge as our 
tame," and finds that the Indian arrows are "headed with .... 
the spurres of a Turkey 

The interesting Wm. Strachey in 1610?-1612? gives us three 
notes. First of all he says, 6 " We have seene some (Indian women) 

i Early Western Travels. XXII, p. 68 (orig. Part I, p. 19.) 
» Heriot, Thomas, etc. Reprint London, 1900, p. 41. 

'Arber, Edward. Capt. John Smith, etc. Works 1608-1631, Eng. Scholars 
Library. No. 16, p. lxvi. 

Mbid., pp. xli, xlii. 

s ibid., pp. 60, 68, 70. 

> Strachey, William. Historie of Travaile into Virginia. Hakluyt Soc. Lon- 
don. 1849, pp. 65, 72, 125. 

76 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [jan. 

use mantells made both of Turkey feathers and other fowle, so 
prettily wrought and woven with threads, that nothing could be 
discerned but the feathers, which were exceeding warme and hand- 
some." In another place, he writes " Nor (do they) bring up tame 
poultry, albeit they have great stoore of turkies, nor keepe birdes, 
squirrels, nor tame partridges, .... In March and April they live 
much upon their weeres, and feed on fish, turkies . . . . " Finally 
comes a more general statement. "Turkeys there be great store, 
wild in the woods, like phesants in England, forty in a company, 
as big as our tame here, and it is an excellent fowle, and so passing 
good meat, as I maye well saie, it is the best of any kind of flesh 
which I have ever yet eaten there." In "A True Declaration of 
the Estate of the Colonie in Virginia, .... London, 1610" we have 
the following : l " The Turkeye of that Countrie are great, and fat, 
and exceeding in plentie." In 1613, Alex. Whitaker says 2 "The 
woods be everywhere full of wilde Turkies, which abound, and will 
runne as swift as a Greyhound." In 1614, Ralph Hamor, in the 
same country, finds 3 " There are fowle of divers sorts, .... wild 
Turkeyes much bigger then our English Cranes." Four years 
later, 1618, in "Newes of Sr. Walter Rauleigh . . . ." there appears 4 
"you shall not sleepe on the groun nor eat any new flesh till it be 
salted, two or three hours, which otherwise, will breed a most 
dangerous fluxe, so will the eating of .... Turkies." A "Briefe 
Intelligence from Virginia by Letters, etc., 1624," "Virginias 
Verger 1625," and "Some later Advertisements touching His 
Majesties Care for Virginia 1624" — all three remark 5 the abun- 
dance of turkeys in Virginia. 

In 1631, Henry Fleet, Early Indian Trader notes that 6 "the 
woods (above Washington) do swarm with "turkeys. Three 
years later, Father Andrew White in "A Briefe Relation of the 
Voyage into Maryland" observes 7 "Their weapons are a bow and 

« Force, P. Vol. Ill, p. 13. 

2 Hakluyt Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes. By Samuel Purchas. Hak- 
luyt Soc. Extra Series Glasgow 1905-1907. Vol. 19, p. 115. 

3 ibid., Vol. 19, p. 97. 

4 Force, P. Vol. Ill, p. 17. 

s Hakluyt Posthumus. Vol. 19, p. 209, Vol. 20, p. 134. 

« Neill, Rev. E. D., Founders of Maryland. Albany, 1876, p. 27. 

7 Narratives of Early Maryland. 1633-1684. N. Y., 1910, pp. 34, 43, 44. 

° 1915 J Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 77 

a bundle of arrowes, an ell long, feathered with turkies feathers." 
These Indians "daily catch .... turkies, . . . . " and "the poore 
soules are daily with us and bring us turkie, . . . . " In " An 
Account of the Colony of the Lord Baron of Baltimore, 1633 " the 
author writes that 1 " There are also great quantities of wild tur- 
keys, which are twice as large as our tame and domestic ones . . . . " 
About the same time, "A Relation of Maryland" records that 2 
"they (at Yoacomaco) went dayly to hunt with them for Deere 
and Turkies, whereff some gave them for Presents, and the 
meaner sort would sell to them for knives, beades and the like." 
"Of Birds" it relates that "there is .... also wild Turkeys in 
great abundance whereof many weigh 50 pounds and upwards." 
In this period, another relator holds that 3 " every day they are 
abroad after .... turkies and the like game : whereof there is a 
wonderful plenty." In another instance, he recounts how the 
modest Indian women brought turkies to the homes of the settlers. 
About 15 years afterwards, in "A Perfect Description of Virginia 
. . . . " there appears a note concerning 4 " Wild Turkies, some weigh- 
ing sixtie pound weight." In 1650, Edward Williams publishes 
the second edition of his "Virginia" wherein he mentions 5 "in- 
finites of wilde Turkeyes, which have been known to weigh fifty- 
pound weight, ordinarily forty," and in comparing Virginia with 
China, he exclaims, " Let her shew us Turkies of 50 pound weight." 
Six years later, 1656, "Leah and Rachel" appears. Hammond, 
its author, claims 6 " wild Turkeys are frequent, and so large that 
I have seen some weigh neer threescore pounds." Ten years 
later, George Alsop, in describing the " Character of the Province 
of Maryland" notes 7 "especially the Turkey, whom I have seen 
in whole hundreds in flights in the Woods of Mary-Land, being an 
extraordinary fat Fowl, whose flesh is very pleasant and sweet." 
Shortly after, 1669, Nathaniel Shrigley enumerates 8 "Turkies" 

i ibid., p. 10. 

2 ibid., pp. 75,80, 98. 

a Shea's Early Southern Tracts. No. I, pp. 16, 18. 

* Force, P. Vol. II, pp. 17, 3. 

s Force, P. Vol. Ill, pp. 12, 21. 

« Force, P. Vol. Ill, p. 13. 

7 Narratives of Early Maryland, pp. 347, 357. 

» Force, P. Vol. Ill, p. 4. 


78 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [j an 

among the "Fowle naturally to the Land." In 1688, Mr. John 
Clayton the Botanist, communicates to the Royal Society the 
following : 1 " Ther be wild Turkies extream large ; they talk of 
Turkies that have been kill'd, that have weighed betwixt 50 and 
60 Pound weight; the largest that I ever saw, weigh'd someting 
better than 38 Pound; they have very long Legs, and will run 
prodigiously fast. I remember not that ever I saw any of them 
on the Wing, except it were once. Their Feathers are of a blackish 
shining Colour, that in the Sun shine like a Dove's neck, very 
specious." The year previous, 1687, Richard Blome (1. c. p. 189) 
holds, "They have great plenty of Fowl: as wild Turkeys, which 
usually weigh six Stone, or forty eight pound;" Finally, in "The 
Social Life of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century," P. A. Bruce 
(1. c. pp. 212, 167) writes as follows: "As the area of cultivated 
ground grew wider, the number of partridges steadily increased in 
consequence of their being able to find a larger supply of food. 
On the other hand, the number of wild turkeys perhaps as steadily 
diminished within the same area, as the turkey is distinctly a forest 
bird, that is very shy of human habitations." "The wild turkeys 
frequenting the woods were of remarkable weight and afforded a 
popular repast." 

In the eighteenth century, the records number fourteen or 
fifteen. In 1705, Robert Beverley in his "History and Present 
State of Virginia. London" (book III, p. 60) writes that "They 
(Indian) fledged their Arrows with Turkey Feathers, which they 
fastened with Glue etc., — they also headed them with the Spurs of 
the Wild Turkey-Cock." In 1708, Eben Cook, in burlesque 
verse, remarks its presence in Maryland and adds a footnote that 2 
" Wild turkies are very good Meat, and prodigiously large in Mary- 
land." In the " History of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and 
North Carolina" William Byrd (1728) mentions a dozen or more 
instances where wild turkeys help to supply the larder. On Sept. 
23, he says 3 " Our hunters brought us four wild turkeys, which at 

i Force, P. Vol. Ill, p. 30. 

2 Sheas Early Southern Tracts. No. II. The Sotweed Factor. London, 1708, 
pp. 19, 20. 

> The Westover Manuscripts. Petersburg, Va., 1841, pp. 39, 45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 
52, 54, 64, 69, 76, 78, 80. 

Vol. XXXIIl 


Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 79 

that season began to be fat and very delicious especially the hens. 
These birds seem to be of the bustard kind, and fly heavily. Some 
of them are exceedingly large, and weigh upwards of forty pounds ; 
nay, some bold historians venture to say, upwards of fifty pounds. 
They run very fast, stretching forth their wings all the time, like 
the ostrich, by way of sails to quicken their speed. They roost 
commonly upon very high trees, standing near some river or creek, 
and are so stupified at the sight of fire, that if you make a blaze in 
the night near the place where they roost, you may fire upon them 
several times successively, before they will dare to fly away. Their 
spurs are so sharp and strong, that the Indians used formerly to 
point their arrows with them, though now they point them with a 
sharp white stone. In the spring the turkey-cocks begin to gobble, 
which is the language wherein they make love." In another place, 
he mentions the attitude of Indians towards mixing meats in the 
same dish. " Our men killed a very fat buck and several turkeys. 
These two kinds of meat they boiled together, with the addition of 
a little rice or French barley, made excellent soup, and what hap- 
pens rarely in other good things, it never cloyed, no more than an 
engaging wife would do, by being a constant dish. Our Indian 
was very superstitious in this matter, and told us, with a face full 
of concern, that if we continued to boil venison and turkey together, 
we should for the future kill nothing, because the spirit that pre- 
sided over the woods would drive all the game out of our sight." 
"The Indian likewise shot a wild turkey, but confessed he would 
not bring it us lest we should continue to provoke the guardian 
of the forest, by cooking the beasts of the field and the birds of the 
air together in one vessel. ..." Of this same practice, " A Journey 
to the Land of Eden 1733 " gives us the following: ! " It was strange 
we met with no wild turkeys (Morris' Creek near Banister River) , 
this being the season in which great numbers of them used to be 
seen towards the mountains. They commonly perched on the 
high trees near the rivers and creeks. But this voyage, to our 
great misfortune, there were none to be found. So that we could 
not commit that abomination, in the sight of Indians, of mining the 
flesh of deer and turkeys in our broth." 

1 The Westover Manuscripts, p. 108. 

80 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [j an . 

In a Letter written March 21, 1739, John Clayton of Gloucester 
Co., Va. writes 1 of "Virginia Game and Field Sports." "Then 
for fowls (there are) wild Turkey's very numerous" and in another 
place he contends that "the diversion of shooting Turkies is only 
to be had in the upper parts of the Countrey where the woods are 
of a very large extent, and but few settlements as yet tho' they 
increase daily." Two years later, Oldmixon (1. c. p. 445) remarks, 
"There's great variety of wild Fowl, as Swans. . . .Curlews. . . . ; 
and which is best of all of them, wild Turkies, much larger than our 
tame; they are in season all the Year. The Virginians have 
several ingenious Devices to take them; among others, a Trap, 
wherein 16 or 17 have been caught at a time." 

In 1765, Rogers states that the colonists in Maryland, 2 "in their 
infant state. . . .were greatly assisted by them (Indians) receiving 
.... plentiful supplies of . . . . turkies." Of the period from 1763 to 
1783, Jos. Doddridge remarks that, 3 "The wild Turkeys which used 
to be so abundant as to supply no inconsiderable portion of provision 
for the first settlers, are now rarely seen." In his "Travels in 
North America" Chastellux notes 4 the wild turkey only in Vir- 
ginia. In "Notes of the State of Virginia" written in 1781, Thos. 
Jefferson merely lists (p. 99) "Meleagris Gallopavo. Gallapavo 
sylvestris. Wild Turkey " for the state. About this same period, 
J. F. D. Smyth records 8 " a great abundance of game, such as. . . . 
wild turkeys," in Pitsylvania Co., Va. At Wart Mt., when he and 
a young backwoodsman returned, they " brought a fine wild turkey 
which he had shot : and he carried it along with us in order to dress 
for supper where we should halt at night." On Little River, 
" Here we killed another wild turkey and dressed it for supper as 
before; indeed they were so numerous that we could have easily 
subsisted a company of men upon them, and might kill almost 
any number we pleased." Finally, in "A Topographical Descrip- 

i The Virginia Magazine. Vol. VII, Oct. 1899. No. 2, pp. 173, 174. 
! Rogers, Major Robert. A Concise Account of North America. London, 
1765, p. 88. 

3 Doddridge, Rev. Dr. Jos. Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars of the 
Western Parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the year 1763 until the year 
1783 inclusive, etc. Wellsburg, Va., 1824, p. 69. 

4 Chastellux, Marquis de. Travels .... Translation N. Y., 1828, p. 251. 

6 Smyth, J. F. D. A Tour in the United States of America. London, 1784, 
2 vols. Vol. I, pp. 289, 309, 311. 

° 1915 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 81 

tion of the County of Prince George in Virginia 1793" John Jones 
Spoon er presents the last note of the century. 1 " The woods afford 
wild turkies." 

In the next century, John Woods remarks of Pews Town, Va. 
that 2 " We were told .... turkeys .... were plentiful in many places, 
but we had not seen any." Three years later, Blane, (1. c. pp. 84, 
86, 87, 88, 106) in a journey across the Alleghanies along the road 
from Hagerstown to Cumberland, remarks (1822-23) that "These 
mountains abound with such game as deer, wild turkies...." 
From Cumberland to Wheeling " Wild Turkies .... are uncommonly 
plentiful in these mountains, owing to the rocky nature of the 
ground, which will in all probabilities prevent its being cultivated 
for centuries," and in this region he holds that the presence of 
rattlesnakes deters hunters from hunting turkies. Finally, at 
Blue Lick he finds, "The neighbourhood, however, abounds in 
deer and wild turkeys, which afford excellent sport for a hunter." 
In 1824, Candler, in "A Summary View of America," (p. 79) 
remarks that "Turkies are very common." He may be speaking 
of the domestic form. In discussing the " Physical Geography of 
Maryland" J. T. Ducatel says 3 "The eastern flank of South moun- 
tain (valley of Middletown) ... .is the retreat of large gangs of wild 
turkey (Meleagris gallapavo) . . . . " In 1842, J. S. Buckingham, in 
speaking of Virginia, says 4 " These potatoes and the turkeys, of 
which Virginia furnished also the first supply to Britain, have 
neither of them degenerated in this state, from their ancient and 
original stock." In 1879, J. T. Scharf publishes his "History of 
Maryland" in which he asserts that 5 "In the 'backwoods,' the 
wild turkeys and deer abounded in great numbers; deer and wild 
turkeys were still shot on the Patapsco at Ellicotts Mills as late as 
1773 and no man's larder needed to be empty at any time." 

> Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls. Vol. Ill, 1794, p. 86. 

2 Early Western Travels. X, p. 205 (orig. p. 48). 

3 Transactions Md. Acad. Sci. and Lit. Vol. I, Baltimore, 1837, p. 40. 

4 Buckingham, J. S. The Slave States of America, London, 1842. ^ 2 vols. 
Vol. II, p. 286. 

6 Scharf, J. T. Vol. II, pp. 8, 4. 

82 Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. [jan. 



Plates VII-X. 

At the meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union held in 
New York City, in the fall of 1913, a number of members were 
discussing the rarity of the Trumpeter Swan; the general opinion 
being that this magnificent bird was nearing extinction ; and would 
soon disappear forever. 

During the ensuing winter, upon looking up the literature on the 
subject, I was surprised to find how little was known about this 
bird; many writers simply repeating Dr. Richardson's remarks in 
his original description. I determined to gather together the 
published records of the bird and ascertain as nearly as possible 
how many specimens are extant. 

In the present paper I have brought together many facts from 
various sources, including information gleaned through correspond- 
ence with curators of museums, and private collectors. Of the 
eighty-five replies received in response to my inquiries, sixty-three 
from museums having 1,000 or more birds, reported "No specimens 
of the Trumpeter Swan in our collection." Of the remaining 
twenty-two replies, eight were from museums and five from col- 
lectors, who have specimens; while nine contained interesting in- 
formation about the species. 

It was not until 1831 that the discovery was made by Dr. John 
Richardson of the existence of a new species of swan in North 
America (Fauna Boreali Americana, by William Swainson and John 
Richardson, London, 1831). Up to that time the thousands of 
swan skins that were shipped, through the Hudson Bay Company, 
were thought to be all of one kind — Olor columbianus. In Dr. 
Richardson's original description of Cygnus buccinator we find: 
"Special characters; white; head glossed above with chestnut; 
bill entirely black; without a tubercle; tail feathers 24; feet black. 
This is the most common swan in the interior of the fur countries. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate VII. 

Male Trumpeter Swan (Olor bticci?iator)\ 
Collection of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

1915 J Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. 83 

It breeds as far south as latitude 61°; but principally within the 
Arctic Circle . . . . " The type of the species is a mounted bird in 
the Hudson Bay Museum. It measures length 70 inches; tail 9.6 
inches, wing 26 in., bill above 4.11 in., nostril to tip 2.7 in., tip of 
bill to eye 6 in., mid. toe 6.9 in. 

Lawson observes (History of North Carolina, 1831.) "There 
are two sorts of swans in Carolina, the larger of which is called from 
its note the Trumpeter," and Hearne adds, " I have heard them in 
serene evenings, after sunset, make a noise not very unlike a French 
horn, but entirely divested of every note that constitutes melody, 
and have often been sorry that it did not forbode its death." 

At the annual meeting of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
May 17, 1843, Dr. Wyman "Exhibited the sternum of a male 
Trumpeter Swan. The keel of the breast bone contains a remark- 
able cavity extending its whole length designed to receive the 
trachea It only exists in the male." 

Preble (North American Fauna No. 27) says: "McFarlane 
states that between 1853 and 1877 the Hudson Bay Company sold 
a total of 17,671 swan skins. The number sold annually ranged 
from 1312 in 1854 to 122 in 1881 ", and Nuttall is quoted as saying 
that the Trumpeter Swan furnished the bulk of them." 

Dr. Suckley remarks (Pacific R. R. Rep., Vol. XII, 1853-5): 
" I obtained a fine Trumpeter Swan on Pike's Lake, Minnesota, in 
June 1853. They were quite common on the lakes in that vicinity 
in the Summer, breeding and raising their young." 

Baird (Pacific R. R. Rep., Vol. IX, 1858) says that it ranges over 
" Western America from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific " ; and 
remarks "this large and powerful swan doubtless has special ana- 
tomical peculiarities of trachea to distinguish it from C. americanus, 
as the note is much more sonorous." 

McFarlane (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIV, 1861, 66) says: "Sev- 
eral nests were met with on the barren grounds on Islands in 
Franklin Bay; one containing six eggs was situated on the beach 
on a sloping knoll. It generally lays 4 to 6 eggs." 

At a meeting of Linnean Society of London, March 20, 1832 
(Proc. Linnaean Society, p. 2) William Yarrell called attention to 
the peculiar anatomy of this swan — "I am indebted to Dr. 
Richardson for an example of the sternum and trachea of a new 

84 Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. [f^ 

species of wild swan, Cygnus buccinator .... The trachea is 
made up of narrow bony rings and small intervening membranous 
spaces as far as the first convolution within the breast bone, but the 
returning portion of the tube, forming a second convolution is com- 
posed of broader and stronger bony rings with broader intervals." 

The course of the trachea may easily be traced by consulting 
Plate IX. 

After traversing the neck it enters the lower part of the cavity 
on the anterior face of the sternum at "A," thence follows back- 
wards through the horizontal covered protuberance in the upper 
surface of the sternum, a distance of eight inches to near the poste- 
rior line "B.," taking the curve of the cavity it comes forward six 
inches and rises into the vertical bony protuberance, " C," follow- 
ing its curve, thence downward, and emerges through the upper part 
of the opening in the sternum, dips below the bridge of the "wish 
bone" and curving backward between the shoulder blades, "D" 
(obscured in the picture) enters the breast, where at its junction 
with the bronchise " E. " it is flattened vertically to an eighth of an 
inch in width. The total length of the structure shown is 13.5 in., 
length of trachea 59 in., length of keel of sternum 11 in., opening 
| in. wide, 2\ in. high. 

In Olor columbianus the cavity is in the anterior portion of the 
sternum only, the trachea making but one convolution, which is in 
the vertical (not horizontal, as some authors state) protuberance 

Plate X shows the anterior aspect of the sternum with the 
trachea entering the cavity below, and emerging above. I am 
indebted to Dr. C. W. Richmond for the loan of this sternum 
from the U. S. National Museum Collection. 

Stejneger, (Vol. V, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1882) outlines a 
monograph of the Cygninae, and on p. 216 gives a table of measure- 
ments of ten specimens, with remarks; "The position of the nos- 
trils being set more backwards in the Trumpeter than in the 
Whistling Swan, is thus the only mark which is possible to express 
in a short diagnosus, and which I have found constant and easily 

Baird, Brewer and Ridgway (Vol. 1, Water Birds of N. America, 
1884), give an interesting description of the habits of the Trumpeter; 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate VIII. 

Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator) . 
1. Head of mounted specimen in Chicago Academy (see Plate VII). 
2 and 3. Adult male, North Dakota. Collection of H. K. Coale, No. 
17779, showing outline of bill. 

- 1915 ] Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. 85 

among other notes, " Mr. W. E. Rice found a nest at Oakland Valley, 
Iowa, in the Spring of 1871 and took three of the young which were 
successfully raised. The eggs are of a uniform chalky white color, 
and are rough granulated on the surface. They measure 4.35 to 
4.65 in length, and 2.65 to 2.90 in width." 

A number of notes have appeared in the ' Nuttall Bulletin ' and 
'The Auk'. 

J. J. Dalgleish (Bull. Nuttall Orn. Club, 1880, Vol. V) mentions 
the occurrence of Cygnus buccinator in Great Britain : " Five seen, 
four shot, Adelburg, Suffolk, Oct. 27, 1866, one of these specimens 
has been examined by J. H. Gurney." 

H. Nehrling (Bull. N. O. C, Vol. VII, 1882) says, "Every winter 
there are large numbers on Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, 
near the coast." 

W. W. Cooke (Auk, Vol. I, 1884) gives the "Chippewa Indian 
name ' Wabisi' (White bird)." 

A. W. Anthony (Auk, Vol. Ill, 1886) says that it is "Found in 
large numbers on the Columbia River." 

B. W. Evermann (Auk, Vol. Ill, 1886) says for Ventura, Cal., 
"Winter Visitant with the preceding species (0. americanus) but 
more common." 

Albert Lano (Auk, Vol. XIII, 1896) speaking of western Minne- 
sota says: "Some of the oldest sportsmen tell me that they have 
observed this swan quite regularly on Lac qui parle during the 
Spring and Fall migrations. A beautiful adult male now in my 
collection, shot near here (Madison, Minn.) April 9, 1893, weighed 
15 lbs. but it was not fat. It measured: length 51 in., extent 77 
in., wing 28 in., tail 7 in." 

E. A. Mcllhenny (Auk, Vol. XIV, 1897) says for Louisiana, 
" known as " Cygne," a winter resident on the coast; more common 
than the preceding (0. columbianus) ." 

J. H. Fleming, for Toronto, Ontario (Auk, Vol. XXIII, 1906), 
"There are no recent records, but Prof. Hincks described in 1864 
a new swan, "Cygnus passmori" taken here, which was really a 
young Trumpeter and between 1863 and 1866 he was able to get 
six local birds to examine. There are two specimens in the collec- 
tion of Trinity University that were no doubt taken here." (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. 1864.) 

86 Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. [ Jan 

Beyer, Allison and Kopman in their Birds of Louisiana (Auk, 
Vol. XXIV, 1907), " In the past this species has proved commoner 
than the preceding (C. americanus) especially about the mouth of 
the Mississippi." 

J. Claire Wood (Auk, Vol. XXV, 1908) reports for Michigan, 
"One specimen in the City market in Nov. 1893, was taken near 
Wind Mill Point, Lake St. Clair, according to the statement of 
Thomas Swan." 

In E. H. Eaton's 'Birds of New York' (1909), he illustrates the 
bills of both swans, side and top view, showing the difference in 
shape, and position of the nostrils. He remarks, "I have been 
unable to find any New York specimen of this swan." 

McCoun's 'Catalogue of Canadian Birds' (1909) records: "A 
pair found breeding at Buffalo Lake, Alberta, Apr. 7, 1891, nest 
contained 5 eggs." 

Audubon in his ' Birds of America,' devotes seven pages to the 
Trumpeter Swan, giving a very complete and interesting history 
of its movements and habits, from personal observation of the birds 
on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and at New Orleans. He also 
illustrates the adult, and the young about two thirds grown, drawn 
from nature, showing it in slaty bluish plumage, head light brown, 
and legs yellowish brown. 

E. W. Nelson (Report of Nat. Hist. Survey made in Alaska 1887) 
says: "a specimen of this little known swan is noted by Dall as 
having been secured with its nest and eggs at Fort Yukon by Mr. 
Lockhart, thus rendering it an Alaskan species." 

Elliott Coues (Birds of the North West) says : " Chiefly from the 
Mississippi Valley and northward to the Pacific, Hudson's Bay, 
Canada, etc." 

R. M. Anderson in ' Birds of Iowa ' (Proc. Davenport Academy 
of Sciences, 1907) says: "The only definite breeding record which 
I have been able to trace is from the veteran collector, J. W. Pres- 
ton, in a letter dated March 22, 1904 . . . . ' a pair of Trumpeter 
swans reared a brood of young in a slough near Little Twin Lakes, 
Hancock Co., in the season of 1883. This was positively Olor 

W. C. Knight in his 'Birds of Wyoming' gives two or three 
records, the last being a bird taken by Mr. Van Dyke, at Lake De 
Smet in the Spring of 1897. 

19X5 J Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. 87 

One of the most interesting replies to my inquiries is from Mr. 
E. S. Cameron of Marsh, Montana (April 30, 1914). He writes: 
"Twenty years ago Trumpeter Swans were common in Montana, 
and used regularly to winter here, but are now on the verge of ex- 
tinction. It is generally stated by the Kootenai Indians that they 
bred in the Flathead Valley up to the first immigration of whites in 
1886; but the latest positive record of Trumpeters nesting is in 
1881. These swans nested at Lake Rodgers, 20 miles west of 
Kalispell, at Swan Lake, and on the east side of Flathead Lake, 
and on the lakes which drain Clearwater, a branch of the Big 
Blackfoot River. An adult male Trumpeter was shot at the mouth 
of Flathead River, Nov. 16, 1910. It weighed 31 pounds. Another 
similar bird was killed by an Indian on St. Mary's Lake in the fall of 
1912. This was the largest Trumpeter ever killed in Montana, and 
would have approached, if it did not equal, Audubon's record bird 
of 38 pounds in weight. A young female Trumpeter under two 
years old, weight 20 pounds full, was shot at Cut Bank, Teton Co., 
on Nov. 10, 1913." 

Mr. C. W. Beebe records seventeen specimens as having been in 
the New York Zoological Park from 1899 to 1910, "three from 
Idaho, six from Salt Lake City, one from Lewiston, Maine (Nov. 
25, 1901, found exhausted) and seven without data. At present 
one survives." 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Frank C. Baker of the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences I am able to give measurements of the fine 
mounted Trumpeter in the Academy Museum (Plate VII). It is 
an adult male and was shot on the Columbia River, three miles 
west of Portland, Oregon, April 8, 1881. The bird is pure white, 
except the forehead and crown which are washed with rusty color. 
It stands 44 inches high. The wing measures 26 inches, tail of 24 
feathers 9.5 in., tarsus 4.5 in., middle tcl. 7 in., eye to tip of bill 
5.25 in., nostril to tip of bill 2 in. 

A Whistling Swan in the same collection measured for compari- 
son, gives wing, 22 in., tail 9 in., eye to tip of bill 4.4 in., tarsus 
4 in., mid. tcl. 6.5 inc., nostril to tip of bill 1.5 in. 

The Field Museum of Natural History, has three young Trumpe- 
ters from one to two and one half years old, presented by Judge 
R. M. Barnes, who had them alive. They are without data. 

88 Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. [j^. 

The U. S. National Museum has seven skins and one mounted 
specimen. Those with data are: 

No. 5476 cf. Yellowstone, Wyo., Aug. 22, 1856, F. V. Hayden. 
" 19963 Ad. Fort Resolution, Can., May 24, 1860, R. Kennicott. 
" 62367 Ad. cf . Snake River, Ida., Sept. 23, 1873, Dr. C. H. 

" 70317 Ad. d\ St. Clair Flats, Mich., Nov. 20, 1875, W. H. 
No. 81290 Ad. d" . Lake Koshkonong, Wis., Apr. 20, 1880, Thure" 

Another Wisconsin record is an adult male hanging as "dead 
game " in a local billiard hall in Chicago. It was shot in Waukesha 
Co. in February, 1904, by Dr. F. S. Crocker. 

The only Mexican record, is a specimen in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology at Cambridge, which was shot by F. B. Armstrong 
at Matamoras, Tamaulipas, Mexico, January 21, 1909 (see Phillips, 
Auk, Vol. X. p. 72). No. 49836, 9 . "There is also in the mu- 
seum an adult (mounted), from the Greene Smith collection, and a 
chick labeled 0. buccinator, with no data" (Bangs — letter June, 

In the Government Museum, Banff, Alta., Can., Dr. N. B. 
Sanson, states that there is "One specimen from Manitoba, 1887." 

From the Public Museum of Milwaukee, Director Henry L. 
Ward, writes : " Our only specimen was received from the Wisconsin 
Natural History Society, with no data except "Wisconsin." 

Prof. R. M. Bagg, Lawrence College, Appleton, Wis., has kindly 
sent me photos of two mounted specimens in the museum, which 
have no data. 

Prof. Lynds Jones, Oberlin College, Ohio, writes: "There is a 
specimen in the collection received from J. C. Catlin, late of Ra- 
venna, Ohio, about which it is stated that it was collected there- 
abouts in the '80s." 

P. A. Taverner, Government Survey Museum, Ottawa, Can., 
writes: "We have but one specimen in the Museum, a mounted 
bird, killed on the St. Clair Flats in 1884. 

Mr. J. H. Fleming of Toronto, writes, " I have one Trumpeter 
Swan, shot about 1878 on Lake St. Clair, on the Toronto side." 

Dr. H. H. Brimley, Curator State Museum, Raleigh, N. C, 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate IX. 

Trachea and Sternum of Male Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator). 
Shown in skin on Plate VIII. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate X. 

Anterior View of Sternum of Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator). 
U. S. National Museum Collection 

° 1915 ] Coale, The Trumpeter Swan. 89 

reports: "So far as I know the Trumpeter Swan has never been 
taken in this state, though the Whistling Swan is quite plentiful 
on Carrituck Sound in winter. I saw hundreds if not thousands of 
them in January, 1914." 

Prof. Wm. C. Mills, Curator Museum of the Archaeological and 
Historical Society of Ohio, at Columbus, states : " We have in our 
collection a great many bones of the Trumpeter Swan. It seems 
that this bird, although a very rare migrant at the present time, 
was here in great numbers in pre-historic time, and we find their 
bones in the villages of the old Indians, who always used the leg 
bones for making implements, while the wing bones were seldom 
used. I found specimens in the Baum, Bartner and Madisonville 
village sites." 

Dr. Joseph Grinnell, states that he has "no knowledge of its 
occurrence in California in recent years : in fact I know of no speci- 
mens in any California collection." 

Mr. F. C. Lincoln, Colorado Museum of Natural History at 
Denver, says : " It can only be considered a straggler in Colorado. 
The one mentioned by W. L. Sclater in his 'Birds of Colorado' 
as a representative of this form, is a Whistling Swan." 

Dr. L. B. Bishop, New Haven, Conn., writes: "The only Trum- 
peter in my collection is an adult male, shot at upper Stillwater 
Lake, Mont., March 11, 1902, No. 25378 of my collection. It was 
bought for me by Mr. E. S. Cameron of the owner, Miss G. M. 
Duncan of Whitefish, Mont." 

Dr. Leonard C. Sanford, New Haven, Conn., writes: "I have in 
my collection three Trumpeter Swans which I purchased as young 
birds from a dealer, who got them from Montana, but declined to 
give me the exact locality. They are positively identified by 
Chapman and Hornaday." 

Mr. John E. Thayer, Lancaster, Mass., writes: "I bought a pair 
of live Trumpeter Swans three years ago, that were taken from the 
nest in Montana. The male died last autumn and I had him made 
into a skin. I have a magnificent mounted specimen that a friend 
gave me, but he did not know where it came from. I think it is 
one of the rarest." 

It was my good fortune to procure from Mr. Charles Dury, the 
veteran taxidermist of Cincinnati, a beautifully prepared skin of the 

90 Coalb, The Trumpeter Swan. [j^ 

Trumpeter, together with the sternum and trachea shown in plate. 
The bird was taken in North Dakota in Nov., 1891. Mr. Dury 
informs me that there is a mounted pair in the museum of the Cuvier 
Club, one of which, the male, was shot from a flock of three, on the 
Ohio River near Cincinnati in December, 1876. Mr. Dury writes 
"several were taken at St. Mary's Reservoir in spring and fall, 
when I visited the place from the early 70s to the late '80s. That 
body of water was the resort of water birds in vast swarms, includ- 
ing both species of swan. The Whistling Swan was always more 
abundant than the Trumpeter. They would alight in the open 
water and were very wary and difficult to shoot. The last time 
I visited the Reservoir the birds were in such diminished numbers 
that I never went back." . 

Same bird shown in Plate VIII, note the parallel lines of bill — a 
distinguishing feature. (The rule shown in the cuts is 12 in. in 

Allen D. Hole, Curator, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, 
writes: "We have in our Museum a mounted Trumpeter Swan 
without data. Tail of 22 feathers." 

F. Smith, Curator, University of Illinois, Champaign, writes 
that they have "One specimen of the Trumpeter Swan obtained 
from W. N. Butler, Anna, 111., in 1880. No data." 

Judge R. M. Barnes, Lacon, 111., writes me : " There are at present 
ten known birds of this species in confinement, five of which are on 
my home place. I have been unable to breed any birds here." 

A number of alleged Trumpeters which I traced proved to be 
Whistling Swans and many records also proved erroneous. 

Of the great multitudes of Trumpeter Swans which traversed 
the Central and Western portion of North America sixty years ago, 
there are sixteen specimens preserved in museums which have 
authentic data. These were collected between the years 1856 and 

There are besides the type, five other Canadian records, Toronto 
1863, Fort Resolution 1860, Lake St. Clair 1878, St. Clair Flats 
1884 and Manitoba 1887; and one from Wyoming 1856, Idaho 
1873, Michigan 1875, Wisconsin 1880, Ohio 1880, Oregon 1881, 
North Dakota 1891, Minnesota 1893, Montana 1902 and Mexico 

Vol. XXXIIl 

1915 J Cahn, Food Habits of the Virginia Rail. 91 



On the night of October 21, 1913, Madison, Wisconsin, received 
its first touch of winter weather in the shape of a premature snow- 
storm, accompanied by high northwest winds. A university 
student, walking down State street near the Capitol after dark, 
picked up on the street an exhausted bird, which he put into his 
coat pocket. The next morning he brought the bird — still in the 
coat pocket — to the Zoological Laboratory for identification, and 
it proved to be a Virginia Rail (Rallus virginianus) . The bird was 
undoubtedly migrating when overcome by the fury of the storm. 

Examination showed the rail to be in remarkably good condition 
and it was decided to try various feeding experiments on it. The 
bird was accordingly placed in a room in the vivarium, where it 
could hide beneath the ferns and have plenty of exercise, yet find 
no food except that which was given it. 

On the 22nd and 23rd the bird refused all food, and spent the 
days asleep amid the ferns, perched on one leg with its head buried 
under its wing. It showed no signs of fear, and slept undisturbed 
until actually touched, evidently regaining its lost strength. On 
the morning of October 24, a shallow dish of water containing ten 
good sized Amphipods (Dikerogammarusfaciatus) was placed among 
the plants, and half an hour later the crustaceans had disappeared. 
From then on there was no question as to whether or not the rail 
would eat; the difficulty lay in obtaining an adequate supply for 
its insatiable appetite. From October 24 to November 1, inclusive, 
the bird was fed entirely on these Amphipods, together with cad- 
dice-worms (Platyphylax designatus) which had been removed 
from their cases. Thirty amphipods and fifteen caddice-worms 
were fed daily, and the rail was apparently in excellent condition, 
although its appetite was evidently not satisfied. 

On the morning of November 2, the bird was placed in a glass 
show-case covered with wire, size 24 X 12 X 12 inches, having a 

1 Zoological Laboratory, University of Wisconsin. 


Cahn, Food Habits of the Virginia Rail. 


sand floor covered with moss, in which a dish of water was sunk, 
and in one corner a clump of growing ferns was located to afford 
the bird shelter when desired. This cage was then placed on 
exhibition in the entrance hall of the Biology building, where 
hundreds of persons passed it daily. In this situation the rail grew 
remarkably tame, and was apparently far more contented when 
surrounded by noisy students than when left alone. The pres- 
ence of people was evidently associated with the idea of food, 
for which it was constantly on the look-out. So tame did the bird 
become that after two days it was allowed to fly out of the cage and 
feed from the hand. The rail was on exhibition under these condi- 
tions from 8 to 5 :30 o'clock daily from November 2 to 9, inclusive, 
and it was during this period that a careful record was kept of its 
food, as shown in Table 1. 





























Water-bug, Zaitha 









Meal worm 
































Snake (DeKay) 


Snake (Garter) 


Frog (Acris) 




Frog (R. pipiens) 


Hornet (V. maculata) 

























Water Scorpion 



















What proved to be perhaps the most interesting part of the food 
habits was the descrimination shown in the manipulation of the 

1915 J Cahn, Food Habits of the Virginia Rail. 93 

various kinds of foods. In the case of the larger aquatic animals — 
the sunfish, stickleback, bullhead, crayfish, Zaitha, and water- 
scorpion — the victims were immediately removed from the water 
and carried to the far end of the cage, where they were swallowed 
entire. Once caught, they were never dropped, but were dextrously 
juggled in the beak until the proper position for swallowing was 
obtained. The bird apparently realized the danger of allowing a 
captured fish to drop again into the water, and proceeded to elimi- 
nate the possibility of escape by taking the victim as far as possible 
from the water. It experienced no difficulty whatsoever in making 
away with the sunfish and stickleback, and the bullheads went 
down easily enough — with the exception of one which succeeded 
in extending its pectoral spines at the moment of passing down the 
narrow throat, and stuck fast. Strangulation might soon have 
followed had not the fish been removed, as the bird was utterly 
unable to dislodge it, although it made desperate efforts to shake 
it out. The fish was removed with forceps, whereupon the bird 
undaunted by its narrow escape, proceeded to make another, and 
this time successful attack on the same fish! 

The crayfish, once caught, were pecked and shaken violently 
until practically all the legs had been dislodged, and the victim, 
thus rendered entirely helpless, was swallowed easily. After 
disposing of the body, the bird proceeded to search out the isolated 
legs, and sent them after the body. 

In the case of the smaller aquatic forms, the victims were swal- 
lowed on the spot. The caddice-worms and snails (Physa gyrina) 
were left untouched while in the case, the bird making no attempt 
to swallow them, contenting itself with merely poking at them 
whenever they moved. However, when the worms and snails 
were removed from the cases, they were eaten greedily. Amphi- 
pods were devoured as fast as they could be caught — which was 
faster than they could be fed the bird — and seemed to be one of 
the favorite foods. The rail showed remarkable skill in the capture 
of these little animals, and almost never missed its aim. \ 

On the other hand, all non-aquatic forms were promptly brought 
to the water and soused until soft and pliable enough to be swal- 
lowed with ease. The larvse of the Isabella Tiger-moth (Pyr- 
rharctia Isabella) which were large, well developed specimens, were 

94 Cahn, Food Habits of the Virginia Rail. [j&a. 

manipulated the longest of all the foods except the garter snake, 
the largest caterpillar being soused continuously for a period of 
twenty-one minutes. At the end of this time the caterpillar was 
greatly reduced in size, as the bristles had become softened and 
broken, and the body limp. The frogs were hammered into in- 
sensibility in the water, where there was less chance of escape for 
them than on land. It took but a very few — usually less than 
six — vigorous thrusts of the long bill to put the frog in so helpless 
a condition that its escape was impossible, yet much poking and 
shaking followed before it was finally devoured. 

The surprise, however, came when the bird was given a DeKay's 
snake (Storeria dekayi) measuring seven and one half inches in 
length. It was hardly expected that the bird would attempt to 
eat it, yet not only was the attempt made, but it proved successful 
and apparently easy. The snake was attacked with vigorous 
thrusts of the bill, and in a very short time was entirely helpless, 
whereupon the Rail devoured it, beginning with the head. The 
whole performance occupied less than fifteen minutes — ■ less time 
than was required for the caterpillar — and was witnessed by a 
large crowd of noisy students. 

The next day a second snake, this time the common Garter 
variety (Thamnophis sirtalis) was introduced. This individual 
measured just twelve inches when fully extended. The Rail at- 
tacked it at once, but had a great deal of trouble subduing it. After 
half an hour of intermittent attacks the first attempt was made to 
swallow the snake. The first few inches went down easily, but 
then quite suddenly the dazed victim managed to loop its body. 
Further progress being thus rendered impossible, the bird pro- 
ceeded to recall what it had already swallowed, and for a few min- 
utes stabbed violently at the snake with its beak. Satisfied by the 
passivity of the victim that all was now well, a second attempt was 
made, with the same results and sequel. Many unsuccessful trials 
followed in the next hour and a half, during which time the bird 
exhibited great concern over the constant twitching of the last inch 
of the snake's tail, and it was not until two strenuous hours had 
elapsed that the reptile was finally swallowed. After gasping a 
few times and settling the enormous meal into as comfortable 
position as possible, the bird — now a most distorted individual — 

- 1915 J General Notes. 95 

settled down for a sleep. It may be said that the only time the 
rail seemed perfectly satisfied was during the hour following the 
consumption of these two snakes. After the hour, however, it was 
ready once more for food, though evidently not particularly 

Attempts were made to feed the rail on a less carnivorous diet, 
but all proffered rice and cracked corn was refused, even when the 
bird showed marked signs of hunger. Finely chopped liver was 
likewise ignored, and small pieces of bread were merely played with. 


Concealing Posture of Grebes. — The note under this heading in the 
last number of ' The Auk ' by Mr. Delos E. Culver recalls to my memory a 
similar and yet different experience with a Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus 
podiceps) on August 22, 1911. Near Addison, Illinois, is a slough of about 
five acres area and around the edge a fringe of open water, which is two to 
four feet deep in spring, but becomes shallower as the season progresses, 
until, in very warm summer, there is sometimes no water left. In the 
center is a large area grown up with rushes, tall sedges and marsh grasses. 
On the above-named day I went into this slough, crossed the open water, 
which now had almost disappeared, then through the large grassy center 
space. When near the farther edge of this. I noticed a grebe, which was 
frantically trying to hide itself. Had I come from the shore near which it 
was, it would have had no difficulty in getting into the grassy wilderness 
in the center, but since I came from the other direction, it could not do so 
without being in my vision. When all attempts at diving proved unavail- 
ing, it nevertheless suddenly disappeared from view, although I was only 
fifteen feet from it. Trying to get to the bottom of this remarkable 
phenomenon, I looked closely and saw that it had swum as closely as possi- 
ble to a small tussock of grass and stretched its neck and upper part of the 
body over this. The color of its plumage matching well in general effect 
the brown and green of the grass, the bird became next to invisible. It 
remained in this position until I approached to within about \ ten feet, 
when it splashed away and performed the same maneuver on another 
tussock. — C. W. G. Eifrig, River Forest, III. 

The Double-crested Cormorant in the Chicago Area. — November 
20, 1914, I saw a Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax dilophus dilo- 

9b General Notes. LJan. 

phus) resting on ice at the edge of the water on one of the lagoons of 
Jackson Park, Chicago. It appeared during an unusually cold wave. 
Mr. F. M. Woodruff in his ' Birds of the Chicago Area ' published in 1907 
writes of this species as being a rather rare fall visitant in the area covered 
by that book, and no doubt since then it has become still more rare. At 
least, in nearly six years acquaintance with the birds of this region, this is 
the first cormorant that I have ever seen. — Edwin D. Hull, Chicago, 

Note on the Feeding of the Mallard. — That the Mallard (Anas 
platyrhynchos) does not dive for its food seems to be the general impression. 
Therefore an exception which I was fortunate enough to witness would 
seem worthy of record. January 28, 1914, on one of the lagoons of Jackson 
Park, Chicago, I saw an adult male Mallard in company with a female 
Lesser Scaup. When the birds were first seen about 4:30 P. M. the Scaup 
was diving repeatedly near the middle of the lagoon in deep water, while 
the Mallard was following her about, rushing up to her every time she 
appeared at the surface, but unable to rob her of any food. Nearly twenty 
minutes later the Mallard dove for the first time. A few more dives fol- 
lowed in fairly quick succession. Meanwhile the Scaup had been diving 
continuously. The diving of the Mallard in comparison with that of the 
Scaup was clumsy in the extreme, and accompanied with much flapping of 
wings and splashing of water. The actual time spent by the Mallard under 
water was very short, in fact, when it dove after the Scaup had disappeared 
it was still the first to rise. The diving would seem to be unsuccessful, 
for the bird quit shortly although the Scaup kept up its diving, and later 
about 5:00 P. M. when the birds swam off to another part of the lagoon 
and the Scaup again commenced diving the Mallard made no effort to do 
so. It is highly improbable that sufficient food, if indeed any at all, was 
secured in these short clumsy dives. At any rate the bird brought no food 
to the surface, and if any was obtained it was swallowed under water. 

I notice J. G. Millais x states that young Mallards when about three- 
quarters grown and before they are able to fly, encouraged by their mothers 
secure a considerable part of their food by diving. This author states 
further in his notes on the Mallard that surface-feeding ducks exceptionally 
dive for choice bits of food, but he does not name the species, although 
presumably the Mallard is included. 

From the few available observations, the most plausible theory, it seems 
to me, in regard to the feeding of the Mallard is that the species has nearly 
changed in adult life from a diving to a surface-feeding duck, although 
diving is habitual in the young. Reversions to this juvenal behavior occur 
among adults under the pressure of a very strong stimulus, as an unusually 
choice morsel of food, or in imitation of a diving duck after that bird has 

The Natural History of British Surface-Feeding Ducks, 1902, p 3. 

1915 J General Notes. 97 

repeated its diving many times. It should be noted at this point that a 
solitary Mallard observed from January 3 to January 13, 1914, and possibly 
the same bird, was never seen to dive, but fed by immersing its head merely. 
The action of the mothers encouraging their young to dive, as noted by 
Millais, if they themselves dive, cannot be explained by any of the stimuli 
mentioned, and provided the Mallard is a surface-feeding duck, as is 
generally believed, the cause is entirely obscure. Many more observations 
throughout the bird's life-history are badly needed.— Edwin D. Hull, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Piping Plover at Cape May, N. J.— On September 7, 1913, while 

studying the birds on the beach at Cape May, five Piping Plover (&gialitis 
meloda) were observed. The birds were first found directly in front of the 
resort on the beach and at all times staid by themselves in a close compact 
band. Being exceedingly tame they allowed me to approach very close, 
and then ran but a very short distance when they settled down to feeding 
again. Only at rare intervals when hard pressed did they take wing and 
then as before went but a very short distance. At the moment of observa- 
tion I did not fully realize what a rare bird the Piping Plover had become 
on the New Jersey coast. 

Again on September 13, 1914, Mr. J. K. Potter, who was with me on 
the Cape May beach, found an individual of this species in almost the 
identical spot that the five of the year before had been observed. 

This bird was alone and after a careful search no others were found. 
It was also very tame and allowed us to approach very close to it. There 
were at the time in the immediate vicinity, in fact all about us scattered 
flocks of Sanderling (Caladris leucophcea) and Semipalmated Plover 
(JEgialitis semipalmata) but the Piping Plover showed not the slightest 
tendency to associate with them, in fact kept as far away from them as 
it possibly could.. — Delos E. Culver, Addingham, Delaware Co., Penna. 

The Yellow-crowned Night Heron in Colorado. A Correction. 

— The writer regrets that he was in error in reporting (Auk, Oct. 1914, 
p. 535) the individual of this species taken at Byers as being "the 
second record for this State for this species and the first with full data as to 
location of occurrence and date of collection.'' He unintentionally over- 
looked an earlier record made by E. R. Warren, with full data (Condor, XI 
No. 1, p. 33 and Auk, April, 1910, p. 145), and now makes this correction 
and presents his apologies to Mr. Warren for this inexcusable oversight. — 
W. H. Bergtold, Denver, Colo* 

The American Bittern Nesting on Long Island, N. Y. — Previously 
the American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) has been classed as a transient 
visitant on Long Island, since, heretofore, no definite record of its nesting 
there has been forthcoming. Though the breeding range of this species 
includes New York State, and though the area of Long Island has been 

98 General Notes. [^ a u n k 

perhaps the most attentively examined by bird students and sportsmen, it 
has not heretofore been recorded as a nesting bird there. 

Giraud wrote seventy years ago (Birds of Long Island, N. Y., 1844) of 
this species on Long Island in his pleasing manner; of its habits and com- 
parative scarcity, but makes no mention of its nesting. George N. Law- 
rence in his ' Catalogue of Birds observed on New York, Long and Staten 
Islands, and the adjacent parts of New Jersey,' merely lists the bird, without 
remark of any sort. Mr. Dutcher's notes on the buds of Long Island in 
Chapman's ' Handbook ' 1894, and subsequent editions mention no record 
of its breeding, but give its status as " common transient visitant." 

In my ' List of Birds of Long Island ' (Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. of N. Y., 
1907) I also gave its status as a common transient visitant, recording the 
limits of its occurrence, observed and collected to that time, in spring, 
April 16 (Sheepshead Bay) to May 5 (Montauk); autumn, August 4 
(Shinnecock) to December 11 (Rockaway). I may say that data since 
collected have extended the spring arrival nearly a week earlier, i. e. to 
April 10 (1909, Seaford). 

The actual discovery of a nest, eggs and young of the American Bittern 
on Long Island has apparently been reserved till the present year. On 
Sunday, June 14, 1914, Mr. Robert W. Peavey, to whom students of Long 
Island birds are indebted in many instances for his indefatigable enthu- 
siasm, discovered a nest of this bittern on the part of the Great South Bay 
of Long Island, known as Jones' Beach, or locally, as Seaford Beach. This 
is one of the least frequented parts of the ocean-side Long Island beaches. 
The nest contained two newly-hatched young birds and two eggs. It was 
placed on salt meadow hay and was built up several inches above the level 
of the ground. Mr. Peavey flushed the bird off the nest when he was 
within three feet of her. The locality was one mile east of the High Hill 
Life Saving Station near the back or bay side of the beach, and within a 
newly-established game-preserve of about 5000 acres, which is guarded 
by a patrolman. 

It may be said that he was the less surprised in that he had been informed 
of the unusual occurrence of one or more " Look-ups," as they are named 
in this part of Long Island, by Nelson Verity, one of the veteran gunners of 
this locality, and had himself seen an American Bittern on June 7 on 
Seaford Creek, almost within the limits of the village of the same name. 

It is safe I think to say that the bird as a breeding species is exceptional 
on the whole of Long Island, as well as in this restricted locality — Seaford 
region, since Mr. Peavey has spent a day each week for many summers, in 
this place, and his own observation as well as the testimony of the baymen 
of the region make its occurrence here in the nesting season altogether 
unprecedented. — William C. Braislin, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cory's Least Bittern in Illinois. — On May 23, 1914, the writer was 
staying on the edge of a small swamp along the Fox River, about forty 
miles northwest of Chicago. While standing motionless to watch the 

1915 J General Notes. 99 

abundant water-fowl such as King, Virginia and Sora Rails, Coots, Florida 
Gallinules, and Least Bittern, which were either stepping out of the dark 
recesses of the clumps of cat-tail and other swamp vegetation to feed along 
the edge of the open places, or swimming in patches of open water further 
out, or at least giving vent to their various queer notes, in which they were 
ably seconded by multitudinous Redwings and Prairie Marsh Wrens 
(Telmatodytes p. iliacus), I was startled by a bird about the size of a Least 
Bittern flying out of some Scirpus lacustris and heading toward a thicket 
of button-bush, willow, etc., at the edge of which it alighted and disappeared. 
The bird in coloration looked unlike anything I had ever seen. The shape, 
size and flight all fitted the Least Bittern, but it seemed to be all black or 
blackish with the exception of brown crescent on the wing next to the 
primaries. Thinking the light or my eyes were deceiving me, I put it 
down as a Least Bittern. Still having some doubts, I put out in a boat 
which was with some difficulty poled through the dense vegetation by a 
friend. When nearing the bushes above mentioned the dark bird got up 
and flew a distance back of the boat, again alighting in the rushes. My 
friend, anxious to have at least one shot for his hard work of pushing the 
boat, took my 44 caliber shot-gun, fired — and the bird stayed there. 
Poling on as quickly as possible, which was still slow enough, I was sur- 
prised and elated to find the bird to be an Ixobrychus moxenus. On 
dissection it proved to be a female, the largest egg would have been ready 
for extrusion in a few days or a week; the stomach contained two sunfish, 
each about three inches long. The following is a description of the skin 
now in my collection. Length, from tip of bill to end of tail, llf inches, 
to tip of longest toe, 14^ inches, tarsus 1^ inches, bill, l^f inches. Color, 
back, tail and broad line from crown along back of neck, where the ends of 
the feathers on sides of neck form it, greenish-brownish-black; wing coverts 
dark purplish-chestnut; primaries, dark slaty, with a trace of the flour-like 
bloom characteristic of the herons; cheeks, throat and neck chestnut, the 
fluffy tuft of feathers streaming over the bend of the wings, blackish; belly 
dark-purplish brown, quite different from the neck, in middle of abdomen 
some white feathers, forming an irregular white patch; sides gradually 
darkening into blackish; culmen of bill blackish shading to dark brownish 
horn color on sides and on lower mandible, different from the straw color 
in /. exilis; tarsi and feet also blackish to brown. From this it is apparent 
that the coloring of neoxenus is quite different from that of exilis, only 
some of the dark brown on the back of the latter being identical with the 
same colored areas on the wing of the former, as well as the greenish-black 

on the crown. — C. W. G. Eifrig, River Forest, III. 


Willow Ptarmigan in Minnesota. — A specimen of the Willow Ptar- 
migan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) was shot on April 20, 1914, at Sandy 
Island Lake of the Woods, Minnesota. Sandy Island is located in Section 
21, Township 163, Range 36, of Warroad. This seems to be the first authen- 
tic record of the species in the state. The specimen is owned by Mr. 

100 General Notes. [f^ 

Steve Whitey of Crookston, Minn. — J. W. Franzen, Minnesota Academy 
of Sciences, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Audubon's Caracara in New Mexico. — On May 4, 1914, Mr. Andrew 
Archer brought to my office a specimen of Audubon's Caracara (Polyborus 
cheriway) that had been shot by Mr. Harold Church from a cottonwood 
tree standing in an alfalfa field near Mesquite, N. M., below Las Cruces in 
the Rio Grande Valley. This specimen was an immature male not yet in 
typical color. In the stomach were found the almost completely digested 
remains of a small bird and a small rodent, whose identification could not 
be determined. The skin is now in the collection of the New Mexico 
College of Agriculture, at State College, N. M. 

This constitutes the second established record of the occurrence of this 
species near here. Mr. E. W. Nelson, of the U. S. Biological Survey, 
kindly gave me the following note on its occurrence. " There is but a 
single other record, so far as we know, of this bird's occurrence in the State. 
This was one taken by Dr. Henry at Ft. Thorne in the winter of 1856 and 
sent to the U. S. National Museum." — D. E. Merrill, State College, 
N. M. 

Actions of the Red-tailed Hawk.— In ' The Auk ' for 1913 (page 582) 
I described the very active defense of her nest offered by a Red-shouldered 
Hawk (Buteb lineatus lineatus). It may be recalled that two sets of 
eggs, April 6, and April 29, 1913, were collected from this pair of birds. I 
was then especially anxious to observe the birds the next year, and early 
in April I visited the Sawyer woods for this purpose. The birds flew from 
trees on the east side of the woods from which direction I was approaching. 
They were very noisy but flew high and no nests which seemed to be re- 
cently occupied were seen. On April 23 I again visited the woods approach- 
ing from the east, near the southern edge. Both birds met me at the edge 
of the woods and flew about with noisy screaming at some elevation as I 
walked westward. At the west side of the woods I turned and walked in a 
northeastly direction directly towards the beech tree in which the first set 
of eggs were taken in 1913. The female was in a tree top near this beech 
and when I was possibly 200 feet away she launched herself directly at me. 
I could hardly conceive she would attack me as I stood on the ground, but 
she came straight on and I had to chop to my knees to avoid her blow. 
She alighted west of me and I walked on toward the nest, watching her 
over my shoulder. I had hardly stepped forward when she again dashed 
to the attack with more fierceness possibly than before and I again was 
compelled to drop to my knees. She came to rest about 30 feet from me 
in a small maple where she rested in a threatening attitude for some time 
while I stood admiring her. Her plumage was perfect, her breast being 
almost red, and her attitude of fearless defiancy as she stood leaning toward 
me made a picture impossible to forget. She made no further attacks till 
I began climbing the tree when she struck at me viciously four times. 

Yol 'i9L5 XI1 ] General Notes. 101 

It is needless to say I kept, her in sight all the time, keeping the tree be- 
tween us as much as possible, and jerking my head out of the way to avoid 
her outreached claws. She made no attacks after the eggs were taken 
from the nest. The male left the woods or at least kept out of sight while 
the female was attacking me. Later he returned and the pair soared 
screaming at a considerable height. The eggs were three in number, 
incubation just begun, and as stated, were laid in the same nest occupied 
in April 6, 1913. 

It may be added that I visited Mr. Sawyer, who owns the woods, ex- 
plaining to him that the hawk would now be more wary, but even yet 
might fall an easy prey to any gunner and asking him to do what he could 
to prevent her being killed. Though apparently not very appreciative of 
the traits I so much admired in the bud, and my reasons for the preserva- 
tion of her life, he promised to do what he could to prevent her being killed. 

Other nests visited in 1914 were occupied in every case by wary and 
cautious birds. The conditions which developed the audacious daring of 
the one exception without at the same time costing her her life are not 
easily understood. — E. B. Williamson, Bluffton, Ind. 

Richardson's Owl in Illinois. — Records of the occurrence of Richard- 
son's Owl (Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni) in Illinois, are so few that the 
following hitherto unpublished note, unimpaired, I hope, by age, may be 
of interest. 

During the last week of January, 1887, in a period of great cold and deep 
snow, an owl of this species was caught by some school-boys in a farmer's 
barn near Sycamore (50 mi. west of Chicago) and brought to me alive. 
Identification was easy but I did not then appreciate the rarity o^ value of 
the specimen; and small stuffed owls being in great demand just then as 
parlor " what not " decorations, I sold this to a neighbor for the munificent 
sum of $1.25, for that purpose. — L. E. Wyman, Museum of History, 
Science and Art, Los Angeles, Calif. 

An albinistic Bobolink. — While walking over a piece of prairie, near 
Stickney, southwest of Chicago, Mr. Kohmann, the taxidermist, and the 
writer saw an extremely queer-looking Bobolink. It appeared to be all 
white, but on closer inspection showed some checkering of black. This 
impression was found to be true, when it was taken. The buff of the nape 
is also white; some feathers on the crown and cheeks, on the sides of the 
breast, on the back and in the wings are black, but not in symmetrical 
arrangement, thus on one wing the fourth primary is the first black one, 
whereas in the other the first primary is black, while the tail is all white 
with the exception of the outermost section on one side. Altogether, it is 
a unique specimen. — C. W. G. Eifrig, River Forest, III. 

Leconte's Sparrow in Wisconsin. — Kumlien and Hollister in 'The 
Birds of Wisconsin' state concerning this species: "It is also rather re- 
markable that the closest search has failed to produce a single specimen in 
spring." On April 11, 1914, three were seen and one taken at Madison, 

102 General Notes. [jan. 

Wise, April 13 one seen; and on April 15 two were taken. The above 
records would indicate that this species is a not uncommon spring migrant. 
— A. W. Schorger, Madison, Wise. 

The Evening Grosbeak at Portland, Maine. — I found seven Even- 
ing Grosbeaks {Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina) , representing both 
sexes, in the Western Cemetery, Portland, early in the afternoon of April 
16, 1914. It was a wintry day, and snow was falling at the time, with 
several inches of a fresh deposit on the ground. The birds were feeding on 
sumac fruit. They were easily approached but moved about with a pecu- 
liar abrupt activity, calling frequently and loudly. 

Though the Evening Grosbeak is no longer a stranger in Maine, its 
occurrences have not been so frequent that another is without interest; 
and the middle of April appears to be a rather late date for it. — Nathan 
Clifford Brown, Portland, Maine. 

Two Species of Cliff Swallows Nesting in Kerr County, Texas. — 

The Mexican form of Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon fulva pallida), described 
by Nelson, was found nesting by my collector near Japonica in Kerr 
County, Texas, during the month of June, 1914. He collected a series of 
birds and eleven sets of eggs. There was rather a large colony nesting in 
a cave. The entrance of this cave was like a mine shaft. The ceiling was 
covered with holes where the water had once eroded into the limestone 
rock. The Swallows nest in these holes, plastering a little mud like a 
balcony to hold the eggs in. A forty foot ladder was used to get up to 
them. The cave was poorly lighted and very damp. It was 50 feet from 
the floor of the cave to the ground, where the entrance was. The opening 
was about 8 ft. in diameter. About 10 feet down, the cave widened out 
into a spacious chamber. The only light was from the shaft-like entrance. 
To enter the birds pitched head first and diverged into the semi-dark cham- 
ber and began a detour of circles to check the impetus of their plunge. 

The eggs are marked all over with fine markings of light to dark brown 
with a few spots of lilac. 

I give the measurements of the eleven sets of eggs, in hundredths of an 

1. 77 X 57, 77 X 56, 81 X 58, 75 X 56 

2. 81 X 55, 78 X 58, 77 X 55, 77 X 55 

3. 83 X 55, 81 X 54, 73 X 54, 73 X 55, 78 X 54 

4. 76 X 56, 81 X 54, 84 X 57, 75 X 55 

5. 80 X 53, 77 X 54, 85 X 56, 78 X 55 

6. 76 X 54, 80 X 55, 81 X 57, 81 X 54 , 

7. 78 X 56, 76 X 57, 79 X 57, 77 X 56 

8. 76 X 56, 76 X 54, 79 X 57 

9. 82 X 56, 81 X 53, 85 X 54, 83 X 54 

10. 77 X 57, 77 X 54, 83 X 56, 76 X 54 

11. 68 X 54, 73 X 55, 80 X 55. 
Averages 43 eggs 77 X 55 

V °\f™] General Notes. 103 

In this connection I wish to state that in recording the occurrence of 
this bird in Texas (Auk, 1914, p. 401) I entirely overlooked Dr. Louis B. 
Bishop's previous record (Auk, 1910, p. 459). 

A Colony of the Lesser Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon lunifrons tachina) 
was found nesting not far from where Petrochelidon fulva pallida was 
breeding. Most of their nests were roofed over. They select a part of a 
perpendicular cliff that has a projection and plaster their nests up under 
this. On these rocky walls of the canon there seem to be ridges, probably 
the high water mark in times of floods, where the rushing water has eaten 
into the face of the cliff, leaving a projecting shelf. This supplies a roof 
in rainy weather, which protects the nests. 

My collector says, " The Lesser Cliff Swallows, I am pretty sure, carry 
the mud for building in their mouths, while the other one (Petrochelidon f. 
pallida) carry it in their feet. I judge this by the actions of the birds while 
alighting on a muddy spot and picking up the mud. The Lesser Cliff 
Swallows will dive into the mud with their tails up, just skimming the 
surface like a flock of teal, feeding in a shallow pond. They look as if 
they were standing on their heads, while the other swallow alights on the 
mud with head erect balancing himself by quivering his wings, while he 
settles his feet into the mud, then rises and flies straight to his nesting 

The Lesser Cliff Swallow uses very little lining for his nest, sometimes 
not over two or three feathers, while the Coahuila Cliff Swallow, as a rule, 
gathers quite a lot of grass-roots and feathers. 

The eggs of these Swallows vary in size as will be seen by the measure- 
ments, but the coloring is nearly alike, although the Lesser Cliff Swallow's 
is more heavily marked, while the feature of the other is the fine spots all 
over the egg instead of large blotches. These markings in the case of the 
Lesser Cliff Swallow are brownish, while in pallida they are light brown to 
dark brown and purple. 

Measurements of fourteen sets in hundredths of an inch : 

1. 80 X 56, 82 X 53, 80 X 52, 78 X 56, 79 X 52 

2. 79 X 53, 69 X 53, 73 X 55, 75 X 55 

3. 83 X 55, 75 X 56, 69 X 51, 79 X 53 

4. 78 X 54, 83 X 55, 82 X 58, 83 X 57 

5. 78 X 53, 77 X 52, 80 X 52, 77 X 56 

6. 77 X 54, 77 X 56, 79 X 56 

7. 77 X 55, 73 X 54, 73 X 55, 71 X 53 

8. 74 X 54, 73 X 56, 71 X 52, 73 X 53 

9. 91 X 57, 87 X 53, 91 X 52, 85 X 53 

10. 78 X 57, 76 X 58, 76 X 56, 77 X 56 

11. 76 X 54, 79 X 51, 77 X 52, 77 X 53 

12. 80 X 55, 84 X 57, 82 X 58, 79 X 57, 82 X 57 

13. 79 X 54, 76 X 57, 84 X 56, 78 X 58, 80 X 56 

14. 76 X 53, 82 X 55, 79 X 53, 78 X 56 

Average of 58 eggs. 80 X 54. — John E. Thayer, Lancaster, Mass. 

104 General Notes. ban. 

The Cape May Warbler in Eastern Massachusetts. — In view of the 
extreme rarity of the Cape May Warbler ( Dendroica tigrina) in eastern 
Massachusetts, their occurrence in unusual numbers during the past 
autumn in Lexington, Mass., seems worthy of note. 

Between Sept. 9 and 14, 1914, I met nine Cape Mays in four widely 
separated parts of the town, — three on the 9th, five on the 13th, and one 
on the 14th. Three of the birds were about my house in the town centre, — 
two in a maple, and one in a mountain ash tree. Three other birds fre- 
quented a red cedar pasture where I watched them for an hour. They kept 
close together, generally in the same tree, and passed repeatedly over a 
beat which included two or three acres. We met another individual on 
the border of a piece of woodland, and another in an isolated dead oak tree. 

The birds showed a remarkable range of plumage; some, old males 
evidently, were almost as brilliantly marked with yellow and orange as in 
spring, others, birds of the year no doubt, were pale grey, streaked above 
and below with brown, and lacked all yellow except on the rump. The 
Cape Mays accompanied a heavy flight of migrants, composed chiefly of 
Bay-breasted and Magnolia Warblers. 

Mr. William Brewster kindly sends me a record of three more Cape May 
Warblers which he saw in the nearby town of Concord, Mass. His dates 
extend materially the limits of the flight. 

" August 31, 9 in red cedar in berry pasture. Very tame. 

" September 12, 9 in oaks and larches. Very tame. 

" September 30, 9 spent several minutes in bush directly in front of our 
dining room window through which I viewed her at a distance of not over 
five feet. She was accompanied by three Black-polls." 

Mr. Walter Faxon, who saw two of the Lexington birds, had previously 
met the Cape May Warbler but three times in this vicinity during twenty- 
eight years of constant observation. 

Mr. William Brewster (Birds of the Cambridge Region 1906, pp. 329, 
331) summarizing all the instances which his notes supply of the bird's 
occurrence in the Cambridge Region, says, — " It will be noticed . . .that 
during twenty-four — or two-thirds — of the total thirty-six years which 
the records cover, the beautiful bud was not noted at all, and that during 
eleven out of twelve years where it was observed only a single individual 
was seen each season. These facts appear to me to warrant the conclusion 
that the species is really one of the very rarest of the Warblers which visit 
us with any degree of regularity." 

In his summary, which includes the records of many observers, he men- 
tions but a single occurrence in this region in autumn. 

From the evidence of Mr. Faxon's and Mr. Brewster's experience the 
flight of Cape May Warblers during the past autumn must be considered 
unprecedented. — Winsor M. Tyler, M. D., Lexington, Mass. 

The Records of the Tennessee and Cape May Warblers in South- 
western Maine.— Up to the summer of 1914 the Tennessee Warbler 

V ° L lf™] General Notes. 105 

( Vermivora peregrina) seems to have eluded the few observers who have 
looked for it in southwestern Maine. There is a bare mention, in a migra- 
tion list published by the ' Journal of the Maine Ornithological Society,' 1 
of its occurrence at Westbrook on May 30, 1902; and Mr. Arthur H. 
Norton is given as the authority for this. But Mr. Norton tells me that 
the record was made without his knowledge, through a typographical or 
editorial error, and that he has never seen the bird in the vicinity of Port- 

A Tennessee Warbler, apparently a male, came into my garden, with 
many other little migrants, on August 30, 1914, and, after giving for a long 
time only inconclusive evidence of his identity, flew to the lower branches 
of an old apple tree, amongst which I was standing, and displayed his 
specific characteristics at very close quarters. Constantly moving about, 
but unhurried and seemingly quite free from fear, he was several times 
within three feet of me on a level with my eyes, offering me in a good light 
a perfect opportunity for studying him, whilst he pecked at leaves and 
twigs, made futile little sallies a-wing in the attempt to snap up insects 
and voiced his feelings in subdued call-notes. His plumage was beauti- 
fully smooth, and he was very plainly recognizable. 

Late in the afternoon of September 6, 1914, a Tennessee Warbler ap- 
peared in the same old apple tree. The flutterings of a moth which he had 
caught absorbed his attention, and he permitted me to approach him as 
near as I chose. I scrutinized him carefully, until he was chased away by 
a Myrtle Warbler, — long enough to note that he was indistinguishable in 
appearance from my visitor of August 30; and he may, of course, have 
been the same bird. 

The writer obtained on Cape Elizabeth, August 21, 1876, the only speci- 
mens of the Cape May Warbler ( Dendroica tigrina) which have thus far 
been taken in the vicinity of Portland, and there has since been no an- 
nouncement to his knowledge, of other examples seen. Perhaps it is safe 
to assume that the species is a regular migrant; but for the present more 
data seem desirable in support of this hypothesis. 

The Cape May Warbler passed at least four times through some of the 
gardens at the West End of Portland during September, 1914, and on 
these occasions the birds were so tame and leisurely that close inspection 
of them was easy. On the 3rd I detected one in a troop of Warblers. On 
the 10th one remained about my house the greater part of the day, alone, 
several times visiting a piazza roof, in the gutter of which rain water was 
standing, and at times foraging on the open lawn. Two came together on 
the 18th and with other Warblers, including the Parula, the Myrtle and 
the Black-throated Green, bathed long and fully in the spray of a 'Sprinkler 
placed so as to play upon an apple tree about four feet high. They per- 
mitted themselves to be showered in the tree and also descended to a little 
pool under it where they splashed about vigorously. On the 21st I found 

i Vol. VI, p. 79. 

106 General Notes. [jan. 

a solitary bird at the edge of a group of native spruce and hemlock saplings, 
near one corner of my garden. 

This garden is a recent inclosure, and most of the trees and shrubs in it 
are young. One is disposed to believe that otherwise it would sooner have 
harbored examples of both of the warblers which form the subject of the 
present note. — Nathan Clifford Brown, Portland, Maine. 

Cape May and Tennessee Warblers in Philadelphia. — In 'Cassinia' 
for 1913 (p. 36) I recorded these two species in a small yard 20 by 40 feet 
in the rear of my home in the thickly built up section of West Philadelphia. 
A Tennessee Warbler on September 12, an adult and two young Cape Mays 
on September 21, and two young on September 30. During the autumn of 
1914, they were still more frequently noted; a Tennessee on October 1, and 
two or three Cape Mays on September 14, 24, 25, October 12 and 20. The 
yard contains rose bushes and a patch of native shrubbery as well as a 
small tree. The birds spent most of their time in the rose bushes picking 
off the aphides and allowed me to approach to within a few feet of them. 
Numerous records of the Cape Mays have been made at a number of near- 
by localities, but these, well within the city proper seem particularly in- 
teresting. — Witmer Stone, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

San Lucas Verdin in Arizona. — In the October number of ' The 
Auk ' (Vol. XXXI, p. 543) is a record of the San Lucas Verdin (Auriparus 
jlaviceps lamprocephalus) taken by Mr. H. Wright at Mecca, Cal., March 
19, 1911. 

Recently I received a typical specimen of this little known species 
(Mus. H. K. C, No. 18003) which was taken 20 years previously, and 
bearing the original label of the collector, Mr. F. T. Pember: " collected 
at Gila Bend, Ariz., April 18, 1891, c? L. 4.30, Ex. 6.64, W. 2., T. 1.90 

Gila Bend is a small place in southwestern Arizona, elevation 1000 ft. 
It is about 90 miles north of the Mexican line and 100 miles east of the 
Colorado River. 

This bird is even smaller than the California specimen, and can instantly 
be recognized upon comparison with true Auriparis jlaviceps. — Henry 
K. Coale, Highland Park, III. 

Bluegray Gnatcatcher nesting in Wisconsin. — On May 31, 1914, 
in company with Mr. Normann DeWitt Betts, I found a pair of Gnat- 
catchers (Polioptila cozrulea ccerulea). nesting at Lake Waubesa, Wise. 
This is probably close to the northern breeding limit for the interior of the 
state. — A. W. Schorger, Madison, Wise. 

Robin's Nests. — Last spring, when Robins were beginning to build 
nests, a farm laborer in Champaign Co., central Illinois, removed an old 
nest from the crotch of an apple tree, and place it upon the tongue of a 
binder in a shed, near the farm residence. Although a year old, weather- 

'i9i5 J General Notes. 107 

beaten, and stripped of its loose interior furnishing, the nest was essentially 
intact. Its walls of dark clay were strongly reinforced with tough grasses, 
and the foundation, bearing the impress of the two branches between which 
it had been held, was unusually generous in its proportions. During the 
winter the nest doubtless had contained snow and water, which, owing to 
the small soil particles of the clay, probably escaped almost altogether 
through evaporation, for the nest as it stood would hold water like a cup. 
I should estimate its weight at fully 18 ounces. In our orchard in Missouri 
I used to observe a number of robins' nests in the spring that had success- 
fully weathered the winter, and it had often occurred to me that the birds 
would exhibit commendable economy if instead of building new nests they 
would remodel the old structures; but if this ever was done it escaped my 
notice. However, the nest that the farm employee placed upon the 
harvester tongue attracted a pair of robins, and I observed the female 
sitting in it. She evidently was getting the feel of it, and deciding whether 
or not to accept it in preference to the labor required to construct a new 
one. Being interested in the matter I asked the proprietor of the farm to 
report to me a fortnight later what the pair had decided. He wrote that 
they had " taken it " for the season. I should like to know whether this 
is a common practice among robins, or any other species. Charles Dixon 
in his ' Birds' Nests,' first edition, published in 1902 by Grant Richards in 
London, says, on page 242: "... various species of swallows breed in the 
disused nest of the Oven-bird .... We might almost presume that these 
birds have relinquished the habit of forming a mud shell or outer nest 
when they discovered that these mud ' ovens ' saved them the trouble of 
making one for themselves." Purple Martins will year after year occupy 
the same house or box. It is but one step further to an old nest in the 
case of robins. — DeWitt C. Wing, Chicago, III. 

Two New Records for British Columbia. — Lark Bunting (Calamo- 
spiza melanocorys). On June 8, 1914, I collected a male Lark Bunting in 
a thicket of hawthorns on the shore of Okanagan Lake at Okanagan 

White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). On October 6, 
1913, I collected a male White-throated Sparrow that was with a large 
flock of Nuttall's and Golden-crowned Sparrows at Saanich, Vancouver 
Island. Both these birds are now in the provincial museum. 

Sitka Kinglet (Regulus calendula grinnelli). A female taken at 
Okanagan Landing, December 29, 1913, is the first record east of the 
Cascades. A series collected here in summer have been identified as 
calendula by Dr. Louis B. Bishop. There are no winter records for this 

Black Merlin (Falco columbarius suckleyi). On February, 1913, I 
collected a Pigeon Hawk at Okanagan Landing, identified as suckleyi by 
Mr. Allan Brooks. This form is a straggler east of the Cascades. 

Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanolhocephalus) . Usu- 

108 General Notes. [jan. 

ally a scarce summer resident, this bird was unusually plentiful this year 
(1914) . On July 28, 1 saw a flock of about 60, nearly all were adult males. — 
J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing, B. C. 

Some Unusual Breeding Records from South Carolina. — Wood 
Duck (Aix sponsa). In view of the alarming decrease in numbers of this 
species in recent years, the following record is of particular interest. On 
June 23, 1912, in the Otranto Swamp near Charleston, S. C, I found a 
brood of seventeen well grown young. This, I believe, is an unusually 
large number, as all of the authorities which I have consulted on the subj ect 
give the full complement of eggs as ranging from eight to fifteen. In this 
case it is probable that even more than seventeen eggs were laid as it must 
be rare indeed for a full set of eggs to be hatched and the young brought 
to the age of two or three weeks without casualty of any kind. 

It has been suggested that two sets of eggs may have been laid in the 
same nest. 

Woodcock (Philohela minor). Although Woodcock are known to 
breed sparingly in the coast region of South Carolina, definite records of 
breeding are few. On February 22, 1913, a female was shot at Summer- 
ville, near Charleston, S. C, and was found to contain several eggs the 
largest of which would probably have been laid the next day. 

Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus) . While the 
Loggerhead often begins nest building in February, it is seldom that eggs 
are laid before the end of March, and I have never before known a pair to 
be successful in incubating during the inclement weather that usually 
prevails in the early part of that month. However, on March 30, 1913, I 
saw a young Loggerhead which could not be distinguished from its parents 
in size, and could be recognized as a young bird only by its actions and 
because it was being fed regularly. We had ample opportunity to watch 
this performance for the parents were busy catching insects while the 
young bird followed them closely and by fluttering and squawking, in- 
sisted upon having his share. Allowing twelve days for incubation and at 
least as many for the then age of the youngster — both of which estimates 
are probably very low — the full set of eggs must have been complete by 
March 6, if not earlier. — Francis M. Weston, Jr., Charleston, S. C. 

Notes on Some Birds of the Maryland Alleghanies ; An Anomaly 
in the Check-List.— After a lapse of twelve years, the writer was fortu- 
nate enough to be able to again spend a week in the highest part of the 
Maryland Alleghanies, namely at Accident in Garrett County. This is 
the westernmost county of Maryland and the hamlet in question is about 
ten to fifteen miles northeast of Deer Park and Mountain Lake Park, the 
well-known summer resorts on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The 
natural features of this so-called glade region of the Alleghanies, its beauty 
and attractiveness to the naturalist and nature-lover, have been more 
fully described in Vol. XXI of ' The Auk,' in the article headed: ' Birds 
of Western Maryland.' Excepting the melancholy fact that saw-mill and 

1915 J General Notes. 109 

narrow gauge had laid low some extensive stands of primeval spruce and 
hemlock, the country was little changed, the same fine ah, the same dearth 
of mosquitoes, so welcome to the tired vacationist, the same mountains, 
which are here low and easy to get over, since the whole country is high. 
Thus George's Hill is the second-highest point in Maryland, 3004 ft. above 
sea-level, yet it is only 500 to 800 ft. higher than the adjoining lower land. 
The mountains nearly all run in long parallel ridges from southwest to 
northeast, the usually low depressions between some of them, are the 
glades, formerly the home of innumerable flocks of Wild Turkeys and 
Ruffed Grouse, of deer, panthers, bears and catamounts. The best known 
of these long mountains near Accident are Negro and Meadow Mountains. 
On the former the writer spent many delightful though laborious hours or 
days on former and on the present visit. 

Knowing full well the psychological and other reasons against the relia- 
bility of testimony of this kind, I would say that the Magnolia Warbler 
( Dendroica magnolia) has somewhat increased in numbers as compared 
to twelve years ago. On July 7, Mr. F. Burkhard, a keen nature lover and 
observer of Accident, and the writer saw and heard about fifteen to twenty 
males; no doubt some males were not singing at this time of the year, it 
being an extremely warm day besides. They were found in the stands of 
primeval spruce and hemlock, which fortunately the lumbermen have so 
far not been able to secure, as well as on the crest of the mountain, where 
chestnut is the prevailing tree, interspersed with here and there a few 
spruce and hemlock. In the same kind of places the Black-throated Blue 
Warbler ( D. c. cwndescens not cairnsi), and the Black-throated Green 
( D. virens) are found, both in about the same numbers as formerly; the 
former also descends into the rhododendron thickets of gullies lower 
down. The Carolina Junco {Junco h. carolinensis) is found in the open 
scraggy growth of chestnut along the flat and rocky crest of the mountain. 
Here the Pileated Woodpecker (Phlaeolomus p. abieticola), the Scarlet 
Tanager and the Crested Flycatcher hold forth in undiminished numbers, 
also the Red-tailed Hawk and the Turkey Buzzard, while from the sides 
comes the bell-like chorus of Veery ( Hylocichla f. fuscescens) and Wood 
Thrushes. One or two of the Turkey Buzzards seemed to follow us about 
for hours over the mountain; they probably had their young near by, as 
there is no lack of large hollow logs and cracks and crevices in the rocks, 
here and there piled up in huge masses, as if by titans. Canadian and 
Chestnut-sided Warblers (Wilsonia canadensis and D. pensylvanica) are 
found in bushy places, grown up with second growth deciduous trees and 
shrubs, the former has a fondness for wet places in such areas, usually very 
thickly grown over. A surprise awaited us in a depression between Negro 
and Meadow Mountains, half way between Bittinger and Accident. There 
is some fine tall spruce and hemlock, so thick that no direct sunlight reaches 
the ground, which is covered with rhododendron, many northerly species 
of plants, and some upturned roots of spruce. I was just about to remark, 
" If this were in Canada, we should now hear a Winter Wren," — the moss- 

110 General Notes. LJan^ 

covered ground and the flatfish upturned roots involuntarily produced 
this thought — ■ when suddenly, clear and loud, rang out the beautiful 
notes of the Winter Wren. For a moment I was in doubt whether I was 
really in Maryland or in Quebec, but if nothing else, the luxuriant growth 
of rhododendron quickly dispelled any illusion. I had formerly never 
heard that song here, or if I did, I did not know it, and therefore did not 
put down this wren as a permanent resident for western Maryland, which 
it now turns out to be. The Bobolink, by the way, was also recorded for 
the first time for this vicinity, in a pasture near the village. 

Now, as to the anomaly in the A. O. U. Check-List regarding a species 
of bird of the tops of our eastern mountains. For obvious reasons I did 
not collect many birds on this last trip. But the few I took confirmed 
a suspicion I had in my mind since my residence in that part of the 
country. I took two male D. ccerulescens. I expected to find some pro- 
nounced black on the back, to fit in with the description of D. c. cairnsi, 
which, according to the Check-List in the resident variety, geographical 
race or subspecies. They were adult males in high plumage, well colored. 
But they were not cairnsi, as is borne out by a comparison with skins from 
Canada and Illinois. That brings us into this dilemma: Either D. c. 
cairnsi is not the prevailing form here, as stated in the Check-List, and D. c. 
ccerulescens comes down to not only Pennsylvania, as stated there, but to 
Maryland; or we have cairnsi and c&rulescens together here, which militates 
against the underlying principle of geographic races and subspecies; or the 
difference between the two is slight and not constant. If the last ex- 
planation is correct, as I am inclined to believe, I should favor doing away 
with the race cairnsi entirely. — C. W. G. Eifrig, River Forest, III. 

The Status of the Song Sparrow and the Chipping Sparrow as 
Early Birds. — Since writing my notes on the ' Morning Awakening ' 
printed in ' The Auk ' for April, 1913, I have been paying particular atten- 
tion to the awakening of the Song and Chipping Sparrows as evidenced by 
their earliest morning songs. These later observations confirm my convic- 
tion that these two birds are much later risers than the Robin. In fact, I 
should now place the Song Sparrow 25 or 30 minutes after the Robin, 
instead of only 13 minutes as my earlier observations made it. This 
discrepancy I account for by the greater care exercised in these recent notes 
in eliminating from consideration all sporadic night songs and including 
only the songs that indicated a permanent morning awakening. 

The new records are of six mornings in 1913 and five in 1914, all at my 
house in West Roxbury, Mass. One Song Sparrow sang regularly both 
seasons very near the house, and often another could be heard not far away, 
while one or two Chipping Sparrows were always equally in evidence, and 
no Robin sang near enough to drown the songs of the sparrows. Strange 
to say, my notes include no records whatever of very early singing on the 
part of the Chipping Sparrow, which leads me to suspect that the nocturnal 
singing for which that species is well known may be chiefly confined, in 

V0l lf5 XI1 ] General Notes. Ill 

some localities at least, to the earlier part of the night. (About 10 o'clock 
in the evening is, I think, a favorite time.) The Song Sparrow, however, 
does often indulge in song in the very early morning, before he gives evi- 
dence of having awakened for the day. The records of the eleven mornings 
are as follows : — 

May 14, 1913. Sunrise 4.24. Song Sparrow sang once at 3.24, then 
was silent till 3.58, when it began to sing continuously. Robin began at 
3.25. Chipping Sparrow sang at 3.40, then was silent till 3.47, when it 
began to sing continuously. (This preliminary song was an unusual 
occurrence in my experience.) 

May 31, 1913. Sunrise at 4.10. Robin singing when I awoke at 3.15. 
Song Sparrow sang at 3.20 and again at 3.27, and began frequent singing 
at 3.29. Chipping Sparrow began at 3.35. 

June 1, 1913. Sunrise at 4.10. Robin singing at 3.12, when I awoke. 
Song Sparrow sang at 3.19 and again at 3.22, and began frequent singing 
at 3.24. Chipping Sparrow began at 3.32. 

June 19, 1913. Sunrise at 4.07. I awoke at 2.45. Song Sparrow sang 
once at 2.47; another Song Sparrow sang once at 3.07; first bird sang again 
at 3.20, then at 3.29; second bird began a song-period at 3.48. Robin 
began at 2.50 (unusually early). Chipping Sparrow began at 3.29. 

July 12, 1913. Sunrise at 4.18. Robin singing at 3.15 (estimated), 
when I awoke. Song Sparrow sang once at 3.30. Chipping Sparrow 
began at 3.35. 

July 18, 1913. Sunrise at 4.23. Awoke at 3. Robin began at 3.42. 
Song Sparrow sang once at 3.52 and began continuous singing at 3.58. 
Chipping Sparrow began at 3.56. 

April 10, 1914. Sunrise at 5.12. Song Sparrow began at 4.38. Robin 
began calling at 4.42 and singing at 4.43. The Song Sparrow on this early 
spring day thus awoke 34 minutes and the Robin 30 minutes before sun- 
rise. As compared with late spring and early summer singing, the Robin 
was late rather than the Song Sparrow early. 

May 29, 1914. Sunrise at 4.11. Robin began at 3.17. Song Sparrow 
had sung once about 10 minutes earlier but did not sing again till after 3.45. 
Chipping Sparrow began at 3.33. 

June 10, 1914. Sunrise at 4.06. Cloudy and cold. Robin calling at 
3.23; began singing at 3.24. Chipping Sparrow began at 3.40. Song 
Sparrow's beginning later and not noted. 

June 14, 1914. Sunrise at 4.06. Robin began at 3.12. Chipping 
Sparrow sang once at 3.20, again at 3.26, and began morning song at 3.2s. 
Song Sparrow sang twice at 3.41; began in earnest at 3.46. 

June 17, 1914. Sunrise at 4.06. Out at 2.45 and listening carefully in 
all directions about my house for the earliest bird-notes. Nothing heard 
till 3.13, when Robin began. Chipping Sparrow sang once at 3.20; began 
in earnest at 3.23. Song Sparrow began at 3.40; another at 3.41. Just 
before 4.30 the two Song Sparrows were among the more conspicuous 
singers to be heard. Then- failure to begin singing earlier than 3.40 was 
evidently not due to any marked waning of the song-impulse. ' 

112 General Notes. [£* 

Averaging the eight definite records of the Song Sparrow's complete 
awakening included in the foregoing notes, I make it 29f minutes (practi- 
cally an even half-hour) before sunrise. The average of nine records of the 
earliest song heard from this species is 45 minutes before sunrise. On eight 
mornings one or more Song Sparrow songs preceded at varying intervals 
the full awakening, and on three of these occasions the early songs pre- 
ceded the Robin, but the average of these earliest songs is about 9 minutes 
later than the Robin, while the average of what I regard as the actual 
awakening of the Song Sparrow is 15 minutes later still. The situation is 
complicated a little by the fact that my Robins and Chipping Sparrows 
seem to be later risers than the average of their respective species. The 
average of the six definite records I got here in these two years for the 
height of the season (excluding the April 10 record) is only 53f minutes 
before sunrise, nearly 10 minutes later than the average obtained from my 
former observations. My Chipping Sparrows, too, with an average of 36 
minutes before sunrise for ten mornings, are some 10 minutes later than my 
former average. On the other hand, I find that my Crows wake unusually 
early for this species, the average of eight records made in 1912, 1913, and 
1914 being 42 minutes before sunrise, while my previous average from 
various localities was 34 minutes before sunrise, precisely the same as Mr. 
H. W. Wright's latest Jefferson, N. H., average (' The Auk,' XXX, 529, 
October, 1913). This may be because my post of observation is near a 
nesting-ground of Crows, but, taken in connection with the lateness of my 
Robins and Chipping Sparrows, it suggests that local or individual variation 
may account for all such differences. In the case of the Song Sparrow, 
however, my new notes, made with the matter of nocturnal singing defi- 
nitely in mind, show a much greater difference, and though local or indi- 
vidual variation may play some part in it, I am moderately certain that 
it is chiefly to be accounted for by the more careful exclusion of night songs. 
These observations strengthen my conviction that the Robin's well- 
established reputation as an early bird cannot be successfully assailed by 
either of the two sparrows in question. As to the four other birds which 
Mr. Wright in his paper of October, 1913, ranks ahead of the Robin, it 
may be pertinent to call attention to the fact that three of them — the 
Wood Pewee, Oven-bird, and White-throated Sparrow — are known to be 
addicted to this same habit of nocturnal singing. Mr. Wright gives good 
evidence that, on some occasions at least, the Wood Pewee deserves the 
high rank he gives it, but as to the Oven-bird and the White-throated 
Sparrow the evidence is not quite so clear. The flight-song of the Oven- 
bird, is, so far as my experience goes, peculiarly an afternoon and evening 
performance. I have heard it before noon, but only on rare occasions, 
and if I heard it in the very early morning I should instinctively regard it 
as left over from the evening before rather than belonging to the coming 
day. The White-throated Sparrow has been called the " Nightingale of 
the North." The last time I heard its morning awakening on its breeding- 
ground was on August 8, 1913, on Sunapee Mountain, N. H. It then sang 

° 1915 J Recent Literature. llo 

several times during the night, but its actual awakening followed that of the 
Hermit Thrush, which began singing at 4.02. The times noted were 4.08, 
4.13, and 4.15, when frequent singing began. 

I hope that more notes on the morning awakening may be made in many 
localities. Only thus can we get the data for accurate generalizations. 
And due allowance for the night-singing habit must be made in all such 
observations. — Francis H. Allen, West Roxbury, Mass. 


Cooke's 'Distribution and Migration of North American Rails.' 1 

— In this important report Prof. Cooke presents a concise account of the 
geographic distribution and migration of the rails following the same plan 
adopted in his previous reports on the shore-birds, herons, etc. The 
bibliography of North American ornithology is becoming so enormous 
that it is practically impossible for the individual to compile with any degree 
of completeness such data as are here presented. The formation of such a 
card index as has been prepared by Prof. Cooke, from which reports like 
the present may be readily compiled, constitutes one of the most important 
pieces of work, from the standpoint of the ornithologist, that the U. S. 
Biological Survey has undertaken. 

Maps showing graphically the summer and winter distribution of each 
species add greatly to the value of the report. The summary shows that 
44 forms of rails and their allies occur north of Panama. Of these 21 are 
restricted to the West Indies and Middle America and two are stragglers 
from Europe leaving 21 forms occurring regularly in the United States. 

The wanton slaughter of Soras and Clapper Rails by so called sportsmen 
has sadly reduced the number of these birds and the killing of 3000 of the 
former species on a 500 acre marsh on the James River, Va., in a single day, 
or of 10,000 Clapper Rails at Atlantic City, N. J., in a day, are incidents 
only too well known to those who were familiar with the practices of a few 
years ago. — W. S. 

Wetmore on the Growth of the Tail Feathers of the Giant Horn- 
bill. 2 — ■ In this bird, as is well known, the middle pair of rectrices greatly 
exceed the others in length. The fact that the examination of a consider- 
able series failed to show any in which more than one of the pair^ was fully 

1 Distribution and Migration of North American Rails and their Allies. By 
Wells W. Cooke. Bull. TJ. S. Dept. Agriculture, No. 128. Sept. 25, 1914. 

2 A Peculiarity in the Growth of the Tail Feathers of the Giant Hornbill (Rhino- 
plax vigil). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 47, pp. 497-500. October 24, 1914. 

114 Recent Literature. [jan. 

developed led Mr. Wetmore to a careful study of the available specimens 
which demonstrated beyond question that this is the normal condition 
in the species. One of these long feathers develops and is retained for 
more than a year, probably for two. The other one does not appear until 
the first has attained its full growth. Upon the molt of the first feather 
the other takes its place, so that there is always one long feather — the 
right and left alternately — while the other one is always very much shortei 
and only partly developed. — W. S. 

Chapman on New Colombian Birds. 1 — In the present paper Dr. 
Chapman describes twenty-six additional new forms from the rich collec- 
tions obtained by the several expeditions sent out, under his direction, by the 
American Museum of Natural History. The problems of distribution 
presented by a study of these collections demand for their solution addi- 
tional material from Antioquia and eastern Panama and to secure this 
the Museum has sent out two additional collecting parties under Messrs. 
L. E. Miller and W. B. Richardson. 

Dr. Chapman is sparing no pains to make his study of the Colombian 
avifauna thorough in all its details and the further his work progresses the 
more anxiously do we await the final report upon the subject. 

The present contribution even though admittedly preliminary, is a 
welcome relief from the wretched descriptions of two or three lines with 
which our literature is becoming overburdened. Not only are the diag- 
noses here presented full and adequate, with appropriate discussion, but in 
many instances brief contrasted descriptions of all the known forms of a 
group are given with their respective geographic ranges. — W. S. 

Shufeldt on the Young of Phalacrocorax atriceps georgianus. 2 — 

This paper consists of a detailed account of a young cormorant twenty-four 
hours out of the egg. While no generalizations are suggested the condi- 
tion of the various organs is minutely described as well as the progress of 
ossification in various parts of the skeleton, making a permanent record of 
facts that may be used in future comparative study. — W. S. 

' Alaskan Bird-Life.' 3 — Through the generosity of one of its members 
the National Association of Audubon Societies has been enabled to carry its 

J Diagnoses of apparently new Colombian Birds. III. By Frank M. Chap- 
man. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIII, Art. XL, pp. 603-637. November 
21, 1914. 

2 Anatomical Notes on the Young of Phalacrocorax Atriceps Georgianus. By 
R. W. Shufeldt, M. D., extracted from a Report on the South Georgia Expedition. 
Sci. Bull. Mus. Brooklyn Inst. Arts and Sci., Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 41-102. November 
5, 1914. 

8 Alaskan Bird-Life as Depicted by Many Writers. Edited by Ernest Ingersoll. 
Seven Plates in Colors and other Illustrations. Published by the National Asso- 
ciation of Audubon Societies. New York, 1914. 

1915 J Recent Literature. 115 

educational work into the far off settlements of Alaska. The medium is an 
attractive booklet, containing well prepared accounts of the bird-life of the 
various portions of the territory compiled from the publications of Dall, 
Nelson, Grinnell, Osgood, Bishop, Bent, and other explorers of the extreme 
northwest; the 'Arctic Coastal District' being written by Mr. Nelson 
himself. The illustrations consist of half-tones, and colored plates from the 
series of ' Educational Leaflets ' published by the Association, each being 
accompanied by its respective text. 

This little volume is to be freely distributed among the people of Alaska, 
in the effort " to cultivate a better appreciation of the value to mankind 
of our wild birds and animals." 

The book is admirably adapted to its purpose and should go far toward 
preserving an interesting and valuable fauna. — W. S. 

Mrs. Bailey's ' Handbook of Birds of the Western United States.' 
— Fourth Edition. 1 — The excellence of Mrs. Bailey's well known ' Hand- 
book ' as well as the increased interest in ornithology through our western 
states are attested by the issue of a fourth revised edition of the work. 
While the main text is the same, important additional matter is contained 
in the ' Addenda.' The changes made in the nomenclature of the American 
Ornithologists' Union Check-List are summarized, and lists of species to be 
added and eliminated are given, as well as a complete list of the birds of the 
western United States with their ranges, as they appear in the third edition 
of the Check-List. There is also an additional list of 'Books of Reference' 
bringing the bibliography up to date. All of these improvements tend to 
make this authoritative work still more indispensable to the student of 
western bird life. — W. S. 

Mcllhenny's ' The Wild Turkey and Its Hunting.' 2 — This work 
consists of two parts. Chapters III and IV treating respectively of ' The 
Turkey Prehistoric ' and ' The Turkey Historic ' are by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt; 
while the remainder, dealing with the hunting of this famous game bird and 
its actions in its native haunts, is compiled by Mr. Mcllhenny, largely 
from the manuscripts of the late Charles L. Jordan, a life long turkey- 
hunter and manager of the Morris game preserve at Hammond, La. In 
his introduction Mr. Mcllhenny says, " After Mr. Jordan's death .... 
I secured his notes, manuscript, and photographic plates of the wild turkey, 

1 Handbook of Birds | of the | Western United States. 1 Including | the Great 
Plains, Great Basin, Pacific Slope, and | Lower Rio Grande Valley. | By | Florence 
Merriam Bailey. | With thirty-three full-page plates by | Louis AgasSjz Fuertes, 
and over six | hundred cuts in the text. | Fourth Edition, Revised. | Boston and 
New York. | Houghton, Mifflin Company. | Riverside Press, Cambridge. | 1914. 

12mo, pp. i-li+ 1-570. $3.50 net, postpaid $3.69. 

2 The Wild Turkey | and Its Hunting. | By | Edward A. Mcllhenny. | Illus- 
trated from photographs. | 12mo, pp. i-viii+ 1-245, 20 plates. Doubleday, Page 
& Co., Garden City, New York. $2.50 net. 

lib Recent Inter attire. Uan" 

and with these, and my knowledge of the bird, I have attempted to compile 
a work I think he would have approved. ... I have carried out the story 
of the wild turkey as if told by Mr. Jordan, as his full notes on the bird 
enable me to do this." 

Mr. Jordan had long been contemplating the publication of a book on the 
turkey and Mr. Mcllhenny's aim has been to carry out his intentions. In 
this he seems to have been eminently successful and the habits, habitats, 
and calls of the bird are fully described while methods of hunting and 
calling the turkey as well as of cooking it, are treated in a manner cal- 
culated to interest the sportsman. 

Dr. Shufeldt's account of the fossil turkeys is largely reprinted from his 
recent paper in ' The Auk,' while in his historical account the several races 
and their ranges are differentiated, and the anatomy and the eggs of the 
species, the early historic records, and the relation of the wild and domestic 
forms are discussed. 

Much of the contents of the book appeared serially in ' Out Door World 
and Recreation.' — W. S. 

Mathews' ' Birds of Australia.' • — The fourth volume of Mr. Mathews' 
work begins with the Anseriformes and the author presents a general review 
of the classification of these birds and the probable relationship and origin 
of the various Australian genera. His studies lead him to the recognition 
" that the hypothesis that the Australian Fauna considered as a whole 
reached the continent from the north has been rejected by nearly every 
recent worker in other branches " while he thinks " that all the available 
evidence points to Antarctica as a stepping stone " between South Ameri- 
ca, New Zealand and Australia. This however, is not necessarily his 
final view as he promises further consideration of the question, later. 

The systematic treatment of the species follows the plan of the other 
volumes and both text and plates maintain their high standard. No new 
names appear in this installment. — W. S. 

Kuroda's Recent Ornithological Publications. 2 — Mr. Nagamichi 
Kuroda has published a number of contributions to ornithology during the 
past few years. Most of these refer to the birds of Japan but two hand- 
somely printed brochures on the Anatida cover the species of the world. 

1 The Birds of Australia. By Gregory M. Mathews. Vol. IV, Part I, With- 
erby & Co., 326 High Holborn, W. C. October 6, 1914. pp. 1-80, pll. 200-209. 

2 Ducks of the World. By N. Kuroda. The Ornithological Society of Japan. 
1912. pp. 1-64 + 1-2, 6 plates. 

Geese and Swans of the World. By N. Kuroda. The Ornithological Society 
of Japan, 1913. pp. 1-118+1-2, 9 plates. 

A Hand List of the Birds of Haneda and Tsurumi near Yokohama. [By N. 
KurodaJ. August, 1913. pp. 1-11. 

Nests and Eggs of Japanese Birds. Including Formosa, Saghalin and Corea. 
By Nagamichi Kuroda. April 10, 1914. pp. 1-31. 

'i9i4 J Recent Literature. 117 

These are illustrated by half-tone plates, some of them in colors. While 
the technical names are in Latin and some of the data in English, the main 
portion of the text is in Japanese which renders the publications difficult 
to consult. The general typography and make-up leave little to be 
desired. — W. S. 

The Annual Report of the National Association of Audubon So- 
cieties. 1 — • When one looks over the bulky report of the Association for the 
year 1914 and reads of receipts and expenditures totalling $90,000, and then 
harks back some eighteen years, when two State societies and some scattered 
individuals were struggling along, with scarcely any receipts but unlimited 
opportunities for expenditures, it seems hard to realize the tremendous 
breadth and power of the organization that has developed from the hard 
work of these few pioneers. 

We cannot do justice to the report in the short space of a review and 
recommend that all of our readers study it in detail. We shall merely call 
attention to some of the more salient features. Among publications dis- 
tributed during the year, are 2,358,000 educational leaflets, 2,078,000 col- 
ored bird pictures and 1,619,000, outline drawings for coloring. 

On the protected gull colonies of Maine it is estimated that there were 
in 1914, 59,420 adult Herring Gulls and in the Laughing Gull colonies in the 
south 118,400 individuals, besides other species in proportionate numbers. 

The Junior Audubon Societies have a total enrollment to date of 115,039 
members and subscriptions for the continuance of this work during the 
year have been made — $5000 by Mrs. Russell Sage for the south and 
$20,000 by an unnamed patron for work in the northern schools. 

A new department of " Applied Ornithology," has been started with Mr. 
Herbert K. Job in charge, with the object of instructing the public in practi- 
cal methods of attracting birds and in raising wild game birds. 

Trained field agents of the Association — Messrs. Arthur H. Norton, 
Winthrop Packard, Katharine H. Stuart, Eugene Swope, and William L. 
Finley present reports of great interest and the reports of secretaries of 
twenty-five State societies close this most encouraging record of bird pro- 
tection.— W. S. 

Recent Literature on Bird Protection.— Three publications of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture deserve notice in this connection. ' Bird 
Houses and How to Build Them ' - by Ned Dearborn is a welcome pamphlet 
giving just the information that hundreds of people are asking for in 
connection with their efforts to attract birds to their grounds. The usual 
publication ' Game Laws for 1914 ' 3 contains a convenient summary 
of game legislation throughout the United States and Canada, revised 
to date. A third Government publication is the ' Report of the Gover- 

1 Tenth Annual Report of the National Association of Audubon Societies, 
Inc. Bird-Lore, Nov.-Dec, 1914, pp. 481-565. 

2 Farmers' Bulletin, No. 609, published September 11, 1914. 

3 Farmers' Bulletin, No. 628, published October 20, 1914. 

118 Recent Literature. Uan. 

nor of Alaska on the Alaskan Game Law,' with an appendix giving all 
information relative to hunting and collecting in the territory. 

' California Fish and Game,' a new publication of the State Fish and 
Game Commission, 1 contains many timely articles including one by 
Joseph Grinnell on ' Bird Life as a Community Asset ' which is well worth 
careful perusal. The ' Hingham Journal ' for October 2, 1914, states editori- 
ally that thanks to the efforts of Mr. Alexander Pope an extensive bird 
sanctuary has been established in Hingham, Mass. 

Mr. W. L. Finley's ' Oregon Sportsman ' and the ' Bulletins' of the District 
of Columbia and New Jersey Audubon Societies continue to keep the public 
interested in matters of bird and game preservation in their respective 

' Bird Notes and News,' the British quarterly, is full of information on 
the plume trade and bird protection abroad. The autumn number con- 
veys the unwelcome information of the failure of the plumage prohibition 
bill to come to a final vote in Parliament on account of the war. The passage 
of the bill was assured but the policy of delay so successfully carried out by 
its opponents, which under ordinary circumstances would have had no ulti- 
mate effect, has under the extraordinary conditions now prevailing, caused 
its adoption to be postponed until another session. — W. S. 

Studies in Egg Production in the Domestic Fowl.— The Staff of 
the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station have continued their investi- 
gations on this important problem and some of their recent publications 
contain data of considerable interest to students of inheritance as well as 
to ornithologists and such oologists as concern themselves with any- 
thing beyond the external shell of the egg. In a paper by Drs. 
Raymond Pearl and Frank M. Surface 2 it is ascertained that eggs are 
relatively more variable in length than in breadth and considerably more 
in shape than in either of the linear dimensions while in weight and volume 
they vary more than in any of the other characters. 

The whole process of egg laying is analyzed and many interesting data 
are presented. 

A paper on somewhat similar lines by Maynie R. Curtis 3 discusses the 
variation among eggs of the same bird and in eggs laid in consecutive 
months, and the individuality of eggs of the same bird. 

Dr. Pearl also discusses ' Improving Egg Production by Breeding ' 4 and 
1 The Brooding Instinct in its Relation to Egg Production.' 5 — W. S. 

1 Edited by H. C. Bryant, Museum Vert. Zool., Univ. of Cal., Berkeley, Cal. 

2 Variation and Correlation in the Physical Characters of the Egg. U. S. Dept. 
Of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry, Bull. 110, pt. III. July 31, 1914. 

8 Factors Influencing the Size, Shape and Physical Constitution of the Egg of the 
Domestic Fowl. (Reprinted from Ann. Report, Maine Agr. Exper. Sta., 1914.) 
* Reprinted from Ann. Report, Maine Agr. Exper. Sta., 1914. 
6 Reprinted from Journal Animal Behavior, July-Aug., 1914. 

1915 J Recent Literature. 119 

Birds as Carriers of the Chestnut-Blight Fungus. 1 — Birds have 
been charged with distributing various plant diseases, but their relation 
to chestnut blight is the only case of this nature that has been scientifically- 
investigated. The writers of the article here cited examined 36 birds be- 
longing to 9 different species which were collected among diseased chest- 
nuts in Pennsylvania. Using a most careful and thorough technique, 
they found that of the 36 birds tested 19 were " carrying spores of the 
chestnut-blight fungus. The highest positive results were obtained from 
two Downy Woodpeckers, which were found to be carrying 757,074 and 
624,341 viable spores of Endothia parasitica. The next highest was a 
Brown Creeper with 254,019 spores." (p. 412) . The other birds upon which 
spores were found were the Golden-crowned Kinglet, Junco, White-breasted 
Nuthatch, and Sapsucker. Three species, the Black and White Creeper, 
Flicker, and Hairy Woodpecker gave negative results. It was found also 
that the birds carried spores of a large number of fungi other than that 
producing chestnut-blight. 

The authors conclude that "birds in general are important carriers of 
fungous spores," and that in particular " birds which climb or creep over 
the bark of chestnut trees are important agents in carrying viable pycno- 
spores of the chestnut-blight fungus, especially after a period of consider- 
able rainfall." 

" Birds are probably not very important agents in spreading the chest- 
nut blight locally, on account of the predominance of other and more 
important factors of dissemination, as, for example, the wind." 

" The writers believe, however, that many of the so-called ' spot infec- 
tions ' (local centers of infection isolated from the area of general infection) 
have had their origin from pycnospores carried by migratory birds. Some 
of the birds tested were not permanent residents of eastern Pennsylvania, 
but were shot during their migration northward. These, no doubt, carry 
spores great distances. Each time the bird climbs or creeps over the trunk 
or limbs of a tree some of the spores may be brushed off and may lodge in 
crevices or on the rough bark. From this position they may be washed 
down into wounds by the rain and may thus cause infections." (p. 421). 

The findings of this paper are based upon umimpeachable evidence and 
the conclusions must be accepted at face value. Nevertheless, the part 
birds play in the general spread of this disease is so small that it will never 
be seriously urged as a reason for diminishing bird protection.- — W. L. M. 

Reichenow's "Die Vbgel." 2 The second volume of this important 
work was distributed on October 24. It follows the plan of volume one, 

1 Heald, F. D., and Studhalter, R. A., Journ. Agr. Research, ir. No. 6, Sept. 
1914, pp. 405-422, PI. XXXVII, 2 figs. 

2 Die Vogel. Handbuch der Systematischen Ornithologie von Anton Reichenow 
Zwei Bande. Zweiter Band. Mit 273 text bildern gezeichnet von G. Krause. 
Verlag von Ferdinand Euhe. Stuttgart, 1914. 8vo. pp. 1-628. Price, M. 

\2\) Recent Literature. Uan. 

citing nearly all of the important genera and a fairly representative list of 
species under each, although some of the most common North American 
species, such as the Downy Woodpecker, are omitted. The text illustra- 
tions are numerous, well chosen, and admirable both in execution and in 

With the completed work before us Dr. Reichenow's classification can 
be better understood than from the outline given in Vol. I. 

He divides the birds primarily into 1, Ratitse; II, Natatores; III, 
Grallatores; IV, Cutinares; V, Fibulatores; and VI, Arboricolse. The 
limits of the first three groups are easily understood. The others can be 
best appreciated in tabular form as follows: 

4. Reihe: Cutinares 

Ord. Deserticolae ( Turnicidoe, Thinocoridce and Pteroclidce) 
Crypturi (Tinamous) 
Rassores (Gallinaceous birds) 
Gyrantes (Doves) 
Raptores (Vultures, Hawks and Owls) 

5. Reihe: Fibulatores 
Ord. Psittaci (Parrots) 

Scansores (Woodpeckers, Toucans, etc., and also Trogons and 

6. Reihe: Arboricolse 

Ord. Insessores (Hornbills, Kingfishers, Hoopoes, Rollers, Motmots, 
Bee-eaters, etc.) 
Strisores (Nightjars, Swifts and Hummingbirds) 
Clamatores (in the usual sense) 
Oscines (including the Lyre-bird and the true song-birds) 

Such a classification takes us back a good many years, to the time when 
characters of bill and feet were the basis of our systems. It was this 
fact and the ignoring of various generally recognized relationships that 
caused us to refer to the classification as conservative in reviewing Volume 
I. It was perhaps unfair, however, to make this remark without setting 
forth the underlying principles of Dr. Reichenow's system which we pre- 
ferred not to discuss until the whole work was before us. 

Briefly his views, as we understand them, are, that in order to become 
acquainted with the great multitude of bird species it is necessary to arrange 
them in a system wherein each one finds its place through a successive sub- 
division of groups from orders down to species. Further that such a sys- 
tem for general, practical use had better be based upon more or less obvious 
external characters, than upon deep seated phylogenetic characters which 
are not recognizable without dissection and minute study. He does not 
belLtle the importance of the latter but does not regard them as practical 
for a " logical system." Indeed he states definitely that " System and 
Genealogy have absolutely different ends in view and must advance side 
by side." 

° i9i5 ] Recent Literature. 121 

While these premises make criticism of the " system " to a great extent 
impossible we nevertheless cannot agree with the principle. Such a 
stand is absolutely opposed to the modern views of classification, and we 
fail to see why we are better off in grouping together two species which 
are superficially alike when we know that they have sprung from very 
different stocks, and have converged through the action of similar 
necessities of life or environment. Even the popular student would, we 
think, prefer to know that a system reflected the actual phylogenetic rela- 
tionship of the groups, even though he were unable to see similarities in a 
cursory examination of the species. 

No linear arrangement such as is necessitated in a book can be truly 
accurate phylogenetically or " systematically " but we see no need for two 
arrangements and consider that the best " system " is a phylogenetic one. 

Apart from the nature of the " System " the uniting of a number of 
families into several composite groups it seems to us serves no purpose, 
especially when the larger groups are put in different primary divisions; as 
the " Scansores " and " Insesores," of Dr. Reichenow's system. The 
reduction in the number of families is on the same fine and we can see no 
advantage in uniting the Phytolomidtc and Cotingidce; the Tyrannidce, 
Pipridce and Oxyrhynchidce; or in the grand amalgamation of Timaliidce, 
Wrens, Mockers, Thrushes and Old World Warblers under the family name 
of Sylviidce! 

More misleading still is the disposition of some of the genera. The 
removal of Vireosylva from the Virconidce to the Mniotiltidce is certainly 
not due to any obvious external characters. And the appearance in the 
latter family of the genera Rhodinocichla, Phoenicophilus, and Tachy- 
phonus is hardly less unfortunate, especially in the case of Rhodinocichla 
which Dr. Hubert Lyman Clarke has shown pretty conclusively to be 
Tanagrine in its affinities. (Auk, 1913, p. 11.) 

While, as said before, we can see no reason for a system such as Dr. 
Reichenow advocates, nevertheless if we adopt such a system, it would, 
it seems to us, have been more consistent to have carried it further and 
placed the swallows in the same group with the swifts, and to have recog- 
nized several other obvious cases of external resemblance. 

However, no matter what system is adopted ' Die Vogel ' fills a long-felt 
want in presenting the more important genera and species in a concise 
manner under each family as well as furnishing in a convenient form a vast 
amount of valuable information. It will thus take its place among the 
standard works of reference on the birds of the world — a broad field truly, 
but one which Dr. Reichenow is eminently fitted to cover. — W. S. 

Second Report on the Food of Birds of Scotland. — In 1912 Miss 
Laura Florence published analyses of the contents of 616 stomachs of 
Scottish birds. Now a report x has appeared upon the continuation of that 
work. It includes analyses of 1390 stomachs representing 81 species. 

i Trans. Highland and Agr. Soc. Scotland. Fifth Series, Vol. XXVI, 1914, 
pp. 1-74. 

122 Recent Literature. LJan. 

Some of the species most numerously represented are Starling, 107 stom- 
achs, Rook, 288, and Black-headed Gull, 137. The results are given in 
numerical form and the identification of items is in most cases very definite. 
Summaries for the various species note the number of stomachs contain- 
ing items of various economic groups. 

The preface explains why no percentage system is used in the following 
passage quoted from Mr. C. F. Archbald: " it would be unwise to attempt 
to show the proportion in which the components of their food are consumed 
because individuals of the same species vary much according to opportunity 
and their own particular fancy. For this reason it would require records 
extending over several years, and including observations on an enormous 
number of birds from different localities, to enable us to draw any definite 
conclusions as to the proportionate amount of good and harm with which 
each species should be credited." 

This is the theoretical opinion of one who has not given percentage 
methods a thorough trial. As a matter of fact even a moderate number of 
stomachs will give results as to proportions of principal items of food that 
will not materially be changed by doubling or trebling the number of 
stomachs. Moreover every economic investigation should aim at ulti- 
mate completeness, and it is just as well to do the earlier work in the style 
that must eventually be adopted for handling a large mass of data. 

Among the general conclusions are the following: the Starling and the 
Rook are too numerous; the Herring Gull is spending more time inland and 
feeds extensively on grain; it and the Common Gull (Larus canus) should 
be left unprotected until their numbers have greatly decreased; the Black- 
headed Gull is beneficial. — W. L. M. 

Feilden on Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. 1 — This paper contains 
notes on 35 species; about 300 are known from these islands. Notes on the 
food of several species are included, though few of them are very definite. 
The most interesting annotation refers to the Oil-bird (Steatornis caripensis) . 
It is as follows: " The food consists of fruit and berries. It is the only 
fruit-eating night bird. It feeds on the wing, picking off the fruit as it 
passes the tree. The stones of the fruit are subsequently ejected from the 
mouth. A species of palm Thrinax argentea growing in the Botanic gardens 
was visited nightly by these birds to the number of three or four as long as 
the tree remained in fruit. As the only known colonies of these birds are 
on the north coast of the island, it is probable that they made the long 
journey nightly in order to secure food. The Guacharo ... .is of economic 
value, the young becoming very fat when about a fortnight old. They 
are then coUected and the fat melted down into a colorless oil which is used 
for purposes of cooking and illumination" (pp. 31-32). With all the 
modern methods of producing light, it would seem the Oil-bird might be 
excused from serving as a substitute. — W. L. M. 

1 Feilden, G. St. Clair, Notes on some birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Bull. 
Dept. Agr. Trinidad and Tobago, Vol. xiii, Jan. 1914, pp. 25-33. 

VOl 'lfi^ XI1 ] Recent Literature. 123 

The Ornithological Journals. 

Bird-Lore. 1 Vol. XVI, No. 5. September-October, 1914. 

Some Observations on Bird Protection in Germany. By William P. 
Wharton. — A visit to the estate of Baron von Berlepsch, describing the 
use of nesting boxes, etc. , and the pruning of shrubs so as to produce crotches 
suitable for nest building. 

An Island Home of the American Merganser. By Francis Harper. 

Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds. V. By Louis Agassiz 
Fuertes. — Toucans, Cuckoos, Trogons, Motmots, etc., described and 

Migration of North American Sparrows includes Worthen's and the Texas 
Sparrows and the Green-tailed Towhee. 

The ' Notes ' and Audubon, Department are particularly full and in- 
structive. The educational leaflet by H. K. Job describes the Pintail. 

Bird-Lore. Vol. XVI, No. 6. November-December, 1914. 

Bird Life in Southern Illinois. By Robert Ridgway. — The first of a 
series of three articles describing his properties and the methods that have 
been taken to increase wild bird life thereon. 

Impressions of the Voices of Tropical Birds . By Louis Agassiz Fuertes. — 
The concluding installment covering, the Parrots, Guans, Pigeons, etc. 

On the Trail of the Evening Grosbeak. By Arthur A. Allen. Studies 
of the birds at Ithaca, N. Y. February-May, 1914, with a series of 
remarkably successful photographs. 

The Juncos form the subject of the North American Sparrow installment 
and the educational leaflet treats of the Crow. 

The Annual Report of the National Audubon Society (noticed on p. 117) 
occupies nearly half of this bulky number. 

The Condor. 2 Vol. XVI, No. 5. September-October, 1914. 

The Nesting of the Spotted Owl. By Donald R. Dickey. — Strix occi- 
dentalis occidentalis in Ventura, Cal. Excellent illustrations. 

Henry W. Marsden. By Louis B. Bishop. — An appreciative obituary. 

Notes on a Colony of Tri-colored Redwings. By Joseph Mailliard. 

Bird Notes from the Sierra Madre Mountains, southern California. By 
H. A. Edwards. 

A Study of the Status of Certain Island Forms of the Genus Salpinctes. 
By H. S. Swarth. — The treatment of the A. O. U. Check-List endorsed 
in preference to that of Ridgway. S. guadeloupensis proximus from San 
Martin Island, L. Cal., is described as new (p. 215). 


i Organ of the Audubon Societies. Edited by F. M. Chapman. Published by 
D. Appleton & Co., Harrisburg, Pa. (Bimonthly) $1 per year. 

s Edited for the Cooper Ornithological Club by Joseph Grinnell. Published 
at The Condor office, First Nat. Bank Building, Hollywood, Cal. (Bimonthly) 
$1.50 per year. 

124 Recent Literature. [j an . 

A Survey of the Breeding Grounds of Ducks in California in 1914. By 
H. C. Bryant. — -A valuable summary of careful field investigations under- 
taken in the interest of game conservation. The evidence shows conclu- 
sively that the breeding ducks of the State are decreasing owing to the 
reclamation of marsh lands and excessive shooting. 

A Method of Cleaning Skulls and Disarticulated Skeletons. By F. H. 
Holden. — A valuable taxidermical contribution. 

The Wilson Bulletin. 1 Vol. XXVI, No. 3. September, 1914. 

The Prothonotary Warbler at Lake Okoboji, Iowa. By T. C. Stephens. 

Habits of the Old-Squaw (Harelda hyemalis) in Jackson Park, Chicago. 
By Edwin D. Hull. 

The Kentucky Warbler in Columbiana County [Ohio]. By H. W. 

Spring Migration (1914) at Houston, Texas. By George Finlay Sim- 

The Pine Siskin Breeding in Iowa. By W. J. Hayward and T. C. 

The Oologist. 2 Vol. XXXII, No. 9. September 15, 1914. 

Fall Migration of the Olive-backed Thrush, 1912. By Paul G. Hawes.— 
While Prof. W. W. Cooke has shown in his various papers that observations 
at one locality only, throw but little light upon the direction of migration as 
a whole, and that temperature has but little to do with the problem, never- 
theless Mr. Hawes will find that his theory corresponds with the migration 
route of the Olive-backed Thrush as worked out carefully by Prof. Cooke 
from abundant data some ten years ago (see Auk, 1905, p. 1). One may 
be pardoned for wondering how the birds mentioned by Mr. Hawes as 
flying 150-200 feet overhead without stopping could be positively identified 

The Oologist. Vol. XXXII, No. 11. November 15, 1914. 

A List of Birds Observed in the Big Hole Basin, Montana. By E. R. 

Blue-Bird. 3 Vol. VII, No. 1. October, 1914. 

The White Ibis. By O. E. Baynard. Excellent illustrations. 

Blue-Bird. Vol. VII, No. 2. November, 1914. 

Bird Friends in a City Back Yard. By L. S. Loveland, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

The Black Vulture. By O. E. Baynard.— In Florida. 

The Ibis. 4 X Series. Vol. II, No. 4. October, 1914. 

On Herodias eulophotes Swinhoe. By Tom Iredale. 

1 Edited for the Wilson Ornithological Club by Lynds Jones, Oberlin, Ohio. 
(Quarterly) $1 per year. 

2 Edited and published by R. M. Barnes, Lacon, 111. (Monthly) $1. per year. 

3 A Monthly devoted to Junior Audubon Classes and Nature Study Work 
Edited by Eugene Swope, 4 W. 7th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 50 cts. per year. 

* Edited for the British Ornithologists' Union by W. L. Sclater. Published by. 
Wm. Wesley and Son, 28 Essex St., Strand, London, W. C. (Quarterly) £ 1. 12s. 
per year. 

VOl 'lfl^ XH ] Recent Literature. 125 

Some Remarks on the Subspecies of Crested Larks (Galerida cristata) 
found in Egypt. By M . J. Nicoll. 

With the Tropic-birds in Bermuda. By Karl Plath. — Some excellent 
illustrations and a popular account of this much studied bird. 

The Spring Migration at Chinwangtao in North-east Chihli. By J. D. 
La Touche.- — A continuation of the author's studies of bird migration in 
Northern China published in Bull. B. O. C ., XXIX, pp. 124-160. 

A Note on the Breeding of the White-rumped Swift (Micropus pacificus). 
By H. L. Cochrane. 

Notes on Birds observed in the South Pacific Ocean during a voyage from 
Sydney to Valparaiso. By C. F. Belcher. 

The Birds of Prince's Island. By D. A. Bannerman. — This is the first 
of five papers covering collections made by the late Boyd Alexander during 
his last expedition to Africa. 

The Gannetry at " The Stack," Orkney Islands. By J. H. Gurney. 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 1 No. CC. Novem- 
ber 4, 1914. 

The following are described as new. By Hon. Walter Rothschild: 
Casuarius papuanus goodfellowi (p. 7), Jobi Island. By Messrs. Rothschild 
and Hartert: Accipiter (Astur) eudiabolus (p. 8), Babooni, British New 
Guinea. By Mr. Ogilvie-Grant from Utakwa River, Snow Mts., Dutch 
New Guinea; Oreopsittacus arfaki major (p. 11); Neopsittacus muschen- 
brocki alpinus (12), and Psittacella modesta collaris (p. 13). Also by Mr. 
Grant; Alcyone richardsi bougainvillei (p. 13) and A. r. aolae (p. 13) from 
Bougainville and Guadalcanar, Solomon Isls. 

Dr. Hartert describes Egretta dimorpha (p. 14), Madagascar; and Nycti- 
corax cyanocephalus falklandicus (p. 15), Falkland Islands. 

Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker proposes Trichalopterum erythrolaema woodi 
(p. 17), Loi Sing, N. Shan Stales; Ixulus flavicollis baileyi (p. 17), Mishmi 
Hills; Ithagenes tibetanus (p. 18), Sela Range above Tavanz and Tragopan 
blythi molesivorthi (p. 18), Dengan La, Tibet. 

Mr. Claude Grant describes Pterocles quadricinctus lowei (p. 19), Renk, 
White Nile; Streptopelia senegalensis sokotrae (p. 19), Hadebu Plain, N. 
Sokotra and Poicephalus meyeri naevei (p. 19), Kahili Valley, Belgian Congo. 

Lord Brabourne and Mr. Chubb describe Buarremon matucanensis, 
(p. 20), Matucana, Peru; and Upucerthia juninensis (p. 20), Junin, Peru. 

British Birds. 2 Vol. VIII, No. 4. September 1, 1914. 

A Report on the Land Rail Inquiry. By H. G. Alexander. 

RiippelPs Warbler in Sussex. A New British Bird. By H. W. Ford- 

British Birds. Vol. VIII, No. 5. October 1, 1914. , 

1 Edited by D. A. Bannerman. Published by Witherby & Co., 326 High Hol- 
born, London, W. C. 6s. per year (nine monthly numbers). 

2 Edited by H. F. Witherby, 326 High Holborn, London, S. W. (Monthly) , 
10s., 6d. per year. 

lzb Recent Literature. Ljan. 

Increase and Decrease in Summer Residents. By M. Vaughan. 

British Birds. Vol. VIII, No. 6. November 2, 1914. 

Cormorants in Norfolk. By Miss E. L. Turner. — Illustrated. 

Avicultural Magazine. 1 Vol. V, No. 11. September, 1914. 

Notes from the Zoological Gardens [London]. By D. Seth-Smith. 

Glimpses of South American Ornithology. By Lord Brabourne. — Notes 
on the character of bird-life in various parts of the continent collected 
during a residence of six years. 

Avicultural Magazine. Vol. V, No. 12. October, 1914. 

The Rufous-necked Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes ruficollis). By D. 
Seth Smith. — ■ With good color plate. 

Some Canadian Birds. By H. B. Rathborne. — This paper describes 
the writer's bird observations on a trip through the United States and 
Canada. Despite the title nearly half of it treats of " Fairview " [ = Fair- 
mount] Park, Philadelphia, where the author discovered " a spring in a dell 
surrounded by brambles " where he was able to observe the habits of Swain- 
son's Warbler, a bird by the way unknown north of the cane brakes of our 
southern states! It is remarkable how some of our British visitors ignore 
the A. O. U. Check-List and a full century of American ornithological litera- 
ture when they come to write up their trips! 

Avicultural Magazine. Vol. VI, No. 1. November, 1914. 

Bud Keeping in China. By Alex. Hampe. 

The Emu. 2 Vol. XIV, Part 2, October, 1914. 

Rarer Birds of the Mallee. By F. E. Howe and T. H. Tregellas.— With 
photographs of nests including one of the feather-decked nests of the Honey- 
eater (Glyciphila albifrons). 

Bird Life in the National Park, N. S. W. By E. B. Nicholls— Account 
and photograph of a Cockatoo reputed to be 117 years old. 

The Emu of King Island. By L. Brazil (translation). 

The South Australian Ornithologist. 3 Vol. I, Part 4. October, 

Life of Samuel White (continued). By S. A. White. 

The Birds of Kalhoota. By A. M. Morgan. 

Reappearance in South Australia of the Swift Lorikeet. By E. Ashby. 

A Long-Lost Bud. By S. A. White — Rediscovery of Aphelocephala 

Description of Some Interesting Birds from the Northern Territory. 
By Edwin Ashby. — Karua leucomela mayi, and Dulciomis alisteri mayi, 
(p. 27), subspp. nov. from Union Bore, near Pine Creek, Northern Territory. 

1 Edited by Hubert D. Astley for the Avicultural Society. Published by 
West, Newman & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, London E. C. (Monthly) 15s. per 

2 Edited for the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union by J. A. Leach and 
C. Barrett. Published by Walker May & Co., 25 Mackillop St., Melbourne.- 
(Quarterly). Witherby Co., European Agents. 

3 Edited for the South Australian Ornithological Association by F. R. Zietz and 
others. Published quarterly by W. K. Thomas & Co., Adelaide. 8s. per year. 

i9i5 ] Recent Literature. 127 

It would save a great deal of future trouble if the author would designate 
a definite type specimen stating in whose collection it is to be found with 
date of capture, etc. The description of new forms, like some other things, 
if worth doing at all is worth doing well. 

Bird Notes. 1 September, 1914. 

A Sunbird Aviary. By W. T. Page. 

A Journey Across the Sierras of Southern California. By W. S. Baily. — 
The author continues to identify the birds he sees in his own remarkable 
way which has already been referred to in these columns and in ' The 
Condor,' XVI, No. 5. The present article is continued in the October 
number. In it we find Carpodacus purpureus breeding in the verandas of 
buildings in California, while a "Hermit Thrush" (Hylocichla ustulatus 
[sic]) and a remarkable Bank Swallow " Cotyle erythrogaster " will prove 
valuable accessions to our western avifauna! 

Bird Notes. October, 1914. 

Parrot Finches. By W. T. Page — Color plates of the various species of 

Aviculture in the Days of Ancient Rome. By Dr. L. Lovell Keays. 

Sir William Ingram's Birds of Paradise at Little Tobago. By Per O. 
Millsum. — Report of the progress of this interesting experiment in accli- 

Wild Life. This beautifully illustrated monthly published at 55 Bank 
Bldg., Kingsway, London, presents some of the most exquisite pictures of 
wild life to be found anywhere. The series of photographs of Herons, 
Kingfishes, etc., in recent issues are of particular interest to ornithologists. 

The Austral Avian Record. 2 Vol. II, No. 5. September 24, 1914. 

On the Genus name Mathewsia. By Tom Iredale. — Preoccupied by 
Matthewsia Sanley, 1868, and Matheivsena proposed as a substitute, type 
Ardea rubicunda Perry. 

Additions and Corrections to my List of the Birds of Australia. By G. M . 

Geopelia shutridgei Grant, shown to be a hybrid. By Tom Carter. 

New Genera. By G. M Mathews. — Fourteen proposed mainly for 
Australian groups. Alphagygis is proposed in place of Gygis preoccupied by 

Plumage Changes of Elseyornis melanops. By G. M. Mathews. 

Ornithologische Monatsschrift. 3 Vol. XXXIX, No. 7. July, 1914. 
(In German). 

Sixth Annual Report of the Experimental and Model Station for Bird 
Protection. By Hans Freiherr von Berlepsch. 

1 Edited for the Foreign Bird Society, by Wesley T. Page. Published by J. H. 
Heustock, Ashbourne, England. (Monthly) 15s. per year. 

2 Edited by Gregory M. Mathews. Published (at intervals) by Witherby & Co., 
326 High Holborn, London, W. C. Is. 6d. per part. 

3 Edited by Dr. Carl R. Hennicke for the German Society for Bird Protection. 
Published by Max Kretschmann, Creutz'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Magdeburg. 
(Monthly) 8 Marks per year. 

128 Recent Literature. [jan. 

Bird Protection in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. 
Ornithologische Monatsberichte. 1 Vol. 22, No. 9. September, 
1914. (In German). 
The Thrush; a Composer among Birds. By C. Schmitt and H. Stadler. 
On Paradise Birds from Keiser Wilhelm's Land. By H. Keysser. 

Ornithological Articles in Other Journals. 2 

Miller, L. H. Bird Remains from the Pleistocene of San Pedro, Cali- 
fornia. (Bull. Dept. Geol., Univ. of Cal. Publ., VIII, No. 4.) — Species 
apparently all recent, Gavia and Diomedia new to American paleontology. 

Martin, E. W. The Birds of the Latin Poets. (Leland Stanford Jr. 
Univ. Publ., series 13.) — Intended " to present in their own words a toler- 
ably full picture of the Roman attitude toward bird-life as reflected in their 
greatest poets." 

Oberholser, H. C. Four new Birds from Newfoundland. (Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., XXVII.) — Dryobates pubescens microleucus (p. 43); Bubo 
virginianus neochorus (p. 46); Perisoreus canadensis sanfordi (p. 49) and 
Pinicola enucleator eschatosus (p. 51). 

Mearns, E. A. Diagnosis of a New Subspecies of Gambel's Quail from 
Colorado. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVII, July 10, 1914.) — Lophortyx 
gambellii sanus (p. 113), Olathe, Colo. 

Riley, J. H. On the Remains of an Apparently Reptilian Character in 
the Cotingidae. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVII, July 10, 1914.) — An ap- 
parently closed pore was found on the back of the tarsus of Carpodectes and 
eleven other genera of the Cotingidae, considered to be possibly analogous 
to the femoral pores of reptiles. 

Riley, J. H. An Apparently new Sporophila from Ecuador. (Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., XXVII, Oct. 31, 1914.) — Sporophila incerta (p. 213), 
Gualia, Ecuador. 

Wetmore, Alex. A New Accipiter from Porto Rico with Notes on the 
Allied Forms from Cuba and San Domingo. (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
XXVII, July 10, 1914.) — Accipiter striatus venator (p. 119), Cerro Gordo. 

Jackson, H. H. T. The Land Vertebrates of Ridgeway Bog, Wisconsin: 
their Ecological Succession and Source of Ingression. (Bull. Wise. Nat. 

1 Edited by Dr. A. Reichenow. Published by R. Friedlander & Son, Berlin, 6. 
Kailstr 11. (Monthly) 6M. per year. 

2 Some of these journals are received in exchange, others are examined in the 
library of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The Editor is under 
obligations to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn for a list of ornithological articles contained in the 
accessions to the library from week to week. 

The scarcity of articles from the continent of Europe, owing to the war, is 
noticeable. In this connection it may be mentioned that the records of the 
Philadelphia Academy library show a decrease of 1000 books and pamphlets re- 
ceived since August 1, 1914, as compared with the same period in 1913. 

YOl lflf XI1 ] Recent Literature. 129 

Hist. Soc, XII, Nos. 1 and 2.) — A careful ecological paper covering birds 
along with other vertebrates. 

Alphonsus, Brother. Comparative Migration of our Birds in Autumn. 
(Amer. Midland Nat., III.) 

Saunders, W. E. The Problem of Bird Encouragement. (Ottawa 
Naturalist, XXVIII, No. 7. October, 1914.) 

Cook, F. C. Migratory and Other Ornithological Notes from Lowestoft 
(The Zoologist, No. 879, September 15, 1914.) 

Aplin, O. V. Notes on the Ornithology of Oxfordshire, 1913. (The Zool- 
ogist, No. 881, November 15, 1914.) 

Clarke, W. Eagle. The "Blue Fulmar": its Plumage and Distribu- 
tion. (Scottish Naturalist, No. 34, October, 1914.) 

Rintoul, Leonora J. and Baxter, Evelyn B. Notes on some Passerine 
Birds found Migrating in Moult. (Scottish Naturalist, No. 35, November, 
1914.) — Much valuable information on the subject is presented. 

Rintoul, L. J. and Baxter, E. V. Birds Singing while in Migration. 
(Scottish Naturalist, No. 32, August, 1914.) 

Stresemann, E. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Avifauna 
of Buru. Zoological Results of the second Freiburger Moluccan Expedi- 
tion. (Novitates Zoologicse, XXI.) — Annotated list of 67 species, with 
much preliminary discussion. Accipiter torquatus buruensis (p. 381) subsp. 
nov. and Toxorhamphus (p. 394) gen. nov. type Cinnyris novaeguineoe. 

Rothschild, W. and Hartert, E. The Birds of the Admiralty Islands, 
north of German New Guinea. (Novitates Zoologicse XXI.) — The col- 
lection here reported upon is the second ever obtained from these islands, 
and the interior of Manus, the largest island, still remains to be explored. 
The list contains 46 species of which the following, all from Manus, are 
described as new: Phlegoenas beccarii admiralitatis (p. 287); Cacomantis 
bland us (p. 290); Tyto manusi (p. 291); Collocalia esculenia stresemanni 
(p. 293) and Pachycephala pectoralis goodsoni (p. 296). Incidentally the 
name Accipiter hiogaster rooki (p. 288), is proposed for the Rook Island form 
of this hawk. 

Gurney, J. H. Are Gannets Destructive Birds? (Irish Naturalist, 
XXIII, No. 10.) — The verdict is in the negative as it is not considered that 
the amount of fish they catch has any appreciable effect upon the supply 
for human consumption. The annual market catch of herring alone in 
Scotland amounts to about a billion and a half! 

Keywood, K. P. List of Birds Observed in the Neighborhood of Croy- 
don [England]. (Proc. & Trans. Croydon Nat. Hist. & Sci. Soc, Feb., 
1913-Jan., 1914.) 

Montague, P. D. A Report on the Fauna of the Monte Bello 
Islands. (Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1914, pt. III.) — A list of 25 species 
of birds. 

Berlepsch, Hans Graf von. Report on the Collection of Bird Skins 
made by Dr. H. Merton on the Kei Islands. (Abhandl. Senckenb. Naturf. 
GeselL, XXXIV, hf. 4.) — List of 29 species of which the following from 

lot) Recent Literature. [.Jan. 

Greater Kei Island are new. Halcyon chloris keiensis (p. 494); Porphyrio 
mertoni (p. 498) and Cinnyris zenobia marginata (p. 494). (In German.) 

Roth, E. Bird Protection on the German sea-coasts. (Zool. Beo- 
bachter LV, No. 7.) (In German.) 

Gerhardt, Ulrich. On the Morphology of the Penis in Birds. (Zool. 
Anzeiger, XLIV.) (In German.) 

Knauer, Fr. New Results of Bird-handling Experiments. (Zool. Beo- 
bachter LV, No. 7.) (In German.) 

Tschusi, Victor Ritter von. History of Ornithology in Stiermark. 
(Mitth. Naturw. Ver. fur Stiermark XL VIII.) (In German.) 

Salvadori, T. and Festa, E. The Zoological Expedition of Dr. E. Festa 
to the Island of Rodi: Birds. (Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp., Torino, 
XXVIII, No. 673.) (In Italian.) 

Someren, Dr. V. G. L. von. The African Brown-bellied Kingfisher, 
Halcyon semicceruleus. (Jour. E. African and Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc, 
IV, No. 8, Aug., 1914.) — With excellent plates. 

Dobbs, C. M. Notes on Crested Cranes at Kericho. (Jour. E. Air. 
and Uganda, Nat. Hist. Soc, IV, No. 8, Aug. 1914.) 

Williams, R. B. Some Notes on Birds in Sarawak. (The Sarawak 
Museum Journal, II, pt. 1, No. 5.) 

North, Alfred J. The Birds of New South Wales. (Brit. Asso. Adv. 
Sci., 1914 Handbook of N. S. Wales.) — A brief popular resume of the 
bird fife. 

Haswell, W. A. Birds of Australia. (Federal Handbook of Australia, 
1914.) — Similar to the last. 

' Brabourne, Lord and Chubb, Charles. A Key to the Species of the 
Genus Crypturus with Descriptions of Some New Forms. (Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., XIV, 1914.) — No less than nine new races are here described as well 
as Crypturellus (p. 322), a new genus with C. tataupa as type. 

Roberts, Austin Notes on Birds in the Collection of the Transvaal 
Museum with Descriptions of several New Subspecies. (Ann. Transvaal 
Mus., IV, August 22, 1914.) — Lophoceros nasutus maraisi (p. 170), Rho- 
desia; Rhinopomastus cyanomelas intermedins (p. 171), Koedoes River, 
Zoutpansberg Dist.; Anthus daviesi (p. 172), Matatiele, E. Griqualand; 
Anthoscopus caroli hellmayri (p. 174), Mapagone; Tarsiger stellatus chirin- 
densis (p. 175), Chirinda Forest, S. E. Rhodesia; Centropus pymi (p. 175), 
Kaffraria; Chlorophoneus olivaceus taylori (p. 178), Indhlovudwalile, E. 

Laubmann, A. Scientific Results of the Expedition of Dr. Erich Zug- 
wayer in Balulschistan, 1911. The Birds. (Abhandl. Kongl. Bayerischen 
Akad. der Wissenschaften Math.-physik. Klasse XXVI, 1914.) — A fully 
annotated list of 89 species with discussion of allied forms, distribution, etc. 

Huxley, Julian S. Courtship of the Crested Grebe. (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, No. XXXV, 1914.) This is a remarkably minute and painstaking 
study of behavior. The grebes in any of their activities are grotesque look- 
ing birds, and the curious stereotyped series of actions that constitute their 

VOl 'lfl^ XI1 ] Recent Literature. 131 

courtship must be extremely interesting to see. The prominent part that 
the elaborate ruff and ear tufts play, and the ways in which they may be 
displayed and contrasted are important to know. As our American grebes 
no doubt go through the same or similar performances this paper is one 
with which American ornithologists should familiarize themselves. 

Publications Received. — Bailey, Florence Merriam. Handbook of 
Birds of the Western United States. Fourth Edition, revised. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 1914. Price $3.50 net. (Postpaid $3.69.) 

Bryant, Harold C. A Survey of the Breeding Grounds of Ducks in 
California in 1914. (The Condor, XVI, No. 5, Sept. 15, 1914.) 

Chapman, Frank M. Diagnoses of apparently new Colombian Birds. 
III. (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXIII, Art. XL, pp. 603-637, 
Nov. 21, 1914.) 

Cooke, Wells W. Distribution and Migration of North American 
Rails and their Allies. (Bull. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, No. 128, Sept. 25, 

Curtis, Maynie R. Factors Influencing the Size, Shape and Physical 
Constitution of the Egg of the Domestic Fowl. (Ann. Rept. Maine Agr. 
Exper. Sta. for 1914, pp. 105-136.) 

Dearborn, Ned. Bird Houses and How to Build Them. (U. S. Dept. 
of Agr., Farmers' Bulletin 609. Sept. 11, 1914.) 

Gurney, J. H. (1) The Gannetry at " The Stack," Orkney Islands. 
(The Ibis, Oct. 1914, pp. 631-634). (2) Are Gannets Destructive Birds? 
(Irish Naturalist, Oct. 1914.) 

Ingersoll, Ernest. Alaskan Bird Life as Depicted by Many Writers. 
Nat. Asso. Aud. Soc. New York, 1914. 

Kennard, Frederic H. A List of Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Herbaceous 
Plants, Native to New England, Bearing Fruit or Seeds Attractive to 
Birds. (Bird-Lore, XIV, No. 4, July-Aug., 1912.) 

Mcllhenny, Edward A. The Wild Turkey and its Hunting. Double- 
day, Page & Co. 1914. Price, $2.50 net. 

Mathews, Gregory M. The Birds of Australia. Vol. IV, Part 1. 
4°, pp. 1-80, pll. 200-209. London, Witherby & Co. Oct. 6, 1914. 

Palmer, T. S., Bancroft, W. F., and Earnshaw, Frank L. Game Laws 
for 1914. (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 628, Oct. 20, 1914.) 

Pearl, Raymond. (1) Studies on the Physiology of Reproduction in the 
Domestic Fowl. VII, Data Regarding the Brooding Instinct in its Relation 
to Egg Production. (Jour. Anim. Behavior, IV, No. 4, pp. 266-288, 
July-Aug., 1914.) (2) Improving Egg Production by Breeding. (Ann. 
Rept. Maine Agr. Exper. Sta. for 1914, pp. 217-236. (3) The Measure- 
ment of Changes in the Rate of Fecundity of the Individual FowL (Science, 
XL, No. 1028, pp. 383-384, Sept. 11, 1914.) 

Pearl, Raymond and Surface, Frank M. A Biometrical Study of Egg 
Production in the Domestic Fowl. III. Variation and Correlation in the 
Physical Characters of the Egg. (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Animal Industry, BuU. 110, pt. Ill, July 31, 1914.) 

Lo2 Recent Literature. LJan' 

Reichenow, Anton. Die Vogel. Handbuch der Systematischen Orni- 
thologie. Zwei Bande. II. Band. Stuttgart, 1914. Verlag von Ferdi- 
nand Euhe. 8vo, pp. 1-628. Price, M. 18.40. 

Shufeldt, R. W. (1) Anatomical Notes on the Young of Phalacrocorax 
Atriceps Georgianus. (Sci. Bull. Mus. Brooklyn Inst. Arts, and Sci., 
Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 95-102. Nov. 5, 1914.) (2) Reder og Aeg af Nordameri- 
kanske Kohbrier (Trochili). (Dansk. Ornith. Forenings Tidsck. Copen- 
hagen, 1914.) (3) Tribute to Judge O. N. Denny (Oregon Sportsman, Sept. 
1914.) (4) American Bob-White and Quails, II-IV. (Outer's Book, 
Oct.-Dec, 1914.) (5) Our Way of Doing It. (Photographic Times, 
Oct., 1914.) (6) Death of the Last of the Wild Pigeons. (Scientif. Amer. 
Suppl. No. 2024, Oct. 17, 1914.) (7) The Last of the Passenger Pigeons. 
(Recreation, Nov., 1914.) 

Strong, J. F. A. Report of the Governor of Alaska on the Alaska Game 
Law. [Circular U. S. Dept. Agr.] 

Swarth, H. S. A Study of the Status of Certain Island Forms of the 
Genus Salpinctes. (The Condor, XVI, No. 5, Sept. 15, 1914.) 

Wetmore, Alex. A Peculiarity in the Growth of the Tail-feathers of the 
Giant Hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil). (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 47, pp. 
497-500. Oct. 24, 1914.) 

Abstract Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Nos. 136 and 137, November 3 
and 17, 1914. 

American Museum Journal, The, XIV, No. 6-7, October-November, 

Austral Avian Record, The, Vol. II, No. 5, September 24, 1914. 

Avicultural Magazine. (3) V, Nos. 11 and 12. VI, No. 1. October 
to December, 1914. 

Bird-Lore, XVI, No. 5 and 6, September-October, November-Decem- 
ber, 1914. 

Bird Notes and News, VI, No. 3, Autumn, 1914. 

Blue-Bird, VI, No. 12, VII, Nos. 1 and 2, September to November, 1914. 

British Birds, VIII, Nos. 4, 5 and 6, September to November, 1914. 

Bulletin Brit. Ornith. Club, No. CC, November 4, 1914. 

Bulletin Charleston Museum, X, Nos. 6 and 7, October and November, 

Bulletin Royal Austral. Ornith. Union, No. 4, April 16, 1914. 

California Fish and Game, Vol. I, No. 1, October, 1914. 

Condor, The, XVI, No. 5, September-October, 1914. 

Current Items of Interest, No. 23, November 25, 1914. 

Emu, The, XIV, Part 2, October, 1914. 

Forest and Stream, LXXXIII, Nos. 13 to 24. 

Ibis, The, (10) II, No. 4, October, 1914. 

New Jersey Audubon Bulletin, No. 8, October 1, 1914. 

Oblogist, The, XXXI, Nos. 9, 10 and 11, September to November, 

Oregon Sportsman, II, Nos. 9. 10, and 11, September to November, 

Vol. XXXIII n , 1QQ 

1915 Correspondence. loo 

Ornithologische Monatsschrift, 39, No. 7, July, 1914. 

Ottawa Naturalist, XXVIII, No. 7, October, 1914. 

Philippine Journal of Science, IX, Sec. D, Nos. 2 and 3, April and 
June, 1914. 

Proceedings, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXVI, Part II, April-August, 1914. 

Records of the Australian Museum, X, Nos. 8 and 9, August and October, 

Science, N. S., XL, Nos. 1029 to 1041. 

Scottish, Naturalist, The, Nos. 33, 34 and 35, September to November, 

South Australian Ornithologist, The, I, Part 4, October, 1914. 

Wilson, Bulletin, The, XXVI, No. 3, September, 1914. 

Zoologist, The, (4) XVIII, Nos. 213, 214 and 215, September to No- 
vember, 1914. 


Obituary Notices. 

Editor of 'The Auk': 

The undersigned begs to call attention to the following facts disclosed 
by an examination of the last list of Deceased Members of the A. O. U. 

(1). That 3 Corresponding Fellows (Altum, Hoast and Philippi) and 1 
Member (Judd) have never had any obituary notices in 'The Auk.' 

(2) . That nearly one half (55) of the deceased Associates have never had 
obituary notices. 

(3) That during the last two years eight Associates have died without 
mention except in the list of Deceased Members. These Associates are 
Beers, Butler, Mrs. Davis, Hales, Hill, Miss Howe, Marsden and Welles. 

(4). That every obituary notice should give at least the full name of 
the person and the date and place of birth and death. Fully 50 percent 
of the obituaries in ' The Auk ' fail to mention one or more of these essen- 
tial facts. 


T. S. Palmer. 

1939 Biltmore St., N. W. 
Washington, D. C. 
November 16, 1914. 

[While entirely in accord with Dr. Palmer's suggestion, the editor begs 
to call attention to the fact that incomplete notices of deceased members 
are often sent in for publication only a short time before the number of 

134 Correspondence. ban. 

' The Auk ' goes to press. Promptness of publication is important and there 
is no time for the necessary correspondence to complete the records. In 
the case of Associates the editor seldom learns of deaths until the list of 
members for the next year is submitted for publication. 

The best plan that suggests itself for keeping an accurate record of de- 
ceased members, and ensuring proper obituary notices, would be to appoint 
some competent member of the Union, such as Dr. Palmer, as a permanent 
committee on History and Biography, a suggestion which is hereby respect- 
fully offered to the president and council. Ed.] 

Time of Incubation. 

Editor op 'The Auk': 

The writer is gathering data on the length of the incubation in various 
bird species. He would like to ask if any of the readers of 'The Auk' 
could help him in this quest. Knowledge of the exact time would be pre- 
ferred but an approximate might help. He has already collected a con- 
siderable mass of information on this subject, but wishes more, especially 
concerning the lower and lowest forms of bird life. Any expense in this 
matter would be gladly defrayed by the writer. 

Yours cordially, 

W. H. Bergtold. 

1159 Race St., Denver, Colo., 
November 26, 1914. 

Proposed Revision of the By-Laws of the American 
Ornithologists' Union. 

Editor of ' The Auk ' : 

I wish to address all working ornithologists and oologists in the United 
States and Canada, — through the columns of 'The Auk,' 'Condor,' and 
'Wilson Bulletin.' For a number of years, there have been many of the 
working ornithologists and oologists who have not been satisfied with the 
present by-laws of the American Ornithologists' Union. This dissatis- 
faction has been shared alike by "Fellows," "Members" and "Associates" 
of the Union. We have seen in a mild form from time to time this dissatis- 
faction expressed in the columns of 'The Auk,' only to be side-tracked and 
dropped with but small notice and courtesy. 

I have just received the annual circular letter from the A. O. U., stating 
my dues for the ensuing year are now due, and asking for new members, etc., 
etc. Each year as I look over this communication I ask myself, "Shall I 
continue in the A. O. U., and what can I offer a new member as an induce- 
ment to have him join the "Union? " Carefully looking through the pages 
of the by-laws I can find no inducement to offer him, nor do I see any 

° '1915 J Correspondence. lo5 

inducement offered me to continue in the Association after this year, 
should the by-laws not be changed. I have no quarrel with any officer, or 
class of member of the A. O. U., my quarrel is with the by-laws. We all 
know that the A. O. U. was only a continuation of the "Nuttall Club," 
and when re-organized and incorporated in 1888, nearly all active members 
at that time could be, and were, embraced in the class of "Fellows" and 
"Members." Active members since that time have increased, so much so 
that now many of the most active workers are jn the Associate class. The 
by-laws have remained the same, not keeping pace with the changed condi- 
tions. How many of the different class of members of the A. O. U. have 
ever seen a copy of the by-laws? The copy that I now have before me, I 
secured in March, 1914, through the courtesy of the Treasurer. In reply 
to my query as to who was entitled to a copy of the by-laws, the Secretary 
informed me on 10/28/1914, "That every member and associate of the 
A. O. U. is entitled to a copy of the by-laws, but it is not customary to 
send a copy unless requested to do so." I believe if every new member 
could see the by-laws before joining, that he would think them so narrow, 
and the inducements offered therein so small, that he would refrain from 
joining the Union. I trust every class of members will at once send to the 
Secretary, and secure a copy of the by-laws, and see for themselves if the 
following assertions are correct or not. 

About eight per cent of the membership are "Members," paying four 
dollars yearly dues. They have no vote or voice in the business matters 
of the Union. 

About ninety per cent are "Associate" members, paying three dollars 
yearly dues. They have no vote or voice in the business affairs of the 

The business meetings are of the "Star Chamber" kind, and are not open 
to the main supporters of the Association. 

There is no given method for the advancement of members from one 
grade to that of a higher grade, nor is there any given standard for a member 
to measure up to; before he can be advanced to a higher grade. This is 
one of the weakest points in the by-laws. Judging from the membership 
list in the April, 1914 'Auk,' we gather the following has nothing to do 
with one's chances for advancement. 

Length of time as a member. 

Field work in any of the active lines. 

Attending annual meetings of the A. O. U. 

Published articles in 'The Auk.' 

Amassing a collection of scientific specimens, and a library on ornithol- 
ogy, either through purchase or by personal work. | 

What qualifications then must a person have, to attain a higher grade in 
the Union? Are the majority of the "Fellows" in a position to know just 
who is doing active work, or eligible to advancement? What member 
wishes to make out his own application for nomination to a higher class, 
and have it signed by three "Fellows" as required by Section 4, Article 4, 

lob Correspondence. [jan. 

of the by-laws? What chance is there for a member to become a "Fellow" 
except through dead men's shoes, and who likes to wait for such advance- 
ment? A "Fellow" can only be retired by his own desire, Article 1, Sec- 
tion 3. No one can blame any of the "Fellows" for desiring to remain in 
that class, even though some may take no active part in ornithology and 
its branches today. The present grades in the membership of the Union, 
are unsatisfactory and undemocratic. Acting in conjunction with other 
members of the A. O. U., I forwarded proposed changes in the A. O. U. 
by-laws, to the last meeting of the Union. I had the support and en- 
dorsement of two "Fellows," as required by Article 8. I have not been 
informed in an official way by any officer of the Union, what action, if any, 
was taken, nor have we seen any mention of the subject in the columns of 
the official organ, 'The Auk.' 

The A. O. U. was supposed to be an organization for the "Advancement 
of its members in ornithological science." A large percentage have been 
taken into the Union merely for the payment of their $3.00 dues, and not 
with any idea of strengthening the Club scientifically. There are other 
societies where this class of members can do more good than in the A. O. U. 
Some of the most active workers today in the various ornithological 
branches are not, and will not, become members of the A. O. U. on account 
of the class distinction, and star chamber methods of conducting the busi- 
ness of the Union. Let us have the needed changes in the by-laws, and let 
all class of members express their views and desires through the columns 
of the several ornithological journals. Let us hear from the "Fellows" 
in a broad-minded way, just how much they have the interests of the A. O. U. 
at heart. Above all, let us have a democratic organization, equal rights to 
all, special privileges to none. If, after a fair fight, we cannot get our de- 
sired changes, let those who are dissatisfied with the present by-laws and 
way of management, withdraw from the A. O. U., and give their support to 
some organization who will offer us the cooperation of then organization. 

H. H. Bailey. 

Newport News, Virginia, 
November 25th, 1914. 

[As Mr. Bailey asks for comment upon his letter and as some of his state- 
ments are evidently the result of misinformation or misunderstanding we 
take this opportunity to state our views on the matter. 

As we understand him he presents three claims. 1st, That the A. O. U. 
offers no inducement to new members. 2nd. That there is no definite 
standard for the advancement of members and that the results of the elec- 
tions to advanced classes of membership as presented in the current list 
of members are unsatisfactory. 3rd, That all classes should be abolished 
resulting in one grade of membership for all. 

Taking up these points seriatim: 

1st. The A. O. U. at its annual meetings offers opportunities for orni- 



Correspondence. . 137 

thologists of all classes to meet together on perfect equality to participate 
in a three days scientific session and to enjoy the hospitality which is gen- 
erously offered by institutions and local members. It maintains a high 
class ornithological journal in which papers of merit by any Associate, 
Member or Fellow may be published and which presents a resume of 
the progress of ornithology not only in America but throughout the world. 
And through its committees, publications and meetings it brings ornitholo- 
gists in all parts of the country in touch with one another and opens the way 
for the beginner or the isolated student to acquire, through correspondence 
with specialists and recognized authorities, the knowledge and advice 
that he would not otherwise be able to obtain. 

We cannot agree with Mr. Bailey that there is no inducement to join 
the A. O. U. We think on the contrary that the A. O. U. has been respon- 
sible for the wonderful development of ornithology in America and that 
every member who has made use of the opportunities which it offers to him 
has profited largely thereby. 

2nd. Election to any limited society or membership is bound to be 
unsatisfactory to some. There are always those who think that they or 
their friends have been unjustly rejected and that those who have been 
chosen did not merit the honor. Mr. Bailey's list of those eligible for ad- 
vancement would no doubt differ widely from ours and neither of our lists 
would suit the views of a third member of the Union. This is inevitable 
and it should be obvious to all that a vote in this connection as well as for 
any elective office or position, is based on personal opinion, which varies 
so widely that in many societies, and the A. O. U. is no exception, it is 
sometimes impossible to get the necessary majority for any candidate so 
that a vacancy in advanced membership cannot, for the moment, be filled. 
If it were possible to establish a definite standard for the different classes 
of membership no election would be necessary, but the establishment of a 
definite standard is quite impossible. The points to be considered in any 
candidate are his eminence in some branch of ornithological science and 
his service to ornithology, but the relative merits of several candidates 
can only be decided by a vote, and the majority vote of the Fellows called 
for in the By-Laws, seems a reasonable requirement for election. We 
cannot question, as does Mr. Bailey, the qualifications of the Fellows to 
make a choice, surely they are as well fitted as either the Members or 

We can hardly take Mr. Bailey seriously when he says that "Length 
of time as a member"; "Field Work"; "Attendance at Meetings"; 
"Published articles"; "The Amassing of a collection or library," had 
nothing to do with the advancement of the 40 ornithologists (who have 
been elected Fellows since the A. O. U. was founded or the 75 who have 
been elected to Membership. Surely he does not mean what he says! 
At the same time it may be noted that a man might be a regular attendant 
at meetings, might gather together hundreds of specimens or books and 
might publish many papers of a certain quality, and yet not reach the 

138 Correspondence. [jan. 

stage of intellectual development, nor display the scientific knowledge, that 
would entitle him to advancement. 

3rd. As to abolishing the classes and having but one grade of member- 
ship much may be said. The establishment of an advanced class of 
Fellows, membership in which is based upon scientific eminence, is an 
almost universal custom in scientific societies and the value placed upon 
such distinction seems proof enough of its desirability. The enlargement 
of such a class immediately detracts from its significance. The 'Fellows' 
of the A. O. U. represent the fifty leading ornithologists of America; 
standards may become higher and higher but at any given time the Fel- 
lows may always be so characterized. 

The class of Members was established some years ago, to meet just such 
criticism as is contained in part in Mr. Bailey's letter, and represents 
another grade of distinction, a stepping stone as it were to Fellowship. 
This class was not originally provided for and the By-Laws have therefore 
not remained stationary as Mr. Bailey states. 

The question of entrusting the business of the Union entirely to the Fel- 
lows is a matter quite apart from the establishment of "advanced classes," 
and it is here and here only, we think, that Mr. Bailey's views may find 

This matter of enlarging the business body has as a matter of fact been 
under consideration by the A. O. U. Council for some time and has the gen- 
eral approval of the members. As the Union moreover is not a secret 
society, and has no desire or intention of concealing its actions, it may 
we think, be stated in this connection that there is every probability of the 
adoption at the next meeting of a suggested plan whereby the Members 
will be allowed to share with the Fellows the business management of the 
society, thus bringing about the desired result. 

The entrusting of the business affairs to a small body of members was 
never intended to create a " star chamber ' ' as Mr. Bailey infers but to relieve 
the general membership of a burden and to permit of the entire open session 
each year being devoted to ornithological matters. 

Whatever changes may be made in the way of enlarging the business 
body of the Union we feel sure that the opening of business discussion to the 
entire membership would be strongly opposed by Associates and Mem- 
bers at large. The A. O. U. is not a political body and the details of its 
business are not of very serious moment to the membership. Those who 
attend meetings, come, in large part, from considerable distances; their 
time is limited and the desire to enjoy the scientific and social features of 
the gatherings, not to waste valuable time in prolonged discussions of minor 
matters which would inevitably result from open business meetings. The 
present plan of a preliminary business session before^ relatively small body 
leaves three whole days for the discussion of ornithology, for which the 
A. O. U. was organized. 

In regard to Mr. Bailey's proposed changes in the By-Laws, his statement 
is a little misleading, and it is only fair to say that his communication was 
sent to the Editor of 'The Auk' for presentation at the last meeting of 

° i9i5 j Notes and News. lo9 

the Union. It was however mailed so late that it was not received until 
after the meeting had adjourned. Mr. Bailey was of course, so informed; 
but has received no "official" report of action for the simple reason that 
his communication cannot be even presented to the Union for considera- 
tion, until the 1915 meeting. It is needless to say that any properly pre- 
pared proposal to amend the By-Laws, received prior to any meeting of the 
Union, will be given, as it always has been given, careful and courteous 

Mr. Bailey says of the Associates "a large percentage have been taken 
into the Union merely for the payment of their $3. dues and not with any 
idea of strengthening the Club scientifically." He would we think have a 
different conception of the Associate membership if he glanced at the early 
history of the Union. The society was of course started with but one grade 
and could readily have limited its membership strictly to ornithologists of 
high scientific attainments as has been done by many similar organizations, 
leaving the rank and file of the subscribers to its publications entirely out- 
side of the society. It was thought better however to take in these sub- 
scribers as "Associates " without any additional fee, and to open to them all 
the social and scientific privileges of membership. The Union has thus 
helped to develop many an ornithologist who would not otherwise have 
taken up the study seriously, and we have reason to think that the vast 
majority of Associates are in entire agreement with the plan. 

In conclusion we must take exception to Mr. Bailey's statement that 
dissatisfaction with the A. O. U. By-Laws when expressed in 'The Auk' 
has been "sidetracked" and dropped with but small notice and courtesy. 
We think he made this statement without due consideration since the only 
expression of the kind that we have found (Auk, 1908, p. 494) was consid- 
ered and answered with the greatest courtesy by the Editors. — Witmer 
Stone. 1 


Dr. Theodore Nicholas Gill, a retired fellow of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, died in Washington, D. C, on September 25, 1914. 
Dr. Gill was born in New York City on March 21, 1837, and after complet- 
ing his education came to Washington in 1860 to fill a position in the 
Columbian (now George Washington) University, with which institution 
he was connected for fifty years as professor, successively, of physics, natural 
history, and zoology. He was also assistant librarian of the Congressional 
Library, 1867 to 1875, and one of the past presidents of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. 

It was however, in connection with the Smithsonian Institution that Dr. 
Gill is best known and here he conducted the studies and investigations 
that made his name familiar in scientific circles throughout the world. 

140 Notes and News. [J a u n k 

Ichthyology was his specialty and it was in that field that he won his 
greatest renown. His publications were by no means limited to the fishes 
however. His learning was broad, his knowledge of literature enormous, 
and he was in every sense a philosophical naturalist, one of the last of a 
group, the like of which, in these days of specialization, we shall probably 
not see again. 

Dr. Gill was elected a Fellow of the A. O. U. at the first meeting in 1883, 
and was a prominent figure at all the meetings held in Washington. He was 
a member of the Committee on revision of the A.O.U. Code of Nomenclature 
and was ever ready with helpful suggestions in matters of nomenclature 
and taxonomy with which the Union has had to deal. Most of his ornitho- 
logical publications dealt with matters of taxonomy in connection with the 
classification of the vertebrates in general, although during his editorship 
of 'The Osprey' (1899-1902) he wrote upon a great variety of topics. 

To how many of us does Dr. Gill's name bring up memories of the old 
Smithsonian building, where he had a room, and in the library of which he 
could usually be found engaged in some literary research, but never too 
busy to discuss with his friends the problems with which they were strug- 
gling, or to turn to the young naturalist with helpful words of advice or 
reminiscences of the past. 

By all visitors to the scientific centers of the national capital Dr. Gill's 
cheerful greeting and sympathetic interest will be sadly missed, and in still 
greater degree by his associates in Washington. 

A biographer will be appointed by the president of the A. O. U. to prepare 
an adequate sketch of Dr. Gill's life and work which will later appear in 
'The Auk.' 

The following communication from the Chairman of the local Committee 
of Arrangements for the San Francisco Meeting of the A. O. U., May 18- 
20, 1915, will be read with interest by all members of the Union. This 
however will not make the meeting a success. A large number of the read- 
ers must make up their minds to be present at the meeting, to enjoy the 
pleasures and hospitality which Mr. Mailliard and his fellow members of 
the Cooper Club offer, and to make them feel that their efforts have not 
been in vain. Many members in the east can make the trip by arranging 
their plans now, and even though it puts them to some little inconvenience 
it is their duty to California and the A. O. U. to make such sacrifice and to 
help to make this the most notable meeting that the Union has ever held. 

Mr. Mailliard's announcement follows: 

The 1915 Meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

On February 20th, 1915, the Panama-Pacific International Exposition 
will be formally opened. The stage is already set, and only the finishing 
touches remain to be applied. Already the wonderful color scheme is a * 
thing of beauty and a joy to the sight-seers who throng the grounds even 

Vol. XXXIII , r , , , T 1 1 1 

igi 5 Notes and News. 14:1 

before a single exhibit is in place. The great trouble in the countries across 
the Atlantic may lessen the exhibits and the number of visitors from tha\/ 
part of the world, but this will be more than made up by the even more 
interesting exhibits of the Oriental nations and the great number of Ameri- 
cans who have at this late day determined to "see America first! " 

Yet it is not the exposition that will be the greatest attraction to the 
ornithologist. There have been a number of expositions in the United 
States, and most of you have seen more or less of them. So it is an old 
story. But there will be opportunities to visit this State under conditions 
never before brought about, and which will not prevail again for many 
years to come. 

We have been called a hospitable people here in California. I do not 
know. Perhaps we are. We were brought up in the customs of a new 
country, where habitations were few and far between. If you reached a 
house at meal time, or at night, you tied your horse and entered to find a 
welcome. You were offered what there was, much or little as might be, 
and you accepted in the spirit in which it was offered. Perhaps we have 
not gotten over this. In 1915 we are going to be on our mettle to be hos- 
pitable, and we are going to give a welcome to our neighbors and friends 
that will linger in their memories as long as they may live — and may our 
friends live long! 

No, it is not the Exposition that we wish to call especially to your atten- 
tion, it is California. You may have seen many expositions but you have 
not seen many Californias. Most of you have not seen ours. From the 
summit of Tamalpais we want you to see the sun set in the great Pacific, 
and from this point of vantage to watch the lights of San Francisco glow 
and glimmer as the stars appear, and to see the same sun rise over the Sier- 
ras, if you have the energy to be up so early. 

We want you to see the Farallon Islands, only a couple of hours run from 
the Exposition grounds, with their wonderful seabird life, the thousands 
of California Murres on their nests, the Cormorants busy in their rookeries, 
Tufted Puffins peeping from their holes, not to mention Gulls, Cassin's 
Auklets, Rock Wrens, etc. 

We want you to visit the Los Banos breeding grounds, so well represented 
in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, where you 
can see many varieties of ducks, herons and shore birds building their nests 
and raising then - young on the swamp lands and among the tules. We 
want to show you our Humid Coast Belt, with its characteristic forms of 
bud life, and only a few miles inland our desert and semi-desert areas where 
water brings about a revolution, and where Nature asserts her will, insist- 
ing upon desert forms predominating but a short distance from where are 
to be found those darker forms which moisture with lower temperatures 
seem to create. 

We want you to see Lake Tahoe, with its wonderful scenery, surrounded 
by snowy peaks where breed the Gray-crowned Leucosticte and the Cali- 
fornia Pine Grosbeak, and for those of you who like it the magnificent 

142 Notes and News. [f^ 

fishing the lakes and streams of the Sierras afford. We want you to see 
the beauty and grandeur of our unrivalled Yosemite, and to walk with 
you beneath our great redwoods which were old when our forefathers 
landed on the eastern coast. 

We have more to show you than most of you imagine, and under condi- 
tions never before existing as far as rates of travel, good fellowship, a wish 
to welcome all the world and the desire to please our guests are concerned, 
to say nothing of the fact that there will be gathered here in various con- 
ventions of numerous bodies, many of the world's greatest minds. Travel- 
ling rates will be low, hotel keepers have agreed not to raise their prices 
above the everyday mark, accommodations will be ample, good, and at 
rates to meet one's purse, while the desire to make the Exposition a success, 
rather than to make large profits out of those who come, seems to prevail. 

The meeting will be held May 18th to 20th, this being chosen as being 
the best average date at which to see our bird life in the nesting season, 
which really commences in February and lasts until August! Let us all do 
our best to make this meeting a grand success, to form new friendships, 
and to make of it a pleasant memory that will never leave our hearts. 
Each who comes can do his or her share to make the A. O. TJ. meeting in 
California something to look back upon with pleasure, and to talk of around 
the fire on snowy winter nights. 

Come all who can, yet bear in mind, one and all, that while we have 
warm weather in the interior of California, San Francisco is a cool spot 
where light overcoats and wraps are always in order and may be needed at 
any moment! 

Details as to rates of travel, hotel expenses, interesting side trips, etc., 
will be furnished later. 

Joseph Mailliard, 

Chairman Committee on Arrangements. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

After preparing the note in the last issue of 'The Auk,' on beneficial 
effect of the new tariff in stopping the importation of Rhea plumage and 
thereby putting an end to a trade that threatened the extinction of this 
splendid bird, we were astonished to learn that. by a decision of the 
Treasury Department, the Rhea was excepted from the operation of the 
law. The official notice states: "It appears from the best information 
obtainable by the department that the so-called Rhea is, in fact, an ostrich, 
and the feathers of such birds may, therefore, be admitted without requir- 
ing proof that the plumage was taken from domestic birds." With the 
wealth of technical knowledge so easily obtainable from the scientific de- 
partments of the government it is rather remarkable that the Treasury 
Department should have taken upon itself the settlement of such an im- 
portant ornithological question. 

However open to criticism its action in this respect maybe, its willingness 
to promptly admit an error is exceedingly praiseworthy, and we are grati- 

Vol. XXXIIl 
1915 J 

Notes and News. 


fied to learn from a subsequent order that: "Further investigation by the 
department has shown that the rhea is not properly classed as an ostrich 
put is in fact a wild bird, the plumage of which should be prohibited im- 

Full Names of Authors in ' The Auk.' — In preparing the gen- 
eral Index of 'The Auk' published in 1907 the committee in charge of the 
work endeavored to give names of authors in full but the requisite in- 
formation proved impossible to obtain in many cases and consequently 
about 170 names appeared in more or less incomplete form. The com- 
mittee which is indexing the volumes from 1901 to 1910 inclusive, in fol- 
lowing the plan of the former Index, has made special efforts to secure this 
information and has succeeded in obtaining the full names of nearly all the 
authors mentioned in the recent volumes and has also secured about 130 
of those which were incomplete in the former Index. 

Some 46 names are still needed — about nine for the recent volumes 
and about 37 for the earlier ones — ■ as shown by the following list. In 
order to facilitate the search for the desired data each author's name is 
followed by the name of the State from which the note was written or that 
of the author's last known address and a reference to the volume and page 
of 'The Auk' in which the article appeared. 

Allen, Charles N. '81,145 

Atkins, John W. (Mich.) '99, 272 

Banks, James W. (N. B.) '84, 95 

Batty, Joseph H. (Mass.) '06, 356 

Berry, Mabel C. (N. H.) '96, 342 

Bulley, Reginald H. (Ohio) '86, 277 

Buri, Dr. Rudolph O. (Switz) '01, 286 

Burton, William R. (Fla.) '04, 125 

Collins, W. H. (Mich.) '80, 61 

Doan, William D. (Penn ) '90, 197 

Downer, E. D. (N. Y.) '99, 355 

Emmet, R. T. (N. Y.) '88, 108 

Fowler, H. Gilbert (N. Y.) '78, 85 

Fraser, J. T. (N. Y.) '84, 293 

F., W. '03, 94 

Gormley, M. H. (Wash.) '88, 424 

Harris, George E. (N. Y.) '88, 320 

Howley, James P. (Nfd.) '84, 309 

Ingraham, D. P. (Colo.) '97, 403 

Johnson, Lorenzo N. (111.) '89,275 
Kermode, Philip M. C. (Engl.) '83, 229 

Kinnison, George W. (Fla.) '99, 57 

Koumly, Pirmine M. (Kans.) '93, 367 

Lane, Ambrose A. (Engl.) '97, 417 

Lee, Oswin A. J. (Engl.) '97, 106 

Lewis, Lillian W. (N. Y.) '05, 314 

Livermore, John R. (R. I.) '94, 177 

Mitchell, Robert H. (Term.) '94, 327 

Moran, Daniel E. (N. Y.) '82, 52 

Nowotny, Dr. (Austria) '98, 28 

Palmer, E. DeL. (Calif.) '94, 78 

Park, J. T. (Tenn.) '93, 205 

Pitcairn, William G. (Penn.) '08, 232 

Pollard, Evelyn H. (Engl.) '01, 207 

Reagan, Albert B. (Utah) '08, 462 

Sargent, Harry B. (N. Y.) '93, 369 

Schenckling-Prevot, C. (Ger.) '95, 186 

Smith, G S. (Mass.) '81, 56 

Swallow, C. W. (Ore.) '91, 396 

Sweiger, Mrs. Jacob L. (Conn.) '08, 105 

Taylor, W. Edgar (Neb.) '89, 332 

Walker, Mary L. (Scotl.) '90, 198 

Welsh, Frank R. (Penn.) '84, 391 

Whitlock, F. B. (Engl.) '97, 422 

Wilson, Bertha L. (Minn.) '98, 100 

Wilson, Dr. Thomas J. (N. Y.) '78, 85 

As it is desirable to have the full names of all contributers tri ' The Auk,' 
readers who can furnish any of the missing names or can suggest how they 
may be obtained are requested to notify the editor or to communicate with 
the undersigned. 

T. S. Palmer. 

1939 Biltmore St., Washington, D. C. 

144 Notes and News. [£* 

Mr. Louis Agassiz Fuertes, at the request of the Council of the A. O. XL, 
and with the advice of a committee appointed by the President, kindly 
prepared a new cover design for 'The Auk' which appeared for the first 
time on the number for January, 1913. As to the accuracy of drawings 
of extinct species the poet has written: 

"This we have for comfort sweet 
Should doctors disagree, 
Nobody lives who knew the beast, 
And there are no more to see. 
So if they do not like its looks, 
What can they do about it? 
Our guess is just as good as their's 
So if they scoff, we'll scout it!" 

Notwithstanding the logic of this statement, the Council at the last meet- 
ing appointed a new committee to confer with Mr. Fuertes in regard to 
preparing another design, which should follow more closely the general 
style of the original vignette. Mr. Fuertes has generously complied with 
the request and the result appears on the cover of the present number. 
Which drawing is the better portrait of the Great Auk as it appeared in life, 
we are, like the poet, unable to say; but the present one is both artistic, 
and accurate in detail, while it conforms more nearly to the conventional 
idea of the famous bird. 

A new edition of the Naturalists' Directory has just been published by 
S. E. Cassino, Salem, Mass. This directory is invaluable to naturalists 
since it is the means of bringing together students and collectors in all parts 
of the world through correspondence. The directory contains an alpha- 
betical list of English speaking professional and amateur naturalists in all 
parts of the world, also a list of scientific societies and periodicals. The 
price of the Directory is $2.50 in Cloth Binding and $2.00 in Paper Binding; 
sent postpaid. As only a limited edition has been printed it is advisable 
for any one wishing a copy to order at once. 

There will be an exhibit of pictures of our common birds at the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York City, January 15th to 29th 
inclusive followed by a sale exhibition at the Katz Gallery, 103 West 74th 
St. These pictures show the Robin, Blue Jay, Oriole, Wood Thrush and 
other birds we see about our homes and that we all know and have come 
to love. The birds are pictured life size, singly and in family groups, some- 
times nesting or courting, often surrounded by apple bloom, golden rod, or 
wood lilies, flowers they might be found among, or the bright leaves of 
April or October, or the snow of winter. Seventy-five or more water 
colors large and small will be shown, all exhibited for the first time. The 
purpose of the pictures is to present the beauty of just our commonest 
home and dooryard birds. 




The Auk. Complete set, Volumes I-XXIX, (1884-1912) in origi- 
nal covers, $99.00. Volumes I-VI are sold only with complete 
sets, other volumes, $3.00 each; 75 cents for single numbers. 

Index to The Auk (Vols. I-XVII, 1884-1900) and Bulletin of the 
Nuttall Ornithological Club (Vols. I-VIII, 1876-1883), 8vo, pp. 
vii + 426, 1908 Cloth, $3.75; paper, $3.25. 

Check-List of North American Birds. Third edition, revised, 
1910. Cloth, 8vo., pp. 426, and 2 maps. $2.50, net, postage 
25 cents. Second edition, revised, 1895. Cloth, 8vo, pp. xi 4- 
372. $1.15. Original edition 1886. Out of print. 

Abridged Check-List of North American Birds. 1889. (Abridged 
and revised from the original edition). Paper, 8vo, pp. 71, printed 
on one side of the page. 25 cents. 

Pocket Check-List of North American Birds. (Abridged from 
the third edition). Flexible cover, 3j X 5j inches. 25 cents. 
10 copies for $2.00. 

Code of Nomenclature. Revised edition, 1908. Paper, 8vo, pp. 
Ixxxv. 50 cents. 
Original edition, 1892. Paper, 8vo, pp. iv + 72. 25 cents. 

We would be pleased to furnish The Auk, Index and Check-List 
to your library at 15% discount. 


134 W. 71st St., New York, N. Y. 



Check-List of North American 


Last Edition, 1910 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. 430 and two maps of North America, 
one a colored, faunal zone map, and one a locality map. 

The first authoritative and complete list of North 
American Birds published since the second edition of 
the Check-List in 1895. The ranges of species and 
geographical races have been carefully revised and 
greatly extended, and the names conform to the latest 
rulings of the A. 0. U. Committee on Nomenclature. 
The numbering of the species is the same as in the 
second edition. Price, including postage, $2.75. 


A pocket Check-List ( Si by 5| inches ) of North 
American Birds with only the numbers and the scientific 
and popular names. Alternate pages blank for the 
insertion of notes. Flexible covers. Price, including 
postage, 25 cents; or 10 copies for $2.00. 

34 W. 71st St. New York City 



Vn I _ XI ' ' \l nl YYY 

Vol. XL 


The Auk 

a (&uarterl$ 3ournal of ©rnitbolOQ\> 


APRIL, 1915 

No. 2 

The American Ornithologists' Union 


Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 



I he Classification of the Family Dendkocolaptid^. Bv Dr. Herman ton 

Ihering. (Plates XI-XIIj . . .145 

The Okaloacoochee Slough. By Frederic H. Kennard. (Plates XIII-XV) . 154 

Cabot's Types of Yucatan Birds. By Outram Bangs ..... 166 

The Atlantic Range of Leach's Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieillot)). 

By Robert Cash man Murphy . . . . . . . . . 170 

Some Suggestions for Better Methods of Recording and Studying Bird 

Songs. By Aretas A. Saunders ......... 173 

List of the Birds of Louisiana. Part VII. By //. //. Kupman . . . 183 

Phaethon catesbyi Brandt. By Gregory M. Mathews ..... 195 

Simultaneous Action of Birds: A Suggestion. By Winsor M. Tyler. M. D. 198 

The Old New England Bob-white. By Jntm ('. Phillips. (Plate XVI) . . 204 

Early Records of the Wild Turkey. IV. By Albert Haeen Wright . . l'07 

General Notes. — The Red-throated Loon {Gavia stellata) at Berwyn, Pa., 225; Mal- 
lards Wintering in Saskatchewan, 225: European Widgeon in Washington, 225; 
Harlequin Duck in the Glacier National Park. Montana, 225: The Blue Goose 
[Chen coerulescens) in Rhode Island, 226; Occurrence of the Pectoral Sandpiper 
(Pisobia maculata) near Salem, X. J., 226: The Wimbrel, Ruff, Buff-breasted Sand- 
piper, and Eskimo Curlew on Long Island. X. Y , 226: The Diving Instinct in Shore 
birds. 227: The Little Black Rail on Long Island. N. Y., 227: Richardson's Owl 
and Other Owls in Franklin County. New York. 22s : Lewis's Woodpecker taken 
in Saskatchewan, 22S: Prairie Horned Lark in Rhode Island in Summer, 229; 
Crows Nesting on the Ground, 229; The Bermuda Crow. 229: The Orange-crowned 
Warbler in Cambridge, Mass.. in December. 230: A Winter Record for the Palm 
Warbler on Long Island. X. Y., 230: The Blackburnian and Bay-breasted Warblers 
at Martha's Vineyard. Mass., 230: The Cape May Warbler [Dendroica tigrina) 
as an Abundant Autumnal Migrant and as a Destructive Grape Juice Consumer at 
Berwyn. Pa.. 231; Cape May Warbler Eating Grapes, 233: Addendum, 234; The 
Rock Wren at National, Iowa. 234: Corthylio — A Valid Genus for the Ruby- 
crowned Kinglet, 234: A Note on the Migration at Sea of Shore Birds and Swallows, 
236: Rare Birds near Waynesburg, Pa.. 236: Some New York City Notes, 237; 
Notes from Wisconsin, 237: Changes and Additions to the ' List of the Birds of Galla- 
tin County. Montana. 238; What Bird Lovers Owe to the Late Professor King, 239; 
Morning Awakening Notes at Jefferson Highland, N. H., 24U. 

Recent Literature. — 'The Auk' Index, 1901-1910, 242: The New B. (). U. List, 243; 
Hankin on Animal Flight. 245; Snethlage's Catalogue of the Birds of Amazonia.' 
247: Hornaday's 'Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Practice.' 248; Hartert's 
'Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna.' 2is: Phillips on Experimental studies of 
Hybridization among Ducks and Pheasants. 249: Allen on Pattern Development 
in Mammals and Birds, 249: Shufeldt on the skeleton of the Ocellated Turkey. 250; 
Smith's 'Handbook of the Rocky Mountains Park Museum, 250: M earns on New 
African Birds, 251; Von Ihering on Brazilian Birds. 251; Allen's ' Birds in their 
Relation to Agriculture in New York State, 251; Simpson's 'Pheasant Farming,' 
252; Recent Biological Survey Publications, 252; Economic Ornithology in Recent 
Entomological Publications. 253: Two Recent Papers on Bird Pood by Collinge, 254; 
First Report of the Brush Hill Bird Club. 255: Recent Reports on Game and Bird 
Protection. 255: The Ornithological Journals. 256: Ornithological Articles in Other 
Journals. 261; Publications Received. 263. 

Correspondence. — A Bird Census of the United States, 267. 

Notes \m> News. — Louis di Zerega Mearns, 268; 'The Auk' Review of ornithological 
Journals 269: The Delaware Valley Ornithological flubs Quarter-century, 269; 
svstematists and Experimental Biologists, 270 ; S. N. Rhoads' Expedition to Guate- 
mala, 271 : The A. O. U. California Meeting, 271. 

'THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, is edited, beginning with the Volume for 1912, by Dr. Witmer 

Terms: — $3.00 a year, including postage, strictly in advance. Single num- 
bers, 75 cents. Free to Honorary Fellows, and to Fellows, Members, and 
Associates of the A. O. U. not in arrears for dues. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to Dr. JONATHAN D WIGHT, Jr., 
Business Manager, 134 West 71st St.. New York, N. Y. Foreign Subscrib- 
ers may obtain ' The Auk ' through R. H. PORTER, 9 Princes Street, 
Cavendish Square, W.. London. 

Articles and communications intended for publication, and all books 
and publications for notice, should be sent to Dr. WITMER STONE, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manuscripts for general articles should reach the editor at least six weeks 
before the date of the number for which they are intended, and manuscripts 
for ' General Notes ' and ' Recent Literature ' not later than the first of the month 
preceding the date of the number in which it is desired they shall appear. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate Xl. 


- F.F 



-- i.o. 


Skulls of Dendrocolaptid.e. 




Vol. xxxii. April, 1915. No. 2. 



Plates XI-XIL 

In a paper just published in the 'Revista do Museu Paulista,' 
Vol. IX, 1914, 1 was able to show that the life histories of the birds 
composing the several subfamilies of Dendrocolaptidse exhibit 
important differences well calculated to aid in the proper syste- 
matic arrangement of the various genera. More recently I have 
studied the craniological characters of the different genera and it is 
the purpose of the present paper to set forth the results of these 

I have already shown that biological conditions in the family 
Tyrannidse furnished excellent indications of the proper syste- 
matic arrangement of the genera, and lately I have been able to 
complete my former work especially with regard to the genera 
Onychorhynchus and Myiobius. My investigations inspire my 
admiration for the accuracy of the systematic arrangement pro- 
posed by R. Ridgway who on morphological characters has already 
divided the genus Myiobius exactly in the same manner as my 
observations on the nidification of the species demand. 

I am of the opinion that the family Dendrocolaptidse of Sclater 
is also in need of further study and in this connection biological 


146 von Ihering, The Dendrocolaptidce. [a^hi 

observations furnish valuable hints on the systematic arrangement 
of the genera. According to their manner of life these birds form 
three natural groups. Those allied to Furnarius are inhabitants 
of the open country and low lands. They construct their nests 
in the ground with subterranean burrows leading to them, some- 
times of considerable length. The custom of the Ovenbirds of 
constructing their nests in trees is evidently a secondary adapta- 
tion and the material employed in their construction — mud — 
indicates that their ancestors nested in the ground. 

The second group contains the genus Synallaxis and related 
forms. They live like many other small birds upon trees and 
bushes and construct big dome-shaped nests, either of grass, moss 
and other soft materials or of sticks. 

The birds of the last section comprising the Dendrocolaptinse 
and part of the Philydorinse, live in the forest like the woodpeckers 
and nest in holes in trees. 

The eggs of all the members of the family are white or whitish 
green except in a few genera of Synallaxinse in which they assume 
a uniform blue-green coloration. 

If we compare the above facts with the classification given by 
Sclater in the 'Catalogue of Birds of the British Museum' we find 
a general correspondence and are inclined to adopt his subfamilies 
with some modification. The removal of the genus Anumbius 
from the Synallaxinse cannot be approved. The Philydorinse with 
the exception of a few genera approach the Dendrocolaptinse but 
are easily distinguished by morphological characters. 

Radically opposed to our views, however, is the classification 
adopted by Ridgway in his admirable work 'The Birds of North 
and Middle America,' Vol. V, where the birds under consideration 
are distributed in two distinct families, — Furnariidse and Dendro- 
colaptidse. The reason for distinguishing two families is stated to 
rest chiefly on differences in the structure of the skull. I have 
studied the skulls of a great number of genera and shall explain 
the results of my researches. 

In accordance with Garrod, Beddard and other authors, Ridgway 
places the genera with a holorhinal skull in the family Dendro- 
colaptidse, and those with a schizorhinal skull in the Furnariidse. 
In the latter group the osseous nostril reaches the posterior end of 

° 1915 ] VON Ihering, The Dendrocolaplidce. 147 

the premaxilla or passes above it, but does not extend to this point 
in the holorhinal skull. It must however be observed that the 
term schizorhinal cannot properly be applied to the members of 
the Furnariidse because the posterior end of the nostril does not end 
in a gap but has always a rounded extremity. For this very reason 
Fiirbringer rejects the term schizorhinal in this connection, sub- 
stituting for it the new term pseudo-schizorhinal, and adds that 
both terms probably only refer to different modifications of the 
same anatomical condition. 

We shall see this opinion amply confirmed by my studies. 
The Synallaxinse are without exception schizorhinal as are also 
the Furnariinse, although Geobates has the nasal foramen somewhat 
shortened, its posterior end being situated somewhat before that 
of the intermaxillary. 

Pronounced holorhiny is found only among the Dendrocolaptinse 
of which, however, some genera — Sittasomus, Dendrocincla and 
probably others — are typically schizorhinal. 

The Philydorinse (Philydor, Xenicopsis, Xenops, etc.) form a 
transition group leading up to the Dendrocolaptinse and the species 
are schizorhinal with the exception of Automolus and Anabazenops 
which have the nasal foramen shortened. 

When we seek to explain the phylogenetic developments here set 
forth, it is evident that the forms which present the greatest modi- 
fication are the Dendrocolaptinse, which are completely adapted 
for climbing after the manner of the W 7 oodpeckers. The extraor- 
dinarily lengthened exterior rectrices and the protruding shaft 
points are peculiarities which characterize them as terminal mem- 
bers of a developmental series issuing from the Philydorinse. 

We are able to distinguish among the Dendrocolaptinse two 
groups of genera. One of these, beginning with the schizorhinal 
genera, Sittasomus and Dendrocincla leads by way of Dendroplex, 
to Dendrocolaptes and Xiphocolaptes the most powerful forms of 
the family with the heaviest beaks. The other group beginning 
with Picolaptes leads to forms with extremely long, curved beaks 
such as Nasica and Campylorhynchus. Xiphocolaptes as well as Dry- 
mornis, Nasica, etc., are extremely modified members of the family, 
of considerable size, and their peculiarities can be easily explained 
by comparison with the structure of the smaller, less specialized, 

148 von Ihebing, The Dendrocolaptidoe. [April 

Corresponding with the two groups above indicated we find 
modifications in the structure of the skull. In both series the 
strongly modified forms have the frontal bone exceedingly large 
and the nasal foramen relatively small — the extreme reduction 
being reached in Campylorhynchus and allied genera. By this 
means the basal bridge between the nostril and frontal bone be- 
comes extraordinarily large and strong, an adaptation corre- 
sponding to the increased demand in these birds for strength and 
resistance at the base of the beak. While the precursors of Pico- 
laptes seem to be extinct the line of evolution originating from Sit- 
tasomus is nearly uninterrupted. The skull of Sittasomus differs 
but little from that of Automolus and to this the skull of Sclerurus, 
seems closely related. 

With regard to skull structure the Synallaxinse may be con- 
sidered as a more or less uniform group in which the genera Thripo- 
phaga and Phacellodomits are somewhat differentiated by the 
strongly convex base of the beak, prolonged posteriorly in two 
divergent ridges, surrounding a deep pit. 

A peculiarity of the species of SynaUaxis and Septomis is the 
large, deep median furrow of the frontal bone with a corresponding 
projecting ridge on the inner side of the skull. There is also a deep 
pit at the posterior end of the intermaxillary near the anterior end 
of the frontal. We meet with the same conformation in Lochmias 
nematura where the lateral parts of the frontal bone are extraordi- 
narily convex and separated by a deep median furrow. Cinclodes 
presents the same condition while Upucerthia differs somewhat in 
the more projecting nasals which surround the posterior part of the 
intermaxillary. The skull of Upucerthia resembles that of Thripo- 
phaga and Phacellodomus while Lochmias agrees with SynaUaxis. 

Of the subfamilies of the Dendrocolaptidse proposed by Sclater 
the least natural one seems to be the Furnariinse. 

There are in general no great differences between the skulls of 
Furnarius and SynaUaxis. In the former, however, the frontal 
fontanelle, so well marked in SynaUaxis is absent, while the frontal 
bone in SynaUaxis and allied genera is much narrower than in 
Furnarius. Anumbius agrees in cranial characters with Synal- 
laxis; and Pseudoseisura with Phacellodomus. If, therefore, we 
place Lochmias in the Synallaxinre on the basis of skull structure 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XII. 




VOl 'lfl^ XI1 ] VON Ihering, The Dendrocolaplidcc. 149 

we should be able to find other characters to support our action 
and these, I believe, exist. 

The true Furnariinse have the tail truncated while in the genera 
Lochmias, Upucerthia and other Cinclodinse the exterior rectrices 
are successively shortened. If we consider that this latter condi- 
tion prevails in general throughout the Dendrocolaptidse we must 
realize that the tail structure in the true Furnariinse is quite a 
remarkable peculiarity. 

The Furnariinse have probably originated through localization 
in the vast prairies of the La Plata states and the adjacent parts 
of Brazil and Bolivia, while the origin of the Cinclodinse has been 
in Patagonia and the Andes. 

It is not easy to trace the lines of dispersal which have brought 
about the present distribution of the South American Dendro- 
colaptidse but some light is thrown upon the matter by the study of 
ornithological literature. Of special interest in this connection is 
the history of Furnarvus, the Ovenbird, one of the characteristic 
species of the central Brazilian and Argentine fauna which seems 
to be still extending its range. When Natterer in the years 1818- 
1823 explored the state of Sao Paulo, he did not meet with it 
although at the present time it is common in the valley of the Para- 
hyba river and appeared some fifteen years ago at Campinas 
where it nests. 

We may also infer that the genus Cinclodes in eastern Brazil is a 
relatively recent immigrant, as also the few species of Pteroptochidse, 
a family of Patagonian-Andean origin. 

Of several genera of the Dendrocolaptidse the skull is unknown 
to me, such as Margarornis and Glyphorhynchus, so that I cannot 
form an opinion upon their relationships from cranial characters. 
It is not, however, my intention to propose here a new system of 
classification for the family, my aim being rather to furnish new 
facts based upon biological and anatomical observations which 
may eventually be of value in the construction of such a system. 

As in the Furnariinse two lines of development have\been demon- 
strated we can presume that the Dendrocolaptinse sprang from 
two different groups of the Philydorinse. Probably the case is 
more or less the same with respect to the somewhat aberrant 
genera Sclerurus, Glyphorhynchus and Margarornis. 

150 von Ihering, The De?idrocolaplidce. LApril 

It follows therefore, as already suggested by Fiirbringer (p. 1419), 
that the supposed difference between pseudoschizorhinal and holo- 
rhinal skulls in the Dendrocolaptidse does not exist in fact, but 
that they are modifications of little importance which serve only 
in a limited degree in the characterization of genera, and not at all 
in the differentiation of families. 

Most families which are related to the Dendrocolaptidse have 
the skull holorhinal. We find in them, however, similar modifica- 
tions to those existing in the Dendrocolaptidse. For example in 
the Formicariidse some species of Myrmotherula and Drymophila 
show prolongation of the narrow posterior portion of the nasal 
foramen almost up to the intermaxillary and it is probable that 
further studies based upon richer material will demonstrate that 
among the Formicariidoe too there are species with pseudoschizo- 
rhinal as well as holorhinal skulls. Of greater importance however 
is the modification in the bony nostril of the Formicariidse. In 
Batata cinerea (Plate XII, figs. 3^4) it is closed for nearly its entire 
length (14 mm.) by a thin vertical osseous membrane, the anterior 
portion of which is perforated by a nostril 4 mm. in diameter, while 
the posterior part contains a second nostril communicating with the 
buccal cavity. I have found the same structure in Thamuophilus 
and Conopophaga lineata, the aspect of the several skulls being 
quite different but the structure essentially the same, except for 
the fact that the membrane of the nasal cavity remains soft in 
some and becomes ossified in others. 

This style of skull structure in which instead of one large bony 
nostril we have two, a posterior and anterior one, I propose to call 

In the Dendrocolaptidse, therefore, while the type of structure is 
always the same and there are no essential anatomical differences, 
the dimensions and proportions of the different bones and foramina 
vary to a degree rarely found in one family. The enormous varia- 
tion in the form of the beak is seen in such genera as Xenops, 
Synnallaxis, Philydor and Campylorhamphus. In connection with 
the differences in form we find variation in the condition of the 
nostrils which are in some genera holorhinal, in others pseudo- 
schizorhinal. The base of the beak is also differentiated variously, 
sometimes provided with an intermaxillary frontal fontanelle, 
sometimes not; while between the two parietal bones in some 

VOl 'i9S XI1 ] von Ihering, The Dendrocolaptidce. 151 

genera a profound median sulcus is developed. The configuration 
of the skull depends in a great measure upon the breadth of the 
interorbital part of the frontal bone and the proportion of this 
to the greatest breadth of the skull (considered as 100) varies from 
16 to 50, the absolute measure being in Synallaxis spixi 2.4: 14.3 
mm. and in Campylorhamphus trochilirostris 8.8: 17.2 mm. As 
already suggested by Furbringer the study of the variations in 
the nostrils of the Dendrocolaptidce has shown that this is a 
character of secondary value. 

The importance which is given in ornithological literature to 
such terms as holorhinal and schizognathous represents an inherit- 
ance from the past century. When Huxley in 1867 published his 
classic treatise on the classification of birds it seemed as if the skull 
was to attain the same importance in the classification of birds as 
it had already reached in the mammalian system. 

Six years later Garrod gave to the structure of the nostrils the 
same importance in avian classification as Huxley had given to the 
palate structure. And now we ask what is the situation to-day? 

The results set forth in this paper with reference to the schizo- 
rhiny of the Dendrocolaptidce confirm the opinion of Furbringer 
as stated above; who also (I. c. p. 1034) rejects Huxley's groups 
based on palate structure. Beddard (1. c. p. 140) also points out 
that the maxillo-palatine classification is not really satisfactory 
from a systematic point of view and adds that it is rendered 
harmless by the fact that the groups are really not as hard and 
fast as might be supposed from text books in general. 

In this, however, I cannot agree with Beddard as generalizations 
of this sort, rejected by the most competent morphologists, often 
persist with tenacity in our systematic literature and in many 
instances hinder the zoologist from following his own inclination. 
If in studying any family in the zoological system we take one 
anatomical character as a basis for the arrangement of the genera 
or species we construct a system which is entirely changed if we 
make use of some other character. Skull or pel vis,\ sternum or 
syrinx, pterylosis or muscles — - in nearly every case we obtain 
a different arrangement. 

The result of the exclusive application of certain anatomical 
characters is seen in Garrod's classification of the Psittaci, which 
has been accepted by Beddard, in which the South i\.merican 

152 von Ihering, The Dendrocolaptidce. LApril 

Conurinse are distributed in three different subfamilies, the Arainae, 
Pyrrhurinse and Platycercinse ! 

The same process of development of a certain organ is repeated 
many times independently in different subfamilies and genera and 
therefore can be applied only to a limited extent in classification. 

No single organ is of such importance that we can attribute to it 
absolute preference and it is never possible to determine a priori 
whether this or that character will be of most importance in syste- 
matic work. It happens sometimes that a relatively insignificant 
character will prove of great value, as for example the loss of a 
remex, which serves as a distinction between the large groups of 
quincubital and aquincubital birds. The quincubital condition is 
the archaic one and the loss of the fifth remex although represent- 
ing a higher phylogenetic degree, must be considered as a process 
of degeneration, for which it would be stupid to make natural 
selection responsible. 

What we learn from ornithological studies is that the wide range 
of variation which leads, or can lead to the origin of new groups, is 
on the definite lines of evolution which influence also the less im- 
portant characters but which do not raise any question of survival 
since both the primitive and modified types succeed equally well 
in the struggle for existence. 

In more than forty years of uninterrupted biological research I 
have been unable to discover any facts among free living animals 
which tend to prove the existence of natural selection, or even to 
elevate it to the rank of an indispensable or necessary factor in the 
origin of species. So long as we do not have at our disposal a 
complete series of morphological and paleontological observations, 
which would furnish a systematic arrangement of genera on the 
ground of actual phylogenetic experience, our classifications are 
more or less a question of our ability to accurately judge the im- 
portance of morphological characters for systematic use. Barriers 
erected by anatomists, however celebrated, during the past three 
decades should no longer be allowed to present difficulties in our 
ornithological work. 

From the preceding discussion I reach the following conclusions. 

1. The assumed difference between schizorhinal and holorhinal 
skulls does not exist in the Dendrocolaptidse. The species in which 

° 1915 ] V0N Ihering, The Dendrocolaptidce. 153 

the nasal foramen is prolonged posteriorly present only a modifica- 
tion of the common holorhinal type, and this condition should be 
named pseudoschizorhinal according to Fiirb ringer. 

The variations in the palatine structure, moreover, are of no more 
importance than those of the nasal foramen. 

2. The family Dendrocolaptidse is an entirely uniform and 
natural one and there are no sufficient reasons for its subdivision 
into two families. 

3. The morphological and biological characters to which I have 
alluded offer usefid data for the systematic disposition of the 
subfamilies and genera of the Dendrocolaptid?e. 


(J. Beddard, Frank. The Structure and Classification of Birds. Lon- 
don. 1898. 

II. Furbringer, Max. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie u. Systema- 
tik der Voegel. Amsterdam. 1888. 

III. Garrod, A. H. On the Value in the Classification of a Similarity 

in the Anterior Margin of the Nasal Bones of Certain Birds. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1873. pp. 33-38. 

IV. Ridgway, Robert. The Birds of North and Middle America. 

Part V. Washington; 1911 [p. 157, Furnariidae, p. 224, Dendro- 


Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. Sittasomus sylviellus (Temm.). X 2. 

Fig. 2. Anabazenops fuscus Vieill. X 2. 

Fig. 3. Dendroplex picus (Gm.). X 2. 

Fig. 4. Synallaxis spixi Scl. Nat. size. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 1. Synallaxis spixi Scl. Nat. size. 

Fig. 2. Picolaptesfalcinellus (Cab. & Heine). X 2. \ 

Figs. 3 & 4. Batara cinerea (Vieill.). Nat. size. 

N = nostril, A = anterior, P = posterior. 

F.F. = frontal fontanelle. 

I.O. = interorbital part of frontal bone. 

154 Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. [April 



Plates XIII-XV. 

We camped on the nights of March 13 and 14, 1914, about three 
miles north of the "main strand" of the Big Cypress, close beside 
the trail, in an open glade among the cypress heads; and both 
nights the wind blew so that I was glad to crawl into the lee of a 
neighboring tree. 

Here we hunted turkeys, obtaining some of both sexes, and 
collecting several Swallow-tailed Kites, whose nesting season was 
just beginning, and which I think are, with the exception of the 
Roseate Spoonbill, the most beautiful birds I have ever shot. 

On the 15th we traveled north, along the Immokalee trail for 
about eight miles, and then struck out across the prairie, skirting 
the edge of the cypress swamp and pine woods in a northeasterly 
direction for about seven miles, until we came to a little pine island 
near the edge of the Okaloacoochee Slough, where we camped for 
several days. 

During the trip I discovered a Swallow-tailed Kite building its nest 
in the top of a tall, slim pine, near the edge of some pine woods, 
and close by a cypress swamp. The nest was about sixty-five feet 
up, and instead of being built against the trunk of the tree, as is so 
often the case with raptores, was built at the end of an upreaching 
limb, and from the ground, looked like a rather flimsy structure of 
sticks, to which the old bird was now adding moss. In shooting 
this bird I broke his right wing at the pinion joint, and he continued 
to fly screaming above my head, with the pinion flapping, until I 
brought him down with another shot. Their powers of flight are 
certainly marvellous. 

En route we saw numbers of cattle, poor scrawny beasts, scat- 
tered about the prairie, most of them pretty wild, and every once in 

1 Cf. Auk, Jan., 1915, p. 1, for details of this expedition through southern 


Vol 'l9l^ XI1 ] Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. 155 

a while a group of buzzards marked the spot where one had died. 
We heard but few Sandhill Cranes, until we neared the Okaloa- 
coochee, when we began to see them, often two or three at a time, 
and flushed one flock of five and then another of seven that flew off 
"hollering" at our approach. Here also we saw our first Florida 
Burrowing Owls, and discovered one of their burrows only a short 
distance from where we were to camp. 

The Okaloacoochee Slough, where we proposed spending the 
next couple of weeks, is a waterway extending from a few miles 
south of Fort Thompson, on the River, in a south- 
erly direction into the Big Cypress, and from thence to the Gulf. 
It is bordered by a series of prairies, sloughs, marshes and swamps; 
most of which are wet throughout the entire year; and seems to 
be a " fly-way" for all the water birds in that part of the State that 
do not go up the Gulf coast. 

Our first camp was near the southerly end of a large cypress 
swamp, through which the waters of the slough took their way. 
The prairie here is dotted with sloughs, the haunt of Sandhill 
Cranes, the Florida Black Duck, and of countless Herons and 
Ibises; and east of the swamp it stretches away to the horizon, 
where the sky line is broken only by an occasional pine island, and 
by an easterly strand of the Big Cypress, which from here can just 
be seen. 

Here we hunted Cranes and Black Ducks, and I spent much 
time on the prairie watching the Burrowing Owls. Peter told me 
they were not nearly so numerous as formerly, when colonies of 
twenty and twenty -five together were not uncommon ; and this was 
the only location he knew of in Lee County in which these interest- 
ing birds still bred. 

They build their nests out in the sandy soil of the open prairie, 
on the higher places, from which the floods have receded, and which 
here had been burned over earlier in the season. We found num- 
bers of their little mounds scattered about, but hardly thick enough 
to be called a colony. 

On approaching an inhabited burrow, if one or both of the 
owners were not already in sight, they very quickly appeared; and 
standing bolt upright on their little mound of sand at the mouth 
of the burrow, would courtesy gravely to me, until on my nearer 


Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. 

r Auk 

^ ^^---Y-' 

! ' ■ ' ' • ' • i 

■ ////Y/W/A/'s . 

■W//Y//Y//: /// 

Three Burrows of the Florida Burrowing Owl. Horizontal and vertical sections. 

Vol 'lflf XI1 ] Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. 157 

approach, they would fly off onto the prairie, perhaps fifty or a 
hundred feet, where they would continue their courtesies, uttering 
at the same time their calls, Whit, whit-whit, a long and two short 
notes: or Whit-whit, who-who-who-who-whit, two short notes fol- 
lowed by a stutter, a little lower in tone but ending with a short 
sharp whit at the end; or Whit-whit, who-who-who-who-who, two 
short ivhits, followed by the stutter. Often instead of flying they 
would run over the prairie, reminding me of the Robins one sees 
on the lawn, which after standing upright and still, suddenly 
bend forward and run. 

I dug up a number of their burrows, but it was apparently too 
early to find eggs, though some of the nests appeared to be com- 
pleted. These burrows, several of which I measured carefully, 
seemed to run in any direction, east, west, north or south, just as 
the birds happen to choose, for a distance of from four and a half 
to eight feet, with the floor of the burrow usually averaging from 
ten to twelve inches below the surface of the prairie, though we 
found one that ran as deep as eighteen inches. 

The tunnels, which were usually from three to three and a half 
inches high and from four to five and half wide, ran down grade 
until about two feet from the entrance, and then nearly on a level, 
until just before the nest was reached, when there would be a 
slight rise in the grade, apparently to keep the nest a little above 
any water that might, in spite of the natural drainage of the soil, 
gather in the hole in time of storm. The nest chambers, which 
were oval, were about six inches high and from eight to nine inches 
in diameter, with a slight depression in the bottom; and those 
that were nearing completion were rather carefully lined with weeds 
and grasses, but in no case with cow dung (see article by S. N. 
Rhoads in 'The Auk' for January, 1892). In several of the bur- 
rows we found a small tunnel about two and a half by three inches 
in diameter, extending for distances varying from eight or ten 
inches to nearly four feet and ending abruptly. What these tun- 
nels were built for, I am unable to explain, or howthe^bird managed 
to make them so small. Of one thing only am I certain, and that 
is that they were built before the nest was lined. 

The little piles of sand at the mouth of the burrows necessa- 
rily varied in size according to the amount of excavation. The 

158 Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. L April 

largest that we saw measured forty by forty-four inches across, 
and was only three inches in height. Some of them were very 
conspicuous, while others were partly overgrown with grasses, and 
we found one that was in the side of one of those "bull holes" 
which here dot the prairie — holes pawed in the earth by bellicose 

When the owls flew, they flew softly as all owls do, but rapidly 
when they so desired, and frequently with high undulations and 
succeeding dives. They never went a hundred yards from their 
nests, and we could not drive them away from the vicinity. As 
soon as we were through investigating their nests, the little birds 
at once flew back to them, and showed a distress to which I was 
only reconciled by the knowledge that they would doubtless soon 
begin to rehabilitate some old burrow, of which there were plenty 
in the vicinity. Once Tom and I discovered in the distance a 
burrow from which little jets of sand were issuing with great fre- 
quency and regularity, about three to the second, onto the mound 
in front. One of the birds was just inside the mouth of the burrow, 
apparently throwing the sand out backwards with his feet. 

The owls never seemed to sleep, day or night, at least I never 
caught them at it, and once I went out on the prairie on a pitch 
dark night at 3 a.m., in an effort to see if one particular pair was 
at home, and blocked up the mouth of the burrow, only to find 
them a few yards away, apparently as well able to take care of 
themselves in the dark as in the daytime. 

On the 18th we found a slough at one end of which was a little 
willow island, in which there were ten nests of Ward's Heron; 
seven of them contained well grown young, and three had well 
incubated eggs. Numbers of Boat-tailed Grackles were building 
here, some of their nests two or three feet above the water among 
the vines that hung pendant from the willows, while others were 
fifteen feet high on the out-reaching branches of the willows them- 
selves. Most of the nests were in process of construction, though 
a few held an egg apiece, while one contained two eggs and another 
three. There was a flock of "Curlew" or White Ibises here, to- 
gether w T ith Louisiana and Little Blue Herons, and a number of 
Yellow-crowned Night Herons. 

We were still in the turkey country and succeeded in picking up 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XIV. 

1. Florida Burrowing Owls at Home. 

2. Nests of Ward Heron. 

'l915 Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. 159 

another fine specimen of the much wanted hen; and gobblers could 
be heard every morning among the neighboring pine islands. We 
saw several hawks flying low and hunting over the prairie, that 
Tom declared were Everglade Kites, but which I never got near 
enough to shoot, and was unable to identify. I did, however, see 
several Marsh Hawks. There were also Killdeer and a few Snipe 
in some of the marshes, and we saw one bunch of about a dozen 
Greater Yellow-legs. 

On March 20th when I had gone out early to see what the Bur- 
rowing Owls were up to, I took the following notes, which may be 
of interest as an account of the early morning bird life that imme- 
diately surrounded us. 

"3 a.m. Awoke to find the moon about an hour high, and two 
Horned Owls hooting in the pine woods to the southwest. Do 
they always hoot as the moon rises, or is it that that is the only 
time I ever happen to hear them?" 

"3.40 Black Ducks calling from slough to the eastward." 

"4.20 As I was walking over the prairie the Sandhill Cranes 
began calling from all directions. Whether or not some of them 
were first aroused by me I am unable to say." 

"4.35 A Chuck-will's-widow made a few calls." 

" 4.40 A Whip-poor-will after two or three preliminary throat 
clearers, started in with seventy-six calls, as against one hundred 
and eighty-eight I heard one make successively yesterday a.m." 

"4.45 I can hear two Horned Owls, one Barred Owl, which has 
been hooting at intervals ever since T awoke, two Whip-poor-wills 
and one Chuck-will's-widow, all calling at once. The Horned 
Owls' notes sound thus: Whoo, who-who-whoo, whoo whoo; or 
Whoo, ivho-who-whoo, who-who-whoo, whoo ivhoo; a far deeper tone 
than those of the Barred Owl." 

" 4.50 Black Ducks again set up a squawking, Cranes are ' holler- 
ing' all over the prairies, and it is beginning to get light in the east. 
A Barred Owl is hooting close by, another in the middle distance, 
and a third far off." s 

"4.55 Night Herons quawking, Florida Yellow-throats singing 
in the nearby clumps of saw palmettos, and two Chuck-will's- 
widows and one Whip-poor-will are apparently trying to sing each 
other down." 

160 Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. [April 

" 4.58 Boat-tails are beginning to call, and Jorees (Towhees) are 
everywhere in the palmettos about us." 

"4.59 Black Ducks again squawking, Meadowlarks, Shrikes, 
Florida Yellow-throats everywhere, and Herons of some kind, 
either Louisiana or Little Blues calling from the swamp." 

"5.03 A Turkey gobbling away off the southwest." 

"5.04 Turkey gobbling frequently." 

"5.05 More quawking of Herons, Barred Owls continue per- 
formance, but Horned Owls seem to have quit. The Okaloa- 
coochee with its low lying fog looks like a huge lake." 

"5.06 Jorees and Florida Yellow-throats are calling continu- 
ously in every direction. I thought I heard a Song Sparrow in the 
distance, though it may have been a Savannah." 

" 5.08 That gobbler is trying for a record." 

"5.09 A Cardinal is singing nearby. He may well have sung 
before, and escaped notice." 

"5.16 Quail are beginning to call, the gobbler is calling again, 
and apparently replying to another that has just started gobbling 
south of us." 

" 5.17 Crows are cawing; a little late it seems to me." 

"5.19 Red-bellied Woodpeckers and Florida Grackles are be- 
ginning to arrive in our grove." 

" 5.20 A Flicker is calling in the distance, and a big gobbler is 
gobbling just a short piece up the trail." 

" 5.32 Pine Warblers, Red-winged Blackbirds and Downy Wood- 
peckers in the pines about us." 

We succeeded in collecting four Florida Black Ducks while at 
this camp — three drakes and a duck. I forgot to measure the duck 
before skinning, but the three drakes when laid out on my operating 
table, each measured twenty -three inches in length, which is con- 
siderably longer than the measurements usually given for this 
species, and I was very much interested in finding that they all, 
both sexes, had bright coral red legs. The bills of the drakes were 
very highly colored, and looked to me like the bills of the freshly 
killed specimens of the northern species. Some, at least, of these 
birds were beginning to breed, for although we found no nests our- 
selves, I was later lucky enough to secure a beautiful set of eleven 
fresh eggs, taken by a friend of Tom's on March 20, in a slough 
near Immokalee. 


The Auk. Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XV. 

A Bonnet Lake ox the Okaloacoochee. 

Nest of the Sand Hill Crane. 

Vol ] f 1 ^ Xn ] Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. 161 

On the morning of March 20 our long search for an occupied 
Crane's nest was rewarded by finding one that contained two well 
incubated eggs, in a slough away out in the prairie. The old bird, 
which we jumped directly from her nest, near the middle of the 
slough, flew off "hollering" and lit out on the prairie, from which 
point of vantage she could watch the proceedings. The nest was a 
huge affair about four feet by six in extent, and eight inches above 
the level of the surrounding water, with a depression about two 
inches deep, and was constructed principally of the dried stems of 
what looked to me like the pickerel weed with which most of these 
sloughs are filled. 

In the afternoon we broke camp and traveled northeast across 
the prairie, around the cypress swamp, at the southerly end of 
which we had been camping, to a place known as the Widow 
McLean's Crossing, where a trail from Immokalee to the Semi- 
nole reservation crosses the Okaloacoochee. 

Here in a sort of lade surrounded on three sides by a wonderful 
cypress swamp, someone had years ago built a shack, long since in 
ruins, planted a small grove of grapefruit, oranges and guavas, 
and cultivated the ground about them. "Lightwood" for our 
fires, and pasturage, were both in plenty; and we were out of reach 
of the bothersome prairie winds. There was plenty of good water 
that actually ran through the stream just back of camp; and, 
wonder of wonders, a place where I could bathe. The air was 
redolent with the odor of orange blossoms, the place fairly alive 
with birds, a delightful change after our strenuous experience of the 
last few weeks. 

Late in the afternoon, while putting our camp to rights, the air 
was full of birds, thousands upon thousands of them flying over us, 
south to the adjoining cypress swamp. "Flint Heads" (Wood 
Ibis) in companies and the swift flying "Curlew" (White Ibis) in 
battalions and regiments, Louisiana and Little Blue Herons by 
the hundreds, with here and there a sprinkling of "Long Whites" 
(Egret), all in one continuous stream. Right in the middle of it we 
were startled by yells from Tom, and on rushing out into the open 
to see what the matter was, espied two "Pink Curlew" (Roseate 
Spoonbills) flying rapidly south with the other species. 

From all the signs we were led to believe that there must be a 

162 Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. [April 

large rookery in the cypress swamp just south of us. The next 
morning, after making skins of a couple of Limpkins that Tom had 
collected the night before, we started for the middle of the swamp, 
above which we could see a number of "Flint Heads" soaring and 
wheeling high up in the air, very much after the manner of the 
Black Buzzards. We crossed the slough and coming out onto the 
prairie, which here stretched away to the easterly horizon, skirted 
the swamp for a short distance until we came to a trail used by the 
Seminoles, who come here from all over southern Florida for the 
huge cypress trees from which they make their dugouts. 

En route we saw several Turkeys, and after a short walk came to 
the edge of one of the prettiest of Florida lakes, perhaps one hun- 
dred and fifty to two hundred yards long and from thirty to sixty 
yards wide, completely surrounded by a growth of wonderful 
moss-covered old cypress, that seemed fairly alive with birds. 
Anhingas, in larger numbers than I have ever seen assembled in so 
small a space, were flying rapidly about or craning their necks as 
they perched on overhanging boughs. There were Herons of 
various sorts about the edges of the lake, and numbers of wise 
looking old "Flint Heads" sitting solemnly among the tree tops. 
Wood Ducks were swimming among the buttressed trunks of the 
cypress trees at the border of the lake, and several huge alligators, 
as we came in sight, were seen to sink slowly beneath the surface 
of a pool at the southerly end. 

I had crawled out on a prostrate stump to take a photograph of 
the beautiful scene, when suddenly a wonderful "Pink Curlew" 
came shooting out from one of the side aisles, across the lake in 
front of me. I must have been seized with something akin to buck 
fever, for I simple stood there open mouthed and staring, until at a 
yell from Tom about a dozen more flew out, and I managed to wake 
up sufficiently to secure three of them. Later we saw several 
more "Pinks," thirty or forty of them in all. 

Of the Spoonbills collected, one was an adult female with egg in 
the oviduct; while the other two were immature — a male, and a 
female with ovaries undeveloped. The irides of the immature 
specimens, instead of being bright carmine, like their elders, were, 
to quote my notes, " of a nondescript color at first glance blue, but 
on closer examination a sort of dark hazel." 

01 1915 J Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. loo 

On Sunday, March 22, we rested and put in most of our time 
making up skins. The day was overcast and inclined to be rainy, 
but not enough so to discourage the birds. Cardinals, Mocking- 
birds, Tufted Titmice and White-eyed Yireos were singing in the 
trees about us, the occasional scream of Florida Bluejays could be 
heard, and once in a while the rattle of a Kingfisher flying overhead. 
Pileated Woodpeckers and Barred Owls called frequently from the 
slough behind us, and occasionally the squeak of Wood Ducks 
could be heard in the stream, which fairly teemed with them. 

Right in front of my tent were several depressions in the dirt 
made by Turkeys when " dusting." A pair of Swallow-tailed Kites 
frequented the nearby pine wood, and the "hollering" of Sandhill 
Cranes could be heard in the distance. Chipping Sparrows, 
Florida Meadowlarks, Great Crested Flycatchers, Florida Grackles, 
Florida Red-wings, Buzzards, Florida Red-shouldered Hawks, 
Florida Crows, and Fish Crows, were nearly always about camp, 
and Ruby-throated Hummingbirds were flitting among the grape- 
fruit blossoms overhead. I heard one Blue-headed Vireo. " Flint 
Heads," White Ibises, and Herons of various sorts were generally 
in sight, and every once in a while a yell from Tom proclaimed a 
"Pink" going by. 

Some few " Flint Heads " were always on the move, flying back 
and forth from their rookery. The prairie was often dotted with 
them, seeking insects, I suppose; and on moonlight nights numbers 
of them could be seen feeding in the sloughs. About daylight they 
begin to come out of the swamp in numbers, flying over camp with 
loud rhythmic whistle of wings, mostly in a northerly direction; 
straggling along in small companies; perhaps a couple, three, five, 
seven, or nine at a time, and in one extreme case, twenty-two. In 
flight they remind me of Brown Pelicans, a few flaps of the wings 
and then a soar, but their company drill is not nearly so good as 
that of the Pelicans, who follow their leader with such remarkable 

Every once in a while in the early morning, or lat& in the after- 
noon, one hears a great rushing sound like that of a closely approach- 
ing wind storm, and a huge flock of beautiful White Ibises goes 
rushing overhead. In flight they are much more rapid than the 
Wood Ibis, and seem to set their wings to soar only when swooping 
down to alight or when turning in their flight. 

164 Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. [ April 

After breakfast on March 23, Tom and I again started for the 
"Flint Head " rookery, from which we had been diverted by the 
Spoonbills two days before. We struck south from the alligator 
lake through about the worst bit of swamp it has ever been my lot 
to traverse, wading up to our armpits in water covered with a 
of skim of "lettuce," or climbing six or eight feet in the air over 
prostrate trees, balancing ourselves on logs, crawling through vines 
or almost impenetrable jungle, and always dodging moccasins, 
until we came to the rookery, perhaps a half a mile from the lake. 
The cypresses here were magnificent, huge trees four, five, six or 
seven feet in diameter above the buttresses, and in one case over 
nine; growing well apart so that most of them had spreading tops. 

Here in a strip from one hundred to two hundred yards wide 
and extending for a mile or so, was the rookery. Not all of the 
trees were occupied, but most of the good ones held from four or 
five to twenty nests apiece, clear out on the ends of upreaching 
branches. At the northerly end of the rookery the nests contained 
vociferous young. A little farther south most of them appeared 
to contain eggs, while at the southerly end the nests were still in 
process of construction. Apparently they had started to build at 
the northerly end first, and then as the newcomers took up their 
parental duties from day to day, extended the rookery south. 

Here hour after hour there was a constant stream of birds flying 
back and forth from a clump of willows at the border of the swamp, 
that was being rapidly denuded of twigs and sticks, which the big 
birds broke off with their powerful bills and carried to their nests. 
Tom watched them for some time and reported that when a bird 
flew up to a willow and lit, it would perhaps grasp several twigs at 
once with its feet, apparently in order to get a better hold, and 
then seizing a twig with its bill, would pull and jerk until it 
broke off, or, if unsuccessful, get hold of some other twig, break it 
off, and then fly away. 

Tom was also lucky enough to get a view at close range of 
several "Flint Heads" feeding in an open place in the water be- 
neath some "pop ash" trees. He described them as walking 
solemnly back and forth in water about up to their knees, with 
tails erect; and when feeding dragging their bills beside them, 
upside down like a Flamingo, opening and shutting them rapidly 

"igi5 J Kennard, The Okaloacoochee Slough. 165 

and apparently sifting the mud through them. When meeting, 
they would often throw their heads back, puffing out their feathers 
at the base of their necks, and, if quarrelsome, would snap their 
bills loudly at each other. In the rookery the continual clatter of 
snapping bills can be heard quite a distance. 

We found a number of Spoonbills which were apparently just 
beginning their nesting season, and saw several standing on what 
I supposed to be their nests at the top of tall cypresses, while 
another was engaged in fixing up the lining of its nest. 

Tom and 1 tried to make an approximate estimate of the number 
of birds in the rookery, but were unable to arrive at any satis- 
factory conclusion. The traveling was so difficult that we could 
not undertake to block off the swamp into small areas in which we 
could count the nests, and we had to content ourselves with guess- 
ing. Tom, after further explorations the next day, thought there 
were at least ten thousand nests of the "Flint Heads," while I felt 
sure there were more than five thousand. At any rate, there were 
a great many, and among them a few Spoonbills' nests. 

The other birds, White Ibises, Herons, Anhingas, etc., appeared 
not to have begun breeding, and apparently the first two only used 
the swamp as a roost. There must have been several thousand 
White Ibises and perhaps a hundred Egrets that used the swamp, 
and countless Little Blue, Louisiana and Night Herons of both 
species. None of these had apparently begun to breed. The 
season appeared late, and Tom thought that when they did breed 
they would probably build their nests out among the sloughs and 
willow islands somewhere on the prairie. 

Just east of camp, only a few hundred yards up the slough, was 
a very lovely "bonnet" lake, a feeding ground for many of these 
birds, and at its outlet I collected several Wood Ducks of both 
sexes, adults in full breeding plumage. As Florida Wood Ducks 
are thought, by some of the gunners there, to be rather smaller than 
our northern species, I took pretty careful measurements and found 
them to be identical as to wings, tail, tarsus and biH. In length 
four birds measured seventeen and one half inches when stretched 
to their utmost immediately after killing, and one reached seven- 
teen and three quarters. 

On March 26 we broke camp, yoked up our oxen, and left this 

166 Bangs, Cabot's Yucatan Types. [April 

pleasantest of camp sites for the Burnt Pens, ten miles away on the 
trail to Fort Myers. 

On the way to the Burnt Pens we had a very interesting experi- 
ence with a pair of Sandhill Cranes, whose young we discovered 
"peeping" out on the prairie. Its peeps were to us absolutely 
indistinguishable from the calls of the numerous Jorees in the 
surrounding saw palmetto, and the solicitude of its parents was 
almost human. 

We spent the night at the Burnt Pens and the next day, March 
27, Tom and I left for Fort Myers in the automobile, leaving Peter 
to follow with the schooner. 

I am glad to report that Tom Hand returned later to the Okaloa- 
coochee as warden, under the auspices of the National Association 
of Audubon Societies. There are still a few "crackers" who have 
not yet been educated against plume hunting, and as we had, while 
camping there, seen suspicious tracks in the swamp, Mr. T. Gilbert 
Pearson very gladly complied with the suggestion that someone 
be sent there to watch the rookery and its vicinity until the end of 
the breeding season. 



During the early days of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
in the "fortys," Dr. Samuel Cabot, Jr., was for a short period an 
active ornithologist. He collected birds vigorously himself and 
exchanged with many European naturalists and dealers. He also 
accompanied Stephens on his second expedition to Yucatan, and 
remained in that country from October, 1841, until June, 1842, 
visiting Cozumel Island at some time during that period. He 
made a collection of birds, which, judged by the rather informal 
list published in the appendix to ' Incidents of Travel in Yucatan' 
by John L. Stephens (Vol. II, p. 469), must have been fairly repre- 
sentative, and was certainly the first collection of any size to come 
out of the region. 

1915 J Bangs, Cabot's Yucatan Types. 167 

Altogether Dr. Cabot amassed a collection of the birds of the 
world that at the time must have been a very fair working collec- 
tion. He followed the custom, unfortunately too prevelant among 
naturalists of his day, of keeping very insufficient data — or none 
at all — attached to his skins. Soon after his death in 1885 his 
birds were presented to the Boston Society of Natural History. 
At that time the collection had dwindled sadly from its former 
numbers, largely, I have been told, on account of the depredations 
of the cloths moth, and partly, I feel sure, from specimens having 
been mounted with no record of whence they came then put on 
exhibition, and finally lost sight of. 

Last year the collection was again transferred, this time to the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, where I have carefully gone over 
it all. 

A charming little account of the bird work of Dr. Cabot and his 
two brothers can be found in Brewster's ' Birds of the Cambridge 
Region,' beginning on page 81. A still more intimate acquaint- 
ance with Dr. Cabot's activities can be had from a large portfolio, 
preserved in the library of the Boston Society of Natural History 
and containing manuscripts of his various papers, many un- 
published anatomical discussions often accompanied by fine original 
drawings, lists of exchanges and letters from most of the orni- 
thologists of his day, both European and American. 

Dr. Cabot during his short career as an ornithologist described 
no new birds except those collected by himself in Yucatan. The 
types of all except two of these I have found. 

Besides the types listed below there still exist specimens of the 
following species, that for one reason or another I am certain were 
collected by Cabot himself in Yucatan. — Agriocharis ocellata 
(Cuv.); Eupsychortyx nigrigularis (Gould); Columba leucocephala 
Linn.; C. flavirostris Wagl.; Melopelia asiatica trudeaui (Audu- 
bon); Colymbus dominicus brachypterus Chapman; Asarcia spinosa 
(Linn.); Ajaja ajaja (Linn.); Florida coerulea (Linn.); Dichroma- 
nassa rufa (Bodd.) ; Leucophoyx candidissima candid^ssima (Gml.) ; 
Polyborus cheriway (Jacq.) ; Buteo borealis calurus Cass. ; Asturina 
plagiata Schl. ; Rupornis magnirostris conspecta Peters; Urubitinga 
anthracina (Licht.); Herpetotheres cachinnans (Linn.); Glaucidium 
brasilianum ridgwayi Sharpe; Amizilis rutila rutila (Delattre); 

168 Bangs, Cabot's Yucatan Types. [.April 

ChlorostUbon canivetii canivetii (Lesson); Thamnophilus doliatus 
yucatanensis Ridg. ; Platypsaris aglaioe yucatanensis Ridg. ; Tityra 
semifasciata per sonata (Jard. & Selby); Mimus gilvus gracilis 
(Cabanis) ; Planesticus grayi tamaulipensis (Nelson) ; Cyclarhis 
flaviventris yucatanensis Ridg.; Dendroica bryanti bryanti (Ridg.); 
Guiraca cmrulea ccerulea (Linn.) ; Arremonops verticalis (Ridg.) and 
Icterus gularis yucatanensis Berlepsch. Some others I suspect 
were really collected by Dr. Cabot in Yucatan but there is now 
no way of proving the fact. 

Following is a list of the Yucatan birds described as new by 
Cabot with an account of such of the types as remain. 

Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida Cabot. Sterna acuflavida Cabot, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. II, p. 257, 1847. Tancah, coast of Yucatan, 
April 25, 1842. 

One specimen only, mentioned. 

Type now, M. C. Z. no. 72571. 

Micrastur melanoleucus (Vieill.). Falco percontator Cabot, Boston 
Jour, of N. H., Vol. IV, p. 462, Jan. 1844. Edge of the great cenote at 
Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 

Two specimens, c? and 9 adult. 

Cotypes now rf 1 M. C. Z. 72572; 9 M. C. Z. 72573. 

Eumomota superciliosa superciliosa (Sandbach). Momotus yuca- 
tanensis Cabot, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. I, p. 156, 1843. Boston Journal, 
of N. H., Vol. IV, No. 4, p. 466, Jan. 1844. " Throughout Yucatan, 
particularly at Chichen Itza." 

The number of specimens preserved was not stated by Cabot. One 
example still exists. This Type is now M. C. Z. no. 72575. 

Centurus dubius dubius (Cabot). Picus dubius Cabot, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., Vol. I, p. 164, 1844. Boston Journal of N. H., Vol. V, p. 91, 
1845. Uxmal, Yucatan, Nov., 1841. 

One specimen an adult cf . 

Type now, M. C. Z. no. 71785. 

Chloronerpes rubiginosus yucatanensis (Cabot). Picus yucatanen- 
sis Cabot, Proc: Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. I, p. 164, 1844. Boston Journal of 
N. H., Vol. V, pt. I, p. 92, 1845. Road from Chemax to Yalahao, Yucatan, 
March, 1842. 

One specimen, c? ■ 

This cannot now be found. 

Dryobates scalaris parvus (Cabot). Picus parvus Cabot, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., Vol. I, p. 164, 1844. Boston Journal of N. H., Vol. V, p. 92, 
1845. 1 Ticul, Yucatan, December, 1841. 

1 Original reference cited in error in Ridgway, ' Birds of North and Middle 
America.' Part VI, p. 249, as Jour. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila, V, 1845, 90. 

VOl 'lfi^ XI1 ] Bangs, Cabot's Yucatan Types. 169 

One specimen, cf. 

This specimen also appears to be lost. 

Amizilis yucatanensis yucatanensis (Cabot). Trochilus yucatanen- 
sis Cabot, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. II, p. 74, 1845. "The most common 
hummingbird in Yucatan." The " specimens " from which it was described 
were taken " about the acacias which grew upon the tops of the ruined 

One of the types still exists; now no. 72512 M. C. Z. 

Thryomanes albinucha (Cabot). Troglodytes albinucha Cabot, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. II, p. 258, 1847. Near Yalahao, Yucatan, April 6, 

One specimen, Type now M. C. Z. no. 72514. 

Psilorhinus mexicanus vociferus (Cabot). Corvus vociferus Cabot. 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. I, p. 155, 1843. Boston Journal of N. H., Vol. 
IV, p. 464, 1844. 

Casa del Gobernador; Yturbide and Izamal, Yucatan. 

Three specimens, cf cf 9 . 

One of these, I learn from Dr. Witmer Stone, is preserved in the collection 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. It was presented by 
Prof. S. F. Baird who apparently obtained it from Dr. Cabot and is marked 
as the type (No. 3096 A. N. S. Phila.). 

Icterus mesomelas mesomelas (Wagler). Oriolus musicus Cabot. 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. I, p. 155, 1843. Boston Journal of N. H., Vol. 
IV, p. 465, 1844. 

Ticul and Macoba, Yucatan. 

Three specimens, cf cf 1 9 . 

One of the types still exists; now M. C. Z. no. 72515. 

Piranga roseo-gularis roseo-gularis Cabot. Pyranga roseo-gularis 
Cabot. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Vol. II, p. 187, 1846. Boston Journal of 
N. H., Vol. V, p. 416, 1846. On the road from Chemax to Yalahao, April 
5, 1842. 

One specimen <?, Type now M. C. Z. no. 72518. 

Saltator atriceps raptor (Cabot). Pyrrhula raptor Cabot, Boston 
Journal of N. H., Vol. V, p. 90, pi. 12, 1844. " Very numerous throughout 

Apparently but two specimens d" and 9 . 

Cotypes now, cT M. C. Z. no. 72574; 9 M. C. Z. no. 72520. 

Under this name Cabot confused two species, describing and figuring 
as the male the Yucatan form of Saltator atriceps and as the female the 
Yucatan subspecies of Saltator grandis. 

In his Revision des Tanagriden, Berlin 1910, page 1114, x Von Berlepsch 
described as a new subspecies the Yucatan form of Saltator grandis, as 
Saltator grandis yucatanensis, and Peters (Auk, 1913, p. 380), set up Cabot's 
name for the Yucatan form of Saltator atriceps — Saltator atriceps raptor. 

Besides the Yucatan birds described by himself, Cabot collected in 
Cozumel Island, two specimens of a yellow honey creeper, that was after- 

170 Murphy, Range of Leach's Petrel. [April 

wards named by Prof. Baird. One of these was mounted and put on exhi- 
bition in the Boston Society (it is now M. C. Z. no. 72580) and probably 
Baird did not have it. The other, still a skin, bears a label on which 
" type " is marked, in, I think, Baird's handwriting. 

Coereba caboti (Baird). Certhiola caboti Baird, Am. Nat., Vol. VII, p. 
612, Oct. 1873, Cozumel Isl. 1842. Type now, M. C. Z. no. 72525. 

The only other type — so far as I have been able to ascertain — in the 
Cabot collection was, 

Tragopan caboti (Gould). Ceriornis caboti Gould, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 
161 . Figured in Birds of Asia, VII, pi. 48. This specimen, is now M. C. Z. 
no. 73213. It was mounted and had been somewhat battered, during its 
many changes of abode, but has been remade into a very good skin by Mr. 
George Nelson. 



According to the A. O. U. Check-List, 1910, the western Atlantic 
range of Leach's Petrel extends from breeding grounds in southern 
Greenland south casually to Virginia. In the eastern Atlantic 
the species is known, either as a regular visitor or as a wanderer, 
at the Azores, Madeira (Nov.), Canary Islands (Nov.), Cape 
Verdes (Jan.), and the coasts of Sierra Leone and Liberia (Banner- 
man, Ibis, Vol. II, 1914, pp. 450, 451). Specimens have also been 
taken in January and March between the Equator and 5° N. 
latitude, in the longitude of the Cape Verdes, or in approximately 
the geographical center of the tropical Atlantic Ocean (Salvin, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., Vol. XXV, 1896, p. 350). 

During the cruise of the whaler Daisy, 1912-1913, I observed 
and collected 0. leucorhoa over an area which extends farther to the 
west and south in the equatorial Atlantic than the previously 
known range of the species. 

Vol "ifi6 XI1 ] Murphy, Range of Leach's Petrel. 171 

Records of Collection. 

September 9, 1912, 28° 36' N., 31° 45' W. (Latitude of the 
Canary Islands; west of the meridian of the westernmost Azores.) 
The calmest day I have ever seen, and excessively hot. The glare 
of the mirroring sea was blinding. The water was dotted with the 
tiny, translucent sails of sallee-men (Velella); pelagic insects 
(Halobates), so rarely visible, left long wakes in the flat, impres- 
sionable sea; and large areas of the substance which whalemen 
call "tallow drops" drifted slowly past the brig. Early in the 
forenoon small dark petrels were seen flying about erratically in 
the distance, and, lowering the dory, I collected the first example 
of Oceanodroma leacorhoa. I remained in the boat about an hour, 
"chumming" for the birds with grease, but none other came 

September 27, 10° 46' N., 24° 38' W. (South of Fogo, Cape 
Verde Islands.) Calm, with a heavy swell; overcast; northerly 
breeze toward evening. Among a flock of Occanitcs oceanicus 
which fed about us on this day were eight Leach's Petrels. The 
latter could be readily distinguished by their slightly larger size, 
longer wings, and notably different style of flight. Oceanodroma 
flies with rapid, "leaping" strokes, quite unlike the alternations 
of gliding and synchronous flutters which characterize the flight 
of Oceanites. An observer who has once had the good fortune of 
watching the two species together can thereafter distinguish them 
almost as far away as the birds can be seen. 

I lowered the dory and shot three of the Leach's Petrels. 

On September 30, I saw another Oceanodroma, but could not 

October 3, 6° 46' N., 24° 35' W. At nine o'clock in the evening 
the crew was engaged in boiling sperm whale blubber, the cresset 
over the try-works casting a red glare against the limp sails, when 
a dazzled petrel tumbled onto the deck. It fluttered about, 
bewildered, but managed to escape. Two others were caught 
during the night, however, and both proved to be 0. leucorhoa. 
One of them I banded and freed. 

April 18, 1913, 3° 40' S., 33° 35' W. (Between Rocas Reef and 

172 Murphy, Range of Leach's Petrel. [April 

Fernando Noronha). Fair, with light easterly winds. We passed 
close enough to Roeas Reef so that the signal and buildings could 
be seen from the masthead. One Oceanodroma, among the Ocea- 
ii if <s, flew about our stern for a few minutes. 

April 19, 3° 15' S., 33° 40' W. Flat calm all day and well into 
the night. I lowered the dory and collected a dozen petrels, three 
of which were Oceanodroma leucorhoa. One of these had lost a leg 
above the tarso-metatarsal joint, but it seemed to obtain its food 
as well as the others. The "springy" flight again struck me as 
quite distinctive. Unlike Wilson's Petrel the Leach's Petrels 
settled frequently into the water, holding the tips of their wings 
high while they swam. 

April 23, 1° 34' S., 34° 18' W. Calm; showers. One Oceano- 
droma seen. 

May 4, 13° 16' N., 51° 34' W. (Due east of Barbados, W. I.) 
Moderate trade winds. An Oceanodroma flew about us for a while 
during the morning. I was enabled to watch it very closely, and 
there can be no doubt whatever regarding the identification. The 
record is particularly interesting, partly because the locality is 
almost within the Lesser Antillean region, and also because the 
date is about the beginning of the normal breeding season for this 
species in the temperate North Atlantic. 

Notes on the Skins. 

All the specimens collected in the tropical Atlantic are indis- 
tinguishable from birds taken at Grand Manan and elsewhere near 
the North American breeding grounds. It is perhaps needless to 
say that I have avoided a possible confusion with 0. castro. 

The sequence of the plumages is interesting. The specimen 
taken on September 9, an adult female, is moulting its worn and 
much faded feathers, a few new, gray scapularies and half-grown 
rectrices contrasting strongly with the dingy brown of the adjacent 
plumage. Two September 27 specimens have a completely new 
garb with the exception of the three outermost primaries which 
are frayed. The birds collected on April 19 have new quills, and 
contour plumage which is nowhere greatly worn. 

1915 ] Saunders Recording Bird Songs. 173 


Oceanodroma leucorhoa occurs regularly in the tropical Atlantic 
from September to April or May. It has been taken on and south 
of the Equator in March and April. The range of the species 
should be restated in part as follows: — Breeds from southern 
Greenland and the Faeroes south to Maine and the Hebrides; 
south in migration to the Equator and the vicinity of Cape San 
Roque, Brazil. 



Up to the present time our methods of recording bird songs have 
been lacking in uniformity. We realize the fact that bird songs 
are a great help in field identification of species, when once learned. 
We admit that a knowledge of these songs is as much to be desired 
as a knowledge of plumage or migration, that it should occupy as 
prominent a place in the science of ornithology. But if we search 
through various writings for records of the song of a given species, 
we find a heterogeneous and uncertain mixture of data that do not 
give us any satisfactory impression of the song. Various methods 
have been used to describe and record bird songs, but so far, only 
one method, that of musical notation, has been possessed of any 
scientific accuracy. 

Musical notation, as a method of recording bird songs, has been 
subject to a great deal of adverse criticism. It has been made 
primarily for the recording and rendering of human music and birds 
do not usually sing according to such standards. The musical 
scale gives no place for the recording of notes that are slightly 
sharp or flat. Its standards of time do not allow the record of a 
song that does not follow the rhythmic beat of its measures. Do 

174 Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. [April 

birds sing in any given key? Do they recognize any fundamental 
notes? Can one beat time to a bird's song? In the majority of 
cases these questions must be answered in the negative. Only a 
few individuals of certain species approach these standards of 
music. The great majority of birds sing in a free, non-mechanical, 
natural manner that cannot be recorded on the musical scale 
with the exactness that it deserves. If we have no better method 
we must resort to musical notation, but if we can find a better 
method, one which discards the mechanical rules of human music, 
without losing any of its scientific accuracy, we can take a long step 
in advance toward the true scientific study of bird song. 

Before discussing the possibilities of such a method, it is first 
essential to have a definite classification of the points concerning 
which we desire information to make our knowledge of a given song 
complete. These points appear to me to be five in number. They 
are pitch, duration, intensity, pronunciation and quality. Con- 
cerning quality I have no suggestions to offer farther than those 
already made by others. Sound qualities are baffling and difficult 
to describe with accuracy, and, until we can have a definite and 
practical classification of, them, they will continue to be so. 

Our records of pitch, duration and intensity must be first com- 
parative, for the different notes or parts of a given song, and second 
absolute, for a comparison of the song with other songs of the same 
or another species. A pitch pipe, together with a good musical 
ear, are necessary to obtain the comparative and absolute pitch 
in the field. A stop watch is probably the best instrument with 
which to get records of duration. Comparative intensity can be 
recorded with reasonable accuracy by ear, but absolute intensity 
is more difficult to measure. The intensity of a song must neces- 
sarily vary with the weather conditions, the temperature, the 
pressure of the air, and above all the direction and velocity of the 
wind. We know, however, that the intensity of sound varies 
inversely as the square of the distance from its source, and this 
gives us something tangible to go by. If then, our bird will remain 
in one spot singing, on a day when there is no wind, while we find 
the farthest point at which the softest and loudest parts of its song 
are audible, we will have a definite measure of intensity. This 
process seems destined to try to the utmost the patience and 
perseverance of the future student of bird song. 

1915 J 

Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. 





IN < 





•%. m 





Fig. 1. Song of the Vesper Sparrow. West Haven, Conn., April 23, 1914, 6 A. M. 



Fig. 2. Song of the Field Sparrow. West Haven, Conn., April 18, 1914, 9 A. M. 















Fig. 3. Song of the Song Sparrow. Gunhill Road, N. Y. City, April 3, 1914, 9.15 A. M. 

176 Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. [April 

The following method has occurred to me by which the pitch 
and duration of a song may be represented graphically, when once 
it is determined. This method is to represent the song by lines on 
ordinary coordinate paper, plotting the pitch along the ordinate, 
that is in a vertical direction, and the duration along the abcissa 
in a horizontal direction. In order to see whether this method 
was practical, I tested it in the field during the spring of 1914, 
recording 104 different songs and call-notes, representing 18 
different species. The species included both birds with simple 
songs, such as the Junco and Phoebe, and others with more com- 
plicated songs such as the Song Sparrow (fig. 3) and Purple Finch 
(fig. 4). It also included some bird sounds not properly classed as 
songs, such as certain call-notes of the Flicker and the scream of 
the Red-shouldered Hawk. 

Of course this method is not without its difficulties. It is 
usually impossible, even with the simplest songs, to record them 
after one hearing only, and with a long continued song, it is only 
possible to catch and record phrases here and there. Such diffi- 
culties, however, would be just as great, or even greater in using 
musical notation. I have tried several times to record bird songs 
by musical notation, and am certain that this graphic method is 
much simpler, and much more easily used and mastered than is the 
other. In the matter of pitch, one does not have to ascertain 
whether the bird is singing in three flats, five sharps or something- 
else. If the bird flats a little, or uses an interval not strictly a 
fifth, seventh, or some other known to human music, this fact may 
be shown and need not be modified to fit the human standard. 
In the matter of time the same things are true. Notes need not 
be reduced to quarters and eighths when they really have no such 
definite relations to each other, but may be represented in their 
actual true duration. In short, the method, like the bird's song 
itself, is natural, and does not follow any fixed rule of either pitch 
or time. 

The unit of measurement of pitch is of course the octave, but 
this is not divided into eight parts as on the musical scale, but into 
twelve parts, representing the twelve half-tones. Thus B and C, 
and E and F are shown in their true relations, half a tone apart, 
and not, as on the musical scale, spaced the same distance apart as 

1915 J Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. • 177 

notes that are separated by a whole tone. The unit of time is not 
the measure, further modified by the addition of adagios, allegros 
or numbers signifying beats per minute, but is the second, a unit 
that is uniform and unchanging, and thoroughly understood both 
by musicians and by the uninitiated. The second may be further 
divided into fifths, the smallest unit that can be recorded by an 
ordinary stop watch. I have found that in practise it is still better 
to divide it into tenths, so that short, rapidly repeated notes may 
be easily represented, and lengths of songs may be expressed in 

In putting this method into practise, I have found a few modifica- 
tions from the definite rules necessary in order to record the char- 
acters of all songs clearly. A rest, or pause in a song would of 
course be represented by a break in the horizontal continuity of 
the lines representing it. Many bird songs, particularly those of 
the sparrows, contain series of short, rapidly repeated notes all on 
the same pitch, without a pause between them. If the method 
were rigidly adhered to, these would be represented by a continuous 
straight line, and the separate notes could not be distinguished. 
In order to avoid this I have written such songs with a slight break 
in the horizontal lines to keep the distinct notes separate, although 
there is really no pause in the song. When such notes become so 
rapid that the number cannot be counted, the note becomes a trill. 
I have represented trills by continuous, slightly wavy lines, the 
wave not representing any variation in pitch, but the pitch of the 
note being recorded by the central axis of the wavy line. These 
conditions are shown in the illustrations of songs of the Song and 
Field Sparrows. 

The illustrations will suffice to make more clear the graphic 
method of recording songs. I have used the letters C, C", C", 
etc., to indicate middle C and the octaves above it. Where notes 
on different pitches are slurred together, I have represented this 
fact by connecting them by an almost vertical line. Such slurs 
are characteristic of the Meadowlark's song (fig. 7) ^.nd are also 
found in the introductory notes of the Field Sparrow record (fig. 2). 
One criticism of my method that has been made is that all 
notes are not connected by these vertical lines, to give the 
songs more continuity of appearance. This would make it diffi- 


Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. 

Duration \n Seconds 

[ Auk 

*1 I i ■ TTTT-rrrrrrrrrrn 


B * =s "~ 

A ™"i ■"■ 

G „, « — - 

. 1_ ~_ „___-^-^. -_- _-=■■ — =«.' 

F -L„ 

g. -.- - ~-* 

D ■"" " — 


Pig. 4. 

Song of the Purple Find 


West Haven, 

Conn., April 28, 



5.30 P. 












= 3 




Fig. 5. Song of the Red-winged Blackbird. Gunhill Road, New York City, 
April 3, 1914, 8.30 A. M. 


__ — . , 

F -i- 


D . - " 

c .., _«- — ff" mm — — - 

2 3 
. ■ — | — j— j 1 — i i i i i — i i i ■ 




A — 

g — 4--F 1 — 

r M 1 1 M 1 ' 1 II 1 ' » I 

. — L_ 1 — l_l — |_J — I — 1— 1— 1 — 1; I I 1 

Fig. 6. Song of the Robin. West Haven, Conn., April 17, 1914, 5.30 P. M. 

° 191.5^ ] Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. 179 

cult to distinguish between notes that are slurred together by 
the bird and those that are clearly separate. This difficulty is 
at best a slight one. The disconnected appearance of the songs 
may seem great at first glance, but becomes insignificant as one 
becomes accustomed to the method. 

By this same method it is also possible to represent the variations 
in intensity of a bird song. This could be done by variation in the 
breadth or heaviness of the lines, making heavy lines for the loud 
notes, and light lines for the softer ones. I have not yet attempted 
to measure the intensity of bird songs in the field so have omitted 
this factor from the illustrations. 

The factor of pronunciation is one that presents some difficulties. 
To just what extent birds produce recognizable vowel or consonant 
sounds in their songs it is hard to say. It is probably true that a 
purely musical note has no real vowel sound and that the only 
difference in such notes is that of quality and not pronunciation. 
Consonant sounds, however, may be occasionally recognized in bird 
songs and call notes. The "k" sound in the call note of the crow, 
for instance, is universally recognized. In true songs I believe that 
the explosive consonants, such as " p," " k," "t" etc., are rare. The 
commonest consonant sounds are liquid ones, such as "1" and 't", 
connecting different notes. In the songs I have studied and 
recorded, the liquid "1" is the only consonant I have recognized. 
This sound is quite common in the songs of many species and is 
evidently an important distinguishing character. I have repre- 
sented the presence of this sound by a loop, at the beginning of the 
note introduced by it, as shown in the songs of the Robin (fig. 6) 
and Redwinged Blackbird (fig. 5). 

One of the first things that one notes after studying songs for a 
time in the field is that even the simplest and commonest songs 
are tremendously variable. This variation extends not only to 
different individuals, but also to different songs by the same in- 
dividual. The song of the Meadowlark is one that is quite simple 
and easy to record, and yet shows enough variation to make a very 
interesting study (fig. 7) . I have recorded thirty different songs of 
the Meadowlark by the graphic method, and believe that with time 
and opportunity I could record three or four times as many. Seven 
of these songs were sung by the same bird during an hour's time. 

Duration in Seconds 


— 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — ft 1 — 1 1 ( 

-:z : "r 


1 — > L— 1 — L_J L_J J — J !__, 








G j 

E_== - : 


F t 

| 1, 

1 2 

i . . 


_ __ __ __ __ __ _ _ — — 

D j h_ 

c - 4 1 

B A H 

B . J, 



G ■ 1 

F — 

, — 'i - » ■ - 

Fig. 7. Three Songs of the Meadowlark. No. 1. West Haven, Conn., October 
18,1914,3 P.M. No. 2. Mt. Vernon, N. Y., April 7, 1914, 5 P. M. No. 3. West 
Haven, Conn., April 21, 1914, 5.30 A. M. 


V<d "l5S XI1 ] Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. 181 

The song of the Song Sparrow is even more variable. Not only 
does each individual have two or more totally different songs, but 
I have yet to find two individuals whose songs are at all alike. It 
seems probable that the number of variations of the Song Sparrow's 
song is greater than the number of individual Song Sparrows. 

Since the variations in the song of a single species are so great, 
a question arises as to what are the factors in which these variations 
resemble each other. The songs of both the Meadowlark and the 
Song Sparrow, except in unusual instances, are easily recognized 
in the field. What characters then are specific? Quality un- 
doubtedly is one. But quality is not the only one, for songs of 
different species may often have the same quality and yet be easily 
distinguished. To determine the others it becomes necessary to 
record a large number of songs of the same species. By comparison 
of these the points of similarity may be determined, and the amount 
of variation to which the song is subject may be shown. 

I have not yet recorded enough songs of any one species to make 
a complete study of the song of that species, or to make any state- 
ments concerning it that are general in application. As an illustra- 
tion of how this may be done, however, I have figured out some 
results from twenty-seven records of the Song Sparrow's song that 
are interesting though not conclusive. The longest duration of 
any of these songs is 3.2 seconds, the shortest 1.8 seconds. The 
average duration is 2.79 seconds. The highest note in any record 
is D"" and the lowest D", giving a range for the species of two 
octaves. The greatest range of any one song is twelve half-tones 
or exactly one octave. The least range is four half-tones. The 
average range is 8.7 half-tones. All but one of the songs contain 
one or more trilled notes, and this one contains a series of rapidly 
repeated notes on the same pitch, differing from a trill only in the 
fact that the single notes are distinct and slow enough to be counted. 
This arrangement of notes is also a common character and occurs 
in fourteen of the songs. Most of the songs begin in a more or 
less characteristic manner and two such types of beginning are 
recognizable. The first of these consists of three notes on the same 
pitch varying from two to three tenths of a second in length. 
Twelve of the songs, including the one in the illustration show this 
type of beginning. The second consists of one or two long notes, 

182 Saunders, Recording Bird Songs. [ April 

followed by four to six rapidly repeated ones, all on the same pitch. 
Seven of the songs have this type of beginning. The remaining 
eight songs are irregular and show no definite types. None of the 
songs show enough similarity in termination to draw any general 

In this manner, from a large number of records of a single species, 
one should be able to draw. fairly definite conclusions concerning 
the song even when it is extremely variable. Many other interest- 
ing facts concerning bird songs may be deduced by studying and 
recording them in the field. Thus two Field Sparrows, singing 
alternately and within hearing of each other, produced songs that 
were exactly alike in every respect, while two Song Sparrows 
singing under similar conditions had songs that were dissimilar 
except for the last three notes which were exactly alike. 

Field work in studying and recording bird songs is more or less 
difficult according to the qualities of the person attempting the 
work. A good musical ear is absolutely essential. Records made 
by a person not possessed of such an ear for music would be of no 
more value than descriptions of plumages made by one who is 
color blind. A knowledge of music is essential also, but it need 
not be great. In fact I believe that very little musical knowledge 
is necessary to use or understand the graphic method of recording 

In the absence of a stop watch it is possible to use an ordinary 
watch provided it is a good one, though its use is more difficult. 
An ordinary, good watch ticks five times to the second, so that 
fifths of a second may be measured by listening to the ticks. In 
making records of songs in the field it is of value to record the date, 
locality and time of day with the record. These points may serve 
to show important facts concerning the variation of songs due to 
these factors. 

It is also possible to add the factor of quality to the record by 
writing a statement of this at the top of the record, as suggested 
by Mr. Robert T. Moore in his paper on musical notation at the 
A. O. U. meeting of 1913. I have not done this on my records as I 
feel that the statements would be too inexact to be of much value. 
All of the songs I have used in illustration are to my mind of a 
whistled quality, and I am of the opinion that the differences in 

V ° *1SU5 ] Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 183 

them are largely, if not wholly due to pitch, intensity or the 
presence of liquid consonants. 

Thus, all five of the factors, pitch, duration, intensity, pronuncia- 
tion and quality, may be recorded on a single sheet by this graphic 
method. The results, I believe, will be intelligible to musicians, 
and a little less "like Greek" to those whose knowledge of written 
music is slight. 



(Concluded from p. 29.) 

247. Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana) . The only known 
record of the occurrence of this bird in Louisiana is a specimen taken on 
March 19, 1898, by Mr. Andrew Allison in Jefferson parish, on the opposite 
bank of the Mississippi river from New Orleans. It was a parti-colored 
male, with yellow predominating. 

248. Scarlet Tanager {Piranga erythromelas) . This bird is seldom 
very common in Louisiana except for a few days at a time. It is most apt 
to occur at New Orleans about April 20 and in the early part of October. 
The earliest date of arrival at the latitude of New Orleans is April 8, 1900, 
at Bay St. Louis, Miss., and the latest date in spring is May 9, 1903, at 
Lobdell, La. Considerable waves are sometimes present the latter part of 
April, and about Oct. 10, 1896, I saw an unusual number in the suburbs of 
New Orleans. The latest date of departure is Oct. 20, 1897, at Ariel, Miss. 

249. Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra rubra) . Common summer visi- 
tor, especially in the higher sections of the State. In the swampy region 
in the southeastern part it shows a disposition to frequent particular 
neighborhoods, especially those which are better drained. The earliest 
date of arrival in the latitude of New Orleans is March 31, 1902, at Bay St. 
Louis, Miss. The latest date of departure is Oct. 27, 1899 and 1900, at 
Covington, La. It is sometimes remarkably abundant at New Orleans 
during waves in the latter part of April and early part of October. 

250. Purple Martin (Progne subis subis). Common summer visitor, 
arriving usually about Feb. 15, becoming common about March 10, 
and disappearing more or less completely from the southern part of the 
State about Sept. 15. A large southward flight is usually noted at the Gulf 

lo4 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [April 

coast about August 22. The earliest record of arrival at New Orleans 
is Feb. 7, 1897, and the latest recorded departure is Oct. 22, 1894. 

251. Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons). A rather rare 
bird in the southern and eastern parts of the State at least. Has been 
noted in Plaquemines and St. James parishes, along the Mississippi river, 
in September. Noted also at Bay St. Louis, Miss., in September. 

252. Barn Swallow (Hirundo erythrogaster) . Common transient. 
The earliest date of arrival in spring at New Orleans is March 20, 1894. 
Usually arrives about April 1 , and is commonest the last week or ten days of 
April, and the first few days of May. Has been noted at New Orleans as 
late as May 25. Returns usually about August 1, but one was seen at Bay 
St. Louis, Miss., July 8, 1899. Is more or less common until the early part 
of October and sometimes later. Was noted at Gulfport, Miss., Nov. 6, 
1910, and a few may usually be seen until about Nov. 1. 

253. Tree Swallow (Iridoprocne bicolor). Abundant as a transient; 
irregularly present and sometimes even common, near the coast, in winter; 
present through much of the summer, though not known to breed anywhere 
in the State. Usually becomes common in spring about March 20; re- 
mains more or less common until about the 10th or 15th of May. Has been 
noted in abundance near New Orleans the first week in July. Is most 
abundant in October, especially after the 10th or 15th, and remains very 
common until decidedly cold weather in November, about Nov. 15 or 20. 
Sometimes fairly common at intervals throughout open winters; other 
seasons rare or entirely absent. 

254. Bank Swallow {Riparia riparia). Apparently not very com- 
mon anywhere in the State except possibly in the most northern sections, 
where it may perhaps breed. Noted in the southern part of the State 
chiefly at the seasons when other swallows are commonest, from the latter 
part of March to the early part of May, and from August to the latter part 
of October. 

255. Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) . Common 
summer visitor, but apparently not breeding in the extreme southeastern 
part of the State. Arrives the latter part of March and departs about 
Nov. 1. 

256. Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum). Common chiefly in the 
latter part of winter, and throughout the spring, even to the last of May or 
first days of June. It has been seen on several occasions at Bay St. Louis, 
Miss., however, in October; once on Oct. 13, 1898, when two were seen. 
At New Orleans, little is seen of it until about Feb. 1, when it arrives to 
feed on the fruit of hackberry and Japan privet, and the flowers of the elm, 
It later feeds on the blossoms of the pecan, and finally on the fruit of the 
mulberry. The latest date of departure at New Orleans is May 19, 1900; 
at Bay St. Louis, Miss., May 27, 1902, and at Pass Christian, Miss., June 2, 

257. Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus) . The tr.ue 
Loggerhead is a bird of the pineries and other dry locations in Louisiana, 

'igis J Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 185 

none of this species being found during the breeding season in the fertile 
alluvial and prairie regions of the southern part of the State. About 
August 20, however, the Shrike appears at New Orleans, and is fairly com- 
mon thereafter in the lowland section until the middle or latter part of 
March. It seems probable, however, that a majority if not all of the birds 
seen in these localities are Migrant Shrikes (L. ludovicianus migrans). 

258. Red-eyed Vireo (Vireosylva olivacea). Abundant summer visitor 
wherever there are deciduous trees, though seldom found in the cypress. 
Generally arrives at New Orleans about March 22, becoming common the 
last week in the month. Earliest dates of arrival March 18, 1894, and 
March 19, 1899. Transient movement in fall begins in August, and con- 
tinues to be heavy until Oct. 10 or 15. Last one is usually seen about 
Oct. 20. Feeds extensively in fall on the seeds of the Magnolias (M. 
fcetida and M. virginiana) . 

259. Philadelphia Vireo {Vireosylva Philadelphia). A rather rare 
transient; spring records lacking; numerous in August, 1893, in heavy 
growth of willow, hackberry, Cottonwood, deciduous holly, and other 
low trees on the batture of the Mississippi river in St. James parish; the 
first noted August 2. Noted also in October. Oct. 10, 1896, at New 
Orleans; Oct. 17, 1897, at Ariel, Miss.; Oct. 15, 1901, at Bay St. Louis, 

260. Warbling Vireo (Vireosylva gilva gilva). Fairly common sum- 
mer visitor in the southern part of the State, occurring chiefly in shade trees 
in suburban sections of New Orleans, and in willows along the river and 
edges of pastures. Arrives the latter part of March; earliest arrival, 
March 27, 1897. Disappears early in the fall; sings occasionally as late 
as the early part of September. 

261. Yellow-throated Vireo (Lanivireo flavifrons) . Fairly common 
summer visitor except in the coastal section. Noted during the breeding 
season, however, in a suburban locality in New Orleans in 1912, 1913, and 
1914. Seldom nesting south of about latitude 31°. Arrives about March 
25. Latest date of departure, Oct. 21, 1897, at Ariel, Miss. 

262. Blue-headed Vireo (Lanivireo solitarius solitarius) . Fairly com- 
mon in midwinter in the fertile alluvial region of the southeast. Appears 
to arrive usually in October: Oct. 25, 1901, Bay St. Louis, Miss.; Oct. 
6, 1905, Biloxi, Miss.; but a single specimen was taken at Diamond, La., 
Aug. 4, 1893. Latest date of departure, March 24, 1904, New Orleans. 

263. White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus griseus) . An abundant summer 
visitor in all moist or swampy woodland; may be seen occasionally in the 
coastal section in winter, even singing on mild days in December and 
January. Becomes common from March 15 to 20, and remains so until 
about Nov. 1. \ 

264. Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia). Common tran- 
sient, especially in the fall, and probably breeds sparingly in the northern 
part of the State. Usually arrives at the coast about March 20; earliest 
date of arrival, March 15, 1902, at Bay St. Louis, Miss. Remains until 

lob Kopmax, Birds of Louisiana. [April 

about May 1. Returns very early; recorded July 4, 1906, at Bay St. 
Louis, Miss.; commonest in August and September. Last at New Orleans, 
Oct. 25, 1914. 

265. Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea). Common sum- 
mer visitor in river bottoms and swampy regions, especially about sloughs 
and along sluggish streams. Usually arrives by March 20; earliest arrival 
at New Orleans, March 15, 1894. Leaves about the end of September, 
The arrival in the immediate coast section, where it is most abundant, is 
decidedly earlier than in moist bottoms in the higher parts of the State, 
where the first are usually seen early in April. 

266. Swainson's Warbler (Helinaia swainsoni). Occurs chiefly in 
wild cane brakes in low woods or along streams. Occurs rather commonly 
as a spring transient in one of the former of such locations near New Orleans. 
I found it surprisingly common not only in the cane brakes but throughout 
a considerable section of rich swampy woods in the same general locality 
on April 14, 1905. At least twenty-five or thirty were noted in covering 
a distance of probably ten miles. There was a good deal of water in the 
swamps at the time. Earliest arrival at New Orleans, March 30, 1905. 
Have never noted it in fall. May breed sparingly at New Orleans. 

267. Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus). A transient 
only in the more southern part of the State, seldom very common, and 
usually seen only for brief periods. Prefers deep, moist woods. The 
earliest in spring was noted at Bay St. Louis, Miss., April 5, 1902; the 
earliest arrival in fall near the coast is August 11, 1897, at Beauvoir, Miss. 
Latest date of departure in fall, Sept. 30, 1897, at Ariel, Miss. 

268. Bachman's Warbler (Vermivora bachmani). In the more south- 
ern parts of Louisiana and Mississippi at least, this species is undoubtedly 
only a transient. Besides the previously published records of its capture 
on the northern shore of Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana by Mr. Charles 
Galbraith (Auk, Vols. 4 and 5), it has been noted by Mr. Andrew Allison 
in Mississippi on the following occasions: March 26, 1902, Bay St. Louis, 
Miss.; March 24, 1906, Ellisville, Miss.; July 4, 1906, Bay St. Louis, Miss. 

269. Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). May breed in the 
northern part of the State; a rather rare transient in all localities where I 
have made observations. Earliest date of arrival in spring, March 13, 
1902, Bay St. Louis, Miss.: earliest arrival in fall, July 23, 1898, Bay St. 
Louis, Miss. 

270. Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) . A rather 
rare transient. Appears to migrate rather late in spring and early in fall: 
August 12, 1897, Beauvoir, Miss. 

[Nashville Warbler (Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla). This spe- 
cies does not appear to have ever been recorded in the State, though it has 
been noted at Bay St. Louis, Miss., in September, and I am practically 
sure of having seen it at Beauvoir, Miss., at the same season.] 

271. Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata celata). A com- 
mon winter visitor in the alluvial region of the central southern and south- 

Vo, v^ XTI l Kopman. Birds of Louisiana. 1cm 

191o J 

eastern portions of the State. Earliest date of arrival, Nov. 19, 1901, 
New Iberia, La., and latest date of departure, April 3, 1909, New Orleans, 
Usually commonest from about Dec. 15 to Feb. 15. Often seen in live oaks. 

272. Tennessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina). An abundant 
transient in fall, especially in the alluvial section of the southeast, irregular 
in spring but sometimes common late in April or early in May. In fall, 
it usually arrives Sept. 22 or 23, and becomes very abundant in Octo- 
ber, especially in weedy fields and about the edges of the woods, often m 
company with the Indigo Bunting. Departs usually about Nov. 1; 
latest, Nov. 8, 1913. Earliest arrival in spring, March 12, 1900; latest 
departure in spring, May 9, 1903. 

273. Northern Parula Warbler (Compsothlypis american ausnem). 
An abundant summer visitor, especially in the southeastern part of the 
State, though found practically everywhere in mixed forest growth on more 
or less moist ground. Arrives at New Orleans early in March (earliest 
Feb. 22, 1893) and is sometimes common by March 10 or 12, seldom 
later than March 15. Nests invariably in the Spanish moss (Tillandsia) 
in the southeastern part of the State. Nesting begins early in April. 
Prefers the live oak as a nesting tree. Feeds indiscriminately in deciduous 
trees, however, especially the pecan, elm, maple, locust, tupelo, ash and 
cypress. Remains common until at least Oct. 20; latest date of de- 
parture, Oct. 26, 1899, Covington, La. 

274. Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina). A record of its occur- 
rence (New Orleans, April, 1890) noted by Prof. Beyer in his list of the 
Birds of Louisiana is the only one of which I have any knowledge. 

275. Yellow Warbler (Dendroica cestiva cestiva) . Abundant transient, 
especially in the late summer and fall; breeds occasionally except in the 
extreme southernmost section of the State. Has been noted as a breeder 
at Baton Rouge by Mr. Andrew Allison and in Pointe Coupee parish by 
Mr. A. B. Blakemore. Usually arrives at the Gulf Coast the first week in 
April — earliest, March 30, 1904, and is commonest usually from about 
April 15 to April 25. Latest date in spring at New Orleans, May 4, 
1897. Reappears usually in the latitude of New Orleans about July 15 — 
earliest, Bay St. Louis, Miss., July 7, 1899; and becomes very common by 
the end of July. Remains common in August and throughout the greater 
part of September, though there are periods of increased abundance from 
time to time. Latest date of departure at New Orleans, Oct. 15, 1903. 

[Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica carulescens) . Though 
reputed to occur in the State, I have never seen it, have no knowledge of 
any specimens being taken in Louisiana, and am unable to find any well 
authenticated record of its occurrence. I saw what I thought was an 
individual of this species at New Orleans March 26, 1897, but did not 
observe it satisfactorily and was by no means convinced of its identity.] 

276. Myrtle Warbler (Dendroica coronata). Abundant winter visi- 
tor. Arrives in southern Louisiana about Oct. 15: Oct. 11, 1905, at 
Biloxi, Miss. Departs from the coast about April 22. Latest at New 

188 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [April 

Orleans.'April 27, 1897 and 1903. More or less continuously abundant 
throughout some winters, but almost rare in occasional seasons. A de- 
cided transient movement is observable usually at the end of winter and in 
the early spring. In 1906, 1 noted increases at Biloxi, Miss., on the follow- 
ing dates: Jan. 6, 20, 29; Feb. 1; March 10, 19, 24. Specimens in 
very good plumage are seen as early as April 1, and singing usually begins 
at this time or a little earlier and continues until the time of departure. 
While the singing is not infrequent, it cannot be called general. 

277. Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia). Abundant fall 
transient ; decidedly rare in spring in localities where I have made observa- 
tions. Earliest arrival in fall, Sept. 13, 1899, Bay St. Louis, Miss.; 
usually arrives about Sept. 20; common at Covington, La., Oct. 1, 1899. 
Latest date of departure, Oct. 28, 1899, Covington. Usually common 
until about Oct. 20. In spring this species is more apt to be seen in the 
latter part of the season: May 5, 1897, New Orleans; May 11, 1902, Bay 
St. Louis, Miss. 

278. Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea). May breed in the 
northern part of the State, but apparently only a transient in most locali- 
ties. Seldom common, though small companies may sometimes be seen 
for a period of a few days in the migrations. Commoner in the mixed 
upland woods than in the southeastern section. Migrates very early in 
fall: July 12, 1897, Beauvoir, Miss., where small flocks were seen on this 
and succeeding days in pine, oak, magnolia, beech and hickory woods. 
Latest date in fall, Sept. 30, 1897, Ariel, Miss. Arrives at Gulf coast 
latitude about April 10; earliest, April 8, 1898, New Orleans. 

279. Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) . In the 
southeastern part of the State, this is one of the rarer transients, especially 
in spring. Most apt to be seen in the latter part of the season (April 21, 
1905, New Orleans). Sometimes common for a few days in fall. Noted 
many near New Orleans on Oct. 10, 1896, during a remarkable wave of 
transients, principally warblers, tanagers, and vireos. The earliest date 
of arrival in fall is Sept. 12, 1899, Bay St. Louis, Miss., and the latest 
date in fall is Oct. 19, 1897, Ariel, Miss. 

280. Bay-breasted Warbler (Dendroica castanea). Occasionally 
present for a day or so in fall, occurring singly or in small flocks. Earliest 
date of arrival, Sept. 23, 1896, Bay St. Louis, Miss. Latest date in 
fall, Oct. 18, 1897, Ariel, Miss. In spring it is rarer than in fall. Have 
noted it the first week in May at New Orleans, and at New Iberia: May 15, 

281. Black-poll Warbler (Dendroica striata). A decidedly rare 
transient, though occasionally occurring in considerable numbers for a day 
or so at a time. Mr. W. B. Allison noted a good many at Bay St. Louis, 
Miss., May 13, 1906. I noted one at New Orleans, Sept. 21, 1897. 

282. Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca). While never very 
common, this is a species of rather more regular occurrence in fall than the 
several preceding. It is considerably rarer in spring. The earliest date of 

"i9i5 J Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 189 

arrival is April 8, 1900, Bay St. Louis, Miss. A specimen was noted by Mr. 
Andrew Allison, and, in fact, taken, at Bay St. Louis, Miss, on August 11, 
1898. The next earliest record of arrival is Sept. 13, 1897, Ariel, 
Miss. The latest date of departure is Oct. 18, 1901, Bay St. Louis, 
Miss. As with most other warblers of this group, this species occurs more 
freely in mixed upland woods than in the fertile alluvial region of south- 
eastern Louisiana. 

283. Sycamore Warbler {Dendroica dominica albilora). Fairly com- 
mon summer visitor, especially in brakes of tall cypress. Earliest arrival, 
Feb. 27, 1897, New Orleans. Usually arrives about March 10. Latest 
date of departure, Sept. 20, 1901, Bay St. Louis, Miss. Confined more 
or less closely to swampy woods in the breeding season. 

284. Black-throated Green Warbler {Dendroica virens). Fairly 
common in the lowlands during fall waves; common throughout much 
of the fall migration in pine and other upland growths. Rarer in all 
sections in spring. I took a specimen at Beauvoir, Miss., July 30, 1897, 
and I am sure of having seen it the latter part of July in Madison Parish! 
Excluding these abnormally early transients, the earliest date of arrival 
is Sept. 18, 1897, Ariel, Miss. It was common at New Orleans, Oct. 20, 
1896, and became common at Biloxi, Miss., Oct. 22, 1906. The last 
was seen at Covington, Oct. 28, 1899. In spring it occurs chiefly in 
the latter part of the season: April 14, 1902, Bay St. Louis, Miss., and May 
9, 1903, Lobdell, La. 

285. Pine Warbler {Dendroica vigorsi). Abundant resident in pine 
forests; elsewhere a winter visitor only. Individuals wintering in regions 
of deciduous woodland do not appear in such localities until the early part 
of the winter as a rule, and they do not remain much after the middle of 
March, at least in the southern part of the State. In the pine woods, this 
warbler begins to sing with the first mild weather of January. 

286. Palm Warbler {Dendroica palmarum). A fairly common winter 
visitor, sometimes rather abundant, in open places in the lowlands and in 
flat pineries. I have been unable to trace the relation between the move- 
ments of this species and the Yellow Palm Warbler {Dendroica palmarum 
hypochrysea) , and have assumed all data to refer to the Palm Warbler. 
Arrives about the middle of October and becomes common about Nov. 1. 
Remains until the early part of April: April 11, 1896, New Orleans. 

[Prairie Warbler {Dendroica discolor). Though undoubtedly occur- 
ring in localities in the piney sections of the State similar to those frequented 
by it in southern Mississippi, this species has not been recorded by any 
observer in Louisiana so far as I know. While it does not appear to breed 
on the coast of Mississippi, it arrives there by the latter part of July, and is 
rather common in scrubby growths of pine and oak. I have no data on its 
movements in southern Mississippi in spring, and no record of its departure 
in fall.] 

287. Ovenbird {Seiurus aurocapillus) . Fairly common transient for 
brief and occasional periods, found chiefly in mixed woodland undergrowth, 

190 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [ April 

especially in moist localities. Earliest arrival, April 5, 1902, Bay St. Louis, 
Miss. Usually commonest about April 15. Latest date in spring, May 
9, 1903, Lobdell, La. Earliest arrival in fall, August 28, 1899, Bay St. 
Louis, Miss. Latest departure, October 19, 1897, Ariel, Miss. 

288. Water-Thrush (Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis) . In south- 
eastern Louisiana, except in the pine woods, this species greatly out- 
numbers the following, which, in fact, is rather rare in the fertile alluvial 
section. In the pine woods the two species are about equally common in 
migration, the present species preferring the occasional sloughs and swampy 
strips among the pines, the Louisiana Water-Thrush frequenting sandy 
ravines and creek and small river banks, and on the Mississippi coast 
occurring even on the sandy shore. The Water-Thrush reaches Gulf coast 
latitude in fall the middle or latter part of August, remaining until Oct. 10 
or 15 — latest, Oct. 17, 1896, New Orleans. In spring it arrives early 
in April, but is more apt to be common late in the season. Latest date 
of departure, May 7, 1897, New Orleans. 

289. Louisiana Water-Thrush (Seiurus motacilla). Those sections 
of the State where the streams flow over sharp sandy beds are the pre- 
eminent habitat of this species, both as breeder and transient. As a 
breeder, it is found chiefly in the northern part of the State, but it reaches 
the latitude of the coast very early, having been noted at Bay St. Louis, 
Miss., July 4, 1906, and always commonly after the middle or latter part 
of July. As previously explained, it is not very common in the southeast- 
ern part of Louisiana; the earliest date of arrival in spring is March 19, 

1904, at New Orleans. Records of the departure in fall are lacking. 

290. Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus). Common sir 
visitor in undergrowth of flat, moist woods, such as the better 
swamps in the lowlands and the bottoms of the more elevated se<" 
State. Arrives at Gulf coast latitude the last of March : earl : 

1905. Inconspicuous in fall; appears to leave about the p 
[Connecticut Warbler (Oporomis agilis) . Has d/ 

for Louisiana. I noted either this species or the 
Biloxi, Miss., on August 27, 1906.] 

291. Mourning Warbler (Oporornis ph. 
found this bird in the State, but Mr. Andrew A. 
reasonably sure was a specimen of this species ear^ 
New Orleans. I have noted either this species or the L 
at Biloxi, Miss. (August 27, 1906). In any event, it is 
bird in all sections of both States. 

292. Maryland Yellow-throat (Geothlypis trichas trie. 
mon winter visitor, all breeding birds being doubtless referable t. 
form. At the Gulf coast, there is always a decided influx of Yellow- 
about Sept. 1, but whether this form alone is represented in this n 
ment, I am unable to say. 

293. Florida Yellow-throat (Geothlypis trichas ignota). An abun- 
dant resident in all suitable locations. 

Vo, ,^ xlI l Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 

1915 J 


294 Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens virens). Abundant sum- 
mer visitor, at least in the lowlands, occurring in tangled growths in old 
fields etc More or less common in such situations throughout the State. 
Arrives about April 15. Earliest, April 11- Lobdell, 1903; New Orleans, 
1905 Usually becomes common April 20 or shortly after. Disappears 
more or less completely in the fall: Sept. 24, 1897, Ariel, Miss.: Sept. 26, 
1898, Bay St. Louis, Miss. Appears to avoid the fertile alluvial lands 
of southeastern Louisiana entirely in fall. 

295 Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia cilrina). Common summer visitor 
in all swampy localities, especially the southeastern section, where, in fact, 
it is extremely abundant. Arrives usually March 12-15. Earliest March 
8 1896 and March 9, 1897. Becomes common about March -0. it 
should be observed, however, that these dates refer to the fertile alluvial 
section of the southeastern part of the State. In the river bottoms of the 
more elevated part of the State it is seldom seen before April. Remains 
at least until the latter part of October. Latest, Nov. 2, 1902, New 

Iberia, La. , , . 

[Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla pusilla). Not yet recorded for 

Louisiana.] , 

[Canadian Warbler (Sylvania canadensis). Although noted in south- 
ern Mississippi— Amite county: Ariel; Hancock county: Bay St. Louis - 
this species has never been noted in Louisiana by any of the observers 
with whom I have compared records.] 

OQ6 American Redstart (Setophaga rulicilla). Abundant fall tran- 
sient in all sections, less common in spring, especially in the southeastern 
part of the State, where, on the whole, it is decidedly rare at this season. 
Possibly breeds in the northern part of the State. Returns from the north 
very early: July 30, 1897, Beauvoir, Miss.; July 21, 1899, Bay St. Louis, 
Miss.; Becomes common early in August. Latest date of departure, 
Oct. 27, 1899, Covington, La. Earliest in spring, April 1, 1899, Bay bt. 
Louis, Miss.; latest, May 15, 1902, New Iberia, La. 

297 American Pipit (Anthus rubescens). Common winter visitor in 
all suitable locations, especially abundant in the southeastern part of the 
State, occurring in great flocks on the plantations and other cleared land. 
Usually arrives shortly after Oct. 20; earliest, Oct. 19, Elhsville Miss 
Becomes common early in November. Remains common until April 15 
or 20, and the last has been seen May 2 in southern Louisiana on several 

occasions. . , , , 

298 Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spraguei). Said to be rather common 
in winter in western Louisiana; rather uncommon and irregular in the 
southeastern part of the State. Earliest, Nov. 5, 1902, Lobdell; latest, 
April 19, 1902, New Orleans. 

299. Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos polyglottos) . Uniformly abun- 
dant resident throughout the State. 

300 Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) . Most abundant as a tall tran- 
sient. Reaches the southern part of the State about Sept. 10, and 

192 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [April 

becomes abundant shortly after Sept. 20. Disappears more or less com- 
pletely by the early part of November, though seen occasionally in 
winter near the coast. Transients appear near the coast the latter part of 
March, and continue present until about the middle of May. Breeds in 
the northern part of the State. 

301. Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum). Rare as a breeder, fairly 
common in winter and common transient in the southern part of State. 
Common breeder in the central and northern parts. In migration in the 
southern part of the State, it occurs chiefly at the same time as the Catbird. 

302. Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus) . Abun- 
dant resident in all wooded or shrubby localities except those within reach 
of the tide. Sings throughout the year, and nests from March to July. 

303. Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewicki bewicki). Chiefly a winter 
visitor, but may breed occasionally north of the extreme southern part of 
the State. Movements rather irregular; sometimes seen rather early in 
the fall. Commoner in upland localities than in the coastal section even 
in winter. Begins singing in the latter part of the winter or early in the 

304. House Wren (Troglodytes aedon aedon). Common winter visitor. 
Reaches the coast the last week in September (earliest. Sept. 21, 1899, 
Bay St. Louis, Miss.). Leaves the southern part of the State about April 
18; latest, April 23, 1898, New Orleans. Sings more or less freely for three 
weeks or more preceding its departure. 

305. Winter Wren (N annus hiemalis hiemalis). Winter visitor; not 
very common at least in the southern part of the State. Earliest arrival in 
fall, Oct. 15, 1901, New Iberia. Departs in March. 

306. Short-billed Marsh Wren (Cistothorus stellaris). Winter visi- 
tor, not common. Arrives Oct. 10-15; earliest, Oct. 8, 1905, Biloxi, 
Miss. Remains late: April 19, 1902, Bay St. Louis, Miss.; May 12, 1903, 
Lobdell, La. Found usually in wet weedy places. 

307. Long-billed Marsh Wren (Telmatodytes palustris palustris). 
Resident; abundant in the coast marshes, especially in summer. Usually 
found along the bayous and the more protected shores. 

308. Brown Creeper (Certhia familiaris americana). Fairly common 
winter visitor, except in the coast section, where it is decidedly uncommon. 
The time of its arrival, however, is very regular, the first having been noted 
on three occasions in southern Louisiana on Oct. 14, and once on Oct. 
15. The only date of departure recorded is March 18, 1902, Bay St. 
Louis, Miss. 

309. White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis carolinensis) . 
Resident in pineries and regions of mixed upland woods. Unknown in 
prairie and fertile alluvial regions. The Florida White-breasted Nuthatch 
is no doubt the regular breeding form in the more southern part of the State. 
Rather commoner in winter in most localities where it occurs. 

[Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis). While there is no record, 
so far as I know, of the occurrence of this species in Louisiana, it has been 

° 1015" J Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. 193 

noted by Mr. Andrew Allison in Mississippi (Bay St. Louis, April 1, 1902), 
and no doubt it occurs occasionally in Louisiana.] 

310. Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Confined apparently 
to the pine flats and long-leafed pine hill regions, where it is an abundant 

311. Tufted Titmouse (Bwolophus bicolor). Common resident in all 
wooded localities. 

312. Carolina Chickadee (Penthestes carolinensis carolinensis) . 
Common resident throughout the State. Starts nesting early in March 
in the southern part of the State. 

313. Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa satrapa). Common 
winter visitor, showing a decided preference for evergreen growths. In the 
fertile alluvial region of the southeastern part of the State it frequents 
live oaks almost exclusively. It arrives at Gulf coast latitude about Oct. 
15-20. Latest date of departure, April 5, 1906, Biloxi, Miss. 

314. Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula calendula). Com- 
mon winter visitor in all mixed woods, as well as in groves and high shrub- 
bery. Earliest date of arrival, Oct. 6, 1897, Ariel, Miss. Becomes com- 
mon Oct. 20 or shortly after. Becomes very abundant with first cold 
weather in November. Usually departs about April 10. Latest date of 
departure, April 25, 1903, Lobdell. Sings rather freely for a few weeks 
before its departure. 

315. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila cmrulea cwrulea). Com- 
mon summer visitor in all more or less wooded localities. May be noted 
occasionally in winter near the Gulf coast and I saw one at Shreveport, 
La., Feb. 23, 1915. First migrant usually seen March 12-15. Usually 
common March 20-22. Disappears more or less completely by the mid- 
dle or latter part of August. 

316. Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Common summer visitor, 
though breeding only sparingly in the immediate vicinity of the coast, 
being found in close, moist woods, but never in the heavy swamps. Com- 
monest as a fall transient, from about Sept. 15 to Oct. 15. Arrives the 
last week in March near the coast; earliest, March 25, 1900, Covington. 
Becomes common April 5-10. Latest date in fall, Oct. 19, 1897, Ariel, 
Miss. Prefers shady bottoms in the higher parts of the State. 

317. Veery (Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens). Fairly common tran- 
sient, frequenting mixed woodland generally. Spring migration performed 
chiefly between April 15 and May 15. May be heard in night migration 
almost to the end of May; latest, May 25, 1911. On June 4, 1907, I saw 
one of this species on Last Island, and noted that it was "obviously off its. 
reckoning and showing signs of fear to the point of confused stupidity. It 
made short nervous flights among the "mangle" bushes (Avicennia nitida) 
and about the sand on the spit. Earliest date of arrival in fall, Sept. 7, 1900, 
Bay St. Louis.. Miss.; latest date cf departure, Oct. 24, 1914, New Orleans. 

318. Gray-cheeked Thrush (Hylocichla alicice alicice). Common 
transient at times in spring, especially in the latter part of the season; less 

194 Kopman, Birds of Louisiana. [ April 

common in fall, occurring chiefly in the early part of October. Recorded 
somewhat doubtfully at New Orleans, March 27, 1897; earliest authentic 
arrival, April 14, 1902, Bay St. Louis, Miss. Latest, May 9, 1903, Lobdell. 
Noted in remarkable abundance at New Orleans the first week in May, 1897, 
occurring in situations of practically every character, but seen mostly in 
weedy fields. Earliest arrival in fall, Sept. 22, 1897, Ariel, Miss. 

319. Olive-backed Thrush (Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni). Com- 
mon transient, especially in fall. Earliest arrival in spring, April 5, 1903, 
Covington; latest in spring, May 4, 1897, New Orleans. Waves of this 
species, with Gray-cheeked Thrushes and Veeries, are most apt to be 
present shortly before and after May 1. Earliest arrival in fall, Sept. 12, 
1897, Ariel, Miss. Usually becomes common about Sept. 22. Latest in 
fall, Oct. 31, 1900, Bay St. Louis, Miss. 

320. Hermit Thrush {Hylocichla guttata pallasi). Common winter 
visitor. Earliest, Oct. 10, 1912, New Orleans; average arrival in southern 
Louisiana and Mississippi, Oct. 15. Latest date of departure, April 13, 
1895, New Orleans. Usually leaves first week in April. 

321. American Robin (Planesticus migratorius migratorius) . Num- 
bers vary decidedly from year to year, especially in the coastal section. 
Earliest arrival, Oct. 9, 1897, Ariel, Miss.; earliest at New Orleans, Oct. 
12, 1913. Average date of the first at the coast, Oct. 15. Usually 
becomes common with first cold weather in November. Few remain at 
coast latitude after March 15, and the last is usually seen the last week in 
March. Latest fully authenticated date of departure, April 4, 1906, 
Biloxi, Miss. 

322. Wheatear (Saxicola oznanthe). The capture of a specimen in 
the outskirts of New Orleans, Sept. 12, 1888, is recorded by Prof. Geo. 
E. Beyer, in a list of the birds of Louisiana published in the ''Proceed- 
ings of the Louisiana Society of Naturalists." 

323. Bluebird (Sialia sialis sialis). Common resident except in the 
fertile alluvial region of the southeastern section of the State, where it is 
commonest in winter^and where its occurrence in the breeding season is 
limited principally tojits presence in occasional colonies about the sugar 

V0l *ifif XH ] Mathews, Phaethon catesbyi. 195 



Investigation of the forms of the family Phaethontidse for the 
purpose of my 'Birds of Australia' compelled the determination 
of the above name with the result that I find it must displace 
Phaethon americanus Ogilvie-Grant. This latter name is accepted 
in the Amer. Ornith. Union's Check-List, 3d Ed., p. 59, 1910, so 
that I must give reasons for its rejection. 

When Ogilvie-Grant monographed the family in the ' Catalogue 
of the Birds in the British Museum, ' Vol. XXVI, he was enabled, 
through a recent discovery of Mr. CD. Sherborn, to follow strictly 
the law of priority and displace the well-known Phaethon candidus, 
by the hitherto unheard of Phaethon Upturns of Lacepede and 
Daudin. He was also able to indicate that Phaethon flavirostris 
Brandt had been misapplied to the American bird, which differed 
from the Mauritius species, of which Brandt's name became a 
synonym. For the American species, he therefore proposed 
Phaethon americanus and this name has been admitted for seventeen 

This provides another of those strange anomalies which have 
been constantly noted by myself while engaged in the determina- 
tion of Australian birds. I refer to the acceptance of names 
utilised in the ' Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum ' by 
American ornithologists when a very little investigation would 
have proved their inapplicability. In the ' Catalogue of Birds of 
the British Museum,' Vol. XXVI, p. 456, 1898, where Phaethon 
americanus is catalogued the very first reference reads : 

"Tropick Bird, Catesb. Car. II App. pi. 14 (1743) (Bermuda; 
Porto Rico)." 

The following is the gist of the account there given: "Mr. 
Willughby's description . . . .differs somewhat from ours, which was 
made from the living Bird. The legs in his, by long keeping, had 
lost their red colour, which all that I have seen, while living, have. 
This Bird is about the size of a Partridge, and has very long wings. 

196 Mathews, Phaethon catesbyi. [.April 

The bill is red, with an angle under the lower mandible like those 
of the Gull kind, of which it is a species. The eyes are encompassed 
with black, which ends in a point towards the back of the head. 
Three or four of the larger quill feathers, towards their ends, are 
black, tipt with white; all the rest of the Bird is white, except the 
back which is variegated with curved lines of black. The legs and 
feet are of a vermilion red. The toes are webbed. The tail con- 
sists of two long straight narrow feathers, almost of equal breadth 
from their quills to their points. These Birds are rarely seen but 
between the Tropicks, at the remotest distance from land . . . .yet 
one of their breeding-places is almost nine degrees from the north- 
ern Tropick, viz. at Bermudas, where from the high rocks that 
environ those Islands, I have shot them at the time of their breed- 
ing .... they breed also in great numbers on some little Islands at 
the east end of Porto Rico." 

For the time when this article was written, 1743, this is a most 
accurate and complete description of the Bermuda bird, and the 
figure given is a splendid one of the species known as the Yellow- 
billed Tropic-bird. 

As a synonym of Phaethon aeihereus, Ogilvie-Grant ranged:. 

" Phaeton catesbyi, Brandt, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (6) v, pt. II, 
p. 270 (1840) (Bermuda: Rico)." 

I trace this determination through Gray (Handl. Gen. Sp. Birds, 
pt. Ill, p. 124, 1871) to Bonaparte (Consp. Gen. Av. II, p. 183, 
1857). Reference, however, to Brandt's paper shows that he gave 
this name to the "Avis Tropicorum, Catesby, Nat. Hist, of Carol 
I., II. Ed. Edwards, p. 114, t. 14." This is simply a reprint of the 
account given by Catesby as quoted above, with the same plate 

If Catesby 's name be applicable to Phaethon americanus Grant 
then Brandt's name must be and it has 57 years' priority. In 
Catesby's description three debatable points may be noticed. 
First, the bill is given as red. This species is known as the Yellow- 
billed Tropic Bird and in the 'Water Birds of North America,' 
Vol. II, p. 186, 1884, the bill is described as deep chrome or wax 
yellow and a footnote reads: "Audubon describes the bill of the 
male as "orange-red," and that of the female as yellow: but he 

VOl 'l9l^ XII j Mathews, Phaethon catesbyi. 197 

seems to have had P. aethereus in mind in the former case, though 
his description otherwise applies exclusively to P. flamrostris." 

In 'The Ibis,' 1914, Karl Plath has written about the Bermuda 
Phaethon and on p. 554 observes : " I had noticed that the birds flying 
about seemed to have orange red bills rather than the yellow to 
which they owe their name, and this bird certainly had a red bill. 
I called the attention of my companion to it, and we agreed that it 
could be best described as bright orange-red, inclining to vermilion 
on the upper ridge." 

This confirms the accuracy of Catesby's observation with regard 
to the bill-colouration, but Karl Plath's legs and feet colouration 
does not coincide with that given by Catesby. The other points 
are the omission of the black band along the wing and the scapular 
colouration while the back is said to be variegated with curved lines 
of black. The figure given shows these black lines to be practically 
coincident with the black scapulars while if the figured or described 
bird were slightly immature it might show black lines on the back. 
The description as a whole is quite inapplicable to P. aethereus 
and seems quite good enough for acceptance. As far as I can trace 
only one species of Phaethon breeds at Bermuda where Catesby 
procured specimens himself. I designate Bermuda as the type- 
locality of Phaethon catesbyi Brandt and recommend its usage for 
the American Tropic Bird, known as the Yellow-billed Tropic 
Bird. As this is a misnomer, why not replace it by "Catesby's 
Tropic Bird" and thus honour the writer of one of the most in- 
teresting books on American natural history? 

I would remark that for the small Tropic Birds I use the generic 
name Leptophaethon which I introduced in the ' Austral Avian 
Record,' Vol. II, p. 56, 1913, with type Phaethon lepturus Daudin. 
These have only twelve tail-feathers as against the fourteen of 
P. aethereus or the sixteen of P. rubricauda. They are smaller, 
more delicately formed birds and the tail is of a different nature. 
The elongated central tail-feathers have comparatively wide webs, 
and the tail otherwise is strongly wedge-shaped, the two feathers 
adjacent to the central ones being twice as long^ as the outside 

To be consistent with their general usage as regards genera 
American ornithologists must accept my genus Lepto phaethon. 

198 Tyler, Simultaneous Action. \a^\ 




The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) affords a good example 
of a habit common among Fringilline birds when gathered in flocks, 
the habit of all starting up as one bird from their feeding ground 
and returning almost immediately from perches near by, singly or a 
few birds at a time. On any day between November and March, 
in town centres where House Sparrows congregate, large numbers 
of these birds may be watched going through this interesting 

At sunrise on the morning of December 29, 1912, more than a 
hundred Sparrows were feeding in the snow-covered street which 
passes through the centre of Lexington, Mass. Over the space of 
an acre or two, the birds were collected in half a dozen flocks at 
points in the street where food was plenty. Although busy filling 
their crops after a fifteen-hour fast, they remained on the ground 
scarcely a full minute at a time; without apparent reason, and 
with no warning note that I could detect, a flock whirred away into 
the elm branches overhead and within a few seconds the birds began 
gradually to re-assemble at the place they had just left. Other 
flocks did precisely the same thing. The instant departure of a 
large flock is impressive; there is no frightened start of one bird, the 
others trailing on behind; the birds rise with the suddenness of a 
rifle's crack. 

The birds fly back and forth between the street and some near 
cover so frequently that they spend perhaps no more than two- 
thirds of the time in feeding. When they rise in a body it happens 
rarely that one or two birds do not leave with the others, but feed 
on, undisturbed by the precipitous flight of the majority. Indi- 
vidual action is occasionally shown also by a single bird, who flies 
off to join another flock. This flying off of one of their number has 
apparently no effect on the remainder. Individual action, although 
occurring in members of a flock of feeding Sparrows, is the excep- 
tion; as a rule the flock moves as a unit. 

As one watches the Sparrows leave their feeding ground time 

V ° 191^ X ] Tyler, Simultaneous Action. 199 

after time, apparently without cause, but of their accord, one can- 
not help believing that some purpose, perhaps unknown to the birds 
themselves, underlies these interruptions. But more mysterious 
than the purpose of these sudden risings, is the means by which a 
large number of Sparrows decide, with the unanimity of a single 
bird, to fly up. 

One's first thought is that the birds in a flock start in response to a 
note of warning given by one of their number. It is not necessary 
to suppose a leader; any bird perceiving danger, or fancying that 
he perceives it, might sound a warning which would arouse his 
companions to retreat. That a man, even although he stands 
very near a flock of birds, seldom, if ever, hears an alarm note, — - 
or indeed any note at all, — is no proof of the absence of a signal. 
However, one feels a little skeptical when he considers the almost 
incredibly rapid response to a hypothetical signal inaudible to 
human ears. I believe also that the Sparrows themselves give 
more positive indication that in their concerted actions they do not, 
or need not, depend on signals. It is a common habit of the 
House Sparrow when gathered together, often in large companies, 
to chatter or scold. Each bird repeats for minutes at a time bis 
"chape" or "chillip" note, adding his voice to the din of the 
chorus. These choruses often end on the instant. No orchestra 
leader could more quickly silence the instruments under his control 
on one beat, yet, in the case of the Sparrow, it is unbelievable that 
an alarm note could be heard above the general uproar. 

There is another point which counts against the practicability of a 
signal. It is chiefly when large numbers of Sparrows are assembled 
in a flock that the sudden uprisings are conspicuous. One might 
almost say that the unanimity was directly in proportion to the 
number of birds present. That this proportion would appear 
to hold is self evident, — for the larger the rising flock, the greater 
the impression on the eye ; but a little observation will show that a 
small flock of Sparrows acts in a very different way. A small 
flock of House Sparrows will generally remain feeding in the street 
until they are frightened away, and then they will leave the feeding 
ground severally, a few birds at a time. Those nearest the ap- 
proaching danger, or the most timid, start first, to be followed suc- 
cessively by the remainder. Here are the very conditions under 

200 Tyler, Simultaneous Action. [aptU 

which a signal could best be heard, — very few birds make up the 
flock and all could hear the signal, but instead of simultaneous 
action there is individual alarm. 

It is possible that fear may be communicated throughout a large 
flock by any one of their number starting up in alarm, but that this 
explanation is always, or even often, responsible for the uprisings 
is improbable on account of the regularity of the retreats to cover. 

The behavior of the individuals composing a flock of Sparrows, 
as opposed to their movements " en masse " is well seen if one slowly 
approaches a flock at rest in shrubbery. Now, the birds gradually 
withdraw; each bird as he feels himself in danger, retreats. He at 
first hops deeper into the bushes and later, perhaps, flies. One 
bolder than the others, may remain alone near the danger even after 
the others have flown. Under these circumstances the birds act 
just as one would expect any company of individuals to act at the 
approach of danger; — when threatened each individual seeks 
safety. It is true that in the movements as a body, each individual 
may be seeking safety, but here there is a difference; each bird in a 
large flock starts at the same instant and, until perched, acts ex- 
actly as his companions do. It is possible that sometimes the birds 
are really frightened away, but, in that case, they act as if they all 
perceived the danger and reacted to it as a unit. This instant re- 
sponse is clearly distinct from the straggling retreat from a passing 

I was interested to note, some time ago, the behavior of a large 
flock of birds collected in an open field with no cover near. Al- 
though the birds were not House Sparrows, they belonged to species 
in which the habit under consideration is well marked. The note 
indicates that the proximity of shelter, which might act as a stimu- 
lus to retreat, is not responsible for the interruptions while feeding. 
"Feb. 7, 1911. Twenty Goldfinches and more than twice as many 
Redpolls are feeding on the snow upon weed-seeds. This large 
flock of nearly a hundred birds is spread out over half an acre of 
meadow land where the weed stalks, sticking thickly through the 
snow, afford abundant food. In spite of the plentiful supply of 
food, the birds are restless and keep starting up and alighting at 
once near by, but there is not, as noted previously, a general move- 
ment of the flock in one direction; the flock as a whole is stationary. 

° 'i9i5 J Tyler, Simultaneous Actio)/. 201 

Also, until I make the birds apprehensive by coming near them, 
there is no flying off to cover and back as I have noted in Juncos 
and Tree Sparrows. However, in this case there is no cover near." 
These birds showed the same uneasiness, the same tendency to fly 
in numbers from their feeding ground as noted in the House Spar- 
row, but here, with no cover to retreat to, they merely started into 
the air and at once settled quietly among the weeds. 

When House Sparrows and certain other birds of similar feeding 
habits are assembled in flocks, they may act in two ways, — indi- 
vidually and as a unit. When the}' act individually, we understand 
their behavior well enough; they act much as we should under the 
same circumstances; they are quite human. But when we see a 
hundred birds acting as one, and watch them as, without warning, 
they start on the instant and whir away like leaves in a gust of wind, 
we must needs believe that some superhuman force is at work among 
them. Can it be that, for a time, each of the hundred little brains 
forms a part of a common mind which, ever watchful for danger, 
only recognises it in the abstract and periodically drives the flock 
to seek shelter? This hypothesis is consistent with the facts; it 
would explain otherwise meaningless interruptions of feeding as well 
as the instantaneous flights, without signal, of busily occupied birds. 

If such is the case, — if a subconsciousness of danger hangs over 
each large flock while feeding, — the birds are, or seem to be, un- 
influenced by it and unaware of it until, like an explosion, it throws 
them all into the air; as if the common mind governed a single body 
instead of a hundred. 

In addition to the sudden risings from their feeding grounds, birds 
often display unanimity of behavior on other occasions. The 
simultaneous action of birds in rapid motion is well illustrated by 
closely-packed companies of flying Sandpipers. Each bird, when 
the flock changes its direction, escapes collision with its neighbors 
by turning at the same moment, in its tracks, so to speak. If a 
flock of Sandpipers changed its direction as a train of cars rounds a 
curve (each car swinging to one side only when it reaches the curved 
portion of the track) simultaneous action in the^birds would not 
be required; each bird in that case would follow the example of 
the bird immediately in front of him. Flocks of Sandpipers, how- 
ever, do not wheel in this way, or they do not always do so. Any 

202 Tyler, Simultaneous Action. [April 

one can satisfy himself on this point by watching a flock of Ereu- 
netes pusillus, for example, flying past in bright sunlight. At first, 
if you are between the sun and the birds, their white underparts 
shine out as the light strikes under the raised wing; later, in the 
distance, the birds appear as a group of flickering bright spots, — 
until the flock turns. Then, in an instant, every bird disappears; 
each has turned away at the same moment and presents to the eye 
only the narrow edge of the wings and the smallest diameter of the 
body, — invisible in the distance. 

One advantage of maintaining a food-shelf is that the birds which 
visit it, after they have fed, often remain near and afford excellent 
opportunities for study at close range, while the birds are entirely 
at ease and wholly unconscious of being observed. At such times 
they sometimes display traits and habits which under other circum- 
stances, even after long acquaintance, they will not have shown. 
For example, in the winter, after a little band of Chickadees have 
satisfied their hunger at my food-shelf, they often spend half an 
hour or so in the shrubbery and arbor-vitse trees eight or ten feet 
from the window. As a rule, they call cheerily to each other; 
sometimes, however, there comes a sudden hush, — every bird has 
become silent and perfectly motionless. For minute after minute, 
by the watch, the birds hold their quiet, and seemingly rigid, atti- 
tudes. I have timed them thus for eight minutes. It is difficult 
to find them as they sit as if frozen to the twigs; they are perched 
here and there, widely separated, some half -hidden in the evergreens, 
others exposed on bare branches. At last the stiff pose gradually 
gives way; one bird begins to move his head, — to look about a little 
from side to side. Every other bird is acting in the same way; 
now all are hitching slightly on their perches, some of them utter- 
ing their conversational notes in an undertone; now one or two 
give a rapid jingling call and hop from their perches; the spell is 
broken ; the frozen statues are once again living, active, wide-awake 

The point of especial interest here is the identical behavior of the 
birds, — their prolonged immobility, their silence, their quick pas- 
sage from death-like stillness to activity. Although, to be sure, 
the transition occupies several seconds, the birds pass through, it 
simultaneously (as nearly as the eye can follow their movements) 

Vol 1 fif XIT ] Tyler, Simultaneous Action. 203 

and not one after another. Naturally the commencement of the 
stillness is rarely observed, — I can only say that it takes place 
quickly, — but the period of immobility and the liberation from it 
I have seen often. Not a bird moves until the spell is broken, 
and when the release comes, it comes at once to every bird. 

These Chickadees, very likely, are resting while they digest their 
recent meal, but that the necessity for rest should come to each 
bird at the same instant and persist for exactly the same time 
implies something more than chance; it suggests a relationship 
between the members of the flock, similar to that which, binding 
together a flock of Sparrows, enables them to start into the air in a 
body. The life of a bird is made up of cycles ; in the great yearly 
cycle, which includes the breeding period and moult, preceded and 
followed by migration, birds over wide areas of country act (owing 
probably to physiological reasons) in fairly close unison. But how 
much closer must be the relationship between the members of a 
flock of birds in the daily cycle, during the winter months, when, 
with sexual jealousies dormant, they roam about amicably in search 
of food! Is it not possible that the need of food, the desirability of 
rest and the necessity for a safe night's shelter is perceived by the 
flock as a whole; that, acting as a unit, the sum of the intelligence 
of all the members of a flock keeps the company together, provides 
it with food and maintains a continuous watch for danger? 

Psychologists recognize in the human race a subconscious power 
of thought-transference which, although proved beyond a doubt 
to exist, is rendered uncertain and made difficult to study because 
it is obscured and held in check by our "objective" mind, — our 
every-day, reasoning, thinking mind. This psychical power, 
telepathy, is defined as " the conveyance of thought or feelings from 
mind to mind by other than ordinary channels of sense." (Ency- 
clopedia Britannica, 11th Ed., Vol. XXVI, p. 546). 

When we realize that in animals the objective mind, — the bar- 
rier to telepathic action, — is, compared to our minds, slightly 
developed, is it not only possible, but even probable that birds 
possess greater telepathic power than man (to an extent inversely 
proportional, perhaps, to the development of their respective 
reasoning — objective — minds) and that this telepathic power is 
responsible for their concerted actions? 

204 Phillips, New England Bob-white. LApril 



Plate XVI. 

It has long been remarked both by ornithologists and sportsmen 
that the Bob-whites of New England and the north central states 
were somewhat larger than those of the Mid-Atlantic states. The 
name Colinus Virginian us was given to the bird by Linnaeus, based 
entirely on Catesby's material, so that the type locality may be 
fairly placed at South Carolina, probably near the Georgia line, 
for Catesby's bird collecting was done on the Savanah River. 
Catesby's plate represents a distinctly dark bird. 

The question of a northern form is however somewhat compli- 
cated by the zealous efforts of sportsmen in transplanting Bob- 
whites from more favored to less favored regions, a process which 
has resulted in the entire or partial replacement of the native stock 
over most of its northeastward extension. It is interesting to note 
here that the subject of quail transplants was not thoroughly aired 
in sportsman's journals before the late seventies. By 1880 quail 
were advertised from various southern localities, Tennessee, 
Indian Territory, Texas, etc., at the extremely low figure of $2.00 a 
dozen. Between 1880 and 1885 there was great activity along this 
line and large transplants were effected in southern Vermont and 
in Massachusetts and probably over the whole of southern New 
England. Many references to this can be found in the files of 
' Eorest and Stream ' between 1876 and 1885. 

It appears however that the traffic in live quail existed a good 
while before this period for I have a record given to me by Mr. G. 
A. Peabody, of Danvers, for March, 1870, at which time 184 birds 
were let out in Essex Co., Mass. They were sent from Greens- 
boro, N. C, but whether actually trapped there is of course un- 
certain. Mr. Peabody himself kept a few quail in a pen in the 
sixties and liberated a few at Danvers, Mass. He is certain that 
other sportsmen were doing the same thing about this time and he 
says that the planting was done with the utmost secrecy, which 
may account for the late appearance of reports of these transplants 
in the journals of the time. It is a fact that on Cape Cod quail 
were planted very early, for Mr. Peabody informs me that Mr. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XVI. 

Bob-white {Colinus virginianus) . 
Row 1. Old New England Birds. 

Row 2. Birds from Southern States (two on left = C. v. floridanus) 
Row 3. Birds from Illinois, Indian Territory, etc. 

1915 J 

Phillips, New England Bob-white. 


Storey Fay brought many quail from his place near Savannah, Ga., 
and liberated them on the Cape (Falmouth?) in the late fifties. 
It is well known that at least some of the quail of Cape Cod are 
small and dark colored, and three male specimens taken at Ware- 
ham, Mass. (Bangs Coll. Nos. 4196, 1059, and 3347) between 1882 
and 1901 are very heavily barred on the flanks and breast, like 
birds from Georgia and So. Carolina. On the other hand two 
specimens from the same collection and locality, nos. 1060 and 
11492 are typical northern birds and these bear the dates 1882 and 
1904. On measuring these skins I find that the three dark males 
from Wareham have a wing average of only 110 mm., while the two 
normal females from the same place average 114.5 mm. In other 
words there is evidence that the native and imported birds may 
have existed side by side and kept their identity, for a time at least. 
In Mr. Brewster's collection there are some fine specimens taken 
near Boston between 1871 and 1891. These show no trace of 
imported blood. The largest specimen has a wing of 120 mm., 
being far larger than any of the specimens in the collection of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, either from New England, the 
Atlantic States, or the Dakota-Missouri region. In measuring 
these skins I divided them into three regions: 1st, Old New Eng- 
land, 2nd, Virginia to So. ( Carolina, 3rd, the western area, including 
Indian Territory, So. Dakota, Kansas and Missouri, 4th, a series 
from the Thayer museum at Lancaster representing Maryland, 
Virginia, and localities near Washington, and lastly another lot 
from the same collection taken at Sing Sing, New York. 












Old New England 











Sing Sing, N. Y. 






Md. & Va. 








So. Atlantic 




53 . 3 


















Mt.Pleasant, S.C. 


31 107.5 








206 Phillips, New England Bob-white. ■ [April 

Two cfcf and two 9 9 from Mt. Pleasant, S. C, near the type 
locality are added. 

The old New England series is limited to birds collected near 
Boston in the seventies, mostly in Mr. Brewster's collection, and 
I am assured that the localities Belmont, Concord, and Brookline, 
where this series was taken, were not affected by southern quail. 
The wing measurement is large in both male and female, but the 
other measurements do not show much size difference. Probably 
in the flesh the birds were larger and heavier. One of these speci- 
mens has a wing of 120 mm., which is maximum for all the quail 
examined for the combined localities. 

The South Atlantic series measures slightly less in both sexes 
than any other group, but the difference is surprisingly small. 
The Maryland and Virginia series are pretty well up to the New 
England standard and taken altogether the regions show far less 
difference than I had been led to expect. 

Now the matter of coloring is not so easily settled as the size 
question. The spring plumage of Bob-whites is much grayer than 
the fall plumage, especially on the lower back and rump. The 
typical and extreme Massachusetts birds have a very light buffy 
appearance, the top of the head has very little black and the mantle 
is apt to be plain colored. There is a marked tendency to a more 
delicate barring on the under parts, and to an absence of barring 
on the lower breast and abdomen. In females the barring is much 
less heavy. In typical specimens of New England birds the 
barring is by no means transverse as in Georgia and South Carolina 
specimens, but very distinctly V-shaped, the pattern drawing out 
more and more to a sharp point on the lower flanks. It must be 
noticed, however, that our series shows no constant color difference 
between North and South Atlantic birds till one reaches at least the 
vicinity of Charleston, where specimens show a distinctly heavier 
and more transverse barring over breast and abdomen. Also the 
backs, scapulars, and tertials are darker in southern birds as well 
as the whole top of the head. There is no way that I can see of 
telling western from New England birds, while the Sing Sing, N. Y., 
series is identical with the Maryland series. Variation is very con- 
siderable, especially in the width of the barring on the lower parts, 
and in the extent of the barring on the abdomen. There is one 

V0l 'lflf XH ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 207 

very darkly barred bird from Indian Territory and another from 
Vermilion, S. D. 

In the plate I have arranged male birds in the following order: 
top row, old New England birds, typical ones on left, darkest indi- 
vidual on right. Second row; from right to left, Va., N. C, S. C. 
and Ga., with two typical Florida birds, Colinus v.floridauus at the 
left end. The lower row shows a series of western birds, with 
Illinois birds on the right and a darker Indian Territory bird on the 
left. The Georgia, Florida and Indian Territory specimens can 
always be told from those of New England, and the typical old 
New England bird can with fair certainty be separated from the 
southwestern bird, but not from that of Virginia. 

To sum up : if I were asked to characterize the probable appear- 
ance of the New England quail of fifty years ago, I should say — 
Size large, especially the wing; mantle with a tendency to a plainer 
appearance and not so heavily speckled. Lower parts less heavily 
barred, and barring more V-shaped; whole top of head and post- 
ocular streak more reddish and less black : entire bird more tawny 
and generally somewhat lighter in tone, especially on the lower 
back, rump and sides. 



(Continued from p. 81.) 

The Carolinas and Georgia. 

In the seventeenth century, we have seven or eight notes of 
interest. In 1663, a -'Report of Commissioners sent from Bar- 
bodes to Explore the River Cape Fear" has it that l "The woods 
(are) stored everywhere with great numbers of deer and turkeys — 
we never going on shore but we saw of each sort.' 1 ' Several excerpts 
from "A Relation of A Discovery lately made on the Coast of 

1 Hawks, Francis L. History of North Carolina, 1663-1729, Vol. II, p. 31. 

208 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [April 

Florida, — London, 1664" by William Hilton pertain to this 
species. In Port Royal Land, 1 " the woods (abounds) with .... 

Turkeys, " Along Cape Fear River, " we proceeded down to a 

place. . . .which we called Turkic-Quarters, because we killed several 
Turkies thereabouts." "In that time as our business called us up 
and down the River and Branches, we killed of wild fowl, four 

Swans, .... ten Turkies, " In "A Brief Description of the 

Province of Carolina, London, 1666" we find that 2 "The Woods 
are stored with Deer and Wild Turkeys, of a great magnitude, 
weighing many times above 50 1. apiece of more tast than in 
England, being in their proper climate." 

In "Mr. Carteret's Relation of their Planting at Ashley River 
1670" occurs 3 " Here is alsoe wilde Turke which the Indian brought 
but is not soe pleasant to eate of as the tame, but very fleshy and 
farr bigger." In 1674, Henry Woodward's "A Faithfull Relation 
of My Westoe Voiage" appears. While in Carolina, he supped 4 
"wth two fatt Turkeys to helpe wth parcht corne flower broth." 
In another instance, "he carried along a fat Turkey for his better 
accommodation at night." In 1682, we have two notes: one by 
T. Ashe and the other by Samuel Wilson. The former finds the 5 
" Birds for Food, and pleasure of Game, are . . . . : In winter huge 
flights of Wild Turkies, oftentimes weighing from twenty, thirty 
to forty pound." The latter records, "Here are also in the woods, 

great plenty of Wild Turkeys, " The last note of the century 

is by Richard Blome (1. c, p. 156). "Their woods and Fields (are) 
likewise stored with great plenty of wild Turkeys,. . . .whose flesh 
is delicate Meat." 

The first note of the next century occurs in the "Journal of John 
Barnwell." When 15 miles above Bathtown, he interprets the 
turkey's presence as sure evidence that the enemy did not expect 
them. 6 

Three years later (1714), the celebrated Lawson publishes his 
"History of Carolina." On a "Thousand Miles Travel among 

' Force, P. Vol. IV, pp. 8, 10, 11, 15. 

2 Carroll, B. R. Hist. Colls, of S. C. New York, 1836, Vol. II, p. 12. 

» Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708. New York, 1911, p. 119. 

4 ibid., p. 131. 

s Carroll, B. R. 1. c, Vol. II, pp. 73, 28. 

e Va. Mag., Vol. V, No. 4, p. 401;' Vol. VI, No. I, p. 44. 

VOl 'lfi5 XI1 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 209 

the Indians from South to North Carolina" he several times notes 
the turkey. Near Charlestown, 1 "when we approached nearer the 
place, we found it to be some Sewee Indians firing the cane swamps 
which drives out the game, then taking their particular stands, 

kill great quantities of both bear, deer, turkies " Near Santee 

River, " The Indians killed fifteen turkeys, this day, there coming 
out of the swamp, about sun rising, flocks of these fowl, contain- 
ing several hundred in a gang, who feed upon the acorns, it being 
most oak that grow in these woods. Early the next morning .... 
our guide killed more turkeys. Some of the turkeys which we eat 
whilst we staied there, I believe weighed no less than forty pounds. 

At night we killed a possum, being cloy'd with turkey " 

Later, "our fat turkeys began to be loathsome to us." "At night 
we lay by a swift current (Sapona), where we saw plenty of turkeys, 
but perched upon such lofty oaks that our guns would not kill 
them, though we shot very often, and our guns were very good. 
Some of our company shot several times at one turkey before he 
would fly away, the pieces being loaded with large goose shot." 
Concerning these oaks he speaks at greater length under his ac- 
count of the wild pigeons. The note follows : " pigeons come down 
in quest of a small sort of acorns, which in those parts are plenti- 
fully found. They are the same we call turkey acorns, because 
the wild turkies feed very much thereon; and for the same reason 
those trees that bear them are called turkey oaks." 2 

In "A Letter from South Carolina, etc. Written by a Swiss 
Gentleman to his Friend at Bern. 2nd edit. London, 1732" we find 
(p. 13) that "There are tame Fowls of all sorts, and great Variety 

of wild Fowl, as Turkeys, " "An Extract of the Journal of 

Mr. Commissary Von Reck Who conducted the First Transport of 
Saltzburgers to Georgia: London 1734" says 3 "Night overtaking 
us, we were obliged to take up our Quarters upon a little Hill, and a 
Fire with the Indians, who brought us a wild Turkey for our sup- 
per." About Ebenezer, Savannah River, it holds that 3 "As to 

1 Lawson, John. The History of Carolina, London, 1714. Reprint Raleigh, 
N. C, 1860, pp. 25, 50, 51, 79, 92, 231-233. 

2 In 1737, John Brickell in his " The Natural History of North Carolina " 

(Dublin, 1737, pp. 181-183) practically repeats the substance of Lawson'a 

» Force, P. Vol. IV, pp. 12, 13, 36. 

210 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [ April 

Game, here are. . . .Wild Turkies, " "A New and Accurate 

Account of the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia, London, 
1733" states that 1 "our people that live in the country plantations 
procure of them (Carolina Indians) the whole deer's flesh ; and they 
bring it many miles for the value of six pence sterling, and a wild 
turkey of forty pound weight for the value of two-pence." " A 
Young Gentleman" in "A New Voyage to Georgia 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1737" says 2 "I met with. . . .plenty of wild turkeys, " 

"An Account Showing the Progress of the Colony of Georgia in 
America, London, 1741" finds 2 "in the winter season (Savannah 
River) there is a variety of wild fowl, especially turkeys, some of 

them weighing thirty pounds, " "An Impartial Inquiry into 

the State and Utility of the Province of Georgia, 1741" records 
that 3 " Mr. Harris, who is an expert fowler, sometimes goes out with 
his gun, and seldom fails of bringing in either wild turkey. . . .or 

geese " "A Description of Georgia London 1741 " states that * 

"There is great plenty of wild fowl, particularly turkies, " 

In 1761, we have "A Description of South Carolina London." 
According to it, 5 "the sorts of wild fowl that frequent the inland 

parts of the Country, are Turkeys, " In 1763, G. Milligen 

writes "A Short Description of the Province of South Carolina: 
London, 1770." It states that 6 " In the woods and fields are plenty 

of wild turkeys, of a large size, " "The History of North 

America London, 1776" claims (p. 225) Georgia affords "wild 
turkeys from 20 to 30 pounds weight." Hewatt in 1779 merely 
mentions wild turkeys are in great numbers. 7 In 1784, J. F. D. 
Smyth (1. c, Vol. I, p. 149) reports that in North Carolina " " There 

are also. . . .multitudes of . . . .wild turkies " Following him, 

we have Wm, Bartram. When at Broad River, he remarks (1. c, 
p. 45). "We at length happily accomplished our live, bringing in 
plenty of venison and turkeys, we had a plentiful feast at supper." 

» Colls. Ga. Hist. Soc. Savannah, 1840, p. 55. 
2 ibid., Vol. II, Savannah, 1842, pp. 51, 58, 314. 
'ibid., Vol. I, p. 199. 
* Force, P. Vol. II, p. 4. 
« Carroll, B. R. Vol. II, p. 250. 
e ibid.. Vol. II, p. 482. 

7 Hewatt, Alex. An Hist. Account of South Carolina and Georgia. London , 
1779, Vol. I. p. 85. 

° 1915 J Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 211 

John Davis, 1 at the end of the century, tells how they used " to 
penetrate the woods in search of wild turkies" at Coosawhatchie. 
In the nineteenth century, we have few notes. Gurney, in 
speaking of North Carolina, notes that 2 " The elegant forms of the 
wild turkeys on the full run, were sometimes seen gliding through 
the forest" and at Savannah he notices that "Among the birds, 
the wild turkey is common." The following year, 1842, Bucking- 
ham finds 3 " Wild turkeys and wild ducks are in sufficient abun- 
dance to furnish game for food." 


Several of the early 16th century notes pertain to Florida. In 
the next century, the historical literature of the turkey is scant. 
In "Virginia richly valued, By the description of the mainland 
of Florida, her next neighbour. . . .London 1609" we find 4 "There 

be many wild Hennes as big as Turkies " "In a Relation of 

the Invasion and Conquest of Florida, . . . .London, 1686" we have 
"The Poultry are wild there, as big as Peacocks, and very plen- 

In the eighteenth century, the roll of records is longer. The 
first author who mentions it is Wm. Stork who in 1766, writes 
that 5 " In the woods are plenty of wild turkeys, which are better 
tasted, as well as larger, than our tame ones in England." When 
in Florida, John Bartram 1766 records the wild turkey. 6 In 1770, 
J. H. Wynne practically repeats Stork's statement. " The History 
of North America London 1776" has it (p. 251) that "With regard 

to the winged species, here are vast numbers of turkeys, " In 

1791 we have the extended notes of Wm. Bartram. Of St. Ille, 
south of Alatamaha 60 miles, he says 7 " Turkeys .... are here to be 

1 Davis, John. Travels of Four and a Half in the United States of America; 
— London, 1803. N. Y., 1909 edition, p. 112. 

2 Gurney, J. J. A Journey in North America Norwich, 1841, pp. 62, 372. 

* Buckingham, J. S. The Slave States of America. London, 1842. "Vol. I, 

p. 156. ^ 

« Force, P. Vol. IV, p. 131. 

6 Stork, William. An Account of East Florida London, 1766, p. 51. 

8 Bartram, John. A Journal kept .... for the Floridas; Jan. 14, 1766, p. 18. 
In Stork, vide supra, 3rd edit., London, 1769. 

i Bartram, Wm. Travels, pp. 18, 101, 109, 110, 179, 189, 199, 201, 235, 348. 455. 

212 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [April 

seen; but birds are not numerous in desert forests ; they draw near 
to the habitations of men, as I have constantly observed in all my 
travels." Of an island in Lake George, San Juan River, he writes 
"There are no habitations at present on the island, but a great 
number of deer, turkeys, .... and turkeys are made extremely fat 
and delicious from their feeding on the sweet acorns of the Live 
Oak." Along the San Juan River, "I, observing a flock of turkeys 
at some distance, on the other, (way) directed my steps towards 
them, and with great caution, got near them; when singling out a 
large cock, and being just on the point of firing, I observed that 
several young cocks were affrighted, and, in their language, warned 
the rest to be on their guard, against an enemy, whom I plainly 
perceived was industriously making his subtle approaches towards 
them, behind the fallen trunk of a tree, about twenty yards from 
me. This cunning fellow hunter was a large fat wild cat (lynx) he 
saw me, and at times seemed to watch my motions, as if determined 
to seize the delicious prey before me. Upon which I changed my 
object, and levelled my piece at him. At that instant, my com- 
panion, at a distance, also discharged his piece at the deer, the 
report of which alarmed the flock of turkeys and my fellow hunter, 
the cat, sprang over the log and trotted off." At Halfway Pond 
(Cuscowilla) " flocks of turkeys (were) walking in the groves around 

us, " On Alachua savanna, he records " flocks of turkeys" and 

near old Alachua town " on our rout near a long projected point of 
the coast, we observed a large flock of turkeys; at our approach 
they hastened to the groves" and again "we frequently saw,. . . . 
turkeys . . . . , but they knew their safety here, keeping far enough out 
of our reach." When 30 miles from St. Marks, he finds "the 
forests and native meadows (abound) with wild game, as ... . tur- 
keys, " At Tanase he " avanced into strawberry plains to 

regale on the fragrant delicious fruit, welcomed by communities 

of the splendid meleagris " 

In 1806, Priscilla Wakefield (1. c, p. 92) when at St. Juans, Fla., 
writes of this species as follows : " Of a morning we have been awak- 
ened by the beams of the new-risen sun, and the cheerful crowing 
of the wild turkey-cocks, calling to each other from the tops of the 
highest trees. In the spring they begin at break of day, and crow 
till sunrise, saluting their fellows on the return of light." Twenty- 

Vol 1 f 1 ^ xn ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 213 

six years later, 1832 Timothy Flint (1. c, Vol. I, p. 210.) finds at 
Pensacola that "wild turkeys are constantly off erred for sale by 
the Indians." Five years previous 1827, John Lee Williams 
records l " Wild Turkey -Meleagr is americana plenty," and in a 
subsequent work, 1837 he gives it more attention. 2 "The Wild 
Turkey, meleagris Americana, stands at the head of the festive 
board, and is abundant in most of the new settlements." 

Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana. 

In this region the record begins with the last voyage of La Salle 
to discover the Mississippi. "The plains lying on one side of it 

" he says 3 " are stored with .... turkeys ; " At Maligne River, 

" our hunters killed .... turkeys " On this same journey, when 

at Bay St. Louis he remarks, 4 " We had also an infinite Number of 

Beeves .... Turkeys " At Le Boucon, they saw turkeys and of 

the country through which he passed he notices that "There are 
Abundance of Deer. . . .and all Sorts of wild Fowl, and more espe- 
cially of Turkeys." 

Du Pratz in the early part of the eighteenth century was travel- 
ing in Louisiana, and in several places in his account of his journey 
he mentions the turkey. 5 " The French settlers raise in this prov- 
ince turkies of the same kind with those of France." In another 
place he notes that " Many of the women wear cloaks of the bark 
of the mulberry tree or of the feathers of swans, turkies or India 
ducks." In one instance, he writes of the turkey at some length. 
" I shall now proceed to speak of the fowls which frequent the woods, 
and shall begin with the Wild-Turky, which is very common all over 
the colony. It is finer, larger, and better than that of France. 
The feathers of the turky are duskish grey, edged with a streak 
of gold colour, near half an inch broad. In the small feathers the 
gold-coloured streak is not above one tenth of an inch broad. 

i Williams, John Lee. A View of West Florida, etc. Phila., 1827, p. 31. 

» . The Territory of Florida, etc. New York, 1837, p. 73. 

3 French, B. F. Hist. Colls, of La., Part I. New York, 1846, pp. 176, 136, 121. 
* Joutel, M. A Journal of the last Voyage Performed by M. de la Salle to the 
Gulph of Mexico. Translation London, 1714, pp. 62, 78, v, 82, 87. 
s Du Pratz, M. LeP. 1. c, pp. 283, 363, 276, 277, 161. 

214 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [a^u. 

The natives make fans of the tail, and of four tails joined together, 
the French make an umbrella. The women among the natives 
weave the feathers as our peruke-makers weave their hair, and 
fasten them to an old covering of bark, which they likewise line 
with them, so that it has down on both sides. Its flesh is more 
delicate — fatter and more juicy than that of ours. They go in 
flocks, and with a. dog one may kill a great many of them. I could 
never procure any of the turkey's eggs, to try to hatch them, and 
discover whether they were as difficult to bring up in this country 
as in France, since the climate of both countries is almost the 
same. My slave told me, that in his nation they brought up the 
young turkies as easily as we do chickens." 

Schultz (1. c, pp. 182, 184) in 1810 says " Those (birds) which may 
be considered as local (New Orleans) are, . . . .wild turkey. . . .," and 
1817 Samuel R. Brown practically repeats (pp. 146, 233) the same 
observation. Of Mississippi, he says that "The traveller here 
finds. . . .wild turkeys in frequent flocks." In the Nation of the 
Creek Indians (Ouchee River) Adam Hodgson 1820 (Mar. 20) 
writes x " He (Landlord) gave us a plain substantial fare, which .... 
(is) sometimes varied by the introduction of wild venison or wild 
turkies" killed by the Indians and furnished the landlord at little 
cost. About the same time, Thos. L. McKinney writes (1. c, p. 159) 
of the Chickasaw country as follows: "Nearly the whole of the 
country of Chickasaws, through which I had, so far, passed was 
poor. Wild turkeys plenty." In his trip up the Alabama River 
between Montgomery and Mobile, Arfwedson notes that 2 " Im- 
mense quantities of wild ducks and wild turkeys were constantly 
disturbed by the paddles of the steamboat, but we often passed 
through flocks of them without causing the least fright." In 
"Recollections of Pioneer Life in Mississippi" by Miss Mary J. 

Welsh, we find that 3 "turkeys were abundant" in 1833-1836. 

The last note to be entered in this list is by C. C. Jones. He speaks 
of the Choctaws who made 4 " turkey-feather blankets with the 

1 Hodgson, Adam. Letters from North America 2 vols. London, 1824, 

Vol. I, pp. 118, 125. 

2 Arfwedson, C. D. The United States and Canada, in 1832, 1833, and 1834. 
2 vols. London, 1834, Vol. II, p. 41. 

s Miss. Hist. Soc. Publications. Vol. IV, p. 349. 

« Jones, C. C. Southern Indians. 1873, pp. 87, 77, 322. 

° 1915 ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 215 

long feathers of the neck and breast of that fowl. The inner end 
of the feather was twisted and made fast in a strong double thread 
of hemp or coarse twine made of the inner bark of the mulberry -tree. 
These threads were then worked together after the manner of a fine 
netting. The long and glittering feathers imparted to the outside 
of the blanket a pleasing appearance. Such fabrics were quite 

Kentucky and Tennessee. 

In this region we have several interesting notes. John Lederer 
comments on its l " Great variety of excellent Fowl, as wilde 

Turkeys, " In early voyages up and down the Mississippi we 

find mention of this form. Cavelier's account of La Salle's Voyage 
remarks 2 " how the whole nation (of Indians) had greatly honoured 
them and held them for something more than men, on account of the 
power of their guns : that the}' wondered to see them kill .... several 
turkeys at a single shot." St. Cosme remarks that they took 
several turkeys during his voyage (before 1700). In 1700, Gravier 
alludes to the turkey mantles. "Sometimes they (the men) too, 
as well as the women, have mantles of turkey feathers. . . .well 
woven and worked." Of the early times in Kentucky (Boone's 
day) Timothy Flint asserts that 3 "in the open woods, . . . .turkeys 
were as plenty as domestic fowls in the old settlements." "In 
the sheltered glades, turkeys and large wild birds were so abundant, 
that a hunter could supply himself in an hour for the wants of a 
week. They would not be found like the lean and tough birds in 
the old settlements, that lingered around the clearings and stumps 
of the trees, in the topmost of whose branches the fear of man 
compelled them to rest, but young and fully fed." "They were 
never out sight of buffaloes, . . . .turkeys." Of the year 1779, Rev. 
Mr. Davidson of Mercer County, Ky., says 4 "A winter of un- 

1 Talbot, Sir Wm. The Discoveries of John Lederer in three several Marches 
from Virginia to the West of Carolina London, 1672, p. 25. 

1 Shea, John G. Early Voyages Up and Down thb Mississippi, etc. Albany, 
1861, pp. 25, 57, 134. 

* Flint, Timothy. Biographical Memoir of Daniel Boone. Cincinnati, 1833, 
pp. 36, 39, 44, 58, 241, 263. 

4 Collins, Lewis. Historical Sketches of Kentucky, Cincinnati, 1847, p. 


216 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [£$i 

exampled severity ensued; and numbers of . . . .wild turkeys were 
found frozen to death." 

During the early campaigns the turkeys often kept the wounded 
alive. In the autumn of 1779, Major Rodgers and Capt. Benham 
when near Harrodsburgh, Kentucky, so sustained themselves. 1 
"Fortunately, wild turkeys were abundant in those woods, and his 
companion would walk around, and drive them towards Benham, 
who seldom failed to kill two or three of each flock. In this manner, 
they supported themselves for several weeks, until their wounds 
had healed so as to enable them to travel." In 1784 John Filson 

finds 2 " The land fowls are turkeys, which are very frequent, " 

The same year, 1784, J. F. D. Smyth (I. c, Vol. I, p. 337) speaks in 
hyperbole. " Wild turkeys, very large and fat, are almost beyond 
number, sometimes five thousand in a flock, of which a man may 
kill just as many as he pleases." In 1787-1788, Mrs. Mary Dewee 
finds 3 " The variety of deer, .... turkeys, . . . . , with which this coun- 
try abounds keeps us always on the lookout, and adds much to the 
beauty of the scenes around us." In writing of Kentucky in 1794, 
Thomas Cooper says 4 " Of wild turkies, however, there are abun- 
dance, nearly as tame as those breed in the yard. From their being 
extremely poor in the summer, they remain unmolested; in the 
winter they grow very fat, and are reckoned delicious food:" 
The last note of the 18th century, comes the following year (1795) 
when Andre Michaux reports it in Tennessee. At Nashville, he 
says 5 "Sunday 21st of June 1795 killed and skinned some birds. 
Birds:.... a few species of the Genus Picus: Wild Turkeys." 
In Oct., 1795, he writes that on the "17th ascended the River 
(Cumberland) about ten Miles: there were numbers of Wild 
Turkeys on the banks; the Rowers and I killed five from the 
Canoe in passing, without landing." Finally, on Dec. 31 of 
the same year, he states that "most of (them) went hunting 
Wild Turkeys," along the Little River. 

1 McClung, John A. Sketches of Western Adventure: Phila. 1832, p. 


« Filson, J. The Discovery, Settlement and present State of Kentucke 

Wilmington, 1784, p. 26. 

' Penn. Mag. Hist. & Biog., Vol. XXVIII, p. 195. 

* Cooper, T. Some Information Respecting America, etc. London, 1794, p. 38. 
Early Western Travels, III, pp. 33, 63, 76, 82. 


Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 217 

In 1806, Priscilla Wakefield (1. c, pp. 135, 146) in East Tennessee 
"Met several flocks of wild turkeys, forty or fifty in a company." 
In Kentucky she records that " Wild turkeys are numerous and in 
the uninhabited parts so tame as to be easily shot. In autumn 
and winter they feed upon acorns and chestnuts. They inhabit 
the sides of rivers, and perch upon the tops of the highest trees." 
The same year, Thomas Ashe, reliable or otherwise, observes the 
turkey at "Kenhaway." "Several flocks of wild turkeys crossed 
us from the mountains to the water side, we killed two fine young- 
birds, and could have killed forty had we been disposed to enter 
on the commission of unnecessary carnage." At Louisville, Ky., 
he writes 1 " I killed a few young turkeys, which were exquisite in 
taste and flavor." Near Knoxville, Tenn., Henry Ker finds 2 " The 
woods abound with plenty of game, such as ... . and turkies in 
abundance through the year." In 1817, S. R. Brown (1. c, p. 110) 
holds "Wild turkies are still numerous in the unsettled parts" of 
Kentucky. In the summer of 1818, H. R. Schoolcraft observes 
that along the Ohio river 3 "The wild turkey, quail and squirrel 
are daily met on either shore, and we find no difficulty in killing 
as many as we have occasion for." 

In 1822-23, W. H. Blane reports (1. c, p. 260) "there (is) plenty 
of deer and wild turkeys in the woods " of Kentucky. About eight 
years later, Withers remarks that 4 " The body found in the salt- 
petre cave of Kentucky, was wrapped in blankets made of linen and 
interwoven with feathers of the wild turkey, tastefully arranged." 
The next year, 1832, T. Vigne (1. c, Vol. II, pp. 45, 57, 58) finds 
"Wild turkeys. . . .are found in the barrens," near Glasgow, Ky. 
Of Mammoth Cave he writes that "In the neighbourhood of the 
cave, there are a great many wild turkeys, and a tolerable sprinkling 
of deer, but both were difficult of approach at that season of the 
year. I was exceedingly anxious for a shot at a wild turkey, but 

1 Ashe, Thomas. Travels in America Performed in 1806, etc. London, 1808, 
pp. 173, 235. 

2 Ker, Henry. Travels through the Western Interior of the United States. 
Prom the Year 1808 up to the year 1816. Elizabethtown, N. J., 1816, p. 311. ! 

8 Schoolcraft, H. R. A View of the Lead Mines New York, 1819, 'pp. 

232, 225. 

* Withers, Alexander S. Chronicles of Border Warfare. Clarksburg, Va., 
1831, p. 37. 

218 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [a^U 

committed a great error in loading with ball only: and although 
I contrived to get three or four fair shots on the ground, and on the 
wing, yet I confess through eagerness to have missed them. Once 
I contrived to near a brood, but had the mortification, although 
close to them, to hear them rising one by one on the other side of a 
thicket; and when I did pull at the last bird, my gun which was 
loaded with shot, missed fire through the badness of the copper 
cap." In the same year T. Flint's "Mississippi Valley" appears. 
In Tennessee (1. c, p. 340) he credulously says, "A nest of eggs of 
the wild turkey were dug up in a state of petrifaction." Finally 
in the "Sketches and Eccentricities of Colonel David Crockett 
N. Y. 1835," p. 193, we find that he had a special fondness for 
shooting the turkey in this region. 


In all the United States, no state had more turkeys than Ohio 
and her neighbors. Most of our records are restricted to the 18th 
century and the first part of the 19th century. In Morton's " New 
English Canaan 1637" we find that about 1 "Lake Erocoise" 
"There are also more abundance of . . . .Turkies breed about the 
part of that lake, then in any place in all Country of New England." 
Daniel Coxe in his "Carolina 2nd edit. London, 1726" (pp. 52, 79) 
finds " Great Companies of Turkies " all over the country. On a 
journey to Ohio, Conrad Weiser on Sept. 19, 1748, notes 2 this 
form. In 1750 Christopher Gist makes a journey from Old- 
town, Md., to the Ohio River. On Nov. 30, he with his men 3 
"killed twelve turkeys." The following year, Feb. 17, 1751, 
he records that the country about Little and Big Miami Rivers, 
"Abounds with turkeys." In the period from 1755-1759, Col. 
James Smith frequently encounters this form. At Ligoneer, 4 
"we found they had plenty of Turkeys, etc." Along Canesadoo- 

1 Force, P., Vol. IT, p. 65. 

: Colls. Hist. Soc. Penn., Vol. I, Phila., 1853, p. 33. 

3 Pownall, T. A Topographical Description of Such Parts of North America, 
..... London, 1776, Appendix, p. 8, 11. 

4 Smith, Col. James. An Account of the Remarkable Occurrences in the Life and 
Travels of Lexington, 1799. Reprint, Cincinnati, 1870, pp. 7, 27-31, 36, 75, 96. 



Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 219 

harie River, "turkeys were plenty." Between this last river and 
Cuyahoga they took a few small turkeys; at Cedar Point, Lake 
Erie, and at Sandusky they killed a number of Turkeys. 

Christian Frederick Post in his journal of a trip from Phila. to 
Ohio shows how the turkey enters the reply of an Ohio Indian : l 
" Look now, my white brother, the white people think we have no 
brains in our heads; but that they are great and big, and that 
makes them war with us: we are a little handful to what you are; 
but remember, when you look for a wild turkey you cannot always 
find it, it is so little it hides itself under the bushes." The "Journal 
of Captain Thomas Morris,. . . .Detroit, Sept. 25, 1764" records 
turkeys towards the Miami country. When he reaches Miami 
river he says 2 " We were forced for want of water to stew a turkey 
in the fat of a raccoon ; and I thought I had never eaten any thing 
so delicious, though salt was wanting; but perhaps it was hunger 
which made me think so." In 1765, George Croghan makes a 
journey from Fort Pitt to Vincennes and Detroit. At the mouth 
of the Little Kanawha River, 3 "turkeys. . . .are extremely plenty" 
(May 19) and "turkeys are very plenty on the banks of this 
(Scioto) River." 

On June 5, 1773, Rev. David Jones 4 "Killed some turkeys" 
on the Scioto River, and recorded that " This country abounds with 

an abundance of turkeys, some of which are very large " In 

1778, Thomas Hutchins finds that in the Ohio river region 5 "a 
great variety of game;. . . .as well as. . . .turkies. . . .abounds in 
every part of this country." In the region from the mouth of Great 
Kanawaha to Monogohela River turkies "abound" as also in the 
Lake Erie country. Of this same country at the same period, Dr. 
Knight writes that 6 " In all parts of the country through which I 
came, the game was very plenty, that is to say, deer, turkies and 

1 Early Western Travels, Vol. I, p. 215. 

2 ibid., pp. 310, 311, 321. 

3 The Olden Time, Vol. I, 1846, Pittsburgh, pp. 405, 407. 

4 Cist, Charles. Cincinnati Miscellany. Vol. I, 1845, p. 265; Vol. II, pp. 11, 
232. V 

5 Hutchins, Thomas. A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and North Carolina London, 1778, pp. 4, 12. 

8 Narratives of the Perils and Sufferings of Dr. Knight and John Slover among 

the Indians during the Revolutionary War 1st edit., 1782, Pittsburgh, 

3rd. edit., Cincinnati, 1867, p. 30. 

220 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [April 

pheasants." In the Journal of General Butler (1785) we have at 
least sixteen references to the abundance of turkeys along the Ohio 
River. He records them at the mouths of the Muskingum, the Big 
Hockhocking, the Kanawaha, the Louisa, the Little Miami, and 
the Licking Rivers and Big Bone Creek. In the Kanawha terri- 
tory, 1 "we had great sport among the turkeys " Above Kan- 
awha, "here we having nothing to do but spring from our boats 

among flocks of turkeys, kill as we please, for sport or gust, I 

have just stepped from my boat and killed at one shot two fine 
turkeys, and our whole party feasts on fine venison, bear meat, 
turkeys. . . .procured by themselves at pleasure." Near Big Hock- 
hocking River, "our hunter. . . .killed. . . .many fine turkeys, which 
we distributed among the families and troops with us," and finally 
he writes, "I cannot help here describing the amazing plenty and 
variety of this nights supper. We had fine roast buffalo beef, soup 
of buffalo beef and turkeys, fried turkeys, fried catfish fresh caught, 
roast ducks, good punch, madeira, claret, grog, toddy and the 
troops supplied in the most abundant manner." 

In 1788, Col. James May reports in nine different instances the 
wild turkey in this same region. Around Hockhocking, his hunters 
in three days secures seven turkeys and seven deer. 2 "He might 
have killed any quantity but it is the season when they are not fat." 
In another place, he says " Our luck has been .... to have good provi- 
sions. . . .the best of bread, fine venison and turkeys." The same 
year, George Henry Loskiel writes of this form as follows : 3 " Wild 
Turkeys (Maleagris gallopavo) flock together in autumn in great 
numbers, but disperse in the woods towards spring. They are 
larger than the tame turkies, and commonly perch so high upon the 
trees, that they cannot be shot but with a ball. In winter their 
plumage is of a shining black but changes in summer to a light 
brown with white spots upon the wings. Their eggs are much 

» The Olden Time, Vol. II, pp. 441, 443, 444, 445, 447, 448, 452, 454, 462, 492, 
495, 496, 497, 505, 507. 

2 Journal and Letters of Col. James May of Boston, Relative to Two Journeys 
to the Ohio Country in 1788 and 1789. Cincinnati, 1788, pp. 44, 49, 69, 72, 74, 78, 
83, 89, 91. 

» Loskiel, G. H. History of the Mission of the United Brethren among the 
Indians in North America. In three parts. Translated by C. I. Latrobe. Lon- 
don, 1791. Part I, pp. 91, 48. 

° 1915 J Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 221 

sought after, and relished by the Indians. There is a species of wild 
turkies, which are not eatable their flesh having a most disagree- 
able flavor." In speaking of the dress of Indian men, he says 
"Formerly these coverings were made of turkey feathers, woven 
together with the thread of wild hemp, but these are now seldom 
seen." Two years later, 1790, Chas. Johnston finds that 1 " During 
the whole march (through Sciota country) we subsisted on bears 
meat, .... turkeys .... with which we were abundantly supplied, as 
the ground over which we passed afforded every species of game in 
profusion, diminishing however, as we approached their villages." 
About this same time, George Imlay discovers that 2 " The rapidity 
of the settlement has driven the wild turkey quite out of the middle 
countries; but they are found in large flocks in all our extensive 
woods." On Aug. 18, 1793, Andre Michaux 3 "saw several flocks 
of wild Turkeys" beyond Wheeling. 

The "Struggles of Capt. Thomas Keith in America" (p. 16) has 
it that in 1794 along the Ohio River, "The wild turkies were calling 
to each other from the lofty branches of the oak." In 1796, 
Brackenridge ascends the Ohio. In one case he remarks that 4 
" once, having encamped somewhat later than usual, in the neighbor- 
hood of a beautiful grove of sugar-trees, we found, after kindling our 
fires, that a large flock of turkeys had taken up their night's lodgings 
over our heads : some ten or twelve of them were soon taken down for 
our supper and breakfast. But it was not often we were so fortu- 
nate." In 1796 and 1797, Francis Baily when at Little Miami 
River, 5 " saw great quantities of wild turkeys ; so that we had not any 
prospect of extreme want whilst we were here." One other party 
notes it in this century. John Heckewelder with three companions 
in the summer of 1797 mentions the turkey in his narrative. They 
encounter it in a trip to Gnadenhuetten on the Muskingum, and say, 6 

i A Narrative of Incidents Attending the Capture, Detention, and Ransom of 
Charles Johnston 1790. .... New York, 1827, p. 46. 

1 Imlay, George. A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of 
North America 2nd edit., London, 1793, pp. 100, 243. 

» Early Western Travels, III, p. 33. v 

4 Brackenridge, H. M. Recollections of Persons and Places in the West. 2nd 
edit. Phila., 1868, p. 30. 

• Baily, Francis. Journal of a Tour in Unsettled Parts of North America in 
1796 and 1797. London, 1856, p. 209. 

• Penn Mag. Hist, and Biog., Vol. VI, pp. 138, 142, 144, 146. 

222 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. \J^ 

" The programme for each day was arranged in the following man- 
ner: In the morning at daybreak we were awakened by the cackling 

of the turkeys " 

Shortly after (1803) the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
Thaddeus Mason Harris (1. c, p. 51) says, "the vast number of tur- 
kies, .... we saw upon the shore (Ohio River below Wheeling) .... 
afforded us constant amusement." In 1806, T. Ashe (1. c. pp. 160, 
111, 113, 130, 134, 135, 144, 145) gives "Wild Turkey Meleagris 
Gallopavo" in his list of birds, records it at Wheeling and Marietta 
and writes of it at considerable length when at the latter place^and 
near Zanesville. His account follows: "The wild turkey is excel- 
lent food, and has this remarkable property, that the fat is never 
offensive to the stomach. When Kentucky was first settled it 
abounded with turkeys to such a degree that the settlers said the 
light was often interrupted by them. Though this may be consid- 
ered a figure, still it is well known that they were extremely numer- 
ous, so much so that he was esteemed an indifferent sportsman who 
could not kill a dozen in a day. Even at this time they are sold in 
Lexington market for half a dollar a pair. They are, notwithstand- 
ing becoming very scarce, and, addicted as all classes of people in 
that state are to an intemperate predilection for destroying every 
living aboriginal creature, their total extinction must be near at 
hand. They yet abound in this Ohio State, and possibly will, for 
many years; till - it becomes more peopled." "I cannot pretend 
that wild turkeys differ in any striking manner from the domestic 
ones I have everywhere seen, except the length of their wings; 
their superior plumage, their attitude and lively expression in walk- 
ing. The cock too has a beard composed of about one hundred 
hairs which hangs in a streamer from under the bick. The hair is 
thicker than a pig's bristle, and the length accords with the age. 
In the young the beard is hardly perceptible, in the old it descends 
more than half a foot. I have killed a wild turkey cock which 
weighed thirty pounds and whose beard was ten inches long: the 
flesh was execrable, nearly as hard as iron, and as black as jet. 
The young on the contrary are white and tender, delicate meat, and 
of exquisite flavor. Wild turkeys are gregarious. The flocks from 
fifty to sixty. They are migratory. They winter to the southward 
and return in the spring to the deepest recesses of the woods, where 

VoL jf 1 ^ xn ] Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. 223 

they construct their nests with such care and concealment, that few 
instances ever occur of the eggs or young being found. Where 
eggs have been obtained and hatched under a domestic turkey, the 
young shew great disposition to thrive and remain about the house 
very contentedly till their first spring, when they rise, without 
indicating a previous talent for flying, into the air, take a few circles 
round the heads of their old friends and make for a wilderness 
whence they never more return." "As evening approached, I was 
much pleased to come in view of a flock of wild turkeys. I wished 
to have an opportunity of observing their action — the one afforded 
me was of the best it possibly could be : they were travelling before 
me — therefore occasioned no loss of way. The flock consisted of 
about thirty -four, on the ground, searching for food: they were not 
considerably alarmed till I had approached them within sixty yards. 
They then moved on a kind of long hop and run, stopped, and as 
we gained on them proceeded in the same way. On a nearer ap- 
proach, they took short flights, rose above the trees, and lighted 
upon them at intermediate spaces of about thirty rods. At every 
rest I instructed Cuff to gobble in their manner. This act appeared 
to attract their attention and retard their flight; and, what was of 
more consequence, they made responses, which guided our pursuit 
when they were obstructed from view by the thick ombrage of the 
woods, and the fast approach of night. They finally went a more 
considerable distance; and as I judged, to a favorite place to roost. 
I still had the good fortune to keep in their track, and to come 
directly on the spot they had chosen for their rest. They rose up 
with much perturbation and noise, and again descended to rest. 
The whole gang occupied four trees, and still they rose, fell and 
acted with one accord. I resolved to fire on them. I had heard, 
that whenever wild turkeys settled to roost, there they remained in 
spite of all opposition. My motive in firing then was to ascertain 
the fact. On the first shot they all rose with great clamour about 
thirty yards above the summits of the trees, and as instaneously 
descended direct upon them. On firing again, similar circum- 
stances occurred, and at a third discharge n® variation succeeded, 
nor did they betray the least disposition to depart effectually and 
remove their quarters. My first discharge was with a ball, which 
brought down a very fine bird, the two last merely powder — but I 

224 Wright, Early Records of the Wild Turkey. [April 

regard the fact to be ascertained as firmly as if I had killed the whole 
flock. This dull propensity in these animals must ultimately oper- 
ate to their destruction. There is no manner of doubt but had 
such a flock come within reach of a sportsman of the Virginia shore, 
he would have brought every one of them to the ground." 

In 1812, James L. Barton when at Tymoctee Creek, finds that 1 
" the wild turkeys began to gobble in the woods (at daylight), and 
they made nearly as much noise" as the wolves during the night. 
In the "History of Athens Co., O.," Chas. M. Walker (1. c, p. 486, 
479) asserts that in 1810 "turkeys were very plenty" and in 1820 
in the fall season the settlers killed " turkeys beyond count for the 

winter stock." In his "Pedestrious Tour, Concord, N. H. 

1819," Estwick Evans says that west of the Connecticut Reserve 2 
"Wild Turkeys too, are here numerous, and they sometimes weigh 
from 20 to 30 pounds." Two years later, 1821, Schoolcraft when 
along the banks of Auglaize near Defiance, O., reports that 3 
"Tracks. . . .of the meleagris gallipavo or turkey, were frequently 
noticed in our path; and these indigenous species of the American 
forest, are represented to be still abundant in this quarter." . In 
1822, James Flint on the Ohio river recounts how he 4 "saw a man 
fire a shot at a flock of wild turkeys. These fowl were so far from 
being coy, that they flew only a little way, and alighted again on 
the trees." When 13 miles from Chillicothe, he says "A few. . . . 
turkeys remain It does not require a thick population to ex- 
terminate bears, deer and turkeys." The same year, John Woods 
when at Troy, O., 6 "passed fourteen or fifteen wild turkeys, in a 
field. As they only gently walked into the woods, I did not suspect 
they were wild ones; but mentioning them at the cabin, I was told 
there were no tame turkeys for some miles, but plenty of wild ones." 
T. Vigne already quoted (1. c, p. 87, reports turkeys for Mansfield, 

O., in 1832 but asserts that " However, I met with no turkey, " 

(To be concluded.) 

1 Barton, J. L. Early Reminiscences of Western New York and the Lake 
Region Country. Buffalo, 1848, p. 52. 

* Early Western Travels, Vol. VIII, p. 195 (orig. p. 96). 

3 Schoolcraft, H. R. Travels in Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley. 
New York, 1825, p. 71. 

4 Early Western Travels, Vol. IX, pp. 112 (orig. p. 88) 120, 121 (orig. p. 96). ' 
« ibid., Vol. X, pp. 249. 250 (orig. p. 122). 

° 1915 J General Notes. 2i2o 


The Red-throated Loon (Gaoia stellata) at Berwyn, Pa. — A female 
in winter plumage was taken on a small pond in the vicinity of Berwyn, Pa., 
by local hunters, November 15, 1911, and presented to me. I believe this 
is the only record for Chester county. — Frank L. Burns, Berwyn, Pa. 

Mallards Wintering in Saskatchewan. — A number of Mallards have 
stayed on Wascana Lake, near Regina, all this winter, living in a small 
space of open water, which is kept open by warm water flowing into the lake 
from the power house. In December there were 25; on February 7, there 
were only to be seen 10, and on February 14 only 4. Whether the decrease 
in numbers was owing to the cold weather or to " poachers " is not yet 
known. On January 27, it was 48° below zero, the severest cold spell of 
the winter, and lasted for about four days.— H. H. Mitchell, Regina, 

European Widgeon in Washington. — I have the pleasure of record- 
ing the capture of a European Widgeon (Mareca penelope), which I think 
is the first ever recorded from the state of Washington. It is a young male 
which has not reached the adult plumage, and was taken by Mr. L. W. 
Brehm, of Tacoma, Wash. Date of capture January 12, 1915. The local- 
ity was the Nisqually Flats, Thurston County, Wash. Mr. Brehm in- 
forms me that there was 'a flight of several thousand Baldpates (Mareca 
americana), but that he saw no others resembling penelope. — J. H. Bowles, 
Tacoma, Wash. 

Harlequin Duck in the Glacier National Park, Montana. — I 

was much interested in the note of Mr. Warren on the Harlequin Duck 
( Histrionicus histrionicus) in the Glacier National Park (Auk, XXXI, 535). 
During the past summer, 1914, I spent two weeks in the Park and also 
observed this species. Five birds were seen on the Upper Two Medicine 
Lake, August 4 and 5. The evidence goes to show that this species is a 
regular though not common summer resident of the lakes and streams, not 
only in the Park itself, but also in other high mountains in this section of 
Montana. That the species breeds in the Glacier Park is shown by one 
of the earliest records. Dr. Elliott Coues saw several broods and secured 
an adult female and three young on Chief Mountain Lake, August 20-22, 
1874 (Birds of Montana and Dakota along the 49th parallel, p. 653). 
Chief Mountain Lake is now down on the maps as Waterton Lake. The 
greater part of it lies in the Park, but its northern end crosses the border 
into Canada. 

It is of interest to note that Dr. Coues also found a brood of Barrow's 
Goldeneye (Clangula islandica) at this same time and place and secured 
young. This species also probably still breeds in the vicinity, but it has 
not been recently recorded. — Aretas A. Saunders, West Haven, Conn. 

226 General Notes. [April 

The Blue Goose (Chen caerulescens (Linn.)) in Rhode Island. — The 
Boston Society of Natural History has recently acquired the skin of an 
adult female Blue Goose taken at Dyer's Island, Rhode Island, by Mr. 
Sinclair Tucker, November 9, 1912. 

So far as I am able to ascertain this is the second record for Rhode 
Island, and the fourth for New England.— W. Sprague Brooks, Milton, 

Occurrence of the Pectoral Sandpiper (Pisobia maculata) near 
Salem, N. J. — The absence of recent records of this species in the Dela- 
ware valley moves me to make known at this late date the capture of a 
male by Dr. H. B. Wharton, September 16, 1905, at Salem county, N. J. 
The specimen was preserved by me and is in my collection. — Frank L. 
Burns, Berwyn, Pa. 

The Whimbrel, Ruff, Buff-breasted Sandpiper, and Eskimo 
Curlew on Long Island, N. Y. — Through the courtesy of Mr. John H. 
Hendrickson of Jamaica, N. Y., I am able to record the occurrence on Long 
Island of these four Shorebirds. The specimens of the two European 
species were brought in the flesh to the American Museum and are now 
preserved in its mounted collection of local birds. 

The Whimbrel (Numenius phceopus), which proved on dissection to be 
a male, was shot by Mr. S. M. Van Allen, of Jamaica, Long Island, at 
Gilgo Inlet, Great South Bay, south of Amityville, on Sept. 4, 1912. It 
was in the company of two Hudsonian Curlews. This appears to be the 
first record of the Whimbrel for the United States. According to the 
A. O. U. Check-List, it is of occasional occurrence in Greenland and has 
been taken once in Nova Scotia. 

The Ruff (Machetes pugnax), an immature male judging by size and plum- 
age, was collected by Mr. Hendrickson near Freeport on September 26, 
1914. It was alone and was attracted to the decoys by imitations of the 
calls of Yellowlegs and Robin Snipe. There are numerous North American 
records for this species, including two previous Long Island captures. 

Mr. Hendrickson states that during the past half-dozen years he has 
collected three Buff-breasted Sandpipers (Tryngiles subruficollis) near 
Freeport, and could have secured another one the past season. 

Regarding the Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis) Mr. Hendrickson 
writes: " When I was on the meadows two years ago last September I 
saw two birds which I believe were Esquimo Curlews. As we were aboard 
the boat getting it ready to leave, these birds flew within about twenty-five 
yards of us, and I had a good opportunity to observe them closely. They 
were not the Hudsonian Curlew, commonly called " Jacks "; they were 
much smaller and less wary than the latter. I know the Esquimo Curlew, 
having shot several specimens a number of years ago, and at the time I 
told my friend that was what I believed these birds were." — W. De W. 
Miller, American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

Vol i9i* XI1 ] General Notes. 227 

The Diving Instinct in Shore-birds. — In looking over an old note- 
book I find the following information which seems of considerable interest. 
On August 4, 1912, while looking for early shore-birds at Toro Point, 
Panama, I knocked down an immature Spotted Sandpiper {Actitis macu- 
laria) . The beach at that point is a wide coral reef, bare at low tide, and 
with occasional openings or " wells " connected underneath with the sea. 
Some of these are of considerable size and the water in all is as clear as 
crystal to all depths — clear as only those who have seen such tropical 
" coral water " can imagine. 

Upon my approach my crippled bird ran to one of these pools and went 
over the side, resting on the water surface. As I reached slowly down to 
take him, he surprised me by diving and swimming under water, using 
his wings only, to the opposite side of the pool. The action was so sudden 
and so surprising to me that I could not be sure of the manner of diving 
but it must have been a " tip-up " and a head first plumage almost straight 

I had however a perfect view of the bird as he " flew " the ten feet across 
the pool, through the beautifully clear water which showed white pebbles 
distinctly on a bottom perhaps twenty feet below. The bird crossed at a 
uniform depth of eighteen inches to two feet, which he held until he brought 
up against the opposite wall. The head and neck were extended but not 
at all stretched while the legs and feet trailed behind with flexed toes, like 
a heron in flight. The wings seemed to be opened to only perhaps half 
their full extent — the primaries pointing well backward like wings are 
trimmed as birds cut down from some height to alight. The wing-beats 
were slow and even but not labored, and progress was uniform and not at 
all hurried. 

Upon coming up against the opposite wall, the bird rose slowly to the 
surface, and again rested there as before. The entire performance seemed 
perfectly natural and unstrained. I tried to have him repeat but he would 
not, allowing me to lift him from the water without further resistance or 
effort to escape. Wings and legs were both intact, his wound being in the 
body, and his body feathers were astonishingly dry after his comparatively 
long under-water flight. 

From what period in his ancestry did he inherit this almost obsolete 
instinct? — L. L. Jewel, Wytheville, Va. 

The Little Black Rail on Long Island, N. Y — On May 24, 1914, 
Messrs. J. M. Johnson, S. V. La Dow and I were on Jones' Beach, opposite 
Amityville, studying the shore-bird migration. We were walking through 
a grassy marsh, the others slightly ahead, when I saw a little bird running 
like a mouse behind a tussock some 10 feet^ahead of me. Thinking it 
might be a rail, I rushed forward immediately and was lucky enough to 
flush the bird, which flew up in front of me about 3 feet away. It fluttered 
forward feebly a short distance, then turned and flew directly past me, 
not more than 10 feet away and about 2 feet above the grass, landing in a 

228 General Notes. [j^ 

dense reed-bed some 30 feet behind. It looked about as large as a Song 
Sparrow, slate grey all over with black wings and back spotted with small 
white specks. The iris was bright red. Knowing it to be a Little Black Rail 
almost as soon as flushed, I shouted to my companions who immediately 
turned round and saw the bird while it flew past and back of me. They 
were able with glasses to make out all the color markings except the red 
eye. I had a pair of prism glasses, but was unable to use them as the 
bird was too near. The flight is much more feeble than that of any other 
rail with which I am familiar; the bird seemed barely able to sustain its 
weight in the air, while its legs dangled down helplessly behind. Unless 
seen at very close range this species would resemble, I think, a young 
Sora, though to anyone familiar with the latter species the great difference 
in size would be striking. Unfortunately I had no means of collecting it, 
and my last remark would seem to prejudice my case, were it not for the 
facts that (1) the Sora is a rare summer resident on Long Island, (2) its 
nest and eggs have never been found so early on Long Island as far as I 
know, and (3) in any case, it would be impossible for a young fiora to be on 
the wing by May 24. Finally I have been familiar with the Sora in all 
plumages for several years. Eaton in his ' Birds of New York ' records five 
specimens of the Black Rail actually taken in the State, three of them from 
Long Island. It has also been reported as seen at close range on five 
occasions from the interior of the State. Accordingly this would be the 
fourth Long Island record and the eleventh for the State. — Ludlow Gris- 
com, New York City. 

Richardson's Owl and Other Owls in Franklin County, New York. 

— A specimen of Richardson's Owl (Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni) in 
the flesh was recently received by the American Museum from Dr. Wm. N. 
MacArtney of Fort Covington, Franklin Co., N. Y. The bird was shot 
on November 14 in a cedar thicket near Fort Covington, in the township of 
that name, by Wm. N. MacArtney, Jr. 

Dr. MacArtney writes that he shot one of these Owls in the nearby 
township of Dundee, Province of Quebec, within a few rods of the State 
line in 1879 or 1880; and about 1885 one taken in the same town was 
brought to him, the latter specimen being now in his collection. All three 
birds were secured in late fall or early winter. 

Eaton, in his recently published ' Birds of New York,' states that there 
appear to be but two definite records of Richardson's Owl in the State, 
one from Oneida County, the other from Essex County. 

Dr. MacArtney states that during the winter the Snowy Owl is fre- 
quently observed, and occasionally the Hawk Owl, Barred Owl and Great 
Gray Owl. The Long-eared Owl is seen at times, while the Great Horned, 
Saw-whet and Screech Owls are common, the rufus phase of the last being 
rather rare. — W. DeW. Miller, American Museum of Natural History. 

Lewis's Woodpecker taken in Saskatchewan. — A fine plumage adult 
male was taken at Herchel, September 24, 1914, and is now mounted in 

1915 J General Xotes. 229 

the Provincial Museum at Regina. I do not know of any record of this 
species having previously occurred in this Province. — H. H. Mitchell, 
Regina, Sask. 

Prairie Horned Lark in Rhode Island in Summer. — While walking 
on the morning of June 25, 1914, down a road through some fields bordering 
Brightman's Pond, near Watch Hill, R. I., two birds were noticed running 
rapidly ahead of me. Finally they stopped and dusted themselves in the 
sand, permitting me to approach within close range by careful stalking 
behind a fence. They proved to be Prairie Horned Larks in fine plumage, 
the throat and sides of the head being very white. In about five minutes 
they flew away over a stone fence, uttering the characteristic lark note, 
but a long search failed to reveal them again. Two days later the whole 
territory was thoroughly searched, but the birds could not be found, and 
my hopes of finding some evidence of breeding were frustrated. The Prairie 
Horned Lark has always been rare in Rhode Island, and I know of no other 
summer record.— Ludlow Griscom, New York City. 

Crows Nesting on the Ground. — On a large Island at the head of 
Lost Mountain Lake, Saskatchewan, June 10, 1913, I found several 
Crows nesting on the ground. Some of the nests, which mostly contained 
young, were on the ground between wild rose bushes, others placed on 
clusters of rose and other low bushes, thus raised a few inches off the 
ground. I might add that within a radius of twelve feet of one of these 
Crow's nests was a Mallard's nest containing ten eggs and a Short-eared 
Owl's with six young, of various sizes. — H. H. Mitchell, Regina, Sask. 

The Bermuda Crow.— In 'The Ibis,' April, 1914, p. 189, J. N. 
Kennedy discusses the Bermuda Crow, alluding to the fact that Bradlee 
and I were somewhat in doubt as to what the species might really be. He 
rightly, I think, refers it to Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos Brehm. 
Mr. Kennedy had before him one example from the British Museum collec- 
tion, taken by Capt. H. Edmund, in February, 1875, which must have been 
very soon after its introduction into the islands. This specimen he says 
has less violet lustre on the feathers of the back than usual and was 
possibly an immature bird. 

According to D. Webster Prentiss (Auk, 1896, p. 237), the Crow was 
introduced into the Bermudas from the United States, some twenty years 
before, increased rapidly and became a great nuisance, and in consequence 
was nearly exterminated. Since that time the crow has continued to 
exist, though in extremely small numbers in the Bermudas. 

We have in the Museum of Comparative .Zoology one adult (sex not 
determine) specimen, No. 63727, taken for us by Prof. E. L. Mark, in the 
autumn of 1912. This differs in no way from autumn killed crows from the 
eastern United States. It affords the following measurements: — wing, 
319; tail feathers, 190; tarsus, 59; culmen, 47.5 mm. This specimen 
proves that the much discussed Bermuda Crow is Corvus brachyrhynchos 

2o0 General Notes. [April 

brachyrhynchos Brehm, apparently thus far unchanged in the new island 
home into which it has been introduced by man. — Otjtram Bangs, M us. 
Comp. Zobl., Cambridge, Mass. 

The Orange-crowned Warbler in Cambridge, Mass., in December. 
— On Sunday, December 13, 1914, at about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, I 
noticed a small bird flitting to and fro in a vine which grows on my neighbor's 
piazza railing about 30 yards from the room in which I was sitting. The 
actions of this bird at once attracted my attention. While they somewhat 
resembled a kinglet's, they were not so quick and restless, and were those 
of a warbler. 

The bird was not shy and during the 10 minutes I observed it I got 
within 4 or 5 feet of it, and had ample opportunity to observe it carefully 
through field glasses. Its under parts were dull greenish yellow becoming 
a little darker on the breast, there was a whitish eye-ring and a very faint 
showing of dull greyish wing-bars. The head was about the same color 
as the back and tail, a greenish olive brown. It appeared to be feeding on 
seeds and berries that grow on the vines. 

The bird was unquestionably an Orange-crowned Warbler, and its 
occurrence in December seems worthy of notice. So far as I know, while 
there have been a number of November records (W. Brewster's ' Birds of 
the Cambridge Region ') and one for Jan. 1, 1875 (Dr. C. W. Townsend's 
' Birds of Essex County ') this is the first December record for Massachu- 
setts. — Henry M. Spelman, Jr., Cambridge, Mass. 

A Winter Record for the Palm Warbler on Long Island, N. Y. — 

In the plains country south of Hicksville, on Dec. 13, 1914, the writers 
saw an example of Dendroica palmarum palmar um (Gmelin), and were 
enabled to examine it carefully through field glasses at a distance of only 
a few paces. The bird was first flushed from a pile of brushwood over- 
grown with brambles. Thence it flew into a cultivated field and skulked 
among growing cabbage heads, but after being stalked by us for a few 
minutes it returned to the thicket where we positively identified it. 

Eaton's ' Birds of New York ' (1914) quotes no winter record of the 
species in New York State, and Braislin's Long Island ' List ' (1907) gives the 
latest autumn record of this subspecies as October 10 (and on this date I 
saw one at Forest Hills, L. I., 1914 — C. H. R.).— R. C. Murphy, Brooklyn 
Institute Museum, and C. H. Rogers, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City. 

The Blackburnian and Bay-breasted Warblers at Martha's Vine- 
yard, Mass. — These warblers are quite rare in ea tern Massachusetts, 
therefore it may be well to record the following observations : 

Chapman notes in his ' Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America ' : 
Blackburnian Warbler, "Cambridge, T. V., uncommon." Bay-breasted: 
•" Cambridge, rather rare T. V." 

VoL i™ H ] General Notes. 231 

Howe and Allen in their ' Birds of Massachusetts' say: Blackburnian 
Warbler: "Martha's Vineyard: 'Transient. Rare.'" Bay-breasted: 
" Martha's Vineyard: ' Transient.' " 

When at my summer place at Oak Bluffs, M. V., which is located in an 
oak grove, I am usually alert for birds, it being a favorable place for ob- 
servation. About 10 A. M., May 21, 1905, a most delightful morning, I 
heard a warbler's song with which I was unfamiliar. Upon investigating 
I discovered a pair of Blackburnian Warblers ( Dendroica fusca) in the 
lower branches of an oak, 15 feet from cottage. They were beautiful, 
gracef ul birds ; flitting from branch to branch, catching insects, singing now 
and then; spreading their tails, showing their white webs and their black 
and white and orange parts showing to perfection. I had a near view of 
the handsome male and his slightly plainer mate, both being in then- 
faultless nuptial dress. I had waited years for this sight and enjoyed it 

September 12, 1914, while exploring the pine barrens near East Chop, 
Martha's Vineyard, where the Grasshopper Sparrow and the Heath Hen 
sometimes occur, I encountered a flock of probably 125 migrating sparrows 
and warblers. I examined several of the latter which proved to be Black- 
polls, and then a warbler attracted my attention which had an unusually 
deep yellow breast. I at first thought it one of the comparatively highly 
colored, fall Pine Warblers. I quickly lost sight of this bird and searched 
for another, which I soon found, and by its chestnut flanks and white tail 
patches I recognized the Bay-breasted Warbler (Dendroica castanea). 
There were surely two in the mixed flock and doubtless more. — Charles 
L. Phillips, Taunton, Mass. 

The Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina) as an Abundant 
Autumnal Migrant and as a Destructive Grape Juice Consumer 
at Berwyn, Pa. — For several years, previous to the crushing sleet of the 
past winter, a pie cherry tree crowned with the foliage of a fugitive Clinton 
grapevine overhung my shop platform; and a thirty foot pine bending 
under the weight of several Niagara grapevine runners, stood close to my 
bedroom window. These vines remained unpruned principally because 
the fruit served as a capital lure for many migrating birds in just the places 
most convenient for observation. 

From the cherry tree I secured an adult female Cape May Warbler on 
September 25, 1909, a notable capture at that time since it was my first 
fall record. 

From the same tree, on September 12, 1913, I took a specimen each of 
the Cape May and Tennessee Warblers, and on the 14th and 15th observed 
twenty and thirty adult and immature female Cape Mays on the pine tree. 
These birds were almost constantly on the move, darting after one another, 
only now and then pausing an instant to gather some minute insect from 
leaf or fruit, especially about the grape bunches; and six shots failed to 
drive the survivors from the tree. By the 19th, the number diminished to 

232 General Notes. [April 

about ten individuals, all extremely tame, and one was closely approached 
as it perched upon a bunch of Clinton grapes eating the pulp or juice, I was 
unable to tell which. Again on the 20th, I saw an individual alight on a 
bunch of Niagara grapes, deliberately puncture the skin and eat greedily; 
this and several other specimens were taken with dripping bills. 

No adult males had been noted from the first, the proportion of young 
increased as the days passed, and the individuals grew less active, more 
deliberate, reminding one of the Vireos; though it appears characteristic 
of this species to inhabit for a time one or two isolated trees in a j^ard. 

None were noticed on the 23d, but on the following day they were 
present in considerable numbers allowing an approach within four feet, 
and on the 27th again became common, though all appeared immature. 
By October 2, the six or more present were all immature females. On this 
date I examined closely the fruit remaining on the two trees, and found 
about 50% showing triangular or ragged punctures, which the bees, espe- 
cially the yellow jackets, swarmed about and sucked freely. On the 4th, 1 
secured apparently adult male showing some traces of orange cheek patches ; 
the only one observed during the flight; and up to their final departure, on 
the 7th, there was a fair proportion of yellow-breasted adult females. 

Specimens secured early in this remarkable flight carried no fat, in fact 
were rather lean, but after some days of feeding became fat, inactive and 
even sluggish; an adult female shot in the act of eating from a grape, and 
brought to me for identification by a neighbor, was positively enveloped 
in fat, and the skin became so saturated with oil I had the greatest difficulty 
in saving it. I do not recall having handled a more oily specimen of this 

The Flicker (Colaples auralus luteus), Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata 
cristala), Purple Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula quiscula), English Sparrow 
(Passer domesticus domesticus). White-throated Sparrow {Zonotrichia 
albicollis), Scarlet Tanager (Piranga erythromelas) , Waxwing (Bombycilla 
cedrorum), Red-eyed Vireo (Vireosylva olivacea), Black and White Warbler 
(Mnioiilia varia), Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica coendescens 
coerulescens) , Magnolia Warbler (D. magnolia), Black-poll Warbler (D. 
striata), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) , Redstart (Setophaga rulicilla), 
Catbird (Dumelella carolinensis) , Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), 
Hermit Thrush (Hylocichla guttata pallasi) and Robin (Planesticus migra- 
torius migratorius) , were present and eating grapes, whole or piecemeal, 
but they were generally easily frightened away and the damage they 
occasioned confined to the fruit on the trees. The Cape May Warbler, 
however, overflowed to wherever grapes were found, and did considerable 
damage to all unbagged bunches in the vicinity and also at Paoli, two 
miles west. 

I sent ten stomachs to Mr. W. L. McAtee of the Biological Survey and 
avail myself of his kind permission to publish his reply. " Hymenoptera 
constituted on an average 57.5 per cent of the contents of the' stomachs. 
A third perhaps of this material was parasitic Hymenoptera and their 

° 1915 J General \otes. 233 

destruction counts against the bird. The others were ants and small bees 
and are of neutral importance except perhaps the ants which may be 
injurious. Diptera made up 16.7 per cent of the stomach contents and 
again a large proportion of them were parasitic species. Lepidoptera 
(small moths) constitute 16.7 per cent, beetles 7.8 per cent and the re- 
mainder was made up of Hemiptera, spiders and miscellaneous injects. 
Except for the spiders the food was entirely composed of insects, and a 
large proportion of useful species were taken and no decidedly injurious 
ones. I should say that these Cape May Warblers did very little to pay 
for the destruction of grapes." 

In 1914, about half a dozen Cape May Warblers arrived on September 6. 
I watched an immature female at a distance of five feet, the bird not mind- 
ing me in the least; it ran out on a twig and reaching across to a hunch of 
Clinton grapes, punctured one and repeatedly ate from it, none as far as I 
have noticed have gone through the motions of drinking with raised beak; 
when it was satisfied, I examined the grape and found it intact as far as the 
pulp was concerned, but the juice was partly extracted. 

On the following day the number of individuals had doubled; further 
increased on the 11th, becoming common on the 12th, 13th and 14th, and 
by the last date the red and purple grape crop was ruined; some grapes 
had as many as three or four wedge-shaped punctures; while the white 
grapes had not been touched. However, on the 17th I found the Niagara 
grapes utterly destroyed. I counted forty-five grapes on a single bunch 
with from one to three punctures. It would seem that a fresh puncture 
occurred on every visit and the havoc made during the last three days. 
The species was very abundant until the 21st, and about ten or a dozen 
constantly present until Oct. 18; the last one was seen on the 20th. 

Single Tennessee Warblers [Vermivora peregrina), were taken on October 
3 and 8; and during the season, almost all the species enumerated for 1913, 
with the addition of the Parula Warbler (Compsothlypis americana usnece) 
and Bay-breasted Warbler ( Dendroica castanea) ; but all in greatly re- 
duced numbers owing to the abundance of wild fruit on which they fed 

I believe that grape juice was the principal food of the Cape May Warbler 
during its lengthy visit in this neighborhood. It was present in countless 
numbers at Berwyn and vicinity as far as a mile south of the village, appar- 
ently by far the most abundant species for a period ; the complaints of the 
" little striped yellow bird " were many, and so far as I am able to learn, 
all unbagged grapes were ruined; the loss must have been many tons 
worth several hundred dollars. — Frank L. Burns, Berwyn, Penna. 

Cape May Warbler Eating Grapes. — On September 12, 1914, at 
West Grove, Chester Co., Pa., where I spent the summer and fall, I ob- 
served three Cape May Warblers ( Dendroica tigrina) feeding upon ripe 
grapes. I did not note how long this species remained with us, but I recall 
distinctly that for several days a few of them might be seen at almost any 

2o4 General Notes. [April 

time in the tree over which the grapevine grew. — Isaac G. Roberts, West 
Chester, Pa. 

Addendum.— Referring to specimens of the Cape May Warbler 
( Dendroica tigrina), mentioned in lines 27 and 28, there should have been, 
on page 105 of this volume of ' The Auk,' a footnote as follows: 2 Proc. 
Portland Society Natural History, April, 1882.— N. C. B. 

The Rock Wren at National, Iowa. — A single individual of this 
species (Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus) was observed on the morning of 
September 27, 1914, and was still here the next day. It was found in a 
wet ravine about the roots and thick sprouts of willow trees that grow about 
thirty feet from my bird blind. It had a favorite spot where in full view 
it would sit many minutes preening itself. While it was under observation 
a House Wren and English Sparrows were present with which it could be 
compared. Its head was not so slim as that of the House Wren,' but seemed 
fuller or rounder, suggesting more the head of the Warbling Vireo, which 
was emphasized by its ashy color, while the very light breast rendered it 
conspicuous against the dark bark of the willows. It cocked its tail and 
scolded in true wren fashion. 

The bird could not be taken. It was watched on both days as long as 
I could spare the time, and the description of it, here given, was written 
down while the bird was present. Rump and tail a dull rufous, the color 
being brighter on the rump; head and nape ashy, with a brownish wash, 
there being a gradual blending of this ashy with rufous along the back 
until the brighter rufous of rump is reached; a tinge of rufous on the tertials, 
the rest of the wings dark gray with darker bars; tail, rump, and back 
barred; no bars nor stripes could be detected on nape, head or under parts 
except tail; no light or white stripe over the eye; throat and breast a 
grayish white, somewhat lighter than corresponding parts of the Passer 
domesticus. The most strikingly marked portion was the under part of the 
tail, buffy white in color with conspicuous lateral bars of dark brown or 
black. A subterminal band of black on the tail is mentioned, also figured, 
in books of Mrs. Bailey, and of Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, also in ' The 
Birds of Washington.' I failed to see this though it might have been possi- 
ble had I been on the lookout for it, as I was for the stripe over the eye. 
In the hand, traces of such a streak probably could have been found. The 
bird was studied from thirty to thirty-five feet away and I used both 8- 
power and 55-power Bausch and Lomb binoculars, the latter being better 
for near distances. 

Our place is six miles from the Mississippi River. This brings the 
occurrence of the species very near to the eastern limit of Iowa; and it 
makes the 148th species identified on our place with four or five more just 
beyond our borders. — Althea R. Sherman, National, Iowa. 

Corthylio — A Valid Genus for the Ruby-crowned Kinglet. — 

The genus Regulus as currently recognized comprises some eighteen forms 

1915 J General Notes. 23o 

i-epresenting several specific types. These fall into two groups, the larger 
of which, including the Gold-crests and Fire-crests is Holarctic in distribu- 
tion, the other containing the Ruby-crowned Kinglets only (a continental 
species of three races and a closely allied island species) being strictly 

As long ago as 1850 Cabanis referred Regulus calendula to his genus 
Phyllobasileus, which included small Willow-Wren-like forms now included 
in Reguloides. Three years later, however, concluding that calendula 
was more nearly related to true Regulus yet generically distinct he proposed 
for it the name of Corthylio. 

As is well known the type of Regulus (R. regulus) and its immediate 
allies differ from R. calendula (and from all other birds as well) in the 
presence of a single flat feather overlying each nostril. This represents the 
several much smaller and more bristly antrorse plumules of the Ruby-crown. 
The latter is further distinguished by longer tarsi, a larger and wider bill, 
absence of stripes on the head and uniform olive-green crown of the female. 

In spite of these differences, however, it has not seemed necessary to 
separate the Ruby-crown from Regulus, and Cabanis's genus has been 
almost universally ignored. The discovery of an additional character 
now renders necessary, in my opinion, the recognition of Corthylio. 

While recently identifying some bird remains from the crop of a Sharp- 
shinned Hawk, I was struck by the peculiar form of the hind-toe of a foot 
which proved to be that of a Golden-crowned Kinglet. The pad forming 
the sole of the toe for its basal half is approximately obovate (broader 
terminally than basally), abruptly contracted distally, the sub-truncate 
end strongly contrasting with the narrow terminal half of the toe. This 
conspicuous pad is shorter than the rest of the toe beyond it (excluding 
the claw) and reticulated into about a dozen polygonal sections. No other 
birds examined (including Mniotiltidae, Sylviidse, Fringillidse, Parida? and 
Vireonidse) at all closely approach the species of true Regulus in these 
peculiar features, in which they seem to be as unique as in the supranasal 

In the ordinary song-bird foot the sub-basal pad of the hallux is tapering 
or gradually rounded terminally, where it is usually not very strongly 
defined, longer than the distal portion of the toe, its superficial divisions 
minute and very numerous. Reguloides superciliosus is normal in these 
respects, and Regulus calendula exhibits but a slight approach to true 
Regulus in the form of the pad, which is longer than the rest of the toe, 
the reticulations being larger than usual but smaller than in true Regulus. 

If the validity of Corthylio as a genus is conceded the names of the Ruby- 
crowned Kinglets will stand as below. The Guadalupe form is in my 
opinion (based on examination of an excellent series) specifically distinct. 
Neither in coloration (at least in fresh plumage), in the relation of bill and 
tarsal length to that of the wing, nor in the mutual proportions of the 
ninth and tenth primaries, is there any evidence of intergradation with the 
continental forms. " Regulus cuvieri " is referable to true Regulus. 

2ot> General Notes. LApril 

Corthylio calendula calendula (Linnaeus). 

" " cineraceus (Grinnell). 

" " grinnelli (Palmer). 

" obscurus (Ridgway). 
W. DeW. Miller, Amer. Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

A Note on the Migration at Sea of Shore Birds and Swallows. — 

The following notes, made during the cruise of the whaler Daisy in 1912, 
throw a little light on the oceanic routes sometimes followed by migrating 
shore birds and swallows. It is quite probable that the recorded positions, 
which lie well to the eastward of Bermuda, are not in the normal tracks of 
the North American species mentioned. The month of August, 1912, was, 
however, prevailingly calm in the western temperate Atlantic, and the 
possibility of migrants having been blown out of their courses would seem 
to be limited to the effects of local storms. 

Ereunetes pusillus. On August 16, in lat. 31° 22' N., long. 60° 14' W. 
a sandpiper of this species flew around the vessel, not daring to alight. 
After circling for some minutes near the water it mounted higher and 
higher until it was flying about the topmast heads. When it had gone off 
the sailors told me that several of " the same kind " had been standing on 
the Daisy's bowsprit (!) during the morning. 

Pisobia maculata (?) August 23, lat. 32° 20' N., long. 50° 35' W. Late 
in the afternoon a sandpiper was observed. It circled the brig for an hour, 
without coming very near, and settled into the water for several brief rests. 
Finally, I saw it perch upon our bowsprit, but it left almost immediately. 
I believe that the bird was a Pectoral Sandpiper, but am not quite positive. 

Hirundo erythrogaster. August 17, lat. 31° 31' N., long. 58° 40' W. Four 
Barn Swallows joined us at noon and perched in the rigging while they 
preened their feathers thoroughly. At seven in the evening half a dozen 
were sitting along the royal brace, with others flying pathetically around 
the brig, evidently puzzled, and doubtless hungry. Next morning, and 
throughout the day (Aug. 18), several were with us, one of which sat for its 
photograph within a yard of the camera. 

Hirundo rustica. European Barn Swallows twice came on board, the 
first time on September 15, thirty miles west of St. Antao, C. V. I., and again 
on September 29, in lat. 8° 16' N., long. 24° 25' W. The former bird was 
collected. — Robert Cushman Murpht, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rare Birds near Waynesburg, Pa. — Waynesburg College recently 
secured for use in its bird course a small collection of mounted birds taken 
in this region some fifteen years since. Two specimens among them are 
particularly interesting in that they have rarely, if ever, been recorded from 
this section of the State. They are : Yellow-crowned Night Heron ( Nycta- 
nassa violacea) and Bald Eagle (Halioeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus) . 
The former was collected on Ten Mile Creek and the latter on a farm near 
Waynesburg, Pa. In the latter part of April, 1907, I captured an injured 

° 'i9i5 J General Notes. 237 

Florida Gallinule one mile west of this town; it is the only record for the 
region. — Samuel S. Dickey, Waynesbvrg, Pa. 

Some New York City Notes.— I elow I record personal observations 
of some species either of unusual occurrence, or seen in unusual places in 
New York City. 

Redhead (Marila americana) .— Two were seen on the Jerome Park 
Reservoir in the Bronx on January 10, 1915. 

Canvaslack (Marila valisineria). — On January 10, 1915, I saw seven- 
teen Canvasbacks on the Jerome Park Reservoir. Seven were females. 
They allowed a close approach, and did not take wing but swam away. 

Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) . — I saw one 
of these birds in partly immature plumage near Riverdale on January 20, 

White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) . — A flock of eleven 
of these birds was present in City Hall Park on May 13, 14, 15 and 16, 1914. 
During the time that I observed them they remained for the most part 
under some low bushes at the southwest corner of the Park, and seemed 
quite oblivious to the noise of traffic in Broadway. On two occasions I 
heard one of them ringing. 

Scarlet Tanagek (Piranga erythromelas) . — Two males in full plumage 
were present in City Hall Park on May 13 and 14, 1914. I saw them on 
the latter date. Their conspicuous color attracted large crowds and many 
diverting comments were overheard. The birds were mentioned in the 
' Evening Sun ' of May 14. 

Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) . — I saw three Ovenbirds in City Hall 
Park on May 13 and 14, 1914. On the latter date they were usually near 
the Scarlet Tanagers mentioned above. Although they walked about in 
the center of the grass plots they passed unnoticed by the many persons 
who were watching the bright colored Tanagers. 

Veery ( Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens) . — On May 13, 1914, I saw two 
Veerys in City Hall Park in company with the White-throated Sparrows 
noted above. They also passed unnoticed. 

My experience in bird observation about New York City has been limited 
to two years, and the occurrence of migratory buds in City Hall Park may 
not be unusual. However it seemed rather startling to me to find the four 
last named species in the very heart of the down town section, where thou- 
sands of persons are constantly passing and there is an incessant rumble 
and roar of traffic. It may be of interest to note that the Tanagers were 
the only ones molested by the hordes of English Sparrows which infest the 
Park, and that even in their case I observed no serious attacks.— Clifford 
H. Pangburn, Lawrence Park, Bronxville, N. Y. 

Notes from Wisconsin. — Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) . — On July 
4, 1914, near Stoughton a Bittern was observed swallowing a snake 
about twelve inches long. The bird seized it by the head and, after 

238 General Notes. [^£j[ 

considerable manoeuvring during which the snake occasionally wrapped 
itself around the Bittern's neck, succeeded in swallowing it. 

King Rail (Rallus elegans). — A single bird was observed at close range 
on August 30, 1914, near Madison between Monona and Wanbesa Lakes. 
Records for the Madison region appear to be scarce. > 

Solitary Sandpiper (Helodromas solitarius). — This species was exceed- 
ingly common along the Bois Brule river in northwestern Wisconsin during 
the last week of August, 1913. The birds were usually in twos, were fully 
as common as Spotted Sandpipers, and were not at all timid. 

Ruffed Grouse {Bonasa umbellus umbellus). — The crops of two grouse 
collected by Mr. A. W. Schorger in Ashland County, in November (1914) 
were* full of the catkins of hazel (Corylus rostrata, apparently). The birds 
were taken early in the morning. The crop of a grouse taken by the writer 
in Sawyer County in the first week of October (1914) was distended with 
small green catkins until 2\ inches in diameter. The bird was taken at 
dusk. It is probable that this catkin was also from hazel bushes. Bendire 
does not mention hazel as a food of the Ruffed Grouse though it is listed in 
Barrow's 'Birds of Michigan'. 

Mourning Dove (Zenaidura macroura car olinensis) .— Ten Doves were 
seen near Verona on Dec. 24, 1913, and one bird as late as Jan. 4, 1914, 
in the same locality. 

Pileated Woodpecker (Phl&otomus pileatus abieticola). — This species 
was almost always in evidence during a canoe trip in the latter part of 
August, 1913, extending from the Lake Superior shore up the Bois Brule 
and down the St. Croix River as far as Groutsburg, Wis. On a trip taken 
in the first part of October, 1914, down the Flambeau River from Lac du 
Flambeau to Ladysmith, only two Pileated Woodpeckers were seen. 
This species appears to retire so rapidly before settlement, that records 
showing present distribution may be of some value. 

Red-billed Woodpecker {Centurus carolinus) .— A single bird was seen 
on February 1, 1914, near Blue Mounds by Mr. Schorger and the writer. 

Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus) . — On Sept. 17, 
1914, the writer observed a bird of this species in a fringe of bushes on the 
shore of Lake Mendota, Madison. The bird was under observation for 
half an hour and sang frequently. It was noted again on Sept. 20 and 28. 
There are few records of this species in Wisconsin. — Norman deW. 
Betts, Madison, Wis. 

Changes and Additions to the ' List of the Birds of Gallatin 
County, Montana.' — The following changes, due to recent identifica- 
tions of specimens should be made in the list of Gallatin County birds 
published in ' The Auk,' Vol. XXVIII, pp. 26-49. 

Astragalinus tristis tristis. Goldfinch. — The specimen taken at 
Three Forks, February 12, 1910, should be A. t. pallidus, Western Gold- 
finch. Dr. L. B. Bishop informs me that this bird while resembling the 
eastern form in plumage, shows by the measurements of the bill that it 

° i9i5 J General Notes. 2S\) 

belongs to the western race, as probably all of the Gallatin County birds 
of this species do. 

Pinicola enucleator alascensis. Alaska Pine Grosbeak. — Two 
birds taken near Bozeman, December 21, 1908, have been sent to Mr. 
Robert Ridgway for better identification, and are considered by him to 
be the Rocky Mountain Pine Grosbeak, P. e. montana, and identical with 
the summer birds of the region. 

The following new species may be added to the list through the observa- 
tions of Mr. G. B. Thomas. 

Marila collaris. Ring-necked Duck. — Mr. Thomas secured two 
birds of this species near Belgrade on October 10, 1912. They were male 
and female and were from a flock of eight or nine birds. This is the first 
record of this species from Montana of which I am aware. 

Anthus spraguei. Sprague's Pipit. — Mr. Thomas has written me 
that he has seen this bird in Gallatin County, but I have been unable to 
get from him the date or exact locality of this occurrence. — Aretas A. 
Saunders, West Haven, Conn. 

What Bird Lovers Owe the Late Professor King.— Not the man 

who determines how many birds eat a certain insect, nor what one bird 
eats, but the man who passes in review all the common birds of a given 
region in his study of the proportions of the food, is entitled to rank as 
pioneer in Economic Ornithology. On this basis it is proposed that the 
late Professor F. H. King, formerly chief of the U. S. Division of Soils, 
should be considered our first important Economic Ornithologist to use 
modern methods in the United States. 1 

Many men had previously examined the food of a single species of bird 
in different parts of the country. Professor Samuel Aughey of Nebraska, 
from 1865 to 1877, studied the stomachs of Nebraska birds in relation to the 
number of locusts they consumed. However, not until the time of Pro- 
fessors S. A. Forbes of Illinois and F. H. King of Wisconsin, had anyone 
made a study of all the common bird species in order to record all the types 
of insects which birds ate. Dr. Forbes' studies of birds' stomachs were 
first published in 1876, according to a letter from him, dated October 15, 

In an interview at the Cleveland meetings of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, December 31, 1912, Professor Forbes ad- 
mitted that the work for this paper was all done in that or the preceding 
year, while Professor King began his paper in July, 1873, and continued it 
until October, 1877, the field work being done mostly in 1873-4. In 
1876-8, according to a letter from Prof. J. H. Comstock, 1912, Professor 
King worked in the Cornell laboratory, analyzing the contents of the birds' 

1 Cf. Review of Economic Ornithology in the United States by T. S. Palmer, 
Asst. Chief of the Biol. Survey, U. S. Dept. Agric. Yearbook for 1899. Here 
older authors are ranked as pioneers in the study of the food in birds' stomachs. 

240 General Notes. [£}j& 

stomachs previously collected, but did not publish, due to delays in the 
Geological Survey, until 1883, when T. C. Chamberlain's 'Geology of 
Wisconsin/ Vol. 1, came off the press. 

It thus appears that King's work began before that of Dr. Forbes, but 
was delayed in publication until some years after Dr. Forbes published his 
first and second researches. While Prof. Aughey had studied ninety differ- 
ent bird species representing 630 stomachs and Dr. Forbes some 40 species 
representing 460 stomachs (combining figures of all three papers of 1876, 
1880 and 1883), Professor King studied 83 species representing over 1800 
stomachs, 1600 of these being reported. 

The University of Wisconsin has been slow to recognize the great value 
of Professor King's researches along this line and the noteworthy character 
of his work. We should take some steps to make generally available the 
statistical data of the paper as published in the ponderous volumes of the 
early 80's. 

In view of these facts, a partial bibliography of Professor King's writings 
concerning birds may be recorded here. 

1883. Economic Relations of our Birds. — Geol. of Wis., Vol. 1, pp. 441- 
610 (1886). Reproduced in Trans. Wis. Sta. Agric. Soc. for 1886, 
vol. XXIV, pp. 372-480. 

1884. The Industrial Relations of Our Birds. — Trans. Wis. Sta. Agric. 
Soc. for 1882-3, vol. XXI, pp. 261-271. 

1892. The Migration and Usefulness of Our Birds. — [Arbor Day Circular, 

1893. The Robin.— Arbor and Bird Day Annual, Wisconsin, pp. 32-4. 

1896. (Mar. 19) The Ruffed Grouse.— Arbor Day Annual, May 1, 1896, 
Wisconsin, pp. 23-5. 

1897. (March 24) The Blue-eyed Yellow Warbler.— Arbor and Bird Day 
Annual, April 30, 1897, Wisconsin, pp. 8-10. 

1899. (March 13) The Migration and Usefulness of Our Birds.— Arbor 
and Bird Day Annual, May 12, 1899, pp. 34-7. (A reprint of 
1892 circ, out of print.) 
1911. (Bird Migration at Hong Kong Island) Farmers of Forty Centuries, 
p. 62.— Pub. at Madison, Wis., by Mrs. F. H. King.— A. C. Bur- 
rill, Madison, Wis. 

Morning Awakening Notes at Jefferson Highland, N. H. — Mr. 

Francis H.' Allen in his general note in ' The Auk,' January, 1915, p. 110, 
again calls in question the"genuineness of the early songs which precede the 
singing of the Robin as morning songs given in response to the break of day, 
still regarding them as songs of night. Others may share in some measure 
his incredulity. I desire, therefore, that my records obtained at Jefferson 
Highland, N. H., should remove this doubt, for they show conclusively 
season by season that there not only do Song Sparrows and Chipping 
Sparrows habitually sing several times before the Robin, but that Wood 
Pewee and Alder Flycatcher are always much earlier singers, and that 

vol. xxxn j Geneml Noles 241 

White-throated Sparrow, Savannah Sparrow, and Vesper Sparrow so 
generally sing a few songs before the Robin that it is quite impossible to 
regard all this earliest singing as other than the singing of the birds in 
response to the appearance of dawn, suffusing the eastern sky with beautiful 
soft light and announcing departing night and approaching day. The 
records indicate that the awakening of the earliest singing birds is gradual, 
but none the less a genuine awakening, although they give their songs only 
occasionally in this earliest singing and reserve more demonstrative singing 
until the light of day has increased. So regular are these earliest songs 
from the several species of earliest singers that the idea that they are songs 
of the night is quite untenable. Songs of the night are few, irregular, 
and adventitious, due to the caprice of the bird, occasionally heard, but 
not to be regularly looked for and with certainty heard. These earliest 
songs after the first light of dawn are unfailingly given and can be looked 
for with certainty of realization. 

In the hour preceding visible dawn, which in days of earliest sunrise at 
Jefferson is 2.30 o'clock or a little before, I have very, very few times heard 
any expression of song, yet I have often been awake at one o'clock and 
remained awake listening carefully until I have gone out at two o'clock or a 
few minutes thereafter. Whereas, as the time of 2.30 approaches, it is 
usual to hear the first songs from one, two, or three birds which are within 
range of hearing, and these songs are followed by repetitions from the same 
birds or from other birds at infrequent intervals for a time, until their 
awakening is more complete. So it has been my practice to be out shortly 
after 2 o'clock, when not before; in season for these first responses to the 
break of day, and experience has shown that the birds' awakening begins 
with these songs, given when the dawn has already visibly brightened the 
eastern sky. 

The Ovenbird's early flight song, which is heard quite unfailingly at 
dawn, is its twilight song, equally so in the morning as in the evening and 
late afternoon. It can be depended upon, at least in the woodlands of 
Jefferson Highland, and it must be borne in mind that my testimony on 
the whole subject of the morning awakening is the result of my experience 
in this mountain hamlet, where there is broad expanse of sky and complete 
silence reigns, when the day opens, broken only by the birds as they awake 
and sing. — Horace W. Wright, Boston, Mass. 

242 Recent Literature. [.April 


' The Auk ' Index, 1901-1910. 1 — The first ' Auk ' Index was published 
in 1907, and covered the period 1876-1900, it including the ' Bulletin of the 
Nuttall Ornithological Club,' virtually the first series of ' The Auk,' and 
the first seventeen volumes of ' The Auk,' It set a high standard for index 
makers, and, as said by a reviewer (Auk, XXV, 1908, p. 100), " We know 
of no index to scientific literature comparable with this in point of detail 
and utility." The new Index, covering the period 1901-1910, is prepared 
on essentially the same plan, and in typography and make-up the pages of 
the two works are nearly exact counterparts. The index matter covers a 
much smaller number of pages (250 instead of 426) than were required in 
the earlier volume, as it embraces only ten years instead of twenty-five, 
but the amount per year averages twice greater. The introductory matter, 
however, occupies 28 pages instead of 7. This includes an ' Introduction ' 
of ten pages by the Chairman of the Index Committee, Dr. T. S. Palmer, 
who is also the chief editor, giving an account of the plan of the work, the 
composition of the Committee, and acknowledgements of aid. This is 
followed by a ' Biographical Index,' and a ' Supplement to the Twenty-five 
Year Index,' The latter relates to the names of authors mentioned in the 
general index, completing names that were not given fully in the first 
index, and adding the date of birth, and also of death of those not now 
living. Of 175 names previously more or less defective 140 have been 
completed, at great cost of labor in efforts to secure the missing infor- 

The ' Biographical Index,' by Dr. Palmer, is a new feature, and one of 
high interest and importance as a record of the date and place of birth, 
and also of death in case they are deceased, of some 275 ornithologists, 
among which, as the author states, " will be found many of those most 
prominent in the annals of ornithology in America and Europe, especially 
during the last 40 years." In addition to these items, an asterisk prefixed 
to a name indicates that a biographical notice of the person has appeared 
in ' The Auk,' to which a reference is given. This list occupies 13 pages 
in double column, and we have no doubt will be consulted more frequently 
and valued more highly than any other part of the volume. The amount 
of correspondence and research involved in its compilation can be appre- 
ciated only by the few who have attempted similar work. 

i Ten Year Index | to | The Auk | Volumes XVIII-XXVII — 1901-1910 | Pre- 
pared by a Committee of the | American Ornithologists' Union | Edited t by | 
T. S. Palmer and W. W. Cooke | [vignette] New York | Published by the Ameri- 
can Ornithologist's Union | 1915 — 8vo, pp. xxviii + 250. Price in paper covers, 
$2; bound in cloth, $3. Orders should be addressed to Jonathan D wight, Jr., 
Treasurer, 134 West 71st St., New York, N. Y. 

1915 J Recent Literature. Z\.o 

It was voted to prepare the present index at the meeting of the A. 0. U. 
held in Cambridge, in November, 1912. Dr. T. S. Palmer was appointed 
chairman with power to select the members of the Index Committee. 
" A few weeks later," as stated in the introduction, " a committee of 13 
members was organized,, with Professor W. W. Cooke as secretary, and at a 
meeting on February 7, 1913, plans were perfected and the work distrib- 
uted." The aid of Dr. Dwight, Chairman of the original Index Committee, 
and of Dr. Richmond and Dr. Stone, editor of ' The Auk,' was secured in 
correcting the proof. The Committee eventually comprised 22 members, 
divided into three subcommittees, to each of which were assigned special 
features of the work. To Professor Cooke, the secretary of the committee, 
fell the work of preparing the copy for the press. The manuscript was in 
the hands of the editor in April, 1914, but through delays in printing and 
proofreading the issue of the work was delayed till early in 1915. The 
Index Committee has thus made a good record for promptness and effi- 
ciency in its difficult task. — J. A. A. 

The New B. O. U. List. 1 — After a lapse of thirty-two years we have a 
second edition of the official list of British birds. It is well conceived, 
well carried out in detail and well printed. Full headings to all higher 
groups are given as in the A. O. U. Check-List, which is an improvement 
over the recent ' Hand-List ' of Dr. Hartert and his associates. In the 
case of generic headings the reference and type are always given while the 
etymology and origin of all scientific names are explained. The synonymy 
under each species consists of references to the original place of publication, 
the first edition of the B. O. U. List, the ' Catalogue of Birds of the British 
Museum ', and Saunders' 'Manual' 2nd edition; or in the case of recent 
additions to the first record of the bird in the British Isles. There is then a 
paragraph on ' Distribution in the British Islands ' and ' General Distribu- 
tion.' The data on Migration are not so full as in the ' Hand-List ' nor 
are they given a separate paragraph. When subspecies are recognized the 
so called typical race is given binomially without the duplication of the 
specific name and the trinomials are printed in smaller type, following 
exactly the style of the original A. O. U. Check-List, a much less consistent 
plan than that of the last edition of this work or of the British ' Hand-List.' 

In the introduction, beside the rules which governed the Committee's 
labors there is a ' Summary of British Birds according to their Status,' in 
which there are listed 141 Residents, 47 Summer Visitors, 46 Winter Visitors, 
30 Birds of Passage, 61 Occasional Visitors, 149 Rare Visitors and 1 Extinct 
Species; total 475, an increase of 99 over the first edition. There are three 
appendices; (1), a hypothetical list; (2) , a list of " nomina conservanda " ; and 

1 A List | of | British Birds | Compiled by a Committee | of the | British Orni- 
thologists' Union | vignette | Second and Revised Edition | Published by the | 
British Ornithologists' Union | and sold by | William Wesly & Son, 28 Essex Street, 
Strand, | London, W C. | 1915. 8vo, pp. i-xxii + 1-430. Price, 7s. 6d. 

244 Recent Literature. [April 

(3), a discussion of nomenclatural matters and types of the genera. Such 
is the plan of the work which, except in the one point mentioned above, 
seems admirable. 

It is of course the questions of classification and nomenclature that inter- 
est us most in a check-list. As to the former the Committee has adopted 
the system of 'Sharpe's 'Hand-List of Birds', reversing the order so as to 
begin with the Crows, which brings the work nearly in accord with the 
' Hand-List ' of Hartert et al. In matters of nomenclature: (1) the tenth edi- 
tion of Linnaeus has been accepted as a starting point instead of the twelfth; 
(2) tautonyms have been allowed; (3) trinomials have been adopted; (4) 
the fixation of a type for each genus according to the rules of the Inter- 
national Commission is recognized as a necessity. After having adopted 
such astounding changes from the antiquated policies that have heretofore 
governed the B. O. U., we feel like forgiving the Committee for the little 
list of thirteen nomina conservanda which the members refuse to relin- 
quish, and the emendations which they feel must be made in the spelling 
of a few names! The advanced stand that is taken by the new B. O. U. 
List is certainly creditable to all concerned and makes a great stride 
towards that ultimate goal of uniformity for which so many of us have 
been striving. 

Comparing the present work with the original 1883 edition we find 92 
changes in specific and 51 in generic names; and yet the ' Hand-List ' of 
Hartert et al, which seemed to some so impossible, contained only 111 speci- 
fic changes and 72 generic! 

Comparing the new list with the latter we find only 86 differences, nearly 
half of which are questions of the limits of genera or of the specific or sub- 
specific rank of certain forms. Thirty cases depend upon dates of publica- 
tion and the recognizability of early diagnoses or the acceptance of certain 
authors— as Vroeg and Oken; six hinge on whether names are sufficiently 
different in form to be recognized as distinct and then there are the thir- 
teen nomina conservanda. Practically all of these differences can readily 
be settled by convention, as. there is really no longer any principle at stake. 

Comparing the new list with that of the A. O. U., we find less discrepancy 
in the matter of genera than was the case with the British 'Hand-List'. 
Thirteen genera of the A. O. U. list rejected by Hartert and his associates 
are here recognized, but many others are not regarded as separable, as 
Nannus, Acanthopneuste, Planesticus, Archibuteo, Chaulelasmus, Nettion, 
Charitonetta, Olor, Actitis, Helodromas, Oxyechus, Pelidna, Erolia, Lobipes 
Ionornis and Herodias. Hierofalco on the other hand is recognized as 

The A. O. U. use of Hirundo is endorsed, but the use of Bombycilla for the 
Waxwings is avoided by an argument that really has no basis except on the 
ground of a nomen conservandum. Flammea is used for the Barn Owl, 
both Aluco and Tyto being preoccupied and so also with Polysticta for 
Steller's Eider, which is supplanted by Heniconetta. 

The name rusticolus for the Gyrfalcon is rejected in place of gyrfalco and 

'!9i5 J Recent Literature. 245 

the two races appearing under these names in the A. O. U. list are united, 
while two races of islandus are recognized from Greenland. 

The use of Colymbus for the Loons and (Enanthe for the Wheatear is 
correct as already stated in these columns and must be followed by the 
A. O. U. Committee. 

It is matter for general congratulation that three Committees, working 
independently, have been able to come to such close agreement on all mat- 
ters covered by the International Code of Nomenclature, and the differ- 
ences that still remain emphasize the fact that it is no longer questions of 
nomenclature but of taxonomy that cause diversity in names. 

The Committee of the B. O. U. deserve to be congratulated upon the 
excellent piece of work that they have accomplished and, with the exception 
of the unfortunate thirteen nomina conservanda, we can heartily recommend 
the nomenclature of the new list to all who write on British birds. — W. S. 

Hankin on Animal Flight. 1 — No ornithological problem has caused 
so much speculation, even from the earliest times, as the soaring bird; 
to quote Sir Guilford Molesworth, although " many theories have been 
advanced .... they have all been miserably insufficient"; while even Lord 
Kelvin admits: "That which puzzled Solomon puzzles me also." Practi- 
cally everyone who has written on the matter has had a theory and the 
literature of the subject as a whole may be said to consist of a maximum 
of explanation with a minimum of observation. It is therefore a gratifica- 
tion to find a work that is almost exclusively devoted to observation, such 
as Dr. Hankin has produced, — observations moreover of the most detailed 
and careful kind which constitute one of the most valuable contributions 
to the subject of flight which has ever appeared. 

The need of such a record of observation is recognized by the author who 
says by way of introduction: " Those best qualified to form an opinion 
have as a rule had little or no opportunity of studying the facts at first 
hand. Such authorities have, in some cases, published accounts of soaring 
flight which have consisted entirely of explanation. Others have related 
a few facts with more or less tentative explanations. The present book 
will be found to contain the facts of the case with no explanation at all." 

Dr. Hankin's observations were carried on mainly at Agra, India, where 
the opportunities for the study of soaring flight — always best seen in the 
tropics — were excellent. His records show that there is a definite time 
each day when soaring becomes possible, which is earlier as the season 
advances. The presence of either wind or sunshine is an absolute necessity 

i Animal Flight. | A Record of Observation^ By | E. H. Hankin, M. A., Sc.D. | 
Late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, | Honorary Fellow of Allahard 
University, | Chemical Examiner and Bacteriologist to | the Government of the 
United Provinces | and of the Central Provinces, India, Associate Fellow of the 
Aeronautical Society of | Great Britain. | (First Edition) | London: | Iliffe & 
Sons Ltd., 20, Tudor Street, E. C. | [1913?] 8vo. pp. 1-405 + Index unpaged. 
Price, 12s. 6d. 

246 Recent Literature. [kv% 

for soaring, but it is an undisputable fact that soaring is possible when 
there exists, so far as it is possible to determine, a perfect calm. 

With the idea that the sun's heat possibly caused ascending currents in 
the air Dr. Hankin made extended observations along this line, with the 
result that the time of appearance of " heat eddies " indicating upward 
air currents was found to coincide almost exactly with the time of the 
beginning of soaring. 

He found, on the other hand, however, that " heat eddies " not directly 
caused by the sun had no relation to the " soarability " of the air and 
that when the solar energy that causes "heat eddies " was held back by 
thin clouds, soaring continued, uninterrupted. 

Ordinary ascending air cm-rents from "heat eddies," therefore, seemed 
not to be the basis of soaring nor did they seem sufficiently powerful, and 
he concludes " if soarability is due to ascending currents caused by the sun's 
rays, these currents must resemble heat eddies in being widely and appar- 
ently uniformally distributed," but " they must differ in containing a great 
deal more energy and in being as yet undiscovered." 

Mr. William Brewster's observations on Gulls sailing into the teeth of 
the wind, near an advancing vessel were duplicated in Dr. Hankin's ex- 
perience. He says the Gulls were observed in the usual " soarable area " 
on the leeward side of the stern and also " gliding ahead of the ship in a 
head wind, keeping the same speed for minutes together. Sometimes they 
kept at a distance of only a few feet from the bridge and so under the best 
condition for observation and yet no trace of any movement of the wings 
could be observed." He adds " were these cases of the soarable area being 
greatly extended or was the air uniformally soarable under the tropical 
sun? " Mr. Brewster's observations go to disprove the latter suggestion 
as they were not in the tropics. 

The evidence that Dr. Hankin has gathered seems to indicate that 
" besides the effect of the air disturbance caused by the motion of the ship 
another factor of importance is the nature of the wind .... some winds 
are soarable and other winds are not soarable. Apparently in both cases 
some unknown factor affecting soarability is involved." 

Dr. Hankin's observations are not limited to soaring birds but cover the 
whole field of flight as the following chapter headings will show : ' Prelimi- 
nary Description of Soaring Flight ' ; ' Preliminary Account of the Condi- 
tions Necessary for Soaring Flight ' ; ' Preliminary Account of Directive 
Movements in Gliding Flight ' ; ' On Conditions Affecting Sun Soarability ' ; 
'A Further Description of Steering Movements'; 'Metacarpal Descent'; 
'Arching ' ; ' Functions of the Tail ' ; ' Flapping Flight ' ; 'Lateral Stability' ; 
'Position of Centre of Gravity' ; 'The Flight of Bats ' ; 'The Flight of Flying 
Fishes ' ; ' The Flight of Sea Gulls ' ; 'Ascending Cm-rents ' ; ' Wind Soar- 
ability'; 'Soaring in Stormy Winds'; 'Colour Phenomena of Soaring 
Flight ' ; ' Relative Efficiency of Different Wing Forms in Respect to Soar- 
ing Flight ' ; ' On the Flight of Dragon-flies ' ; ' Glossary ' . 

In turning over the pages of Dr. Hankin's volume one is astonished at 

VO, 'lfl^ XI1 ] Recent Literature. 247 

the extent of his observations. No factor that could possibly affect flight 
seems to have been overlooked and data have been collected in regard to 
meteorology and along other side lines with as much care as in studying 
the actions of the birds. A clever method of plotting the track of a bird 
soaring high in air was devised by tracing the movements of the bird on 
the surface of a horizontal mirror, with copying ink, from which impres- 
sions could readily be transferred to paper. A series of dots, instead of a 
continuous line, each dot corresponding to the tick of a metronome, gave 
in addition, the speed of the bird when the altitude had been ascertained. 
The book is well worthy of the attention of every one interested in bird 
flight, whether or not he be inclined to supply the explanations which Dr. 
Hankin refrained from attempting, and unlike most treatises on flight it 
will be found entirely free from technical terms or mathematical formulae. — 
W. S. 

Snethlage's ' Catalogue of the Birds of Amazonia.' ' — Dr. 

Snethlage's contributions to the ornithology of the Amazon region are well 
known to students of neotropical birds and her knowledge of the entire 
avifauna as well as her familiarity with many parts of the country fit her 
admirably for the task which she has just brought to a conclusion. 

The catalogue consists of the technical and vernacular name of each 
species with references, a statement of range, a list of the specimens in 
the Museu Gceldi, with localities, and a description of the male and female. 
Under each genus is a key to the species, and under orders and families, 
keys respectively to the families and genera. Plates of the heads and feet 
of representatives of the principal groups accompany the general key to the 
orders. The work is, as will be noticed, intended to serve two purposes — - 
as a manual for resident bird students and as a work of reference for 
ornithologists in other parts of the world. 

The text is naturally in Portuguese, but this does not detract from its 
value to foreign ornithologists, since to them the descriptions are of the least 
importance, and the localities and ranges are easily made out. 

There are 1117 species included in the Catalogue which forms a most 
valuable contribution to South American ornithology. The recent 
activity in the study of South American birds has reached a stage where 
faunal works of this sort are badly needed to bring into systematic order 
the scattered work of numerous writers. 

Dr. Snethlage writes us that the work was published in Germany and the 
copies intended for the American correspondents of the Museum were 
held in Hamburg when the war broke out. She requests us to announce 
that these will be forwarded as soon as possible. — W. S. 

1 Catalogo das Aves Amazonicas contendo todas as especies descriptas e men- 
cionadas ate 1913 pela Dr. Emilia Snethlage (com 6 estampas e 1 mappa). 
Boletim do Museu Goeldi (Museu Paraense) de Hist. Nat. e Ethnogr. Tomo 
viii, 1911/12. Para, Brazil. 1914. pp. 1-530. 

■248 Recent Literatim . [April 

Hornaday's ' Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Practice.' » 

— The lectures published under this title in the attractive volume before 
us, were delivered before the Yale Forest School, through the efforts of 
Prof. James W. Toumey and their delivery and publication represent, 
in the language of the author, the " Awakening of Yale University " to the 
necessity of aiding by educational methods the preservation of the wild 
life of America. In his preface Dr. Hornaday says further, "What is 
needed — and now demanded — of professors and teachers in all our uni- 
versities, colleges, normal schools and high schools is vigorous and per- 
sistent teaching of the ways and means that can successfully be employed 
in the wholesale manufacture of public sentiment in behalf of the rational 
and effective protection of wild life. Thus far the educators of this country 
as a class and a mass have not done a hundredth part of their duty toward 
the wild life of the United States and Alaska. Let him who doubts this 
very sweeping statement ask the next young university graduate that he 
meets how much he- has learned in his university about the practical busi- 
ness of protecting wild life." 

The five chapter headings are: 'The Extinction and Preservation of 
Valuable Wild Life ' ; ' The Economic Value of Our Birds ' ; ' The Legitimate 
Use of Game Birds and Mammals'; 'Animal Pests and Then Rational 
Treatment '; ' The Duty and Power of the Citizen in Wild Life Protection '. 

Dr. Hornaday has gleaned his facts from reliable publications and from 
his wide personal experience and has assembled them in a convincing 
manner, so as to make clear the economic side of the question. On the 
matter of practical preservation of wild life he argues in his well known 
forceful manner, condemning without mercy the "game hog" and all 
enemies of conservation, pointing out at the same time the duty of the 
government, the official and the citizen in furthering the work. 

Dr. Hornaday's volume will serve admirably as a text book for furthering 
in other educational institutions the work that the Yale Forest School has 
inaugurated, or as a handy work of reference for the public in general. 
We can heartily recommend it as a valuable contribution to the cause with 
which Dr. Hornaday has for years been so closely identified. — W. S. 

Hartert's ' Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna.' 2 — This install- 
ment covers the remainder of the Aquilidse, including the Vultures and 

1 Wild Life Conservation I in Theory and Practice | Lectures delivered before 
the Forest | School of Yale University | 1914 | By | William T. Hornaday, Sc.D. | 
Author of "The American Natural History," | "Our Vanishing Wild Life," etc.; | 
Ex-President of the American Bison Society | with a Chapter on | Private Game 
Preserves | By Frederic C. Walcott | vignette | New Haven: Yale University Press | 
London: Humphrey Milford | Oxford University Press 1 MDCCCCXIV. 8vo. 
pp. 1-240. Price, $1.50 net. 

2 Die Vbgel der palaarktischen Fauna. Systematische Uebersicht der in 
Europa Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeer-region vorkommenden Vbgel. Von Dr. 
Ernst Hartert. Heft IX (Bd. II. 3) seite 1089-1216 mit. 31 Abbildungen. Ausge- 
geben im Oktober, 1914. Berlin. 

° 1915 J Recent Literature. 249 

begins the Ciconiidae. Only one new form appears, Melierax canorus 
neumanni (p. 1165) Arbub, Mereau. — W. S. 

Phillips on Experimental Studies of Hybridization among Ducks 
and Pheasants. 1 — The experiments here described were carried on during 
the past five years. The species involved were the Mallard, Pintail, 
Australian and East Indian Ducks; and the Ring-neck, Prince of Wales, 
Lady Amherst and Golden Pheasants, and the investigations deal mainly 
with the inheritance of male secondary sex characters. 

In domestic birds a number of clearly Mendelizing characters have been 
demonstrated and sex-linked characters have also been described in 
canaries, pigeons and domestic fowls. In his experiments with wild 
species, however, Dr. Phillips found "a very different state of things." 
" Characters often apparently clear-cut and antagonistic do not segregate 
clearly." " There is some evidence that in closely related geographical 
races there is a nearer approach to orthodox Mendelism, but this is never 
reached, even in back crosses, except occasionally in isolated characters 
or in the more undifferentiated plumages of the female sex." 

Dr. Phillips comes to the conclusion that it is almost certain that the 
ordinary subspecies of the ornithologist is very far from being a unit varia- 
tion and that sex-linked inheritance is probably a feature of domestic races 
in birds. Indeed in species hybrids in almost every feather region the 
most minute detail of feather pattern and color show the influence of 
both parental races. 

Dr. Phillips' paper is of great importance, showing what many students 
of systematic zoology have long felt, that it is not safe to assume that laws 
and principles of heredity demonstrated in domesticated strains of animals 
necessarily prevail in the case of wild species. 

Too few of those engaged in experimental breeding have a proper training 
in systematic zoology to appreciate the nature of wild species, and we, 
therefore, especially welcome publications from an investigator so well 
informed on both sides of the problem as is Dr. Phillips. — W. S. 

Allen on Pattern Development in Mammals and Birds. 2 — Dr. 

Allen has made a valuable contribution to the subject of coloration, a 
field by the way which opens up many possibilities for the ornithologist 
who may care to enter it. In the particular phase of the subject which he 
has been investigating — pattern development — he shows that pigmenta- 
tion develops from certain centers, each one covering a very definite area. 
Loss of strength in a center of pigmentation and consequent failure to cover 

the entire area, results in a white or unpigmented fine or space between this 


1 Experimental Studies of Hybridization among Ducks and Pheasants. By 
John C. Phillips. Jour, of Experimental Zool., Vol. 18, no. 1, January, 1915, pp. 
69-112, ppl. 1-8. 

2 Pattern Development in Mammals and Birds. By Glover M. Allen. Amer- 
ican Naturalist, 1914, pp. 385-412, 467-484, 550-566. 

250 Recent Literature. [.April 

and the next area, producing a pied or a reticulated pattern. Such patterns, 
due to areal reduction, have, in wild species, often become fixed and a perma- 
nent part of the normal pattern. The development of such patterns has 
probably been very gradual, and it may be seen in process of development 
today in certain species in which the extent of white areas is quite variable — 
as the white neck patches of the Cackling Goose. 

Dr. Allen also finds that the converse of this centripetal style of pigmenta- 
tion is present in many species resulting in black pigmentation at the 
extremities — tip of nose, ears, tail or toes — or along primary breaks 
between pigmented areas. Furthermore the patches are physiologically 
independent of one another and may be differently colored in different 

A careful study of Dr. Allen's paper will give us an intelligent idea of the 
apparently anomalous coloration of many domestic animals and when 
we become familiar with the locations of the various pigment centers, we 
see at once an explanation of many of the distributions of color in wild 
species, and why we find a constant duplication of general pattern or of 
prominent color patches in widely separated species. — W. S. 

Shufeldt on the Skeleton of the Ocellated Turkey. 1 — Dr. Shufeldt 
here presents a detailed study of the skeleton of this interesting bird and 
compares it bone for bone with that of the more familiar turkey, Meleagris 
gallopavo. While he considers that the differences in the external characters 
of the two birds are sufficient to establish them in separate genera, he fails 
to find any notable difference in the skeletons, nothing indeed which would 
indicate more than specific differentiation.— W. S. 

Smith's Handbook of the Rocky Mountain Park Museum'. 2 — 

This neatly printed little book is a guide to the Museum at Banff, Alberta. 
The ornithological portion contains the names of all species found within 
the limits of the park, with data for the specimens exhibited and special 
mention of those species which may be seen alive in the immediate vicinity 
of the museum. There is a full description of one species in each family, 
but it would seem that a general account of each family group would have 
been better in such a work. The species, so described, are elevated to 
undue importance in the popular mind over equally important species 
which are granted only nominal mention. We understand, however, that 
this is only a forerunner of a fuller edition and that these descriptions 
are devised for labels quite as much as for the users of the handbook. 
The framing of such a book so that descriptive labels may be printed off 
from the same type is an excellent idea. — W. S. 

1 On the Skeleton of the Ocellated Turkey (Agriocharis ocellata) with notes on 
the osteology of other Meleagridse. By R. W. Shufeldt. Aquila, Vol. XXI, 
1914, pp. 1-52, pll. I-XIV, (Nov. 15, 1914). (In Hungarian and English.) 

2 Handbook of the Rocky Mountains Park Museum. By Harlan I. Smith. 
8vo, pp. 1-126. Ottawa, 1914. 

Vol. XXXIII „ , t -, , Q£1 

19 i5 lucent Literature. ZOl 

Mearns on New African Birds. 1 — The birds here described were 
obtained on the Frick, Rainey and Smithsonian African Expeditions, 
except one secured by Dr. W. L. Abbott in 1888. They are as follows: 
Francolinus hildebrandti helleri (p. 381) Mt. Lololokui; Chalcopelia afra 
kilimensis (p. 383) Mt. Kilimanjaro; C. chalcospila intensa (p. 384), 
Hawash River, Abyssinia; C. c. media (p. 385), Gardulla, Abyssinia; 
Cinnyris venusta blicki (p. 386), Lake Stephanie; C. mediocris garguensis 
(p. 387), Mt. Gargues; C. reichenowi kikuyensis (p. 388), Escarpment Sta.; 
Chalcomitra senegalensis atra (p. 388), Thika River; Anthreptes collaris 
garguensis (p. 389), Mt. Gargues; Estrilda atricapilla keniensis (p. 390), 
Aberdare Mts.; Halcyon senegalensis cinereicapillus (p. 391), Kisingo, 
Uganda; H. malimbicus prenticei (p. 392), Lake Victoria, Uganda; Melit- 
tophagus variegatus loringi (p. 393), Lake Albert, Uganda; Colius strialus 
jebelensis (p. 394), Gondokoro. 

These forms are very fully described often with remarks upon allied 
races. — W. S. 

Von Ihering on Brazilian Birds. 2 — Prof, von Ihering has been in- 
vestigating the life histories, habits and structure of various groups of 
Brazilian birds in their bearing on the systematic arrangement of the 
genera. In a recent paper he takes up the cuckoos, 1 arranging them in six 
subfamilies, Phoznicophainoz, Coccyzince, Centropina, Crotophagince, Scy- 
thropince, and Cuculince. Incidentally he discusses the Brazilian birds 
which lay their eggs in the nests of other birds. 

In another paper 3 he writes of the ornithological collection of the Museu 
Paulista and contributes some new observations on the nests and eggs of 
Brazilian birds, considering some 48 species. There is a fine colored plate 
of Phylloscartes paulista and Guracava dijficilis and two other plates of 
nests and eggs. — W. S. 

Allen's ' Birds in their Relation to Agriculture in New York 
State.' 4 — This little pamphlet is a veritable mine of information and its 
very conciseness will appeal to those who have not time to seek out their 
information from a number of more formidable publications, while it will 
undoubtedly carry home the principles of bird conservation to many who 
could not otherwise be reached. 

i Descriptions of New African Birds of the Genera Francolinus, Chalcopelia, 
Cinnyris, Chalcomitra, Anthreptes, Estrilda, Halcyon, Melittophagus, and Colius. 
By Edgar A. Mearns. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 48, pp. 381-394. January 19. 

2 Biologia e Classiflcacao das Cuculidas Brasileiras. Por Hermann von 
Ihering. Revista Mus. Paulista, IX, pp. :571N410. .July, 1914. (In Portuguese 
and German.) 

3 Novas Contribuicoes para a Ornithologia do Brazil. Por Hermann von 
Ihering. Revista Mus. Paulista, IX, pp. 411-488. August, 1914. (In Portu- 
guese and German.) 

4 Birds in their Relation to Agriculture in New York State. By A. A. Allen. 
The Cornell Reading-Courses, IV, No. 76, November 15, 1914, pp. 17-56. 

Zo2 Recent Literature. [April 

The half-tones from original photographs are excellent and varied. The 
common birds are considered under the convenient and rather novel head- 
ings of (1) 'bird and mammal eaters'; (2) 'fish, frog and crayfish eaters', 
including 'stalkers, plungers, divers'; (3) 'insect eaters', — 'strainers, 
probers, scratchers, borers, gleaners' ; (4) 'vegetable feeders', — seed eaters, 
fruit eaters. A convincing colored plate by L. A. Fuertes depicts the 
Horned Owl, Cooper's and Sharp-shinned Hawks devouring respectively a 
chicken, pigeon and robin, while the Marsh Hawk, Red-tailed Hawk and 
Barred Owl are feasting on meadow mice and a rat, and the Sparrow Hawk 
on a grasshopper. Dr. Allen has produced a valuable addition to the 
literature of bird protection, which could be reprinted for use in a much 
wider field with advantage. — W. S. 

Simpson's 'Pheasant Farming'. 1 — This is a most attractive little 
brochure, illustrated by half-tones from photographs and drawings, and a 
colored plate by Bruce Horsfall. The chapter headings give a good idea 
of the contents: 'Propagation of Game Birds'; 'Varieties of Pheasants'; 
'The Chinese Pheasant in Oregon'; 'Equipment for a Pheasant Farm'; 
' The Ideal Mother for Pheasants ' ; ' Food for Young Pheasants ' ; ' Enemies 
of the Game Breeder'; 'Advice to Beginners'. 

The demand for game and the absolute necessity of preventing the 
marketing of native species will make this industry of constantly increasing 
importance and this excellent little pamphlet will be in much demand. — 
W. S. 

Recent Biological Survey Publications. — The ornithological ac- 
tivities of the Survey as set forth in the annual report of the chief, Mr. 
Henry W. Henshaw, 2 covered the food of Wild Ducks; the relation of 
birds to the Boll and Alfalfa Weevils and to the Range Caterpillar; the 
economic status of the Starling; and the general protection and attracting 
of birds and enforcement of the migratory bird law. 

Mr. W. L. McAtee has prepared a timely report on ' How to attract 
Birds ' 3 covering protection of grounds from cats, and the preparations of 
all sorts of feeding and shelter devices. There is also appended a valuable 
list of wild fruit and berry bearing trees and shrubs with their fruiting 
seasons. A report on the food of Robins and Bluebirds 4 by Prof. Beal sets 
forth in great detail the animal and vegetable food of these familiar birds 
as shown by the extended investigations of the Biological Survey. 

1 Pheasant Farming. By 'Gene M. Simpson. Bull. No. 2, Oregon Fish and 
Game Commission, 1914. 

2 Report of Chief of Bureau of Biological Survey. By H. W. Henshaw. Ad- 
vance Sheets from Annual Report of the Dept. of Agriculture for 1914 [Dec. 12, 
1914], pp. 1-12. 

3 How to Attract Birds in Northeastern United States. By W. L. McAtee. 
Farmers Bulletin U. S. Dept. Agr. No. 621, Dec. 14, 1914, pp. 1-15. 

4 Food of the Robins and Bluebirds of the United States. By F. E. L. Beal. 
Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr. No. 171, Feb. 5, 1915. pp. 1-31. 

i9i5 ] Recent Literature*. 253 

In the case of the Robin the birds do no serious damage when their 
normal food supply is abundant, but in sections of New Jersey where the 
birds have been protected for years, they are constantly increasing, while 
the native berry bearing shrubs have been largely supplanted by domestic 
varieties. They are then very destructive to the berry crops and as Prof. 
Beal says: " Under such circumstances there is no doubt that a law allow- 
ing the fruit grower to protect his crop when attacked by birds would be 
proper." The Robin is similarly destructive to the olive plantations of 

The examination of the Bluebird's food " fully justifies the high esteem 
in which the bird is held. It does not prey upon any product of husbandry 
or in any way render itself injurious or annoying." During the berry 
season of spring and early summer it feeds mainly upon insects, its fruit 
eating period being from late fall to early spring when waste fruit is avail- 

Prof. Cooke 1 describes the attempt to secure an estimate of the number 
of breeding birds in various sections of the country during 1914. The plan 
was the same as that outlined in the request for cooperation in a similar 
effort during 1915 which appears in ' Notes and News ' of the present 
issue of ' The Auk.' 

The 1914 census showed the Robin to be the most abundant species in 
the Northeastern States, with the English Sparrow second, followed by the 
Catbird, Brown Thrasher, House Wren, Kingbird and Bluebird. — W. S. 

Economic Ornithology in Recent Entomological Publications. — 

The most emphatic acknowledgement of the economic value of birds in 
any recent entomological paper is that of Mr. J. A. Hyslop in a bulletin on 
" Wireworms attacking cereal and forage crops," 2 who says, " Probably 
the most important factor in keeping wireworms in check are the birds." 
The significance of this statement is apparent from the authors estimate 
that wireworms are among the 5 worst pests of Indian corn, and among 
the 12 worst for wheat and oats. A list is given of 90 species of birds found 
by the Biological Survey to feed upon wireworms. 

In a report on " The grasshopper problem and alfalfa culture," 3 Pro- 
fessor F. M. Webster states that " upward of 100 species of birds are known 
to feed to a greater or less extent upon grasshoppers, but probably the most 
useful in this direction are quails, prairie chickens, the sparrow hawk and 
Swainson hawk, the loggerhead shrike, all cuckoos, the cowbird, all black- 
birds, and meadowlarks, the catbird, and the red-headed woodpecker." 

The results of some original investigations by Messrs. R. N. and T. Scott 
Wilson of the bird enemies of the three cornered alfalfa hopper (Sticto- 

» Preliminary Census of Birds of the United States. By Wells W. Cooke. Bull. 
U. S. Dept. Agr. No. 187, Feb. 11, 1915, pp. 1-11. 

» Bulletin 156, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Jan. 27, 1915, 34 pp. 

« Farmers' Bulletin 637, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Jan. 25, 1915, 10 pp. 

2o4: Recent Literature. [April 

cephala festina) are presented by V. L. Wildermuth. 1 Thirty-one stomachs 
representing 8 species of Arizona birds were examined and specimens of 
the alfalfa hopper found in 10 stomachs. The species of birds eating this 
insect were the Killdeer, Black Phcebe, and Sonoran Red-winged Black- 
bird. A record for the Nighthawk is quoted from Biological Survey records. 

Bird enemies of midges, especially the giant midge (Chironomus plumo- 
sus) are mentioned in various recent papers by A. C. Burrill. 2 The species 
of birds mentioned are the Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow, Kingfisher, Sand- 
pipers, Red-winged Blackbird, English Sparrow, and Palm Warbler. 

In his ninth report 3 as state entomologist of Minnesota, Professor F. L. 
Washburn, includes an article on " Useful Birds found in Minnesota." 
Paragraphs containing brief descriptions of appearance and habits, and the 
more important economic information about 21 species of birds form the 
bulk of the report. Discussion is included also of bad birds, birds of 
doubtful utility, and protection of planted corn from crows and other 
animals.— W. L. M. 

Two Recent Papers on Bird Food by Collinge. — In " Some Observa- 
tions on the food of nestling sparrows," 4 Professor W. E. Colhnge pre- 
sents a comparative study of the food of juvenile Passer domesticus taken 
in fruit-growing and in suburban districts. The report is based on exami- 
nations of more than 280 stomachs, and is a convincing demonstration of 
the powerful influence of availability in controlling the choice of food by 
birds. The illustration of this factor is the occurrence of kitchen refuse 
in 53 out of 87 stomachs of suburban sparrows, and in only one out of 200 
birds collected in fruit-growing regions. 

The results of the study, on the whole, are favorable to the sparrow. 
Professor Colhnge " is of the opinion that if this species were considerably 
reduced in numbers, the good that it would do would probably more than 
compensate for the harm, especially in fruit-growing districts." 

The second paper in hand is a brief summary of the economic importance 
of British Wild Buds. 5 The commoner species are classed in the follow- 
ing groups : 

1. Distinctly injurious — House-sparrow, Bullfinch, Sparrow-hawk, 
Wood-pigeon, and Stock-dove. 

2. Too plentiful, and consequently injurious — Missel Thrush, Black- 
bird, Greenfinch, Chaffinch, Starling, and Rook. 

3. Injurious, but not plentiful — Blackcap. 

i Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. Ill, No. 4, Jan. 15, 1915, p. 360. 

* By the Wayside, Vol. 13, No. 7, March, 1912, pp. 50-51 ; Vol. 14, No. 6, 
February, 1913, p. 44; Bulletin Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. X, Nos. 3-4, April 18, 
1913, pp. 145-146; Vol. XI, Nos. 1-2, June, 1913, p. 66. 

3 Fifteenth Rep. State Entomologist of Minn., 1913-1914, pp. 1-19, Co!. Pis. 
1-3. Also issued as Circular No. 32. 

* Journ. British Board of Agriculture, Vol. XXI, No. .7, October, 1914. 
6 Nature. Jan. 7, 1915. 

1915 J Recent Literature. 255 

4. Neutral — Jay. 

5. Beneficial — Song Thrush, Fieldfare, White-throat, Great Tit, 
Blue Tit, Wren, Goldfinch, Linnet, Yellow Bunting, Magpie, Jackdaw, 
Skylark, Barn Owl, Brown Owl, Kestrel, and Plover. — W. L. M. 

' First Report of the Brush Hill Bird Club.' l — The reviewer had the 
pleasure, in March, 1914, of inspecting a most interesting exhibit of mate- 
rials for attracting birds. The well prepared report here cited puts into 
permanent form the valuable features of that exhibit. It discusses nesting 
boxes and their use, and tells where they can be obtained. Similar informa- 
tion is given for bird baths. 

A collection of the seeds and fruits available to birds at the time of the 
bird show was an important and effectively arranged exhibit. The kinds 
are listed in the present report, and their value commented upon. Ad- 
dresses are given of firms from whom various dried berries and grains can 
be purchased; also a list with publishers of the more important books, 
pamphlets and journals relating to birds. 

National and State game laws are reprinted, and the relations of the bird 
club work to schools are emphasized. The report includes also a list, by 
Mr. Ralph E. Forbes, of birds seen in and about Milton during the years 
1904 to 1914. 

The striking success of the exhibit, which was open for two months and 
had an attendance of from 40 to 94 persons daily, and the usefulness of 
the ' First Report of the Brush Hill Bird Club ' must be reckoned, in large 
part, personal achievements of the genial and energetic general manager, 
Dr. Harris Kennedy. — W. L. M. 

Recent Reports on Game and Bird Protection.— The New Jersey 
Audubon Society presents a very creditable report 2 for the year 1914 and 
in Bulletin No. 9 makes an appeal for greater support and additional 
members which should be met by the bird lovers of the State. There is 
also an exquisite photograph of the Long-billed Marsh Wren and nest by 
Francis Harper illustrating an article on the second nesting of the species 
by Mary P. Allen. 

Mr. W. L. Finley's attractive ' Oregon Sportsman ' 3 continues to keep 
alive interest in game and bird protection in his State while the recently 
established ' California Fish and Game ' edited by H. C. Bryant 4 does the 
same for the great commonwealth lying south of it. In the January 
number, Joseph Grinnell and the editor have an article on the Wood Duck 
in California. — W. S. 

1 Milton, Mass., 1914, 123 pp., 6 pis., 1 map. 

* Fourth Annual Report of the New Jersey Audubon Society. Oct. 6, 1914. 

3 The Oregon Sportsman. Wm. L. Finley, Editor. December, 1914, Janu- 
ary, 1915. 

4 California Fish and Game. H. C. Bryant, Editor, Jan., 1915. 

256 Recent Literature. Anni 


The Ornithological Journals. 1 

Bird-Lore. Vol. XVII, No. 1. January-February, 1915. 

Bird-life in Southern Illinois. II. By Robert Ridgway. 

The Story of a Red-tailed Hawk — Part 1. By Mrs. A. B. Morgan. 

How Winter Thins Their Ranks. By J. W. Lippincott. 

Migration Notes of N. A. Sparrows. By W. W. Cooke. Plumage notes 
by F. M. Chapman. Color Plate by L. A. Fuertes. This paper concludes 
the series. 

Bird-Lore's Fifteenth Christmas Census, shows an increase in the num- 
ber of reports as well as their thoroughness. Some editorial correction 
would seem warranted in such a case as that of the Chickadees since the 
record of both species in South Carolina, where only the Carolina is known, 
will prove confusing. 

The Audubon department is full of interest while the Educational 
Leaflet treats of the Loon with a color plate by Brooks. 

The Condor. Vol. XVI, No. 6. November-December, 1914. 

A Forty-five Year History of the Snowy Heron in Utah. By A., E. and 
A. O. Treganza. 

The effects of Irrigation on Bird Life in the Yakima Valley, Washington. 
By Clarence H. Kennedy.— An estimated increase of 60,000 birds. 

Breeding of the Bronzed Cowbird in Arizona. By M. F. Gilman. 

The Condor. Vol. XVII, No. 1. January-February, 1915. 

With Rallus in the Texas Marsh. By G. F. Simmons. 

The Nesting of the Black Swift. By W. L. Dawson. — Corroborating 
the breeding of the species at Santa Cruz. " 

The Kern Redwing — Agelaius phceniceus aciculatus subsp. nov. (p. 13). 
Isabella, Kern Co., Cal. By Jos. Mailliard. 

The Status of the Arizona Spotted Owl. By H. S. Swarth. 

Birds Observed on Forrester Island, Alaska During the Summer of 1913. 
By Harold Heath. 

Birds of the Boston Mountains, Arkansas. By Austin P. Smith. 

The Wilson Bulletin. Vol. XXVI, No. 4. December, 1914. 

Notes on a Northern Robin Roost. By A. R. Abel. 

The Birds of the Douglas Lake Region. By Jas. S. Compton. 

A Hermit Thrush Study. By Cordelia J. Stanwood. 

A Brief Study of the Nest Life of the Black-throated Green Warbler. 
By Cordelia J. Stanwood. 

The Determination of the Food of Nesting Birds. By A. R. Cahn. 

A Flight of Shore-birds near Youngstown, Ohio. By J. P. Young. 

Corrections of the A. O. U. Check-List in Regard to Birds of Ohio. By 
W. F. Henninger. 

1 The names of the editor and publisher of each journal will be found in the 
January number of ' The Auk.' 


'i9i5 J Recent Literature. 257 

Nineteen Years of Bird Migration at Oberlin, Ohio. By Lynds Jones. 

Discouraging the English Sparrow. By T. H. Whitney. 

The Oologist. Vol. XXI, No. 12. December 15, 1914. 

A Great Flight of Grebes. By R. B. Simpson. — At Warren, Pa. 

Nine Unusual and Interesting Experiences. By G. A. Abbott. — Nest- 
ing of Marbled Godwit, etc. 

The Oologist. Vol. XXII, No. 1. January 15, 1915. 

Nesting of the Great Gray Owl in Central Alberta. By A. D. Henderson. 

Numerous papers on nesting of other Owls. 

Blue-Bird. Vol. VII, No. 4. January, 1915. 

The Last Passenger Pigeon. By R. W. Shufeldt. — With a reproduction 
of a photograph of the head taken from the dead bird. 

The Brown Creeper at Home. By Cordelia J. Stanwood. — With ex- 
cellent photographs of nests and young and careful detailed study. 

Farming Birds in Iowa. By Florence L. Clark.— Farms made into 
bird refuges by agreement of owners to allow nothing but predatory animals 
to be killed thereon. 

The Ibis. X Series, Vol. Ill, No. 1. January, 1915. 

On a Collection of Birds from British East Africa and Uganda, presented 
to the British Museum by Capt. G. S. Cozens. Part I. By Claude H. B. 
Grant. — The collection was made by Mr. Willoughby P. Lowe who ac- 
companied Capt. Cozens, and the trip extended from September 21, 1912, 
to March 7, 1913, covering country between Naivasha and the German 
border and then northwest to the White Nile. The various geographic 
races are discussed and compared under each species. 

A Recent Ornithological Discovery in Australia. By Gregory M. 
Mathews. — A geographic and historical discussion of rthe avifauna of 
northern Australia. 

The Crested Penguin in Australian Waters. By H. Stuart Dove. 

Report of the Birds collected by the late Mr. Boyd Alexander during 
his last Expedition to Africa — Part II. The Birds of St. Thomas' Island. 
By David A. Bannerman.— Sixty-five species. 

Note on the Genus Ithagenes. By E. C. Stuart Baker. — Excellent 
colored plate of the heads. 

A Few Notes on Tetrao urogallus and its Allies. By Collingwood 
Ingram. — T. u. aquitanicus subsp. nov. (p. 132) from the Pyrenees. 

Notes on the Bird Life of Eastern Algeria. By Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain. — 
With Contributions by H. M. Walles and F. R. Ratcliff— 197 species 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. No. CCI. Novem- 
ber 24, 1914. 

Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert (p. 24)\iescribe Ceyx solitaria mulcata 
subsp. nov., New Hanover. 

Mr. D. A. Bannerman discusses the birds of the islands of the Gulf of 

Mr. Claude Grant describes Scopus umbretta bannermani subsp. nov. 

258 Recent Literature. [April 

(p. 27), Mt. Leganisho, B. E. A., also Halycon leucocephala ogilviei subsp. 
nov. (p. 28), So. Angoniland, Nyasaland and H. senegalensis superflua, 
subsp. nov. (p. 28), Limpopo R., Transvaal. 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. No. CCII. 

Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert describe Dicceum geelvinkianum rosseli 
(p. 32), Rossel Island, Louisiade Group. 

Dr. Hartert describes Callisitta azurea expectata (p. 34), Pahang, Malay- 
Peninsula, Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, Collocalia hirundinacea excelsa (p. 34), 
C. esculenta maxima (p. 35), and C. nitens (p. 35), all from the Utakwa River, 
Snow Mts. of New Guinea. 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. No. CCIII. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild discusses the nomenclature and relationship 
of the " Masked Gannets." He concludes that the name Sula dactylatra 
should be used instead of S. cyanops and recognizes five subspecies of 
which S. d. californica (p. 43) is described as new from San Benedicto 
Island, the form ranging along the Calif ornian and Central American coasts. 

Mr. W. L. Sclater points out that the type of the genus Sula is Sula sula 
Brisson — S. leucogastra Bodd. He also contributes some short biographi- 
cal notices of Bonaparte, Gould, Strickland and Jardine. 

Mr. D. A. Bannerman describes Poliolais alexanderi (p. 53) from 
Cameroon and Zosterops stenocricota poensis (p. 54), Fernando, Po. 

Mr. Claude H. B. Grant proposes Centropus superciliosus loanda? (p. 54) 
Dalla Tando, Angola; C. s. sokotrce, (p. 55), Sokotra; and Melittophagus 
variegatus bangweoloensis (p. 55) Lake Bangweolo, N. E. Rhodesia. 

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. Vol. XXXIV. 

This volume of 344 pages consists of the Migration Report for the spring 
of 1913 and autumn of 1912. It follows the plan of the preceding reports 
and contains an enormous amount of detailed information. Reports were 
received from 327 observers and light keepers. The Committee which 
tabulated the data recognize several distinct immigrations across the 
channel from France. In the case of the Cuckoo these occurred April 
14-16, April 19-24 and April 27-May 1. 

British Birds. Vol. VIII, No. 7. December 1, 1914. 

Feeding-habits of the Sparrow Hawk. By W. Farron. 

The ' British Birds ' Marking Scheme. Progress for 1914 and Some 
Results. By H. F. Witherby. — A most interesting report. 

British Birds. Vol. VIII, No. 8. January 1, 1915. 

Notes on the Breeding-Habits of the Curlew Sandpiper. By Maud D. 
Haviland. — At the mouth of the Yenesei River. 

A Practical Study of Bird Ecology. By H. G. Alexander. 

British Birds. Vol., VIII, No. 9. February 1, 1915. 

Notes on the Breeding-Habits of the Little Stint. By Maud D. Havi- 
land. — At Golchika, mouth of the Yenesei. 

Report on the Results of Ringing Black-Headed Gulls. By H. W. 
Robinson.— During the years 1909-1913, 11,769 of these Gulls were banded 
in the nest. Of these 414 have been recovered. 

1915 J Recent Literature. 259 

Avicultural Magazine. Vol. VI, No. 2. December, 1914. 

Cranes in Captivity. Edit. 

The Pigeon Hollandais. By Graham Renshaw. — Historical account 
of Alectroenas. 

Weavers. By W. Shore Baily. — Photograph of nests in his aviary. 

English Names for the Parrots. By Dr. E. Hopkinson. — A convenient 
compilation, continued in Nos. 3 and 4. 

Avicultural Magazine. Vol. VI, No. 3. January, 1915. 

Birds of Paradise on Little Tobago. By O. Millsum. — The birds are 
still doing well. 

Avicultural Magazine. Vol. VI, No. 4. February, 1915. 

My Hummingbirds and How I Obtained Them. By A. Ezra. — Interest- 
ing account of exportation and successful keeping of several West Indian 

Bird Notes. Vol. V, No. 11. November, 1914. 

A Journey Across the Sierras. By W. S. Baily (continued). — Mr. 
Baily's amusing disregard of the published information on American birds 
is still in evidence. Of Pica nuttalli he tells us he has seen a good many 
in the Rocky Mts. in Utah and Wyoming! In the December number is a 
continuation in which we are informed of the presence of the " White- 
eyed Grackle (Quiscalus quiscalus agelceus) " in the Santa Clara Valley — 
surely a new species for California!! 

Bird Notes. Vol. VI, No. 1. January, 1915. 

Foreign Birds at the Show. By W. T. Page. — A plate of interesting 
hybrid Weavers, Finches and Bulbuls. 

The Austral Avian Record. Vol. II, No. 6. December 19, 1914. 

On the Species and Subspecies of the genus Fregata. By G. M. Mathews. 

— The bird of Ascension Island upon which the name Pelecanus aquilus of 
Linnseus is based proves to be quite distinct from the common widely 
distributed form which must be known as Fregata minor Gm. Eight sub- 
species of this bird are proposed and two of F. ariel, the form of the A. O. U. 
Check-List is true minor. 

The Austral Avian Record. Vol. II, No. 7. January 28, 1915. 

Additions and Corrections to my List of the Birds of Australia. By 
G. M. Mathews. — Two new genera and 57 new subspecies or species 
are described. 

Notes on Some Australian Types. By G. M. Mathews. 

Diggles' Ornithology of Australia and Other Works. By G. M. Mathews. 

— Seven species described in the ' Transactions of the Philosophical 
Society of Queensland ' were from the Aru Islands, not from Australia. 

The Dates of Publication of Vieillot's Galerie des Oiseaux. By G. M. 

The South Australian Ornithologist. Vol. II, Part 1. January, 

Notes on some of the Birds observed on Mount Dandenong, Victoria, 
October, 1914. By Edwin Ashby. 

260 Recent Literature. [April 

Birds of the Cairns District, Queensland. No. 1. By G. M. Mathews. 

A Sketch of the Life of Samuel White. By S. A. White. 

Ornithologisches Jahrbuch. 1 XXV, Heft 3-4. May- August, 1914, 
(October 27, 1914.) [In German.] 

Review of Bird Migration in Ascania Nova, Taurien Govt., Southern 
Russia. By H. Grote. 

On the Birds of the Irkutsk Govt. By H. Johansen. — Hypotriorchis 
subbuteo irkutensis (p. 83) subsp. nov. Dorfe Omoloi (Kreis Kirensk). 

Remarks and Criticisms on Publications on Certain Species of Birds of 
the Canaries. By R. von Thanner. 

Journal fiir Ornithologie. 2 62, Heft 4. October, 1914. [In German.] 

The Phylogeny of the Thrushes. By J. Gengler (concluded). 

Contributions to the Ornithology of Prussian Schlesia. By C. Keyser 

Birds of the Middle Kergisensteppe. By P. P. Suschkin (concluded). 

South Somaliland as a Zoogeographic Division. By O. Graf Zedlitz. — 
List of 98 species (continued in January number to 194 species). 

Journal fiir Ornithologie. 63, Heft 1. January, 1915. 

Some New Forms of Central African Birds in the Grauer Collection. 
By Moriz Sassi— Hyliota slatini (p. 112), Beni; Phyllastrephus lorenzi 
(p. 112), Moera; Geocichla princei graueri (p. 113), Moera; G. gurneyi 
oberlanderi (p. 115), Beni-Mawambi; G. g. tanganjicae (p. 116), Urwald; 
Cossypha bocagei albimentalis (p. 117), Urwald. 

On a Small Collection of Birds from Northern Mesopotamia. By O. 

New Species. By A. Reichenow. — Oreopsittacus arfaki intermedins 
(p. 124), New Guinea; Centropus senegalensis tschadensis (p. 124), Tschad 
district, Central Africa; Aethomyias nigrifrons (p. 124), New Guinea; 
Microeca poliocephala (p. 124), New Guinea; Pachycephala hypoleuca 
p. 125), New Guinea; Melanorhectes umbrinus (p. 125), New Guinea; 
Ploceus melanolcema (p. 125), Fernando Po.; Zosterops setschuana (p. 125), 
Ta-tsieng-lu-ting in Setschuan; Cleptornis palauensis (p. 125), Palau; 
Melirrhophetes rufocrissalis (p. 126), New Guinea; Melilestes chloreus 
(p. 126), New Guinea; Philemonopsis meyeri canescens (p. 126), New 
Guinea; Ptilotis simplex (p. 126), New Guinea; Xanthotis chlorolcema 
(p. 127), New Guinea; X. melanolcema (p. 127), New Guinea; Thelazo- 
menus n. gen. (p. 127), allied to Xanthotis, type T. pcecilocercus (p. 127), 
New Guinea; Chalcomitra adamauce (p. 127), Adamaua; C. tanganjicce 
(p. 128), Urwald; Phyllastrephus leucolcema camerunensis (p. 128), Duma, 
Cameroons. Camaroptera caniceps (p. 128), Duma; Crateroscelis virgata 
(p. 128), New Guinea; C. albigula (p. 128), New Guinea; Pseudopitta n. 
gen. (p. 129) type Eupetes incertus Salvad; Crateropus jardinei hypobrun- 

1 Edited by Victor Ritter Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Hallein, Salzburg Austria. 

2 Edited for the German Ornithological Society by Dr. A. Reichenow. L. A. 
Kittler, Leipzig, Agent. 

1*9 15* J Recent Literature. 261 

neus (p. 129), Amadi, Congo dist.; Bradornis pallidus tessmanni (p. 129), 
Carmot, E. Cameroon. 

On Pelecanus sharpei. By A. Reichenow. 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte. Vol. 22, No. 10-11. October- 
November, 1914. [In German.] 

Emberiza melanocephala Scop, and its division into two races. — E. m. 
orientalis sp. n., (p. 159) Eastern Sarpa-steppe. 

Description of a New Weaver-bird from Abyssinia. By J. v. Madarasz. 
— Othyphantes edmundi (p. 161). 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte. Vol. 22, No. 12. December, 1914. 

Ornithological Observations on a Trip through Uhehe and Ubena 
[Africa]. By L. Schuster. 

Messager Ornithologique. 1 V, No. 3. 1914. [In Russian.] 

Contributions to the Ornithology of the Tomsk Govt. By H. Johansen 
(continued from 1912, No. 4). 

The Species and Races of Remiza of Russian Turkestan. By N. A. 

Messager Ornithologique. V, No. 4. 1914. [In Russian.] 

An Ornithological Excursion in Eastern Transcaucasia. By W. W. 

A New Pheasant from Turkestan. By N. A. Sarudny. Phasianus 

mongolicus bergii subsp. nov. (p. 277). 

An Unnamed Saxicola. By N. A. Sarudny. — S. finschii neglecta subsp- 
nov. (p. 279). 

On the Avifauna of Transcaucasia. By P. W. Nesterow (continued from 
1913, No. 3). 

On the Rosy Finch of Turkestan. By N. A. Sarudny. 

A Hybrid between Nyroca ferina and N. nyroca. By N. A. Sarudny. 

Messager Ornithologique. VI, No. 1. 1915. [In Russian.] 

Pages 5-8 contain a convenient list of the new names proposed in the 
' Messager ', 1910-1914, consisting of 1 genus, 2 species and 55 subspecies. 

On the Avifauna of the Ussuri country. By G. J. Poljakow. — Perdix 
daurica suschkini subsp. nov. (p. 38); Bubo bubo ussuriensis subsp. nov. 
(p- 44). 

Contributions to the Ornithology of Turkestan. By N. A. Sarudny 
(continued from 1913, No. 4). 

Some Remarks on the Geographic Distribution of Cyanistes cyanus and 
on the Origin of C. pleskei Cab. By J. Domaniewski. 

1 Edited by G. I. Poljakow, Gut. " Sawino," Oberalowka, Moscow Govt. 
Russia. > 

262 Recent Literature. 


Ornithological Articles in Other Journals. 1 

Galloway, A. R. and Thomson, A. L. Notes on High Mortality 
among Young Common Terns in Certain Seasons. (Scottish Naturalist, 
December, 1914.) — On the Scottish coast. 

Clyve, Robert. Notes on Birds Observed at the Butt of Lewis [He- 
brides]. (Scottish Naturalist, February, 1915.) 

Taverner, P. A. Geological Survey Museum Work on Point Pelee, 
Ont. (Ottawa Naturalist, November, 1914.) — Largely ornithological. 

Allen, Arthur A. The Paramo of Santa Isabel. (Amer. Museum 
Jour., January, 1915.) 

The Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition. By L. E. Miller. 
(Amer. Museum Jour., February, 1915.) — This and the preceding give 
accounts of two of the American Museum's recent expeditions. 

Clark, A. H. Distribution of the Onychophora. (Smithson. Misc. 
Coll. 65, No. 1, Jan. 4, 1915.) — Pages 6-8 discuss the question of primary 
and secondary colonization in migratory birds, the latter being exemplified 
in species which have spread from the tropics to summer in temperate 
regions, by individuals which revert and breed sporadically in the tropics. 

Yerkes, R. M. Color Vision in the Ring-Dove (Turtur risorius). 
(Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., I, No. 2, pp. 117-119.) 

Brother Alphonsus. Distribution of Our Birds in Spring and in Winter. 
(Amer. Midland Naturalist, January, 1915.) — Comparisons of several 
seasons based on the number of times each species was recorded. As there 
are no data as to the amount of time or the number of days devoted to 
observation, the results are rather unsatisfactory. 

Bartsch, Paul. Birds Observed in the Florida Keys, April 20-30, 1914. 
(Year Book, No. 13, Carnegie Inst, of Washington, pp. 192-195.) — A 
brief diary of observations and a nominal list of 47 species. 

Wormald, Hugh. Courtship of Ducks and Notes on Hybrids with 
Illustrations. (Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Sci. Soc, IX, pt. V, 
pp. 693-701.) 

Anon. Wild Birds Protection in Norfolk, 1914. (do. pp. 765-769.) 

Riviere, B. B. Notes on the Autumn Migration on the Norfolk Coast. 
(do. pp. 770-773.) 

Gurney, J. H. The Irruption of Waxwings into Norfolk during the 
Winter of 1913-14. (do. pp. 773-775.) 

Long, S. H. and Riviere, B. B. Fauna and Flora of Norfolk. Addi- 
tions to Part XL Birds (Sixth List), (do. pp. 784-797.) 

Baker, E. C. Stuart. The Game Birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. 

1 Some of these journals are received in exchange, other are examined in the 
library of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The Editor is under 
obligations to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn for a list of ornithological articles contained in the 
accessions to the library from week to week. 

1915 J Recent Literature. 263 

(Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, November, 1914, pp. 183-196.) — Two 
beautiful colored plates of Sand Grouse. 

Stevens, H. Notes on the Birds of Upper Assam (do.) — A well 
annotated list containing in the present installment 243 species. The 
preservation of the original form of a word is carried to the extreme of 
refusing to change the termination of the specific name to agree with the 
gender of the genus! 

Harrington, H. H. Notes on the Indian Timeliides and their Allies 
(continued), (do. pp. 311-340.) — A careful discussion of the relationship 
of the genera and species, with descriptions and distribution. The follow- 
ing new forms are proposed: Trochaic- pterum erythrocephalum woodi (p. 317) 
Burma; Pomatorhinus horsfieldi trancoreensis (p., 333), Peermall, S. India; 
P. ruficollis bakeri (p. 336), Shillong. 

$ Baker, E. C. Stuart. On a Small Collection of Birds from the Meshmi 
Hills, N. E. Frontier of India. (Records of the Indian Museum, IX, pt. V, 
pp. 251-254.) — A list of ten species containing much information on 
Ithaginis cruenlus kuseri. 

Wait, W. E. The Distribution of Birds in Ceylon and its Relation to 
recent Geological Changes in the Island. (Spolia Zeylanica, X, December, 
1914, pp. 1-32.) — An important paper consisting of detailed data on dis- 
tribution upon which generalizations are based. Of the two faunal divi- 
sions of Ceylon, the Northern tract which is allied to the Carnatic area of 
the Indian peninsula, contains absolutely identical species; but the relation 
of the Southern Hill tract to the Malabar Coast is more remote, consisting 
only in " close correspondence of type." 

Warren, E. A Case of Hybridism among Cockatoos. (Annals Natal 
Mus. Ill, pp. 7-28, pi. Ill, September, 1914.) — A male Cacatua galerita 
mated with a female Licmetis nasica and two hybrids were reared. They 
showed an intimate mixture of characters and no simple Mendelian rela- 
tionship was exhibited. A considerable discussion of hybrids between 
wild species with relation to Mendelism follows. 

Benham, Professor. The Nomenclature of the Birds of New Zealand: 
being an Abstract of Mathew's and Iredale's Reference List. (Trans. & 
Proc, New Zealand Inst., XLVI, pp. 188-204.) 

Philpott, Alfred. Notes on the Buds of Southwestern Otago. (do. 
pp. 205-212.) 

Hill, H. The Moa-Legendary, Historical and Geological: Why and 
when the Moa disappeared, (do. pp. 330-351.) 

Magnan, M. A. On the Length of the Tail and the Acuteness of the 
Wing in Birds. (Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, 1913, No. 8, pp. 622- 
631.) [In French.] 

Raspail, Xavier. Ornithological Observations made on the Belgian 
Coast, 1877-78. [In French.] 

Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Viktor Ritter. Ornithological Gleanings 
from Austro-Hungary. (Zool. Beobachter, LV, Nos. 9-11, pp. 236-243, 
291-297, September and November, 1914.) [In German.] 

264 Recent Literature. [April 

Wild Life. Dec, 1914, Jan., 1915, contains beautiful photographic 
reproductions of Willow Warblers, Coots, Spoonbills, Ravens, Pied Wagtail 
and of the Rhinoceros covered with "Rhino birds," Buphagus erythro- 

Trouessart, E. The Influence of the War on the fauna of the Country 
and the Migration of Birds. (La Nature, Ann. 43, No. 2155, pp. 33-35.) 
[In French.] 

Tischler, F. Die Vogel der Provinz Ostpreussen. (W. Junk Berlin, 
1914, royal 8vo., pp. 1-331.) — Treats of 305 species and subspecies. 
Historical preface with plate of prominent ornithologists of the region. 
[In German.] 

Publications Received. — Allen, A. A. (1) Birds in their Relation to 
Agriculture in New York State. (The Cornell Reading-Course, Vol. IV, 
No. 76. Nov. 15, 1914.) (2) The Paramo of Santa Isabel. (Amer. Mus. 
Jour., XV, Jan. 1915, pp. 3-8.) 

Allen, Glover M. Pattern Development in Mammals and Birds. 
(Amer. Nat., 1914, pp. 385-412, 467-484, 550-566.) 

Beal, F. E. L. (1) Some Common Birds Useful to the Farmer. (U. S. 
Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bull. 630, Feb. 13, 1915.) (2) Food of the Robins 
and Bluebirds of the United States. (Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr., 171, Feb. 5, 

Brabourne, Lord, and Chubb, Charles. (1) A Key to the Species of 
the Genus Crypturus with Descriptions of some new Forms. (Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, Vol. XIV, Oct., 1914, pp. 319-322.) (2) A Synopsis 
of the Genus Tinamus. (do. Vol. XII, Dec, 1913, pp. 577-579.) 

British Ornithologists' Union Committee. A List of British Birds. 
Second and Revised Edition. London, 1915. Wm. Wesley & Son. 
Price 7s. 6d. 

Buckland, James. The Value of Birds to Man. (Smithson. Rept. 
for 1913, pp. 439-458.) 

Clark, Austin H. The Present Distribution of the Onychophora, a 
Group of Terrestrial Invertebrates. [Distribution of birds discussed.] 
(Smithson. Misc. Coilns., 65, No. 1. Jan. 4, 1915.) 

Cleaves, Howard H. What the American Bird Banding Association 
has Accomplished During 1912. (Smithson. Rept. for 1913, pp. 469-479.) 
(Reprinted from ' The Auk.') 

Cooke, Wells W. Preliminary Census of Birds of the United States. 
(Bull. U. S. Dept. Agr., 187, Feb. 11, 1915.) 

Grinnell, Joseph. Barriers to Distribution as Regards Birds and 
Mammals. (Amer. Nat., XLVIII, April, 1914, pp. 248-254.) 

Hankin, E. H. Animal Flights: A Record of Observation. Iliffe & 
Sons, Ltd. London [1913?]. Price 12s 6d. net. 

Henshaw, Henry W. Report of the Chief of Bureau of Biological 
Survey. (Advance sheets from Ann. Repts., U. S. Dept. Agr., 1914.) 

Hornaday, William T. Wild Life Conservation in Theory and Practice. 
Yale Univ. Press., New Haven, Conn., 1914. Price $1.50. 

° 1915 ] Recent Literature. 265 

Huxley, Julian S. (1) The Courtship-Habits of the Great Crested 
Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) : with an Addition to the Theory of Sexual 
Selection. (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Sept., 1914, pp. 491-562.) (2) A 
" Disharmony " in the Reproduction Habits of the Wild Duck (Anas 
boschas, L.) (Biol. CentralbL, XXXII, No. 10, Oct. 20, 1912.) 

Ihering, Hermann von. (1) Biologia e Classificacao das Cuculidas 
Brasileiras. (Revista Mus. Paulista, IX, July, 1914, pp. 371-410.) (2) 
Novas Contribuicoes para a Ornithologia do Brazil, (do. Aug., 1914, 
pp. 411-488.) 

McAtee, W. L. How to Attract Birds in Northeastern United States. 
(Farmers' Bull., 621, U. S. Dept. Agr., Dec. 14, 1914.) 

Mailliard, Joseph. The Kern Redwing — Agelaius phamiceus acicula- 
tus. (The Condor, XVII, pp. 12-15, Jan., 1915.) 

Mearns, Edgar A. Descriptions of New African Birds of the Genera 
Francolinus, Chalcopelia, Cinnyris, Chalcomitra, Anthreptes, Estrilda, 
Halcyon, Melittophagus, and Colius. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 48, pp. 
381-394, Jan. 19, 1915.) 

Murphy, Robert Cushman. A Report on the South Georgia Expedi- 
tion. (Science Bull., Mus. Brooklyn Inst., Vol. 2, No. 4, Nov. 5, 1914.) 

National Association of Audubon Societies, Inc. Tenth Annual Report. 
(Bird-Lore, 1914, pp. 481-565.) 

New Jersey Audubon Society. Fourth Annual Report. 

Phillips, John C. Experimental Studies of Hybridization Among 
Ducks and Pheasants. (Jour. Exper. Zool., Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan., 1915, 
pp. 69-112.) 

Sherman, Althea R. Experiments in Feeding Hummingbird Birds 
During Seven Summers. (Smithson. Rept. for 1913, pp. 459-468.) (Re- 
printed from the ' Wilson Bulletin,' 1913.) 

Shufeldt, R. W. (1) On the Skeleton of the Ocellated Turkey (Agrio- 
charis ocellata) with notes on the osteology of other Meleagridse. (Aquila, 
Vol. XXI, 1914, pp. 1-52.) (2) Review of the Wild Geese of North 
America, Part I. (Outers' Book, Feb., 1915.) (3) New Light on the 
Great Toothed Divers of America. (Sci. Amer., Jan. 23, 1915.) 

Simpson, 'Gene M. Pheasant Farming. (Bull. 2, Oregon Fish and 
Game Com.) 

Smith, Harlan I. Handbook of the Rocky Mountains Museum. 
Ottawa, 1914. 

Snethlage, Dr. Emilia. Catalogo das Aves Amazonicas contendo 
todas as especies descriptas e mencionadas ate 1913. (Boletim do Mus. 
Goeldi, Vol. VIII, Para Brazil, 1914. 

Taverner, P. A. A New Species of Dendragapus (Dendragapus ob- 
scurus flemingi) from Southern Yukon Territory. (Mus. Bull. No. 7, Cana- 
dian Geol. Survey, Dec. 20, 1914.) (Reprinted from ' The Auk.') 

Abstract Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Nos. 

American Museum Journal, The, XIV, No. 8, December, 1914; Nos. 
1 and 2, January and February, 1915. 

266 Recent Literature. [April 

Austral Avian Record, Vol. II, Nos. 6-7, December 19, 1914, and Jan- 
uary 28, 1915. 

Australian Museum, Records, Vol. X, No. 10, October 31, 1914. 
Report for year ending June 30, 1914. 

Avicultural Magazine, (3) VI, 2-4, December, 1914-February, 1915. 

Bird Lore, XVII, No. 1, January-February, 1915. 

Bird Notes and News, Vol. VI, No. 4, Winter, 1914. 

Blue-Bird, Vol. VII, Nos. 3^, December, 1914-January, 1915. 

British Birds, VIII, Nos. 7-9, December, 1914-February, 1915. 

Bulletin British Ornith. Club, Nos. CCI-CCIII, November 24, Decem- 
ber 29, 1914; and January 27, 1915. Vol. XXXIV, December, 1914. 

Bulletin of the Charleston Museum, X, No. 8, December, 1914. XI, 
No. 1, January, 1915. 

California Fish and Game, I, No. 2, January, 1915. 

Condor, The, XVI, No. 6, November-December, 1914, Vol. XVII, 
No. 1, January-February, 1915. 

Forest and Stream, LXXXIII, Nos. 25-26. LXXXIV, Nos. 1 and 2. 

Ibis, The, (10) III, No. 1, January, 1915. 

Messager Ornithologique, 1914, No. 3, 4: 1915, No. 1. 

Michigan Game, Fish and Forestry Warden, Annual Report, 1913-1914. 

New Jersey Audubon Bulletin, No. 8, January, 1915. 

Oologist, The, XXXII, Nos. 1, 2, January and February, 1915. 

Oregon Sportsman, The, II, No. 12, December, 1914. Ill, No. 1, Jan- 
uary, 1915. 

Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, XXV, Heft 3^4, May-August, 1914. 

Ottawa Naturalist, The, XXVIII, Nos. 8-10, November, 1914-January, 

Proceedings of the Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, LXVI, Pt. 3, Septem- 
ber-December, 1914. 

Proceedings Nat. Acad. Sci., I, Nos. 1 and 2, January and February, 

Proceedings of the Nebraska Ornithologists' Union, Vol. VI, Pt. 1 and 2, 
February, 1915. 

Revista do Museu Paulista, Vol. IX, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Science, N. S., XL, Nos. 1042-1053; XLI, Nos. 1044-1055. 

Scottish Naturalist, The, Nos. 36-38, December, 1914-February, 1915. 

South Australian Ornithologist, II, Part 1, January, 1915. 

Wilson Bulletin, The, XXVI, No. 4, December, 1914. 

Zoologist, The, (4) XVIII, No. 216, December, 1914. XIX, No. 217, 
January, 1915. 



Correspondence. 267 

A Bird Census of the United States. 

Editor of ' The Auk ' : 

Dear Sir: A preliminary census of the birds of the United States was 
undertaken by the Bureau of Biological Survey during the spring of 1914. 
The results were so encouraging that the work is to be repeated in the spring 
of 1915 on a larger scale, and will probably be repeated yearly hereafter in 
order to obtain permanent records showing the fluctuations in the bird 
population of the United States. Observers are particularly desired in 
the West and South and it is hoped that the readers of ' The Auk ' will be 
able to render valuable assistance in the campaign for the coming 
season. Anyone familiar with the birds nesting in his neighborhood can 
help, more particularly as only about the equivalent of one day's work is 

The general plan is to select an area containing not less than 40 nor more 
than 80 acres that fairly represents the average conditions of the district 
with reference to the proportions of plowed land, meadowland, and woods, 
and go over this selected area early in the morning during the height of the 
nesting season and count the singing males, each male being considered to 
represent a nesting pair. In the latitude of Washington, D. C, the best 
time is the last week in May; in the South the counting should be done 
ear her; while in New England and the northern part of the Mississippi 
Valley about June 10 is the proper time. The morning count should be 
supplemented by visits on other days to make sure that all the birds previ- 
ously noted are actually nesting within the prescribed area and that no 
species has been overlooked. 

Readers of 'The Auk' and others who are willing to volunteer for this 
work are requested to send their names and addresses to the Biological 
Survey, Washington, D. C. Full directions for making the census and 
blank forms for the report will be forwarded in time to permit well con- 
sidered plans to be formulated before the time for actual field work. As the 
Bureau has no funds available for the purpose, it must depend on the 
services of voluntary observers. 

Very truly yours, 

U. S. Dept. Agr. E. W. Nelson. 

Feb. 16, 1915. . Assistant Chief, Biological Survey. 

[It is to be hoped that the readers of 'The Auk' will respond promptly 
to Mr. Nelson's appeal. The Biological Survey has done so much for both 
birds and bird students throughout the country that this request for cooper- 
ation should meet with a hearty response. — Ed.]. 

268 Notes and News. 

f Auk 


Louis di Zerega Mearns, formerly an Associate of the American 
Ornithologists' Union, died of diphtheria at the Sydenham Hospital, 
Baltimore, Maryland, April 3, 1912. He was bom at Fort Verde, in cen- 
tral Arizona, November 5, 1886. He was graduated from the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, at Troy, New York, in the class of 1909, with the 
degree of C. E. After graduating from the Institute he spent a year and a 
half at the Dudley Southern Observatory, at San Luis, Argentine Re- 
public, and after his return from South America, he was employed for some 
time in the observatory at Albany, New York. Shortly before his death 
he accepted a position with the Baltimore Sewerage Commission. 

Throughout his life he was deeply interested in nature studies and was 
especially devoted to biology. His observations were recorded with 
fidelity and clearness. In the field he was a delightful companion, an 
accurate and quick shot with shotgun or rifle, and a clever and successful 
mammal trapper. He began a collection of plants when four years old, 
and collected his first mammal at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, May 18, 1891, 
sending the latter to Dr. J. A. Allen, who acknowledged the little white- 
footed wood-mouse as coming from the youngest contributor to the mam- 
mal collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Mr. Mearns's 
specimens were of excellent quality, carefully recorded, with detailed 
measurements. For many years his collection was stored in the United 
States National Museum, at Washington; but, about a year before his 
death, it was donated to the museum, to which it forms a valuable addition. 

Although much interested in the study of botany, the few published 
writings that he has left relate solely to mammals and birds. Following 
is a complete list of his biological publications : 

1. On the Occurrence of the genus Reithrodontomys in Virginia. The 
American Naturalist, vol. 31, February 1, 1897, p. 161. 

2. Notes from Newport. Notes on Rhode Island Ornithology, vol. 1, 
No. 3, July, 1900, pp. 13-15. 

3. Spring Arrival and Departure Notes, 1900. Notes on Rhode Island 
Ornithology, vol. I, No. 3, July, 1900, p. 18. 

4. Birds observed at Chepachet, R. I. Notes on Rhode Island Orni- 
thology, vol. I, No. 4, October, 1900, pp. 21, 22. 

5. Notes from Newport, R. I. Notes on Rhode Island Ornithology, 
vol. I, No. 4, October, 1900, p. 22. 

6. Arrival and Departure Notes, 1900. Notes on Rhode Island Orni- 
thology, vol. I, No. 4, October, 1900, p. 22. 

7. Arrival and Departure Notes, 1900. Notes on Rhode Island Orni- 
thology, vol. II, No. 1, January, 1901, p. 8. 

8. Birds Observed on Prudence Island, Narragansett Bay, Rhode 
Island. Notes on Rhode Island Ornithology, vol. II, No. 4, October, 
1901, pp. 18-19. 

1915 J Notes and News. 269 

9. A List of the birds Observed on the Island of Rhode Island and the 
Adjacent Waters. Notes on Rhode Island Ornithology, vol. Ill, No. 2, 
April, 1902, pp. 6-12; vol. Ill, No. 3, July, 1902, pp. 13-14; vol. Ill, 
No. 4, October, 1902, pp. 17-23. 

10. The Louisiana Water-Thrush in Minnesota. The Auk, vol. XX, 
No. 3, July, 1903, pp. 307-308.— Edgar A. Mearns. 

Three years ago ' Recent Literature ' in ' The Auk ' was extended to 
include a brief review of the ornithological magazines and ornithological 
articles in other periodical publications, beginning with January 1, 1912. 
Space usually allows only a quotation of the titles of the more important 
articles and a citation of the new forms proposed. Even this, however, 
enables the reader to consult all the publications bearing upon his special 
line of work, while the index to the volumes will contain references to prac- 
tically all the new species described by ornithologists, in every part of the 

The resources of the library of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia render it possible to make this record nearly complete and it is 
interesting to check up the list of new forms recorded for 1912 in 'The Auk' 
with those catalogued in the ' International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 
ture.' The vast number of Australian genera, species and subspecies pro- 
posed by Mr. Gregory M. Mathews were not listed in 'The Auk' although 
all of his papers are noticed. One paper by Mr. Robert Ridgway contain- 
ing 14 new genera, published in the ' Proc. Biol. Soc. of Washington,' was 
not sent to 'The Auk' and was overlooked, as it was presumed that all 
ornithological publications of this society had been received for review. 
Outside of this only nine new names were missed, two of which were in 
publications which did not reach either 'The Auk' or the Academy library. 
The benefit of having these new species, etc., listed, usually within three 
months of the time of publication, instead of waiting nearly two years 
for the appearance of the ' International Catalogue ' is, we trust, worth the 
labor of compilation. 

On the evening of January 7, 1915, the Delaware Valley Ornithological 
Club celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of its founding with an in- 
formal dinner at The Roosevelt, Philadelphia. Sixty-six members and 
eight guests were present; Stewardson Brown, president of the Club, 
presided, and Dr. Spencer Trotter acted as toastmaster. The speakers 
were, Dr. A. K. Fisher and John H. Sage, president and secretary of the 
A. O. U.; Charles F. Batchelder representing the Nuttall Ornithological 
Club of Cambridge; John T. Nichols, of the Linnsean Society of New York; 
Dr. T. S. Palmer of the U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D.C., 
Prof. Robert T. Young of the University of North Dakota, a former active 
member of the Club; and several of the local members. 

The 'D. V. O. C represents a type of organization which does much to 
advance the interests of bird study. Organized in 1890 by seven young 

270 Notes and News. [ April 

men interested in recording bird migration data, it has aimed to recruit its 
members so far as possible from those of high school and college age and to 
encourage the active participation of young men in all its work. Its field 
has been broad and discussion on any phase of ornithology is welcome, 
while the spirit of good fellowship which has always characterized its 
meetings has been carefully preserved. 

Twenty-five years make great changes in the development of the mem- 
bers of any organization, and gathered around the anniversary table on 
January 7 might be seen doctors and lawyers of eminence, college profes- 
sors, men high up in business corporations, and officers of banks and trust 
companies, mingled with the younger members who go to make up the bone 
and sinews of the Club today — all preserving their interest in bird study, 
ready to advance it in any way, and no doubt better for the existence of 
the 'D. V. O. C 

A review of Joseph Grinnell's ' Mammals and Birds of the Lower Colo- 
rado Valley,' by Francis B. Sumner which appears in 'Science' for January 
8, 1915, should be read by all who are interested in zoogeography, both for 
the interesting discussion of some of the points raised in the paper, and as 
an illustration of how far apart the systematists and experimental biologists 
stand in their consideration of evolutionary problems. 

Prof. Sumner it should be said is much more lenient to the systematist 
than many of those who approach the subject from his point of view and 
who, as some one has put it, look upon systematic work as a disease, like 
the measles, from which everyone suffers at some time or other but from 
which one is expected to recover rapidly. Nevertheless some of his state- 
ments will doubtless astonish readers of ' The Auk ' who have been brought 
up on zoogeography. For instance he says: " It would seem a priori that 
in traveling along a uniform gradient from a region of higher to one of lower 
average temperature or vice-versa, one would continually pass into and 
out of the ranges of species which found then limits of physiological adapta- 
bility at different points along the line. One would scarcely expect to 
encounter critical points, where the fauna and flora as a whole, or at least 
the most characteristic members of it, were suddenly replaced by quite a 
different assemblage. Yet this is the essence of the 'life-zone' conception. 

"It would be foolhardy, indeed, for a zoologist of limited field experi- 
ence to criticize this conception. It is doubtless based upon extensive and 
accurate observations and represents real facts. But unfortunately they 
are, in a high degree, facts which, by their very nature, are scarcely com- 
municable to most biologists. Before the life-zone conception can be of 
much service to the average student of evolutionary problems it will have 
to be expressed in terms which he is able to comprehend without making 
extended explorations, under the personal escort of one of the initiated. 
Until then such expressions as 'Upper Sonoran,' 'Transition' and the like 
will be to him mere empty names, or at best, they will recall to his mind 
certain colored areas, on a map of North America, the boundaries of which 
seem to have been chosen quite arbitrarily." 

V01.XXXII] No(es and News 271 

The "average student of evolutionary problems" is not a very definite 
term but it would seem that many systematists might be included in this 
category and were one of them to pick up a current work on Mendelism 
we think he might readily be pardoned if he made a similar plea for the 
"personal escort of one of the initiated." 

The fact of the matter is that the two classes of investigators know too 
little of the work of one another. The majority of our biological schools 
are so thoroughly under the influence of the experimental biologists that 
students are trained and graduated with little or no conception of zoogeog- 
raphy or of the true nature of systematic research. The museums, on 
the other hand, foster the development of systematic workers, who are not 
inclined to consider seriously experiments based upon artificial domestic 
strains of animals, the origin of which may be unknown, or to admit that 
results so obtained have much to do with the evolution of natural species, 
which usually do not give similar results when used for experiment. 

Careless work has been done on both sides but this does not discredit the 
vast amount of valuable contributions that each has made to the general 
problem of evolution. Systematic and zoogeographic research will not 
get to the bottom of the problem, unaided; neither will it be solved solely 
in terms of "zygotes" or "gametes." 

Systematic nomenclature has also been a target for the experimental 
biologists, who are exasperated at the variety of names for the same species, 
or genus, and who fail to see the need of complicated rules of nomenclature. 
They are, however, threatened with precisely the same trouble and will have 
to take refuge in the same remedy. The terminology of Cytology, for 
example, is becoming so burdened with names, nearly or quite synonymous, 
that they are bewildering even to those fairly well "initiated." 

Mr. Samuel N. Rhoads accompanied by Mr. Earl L. Poole, both of 
the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, left early in January for several 
months' collecting in Guatemala. 

As we go to press we learn of the final arrangements for the A. O. U. 
Meeting in San Francisco, May 18-20, 1915, and once again urge all 
members, both on the Pacific coast and in the country to the eastward, to 
make every effort to be present. 

The eastern contingent will leave New York on May 6 reaching San 
Francisco on the evening of May 15. Two days, May 10-11, will be spent 
at the Grand Canon, and two days and a half at Los Angeles. 

From the San Francisco Committee of the A. O. U. and Cooper Club 
comes word that the sessions will be held at The Inside Inn, within the 
Exposition Grounds, with the annual dinner on the evening of the 18th. 
Friday the 21st will be devoted to a trip to the Farallon Islands, on the 
U. S. Fisheries steamer 'Albatross,' and other trips will be arranged in 
accordance with the number of visitors and their inclinations. 

272 Notes and News. LApril 

From Los Angeles, Mr. J. E. Law, Chairman of the Entertainment 
Committee of the Southern Division of the Cooper Club, writes that 
arrangements will be made to escort the eastern visitors to the Santa 
Barbara Islands, Mt. Lowe, or other points of interest during their stop 
in that city. 

The splendid program that is thus offered and the cordial hospitality 
of the California ornithologists should be sufficient inducement to cause 
every member in the east or middle west who can possibly arrange to do so, 
to join the A. O. U. party and communicate as soon as possible with Mr. 
John H. Sage, Portland, Conn. 




The Auk. Complete set, Volumes I-XXXI, (1884-1914) in origi- 
nal covers, $10."). 00. Volumes I-VI are sold only with complete 
sets, other volumes, $3.00 each; 75 cents for single numbers. 

Index to The Auk (Vols. I-XVII, 1884-1900) and Bulletin of the 
Nuttall Ornithological Club (Vols. I-VIII, 1876-1883), 8vo, pp. 
vii + 426, 1908. Cloth, $3.75; paper, $3.25. 

Index to The Auk (Vols. XVIII-XXVII, L901-1910), 8vo, pp. 
xviii +250, I'M."). Cloth, $3.00; paper, $2.00. 

Check-List of North American Birds. Third edition, revised. 
1910. Cloth, 8vo., pp. 426, and 2 maps. $2.50, net, postage 
25 cents. Second edition, revised, 1895. Cloth, 8vo, pp. xi + 
372. $1.15. Original edition 1886. Out of print. 

Abridged Check-List of North American Birds. 1889. (Abridged 
and revised from the original edition). Paper, 8vo, pp. 71, printed 
on one side of the page. 25 cents. 

Pocket Check-List of North American Birds. (Abridged from 
the third edition). Flexible cover, 3j X 5| inches. 25 cents. 
10 copies for $2.00. 

Code of Nomenclature. Revised edition, 1908. Paper, 8vo, pp. 
lxxxv. 50 cents. 
Original edition, 1892. Paper, 8vo, pp. iv -f- 72. 25 cents. 

We would he pleased to furnish The Auk, Index and Check-List 
to your library at 15% discount. 


134 W. 71st St., New York, N. Y 

Check-List of North American 


Last Edition, J 9 JO 

Cloth, 8vo, pp. 430 and two maps of North America, 
one a colored, faunal zone map, and one a locality map. 

The first authoritative and complete list of North 

American Birds published since the second edition of 

the Check-List in 1895. The ranges of species and 

geographical races have been carefully revised and 

greatly extended, and the names conform to the latest 

rulings of the A. O. U. Committee on Nomenclature. 

. . . ' . 

The numbering of the species is the same as in the 

second edition. Price, including postage, $2.75. 


A pocket Check-List ( Si by 5| inches ) of North 
American Birds with only the numbers and the scientific 
and popular names. Alternate pages blank for the 
insertion of notes. Flexible covers. Price, including 
postage, 25 cents; or 10 copies for $2.00. 

134 W. 71st St. New York City 



vn . XL ' V Vn XXX 


The Auk 

H ©uarterty 3ournal of ©rnttboloa\> 


JULY, 1915 

No. 3 


The American Ornithologists' Union 


Entered as second-class mail matter in the Post Office at Boston, Mass. 



Some Birds from Sinai and Palestine. By John C. Phillips. (Plate XVII) 273 

The Fossil Remains of a Species of Hesperornis Found in Montana. By 

R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. (Plate XVIII) 290 

Summer Birds of Forrester Island, Alaska. By George Willett. (Plates XIX- 

XX) 295 

Notes on the Rock Dove (Columba domestica) . By Charles W. Townsend, M.D. 306 

On the Nesting of Certain Birds in Texas. By George Finlay Simmons. 

(Plates XXI-XXII) 317 

The Bird Life of Trinidad Islet. By Robert Cushman Murphy. (Plates 


Early Records of the Wild Turkey. V. By Albert Hazen Wright . . 348 

General Notes. — The Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) in Jackson Park, 111., 367; 
Another European Widgeon in Virginia, 367; Snow Geese and Swans in Massachu- 
setts, 367; Wilson's Snipe Wintering in Nova Scotia, 368; Spotted Sandpiper and 
Water, 368; Gray Sea Eagle off Nantucket, 368; Young Kingbird on a Cherry and 
Dragon-fly Diet, 368; The Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrula) at Ithaca, N. Y., 
369; Prothonotary Warbler at South Vineland, N. J., 370; Brown Thrasher Winter- 
ing in Mass., 370; Birds Observed in Trinity Church Yard, New York City, 371; 
Type Locality of Lewis's Woodpecker and Clarke's Nutcracker, 371. 

Recent Literature. — Levick's 'Antarctic Penguins,' 372; Miller on Ptilosis, with 
Special Reference to the Feathering of the Wing, 373 ; Cory on New South American 
Birds, 374; Shufeldt on the Tree Ducks, 374; Shufeldt on Fossil Birds in the Marsh 
Collection, 375; White on an Expedition to the Interior of Australia, 376; Cassinia, 
1914, p. 376; Publications on Bird Protection, 377; Bird Enemies of two Beetle 
Pests, 377; Dissemination of the Chestnut-blight Fungus, 378; The Ornithological 
Journals, 378; Ornithological Articles in Other Journals, 383 ; Publications Received, 

Notes and News — Obituary: Harry K. Pomeroy, 386; Lord Brabourne, 387; The 
Generic Problem, 387 ; Thirty-third Meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union 
at San Francisco, California, May 17-20, 1915, 388. 

' THE AUK,' published quarterly as the Organ of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' TTnton, is edited, beginning with the Volume for 1912, by Dr. Witmer 

Terms: — $3.00 a year, including postage, strictly in advance. Single num- 
bers, 75 cents. Free to Honorary Fellows, and to Fellows, Members, and 
Associates of the A. O. U. not in arrears for dues. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to Dr. JONATHAN DWTGHT, Jr., 
Business Manager, 134 West 71st St., New York, N. Y. Foreign Subscrib- 
ers may obtain 'The Auk' through R. H. PORTER, 9 Princes Street, 
Cavendish Square, W., London. 

Articles and communications intended for publication, and all books 
and publications for notice, should be sent to Dr. WITMER STONE, 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manuscripts for general articles should reach the editor at least six weeks 
before the date of the number for which they are intended, and manuscripts 
for ' General Notes ' and ' Recent Literature ' not later than the first of the month 
preceding the date of the number in which it is desired they shall appear. 

The Auk. Vol. XXXII 


BUTLER'S OWL Slrix bulleri (Hume) 



Vol. xxxii. July, 1915. No. 3. 



Plate XVII. 

We left Suez on March 22, 1914, for a brief trip through the 
Sinai Peninsula, and then to Jerusalem, via Akaba and the east 
side of the Dead Sea. Mr. Mann was to pursue insects and 
reptiles and both of us put in our spare moments chasing birds and 
trapping mammals. As much of the route lay through a desert, 
our catch was small, except for the reptiles. Mammals, though in 
places numerous, were hard to trap and many specimens were 
stolen by jackals or eaten by ants before daylight, so that we often 
despaired of bringing back a representative lot. 

This journey takes one through several very different types of 
country. The bare desert around Suez, very similar to the deserts 
of Egypt; then the rugged Sinai plateau with peaks up to 8500 
feet in height; the low deserts around Akaba, with an Arabian 
and Dead Sea fauna; the bare-wind swept 5000 foot plateau east 
of the Dead Sea depression; and lastly the oleander and cane 
jungles of the Dead Sea and its affluents, with a sub-tropical fauna 
and flora, and an altitude as low as 1300 feet beneath the level of 
the sea. s 

When you leave Suez behind, you enter upon the worst stage of 
the journey. The spring sun is scorching from nine o'clock till 
four, and the level stretches of gravel and limestone are hardly 


274 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. [j$fe 

relieved by the sight of a single creature, barring lizards and scor- 
pions. At rare intervals an Egyptian Vulture sails overhead or a 
pair of Ravens follows the caravan for a time. At nightfall one 
or two White Wagtails gather around the tents and run about 
under the very feet of the camels. 

There are only two spots along this road where birds can really 
exist. One is the Wells of Moses, eight miles from Suez, and the 
other is W f ady Gharandel, identified with the Elim of the Bible 
Exodus. At this latter place we arrived on the third day, camping 
at the upper end of the Wady where there was a well some six feet 
below the surface of the ground and a number of palms, sayal 
thorn trees and shrubs of various sorts. Here we got a few birds, 
a Great Grey Shrike, Wheatears in abundance, Ruppell's and 
Bonelli's Warblers, Chiff-Chaffs, Spanish Sparrows and the pale 
Cray-Martins. Besides these we saw that very characteristic 
plain gray warbler of the Sinai Peninsula, Cereomela asthenia, the 
Chat-Robin or Black-start. Here too we began to see the Sinai 
Desert Larks. 

Between Gharandel and Wady Feran, where you first find real 
water, there is almost nothing of interest to the ornithologist. For 
part of a day the road runs along the coast of the Red Sea under 
rough cliffs, but not a gull or a shore-bird enlivens the monotony 
of that shell strewn shore. You begin to see some of the handsome 
Black and White Chats along this part of the road. We took three 
species, the White-rumped, Pied and Hooded Chat. These are 
very striking birds, extremely shy and by no means easy to get. 
The White-rumped has a very low but sweet song. Wherever 
there is any vegetation at all one sees if he looks closely, an extraor- 
dinary little wren-like cock-tailed warbler, Scotocera iniquietus 
that is an adept at hiding. If I remember rightly, it has a peculiar 
little Chickadee-like note which I heard long before I ever managed 
to get the bird. When one gets into the ravines about Petra this 
little bird is more plentiful. Then another very characteristic 
warbler of the scattered sayal trees is the Lesser White-throat 
which returns to Palestine and breeds in great numbers. You can 
identify it a long way off by its monotonous " sip-sip-sip." I think 
it is quite the commonest spring bird of Sinai. 

On April 1, we arrived at the beautiful brook of Feran and 

V0l 'l^l5 XI1 ] Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 275 

pitched camp at the mouth of the Wady Aleyat; to students of 
Bible history, one of the most interesting spots on the peninsula. 
Most of the ancient traditions center around this place, the ruins 
of an ancient church and a fine monastery crown the hill of El- 
Meharret, and the rocks are riddled with graves and cells of an- 
chorites. The serrated peak of Serbal rises just to the south, the 
most picturesque mountain on the peninsula, and still claiming 
distinction as the mountain of the Law Giving, in spite of the at- 
tempts of the Greek monks to transport all the bible traditions to 
the neighborhood of Gebel Katherina. 

The brook of Feran waters three miles of a rugged canyon filled 
with palms, nebk and tamarisk. The climate at this elevation is 
wonderful, and the bothersome flies and heat of the desert have 
been left behind. The Palestine Bulbul mingles his Robin-like 
song with the purring of the stream, and a fair number of other 
birds are to be found, especially at the head springs. In the thick 
palms a few shy Tristram's Grackles evaded my gun. We took 
both the Rock and the Blue Thrush, the latter supposed to be 
"the sparrow that sitteth alone upon the house-tops" of scripture. 
Then there were Redstarts, several Warblers, two species of Wag- 
tails, Tree Pipits and Spanish Sparrows. I even saw a Snipe. In 
the neighboring valleys the lively little Sand Partridge was abun- 
dant. It is hard to dismiss the beautiful little See-see (Amnoperdix 
heyi) without a word of notice. He is the only fat thing in Sinai. 
He lives in flocks of fair size, and curiously enough, numbers are 
seen together even in the breeding season. One morning (April 9), 
I watched the mating antics of a pair of these birds. The female 
was squatting in the sand and the male constantly hopped over 
and ran around her. Every little while they would seize each other 
by the bills and wrestle about with much flapping of wings and their 
feathers flying. They kept this up for ten minutes and I had to 
leave them still at it. 

Best of all, at Feran however, was the capture of a Butler's Owl 
(Strix butleri, see Plate XVII), our specimen making the third one 
known to science. The first ohe was sent to Hume from South 
Baluchistan, and the second came from Sinai. The background 
of the plate shows the vale of Feran and the rough outline of Mt. 
Serbal where the ibex and the leopard still wander. 

276 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. [£g 

We only spent three days at Feran and then moved south to the 
convent of St. Catherine. On the way, passing up the rugged 
defile, Nekb-el-Hawa, or pass of the winds, we met our first Rose 
Finches. This rare rock -loving Carpodacus lives only on the highest 
and roughest parts of the country, keeping in little scattered troops. 
It is a very wild and restless bird and what it manages to live upon 
I do not know. I saw it again only at Petra. Zedlitz (1912), says 
that the bird does not breed till its second year. From my speci- 
mens I should say that both sexes were rose-colored when adult, 
but others have described the females as plain colored, like the 
young males. 

In the garden of the convent of St. Catherine there were a few 
birds but nothing that we had not seen before. A side trip to Um 
Shomer, a high mountain in the south, took us over an absolutely 
birdless region with nothing but Desert Larks and Crag Martins 
at the rarest intervals. One morning at sunrise I found myself 
high up on a spur of Um-Shomer. I thought I never had seen such 
desolate grandeur. Westward about fifty miles of the Gulf of Suez 
was in sight, bathed in a light mist, while a long stretch of the Gulf 
of Akaba limited the east and northeast view, backed by the low 
peaked mountains of Midian. The whole rugged south end of 
Sinai was spread out like a relief map, and not a sound came to my 
ears. — A single Eagle soared about the crags of Um-Shomer, 
perhaps looking for a young ibex, but he was all alone. Far out 
on the Gulf of Suez as the mist cleared I could see with my glass 
the big steamers plying to the ends of the world. 

Some of the scarcity of birds in Sinai may have been due to lack 
of rain. Usually rain and snow fall every winter, but now for 
several years there has been practically a continual drought. The 
vegetation is much reduced and every sayal tree is cut back for 
camel food. 

From the convent to Akaba at the head of the long gulf of that 
name, we did not see many birds. For days we journeyed along 
the beach of the gulf meeting very rarely a Sandpiper, or one or two 
European Kingfishers. At intervals there were groups of palm 
trees with a few Warblers, Chats and Wheatears about them. 

At Akaba we had to wait eight days for our mules. A long palm 
grove and the remains of quite a large town with a Turkish fort 



Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 277 

stretches along the beach. The place is interesting to students of 
migration for it seems to be on the great highway from northeast 
Africa up the great Dead Sea depression to Palestine, and so over 
western Asia. We took a good many birds here, among them a 
Land Rail in a half dead condition, a Baillon's Crake, one specimen 
of the rare Audouin's Gull, here far east and south of its eastern 
limit, a stray Burgomaster Gull, also well south of its range, some 
Dunlins and Greenshank and a couple of Garganey Teal. One 
night we saw coming north up the gulf the most extraordinary 
flock of hawks I have ever heard of. We judged there were 1500 
to 1800 scattered out over a wide area. We shot four and they 
were of one species, the Levant Sparrow Hawk. Such a flock must 
have been migrating from Africa or perhaps south Arabia, but the 
species has only been taken once or twice in Egypt and never 
elsewhere in Africa. 

Among the palm trees hundreds of splendid European Bee- 
eaters with their tuneful chirping were constantly at work on a 
small sand beetle that was just then having its nuptial flight. 
We saw here for the first time the curious awkward Hopping 
Thrush, a pale thrasher-like bird that seems really ashamed of its 
power of flight. It is another of the characteristic Dead Sea 

There were a good many Fan-tailed Ravens here and many 
migrating Blue-headed Wagtails, besides other birds that need 
not be mentioned. The Fan-tailed Raven has a curious flight and 
sometimes tumbles like the Roller. Tristram describes its note as 
rich and musical. A careful two months' collecting in the Akaba 
palms at the proper season would produce a very rich collection of 

Between Akaba and Petra our advance guard was robbed, and 
the Arabian soldier with it was shot and left for dead by the robbers. 
This was at the rise of the great plateau which bounds the eastern 
side of the desert of Arabah, always a bad region. 

Once on top of the cliffs you reach a cold and windy region and 
see the first traces of rude cultivation. W r e did no more collecting 
till we reached Petra, that famous old city of the Nabataeans. 

Petra is in the middle of one of the many canyons that lead down 
from the great Arabian plateau to the Dead Sea basin. There is 

278 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. [iixty 

running water and a good deal of vegetation — even juniper trees 
among the crags. The place is justly famous as a goal for tourists 
and is destined to be much visited in the future. Here we found a 
great many migrants and saw for the first time the Palestine Sun- 
bird. This truly African bird pushes up through the Dead Sea 
basin and has been found in summer as far north as Beyrout. In 
the cliffs of Petra were colonies of that noisy and disagreeable Rock 
Sparrow, Petronia petronia, and occasionally a pair of Tristram's 
Grackles, whose song has been so greatly admired by nearly all 
travellers in southern Palestine. Here again we met a good number 
of rose finches, although they have never been recorded outside 
Sinai before. These Petra finches turn out to be so much smaller 
than the Sinai birds that I have ventured to give them a new name. 
At Petra, too, the tamarisk bushes were full of migrating gold- 
finches and black capped warblers, and from this time on, the gold- 
finch became the commonest bird. The blue-rock pigeons, which 
I have not mentioned before, were found here and there in Sinai, 
and at Petra and farther north there were many, but wary to a 
degree. I never could account for the wariness of all species of 
birds hereabouts, a fact commented upon by Zedlitz, (1912). 

We had such hard luck with our mouse traps at Petra that we 
had to pull them up. The jackals robbed the line as neatly as the 
wolverines of our northern wilds are said to do. 

From Petra our road lay along the edge of the great Moab 
plateau. The barley was nearly ripe and the fields were full of 
Larks and Ortolans with here and there a Stork. These latter 
were astonishingly tame. 

At Wady Kerak we made a side-trip to the south end of the Dead 
Sea. The heat there was really very trying but we obtained a 
few birds, among them the rare little Moabitic Sparrow whose 
range is perhaps the smallest in the world, as it is only known from 
a few patches of jungle in this immediate region. He looks like a 
gaudy but miniature English Sparrow with a yellow spot on each 
side of his throat. 

Around the south end of the Dead Sea at this time (May 7) 
there were many birds. Arabs were just harvesting their grain, 
preparatory to leaving the Dead Sea for the better climate of the 
uplands. There were many Turtle-Doves, Blue-rocks, Hey's 

°'i9i5 ] Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 279 

Partridges, Egyptian Quail, European Rollers, Great Grey Shrikes, 
Crested Larks, Wheatears, Goat-suekers, and three species of 
Swallows, the Common European, the Red-rumped, and the Dead 
Sea Crag-Martin. 

After we left Kerak we hurried on to Jerusalem, crossing many of 
the Dead Sea ravines, now filled with oleanders in full bloom. The 
olive groves of the various towns we passed through were well 
supplied with birds, and resounded with the songs of Goldfinches 
and Black-caps, while Greater Tits and many common warblers 
were present in large numbers. The only rarity we took was the 
Barred Warbler, which apparently has not before been taken in 

We reached Jerusalem on May 15 and after this the only birds 
collected were taken by Mr. Mann from the Mt. Herman region 
west of Damascus. 

The total number of species in the collection is ninety. 


Struthio camelus Linn. Ostrich. — Ostrich eggs were common 
among the Arabs at Maan, on the Hadj Railroad. I was told that they 
came from the desert two days' journey east and northeast of that town. 


Caccabis chukar synaica (Bp.). Chukar Partridge. — One o 7 '; 
Madeba, May 10. This specimen is the same as the Jerusalem series in the 
Selah Merrill Coll., Museum Comparative Zoology, and only a little different 
from a Kurdestan specimen. It is much paler than birds from northern 
India. The chukar is scarce in Sinai but plentiful along the crest of the 
Moab plateau. 

Ammoperdix heyi (Temm.). Hey's Partridge; See-see. — Four 
specimens; Wady Hamer, Sinai, April 9, Wady Kerak, Dead Sea, May 5. 

These two pairs, one from Sinai, the other from the Dead Sea, differ 
markedly; enough to suggest two forms. Comparison with the Selah 
Merrill series of over 30 in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, taken near 
Jerusalem, does not bear this out, for this series shows a great range of 
color. Some males are much darker all over than others; some females 
are barred all over the under parts, while some are nearly plain buff-colored. 
Nicoll (Ibis, 1909, p. 640) in discussing the African form A. h. cholmleyi 
O. Grant, refers to the presence or absence of white lores and forehead in 
Egyptian specimens. A. h. cholmleyi is supposed to laek the white lores 

280 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. [july 

and forehead, but Nicoll shows that this is not constant at least for Egypt. 
The type locality of A. h. cholmleyi, however, is near Suakin, Sudan (O. 
Grant, Hand-Book of Game Birds, Vol. II, p. 294), where it is conceivable 
that a form different from the Egyptian one may exist. At any rate the 
Jerusalem series shows no variation in the white lores and forehead. 

Coturnix coturnix coturnix (Linn.). Egyptian Quail. — One cf; 
Moses Wells, Suez, March 23. Seen only at above place and around 
Dead Sea. 


Pterocles lichtensteini arabicus Neumann. — One d 1 ; Akaba, 
April 14. 

The type locality of the true lichtensteini is from Nubia (Temm. Coll., PL, 
Vol. V, pis. 25-26). This is based on Lichtenstein (Verz. Doubletten 1823, 
p. 65). Nubia as used there included Sennar and part of Abyssinia and 
was rather a vague term. 

In 1905 Erlanger (J. F. O., 1905, p. 92) separated a race, P. I. hyperythrus, 
from southern Somaliland, at the same time limiting P. I. lichtensteini to 
northern Abyssinia and northern Somaliland. 

Later on Neumann described two other forms, arabicus from southern 
Arabia and sukensis from East Africa (Ornith. Monatsbr., 1909, p. 152). 

My single specimen, taken from a flock of 10 or 12 birds on the Sinai side 
of the gulf near Akaba, extends somewhat the northwesterly range of the 
species. There are other specimens collected by Burton in " Midian " 
and at Jedda (Shelley Coll.). 

I have for comparison seven males from Hawash R., northern Abyssinia, 
and six males from British East Africa, besides a number of females. 
These specimens are mostly from the U. S. Nat. Mus. collection. The 
first series is not far from the type locality of P. I. lichtensteini and the 
second series should represent P. I. sukensis. 

The form arabicus which my own specimen represents is said to differ 
from true lichtensteini by a general lighter and brighter color. The upp3r 
tan-colored breast band of the same shade as the lower breast band, and 
not darker as in P. I. lichtensteini. The lower black band, separating 
breast from abdomen, much reduced or nearly absent, and the abdomen 
itself lighter. The golden bars on the upper side as wide or wider than the 
black bands, etc. In my specimen, however, not all of these characters are 
present, for the species is itself extremely variable. The lower black breast 
band is not reduced but the belly is lighter than any of the African speci- 
mens. The lower tan-colored breast band is very similar in color to the 
upper band, but in the type species, the two areas sometimes closely re- 
semble each other. The character of barring on the upper side is a very 
variable one and I should say of little value in separating arabicus from 
lichtensteini. The only constant character then, as far as my series goes, 
is the very light belly area of the Arabian race. 

Vol 1 ^ 1 f XH ] Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 281 

P. I. sukensis would appear to be a very poorly marked southern race of 
the type species. I have seen no specimens from the locality of P. I. 


Columba livia schimperi Bp. Rock Pigeon. — This form, now 
confined to Sinai (Zedlitz, Jour. fur. Ornith., 1912), and also C. I. pales- 
tince Zedlitz from Palestine, were probably both taken. None were pre- 
served, so I can throw no light upon the existence of these two forms, 
whose validity must still be open to question. 

Turtur turtur (Linn.). Turtle Dove. — One c?; Shobek, April 30. 
Met with in large numbers in the Dead Sea gorges. 


Crex crex (Linn.). Corn Crake. — Pair; Akaba, April 19; Shobek, 
Palestine, April 30. 

Porzana pusilla Pall. Baillon's Crake, — One 9 ; Akaba, April 20. 
According to Reichenow there may be a resident form of this species in 


Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus. Glaucus Gull. — One c? ; Akaba, 
April 18. A far southern record for this gull. 

Larus audouini Payraudeau. Audouin's Gull. — One 9 ; Akaba, 
April 21. Wing 15.5 in.; bill 2.4; tarsus 2.25; tail 6.5. This rare gull 
is east and southeast of its known range in the Western Mediterranean. 
Its eastern limit is the Greek Islands but most, if not all, of the specimens 
have come from west of Italy. Tristram is quoted as having observed 
the bird at Malta and Dresser says it has been seen near Cairo. 


Pelidna alpina alpina (Linn.). Dunlin. — One <?; Akaba, April 17. 
Tringa nebularia Gunner. Greenshank. — One 9 ; Akaba, April 20. 


Pyrrherodias purpurea (Linn.). Purple Heron. — One d 1 ; Akaba, 
April 18. 


Querquedula circia (Linn.). Garganey Teal. — Two shot at Akaba, 
April 17. 

282 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. [.July 


Astur brevipes Severtzoff . Levant Sparrow Hawk. — Four cf o" ; 
Akaba, April 20. A flock of 1200 to 1800 apparently all of this species seen 
migrating north on this date. This bird is very rare in Egypt and has not 
been taken in Africa (outside Egypt). This migration was perhaps from 
southern Arabia. The specimens were very fat but their stomachs were 

Cerchneis tinnunculus (Linn.) Kestrel. — One d> ; Tafeleh, 
southern Palestine, May 3. 


Strix butleri Hume. Butler's Owl. (Plate XVII). — One o* ; Wady 
Feran, Sinai, March 31. Wing, 245 mm., tarsus, 48 mm., tail, 150 mm. 
This specimen, apparently an adult male, was brought into camp alive by 
an Arab. It constitutes the third known record of this extremely rare owl. 
In size it seems to be the same as both the other specimens. In color also 
it corresponds very closely with Hartert's description (Vogel der Pal. 
Fauna, p. 1027) and this description is based on both the other specimens. 
From Hume's original description of the type (Stray Feathers, VII, p. 316) 
my specimen apparently differs in having the first primary less plain 
colored and more like the others as to its barring. 

Hume's bird came from Omara, on the Mekran coast of southern Balu- 
chistan in 1878; the skin was badly damaged. In 1879 Tristram (Stray 
Feathers, VIII, p. 417) discovered one other skin that had remained un- 
identified in his own collection for ten years. This one was from Mt. 
Sinai (exact locality not given). 

This owl must be a rock-living bird. The plate shows typical Feran 
scenery with Mt. Serbal in the background. 


Alcedo ispida pallida Brehm. Kingfisher. — Two cf cf ; Akaba, 
April 15. Zedlitz (1912) in his work on Sinai, throws out this rather poorly 
marked form. The beak is usually thinner and more pointed than in the 
western birds. 


Merops apiaster Linn. European Bee-eater. — Three; Akaba, 
April 16. 


Caprimulgus europoeus meridionalis Hartert. Night-jar. — One 
cf ; Wady Kerak, Palestine, May 5. 

Vol. XXX1I1 

2915 J Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 283 


Apus apus apus (Linn.). Swift. — Three 9 9; Shobek, Palestine, 
April 30. These are the same size as examples from England. They 
might be referred to the marwetzi of Reichenow but that race is poorly 
marked and our material is insufficient. 

Apus murinus murinus (Brehm). Pallid Swift. — One 9 ; Shobek, 
April 30. 


Chelidon rustica rustica Linn. Swallow. Five; Akaba, April 14; 
ain Hodra, Sinai, April 10; Wady Ain Heisha, Syria, May 31. 

Chelidon rustica transitiva Hartert. Palestine Swallow. — One 
9 ; Nuheibeh, Sinai, April 13. 

Chelidon daurica rufula (Temm.). Red-rumped Swallow. — One 
pair; Dead Sea, May 6; Madeba, May 10. 

Hirundo urbica urbica Linn. House Martin. — Five; Petra, South 
Palestine, April 28-29; Shtora, Syria, June 8. 

Riparia riparia riparia (Linn.). Sand Martin. — Four; Moses 
Wells, Suez, March 23. 

Riparia obsoleta obsoleta (Cab.). Pale Crag-Martin. — Five; 
Gharandel, Sinai, March 25; Wady Feran, March 31; Petra, April 27; 
Wady Hisa, May 3. 


Muscicapa striata neumanni Poche. Eastern Spotted Fly- 
catcher. — Nine; Petra, April 28; Wady Hisa, May 4; several Syrian 
localities, May and June. 


Picnonotus capensis xanthopygos (Hemp. & Erlich.). Palestine 
Bulbul. — Pair; Wady Feran, March 31. 


Crateropus squamiceps squamiceps (Cretzschm.). Hopping 
Thrush. — One 9; Akaba, April 21. 


Nannus troglodytes pallidus Hume. Wren. — Two c? cf ; Sheba, 
Syria, May 25. 

These two specimens appear to belong to this form as nearly as can be 

284 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. LJuly 

told from Hartert's description (Vog. d. Pal. Fauna, p. 781). Certainly 
they are not like N. t. Cypriotes from Cyprus. They are not red-brown like 
the European examples and are pale and nearly unhanded on the lower 
sides. The wing is 46 and 48 mm. The wren is very rare in Syria. 


Monticola saxatilis (Linn.). Rock Thrush. — Two cTcf; Wady 
Feran, March 31; Shobek, Palestine, May 1. 

Monticola solitarius solitarius (Linn.). Blue Thrush. — Pair; 
Wady Feran, Sinai, March 31. 

Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linn.). Redstart. — Six; 
Wady Feran, March 31; Monastery, Sinai, April 9; Akaba, April 21; 
Shobek, Palestine, April 30; Ain Gleidat, May 2. 

Luscinia luscinia (Linn.). Nightingale. — Three; Petra, April 28; 
El Katuma, Syria, May 20; Mimis, Syria, May 30. 

Cercomela melanura melanura Temm. Palestine Blackstart. — 
Seven; Wady Feran and Wady Saal, Sinai, March 29-31, April 7. 

(Enanthe oenanthe rostrata Hemp. & Ehrb. Wheatear. — Ten; 
Gharandel, March 25; Wady Feran, March 31; El Hawa, April 3; Nu- 
huibeh, April 13; Akaba, April 20. The wing bands of these specimens 
are not very apparent, so that one of the characters of this race is lacking. 
The bills are 17 to 18 mm., a little short. This poorly marked form mi- 
grates to Egypt, Somaliland and German East Africa. It is a variable 
race as Tristram and Hartert have both pointed out. 

(Enanthe isabellina (Cretzschm.). Isabelline Wheatear. — One cf; 
Shobek, Palestine, May 1. 

(Enanthe lugens lugens (Licht.). Pied Chat. — One cf; Shobek, 
May 1. 

(Enanthe leucopyga (Brehm) . White-rumped Chat. — Three ; Wady 
Feran, April 1; Wady Garbeh, April 2. 

(Enanthe monacha (Temm.). Hooded Chat. — Two; Wady Feran, 
March 29; Nuheibeh, April 13. 

(Enanthe melanoleuca finchii (Heugl.). Black-throated Wheat- 
ear. — Four; Ain Hodra, Sinai, April 10; Akaba, April 19; Tafileh, 
May 3; Shiba, Syria, May 25. 


Agrabates galoctotes galoctotes (Temm.). Rufous Warbler. — 
Two cf d" ; Shobek, April 30; Rasheya, Syria, May 21. 

Locustella fluviatilis (Wolf). River Warbler. — One &, Tafileh, 
southern Palestine, May 3. This rather rare bird was taken by Tristram 
in northern Palestine. 

Acrocephalus strepera strepera (Vieill.). Reed Warbler. — Two^ 

V0l i9if XI1 ] Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 285 

Hibariyeh, Syria, May 28. One of the specimens is certainly a breeding 
bird. Tristram mentions the species but it has not definitely been recorded 
from Palestine. 

Hippolais languida (Hemp. & Ehr.). Upcher's Warbler. — Three; 
Rasheya, Syria, May 21, June 1. 

Hippolais pallida pallida (Hemp. & Ehrb.). Olivaceous Warbler. 
— Five; Akaba, April 16; Tafileh May 2; Wady Hisa, May 3; Litany 
River, Syria, June 4. 

Sylvia nisoria nisoria (Bechst.). Barred Warbler. — One cf; 
Shobek, May 1. The wing is 84 mm., which is small, so that it does not 
belong to the rather doubtful eastern race, Merzbacheri. 

This rather local bird has not been recorded from Palestine before, but 
has been taken in Asia Minor, Persia, and central Asia. The winter 
quarters of the eastern breeding birds are unknown. 

Sylvia communis icterops Menetr. Eastern White-throat. — 
Two; Wady Gazella, Sinai, April 10. Saghbin, Syria, June 5. 

These are the same as the Selah Merrill series from Jerusalem; not so 
red-brown on the back as European birds. 

Sylvia ruppelli Temm. Ruppell's Warbler. — Nine; Gharandel, 
March 25; Moses Wells, March 23; Wady Feran, March 27-28; Wady 
Gharbeh, April 2. 

Sylvia hortensis crassirostris Cretzschm. Orphean Warbler. — 
Two; base of Mt. Hermon, Syria, June 2. 

Sylvia curruca curruca (Linn.). Lesser White-throat. — Six; 
Moses Wells, March 22-23; Wady Feran, March 27-31; Ammik, Syria, 
June 6. 

Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla (Linn.). Black-cap. — Eight; Akaba 
April 16-18; Petra, April 27-29; Tafileh, May 2; Rasheya, Syria, May 21. 

Phylloscopus sibilatrix sibilatrix (Bechst.). Wood-Wren. — One 9 ; 
Tafileh, May 2. 

Phylloscopus bonelli orientalis (Brehm.). Bonelli's Warbler. — 
Gharandel, March 25; Wady Feran, Sinai, March 27-30; Wady Saal, 
April 8. 

Phylloscopus collybita (Vieill.). Chiff Chaff. — Three; Wady 
Gharandel, March 25; Petra, April 27. The wing of the cf is 62, 9 9 56 
and 57. They are therefore rather too small for P. c. abietina (Nilss.), the 
eastern race. In color they resemble specimens from England and they 
are certainly no paler. I cannot make out the eastern race from my 


Lanius excubitor aucheri\Bp. Great Grey Shrike. — Four; 
Wady Gharandel, March 25; Wady Feran, April 1; Wady Haman, Sinai, 
April 9. 

Lanius nubicus (Licht.). Masked Shrike. — Two; Akaba, April 

286 Phillips, Birds of Sinai. [july 

Lanius senator niloticus (Bp.). Eastern Wood-chat Shrike. — 
Five; Tafileh, Palestine, May 2 and 3; Ammik, Syria, June 6; Baneyas, 
Syria, May 28. 

Lanius collurio collurio Linn. Red-backed Shrike. — One d"; 
Wady Hisa, May 4. 


Parus major terraesanctse Hart. Palestine Great-tit. — Two; 
Tafileh, Palestine, May 2-3. 


Cinnyris osea Bp. Palestine Sun-bird. — One cf; Petra, April 27. 
I found this a rare bird. 


Motacilla alba alba Linn. White Wagtail. — Three; Moses Wells, 
Suez, March 23; Wady Feran, April 1; Abu Sweira, Sinai, April 13. 

Budytes flava flava Linn. Blue-headed Wagtail. — Four; Wady 
Feran, Sinai, March 31; Akaba, April 19-21; Shobek, Palestine; April 30. 

Budytes melanocephala Licht. Black-headed Wagtail. — One cf; 
Wady Feran; Sinai, March 29. 

Anthus trivialis (Linn.). Tree-Pipit. — Five; Wady Feran, Sinai, 
March 31; Wady El Ain, April 12; Nuheibeh, Sinai, April 13; Akaba, 
April 15. 

Anthus campestris campestris (Linn.). Tawny Pipit. — One; Ain 
Gleidat, Palestine, May 2. 


Otocorys alpestris bicornis Brehm. Mt. Herman Horned Lark. — 

Two d" cf ; Mt. Hermon, May 24. 

Melanocorypha calandra calandra (Linn.). Calandra Lark. — 
Three; El Kerak, Palestine, May 7; Saghbin, Syria, June 5; Ammik, 
Syria, June 6. 

Melanocorypha bimaculata. Menets. Eastern Calandra Lark. — 
Two; Ammik, Syria, June 6; Rasheya, Syria, June 2. 

Calandra brachydactyla brachydactyla Leisl. Short-toed Lark.— 
Two d 1 cf ; Ain Gleidat, Palestine, May 2; Madeba, Palestine, May 10. 

Ammomanes deserti katherinae Zedlitz. Sinai Desert Lark. — 
Three; Wady Feran, Sinai, March 29; Monastery, Sinai, April 3. 

Zedlitz has described this form from the high parts of Sinai and thinks 
it differs from the lark around the low deserts of Suez and Egypt, A. d. 
isabellina. He writes that it has a more lively voice and its wings make a 
whistling sound when it flies! It is said to be more grey and less red on 
the upper side than isabellina, and with a larger bill than fraterculus of 

VOl l9lf XH ] Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 287 

Palestine. Its coloration is described as the same as that of fraterculus. 
All these forms are certainly poorly marked, but Sinai birds can at least 
be told from Palestine ones by their larger bills. It appears somewhat 
doubtful whether a mountain and a desert form can exist side by side in 
Sinai for there would be apt to be a seasonal movement up and down the 


Chloris chloris chlorotica (Bp.). Palestine Green Finch. Eight; 
Mt. Hermon region, May 22- June 7. 

Carduelis carduelis carduelis (Linn.). Goldfinch. — Three; Petra, 
April 27; Ammik, Syria, June 6. 

Petronia petronia puteicola (Festa). Palestine Rock Sparrow. — 
Four; Petra, April 27-29; Rasheya, Syria, May 21. 

Carpospiza brachydactyla (Bp.). Desert Rock Sparrow. — One cT, 
Rasheya, Syria, May 21. 

Acanthis cannabina fringillirostris (Bp. and Schleg.). Eastern 
Linnet. — Seven; Mt. Hermon region, May 24-25. 

Passer domesticus indicus Jardin & Selby. Eastern House Spar- 
row. — One 6 71 ; Tafeileh, Palestine, May 2. Wing 75 mm., cheeks pure 
white. This specimen is too small for biblicus of Palestine and Syria. It 
appears to be typical indicus. The head cap is very dark grey as in all old 

The exact range of P. d. indicus is still in doubt. Hartert thought that 
southern Arabian specimens belonged to this form, which extends over 
India, Persia and China, but becomes intermediate to P. d. domesticus in 
the Transcaspian region. 

Lorenz and Hellmayr (Denkschrif akad. der Wissenschaften, 1907, p. 
106) describe a new subspecies of house sparrow from southern Arabia, 
east of Aden. From their description I cannot see that this is anything 
more than an early winter plumage of indicus. It certainly is very close 
to indicus and differs only in being " brighter." 

Zedlitz, 1912, in his work on Sinai birds (Jour, fur Ornith., 1912, p. 566), 
takes up this question. He quotes Le Roi as saying that Sinai sparrows 
do not conform to biblicus or indicus and still less to the niloticus of Nicoll & 
Bonhote. Zedlitz's own single specimen from Sinai and five others col- 
lected by Koenig, were, he says, small and not like biblicus. 

He arranges the sparrows of Western Asia as follows: 

1. Sinai and southern Palestine. Much smaller than biblicus d 1 . 
Wing, 80; 9 , 74-79. Color whiter than niloticus, ear coverts grey. 

2. P. biblicus; confined to Syria and Palestine. Large. Wing, 82-84. 
Ear coverts light grey. 

3. Asia Minor Sparrow. (Eight specimens.) Wing, 78-81. Ear 
coverts almost white, or extremity light grey. 

4. P. indicus; India & Persia, limits not known. Size small, like Sinai 

288 Phillips, Birds of Sin it. [july 

birds. Wing, 74-78. Ear coverts mostly pure white like the sparrow of 
Asia Minor. 

Larger series are necessary to clear up the disputed points. 

Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus Tschusi. Spanish Sparrow. — 
Six; Wady Gharandel, Sinai, March 26; Feran, March 31; Mt. Hermon 
region, Syria, May 22-25. 

Passer maobiticus maobiticus Tristr. Dead Sea Sparrow. — One 
(sex?) ; mouth of Wady Kerak, May 8. I think this specimen comes from 
a region a little north of the known range of this sparrow. Wady Safye 
is the nearest point south, where it has been taken. I saw only this one 
bird in the cane jungles at the edge of the sea; there may have been many 
more sparrows in this cane, however, as the jungle is almost impenetrable 
at this point. 

Serinus syriacus Bp. Syrian Canary. One cf; Ammik, Syria, 
June 7. 

Carpodacus synoicus (Temm.). Sinai Rose Finch. — Seven; Pass 
of Hawa, Sinai, April 3; Petra, April 27-29. 

This species does not appear to have been taken outside of the Sinai 
Peninsula before; but I found it common at Petra and secured five speci- 
mens there. These birds are smaller than Sinai specimens. Wing, 81 to 
84 mm.; exposed culmen, 9 to 9.5; tarsus, 19; tail, 65-69. 

Temminck's type was taken near " Mt. Sinai " and was presumably 
drawn to scale (Temm. PI. Col. 375). The wing on the plate measures 
87 mm. Hartert gives the wing of this species as 86-89. The wings of 
my Sinai adults are 85 mm. I therefore propose the name of 

Carpodacus synoicus petrae, sub. spec. nov. 

for the northern birds, separated as they are from] Sinai, by the great low 
desert of the Arabah. 

Type, d 1 No. 66024, Mus. Comp. Zool., collected at Petra, southern 
Palestine, April 28, 1914, by J. C. Phillips. 

Characters. Like C. s. synoica (Temm.) but smaller, especially in the 
wing and bill. Wing, 84 mm. or under; bill shorter and narrower; exposed 
culmen, 9-9.5; tarsus, 19 mm. Rosy parts of the plumage slightly paler 
and more pinkish. 

I am somewhat in doubt about the plumage of the adult females in these 
two forms. It has always been given as plain brown, like the young males, 
but I carefully sexed one of my adult rosey specimens as a female. The 
proportion of rosy birds as I saw them in the wild was rather too large for 
the supposition that only old second year males attain this plumage. 

Emberiza hortulana. Ortolan Bunting. — Four; Akaba, April 15- 
18; Ain Abu-Heran, April 23; Petra, April 29. 

Emberiza caesiaCretzschm. Cretzschmars Bunting. — Three; Syria,. 
May 27-30. 

Emberiza melanocephala Scop. Black-headed Bunting. — Eleven;. 
Mt. Hermon region, Syria, May 27, June 7. 

Vol 'i9if XH ] Phillips, Birds of Sinai. 289 


Amydrus tristrami tristrami (Scl. ) . Tristram's Grackle . — One <? ; 
Wady Kerak, Dead Sea, May 7. 

Covus affinis Riipp. Fan-tailed Raven. — One cf ; Akaba, April 18. 


Tristram, H. B. Fauna and Flora of Palestine. London, 1884. 

Wyatt, C. W. Notes on the Birds of the Peninsula of Sinai. Ibis, 1870, 
p. 1. 

Hart, C. Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Petra and Wady Arabah. London, 

Carruthers, D. On a collection of birds from the Dead Sea and North- 
west Arabia. Ibis, 1910, 475. 

Zedlitz, O. Graf. Von Suez zum Sankt Katherinen-Kloster. Jour. 
fur Ornith., 1912, p. 325. 

290 Shtjpeldt, Remains of Hesperornis. [july 



Plate XVIII. 

Early in November, 1914, Mr. Charles W. Gilmore, who has 
charge of the fossil birds and reptiles in the Division of Palaeontology 
of the United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., sent 
me a fossil vertebra, which was collected when he was associated 
with Dr. T. W. Stanton on an expedition in Montana during the 
early autumn of 1914. This vertebra, when received by me, was 
labeled thus: 

"Coniornis altus Marsh, Lumbar vertebra, Dog Creek, 1 mi. 
above its mouth, Fergus County, Montana. Cretaceous Clagget 
formation (upper yellowish sandstone) September 26, 1914." T. 
W. Stanton, C. W. Gilmore. All. No." 

There being no proper material in the collections of the U. S. 
National Museum wherewith to compare this vertebra, I studied it 
as best I could through comparing the fossil bone with the figures 
given by Marsh in his Odontornithes. This comparison convinced 
me of the fact that the vertebra belonged to some medium-sized 
Hesperornis; further, that it more closely resembled the 23d 
vertebra of the spinal column of Hesperornis regalis than it did any 
other vertebra, and I was therefore led to believe that it was the 
corresponding vertebra of some species of Hesperornis, smaller 
than H. regalis, probably of a species heretofore undescribed. 

As I knew that Doctor Richard S. Lull, of the Peabody Museum, 
was engaged upon a study of the Hcsperornithida', at the time this 
bone came to me for study, I determined to refer it to him for an 
opinion. This I did with a letter dated at Washington, D. C, the 
10th of November, 1914. 

Doctor Lull very kindly made an exhaustive study of this fossil 
vertebra, and returned it to me with a letter of transmittal, dated 
November 20, 1914. At the close of his communication on the 
subject, he says: "I will lend you a cast of the 23d vertebra, of 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XVIII. 

Remains of Hesperornis in Montana. 

1915 J Shufeldt, Remains of Hesperomis. 291 

H. regalis No. 1207, but as it is one of a set of casts we would like 
to have it returned when you are through with it." 

Reproductions of my photographs of this cast, together with 
those of the vertebra here being considered, are exhibited on 
Plate XVIII. 

The following is Dr. Lull's paper in full : 

"It is evidently the last dorsal vertebra, the 23d, hence was 
compared with the equivalent bone of three specimens of Hesper- 
omis regalis, the mounted specimen, Cat. No. 1206, and Hesper- 
omis Nos. 1477 and 1499. Also with the second mounted specimen, 
Lestornis crassipes, holotype, Cat. No. 1474. 

"The new bone has suffered from fracture and abrasion, by 
which certain of the fractured surfaces, e. g., stumps of the trans- 
verse processes, are smoothed over and rendered deceptive. 

"It is smaller than any of the four equivalent bones, though 
there is as much range among them as between the least of them 
and the new bone. 

"It differs from the other three but resembles No. 1477 in the 
manner in which the neural spine arises, in that the forward margin 
as preserved has a slight backward instead of a forward inclination. 
The new specimen differs from all four but resembles No. 1499 
most closely, in that the lateral walls of the centrum are not so 
deeply excavated. In No. 1499 this depression is slight, but more 
marked than in the new specimen, and its greatest depth lies 
further to the rear. There is a decided ridge leading from the 
postzygapophysis to the base of the transverse process in three of 
the vertebra 3 . This is obsolete in the new bone and also in 1499. 

"The anterior articular face seems to be less deeply excavated 
in the new specimen than in any of the four at Yale. This differ- 
ence, however, may be more apparent than real, as the lateral 
limitations of this face are chipped and worn away. A very slight 
h?emal spine is represented by a broken area in all five vertebra 3 . 
Herein there is essential agreement. 

"Vertebra No. 1499, Hespcrornis sp., comes the nearest to the 
new bone in size and general appearance, differing therefrom in 
being proportionately somewhat longer; this difference is, however, 
heightened by the broken character of the new specimen. A 
further distinction lies in the fact that, whereas in the new specimen 

292 Shufeldt, Remains of Hesperornis. [july 

the prezygapophyses are buttressed by a sharp-edged ridge of bone 
extending from above the stump of the rib facets somewhat ob- 
liquely inward and upward, in 1499 there is in this place a distinct 
transverse crease instead of a vertical buttress. A rounded vertical 
forward margin in place of the sharp-edged buttress characterizes 
the other three Yale specimens, and the crease in 1499 may have, 
been accentuated if not caused by the slight vertical crushing to 
which the bone has been subjected. 

" Such distinctions as I can see are certainly not generic, and so 
far as the actual bones go, specific contrasts are hard to find. The 
distinctions between Lestornis crassipes and Hesperornis regalis, 
for instance, lie in other bones than this vertebra, so that had I the 
23d vertebra? alone for comparison, I could hardly distinguish them 
specifically — certainly not generically. I am sure the new bone 
is that of a species of Hesperornis, possibly new, though this belief 
is based mainly on geographic rather than on anatomical distinc- 

"The bone No. 1499 is not specifically determined if it is not 
H. regalis." 

With reference to the exact locality, where this vertebra was 
found, and other data, Mr. Charles W. Gilmore has given me the 
following valuable and interesting information. "The vertebra 
(Cat. No. 8199) was found by Dr. T. W. Stanton on Dog Creek, 
Montana, on the left hand side of the valley about one mile above 
its mouth. The bed from which the vertebra was collected is now 
assigned to the Claggett formation because it is marine, while the 
overlying Judith River deposits are freshwater with a few inter- 
calated brackish-water beds. 

"The specimen is from the upper yellowish sandstone from a 
fossiliferous band containing numerous sharks' teeth, vertebrae 
and teeth of other fishes. 

"The only other bird remains known from this area is the type 
of Coniornis altus, reported by Hatcher * as coming from ' near the 
base of the Judith River beds on Dog Creek.' 

" Since the Coniornis type was collected some years prior to the 
differentiation of these exposures into successive and distinct 

i Bull. No. 257, U. S. Geological Survey, 1905, p. 99. 

° '1915 ] Shufeldt, Remains of Hesperornis. 293 

formations, it is quite probable that both specimens came from the 
same geological level." 

Professor Marsh was firmly convinced that the great toothed 
divers of the extinct genus Hesperornis were confined to the Creta- 
ceous Beds of Kansas. So tenacious was he of this opinion that, 
when the fossil remains of a big extinct diver came into his posses- 
sion, having been collected in Montana by Hatcher, he was very 
loath to consider it a species of Hesperornis, notwithstanding the 
fact that the fossil bones presented strong hesperornithine char- 
acters. He therefore created a new genus — Coniomis — to 
contain it. 

Now the vertebra found by Doctor Stanton has been shown by 
Doctor Lull and myself to have undoubtedly belonged to a species 
of Hesperornis, and the specimen practically presents the same 
characters as the fossil vertebra of a Hesperornis in the Yale Uni- 
versity collection, No. 1499, though there are a few appreciable 

Up to the present time, science has nothing to show by way of 
proof that the long bones, described by Marsh as belonging to a big 
extinct diver which he named Coniomis alius, belonged to the same 
species from an individual of which came the vertebra discovered 
by Doctor Stanton. 

Basing my opinion on the proportions existing between the 23d 
vertebra of Hesperornis regalis and the tibio-tarsus in that species — 
as compared with the proportions of the vertebra here being con- 
sidered and with the tibio-tarsus of the species Marsh described as 
Coniornis altus — I should say that the vertebra found by Doctor 
Stanton belonged to a somewhat smaller species of Hesperornis 
than did the long bones of Marsh's Coniornis, which latter is also a 
Hesperornis as I have elsewhere pointed out. 

I herewith propose a provisional name for this apparently new 
species of Hesperornis, basing it upon the vertebra described in this 
paper. I suggest the name for it of Hesperornis montana. 

Possibly, in the future, more fossil material of the Hesperornithidce 
may be found in the above named formation in Montana ; and this 
material may go to show that all the forms here named and con- 
sidered belonged to the same species, they being distinguished only 
by such differences as may have been due to age and sex. On the 

294 Shufeldt, Remains of Hesperornis. Ljuly 

other hand — and what appears to me to be more likely — the 
discovery of additional material may conclusively prove that the 
several individuals here considered were distinct species, which now, 
at least, seems evident in the case of the one numbered 1499 in the 
Yale Museum. 

Plate XVIII. 

[All the figures in the Plate are reduced to about three-fourths the actual 
size of the specimens shown. R. W. S.] 

Fig. 3. Left lateral view of the cast of the 23d vertebra of Hesperornis 
regalis. Belongs to a set in the collection of Yale University Museum. 
Other views of this cast are given in Figs. 5, 7, 9 and 11. 

Fig. 4. Direct left lateral view of the vertebra of Hesperornis montana. 
Other views of this fossil bone are given in Figs. 6, 8, 10 and 12. 

Fig. 5. Direct anterior view of the cast of the 23d vertebra of Hesper- 
ornis regalis. Same specimen as Fig. 3 and others. 

Fig. 6. Direct anterior view of the 23d vertebra of Hesperornis mon- 
tana. Same as shown in Fig. 4 and others. 

Fig. 7. Direct posterior view of the cast of the 23d vertebra of Hesper- 
ornis regalis. Same specimen as Fig. 5 and others. 

Fig. 8. Direct posterior view of the 23d vertebra of Hesperornis 
montana. Same fossil as shown in Fig. 6 and others. 

Fig. 9. Direct dorsal view of the cast of the 23d vertebra of Hesper- 
ornis regalis. Same specimen as shown in Fig. 7 and others. 

Fig. 10. Direct dorsal view of the 23d vertebra of Hesperornis montana. 
Same fossil as shown in Fig. 8 and others. 

Fig. 11. Direct ventral view of the cast of the 23d vertebra of Hesper- 
ornis regalis. Same specimen as shown in Fig. 7 and others. 

Fig. 12. Direct ventral view of the 23d vertebra of Hesperornis mon- 
tana. Same fossil as shown in Fig. 8 and others. 






VOh 1^15 XI1 ] Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. 295 



Plates XIX-XX. 

During the period from May 23 to August 15, 1914, the writer 
was stationed on Forrester Island, Alaska, in the interests of the 
U. S. Biological Survey. What time could be spared from routine 
duties was occupied in study of the bird life in this most interesting 
section. The following account is taken from notes made at this 

Forrester Island is of volcanic origin, and is between four and 
five miles long by one and a half miles wide at the widest part. 
It is heavily timbered with spruce, hemlock and squaw pine from 
the water's edge up to the top of the island, 1395 feet at the highest 
point. The island is situated in 54° 45' north latitude, being about 
12 miles directly west of Dall Island and southwesterly from 
Prince of Wales Island, and only a short distance north of the 
Canadian boundary. There are several small islets lying a short 
distance off the main island, the most important of which are 
Petrel Island at the south end, and Cape Horn and Sea Lion Rocks, 
and Lowrie Island at the north end. Lowrie Island is low and well 
timbered, while Petrel Island is higher, more rocky and timbered 
only toward the top. 

These are all included in the Forrester Island Bird Reservation, 
as is also Wolf Rock, a bare rocky islet lying about ten miles north 
of the north end of Forrester. With the exception of this latter 
locality, all parts of the reservation were visited by the writer, 
most of them several times. Practically all the time that could be 
spared to ornithological investigation was devoted to the study of 
the water birds, consequently the notes on land birds must be 
considered very incomplete. There were more land birds in this 
locality than I have ever notetl in any other section of southeastern 
Alaska. As will be seen, however, the number of species is not 

The climate is about the same as that of adjacent sections, being 

296 Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. [july 

exceedingly moist at all times, the rain fall probably closely ap- 
proaching 100 inches annually. During the past summer there 
were only occasionally days of good weather, the major part of the 
season being rainy or windy, frequently both. 

There was a camp of several hundred fishermen on the island. 
They were engaged in trolling for king salmon which were generally 

The following is an annotated list of birds observed. 

Gavia sp.? — Loons were noted at a distance several times during the 
summer, but I was never able to approach them closely enough to be posi- 
tive as to the species. The Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica) was common in 
the channel west of Prince of Wales Island, May 22, evidently on the 
northward migration. 

Lunda cirrhata. Tufted Puffin. — The most abundant of the 
Alcida?. Estimated numbers, 35,000 pairs. This species began to deposit 
the eggs about the second week in June. The principal colonies are on the 
west side of the main island, on Petrel Island and on Cape Horn Rocks. 

The fishermen detest these birds because of their penchant for stealing 
the herring that is used as bait in trolling for salmon. After the fisherman 
has placed a fresh herring on the hook and lets the fine out to trolling dis- 
tance, the puffin will dive and neatly remove the bait from the hook. I 
have seen this done when the bird was forced to go down at least fifteen 
fathoms. Apparently a puffin will attach itself to a particular trolling 
boat and will follow it for hours. The fishermen attribute to the bird a 
surprising amount of cunning. One Norwegian assured me solemnly that 
the parrot would rise up on the crest of a wave and look into the boat in 
order to count the herring therein. Their eyesight is deficient at times, 
however, as they will sometimes dive after a spoon. Frequently the puffins 
will get all the herring the fisherman has and he will be obliged to cease 
fishing or have recourse to a spoon, which latter method is not nearly so 
successful as to results. As far as I was able to ascertain, this habit of 
stealing bait is confined to this species, the Horned Puffin apparently not 
having acquired it. 

Fratercula corniculata. Hohned Puffin. — Nowhere very abundant 
but fairly well distributed along the shores of the main island, also on Petrel 
Island and Cape Horn Rocks. Probably 1000 to 1200 pairs in all. Gen- 
erally nesting in small colonies of from five to twenty pairs each. No nests 
were seen in burrows, all those noted being in cavities in cliffs and in crevices 
in caves and under boulders, never more than a hundred feet (generally 
less than fifty feet) above the water. The nesting location is much more 
similar to that of the Pigeon Guillemot than to that of the Tufted Puffin. 
The nest is very frequently so far back in a cavity as to be impossible to 
approach closely. The nesting cavity is generally fairly well lined with 

VOl lM5 XIT ] Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. 297 

grass, frequently supplemented with a few feathers. The eggs are deposited 
during the last ten days in June. The first young were noted July 22, but 
some were probably out several days earlier. A few of the eggs of this 
species are quite heavily spotted with brown but the majority are indis- 
tinguishable from those of the last. The feeding habits of the Horned 
Puffin are very similar to those of the Tufted Puffin but, as a rule, they 
seem to feed closer to shore, frequently being seen in small flocks inside the 
kelp patches. 

Cerorhinca monocerata. Rhinoceros Auklet. — Estimated num- 
ber, about 20,000 pairs. The nesting colonies of this species seem to be 
confined to the eastern side of the main island. On all the slopes in this 
locality, where the ground is not too wet to burrow in, they are abundant 
from a few feet above the rocky beaches to four or five hundred feet on the 
hillsides among the timber. The burrows are generally from seven to 
nine feet in length, crooked, and often forked two or three times. The 
burrowing bird tears the earth loose with its bill and throws it backward 
with its feet. The shallow nest cavity is more or less sparsely lined with 
grasses and leaves, and additions are apparently made to the nest lining 
during the incubation period and even after the young is hatched. The 
egg laying begins the fourth week in May and probably continues far into 
June, as a bird was found incubating an egg as late as July 22. 

The incubating birds are relieved by their mates at about 11 p. m. and 
2 a. m., about three hours on the night shift and twenty-one on the day 
shift. It was, of course, impossible to ascertain whether or not the same 
bird continues to incubate during the day throughout the entire period, 
but in this country of long days and short nights, it seems improbable that 
such should be the case. The birds go considerable distances in search of 
food and evidently prefer the smooth water of the inside channels to the 
rougher water around Forrester Island. While they are rarely seen in the 
latter locality in the daytime, they are abundant in the channels between 
Prince of Wales Island and Dall and Suemez islands. They begin appear- 
ing in small flocks in the vicinity of Forrester Island about an hour before 
dusk and fly restlessly back and forth from then until dark. On one or two 
occasions while walking among the nesting colonies in the daytime, I was 
surprised to see an incubating bird leave the burrow and fly to sea. I do 
not consider this a regular occurrence, but believe rather that the bird 
heard my approach and was frightened into leaving the nest. 

The Indians' favorite method of capturing these birds is to build a large 
fire in the nesting colony at the time of night when the birds are changing. 
They become bewildered by the light and are easily despatched with the 
aid of long spruce boughs. All auklets and murrelets are eaten by the 
Indians and are known to them as " little ducks." 

Ptychoramphus aleuticus. Cassin's Auklet. — The least common 
of the burrowing birds. Probably not more than 2000 pairs on the reserva- 
tion, although this number is a pure guess, as it is impossible to differentiate, 
from outward appearances, the burrows of this species from those of the 

298 Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. uuly 

next. Among the total number of burrows excavated, however, the 
percentage of the Cassin's Auklet was very small. They were found 
nesting on the east side of the main island and on Petrel Island. Eggs 
were noted occasionally from May 30 to June 9. On the latter date large 
young were common on Petrel Island, so the nesting season must have 
commenced in April. A bird incubating two eggs was found on this latter 
occasion. It seems probable that one of these was deposited by another 

Synthliboramphus antiquus. Ancient Murrelet. — Very abun- 
dant. Estimated number, 20,000 pahs. The principal nesting colonies 
of this bird are on the eastern slope of the main island where they mingle 
with the two species of auklets. They also nest in lesser numbers on Petrel 
Island among the petrel colonies. From observations it would seem that 
this murrelet seldom burrows in open ground but prefers locations among 
roots of trees and under logs and rocks. The nesting season evidently 
begins about May 1 and continues well into June, the most of the eggs, 
however, being deposited about May 10 to 15. 

The newly hatched young has a greyish band across the chest and the 
abdomen is also shaded with grey. In two or three days this disappears, 
leaving the under parts pure white. The young leave the nest when about 
four days old and follow the. parent bird to the water. This movement 
takes place generally between 11 p. m. and 1 a. m. At this time of night 
the calls of old and young murrelets may be heard in all directions. At 
the time of my arrival on the island, May 23, the young were already 
leaving the nests, and the latest noted was on the night of July 2. They 
were most plentiful June 1 to 10. The old bird precedes the young to the 
water, generally keeping from twenty to one hundred feet ahead of it. A 
continuous communication is maintained between the two, the frequent 
cheeps of the young being answered by the parent . By the aid of a lantern 
I was able to watch the progress of this movement. The chicks come 
tumbling down the hillsides, falling over rocks and logs and, directed by 
the adult, generally make their way to the bottom of the nearest ravine 
which they follow to the salt water. Arriving at the water's edge, in 
response to the anxious calls of the parent who is already some distance out 
on the water, the chick plunges in and swims boldly out through the surf 
and joins its parent. Whether or not both young generally leave the nest 
on the same night, I am unable to state but I know that this is not always 
the case, as in one or two instances a solitary young was found in a nest, the 
evidence showing that two birds had been hatched and that one had already 
left. The young rnurrelets are easily attracted by light and they often 
wandered into the tents of the fishermen where, rendered helpless by the 
glare of the light, they were easily captured. 

The old bird with the young evidently proceeds immediately out to the 
open water as, even when hundreds took to the water at night, they could 
not be found anywhere in the vicinity of the island the next morning. 
During the entire summer not a single young murrelet was seen after it had 

Vol 'ifi^ XH ] Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. 299 

taken to the water. Like the Rhinoceros Auklets, the old birds were occa- 
sionally seen near the shore but in very small numbers compared to the 
total number nesting on the island. Their principal feeding ground is, 
seemingly, well out to sea. 

Brachyramphus marmoratus. Marbled Murrelet. — During 
the early part of the summer this species was not noted in the vicinity 
of the reservation and I am sure that it does not nest on the island. The 
first birds were seen July 25, when three adults were found feeding a little 
distance from shore. One bird taken at this time was an adult female 
which, according to the condition of the sexual organs, had nested some 
time previously. After this date the species was further noted on several 

It was plentiful in the channels around Prince of Wales and Dall islands 
throughout the summer and evidently nests in these localities. Mr. W. D. 
McLeod, of Howkan, informs me that during late May and the month of 
June he has observed Marbled Murrelets flying down from the mountains of 
Dall Island at dusk. 

Cepphus columba. Pigeon Guillemot. — Probably 300 pahs on 
the reservation. Generally distributed along rocky shores, the favorite 
feeding ground being around the kelp patches close in. This bird has a 
peculiar habit of sometimes carrying a small fish around in its bill for a 
considerable length of time before eating it. One bird noted carried the 
fish for a full two hours, the lower mandible being in the gill and the upper 
one on top of the fish's head. The nests of the sea pigeon were for the most 
part inaccessible, being far in the recesses of crevices in the roofs of caves. 
A nest containing one egg was found June 26. This egg was later de- 
stroyed by crows, which are very numerous around the sea bird colonies 
and prey especially on the eggs of the sea pigeon, cormorant and murre. 

Uria troille calif ornica. California Murre. — Probably 20,000 
pairs nesting on the reservation. The principal rookeries are on the west 
side of Forrester Island, on Cape Horn Rocks and on Petrel Island. There 
seemed to be no nests at all on the easterly and more protected side of the 
island. These birds begin to deposit their eggs about July 20 and probably 
all the females had laid by August 5. Owing to the destruction of many 
of the eggs, however, fresh eggs may be found until late in August. This 
destruction of a considerable percentage of the eggs is due to two causes. 
First, the thieving crow who finds in the stupid murre an easy victim, and 
second in the clumsiness of the murres, themselves. Many of the eggs are 
laid on narrow ledges of cliffs and the clumsy birds when leaving or alighting 
on the nesting ledge frequently roll the egg over the side of the cliff. During 
several visits paid to the murre colonies, many eggs were seen thus destroyed. 
On one occasion an egg dropped Seventy or eighty feet and struck on the 
back of a murre on a ledge below. The first young murre was noted 
August 13. 

Stercorarius parasiticus. Parasitic Jaeger. — Migrant. Several 
birds seen near Lowrie Island August 3. 

300 Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. [july 

Rissa tridactyla pollicaris. Pacific Kittiwake. — Common before 
June 10 and after August 10. Immature birds in the majority. 

Larus glaucescens. Glaucous-winged Gull. — Estimated numbers. 
Nesting birds, 3000 pairs; immatures, 10,000 (this does not count young 
raised this year). This species was nesting scatteringly along nearly the 
whole coast of the main island and there were substantial colonies on 
Petrel Island and adjoining rocks and on Cape Horn and Sea Lion rocks. 
They began laying the first week in June and by the middle of the month 
the nesting season was at its height. On August 13 large young were the 
rule, although a few nests containing eggs were noted on that date. The 
young birds depend a great deal on protective coloration for concealment. 
On the approach of an intruder they lie absolutely motionless among the 
rocks and, so perfectly do their colors blend into the gray of the rocks,' 
very frequently escape detection. One youngster, yet unable to fly, fell 
from a cliff into the water below. Here he was joined by one of his parents 
who guided him to a sloping rock and assisted him to land. 

Larus argentatus. Herring Gull. — Although this gull has not been 
previously reported from the reservation, it was found to be fairly common, 
especially around the rocks at the north end. The immature birds out- 
numbered the adults, however, at least ten to one. The only place the 
species was found nesting was on Cape Horn Rocks, where two nests, each 
containing two eggs, were noted on June 22, the birds being flushed and 
positively identified in both instances. A few days later these eggs had 
disappeared, probably having been taken by the natives. It was impossible 
to estimate the number of herring gulls breeding as their nests could not be 
differentiated with certainty from those of the last species. From the 
number of adults noted, the nesting birds probably number about twenty 
pairs. Immature birds estimated at 400. Total 440. 

Diomedea nigripes. Black-footed Albatross. — One bird seen near 
Lowrie Island August 3. I was on a launch at the time and, heading 
directly toward the bird, succeeded in approaching within fifty feet before 
it took alarm and flew away, pursued for a short distance by two gulls. 

Puffinus griseus. Sooty Shearwater. — Seen occasionally through- 
out the summer, generally a half mile or more off shore but on one occasion 
between Forrester and Lowrie islands. 

Fulmarus glacialis glupischa. Pacific Fulmar. — Frequently seen 
at a little distance from shore during late July and August. All birds 
noted were in dark plumage. 

Oceanodroma furcata. Forked-tailed Petrel. — Probably 10,000 
pairs nesting on Petrel Island, seemingly the only place on the reservation 
where petrels nest. O. furcata is outnumbered by the next species at least 
five to one. Their nesting localities are practically identical, though 
furcata seems slightly more partial to the grass covered slopes than to the 
more open ground among the timber. O. furcata also nests considerably 
earlier than the next, eggs being found most plentifully June 5 to 15. 

The night of June 10 was spent on Petrel Island. From 10.30 p. m. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XX. 

w * -J^g* 





r , 


Forked-tailed Petrel on Nest (excavated). 


^m^r ^^^4Hh^l ■B^B^^^S^ 

■ » it. ' <• > 


■ -Mm If 
1 .^ .a • - 

»* * ' * 

Horned Puffin on Nest. 

V0l "i?i? XI1 ] Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. 301 

until 2 a. m. the air swarmed with petrels of both species. There is a 
considerable difference in their notes while in the air, and the notes of the 
white-rumped bird were in a preponderance of about three to one. Many 
of this latter species were not in the air, however, but were in burrows and 
in crevices in the rocks in pairs, this being the height of their courting 
season. Their cooing love notes could be heard emanating from the ground 
during the entire night. 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa kaedingi. K.eding's Petrel. — The 
white-rumped petrel of Forrester Island is exactly the same as the bird 
that nests on St. Lazaria Island, Sitka Bay. In previous articles on the 
birds of that reservation (Bird-Lore, XIV, 1912, pp. 419-426: Condor, 
XVI, 1914, pp. 71-91), I referred this petrel to the form 0. beali de- 
scribed by Emerson (Condor, VIII, 1906, p. 54). 

Through the kindness of the authorities of the United States National 
Museum, I secured for comparison with St. Lazaria and Forrester Island 
birds a series of nine adult specimens of 0. leucorhoa leucorhoa from the 
north Atlantic, six specimens from the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea 
and four specimens from near Midway Island, Ter. Hawaii. Also through 
the courtesy of the Oregon State Game Commission, I obtained twelve 
breeding specimens of 0. leucorhoa kcedingi from Three Arch Rocks, off the 
Oregon coast. The following conclusions were arrived at by a careful 
study of the above mentioned material in comparison with series from St. 
Lazaria Island and Forrester Island. 

Average measurements. Wing. Tail 

Nine specimens, north Atlantic 6 . 24 3 . 45 

Six specimens, Aleutians & Bering Sea 6.22 3.14 

Twenty specimens, Sitka Bay 6 . 05 3 . 04 

Twenty specimens, Forrester Island 6 . 03 3 . 05 

Twelve specimens, Three Arch Rocks 5.98 3.01 

From the above measurements it will be seen that the southeastern 
Alaska birds are much nearer kcedingi than leucorhoa. The birds from 
Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands are nearer leucorhoa but with a tend- 
ency toward koedingi. There are exceptional specimens from both St. 
Lazaria and Forrester Islands that measure nearly as large as the average 
of leucorhoa. For these two latter reasons it would seem that kcedingi must 
be regarded as only subspecifically distinct from leucorhoa; therefore I 
have used the trinomial. The measurement of the forking of the tail which 
has been extensively used by some writers is very variable. The two races 
O. beali from Sitka Bay, and O. beldingi from Netarts Bay, Oregon, de- 
scribed by Emerson (1. c, p. 54^ seem to be founded on characters too 
minute to be worthy of recognition. The birds from Sitka and Forrester 
Island possibly average slightly lighter on the back and darker on the 
under parts than specimens from the Oregon coast but in several specimens 
at hand these differences cannot be detected. 

302 Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. [july 

I estimated the number of these birds nesting on Petrel Island at 50,000 
pairs. Their burrows were abundant both on the grassy hillsides and on 
top of the island among the timber. They began laying about June 20 
and the nesting season was at its height June 29. 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus. Pelagic Cormorant. — About 
one hundred pairs of these birds nested on the reservation during the past 
season and there were probably as many more immature birds that did not 
nest. The principal nesting colony, consisting of about fifty pairs, was at 
the northeast end of the main island. Occasional nests were also noted 
at other points on the main island, on Petrel Island and on Cape Horn and 
Sea Lion Rocks. The birds were nest building during the entire month 
of June and the first eggs were noted June 26, on which date one nest con- 
tained three eggs, all other nests nearby being empty as yet. A week later 
nearly all the nests contained eggs. The first young were seen July 22. 

At least two thirds of the eggs and young of the cormorants were de- 
stroyed by the crows, which were always most abundant in localities where 
the cormorants were nesting. • 

Nettion carolinense. Green-winged Teal. — A bird of this species 
shot near camp August 13 and another seen the same day. 

Histrionicus histrionicus. Harlequin Duck. — Occasional through- 
out the summer. Pair of adults in breeding plumage seen at Lowrie 
Island June 14. A search for a nest was unsuccessful. 

Ardea herodias fannini. Northwest Coast Heron. — One seen 
at north end of island July 28. Rather common on Dall and Prince of 
Wales Islands. 

Lobipes lobatus. Northern Phalarope. — Abundant on the ocean 
during late July and August. 

Ereunetes mauri. Western Sandpiper. — Single bird seen at north 
end of island July 15. Common at south end of Dall Island during late 

Numenius hudsonicus. Hudsonian Curlew. — One seen at north- 
east end August 13. 

iEgialitis semipalmata. Semipalmated Plover. — Single bird ap- 
peared on the beach near camp the morning of July 31 and remained most 
of the day. 

Heematopus bachmani. Black Oystercatcher. — About fifty pairs 
nesting on reservation. Nest containing three eggs noted June 29. Three 
young about two days old seen the same day. 

Summary of breeding water birds. 

Lunda cirrhata. Tufted Puffin 70,000 

Fratercula corniculata. Horned Puffin 2,200 

Cerorhinca monocerata. Rhinoceros Auklet 40,000 

Ptychorhamphus aleuticus. Cassin Auklet 4,000 

Synthiliboramphus aleuticus. Ancient Murrelet 40,000 

'1915 J Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. 303 

Cepphus columba. Pigeon Guillemot 600 

Uria troille calif ornica. California Murre 40,000 

Larus glaucescens. Glaucous-winged Gull 16,000 

Larus argentatus. Herring Gull 440 

Oceanodroma furcata. Forked-tailed Petrel 20,000 

Oceanodroma leucorhoa ksedingi. Kaeding Petrel 100,000 

Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus. Pelagic Cormorant 300 

Hsematopus bachmani. Black Oystercatcher 100 

Total 333,640 

Land Birds. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus. Northern Bald Eagle. — 
Estimated numbers. Nesting birds, thirty pairs. Young in nests, sixty. 
Immatures of past two years, eighty. Total, 200. At the time of my 
arrival on the island, May 23, the young were already hatched. They 
had apparently not yet left the nests August 15. The eagles on Forrester 
Island seem to subsist nearly altogether on fish, though on a few occasions 
they were seen in pursuit of sea birds. 

Falco peregrinus anatum. Duck Hawk. — Half dozen pairs nesting. 
One nest examined June 13 contained two young about two weeks old. 
Most of the young were flying by July 20 and hunting for themselves by the 
25th. This hawk appears to feed entirely on other birds, puffins, auklets 
and murrelets being its chief prey. 

Cryptoglaux acadica. Saw-whet Owl. — An adult female was taken 
June 5 as she left a cavity in a dead spruce stub. On examining the cavity, 
apparently an old woodpecker's nest and about eight feet from the ground, 
it was found to contain four eggs on the point of hatching. 

The species was common at the south end of Dall Island August 25-27. 

Bubo virginianus saturatus. Dusky Horned Owl. — One of the 
fishermen reported seeing a horned owl in a thicket at the northeast end of 
the island July 10. On visiting this locality the following day the bird was 
not seen, but a feather was found that undoubtedly came from a bird of 
this species. 

Ceryle alcyon caurina. Western Kingfisher. — First noted August 
3, when a bird flew past camp. Single bird seen August 4 and again August 
8. Probably a straggler from Dall Island, where it is common. 

Dryobates villosus sitkensis. Sitka Hairy Woodpecker. — I am 
rather puzzled as to the exact status of this bird on the island. It was 
rather common in the woods until the second week in June and after 
August 1. Between these dates it was very rarely seen or heard. It may 
have retired to more dense and ouk of the way sections to nest but no proof 
of this was obtained. Cavities, apparently old nesting sites of some 
woodpecker, were noted occasionally but no fresh ones were found. The 
bird was extremely wild and no specimens were obtained but from geo- 
graphical reasons it is probable that it is referable to the above form. 

304 Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. [j^ 

Sphyrapicus varius ruber. Red-breasted Sapsucker. — A single 
bird seen near camp May 26. For reasons pointed out by Swarth (Univ. 
Cal. Pub. Zool., 10, 1912, pp. 35-38) I have used the above name rather 
than S. ruber notkensis of the A. O. U. Check-List. 

Empidonax difficilis difficilis. Western Flycatcher. — Rather 
common in the woods all over the reservation and undoubtedly breeding, 
though no nests were found. 

Corvus corax principalis. Northern Raven. — Common in the 
timber on all parts of the reservation. I was unable to locate the nest of 
this bird but it undoubtedly breeds, probably in the dense timber. Fully 
fledged young appeared with their parents early in July. 

Although this bird in outward appearance is very similar to the more 
southern form, C. c. sinuatus, its notes, actions and, apparently, its nesting 
habits are so entirely different that it is difficult for me to regard the two 
forms as only subspecifically distinct. 

Corvus caurinus. Northwestern Crow. — Very plentiful, especially 
in the vicinity of the sea bird rookeries. Two or three nests examined were 
placed in spruce thickets near the beach. The young left the nests about 
the middle of July and joined their parents in their egg raids. 

This was the one bird on the reservation in which it seemed impossible 
to see a single redeeming quality. It is a pest and a robber of the worst 
type. Although possibly doing no more damage, bird for bird, than does 
the duck hawk, it is much more abundant. It also lacks the speed and 
fighting qualities of the latter which, however misplaced, one cannot help 
but admire. 

Loxia curvirostra minor. American Crossbill. — Occasionally 
seen in small flocks during the early summer, becoming more plentiful 
about July 20. Whether or not this species breeds on the reservation, I 
am unable to say. No nests were found and the birds seen were always in 
small companies, never in pairs. 

Spinus pinus. Pine Finch.— Rare during the early summer, at which 
season it was noted only on Petrel and Lowrie islands. About July 9 it 
began to appear in the vicinity of the camp and after July 20 was abundant. 

Junco oreganus oreganus. Oregon Junco. — During the early 
summer evidently confined to the scrub timber and open meadows on top 
of the island. First appeared in the vicinity of camp July 9 during stormy 
weather, at which time adults and full grown young appeared together. 
After this date it was common. 

Melospiza melodia rufina. Sooty Song Sparrow. — Common in 
grassy locations open to the sunshine, not occurring in the dense woods or 
more shady portions of the island. Most plentiful on Petrel Island but 
occurring in smaller numbers in favorable localities on the main island, 
Lowrie Island and Cape Horn Rocks. The nest is difficult to locate, 
being placed on the ground and carefully concealed among the grass. It is 
built entirely of grass, coarse outside and fine inside. One found June 13 
contained four newly hatched young, and another found July 22 contained 
an addled egg and three young just leaving the nest. 

° 1915 J Willett, Birds of Forrester Island. 305 

Passerella iliaca townsendi. Townsend's Fox Sparrow. — Probably 
the most abundant land bird on the reservation, occurring in wooded locali- 
ties everywhere. Seemingly at least two broods are raised in a season. 
The location of the nests noted varied greatly, some being ten or twelve 
feet up in trees, some in brush thickets and on fallen logs and others on the 
ground. A brood of young left a nest near camp May 24 and fresh eggs 
were found as late as June 22. 

Vermivora celata lutescens. Lutescent Warbler. — Common in 
brush thickets and on grassy slopes in many different localities. Was 
evidently breeding during the month of June but no nests were found. In 
late July the adults appeared accompanied by the young and from that 
time on the species was very abundant in the young spruce timber. 

Nannus hiemalis pacificus. Western Winter Wren. — Common 
throughout the wooded sections. Full grown young appeared by June 18. 

Certhia familiaris occidentalis. California Creeper. — Rare. 
Seen occasionally in the woods throughout the summer. 

Penthestes rufescens rufescens. Chestnut-backed Chickadee. — 
Fairly common during the first part of the summer. Abundant after July 

Regulus satrapa olivaceus. Western Golden-crowned Kinglet. — 
Common. During early summer kept mostly to the treetops, but by the 
latter part of July was plentiful everywhere. 

Hylocichla ustulata ustulata. Russet-backed Thrush. — Abun- 
dant in the timber in all parts of the reservation. From June 14 to July 2 
several nests containing eggs and young were found. The locations of 
these varied greatly, some being low down in salmon-berry thickets, some 
in roots of fallen trees and others in crevices in stumps. In nearly all cases 
the nests were beautifully covered with green moss. Some young birds 
were flying by July 10 and shortly after that date they were plentiful. 

Ixoreus naevius nsevius. Varied Thrush. — Much less common than 
the last species but fairly well distributed throughout the timber. Fully 
fledged young appeared the last week in June. 

r Auk 

306 Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. Luily 



The two familiar birds of city streets are the European House 
Sparrow, or English Sparrow as it is generally called, and the Rock 
Dove, commonly known as Pigeon. Both are equally fearless in 
the presence of man and all his works, and both are equally de- 
pendent on their own exertions for a living, although both are fed 
more or less irregularly by the passer-by, chiefly for the pleasure 
afforded by the sight of the crowding, eager birds. The English 
Sparrow is properly included in most bird lists as an introduced 
species. The Pigeon, however, is seldom mentioned, because here 
it is domesticated or was originally introduced in this state and has 
since become feral. 2 In most cities both here and in Europe it has 
reverted in plumage and habits to the wild state of its ancestor, the 
Rock Dove, with the exception that instead of breeding in holes 
and fissures of rocky cliffs, it now breeds in similar situations on 
buildings in cities. In small towns and villages the Pigeons are 
generally owned and fed by individuals, and live in dovecotes. A 
study of the habits of the unconfined bird as seen in cities in this 
country, and a comparison of its habits with those of its feral 
progenitors seems worth while. I commend it to ornithologists 
living in cities who lament that they have no birds to study. 

That the various fancy races or domesticated forms of the 
Pigeon, some 200 in all, are descended from one species, the Rock 
Dove, Columba domestica, is now well recognized, although it was 
formerly believed that the chief races were of separate lineage. 
This is not to be wondered at, when we consider the extraordinary 
diversity shown, not only in external plumage and form, but also 
in internal structure by those races, some of which, it is believed, 
date back to prehistoric times. One has but to glance at a pouter, 
a carrier, a barb, a fan-tail, a turbit, a tumbler or a trumpeter, 

1 Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. X, 1887, p. 424, has shown that Linne's C. 
livia is a nomen nudum and that C. domestica of Gmelin must be used. 

2 See, however, O. W. KJuight, Birds of Maine, 1908, p. 208, and G. M. Allen, 
Fauna of New England, List of Aves. Boston Soc. Nat. His., 1909, p. 226. 

Vol. XXXIIl 

Tovxsexd, Notes on the Rock Dove. 307 

for example, to realize the immense plasticity of the species and the 
changes wrought by artificial selection through the ages. Darwin 
showed that all these races, although breeding true, were fertile 
among themselves, and that the hybrids were fertile; that the young 
of the different races could hardly be distinguished apart within 
twelve hours of hatching; and lastly that diverse races and their 
hybrid offspring when bred together result in Rock Doves, typical 
in form and plumage. 

This same interbreeding has occurred in the flocks of Pigeons 
seen in our cities. Here the majority of the birds have the general 
grayish-blue color with iridescent necks and breasts, white rumps, 
white axillaries and lower wing coverts, two black wing-bars and 
black terminal or sub-terminal tail bands, typical of the Rock Dove. 
Albinism is not uncommon in these flocks but irregular plumage is 
rare, and unusual form is practically never seen. In a flock of 83 
Pigeons seen on Boston Common, one bird was a full albino, four 
partial albinos, three were chocolate-colored and the rest nearly all 
in the regular plumage. A few of these were darker blue than usual 
with little or no white on the rumps, and a number more showed 
slight albinism in the wing feathers, seen only in flight. In a group 
of 150 birds counted at another time, one was chocolate-colored, 
12 more or less albinistic and the rest nearly typical of the Rock 

I am inclined to think that the prevalence of albinism in these 
Pigeons may be partly accounted for by the fact that there are, 
with rare exceptions, no hawks in cities to pick off prominently 
marked birds, for it is reasonable to suppose that a bird, conspicu- 
ous through albinism, would afford a more shining mark to a hawk, 
and would therefore be more subject to capture. This supposition 
is borne out by an observation related to me by Mr. William Brews- 
ter. He brought to his place at Concord a flock of Pigeons, the 
majority of which were more or less albinistic or else were light 
chocolate in color, but about one fourth of the flock were in the 
ordinary plumage of the Rock Dove. The flock was from time to 
time harried by hawks who killed a number of the birds, and the 
interesting part is that at the end of some three years the albinistic 
and chocolate-colored birds were practically all weeded out and 
the typical blue birds alone remained. 

308 Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. [july 

The Rock Dove is common wherever caves or deep fissures exist 
on the rocky coasts of Scotland and Ireland, in the Shetlands, 
Orkneys, Hebrides and Faroes. In England, according to Howard 
Saunders, 1 it is " very local in Devonshire, and only a few frequent 
the cliffs of Cornwall. It can be traced along the coast of Wales, 
and at one spot in Cumberland, as well as the Isle of Man, while 
on the eastern seaboard it is found at Flamborough Head and 
in Northumberland. Birds, — apparently wild, — sometimes fre- 
quent holes in cliffs inland as well as on the coast, but they are open 
to the suspicion of being partially domesticated individuals which 
have reverted to a wild state, or descendants of such." In Scandi- 
navia the Rock Dove is rare and local and it is uncommon in the 
rest of Europe except in the mountains of Portugal, Spain and 
Italy. Darwin pointed out that as one goes south and east the 
rump changes in color from white to blue. Hudson 2 says of the 
Rock Dove: "In its language, flight, and habits it is indistinguish- 
able from the bird familiar to every one in a domestic state." 
Selby 3 says that it " is never known under any circumstances to 
affect the forest or perch upon a tree." Saunders 4 says "It has a 
marked objection to settling on trees — a peculiarity which is still 
shared by its domesticated relatives." In the British Isles it 
nests from April to September, and lays two sets of two eggs each. 

The courtship of the Rock Dove is the same in our city streets 
as on wild rocky coasts. It may be seen here nearly every pleasant 
day from January to December. The male coos long and fre- 
quently, and expresses himself in the syllables coo-roo-coo or cock- 
a war, the last syllable in either case much prolonged. He stretches 
his neck now up, now down and, with puffed out breast, displays to 
full advantage his brilliant iridescent feathers. His tail is spread 
and scrapes stiffly on the ground and his wings are drooped slightly. 
At times the amorous bird advances and retreats, pirouettes now 
this way now that, in order that the meek and apparently indiffer- 
ent female — actually slightly smaller but now very noticeably 
smaller — may be duly impressed. At times he makes little 

1 Manual of British Birds, 18S9, p. 471. 

2 British Birds, 1902, p. 262. 

3 The Naturalist's Library, Ornithology, 1835, vol. V, part III, p. 147. 

4 loc. cit. 

0l "i9i5 J Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. 309 

jumps into the air, and occasionally flies a few feet. At times, 
when not actually courting, he caresses his mate by kissing or 
billing and at times feeds her with "pigeons-milk." Again the 
happy pair preen each others feathers and search for tormenting 
inhabitants in a manner suggestive of monkeys or certain savages. 

The fighting that goes on between rival males is an important 
part of the courtship, a fact that is generally overlooked in poetical 
accounts of the gentle, cooing dove. These cliff-dwellers on window 
ledges and projecting copings of high buildings may often be seen 
engaged in sparring with their wings. Sometimes only one, some- 
times both wings are used, and the birds strike with considerable 
force and swiftness and deliver the blows on each others heads and 
necks and sometimes push or ward with one wing and strike with 
the other. The contest is often continued with but little advantage 
on either side for minutes at a time, but generally results in the 
weaker — not going to the wall — but being forced away from it 
off the ledge and having to use his weapons for flight. Sometimes 
the conquered one returns at once to the fray but often is obliged to 
content himself with a humbler station and the victor, undisturbed, 
struts and coos before his shy mate. The fighting is distinctly a 
cliff performance, with the object of pushing the rival off the ledge. 
Knight x says : " I have seen the fight protracted until one is killed 
or completely exhausted." On the outer edge of a Pigeon's wing 
is a bare spot of thickened integument. 2 

The nearest approach to rocky caves in cities are to be found in 
church towers, and these are favorite nesting sites. Open situa- 
tions on window ledges and various architectural projections on 
buildings are, however, freely used. The nest is often built in 
some of the busiest streets just above the passing wagons, and I 
have seen one on an iron beam under a noisy elevated car station 
close to an arc light. The nest is unattractive by reason of the 
liberal amount of dung with which it is daubed and of which in 
many cases it is chiefly composed. The walls of the building below 
and in the vicinity are also spattered. To avoid this disfigurement 
of buildings the ledges are sometimes built up or covered at such 

1 loc. cit. 

2 vide Lucas. The Weapons and Wings of Birds, Report of U. S. Nat. 
Museum, 1893, p. 656. 

310 Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. [july 

steep angle that the birds are unable to alight, and "pigeon-proof" 
architecture is spoken of. Besides the dung, small sticks are used 
in the construction of the nest, and there is generally a scanty 
lining of feathers. The nests vary in size, but are sometimes built 
up from repeated use to a height of six or seven inches, and are 
about fourteen inches in outside diameter. 

The number of broods raised by these wild descendants of do- 
mesticated birds varies very much and is said to be four, but their 
eggs may be seen in almost every month of the year. The eggs are 
two in number and pure white in color, characteristic of the hole 
inhabiting birds. Incubation lasts about two weeks and both 
parents take part. The young are covered with loose grayish or 
yellow down and rapidly grow to full size and attain a plumage 
very similar to that of the adult. They lack the iridescent feathers 
and are slightly mottled. 

The feeding of the young with the so called "pigeon-milk" by 
both parents is an interesting phenomenon. The adult thrusts its 
bill deep down into the side of the bill of the squab, vibrates its 
wings and works its neck muscles in a pumping manner. The 
squab, when not actually engaged in the feeding process, waves 
its wings and calls in beseeching, whistling notes for more. An 
examination of the gullet of the adult shows a large reticulated 
glandular crop from which a gelatinous fluid can be squeezed. This 
secretion mixed with, and serving to digest the contents of the crop 
forms the pigeon-milk with which the young birds are fed. As the 
voung grow, grain and other food partially digested is given. 

The cliff-inhabiting proclivities of our city Rock Doves is shown 
by their night-roosting habits. Besides church towers, which 
furnish the caves, the ledges on the buildings are thus occupied. 
Numerous ledges on the different facades of the Court House in 
Boston are favorite resorts, as are also the long ledges under the 
eaves of Arlington Street Church and the window ledges on a build- 
ing on Tremont Street opposite the Common. Whole rows of 
birds may be seen sleeping peacefully in these situations amid the 
o-lare of electric lights and the noise of traffic in the streets. These 
night roosts are favorite resting places in the day and are often 
more or less occupied in dark and stormy weather. 

The Rock Dove also shows evidence of its former life among 

*1915 J Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. oil 

rocky cliffs by its inherited objection to alighting on trees, although 
an interesting change has come over it in Boston at least. Thirty- 
five years ago I noted, as an unusual event, that a Pigeon was 
occasionally to be seen on the large branch of an elm tree in Louis- 
burg Square. In my notes of March 30, 1906, I say: "Rarely 
alight in trees, but does so habitually in Louisburg Square, and 
occasionally a few on the Common." In my notes of February 9, 
1907, I find the following: "Twenty years ago it was a rare thing 
to see a Pigeon alight in a tree; now there are several places where 
they commonly alight, and I have seen a flock of 50 in a tree in the 
Public Gardens. There are two places in the Common where these 
birds are in the habit of alighting. Single birds or pairs are to be 
seen anywhere in trees." Since then the habit has continued. 
The tree referred to in the Public Gardens is one with very large 
branches devoid of fine sprays — a Kentucky coffee tree — and I 
have lately counted as many as 100 Pigeons in this tree. Almost 
always trees with large branches are chosen but I have seen Pigeons 
on small branches or even on telegraph wires. This change in 
habit is of interest as an evidence of adaptiveness in a species. 
It would be interesting to know whether the same change is going 
on elsewhere in this country or in Europe. 

The flight of this bird is worth studying and has many points 
of interest. If one disturbs a single individual or a flock on the 
ground so that the birds suddenly take flight in alarm, a loud and 
sharp clapping noise is usually made, apparently by the striking 
together over the back of the upper surfaces of the wings. Wm. 
Macgillivray x says : " When startled, they rise suddenly, and by 
striking the ground with their wings produce a crackling noise." 
The fact however, that the noise begins and continues after the 
birds have left the ground seems to disprove this observation. In 
this connection the following observation by Fielden 2 of another 
charadrioform bird, the Knot, is of interest. He says: "Immedi- 
ately after arrival in June they began to mate, and at times I 
noticed two or more males following a single female; at this season 
they soar in the air like the Cpmmon Snipe, and when descending 

i A History of British Birds, 1837, vol. I, p. 273. 

2 Fielden, H. W., List of Birds observed in Smith Sound in 1875-76, Ibis, 
1877, 4 series, vol. I, p. 407. 

312 Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. [july 

from a height beat their wings behind the back with a rapid motion 
which produces a loud whirring noise." As Pigeons that are not 
suddenly disturbed rise from the ground silently, is it not possible 
that this loud clapping, made perhaps when the bird is frightened, 
may subserve a useful purpose in confusing a crouching animal 
stealing through the grass, and thus prevent its springing at its 
prey? Be this as it may, it is evident that, as in the case of the 
Knot, the clapping is at times a courtship action, for, with puffed 
out neck and breast, a male may fly with loud clapping to alight 
near a female. 

The facts that when well under way in the air Pigeons extend 
their feet behind under the tail, although they carry them in front 
for short nights, and that they extend the bastard wing as they 
glide towards a perch can both be verified by any one with ordinary 
vision. I have already discussed these points in other papers. 1 
It is interesting to speculate that this extension of the bastard wing 
may point back to the time when the reptilian ancestors of birds 
grasped with their front extremities the perch to which they were 

The aerial evolutions of a flock of Pigeons are performed with 
as great precision as is seen in flocks of Shore Birds, Gulls, and Auks, 
— all relatives of Doves in the group of Charadiiformes. It would 
seem as if the birds possessed a common mind as each bird in a large 
flock suddenly turns with military accuracy first its back then its 
breast to the observer, while the flock sweeps on, now this way, 
now that, about a church tower. This sudden turning is accom- 
plished by a rotation of the body along an antero-posterior axis 
through the arc of a quarter to a half of a circle. The flock, flying 
by an observer with the nearer wings pointed downwards at an 
angle of 45 degrees below the horizon, suddenly changes so that the 
nearer wings point upward at an angle of 45 degrees with the hori- 
zon. With this change in position or "reverse" the color of the 
wings appears to change from greyish blue of the upper surface to 
silvery white of the lower surface. Dewar 2 has studied these evo- 

» The Position of Birds' Feet in Flight, Auk, XXV, 1909, p. 109. 

Bird Genealogy, Auk, XXIX, 1912, p. 285. 
2 Dewar, J. M. The Evolutions of Waders. The Zoologist, 1912, 4 ser., 
vol. XVI, p. 161. 

VOl 'lsa5 XI1 ] Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. 313 

lutions in shore birds and concludes that they are protective in 
character, originating in attempts to evade birds of prey and after- 
wards employed against man. He points out the resemblance to 
wave movement or sea-spray and believes it to be a case of pro- 
tective resemblance with the object, not of deceiving the hawk as 
to the reality of the birds, but of baffling pursuit, — all of which 
is interesting and suggestive. 

At any sudden noise, like the bursting of an automobile tire or 
an explosion of gasoline in a muffler, a flock of Pigeons will in an 
instant mount into the air, no matter how busy they may have 
been in feeding, and fly about for some minutes before they return. 
A flock of Pigeons roosting on the ledges of the buildings, on Tre- 
mont Street when startled by an explosion whir away but often re- 
turn towards the facade only to double back again. Dr. W. M. 
Tyler has suggested to me that these birds are acting from fear in 
the same way that their feral ancestors would act if pursued by 
an eagle or hawk. Edmund Selous x says of the wild birds: "In 
effecting their numerous escapes, the face of the rock stood them 
in good stead, and they deliberately made use of it, in my opinion, 
for, dashing in and out, they would cling to it or double against it 
in places where eagles, as larger birds, could not follow them so 
deftly, and had perforce to check their speed." Of course the 
explanation may be, as Dr. Tyler also suggested, that the birds, 
about to return to their perches, are driven away again and again 
by the recurring fear. When so engaged in flight, if a second 
explosion occurs, the whole flock suddenly drops or darts down a 
few feet while still continuing its rapid course. One cannot help 
thinking of the similar actions of Shore Birds at the discharge of a 
gun. I have seen a flock of Black-bellied Plovers dart down in its 
flight when a gun was fired in another direction some distance off, 
and, no doubt, under similar circumstances a poor marksman has 
believed his shot had entered the flock and has wondered that no 
birds had fallen. The very loud automobile discharge near at hand 
would naturally startle any bird, but I have seen a flock of Pigeons 
act in a similar way when theVxplosion was so distant that it was 
but faintly heard. One could build up a fanciful theory to the 

i The Bird Watcher in the Shetlands, 1905, p. 158. 

314 TOWNSEND, A'otes on the Rock Dove. [july 

effect that this action of the Pigeons was inherited from ancestors 
who were pursued by gunners, but this would involve the inherit- 
ance of an acquired trait that had existed during the brief time only 
since gunpowder was used. On the other hand it is possible that 
the habit has been continued by example from adult to offspring 
since the feral days of this bird. I have observed a somewhat 
similar case where a caged canary, not easily disturbed by ordinary 
affairs of the household, showed great terror whenever a toy balloon 
floated about the room. This perhaps points back to the more 
deep seated instinct of fear of a hawk or other large bird hovering 
overhead. It may be mentioned here that the Pigeon has not yet 
learned to estimate accurately the speed of an automobile approach. 
It is able to take care of itself where horses are concerned, but not 
infrequently lingers too long in the street and is run over or hit by 
the automobile while it is attempting to fly away. In this respect 
it resembles the domestic fowl and other animals. 

In gliding either in a straight line or in curves and partial circles 
the wings are held as in most birds about on the same plane with 
the body, but at times one may see a pair of birds gliding through 
the air with the wings held up at an angle of forty-five degrees. 
This is an interesting sight and is apparently of the nature of a 
nuptial performance. 

In alighting in a field the Pigeon frequently first circles over the 
ground, or, if alighting suddenly, sometimes looks about for a 
moment before searching for food. This is suggestive of inherited 
caution from wild ancestry, for the Rock Dove in its native haunts 
is said to be very wild and suspicious. This caution is not seen 
when the bird alights in a crowded street. 

The typical "dove-like" walk of this bird is familiar; he ad- 
vances with nodding head as if at each step his head lingered behind 
while the neck and body kept on. This is seen in a greater or lesser 
extent in various other birds that walk; it is noticeable in the 
Ipswich Sparrow. 

The sight of a flock of Pigeons sunning themselves on a roof is a 
familiar one; the birds also have a habit in intervals between feed- 
ing of collecting in compact flocks and squatting close together with 
the tarsi and often the breasts flat on the ground. A group acting 
thus, all headed towards the wind, suggests the similar habit of 

1915 J Townsexd, Notes on the Rock Dove. 315 

I have referred in another paper 1 to the duck-like actions of a 
fifteen clay old Pigeon when put in a tub of water and its bearing 
on the relationships of this bird to Gulls and Auks. Saunders 2 
says " both wild and tame Pigeons have been seen to settle on the 
water like Gulls and drink while floating down stream." Mr. Wm. 
A. Jeffries tells me that he once saw a Pigeon alight on the surface 
of the Frog Pond in Boston Common. I have seen a Pigeon 
hovering above Charles River in Cambridge dropping its feet till 
they touched the water, and picking up something with its bill. 
This was repeated five or six times. This last named action points 
to the progressive or adaptive character of the bird and not neces- 
sarily to its aquatic ancestry, for I have observed similar actions 
in picking up food from the water on the part of such dissimilar 
passerine birds as Bronzed Grackles, Cedar Birds and Swallows. 

The English Sparrow is the only bird with which the Pigeon is 
intimately and constantly associated. As a rule no notice whatever 
is taken by the larger of the smaller bird or vice versa, and both feed 
amicably on the same ground. On rare occasions, however, I have 
seen an English Sparrow pursue a Pigeon. Once I saw a Pigeon 
closely pursue a Belted Kingfisher as it doubled back and forth 
three or four times over the Frog Pond on the Common. 3 In 
Boston I have known Crows to inflict considerable damage on the 
eggs and squabs of Pigeons in the rookery of the tower of Trinity 
Church, and a Duck Hawk feasted daily on adults from his perch 
on a Commonwealth Avenue church steeple, until a sportsman 
shot him from his attic window. 

In drinking water the bill is held in the pool continuously for 
half a minute or more at a time, an action very unlike the sipping 
and holding the head up of gallinaceous birds with which Pigeons 
were formerly classed. Shore birds when feeding often hold the 
bill immersed and probably drink at the same time. I have no 
notes on the drinking of Auks, but I believe that Gulls drink con- 
tinuously in a similar manner. 

In feeding on grain scattered in the street or in horse droppings 
Pigeons do not scratch. On ground planted with grass seed they 

1 Bird Genealogy, loc. cit. 

2 loc. cit. 

3 Birds of Essex County, 1905, p. 223. 

316 Townsend, Notes on the Rock Dove. [juiy 

chop vigorously at the ground with their bills causing the earth to 
fly and making in some cases holes of considerable size. In a 
garden where numerous strings were stretched which kept away the 
crows, the Pigeons alighted without fear in the network and chopped 
holes in the ground to obtain the seeds. On weedy lawns and 
fields flocks of Pigeons often alight, spread out and systematically 
eat the weed seeds. Saunders x says of the wild birds that they 
make amends for their fondness for grain by eating weed seeds and 
the roots of the conch grass ( Triticum repens). I have seen Pigeons 
walking along ploughed furrows picking up and eating earthworms 
and various larva? exposed. Dr. Glover M. Allen tells me that a few 
winters ago after a heavy snow fall he observed Pigeons clinging to 
the Japanese ivy vines on University Hall in Cambridge eating the 
ivy berries and Mr. Charles F. Batchelder reports seeing a Pigeon 
perched in a privet bush eating the berries. 

On Boston Common it is the custom of visitors to feed the 
Pigeons with bread crumbs and grain as is done at St. Marks in 
Venice and at various other cities. The birds flock about in great 
numbers and alight on the hands, shoulders and heads of the feed- 
ers. This familiarity does not necessarily point to the former 
domesticated state of this bird, for in the same place grey squirrels 
respond to feeding by nuts in a similar manner, and fearlessly 
clamber over their benefactor, and investigate his pockets to the 
astonishment of the rustic visitor, who is familiar with the same 
animal only at a long gun-shot range. This and the photographs 
shown us by such men as Harold Baynes point to the millennium 
for the bird lover when the gun shall have vanished and live birds 
be treated by everybody as real friends. 

1 loc. cit. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XXI. 

Ship Canal (Buffalo Bayou) a few miles east of Houston, Tex. 


■P;V ;> 

B55I? *■'- "dl'A * 




■ ■ 

*> #~ 








— - -wV 


1'- A^---''C7^^*'^i 

* ' - m.: 



i c " 

Mixed Oak and Pine Woodland on Buffalo Bayou, west of 
Houston, Tex. 



Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 317 



Plates XXI-XXIL 

The following notes are from observations made by the writer 
in the southern portion of Harris County, Texas, during the breed- 
ing seasons of 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, and 1914. 

The area under consideration is in the southeastern part of the 
State, and lies wholly within the semitropic or Gulf strip of the 
Austroriparian zone. Thus we find a slight intermingling of birds 
of unquestionable tropical affinities with a preponderance of Lower 
Austral species. 

Houston, where nearly all of the observations were made, is 
about 50 miles northwest of Galveston, which lies on the Gulf of 
Mexico. Buffalo Bayou runs eastward through the city 28 miles to 
Galveston Bay; Bray's Ba} r ou skirts the city on the south and joins 
Buffalo to the east. Each of these streams is skirted on either side 
by heavy strips of timber, varying from a quarter to a half mile in 
width. This timber is mostly pine, with a general sprinkling of 
deciduous trees. Northeast and north of Buffalo Bayou the great 
southern pine woods begin, and here on these bayous we find the 
most southwesterly extension of such forests. 

The country between Buffalo and Bray's Bayous and south of 
the latter is typical flat, open and almost level coastal prairie, with 
little vegetation and few farms or ranch houses. Sprinkled about 
this prairie are numerous grass-grown ponds and marshes. 

The majority of the records are from two sections; the first is a 
narrow strip of country extending west from the city, about a mile 
wide, and having Buffalo Bayou as its northern boundary; the 
second is an expanse of prairie within a mile's radius of Pierce 
Junction, a small flag-station 6| miles south of Houston. The 
woodland records are from jthe first, while the prairie and marsh 
records are from the second. All distances are in miles from the 
flag-station at Pierce Junction and the county court house in 

318 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. [$$y 

Little time could be spared during the breeding season to search 
for nests and eggs; hence the notes are by no means as complete 
as might be desired. Excessive rains often made it impracticable 
to go afield during that period, for so level is the country that for 
weeks after a rain water stands in the woodlands and on the prairies. 
Though over 50 miles from the Gulf of Mexico, Houston's altitude 
is but 53 feet. 

With few exceptions, the notes were all taken on short afternoon 
walks within a few miles of the city. But as there are few nesting 
records for the eastern half of Texas, an expanse of territory com- 
prising over one twenty-fifth of the United States, I feel that I am 
justified in publishing the more interesting of these notes in order 
to settle the question of the breeding of certain species in that 

Anas fulvigula maculosa. Mottled Duck. — On April 17, 1911, 
Captain Patrick Daly of the Houston Fire Department, while out hunting 
plover on the coastal prairie about a mile southeast of Pierce Junction, and 
driving about in a small wagon among a number of small prairie ponds, 
frequently mentioned in the following notes, flushed a female of this species 
from a nest containing eleven eggs. As is the case with all ponds in this 
section of prairie, the whole with the exception of a small spot near the 
center was thickly covered with tall grass, rushes, water plants of various 
sorts, and sprinkled with a few bushes or reeds, locally known as ' coffee 
bean ' or 'senna.' 

The nest itself was placed about eight inches up in thick marsh grass and 
rushes, over water four inches deep, and was neatly hidden by the tops of 
the grasses and rushes being drawn together over the nest. It was but 
two or three inches thick, a slightly concave saucer of dead, buffy rushes 
and marsh grass, supported by the thick grasses and by two small ' coffee 
bean ' reeds. The lining was of smaller sections and fragments of the 
rushes and marsh grass, and a small quantity of cotton; and the eleven eggs 
were well, though not thickly surrounded by down and soft feathers, 
evidently from the breast of the parent. 

From its resting place in the tall marsh grass in the neck of the prairie 
pond, Captain Daly transferred the nest and all the eggs to his wagon, and 
after covering them with a sack drove for three or four hours over the 
uneven ground. In the afternoon he drove back to the city, leaving the 
eggs at a farm house about four miles from the ponds. They were then 
placed under a setting hen and ten young hatched. 

Then came the problem of feeding them. At first they were placed 
in a pen where they could have both sunlight and shade, a pan of water 

Vol Y9L3 XI1 ] Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 319 

and a little sand, while for food a quantity of common corn chops was 
thrown to them. But it was soon found that they would not touch 
chops; so numbers of small, tender angle worms were taken, cut into 
sections about a quarter of an inch long and thrown into the water where 
the downy young ducks could reach them. These were eagerly devoured, 
as was boiled rice, but before this menu was arranged six of the young 
maculosa departed this life. Three of the remaining four lived to become 
full-fledged adults, and are alive and healthy at the time of the writing of 
this note. 

Another, and probably the best method of feeding the remaining young 
was to place in their pen a stale soup bone which drew large numbers of 
flies. These the young eagerly caught and devoured, soon waxing fat and 

Ixobrychus exilis. Least Bittern. — Prior to the breeding season of 
1914 I had recorded but few specimens of this rare summer resident, and 
had never found a nest. 

On May 30, 1914, while splashing through the small, marshy prairie 
ponds about a mile southeast of Pierce Junction, and searching hopefully 
for nests of the Mottled Duck and Louisiana Clapper Rail, I saw one of 
these birds fly up from the reeds ahead of me. It was some time before I 
could locate the nest, for it was evident that the bird had gone some dis- 
tance through the rushes before taking wing. 

But when I did find it I was fully repaid for my search, for it contained 
five eggs. The nest was supported by several rushes, dead reeds and the 
broken stem of a small persimmon sapling growing in the pond. At this 
point the reeds and rushes were not so thick, and the nest and eggs could 
easily be seen at a distance of fifteen or twenty feet. The bottom of the 
nest just touched the water, which was there about eighteen inches deep. 

The nest itself was quite firmly built, with few loose ends projecting from 
the mass. It was built entirely of straight stems and twigs of a brushy 
reed which grows about the ponds, quite different from the flexible reeds 
and rushes used in the construction of the nests of the other water birds 
of the region. It measured about six and a half inches across the top and 
five inches high, being cone shaped and tapering towards the bottom. So 
flat was the top of the nest that it seemed the slightest jar would cause the 
eggs to roll off, for there were no rushes or grasses to guard the sides of the 
nest as in the case of the Rails and Gallinules. 

The five eggs were of a pale, bluish white color, much paler than other 
eggs of the Least Bittern I have examined. They were well incubated, 
and measured: 1.19 X 89; 1.18 X .90; 1.18 X .89; 1.17 X .90; and 1.15 X 

On the same day, but in another of the small ponds or sloughs, I found a 
second nest of this bird, which contained nothing but shells and fragments 
of shells to show that the young had already left the nest. It was built of 
the same rusty, inflexible twigs used in the first nest. 

320 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. I July 

On June 6 1 made another trip to the pond last mentioned, and discovered 
a third nest, similar to the first two, a nest that I had doubtless overlooked 
in my hurried search of the previous trip. This nest was wider but not so 
thick as the others, and was resting on several water plants of the lily 
family, almost flush with the water. It was well hidden by thick reeds and 
grasses, and had apparently already been used. 

Ionornis martinica. Purple Gallinule. — A fairly common sum- 
mer resident about the marshy ponds of the open coastal prairie, but I 
never found a nest until the season of 1914. 

May 30, in the same pond with the nest and five eggs of the Least Bittern, 
I flushed one of these Gallinules from a nest containing five well incubated 
eggs. The nest itself was about eight inches in diameter, three and a 
quarter inches thick, and about ten inches above the water. It was 
placed in an isolated clump of rushes on the edge of the open water at the 
center of the pond, the water at that point being about thirty inches deep. 

The living tules or rushes of the clump composed about half of the nesting 
material, the stalks being broken and bent over and the nest resting on 
these. The nest was composed of buffy rushes, loosely woven into a slightly 
concave mass. 

The five eggs measured: 1.60 X 1.10; 1.53 X 1.08; 1.52 X 1.08; 1.50 X 
1.07; and 1.47 X 1.09. 

On this trip, as well as on the next (June 6), I carefully searched all of 
the ponds in the vicinity, and found several nests that had already been 
used, as well as numbers of platforms that were evidently ' shams.' In one 
pond in particular, I found at least ten of these platforms about ten feet 
apart; they were all formed by the tops of the saw grass and rushes being 
bent over or broken and interlaced. From the fact that each of these 
platforms was stained by the white excreta of the bird, I am led to believe 
that the buds use them as perches during the night so as to be safe from the 
depredations of the smaller mammals inhabiting the region. 

Gallinula galeata. Florida Gallinule. — But once have I found a 
nest of this Gallinule. On May 28, 1910, while examining a number of 
nests of the Florida Red-wing in the tall reeds and grasses on the edge of a 
lagoon in the San Jacinto bottoms, adjacent to Galveston Bay, I observed 
a platform of grasses and reeds about six inches in height. There the 
water was about a foot deep, while the grasses and rushes grew nearly as 
high as one's head. 

Seeing this platform set me to searching and I soon found several more, 
all empty. And then, as I was about to give up the search, I flushed the 
Gallinule from a clump of tall rushes and grasses. The nest was cunningly 
concealed over but three inches of water, and built up ten inches above it ; 
a slightly concave mass about nine and a half inches in diameter and four 
inches thick, and loosely composed of rushes, reeds and saw grass. It was 
entirely surrounded by reeds, with but one open side. Since that date I 
have never returned to the locality. 

The six eggs in this nest measured: 1.77 X 1.27; 1.76 X 1.26; 1.75 X 
1.25; 1.73 X 1.26; 1.72 X 1.27; and 1.67 X 1.23. 

'i9 15 J Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 321 

Numenius americanus. Long-billed Curlew. — On June 1, 1910, 
in company with Messrs. H. G. Hill and E. G. Ainslie, I came on a marshy- 
pond near Almeda station, thirteen miles south of Houston. Through the 
tall reeds and rushes we could see a number of birds on a short stretch of 
silt between the reeds and water on the far side of the pond, and decided 
to investigate. By crawling slowly through the tall grass and reeds we 
were able to approach within about twenty yards of the birds before they 
saw us. There were three adult Long-billed Curlew and seven smaller 
ones, almost fully fledged but barely able to fly. 

The actions of the adults were especially interesting. Often one would 
spring into the air for a few feet, circle the pond, and relight on the silt. 
At other times it would merely spring into the air for a few feet, flap its 
wings several times and then alight, raising its wings over its back as it did 
so, and then refolding them. 

Finally, as one of the adults flew up and circled the pond, it observed us 
as we lay at full length in the tall grass. At the sound of the hoarse, noisy 
alarm call the whole flock took wing and flew about a hundred yards, dis- 
appearing into the tall marsh grass. As I had expected, the flight of the 
smaller birds was exceedingly labored and heavy. After giving the alarm, 
the adult circled the pond again and followed the flock. 

The number of birds puzzled me greatly. It is not unlikely that this 
flock was composed of two families, the younger birds being doubtless 
reared somewhere in the near vicinity. 

Colinus virginianus virginianus. Bob-white. — During the five 
breeding seasons covered by this paper I found but two nests of this fairly 
common resident. 

The first, May 26, 1912, contained thirteen eggs, the nest being under 
the edge of a bale of hay in an old shed on the prairie not far from a ranch 
house about a mile southeast of Pierce Junction. Entrance on the north 
side of the bale, with the cavity of the nest slightly sunk in the ground; 
well lined with dead grasses. Nest quite difficult to locate and only found 
by flushing the bird. 

The second, July 20, 1912, contained ten heavily incubated eggs. The 
nest was skilfully concealed in a small tangled clump containing a black- 
berry vine, several weeds and several thick tussocks of prairie grass, in a 
weedy old pasture on the edge of the pine woods, about four and a half 
miles west of the city. The pasture was sprinkled with such small thickets 
as the one that contained the nest. The nest was but fifty feet from the 
edge of the timber, where the pine woods were encroaching on the prairie. 
The nesting cavity was well arched, sunk slightly in the ground, and faced 
the east. 

The following day, on visiting the nest, I found all of the eggs broken 
and scattered 'about in front of the thicket, perhaps the work of the parent 
itself, or, what is more likely, the work of some four-footed enemy. 

The cavity was five and a half inches from side to side, and five inches 
from top to bottom; it was well lined with dry grasses. 

322 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. LJuly 

The set containing thirteen eggs yielded the following: 1.25 X .95; 
1.25 X .94; 1.25 X .94; 1.25 X .94; 1.24 X .95; 1.24 X .95; 1.24 X .95; 
1.22 X .93; 1.21 X .94; 1.20 X .94; 1.20 X .93; 1.19 X .94; 1.19 X .92. 

Tympanuchus americanus attwateri. Attwater's Prairie 
Chicken. — Not uncommon as a resident in the wilder portions of the 
prairies, but I have never found a nest. On June 7, 1913, at Aldine, a 
station eleven miles north of Houston, two adults and twelve downy young 
were observed by the side of the railroad track. 

Meleagris gallopavo silvestris. Wild Turkey. — I know of but one 
nest of this scarce resident for the region under consideration. On May 8, 
1912, a farmer by the name of Whicker found a nest by the side of a log 
in the bottom woods near Penn City, thirteen miles east of Houston. The 
seven eggs were placed under a domestic hen, and five puny young hatched. 
They lived but a few days. 

Zenaidura macroura marginella. Western Mourning Dove. — 
Common resident in all open country. As I have found dozens of nests, 
general descriptions would be best. 

The nests I have found on the ground, in low bushes and trees, and as 
high as sixty feet in tall pines. They are usually placed about six feet 
from the ground on the lower limbs of pine trees along the edges of the 
woods, in huisache trees on the prairies, in the post oak trees of the scat- 
tered motts in the open country, and in the shade and orchard trees around 
ranch houses. When they are placed in pine trees along the edges of pine 
woods, the nests are nearly always composed entirely of dead pine needles. 
When in trees on the prairies, the nests are shallow saucers of straws and 
dead grasses. 

With only one exception, each nest contained two eggs. On May 21, 
1911, a nest was found on the horizontal limb of a pear tree in a deserted 
pear orchard; it contained three eggs. One nest contained two eggs which 
were quite small, measuring: .98 X .54 and .97 X .50. The largest 
measured 1.17 X .89, and the average of a large series is 1.10 X .80. The 
nesting season extends from April 16 to July 20, though the majority of 
nests are found in latter April and early May. Only a few pairs rear 
second or third broods. 

Chsemepelia passerina passerina. Ground Dove. — My only 
record for the occurrence of this bird and my only breeding record are one 
and the same. On June 1, 1910, I flushed a bird from a nest containing 
two young nearly ready to leave the confines of their birthplace. The nest 
itself was hardly a nest at all, for it was only a slight hollow in the ground, 
amid the short grass and stubble on the edge of an orchard on the. prairie 
near Almeda, thirteen miles south of Houston, and lined with only a few 
tiny grasses and hairs. 

Buteo lineatus texanus. Texas Red-shouldered Hawk. — A 
common resident for so large a bird, but the nests are generally in such tall 
pines as to be practically inaccessible. Of the many nests I have found, 
and of the few I have been able to reach by climbing, I have found but one 
that was occupied. 

The Auk, Vol. XXXI i. 

Plate XXII. 

Between the Prairie and the Timberland, Coastal Region near 

Houston, Tex. 

Open Pine Woods on Buffalo Bayou. 



Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 323 

On April 29, 1911, I found the nest when it contained two downy young 
only a day or two out of the shell. The nest was placed about thirty feet 
up in a small pine tree in the woods on Buffalo Bayou about eight miles 
west of Houston. It was a well-constructed domicile, and had evidently 
been used for several seasons. It was a mass of sticks, dead leaves and 
Spanish moss twenty-four inches high, in a crotch formed by three branches 
of the main trunk of the tree. It measured twenty-one inches across the- 
top; and the cavity, which was three inches deep, was neatly lined with 
quite a quantity of fresh, green and fragrant pine needles. 

Seven days later (May 6) the young were slightly larger, and the 
sheathed tips of the primaries were beginning to appear. And on May 14 
they faced me with snapping beaks and showed a strong desire to claw me. 
Both were gaining in strength and size day by day, though one of the birds 
appeared smaller and more timid than the other. The tips of the primaries 
had appeared. 

On May 27, the last day I was able to visit the nest, the young were 
nearly as large as the parents. With the exception of their heads they were ' 
apparently fully feathered. Their heads had a rather mottled appearance, 
caused by the feathers appearing amid the grayish down. Undoubtedly 
they would leave the nest in a day or two. 

On the various trips I made to the nest, I found beside the young the 
remains of their food: small snakes, frogs, and on one occasion the 
remains of a bird, a male Louisiana Cardinal (C. c. magnirostris) . 

The other nests which I located were all in pines, from forty to eighty 
feet from the ground, generally in open pine woods with little underbrush. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus. Bald Eagle. — Very 
rare resident, inhabiting the wilder country around Galveston Bay. I was 
shown a young bird which was taken from a nest in the bottom woods on 
Taylor's Bayou not far from the bay, and later viewed the nest, a massive 
structure seventy feet from the ground in an immense pine. This nest was 
destroyed by a violent storm in the latter part of 1911. Another nest has 
been reported to me from the north side of the bay, but I have not had the 
time to visit the locality and investigate. 

Otus asio mccallii. Texas? : Screech Owl. — April 5, 1913, in the 
woods on Buffalo Bayou about four and a half miles west of Houston, I 
found a nest in a natural hollow of an elm tree standing on the slope of the 
bayou; it contained four eggs, incubation far advanced. The entrance 
to the cavity was nine feet from the ground at a bend in the trunk of the 
tree; from the bend the cavity extended almost vertically down into the 
heart of the tree, about thirty inches deep and six inches in diameter; 
trunk of tree about ten inches in diameter. Only a few leaves and grasses, 
with a slight lining of feathers, were between the eggs and the bottom of the 
cavity. It was some time before I could force the female to leave the nest; 

1 Cf. Ridgway, Robert. The Birds of North and Middle America. Part VI, 
p. 694, footnote b. 

324 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. [.fuly 

poking her with a stick had no effect other than to make her snap her 
mandibles, so I was forced to use a hook and pull her out by the neck. 

These four eggs measured: 1.32 X 1.16; 1.31 X 1.12; 1.30 X 1.19; 
and 1.30 X 1.17. 

Coccyzus americanus americanus. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. — 
May 17, 1914, 1 found my only nest of this fairly common summer resident. 
It was placed on the horizontal limb of a young pine on the edge of the 
Buffalo Bayou woods four miles west of the city, and contained three eggs. 
The nest was a slight platform about eleven feet up, through which I could 
see with ease; it was composed of small pine twigs, about an eighth of an 
inch in diameter and averaging six or eight inches long, and was much more 
concave than I had expected. This shallow saucer was neatly, though 
quite thinly lined with a few pine needles, a small quantity of Spanish moss 
and several tiny buds. 

A week later I visited the nest and found that some bird, presumably the 
rightful owner, had pecked a hole in one of the eggs and the nest was 
deserted. The three eggs measured : 1.22 X .93; 1.20 X .94; and 1.20 X 

Ceryle alcyon alcyon. Belted Kingfisher. — On May 28, 1910, I 
made an investigation of the sand banks along the south side of the Houston 
ship channel (Buffalo Bayou) about six miles east of the city, bent on 
finding the burrow of this bird, for on several occasions I had observed 
individuals during the breeding season in that section. There the banks 
were almost vertical, from eight to ten feet high, and had a narrow shelf 
between their base and the water's edge. 

Several old tunnels were located, but as they were nearly all covered 
with spider webs I passed them by. Finally, after walking and scrambling 
about a half mile along the base of these sand banks, I came to a likely 
looking hole about seven feet up and about a foot and a half from the turf 
of the solid ground above. Several old roots offered footholds, and I was 
soon peering into the cavity; with the aid of a mirror I ascertained that 
the tunnel did not curve, and that it contained eggs. I did not attempt to 
dig them out, but used a make-shift hoe (a piece of wire bent on the end of a 
stick) and by careful work dragged out the eggs, six in number, together 
with a small amount of rubbish on which they were laid. The parents did 
not appear until I had already secured the eggs. 

This set of six measured: 1.35 X 1.08; 1.35 X 1.02; 1.33 X 1.09; 
1.33 X 1.08; 1.32 X 1.09; and 1.30 X 1.07. 

Dryobates borealis. Red-cockaded Woodpecker. — In a certain 
section of the pine woods on Buffalo Bayou, about eight miles west of 
Houston, I had occasionally noted Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, and was 
convinced they nested in that locality. But it was not until May 25, 1912, 
that I had an opportunity to thoroughly investigate the locality. 

I had spent several hours searching before I saw the bird, clinging to the 
side of a dead pine in a small clearing densely covered with thickets. -And 
by the side of the bird was a likely looking hole. On my approach the bird 

Yol 'lfi : 5 XI1 ] Simmons, Netting of Texan Birds. 325 

left the tree, and during the time I was at the nest stayed a considerable 
distance away, now and thjen uttering its short, shrill note. 

I had some difficulty in reaching the base of the tree; but to climb the 
twenty-one feet to the cavity was the work of a moment. Removing the 
front, I found the eggs to be two in number, nest stained and well incubated, 
and laid on a small quantity of pithy pine chips. 

The two eggs measured: .91 X .69 and .87 X .69. 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Red-headed Woodpecker. — During 
the seasons covered by this paper I located several excavations of this 
Woodpecker, but the majority were in dead pines too large and unsteady 
to attempt to climb. It was not until May 27, 1912, that I located a 
cavity containing eggs. The birds had selected a dead pine on the edge 
of a patch of timber by the side of a railroad track on the southern edge of 
Houston, and thirty feet from the ground had chiseled a domicile. .The 
pine was quite rotten and swayed dangerously, but the bird did not leave 
the nest until I was within four or five feet of the cavity. Three eggs, 
evidently fresh, formed the set. Two days later I returned with a com- 
panion, this time bent on chopping into the cavity, but found that the eggs 
had disappeared. 

Colaptes auratus auratus. Flicker. — This Woodpecker is quite 
rare in Texas, and the only previous nesting record I can now recall is that 
of J. A. Singley from Lee County. 

During June of 1911 I was encamped at Sylvan Beach, on the shores of 
Galveston Bay, about twenty-eight miles east of Houston. On the 11th, 
while crossing the picnic grounds, I was extremely surprised to observe one 
of these birds. I followed it to where it lit on a sweet-gum tree near the 
pavilion, noting that there was a hole in the stub of a branch broken off 
close to the trunk, about twenty-five feet from the ground. 

The next day, June 12, I returned, climbed to the cavity, and removed 
a section from the front. The cavity was only ten inches deep, but was 
quite roomy, and contained seven slightly incubated eggs, nest stained and 
laid on a few chips from the rotten limb in which the nest was situated. 

The set yielded the following measurements: 1.20 X .88; 1.19 X -87; 
1.18 X .86; 1.18 X .83; 1.15 X .86; 1.14 X .80; and 1.12 X .85. 

Chordeiles virginianus chapmani. Florida Nighthawk. — Though 
this species is a common summer resident on all the open prairies, and 
evidently breeds commonly, I have but once found its egg. On June 4, 
1913, about a hundred and fifty yards east of the flag-station at Pierce 
Junction, I flushed a Nighthawk from a single egg on a bare, hard-baked 
spot on the open prairie, several miles from the nearest timber. Return- 
ing a few days later I found that the egg had disappeared. 

Myiarchus crinitus. Crested Flycatcher. — A not uncommon 
summer resident in the vicinity of Houston. In May, 1911, a pair of these 
birds occupied the joint and elbow of a stove-pipe hanging loosely by wires 
against the side of a small house on the edge of the Buffalo Bayou woods 
about six miles west of Houston. On the 20th I took a stepladder and 

326 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. LJuly 

climbed up to investigate, causing the birds to desert the nest. Later the 
pipe was taken down and cleaned out, and the nest found to contain three 
eggs. The nest itself was a mass of rubbish of all sorts: cedar bark, twigs, 
grasses, feathers, pine needles, and dead leaves, and was lined with horse 
hair, feathers and cast off snake skin. 

I found another nest of the bird on June 6, 1914, which contained five 
eggs. An old lard bucket lying on its side in a tiny trough in a well shaded 
sheep-pen on Taylor's ranch had been half filled with rubbish of various 
sorts : grasses, cedar bark, snake skin, straws, chicken and guinea feathers, 
etc., and the eggs had been laid in a hollow in the material near the back of 
the bucket. To me this nest was especially interesting from the fact that 
Taylor's ranch is on the open prairie about a mile south of Pierce Junction, 
and at least four miles from the nearest timber. Quite a number of shade 
trees surround the house and sheep-pens, but I never would have expected 
this Flycatcher at such a place. 

The five eggs measured: .98 X .67; .94 X .67; .91 X .68; .90 X .67; 
and .89 X .68. 

Cyanocitta cristata florincola. Florida Blue Jay. — Though this 
bird is a common resident, I have found but two nests, one of which was 
accidently destroyed before the eggs were laid. 

The other was discovered May 6, 1911, by watching the birds carry mud 
to be used in its construction. I did not climb to the nest until May 14, 
thinking the birds were still building the nest, and hence was surprised to 
find that it contained three eggs very heavily incubated. 

The nest was forty-eight feet from the ground, on a three-inch limb 
about six feet from the trunk of the pine tree in which it was situated, and 
was composed of twigs and a little Spanish moss, plastered together with 
wet clayey mud, and lined with rootlets. The birds were quite shy and 
quiet, in sharp contrast to their conduct at other times of the year. This 
nest was about a hundred yards north of the house where my first Crested 
Flycatcher's nest was found. 

These three eggs measured: 1.07 X .81; 1.05 X .79; and 1.04 X .81. 

Sturnella magna argutula. Southern Meadowlark. — During the 
breeding season these birds are quite common on the prairies, but their 
nests are very difficult to discover and it was not until the season of 1914 
that I was able to locate even one. 

It was on May 30, 1914, that my first nest was discovered. I was walk- 
ing slowly across the grassy prairies about a mile north of Pierce Junction, 
when the bird flushed from almost under my feet leaving its arched or 
domed nest and four heavily incubated eggs for my inspection. The nest 
was cunningly concealed in a small clump of grass on a slight knoll, and was 
thus several inches above the surrounding surface, which was under water 
from the recent heavy rains. The nest inside measured four inches from 
side to side, four inches from front to back, three and a half inches from 
top to bottom, and the entrance was four and a half inches across. The 
specks on the eggs were all grouped at the extremity of the larger end. 

V0l 'i9U XI1 ] Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 327 

June 6, 1914, I was shown a nest in a small pasture back of Taylor's 
ranch house, a mile south of Pierce Junction. It was exactly similar to 
the one above described, but faced the west where the first faced the north. 
It was in a small tussock of grass on the closely cropped surface, and con- 
tained three young fully fledged. 

On June 11, I flushed a female from another domed nest on the prairie, a 
half mile north of Pierce Junction. The nest was well concealed under a 
tussock of grass, slightly sunk in the ground, well lined with dry grasses, 
and contained four fresh eggs. 

Set No. 1 measured: 1.20 X .82; 1.10 X .80; 1.04 X .81; and 1.03 X 
.78; while the eggs from nest No. 3 yielded the following: 1.11 X .79; 
1.10 X .79; 1.09 X .77; and 1.06 X .76. 

Passerherbulus maritimus sennetti. Texas Seaside Sparrow. — 
Not an uncommon resident in the salt marshes near the bay, but I have 
only once recorded the bird in the vicinity of Houston. 

June 1, 1910, found Messrs. Howard G. Hill, E. G. Ainslie and myself 
walking southward from Houston across the open coastal prairie. A half 
mile north of Pierce Junction we stopped at a small marsh to check off a 
few of the more common species on our list, and in tramping through the 
rushes and tall grass I flushed one of these Sparrows from a nest on the 
moist ground in a clump of the thick grass. The nest was composed of 
coarse dry grasses, lined with finer, and contained three well fledged young. 
The nest was not a domed structure, but was more on the order of the nests 
of the Florida Red-wing (Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus) which surrounded 
it, for some of the nesting material was entwined about the stalks of the 
grass. Inside, the nest measured two and a fourth inches in diameter by 
one and a half deep. Both parents were present, and though nervous were 
not at all shy, for they often approached within three or four feet of us, 
perching for a moment on one reed and then on another. 

Peucaea aestivalis bachmani. Bachman's Sparrow. — On April 25, 
1914, Mr. George B. Ewing (my companion on some hundred-odd field 
trips) came to me with the information that he had that morning found a 
nest the like of which he had never seen. In company with a party of 
surveyors in the woods about nine miles east of Houston and two miles 
north of Buffalo Bayou, he was tracing a line through the timber when he 
discovered the nest with three eggs under a small brushy sage-bush in a 

We visited the locality, and though several of the birds were observed, 
the first nest was the only one found. The nest was not arched or roofed 
over, as I had read in the manuals, but more perfectly fitted the description 
of the nest of the Pine-woods Sparrow. It was perfectly round, with the 
rim everywhere of equal height, and was set down on the ground amongst 
the short grass and stubble. It was a well- constructed nest, composed 
entirely of dry grasses, and was lined with fine grass tops and a few long 
horse hairs. As it lost its shape on being carried back to the city in Ewing's 
knapsack during the afternoon, I was not able to take its measurements. 

328 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. Ltuly 

Although the day was misty and rainy the nest and eggs were quite dry 
in the shelter of the bush, so that an arched nest would not have helped 
matters to any considerable extent. 

After being emptied of their contents, the eggs lost their faint pinkish 
tinge and became a dead white; the shell was smooth of texture and had 
very little gloss. They measured: .78 X .61; .75 X .61; and .73 X .62. 

Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis. Cardinal. 1 — Common resident, 
but though I have found numerous nests in the thickets and moss-covered 
trees along the bayous after the nesting season is over, my occupied nests 
have been few. 

May 29, 1910, I found my first nest. It was placed in a blackberry 
thicket on a farm about four miles west of the city, and contained two eggs. 
April 29, 1911, nest No. 2 was found in the open woods on Buffalo Bayou 
about eight miles west of the city. It was placed on the horizontal limb 
of an oak sapling, twelve feet from the ground, and was composed of twigs, 
corn husks and gray Spanish moss; inside, it measured one and three- 
quarter inches deep and 'three inches in diameter. It contained four 
slightly incubated eggs. 

Nest No. 3 was discovered in a patch of cut-over woods on the north 
side of the bayou about nine miles west of the city; it was placed in a 
post-oak sapling five feet from the ground, and was composed of moss, 
plant fibre, corn husks, and pieces of newspaper. The lining was of smaller 
strips of corn husks and plant fibre. The three eggs which the nest con- 
tained were advanced in incubation. Date, May 6, 1911. 

Nest No. 4 was six feet from the ground in a small oak sapling in a 
clearing of the Buffalo Bayou woods about six miles west of Houston, and 
on April 20, 1912, contained three eggs. It was composed of Spanish moss, 
pieces of broom weed, and dead leaves, and was lined with dry grasses. 
Nest No. 5 turned up on May 11, 1912, and contained three eggs. It was 
in a pear orchard on the farm where nest No. 1 was found, and was placed 
six feet from the ground on the tip of a limb. It was composed of Spanish 
moss, and lined with firmly-woven strips of corn husks about a quarter of 
an inch wide. 

Nest No. 6 was an unusually small, neat structure, and when found on 
July 21, 1912, contained four newly hatched young. It was in a small oak 
on the edge of the orchard where No. 5 was found, and I feel sure belonged 
to the same pair of birds. The nest was composed of the usual corn husks 
and grasses, but contained no moss; it was firmly woven, and placed in a 
fork twelve feet from the ground; inside, it measured two and a half inches 
across by one and three-quarter inches deep. 

Probably the most interesting nest of the lot was No. 7. I did not 
discover it until August 17 (1912), evidently some time after it had been 

1 These birds belong in all probability to the form which Bangs has described as 
C. c. magnirostris from Louisiana, cf. Proc. N. E. Zool. Club, IV, p. 5. March, 

VOl 'i9i5 XI1 ] Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 329 

deserted. It was placed four feet up in a small peach tree in the orchard 
where the last two nests were found, and appeared to be an unusually high 
nest. It contained fragments of two Cardinal eggs and one egg of the 
Dwarf Cowbird. The nest was collected for the reason that the outer 
layer was composed of at least a half dozen cast-off snake skins, and on 
pulling it apart to determine the exact amount of that material used I was 
extremely surprised to find that it was a two-story structure. The lower 
floor contained two Dwarf Cowbird eggs imbedded in the nesting material. 

The last nest, No. 8, was found on April 21, 1914, in a small thicket on 
Taylor's ranch, one mile south of Pierce Junction. It was placed two and a 
half feet up in a small Mexican mulberry, and contained three eggs, which 
were destroyed several days later by heavy rains. 

One of the deserted nests which I found was placed thirty feet from the 
ground in the open woods on Buffalo Bayou, in easy view. 

The eggs cannot with certainty be distinguished from those of the other 
subspecies of Cardinals, though some of the eggs are quite different. Set 
No. 1 measured: .90 X .72 and .88 X 71. Set No. 2 measured: .86 X .63; 
.82 X .65; .82 X .65; and .77 X .61. Sets 3, 4 and 5 in their respective 
order, yielded the following: 1.13 X .72; 1.04 X .71; .98 X .73; .93 X 
.71; .90 X .70; .89 X .71; 1.01 X .78; .99 X .75; and .98 X .76. 

Guiraca cserulea caerulea. Blue Grosbeak. — This bird is a very 
rare summer resident in the vicinity of Houston, and I have found but one 
nest. On May 17, 1913, it was found in a small marshy place of an orchard 
on an old farm about four and a half miles west of the city. The male and 
female were both present, but were not at all noisy and showed no alarm. 
The nest was three and a half feet up in a small bush in a damp thicket, 
and was composed of grasses, corn husks and a few withered leaves. It was 
lined with fine brown rootlets and a few horse hairs ; on the outside it was 
four and three-quarter inches in diameter; inside, two and a half inches in 
diameter by two inches deep. 

The four eggs which the nest contained measured: .87 X .63; .86 X-63; 
.85 X .62; and .82 X .62. 

Passerina ciris. Painted Bunting. — Rare summer resident; only 
one nest was found, and that on May 17, 1913, in a small bush in the 
thicket where I found the nest of the Blue Grosbeak, and not over fifty feet 
from that nest. The female flushed, and revealed four of its eggs and one 
egg of the Dwarf Cowbird. It was three and a half feet up in a small 
crotch, well hidden, and composed of weeds, grasses, strips of bark, leaves, 
and a few small twigs of grape-vine; the lining was of fine dry grasses. It 
was indeed a neat and compact little nest. 

The four Bunting eggs measured: .80 X .58; .79 X .56; .78 X .58; 
and .77 X .56; and the eggbf the Dwarf Cowbird: .75 X .59. 

Spiza americana. Dickcissel. — Common summer resident on the 
prairies, and though I have several times found fragments of their egg shells 
I have found but one nest. On May 21, 1911, in the small marsh a 
half mile north of Pierce Junction, it was discovered, almost on the ground 

330 Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. [july 

in a small bush and well hidden. It was a compact structure, composed of 
grasses, weed stems, fragments of the dry marsh grass, and a few dead 
leaves, and was lined with finer dry grasses. 

The four eggs which it contained measured: .88 X .64; .84 X .66; 
.83 X .65; and .80 X .61. The first specimen is quite pointed at the 
smaller end, while the last three are quite equally rounded at either end. 

Piranga rubra rubra. Summer Tanager. — Though a fairly common 
summer resident in the vicinity of Houston, particularly in deciduous 
woods, I have been able to locate but one of its nests. On July 6, 1912, 
I discovered the domicile of this bird, about twenty feet from the ground 
in an oak tree in a patch of oak woods on Buffalo Bayou about five and a 
half miles west of Houston. It was built in the smaller branches of the 
tree, near the extremity of the limb, and it was only by climbing above it 
that I was able to examine the contents, three young nearly ready to leave 
the nest. The nest itself appeared to be a very carelessly built structure, 
composed of a few grass stems, bark strips, pieces of dry leaves and weeds, 
and was lined with fine grass stems and a few catkins. Both parents were 
present, and very nervous; the female remained quiet while the male 
continually uttered its call of pit-tuck, tuck. 

Geothlypis trichas trichas. Maryland Yellow-throat. — Only 
one nest of this fairly common summer resident was found. On June 1, 
1911, in a two-acre marsh a half mile north of Pierce Junction, I came on 
one of these birds which acted as if it had a nest nearby, so I lay down to 
watch. The bird, a male, was quite nervous, and it was some time before 
he would approach the nest; finally, after I had lost him for a moment, he 
appeared with an insect in his bill and flew to a tall clump of rushes about 
a hundred feet away. I was soon at the place, parting the stems, and it 
was but a moment until I located the nest. As I parted the rushes sur- 
rounding the nest, the three fully fledged young which it contained hopped 
from it and scattered in the surrounding grassy jungles, where I had some 
difficulty in catching them. The nest itself was wedged in between the 
stalks of the rushes about three inches above the slush of the marsh, and 
was composed of very coarse dry grasses and lined with the finer dry grass 
tops. Inside it measured one and forty-five hundredths inches in diameter 
and an inch and a half deep. 

Icteria virens virens. Yellow-breasted Chat. — Very rare, and I 
have found but one nest. On May 8, 1910, a nest containing four eggs was 
found in low underbrush by the orchard of the farm where the nests of the 
Blue Grosbeak and Painted Bunting were found, and not over thirty feet 
from either of those nests. It was three feet up in a small thicket in a 
damp spot, and was composed of dry grasses, strips of bark, a few weeds 
and leaves, laid in layers. It was lined with finer grasses and a few root- 
lets ; inside, it measured two and a half inches across by two and a quarter 
inches deep. 

The four eggs measured: .92 X .69; .92 X .68; .91 X .70; and .87 X 

V0l 'ifi5 XI1 ] Simmons, Nesting of Texan Birds. 331 

Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted Titmouse. — On May 20, 1911, I 
located my first nest of this common resident. It was in an old Wood- 
pecker hole thirty feet up in a tottering pine stump in a clearing in the 
Buffalo Bayou woods about nine miles west of the city. I could not 
examine it, for it was impossible to make my climbers hold in the soft wood, 
but I felt sure it contained young as one of the parents carried an insect 
in its bill. 

On March 22, 1913, while wandering through the woodlands along the 
bayou about four and a half miles west of Houston, I found a cavity con- 
taining five eggs. The dead oak stood in open woods not a hundred yards 
from the line dividing the prairie and the timber lands. The nest was in a 
natural cavity, between the bark and wood of the stub of a five inch limb, 
about ten feet from the ground. It was a mass of rubbish of all sorts: 
pieces of dead elm leaves, horse hair, cast-off snake skin, small chips of the 
oak bark, cow hair, pieces of dead grass, small green lichens, weeds and 
plant fibres, and was back in the body of the tree eleven inches from the 
entrance. So closely did the bird sit that I was forced to pull her out by 
the tail. She was sitting with her head towards the heart of the tree, in a 
space scarcely large enough for her body. 

The five eggs measured: .73 X .56; .72 X .56; .72 X .55; .71 X .56; 
and .70 X .56. 

Hylocichla mustelina. Wood Thrush. — Very rare during the 
summer months in deciduous woods, and breeds. 

On April 29, 1911, I discovered a nest in easy view on a bare limb of a 
small oak sapling in open oak woodlands on Buffalo Bayou about six miles 
west of the city. It was twelve feet from the ground and set firmly on a 
horizontal fork three feet from the trunk, and was composed of grasses, 
weed stems, inner fibre of Spanish moss, and fine rootlets ; it contained large 
quantities of mud, and was shaped into a very neat bowl, the bottom almost 
flat and the sides perpendicular. No mud showed outside, though the sides 
of the nest were very thin, but the inside was as smooth as a piece of pottery, 
none of the nesting material showing through the wall of mud. Into this 
neat bowl had been placed a lining of fine rootlets and grass stems. The 
nest measured two and three-quarter inches in depth externally, two 
inches deep inside, four and three-quarter inches in diameter externally, 
and three and a quarter inches in diameter inside. 

The nest contained one of the Wood Thrush's blue eggs and one egg of 
the Dwarf Cowbird. On May 6, I returned and found both eggs in frag- 
ments on the ground beneath the nest. On both trips the birds were 
present; the nest was deserted with the destruction of the eggs. 

oo2 Murphy, Buds of Trinidad Islet Ljuly 



Plates XXIII-XXV. 

East of the coast of Espirito Santo some seven hundred miles 
lies a fairy island. Alone in the tropical ocean, piled up in peaks 
as fantastic as tossing waves, and overhung with pennons of torn 
clouds which seem to flutter from the summits, Trinidad has 
exercised a strange charm upon the imaginations of all who have 
but seen its silhouette on the borderline of sky and sea. During 
four centuries it has been a landmark in the trade routes of the 
South Atlantic, often sought by sailing vessels as a check upon 
their nautical reckonings. Before the days of steamers it was a 
veritable signpost at a crossroads of the sea, yet few indeed are the 
travelers who have set foot upon its crumbling shore. Pirates in 
the old times, whalers, treasure-seeking adventurers, ill-fated 
colonists, in their turn have come to Trinidad and gone; the island 
seems unfalteringly to forbid the encroachment of permanent 
habitation. None who riave felt its presence can speak or think of 
it unstirred; even the prosaic pages of the 'South Atlantic Pilot' 
become alluring at the account of Trinidad, and the Director of 
the British Antarctic Expedition of 1901, though he surveyed the 
islet with the critical eye of science, was deeply impressed by " the 
dream-like appearance of this remarkable cluster of volcanic peaks 
in the early tropical dawn." 

Trinidad was discovered early in the sixteenth century by the 
Portuguese admiral, Tristan da Cunha; consequently it appears on 
most old maps of the western hemisphere. Captain Edmund 
Halley, afterwards Astronomer Royal to George the First of 
England, and of popular fame through his cornet, visited the island 
in April, 1700, while conducting a voyage for the study of magnetic 
variation. Halley landed on April 15 in search of water, which he 
soon found. On the seventeenth he moored his vessel, the Para- 
more Pink, off the western end, with "the high steep Rock like a 
Ninepin E. S. E. Whilst the Longboat brought more water on 











VOl 'i9i5 XI1 ] Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 333 

board," he writes, "I went ashore and put some Goats and Hogs 
on the Island for Breed, as also a pair of Guiney Hens I carried 
from St. Helena. And I took possession of the Island in his 
Majesty's name, as knowing it to be granted by the King's Letters 
Patents, leaving the Union Flag flying. 

"The Water of the Island being very fine and good I empty'd 
my Cisterns of their brackish St. Helena Water," continues the 
astronomer's account. " The Watering place we used was a little 
to the southward of the high Steep Rock, where the water run all the 
time we were there with a plentiful stream, but the Shoar being 
very rocky much endammaged our Cask." 

Halley's goats and hogs were destined to have an overwhelming 
effect upon Trinidad, a subject to which I shall return below. The 
astronomer's claim to the island did not prevent a subsequent 
Portuguese attempt at colonization. In 1781 the English likewise 
tried to found a settlement, an enterprise terminated within three 
months, presumably by shortage of water. The ownership re- 
mained in doubt until 1895, when a dispute between Great Britain 
and Brazil regarding the possession of Trinidad as a possible coaling 
station, was decided by an international court in favor of Brazil, 
on the merits of original discovery by the Portuguese. 

Narratives of brief calls at Trinidad may be found among many 
worm-eaten volumes of old voyages. For information regarding 
pirates and buried gold Mr. Knight's 'Cruise of the Alerte' should 
be consulted. The indomitable British sea-fighter and novelist, 
Captain Marryat, once crossed the island's mysterious mountains, 
and afterwards incorporated his experiences in his first novel, 
'Frank Mildmay.' Whalers, which differ from merchantmen in 
that they are never in a hurry, still stop at Trinidad and lie off- 
shore while their crews lower boats and spend the day fishing in the 
prolific coast waters. Among other visitors have been naturalists 
of passing scientific expeditions, whenever they may have found 
the sea sufficiently quiet to permit landing. 

Trinidad lies in latitude 20° 30' S., longitude 29° 22' W., at the 
edge of the southeast tfade-winds. Its width is hardly more than 
a mile and a quarter, a distance great enough, however, to require 
at least one day's laborious and perilous journeying over the 
single practicable mountain route. According to Prior, /. c, rock 

334 Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. [j\)jy 

samples from Trinidad, " as well as many of the geological features 
of the island, such as the remarkable peaks of phonolite associated 
with basaltic lavas, suggest analogies between Trinidad and the 
Island of Fernando Noronha, off the coast of Brazil, a thousand 
miles to the north, so that it appears possible that the two islands 
owe their origin to a very similar, if not contemporaneous, volcanic 
outbreak." Over all the island the brittle, standing rock has 
assumed grotesque forms through extreme weathering. In the 
words of Mr. Knight, Trinidad " is rotten throughout, its substance 
has been disintegrated by volcanic fires and by the action of water, 
so that it is everywhere tumbling to pieces." Tremendous physio- 
graphic changes are brought about by the collapsing of outworn 
mountain sides. One of these changes is vividly described by 
Knight in the 'Cruise of the Alette.' The author, with a compan- 
ion, was vainly searching for a ravine through which he had de- 
scended to the northeastern coast of Trinidad nine years before. 
Eventually he found the way, which, however, was no longer a 
ravine. "The mountain on which we stood," he w T rites, "had 
fallen away, leaving a precipitous step some fifty or sixty feet in 
height, and from this step there sloped down to a depth, I should 
say, of quite 1,500 feet a great landslip of broken rocks, the debris 
of the fallen mountain. This landslip appeared to have taken 
place not long since. It was composed of rocks of all sizes and 
shapes, almost coal black, piled one on the other at so steep an 
angle that it was extraordinary how the mass held together and 
did not topple over. It was indeed in places more like an artificial 
wall of rough stones on a gigantic scale than a landslip." 

Rainfall is rather plentiful at Trinidad, but the porous soil sucks 
up much of the water of the springs before it can flow to the sea, 
and recurring drought is one of the chief objections to human 
colonization. Another serious handicap is the island's boisterous 
shore, for the waves render landing almost continuously impossible 
during the winter months of June, July, and August, as well as 
during a large proportion of the remainder of the year. Southwest 
winds raise the heaviest seas, but the effects of far away pamperos 
are frequently manifested by huge breakers even when the weather 
is locally serene. During northerly winds there is a good lee, and 
relatively quiet water, along the southwestern coast. The wind- 

Vol 'i9i* Xn ] Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 335 

ward beach of Trinidad is perpetually strewn with wreckage, for 
many a fine square-rigger, since the days of treasure-ships and 
slave-traders, has been lost among the outlying reefs. During 
favorable weather vessels may obtain drinking water at two places, 
on opposite sides of the island — the Cascade, and the river by the 
old Portuguese settlement. Explicit directions for watering are 
given by Captain Amasa Delano. 

Probably the first naturalist to set foot upon Trinidad was the 
veteran botanist, Sir Joseph Hooker, in 1S39, during the voyage 
of the Erebus and Terror. The vegetation, like most insular floras, 
comprises rather few species. Moreover, according to Hemsley, 
the flora is of recent origin as compared with that of St. Helena. 
Less than twenty species of vascular plants are known, of which 
several are ferns. The tree-fern, so conspicuous on the plateaus 
and higher slopes, is an endemic species, Cyathea Copelandi. The 
lower limit of its zone of growth was determined by the naturalists 
of the Discovery to be at an altitude of about eleven hundred feet. 
There are a few sparse grasses and sedges, a widespread, tropical, 
tangling bean (Canavalia), a sage, and several mosses and lichens 
including a tree-infesting Usnca. But the most striking element 
in the vegetation of Trinidad is its great groves of dead trees of the 
genus Caesalpinia. Records of the old mariners say that the island 
was once heavily forested, even to the pinnacles of the Sugarloaf 
Mountain and the Ninepin. All its trees, however, have long since 
been dead, the last mention of living forests harking back to the 
eighteenth century. Captain Marryat, whose picturesque and 
truthful account of Trinidad appeared in his first work of fiction 
in 1829, relates the following observations regarding a valley among 
the island's hills: 

"Here a wonderful and most melancholy phenomenon arrested 
our attention. Thousands and thousands of trees covered the 
valley, each of them about thirty feet high; but every tree was 
dead, and extended its leafless boughs to another — a forest of 
desolation, as if nature had at some particular moment ceased to 
vegetate! There was no xinderwood or grass. On the lowest of 
the dead boughs, the gannets, and other sea-birds, had built their 
nests in numbers uncountable. Their tameness, as Cowper says, 
'was shocking to me.' So unaccustomed did they seem to man 

336 Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. [july 

that the mothers, brooding over their young, only opened their 
beaks in a menacing attitude at us, as we passed by them. 

" How to account satisfactorily for the simultaneous destruction 
of this vast forest of trees was very difficult: there was no want of 
rich earth for nourishment of the roots. The most probable cause 
appeared to me, a sudden and continued eruption of sulphuric 
effluvia from the volcano ; or else, by some unusually heavy gale of 
wind or hurricane, the trees had been drenched with salt water to 
their roots." 

The wood of these gnarled trees is hard and imperishable, so 
that a similar condition obtains today, excepting that most of the 
trunks have fallen to earth. Knight's account is not unlike that of 
Captain Marryat; his conclusion also is the same: 

"The mountain slopes were thickly covered with dead wood — 
wood, too, that had evidently long since been dead ; some of these 
leafless trunks were prostrate, some still stood up as they had 
grown .... When we afterwards discovered that over the whole 
of this extensive island, from the beach up to the summit of the 
highest mountain — at the bottom and on the slopes of every now 
barren ravine, on whose loose-rolling stones no vegetation could 
possibly take root — these dead trees were strewed as closely as it 
is possible for trees to grow; and when we further perceived that 
they all seemed to have died at one and the same time, as if plague- 
struck, and that no single live specimen, young or old, was to be 
found anywhere — our amazement was increased. 

" . . . . Looking at the rotten, broken-up condition of the rock, 
and the nature of the soil, where there is a soil — a loose powder, 
not consolidated like earth, but having the appearance of fallen 
volcanic ash — I could not help imagining that some great eruption 
had brought about all this desolation;. . . .1 think this theory a 
more probable one than that of a long drought, a not very likely 
contingency in this rather rainy region." 

Admitting a general impoverishment of vegetation, Copeland 
has suggested a still more probable agency than recent volcanic 
action. He asks whether the goats, introduced by Halley in 1700, 
may not have destroyed the trees of Trinidad, as happened, ac- 
cording to Darwin, to the trees of St. Helena. It has been pointed 
out that such a theory would involve both a change of climate and 

VOl 'lf5 XI1 ] Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 337 

the extermination of the goats themselves, a theory in harmony 
with the facts, for water is undoubtedly scarcer at Trinidad than a 
hundred years ago, while the last record of the goats is that of Sir 
James Clark Ross, who saw one in 1839. A third of a century 
earlier, in 1803, Captain Delano saw "plenty of goats and hogs," 
and "some cats" (the only record). 

Other mammals of the island are mice, possibly introduced. 
Excepting birds, the remaining vertebrates are sea turtles, which 
lay their eggs in the warm sand of the beaches, and sea snakes, 1 
reported by Knight as inhabiting the tidal pools. Crabs (Gecar- 
cinus lagostomus) are by far the most abundant terrestrial animals, 
swarming over the whole island, their burrows everywhere under- 
mining the soil. These saffron-colored crustaceans made a pro- 
found impression upon the imagination of Mr. Knight, who soon 
found that he could not lie down to sleep without being attacked 
by hordes of the creatures, which, he writes, "might well be the 
restless spirits of the pirates themselves, for they are indeed more 
ugly and evil, and generally more diabolical-looking than the 
bloodiest pirate who ever lived." At night the only resource, he 
states, was to rise and slaughter a large number of the crabs, when 
the others would devour "their dead brethren, making a merry 
crackling noise all round as they pulled the joints asunder and 
opened the shells." The common tropical rock crab, Grapsus 
maculatus, is found along the coastline of the island. Other living 
creatures collected or mentioned by various visitors are earth- 
worms, flies, roaches, ants, earwigs, moths, dragon-flies, and five 
species of spiders. 

About sunset of April 7, 1913, I sighted Trinidad, forty miles to 

the northward, from the masthead of the whaler Daisy. Early 

next morning the gray pile lay right in our path, with the rocks of 

Martin Vas barely visible in the east. The order for lowering the 

boats was given; we left the Daisy in the offing, and pulled 

ahead, fired with enthusiasm, toward the white-lined coast. Three 

Man-o'-war Birds were winding in and out between the topgallant 

1 Perhaps, however, Knight's "sea snakes" are morays. Copeland, I. c, p. 276, 
records the capture, "in den Wassertihnpeln des Riffs," of "einen seltsam gefleckten 
Aal, weissundschwarz." The description fits the Atlantic spotted moray (Gymno- 


338 Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. [ July- 

masts of the brig. An inquisitive Booby flew between two of the 
oarsmen in our whaleboat, and the Noddies (Anous) were scarcely 
less familiar. The White Terns (Gygis), and the several kinds of 
native petrels, were also very numerous, but they kept their dis- 
tance, through indifference rather than fear. During the row 
toward shore the thunder of surf rang louder and louder in our ears, 
the sound rebounding from many rocky walls. The air was per- 
fectly calm, but a southeasterly ground swell heaped up a tremen- 
dous surge of waters on the ironbound coast, which was formed 
either of the precipitous cliffs themselves, or of beaches about a yard 
wide completely strewn with sharp blocks of the mountain. The 
line of breaking water was, nevertheless, so narrow that at some 
places we could safely come within twenty feet of shore. 

We approached the island at the Ness (cf. map), a peninsula 
of somewhat columnar rock which suggests a bit of the Giants' 
Causeway. From here we skirted the western end, ultimately 
rounding North Point, but nowhere finding a landing place. 
Whenever the whaleboat's prow was pushed close to the rock in a 
sheltered angle, the whole craft rose and fell in such a dizzy and 
appalling manner that several of our seasoned whalemen became 

From the brig and the whaleboat I was able to enjoy a good view 
of the island's skyline and general topography through its length of 
four or five miles. At the southeastern end is a ridge-roofed 
promontory of brick-red volcanic tufa, terminating in the cliff of 
South Point, which is pierced by an archway. Knight has aptly 
styled this headland "Noah's Ark." According to the 'South 
Atlantic Pilot,' the surf sometimes breaks two hundred feet above 
its base. Overtowering Noah's Ark is the Sugarloaf (1160 ft.), 
which greatly resembles the conical mount of the same name at 
Rio Janeiro. The rock is gray phonolite, so worn and grottoed by 
pluvial action that its texture is like the cut surface of a Swiss 
cheese. Under this mount, says tradition, " there was an im- 
mense treasure buried, consisting principally of gold and silver 
plate and ornaments, the plunder of Peruvian churches which 
certain pirates had concealed there in the year 1821." Northwest 
of the Sugarloaf lies a green valley, with several clumps of shrubs. 
The mate of the Daisy told me that there is a cluster of stone- 

Vol 'i9i5 XI1 ] Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 339 

marked graves on the northern side of the valley. The highest 
point of Trinidad, 2020 feet on the Admiralty chart but 3000 
according to the 'South Atlantic Pilot,' is near the center of the 
island. The summits of the ridges are more than serrate, being a 
succession of needle -like pinnacles. At the western end of the 
island stands one of the most remarkable rock structures in the 
world, the Ninepin of Halley, known also as the Monument, and 
the Priest, a cylindrical tower of dark gray stone, doubtless a 
phonolitic dike, rising from the ocean to a height of nearly nine 
hundred feet. In common with all the bare steeps of this isle, the 
surface of the Ninepin is pitted and undercut into designs like 
arabesques. In outline and proportion the great column may be 
compared with the two distal phalanges of a man's index finger. 
Leaning slightly less than the Tower of Pisa, planned on the grand- 
est scale of Nature's architecture, its utterly inaccessible wall 
furnishes nesting chambers for tens of thousands of feathered 
sprites, which sit within their niches like saints about a cathedral 
spire. No sight had ever seemed so impressive as I gazed from the 
small boat straight upward to the Ninepin's lofty summit, envel- 
oped in a cloud of midge-like birds. 

Since landing was out of the question, we began fishing with 
considerable success off the West Point, just outside the line of 
breaking sea. The bottom was very rocky, varying in depth from 
three to seven fathoms. Many of the captured bottom fishes were 
brilliantly colored. The largest species, excepting sharks, was a 
red-spotted garupa (Epinephalusf), in several instances over four 
feet long and weighing fifty or sixty pounds. Several kinds of 
trigger-fish (Balistida?) proved abundant. Here, as at Fernando 
Noronha, we lost many of our prizes because of sharks, the lines 
often coming inboard with nothing but fishes' heads on the hooks. 
Even one of our largest garupas was nipped in half. We succeeded 
in hooking and harpooning a number of cat sharks (Ginglymostoma) , 
the ugly mouths of which harbored curious, extensible leeches. 
Larger sharks were about the brig all day, and a Booby which was 
shot and wounded so that it fell into the water, first had its legs 
bitten off, and was then devoured as one morsel. At the surface 
of the sea near shore were schools of needle-gars (Hemirhamphus). 
The mandible of this small fish is long, resembling the beak of a 

340 Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. [f^ 

swordfish, but the upper jaw is very short. They have an espe- 
cially curious appearance when they open their mouths widely to 
feed, the seemingly useless bill merely passing beneath a bit of 
food. Our sailors threw scraps of fat into the water alongside the 
whaleboat, and captured many of the needle-gars with their hands. 
Altogether we caught approximately two hundred fishes, repre- 
senting nine species, of which two have proved new to science. 
Seventeen species are known from Trinidad, but the whole number 
of native fishes is doubtless far greater, and the abundance of 
individuals almost beyond exaggeration. 

While we were fishing, a number of flat, triangular flies, Pseudol- 
fersia spinifera, a species which lives as a parasite among the 
feathers of the Man-o'-war Bird, flew into the boat. They scut- 
tled sidewise like crabs, adroitly dodging capture, and seemed bent 
on getting on the under side of whatever they alighted upon, 
whether a gunstock, one's hand, or a thwart of the boat. These 
flies were the only insects we saw. 

Birds were about in countless hosts, filling the air and covering 
the rocks. The Noddies (Anous stolidus) were incredibly confi- 
dent and curious, hovering round our heads, even alighting upon 
them, and peering into our faces so closely that one had to look at 
them cross-eyed. It was the simplest matter to catch them in the 
hand as they fluttered among us. Four of them I banded with 
aluminum rings of the American Bird Banding Association — 
numbers 7941, 7943, 7945, 7947; may their wearers once again 
entrust themselves within the clutches of a naturalist! But the 
Noddies were not one whit more abundant than the exquisite Love 
Birds (Gygis). At Trinidad there are perhaps more of these terns 
than anywhere else in the world. They were flying mostly in 
pairs, and pairs also were sitting together in many rocky niches. 
Most delicate and wraith like of birds are these White Terns; 
when they fly against the glare transmitted from a bright sky, the 
dark line of their wing bones is projected like an x-ray shadow 
through the milk-white feathers. 

Boobies soared among the pinnacles a thousand feet above us. 
Man-o'-war Birds, flying overhead, seemed all head, wings, and 
tail. There are two species at Trinidad, and both were more 
interested in the brig offshore than in our tiny whaleboats. The 



Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 341 

Man-o'war Birds are notorious pirates in their feeding habits, but 
I saw a troop of the smaller species (Fregata arid) fishing for them- 
selves. Half a dozen of them hovered in a row over a school of 
small surface fish, and faced in a direction opposite to that in which 
the fish were moving. While the birds poised close over the water 
they beat their big wings slowly. Then at the right moment they 
struck downward, swinging their long bills like scimitars back 
under their bodies, the hooked tip seizing a fish from the rear. 
They seemed to catch three or four a minute, and yet made no 
commotion among the moving school of their victims. One 
Man-o'-war Bird was caught on a fishhook from the Daisy. 

Trinidad's endemic petrels, of the genus JEstrelata, were as 
numberless as the Noddies. Arminjon's Petrel, which was nidifi- 
cating or perhaps only resting, in water-worn cells of the rock, made 
up the bulk of these birds. They frequently quarreled with one 
another in air, chattering not unlike terns. They were perfectly 
fearless, but disinterested. Specimens shot had not long since 
bred, for the abdomens were bare. The black species, M. trinitatis, 
seemed somewhat less common. During the forenoon I had shot 
one of the latter with the right barrel of my gun, in the vicinity of 
two small rocks near the Ninepin, when a very white petrel flew 
swiftly toward us from the sea. Intuitively, in that momentary 
glimpse, I recognized a bird with which I was not familiar. A 
fortunate, long shot, straight up from the shoulder, brought it 
hurtling to the water, and we reached it sooner than the sharks. 
It proved to be a species new to science, more beautiful than all its 
congeners, clad in a black-flecked cloak like ermine. I have named 
it Mstrelata chionophara, the Snowy-mantled Petrel. 

All the birds that we saw were, of course, sea birds — none others 
have been found at Trinidad. But through the whole day, while 
our little boat skirted the seething edge of ocean, I gazed longingly 
at the tree-ferns far above, and could not help thinking that there 
may have been unknown land birds there, among the spires of the 
fascinating, unattainable mountains. 

342 Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. [j^y 

Annotated List of Birds. 

1. Numida (meleagris?) Linne. Nothing further has ever been 
heard of Halley's " Guiney Hens " beyond the fact that he freed a pair on 
Trinidad in April, 1700. The same lack of history applies to a domestic 
cock and two hens brought from England by Sir James Clark Ross in 1839, 
and placed ashore " with a view to add somewhat to the stock of useful 

2. Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly).? A large white-breasted shearwater, 
believed to have been of this species, was seen by Nicoll (Three Voyages, 
p. 61) within half a mile of shore at the islets of Martin Vas, twenty-six 
miles east of Trinidad, on January 5, 1906. 

Puffinus gravis occurs as a rover all over the tropical and south temperate 
Atlantic. It has been collected by the writer, during the month of March, 
due south of Trinidad in latitude 39° S. It has been suggested that the 
species may breed on the island of Tristan da Cunha or one of its outliers. 

3-5. JEstrelata arminjoniana Gigl. & Salvad. Mstrelata armin- 
joniana, Gigl. & Salvad., Ibis, 1869, p. 62. Giglioli, Distr. Fauna Vertebr. 
Oceano, 1870, p. 42. CEstrelata mollis, Saunders, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1880, 
p. 164. CEstrelata arminjoniana, Salvin in Rowley's Ornith. Misc., Vol. I, 
1876, pp. 234, 252, pi. 31. Salvin, Cat, B. XXV, p. 413. Lowe, Bull. 
B. O. C, XIX, p. 98. Wilson, Ibis, 1904, p. 213. Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 
215. Nicoll, Bull. B. O. C, XVI, p. 102; Ibis, 1904, p. 41. Godman, 
Monogr. of Petrels, 190S, p. 229, pi. 65. CEstrelata armingoniana, Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1906, p. 671. CEstrelata wilsoni, Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 216. Nicoll, 
Ibis, 1906, p. 671; Bull. B. O. C, XVI, p. 103. CEstrelata alba, Brabourne 
& Chubb, Birds So. America, I, 1912, p. 31. 

.ffistrelata trinitatis Gigl. & Salvad. Mstrelata trinitatis, Gigl. & 
Salvad., Ibis, 1869, p. 65. Pterodroma trinitatis, Gigl. Distr. Fauna 
Vertebr. Oceano, 1870, p. 40. CEstrelata trinitatis, Salvin in Rowley's 
Ornith. Misc., I, 1876, p. 253, pi. 32; Cat. B. XXV, p. 413. Wilson, Ibis, 
1904, p. 213. Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 215. Nicoll, Bull. B. O. C, XVI, p. 
103; Ibis, 1906, p. 671. Godman, Monogr. of Petrels, 1908, p. 232, pi. 66. 

.ffistrelata chionophara Murphy. Mstrelata chionophara, Murphy, 
Auk, XXXI, 1914, p. 12, pi. 2. 

Nine specimens of petrels were collected at Trinidad, of which five are 
referable to the species arminjoniana, three to trinitatis, while the other 
has been made the type of a new species, chionophara. It is remarkable 
that no example of the gray-breasted phase of arminjoniana, the phase 
described by Dr. Sharpe as Mstrelata wilsoni, was either collected or 
observed during our day about the island. 

These three species of closely related, endemic petrels, are the only 
Tubinares known from Trinidad, since the record of Mstrelata mollis 
(Saunders, P. Z. S., I. c.) was based upon an incorrect identification. 

Brabourne and Chubb, 1. c., perhaps following a suggestion made in 
Rowley's Ornithological Miscellany, have synonymized arminjoniana with 
Mstrelata alba of Gmelin. In justification of this step the authors allege 

The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XXIV. 


-* if 



. .. 







On Left; Immature Boobies,, probably Sulci piscalor. 

On Right; upper, Noddy (Arams stolidus); lower, Trinidad Petrel 

(/Estrelata arminjonian r ) . 

VOl 'lfi^ XI1 ] Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 343 

" Rio Plata " to be the type locality given by Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 1789, 
p. 565. In this citation an error has evidently been made, for Gmelin, 
nowhere mentioning Rio Plata, simply follows Latham, Synopsis, III, 
1785, p. 400, where it is stated that the species " Inhabits Turtle and 
Christmas Islands." Pending further light on the subject, M. alba must 
therefore continue to stand as a doubtful synonym of JE. neglecta. 

We first saw JEstrelata arminjoniana on April 4, 1913, in latitude 25° S., 
longitude 30° 40' W., nearly four degrees south of Trinidad. This species 
became increasingly common on the fifth, sixth, and seventh of the month, 
as we approached its headquarters. JE. trinitatis was seen only on April 8, 
in the immediate vicinity of the island, and neither bird was noted again, 
although I kept a sharp lookout for several days after we had proceeded 
on our northward journey. 

The validity of the species trinitatis has long been questioned, Salvin 
(Cat. B. Brit. Mus.) and others considering it merely a dark form of 
arminjoniana. It has lately been noticed by both Wilson and Nicoll that 
trinitatis breeds at a higher altitude on Trinidad than arminjoniana, and this 
fact, together with the apparently constant color differences of plumage 
and feet, is the present warrant for granting specific distinction to the two 
birds. The evolution of several well-differentiated representatives of one 
circumscribed section of a genus, whether they be true species or merely 
color phases, is an interesting and rather common phenomenon in the 
genus JEstrelata (viz. jamaicensis and neglecta), and indeed among Tubinares 
in general. As regards the relationships of the petrels inhabiting the small 
oceanic island of Trinidad, it is not improbable that the parti-colored forms 
(arminjoniana, " wilsoni," chionophara) are of relatively recent origin, and 
that this small group of birds is still specifically unstable. Such a hypo- 
thesis can at least be made to fit the facts, although a final decision must be 
reserved until a large series of specimens, representing every stage of growth, 
can be studied. Assuming the uniformly colored trinitatis to be nearest the 
parental stem, I find that I can formulate the following progressive arrange- 
ment, partly on the basis of my own specimens, partly on published in- 

a. Downy young of all the species, so far as known, dark gray. 

b. trinitatis, immature. Bill black; tarsi and feet black; plumage uni- 
formly blackish-brown; concealed portions of the feathers light gray with 
dark shafts. 

c. trinitatis, adult. The same, except that the concealed portions of the 
feathers are pure white, including the shafts. 

d. arminjoniana, immature (dark "wilsoni" phase). Bill black; 
" tarsi and basal half of the toes very dark brown " (Nicoll), distal half of 
toes black; dorsal plumage like that of trinitatis; breast dark gray. 

e. arminjoniana, older than the last but not fully mature — or possibly 
the mature bird in fresh plumage? (light " wilsoni " phase). Bill black; 
tarsi, and basal half of web and two inner toes, flesh color; distal half of 
foot black; breast more or less dark, sometimes showing only on the ex- 


Mxjephy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 


treme tips of the white feathers; a broad, mottled collar of gray crossing 
the throat and upper breast. 

f. arminjoniana, fully mature. Similar to the last, but with a pure 
white throat, breast, and belly, the only dark on the under surface being 
on the collar, lower flanks, and crissum. 

g. chio7iophara, adult. Bill flesh color, with a dark unguis ; tarsi and feet 
flesh color; entire under surface, excepting lower flanks and tips of under tail- 
coverts, white; back white with dark feather shafts and rhomboid speckles. 

In all my specimens of the three species, the dark plumage of the pileum, 
back, wings, and tail, is of exactly the same color, excepting that one exam- 
ple of arminjoniana is somewhat slaty on the back, owing to wear and 
disintegration of the feathers. 

Among the five specimens of arminjoniana and the three of trinitatis, there 
is considerable individual variation in the depth of the bill; chionophara 
has a more slender bill than either of the others, although it is equally long. 
Chionophara has relatively the shortest tarsus and the longest foot. 

Future study may yet demonstrate that arminjoniana and trinitatis are 
one species; possibly even chionophara may also be included, or may prove 
to be a freak. The last bird is of such striking distinction, however, that 
the only just course was to describe it and give it a name. Mr. Fuertes' 
drawing (Auk, XXXI, PL II) is a beautiful likeness. It also shows the 
bird in the correct resting position for an JEstrelata, and the background is 
quite suggestive of its habitat. 

Measurements of the specimens are appended . The birds marked "breed- 
ing " had large brood-patches, and had evidently been incubating. The 
testes of the males, however, were non-active and partly pigmented, as might 
be expected in the month of April of Tubinares which breed in the south- 
ern hemisphere. 

Measurements of Skins. 



Middle toe 
and claw 



JE. arminjoniana 

R. C. M. 1974 (in alcohol) 

1975 c? ad. 






1977 cf breeding 






1976 9 breeding 






1978 9 breeding 






Average of 4 






JE. trinitatis 

1979 9 






1980 9 






1981 9 






Average of 3 






JE. chionophara 

1982 9 ad (type) 






The Auk, Vol. XXXII. 

Plate XXV 

Left to Right: ^Estrelata chionophara (19S2), JE. arminjoniana (1975) 
and M. trinitatis (1979). 

° 1915 ] Murphy, Birds of Trinidad Islet. 3-45 

6. Sterna fuliginosa Gmelin. The Sooty Tern doubtless occurs at 
Trinidad, for Nicoll, ' Ibis,' 1906, p. 673, records it as inhabiting the rocks 
of Martin Vas. 

7. Anous stolidus (Linne). Anous stolidus, Nicoll, Ibis, 1906, p. 670. 
In spite of the enormous numbers of Noddies noted by our party at 

Trinidad, there seems to be no earlier specific record than that of Nicoll, 
who found these birds abundant, and breeding, on the occasion of his 
landing in January, 1906. None was collected during the visit of the 
Venus in August, 1874, and Dr. Wilson, Naturalist of the Discovery, 
reports that on September 13, 1901, the " small, bl