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thE pRESEnCE oç thiS Book 

thE ].m. kELLy LIBRaRY 
thROUqh thE qEnERoSlty 

StEphEn B. Roman 

From the Library of Daniel Binchy 













\ .,. 













Lecturer in Cdtic, University 0/ Glasgow 


19 1 7 

, , 





NOTUS Ir\ FR.\TRES .\Nl!\l1 1'.\T"'RKI 


THE appearance of the Auraiceþt at the present tir Ie, 
however inopportune, is necessary, because long overdl..e. 
Recent events have exercised, it is to be fearf.d, an 
adverse influence at least temporarily on Celtic stud:es, and 
to my deep regret I find myself constrained mat _rially to 
curtail this preface. But I beg of all frienós who have 
assisted me in this undertaking, whether by encouragement 
or advice, to accept my heartfelt thanks. I am specially 
indebted to Mr E. C. Quiggin for his kindness in giving me 
his transcript of the Egerton MS., to Mr \V. J. Purton for 
help in deciphering some difficult words in the MSS., 4W 
Prof. Lindsay for friendly criticism, chiefly on the extracts 
from his edition of the Origines, and to Mr Ma.lcolm 
MacFarlane for the labour of verifying the refe':ences of 
the Indices to the Text, and for pointing out some errors. 
Every facility has been given by the Li'Drarians of the 
Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, the Advocates' 
Library, the Royal Irish Academy, and Trinity College, 
The Carnegie Trust has generously borne part of the 
expense of publication. 

G. C. 

November 1916. 




. . XIX 
25 8 
27 0 
27 2 














FIRST F.-\:\IILY (Short Text). 

BB., B. Book of Ballymote (308 ß 44-333) 14th century, R. LA. 
E. MS. I., Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 
L. Book of Lecan, R.I.A. 
ì\1., HM. Book of By Maine (Trefhocul, with examples), R.I.A. 
B, E, L contain the mnemonic poem but not the 

SECOND FA:\JlLY (Long Text). 

YEL. Yellow Book of Lecan (219 a 23-241 ß 13). T.C.D. 
Eg. Egerton, 88 (63 I b 26-76 I a 41), Uritish :r\Iuseum. 
YBL, Eg. do not contain the mnemonic poem or 
the Trefhocul. 
T. H422 (pp. 159-207) T.C.D. This MS. is intermediate 
between the first and the second family. It does 
not contain either the Trefhocul or the mnemonic 
poem, but it has a poem of about 200 verses on early 
Bible history. 
LL. xii. century, T.C.D. The Trefhocul with examples. 
Eel. MS. vii. I I b 1-39, Advocates' Lihrary, the beginning of 
a glossary of the Auraicept which closely resembles 
the Lecan glossary. 



A.V. The Annals of Ulster, vol. i., ed. Hennessy, Dublin, 
1887; vol. ii., ed. MacCarthy. 
Acall. AcaIlamh na Senórach, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte iv., 
Leipzig, 1900. 
/Flf. Jr. flichf. ('Tber die Älteste Irische Dichtung, ed. K. Meyer, 
SPA., 1913. 
The Irish Æneid, Irish Texts Society, London, 19 0 7. 
Aislinge Meic Conglinne, ed. K. Meyer, London, 18 9 2 . 
Anecdota from Irish Manuscripts, Dublin, 19 0 7- 1 2. 
Archiv fÜr Celtische Lexikographie. 
Glossarium Palaeohibernicum, Archivio Glottologico 
italiano, vol. vi. 
Arms. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Armstrong, 
182 5. 
Reatha Col. Beatha Colmáin maic LÜacháin, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 
191 I. 
BB. (With Roman numeral) Beiträge zur Kunde der idg. 
Sprachen, herausgegben von Bezzenberger u. 
C. K. Meyer's Contributions to Irish Lexicography. 
Cafh Ruis R. Cath Ruis na Rígh, ed. Hog'an, Dublin, 18 9 2 . 
CC. In Cath Catharda, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte iv. 
CtÍir An. Cóir Anmann, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte iii. 
Cor. 2 Anecdota from Irish Manuscripts, vol. iv., Dublin, 19 12 . 
('or. Tr. Cormac's Glossary, translated by O'Donovan, eel. 
Stokes, Calcutta, 1868. 
CZ. Zeitschrift fiir Celtische Philologie. 
lJl'afh Tales of the Ulster Heroes, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1906. 
Din. An Irish-English Dictionary, ed. P. S. Dineen, 
Dublin, 1904. 
DonI. A Glossary to Donlevy's Catechism, Arch. C. P. ii., I. 
Dl1cange. Glossarium Mediae et Intimae Latinitatis. 

A nee. 
Arch. C. P. 



Ed. Dinds. 
Fel. l 
Fel. 2 

Goid. 2 

Gr. Lat. 

H. 3. 18. 
H. 4. 18. 
Hib. Min. 

Hail Briglt. 
Jr. Ep. 

Jr. Metr. 
Jr. T. 
Keat. Hist., K. 

Lor. Gild. 



The Edinburgh Dindsenchas, ed. Stokes, 1893. 
The Journal of the School of Irish Learning, Dublin. 
Félire Óengusso, ed. Stokes, Dub!in, 1880. 
id. Henry Bradshaw Society, 1905. 
Fianaigecht, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1910. 
The Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan, 
Dublin, 1848, 185 I. 
Goidelica, Old and Early Middle-Irish Glosses, Prose 
and Verse, ed. Stokes, London, 1872. 
Martyrology of Gorman, ed. Stokes, London, 1895. 
Grammatici Latini, i.-viii., ed. Keil. 
Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Macdonald, 
Herne Bay, 1902. 
A MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
A MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Hibernica Minora, ed. K. Meyer, Oxford, 1894. 
Gaelic Names of Herbs, Plants, and Trees, ed. Hogan. 
The Irish Hymns in TP. ii. or Ir. T. i. 
The Highland Society's Dictionary of the Gaelic 
Ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1912. 
Studies in Irish Epigraphy, ed. R. A. S. Macalister, 
London, 1897-1907. 
[rish Metrics, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 190<). 
Irische Texte, edd. \Vindisch and Stokes, Leipzig. 
Irish Texts Society, London. 
Irish Texts Society, vols. iv., viii., ix., xv., London. 
Ancient Laws of Ireland, vol. vi., Glossary to vol. i.-v., 
ed. Atkinson, Dublin, 1901. . 
The Lecan glosses, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexiko- 
graphie, i. 
Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore, ed. Stokes, 
Oxford, 1890. 
The Lorica of Gildas, Stokes} Irish Glosses, p. 136, 
Dublin, 1860. 
Facsimile of the Book of Leinster, Dublin, 1880. 
Facsimile of the Leabhar na h Vidhre, Dublin, 1870. 
Notes on Irish Ogham Inscriptions, ed. John MacNeill, 
Dublin, 1<)09. 
Virgilius Maro Grammaticus, ed. Huemer, Lcipsig, 




:\1'B. Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. 
Med. Gl. Three Irish Medical Glossaries, Archiv fÜr Celtische 
Lexikographie, i. 
. MR. Cath Muige Rath, ed. O'Donovan, Dublin, 1842. 
MS. illatt. O'Curry's Lectures on the MS. Materials, Dublin, 1872. 
:\Ietrical glosses, Bezzenberger, Beiträge, xix. 
The Metrical Dindsenchas, ed. Gwynn, Dublin. 
The Milan glosses on the Psalms, TP. i. 
O'Br. O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1832. 
O'C. Leet. O'Curry's Lectures on the Manners and Customs of 
the Ancient Irish, 1873. 
O'Clery's Irish Glossary, Revue Celtique, iv., v. 
O'Donovan's supplement to O'Reilly's Dictionary. 
O'Donovan's A Grammar of the Irish Language, 1845. 
O'Davoren's glossary, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexiko- 
graphie, ii. 3, 4. 
O'Molloy Gr. Grammatica Latino-Hibernica, Romae, 1677. 
O'l\Iulc. O'Mulconry's glossary, Archiv fÜr Celt. Lexikographie, 
i. 2 
On., Onn., Onom. Onomasticon Goedelicum, ed. Hogan, Dublin, 1910. 
O'R. O'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary. 
Origg. Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive 
Originum Libri, xx., ed. Lindsay, Oxford, 191 I. 
Pede Gr. Pedersen's Vergleichende Grammatik der Keltischen 
Sprachen, Göttingen, 1913. 
Petrie R. T. Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland, ed. Petrie, 1845. 
PH. Passions and Homilies from the Leabl1ar Breac, ed. 
Atkinson, Dublin, 1887. 
Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, ed. Plummer, Oxon., 1910. 
Peter O'Connel's l\lS. Dictionary. 
Revue Celtique, Paris. 
 on Priscian (St Gall), Thesaurus Palaeo- 
hibernicus, vol. ii. 
Silo Gad. . Silva Gadelica, ed. Standish O'Grady, London, 1892. 
Songs of SU11lmer and \Vinter, ed. K. Meyer, London, 1903. 
SPA. Sitsungsberichte der kön. preuss. Academie der 
\V issenschaften. 
SR. Salt
ir na Rann, ed. Stokes, Oxford, 1883. 
St. Crit. Stokes' Criticism on Dr Atkinson's glossary to vol. i.-v. 
of the ancient Laws of Ireland, London, 1903. 

Jl,letr. Di1'lds. 

O'D. Gr. 

PI. Vito Sanct. 
P. O'c. 


Stowe Gl. 
Str. Deþ. 

Str. Gl. 

Three Med. Gl. 

TP. Suþþl. 


Triþ. Gl. 


Stories from the Táin, ed. John Strachan, Dublin, 1908. 
Stowe glosses, Archiv fÜr Celtische Lexikographie, iii. 
The Deponent Verb in Irish, John Strachan in the 
Transactions of the London Philological Society. 
Old Irish Paradigms and Glosses, ed. John Strachan, 
London, 19<>9. 
Táin Bó Cuailnge, ed. \Yindisch, Irische Texte, v. 
Archiv fÜr Celtische Lexikographie, i. 3. 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, edd. Stokes and Strachan, 
Cambridge, 1901. 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Supplement, ed. Stokes, 
Halle, 1910. 
Handbuch des Alt-Irischen, ed. Rudolf Thurneysen, 
Heidelberg, 1909. 
The Triads of Ireland, ed. K. Meyer. Dublin, 1906. 
The Tripartite Life of Patrick, ed. Stokes, London, 
The glosses from the Tripartite Life, Arch. C. P. iii. 
Three Shafts of Death, by Keating, ed. Atkinson, 
Dublin, 1890. 
Togail Troi, ed. Stokes, Calcutta, 1882. 
Togail Troi, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte ii. 
The \Vürtzburg glosses, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, 
vol. i. 
Windisch's Wörterbuch, I rische Texte, vol. i. 
Zeuss's Grammatica Celtica, editio altera. 



MS. contractions, about which there may be doubt, are 
extended in italics. Interlinear additions to the texts are 
enclosed in round brackets, additions by the Editor in square 
brackêts. Errors or peculiari ties in the text are in some 
cases silently corrected in the translation. Where this is 
impracticable footnotes are added. Otherwise the reading 
of the MSS. is unchanged. 



lA 'jJ 

 v II r;"''7... 


THE Handbook of the Learned, here edited for the first 
time, is a work that opens up many questions. 
Éces is often equivalent to Filidecht covered the 
whole field of poetry, romance, history, biography, geography, 
grammar, antiquities, and law. The poet-jurist, who, seated, 
gave judgments in verse, is probably referred to at lines 407,8. 
The Auraicept treats chiefly of the Ogham alphabet and 
grammar, but if the Trefhocul be included, it treats also of 
poetry in the strict sense. 
The poets,jilid, were a guild, making their own special 
laws, and exercising discipline upon their own members (2193). 
They claimed and used the right to quarter themselves 
and their retinue upon society (2221), and they exacted a 
fixed sum for their poetic compositions. In general this 
was cheerfully paid; the means for enforcing unwilling 
payment was satire. The exercise of this potent weapon 
was moderated by rule (1935), certain forms of satire, such as 
tamall ll-aire (1932), being forbidden in the Trefhocul; and 
though the poets have been abolished by law for over a 
century, even at this day in certain districts the phrase, 
dllemlamll aoir air, to satirise one, is not without its 
The poets were a secret society with a language peculiar 
and intelligible to themselves only. According to their 
literary tradition Fenius, at their request, devised this 
language for them (195), and its obscurity was essential (21). 




The people often rose up against the poets and attempted 
to repudiate their claims. One such rising was that 
at Drumketta, A.D. 590 (1472). About that time they 
numbered 15,000. Owing to the advocacy of St Columba, 
himself a fiii, they were suffered to continue, but under 
The filid were a strictly professional class, undergoing a 
rigorous training to fit them for their position. The bards, 
on the other hand, were unprofessional, and more or less 
untrained, but they practised a large number of metres in 
which the filid also were required to become proficient. 
The following tables (if. the later scheme in Joyce's, 
Social Hist., i. 430), will show what place the Auraicept 
occupied in their studies. 

The Fili, his Rank, Name, and Compositions, with the 
Rewards therefor, and his Retinue (2219-2254). 

I Retinue. 
1:' +' 
'" . 
I Rank. 
Name. 1\1etre. Reward. 
 . r.<.
.- '" 
<\! "",-0 Q+' 
r: õ ...CD .- 1'1 
0'" +'0 
< ....Z 
5 0 p..... 
r;.. +,0 
I - - - 
I. ollam anamam a chariot 24 8 12 10 
(= one bondmaid) 
II. anrad nath five cows 1:3 6 5 8 
III. clí anair four cows 8 5 4 6 
IV. cano emain one horse 6 3 2 4 
(=two cows) 
V. doss láid one milch cow 4 2 I 3 
VI. macfuirmid setrad one cow-in-calf 3 I I 2 
I VII. foc1óc dían one three-year-old I I I I (?) 



The Yearly Studies of the Jtì'li. 
Each year included the studies of all preceding years. 


foclóc 1. oghurn, besides regular oghurn; the Auraiceþt 
with its prologue and with its flexions; 
1. drécht.. vi. dfan. Jr. T. iii. 32. 
2 rnacfuirrnid 1. oghurn, besides usual oghurn; vi. detailed 
lessons of jilidecht J . xxx. drkht J . x. setrada, 
senamain, and snaithe senamna. 
Ir. T. iii. 34, 9. 
1. oghurn, besides ebadach nIlmain; vi. other 
detailed lessons of jilÙlecht J' xl. drkht J. 
xvi. !did. Ir. T. iji. 3-h 12. 
1. drécht J . 1. bretha nemid J . xx. emain. 
Jr. T. iii. 36, 18. 
Ix. drécht J . xxx. anair J ' xxx. iarmberla. 
Ir. T. iii. 37, 21. 
lxx. dràht J . Ixxx. nath 11zór J' Ixxx. 1zath becc 7 
berla najilcd. Ir. T. iii. 38, 25. 
bl'omacha suad, i.e. the bard metres which the 
poet ought to know, for that is the poet's 
lesson of the seventh year; e.g. 1. divisions of 
bro I nacha, i.e. dechnad 111tÍr, and two species 
of dechnad mór are there reckoned, viz. sned 
and trebrad. Ir. T. iii. 39, 32. 
jisc011larca jiled .i. dÚili berla 7 clethchor choem 
7 reicne rosclldach 7 ltiide. i. temn!dida 7 i11l11Zas 
/orosnai 7 dichctal do chennaib na luaithe 7 
dinshenchus, and all the principal tales of 
I reland in order to relate them to kings, lords, 
and gentlemen. For thejili is not yet perfect. 
Ir. T. iii. 49, 91. 

3 doss 
4 cano 
5 ch 
6 anrad 
7 ollarn 


9, 10 



xl. semwth .i.; xv. luasca 7 vii. ena J' eochraid of 
Ix. words with metres :md xiv. srotha and 
vi. dÚili Jeda. Ir. T. iii. 54, 99. 
1. anamain 11lór; I. ana11laÍ1z bccc. 
Jr. T. iii. 59, 113. 
cxx. rochettll J . iiii. cerda, i.e. cerd of Ladchend rnic 
Bairchida (Ælt., pp. 17, 27), 7 cerd hi Chota, 7 
cerd hui Bicni, 7 cerd Béci. Ir. T. iii. 60, 121. 



A brief study of the Auraicept is sufficient to convince 
one that the leading extraneous source is the Latin 
Grammarians. Some of them are cited by name, Priscian 
(A.D. 450), Donatus (A.n. 350), Pompeius, and Consentius. 
If it be urged that the quotations from these authors are 
a late addition to the Auraicept by way of learned illustra- 
tion, it is answered that in any case the general setting 
of the matter follows closely the didactic style of the 
grammarians, as the following examples, occurring passim, 
wiII show:- 

Ouaestio cst, Gr. Lat. v. 537, 16,29; 541,20,32. 
cest, Aur. 9, 57. 
Ouaesitum est, V. 228, 1 8 ì 
..... con agar, Aur. 1019, 
Quaeritur, v. 
65, 27 
8 J 
De qua quaentur, OrIgg, XVI. 10,2 
ut sciam, v. 195, 19. 
ut scias, V. 121,15,18; 173,18: co fesear, Aur. 1577. 
ut sciamus, v. 10, 16. 
sciendum est, v. 180, 32: is soigti Aur. 3508, is fisid 
35 2 3. 
scire debemus, v. 277, 3 0 . 
scire debes, v. 14 2 , 15. 

The matter itself of the Auraicept is largely identical 
with that treated of by the Latin Grammarians in their 
early chapters-the alphabet, classification of letters, sounds 
and syllables, consonant and vowel changes, gender and 
declension of nouns, comparison of adjectives, prepositions 
governing dative and accusative cases, the accent, artificial 
and natural, genus and species, and a few other incidental 
points. The omissions are almost equally significant. 
There is no classification of declensions, no declension of 
adjectives which are tacitly included with the substantives, 
no treatment of pronouns except as tokens of gender 
(aurlonn, 585), or as emphasised by féill = met (726), and 



the whole accidence of the verb is wanting. The similarity 
between Latin and Gaelic failed at this point. The paradigm 
of the verb is tentative and native (304, 653). An endeavour 
is made to show that, while there is a correspondence in 
meaning between the two languages, Gaelic is the more 
comprehensive (1081). 
The language is Middle Irish, but the basis, which has 
been much worked over, all belongs to the Old Irish 
The composition consists of Text and Commentary, the 
latter forming the great bulk of the work. The text is the 
oldest portion; the commentary, in parts as old as the text, 
was in a process of continuous growth. The text, written in 
a large hand in most l\ISS., is printed in leaded type. BB, 
here followed, curtails the text. The Book of Lecan and T. 
make a much larger delineation of text. The question as to 
what is text and what is commentary will require further 
study for a satisfactory solution, but it may be here remarked 
that much of the primary material is embodied in the tract 
in the ordinary hand of the commentary so as to be indis- 
tinguishable from the commentary at sight, and that the 
commentary itself occasionally points to the text by the use 
of such expressions as Cid ara tuc-somh (97), Cid ara ll-ebairt 
(37 8 , 4 8 4, 5 12 , 3 8 5), illtan roraidh (421), ata acht lem (2973), 
amal asbert i curp in libuir (173, 24 I) where corp Ùl !z"buir 
always means the text of the book under comment. 
Another but a rather uncertain criterion is this. A 
passage which does not occur by way of commentary on any 
previous quotation, but which is itself made the subject of 
commentary, is in a sense primary material, though not 
necessarily so old as the principal text on which the com- 
mentary is written. 
The use of conagar is generally to introduce commentary 
e\-en though the passage so introduced is itself subjected to 



comment. In a word, there is a primary commentary used 
to explain the original text, and a secondary commentary 
developing the content of the primary commentary (e.g., 
10 7 2 on 1068, 1637 on 15 15). The etymological glosswork 
belongs to this last stage, and is incorporated without any 
regard to the context. 
The language even of the commentary is based on 
Old Irish usage. It explicitly recognises three genders in 
substantives and pronouns. In it airdíbdad (1264) means the 
silencing of the consonants, f and s. In later usage this 
term becomes airdibad, urdubad (uirdhiughadh, O'l\1:o11oy, 
Gr. 61), and denotes eclipsis, obnubilatio. The tract before 
us takes no account of eclipsis. At the time the tract was 
written the combinations mb, nd, had evidently not yet 
become assimilated (but cf. Nembroth, Nemruad). For, 
if such assimilations had taken place, an account would 
ha ve been given of the phenomenon under such questions as 
"\Vhat two consonants have the force of one consonant?" 
As regards ng initial, the evidence is not so clear. 
The nasal infection may have produced (ng+g) and not 
ng simply (255). On the other hand the combination is an 
Ogham letter (442)-but even vowels of diphthongs were 
pronounced separately (1430)-and is, considered along with 
the example, uiJ/gi (4926), curiously suggestive of: 

.xr. N Latinum adiuncto Gamma Graeco significat 
semiunciam.-Origg. xvi. 27, 4. 

The scheme of declension, also, distinguishes clearly 
between dative and accusative after prepositions (1651, 
1770), a distinction not uniformly or often obsen'ed in 
:l\Iiddle Irish, though a much later tract draws a distinction 
between acc. after a preposition importing motion, siubhal, 
and dat. after a preposition importing rest, comhllaidhe 



(ll/l.u, viii. 17, 
 72, 73). This last, however, may be merely 
a grammatical recrudescence, or an imitation of Latin 
A few sporadic examples of Old Irish are here added:- 
n.p.m. in muite 447, in tæbomna tuissecha 918 in 
tri focail 2018, but ainm n, has art n.p.m. ind 
anmanda 4828. 
n.p.( inna iiii. aipgitri-sea 1 132. 
For art. developed from projected n., v. condelc, 
etargoire n-inchoisc 647, in incoisc 641. 
2. ^ûUN STE
A. o-stems.- 
n.p.n. araile crand 1149. 
B. io-stcms: 
n.s.n. a mberla sain 1044. 
ds. oc nach ailiu 1044; a.s. fria araill 3106, ar araill 
5613; gan araill 3105. 
n.s. 7 araill 3410; 'nas i n-aill 1272. 
quam i n-aill 4593, 4579 no da fhir-inaill 338. 
C. n-stelll'- 
gach reim n-olc 2177. 
3. NU
IERALS: teora, ceitheora 47 08 , 3747, cf. 872. 
4. TIlE VERB: ailsius 5319, adrodamas 135; copula verb, 
arnid 693, nadat 4588. 
As to the native elements, we are told that Cenn Faelad 
-in English Kinealy-wrote the Prologue (80). As this 
preface is not likely to have been omitted by the compilers 
of the extant tract, one concludes that this must be the 
actual introduction (I -62). This view is confirmed by the 
displacement in version ii. of the section (63-78) which is the 
work of a commentator of Cenn FaeJad; also by the particle 
tra in the first sentence quoted from Cenn Faelad, which 
follows the introduction in both versions. 



There are four authors of the Auraicept proper, Cenn 
Faelad, Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius. 
The excerpts from the Book of Cenn Faelad deal with: 
The origin of Gaelic (100). 
Divisions of the Latin alphabet (3 I 2), and of the Irish 
alphabet (392). 
Latin and Irish treatment of semivowels contrasted 
Genders in Irish (520). 
Degrees of comparison in Latin, and qualitative and 
quantitative distinctions in Irish (639). 
The excerpts from the Book of Ferchertne deal with: 
The seven elements of speech in Irish (739), and 
The formation and powers of Ogham letters (943). 

There is a long excerpt from the Book of Amergen 
dealing with: the origin of Goedelg (1034). This passage is 
of earlier date and language than the general run of the 
tract. In substance it is an alternative prologue. 
The excerpts from the Book of Fenius (1102) deal with: 
The alphabets of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (I 129), 
hence probably the ascription to Fenius who was 
learned in those languages (160), and contemporary 
with the Exodus (1104). 
Verse feet or syllabic content of Irish words (1213). 
Consonant changes (1264). 
The five kinds of Irish (1302). 
The twenty-five inflections (15 15). 
\Vhat is alt? (1577). 
The end of the text of the Auraicept is noted (1636). 
Besides those four ancient books cited, the Book of Cenn 
Faelad, the Book of Ferchertne (735), the Book of Amergen 
(1028), the Book of Fenius, lair mac Nema, and Gaedel mac 
Ethiuir (1102), two others are mentioned, the Dz'u"le Feda 
(5416), of which the Ogham tract is perhaps an expansion, 



and the CZll Ollalllall (1204,4385) possibly an early form of the 
tract on Metrics. The quotations from the first four books 
are set forth as usual in large hand; but possibly other 
passages from them are embodied in the commentary in the 
normal hand. For wherever a passage in the commentary 
is afterwards eXplained in detail with the usual artificial 
etymologies, this is an indication that the passage probably 
belonged originally to the ancient text. 
\Vhile the ascription of the Book of Cenn Faelad is 
probably genuine, the same cannot be said of the Books of 
Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius. The quotations may be 
from writings approximately of the time of Cenn Faelad, but 
of unknown authorship. A commentator (1019-1027) takes 
the view that the work of these authors were successive steps 
leading up to the grand consummation, the Trefhocul. By 
the statement also of a commentator that "what is first 
according to book order was invented last, to wit, the Book 
of Cenn Faelad" (66) may be meant that this author 
co-ordinated all the ancient material, and presented it as it 
now stands. This view is upheld by another commentator 
who says that Ferchertne composed the Auraicept but Cenn 
Faelad rewrote it, or copied it, along with the greater part 
of Scripture (2638). 
There seems no reason to question the ascription of the 
" Book of Cenn Faelad" to the author of that name. He is a 
well authenticated person. He died A.V. 679. His pedigree 
is found in the genealogy of the Cellél llEogain. H is poems, 
dealing to a large extent with the wars of his kinsfolk, the 
Xorthern Vi Néill, are quoted largely in the annals. The 
curious tradition about his" brain of forgetfulness" (77) had 
no doubt a foundation in fact. Possibly he got a good 
education in youth, but developed a " brain of forgetfulness" 
by turning from learning to soldiering. He certainly fought 
in the battle of l\loira A.D. 637, where he was wounded. 



Returning again to civil life and his early pursuits, " poetry, 
words, and reading" (78), he laid the foundation of that 
reputation which as "Cenn Faelad, the Learned" he still 
enjoys (O'C. Lect.). His period as an author therefore 
extends over the forty-two years between the battle of 
Moira and his death, and quotations from him must take 
rank among the oldest dated specimens of the language. 
But he refers to stilI older Irish writers, allgdaiy 1lil llGaidcai 
(79), who wrote on the subject of Irish grammar, or of Irish 
orIgms. He may refer to such works as the Irish ChrOllicoll 
Eltscbii (Erilt, vii. 62) which came down to A.D. 609, and of 
which the lost portion at the beginning may well ha\'e 
contained the story of Fenius. \Vriting in 603, S. Columbanus 
refers to a1ltiqui Pllilosopki Hiber1liae as experts in chrono- 
graphy. Thus that earlier than the seventh century a state 
of learning existed which was held in esteem by the writers of 
that century is proved, though the direct products of that 
earlier learning are no longer extant. If we assume Cenn 
Faelad to be reaIly the author, and therefore that the 
Auraicept was begun about the middle of the seventh 
century, how did it happen that while the other \Yestern 
nations were sunk in ignorance, the Irish enjoyed the light 
of learning? Zimmer (SPA., Dec. 1910, p. 1049) quoting 
the passage in Aur. 1859-1876 puts the question with great 
" Das sind die' Elemente der Kasus- und Numeruslehre,' 
wie man sie als Teil des über viele Iahre sich erstreckenden 
Studiums der irischenjili (Grammatiker, Metriker, Antiquare 
und professionsmässiger Dichter) in den nationalen Schulen 
Irlands traktierte, al:; Klemens der Ire an der Hofschule 
Karls des Grossen jungen Franken das abc beibrachte, als 
Dicuil in St Denis, Dungal in Pavia, Sedulius in Lüttich 
und l\!letz, l\IoengaJ in St Gallen, Johannes Scottus an der 
Hofschule Karls des Kahlen ätig waren; durch diesen 



Cnterricht ist Cormac mac Cuilennãin gegangen (gest. 908), 
der nebenbei ganz auständige Kenntnis im Latein, Griech- 
isch, Hebräisch, Altnordisch, Angelsächsisch und Kymrisch 
The high tide of learning at a very early period in 
ancient Ireland was beyond a doubt caused by the influx of 
learned men from the Continent. In his researches Zimmer 
came upon this passage: 
IIuni, qui ex nephario concubitu progeniti sunt, scilicet 
demonum, postquam praeheunte caterva viam 
invenerunt per l\1eotides paludes, invaserunt Cothos 
quos nimium terruerunt ex improviso monstro 
quod in ilIis erat. Et ab his depopulatio totius 
imperii exordium sumpsit, quae ab U nis et 
Guandelis, Gotis et Alanis peracta est, sub quorum 
vastatione omnes sapientes cismarini fugam 
ceperunt, et in transmarinis, videlicet in Hibernia, 
et quocunque se receperunt maximum profectum 
sapientiae incolis ilIarum regionum adhibuerunt. 

The first part of this statement relating to the Huns is 
taken from J ordanis, who wrote about A.I>. 550, and fixes. 
approximately the date of the depopulation of the empire 
and the rush of learned men into Ireland. We may assume 
that the migration had already continued for a time before 
this account was written. The intercourse between Ireland 
and the continent was certainly kept up. 
Three centuries later we have this testimony respecting 

X atio Sc
ttorum quibus consuetudo peregrinandi jam 
paene in naturam conversa est. 
Quid Hiberniam memorem, contempto pelagi dis- 
crimine, paene totam cum grege philosophorum ad 
littora nostra migrantem !-(SP A., 1910, p. 1080). 
Zimmer with great ]earning, breadth of view, and 



mastery of detail builds upon these facts a history at once 
picturesque and surprising. 
Stated briefly his hypotheses amount to this. The 
exodus from Gaul to Ireland (A.D. 419-507) was caused by 
the Homoousian persecution. Aquitania and the modern 
Baskish territory suffered like other parts, and I reland was 
then the only haven of orthodoxy. Among the" refugees 
from that region was the fatuus k01lll/1tculus who was so called 
by his fellow-countryman the deacon Ennodius (A.D. 473-521) 
but who called himself Virgilius 111 aro, Gralll1Jlaticlts. He 
found an asylum with a native prince as was the fashion 
for learned men in those days, settled, and taught grammar, 
nay more, gained for himself fame, recognition, and a place 
among the native poets, being in fact none other than 
F erclzertlle flli. 
The Auraicept bears abundant evidence of the influence 
of two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro. The latter Zimmer 
laboured to identify with Ferchertne flli. It can be shown 
that the Auraicept lends no support to this proposed 
identification. This Ferchertne flli (CZ. iii. 13) is .described 
in the tract as a contemporary of Conchobar mac Nessa 
(736), who, whatever reckoning be adopted, lived somewhere 
about the second century (if. A.V. 484). According to this 
chronology, therefore, the identification of Fercherl1ze flli and 
::\Iaro would place the latter at least a couple of centuries 
before his known florI/it. Again the matter treated of by 
Ferclzertne flli-the seven elements of speech in Irish, and 
the formation and powers of Ogham letters-does not 
correspond to anything in Maro's pages. If it be proved 
also that, while Isidore's influence is felt chiefly in the 
earlier part of the Allraicept, l\Iaro's influence is confined 
entirely to the later, Zimmer's main contention that Maro 
was Ferclzertne flli cannot succeed. Several centuries lay 
between the inception of the Auraicept and its close. 



Maro's tract had a profound influence on the Auraicept, 
but none on its early stages. According to internal evidence 
Cenn Faelad wrote the part ascribed to him about the 
middle or second half of the seventh century. That is the 
superior limit. The inferior limit lies in the eleventh 
century, or perhaps the tenth, and is determined generally 
by two facts-( I) that the Auraicept is found in two 
families of 1\155., the variations in which postulate many 
generations of scribes, and (2) the immense development 
which has taken place in the tract itself as it has advanced 
from crude statements to a prosody which is exceedingly 
complicated and difficult. But the argument does not rest 
entirely on general considerations. 
The second text (3382) quotes native grammarians by 
name, Va Bruie, [la Coitzdi, Va Coiril! and Va Finn (3391). 
They are named by their surnames (each being the acknow- 
ledged head of his family), a usage that is not found earlier 
than the tenth century, one of the earliest instances being 
that of Va Ruaire, A.U. 953. Va Coin"!l mentioned above 
may have been the professor of law and history, who died 
A.U. 1083. Hence the Auraicept was not completed before 
the middle of the tenth century, perhaps not till towards 
the end of the eleventh, when Maro's influence is still 
in evidence. 
Let us now look at some excerpts from the works of 
the two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro. 

J. ISII>ORE OF SEVILLE, who died A.D. 636. 

His Etymologiae or OrigÙzes in twenty books contain a 
vast amount of information of such a sort that one finds it 
impossible to resist the conclusion that the compilers of 
the Auraicept had this document before them. At least 
that Cenn Faelad and Isidore drew matter from- a common 



source is a certainty, for the facts (or alleged facts) and the 
phraseology are the same. 
If we ,keep in mind that Isidore died the year before the 
battle of Moira, and that after that event Cenn Faelad began 
and pursued his studies with such success that he was 
popularly supposed to forget nothing (so one may interpret the 
words), and if we remember further that there was a constant 
coming and going of learned men, and a steady exchange 
of books between the continent and Ireland, there is no 
inherent improbability in the supposition that Cenn Faelad 
assimilated some of his material from the Origines published 
perhaps some twenty years before. True, the name of Isidore 
does not occur in the Auraicept, but no more does that of 
Eusebius from whom he probably made extracts, nor that 
of Luccreth .1lIocll Chiara (Ælteste z'rische Diclztllng, p. 5 I), 
from whose poem the passage about the seventy-two races 
(Aur. 215-
27) was certainly taken. 
There being no difficulty as to date or the omission of 
a name, full weight may be allowed to any other con- 
siderations tending to connect the two authors. The 
following quotations from many books of the Origilles show 
how much the Auraicept was indebted to that source both 
in general structure and in detail. 
Some references demonstrate that the Irish and Ireland 
were not unfamiliar to Isidore, at least as an author: 

Horrent et male tecti cum latratoribus linguis Scotti.- 
Origg. xix. 23, 6. 
Scotia idem et Hibernia proximae Brittianiae insula, 
spatio terrarum angustior, sed situ fecundior. 
Haec ab Africo in Boream porrigitur. Cujus 
partes priores Hiberiam et Cantabricum Oceanum 
intendunt, unde et Hibernia dicta: Scotia autem, 
quod ab Scotorum gentibus colitur, appellata.- 
Origg. xiv. 6, 6. 



Time, place, person, and cause of writing (Aur. 63, 735, 
1029), define the general plan and treatment of a subject, 
and are usually found in the introduction to any serious 
work in Irish. 
lam vero in elocutionibus illud uti oportebit, ut res, 
locus, tempus, persona audientis efflagitat- 
Origg. ii. 16, I. 
The cradle of letters was in Achaia, or by projection 
of d from art., Dacia, or by early French pronunciation, Asia. 
Ubi fuit Athenae civitas.-Origg. xiv. 4, 10. 
Apud Eotenam (uel Athena) civitatem.-Aur. 214. 
Fuit autem Isis regina Aegyptiorum, Inachis reg is filia, 
quae de Graecia veniens Aegyptios litteras docuit. 
-Origg. viii. I I, 84. 
These sentences show that, unless the Biblical Accad was 
introduced from some other source, Achaia (251) was pro- 
bably the original reading; but the possibility that Achaia 
lay in Jlaeotidis Paludibus (CZ. x. 126) must not be over- 
N amque omnium ferocissumi ad hoc tempus Achaei 
atque Tauri sunt, quod, quantum conjicio, locorum 
. egestate rapto vivere coacti.-Glossae Juvenalis 
(SaIl. Fraglllozta). 
Authority, written authority, ugdaraclzt (131), perhaps 
includes the following authors of whom, however, only two, 
lYloses and lIieronymus (q.v.), are mentioned by name: 
lYloyses, Dares Phrygius, Herodotus, Pherecydes. 
V nde Sallustius ex historia, Livius, Eusebius et 
Hieronymus ex annalibus tot historia constant.- 
Origg. i. 4 2 ; 44, 4. 
\Vhat are the names of the seventy-two races from which 
the many languages were learnt? (2 I 5, 263): 
Gentes autem a quibus divisa est terra, quindecim sunt 
de J aphet, triginta et una de Cham, viginti et 



septem de Sem, quae finnt septuaginta tres, vel 
potius, ut ratio declarat, septuaginta duae; toti- 
demque linguae, quae per terras esse coeperunt. 
quaeque crescendo provincias et insulas impleverunt. 
-Origg. ix. 2, 2. 
In definition a bias existed towards the heptad or the 
octave, Aur. 639, 739. 
De septem liberalibus disciplinis. Grammatica dia- 
lectica, etc., Aur. 51.-0rigg. i. 2, I. 
Occasionally individual words are closely defined: 
Materia inde dicitur omne lignum quod ex ea aliquid 
efficiatur.-Origg. xix. 19, 4. Fid, Aur. 943, d. 
later the use of adbar. 
The importance of Hebrew is insisted on: 
Illa lingua quae ante diluvium omnium una fuit, quae 
Hebraea nuncupatur.-Origg. xii. I, 2. 
The Hebrew language was in the world first and it will 
remain after doomsday (190). 
Item quaeritur qua lingua in futurum homines loquantur. 
-Origg. ix. I, 13. 
The following passage explains why Gaelic was deemed 
a worldly speech (46), not being one of the three sacred 
tongues in which was written the superscription on the cross 
( 1 6 5 ). 
Linguarum diversitas exorta est in aedificatione turris 
post diluvium. Nam priusquam superbia turris 
illius in diversos signorum sonos human am divideret 
societatem, una omnium nationum lingua fuit, quae 
Hebraea vocatur. Initio autem quot gentes, tot 
linguae fuerunt, deinde plures gentes. Tres sunt 
autem linguae sacrae: Hebraea, Graeca, Latina 
quae toto orbe maxime excellunt. His enim tribus 
linguis super crucem Domini a Pilato fuit causa eius 
scripta.-Origg. ix. I, 1-3. 



The early Irish rhythmical alliterative poetry, e.g.- 
arnin arding [d]éd, 
forsail for fot fedair, 
dinin disail for gair gabhaidh (154 6 ), 
extending up to and running into the eighth century, might 
almost be defined by the words: 
H uic adhaeret rythmus, qui non est certo fine moderatus, 
sed tamen rationabiliter ordinatis pedibus currit; 
qui Latine nihil aliud quam numerus dicitur.- 
Origg. i. 39, 3. 

A verse of dithyramb or metrical rhythm is to be 
measured by a breath of the poet, five words to each breath 
(93 0 ). 
Periodos autem longior esse non debet quam ut uno 
spiritu proferatur.-Origg. ii. 18, 2. 
Grammatical questions as to gender and comparison of 
adjectives find a like expression in Latin and Gaelic: 

 eutrum dictum quia nec hoc nec illud, id est nec 
masculinum nec femininum.-Origg. i. 7, 28; Aur. 
Octo autem modis conparatio analogiae colligitur: id 
est qualitate, conparatione, genere, numero, figura, 
casu, extremitatibus similium syllabarum, et simili- 
tudine temporum.-Origg. i. 28, I ; Aur. 639. 

 on est maius nisi ad minus referatur. 
Sic et parvum opponitur magno ita ut ipsud parvum ad 
magnum, cui opponitur, sit parvum.-Origg. ii. 31, 
4, 5; Aur. b76. 
lnde Ponticus sinus amplissimus a tergo IVlaeotidis 
paludibus; quod mare ex multitudine fluminum 
dulcius quam cetera.-Sallust, quoted by Priscian 
Macrobius, Servius, and Origg. xiii. 16,4. 
in dulci aqua xii. 6, 56; sive salsae sint sive dulces.-xiii. 
14, 1 ; Aur. 730. 

. .. 


Artificial etymologies carry their influence into the Gaelic 
text; vir is derived from vïres, mulier from mollitÙ:s,jllllÙw 
from fi':mur : 
Vir nuncupatus, quia maior in eo vis est quam in 
feminis.-Origg. xi. 2, 17; Aur. 605. 
l\lulier vero a mollitie, tanquam mollier, detracta littera 
vel mutata, appellata est mulier.-Origg. xi. 2, 18 ; 
cf. femina de flescda no maithchnechas, Aur. GIO. 
Femora dicta sunt, quod ea parte a femina sexus viri 
discrepet. Sunt autem ab inguinibus usque ad 
genua. Femina autem per derivationem femorum 
partes sunt, quibus in equitando tergis equorum 
adhaeremus.-Origg. xi. I, 106. 
Femina vero a partibus femorum dicta ubi sexus species 
a viro distinguitur.-Origg. xi. 2, 24; Aur. 608. 
Consonants, semi-vowels, and mutes are treated similarly 
in the Gaelic and the Latin texts: 
Et vocatae consonantes quia per se non sonant sed 
iunctis vocalibus consonant. Haec in duabus 
partibus dividuntur: in semivocalibus et in mutis. 
Semivocales dictas eo, quod quiddam semis de 
vocalibus habeant. 
Mutae autem dictae quia nisi subiectis sibi vocalibus 
nequaquam erumpunt.-Origg. i. 4, 3, 4; cf. Aur. 
358 et seq.,o 367 et seq.
. 468 et seq. 
Vnde et legitimae nominantur illa ratione, scilicet \Tel 
quod ab E vocali incipiunt et in mutum sonum 
desinunt, ut sunt consonantes, vel quod a suo sono 
incipiunt et in vocalem E desinunt ut sLint mutae.- 
Origg. i. 4, 10; Aur.488. 
The active and the passive of verbs: 
Etargaire persainni i ngnim (651); i cessadh (653). 
In persona verbi agentis et patientis significatio est.- 
Origg. i. 9, I. 



The Origines contain well-known quotations (and the 
above may be of this sort) : 
Litterae autem dictae quasi legiterae, quod iter 
legentibus praestent, vel quod in legendo iterentur. 
-Origg. i. 3, 3; Aur. 360. 
Some quotations are hard to find elsewhere: 
Nam unum semen numeri esse, non numerum.-Origg. 
iii. 3, 1 ; Aur. 688. 
It is not time that is divided but our actions (93). 
Nam tempus per se non intellegitur, nisi per actus 
humanos.-Origg. v. 3 1 , 9. 
These references I have not found.-Aur. 464, 517, 728. 

The foregoing quotations are found in the portion of 
the Auraicept attributed to Cenn Faelad. They occur 
not only in commentary but often in the structure of the 
composition. Hence the conclusion that Cenn Faelad had 
before him the Origines or a document based thereon, and 
closely resembling it, is amply justified. 
The use of the OrigiJles is continued in the Gaelic text, 
after the portion attributed to Cenn Faelad ends. In the 
latter part of the book occur also some few suggestions 
of Ogham. 
\Vhat is known as 11ifti/lls, Aur. 970, 8, is thus explained: 
V quoque liUera proinde interdum nihil est, quia 
alicubi nec vocalis nec con sonans est, ut quis. 
Vocal is enim non est quia I sequitur; con sonans 
non est quia Q praecedit. Ideoque quando nec 
vocal is, nec consonans est, sine dubio nihil est.- 
Origg. i. 4, 8. 
A quotation common in the grammarians is : 
'\J isi enim nomen scieris, cognitio rerum perit.- 
Origg. i. 7, I; Aur. 1099. 



A quotation not seen by me elsewhere: 
Lapis autem dictus quod laedat pedem.-Origg. XVI. 
3, 1 ; Aur. 3396. 
Occasionally the Latin helps to decide the reading of the 
Gaelic text: 
Incorporalia, quia carent corpus; unde nec videri nec 
tangi possunt, ut veritas, iusticia.-Origg. i. 7, 4; 
c( Aur. 3238. 

Occasionally the Gaelic is a running commentary on the 
Perspicuae voces sunt quae longius protrahuntur ita ut 
omnem inpleant continuo locum, sicut clangor 
tubarum (stocaireacht no cornaireacht, Aur. 1477). 
Subtiles voces (cronan no certan bec, 1474) sunt, 
quibus non est spiritus, qual is est infantium vel 
mulierum vel aegrotantium, sicut in nervis (intan 
is cruit, 1484). Quae enim subtilissimae cordae 
sunt, subtiles ac tenues sonos emittunt (intan as 
bindi is tuiu 7 is isliu ata na a n-aill, 1484). Pingues 
sunt voces, quando spiritus multus simul egreditur, 
sicut virorum (mod .i. mo od .i. od ceol intan is 
mascul 1470). Acuta vox tenuis, alta, sicut in 
cordis videmus (traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda 
1477). Dura vox est, quae violenter emittit sonos 
sicut tonitruum, sicut incudis sonos, quotiens in 
durum malleus percuititur ferum (intan is torand 
no is crand 1479, tourand no caint 4575). 
Caeca vox est, quae, mox emissa fuerit, conticescit, atque 
suffocata nequaquam longius producitur, sicut est 
in fictilibus (tæ a ed intan is fad 1479, fouta 4578).- 
Origg. iii. 20, 10- I 3. 
Occasionally the Latin determines the interpretation of 
the Gaelic, the latter being an almost literal translation of 
the former: 
Superflui sunt, quorum partes simul ductae plenitudinem 
excedunt, ut puta duodcnarius. Habet enim partes 



quinque: duodecimam, quod est unum; sextam, 
quod duo; quarlam, quod tria; tertiam, quod 
quattuor; dimidiam, quod sex. Vnum enim et 
duo, et tria, et quattuor, et sex simul ducta 
xvi faciunt et longe a duodenario excedunt. . . . 
Perfectus numerus est, qui suis partibus adinpletur, 
ut senarius; habet enim tres partes, sextam, 
tertiam, dimidiam: sexta eius unum est, tertia duo, 
dimidia tres. Haec partes in summam ductae, id 
est unum et duo et tria simul eundem consummant 
perficiuntque senarium.-Origg. iii. 5, 9- J J; Aur. 

Occasionally the Gaelic gives merely the gist of the 
Primum enim diem a Sole appellaverunt, qui princeps 
est omnium siderum, sicut et idem dies caput est 
cunctorum dierum. Secundum a Luna, quae Soli 
et splendore et magnitudine proxima est, et ex eo 
mutuat lumen. Tertium ab stella Martis quae 
Vesper vocatur. Quartum ab stella Mercurii, quam 
quidam candidum circulum dicunt. Quintum ab 
stella [ovis, quam Phaethontem aiunt. Sextum a 
Veneris stella, quam Luciferum asserunt, quae inter 
omnia sidera plus lucis habet. Septimus ab stella 
Saturni, quae sexto caelo locata triginta annis 
fertur explere cursum suum.-Origg. v. 3 0 , 5-7; 
Aur. 3531-9. 

Titles of chapters or sections 111 the OrigÙzcs appear as 
names of Ogham : 
De llOlIlille xi. I. 
IJe avibus xii. 7. 
Oppida 1lObilia xv. I, 6. 
De aedificiis Stlcrzs xv. 4. 
De Ilflvibus xix. I, I. 
De ins/rulIlcntis rl/sticis xx. 14. 
De c%riblls xix. 17 

daenogam 5709. 
enogam 569
dinnogam 5687. 
ceallogam 5702. 
ogam n-eathrach 6132. 
ogam tírda 5724. 
dathogam 5697. 



Bible names suffer change in passing into the Gaelic text 
through the Latin transliteration: 
N ebuchadnezzar, N abuchodonosar, Origg v. 39, 18; 
Nabgodon, Aur. 127. 
Nimrod, N em broth, Origg. vii. 6, 22; r\ eamruad, Aur. 
Noah, Noe, Origg. vii. 6, IS ; Nóe, 
\ur. 107. 
Secrecy-the avowed purpose of Ogham-is outlined in 
a simple code similar to that which finds expression in Aur. 

Caesar quoque Augustus ad filium, II quoniam," inquit, 
" innumerabilia accidunt assidue quae scribi alterutro 
oporteat et esse secreta, habeamus inter nos notas 
si vis tales ut, cum aliquid notis scribendum erit,. 
pro unaquaque littera scribamus sequentem hoc 
modo pro a b, pro b c, et deinceps eadem ratione 
ceteras; pro z autem redeundum erit ad duplex 
a a. "Quidam etiam versis verbis scribunt.-Origg. i. 
This reference I have not found: Aur. 324:4-8, but cf. 
l\Iaro 24, 10- 2 4. 

The editor, Huemer, in his Praefatio, p. xi., after giving a 
list of blunders common to all the 1\1SS. of 1\1aro, concludes: 
Atque archetypum illud litteris scotticis scriptum 
fuerit necesse est, cum a et ll, c et t, r et s, S et f, 
p et f, saepe permutatae videntur. 
The conclusion is irresistible. \Vhether the scribe was 
himself perpetrating these blunders, or, as his editor thinks, 
merely copying them from others, the sources of Maro, ac:; 
we know him, are Irish. 
l\Ieyer, in two lists (SPA July, December 1912), gi\"es, 



from l\Iaro's tract, a selection of forty-two names, which he 
considers to be of Celtic origin. They are as follows: 
Aemerius p. (22). Lato-mius (123). 
.-\ndrianus (173). Lugenicus (162). 
Area rex (15). Mart-ulis (9 2 ). 
Asp-orius (5). Mitterius (114). 
.\ssianus (173). Ninus (119). 
Bi-entius (137). Oss-ius ( 16 3). 
Breg-andus (162). Perrichius (163). 
Don (15, 30). Plastus (15 1 ). 
Fassica f. (123). Prass-ius (61). 
Gabr-itius (126). Regulus (?) (133). 
Galb-arius (163). Rigas f. Rigadis (122). 
Galb-ungus (10, 122, 133). Rithea Nini regis uxor (119). 
Gal-irius (146). Sagillius Germanus (17). 
Gall-ienus (129). Samm-inius, Virgil's uncle (28). 
Gelb-idius (36). Sarbon (I n). 
Gerg-csus (15). Sarr-icius (123). 
Glengus (122, 133). Saur-inus (28). 
Gurg-ilius (173). Sedulus (13 8 , 139). 
Iuu-anus (54). Senenus (138). 
Lap-idus (19). Sulpita (24). 
Lassius (107). Crsinus (90). 
Further examination may shorten the list without 
seriously disturbing the contention that if l\1aro had no 
connection with Ireland, his circle of Irish friends was 
unaccountably large. 
Sua aptc (116,11 ; 81, 4) has been recognised as an lrish- 
Latin hybrid, sll-aptc, which later came into common use 
in I rish Latin. 
There is a sprinkling of the loci COllllllll1lCS of Latin 
Grammar, e.g.- 
:\Iaro denies that Latinitas is derived from LatÙms, 
preferring latitudo, p. 5, 6: Aur. 355. 
litera ab ipsis etiam cerae caracteribus usque ad 
quassorum compossitionem hosce ordines directat, 
p. 7, 10; Aur. 1756. 
syllabae monades senas literas transcendere non debent 
ut saobs, l\Iaro, p. 1 1,7; Aur. 1229. 



Grama est litteraturae peruidatio, quae quasi quaedam 
totius lectionis semitula est unde et a peritis litera 
interpretatur legitera quod est legendi itinerarium.- 
1\!iaro, p. 19, II: Aur. 1758. 
A certain resemblance is discernible between 1\Iaro, 
24, 10-23, and Aur. 3244, and between 
N ec aperte masculinum nec absolute c1icitur esse 
feminum.-1\Iaro, 31, 13; Aur. 614. 
verbum est omne quod lingua profertur et voce.-1\laro, 
88, 6, and Aur. 1924. 

The device sci1lderatio fOllOrltlll, 1\Iaro declares (p. 76, 7), 
was resorted to in order to sharpen the wits, to adorn 
expression, and: 
tertia (causa) ne mystica quaeque, et quae solis gnaris 
pandi debent, passim ab infimis ac stultis facile 
The same reason, here called tertia, is alleged for the 
invention of Ogham :- 
Co mbeth in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais fo leth, sech 
lucht na tirdachta 7 na buicnechta, Aur. 5472. 
One device consisted in breaking up a sentence into 
groups of letters, e.g.- 
RRR. 55. PP. 1\11\1. NT. EE. 00. A.V.I., i.e., spes 
Romanorum perit.-l\1aro, 77, 12; cf. Aur. 3501-3. 
Also, words may be broken up into syllables, and these 
again may be strewn about in the jingle of a so-called 
sentence, e.g.- 
sicut Lucanus edidit; ge. ves. roo trum. quando. turn. 
a. fec. om. ni. libet aeuo, which is thus explained, 
quandolibet vestrum gero omni aeuo affectum.- 
:l\Iaro, 77,6. 

Or in single words, e.g. llodo for dO/lO, ?lesi for s'ille, gcrlllc1Z 



for reg1lulll.-
Iaro 78, 28. This process appears in Irish as 
delidill s'illabacda, Aur. 5312. 
AlIlans may be transformed into lIlanas (Maro, 79, 4), heri 
into hrei, is into si (78,31); atat into tata (79, 10), a process 
which is called delitin litterda, metathesis of letters, Aur. 5308. 
.A meaningless syllable or disyllable may be introduced 
into a word, e.g. 11aviga-be-re for 1ta'lugare, b-U-011111ll for 
b01lum (i\Iaro, 78, 17); forti-osi-ter for fortiter, COlllpt-os-c for 
compte (
'Iaro, p. 70, 6). A meaningless disyllable so intro- 
duced into Gaelic is called condall, Aur. 5317. 
The unstressed syllable following an accented syllable is 
sometimes dropped, e.g. 1'ogassclIl, rogasse for rogml'issem, 
rogallisse,. rogarunt, rogan't for rogallerzl11t, rogauerit (Maro, 
78, 10). In Gaelic poetry this is called cotl/t, A ur. 5287. 
Still more does the influence of l\'Iaro emerge in the 
The name Trefhocul bears a resemblance to the heading 
of the chapter De trilllodo dicendi genere, Orig. ii. 17 which 
may have suggested it. Similarly the twelve items compos- 
ing the Trefhocul might have been originally suggested by 
the duodecilll latinitates of l\Iaro, p. 88, 22, e.g. 
\ I. lumbrosa, hoc est perlonga, cum pro uno usitato 
totus uersus scribitur, with perlonga, c( (can) rofota, 
Aur. 5060; and for the matter, cf. Aur. 5943 ".here 
each letter besides being written is spelt. 
VII. sincolla, hoc est perbreuis, uersa uke cum totus 
uersus usitatus in uno continetur fono. \Vith per- 
breuis, cf. (can) rogair, Aur. 5059, and for the matter, 
d. A ur. 1326. 
VIII. belsauia, hoc est peruersa, cum casus nominum 
modusque uerborum transmutat. \Vith peruersa, cf. 
(can) chlóen.-Aur. 5057, 5086. 
XI. spela, hoc est humillima, quae semper res terrenas 
loquitur, with humillima, cf. a irisel, used of an 
appended syllable, a.-Aur. 5079, 5346. 



XII. polema, hoc est superna quae de superioribus 
tractat. With superna, cf. a irard, an appended 
syllable, aib.-Aur. 5078, 5341. 
II. Assena, hoc est notaria, quae una tantum littera 
pro toto sono contenta est, cf. Q for ceirt., Aur. 
5816, and R for Ruis 5820. 
These coincidences are too numerous to be accidental. 
Omitting other lesser similarities, to lay stress on which 
might be regarded as fanciful, we come to the solid ground 
of quotation. (Hereon Zimmer, not having the whole tract 
before him, could find no footing.) 
Y. metrofia, hoc est intellectua1is, ut dictantabat, irl est 
principium; sade, id est iustitia; gno utilitas; bora, 
hoc est fortitudo; ter hoc est dualitas coniugalis; 
rfoph, hoc est ueneratio; brops, hoc est pietas; 
rihph, hoc est hilaritas; gal, hoc est regnum; fkal, 
hoc est religio; clitps, hoc est nobilitas; mymos, 
dignitas; fann, hoc est recognitio; ulio, hoc est 
honor; gabpal, hoc est obsequium ; blaqth, hoc est 
lux solis; mere hoc est pluuia; pal, dies et BOX; 
gatrb, hoc est pax; biun, hoc est aqua et ignis; 
spax, longeuitas. 
vVith the exception of y and z, which may have been 
added from another source, the explanation following hoc est, 
it! est, is in each case identical with that given in Aur. 4211- 

Perhaps more important than all is the following: 
De h autem hoc dicendum est, quod semper inspirat, 
nunc ad fortitudinem, nunc ad motationem tantum. 
N am cum semiuocalem praecesserit.!: solum sonum 
pariter motabunt ut hfascon et faciuntfpro h.!: si 
uero mutam c uel t uel p, suum sonum non amittit 
ut hcorda, htronlls, llPalallx, Maro, p. 10, 9-14. 
This passage throws light on Aur. 432, 1264-1279. Bogad 
there means aspiration (and apparently on finals) ut cloch, 



both. It has also another meaning,fortitlldo, influenced by 
Ogham usage, where B+ H = P, thus supplying the P which 
is non-existent in pure Gaelic. Sellliglld, again, means 
lenition and apparently on initials, but on this point the 
examples are inconclusive (cf. beith mo hsuidhe CZ. x. 266). 
I [ere the íJspirating I I precedes the consonant it aspirates, 
and thus l\iaro and the Auraicept are at one. 
The warrantable conclusions to be drawn from the facts 
are few but very important. Bigerro sermone clefabo (Maro 
8, 13) II in the speech of Bigorre," which Zimmer presses to 
show that l\Iaro was a native of that district, though in the 
tenth century he is called Tolosallzts, proves merely that 
l\Taro was more Qr less conversant with Baskish. He ,,'as 
acquainted with viro athensi, a man belonging to the town of 
Ate south of Limoges (Maro 141, 28). He mentions a Sib)'lla 
Cargillie/lsis, belonging to the town of Carca, in the Depart- 
ment of the Iberian Bastitani (p.48, 25), and he knew a great 
number of Irishmen. Except perhaps in the passage last 
quoted in which h ad fortitlldi/lem may be compared with b 
cum aspiratÙme pro p þOllitur (432, 2879), no connection is 
traceable between him and Fèrchertlle jili, whose work 
belongs to a much earlier period than the Trefhocul. The 
inAuence of Maro's book on Irish grammar is confined to 
the Trefhocul, the last stage of the growth of prosody. The 
Auraicept proper, of which Fcrchertlle fili was one of the 
authors, or one under whose name ancient material was 
incorporated, shows no trace of Maro's influence. 
Interesting questions arise in the text itself, some of 
which need only be mentioned, e.g.:- 
The so-called mutes I, 11, r, pronounced el, en, cr in Latin, 
Ie, 11e, 1-e in Gaelic (490, 511, 2981). 
The frequent absence of aspiration, or aspiration by 
omission, of f and 5, 
ni aimser rota 1576, æ aiges (408,9). 



The confusion owing to the distance of the gloss from its 
text; e.g., 1515 is glossed at 1637,1533-5 at 1 6 75, 1577 at 
1686, 1579 at 1687, 1591 at 1692, 1609-14 at 16 95. 
The tendency of words and phrases like alt co fesear 
7, 1686), andfogní (1336,1871) to become technical terms. 
The French pronunciation of Latin, sirqundimus (4125), 
sircuim (4132), sircumplex (4784), siicuitas (2531), resulting 
in important changes in Gaelic, isinn Asia (2571) for isind 
Achaidh (251). 
The rhymes, some apparently without sense (806), some 
without metre (1546), and some in metre but obscured by 
glosses (253, 43 60 , 593 2 ). 
The etymological reconstructions:- 

co-fidfor cubaid (1512), 
ciallabajr for ceileabar (1594), 
fegait for fichit (4735),for fégait, sedhait (4737), segait 
co, hógfégad for cóic (1637), 
ré huammafor réim (1638), 
so-fis for seis (479), 
æ gnithijõr aicned (501), 
suad for uad (495). 
conod miait (508)for conid muiti (495), 
dorrae for trá (573), smitai, smit ai (= aue) for smita 
The constant modernising of the text :- 
ceithri gne (872), ceitheora gnee (3747)1 
moosomfor moam (658), 
lugusom for lugam (659), 
cinntechsom, cinntichu son (1258) for cinntechem (4368). 
Syllable, the ultimate element of everything in Gaelic 
except gender (1457). Number, case, person, degree, tense, 
mood, are indicated by syllables, whereas there is no 



distinction of gender indicated in spelling; and 1/
od, tod, 
tYlleth, secundum, qltosdam is aurloJld (1496) or leading word 
that indicates geÌlder. 
The ascription of the same poem to Colum Cille (938), 
and to Cormac (1596, 3867, 5351). 
The repetition of the same passages 1487, 1502; if. 2616, 
2622, shows that the present text is made up from at least 
two versions which sometimes contained the same material 
in different order. Hence no doubt comes the disjointed 
character of many passages. 
The following terms, however, are of importance in order 
to understand the text :- 

The word ÙlrocolllrllirC1zi'gsiolllairlle gives the key to the 
plan of inflection called jilltigthi, prepositional cases (1515). 
These eight syllables are held to form one word. According 
to our present grammatical methods the basis or unity is the 
compound word of five syllables cOlllroircnigsellllllar. It is 
preceded by a relative pronoun all- and by an enclitic or 
pre-verb -1'0-, and it is followed by an emphasising pro- 
nominal suffix -JlÏ. But the native Irish grammarians 
regarded all these syllables as parts of one word, and the 
scribes wrote the whole as one word. In their opinion 
proclitics were not separate words, but rather filltigtld, 
inflections, of the accented word. Accordingly, they wrote 
frissÙifcr as one word, an inflected form of fer, and gave it 
a distinct technical name. This also explains how is fer 
(1529) comes into the scheme. Is was an unstressed pro- 
clitic, and as such was treated as part of the word following. 
They did not observe that is fer, a tlllíarascbái/, had already 
been dealt with under the head of fer, a aÙl1Il1liugud J. nor 
did they recognise identity of case and inflection in the 
words which they wrote 
lafer,frissÙifer J. fofiur, ia1jiur (1525). 



sification of prepositions, or any explanation of 
infixed pronouns (653) was thus rendered unnecessary. 
Another flexion is réim, which later means oblique case 
(786). Of this flexion there are three kinds outward, inward, 
and both combined: outward ut est,fer. There is no flexion 
in the word as it stands in the nom., but there may be 
flexion in the context, e.g., in the accus., lasi1l (bf)fer J' fir 
is an inward flexion of fer J. and ill fer is capable of both, 
e.g., dOlld jiur. 
Tæbreim prosta .i. þuléÙl (795) is the side-flexion, i.e., the 
external flexion of mé, tlÍ, etc. 
Tréfhoclll rhymes with gll-accllr (2179), and hence- has 
e and i. It means Ie three words" (2018), "and the know- 
ledge of its secret," i.e., probably how it came to be so named, 
"is very hard," considering that "already thirty-six words 
have been found comprised under its species i[l Irish" (2021). 
TréfllOcul 'came to mean a collection of precepts for the 
correction of incorrect versification. For each of the twelve 
technical faults (allocht) , there were two correctives, each 
ha ving its technical name, one belonging to the class called 
sdath, the other to that called gmíis. Thus the whole system 
of correct versification would have been comprised under a 
set of mnemonics, each mnemonic consisting of three heads, 
the name of the fault and the name of its two correctives- 
in short, it was a three-word scheme, and accurately named 
TréfllOcul. The original scheme of two correctives for each 
error is commended (
010-3), and still adhered to in rudracll 
(2047), and in llatltad fri hilar (2057). But later refinements 
led to overlapping in the application of the correctives. 
Hence we find in the poem that a particular fault may be 
corrected or avoided by having recourse to more than one 
· device of each class, sdath or glllÍis. 
We read that the 24 helps are increased to 47 (2126). 
The first list (2035-2071) totals 4 8 , not 47; the second list 



(2083-2118) totals 5 [; the third list (2131-2176) totals 48. 
The discrepancies may be purely scribal, and due to a mis- 
reading of the Roman numerals, e.g., iii. read as iv., ii. as V., 
a constant source of error. 
\Vhat is the difference between the two kinds of 
corrective? It will be found that all those called scéitlt, 
except lugugud, the aqdition of a diminutive suffix, are 
purely artificial distortions of the words; whereas those 
called gnÚisi, except celllljochrl/s flas, airicltill, decll1led, and 
díclt n ed, are in accordance with strict grammatical usage: 
e.g., the use metri causa of sof;r instead of fer (sóerugud); 
dof;r instead of fer (dóerugud); the addition of two proclitic 
syllables (lorga fuaclz), or of one syllable (dialt 1l-etarlé11le); 
the use of zSsé, zSsí, zSsed (urlolln insce), where they might be 
omitted, e.g.- 

issí ind ala gnúis dég dil, 
urlonn insci ria hairim, 

(where zSsí completes the number of syllables required but 
might be dispensed with, if the number were complete 
without it); the use of singular for plural (ócn), e.g.- 
creid uaim féin, is fíor mo rann, 

II my quatrain," meaning (all the quatrains of) "my poem"; 
the use of plural for singular (lá11), e.g.- 
meni fhuilet (2198) = meni fuil. 
There must be some distinction of ideas in the two terms. 
The gnÚisi are or were originally the natural devices, and 
the scéitll the artificial devices for avoiding metrical faults, 
and perhaps the words were adopted on that principle, 
g1l1íis being the natural part of the man on the outlook to 
ward off an enemy, scíath the artificial implement for the 
same purpose. 
A similar touch of imagination emerges in regarding 


head and heart as being supports of man, the male being 
(1808, 4994), and the further refinements of lánollllla and their 
ge1le, mated pairs and their progeny. In the original notion 
doubtless the distinction was based on gender, but that fact 
was forgotten, aqd among the examples are lállolll1la deime 
(4999), mated couples (mas. and fern. in grammar), belonging 
to dem (a thing which is neuter in nature). This usage is 
even extended to quantity, which is still more remote from 
the original idea of gender. 
The same tendency to personification appears in the 
suggested distinction among forcolllét,frecomét, and degcolllét 
(1818); forcollllt, defensive armour, as kneecap on knee; 
frecomét, armament of offence, as knuckles; and degco11lét, 
that \vhich protects by supplying life and vigour. 

Ogham alphabet was not of Irish origin (388, 2771). 
" Vielleicht," says Zimmer, "schon dem 2. J ahrhundert n. 
Chr. ist der Verkehr des keltisch-römischen \Vestgalliens mit 
seiner alten Kolonie, dem keltischen Irland, die Einführung 
des Ogamalphabets in Irland und die Sitte, dem Dahin- 
geschiedenen aufrechtstehende Steinpfeiler zu errichten, 
zuzuschreiben (SP A., 8th Dec. 1910, p. 1096). 

-\ccording to MacNeill (p. 335) the origin of the Ogham 
alphabet must be placed after the Roman conquest of Gaul, 
. because prior thereto the Western Celts of the continent used 
the Greek alphabet, and Oghäm is based on the Latin alphabet. 
In our knowledge of written Gaelic, Ogham inscription 
bounds the horizon, and the identity in value of the Ogham 
symbols with later MS. tradition is clear, with a few 
B Group. 
Oghamists are. agreed that F, the third letter of the 
group, must be read as V in inscriptions. 



H Group. 
In the Kilkenny Arch. Journal, July 1874, p. 231, l\Ir 
G. 1\'1. Atkinson suggested that this group is named after the 
first five Gaelic numerals, IWOJl, do, tri, ceatlwr, cllig. This 
suggestion, without touching on the origin of H, is open to 
the objection that óen in 0.1. is used only in composition 
with a substantive; but in the meantime it furnishes a useful 
mnemonic, and, as it stands, it indicates a possible connection 
between this group and ll11merOSa, .K o. IV. of the dll(>decim 
latÙzitates of l\laro, p. 89,9. 
The difficulty is with regard to H, the first letter of the 
group. Accoròing to Maro H has two powers, ad 1Jlota- 
tionem and ad fortitudiJ/em, distinctions which correspond to 
the values in the text: (I) H 110n est litera sed 1lota asPiratio1lis 
(767), and (2) B cum asþiratione pro p pmlitl/r (433). 
There is no demonstrated instance of H occurring in any 
of the Ogham inscriptions, and the sign may have originally 
been devised to represent a consonant value which became 
rare or obsolete before the time of the extant inscriptions; 
and the first value of H was attracted to, and became 
identified with, the symbol when the letter became familiar 
through Latin sources. 
An endeavour is here made to establish the second or 
Ogham value of H from the following considerations. 
A stop sibilant existed in Gaelic (if. Ped. Gr. 
5 I), corre- 
sponding to Gaulish Ð, which is sometimes written S, e.g., 
Lat. i-uucnc-us, Ir. Ó-tlC, Cym. ieu-a1lc; also without c, Ir. óa, 
Cym. iell. The sibilant representing i appears also in Ir. as 
s-ó, s-óu, s-ó-om. That this sound is represented by Ogham 
H is rendered probable by the occurrence of the form 
1ÏlllÙl1léis, Lat. juvelles, Éril/, viii. 5. 
But this sibilant sound is also written d, c.g., Tadg = 
Tasg-os, and probably r, e.g., do-bide = -dibirc (if. Brér 



Garad for Brég Garad g.s. of Bd Garad). This value 
following B would give the Ogham B + H = P. 
Again the three Ogham accents are represented in the 
text by the letters d, s, n, (4800). At lines 430, 2877, 
however, are found the three sl/þplcmenta written h, s, n, 
except that at line 2878 for s=forsailiswritten the Latin sign 
of length (T has a sign that may be meant for s), and a 
particular sign is substituted for n. This leaves a probability 
that here H has the same value as D. 
Teora fuillti ind Uraiceþto (430, 2877) seem to be the 
three sl/þþlelllenta (if. Origg. i. 3, 6), not of the Ogham but 
of the Auraicept, that is, they are additions made to the 
Ogham orthographic system by the grammarians of the MS. 
tradition. If this limitation be correct, examples of supþle- 
menta need hardly be looked for in the ancient Oghams. 
No opinion on this point is obtainable from modern 
Oghamists; for the word forbaid is hardly known, and 
Oghamists have hitherto ignored it. The word, however, 
occurs with definitions and examples in the Book of 
Ferchertne (810, 3633) one of the oldest parts of the text, 
and some of its provisions are exemplified, e.g., n (of cenn) is 
not doubled in Ogham (439) e.g. QEKYENDAI\'I, IIevvo-ovLvåo) 
(Ped. Gr. 
357). On the other hand a large number of 
inscriptions contain double letters. While some of these, 
dd and s, may perhaps be accents as indicated in the 
Auraicept, others like cc (1358, 1825) and 11 (4788) obviously 
are not. Rhys Pedersen (Gr. 
 4), and others incline to think 
them signs of lenition. 

M Group. 
The fact that the third symbol has the effect of two 
letters ng proves nothing as to that combination (49 2 5). 
In Ogham inscriptions the letters, if they belong to 
different syllables, are written separately, 11'. Ep. i. 49. 



The fourth symbol is said to represent sr or str, and the 
examples Stru 247, 25 62 , Streulæ 5690, Strannan 5795, seem 
sufficient to establish that sound. The other examples point 
to a rare or obsolete sound like English z, e.g., stmólach 5 6 95, 
sréghuindeacht 5801, súst 5727, srorca 5700. 
No authenticated instance of this sym bol has been found 
in inscriptions. 

A Group. 
The simple vowels have the same order and value as in 
In epigraphy no distinction of long and short vowels has 
hitherto been observed. 

Ea or Diphthong Group. 
The first and the last symbols ea and ae are inter- 
The doubling of each letter in the explanatory script 
(1143) shows that the symbols stand for long vowels as well 
as diphthongs. Examples are given of ë and õ (2873), of ë 
and e (1285). 
The symbol for i (1369) is also used for p (Jr. Ep. ii. 83 ; 
if. l\IacXeill, p. 335,6) and for medial y. 
The symbol for æ (1365,70) is also used for x, which is 
regarded as a double e (ae). 
Prof. :\IacAlister (Jr. Ep. ii. 144-8) has called attention to 
an excellent example-perhaps two-of Nathair im Ceann 
(5821). Owing to his axiom that the Oghams were not 
Cryptograms (Jr. Ep. i. 66), he is unwilling to allow that the 
Band H groups were consciously interchanged (ii. 26, 14 0 ). 
But this interchange is contemplated (Aur. p. 306, 42), and 
since the study of the Oghams was elementary work pre- 
scribed for junior students, the wonder is perhaps that so 
many of the epigraphs are in regular Ogham. 

liv I
A Harmony between the Two Families of Texts 
I. II. I. II. 
1-62 2260- 2 35 1 55 0 3 1 9 1 
63-7 8 2616-2644 5 60 3 1 55 
79 235 6 5 6 4- 6 3 22 7-3 0 
100 23 80 5 6 7-57 0 3 2 49-3 2 ;2 
57 1 3 028 
1 0 4 23 82 575 3 066 
160 24 6 5 57 8 3 0 7 0 
178 24 8 5 5 81 307
21 5 253 1 5 8 5 3 10 3 
595 3 12 5 
249 25 6 4 621 3 1 44 
253 2573 
261, 1242 2576 628- 6 3 8 3203-3220 
639- 6 59 3261-3271 
26 9 25 8 4 660 3 2 74 
293 260 9 668 3 28 4, 33 06 
3 12 26 45 680 3 2 95 
3 28 26 77 693 33 1 5, 33 2 3 
33 1 2680 69 8 333 1 
7 0 5 3459 
33 8 26 94 
349 2710, 2352 721 347 8 
354 2728 735- 8 3493- 6 
739 35 0 4 
357 273 1 74[ 35 0 5 
35 8 2735 760 35 2 9 
3 6 7 2749 762 355 1 
77 1 35 6 9 
3 80 27 6 3 780-8 35 8 7-359 6 
39 2 2781 
407 28 4 6 79[ 3 608 
4[2 28 52 810 3 6 33 
424 2866 820 3 6 45 
43 2 28 79 826 3 6 7 0 
445 29<>3 83 6 3 68 9 
44 8 29 08 844 37 11 
853 373 1 
467 293[ 86 3 374 1 
49 2 29 6 [ 872 3747 
5 20 3 02 3 885 37 6 3 
5 26 3[44 89 6 3778 

I. II. I. II. 
9 0 3 37 8 5 135 8 4499 
9 0 9 379 1 13 6 7 44 22 
9 1 7 38.
6 1375 443 1 
937 3 866 
943 3 88 3 13 8 9 4444 
945 39 20 1401 4455 
953 394 0 140<) 44 6 4, 45 12 
9 62 3 88 7 1417 4468 
975 390 6 1434 4P2 
9 8 3 39 1 8 1439 449 0 
1008 39 6 5 1443 3 0 5 0 
101 9 3974 145-1- 45 28 
1028 39 8 4 1457 4557 
10 34, 174 39 8 9, 2545 1461 457 1 
10 5 8 - 6 7 4 01 5- 2 3, 4096-4101 1462 45 6 5 
1068-71 4062 -9 1472 4574 
1102 4 1 3 6 1479 4577 
1116 4 1 47 1494 4554 
II II) 4 0 3 8 1496 4595 
1126 4 0 47 -15 08 - 1 4 4 601 -9 
112 9 4 1 53 ISIS, 1637 4726 
113 2 4 22 4 15 1 7 4739 
11-1-7 4242 153 0 4749 
II 99 43 10 1533 4755 
1201 43 12 153 8 4760 
121 3 44 6 4 154 1 4764 
1218 45 2 8 1544 4767 
12 3 1 4549 154 8 4777 
12 3 6 4557 15 66 479 8 
12 37 4601 1577 4 6 53 
159 1 4672 
1247 43 6 3 1600 4680 
160 9 4686 
12 49 4026 1616 4698 
12 54 43 6 5 1621 4 6 99 
1260 43 6 9 162 9 4707 
12ó4 43 22 16 37 47 2 ó, 4816 
1280 433 8 16 5 0 4828 
128 5 43 88 16 75-8 4 8 54-7 
13 02 4Ól9 16 79 4 86 5 
13 1 7 4 6 35 1686 4 8 73 
133 6 4 6 5 0 
1339 43 8 7 16 9 2 -4 4 8 79- 81 

lvi I
I. II. I. II. 
16 95 4882 1770 497 1 
17 0 3 4 8 9 2 180 5 499 1 
17 1 4 49 0 4 1808 4994 
1721 49 11 1816 5 00 5 
1733 49 2 4 18 3 0 5 020 
1739 45 22 1846 5 028 
174 2 493 2 18 5 8 5 0 3 8 
1745 4935 194 0 5 0 57 
1748 4937 1944 5 06 4 
1760 49 61 
Passages in I. only. 
227- 8 446-7 18 93- 1 939 
300-31 I 806-9 19 62 - 22 59 
Passages in I I. only. 
2283-2298 288 3- 6 40 1 4 
235 2 -5 2949 4 0 3 0 
24 16 -7 3 0 35- 8 4048-406 1 
24 61 -4 3497-35 0 3 4 102 -4 1 35 
2491 -25 0 4 353 1 -3539 4206-4223 
25 2 4 3545-355 0 43 0 9 
2793 3 622 -5 43 60 - 2 
2806 3797-3 80 7 43 8 5- 6 
2833-2846 3 8 34-3 8 45 4524- 6 
2872-3 3872-3882 454 1 -4 
Passages Misplaced. 
I. II. 
7 8 9-9 0 4 02 4-4 0 3 0 
1880-9 2 




BB. 314 a 16 

E. 19ß 14 

Incipit Auraicept na nEges .i. eraicept, ar er gach 
toiseach. Cid dianad toisseach seo? Ni ansa. Don tebi 
rotebed isin Gædilg, uair is ed toisseach arricht la Fenius 
iar tiachtain din scoil gusna berlaib ammuich: gach son 
forrdorcha robæ in gach bescno 7 in gach berlu, is ed 5 
doradadh isin Gædilg, conad airi as foirleithiu quam gach 
berla. Ar gach toisseach didilt, uair is ed ba toisseach lais
na filedaib gach son fordorcha do riachtain i tossuch .i. 
beithi-luis ind ogaim arbithin dorchadad. Cest, cia tugaid 
ara n-ebarar berla tobaide din Gædilg? 
i ansa. U air 10 
rotebedh as gach berla; 7 gach son fordorcha gach berla, 
fo[fh )rith ined doib isin Gædelg ara forleithi seach gach 
mbescna. Cest didill, ina raibi Gædelg resiu rotobaidhe? 
Robæ emh, ar ni fagbaiter na da berla sechtmogat 
ar cheana. Cest, cia tir i rrugad Gædeal? Ni ansa. 15 
I nEgipt. Ocus cia airm sonnrud? N i ansa. I 
mmaigh Ucca i rraind iartharaig descertaig Egipti. 
Cia dill scoil dus-cuaid gu suidhe? Ni ansa. Gædel 
mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Barachaim do Grecaib Scitie 
(no Scithie) (coI. ß). Cest, cia met don-uc di? Ki ansa. 20 
A huiledeto genmotha inni rothormachtatar filid tria 
fordorchadh iar torrachtain gu Fenius. Cest, cia berla 

Araicept andso sis L.[30S] 
1 ur E. Ii roboi, bescnu E. II ar (=quam) in :\155., asin 
Goedelg, ar gach mberla E. 7 lasin filid E. II cest written out 
10 ar a n-eiper, teipide E. 13 rotopad æ E. Iii ana rugad E. 
16 remrade E. II! dacuaidh E. 19 Barrcaimh, 5geithegda E. 
:!I) L. dunuch B. 21 rotormactar E.: dotormachtadar L. 


Incipit Primer of the Poets, that is, eraiceþt, beginning 
of lessons, for every beginning is er. To what is this a 
beginning? Not hard. To the selection that was 
selected in Gaelic since this is the beginning which was 
invented by Fenius after the coming of the school with 
the languages from abroad, every obscure sound that 
existed in every speech and in every language was 
put into Gaelic so that for this reason it is more compre- 
hensive than any language. Er then is every beginning, 
for this was the beginning with the poets, that every 
obscure sound should come in the beginning, to wit, 
the Beithe Luis of the Ogham on account of obscurity. 
Query, what is the reason why select language should 
be said of Gaelic? Not hard. Because it was selected 
from every language; and for every obscure sound of 
every language a place was found in Gaelic owing to 
its comprehensiveness beyond every speech. Query, 
then, did not Gaelic exist before it was selecteò? It did 
indeed, for the seventy-two languages are not found other- 
WIse. Query, in what land was Gaedel born? Not hard. 
111 Egypt. And what particular place? Not hard In 
the plain of U cca in the South- \Vestern division of 
Egypt. \Vho of the school went to it thither? Not 
hard. Gaedel son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham, 
a Scythian Greek. Query, how much did he bring 
of it? Not hard. The whole of it except what poets 
added by way of obscuration after it had reached Fenius. 


BB. 31,. ß 18 


E. 19 ß 33 

duna di berlaibh scchtmogat rotaisealbad do Fenius 
tossuch? Ni ansa. Berla Feni . . . ar is e ba tochu lais 
dia scoB 7 is e rodn-alt asa oetid 7 is e ba soom din scoB 7 25 
ar a forleithi seach gach mbeascna 7 is e berla toisseach 
rugad on tur. Et robæ Eabra 7 Greic 7 Laitin la Fenius 
dasu tissad on Scithia 7 ni rainig a leas a ndeimniughudh 
icon tur, conidh aire sin toisseach rotaissealbad. Cest, 
nach raibi isna berlaib ilib ni bad uaisli du riachtain 30 
i tossuch quam (.i. inas) in Gædelg? Ni ansa em. 
Ar a cuibdi, ar a edruma, ar a mine 7 a forleithiu. 
Cid ar nad lethiu quam (.i. inas) gach mbescna? Ki 
ansa. U air is e cetna bescno rugad on tur, ba mede 
co mbad leithiu quam gach mbescna, conid æn di;t;i
l- 35 
bad i tossach. Caide loc 7 aimsear 7 perso 7 tugait 
din Gædelg? Ni ansa. Loc di in tor Neamrua[i]d, 
ar is aga arricht i tossuch. Aimsear di aimser chum- 
taigh in tuir la claind Adaimh. Persu di Sachab mac 
Rochemhurcos 7 Gædel mac Etheoir mic Thoe mic 40 
Barachaim do Grecaib Scithia. Caidhe tugaid? Ni 
ansa. Tor Nemrna[i]dh di cumtuch. Asberait araile 
conid tugait Gæ-(3 I 5)-del du dul is in tir i rrugad, conidh 
he toissech roscrib i taiblibh 7 i llegaibh isin lug sond- 
rud dianad ainm Calcanensis. Is and roscrib Gædel in 45 
Gædealg. Cid ar a n-abar bescna domunda din Gædhilg 
7 nach di ata briathar lasna hegnadu eolcha? Ni ansa. 
Arinni aisnedes du ceastaib 7 du chaingnib domundaibh 
eter tuaith 7 eglais. Cid ara n-eper comad borb fiadh 
Dia inti legas in Gædhelg? Ni di ata briathar and eter 50 

2:J dib, Fenius ar E. 24 Something omitted, cf. YBL. 2308, which puts Gædel. 
2Ií 7 ire rodnalt B. 28 tidecht E. 29 rothaiselb E. 30 nanraibe E. 
31 quam MS. ar. 32 Corlethne E. 37 don E. 38 arricht tósaig E. 
39 nAdaim E. mac Roceimbruigemicos E. 41 a thuccait E. 
44 n N ;, to be wearied, marginal gloss, probably in.tended (or !!."1;, 
table, and referring to tables oC stone, Ex. xxiv. 12 i Deut. iv. 13, etc. Lower 
margin glosses 314 B. 
(I) doseadad ambi logos, d. alogii, Origg. viii. 5, 26 
(2) beascna .i. urlabra 44 sunraig E. 



Query, what language of the seventy-two was published 
by Fenius first? Not hard. The Irish Language . . . for 
it is he whom he preferred of his school, and whom he 
had reared from his youth, and it is he that was the 
youngest of the school, and on account of its comprehen- 
siveness beyond every speech, and it was the first language 
that was brought from the Tower. Fenius had Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin before he came from Scythia, and he 
had no need to establish them at the Tower, wherefore 
on that account it was published first. Query, was there 
not among the many languages something nobler to take 
precedence of Gaelic? Not hard. No indeed, on account 
of its aptness, lightness, smoothness, and comprehensive- 
ness. \Vherefore is it -more comprehensive than any 
speech? Not hard. Because it was the first speech 
that was brought from the Tower, it was of such extent 
that it was more comprehensive than any speech so 
that it was the one to be published at first. \\-That 
are the place, time, person, a
d cause of Gaelic? Not 
hard. Its place, the Tower of Nimrod, for there it 
was invented at first. Its time the time of building 
the Tower by Adam's children. Its person Sachab son 
of Rochemhurcos and Gaedel son of Ether, son of 
Toe, son of Baracham, a Scythian Greek. What is its 
cause? Not hard. The building of Nimrod's Tower. 
Others say the cause was that Gaedel went into the 
land in which he was born so that he was the first that 
wrote it on tablets and stones in the particular place 
which is named Calcanensis. There Gaedel wrote Gaelic. 
\Vherefore is 'worldly speech' said of Gaelic, since it is 
not referred to by the learned sages? Not hard. On 
account of what it relates of worldly questions and cases 
both of laity and clergy. Wherefore is it said that he 
who reads Gaelic is rude before God? Not to it is refer- 

Áb/Þ tro 

tp.. þ tA;- 
Wtt l ), 




BB. 315 a 8 

E. 20 a 6 

acht do uilideataid na feallsamnachta eter gramadaigh 7 
dileachtaigh 7 rim, amal atbert in fili: 
Foglaim, feallsamnacht is fas, 
Legeand, gramadach, is gluas, 
Litirdheacht leir ocus rim 53 
Is beg a mbrig for nimh thuas. 
Cest, nach fellsamnacht in Gædhealg? Ni ansa em, acht 
na ndenaid min-ughdair fri dereadh in domain ar thucait 
a nderscnaighthi seach na n-ughdaru toisseacha, no is ed 
as bescna domunda and 7 is fhellsamnacht dimhain: ind 60 
eire[te Jacht 7 ind aibres dorigni neach i n-aigidh na 
firindi diadha 7 dænda 7 is ed sin is borb fiad Dia and. 
Caidi log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tugait scribind in C rai- 
cepta? Ni oenlog tra lasna cethri libro, amal atbert in fili: 
an-as tuiseach, is ed is deghenach, an-as dedhenach, is 65 
ed as toisseach .i. an-as toisseach iar n-urd lebhurda, is 
ed as dedhenacho arricht .i. lebor Cindfaeladh mic Oilella. 
Log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tucait scribind in libhuir sin 
Cindfæladh, log do Daire Luran, aimser do aimser Dom- 
naill mic Æda mic Ainmireach. Perso do Cendfæladh 70 
mac Oilella, tugait a scribind a hillchind dermait du beim 
a cind ChiIldfaelad i cath Muighi Rath. Ceithri buadha 
in catha sin: Maidm for Conghal ina gæi re n Domnall 
ina firindi; et Suibni i ngealtacht, acht is ar a mhed du 
laidib duroni; in fear d'Albanachaib do breith in Erennaich 73 
'na chois dar muir gen airiugudh .i. Dubhdiadh a ainm; 
et a inchind dermaid du bhem a cind Cindfæladh ar a mhed 
do fuilideacht 7 do bhriathraibh 7 do legeand rothaisigh. 
Asberat tra augdair na nGaideal: Cid ara n-ebairt- 
seorn, asberat na hughtair robadar remi? uair is e Cendfælad 80 
53.6 CZ. ix. 470. 53 feaIlsarnlachta E. 54 grarnatagda gluas E. : gluais B. 
56 gun ríg fuas E. W toisechu E. 60 Origg-. viii. 5. 28 ; 6, I, 19 et Wj. 
61 arnaires dogní E. 5:! persa E. fi'; iar n-urd lea bur Ailella E. 
67 ecc Domnaill mac Aodha R[ig] E[renn] A.D. 642, marginal note by 
Charles O'Connor 68.70 persu E. 6\1 Luran CUili Dremnigh T. 'iI, ii beill E. 
7'2 MR. 279, note e 73 rian Domnall E. 74 i ngeilt re gdtacht E. 
75 ag airfite caich 0 sin a leith. Et an fer do Jeraibh Albun . . . slicht 
liubair aile seo T. do Albancaibh E. 76 gen artrach E. 



ence made here at aU, but to the whole of philosophy, both 
grammar, dialectic, and metrics; as the poet said :- 

Learning and philosophy are vain, 
Reading, grammar and gloss, 
Diligent literature and metrics, 
Small their avail in heaven above. 

Query, is Gaelic not philosophy? Not hard. (Ko) 
indeed save that which minor authors towards the end 
of the world make as a means for distinguishing them- 
selves beyond the former authors: or this is what are 
worldly speech and vain philosophy, viz., the heresy and 
the unbelief which anyone has shown against the truth, 
divine and human, and that is the meaning of 'rude 
before God.' 
\Vhat are the place, time, person, and cause of writing 
the Primer? Not one place have the four books, as the poet 
says: \Vhat is first is last what is last is first, to wit, ,,"hat 
is first according to book order was invented last; to 
wit, the book of Cennfaeladh, son of Oil ill. As regards 
place, time, person, and cause of writing that book of 
Cennfaeladh: its place Derry Luran, its time the time 
of Domnall, son of Aed, son of Ainmire. Its person 
Cennfaeladh son of OiliH; cause of writing it, that his 
brain of ob1ivion was dashed out of Cennfaeladh's head in 
the battle of l\loira. Four glorious events of that battle: 
Rout of Conghal in his lie before Domnall in his truth; 
and Suibne in madness, but it is owing to the quantity 
of poems he had made; the Scotsman bearing the Irish- 
man along with him over sea without being noticed, Du bh 
Diadh was his name; and his brain of oblivion being 
dashed out of Cennfaeladh's head, owing to the extent of 
poetry, words, and reading that he amassed. 
Now the authors of the Gael say: \Vhy did he 
say that 
he authors who were before him I say'? since 


BB. 315 a. 39 


E. 20 a. 29 

- 1-3 


arainig in lebar-sa .i. brollach ind Auraicepta. Gcus na 
ugdair na nGædheal, roba he sein Fenius Farsaigh 7 Iar 
na n-ilberla mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisli na haimsiri 
asrubairt .i. aimsiri frecnairci uair gebidh in aimsir frecnairc 
arna huilib aimseraib, 1/t dicituy: Presce11s tempus pro ollwi- ö5 
bus temporibus. pOllituy .i. sam(l)aigther in aimsir frecnairc 
forna huilib aimseraib. Cinnas on 7 se ig a rádh int æn- 
fhocul i mbit in da shillab nach can tar i n-ænaimsir 1/t 
dicitur lego .i. leghaim, qual/do dicis (coi. ß) le-,flttltyltlll est 
-go [qua1ldo dicis -go], preterz"tulll est le- .i. intan raide 90 
int shillaib toisich todachaiche chugut int shillab dedenach 
7 seachmadhato seachat int shillab thoisenach. Defir on 
amal asbert in Laidneoir: Tempus non diuidituy sed opera 
1l0stra diuiditur .i. nochon i in aimsear fhogailter and 
acht ar ngnimradh-ne. Ni hi dno is frecra dona 95 
haugdaraib robadar i n-ænaimsir ris fen tuc Ceannfælad 
intan roraidh, asberait auctair na nGædeal. Cidh ara 
tuc-somh a ar tus sunda? .i. uair is i i[s] sruithiu i fedaibh 
7 is uaisli i nguthazgib. 
Co mbad si tugait in berla Feni (.i. berla Feniusa) 100 
gnim n-ingnad n-indligtheach .i. is gnim n-ingnadh .i. 
ingnath ara ainmenci, indlightheach ara uaibrigi .i. triall 
for neam ina corpaib collaidib gan comairlechudh fri Dia. 
Forcæmnacair and .i. cumtach in tuir Neam- 
ruaidh. In Neamruadh sin tra trenfhear sil Adaimh 105 
uile in[a] aimsir e, N eamruadh mic Cuis mic Caimh 
mic N oe. N i bai iaramh ænrigh for in doman 
gu haimsir N in mic Bel acht mad comhairlidhe 7 
toisig nama badar and go sin anal I. Da comhairlidh 
sechtmogat iaramh robadar is in domun isin aim sir no 


8] ocus an L. E. 8'2 robathesein E. 85 d. Gr. Lat. iii. 191, 2 
86 samaigthel' E. 93 cf. Origg. v. 31, 9 1/4 diuidztntur, Codlaiter E. 
!j;j Ni hi B. no is E. ]00 tucait airie E. 105.6 Nemruad E.: Nemruaidh B. 
100 ina aimsir he L. 108.9 eomairlig L. : eomairlede E. 



it is Cennfaeladh that invented this book, viz., the 
Prologue of the Primer. And the authors of the Gael, 
that was Fenius Farsaidh, and lar of the many languages, 
son of N ema. Not hard [2nd A ns.]. Owing to the 
nobility of the time he said it, that is, the present time, for 
he puts the present time for all times: ut dixit: Praesells 
tempus pro omlziblls temporibus pOIli/ur, i.e., the present 
time is put for all times. How is that? since he says 
öf the one word in which are two syllables, that they 
are not spoken at one time, ut didtllr, !ego, I read, 
qUlllldo dicis le-futlllll-lll est-go [qullndo dicis-go] praetcritlllll 
cst le- i.e., when you say the first syllable, the last 
syllable is future to you, and [when you say the last] 
the first syllable is preterite to you. That is natural 
as the Latinist said: Tempus 1lon dividitur sed opera 
1l0stJ'a dividll1ltur, i.e., it is not time that is divided 
there but our actions. This however, is not a reference 
to the authors who lived at the same time with himself 
which Cennfaeladh gave when he said (the authors of 
the Gael say.' \Vhy has he placed a first here? Because 
it is the eldest among letters and the noblest among 
That this is the reason for the Irish Language 
(that is Fenius' speech); a deed wonderful, unlawful, 
that is, an unusual deed, unusual for its infrequency, 
unlawful for its pride, an attempt on heaven in their 
fleshly bodies without permission of God. 
Which happened there, i.e., the building of Nimrod's 
Tower. N ow that Nimrod was champion of all Adam's 
seed in his time, Nimrod, son of Cush, son of Ham, 
son of Noah. There was not then any king over 
the world till the time of Xin, son of Bel, but only 
counsellors and chiefs were in existence up till that 
time. Seventy-two counsellors accordingly were in the 


BB. 315 ß 22 


E. 20 ß 1 

ndernad in tor. Ba he dno in dara comairlib sechtmogat 
Neamruad. Trenfear sidhe dno 7 fer an i selg .i. for 
aigibh 7 fiadhl1ch .i. for mila muige 7 arrchea
aib .i. for 
mucaib alltaib 7 fornelaib .i. for enaib, co mbidis sochaidi 
do dhainibh ica leanmain samlaidh co mba lia .i. hi sloghaib 115 
7 co mba nertmairi oldas comhairlid samhlaidh. Conid 
he dorimtas (.i. rotimairg) na da comairlib sechtmogat sin 
i n-aencomairli do dhenum in tuir la hua brathar a athar 
.i. la hiarmo der[b ]brathar a shenathar .i. la Fallec mac 
Ragua mic Arfaxat mic Sem mic N oe; 7 ba he sen in 120 
dara comairlib sechtmogat cena go sin. Et asberatsomh 
iarum co mad æncomairlib 7 inann tuismidh doib uile 
in Faillec. Is imchomarc sund anmanda na da fhear 
sechtmogat lais a ndernad in tor, acht chena ni airmed 
scribenda acht anI!landa na seacht fear ndeg ba haireg[dJu 125 
dib .i. Faillec, Neamruad, Eber, Latinus, Riabad Scot, 
N abgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus, 
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, Sardain. 
Acht chena is e in cetri iar ndilind iar n-aicniud .i. Ncam- 
ruadh. Is e sin in cetri iar n-eladhain in Fallec remraite. 130 
Is e d0110 iar n-ugdaracht .i. Nin mac Bel mic Ploisc mic 
Pluliris mic Agomolis 
ic Fronosis mic Gitlis mic Tiris 
mic Assuir mic Semh mic N oe. Atcotaidhi-seom dno 
anni sin. Et asberat Neamruadh co mbad a ainm-seomh 
forbeith in gnima sin. Adrodamas (.i. rodaimed) dno dosom 135 
anni sin. Tredhe didiu ar a ndernad la claind nAdaim 
cumdach in tuir sin .i. ar imuamhan na dileand duridhisi 

m, 17.22 comairlidh E. 112 i seilg E. llti oldas each E. 
Ill'! i n-aencomairlid E. 1l!J St. Luke iii. 35: hiarmuadh E. 
I:!O Ragu E. 12] comairligh, conaigi sin E. 
]22 oentusidh E. 123 Fallecc sin. anmand E. ]2,'; na xiiii fer E. 
]26 Eiber .i. mac Salai E. 121' Sgarath, Sgithus, Gotus, Sardanius E. 
]:n ugdaras E. Orosius vii. 2, 13 Jæ Piliris, I thlis E. 
]:1.1 Adcotaitise E.: .i. rotechtaid-sium L. 136 ndamaimh B. 
];1:; Adrodmus E. : Androdamas? d. Origg. vii. 6, 22; xvi. 15,8: passage 
corrupt, d. 24 18,9, which is tramlated. 


[ I 

world at the time in which the Tower was made. X ow 
one of the ï2 was Ximrod. A mighty man was he 
and a man famous in hunting, to wit, for stags; and 
in coursing, to wit, for hares; and in trappings, to wit, 
wild pigs; and in snarings, to wit, for birds. So that thus 
multitudes of men were following him so that he was 
more numerous, to wit, in armies and so that he was 
thus more powerful than a counsellor. So that it was he 
who united those 72 counsellors to one counsel to make 
the Tower with the grandson of his father's brother, 
to wit, with the great grandson of his grandfather's 
brother, to wit, with Peleg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad, 
son of Shem, son of Noah. And he was one of the 
ï2 counsellors, too, up to that time. And they say 
therefore that Peleg was the one counsellor and the 
same parent of them all. A question here is, the names 
of the 72 counsellors by whom the Tower was made, 
only that writings do not enumerate but the names 
of the J 7 men who were most ill ustrious among them, 
to wit, Peleg, Nimrod, Eber, Latinus, Rabiath Scot, 
N abgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus, 
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, and 
Sardain. But at any rate after the flood the first king 
according to nature was Nimrod. That was the first 
king according to art, the Peleg aforesaid. 
to authority, however, it was Nin son of Bel, son of 
Plosc, son of Pluliris, son of Agomolis, son of Fronosis, 
son of Gitlis, son of Tiras, son of Assur, son of Shem, 
son of Noah. He obtains, then, that thing. 
said that it was his name that should be on that work 
for ever. Adrodamas, i.e., that thing also was granted 
him. Three things, then, on account of which the 
building of that Tower was accomplished by Adam's 
children, to wit, for dread of the flood again, and that 




E. 20 ß 23 

BB. 3 1 5 ß 49 

7 do dul for neamh doib 'na eorpaib don talmain 7 d' 
urdaireiugud a n-anmandh dia n-eis, eonid de sin asbert 
righ nimhi fri muintir nimi (316): Uellite ut uidea1llus 7 140 
confundallllts lillgas eorUlJl .i. tait co rofegam 7 gu romel- 
achtnaighem bcrla innani sin. Ba mor tra cumaehta sil 
Adaimh 7 a nneart isin aimsir sin ic denum in tuir co 
festais iaramh [in] robhæ eumachta righ nimhi uaso, eonru- 
ammesc-sen .i. conremesc impu. In tan asberad neach 145 
dib fri aroili 'tue damh doch' ba erand doberead .i. na 
lecea forsa suaitea in chre 7 na forchai dia suaitea, is iat 
sin croind 7 docha no-imluaighdis eturru. Dolodar tra 
filid asin Seithia riab eianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea du 
euingidh fogluma na n-ilberla icon tur, air dorumenadar 150 
(.i. rotoillltnigedar .i. dodochusaigeder) magen asa 
fordailte 7 i [n- ]arneehta na hilberla do shil Adhaimh, 
romeartis and iarna eomlani. Dolodar iaramh gu mag 
Seannair doehum in tuir .i. mag n-Ucna no mag nDoraimh 
i n-iartharthuaseert maigi Sennair ainm sondrudaeh na 155 
rrindi forsata in tor. Coigiur ar seehtmoga[i]t a lin na filed 
.i. fear gaeh berla 7 na tri saidhi .i. sai gach primhberla 
dona tri primberlaibh .i. Eabra 7 Greie 7 Laidean. Ceithri 
berla seehtmogat as gaeh berla dib-sen, is ed rofadlad and. 
Fenius Farrsaid, is ed ba hainm a tuisigh 7 ba sai 160 
sen isna primberlaibh (cid siu na-tisad a tuaid asin 
Scithia). Is e fath ara cuirtller primhdhaeht i lleith na 
tri mberla sin ara med do eladhnaibh dorighnedh estib 

13!.1 conad E. uo Vulgate, Gen. xi. 7 I.n ticidh E. 
U3 no is inbaid E. U
 rod be, conamessosen .i. conromesc impu E. 
1-17 do cria suaite 7 do mitmuill na docha 7 na farcaidh dia suaitigh T. 
us no-imluaidis E. U!I reib E. ree, fili T. 
lãO ar doruimnetar (.i. brethnag) H. T. 1:;2 airecta B.: airdechta E. 
15:3 romerdais E. 1M,:; n-I uchna, iarthttr-tuaisciurt E. 
156 raindi, a llin E. sechtmogat B. E. na fili T. 
157 tri suidh .i. suidh E. 159 ro(oifodlad E. 
160, I ba suid sen E. The parenthesis (ollows in B. E. 1. 165. notisis E. 



they should go to heaven in their bodies from the 
earth, and to render their names illustrious after them, 
so that on that account said the King of heaven to 
the people of heaven (316): Venite 1/t 'l'idcamus et COll- 
fUlldamus lillguas eorU1Il, that is, come that we may see 
and confound those men's speech. N ow great was the 
power of Adam's seed and their strength at that time in 
making the Tower, that they might know thus whether 
the power of heaven's King was over them, He con- 
founded them, that is, He confused them. \Vhen one 
of them would say to another 'fetch me. a stone' it was 
a stick he would bring, to wit, the slabs on which the 
mortar was mixed and the mallets by which it was 
mixed, these are the sticks and stones which they were 
talking about. Now poets came from Scythia a little time 
after these doings to seek to learn the many languages 
at the Tower since they thought i.e. they supposed i.e. 
they expected, of a place from which were dispersed 
and in which had been invented the many languages 
by Adam's children that they would remain there in per- 
fection. They went therefore to the plain of Shinar unto 
the Tower, that is, the plain of Dcna or the plain of 
Doraimh in the North \Vest of the plain of Shinar, a special 
name of the point on which is the Tower. The poets 
num bered se\'enty-five, that is, one for each language, and 
the three sages, to wit, a sage for each of the three principal 
languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. Seventy - four 
languages, which is everyone of these languages, that was 
what was dispersed there. 
Fenius Farsaidh was the name of .their chief, and he 
was a sage in the principal languages even before he came 
from the North out of Scythia. The reason why superiority 
is claimed on behalf of these three languages is owing to 
the amount of compositions that were made out of them, 


BB. 316 a 23 


F. 20 ß 44 

7 arin cumasc rocumaiscit tri gach mberla, no dno is 
arin titul roscribad estib 'na triur i elar na croiche. 165 
o na fuair Fenius comhlainius na mberladh icon tur 
forfodhail a scoil 7 a desciplu fo chaithrecha 7 fo cen- 
nadcha in talman ar gach leath du fhoghlaim na mberla 
7 rosn-othrastar Fenius etir biathadh 7 etghudh i cen 
badar oca fhoghlaim .i. secht mberla 7 anais Fenius icon 170 
tur 7 adrotreb co torracht a scol ina dochum di cach 
aird 7 bai ic forceclul hilchenel in domain icon tur 
inn ead sin. Conad de sin asbert i curp libair: 
is and roan Fenius fadesin icon tur 7 is and 
adrothreabh. Asberat aroili auctair ni raibi neach 175 
di eloind lonan mic lafeth mic N oe dia roghenedar 
Greic 7 dia rochin Fenius ic cumtuch in tuir. 
Debthir on, ar ni raibi eland etir ic lonall no ni raibi 
fen in mac sin oc lafeth ut Hieroll)'1JlllS dÚ:it. Cest, 
caite genelach Feniusa? Ni ansa. Farrsaidh didiu mac 180 
Baath mic l\Iagogh mic lafeth mic Noe. No Fenius 
Farsaidh mac (Eogain mic L) Glunfind mic Laimfind mic 
Etheoir mic Agno[ ma ]in mic Toe mic Boinb mic Semh 
mic Mair mic Ethecht mic Aurtecht mic Abodh mic 
Aoi mic Ara mic lara mic Sru mic Esru mic Boath mic 185 
Riafath mic Gomer mic lafeth mic r\oe 7rl. Et dno i[s] 
Sgithegdha Fenius 7 cuga berthar Scithi 7 Gothi 
iarna ngenelchaib. Et robadar sil Næ ar ceana. Berla 
nEbraidi 'na tengtha robai isin domun ri araile cumh- 
dach in tuir [.i. Gorthigernd L.] 7 is ed dno bhias iar 190 

16.5 Origg. ix. I, 3 167 cricha E. (do an fine .i. dia fine) T. 
168 na n-ilberlad E. 169 do biud 7 d' etach T. Ii'.! ie Coree tar E. 
];3 conad iarsin doroeipe doib in Gaidealg T. li5 roaitreb, n.lch raibi E. 
lï6 dia rogenetar E. lï7 rogein E. T. 179 u/ l\Iacir(ine) dixit E. 
181 Magoth E. ]83 Adno11l, Boidb E. IS-i Abbo, Aoi E. ]& lair E. 
167 ber/air E. ]8ô Origg. ix. I, 1 : 13. ceana [a]con tur E. 
]89 nEbraide irnmorro is ed E.: nEbruidh .i. nEber a bruinnip T. 
]90 Gorthigernd ainm in berla robui ac rnac be Deigerna 7 ac sil Adairnh L. T. 



and owing to the mingling wherewith they mingled with 
every language, or again it was owing to the superscription 
that was written out of the three of them upon the board 
of the Cross. Since Fenius did not get a perfection of the 
languages at the Tower, he dispersed his school and his 
disciples abroad throughout the cities and territories of 
the earth on every side to learn the languages, and Fenius 
supported them with both food and clothing whilst they 
were so learning, to wit, seven languages [L years], and 
Fenius stayed at the Tower and dwelt till his school came 
unto him from every direction, and he kept instructing the 
many races of the world at the Tower during that space 
of time. Hence he said in the body of the book that 
Fenius himself remained there at the Tower and there he 
dwelt. Other authors say that of the children of lonan 
son of Japheth son of Noah from whom the Greeks 
originated and from whom Fenius sprung, there were 
none at the building of the Tower. 
That is natural for J on an had no children at all, 
or J apheth had not that son himself, 1/t Hieron)"llllS 
dÙ:it. Query, \Vhat is Fenius' genealogy? Not hard. 
Farsaidh, then, son of Baath, son of Magog, son of 
Japheth, son of Noah. Or Fenius Farsaidh, son of 
Eogan, son of \Vhite-knee, son of \\?hite-hand, son of 
Ether, son of Agnoman, son of Toe, son of Bonb, son 
of Semh, son of Mar, son of Ethecht, son of Aurtecht, 
son of Abodh, son of Aoi, son of Ara, son of lara, son 
of Sru, son of Esru, son of Boath, son of Riafath, son of 
Gomer, son of J apheth, son of Noah, etc. And besides 
Fenius is a Scythian, and up to him are carried Scythians 
and Goths according to their genealogies. And they were 
all the seed of Noah. The Hebrew language is the 
tongue that was in the world before any building of the 
Tower, and it is it too that will be after doomsday, and 


BB. 316 a 49 



mbrath 7 asberat araile co mbad eadh nobeth la muintir 
nimhe. Iar tiachtain tra dona desciplaib co Fenius 0 
foglaim 7 iar taispenad a cuarta (.i. a n-imdeachta) 7 a 
n- (co!. ß) gresa (.i. a foghluma) is andsin conaitchitar 
gusin saidh .i. gu Fenius berla na beth oc neach eliu do 195 
thebiu doibh asna hilberlaib acht comad acco a n-ænur 
nobeth, conad airi sin conairneacht doib in berla tobaidhi 
cona fortormaigib .i. berla Feni 7 iarrnberla 7 a mberla 
n-edarscartha eter na fedhaib airegdhaibh amal duiruirmi 
isin Duil Feadha l\Iair 7 berla na filed asa n-acaillit cach 200 
dib aroile 7 a ngnathberla fogni do cach 0 ilcenela. 
Goedeal mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Baracaimh di Grecaib 
in dara sai robai i coemtect Feniusa, conad uadh 
rohainmnigead Gædea1g .i. ealg airdirc in sin .i. Gædheal 
ros-irdarcaistar. Gædeal dno glas mac Agnoi1l no Aingill 205 
mac senbrathar athar do Fenius 7 ba sai sen dno cid he. 
Is esside dorothlaigestar a mberla-sa gu Gædheal mac 
nEitheoir conid Gædealg 0 Gædel mac Etheoir. Et Gædil 
o Gædhel mac Agnon no Aingin. Berla Feni tra arricht 
sund 7 iarmberla 7 berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib 7 :310 
berla na filed a ceathramad 7 an gnathberla fogni do chach 
a coiced. Fenius Farsaidh tra mac Eogein 7 Iar mac 
N erna 7 Gædel fnac Etheoir na tri saidh doreipsead na 
berlu-sa 7 apud Eotenalll (uel At/lena) civitatem arrictha. 
Cest, caidhead a n-anmandh na da chenel sechtmogat 215 
o rofoghlaimet na hilber1æ? Ni ansa. Beithin, Scithi, 
Scuit, Germain, Meid (no :Moid), Sicil, Hircain, Guit, 

191 alai Ie E. 192-201 Arch. C. P. iii. 247 195 naeh beth E. 
196 tebeth, acU sin E. l!Ij teibidhi cona fortormaidibh E. 
199 doruirmig E.: doruirmisim T. 200 n-aicillit E. : aicillidh T. 
201 fognus, olcena E. 202 Barathaim E. 203 dara ri, cæmthucht E. 
205 rosirdharcaigestair, mace Angin E. 200 pr-ur T. 
207 dorothothlaigestair E. 211 in eethramad E. 212 co eoiteend E. 
21-1 O'D. Gr. xxix. 1 : Orosius i. 2, 58: Keat. His!. ii. 80: arricta E. 
215 anmand E. 
216 na berla E. Beithin, Goilli, Lugoil, Creitt. . . Recir . . . Morain 
. . . Boitt E. 217 Guitt L. 



some say that it was it which the people of heaven 1;.ad 

 ow after the disciples came to Fenius from learning, and 
after showing their journeys, to wit, their wanderings, and 
their works, to wit, their studies, then they a5ked the 
sage, to wit, Fenius to select for them out of the many 
languages, a language that no one else should have but 
which might belong to them alone. \Vherefore on that 
account for them was invented the Select Language with 
its superadditions, the Language of the Irish, and the 
Additional Language, and the Language Parted among 
the principal letters as he has related in the Great Book of 
\Voods, and the Language of the Poets whereby each 
one of them converses with another, and the Common 
Language which serves for everyone from many races. 
Gaedel, son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham, 
a Greek, was one of the two sages in Fenius' com- 
pany, so that from him was named Gaelic, to wit, ealg 
means noble, to wit, Gaedel ennobled it. Gaedeal Glas 
also, son of Agnon or Aingin, son of Fenius' father's 
elder brother; and he too was a sage, even he. I t is he 
that claimed this language for Gaedel, son of Ether; 
wherefore Gaedealg is from Gaedel, son of Ether. And 
Gaedil from Gaedel, son of Agnon or Aingin. Now 
the Language of the Irish was invented here, and the 
Additional Language, and Language Parted among the 
trees, and the Language of the Poets is the fourth, 
and the Common Language that serves everyone, 
the fifth. Kow Fenius Farsaidh son of Eugenius, and 
lar son of Nema, and Gaedel son of Ether are the 
three sages who selected these languages, and they were 
invented in the city of Eotenam, or Athena. 
Query, what are the names of the 7'2 races from 
which thp. many languages were learnt? X ot hard. 
Bithynians, Scythians, Scots, Germans, l\Iedes, Sicilians, 


BB. 316 ß 25 


E. 21 a 33 

Point, Morain, Lugoil, Cirdr, Gailli, Paimpil, Luidi, Oigii, 
Cic1aid, Creit, Corsic, Sardain, Sidl, Reit, Reicil, Roid, 
Romain, Inair, Massail, Mair, Maigidon, l\lorcain, Nairn, 220 
N armais, N arboin, N orith, N obith, Barais, Bethain, 
Bretain, Boid, Maguich, Armoin, Amuis, Goircc, Galaid, 
Acbid, Athain, Tæasail, Ardair, Alain, Albain, Hircain, 
!tail, Esbain, Goith, Guith, Gruind, Sarain, Frainc, Freisin, 
Longbaird, Lacdemoin, Lodain, Essill, Tracdai, Troiannai, 225 
Dordain, Dalmait, Dacia, Ethioip, Egept, Bramain, 
Innecdai. It e sin tra anmanda na da cenel sechtmogat 
lasa mbadar na da b
rla sechtmogat. Fer gach berla tra 
dona berlaibh-sea, ba he lin na scoi1e 7 tri suidh 7 rofaided 
gach fear dib fria berla 7 ni cach comceniuil dochuaidh and 230 
dochum a comcrichi dun fhoghlaim sin acht is cach 
comberlaidh amal rogab Cai Cainbrethach dalta Feniusa 
in dara descipul sechtmogat na scoli. Ba do Ebraib a 
bunadhus 7 ba co hEgeftagda rofaidhedh fobith is and 
robatar a tusdidhe 7 ba hand rodn-alt 7 tuargabat fodesin 235 
as [a] ætidh, conid desin asbeir-som i curp libair. i. Is cach 
comberlaib dochuaid and 7 ni cach comcheneoil dochum a 
chriche. Seacht mbliadna tra robatar na descipuil forsin 
cuairt 7 teora bliadna doib ic taispenad a ngresa i fus iar 
tiachtain comdar a deich samlaidh, conid desin asbeir-som 240 
this i curp libhair: A cind (317) deich mbliadan iar 
scailiud doib on tur for gach leath durebeadh doib am 
berla-sa. Bai tra cuigiur ar xx ba huaisliu dib. It e a 

217-23 Descriptive adjj. are supposed by the scribe to denote nations:- 
muaid = Moid, óig = Oigii, luind = Luid, nair = Niair, mair = ;\Iair, brais 
= Barais, amuis = Amuius, gairc = Goire, aird = Ardair, grinni = Gruind, 
Ælt. Jr. Dichtung, p. 30. See, however, Origg. ix. 2, whieh cf. with Origg. 
xiv. 3-5: CZ. x. 131 218 Sicir E.: Circir, goirg, Alain L. 
219 Sardan L. 2'20 Maigidoin L. 2'21 Nombith L. 
223 Ardain E. L. 2'
 Guit, Fresin L. 2:!5 Tricdai E.: Traeda, Troianda L. 
226 Daicia E. Dardain, Bragmain L. 'l:?; N eetae E. Origg. ix. 2. 2 
228-44 E. om. 230 eomehinel T. 2:13 do Eabraidhibh T. 
235 B. na deseipuil Corsin euairt 7 teora bliadna, repeated 23 8 
217 eomceinel, arnal rogabad lern a ndeisrniraeht T. 



Hyrcanians, Goths, Pontians, l\lorini, Lyonese, Cyp- 
rians, Gauls, Pamphylians, Lydians, óig, Cycladians, 
Cretans, Corsicans, Sardinians, Sicilians, Rhetians, 
Rheginians, Rhodians, Romans, malr, :Massilians, 
l\Ioors, l\Iacedonians, :Morcain, náir, náir mais, N ar- 
bonians, N oricans, N u bians, brais, Bithynians, Britons, 
Boeotians, ::\Iagogians, Armenians, amuis, gairg, 
Galatians, Aquitanians, Athenians, Thessalians, aird, 
Alanians, Albanians, Hyrcanians, Italians, Spaniards, 
Goths, Getae (?), grinn, Saracens, Franks, Frisians, 
Langobards, Lacedemonians, Elisaeans (?), Thracians, 
Trojans, Dardanians, Dalmatians, Dacians, Ethiopians, 
Egyptians, Brahmans, and Indians. Those then are 
the names of the 72 races whose were the 72 
languages. Now one man for each of these languages, 
that was the complement of the school, and three sages, 
and each one of them was sent to his own language, 
and unto their common district unto that learning went 
not everyone of the same race but everyone of the 
same language, as for example, Cai Cainbrethach, Fenius' 
foster-son, one of the 72 disciples of the school. He 
was a Hebrew by extraction, and it was to Egyptians 
he was sent because his parents had lived there, and 
there he was brought up and reared from his youth, so 
that hence he says in the body of the book: Every 
one of the same speech went there, but not everyone 
of the same race, unto his own district. Now seven 
years were the pupils on the course, and they were three 
years in displaying their studies after coming home, so 
that they were ten [years] accordingly, wherefore it is of 
this he says below in the body of the book: At the 
end of ten years after their dispersion from the Tower 
in every direction this language was selected for them 
N ow there were 25 persons that were the noblest of 


BB. 317 a 3 


E. 21 a 36 

n-anmanda foratait feadha 7 tæbomna in ogaim. It e and- 
seo a n - anmand .i. Babel, Loth, Foraind, Saliath, N ab- 24:5 
gadon, Hiruad, Dabhid, Talamon, Cæ, Kaliap, l\Iuiriath, 
GotH, Gomers, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, U rith, Essu, 
lachim, Ethrocius, Uimelicus, I udonius, Affrim, Ordines. 
Iss iat sin anmand in choigir ar xx ba huaisliu bai i 
scoil Feniusa. Asberait araili dno is i sin in aipgitir :350 
arricht isind Achaidh 7 ic Tochur Inbir l\loir arranig 
Amairgin mac Miled in mbeithi-Iuis in oghaim. 
'Cia litir, cia nin, cia son In nach forbaider focol?' (.i. 
dinin disoil no fern). 'Is cia son ger fogabar 0 nach fuach 
tren tindscanar?' (.i, ernin getal). Na coic feadha aireghdai 255 
immorro inn oghaim, ba hon choiciur ba huaisliamh dib 
rohainmnighthea ) 1 1} 1n- nj, '';11 <.. . Asberat araile 
dno it vii feadha aireghdha filet and 7 is on morshesiur 
ba huaisleam and rohainmnigthea 7 it e in dana fidh 
duformaighet frisna cuic feda ugut ) X 0 ( . 260 
Cest, caidet [airme L.] cinnteacha tuir 
emruaidh? Ni 
ansa. A viii .i. da comairlibh sechtmogat, da descipul 
sechtmogat, da chenel 5echtmogat na ndæne, da berla 
sechtmogat du berlaibh ina scoil, da thuaith sechtmogat 
lasa m[b Jatar na berla sin 7 na cenela, da sær sechtmogat 265 
fria gnim, da aic[ dh]i sechtmogat eter æl 7 bitumain 7 tal- 
main 7 tathluib ina comhegur, da cheim for sechtmoga[i]t 
inna leitheat amal asbert :- 
Airimh in tuir togaidhi 
N emruaidh, ba din do dhainib, :no 
Ceithri cemeand sechtmogat, 
Coic cemend ar choic milib. 
Da chomairlib sechtmogat 
Tugsat saithiu for sluaighedh ; 
Da berla for sechtmoga[i]t 
Rothidhnaic Dia fria mbuaidhred. 


2-l5 GJth, Cæ L. U5-8 0 D. Gr. xxxi. 2!6 Salamon E. 
24ï Goth, Gomer, Maisse E. Iesu T. 
8 Reichim, Etrocus, Orineis, Umelcus L. Afrimp T. 
9 anm mda E. xx doairmiur-sum, bai ago LIcht isin Aisia T. 2W aibgidir E. 
1 ara rainic E. 252 sin n oghaim B.: in oguim E. 
253 inni nach, forbiter, fotren tindsgnamar E. 
259 huaisliu, in da fidh doformaigitar E. 261 oireme E. 265 bs B. berlada E. 
266 æl 7 bhi E. 268 in laid-sea E. 270 danib B. 2;2 ceimenda T. 
273 comairlig L. E. 
ï4 d' shadhu fri E. 276 Daudnaic L. 



them. These are the names of them after whom are 
named the Ogham vowels and consonants. Here are their 
names: Babel, Lot, Pharaoh, Saliath, N ebuchadnezzar, 
Herod, David, Talamon, Cae, Kaliap, l\1uiriath, GotH, 
Gomers, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu, Iachim, 
Ethrocius, Cimelicus, Iudonius, Affrim, Ordines. 
These are the names of the 25 persons, the noblest 
that were in Fenius' school. Others again say that that 
is the alphabet which was invented in Achaidh, and at 
the Causeway of the Great Estuary that Amergen, son 
of NIil, invented, the Beithe Luis of the Ogham. 
\Vhat letter, what character, what sound is that with 
which no word is ended? dinin dÙail, or f. And what sharp 
sound is found with which no strong word is begun? ng. 
The five principal vowels of the Ogham however, it was 
from the five persons who were noblest of them that they 
were named, a, 0, U, e, i. Others again say that seven prin- 
cipal vowels are there, and that it is from the seven persons 
that were noblest there that they are named, and the two 
vowels that were added to those five vowels are ea, oi. 
Query, what are the definite numbers of Nimrod's 
Tower? X ot hard. Eight of them, to wit, 72 counsellors, 
7 2 pupils, 72 races of men, 72 languages, the languages 
in his school, 72 peoples whose were those languages, and 
the races, 72 artificers to work at it, 72 building materials 
including lime, bitumen, earth. and cement in equal layers, 
72 paces in width, as he said :- 
The number of the chosen Tower 
Of Nimrod, it was a shelter to men, 
Four and seventy paces, 
Five paces, and five thousand. 
Two and seventy counsellors, 
-They took companies on an expedition, 
Two and seventy languages 
God gave to confound them. 


BB. 317 a 34 


E. 21 ß 8 

Da cenel sær sechtmogat 
Dona dainib, ba dodhraing ; 
Da descipul sechtmogat 
Fæte Fenius fri foghlaim. 
Da thuaith særa sechtmogat 
Forofoglaid, fir talman ; 
Da primshær ar sechtmogait 
Fri heladhain na n-adhbar. 
Da aicde for sechtmoga[i]t, 
Inna cumhat, roghnathaigh, 
Eter æl is bitumain 
Ocus talmhain is tathluibh. 
Seacht cumat deg demnighthi 
Ag nim suas im gæth ngairigh, 
Is da cheim ar sechtmoga[i]t 
Inna leitheat fria airim. 




Airim in tuir. 

Asbcrat araili immorro is noi n-adhbair nama badar 
isin tur .i. ere 7 uisgi, oland 7 fuil, ros 7 æl 7 seehim 7 lin 
7 bitumain, de quiblls dicitllr:- 295 
Cre, uisgi, oland is fuil, 
Ross is æl is lin lanchuir, 
Sechim, bitumain go mbuaidh 
Nai n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaidh. 
.i. ainm 7 prOllomen 7 briathar 7 doibriathar 7 ranngabthaeh 300 
7 eomfhoeul 7 reimshuidhiughudh 7 interiaeht a n- 
anmanda-seo: Nomen, prono1l/en, llerbulIl J adllerbiulll, 
participÙWl, coniunctio, prepositio, Ùlteriectio .i. 
eetpearsu uathaid SU1I/ .i. ataim 
persa tanaisti huathaid es .i. ata tu 305 
treas persa uathaid . est .i. ata se 
eetfear (eoI. ß) illda Slt/llltS .i. atamait 
persa tanaisti estis .i. ata sibsi 
tres persa . SUllt .i. atait. 
5 U1Jl, eS J est, a uathati. 310 
SU1JlUS, estis, sunt, a illda. 
277 gñ B. 278 fria dodraing E.: doghraing B. 2:>2 forafodlait E. 
28:1 da prirnsæra sechtrnogat E. 284 heladnaib L.: dia fadhnad E. 
286 ina arlbur E.: na hadhur co 11ladgnathaib T. 28:> tal urn is tathlaimh E. 
289 cubait L. E : qubuit T. 2!10 re ngaith E. 296.9 RC. xii. 466 
300-11 E. am 302 Gr. Lat. iv. 355, 2 307.26.28,29 illraid L. 
:m a illrad L. 



Two and seventy free races 
Of the men, it was hard; 
Two and seventy pupils, 
Fenius sends them to learn. 

Two and seventy free peoples 
He subdivided, men of the earth; 
Two and seventy chief artificers 
For the skilful working of the materials. 

Two and seventy building materials, 
In equal quantity, he used, 
I ncluding lime and pitch 
And earth and cement. 

Seventeen cubits certified, 
Near heaven upwards with a roaring wind, 
And two and seventy paces 
In breadth to reckon it. 
Others say, however, that only nine materials were in 
the Tower, to wit, clay and water, wool and blood, wood and 
lime, acacias, flax thread, and bitumen, de quibus dicitur;- 
Clay, water, wool, and blood, 
\Yood, lime, and flax thread of a full twist, 
Acacias, bitumen with virtue, 
The nine materials of Nimrod's Tower. 

to wit, noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, participle, conjunction, 
preposition, and interjection are their names: Nomen, pro- 
1101llell, verbum, adverbiulll,participiu1ll, conjunctio, interjectio, 
to wit:- 
I person singular 





lltá t1Í. 
lltá sé 
ata sibse 





person plural . 




es tis 





Sum, es, est, its singular. 
SUlllltS, estis, Sltut, its plural. 




E. 21 ß 18 

BB. 3 I 7 ß 4 

Attaat da earnail forsin n-aibgiteir Laitindai .i. 
guttai 7 consain. Atait .i. sunt a fiithindleadach La- 
tinda .i. a bunadh forleathan: totus a bunadh ruidleasa 
.j. dearbadh in sein .i freagra du thoit na haibgitrech 315 
dobeir sund. Coich raind indsce in focul is SU1lt? ar 
itat viii randa insci and .i. nomen, pronomen, uerbu11l, 
aduerbiulll, participiulIl, c01ziunctio, prepositio, Ùzteriectio. It 
e a n-anmand lasin Laitneoir; ainm, 7 briathar, 7 
pronomell 7 doibriathar, randghabthadl. 7 remshuidhiugud, 320 
'comhfhocul 7 interiacht ocon Gædel. Is demin eimh 
conidh briathar in focul is Sltut 7 ma seadh cia ball in 
brethir? air itait amh a tri i n - uathad .i. sum, es, est,. 
7 a tri i n-illda .i. sumllS, estis, SU1l! .i. cetperso in 
uathaid sum,. perso thanaisti in uathaid, es,. tres perso 325 
in huathaid, est. Cetperso in illda, SUlllUS,. perso thanaisti, 
estis,. tres perso in illda, sun!. 
Attaat .i. ata æ i n-ait .i. ata æ dlig :ah i n-ait 
in ollamalz a inne: no attaat .i. atai æ uait, ar in 
descipul frisin maigistir. 330 
A inne beos attaat a tuitead doaitneat doaigbead 
dotiagat. A airbert .i. atat i n-aigniudh na guttaighi 7 na 
COnSa111l. Dotuitead i litrib .i. tinntuit asinn aicniud sin i 
llitrib. Doaitnead .i. taitnit asna litrib sin i foclaib. 
Doaidhbead .i. du-aispenait do eolchaib eistib .i. a cialla 335 
7 a caireachtaire .i. fuatha na liter. Dotiaghat asna [oclaib 
sin i c
mighib 7 i sreathaibh roscaigh 7 fasaigh 7 airchetail. 

;113 a {rithindlech T. 31-1 ruighlesta T. ;!Hi haibitleach dobeirsiumh E. 
316 Examples of parsing, Gr. Lat. iii. 459: in fuocuil E. 
317 Gr. Lat. iv. 355, 2 320 rangabtach E. :J'.!1 comfoccumhul E. 
:123 don breithir E. 32
 i n-illradh E. :J'1.5 thanaisi E. 
326,7 in ilair E. 3:10 frisin in B. 
3:n doaidbead L.: doaidhbhet E. :J32 ina aicned .i. na guttai 7 na consaine E. 
::'1:; eisib E. 386,7 isna, coibigib E. :!::ï aireactail B.: aircetail E. 



There are two divisions in the Latin Alphabet, to 
wit, vowels and' consonants. There are, atait, to ,,"it, 
sun!, its Latin equivalent, to wit, its very general origin: 
totus, its particular origin, to "Tit, a proof there, to wit, a 
reference to the whole of the alphabet he gives here. 
\ \Yhat part of speech is the word sltn! ? For there are 
eight parts of speech, to wit, 11omen, pronome1l, uerbulll, 
adllerbiltlll, par/icipiulll, co IlÍll1lctio, prepositio, Ùzteriectio. 
Those are their names with the Latinist; noun and verb, 
pronoun and adverb, participle and preposition, conjunc- 
tion and interjection with the Gael. It is certain in truth 
that the word sltnt is a verb; and if so, what part of the 
verb? for there are in fact three of them in the singular, 
to wit, sltm, es, est,. and three of them in the plural, to 
wit, Sltlll11S, estis, Situ!, to wit :- 
I st person singular 
2nd " 




3 rd " " 
I st person pI ural 
2nd " 



es tis 
Sl/ Il! 

3 rd 



Attaat, i.e., there is science in place, i.e., there is science 
of law in the chief poet's place is its meaning: or attaat, 
that is, there is science out of thee, quoth the disciple 
to the master. 
I ts meaning further, attaat, who fall, shine, show, come. 
Its use, that is, of ataat, in the nature of the vowel and the 
consonant. They fall 
nto letters, i.e., they are converted 
out of that primary nature into letters. They shine, i.e., 
out of these letters into words. They show to the learned 
out of them, to wit, their meanings and their characters, 
i.e., the forms of the letters. They come out of those 
words into texts, and series of proverb, commentary, and 
poetic composition. 


BB. 317 ß 31 


E. 21 ß 40 

Da ernail .i. da fhirinnell, no da fhir-inaill, no da 
fhir-dhual, no da erdhul, no da erdhail, no da erdhual, 
no da orru-dhul, no da orru-dhedhail, no da orru-dhail. 340 
Iss iat sin a tri or, 7 a tri er, ï a tri fir n U raiceapta. 
Cadiad da dual 7 tri duail 7 cethri duail 7 coic duail 
in Auraiceapta? N i ansa. Lanfogur 7 defogur da 
dual na nguta: leathgutta ocus mudi 7 tinfeadhaigh- 
the tri dual na conSOli .i. intan is a ceathair immorro 345 
.i. da dual na nguta 7 ùa dual na conSOli .i. leathguta 
e 7 muiti, air is muit h. Intan is a coic dno .i. da dual 
na nguta 7 tri dual na consan. 
Forsin n-aibgitir .i. forsind epe audair no forsind epe ic 
duar .i. ic foclaib no forsin epi ic tur: no ondi as apigitorium 350 
.i. in tinnscedul: no is cd aibgiges a mbescna do chach: 
no aipgitir .i. abcor: no is ed aipgzges a Gædhelg, itlcipit 
a LaitÙI, apix a Greic, a be ce de dybum a Ebra. 
Latindai .i. luaidit inni .i. inna focbt: no a Laidinta .i. 
on Latindacht .i. a latitudine .i. on leithet in bescna: no 355 
o Latin mac Puin. 
Edun .i. ed a oen erniud no ed a oen an eolaig. 
Guttå .i. guth fotha .i. fotha in ghota in sem no guth 
fuiti iarsani fuidhit gotha treothu: (3 I 8) no guth-seta 
iarsinni at seta gotha, ut Priscianus dz:rit: Litera quassi 360 
legittima eo quod iter legelldiprebeat .i. in litir amal intech 
legend iarsinni fuires set in legind: no guth aite .i. doghniat 

3:!8 da fhirilldeal no da fi.ranail E. :
Il ind Auraicepta E. 
:J.t:! a tri, a ceithri, a cuic E. 3+1 tinfedaigh trindual E. 
:Uï e 7 L. om.: .i. dual na ngutta 7 tri dual na conson E. adds 
;1,19 auctair L. E. 350 .i. i foclaib E. 
3Jl aipgidhes L. a ll-ibis do each E. 3J:! is aipgitir E. I. abcdr (?) 
35:J ailit- B.: a Laiten E. 3iH Latima B.: latille E. 
::;;:; le1he E.: Virgo Maro Gr. 4, 23 
:160 etait guth a n-ænur L.: Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 12: Origg. i. 3, 3 
361 legmtibus praebet E. 36:1 leigind, fhuirges E. 



Two divisions, Le., two true arrangements, or two true 
other things, or two true folds, or two intensive goings, or 
two intensive divisions, or two supreme folds, or two 
goings on them, or two divisions on them, or two 
distributions on them. These are the three or and 
the three er and the three fir of the Primer. \Yhat are 
the two, three, four, and five folds of the Primer? 
hard. Full tone and diphthong, the two folds of the 
vowels: semivowels, mutes, and aspirates are the three 
folds of the consonants, to wit: when there are four of 
them, however, two folds of the vowels and two of the 
consonants, i.e., semivowels and mutes, for h is a mute. 
\Vhen there are five of them, however, that is, two folds 
of the vowels and three of the consonants. 
On the alphabet, i.e., for an "author's selection," or for 
" selecting of words," Le., of vocables: or on the" selection at 
Tower" : or from the word abecedariu1Jl, Le., the beginning: 
or it is that which "ripens" their speech for everyone: 
or alphabet, that is, placing a b: or it is "that which 
ripens" in Gaelic, incipit in Latin, apix in Greek, a be ce 
de dybum in Hebrew. 
Latinda, that is, they speak the thing, i.e., the words: 
or Laitinda, i.e., from Laitindacht, i.e., a latitl/di1/e, i.e., 
from the extent of the speech: or from Latinus, son of 
Edôn, that is, "it" its one explanation: or it is the 
one [.i.] of the learned man. 
Gutta (vowel), i.e., voice foundation, i.e., foundation 
of the voice is that: or voice sent, in respect that 
voices are sent through them: or voice ways, in respect 
that they are ways of voices, ut Priscimllls dixit: 
Dicitur autem litera vel quasi legitera quod legendi 
iter praebeat, that is, the letter is as a road for reading 
inasmuch as it prepares a way for the reading: or a 


BB.3 I8a 4 


E. 2 I ß 59 

guth i n-aitt: no guthetait .i. iarsinni doetait guth treothu 
a n-ænur, It/ Dona/us dixit: Uocales sunt quequidelll pro- 
fer/ltl' et PCI' se sillaballl faciu1lt .i. at at na guthacha is iat- 365 
side dourgbad tre8thu fein 7 dogniat sillaib a n-ænur. 
Consain .i. cainsuin .i. suin taitnelllcha, no consain onni 
is COJtSOllaJ/tcS comhfhograightheacha .i. fograigit mane fri 
guthacha: no consaill .i. com a sain .i. tercfograigh- 
theacha ar bec a fogair a n-ænar. Cid ara n-eibert-sium 370 
guta . ï consain, uair guta uathaid 7 consain ilda? K i 
ansa. Guttai 7 consain is maith and. Cidh ara n-ebairt 
guta guth fotha no guta guth fuidhit, ar ni fotha in guth 
do fein, 7 ni fuigheand guth trit fein. Cid ara nd-ebairt- 
sium consain comfograighthid, uair ni comhfhogur in 375 
consain fria fein no fria guth? Cest, caite in condelg in 
etechtu in cheternail ind Auraicept[a]? Ni ansa. Fors 
is fer[ r] a fis is edechta sain, ar ni maith anfhis. Cid ara 
n-eabairt guta .i. guth shet, ar ni set is i {en. 
Caide ruidhles 7 dileas 7 coitchind 7 indIes in focail is 380 
guta? X i ansa. Ruidhles di guth shet, uair etaidh guth 
a hænur. Diles di guth fuiit, uair nos - foidend fein. 
Coitchind di .i. guth fotha, uair is fotha hi isna foclaib. 
IndIes di immorro guth fotha, uair ni fota hi inti 
fein. Cid ara n-ebairt aibgitir epe ic tur, ar ni tindscain- 385 
tea na h-aibgitri amal asbert Fenius ba sai isna tri 
berlaibh cid siu tisad a tuaid 7 ni saithi cen aipgitri. 

36:1 no guthetait L. Olll. doedait E. 
36-1 a n-ænur L. om.: Gr. Lat. iv. 367, II: Sg.4 b 4 
365.9 guthaigi L.: guthaigthi E. 367 taitnemacha E. 
369 guthaigib E. comma sain L.: comsain E.: cuma thonn no cain[ sh Join: 
fid .i. fo ead a ainm Ed. I. din a suin 370 ndubairt L. 
371 ilar E. 37-1 ni fhuideand E. 
375 comfongthig uair na comfogul' E. 377 O'M ule. 578, 9 
:179 guth seta, dissi fein E. 380 coitcend E. 
381 is guth, edaidh E. ;]82 fuiti, nosfuiend E. 
385 ni hand rotinscainte.1 E. 31:16 neach ba, trib E. 387 suthi E. 



voice place, i.e., they make a voice in place: or they 
vocalise, i.e.: in respect that voice comes through them 
alone, 1/t Donatus dÚ.-it: V oeales sun! quae per se 
profenmtllr et per se syllaballl faâunt, i.e., the vowels are 
those that are pronounced by themselves and alone form a 
Consonants, i.e., beautiful sounds, i.e., bright sounds: 
or consonants from the word eOnS01lalltes; sounding 
together, i.e., they sound along with vowels: or con- 
sonants, i.e., delicate their sounds, i.e., scantily sounding 
owing to the smallness of its sound by itself. \Vhy 
did he say vowel and consonants, since vowel is singular 
and consonants plural? Not hard. Vowels and 
consonants is proper there. \Vhy did he say a vowel is 
a voice foundation, or a vowel is a voice which they utter, 
for the voice is no foundation to itself, and it does not 
find a voice through itself. \Vhy did he say a consonant 
is sounding along with, since the consonant does not 
sound with itself or with its vowel? Query, what is 
the comparison of the unallowable of the first part of 
the Primer? Not hard. Fors, chance, knowledge of 
it is better, that is unallowable, for ignorance is not 
good. \Vhy did he say a vowel, i.e., a voice path, for 
it itself is not a path? 
\Vhat are peculiar, proper, common, and improper 
of the word vowel? Not hard. Peculiar to it, voice 
path, since it finds voice by itself. Proper to it, they 
express a voice, for it expresses itself. Common to 
it, i.e., voice foundation, for it is a foundation in the 
words. Improper to it, however, is voice foundation, 
when it is not a foundation in itself. \Vhy did he say 
alphabet was a selecting at Tower? for the alphabets were 
not begun, as Fenius said, who was a sage in the three 
principal tongues even before he came from the I\ orth, 

3 0 

BB. 318 a 28 


E ?2 a 17 

I ndAchia immorro arrichta aibgitri in domu[i]n. Cet- 
doichnedh 7 cet-dichnedh ind Auraicept[ a 1 sund .i. A cet- 
doichnedh for .i. ar in focuI: A chet-dichneadh dno .i. epe 390 
augdair .i. tepe in focul fadesin. 
Atat dano di ernail forsin beithi-luis-nin in oghaim .i. 
feadha 7 tæbomnai. Dano i da n-ui in sein uea caingen .i. 
in caingean forsin beithi-Iuis-nin in ogaim .i. inn oguamma 
no forsin bitheolus litterdha inn oghaim. Fedha: fidh 395 
immorro, dorimter da gne for suidiu .i. fidh særdha 7 
fidh aicenta. Fid særda .i. fid inn oghaim 7 fid aicenta fid 
na caille. Fid særda immorro feghthair da gne do bunad 
oca. Fidh didiu ondi as funo [cpwvÉw] , fograigim: no ondi 
is fltndallle11tlt1Jl .i. fotha 7 is coitchend do fhid særda 7 do 400 
fidh aicenta in bunad sin .i. fit1ldalllentulIl. Fid dono fo edh 
a inde eter særda 7 aicenta. Fotha dno a airbert eter særda 
7 aicenta. Ingnad cidh fodera na da bunadh icon fid 
særda 7 ænbunadh icon fid aicenta .i.fu1lO 7 fimdalllelltu1Jl ? 
Ni ansa. FWlO a dualus foghair 7 fimdamentulIl a dualus 405 
fotha 7 caitchend do fidh særda 7 do fidh aicenta .i. fotha. 
Fidh .i. fedh æ uair itat coic æ and .i. æ ailes 7 æ chanas 
7 æ aiges 7 æ mides 7 æ suides. Æ ailes dno .i. i cein 
mbis for mellmain, 7 æ chanas ica gabail 7 æi aighes ic 

3M!! 7 7, auraicept B. :m teibe ill fccail E. inn B. 392, oguim E. 
:19:1 nae caingen .i. in caingen remund 7 i[n] nai inar ndiaid .i. L. ind ui E. 
3!!5 forsin mbethi luis E. ;;96 dorimthar E. 398 fectair E. 
3!)'J cia dichned B. 402,6 sær E. 4 0 8 i ceim B. 
40'J fora, aga fhagh b.lil L. 


3 1 

and there are no sages without alphabets. In Achaia, 
then, were invented the alphabets of the world. The 
first doich1lcd and the first dichJled of the Primer here, 
to wit: Its first doichned is for, that is, ar is the word: 
Its first dichllCd, again, i.e. cþe, cutting of author, i.e. teþe 
is the word itself. 
There are, then, two divisions in the Beithe Luis 
Nin of the Ogham, i.e., vowels and consonants. Dano 
.i. da n-ui, two of them, that is, da 11-zti, two questions 
are there. ....V-ae is question, that is, the question on 
the Beithe Luis Nin of the Ogham, that is, ind oguamma 
of the per
ect alliteration, or on the undying literary 
knowledge of the Ogham. As to fedha, wood vowels, 
moreover, two kinds are reckoned of them, to wit, 
artificial tree and natural tree. Artificial tree, i.e., 
the tree of the Ogham; and natural tree, the tree of 
the forest. As regards artificial wood, moreover, they 
are regarded as having two sorts of origin. Fidh, wood, 
then, is from the word fimo [pwvÉw] , I sound, or from 
the word fundamclltulIl, i.e., foundation, and that deriva- 
tion, to wit, fimdamelltulll, is common to artificial and 
natural wood. Now, as to jid, wood, good law is its 
meaning, both artificial and natural. Foundation, how- 
ever, is its use, both artificial and natural. It is strange 
what makes the artificial wood have the two derivations, 
and the natural wood one, to wit,fimo, and fundalllentulll. 
Not hard. FUllO in respect of sound, and fundall/clltum 
in respect of foundation; and common to artificial and 
to natural wood is foundation. 
Fid, wood, that is,fi'dh ae, extent of them, since five 
forms of ae are in existence, ae that nourishes, ae that 
sings, ae that sues, ae that judges, and ae that sits. 
Now ae that nourishes, i.e., while it is on the mind, 
and ac that sings at giving it, and ae that sues while 


BB. 318 a 48 


E. 22 a 35 

euinehidh a lloige 7 æ midheas ima meit no imma 410 
laighedh 7 æ suidheas iar n-iee a loigi. 
Tæbomnai .i. tæbuaim n-ai; no do thæbhaib na n- 
omnadh bit .i. do thæbaib na fidh n-aireghdha biit; no 
tæb-(eol. ß) omnai .i. toba damna .i. iarsinni teipiter damna 
na foeul eistib. Cid dia n-ebairt tæbuaim n-ui .i. tæbuaim 415 
n-airehedail,,? air ni fil int airehetul inna n-eemais na 
tæbOlll1la. Cid ara n-ebarthar do tæbhaib na n-omnadh .i. 
na feadha, ar ni do tæbhaib bit aeht rempu no 'na ndhiaidh 
isna foc1aib bit na tæbomna. Toba ndamna immorro, is e 
a ruidhles in foeail sin. Freagra du breithir tug isin 420 
aibgitir Latindai intan roraidh .i. !tat da ernail forsin 
aibgitir Latinda. Fregra du aieniud immorro tue intan 
roraidh: Atait da ernail forsin beithi-Iuis in ogaim. 
CUill is ænda in beithi? 
Niansa. [A]huile. Cuinas deda.i.feda7tæbomna. Cuin 4
as treda .i. fedha 7 forfedha 7 tæbomna. Cuin as eeathair 
.i. tri aieemi na tæbOlll11tl 7 na x feadha airegdha. Cuin as 
ehoicdi .i. fedha 7 forfedha 7 tri aiemi na tæbomna. Cuin 
a[ s] sedha .i. na tri foilcheasta inn ogaim .i. , Jf ð#11
 .c . 
Cuin a[ s] seaehta [.i.] teora fuilti ind Auraieepta .i. huath 430 
7 forsail 7 arnill. 
Huath eetumus: is ed fhuilleas b co ngeib greim p amal 
asbert in Laitneoir: b CUlIl aspiratione pro p POllitUY .i. 
samhaighthir b eu tinfiudh ar P eonid fuilleas h\ ar is p 

.110 cuindgidh a loigi E. 412 n-ui L. 413 bid L. 
4l-1 teibigter L. 415 focol, ndubairt L. 
41!1 bid L. toba namma E.: nanma B. L. 421 aipgidil E. 
422 frecrJ. duaichnigh E. .,\26 centar E. 429 foceurta F. 4::2 p amair E. 



asking the reward for it, and ae that considers about 
its greatness or its smallness, and ae that sits after being 
paid his reward. 
Taebomnai, consonants, that is, taebuaim n-ai, side 
seam of them; or to the sides of the oaks they are
that is, to the sides of the chieftain wood they are; 
or tacbolll1lai, i.e., cutting of material, from the fact 
that material for the words is cut out of them. \Vhy 
did he say taeb uai1ll lz-ui, that is, side harmony of 
poetry,."for there is no poetry without the consonants? 
\Vhy is it said of the sides of the oaks, i.e., the vowels
for it is not at the sides they are, but before or behind 
them in the words th
t the consonants are? Cutting of 
material, however, that is the peculiar meaning of that 
expression. There is a correspondence to a word which 
he gave in the Latin alphabet when he said: There are 
two divisions in the Latin alphabet. It was a corres- 
pondence to nature, howev
r, which he gave when he 
said: There are two divisions in the Beithe Luis of the 
\\-hen is the Beithe Luis one? 

 ot hard. The whole of it. \Vhen is it two things? 
Vowels and consonants. \Vhen is it three things? 
Vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. \Vhen is it four 
things? The three groups of the consonants and the ten 
principal vowels. When is it five things? Vowels
diphthongs, and the three groups of the consonants. 
\Vhen is it six things? The three composite letters of 
the Ogham ng, sr, qUo \Vhen is it seven things? The 
three additions to the Primer, h, forsail, and anzill. 
H first. It increases b till it acquires the force of p, 
as the Latinist said: b cum asþirati01zC pro P pOlli/llr, 
i.e., b with aspiration is put for p, so that h increases it, 
for p is the aspiration of the Gael. Forsail is the second 


BB. 318 ß 20 


E. 22 a 55 

tinfedh in Gædhil. Forsail [is e L.] in fuilled eile. Dobcir 435 
cumang fedha forin son dia fot amal ata srõn, slõg 7r1. 
Arnin, is e in tres fuilled. In baile a rreagar a leas da 
thæbomna geibidh greim indala n-ai arnill, ut est ceand 
7rl., ar ni bhi eamhnad in n-ogam. Tri foilcheasta inll 
oghaim .i. ceirt 7 gedal 7 straiph. In baile i mbi c ria 440 
n-u is queirt is scribhtha and, 2/t est cuileand 7r1. In 
baili i mbi n ria g is gedul i[ s] scribtha and, ut "st uingi 
7 cuing 7 cingit 7r1. In baile i mbia s ria d [is] straiph 
as scribtha and amal ata st an stial, 7r1. 
Da earnail forsna consainib laisin Laitneoir .i. lethgu- 445 
tai 7 mutti. Inna lethgutai ceatamus, a tuistidi rempu. 
In muite immorro, a tuistidi ina ndiaid do suidib. 
Da ernail dno .i. da firdedail didiu forsna consainib 
cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir .i. lasin litertreoraidh no lasin 
legtreoraid no lasin leat[h ]anthoirnidh .i. lethguttai 7 450 
muitti; lethgutai .i. leth gotha focertad dia fograigud; no 
luithguith; no lethguthait no lethguth[sh]et no lethguth 
fotha: 7 ni hiarsan[ n]i co m bad leath gotha co cert nobeith 
intibh acht nad roichet lanfoghur; unde Priscia1l1lS dixit: 
Quicquid in duas partes diuidulltllr altera pars dicitur 455 
semis .i. secip ni fodhlaidir i ndibh randaib, raiter in 
dara rand gu rub leath, ut Priscianus dixit: j\,Ton qui 
de11ledialll partelll Izabent deorlt1Jl llel uiuorulll sed qui 
þleni dii llel uiri non Sltllt .i. cia raidhiter iarum lethfir 
7 lethtii ni arsinni bhatis [dii] leithfir no batis lethfir dii 460 
acht nach at comlana. Is amlaid sin na leäthghuta nida[t] 
comfhocail, 2/t D01wtllS dÙ:it: Sellliuocales sunt que per se 

437 arragar E. 438,9 cenannan, in oguim E. 440 ngetar E. 
442 nin ria ngort is ngiadar E. 443 ria t E. is straiph L. E. 44-1 stan 7 E. 
448 frisna soinib E. 449 Laitneoiraid E. 451 Codoceardad diar E. 
4.52 luthguth E.: luíti T. leathgutaid no lethguitedh E. 456 fodladir E. 
457 cen col cert leth T. Gr. Lat. ii. 9, 19 460 nocon iarsindi batis E. 
461 nach at L.: na- ic B. 462 Gr. Lat. iv. 368, 5: Sg. 5" 4: nida comlana E. 



addition. It adds a vowel power to the sound to make it 
long, as srõn, slõg, etc. ArnÙl is the third addition. \Vhere 
two consonants are required, anlhl takes the force of 
one of them, e.g. ceall1l, etc.; for there is no doubling [of 
letters] in Ogham. Three composite letters of the Ogham 
exist, qu, ng, and sr. \Yhere c stands before u, it is 
queirt that is to be written there, e.g. cuileand, etc. 
\Vhere n stands before g, it is gedul that is to be written 
there, lit est, liÙlgi, an ounce, cuing, a yoke, ciugit, they 
step, etc. \Vhere s stands before d, it is straipll that is 
to be written there, such is st in stial, the belt, etc. 
There are two divisions in the consonants according 
to the Latinist, to wit, semivowels and mutes. The 
semivowels first, their parent vowels before them. The 
mutes, however, have their parent vowels following them. 
Two divisions, then, to wit, two true separations 
in the common consonants according to the Latinist-to 
wit, according to the letter guide, or the reading guide, or 
the broad marker - that is, semivowels and mutes; 
semivowels, that is, half the voice is thrown out in 
order to sound them; or stammering voice; or half-voice 
place; or half-voice way; or half-voice foundation: and it 
is not because it would be half a voice exactly that would 
stand in them, but that they do not reach a full tone; undc 
Priscimlus dixit: Quicquid ill duas partes dÙ.Ilai/ur, altera 
pars dici/ltr semis, i.e., whatever thing it be that is divided 
into two parts, one of the parts is said to be a half 
lit Priscimms dixit: Sel1lzaeos ct sClIliviros atþellawlIs 
110/1 qui di11lidiam parto1l Iwbent dcorulIl vel virorulll 
sed qui plclli dii 'l'd 'l,iri 1lOn SU1lt, i.e., though they are 
thus called half-men and half-gods, it is not because the 
gods might be half-men, or half-men gods, but that they 
are not complete. Similarly the semivowels are not full 
sounds, 1It Dona/us dixit: SClIlivoca/cs sunt quae pcr sc 

3 6 

BE. 3 18 ß 4Y 


E. 22 ß 17 

quidelll proferlmtur et per se sillaballl llO11 facizml .i. atat na 
leathghutai nahi dourgabtar treothu fen. Quzlc]quid 
a.rþeyu11l dicitur auditlls expellit .i. illnarbaid int eisteaeht 465 
(319) seeib ni raiter co hagarb. 
Muiti .i. mifothai no maitha no maidthi .i. bee eaithte 
a foghur; no mette, no moite na gotha a mbeith maræll 
friu; no onni as mutus .i. amlabar 7 ni airsinni batis amlabar 
di raith, air itat a fhoghuir intib eidh diat beeea, ut Priscimllls 470 
dz:rit: biforlllis mulier dicititl' 11011 quia caret forma sed 
male formala ut .i. atberar in bannseal dodheilb 7 ni iar- 
..., sinni seaehmallas 0 dheilbh aeht midhealb fui.rri nama. Is 
amlaidh si
iar um na muiti nidat nemfograigh aeht is tere 
fogur intibh Iml11lJll. Ullde mute .i. mifhotha dicltntllr ul 475. 
Donalus dl:âl: JIute S2t1zt que pey se llec profenmtur et 
per se sillaballlllOll facizmt .i. atat na muiti 7 it e na denat in 
sillaib treothu fen 7 noeo turebaiter treothu 7r1. Na 
leathgutai chetamus .i. in eetna æ for seis .i. iar fofis no in 
eetna fis no in eetna amus forsin n-asneis. A tustidi 480 
remibh [.i. in lueht ota a tusmiud .i. na feada L.]. Na muiti 
immorro a tustidi ina ndiaidh i suidhibh .i. isna feadhaibh 
htheaehaib. A tustighthidi .i. in lueht ota a teasar- 
gain no a tillnseital .i. a nguthaidhe. Cid ara n-ebairt 
a tustidhe 'na ndiaidh maso thustidhi tillnseital, uair 485- 
ni gnath in tindseedul fo dheoidh. Ni hedh eimh as 
ail dosum sund ar ma[d] tustidi in tinnseedul etir, aeht 
mad æ rosciehestar illna menmain .i. dliged gotha fil 
i to such na leathguta do airisim leis fo dheoidh 7 
in dliged eonsonata fil intib fo deoidh do ehur uad 490 
46-1 daurgabadar E. 465 inarbanait E. asperuntur T. 466 hacarb E. 
467 maithia E. 468 moræn B. a foclls E. 
-1139 amlabur .i. ainm do mnai bailb T. Cor. 2 937 
470 cid beacca L.: cid dat, ut dicitur E.: Lat. Gr. ii. 9. 25: Sg.5&7 
475 Gr. Lat. iv. 368, 5 477 .i. tait L. 479 iar fofis, only L. sup. !ill. I. sofhis 
481 na feda di suidib .i. dona haibedhaibh 7 dona cain
nib T. 
486 ni gnath L. om. 487 ar m:! B. 488 roseachastar L.: roseichestar E. 
4S9 airisin B. 490 consonacta E. indti L. E. do churu T. 491 ar tus E. 



quid em proftnwtur sea" þt'r se sJ 1 11aballl llOll fizci1l11t, I.e., 
the semivowels are those that are pronounced by 
themselves. Quiequid asperu11l dicitur auditus expellit, 
i.e., the hearing rejects whatever thing is spoken roughly. 
Mutes, i.e., bad foundations, or feeble ones, or sonorous, 
ie., little spent is its sound; or weighty, or the greater 
the vowels when they are along with them; or from the 
word 11lutus, i.e., speechless, and not because they would be 
speechless altogether, for their sounds are in them even 
when they are small, 2/t Pn.scialllis dixit: Illforlllis dicitur 
mulier 11011 quae caret forlllâ sed quae male est fo , rmata i.e., 
a woman is called unshapely not because she is devoid of 
shape, but only because she has an ill shape. Thus, 
therefore, the mutes are not soundless but a scanty sound 
is in them talltlim. \Vhence they are called lIllttae, i.e., 
foundationless, ut Donatus dÚ:it: iJfutae SU1lt quae lice pl.T 
se proferulltur 1lee per se syllaballl jacizlllt, i.e., the mutes 
are these letters which do not make a syllable by them- 
selves, and are not pronounced by themselves, etc. The 
semivowels first, i.e. the first science for learning i.e. 
according to good knowledge; or the first knowledge; or 
the first hit upon the mention. Their parent vowels 
before them. The mutes on the other hand have their 
parent vowels after them, i.e., in the proper \.owels. 
Their parent vowels, i.e., those whence is their deliver- 
ance or their origin, i.e., their vowels. \Vhy did he say 
the parent vowels are after them, if beginning be 
parents, since it is not usual that the beginning is last? 
That certainly is not his intention here, that parent 
vowels should be the beginning at all, but that science 
will be perceived in his mind, i.e., the law of voice 
which is at the beginning of the semi vowels should 
remain with it to the last, and the consonantal law that 
is in them to the last should be uttered forth first. 

3 8 

BB. 319 a 2{ 


E. 22 ß 4 1 

Nir bu immaireidi son lasin nGædel, ar mbad aienead 
doib dib linaib a nguth remib 7 ina ndiaid air is ed 
rob imaireidi la suidi co mbadh an toseaeh doairesedar 
lais 7 an dedhinaeh du ehur uadh eonid muiti uili 495 
beithi-Iuis-nin in oghaim aeht feadha nama .i. nir bo 
im(airgidi seon) .i. nir bu em æ aireic son; no nir bo eim 
aireachtain suad son; no nir bo imuca urasa soon; no nir 
bo uca immorro soon lasin nGædel; no nochor bo reim 
irn gothaidhi .i. lasin ngæth dul .i. lasin fear iga raibi in 500 
dul gæth; ar mad aicneadh; no ar mad æ gnithi doibh 
diblinaib .i. dun a lethguthaiblz 7 dona muitibh a ngotha 
rernibh 7 ina ndiaid .i. rernib 7 ina ndhiaid .i. rernib dona 
lethguthaib 7 ina ndiaidh dona rnuitib: acht ata acht learn 
and cheana 7 is ed robo em airechtain sl1ad la sen co mbad 505 
ind æ rosechastar ina rnenrnain .i. in guth fil isin leath- 
glttlzaibh no-airised lais fo dheoidh, 7 a ndeidenach fuach do 
chor æ int shuadh .i. in tæbomnai do chor ar tus conod mi- 
ait labartha in bitheolais litterda in ogaim: aeht feadha 
nama per illistrofen a ainm sin .i. traide den impsoud .i. 510 
amal ata I co rnbadh Ie nobeith and, 7 n co rnbad 
ne nobeth and. Cid ar mad fearr leis-sium a rnbith 
com tis muiti huili quam (.i. inas) a mbeith leathguta 
ï muiti amal robatar icon Laitneoir? Ni ansa. ..\r 
sechern Grcc, ar ni filet lethgutai la suidibh 7 roba do 515 
Grecaib do Feinius; no dno is ar uaisli uird na nGrec llt 
didtitr: GlIlne /tile prius/,ollitllr, Olll1le bOllum postpollitur 

-I!J:! air nir bud L. -19-1 roba, and toisech dOJ.irisetar E. 
-197 .i. nir ba heimdei airig son .i. nir ba hurusa denam oa coingne sin Ed.: 
.i. nirbem æ aircdi son E. 
:;11-1 acht ata E. om. 505 la saine E. 500 guthaidi L. 
;;07 deidenfuach E. 508 conad imatt E. 509 litt- B. : lit- da L. 
510 perinistrophen E.: þer a1zastroþhm Sg. 4- \'8: Gr. Lat. v. 309. 16. 
impoud E.: impodh T. treded L. 
51:! sleisim L. 1>1-1 B. has ata before robatar 
51., lethguth- E. 511; fobíth soíre ceneiuil innangrec Sg. 40 '4 



The Gael did not think that appropriate that the 
nature of them both should be to have their vowel 
before them and after them, for this he thought 
appropriate that it should be the beginning of them 
that should remain firm with him and tha t their 
closing vowel should be put away, so that the 
Ogham Beithe Luis Nin were all mutes save vowels 
only, to wit, that was not appropriate, to wit, that was 
not indeed a cause of finding; or that was not indeed a 
sage's finding; or that was not an easy choice; or that 
was not a choice, however, in the opinion of the Gael; or 
there was not a course with respect to a vowel, to wit, with 
the wise satirist, to wit, with the man who had the wise 
course; that it should be nature; or that it might 
be a matter to be done to them both, i.e., to the semi- 
vowels and to the mutes, their vowels before them and 
after them, i.e., before them and after them, before them 
in the case of semivowels and after them in the case of 
mutes: but there is a doubt with me there still, and this was 
in truth a sage's finding with him so that it was the course 
which he followed in his mind, i.e., the vowel which exists 
in the semivowels should remain firm with him to the last, 
and as their last word should be put the sage's knowledge, 
to wit, the consonants should be put first so that it may not 
be a misplace of speech of the undying knowledge of the 
Ogham: save vowels only, per allastrophell is the name for 
that, to wit, a quickness of the turning, as e.g. 1, so that 
there it becomes Ie, and n becomes ne. \Vhy should he 
prefer them to be all mutes to their being semivowels and 
mutes, as they were with the Latinist? Not hard. In 
order to follow the Greeks, for there are no semivowels 
with them, and Fenius was a Greek; or agai.n it is on 
account of the nobility of the order of the Greeks, llt 
dicitllr: Oll/Ill' uile prillsponitllr, 01lllU' b01lulIl postpollitllr 

4 0 

BD. 319 a 51 


E. 23 a 1 

.i. samaigthir gach ndereoil (col. ß) ar tus 7 gach sainemail 
co forbu. 
Innsci tra cis lir innsci dochuisin la }c'eni (-i. ifill che). 520 
Ni ansa. A tri .i. ferinnsci 7 baninnsci 7 demhinsce 
lasin nGaidel .i. mascul7 femen 7 neodar lasin Laitneoir. 
Cest, caide deochair eturru? Ni ansa. Nosdeochratar 
a tri urluimi indsce .i. hic hec hoc .i. ise isi ised .i. 
ise in fear, isi in bhean, ised in neam. 3
Cest, cuin immairigh eter in innsci 7 in duil dia 
n-innisin? Ni ansa. Intan feadair a hinsci choir fuirri 
iar n-aicni udh. Ni imaircidi immorro eturru intan feadair 
innsci for a n-aill .i. ferinsci for baninnsci no baninsci 
for ferinsci no deiminsci for neachtar n-æi. Feadair em 530 
ferinsce for baninnsce intan asberar ise in banmhac- 
sa, ut dÙ-it poetll : 
Dia mbadh missi in banmacan, 
N ocechrainn cach fælmacan ; 
Fer nad fintar gu gcIuinnter, ;35 
Slancheill chein duib, a muindter. 
Fedair dno baninnsci for fearinnsci intan asberar 
isi in gabur : 

Isi in gabuir uair is each, 
Ise in gabur cid meighIeach, 340 
Isi in chorr cid reil nos-reI, 
n mintan cid banen. 
Fedair dno deiminnsci for ferinnsci no baninsci intan 
asberar is ed a cheann sechis ceann fir on no mna, 
ut dicitll}': :)45 
Ceand mna romannair mo mod, 
Dos-far[ r Jaidh don, ni deilm ndil, 
Is ed ceand is grannium sain 
Do neoch fil for muin fo nim. 

520. II inscni E. 5:!l Gaidelc (c added later) B. : lasin nGoidel. neumtur E. 
5'J4 urlaind L.: urland E. 5:.1> imaric E. eter indoi T. dia n-indic L. E. 
;;28 ni himaircidh T. 530 cechtair n-æ, cechthuir n-ái T.: cechtar L. E. 
::;;\;) Da ba misi E. 
5:\4 No ceachlaind each fealmacan L. E.; ni charfhuinn nach feImaccham T. 
 gluinnter B.: cIuindter L.: gluindtear E. 539-,12 cf. O'Molloy Gr 116 
:;:I!I gabar E. 5-10 meidlech L. E. 
:-,,11 .i. fo feghthair B. mar gill. nos-reiI B.: nos-raeil E. 1H2 mindtán 1.. E. 
5-1-! fir oin E. 5,16.9 HM. 135 a w. 
546 mo mogh E. romaimair B.; romandair E. 
IH8 graindiu L.: granum sin E. !I!!I fo muin L. 



4 1 

i.e., every mean thing is placed first, every distinguished 
thing to conclude. 
Now as to genders, how many are there with 
the Irish? (that is, gooseberry (i) way). Not hard. 
Three of them, i.e., masculine, feminine, and neuter 
gender with the Gael, to wit, masculine, feminine, and 
neuter with the Latinist. Query, what is the difference 
among them? Not hard. Their three leading words 
of gender differ, to wit, hic, hRec, hoc; i.e., he, she, it; 
he, the man; she, the woman; it, the heaven. 
Query, when is there harmony between the gender 
and the element to describe them? Not hard. When 
its proper gender by nature is applicable to it. There 
is no harmony, however, between them when one 
gender may be applied for another, i.e., masc. for fem., 
or fem. for masc., or neuter for either of them. Now 
masc. may be used for fem. when a female child is 
called he, ut dt:rit poeta . . 
If I were a female child, 
I should love every young student ; 
A man that is not discovered till he is heard of, 
Perfect sense for a while to you, 0 people. 
Also fem. may be used for masc. when the horse is 
called she: 

The gabur is she, when it is a horse, 
The gabur is he, if it be bleating, 
The heron is she, though clearly it reveals itself, 
The titmouse is he, though a female bird. 
Also neuter gender may be used for masc. or fem. 
gender when it is said "it is his head," no matter 
whether that one is a man's head, or a woman.s, Ilt 
dicit" r : 

A woman's head that has destroyed my work, 
I t has gained ground, no dear sound, 
I t is a head that which is the most horrible 
Of any that is on a neck beneath heaven. 


4 2 


E. 23 a 23 

BE. 319 ß 27 

Fedair dno baninnsce for deiminnsce intan asberar 550 
is i in chloch, ut dici/ur: 
Is he in lia, lith mIas, 
Jar srethaib suadh in senchas ; 
Is ed onn iar n-aicneadh ail, 
Is i in c10ch iar særdataid. 


Is e in daigh derg dighdi dath 
Frisna geibthi cath na cith ; 
Is ed ceand is chæmu cruth 
Fail gu mbruth forsmbræniu bith. 
Samail a dealba can chleith 
Ealbha ingine I dhaidh ; 
Fri goir ngreni glaine ar gurt, 
Is fris samlaim a cæmtucht. 


Mad iar n-urd choir na ndula, immorro, ni ainm 
ferinnsci no baninsci acht du neoch dufuisium 7 0 565 
tuisimar ; 7 ba deme chena aicneadh na huile. 
Duepenar dno deminnsci a ferinnsci no a baninnsci. 
Doepenar dno ferinnsci 7 baninnsci a deiminr..sci, amal 
ata isna 
, 7 it he sin na deime tebede 7 na 
lanamna deme 7 a ngeni-se. 5íO 
lnsci .i. sciell/ia (.i. ecna) a bunadh Laitne. Scothegna 
a airbert. lnnische a inne .1' tnl11SlU iar cæi iar conair: 
conar .i. ceangar: tra .i. dorræ cucunn no duræ uaini .i. 
inn asneis; no tra .i. a tri .i. na tri hinnsci .i. ferinsci 
7 baninsci 7 deiminsci. Ferinnsci immorro forinnsci 575 
no firinnsci no fo[f]herinsce no firenninnsci no ferdha 
innsci no ferr inda innsci na mmna [bis indsci in fir L.] 
no ferinsci nama bis. Baninnsci dno .i. baninnsci .i. 
ba fir no buan innsci no bonen1zinnsci no bOllll scientia 

:;52.:; Cor. Tr. 12: ]ithar ro]ass E.: HM. 135. b, I: RC. xx. 26 4 
:;:;;) i sencas E. :;.>6 derg daigi E. 557 gaibthi L.: gabthai E.: gaphur si T. 
5'1!) fi], brænu E. forsm B. L. E. in bith T. 560 gan clith E. 
560-3 HM. 135 a 4 2 561 ingeine Idaig E.: Fhidhuigh T. 
:;63 caemchucht L.: cæmucht E. 565 Gr. Lat. v. 159, 22; 160,8 
566.6'U tusimther L.: tuisimter E. :'J67 Doepenar L. 
57] indscid oracio no scimcia T. 
572 Indis cæ E. a airbert .i. airlapra no radh T. 
57:: uand L.: doræ uaind E.: trath .j. dorrói .i. d' iarraid indsci cuguinn T. 
3i6 Co erindsci L. 5i!l ban fir B.: .i. bá fir L. 


Also fem. gender may be used for neuter gender when 
a stone is called she, ut dicitur .' 

The flagstone is he, a feast that has flamed, 
According to the threads of sages is the history; 
A block is it, according to nature, a rock, 
A stone is she according to artificiality. 

The red flame is " he," a prayer of colours, 
Against which will not prevail battle or shower; 
A head is "it" of fairest form, 
A place whereon with a glow the \Vorl
The likeness of her form, without concealment, 
Of Elba, daughter of Idad, 
To a bright sun's fire on a field 
Thereto I liken her beauteous shape. 

If it be according to the proper use of the elements, 
however, there is no term of masc. or fem. gender 
save for what generates or for what is generated 
from; and neuter were else the nature of the whole. 
On the one hand neuter gender is derived from 
masc. and fem.; on the other, masc. and fem. are 
derived from neuter, as it is in the ..:yepge
 , and these 
are the derived neuters and the neuter couples and 
their pairs. 
Speech that is Sticlltill, knowledge, from a Latin root. 
\V ord-wisdom, its use. Speech-way, its meaning, i.e., a 
narration along the way, along the path: c:Ollar, that which 
is trodden: tra, that is, let it come unto us, or let it go 
from us, that is, the saying; or Irll, i.e., the three of 
them, i.e., the three genders, masc., fern., and neuter 
gender. Masculine gender is, however, added gender, or 
true gender, or goodman gender, or male gender, or manly 
gender, or better than the woman gender, or man gender 
only that it is. Feminine gender, again, i.e., woman 
gender, i.e., it were true, or lasting gender, or female ge



't. f1 ')f f ;:; lf16 tj 


BB. 3 1 9 ß 51 


E. 23 a 42 

+ dagfis no (320) fo innsci in fir bis innsci na mna. 5ðO 
Demindsci dno .i. deim insci, no deme insci, no deiminsci 
fuirri no in dem is onni as dClIl[o] .i. dighbaim ita: no 
dibeo insci .i. insce dimbeoaighthi .i. ni hinnsce sluinnes 
du biu. 
Cuin is erlunll? Is erlonll em intan dosbere fri a 585 
n-aill. u! est, is e in fear 7rl. Is etargaire dno eter fhemell 
7 mascul insin: no is etargaire intan deifriche fri neach" 
n-aili co n-anmaim a athar senrud. Innsci intan asberar 
is e nama gen eraill maille fris, 'lit Priscimll/s dLl:i!.- 
Oratzo est or[ di]natio COllgrlla[lIl] dietzonll 1Il peifectalll 390 
[que] selltelltiam demos trails .i. ata ill innsci ordugud 
comimaircide na n-epert faillsiges in ceil[l] foirbthi. 
Erlonn inund etcr da erlonn nach it inund .i. fri se no 
fri sed, air ni erlond is sed, is remshuidiugud. 
Ferinnsci aicnid, is e in fer: ferinnsci særda, is e an 395 
neam. Baninnsci aicnid, is i in bean: baninnsci særda, 
is i in chloch. Deminnsci aicnid, is ed an neam: 
deminnsci særda, is ed in ceand. Aicneadh cæm and ï 
aicned etigh. AicnecI cæmh cetumus: is i a sron no a 
suil na mna. Aicned n-eitigh immorro, is i a fhiacail 600 
110 a bhel na mna 7 is cail gotha fodera sin .i. ni ni acht 
neamgnathugudh amal atat na focail berlai na athgenmnar 
.i. nit binde lenn uair nis-gnathaigern. l\Iascol 7 ferncll 7 
neodur lasin Laitneoir .i. mas fear 7 cuI cornet: no 
comfhiscol.i. moo a fis 7 a col qUllm col na rnna; no is onni 605 
is lIlasclllÙms .i. masculini. Femen dno .i. femder .i. feme 

...., Demindscean L. doem insgi Curri E. 
;;><;; dimbeo L.: dabæ E.: urdibad fuirri in dede re;>mui114l T. 
;,><:; dobere L.: asbere E. ..>81; is eterscarad E. 
."><i dosbere L.: dosbi H.: deiferge E. 
9 cen L. Gr. Lat. ii. 53, 28 : Sg. 26 a 1iOO oratus B. L. 
;;!,:: Erland, da erlaind nach at inunda .i. si fJi fd si no fri sed E.: isi fri se 
no fn sedh T. 
 earlond acht is remsuigugud E. L. 595,6,8 sær E. 
IiO:! nat athgenmar L.: na haichnemair E.: nad athgenam T. 
IiO:: ni gnath E. 60
 cal coimet L.: cail E. 
1;05 mo fis col L. E. Origg. xi. 2, 17 
li06 .i. masculil/a, femer .i. feme G,'ue, uirgo (.i. og) LaHl/e E.: masco- 
Ionium ma'5culdo T. 



or bOlla scientia, to wit, good knowledge, or inferior to the 
gender of the man that the woman's gender is. Neuter 
gender, again, that is, dark gender or darkness gender or 
dark gender on her, or the delll is from the word demo,. 
i.e., digbllim, I deprive: or unliving gender, i.e. gender 
inanimate, i.e., it is not a gender that applies to quick. 
vVhen is it erlml1l, leading word? \Vell, it is erlo1l1! 
when it refers to another thing, ut est, he is the man,. 
etc. There is then a comparison between the fem. and the 
masc. there: or it is a comparison when it differentiates 
from anyone else, with his father's name especially. 
Speech, when it is said it is he only, with no other along 
with him, lit PriscÙl1llis dixit: Ora/io est ordÙzatio COllgnul 
dictionllm peifectamque sententiam demOllstralls, i.e., speech 
is an appropriate order of the words that shows the 
perfect sense. Erloll1l is the same between two erlOll1l 
that are not the same, to wit, fri se or fri sed / for is sed 
is not erl01l11, it is an anteposition. 
Natural masc. speech, "he JJ is the man: artificial 
masculine speech, " he JJ is the heavens. Natural feminine 
speech, "she JJ is the woman: artificial feminine speech, 
"she" is the stone. N' atural neuter speech, "it IJ is the 
heaven: artificial neuter speech, "it" is the head. There 
is beautiful nature and ugly nature. Beautiful nature 
first: It is her nose or her eye - the woman's. Ugly 
nature on the other hand: It is his tooth or his mouth 
-the woman's; and quality of voice causes that, that 
is, nothing but want of use, as are the words of a 
language which we do not know, i.e., we do not think 
them sweet because we do not use them. ,Masculine, 
feminine, and neuter with the Latinist, that is, mas, a 
male, and clll, keeping: or cOlll-jis-col knowledge, lust, 
i.e., major e]its scientia, et major ejus quam fOlli1lac 
lit t7lria / or it is from the word masclllÍ1111s, i.e., masculine. 

4 6 

BB. 320 a 26 


E. 23 a 63 

Gl'aeee, uirgo Latille: ander gach sIan. Femdeir didiu .i. 
ogh-ingen; no femen quasi femeI' .i. a femore .i. femur .i. 
sliasat, air is and is ben-si intan fognaithir dia sliasait; 
no femell .i. flesc no maitnechas 'ltnde felllina de flescda no 610 
maithchnechas didtlll' ß. no is onni as ftmillilla,felllÙla .i. 
banda no banecoscda no bangnethach no bangnimach. 
N eudur .i. ni fetur cia cenel, uair nach si no se; no neutur 
onni as nelltrum neimhneachtardha .i. nee hoe nee illud .j. 
nee lIlasellli1/ltm llee felllillÙ/ltm. Cest, onni a[s] seiseor, 615 
com[a]ircim. Caite deochair eturru? Ni ansa. Nas- 
defrigidar a tri urlundinnsci .i. a iii remslonnudh .i. slointi 
rempu .i. riasna hinscibh .i. ise isi ised: acht ata urlaind 
sin a tindscedul a nd-edargnu remsluind dona foclaib ina 
ndiaidh; 7 insce femell 7 mascul 7 neutur tuicthear trethu. 6
Etardheilighther dno eter na tri cene1aibh. Cest, cuin 
imaric (.i. cuin as ænairectain suad) eter in insci 7 in 
duil dia n-innisen? Ni ansa. Intan fogabhar a hinnsci 
choir fuirri. Acht do neoch dofuisim 7 0 tuisimar atat da 
thuismiudh and, tuismiudh aicenta 7 tuismiudh særda. 625 
Tusmiudh aicenta geilze .i. mac sceo ingean 0 mnai: 
tusmiud særda .i. fer 0 thalmaÙl, amal asbeir Uraicept: 
mor easba in talman meni tusmedh clanda. Cetheora 
fodhla særdhatadh .i. deifir rainde 7 tugait bindillsa 7 
illugud labartha 7 cuimri raid. Deifir rainni, 'lit est, is e in 630 
banmac-sa .i. din raind oigi fil and isin ingin is (coi. ß) 

607 der Gra
a for lan, Ian femder didiu .i. og- ingen E.: der Grecia, id 
jilia latílle T. 608 Origg. xi. 1,106; 2,21,24 609 foghnus T. dia shliasait B. 
610 maithnechas B.: maitcnechas L.: maithcneas U11de femina .i. deidecasc- 
thach no maethcnesach E.: flescach no maothcnesach T.: Origg. xi. 2, 21 
613 se nomillatur E. 614 Origg. i. 7, 28: Gr. Lat. viii. 82, 25. iscistcoir E. 
615 1. Cesc 616 nodefrigthar E. 
617 a se remhsloindidh roslointi rompo E.: remsluindte T. 
619 ndeadarg .i. L. : a tetargnu .i. E. 6'12 immricc E. 
 indesend E. fogabair E. 625,7 sær .i. feur E. 628 mana tuistimis T. 
62\1 defir inde E. 6:)0 iIlud, cumra E. Deithbir L.: Defir a indi E. 
631 Origg. xi. 2, 24 



N ext feminine, to wit, fe11l-der, to wit,fe1lle in Greek, uirgo 
in Latin: aillder every intact one. Fe11ldeir, then, is a 
pure virgin; or femen quasifelller, i.e., a felllore, i.e.,fellluy, 
thigh, for it is then she is a woman quulIl femori {'jlls seyvi- 
alur ß' or felllell, i.e., a root of fighting, or contentiousness, 
ullde femÙza dicitur de, a sheltered one, or tender skinned 
one; or it is from the words felllenÙta,feIllÙla, i.e., womanly, 
or of womanly form, or womanly activities, or womanly 
deeds. Neuter, that is, I do not know what gender, since it 
is not she or he; or neuter from the word nelltrum, neither 
one nor other, i.e., llee hoe nee ililld, id est, nee maselllÙullll nee 
femÙzllllllll. Cese, query, is from the word sdseor, I 
enquire. \Vhat is the difference among them? Not 
hard. Their three leading words of gender distinguish 
them, i.e., their three antedenotations, i.e., denotations 
before them, i.e., before the genders, i.e., he, she, it: but 
these leading words stand at the commencement to 
indicate the antedenotation of the words following them; 
and masculine, feminine, and neuter gender is understood 
through them. 
There is distinction, then, among the three genders. 
Query, when is there agreement (i.e., when is there a 
philosopher's one invention) between the gender, and the 
element for telling them? Not hard. \\Then its proper 
gender is found upon it. But of all that generates and 
is generated from, there are two generations, a natural 
and an artificial generation. A natural generation of 
birth, to wit, son and daughter out of woman: an 
artificial generation, i.e., grass, out of the earth, as the 
Primer says: Great is the uselessness of the earth unless 
it bring forth progeny. There are four subdivisions of 
artificiality, to wit, Difference of Part, Cause of Euphony, 
Amplifying Speech, and Brevity of Terminology. Differ- 
ence of Part, ut est, U he" is this female child, that is, the 

4 8 

BB. 320 ß I 


E. 23 ß 18 

al1lm: Tucait bindiusa, ut est, is i in ghabair 7 d' eoch 
ban is ainm .i. goar .i. solus isin Fenic[h Jus (no isin Breat- 
nais) co tuc in file be fris ar tucait mbinniusa: Hilugud 
labartha, ut est, is ed a cend 7 is Hate in da urlabra: 635 
Cuimri raid, ut est, ruse immi 7 criathar arba; uair ropad 
emilt ruse im imim 7 criathar im arbor do rad. Air it e da 
modh labartha fil and .i. modh n-aicenta 7 modh særdatadh. 
Secht n-eatargaire tra dochuisneat .i. a ngrad condeilg 
lasin Laitneoir is eatargoiri a n-ainm lasin filid. Etar- 64:0 
goiri in incoisc i persainn, etargaire n-inchoisc persainni, 
etargoire persainni i ngnim, etargoire persainne i 
cessadh. Etargaire derscaigti i nderscugud .i. possit 7 
comparait 7 superlait lasin Laitneoir .i. fothugudh 7 
forran 7 formoladh lasin filid: maith 7 fearr 7 fearrson 645 
lasin nGædeal; etargoire meite i mmetughudh, etar- 
goire lughaghthe i lugugud. Etargoire n-inchoisc hi 
persaind cetumus: unnse (.i. in fer) unnsi (.i. in ben) 
onnar (.i. i[n] nem): etargoire in inchoisc persainni, me 
faden, tu faden, he faden, sinni fadesin, sibsi fadesin, 650 
sia t-som fadesin. Etargaire persainni i ngnim: darig- 
nius, darignis, darigne, darignisam, darignesaib, darig- 
ensad. Etargaire persainni i cessadh: rom -char-sa, 
rot-char-su, rocharsom, roinchar-ne, rom
roscarsad. Etargaire derscaigthi i nderscugud .i. maith 655 
7 ferr 7 ferrsom (.i. lasin nGædel coitchend a n-ecrnais in 
filed, fothugad immorro la sidhe). Etargaire mete i 
mmetugud: mor 7 moo 7 moosom. Etargaire lug- 
haighthi i llugh[ ug]udh: bec 7 Ìugum 7 lugusomh. 

633 Feineaehus L.: gobur .i. sol us isin Fhenacus E.: Cor. 2 675 
6:1-1 Hillugud L. 6:16 cuimredh T. 6:17 emilta, Air it e E. 6-12 persainde E. 
6-17 lugaide E. IH8 uindse, uindse L.: uindsi E. 6-51 dorignius E. 
ij.'J3 cf. 3351), rom-charthar, etc., whieh is translated: darignetar sial E. 
6-J.t rom-ear-ne, robar-c,uabar-si, rocarsom L.: romcaraisiu, romrarni, 
rob,lrcarsi, roduscarsum, rodomearsum E. 
ijj;) i ndersgnaigacht E. 6:;8 luguthi E. 659 lugum-son L. 



name arises from the part of virginity which is there 
in the girl: Cause of Euphony, tit est, she is the gabair, 
steed, and it is a name for a white horse, that is, goar, 
that is, SO/liS in the FâllecllllS, or in the vVeIsh, so that 
the poet put b to it for the sake of euphony: Amplifying 
of Speech, ut est, it is her head, and the two expressions 
are the more lengthy: Brevity of Terminology, ut est, 
a bark of butter, and a sieve of corn; for it were tedious 
to say a bark round about butter, and a sieve rOllnd about 
corn. For these are two modes of speaking that exist, 
the natural mode and the artificial. 
Now there are seven inflections, to wit, the compara- 
tive degree of the Latinist is named inflection by the 
poet. Inflection of meaning in a person, inflection of 
meaning of a person, inflection of person in active, 
inflection of person in passive. Inflection of distinction 
in distinguishing, to wit, positive, comparative, and 
superlative with the Latinist: foundation, aggravation, 
belaudation with the poet: good, better, and best with 
the Gael; inflection of greatness in increasing, inflection 
of diminution in diminishing. Inflection of meaning in 
a person first: U1l1lSe, here is the man; u1lnsi, here is the 
woman; onllar, here is the thing: inflection of meaning of 
a person: I myself, thou thyself, he himself, we ourselves, 
ye yourselves, they themselves. Inflection of person in 
acti ve: I did, thou didst, he did, we did, ye did, they 
did. Inflection of person in passive: I am loved, thou 
art loved, he is loved, we are loved, ye are loved, they 
are loved. Inflection of distinction in distinguishing, 
that is, good, better, best (i.e., with the common Gael in 
contradistinction to the poet: it is foundation, how- 
ever, with him). Inflection of increase in increasing: 
great, greater, greatest. Inflection of diminution in 
diminishing: small, less, and least. 



BB. 320 ß 28 


E. 23ß 43 

Secht n-
targoire .i. i[s] soighthi dia mbe inna eolus; 660 
no is saighthi dia mbe i n-aineolus. Etargoire .i. isinn 
etechtu ata .i. isin sechtmad ernail in 
echta ita in condelg 
uile ut est: Pars pro tota 7 tota pro parte .i. in rand dar 
eis na toiti 7 in toiti dar eis na rainni. Etargoire .i. 
etardheilighthi i treidhib 7 etargairi .i. gair guth .i. 665 
etarghnugh[ ud] in ghotha andsin; no etargleodh .i. iar 
ngleodh a fheassa etarru. 
In chondealg lasin Lai tneoir is etargoiri lasin filid: 
filidh .i. fialsaighi no fialshuighi: no fi ani ærais, ï Ii ani 
molais: no fili ollni is Pllilosoplms .i. fellsamh ar dliged in 670 
filed guru fellsumh. Cidh ar nach treidhi lasin Laitneoir 
in condelg amal as treidhi lasin nGædel inn edarghoiri .i. 
meid 7 inni 7 inchosc? Dedhe immorro lasin Laitneoir .i. 
meid 7 inni namma .i. b01lltS et lIlalllS is i in indi: magnlls 
et minus is i in meid. Is ed a inni lasin nGædel .i. maith 7 675 
ole immalle. Is i a meid .i. mor 7 beg: 7 is mor lais-siumk 
a mbeg i coneilg in neich is lughu. Inchosc im11l0rro agon 
fhilid, ni condelg eside etir lasin Laitneoir, acht pro1/omeJl 
et uerblllll. 
Cidh fodera dosumh a radh a ngradh conde[i]lg lasin 680 
Laitneoir is edargoiri a ainm laisin filid 7 ni fuiI acht 
tri graidh condeilg lasin Laitneoir, 7 atat secht n-etargoire 
icon filid? Ni dia chutrumugud eim dosum dno, acht 
ita etargoire lasin filid is condelg lasin (32 I) Laitneoir .i. 
etargoire derscaigthi i nderscugud. N i cach etargoire is 685 
condeilg 7 is each condealg is etargoire. Cidh ar madh 
condelg las-[s]ium posit? Ni ansa. Ar is i as fotha, 7 ata 
660 soigthidi ambæ E. 661 saigithi E. inna eolus B. E. 
662 ism ectu E. iostechta ita in congælg- B. 
663 Origg. i. 37, 13. tar es no toidi 7 in toit tar es na rainde E. 
661 comprait dombeir-sium arin coinneilg uile T. 
665 etardheilighi B.: etardeiligthi i treib E. 667 etergleod .i. iar ngles E. 
669 .i. .j. foglaim 7 sai fogluma hesium iarsani bid foglum aici ic L.: i felsui E.: fel fogluim T. 671 go rob L. 673 L. Deighi B. 
'" 675 inn inne E. 677 in beac L. 67!! esen L. 680 in grad L. 682 i condeilg E. 
685 Ni each etargoire B. repeats. etardersgugud inderscnaigtech, In 
gach E. 687 fotta E. 



Seven inflections, that is, it is to be sought out whence 
it is in his knowledge; or it is to be sought out whence he 
IS In ignorance. Inflection, i.e., it stands in the unlawful, 
to ,dt, in the seventh part of the heptad is the whole 
comparison, 'lit est: Pars pro tota et tota. pro parte, the part 
for the whole and the whole for the part. Etargaire, i.e., it 
is to be separated into three, and etargaire, i.e., gáir is voice, 
i.e., interpretation of the voice is there; or interdecision, 
i.e., after the deciding of his knowledge between them. 
The comparison of the Latinist is inflection with the 
poet: fllidh, poet, that is, generous seeking, or generous 
sitting: or fl. that which satirises, and Ii that which 
praises: or flli from the word p/zilosoplms, philosopher, 
owing to the duty of the poet to be a philosopher. 
\Vhy is not comparison a triad with the Latinist, as 
inflection is a triad with the Gael, to wit, quantity, 
quality, and meaning? \Vell, with the Latinist it is two 
things, quantity and quality only, to wit, good and bad, 
that is the quality: great and less, that is the quantity. 
\Vith the Gael, however, this is its quality, to wit, good 
and bad together. This is its quantity, to wit, great and 
small: and with him the small is great in comparison 
with that which is less. The poet's illclzosc, signification, 
however, is with the Latinist not comparison at all, but 
prollomell et verbum. 
\Vhat makes him say that comparative degree 
with the Latinist is named inflection by the poet, seeing 
there are but three degrees of comparison with the 
Latinist, and the poet has seven inflections? I t is not 
indeed to equate them does he do so now, but that which 
is inflection with the poet is comparison with the Latinist, 
i.e., inflection of distinction in distinguishing. Not every 
inflection is comparison, but every comparison is inflection. 
\Vhy is positive with him a comparison? Kot hard. 


BB. 32 I a 4 


E. 23 ß 63 

derscughudh di, ut didtllr, airim fd unair, ut est: Ull11S 1/on 
cst 1ll11l/en!S scd fundamclltltlll llllllleri .i. nochon fhil int æn 
co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, 7 amal ita alt 690 
icon Gædhel, 7 ni dech fadesin, cidh la deochu adrimther, 7 
tria særdataid insin .i. int alt aicenta imlllorro de posit. 
Cid arnid ainm comparaiti doberat-somh forin condelg 
uili? Ki ansa. Poisit cetumus: Ki derscaigh do ni: 
Superlait dno, ni derscaigthcr di. Comparait immorro GD5- 
derscaighidh di neoch, derscaigther di, conid airisin is 
ainm foriata in condelg. 
Caite condelg ceilli cen son, 7 condelg suin cen cheilI, 7 
condelg suin 7 ceilli molle? Condelg ceilJi cen son, ut est: 
bOil us, lIlelior, optilllllS. Condelg suin cen ceill, lit est: 700 
bonus, bonior, bOlliJlllls / nobhiadh iar sun sain 7 ni fil iar 
ceill. Condelg suin 7 ceilli malle, lit est: magnus, maioI', 
mllximlls is i in sin in condelg techta. Bid dno maith, 7 
ni bi derrscugud de, ut est DellS. 
Caite deochair eter se 7 uinse? CÏndse cetumus: sluind 705 
persainni [sain Jraidchi insin, lit didtltr: unse uait in fer-sa 
saindriud cona anmaim, lit dÚ:it pocta: 
U nse chugut in gillgugan, 
l\J ac r[ e ]arrgugan ; 
Bid each maith lat ar cingugan, 710 
A ceallgugan. 
ceniuil immorro amal ata is e in fear, 7 ni 
sainriudh, acht is fer talltlllll. Cidh fodera ind 

fes cia 

S dersgnugud E. fri huimit L.: numair E. Origg. iii. 3, I 
9 nocho fuil E. 690 airmi L.: comad airem E. 
6111 Gæidiul, cid la deachu airmither L. : gid la deecu arimth
r iter særda-. 
taib insin E. 6!1'
 t-alt aicmta amal ata prois E. do L. 
694 Prois cetamus, inderscnaidchi do ni E. 
69:1 Superlait didiu ni derscnaigther di E. 
liOO sech derscnaigit, derscnaigther E. 701 bonisimus L.: bonissimus E. 
i/U Gr. Lat. v. 158, 30: Virgo Gr. 91, 20 705 deochairtner B. 
706 persainraice E. 708-11 Cormac, Aller. iv. 
í09 errgugain E.: raragain T. 
ilO bid can B. ar a E. agad a cinngucan .i. longa brab ifin H.: breib T. 
ill cellcucan a ceanngucan .i. a cinn gegain H.: ara cindagain, a cenagain 
T. (=Cenn Gécåin): CZ. viii. 316, 6 712 Sluinde coitcend T.: ceinniuil B. 



Because it is that which is the foundation, and there is 
distinction for it, 1/t didll/J, a number is opposed to a 
unit, lit cst: UJlllS 1101l cst 1ll/l1hTIIS scd ji/lU{tllllCll!l/l1l 
lIl/l11eri, i.e., one is not a number, but it is a basis of 
number, and as the Gael has alt, joint, and it is not a 
metrical foot itself, though it is numbered with feet, and 
that through artificiality, to wit, the natural alt stands for 
\Vhy is it not the name of com parative that they apply 
to all comparison? Not hard. Positive first: X ow it 
does not surpass anything. The superlative, again, is not 
surpassed. The comparative, however, surpasses, is 
surpassed by something, so that it is for that reason 
comparison is an inclush.e name. 
\tVhat is comparison of sense "oithout sound, and 
comparison of sound without sense, and comparison of 
sound and sense together? Comparison of sense without 
sound, 1/t est: bonus, melior, ojtimllso Comparison of 
sound without sense, lit est: bOllus, bOllior, bOllillll/S" which 
it might be according to sound, though it does not exist 
according to sense. Comparison of sound and sense 
together, lit est: maglllls, maioI', mtlXÙlllIS, that is the 
proper comparison. Yet there is good, and nothing to 
surpass it, 1It cst, DClIs. 
\Vhat is the di fference between se, it is he, and lIillSt', 
here he is? Uilldse first: the denotation of a particular 
person is there, ut dicitllr: here he is, this man in particular, 
with his name, 1/t dÙ:it þoda : 
Here comes to thee the dear little fellow, 
Son of a dear little black-bird [Mac Lon:iin]. 
Have thou every good prepared for him, 
Dear little Cellach. 
lSe] is a denotation of gender, however, as he is the man; 
and it is not known who in particular, but it is a man 


BB. 321 a 26 


E. 24 a r 4 

irlond conidh inllsci 7 conidh etargoire .i. intan is innsci 
is ac sluind innsci bis, acht isa oen; 7 atberat is e 715 
in fer uair is erlond i suidhiu. Is ann is etargoire intan 
asberar unse. Sluind ceneoil amal ata in etargairi 
inchoisc i persaind .i. isin persaind fein ita a hinchosc 
co n-aichniter trit ic sluind cetpersainde 7 persainde 
tanaisti 7 tres persainde atat na hetargaire uili. 720 
Cidh ar nar ba leor leis-[s]ium a rad me i n-etargaire 
inchoisc persainne? Ni ansa. Etargaire deifrighudh na 
persainde tria hinchosc di fadein .i. in chetpersu uathaid, 
conar bo leor a radh me co n-abair me fadein, air is 
demniti 7 is deligidi fri cach persaind a radh me fadein, ut 725 
dic:itur.. illlpoJlelldo cgolllct [Ipse ellim ego feci 7 nOIl alius Clllll 
dicituy egolllct L.] uair is me fein 7 ni neach eli intan asberar 
egolllet. Quicquid itcratllr 1/t firllllls fiat .i. biaid corob 
demnite gach ni athairrigthir. Fogabar dno in comparait 
cen phosit, 1/t est: Dllleius cst mare Ponti[c]ulIl quam cetera 730 
lllaria .i. i[ s] somillsi muir Point andat na muiri ar chena, 
7 condelc in etechta in Sill. Condelc in etechta dano in 
cetna ern ail in Auraicepta .i. fors .i. ferr a fhis. Is etecta 
insin; ar ni maith int anfis. Fillit primlls libel'. 

Incipit do lcbur Fercnertne. Loc don libur-sa Emain 735 
lVlhacha. [n-aimsir Conchobair mic N eassa. Persu do 
Ferchertne fill'. Tucait a denma du breith æsa faind 7 boirb 
C&l for seis (col. ß). 
Ci.Æ '1k
 Seachta frisa toimsiter Gaedhelg .i. fid 7 deach, reim 

1 Ç"}.l
 7 forba[i]dh, alt 7 indsci 7 etargoiri. 


j\::; is æn, isberar E. jll; oir is reimsluinne T. jtï uindsi E. ï:!O ata E. 
ï:!\ nar bo IÚr E. ï:!:! etardethbriugud E. ï:!3 uathad E. . 
ï:!:; demnidhi 7 is deiligthidi E. í'.!6 ill prollomÙlf T. : cf. Gr. Lat. ii. 590, 26 
ït!' deimnigthi, deligthi, a tairgiotar L.: aitirgidir E.: aithrigthir T. 
j::O co mba poisit T. Origg. xiii. 16,4: Gr. Lat. ii. 92, IS; iv. 374, 2'j; 
viii. c1xxxiii. 8 j:a Pointt anait E. j::2 indecta E. 
ï:I:: fors .i. is ferr a fis dOll fitir (1. fir) rofitir inas don fir na fitir T. 
isechta E. ï::.\ ni ar B. FillÏ! Amm L. ï::ï borb L. j::!1 toimister E. 



!alltulIl. \Vhat makes the irlolld, leading word, become 
illsci, gender, and etargaire, inflection? \Vhen it is Ùzdsci t 
gender, it stands as denoting gender, but of which it is 
one; and they say U he is the man" when it is erlolld, 
leading word, there. It is inflection there when it is said 
Ullse, there he is. A denotation of gender such as is the 
inflection of meaning in a person, i.e., it is in the person 
itself wherein is its meaning, so that it is known thereby 
as denoting first, second, and third person, wherein are 
all the inflections. 
\Vhy did he not deem it sufficient to say (( I" in 
inflection denoting person? Not hard. Inflection is a 
differentiating of the person through its own defining of 
itself, to "Tit, in the first person singular it was not 
enough to say U I," so he says U I myself"; for it is more 
definite, and distinct from every person to say U I myself," 
ut dÙ-i!lIr: illlpoJlcndo cgolllet, since it is I myself and not 
another person when it is said l'golllet. Quicquid iteratur 
1I! firllllls .fiat, i.e., it will so be that everything which is 
reiterated is confirmed. There is found also the compara- 
tive without a positive, ut est: Dulcius est mare POlltiCUIIl 
quam cetera maria, i.e., sweeter is the sea of Pontus than 
all the seas, and that is an improper comparison. An 
improper comparison, too, is the first part of the Primer, to 
wit, fùrs, chance, i.e., better its knowledge. That is not 
proper; for ignorance is not good. FiJlit pri1llus liber. 

lncipit to Ferchertne's boõk. The place of this bookt 
Emain Macha. In the time of Conchobar l\IacNessa. 
The person to it, Ferchertne, the poet. Reason for making 
it, to bring weak and rude folk to science. 
Seven things according to which Gaelic is measured, 
letter and verse-foot, declension and accent, syllable and 
gender, and inflection. 


BB. 32 I ß 4 


E. 2-1- a 36 

Seachta .i. septilll a bunadh lasin Laitneoir. Seacht 
n-æ a hinni .i. seachta da æib doimiter and. A airbert .i. a 
airimh .i. vii primeillge na filideachta; no brosnacha bairdne; 
no vii n[ d]eich na filidheachta i n-ecmais dialta, ar ni fil in 
seachta annside: is aire rofacbadh. Coitcheand 7 diles 7 745 
ruidhles conadar don fOCllt is seachta: Coitchend do each 
airimh seachta Diles do a seacht diuidib. Ruidhles do in 
cetairimh sechta fris a nd-ebradh .i. fri seacht laithib na 
seachtmaine. Innleas a tabairt for airimh n-aili acht for a 
seacht. Tomus -:i. mellS11ra a bunad lasin Laitneoir. .750 
Toimes a hinni. Toimhes a airbert .i. to tenga - meas 
airi fen .i. meas doghnither 0 theangaidh. In gne 
no in cenel tomlms? Is cenel eimh. Cest, caitet 
a gnee? Ki ansa. Tomus filideachta 7 tomus bairdni 
7 tomus prosta. Cadé ruidhleas 7 dileas 7 coitchend 755 
7 indIes hi tomus? Ni ansa. Ruidhleas do filid- 
eacht .i. a breith ria seacht. Diles do bairdni .i. a 
tomus fri cluais 7 fri coir n-anala. Coitchend immorro 
de prois 0 dhialt immach. 
IndIes do seu immorro, air ni fil alt and. Seachta fo 760 
vii for sechta inso sis. 
Fidh .i. fimdamentulll a bunad Laitue: Fo edh a hinni : 
fotha, no fidh æ a airbert. Ruidhles 7 diles 7 coitdteJld 
indiles do fedhaib .i. ruidhles do fhedhaib aireghdhaibh, 
diles do f01:fhedhaib. Coitchend immorro do thæbomnaib 763 
acht huath. Indies do sen immorro, air ni taebomna etir, 1ft 

st: h lzon est litera sed lzota aspirationis .i. nocho n[fh ]uil 
h co mbad litir acht ata conidh noit tinfidh. Tinfedh .i. 

7-&3 airem, no a vii primeilge, no vii brosnacha E. 7
6. 7 hinnles T. 
m diles dona vii ndechaiph na filidheachta T. atecht diuiti E. 1. ndiuiti 
7-18 Cris a ndubrad L.: i nd-ebrad E. 7
9 airem E. 
íãl do thenga 7 me is airi fein E. 753 no in gnim do tomus? is gnim emh E. 
755 coint B. = coitchend 7:>7 am briathar seachta E. 7:;9 do E. L. 
760 do sein e, Secta Co vii-a andso sis E. 7';:; taeboim,ra B. 
766 ni a toebomnaib E. 767 Gr. Lat. ii. 35, 24; 8, 22; 12, 20; sed est E. 
768 nod tinfid L. 



Seachta, heptad, i.e., septem its root according to the 
Latinist Seven sciences is the meaning of it, i.e., a 
heptad of sciences are measured there. Its use, to wit, its 
number, that is, seven prime metres of the poetic art; or 
incitcments of bard poetry; or seven metrical feet of the 
poetic art apart from monosyllable, for the heptad is 
not therein: on that account it was left out. Common, 
proper, and peculiar are asked for the word heptad: 
Common to it is each number of seven. Proper to it 
are its seven simples. Peculiar to it is the first number of 
seven to which it might be applied, to wit, the seven days 
of the week. Improper, its application to a number other 
than seven. ::\Icasure, i.e., llleJlsura is its root according 
to the Latinist. l\leasurc, its meaning. T01ll1ls, measure, 
its use, i.e., to, tongue, and lIlras, estimate <Q1I1 itself, i.e., fr I 
an estimate which is made by tongue. Is measure a 
species or a genus? It is a genus certainly. Query, 
what are its species? Not hard. l\Ieasure of poetry, of 
bard poetry, and of prose. \\That is peculiar, proper, 
common, and improper in measurc? Not hard. Peculiar 
to poetry, that is, its being referred to its seven kinds. 
Proper to bard poetry, i.e., its measure to suit the ear, and 
proper adjustment of breathing. Common, however, to 
prose from a monosyllable onward. 
Improper thereto, howcver, for aft, juncture, does not 
exist there. Srplas, seven times for a heptad from this 
time forward. 
Fid, letter, that is þlJldamelltl/1Il its Latin root. l) nder 
law, its meaning: foundation, or wood of science its use. 
Peculiar, proper, common, and improper to vowels, 
i.e., peculiar to principal vowels, proper to diphthongs. 
Common, however, to consonants except h. Improper to 
it, however; for it is not a consonant at all, 1/t cst: h /lù/l 
('sl litera sed nota llspiratiollis, h is not a letter but it is a 


nn. 321 ß 30 


E. 24 a SS 

tiniudh feadh .i. nemnigudh feadha do .radh friu sin uili. Is 
ed is ruidhles 7 is diles 7 is ehoitc/tOld doib. 770 
Deach dno troieh(no ar frithindlidhaeh)a bunadh Laitne. 
Degfuaeh no defuaeh da1lo a hinni: dibh uaighthir immorro 
[a] airbert intan i[ s] sreath. Caite ruidhles 7 diles 7 eoit. 
ehend indies isna deae[h]aibh? Ruidhles doib a n-anmand 
fein do rad friu amal ata dialt. Diles doib dialt do radh fri 775 
each n-ai dibh, air is dialt duformaidh gaeh n-æ dib for 
araili. Coitehend doib deieh do radh fri each dib. Indleas 
do dhialt imlllorro deaeh duna seaeht ndeaehaib ele do radh 
fris, air ni fil al t and. 
Reim da1lo .i. re hua1llma ai a hinni intan is filideaeht, 780 
re huam intan is bc:irdni .i. ni huaim tomais dligtlzzg. 
Reim da1lo .i. raid uaim intan is phrois. Reim dano a 
airbert, diall no tuiseal a bunadh: no reim onni as 
roballll/s .i. eomhshuidhiughud a bunadh. Ruidles do reim 
do fid for fid i filideaeht: diles do tæbreim ceathareubaid 785 
filideaehta 7 bairdne. Coitclze/ld immorro do reim suin 
een eheill 7 do reim suin 7 eheilli immaille: diles do 
prois: indIes immorro do reim suin namma, uair ni filltir. 
Cid dosum nar bo lor lais a radh me nalllma 
co nn-earbairt me fadein, ut supra? 790 
Ceithri gnei immorro for prois 0 (322) reim .1. 
rcim suin, amal ata fer. Is as remnigther. Reim ceilli, 
amal ata Patraic. Ni airiear a reim suin, air is ændealb 

,.;!I ninugud (?) E. 
7i2,3 dibuaidthir, a airbert E. 
"'; each ni dib, f' araile E. 
,t-O uamma L.: ræim, huama E. 
 ruidlesta E. 78:j ceithrecubait E. 

7i1 ar it indledach L. 
m,8 deechaib E. 
77;,8 deeich, deech E 
,81 re huaim E. tomur L. 
,"'9 leor L. 700 co n-abair L. 



mark of aspiration. Tillfedh, aspiration, i.e., a vanishing 
of letters, i.e., annihilation of a letter to apply to all 
these. That is peculiar, proper, and common to them. 
Then deach, metrical foot, .w: because-it is-SYIlUIlYIUUU
..JÞ itQ 

fl--feOt. Good word or double word, 
then, its meaning: from them is linked its use, however, 31'73. 
when it is a series. What are peculiar, proper, common, 
and improper in the metrical feet? Peculiar to them to 
apply their own names to them, such as dial!, monosyllable. 
Proper to them, to apply monosyllable to each of them, 
for it is a monosyllable that each one of them adds to 
another. Common to them is to apply feet to each of 
them. Improper to monosyllable, however, is to apply to 
it [the name of] one of the other seven metrical feet, for 
no juncture is contained in it. 
Reim, course, that is, time of composition of ae, sciences, 
is its meaning when it is poetry: time of alliterations, 
when it is bard poetry, that is, it is not composition of 
a legitimate measure. Rl'im, then, that is, raid-Itaim, 
speech-stitching when it is prose. Rcilll, then, its use; 
dill/I, declension, or tllisea/, case, its root: or rcilll from 
the word robamlls, i.e., its root is a compound. Peculiar 
to reim, alliteration, of letter by letter in poetry: proper 
to a side [or end] ,-cilll through the quatrain of poetry 
and bard poetry. Common, however, to declension of 
sound without sense and to declension of sound and 
sense together: proper to prose: improper, however, to 
declension of sound only, for they are not inflected. 
\Vhat caused him to deem it insufficient to say" I It 
only, and to say" I myself," lit supra? 
Four species in prose, however, out of rcil/l, declensiun 
to wit, declension of sound such as fer. Thence it is 
declined. Declension of sense such as Pel/rail". Its declen- 
sion of sound is not found, for there is one form for its 


DB. 322 a 3 


E. 24 ß 9 

fora ainmnid 7 fora geniti!: reim suin 7 ceilli amal ata 
Fland Flaind. Tæbreim prosta .i. me fadein, ar is ;95 
tæbreim each ni nach lanreim. Treda ara togarar reim .i. 
reim as, 1// est, fer, air is as remnigther. Reim ind, lit 
l'sl, fir, aIr is ind reimnigther. Reim as 7 ind 
malle, 1/t cst, in fer .i. a ainmniugud 7 a inchosc 
ann malleT Reim dano ceim a airbert : 

Bellat mathair Niu[i]l neimnigh 
Dù chloind Laitin langeimligh 
Fuair bas i lIo grene glain, 
Cele Feniusa Farsaidh. 

.i. reim do fidh for fidh 1/t esl: 


Sian sleibi sirlata serind 
SenshaiH senim snechta snac 
Slisiu slice sam ad saball 
Snaithe snithe saland sacco 

Forbaid dno .i. aical/Ilis lasin Laitneoir, a bunad onni KI0 
is firmarius .i. ilghnuiseach: forbid (-i. forin focul) no for 
fut no for cumair. Forbaid no forbeoidh no forbaid a inne. 
Forbeoidh intan is forsail .i. sail fair; no forsail .i. is for 
fuilliudh, iarsanni fothaighes in focul for fut. Forbaidh dno 
forbaidh intan is dinin dishail .i. sech nin ni sail acht duir; 815 
no dinin dishail .i. disein di.fuilliud .i. nemhfhuilliudh. 
Forbaidh dno .i. fair bidh intan is ernin .i. ernid nin, no fair- 
nino Forbaidh dno .i. for [fh ]idhbait a airbert: ruidhleas 
do forsail: diles do ernin a beith for fut no for gair.. 
Coitchend do dinin disaiJ, no dona huile forbaidibh 

forbaid do radh friu. INdIes immorro do forbaid 
<lib dul i llocc araili .i. do da forbaid na nguthazge 

 for an ainmnig L. ;!I:; a taebrem E. 81)] Belaid L. 801-9 E. om. 
:<II:: gloine T. 1</lfi Sian sleibi slata seiscind L. : seiscend T. 
80611 II'. Tex/e, iii. 30 ><09 L. saland B. om. 
]f) .i. aiceant E.' 

J) Formarius T. 1<15 arht is E. 816. 17 nemfuilledh, amin E. 
817, 18 erned, .i. forbaid E. "1!1 disel L. !<:.>f) forbaigibh B. 

:!I inles uadh E. !<:!'.! na nguth E. 



nominative and its genitive; declension of sound and 
sense as J 7 1and, ÞtaÙul. Side declension in prose, that is, 
" I myself," for everything that is not full declension is side 
declension. Three things after which reilll, declension is 
called: Declension out of, itt csI,fer, for it is out of it that 
declension is declined. Declension into, ut est;jir, for into 
it is it declined. Declension out of and into together, ut 
t'st, ill fer, i.e., its nominative and its accusative are there 
together. As to reilll, too, its use is céilll, pace: 

Bellat mother of envenomed N él 
Of the children of full-fettered Latinus 
Died on the bright day of the sun, 
Spouse of Fenius Farsaidh. 

to wit, alliteration from letter to letter, lit ['sf: 

N ow as to forbaid, Le., accoztlls with the Latinist, from 
the root of the word forlllarius, i.e., many-faced: "it is 
upon" (to wit, on the word) either on a long or on a short. 
Accent, either" it vivifies," or II it perfects" its meaning. It 
vivifies when it is forsail, that is, s is upon it; or forsail, 
that is, it is adding to, because it establishes the word as a 
long. Forbaidlt, then, " perfects" when it is dÙ1Ùl disail, 
that is after n comes not s but d; or diJlÙz disail, to wit, 
from that unadding, i e., not adding. Forbaidlt, then, to 
wit, " thereon it is," when it is erllÙz, that is, it gives n, or on 
it is n. Forbaid then, Le., " on wood," is its use; peculiar to 
forsail: proper to erllill, its being on a long or on a short. 
Common to dÙzÙz disail, or to all the accents to say 
forbaid, accent, of them. Inappropriate, however, for any 
accent of them to go in place of another, i.e., for the two 


BB. 322 a 26 



ï d'ænforbaid na tæbomna .i. forbaidh uathaid 7 forbaidh 
ilair no ilair for uathad, no forbaid fuit for cumair: no 
indIes gan a fuath do sgribeand. 825 
Alt onni as allus .i. uasal a bunad lasin Laitneoir: alt 
dano onni alteir ina menmain a inne. Alt co feser illllllorro 
a airbert .i. co feser cia halt aircetail bera fd sechta .i. i[ n] 
nath, inn anair, inn anamain, in laidh, in setrad, in sainemain. 
A-\lt in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da sltil1aib a 830 
inni: [alt L.] co feser a airbert. Caite ruidhles 7 dites 7 
coitchend, indIes alta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles .i. do aiste do 
alt filideachta: diles immorro do alt bairdne .i. do aiste. 
Coitchend indIes do fhoc1aibh na proise .i. coitchend do cach 
focul i mbiat alta; indIes immorro do dialt, ar ni bi alt and. 833 
Indsce da1lo .i. s[c]icJltia a bunad Laitne: in deschæ a 
inne: scothecna a airbert: no insci, co feser in aisti urdalta 
.i. co feser in si no in se in aisti bera fri sechta amal roghabh 
is e in nath, is i in laid. Indsci in anma prosta .i. ferindsci 
7 banindsci 7 deminsci. Cate ruidles 7 diles 7 coitchend, 840 
indIes, na hinsce? Ruidles don insci aicenta cæmh : diles 
don insci aicenta ecæm: coitchend indles don insci særda 
.i. coitchend ara gnathugud, indIes immorro ara aindilsi. 
Etargaire dno onni is etargradimus .i. foruaslaigeach: 

823 taobomnad L. 
;!-I L. no ilair B. om. 
so.!:) gacha fuat B. 8:13 d'fhili immorro E. 8:;-1 fowl B.: focul na proise E. 
83.'> inde dono .i. ail fuit T. IJ36 indischæ L. 8:\7 scoitecda E. urdala L. 
8-11 ceim E. 8-12 acæim E. do indsci L.: indscni E. 
W etargreim .i. foruaisligtech (?) E. 



accents of the vowels, and for the one accent of the 
consonants, i.e., the accent of the singular [on the plural] 
and the accent of plural on the singular, or the accent of a 
long upon a short: or inappropriate not to write its 
Alt from the word altlls, i.e., noble, its root according 
to the Latinist: alt, then, from that which is nurtured in 
his mind is its meaning. Alt co feser, however, is its use, 
i.e., that thou mayest know what alt, limb, of poetry applies 
to seven, that is the natll, the anair, the aJllllllflÙl, the 
láidh, the setrad, the Saillelllaill. As to alt an anma, joint 
of the name, in prose, the space of time that is between 
the two syllables is its meaning: alt co fiscr its use. 
\Vhat are peculiar, proper, common, and inappropriate of 
alt? Not hard. Peculiar, that is, to metre of alt, limb, 
of poetry: proper, however, to alt of bard poetry, that is, 
to metre. Common, inappropriate to the words of prose, 
that is, common to each word in which there are alta, 
intervals; inappropriate, however, to a monosyllable, for 
no alt, joint, exists there. 
Now indsce, gender, that is, scielltia, from a Latin root: 
in desclzae, the right way, is its meaning: word-wisdom its 
use: or, Ùzdsce, that thou mayest know the definite metre, 
i.e., that thou mayest know whether "she" or U he" is 
the metre that applies to seven, as for example the 1MIIl 
is .. he," the láid is .. she." Illdsce, gender, of the prose 
name, that is masculine, feminine, and neuter. \\'hat 
are peculiar, proper, common, and inappropriate of 
illdsce, gender? Peculiar to natural kindly gender: 
proper to natural unkindly gender: common, inappro- 
priate to artificial gender, i.e., common owing to its 
being used, inappropriate, however, owing to its inappro- 
Now etargaire, inflection, from the word Í1ztcrgradillllls, 


BB. 322 n 4-5 


E. 24ß 34 

etargnaghudh gotha a inne: etardeliugud a airbert. Cate 8-15 
ruidles 7 diles 7 coitchend 7 indies etargaire? Ruidles 
do etargaire derscighthigi i nderscughud, air is i frecras 
in condelc. Diles immcrro do etargaire inchoisc i 
persaind, uair i[ s] sloinniudh persainni saindredaigi. Coit- 
chend indIes immorro dona etargairib ar chen a .i. coitchend 850 
in uird comairme: indies immorro do neoch dib na frecair 
Cest, in gne (col. ß) no in cenel in fidh? Is cenel emh : 
7 masa chenel, cadet a gnee? N i ansa. Fid særda 7 fid 
aicenta .i. fid særda fid inn ogaim; fid aicenta immorro 855 
fid na cailli. Et fid inn ogaim, in gne no in cenel? Is 
cenel ecin, ar techtaid gne .i. fid aireagda, 7 forfidh, 7 
tæbomna. Is e insin in cenel cenelach gneach .i. fid. 
Cest, in gne no in cenel in deach? Is cenel emh, ar 
techtaidh gne .i. secht ndeich na filideachta. Is e sin in 860 
cenel gneach baghabhat ocht n-ernaili c[ e ]aclltar ngne na 
Cest, in gne no in cenel in rem? Is cenel .j. techtaid 
da gne .i. filideacht 7 bairdne .i. reim do fidh for fidh 7 
tæbreim do fidh for fidh, ut est: 863 
Coluim caid cumachtach 7rl. 

Tæbreim immorro ut est: 
A [Fh]laind at luam in gaiscidh grinn 
Co Maistin maill. 
At glan, at gæth, is garg do rind, 
At laech, a [Fh ]laind. 


7 derscaigthi L. 
!I sandradaigi 1. 851 an urd L. 
&>7 feda, forfeda L. 861 bangabat, cacha clara gne L. 
863 techtaig L. B. om. 866 RC. xx. 146: fr. TexÜ, 56 
868-72 d. Irish lYfetrics, p. 19: Jr. Text', iii. 9, 14 i 4 0 , 1<) 
870 gart B. L.: garg E. T. 



i.e., dominating: interpreting of voice IS its meaning: a 
distinguishing is its use. \Vhat are peculiar, proper, 
common, and inappropriate of etargaire? Peculiar to 
äargaire of distinguishing in distinction, for it corresponds 
to comparison. Proper, however, to etargaire of meaning 
in a person, since it is the denoting of a particular person. 
Common and inappropriate, however, to all the ctargaire, 
that is) common to the ordinal numbers: inappropriate, 
however, to any of them that do not correspond to 
Query, is fidll, wood, a species or a genus? It is a 
genus certainly; and if it be a genus, what are its species? 

ot hard. Artificial wood and natural wood, to wit, 
artificial wood is the Ogham letter; natural wood, however, 
is wood of the forest. And as to wood, letter, of the 
Ogham, is it a species or a genus? It is a genus neces- 
sarily, for it has species, to wit, principal wood; vowels; 
cross wood, diphthongs; and side-woods, consonants. 
That is the genus generic and specific, i.e., wood. Query, 
is deach, verse-foot, a species or a genus? It is a genus 
certainly, for it has species, to wit, the seven verse- 
feet of poetry. That is the specific genus which the 
eight sorts of each of the two species of poetry ha'"e 
Query, is réilll, run, a species or a genus? A genus, 
i.e., it has two species, to wit, poetry and bard poetry, i.e. 
réim, alliteration of letter by letter, and taebreim, side 
.alliteration of letter by letter, lit est: 
Columba, pious, powerful, etc. 
Tacbreilll, side alliteration, however, lit cst: 

Fland, thou art the pilot of pleasant valour 
Unto gentle Mullaghmast ; 
Art pure, art wise, rough is thy point. 
Thou art a hero, FIand. 



Dll. 322 ß 12 


E. 24- ß 52 

Ceithri gne for prois 0 reim .i. reim suin cen cheill, ï 
reim suin 7 ceilli, 7 tæbreim prosta, 7 reim suin namma. 
Reim suin cen cheill cetumus .i. fer fir: reim suin 7 cheilli 
.i. Fland Flaind: reim suin tmtt/1I1l Patraic Patraic: 7 875 
tæbreim prosta .i. fadein. Tri gne ara togarar reim .i. reim 
ind, 7 reim ass, 7 reim ind 7 ass malIe: reim ass ut est fer / 
reim ind ut est fl.y isin reimniugud: reim ind 7 ass .i. Ùl 
fear .i. [ind L.] teit 7 ass teit a lanreim ind i nduaIllS fogur 
huathaid 7 ina dualgus foghar ilair. Reim ind 7 ass 880 
maille .i. ind a dualgus foghur uathaid 7 ilair immalle 
inna dualus ceilli: no reim ind .i. Patrmc, ar ni fil 
ind iar cei1l: reim ind 7 ass malle .i. Fland Flaind, 
ar ita ind iar ceill 7 ita ass iar suin. 
Is e sin in cenel cenelach gneach cenelach rochumadh 885 
sund forsna secht remendaib 7r1. Cest, in gne no in 
cenel ind forbaidh? . Is ceneI, ar techtaidh tri gnee. Is 
e sin in cenel for a tarrasa tri gnee na Gædelge. Cest, 
in gne no in cenel int alt ? Is cenel ecin, ar itat tri gnee 
fai .i. alt s<l:rda 7 alt aicenta 7 alt co feser. Int alt co feser 890 
techtaid coic ngne 7 coic cenela. Cest, in gne no in cenel 
indsci? Is derb conid cenel 7 techtaid na tri indscc. Is 
saincenel deochraides in doman. Cest, in cenel no in gne 
in êi:argoiri? Is cenel eim, uair dianairmidi a gnei. Iss 
e in cenel etardefriges na huili 7r1. 895 
Cest, caide esse in sechtu frisa tomsigtller in Goe[ de Jig? 

7;; pat- pat- E.: d. 3751 [<7f; .i. me fadein L. gnee E. 

.9 fogair uathaid L. lanreim ind 7 ass ina dualus focus E. 

"l a dualus fogus E. 
 ni fil ass iar sun: reim ass .i. fear fir ar ni fil L. indi E. 
 geneIan rocllmad E. 8M8 forsa tarasa L. 

90 fre E. Mil no in gneech E. 

93 isin gneech deochraiges E. doine i ndomun L.: daine in domain Eo. 

1!t gnee L. S!1ti toimister L.: frisi toimistear E. 



Four species in prose arise out of reilll, flexion, râm of 
sound without sense, and reilll of sound and sense, and 
prose Illebreilll, side flexion, and rcilll of sound only. Reilll 
of sound without sense first : fer fir: reilll of sound and sense, 
Flann FlaÙm: reilll of sound la1ltl/lll, Patraic Patraic: 
and prose taebreilll, side flexion, I myself. Three species 
by which râlll is called, reim in, reilll out of, râm in and 
out of together: reilll out of, ut est,jer, man: rei11l in, ut 
cst,.jir, of a man, in the declining: reilll in and out of, ill 
fer, the man, i.e., into which goes and out of which comes 
its full inflection in respect of singular sounds and of plural 
sounds. Reim in and out of together, that is, in, with 
respect to sounds singular and plural together: in, as 
regards meaning: or reilll in, Patrtlic, for there is not in, 
according to meaning: reim in and out of together, Fla1lll, 
FlaÙl1l, for it is in, according to meaning and it is out Df, 
according to sound. 
That is the genus, generic and specific which was 
formed here on the seven flexions, etc. Query, is illd 
forbaid, the accent, a species or a genus? A genus, for it 
has three species. That is the genus in which were 
found the three species of Gaelic. Query, is int alt a 
species or a genus? I t is a genus certainly, for three 
species underlie it, to wit, artificial alt, natural alt, and 
alt co feser. The alt co feser has five species and five 
genera. Query, is im{sce, gender, a species or a genus? 
I t is clear that it is a genus and it has the three genders. 
I t is a different genus that differentiates the world. Query, 
is ctm-gaire, inflection, a genus or a species? A genus 
'certainly, for its species are innumerable. It is the 
genus that differentiates among all things. 
Query, what is esse, essence, of the seven by which 
Gaelic is measured? Not hard. Esse, essence, feda, 
of letter, first: that is the fragment of cut off air 


BB. 3 22 ß 35 


E. 25 a 7 

Ni ansa. Esse feda cetamus .i. ill blog aoir tebide gebhes 
in fid i n-elluch focail, lmde poeta dixit: 

-- - 

Esse feda is fretede 
Ferr duib a aicne occaib 
In blog æoir thepide 
Techtas i n-elluch focail. 


Caite esse deieh? Ni ansa. In lin no inn uaite son n- 
oellcongbalach airimther 0 dialt co bricht cona n-athghabail 
diblinaib. Caide esse remme? Ni ansa. In bruudh fillti 905 
fogurda forbriste foil otha in ainmiudh n-uathaid co foxlaid 
n-ilair. Caite esse fuirbhthe? Ni ansa. In tormach no in 
digbail n-aimsire airighes aie1lcd i comhshiniudh fri fog-ur. 
Cate esse alta? Ni ansa. In toe tengadh fil don filid 
arc] ceimniughud don litir for araili mad alt særda, no 910 
don sillaib for araili mad alt aicenta. Cate esse insce? 
Xi ansa. In foludh firen foirbthe fegthair isna tri cene- 
laibh. Cate esse etargairi? Ni ansa. Int athfegadh 
mete no laiget no inde no incho[i]sc no edardeifrighi no 
etardelighthi no edarderscaigthe rodealbh Dia eter 915 
Cate tomhus fri sechta? Ni ansa. In fid tuisseach 
bis isin rand (323) 7 in tæbomna tuissecha do thabairt 
ar aird, 7 co festar na feda bes isin tæbchubaidh in raind, 
7 gu robe in fidh cetna bes isind imrecru na tarmthort- 920 
cheand, 7 gu rub inund a lin do thæbomllaib bes impu, 
7 co festar cia deach dona ocht ndeachaib daroigh i n-aisti, 
7 co festar in tæbreim no in reim do fid for fidh, 7 co festar 

897 bolgoir E. 898 i melluch B.: i n-ealluch L. f\99 esse, is freitigi L.: fretide E. 
000 aithne L.: aichne E. 901 bolg oir teipidhe E. 
903 son n-æn congbalalach L. 904 airmither, don athgagabail E. 
905 reme, filti E. 906 Cocurtha E. fil L. E. 
908 comsinead, focus L.: comsuigudh Cri COCUy E. 
909 Caite oenalta E. 912 d. Origg. i. 28, I 
9J.1 meidi, lag had L.: laigeat, etardeiCrigthe E. 916 dainibh E. 
III!! taoboim- B. isin dara huad E. 919 ina raind E. 
900 na cia tarmorcend E. !!'
 cia deech E. 



,,'hich the vowel takes in 
 pos ing a word, ullde þoe/a 
dÙ-it : 

Esse jeda, essence of a vowel, it is to be studied, 
Better for you to have the knowledge of it, 
The fragment cut off of air 
Which it possesses in composing a word. 

\Vhat is esse of verse-foot? Not hard. The whole or 
one of the individual self-sustaining sounds which are 
reckoned from one to eight syllables, both included. What 
is esse reillle, essence of flection? Not hard. The inflected, 
voiced, articulate change which obtains {rom the nom. 
sing. to the abl. pI. \Vhat is esse of accent? Not hard. 
The increase or diminution of time which an accent marks 
in co-extension with a sound. 
\Vhat is esse alta, essence of interval? Not hard. 
The tongue silence which rests on the poet in passing 
from one letter to another if it be alt saorda, or from 
one syllable to another if it be alt aicellta. What is esse 
of gender? Not hard. The just and perfect essential 
which is seen in the three kinds. What is esse etargaire? 
Not hard. The consideration of size, smallness, quality, 
denotation, difference, variety or distinction which God 
hath fashioned among created things. 
\Vhat is measure with respect to heptad ? Not 
haret To bring under notice the leading vowel that is 
in the verse, and the leading consonants, and that the 
vowels that stand in the caesura rhyme of the verse 
may be known, and that the same vowel may stand in 
the corresponding part of the endings, and that the 
number of consonants about them may be the same, and 
that it may be known which of the eight verse-feet enters 
into the metre, and that it may be known whether it is 
side alliteration, or alliteration of letter by letter, and that 


BB. 323 a 6 


E. 25 a 28 

cia forbaidh bes for son ceneoil ind imfrecrai, 7 co festar 
cia halt dona seacht n-altaibh ind aircetail .i. na filideachta. !)23 
Insce .i. co feasar in se fo in si in11 aisti. Etargaire 
-I. co feser cia gne in aircetail do gne do thomus 
fri sechta. Et intan ba roscadh na tomaiste and, cindas 
nothomhsidhe? ar ni bidh lancubaidh no tæbchubhaid and. 
N i ansa. Do focul forba anaile no-taispenta don choiceadh 930 
focul, uair is coic focail romesadh i n-anail in filed. Cate 
sechta in ochta ind Auraicepta? i'\i ansa. Intan is ocht 
ndialta i mbricht is and is secht n-alta. Cate in focul 
oenchongbhalach dechongbalach treconngbalach? Ai[n]- 
mnigther 0 trian: 7 ni ruidhilsi do in trian 0 n-ainmnig- 933 
ther nadat na da trian 0 n-ainmnighther iarcomarc. 
Caitiat na da tæbomna gabhait greim guthmge? .i. 
c 7 r ar essi a, llt est: Coluim Cille acinit: 

1m ba sessach im ba seng, 
1m ba tresach, tuirme glonn, 
A Clzríst! in congebha lind 
o thi co teaclzt ar lind long? 


Caite tomus fri fid! Ni ansa. Co feisear a llîn ï a 
n-uaite, a met 7 a laiget, a cumung 7 a n-ecumung, a 
neart 7 a n-aimneart. Is ed a lin: coic aicmi ogaim 943 
.i. coicfear cacha aicmi, 7 oen co a coic cach æ, conda- 
deligitar a n-airdi. It e a n-airdi: deasdruim, tuath- 

Ir.:!! forbad E. for focal in imrregraid L.: forin focul in imrecra E. 
!/'.:!;; aircetaib B. !t!i ef. line 1687 !r.J8 ba( d) E. 
!r.!!! na toimsidi L.: notomhaisde, ni bad E. !1:11 Origg. ii. 18, 
!/3:1 secht n-alta L. ndialta B. !l3-
 on triun E. 
!137 Cade iad L. 93H2 E. om. 
939-42 Translated in A 11cimt Ir. Poetry, p. 94; cf. Zeitsch,. x. p. 46, ::; -j 
9-16 coiger L.: 7 cuiger E. cona dheligter E. 


it may be known what accent stands upon a word of the 
-corresponding sort, and which it is of the seven alIa of 
trisyllabic poetry, i.e., of poetry. fJlsee, gender, i e., that 
thou mayest know whether the metre is he or she. 
Elm:r:aire, i.e., that thou mayest knO\v what is the species 
of poetry as regards measure with respect to seven. And 
when dithyramb or metrical rhythm was present, how was 
it measured? for there is not couplet rhyme or caesura 
rhyme in it. Xot hard. By a word completing a breath 
which was indicated by the fifth word, for five ,,"ords are 
.adjudged t(;b
a - brea th of the poet. What is a heptad 
of the octave of the AlIraiæPI? Not hard. \Vhen it is 
eight syllables in bricht that are present there are seven 
alIa, intervals. \Vhat is the word containing one, two, 
and three syllables? It is named from one-third: and 
not more peculiar to it is the one-third from which it is 
named than are the two-thirds from which itlrcomarc is 
\Vhat are the two consonants that take the force of a 
vowel? To wit c and r after a, 1/1 cst, Coluim Cille 

\Vhether it will be firm, whether it will be yielding, 
\Vhether it will be warlike with numbers of deeds, 
o Christ! wilt thou keep with us 
\\"hen it will come to fare on a sea of ships? 

What is measure with regard to fid, Ogham letter? 
Not hard. That thou mayest know their number and 
their singleness, their size and their smallness, their 
power and their want of power, their strength and their 
weakness. This is their number: five Ogmic groups, 
i.e., five men for each group, and one up to five for I 
each of them, that their signs may be distinguished. 
These are their signs: right of stem, left of stem, 



7 2 

BB. 323 a 27 


E.25 a 43 

druim, leasdruim, tredruim, imdruim. Is amlaid 
Inldreangair crand .i. saltrad fora freim in croind ar tus 
7 do lam dess reut 7 du lam cle fo deoid. Is iarsin is 930 
leis 7 is fris 7 as tri t 7 as immi. It e a ndeiligte feada 

7 forfheda 1/t est: . 



Cest. cid ara n-ebertar feda fri suidiu? Ni ansa, 
fobith domiter friu ì co n-uaigiter condaib, ut didtllr luis 
ailme, beithi ailme. Cindas domiter frisna taebomna 955 
amal fidu? Ni ansa. Cach da thæbomna ar fid hi 
cubaid, each da cobfid i cubaid: is ed is cubaid 
iarum co robe an fid cetna beas isna foclaib in imfre- 
ccrai, 7 co rob inund a Un du tæbomna beas intib, 1/t 
est, bas 7 las: 7 bras 7 gras: ceand 7 Ie and : dorn 7 960 
corn: dond 7 condo 
Caite tomus fri fid? .i. co fesser a lin 7 a n-uaiti .i. 
a lin a coic aicmib 7 a n-uaiti i n-ænaicmi; a met 
7 a lIaiget .i. a met hi coic flescaib 7 a llaiget i 
n-ænflescaib. Caite deochair eter a cumang 7 a neart? 965 
A cumang cetamus: Intan gabaid guth a n-ænur .i. 
a no 0 no u. [A L.] nert immorro in tan dos-bere 
primshuidhiugud i sillaib, amal ata bais 7 lais. C'aite 
deochair eter a n-egumang 7 a n-ailllnert? Ni ansa. 
Ecumang intan bithi (col. ß) fo nihilus ina guthazge amal 970 
rogab find. Fir em, air ni thuicter na feda dedhencha filet 
isna deghfoghraibh sin triana cantain fochetoir: aimnert 


 Is amlaid imdrengair ogum amal imdrengail crand E. 
\1;;0 romut E. !';;1 as rut 7 aSs imme E. !I;;:: Origg. xix. 19. 4 
 fontaib Zli. domiditer E. !I

j a cubut E. 
\1:,8 gu rupeadh E. !';;!I a llin do taebomnaib E. 
!Ni::! a lIin L. !N.S bas 7 las L. E. 
!'.o bid fo inilIius, na nguth- L.: bit fo nilnius ina nguth- E. 
!'.1 ni thucatar, deidenaca E. !'Ï:: deorcaib F. 



athwart of stem, through stem, about stem. Thus is a 
tree climbed, to wit, treading on the root of the tree 
first with thy right hand first and thy left hand 
after. Then with the stem, and against it, and 
through it, and about it. These are their various vowels 

and diphthongs, lit est: . 


· I,J _.......

Query, why are those called woods, vowels? Not 
hard. Because they are measured by them and sewed 
with them, ut dicitur, la, ba. How are they, as vowels, 
measured with the' consonants? Not hard. Every 
two consonants for a vowel in rhyme, every two corre. 
sponding letters in rhyme: that is rhyme, therefore, 
that it should be the same vowel that stands in the 
corresponding words, and that the number of consonants 
that may stand in them should be the same, lit est, bas 
and Ills: bras and gras: aand and kalld: dorll and corn: 
dùlld and condo 
What is measure with respect to fid, Ogham letter? 
To wit, that thou mayest know their number and their 
singleness, i.e., their number in five groups and their 
singleness in one group; their size and their smallness, 
i.e., their size in five strokes and their smallness in 
single strokes. \Vhat is the difference between their 
power and thcir strength? Their power first: when 
they utter voice alone, that is, a, 0, or u: Their strength, 
however, when a prime position brings them into a 
syllable, such as bais, lais. \Vhat is the difference 
between their want of power and their weakness? 
X ot hard. \Vant of power when the vowels. are under 
nullifying, as for example fi(o ]/l{l. True indeed, for the 
last letters that stand in these double sounds are not 
understood, through their being pronounced at once: 
weakness, however. when they stand in combinations 


BB. 323 ß 3 


E. 2 S ß 4 

immorro intan bit comsuidigthib cutrumaib na defogair 
7 isna forfedaib amal ata fer 7 bell. 
Coic fcadha cadl aicmi: 7 is oen co a coic cach æ .1. 973 
ænfleisc co coie flescaib, lit {'st, beithi a ænur, nin a coicur : 
no dno gne ele? Xi ansa. Ecumang cetamus: intan bite 
fo nialus 1/t qllOllialll quidclll lasin Laitneoir, no intan bite 
tri guthazglle a n-ænshillaib lasin nGædhel, ut Briain, 
gliaidh, feoil, beoir, lasin nGædel. Aimnert immorro in- 980 
tan bite fo cOl1sonacht, 1/t s{'r1ms, 1/lllgUS lasin Laitneoir, 
1/t iarum dan 7 ceir 7 uull 7 aballiasin nGædhel 7r1. 
Lanchumang dano intib etir fedha 7 tæbhomna co nd- 
urba uath. Conda-delighetar tria n-airde (.i. tria 11- 
ecosc) .i. is caindeifriges a n-aradu. It e a n-airde: 985 
Deasdruim .i. bethi do deas in droma, is cd aiemi beithi : 
Tuaithdruim .i. don leith atuaidh din druim bis aicllle uatha: 
Lesdruim .i. leas uait [7 fris] cucut, no leatarsna darin 
druim bÚ aicmi muine: Tredruim, is cd aicmi ailmi: 
Imdruim .i. andiu 7 ana11 aiCllli na forfidh. Is amlaid 990 
imdrengar .i. is amhlaidh eimh ceimnighthir isinn ogalll 
amal cemnigther isin crand .i. do lamh dess reut .i. aicmi 
beithi: 7 do lamh chle foi diudh .i. aicmi h: 7 iarsin is 
leis 7 is fris aicmi m .i. les uait 7 fris cucut: trit immorro 
aicmi a: tairis immorro 7 immi aiCllli na forfidh. Is 995 
amhlaid sin imdheilighter na fedha 7 na forfeda ï na 
tæbomna. Cid ara n-eparar fedha fri saidhiu? N i ansa. 
Fobith domiter na tæbomna friu 7 cainuaighter na focail 

!Iï:: cutrumait na defhoguir isna E.: d. Gr. Lat. Y. 104, 16; ,oiii. 189. 1 
 7 (isna) B. om. 7: fear 7 bean L. 
!Iõ:; no flesca gacha haicmi E. co coic L.: gu coic gacha hæ E. 
977-83 E. om. 9i8.81 Gr. Lat. iv. 367, 18; 19 !180 Amnert B. 
:: con tur uath L. !I

 conda-deligther L.: cona-deiligetar E. 
:; caindeidfriges anaraduite a n-airde E. !I
 tara hinlldruim E. 
!lS!!.94 m B.: muine E. !I!IO assiu 7 anall L.: aindiu (no all) 7 anall E. 
I:! crund, reout E. 00:1 fo deoid L.: fa deoid E. !l'J! tridruim aic11lt' a E. 
!f!17 friusaide E. !1.IR caenfuaigter L.: domidigtt'T, cainfuaigtt'T E. 



equivalent to the diphthongs, and in the Ogham 
diphthongs such as fer and bell. 
Five letters for each group: and there is one up to 
five for each of them, that is, one stroke up to five 
strokes, ut est, b one only, n five of them: or again 
another kind? Not hard. \Vant of power first: when 
they stand under nullity, ut qllollitl1Jl qzddeJJl with the 
Latinist, or when three vowels stand in one syllable 
with the Gael, as BrÙlin, of Brian, gliaid, a fight, feoil, 
flesh, beai,-, beer with the Gael. \Veakness, howeyer, 
when they are consonised, itt seruus, uulgzts with the 
Latinist, 1ft iaruJJl, therefore, aim, far, eeir, wax, mtll 
. (ubull), apple, and aball, appletree, with the Gael. 
FulJ power, too, is in them, both vowels and consonants, 
with the exception of h. So that they are distinguished 
through their signs, i.e., through their appearance, to 
wit, clearly do their conditions differ. These are their 
signs: Right of stem, that is, b to right of the ridge, 
that is the b group: Left of stem, to wit, to the left side 
of the stem, which is the h group: Athwart of stem, to ,,-it, 
athwart is from thee, and against is to thee, or half athwart 
the stem, which is the m group: Through stem, that is the 
a group: About stem, that is on this side and on that. 
the diphthongs group. It is thus it is climbed, to wit, 
it is even thus it is graduated in the Ogham as it is 
graduated in the tree, to wit, thy right hand first, 
that is, group b: and, thy left hand after, that is, 
group h: and after that it is athwart and against, 
group m, to ,,"it, athwart is from thee, and against is 
towards thee. Through, however, is group a: o,-er, 
however, and about is the diphthong group. Thus are 
distinguished the vowels, the diphthongs, and the 
consonants. \Vhy are those called vowels? K ot hard. 
Because the consonants are measured against them, 

7 6 

BB. 323 ß 26 


E. 25 ß 20 

dibh, ut est luis ailme, beithe ailme .i. la, ba. Is e sill in 
sealbhadh særdha cen reim acht reilll remraite '\ Ni ansa. 1000 
Ama/ iaraither fidh aire[gh ]dha nama ica breith fri sechtu 
sic iaraither in tæbhomna bhis and, cach da tæbomna ar 
fidh, Ilt dicit Ill' : 

Mareaeh atehonnae anne, 
Etaeh uaime co ndath ere, 1005 
A dath is gilithear geis, 
U an tuinni dath a da 0 

Deda airegar and: æntugud co ncleliugud amal 
ata bas 7 las 7 is iar comardadh n-airchetail rata L.], 
air is in and fidh aireghdha fil intib, 7 is inand tæbomna 1010 
degheanach. Sain imlllorro in taebomna tæseach .i. el. 
Cindas toimsiter na tæbomna imna fedaibh? Ni ansa. 
Cach da tæbomna dib imon fidh. Is e in comfhot coir (-i. 
lancubaid insin), lit est, bas 7 las. Is e sin int æntughud 
co n-inannus, 7 int æntugud cen inannus: 7 is iar comh- 1015 
ardugud n-airchetail ata, uair is inund fidh aireghdha fil 
intibh, 7 is comlin do thæbomnaib; 7 is ed a choir n- 
. Conagar dno isin aip[g]itir bunad 0 æn, 7 airic 0 deda, 
7 a cor a tredhe, 7 a comhuaim fri ceathardu, 7 a com- 1020 
dhluthadh fri cuict[h]i, a moradh a seda, a fogail a sechta, a 
riagail fri ochta, a incosc a næde, a asdadh a ndeichthe. Is e 
int æn thuas .i. Fenius Farrsaidh ; in dedha .i. mac Etheoir 
fris; in tres mac 
'\iJlgen; in ceathramadh Cæ; in coiced 
Amaírgen mac Naende mic Nenuail; in sesedh Ferchertne; 1025 

llJOO ni- arn- B. L. : d. line 3945 1(0) in anrna L. 1001-\1 .E. om. 
100-1-, Arch. C. P. i. 481 1001 atchondarc ane L. l00
 edach imbe L. 
IIJO" .i. C 7 r i n-.tigid a; bas 7 Ias 7 lancubaid insin. Taebcubaid bras 7 
l.1s 7rl L. lOl:! tornaister, taebornnai E. 101:: in cornad coir L.: in cornfat E. 
 is i ar cornardad L. 101; is coir a n-aircetaI E. 
10l!":!; E. 0111. 10".?..! a fasdad L. If.r
l Aingin T. 


and the words are fairly woven out of them, 1/t est 1 a, 
b a, to wit, la, ba. That is the artificial possessive 
without rhyme save rhyme of vowels only. Not hard 
[2nd Ans.]. As a principal vowel only is required to 
refer it to seven, so the consonants that exist are required, 
every two consonants for a vowel, ut dicitur: 

A rider I saw yesterday, 
Round him a cloak with hue of blood, 
\\'hite as a swan his colo'.JT is, 
Foam of wave his two ears' hue. 

Two things are found there: identity combined with 
difference, as bas and las, and it is according to the corre- 
spondence of trisyllabic poetry, for the principal vowel that 
stands in them is the same, and it is an identical final 
consonant. Different, however, is the initial consonant, 
to wit, 1 [and b]. How are the consonants about 
the vowels measured? Not hard. Each two c
of them are about the vowel. That is the proper 
proportion, to wit, that is perfect rhyme, ut est, bas, 
las. That is the unity with identity, and the unity 
without identity: and it is according to poetic corre- 
spondence, for the principal vowel that stands in them 
is the same, and there is an equal number of consonants; 
and that is the proper arrangement of trisyllabic 
N ow in the alphabet there is required origin from one, 
and its invention from two, its placing by three, its confir- 
mation with four, and its binding together with five, its 
amplifying from six, its division from seven, its rule with 
eight, its demonstration in nine, its establishment in ten. 
The one is above, to wit, Fenius Farsaidh; the two, l\lac 
Etheoir with him; the third l\lac Aingin; the fourth Cae; 
the fifth Amirgen son of N aenùe son of N enual; the 





BB. 3 2 3 ß 47 


E. 25 ß 

in sechtmad a dalta; int ochtmad CeandfæIad; in nomad 
a dhalta; in dechmad a asdadh i n-æn .i. in trefocal. 
Is e seo a thosach ill U raiceapta [i]ar nAmairgein 
nGIungea1. Locc don Jibur-sa Tochur Inbhir Moir i 
crich h U a nEnechgIais Cualand: Et aimser do aimsear 1030 
mac Miled (324). Perso do Amairgein Glungeal mac 
:'vIi led. Tucaid a denma mic Miled dia tothll/gud fair 
amal ata 'nar ndiaidh
Cia arranic a mberJa-sa 7 cia airm i n-arneacht 7 cissi 
aimser i n-arnecht? Ni ansa. Arranic Feniu
 Farrsaidh 1035 
oc tur Nemrua[i]d i cind dech mbliadml iar scaiIiudh on 
tur for cach leath, 7 is cach comberlaid dochuaidh and 
dochum a crichi 7 ni cach comcheniu[i]l amal rogab Cai 
Cainbreathach, dalta Feniusa Farr[s]aidh, in dara descip111 
sechtmogat na scoili. Ba do Ebraibh a bhunadhus 7 co 10-10 
Eigipt rofuidhedh. Ocus is and roan Fenius fodhesin ocon 
tl1r, 7 is and roaitreabh, conid andsin conaitchetar chuice 
in scol berla tobaidi do theipl1 doib asna hilberlaibh tl1csat 
leo di ml1ich conna beith oc nach [a]ilil1 a mberla sain acht 
occaib-seomh a n-ænur, no ic neoch no-foglaindfedh !eit hi u 1045 
dorisi. Is andsain dorepedh a mbelra asna hilberlaibh, 7 
rotaiselbad do ænfir dib, conid a ainm-sen fOlta a mbelra- 
sa. Ba he in fer hisin .i. Goedel mac Angein, conid 
-J..J'I Gædi l de-side 0 Gædel mac Angin mic Gll1nfind mic 
Laimfhindh mic Agnl1main do Gregaibh. Inan[d] tra 1050 
Gædel mac Aimergin 7 Gædel mac Etheoir .i. da ainm 

)1)'27 fasdad, int æn L. 10'28 iar n-Amairgin L. 
]11'29 Indbir L. Origg. ii. 16, I 
1030 F.M. all1l0 3501: A.D. 915,1154,1170: Onomast [641]: O' 
]m2 tothlu<Yad L.: do tiacht fair E. 10:;-1-67 Written as text in L. 
]1)35 i nd-e;nacht E. ]0::8 comcenel E. Ion hEigepta, bodesin L. 
10j2 conna decatar E. 10.j;j theibi L. 
]().j..j cona robeth E. oc nech de am berla sin L.: oc neach aile in E. 
;; no-foglaimed L. ]O.j6 doridisi E. 



sixth Ferchertne; the seventh his pupil; the eighth 
Ceandfaelad; the ninth his pupil; the tenth its establish- 
ment in one, to wit, the Trifocal. 
This is the beginning of the Primer according to 
.-\.mairgen \Vhiteknee. Place of this book, Tochur 
Inbir Moir in the territory of Hy Enechglais Cualann: 
.--\nd its period the period of the sons of l\Iilesius: 
the person of it A\mairgen \\'hite-Knee, son of l\lilesius. 
The reason for making it that the sons of .ì\Iilesius 
demanded it of him as is after us. 
\\'ho invented this speech, and in \vhat place was 
it invented, and at what time was it invented? K ot hard. 
Fenius Farsaidh invented it at the Tower of Nimrod 
at the end of ten years after the dispersion in every 
direction from the Tower, and it was everyone speaking 
the same language that went there unto its territory and 
not everyone of the same stock, as e.g., Cai Cainbreathach, 
pupil of Fenius Farsaidh, one of the 72 scholars of 
the school. He was a lIebrew by origin and he was 
sent to Egypt. And there Fenius himself remained, at 
the Tower, and there he dwelt so that there the school 
asked of him to select for them a select language 
out of the many languages which they had brought 
with them from abroad so that that speech might not 
be in the possession of anyone else but of themselves 
alone, or of anyone who should learn it with them again. 
Then was selected their language out of the many 
languages, and it was attributed to one man of them 
so that it is his name which is upon this language. 
That man was Gaedel, son of Angen, so that Gaedil, 
Gaels, is derived from him, from Gaedel son of Angen 
son of \Vhiteknee son of \Vhitehand son of Greek 
Agrtumon. Now Gaedel son of Aimergen is the same 
as Gaedel son of Ether, to wit, his father bore 


BB. 324 a 20 



robadar fora athair .i. Aingin 7 Etheoir. Is and iaramh 
doriaghladh ill mberla-sa. I mba fearr iarum do cach 
berla 7 a nba leithiu 7 a mba cæmu, is ed darepedh isinn 
Goedilc; 7 cach son do na airnecht cairechtaire isna 1035 
aipgitribh ailibh 01 chena arrichta carechtaire leosumh 
doibh isin beithi-luis-nin in ogaim, ut est: )"X

Rolatha iarumh a fedha for leith 7 a tæbomna dno 
for leith, co fil cach æ dibh fo leth 0 'rlaile (sic). N i fail 
leathglltai amal na fail la Grego acht na muite namma. 1060 
Cach duil do na rabha ainmniugud isna berlaib ailib 
airichta ainmnighthi doibh (isin Gædilg), 1/t est grus 
7 cloch 7 linn. 

Atconnac in lis 
Seach a teged glas, 10ß3 
I narb imda a 
Cen gurb imda as. 

A nba ferr 7 a nba leithiu 7 a nba caimiu cach berla, is 
ed dora[ta]d aco isinn Gædelg .i. i nba socair caimiu fri radh 
.i. socarcaine leosum gutta 7 muiti oca and inat leathgutta 1070 
7 muiti 7 guttai amal at at icon Lait1leoir. 
Ferr i ceillleosum .i. a v fri fat 7 a v fri gair, 7 a v fri buga 
7 a v fri cruas, 7 a v fri lanfogur 7 a v fri deghfogur, and a a 
haen-choic fothibh uili amal ata icon Laitneoir 7 is ed asbcir 
in Laitneoir: Gabaidh a chuic guthazge-sium an greim sin 1075 
uili, ut est LatÏ1ze lie O1Jllles llocales produci 7 cornpi pos[s ]Ullt 
.i. itat na huili guthazge Laitinda .i. co cæmnachtar co regdar 
7 co timairceter. Leithiu i llitrib .i. ar ni fil a fhregra sin 

f2 Is am/aid L. 105:1 roriadlad in berIasa doib, an ba E. 
105-1 cainiu E. 10:.:; Goidelg E. do na airnechtair L.: donernacht E. 
10,>6 arriachta E. 1060 lethguthaige, (uil L. 1061 ainmnigthi E. 
1062 gruis E. 1068 cainiu E. 106\1 socharcaimiu L.: socbarcanl\I E. 
1070 Ieosum (ri rad guta amal ata:1t L. 1072 leosum .i. ailm E. 
107:1 deCogur L. 107-1 Cuthaib L. 1076 Gr. Lat. iv. 367,20: bee E. = ha, 
1077 co regthar 7 co timairgtir L.: ragdar, timaircter E. 1078 i lIethet E. 



two names, Aingen and Ether. It was there accordingly 
that this language was regulated. \Vhat was best accord- 
ingly of every language and what was widest and finest 
was selected for Gaelic; and for every sound for which 
no characters ,,-ere found in all the other alphabets, 
<:haracters were by them found for these in the Beithe 
Luis X in of the Ogham, 1/t est: 
aea U1
) )( 
Therefore its vowels were placed apart and its consonants 
also apart, so that everyone of them stands apart from 
the other. Semivowels do not exist, as they do not exist 
with the Greeks, but only the mutes. For every element, 
for which there was no name in the other languages, names 
were found in Gaelic, lit est, grlls, curds; cloch, stone; and 
linn, pool. 

I beheld the lis 
Past which would come a stream, 
In which its curds were many 
Though milk was not abundant. 

\Vhat was best, widest, and finest of every language 
was put by them into Gaelic, to wit, what was easier and 
pleasanter to say, to wit, they thought having vowels and 
mutes in it easier and pleasanter than semi-vowels, mutes, 
and vowels as the Latinist has. 
Better in reason with them, to wit, five. of them for a 
long and five of them for a short, and five of them for soft 
sounds and five for a hard, and five for a full sound and 
five for a diphthong than the one five underlying all of 
them as it is with the Latinist, and this is what the 
Latinist says: His five vowels all take that effect, 1/t est: 
LatÙllE vocales Olll1leS et produci et cornpi jJOSSllllt, that is, all 
the Latin vowels are such that they can be lengthened or 
shortened. Broader in letters, to wit, for there is nothing 


BB. 324- a 4-2 


E. 25 ß Y 

lasin Laitneoir: leithiu a ciallaibh 7 foclaib 7 litrib .i. lethe 
a litribh > $' fD
" . Ni fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir: leithi 1080 
i foclaib .i. grus 7 cloch 7 lind, ni fil a fregra sin lasin 
Laitneoir: grus .i. tanach: galwula lasin Laitneoir, gruth 
lasin nGoedel: dia frecra galmariumlasin Laitneoir faiscre 
lasin nGædel: gallllalalll lasin Laitneoir, gruthrach lasin 
nGædel: grus lasin nGædel, ni fil a fregarthacl1-side lasin 10S5- 
Laitneoir: lapis lasin Laitneoir, cloch lasin nGædel : petra, 
lasin Laitneoir, ail lasin nGædel: sropula lasin Laitneoir, 
carrach lasin nGædel. f Cloch (no æl)' 7 onn 7 ailcne 
immorro (col. ß), is iat sin cenela cloch do na fuilet 
freacarthaich icon Laitneoir: aqua lasin Laitneoir, usce ] 090 
lasin nGædel; alll1lis lasin Laitneoir, aband lasin nGædel ; 
piscilla lasin Laitneoir, iachlinn lasin nGædel; linn, 
immorro, lasin nGædel, ni fhil a frecra lasin Laitneoir. 
Leithiu didiu in Gaede] i foclaibh 7 i llitribh desin anda 
in Laitneoir. Is ed asbeir in Laitneoir cid leithiu i foclaib 1095 
7 i llitrib in Gaedelc, ni leithe i ciallaibh; ar cia bet 
ilanmann icon Gaedel ic sluin1t na ræt, tic in chi all 
relait as in uathadh focul fil icon Laitneoir. N i fir on, 
amal asbert in Laitneoir fein: ]Çisi sciris nomen, cognitio 
rerulIl periit .i. atbail int aichnius inna ræt meni aichnigther 1100 
int ainm. 
Is e seo a thossach in libhair-sea iar Fenius 7 iar 
nlair mac Nema 7 iar nGædel mac Ethiuir. Is iat sin 
a persainn; '7 is i a aimser .i. aimser tancatar mic 
Israel uili a hEigipht. I nDacia arricht ci asberatar alii 1105 
co mbad i mmaigh Sennair. Tucait a scribind .i. a 

lOï9 grus .i. tanach galmula lasin Laitneoir (uacat) with pzmcta dÛ: 0 
ciallaib B. 1081 gruth T. 108"2 galmu E. 
I(1!j4 no galgalam T. : galmath, gruthran E.: gruthrach T. 1086 lapis, lia E. 
1087 stropula L.: Origg. xvi. 3, 5 1088 canacc E. ail 7 ond L. 
10\10 pisczna, iasc E. 1094 in Gaedelg L. E. ina L. : ana E. 
1096 ge beth a Ian inand E. 1097 sIuind L. lÜ'J8 relaite E. 
1099 Urigg. i. 7, I: rciueris E. 110mm L. om. 
1100 nil prodit with (5) over d E. aichniged L. 1103 iar nEr E. 
1104 persanda E. tancatar L. om. 1105 asberait L.: asberat E. 



the Latinist has to correspond with that: broader 
in respect of meanings, words, and letters, to wit, 
broader in letters >1/1 \.?).. . The Latinist has nothing 
to correspond with it: broader in words, to wit, grlts, 
curds; doch, stone; lind, pool, the Latinist has nothing 
to correspond with those; curd, that is a cheese: galmula 
with the Latinist, curds with the Gael: to correspond with 
the Latinist's galmarziwl is the Gael's cheese: galmalam 
with the Latinist, gruthrach with the Gael: "stirabout" 
with the Gael, there is nothing answering to that with the 
Latinist: lapis with the Latinist, stone with the Gael: petra 
with the Latinist, rock with the Gael: scopulus with the 
Latinist, sharp pebble with the Gael. (Cloch, onn, and ailene, 
however, these are kinds of stones to which the Latinist has 
nothing corresponding: aqua with the Latinist, water with 
the Gael; amnis with the Latinist, river with the Gael; 
piscÙza with the Latinist, fish-poo
 with the Gael; to the 
Gael's pool, however, the Latinist has nothing correspond- 
ing. Hence then, the Gael is wider in words and letters 
than the Latinist. \Vhat the Latinist says is that though 
GaelIc is wider in words and letters, it is not wider in 
meanings; for though the Gael has many names in 
denoting the things, the relative meaning emerges out 
of the paucity of words which the Latinist does have. 
That is not true, as the Latinist himself says: Nisi scieris 
?lomcn, cogllitio rerulll periit, i.e., the knowledge of the 
things perishes, unless the name is known. 
This is the beginning of this book according to Fenius, 
and according to lar mac N ema, and Gael son of Ether. 
These are its persons; and this is its period, to wit, 
when all the children of Israel came out of Egypt. In 
Dacia it was invented, though others say it was in the 
plain of Shinar. The reason for writing it, because it 



BB. 3 2 4 ß 15 


E.2 6a1 7 

thotluglld do scoil mhoir co Fenius 7 co Jar 7 go Goede! 
mac nEitheoir a thepe doibh inna n U raicept " iarna 
idnacul do l\Iaissi 7 iar foglaim do Chae Cainbreathach 
occa; conad iarsin arriachta n[a] aip[glitri a n-æntabaill, 1110 
amal asbeir: Cat iat aib[g]itri 7rl. Aur cach toisseach: 
aicceacht dano icht aicce (.i. gnim), air iss i n-aicci bÚ 
in desciplll icon aidi: no aiccept .i. acceþtl/s .i. airiteJl 
.i. chucut neach nach fil agut: na nd-egeas .i. na ndæi Ý 

cen cheass .i. na fileadh. 1115 
Se primthaisigh lasi ndernad in tor .i. Eper mac Saile 
7 Gregus mac Gomer otait Greic, 7 Laitin mac Puin 
otait Laitinda, Riabad Scot mac Gomer, 7 N emruadh mac 
Cuis, 7 Fenius Farrsaidh. Da bliadain coecat 0 scailed 
in tuir co Baithius Nin mic Bel, a do coecat [a] righi: cdthir 1120 
bliadhna deac ar tri fichtib ar secht cetaib 0 fhlaithius 
Nin mic Bel co deredh Baithiusa Tutaines righ in domain. 
Is re linn rotoghladh in Træ fo dheoidh: secht mbliadna 
ingen Laitin mic Puin: conad tri bliadna cethorchat 
ar noi cetaibh 0 scaileadh in tuir co tuc Æneas Lauina 7 1125 
Laitin fen doroine a caingen Cris. Is follus as sin co nach 
certtiaghait lucht in U raicepta-sa co mbad e Laidin in 
' sec htmadh primthuiseach in tuir. 
Cest, caiteat Aipgitre na tri primberla eter 
ainmniugud 7 charechtair? Ni ansa, em. Aipgitir 1130 
Ebraidi cetamus. 

Il07 thothlugud E. Gome B. Il08 in Uaraicepta L. E. 
1109 iar:fodl- B.: iarna foglaim L. 1lll aur L.: aur- B. 
1112 icht (.i. gnim) E. air is aicci E.: Cor. Tr. 14- 
1113 accepta .i. acceþtus E. airigthi L. : airite E. 
lll-t na n-egeas .i. nanai L.: na n-eices .i. nanæ cen cess (.i. cess in becc 7 
ainces in mor) E. 1116-28 E. om. 11
 Origg. viii. 11,23; ix. 2, 134,135 
1124 d'ingio L. 1127 conad bad B.: co mad he L. 
1129 cateatt aibgidri na tri primber1ad ainmnigthi 7 E. 1130 chairechtaire L. 



was by the great school requested of Fenius, Iar, and 
Gaedel son of Ether that it should be selected for 
them as their Primer after it had been given by l\loses 
and learned with him by Cae Cainbreathach; so that 
after that the alphabets were invented on one table, as 
he says: \Vhat are the alphabets, etc. AUI" is every 
beginning: also aicce-acht, lesson, is icht aicce, child nurture, 
i.e., a deed, for it is in nurture that the disciple is with his 
fosterer: or aiccept that is tlcceptus, that is, of acceptance, 
to wit, unto thee of something that thou hast not: na 
lld-egeas, of the sages, of the men without doubt, to wit, 
the poets. 
Six principal chiefs by whom the Tower was made, to 
wit, Eber 1\Iac Saile, Grecus l\Iac Gomer whence are the 
Greeks, and Latinus son of Faunus whence are the Latins, 
l{iabad Scot son of Gomer, Kimrod son of Cush, and 
Fenil1s Farsaidh. Fifty-two years from the dispersion of 
the T owcr tiB the reign of N in son of Bel with his reign 
of fifty-two. Seven hundred and seventy-four years from 
the reign of Xin son of Bel to the end of the reign of 
Tothmes king of the world in whose time Troy was at 
length sacked. Seven years old was the daughter of 
Latinl1s son of Faunus: so that there are nine hundred 
and forty-three years from the dispersion of the Tower 
till 4 Eneas married Lavinia, and Latinus himself made his 
covenant with him. From that it is evident that the 
people of this Primer do not advance accurately, that 
Latinus was one of the seven chief rulers of the Tower. 
Query, what are the alphabets of the three principal 
languages, both name and character? Not hard indeed. 
The alphabet of the Hebrews first, that is, Aleph 

86 BB. 3 2 4 ß 35 AURAICEPT E. 26 a 24 
.i. Aleph Ebreorum. Graecorum. Latinoru11l. 
1J, d1epñ. 7$. a1131)a <1 
S"bed, l?001 11 

 -semë1. T a1>>a C 
U oe1etñ (( ae1ba 
U bee o ee e- 
-S U1UlU 

1111&1) l-.11\era 1) 
N t1)ed) tÐ d)em 1 
Uod) ç 10at 
<) atp1\ 
 C"d1J4 t 
1) 1
 1; 1um 11) 

mem J-C l1J01 11 
'l' mtn 
 1)01 () 

 1ú mec '''L c1}u -p 
lJ l1a1n 0 0 <J 
1Y 13l)e 'rf 1J1}e l' 

 raDe ry coþe J 
oS cop"f) P po '"'Ç 
c-:> tier C 1 1ma -u 
S f1ß I' å)au 
11 d)au '1 U1UV ç 
o -p1)1 f, 

 Ò)1 1 
)i Pfi 
tL1 00 l
'\ en naco sse. 

Aleph of the Hebrews, Alpha of the Greeks and A of 
the Latins. 



 B' b 

 r c 
i1 E c 
, z f 
1 II 
n e h 
b I 1 

 }( 1 

 j\ 111 

 ..\1 n 
.) - r 
jJ 0 <f 

 P ]' 

 '\' G 

P 'f u 
, T :x 

 (þ ') 
J:1 X 
'V 1 
n c 
(Sampi) 900, i""aKóCTtOt. 




BB. 3 2 4- ß 37 

E. 26 a 24- 

Is e in fer cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh arainig inna ceithri 
aipgitri-sea .i. aipgitir Ebraidi 7 Grecda 7 Laitinda 7 in 
beithi-Iuis-nin in ogaim 7 is airi is certiu in dedenach .i. 
in beithe air is fo deoidh arricht. Bai coiciur ar fichit 113G 
is in scoil ba huaislitt dib 7 it e a n-anmand for- (325) ta in 
beithi-luis-nin eter fedha 7 tæbomna 

õ { -,:. T' ,., ., '11 m .,..1111111 10 } 11 5 1 
 4ø U. e 1 at 01 tit 10 tm= 
--, 11111/ II/filiI! 1) ,,-ç c <1 1'4$!f/II/;/ff T 11 1U 1JJJ """'- 0 {?
7 bai morshesser ba huaisliu do suidhibh 0 ran- 
ainmnighthea na seacht fedha aireghdha inn ogaim, 1140 
(1 0 U e , ee(c1
conadh oiri rolaithi for leith I .. ... 

Asberat araili it deiclt feda airegda filet ann 7 it e indso 
a 0 U e , eelddJOo uu U .. ;;;: . 
a n-anmand: "'-..1..11. . . .. .. . ::: 7 It e 
",rT TT · ':' (it
a tri doforma g at sen frisna secht thuas -10"11.11." 
conid aire sin rolatha a fedha 7 a tæbomna for leith 1145 
7 it e a n-anmand soin fordotait iarumh. 
Asberat immorro araile co nach 0 dhainibh itir 
ainmnighter fedha inn n-ogaim is in Gædhelg acht 0 
chrandaibh gen gu haichinter anniu araile crand dibh. 
Air atat ceithri hernaile for crandaib .i. airigh fedha 7 1150 
athaig fedha 7 lossa fedha 7 fodhla fedha; 7 is uaithibh sin 
a ceathrur ainmnighter fedha in oghaim. Airigh fedha 
quidcm .i. dur, coIl, cuileand, abhull, uindsiu, ibur, gius. 
Athaig fedha .i. fern, sail, bethi, lemh, sce, crithach, 
c.erthand. Fodla fedha andso .i. draighen, trom, feorus, 1155 

113:1 in aipgidir E. ll;a oguim L. E. certidi L. 11:
'í bæ E. 
11:16 huaisliu, Cotha E. lUI rolaiti hi for leith L. : roCorletha E. 
 doCormagat sin, Cuas E. 11-16 Coratait L. int anmand-somh Cord orca E. 
JH7-97 E. om. lU!J gen gu bad aithnig T. : pat aichinti H. 
JI."jO airidh ß. m:
 dair L. ibullr B. 



ow Fenius Farsaidh is the same man that discovered 
these four alphabets, to wit, the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin 
alphabets, and the Beithe Luis Nin of the Ogham, and it 
is for this reason the last, to wit, the Beithe is more exact 
because it was discovered last. There were in the school 
twenty-five that were noblest among them, and these 
are their names, which are upon the Reithe Luis N in both 
vowels and consonants:. 

 1Y ., 11m'1m,,,,,,"'l t1 5# 
 4Ø 11 e 1 ØIOI 1Iuo l 
--, , "iliUm" /I 1) ,,-ç C -<l / 4
h 'ífH T 11 Tn 1lJJ JJm><.. 0 l? 

And there were seven that were most noble among these, 
from whom the seven principal vowels of the Ogham 
have been named, so for that reason they have been 
placed apart: a 0 u e 1 ee[d
. "I I It 

Others say that ten principal vowels stand in it and 
these are their names: 
a 0 u e 1 eeldc1JOo UU ü " 
> 1 "1JJ 1)11 11m'X 0 U 

And these are the three that increase those to the 
above seven to wit oo1.nn..". _ so on that account 
, , .., 
their vowels and consonants have been set apart, 
and these are their names which are thus upon them. 
Others, however, say that it is not from men at all that 
the Ogham vowels are named in Gaelic but from trees, 
though some of these trees are not known to-day. For 
there are four classes of trees, to wit, chieftain trees, 
peasant trees, herb trees, and shrub trees; and it is from 
these four that the Ogham vowels are named. Chieftain 
trees, quit/em, to wit, oak, hazel, holly, apple, ash, yew, fir. 
Peasant trees, to wit, alder, willo\\", birch, elm, white- 
thorn, aspen, mountain-ash. The shrub trees here, to wit, 

9 0 

BB. 325 a 18 


erand fir, fedlend, fidhat, finneholl. Lossa fedha .i. aitean, 
fraeeh, gilcaeh, raid, lecla .i. luaehair 7rl. Beithe dno on 
beithe rohainmnigheadh ar eosmaillius fri eois in bheithe 
ut dicitur: 

Feocos íoltchain in beithi, 


7 is airi sin is i mbeithi roseribadh in eetainm ogaim 
tueadh a nErind .i. seeht mbeithi tugad do Lugh mae 
Ethlenn .i. berthair do bean uait 1Zisi eam cllstodi[e]rzs 
(.i. mine derna tu a ecimét L. om.). Is aire sin beos seribthar 
beithi a tosaeh aipgz"tre in ogaim. Luis dno, is 0 ehrand 1165 
rohainmniged .i. 0 eairtheand .i. uair luis ainm eærthaind 
isint shenGaedelg ut dicitNY: Li sula luis .i. eærtheand 
ar ailleaeht a eær. Fernd dono, 0 ehrand rohainmniged 
1/t dicitur: Airenaeh Fianll .i. fernd, air is di na sgeith. 
Sail dano, is 0 ehrand roliainmniged lIt dicitur: Li ambi 1170 
.i. nemli lais .i. ar eosmaillius a datha fri marb. Kin 
dno, is 0 ehrand rohainmniged .i. 0 uindsind ut dici/l/r: 
eosdad sida nin .i. uinnius, ar is di doniter eraind gæ triasa 
eoseairther in sidh: no eosdudh sidha uindis. Xin .i. 
ginol garmna dognither do uindsind .i. Ism aimsir 1] 75 
sidha togaibter garmna. Huath dono, is 0 ehrand 
rohainmniged .i. see [ut dici/ur: eomdal euan huath 
.i. see L. om.]: no ar is uathmar hi ara deilghibh. Duir 
dono, is 0 ehrand rohainmniged, ut dicitl/Y airde doss- 
aib duir. Tinne dono, is 0 ehrand rohainmniged .i. ] 180 
euileann [trian roith tindi L] .i. ar is euileand in tres 

l1-il; ethleand, idat T. ]160 Feochas L. 1160-97 d. A lUC. iii. 43. 45 
 aibgidreach L. 1167 fala T. 1168 datha a caer H. 
1169 fiada ream fear .i. is di dognithear na sgiatha lasna Fianaib T.: is di 
na sgeith B. L. mo Li ambi mairb soil T. 
)]7:1 aliter RC. xxvi. 2-1-, 
 72. coscrach sida T. 
1m coscraidthea L. J1
] trian a rothenne B. 


9 1 

black-thorn, elder, spindle-tree, test-tree, honeysuckle, 
bird-cherry, white-hazel. Herb trees, to wit, furze, 
heather, broom, bog-myrtle, lecla, to wit, rushes, etc. 
Now beithe has been named from the birch owing to its 
resemblançe to the trunk of the birch, ut dicituy: 

Of withered trunk fairhaired the birch, 

and therefore on the birch was written the first Ogham 
inscription that was brought into Ireland, to wit, seven 
birches were brought to Lugh son of Ethleann, to wit, thy 
wife will be taken from thee nisi ealll custodieris, to wit, 
unless thou watch her. I t is on that account b is still 
written at the beginning of the Ogham alphabet. Then 
as to l/lis, it is named from a tree, to wit, from mountain- 
ash, i.e., because l/lis is the name of mountain-ash in old 
Gaelic,ut dicitur: Delight of eye is mountain-ash, i.e., rowan, 
owing to the beauty of its berries. Fern, alder, again, 
is named from a tree, ut dicitur: The van of the \Varrior- 
bands, that is, alder, for thereof are the shields. Sail, 
wiIlow, again, is named from a tree, ut dicitllr: The colour of 
a lifeless one, i.e., it has no colour, i.e., owing to the resem- 
blance of its hue to a dead person. Nin too is named from 
a tree, viz., ash, ut dicit"r: A check on peace is llin, yiz., 
ash, for of it are made the spear-shafts by which the peace 
is broken: or, A check on peace is uilldiS. lVill, that is a 
maw of a weav
r's beam which is made of ash, that is, 
in time of peace weavers' beams are raised. HZ/ath, again, 
is named from a tree, viz., white-thorn, ut dicitNr: A meet 
of hounds is Illlath, viz. white-thorn; or because it is 
formidable owing to its thorns. Duir, oak, again, is 
named from a tree, 1/t dicitur: Higher than bushes is an 
oak. Till1Ie, again, is named from a tree, i.e., holly, a third 
of a wheel is holly, that is, because holly is one of the 
three timbers of the chariot-wheel. Coli, again, is named 

9 2 

BB. 325 a 39 


E. 26 a 43 

fidh roith in carbait. Call dona, is a chrand rohainmnig- 
ed ut dicitllY cainfidh .i. call .i. cach ac ithi a chno, 
Queirt dana, is a chrand rohainmnighcad .i. abhull ut 
dicitllr: cIithar boaiscille .i. elit gelt quert .i. abaii. 1185 
l\Iuin dona .i. finemhain, ut dicitllr, airdi masi mum .i. 
iarsinni fhasas a n-airde .i. finemhain. Gort dona .i. 

Glaisiu geltaibh gort 

.i. edind. Ngetal dono .i. gilcach no raith ut dicitl/r: 1190 
luth lega getal .i. cilcach no raith. Straiph dona .i. 
draighen, ut dÛ:itur: aire srabha sraibh .i. draighin. 
Ruis dona .i. tram, llt dicitllr, ruamna ruice ruis .i. tram. 
A-\ilm dona .i. crand giuis .i. ochtach. Onn .i. aiten. U r 
.i. fraech. Edhadh .i. ed uath .i. crand fir no crithach. 1195 
Idho .i. ibhar. Ebhadh .i. crithach (coi. ß). Oir .i. feorus 
no edind. Uilleand .i. edleand. I phin .i. spinan no ispin 
Amnand fidh tra sin uile amal fogabac isna Duilibh 
Fedha inn ogaim 7 ni ho dainib ut alii dicuJlt. 1200 
Cest, cis lir a cumang? N i ansa. Lanchumang intibh 
uilibh eter fedha 7 taebomna co nd
 huath .i. conas- 
firbade uath .i. amal bes a n-aicllcd cidh mor gidh beg e. Is 
amhlaidh innister isin Cin Ollaman .i. cethirs[h]licht fegh- 
thair for fedhaibh .i. cumang 7 egumang, lanchumang 7 1205 
lenchumang. Lanchumang i fedaib, cumang a forfed- 
aibh, egumang a mutibh, lethchun:tang a leathgutaibh. 
Atberat araile is treshlicht as choir and .i. lanchumang a 
fedaibh, 7 cumang a forfedaibh, 7 ecumang a muitibh; ar ni 

l1S-j eeirt L. ll
 EiLhieand L. 11!11 raid, Straif L. 
ll!r2 draigean L. sreabhudh sdraibh T.: sraibh B. 11\'3 mise T. 
1l!I! dono .i. aitenn, onn .i. oehtaeh T. 1
 dainib L. Fillit T. 
]203.]0 E. 0111. 120! Is amlaidh so huath, eethir slieht L.: gach slicht B. 
]:)'1:; 1 taebomnaib L. ]206 leneumang L. 1
8 tre licht L. 



from a tree, 1/t dicitur: Fair wood, that is, hazel, Le., 
everyone is eating of its nuts. Q'lleirt, again, is named 
from a tree, i.e., an apple tree, ut dicitur: Shelter of a 
boiscill, that is, a wild hind is qucirt, i.e., an apple tree. 
JluÙz, again, that is, a vine-tree, ut dicitur: Highest of 
beauty is /llltill, that is, because it grows aloft, that is, a 
vine-tree. Gort, again, that is, ivy:- 
"Greener than pastures is ivy." 
.Vgeltl/, again, that is:- broõm or fern, ut dzcitur: A 
physician's strength is broom, to wit, broom or fern. 
Straip/I, again, that is, black-thorn, 1/t dicitur: The hedge 
of a stream is sraiblt, that is, black-thorn. Ruis, again, 
that is, elder, 1/t dicitur: The redness of shame is ntis, i.e., 
elder. A illll, again, i.e., a fir tree, to wit, a pine tree. 
Onll, that is, furze. Ur, that is, heath. Edhadh, that is, 
cd uath, horrible grief, to wit, test-tree or aspen. ldo, that 
IS, yew. Eb/tadh, that is, aspen. Oil', that is, spindle-tree, 
or ivy. Uillealld, that is, honeysuckle. IphÙz, that is 
gooseberry, or thorn, etc. 
Now all these are wood names such as are found in the 
Ogham Books of \Voods, and are not derived from men, 1/1 
alii dicllllt. 
Query, how many are their powers? X ot hard. Full 
power is in them all both vowels and consonants, with the 
exception of h, that .is, that h might be truly sunk, that is, 
as their nature may be, whether it be great or small. It is 
so set down in the Book of Ollams. to wit, four divisions 
that are s
 on vowels, viz., power and want of power, 
full power and half-power. Full power in vowels, power 
in diphthongs, want of power in mutes, and half-power in 
semivowels. Others say that three divisions are proper 
there, viz., full power in vowels, power in diphth;ngs, and 
want of power in mutes; for no semivowel exists with the 
Gael. Query, what is long in vowels and diphthongs, and 


BB. 3 2 5 ß 13 


E. 26 a 4 5 

fil leathguta la Gædel. Cest, cate fot i fedhaibh 7 i forfedh- L210 
aibh 7 gair hi tæbomnaib .i. gair suidigud, air is leath- 
aimser for taebomnaib do gres a corus foifed. 
Cest, cis Iir dech docussin? Ni ansa. A ocht: dialt 
7 recomrac 7 iarcomrac, felis 7 cIoenre 7 luibenchosach 7 
cIaideamnas 7 bricht. Oenfidh airegda i ndialt, a da i 1215 
recomrac, a tri i n-iarcomrac, a ceithri i filÚ, a coic 
hi cIænre, a se i luibenchosach, a secht i cIaidemnas, a 
ocht i mbricht, cenmota taebomna. Cest, cia roig 
dialt i mmeit 7 i IIaiget .i. dialt co ceill coic litri and a 
n-as mode: rosaigh i IIaiget co oenlitir 7 is focal son, 'lit 1220 
est a, 0, i, amal ata á (.i. ard) slebhi. Amal ita Ard 
(Á) Cuis, 7 Ard (Á) Cartaind, a Slebh Luachra .i. 
anmand slebhe saindriudh Itt dixit Mac Da Cerd[a]:- 

Damh conngair eter da a, 
Fon-gluaisi gæth gulbanda, 
Is uallach int arganda 
Re trichait sed lurganda 


7 0 (.i. cIuas) for cind 7 [i] inis Coluilll CiIIe. Rosaigh 
didiu i mmeit co a coic Iittri, ut est, bracht tract druct 
scalp. Scriuthair 7 ni hairimther uath isna foclaib dedenach- 1230 
aib arna Iitrib, acht nod tinfid. Cach ndialt iarum na 
tormaig fri araili C01/lcumung cach æ focail. Deich co a 
ocht a mbricht 7 is e met 7 laigett cacha Gæidelgi 0 dealt 

l:m gair(de) i taobomnaib E. : Gr. Lat. v. Il2, 28 1213 deich dochusin L. 
JIargin, pp. 325, 326: Aspiratio H, dassie11 [õauÚavJ ... scilen [1f'^lW] -i. 
cf. Thes. ii. 51, 68: Gr. Lat. iii. 520, 14; v. 33, 33: 132, 28; viii. 230, IS: 
Origg. i. 19, 9 1216 recornarc, iarcomarc, Celis L. 
1220, B rosig E. 12-
2-7 E. om. ]2;J() serin E. 
1:!:31 isna litrib L. 12;."2 for araili L. imtormaig E. 



short in consonants? that is short by position, for the 
law of Ogham diphthongs is half-time on consonants 
Query, how many verse-feet are there? Not hard. 
Eight of them: dialt, one syllable; reCOlllrac, two syllables; 
iarcomrac, three; felis, four; cloenre, five; luibenchossach, 
six; claidelllnas, seven; and bricht, eight syllables. One 
principal vowel in dialt, two of them in reCOlllrac, 
three of them in iarcomrac, four of them in feles, 
five of them in cloenre, six of them in luibenclLOssach, 
seven of them in claidelllnas, eight of them in lricht, 
besides consonants. Query, how far does a syllable 
extend to in greatest and least? To wit, a syllable with 
a meaning, five letters are in it, which is the greatest: 
it reaches an inferior limit at one letter, and that a word, ut 
cst, a, 0, i, viz. such as á, that is, a mountain height. Such 
are Á (Ard) Cuis, and Á (Ard) Cartaind, in Sleeve 
Luachra, to wit, names of particular mountains, ut dixit 
::\Iac Da Cerda :- 

A stag bells betwet:n two heights, 
A pi!,r cin g wind tosses us, 
Proud is the stalker (?) 
Before thirty long-shanked deer. 

and 0, on a head, to wit, an ear; and (I) Colum Cille's 
Island. Then it reaches a superior limit up to five 
letters, ut est, bracht, fat; tracht, strand; dn/cht, dew; 
scalp, gap. H is written and is not counted among the 
letters in the last words, but it is a mark of aspiration. As 
to every syllable, therefore, that does not add to another, 
each of them is the equivalent of a word. Verse-feet up to 
eight of them are in bricht. And that is the superior and 
inferior limit of all Gaelic from dialt, one, to bricht, eight, 
syllables, both included, to wit, that there may be pöwer 

9 6 

BE. 3 2 5 f3 33 


E. 26 a y 

co bric[h]t cona n-athgabail dibIinaib .}. CO cumangar du 
gach dialt iarna tinol deach. Is bricht a mbith ocht sillaba. 1235 
Is ed bunad cacha Gædelge dialt acht mod 7 totlt 7 traeth. 
Domiditer alta uad fri alta duine amal domiditer fri cach 
n-indsci. Cest, cindus domiditer fd cach n-indsci? N i 
ansa. Corop cach dialt 
a ra di a raili, ut est, tis tuas 
tair tiar tes tuaid; gu rub recomarc friscara di araili. ar 1:?40 
is cubaid a comfid 7 a comdeich. 
Coig airmi cintecha in tuir .i. da tuaith sechtmogat 7 
da comairlig sechtmogat acco 7 da berla sechtmogat for 
fodailt doib 7 da deiscipul sechtmogat tancadar la Feinius 
do foglailll na mberla sin 7 da ceimend sechtmogat in 1245 
airdi in tuir. 
Cest, caidi deifir eter indeall 7 tindell? Ni ansa. Innell 
int imcomurc 7 tinnell int eirlliud. 
Seacht primtoisigh lasi ndernad in tor .i. Eber mac 
Saili, Grecus mac Gomer a quo Greci, Laitin mac Puin 12;)0 
a quo Laitilli, Riabath Scot a quo Scoiti, X elllrl/adh mac 
Cuis mic Cairn mic -,-Voi, 7 Faillech mac Ragau mic 
Arafaxat mic Seim. 
Cest, cate deochraigter eter cinniud 7 cintech[ u] 7 
cinntichu son? Ni ansa. Cinniud in aipgitir Grecda, ar is 1255 
ceirtiu quam ind aipgitir (326) Aspin Ebraide. Cinntichu 
imlllorro in aipgitir Laitiallda 1la in aipgitir Grecda. 
Cinntichu son .i. beithi-luis-nin in ogaim lla in aipgitir 
Laitianta uair is fo deoidh arricht. 
Cia hænfocul gebes forna ceit[h]ri ernaili ind Aurai- 1260 
cepta cen deifir tomuis 1/0 tarmfortcind 1lO feda no focail 
1235 E. om. 1236 todh L.: toth 7 troeth E. 12:17 domiter L.: dodomiditer E. 
]2.19 a l aile E. l:!-IO tuaid L. om. lUl fodail L.: forfodailtea E. 
5 fodluim E. na n-ilberla L.: na mberlad E. 12

 imcomarc, int erned E. 
]2,'j(} Grecaig E. l:!;n Latini. Riabath Scott, Scoti E. 12.52 Næ, Reu L. : ix. 13. 
 mic ix. E. adds 12rJ-l cindead L. Caite a meit a dechraigter E. 
1:!56 ar B. E. inas L. Grecda E. Cindtichu L. Aspin is written out. 
The marginal gloss (v. p. 94 note) is almost opposite. The glossator thought 
Eabraide should be aspirated to Hebraide. 12.5; nas L.I 
 inas L. ]26] tarmsce learn forcind no fedha E. 



to every syllable, after they are gathered into verse-feet. It 
is bricht in which are eight syllables. Dialt, syllable, is the 
foundation of all Gaelic except mod, totll, and traeth. 

 lIta, joints, of science are measured with a man's joints 
as they are measured with every speech. Query, how are 
they measured with every speech? Not hard. That 
each syllable may correspond to another, ut est, down, up, 
east, west, south, north; that one dissyllable may corre- 
spond to an
ther, for the like vuwels and the like verse- 
feet of them rhyme. 
Five certain numbers of the Tower, to wit, 72 peoples, 
and 72 counsellors with them, 72 languages divided 
among them, and 72 pupils that came with Fenius to 
learn those languages, and 72 paces was the height of 
the T o"'er. 
Query, what is the difference between illdell, yoking, 
and tiJldell, unyoking ? Not hard. Illdc// the question, 
and til/dell the solution. 
Seven chief leaders by \vhom the Tower was made, to 
wit, Eber son of Saile; Grecus son of Gomer, a quo Gracci; 
Latinus son of Faunus, a quo Latini; Riabath Scot, 
a quo Scotti; Nimrod son of Cush, son of Ham, son of 
X oah; and Peleg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad, son of 
Query, what are the different significations between 
definite, more definite, and most definite? Not hard. 
Definite is the Greek alphabet, for it is more exact than 
the Hebrew alphabet. :\Iore definite, however, the Latin 
alphabet than the Greek alphabet. I'dore definite than 
the Latin alphabet is this, to wit, the Beithe Luis Nin 
of the Ogham for it was invented last. 
\Vhat single word compreh
nds the four divisions 
of the Primer without regard to difference of measure, 
termination, letter, word, Or form? Not hard. The 

9 8 

BB. 3 2 6 a 5 


E. 26 ß 19 

na forgnuisi? Ni ansa. In focul is aipgitir, ar gebid ar 
aipgitir Ebraide 7 Grecda 7 Laitianda. 
Treidi doghni uath .i. bogad 7 semigudh 7 airdibdad. 
Bocad cetumus: for taebolllllaib 7 is 'na ncliaidh doeag- 1263 
maing doib .i. do P 7 do c [7] do t ut doch, both. larsin 
Laitneoir bidh tinfid iar cach taebollllla isin Gædilc. Semi- 
gudh immorro forna taebolllllaib chena 7 is rempo doec- 
maing doib .i. for coic taebolllnaib .i. for b, C, d, t, g. Bogad 
beithi cetamus .i. sop 7 lop .i. amal ata B[h ]atraig. C ath 1270 
bogas in beithi fil and, ar ni bi p is in Gædilc. Semigud 
amal ata a Batraig, uath and i[ s] semiu 'nas i n-aill. 
Bocad cuill .i. dach 7 ach; bocad d .i. sodh 7 odh. Bocad 
for tinni .i. tath 7 ath. Bocad for gort .i. magh ï agh. 
Seimigud b immorro .i. a bhen, a bhan, a bhe binn. 1275 
Seimiugud C do no .i. 0 chiun, do chein, 0 chianaibh, 0 
chetoir. Semigud d .i. d[h ]amsa, d[h ]uitsiu. Semigud t 
.i. a thir, a thuaigh. Semiugud g .i. a ghradh ï a 
Airdibdad immorro 
 [dá] taebomna .i. for sailig 7 1280' 
for ferna (.i. taebomna amal fedaib) .i. orro dibdlldh .i. 
a mbricht ass di raith amal ata ardibdad sailcch .i. a 
s[h]al, a s[h]uil. Airdibdad ferna .i. a fhind, a f[h]ir, ind 
f[h ]ed a. 
Is sain so frisna cubaid ])() 1ßf ( .i. euad 7 1285 
edadh in'" dorusa uerbi (.i. tabair esemplair) gur uinge 7 
cingit 7 cuing is ecen di littir Latzanda ica scribind na 
consani .i. n 7 g. Ni hecen acht $ a oenur ar son 

126,1 doni E. seimiugad 7 airdibad L.: bocud 7 semed 7 airdibudugud E. 
1263 Ebra L. 1267 tinfeadh L. 1268 che(t)na E. 
1270 roc, sop, lot, O'Molloy Gr. xvii. p. 163 1271-2 E. om. 
1272 a Phatraig T. 1275 a bé find, Ir. Texte, i. 132, 34: abhind E. 
127ti on chiuin L.: 0 chind E. 1278 a thuath L.: a tuath, guirt .i. agda ogda E. 
12i9 a ogh L. 1?JW forda, for sail 7 for fearnd L. airdibad E. 
1281 oir 0 dibad E. 1282 a mbrat E. 
12& Sain.sol1 frisnad cub- E. 1286 irl dorsa uerbi E. uing L. 
1287 ica B.: i L. is i n-oen di litt ir, na son sin n 7 g E- 



word alphabet, for it comprehends the Hebrew, Greek, 
and Latin alphabets. 
H causes three things, to wit, bogad, lenition of final (?), 
séllligud, lenition of initial (?), and airdíbdud, extinction. 
Bogad first: it falls on consonants and follows them, viz.: 
1>, C, and t, ut clock, stone; both, booth. According to 
the Latinist, aspiration is usual after every consonant in 
Gaelic. Sélllig71d, lenition of initial, however, falls upon 
the consonants in general and precedes them, that is, on 
five consonants, b, C, d, t, g. Bogadlz of b first, viz. sop 
and lop, such as Pátraig. It is h that softens the b that 
stands in it, for p does not exist in Gaelic. Séllligl/dk, 
such as a P hátraig, h is there, \V hich is softer than 
the other exam pIe. Bogad of c, viz. clack, stone, and 
adz, alas! of d, viz. sódh, turning, and odk, music: of t, viz. 
táth, dissolution, and átll, ford: of g, viz. 11laglz, plain, and 
agh, cow. Sémigud of b, however, a bhell, his wife, a bhá1t, 
its blank space, a bhe bÙzn, 0 sweet woman: of C also, viz. 
o c1tilmn, since, do cheÙl, from afar, 0 clziallaibh, just now, 
o chetoir, immediately 
 of d, viz. dhamsa, to me, dhuitsiu, 
to thee: of t, viz. a thír, his land, a thuaigh, [to] his axe: 
of g, viz. a glzrádll, his love, and a ó!f!!a, hi

irdíbdltd, extinction, however, comes upon two con- 
L - 
sonants (i.e., consonants. become like vowels), that is, the 
letters sand f, that is, extinction is on them, that is, their 
being deleted altogether, such as the extinction of s, to 
wit! a shál, his heel; a Slllíil, his eye. Extinction of f, to 
wit, a fhind, his hair; a fIliI', 0 man; Ùld flzeda, of the 
This is different from the rhymes '})() 1m <: el/ad. 
and edadll o f the b_eß inn in
 word (give examples) \ 
that in uinge, cingit, and cuing t
 is need for t,,"O 
Latin letters to write the consonants D, g. There is no 
need but of 
 only for these two letters in Gaelic, 

100 Bll. 326 a 2S 


E. 26 ß 3-1- 

in da Httre sin isin Gædilc, u! cst, ;> 1fJ. g X ( .i. 
uinge, )111113$< .i. cuing, II' II" II eingit. Ni 1290 
dat inunna dno suin fris nad eubaid each æ dib-seo 
) X1mt( , It! est, seeit in teinid, tria 
 a seribind. 
Seit (.i.) eonar tria * a seribind. Neim nathraeh .i. -fflJ- 
a seribind: min (-i. beic) iphi and; min arba .i. )-1ßß< 
and. Nemh im tallllaill, neamh im usee * andsen. 1295 
Air i[t] trega ar a tugad forfeda eter isin aib[g]itir in 
ogaim .j. do fregra do defoghur amal adberar isna 
breathaibh nemedh .i. genmota forfeda a fail defoghur 
na nguta 7 dono do sainigedh foghur forsna fedhaibh, air 
is buga fogair bis isna forfedhaibh, lit cst, neamh 
and: næmh. and: nem -ffJt< and. 
It e coie gne in berla tobaidi .i. berla Fene 
7 fasaige na filed 7 berla etarsgarta 7 berla forttide na filed 
triasa n-agaillit each dib a chele 7 iarm berla amal rogab: 
Cuie .i. ruin. Et ballorb .i. ball do forbau na filideachta 1305 
aicce; no is do ehallaid is ainm. Et muirne .i. miruz.n no 
miruine. Gne n-aill do iarmberla .i. iarum 7 dno 7 atat ï 
tra 7 immorro 7 edon 7 iar 7 ar 7 eest 7 cair 7 eisne ï 
eaidat 7 ni ansa 7rl. Gne n-aill dno .i. forsna (.i. feraib) 7 
fona 7 esna 7 tresna, see(h]na. It e na lorga fuaeh in sin 1310 
lasin filid. Gne n-aill dano .i. he es em co tre tair do 0 fo 

]2(1] frisna decubaid L. 
)(.4 anusce E. 
6-1301 E. om. 
]:;1)3 fortchide L. 
]::03 bal dorb T. 
PI6 chal1aig L. 

 seit L. 
]296 Airi trega B. 
]\!9'j asberar L. 
1304 aigill L. tOe iarmbirla Y. RC. xiii. 26 7 
Corbu L.: forban E. 
]30; miridi L. 

J308 tra B. item L




ttI U/Jf. ( . .. 1111 L1/ . . 
lit est, ;> ,,, .,/ / /\ I.e., ltlllgZ, ounce, ") 1..// / < I.e., C/Illlg, 
yoke, "I 'II. /I i.e., cingit, they step. Now sounds 
are not the same with which each one of these does not 
rhyme ) X1mt( , 1/t est, seeit, they blow the fire, is written 
. Sdt, a road, by writing *. Neim, poison of a 
serpent, is written by -1ßJ-. J.llill, that is, small, i_s ï there. 
)IÙl, meal of corn, i.e.,
. Nemh, heaven round earth: 
lleamh, with reference to water * is there. For there are 
three things for which diphthongs were introduced at all 
into the Ogham alphabet, viz. to correspond to a diph- 
thong as is said in the llellled judgments, that is, except 
Ogham diphthongs in which there are two sounes of 
the vowels; and also to differentiate sounds upon the 
Ogham vowels, for it is a softness of sound that exists in 
the Ogham diphthongs, lit est, lleamh, heaven, * 
is there: lltlelllh, saint, W ae is there, 1lelll, poison, -ffft< i is 
These are the five species of the Selected Language, 
viz. :-Language of the Irish, Commentaries of the Poets, 
Parted Language, Obscure Language of the Poets through 
which each of them addresses his fellow, and iarmbérla 
such as: Cttic, a secret. 1:.:t ballorb, to wit, he has a 
member for completing poetry; or it is the name for a 
ümo. Et lIlUirlle, spears, to wit, ill-will, or of ill will. 
There is another kind of iarmbél1a, to wit, therefore, now, 
there are, indeed, moreover, even, after, on, query, pray, 
how many, what are, not hard, etc. Another kind also, 
on the (men), under, out of, through, past them. The
are the staves of words with the poet. Another kind too, 
to wit, he that, indeed, unto, through, over, to, from, 
under, on. That is an interloping syllable with the 

102 BE. 326 a 44- 


E. 26 ß 44 

fair. Dialt n-etarlernrni in sin lasin filid. larrnberIa tra 
eosin annuas. Is aire raiter iarmberla de .i. ara se[e]daeht 
amal iarunn, da fedtar a thaithmeaeh: no iarmberla .i. 
berIa ranig lar mae N erna fo dheoidh 7 ni fetar a thaith- 1315 
Oeus berla n-edarsgarta eter na fedaibh. aireghdaibh 
.i. berla tresa fuiI deliugud na fid n-aire[gh ]da isin ænfhoeul 
triana n-inde taithmeaeh, 1/t est, amal rogabh ros .i. roi 
oiss quando (.i. intan) as rois eælli 7 rass iar lind intan 1320 
as ros usee .i. rofhos mad for rnarbusee no (eoI. {-1) roidh 
ass mad for sruth 7 r
 as intan as ros lin .i. ar a luas 7 ar a 
thigi asas. Oeus am berla forteidi .i. fordoreha no 
ruamanta inna filideachta, arnal asrubairt in file hi seuil 
Feniusa: Etaill aro ni anfem de .i. i inis; etall .i. uasal 1325 
7 aro .i. irnramh .i. ni a1lfern de irnrarn co risam in innsi 
n-uasail .i. Eiri no Espain, no is Espain eicin amal rogab 
i n-Irnagallaim na Da Thuar: Brirnon srnetrae[h]. BerIa 
na filed so .i. in gne deidinaeh i[ s] sund .i. bri .i. briathar, 
mon .i. cleas, 7 srnit .i. cluas, 7 forraeh .i. rigi: no bri .i. 1330 
bria ìÈar, 7 mon .i. cleas, 7 smetraeh .i. smit forraeh .i. 
co forrgidis neaeh. Cleas )ra thard a sin donidis na filid 
oe eenueh .i. smit a cluaisi do gabail ina lairnh .i. arnal 11 
nae[h] fil enairn sund ni raib eneaeh ieonti egnaigeas 
in fili. 1335 
Iss e in eoic(ed) gne in gnat[h]berla fogni do eae[h], 

1313 seat1acht L. 1313-16 E. om. 
13U iar- B.: iarm L. fedthar B. : fegthar L. 1317.23 Arch. C. P. iii. 248 
1319 trian an idi, ross .i. rói oss L.: rOsS .i. roiss E. 1320 ros caiIli L. 
1:121 rofois, no rooidais E. : róidh L. 132"
 rofhás L. : roais qua1ldo as ross Iin E. 
13"2:3 fhasas L. E. fortchidi L. 13"..4 na fiI- amal E. 132;; inaiIl aro E. 
l:r26 anfam, .i. i inis EtailI L.: anfam de corraisem in indsi uasal .i. hEriu E. 
1328 RC. xxvi. 8; 24, 78: Bri amain E. 13'39-34 Cor. 2 149: Cor. Tr. 22 
13:30 7 smit, rach .i. rigi E. 1331 L. 0111. 13;:;; egnach L. 
1:134 na fil cnaimh hisuidhiu E. 13:16-8 E. om. 


10 3 

poet. Unaccented Language, then, down to this point. 
It is for this reason that Unaccented Language, iar11l- 
bérlll, is said of it, to wit, on account of its hardness like 
iron, iant1l1l, if it is possible to analyse it; or iar11lbérla, 
that is, the speech which Iar Mac N ema discovered last, 
and it is not possible to analyse it. 
And Language Parted among the principal vowels, 
that is, language through which there is distinction of the 
principal vowels in the individual word through analysing 
their meaning, ut est, for example ros, that is, roi oiss, plain 
of deer, quando (when) it is rois cael/i, copses of wood, and 
rass, duck meat, along a pool when it is ross of water, duck 
weed, rofhos, great rest, if it be on stagnant water, or roidh 
ass, . . . out of it if it be on a stream, and 1'0 ás when it is 
ros lill, flax seed, i.e., on account of the swiftness and 
density wherewith it grows. And the Bérla Fortchide, 
Obscure Language, fortchide, that is, the great darkness 
or obscurity of poetry, as said the poet in the school of 
Fenius: Etaill aro ni a1ife11lde, to wit, i, island; Etal/, 
that is, noble; and aro, that is, rowing; to wit, we shall 
not cease from rowing till we reach the noble Island, 
that is Ireland, or Spain; or it is definitely Spain, as 
is found in the Conversation of the Two Sages. Brimoll 
sllletracli. This is the Language of the Poets that is, the 
last kind here, to wit, bri, word; 11l0n, feat; and slllit, ear, 
and forracll, that is, stretching; or, bri, word, and mon, 
feat, and S11lctracll, that is, ear-lobe compression, that is, 
that they might injure some one. A brotherly trick is 
that which the poets used to do in satiri;i;;g;-viz., to take 
the lobe of his ear in his hand, that is, as no bone exists 
there, the individual whom the poet satirises could have 
no h-onour-price. 
The fifth kind is the C sual Language which serves for 
everyone; for others say of the Bérla FéÙze that it is the 

10 4 BB. 326 ß 15 


E. 26 ß x 

(ar) asberad araili comad e in berla Feini fasaigi na filed, 
7 conach berla fo leith etir. 
Cest, caide fot 7 gair intib 7rl.? Xi ansa. Amal ata 
neam, forfid fil and. Nem immorro in fid aire[gh]da fil 1340 
and 7 is cruaidiu in fid airegh[ d]a fil and 7 is buigi 
in forfbid .i. neam; no didiu is gair n-aicllid 7 fot suidigthi 
a fedaib 7 gair suidig[th]i i forfedaib 7 fot n-aicllid; no 
.dono na feda fileat sund it inunda 7 na guthazgi. K a for- 
feda immorro it inunda 7 na deofhoghair. IN defhoghur 1345 
fil intib iarum, amal ata bean, be in dogenta de meni beith 
deofhoghur. Is amlaid na forfeda. Cindus on ï ebad 
a forfidh ind anma intan asberar fer? N i codarsna anni 
sin arin defoghur. Is cum air sin 7 ni bi fair acht aimsear 
co leith tantU1Jl (.i. nama) an-as modhe. Da aimsir im- 1350 
morro forsin nguthazge fota. Cia bad gairit iarum in 
defoghur remunn inrathaigte. Ceinmota didiu in fid 
conicc comardugud fuit 7 gair indib, amal asbert in Lait- 
neoir: [circumplex] forsna sillabaib fotta ama! ata do, si,. 7 
amal adberat acuit forsna sillabaib cuimri ut est pax .i. 1335 
bacc. Is fon indus [s]in dobeir in Gaedel forshail for fot 
amal rogab sron 7 slog 7rl. ct ernin arding dead amal 
rogab leacc 7 ceand 7rl. Cid timarta iarum ebad isinni 
is fer ni la Greco as defoghur in sain. Cid fotera in 
codarsna sin 7 na coic fedha 7 n(a secht) fedha ï na 1360 
deich Íedha iar fuilliuc[h]t aili? X i ansa. N a coic fedha 
cetamus: ic frecra duna coic guthaigib tug na secht fcdha 

1;;;;!1 gaiJ(de) E. ata L. 0111. 1;
;1 suigigi B. 
5 na defogair L. 1:W; fil intib L. om. 1:14; euad E. 
1:::;0 tri mar n-an as mode E. Gr. Lat. v. 28, 27 
1::;;2 inraigthe E. 13
:J comardud L. 
 circumplex L. E.: defect in MS. BB. 
1;35;; acztÍt, in a late scrawl. cumri, becc fex E. atbera L. Gr. LJ.
. v. 
32, I ; iÏi. 521,6; iv. 371,9 
1:157 arding dedhacho E. 
1359 as deogur E. 

1::;;H iarsani is fearr L 
iO (a secht) in margin B. 



Commentaries of the Poets, and that it is not a separate 
language at all. 
\Vhat is short and long in them, etc.? Not hard. 
In such as 1leal1l, heaven, it is a diphthong that 
stands there. In llem, poison, however, it is the principal 
vowel that stands there, and the principal vowel that 
stands there is harder and the diphthong is softer, to wit, 
lleal1l,. or, again, it is short by nature and long by position 
in vowels, and short by position in diphthongs and long 
by nature; or, again, the Ogham vowels that stand there 
are the same as the vowels. The Ogham diphthongs 
are, in fact, the same as the diphthongs. As to the 
diphthong that stands in them, therefore, such as btall, 
beÙI would be made of it were it not a diphthong. Thus 
are the Ogham diphthongs. I low is that, since cbad is the 
diphthong of the name when fer is spoken? That 
instance is not contrary to the diphthong. That is a 
short, and there is not upon it save a time and a half only 
at the most. There are two times, however, on the long 
vowel. That the foregoing diphthong was short there- 
fore must be perceived. Besides,.too, the vowel is able to 
adjust itself to long and short iú them as the Latinist said: 
A circumflex is on the long syllables such as do, I give; 
si, if; and in the same way they sayan acute accent is 
upon the short syllables, ut est, pax, a kiss. Thus the Gael 
puts forsail on a long, such as SI'lJll, nose, slâg, host, etc.; 
and ernill which compresses a final such as lcacc, stone, 
cealld, head, etc. Therefore, although e is short in the 
word fer, it is not according to the Greeks that it is a 
diphthong. \Vhat causes the contrary of that, and the 
five Ogham vowels, and the seven Ogham vowels, and 
the ten Ogham vowels, according to another version? 
Xot hard. The five Ogharn vowels first: answering to 
the five vowels he gave the seven Ogham vowels, however. 

106 BB. 3 2 6 ß 39 


E. 27 a 15 

immorro. N a deich fedha immorro .i. iphin ar defoghur 
ata: emoncoll ar a n-emnaidi ata intan sin condat a deich 
sam laid. Pin immorro ar p ata 7 amancoll ar x ata conid 1365 
a seacht sam laid. Jar nAuraiccept Murnan in so. 
Gne aili asberait araili ebad 7 oir is ar fedaib [fod]a 
itat. Uilleann immorro is ar y ata, 7 is ar u intan bis fo 
medontaig. Iphin is ar h-i fo meodontacht, no is iphin is 
coir anù ar p. Emuncoll didiu is ar x ata .i. for foimdin 1370 
na focul nGrecda no Laitinda do thabairt isinn Gaidelg, 7 
is aire raiter eamancoll ris, ar is call indarna taebomna fil 
ind x, 7 is airi is colI adberar d' emnad and, 7 ni sail; ar 
is taisechu coll ill x ina sail. 
Conadar didiu is[in] bethi-Iuis-nin: Caidi [in fid gabus] 1375 
greim taebomna 7 in fid gabus greim da tæbomna 7 in 
fid gabus greim focail (327) 7 in fid na geibh greim 
taebomna na feda na focail? Is e in fidh gabus greim tæb- 
omna quidem .i. fid a ndiaid araile 7 fidh bis for primfhid 
a focail no aræn re defhoghur a n-ænsillaib, ut est, 1380 
beoir feoil Briain 7rl., no fidh teit a consanac,ht .i. u. Fid 
gabus greim dá tæbomna .i. ænfidh fregras in tomus do 
dhib tæbomnaibh, ut dicitur: each da taebomna ar fidh. 
Fid gabus greim focail .i. fidh labhras a ænur. Fidh na 
ghabhand greim tæbomna na fedha na focail .i. u nihelsa ut 1385 
dicitur.. nee uoeales nee e01lsona1ltes habf'1ltur (.i. nach gutai 
7 nach consoini iat) no fidh bhis a ndiaid araile ut dÙ:i11l11S 
(mar adubramar). 
Conadar dono isin beithi-luis-nin tæbomna gabus 

1:1&-1 ar n-emnaidi L.: ar a n-eemendi, contat E. 
1:\6.'; emhancholl L. ar ax E. 1::00 inunn E. 
1366.1.,\09 E. om. l:lI>ï Defect in ðIS. BB. fodaib L. 
l;1ï3 in X L. 1:1!!2 greim do B. 
1:186 Gr. Lat. Y. 27. 14 l;l!<ï consain L. 



Ioreover the ten Ogham vowels, that is, iphÙz, which stands 
for a diphthong: elllancoll is doubled then, so that there 
are thus ten of them. Pin, moreover, stands for p, and 
eJlla1zcoll for x, so that there are seven of them thus. 
This is according to the Auraicept of Munster. 
Some s ay there is another kind, ebad and oil' that 
stand for simplë lon g vo we ls. Uill
nn, moreover, stands 
for y, and for u when it is medial. Iphin stands for i 
medially, or it is the proper symbol there for p. E11lalzcoll, 
again, stands for x, that is, to allow of Greek or Latin 
words being introduced into Gaelic, and on that account it is 
called ElIlallcoll, twin c, for c is one of the two consonants 
that stand in x, and therefore c is said to be doubled 
there, and not s; for in x, c is earlier than s. 
It is demanded, too, in the Beithe Luis NÙz: \Vhat is the 
vowel that takes the force of a consonant, and the vowel that 
takes the effect of two consonants, and the vowel that takes 
the effect of a word, and the vowel that does not take the 
effect of a consonant, vowel, or word. It is the vowel that 
takes effect of a consonant, quidem, to wit, a vowel after 
another, and a vowel that usually stands on the primary 
vowel of its word, or along with a diphthong in one 
syllable,llt est, beoiy, beer; feoil, flesh; IJriaÙz, of Brian, etc.; 
or a vowel that becomes consonised, to wit, u A vowel 
that takes the effect of two consonants, to wit, one vowel 
that answers the measure of two consonants, llt dicituy: 
Every two consonants for a vowel. A vowel that takes 
the effect of a word, that is, a vowel that speaks alone. A 
vowel that does not take the effect of a consonant, vowel, 
or word, viz., u of nullity, Ilt dÙ:itllr: Nee voeales ?lee 
':Ollsonantcs habcJltur, that is, which are not vowels and 
which are not consonants, or a vowel which stands after 
another, lit dLrimlls, as we have said. 
There is asked for, too, in the llcithe Luis iVÙZ a 

108 BB. 327 a 10 


E.27 aI 8 

greim fedha, 7 tæbomna gabus grcim txbomna 7 1390 
feda. Et tæbomna gabus greim da fid no da tæbomna. 
Et da tæb<::>mna gabus greim fedha. Et tæbhomna 
gabus greim eoic fidh 7 se tæbomna. Et tæbomna 
gabus greim tri fidh 7 eeithri tæbomna. Et tæbomna 
gabus greim foeail. Et tæbomna na gebhend greim 1395 
tæbomna no feda no foeail. In tæbomna ghabhus greim 
da fid no da tæbomna ng. Is i in tæbomna gabhus 
greim feda .i. queirt. Is i gabhus greim tæbomna 
ì fed a .i. c 7 u (nihelsa). Et tæbomna gabus greim 
fedha .i. gaeh da tæbomna ar fid i tom us. 1-100 
Tæbomna gabus greim eoie fed 7 se tæbomna .i. duir 
i n-inad dine disoil. Ni maehtad intan ghabhus greim 
na eoic fidh 7 na se tæbomna ge gabhaidh greim da fidh 
7 da tæbomna. Tæbomna gabus greim tri fidh 7 eeithri 
tæbomna .i. sail a n-inad forsail. Tæbomna gabus greim 1403 
foeail .i. tæbomna eongeb greim forbaidhe. Tæbomna 
na geb greim tæbomna na feda. na foeail .i. tæbomna dia 
togaib uath eeand doraith. 
Cest, cislir deieh âoehuisin? Ni ansa. In traigh lasin 
Laitneoir, in deeh lasin filid, lit DOl/atlls dl
rit.. pes cst 1-110 
sillabarllJll et tel1lþorllJll ("erla dÙlllJllcratio .i. ata in traigh 
eonid armidetu demin illna sillab 7 iuna n-aimser. Ata 
dono airmidetu derb sillab 7 traighed 7 aimser oeon 
Gaidhiul 0 dhialt co brieht: sillab foirbt/le each deaeh 
dibh di arailiu isin Gædi!c eonid a hoeht samlaidh 1415 

Uq;; gaband L. 1::!J. no da taebomna L. O>T1. 
1401 tri taebomna L. }.II)!; congeib forbaidi L. 
HO!! traidh L. HI0 Gr. Lat. iv. 369. 17: dicit L.: dmUl1/iacÍo E. 
HH sillab for each ndeich E. 


10 9 

consonant that takes the effect of a vowel, and a consonant 
that takes the effect of a consonant and a vowel. And a 
consonant that takes the effect of two vowels or of two 
consonants. And two consonants that take the effect of a 
vowel. And a consonant that takes the effect of five 
vowels and six consonants. And a consonant that takes 
the effect of three vowels and four consonants. And a 
consonant that takes the effect of a word. And a con- 
sonant that does not take the effect o.f a consonant, ,'O\yel, 
or word. The consonant that takes the effect of two 
vowels or two consonants is ng. This is the consonant 
that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit, q. I t takes the 
effect of a consonant and a vowel, to wit, C, and u of nullity. 
A-\nd a consonant that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit, 
every two consonants for a vowel in a measure. 
...-\ consonant that t
s the effect of five vowels and 
six consonants, that is d in the place of dillÙI dismZ K 0 
wonder, when it takes the effect of the five vowels and 
the six consonants, though- it takes the effect of two 
vO\yels and two consonants. A consonant that takes 
the effect of three vowels and four consonants, to wit, 
s in place of forsail A consonant that takes the 
effect of a word, that is, a conS0nant that sustains the 
effect of an accent. _ \. consonant that does not take the 
effect of a consonant, vowel or word, that is, a consonant 
along with 
ch h constantly app
Query, how many verse-feet are there? Not hard. 
The foot with the Latinist: the verse-foot with the poet,. 
lit DOlltl!IIS dÚ:it: Pes cst s)'lillbarltlll et !clIlþorllJ/l certa 
dillumelatio, the foot is a definite counting of the syllables 
and the times. The Gael also has a sure counting of 
syllables, feet, and times from dial!, one, to bncht, eight 
syllables: each verse-foot of them from one to another 
is a perfect syllable in Gaelic, so that thus there 

I 10 BB. 327 a 30 


E. 27 a 22 

i mbrieht eonid airmidetu dearb sain 0 oensillaib CO 
a oeht. Dialt .i. di fo dhiultadh co naeh fil alt 
and. Reeomhrae .i. re i eomhraiget na di shillaib 
immon alt. Iareomrae .i. iarum eomraigit .i. iar each 
ndedenaeh .i. eomrae na tri sillab forsna da sillabaib 1420 
tuiseaeha. Feleas .i. fi les na lama no fo lais cibeadh dib 
beras .i. lesin filid, uair is eudruma. Clænre, uair ar a re 
(.i. claen a rind) is a dho ar indara leith 7 a tri forin leth 
n-aili. Luibenehossaeh .i. in ehoss eona luibnibh .i. na 
çoic meoir 7 in traigh in sessed. Claidemnas .i. claidebh 1425 
mantiS .i. manus lamh 7 claidebh na laimi in slindean: 7 is 
e in seehtmad dialt. Brieht .i. bri oeht .i. oeht mbriathra 
and, no brieht iarsinni brigtair oeht sillaba and. Cest, 
eate deoehair eter dialt 7 a dheaeh? Ni ansa. In trath is 
forfhidh in dialt alt eter defhogur and. Intan immorro is 1430 
tæbomna 7 primfidh alt eter in tæbomna 7 in fid and. [n- 
tan immorro is ænguthazge amal ata a, 0, alt eter da aimsir 
and. Ænfid i ndialt, a do i reeomarc 7rl. .i. primfid no 
forfid. Is airi sin ni talla in trefoghur i n-ændialt. 
Oeht sillaba isan foeul is mo isan Gædi/c, ut est, fiannam- 1433 
ailceeheterdarai 7 anroeomrai[ re ]niesiumairne, 7 r l. 
Tri sillaba deg immorro isin foeul is mo isin Laitin 
ut est tinerificabilituditlctaitiblls. 
 .....1 "

I.US i comraigend L. foecomarc .i. ræ .i. comraiced na di sillaib im enalt E. 
W9 iarcomrag .i. iarcomraicet E. 
H22 uair isindara ræ is a dho air indara leith E. ]-12:1 ar L. om. 
W;; meir E. claidem L. E. H27 in vii. didlt B. 
H28 bridhthair L. 1433 i n-oendialt viii. u. tri L. 
H3:! fianamailecharadardæ Cor. 2 447: T. 1435-8 E. om. 
 Gr. Lat. viii. 164, 17: Love's Lahour's Lost, Act v. Sc. I: Dr 
Iurray of 
The Oxford Dic/iOllat y is said to have got this transmitted as one word through 
the Postal Telegraph Office. 



are eight in bricnt, so that that is a definite counting 
from one syllable to eight of them. Dialt, a syllable, 
that is, di, to deny that any alt, joint, exists there. 
Recomrac, dissyllable, that is re, the course in which the two 
syllables meet about the ålt. Iarcomrac, trisyllable, 
i.e., afterwards they meet, i.e., after each last, i.e., 
a meeting of the three syllables with the two previous 
syllables. Felcas, tetrasyllable, that is, bad profit of the 
hand; or he, the poet, is satisfied whichever of them 
he will give, for it is even. Clae11re, pentasyllable 
(that is, uneven its termination), for with respect to 
its course two of them are on one half and three on the 
other. Luzöellchossach, hexasyllable, that is, the foot with 
its digits, the five toes; the foot being the sixth. Claide- 
11llltlS, heptasyllable, that is, sword-manus, to wit, manus, 
hand, and the sword of the hand is the shoulder-blade: and 
it is the seventh syllable. Bricht, octosyllable, i.e., bri ocht, 
i.e., eight words are there, or bricht because eight syllables 
are shown there. Query, what is the difference between 
dialt, syllable, and a dlæach, its verse-foot? Not hard. 
When the syllable is an Ogham diphthong, there is alt 
between (the vowels of the) diphthong in that case. But 
when it is a consonant and a primary vowel, there is alt 
between the consonant and the vowel. \Vhen, however, 
it is a single vowel such as a, 0, there is alt between two 
times. One vowel in dialt, two of them in recomarc, etc., 
that is, a primary vowel, or a diphthong. It is on that 
account the triphthong is not contained in one syllable. 
Eight syllables are in the biggest word in Gaelic, ut 
est,ft a 1lltalllailcechcterdarai, Fiann -like.- every -.second -one- f .ç.. 
of - them, and allrocolllraircni'csiumainlc, all- the - mistakes- 
which -we- have-committed, etc. 
Thirteen syllables, however, are in the biggest word 
in Latin, ut est ab his llOllorijicabilitudillitatibus. 

I 12 BB. 3 2 7 ß I 


E. 27 a 39 

Iss e int ainm airmi .i. a tri no [a] ceithir. It eat (co!. ß) 
na hanmanda uird airmi immorro primlls et seqll1ldlls et 1440 
terdus .i. anmand a n-airmi iar prois 7 a n-anmand uird 
airmi immorro iar n-aicned. 
Is i sin an deochair, airim anforbthe amal ata a iii 
no a v, ar nocho nfuillter (fogailter) 0 choitibh. Airim 
forbthe, ut est, a se, a aen fo se, a do fo thri, a tri fo do. 14-1:5 
Airim forbthi in sin, uair airissid 0 choitibh co coiro 
.-\irim ollforbthe ut est a do dec .i. a hæn a haile dec, 
a do a sessed, a tri a ceathramthu, a cethri a trian, a 
se a ceirtleath samlaidh, amal rogabh a do dec .i. a aen 7 
a do 7 a tri a se sin; 7 a ceithri iarsin conid a deich sin; 1450 
7 a se iarsin conid a se dec samhlaid. Conid airimh in sain 

 30(,'f is fuilliu anda coit tria t aithmet a lethe. Is cach coitidi 
is ra ndaidhi, 7 ni cach ra ;;d aigi is choitide, 7rl. · 
Cest, cia roaig dialt i mmeit 7 i llaiget? Ni ansa. 
Dialt co ceill .i. coic litri and a n-as mode: aenlitir 1453 
immorro an-as lughude .i. ic sluin1l cheilli comlaine 
amal ata 0 1/0 i. Dialt didiu bunad cacha Gædelge acht 
mod 7 tod 7 troth. Ciù fodera nadl bunadh doibh-sein? 

i ansa. Ar is dialt cach ai dhibh, 7 ni bunad in ræt 
do fen, no dono is bunadh cach Gædelge dialt acht mod 7 1460 
tod 7 troth. Acht is momo lem and chen a ni dat bunad 
e acht is bunad ceilli. Caite in cenel dianad 
bunadh? Ni ansa .i. mod cach ferda .i. gach ball ferda 
7 cach comna ferda; 7 todh cach mbanda .i. cach ball 
banda 7 cach comna banda; 7 troth cach neoturda .1. 1463 

un a n-airmi L. om. 1-1-12 airim B.: airmi L. 
w:) amal ala is e L. 1-1-13-53 Origg. iii. 5, 9-11 1-I.H coicthib, airem L. 
I-Uli uair iss ed 0 coitib E. 1-I-1ï a hæli E. 1-1
2 a da choit E. 
U:i:} randaidh T. 1-1
-1 Sg. 26 & II : i Haidet E. 
1+;6 an is lugha de L.: lugu dhe .i. ie sluind E. 
l+iï amal ala alt E. HaQ Gaidelge dialt E. 
H61 iss ed momo lem anu cheana eiasa bunad Gaidelg is bunad gn- .i. 
mod E. 1-16,; each congaib banda L. 



This is a cardinal number, to wit, three or four. These 
are the ordinal numbers, however, primlis et SeCltlldllS ct 
tertius, to wit, the names of their number in prose; and 
their ordinal names, moreover, according to nature. 
That is their difference, an imperfect number, such 
as three or five; for they are not multiplied from factors. 
A perfect number, such as six, contains one of it six 
times, two three times, three twice. A perfect number 
is that, for it properly consists of factors. A quite 
perfect number, ut est, twelve, to wit, one is its twelfth, 
two its sixth, three its fourth, four its third, six exactly 
its half, thus, as for example in twelve, to wit, one, 
two, and three, these are six; and foùr after that, these 
make ten; and six after that are thus sixteen. So that 
that is a number which is greater than its factors through 
te1ling its halves. Every factor is a part, but not every 
part is a factor, etc. 
Query, how far does dialt, syllable, extend in greatest 
and least? Not hard. A syllable with a meaning, that 
is, five letters are in it, which is its superior limit: one 
letter, however, which is its inferior limit, to wit, denoting 
perfect sense, such as 0, ear, or i, island. Therefore 
dialt, syllable, is the origin of all Gaelic save mod, tod, 
and trod. \Vhat is the reason why it is not an origin 
for those? X ot hard. Because each of them is a 
dialt, syllable, and a thing is not an origin for itself, 
. or again dial! is the origin of all Gaelic save mod, tod, 
and troth. But I much prefer there certainly that they 
are not an origin of Gaelic but that it is an origin of 
meaning. \Vhat is the gender to which it is an origin? 
Not hard, to wit, mod is everything male, viz. :-every maÎe 
member and every male condition; and todh is everything 
female, to wit, every female member and every female 
condition; and trotll is every thing neuter, to wit, which 

114 ßß. 3 2 7 ß 23 


E. 27 a S4 

nach neachtardæ .1. each C01llna nemeguscda: no dano 
nidat dialta etir 7 nidat bunad Gæde(g-e iarum mod 
7 dod 7 træt acht ad bunada ceniuil lit dicitur acht 
atat arae sin araile Gæde!ge dianad bunad amal roghabh 
mod .i. mo a ed i n-airde; no mod .i. mo od .i. od ceol 147() 
intan is mascal .i. moo in ceo!. Is moo quam in ceol is 
lughu amal roghabh ind aidbsi i nDruim Ceata .i. tood 
no to od, tæ a ed in tan as femeJl: no tod .i. to od .i. 
tod in ceo 1 .i. in ceol bee .i. cronan no certan bee i n- 
aith[fh]egad in moir (.i. in ceol is mo). Træth .i. treith 14:75 
a ed no a odh fri fedhadh mascail 7 femin: no traeth 
iarsinni træthait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda .i. stocairecht 
no cornairecht. Gne n-aile no mod .i. mo a ed i n-airdi 
intan is torand no is craJld. Todh .i. tæ a ed intan is fod, 
. . . son aile is taitiu innas in aill. Traeth .i. traethait, 14:80 
a thraethas intan is fet; fo bith is cæli 7 is cruaidhi inas 
inni eli is traet. Asperaid araili corñdis anmand aidmi 
ciuil. Caidi a ndemnigud? Ni ansa. 1\10 a od intan 
is cruit. Toù .i. tai a od: intan as bindi is tuiu ï 
is isliu ata na a n-aill. Træth .i. træthaid in dis eili 148.5 
intan i[s] stocc, fo bith is airdi a [fh]aidh. Is airi is 
træth doib. No dono mod 7 tod 7 traeth .i. anmunda 
ball ferda 7 band[a] 7 neudarda sin amal asbert 
jn Laitneoir: lLOlIlell me11lbri uirz. vel nomen lIlembri 
11l1tilciris vel1l01llen lIlembri lleutri,. 7 it foe ail Grecda sin 149() 

tJtJ neachtuda n-ai, nemeimhidhuseda L.: nemeguseda B. 
HtJ9 diana L. H.O mo a Cheadh L. 
H.l moa mI.5 in ceol L.: is mo ar E. H.;! tæn, ædh L. 
Hi:; treith æadh L. Hii ciuliu E. 
Hi9 Codronaile is taitiu (or taiuu) L.: fod . . . naile is, taispenu (in 
modern bad hand) B. 
l is Cet L. om. inas ni aili is traeth aspaidh L. 1-11<5 indus eli L. 
H!!tJ is airdi a fh<éidh L. Htl. anmand na mball E. 1-189 memhri uili L. 



are neither one nor other, viz., every impersonal 
condition: or again they are not dÙllta, syllables, at all, 
and mod, tod, and traeth are not therefore an origin of 
Gaelic but they are origins of gender, ut dicitur, but there 
are for all that other Gaelic matters to which they are an 
origin, such as mod, to wit, greater its distance upwards; or 
mod, that is, 11/0, greater, is od, i.e., od, music when it is 
masculine, i.e., greater the music. It is greater than the 
music which is less, as, for example, aidbsi, choral song, in 
Drum Ceat, that is, tood: or to od, tae a ed, silent its law 
when it is feminine; or tod, that is, to od, that is, tod (is) the 
music, that is, the small music, that is, humming, or a little 
crooning in comparison with the great, i.e., the music which 
is greater. Traeth, that is, weak its extent or its music in 
comparison with masculine and feminine: or traetlt from 
the fact that the loud kinds of music, trumpeting or 
horn-blowing, overpower the low kinds. 0nother genus) 
or mod, that is, greater its distance up when it is thunder, 
or when it is a tree. Tod, that is, tae, silent its law when it 
is a fcetus, and it is . . . another sound which is more silent 4 If-ç 7 f: 
than the other. Traeth, Le., they overwhelm, which over- 
whelms when it is a whistle; because it is shriller and 
harder than the other thing it is traet (tre fit). Others 
say that they might be names of instruments of music. 
\Vhat is their proof? Not hard. Greater its music when 
it is a harp. Tod, that is, tai a od, silent its music: when 
it is sweetest, it is more silent and lower than the other. 
Tr{lcth, that is, it overwhelms the other two when it is a 
trumpet, because higher is its mournful cry. On that 
account it is traetlz to them. Or again mod and tod 
anù tracth, to wit, those are names of masculine, feminine, 
and neuter members, as the Latinist says: Nomen membri 
'i.'in. 'l'd nomen membri 1llltlicrz."s vel nomen membri lleutri þ. 
and those are Greek words although it is in Latin that 

I 16 DB. 327 ß 46 


E. 27 Ct 6r 

ciasu Laitine ata deismireacht dib -7 nac[h] dad dialta, ar nis- 
filet 0 neoch 7 ni fuilter uaitib acht mine derntar mod 
for mod 7 tod for tod 7 traeth for traeth. Secundum 
quosdalll cumad etarscarad indsci: Isse, issi, issed, iar 
Macaib Miled: uindius, uindsi, ondor, iar Feraib Bolg: 1495 
mod, tod, traeth, iar Tuathaib De Danand. Iss e so tra 
a cumair (328) .i. is e bunad gach Gæde{g-e .i. dialt .i. 0 
recomrac co bricht; 7 ni bunad he d' ænsillaib amal (rogab) 
mod 7 tod 7 traeth; 7 iar each dialt tucad-side sund, 7 is 
aire rotathmetaid-side sech gach dialt, ar dochuaidh 1500 
menma friu com tis recomraig: air fogabar a condaill .i. a 
caindeligud, 'Ill dz:rÙllus. No dno mod 7 tod 7 traeth a 
n-anmand na mball ferda 7 banda 7 neoturda amal asbert 
in Laitneoir: Nomen membri uirilis et nomen lIlembri 1/lltli'e- 
bris 7 nomen lIlelllbri neutri, 7 it focail Grecda sin cidh i 1505 
Laitin ata desmireacht dibh: 7 is airi nach at dialta, ar 
ni fil[et] 0 neoch 7 ni filter uaidibh acht meni derntar mod 
for mod 7 tod fd tod 7 traeth fri traeth. Domiditer alta 
uad .i. toimsiter aisti inn aircetail fri haltaibh na ndæni 
amal toims[i]ter fri each indsce. 1510 
Cindas toimsiter fri each insci? .i. corop each dialt 
frecras-[ s]a di araili amal ata tis tuas, air is ed a chubhaidh 
intan is cobfhidh, 7 is cobfhid irt focal ind imfrecra 7 is 
comdeach in tarmfortcend. 

H93 fria troth, fria traeth E. 
1..&94-1508 E. om. 
1..&9,'; uindsi insi ondur L. 
H98 recomarcc L. H99 tucait T. 1:K)().11 ndialt L. 
1501 recomairc L. 150"2 caindeliugud L. 
1505 gid i I Laitin, is aire nach at, ni filet L. E. 
1508 7 formod B. domiter L. 
1509, 11 tomaister E. 1512 freagras L. 
1513 coibidh L.: coimfidh 7 as coibidh, inimfrecra E. 
15H intairemforcend E. 




an example of them occurs, and they are not syllables, for 
they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived 
out of them save that there might be formed mod, upon 
//lod; tod, upon tod; and traetlt, upon trae/It. Secundum 
quosdmll, it is a distinction of speech: "He, she, it," accord- 

ing to the sons of l\Iilesius: Uilldius, llindsi, olidar, 
according to the Fir Bolg: lIlod, tod, traetlt, according to 
the Tuatha de Danann. This is, then, the short of it: 
this is the origin of all Gaelic, to wit, dialt, syllable, that 
is, from reCOlllrac, two, to brz"cht, eight syllables; and it is 
not the origin of an individual syllable as, for example, 
mod, tod, anù trae/It; and after every dialt, syllable, they 
have been set down here, and it is on that account they have 
been mentioned beyond every dialt, sylJable, for attention 
was directed to them that they are dissyllabic: for their 
cOlldail1 is found, to wit, their fair division ut dÚimus. Or 
again mod, tod, and traetlt are the names of the masculine, 
feminine, and neuter members as the Latinist has said: 

VOJJlt:11 membri uirilis et llomen membri lIlulz"ebris et nomen 
membri 7leutri, and those are Greek words though it is in 
Latin that an example of them occurs: and it is on this 
account that they are not dialta, syllables, for they are no
derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them 
unless there might be formed mod for mod, tod fri tod and 
tradll fri traetlt. Alta uad, joints of science, are measured, 
to wit, the metres of the airchctal, trisyllabic poetry, are 
measured with the joints of men as they are measured 
with any part of speech. 
How are they measured with any part of speech? 
To wit, that every dialt, syllable, may correspond to 
another such as down, up, for that is its rhyme when it is 
the same in vowel, and the word made to correspond is 
the same in vowel, and the ending is the same in verse- 

118 BB. 328 a. 16 


E. 2j ß 6 

Coic filltigthi fichet hi remim amal ros-gabh and- 1515 
so SIS:- 

Fer a ainmniugud. 
I fiur a aitreib. 
Co fer a ascnam. 
A fir a togairm. 
Sech fer a sechmall. 
o fhir a foxaul. 
Fri fer a freslige. 
Fo fiur a fothud. 
De fhiur a digbhail. 
La fer a thæbtu. 
Ar fiur a fresgabhail. 
Frisin fer a thormach. 
Is fer a thuarasgbhail. 

Fir a sealbad. 
Ar fear a airicheall. 
In fer a in chose. 
Hi fer a innothacht. 
Oc fir a furmiud. 
For fer a fortud. 
In fir a tustidhi. 
Do fiur a dhanad. 
lar fiur a thiarmoracht. 
1m fer a imthimcheall. 
Dar fer a thairsce. 
Tre fer a thregdhadh. 
Ri fiur a remiudh. 



Fedar dno a n-illar .i. fir [a] ainmnigud, na fir a tuar- 1530 
ascbhail, ac feraib a inchosc (sic), na fer a shealbad J dona 
feraib a danadh, sic ill seque1ltiblls. 
Fear didiu ebadh a fhidh in anma asberar fer; e a 
guta; dialt a diach .i. son oencongbalach cen alt etir. 
Dichongbail and io no iphin a fidh ina remim no ina 1535 
shealbhadh intan asberar fir .i. ar bit in dis ina reim io 
and amal ata fir iphin and amal ata do fir io amal ata a 
fir; iphin amal ata 0 fhir. Is aire nach airimh ebhadh ina 
reim ce beith i l1-araileib and amal ata co fer, 7rl., air ni 61 
acht reim ceilli namma in gach baile i mmairend in fhidh 1::>40 
bis isiu ain1Jlllid. Isna filltib as io no iphin bhis intib 

I;jIfJ hi rem L.: hi rreimim am ail E. 
IilI8 airchill L. 1:;20 indotacht L. 
1;;21 seachis T. I::;:!:I frerlige B. I;j2.,1 a adnad L. 
 a dingbhail B.: a dighbhail T. iarmoracht L. 
1:;26 tæbthu L. I;j1!9 sic i11 sequmtzbus T. 
1;;'11 ac feraib B. 0111. na fir L. 
 gutta L. 1:;::6-i3 E. om. 



There are twenty-five prepositional flections in declen- 
sion, as is exemplified here below :- 

Fer its nominative. 
I fiur its locative. 
Co fer its ådvancive. 
A fir its vocative. 
Sech fer its neglective. 
o fhir its ablative. 
Fri fer its desidative. 
Fo fiur its fundative. 
De fhiur its privative. 
La fer its comitative. 
Ar fiur its ascensive. 
Frisin fer its augmentative. 
Is fer its descriptive. 

Also their plural may be : 

Fir its nominative. 
Ac jeraib its depositive. 
Dona feraib its dative. 

Fir its possessive. 
Ar fear its defensiv e. 
In fer its accusative. .> 
Hi fir its ingressí\'e. 
Oc fir its depositive. 
For fer its invocati\"e. 
In fir its parentative. 
Do fiur its dative. 
lar fiur its progeniti\
1m fer its circumdati\'e. 
Dar fer its trespassive. 
Tre fer its trajective. 
Ri fiur its ad"ersatil"C. 
 (? ) 

iVafir its descripti\'e. 
Na fer its possessi\ e. 
sic in seqllentibus. 

 ow as to fear, ebad, ea is the Ogham vowel of the 
noun which is pronounced fer / e its vowel; dial!, 
syllable, its verse-foot, to wit, one constituent sound 
without alt, division, at all. Two constituents are in io 
or iplzi1/, its Ogham vowel, in its declension or in its 
possessive, when it is pronounced fir, to wit, because the 
two are there in its declension, io; e.g. fir, iplzill, is there, 
e.g. do fir, io; e.g. a fir, iplzÍ11" e.g. 0 flzir. I t is on that 
account that he does not reckon eblzadlz, ea, as a declension, 
though it might be present in some cases such as co fer, etc. 
For there is but declension of meaning only in every posi- 
tion where there remains the Ogham vowel which stands 
in the nominative. In the inflections it is io or iplzi/l that 
stands in them in every place where the nominative does 
not remain, so that on that account io or iphin is declared 

120 DB. 328 a 38 


E. 27 ß 21 

in gach baile nach mairend conid aire sin adberar io no 
iphin a fhidh ina reim no 'na shealbhad 7rl. 
Dinin disail a forbaidh .i. a aicnid lasin Laitneoir; air 
it e teora fuirbhthe dochuisnet .i. arnin 7 dinin dishail 7 15!5 
forsail .i. arnin arding [d]ed, forsail for fot feclair, dinin 
disail for gair gabhaidh: 

-\rnin, lit est glonn 7 donn 7 crann 7 glenn: forsail, 
'lit est, sron 7 slog 7 mor: dinin disoil, ltt est, fer 
7 cor 7 ler 7 tor 7 cach timarta ar chena. I ntan 1550 
scribthar int ainm ogailll is and scribtar na forbaide- 
sea uasu fri realadh fuid 7 gair no fri tennad, ar ni 
tuigfidhea cheana: uair amal dobeir in Laitneoir acuit 
forsna sillabaib cuimre, ut est, pax 7rl., 7 circumplex forsna 
sillabaib fota, ltt, res, sic. dobeir in Gædel dine dishoil 1555 
arna cuimribh, It! est, fer; 7 for[sh]ail forna fodaib amal 
- rogab (col. ß) lamh; 7 amal bis graib in gach ænebert 
ilfoclaig la acuit no la circumplex, sech is arnin aræn re 
dine disail no aræn ri forsail i n-ænfocul It! ceann 7 sroll. 
Airnin iarum ernid nin: no airnin .i. fair nin, air is nin 1560 
scribthar ag fuacra na forbaidi sin .i. nin ainm coitcheanù 
do gach litir eter feadaib 7 tæbomnaib. Forsail dano 
sail fair air i[ s] sail scribt[h Jar ig i1lCOSC na forbaide 
sin ar is for fut bis forsail, 7 i[ s] silliud na haimsire do 
for in sail: no forsail .i. foruillid in focul cOllad foda: no for- 1565 
sail .i. furail seach in cumair. Dini[n] disail .i. di fo diultad 
and co nach nin 7 co nach sail acht is duir scribthar ac 
inchosc na forbaidi sin .i. ar is digbail na haimsire toirnes 
duir amal as tormach tormaiges sail: no dine disail de 
sin dofuilliud .i. nemfuillÙul. Asberait araiIe is aire 1570 
scribtkar duir ar dine disoil, air is duir fil ar d[t]us an dine 

1:;-11; ardinged L. : ardillg dead diarmachd E. 15-19 dishail L. 1;"-
' lear L. 
1550-76 E. om. 1;;;;2 teandad L. 155j, 1\ Gr. Lat. iii. 521,6. 8 
m5 amalu/, dinin L. ms sech bis L. 15:i!1 dinin 1.. 
l:;<i:1 air is nin, ag inchosc (sup. /in.) L.: imcosc B. 
1:;';'; forfuilliud in focail conid L. 1:;66 dinin L. 151j'< didbail B. 
1571) atberait L. 1m ar duir fil ar tus L. 



its Ogham vowel in its declension or in its possessive, 
Dillin disail, its accent, to wit, aCCClltllS with the Latinist ; 
for these are the three accents which exist, to wit, arllin, dillill 
disail, andforsail, to wit, arllill compresses a final: forsailon ( 
a long is borne: dÙzill disailon a short takes (effect). 
E.g. a rll ill, lit cst, glol/Il, deed, dOl/Il, dun, crall Il , tree, 
gkllll, glen: forsail, ut est, srõll, nose, s/iJg, host, lIlõr, 
great: dillill disail, ut est, fer, cor, leI', tor, and all short 
words whatsoever. \Vhen the Ogham inscription is written 
there are written these accents abo\"e them to make clear 
long and short or to express tension, for they would not be 
understood otherwise: because as the Latinist puts an 
acute on the short syllables, 1/t cst, pax, etc., and a 
circumflex on the long syllables, 1/t est, rés, so the Gael 
puts dil/ill disail on the short, 1/t est, fer,. and forsail on 
the long, e.g. ltim/I, hand; and as there is a grave in every 
single dictum of many words with an acute or a circumflex, 
that is to sayar/till is along with dÙzill disailor along with 
(orsail in one word, ut, CCt11I1l, head, and srõn nose. Ainzil/, 
therefore, it purchases n: or air 1LÎIl, that is, upon it is n, for 
it is n that is written to mark that accent. ]\/ill is a name 
common to all letters either vowels or consonants. Forsazl, 
too, means sail upon it, for it is s that is written to denote 
that accent, for it is upon a long thatforsailrests, and there 
is a lengthening of the time by it upon the s: or forsai/, that 
is, it magnifies the word till it becomes long: or forsail, 
that is, fllrail, OVerflID\", beyond the short. DÙlin, 
that is, di, for negation therein, inasmuch as it is neither 
n nor s that is written but d to denote that accent, i.e., 
because it is a diminution of the time that d denotes, as it 
is an addition that s adds: or dÙzill disllil, de sill from that, 
i.e., unadding, that is, non-addition. Others say the reason 
why d is written for dillill disail is that d stands at the 

122 BB. 328 ß 14 


E. 27 ß 28 

disoH, 7 is aire seribthar nin air nin ar is nin fil fo deoidh 
and, 7 is aire scribt/tar sail ar forsail ar is sail fil a medon 
inte; no 1// alii diclInt ail .i. aimser furail seaeh in eumair. 
Dine .i. dinin .i. ni nin .i. ni fid aeht is forbaid. Di[sh]ail 1573 
.i. ni aimsir fota no diE sh]aiI .i. nemhfhuilled no nemfuraiI. 
Alt co fesear cia halt huad dona seeht n-altaib .i. 
anamain, nath, anair, eamain, laid, setrud, soinemain, 
dial! eona nduanaib. 0 sein inund is 0 dheaehaib sluin- 
tir aIta nall huad ar na rob indsci eumaseda. Kath .i. 1580 
noaid anair. Anamain .i. an somain. Læd .i. laitir no 
luaitir: no leoaid intan is air: no is onni as lalls .i. 
moladh. Sedradh .i. sed raid; no raith air set. Saine- 
main .i. sain a maine risin aisti reamaind. Dian .i. di air: 
no dian .i. adbol an no ni ain. 0 sin anund .i. ota na 1:J8ö 
seaeht primaisti amach is 0 deaeaib is ni de na deaehaibh 
foricfa 7 is uaidibh ainmniugud doib a forba gaeha 
rainde a nduain, 7 reeomrae a forduain, 7 iareomare 
bairdne, ar na rop indsee eumaisci ar na ro[b] prois amal 
aisti na ndærbard. 1590 
Lorga fuaeh .i. lorg ua foeul .i. amal bite lorga i 
lIamaib duine for portaibh sesga og immtheaeht 0 
purt do phurt ar na torehrad inna lighi, imtha is amlaidh 
it he in so na lorga biti a ciallabair no i ngenaib na filed 
ie fosugud 0 foeul co foeuI. Lorea fuaeh iarum .i. rem- 1595 

."\ aimser L. m:; Di[shJail . . . nemfurail L. 0111. 
]:;7'. in B. ]5.!I is fo decaid E. 
]:>><0 na- huad L. B.: nanhuad 7 na rob E. 
]/l80.!iO E. om. ];;81 nójdh an aor T. 
2 lecaidh (?), aeir L. ]58:) Sedraidh, sed L. 
;; .j. abran no ni aon no adbal an T. : adbal in domain L. 

 recomarcc L. ]
 7 na ro prois L. 
15!r.! daille E. ]
!rJ laigi E. is L. om. 
];,!i..I no a n-ingenaib L. ciallabair E. T. 0111. 
]59;,.l!õOS E. om. 



beginning of dillill disail, and the reason why n is written 
for nÏ1z is that n stands at the end in it, and the reason 
why s is written for forsail is that s stands in the middle 
of it; vel ut alii diczt1lt, ail, that is, time excess past the 
short. Dine, that is, dillÙz, that is, not a letter, that is, 
it is not an Ogham vowel but it is an accent. 
DzIslz]ail, that is, not a long time or di[sh]ail, that is, 
non-addition or non-overflowing. 
Alt co ftsear that thou mayest know what alt huad, limb 
of science, it is of- the seven alta, to wit, allalllaill, uath, 
.ealllaill, láid, setrltd, soÙzelllaill, día1Z with their duans. 
From that onward, it is {rom verse-feet that alta 1lfl Ill/ad, 
the limbs of science, are named, that it might not be 
mixed speech. Nath, i.e., it praises from the front. 
Allll111aill, i.e., tin somaill, glorious profit. Láed, i.e., it is sent 
or h
 c:tpn.e..d : or leóaid, it wounds when it is satire: or 
from the word faus, praise. Sedradll, i.e., path of saying; or 
surety on a valuabie. SaÙzelllain, i.e., special its treasures 
with respect to the foregoing measure. Día1Z, two satires: 
or dill1Z, huge and splendid; or ni ai1Z, something of 
splendour. From that onward, i.e., from the seven principal 
metres forth it is from verse-feet, it is something of the 
verse-feet that thou wilt find and it is from them they have 
their name at the close of every part of their duan, and 
rt'cOlllarc of their fordlia1l, and iarcomarc of bard poetry, 
that it may not be mixed diction, that it may not be prose 
like the measure of the Daerbards. 
Lorga fuach, staves of words, i.e., a staff out of a word, 
i.e., as there are staves in the hands of a ;an on barr en 
places as he goes from place to place that he might not fall 
prostrate, e\en so are these here the staves that are it; the 
reasonable speech (?) or in the mouths of the poets halting 
from word to word. Lorgafuaclz, staves of words, therefore, 
that is the interposition of two syllables between the two 

12 3 


12 4 BB. 328 ß 36 


E. 27 ß 3S 

suigeadad da sillæibh eter in da eomuaim, ut Cormae 
bard cecillit ." 

1m ba seasaeh, im ba seang 7rl. 

.i. in ba in lorga fuaeh. 
A dialt n-etarleme .i. ænsillab eter in da eomuaim, 1600 
Itt est."- 

Cia leth gu brat[h] iar euairt eros 
Cosluidfea mo eoblaeh ereas ? 
In ba sair ba siar ri suail, 
In ba tuaid no in bodes? 


Cia eter lond 7 leath in dialt n-etarleme; 7 ata lorga 
fuaeh 7 dialt n-etarieme isin rand ar medon .i. 111 
ba 7 is ba. 
Fertot a thelgud noe .i. a telgud duine, ar is !!
duine, ut est dia ndallla næ for tir .i. duleiee in duine 1610 
eessad fair, teit iarum dia fothrugud din uiseiu, doleee 
don brueh sis isin usee, tot 01 in tond fæ .i. fa tot dno 
a ainm in foghair sin doghni in tond: toU; toU dano a 
ainm foremaehta (no foreumaseda) di SU1l, ut est, bu bo 
go ged: no in guth tr0m dogni i1l dae oea leeon forsin 161:i 
usee. 0 
odhar na genemna rohainmnigthea go go i 
fogur, no bu bo .i. tot: no dano arfoem in duine a etaeh 
immi 0 nae[h] ailiu. Is cd asber-sum i suidi fertom (.i. 
ferdo dam .i.) feartot ar du ehele frit, briathar ehesta sin 
.i. feartot ar a ehele (329) frfs, briathar gnima so. 1620 
A.urIond dno ainm d' oreill gæ .i. ind adare dub bis 
mon gai, is di arsisidar in gai, imtha is amlaid arsisidar in 
indsee don trediu-sa .i. ise isi ised: no dona deich n- 
uriandaib-sea .i. se da tri eethre .i. urianda ferinsci sin -1- 

noo remsuidiuchad, da sillæbaib L.: remsuigecad B. 
 ar cuairt L. 16O'
-:i Translated, AllcÏm/ Ir. Po
'r)', p. 94- 
1003 gusa Iua T. 1610 duiceiche in duine gesat E. 
1611 i n- uisciu doleiced on bruch sis isin usee dobert olin tond, (othrath 
dano a ainm E. 16U forcumachta L.: formachta di suind E. 
IfH6 fhogar L. 1617 arfoen B.: arfaen L.: arfoem E. 
1618 i sui diu L. E. ferthoin fertoth ar du ceiliu E. 1619 /.fir'
 dam, give me 
16:.>0 E. om. lIi2'J mon gæ ar is, imtha sam laid L. 


12 5 

alliterations, as Cormac the bard cecillit; 1m ba seasach im 
ba seang, etc., i.e., im ba is the lorga fuach. 
A dialt n-eterleme, its interloping syllable, is one 
syllable between the two alliterations 1/t esl ;- 


To what side {or ever after a course of crosses 
Shall I beat my narrow fleet? 

llit b7 east or shall it be west for a short while, 
Shall it be north, or shall it be south? 

Cia between lond and letlt is the dialt n-elarlellle, the 
interloping syllable; and lorga fuach, staves of words, and 
dialt n-etarleme occur in the middle of the stanza, viz., ill 
ba, and baT 
Fer tot, its te/gu d flOe, its flinging of a man, for 
llae -i s ma
 'itt e St; if a man suffer on land, i.e. 
the man allows suffering on him, he goes afterwards to 
bathe himself in the water, he lets himself down the 
bank into the water, tot saith the wave under him, i.e., tot 
was the name of that sound which the wave makes: tott; 
tolt, then, is its onomatopoetic name, or mixed name 
from sound, 1/t est, the bu of cows, the go of geese: or the 
heavy voice the man utters dropping himself on the water. 
From the sounds of birth have been named go go in 
sound, or bu bJ, i.e., tot: or again, the man takes his 
garment about him from some one else. \Yhat he 
then says is fertom (i.e. give ye to me, i.e.) it sen'es 
me, feartot it serves thee, quoth thy companion to thee, 
that is a passive verb, feartot quoth his companion to 
him, this is an active verb. 
Now urland, haft, is the name for a spear-bed, to 
wit, the black horn that is round the spear, it is that on 
which the spear rests, even as gender rests on these three, 
he, she, it: or on these ten urlailld, to wit, sl he, dá two, trf 
three, cethir four men. That is, these are urlallda, prefixes, 

126 BB. 329 a 5 


E. 27 ß 4S 

ise .i. in fear, da .i. da fear, tri .i. tri fir, ceithri .i. cethri fir: 1625 
no urlonn indsci slondud reimmi .i. ferinsci 7 baninsci 7 
deiminsci. Inunda immorro urIann ferinsce 7 baninsce 0 
sin amach. Is aire nach indister seach a ceathair. 
Si di teora cetheora urIanna baninsce andsin. Is i .i. 
in bean, di .i. di mnai, teora .i. teora mna, ceitheora .i. ] 630 
ceitheora mna. It e 7 at iat immorro urlanna coitcheanda 
eter banindsci 7 ferindsci. Is ed immorro urIann demind- 
sci 1/1 dicitur is ed a cheann. Fri hurlainn ferindsci d0110 
æntaigis demindsci a n-urlandaib iIair .i. da nern 1/t dicitur 
da fear 7rI. No urIand indsce .i. ferindsce 7 banindsce 7 1635 
demindsce. Conige seo corp ind Auraicepta. 
Coic fill/zglid fichet i reirn .i. a coic gu hogfegad na 
filed i ffilliud re ualllrna na hai 7 fiche gne særda 
olchena. EI in fiche gne særda catead a n-araide foraib? 
1m berat cach æ dibh dochurn a ndilis fen? Berait ecin, 1640 
uair [it] dealba fiIItecha. Is ed a lin a tri i n-uathad 7 a 
tri i n-ilar con ad a se amlaid. In fichi gne særda prosta is 
deimin is e so a n-araide, a do dec dibh i forgnuis ainrnneda 
7 ainsida, a oen dibh i forgnuis genidli 7 togartada, a secht 
i forgnuis tobm1:ada 7 foxlan: no aon dec dibh atndelb ain- 1645 
rnnedha 7 ainsida 7 a tri a ndelbh genidli 7 togartada 7 
a tri a ndelb tobartacha 7 foxlacha .i. tri fi][l]ti a n-uathad 
.i. fer, fir, ic fir; a tri a n-ilar na fer, na fir, na firu., In 

1626 slondud L. E. reime L.: reimhe E. 
Ib'27 Inund ainm L. 1627-86 E. om. 
16::7 i rremim E. 
1638 re nama L. 
1639 0 ilchenela B.: olchena L. 
IIH2 illar, 
amlaid L. 
16+1 a viii. E. 
 roxlan E. 
164.5-8 E. om. 
1646 genidi-, togorm L. 
1&17 foxlaii, a Ùdeilb L. 


1 2 7 

of masculine gender, to wit, is é, it is he, the man, dá 
two men, trí three men, cethri four men: or urlolld illdsci 
is a sign of declension, masc., fern., and neuter. Masc. 
and fern. urland are, however, the same from that onward. 
Therefore they are not mentioned beyond four. 
Sí she, dí two, teora three, cetheora four women, are 
feminine urlmma, leading words, there. Is f, it is she, 
the woman, dí two women, !eora three women, ceitlleora 
four women. It é and it iat, they are, however, are 
common urlml1lll both fern. and masc. Is ed, it is, how- 
ever, is neuter Ur11l1111, 1/t dicitltr, it is his head. \\ïth 
masculine urlll1u{, again, neuter coincides in plural llrlallda, 
to wit, two heavens, ut dicitur, two men, etc. Or urlml1l 
illdsci, that iS I masc., fern., and neuter gender. Thus far 
the body of the Primer. 
Twenty-five prepositional flexions in declension, that 
is, five for full consideration of the poets in flexion while 
composing the ai, poem; and twenty artificial species 
besides. And the twenty artificial kinds, what is 
characteristic of them? Do they each of them conform 
to their own proper form? They do necessarily, for 
they are inflected forms. This is their number, three 
of them in the singular, three of them in the plural, so 
that thus there are six of them. As to the twenty artificial 
prose sorts, it is certain that this is their characteristic that 
there are twelve of them in the form of nominative and 
accusative, one of them in the form of genitive and 
vocative, seven of them in the form of dative and ablative: 
or eleven of them in the form of nominative and accusa- 
tive, and three of them in the form of genitive and 
vocative, and three of them in the form of dative and 
ablative, i.e., three flexions in the singular fer, fir, ic fiur; 
three of them in the plural na fer, na fir, na firu. 
6-\S to the twelve flexions of them that pass into the 

128 BB. 329 a 27 


E. 27 ß 54 

cla filliud deg dibh tiaghait i forgnuis ainmneda 7 ainserla 
it e anclseo a n-anmancl .i. 16;)0 
Ar [fh]er [a] aircealI; co fer [a] ascnamh; i fer a 
inotacht; seach fher a sechmalI; for fer a fortudh; f
i fer 
a freislige; la fer a thæbtu; im fer a imthimcheall; dar 
fer a thairrsci; frisin fer a thormacll; tre fer a tregdad; 
is fer a thuarascbail, 'lit dl:rit poe/a : 1655 

Is iat sain da filltech deg, 
Anndar leam nocho lanbhrec, 
Tiaghait i forgnuis feda 
Ainmneda oeus ainseda. 

a secht filltigh immorro tiaghait i forgnuis tobartadha ï 1660 
foxlada, i fiur a aitreibh; oc fiur a furmidh; fo fiur a 
fothudh; do fiur a digbail; iar fiur a thiarmoracht; ar 
fiur a fresgabhail; ria fiur a remid, 'lit dÚ:it poeta : 

Is iad so na seaeht fillti, 

it ernaili admillti, 
Tiagait i ngnuisibh glana 
Tobarta ocus foxlada. 


Oenfilltech immorro teit i forgnuis togarthada 7 genit/i, 
1/ t dl:rit poe/a : 

In fhir a thustidhi thiar thair 
Do sealbhadh do thogartaidh 
Oeus doibh ar æn ni rie 
Aeht mad int æn don fiehit. 


Is iad sin in fiche gne saerda cona n-aradnaibh 7rI. 

11;:;2 indotacht L. )f
"j:! in fer B. L. a timchell E. 1G:J6 sin L. E. decc E. 
i Andar L. H;.
 seda E. 1659 7 aimsera B.: isn'î'er.. E. 
1660 filltigthi E. Ifi61 foxlan E. fuirmiud L. 166:: remidh L.: remud T. 
100-1 sin L. 166;; Ni hernaili L. 1666 i forgnuis L. 166i is E. 
lùôS teid L. om. togartacha L. 16iO a tuisdui E. 
16i1 doselba E. thogartaig L. 16i2 7 doib archena ni r[i]c E. 
 co n-aradnaib E. 


12 9 

form of nominative and accusative, these are their 
names here: 

ar fer its defensi\"e. 
i fer its ingressive. 
for fer its invocative. 
la fer its comitative. 
dar fer its trespassive. 
tri fer its perforative. 

itt dÚ:it poe/a :- 

co fer its advancive. 
seach fer its neglective. 
frl fer its desidative. 
1m fer its circumdative. 
frisin fer its augmentative. 
15 fer its descriptive. 

Twelve flexions are 
\Yhich methinks are not quite deceiving, 
They pass into the letter form 
Of nominative and accusative. 

The seven flexions, however, that pass into the form 
of dative and ablative are :- 

1 fiur its locative. 
fo fiur its fLlndative. 
lar fiur its progenitive. 
ria fiur its precessive. 

'!/ t dÙ;it poeta :- 

oc fiur its depositive. 
do fiur its privative. 
ar fiur its ascensive. 

These are the seven flexions 
\Vhich are not kinds to be destroyed, 
They pass into pure forms 
Of dative and ablative. 

One flexion, however, goes into the form of vocath.e 
and genitive, lit dLât poeta :- 

In /hir its parentative to all time 
For possessive, for vocative, 
And to them alone there comes not 
Save it be the one form from the score. 

These are the score of artificial forms with their 
characteristics, etc. 


13 0 BB. 329 a 44 


E. 28 a 5 

Fer didiu, ebadh a fid, io no iphin ina reimim no 'na 1675 
shealbad 7rI. .i. is idad inna selbad 7 ina thoghairm. Is 
iphin immorro ina thobartaid 7 ina foxlaid. Euad 
immorro ina n-ainmnidh 7 'na ainsid. 
Cate diles fedha i fedhaibh, 7 dilis feda i fidh, ï dilis 
fidh i fedhaibh? Diles fedha i fedhaibh eetamus .i. a 1680 
riasna ceithri guthazgib, ar is i cetlabrad each bi 7 iachtad 
gach mairb. Dilis fed i fidh dno .i. is dilis in forfidh ogailll 
secepe fid i scribthar. Dilis fidh i fedhaibh .i. (coI. ß) 
amal ata in forfidh as defogur .i. is ed as diles and in 
foghur tuisech, ar ni airimhtear in fogur dedhenacK' 1685 
AIt co fesear .i. co festar in n-aisti dona seacht prim- 
ellgibh na filideachta do ghne do thomhus. 0 sein inunn is 
du deachaibh sluinter aIta uad ar na badh insce chumascda 
.i. 0 sin inunn isna degfhuachaib .i. is do dadfoclazö sluinter 
aisti airchetail ar na rabi in indsci cumascda amal dogniat 1690 
na dærbainl. 
Lorga fuach .i. lairce lorehaine .i. remshuidigthi de- 
silIæbazg biith riasna foclaib ica særad ar da n-ernail .j. 
rogair 7 clænre (no clæn ceIle). 
Ferthot a thelgud lloe. Et bu bo 7 go ged .i. anmand 1695 
sin tria eladllin rancådar na filid do reir a fogair .i. fertot 
.i. fer rothoit and; 7 bo a uerbo boo no buo .i. fograigim .i. 
on geimim nobeth 7 ged go mbadh on geig gotha dober 

16;:\ din euad E. ina reim L. 
16;6 togarmaig L. 
16;8 ainmnig, ainsed L. 
1680,1 LL. 188& 17 
1682 oge- sechephe E. 
1685 airm airmithey E. 
1686 .i. co feiser L. 
11;88 ar na bad E. 
1689 is da, is da dagfhoclaib E. 
1692 lorghame, do sillabaib biit E. .i. lairci no lorcaime T. It;96 el-ad E. 
lG9; bo .i. cumudh on buo T. rathoith, fogrugaim E. Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 5 ; 
v. 239, 6 169M ged ge mbad on geim nobeth, nobey as E.: nobeiredh T. 


13 1 

Now as to fer, man, ebadh, ea, is its Ogham vowel; 
io or iphÙz in its declension, or in its possessh e, etc., 
to wit, idad, i, is in its possessive and vocative. It is 
iphÙl, io, however, in its dative and ablative. Ebad, ea, 
however, in its nominative and accusative. 
\Vhat is proper of fedha ill fedaibll, of fedha i fidh, 
and of fidh ifedaib? Proper of fcdha i fedllllibh, a vowel 
among vowels, first, to wit, a before the four vowels; 
for it is the first expression of all Jiving and the last 
sigh of all deceased. Dilis fed i fidll, proper of vowels 
in a vowel, that is, proper is the Ogham diphthong 
whatever be the fid, vowel, in which it is written. 
DiNs fidll ill fedhaibh, proper is a vowel among 
vowels, to wit, such is the Ogham diphthong which has 
two vowels, to wit, what is proper there is the first vowel: 
for the last is not reckoned. 
Alt co fesear, i.e., that it may be known whether it is a 
metre of the seven primary combinations of poetry as 
regards measure. From that onward it is by verse-feet 
that a/tll, limbs of science, are expressed that it might 
not be mixed speech, that is, from that onward in the 
good words, that is, by good words the m
tres of airchctal 
are expressed that it could not be the mixed speech 
such as the Daerbaird use. 
Lorga fuach, staves of words, that is, láirce lórchaÙle, fu]] 
comely legs, to wit,disyllabic interpositions that stand before 
the (alliterating) words, saving them from two kinds, to wit, 
,'ogair, overshortness, and clacllre or perversion of sense. 
Fer/o/ a telgzlllllOe, its man-throwing. And bit bó and go 
gàl, names these which through science the poets have 
invented according to their sound. Fcr/ot, that is, a man 
has fallen there; and bó, cow, from the word boo or buo 
. [ßQ(;W] , I sound, that is, it would be from the géÙIl, roar; 
and géd, goose, would be from the goose - voice which 

1 '1'" 

Bll. 3 2 9 ß q 


E. 28 a 2{ 

ass nobeth, amal asbert in Laitneoir: ...Vo[lIle]1l de so/to 
filctUlIl est .i. forcærnnacair int ainrn don fogur 'Ilt cst 1700 
connall stip is ed a fogur ica loscudh. Is de sin ranic 
stipllla do an maim do icon Laitneoir. 
Aurlond no inscc dno d' oreill in gai is ainrn. Caidi 
int erlonn særda fogabar conad aicniud? N i ansa. Erlonn 
in gæ. Cate il1t aurlonn indsci do nach asand insci aeht 1705 
insee bais .i. graini' in gæ. Cate int aurlonn is iarlonn ï 
int iarlonn is urlonn 7 int urlonn is rernlonn .i. urlonn .i. in 
gai .i. urlonn fadesin iarlonn dotess, ar is iar each ndedenach; 
conid he sin int urlonn is iarlonn 7 is urlonn int urlonn 
is rernlonn .i. intan rosaig lar ind airiall. Cate urlonn 1710 
urlainn urlainni i n-urlonn .i. urlonn ferurlonn banurlonn 
nernurlonn: urlainni bell in fir: urlunna a ndis i n-urlaind 
.i. i nern no i n-ifern. 
.A urlunna ilair rnaseul 7 femen in so sis: se, da, 
thri, eet[h]ri: si, di, teora, cetheora. Inunna insei airrne 1715- 
o sin irnach. Is andsain fogabar eornroreo ilair neodair 
.i. cena urlanna ilair oea aeht i n-uathad talltulIl. Cate 
insce særda fogabar eo n-aiened? N i ansa. Is ed in 
ceand air is særda a radh 7 se for 111 duine. Is aieenta 
irnmorro a radh fris iarna buaill de. 1720. 
Cia hænfocul recornhraeach isna rernendaib gebes 
ingrecus .i. greirn na ceithre n-ernaili du rernendaib .i. in 
focul as treghdad ar geibit arin foeul is tregdad 7 as aitreib 

1';99 Sg. 30b I : Gr. Lat. y. 308, 10 liOI conall scip scip E. 
I7/):) Origg. xvii. 3, 18 
r.m d' oireill E. : do ureiU T. O'l\loUoy Gr. xvii. p. 170: no E. om. 
17"" fogaba E. li06 graindi L. E. 
1708 dotéis L. E. 1m .;. ferurlonn L. l7I2 fer E. 
m3 in nem no int iffern E. : i nem 110 in!if-, with þlme!. dtl. under t, B. : 
i nem no ind if- L. 1716 comrorcai T. ilair ondair E. andsin L. 
1720 iarnasbuaill E. 172'.! duna E. 



it utters, as the Latinist has said: Nomi!1l di! SOI/O 
factum est, i.e., the name has happened to the sound, 
1/t est, cmmall, stubble, stip, that is its sound as it burns. 
Thence stipula has come to be the name for it with the 
Then as to al/rlond, haft, or lllSce, speech, it is a name 
for the spear-bed. \Vhat is the artificial erlo/lll, haft, 
which is found to be nature? Not hard. The spear- 
haft. \Vhat is the aurlmzn ÙldscÏ, haft of speech, from 
which groweth no speech, but speech of death? The 
spear-point. \Vhat is the aurlOllll, haft, which is iar lOll 1/, 
after blade, the after-blade which is haft, and the haft 
which is remlOIl1l, befor
 blade, to wit, UdOll1I, haft, that 
is, the spear, to wit, haft itself that will come after 
blade, for iar is everything final; so that that IS the 
11 rlml1l , haft, which is after blade, and the Url01l11, haft, 
is the haft which is remlOll1I, before blade, to wit, ,,-hen 
the airiall reaches ground. \Vhat are Urloll11, urlaÙlll, 
urlaÙl1li in urlolld? Urt01l1l, that is, UrlOll1l, haft, leading 
word, mas., fern., and neut.: urltlill1zi, the wife of the 
man: 'llrll/1111a, the two in urlolld, i.e., in heavt>n or 111 
The l/rlzl1111a, indices of gender, mas. and fem. plural 
are as follows: (mas.) sl: dá, trí, athri: (fern.) sí: dí, 
teora, cetheora. From that onward the genders of number 
are the same. It is there is found an error of the plural 
neuter, to wit, its not having l/rlf11l1la plural but in the 
singular tall tu 1Il. \Yhat is artificial speech which is found 
with nature? Not hard. "It" is the head, for it is artificial 
to say (( it " while it is on thc man. [t is natural, ho".c,-er, 
to apply U it " to it aftcr striking ami off him. 
\\.hat single disyllabic word in the declcnsions will take 
the place, to wit, the effect of the four parts of declensi8ns ? 
The word perforatiye, for it includes the words perforati,-c, 

134 BB. 3 2 9 ß 37 


E. 28 a 4S 

7 is innuttaeht 7 as ascnam; ar ni bia in tregdad cen (illd) 
aitreib, ni bia inn atreib cen in innotacllt, ni bia int inutaeht 1725 
cen inn asenam, conid tregdad 0 thuind eo tuind teachtas. 
Cia brieht i m bit oeht feda oeon filid co ngeb int ænguta 
greim a leithi ut est sliachta 7 is ogleith in sin ni certleath 
.i. a haenar a n-agaid na secht litir. Cia baili inn 
Auraiccepta ata in sealbadh særda cen reim aeht reim 1730 
remraiti, ut est, TI alme T alme .i. in selbhad ata do 
+ forin IT 7 for T. 
Cia baili i fogabar comtoth consan cen tinfed treothu ? 
Ni ansa. In baili i mbi
ia g cen gutaigi eturu, 1/1 est 
uinge. Cia baili i fagabar in fidh forthormaigh iar forbu 1735 
na n-ocht sillab isin focul is bricht? Ni ansa. In baili 
i mbia defogur isin ochtmad dialt is fidh forthormaigh 
indara fogur. 
Oeht sillaba dno isin foeul is mo isin Gaedi{g-, lit est, 
fiannamaile-(33o)-chardaai: ire sillaba dec immorro in 1740 
foeul is mó isin Laitin, lit est, !ellerijicabilitudillitatiblis. 
Cia tæbomna gebes greim fed a 7 focail 7 tæbomna? 
Ni ansa. Queirt. Cia tæbomna na geib greim feda no 
focail7 tæbomna? Ni ansa. Uath. 
Cate bunad ruidles[t]a in focail is aipgitir? Ni ansa. 1745 
A bee e d i bon .i. copulatio literarl/lIl per se .i. ata isin 
aipgitir eomhthinol na litir eona fialus. 
Ocus littir fodesein, cia bunad 0 fil? Ni ansa. Onni 

172-, cen in intitacht B. ni bia in indotocht L. 17
7.9 E. om. 
1.2" in sin in B. L. 7 is oglet L. fr. Texle, iii. 66, 23 
17:.'9 adaid B. I.:!!! indara fowl L. 17-10 xii sill- L. 
1.,11 Gr. Lat. viii. 164. 17 
1.-1;; ruidlesta L.: ruidlesto E. 
1.,16 cr. 
2uinct. ix. 4. 59. Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 15. ata in L.: ita in E. 
17-17 littrech E. 
m8 bodesin L. 0 fuil E. 



locative, ingressive, and advancive; for the perforative 
wi1l not exist without the locative, and the locative will 
not exist without the ingressive, the ingressive will not 
exist without the advancive, so that it is perforative 
which holds from end to end. \Vhat bridlt is it in which 
stand eight Ogham letters according to the poet wherein 
the one letter will contain the force of half of it? ut 
est, sliachta, and that is a virtual half, not an exact half, 
to wit, it alone is against the seven letters. In what 
place of the Primer stands the artificial possessive without 
rhyme save rhyme of vowels only, ut est, fa ba? That 
is, the possession which a has over the 1 and over b. 
In what place is found a c
ple of consonants without 
a breath .through them? 
ot hard. \Vhere n stands 
before g, with no vowel between them, ut est, uinge, 
ounce. In what place is found the augmenting Ogham 
vowel after the completion of the eight syllables in the 
word briclzt? Not hard. Where a diphthong will stand 
in the eighth syllable, one of the vowel is an augmenting 
There are eight syllables in the biggest word in 
Gaelic, 1/t est, jiallnamailechardaai. Thirteen syllables, 
however, form the biggest word in Latin, ut est, 
teller ijiCtlbilitudÙzita t ibus. 
\ Vhat consonant will take the force of a vowel, word 
and consonant? Not hard. Q. \Vhat consonant will 
not take the force of vowel, word or consonant? Not 
hard. H. 
\Vhat is the peculiar origin of the word aipgitir, 
alphabet? Not hard. A be ce, diboll, i.e., copulalia 
literarl/lIl per se, to wit, there exists in the alphabet a 
collection of letters with their relationship. 
And as to letter itself, what is the origin from which 
it is? 
ot hard. From legitera, to wit, a name for 

136 BB. 330 a 8 


F. 28a 62 

as ligitera .i. ainm tighi araili anmand aitrebas i traigh 
mara dianadh ainm Molosus 7 gibeadh neach atchi tegh- 1750 
dhais in anma sin foillsigter do fis cen eledain. Amal i[ s] set 
iarum faillsighthi eolais 7 fessa do neoch aiscin in tighi 
sin, is amlaidh sin as sét faillsighthi eolais do fis 7 faiscin 
littri, conid airesain tugadh int ainm is littera 0 ainm 
tighi in anma remraiti for littir in gach baili ita. K 0 1 ï 5;) 
lit/era a litura .i. on foillgiud .i. on chomailt doberdis na 
harsata forsna claro ciartha, ar intib nacetscribtha leo: 
no litera .i. inteach legind .i. set legind. 
Do bhunadhaibh na remend andseo sis. 
Hasca di fedaibh 7 deachaibh 7 remendaibh 7 1760 
furbhthi 7 altaibh 7 inscibh 7 etargairib amal rosuidigthi 
la filedu ina scuili cetna robhadar 7 la Fenius Farsaidh iar 
tebiu na Gaedelge asna di berlaibh sechtmogat. Co taiselbad 
do Goediul mac Angein ar is e sen dorothlaigh tepe na 
e .i. int ænberla ba ailliu 7 ba cainiu cach berla 17G3 
eonid aire fognith 7 conid iarum dotaiselbad conidh aire 
dogairther Gædelc 7 Gaidhil. Nel (no Xin) mac Fenius 
dothuc Scotai ingen Foraind conidh dia ainm-sie dogairther 

Fer a ainmnid uathaid. 
Fir a shealbad uathaid. 
Do fir a radh n-uath
In fer a inehose uathaid. 
A fhir a thoghairm uathaid. 
o fir a oxail uathaid. 
Og fir a thurmeadh uathaid. 

Fir a ainmnid ilair. 
Na fer a shealbad ilair. 
Do feraibh a rad n-ilair. 
Inna firu a inehose ilair. 
A fhiru a thoghairm ilair. 
o feraibh a oxlaid ilair. 
Oc feraib a fhuirmed ilair. 



1749 ondi ailigt- E. mo nolusus T. cibed L.: gibe nech E. 
1751 in anmanna sin, cech ealadan L.: ind anmanda E. 
1752 faillsiges eolus E. fessa L. E. om. faicsin L. E. 
17;;3 do fhiss 1 do aicsin E. lï54 0 an maim L.: on ainmnigthi E. 
17M tigi L. in anmanda L. E. 
1756 a litera/lira .i. on foillsiugud (no on fholIiudug) E. : Virgo Gr. p. 7. 10 
m7 ar is intib L. rosgribtha T. 1758 legÜera E. lcang .i. set leaqg L. 
1761 forbhaibh T.: fuirbtib L. E. 1762 i rrabatar E. 
1763 na nGaedel B. : tebi na Goed- L.: teipiu naGæd. E. tairillfed E. 
17&1 dorathaigh E. Gaedel L. 176-
 na nGaedel B. ba háiIlemh, caimem L. 
1766 doaiselbad L.: rotaiselbad do E. 1767 Goedelg 7 Goedil L. 
1768 dofuc, Scota L. dia hanmaim-sein L. E. 1769 friu E. adds 
1770 a.inmniugud, na. fir L. 1770-1807 d. Stokes, Goidelica, 7 2 -4 
1771 Do fir a selbad ilair L. 




a certain animal lair that dwells on the seashore [in litore) 
named 1\1010ssus, and whosoever sees the lair of that 
animal, to him is revealed knowledge without study. 
Therefore as it is a way for revealing wisdom and 
knowledge for anyone to see that lair, so the knowledge 
and sight of letters is a way for revealing knowledge 
to him, so that on that account the name littera from 
the name of the lair of the animal aforesaid is 
applied to letter in every place where it occurs. Or 
littera is from litura, rubbing, i.e., from the smearing, 
i.e., from the rubbing which the ancients used to apply 
to the waxen tablets, for thereon they (the letters) were 
first written by them. Or litera, i.e., path of reading, 
i.e., way of reading. 
Of the origins of the declensions here below. 
The beginning of letters" verse-feet, declensions, 
accents, intervals, genders, and comparisons as they were 
established by poets of the same school in which they 
dwelt, and by Fenius Farsaidh after the selection of 
Gaelic out of the 72 languages. lienee it was attributed 
to Goedel son of Angen, for it was he that desired 
the selection of Gaelic, to wit, the one language that 
was more beautiful and excelient than any language, 
so that for this reason it used to serve, and therefore it 
was attributed, so that hence Gaelic and the Gael are 
named. X el, or Nin, son of Fenius it was who married 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, so that it is from her name ther 
are called Scots. 

Fer its nominative sing. 
Fir its possessive sing. 
Do fer its dative sing. 
In fer its accusative sing. 
A fhir its vocative sing. 
o fir its ablative sing. 
Og fir its depositivc sing. 

Fir its nominative plur. 
No. fer its possessive plur. 
Do feraibh its dative plur. 
Inna firu its accusative plur. 
A fhiru its vocative plur. 
C feraibh its ablative plur. 
Oc fero.ib its depositi \'e plur. 


13 8 BE. 330 a 41 

Co fer a as en am uathaid. 
Sech fer a shechmall uathaid. 

Tre fer a thregdad uathaid. 

I fer a inotacht uathaid. 
I fir a aitreb uathaid. 
For fer a fhortud uathaid. 

Fo fhir a fhotudh uathaid ilair. 
Tar fer a thairrsci uathaid. 

Ar fir a ilirescbail uathaid. 

Fri fer a fhreslighi uathaid. 

Feron a formoladh. 
Feer a mhallrughudh. 
Ser a chendChochrus tuis. 
Ni airghear a dhiabhul .i. ferfer. 
Sofer a shærughudh. 

i airecar a urard .i. fera. 
Et forsna firu 7 fona firu et tresna 
firu et isna firu et seach na 
firu (col. ß) a lorga fuach. 
E, es, in, co, tre, tar, sech fer a 
dialt n-etarleime. 
Fertot a thelgad noe. 


E. 28 ß 24 

Co feraib (no co firu) a ascnam ilair. 
Sech feraib (no sech firu) a 
seachmall ilair. 
Tre feraib (no tre firu) a thregdad 1780 
ilai r. 
I firu (no a feraib) a inotacht ilair. 
I firu (no a feraib) a aitreb ilair. 
For firu no for feraib a fhortud 
ilair. 1785 
Fo fhiru no fo feraib a fhotud ilair. 
Tar firu no tar feraib a tharrsci 
Ar firu no ar feraib a fhrescbail 
Fri firi no fri feraibh a fhreslighi 
Fer a chodad. 
Refer a delidhmi. 
Fel a chendfhochrus deidh. . 1793 
Firini a ludhughudh. 
Dofer a dhærughudh. 
Feraib a aurisel. 


Fefrier a chon nail. 

Fe a airchill calaid. 

Ni airicar (a) arichill fuit no feir a airchill fuit, Ferr a 1805 
dechnead, Fe a dichneadh. Ise, issi, issed; uinnse, unnse, 
onnar a urlunn indsci. 
Ceand cridi fulang aJ:lhe demi tebidhi in fhir. Suil 7 
fiacail lanamain in chilld. Srebann 7 cru lanamain 

 illraig E. 
Ii9.1 deilidnim (?) E. 
li96 btrCer, firim- E. 
1"08 a deimhi E. 

Ii!!:; cotut E. 
j ceim(ocrus tar, deid E. 
lï99 Coma E. 180.1 thshelgad B. 
19 lanamoin E. 

Co fer its advancive sing. 

Bech fer its neglective sing. 

Tre fer its perforative sing. 

I fer its ingressive sing. 

I fir its locative sing. 
For fer its attestive sing. 

Fo fhir its fundative sing. 

Tar fer its trespassive sing. 

Ar fir its ascensive sing. 

Fri fer its desidative sing. 

Feron its hyperbole. 
Feel' its retarding. 
Ser its change of initial. 
Ferfer its reduplication, is not 



Co feraib (or co firu) its advancive 
Sech feralb (or sech firu) its neglec- 
tive plur. 
Tre feraib (or tre firu) its perfora- 
tive plur. 
I firu (or a feraib) its ingressive 
I firu (or a feralb) its locative plur. 
For firu (or for feraib) its attesti'-e 
Fo fhiru (or fo fheraib) its {unda- 
tive plur. 
Tar firu (or tar feraib) its tres- 
passive plur. 
Ar firu (or ar feraib) its ascensive 
Fri firu (or fri feraib) its desidati,'e 
Fer its hardening. 
Refer its inversion. 
Fel its change of final. 
Firine its diminutive. 

Sofer its ennobling. 
Fera its exaltation, is not found. 
And, on, 'neath, through, in, 
past the men, its staves of 
From, out of, in, to, through, 
across, past a man, its 
interloping syllable. 
Fertot its man-throwing. Fe its theft of a hard. 
I ts theft of a long is not found, or feir is its theft of a long. 
Ferr its doubling a final. Fe its losing a final. 
lse, etc., he, she, it, its prefix of gender. 

Dorer its enslaving. 
Feraib its humiliation. 

Ferrier its internal division. 

Head, heart c
l\stjt\1ting the man's 
 neuter selected 
attributes. Eye and tooth the couple of the head 
::\1 embrane and gore the couple of the heart. (The 

'14 0 BB. 330 ß 7 


E. 28 ß 32 

(lanamain in srebui1l1l .i. bãi1l1le 7 glaiss, lanamain in chru 1810 
.i. ruaidi 7 dcrgi) in cridi. Lurgu 7 traigh lanamain 
ind fhulaing. Gene dno na lanamnaide deme .i. ebrachtur 
.i. abhrochtur (no illlcailled) 7 malu, lanamain (no gene) 
na sula. BUll 7 lethet lanamain (no gene) na fiacal. 
Croiceann 7 feich Ian a main (no gene) na lurgan. Lith 7 1815 
tond lanamain (.i. gene) na traiged. Alailiu dano, it e gene 
na lanamaide demi a forbhthi, air it hi tri gne dochuisnet 
gein forcomeda 7 gein daghchometa [7] gein fric
Geill forcometa cetamus, 'llt est, ailmne for glUll, immta 
samlaidh J ar is fair annuas ata gai ind [fh ]ir forsail 7 is leis 1820 
fochetoir geindir as do beolaibh i fut 7 i nn-airdi. Dinin' 
disail biit amal rogabh fuil arrad feola 7 is isin feoil. Is 
amlaidh dinin dishail co ngaib lasin focul 0 thosuch gu 
dereadh gan urgabail gall airditin. Arnin amal roghabh 
cnaim mullaich 7 leicni 7 cnuicc 7 find, 7 na hai nad 1825 
genat lasin duÍ1le fochetoir, uair fo cosmaillius alta duini 
doniter alta huadh. Ni taidbet dno int airnin lasin focul 
fochetoir forsa tochradar co mbi fo deoidh arding in focul. 
Ferdialt gu sin. 
(hlcipit bandialt.) Bean. 

mna. 0 mnai (no 0 bein). 
na mban. 0 mnaibh. 
do bein. oc mnai. 
do mnaibh. oc mnaa (no oc mnaib). 
in mbein (no in mnai). co mnai. 
inna mna. co mna (no co mnaib). 
a bean. sech mnai. [aib). 
a mna. sech mnaa (no sech mna- 


tri mnai. 
tria mna (no mnaib '. 
i mnai. 
i mna1. (no mnaib). 
for mnai. 1835 
formnaa (no mnaib). 
tar mnai. 
tar mnaa (no mnaib). 

11'10 Origg. xi. I. 76-7 1811 Origg. xi. I. II 5 l!U2, 17 -de E. 0111. 
1:J Origg. xi. 1,42 HH5 no leathar 7 tond T. 1"'
' 7 isind fheõil T. 
!ï domiditer E. 1"'}U !\Iargin B. In tiasga do bandialt and so si
:O-52 d. Stokes, Goide/ica, p. 74 


14 1 

couple of the udder, that is, ,mil}" and 3tr
:lmJ. et: the 
couple of the gore, that is, redness and crimson,) Leg 
and foot the couple of 
YPFortiRt" . A-pa.H:, too, of the 
correlate d neuter, that is, eyelashes and eyebrow, i.e., 
abllroclltur, upper eyebrow (or illlcaÙlcad, treating super- 
ciliously) couple or .pait:-of the eyes. Root and breadth, 
the couple or pair of the teeth. Skin and sinew the 
couple or pair of the shins. Activity and surface the 
couple, i.e., pair of the feet. I n another respect, too, 
these are the pairs of the correlated neuter, its accents, 
for there are three -ktmf5 that are in existence, one for 
warding upon, one for good warding, and one for warding 
against. Cdll forcollléta, for warding upon, first, 1/t est, 
ailllllle for glll1l, cap on knee, similarly, for on it from 
above stands the spear of the true forsail, and it is there- 
with at once it is produced out of thy lips in length and in 
loudness. DÙlill disail are in use as, for example, filiI 
blood, which is along with ftâil flesh, and blood which is in 
the flesh. It is thus that dÙIÍ11 disail permeates the word 
from beginning to end without arresting it, without 
stretching it. Arllin such as cllãilll lIlltllaicll top bone, 
lcÙ-1li jaw-bones, cnuicc knuckles, and find hair, and those 
that do not originate with man at first, for under the like- 
ness of a man's limbs are limbs of science made. Now the 
arllin does not at once appear with the word on which it 
falls so that it is at the end that it compresses the word. 
::\lasculine declension thus far. 
11lcipit feminine declension. \N oman. 


of a woman. 
of the women. 
to a woman. 
to women. 
the woman. 
the women. 
o woman. 
o women. 

from a woman. 
from women. 
with a woman. 
with women. 
unto a woman. 
un to women. 
past a woman. 
past women. 

through a woman. 
through women. 
In a woman. 
In women. 
on a woman. 
on women. 
over a woman. 
over women. 

14 2 BB. 330 ß 30 


E.28ß5 I 

benon a formoladh. 
ben a codut. 
been a mallrugud. 
neb a delidind. 
befrien a chondail. 
ben a oen. 
ben a Ian. 

no mna a Ian. 
ni airecair a dhiabul .i. 
ciasberat araili ni bhi 
nach Ian ina dhiabul. 
benine a Iugudud. 
soben a saerugud. 



doben a dærugud, ni alrtcair a aurard (no i nn-uathad .i. 
benna). Mna i n-iIllr a aurard. Ni airecar a airisel .i. 
(benaibh). Forsna,7 fona, triasna, isna, sech na mna a 
Iorga fuach: 0, do, sech, for, in, is ben a dialt n. etarlemi. 
Bentot a thelgud Hoe. Be a airichil calaid. r\i bhi a 1850 
airicill fuit no ni airicar airicil (.i. fuit). Bel a cennfochrus. 
Benn a deichneadh. Be a dichneadh. Cich 7 glun a 
ndemi lhepide, fair 7 sridit a llanamnai: blass 7 millsi 
a ngeni-side. AImnæ 7 ecsait Ianamnai in glui1/i. 
Cnaim 7 feoil a ngeni-side. No hit he a ngene a [orbthe 1835 
amal rom-ebhartmar. 
Bandialt conigi sin. 
blCipit do deim-dialt andseo sis. 
Nem. Nemon a formolad. Nime a cotut. Neem a 
mallrugud. 1860 

na n ime. oc nim. tre nem. for nem. 
do nim. oc nimibh. tria nime. for nime (no 
do nimib. co nem. i n-nem. nimib). 
a n-nem. co nime. i n-nime. tar nem. 
inn nime. sech nem. i n-nim. tar nime. (33 I) 1863 
o nirn, 0 nimib. sech nime. i n-nimib. fo nim, fo nimib. 

Nefriem a chonnail. Nem a oen. Nem a Ian. Ni airecar 
a lugugud (no a diabul). Ni fail a særugud, nach a 

1H2 cia asberat E. 
1R.18 triana E. 
1!!56 remhebatmar E. 
]1<67 chomail B.: condail E. 

]'JJ6 aurard (.i. mna) E. 18-17 mna (.i. bene) E. 
:J et irridit, blaiss E. 1
 canaim B. 
1859.78 d. Stokes, Goidelica, p. 74- 
1'<1,8 a diabulugud J fil E. 


benõn its hyperbole. 
ben its hardening. 
been its retarding. 
neb its inversion. 
befrien its internal division. 
ben its unity. 
ben its full. 


or mna its full. 
its reduplication, to wit, ben- 
ben is not found. 
Though some say that there 
is not any län in its re- 
benÏne its diminuti,"e. 
Boben its ennobling. 

doben its enslaving; its exaltation is not found (or in the 
singular, that is, benna). Mna in the plural its exaltation. 
Its humiliation, to wit, benaib is not found. On, under, 
through, in, past the women, its lorga fuack: from, to,' 
past, on, in, 'tis woman, its interloping syllable. Bentot 
its man-throwing. Be its theft of a hard. Its airickill fuit 
does not exist, or airicil (i.e., fillt) is not found. Bel 
its change of final. Benn its doubling a final. Be its 
losing a final. Pap and knee their selected neuter, fair 
bearing, and sridit the passage of milk from the breast, 
their couple; taste and sweetness, their pair. Cap and 
hollow of knee, the cou pIe of the knee. Bone and flesh 
their pair. Or these are their pair, their accents, as 
we have said. 
Feminine declension thus far. 
blCipit neuter declension here below. 
Nem heaven. Nemôn its hyperbole. Nime its harden- 
ing. Neem its retarding. 

of the hea\'en. 
to heaven. 
to heavens. 
the heaven. 
the hea Yens. 
from heaven. 
from heavens. 

at heaven. 
at heavens. 
unto heaven. 
unto heavens. 
past heaven. 
past heavens. 

through heaven. 
through heavens. 
into heaven. 
into heavens. 
in heaven. 
in heavens. 

on heaven. 
on heavens. 
over heaven. 
over heavens. 
under heaven. 
under heavens. 

Nefriem its internal division. Nem its unity. Nem its 
full. Its diminutive is not found, nor its reduplication. Its 

I4...J. BB. 331 a 3 


E. 29 a 12 

daerugud, nach a aurard. Nimib a airiseI. Forsna, fona, 
tresna, isna, sechna nirne, a lorga fuach: 0, do, in, co, es, 1870 
fo, for, [d]e, sech na nirne a dhialt n-etarleme. Ni fognæ 
a thelgudh noe. Ne a airichill (.i. calaidh) ut est, nem ind 
usee, no nern nathrach, ut est, nClIl irn thalrnain. Ni bi 
airichill (.i. fuit). Nel a chennfochrus. Nemm a deichnead. 
Ne a dichneadh. Ised, isi, ise; ondar, uinnsi, unnse a 1875 
erlonn indsci. [Ni] airecar a deirni tepidhi, ar is deirninsci 
fadhesin. Nel 7 tuagh nirni a lanarnnai derni: dath 7 
airdi a ngeni-sen: no it he a fuirbhthi a ngeni. 
:N erndialt co sin. 
A ainrnniugud fer. A shelbad fir. A rath 1880 
do fuiur. A inchosc in fer. A thogairrn a fir. 
A foxlaid 0 fuiur. A fuirmid oc [fh ]iur. A ascnam 
co fear. A sechmall sech fuear A threghdad tre 
fer. A inotacht hi fir. A aitreibh hi fuir. A fhorthudh 
for fer. A fhothudh fo fuiur. A tharrsce tar fear 18t$5 
A fresghabail ar fiur. A airchelladh ar fer. A frecnarc 
cia fer. A imthimcheall im fear. A dighbhail di fhiur. 
- Doformaighet alai Ie dano a tri frisna hii sin a dighbhail 
.i. den fir; 7 a thuarascbail .j. in fer; 7 a tustidi in fir: 
acht is inunn a dhighbhail 7 a íhoxlaidh; is inund a 1t$90 
thuarascbhail 7 a inchosc; is inund a thuistiudh 7 a 
blCipit do ernailibh in irnchornairc in so sis. 
Atat da aithfeghad for imchomarc .i. imchomarc iar 
n-inni thoirni 7 irnchornarc iar n-airbhirt nan-airbiren.n 1895 
bith. Atat ceithre ernaili fair .i. rneit 7 inni 7 inchosc 7 

1!-71 e E. 1872 in tuf- E.: tus- B. 1877 tuad E. 
1878 dath 7 airdidi, a ngeni-si, a ngeine E.: a ngeine side T. 
 d. Stokes. Goidetica. p. 74, 5 188'2 fuirmtigh E. 11'!86 lairecar B. 
1&>7 im E.: in B. 1888 frisna hai sin E. 18!'1 tindtudh, Fini/ E. 
18!13-I1r.!ti Based on Gr. Lat. iii. 459-515. L. 0111. IS9;; nonnairbirend T. 
After filii! (1892) E. gives Thomas O'Connor's poem, partly illegible here, but 
printed in O'Molloy Gr. xiii. pp. 137-9, beginni:Jg : 
Beithi cenar dom Iaim deis, 
Is luis dis, co conndeices, 
Fern triur, 
ail cethrur, 
an col 
Ocus nin cona cuiger 



ennobling does not exist, nor its enslaving, nor its 
exaltation. Nimib is its humiliation. On, under, through, 
in, past the heavens, its staves of words: from, to, in, 
unto, out of, under, on, of, past the heavens, its inter- 
loping syllable. Its man-throwing may n ot
e. Ne its 
theft of a hard, 1/t 
st, nem of the water, or poison of 
a serpent, l/ test, llem illl tha/main heaven about earth. 
There is no airicllill (i.e., fuit). Nel its change of 
final, nemm its doubling of final, ne its losing a final. 
Ised, etc., he, she, it, its prefix of gender. Its selected 
neuter is not found, for it is itself neuter gender. 
Cloud and bow of heaven its neuter couple: colour 
and height their pair, or it is their accents that are 
their pair. 
Neuter declension thus far. 
Its nominative fer. Its possessive fir. Its dative 
do fuiur. Its accusative in fer. Its ,.ocative a fuir. 
I ts ablative 0 fhiur. Its depositiye oc fiur. Its 
advancive co fear. Its neglective sech fear. Its 
perforative tre fer. Its ingressive hi fir. Its locative 
hi fhir. Its attestive for fer. Its fundative fo fhiur. 
Its trespassive tar fear. Its ascensive ar fiur. Its 
defensive ar fer. Its interrogative cia fer. Its circum- 
dative im fear. Its privative di fiur. 
N ow others add three to these, its privative den fir; 
its descriptive in fer; and its parentative in fir: but 
its privative is the same as its ablative; its descriptive 
is the same as its accusative; and its parentative is the 
same as its possessive. 
blcipit to the divisions of analysis is this below. 
There are two "
 of analysis, that is. analysis accord- 
ing to the meaning it denotes and analysis according to the 
method which it uses. There are four divisions of it, to wit, 
size, quality, denotation, and accent. Analysis according 

14 6 BO. 331 a 28 


E. 29 a 45 

aicncad. Imcomarc iar n-inni thoir1le: A\tat ocht fothoir1ldc 
fair 7 cethri primthoirllde na n-ocht fothoirllcl. It he gabair 
fona iv primthoirlldib conid ocht primthoirlldc samlaid, 
cenmota comacomul 7 comfhilltighe 7 comshuidhigthe .i. 1900 
comacolI/lil ceilli 7 co/elJiI 7 cetfaidhi cuirp 7 anma ï 
folaidh 7 airmhi 7 aicenta. Is e int aicned hisin 
adasramed uili. Is e in met co fester in met no ll1 
Iaighet bis isin focu1. Is i in inni co fester in inni uilc no 
maithiusa bis fond focul. Is e int inchosc co fester coich 1905 
indsci, in indsci no in rann indsci. l\1asa rann indsci cate 
defir eter raind 7 indsci. l\Iaso indsci coich in indsci, in 
ferindsci no in baninndsci no in deimindsci. 1\Iaso ban- 
indsci .i. indsci banda, lit est, l/l/trÙ: .i. muimech lasin 
Laitneoir, int uili gne femi/lda dachuisin dar beolo duine 1910 
is lllltrids in cenel sin, ar is Illltrt
1: is bhuimeach doaib uili. 
l\Iaso ferindsci .i. indsci ferdha, llt est, pato' .i. athair 
lasin Laitneoir, int uile gne masclli! 7 femin 7 neodair 
dochuisin dar beolu nduine is pater is athair doib uili .i. 
Dia Uilichumhachtach, Athair na n-uili dhula. l\laso 1915 
dhemindsci .i. indsci dimbeoaighthi, lit est, caellllll .i. neam 
Iasin Laitneoir, int uile gne neoturda dochuisin dar beolo 
nduine is 0 nim ainmnigter. Is inni in cetna diall 7 diall 
tanaiste 7 tres diaJl 7 ceithreamad dial] 7 cuiced diall 7 rann 
7 res ì rece. [I]ssi in [res in] primthoram{. Is i in rece in 1920 
fothorll1/d. J n fhothorm/d i sell, atat cethri ranna fuirri .i. 
seacht n-airm 7 seacht n-acenta 7 secht ndescena a dheiscin 
iar ceill 7 iar (co!. ß) ceniul 7 iar nguth 7 iar mbreithir 7 iar 
11'117 aicne, toirne, fothoirne T. 1898 Na hocht T. fotboir- B. 18!
J umna T. 
1900 comfhocul (no comaccomul) E. cobhfhi1lte T. 
1901 commõcl, gn- B. : cine/To : gene E. 1!""
 foIu, aigenta. Is é int aicne T. 
1903 adasramed E.: Gr. Lat. iii. 465,32: ataraimhet T. 1007 Et masat T. 
1908 masa ban T. l!109 Origg. viii. 11,61. muimmech B. 
1910,l3.17 int uile gcenel E.: chineI T. 191I Gr. Lat. iii. 494, 26 
1!114 Patruig T. : Gr. Lat. iii. 506, 7 1916 dimbeodaigthe E. 1917 gne i'lt uiIe B. 
19'20 rand 7 reis 7 rece. Is í in rtis an primthorund. Is i in rece in fotborund. 
In fothoruind hi sin T.: primtoraind isin inrecce ind fhothor E.: primthoir- B. 
1!r.!O-5 The whole passage is corrupt 1!r.!2 n-airmhe, deicsina T. 
19'.!-3 cintol T. : idr ngn- E.: gn- 13. 



to the quality which it signifies: There are eight su b- 
ordinate parts in it, and four primary parts of the eight 
subordinate parts. These are included under the four 
primary parts, so that thus there are eight primary parts, 
besides conjunction, derivatives, and compounds, to 
wit, conjunction of sense and species, perceptions of body, 
sou], substance, number, and accent. That is the accen t 
in which they have aU been reckoned. That is the size, 
that the size or smallness which is in the word might be 
known. That is the quality, that it might be known whether 
it is a quality of evil or good that underlies the word. 
That -is the denotation, that it might be known of what 
ill1/sa it is, whether gender or part of speech. If it be a 
part of speech, what is the difference between part and 
speech. If it be gender, what is the gender? masculine, 
feminine, or neuter gender? If it be feminine gender, 
to wit, female gender, ut est, 11utrz:r, nurse, with 
the Latinist, the whole female species that passes over 
human lips, that genus belongs to 11utrÙ:, for l/utrÙ- 
is nurse to them alL If it be masculine gender, 
that is, male gender, ut est, pater, father, with the 
Latinist, the whole species of masculine, feminine, and 
neuter that passes over human lips, it is pater that is 
father to them all, that is, Almighty God, Father of 
all the elements. If it be neuter gender, that is, 
lifeless gender, ut est, cael1lm, heaven, with the 
Latinist, the whole neuter species that passes over 
human lips is named from 11e111 , heaven. Quality 
is the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth declensions, 
and rtlll1l, verse, and 1'es, tale (?), and rece. Res is 
the first division. Rea is the subdivision. In that 
subdivision there are four parts, to wit, seven 
numbers, seven accents, and seven aspects, its 
aspects according to sense, species, voice, verb 

14 8 BB. 331 ß I 


E. 29 ß 1 

labradh. Is do cornachornol in gotha 7 na breithri sin 7 
labartha asait ernaili irnchornairc. 1925 

Trefocul in so arnal rocurnsat na baird 7 na patreni .i. 
trefocul cen cuail cnarn. Cen craip cainti. Cen cornman. 
Cen cornsiudh. Cen dichur n-ecoir. Cen dallbhach dona 1930 
dallbaigib. Cen ellach duna ellgib. Cenrnota oenellach. 
Cen tar. Cen tarnall. Cen fai&ß co cuibdius. Cen faic}:( Jt 
cen chuibdius. Cen a foc
 frisin n-aprait filid frisuithi. 
Cen irnsechfaidh indsci. Cen asneis for araile. Cen eCllacll. 
Cen ecnuadh. Cen scath dofarce cuitbiud. Cen æ for 193[1 
an-æ. Cen sæbsuidhiugud dialt ic frecra d' iarcornruc i n- 
urd bairdni. Conach in ceatharcubhaidh curnrnait baird. 
Cona friortud tecta forna focIa rnasa oe congabhthar arnal 
asbert: Trefocul tach raid filid. 
No (mar so, ita trefocul: cen chlæn, cen rudraigh, cen 1940 
rofot, cen rogair, cen dirnbrigh, cen forbrigh, cen ecnairc fri 
fregllairc, cen uathad fri iIar, cen ecenel, cen ec[ om ]uaim, 
cen ecuibdius, cen anocht .i. da locht deg na hirlabra in sin. 
Dia nditen-sidhe cethri cenela fichet .i. co[r]raib ann: a 
forrnoladh, a codut, a rnallrugud, a diabul, a deilide/l, a oen, 1945 
a Ian, a lugugud, a særughudh, a dærugud, a aurard, a 
airisel, a dhichneadh, a dhoichnead, a chonnaiI, a chend- 
fochrus, a airchiII fuit, a airchiII calaid, a thelgudh noe, a 
urlonn insce, a hinsce mod, a lanarnna deirni, a demi thep- 
idhe, a ngen-side, co ndath 7 tothucht, co tom us fri fidh 1950 

 7 in da bhréithre 7 in da urlabrad T. 
1925 d. Origg. ii. 18: imcomraic E. T. ends \\ith a poem of which the 
second line is: ac fiadn- ni himurscel. 
1928 Trefocul tacraid filid andso sis rocumsat E. 
1929-40 Arch. C. P. iii. 293: d.Origg. ii. 17 19'!9 cual, cinti E. 
1930 comsiniu.J E. 19:n cellgib B.: hellgib L.: heillgib E. 
J932 raicit co, aicitcen E. 19;U imsechbaid, ecnach E. 
19'J5 dofairce E. cæn saebuidigud E. 
1937 Cona aichni cet[h]ar cuala i cumait E. 1938 Corthudh E. 
 doen, rudrach, roat E. 19
2 ecomund E. 19-13 and so indsin E. 
19U corab and E. 19
!; deibide E. 19
7 dochned. condail E. 
9 mod E. . 19W a ngen-side contath .i. tothocht F. 





and language. It is for conjunction of the voice, and that 
word, and language that the divisions of analysis grow. 
This is trifocul as the bards and the patreNt" (?) have 
devised it, to wit, trifoatl, without a heap of bones, 
without cramping of diction, without plagiarism, without 
sameness, without banishing ornament, without one of the 
dal/bilch, without one of the el/adl, save a single ellacll
\\"ithout disgrace, without pause, without rhyming accident
without unrhyming accident, without -tÐeir word which fUy't (r. JI<<- ) 
poets call frisllitlti, w.itheut r@gular repetitien- of d-ieHon
without n
rrative on another subject, without blasphemr
without detraction, without a word that exceeds derision
without metre (ae) on non-metre (ml-ae), without wrongly 
placing single syllables to answer as a trisyllabic word in 
the use of bard measure, so that there be not the four- 
rhyming quatrain which bards compose, so that there be 
no violation of law upon the words if it be a measure that 
is kept up, as he said: Trefocl/l poets plead. 
Or Trifocul is without wrong nes s, without too _many 
rhymes, without an over-long, without an over-short, with- 
out want of emphasis, without over-emphasis, without an 
absent to a present, withoutasingulartoa plural, without false 
gender, without false alliteration, without false rhyme, with- 
out error, to wit, those are the twelve faults of composition. 
To guard against these are 24 kinds, to wit, corrai/l 
there: its hyperbole, its hardening, its retarding, its 
reduplication, its inversion, its singleness, its full, its 
diminutive, its ennobling, its enslaving, its exaltation, 
its humiliation. its losing a final, its doubling a final. 
its internal division, its change of initial or final, its 
theft of long, its theft of hard, its man-throwing, its 
prefix of gender, its mod speech, its neuter couples, its 
selectcd neuters, their pairs, with colour and properties, 

ISO BB. 331 ß 26 


E. 29 ß 24 

7 dech, reim 7 forbad, alt 7 ins:i 7 etargoire ar cach cenel 
labartha dotuisim ar beolu duine [dohuisimar L.], ar is a 
dealt domiter recomhrac, a recomrac domiter iarcomrac, a 
hiarcomrac dno feles,a feles domiter clænre, a c1ænre domiter 
luibenchosach, a luibenchosach domiter claidemllas, a 1953 
claidemlzas domiter bricht: ar comititer alta uad fri haltaib 
in duine, ar ita coic alta sescat ar tri cet in duine, a coic 
sescat ar tri cet aisti archetail, 7 coic laithi sescat ar tri cet 
isin bliadain 7 a coic sescat ar tri cet du luibib tre thalmain 
conastacmaillg tlacht in trefocuil dc qzl'ibllS dicitllY: 1960 
Trefocul tacrait filid. 

Trefocul tacrait filid 
Do didin a n-indligid, 
Ni mo na lucht cuibrind eland 
Di neoch tuirmim notuigeand. 


Sceith ocus gnuisi glana 
Aincit lochta linmara, 
Immar roscum Adna ogh, 
N i tarba gen a tintodh. 
Da anocht deg is derb libh 
Dlegait a fis na filid; 
A main nocho n-fuair Etain, 
Rofuaigh aib inn aircetail. 


Da sciath dec is da ghnuis deg 
Roordaigh dia n-imchoimet 
N a lochta cen lomrim lac, 
Da da comlin noscobrat. 


N a gnuisi diten atbér 
Cotut is æn nach aimger, 
Særugud dærugud des, 
N a lorga fuach fria firmhes. 


] etargairi cen 7 cell a Ius latartha E. 
]P52 dohuisin dar L.: douisiumar air E. 111;:;3 recomarc E. 
]956-60 Of the 613 Jewish precepts 365 are negative, which Rabbinical 
anatomy declares to be the number of the sinews-veins or small vessels-in 
the human body. They equal the days in the solar year and are governed by 
365 angels. The Zohar, v. the Jewish Encycl. i. 565 
11157 fr. Tn:Ie, iii. 66, 8 



with measure as regards letter, verse-foot, run, and 
accent, interval, gender, and comparison for every sort 
of speech that is produced on human lips; for it is from 
syllable that dissyllable is estimated, from dissyllable that 
trisyllable is estimated, from trisyllable in turn quadri- 
syllable, from quadrisyllable pentasyllable is estimated, from 
pentasyllable hexasyllable is estimated, from hexasyllable 
heptasyllable is estimated, from heptasyllable octosyllable 
is estimated: for the limbs of science are equal to the 
limbs of man, for there are 365 limbs of man, 365 measures 
of poetry, 365 days in the year, and 365 herbs through the 
earth, so that the -protection of the Trcfocul encompasses 
them, de quibus dicitllr.. 
Tn:foat! poets plead. 
Trefocul which poets plead 
To defend their lawlessness, 
Is no more than a burden of a children's part 
From somcthing, I reckon, which they undcrstand. 
Shields and pure countenances 
\Yard off many blemishes 
As perfect Adna has devised them, 
I t is no profit not to turn them. 
Tweh-e "errors," it is clear to you, 
The poets must know them; 
Etain has found no profit of them, 
She has woven the beauty of poetry. 
Twelve shields and twelve countenances 
She has appointed to guard oneself against them, 
The blemishes without a weak bare rhyme, 
They succour them with double thcir number. 
The countenances of defence which I shall mention, 
" Hardening 17 and" singular 17 that are not unsharp, 
Right" ennobling," a ensla,'ing/' 
The" staves of words" for true measurement. 

I!"a Origg. ii. 17 .!If,.! d'imditen E. L. 
i mÓ na E. cuibrim ß.: cuihrilld L. (cr.lind) E. 
) no tucand L.: nos-tuigind E. I!M;; lochtu L. 
I!"õ" amair roscum .\gna og E. I!/i:! Eadain L. E. 
I!';:: Ros-fuaigh E. w"', Saerruidhir dacrfuidir deal! E. 

15 2 DB.33Iß44 


E. 29 
 4 2 

Dialt n-etarleme n og, 
Airichill fuit, is fir on, 
Airichill calaid, ni cam, 
Cendfoehrus tuis ria thodall. 


Diehnead tuis, dechnead tuis tair, 
Ins[c]e [mod L.\ cona modhaib, 
Is i dara gnuis deg dil, 
Urlonn insci ria hairimh. 

Na sceith ditin fon domun 
Formolad is mal1rugud, 
FGaradar senfilid sain 
Da deilidin is condail. 


A Ian ni Ian cen bunad 
A diabul, a Iugugud, 
l\Iemur fri cach sobard sen, 
A {horard, a ilioriseal. 


Ainnim telgud næ co nneim 
Ocns cendfochrus derid, 
Diehned derid (332), is docair, 
Deehned deirid degfoeail. 


Is iat sin na da sciath deg, 
Eolaig iea n-imcoimet, 
Is na da gnuis deg rodet 
r\a ceithri fodla fiehet. 


N a filid na fitir so, 
Ni muin fedm eicsi forro. 
Cindas fhailgit a n-ulcu? 
Cindas aincit anuchtu? 

In n-ængnuis no [in] ensciath ard 
leas ar each loeht langarg, 
No in dias im each locht rolad? 
Ni de bias ole dia imrad. 


; a Ilirichill E. 1!J.'\.l calaidh, camm E. 19B
 thadall L.: tadall E. 
191'.8 mod, Is iat E.: Is i in L. l!l'Jfi L. sorbad B. 2002 in da L. E. gnuis E. 
::OO'.!-5 Follow 19 8 9 E. 200
 gnius B. 

no In oengnuis no ænsgiath L. E.: densciath D. 


II Interloping syllable" entire, 
U Theft of a long" it is true, 
II Theft of a hard," it is not wrong, 
"Change of initial" for its visitation. 

U Apocope of initial," "doubling of initial" in front, 
U Mod speech" with its modes, 
It is a twelfth dear countenance, 
U Prefix of gender" for reckoning it. 

The shields of defence throughout the world 
Are U hyperbole" and" retarding," 
Ancient poets have found out those 
Two" metatheses :, and" internal division." 

Its U full" is not full without foundation, 
Its "reduplication," its U diminuti,-e," 
A memory to each noble old bard 
Its "exaltation," Its" humiliation." 

I reckon" man-throwing," with ,'enom, 
And" change of final," 
" Apocope of final," it is troublesome, 
U Doubling of a final" of a good word. 

Those are the twelve shields, 
The learned are in the habit of observing them, 
And the twelve countenances" hich have been granted, 
The four and twenty di,'isions. 

The poets th.1t do not know this, 
N 0 
k.1o essay poetry is on them. 
How can they conceal their wrongs? 
How can they ward off" errors" ? 

Is it one countenance or one lofty shield 
\Vhich saves f.-om each blemish full rough, 
Or the twain that are thrown around every blemish? 
Not thence, from considering it, will harm arise. 

:!fJ():1 Re n-aichni re n-imcomet 
In tres rand re rem cen choll 
A ted tall (?) in Trefocul. Tre(ocul E. 
:!t1l2 ar each 1.. E. 
:XII:I Ni de 1..: Xi deas, re imradh E. 


154 BB. 332 a 7 


E. 29 ß 56 

Cip he chanas cona cheill, 
Tria intliucht n-amnas n-acbeil J 
Is duiligh is is docair 
A tuirim in Trefocail. 



Trefocul in tri focailJ 
Fis a mine is rodocair, 
Tricha ar a se cose 
Fritha tria gne nGædilge. 


Da anocht ar a deich dib, 

 i cubaidh cen a comrim, 
Nit carit a daini dam 
Scarait maini for molad. 


Clæn atberim dib ar tus, 
1m eolach ina imthus : 
Ni hænchloen acht it tri c1æin, 
o nach særcæm (cach særchæm B. adds) cach 


Clæn creiti rochuala each, 
1m rannaibh ni ba rognath, 
Re tæb cach duilghiusa de, 
Clæn cuibdiusa, cIæn ceille. 

Clæn crete ni c1æn cen cheass, 
I s at deich millti milles, 
Taibgit fiach in molta amaig, 
Da sciath corcra 'na chomair. 


In cIæn cuibdiusa is cubaidh, 
Da gnuis riasan gliaphudair, 
Ocus da sciath 'na ndegaid J 
N ocho liach a llandegail. 


Da sciath, da gnuis in gelli, 
Is ed ainces clæn ceilli ; 
Cobigi celli, gan col, 
Is ernail di anacol. 


:.>(,]5 im intlecht L. 20'2] tre gne E. :.>(
.!'.! da octor E. 
 caraid L.: carait E. :.>(
?i Am L. [meolach me na n-imtus E. 
., L. 
j oencIæn acht it tri cloin ß. : Xi hænclæn acht a[ t] tri clain E. 



\Vhoever he be that sings with his understanding, 
Through his intellect rough and dangerous, 
I t is difficult and it is troublesome 
To take account of the Tre{ocul. Trejocttl. 

Trefocul the three words 
A knowledge of its secret is very hard, 
Thirty-six up to this point 
Are found through its species of Gaelic. 

Twel ve "errors" of them, 
I t is no rhyme without their common metrics, 
No friends to me, 0 men, are they 
Who separate rewards from praise. 

A wrong of them I tell at the outset. 
I am skilled respecting it : 
It is not one wrong but it is three wrongs, 
From which every noble lay is not nobly fair. 

Of" wrong of body" everyone has heard, 
In my verses it will not be very usual, 
Besides every difficulty therefrom, 
A "wrong of rhyme," a "wrong of sense." 

"\Vrong of body" is not a wrong without doubt, 
It is ten injuries that it injures [works], 
They levy a debt of praise outside, 
Two purple shields over against it. 

The" wrong of rhyme," fitting are 
Two countenances against the clear defect, 
And two shields behind them, 
Not mean is their full protection. 

Two shields, two countenances of the cheek, 
It is that which protects" a wrong in meaning "; 
" A text of sense," without sin, 
I s a species of protection. 

:!f.r_'II 0 nach saercam each saerIaid E. 
:!f1:1:! Retaeb gan E.: rOlaeb n. : rothæb L. 
:!fl:li lìachu E. 
IJ gIe pud.lir L. : 
1 na degaid L. :..'O'&;I geilli E. 

.! nirbo E. 
20:16 isa x. E. 
riasin glanpudair E. 
:!fl!!; as E. dia L. E. 

15 6 BB. 332 a 22 


E. 30 a 7 

Da ernail ainces rudrach, 
Co nach be in gres glephudrach, 
Tri sceilh, tri gnuisi, gan glor, 
. Aincit in ro[th ]at romor. 


Cuic sceith, tri gnuisi, gan goimh, 
Is ed ainces ar rogair ; 
Oengnuis ainces dimbrig dib, 
Is ængnuis ainces forbrig. 

Oengnuis diten, na ron-dairt, 
Ainces egnairc fri frecnairc : 
Sciath maræn ocus gnuis glan 
Aincit uathad fri hilar. 


Nai sceith diten, co nduilgius, 
Aincit uili ecuibdhius ; 
Cia nach labair con a luis, 
Ocus no-ainic ængnuis. 


N a tri gnuisi, gruaid fri gruaid, 
Is maith aincit ecommuaim ; 
Ocus da sciath, ni sæb lib, 
Aincit ecommuaim n-eitig. 


Ecenel, nocho n-ord mear, 
N on-anaig ængnuis diten ; 
Anocht no-aincet da sciath, 
A beith ranocht is roliath. 


Anocht ainm coitchend cubaid 
Dolean do gach lanphudair ; 
Int anocht, ni hainm cen cheass, 
Cia ralocht dian ruidles. 

Anocht mas ainm do cach 10cht, 
Cid dia n-aidera d' oen[l]ocht? 
Vair nocho n-aenlocht ce11 on, 
Is taebhnocht i Trefocul. 



:!f149 nocon he E. 
4 fairbrig E. 
:!U5:i, 9 diten L.: ditin ß. 
!I gen duilges E. 
:!fJ/ìl L. gon 0 luis B.: cun a E. 

20:;(} ainces L. rofhaù L.: rofat F. 
:Y\35 naron-dairt L. : narond dairt E. 
20;;8 aincid L. 
2060 ecuibdes E. 
 non-anaig L.: non-anaic E. 



Two kinds which defend" too many rhymes,:' 
So that the work be not clearly blundering, 
Three shields, three countenances, without noise 
Defend the excessive" overlong." 

Five shields, three countenances, without anguish, 
I t is that \\ hich defends against" overshort " ; 
One countenance that wards off from you" want of emphasis," 
And one countenance that wards off" over-emphasis." 

One countenance for defence, lest it cost us a heifer (?), 
\Vhich defends" an absent to a present" ; 
A shield also and a pure countenance 
Defend" a singular" for" a plura!." 

Nine shields of defence, with difficulty, 
Defend all "false rhyme" ; 
Though he does not speak with his good taste, 
Seeing that one countenance defends it. 

The three countenances, cheek by check, 
\Vell do they defend "false alliteration"; 
And two shields, ye do not think it deceitful, 
Defend hideous "false alliteration." 

" False gender," it is not a reckless l se, 
\Vhich one guarding countenance defends; 
Two shields defend "error" 
Lest it should be too bare and too grey. 

" Error" a common harmonious name 
Has clung to every complete blunder; 
The" error" is not a name without ambiguity, 
Though it is great blemish to which it is peculiar. 

" Error" if it be a name for every blemish, 
\Vhy shall it cleave to a single blemi
h ? 
Since it is not one blemish, without fault, 
That is naked sided in TrejoclII. 


:!OG5 7 ix. L. E. 20611 non-aincet L.: non-aincit E. 
$0 roliach L. E. :!Ili.& radiles L.: dia bo dileas E. 
2Oït.i n-aiùærd aenlocht L.: Ciù ma ndubrad re hænlocht E. 
 in Trefocul E. 

15 8 BB. 332 a 37 


E. 30 a 

Sceith is gnuisi fogeib daib 
Amal iccait cach n-anæbh ; 
Dingbaid din, ní socht solam, 
Da locht co fir forrnolad. 


Oenicc ic catut, cen col, 
Is oenícc ic mallrugud ; 
Ni gne mergnima midid, 
Sei deigdina ic delidnid. 


Aichnid dom' anrnain, cen ail, 
Se cabartha 'na condail, 
Ar ænlocht ainceas a hæn 
Ocus a Ian co Ianchæm. 


Diabull ding bad din, gu da[i]th 
Na tri lochta co lanmaith ; 
Aincid, ni hole in monor, 
Ar da locht a lugugod. 

Aincit ar da locht, gen log, 
Særugud is dærugud : 
AÏ1.cit da firJocht masead 
A urard a uiriseal. 


Aincit lorga fuach a bos 
Ar da locht gu lanfuoJlus : 
Dialt n-etarleirni n-oJl 
I caid da anoch t aconn. 


A thelgud nai, niamda a bhlas, 
Is ar da anocht icas ; 
AirichiH fuit is ferr de, 
Ni dingaib dín acht deide. 


A airchilJ calaid, can cheass, 
Ronn-anaig ar da ainges 
No dos-díngaib gan tochrus 
Amal atchi cendfochrus. 


:!OSO itait, n-anæib L.: n-anaib E. 
 is oen ica E. 
 Se deignima ic deliùhnÎg L. : 

'O87 áom rnmrnain L. 

I!I:: rnonar L. E. 

:!OSI dinù L. E. solum L. 

Is degsnima is deiligin E. 
2091 dingbaid dind E. gu daith L. E. 
209J ludugad E. 
:; lod E. 



Shields and countenances it finds for them 
As they heal every unbeautiful thing; 
From us, it is not a sudden silence, 
"Hyperbole" wards off two faults truly. 

One remedy has U hardening," without sin, 
And one remedy has" retarding" ; 
It is not a kind of mad act it meditates, 
Six good protections has" metathesis." 

Known to my mind, without reproach, 
Six helps in their" internal division," 
Against one blemish which its" singleness" defends 
And its" full" full gracefully. 

"Reduplication" wards off from us, with colour, 
The three blemishes full well ; 
Defends, not ill is the work, 
Against two blemishes its" diminutive." 

Against two blemishes defend, without decay, 
" Ennobling" and" ensla ving" : 
Against two veritable blemishes defend indeed 
Its "exaltation" and U humiliation." 

"Staves of words" protect here below 
Against two blemishes full plainly: 
A great ., interloping syllable" 
With us remedies two" error,:>:' 

Its "man-throwing," beauteous its taste, 
It is against two" errors" that it heals; 
"Theft of long" it is the better of it, 
It does not ward off from us save two things 

Its "theft of hard," without doubt, 
Has saved us from two difficulties, 
It wards it off, without winding up of yarn. 
As it sees it, " change of initial and final." 

 a urord B. 2I..
1 i (us L. 210'
 a conn L. 
2103 L. sealgad B. 2l(1fi diml L. deighe ß. 211)7 Airichill chalaid L. 
:!101! ronn-anJ.ig ß.: ror.-anaid E. ances L. : ainces E. 
:!IO!' Oeus dingbaid E. 

160 Bß. 332 a SI 


E. 30 a 38 

Dingbaid dichnead tri phudra (coi. ß) 
IJ'ar n-anochtaib anumla 
o dechnead gan tromsnimh tra 
Foirther in comlin cetna. 

I nnse mod nocho mod n-olc, 
Nocho n-ail1ig acht ænlocht j 
Aurlond inscÏ, ainm cubaid, 
Ni ainic acht ænphudhair. 


Is iat sin gnuisi is sceith, 
D'eicsib nochon at anfheigh ; 
N i ma teit du rigi rand 
Cach fili nachasforband. 


D' icc na da fichet, gan ail, 
Frith d'fhoghlaib for anochtaib, 
Adharta don righ dos-rat, 
Secht g[ c ]abartha cethrachat. 


N a filid tancadar tall 

laræn re Tuaith De Danann, 
Rob imda oIl am ocaib 
Ag to\ladh in Trefocuil. 



Da sciath ainces dæn creiti, 
Uaim 'sin rand-sa is rochreti, 
Deilidi fodach fæbrach 
Is deilidi sillæbach. 

A airchill fuit, is feidil, 
Naroi cendfochrus deiridh, 
Codut mallrugud measa 
Aincit in clæn cuibdhiusa. 


Aincit ar in clæn ceilli 
Lorga fuach, dialt deglemi, 
Ocus cobfighe, cen col, 
Is ernail dia n-anacol. 


:!1Il L. pura B. 211:1 lromgnim L. 
:!1I6 a,zic ic sær E. 2118 anaig L. 
:!1:!1 do righi L. Cat ma E. 
:!l:!l d'Codlaib L.: 0 foglaib E. 
:!l:!t> cabartha L. E. ceathrachat E. 

21U Foirther L. : forther E.: foirid B. 
2120 anfeich L.: nocho gata1zd feich E. 
2122 na as forballd E. 
212.') A da trian E. 
2128 maræn la L. 



" Losing a final" wards off three blunders, 
Of our disobedient" errors," 
By " doubling a final," without heavy sorrow, too, 
The same equal number is assisted. 

" ilfod speech," it is not an evil mode, 
Does not protect but one blemish; 
" Prefix of gender," harmonious name, 
Does not protect save one blunder. 

These are countenances and shield" 
To sages they are not unsharp ; 
X ot well goes to stretch verses 
Any poet that does not carry them out. 

To pay the two score, without reproach, 
\Vhich are found of damages on blunders, 
\Yorshippings to the King \Vho gave them, 
Seven and forty helps. 

The poets that came over 
Along with the Tuath De Dananll, 
There was many an Ollave with them 
::\Iaking holes in the Trefocul. 


Two shields which defend" wrong of body," 
From me in this verse it is greatly to be belie,"ed, 
" :\fetathesis " of sharp-edged words 
And" metathesis" of syllables. 

Its "theft of a long," it is constant, 
That there may not be its" change of a final " ; 
" Hardening," "retarding," of measure 
Defend the" wrong of rhyme." 

Against the " wrong of sense" defend 
"Staves of words," "a well-leaping syllable," 
And" perfected sense," without sin, 
Is a species of defending them. 

:!I:I<! 'sa ruinnsa L.: sa randsa E. 2139,.a deilide L.: deiledu E. 
:!1:14 sillæbach L. E. 213:i is fedit L.: feidil E.: feidhin B. 
:!I::#) N a ra L. Ows E. 2137 measa L.: mesa E. : masea B. 
 c1.cna cuibdesa L. :!13\1 Aingit arin. ar cloena celli E. 2lt.! ecnail E. 

162 BB. 33 2 ß 15 


E. 30 a 52 

Cach rand romilleadh immaig 
A llus rudraighe i rrandaib, 
Rudhrach noco n-airisead 
Dar urard, dar uirisel. 


Na da condail mar itclos 
N a da airichill i fos, 
Na dichneda, Dia dos-rat, 
Tarso noco ria rofat. 


Formolad, diabul, cen on, 
Telgudh noe, ocus lugugud 
Uaitighit cach rogair rib 
Lorga dialta, deichnid. 

Særugud doine in domain 
Ar dimbrig is degcobair, 
Dærugud gach duini dib 
N os-aincenn uili ar forbrig. 


Æn ainces ar ilar ndan, 
Ar uathad ainces a lan, 
Ecnairc fri frecnairc co fir 
Indsce modh ica mordhin. 


Aincit ecuibdius a fir, 
F ormolad, da delidin, 
Telgud noe, niamhda in monor, 
Condaillitri, lughugud. 
Airichill calaid, mo chean, 
A dichned, is a dheichnedh. 


Da delidin, diabul des, 
Foint ecommuaim n-indles, 
Ocus na-foiret hi fus 
Deicned, dicned, cendfochrus. 


Ecenel airmidir anti, 
Is luath non-anaigh aurland. 
Aingit ar anocht ria head 
DiabuJ. aurard, auriseal. 

:.n 75 

 L. airis hed B.: nos-rihed E. 
21.a!! dos-rot B. 
21f>7 derughugud B. 2158 L. uili a B. 

2148 fuit i (os L.: fuair os B. 
Zl56 L. decobair B. 
2100 ilar nan L. 


Every verse has been destroyed utterly 
\Vith respect to "excess of rhymes" in verses, 
" Excess of rhyme" would not abide 
Despite" exaltation," "humiliation." 

The two" internal divisions," as was heard, 
The two" thefts" here below, 
The" losings of finals" God gave them, 
Beyond these "over long" will not reach. 

" Hyperbole," "reduplication," without blemish, 
" Man-throwing," and" diminutive," 
They make rare each "over short" before you 
"Staves of syllables," "doubling of finals." 

" Ennobling" of the world's men 
Against" want of emphasis," it is a good help, 
"Enslaving" every man of them 
Helps them all against" over emphasis." 

"Unity" defends against" plural" in the poems, 
Against U singleness" its" full" defends, 
"An absent to a present" verily, 
"JJfod speech" for its great defence. 

Against "false rhyme" defend, oh man! 
"Hyperbole," "two metatheses," 
" Man-throwing," ornamental the work, 
" Internal division" of letters, "diminutive." 
"Theft of hard," 0 happy one! 
Its" losing of final," and" doubling of final." 

Two" metatheses," right" reduplication" 
Help unlawful" false alliteration," 
And these help it here below 
" Doubling," " losing ," "change of final." 

" False gender" is taken account of there, 
Quickly aur/and" prefix" defends it. 
Against "error" to some extent protect 
"Reduplication," "exaltation," "humiliation." 

2162 L In se mod ica moroim B. : A innsi mod 'ca mordin E. 

6!I diabail deis E. 21iO focrait E. 2171 forfed E. i bus L. E. 
217:: airmithir L. E. 2J7.& ar n-anaig E. 2175 Aincit L. re L. E. 

16 3 

16 4 BB. 33 2 ß 30 


Milliud [remi L.] gach reim nook, 
Do ni ainm ni acht anoeht ; 
Lemm ni gleaccur a gait 
Asin trefhocul tacrait. 

t. t. f. . :!180 

Do dhligegaibh dunta na nduan inso sis. 
IJunta for nduan decid lib, 
A æs in dana dlighthig, 
Cut, nocho caingen falaigh 
In daingen ros-dunsabair. 


lenip dunta cach duan dron 
Cia loeht isin Trefhocul ? 
Air is e tall rostecair 
Lochta imda airchetail. 


Mini dunta a duan ndremain 
Cach fer dona filedaibh, 
Cia heraic dlegair uaid ind, 
On fir doni in laid lanbinn? 

Cia ainm each dunta dibh sein 
Sluinnet na baird dia mbraithrib? 
Caisted cach, cluined in fis, 
Meni fhuilet 'na antis. 


Comindsma do Dont/chad Do, 
Ascnam Dond, im cach deglo, 
Saighid so, is e in slicht amra, 
Dondchadh int ainm ollamda. 


Ascnam iar saigid suairc [modh L.], 
" Dondcad dia fich [in domon L.],'" 
Uaim do rind" Dondchud na ndrech 
Dia tich in domun daightheach." 


In inund dunad dlegair 
Finntar ona filedaib, 
Ar curp na duaine 'na ndan 
'5 ar in iarcomarc n-imslan. 


2177 Millid roime E. : remmi B. 

]79 Lem gnimaib Iegair a ngait E. accur L. 
:!]B:J dcchaid lib L 21
" dligthig L. 

:ms Do nach Crith ainm E. 
O Isa E. 2]8::.::::;;9 E. tWi. 


 sin i L. 


16 5 

Destruction of flexion is every bad flexion, 
For it there is no name but U error" ; 
I have no clear desire tbat it should be pilfered 
Out of the Trefocul which they plead. 


Of the Laws for closing Poems here below. 
Consider the closings of your poems, 
Ye people of the lawful art. 
Query, it is not a question of conccaling 
\Vhether firmly ye have closed them. 

Unless every compact poem is closed, 
\Vhat fault is in the Trefocul? 
For it is that which has put them away of old, 
::\IRny faults of poetry. 

Each man of the poets, 
V nless his vigorous poem be closed, 
\\That fine for it is due from him, 
From the man who makes the full pleasant lay? 

\ Vhat is the name of each close of these 
\Vhich the bards name to their brethren? 
Let each one listen, let him hear the knowledge, 
Unless he would remain in his ignorance. 

The comÏ1zdslIla to Dondt-hadh (Duncan) is " Do," 
The aSC1zam, "Dond " on each fair day, 
The sai'gM (is) this, it is the famous ,'crsion, 
Dondchadh the Ollave name. 

ASCl1am (approach) after full approach is a pleasant mode, 
" Dondchadh through whom the world boils," 
Uaim do rind (alliteration at end) " DU1Wl11 of the many hosts, 
Through whom boils the fiery world." 

\ Yhether the same close is due 
Let it he found out by the poets, 
For the body of the tluan in their poem, 
And for the complete conclusion. 

I"!I ros-leacail L. 
 'na ainfis L. 
:!"_".; ndrec B. 

) in airchedail L. :!I!II duain ndreambain L. 
:!l!I9-2"_'OO Ir. r,.tÜ, iii. 29, 26 i 39, 33 2'2f1O in each L. 

 Findum L. 
ln n-imlan L. 

166 BB. 332 ß 46 


Saighit[hJ, ascnam, uaim do rind, 
Dunait curpu duan, derb lind ; 
Cach iarcomarc is gloir glan, 
Comi11dsma is coir dia ndunad. 


A æs dana in domain tiar tair 
Eter Erinn is Albain, 
Ni dleghait seoto sona 
Cach duaine na ba dunta. d. d. d. 



Da cuincead neach a ndligcd 
Cia lin dam na firfhiled 
For feacht feili, for cai cuir, 
For gnathlessaib, for iledaibh: (333). 


Ceathrur ar fichit iar fir 
Fecht feili ollaman righ, 
Ochtur (or cæi, cen chessa, 
Da fer dec fria gnathleassa. 


Deichenbhur fri fleadha fuair 
DJegair do in ghleiri caemshluaigh, 
It e sin fri bagha bladh, 
Ceithri damha in ollaman. 


Da fer dec d' anruth donfa, 
Coicfhiur fer fria gnathlessa, 
Seissiur for coe, cæmthuit cIuidh, 
Ochtar iar fir fri fleadaibh. 

Tobair do chli ar a dhan 
Ochtar, uasal a fordamh, 
Seser for ileadaibh na fess, 
Coicer cæ, cethrar gnathless. 


Seissiur du canait, na ceil, 
For cach feacht feili feithith, 
Cethrar for fleadaib fessa, 
Triur cæ, dis fri gnathlessa. 


:!'!12 is derb B.: is L. 0111. 
:!'!17 seotu L. 
:!'!::2 Co;cer L. 

 da L. 
 in domain L. (1m. 
:!2'!1 chuir L. 
 c:e, chesa L. 
223::,!I Seiser, cæ L. 


" Full approach," "approach," "alliteration at end " 
Close bodies of poems, it is plain to us i 
Every concluding word, it is a pure glory, 
Repetition of first syllable is due to their close. Closed. 

Ye poets of the world, \Vest and East, 
Both in Ireland and in Scotland, 
They deserve no lucky treasures 
For every poem that will not be [properly] closed. Closed. 

I f anyone ask the law 
What is the number of a company of the true poets 
On a journey of entertainment, upon the road of a circuit, 
For customary needs, for feasts: 

Twenty-four verily 
[For] a journey of entertainment of a royal Olla,'e, 
Eight for a circuit, without anguish, 
T \\ elve men for customary needs. 

Ten for prepared feasts 
Are due to him, the choice of learned people, 
For glorious contests are these, 
The Ollave's four companies. 

Twelve men will fall (?) to a poet of the second order, 
Five men for their customary needs, 
Six for a circuit, scholars of renown, 
Eight verily for feasts. 

Give to a poet of the third order for his song 
Eight, noble his great company, 
Six for feasts of knowledge, 
Five for a circuit, four for customary needs. 

Six to a poet of the fourth degree, hide it not, 
For every journey of entertainment provide ye, 
Four for feasts of knowledge, 
Three for a circuit, two for customary needs. 

::2.;:", Tabair L. 

.!u Seachtnar (vii) B. 

 Seiser L. 

 fethid L. 
2'.M2 L. Trim ca.dais B. 

168 BB. 333 It II 


Ceathrur do dus, damh as deach, 
Is triur fri fleada filed, 
Dias for coe, ria meass dun mhal, 
Is fria leass a ænuran. 


Triar for fecht feili dofhidh, 
Dam thoga do mac Cuirmidh, 
Dias for fleadhaibh, co fathach, 
Oen coe, oen leas roghnathach. 


Ni theis dar diis iar sin, 
In da daim do fochlocain, 
Æn Cor coe, oen for fleid fead, 
Oen fria leassa: dia cuinged. 
Dia cuincead neach a ndligedh cia. 


Finit Amell fin it Solamh 0 Droma 1101IlÙze scripsit. 

L. Murchertacll riabach 0 Cuindlis do scrib so da 
aide diles .i. do IVlac Fhirbisig 7 ar mbennacht leis da 

:: is L. 
:!,,!:jl tar, iar sain L. 

5 cæ, don mal L. 

:! Ina, fochlu cain L. 

 thoga L. 

j:: cæ. fed L. 



Four to a poet of the fifth degree, a band which is best, 
And three for feasts of poets, 
Two for a circuit, to be adjudged to the poet, 
And for his needs one alone. 

Three for a journey of hospitality on which he goes, 
A chosen company for a poet of the sixth degree, 
Two for feasts, with cleverness, 
One for a circuit, one for quite customary needs. 

Thou shalt not exceed two after that, 
The two companies to poets of the seventh degree, 
One (or a circuit, one for a feast provide thou, 
One for his needs: if anyone ask. 
If anyone ask the law what. 

FÙzit, A 1Jlt'1/,jillit, Solomon Q'Droma 1l01/lÍ1u' scripsit. 

L. :Muircheartach Riabhach Q'Cuindlis wrote this for 
his faithful fosterer 1\IacFirbis, and for his blessing besides. 


YBL. 219 ct 23 Eg. 63 I b 26 
Incipit eraicept na n-Eiges .i. eraicept, uair er gach 2260 
taoiscaclz: aicicht dono .i. icht aid, ar is i n-aici bios in 
deisgiopul agin rnaigister; no dono aicept, id cst, aeceptlis, 
airiti cugad illd Jleiche nach bfil ogat: na n-eiges .i. na nai 
gan ches .i. na bfilcd: Cid [Eg. diana] toiseaeh so? Ni 
ansa. Don teipi doteiped asin Gaoidilg, oir iss ed toiseaeh 2265 
arrieht la Fenius ier dtiachtain gusan sgoil arnuigh. 
Gach son do na hairnieht caireehtaire 7 gach son for- 
dhorcha ropui in gach beusgna 7 in gach berla, fofrith ionad 
doibh isin Gaidilc, conid aire sin is forlethi quam gach 
rn besgna: er gach toiseach dano, uair is hed is toiseacha 2270 
lasna filedha, cech son fordorcha duo riachtain i tossach 
.i. bethe-Iuis-nill an ogairn ar bithill a ndorchaÙleta. Cest, 
cie tugait ar a n-abar berla tobidi don Gaoidilc? N" i ansa. 
e air as gach perla roteiped, 7 gach son fordorcha roboi 
in cech beusgna, fofrith ionad doibh isin nGaoidhilc ar a 2275 
forleithe sech gech m beusgna. Cest, dono, in raibi 
Gaidelc resin rotopad? Ropuoi eirnh. [Caidi a deirnh- 
niugud? Eg. om.] Ar ni fagbaigtcr in déi berla sechtrnogat 
[ceana Eg.:] gan in Gaoidilc. Ceithri hanmanlla dona 
for Goidilc docorn nuibir a ranna no coma[d] ainrn gacll 2280 
primberIa dona tri primberlaib .i. Ebra 7 Greig 7 Laidin. 
ì ainm dilis 0 GaoidÙtl .i. GaoideIg, lid dÚ-sz"t: 
[Ticalod a hEbrad aird, 
Is malot a Grei.g glegairg, 
Legulus a Laitin Ie, 
Tinoltach fir a fine. 


!Ii:1 ineich 

;Ii don sgoil gllsna berla aUluig 



17 2 VBL. 219 a-t-S 


Eg. 63 2 a 4 

In berla teipidi tric 
Roleasoig Gaoidel (col. ß) glanglie, 
Uatha do tsiol Gaoidil gairg 
Duine aga mbia a firainm. 


Gaoidel aderaitsim fris 
Lucht aineolais is ainpfis, 
Ki neasa dho Gaoidel glic 
Inrlas do gach eaIg oirdeirc. 

1\la hail dam a radh fri each 
Co (rubh) [co] follus an fath, 
It iat re garmain gan gai 
Cethri hanmanda an berIa[i]. Eg. Nil.] 


Cest, cie tir a rugad Gaoidelc? Ni ansa. A nEigeipt. 
Et de hairm sonnradach a ruccad? Ni ansa. I muig 
Cga a rand iarthardeisgertmgh na hEigipti. Cest, de 
don sgoil dochuaid co suidhe? Ni ansa. Gaidel mac 
Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do Gregaiph Sgeithia. 
Cest, cie méud don-uccad di. Ki ansa. A huiletaighie cen- 
motha indi dotormachtadar filid trie fordorcha ier dtorr- :?305 
achtaill co Fenil/s. Cest, cie berla don da berlaib secht- 
mogat rotaisealpml do Fenius i ttosach? Ni ansa. llerla 
Feine .i. Gaidelc, ar is he Gaidcl pa tocha leis die sgoil, et 
is he ron-alt asa oighe no asa oidig, et is he pa soam don 
sgoil, 7 ar a {orlethe sech cech mbeusgna r! is he berla tois- 2310 
ú-h ruead on tuor 7 ropoi eimh Ebra 7 Greig 7 Laitill la 
Feinius riesiu thisad on Sgeithia et ni rainig a leas a n-ai(t)- 
denamh ice in tor, eonid aire sin is toisccha rotaisealpad. 
Cest, naeh raibi isna berlaiph ni bud uaislill do riaehtaiJl 
ql/am in Gaoidelc? Ni ansa. Ar a euibhdi, ar a hetruime, 2313 
ar a forleithe, ar a mine. Cest, ddh ar madh forlethe ql/t711/ 
ceeh mbesgna? Ki ansa. Ar is he eetna besgna rugad 
on tor, 7 pa mete co mad lethe quam eeeh mbesgna eonid 
aon die taiselpad a tosach. 

:J.!J8 CZ. X. 134, 17 :!

", garmaim VBL. Z:OI iartar zln
 donnuce di Z:J:! an 

YBL. 2I9f


Eg.63 2a2 5 I ï3 

Caite Log et Aimsear et Persa et Tucait Sgribinn na 23:W 
Gaoideilge? Ki ansa. Tor Nemruaid cetus Loots Faci- 
[t']lldi, ar is aici irricht a tosacn. Ocus aimser di 
aimser cumdmg an tuir la cloinn Adaim. Persa di 
Sacap mac Ruicimorcus, uair is he rodus-fucc on tuor ï 
Gaoidel mac Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do 
Gregaip Sgeithia. . \ tugait sgribhinn tour N emruaid do 
chumdach. Esmberat araile conid tugait di Gaidel do 
duola isin tir a rugad he, fobith is he toisedt rosgribh a 
dtaiphlibh 7 a lecaiph isin lucc tsenradach dienat ainm 
Calcaneinsis. Is and rosgriph Gaoidel in Gaidik, no dono 
is he Sacab mac Ruicimorcus rosgribustar, 7 adberait 
araile comad aonleapar int C'raicept uiIe, 7 comad he 
so a log-aimser. 
Cidh ara n-apllrthllr besgna doumanda don Gaedilg ì 
nach di ata briathar ]asna heclladaibh eolchu? Ni ansa. 2335 
lersinní aisncdes do cestaibh 7 do caingnibh domundu iter 
thuaith et eclatS. Cid ar a n-abar co mad borb fie[ d] Dia 
inti leighius Gaedilc? Ni di ata briathar sund, acht do 
uiledetaidh na feallsamnachta iter gramataig 7 dilliochtmg 
7 rim, lit dÙ-it POt'tll: 2340 
Foglaim feallsamnaeht[a] is fas, 
Leigeand, gramataeh is gluas, 
Literdaeht leir Deus rim, 
Is bee a mbrigh for nim tsuas. 

Cest, nach feallsamnacht an Gaidelc? N i hedh eter acht 
a ndt'rnaicl mion-(220) ughdair fri deredh an domain 
ar tuccait derscaighti sech na hugdaraiph toisecha. X 0 
is ed is beusgna domunda and 7 is feallsamnacht dimain .i. 
ind erritacht ct an aimiris dogni nech a n-agaid na firinnc 
diadha 7 daonlla, 7 iss ed sin is borb fia[ d] Dia [anti 2350 
leighius Gaedilc no Eg. Olll.] andaidi. Cidh ar a ndebert 
aipcitir .i. eibi ioc duar .i. ic focul, ar ni hi iocus na fOC"t 

:!.I:!!I sainred.lch 

:.!;:..l andqidhthi (= and aridhthi) 

Iï..t- VBL. 220 a 5 


Eg. 63 2 b 8 

aeht is iad na foeai! nus-ieainn-si. . Is he [foeul Eg.] itbert 
sund .i. rand, u/ est: 

Cie duar donesa nath. 


Aaspearat tra ughdair na nGaoidel dano. Cidh ar a 
ndepertsim: asberad na hugdair robatar roimhe, uair 
is he Cendfaolad arainie in leapar-sa .i. llrolach i[n]d 
Uraie[e]pt[a] 7 ugdair [na nGaideIEg.] dano, rob iad-siden 
Fenius Farsaidh 7 Jar mae 
ema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisle na 2360 
haimsire isrupart .i. aimser freenaire, uair geipid an aimsir 
freenaire for na huilib aimseraiph [l/t dicitl/r: prcsclls 
tempus pro o11l1li tempore POll itll r. Samaigtller in aimsir 
fhreenaire for na huilzö aimsirib Eg.]. 
Cinnus on 7 he da radha int aonfoeul ambit na da 2363 
sillaba naeh geantar a n - aonaimsir, lit dicitl/r, lego .j. 
legaim, quando diczs Ie- .futl/rum cst -go, pre/eire/wll est Ie- 
qzeaudo dicis -go .i. intan raidhi in sillab toiscach, to- 
doehaidi eugut in sillab deighinaeh et seehmatu seehat 
in sillab toiseaeh. [Deitbir on hg.] amal isbert in Lait- :!370 
neoir: Tempus li01l dividitl/r sed opera llostra diuiduutltr .i. 
noeha n-Í ind aimser fogailter and aeht metugud aimsire 
bis iter na sillaba, no ar ngnimrad-ne feisin: no dano is 
frccra dona hugdaraiph robatar a n-aonaimsir ris fein tue 
Cendfaolad in tan ispert asperat ughdair na nGaidel. 
Cid ar a dtugsom a sound ar tus seeh na guthaigi aili? 

i ansa. Ar is i as sruithi a bfedhaib 7 is uaisle a nguthai- 
ghaiph 7 is i eetlapra eeeh pi .i. a, 7 iaehtadh eeeh mairph 
.i. ach. Asperdis na eetughdair, asperat na hughdair 
deigheneha: Comba si tugait airie in perla Feine gnim 2380 
n-ingnath .i. nemgnathaeh ar a ainminci, n-indligthech .i. 
ar a uaiphrigi foreaomnaeeair isin dOlll1tn .i. eumdaeh tuir 
Nemruaid .i. do triall dola for neam ina georpaiph 
daonlla gan eomairleigud fria Die. N emruad itsin dona 

2.158 blolach with r under first 1 2:166 sillaeba 
2373 grimroigne 2376 it YBL. aili Eg. om. 

Z169 sechmatu 2372 n-i an 
2382 an tuir 

YBL. 220 a 31 


Eg. 632 b40 liS 

trenfer tsil Adaim uile ina aimsir fein e .i. Nemruadh 2385 
mac Quis meic Cairn [meic] X ai. Nî pi ierum aonri forsin 
doma1l go haimsir Nin meic Peil acht mad comairlz
 7 't 
toisich namá batar and co sin anal!. Da comairlid 
sechtmogat ierum robatar isinn aimsir sin isin doman a 
ndernadh in tor 7 pa he indara comairlid sechtmogat 
N emruad Trenfear iarum ind [
]emruad sin, fer án 
occ seilg .i. for aighiph [.i. coip Eg.] 7 for [f]ieduch .i. 
for milaib trachta muigi, 7 airrcheis .i. for mucaip alIta, 
7 airllnelaib .i. for eunaiph. Co mbitis sochaide do 
daoinip oca lenmai1l, co m[b]a lie samlaidh .i. a 2395 
slogaibll 7 co mba nertmaire .i. illla colaÙzd fein samlaidh 
old as cach, conid he dorimart in da comairlid sechtmogat 
is inn aoncomairli, do denam an tuir, la hua brathar a 
athar .i. la Faillec mac Regua meic Arafaxat mcic Seim 
meic Nai, 7 pa he sin an dara comairlid sechtmogat 
chena co sin anall, 7 isberatsum ierum co mba he an 
comairlid 7 co mba aontoisech doiph (co!. ß) uile in 
Faillec. Is imcomarc sund anmanda in da fer sechtmogat 
lasa ndernad in tor; acht chena ni airmit sgribenda acht 
anmanda na se bfer ndec ba airecam diph, edon Faillec, 24:05 
Nemruad, Eiber, Laitin[u]s, Ribat, Nabgaton, Asur, Ybath, 
Loncbard, Bodbus, Britus, Germanus, Garad, Sgithus, 
Bardanius, Sardain. [Ier ndilÙI1l ï ier n-aicc1led acht chena 
is he N eamruad in cetri: is he cetri ier n-ealadaÙz in Failla 
reimraltl. Is he immorro Eg. om.] iar n-ughdaras in cetri 
Nin mac Peil meic Ploisg meic Piliris meic Agamolis meic 
Fronoisis meic Gitlis meic Trois meic Asuir meic Seim 
meic X aei. Is he immorro flaith lasa ndernadh in 
tor .i. Faillec mac Regua meic a'\rafaxat meic Seimh meic 
.,Yoi: uel Faillec mac Eber meic Saile meic Arafaxat 
meic Naoi. Asan panaictti, id cst, pro/,rÙilll nomen lipri 
tuccad in gluas coir. Adcuodsum dano indi sin [ad- 

 sil 2:19-1 airnelaib 2w:J YBL. xx. 2W1 BodIibu" 
2-112 Gitlier :!n6 panacti :!Uí adqodusu/Il YBL. 

IÎG YBL. 220ßI2 


Eg. 6-t- I a 24 

codastim dano anisin. Aspert N cmrllad comad a ainm 
sin forbeith ant saoirsi sin go brath. Adrodimes dono 
dosum anísin Eg.] 0 ua brathar a athar 0 fuilIter go 2420 
mad tor Nemruaid he ar chena. Tredi ar a .ndernadh 
in tor la clouiml [Adaim Eg.] .i. ar uaman na dilend 
moire do thoigcacht doridhise, ar ni rocretsiot do derp- 
airdip De .i. do sduaigh nime, 7 do do] doiph ina 
gcorpaip daonda for nem do talmain .i. comadh arad 2425 
frcsgaphala doip dochum nime 7 d' oirrdercugud 
anmand in fhiallmg lasa ndernad an tor dara n-elSl, 
conid e sin itbert Ri nime fri muinter neime: Uellili 
1/1 '(}idalllltS et COllf01Wda1JlllS /illgas eoru1Il .i. taoit co 
raufegam 7 co romelachtnaigem 7 co robuaidrem 7 co 2430 
rasgaoilem a dtengta impo. Pa mor tra cumachta tsil 
A-\dailll 7 a nert ag denam in tuir cona festaois ierum 
in roibhi cumachta Righ neime uais"tis. Romesgaighti 
ierum impo int aonberla poi oca .i. goirtiglhern, cona 
roaithned nech dip berla aroile .i. antan adbered nech 2435 
dip Ctuc cloich dam' is crand doberti dho. [Dethbir on, ar 
ni do clochaib na do chrandaib doroigned an tor acht do 
cria[i]dh tsuaiti 7 do bidmaÙl. Cinnus on, oir in tan adber[t] 
nech diph 'tuc cloich dam' is crann adberedh do. Eg. om.] 

i ansa. N a leca fora suaiti in ere 7 na forchuda frie 24:40 
suite is iat sin clocha 7 cran11a noimluaidis etorra. 
Asbcir dono: 
Da ai.cce for seehtmogha[i]d 
Arim suas frie gnim ngaphaid 
Iter aol is bitoumain 
Oeus talmain is tathluib. 


Itt cst.. 

Oel, ola and ocus fuiI, 
Cre, uisgi, ros, lin laneuir, 
Tuis, mirr, bitomain co mbuaid, 
Noi n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaid. 


:!l:!"J dilinne 

21:3;; uaistib 

2HO forquda 

:!-W; Is (

YBL. 220 ß 33 


Eg. 64 I b 6 1 ï ï 

Dolotar tra filedha imda asin Sgeithia reib ehianaiph 
iarna gnimaiph sin do foghlaim na n-ilperla ogeon tour, 
ar doruimnetar maigin as rofoghlointi aeeus a n-airneaehta 
na hilberla do tsil Adaim, robatar and ier geomloinntius. 
Doloutar ierum co magh Senair .i. mag in roeumdacht 
in tor, eoieeer seehtmogat lion na sgoile .i. fer geeh 
berla 7 saoi gaeha primberla diph sin dona [tri Eg.] 
primberlaib .i. Eaphra, Greig, Laitin. Ceithri berla 
seehtmogat as gaeh primberla dipsin, iss ed rofoghlad and, 
co n-athgapail na primberla. Filid do radh riu, uair 
doboi filideaeht osgarda aeu een co raibi filideeht eladllach : 
no is filideaeht ealadnach ropui aeu in tan sin et is ierum 
arieht filideaeht osgarda 7 is iadside doniat Gaidelcho. 
Feinius Farrsaidh ainm a toiSlg .i. mae EogaÙz meie 2-165 
Glunfind meie Lamfind [meie Agnamain Eg.] mcie Toi 
meie Semair [meie :\Iair Eg.] meie Eiteaehta meie Urteehta 
mek Abosth meie (221) Aoir meie Leser meie Seth meie 
Sru meie Esru meie Baith meie Ribath mek Goimeir meie 
Iaffeith meie 
aoi meie Laimfiaeh. 2-1ïO 
Pau saoi sidhein isna tri primberla eidh riesiu tisad 
atuaidh. 0 na hairnig iarum FCllius eomlainius na 
n-ilpcrla agin tuor, forfodail a sgola et a deisgipla uad 
fo eriehaib 7 fo eendadhaehaibh bfer dtalman for gaeh 
leith do foghlaim na n-iolperla, 7 nosnoth 
r .i. 2-175 
adfoirithed uais, Fenius iet ider biathad et etugud in geein 
patar agin foghlaim .i. vii mbliadhna na foghlama 7 tri 
bliadhna in taispenta eona[ d ] dcich samlaidh; oeeus anaÙ 
Fenius kin tor in n-airit sin 7 roaitreb and co dtorraehtadar 
[a Eg.] sgola euige as gaeh aird, eonid desin asbersim i 2-180 
eeurp lipair: I geionn dcick m bliadan ier sgaoilcd on 
tor for gaeh leth, is and dureibcd in Gaedelg. Isperat 
araile ughdair nat pui neeh do cloinn Ionain meie 

2-16-1 iside 

2168 Aboith 

1 el-
, Y BL. el..dn; 
2l1ì!1 Goiii 2.&;S tai"penusa 


17 8 YllL.z2la l 3 


Eg. 64 1 b 3+ 

Iafeth meic Nai die rocinetar Gregaig et die rochin Fenius 
a[ c] cumdach an tuir et patar siol N ai olchena. Deithper 2485 
oun, ar ni raiphe in mac sin ag Ieffeth mac Noi , 7 r I. 
[Cest caiti gein Feinills? Ni ansa. Fenius mac Baath 
meic l\Iaghach meic Iaffeith meic Nai 7rl. Eg.] Berla 
nEpraide talltum roboi isin doman re cumdach an tuir 
7 is si dallo bies dano ier mbrath, et isberat araile co 2490 
mad edh nobeth la muinntir nime. Pa haonberla boi isin 
doman illtan rogabsat, da berla dec is tri fichit tan ro- 
sgarsa t, 1/ t est..- 
Goirtigern ainm an berla 
Rophui ag mac De [den Eg.] deghergna, 2495 
Deus ag sit Adaim uair 
Rie cumdach an tllir NemruaÙI. 

Perla n-Ebrazae dano cidh 0 rabainmniged? Ni ansa. 
Is he Eber ainm in toisigh rocoimetustair he iar sgaoiled 
na mberla, ar ba he an dara comairlid sechtmogat roboi ag :!500 
deanam an tuir no aga cumdach, et is aca aonur duruaraid 
an berla dorad Die [dorat Dia Eg.] do Adam, conid de 
sin dogarar in berla nEbraidi .i. berla nEberdoigi innsin: 
no Abraim .i. siol ..-\prahaim .i. berla nEbraide dono. Ier 
dtieachtain tra dona deisgioblaibh co Fenius on foghlaim 2505 
.i. ier dtaispenadh i gcuarta .i. a n-imtheachta 7 a ngresa 
.i. a bfoglama, is and conaitciqtar cusin saoi .i. go Fenius 
berla na beth ag nech aile do theipiu doibh as na hilperlazö, 
acht comad acca a n-aonar nobeith, conid airesin aridl! 
doiph in berla tobaidi cona fortorm[acht]aiph .i. berla Feine 2510 
con a [ortorm[achtJaiph 7 iarmberla et berla n-etarsgarta 
iter na fedhaiph airedhaibh amal doruirmisim isin Duil 
Fedha l\iair, id est, nomen fipri, 7 berla na bfiled asa 
n-aigilIit cach diph a 
heile 7 in gnathberla fogní do chach 
iter fira 7 mhna. Gaidel mac Eitheoir meic Taoi meic 2515 
Barachain do Gregaib Sgeithia in dara sai roboi ag coime- 

94.7 ef. Keat. Hist. ii. xv. 12-15; Raw!. ß. 502, p. 69, 24 
!J;; Dopoi, dethergnol 24!1i tur ;1:>12 doruirmisum, Duile 

YBL. 211 a 36 


Eg.64 2aI 7 I ï9 

tacht Feniusa J conid uad rohainmniged Gaedelc .i. elg .i. 
oirrderc indsin .i. Gaedel ros-oirdercaigh. Gaoidel Glas mac 
A-\gnoin meic Gluinfind meic Laimfind [int en Eg.] brathair 
athar do Fenius 7 ba saoi sidien dono cidh edh e. Is edh 2:>20 
sidhe dono dorothluigestar in berla so go Gaoidel mac 
Ethiuir 7 conadh Gaoidelc 0 Gaidel mac Ethiuir 7 Gaidelc 0 
Gaoidel mac Aingin no go madh 0 Gaoidel Glas mac Kiuil 
meic Feniusa Farrsaidh rohainmniged Gaidel. Is he sin 
a fhir. Berla Feine tra arricht so sound, et iarmberla, 2525 
- berla n-etarsgarta iter [na Eg.) fedhaib airedhaib ind 
ogaim, 7 berla na bfiled in cethramad, 7 in gnathperia 
fogni do chach in cuicced. Fenius Farsaidh tra mac 
EogaÙz et ler mac N ema et Gaoidel mac Eithiuir na tri 
saidhi doreibsit in berla-sa ocon lug tsainredach dienad ainm 2530 
Eltatolo siicuitas ariacht pritts. Caitet anmanda in da cenel 
sechtmogat 0 rafoghluÙzti na hilberla? Ni ansa: Vt sun! 
hie.. Beithin, Sgeithill J Sgouit, Germain, Gaill, Point, Paim- 
pil, :;\Ioiet, Morann, Luigdin oic, Ircair, Sgill, Siccir, CicJait, 
(cot ,8) Coirsic, Creit, SardaÙz, Sigil, Reit, Reicir, Roait, 2535 
Romain mas, Masgl/sa, Mair, l\Iaicidoin, Morcain nair, náir 
mais, N armaint, N ombith brais, Britain, Boit mais, l\Iagoig, 
Armaint, amuÙ gairg, Galus, Actain, Acaill, Tesail airt, 
Allain, AlpaÙl, lrcair og, Etail, Espain, Guit, Goith, grinlle 
sair, .Affrainc, Freisin, Longbaird, Laidich, Laicdemoill, 2340 
Eisil, Tragianda, Traig, Dardain, Dalmait, Daic, Eithiop, 
Egiptda, Indecda, Braghmaint. Perla sain tra cech cinel 
dip so, fer tra cech perla dhiph sin, iss ed rofoghlad and. 
Pa he lion na sgoile, et na tri said he, rofaided 0 Fenius 
cech fer diph fria berla. Ni cech comchinÙtil dono dochuaid 2545 
and dochum a criche don foghlailll acht is commberlaig, 
amal rogabh Cai Cainbretllach, dalta Feniusa Farsaidh, 
in dara deisgipul sechtmogat na sgoile, pa do Eaphradaiph 
a bunad e! pa go hEcipta rofaided, fobith pa hand patar a 
tuisdigi 7 pa hand ron-alt 7 tuargpad asa aididh, conid aire 2350 

;I-j Sicir 

2.';17 mais :'.Iesgail rnair 


180 YBL. 221 ß 15 


[sin Eg.] asper i gcurp lipair: Is cech comberla dochuaid 
dochum a criche 7 ni cech comchineoil. Secht mbliadna 
robatar na deisgipuil forsin gcuairt sinJ 7 teora bliadna 
doiph ag taispenadh a ngresa a bos iar dtiacht comdar a 
deicll samlaidh, conid desin asbertsim tsis i curp lipair: i 
cind deicll mbliadan iar sgailed doiph on tour for gach 
leth doreibed an berla-sa doib. 
Poi tra cviccer ar fichit pa huaislem don sgoil [dono Eg.] 
et it e tra an anmanda-sidhe fordotait fedha 7 taobomna t 
...., -- 
ind ogaim, ut est.. Bobel, Loth, Forand, Saliath, N abgadoll, 2560 
Hiruath, Dabhid J Tailimon, Cainaen, Calebh, IVloreth, 
Gadmer, nGomer J Stru, Ruben, Acap, Ose, Uriath, Etroi- 
chiu=" I umelcus, Esu, laichim J Ordinos, I udonius, 
Is iet sin anmanda in cuiccir ar fichit pa huaisli poi 
a sgoil Feniusa. N a coig fedha airedha ind ogaim 
dano, is on coigiur pa huaislé diph rohainmnigttr 
iet a 0 u e i (secundum aili tri in trop). Atberat araile it 
secht fedha [airegda Eg.] filit and, is on moirseiser pa 
huaisli 7 ba haredha diph rohainmniged. It e na da fidh 
dofoirindet frisna cuig tuas ") X 0 ( rea oi]. Itberat 
araile dano is i ind aipgitir aric/zt isinn Aisia, 7 ic 
Tochar Inbir Moir aranic Aimergin Gluingeal mac 
Miled an bethi -luis - nin an ogaÙIl. 'Cie litir J cie 
nin, de son Ina forbaigtller foclll?' .i. dinin disail no 
forsail, 'Ar is son ger fogapar 0 nach fuach tre'n tinnsganar' 2575 
.i. airnin no ngetal gilcach .i. ngetal. Cest, caiti iet 
airme tur X emruaid ? A hocht. Da comairlid lxx, da 
deisgipul lxx, da cenel lxx na daine J da berla 
lxx ina sgoil, da thuaith lxx lasa mbatar na berlada 
et na cenela. Da tsaor lxx frie gnim. Da aigdi ar 2580 
lxx, iter aol is bí is bitamain 7 talmain 7 tath/uib ina 

2.';61 Calep 2.561 huaislim 2.
66 coigir 
2567 secundum ailia trii troip, I. secundum alzo$ tri in troip 
2568 rnoirtseiser 2578 an . b . I. n . a. n 2574 i nach 

W!O cinela 

YBL. 221 p.p 



euimheear. Da eheim Ixx ina lethet amal atber hie: 
Airem cinnteeh an tuir so :- 

Airim an tuir togaidi 
N eamruaid, pa din do daoiniph, 
Cethri ceimend sechtmogat, 
Cet ceimend ar coig milib. 


Da comairlid sechtmogat 
Tugsad cuigi fri sluaiged; 
Da berla for sechtmogait 
Rothidhnaic Die dia mbuaidred. 


Da chine! for sechtmogait 
Dona daoinib frie dograind, 
Da deisgipul sechtmogat 
Fedoid Feinius fria foglaim. 


Da tuaith tsaora sechtmogat 
Forofoglait fir thaI man ; 
Da prim tsaora sechtmogat 
Frie heladain na n-adpar. 

Da aigdi for sechtmogait 
1\a adhpar comadh gnathach, 
Iter ael is bitamain 
Is talmain ocus tathlaiph. 


Secht cubait dec deimnighti 
Ag nim suas fri gaoith ngairzg ; 
Is da ceim for sechtmogait 
lna lethet frie haiream. 



22) Adberait aroile immorro is naoi n-adhpair nama 
batar isin tour .i. ere 7 uisgi, ola 7 fuiI, ros et aol, seuehim, 2610 
lin, bitamain de quipus did/Ilr:- 

Cre, uisgi, ola, is fouil, 
Ros, is aol, is lincuir lan, 
Tuis, mirr, biodamain co mbuaid, 
Naoi n-adhpair in tuir Nemruaidh. 

. J na dp- YBL.: na n-adb- Eg. 
!601 na adbair :.'610 !:eichim 


182 YBL. 222 as 


Eg. 65 I a 10 

Caiti log 7 aimser et persa 7 tugait (sgribind) ind U r<ii- 
cepto? Ni ansa. Haonlog eim is coir dona ceithrib 
leapraip sin, amal isber in file: In os toisechu is edit is 
deighencu; in os dethencu is ed is toisichu. In us toisichll 
a gcurp lipair is edh is deighencu ariecht .i. leapar Cinn- 2620 
faolidh meic Oilella. 
Log 7 aimsir 7 persa et tuccait sgriphind an lipair-si. 
Loc do ceudus: Doire Luruain, 7 aimsir di aim sir 
Domnaill meic Aodha meic Ainmerech. Persa do 
Cendfaolaidh mac Ailella. A tuccait sgribind a inchind 2625 
[dermait Eg.] do bein a cind Cindfaolad i gcath IVluighe 
Rath. Ceithri buadha didiu in chatha sin .i. maidm 
for Congall ina gaoe rie nDomnall ina firinde; et Suiphne 
Geilt do dol for gealtacht ar médh do laidhiph doroine; 7 
in fer d'feraiph Alpan do phreith ind fir d'feraiph Erenn 2630 
ina chois leis gan airiugud .i. Duip Die ainm ind [f11]ir 
thall dono; et a inchind dermaid do bltreith a cind Cinn- 
faoladh ar a mhed do filidecht 7 do bhreathemnus 7 do 
leighend _dol
Caiti log 7 aimser et persa ì tugait sgribind ind 2633 
Airraicepto? K i ansa. Log do Emin Macha 7 a 
n-aimsir Conchubair meic Nessa arichta. Feirchertne 
file dorinne do breith aosa faind for seis. Cendfaolad 
mac Ailella doathnuaighiuster i nDoire Lurain maille 
re hurmor na sgreaphtra. Atberat aroile cona bad 2640 
aenliphar acht liphair imda 7 ni hinand log-aimsera doiph. 
Is e log-aimser an cetliphair iarsin cltetfaidsi. Log dó 
Daire Lurain, 7 aimser Domnaill meic Aoda. Persa dó 
Cendfaolad mac Oilella. A tugait sgribhind 7rl. 
Atat da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta (-i. coin- 2645 
dealc annsin, Eg.) .i. guta 7 consain .i. doaithned da 
firdegail asin fis foirithnecll for eibe ind ugtair luaidius in 
ai ier bfiordliged fothu an gotha uais toghaidhe lasa 

2Jfjl., file written out YEL. 2620 an libair :''628 goe :Jf;:11 Dubh Diad 26:H doleassi 

YBL. ::!22 a 30 


Eg. 65 1 a 43 18 3 

geomhfograigit suin. Atat .i. sunt a frithindlidech 
Laitianto .i. a bunad for lethon: totus a bunad ruidlista 2G50 
.i. derpad andsin .i. freera do toit na haipgitre dobeirsim 
Ar atait tri hernaile for bunad .i. bunad ier fogar 
nama, 7 bunad iar geeill nama, 7 bunad iar geeill 7 fogar : 
ic[r J bfogar amal ata modao a nomine quod est modus: iar 2655 
geeill prizls, id est, ab uno a bunad: iar geeill 7 Cogar, 
ut est, quarlus a quatuor, uel tercius a teirsio. Bunad ier 
geosmailius foghair nama totus don foeul is atat, ar is 
ainm totus, 7 briathar atat. Coic rand indsgi ind foeail 
is atat, ar atat oeht randa indsgi and, id est: Nomen .i. 2660 
ainm. Prollomen .i. ni ar son anma .i. me, tll. Uerbom, 
atucrbium. PartÙ:ipiu1Jl .i. ni eruthaigther a hainm 7 a 
breithir. COJliullgcio .i. ni eenglus na foeht re eheile. 
Prepos[itJio .i. ni geinter a breithir 7 ciell preithri aici 7 
eena beith 'na prethair. /llteiriectio ni asa dtuigther toil 2665 
na hinntindi 7 gan a peth 'na foelll .i. ae, ua, u. It e a 
n-anmallda laisin Laitneoir .i. ainm, pronomen, briathar 
ì dobriathar, randgapal 7 eomaeomal, remsuidigud et 
intereeht lasin nGaidel ehena. Is deimin am is briathar 
in foeul is at at .i. SUllt J. 7 masa briathar ea ball do breithir? 2670 
ar atat a tri a n-uathad 7 a tri a n-ilar and. 

'>'1l1/l. .i. ataim, es .i. ata tu, est .i. ata se, a tri a n-uathad. 
SUlllltS .i. atamait, est is .i. atathai, sunt .i. atait siat, a tri 
a n-ilar. Ceudpersa uathaid sum, persa tanaÙe uathaid 
ds, tre per sa uathaid est. Ceudpersa ilair Sll1JlllS, persa 2675 
tanusa iIair estis, (eol. ß) tre persa ilair SUll!. 
A indi dano .i. atat da ai a n-ait .i. ai guta 7 ai 
eonSllllll. Ata ai a n-ait .i. ata dliged a n-ait ind ollaman. 
X 0 atat .i. ata ai uait ar in deisgipul frisin maigistir. 
A in de beus ataat a tuidcd, doaithnet, doaidbed, doiagod. 2680 
.-\ airpert .i. atat a n-aigne .i. na guta 7 na eonsaine: 

.!I..:, modo :1Iõoa proposicio :!'iI1
 tuicthar :!J;.j6 o Jigg. i. 14 :!Iib!1 emh 

18-1- rilL. 222 ß 5 


Eg. 6S I b 28 

dotuidhet uait a lipriph [uaid a litrib, Eg.] .i. tinntaidhid 
asinn aignedh sin i litriph: doaithnet asna litriph sin i 
bfoclaiph: dotiagat asna foclaib sin a sretha rosga ì 
fasaigh 7 airehetail on filidecht .i. ros eolus 7 sgoth indsgi 2685 
.i. indsge eolms: doaitbet .i. doaisbenad d'eoehtaiph .i. a 
eiall 7 a eaireaehtaire .i. fuatha na litrech: no go mad 
totllS a bunad Laitne in foeail is atat ud docellt ali. Da 
erlldail .i. da duer deil .i. eur uasal 7 deil degail .i. da 
degail uaisle indsin. Is eotearsna dono anisin arin bfail a 2690 
mbith da degail uaisle bit vii randa and. Ni eotarsna dono, 
'\ ar atat a seeht indip iar sonaib een co beith iar geeill. 
Da erndail .i. da dul ferrda no da ard dul .i. da dul arda 
no [da Eg.] eur dul .i. da uasal dul. Da ernduil.i. da .i. da 
fir-indeall nOll da firnaill no da firdul no da erdeghail no 2G95 
erdail no da eurdual .i. lanfogur 7 defogur 7 eonsanaeht .i. 
an u 7 an í it e da dual na ngutha no da orra dul no da 
orra dul no da orra degail no da orra dail. Is iat sin tri 
or 7 tri er 7 tri ir ind e raieiopta. Caidiet da dual 7 tri 
duail 7 [eeithre duail 7 .Eg.] v duail 7 vi an Uraieepto? 2700 
K i ansa. Lanfogar 7 defogar da dual. na nguta, leth- 
guta 7 muiti et tinfedh, tri duail na eonsaille; intan is 
eethair immorro, da dhual na nguta 7 da dual n[a] 
geonsaini; 7 intan is a euig, da dual na nguta ì tri 
duail na geonsaini ; 7 in tan is a se .i. tri duail na eonsaini 2705 
7 tri duail na nguta .i. lánfogar 1 defoghar 7 eonsoJlaeht 
.i. in i 7 in u: lethguta 7 muiti 7 tinfcd, tri duail na geon- 
smlli. Da dual na eonsaini, lethguta 7 muiti; ar is muiti 
Forsin aipeitir .i. ondi is aipeitorium .i. tindsgetal: no 2710 
epe actor no ebe ughdair: no ebe ioe duar no ie tur .i. 
rohicad ie an tor: no aipeitir ondi .i. iss i aipeidhius a 
mbeusgna do ehach: no aipeitir ondi is aperieÚ, ar is hi 

:; ro eoIus 7 scoth inn
:!1i"!1 d'1. erdeil :!r;!O:j Chirindell 

6 d 'eolchaib .i. a ciall, dicullt aili 
?iO:! tinCedhaigh :!ïlO appcidhes 

YßL. 222 ß 3 2 


Eg. 65 2 a q 18 5 

sgailius a mbesgna do chach: no aipgitir ondí is aipex a 
Greig [-i. cindedh no tosach aipcitre a Gaidilc, illcipit a 2715 
Laitin, apex a Greic 
g:], apexe de deubam a hEpra, no 
aï'pgitir ab agilorio, ut dÙ.:it quasi a, b, C, d, 7 reliqua 7 ais e 
sin a main in duol coir, ar is lor do taithmech gacha focail 
a bhreillt co punad Laitne. Aipgitir est copula con ud 
li!t.'rllral/l per se .i. ata ind aipgitir ina coimtinol no com- 2720 
cengal litrioch cona comfielus archena, no dano aipgitir 
a Gaidilc, incite a Laitin, apexa a Greig, apexade depham 
a hEeapra, 7rI. Laitin 0 
aitin mac Puin meic Picc 
meic Sadairn dielus est. Latinatass, Laitianda uada-side : 
no Laitin a latiludine dicta est, ar is leithe i [qua1ll 2ï:!5 
cech mbesgna cenmotha Gaidilc ar is Eg. om.] ier 
dtogail Troe ropoi Laitin, 7 is fada roime sin rofoghlait 
na berlada 7 ropui Latinatas 0 tsin ale. N" 0 Laitinnda 
luaided inde na focal. Edon .i. ed aon a eirnedh .i. 
cdh dliged, 7 eirnedh .i. fuasgladh no dliged bis aenar 2730 
ag fuasgladh: no edh ain a aineolais: no edh ind so on 
.i- is edh son a bfuil remaind: no edhon .i. edh dligcd 7 
don [tidlocad no Eg. om.] tidnocul .i. tidnocul dligthcch 
dobeir se don focul da cheile. 
Guta .i. guth fhotha .i. fotha gotha iad-sidhen no 2735 
guth faiti icrsinni faoidit triotha: no guth sed .i. sed in 
gotha: no guth fed iersinní fédaid guth ind aonar. Vt 
PriSÙlllltS dl:rit _' Litera quaisi lcigiteria co quod iter legillti 
prt'bed .i. ita in litir amal inlltech in leigilld iersinni faoires 
séd an leighind: no guth-eth[ai]t iersinni fed aid guth 2740 
treotha a n-aonar, amal ata a ard, ï í inis, 7 0 cluas, 7 0 
fùrcend: no guth ait .i. dogniat guth a n-ait, 1/t DOllatlls 
dl:ât: Vocailds dÙ:ltlllllr quae per se (223) quidim}ro/erlllltllr 
ä PCI' se sillaballl jm:illllt .i. atat na guthmgi doturgbat 
treotha fein 7 dogniat sillaoba a n-aonar, lit PrisimlllS dÙ-it.. 2745 

:!';I" .
:!,;.j(l gUlh et 

:!';:a edh.

'7U ata 

:!';.::.! iss edh 5.1.0 
:m.. Prisiens dicitur 

186 YBL. 223 a 3 


Eg. 6S 2 a 49 

Uoea!eis dicll1ltaurque per se voces ejicÙmtur .i. is ed is lioea/cs 
and litri dogni guth tretho fein, ?leI sine qllibl/s 'L'(JX 
literailis profeirri 1/0/1 potest .i. litir na fetar guth do denam 
'na hecmais. ConsoÙl onni is eonsalla1ztes comfograightech 
.i. iarsinni fograided la guthagaibh do grease No consoin .i. 
cuma suoin no caoin suin no caom tsoin .i. soin caoma 
ar is caimiti a n-irlapra fogar na consaine maille fri 
guthagaiph inti: no consain .i. coma tsuin .i. suin cumaidhi 
.i. caomsuin .i. taÏ1zic [a Eg.] fogar a n-aonur: no .i. coma- 
son .i. focll! et siolllo( fri guthazgi dogniatsllm focul. Cid 
ar a n-eipertsium guta 7 consaine, uair guthazgi uathaid ï 
consaini iolair? Ni ansa. Guta 7 consaine is maith and. 
Cid ar a n-epert guta .i. guth fotha no guth fouiti? uair 
ni fotha in guth do fein, 7 ni faoidhelld guth trid fein. 
Cid ar a nd-eupert consaÍ11 comfograigtech? uair ni com- 27GO 
fograigend in consain fria fein na frie guthazgi. Cid ar 
a nd-epert guta .i. guth séd? uor ni sédh disi hi puddein. 
Caiti ruidlius 7 dilius, coitcend 7 indlius in focai! is 
guta? Ni ansa. Ruidles di guth fet, uair fedhaig guth 
a aonar. Diles di guth fuití, uair nos-fuidhend fein. 
Coitcend di guth fotha, uair is fota cend dona foclaiph. 
IndIes di guth fotha, uair ni fotha is i innti fein. Cid ar a 
nd-upart aipgitir .i. eipi ic tnor, ar ní agin tor rotindscointi 
na haipgitri amal isbeir Feinius. Pa sai sidhe isna tri 
primberlaib cid riesiu tisad atuaid 7 ni saithe cell aipcitri. 
Is a nAisia dono aricht aipgitir ind oghaim amal 
remebartmar. Cest, caiti in condelg n-eteiehta? Ki 
ansa. In cetna hernail ind Airaicepto. Fors, .i. ferr anfis 
.i. etargaire eomparaitio .i. f01's Ide tre fortciudh na 
Gaideilgi .i. conndelg n-edtechta .i. fo1's ferr fios .i. etechta 
indsin, ar ni maith ainbfios. 

'27;,0 fograidhí 

;,,; uair guto 
:1770 aipcitre 

27;,:J coma suin 
:!;;'7 gute 
:.!77J fortced 

27;;:; siomul, I. sl1J1lt1 
:!ï6u comfoghruidhend 
:!ïï;' conn-eitiecht, for fid 

YBL. 223 a 29 



Cid doichned) 7 ced dichlled an Airaiceþta sond? A 
ceddoichm:d fern arin focul is fors, no forail arin bfocul is 
for. A ceddichned .i. eipi ugdair, oir teibi in foc1/1 fein 
dono. 2180 
Atat dano da erndail forsan mbeithi-Iuis-nion an 
ogai1ll. Roraidius atad romaind. Dana .i. da n-ai indsin .i. 
ai caingen .i. in caingen remaind 7 an ai i n-ar ndiagh. 
Da ernail .i. da ier ndail forsin mbeithi-Iuis-nion an ogailll 
.i. foirithned in beithi luis .i. bioth ai eolus .i. eolus na hai 
isin mbith: no bithi leisna suidib nobith slonnad leis on 
.i. fedha 7 taobomlla, id est, uocales et COllsolltl1ltes, uair 
doradus da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta. Da erndail 
dano forsan mbeithi-Iuis-nin an ogai1ll .i. in og uma .i. 
forsin mbitheolus leiterda ind ogailll .i. onní is Ogmu .i. 2790 
nion ogaim 7 nion tond, ar is nin ainm da gach litir amal 
ispert in file: 

Mell suide, dar mo niona N eidhi. 

Ni fortgeallad ).mß<, la * 
 la heigius .i. filid. 

--l iliter fortgellaid eiccius tar idha 7 ailm ceinelo lugha 27H5 
andsin. Idhedh is he a fidh is moaum toraind dona y 
primfedhaiph. Ailm didiu cetlapra gach pi 7 iachtad 
gach mairp. Is sruithe ierulIl in dedi sin. No beth i-Iuis- 
nin ainm d' aipgitir ind ogaim, ar is do is ainm aipgitri 
don ni doinsgain 0 a. Is airi itet beithe sech gach fidh, :?t'00 
a r is and rosgripad ogum 7 is hi in roscripad indi 
I III I I 1 .i. in beithe rosgripad do brcitk robaid do 
Lug mac Eithlclld im dala a mna 'na ruglfia uad hi a 
sidhaip J .i. vii mbethi a n-aonfleisg do beithi .i. 'bC11har 
do ben uait fo vii a sith no a bferandaip aile IDuna (co!. ß) :!80;) 
coimeta hi.' Bethi-Iuis-nion ainm aipgitri an ogailll, ar 
is 0 beithe doinsgain in oglll/l .i. in ogh uama, ar is de 
fuaigther go hog a n-irlapra. No og1l11l .i. og uaim a 

:!."l mbeithi-luis-nion, \Hitten out :!'i
tj dorJ.dais 2'i11f1 Oghma 
I:: niono 
 edhe fortgelh eolus F eine 7 2';\1-1 No fortgell geall a 

188 YßL. 223 ß 4 


Eg. 66 I a 10 

bfocIaib cid anogh cugam a litribh. No OCCUlIl .i. 0 
Ogma mac Ealathan meic Dealphaith, ar is he rainig 2810 
litri na Sgot cusna hanmandoiph filet forra aniugh, 1/t est 
ill BritaÙ/itl, id est, libro isto 1lOl//Ùle uocatur uel Í11 lingua 
7 amal isber in leapar ogaim: Athair ogaim Ogma, 
mathair Ogaim lam no sgian [Ogma Eg.]. 
Fedha dano 7 fid, at at da gne for suidhe .i. 2815 
fidh saorda 7 fid aiccenta: fidh saorda .i. fidh ind ogaim : 
fid aiccenta .i. fidh na coilled. Fid saorda cetamus: atat 
da gne do bunadh occa. Fiod dano on breithir is fiuzdis .i. 
fothoigim, liel a nomine fimdamelltul// .i. fotha ue! a fimo, 
fograidim. Feda ierulIl iersinni is fotha foghair isin 2820 
Gaidilc in guthazgi 7 is coitcend d'fidh saorda 7 aigenta 
in bunad sin .i. fundalllentlt1ll. A indi immorro fidh fo 
fedh .i. maith a edh ag foghrugud. Ingnad cid fodera na 
da bunad agin fid saorda 7 aonbunad icon bfid aiccenta. 

-\g phfidh saorda .i. fiwo 7 fitl/dtll//ent/tlI/, funo a duaJgus 2825 
fogair,fil1ldamellt1l1ll a dualgus fotha, 7 is coitcend doibh 
araon fotha. A airpert iml//orro .i. eipert aire .i. (focuJ) 
is aitheallta indas fein fair .i. coiJI no doire forin bfidh 
intan is fid aigenta: litir immorro no guthazgi no 
consain fair in tan is fidh saorda: no go mad fotha a 2830 
airpert iter saorda 7 aigenta. Coitchend dano a tapairt 
frie sloindedh saorda 7 aiccenta. 
IndIes dono a tapairt for losaiph fedha intan is fidh 
aigenta, ut est int aitend no in fraoch 7rl.: no a tapairt for 
legtachad no for fonialus intan is fid saorda et is techta 2835 
in secht sin do iarraidh in gach focul Gaoidelce. Cid 
fodera comad iar q no g no st do beith nialsa for u sech gach 
consoin? Ni ansa. Ar is blod do q qllidilll u, ni hingnad 
cia mad solma tista di forsin nguthmgi iermo. Ata dano do 
med fogair s cona rathoigther fogaur u ierum, llt Ogricus (?) 2840 
dÙ-it.. s ill principio ucllit sillaballl SOl/at. Comacsi dano 

, ..., 

:!"17 coilte 

 ar leith- a 110 for ú fonialus T. 

n OgJ iClfS T. 

YßL. 223 ß 34 


Eg. 66 I a 45 18 9 

luicc beime g don guthazgi iermo no cid do u fein no ar a 
cairdius fri q. Fid aiccenta immorro fidh na coiIled .i. 
fo edh a airdi: no fo edh .i. teine i suidhiu ina inne: no 
fo a edh .i. a fosgadh no (fo) a suth .i. a torad a indi 2
.i. is e sund a inne .i. fcdha fo edh a aei uair atat coic 
aoi and, ai ailius, 7 aei canus, 7 ai shaighius, aoi 
IlJiodius, aoi suighius. Ai ail ius dano in gcein pis 
fora men main : ai chanlls .i. oga gapaiI: ai saigius .i. 
og cuincced a loige: aoi miodius .i. ima med no ima 
loiget: ai tsuigius .i. ier n-ioc a Ioigi. 
Et taopomna .i. taoph uaim na haoi .i. taob uaim a 
n-airchetal: aoi .i. onní is aoz" [aío Eg.], raidim: no taob- 
omna .i. do thaobaiph na n-oumna mor bit [i. na fidh 
n-airechda bit Eg.]: no taob uaimnecha: no taob Omlia 285j 
.i. toba damna iarsinni tophar damhna [na foellI, Eg.] eisibh. 
Cid ar a nd-cpairt taob uaim n-ai .i. taop uaim n-airchetail, 
ar bi ant airchetal a n-ecmhais na dtaophoumna. Cid ar 
a nd-epairt do taobaiph na n-omna mor (bit), ar ní 
da taophaib na bfiod bit acht rempa no ina ndiaigh 2860 
isna foclaib pit na taopoumna. Toba damhna immorro 
is he ruidhlius in focaiI. Frecra do breithir [tug intan 
roraid: (atat da erndail forsinn aipgitir' .i. frecra do 
aigenta Eg. Dill.] tug intan roraid, (atat da ern ail forsin 
mbethi-IuzS-nÙz an ogailll.' 28ûj 
Cuin is aonda in beithi-luis-nion? Ni ansa. Vile 
4). Cuin is deda? .i. fedha et taophomna. Cuin is 
treda? .i. fedha 7 forfedha 7 taopomna. Cuin is ceth- 
arda? Ni ansa. Tri haicme na taopomna .i. b, h, m, 7 
na cuig fedha airedha ind ogailll. Cuin is coicti? .i. 2870 
fedha 7 forfedha 7 taopomna .i. tri haicmi na dtaopomna: 
no co mad hed bud coicti and .i. seichimh nGrcigda 
frisinni roraidius ) X 0 ( .i. e fota 7 0 fota. Cuin [is .bg.] 

!4 ina aJrùe, aedh 

8!:I fo a adh no a suth 

19 0 YBL. 224 a 7 


Eg. 66 I b 28 

't '!9.sû. 
seda? .i. tri foi1cesta in ogatlll 1/111 //1 I/ff , . 
) /// 1/1 / " 
No comad hed pud seda and seichimh coicte in Gaoidil2875 
frisna .v. rannaiph 1/t est 
 ,," ( . 
Cuin is seachta? . i. teora fuillti ind U raicepto .1. 
) J / ') ( . No tri foilcesta in ogailll frisna se 
remaind .i. ) 11111 /ff Ifff l ( . H cetus is ed fuillius 
beth[ e] conngaip greim p, amal isbeir in Laitneoir: b 2880 
cum aspiraciolle ante OllllleS vocaleis ponitur pro p .i. 
remsamuigther b co dtinfed ar p c01zid fuilles hI ar is p 
tinfed a nGaidilc. Diczmt aili co na bi h araon re b do 
lucc p acht is b a aonar bis ar p, ut dÚ-it PriscÙl1lus: 
Ambo pro ampo, bux1ts pro puxus: b inntib sin ar p 7 ni 2885 
b co tin fed amail adberat araile. 
Forsail is e in fuilled aile .i. dobeir cumang fedha 
forin son do fot .i. srõn. Airnin is e in tres fuilled 
oile, bfail i recair ales da taobomna, gaibid airnin 
grejm in dara n-ai,1/t est cenn no gloun1l, ar ni bi emnad 2890 
in ogaim. 
Is aire gaibius airnin greim in dara taobomna. Teora 
fui1cesta inn ogaim ) 1/111 /jj! Ifff l ( .i. in bfail 
a mbiad colI ria .u. is q sgripthar and amal ata 


ColI cetus ar colI ndiuit ata. 2895 

and, ut est 

Cech baile i mbiadh nion re ngort is ngetol sgribthar 
) {III I H
 !II Ifm 




) (, 11/ 1Iff--< . Gort cetus ar gort ndiuit ata. Cech 

 str represented by only 3 cross strokes in YB L. 
:!Sï:i St
ichem in Gaidil T.: sechim ín in GaoedhaiI '_ 

ï8 )'.í ? < T. 

:!8ï6 ran na 

 ut diClt1lt 


.j Gr. Lat. ii. 20, 18; LP, 14 

ll:: ind 


t6 as sgri pta 

YBL. 22t a. 28 


Eg. 66 2 a 6 191 

bfaili i mbia sail rie tinne is sdraiph is sgripta and amal 
. Sail cetus ar sail ndiuit ata; ar 2900 
is iat sin treidhi is coir do imcisin isinn ogam. Is aire 
is coir teora foiIlcesta na formcesta [is coir Eg] and. 
Da ernail dano for constl1wibh lasin Laitneoir .i. da 
tirdegail .i. lethguta 7 muiti. Ina lethguta cetus .i. f, 1, 
m, n, r, s, x a ttuisdigi rempa. Cia adupramar gu rab 
lethguta f, ni fir sin acht is ed 0 gl1th 7 ni hedh 0 fogur. 

 a muiti .i. b, c, d, g, h, k, p, q, t a dtuistige ina ndeoig 
de suidhip. Di ernail dano .i. da firdegail forna con- 
sfl1laiph cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir .i. lasin lethanfoiritlzill 
.i. iarsinni foirius in Laitneoir gach red isin Laitin: no 2910 
Laitneoir .i. laithreoir .i. iarsinni laithres co treorach: no 
Laitneoir .i. onní is /atÙwtas: no Laitneoir .i. litir- 
threoraÙI no legh-treoraid no lethan-toirllit. Lethguta 
.i. lethghotha focerdad dia fogrugad no luitguth no 
luaiclhit guth no lethguthait no lethguthsédh no leth- 2915 
guthfotha 7 ni hiersinni co mad leth gotha go cert nobeith 
inntib acht nad roichit lanfogur, ut Priscianus dLl:it: 
Seime dei scime uiri dlculltur sed [I. non] quia qui de- 
mä'dialll partim deoruJIl uel uÙorulll Izabellt sed quiplelll dci 
ud lliri 11011 sunt .i. cia raiter lethdei no lethfir, ni hier- 29:!0 
Sill11i baitis lethdei no lethfhir acht na tot comhlana, sic 
na lethguta ni dod comlana .i. amal ata a mbaili oile 
quicuit [ill] dUllS partes dividitur a/tCl"a pars semis dicet .i. 
secib ni foglzai/ther a ndiph randaip raiter in clara rand co 
rab leth (col. ß) cin cob cudruma, SiC na lethguta ni dot 2925 
comlana, ud Donatlls ?tel Priscitl1111S {krit: Seme lwcales 
Sllllt que per sc quidilll proftru11tur ct pcr Sf' sil/abam nOIl 
filt."ÙI1zf 7rla: Atat na leth guta ni hi doturgbat treotha fein 
et ni denait sillaib treotha fein. Quiqllid asjJcll/l1l dzcÍ!ur 
fwdilliS expei/lit .i. indarbaid int esticht secip ni raiter 2930 

 Gr. Lat. \. ICO, 3 :.-'!IO
 r 0111. 

n:; toirnid :!!t_'O hiersin 

29('7 P p. 
2!r!'.! ata 

2!1OI< decch- 
:''!',O Quditur \ BL. 

 YllL. 224 ß 6 


Eg. 66 2 a 35 

co hacarp. 1\1uiti .i. mi-aiti .i. bee ait a fogair: no a muiti 
.i. muitid a n-aonur no muiti .i. me to a n-aonar iet: no 
[muiti .i. moiti 1:g.] muiti .i. míiti in guth a mbeth maraon re 
guthagaib: no muiti .i. onni is mlttlts, amlapar .i. ainm do 
mnai bail ph, 7 uodhside for chat [each Eg.] n-amlapar 7 as- 
siclhie forsnahisi 7 ni ara ni batis amlabra doraith, ar atat 
a fogur inntib cid ad beca ut Priscimllls dLrit: hiformis 
1J1lt/ier dicitur 11011 quia caret forllla sed qu i[ a] male fa rill a la cst 
.i. aclberat in bansgul dodhelpha 7 ni he sin ni tsechmallus 
o deilph acht drochdealph fuirre lontu1ll. 2940 
Is amlaiclh sin [iarum Eg.] na muiti ni tat nemfogairacht 
ar terci a bfogair inntib nama. No muiti .i. mifotha 
indsin ar thanacht 7 [ar Eg.] etroime a fogair, 1It Donatlts 
dLr:it: }lIutae sunt que lIee pi'r sc proferulltur et per sc 
sillaba1ll 110ft facÙl1lt .i. atat na muiti acht nocha clenait int 2945 
sillaib treotha fein 7 nocha turgbat treotha budeisin. lna 
lethguta cetumus .i. in cetna mes brctltemhnus: no don 
cetna hamus forsinn aisneis: no don cetna hai for seis : 
no clon cetna hai fis: no co na ba heicccll a taithmech iter 
a mellma thaithmigher in timarr 0 fil a[ c] clusail na muiti ar 
is 0 qltidelll ata cechtar de. A tuisclige .i. an luchd ota a 
tuismed .i. na fedha oirechda do suidhiph .i. dona haib 
adhaip .i. dona caingnibh dligtechaib no for suiclhiph no 
do suidhiph .i. doipsidhe. A tuisdige .i. an lucht 0 ata a 
tuisdige .i. tesargain no a tinnsgna .i. na guthaigi. Cicl 2955 
ar a nd-epertsum a tuistigi ina ncliaig masa tustaigi in 
tinsgetal, uair ni gnath in tinsgetal fa cleoigh. [Ni hedh 
eimh is ail dosum ar mad tuisdighe acht madh in aei 
roseichiustar ina menmain .i. in dliged gotha fil i dtocht 
na lethguta do airisim leis fa cleoigh, Eg.] 7 an dliged 2960 
consanachta fil inntib fa deoigh do chur uad prius. Nir po 
himairgidi son lasin nGaidel mac Eithiuir ar mad aiccenta 

293-.\ amlabhar 
..'9;\.5 uodo-side 2936 amlabra 2!138 set qui YBL. 
2939 atberar 2M! ?nui'i YBL. 211üo in g marro 2956 tustighe, tusaigi YBL. 

YllL. 224 ß 30 


Eg. 66 z b 26 193 

cloip diplinaiph an guth reimhiph 7 ina ndiaig. Ar as ed 
ruba himairgide laisium comad in tuisech do airisim lais ï 
an deigenaeh do chur uadh conid muiti uile bethi-Iuis-nin 2965 
an ogaim acht forfedha nama. Nir po himairgidi son .i. 
nir ba himaruga son .i. togaidi .i. nir bo heim airec suadh 
son .i. nir bo himaireachtain suadh son .i. sillab for- 
tormaigh. Cid ar narpo himarccide son lasin nGaoidel .i. 
lasin ngaoth dul .i. an fer aga raibi in dul gaoth. Ar mad 2970 
aigned no ar mad aigenti doip dib lionaiph .i. dona 
lethgutaiph 7 dona muitibh .i. remaibh dona lethgutaib et 
ina ndiaigh dona muitibh. Ata acht lem and ehena iss ed 
ropui eimh airechta suad iaisium on comad a ix rosheich- 
ustar ina menmain .i. in guthazge fil isin lethguta noairised 2975 
lais fo deoigh 7 an deigenaeh do cur uadh .i. in deigellach 
fuach do choir ai int suad .i. in tdaopomna do cur ar tus co 
na m[b Ja miait lapartha ata bitheolus literda ind ogaim acht 
fedha nama. PCI' ellistrafen a hainm sin lasin Laitneoir 
.i. tria deigellaeh impod amal ata eI, Ie nobeith and, 7 en 2980 
comad ne nobeith and. Cid ar mad ferr laisim a mbeth 
comdis muiti uile ina mbeth comdis lethguta 7 muiti 
amal robatar agin Laitneoir? Ni ansa. Ar seichimh 
nGYt'g, ar ni filet lethguta leoside, ar robad do Greigaip 
do Feinius: no dono is ar uaisli uird na nGrcc no na nguth- 298
uigcdh fri suidiugud a n-uord focal, lit dicitllr: Oilll1lc lli/t' 
prills tOlli/ltY et Oillllle bOJlum postpo1litltY .i. samaigther 
(225) 7 gach [ndereoil ar tús 7 each Eg.] maith fa deoig et 
gach sainemail co forbha ar mad aiecenta .i. ar mad dliged 
togaide no madh ai gnithi diphlinaiph .i. dona lethgutaib 29ÐO 
ï dona muitibh. Ciarpo himairccide isna muitibh nir bo 
heclh isna lethgutaib. Roimhe isna lethguthazgib 'na 
ndeoigh .i. isna muitiph nir bo himairgide son et niT puo 
eoir son, ct nir po hecoir son. A\r is ed roba himaireeide 
lasuidhe comad toui.,ech doairised lais, et in deigellach 299;:) 
2'\1'-1 airisiod 29611 QUId 
ISS. 2971 ar mo aigniti 
!' sus (,diu 
S. ;!9j9 I. p
r Qltas/rophm a hainm-sium 

194 YBL. 225 a 7 


Eg. 67 I a 19 

do chur uadh co na muiti uile beithi-Iuis-nin an ogaim 
acht fedha nama: la suidhi .i. lasin suidh .i. la Gaidel 
mac Eithiuir no comad 0 Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil [meic 
Feniusa Farsaidh Eg. om.] nohainmnigtlter Gaidelg: no la 
suidi .i. laisidhe, co mad a tuiseeh do airisiodh lais .i. go mad 3000 
inndi is tuisech .i. guthaigi agin Laitneoir isna lethguthagaib 
noairised Jais .i. no beth fo deoig in1ltip uile letlzglltltaigi 
7 go mad isin guthaige nobeth forpa na cantana indiph 7 
in deigenacll do cur uad ar tus .i. muiti conach muiti uile 
.i. co nach a ngne muiti uile. Ata bitheolus literda an 3005 
oguÙn aeht fedha nama .i. a tinsgetal uadaibh fen 7 a forpa i 
nguthagaiph. Cinnus is fir sin, ar ni a nguthagoiph for- 
pazgter uile, ut est fJ S, n, 7 1'eliqva J 7 is eidir na muiti a 
tinsgetul uadaiph fein 7 a forpa a nguthagaibh cidh 
uadhaibh fein tinsgantar [tinscaillter Eg.]. Ni a nguthag- 3010 
aiph forphaighter. Ni insa. Ni thapair int ugdar in 
airemh a fil on guthaigi sis acht amal bid fhe .i. fern, no 
ne .i. nin, no saoi .i. sail nopedh and, no ni mo ni ar 
[a] n-apar muiti risna muitib quam ar a dtinsgetul uadaiph 
fein 7 ata do litriph an' ogaim sin 7 ni heiccell co mad aisdi 3015 
do ierraidlz do litrib ind ogaim 7 do Ìnuitibh na Laitne, ar 
is a nguthagoip forba(gter-side do gres. IN a nguthag- 
taibh imlllorro forpazgter f, s, n: forpaigter immorro litri 
ind ogaim a nguthagaip, 1/t est beithi, tinne, 7rl.; 7 a 
lethguta, ut est luis, fearn 7rl. A muitib, ul est uad, quert. 3020 
Muiti iat, ar is 0 muiti tinsganait acht fedha nama; 7 mad 
iadside is 0 guthagaiph tinsganait. 
Insgi tra ci
 lir insgi docuisin? Ni ansa. A tri .i. fer- 
indsge banindsge demeindsge lasin nGaidel. Masgal 7 
feimin 7 nemutur lasin Laitneoir. Cest, caiti deochair? Ni 302j 
ansa. N us-deochrend a tri herlanna innsge, id est Ide, 
Itee, ILOe / is i, is e, is edh: is e in fer, is i in ben, is 
edh i[n] nem. Insge tra orasio uel sgÙznsia a bunad Lait1ti 

3001 ani 

;1026 N us-deochraigid 

YBL. 225 a. 30 


Eg. 67 1 b 9 195 

.i. a indi sgÙllsia .1. a inde fesa: no indi sin ier cai .i. 
ier conair: no inniscai .i. cai innisti neich a inlle. A 3030 
airpert .i. erlapra no rad 7rl. Coitcend a thapairt 
for cech innsge iter ciallaide no neamciallaide, saorda 7 
aigenta. Dilius a tapairt for gach [n-insce Eg.] n-aiccenta 
r ferinnsgi 7 bmzinllsgi. R uidlius a tapairt for gach 
ferinsge aiccenta nama; ar is fer toisech do rad innsge 3035 
.i. Adam dz:rit: Eece 01lS de osibus mâs et eara de carne 
mea .i. adcimsus [.i. adcimsi Eg.] cnaimh dom cnamhaibh 
7 feoil dom feoil. IN dlius a tapairt for innsgi tsaorda. 
Tra .i. dorae uain .i. dorae innsge cuccaind .i. aisneis 
iar n-indisin aipcitre: no tra .i. tri .i. na tri hinnsge-fer, 3040 
ban, cleme. Cis lir .i. cia ler: no cia lin .i. se himcomair- 
snig airme filet lasin nGaidel, a tri a n-ilar, a tri a 
n-uathad. [It e cetus na tri a n-ilar, cislir, cidne, caidiet 
.f:..g. am.] It e dono a tri a n-uathad, cesc, cuin, cid. 
Docuisin .i. douisim innsge: no docuisin .i. do coi sin .i. 3045 
don conair sin: no don coi innisin: no d'fis cuinngid fair, 
no disgnaigter, no tarrustar. Cia lion atat na hinnsge 
(sin)? Ki ansa; .i. ni handsa lasin saidh indsin: no ni 
anond said ag [saei in Eg:] son: no ni handsa son .i. ni 
doiligh. A tri .i. ier n-airem. Atat dano tri hernaile for 3030 
nuimir .i. i[n] nuimir anfoirphti amal ata a tri 110 a cuig 
ar ni fasand 0 quoitibh. N uimir foirpti immorro amal ata 
a se, ar tairisigh co cóir a gcoitibll .i. aon a tseissed, a do 
a trien, a tri a leth., Ant aon ierum 7 na do ct na tri, 
a se sin .i. a haon fo se, a do fo tri, a tri fo do, 7 airemh 30:)5 
foirpti sin, uair airisid coir 'na coitibh. Nuimir oullforpthi 
immorro amal ata (coI. ß) a dó dee, oir is he i sé déc 
fastlit estiph .i. a haon a oile dee, a do a seissed, a tri a 
cethraime, a cethair a trien, a se a leth, amal rogaph a 
do dcc a haon ierum 7 l1a do et [na Eg.] tri a se sin, a 3060 

JO:J:j do raidh :10:16 Vulgolte, Gen. ii. 23 
30-&6 coi inn finni sin 3007 is he 16 Cas.lit 

30,\1 tri imcomairsnigh T 
.u.,,j Casaid dip 

19 6 YilL. 225 ß 2 


Eg. 67 I b 40 

cethair iar [sin hi.] eonid [a Eg.] deieh samlaidh et ina 
se iarsin eonid a se dee samlaidh eonid nuimir and- 
sin is uille ara bunad tria na eoitidheeht n-airme .j. trie 
taithmeeh a lethae i eoitidhe. Is each eoititi is rannoigi 
ct ni gaeh rannaighe is eoitige dano. 3065 
Ferindsgi .i. ferrda a n-indsge .i. ferr ina indsge na 
mna: no firindsge: no firenindsge: no foirindsge iarsinni 
foirius im dula do luga: no innsge id est a /liro: no fir 
innsge na mna pios indsge ind fir dano. 
Panindsge .i. bOlla indsge .i. indsge maith: no bo 3070 
indsge [.i. fo indsce Eg.] in fir bios indsge na mna: no 
bannda indsge .i. indsge bannda indsin: no banindsge .i. 
firindsge .i. banfir indsin. 
Deimindsge .i. deimill indsge: no doeim innsge fuirri 
o neoch oile: no do ouma indsge .i. indsge do duine, ar 3075 
is duine raid ius: no in deime fil and is on brethir is dC/llo, 
digbaim, ata; ar rodigbait fuirre in dedha remainll: no 
demhoe eeeh neotar lasin Laitneoir is deime laisin bfilid 
nGaoiddach. No deimindsge .i. indsg[e] dembeoaighthi 
.i. ni hi hindsge sloinnius do phiu. Deimindsge dano .i. 3080 
indsge neotur. 
IVIasglll.i. mo a sgel no a sgoul quam in feimell: no 
[mascul .i. mas fer 7 cuI coimet: no mascol mo a fis 7 a 
eol quam an femen no Eg.] onni is lllasgo!íllUS, masealdo. 
Feimell .i. foimin .j. fo fir: no femin onni is femur, 3085 
sliasat, ar as and is bCll [sí Eg.] intan fognaigther die sliasait: 
no feme Grccio, id est uirgo Latilla. Der Greco, id est, 
jilia Latillc. Feimder dono .i. ogh ingeJl: no onní is 
femillillus .i. feimenda: no feimder dono: no flesgda: no 
maothenesach dicitur onní is femen: femenina .i. bannda, 3090 
110 baneeusgda, no bangnimach, no bangneithech. N eut"r 
.i. ni fidir cía cinel, uair nach se (no) nach si: no neutur 

;'1]71 YBL. fir 
Ia with PU1/c/. lid. 
 a scol :;f.l1:I

3075 no do eirnh 
3085 YEL. fimair 

3076 YBL. dema 
:JOBS ondi 

VBL. 225 ß 25 


Eg. 6] 2 .1 28 I9í 

onni is llell/rUlll .i. nemnechtarda, ncc lIltlsgltliolll/1Jl nce 
fClIlilliollum, 1lce [II ]oe ncc zïlat: no neUllltor ni masgal m 
fuimin. 3091 
Cesc, caiti deochair etorra .i. cia hait ata etourra .i. 
iter da aoi: no cia hait ita degcoruglld etorra .i. iter da ai 
nos-deilighther .i. nos-dedualoigther. A tri herlanda 
indsge: is e, is i, is ed .i. is he in fer, is i in ben, is ed in 
neum. :11 00 
Cesc, .i. cia haisg, onni i[ s] seiseo}' .i. comarcim. .\ tri 
herloind .j. a tri tirloind: no a tri erlaind: no a tri 
remhsloind. Cuin is urland, cuin is indsgc, cuin is 
etargairi? Is he [isi, issedh: indsci emh intan itbcror Eg.] 
nama gall araill imaille fds. U rlolld eim antan dobeire 3105 
fria arail1, 1/t est is he in feur. Etargaire dono iter feimell 
d masgul 7 neutur: no is etargaire dono intan dechrlllgi 
fria nech aile co n-anmai1Jl a athar sainrucl, lit dÙ it mac 
Lonain : 

Uinllsi cugut in gillcucan, 
Mac rergoccain, 
Pid gach maith ara cionnccoccal1, 
r\ chendgoccaill. 


U rland ria n-urland 7 urland iar n-urland 7 urland 
inand iter da urland nach it inanda. Urland rie n-urland 3115 
quidcm, iní rie se, no rie sí, no re séudh. Erland ier 
n-urland .i. in se, no in si, no in sedh. U rland inand 
iter da urlaind nach it inanda .i. in sc inand iiI in gach 
focuI, ni herlond is achd reimtsuidugud: no is fri se no 
fri sedh. Tri herlonda indsge .i. tri rcmsIoind .i. tri :3120 
sloinnti rempa riasna hindsgibh .i. is se, is si, is edh; 
achd at urlunda, it indsgi, it etargaire .i. it remtsloinnti 
dona [oclaip ina nclegaid 7 indsge feimÙl 7 masgal 7 
neuotl/r tig ina ndcoigh citirdeiIigt/ti treotha. Ata dona 
dedha in gach indsge .i. aiccenta 7 ealadha. Feirindsgc 3125 
aigenta, is he in fer: feirindsge tsaorùa, is he i[n] nemh : 

I.: O,igg. i. 7. 28; x. 187: Gr. Lat. viii. -82, 25 

:\1111 Y BI.. is 11"r.

198 YBL.225ß48 


Eg. 67 2 b 17 

ba[ n ]indsgi aigenta, is i in ben: bainindsgi tsaorda, is i 
in cloch. Deimindsgi tsaorda, is ed in cend. Deimindsgi 
aigenta, is ed i[n] nemh. Aigned caom and 7 aigned 
n-eitig (226). Aiccned caom cetumus: is i sron no suil 3130 
na mna. Aiccned n-eitigh: is e (no is i) fiacail no belna 
mna et cail gotha fodera sin ef ni ni achd nemhgnathugud, 
amal atat na focuif perla nat-aithgeunam, ni bind lind 
ualr nis-gnathoigim; ar ni bind la nech ni nach 
gnathoigend. No in deime fil and, is oni is demo ita, ar 3135 
rodipad fuirre in dedha remaind: no deme cech neutur 
lasin bfilid nGaidelach. Deimhindsge .i. indsge neutur. 
Insge tra sgieinsia a bunud Laitne. Sgothecna a airpert. 
In inniscoi a hinlze .i. coi conair, conair indiste neich: 
conair .i. gan fher no gan ar. Insge tra intan ismberar 31-10 
se nama cen araill imalle fris, lit PriscÙlllus dÙ-it: Grado 
est ordillacio COllgrllam dixiollilll þrofectaru1Jl scc1zie1lciarztlll 
demonstrmzs .i. ata ind indsge ina hordugud comimairccide 
na n-epert foillsigius in cheill foirpti. Cesc, cuin imaricc iter 
ind indsge .i. an foghar et in duil dia n-indisin .i. an diail, 3145 
ct is he sin an red fomamoighti .i. comaircim. Cuin is 
eimh irrochtain suad iter in indsge agus in duil dia n-indisi ? 
Ni ansa.. Antan fedhair a hindsge coir fuirre .i. ni himair- 
ccÙle immorro itir etourra intan fed hair indsge for araile 
.i. ferindsge for banindsge, no banindsge for ferindsge, 3150 
no deimindsge for cechtar n-ae. Imaric .i. imaric .i. 
eim airechtaill a n-ai .i. iter in indsge ì in duil. Duil 
.i. diail: fedair .i. athtairgither: no fed hair .i. fiadhair 
.i. aisneter indsge coir, ut est :- 

Sarnail a dealpha, gan cleith, 
Elpa ingine Fidaidh, 
Fri gour grene glaine ar gurt, 
Is fris tsamhlaim a caomhcucht. 

:H55 . 

:a:18 scu!J15ia 
::w Gr. Lat. ii. 53, 28 
315:: attaircid hter 

:n:!!J coi conair conaua imlesti neich conana 
:n-w rét ::14; arochtaÙz 
:a;;.. aisneidter :11
>6 Elbo, Fiduigh T. 

YBL. 226 a. 25 


Eg. 68 I a 5 199 

Ni himaircide .i. ni heim aireachta iter i n-ai .i. iter in 
indsge 7 in duil.i. indisi aile fair achd indisi coiro Fedhair 3160 
eim ferindsge for banindsge antan adberar, is he in 
ban mac-sa, ut dicitur..- 

Die mad meisi in banmacam, 
N i cechraind nach fealmacan : 
Fer nat-finntar go gcloinnter, 
Slanceill cein dib, a muinter. 
Fedhair eim banindsge for ferindsge intan isberar 'is i 
in gobur,' ut dixit..- 
Is i in gopar tan is each, 
I s he in gabar cid meglech, 
Is i in corr cid reil nus-reill, 
I s he in menntan gid banen. 



Fedhair dano deimindsge for ferindsge no four ban- 
indsge intan isberar 'iss ed in cend,' sech is cend fir 
no mna. Deimhindsge for ferindsge quidem, ut est ..- 3175 
Is e in daigh dergdighe dath 
Fris nach gapar cath no cioth ; 
Iss ed cend is caoime cruth 
Fil go mbrath for braoine in bith. 
Deimindsge for banindsge, ul dixit:- 


Cend mna romandair mo modh, 
Don-farraid duin, ni deilm ndil ; 
Is ed cend is grainde ind sin 
Do neoch fil for muin fo nim. 

Ferindsge for banindsge, ut dÚ"Í! Colum Cille fri 3185 
hillccill Aodha mic GaphraÙz :- 
Alaind damna marphain bain 
Doching tar airther in lair, 
Mac marph et ua aroile, 
Is mairg recfus dia aire. 3190 

. If,(. ceilli no cein T. ::171 chon. T. reill Dus.reill 
:1\;9 COm mbruth Corsmbruinne mbith T. 
;'If.! JomfarruiJh clon T. 3186 hingi1z Aodhai1z 

31i7 cith 31i8 eacoime 
3181 romanmhuir ar T. 
::18; damno 

200 YBL. 2260.42 


Eg. 68 I a :::6 

Fedair eimh ferindsge et banindsge for demindsge 
intan isberar, ' is i an doeh, is he an lia,' ut est hicc;- 

Is e in lia, lith rolas, 
Iar srethatb suadh in sene has ; 
Is ed ounn iar n-aieened ail, 
Ís i an c10eh iar saordataid. 


Ait a n-abar deime dOn1z, 
For íounn feimin fiehtibh eland, 
Ni eheil in fer a n-aigncd n-oll, 
Iss ed [inond Eg.] in ingne and. 



Ata tra amlaid sin (eoi. ß) aigned et saordatl/ in gaeh 
indsge, ar atae da modh laparda fil and .i. mod aigenta ct 
modh saorda. Atat dano eeithri fodla for tsaordataid .j. 
deichfer raindi, 7 tugait mbindiusa, 7 euimre raid, 7 iolugud 
laparda. Deichfer rainde eetumus amal rogaph, is he an 3203 
banmae so .i. don roind oighi fil is inn ingin is ainm: 
Tueeait mbindiusa amal ata, is i in gobar et d'eoeh ban 
is ainm .i. goour, solus isin mBretnus, go dtug an file 
b [ris ar tueait mbindiusa: Iolugud laparda amal ata, iss ed 
in eend, seeh is liaiti a n-irlapra: Cuimri raid amal at a, 3210 
rusg ime 7 eriathar arba 7 leastar uisgie, ar robat! eimilt 
rusg im imb 7 eriathar im arpar 7 lestur im uisgi do rada. 
Gabar intan is trie ailm quaisi caper is ed rotruaillcd and; 
gobar tria onn .i. don eoeh is 1lOlIlell son 7 is Combree. Ro- 
truailled goor, each solus, a suidhe l//lde dicitl/r gobar donn 3215 
eoeh giuo1. Cidh naeh dath oile bes fair, is in eeh die mbe 
bee do giul and is gobar a 1Wlllell, ar is asan dath 
is aireehdam bes and l1011lÏ1zatur. Rotuill an file 
Gaoidelaeh b fair no and, ar rob aille leo gobar quam 
goour unndi dicitur gobar nOlllillatur. 3220 
Atad dono indsge and ata eoitcend iter ferindsee ï ban- 
indsge, ut est Flann no Cellaeh no Buodaeh. Phidh dono 

:::.'00 YBL. inJond 
:::!lï gial (or) giul 

320!1 Iabortha 
:J-.:!IB airaghamh 

321:1 Cor. 22: quasi ca
p (?) 
:J-.:!l!l band ar rob aille 

YBL.226ß 1 7 


Eg. 68 2 a II 20 I 

indsgi qumusda Ism [Gaidilc amal bis an cenel cumassu 
isin Eg.] Laitin, Ilt est in menntan ct an truid 7 in coirr, 
1/t dicitur..- 3225 
Is he in minntan cid boinend, cid firend. 
Mad iar n-aigned coir [immorro Eg.] na ndula ni hainm 
ferindsge na banindsge achd do neoch dofuisim .i. fer, 
7 0 dtuismer .i. beun 7 ba deime chena aiccned na ndul 
uili archena. 3230 
Atat dano da ernail for tuismiud .i. tuismil/d saorda 7 
tuismiud aigenta. Tuismiud saorda cetomus .i. fer 0 
toalmaÍ1z 7 luibi ar is ní don talmain fein an fer, 1/1 cst 
espa in talman muna tuismcd clanda 7 pa deime chena .i. 
pa sloind neutur int uile aiccellta ar chena, ut est Pompells 3
dÙ-it.. Omniulll rerulll 1/oeaba/oulIl al/t eorparai/il/lIl [aut 
illeorpora/iulll I
g.] se.rlt natura/iter carcnclulll pcr artcim 
Gracialll c[s Jse asgribillll/s, hoc cst 1le utrum z:e. uee lllasgo- 
limo/l ?lee feimillÙllllll, 1It cst (?) h[ a Jcc zi/sticia, h[a Jee 1/erit(ls. 
COl/siJlsil/s dicit: Qltiquit per naIl/ram se.rSl/S 110n assillgJiat 3240 
1/el/tn/11/ habere oportet set aI's ql/i /loll/it gigHere sell liqucnda 
seu dicC1zda asgribsit .i. iar saordataid. Cid innÍ is aiccenta 
raiter suond? N i ansa. Foillsiugisgtair go n-apair: 
Natura quae motatl/! per tempera !lee 1/airitatl/r 1lee 
 et natl/ra 1iOll est ql/iquid 1Il0latllr et nOIl sdaire 32-15 
1tidetl/r et ql/aCClllllqlle e.rtri?lsccl/s accidu1ldur sed quae 
constant in sé, 'lid sdt1bilitas il1 terra, gllrbitas ill taþCdl,bllS, 
'lIl1leditas in aqua, claritas Ùl aere, calm- ill illgne. 
Doepenar dano deimindsge a ferindsge no a banindsge. 
Doeipenar dono ferindsge 7 banindsge a dcimindsge amal 3:!30 
ata isnahaib reimendouiph 7 it iat sin na deime teibidi 
7 na lanomna deime 7 a ngeine-sidhe. It e andso 
deismcrachta in deime teiphighe isnahaibh reirnelldaibh .i. 
ccnò 7 cride fulaing a deime deiphide a ndetbir diplinaib. 

{ cumuscda ::'

 truit 322!I toismer 32:1:1 thal..m, ar is ni don tal.lm 
1Ij Basloindtlls dixit H. 3'.!:11I slmt sed haec ttrra hie þarÙs T. 
.!':!IO Gr. La t. v 343, 32 :r.m 1"01ISfl1lt 3251,:: isnaib :I'.?.3 desmbeirechto :


202 YBL. 226 ß 43 


Eg. 68 2 a 4 I 

Lanamna in cind suil 7 fieeail: lanamna an eride sreband 3255 
7 eru: lanamna in fulaing lureea 7 troig: geine dono ina 
lanamna deime: gene na suI .i. abraehtur 7 malo; gene na 
fieeal bun 7 lei the : geine int [s]rephaind tanoigeeht 7 dath 
.i. baine et glaisi : geine in eride tigi 7 dath beos .i. ruade 
7 deirge (227). 3260 
Seeht n-etargairi tra doeuisnet .i. disgnaigter .i. [in Eg.] 
grad eonne[i]Jg Jasin Laitneoir, etargaire a ainm lasin 
pfiJid. Etargairi ineuisg i persoind. Etargaire ineuisg 
persainde. E targairi persainde a ngnimh. Etargaire 
persainde i geeussad .i. eaisacht antan is maith, ciacht intan 3265 
is ouk. Etargaire derrsgaigti a nderrsgugud .i. poisit, 
eomparait, 7 superlait Jaisin Laitneoir. Fothugud et fourran 
et fourmouJad Jasin bfiJid. Maith et ferr et ferrsoun, Jasin 
nGaide1. Etargairi meiti a meudugud .i. mor et moo et 
moosoun. Etargoire Jugaidhe a Jugugud .i. pee et Juga 3270 
et Jugasoun. [Etargoire ineoisg persainde .i. me budein, 
tu budein Eg. om.] se budein, sib budein, sinde budeisin, 
siphsi badeisin, siadsum padeisin. Seehta .i. seiptilll a 
bunad Laitne. Seeht n-ai a inde no seehtai, i[s] soigti 
dia mbe a n-eolus, i[s] saigti dia mbe a n-aineolus. 3275 
Etm:g-aire .i. isin eteehtu ita .i. isin seehtmad ernail in 
U raicioptou: no isin seehta ita in eonndek .i. in 
eaindeiJiugud, 1/t est.. Pa1
S pro toto et totom pro pairte 
.i. in rand tar eis na toiti et in to it tar eis na rainde. 
Etargaire .i. eitereoraigti .i. eiterdeiffrigti: no etargaire 3280 
.i. eiterdeiligti a treidiph: no etargaire .i. gair guth .i. 
etergnougud in gotha andsin: no etergleithi .i. gleas 
etarro: no etm%aire .i. edargleodh iar ngleodh a fesa 
etorra: in gradh onni is gradus .i. eeim. Coindelg .i. 
eaindeiligti: no eomdheiligte ar in geoindeilg uile, ut 3285 
est.. Pars pro toto et totU1Jl þro parte. Cid ar naeh treide 
lasin Laitneoir in eoindeilg amal is tredi lasin phfilid in 

3:!-17 maolo 

32-W craidi, ruaighie 

:::?7!J tote 

:J2S() eiterdeiffriti 

YBL. 227 a 2


Eg.68! b2 7 20 3 

etargoire? Is treidi eim lasin bfilid .i. mét et inde 7 
incosg; et adbeurait aroile fouirend and nach bfil acht 
deidhe nama agan Laitneoir .i. inde et met et bonus ct 3290 
lIlallls, is i in inde. [Is edh a inde immorro lasin nGaidel 
.i. maith 7 ole Eg.] 111 agnus et þanms, is i an mét .i. mour 
et bec .i. is mor lais-sium in bec i gcondeilg neich is lugha. 
Incousg immorro icon pfilid ni conndelg side lasin 
Laitneoir acht þ1'01101//01 7 dopriathar. Cid fodera dOSS1l1ll 3295 
a radh a ngrad conndeilge lasin Laitneoir, is etargaire a 
ainm lasin bfilid? Ar ni filit acht tri graid conndeilge 
agin Laitneoir, 7 atat secht n-etargaire icon pfilid. K í 
cia cudruo1Jlugud eim dosum ani adbersiom [sin Eg.] acht is 
fior a mbeith amlaidh. Is cd [sin Eg.] ata etargoire lasin 3300 
filid is conndelg lasin Laitneoir .i. etargaire derrsgaighti a 
nderrsgugud, ar ni gach etargaire is grad conndeilgi acht 
etargaire derrsgoigti a nderrsgugud. Is cach grad 
conndeilge is eutargaire, no ar ni leithe conndelg oldas 
eutargaire. 3305 
File .i. fel sai no fial sai: no file onni is filososulms .i. 
fe feallsoum, ar dlegar don filid feallsamhnacht aigi: no file 
.i. fi ani aorus, 7 Ii anni molus: no file .i. [it .Eg.] fele ai, ar 
dlt:g-ar de ar is ed nodus-saora, feile dano indracus nos-ditne 
an file 7rla: no file a flecto1dis carmÙziblts: no file .i. fel sai, 3310 
sai fhoglama, amal ata felmac: no file .i. fi a oumna 7 Ii a 
danu fair: no file .i. fial do aei: no file .i. fi oule 7 Ii maith 
.i. moulad 7 aorad. Cubhaidh cia fhasus deisidhe ainm 
in fhilid dia fhognat. 
Cid ar mad conelec las-silllll in poisit, uair nocha 3315 
derrsgugud do ní? Ni ansa. Ar 0 is i is foutha 7 ata 
derrsgugud dhi, ut dÙ:Üur airim frie hunair, (col. ß) tt! est: 
Unl/s 11011 cst 1lUmenlS set þl1ldal1lclltulll 111llllCri .i. nocha 
nfuil int aonni conid airim acht ata conid fotha airme; 7 

IO YDL. hounus, milltls: cr. Gr. Lat. viii. 72, 24 :I'.!!I!I da cudruma, ani om. 
Ij fe, fellsom om. 3:\10 YBL. a ßechlmdi C21 lIlozibus :
H! I. filed 
. ::.... YBL. 11UÙlltrtiS :::ml YBL. conid airme 

20 4 YBL. 227 ß 3 


Eg. 63 2 b 15 

amal ata deach icon bfilidh .i. dialt, ni deach side(n) fodhei- 3320 
sin cid la deachaiph atrimther. Et tria tsaordatait ind sin 
.i. int alt aigenta immorro do posit: posit a positus .i. 
suidhiugte. Cid ar mad ainm compariti doberitsim arin 
gcoindeilcc uile? Ni ansa. Posit cetl/7JlUs: ni dersgaig 
do ni. Comparit immorro seoch derrsgaigid do neoch 7 3325 
derrsgaigtlzer di. SllPerlait immorro ni derrsgaigtlzer di 
conid airisin is ainm foriata in conndelg uile. Atberat 
araile foirend connach dersgaightllcr do comparit acht do 
posit derrsgaigit araon .i. comparit ct superlait. Bec brab- 
beirius comparit, mol' brab-beirius superlait. 
Caiti conndelg cheil1e cen soun? b01lus, melior, offill/liS. 
Coindelg suoin cen cheill, ut est.. Uirgi/lls, Uirg1ior, 
UirglisiulIll/s no-rad frie sin arai tsouin 7 ni bfuil connelg 
arai cheille and, ar ni conndelgter anmallda dilsi do gres, 
acht is cruthugud [rie fousgadh andsin. Coindelg souin 3335 
gan cheill bonus, bonior, bOllillll/s nobiad sin iar SOU1l cf ni 
bfuil iar gceill. Coindelg suin 7 ceilli imalle, amal ata 
fortis, fortior, fortissi7Jll/s, 7 is hi sin in connelg techta. 
Coindealg tsoin 7 ceille imalle .i. mag/lUS, lIIagior, ma.rilllllS 
7rlo. Pid dal/o maith 7 ni bi derrsgugud di, ut bOllJ/US 3340 
Dells, fó Die [maith Dia Eg.J. Bid dano conealg and ct 
ni dia hinlle fein dersgaigius, 1/t est.. J/airic POl/lltiClllll 
duilsius cst quam sctera mairia .i. is somillsi an muir 
Ponteca old at na maire oile olchena; 7 ni hiarsani badis 
somillsi acht is luga a serbiu. Conndelg cotursna andsin 3345 
do?! indsi dono. 
Etargaire inchouisg i persainde cctUJJlUS .i. uindsi 
uindsie oundar: uindse [no sonnse hg.] .i. uainse no 
sonllse: uinllsi .i. uainsi no suinllsi: ondar .t. ander .i. 
aund a fir isin nem, id est DCl/s. Uindsie .i. an fer: 3350 
uindsi an ben: oundaur .i. in dem. 

3::22 YB L. þositius ::32:1 Y BL. eompr.liti :::rJ8 foirend YBL. repeats 
:::::.'9 bee prabh-beres comprait 7 mor brab-beres suped.lit T. 
:\:\:J1 YBL. boun1ts, me/iour :\:\:\:3 rofetfaigh sin arai T. 
:::a:: a/era ::::
:; serhe, cotursna indsiJ/ dono 

YBL. 227 ß 3 1 


Eg.69 I a 5 20 5 

Etargaire incouisg persainde .i. me budein) tu budein, 
se budein 7rlo, amal adubramar romhaind Etargaire per- 
sainde a ngnimh: dorignes, dorignis, dorigne; dorigensum 
dorighensat, dorigheunsait. Etargaire persainde i ceussad 3335 
.i. a foditen dia n-echtair .i. nom-cartar-sa, not-carthar-si, 
carthar-sim; non-cartar-ne, nobar-carthar-si) carthar-sim. 
Etargoire deurrsgaighti a ndersgugud .i. fouthugud in 
cetna graidh .i. poisit: forra1l .i. forrain fair in gradh tanaisi 
.i. comparit: fourmoulad .i. formfuilled fair in treas gradh 3360 
.i. formoulad .i. molad for molad reimhtechtadl .i. brabh 
for in m brabh toisiuch .i. superlait [.i. Eg.] maith et ferr ct 
feurrsoun laisin nGaoidd coithcend i bfecmais in filet!. 
Fouthugud, immorro, 7 forran, 7 fourmolad lasidhe. Etar- 
gaire meide a meudugud .i. mour 7 mouo 7 moosoun: 7 3365 
etargaire lugaiti a lugugadh .i. bec 7 lugha 7 lughasoun. 
.Atberait araile ni bfuilit acht cuig etargoire and, ar is aon- 
etargaire leo na tri hernaile deighe/lcllll .i. edargoire méte 
ï lugaide occus eutargaire dersgaigti a nderrsgugud. [Cie 
adberadsim eutargaire mete a metugud 7 eutargaire 3370 
lugaite a lugugad is ion and (228) et etargaire dersgaigti 
a ndersgugud Eg. om.], ar is derrsgugud in meud et ill 
iaighet fil inntip beuos. 
Etargnougud beurla ct ni ar cheana, ar roghaphar 
na da perla lxx. ina fecmais fir don foirind ceachtar sic. 3375 
Gaiddcc .i. guth ealg .i. guth irdercaigti. Eig .i. Eire 
.i. guth Eirt'lllluch andsin .i. berla is gnath i nEirinn 
dano. N' í certtuirem na gcinedh ar ni phfilet do reir inn 
ugdardais. Secht bfeudhu oiredha filet and fo aisti an 
Grcgaid .i. ebo ct oir suas. Itberat araile co mad aon- 3380 
leapay int U raicipt uile. Is iat adber sin an lucht-sa anuas 
dono .i. ua Bruic cona tseitchib. Atbeurat dano in 
lucht-sa sis is liophair imda .i. hua Coirill 7 ua Coindi 

 i fecmai
 :J:J67 cuicc 
J:\79 ugrlaì!!, feùa oìreghro 

:J:m fogabar ;L:';(j Elce 3:178 filet, ind ughdarais T. 
 cona seitib, llruieh F.:\f. II 10: O'Coinne II 26 

206 YBL. 228 a II 


Eg. 69 1 a 36 

ct na maithi ar cheana. Do thoit na h-aipgitrech dobeir 
frecra sound et ni da hurbernadh .i. is fairre uile liess da 3385 
eurndail do beith fuoirre. Da erndail .i. da fir n-aile, 
llocales ct consmzantes. l\ladh fo athargab beus ni [ni Eg. om:] 
con fil isin coipdi, iss ed bid foullus as sin go mbetis and 
guthaige na turgbadis per se 7 na tagendais sillaib PCI' sc. 
Go heiccintech is coir a beith .i. c01znahi quidim. A tber 3390 
ua Bruic is dobrÙlthar. Adber ou Find immorro is com- 
acomal7 ag frecru 0 da-n-illlon
 0 fil ag clusail na nuimre 
primo frecrus. Atat tri heurnaile for fuirmcd foucal. 
Patronoimic is lei the a fuirmed quam a innde ar ni hebertai 
do reir a inde acht risin patronomic dogentai a patre 3395 
7 aderar riu uile cid a patnous uel a lIlatribus beit. Lapis 
dicitur co quod lcidit peidilll is cumga a fuirmed quidim 
deiside quam a inde. Robad dir deiside lapis do rada fri 
gach ni [fris tairtaigther Eg.] tarraigther cois. 
Bonus is comförlethan a fuirmed ct a inde, ar ni habar 3400 
bonus acht bail a mbi cail bOllitatis. Laitneoir .i. Ie than 
foircs .i. ara leithe fouirius cech ni a nLaitin: no Laitneoir 
.i. ar feuphus a treoracll isin Laitin. Ni lanceurt dochoidh 
in Gaoidel i ssund ac deunam muiti dona taophomnaibh 
ar in fath sin .i. ar. a tosacll do airisilll occa 7 an dered 3-105 
do chur uada, sic est in beithi-Iuis, ar robdis muiti uile 
na feudha ar in bfath sin no ceudna. Ar is ed fil doip- 
side tosach a n-anmando do airisilll ag nech do deunam 
foucail et a nderedh do chur uaùha, amal ata ailm .i. a 7 
ann 0 7 araill and dano die ndenait muiti dona taoboumnaiph 3410 
agon Gaidel i dtossach do airisim aicce. Robtis muiti' 
uile litri na haipgitre Ephraide 7 Gregda, ar is toiseach a 
n-anmand-side do airis[im] ag nech et an deired do chur uad, 
ut est alebh [.i. a Eg.] agconn Ephraide, alpa [.i. a icon Eg.] 

:!:JB5 ni d' airbernad T. 3.
7 atharcadh, an 
 T. 3:J88 q-, coibdi 3389 turbadis 
33!1'.! freccra dõ: ag fregrad düiñi T. :!:J!W Gr. Lat. v. 146, 19 
3391; Grigg. xvi. 3, 1 8399 tartaidther T. 3400,1 YBL. bOlt1lUS. hOlma/a/rs 
3402 isin Laitin T. 3-103 feabus a treorach: treoru T. ;;
ot Gaidiol 
3!06 chora ;{.uo derna T. 3tl:! deired focol 

YBL. 228 a 39 


Eg. 69 I b 27 20j 

agcon Gregda, ailm agcon Gaoidel. Is amlaidh sin atat 3415 
na tri haipgitri .i. dtusach do airisim ag nech 7 an 
deredh do cur uad. Is ar seichim Gregda immorro 
7 Ebraide bud couir don Gaoidel int ord dorinne et ni 
arai comdis muiti iar mbrigh na dtaobomna uile, sic 
nach dat muiti ag Ephradaiph 7 ag Gregaip na consaÙlÍ 34
uiIe cid i dtousach do airisilll leo. l\la do reir [immorro 
Eg.] na sgrephtra naibe 7 ughdair in leighind is [i 
Eg.] in aipgitir Ephraide is bunad don aipgitir Gregda 
7 Laitianda 7 don bethe-Iuis-nion a n-ogaim cen co n-indisit 
ugdair in leighind, ut est aleb isinn Eabhra, alpa uadha- 342,) 
side isin [Greic Eg.] , a isin LaitÙl, ailm isin Gaoidilc 
ogaim. Inscie tra dano inde in focail is indsge (col. ß). 
ar is ind sgie fil iar gcomtach isinni is a seiensia, an ecna, 
i n-aendefoghair. Ki ceart dochuaid in Gaidel i sund .i. 
tiachtain dó 0 aipgitir co hindsge cen taithmech sillaibi :3430 
no-eperta rempe, ar is tousacha iat quam innsge. FemÙl 
7 reliqua .i. foimin .i. mion an ben i n-athfegad in fir: no 
fo an bfer bis an ben. l\1ion foir deisidhe an ben. Deithpir 
raindi (.i. idir da raind .i. ingell 7 mac) is he in banmac- 
sa [d'airighti go ttugad as sin co nderna fermac co rannda 343j 
de a ndeipir iter in mbanmac 7 in fermac Eg. om.]. Is he 
deismeracht na hetargaire i ssunda iarsin deuda remaind .i. 
irland 7 indsge .i. taithmech deidhe and for aird .i. 
taithmeth masgail 7 feimill do neoch dofuisi11l ct 0 
ttuismitller .i. a tuismiud and 0 mnai et ata tuismiud di 3440 
.i. in modh ar a tuismed si budein 0 neuch oile 7 dano an 
modh 0 dtuismend-si cloind uaithi pudein na 7rlo. 
Iss iarmo [si Eg.] tucc ercllOiliud aiccenta hie. Ar tanlC 
taithmech aigenta reime, quando dÙ:it .i. tuismiud saorda 
7 tiusmiudh aigenta ideo dorad ercoiliud aigenta ar 3445 
ai rd hie. 
I ncusg et innde et méud is amlaidh so is treidhe in 

nll dirinne T. :m.5 Gr. Lat. viii. 302, 3 3t:!:! 7 alia 3-!3:j tueca, dernadh T. 
UI8 taithmit T. :!W) tuisme T. 3t..!:! natura T. ;Ht3 aicne hie T. :at5 YBL. idio 

208 YBL. 228 ß 15 


Eg. 69 2 a 17 

sechta remaind. Ina hetargaire incoisg persainde uile 
ig gabail fo incousg, oir is incosg fil inntib uile. Etmgaire 
derrsgaighti i nderrsgugud ag gapail fo in de iter poisit 7 3450 
comparit 7 superlait. Etargaire meidi a meudugud 7 
etargaire lugaite i lughugud ig gaphail fo mét dip lionaibh. 
Conid hamlaid sin is treidhe in sechta remhaind. Adberat 
aroile immorro is deda dip lionaibh. Is amhlaid so beus 
OUll .i. eutm:gnire dersgaighti a nderrsguccud ic gaphail fo 3455 
indi, siczet dÙ:it prills. Etargoire meidi a mheudugud 7 
etargaire lugaite a lugugud ic gapail beos fo meud, is 
amlaid sin feughthar so conid deudo. 
Caiti deochur ider is e 7 uindsi? Ni ansa. Uindsie 
cetomus: sloindedh persainde saindredmge indsin .i. ua- 3460 
tuaslaictech, llt dl:rit: Dicitur uindse uait in fer saindredacll 
cuna anmaim, llt dù:it poeata..- 
Uinnsi cugat in gillccucca1Z 
::\Iac rerccuccain (.i. Lonain) 
Bith gach maith agat ar a cindguccan (.i. long brab iffin) 3465 
A ceundgagain (.i. a Chind GeucClln). 
Sloinded coitchelld immorro amal ata se in fer et ni feus cia 
saindredach acht is fer t1l11tU11l, sic uindsie 7 si 7 oundar 
7 sed. Cidh fodera in irland conid indsge 7 conirl 
edargaire .i. intan is indsge is ag sloindedh indsge a 3470 
haonur bioss, et itberat araile is e in fer, uair is rem- 
tsloindedh i ssuidiu. Is and is etargaire iutan isbeurar 
Sloinded cenil amal ata etargaire ioncoisg i persaind 
.i. issin persaind fein ita a hincousg co n-aithnigther trit 3475 
icc slouinded ceutpersainde, et persainde tanuise .i. triena 
n-ioncosg doip budeine 7 tre persainde amal at at na 
hetargaire aile. Cidh ar narbo lor lais-siulIl a n-etargaire 
incoisg persainde a rad me nama con n-abair me budein ? 
N i lor eim, uair is deimnigte et is deiligte eimh rie cach 3480 


.j is d. I., bes son T. 
3-166 gecain 

luinde, sundruidhe T., uatuasloiatech 
:!t71 bis, atberar, araile om. ð 

YßL. 228 ß.J.l 


Eg. 69 2 b II 209 

persaind a rad me budein, 1/t dicitur all prollolllillC cgomet 
ipsz: Na1ll e..{[O jrd et n01l a/ills cum didtl/r egomct .i. is 
me budein 7 ni nech aile intan isberar egolllit. Qlliquid 
iterator illfirmas fiat .i. biaid gurab deimnigthi cach 
ni athraigther. 3485 
Fogaphar dano comparit cen posit amal ata: Dulcis est 
mare POlltÍCl/1Jl quam setera lIlairia .i. is somiIlsi an muir 
Pountiogda oldtait na muire oile ar cheuna 7 ni hiarsiní 
batis somillsi acht is lugam a serbi. Coindealg in edtachtau 
son. Coindealg n-edteuchta in ceudna hernail (229) 3490 
ind Airraiceptau .i. jors ferr anfios: etoechta sin ar ni 
maith ind anbfios. j'ì'llis don ceudliophar. 

hzd!,i! leaphar Feircheirtne sundo. Log do Emhain 
l\1achuo: 7 aimser do aimser Concapazr meic N eusa: 
Persa do Ferchertne file. [A Eg.] tuccait dono do breith 3-!95 
aossa faind for seis. 

Duiphithir daol dath a berrda 
Ge raga co ngeog na eraunn, 
Caisithir easnaide a ehul, 
Glaisithir suI frie bugha mor. 
D :: b:. r. d. t. h: br. 1. sc: th: tt: br:: n:: rbr 
t. n. f. c:: b. c. n:: cusnt:: rb:. r. t. s:. u .. ds:: n. 
gl :. cc. c. r:: ch:: mu. rt. 


Sechtau frise toimsighther Gaidelc .i. fiùh 7 dcach, reim 
et f(Jrpaid, alt 7 indsge et etargoire. Seuctu .i. seiptz"m 3305 
a bunad Laitne: secht n-ai a inde: no sechtui i n-ai. 
Secht do aiph domitcr and .i. secht n-aisti na filidechta 

3488 01 chena 3
9'2 aut ambfes 
3-I11'i daipither dael, berrLa 3-19>1 geog, erann 
3:!oj sechlO 3:!06 sechtai 

34!13 loce !U94 N esa 
3601-3 d. Virgo Gr. 77, 12 d S
7 n-3isti ina 


110 YBL.229 a IS 


Eg. 69 2 b 4 0 

7 vii mbrousnaclla na bairdne: no aj[s] soigti die mbe 
a n-eolus 7rl. 
A airbt1
t .j. a airiom .i. vii primeillgi na filidcchta 3510 
.i. vii mbrosnacha na bairdne: no secht ndeichit lla fili- 
dechta i nd-ecmais clialta, ar ni bfuil in sechta andsin 
is aire rofagpar. 
Coitcend et dilius, ruidlius 7 indlius, connagar don 
focul i[ s] sechta. Coitcend do cach uile airem sechta 3515 
frisand - eupraa'. Dilius do vii ndiuitip na filidechta. 
Ruidlius don cetairm vii frisancl-euphradh .i. fri vii laithib 
na sechtmaine. Indlios a thapairt for airem aile acht 
four a vii. 
Tomus, it! est lIlellSUra, a bunad Laitne .i. tomeus a 3520 
inde: no tomess .i. to teunga a airbert 7 meus aire fein : 
no cudrumad a airpert .i. mcus dognither 0 theungaid. Is 
fisid an gne no in cinel in tom us. Is ceinel eimh. Cait 
eat a ngnee? Ni ansa. Tomus filidechta et toumus 
bairdne 7 tomhus prosta .i. a breith frie seachda cach ae 3525 
diph. Caiti ruidhlius 7 dilius, coitchend et indlius i tomus? 
Ni ansa. Ruidlius do filidecht a preith re sechta. Dilius 
do bair[ d]ne a tomus re cluais et coir n-anala. Coit- 
ceund indlius do prois .i. coitchelld 0 dialt imach. Indlius 
do sidein, ar ni fil alt aund. 3530 
Cindus aithfeugthar in foucul is sechta fri vii laithibh 
na sechtmaine? Ni ansa. Grian mar Doumnach .i. fiodh. 
Eusga mar Luan .i. deach. Mars mar l\lairt .i. reim. 
l\Ieurcuir mar Ceudaoin .i. fourpaid. loib mar Dardaoin 
.i. alt. Uenir mar Aoine .i. indsge. Satarn mar Satharn 3535 
.i. eutargaire. Conid amhlaidh sin cuirter na vii n- 
airdrenda 7 vii n-aiste na filidechtu 7 vii la na sechtmaine 
fri comuaim n-uad, a tri a ndialt, 's a tri a reucomarc, ï a 
haon a n-iargcomarc. 
Gaidelc .i. guth EIg .i. Ealg Eire .i. guth Eire1l1lach .i. 3540 

:mo eill gi 
:1:,21 re vii-a 
3;;::7 airdr ennaigh 

ll ndeichith 3-'iU ouccus diles 
:a Origg. \.3 0 ,5. et s
q. : d. Gr. Lat. viii. 24 0 , IS 
3540, I hErinn T. 

YEL. 229 a 40 


Eg. 70 a 29 2 I I 

berla Eirenn: no Gaidelcc .i. ealg oirderc .i. Gaaidel 
rus-oirrdercaich, ar ni dut[h]cha do reir an indaithmzge sin 
ina do cach ni dooirdhercaigh Gaidel. In gach Gaidilc 
tomustar re sechta. 
Is edh eim a secht dialt 7 dd edh oun touimsighter iar 3545 
saordataid, uair adcodar a chondail amal ata fe-fri-er, 7 ni 
gach sechta domiter and, ar is aonseachta fil aund. 
Connaghar dOllo a secht fo tsecllt. A sechta .i. punad 
7 inde 7 airbert, coitC/lelld 7 dilius 7 ruidhlius 7 indlius in 
gach focul don tsechta (col. ß). 3550 
Fid ceutumus .i. fUlldalllt'Jztum: uel a fiwo a bunad 
Laitne. Fo eadh a inde isna foclaib. A airbert .i. a 
thapairt for v fedhazö fichit inn ogaim: no airbert .i. air 
epert .i. eipert aire .i. litir no guthaighi no consaine fair. 
Ruidlilts, dilius, coitcend, indlills, do feudhaiph. Coitcend 3555 
doip uili fedha do radh riu. Ruidlius do feudhaiph 
aircdhaiph. Dilius do forfedhaiph. Coitchend immorro 
dona taobomnaib acht uath. I ndlius immorro doip- 
siden, ar ni taophomhna itir, llt est.. h nOll est litera sed 
1/ota aspiracÙmis .i. nochan fuil uath conid Iitir acht ata 3560 
conid not tinfidh. Tinfedh .i. tinugud feudha .i. neimtniug- 
ud feda do radh riu sin uile acht is dilius 7 indlius 7 
coitcend daip ouile. Fid na filidechta .i. in ceudna fiodh 
airedha phis a bfocul an imfrecra, 7 an taophomna docuir- 
ither reisin bfiod sin do thapairt ar aird, 7 go rab inand 3565 
fidh oiredha be as a dtaopcuibdiph an raind 7 a n-imfrecra 
na dtarmartcend. Fid in anma prosta in cetna fidh airedha 
bis and 7 in taobomna docuirether reisin fid sin 7 deuoch 
.i. traig i frithindlidhech Laitne. Deach .i. di fuach intan 
is dialt: no daghfuach no defuach intan is recomrac: no 3570 
is de fuaigther int aircetal .i. coruige ocht sillaoba. 
Connagar dOllo bUlladh 7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend 7 dilius 
7 ruidluis 7 indlius a ndeach. PUllad quidem onni is tectum 
3:".12 rohorrdt'rc "1cht ni duthcha do Gaidilc: ar nimduthcuigh, in imtaithmigh T. 
!J Gr. Lat. ii. 35, 24 
 YBL. nochin 3006 cuidibh 

2 I 2 YBL. 229ß 21 


Eg. 70 1 b 15 

.i. didiu arinní is ditiu in deach do [gach Eg.] round. A 
inde immorro daghfuach no defuach. A airbert .i. 0 dialt 3575 
co bricht: no focal aile fair .i. sillab. A inde dOllo diph 
fuaigther intan is sreth. Coitchend doib uile dialt do rad 
riu, ar is dialt doformaigh for cach n-ai dibh fri araile. 
Dilius iar sun didiu: ruidlius iar ceill 7 son imale ina 
n-anma dilsi budhein do radh fria cach n-ai .i. rechomarc 3580 
no iarchomarc 7rlo. I ndlius do dialt ain1Jl deigh dona vii 
ndeachaibh aile do radh fris, ar ni foil alt and, ut dicitur 
cenib deach-side fo deisiu is la deachaib atsamazglÍther. 
Deach na filidhechta .i. in lin siollab mbios isin rund. 
Deach in anma prosta in lion sillab mbios isin ainm .i. a 3585 
fios cie deach do na hocht ndechaib doroich int ainm. 
Reim .i. re uama aei a indi ant an is filidhecht: no 
uaim dognither i reidhe cen cOllluaim tOllluis dligthlg 
antan is bairnde acht tomhus fri cloais 7 coir n-anala: no 
raidh uaim intan is proiss. Reim dono cém a airbert: 3590 
diall no tuisil a bunaidh Laitne: no rem a bunadh quid em 
.i. onni is robamus comsuidigti. Ruidlius do rem d'fidh 
for fiodh i filidecht. Dilis do taibrem cethorcubaidh fili- 
dechta 7 bairdne. Coitqent do rem suin cin cheill 7 do 
rem suin 7 ch
illi imalc. Dilis di prois. Indlis do rem 3095 
suin nama, uair ni filltir. Cesc, in gne no in cenel in rem? 
Is cinel eimh. Caitet a ngne? Ni ansa. Reimh fidliachta, 
7 rem bairdne, 7 rem proisi. Da gne immorro for fili- 
dhacht 7 bairdne .i. rem d'fidh for fidh 7 taobreimh. 
Rem d'fidh for fidh cetamus: 3600 
Colum caidh comachtach. 
Sian sleibi slatu seiscind, 7rlo. 
Taobhreimh amal ata sund : 
A Flaind, a luam in gaisce grind 
Co Maistin moill ; 3605 
It glana, it gaoth, it gart, no it garg, do rinn, no it grintf, 
It laoch, a Flaind. 


358:1 deachius de, atsamther 

3606 glan 

YBL. 229 ß 44 


Eg. 70 2 a 2 2 I 3 

Ceithri gne immorro for prois 0 reim .i. reim suin amal 
ata fer, ar is as reimmthar. Rem ceille dano amal ata 
Patraic. Ni herecor a reim suill, ar is aondelb for a 3610 
ainmnigh 7 for a ginitiI. Reim suin 7 ceille imale, amal 
ata Fland Flaind. Taobreimh prosta me budein, ar is 
taobhreim each ni nach lanreim. Treide ara (230) togtar 
reim .i. reim as amal ata fer, ar is as reimnighther: reim 
ind amal ata fir, ar is ind reimnigther. Reim ind 7 as 3615 
imalle, ut est in fer, ainlllnid 7 inchousg aund imalle. 
Reim dano ceim a airbert: 
Bellat mathalr N iuil neimhnigh 
Do cIaind Laidin langeimltgh, 
Fuair bas a 10 greine glain, 
Ceile Feniusa Farsaidh. 


Cia taopomna na techt raind? 
I mbeth-luis-ni{1n an ogaim 
On 10 rocruta na ceoil 
Is guta lasin Laitneoir .i. v consaini. 
Connagar d01lo i ssund bUllad 7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend 
7 dilius 7 ruidlius 7 indlius. Bunad quidim oní as robamuJ 
amal adrubrumair. Re 7 uaim a inde. A airbert .i. ceim. 
Coitchend dona huilib reimendaiph reim do radh ríu. 
Diles a beith a n-uathad. Ruidles a beith a n-ilar; 3630 
no diles do reim na bairdne. Ruidles do reim na 
filidhechta. Indlius do reim na proisi: no indlius [reim 
Eg.] inn uathaigh i n-ilar cen adcodar a ilar. Et forpaid 
.i. fair bith for in bfocul no forsin rand .i. forsail 7 airnin 
7 dinion disail: no forpaid .i. fourbeoaid in tan is forsail: 3635 
no [orpaid intan is dinion disail: no fair bidh intan is 
airnion. Forbaidh .i. foirbeoaidh .i. foirid in mbeo i 
dtuigsin ind anma dia dtapharthar in forbaidh no in rand 
dia breith re seachta. 
Caiti bunad et inde 7 airbert, coitchend 7 dilius 7 3640 
AJ,I togar 3Il:.!t rocruthuigh T. : rocTuto na ceol X".;; Is guta a ainm T. 
.J. forbeodhaidh 36.:8 taboTthaT, dtap.ITt YßL. 


214 YBL. 230 a 22 


Eg. 70 2 {t Z9 

ruidlius et indlius isin focul is fourbaid? Bunad cetoumus : 
oni is accentlls .i. forlllairius, ilgnuisseach. A inde .i. fair 
dipad bid foursin bfoucul four fot no cumair .i. airnin, 
forsai/, dÙzin disail: no fourpaid a airpert .i. for [fh ]idbaith 
dono a airbert. Couitchend dona huilib forpaidhibh 3645 
fourpaid do rad riu. Diles a beth for fut no gair. Rudlius 
a radh fri fourbaid fordingi. Indlius do fourbaidiph dul a 
loag aroile .i. do da forbaid na nguta 7 do aonforpaid na 
gconssaine: no forbaid ilair for forbaid uathaid: no 
forpaid fuit four qumair nõ forbaid cumair for fout: no 3650 
indIes cen a fuath do sgribclUf. Forbaid intan is foursail.i. 
sail fair no foursail .i. four fuillilld iarsinni foutaighes an 
foucal: fourpaid antan is dinion dissail, sech ni nion ni sail 
acht is duir: no dinin disail .i. disin difuillilld .i. nem- 
fuilliud. Forpaid dono fair bid intan is airnion no forbuaidh 36::J5 
intan is airnion. Airnin .i. eirnidh nion : no fourpaid .i. for 
[fh ]idhbaid a airbert. Ruidlius do forsail. Dilius do airnin. 
Couitchend do dinion disail. IndIes do fourpaidip dul a 
log araile .i. do da forpaid na nguta 7 do eunforpaid na 
consaine, ar at iat tri fourbaidi docuisin .i. airnion, forsail, 3660 
7 dinin disail. Airnin arding defidh .i. ding fil and is 
teirce feuda fodera .i. di fo diultad co nach fidh acht is 
taobomna, 1/t est ceund no glound. [
o airnin arin bfoucal 
fir-dinggeas a deiredh Eg. om.] Dinin disail ar gair geipid 
.i. di fo diultad co nach nion co nach sail gairdigius in foucal 36G::J 
acht duir, ar is duir (sgribthar) ag ionchousg na fourpaide 
sin, 'ilt est feur 7 leur 7 gach timourta oulchena. Forsail 
for fuot feudair .i. sail fair forin bfoucal dia fot amal ata 
ban 7 Ian. 
Alt onní is alllLS.. uasal a bunad Laitne: no on111 3670 
ailter ina menmain no go feiser cia halt (col. ß) airchetail 
berar re seachta .i. i[n] nath, no ind anair, in laid, no 

::fi.l8 lag 36;;() Cot 
::1)63 gardiges 

::61;1 .i. in dig 
::;m co Cesar 

31i6:! :\ISS. taobï'gmna 
;:672 in anair 

YBL. 230 ß I 


Eg. 70 2 b 12 2 I ; 

ind emain, in sethrad, [in seutrad E.g. Olll.], no in sainemain, 
in dian dona dianaiph 0 sin anonll.i. ota na seacht primaiste 
inonn is 0 deach slouinllter. Alt .i. onni ailter ina men- 3G75 
roam. Alt in anma prousta .i. in re n-aimsire bioss iter 
na da tsillaib a inde. Alt go bfeisser a airbert. Connaghar 
dono bunad 7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend, dilius, ruidlillS, indlillS 
isin bfoucul is auIt. Bunad quidilll oniss allus, ut dÚ-ill/lts. 
A inde dano .i. ail fuit no oull ait no ailid. A airpcrt .i. 3G80 
aigned saordatad. Coitchend do gach aIt, alt do rad ris. 
Dilius do ault saorda no da ault bauirdne. Ruidlius da 
ault aignid no filidechta. Indlius do dialt, ar ni bi au It 
and: no alt aiccenta a n-inad ailt tsaorda no alt saorda a n- 
inad aiIt aiccenta: no ruidlius 7 diIius, coitchend et indlius 3fì85 
7r1. Alta ruidlius do ault filidechta .i. aisti. DiIius 
immorro do alt bairdne .i. do aisti coitchend, no òo 
fouclaiph na proisi, 7 coitchend do gach foclll i mbi alt. 
Indsge .i. co bfeisser an aisti urdalta, no go bfeisser in 
sc no in si in aiste beraid re seachta, amaI rogaph: is e i[n] 3690 
nath, is i an Iaidh. Indsge an anma prosta .i. firindsge no 
banindsge no deimindsge. Connagar dono bunad 7 inde 
7 airbcrt, coitchend 7 dilius 7 ruidlius 7 indlius ind 
indsge. Bunad cetamus: oniss Oil ratio a inde .i. inJlis coi 
.i. coi inllisti [neich Eg.]. Airbert dono .i. irlapra. Coit- 3693 
chend do ferindsge 7 do banindsge 7 do deirnindsge: no 
indsge is coitchend do ferindsge 7 do banindsgi, lit cst 
Flanll no Ceallach: no is couitchend dona huilib 
masgal is se. Dilius antan raiter, is si sron no suil 
an fir: no is he beuI no fiacail na mna. DiIius is se an 3700 
fer, is si in beun. Ruidlius intan raiter, is e bel no fiacail 
an fir: no ruidlius is se an fer so, cona anmaim saindrl'- 
daig. Indlius is e do radha risin gcrand na tuismid 
ní ier n-aiccned no intan fedhair indsgi for araile. K 0 
bunad 7 indc 7 airrbert, coitchend 7 dilius 7 ruidlius 7 

3679, 9.& onni is 

I fris 

. .90 beTa 

:<<;!.] laoidh 

:1;1r.: YBL. risin .m 

216 YBl. 230 ß 26 


Eg. 70 2 L 45 

indlius. Indsge, sgiellâa, a bunad: indis coi a inde: 
sgouthecne a airbert. 
Ruidlius do indsge aiccenta caom. Dilius do indsge 
aiccenta euccaom. Coitehend inòiles don indsge saorda. 
Indlius ar indilsi. Couitchend ar a gnathugud: ï 3710 
etargaire .i. co feusair ind aisti eurdalta bera re seaehta 
.i. i[n] nath debrichta no in trebrichta, an laid ar a chair no 
in luipcncoussach no in imrind bera re seaehta. Etargaire 
an anma prost a, is se an' fer urdalta no is si an ben 
urdaulta. Caiti bunad 7 inde 7 airbert, eoitchend, dilius 3715 
7 ruidlius 7 indlius an e[targra]diamus .i. foruaslaigtllcch a 
inde .i. euturgnod goutha quia fit gair .i. guth. Àirbert .i. a 
brcith re toumus no re seacht: no eipert aire .i. deiliugud no 
de dualugud. Coitchend dona huilib etargairibll etargaire 
do rad riu .i. eouitchend i n-ord comairme. Dilius a rad 3720 
risna seacht n-etargairip tuas: no do etargaire inchoisc 
i persain, uair is sloinded persainde sandradaige he. 
Rllidlius a rad fri hetargaire dellrrsgugud a nderrsguglld, 
uair is si frecrus in coindealg: no ruidlillS a radh re 
hetargaire a tomus no frissna hetargaire iar ndilsi. 3ï
lndlius .i. etargaire inehoisg persainde: no a rad fri 
heutargaire aile cenmota in sechta tuas do neoch dip 
na feo air coindde. Coitehend indlius immorro dona 
heutargairib ar chellna. Couitchend a n-uord comairme. 
Indlius do neoch diph nat frisgair in coinde/cc: 3730 
Cesc, an gne no in cinel in fidh? Is cenel eimh. 1\lasa 
cinel) catet a gnee? Ni ansa. Fiodh saorda 7 fidh 
aigenta. Fidh saorda .i. fidh ind ogaim. Fidh aiccenta 
.i. fiodh na coille (23 I). Fidh in ogaim, an gne no in cinel 
e? Is cinel eiccen uair techtaig gne .i. fid airechda et 3735 
fourfiod ct taobomna, is e sin in cine! cinelaeh gnethaclz .i. 
an fiod. 
Cesc, an gne no an cinel an deach ? Is cinel eimh uair 

370B-.n03 Eg. Dill. ::ïfl!l indiles 3iIß oni is etargrediamus foruai
Iigthech T. 

YBL. 23 1 << 4 



techtaÙI gnee .i. secht ndeich na filideechta. Is e sin in 
cinel gneithech fogapaid [oeht] n-ernaili na filideehta 3740 
Cesc, an gne no in cinel in reim? Is cinel eim, u
techtaid gnee .i. da gne filideehta et bairdne .i. reim 
d'fiodh four fidh 7 taopreim lanreim, it! est: 

Coulum caid cumachtach 7 rlo . 

Taobreim, lit cst: 


A Floind, a luam an gaisgid grind. 

Ceitheora gnee four proiss 0 reim .i. reim souin gan 
ceill, 7 reim soin 7 eeille imalle, 7 taophreim prosta, 7 reim 
soin nama. Reim suin gan ceill cctumus .i. fer, fir. Reim 
suin ct cei1le imalle .i. Fland Floind. Taophreim prosta 3;50 
me pudein. Reim suin nama .i. Patroig Patrolg-. Ni 
hairccar a reim souin, ar is aondelph fora ainmniugud 7 
fora ginitil. 
Tri gneithi ara togtar reim ind, 7 reim aus, 7 reim ind 
7 ass imalle. Reim as, amal ata fer, ar is as reimnzgther. 37 G5 
Reim (ind, amal] ata fir, ar is ind a reimniugud. Reim ind 
7 ass imalle, amail ata in fer .i. ind teit í 7 ass tét á .i. reim 
ind ina dualgus foghair uathaid 7 reim as ina dualgus 
foghair ilair 7 ind imalle 7 ina dualgus ceille imalle: no 
reim ind .i. Patraic ar ni bfil as iar soun. Reim as .i. fer 3;60 
fir, ar ni fil ind iar gceill. Reim ind et ass imale .i. Fland 
Flailld, ar ata ind iar' geeill, 7 ata ass iar son. 
Is e sin in einel cinelaeh gneitheeh ceineladz rocoumad 
sound forsna reimendaib. Is e in reim .i. reim Laitne 
no Ebra no Grege no Gaoidelce as a fogbad bunad an 37ü!) 
focail, uair ni bunad aeht cechtar de (no dib) sin. 
Cesc, an gne no in eeincI in forpaid? Is cinel eimh, 
uair techtaÙl tri gneithi. Is e sin an cinel foura 
dtaurrustar tri gneithe na Gaiddcci. Cese, in gne no in 
cinel int alt? Is cinel eimh, uair atait tri gnee fair .i. 3;jO 
alt saorda 7 ault aigenta 7 au It go bfeisser. Ant alt co 

2IS YBL. 2 3 1a2 1 


bfeisser immorro teuchtaid coig gne 7 coig cine/a. Cesc, 
an gne no in cinel ind indsge? Is derp conid cinel tria 
chail na tri n-indsge sin 7 teachta na tri hindsgi. An 
cene/ deochrm
rius daoine an domain. Cesc, an gne no 377;j 
in cenel inn etargaire? Is ceinel eim, uair is diairmhiti 
a gneithe. Is e sin in cenel etardeochraigius na huile. 
Caiti eisi in tsechta frisa dtoimsigther Gaoidelc? l\i 
ansa. Eisi feuda quidílll .i. in blog aieoir teipidi gaibius 
an fhiodh i n-clIllclz in focail, 1/t dÙ:it in file:- 3780 

Eisi fedha is freitig-he, 
Ferr daiph a aithne ogaibh, 
In blad eieoir theipidhe 
Techtas ind eallach fOl1cail. 

Caiti elSI deiich? Ni ansa. An lioll no in uaiti tson 3785 
n - aOllconngbalach ainmnigther 0 dialt gou briocht cona 
n-athgapail diplinaiph. Caiti eisi reime? N i ansa. An 
bruud fillti fourbriste fogaultl fiI otha ainmniugud in 
uataigh co fox/aid an ilair. Caiti eisi forpaide? Nt ansa. 
In tormaclz no in dighbail aimsire airigius aigncd a 3790 
gcomsinedh fri fogllr. Caiti eisi alta? N i ansa. 111 toi 
tengad fil don filid ag ceimniugud don litir for araile mad 
alt saorda, no don tsillaz"b four araile mad alt aicccnta. 
Caiti eisi indsge? N i ansa. In foull/d firen foirbthe 
feud hair isna trib cenelaiph. Caiti eisi etargaire. Ki ansa. 3795 
Ant athfeugad meidi inde no inchoisg no eiterdethbere 
no etarderrsgaigti rodealph Die iter na duilib. Eisi .i. 
go mbeith esse d'ccellsia .i. mar roil1nius rann 7 uilidhecht 
.i. mar ta crand 7 a geuga 7 a cousmailius. Ese cruthoigti 
7 eisi adbarrda: Iss ed is eisi adbarrda and .i. mac do 3800 
geineimain on athair 7 a cosmailius. Is ed is eisi 
cruthoighti and mar ata mac aga foghlailll [0] oidi no 
maigistir; 7 fiagfraidh int ugdar cie ai [i]s uaisle, eisi 
cruthoighthi na eisi adbarda, 7 ader gu rab (co!. ß) uaisli 

 YBL. don fil don filid 

::ï\l8 I. essf11tia 

YßL. 231 ß 1 


21 9 

eisi cruthoighthi: 7 is he a ad pert sin nach bfil acht 3805 
damna arna geinemain and no go gcruthoigther he 0 
fhoglaim, ut dixit Plato. 
Cret iat na tri hernaile ata agin Laitneoir freer us na 
secht n-etargaire agon filid? N i ansa. Coindealg 7 
þronomell 7 dobriathar. Secht .i. sechta do aib domiter 3810 
and .i. secht n-aisti na filidechta 7 secht n-aisti na 
bairdni domiter isi bfocal is sechta .i. seiptilll sin. Punadh 
(no capail) deside fri sechta do aibh and ai .i. secht 
n-aisneissina na secht n-aisneis (no focul so) anuas in 
seacht atat iar n-aisneis isin bfocul is seiptim co fail deiside 3815 
in sechta do aib ind ai .i. ind aisneis sic. Breith rie secht 
gach ai .i. foucal na filidechta each ae diph .i. foucal do 
breith re secht an seuchtsa anuass do iarair and sic 
iarrtoigther i sidea aile .i. a bfoclaibh na bairdne ï na 
proisi. Ruidlius do filidecht 7 is air[ e] is mo is ruidlius 3820 
do filidecht, ar is innti is mourn recar ales im[fh]recra 
imcupaid. Dligther comardad do beith iar bfeudaiph 
aircdhaiph, conid aire sin is ruidlius do fhilidecht. Dilius 
do bairdne, ar is lugam rig a less comardad imcubaidh 
dligther do iarair innti acht conub binn re cluais 7 co rab 3825 
comardad cheudna 7 in gach Gaidilcc 7rl. Is douilzg cetus 
dialt aontsillaopach do tomus fri sechta. Is amlaidh so 
eimh, uair fogabar deiliugud aimserrda cen go bfoghabta 
deiliugud folpthaigi. Is amlaid sin toimsigther dialt fri 
sechta 7 ni gach sechta frisa dtoimhiuster Gaoidelc, ar 3830 
is fri haontsechta toimsigther hi .i. frisin sechta romaind 
.i. fidh 7 deach sic a bfoclaib ailiph in tsechta. larroigter 
bunad 7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend 7 ruidlius 7 dilius 7 indlius. 
Lore Luoeha hEgbric hui Briain, 
(;ourt a mbith bouth brat seoil, 
Aide i\lide meie don Grein, 
Sidhe na haoinc im feil Eoin. 


Mj Diog. Laert. v. I, 19: Virgo Gr. 161,5-7 
:'t<<j Gort a rnbid both:t hrat sroill T. :'0,;:; urn feil T. 

O YRL. 231 ß 27 


Iarraigther isin rand so soudhcuipdius .i. soad 
cuipdiusa, 7 cretcuipdi[ us] 7 lethcuibdius; 7 iarraigther 
isin deigellouch beous salcuibdis 7 cretcouibdius, lancu- 3840 
ibdius, iargcuibdius. Coitchend doip uile deich do rad 
riu. Dilius iar SOU?l dialt do rad fri gach n-aontsillaib 
neamciallaidi, sic est coax 7 ar a tsuin nemciallaide sin: 
no dilius a radh iar bfougar friu uile. Ruidlius iar gceill 
7 soun imalle .i. gach bfail i mbia deich ciellaidi. 384;; 
Caiti tomus fri sechta .i. an fiodh touisech biss isin 
ruond, 7 an taobomna toisech do tapairt ar aird; 7 go 
bfeisiur in da taophcupdius an raind .i. go raibe an fhidh 
cetna beass a n-im[fh ]recra na da tarmortchend; 7 co rab 
inand a lion do taophomnaib beus impo; 7 go bfeiser cia 3850 
deach dona hocht ndeachaiph doroich an aisti; 7 go bfeiser 
in taophreim no in reim d'fidh for fiodh; 7 co bfeisiur 
cia forpaid bes a bfoclaip ind im[fh ]recra; 7 co feusair ca 
halt dona secht n-altaibh an ercetail .i. na filidechta. 
Indsge .i. go bfeiser an se no an si an aisti 7 eutargaire 3855 
gne n-aircetail do gne do tomus re sechta, 7 intan ba 
rosgad no tomusti and cibindas notomhusti; ar ni bi 
lancubdius no taobcupdius and. Ni ansa. Do foclaib 
forbta ainaile rotaisbuzad .i. don coicid focal, oir is coic 
focail romesad a n-anail in filed Caiti secht an ochta in 3860 
A-\irraiæptu? N i ansa. Intan is ocht ndialta i mbricht, is 
andsin is secht n-alto and. Caiti in foucal aoncong- 
baulach, deconngbalach, treconngbalach? Ainmnigther 0 
triU1l (232). ;\i rodilssi dó an trian 0 n-ainmnigther ouldas 
in dá trian 0 nach ainmnigther .i. iargcoumarc, tretsill- 3865 
{ebach. Caitet na da taophoumna gauphus greim guthaige 
.i. coull 7 ruis taur eis a, Ilt est Cuormac baurd : 
1m pa seussach, im pa seung, 
1m ba treusach, turme nglound, 
A Criosd! in congena friom? 3870 
o ti go techt tar forliond lountl. 
!:I Gr. Lat. ii. S. IS 38-&6 in fid.deidinach T. 
 n:l Ceuda beus isin da taobhcubaid T. :

fi!1 tuirmibh T. 

YBL. 232 a 6 



.i. reimtsuidhiugud da tsillab iter da choumuaim fidhraid, 
is i sin an lourcc buddein bios uag imfulung an foucail co 
auraile et ni louitend couir fiodraid: 

Cie leuth cou pralh ier gCllairt chruos 
Cusalua mo chouplauch creus : 
1m ba sOllir no siar, ni suaill, 
1m ba bu-thuaidh nou bu-deus. 


· Lound' 7 'leuth cou pratll iar gcuairt crous,' a fìdhrad 
freucuomail sin no gu dtainic dialt n-eitterleime etraiph. 3880 
, Cia' iter' lound' 7 ' leuth' an dialt n-eiterleime .i. eiter 
deired in roind toisigh 7 toussach an rouind deighenaigh. 
Cesc, caiti toumus fri fiodh .i. caiti iat na feudha frisin 
a ndelltar an toumus? Ni ansa. Co fesar a lion, a llion 
et a n-uaiti et a mét et a loighet, a gcumang 7 a n- 3885 
,,/ eugcuomaung, a ncrt ct a n-aimnert. 
Is ed a lion .i. cuicc aicme an ogaim et cuiccer ceucha 
haicme. A n-uaiti .i. aon .i. aonaicme. A meut (.i. a 
toirne, id est nion) .i. coic flesga. Et a laighet .i. aon- 
fleusg, lit est bethe. Caiti deochair iter a cumang .i. a 3890 
feudhazö 7 a neart .i. a bfedhaib airedhaiph fri suidugud 
sillazöe. N i ansa. Cumoung cetamus: intan dognfat 
guth ind-aonaur .i. a no 0 no u. A nert immorro antan 
dusbere fri suidugud a sillaibe, amal ata bethe, ailm, souil ; 
7 luis, ailm, souil. Caiti deochair iter a n-eugcumaung 3893 
7 a n-aimnert .i. a dtuobou1llnaibh fri suidiuglid sillaibe. 
N i ansa. -Egcumoung ceta1JlUs: antan is fo nialus na 
guthlllge amal ata fìdh: no egcumong .i. intan don- 
occaibh uath cend douiph. Caiti deochair iter a n- 
egcumang 7 a n-aimnert? Ni ansa. Egcumang cetamus: 3900 
intan is fo nialus na nguthazge, amal ata fìdh .i. a 
taophomntzibh intan don-ouccaiph uath cend doiuph. 
Fior eimh, ar ni tuigter na feuda deghenchuo fìlit isna 
defougraibh sin tria I1a gcantaill fo chetoir. Aimnert 
Uffilllorro antan bit ag comhsuidightiph cutrouma na nde- 3905 

222 YBL. 232 a 33 


fougar isna forfeudhaib, amal ata fer 7 beun. Cuicc fedho 
gaucha haicme 7 0 aon go cuicc cach ai .i. oenfleisc go coic 
flesgaibh .i. amal ata beth[ e] 'na haonur 7 nion 'na cuicciur 
doib. Gne aile: Egcumong cetuomus: antan piti fo 
nialus, ut cst: quolliam, quidem, lasin Laitneoir: 110 intan 3910 
biti tri guthaighe a n-aontsillaib lasin nGaidel, ut est 
Briain, gliaid, feoil, beoir. Caiti deochair iter an egcull/- 
oung 7 an aimhnert? Eccoumong cetomus: intan na 
bit comung occai. Aimnert immorro ni berar a comang 
uadhaibh auchd ni mor chota i bfarrad na bfidh n-airedha. 3915 
Aimhnert immorro intan biti fo consanachd, ut est 
scru[u]s uulgus, lasin Laitneoir; ut est iarum, cian ì ciar, 
uuall 7 auall lasin nGaidel. Lanchumang inntibh iter 
fedhaibh 7 taophoumnaibh co nd-ouorba uath .i. co 
(col. ß) ndofir-baidhe, no co n-irdiphand. Cuicc aicme 3920 
ol1gaim 7 cuiccer gacha haicme cenmotha na forfeudha 
7 0 aon co cuic cach ai .i. 0 aonfidh co cuicc fedha 7 0 
aonfleisg co coic fleisgaiph co ndod-deilighther .i. is 
cain-nus-deiligther triana n-airde .i. trian a n-egcosg 7 it 
e j n-ajrrde: Desdruim .j. bethe do deis an droma, is e 3925 
aithne aicme bethe: Tua[th ]druim .i. do leth tuaidh an 
droma, is e aithne aicmi uath: Tredruim aithne aicmi 
muin: Imdruim aithne aiccme ailm adiu 7 anaull. Aithne 
aicme na bforfiodh .i. on rand is mou rohainmnioged .i. 
ouna tri feudhaiph 7 is iat shou anmounda dringtacha 3930 
ind ogaim. Is amlaid (sin) imdrichaur ougam .i. amal 
imdrengthar crand .i. is amlaid ceimnigther isinn ogam 
aumail ceimnigther isin craund 7 iss ed is crand sound 
conair aipgitri ind ogaim. Is hi frem .i. frem na craoiphi 
.i. saltrad four frem an crouind ar tus, 7 do lam dheuss 3933 
rem hat .i. aiccme bet he, et do lam cleith fo deoigh .i. 
aicme uath. larsin is leiss .i. uait, 7 is fris .i. cuccut .i. 
aicmi muin, 7 is trit aicme ailm. Tairis 7 uime aicme na 

;\917 Gr. Lat. iv. 367. 19 

YBL. 23 2 ß 15 



bforfiodh. Is amI aid sin deiligter feudha et forfeudha 
7 taophoumna. Cese, dd ar a n-eibertar fedha friusidhe 3940 
.i. frisna taopoumna amal fida? Ni ansa. Fobith domio- 
ter na taoboumna friu .i. a n-ainm prostu .i. iter fedha 
7 taopomna 7 eainfuaigter na foueail dip, ut est luis ailmi 
7 bethe ailme .i. la 7 ba. [s he sin in seal pad saorda 
dn reim aeht reim remraithi .i. do fedhaiph nama. Ita 3!J45- 
in eomuaim amal ata fidh airedha in lethraind toisigh 7 in 
lethraind deirig i teit in dis fuaigedh in rand. Cese, 
dnnus domither frisna taopoumnaib amal fidha? Xi 
ansa. Caeh da taopomna ar fidh a eupaid. Is ed a 
eupaid iarum each cia eoibfid a eubaidh co rabeth a fidh 3950 
eetno beus i bfoclaiph ind im[fh]reera 7 eorab inand a 
llion do taopomnaib, ut est bas 7 las, frass bras, eend 
lend, corn dourn, dounll eounl1, nem eel. Cid ar a n- 
aubaur feudha friusidhe .i. frisna taoboumnaiph? Xi 
ansa. Amal iarraigther fidh airedha in anma ieea breth re 3955 
seehta, sic sin iarroigther in taoboumna bis and .i. is in 
bfoueal eaueh da taopoumna ar fiodh, 1/t dicitltr..- 

Mareach auteonndaure ane, 
Eutach uime co nndath ero, 
A dath at gilithir geiss, 
Van tuinne dath a da o. 


.i. eoU 7 ruis a n-agaid onn: no ero a eubaid fd honn 
till/tl/lIl. Bas lass, laneupaid indsin. Taobeubaid .i. 
bras 7 lass: no is e ant aontug[ ud] co n-inandus 7 int 
aontuglld dn inandus andsin. Dedha aireeor and .1. 39G;) 
aontugud co ndeiliugud amal ata bas 7 las, 7 is iar 
eomardad n-aireetail ata, uair is inand fidh aireghdha fil 
intibh 7 is illand taobomna deighenoeh; sain immorro 
taobhomna toisich. 
Caite ruidlius 7 dilus, eoitehend 7 indlius do fedoibh 3970 
do tomus friu? Dilius do forfedhoibh. Ruidles do fedh- 

224 YBL. 23 2 ß 38 


uibh airedhoibh.. Coitchend do taobomna. Inlius do 
taobomnaib S'lC isna foclaibh ailiph in tsechta. 
Conagur dono isin aipgitir bunath 0 aon, 7 airec 0 
dedha, 7 a cor a tredhai, 7 a comuaim fri ceathardha, 7 a 3975 
comhdluthugh fd cuicthi, a morudh fri sedhai, a foghail a 
sechda, a riaghlll re hochta, a hincosc a noie, a fastad 
a ndeicthi. Is e tra int aon tuas .i. Feinius Farrsaidh, 
in dedho mac Etheoir, in tredhath mac Aíngín, in ceth- 
ruimtlte Cae, in coicidh Aimergin mac Noille meic Kionuail, :1980 
an seisidh Fercheirtne (233), in sechtmad a dalta, int 
ochtmad Cendfaoladll, an noimad a dalta, an dechmad 
CínCLotha, a fostad a n-aon .i. int uachdarach (.i. Fenius) .i. 
in trefocuI. Iss e so tosach an Airaicepto iar nAimirgin 
nGluingeal .i. Aimirgin a fearsa: a n-aimsir mic Miled 39S5 
arriacht: Tochur Inbir Moir a crich hui nEnechglas 
Cualund a loc: 7 tucaid a denma .i. Ir mac l\iiled dia 
tolugud go heningen amal ata i n-ar ndeoigh. 

Ceasc cia rainig in beurla Feine, 7 cia hairm a 
n-airrniocht, 7 cisi haimsir i rriochd? Iss e immorro 3990 
irrainic Feinius Farrsaidh .i. in persa : ogin tour .i. in 
loug : in dara deisgiopul sechtmadad na sgoile. Pa do 
Ephradaiph a bunadus 7 ba go hEceptacta rofaoided, fobith 
iss and batar a tusdige 7 pa hand ron-alt. Is and roan 
Feinius feissin accan tour no go tdourracht a sgoul cuigi 3995 
as gach aird i cionn deich mbliedan iar sgailed oun tour 
four gach leth, connaitchend cusin sai .i. gou Feinius berIa 
na beith ag nech aile douiph asna hilp
rlaib, achd comad 
ouca a n-aonur no beith, no ag nech nofouglainnedh leo 
doridisi. Is andsin doreiped doip in berlu-sa asna hilper- 4000 
laiph rotaispenadh do aonfer diph, 7 pa he an fer sin 
Gaidel mac Aingin, uair is he is mo darothlazg, no toro- 
thlaig, 7 is he rob ferr diph conad he a ainm-sidhe for- 

;{Yõ2 inlius 
:1Y't: Cinaodh T. 

39ï5 dedhas 
:\YR5 I. a phersu 

:1980 !eK. mac nGoimeir 
:1!188 gu hAimirgin 7rl. T. 

YßL. 233 a 20 



dota in berla sin, eonid Gaidelc deiside 0 Gaidel mae Aingin 
meic Glunfind meic Laim[fh]ind meic Eithiur meic Aghno- 4005 
main ùo Gregaiph. Inand tra Gaidel mac Aingin ï 
Gaidel mac Eithiuir .i. da ainm patar four a athair .i. 
Aingejn 7 Eitheoir. Is andsin iarurn doreiped in berlasa 
u mba ferr .i. a n-edargna in gach berla J 7 u mpa caoine .j. 
fri turgpail7 u mba leithe .i. i gciallugud, iss ed doreiped 4010 
insin Gaidilc. Gach soun do na hairrniocht cairechtairi 
isna haipgitribh ailibh arnichta cairachtaire leosum 
doip is in mbethe-Iuis-nion an ogaim, it! est >
 (þ).- . 
It iet sin no huocht litri sechnait in Gaidilc dona haip- 
gitribh aile. Rolaiti iarurn i feudha for leth 7 a dtaobomna 4015 
for leth lasin nGaidel go bfuil cach dip four leth (do) 
araile ge nacha cumusg atait agin Gaidd amal atat agin 
Laitneoir: cros ar ani is cru.t: LatÙle is croch agin Gaidel : 
grus ni fil a fregra lassin Laitneoir, 'lit est..- 
Aithne dam an lios 
Sech a teit an glas 
Inab imda grus 
An gob imda auss. 


Ceitheora randa forfogailti agin tour .i. da deisgiopul 
sechtmogat, 7 da comairlech sechtmogat, cia thuaith 4025 
sechtmogat, da berla sechtmogat. Is e primthoissecll 
lasin ndernad an tor .i. Eber mac Saile J 7 Gregus rnac 
Gomer otat Gregaig, 7 Laitin mac Puin otat Latianda, 7 
Ribath Scout otat Scuit, 7 X emruad mac Cuis rneic Cairn 
meic N ai F. F. 
Brec dano a rad so .i. Greccus mac Gomer do beith 
agin tour, 'Ilt est in parabulamb genilogia .i. leapair 
geinealazge na nEapraidi .i. ni rabatar acht tri meic ag 
Gomer, Aisc, N ecus [1. Aschenaz], 7 Rifath a n-anmanda 
7 Togarma iarsin go rogenair Greccus 0 n-ainmnigtir 4033 


W.!9 I Chron. i. 32 

4()JJ Fenius FarsaÙlh ]r!. T. 

40;;.& I Chron. i. 6 

226 YBL. 233 a{2 


GreÙ:c. Ni raibi immorro ingra .i. ingar (CO!. ß) go mad 
mac do Gouimer Grecus, co nnach raipe ic cumdach an 
tuir amlaid sin. Coumaimsirad andso sis. Da bliadain 
coicat 0 sgailiud an tuir go flaithius 
 ion meic Peil, a do 
coicait dopoi a righe. Ceithri bliadna dec ar tri fichit 
r 4040 
secht cetaiph 0 flaithus Nion co deired flaithiusa 
Tutalleis ri an doumain. Is re lind rotoglad an Trai fa 
deigh secht mbliadna iarsin co dtug Ænias ingen Laitin 
meic Puin, conid deich mbliadna ar ochtmogaid ar oucht 
cetaiph 0 sgailiud an tuir Lauina 7 Laitin fein dorinne 4045 
a caingÙz fris. 
Is foIlus assin co nnach cert-tiaghait oes ind Uiraicepto 
co na bou in sescatmad primhtoiseck an tuir. Sgouta 
ingen Fouraind ri Eigipti 0 n-ainmnigtir Scuit et as sou 
rofaus .i. N el mac Feiniusa Farrsaidh fer frichnamkac/Z 4050 
he go dtainig asin Sgeithia go magh Seunair mar a 
rapatar na teungtha ar na sgailed 7 dob ail leis do 
dtuicced se na teungtha 7 docuala ri Eigipti Nell do beith 
ag sduidir innto. Dotogairm cuige fein he co tecusgad 
se na hEigipti fo na tengtka 7 tug se a ingin fein do .i. 4055 
Scouta 7 onoir romor, conid uaiti ainmigtir Sguit, ut 
dixit þoeta.. 

Feine 0 Feinius atbertai, 
Brig gan douchta, 
Gaidilo Gaidiul Glas garta: 4060 
Sguit 0 Sgota. 
I mpau ferr 7 i mba lethe ina cach berla 7rlo .i. ferr 
leosim a n-etargna a mbith coumdis muiti uile quam a 
mbeth comtis lethguta 7 muiti amal atat agin Laitneoir. 
A mba caoine .i. caoime leis a cuig fo fut 7 a cuig fo Ian 7 406;) 
a cuig fo cruaidh .i. fedha airedha andsin. Caoime leosim 
dono a cuig fo gair, a cuig fo bugu, a cuig fo deghfogair, 
forfedha indsin, quam aon quig fuithibk uile amal ata agin 
.1O-i4 YBL. ar ouchtmadad 
4058.61 d. Keat. Hist. ii. 16, 319-22: l\Iaolmuru Othna, 69 
.1060 YBL. Gaid- 0 Gaid g 

YBL. 233 ß 25 


Eg. 71 1 a 1 227 

Laitneoir fo dichronus .i. nemcinnti no nemtsealpad. 
Iss ed isbeir in Laitneoir gabait na cuig guthaige an greim 4070 
sin uile, ut est: Latini 01ll11e-lS suont uocales producti 7 
corropti poslat! .i. atat na huile guthaige Latianda co 
gcaomnagtar 7 co roectar 7 co dtimairgter. Leithe i gciall- 
aibh 7 a bfouclaib 7 a leitriph. Leithe i leitriph cetoumus : 
> $',,
. . 
i fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir. Lethe 4075 
a bfouclaiph dono .i. grus 7 c1uoch 7 lind: ni fil a frecra 
Iasin Laitneoir .i. grus 7 tanouch: gourmaulo lasin 
Laitneoir, gruth laisin nGaidel dia frecra. Gourmarium 
lasin Laitneoir, gruthrach laisin nGaidel. Grus immorro 
laisin nGaidel, ni fil a frecra-sidhe lasin Laitneoir: lapz"s 4080 
lasin Laitneoir c10uch lasin nGaidel : pClltra laisin, 
Laitneoir, ail lasin nGaidel: sdrupala lasin Laitneoir 
carrac lasin nGaidel, ound 7 ailene, immorro, is iat na 
cenela c10uch do nach filit a frecarthaich agin Laitneoir. 
Lethe dono i bfouclaib 7 i gciallaib 7 i litribh in Gaidele 40SG 
de sin inas in Laitin. Cid leithi i fodaib, ni lethi i 
gciallaib, ar cia beith ilanmanda agin Gaidel ag sloindedh 
na ret, tic an ciall reullait sin isinn uathadh foucal fil icon 
Laitneoir. Ni fior on amal isber in Laitneoir: l\
sgieris nomell, cognico rerum perit .i. atbail aithne na reut 4090 
muna hetargnaither (234) ant ainm. Aqll[a] lasin Lait- 
neoir, uisgi lasin nGaoidel : aimnis lasin Laitneoir, aphound 
lasin nGaidel: pisgillai laisin Laitneoir, iechlind lasin 
nGaidel: lind immorro lasin nGaidel, ni fil a frecra lasin 
Laitneoir. 409:) 
Rolaiti iarum a feudha four leith et a thaophoumna 
four leth co bfil cach ai diph for leith ou'raile, ar ni bfil 
leuthguta and amal nach bfil la Grecca aucht muiti nama. 
Gach duil do nach raibe aillmniuccud isna beurlaibh ailiph 

4Ol"l I. scoþulus, Origg. xvi. 3, 2 
4091 Origg. xiii. 21, 1-3 

4088 rellai t 
4092 abond 

 Nisi ulim 
4fI9.I Gaidc YI3L. 

228 YllL 234 a 7 


arichta a ainmniugud doiph isin Gaidilc, ut est, grus, cluoch, .BOO 

.i. an dara sillab deigenach oir is 'penuilt' is aimn do 
Cidh fuodera penuilt chumair 
laisin Laitneoir 7 'uilt' in sillab degmach .i. 0 circul1das, 
a 'siorcundamas,' et conat 
oir is on persain tanuisi uathaigh cruither in cetpersa 
on persaind tanaiste do- 
ilair lasin Laitneoir ar cor' mu ' iter a 7 s na persaindc 
gnither tria 'mu ' d'eturtsam- 
tanuisi amal ata i 'circundamus': oir' circunda,' 
ugud iter ' a ' et ' s' ? Ni ansa. 
'circundis,' 'circundit,' poi and ar tus. Neoch ata 
, Do,' , dis,' , did,' ropui 
cumair rolean in cuimre (no coibhiti Eg. om.) sin. 
Dobai ar ' circundimus ' i tosach 'circundamas ' 
, de ' ria ' m ' fertar 
ìna aimsirad 7 is uime sin ita in penuilt 
cuimre et ' dimus ' don 
tuas do beith cumair [oir dobai si cumair Eg.] a' sircundimus' .i. is iat 
ilur et rolen aimseradh 4120 

na tri persanda hualhaid: 'sircundo," sirqundas,' 
na cuimre sin a ce t- 
, sirqundad ' 7 na tri persanda ilair: 'circun- 
persain Hair tuas, gen gur- 


damus,' 'sirqundimus,' 'cirqundercimus' .i. 
i litrip, ar ni lenand i 
nior doJuidsi on a qumachtain .i. ar' do' do 
acht do aonsillab. 
bhi fada co nnderna. 






Cid foudeura aiccent forin penuillt comair sen .i. 4130 
, da' et nach ar 'cund' ata? Ni ansa. Ar ata do 
met is luigtech in dobriathar is 'sircuim' rei' do' 

.no:; conid .n07 tanusi 
-111.1 rolen aimserud 
-1121 YBL. persandanda 
mt< aon tsiollaobha èhe T. 

-Ilu9 d'etorsamugud 
-1116 Certhor 
-1122 na cobihfidh T. 
4130 airnin Corin T. 

uoa pindiult T. .n04 sillad 
 bai 411:: robai 
nIl! Cenur coibhfidh T. 
.n:!4 cin go lenand T. 

YBL. 234 a 34 


Eg. 711 a43 229 

conna romill uimpi a haimsered nach a haiccent amal na 
romill a 'cailirefacio.' Millidh immorro in ' re' in 
suidiugud a rolagat. Is laigtech risin mbreithir. 4133 
Is ed ind son tosach ind U raiciopta iar Feinius / lar 
nIar mac Nema 7 iar nGaidel mac Eitheoir no mac 
Aingin. Is iat sin a persanda 7 aim sir dano an aimsir a 
tangadar meic Issrael a hEigipt. Is a nAisia aricltt, cia 
isberait isa muig tSeunair doriacht. Tuccait a sgriphind 4140 
a touthlugud don sgoil moir go Feinius et co h Iar mac 
N ema 7 go Gaidel mac Eitheuir a tepidhi doiph ind 
Uraiciopt[a] 7 iar dtiodnacul (in) rechta do :\Iaisi 7 iar 
bfoglaim do Caei Cainbrethach oga, conid airi sin arriachta 
na haipgitri a n-aontapaill amal isbeir: cuiteut aipgitri 4145 
na dtri primberladh 7rla. 
Se primtoisigh lasin dernad in tour .i. Eimer mac 
Saile, Greccus mac Goimer otat Gregaigh 7rloJ amal 
adrubrumair romaind. Partaloll mac Sdair1l (coi. ß) meic 
Seura meic Sru meic Eusru cetnarogaph Eire rie [iar Eg.] 4150 
ndilinn N eimruaid meic Aghnoumain meic Paim meic 
Seura meic Sru 7rlO. 
Cest, caitiat aipgitri na tri primberla iter ainmnighe 
agus cairechtairi? Ni ansa eim, aipgitir Ephraide 
cetamus andso sios:- 4155 

N aleph (H. Eg.) id est dodrilla .i. forcetu1. 
:! beth (.5. Eg.) i.e. d01JlllS .i. tech. 
gemel (-r.) i.e. plenulll .i. Ian. 
, clcleth (.ci.) taba/arulJl .i. clair. 
;-, hee (.u.) i.e. ista .i. andssou. 4160 
uau (-g.) i.e. prÙl1lcess (prÙl1l{{'/'s Eg.) .i. tigerna. 
sclai[n] (.k.) Ilrc i.e. is he. 
n heth (.h.) i.e. llita .i. beutha. 

 teth (n) i.e. bOlllllll .i. maith. 

41::1 YBL. :\Iill: Gr. Lat. ii. {02, 13; viii. 177. 9 

23 0 YBL. 234ß q. 


Eg. 71 I b 30 

ioth (.i.)prÍ1l1lcipi1l11l .i. tossach. 4165 
:J cap (.$.) i.e. manus .i. lamh. 
, lamiach (-5.) SUIIl cordis, disciplina. 
D mem (.x.) i.e. excipsis .i. uaitib. 
[n ]un (.ci.), sempiternulIl .i. co suthain. 
c samet (.ri.), adiutoriu11l .i. furtacht. 4170 
ith .i. ri. 
p in,folls Slilll, oculus .i. topur no suil. 

 fe, osa ab ore non ab osse (-i. on bel 7 ni on chnaim). 
3: sade (-f.) iustie-ia .i. coiro 
j) cop (-i.) 1tocaâo .i. gairm. 4175 
, res (.c.) capites .i. cend. 
:u sen delltiulIl .i. fiacla. 
,., tau .i. signa .i. comarda. 

Finit disin. 

Aipgitir Grecda suonda :- 


A alpa (i). 
]; beta (ii). 
r gama (iii). 
.l delta (iv). 
.E ersion (v). 
Z steta (vi). 
H eta (vii). 
8 teta (8). 
I iota (ix). 
K kapa (x). 
L luta (xx). 
)[ imos (xxx). 
:x oz xl. 
:=: csi Ix. 



Il phi [ó] lxx. ['l'] 700. 


41H6 The Digamma, \i, is omitted; and consequently the numerals there- 
after are one place \\rong up to xl. 

YBL. 234 ß 44 


Eg.7IIb37 23 1 

Fi [71"] lxxx. 
 [sam pi] 900. 
urn [koppa] Ixl us 
pro [p] centum us 
csima [CT'] centum ono [I. duo] us 
Uu [T] tri centum. 4200 
[ ] xc. 
hi [H] cuic cet us 1>. 
psi 3 [sampi] nai cet us 
uio ['Ý] seacht cet us 
Tau [da 00 = w] uocht cet. 4203 
[Fillit disin 0 Domnall ua Aoda 7 doberim mo secht 
mallacht 7 mallacht Dia dob[er]air air sin di ollolllain Ó 
l\Iaolchonaire. Is ole in cUlllain dam cuige so é- 
uile raot 7 is damsa is mo dobeir se cunain (?) aithigh 
uile Eg.] 4210 
Aipgitir Laitianda indso. a i.e.prÏ1Illcipiulll .i. tossach. 
b i.e. iusticia .i. indrucus. c i.e. utili[t]as .i. tarbdacht. 
d i.e.fortitudo .i. nert. e i.e. duailitas .i. eathlladh (I. étrad). 
f i.e. uelleracio .i. ogmoir [oinoir Eg.]. g i.e. pietas .i. 
trocaire. h i.e. [h ]ilaritas .i. subachas. i i.e. regllo1l11l .i. 4215 
flaithemnus. k i.e. re!igio .i. craphacht. I i.e. llObilitais 
.i. nertmairecht. m i.e. digllitas .i. diuiti. n i.e. 
recollg1/itio .i. aithne. 0 i.e. o1lOra (SIC) .i. onoir. p i.e. 
opsequiltlll .i. umla. q i.e. lux solis .i. griansolustur. r 
i.e. pltlllla (I. pluvia) .i. fertain. s i.e. dies et 1lOX .i. la 7 4220 
adaig. t i.e. pax .i. sithchain. u i.e. aqua et ig1llS .1. uisgi 
7 teille. x i.e. longa uita .i. betha fota. y i.e. aurUlll .i. 
or. z presiositas .i. loghmaireacht. 
Is e in feur cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh (rainic) na 
ceitheora haipgitri asrubartamar .i. aipgitir Greccda 7 422:5 
aipgitir Ephraidhe 7 aipgitir Laitianda 7 in bethi-luis-nion 

.al4 uioo 
4241 VBL. diús 

4211-22 cf. \ïrg. Maro Gr:lm., p. 89, V. 

I YBL. ill!1 111 "s 
l YBL. lall!:1Is 

23 2 YBL. 234- ß 30 


Eg. 71 2 a 16 

an ogaim 7 is aire is certi in deigenach ar is fa deoigh 
arichta in beithi-luiss-nion an ogaim. 
'1J l F l' 'TJ 1 
 m '1t1111111 1n } t1 .5J 
 40 11 e 1 61 CI 11110 M: 
7, II ,
, ",fulfl 1) " -c C <l //j)f!í/#;f$ T 11 111 1lJJ1JJß)( 0 l?

.i. a sgriphelld a n-aontapaill a ropatar roimhe uile no 4230 
comad he fath arriachta aipgitri ind ogaim 7 sgribhind 
na n-aipgitri oile i nd-aontapaill .i. aipgitir i!1d ogaim 
imalle, 2lt dÚ:im21s .i. uair itait .u. forfeuda agin GaidiIcc 
7 rola a gutha(gi for leith a n-urd aipgitri 0 consanaip, 
non sic na haipgitri aile acht a [c] cumusg atat inn tip llocales 4
7 ar b[ a Eg:] coiger ar fuichit lion na sgoile is aire 
is he lin aipgitri in ogaim 7 it e an anmanda fordota in 
bethi-luis-nion an ogalm, conid uadh rolaiti for leith. 
. 40 11 e ...:L... 6J 01 
It e in anmanda fordata larum, 2lt est 111 111 1lJJ 
Asberat araile conid deich feudha airedha filit and 7 it e 4
an tri dofhourmaghat frisna vii tuas, uillemld, ifill, eman- 
coull, conidh aire rolaiti four leith (235). Ismberait araile 
co nnach 0 dainiph itir ainmnigther aipgitir (no fedha) in 
ogaim isin GaidiIcc acht 0 chrandaiph cin cob aithionta 
in[ d]iugh araile croind diph, ar atat tri hernaile for 4
crandaiph .i. aire feudha, 7 aithig fedha, 7 losa feudha et 
uaithibh sin ainmnigter feudha ind ougaim. Aire fedha 
quidim: dair, coull, cuillend, aball, uindis, ibor, gius. 
Aithig fedha: fern, [sail Eg.], bethe, lem. sceu, caorthand, 
crithouch, droigen, trom, feorus, crand fir, feithlend, 42jO 
fidhout, fiondcoull. Lousa feudha .i. aitend, fraoch 
gilcach, rait, eidhend, driss, spin, leclo .i. luachair 7r10. 
Beithi didiu 0 beithe rohainmnigther ara chousmalius fri 
cois an beithi, ut dicit21Y.. 

Feochuos foultcain .i. beithi. 


7 is aIr! S111 IS a m beithe rosgripad in ceutna hainm 
ougaim tuccadh a nEirilln .i. secht mbeithe tugtlta do 
Lug mac Eithlellll .i. bertar do ben fo shecht a 

YBL. 235 a 12 

.-\ URA-\ ICEPT 

Eg. 71 2 b 1 233 

sidhaiph uait ?lisi cam cilstodieris .i. muna coimhéta tu hi. 
Et is airi sin beoss sgriptlzair bethe i dtousach aipgitri ind 4260 
ogaim. Luis dono is 0 crand rohainmnigther .i. 0 chaor- 
thand uair luis ainm do chaorthand, isin tseunGaidiIcc, ut 
dicitllr Ii sula luis .i. caourthand, ar ailleacht dath a 
chaor. Fern dono is 0 crand rohainmnigther .i. fern, ut 
dicitllr aireunach Fian fern ar is di dogniter na sgeith. -1265 
Sail didiu is 0 chrand rohainmnigther, ut dieitur Ii ambi 
soil .i. nembi soil ara cosmaIius a datha fri marph. N ill 
dono is 0 chrand rohainmnigther .i. 0 uinnsind, lit dicitlll'" 
coscrad sidhe nill .i. uindis .i. ar is di na croind gaei 
triesa cosgarthar an sith: no costad side uindis .i. nin t270 
giniol garmno dognither do uindis .i. ar isinn aimsir tsidha 
togbaithergarmna. Huath dano is 0 chrandrohainmnigther 
.i. sge, ut dÛ:itllr comdal qua1l uath, ar is uath mor hi ar a 
deilgniph: no is minic la cach comdail ic sgiaigh. Duir 
dono is 0 chrand rohainmnigtlter .i. dair, llt did/ur airdem 4
dosaiph dair. Tinlle dono is 0 chrand rohainmnigther .i. 
cuilclld, lit dicitllr trian roith tinne .i. cuile12d ar is cuilclld 
in treus fidh roth in charpaid. ColI dono IS 0 
.chrand rohainmnigther .i. coull, ut dicitll,. cno-car 
fer .i. cach ag ithe a cno .i. coull: no ith-car fer: no -1
.cain-car fid. Queirt dono is 0 chrand rohainmnigther .i. 
.apall, ut dieitllr elithour baisgell .i. eHit. Quiert (.i. eli) .i. 
.abull, ælit gelt queirt .i. apall. l\luin dano is 0 eluand 
rohainmnigther .i. finemain, Ilt diei/ur airden maisi muill 
.i. finemain .j. iarsani fasas a n-airdi .j. fincmain. Gort 128;) 
-dono eidheand, ut dicitit,. gIasibh geltaip gort .i. eidheand, 
Ngedal .i. giIcach nuo raith, ut dieitllr luth lego ngedaI .i. 
gilcach no raith, ar is luth laisna legaib 7 coibnes iter k ï 
ng: no miodadl ice .i. ar imad a ice no [.i. Eg.] gilcach no 
raith. Straif dono .i. droigC1ld, Ilt dicitllr aire sraba 4
ssdraibh .j. droigclld no straif .i. saididh nell .i. a dhc 

2f'':; Fianll 

Üõi nem beth 

:.!R.I. :i ainlen 

j:!!!\ sraib 

234 VBL. 235 a 38 


ssuass. Ruis dono .i. troum, ut dicitur ruamna ruici 
ruis .i. trom: no ruamna ruisg .i. teine truim. Ailm 
.i. ochtach: no ailm airdeumh iachtadha .i. feth .i. 
fe lie, at uath feirròris: no ailm, id est, quaisi pailm a 4295 
palma. Omt .i. aitend, ut diciturcudnoudh eich .i. aitend no 
echlaisg. U r .i. fraoch, ut dicitur guiremh dal .i. frech. 
Edath .i. edh uath .i. crand fir no crithach, ut dicitur 
erchra fer fe fe flesg. Idedh .i. iobhar, ut dicitur 
sioneim fedha iobair: iobhar .i. eo barr simper. Eba .i. 4300 
crithuch, ut est snamchar fer. Oir .i. feoruss no edlend, 
ut dicituy tuathmar fidh .1. eithlend, ut dicitur 
sruitht'm aicdhe feorus .i. fiarses. Cl11eand .i. eidleand, 
ut dicitur tuathmar fid no edleand. Ipin .i. spin an no 
spin, ut dicitur millsim fedha pin .i. caor. Emancoll .i. 4305 
umda a fedha: no emancoll .i. gabar emancoll ar ach 
cia gabar ar aill .i. midiuiti, ut dicitur oud saothaid .i. uch: 
no emancholl .i. seim muin caoI. 
[Uch is tinn mo chorp Eg. om.] 
(coI.ß) Anmanda fiodh tra sin uile amal foghaphar isin 4310 
Duili Feudha, 7 is uadaiph ainmnigter feudha in ogaim isin 
Gaidilc 7 nochan 0 dainip itir ut aifi diCU1lt. Cesc, ciss 
lir a cumang? N i ansa. Lancumang inntib uile iter 
fedha 7 taobomna co nd-ourba huath .i. amal bes a 
n-aigned cidh mor cidh bec iat. Is imne innister isin 4315 
Cin Oullaman .i. ceithirtsliocht fedhair for fedhaib 7 
taobhoumnaiph .i. cumang 7 ecumang lancumang 7 
lethchumang : cumang a forfeudhaiph, ecgumang a 
muitibh, lanchumang a fedhaiph; lethchumang i leth- 
gutaibh. Itberat araile is tretslicht is coir and .i. 4320 
lanqumang a muitibh ar ni bfilet lethguta lasin nGaideI. 
Treidhe dogni uath .i. bogad et seimhugud 7 urdipdad 
Bogad cetamus: for taobomnaib 7 isna ndiaigh do-ecaiph 

:.'!H airdemh 

 co ndurboi 

 pill., YBL. panda 

31;; amne 

:IOO sínemh T. 

:::!:: doecamni 

YBL. 235 t1 12 


Eg. 72 1 a 17 235 

doibh .i. do p 7 do c 7 do t 7 do duir 7 do gourt. Icrsin 
Laitneoir, immorro, bidh tinfed ar gach taobomna don 432!J 
Gaidilc 7 seimiugud for g utltali,ri ph [7 Eg.] is rempa do-ecaiph 
doiph. Bouccad beithi, sop; boucad cuilI, cloch; bogad 
tinde, ath; bogad duir, sodh; bogad guirt, magh. Seimugud 
dono for taophomnaibh 7 is rempa do-ecaip doiph. 
Seimiugud uatha, Phatraig. Seimhiugud d, dhamsa, 4330 
dhuitsi. Seimiugud b, a bheun. Seimiugud c, a cheun. 
Seimiugud tinde, a thir. Seimugud g, a ghrad, a oghda. 
Seimugud ar gutaibh 7 is rempu do-ecaiph doibh. Pidh 
dano tinfed ar gach taoboumna indsa Gaidi1cc. 
Boccad b cetalllus : amal ata Bhatraig, ar as uath bogas in 4335 
b fil and; ar ni bi p lasin nGaidilc. Seimugud uatha amal 
ata a Phatraig; ar cia beith uath and, is seime ina [a] n-ailI. 
Airdipdad (.i. 0 rodipad) sail immorro .i. a shail: airdip- 
dad f, a fhind, a fhir, in f[h]eudha .i. in taobomna do brie/It 
as do raith, 1/t est ramal no Eg. om.] cindus domiter frisna 4340 
taopoumnaiph amal fidha sic fidhau. Iss ed ropad clio t 
and acht uath baidhius in fern, conidh airdipdad fil and. 
Seimugud immorro amal ata a fher .i. ni tét as air ec 7 
ni bí lancumang ind. [Ar at e teora fuillti in Uiraicepto 
.i. uath 7 forsail 7 airnin Eg:] Ni ansa. Huath cetumus. 4343 
Is ed fuillius b conngaib greim p, ar ni bi p lasin nGaidel. 
Caiti a deimniugud? Xi ansa. Amal ata ogin Laitneoir : b 
aWL tlspiracione poni!llr pro p .i. samaigther b co tinfed ar 
p. J}iamt ali cona bi uath araon re b do [log Eg.] p 
acht bi a aonur ar p, lit Prcsells: buxus pro PUXllS, all/boll 43;)0 
pro ampo .i. b inntib sin ar p, 7 ni b co tinfed amal 
adberait araile. 
Forsail dono in fuilled tanaise .i. doberat for in son dia 
fattugud, 1/t cst sroun. 
Airnin is e in tres fuilled .i. in bailc i recar a leuss da 4:

-I:rJlj, II doecam doi b 
-I:a:: .i. inti as airec 

-I'::) be.m 

.J:::n Patroic, :\ISS. u.lth- 
-I::..n Gr. Lat. ii. 20, 18 

-1::-11 lidho 

23 6 YBL. 235 ß 37 


Eg. 72 I a 2+ 

taopoumna gaipÙI airllill greim in dala n-ai, lit est cend; 
ar ni bi eumhnad in ogaim. [Teora foilcesta in ogaim I
.i. quert, ") $ Æ1 ( . Is iat sin treidhe is coir do 
imchisin isin ogam. Is aire is teora foirmccstu no imccsta 
is coir and 'lit diczl1lt ai/ii: 'Cia haon fid bog blath 4
morbuan Bis ag ugdar [da imluad Eg. om.], Geiphius 
greim fedha is forpai? Is consain i[ s] taophomna .i. huath: 
Caiti deochair iter indell 7 tindell? Ni ansa. Indell 
int imcomarc 7 tindell int ernedh. 
Cesc, caiti deochair itir chin1ledll 7 cinlltech ì -1-365 
cinntecha son? Ni ansa. Cin1ICdh a n-aipgitir Gregdo ar 
is cinntechem oldas aipgitir Eupra. Cinntech[a] an aipgitir 
Laitianda oldas an aipgitir Grecdu. Cinlltechsom in 
bethi-Iuis-nion uair is fa deoig irriachta. Cia haonfoucal 
gaibius ar na ceithri hernaile an Airraicepto cin nach -I-
dethbir tomuis na tarmortcind na fedha na focal na 
forgnuisi? Ni ansa. In focal is aipgitir Gregda 7 Ebra, 
Laitillitas 7 ogam. Is e in cethir slicht for fedaibh 7 
for [for ]fedhaibh .i. fot .n-aiccenta (236) et fot suidigthe i 
bfoclaiph fotaiph .i. i bfedhaiph airedhaiph: gair n-aigenta 43ï5 
7 gair suidigthi i bfodaip gairdiph. Fot n-aicenta qllidil1l 
isna forfeudhaiph ì gairtsuidigti .i. gairdi iar suidiugud 
i bfodaip iet fecht and ì fotaig fecht aile, lit est cain cáin, 
laig láig, coir cóir: no amal ata feur eua a fidh in anma 
a fhiodh airechda amal rogab i mbrethaibh neimed .i. 4:180 
cenmotha forfeuda a bfil deghafoghar na nguta. 
Cesc, caiti fout ct gair inntiph? Ni ansa. Fout i 
bfeudaip 7 a forfeudhaibh 7 gair i taopoumnaiph .j. 
gairtshuudighti ar is lethaimser for thaophoumna do 
ghreus .i. a corus forfedh. Asin Cin Qllam touccad in -!-383 
blog-sa reumaÙzd ì ni do chourp ind U raicepta. 
Cesc, caiti fot et gair? Ni ansa. Amal ata nemh, for- 
fedh fil and. N eim, immorro, fidh airreghdo fil and. N idat 
inonda suoin frisna da chupaid ) X 1Bf< .i. e co ndefogur 

-1:17:: I aitne 

-I:I,!' fear eUa, YBL. ueua 

VBL 236 a 16 


Eg. 72 2 a 33 23ï 

7 e glan uerbi Gracia, ul est, seudu óir 7 sét conaire, 4390 
éua and: no seut .i. lepaid, is eugad icca sgribend-sidhe ar a 
cruaidhe. Is an e glain teid, is aire sgripthar eghad and. 
Sét an teinid immorro tre eughadh a sgripelld. N emh 
im tallllai!Z, eua and. Keirn nathrach, eghad and 'na 
sgriphelUi. l\Iind, iphill ana
 Min immorro, beg, iphill 1395 
and. l\lin arba, imrnorro, idedh aUlld, ar deudha ar a 
dtuctha forfedha itir isin n-aipgitir in ogaim .i. do fregra 
do defoghur amal ata isnahip brcthaibh nerned geun- 
mótha forfedha a bfil defougur na nguta 7r1o, 7 dono do 
tseirnugud foghair forsna feudhaibh, ar is buigi bis isna 4400 
forfeudhaibh. Cruas imrnorro i bfeudaibh airedhaiph: 
forfedha, ut cst nem, eua and: naom, immorro, .emhan- 
coull and: nim in uisgi, idedh and: fourfeudha idio 
dÙïmtllr .i. foirithnzg .na fedha irn fout, ar is ed ismbert 
araile is cuimre foghair fil isna feudhaibh 7 fot a forfedhaz.b: 440ii 
no forfedha .i. firfedha: no forfedhai .i. fidh for fid inntib: 
no forfedhai .i. for eudha ar no-sechantais iat: no forna 
feudl'aiph atat and for ail 7 ni for a n-aild: no forfeuda 
dono it inanda 7 na defoughair .i. in defoghar fil inntiph, 
arnal ata peun, 7 bein dogeuntai de rnina beth defoghur 4410 
is amlaidh na forfedha. Cionllus on 7 ebai a fidh in anma 
intan isberar fer? Ni cotarsna inní sin arin defougllr. Is 
cumair sidhe 7 ni bi fair achd aimser co leth nama anas 
mode. Di aimsir dono forsin nguthazge fouta. Cia bat 
gairit iarum in defoghar reumaill inrathoighti. Ceun- 4415 
mota dono an fed, connicc comardad fuit 7 gair inntib 
amal itber in Laitneoir: sircumplex four na sillabaib 
foutaiph, ut cst do, si 7rl.: acuit.four na sillabaib cuimribh, 
ut cst pax 7rlo. 
Eba .i. eadhad pudhein. Oir .i. OU111Z iar bfir. UiIIeand.i 44:!O 
u uile and. Ipin .i. i budcin. Emhancoll .i. emhllad col 
a fuath .i. fuat cuoill ernnaithey and. Atmberat arailc 

4397 tactha 

11ï Gr. Lat. v. 128, 22 

U:!'.! eamhnoigther 

23 8 VBL. 236 a45 


Eg. 72 1 b 19 

do no ebad 7 oir is ar fheudhaibh fotaibh atat: uilleand 
immorro is ar y fo meudontazg no is ar ú fo medhontazglt 
ita: ipin is ar í fo medhontazg ita: no is pin is coir and 44
ar p. Emhancoll dono is ar x ata fri foimdin na focal 
nGregda no Laitne do thaphairt isin Gaidilc 7 is aire 
raiter emhancoll friss, ar is coIl indara taoboumna fil an 
x 7 is (col. ß) aire is coIl roheumnad and 7 ni sail ar is 
toissecha coIl an ix quam sail. -1430 
Connaghar dono isin beithi-Iuis-nin an ogaim caiti 
in fidh gaipius greim taoboumna 7 an fidh ghaiphius 
greim da thaoboumna .i. in fidh gaiphius greim foucail 
7 in fidh na geiph greim taopoumna na fedha na 
foucail. Is e in fidh gaiphius greim taopoumna quidem .i. 4435 
fidh a ndiaigh araile .i. fidh bis araon re primfidh a focuil 
no araon re defogur i n-aontsillaib, ut est feoil, beoir, Briain, 
7rl.: no fidh tet a gconsanacht, i 7 u. Fidh gaipius greim 
di thaopoumna .i. aonfidh frecrus i tomus do diph 
taopomnaibh, llt dicitllr gach da taopomna ar fidh. 4440 
Fidh gaiphius greim focail .i. fid Japhrus a eonar. Fiodh 
na geip greim taopomna na feudha na foucail .i. u nialsa, 
lit dicitllr.' uee lloeales nee eOllsallantes ltabe1ltur.. no fidh 
bis a ndiaigh araile, llt dZ:ri1ll11S. Connaghar dano isin 
beithi-Iuis-nin an ogaim taopomna gaiphius greim feudha 4443 
7 taobomna 7 foucail, et taophomna gaiphius greim da 
fidh et da taopoomna, 7 da taopomnai gaiphius greim 
feudha, et taopomna gapus greim quicc fed 7 se 
dtaopomna, 7 taopomna gaipius greim foucail, 7 taobomna 
na gheiph greim taophomna na feudha na foucail. [Ni ansa 4430 
Eg.] Is i an taophomna gapus greim feuda 7 taopomna 
7 foucail .i. q. Et taophomna gaibhius grcim da fiodh 
7 cia thaoboumna .i. ngedal. Et da thaopomna gaiphius 
greim fedha .i. gach da thaophomna ar fidh a thomais. 
Taopomna gaiphius [greim] v bfedha 7 se dtaophomna 4453 

4-L>6 na om. 

.m!) gaip 

YEL. 23 6 ß 19 


Eg. 72 2 b 3 239 

.i. duir i n-ait dinin disail. Ki machtnadh intan gaphus 
greim na coic bfedh 7 na se dtaophoumna, cia nogap/tad 
greim da fiodh 7 da thaopomna. Taopomna gap us greim 
tri bfidh 7 ceithri dtaopomna .i. sail a n-inad for[s]ail. 
Taopomna gaphus greim focail .i. taobomna congaib -!-!60 
greim forpaidi. Taopomna na geibh greim taopomna na 
fedha na focail .i. taobomna die dtogaiph h cend conad 
marbh do raith, no uath budein. 
Cest, cis lir deach dochuisin? Xi ansa. A houcht .i. 
dialt, regcomrac, iarcomrac, feiles, c1aonre, luipenchoussacll, -f.-!65 
c1aidemnus, bricht. Deach .i. daghfuach .i. focal intan is 
dialt: dagh .i. maith: fuach .i. focal iJlvellltur. Daghfuach 
intan is regcomrac, dib fuigther intan is sreth. Dialt .i. 
di fo diultad co nnach bfuil alt and: regcomrac re i 
gcomraicit in da tsillaib umann alt .i. (110) re iarsin -t.t70 
com arc int alt tanaise. Iargcomrac .i. iar comraigit .i. 
iarsin comrac int alt iachtarach .i. iar gach ndeighenach 
.i. com arc in (tres) sillab forsna da tsillabazb toisseacha. 
Feiles .i. fillis na lama .i. filled luis .1. lam .i. 
baile ata filled an duirn: no filis .i. fis fiIlti: 110 
fo ]ais cebe dibcrius .i. leisin mbfilid, uair is CUdrllll/a di 
tsillaib di gach leith de. Claonre .i. c1aon indara re .i. a 
do ar an dara leth 7 a tri ar in leith aile. Luipencoussach 
.i. an coss cona luibnib .i. na coic meoir 7 in traig in 
seissedh daib. C]aidemnus .i. c1aidem lIl11lll/S .i. mill/US 4480 
lamh, 7 c1aidem na laime in slindean, ar is he in sechtmad 
dialt c1aidemnus. Bricht .i. brigh a hoc/It .i. brigh 
briathar .i. hocht mbriathar and: no bricht iarsanni 
brlg/ltar ocht sillaba and cenmota a taobomna agin 
bfilid 7 consain agin Laitneoir. Aenfid a ndialt, a do a 4-18:) 
recomarc, a tri a n-iarcomarc, a cethair a fheilius, a cuig 
a c1acnr<il a se a luipencoussach, a secht a c10uidemnas 

U57 nogabad 

76 dibo se: d. 14 2 

73 YBL. ",ithþrlllet. del.: tres suf>.IÙr. 

24 0 YBL. 2 3 6 ß4 2 


Eg. 72 2 b 38 

a. hoeht a mbrieht, eeinmóta taobhomna andsein dallo. 
Is aire sin ni talla in trefogur a nd-aonndialt. 
Is e int ainm airme a tri no a eeuthir. It iat na 4490 
hanmanda uird airme primus, secz/.1ldus, tersius: a tress 
.i. anmanda uird airme iar bproiss, 7 anmanda uird airme 
immorro iar n-aigned. Is si sin in dethber airme allforbhthe 
amal rogabh a tri no a euig, ar naeh fuilIter 0 ehouitibh. 
Caiti seehta in oehta ind Uraicepto? Ni ansa. 4495 
Iutan is oeht ndialta a mbrieht is and it seeht n-alta 
and .i. dialt co geeiII: euig Iitri and an-us moam de, 
aOllIitir an-us lughamh dei .i. ig sloindedh eeiIIi 
eomhlaine. (237) Rosaig a lagat co haonfid. Cid 
timarda iarulll eba isini is fer, ni luga is defoughar ind sin 4300 
ehena. N i la Gréugda iss defougar sin. Cidh fodera in 
eotarsanai 7 na eoig feudha 7 na seeht fedha 7 na x 
bfeuda iar bfuiIIiucht aile? Ni ansa. N a euig fedha 
eétumus: ag fregra dona euig guthazgib tlte na seeht 
fedha fregra dona defograiph tue .i. ea oi: na x feudha, 4j05 
ipin ar defougar, ata emhaneoull ar x no ar emnad, ata 
pin ar p, eonid x samlaidh. Iar n-CÏraiceeht Muimnzg so. 
Caiti bunad 7 inde et airbert, eoitehend 7 diles, ruidles 
7 indIes isin bfoueal is deaeh? N i ansa. Bunad quidelll 
oní is deaeh us Grecl/lll nomen. Defuaeh a inde, ut 4510 
dÙ:illlllS. A airbert .i. troig 0 dialt go brieht, lit 
prodÙ:illl11S. An troigh lasin Laitneoir is deaeh a ainm 
lasin bfilidh, lit D01wtllS dixit.. Pes est sillabarlllll et 
temPOrlllll eert[ a] eult l1leratio .i. ita in troig .i. an ehous 
eonad airmideta derbh na sillab et na n-aimser icon 4515 
Laitneoir. Ata done airmideta derpta a siIIab .i. eeithri 
troigi desiIIæbazg et a houeht tresiIIæbmg 7 a se dee 
emnaiti 7 troigid et aimsir agan Gaidel 0 dialt go brieht 
.i. sillab forbes eeeh deaeh dip di araile isin GaidiIce, eonidh 

"J tallot 

,o:: M 55. ruills 

YB!... 237 a 16 


Eg. 73 I a 18 24 1 

a hocht samlaidh a mbricht conid airmideta deurph sin -1:)20 
o haontsillaib conicce a houcht. 
Ocht silIaba (.i. minabdis ecsamla) isin pfocul is mo 
isin Gaidilcc, ut est fianamailecharadhartai 7 inrocomrairc- 
nigsiomairlle 7r10. Focail doilphdi so rodolpset filid na CI)u 
Gaidhi1cci et na Laitne a n-agaid araile dia mbreith re 452:) 
sechtu. Teora sillaba x isin bfoclll is mo isin Laitin, lit 
.est teÙlcrifficabiletudilletatibus. 
Cesc, cia roich dialt a meut ogus a laighet? Ni ansa. 
Rosouich a laighet co haonfiodh .i. ag sloindedh chei!le 
comlaine 7 is fouclll so, lit est a 7 i 7 0 .i. a sleibhe 7 0 1:)30 
forcind 7 i in is .i. I Cholaim Cille, amal ata A' Chuisi 7 A' 
Chairtend i Sliab Luachra .i. anmanda sleibhi sain- 
.riud, lit dz:rÍ! l\Iac Da Cerda:- 

Dam congair iter da a, 
Fongluaisi glaodh gulpallda, 
Is uallach int arganda 
La tricha segh (.i. os) lurganda. 


(.i. dialt co ceill andsin, coic 
tri is mo do, lit[ir] is luga). 
Rosoich ciano co a CU1cC a mét, lit est flesg 7 triosg, brisg, 
sgailp, tracht, et bricht .i. epaid, et bracht .i. llt est..- 4540 

Conberbtar brachta 
[A Eg.] n-ebron bru, 
Feisi gan lachta 
Xach fuor tnu (.i. teine). 

Ni airmitlier h isna foclaib deighenchu, ar ni litir fiadha 4545 
amal adbert in Laitneoir: H 110n est litera sel/t nota 
spiraciolll' .i. nochin fuil uath conidh litir acht ata conid 
not tinfid. Tinfed .i. tinugud fedha .i. neimtniugud .j. a 
chor as do raith. Gach (lialt iarll1Jl imatormazg fria araile 
cocumaong cech aon focazZ Deich co houcht [i] mbricht ,t330 
7 is he meud 7 laiget cecha Gaidilci 0 dialt conna n- 

2,'j dian 4
4H cr. Laws i. 140,47: Stokes' Crit. p. 24: Con/rib. silb conberbaim 


24 2 YBL. 237 a 36 


Eg. 73 2 a 7 

athgapail diplínaiph .i. co gcumangar do gach dialt cliph 
iarna tinol deach. Isin mbricht ambit ocht sillaba. 
Etargairi a n-inllsgib: is e, is i, is eudh, iar macaib 
l\Iiled: masgoul, fei rn ill, neotor lasin Laitneoir: uindse, 4;)55 
uindsi, oundar, iar bFeraib Bolg: moth, touth, traothad, 
la Tuaith De Danann. Is e punad gacha Gaidilcci dialt 
acht moth toth traoth. Madh iadsidhe is iat fein ata 
bunad and, ar ni bfil nach focal Gaidilici na bud indip-sut 
dano. Mod (it) gach ferda, gach feirindsgi. Toth cach -!560 
banda, gach banda indsgi. Traoth gach neotor, gach 
neotarda, iss ed bunad gacha Gaidilci 7rlo .i. ar ni 
dialt is buonadh doibsidhe ar ni bunad aonreud do budein : 
nuo nit dat bunadh Gaidilci indso acht it bunad cecha 
ceniltil Masa cenel, caiti in cinel dianat bunadh? Ki 4:::í65 
ansa. Moth .i. gach ball ferrda 7 gach cuma ferrda. Toth 
.i. gach (cot. ß) mbannda no gach baull bannda et gach 
cuma bannda oulchena. Traothad.i. gach neutordai .i. gach 
(no nach) nectorde .i. gach cumai neimnechtorda .i. gach 
cuma neirnecuscdai: no dano is bunad gacha Gaidilcci 4570 
dialt acht mouth touth traoth: Iss ed is moam lem cheuna 
ciasa bunad GaidiJgi is bunad ceinil: no dono ni dat 
dialta itir arnal ata moudh mo a odh .i. in ceol is mo ina 
in ceo I is luga amal rogaph ant aidhpsi a nDruim Cheutai: 
no mo a fedh a n-airdi intan is tourand no caint. Toth 4375 
.i. tai a oudh an ceol mbec a n-athfueugadh an ceoil is 
mo .i. cronan no certan: no toth taoi a edh no a oudh 
intan is femill: no tai a edh intan is fouta ron-cluine no 
ron.aile is tai et is isliu qualll a n-aill. Toth .i. ar a- 
ni traothait na ciuil isH na ciuil ardai .i. sdocairecht no 4580 
cornairecht: no troeth .i. traothaig, traotus intan is cruit 
fo bi th is caile 7 is cr uaidlti qualll ani aile is traoth: no 
traoth treith a eudh no a odh [ria feugad feimin .i. 

-1:":il bamndsci 
-1.)7-1 lughai 

 YBL. IIi bun 
-13íts fem..n 

-1-->66 each cumma ferrd..1Ï 
-1.ït:<J femin 

YEL. 237 ß 16 


Eg. 73 1 b 6 243 

masguol: no dono moth 7 touth 7 traoth .i. anmanda ball 
ferrda d bannda 7 neotor amal itbeir in Laitneoir: f\lome1l 4585 
membri llirilis et nomen lIleilllbri lIlulieris et nome1l lIlembri 
1lalUrtllis 7 is at focail Grecdu issin cias a Laitin ata 
deismerecht dip 7 is aire nadat dialta, ar ni failit 0 neoch 
7 ni failter uathaib acht mina nderntar mot for moth 7 tot 
for toth ï troeth for traoth. Ismberat araile comdis 4590 
anmand aidhmi ciuil. Caiti a deimhniugud? Ki ansa. 
110th mo a odh intan is cruit. Toth .i. tai odh intan is 
binde .i. is tai et is isliu quam i n-aiII. Troeth .i. traothaid 
in dias aile in tan is stocairacht fo bith is airde a faidh is 
aire is traotha doiph. Is e so tra a chumair is he bunad 4595 
gacha Gaidilci dialt .i. 0 regcomarc co bricht 7 ni bunad 
he do entsillaib amal roghaph mot tot traoth 7 is ar gach 
ndialt tugait-sidhe i sunda 7 is aire rothogait-sidhe sech 
gach ndialt, ar dochuaidh menma friu comdis regcomrac, 
ar fogab
r a chondaillut diximlis. 4600 
Domiter alta uadh fri halta daine .i. toimsigter alta 
an airchetail fri halta duine amal toimsigtir fri gach 
n-indsge, sic domiter fd gach n-indsge. Cesc, cindus 
domiter fri gach n-indsge? 1'i ansa. Corab cach da dialt 
frisgara araile, lil est dair 7 cair, tiar 7 ciar, tis cis, tuas 460G 
luas; 7 corab gach da regcomrac frisgara araile, lit est 
aingeal 7 daingen, lebhar 7 remhar, duine 7 mouine. 
Iss ed a cupaid intan is comfid .i. focal imfrecra 7 is 
comhde[ch] .i. in tarmfortcind. Cidh ara dtUgSlilll na 
foclu sin ar aird sech gach ndialt archena? Is aire eimh 4610 
dus-fug-sidhe, ar ata tuigsi ceinelach and (no inntib), 
cidhad dial ta, 7 ni cenelach dial t[ a] archena ata andsin. 
Xi dialt dono cia madh iadsum adberdis ar aird suond, 
ar ni bunad in reut do budhéÙl. Is bunadh an dialt do 
gach Gaidilc uadh fein sechtair. Ni bunad immorro e 461:;-; 

.a:.89 Cailt-, mona 4596.9 recomarc 01600 condail 
4/;(\5 tair 4IHO dialta arata .j. ar a cenci 

4603 Cri each indsci 

244 VBL. 237 ß 4 6 


Eg. 73 I b x 

(no iat) do budein. Ismberat araile comad aire na budh 
bunadh Gaidilge, ar ni dialt itiy he 7 ni bunad Gaidilge 
aroile acht dialt. 
It e [v Eg.] gne in berla thobaigi .i. teipide .i. berla 
Feine 7 fasoighe (238) 7 iarmberla 7 beurla n-etarsgarta 4620 
7 berla fortcide na bfiled tresinn aigillit gach diph araile. 
Berla Feine tra .i. in Feinechus no araile berla robui 
ag Feinius ar leith. 
Fasaigh .i. fis oghai na bfiled .i. dliged firfurtacht: 
no na lurga fuach .i. forsna feroiph, fona, isna, tresna, 4625 
fresna, sechna fira 7rI.: 7 na diailt n-eterleime, ut est e, 
es, et, in, co, tre, tar, re, fo, fair 7rlo. lermberla dono cuic 
(no coic) .i. ruin, ball orb .i. ball d'forpa na filidechta occa 
muirni .i. miruine 7 is do canaid is ainm ball orb. Gne n-aill 
do iarmberla .i. ierum, 7 dono, 7 tra, 7 hautem .i. ouccus, 1630 
acht, et gidhed chen a, 7 atat, cesc, cislir, cair, cisne, catiat. 
Is aire raiter iarmberla de ara secucht 7 ara cruaiqhi amal 
iarand, uair ni heidir a thaithmech. No iarmberla Iar 
mac Nema arrainic fa deoigh 7 ni fedtar a thaithmech. 
Berla n-etarsgarta iter na fedhaibh airedhaibh .i. bcrla -1635 
triasa bfil deiliugud na bfiodh n-airedha isinn aonfouca! 
tria na n-indaithmech, ut est (ros) re os intan is ros coille. 
Ros .i. raidh as intan is ros uisgi: no rofhos intan is 
marbhusge forsa mbi ros .i. roas intan is ros lin .i. ar a 
luas 7 ar a tighe fasas. Berla fortcidi na bfiled .i. 4640 
ford[ or ]chaidhe amal ismbert in filidh a sgoil Feiniusa .i. 
eta ill .i. etaill aro 7 í inis, ctaill uassal 7 ar a imrlllll .i. 
ni anfam d'iomralll go risulll an inis uasal .i. Eire 7 amal 
rogabh 'san Imagallaim in Da Suadh no in Da Tuarad: 
Erimon smitrach .i. brigh briathar 7 mon cleas: smetraclt -16-15 
.i. smit forrack .i. fourraclz neich 0 smit a cluaisi .i. cleas 
briatharda donidis na filid fo daigin ecnazg go bfourrgitis 

-i6:!O fasaid -1621 aicille 4639 rofhas 
46U fordorcaidhe 4RU an do taradh 

46,10 tighi fhasas 
46,17 egnaidh 

YBL. 238 a 23 


Eg. 73 2 b 31 245 

nech tria smiot a chluaisi do tarråing: no smidrach .i. 
smit cluas 7 rach rigi, forrach smit ai (?) ainm in cleasa sin. 
Is e in coiged gne in gnathberla fogní do chach. Ismberat 4650 
araile comad he in berIa Feine fasoighe na bfiled, 7 co na 
ba berIa fo leth eitir. 
Alt go bfeiser cia halt dona secht n-altaib uad .i. i[n] 
nath, in anair, in laid, in anamain, in sétrad, in sainemain, 
in dian dona dianaiph. 0 ssen anond is 0 deachaibh 4655 
tslointer alta ar na rob indsge cumusgai. Nath .i. no 
fidh .i. indsge .i. anaor anair .i. a n-aor no an-air .i. aon a 
hiar. Laidh .i. laitir no luater intan is aor: no onni is 
lapus .i. moulad: no laid .i. lí suad no leth fedh fedh co 
leith intan is luipencosach fo do reith. Anomaill an a 4660 
somaine reisna haistibh roimpi. Setrud .i. séd raid no 
séd rith .i. rith iar SEUt cin cuibdius cosin lethrand 
ndeight1lach. Sainemain .i. saine a maine risna aistib 
romaind. Dian .i. dion no dian .j. adpo! an .i. di fo diultad 
connach cutroma a hai reisna haistibh oile. 0 sin anond .i. 4665 
ono sechd primaistibh imach ios 0 deach adrimtar .i. 
is ni dona deachaib foricfa 7 is uathaip ata ainmneachad 
doip .j. dialt a forbai cech rainde in duain 7 regcomrac a 
forpai a bforduain, iarcomarc [a casbairdne Eg.] 7 
bairdne ar na rob inllsgi cumusgcdhai ar na rab prois amal 4670 
aisdi na ndaorbard. 
Lorga fuach .i. lourga focul arusc reire .i. amal biti 
lorga i lamhaip daoine iga n-imfoulaug 0 port do port 
arna dtaoth- (coI. ß) satis ina lighe, samlaid (imthá) it e 
andso lorga biti a ngeiniph na bfiled ig fousugud 0 4675 
fOCll! d'foucu!: lorga fuach .i. lorga fOUClll .i. remtsuid- 
iugud desillæbach biti iter da comuaim focul, ut est 
Cormac :.- 

I In ba sesach im ba seng 7rlo. 

-ItH!! foirnch 
-If,fJ6 is 0 

-I6;j!! labhus .i. molad 
-I6iO cumusgc YBI . 

4661 halstib, set 
-1m ligiu 

24 6 YBL. 23 8 ß 5 


Eg. 74 I 

A dialt n-eterleime .i. aontsillab iter da chomuaim J 4680 
lit dÚ:z"t..- 

Cia leith co prath iar gcuairt 7rlo. 
( Cia' iter (lound' 7 I leth J an dialt n-etarleime. Ita 
dono lorga fuach 7 dialt n-etarleime isin rand, (im ba' 
is he in lorga fuach 7 in (ba' in dialt n-etarleime. 4683 
Fertot a tealgud nae .i. a tealgud duine, ar is nac 
duine, Zit dicitllY" Dia ndamad nai for tir .i. dia ndamad 
in duine for tir, dolleici in duine ceusadh fair. Teit 
iarum dia fothrugud donn aphaind, doleigi sis don 
bruach isinn uisgi. Arfaomsi eutach imat 0 neoch aile 4690 
i ssuidi. Iss ed isbeir-sim dano fertom .i. ferde dam, 
briathar cesta uoch (no odz) indsin. Fertot ara cheile 
fris, briathar gnimach son .i. gnim fairsium 0 nach aile 
ail iter. Tét in duine iarum dia fuotrugud don uisgi, 
doleici don bruach sis isinn uisgi. Tot tot, 01 in tond 4695 
fai .i. ainm don foghar sin dogni an tound frisin duine, 
tot ua buo bO J go ged an anmanda forcmachta do soun 
.i. do foghar in geinemnai rohainmnigter. 
Aurland dano ainm d'airell in gai. In adharc duph bis 
fonn gai, is di arsisider in gai, imtha samlaidh arsisiodhar an 4700 
indsge dona deich n-airlondaib-si: no airisider gach indsge 
dona tri hirlondaip-si .i. is e, is í, is ed. It e andsin 
irlanda ferindsgi 7 banindsgi 7 deiminsgi hic J hec, flOg, lasin 
Laitneoir. Se, dai J tri, ceithri urlanda ferindsge indsin. 
Se .i. is he an fer, da .i. da fher, tri .i. tri fir, ceithri .i. 4705 
ceithri fir. Inanda immorro irlanda ferindsge 7 banindsge 
o tsin imach. Is aire nach sinter sech a ceithri. Si, da, 
teora, ceitheora urlanda banindsgi andsin : is i .i. is si in bean, 
di .i. di mnai, teora mna, ceitheoram .i. ceitheora mna. 
It he 7 atat immorro irlanda qoitcenda iter ferindsge ï 4-710 
banindsge indsin. Is ed immorro irlanda deimindsge, ut 
dicitur iss ed in ceund fir; herlond ferindsgi dano 
4wJ don abaind 

YBL. 238 ß 33 


Eg. 74 2 a 12 247 

aontaighius deimindsge a I1-ur1andaibh ilair .i. da nem, 
ut dicitur da fher: no urland indsge .i. remslondud in 
indsgi .i. banindsge no ferinfge no deimindsge: ur1anda 
.i. airslinllell .i. ainm bis 'Stnd ria sIiJlllC1l an gai: airell 
didiu .i. iarial .i. iarn bis, ar IS do is ainm ero in gai, is de 
airsisiodar in gai fo deredh. Is e urland indsge andsin, 
ar ni bi erland gan iarlaind. Gne n-am: Se, da, tri, 
eethair, .i..da masgal iter uathad 7 ilar: 5i, di, tri,eeitheora 
.i. di feimÙl iter uathadh 7 ilor: /tic, liee, /toe .i. do 
ncmtor iter uathad 7 ilar. Coitcelld immorro doib iter 
masgal 7 feimin 7 neutor 0 eethair imaeh, Itt est v fir, v 
mna, v anmando oeeu: freisligi foghair no erero erlapra 
aroile i 1Ul"i11. 
Cuig flUte xx a reim . i. a cuig. 
go hogfegait na filid re uama na hai (239) [7 xx 
gne saorqa olchena. Caite iat anmonda na n-illadh 
asamberat each ai diph do coma dilis budhein? 1'i 
ansa. A nai dib a ndeilb ainlllneda 7 ainseda, 7 a tri 4730 
a ndeilb geinitli et togarto. a seeht a ndeilb togarto 7 
foxlada .i. tri a n-ilor (.i. fillti) 7 a tri i n-uathad: fer, fir, 
og fir a n-uathad: na fir, na fer, na fira a n-ilor. Cuig 
fillti xx fri reilll .i. reimnigiud an anmo do filliud ina v 
xx ta v fl1egait na filid. Is edh reidhe inde each anma 7 4733 
xx gne olchena. Tre breetrad ciall remsuighther friu no 
is ed sedhait ae eimniugud fillti na fuaeh .i. na foda .5. 
ein ainmniugad a n-airemh, 7 xx pro feugait andsin .i. 
segait 1/1 dÙ-it .i. fer diall ata andso sis. Eg.]. Fer a 
ainmniugud, in fir a selpad, ar fer a aireill, a fiur a aitrebh, 4:740 
do fior a dhanllad, a fir a togairm, 0 fir a foxal. co fir a 




m:J iliair YBL. -li:.!l YBL. do- 
-li:!:1 neuotur YBL. cethair -1;27-39 YBL. illegible 

I .lJargÎ1/: llOmil/atiults (.i. fer) .i. ainmneachadh 
.l(mitiuur (.i. fir) .j. sealbad 
datillur (.i. do fioT) tobarta 
muratiu[u]r (.i. inand 7 a ainmneachadh) .j. ainsed 
oh/atiuur (.i. inand 7 a tobarta) .i. foxla 
uocaliuus (.j. inand 7 a genilil) .j. togajrm 

24 8 YBL. 239 a 12 


Eg. 74 2 a 3 

asgnam, an fer a incousg, i fer a inotacht is inand 7 
ainmnechad, og fer a fuirmiud, for fer a fortad, fri fer a 
freisligi do, 0 fior a foxal.i. digbail, la fer a thaophda, iar 
bfer a tiarmoirecht is inand 7 a inatacht, im fer a timcell, 4745 
frisin bfer a tormach is illand 7 a dhan1ladh, tre fer a 
tregdad, dar fer a tairrsge. Is fer a tuarusgbail .i. 
ainmniugud, fo fer a fouthud .i. a ciaB inotachta uathaid, 
re feur a remudh, ar fer a fresgabail. Feughthar dono a 
n-ilar na delpa-sai fon gcuma cetnai .i. fir a n-ainmniugud, 4750 
na fir a tuarllsgbail, it fir a incosg, na fer a selpad, dona 
feraibh a danad l uair ainlllniugud ag ainrnnechad, geinitil 
ag selpad, tobartlzid ag tinlllocud, ainsid ag faicsin, 
togar11lalll1 ag gairlll, foxla ag dibail no ag fagail, sic ill 
sequelltibus: fer didiu eba a fidh an anllla, e a guta, dialt 4755 
a deach. Son aonconngbalach cin alt and iter in da 
sillaib: idedh no ipfin in tselpad no ina reirnh intan is- 
rnberar fir, ar bit a ndis and ina reim, idhedh and Carnal) 
ata a fir, iphin and 0 fiur, sic ill sequelltibus. 
Is aire didzit na hairim eubhai ina reirn cia dobeith i n- 4760 
aroiliph and, lit est co fer, ar ni bfil acht reim ceille nama i 
[in cach Eg.] mbaile a marand in fid bis a n-ainmniugud 
isna fiBtib tsios. 
Idedh irnrnorro no iphin bis inntib cach baile na 
rnarand, conid aire sin itmberar idheth no iphin, a fidh ina 4765 
reim no ina tselpad. 
Dinin disail a forbaid .i. aiccent lasin Laitneoir. Ar 
at e teora forbaidi docuisin lasin nGaidel .i. airnin 7 
forsail 7 dinin disail. Airnin arding defid .i. deredh na 
bfocal: no. defidh .i. n
mhfidh, acht is taobomna: no is 4770 
forbaid. Forsail for fout feudhair .i. tairgither fair conit 
fota : no forsail .i. sail (no ail) fair .i. aimser sech an 
Dinin disail ar gair geipid .i. gaibid fair conid gairit 
Airnin arding defidh .i. dered na focal no defidh .i. 4775 

,Ii ,I::! YBL. repeats asgnam 

1 1\IS5. dib- 

YTIL. 239 a 39 


Eg. 74 2 a 35 249 

nemfidh, acht IS taobhomna: no is forbaid forsail for 
fot feghair .i. tairgither. Arnin arding defid: 1/t est 
cend, glend 7r1.: forsail for fid fada, ut est slogh, sron. 
Dinin disail ar gair geibid, ut est fer, ler, 7 gach 
timorta olchena. lntan sgripthar ainm ogaim, is and -! 7,,0 
sgriptar na forbaidhe so uasa fri rellugud fuit no cuimre 
no fri tendad, ar ni tuicfitis chena; uair amal itber in 
Laitneoir acuit for na sillaba cuimbre, 1/t est þax, bac, ï 
sircumplex for na sillaba foutaibh, ut est res, sic dober an 
Gaidel dinin disail forsna cuimrib, ut est (co1. ß) fear, 4ï85 
forsail 7 for na fotaib, 1/t cst lãm; 7 amal bis graif ar gach 
aoneipcrt ilfoclach la hacuit 7 la sircumplex, sic bis 
airnin araon re forsail 7 re dinin disail, It! est cend, sroll 
7r1. Airnin .i. eirnid nion: no airnill .i. nion fair, ar is 
nin sgriphthar ag incosg na forbaidhe sin, ar is nin ainm 4 7
coitchend da gach litir iter feudha 7 taophoumna: no 
airnin .i. nin fair, ar is he nin cettaopomna riam in 
rohaircced in forbaid sin. Forsail .i. sail fair, ar is sail 
sgript[h Jar ag incosg na forbaidi sin, ar is for fot feghair 
forsail. (Is) sinedh n-aimsire doforne s amal is tiumortad 4795 
tornes duir: no forsail .i. forfuillcd an foucail conid fouda: 
no forsail sech in qumair. 
Dinin disail .i. di fo diultad and connach l1ion connach 
sail sech is duir: no dinin disail disin difuilliud .i. nemh- 
fuillÙul. Ismbeurat araile as aire sgriphthar duir a ndinin 4
disail, ar is duir fil ar tus a ndinin disail 7 is aire sgribthar 
nion ar airnnin, ar is nin fil fa deoigh and 7 is aire 
sgribhthar sail ar forsail, ar is sail fil ar medhon and, ue! 
lit alii diamt: Ail .i. aimser f!trail sech in qumair. Dinill 
disail .i. ni fidh, ni nill; acht is forbaid. Disail .i. ni 4
haimsir fota no diail .i. nemforail .i. nemhfhuilliud. 
Cesc, in ar tomus tuccait i suound in fOUClli is feur? 
Iss ed eim, ar gen go dtoimsigthcr iar n-aiccned, toim- 

;;6 mcmfidh YßL. 

;t<.) dÍ111/ill Y BL. 

Q(Ni rota no 


250 YBL. 239 ß 17 


Eg. 74 I b 23 

sighther iar saordataid, ar atcoutar alt saorda and .i. 
fefriar a chounaiI. Atmberat araile na budh ar tomhus 4810 
rta sound acht ar deo[ c ]hair iter fedha 7 forfeudha 
.i. fot n-aignid 7 gair suidhighti a bforfedhaib, amal ata 
fer. Fot suighighti 7 gair n-aiccnid a bfedaibh airedhaibh, 
amal ata alt co bfeisser cia halt dona secht n-altaib an 
airchetail .i. go bfeisair i[n] nath, in anuir 7rlo. -!
Gne n-ail do ferindsge 7 do banindsge andsou. Cuicc 
fillti fichit a reim .i. a cuig go hoghfheughait na filid a 
bfilliud re uama na hai 7 fiche gne saordu d0110 in xx 
gne saorda sin. Cesc, caitiet a n-aradnai foraib 0 mberar 
gach ai dip cum a dhilis fein? Berat eicce11 uair delpait lK20 
filltecha. Iss ed a lion: a tri a n-uathad, 7 a tri a n-ilar, 
conid se samlaid .i. fer, fir, og fir, a tri a n-uathadh: 
a tri a n-iolar .i. na feur, na fir, na fiora. An xx gne 
saordai sin is deimin eim is he so a n-aradhnaz: A do 
x dibh a forgnuis ainmneda 7 ainseda, 7 aon diph a 4

forg[n ]uis geinitli 7 toghartada, 7 a secht a ndeilph 
thobartha 7 foxlaidae, in da filliud dec dibh tieghait .a 
bforgnuiss ainlllneda 7 ainseda. It e andso ind anmanda 
.i. ar fer a aircioII, go fer a asgnamh, i feur a inoutacht, sech 
fer a tsechmaU, for fer a fourtadh, fri feur a freislige, iar +1
bfer a tiarmoracht, im fer a timceall, da[ r] feur a thairrsgi. 
frisin bfer a thormach, tre fer a tregdadh, is fer a tuar- 
usgbail, ut dÙ:it in file:- 

Is iat so in da filltech dee, 
(Dar) lemsa noeha lanbrec, 
Tiagait a bforgnuis feudha, 
Ainmneda ocus ainseda. 


 a secht bfiIIti, immorro, tiaghait a bforgnuis thobartada 
7 foxlada .i. a fior a aitreuph, og fior a fuirmed, fo fior a 

'I!J atcotar 4810 condail 41<11< uamai, saordai 
: firai 4!<-.!! i n-aradhn- VBL. 

 geinitil 7 togartodh 
!j'?i toborta, tegait 

"'.!!J airchell 
"''!i:i nocha, with PU1Zet. dd. 

,,"21 a Hi n 

,,"J.'; aimnedai 
-\.'<'28 a n-anmondo 
I a fìur 

YBL. 239 ß 4 1 


Eg.742a16 25 1 

fouthad, do fir a danadh, do fir a dighpaiI, iar fir a 4840 
thiarmoiracht, fri fir a fhresgabail, ria fir a reimniugl/d, 
2lt poeta:- 

Is iat so na seeht fillti, 
Nit ernaile adhmillti, 
Tiagait a ngnuisibh glana, 
Tobharta oeus foxladha. 


Aonfillteclt immorro teit a forgnuis toghorta 7 geinitIi, 
ut dÙ-it in file:- 

I n fer a tusdighe tiar tsoir 
Do tsealpad, do toghartaidh, 
Ogus doib araon ni rice 
Gus mad int aon don fichit (24 0 ). 


Is iat sin in fiche gne saerda con a n-aradhnaib corraib 
forra 7r1o. Fer didiu, ebadh a fiod, idedh no iphin ina 
reim no ina tsealpad, no is idhedh ina tsealpad 7 ina 485:> 
thogairm, ipin ina togartaid 7 ina foxlaid. Eba immorro 
a fidh ina ainmnid 7 ina n-ainsid ar chena. Cidh ini is ipin 
and (?) .i. guthazge inna comaccomal frisna guthoighibh oile. 
Cinllus didiu a radh comad ipin fiodh in anma is fir, ar 
is ididh glan fil and? Ni <:nsa eim, qumusg nobeith 48GO 
and .i. di1lin disail a forbaid ina tsealpacl .i. in fir, 7 iphin 
a fidh ina reimim .i. don fir, ar is reim gach tuissc/ on 
ainlllnid sis: no dono int ipin isber i suond, is ar 
idhedha ata, ar is 0 idhedh doinsgain ip[h ]in. 
Caiti dilius feudha a bfeudhaibh, 7 dilius feuda a bfidh, 7 4
dilis fid j bfedaibh? Dilis fedha i bfedoibh cetumus .i. a 
riasna ceithri guthagaibh oiliph, ar is hi cetlabra gach bi 
a 7 iachtad gacha mairb ach: dilis fedho i fidh dono .i. is 
dilis in forfidh ogaim secip fid ina sgripthar. Dilis fidh a 
bfedhaib .j. amal ata in fidh is defoghar .i. is ed is dilis 4:-:70 
and an foghar toisech, ar n[i] hairmither in foghar 

.J'II/) a adanadh YBL. 
8U aidhmillte N7 geinitli \\ ritten out 48.};J coraib Corra 
)t fid oiredha, oiredha \\ ith (Jlmc/. rid.. no i"pin YBL. 

>6 Coxal- 

25.::! YEL. 240 a 17 


Eg. 75 1 b 6 

Alt go bfeisser .i. go bfesor an aisti dona secht n-aisti 
bprimda na filidhechta do gne do thomhus. 0 tsill anond 
is 0 deachaib tsloinnter alto uadh .i. na rab indsgi 4875 
cumusgda .i. 0 sin anound is do defuachaib [.i. is do 
deghfoc1aib, Eg.] tsloinnter aisti in airchetail, ar na rab 
indsge cumusgda .i. amal dogniat na daorbaird. 
Lourcca fuach .i. lairge no lourgaidhe: reimtsuigiugad 
detsillæbach bis riasna da chomuaim ica saorad ar da gne 4ö80 
[ernail Eg.] .i. fogair 7 claon ceille. 
Fertout a tealccud nea. Et buo bo [7 Eg.] go ged .i. 
anmanda sin rangautar na filedha tre ealadaÙz doib do 
reir foughair. Fertout .i. fer dotuit aund 7 bou comad a 
buo on geim nobeith 7 gedh comad on gedh ghoutha 4885 
dobir as nobeith, amal isber in Laitneoir: }{omen de SZlOllO 
fadlllll est .i. fourcaomnagair int ainm don foughar, amal 
itá condall, sdip, stip. Iss ed a foghar ica luosgadh. Is 
aire sin rainicc stipllla do anmoim do icon Laitneoir. 
Tout dano nomen de suo/to factum .i. in guth trom doni an 4890 
duine oga legad for an toind 
Aurland indsge .i. do airell gai is ainm. Caiti int 
eurland saorda foghapar conid aiccned? Ni ansa. Urland 
in gai. Caiti in erland indsge do nach bfasand indsge 
acht aonindsge .i. indsge in bais? Ni ansa. Indsge 4895 
grainde in gai. Caiti int erlond is iarlond, 7 int iarlond 
is urland, 7 int urland is remlond? Ni ansa. Urland in 
gai [.i. urlond Eg.] fodeisin, iarlond doteis, ar is iar gach 
ndeigheunacll, conid he sin int irlound is iarlound ï 
iut urlond is remlond .i. antan rosauoigh lar co haireill. 1900 
Caiti urland urlainne a n-urlaind? Ni ansa. Ferurlond, 
beunurlond, nemurlond. Urlond uorlainde a n-urlond? 
[Ni ansa Eg. om.] .i. bean an fir. Aurland a ndis ind 
urlond .i. ind eum [a nemh Eg.] nou a n-iffern. Aurlanda 
ilair masgail et feimin andso sis: Se, dha, tri, ceithre: Si, 4905 

i8 cumuscdai 

-1879 remtsuigh 

;: dib- 

';8i forcaomnacair 

YBL. 240 a 41 


Eg. 75 1 b 40 253 

di, teora, eeitheora; inanda insge airme 0 tsin imaeh. 
Is and sin fogabar eomrargai ilair neutuir .i. een urlalld 
iolair ogaib aeht i n-uathati nama. Caiti ind indsge 
tsaorda fogbur eonid aiceenta? Ni ansa. Iss ed in eend, 
ar as saorda a radh, 7 se for in duine. Is aiceenta .HHO 
immorro a radh ris iarna buain de. Cia haonfoueal 
regeomareaeh isna rem end- (eoI. ß) aiph gebes eungradus 
.i. greim eeithri n-ernaile dona reimeundaib? N i ansa. In 
foueal is treghdad 7 is aitrioph 7 indotouaeht 7 is asgnam : 
ar ni bi in tregdad gan int aitreph; ni bi ant aitrioph ein 4:915 
int indotaeht; ni bi int inotaeht ein int asgnamh; ni bi 
int asgnamh ein an treghdad, eonid treghdad 0 tuoind go 
tuoind tee/ltus. Cia brieht ambit oeht bfeudha oeon 
bfilid eongeiph an aonguta greim a leithe, 1/t est sliaehta 
et is ogleth andsin 7 ni eerlleth .i. a aonar a n-aghaidh 4fJ
na seeht litrioeh aile: 
Cia baile in Uraieept[a] idta in sealpad saordu cia reim 
aeht reim reimraiti, ut est luis ailme no bethe ailme .i. 
sealpad ita do ailm isin bethe 7 isin luis? Cia baile 
i bfoghapar eomtath eondsained een tin fed threothaip? J9
N i ansa. An bail a m bi nin ria ngourt gan guthaigie 
eutorra, ut est uinge. 
Cia baile i bfogapar in fidh fourtormazgh iar bfourpa 
na n-oeht sillab isin bfoueal is brioeht? Ni ansa. In 
baile a mbi deufougar isinn oehtmad dialt, is fidh four- 4930 
tormazgll indala foghar. 
Cie taopoumna gapus greim taopoumna et feudha 
et foueail? t\i ansa. Quert. Cia taobomna [na] gabh 
greim taoboumna na feudha na foueail? Ni ansa, h. 
Caiti bunad ruidliusta in foueail is aipgitir? Apexedebam. .1935 
:\ ipgitir, id ut: copula con litërarUlJ/ per se .i. ita in 
aipecitir in a eomtinollitir eona eomfialus: a litera oni is 
legitt'ra .i. ainm tighe aroile anmanda aitreupus a dtraigh 

4008 a n-uatha 
4919 sliachtai 

41113 n-ernaiIedh 
oi!1:1O defou 

4!118 Cedhai 
411:!:! taoibomnai na geb 

254 YBL. 2{0 ß 19 


Eg. 75 2 a 2-t- 

maura dienad hainm ]Vlolosus 7 gibe neeh adehi tegdus 
a n-anmanda sin foillsigther do fis eeeha healadna. Amal 4940 
i[ s] seud iarum fouillsigius eolus do neoeh faiesin na 
teghduse sin, is amlaid is edll fouillsigius do neoeh fiss 7 
aicsin litir, eonid airesin tueead int ainm is liti,. 0 anmaim 
tige an anmanda sin reimraiti for litir each baile ita: 
no litera a lz"teratura .i. on fouillsiugud 7 on eoimilt 4945 
doberdis arsanta forna claraib ciarta, ar inntib nosgripta 
ar dtus. 
Condagar bunad 7 inde 7 airbert, eoitehend 7 diles 
7 rudlius 7 indIes dOll foueal is aipgitir Bunad eim 
di epe ugdair: no eipe icon tor. A hairpert dano a 4950 
tapaiJ t fouT ni naeh inde, 'itt dicitur.. Aipgitir dno .i. 
tossaeh 7rlo. 
Caeh tan tiaghait na foueail seeh a n-inde toirne 
amaeh co ni naeh ni is inde inntib: no eomad i in airbert 
[foeail aithnzgte eile ar an focal anaithnigte .i. tinseetol 4955 
no tosaeh no eomad i a n-airbert Eg.] réim dia rosuigidh 
na foueail ut. Beurla n-airperta: eoitehclld dona litriph 
uile: diles dona eonsainib: ruidlius do guthagaibh: indlius 
a tapairt for lethgutaib intan legait 7 for ni as lugaidc 
as a iude. 4960 
 tiasea do fedhaibh 7 deaehaibh 7 reimeundaib 7 
for forbaidhib 7 altaibll 7 indsgibh 7 eutargairip amal 
roshuidhigti la filedaib na sgoile eeuta robautar ag Feinius 
Faurrsaidll ia[r] dteipe na Gaidilci doip asna di berlaiph 
Ixx co rotaissealpad do Gaidcl mae Angin. Ar is he sin 4963 
rotothlustar ant aonbeurla do teipe asna hilberlaiph dona 
mba hailIe 7 pa caine in gaeh berla dona dib berlaibh 
lxx. Conid airesin doraisealpad do, eonid de dogarar 
Gaidelc 7 Gaidil. N el mae Feiniusa Farrsaidh dia dtar- 
thar Sgouta, ingen Foraind, eonid dia hainmside raiter 4970 
Sguit amal adrupromar. Fer a hainmniugud uathaidh, fir 
.,I!J39 marai diaoad, cidh be .19,1:; aiom tige, ooamaim- YBL. 
.,IW;; coimmilt, ailitoatura 1\IS5. 

YEL. 240 ß 4 1 


Eg. 75 2 b 12 255 

a seal pad uathaid, fir a ainmnechad Hair, na fir a sealpadlt 
iJair, do fior [a danodh uathaid, do feroib Eg.] a danodh ilair, 
in fer a incousg uathaid, na fir a incosg Hair, a fir a toghairm 
uathaid, a fhira a thogairm Hair, 0 fer a foxal uathaid, 0 4975 
feraibh a foxal iJair, oc fir a fuirmed uathaid, og 
feraib a fuirmed iJair, co fer a asgnam uathaid, co 
feraiph a asgnam Hair, sech fir a sechmall uathaigh, sech 
fera a sechmaJl iIair, tre fer a tregdad (241) uathaid, tre 
fera a tregdad iIair, a fer a inotachta uathaigh, a fera a 49bO 
inotadl! iIair, fo fer a fortlld uathaigh, for feura a fortud 
iJair, fo fior a fouthlul uathaidlt, fo fera a fouthud iIair, 
tar fer a tairrsge uathaid, tar feura a tairrsgi iIair, fria fir 
a fresgapail uathaid, fri fera a fresgapaiI iJair, fri fcur a 
freislige uathaid, fri feura a freislige iJair, sic Ù& scquclltibus: 49::::3 
ferm1 a formoulad, fer a codud, feear a mallrugud, rer a 
deilidin, fefriar a chondail, fer a aon, fer a lan, ser a 
chendfochrus tuois, feI a chendfochrus deirid. N[i] airecor 
i diablll .i. ferfir, firin a lugugad, sofer a saorugud, dofer 
a daorugud, ni hairecour a urard .i. fera, feraibh a urisioI, 4g90 
feurtot a teIccud nai, fe a airciIl caIaidh, ni hairecor a 
airceJl fuit, firr a deichned, fe a dichned, 7 is é iurlond 
Cend cridhe fuoIach deime teibidi in fir. It e sin 
deismerecht na ndeime teibÙli in fir isna reimendoibh: 49!)j 
no lanamna an cind, suil 7 fiacail: lanamna in cride 
srephand 7 cru: lanomna in fulaillg, luorga 7 traghaid: 
lanamna in chind, suil 7 fiecail. 
Gene dano na lanomna ndeime: abratchor 7 mauIa, 
geine na sula: bunad 7 leithet, geine na fiacIa: tanaig- ;)000 
all! t't dath .i. ban no glas, geine int [s]reupaind: tighe 
t't dath beos .i. ruaidhe 7 deirge gene in cru: tond 7 lith, 
gene na traigeudh: croicend 7 feithe, gene na lurgall: no 
lethor l..t tound, geine na traigedh. 

\....J YEL. fo flOra 

25 6 YBL.Z.pa21 


Eg. 76 1 a 7 

Araile dono it e geine na lanomna deime a fuoirpdai. 5005 
A-\r at e tri geine docuisnet .i. gene forcometa 7 gen 
frithchometa 7 gen decomhéta. Gen forcoiméta cetumus: 
amal rogap faircle for glun. 
Imtha samlaid is fair anuas ginither forsail is focetoir 
geinither as do belaiph i fiout 7 gairdi. Gen decométa 5010 
dinill disail amal rogap fuil ar dh' feoil agus isin feoil. 
Is amlaidh dono din ill disazl congaib lasin bfoucal 0 tousach 
go deired dn urgabail cin urditeun. Gen frecometa airnin 
amal rogab cnaim mullaiclz 7 leicne 7 cnuic 7 find 7 nahi 
nat geiniter lasin dune fochetoir, uair is fo cousma/ius 5013 
alta duine domiter alta uad. Ni taidbeut dono in foucal 
is airJlin lasin bfoucal forsa dtouchrauthar foceutoir co 
mbi fair fo deoigh ardingidh in foucal. Ferdialt co sin 
In tiasca do bandialt andso siss: ben, mna, do bein, na 3020 
mban, dona mnaib, in mnai, ina mna, a ben, a mna, on 
mnai, ona mnaib, oc mnai, og mnaib, co mnai, co mnaib, 
sech mnai, sech mnaib, tre mnai, tre mnaib, im 
mnai, im mnaib, for mnai, for mnaibh, tar mnai, tar 
mnaiph. Benon a formoulad, bein a coutud, beean a 3023 
maullrugud, ben a aOll, ben a lan, ni hairechar a diabal 
.i. bean bean, gia isberat aroile ni bi nach Ian dn a diabal, 
beinin a lugugad, sobeun a saorugud, doben a daorugud. 
Ki hairecar a urard .i. beana: airecar immorro mnaa. 

i hairecar a urisil .i. benaib, bentot a telccud nae, be a fi030 
aircealla calaith. Ni hairechar a aircealla fuit, bel a 
cendfochrus deirid, beund a dichned, len a chendfochrus 
tuis, be a dichned, si 7 uindsi a urland indsge; oig 7 glun 
a deime teipidi; fair 7 srithiti a lanomna; bIas 7 millsi 
a geinsidhe; fairc1i 7 esgat a lanomna in gluin; 5033 
[cnaim Eg.] 7 feoil a ngeinid-sidhe: no it e i fuirmthe a 
ngeinsidhe amal reimeipertmor (co!. ß). Banndialt co sin. 

;;on fuil ar dh' feoil as i sin feoil: d. line 1822 

0017 tochrat ur 

YBL. 241 ß 1 


Eg.76 1 a41 25ï 

Don deimdialt so sis. 
N em, nime, na nime, do nim, do nimibh, in nim, in 
nimip, 0 nimh, 0 nimibh, oc nim, oc nimiph co nemh, 50-:10 
co nimip, sech nem, sech neimibh, for nemh for neimibh, 
tre nem, tre nimibh, tar nem, tar nimiph. N emon a 
formolad, neimh a cotud, neemh a mallrugud. nefriam 
a chondail, nem a aon, nemh a Ian. Ni hairecar a 
diabal, na a tsaorugud, na a daorugud, na [a] urard, na 5045 
[a] urisiol. 
Forsna, fona, esna, isna, tresna, sech na nime a lourga 
fuach: 0, do, im, co, es, fo, for, e, sech nime a dialt 
n-eitarleime e. [Ni fogabar a thelga nue. Ni hairecar 
.a air- Eg.] cell fuit, nel a cheundfouchrus deridh. N emm GOGO 
a deichned, nea a dich[ned], is ed 7 oundar a urlanda 
indsge. Ni hairecar a deime teipidi, ar is deime fo- 
deisin: neB 7 sduag neime a lanamna deime; dath 
7 airdi a ngeinidh-sidhe: no is he is a foirbti an gen. 
Dialt cou sin anuas. Finit. Amen. 50G5 



LL. 37 a I 


I. Can chlÓen. 7. 
2. Can rudrach. 8. 
Can rogair. 9. 
Can rofota. 10. 
Can dim[b Jrig. I I. 
Can forbrig. I 2. 
[At he sin na XII annuas. 
Corraib immorro co ndath 7 co tothucht. H.] 
Co ndath 7 tóthocht cona thomus fri fid 7 deach ï reim 5065 
7 forbaid 7 alt 7 insci 7 etargaire. Cor[ r ]aib and: 
A formolud. A thelgud noe : 
A chotut. noe, duine .j. in tan tuttes 
A mallrugud. in duine forsin tuind, is e 
A delidin. son imme foccul eturru 5070 
A chonnail. insin, tot. 
A oen (.i. a uathad). A airichill fuit. 
A Ian (-i. can dichned, can A chendfhochrus. 
A diabul. [ dochned). A dichned. 
A lugugud. A dochned. 
A shaerugud. A indsce mod. 
A doerugud. A erlond indsci. 
A irard. A demi thepidi. 
A irisel. A lanamna demi. 
A lorgga fuach. A genis de .i. géin 
A dialt n-etarleme. ón lanamain for each 
cenel labartha docussin 
o dialt co bricht. 

Can ecnairc fri frecnairc. 
Can uathad fri ilar. 
Can ecuibdius. 
Can ecenelas. 
Can éconlfhuaim. 
Can anoc[h ]t. 




:10:)8 In mar/:. .i. can 7 rcoir uch L. 
3065 III ma'11. ili in aireth fi1zd Itar ecc ifaar 

0061 Cain dimríg L. 
00';6 mad L. 

LL. 37 b 1 H. 143 I b 6 

ENTIUM 5085 

I. Can cloen cuibdiusa. 

Gabiam la seise soirche 
Seotu sochraide soirthe, 
Ria ndul issin fargge 
Gleam ar lessu re n-aidche. 

.i. soirthe 7 aidche exempll/11l. 
[A lallamlla demi a geni-side cen claen cetus, ut est in 
hoc .i. ata andseo .i. 

Gabam la sesi soirche 
Seotu sochraidi sorthi 
Re nd111 dun as is fairthi 
Gleam ar les ria n-aidhchi. 



Soirthi ocus aidchi is e in cloen and mana derntar oidche 
de i n-aigidh soirthi. Atat dano tri ernail for cloenadh 
.i. cret cloen 7 cloen ceilli 7 cloen cuibdiusa. Claen 5100 
cuibdiusa fil hic .i. andseo. H. 143 I b 6.] 
Cloen crétti. Fland mac Lonain d'U a Delbna 
ct't:ill it :- 

Tir da Locha forsil1ñg fotha, 
Fond fochrotha, cricha cuan, 
Caille cailfota, cl1ibrend buadach, 
Barcc reil rohetrocht rúamach ruad. 

2. Can rudracb. :Mac Da Cherda cecillit..- 

1\10 thipran i Collamair 
Ní cách atarodamair, 
Intí atarodomair 
Atib cona commadair. 

:>091 snrthe L. 

:110'2 IOD113i1l L. 

Ul-/;2. :: fJ j 


260 LL. 37 b 19 


pIo tipran i Collammair 
Ní each atarommadair, 
Intí rodas-rommadair 
Attib eonna eommadair. 


Ñlac Da Cerda dixit in rand-sa annuas. Desmirecht 
aile dano for rudrach, ut dt::ât Cellach Corrach :- 

Roseathatar mo longa 
Oeus mo glonna uile, 
Innid aeum eontuili 
In fer robí :\Ioeltuile. 


H. 143 I b 12.] 

3. Can rogalr. 
Is eaiñgen 
Bith frisin less n-imdañgen 
Oeus gairm neieh 'na dorus 


4. Can rofhota. 
Atá sund os ehind int shlúaig 
Eo find fota fo néim, 
Foeheird fáid ñgluair ñgrind doc bind 
I eill Choluim hut" N éill. 


[Cen root, ut dzxz"t Mac Lonain i nduain Delmna. 
cloen 7 root inso :- 


Tír da Laeha fairsiung fotha, 
Fond foehrotha, erieha euan, 
Cailli eælfhota, euibrend buadas, 
Bare rer n-oen etroeht ruamaeh ruadh. 

-:: SlD I) 

Cen rogair dano, ut dixit Liadain. 
Root rogair inso:- 5140 
Ata sund os ehind int láidh 
Heo find foda fath fo neim, 
Foeert find grind doc blaith bind 
Hi eill Colu[i]m hi Neill. H. 143 I b I7. J 

5124-7 fr. Tex/e, iii. 18, 

5133 Delnma L. 1. cret 

LL. 37 b 27 

5. Can dim brig. Fer l\luman ceci1lit:- 5145 
Ind hue issind assgandfhir (?) 
Fo tarrib tæbleirg tuignech, 
Deoraid amal cech Laignech, 
l\Iaignech amal cech Mumnech. 

[Fer ::\Iuman cecini!. Cen dimbrig, ut est ;- 


Ind uea innd ra sgaindair (?) 
Fo tharraib tæblerg tuignech, 
Deoradh amal each Laignech, 
l\Iaignech amal each Mumneach. H. 143 1 b 23.1 

6. Can fhorbrig. Rechtgal hua Siadail 
Oengusa mic Domnaill ceci1zit:- 

nduaín 5155 

Badbri Chuicid hErenn uile 
Ard bara, brass bile, 
Dobádi sis, ni sid chena, 
Cach rig acht rig nime. 


[Cen forbrigh dano, ut dl:rit Rechtgal hua Siadail :- 

Gemtis ganna fir betha 
Otha Liphi gu Letha, 
:Kasfurfead 01 niptais ga[i]nn 
Digi do dernaind Domnaill. 

::= S;Vl 


Desmirecht aile:- 

Badbrí Cuicidh hErend huili 
Art bara, bres bile, 
Dobbadi sis, ni sid chena, 
Cach rig acht rig nime. 

H. 143 1 b 26.] 5170 

7. Can ecnairc fri frecnairc. 
A Fhlaind Locha línib same, 
At fond flatha fine, 
Gnath la Fland, lathar n-áne, 
Ba re secha dine. 


262 LL 37 b 


H. 143 I b 3-t- 

[A [Fh ]laind Acha línib same, 
At fond flatha fírí ; 
Is gnath rí Fland, lathar n-ani, 
Ba rí secha dini. 


8. Can uathad fri ilar. 
l\laelcainnig hua Tolaig .i. mac Lairi Láidig. 
Cormac Slli amra dess, 
In dagda imma-radim, 
:\Iac Culennáin can écnach, 
Co cetlaib mora alaind. 
[Cormac sin, amra legind, 
D'eis in daghda norraidhim, 
l\lac Cuilennáin, can ecnach, 
Co cetlaibh moraib alaind. H. 143 I b 31.] 



9. Can écuibdius. 3190 
Oengus mac Oiblen cecinit. .- 
Oc cungid na féile 
Asa fortrén taitnem 
Túir la féige frithgnam 
Co léir ord na caibdel. ü 195 
[Cen cuibdius, 'lit dÚ:it Ængus .i. 
o cuingid na fele 
I s a forthren taitnem, 
Tuer la fegi frithgnam 
Co Her ord na caibdel. 

H. 143 I b 36.] 3200 

10. Can ecenelus. 
Tanic sund de muntir Dé 
Cleirchén gelbán, cáin a lí, 
N i fhetar císi rún 
Bud messu dÚn oldas díu. ü20;J 
[Cen ecenelus .i. na dertar [1. derntar] ferinsci do baninsci, 
no baninsci dferinsci, ut est..- 
Tainic sund do muintir De 
Clereach gelban, glan a Ii, 
Nucu n[fh]etar ciasa run 
Bad meassu dun oldas di. 


H. 143 I b 38.] 

5183 L. dagdai with i crossed out 
519"2-5 Félire, Prol. 3 2 9-3 2 

:iJB8 ecuach H. 
:;20:; 1. dí 

LL. 37 c I 

1 I. Can écomfúaim. 

Is hé rí 
enchæ same, 
Gel doe gaile iar crud chuile, 
Do[rat] {eolairecht ñgona 
For Eoganacht fer :\Iaige. 


[Cen ecomuaim fidraid do beith and, ut:- 

Is e rig Sencua Sani, 
Gel chlue gaili cruth cu ri, 
Dorat feolairecht ngona 
For Eoganacht fer :\Iuigi. 


H. 143 I b 41.] 

12. (Can anocht .i. cia locht .i. a nda nocht iarna diriuch 
don dligiud LL. margin.) 
Fogonar airchetul i n-anocht n-ellag, ar is coitchend- 
sium uile son. 5225 
[Cen anocht .i. cen nocht and sicut (?) asberat na 
hugdair, Fogonar airchetul i n-anocht, 1/t est..- 

Imcomarc flatha Femin, 
Fotait mail Macha im Mumain, 
Tore atchiu argair gabair 52
Fiu Core no Lore no Lugaidh. 

" Argair" and cen ni [ris cia rodligh co fil nocht and 
foesin. H. 143 1 b 44.] 
Co ndath 7 tothucht, 1/t dicitur: Tlachtga na l1-uath . . . 
dub a n-aerthar, brec i fochanar, find i mmoltar, lit cos . .. 52:35 

Ciaptis ganna fir betha 
Ótha Liphe co lLetha, 
N osfirfed 01 niptis [gainn] 
01 digc di dernainn Domnaill. 
:\Iælruanaid ruad imma rind 
Arching dorair Údualaig 
Is caiU tón bo can buaraig 
For aiU sron cherr Mælruanaid mic Flainù. 



:!'Æ-31 fr. THIe, iii. I 3. 
 24 : 4 2 , 
;I.W In marg. clui ut idei 

 dernailll L. 

26 4 LL. 37 c 12 


H. 143 1 b 48 

[Corraib co ndath 7 co tothucht. Att e tri datha' na hec[ se] 
sin .i. find 7 dub 7 brecc. Find ua moltar: dub ua n-aerthar: 5:?45 
brecc ua focarar mad comsan, lit dÙ:z"t Fingen mac Flaind:- 

Dosronusaa doib droing mbind bairdni briathar glesi, 
Gnim cen tlaisi ni tartatsom duais da hesi. H.] 

Brecc i fochanar, 1/t dÙ:z"t Fíngin mac Flaind:- 

Daronusa doib draÚg bind bairdne brethir glei[si] 
Gniim can tlási nistartsatsum duas dar esi. 
Kislen ecnach ond res chetlach cruth roncuala 
Ar ar Údála acht na tucsatsum duas far duana. 


Tothocht dano .i. amal beit a bésa, corop amlaid moltair 
.]. molad laich do læch 7 molad clerich do chlereck. 5255 
[Tothucht dano .i. be it a mbesa, corob amlaid moltar 
cach .i. moladh laich for læch, molad cleirigh for c1erech, 
molad mna for mnai. Moladh laich do læch, lit dixit U rard 
mac Coisi:- 

Crithir crithes crathas cuan 
Riches rochas corc buan 
U a rig Lemna leotha cend 
Bres Berba buille dilend. 


Molad derigh for clerech :- 

Tuthal dluim do deirc De dil 
H ua Chonaill mic Amirgin 
Huasal escop lnsi Fail 
Comarba cathrach Ciarain. 


Molad mna for mnai :- 

Ciall cruth ccnel cen chairi 
Gaes gart genus co ndruin eland, 
Compert cen grain gaili 
Atat ic dzngbail uili. 


;, 8. 5:!50-3 Arch. C. P. iii. 296, 44, 5 5:!J;; fr. THte, iii. 30, 19; 121, 31 

LL. 37 C 18 H. 143 I b w 
Sechta fris tomsiter Goedelg, fidh 7 insci 7 etargaire. 
Is ed a fid as gu .i. cona thomus fri fidh .i. in cetna fidh 5275 
ind focail as guthas. Is ed as deach a traig. Is ed a reim 
a thuisel. Is ed a forbaid a aicent (verso). Is ed a alt int 
alt airchetail 7 ni he int alt bis etir cach da dealt isna 
deachaibh. Is ed a insci na teora insci docoisnet .i. ferinsci 
7 baninsci 7 deminsci. Is ed a etargaire a deligud 5280 
n-indsci. Corraib and, a formoladh, ut dixit Mac Lonain. 
Feron a formolod. 

Cenn 0 lochaib do lindol 
Co clothaib, clu nadh gandon, 
Techt for eocho i cind crichi, 
Maith bethu bithi annon. 



A chotut, ut Fer 
Iuman dixit:- 
Goth gruce golfad breice 
Bæth críche crich co ndorthor, 
Iar mbeithsiu sæb a thigthol 
Iilcon mic Onchon. 


[A cotot (.i. timorcain fri aicnead no i cind) dano, lit 
Fer lYluman dÙ:it so sis:- 
Goth gruice gulfad mbreice 
Bæth criche crich iar torthor 
Iar mbeith sund s
ob a thiugthol 
Taistel Milcon mic Oncon. 


H. 143 2 a 7.] 

A mallrugud, 111 Cormac cecillit do Inis Cáin:- 
N ech nobiad bliadain láin 
I taig aiged Indsi Cain, 5300 
Rabad glebán a níab 
Oc dul dar sliah Sion sáir. 

[A maI[I]rugud dano .i. fri haicnead 
N ech nobiad bliadain lain 
For cuit dig
d Inse Cain, 
Robad ainglaidi a máin 
Ic dul tar sliab Sioin sair. 

[ltt ql/idtllll..- 
.i. a rad co mall, 


H. 1432 a 10.] 

:;?'ï!1 docoi

;; 6 R C. xx. 15 0 


266 LL. 37 c 23 


H. 143 2 a 13 


A delidin litterda, ut dixit. . . 
Glainidir gol co am son 
SÚi dian so sad siloehta 
Sine' . . . Í nse Cathatg eóir. 
A deli din sillabacda, ut Mac Lénin dixit:- 
o bi mae cleib eaindleeh 
Sær sert each n-ainm ailln . . . gossa fer (.i.) Fergossa. 



[A delidin, 1/t dixit l\'lac Lenin: 
o bi mae cIeib eaindlee sersit each. 



A chondail. Cormac dona Cnoib Segsa:- 
Æd Ailig ollehathaeh, 
Ailsil1S deir Ùdianim dubach 
As goam gilidir gési Loeha Leín. 


A diabul:- 
A'gl1r águr iar eéin beith 
I péin péin, ní sid sid, 
Amal eáeh eáeh co bráth bráth 
I n each thráth thráth cid scíth scíth. 


A lugugud J lit Flalld mac Lonain:- 
1\10 ehara-sa Cnámine 
Car aslaeh n-Eile n-aehtaeh, 
Bid fálid frim Dámine, 
Cia dom-fhaeeed eét mareaeh. 


A oen, ut Clothna mac Oengusa dixit:- 
Imehomare roruad rogda 
D'fhir imdíeh soshluag sadha, 
A iath na trenfher tigba, 
V'aim do threnfher glegel 
abla (lIlargÙz triadi). 


A doerugud, Mac legind fri gilla rig Resad:- 
Ar eorruean el1mraide, 
Ollurgbail ar Ùglanbaile, 
N is-fuar eæm a ehomdile, 
Ciaso dær is dagduine. 


 cf. RC. xx. 144, 27-8: Gotd.? 158 
;;:)"28 1. Caras Íath 

">7 -:10 Ir. Tn:/e, iii. 63 

TIUl\l 267 
LL. 37 c 40 
A urard:- 

Frim gruad corcra ma chora, 
Dom-ruacht bochta fom-bera ; 
)Ji chelim, uair it cara, 
Feib atberim atbera. 


A irÍsel, in ben side cecillit..- 
Secht mbliadna lána 0 noc[h]t 
Fotgluasfither on oenphort, 
Feraib mnaaib mairg rósbi 
1m ín Dond cathach Cuahigi. 

It II !If. ii 


A lorgga fuach. Cormac cecinit issin tririg:- 
In tocéb mo churchan cíar 
For in n-ocian n-ucht-Iethan n-án ? 
In rag, a Rí richid réil, 
As mo thoil féin ar in sál? 


1m ba sessach, im ba selig, 
1m ba fressach, torgib drolig, 
A Dé in culigene frimm, 
o thí oc techt for lind lond? 

Lorgga fuach eter da fOCll/.i. sal 7 sessach; im ba, is í 5360 
ill lorga fuach. 
A dealt D-etarléime .i. remshuidigud óenshillaibc eter 
da chomfhuaim fhidraid, ut idem in eodem..- 
Ced leth co bráth iar cuaird chross 
Coslafe mo bachlach cress, 5365 
1m bá sair, im ba siar, ní súail, 
1m bá fo thúaid, im ba fo dess. 

Is é in desmerecht and sin .i. ced eter dered ind raind 
toesig .i. lond 7 tossach ind raind tan[ aisi]. 
A thelgud Doe:- :)370 
Orddan na Trig recht as gleo céin ba beo bert 
Særthot slantot cech . . . sa tathot rota rodatí. tisat. 

8 cr. Æ/t. II'. Ð1ChtullK, p. 9 

; I. tressach, cf. 940 

268 LL. 37 c S6 


A uraehil ealaidi:- 
Cen cob delb alaind mo drech 
N imthá a chleith ceil na guth 
Deithbir dam cid diuir mo dath 
Uair nach i rochiur ma chruth .i. rochiguir. 



(LL. 38 a) 

A airiehil fuit. 
Colum Cille céin nom-bó 
Bid mo dú can da co fei[rc]. 
Fri cach ñguas ge radat 
No molur méit mo de[i]rc. 


Fegsat filid Fail i fus 
F enchas co feig la Fergus, 
Mad tar mal cach maige immach 
Doróscib dóinib Dubthach. A Dia a ri. 


[A diehned.] 
Dal rodalus, ba mor in b;les, 
Issinn arus os Druim Lias. 
Ammo Chomdiu, [a rí] ru ra (.i. dichned littri) 
Cach rhbi bui (.i. di sillaib) ba bas ni thias. 


A deehned. 

La mac fir neit fadb corcra, 
Teit daig demin ni tercdu, 
[ForruimJ tenn co cruind ochtga, 
Gnath cend i crub Con Echtga. 
Cellach cemind inmain fer 
. . . febra . . . eise. . 
mac ríg rigi tuir la . . . as dilid dam 



A demi thepidi. 
Is hé daig derg dige dath 
f . . . gaidther ca . . . 
chainem cruth fifotr. . . . 


1538.5.8 RC. XX. 152 5:J8\I hl marg. a demi 
5390-3 Amra C.C. (Stokes' Coed.'!. 158: RC. xx. 144) 
1539;;"8 RC. xx. 150 .5397 denn L. :;-103-15 cf. 556-9 of Auraiceþ/ 


A lanamna demi. 
indsci no banindsci do thabairt isin Údemi . . . ut quidalll 
acÙzit ..- 

Is he a bna is a ri fuair 
lass. . . gruad gland ama/ grcin 
sein sith fri silbad rig co. . . . 


A genis de. Quidam dÙ:it :- 
I s he mac milis ne tar each triath . . . 
issí ímcain imchess caich 
fri fath a finchruib ar fuach. 


BB. 305 ß 10 LL. 3 8 ß 7 
bzcipit do, L. De, duilib feda na forfid, L. fored, lasill 
filid, L. Ia filidaib. Is aen, L. oen, dialt fri rig he, L. rigi, 
is a do fri timargain, L. dó ri timmargain. 
Corus forfid fedat filid, L. Ca ri fored fegait fuid, 5420 
firthar do, L. dá, eo -)f-, aire -0-, ar aen, L. oen, ""}JC", 
uair T, iar JIlL. 
Æd uird na foifed, L. hetir, (.i. etis B.) bail 7 baile, 
ata L. 011/. L. da emancoIl, ..L, bairc, L. bairg, JIIE..., 
L. baire ___, is bair (.i. suid B.) 7 brai 7 brais 7 brailld 51,23 
(.i. mna), L. bran, 7 bairt (.i. ingen), L. bairi, bairend, 7 ban 
B., 7 bai 7 bailI, L. bair, 7 baile it emuncholla nosbellanti, 
L. id emanchuilI nodabenadar, uile 7 r I. BeoiI [7 beoit >*-, 
eo 7 ceo it >*-, L. om.] 7 beoir, 7 gIeoir L. om., 7 treoir, i[t] 
tria ebaid, L.
. Beid 7 teid 7 reid 7, sgleit L. 011/., 51,30 
L. geid, 7 seid, L. 7 gIeid, dead 7 scead, L. stead, 7 treat, 
L. tread, it >*- nodusbeJladar, L. nodabenadar, uile. 
Liag, L. Iian, 7 Brian 7 grian, L. 7 trian, 7 triall 7 srian 
7 cIiar, L. 7 riar 7 mian 7 tiar 7 miad, fin, L. ifin, a 
feda uile. 51,35 
Feoil .i. 
, fian, L. fial, .i. -,;-, feo, L. feoil, .i. 

-*- ; fian, L. fia, .i. -c;-; feagh, L. feaigh, *-; 

fiad, L. fiag, .i. ,,--, nodusbelladar, L. nodabenadar, 

:H23 etis O'1!er bail B. 

28 L. COff. 


BB. 305 ß 21 

DE DUILIB FEDA LL 38 ß 21 27 1 

Buidle (.i. dan B.) 7 buidlen arem, L. 7 airemh ard, da 3440 

. Buaid 7 druaid it, L. da, 
; duar (.i. 
focu1, L. feoi1), cruan (.i. trefocu1) mua1 (.i. mu1enn, 
L. muilend) fuar (.i. muir, L. di1end .i. muir) nuall (.i. err, 
L. om.) fuam (.i. muis, L. muir) 7 duan 
 a fid, 

L. fida, uile. Cual is 
 ceo1, L. coeI, is -9-, boaid 
(.i. eblud E.) boar 7 boa, boi1glan, 01Jl. L 7' boilban, (.i. 
banefes E.), guit, L. cuitti, 
; coich is '}-6-, buar 
, boir, is oir, L. -e-, boairech, L. boairig, 

is -n-, L. -6-, nodusbelldai, L. nodambentar uile. 
Ocus rai 7 cai 7 mai 7 lai 7 gnæi, L. Dói 7 rói 7 cói 5430 
7 mói 7 lói 7 gnói, is -{r, L. adds dabenadar uile. 

Xær, L. noer IS, -Ð-, nuar (.i. gabad), L. suad (.i. 

gabud), is }JrÇ, muad (.i. med), L. muag is, ""}Jrr 

[L. 01Jl. mæid is )-0-, suad is }JrC druad 7 suad '}J( 
nodus-belltar]. ;::;4
Lanchumang a firfcdaib, L. i forf11edaib, cumang i 
forfedaib, L. fuorfuedaibh, fegthair do thaebomnaib. Téit 
dede i n-æn, L. n-oen, ata-boing, L.-bong, tui teachtaid fili, 
L. file, fad, L. fath, nad fubai. Is e in lanchumang, teid, 
L. eter, in da fid aireghda i coimfrecru. Is, L. é in, cumang 5460 
immorro in bail[e L.] i mbit in da guttai, L. gutta, isin 
ænsillaib .i. in bail[e L.] i tochradar, L. tochdar, i forfid 
L. in da fhorid [.i. ___ L. om.]. 


BE. 3 08 ß 44 
CAIDE loc 7 aimser 7 persu 7 fath alr1C in ogailll? Ni 5465 
ansa. Loc do Hibernia itzsola quam 110S Scoti habita11l1fs. 
I n-aimsir Brese mic Elathan rig Erenn dofrith. Persu 
do Ogma m"ac Elathan mic Delbæith derbrathair do Bres, 
ar Bres 7 Ogma 7 De1bætll tri mic Elathan mic De]bæith 
andsen. Ogma didiu, fer roeolach a mberla 7 a filidecht, 3470 
is e rainic int ogam. Cuis airic (309) derbad a int]echta 7 
co mbetlt in bescna-sa ic 1ucht in eo]ais fo leth, sech lucht 
na tirdachta 7 na buicnechta. Can as fuair ainm iar sUlld 
7 ret int oga11l J 7 caide mathair 7 athair i,l ogai11l J 7 cia 
cetainm roscribad tri ogam, 7 cia fid in roscribad, 7 cuis ar G475 
roscribad, 7 cia dia roscribad, 7 cid ara remtet bethi ria cach, 
(hic uoluuntur omnia). 
Ogam 0 Ogma suo Ùlllent01'e primo ria sun1l quid em ; 
iar ret, imlllorro, ogU11l og-uaim .i. og-uaim, doberait na 
fi1id forsin filideacht trid, ar is fri fedaib toilllsither 5480 
Gæde]g icna filedaib: athair ogailll Ogma, mathair ogaim 
lám no scian Ogma. 
Is e so im11lorro in cetna ni roscribad tri ogam, > I I II I II 
.i. in beithi roscribad, 7 do breith robaid do Lug mac 
Etlenn roscribad im da1a a mna na ru[c]tha uada hi 5485 
i sidaib .i. secht mbethi i n-ænfh1esc do bethi: Berthar 
fo secht do ben uait i sid no a ferand a1i mallis-cometa 

:116:1.9 O'D. Gr. xxviii. note e 
:1477 Margin 

i3 sUlld written out (= sun) 
80 arris B. 


\VHAT are the place, time, person, and cause of the inven- 
tion of the Ogham? Not hard. Its place Hibernia insula 
-quam 1lOS Scoti lzabita11l11s. In the time of Bres son of 
Elatha king of Ireland it was invented. Its person 
Ogma son of Elatha son of Delbæth brother to Bres, 
for Bres, Ogma and Delbæth are the three sons of 
Elatha son of Delbæth there. Now Ogma, a man well 
"killed in speech and in poetry, invented the Ogham. 
The cause of its invention, as a proof of his ingenuity, and 
that this speech should belong to the learned apart, to 
the exclusion of rustics and herdsmen. \Vhence the 
Ogham got its name according to sound and matter, who 
.are the father and the mother of the Ogham, what is the 
first name that was written by Ogham, in. what letter it 
was written, the reason why it was written, by whom 
it was written, and why b precedes every letter, hie 
lIollllll/tur OJllIll(l. 
Ogham from Ogma suo illvelltore primo in respect to 
its sound, qllidc11l,. according to matter, however, Og1l11l is 
og-uai11l, perfect alliteration, which the poets applied to 
poetry by means of it, for by letters Gaelic is measured 
by the poets; the father of Ogham is Ogma, the mother 
{)f Ogham is the hand or knife of Ogma. 
This m oreover is the first thing that was written by 
Ogham, >11 11 I II ,to.e. (the birch) b was written, and to 
-convey a warning to Lug son of Ethliu it was written 
respecting his wife lest she should be carried away from 
him into faeryland, to wit, seven b's in one switch of birch: 
Thy wife wiII be seven times carried away from thee 
into faeryJand or into another country, unless birch guard 
r,s s 

2ï4 BI3. 309 a IS 

OG A 1\1 

betlti. Is aire immorro remitet bethi, ar is a mbethi 
ro-cetscribad ogam. 
Cis lir fogla ogailll 7 caiteat? Ni ansa. A iiii: bethe 5490 
a v, uath a v, muin a v, ailme [a] v, forfeda olcena. 
Cis lir aicme ogaim? N i ansa. A iii .i. viii n-airigh 
fedha, 7 viii n-athaigh, 7 viii fidlosa. Ocht n-airigh 
cetus :-fern1l, dur, coll, muin, gort, straif, onn, or. Ocht 
n-athaig .i. bethi, luis, sail, ni1l, huath, tin1le, quert. Ar 5495 
chuit a feda is athazg feda fidlosa olchena. 
Quot SU1lt genera i,l ogailll? K i ansa. CL, ct 
figllras eon/Ill et potestates secundum ordi1lelll 1Zlt1ltiabill///s, 
asnedim primus do fedaibh na crann 0 tuctha anmand 
for fedhaibh in ogaim secu1ldum alios et alios 1lOlIlÙI- 5500 
alltur. Cesc, mased, can asin - ainmni[g]ter feda 7 
tæbOll111a i1l ogaim? Ki ansa. Seczt1ldum alios quidem 
is 0 scoil Feniusa Farsaidh .i. scol na filideachta rofaid 
Fenius fon domun d' fhoglaim na mberla. Bai xxv ba 
huaisliu di[b] conid iat a n-anmann-saide tuctha for bethi
luis-nin in ogailll eter feda 7 tæbomna; 7 bai cethrur ba 
huaisli dibh-side itf'ru11l, conid iat a n-anlllanll-side tuctha 

forna vii fedaib aire[g]daib - 



7 rotuillset triur eli friu, conid uaidib-side ainmnigter na 
tri forfeda aile, conad aire deglaiter ar leth 
A - . 5;:)10 
Secu1ldum alios is 0 fedaib na caille tuctha anlllan1l for 
fedaibh in ogailll trin-troip. Beithi immorro 0 bethi na 
cailli forsin cetna fid for set na aipgitri in ogaim. Luis .i. 

:.m uatha v B. mui" 7 It 
;;;;/)'.! JIm gin. Molgalraig .i. ach no uch ar emuncoll ar gabar emuncoll 
ar ach no uch 50;!).. d'fhodlaim B. 
;;.Jf)ü For cethrur I. morshesser, vii c01ifused 'with iiii 


-/ :> 

her. On that account, moreover, b, birch, takes pre- 
cedence, for it is in birch that Ogham was first written. 
How many divisions of Ogham are there, and what 
are they? Not hard. Four: b five, h five, m five, a 
five, besides diphthongs. 
How many groups of Ogham ? Not hard. Three, 
viz., eight chieftain trees, eight peasant trees, and eight 
shrub trees. Eight chieftain trees first :-alder, oak, haze), 
vine, ivy, sloe, furze, heath. Eight peasant trees, viz., birch, 
quicken tree, willow, ash, whitethorn, whin, apple tree. 
As to their letters all other shrubs are peasant trees. 
Quot simt gelltTa of the Ogham ? Not hard. 
C"L, et jigltras eorulIl et polesttlles secllndum ordÙzelll 
Illt lltiabilll us. I shall speak prilll11lll of the woods of 
the trees whence names have been put for the Ogham 
letters, secundum alios et (l/iOS 1l0lllÙzalltur. Query, well 
then, whence are the Ogham vowels and consonants 
named? Not hard. SecundulIl alios quidem, it is from 
the school of Fenius Farsaidh, to wit, the school 
of poetry which Fenius sent throughout the world to 
learn the languages. There were five and twenty that 
were noblest of them so that it is their names that were 
put for the Bethe Luis 
 in of the Ogham, both 
vowels and consonants; and there were four who were 
the noblest of these again, so that it is their names that 
were given to the seven principal vowels:- 



and they added other three to them so that from 
these are named the other three diphthongs, wherefore 
"A =- are classified apart. Sccundum alios it is 
from the trees of the forest that names were given to the 
Ogham letters metaphorically. Moreover bcithe, b, is from 
the birch of the forest for the first letter on the path of the 
Ogham alphabet. Luis, 1, that is, elm in the forests. 

27 6 BB. 309 a 38 


lemh sin isna cailltib. Fern .i. fearn sin isin caill. Sail 
in ogailll .i. sail dono sin isin caill. Nin ill ogaÙIl .i. ,:),:)15 
ginol garmna no nenaid isna feadaib. U ath ill ogai1ll 
crand fir no sce ar a delgaighe insin. Dur in ogaim dair 
dono isin caill. Tinne in ogaim .i. quulend no trom isin 
caill. ColI in ogaim .i. colI isin caill. Quert in ogaim 
quulend isin caill no cairthend no crithach. Muin .i. ,:)520 
midiu. Gort .i. gius. Getal .i. gilcach. Straif saildrong 
isin caill. Onn .i. aiten no uinius. U r .i. draighen. Edad 
.i. eu. Ida .i. ibhar. Ebad .i. elentl. Oir .i. feorus. 
Uilleall11 .i. edlend. Pin in ogailll, pin dano isin caill, 
De atbertar cæra pinlle; ifin dano secundum alios ainm in 3325 
feda sin. Emancoll dono .i. coll emnaide iar ret no iar 
fuath .i. coll dar coll ina fuath. 

Briatharogam Morailld mic Mhain andso. . Feocus 
foltchain ar beithi sen isin briatharogam, uair an- 
mand tuc (co!. ß) Morand uaidh fen for fedaib ill 3530 
ogaim is iat gabus greim fed a IS1l1 briatharogam. 
Feocus foltchain ar son bethi, ar at e sin da egosc 
in bethi, 7 tucad uadsan for fidh in ogailll rogab ainrn 
Li sula .i. luis sin .i. in luisiu. 5535 
Airinach Fian .i. sciath ar fern alglseom sin ar a 
ndergi ar ænrian: no air is i in fern adbllr in sceith tucad 

28 A,lee. iii. 43 

553:1 Origg. xvii. 9, 93 



l-èr1l, f, that is, alder in .the forest. Sail, s, of the Ogham, 
that is, willow, again, in the forest. .ATÙz, n, of the 
Ogham, to wit, maw of spear, or nettles in the woods. 
Uath, b, of the Ogham, that is, test-tree or whitethorn, on 
account of its thorniness. Dur, d, of the Ogham is oak, 
again, in the forest. TÙl1ze, t, of the Ogham, to wit, 
holly or elderberry in the forest. ColI, c, of the Ogham, 
to wit, hazel in the forest. Quert, q, of the Ogham is 
holly in the forest, or quicken tree, or aspen. 1I1ÚÙ1, vine, 
m, to wit, mead [from it). Gort, cornfield, g, to wit, fir. 
Celal, ng, to wit, broom. Straif, str, willowbrake in the 
forest. Oun, 0, to wit, furze or ash. Ur, u, to wit, 
thorn. Edad, e, to wit, yew. Ida, i, to wit, service tree. 
Ebad, ea, to wit, elecampane. Oir, oi, to wit, spindle tree. 
Uillel11l1l, ui, to wit, ivy. Pi1l, 10, of the Ogham, pine, 
again, in the forest. Hence are named caerll pÙl1le, goose- 
berries; ifi1l, again secundum alios is the name of that 
letter. ElIlllllcoll, witch hazel, ae, again, to wit, C doubled 
according to fact or according to form, to wit) C across 
c in its form. 

\Y ord Ogham of lVlorann Mac Main here. Feocus 
foltcluzÍ1z, faded trunk and fair hair, that is for birch, b, 
in the \V ord Ogham, because names which Morann 
gave of himself to the Ogham letters, these are ther 
which take the effect of letters in the \Vord Ogham. 
Feoals foltc/will for b, for these are two aspects of the 
birch, and it was hence put for the Ogham letter which 
has taken a name from it. 
Lí szíla, delight of eye, that is luis, quicken tree, 1, to 
wit, the flame. 

:lirÙzaclt Fill1l, i.e., shield of warrior-bands, i.e., shield 
for fi:nz, f, with him owing to their redness in the same 
respect: or because the alder, the material of the shield 

78 BB. 309 ß 6 


o fernæ forsin fid ogailll rogab ainm uaidhi. Airenach 
Fian .i. sciath fern sin aigisium. 
Li n-aimbi .i. Ii mairb .i. am fo diultad conach beo :)340 
acht is marh. Li n-ambi dono .i. sail aigise01l1 sin, 
7 tugad uaidisium forsin fid n-ogaim. 
Cosdad sida .i. niu se1l: giuol garmna fri fid e: airde 
sida sin. Cosdad sida aigi sin 0 nin na garmna. 
Conal cuan .i. uath sin, ar is uath la nech conal chon :):)4:> 
alladh. Conal cuan do rad re huath ill ogai11l ar coiblliliS 
in anma J ar uath iat ar ænrian. 
Ardam dossaibh .j. dur sin a dualus a feda is in caill. 
Trían .i. aill inde sin aniu. 
Cainiu fedaib .i. coll sin ar a chailli a fedaibh. :>:)50 
Clithar mbaiscaill .i. buaili .i. boscell .i. gelt .i. basceall 
.i. is and tic a ciall do in tan degas a bas. Clithar boiscell 
dono .i. quert sin: no boscell .i. elti .i. edruma iat. Clithar 
boiscell dono .i. gelti no elti : quert a dualus a feda. 
Tresilll fedma .i. muin leis-siulIl sin .i. ar æntaidh anrna 555:) 
fri muin duine no daim, ar is iat is tresi feidlll ann. 
l\Tillsiu feraib .i. gort leis-sium sin ar æntaidh [in] 
anma frisin gort arba. In tan (qlllllll) bis ina fuaclzonn, is 

:.539 aigsim B. 5552 on tiagas ;';;56 ann U'1'lttm oul :'5;;; in hv late h'Z.zd 



was from ftrllcl! given to the Ogham letter which has 
taken a name from it. A ire1lac/l Fzi.m, i.e., shield, that is 
fern, f, with him. 
Lí 1l-aimbf, hue of the lifeless, i.e., hue of one dead, to 
wit, am for denial, so that he is not living but is dead. Lí 
n-aimbí, again, to wit, that is sail, willow, s with him, and 
hence it was put for the Ogham letter. 
Cosdad sida, checking of peace, that is /lÍ1l, ash, n: it 
is the maw of a weaver's beam as applied to wood: a sign 
of peace is that. A checking of peace with him is that 
from the ash of the weaver's beam. 
C01lal Clla1l, pack of wolves, to wit, that is ua!h, thorn 
h, for a terror to anyone is a pack of wolves. Conal CUall 
said of the Ogham h, owing to the affinity of the name, 
for they are a thorn, in the same way. 
A rdam dossaibh, highest of bushes, that is dur, oak, 
d, with respect to its wood in the forest. 
Triall, t, another thing the meaning of that to-day. 
CàÍ1liu fedaib, fairest of trees, that is hazel, C, owing 
to its beauty in woods. 
Cli!hay l
lbaiscaill, shelter of a hind, i.e., a fold: to wit, 
boscell, lunatic, that is bas-ccall,death sense,it is then his sense 
comes to him when he goes to his death. Cli/hay boiscdl, 
again, that is an apple tree: or boscell, that is, hinds, to 
wit, they are light. Cli/llar boiscdl, again, i.e., lunatics or 
hinds: quer!, an apple tree, q, with reference to its letter. 
Trcsim fedma, strongest of effort, that is lIluill, vine, m, 
with him, i.e., owing to identity of name with IImitl, back of 
man or ox, for it is they that are the strongest in existence 
as regards effort. 
.Jlillsiu feraib, sweeter than grasses, that is gor!, ivy, g, 
with him owing to the identity of the ndme with the corn- 
field. \Vhen it is in the blade, sweeter than any grass is that 
grass, to wit, the cornfield. Hence for that letter in Ogham 

280 BB. 309 ß 2+ 


millsi na gach fer in fer sin .i. in gort arba. U ad-side 
forsin fid ut i n-oga11t ar comæntaidh in anma atura. [;560 
Luth legha getal sen .i. ar is luth lasna leigib, 7 
coibni/ls etir cath 7 getal. 
Tresim ruamna .i. straif leis-si1tlll sin i ll-ogalll. Straif 
iar ræt; ar isin straif is tresiu ruamna ic dathadh na 
ræt, ar is i dogni in airget ngeal conad gorm ic denum ij365 
airgit decht de. Is i berbthar tresin fual isin or mban co 
ndene derg de. Tresilll ruamna in straif ia[r] ræt. 
Tugad uaid-side isin fid dianad ainm straif ar æntaid 
anma aturu .i. straif ainm cechtar de. 
Tinnem ruccæ ruis sin .i. on ruidiudh no on rllzS iar ;)370 
ret, ar is tre rllis scribthair, 7 is ruidhiud fasas a n-aigid 
in duine tri sug in lossa do cuimilt fæthi. Tindi rucæ 
dono do rad frisin ruis 0 rus no on ruided, ar IS tri rUlS 
scribtair-side fen. 
Ardam iactadh .i. mactad .i. ailm aigisium sin; ar is 5575 
ailm (no a) adber in duine ac iachtad i ngalar, no ic 
machtad .i. ag ingantugud secip ræta. 
Congnamaigh echraide .i. onnaid in carpait .i. na roith 
.i. onn leis-silllll sin, ar is tri onn scribthar onnaid in 
carbait. Aliter comguinidech .i. aiten. Tucad uad-side 3380 
forsin fid ut dianad ai1llll onn ar æntaid ataru ar is ainm 
onn do cechtar de; 7 is on aitenn tucad int ainm is onn 
frisin fidh n -ogailll sccllndu III alios. 

5fJ71 a n-:liùid B. 

7:1 ruir 0 rufl- B 

7t; i ngaJair B. 



owing to the complete identity of the name bet,,"een 
Luth /cgha, a physician's stret"!gth, that is broom, ng, 
to wit, because it is strength with the physicians, and there 
is an affinity between cath, panacea (?), and geial, broom. 
Tresilll rualll1la, strongest of red, to wit, that 
IS str with him in Ogham. Strait. sloe, according 
to fact; for in the sloe red for dyeing the things 
IS stronger, for it is it that makes the pale silver 
become azure, making it genuine (?) silver. It is it which 
is boiled through the urine into the white gold so as to 
make it red. Tresilll Y!UllIl1la is the sloe according to fact. 
Hence it was put in the letter named str, owing to 
identity of name between them, i.e., straif is the name 
of each of them. 
TÙmclll 1'ltCCle, intensest of blushes, that is ntis, elder- 
berry, r, to wit, from the reddening or shame according to 
fact, for by r it is written, and it is a reddening that grows 
in a man's face through the juice of the herb being rubbed 
under it. Tim!i rllccæ, an ingot of a blush, again, said of 
the ntis, elder-berry, from shame or from reddening, for it 
is by r that it is itself written. · 
A rdalll iachtadh, loudest of groanings, that is wonder- 
ing, to wit, that is aillll, fir, a, with him; for it is aillll or a 
a man says while groaning in disease, or wondering, that 
is, marvelling at whatever circumstance. 
COJlgllallltlid ecllraÙlt-, helper of horses, to wit, the 
O1l1laid of the chariot, i.e. the wheels, to wit, that is 01/11, 
furze, with him, for it is by 0111l, 0, that the wheels of the 
chariot are written. A/iter, cOlllguillidcdl, equally wound- 
ing, i.e. whin. lIenee it was put for that letter which i
named Ollll, 0, owing to identity between them, for 01/11 is 
a name for each of them; and it is from whin that the 
name 01l1l was put for the Ogham letter seculldu1Il alios. 

282 BE. 309 ß 47 


Etiud midach .i. cath. Tucad ua-side for getal. 
U araib adbaib .i. ur aigisium sin ar is do uir in talman ;;:;S;j 
IS ainm uaraib adbaib. Tucad uada-side forsin fidh 
dianad ainm ur in ogaim, ar æntaid anma aturu .i. ur 
cechtar de, 7 tre ur scribthair. 
Ergnaid fid .i. edad (310) aigisium sin, ar is don crunll 
crit[h ]aig is ainm ergnaid fid. Tucad uada-side forsin 5:;90 
fidh ogailll dianad ainm edhadh, ar is uad tucad edad 
Siniu fedhaib .i. idad aigiseom sin; ar is do ibar as 
ainm siniu fedaib. Tucad uad-side forsin fid ut i n-ogam 
dianad ainm idad, ar is uad tucad int ainm is idad fair;- 559;j 
ar is do ibar is ainm idad. 
Snamchain fheda .i. ebad les-silllll sin, ar snamchaill 
fid .i. don bran mor is ainm sen. Tucad uad-side forsin 
fid dianid ainm ebad in ogailll, ar is ainm do bratan é 
7 is tri ebad scribt[h Jar side amal aipgitir in betha .i. 5600 
tre seg (.i. os), eo(.i. )tre eonasc (.i. Ion). 
Sruitem aicdi .i. or iar ret. Tucad uad-sidc forsin fid 
ar æntaid in anma fi1 aturu .i. or ainm cechtar de. 
Tutmur fid uillemm .i. uillemlll leis-( s ]ium sin, ar is do 
edlenn is ainm. Tucadh uad-sidhe forsin ogam dianad 560;j 
ainm uillemm, ar is uadh tucad uilleanll fair, ar is do edlinll 
is ainm. 
::\Iillsim feda .i. pin sin aigisium, ar is dOll chrunn 
dianid ainm pin is ainm mills}um feda. De atbertar cæra 
pinneo Tucad uad-side forsin fid dianad ainm pin, ar is :;610 
uadh tucad pin no ifin air. 

 tri B. 
5.j'j!l aerc[h ]aid fer no fid .i. idhadh .i. fefe a tuth no fe a flesc-A llee. iii. 43 
aerchaid fid edath .i. ind aor rolil in flesc cui IlOl1lfll est fe-Cor. 2 606 
5';11] sed B. 


28 3 

Etiud 11lidach, robe of physicians, to wit, cath, panacea (?). 
Hence it was put for getal, broom, ng. 
Uaraib adbaib, in cold dwellings, to wit, that is ill', 
fresh, with him, for from uir, the mould of the earth is the 
name uaraib adbaib. Hence it was put for the letter named 
ur, heath, in Ogham, owing to identity of name between 
them, to wit, each of them is ur, and it is written by 'lL 
Ergllaid fid, distinguished wood, to wit, that is aspen 
with him, for ergnaid fid is a name for the trem bling tre
Hence it was put for the Ogham letter named edad, aspen, 
for hence was edad, e, put for it. 
Sinilt fedaib, oldest of woods, to wit, that is idad, 
yew, with him; for SÍ1IÙ, fedaib is a name for service-tree. 
Hence it was given to that letter in Ogham named idad, 
yew, i, for hence the name idad was put for it; for itlad, 
yew, is a name for ibllr, service-tree. 
Snamcltaill feda, most buoyant of wood, to wit, 
that is ebad, aspen, with him, for fair swimming is wood: 
to wit, that is a name for the great raven. Hence it was 
put for the letter named the Ogham ebad, for é is a name 
for salmon, and it is written by ea like the alphabet of 
the fauna: i.e., by stag (deer), eo by eOll11SC (ousel). 

)'ruitelll aicdi, most venerable of structures, i.e., oil', oi, 
spindle tree, according to fact. Hence it was put for the 
letter owing to the identity of the name that is between 
them, to wit, oir is the name of each of them. 
Tutlllur fid uil/emm, juicy wood is woodbine, that is 
woodbine with him, for it is a name for honeysuckle. Hence 
it was put for the Ogham named woodbine, ui; for hence 
was woodbine put for it, for it. is a name for honeysuckle. 
.Jli//sem fcda, sweetest of wood, that is gooseberry with 
him, for a name for the tree called pin is mi/soll feda. 
Gooseberries are hence named. Hence it was put for the 
letter named pin, for hence Pill, or ifÙI, io, was put for it. 

2R4 BB. 310 a 19 

OG Al\l 

Luad sæthaig .i. ach no uch, emancoll leis-(s]ium sin, 
ar gabair emuncoll ar ach gia gabar ar arailJ. FÙzit 
Briatharogam Morailld. 

Jlargin.. Abgitcr briathairogam l\Iic ind O[i]c annso 5615 
Glaisium cnis .i. beithi sin in ogailll 0 bethi na cailli, 
ar is uad tucad bethi fair; sic Ùl 1'cliqllis seqllelltiblls. 
Cara ceathra (.i. lern). Cara .i. dillasna ceathra in lern 
ar a blath 7 ar canach. Tucad uad-side for luis in ogailll, 3620 
ar is uad tuccad luis fair. 
Comet lachta .i. ferrll in ogairn sin 0 fern na caill, ar 
is i coimetas in lacht, ar is di doniter lestair imon lacht. 
Lut[h] bech .i. sail sin ar a blath 7 ar a canach. Tucad 
uad-side ara fid coibhnesa in ogai1ll. 3625 
Bag ban .i. nill garmna .i. ginol garmna. Uad-side 
fora fid coibnesa. 
Banadh gnuisi .i. uath, ar is ban gnuis in duine in tan 
doberar uat[h] no uamun uimi. U ad-side for fid in ogailll 
ar æntaid anrna aturu fen .i. uath cechtar de. 5630 
Gres saír .i. daír. Tucad uad-side fora fidh coibnesa 
in ogaim. 
Smir guailí .i. cuillenll sen. Uad-side fora fidh coib- 
nesa in ogaim .i. tinne secundum alios; ar is ainm tindi 
do cuillol1l, 1/t alii dicllJlt. 5635 

,J61:U8 d. .lllfe. iii. 44, 7-25 
Lower margin col. 1 A Dhia a libair bai 

50;::) guailli B. 


28 5 

Luad sætlzaig, expression of a weary one, i.e., ack, ah! 
lidl, alas! that is with him, for emaJlcol1 is 
taken for aell, though it may be taken for something else. 
Fi1lit \N ord-Ogham of Morann. 

Alphabet of word-oghams of :vIae ind Óic here below. 
ClaisÙtm olis, most silvery of skin, to wit, that is the 
birch of the Ogham from birch of the forest, for hence 
birch, b, was put for it; sic ill reliqllis seqlleJltiblls. 
Cara ceatkra , friend of cattle, to wit, elm. Cara, to \vit, 
dear to the cattle is the elm for its bloom and for down. 
Hence it was put for the Ogham luis, quicken tree, 1, for 
hence was quicken tree, 1, put for it. 
Comet /acltta, guarding of milk, to wit, that is the 
Ogham alder, f, from alder of the forests, for it is it that 
guards the milk, for of it are made the vessels containing 
the milk. 
Lutk bedl, activity of bees, to wit, that is willow, s, for 
its bloom and for its catkin. Hence it is put for the 
cognate Ogham letter. 
Bag ball, fight. of women, to wit, ash, n, of weaver's 
beam, i.e., maw of weaver's beam. Hence for its cognate 
Bmzadk glll/isi, blanching of face, to wit, fear, kuatll, h, 
for blanched is a man's face when he is encompassed with 
fear or terror. Hence for the Ogham letter owing to 
identity of name between the same two, to wit, uatlt 
stanùs for each of them. 
CÝes sair, carpenter's work, to wit, oak, d. Hence it 
was put for its cognate Ogham letter. 
Smir guaili, fires of coal, to wit, that is holly. Hence 
for its cognate Ogham letter, i.e., tilm.e, t, secundulll alios; 
for tÙldi is a name for holly, ut alii dicullt. 

286 BB. 310 a 36 


Cara bloisc .i. [colI]. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa i1l 

Drigh annum .i. quert. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa. 
Aruusc n-arrligh .i. muin duine. Uad-side fora fidh 
comainmnig[th ]ech. 564:0 
IVlednercc, .i. gort. U ad - side fora fidh comainm- 
Moridrun .i. strai( Tucad uad-side fora fidh comainm- 
Ruamna dreach .i. sug in rois doní ruamna na ndrech 564:5 
co mbi ruidead intib. Ruamna drech dano do rad fri 
ruis in ogaim on ruidead no on rus, ar is tri ruis scribthar 
side fen. 
Tosach fregra .i. ailm sin; ar is i cetlabra gach duine 
iarna genemain a. 5650 
Fethim saire no fedem .i. onn .i. o. 
Siladh c1ann, ur Ies-[ s ]ium sin, ar IS l1lr in talman 
dogni silad na cIann cuirtir inti. Silad cIann dono do 
rad 0 uir in talman do radh frisin fid n-ogaim rogab 
comainm fria .i. ur cechtar de. 5635 
Comainm carat .i. edadh isin caill. U ad-side fora fidh 
comaiJllll1ligtlzedz i n-ogam. 
Crinem feada no c1aidem .i. ibar. Uad-side forin fidh 
n-ogai/ll, rogab ainm aile uadh .i. idadh. 
Cosc lobair (coI. ß) .i. elenll for in fid ill ogailll, rogab 5660 
ainm uad .i. ebad. 

5638, 9. -13 d. A 1leC. iii. 44 

5&10 comainmingech B. 




Cara bloise, friend of cracking, to wit, colI, hazel, c. 
Hence for its cognate Ogham letter. 
Bri'gh all dlline, force of the man, to wit, queirt, q, 
apple tree. Hence for its cognate letter. 
.druse 7l-airlig, condition of slaughter, to wit, a man's 
back, m. Hence for its synonymous letter. 
JJed 1teree, to wit, ivy, g. Hence for its synonymous 
JJorad rUll, increasing of secrets, to wit, sloe, str. 
Hence it was put for its synonymous letter. 
RUallllla dreaeh, redness of faces, to wit, sap of the rose 
which causes the redness of the faces, so that blushing is 
in them. Rl/alllJlll dreach, again, said of the Ogham nilS, 
elder, r, from the blush or from the reddening, for it is by 
elder, r, it is itself written. 
Tosac!t fregra, beginning of an answer, to wit, that is 
aillll, a; for the first expression of every human being 
after his birth is a. 
FetllÙIl saire, smoothest of work, or fidem, to wit, 01/11, 
stone, o. 
Silad CkUlIl, growing of plants, that is itr, heath, u with 
him, for it is uir, the soil of the earth, that causes the 
growing of the plants that are put into it. Growing of 
plants, again, said of the soil of the earth, is said of the 
Ogham letter which has taken the same name with it, to 
wit, each of them is ur. 
Comailllll carat, synonym for a friend, to wit, aspen, e, 
in the forest. Hence for its synonymous Ogham letter. 
CrÍ1zelll feda, most withered of wood, or sword, to wit, 
service tree, i. Hence for the Ogham letter, which has 
taken a name other than it, to wit, idad, yew. 
Cose lobair, corrective of a sick man, to wit, woodbine 
for the Ogham letter, which has taken a name other than 
it, to wit, cbad, aspen, ea. 

288 BB. 310 ß 1 


Lí crotha .i. or. Uad-side fora fid cornainmmgthcch .J- 
or in ogailll. 
Cubat n-011 .i. uilleml1l .i. edlenn. Uad-side forsin fid 
in ogaim rogab uaide .i. uilleann. ú66j 
Amram blais .i. pin no ifin. Uad-side forsin fidh 
rogab ainm uaid .i. pin no iphin. 

:\1 ucogam in so. Aicme bethi so prius. 
Finn (b), liath (1), loch (f), cron (8), forglas (n) 
Aicme huat[ha] .i. cetoth find (h), eetoth leithe (d), cetdoth 3670 
loichi (t), cetoth cron (c), eetoth forglaisi (q). 
Aicme muine: indoth finni (m), indoth leithe (g), in- 
doth loichi (ng), indoth crOll (str), indoth forglaisi (r). 
Aieme ailmi: ore a cru finlli (a), orc a eru leithi (0), 
ore a eru loichi (u), ore a cru eron (e), orc a cru 5673 
forglaisi (i). Foraiemi annso : 
Forore a eru findi (ea), forore a eru leithi (oi), forore 
a eru loichi (ui), forore a cru cron (iphill), forE or]e a eru 
[forglaisi] (cc). 
Linnogam. . Aicmi bethi in so prius .i. 5680 
Berba (b), Luimneeh (1), Febal (f), Sinand (s), Nid (n). 
Aiemi huath[a]: hon (h), Derg Cd), Teare (t), Teith (t), 
Catt (c), Cusrat (q). 
Aieme muine .i. Muinten (m), Gabal (g), nGrian (ng), 
Strur (str), Rigi (r). 5683 
Aieme ailme .i. Aru (a.), Eobul, Uisiu, Erbos, Indiurnn. 
Dinnogam .i. 
Aicme bethi .i. Bruiden, Lifi, Femin, Seolæ, Nemthend. 
Aieme huatha: h-Oehæ, Dindrigh, Temair, Ceræ, Quorann. 
Aieme muine: l\1:ide, Gabar, nGarmon, Streulæ, Roigni. [,690 
Aicme ailme .i. Æ, Ogba, Uisnech, Emain, Iliu. 

5668-5829 cf. r..llktmlY ArchffologicalJounzal, July 1874. pp. 212-16 


28 9 

Li crollza, beauty of form, to wit, heath. Hence for its 
synonymous letter, to wit, the Ogham oi. 
Cuba! 1I-oll, great equal-length, to wit, woodbine, i.e., 
honeysuckle. Hence for the Ogham letter which it has 
taken from it, to wit, woodbine, ui. 
A mram blais, most wonderful of taste, to wit, pill or 
ifill, gooseberry. Hence for the letter that has taken its 
name from it, to wit, pÙl or iphill, io. 

This is Sow Ogham. This is group B prius. 
\;Vhite b, grey 1, black f, amber 5, blue n. 
Group H. Accompanying litter of a white (i.e. milch-) 
sow h, grey d, black t, amber c, blue q. 
Group 1\1. Litter of a white sow m, grey g, black ng, 
amber str, blue r. 
Group _ \. Pig-in-pen of a white sow a, grey 0, black u, 
amber e, blue i. Diphthong group here: 
Hog-in-pen of a white sow ea, grey oi, black ui, amber 
io, blue ae. 

River-pool Ogham. This is Group B prius, to wit, 
Barrow b, Lower Shannon I, Foyle f, Shannon s, Nith n. 
Group H. h Othain (Fahan) h, Dergderg d, Teith t, 
Catt c, Cusrat q. 
Group 1\1. l\Iuinten m, Gaval g, Graney ng, Sruthair str, 
Rye r. 
Group A, to wit, Aru a, Eobul, Uissen, Erbus, ] ndiurnn. 

Fortress Ogham, to wit, 
Group B. Bruden, Liffey, Femen, Seolæ, Nephin. 
Group II. h-Ocha, Dinn Rig, Tara, Cera, Corann. 
Group 1\1. .:\leath, Gabur, nGarman, Streulæ, Roigne. 
Group A. .IE(Cualand), Odba, Usney, Navan, ]slay. 

29 0 BD. 310 ß 23 


Enogalll .i. 
Aicme bethi: besan, lachu, fælinn, segh, næscu. 
Aicme uatha: hadaig, droen, truiteoc, querc. 
Aicme muine .i. mintan, geis, ngeigh, stmolach, rocnat. ù695 
Aicme ailllle .i. aidhircleog, odoroscrach, uiseoc, ela, illait. 

Aicme bethi .i. ban, liath, flann, sodath, necht. 
Aicme huatha .i. huath, dub, teme1l, cron, quiar. 
.i.\icme muine .i. mbracht, gorm, nglas, srorca, ruadh. 5700 
Aicme ailllle: alath, odhar, usgdha, erc, irfind. 

Aicme bethi .i. Beanchar, Liath, Fearna, Saigear, l\a:n- 
Aicme huatl/(l: hlrard, Durmach, Tir-da-glas, Cluaill 5705 
macclt Nois, Quell dara. 
Aicme muine .i. 
lugna, Sruthair, Raithen, 7rl. 
Aicme ailme .i. Ard macha, 7rl. 

Dænogam .i. 
Fer no læch ar aicmi bethi: i fer, ii fer, iii fir, iiii fir, v fir. 3710 
:\Iinna (no mna) no clerig ar aicme uatha: bean, ii 
mnæ, iii mna, iiii mna, v mna. 
Oglach ar aicme muine: i oglach, ii oglach, 1ll oglaich, 
iiii oglaich, v oglaich. 

 Origg. xii. 7. I 
;;!;!r. Origg. xix. 17 

5fill-l nycticorax (?) Origg. xii. 6. 41 
5ïO!l d. :\laro Gr. pp. 7, 14 el uf}. 


29 1 

Bird Ogham, to wit, 
Group B. besflfl, pheasant (?), laclm duck, fæli1l11 gull, seg 
hawk, llæSClt snipe. 
Group H. Iladaig night raven (?), droell wren, truÜl1 
starling, querc hen. 
Group :M, i.e., lIliJltall titmouse, géis swan, ngligll goose, 
stmólach thrush, róazat small rook (?). 
Group A. aidhircleóg lapwing, odoroscracll scrat (?), uiseóg 
lark, ela swan, il/ait eaglet (?). 

Colour Ogham. 
Group B, i.e., bán white, !iatll grey, jlaJlIl red, J'odath 
fine-coloured, llecllt clear. 
Group H, i.e., kuath terrible, dub black, It'll/ell dark grey, 
croll brown, quiar mouse-coloured. 
Group ::\I, i.e., lIlbracllt variegated, gorm blue, llglas green, 
sorcha bright, ruadlt red. 
Group A. alad piebald, odltar dun, ltsgdlltl resinous, erc 
red, Ùjilld very white. 

Church Ogham. 
Group B, i.e., Bangor, Liath, Ferns, Saigear, N oendruim. 
'Group H, h-Irard (Cluain), Durrow, Terryglass, Clonmac- 
nois, Kildare. 
I, i.e., l\lugna, Shrule, Rahen, etc. 
Group A, i.e., Armagh, etc. 

Man (Human Being) Ogham, to wit, 
:Man or hero for group B, one man, two, three, four, five 
l1lÙl1la nobles (or women) or clerics for group H, i.e., a 
woman, two, three, four, five women. 
Youth for group M, one youth, two, three, four, five 


29 2 BB. 3 1 0 ß 39 


l\Iac no gille ar aicme ailme: i mac, ii mac, HI mic, 5715 
iiii mic, v mic .i. æll1llac ar ail me, a ii ar onn, a iii 
ar ur, sic in reliquis. 
Dænogam : Laechesa ar aicme bethi iarsin imræt (no imirt) 
cetna .i. a i ar bethi, 7 a ii ar luis, mar sin sis uili. 
Caillige ar aicme huatha similiter. 
l\lacdachta ar aicme muine similiter. 
Ingena beg a ar aicme ailme similiicr .i. oen ar ailm, a 
do ar ur. 


Ogam tirda. 
Aicme bcthi annso .i. biail, loman, fidba, strathar, nasc. 5725 
.-\icme huatha .i. huartan, dabach, tal, carr, qual. 
Aicme muine: machad, gat, ngend, sust, rusc. 
Aicme ailme .i. arathar, ord, usca, epit, indeoin. 

Rigogam .i. 
Bran, Labraidh, 7r1. 7 mar sin uile, .i. ainm 1Il righ 5730 
tinnscanas on fid do gabail ar in ainm. 

Ogam usceach .i. 
Glais ar aicme bethi: .i. ænghla[i]s ar bethi, v n. 
Soud ar aicme huatha: i soud, ii soud, iii suitl. iiii suid, v 
suid. 3735 
Abann ar aicme muine: i abann, ii abainn, iii aiólle, iiii 
aibllc, v a ib 11 c. 
Tipra ar aicme ailme: i tipra, ii tiprait, iii tiþrait, iiii 
tiprait, v tzþrait. 

Conogam .i. úi 40 
Archu ar aicme bethi: i archu [ii archu], iii arc/lOin, iiii 
archoiJl, v al'choill. 
l\Iilchu ar aicme huatha: i milchu, ii milchu, a tri 
milchoin, iiii milchoin, v milchoin. 

57::!! Origg. xx. 14, I j 12-13 

i'-'9 rigdg B. 



Boyar lad for group A, one boy, two, three, four, fi\.e 
boys, to wit, one boy for a, two for 0, three for u, sic 
ill re/iquis. 
\Voman Ogham: heroines for group 13 after the same pro- 
cedure (or method), to wit, one for b, two for 1, thus 
all down. 
:\T uns for group H similiter. 
l\Iaidens for group M simzliter. 
Girls for group A similiter, to wit, one for a, two for u. 

Agricultural Ogham. 
Group B here, i.e., biail axe, loman rope,jidba hedge-bill, 
srathar pack-saddle, 1laSC ring. 
Group H, i.e., !tuartall , dabach cask, tal adze, cm l' 
waggol1, cual faggot. 
Group M mac/lad , gat withe, llgelld wedge, SitS! 
flail, rltsc basket. 
Group A, i.e., arathar plough, ord hammer, l/st..'a heather- 
brush, l'pit billhook, illdeoill anvil. 

King Ogham, to wit, 
Bran, Labraidh, etc., and so all, to wit, to take for the 
name, the name of the king that begins with the 

\Vater Ogham, to wit, 
Rivulet for group 13, to wit, one rivulet for b, five for n. 
\Veir for group H, one weir, two, three, four, five weirs. 
Rh er for group 1\1, one river, two, three, four, five rÎ\"ers. 
\Vell for group A, .one well, two, three, four, five wells. 

Dog Ogham, to wit, 
\Vatch-dog for group 13, one watch-dog, two, three, four, 
five watch-dogs. 
Greyhound for group H, one greyhound, two, three, four, 
five greyhounds. 

294 BB. 311 a 7 


Conbuachaill ar aicme muine: i conbuachaiIl, ii conbuach- 5745 
aill, a tri conbuachaille, iiii conbuachaille) v conbuach- 
Oirci ar aicme ailme: i oird, a dho oirci, a tri oird, iiii 
oirci) v oirci. 

Damogam .i. 5750 
Tarb ar aicme bethi: i tarb, a do tarb, a tri tairb, iiii tairb, 
v tairb. 
Dam ar aicme huatha: i damh, ii dam, iii daim) iiii claim, 
v daim. 
Colpthach firenn ar aicme muine: i colpthach, ii colpthach, 5755 
a tri colpthacha, iiii colpthacha, v colpthacha. 
Dartaid ar aicme ailme: i dartaid, ii dartaid, a tri dartada, 
iiii dartada) v dartada. 

Boogam .i. 
Lilgach ar aicme bethi: i liIgach, ii lilgazg, a tri lilgacha, 5760 
iiii /ilgacha, v /ilgacha. 
Gamnach ar aicme huatha: i gamnach, ii gamnmg, Hi 
galllllacha, iiii galllllacha, v gallwacha. 
Samaisc ar aicme muine: i samaisc, ii samaisc, iii samaisce, 

iiii samaisce) v samaisce. 
Dairt ar aicme ailme, 7rl. 


Cæchm/Ogam .i. 
fodailter ainm in duine .i. aicme bethi don leth des: 
aicme huatha don leth cli: aicme muine don leth 
des: aicme ailme don leth clio 5770 

Loscogam .i. 
inann iat .i. fogail in anma. 

1\lacogam .i. 
ogam ban torrach .i. ainm na mna fodhailter ann mani 
bera lenum roime. Dia mbera, immorro, lenum, is e 5775 



Herd's dog for group M, one herd's dog, two, three, four, 
five herds' dogs. 
Lapdog for group A, one lapdog, two, three, four, five 

Ox Ogham, to wit, 
Bull for group B, one bull, two, three, four, five bulls. 
Ox for group H, one ox, two, three, four, five oxen. 
Bullock for group 1\1. one bullock, two, three, four, five 
Steer for group A, one steer, two, three, four, five 

Cow Ogham, to wit, 

Iilch cow for group B, one milch cow, two, three, four, 
five milch cows. 
Stripper for group H, one stripper, two, three, four, five 
stri ppers. 
Three-year-old heifer for group 1\1, one three-year-old, 
two, three, four, five three-year-old heifers. 
Yearling heifer for group A, etc. 

Blind man Ogham, to wit, 
the man's name is divided, to wit, 
Group B. to the right side. 
Group H. to the left side. 
Group 1\1. to the right side. 
Group A. to the left side. 

Lame Ogham, to wit, 
they are the same, viz., a division of the name. 

Boy Ogham, to wit, 
pregnant women Ogham, that is, the name of the woman 
is divided there unless she bear a child previously. 
If, however, she bear a child, it is the child's name 

29 6 BB. 31 I a :l4 


ainm in lenim fodailter ann; 7 dia mbe litir foreraidh 
ann, is mae. l\Iad eoimlin, bud ingen berthair don 

C ossogam . i. 
mera da laime ar son na feadh imon lurgain 7 a tabairt jï
don leth deis imon lurgain ar aicme beithi. Don leith 
cli ar aieme huatha. Fiartharsna na lurgan ar aieme 
muiJli. Cearttharsna ar aicme ailme .i. ænmer ar in 
eetfidh na 1z-aicme, a dho ar in fid tanaise, co soised a 
eoig ar in eo(
ed fid sçcip aieme. 5ï83 

Sronogam .i. 
mera na lam imon sroin .i. similiter do deis 7 do ehli, co 
fiar, eear[t ]tarsna. 

Basogam .i. 
manus a/ialll jercl/tit lignorulIl (eol. ß). 


Næmogam .i. 
ainm in nai/ll i tinnseanfa gabar ar in fid .i., 
Brenaind, Laisreanll, Finden, Sinehel1, Nesan. 
hAdamnan, Donnan, Tigernaeh, Cronan, Quiaran. 

lanehan, Giurgll, nGeman, Strannan, Rlladan. !i795 
Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, I te. 

Bethllmnaeht, lllamnaeht, filideaeht, sairsi, notaireaeht. 
H-airehetul, druidheaeht, tornoraeht, erllitireaeht, qllis- 
lenaeht. :íKOO 
::\Iilaideaeht, gaibneaeht, ngibæ, sreghuindeaeht, r0n- 
Airigeaeht, ogmoraeht, umaideaeht, enaireaeht, iaseair- 
eaeht no ibroraeht. 

Biadogam .i. 
bairgen, leamnaeht, sic usque ill jillelll. 




that is divided there; and if there be a letter over, it 
is a boy. If it be an even number, it would be a 
daughter tnat will be born of that pregnancy. 

Foot Ogham, to wit, 
the fingers of the hand about the shinbone for the letters 
and to put them on the right of the shinbone for 
group B. To the left for group H. Athwart the 
shinbone for group 11. Straight across for group 
A, viz., one finger for the first letter of the grou ps, 
two for the second letter, till it would reach five for 
the fifth letter of whichever group it be. 

Nose Ogham, to wit, 
the fingers of the hands about the nose, viz., similiter to 
right and left, athwart, across. 

Palm of hand Ogham, to wit, 
IIlmlli s alialll pen-uti! fignorll Ill. 

Saint Ogham, to wit, 
the name of the Saint with which it will commence IS 
taken for the letter, viz., 
Brenainn, Laisren, Finnen, SincheaIJ, N easan. 
H-Adamnan, Donnan, Tighearnach, Cronan, Ciaran. 
Manchan, George, nGeminus, Strannan, Ruadhan. 
Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, Ita. 

Art Ogham. 
Livelihood, pilotage, poetry, handicraft, notary work. 
Trisyllabic poetry, wizardry, turning, harping, fluting. 
Soldiering, smithwork, model1ing, deer-stalking, dispensing-. 
Sovereignty, harvesting, brasswork, fowling, fishing, or yew 
wood work. 

Food Ogham, to wit, 
Bread, sweet milk, sic usque ill jinll/l. 

29 8 BB.3 II ßII 


Lusogam .i. 
ainm seeip naeh losa do ga[ba ]il ar in fidh a tindseanfa, 
ut est, braiseeh ar bethi, 7rl. 

Cend a muine .i. 


tairisem fo fid i tosaeh in anma .i. in fad as a hainm frisa 
eosmailligeaeht tosaeh seeip anma. in fidh sain do 
seribhinll i tosaeh in anma ar son a anma fen; 7 
deredh in anma do seribe1l1l iarsna fedaib dilsib. 
Oeus ogum n-airismeeh ainm ele in ogailll-sea, 'lit est, :>813 

 .i. eertle. 
Cend fo muine dono: 
Cotarsna int ogaÙIl remut .i. tairsem fo fid i nderid in 
anma, a tosaeh do seribellll iarna fedaib dilsib, 'lit est 
>-f-t---tftt--# .i. Mæl R.i. ruis. 5820 

Nathair im eeann .i. 
in fid toiseeh in anma do seribenn i medon na eraibi, 7 int 
ainm do seribcllll co direaeh uada co dered na eraibi ; 
7 a seribal1l frithruse co tosaeh na eraibi eonid inann 
ni bis i tosaeh 7 a nderedh na eraibi .i. dered in anma [)825 
issed bis a eeehtar de, ut est in Iwc figura, Ceallacll, 
eoimdes a airIegind sis 7 suas, 7 is asa medon 
airIegthar int ainm, ar is ann ita in fid tosaeh in 
8.nma, ut est, 

20 I. 

821-9 h. Ef>. ii. 145- 8 , 159 



Herb Ogham, to wit, 
to take the name of whatever herb it be for the letter 
with which it will commence, 1/t est, braisedl, kale, for 
b, etc. 

Head in Bush, to wit, 
consisting of a Jetter at the beginning of the word, i.e., as 
far as the name of it (the letter) resembles the begin- 
ning of whatever word it be, to write that letter at 
the beginning of the name for its own name; and 
to write the end of the name according to the proper 
letters. And persisting Ogham is another name for 
this Ogham, 1/t est, 
 i.e. cert-le, ball of 

Head under Bush, again: 
The opposite of the foregoing Ogham, to wit, consisting 
of a letter at the end of the name, to write the begin- 
ning of it according to its proper letters, lt! cst, 
>-ft--tftt--ð#-, i.e., l'rIael R, to wit, Ruis. 
Serpent about Head, to wit, 
to write the first letter of the name in the middle 
of the stem, and to write the name straight thence 
to the end of the stem; and to write it backwards 
to the beginning of the stem, so that it is the 
same thing that stands at the beginning and at the 
end of the stem, i.e., it is the end of the word 
which stands on each of them, ut est ill lzac figura, 
Ceallacll, indifferent to read it up or down; and it is 
from the middle of it that the name is read, for there 
stands the first letter of the name, ut est (p. 3 00 ß. 29). 

BB. 311 





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1 A\radach Finn andso sis.-Ladder (Ogham) of Fionn 5830 
here below. 
2 et reliqua sic foraicme i n-ar ndeigh.-etc. sic diphthong 
group behind us. 
3 Luthogam andso.-Hinge Ogham here. 
4 Tredruimnech so.- This is three-ridged (Ogham). 5835 
5 Trelurgach Find.- Three-stemmed (Ogham) of Fionn. 
6 Ladogam.-Canal Ogham. 
7 (Unnamed.) 
8 Ceathardruimnech Cruteni.-Four-ridged (Ogham) of 
Crutine. 5840 
9 Aliter bethi, mar so uili.-Aliter b, so all. 
10 Osogam .i. dam ar aicme beithi, elit ar aicme h, iarnu ar 
aicme ro, laeg ar aicme ailme .i. aen dib ar in cetfid 
na aicme, a do ar in fid tanaise, 7 mar sin uile co 
roised ar in fid dedenach .i. a v.- 5845 
Stag Ogham, i.e., hart for group B., hind for group 
H., fawn for group M., calf for group A., i.e., one of 
them for the first letter of the group, two for the 
second letter, and so on till it would come to the last 
letter, i.e., five. 5850 
11 Runogam na Fian.-Secret Ogham of the warrior-bands. 
12 (Unnamed.) [of Ilann. 
13 Ebadach Ilaind.-Ebad-fashioned, > >( -<, (Ogham) 
1-:1: Ogam Briccrenll .i. in doimni i mbi in fid isin aipgitir is 
e lin flesc scribthar illll uath ut ill figztra .i. aen do 5855 
beithi, xx do idad.- 
Ogham of Bricriu, i.e., the depth in which the 
letter stands in the alphabet, that is the number of 
strokes which are written in its formation ut ill figura, 
viz., one for b, twenty for i. 5860 
(Then follows a composition in this Ogham.) 


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15 Ogam uird: int ord bis for na fedhaib i n-aipgitir .i. in 
fidh is toseachu quam aile i n-aipgitir is e is tosec[h Ju 
scribthar ac denam anma; dcdelldw, dedencha he 
isin ainm 2lt est ill Itac figura, b n r a .i. Bran; 5865 
bId r a a i, Labraid.- 
Order Ogham: the order which the letters have 
in an alphabet, i.e., the letter which is earlier than 
another in an alphabet is written earlier in forming 
a name; and the last, last in the name ut est Ùl Itac 5870 
figura, b n r a, i.e., Bran; bId r a ai, Labraid. 
16 Ogam ar a mbi æn .i. ænflesc forcraid do scribend la gach 
fid: et re/iqua go v gacha.- 
Ogham on which is one, i.e., one stroke too many 
to be written with every letter, etc., up to five of each. 5875 
17 Ogam adlenfid.-Letter rack Ogham. 
18 Gleselgi [glese selgeJ .i. da ainm do scribelld .i. each 
trina cele dib .i. tosach in cetanma do scribelld connigi 
a leth, 7 tosach in anma ele ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in 
chetanma ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in anma ele þostea / 5t-i80 
7 ita anmanda a ndentar, sin anma tosaigh, sin 7 
derid, inund, amal atait isin da craib and- 
Hunt-track, i.e., two names to be written, i.e., each of 
them through the other, i.e., the beginning of the first 
name to be written up to half of it, and the beginning 5885 
of the other name after it, and the end of the first 
name after it, and the end of the other name postea J' 
and wherein are names which are formed identically, 
those of a first name and those of a last, as they stand 
in the two stems there. 5890 
bee-an, ler-an : gleselgi .i. da ailllTI.-A little, a small sea: 
gleselgi, to wit, two names. feth-nat, seg-nat, aliter 
gleselge. - A little calm, a small deer, a/iter hunt- 
19 Crad cride ecis.-Anguish of a poet's heart. 5895 

O Armogam .i. gai ar aicme bethi. Sciath ar aicme h. 
Claidim ar aicme m. Ca]gadeg (SiC) ar aicme a .i. 
æn dib ar in cetfid gibe aicme, a da ar in tanaise.- 
Arms Ogham, i.e., spear for group B. Shield 
for group H. Sword for group 1\1. Tusk-hilted sword 5900 
for group A., i.e., one of them for the first letter of 
whatever group, two for the second. 
21 Ogam ac[cJomaltach .i. in fidh is nesa don fidh do 
scribeJld imaille fris gall toirmisc.- 
Conjunct Ogham, i.e., the letter which is next the 5905 
letter to be written along with it without interruption. 
(H d-gidencha B. 
..882 d. conlisio. Origg. i. 32, 9: Gr. Lat. v. 3 8 7, 26 

22 Ogam eamnach .i. eta fidh inunda ar in fhid .i. da bethi 
ar b sic.- 
Twin Ogham, i.e., two identical letters for the 
letter, i.e., bb for b sic. 591 () 
2:3 Do foraicmib 7 deachaib in ogaim andso air na cumai[n]g 
brogmoir lasna biat a deich 7 a foraicme 7 a forbethi, 
Of extra groups and syllables of the Ogham here 
according to the excessive powers ,,-hereby there 5913 
are syllables, extra groups, and extra alphabets of 
them, etc. 
Sigla.-Abbreviations, (I) bacht, lact, fect, sect, nect: 
huath, drong, tect, caect, quiar: maei (I\IS. næi), gæth, 
ngæl, strmrect, reet : ai, ong, ur, eng, ing. 59
24 Sigla.-Abreviations, (2) cai no æi, c no onn, p no ui, .i. 
01 on, no no no, ach ui oi ai au, air cair, s, bran, tri, 
bran, tru, cru, cru, Columcille, Ceallach, Cuilibadh. 
25 goach, tucht, ict, miliu, uili, eth, ean. 
26 Beithi, learn, fernJl, sail, nendait: sge, dair, trom, coIl, 59
quilleJlJl: midiu, gius, gi1cadz, saildrong, rait: aball 
uinus, draigin. ibur, elend, ferus, edlena
27 Bethi, luis, fermz, soil, nin: hllath, dur, tiJldi, coli, quert : 
muin, gort, ngedar, straiph, ruis: ailm, onn, ur, edadh, 
idad; ea, oi, ui, ia, æ. 5930 
28 (Unnamed.) 
29 Saitheach fochrom, elu co mboil, 
Dodaing foluaich lucht aSJllbir. 
Brec oc forglais, derg (gl. midoth findi 7rl.), oc 
find, 5935 
l\Iælsem (gl. ardoth findi 7rl.), fuirid (gl. derg 
mæsem), leitheal, bran1l (gl. sa:tech). 
Cruithean fororcan so sis: dodaiJlg brec. 

30 l\Iucogam: find, liath, loch, cron, forghlas : cedoth fin[n]i, 
cedot[h] leithi, 7rl.- 5940 
Sow Ogham white, grey, black, amber, blue: 
accompanying litter of a white, grey sow, etc. 
31 Ogam romesc Breas .i. -Rres mac Elathan .i. ba ges do 
dul sech gan a lcgad. Rolad iarum int ogam-sa ina 
ucht ic tec[h]t a cat[h] l\luige Tllireg. Romebaidh 5943 
iarum in cath fair-sium gen robai ac legad in ogailll. 
 beithi, with .j. above the first j 

3 0 4 

Is i so apglt1r in ogaim-sea .i. scribthar in fid iarsin 
lin litir bis isin ainm in duine.- 
The Ogham which confused Hreas son of Elatha 
who was under a prohibition not to pass on without 5950 
reading it. This Ogham was afterwards thrown into 
his bosom as he went to the battle of 1\Ioytura. 
Afterwards he lost the battle while he was reading the 
Ogham. This is the alphabet of this Ogham, to wit, 
the letter is written with all the letters that stand 595:) 
in the person's name. (Each letter, besides being 
written, is spelt.) 
32 Ogam dedentlch .i. in litir deghinach don ainm scribthar 
ar son in feda .i. edad ar bethi, sail ar luis, nin ar fern, 
luis ar sail (sic t.), nin ar nin: æ, no da cc, no ch.- 5960 
Final Ogham, i.e., the last lettcr of the name (of the 
letter) is written for the letter, viz., e for b, 5 for 1, 
n for f, 1 for 5, n for n, 7r1.: æ, or cc, or ch. 
33 Cend ar nuaill .i. in fidh dedinach do gach aicme scribthar 
ar in fidh toisech, 7 in fid toisech do gach aicme ar in 5965 
fid ndedinach .i. nin ar bethi, 7 bethi ar nin, 7 gach 
fid ara cele isin aicme uili, 7 gach ni cl'impodh inti 
fein uile frithrosc: ia no p: æ, no cc, no ch.- 
Head on Proscription, i.e., the last letter of every 
group is written for the first letter, and the first letter 5970 
of every group for the last letter, i.e., n for b, and b for 
n, and every letter for its fellow jn the whole group, 
and everything to be turned all backwards into itself: 
ia or p: æ, or cc, or ch. 
34 Ogam ar abairtar cethrur .i. ceathar feacla nama 5975 
labairtar and .i. cluir, 7 tin1li, luis, fern .j. duir ar 
bethi, a v; tinni ar uath, a v; luis ar luis [I. muin], 
a v; fern ar ail[m], a v.i. duir ar bethi, da duir ar 
luis, 7 mar sin uili. cluir, ii duir, tri cluir, iiii duir, 
v duir : tinne, da tinni, iii tinni, iiii tinni, v tinni, 7rI.- 5
Ogham which is called a foursome, i.e., four letters 
only are spoken in it, i.e., d and t,l, f, i.e., d for B., five; 
t for H., five; 1 for M., five; f for A., five; i.e., d for b, 
dd for 1, and so all. d, dd, ddd, dddd, ddddd: 
t, tt, ttt, tttt, ttttt, etc. 5985 
35 Ogam buaidir foran1la .i. in cetna fid do gach aicme ar 
bethi, a v; in fid tanaise do cach aicme ar uath, a 
v; in tres fid do gach aicme ar muin, a v, 7r1. : 
æ, no cc, no ch.- 
Ogham of uproar of anger, i.e., the first letter of 5990 


every group for B., five; the second letter of every 
group for H., five; the third letter of every group for 
1\1., five, etc.: æ, or cc, or ch. 
36 (Cf. 70.) Ogam rind fri derc .i. fraech frit[h ]rosc .i. aicme 
ailme frit[h ]rosc ar aicme bethi .i. idad ar bethi 7 bethi 5995 
ar idad: aicme muille ar aicme uath[ a] .i. ruis ar uath 
7 uath ar ruis 7rl. Aicme bethi ar aicme ailme 
frithrasc 7 aicme uath[a] ar aicllle m frithrosc.- 
Point-to-eye Ogham, i.e., mane (?) backwards, i.e., 
group A. backwards for group B., i.e., i for b, and b 6000 
for i; group 1\1. for group H., i.e., r for h, and h for 
r, etc. Group B. for group A. backwards, and group 
H. for group 1\:1. backwards. 
37 (Cf. 7 I.) Ogam maignech .i. maigin iter gach da fid .i. 
cocrich nama don fidh fen.- 6005 
Enclosed Ogham, i.e., an enclosure between every 
two letters, i.e., a limit only to the letter itsel[ 
38 Fræch frithrosc.--1\Iane (?) backwards, seculldum alios. 
39 (Unnamed.) 
40 Brec mor.-Great dotting. 6010 
41 Ogam cumusgda .i. gach dara fid d' aicme bethi 7 hl/atha 
do scribolll cumasgda; gach dara fid d' aicme mui1u' 
7 ailme, in cedna.- 
l\Iixed Ogham, i.e., every second letter of groups 
B. and H. to be written mixed; every second letter of 6015 
groups 1\1. and ...-\., the same. 
 Ogam imarbach .i. aicme h re aicme b, 7 aicme ailme re 
aicme muinc.- 
Combative Ogham, i.e., group H. before group B., 
and group A. before group 1\1. 6020 


BB. 313 

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43 Sluagogam .i. in fid fen do scribelld ler (-i. ina thri) aire fen 
.j. bethi ter (ina thri), luis tel' (ina thri), 7r1.- 
Host Ogham, i.e., the letter itself to be written 
thrice for itself, i.e., b thrice, 1 thrice, etc. 
44 Ogam ind co ind .i. do ind na craibhi do ac[ c Jomal .i. 60
aicme ailme do mesc frithrosc ar aicme bethi .i. idhad 
eter b 7 1, 7r1.; aicme m do mesc ar aicme h. N a 
foraicme mar sin.- 
End to end Ogham, i.e., the two ends of the stem 
to be joined, i.e., group A. to be mixed backwards with 6030 
group B., i.e., i between b and I, etc.; group 1\'1. to 
be mixed with group H. The extra groups similarly. 
45 Ogam leni da reib .i. riab eter gach da fid i certogam.- 
Two stroke smock Ogham, i.e., a stroke between 
every two letters in regular Ogham. 6035 
-1:6 Ogam sesmach, ar is a medon inonn, ar is and forbaither, 
7 as a leth deginaigh leghthar prius, ar is and bis 
aicme b 7 h, ar is ina medon ata forba na ceithri 
Steadfast Ogham, for its middle is the same, for 6040 
there it is completed, and from its latter half it is 
read þrius, for there are the B. and H. groups, for in 
its middle is the completion of the four groups. 
47 Gort fo lid, ar na bet da fid for ænlit[ir] .i. tri feda eter 
gach da fid d' aicme beth i.- 6045 
Corn-field under colour, that there might not be 
two Ogham letters for one letter, i.e., three letters 
between every two letters of group B. 
48 ColI ar guta .i. aicme b 7 aicme m gan cumscugud,7 colI 
ar aicme ailme, a v.i. aoncholl (sic l) 7 da choll 7 tri 6050 
cuill 7 ceithri cuill 7 coig cuill.- 
ColI, c, for a vowel, i.e., group B. and group 1\1:. with 
no change, and C for group A., five, i.e., c, CC, CCc, 
CCCc, ccccc. 
49 Brecor beo.-Lively dotting. 6053 
50 Ceand imreasan.-Strife head. 
51 Ogam Dedad.-Ogham of Dedu. 
52 Ceand debtha.-Head of dispute. 
53 (Unnamed.) 
54 Insnitheach.-Infilleted. li060 


55 Didruim.-Ridgeless. 
56 Ogam focosach.- \V ell-footed Ogham. 
57 Ogam negladae (1. ndedlaide) .i. in cuiged fid fod- 
Separated Ogham, i.e., the fifth letter is severed. 6065 
58 Ebadach .i. ebad etar gach da fid.- 
Ebad-fashioned, >- >( -< (Ogham), i.e., an Ebad 
between every two letters. 
59 Ogam F eniusa .i. in fid bellai [1. benas] in fid ara 
gualaind do buain imaille fris gan fognum fair.- 6070 
Ogham of Fenius, i.e., the letter which touches the 
letter on its shoulder to be taken off along with it 
without making use of it. 
60 Indiupartach ands[ 0] .i. diupairt gach aicme ar aile imol1 
cetfidh. Is e cetfidh na haicme tanaise, ut cst.- 60ï 5 
Fraudulent (Ogham) here, i.e., each group's 
defrauding another of the initial letter. I t is the 
initial letter of the second group (which enòs the 
first group), lit est, 
61 Taebogam Tlachtga .i. d' æntæb uile na fega-sa sis.- 60t;0 
Side Ogham of Tlachtga, i.e., on one side all these 
letters below. 
62 (Unnamed.) 
63 Ogam Erimoin.-Ogham of Erimon. 
64 Snait[h]i snimach.-Interwoven thread. 6083 
65 Ogam fordunta.-Foreenclosed Ogham. 
 athair fria fraech.-Snake through heath. 
67 Bacogarn.-Bend (or angle) Ogham. 
G8 (Cf. 36.) (Unnamed.) 
69 Ogam tregdae.-Pierced Ogham. 6090 
70 (Unnamed.) 
71 (Cf. 38.) Locogam.-Place Ogham. 
72 Fiaclach Find, 7 is ar cuimri nach scribthar acht da fid 
do gach aicme.- 
Toothlike [Ogham] of Fionl1, and it is for brevity 609
that there are but two letters of every group written. 
73 Ogam airenach.-Shield Ogham. 
3 0 9 

74 Rothogam Roigni Roscadhaig 
bethi a v, huath a v, muin a v, ailm a v.- 
Wheel Ogham of Roigne Roscadach 6100 
B. five, H. five, lVI. five, A. five. 
75 Fege Find.-Fionn's \Vindo\V. 
76 Traig (sic t.) sruth Ferc[h]ertne .i. coig feda in gach 
snaithi.-Stream strand of Ferchertne, i.e., five letters 
in each thread. 6105 
77 Sigla.-Abbreviations. 
iul, og, ech, ind, Iii, rii, Iii, fii, ict, arb, insci, ruidriug 
di ailm, fict, dacht, gart. 


BB. 314 













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Cf 1t<ii- ">11'" '1""!!f 
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78 tii: diailt: ban bachlach inscii: maidm cridi eors: gai: 
eet: ara: sesd: lat: nact: dec indsci so anuas.- 6110 
These are ten expressions above. 
79 Forfeda: - sigan fain ailm: remar ailm: srub-aigi: 
troigi: trenoct: enoct: duiriu: coeliu: aupai: ui: 
bang: ue: gort guinche: ailm guinche.- 
Additional letters. 6115 
80 Forfeda:- 
mane: esci: goth : te: ongan: ail: dea : eth : oeth : 
neal: taeb: icht : fisidect : liasairect : emridoth : 
Additional letters. 


81 F orfeda :- 
uaitea: caetrae: samuil: huic: oe: dind: hæ: 
uilen: tre: ebaid: enebaid: dirdin: dur: didad: fir 
Additional letters. 6125 
82 Fiarogam.-Oblique Ogham. 
83 Traigsruth Ferc[h]ertni. 
monere nemnig nuaill brethaigh dian Ogam ni dan 
n-imraigea. rosluinni di rig dian indscib gall irrluncl. 
Ogalll anaichnid i ceastaib coirib comairci ar is crand 6130 
fo loch ler ceartach. III n-ogam n-ilarda dorada fri 
huair irrscrudain. 
Ogam n-eathrach .i. barc fri beithi, a v. 
Long fri huath .i. a v. No fri muin, a v. 
Curach fri ailm, a v. Æn dib ar in cetfid, a do ar 6135 
111 fid tanaise co roised a v, in fid deginach secip na 
Strand stream of Ferchertne. 
Boat Ogham, i.e., barque for B., five: 
Full-rigged ship for H., five: 6140 
Ship for 1\1., five: 

3 12 

Coracle for A., five. One of them for the first 
letter, two for the second till it reach five, the last 
letter of whatever group it be. 
84: Forcas-. Aipgitir Egipta andso. - Egyptian (read, 6145 
Hebrew) Alphabet here. 
85 (Unnamed.) 
86 A pgitir Afraicda.-African Alphabet. 
87 Suag Ogam.-Rope Ogham. 
88 Ogam cuidec[h]tach :-bachlaid, laichesa, Fianna, senada, 6150 
noeim, mar sin uili.- 
Company Ogham: - Priests, heroines, Fian, 
Synods, Saints, thus all. 

89, 90 (Unnamed.) 

91 Ogam Lochlannach andso.- 6155 
Scandinavian Ogham here. 
, 93 Gallogam.-Anmand na feda .i. fea, ar, turs, or, 
raid, caun, hagal, naun, isar, sol, diur, bllJlgann, 
mann, langor, eir.- Viking Ogham.-N ames of the 
letters, i.e. 6160 
Finit dona hogmaib. lncipit dona huraiceptaib.- 
End of the Oghams. Beginning of the Primers. 
III lid nomine Amell. 
Cinnus sin, a peinll? 7 dar lim is maith.- 
How is that, pen? and methinks it is good. 6165 

3 1 3 


Á a height, .i. ard 1221,2,4, 4530.1,4. 
aball f. apple-tret' 982,1153,1185,4248, 
4283. C. 
aband f. amnis 1091, 4092, 5736 
abrochtur eye/ashes, eyebrow 181 3, 
3 2 57, abratchor 4999. abrat-chur, 
Wi.: C. Add. mId Corr. 
acarb bitter, rough, co hagarb 4 66 , 
co hacarp 2931 
accur hunger, desire, ni gleaccur 21 79. 
accor, C. 
acht doubt, ullct!rtaint.)' 504, 2973. C. 
achtach hrave, doughty', energetic 53 28 . 
acht .i. gnim, Cor. Tr. 114: SR. 
2881, 7093 
acuit an acute accmt 1355, 1553,8, 
44 18 , 47 8 3 
ada due, la'Wfu/, right, dona haib adhaip 
adaig night ravm (?) 5 6 94 
adbae f. a dwÛIÙIg, a house, uaraib 
adbaib 5585,6. Fel. 2 
ad barrda causal 3800 
ad-cÍ sees, I s. pres. atchiu 5230; with 
affixed pronoun adcimsus 3037 .i. 
adcimsi, Eg.,. 3 s. fut. pass. ros- 
cichestar 488. Str. Cl.: Thur. 

ad(in)-com-ta obtaills, 3 s. pres. with 
pronoun affixed adcotaidi-seom 133 ; 
3 s. pres. pass. adcodar 3546, atcoular 
4 80 9 
ad-daimim I aclmowled.
e, recognise, 
grallt, 3 s. pret. atarodamair 5110,1 ; 
3 s. perf. pass. .\drodamas 135. 
adroghmus .i. rodamad, Ed. I I b I, 
32: adromus, Stowe CI., hma 
probably r-aromus 5126 


adem f. instrument, g.s. anmand aidmi 
14 82 ,4591 
adfoir1thim uais I Sllccour, reIÙ'l't, 
nos-nothrustar .i. adfoirithed uais 
247 6 . Cf. adfoirichin, Laws 
ad-gládur I speak to, address, 3 pl. 
pres. triasa n-agaillit 13 0 4 
adlenn f. rack fir sþears, hookshelj; 
adlenfid 5876. C. 
ad-midiur I tr}', attempt, 3 s. pret. 
atarommadair 5114, ro3as-rommadair 
5 11 5 
adoralm 1 adm"e, lm.e, .follou', dmg to, 
3 s. fut. cid dia n-aidéra d' oen[l]ocht 
2076. C. 
adrad m. a WOI'Sh,þpillg, n.p. adharta 
212 5 
ad-rim-im 1 number, COUllt, reckon, I s. 
pres. airmim 1998; 3 s. pres. pass. 
airmidir 2 I 73; 3 s. pret. pass. 
adasramed uili 1903. ataraimhet, T. 
ad-tibim 1 laugh, 3. s. pret. atib 
5 11 2, auib 5116 
áellime, cloch (no æl) 1088 
áen, óen (I) one: (2) a sillgular .i. a 
uathad 5072, 184
,67, 1945, 20f9 
21 59, 5331, e.g. do threnfher, ma1gl1l 
triadi[b] 5335 
áenta m. llnilJ', ænda 424, 2866, ar 
æntaidh 5555,7, ar aentaid 5568. Wi. 
áentaigim I coincide, agree, 3 s. 
s-pret. abs. aentaigis 1634, 47 1 3; 
info aentugud m. coinciding, ldenti
1008, T 4,5 
áer the air, g.s. bIog aeoir 901 
áer f. a satire, lampoon, air 1582, di 
air 1584 
áera1m I satlriu, 3 s. rei. ani ærais 
669; pa!:,:". dub a n-aerthar 5 2 35 

3 16 


águr I fiar 5322 
ái possession, æ suidheas 408, 41 I, 
28.8,5 I 
ái a swan, æ chanas 407,9, 2847,9. .i. 
eala, O'CI. 
ái f. Imow/edge, scÎmct, art 488, 742, 
2958, oe 1938; n.s. æ mides 408, 
410, 2847,50; g.s. taoph uaim na 
haoi 2852, cia halt huad 1577, alta 
huadh 1827 j a.s. cen æ for an-æ 
1935 ; d.p. da .cib 742. æi .i. ealada, 
Ed. vii. II, 21 : O'CI. 
ái cause, æ ailes 407,8, 2847,8, æ 
aireic 497 
ái f. question, s1lit 2782,3, æ aiges 408,9, 
2847,9, ui, uea caingen 393; g.s. 
eolus na hai 2785. æi .i. caingen, 
Ed. 11,21 
áib beall{V, rofuaigh aib 1973. Wi. 
aibgitir f. Lat. abecedari1l11l, alphabet, 
apigitorium 350, aipcitorium 2710; 
n.s. aipgitir 2717,9, 2720,1, 2771; 
. aipcitre 27 I 5, du thoit na haib- 
gitrech 315 j d.s. forsin aibgitir 349, 
aipcitir 2710; a.p. cen aipgitri 387, 
aipcitri 2770 
aicce deed. housekuping .i. gním I I 12. 
gním .i. tigedus, Stowe C/. 
aicce Jòsterage IIU, 2261. O'D.w. 
137: Cor. Tr. q 
aicceacht. aicicht Ùlstrllcti011, teach- 
illf{, lesson I I I 2, 2261. Laws 
aiccent m. accmt 4130,3, 4767; g.s. 
aicenta 1902; n.p. seacht n-acenta 
19l2. Sg. 220 b 6, 7 
aiccept a lesson I I I 3. acept bliadna, 
11'. T. iii. 31. 10: Lism. 
aicde f. material, aicce 2443, 266, 
da aigdi 2580, 2600 
aicenta llatural 397, 911, aiccenta 
2816, 3443.5 
aichnes m. knowledge, int aichnius 
II 00. C. 
aicme m. a tribe, group 5668 ; g.s. 94 6 , 
975 ; n.p. 945. cis lir aicme 549 2 ; 
g.p. secip na n-aicme 6137. Wi. 
aicnid m. accent, a rorbaidh .i. a 
aicnid 1544, int aicned 1902; a.s. fri 
aicnead 5292. Cf. Cr. Lat. iii. 466, I 

aidbse f. a choral song ind aidbsi 1472. 
RC. xx. 18r. 49 note 
aidircleóg f. a lap
vÙlg 5696 
ail f. Lat. petra 554, 1087, 4082 
ail a time, a long time, .i. aimser rurail 
sech in qumair 1574, 4804, ail ruit 
3680, di-ail .i. ni haimsir rota 1575, 
4805. ail .i. aimsir, Ed. vii. 111>43 : 
ailcne a small rock, splinter, stolle 
1088, 4083. C. 
aild (?), ni for a n-aild 4408. cr. dut- 
aild, Thur. Hds.f. lInd Litt. 38, 8 
aile dec olle-twelfth 1448. Laws 
aill noble 5243. O'D
lv. 65 
áilleacht f. beauty IIt8, 4263 
ailm a palm-bu, .j. quasi pailm 4295 
ailm (I) a fir-I1et, n.s. 1194 .i. 
ochtach 4293: (2) the letter a, is ailm 
5575, 5 6 49, 2795, 2797 ; g.s. aicmi 
ailmi 9 8 9, luis ailme 999, 549 1 , 5674 
aim-ger llnsharp 1979 
aim-nert weakness 969, 972, 980 
aimserad m. a timi11f{, duration 4 I 33. 
4117, a. na cuimre 4120. Sg.5&10 
áin f. a driving 2731 
aincess pain, strait, d!/Jimlt)', ar da 
ainges 2108 
ain-dilse inappropriatmess 843 
ainm m. (I) a name, doroich int ainm 
3586: (2) a llOU1l, all adjective 2659, 
319. 1533, 2667: (3) a combination 
0./ letten, inscrzþtion, in cetainm ogaim 
1161, int ainm ogaim 1551,4780: 
(4) a 1l1oneral, cardinal number, int 
ainm airme 4490, 1439 
ain-mence i1ifreqUt1lcy 102, 2381 
ainmnechad m. a naming, llOmÙlati1'C- 
case 4667, 4972 
ainmnid the nominati
'e case, n.s. 
1770, otha in ainmiud 906; g.s. i 
forgnuis ainmneda 16 43, 1645 9, 
1659: d.s. ina n-ainmnidh 1678 
ainmniugud m. (I) a Izaml1lf{ 4752 : 
(2) nominative case 799, 1517, 1530, 
ainsid the accusative case, g.s. ainsida 
16 44, ainseda 1649. 1659; d.s. 'na. 
ainsid 1678 


aipgigim I ripm, 3 s. rel. pres. aib- 
giges 351,2, aipcidhius 2712 
airbert liSi', Pi ac/ice 332, 742, 818, 
18 95, 2681, 2827 
airbiur bith I use, þractise, 3 s. pre!'. 
iar n-airbhirt nan-airbirenn bith 1895. 
Cf. C. 113 
aircel!ad m. (I) a plunderillg: (2) 
abrepttive case airchelladh J 886. Laws: 
airceallad .j. goid, H. 4. 18: for 
airichell q. v. 
airchell calaidthdi 0/ a hard, droppillg 
of a final hard CO/ISO/lant 1948, airichill 
c. 1984, 2167, a urachil calaidi 5374 : 
e.g. fer, ft a airchill calaid 1804, 
210 7,4991 ; ben, be a airichill 1850, 
a aircea]]a calaith 5030; nem, ne a 
ainchil1 1872; ceil na guth 5376 
airchell fuit theft of a lo//g, mser/mg 
i. airchill fuit 2 I 35, 1948, airicil 
18 5 1 , airichil1 fuit 1874, 1983, 2105, 
5 0 7.3, 5379, aircealla f. 5031, na da 
airichill 2148, a airichil f. 5379: 
e.g. feir a airchiU fuit 1805, deirc 
53 8 3 
airehetal /risyllabic poeb v, poe/1:v, n.s. 
hairchetul 5799; g.s. 337, 2685; 
1973, 15 0 9, 2190. C. 
airde a height 1246, a n-airde aloft 
118 7, 14-70,8 
airde a SII;Il, /oien, n.p. 941, 985; a.p. 
984. C.: .i. egusc, Ed. 
airdlbdud m. (I) all extÍ11guisnÙlg, 
fjltl'1lrhÍ1zg: (2) lenition 0.1 f and of a 
126 4, 1280,2,3, 43 2 2, 4338, 4342 
airdítiu f. (air-di-fed) a stretching, 
producmg. a.s. gan airditin 1824, 
urditeun 5013. z:!. 979, note 
aire m. a chiif,prince, n.p. airigh fedha 
I 150,2, 5492,3, aire 4246,7 
aire a dam, fence, hedge 1192, 4290. 
.i. fal, Itt ef/ aire srapha sraibh, 
l)'Dav. 180: Anec. iii. 43: aire .i. 
ime no fal, O'Dav. 60 
airec a finding, inventinf{, n.s. airec 
3974, airic 1019 
airechtu a finding, im'tntion, n.s. air- 
echta 2974, airea,::hlain 498, 505, 
622. Rzb. .11;'1. 

3 1 7 

airélI, airial! f. a Im/, n.s. intan rosaig 
lar ind airiaU 1710, airell 47 16 ,7; 
d.s. d' oreill 1703, d' aire]] 4 6 99, 
4 8 9 2 ; co hairei]] 4900. C. 
airichell a guarding, prtparingfor, de- 
fence ,. difellSive case, e.g. ar fear a airi- 
cheall 1518, airceall 1651, airchelladh 
1886 q.v., aircioll 4829, airciB 4740 
airigeacht f. S01!ertignty 5803. O'Br.: 
alr-ineeh (I) the van, beginning (O'R.): 
(2) a shield, airenach Fiann .i. fernd 
1169, airinach Fian .i. sciath 553 6 ,8, 
ogam airenach 6097. C.: Lee. 
airísel, aurísel (I) very low: (2) 
humiliation, the addition 0/ aib to the 
'Word 1947, a irisel 5079, 5346, a 
fhoriseal 1997, a uiriseal 2098, 21 4 6 , 
auriseal 2176; e.g. fer-aib 179 8 , 
4990; ben-aibh 1847; nim-ib 1869 j 
Fer-aib mna-aib 5H9 
airismech persisting, continuous, ogum 
n-airismech 5815 
airitiu f. acceþ/ance, receþtion, g.s. 
airiten I I I 3, airiti 2263 
airleeh a slaughtering, arusc n-airJig 
5639. Laws 
alrmldetu a counting, enumeratioll 
14 12 ,3,6, 4520 
airndel a trap for birds, fornelaib 
114, airnnelaib 2394. Arch. C. P. 
i. 474- 
aise reproach, cia haisg 3101 
aiate f. (I) a melli!, ind aisti 3711 j 
83 2 ,3,7,8,9 26 , 1686; n.p. ai
ti 15 0 9, 
1958 ; d.s. risin ai
ti r<,amaind 15 8 4: 
(2) pattenz, fo aisti an Gregaid 
3379. C. 
aitenn m. furze, aitean I I 56, int 
aitend 28 34, 4251 j 119h 55 22 , 
5580,2. Laws . 
aitheanta inown, characteristic 2828 
aithnigte Imown, famzliar 4955. 
aithnigim, CC. 
aittreb m. f. (I) a habl/tltz011: (2) 
locati1'e case, inn atreib 1725; 15 18 , 
I6Et, 1723, 1783, 1884, int aitrioph 
49 1 5 
alad piebald, sðecilled, al.1th 5701. C. 

3 18 


aUm I rear, !Jr;ng up, 3 s. pres. ailid 
3680; reI. ailes 407,8; \\ ith affixed 
pronoun, 3 s.f. pret. ailsius 5319 j 
3 s. pres. pass. ailter 3671,5 
almne a knee-cap, almnæ 1854, ailmne 
for glun 1819, faircle for glun 5c08. 
almne glunae, Sg. 47& 3: falman, 
HSD.: falaman a' ghlùin, M'Alpine: 
this word is still spoken in the High- 
lands, falman, failmean m. 
alt m. (I) a joint, limb, a measure 740, 
9 2 5, 1577, 4814; g.s. alta 832,3, a 
n-inad ailt 3684,5; a.s. 195 I j n. p. 
alta 835,1957; d.p. altaib 9 2 5, 1577, 
fri alta 1237, fri haltaib 1956: (2) 
a juncture, interval (between letters 
or syllables, in spelling or pronounc- 
ing) 830, 760, 779, 835, 909, 9 10 ,1, 
1417,30, 3
62: (3) int alt co fesser, 
Lat. ut scias: 826,7,8,31, 890, 1577 
am-beó lifeless, Ii ambi I 170. C. 
am-ires f. unbelitf. L. injidelitas, n.s. 
an aimiris 2349, ind aibres 61 
am-Iabar dumb, Lat. 1I1utus 469, 2934. 
amne thus, imne 4315. \Vi. 
vonderful, superl. amram blais 
5666. Wi. 
amus m. a soldier, n.p. amuisgairg 2538 
án (I) splendid, glorious 1581,S, 5353: 
(2) sþlmdour, n.s. 4660 j g.s. ni åin 
15 8 5 
an-áib n. unbeautifubless, cach n-anæb 
2080. co n-anaeb, SR. 18 
anair f. a laudatol)' hexasyllabic metre 
proper to a clí, ind anair 3672, 1578, 
4654,4815. C. 
an-air (I) from the East: (2) from 
the beginning or þ'Ollt 1581 
anál f. a breath, a poet's b,"eath of five 

vords, g.s. 930, 3528 ; d.s. i n-anail 
931, 3860 
anamain f. a metre proper to all ollam, 
ind a. 829, 1578, 1581,4654. II'. T. 
iii. 116 
anastrophe a metathesis, e.g. el, Ie; 
en, ne; Lat. per inistrofin 510, per 
mistraftn 2979 
and then, thm, a formolad, ann-on 5286 

andaide there, andaidi 2351. Wi. 
ander f. a woman, virgin, ander g-ach 
sIan 607, 3349 
áne f. sp!mdour 5174,8. Wi. 
an-fhéig Ill/sharp 2120. Cf. Wi. 
an-fis m. igl1orance, ni maith int anfis 
734, 2773, ind anbfios 3492, anfhis 
378, ainbfios 2776 
an-forbthe impu/Út, airem a. a pllme 
number 144-3, 4493 
angUde angelic, ainglaidi 5306. C. 
anocht m. (I) a mel1"ical mistake, 
fault, error 1943, 5062, 1970, 2Ö22, 
2069,71,3.5, 2102,4, 2178, ar anocht 
2175; d.p. d'ar n-anochtaib 2112, 
for a. 2124; a.p. anuchtu2009: (2) 
a specific metrical fault, absence of 
nocht, q.v. 2069, int anocht 2073; 
e.g. 5222, argair and cen ni fris 5232, 
Ir. 7: iii. 126 
anrocomraircnicsiumairne the 
vord tn Gaelic 1436, 4523; 
v. comroircnigiur 
ansruth, anruth, anrad m. a poet of 
the secol1d order, anruth 2231. b". T. 
iii. 112, and bldex 
árad m. a ladder 2P5 ; adj. aradach 
5830. ZCP. 8, 70 
aradu f. a þreparÙlg, charactn istic, 
C011ditiol1 , n.s. is caindeifriges a n- 
aradu 985; catead a n-araide 
1639, 16H, a n-aradnai 4819; 
cona n-aradnaib 1674,4853. C. 
arathar m. a plough 5728 
arbor n. corn, g.s. criathar arba 636, 
gort arba 5558 j d.s. c. im arbor 637 
ar-chingim I go to, approach, enter, 3 
s. pret. arching 5241 
ar-chú m. watch-dog,. 01, ár-chú rfl. 
slaughter-hound 5741,2 
ard high, compar. airdi masi muin 
1186, airden 4284; super!. ardam 
dossaib 5548J a. iachtadh 5575 
ardingim I crush, compress, Ù1/tl1siji', 
3 s. pres. arding dead 1357, 154 6 , 
arding in focul 1828, arding defidh 
3661 ardingidh in foucal 5018 
ard-rlnd n. a plalut, na vii n-airdrenda 


arganda m. stalker (?) [226, 4536. 
Cf. argg, argan, C. 
ar-garim I forbid, pnvent, check, 3. s. 
argair 5230,2 
ar-Iégim I tead aloud, airlegthar 
5828 ; info airlegind 5827 
arnin m. all Ogham accellt, 'Which r011l- 
presses a fillal /titer, alld the sign 0/ 
'hlch is n 1560, int arnin 1827, 
arnin is e in tres fuilled 437,8, 
1545,6, 1558, 1824. airnin 2888,9, 
3 6 3.h 4355, 4768, airnion 3637 
aró a 'l'oyage, rOUiÙlg, .i. imramh 1326, 
4642. Stowe Gl 
áros m. abode, d1<'ellÙlg, d.s. issinn arus 
539 1 
arsata old, a11cimt [757, arsanta 
494 6 
ar-sissiur, airissim I re11lam, rest, 
3 s. pres. airissid [446, 3056 j is di 
idar [622, 4700,[ 
arusc n. a s/rþulati01t 5639. Laws 
arusc rére Lat. 'I}erbum t'oluntalis, jör 
t \ample 4672. TP. Supple p. 25, 
-::2 [ 
asa, isa1i:hose is 5 [94- 
ascnam m. (ad-com-sní) ([) 011 ad1'01lc- 
mg. SUI.Ùlg, attack: (2) the r,petilio1l at 
Ihe dose oj a medial stallza Ùl a poem 
of half the accellted open11lK !I:ord of 
the poem 2200,3,[[. Ir. T. iii. 30,[ : 
11'. .I/elr. 
 28: (3) tire nth'a1lci'l'e case 
15 1 9, 165 (, 1724,6, 1777, 1882,474 2 , 
int asgnamh 4916.7. 4977 
ass mrlk, as 10'>7. auss 4023 
astad m. a lroldillg fast, settlillg, estab- 
mlWI/{, asdadh 1022,7, Castad 3977, 
a fostad 3983. Wi. 
a-ta-boind proclaims, ata-boing, ata- 
. ong tui 5t58. Ped. Gr. 
áth m. <lford 1274, 4328 
atharraiglm I repeat, reiterate, gach 
ni athairrigthir 729, athraigther 34-85 
ath-denam d0Í11g agam, repeatmg, a 
n-ai(t)-denamh 2312 
athech m. a tmnllt-at-'ú.'ill u.ho pays 
illÜrest (aithe) (or the lal1d Imt him 
. y hIs Clrltf, a peasant, churl, H.p. athaig 
fedha 115 [.4-, 5493,6, aithig 4246,9 

3 1 9 

athfégad m. a regal dillg, considering, 
comparing 913, 1475, 1894. C.148 
ath-forgab m. a weapon, strife, S)'"- 
cope, madh fo athargab 3387. Cf. C. : 
Fian. : Wi. 
athgabáll f. a retaking, including, 
con a n-athghabail diblinaib 904,1234, 
455 2 
ath-nuaigim I renew, make a copy of 
pISS.), 3 s. pret. dep. doathnu- 
aighiuster 2639. Cf. ros-atnuidh, 
11'. T. iii. 66,3 
ath-talrcim I reþroduce, reflr to, feclair 
.i. athtairgither 3 [53. attaircidhter, 
auraicept m. a primer, first leSS01l, a 
grammatical trea/Tse, n.s. int Uraicipt 
3381, eraicept 2260 j g.s. coic duail in 
auraicepta 343, 733, 2699, auraicepto 
2773 j uraiceapta iar n-Amairgein 
[028 j a.s. iar n-uiraicecht l\Iuimmg- 
4507 ; d.p. dona huraiceptaib 6161. 
a. na n-ecsine, II'. T. iii. 32,3 
aurba a breaking, exceptiol/, co nd- 
&lurba 1202, co nd-urba 983, co 
nd-ourba 4314 
bacc a kiss, Lat. pax 1356. pòg, HSD. 
bacc crositr, crook, slrel.f, bac Ogam 
bewl or angle Ogham 6088. hinge or 
staple Ogham, Kilk. Arch. Jr., p. 225 
bachlach m. cleric, priest, monk, n.p. 
b1cllaid 6150 
bachlach m. a C1 OUid, crew 5365. 
badb, bodb a war goddess, badbrí a 
war kl1lg 5157,67 
bádlm I drown, merge, elide, rei. 
baidhius 4342 j conas-fir-bade J 202, 
co ndofir-baidhe 3920. 0' Molloy 
Gr. 149 
báes m. folly, ,,'anity, lust S3<)O 
báeth a fool, baeth criche 5289,95 
bág C. a fight S626. Wi. 
ban excellmce, prosperit.', success, clu co 
mboil 5932 
bane place, township, monasttry, g.s. ar 
Ùglanbaile 5338 
balrdne f. barrl pot/ry, g.s. 743, 754; 
d.s. 757 


3 20 


balrend f. piece of rock, stolle 5426. 
Tbc.: C. 
bairt .i. ingen daughter, girl 5426 
ball a member 1305 
ballorb (I) a member or facul
v for 
pnftctÍ1lgpoetry 1305: (2) a 1lame for 
a cano 1306,4628. .i. in bard ica fuil 
ball don bairdne agas bairdne ar 
fiJidecht sin, i.e. a bard who has the 
member for bardship, mid ban/ship is 
the 1lame for that poetr}', O'D. 
bán a blallk space 1275. O'Br. 
ban- female,. banda woman{v: 1464,5, 
15 0 3; ban-ecoscda 0.1 womanly form, 
ban-gnethach of woman!;' acti'l'ities, 
ban-gnimach of u:ommlly deeds 6 [2 ; 
ban-en a female bird 542; banmae 
m. a female child 531, banmac 631, 
3 162 , banmacan m. id. 533, ban- 
macam 3163 
bánad a blanchinlJ, making pale 5628 
bar a sage, bair .i. suid 5425. C. 
bara a1lger, wrath 5168. C. 
báree f. a boat, barque, barc 6133 
báree f. a stronghold 5107 
bargen f. a cake, bread, bairgen 5806 
bé a 'U'oma11 1275. C. 
bee small, little, compar. lughu 677, 
147 2 , luga 3270; sup. lugum, 
lugusomh 659, lugam 3489, lugasoun 
3 2 71, lughude 1456, 3369 
benaim I strike, 3 s. pres. nos-benand 
54 2 7, benai (I. benas) 6069; 35. perf. 
robí 5122, ros-bi 5349 
beó living, alive, g.s. cellabrad cach bi 
1681, each ñlbi bui 5393; d.s. du 
biu 584 
beóir f. bee I' 980, 138 I, 5429 
berbaim I boil, 3 s. pass. reI. berbthar 
5566. Wi. 
bérla n. f. m. a speech, language, berla 
nEpraide . . . is si 2488 go,8, 1044, 
in roberla-sa 1053, int aonberla 2434, 
1765.4966; berlada 2579 
berrad m. tonsure, hair of head, g.s. 
d üh a 
errda 3497 
bert f. clothes, robe of a king 5371. C. 
besan a killd of bird, a pheasa1lt (?) 
5 6 93 

bésena a speech, language, beusgna 
2268, besgna 2270, 2317, in bescna-sa 
5472. .i. sith no berla, Ed. : .i. gach 
tír na gach talamh a mbid berlada, H. 
4. 18 
bethe m. (I) the birch-tree, g.s. fri cois in 
bheithe IIS8, 1154, 1160, 4249: (2) 
the letter b, n.s. in beithe 2802, 5486 : 
(3) alphabet, forbethi 5912 
bethe-Iuis-nln the ogham alphaóet, 
bethi-luis-nion 2806, 5505 
bethumnaeht livelihood 5798. Cf. 
bethamnas, C. 
biáil f. tl11 a.w, hatchet 5725. C. 
bile 1 im, border, lzþ 5158,68. C. 
bith m. world,falt1la, aipgitir in betha 
5600. C. 
bith-eólus the e'l'er!i-l'illg kl1{1wiedge 
395, 279 0 , 2978; g.s. 509 
bitumaln bi/ll11ll!1l 287, 298, 2-1-38, 
bláth bloom, ar a blath 5620,4. \\ï. 
blog f. a piea, fragmmt 901, is blod 
2838, in blad 3783, 4386. Fel. 2 
blose a 1lOise, report, cracking, eara 
bloise 5636. .i. guth, II. 3. 18, p. 
626 c : C. 
boaid .i. eblud a rearing, bri11l[1Jlg up 
5445. Cf. buanann 1lurse, .I/t". 
bó-aire cow-chief, b01irech 5-1-48. 
boead m. (I) a softmíllg, 71111'oicin.
: (2) 
lmitioll (0/ a jÌ1Wlc011S01W11t) 1264-,5,9, 
1273,4, 43 2 2,3,7,8, 4335, confused 
"ith (3) the Ogham H folloWZ11l[ its 
C011S01ltl1lt e.g. B + H = P 12 70, 4335 
boehta f. þ01'erty 5343. Wi. 
bogaim I sojim, rei. bogas 4335 ; inf., 
bogad, boccad q.1'. Cf. C. 
boiseell a mad hind g.s. boaiscille .i. 
elit gelt 1185, 5554, b:1isgell .i. eilit 
4282, Ed. vii. II b39, basceall 5551, 
boscell 5553, boiscell 5552. þ1'obab[v 
a folk et;'11l010gy, bo-asa-ceill. J/e/r. 
brab supremacy, superla/rá .i. bárr 
ithe the top or p0111t of a thÙ1f, 
P. O'C., molad .j. brabh 336[,2, bee 
brab-beirius comparit, mor t:rab- 
beirius superlait 3329,30, brab iffin 


3465. :\Iod. Ir. brabaeh m. Ùl- 
crease, ta b. air an oidhehe eheana 
. the 11ight is already lengthening (after 
braeht (I) fat, meat-juice 1229,4540 ; 
pl. braehta 4541. La\\s: Cor. 2 42 
braeht (2) variegated, rnbracht (O.l. 
mrecht) 5700 
braiseeh f. kale 5809. O'Mulc. 685 : 
prJ.isech broth, M'B.: AisL 
bran a rave11 5598. Wi. 
brann a womml, braind .i. mna 5425. 
brann gl. sæthech u'eary 5936. Cf. 
braon .i. boeht, .lIe/I'. 
brass, bress great, big,. brisÆ, eager 
5 1 5 8 i n.p. brais 2537 
bratán a salmon 5599 
brátharda brotherly, cleas b. feat of 
sl'nzþathetic magic (?) 1332. Cf. brí, 
Cor. Tr. 22 
brée f. a lie, deceit, breice 5288,94 
breee m. a dot/i1lg 6010 
breee spec/ded, variegated, chef}uered 
5 2 35 
breehtrad m. mrÙ!y 4736. Wi. 
breeor a dot/Ùlg 6055. II'. T. iii. 84, 
8 : /òr mrece-cor 
bress shape!;', beautiful 5168, 5263 
breth f. a judgmmt, decree, isna 
breathaib nemedh 1298, 4380, 4398 
Bretnas f. the British la1lglla
e, Welsh, 
isin Breatnais 633, Bretnus 3208 
brí a word .i. briathar 1330, brigh 
44.82, 4645; n.p. bri oeht .i. ocht 
mbriathra 1 t27 
brian a 'b.'OI d 5433, 3912. O'CI.: H. 
3.18, p. 6 2 4. 
bríathar m. f. (I) a word, reftrmce 50, 
PlIo 3[48: (2) a 1l'l"lltm 1vord 1924: 
(3) a verb, n.s. 2657, 2670, 3 1 9 i 
g.s. breithri 2664, ball in brethir 322 ; 
d.s. do breithir 2670, 'na prethair 
266 5 
brieht a chal m .i. epaid 4540. Wi. 
brieht a foot or 1/el se of eight sytlaMes, 
octosyl/ahle 90'" 1218, 4482,3, 1727, 
173 6 ; 1233,4, 455 0 ,3; 14I.h 14 2 7, 
1956; i mhricht 933 

3 21 

brieht ass dot/illg out, deletio1l, a 
mbricht ass di ra.ith 1282,4339. v. 
bracht (2) 
brigaim I declare, adjudge, bricht 
iarsinni brigtair ocht sillaba and 
14 28 , 44 8 4- 
brimon smetraeh I a deadly operatio1l 
peiformed by poets OIl those u'ho rifused 
their demands' I 328, 46
5. briamon 
5., RC. xxvi. 14: Cor. Tr. 22 
brisefriable, fmzl4539 
bróen(a)im I drop, distil, Corsmbroeniu 
bith 559 
brogmar excessive, might)', air na 
cumaing brogmoir 5912 
brolaeh a prologue 2358, brollach 81 
brosnaeha bairdne illcitemmts of 
bard poetry 743, b. na b. 3511. 
d.p. fr. T. iii. 66, 22 
brúud m. a bruising, crushi1lg, artiat/a- 
tion 90S, 3788 
búaehaill D1. a cOl1.'herd, herd, con- 
buachaiII watch-dog 5745, n.p. con- 
buachaille 5746 : La" s 
búaidir a disturba1lce, uproar, b. 
forann.1 5986. Wi. Cf. buadir-mesc, 
búaraeh n. a sþa1lcel for cat/Ie, spaTlcd- 
IÙlg, can buaraig 5242 
búe origi1la/, well-descmded, steadfast, 
virtuous, g.s. bui 5393. C.: d. Boii 
buga a soft sOlmd 1072, ar is buigi 
bis isna forfeudhaibh 4400, 1300. 
Sg. 3 bl3 
buge n. a bluebell, kvac1Jlth, bugha 3500. 
buieneeht f. a herding, lucht na 
buicnechta 5473 
buidle? blind .j. dall 5440 
buidlen? a 11umber, a high 1I1mlber 
544 0 
buna.d origi11, basis, one of the 7 heads 
of definition, viz. t bunad, inde, air bert, 
ruidles, diles, indies, coitehend 74 J, 
810, 35
8, 3626,40, 3678 
eáeehán m. a blind mall, caechanogam 
5767. Cf. C. 
eáem (I) fair, beautiful, indsge aiccenta 
eaom 3708, caimiti 2752, socair caimiu 

3 22 


1068,9: (2) a scholar, poe/, g.s. caem- 
shluaigh 2228 ; n.p. caemthuit cluidh 
cáer f. a ben:1', g.p. cær 1168, a 
chaor 4264. Wi. 
cáerthand m. the lllOllJltaill-ash, rowan 
II55; II66,7, caorthand 4249,62, 
cairthend 5520. Wi. 
cái. cói f. a waJ', path, for cai cuir 
2221, for cæi 2125, for coe 2233, 
2245, coicer cae 2238, triur cæ 2242, 
oen coe 2250, æn for coe 2253, in 
deschae 836, ifin che 520 
cáil f. qualitv. condilion, character, 
reputation, cail gotha 601, cailfota 
5 1 06, tria chail 3774 
caill f. a wood, forest, n.s. coill 2828 ; 
g.s. fid na caille 398, 856, na coi\led 
2817.43. rois cælli 1320 
cáille a divisioll of land 51c6 
caillech f. a 11Ull, n.p. caillige 5720 
cáin- fair. beautiful, cainiu fedaih 5550, 
caindeifriges 985. caindeligud 1502, 
c:tinfidh 1183, cainuaighter 998, folt- 
ch3in 1160, socarcaine 1070 
caindlech lustrous, sh11lÙlg-white 5313 
caingen f. 1lltsiness, question, trouble 
5 12 .4- 
caire f. b1allle,fault 5270 
caisacht f. 1'isibility, perspieaÚ
1', clear- 
ness 3265. caisiu seeillg: C. 
c!tithim I consume, spe1lll, 1vaste, pass. 
ros-c.lthatar 5119; p.p.p. caithte 
spm! 467 
canach cottoll-grass, bog-down, bloom of 
elm 5620, of wIllow, catkin 5624 
cano m. a po'/ of the .10111 th degree, d.s. 
do chanaid 130fi, 4629, du canait 
cantain f. a sarillg, pronouncing 
capail (gl. bunad) a foundatiolt, basis 
3813. capall, O'Dav. 572 
-car lovÙlg, fond of, cáin-car fid Iribu/e- 
gi1'Ùlg u'ood 4281, cno-car fer one 
folld 0/ nuts 4279, ith-car fer 011e fol1d 
of eating 4280, Allte. iii. 43, 15, 
sn,tmchar fer olle f011d of j'wimmillg 
43 0 1 

cara m. a frimd, n.s. 5326, 5619; g.s. 
comainm carat 5656 
caraim I love, 3 s. prete rom-char-sa, 
etc. (paradigm) 653, 3356 j I s. pret. 
of fut. nocechrainn 534 
carechtar character, letter, pl. cair- 
eachtaire 336, 2687,4011,2 
carpat m. a chariot, fidh Toith in carbait 
carr m. a waggon, carl 5726 
carrac f. Lat. sropula, I. scopulus 
carrach 1088, 4083 
casnad a 'fI:hi!, particle, pI. casnaide 
chips, shavings 3499 
cass quick, acti1'e, rash, passionate, 
rochas 5261 
cass curly, equat. caisithir 3-1-99 
cath panacea (?) 5562,8-1-. O'l\Iulc. 
cathach hm'Ùlg baltlts, warlike 5318, 
535 0 
cathir f. ciIJ', mOllastery 5268 
céim (I) a pact. n.d. da ceimend 1245 : 
(2) grade, rank, order,. grat/us .i. ceirn 
3284; secht ngrad immorro .i. gradus 
grad no gradus ceim .i. secht ceimenna 
na filidecht3, Ed. vii. 6: (3) the 
airbert of réim, pl1ps. peifect allitera- 
tion Ùl each line of a quatraÙl, with 
uaimm do rind 8eo, 3590, 3617. Cf. 
céimnigim I pace, graduate, ceim- 
nighthir 991,2 
céir f. 1vax 982 
ceirt (I) all apple-tree, quert II85 : (2) 
the ogham le/ler q 44c, queirt 44 I ; 
, 4281,7,3 
ceitheoram .i. ceitheora mna 4709 
cendfochrus f. a change of (a) all 
initial, c. tuis 1985, 4988, 5032: e.g. 
fer, ser 1795, 4987 j ben, len 5032; 
eencha!',fenchas 5386 j dlicht .i. slicht 
.i. cendfochras, A,lee. \'. 22; (b) a 
fillal letter of a u:ol'd 19H, 2110, 
2 172, 5073, 5384, c. derid 1999, 
2136,4988, 5032, c. deidh 1795 : e.g. 
fer, fel 1795, 4988; ben, bel 1851, 
5031 ; nem, nel 1874, 5050; doróscib 
5388, doroisce, RC. xx. 152 


cenél m. (I) gmus 856,7,8,9, 861,3, 
885,7,8,9. is e in cenel 895, 3777; 
a.p. cenela 891: (2) gender, sex, 
1462, sluind ceniuil 7 12 
cenélach gelleric 858, 3736 
cerc f. a hm, querc 569
. Cf. Lat. 
cerr maimed, wry 5243. C. 
cert right, exact, regular, i certogam 
60 33; com par. certiu 113 t, 1256, 
go cert 2916 
certach ragged 6131. C. 
certán a kind of music, crooning, num- 
l1ll111: 1474,4577. O'),lulc. 830 e. 
certle f. u hall vf thread, clew 5816. 
ceirsle, HSD. 
cess m. gloom, weariness, grÙf, gan 226-\-, ceo cheass 1115, 2035, 
2073. can c. 2107, cen chessa 2225. 
céssad m. (I) slq'trl11g 1611: (2) 
/Jtlssi'l'e voice 643, 653. g.s. briathar 
chesta 1619 
cest, cesc f. quel)', Lat. quaestio, 9, as 
from Lat. sciscor 615 
cét- Jirst, cet-ainm Jil st Ùlscrrpti011 
1161; cet-labra Jirst speech 2378, 
2797, 5 6 49, cet-labrad 1681, RC. 
xxvi. 32, 145; na-cet-scribtha 1757, 
54 8 9 
cétfaid smse, po att/on, d.s. iarsin 
chetfaidsi 2642; n.p. cetfaidhi cuirp 
7 anma 1901 
cethar-chubaid Jõur-rhpned, hat'ing 
jour rhyming '{'erse-eIUIÙlgs Í11 a quat- 
Itlill ce.ltharcubaid 785, 1937, taibrem 
cethor-cubaidh filidechta 7 bairdnc 
3593. fr. T. iii. 15, 6; 22, 26 
cetharde foltT tlllllgS, quarlette 2868, 
cethair 426, fri ceathardu 1020, 
ceathardha 3975. Wi. 
cethraime a jÖltrth pill t 3059, ceath- 
ramthu 1448 
cethrar m. jour persolls, a tetrad 
223 8 .4 1 ,3 
cethre coli. cattle, cara ceathra 5619 
cethruimthe four thillgs, quarlette, 
quale/llioll 3979 
cetlach sOIl
fuI52S2. c. 

3 2 3 

cia m., cesi f., ced n. who' what! 
císi rim 5204, ciasa run 5210 
ciacht mistiness, obsCltrity 3265. cIa 
mist, C.: ciachda misty,foggy, TSh. 
ciallabair nas01rable speech (?), a 
ciallabair no i ngenaib 1594. Cf. 
ceileabar f. warbling, Lat. ce/ebrare 
cíallaide smsih/e, hm'Í11g a melllljng, c. 
no neamc. 3032. C 
cían 10llg, riab cianaib a 10llg time 
be/òre 149. Cf. ST. 
cíar mouse-c%ured, dark-brou'll 5352, 
quiaI' 5699. Wi. 
cíartha waxell, 'wuwd, forsna claro c. 
1757, forna claraib ciarta 4946. 
tabula cerata, PI. A c/. Sanc/. 
cfn f. book, a set of Ji'{'e vellum shuts, 
Lat. quÙlio, isio Cin Ollaman 1204, 
4316,85. Cor. Tr.31 
cingim I step, go, cingit 1287, 1290 
cinniud m. a determining, dejinition 
1254, 4365,6. Fe/. oJ 
cinntechJixed, dejillitit.e 1254, compar. 
cinntichu 1255,6; sup. cinntechem 
4367, cinntechsom 4368, cf. cinntichu 
500 1258 
circumplex the circumflex accmt 
1354, 1554,8 
cith m. a shower 557 
claidemnas a word or '{'erse of st1'f1l 
syllables, heptasyllable 1217, 1425, 
1955,6, 4480 
cland f. (r) a plallt, meni tusmed 
clanda 628, siladh clann 5652,3: (2) 
progell}', chiMrm 5271 
clérech m. a cleric, n.s. 5209; n.p. 
clerig 57Il ; dim. cleirchtn 5203 
cH a poet oj the third rank, do chli 2235. 
Jr. 7: iii. 112: Cor. 
cH 1lI/ apple-tree, gl. quiert 4282 
cliab m. hasket, chest, breast, mac cleib 
5313. C. 
clithar II. sheller 1185, 4282, 
mb.lise.lill 5551,2.3. C.: clithchar, 
A nee. iii. 43 
cloch f. (I) Lat. lapis 1086, 40SI; 
555: (2) cloch (no æl) limestolle r088 
clóe f. florm, wh,r/wind 5214. chlue 
5219. mora in chlõe, Tbc. 4997 ' 

3 2 4 


clóen (I) SIOPÍ11g, inclined,per'l.'erse: (2) 
m. a wrollg, cen chlæn 1940, can 
chloen 5057, clæn 2026,8,2031,4,5,9; 
c. ceilli a wrOllg of sense 2139. 5100; 
n.p. tri clxin 2028. O'Dav. 49 
clóen cretti m. a wrOllg oj body or 
frame, a cha11ge in the form of a wm-d 
metri causâ 5102, clæn creiti 2031,5, 
21 31: e.g. forsiUlig5 104, fairsiung 5135 
clóen cuibdiusa m. a wrOllJ
 of rh)'me, 
the Cha11ge of 1'OWe!, e.g. e to i, or i 
to e metri causâ, clæn cuibdiusa 
2034,9, 21 38 j 5086, 5098, 5100: e.g. 
5 08 8-9 0 , 5 0 95-7 
clóenad m. a perver/Í1lg,fa1sifyÍ1lg 5099 
clóenre (I) a word or 1'erse of ji1'e 
syllables, pelltasyllahle 1214, 14 22 , 
1954, 4477: (2) p
r1'ersi011 of sense, 
clænre (no clæn celie) 169-1-. II'. T. 
iii. 21, 16 
cloth (I) n.fanu, hOllour, g.s. caemthuit 
cluidh 2233: (2) fil1110US, co clothaib 
5284. Cf. C. n. 
clusal f. a ternzillatim/,jina/, I1IdÙlg, 61 
ac clusail na muiti 2950, 3392 
cnoc m. a hill, lump, Wtll, ImucUe 5 0 14 
cnú f. a llut, each ac ithi a chno 1183, 
d.p. cnoib 5317 
cobair f. help, n.s. is degcobair 2 I 56 ; 
a. p. seacht gcabartha 2 I 26 f. a wem'illK together, ltxt, COII- 
text, cOllcaÜllated sense, n.s. 21-1-1; 
i comighib 337, isin coipdi 3388, 
coibhiti 4 I 14; cobigi celli the same 
sellse ill the narrati1'e fr01l1 negi1/1li1lg 
to end of the quatraill 2045. fr. T. 
iii. 30, 6 
coblach m. a flut, a boat 1603. Æll. 
253.4 28 
cóicer m. jive persolls, quillteite, pmtad 
2238, coiciur 1135, coicfhiur 2232 
cólcthe ji1'e thillgs, quilltette, coicdi 
428, coicti 2870,2, fri cuicti 1021, 
cuicthi 3976 
coimdiu m. the Lord, V.s. ammo 
Chomdiu 5392. Jfe/r. 
coip .i. buidhéan band, trooþ, COmpa11)', 
Lat. coPiae, P. O'C., for aighiph .i. 
coip [Eg.] 2392 

cóir n. a proper arra11gement, the l'ight 
111av coir n-anala 3528, 3589, couir 
60draid 3874. a choir n-airchetail 101 7 
coitchend COm11l011 use 380,3, 745. 
27 6 3,6 
coitide a part, factor 1452,3, 3 06 4,5. 
cote e111m diuidere, O'Mule. 25 8 
coitidecht f. partitioll, di'l.;si01l, trbna 
c. n-airme 3063 
col n. illceSt, lust, sill 605 
colg dét tusÆ-hilled s'll.'ord, calga deg 
5897. C. 
coll m. (I) hazel 1153, 4248, 549<1-, 
5519: (2) the ogham leiteI' C 1182,3, 
4 2 7 8 ,9, 4 280 ; 2895, 1372,3; g.s. 
1 2 73, 43 2 7. Proceed. Brit. A cad., 
p. 26 
colpthach fl.renn m. two-)'ear-old 
bul/ock 5755. Laws 
com-accomal (I) a conjoz,lillg, cmmtC- 
tioll , co-ordiuatz,lg 1900,1, 1924: (2) 
all adjunct 3391: (3) a c01ljuuctiml 
2668. Z.2 991 
com-aentu m. complete idmti'..J', ar 
comaentaidh 5560 
com-aimserad m. a s)'uchr01lising 
4038. Triþ. xxYiii. 
com-ainm n. a S)'IlOll)'m, c. carat 5656 
com-ainmnigthech s y II OIlY 111 0 lf s 
5 6 4 0 ,1,3, 5 6 57 
com-airem f. a computatioll, coitchend 
in uird cornairme ordi1lals 85 I, 
37 2 0,9 
comairlid m. a counsellor 109, da 
com:lirlig 1243, comairlib I II, com- 
airlech 4025 ; n.p. comhairlidhe 108. 
St .
comarbae m. heir, successor 5268. 
FÛ. 2 
comardad m. a corresponde1lce, rh)'ml', 
adjust111mt 3822,6, c. imcubaidh 3824, 
iar c. n.airchetail 1009, 3967; 1353. 
4416. O'Don. Cr.4IS 
comardugud m. a correspolldi11g, ad- 
justiug lOIS, 1353 
combérlaid m. Ol1e usi1lg the same 
speech, each comberlaidh 232, com- 
berlaib 237, comberlaid 1037, comm- 
berl,lig 25-1-6, comberla 2SS1 


eombert, compert f. cOllcePtiOlt 5272 
Combrec the JVÛsh language, Cymric 
3214. isin Combric, O':\lu1c. 266 
eomcengal a joining together, c. litrioch 
eomcheniúil m. one 0/ the same race. 
cach comcheniuil 230,7, 1038, 2545, 
d de-cheneuil C. 
eomchumung all equivalent, c. cach æ 
focail 1232, cocumaong cech aon 4550 
eomdál f. a muting, meet, c. cuan 1177, 
4 2 73 
comdeach m. the same verse-fòot, n.s. 
1514,4609; n.p. 12.1-1 
comdes equally right, equally ready, 
indiJIermt, coimdes 5827. C. 
comdHe f. a flooding together, great 
concourse 5339 
eomdlúthad m. a pressing, bindillg 
together 1020. C. 
comecar m. an equal layer, ina comh- 
egur 267, ina coimhecar 2582 
comét a guarding, keeping, cuI comet 
604, comet ]achta 5622; g.s. for- 
comeda, daghchometa, fricometa 18 I 8 
cométaim I guard, Jeep, 3 s. subj. 
manis-cornela 5487, muna coimeta hi 
2805 ; reI. is i coimetas 5623 
com-thilltech a co-inflect1011, derivatzve, 
n.p. com-fhilltighe 1900 
com-thot, con-fot m. equal lell!:th, 
Pi oportion, is e in c. coir 1013, cubat 
n-oll 5664. cr. II'. 7: iii. 30, w. 
com-fhrecra alZ allSWel ing, correspond- 
ing, i coimfrecTU 5460. C. 
com-fl.alus m. relationship 4937, 2721 
comfl.d m. the same or corresp01zding 
1 'OWe/ Or le/lu , cach da cobfid i cubaid 
957, 395 0 , is cubaid a comfid I2.P. 
15 1 3,4 608 
comfograighthid m. a consolzalzt 3ï5 
comfogralgim I sound along 'l.'l"tlt, ni 
comfograigend 2760 
eomfogralgthech a COIZSOn011t 2749, 
2760; n.pI. comhChograightheacha 
368. Sg. 221" I, 15"4 
comforlethan equally broad, of the 
same e\tm! 3400 
comguinidech e,/ually woullding 5580 

3 2 5 

comh-fhocul m. (I) a C01zjUIZCtiOll 
321: (2) a full SO/lIld, nidat com- 
fhocail -1-62 
comimairclde appropriate 592 
com-indsma a rive/tÙlg: the repeti- 
tiOIl at the end of the fÍ11al stanza in a 
þoem of a syllable (or a þal t thereof) 
01 the }irst accmted word occurrÙlg at 
the opmÙlg of the poem 2199, 2214. 
fr. T. iii. 30, 4 
comlálntius m. pelfution, comple/ioll, 
ier gcomloinntius 2455 
comlán complete, nach at comlana 461, 
1456, ni dod comlana 2922 
comHn all equalllltmber, 1017, 1977, 
in comlin 2114 
commailt f. (con-me!) a l1tbbÙlg to- 
gether, on foillgiud .i. on chomailt 
1756, on coimilt 4945, do cuimilt 
557 2 
commann a community, company', 
plagiarism (?) 1929. C. 
comna condition, June/ioll 1464,5,6, 
cuma 4566,8,9, 4750, do coma dilis 
budhein 4729. Cro Ii bais 0 tri 
modaib .i. 0 . . . 7 0 bas 70 atharach 
gnee no 0 tri tondaib .i. tond fhola 7 
tond comna 7 tond sceathraigi, Ed. : 
d. Fel. 2 228 
comocus Ileal', compar. comacsi 2841 
comparait f. the comparati'l'e degru 
6014, 695, 729; g.s. ainm comparaiti 
comraicim I meet, join, ullit
, re i 
comhraiget 1418, comraigit 1419 
comrím (I) all equal numher: (2) the 
same 1/letrics 2023 
comroircniglur (denorn. from 

rorcon error, inL of com-air-orgim). 
I err, make a mistake, perf. I p. a-n- 
ro-comraircnicsiumair-ne 1436, i-n- 
ro-comraircnigsiomair-ne 4523. i.e. 
Lat. deh,ta llOstra 
comrorcu f. all errol, mistaJe, com- 
roreo 1716, comrargai 4907. Str. GI. 
com-shined m. all equal sil etchlllg, 
equal duraliOlI, co-e-rtellsion, sam
quantitv, i comhshiniud fri fogur 908, 
3791. CZ. iii. 18, 22 

3 26 


comshuidiugud m. a comþ01mil, C0111- 
bÙzation 784, eomshuidhigthe 1900, 
i eomsuidigthib 973 
comsiud equality, sammess 1930. 
eoirnsid, Laws 
com-son the same or a similar soul1d, 
eornsan 5246 
comtoth a couple, union, e. eonsan 
1733, eomtath condsained 4925, 
iar gcomtach 3428. Cf. Hail Brigit, 
comúaim n. m. (I) a stilchmg /ogtther, 
composition, fri comuaim n-uad 3538, 
cen comuaim tomuis 3588,1020: (2) 
alliteration 1596. 1600, e. fidhraidh 
3872.4880, 53 6 3: (3) cornsþondmce, 
rhyme 3946,75 
conberbaim I hoil, conberbtar 4541 
condall, connan f. an internal 
division, the Ù1sertÙm of two meaning- 
less syllables into a word, connail 
5071,1947, a ehounail 4810, eondail 
1993, 2147, 2166, 5317, eondaill 
1501, se earbartha 'na eondail 2088: 
e.g. fer, f-efri-er 1801 ; ben, b-efri-en 
1843 ; nem, n-efri-em 1867 j as-goam- 
gilidir 5320 
condál f. a muting, pack (of hounds), 
conal cuan 5545,6. condal con, 
A,lee. iii. 43 
condelg n. f. a comþarison, Ihe com- 
parative degree, n.s. in ehondealg 
668 j 662,687, 698,9, 700,2, 732, in 
eondelg n-eteichta 2772, is i in sin in 
 teehta 703, .i. eonndelg n- 
edtechta 2775. condeiIg 686, coin- 
deale 2645 j g.s. a ngrad eondeilg 
639, eonndeilge 3304 j d.s. i coneiIg 
677, forin condelg 693 
con-gairiu, con-garim I cry, bell, 3 
s. pres. eonngair eter da a 1224,4534. 
/fIe/Y. sub á 
congbalach sUþþorting, havingcollstttu- 
ents or syllables (eon-gbál, a literal 
translation of lFv"'--"'-aßi]), son n- 
oencongbalaeh 9<>4, foeul oene. 93-1-, 
1534,3786,3862,4756, deehongbalach 
934, 3 8 63, treconngbalach 934, 3863. 
O' 381 

congnamaid m. a helper, eongnam- 
aigh echraide 5578. C. 
con-gníu I help, 2 s. fut. in euIigene 
frimm 5358 
con-midiur I acljitdge, measure, equal, 
am able for, 3 s. perf. eommadair 
5112,6; 3 pl. pres. pass. comiliter 
195 6 
connal a s/a/Æ, stubble, Lat. stÍþula 
1701, 4 888 
con-scaraim I scatter, destro)', triasa 
eoscairther 1174, 4270; info eoscrad 
4 26 9 
con-slaidim I beat, make for (?), I s. 
fut. cosluidrea 1603, eoslafe 5365, 
eusalua 3876, cossalua, hOI/. II'. 
Dichl., p. 9. Cf. com-sla goes, Ped. 
Gr. ii. 
conson f. a consonal1/, n.s. consain 367, 
2753, eonsoin 2750; n.p. consaine,-i 
2757, eonwini 1387; g.p. tri duail 
na eonsan 348, na consaine 2702, 
275 2 
consonacht f. C011s01lisatio1l 2706, eon- 
sanaeht 2696 j g.s. an dliged conson- 
achta 2961 ; d.s. fo consonacht 981, 
3916; a.s. teit a eonsanacht 1381, 
consonata cOl1sonan/al, dliged c. 490 
con-tuUm I sleep, contuili 5121 
cor f. a hand, n.f. a urard, ma chor-a 
534 2 . Eel.'!. 
core a clan 5261. il-fetr. 
cornairecht f. 11OY11-blou'ing 1478 
corr m. f. a her011, in ehorr 541, in 
coirr 3224 
corraib the 24 poetical lice11cer. the 
sréith and the gnÚise of the Trefocul 
1944, 5 06 4,6, 5 2 44,81 
corrucán small little conler 5337. 
eorróc a corner, Acull.: C. 
córus m. all anal1gement, law 1212, 
43 8 5. 54 20 
cose a correcli1'e (medicine), eose lobair 
5660. Cf. C.: Laws 
cosmailligeacht f. a resembla11ce 5812 
costud m. (con-suidim) a res/raÙ1Ùu;. 
checking, eostad sida 4270, 1173.4, 
55.0,4. Cf. RC. xx,'i. 2-1- 


cotarsna the opposite 5818, cotarsanai 
cotut a hardmÙlg, loss of weak s.vllable 
following accmt, al1d consequent de- 
lenition, .i. timorcain fn aicnead no i 
cind a shortl!1Úng at all accent or at 
an md 5292; 19-1-5,79, 2137, 49 86 , 
5068: e.g. fer a chodad 1793, ben 
a codut 1840, nime a cotut 1859; fer 
a codud 4986, bein a coulUd 5025, 
neimh a cotud 50-1-3; 5287; torthor 
( = torathor) 5289, 5295: cadad, 
Ériu viii. p. iv. 
crád torture, a1lguish 5895 
crand tree, musical tr
e 1479. Lec/. 
iii. 323 
crand fir test-tree 1156, 4250; 1195, 
4298,5517. Laws iv. 102, I: St.Cri/., 
crap a cramping, shrivelling, cen craip 
cainti 1929. Cf. C. 
cress narrow, slulder, coblach creas 
1603, bachlach cress 5365 
cretculbdius (I) all znteY11al rhyme: 
(2) all md rhyme 3839,40 
crett f. a bod.v, trullk,frmnework,for1ll, 
cret cloen 5100. .i. cneas aspect, 
VISa,[!e, cOlmtl!1lanCf, complexion.' also 
a skl11, shell, or riml, P. O'C. 
criathar a sieve 636,7 
crin withered, super!. crinem feada 5658 
cr1thach (11l aspm 1154,4250; 1195,6. 
4298, 5520; don crunn crithaig 5590, 
crithim I tremble, shIver, reI. crithes 
5 26 0 
crith1r f. a spark 5260 
cró (I) the metal hooþ of a lallC/!, socket, 
is ainm cro in gai 4717. C.: (2) a 
Ptn,pig-styl!, a cru 5674,5,7. Wi. 
crob a hand, d.s. i crub 5398 
crón saffron-coloured, amber, 1l1d-brOW/l 
5 66 9,7 1 ,3,5. 5 6 99 
crónán a croonÙlg, humminf[ 1474 
cross f. a cross, g.p. 5364. 1602 
crothaim I shake, cause /0 tremble, 
crothas 5260 
crú m. gore 1809, g.s. lanamain in 
chru 1810 

3 2 7 

crúan .i. trefocul 5442 
cruas hardness, a hard (i.e. 'Z.'oiced) 
sound, fri c. 1073 
crúd a destroying, iar crud chuile 5214. 
cruittirecht f. a harPing, cruitireacht 
cruth m. shape, mamler, as ad". 
how, as, cruth roncuala 5252, 5219. 
cruthalgim I form, create, 3 s. pass. 
pres. 2662, no go gcruthoigther he 0 
fhogbim 3806; info cruthaiged; g.s. 
as adj. ese cruthoigti creali'Z'e 3799, 
3802,4. Laws 
cúa.l a faggot, bundle, heap 5H5, cel1 
cuail cnam 1929, qual 5726. C. 
cúan fist, army, Lat. PUgllUS 5260. 
host Laws: Sg. 50& 12, note 
cúan a havUl 5105 
cúan f. pack or litter of hOll11ds or 
of u'oh:es II 77, conal chon alladh 
5545.6. C. 
cubaid (I) harm01Úous, ainm c. 2117 : 
(2) rhyme, the same vowel ßallRed hy 
the same number 0/ COllfOllants of 
which the closing onts are the same 
957, 3950; 12 4 1 , 128 5, 1291, 1512, 
2 0 39 
cubat m. a cubit, an ell, secht cubait dec 
260-1-, secht cumat deg 289. C. 
cudnud a hastming, cudnoudh eich 
4296. C. 
cuibde sUI/ablmess, ar a cuibdi 32, 
23 1 5 ' 
cuibrend a part, share, portion 5106, 
19 6 4- 
cuic .i. rún a secret 1305, no coie 4628. 
Stowe CI. : Cor. 2 300, 388,698 
cuidechtach ha't'Ùlg or formi1lg a com- 
þany 6150 
cuilenn m. hol(y, cuileand 1153, 118r, 
cuillenn 5633,5,42-1-8, quulenn 5518 
cuimbre f. (I) brevity, cuimri raid 
630,6, 6093: (2) a short syllable, 
arna cuimribh 1556 
cuing f. ayoke 1287, 129<> 
cuislennacht f. a ßU/11lg, ßttle-p/ay;n/[, 
quislemc-ht 5799 

3 2 8 


cuit f. (I) a share, portion.. (2) all 
arithmetical factor, n.p. coit 145 2 ; 
d.p. 0 choitibh 1444,6, 4494,0 quoitibh 
3 0 5 2 , a gcoitibh 3053, 'na coitibh 
3 0 56. cuit grata diuisio, O'I\1ulc. 
cuitbiud m. a deriding, contempt 1935 
cuI a guarding, protecting, cui coimet 
604. .Jletr. 
cumaide common 449, 2909. Laws 
cumair (I) short, forin penuiIt comair 
sen 4130: (2) a short, a short syllable 
812, 1349. 4413, Eeach in cumair 
1566: (3) a summary, sum 1497 
cumang pO'Zi!er, force of indivzdual 
't'owels 965,6; 1201. 4313, dobeir 
cumang fedha forin son dia fot 435, 
2887. Cf.Sg.18 R I 
cummaim I shaþe, compose, 3 p. pres. 
cummait 1937 ; pret. immar ros-cum 
1968. rocumsat 1928 
cummascda mixed, indsgi qumusda, 
cenel cumassu ePicene gender 3223 
cumraide sweet,fraf?ra1lt 5337. c. 
cumscugud m. a mcving, change f049 
cumung 1larrow, com par. is cumga a 
fuirmed 3397 
curach m. a coracle 6135; dim. 
curchán 5352. C. 
cutruma havÙIg equal weight or pro- 
portion, indi/firmt, cudruma 1422. 
cutrummugud m. a11 equating, 
balancing, comparÙlg 683, 3299. C. 
dáe, dóe m. a human bÚng, man, n.s. in 
dae 1615; g.p. na ndæi cen cheass 
II 14, na nai 2263. J.letr. 
dáen, dóen a man, human heing, 
dænogam 5709,18. do gach dãen, 
Anec. V. 23, 2: O'Dav.342 
dag- good, dag duine a good man 5340, 
dag-fisgood knowledge 580, dagh-fuach 
a good 'It'ord 3570 
dagda m. a hero 5183,7. Dagdae a 
mythological hero, C. In dagda DIU 0/ 
the xliiii. staraide Gædel rochumsat 
in lebur n-airise, a sdaraib, 7 a 
n-annalaib, BE. 308ß 32: ÉrÍlniii.62 
daig f. aßame,fire 55 6 , 539 6 , 5403 

daigthech fie"..,., in domun daigh- 
theach 2206 
daimim I grant, allow, pf. pass. rodét 
200 4, rodaimed 135 
dairt f. a year/Í1lg heifer 5766, 2055 
dáI f. meeting, tryst 5390 
dáUm I meet, I1J'st, I s. pret. rodalus 
5390. Tbc. 
dallbach a rhymed reproach or satire 
not co.zformÙlg to ordÙlary metries 
1930,1. H. 3. 18, 69 b, -635 b: .i. 
dallfuach, 'Cor. fl'. 61 
dám f. a company, party, 1"etÙme, cia 
lin dam 2220, ceithri damha 223 0 , 
damh as deach 2243, dam thoga 224 8 , 
in da daim 2252 
dam m. a hart, ox 5750, 5842 
dán m. a poem, poetr)', art, craft, g.s. 
a æs in dana 2184, aes dana 221 5 ; 
ar ilar ndan 2 I 59, ar a dhan 2235; 
danogam 5797 
dana tuo 259. Laws i. 230: dána, St. 
Crit., p. 9 
dánad m. dal1'l1e case 1524, 153 2 , 
dannad 4741, d:modh 4973 
darignius, darignis, etc. (paradigm) 
dartaid m. a )'ear-old bull 5757. 
CC.: Laws 
dasia et psile tlte rough a1ld the 
smooth breathing, dassien, scilen p. 
94, Dote. Gr. Lat. v. 132, 28: Sg. 
5 b 10, 17 a 3 R 
dath (I) a colollr, g.s. datha II 7 I : (2) 
poetic eolourÙlg, co m"ath 5064,5, 
5 2 34,44. A,lee. \'.23, I, n.: dath .i. 
uaire lit dicitur dath air non-molum, 
H. 3. 18. p. 635 
dé f. smoke,fimle 4291 
déach m. a 'l.erse-jóot; in poe/r.y the 
1zumber of s)'llables ÙI the verse, in prose 
the number of syllables ÙI the 11OU1l 
35 8 t,5; 771,859,922,14-14.29,5276, 
dech 691, 1213, 1410, 1951, diach 
1534; n.p. vii ndeich 744, 777, 860, 
1 2 32, 14 0 9, 4550, vii ndeichit (?) 
35 11 ; g.p. 12 35, 4553; d.p. 77 8 , 
9 22 , 1579,86, 1688, 1760; a.p. la 
deochu 691 


déad, deod n.f. an fIId, a jÙzal, the end 
of tl word 1357, ded 1546, fo deoidh 
debrieht m. a 1'erse:foot, a 1'erse C01l- 
SistÙlg of a double octosyllable, g.s. in 
nath dehichta 3712 
deehenbor m. a set of !ell persons, 
deichenbhur 2227 . 
deehned, doehned m. a bi-headi1lg, a 
doublillg of (a) the illitia/, dechnead 
tuis 1986: or (b) the finalleller of a 
1.:ord, dechned deirid 2001, e.g. tenn 
5397, I1rr 4992, nemm 5050: doich- 
ned 389. 390. 1947, 2168, 2777,8, 
dechnead 1806, 2 II 3, deicned 2 172, 
deichneadh 185274, dochned 5074,5 ; 
n. p. 2 r 54, g.s. dechmda, fro T. iii. 39 
decht pure, gmra1/e, airgid techt 5566. 
déesiu f. a 100ÆÙlg at, re
, 1.'/e1L', 
n.s. deiscin; n.p. descena 1922 
déde m. two things, a paÙ 5458, in 
dedi sin 2798, deda 425, 1019, 2867, 
dedhe 673, deide 2106 
dedlaim I separate, se1.'er, 3 pI. pass. 
deglaiter ar Jeth 5510; p. pass. ogam 
negladae 6063 
defid m. two Ie/tel s, arding defid 366 I, 
47 6 9,75.7 
defogur m. a dlþhthong 343, 1298, 
1684, 2696, 2706. deghfogur 1073, 
deofhogur 1347, do defoghur 1297; 
n.p. 1345; d.p. isna deghfoghraibh 
sin 97 2 ; g.p. 973 
defuaeh a dissy/lahle, d. intan is recom- 
lac 3570 
deg- /{ood, dialt deglemi a well-Ieapzil/{ 
syllable 2qo; mac De degergna 0/ 
good wIsdom 2495 
deiehthe ten thl1lf{S, decade, a ndeichthe 
1022, a ndeicthi 3978 
deiftr (I diJTerula, d. rainni 630, cen 
deifir 1261, del1r 1907 
deifrigim I se1...
r, dijfirmtiate, dis- 
t11l/{uish, 3 s. reI. c]indeifriges 985 ; 
3 s. pres. subj. intan deifriche 587 ; 
3 s. pres. dep. nas-defrigidar 616 
deil a separa/ion, deil degail 2689 
deilm a llOise, dill, ' eDOI t 547. C. 

3 2 9 

deime tepide a sdected lwlter 5 6 9, 
1808, 1853. 1876, 5078, 5402 ; e.g. is 
ed ceann 5
delb f.jórm,declmsiollI64I,4750: Z2983 
delg a thOr/I, ara deilghibh 1178, ara 
deilgniph 4274 
delgaige f. thorniness 55 I 7 
delidind (I) a metathesIs (a) of IdtelS, 
e.g. silochta, sJiochta 5310; gelli, 
gtilI 2043; (b) of syllables, gos
Fergossa 5314; n.s. deilidi 2133, 
delidin 5308,12,5, deiJiden 1945 ; d.s. 
da deilidin 1993, ic delidnid 2086; 
n.d. da delidin 2164.9, 5070: (2) 
f.' riling a 1('ord bacÆ1('ards and jòr- 
'f1.ards, fer, refer 1794; ben, neb 1842. 
Cor. Tr. 126 
deoehair f. a distinctiOll, dijfirmu 5 2 3, 
616, 1429. 3025, is i sin an d. 1443 
deoehraigim I diffirultiate, deoch- 
raides 893, 3775, deochraigter 1254 
deoehr(a)lm I diJ!Ú, 3 s. pres. nus- 
deochrend 3026; 3 s. pI. pass. indo 
nos-deochratar 523 
deórad m. all exile, out/mi.', strtl1l
n.s. deoradh 5153 ; n p. deoraid 5148 
der f. a daughter, n.s. der Greco 3 08 7 ; 
a.s. ailsius deir 5319. C. 
dere n. (I) a glave, g.s. 5383: (2) all 

ye 5994- 
dernu f. the palm of the halld, d.s. do 
dernaind 5165 
deróil 'iL'eal, fuhte, dereoil 518, 2988. 
derseugud m. a distillguishing, exce/- 
 643, 655, 68 5,8, 7 0 {, 847; g.s. 
derscaigti 643,685,847 
dethbir dijfenl1a, disti1lction 4371, in 
dethber 4493; I. deffir 
dfabul (I) a double, doub/l1lg, reduplica- 
tion, ferfer 1796, benben 1841: (2) 
the repetiticm of accented words ill a 
quatraÍ11 1945, 5 0 74; 1995, 2091, 
2151,2169,2176,5321, ego 5322-5 
dfall m. a def.ltltÍ1lg, declmsioll 783, in 
cetna d. 1918,9. 'Vi. 
df-alt T1. (I) a monosyllable, syllable 759, 
1231, 4549; 1497,9; 835, 14 1 4,7, 
14 2 9, 1454, 45 28 ; 904, 1534, a 

33 0 


dealt 1953; n.p. dialta 933, Lj.91, 
1506: (2) a declmsion, ferdialt 1829, 
bandialt 1857, deimdialt 1858, nem- 
dialt 1879 
dialt n-etarlemme n. a syllable leap- 
Ùlg bet-ween, inter/opz'nl{" anllnaccented 
.f_vllable occurring hetu'enl two allitera- 
tions 1312, 1600,6,7, 1803, 1849, 
1871, 1982, 2101,4680, 5081, 5362 ; 
n.p. l1a diailt n-eter
eime 4626; e.R. 
lond. Ced leth 5364. Lee. 363, 177 M. 
dian f. a melt'e þroþer to a fochloc(án) 
1579,4655. C.: Jr. T. iii. 112, 162 
dianalrmide in1l1tnlerah/e 894, a con- 
fusion of di- and al1- 
dianim sþotless, unblemished 5319. C. 
di-be6 unlivilll(, 1leuler 583 
dichned n. (I) a beheading.' (2) the 
dropping o.f (a) all illitial, dichnead 
tuis 1986, e.g. tepe 390, teibi 2779, 
or (b) a fillalletter o.f a word 389, 390, 
2777,9, 1947, 2111,68,7 2 , 5074; n.p. 
na dichneda 2149; dichned derid 
2000, e.g. fer,ft 1806; ben, be 1852 ; 
nem,1IeI875;rura5392. RC.xX.150 
dichongbail f. two s)'llables, 111'0 COII- 
sbtumts 1535 
díchronus a 'li!ord havÍ111{ two quan- 
tities, unurtaÙzly .i. nemcinnti, or 
lI011-þossessi'lJe .i. nemtsealpad 4069. 
Gr. Lat. i. 424, I, 14, 25 
di-druim yz'dgeless, without arris 6061 
di-fuilliud m. non-adding, 1lOn-addition 
816, 3654 
di-gabim, digbaim J take m...'
V, Lat. 
demo 582 
digbáil f. (I) a takillg aW
J', dimi1l1sh- 
l1IR 908, 1568: (2) þri-l/QtlVe case 
1525, 1662, 1887,8, 1890. digbál, 
digde f. prayer, blessing, dighdi dath 
55 6 . O'Dav. 59 0 
dil dear, beloved, folld 547,5619; g.s.m, 
5 26 5 
dUe f. deluge, g.s. dilend 5263. diliu, 
dileachtaig f. dialectics 52, 2339. C. 
dHes the proper use 745, 819, dileas 
380,2, dilius 2763 

dimbe6aigthe ÙUl1limate, dead 583, 
dim-brig f. þowerlessness, 'weal:lless, 
want 0/ emphasis, cen d. 19.P, 5061, 
5145 ; 20 53, 2156; e.g. amal cech (?) 
5 (4 8 ,9. C. 
dine a group, a gelleration, storl:, 11 ihe 
5 1 75,9 
ding di/Jicul
1', 'It>a1II, arding detìdh .i. 
ding fil and is teirce feuda fodera a 
difficult)' 'li!hich is there is raust!d "J' a 
scallti'less of leller 3661 
dlngbaim J 'ward off, reþel 208 I, dos- 
ding::ib 2109; info ic dingbail 5273. 
dinin disail the Ogham accmt OIl a 
short syllable, the Siff11 for whirh is d 
254. 81 5,6, 820, 1544,5,6,9, 1566, 
1821,3,2574,4767, dine disoil Lj.02, 
1555,9, 15 6 9, 1571,S, dinion disail 
3 6 35,6, duir i n-ait dinin disail 4456, 
duir a ndinill d. 4800 
dir due, proper, fit, meet, robad dir 
deiside 3398. C. 
direch a11 ltllC01'ering, stripþÍ1lg 5222. 
dítiu f. þrotectioll, shelter, n.s. 357+; 
g,s. na gnuisi diten 1978; d.s, dia 
nditen-sidhe 19+4, do didin 1963 
di-ud-rethim J remain over, 3 s. pret. 
doruaraid 2501 
diuir small, mt!Q1I, trifling 5377. 11)'. 
diúit simple 2895,8, 2900, do a seacht 
diuidib 747 
diúite f. simp1ici
J', Lat. diglllms 4217, 
midiuiti Wa1lt of dignity 4307 
diupart f. a deþrivÙlg, defraudl11!(, 
depri1'alion 6074 
dixnigur Jam, e:nst, docuisnet .i. 
disgnaigter 3261, 3047 
dligtech 1 ight, lawful, proper, i
feadhaibh dlightheachaib 483, 218
do-ar-rethlm J overtake, sÚze, }i1ld, 3 
s. pret. dos-farraidh don 547; 3 p. 
pret. pass. for a tarrasa tri gnee 888 ; 
pres. subj. foura dtaurrustar 37 6 9. 


do-ar-sissiur I stand fast, remain, 3 
s. pres. subj. doairesedar 494-; impf. 
doairised 2995 
do-ath-com-iccim I reach round, 
encompass, conas - tacmaing 1960. 
tachmaic snechta ferna fer, Cor. 
sub v. ferend: TP. i. 493, 21 : O'D. 
do-báidim I drO'uon, extinguish, 3 s. pres. 
dobadi 5159,69; info díbdud m.1281 
do-benaim I cut, deslroy, pres. pass. 
nodusbenadar 5432,8, nodabenadar 
54-28.38, dabenadar 5451, nodusben- 
t3r 5455, nodambentar 5449, nodus- 
bendai 5449; 3 s. prete 0 rodipad 
4338, ar rodipad fuirre 3136 
dobriathar an adverb 2668, 320 
docair hard, diJIicull, troublesome 2000, 
2016, rodocair 2019. Acal!. 
dochta f. tightness, douness, niggardli. 
ness, gan douchta 4059. Acal!. 
dochuisin exists ("ith ace.) 520, 
dochuisneat 639, 1545, 1817 
dóchusaigiur I dum likely, I exþect, 
doJochusaigedar 151 . 
dodaing difficult. variegated, dodaing 
tree 5938, 5933. CC. 2308 
dodeilb unshapely, dodheilb 472 
dodraing (I) hard, dijJicult, doghraing 
278: (2) a dijJicull)', frie dograind 
2593. CC. 
dóerbard m. a bard of the suom! class, 
n.p. d.:crbaird 1691; g.p. dærbard 
159<>. 11'. T. iii. 107, 14 
dóerugud m. an mslaving, a prefixing 
do to Ihe word 1869, 1946, 1980, 
2096; e.g. do-fer 1797, do-ben 1846. 
dær 5340 
do-ess-benaim I cui, selec/, derive, 3 
s. pass. duepenar 567, doepenar 568 ; 
is ed darepedh 1054, don tebi 
rote bed 3, 2274; 3 pl. perf. na tri 
saiJh doreipsead na berlu-sa 213. 
242 ; iarsinni teipiter damna na focul 
eistib 414 
dofarce ov,rloo/;s, exceeds 1935. Thur. 
Hdb. ii. 66 (do-for-ad-cí): TP. ii. 
290,7: Fd. 2 
do-fo-ethaim I go, 3 8. pres. dofhidh 
2247. Ped. Gr. 

33 1 

doformaigim I add, increase, 3 s. 
pres. is dialt duformaidh 776, 3578; 
na tormaig 1232; reI. tormaiges 
1569; 3 pl. act. doformaighet 1888, 
doformagat 1144, dofhourmaghat 
42.P ; pass. duformaighet 260; info 
törmach, q.v. 
do-for-od-gaibim I raiu, 3 s. impf. 
pass. dourgbad 366; 3 s. impf. subj. 
pass. na turgbadis 3389 
do-fuillim I add, 3 5. pret. rotuill 
do-gníu I do, maRe, natagendais (nad. 
dogentais) 3389 
do-imm-dí-ásalm I shorlm, ulzite, 
Lat. coarlo, 3 s. pret. dorimtas I 17. 
5tr. SR. dosrimthos 6331, dorimthas 
5973: 3 p. pres. pass. doimmthastar, 
Sg. 3"3: p.p.p. timmthasta, Wi.: 
timtasta, PH. 
do-im-orgim I comp,-us, UlzÏte, shorten, 
3 s. pres. dorimtas .i. rotimairg 117; 
3 s. fut. in timarr 2950, da-n-irnorr 
339 2 ; 3 s. pret. dorimart 2397 ; pass. 
eo timaireeter 1078; info fri timar- 
gain, tirnrnargain 5419 
do-(in-com-iccim) I chana, haþpm, 3 
S. pres. do-eagmaing 1265,8, do- 
eeaiph 4323,6,9. doeeam, Eg. 
dolbim I form, fashion, devise, charm, 
focail doilphdi 50 rodolpset filid 4524-- 
dalbhdha .i. dolbha .i. draoidheaeht, 
domidiur I judge, measure, consider, 
domiditer 1237,8, 1508, doimiter 
74 2 , domiter 954, 998. 1953 
do-moiniur I IhÙzk, 3 pI. perf. doru- 
menadar 150, ar doruimnetar 2454. 
dorumunadar .i. doshailedar, Ed. 
domunda worldly 60, besgna dou- 
manda 2334,6. mU1ldO/zus, Grigg. 
viii. 5, 28 
don a gift, don tidnocul 2733. Lee. 
don f. place, ground, dos-farraidh don 
547, duin 3182. Cf. nad tairIic don, 
gl. lIOn ceden/tm, 1\11. 131 b2; cia 
dudfailci don, gl. cesser;t, 1\11. I I I b23 ; 
co dufailced don, gl. inciderel, :\11. 
35"2: don terra, O'l\1ulc. 320 

33 2 


donfa (?) 2231 
do-od-saigim I nuru, hoard, slt.ftain, 
3 s. pret. rothaisigh 78 
dorar f. battle, conflict, a.s. arching 
dorair ndualaig 5241. Wi. 
do-ro-saigim I streich to, ,'each, go, 
3 s. fut. dorræ cucunn no duræ uaini 
573, dorrói, T.: 3039 
doróscaim (di-ro-od-scuich) I surpass, 
exal, 3 s. prete a cendfoehrus, doróscib 
5388. doroisce, R C. xx. 15 2 
dorus, i ndorusa before 1286. Lism. 
9 2 9, 1975,85 
doss, dos m. a bush, ardam dossaib 
554 8 , 4 2 7 6 
doss m. a poet of the fifih mnk, do dus 
2243. 11'. T. iii. II 2: Cor. 
doth a litter, cpds. indoth finni 5 6 72,3, 
cetoth (=cet-doth) 5 6 7 0 ,1, 5939,4 0 , 
midoth, bad litter 5934, ardoth 593 6 . 
Cf. doithid in Cú, Cor. s. Mugeme: 
info dothad, Ériu, ii. 153: doth a 
hatching, Laws: Triads: inddoth, 
indoth ojfsprÙlg, RC. xii. 122 
do-tuitim I fall, 3 p. see. fut. arna 
dtaothsatis 4674 
draigen a blackthoNI I 155, droigen 
4250; 1192, 4290; 5522. Laws 
drech f. faa, D. na ndrech D. of the 
many faces or hosts 2205 
dremun sudden, vehement, 1'igorous, 
a duan ndremain 2191. Wi. 
dringtach relating to advancing, com- 
passing, dejÙlÍng, climbing, RC. xiii. 
120: anmounda dringtacha 393 0 
droén a wrm 5694. dreoán, St ltfolig. 
drong ahundatla 5247,50. Lee. 
drúcht (I) dew.. (2) a rising, elemlÍon 
1229. .!'rIeir. 
 f. wizardry 5799. Wi. 
druim n. a rIdge, stem, arris of Ogham, 
deasdruim right of stem 9-1-7, 9 86 , 
tuathdruim left of stem 947, 9 8 7, 
leasdruim athwart stem 948, 9 88 , 
tredruim through stem 94 8 , 9 8 9, 
imdruim ahout stem 948, 990 j do 
deas in drama 986, darin druim 
9 8 9 

druin clever, co ndruincland 5 2 71. 
.i. glicc, Lec. 
dú a place 5381 
dúal m. a fold 339,344, 26 97, 2701,3; 
n.p. duail 342, 2700,2. Wi. 
dúal m. a cause, origin, derivati011, in 
duol coir 2718. Tbc. 
dualus right, due,. a dualus in ,'iglzt 
oj, in resþect of 405, a dualgus 2825,6. 
duan m. f. a poem, n.s. 2187; g.s. an 
duain 1588; a.s. a duan ndremain 
2191, na duaine 2209, each duaine 
2218; g.p. dunta na nduan 2182,3, 
cona nduanaib 1579; a.p. for duana 
5 2 53 
duar a word .i. foeul 235 2 , 544 1 , 2355, 
dúil f. elements, means, in duil dia 
n-innisin 526, 623, eter duilib 916, 
duil .i. diail 3152 
dúil a hook, isin Duil Feadha Mair 
200, isna Duilib Fedha 1198, isin 
Duili Feudha 431 J, De duilib fed a 
5416,7. O'Dav. 601, 369, 1286 
dUilgius m. a dijficulty 2059 
duir (I) oak 1180, dur 1153, 5494, 
dair 4248, 4275,6: (2) the Ogham 
letter d 815. 4274, 1401, 15 6 7,9, 
157 1 
dul m. a satirist 500, 2970. P. OtC. : 
dúnad m. a closing, close of poem, n.!>. 
2207; g.s. ainm gach dunta 2195 j 
g.p. do dhIigegaibh dunta na nduan 
2182; a.p. dunta 2183 
dúthaig fit, due, compar. ni duthcha 
3542. Laws 

é salmon 5599. il:felr. 
ebad f. (I) an aspm 1196, eba 4300, .i. 
elend 5523, 5597,9, 5600, 5661 : (2) 
the Ogham diþhtholl/{S begimlingwith e, 
ebad 1347, 1358, 1367, 1533,8, 16 75, 
euad 1677. eua 4379, eubhai 47 6 0, 
tria ebaid 5430 j adj. ebadach 5853, 
eblud m. a rearing, bringing Itp 5446. 


Ebra f. the Ilehrew tonglle, Hebrew, 
n.s. 2281, 2311, Eaphra 2459; g.s. 
Ebra 3765; d.s. a Ehra 353, a 
hEpra 2716 
'6brón iron 4542. Cor. Tr. 67: 
O'Da\'. 1026: eabron pall, caldron, 
-écenel a false geJl'fer 1942, 2067, 2173, 
can ecenelas 5060, 5201; e.g. dín 
5205, di 521 I 
oéces m. a poet, sag", n.<;. eiccius 2795; 
a.s. Ia heigius 2794; go.s. cride ecis 
5 8 95; g.p. na nd-egeas 1 I 14, na 
n-eiges 2263; d.p. d' e:csib 2120. 
eices .i. æi can cea
, aircetal .i. fili- 
decht no nasal cantain, Ed. 
'6ch-fhlesc f. horsewhip, horst/ash, 
echlaisg 4297. Wi. 
echta pure, d'eochtaiph 2686. CC. 
-écnach n. a satirisinff, reviling, 
blasphem_v, n.s. 5252, oc ecnuch 1333, 
cen ecnach 1934, 5184,8. Wi. 
'6cnaid m. a leanled man, philosopher, 
Iasna hecnadaibh 2335, hecnadu 47. 
oécnaigim I satirise, egnaigeas 1334. 
-écndairc, écnairc (I) absent: (2) a 
past tense, all absent for a presmt 
19P, 2056, 2161, can ecnairc fri 
frecnairc 5057, 5171; e.g. At-Sa 
5 1 73,5, 221 5- 8 
oécnuad de/raction 1935. écndag, 
O'Mule. 357 
écomúaim a falst alliteration 1942, 
5 061 , écomfúaim 5212, ecommuaim 
2064,6,2170, ecomuaim fidraid 5217 ; 
e.g. 5215,6 
'6cor . fl11 O1'erla)'Ùlg, adorllÙlg, orna- 
menting, g.s. 1930. Tbc. 
'6csait hollow of Imu, hough 1854, esgat 
5 0 35. Lor. Gild. 180, 4 
écse f.leanzing, poe/1y 2007, 5244. \Vi. 
écuibdius m. a falSt rlz..vmmg 1943, 
5059, 5 1 9 0 , 2060, 2163; e.g. 5192-5 
écumang wallt of power, weak less 969, 
970,7, 120 5,7,43 1 7,8 
éd fire, fo edh .i. teine 2844. aed, 


ed law .i. ed dliged 2730, 1479, 4577, 
fo fedh .i. maith a edh 2823. Lei. 
ed a space, extellt, mo a ed 1470,8, 
treith a ed 1476, f-edh ae 4cq, mo a 
fedh a n-airdi 4575, r
a head 2175. 
ed grief, ed uath 1195, 4298. O'Da\". 
éd p,'o/ectivn, shdter, fo a edh .i. a 
fosgadh 28.J5. O'CI. 
edad (I) all aspm: (2) the Ogham 
let/er e 1195,4298, 5591, 5656, edad 
.i, eu 5522. O'D. Cr. xxxii. 
edenn ivy', edeand 1188,90, eidheand 
4 286 , edind 1197. O'l\[ulc. 
edlend honeysuckle, gl. uiIIeand 119ï, 
43 01 ,3, 552
, 5 60 5,6, eithlend 4302 
eipit f. a billhook, epit 5728. St. Cnt., 
p. 33: O'Mule.4 0 7 
eireteacht f. heresy 61, 2349 
ela swan 5696. fr. CI. 5 0 9 
eladnach artistic, traillt'd, proj't'sslolla/, 
filideacht e. 2462,3 
eladu f. art, skill, craft, g.s. do fis 
cecha healadna 4940; a.s. cen 
eledain 1751 
elend elecampalle, woodbine 5523, 5660. 
Hog., p. 31 
elet f. a hilld, dOt', elit 1185, eilit 4282,3 
elg 110ble .i. oirrderc 2517,2294,3541. 
ellach n. (I) a union, combi1latioll, com. 
position, i n-elluch focail 9021 37 80 , 
Sg. 25h13: (2) a 111"'''', n.p. \ii 
primeiIIge 743, 3S 10; g.p. i n-anocht 
n.eIIag 5224 ; d.p. dona vii primell. 
gibh 1686. II'. 7: iii. 28, 28: 
O'Dav. 765 
emain f. melJ e proper 10 a cano, eamain 
157 8 , ind emain 3673. fr. T. iii. 
emancoll (I) witch hazel.. (2) Oghllm 
double c, x 4421,1>, 5526, 5 612 , 
emoncoll 1364, amancoll 1365, emun- 
coll 1370, 5613, eamancoll 1372 
emilt prolix, tedzous 637 
emnach dOllble, Iwill 5907 
emnad a d01Ib1Ùlg 439, 2890, 1373, 
Lat. dllali!cls 4213. Sg. 3"11, 16b7 



emnaide (I) doubled, eoll e. 5526 : (2) 
a doubling, a se dee emnaiti 4518, 
emoneoll ar a n-emnaide 1364 
emnaim I douhle, 3 s. pres. pass. 
emnaither 4422 
énaireeht f. a fO'wling 5803. énaire, 
eneeh hOllOur, honour price 133-1- 
engraeus piau, effect, ingrecus .i. 
greim 1722, eungradus .i. greim 
4912. Sg. 12B4, 30 b l6, 61B5 
enistrafen v. anastropne 
ennaeosse SamPi goo, Gk. illllaK6(HoL. 
p. 86. TP. ii. 285, note h 
eó a )'ew-tree, a tree, iobhar .i. eo barr 
semper 4300, 5130, eu 5523. .tle/r. 
eólaeh learned, skilled, im eolarh 2027, 
eolaig 2003, fer roeolach a mberIa 
5.1-70. La\\s 
eónase ousel .i. Ion 5001 
epaid f. Lat. vmeficium, a phzltre, 
charm, brieht .i. epaid 4540. TP. ii. 
24 8 ,7 . 
epe a CU//Ùlg, aþocope, selecting, selection 
349, 350, 385, 27 11 , a dichned, epe 
.i. tepe 390. Laws 
epert f. a word, d.s. 1557; g.p. 592 
epseop m. Lat. eþiscoþus, bishop, escop 
5267. Fel. 2 
ér noble .i. eur uasal 2689, 2694. .""Jetr. 
er a begÙl1lÙzg, er gach toiseach I, 2270. 
ur, J,Jetr. 
ere red, speckled 5701. O'Mulc. 414: 
érehoiliud m. defillitioll 3H3,5 
erehra a 'U!zthering aUI
1', decay 4299,. 
ercro erlapra 4724, Wi. 
er(ar)-di-báidim I submerge, destroy, 
elide, 3 s. pres. co n-irdiphand 3920; 
inf. airdíbdad 4338, urdipdad 4322 
ergnaid dis/Î1lguished 5589,go. Gor.: 
cf. Wi. 
érie f. a jÌ1le, pmalty, cia heraic 2193. 
erlabra f. (I) speech, expression urlabra 
635: (2) a compositi01I, da locht deg 
na hirlabra 1943 
erlonn f. m. (I) a haft, shaft of spear, 
spear-bed, aurlond 162 I, erlonn 1704, 

aurland 4699: (2) a precedÙlg 7.iJord 
Ùldicating the gellder of the 110un 
fo/lowing; zt comþrises the þronOlt1lS 
é, í, ed 618, 1623,4, alld the IlU11lerais 
dá dí, trí teora, ceit
ri eeitheora 
1625.9; aurlond no insee 1703, int 
aurlonn indsci 1705, ised, isi, ise 1876, 
585, 593.4, 1626,7, 163 2 ,S, irlond 
714, urlonn 1949, eaiti int eurland 
4893; a.s. fri hurlainn 1633; np. 
urlanda 1624,9, 1631, 1717, aurlunna 
1714; d.p. urlandaib 1624, 163-1-; 
erlond indsci 5077, urlonn insce 
1949, 217-\, aurlond insci 2117 
ernail f. IiÙld, species, division 2046, 
d.p. ernailib 1893; n p. 3368, ernaili 
imchomairc 1925 partitiones, Gr. Lat. 
iii. 459: earnaI .i. gne, BB. 302, 
erned m. an opening, alla/ysis, explana-. 
tion, a oen erniud 357, 1248, ed aon a 
eirnedh .i. fuasgladh 2729.30. Lec. 
ernin the Ogham accmt on final double 
conS011ants marking all apparent 7.'ou'el 
lengthening, the sign for which is n 255, 
817,9, 1357, 15-1-7, airnin 25i6, nion ar 
airnnin 4802, q.v. 
esba uselessness 628. \Vi.. 
esea moon, eusga mar Luan 3533 
esse f. (I) a zone, track (vix suh.t. eHe 
status, locus, Z.2 657 b ), cf. for set na 
. aibgitri 5513, 1751,3,8; the meaning 
is strongly influenced by (2),896,7,9, 
903,5,7,9, 911,3, 3778,9, 37 8 1.5.7. 
esse ab esoce .i. piscis, Cor. n". 70; 
esoce from zodiaee (sc. zona). Pisces, 
the 12th sign of the zodiac, repre- 
sented by t\\ 0 fishes tied together by 
the tails, reprøduced in the Ogham 
arris :>-< (?). Cf. Origg. iii. 45 : 
RC. xxx. 416: (2) Lat. esse, essentia 
3798, elSI adbarrda causal esse 
3800,4, eisi eruthoighti crea/i7.'e esse 
3799, 3 80 3,5. SR. 25 
etall noMe .i. uasal 1325, eta ill 4642 
etardefrigim I dijferelltiate, etarde- 
friges 895 ; info etardefriugud 914. 
etardeliugud m. a distinguishing, d!s
tillction 845, 9 1 5 


etardeochraigim I distinguish be- 
twee1l, etardeochraigius 3777 
etarderrscaigiud m. a distinguishing 
etargaire f. (I) Lat. comparatio, etar- 
gaire . . . ar is i frecras in condelc 
8+7, 2774, 5 86 , 587, 643,6, 3 2 7 6 ; 
d.p. 850: (2) Ùzßection, n.s. etargoiri 
6+0, 740; 848, 3280; deismeracht 
na hetergaire 3437 
etargnugud m. an i1lterprding, inter- 
pretation, etargnaghudh 8+5, etarg- 
nougúd 3282, 3374 
etargradimus (phps. Lat. inter- 
grejimur we inter'lJene) separation 
.i. foruaslaigeach 844, etargreim, E. ; 
roruasIaigthech 37 I 6. Lec. 
oetarsgarta parted, separated, berla 
n-e. 210, 1317,2526,4635 
étechta improper, unallowah/e 2772,S, 
edechta 378; as subst. isinn etechtu 
662, in etechta 732 
ethaim I go,find, take, 3 p. pres. guth- 
etait 363, 2740; 3 s. ? do-etait 363. 
Ped. Gr. 
ethar f. a boal, ogam n-eathrach 6 I 33. 
Lism. 2227, 4795, 4825, p. 310: \Vi. 
étig hateful, hIdeous, hase, ugly 2066, 
aigned n-eitig 3 I 30 
etir (in-ta) is eidir 3008, L. hetir .i. 
etis B. which are found, i.e. 'U.'hich 
might have 5423. CC. Ped. Gr. 
étiud clothing, vesture, robe 5584. Wi. 
étrad eathradh 42 I 3 L. dua/itas CO'l- 
jugalis, M.Ho 89, 18 
étrocht glancing, hright, lustrous, ro- 
hetrocht 5107 
étruime lightness, delicacy 2315, 2943 

faebrach kem-eclged, sharp 2133 
fáed f. a cry, faidh 14-86,4594. fáid 5131 
fæUnn a seagull 5693. foilenn king- 
fisher, Wi. 
f-aic1t 011 accident (?), f. co cuibdius 
1932. aicid, C. 
fair a hearing, /illerÍ11g, /iller 1853, 
503+. foir, O'Dav. 360, 1010 
faircle aimee-cap, f. for glun 5008, 
5 0 35. Thc..' Acall. 7803,4 


faiscre Lat. galmarmm 1083. .i. cåise 
no mulchán cheese, O'CI.: Lism. 
farcha a mallet, n.p. na forchai 147, 
na Corchuda 2440 
fásach n. m. a commmlary, g.s. fasaigh 
337, 268 5; n.p. Casaige 1303, 1337, 
fasoighe +620, 4651, fasaigh 4624 
fáth a garmmt, cm'ering, she/ieI' 5142. 
O'Dav. 855 
fáthach clroenless 2249. fath .i. 
fathach .i. gliocas, O'CI. : d. O'Da\'. 
fé fé alas.' fe fe flesc 4299, v. feth 
fecht a journey, company on a jOUr11ey, 
for feacht feiIi 2221,4, 2240,7. Wi.: 
fedem a stone .i. onn 565 I 
fedil cOl1stanl, sleady 2 135 
fedim I lead, send, put, 3 s. pres. Cedoid 
2595, Cédaid 2737,40, with affixed 
pronoun fæte 280; ipv. 2 s. fead 
2253, 2 p. Ceithith 2240; 3 s. pres. 
pass. antan fedhair a hindsge coir 
fuine 3148, 3 1 53, feudhair 4771, 
Ceghair 4777 
fed lend honeysuckle 1 I 56, Ceithlend 
4250. Three JIed. G/. : C. 82 
fedm an './fort, fUlle/ion 2007, 5556. 
fégaim I looi 011, regard, regthair do 
thaebomnaib al e regarded as conson- 
ants 5457 
fége f. kee1111eSS 5 I 94. Fel. 2 
fége, féice a ridgepole, 'U,itulow 6102. 
quia PI aeslat lucem d01111ii, Cor. Tr. 
81 : I,. T. jii. 76, I: RC. xiii. 120 
féU f. a fiasl, hosþilali
v, feacht feili 
2221,4, 22,,0; d.s. im feil Eoin 3837 ; 
g.p. ftile 5192 
fefs f. a Pl:
, SO'llJ, feisi 4543. 
fé1th a sinew, feich 1815. Cf. Laws 
fel poelry 3306, 3310,1. .j, éigsi, O'C!. 
fele PO_/1 y, fele ai 3308. Cor. Tr. 74 
féle f. hOllour, uprightlless, modestV I feile 
dano indracus 3309. Wi. 
feles a word Or verse cOldai11illg /ollr 
syllah/es, teba.
v/lable 121 4, 4474; 
14 21 , 1954 

33 6 


fellsamnacht f. þhilosoph
v 53,7, 
23+1,5,8, 3307; g.s. do uiledetaidh 
na feallsamnachta 2339 
fellsumh m. Lat. philosoþhus, a philo- 
sopher 671, fellsamh 670, 3307. Wi. 
felmac m. a 
voullg sludml, þllpil 331 I ; 
dim. fælmacån 534. Cor. Tr. 74: 
femder 0 'l,irgÙI 606 .i. ogh-ingen 
607, 3088 
feme Lat. 'l'irgo 606, 3087 
femen .i. fle
c, q.v. 610. ce. femen .i. 
bean: seach ba ftmen ba feindidh 
besides bei1lg a u:omall she 'leas a 
chamPion, O'Cl. 
femen jemillÎ1te gender 522, 603,6,8, 
610, 620, 1714, feirnin 3025, 3085; 
g.s. 1913 
fenchas v. senchas 
Féne, Félne the allciellt Irish, berIa F. 
2525, 1302. Fene .i. do rad dib ó 
Fenius Farsaid, H)'. ii. 40 n. 
Fénichus m. tIle old Irish Im.,'s, cllsloms, 
amllmlguage, n.5. in Feinechus 4622 ; 
d.s. is in F. 633 
feochos hm'illg 'li'ilhered jöol, or tnmk 
1160, feochuos 4255, feocus 5528,32. 
feochta, feochaù, Din.: feodaigim I 
'withe/, Lism... Anee. iii. 43 
feólairecht f. fleshiness, Imkhery 
5 21 5,20 
feorus a sþim/It-tree 1155,4250; 1196, 
+301. Laws 
feralm I gi.lit, Sf! ve, su/Jia, }il (?), 3 s. 
pres. feuid + pran. I st and 2nd sing. 
fertom il selTes me 1618,4691, feartot 
It sert'tS thee 1619, 4692. cr. Thur. 

 428: fuirim, Din. 
ferda ma1I(V, masculille 1463,4, 15 0 3, 
1912. Thc. 
fernn f. (I) all alder, air is i in fern 
5537, fern 1154, .P49, fernn 5494, 
5622, in fern 5536: (2) the Ogham 
letler f, fernd 1168,9, 4264, airdibdaù 
ferna 1283, for ferna 1281, tucad 0 
fernæ 5538, fern .i. fearn sin isin 
caill 55 q. 
ferrdrls a dOJ?brier, wr-britr 4295. 
Three .lIed. Cl. 

ferthaln Lat. plttt'ia, raill 4220 
féth .i. fe 'l'e, alas! 4294,9. Cor.2" 
 606: Tr. 75 
feth smoolh, sup. fethim saire 565 I. 
0'Dav. lo0 4 
ff þOiS01/, 'l'ellOm, fi a ournna 331 I. Cor. 
T,.. 79 
ff bad, fi ouIe 3312, 1421. JIet,.. 
ff anger, illdigllotioll, fi ani ærais 669. 
3308. aimríar, .lIetr.4 
flaclach toothlike 6093 
ffad f. hOllour, g.s. litir fiadha 4545 
fíadach game, hUlllillg, for fiaduch I I 3. 
239 2 
ftalus m. /Úmlred, rela/iolls/tip, con a f. 
1747. Laws 
ftannamailcecheterdaral/he biggest 
u'ord ill Cadit: 14-35, 17+0,4523 
ftar croo1:ed, a'wr)', co fiar athwart 5788 
ftchim I boil, 3 s. pres. dia fich in 
domun 2204,6. Wi. 
fld m. (I) u'ood 853,4,5,6,7,8,1182: (2) 
a'l'O'lIle! 917, 13+0,1; n.p. feda 919; 
d.p. 76+, 13+3; a.p. frisna cuic feda 
260: (3) a Ieller, OIl Ogham leiter, 
olle of Ihe 7 heads of accidmce or 
slrllctun, i.e. fid, deach, rtim, forbaid, 
alt, innsce, etargoire 739, 762,3; g.s. 
feadha 769; g. p. feaùh 769 
ftdat bird-cherry (?), fidhat 1156. 
fidhout 4251. fidach copse, shrubs, 
brush'l.:ood, Lism.: Hog. 
fidba hedge-btll 5725. 11'. Cl. 797 
ftdbad f. 'l('ood, for fhiùhbait 818, 3 6 44. 
ftdrad colI. 'l'owe! Iellers, letters, n.s. 
3 8 79; g.s. couir fiodraiù 3874, cen 
ecomuaim fidraiù 5217, 5363. Cf. co 
n-imuaim fidraig, I,.. T. iii. 29, 12 
ftdrad freccomail all alliteratioll be- 
/'li:em Ihe last 'l,'ord of a slallza am! 
Ihe first (stressed) 'lcortl of the fl//O'le- 
illg stallZa, fidhrad freucuomail, e.g. 
lound. Cie leuth 3879, comfhuaim 
fhidraid 5363. Cf. Fel. 2 , p. 14 x: 
fr. T. iii. 29, 24; 30 y 
ftl1decht f. the art of the þoe/, þoetry 
5798; g.s. yii ndeich na filideachta 


filUm I fold, bend, inflect, 3 s. reI. fillis 
4474; impf. subj. filled 4474; pass. 
ni filltir 788, 3596 j info filled m. 
4475; d.s. i ffilliud '1638 i n.p. fillti 
1664, 4732, isna filltib 1541 ; part. 
pass. fillti illJlected 905, 3788 
fill tech (I) inflected, dealba filltecha 
1641: (2) m. inflection 1656; n.p. 
filltigh 1660; oenfilltech 1668 
fillt1ugud m. al1 i1zflection, a þreþosi- 
tiollal case, n.p. filltigthi ISIS, 1637 
fín L. ifin q.v. 5434 
find, finn white, mue finn milch-sow 
5669,70 j g.s.f. finni 5672,4,7 ; irfind 
5701. .lIe/r. Dinds. ii. 42, 20 
findcholl white-hazel I I 56, 4251 
fine f. a/amily, tribe, g.!!. 2286 
flnemaln f. a vÙle-tree 1186,7,4284,5 
ffr-dinggim I truly þress, comþress, 
arin bfoucaI fir-dinggeas 3664 
fisld Lat. sciellllum 3523. Wi. 
flsa m. kllowledge g.p. fess 2237 
ffu worthy, worth, like (with aecus.) 
5231, na feo air coindelc (?) 3728. 
Cf. a forbthib fio from þe1ftctions of 
goodlle5s. RC. xxvi. 16: .i. eosmail, 
H. 3. 18, p. 625. 
flaithlus m. a reign, g.s. co deredh 
flaithmsa 1122 ; d.s. 0 fhlaithius 1121 
flann red, blood-red 5698. Wi. 
flesc f. a rod, line, a stroke or sCOre for 
mj Ogltam leller or þart thereof 964, 
ænfleisc 976 
flesc tun fich a root of jightÙzg, .'l-IeI1. 
E. 13 j femen .i. flesc 610, Lat. vimm 
flescda sheltered, delicate 610, 3089. 
flesc a fence, hedge, O'D. 870 
f6 good .i. maith 2822 ; 580,1421,4476, 
2844,S, fó Die 3341; in compos. 
fochosach well-footed 6062, fond 
fochrotha 5105, iar fofis 479, Co- 
fherinsce 576. Ascoli, ccexxxÍ\". 
fo-berlm I al/ack, seize, catch, 3 s. fut. 
fombera 5343 I sing to, bree i fochanar 
5235,46. TP. ii. 290,7,8,9 
fochelrd throws, 3 s. pres. 5131, 
f<x'ert 5143; p. pass. focertad 451, 


fochloc, m. dim. fochlocán a þoet of 
the sevf1lth rani, do Cochlocain 2252. 
fr. T. Ïii. 112 : Laws: Cor. 
fo-chrom slightly bent 5932 
lach having "u:ords 2133; d.s.f. 
ilfoclaig 1558 
fod Lat.foetus 1479. O'Mulc. 561,587 C. a divisiOlz, n.s. fogail in anma 
5772; n.p. fodla 2005, fogla 5490, fodla 
feda shrubs 1151,S. Laws, sub fid 
fodá(l)Um I divide, 3 s. pass. Codailter 
6064, secip ni fodhlaidir 456 
fodallt a divzding, divisioll, for Codailt 
doib 1244 
fodb n. arms, sþoils, Cadb 5395 
fogal f. injury, damage, d'fhoghlaib 
21 2 4. O'Dav.9 2 9 f. learnÙlg, vii bIiadhna na 
foghlama 2477 
foglalmlm I learn, 0 rofoghlaimet na 
hilberlæ 216. Laws 
fo-gliunn I learn, 3 s. impf. subj. 
nofouglainnedh 3999; 3 s. fut. pret. 
nofoglaindfedh 1045 ; 3 s. pret. pass. 
rofoghlointi 2454. Wi. 
foglúaislm I move, disturh, disquiet, 
3 s. pres. fon-gIuaisi 122 5, 4535; 
3 s. fut. pass. fotgluasfither 5348. 
Triads.' Wi. 
fo-gonalm I wound, destroJ', 3 s. pass. 
fogonar 5224,7 
fogra.ig1m I sound, I s. pres. fograigim 
399, 2820; 3 s. pres. Cograigit 368, 
fograided 2750; inC. dia Cograigud 
451, 2823, 2914. Cf. La\\s 
fogurda. voiced 906,3788 
f6ldim I send, 3 s. pres. nos.Coidend 
382, 2759; 3 p. pres. Cuidhit 359, 
2736; pret. pass. rofuidhedh 1041, 
2544; p.p.p. guth fuiti 359, 382, 
(aiti 2736, fouiti 2758 
foilchesta the composite Ogham lettel s 
qu, ng, sr 429, 439, 28 74,8, 2893, 
290 Z , 4357 
folllgiud (fo-sligim) a smearing 1756. 
Fel.':!.: .E<rÙt vii. 194 
folmt1u C. a cOIIsentÍ1lg, allO"llJillg, ar/- 
milling, for Coimdin na focul 1370, 
4426. La\\;5 

33 8 


folrbthe pelfeet, complete 59 2 , 1.J14, 
airim Corbthi 1445,6 
foirlm I help, 3 s. pres. foirid 3637, 
pass. foirther 2114. rei. fouilius 3402; 
3 p. pres. foirit 2170, foiret 2171 ; sec. 
fut. 3 s. n3sfurfead 5164, nosfirfed 
5 2 3 8 
folrithnech helpful 2647, 4404. Laws 
fo-lfnlm I make filII, supply, multiply, 
nacho nfuillter 1444, nach fuillter 
folllucht (fo-slicht) track, version, re- 
cension, iar Cuilliucht aili 1361, 4503. 
foltchaln havÙl{f white hair 5529,32 
foluach m. a small whale (?), n.p. 
foluaich (fobIuaich) 5933. bloach, 
folud m. substalla 912 
fo-Iuiglm I hide, conceal, cindas 
fhailgit a n-ulcu 2008; info folach, 
caingen falaigh 2185 
fond m. field, land 5105. CC. 
fo-nlalus slight nul/i
y, for fonialus 
28 35 
fora.icme an additional or diphthongal 
{froup 5676 
foråll all excess, addition 2778. Wi. 
forba an end, completion, n.s. a forpa i 
nguthagaiph 3006, 3003; g.s. do 
focul forba anaiIe 930; d.s. a forba 
1587, iar forbu 1735, co forbu 519, do 
forbau 1305. Fel. 2 
forba.ld f. an accent, n.s. is forbaid 
1575,74 0 ,810,2,5,7,8,821,2,3,4, 924, 
1544, 3 6 33, 47 6 7; g.s. 1406, ag 
fuacra na forbaidi sin 1561, ig incase 
na forbaide sin 1563, 156S, esse 
fuirbhthe 907, 3789; a.s. fri forbad 
1951; n.p. scribtar na forbaide-sea 
1551, forbaidi 4768, a forbhthi 1817, 
fuirbthe 1545, 1 8 7 8 , forbthe 1855, a 
fuoirpdai 5005, i fuirmthe 5036; cl.p. 
forb:1Ïdib 820 
forbalm. forbim I complete, perfect, 
achieve, 3 S. pres. Corbaid 812,5, 
nachas-forband 2122; reI. forbes 
4519; pass. forbaider 253, forbaither 
6036. Gor. 

forbeóim I vivify, forbeoidh 812,3. 
3 6 35,7 
for-brig C. overstrmgth, oveu11lphasis, 
overstress, cen f. 1941, 5062, 5155, 
2054,2158; e.g. in 5157-9 the last 
syllables of uile, chena, are stressed to 
begin the next line, with no elision 
before vo\\ els (?): so betha 5162 
forbriste broken up, articulate 906, 
37 88 
forcma.chta facticious, ollOmatapoetic, 
ainm f. 1614, 4697. Sg. 30 b I 
forcraid excess, ænflesc forcraid 5872. 
for-dám f. a great company or party 
fordingim I compress, 3 s. pres. fri 
fourbaid fordingi 3647, v. ardingim 
fordúnta foreclosed, fore-mclosed 6086 
forfid m. (I) a diphthong, n.s. 1340. in 
forChid 13-1-2; n.p. na forfeda 13+4, 
5491,5510 ; g.p. na forfid 5417; d.p. 
do forfhedhaib 765: (2) forfeda 
additional letters 6112,6, 6121,5 
forfuilllm I add to, fill up, 3 S. pres. 
foruiIlid 1565, 4796; info forfuilled 
forglas hlue, dark blue 5669; g.s.f. 
forglaisi 567I ,3,6; d.s.f. oc forglais 
593f. Cf. Tbc. 
forladad m. a shutting up, g.s. foriata 
illclusive, 697, 3327. Tbc. PH. 
forlnnsce added gender 574 
forlelthe breadth, comprehel1sil'UtesS 12, 
2276, 2316 
forma.rlus many-faced, vigilallt 3642, 
811. Dignitas in l\1onasteriis. Qui 
in bonis sit forma, qui caeteris 
monachis vitae suae ratione prae- 
luceat, siu potius qui monachorum 
spiritualitati invigiIet. Senior qui 
aptus sit ad lucrandas animas, qui 
super monachos omnino curiose in- 
tend at et soIlicitus sit.-Ducan{fe 
formcesta f. composite Ogham letters 
2902, teora foirmcestu no imcesta 
formola.d m. (I) a belaudÙtg, hypel bole, 
super/atwe degree 645, 3268: (2) the 


addition of a syllahle, on, to a word 
19-1-5, 5 06 7, 1991, 2082, 2151, 2164 ; 
e.g. fer-on 1793, ben-on 1839, nem- 
on 1859. fir-on 1983. gand-on, ann-on 
528{,6. án .i. tormach sillaéibe (.i. 
tormolad), Cóir An.: RC. xx. 150 
foro-fodlalm and for-fodlaim I sub- 
dit'ide, 3 s. pres. forofoglaid 282, foro- 
foglait 2597, 3 s. pret. forfodail 2473 ; 
p.p.p. forfogailti 4024. fofodail sub- 
division, Laws: 5tr. Gl. 6, 20 
fororc m. a hog 5677,8; dim. fororcán 
forrach a stretching .i. rigi 1330, 4646 
forrán (I) aggrtl1/ation, allger, oppres- 
sion, 'l/iolmce, g.s. buaidir foranna 5986: 
(2) comparative degree 6-1-5, 3267. 
forran .i. fírbrised, Triads, 186, gl. 
forrglm I Í11jure, hurt, co forrgidis 
1332,4647. Wi.: Cc. 5681: Aisl. 
fors chance 377, 733, 2773,4,5,8. .i. 
toceth, TP. ii. 362: .i. casus .i. 
totaim, O'}Iulc. 579, 578: cf. Origg. 
xviii. 15, I f. 
forsan the accent on a 101ig svllahle, the 
Ogham Slgn of which 2'S S 1405, 1573, 
gai ind fhir forsail 1820, sail a n.inad 
forsail 4459, for:;ail for fout feudhair 
477 I, scribthar sail ar for:;ai14803,435, 
813,19, 1356, 1546,8, 1556,9,62,4,5, 
3 6 34,5.47 6 9,93 
for-tá is upon 113'5, fordota 4003, 
4 2 37,9, forsata IS!), forbid 8II; 3 p. 
forataÌt 2-1-4, fordotait 1146, 2559; 
impf. subj. 3 s. Corbeith 2419 
fortciud m. a covering, obscuration, 
tre C. 2774 ; g.s. berla forteidi .i. for- 
dorcha no ruamanta 1323, fortciùi 
4640,4621. fortuigim, Tbc.: fortched, 
RC. xx. 148, x: fortchide, "fl. 29 d 14, 
fortgaidi, 90d .% 
fortgellalm I declare, express, pres. 
3 s. Cortgellaid 2795; pass. ni fort-. 
gellad 2794-. Aisl. 
fortórmach n. all addition, a super- 
addition, g.s. in fidh forthormaigh 
1735,7.4928, sillab fortormaigh 2968 ; 
fortormacht f. id., cona fortormacht- 
aiph 2510,1 


fortud Ùzvocative case (?) 1522, 1652, 
17 8 4, 1884,4981 
foruaslalgeach an inten'elling, 
dominatzng, etargradim us .i. f. 8.H, 
forua51aigthech 3716. Cf. fuasglad, 
fuaslaicteach a loosening, Lec., sub 
fossugud m. a resting, halting, ic 
fosugud 0 focul co focuI 1595, 4675. 
fot n. m. (I) Imgth, in fad as as far as 
5811 : (2) a 101ig syllable 1339, fot n- 
aiccenta 4374; g.s. fuit 82.1-, 1353, 
fuid 1552; d.s. for fut 812,4, 1564, 
for fot 1546, fri fat 1072 ; d.p. foma 
fodaib 1556. Sg. sa9, 12 
fotach 10llg, n.p. fotaig 4378 
fotalgim I make long, lmglhell, iarsinni 
foutaiges 3652; info dia fattugud 
fotha m. (l foundation, basis 687, 690, 
2735,58,9. Wi. 
fothalglm I found, fothoigim 2819; 
3 s. reI. fothaiges 814 
fothorand f. a subordÎ11ate jart, suI,. 
division 1897,8, 1920,1 
fothudfimdati'lle case 1524,1662,1786, 
1885, 4982. Cf. feinne fothud, Wi. 
fothugud m. a fou , ndin<f: positi'l'e 
degree 6.(4, 657, 3267 
foxul ahlati'l/e mu, n.s. foxal 4741, 
foxaul 1522, foxla 4754, foxlaid 1882, 
1890; g.s. foxlan 1645, foxlacha 
1647, foxlada 1661,7; d.s. ina fox laid 
1677 ; a.s. co fodaid 906 
fráech, fróech m. (1) heath, heather, 
n.s. in fraoch 2834,1157, 4 2 51 ; II95: 
(2) hair, mane, fraech frithrosc 5994, 
6008 J/e/r. : Pian. 
frecnarc inlel rogative case 1886. G,. 
Lat. iii. 133 et ser;. 
frecndalrc, frecnalrc a þresent persall 
or tense 1942, 2056, 2161. Sg. 167b 
fregarthach m. all allswerÎ11g to, cor- 
respondÙlg 10, equivalml 1085; n.p. 
freacarthaich 1090, 4084 
fresgabál f. (I) an ascmding, arad 
fresgaphala 2426': (2) aSCtllsi'l'e C(lS
Cresgabhail 1527, 1663, frescbail 1789. 

34 0 


fresghabail 1886, fresgapaiI 4984. 
freslige (I) a (vÍ1zg down, suhsidillg, 
freisligi foghair 4724: (2) desidati1.'e 
case 1523, 1653, 1791,4985. Wi. 
frichnamach diligent, careful, atte1ltive, 
hm 4050. Din. 
fris-oirgim I 1.Jiolate, hreak, eona 
fri[th]ortud tecta (?) 1938. Ped. Gr. 

 79 1 
frith has hwzfolmd 2124-; 3 pI. fritha 
fl'ithgnam m. diligmce 5194. Fd.'!. 
frithindleadach a cOUlzterpart, equim- 
!ellt 313, 771, frithindlidech 2649, i f. 
Laitne 3569 
fl'ithl'usc backwards 5824, 5968, 
5994,5,8, 6008. frilhrosc, Lis1ll.: 
frithroisc, Acall. 2327: frithroisc .i. 
i n-agaid tsrotha, Allec. v. 25, 7 n. 
fl'ith-saigim I attack repeatedly, fi e- 
fjumt, study, part. necess. is fretede 
899, is freitighe 3781 
frithsuide retaliation, reprisal, fri- 
suithi 1933. foeul i frithsuide, Arch. 
Co P.i. 160: Laws: O'D.: O'Dav. 1547 
fuach a "loord 254, di fuarh 3569, 
daghfuach 3570 
fuachonn, focha.nn a hlade if corn, 
hraird5558. Fel. 2 : fochannm.,HSD.: 
fochon, Lism.: cf. foichne, Triads 
fuam sea .i. muir 5444 
fual' sea .i. muir, B. ; .i. dilend .i. muir. 
L. 5443 
fubai (fo-ben) error,jault, fad nad fubai 
5459. cen fubae, Sg. 26&8: cf. Wi. 
fuirid (?) gl. derg maesem 5936 
fuil'med (I) a placÙzg: (2) depositi1..e 
case 1776,4976,7 
fuil'mim (fo-rimim) I place, set, 3 s. 
pret. forruim 5397 
fulang supporti1zg 1808. fuolach 4994 
ful'áil excess, too much, ove1jlow 1566, 

gabul f. ajork, branch of ajåmily, g.s. 
gabla 5335. Wi. 
gabul' m. a goai 540, gabar 3170; 
a.pI. gabair 5230. Cor. Tr. 83 

gáe. gá m. (l spear, g.s. craind gæ 
II 73, airell gai 4892 
gáes f. awtmess of mimI, wisdom 5 2 7 1 
gáeth 'wise, gæth 500,1, 2970 
gail' n. a short syllahle 819, 107 2 , 1339, 
1547, gair n-aigenta4375,6; g.s.155 2 
gáil' f. a shout, voice, gair guth 665. 
3281, .i. guth 3717. Fel. 2 
gail'digim I shorten, 3 s. reI. eo nach 
sail gairdigius in foueaI 3665 
gait f. (inf. of gataim) a taking away', 
stealing, a gait 2179 
galmalam lasin Laitneoir pressed curds 
1084, gourmarium 4078. galmilla, 
galbanum, genus pigmenti vel succus 
vel lac ferule, Ducange, Suppl.: gal- 
mulum, PI. Vito Sand. ii. 382: gal- 
mirum (gaImarium), BB. xviii. 68 
gamnach f. a milking cow with a year- 
old calf, a stripþer 5762. Wi.: Laws 
gann, gand sparce, scanty, a formolad, 
gand-on 5284, ann-on 5286 
gal'main f. a u'em'er's h6am, g.s. ginol 
garmna 1175, 427 1 , 5543, 5626, 0 
nin na garmna 5544; n.p. togaibter 
garmna 1176, togbaither garmna 
4272. Wi. 
gal't hospilali
y, ge1lerosi
v, hOllOurahle 
c01lduct 5271. Death Tales 
garta 1.í,ell-faced, comely 4060. gart .i. 
eineach, O'CI. 
gat a 'li!ithe, tie 5727 
géd a goose 1698, 4885, ngeigh 5695, 
d.s. on geig gotha 1698. Wi. 
gent (0.1. gIeith) a grazing, pasture, 
d.p. geltaib 1189; info or gelim 
géim n. a roar, shout, d.s. on geimim 
1698, on geim 4885. Thc. 
geln n. (I) hirth 626, 2487: (2} 
pI. gene ge1lerati011s, youllglings, qt: 
spri1lg, glossed as couple, pair 570, 
1812,3,4,5,6, 1854,S, 1878; a ngen- 
side 1950, a genis de .i. géin 5080, 
5412. Cf. O'Dav. ]034 
geind f. a wedge, ngend 5727. Wi. 
géis a swan, gilithir geiss 3960, 5695. 
gilidir gési 5320 
gelt mad, wild u85, 4283, 5551 ; n.p. 
gelti 5554. CC. 


genas m. chasli
v 5271 
genemaln a birth, iarna g. 5650. "ï. 
genitll f. genitiz'e case, a nde1bh genidli 
1644,6, 1668, geinitli 4847, for a 
ginitil 3611. Laws 
ges, gels a ball, proh , ihition tflhu, ba 
ges 59-1-3. Wi. 
getal (I) a reed, the broom plant .i. 
gilcach 1190,1,2576,4287, 5521 : (2) 
the Ogham lel/er ng 255, 442, 2896, 
5584, ngedar 5929. O'D. Gr. xxxii. 
giall m. lower jaw, mandible, cheek, g.s. 
a deIidin Iitterda, da gnuis in gelli 
ilI) 2043 
gibe a 11lodel/Î1lg'(in gypsum), ngibæ 
5801. O'
luIc. 651: .w. 59 L 7: cf. 
Origg. x. 119 
gilcach the broom plant 1157, 4252; 
1190,1,4287,8; 2576, 5521. TP. ii. 
46, 18 
gille m. a lad 5715; triple ùim. in 
gillgugan 708, in gillccuccan 3463 
gin m. mouth, i ngenaib 1594. Wi. 
ginol maw, g. garmna 1175, 5516, 
5543, 5626, giniol garmno 4271. 
gius ajir-tree 1153, 4Z48; 5521 ; g.s. 
crand giuis 1194 
glaiss f. a stream, riz!lIlet 1810, glais 
glas a stream 1065, teit an glas 4021 
glas grem, grey, sih.'u:v nglas 5700; 
compar. glàisiu II89, glaisium cnis 
5617 ; equat. glaisithir 35CO 
gléim I make clear, set Í1l ordn, I pI. 
imper. gleam 5090. Wi. 
gleó afigh/, n.s. 5371; a.s. gliaidh 980 
gleólr splendour 5429 
glére f. choice, elite, ßO'lver, n.s. in 
ghleiri 2228 
glése track, pursuit 5877, etergIeithi 
.i. gleas etarro 3282. glethe .i. sIicht, 
The. 712; v. geilt 
glése f. brightness, g.s. 5247,50. FeI."!. 
glóir Lat. gloria is gloir glan 2213. 
glonn m. a deed 1548; g.p. 940. \Vi. 
glonn m. champion, hero 5120. RC. 
xx. 144, 23: .i. gaiscech, H. 3. 18, 
p. 626 c 

34 1 

glór a 110ise, sOlmd, gan glor 2049. 
glúar pure, clear, bright 5131. Wi. 
gluas f. a gloss, n.s. gluas 54, 23t2. 
2417. Z.:! 22 b 
gnáthach uma/, leas roghnathach 
225 0 
gnáthugud m. a using, usage 843 
gnéach specific 858, 861, gnethach 
373 6 
gnún m. (I) II deed: (2) acti'l/e voice, i 
ngnim 642, 65 I ; g.s. briathar gnima 
1620. torand gnima 7 cesta, Sg. 
26 b l5 
gobur f. a horse, a -æ/zite horse, is i in 
gabuir 539, is i in ghabair 632, gopar 
3169, go bar 3207.15. .lIe/I'. 
goibnecht f. smithwork, gaibneacht 
5801. La\\s 
góldelc f. the r;aelic language, gaidelc 
3504, 3541, gaedelc 2517. gaedelg 
2482, gaoidelg 2282; g.s. filid na 
gaidhilcci 4525, gaidiIci 4964. gaoi- 
deIce 2836; d.s. isin gaidiIc 4011 
goim f. pai/I, llnguish, gan goimh 2051. 
golaim I zvat/, 'li!eep, 3 s. pret. fut- 
gclfad 5288. gulfad 5294. .Pel.:! 
goour, goor light, solus isin mBretnus 
3208, each solus 3215. O'C!.: cf. 
gabar bright, Lec. : .Ilet;,. 
gorm blue 5700; sup.? guiremh dal 
4 2 97 
gort (I) izry .i. eùeand 1187, eidheand 
4286, 5494, .i. gius 5521: (2) the 
letter g 2896,8; g.s. bogad guirt 
43Z8 ; d.s. do gourt 4324 
gort m. II corn-field, n.s. in gort 5559; 
d.s. ar gurt 562, frisin gort arba 
5558,6044. do gherr a nguirt uile. 
A.V. 1412 
gortigernd tlte language of /zeavm 
190. goirtigern 2t94, goirtigthem 
. Keat. Hist. ii. 3. Cym. 
vortegernos, Ir. Fortchern oz'edord 
grád m. raId of the poets. in gradh 
onni is gradus .i. ceim 3284. H. 4. 
22, 4-6: nemiù fd gradaib filed, LL. 
38 b 3 7 

34 2 


graif a grave accellt, amal bis graif 
4786, graib 1557, in graiph fil and is 
ondi is grauis, Cor. 2 708: graif, 
Sg. 220&4, 220"8, 213&2 
grálnne a point, pin, graini in gæ 1706, 
4896. Arch. C. P. i. 479: Wi. 
gramadach grammar, n.s. 54, 234 2 , 
eter gramadaigh 51, 2339 
grande hateful, hideous, super. 
grannium 548 
Gree f. the GretH tongue, Greek, n.s. 
Greig 2281, 2311, 2459 j g.s. Grege 
3765 j d.s. a Greic 353, 2716 
grés a 'U.'ork, handicraft 239, 2554, gres 
sair 5631. Wi.: Beath. Col. 
grlnne a bundle, band, company, grinne 
sair 2539. Gor. 
grue a hero, g.s. goth gruce 5288, 
gruiee 529
. .i. laoeh no garb, ut 
dicitur, guth gruice eruth mbrege 
7rl., Cor. Tr. 90: grÚig .i. læeh, 
H. 3. 18, p. 625c 
grus curds, cheese, grus .i. tanaeh 
1082, 1066,4019,22,79, 1081,5,4100. 
Laws: .i. tanaeh, Ed. 
gruth curds, Lat. galmula 1082, gOUI"- 
maulo 4077. Wi.: Beath. Col. 
gruthraeh Lat. galmalam 1084, gour- 
marium 4079. gruthlaeh curdled 
milk, P. O'c. 
gúal coal, g.s. smir guaili 5633. 
gúas da11ger, peril 5382 
gulbanda beaked, piercÍ11g 12 Z 5, 4535. 
Cf. gaeth guibelta, Acoll. 383 
gus strength, power, high sPirit, g.s. 
gossa 5314. Cc. 
guthas wordÙlg, tlocalisation 5276 
gutta f. m. (I) a VO'llJel358, ni sédh disi 
hi puddein 2762,7, e a guta 1534, 
guta 2735 j n.p. guttai 1071, gutai 
1386: (2) a letter, int aenguta the 
one letter, i.e. s, =sail 1727 

if. (I) an island 2741,4642 : (2) the old 
Norse name of /ona, the latter being 
a misreading of Adamnan's /oua 
(Ùlsula), I inis Coluim Cille 1228. 

iaehlinn a fish-pool, Lat. pisci1za 1092, 
4093. iaeh (g.s. of eö) .i. bradan, 
laehtad m. a screamwg, yelling, shout- 
ing 1681, 2378, 2797,4 868 , 5575,6 
lareomare a concluding u'ord of a 
poem, a repeating two-thirds of the first 
accented u'ord of the poem 936. 3865, 
ar in iareomare n-imslan 2210.3, 
iareomare bairdne 1588 
lareomrac a word or verse cOlltainin,l{ 
three syllables, tris..vllable, .i. tret- 
sillæbach 3865, 1214, 4465 j 1419, 
1953,4, d' iareomrue 1936, a haon a 
n-iargcomare 3539 
iareulbdlus all md rhpne 3841 
larm berla (I) lmaccnzled t.Jords i.e. 
dialt n-etarlemme and lorga fuach 
1307,13, 4620,30,2 : (2) the spuch of 
1ar J:fac "lema, cryptic speech 1314, 
130-1-, 4627,33 j 2511,25. Cf. RC. 
xiii. 267 
iarnu a fawn 5842. iarndeo, O'R.: 
iarndoe, Trip. Gl. 31 
iarunn iron, amal i. 1314, iaran14633 
iasealreaeht f. a fishing 5803 
iath land, cOlmtry 53 28 34 
Ibor a yew, service-tree, ibur II 53. ibor 
8 j 1196, 4299, do ibar 55 2 3. 
5593,6, 5 6 5 8 
ibroraeht f. yew u'ood work 5804. 
Petri R. T. 347 
íe a pfl.ving, d' ice na da fichet.21 2 3 
ie "a healing, remeJ..v, oenice 2083.4. 
leht progmy, chiMrm, race 1112, 2261. 
.i. clann nó cenél, Cóir An.: Cor. 
ldad (I) the yew, aspen 5593,5: (2) 
the Ogham letter I, n.s. idad 1 6 76, 
5659 j tar idha 2795, idho 1196, ida 
.i. ibhar 5523, idhedh 279 6 , 4 2 99 
ifín m. (I) a gooseberry, a gooseberry 
bush 5666,520, brab iffin 3465 : (2) all 
Ogham diphthong or triþhthonl[ begin- 
ning witlt the letter I, int ipin 4863 
5525,5611,5667. iphin,O'Br. 
llar n. (I) multitude, pluralilr: (2) 
plural llumbel', n.s. a n-illar 153 0 j 


g.s. ceudpersa ilair 2675,6, 2757; 
J.s. tri a n ilar 2671,4, 1642,8, fri 
hilar 2058, ar ilar ndan 2159 
H- mtll'Y, il-foclaig many-u'ol ded 1558, 
il-ghnuiseach mally-faced 81 I 
Hlait ,m eaglet (?) 5696. iI-nat 
HUErLld m. an amplifyillg, multip
iIlugud labartha 630, hilugud 634. 
1m butter, g.s. ruse immi 636 j d.s. im 
imim 637 
lm-ad-c1u I cOllsider, part. nee. imeesta 
4359; info do imcisin 2901, imchisin 
4359. Cf. Ped. Gr. 
imagallalm a conversation, in-i. na 
Da Thuar 13 2 8, 4644- 
lmalrechtu a mutual sl
lJicienc..v, in- 
'I:ention, nir bo himaireachtain 2968 
1mbert f. a pla.yillg, practice, pnpara- 
tion, method, iarsin imræt no imirt 
57 18 
lmcholmét a mutual guardÙlg, observ- 
mg 1975, 2003 
lmchomarc m. (I) a questiol', int im- 
comure 12
8, is i. 123, 2403: (2) an 
e1lfjuÙ Í1lg after, greetÍ1lg, salutation 
5228, 5332: (3) fl1lfl

'sis, parsing, do 
ernailibh in imchomairc 1893, for im- 
chomare 189-1-; v. ernail 
imcomalrsnech mutually neighhourly, 
correspondi1lg, se himcomairsnig airme 
3 0 4 1 
lmcubald 11lIltual(J' rhymÙlg, imfhrecra 
i. 3822, comardad i. 382-t- 
imdaingenvery stron
, imdaÙgen 5125 
lmdeillgim I divide, distillguish, 
imJheilighter 996 
imdichlm (imb-di-fich) I protect, 3 s. 
pres. imdích 5333; info (im)degaI, 
a lIandegail 2042 
im - drengaim I gfJ IOUllt! about, 
mcùmpass, climb, imdrichaur 3931, 
imdreangair crand 949, imdrengar 
991, 393 2 
lmfreccra a mutual corresþondillg, a 
cornSpOlldl1l{:, eenel ind imfrecrai 924, 
1513, isna foclaib in imfrecrrai 958, 
35 6 4,6 
lmmalrcide jitting 492 


lmm-alr-icclm I mut, suit, fit, 3 s. 
pres. immairigh 526, imarie 622 
immar as 1968. Tbc. 
impsoud (imb-sóim) a turninl] about, 
anastrophe 510. tre impúth csl, Sg. 
4 b8 
lm-ræt a business, method 5718 
imr1nd mutual point, common l'hyme 01 
termination, no in imrind bera re 
seachta 3713. Tbc. 
lmsechfald a regular repetition 1934 
Imthimchell circumdative case 1526, 
1653, 1887 
lmthormaigim I increase, 3 s. pres. 
reI. imatormaig 4549, 1232 E. 
lmuca mutual choice, choice 498 
lnannus a sameness, idmtity 1015, 
3964,5. La"s 
inchosc m. (I) a meanÙlg, signification, 
denotation 0/ gmder mid person, etar- 
goiri in incoise 64 I ,7,9, 673, ig- incose 
1563,8, is e int inchose 1905, a hincose 
3977: (2) accusati't'e case 799, 1519, 
ac fer..tib (?) 1531, 1773, 1881, 1891 
indaithmech all analysis, exPlanatiol', 
do reir an indaithmige sin 354 2 , 
triana n-indaithmech 4637 
inde f. (I) a mefl1zinl] 742, triana n-inde 
taithmeach 1319, inne 331, inni 831, 
2680, 2729: (2) quality 673, is i in 
indi 674. Lec. 169 
indell a :voRÍ1lg, question 12.J7, 43 6 3. 
Wi.: O'
indeóin all anvil 5728. "ï. 
indld, lnnid in which is, when, SÙlce 
5121. .E<riu I, 12; 120, 12: Thur. 
indilse inappropriateness, indlius ar 
indilsi 3710 
lndlsche speech.'z..:ay 572 
in-diupartach fiaudulellt, privatiu 
6074. diubartaehfi'audulent, La\\s 
IndIes all Improper use, Lat. btlrbfl1- 
ismus, Origg. i. 32, 4; 760,6, 821, 
indiles 764, innleas 749 
indotacht m. (I) an en/rance, begm- 
nÙlg: (2) ingressive case, ni bia int 
inutacht 1725, 1520, 1652, 1724,82, 
1884. La\\s 



indsce m. (I) gmder, indlius ind indsge 
3 6 94. innsci 5 20 ,6, 714,5, 74 0 , 30 2 3. 
ferinnsci 5 21 ,9,3 1 , 543, 5 6 5,7, 595, 
839, 3023, 3066, 1908, baninnsci 
5 21 ,9,3 1 , 543, 550, 5 6 5, 59 6 , 840, 
3 02 4, 3070, 1908, demhinsce 521, 
530, 543, 550, 597,84 0 , 3 02 4, 3074, 
1876, 1908: (2) speecn, i. cumascda 
15 8 0, 1690, cumaisci 1589 
indsce airme ordinal speech 1715, 
indsce mod narration mode, l"epetitiol1 
0/ a word Ùl the quatrain 1949, 5076. 
Ric in sithbi sithlas mag, 
Ric in dam tri coecat Ùglonn, 
Ric in gilla gusmar gann, 
F orfacaib Cú dinisc donn. 
RC. xx. 144 
in-gra .i. Ingar ulrfilial, impious 4036. 
angar .j. mac ionghar nach bhfoghann 
da senoir do réir a dhualgais an 
unfilial son that is of 110 service to his 
.father according to his due, Triads, 
159, gl., 235, gl.: cf. O'Dav. II02; 
ingor. Ascoli cccelx. 
innisiu f. a narratio1l 572 
innunn to that side, thither, inund 
1579, anund 15 8 5 
inrathaigte to be perceiz'ed 135 2 , 4415 
inrocomraircnigsiomairne the long- 
{St word in Gaelic 4523, d, 1436; v. 
insnitheach injilliled 6060. snithe. 
intech a way, amal intech legend 361, 
inntech in leigind 2739; inteach 
1758. Wi. 
interiacht alt intnjection 321, interecht 
266 9 
intshliucht, intliucht m. smSE, 
Ï11vention, research, g.s. derbad a 
intlechta 5471; a.s. tria intliucht 
iphín m. (I) a gooseberry II97, 4304, 
int ipin 4863: (2) the Ogham long i, 
the Ogham diphthong io, iphi 1294, 
1363, 1535,7,8, 154 1 ,3, 1675,7; i 
medial and p 1369, 4425 

isa whose is, o/which it is, isa oen 715, 
5 f93 
ithe mzeatillg, ac ithi a chno rr83, 4280 

labrad m. a speaking, speech, g.s. 
labartha 1952 
lacht milk, g.s. comet lachta 5622, 
imon lacht; a.s. is i coimetas in lacht 
5623; a.p. gall lachta 4543. Wi. 
lachu a ducR 5693. Wi. 
lad a mill lead, canal 5837. O'R. 
láiches f. a la)'-'womml. heroine,laechesa 
5718, laichesa 6150. Ériu vii. 194 
láid f. a metre pl'oper to a doss 829, 
1578, 3672, 4654, læd 1581, saerlaid 
2030, is i in laid 839; a.s. doni in 
laid 2194. Jr. T. Hi. 116 
laiget smalhress, weakness 1455, 45 2 8 ; 
4551, a rolagat 4135 
laigtech weak!;', weaR 4135, luigtech 
4 1 3 2 
láirce lórchaine, gl. lorga fuach, q.v., 
1692, lairge no Iourgaidhe 4879. 
láarg f. Lat..furca, Cor. d. Tbc. 
Laitin f. tile Latin language, Latin, do 
muitibh na Laitne 3016 
Laitneóir m. a Latinist, n.s. 2910,2, 
lasin L. 449, 2909 
lán (I)jull.. (2) afitll, a plural.for a 
singular .i. can dichned can dochned 
5073. mna a Ian 1839, ben a Ian 
1845, nem a Ian 1867, 1946, 1994. 
2090, 2160, e.g. meni fhuilet 2198 
lánamaln f. a couþle, pair, nellte,. 
couple, n.s. 1809, 1810,1,3,4,5,6, 
lanamnai 1853,4; n.p.lanamna deme 
570, 1. deimi 1949. 3 2 57, 5079, 5406 
lánamnaide a couple, correlated þair 
1812. 1817. lánamanda, La\\s 
lanchubaid (I) a couplet rhyme 929: 
(2) perfect l'hyme, ut est bas, las 1014, 
lán-chuibdius a l'hyme at the t1ld of 
the couPlets in a quatraÙI 3840,58. 
II'. T. iii. 9, 8; 130, 20: Jr. Metr. 

lánchumang m. .full p01lJer (or t01fe) 
in simple vowels 1201,5,6,8, 43137,9, 
is e in 1. 5459 


lánfogur a full tOl1
 343, 454, 1073, 
26 96, 2706, 2917 
lángeimleeh ftll-ftttend 802. geim- 
lech, .rian. 
lánrélm (I) aftll d
clmsion 796: (2) 
fitll or pufict alliteration of the last 
two 'words of the line 3743, e.g. 3746. 
O'D. Gr. 416 
lár the ground, rosaig lar ind airiall 
1710, rosauoigh lar co haireill 4<)00. 
Cf. bail ná ró do choss lãr, Tbc. 1298 
Latindaeht f. Latitlity 355 
leburda pertaining to books. iar n-urd 
lebhurda 66 
lee f. a ston
, leacc 1358. Wi. 
Ie cIa 1 ushes .i. luachair lIS 7, leclo 
4252. leclaidhe .i. luac
air, H. 3. 
18. p. 626- 
legtachad m. a liquidisillg 2835. Cf. 
do lechdagaib, Sg. 5 _ 10 
legulus m. Lat. a gathenr 2285 
léir diligmt 55. 23H. 5195 
lem an elm II 54, 4249, 5619, 5925. 
lemnacht sweet milR, leamnacht 5806 
lenaim I follow, adh
re to, 3 s. pret. 
nislen 5252 
léne a smock, g.s. leni 6033 
lenum m. a child, g.s. ainm in lenim 
5776; a.s. 5775 
leóa.1m 1 WOU11d, 3 s. pres.leoaid 1582 ; 
info leóad; g.s. leótha cend 5262. 
O'Dav. 1146: leód ST.: d. CC. 
léss m. a light, a.p. lessu 5090. .j. 
solas no soillsi, O'CI.: Din. 
less advantage, need, fi les 1421, cethrar 
gnathless 2238, oen leas 2250, for 
gnathlessaib 2222, fria gnatblessa 
2226, 2232, 2242, fria Ieass 2246, 
fria leassa 2254. Wi. 
less m.fortr
ss, frisin less 5125. CC. 
lessalg1m I attel1d to, provide for, 
s/ud,', 3 s. pret. doleasaig 2634, 
roleasoig 2288 
lestar m. a 'i1essel, n.p. lestair 5623 
leth a half, ni certleath not an 
xact half 
1728, a ceirtleath 1449, ni certleth 
49 20 
lethar Üather, lethor 5004. Wi. 


lethchumang a nalf-þowfr ill u11li- 
fIOU.tlS 1207, 4318,9 
lethcuibdius an internal half-rh)'11lf 
lethgutta a semlvO'wel, n.p. lethguttai 
445. 450,1, na leathghuta 461, na 
leathgutai 479, 513,5, 1060,70, 1210, 
2904-,6,25,82,4; d.p. 1207 
lethrand m. a couPlet, half of a 
quatrain, g.s. fidh airedha in lethraind 
toisich 7 in I. deirig 3946,7; a.s. 
eosin 1. ndeighenach 4662 
Ii n. colour, beauty, Ii n-aimbi 554-0,1, 
Ii ambi I I 70, Ii crotha 5662, Ii a 
danu fair 3311 
Ii delight, pleasure, Ii sula 4 2 63, 5535, 
Ii suad 4659, Ii anni molus 3308, 669. 
O'Dav. 1157, II97 
Ii good, Ii maith 3312 
l1a more, compar. of i1 mflll)', is lia-te 
the mon 635 
liaig m. a ph.vsicían, g.s. luth lega 
1191, 4287, 5561; d.p. laisna legaib 
4288, 5561. Wi. 
l1ath grey 5698, roliath 2070; g.s.f. 
leithi 5672,4,7 
líg beau
v, colour, fo lid 6044. .i. dath, 
O'Dav. 1197: .i. maise, L
llge a lying down, inna lighi 1593 
Uim I accus
, charge, sue, 3 S. pres. reI. 
liess 3385 
lilgach f. a milch cow 5760. lulgaeh, 
Wi.: La\\ s: loiligheach, Din. 
Un flax 297 
Un m. a number 943.5. 959, 962, 5172 
Uth ac/ivity 1815. .i. luth, O'CI. 
l1tir f. a letter, g.p. comcengal htrioch 
litirdeacht f. litera/un 55, 2343 
litterda consisting of lett
rs. ItÜrary 
395, 2790, 5308 
loce a place, locality 1029, dul i 1I0cc 
822. Wi. 
loch hero. cenn 0 lochaibh 5283. do 
loch .i. do loech, RC. xx. 151 
loch black 5669; g.s.f. loichi 5671,3,5. 
log d
cay (?) 2095. logh loosing, dis- 
SOIVÍ11g, untyil1g, O'R. 

34 6 


loman f. a rope, cord 5725. Wi. 
londfierce, bold 5359 
long f. ashiþ, n.p.longa SII9; g.p. 9.P 
lonn f. a blade, a sU'ord, aur-, ur-, iar- 
rem-Ionn 1703,14,4699, 4719. dorat 
beim don luinn .i. cloideb Conchobair, 
Tbc. p. 159 
lore, lorg f. (I) a staff, halzdle, n.s. 
1591; n.p. 1594: (2) lorga fuach 
stm'es of words, two unaccmted short 

yllables betu'een alliterating words 
13 1 0, 1595,9, 1606, 1692,1849,1870, 
19 8 1, 2099, 2140,4672, lurga f. 4625, 
lorga dialta 2154, 5080, 5351, e.g. 
sa!. 1m ba sessach, im ba seng 5355 
lose lame, loscogam 577!. .i. bacach. 
Ed. II, 22: Lec. 
luaidim J speak, mUltion, luaidit 354; 
info luad expression 5612 
luam m. a pilot 868. Fd. 2 
luamnaeht f. pilotaÂe 5798 
lúan (I) moon: (2) -"'Jonday, doomsday 
(the Celtic world ends on a Sunday) 
lugugud m. (I) a diminishing, lessUl- 
ing 6-n, 659: (2) a diminutive 1868, 
1946,1995,2094, 21 5 2 , 2166, 5 0 75, 
5326, e.g. firini 1796, firin 4989, 
benine 1844, beinin 5028 i Cnamine 
5327, Damine 5329 [1959. Wi. 
luib f. a plant, herb, d.p. du luiLib 
luibenehosaeh m. a metrical foot or 
verse having seven s...vllables. hexasyllable 
1217, 1424, 1955, in luipencoussach 
37 1 3, H78 
luibne a digit,jÙzger, toe, cona luibnibh 
14 2 4,4479 
luis a hand .j. lám 4474. JIetr. 
luis (I) the mountain-ash, elm, .i. a 
cairtheand I165, 5495, 5513, .i. 
lemh: (2) the Ogham letter I 5535, 
5620,1. Lec. 
luisiuaßame, in 1. 5535. O'Dav. II85 
lúith stammning, dumb, luithguith 
452. luitguth 2914. FeI. 2 , Pro!. 
287 note, cen loti (.i. cen bailbe); 
299 note, gen luithi .i. gen bailbe: 
With, Songs of Summer 
lurganda long shfl1zked 122 7, 4537 

lurgu leg, shan/;, shÙzlJone, n.s. 181 I ; 
a.s. imon lurgain 5780,1; g.p. lana- 
main na lurgan 1815, 5003. \Yi. 
lús f. taste, good taste, cona luis 2061. 
.i. blais, O'Dav. II95 
luss m. a plant, herb, n.s. lusogam 
5 80 7; g.s. Eug in tossa 5572, ainm 
secip nach losa 5808; n.p. lossa 
fedha II51,6, 4251, viii fidlosa 5493,6, 
for l03aiph 2833. Wi. 
lúth strength, pO'Wer, activity, 1. legha 
55 6 1,1. bech 562

maedaeht f. a maiden, n.p. macdachta 
5721. Wi. 
mae fuirmid m. a poet of the sixth 
rll1zÁ' 2248. Jr. T. iii. II2 
maeeu, moeeu a genitive, 0/ the !lindred 
or race which follows, Cluain mace u 
Nois 5706; cf. Óenu (maccu Laigsi) 
maehad some I.:Ùzd of agricultural Ùz- 
strummt 5727 
maehdad wOlzder, mactad 5575, 
machtad 5577. Wi. 
iJell, ni ma teit 2121. ST.: 
Thur. Hdb. 
máel bald, hairless supI. maelsem, 
593 6 ,7 
máeth delicate,fteble, maitha 467 
máidthe to be praised, glorified in, 
praiseworthJ', ma,l!nificmt, sonorous 467. 
a ghlaodh ghuithbhinn mhaoidhte, 
Reliq. Celt. ii. 428, 30: d. Din. 
maigin f. all mc/osed place, sfl1zctuary 
600 4; adj. maignech 5149, 5154, 
6004. Laws: Wi. 
maith good, compar. fearr, fearrson 
645, 3 2 68 
maithehneehas a delicate complexion 
6II, d. maothcnesach 3090 
maitnechas contentiousness 610, 
taidiuir .i. maidnech, lec. 327: cf. 
maitnechtaige, PH. 
mál m. a prilzce, noble, lord, d.s. dun 
mhal 10 the poet 2245; a.s. tar mal 
5387; n.p. mail 5229. Wi. 
mala an e)'ebro'U.', malu 1813,4999 
mallrugud m. a ntm-dÙzg, by (a) 
diaeresis 1945, 1991, 2137, 5069, 



5303; e.g. nobiäd 5299, 530t, niäb 
5301: (b) mtroducing a let/tr into 
the u'ord, e.g. fer, feeT 1794; ben, 
been 1841 i nem, neem 1859 
malot P:YJÀáTTJf a shepherd (?) 2284 
mandraim, mannraim I dtstroy, 3 
s. pret. romannair 546. 'Vi. 
marbhán a eorþu 3187. Din. 
marb-usce stagnatlt waÜr, for marb- 
mce 1321,4639 
mascul masculine gender 522, 620, 
masgal 3024, 3082, mascol 603 ; g.s. 
1913. Sg. 66 b 14, 18, 20 
masculinl masculine 606. TP. ii. 
122. 24, Supp. 
mass staÜly, halldsomt, n.p. Romain 
mais 2536, mais 2537. Wi. 
mednerc i1:v .i. gort 56.P. A nee. iii. 
medontach a medial þosition, fo medh- 
ontaig 4424,5. fo meodontacht f. 
1369. medonda, /1'. T. iii. 124- 
meighleach a b1eatz,lg 540, 3170. 
méidhleach m. O'R.: méigiollach, 
O'Br.: megill, A isl. 
mélachtnalgim I disgraa, I p. pres. 
subj. co ro-melachtnaigem 141, 24-30. 
melacht, \Vi. 
mell f. ruin, destrue/ion 2793. RC. 
xxvi. 14, 
 8: Fd. 2 p. 10: Hail 
Brzgit, 3 n. 
mér m. a jinger, a toe, n.s. ænmer 
5783 i n.p. mera 57 8 0,7 
mét, mélt f. size, gna/1zess, meid 
673,4,5,6 ; as. meit 5383; ar ata do 
met is luigtech in dobriathar for so 
u.'eaR is the adverb 413 I 
métugud m. a magnifYing, inenaSz,lg 
64-6, 658 
mi-aU a bad Plaa, bad position, co na 
ma mi-ait lapartha 2978 
mldach Lat. met/zeus, a ph)'sicz'ml, 
miodach ice 4289, etiud midach 5584. 
. Tr. II3: O'D. 
mldlu a ville, gl. mui.n .i. midiu 5521. 
midiu 5926 
mi-diúlte non-simplicity 4307 : v. diúite 
midiur I judge, estimate, mides 408. 
4 10 i romesadh 931 


mi-fotha a badfoundatÙm, n.p. mifothai 
4 6 7 
mil an animal, beast, n.s. milchu grt)"- 
houlld 5743; n.p. 5744; a.p. for mila 
muige hares II3 
mllaideacht f. a soldÙring 5801 
milis su'ut, compo miIlsiu feraib 5557, 
millsi 5559 i sup. milsim feda 5608,9 
ml11se swee/1zess, milIsi 1853 
min meal, m. arba corn meal 1294,4396 
min smooth,jilll! 1294-,4395 
mind n. a diadem 4395. Wi. 
minn m. a llOble, sage, n.p. minna 57II. 
mind .i. uasal no süi, O'Dav. 1220 
mintán m. f. a titmouse 3226, 542, 
5695, menntan 3172. O'Br.: mintu, 
Tog. Tr. 2 1356 
mirr myrrh 24-50, 26q. PH.: RC. 
xii. 466 
mi-rún f. ill-will, ill-inÜnt, g.s. miruine 
1306, 4629. A call. 
mo chean well is he bOrll, happy one! 
2167. originally 3 s. pret. cinim. cr. 
mo chen gach fer, II'. T. iji. 128 z, 
mo ghean-ar an bfhear. lvi. ; v. mad 
mod 11.'orR 546 .j. gnim O'MuIc. 
mod everything male 1463, 1236, 1458, 
14- 6 7, 1493,6,9, 1502,8, moth 455 8 
Molossus J,folossis in Epirus 1750. 
4939; the place or tribal name seems 
confused with the Molossian hounds; 
O':\Iolloy, Gr. lI8, equates fearchu 
wenwolf with Molossus. Cf. 11. T. 
iii. 421, 
 215: O'Mulc. 269: Origg. 
xiv. 4. 9 
mon a trid,fiat .i. c1eas 1331,4645 
monar a 11.'ork, dud, in monor 2093, 
2165. Wi. 
m6rad m. fl11.amplíjjing lon, morudh 
3976, morad run 5643 
m6r-m6r very great, T. T.1 1666 i 
compar. momo 1461, moam 4571, a 
n-us moam de 4497 ; d. an-as modbe 
1350, mo:Je 1456. mómó, Cóir An. 
mórshesser m. Stflt1l þersons, bai 
morshesser II 39, is on morshesiur 
258, 25 68 
muad u.tighing-beam .i. med 5453 
mual a mill .i. mulenn 5442 

3-1- 8 


mulmech f. a nurse .i. 1/ltt1'Ù: 1909, is 
bhuimeaeh 191 I 
muln (I) a vi1le II86, 4283,4, 5555: 
(2) the Ogham letter m 5491; g.s. 
muine 5672 
muin 1leck, back, for muin 549, fri muin 
5556. Wi. 
mulne a bush, cend a muine 5810,7. 
mulrenn a sþear, n.p. muirne 1306. 
muirni 4629. O'Dav. 1235: Cor. 2 

mút m. f. a mutl' COI1S011fl11I, n.p. in 
muite 447, mutti 446, muitti 451, 
muiti 467, 5 1 3, 2904, na muiti 2907. 
293 T ,2, 2982. eenith mút, Sg. 5 h 4, 
is mút si, 17:\3 

náe, n6e, nái a 11ltlll .i. duine, noe 
160 9, 16 95, 1948, næ 1609, 1610, 
nae 4686, nai 4687. Lee.: Cor. 2 93, 
9 6 9 
náede 11Í1le thi11/?s 1022, noie 3977 
nasc a ri11g 5725. Wi. 
nath m. (I) the metre proper to all 
ans'ruth 829, 1578, 1580,4653, is e in 
nath 839, 3690: (2) (lilY mdN .i. 
ainm da each uili aisti, Ed., II" 1,33; 
.i. ainm eoitcheann don uile aisde 
éigsib, H. 4. 18. O.Mule. 
nathalr f. a serpmt 5821. FeI. 2 
nau, n6 f. a ship 6134. Wi.: nói, 
náoi .i. long, H. 4. 18 
l1eam .i. ball fearrdha fir; neamh im 
usee 12Q5, nim in uisgi 4403. 
II. 4. 18 = O'CI. 
necht clear,þure .i. glan 5698. O'Dav. 
neim poison nem 1301,40, neimneeh tll- 
f!t1lOml'd 801. 'Vi. 
nélt, ne61t fight, battle, W01t1ld,. N eit 
god' of hat/Ie 5395. Wi.: RC. xx. 
14 8 
néll m. a cloud, saididh ne1l429T. CC. 
nem- 1111- (denoting negation), nem- 
eeoc:n1a impersonal, neuter 1466, 
nel1'fh i1led non-addÙlg 1570,6, nem- 
fhuil illd 816 ; nemfurail n01l-01'erj!ow- 
illg T 76, nem-fograigh s01md/ess 474, 

nem-gnathaeh ullusual 2381, neam- 
gnathugudh 'limit of use 602, nemli 
lais it has 110 colour 117 I 
nemed m. a dig11it(ll
v,þrivilegl'd perso11 , 
isna breathaibh nemedh 1298,4380 
nemnlgud m. all allflilzilatÙlg, a1l1Ú- 
hilatiol1 769, neimtniugud 3561,4548. 
nenaldnt'ttles 5516, nendait 5926. Wi. 
nert Lat. .fortitudo 4213, power, 
strmgth: of a vowel ill a s)'lliWk 
3 8 93, 9 6 5,7 
nertmairecht Lat. nobilitas 4ZI7 
neutur neuter gmder 613,620, neodur 
604, nemutur 3025; g.s. neodair 
1913; adj. neoturda 1465,1503,1917, 
neudarda 1488. Sg. 66"20, I, 2, 8 
niab vigoul, vivacity 5301. W. nwyf: 
niaba, Tbc. 5790: adj. niabthaeh, 
imniabthaig, II'. T. iii. 106,19: SPA. 
nihllus a IlZtllifj'ing, Ilullit)', g.s. u 
nialsa 4442, do beith nialsa 2837, u 
nihelsa 1385, 1399; d.s. fo nihilus 
970, fo nialus 978, 3897, 3901,10. 
arthaidbsin nihelsa, Sg. 6 b 5, dliged 
nihelsa, 14" 2, 3 
nln (I) the ash II 73,4, 4 26 9, 5495, 
nenaid 5515, 5626: (2) the Ogham 
letter n 815,7, 976, 1171, 4267, 
15 60 ,7, 157 2 : (3) mlY letter 1561, 
2791, 4790; a.p. dar 010 niona 2793,. 
dar 010 Httre, RC. xxvi. 1 5. 
nin a Wfl1'e, tond 2791. ."ole/I'. 
noalm I l"elleW, make consPicuous,. 
praise, keep, 3 s. pres. noaid 158 T. 
O'Dav. 1287, 1336: nóadh .i. 
eoimhéd, H. 4. 18 
nocht (I) 11aked, bare, a beith ranocht 
2070: (2) an internal assonance or 
l"h)'me, a nda nocht 5222, cen noeht 
5226, cia rodlig co fil nocht and 
5232, e.g. argair 5230 
n6escu a s1l1þe, næseu 5693. náiseu. 
Cor. 2 986 : naosca f., Din. 
n6ie nitle things, a noie 3977 
not f. a 1lOte, mark, n.s. not tinfidh 
35 61 , 4548, nod 1231, noit 768. 
not inehoise, Sg. 3 b I 7, na nota áram, 
6 b 21 


notaireacht f. notaJ:
' work, marking 
a ltxt to assist readinf? 5798. Origg. 
i. 22, 2: d. notire, Wb. 27 d 16 
nuall 'l.:arrior (fighting in a chariot) .i. 
err 5443 
núall a shout, weepillg, proclamation of 
mcapacity, proscriPtion, cend ar nuaill 
59 6 4. Laws: Fel."}.: .i. gul, O'CI. 

ó m. all ear .i. cluas 1228, 1457 i gs. 
smit ai(?) 46.
9: LL. 187 a 2 
ochta eight things, an octave, g.s. sedita 
in ochta 932, fri ochta 1022, re hochta 
ochtach f. a þim-b'u .i. ailm 1194, 
 j g.s. co cruind ochtga 5397. 
Lat. PÙIU.r, habies, TP. ii. 362 
ochtar m. eight persons, an oc/ad 2234. 
ocian Ocea1l 5353. 'Wi. 
od m. music 1470,3, 1483,4, odh 1273, 
1476, 4573,83, oudh 4577, oud 
saothaid 4307, t. od sæthaig, A nec. 
iii. 45. O'CI. 
odor-oscrach a scrat (?) 56g6. 
SPA.: odhar.äg f., O'R. 
óegi m. a guest, g.p. aiged 5300,5. 
og all egg, n. duo f. oig mammæ (?), oig 
1 glun 5033, cf dch 7 glun 1852. 
Wi.: ogh .i. ceile, lec. 96 M.: na 
huige. Lor. Gild. 209 
ógleth the poetry which the anrad 
shared with the ollam j a virtual half, 
llOt an exact haif 1728, 4920, v. leth, 
certleth. .lr. T. iii. 66, w. 
ogmoir m. alZ of!hamist v. Morann 
ógmoracht. fógmamcht f. a hal"vest- 
ilZg 5803. Cf. fogñmraë, O'R. 
ogum n. m. ogham, n.s. ogum n- 
airismech 5815. rolad int og,lm-sa 
5944,5471,4 j g.s. fid inn oghaim 397 
accomaltach 5Q03 
ad'enfid 5876 
aipgitir Afraicda 6'48, Pgipta 6145 
airenach tK97 
ar a mbi aen 5872 


BETS :-contillutd. 
aradach Finn 5830 
arm 5896 
bac 6088 
bas 5789 
biad 5805 
bo 5759 
brec mor 6010 
brecor beo 6055 
romesc Bres 594-3 
briatharogam Mic ind Oig 5615 
briatharogam Moraind mic Mhain 
55 28 
Briccrenn 5854 
buaidir foranna 5986 
caechan 5767 
ceall 5702 
ceand a muine 5810 
ceand ar nuaill 5964 
ceand debtha 6058 
ceand fo muine 5817 
ceand imreasan 6056 
cethardruimnech Cruteni 5839 
cethrur 5975 
colI ar guta 6049 
con 5740 
coss 5779 
crad cride ecis 5895 
cuidechtach 6 I 50 
cumusgda 601 I 
daen 5709 
dam 5750 
dan 5797 
dath 5697 
Dedad 6057 
dedenach 5958 
didruim 6061 
dinn S6R7 
do for..icmib 1 deacbaib 591 I 
eamn .ch 5907 
ebadach Ilaind 5853, 6066 
en SÓ92 
Erimoin 60R4 
fege Find "102 
Feniusa 606Q 
fiac1ach Find 60Q3 
fiar 6126 
focosach 6062 

35 0 


BETS :-continu
fordunta 6086 
fraech frithrosc 6008 
Gall 6157 
gleselgi 5877 
gort fo lid 6044 
imarbach 6017 
ind co ind 6025 
indiupartach 6074 
insnitheach 6060 
lad 5837 
leni da reib 6033 
linn 5680 
loe 6092 
Loehlannach 6155 
lose 5771 
Ius 5807 
luth 5834 
mae 5773 
maigneeh 6004 
muc 5939 
næm 5791 
nathair fri fraech 6087 
nathair im ceann 5821 
negladae 6063 
os 5842 
rig 5729 
rind fri dere 5994 
roth 6099 
run 5851 
sesmaeh 6036 
sluag 6021 
snaithi snimach 6085 
sron 5786 
suag 6149 
taebogam TIachtga 6080 
tirda 5724 
traig sruth Ferchertne 6103, 6127 
tredrUlmnech 5835 
tregdae 6090 
trelurgach Find 5836 
uird 5862 
usceaeh 5732 
oir (I) a spÙldle-tru: (2) the Ogham 
diphthong oi, .i. feorus II 96, 4301, 
5523: (3) a long vowel, Õ, 1367 
olc (I) had: (2) m. all 
vi/, wrong, 
wrongdoing, a n-ulcu 2008 

011 great, cubat n-oll 5664; compar. 
uilIiu, f-uilliu 1452, uille 3063 ; cpds, 
oull-ait (or 3 p. of verb ol/aim) 3680 ; 
ollchathach 5318, ollforbthe Lat. 
superßuus, Origg. iii. 5, 9, 1447, 
ollurgbail 5338 
ollam m. a poä of the first ,'an!:, a chief 
poet, an ollav
, n.s. imda ollamh 2129 ; 
g.s. a n-ait ind ollaman 2678, feili 
ollaman righ 222.h 2230; adj. 
, ollamda 2202 
omna a satire, fi a oumna 33II. 
omna an oa!:, g.p. do thaebhaib na 
n-omnadh 412, oumna 2853. .i. dair 
.i. crann, H: 4, 18 
onn n. a stone 554, 1088. 'Vi. 
onn (I) an ash,furz
 .i. aiten no uinius 
5522: (2) the Ogham letter 0 119{, 
5494; n.p. onnaid wheels in carpait 
.i. na roith .i. onn 5578,9 
ór heath 5494, 5662,3, v. úr 
ore m. a pig 5674,5. Laws 
orce m. a lapdog. n.s. oirci 5748. ba 
marb in t-orci, Cor. 2 , sub Mug-t'me 
ord m. mähod, use, custom, iar n-urd 
choir 564, nocho n-ord mear 2067, 
i n-urd bairdni 1937. .i. dliged, 
O'Dav. 1309 
ord m. a hammer 5728. Wi. 
ord airme m. an ordl1lal number, g.s. 
uird airmi 1441, 4492; d.s. i n-ord 
comairme 3720, a n-uord c. 3729 
ordan "mlR, dignity, sO'l!ereignt)', orddan 
537 1 . FeI. 2 
oscarda rude, ulltraÙled, unproftssi01lal, 
filideacht osgarda 2462,4 
oss, os a deer, g.s. roi oiss 1320, 
osogam 5842. Wi. 
óthá from which is, from. . . to (co), 
ota 483, otha in ainmniud n-uathaid 
906, otha Liphe co ILetha 5237, otait 
othrur í tend, care for, support, rosn- 
othrastar 169, nosn-othrustar 2475, 
rohothratar, roothratar, T.T.2 1258: 
othraim, Tog. T.1 
oxaU, oxlaid ablative case 1775, v. 


panaictti Lat. p10prium nomm linri, 
tlu Pmldects (of Jerome) 2.1-16. 
Panechte, CZ. iii. 17 
parabulamb Lat. genilogia, the BooR of 
Chronicles entitled rà 7ro.po.XH7r6p,oa. 
in Ixx. 4032 
patrene (I) a bard so named: (2) his 
flllo-wers or imitators (?), na baird 7 
na patreni 1928. Arch. c.P. iii. 300 
patronoimic a patronymic 3394, risin 
patronomic 3395 
penuilt Lat. pamuitima, pe1lultimatt 
syllable 4102,3,17,30 
persu f. a person, n.s. 736, 5467, in 
chetper;u 723, per so 1031; g.s. 
persainni 641,2,9, 651,3, 701), 719, 
849 i d.s. i persainn 641,8, 718; n.p. 
persainn 1I0+ 
pin (I) a rowan, Pine. gooseberry 5524, 
5608.9,10,11, caera pince gooseberries 
5525,5608; pin no ifin 5666,7, pin .i. 
caor 4305: (2) the Ogham letter p, 
ata pin ar p 136S, 4506. píon-cbrann 
rl pme tree, O'R. 
possit positive degree 643. posit 687, 
692, cen phosit 730, poi sit 694 
prim- Lat. þrimus, prim-aiste a prin- 
cipal metre 1586, prim-ellach primary 
combl1lation 1686, 3510; prim- 
fid primary f:OWe! 1431, 1379, 2797, 
prim-thoirndeprimaryportions 1898,9, 
1920, prim-thuisech chief ruler 1128 
prímda p, imary, principal, pre-eminent 
pronomen a pronolln 320, 2667 
prós f. Lat. þrosa. prose, n.s. prois 
I S89; g.s. 834, reim na proisi 3632 ; 
d.s. de prois 759, do p. 788, for p. 
791 ; n.s. intan is phrois 782; a.s. 
iar prois 1441. Hi6. .}fin.: En. 
xviii. 79 
prósta cOllsisting of prose 755, 795, 
830, 1642 
pudar II mistake, blunder, harm, d.s. 
nasin gliaphudair 2040, do gach 
lanphudair 2072; a.s. ænphudhair 
2 II 8 ; n.p. tri phudra 21 II. \Vi. 
pudrach harmflll, blundering, in gres 
glephudrarh 20+8 

35 1 

quert (1) an apple-tree 1185, 5495, 
5553, 5 6 3 8 : (2) the Ogham letter q 
1I84, 55 1 9, 5554 

rait bog-mJ'rt/t, raid I157, rait 4252, 
5926. Laws 
raith a .fern 1190,1, 4288,90. O'CI.: 
raUb a sllrety, security I S83. Laws 
randaige a part, randaigi 1453 
randgabtbacb a þarticiple 300,20 
randgapál f. a þartlàþle 2668. 
Z.2 9 8 9 a 
rath n. the dative case, a radh n-uatha;d, 
a rad n-iIair 1772, a rath 1880 
ré f. pace, while, d.p. riab cianaib 149, 
reib 2452. arnaib réib ilib, \Vb. 22 & 8 
reargagán m. a little blackbird, O.R., 
rearrgugan 709, raragain, T.: Din., 
rergoccan 3111, rerccuccain .i. Lonain 
3464, a triple dim. of rear, P. O'C. 
rece 1920 
recomrac m. a dissyllable 1214, 1418. 
1498, 1588, 1953, recomare 1 2 40, 
1433, a tri a reucomarc 3538; n.p. 
re.comraig 1501; adj. recomhracach 
17 2 1 
réidbe f. þlainness, exþlanation, scheme, 
i reidhe 3588,4735 
réim remraithe (I) remraiti 
said 1755, cia hairm remrade? 16, 
E.: (2) rhyme of'l.'owels only (1) 3945, 
1000, e.g. la, ba 3944,999,4923, 1730 
réimm n. (I) a run, course 780,2,3: 
(2) inflection. declensi01l, is reim gach 
tuissel on ainmnid sis 4 862 , 739, 
786,7,8, 791,2,3,4, 1951, gach reim 
n-olc 2178; g.s. slondud reimmi 
1626, esse remme 90S ; d.s. ina reim 
1536,9, ina remim 1535, 1675, reim 
ceilli 1540, 4761; g.p. na rem end 
1759; d.p. remendaib 1721,2,60: (3) 
alliteration 800,63 (a) of lette, by 
letter, do fid for fid 78+, 80S, 3592, 
3742 ; (ß) of tu.'o accented words endi1lg 
a verse, or with dialt etarleime or lorga 
fuach (?), taebreim 8 6 7, 3593, 3745 
réimmaim I rhyme, i1zßect. is as 
reimmthar 3609 

35 2 


rél(a)im I maR
ar, 3 s. pres. isi in 
chorr cid reil nos-reI 541; info fri realad 
fuid 1552, rellugud Cuit 4781. Wi. 
relait rdattve, cOf[1zate, Lat. relativus, 
in chiall relait 1098, an ciall reullait 
4 088 
remiud adversativ
 case 1529, a rernid 
rémnigim I inflect, declin
, 3 s. pres. 
pass. rernnigther 792,7,8, 3 61 4,5; 
info isin reirnniugud 878, 4734 
remshuidiugud rn. (I) (l preþosition 
320, 2668: (2) an anteposition 594: 
(3) alZ interposition 1595, 4 6 7 6 ; n.p. 
remshuidigthi 1692. Sg. 220 b8 
rem-tiagaim I precede, cid ara rerntet 
5476, is aire rernitet 5488 
remunnforegoilzg 1352, reumaÍ1z44I5, 
rernaind 2732. Pel.'!.: according to 
Meyer, a locative use of the verbal 
noun rem-áin, "in the front drive," 
U in the foremost rank," RC. 
xxxiii. 96 
res f. (I) a tale (?) 1920, is í in réi!.', 
IT': reisi .i. racas, Ed. vii. I I, 29: 
11'. T. iii. 21, W, Y j 48 w, y; ressach 
23, 4: Tbc. 6124: or (2) res .i. cmd 
4 1 7 6 . res hebrea litera est quae 
interpretatur caput. res ergo hoc 
est quod et primarium nomen, Maro 
Gr. v. 27, 12 
resin (conj. followed by 6ubj.) before, 
riesiu tisad 2770, cid siu 387 
rét m. a thilzg, matter, .fact, g.s. secip 
raeta 5577 j d.s. iar ret 5474,9, 55 6 4, 
5 602 ; g.p. ic dathadh na rret. Wi. 
riab f. a streaR, stroke, riab, da reib 
6033. Din.: d. reó f. (reb
), g. duo 
reib, 'Y.: .i. sriab, II'. T. iii. 443 
riaglaim I ngulaÜ, doriagladh 1053 
ríagul a l:ule, n.s. riagail 1022, riaghul 
3977. Wi. 
riched D. htaven, g.s. 5354 
riches f. a liv
 coal 5261. Wi.: J11. 
40 c 5, 6 
rige a stl,etching, Imgthening, luzgth, du 
rigi rand 2121, oeD dialt fri righe, 
rigi 5418, rach rigi 4649, Ed. vii. 
lIb 42. Triads 116 

ríge a reign, righi 1120 
rim (I) a numher: (2) metrics 55, 
rind a point, termÙzation,.front, claen a 
rind 1423, imrna rind 5240, V. uaimm 
do rind 
robad a 'Wanzi1zc, g.s. do breith robaid 
2802, 5484. The. 
rócnat (f.) a small,'ooR (?) 5695 
ro-crinim I destro)', 3 s. fut. rochiur .i. 
rochiguir 5378 
rofot rn. all ovalmgth, an over/ollg, in 
roChat 2050, rorat 2 I 50, ceo rorot 
1941, can rofota 5060, 5128, root 
5133,4, e.g. 5138 
rogair o'lJershortness, an ov
rsll(}rt 1694, 
1941, 2052, 2153, can rogair 5059, 
5123, e.g. 5132, 5144, 5124,7 
rogda chosm 5332. Wi. 
ról f. afield,plain, ros .i. roi oiss 1319, 
Fel. 2 ; phps. roi oiss l'ery' Run an 
dar, roe roaitha, FeI.I, LB. Ap. 26. 
Aug. 27 
roidh f. red dye plant (?) 1321, rJ.idh 
4 6 38. O'Dav. 937 
ronnalreacht f. a disþensing, dis- 
tributiolz 5801. O'R. 
ros great RlzowÜdge eolus 2685. .i. 
rofhios, rosa .i. rofheasa, O'Cl.: rus 
.i. roifios, Triads 143, GL 
rós a l'OU, sug in rois 5645. rÓs r., 
RC. xii. 467 
ro-saigim J nacho extend, 3 S. pres. 
cia roich 4528, cia roaig 1454. rosaig 
4499, rosouich 45 2 9; 3 p. nad 
roichit 2917; 3 p. sub. pass. co 
regdar 1077, co roectar 4073 
roscad a dithyramb 928, 3857 
roscad a maxim, proverb, precedent, 
g.s. í sreathaibh roscaigh 337, asretha 
rosga 2684. Laws 
ross m. a wood, copse, rois cælli 1320, 
ros coille 4637, ross 297, 2613 
ross, rass ducRwud, ducl:meat, rass 
1320, ros usce 1321,4638. Cor. n'. 
141 : M
d. Gl. 
rossflax-seed, ros 1322,4639. Laws 
roth m. a wheel, g.s. trian roith 1181,2, 
4277 ; g.p. in tres fidh roth 4278 


rúamna redness, blush 1193, 4292, 
55 6 3,4.7,5645,6 
rudrach (I) a stap'ng too long 011 a 
Ileighbour's land, prescnþ/ion: (2) too 
mmlY rhymes .i. roimda' cubaidh ann 
over much rhyme there, O.Dav. 1345 ; 
n.s. 2047, 2145 ; g.s. rudraighe 2144 ; 
a.s. een rudraigh 1940, rudrach 5058, 
5108. rudrad, Cor.: O'D.: Fe1. 2 : 
rudhrach, O'CI. 
rulce f. shame, blush, g.s. ruamna ruice 
1193, 4292; g.p. tinnem rucc..'C 
5570, tindi rueæ 5572. Wi. 
ruldlud m. a blush, redness 5570,1, 
ruided 5647. \Vi. 
ruldles m. peculiar use 747, 818, 2074, 
380,1, ruidlius 2763,4, is e a ruidhles 
420, 2862 ; eompar. ni ruidhilsi 935 
ruldIlsta specialised, particularised 
2650. ruidlesta 1745, ruidliusta 4935 
ruls f. (I) an elder tree 5570,1.3.5647 : 
(2) the Ogham leller r .i. trom 1193, 
4 2 9 2 
rún rån (ro-án) a 'Z'o:v splmdit! SeCl e/, 
a dichned líttri, rÚ rá 5392. Wi. 
rúsc m. a bark, jÏ1IÚn, hamper 637, 
57 2 7 
rúss, rús face, shame, 0 rus 5573, on 
rus 56-1-7. \Vi. 

sabalI 808 
sacc 809 
sádud a thrltslÙlg ill, tIlvadl1lg, g.s. 
sadha 5333. Laws 
sáeb jàlse, dt'ceitjill, ni saeb lib 2065. 
sáeb-suldiugud a placing 71:rollg(v 
193 6 
såerse a handicraft, sairsi 579 8 
sáethach weary, exhausted, luad 
saethaig 5612, oud saothaid 4307, 
salgld (I) a seel<illg, saididh nell 4291 : 
('l)ftll/ appro(l,;h,thecomþlete rtþttiti011 
tit the md of a slall::a in the body of a 
porm of the first accmttd word OCelll- 
I ing at Ihe hep,i1l1lÙIg of the poem 
2201,3, saighith 2211. II'. r. iii. 
29, x i 12 1 


saiglm I male /0" seek, slte, 3 s. pres. 
rei. æ aiges 408,9, ai shaighius 2847, 
ai saigius 2849; 3 p. sedhait, segait 
sail f. (I) willow 1154, 4 2 49; 5495, 
5 62 4, 1373,4, q 0 5, 1563,7,9: (2) 
the Ogham letter s 813 5, 1170. 2899, 
3668; g.s. 1282. Wi. 
salldrong a 71:illo'li:brake (?) 5521, 
5926. cr. Drong in place-names 
salnemall especially good, distinguished 
5 18 , 29 8 9 
sainemain m. a metre proper to a 
mae fuirmid, in sainemain 3673, 
829, 465.t, 1578,83. h. 7: iii. 116 
sainiged m. a dijJermliating, separat- 
Í1lg 1299 
sainredach peculiar, particular, g.s.f. 
849, 3460, I 
saithe m. a swarm, Compml)', lIl1t'titwlt', 
a.p. saithiu 274. .Ildr. 
ated 5932 
sål f. a heel 1283, 4338. Wi. 
salannlus sall'l
'ort, saland 809. 
sal-chulbdius m. a rhYnlt' al the md 
of the first and thil d 'lJt'rses oj the qlllll- 
1 aÙI, ClleSU1-a rhyme, salcuibdis 3840. 
Ir. T. iii. 9; 25; 130, 20: II'. .Ildr. 

saltrad m. a treading 949, 3135 
sam ad sorrel 808. P. O'C. 
samalglm I Pllt, pilla, 3 s. pres. pass. 
samhaighthir 434, 5 18 
samaisc f. (I Ihree-rear-old h,;fir 5764. 
Wi.: Laws 
såme f. I t's/, quietness, pleawl"e, ddl.l!hl 
5172,6,5213. Wi. 
Satharn Satlll day, Satam mar Satham 
3535. dia sathairnd in ill . . . ease, 
, p. 88 
scalp f. tl gap 1230, 4540. Wi. 
scé a white-thorn 1 154, sceu -1-249; 
1178, <:ge 4273. Wi.: Laws 
sciath m. a shield, n.p. 2120 
scoth a word indsgi 2685, sc.lth 
1935. scothegn:l wOltl-7<'isdom 571, 
837, 3138. .i. innsce, II. 4. 18: 
SI. ent., p. -1-2 



screptra f. Scripture, g.s. hurmor na 
sgreaphtra 2640, do reir na sgrephtra 
naibe 3422 
sduidir Lat. studëre, a studying, ag 
sduidir 4054. stuidéar m., Din. 
secdacht f. hardness 1313, secucht 
4632. Laws 
sechad m. a restraining, checking, g.s. 
secha 5175,9. sechise, Tbc.: fech:ld, 
Laws: cf. O'Dav. 1338, where 1. 
sechem shittim-wood 298, seuchim 
2610. SR. 4224: CC.: C

(shittim) acacias, Gesenius, Diet.: 
the timber of 'which Noah's ark was 
made, O.R.: seichim m. shechem- 

í'ood, Arms. 
sechidir he follows, 3 s. perf. dep. 
rosechastar 506, roseichiustar 2959, 
2974. Wi. 
sechmall (I) all omission: (2) neglec- 
tive case 1521, 1652, 1778,9, 1883, 
4978. Wi. 
sechmallaim I llf{[/ecl, am devoid of 
(0), ni iarsinni seachmallas 0 dheilbh 
473, ni tsechmallus 0 deilph 2939 
sechmatu past 2369 
sechnaim I separate, / distinguish from 
(do), 3 p. pres. sechnait 4 01 4; 3 p. 
impf. no-sechantais 4407 
sechta se
'en things, heptad 430, 2877, 
i4I.2,5,6,7,8, 7 6 0, 828, 838, 917, 
932, fri sechtu 1001, sechda 3977 
sechtmain f. a 'Week, :vii la na seacht- 
maine 749, 35 18 , 353 2 ,7 
séda si:1: things 429, 2874, 1021, fri 
sedhai 3976 
ség a deer segh .i. os 4537, 5601 ; g.p. 
re trichait sed 1227; dim. seg-nat 
5892. Cor. 
séig f. a vulture, hawk, segh 5693. .i. 
seabhac, H. 4. 18: Wi. 
séis a hand, a troop, a.p. h seise 5087, 
fiarses 4303. CC. 
séis leanlÙlg, skill, kllowledge, for seis 
.i. iar fofis I. s06s 479, 738, 2638, 
2948, 3496. gen. sése, RC. xxvi. 20, 

 43: J:lelr.: Laws 

séitig f. (I) wijè: (2) companion, 
jóllower, like, cona tseitchib 3382. 
for tosach a sétci, /1'. T. iii. 26, 25: 
ma seitche dligidh, CC. 414: Tbc. 
selbad m. (I) a possessing 173 I, 49 2 4 : 
Je case 1000, 1517,31,43. 
.1771, I8Po, 1892; d.s. inna selbad 
1536, 1676, do sealbhadh 1671 
sémigud m. a smoothing, asPiration, 1m i- 
tion of an initial consonant, the Ogham 
H preceding its conS01lll1zl H + B = Ph 
12 72, 126 4,7, 1271,5,6,7,8, 43 22 ,6,8, 
sen old, com par. siniu fedhaib 5593,4. 
super. sioneim 4300, senim U) 807. 
senim feda, Anec. iii. 44 
senchas m. mlcÙnt hist01:V, story 553, 
a cendfochrus tuis,ftnchas 5386. Wi. 
senod a sY'lOd, n.p. senada 6150 
senshaill 807 
serbiu bittenzess 3345, serbe Eg., 
serbi 3489 
serindprimrose806. seimhirin, seithir, 
sertim (?) I strmgthm, prete 3 s. saer 
sert 5314; 3 pI. serE t Jsit 5316. 
sese dry, barren, for portaib sesga 1592, 
segsa (?) 5317 
sesmach steadfast, stable 6036. CC. 
sessach steadfast, strong 939, 1598. 
5356, 53 6 0 
sessed one-sixth 1448. Laws 
sesser m. six persOlls, a hexad, seissiur 
2233.9, seser 2237. Wi. 
sét m. a road, way, seit .i. conar 1293. 
sed raid 1583, for set na aipgitri 
55 1 3 
sét m. allythÙzg valuable, a treasure, 
clzattel, raith air set 1583; a.p. seoto 
sona 2217, seotu 5088 
sét a bed, seut .i. Ie paid 4391. sÚ 
hedding, A isl. 
sétim I blow, 3 p. pres. seeit 1292, sét 
sétrad m. a metre proper to a mac 
fuirmid 829, 4654, in sethrad 3673, 
selrud 1578, sedradh 1583- fro T. 
iii. 116 


sian sléibl joxglo've 806 
sid fairyland, a sith 2805, i sid 5487 
side the fairies, d.p. a sidhaip 2804, 
54 86 
sigla signs, abbreviations 5918, 6106. 
Lat. sigil/a, Origg. xix, 32, I 
sHad m. a sowing. silad elann 5652, 
na dann 5653 
sillab m. f. a syllable (I) m. n.s. in 
siHab deighinach 2369. in 
toiseach 2370; a.s. in sillab toiseach 
2366 j n.du. in da shillab 88, 1420: 
(2) f. n.s. in t shillab dedenach 91, 
iot shillab thoisenach 92; a.s. int 
shiIlaib toisich 91, sillaib 366. 2929, 
294-6; n.du. na di shiIIaib 1418 j 
a.p. sillaoba 2745. 3571. Z.2 9 81- 
slllabacda consisting of syllables, s)'l- 
labie 5312 
sillæbach having syllables, syllaluc, 
deilidi s. 2134, aontsillaopach 3827, 
detsiIlæbach 4880, 1692,4-517, 4677, 
tretsilIæbach 3865, 4517 
SlnÏJn I s/1'eteh, extmd, Imgthm, 3 s. 
pres. pass. sinter 4707 j info siniud 
na haim
ire 1564,4795 
sircumflex a circumflex, sircumplex 
4417, 4787. 2. 2 9 80 - 
síf,hchaln Lat. pax 422 I 
slat f. a rod, twig, stem, sirslata name of 
a plelnt (?) 806 
sliasat a thigh. n.s. 609; d.s. dia 

liasait 609. sIíasat, CC. 
slice 808 
sUcht v. a trad, division. 'l'ersion. 
desemd(l11ts, g.s. sliachta (s = sail = slia 
IS haifo/slia-chta) 1728, 4919; n.p. 
is treshIicht 1208, ire tslicht 4320, 
ceithir tsliocht 4316 j a delidin lit- 
terJa, silochta 5310 
slislu 808 
slondud m. a flaming, surname, patro- 
nvmic, frie sloindeJh 2832 
smér m. a fire. n.p. smir guailí 5633. 
smetrach " comPI essÙIg, compression 
(?) .i. smit forrach 13 2 8,31, 4645 
smit lobe of ear 1333, 464-6,8,9. Wi. 
. smilai (?) 46-t9: v. ó. 


snac 807 
snáithe a thread. snaithe 809, 6104, 
snaithi 6085 
snámchain fair S'Wimming, s. fheda 
5597. snãmchar fer, Anee. iii. 43: I. 
snámcham, d. snámach, Jr. Cl. 391 
sn:ímach sPinning, twisting 6085. Din. 
sn:íthe twisted, plaited 809. Fran. 
so- laudatory prefix, so.bard a noble 
bard 1996, so-dath finely coloU1'ed 
5698. so-
hluag a goodly host 5333 
sóam youngest 2309, soom 25. só 
you;ger, O'D.: PH.: d. sósar na 
mac, MR. 48, 20: a tabairt do'n 
t-sosar. l\IR. 58. 15 
sochralde f. reÙiforcements, help, 1 e- 
sources, g.p. 5088,95. LEn. 691. 
2083, 2793: Cc. 
socht silmce 2081. "oi. 
sód a tUY1IÙIg 1273, 4328 
sod a weir, saud 5734. Laws: O'D. 
sóerda artificial. særda 396,7,8, 
595,6,8, 910, saorda 2816,7, 2821 
sóerugud m. all ennobling. a prefixing 
so to the 'word 1868, 194-6. 1980, 2096, 
21 55, 50-t-5, 5076, e.g. so-fer 1797, 
4989, so.ben 1845, so.beun 5028, so- 
bard 1996 
solrche bright 5087,9-t-, .i. solasda, 
O'CI.: .i. soillsi, H. 4. 18 
solam fjzlicl<, sudden 2081. 'Vi. 
solma. fjuiebltss 2839 
solus bright, goar .i. salus isin Fenichus 
no isin Breatnais 633. goour, solus 
isin mBretnus 3208,1 s. goor gach 
salus, Cor. n,. 83: Tbc. 
solustur bright1less, griansoluslur lux 
solis 4219. La\\s 
somáin wealth, profit 158 I j g.s. 
somaine 466 I. Wi. 
so-mills sweet, /r.tS;', com par. somillsi 
731, 334-5. aquae sive salsae sint 
sive dulce
, Grigg. xiii. 14, [ 
son a word, for son ceneoil ind im- 
frecrai 92-t-, forin son 436, 2888. 
son a soul1d, cia son ger 253,4 j g.s. suin 
786,7, 792,3,4 j d.s. do soun 4697, 
iar sund 5473; a.s. ria sunn 54-78 

35 6 


so-réid easy, ready, handy, g.p. f. 
soirthe 5091,5,8,9. soirthe .i. soi- 
réidhe, O'CI. 
sossad a dwellmg, abode 5310. Wi. 
soud-cuipdius fl11 internal l-hyme 
spin f: (I) a thom, spinan no ispin 
1197: (2) gooseberry, spinan no spin 
43 0 5. PH.: RC. xii. 467 
spinán a gooseberry bush 1197, 4304. 
Three ilfed. Cl.: O'Br. 
srábh m. a stream, g.s. aire .srabha 
II92, aire sraba ssdraibh 4290. 
SR. 6780: O'Dav. 180, q91: 11'. 
T. iii. 336, I 15: aliter d. Betha 
Colm: Ælt. 23, 17 
srathar f. pack-saddle, strathar 57 2 5. 
srebann a membrane, udder 180 9, 
1810, 3Z55, srephand 4997; g.s. 
gene in tsrepaind 5001, 3258. lán a 
srebuinn, Sil. Cad. go 
sréguindeacht f. durstall:ing (?) 
5801. Cf. séguindeacht, Æn. 
sreth (I) a series, intan is sreth 3577, 
i sreathaibh 337, a sretha 2684: (2) 
a thread of alliteratlim, iar srethaib 
suadh 553, 3194. cr. fr. T. iii. 
30, 14 
srithid f. the passage or stream of milk 
from the breast, sridit 1853; n.p. 
srÏthiti 5034. cöil srithide, Triads 
75: srithide fola, CC. 
sroll light 4788. Cor. Tr. q8 
srón f. llOse, imon sroin 5787 
srorca, sorcha bright 5700 
sruith vmerable, compar. is i as 
c;ruithi 2377, 2798; sup. sruitem aicdi 
5 6 02, sruithem 4303. \Vi. 
stmólach a thmsh 5695. Agall., 
stocaireacht f. a trumpetilll[ 1477. 
Lat. cia/Igor tubant11l, Origg. iii. 20, 
stocc m. a trumþet 1486. PH. 
straiph, straif (I) a sloe-bush, n.s. in 
Hraif 5567, 119 1 ,2, 4 2 9 0 ,1, 549.}, 
55 6 3,8,9, 564-3, saildrong 5521: (2) 
the Ogham leller str, sr 443, 2899 

suad (?) danger .i. gabud 5t52,4 
suag a rope, cabie 6149. Din. 
súaill ft1v, small, lillie, mean, ri suail 
1604, ní súail 5366 
suath( a )im I knead, 3 s. impf. pass. 
2440,1; p. part. pass. suaiti 2438, 
. Wi, 
súg sap, ;iliee, tri sug lossa 5572, sug 
in rois 5645. Wi. 
súi m. a sage, n.s. 5310, sai 386, 2769 ; 
g.s. suad 498,508,2967,8; n.p. saithi 
387, saithe 2770; g.p. 553, 3 1 94; 
g.du. 4644 
suidim I sit, æ suides 408, 411, 28.4-8. 
285 1 
superlait the super/atlf.e degree 644, 
3 2 67 
súst f. aflail 5727. PH. 

taball a tablet, d.s. a n-æntabaill I I 10, 
4230; d.p. i taiblibh 44, a dtaiplibh 
23 2 9 
tacmalng (to-ad-com-icc) l1lcompasses, 
sltrrolmds, conas - tacmaing 1960. 
O'CI; v. do-ath-com.iccim 
taccraim I plead, argue, 3 p. pres. 
tacrait 1961,2, 2180, tachraid 1939 
taebchubald side or md rhyme.. (1) 
caesura rlz.vme of first a/ld third 1'erse- 
endings of a quatraill 919, 929, a 
dtaobcuil:;diph an raind 3566: (2) 
a rhyme c01lSistÙlg of idelltical 1'0,<<:<'IS 
and of ide1ltiwl COllSOHallts fi//ou/iJl,l[ 
the v01õJels, brass 7 lass 3963 
taebchulbdius m. the fwo eIld rkJ'111eS 
of a quatrain 38 
8, 3858 
taeblerg a sloping plain, slopÍ111[ land, 
g.p. 5147, 5152. Awll. 
tæbomna f. a consonant, n s. in t. 
1396, 766, 1389. is i in taebomna 
gabhus greim 1397; g.s. 1376,8; 
n.p. taebomnai 412; n.du. na da 
taebomna 937; g.p. 1401; d.p. do 
thæbomnaib 765, 921 
tæbrélm side or nzd rial or declmsion; 
(I) in poetry, pelftct alliteration 785, 
923.3743,5: (2) in prose, e1.e/J,thill.l{ 
1chich is Hot full declnzsion, exterlml 
flexion 795,6, 87 6 , 375 0 Y. rtimm (ß) 


taebtu (I) a sidi1lg u'ith, trllsti1lg: (2) 
comitati'l'e case 1526, 1653 
tál, táol, tó, túa silmt, still, tæ a ed 
1473, tai a od 148-t, 4576,7, to od 
1473; compar. tuiu 1484, taítiu 
1479 n. tai no taoi .i. tostach, O'CI. 
tálrclm I effect, .-allse, 1 efer 10, Ceudhair 
.i. tairgither fair 4771, feghair .i. tair- 
gither 4777. ni taircither, .JR. 17 d 5 
tairisem allllbidÎ1lg, consisting, tairisem 
fo fid 5811,8 
tairsce (I) a trespasszilg: (2) t,.espa
si'l'e case 1527, thairrsci 1654, 1787, 
tharrsce 1885, tairrsgi 4983. O'D.: 
talsselbalm I ascrihe, altribute, publish, 
rotaiselbad 1047, dot. 1766, co taisel- 
bad 1763 
talstel a lraversÎ1lg, journey, 'l'oyage 
5291,7. !astel, St J101. 
taithmech a loosming, explallation, 
derivation 1315,9, 2718, 2949, 3438, 
taimeth 3439 
taithmet a ml1ltiolllllg, te//Ùl/:, cOltnting 
145 2 j denam.3 5. pres. rotathmetaid. 
side I 500. PH. 
tál all adze 5726. Wi. 
tamall a while, pauSl (?) 1932. Cf. 
tamall n-áire, .-lnh. CPo i. 160: 
B B. 299 ß 8 
tanach f. cheese 1082, 4077. A isl. 
tanacht f. thzil1less, slemÙnless, ar 
thanacht 2943 
tanaigecht f. rqÍ1wnl1lt,jÎ1111leSS 5000, 
tanoigecht 3258 
tár contempt, {/isgl aa, cen tar 1932. 
.i. ole, Cor.: d. tair n-áire, Arch. 
CPo i. 160: DB. 299 It 45 
1:.armforcenn m. md of a 'l'e7'se, n.s. in 
tarmfortcend 15 t 4; g.
. tarmfortcind 
1261, 4609 i n.p. 4609 i g.p. imrecru 
na tarmthortcheand 920, 3567. Cczth 
RltÍS R. 168: h. T. iii. 130 
tarr f. bel
}', IJacl:, fo tarrib 5147, Co 
tharraib 5152 
tarsna athwart, 'láth gen. fiartharsna 
n.l lurgan 5782, cearttharsna a
5783,8. dar fiartharsna thwarbless, 
RC. xiv. 441: O'Jlo//ov Gr. 137 


táth disso/lttioll; saltier, gIlle, Cfmt!11t 
1274. A isl.: Tbc. 
táthlulbh ceml1lt 267, 288, 244-6, 
2581,2603. tåth luib herb, matena/, 
tebede cut f!!J. selected, deime tebede 
5 6 9, teibidi 4994, teipidi 5052 
tech n-oiged n. house of guests, hospice 
of an Irish monaster)', i taig aiged 
5300. PI. Vito Sanct. 
tecraim (to-aith-cuiriur) I Pllt au'fl}', 
s. pret. 3 5. ros-tecair 2189. Cf. Jl1. 
imme-thecrathar 65 a I: Str. De/,. 
p. 9 15 , n. 3 
teIgud noe m. manthrou'Ùtg, tht' 
additi011 of the syllable tot to a u'ord, 
q.v. 160 J, 1695, 1804, 1850, 1872, 
1948, 1998, 2103, 2152, 2165, 4 68 6, 
temen dark, darl:-gre..y 5699. Wi. 
ten fire, a dechned, tenn 5397. \Yi.: 
RC. xx. 152, 1 
tenn strong, Ùttl1lse, super. tinnem 
ruccae 5570 
tennad m. an impressing, emphasisi1/g, 
exp, essing tension 1552, 4782. \\ï. 
tepe a cutting, se/ectioll 391, 1764, 
1108 i d.s. don tebi 2, iar tebiu 1763 
terc scarce, scallty, a formolad, terc-du 
5396. Cf. RC. xx. 150, where it is 
cited wrongly as a dechl1ed, the ex. 
being teml 
terce sparselless, scan/i1less, ar terci 
29-t-Z, teirce feuda 3662 
tessargon a saving, del1'l'era1lU, teasar- 
gain 483, 2955 
tiagalm bås I die, 3 s. pres. reI. in 
tan degas a bas, on tiagas Eg. 5552 j 
1 S. pres. suhj. ba bas ni thias 5393. 
Wb.15 b2 8 
tiarmóracht f. (I) a fô//owillg: (2) 
progmitive case 1525, 1662 
tiasca a hgi1l11Í11/{, in tiasca 1760, 
4961, 5020. cr. O'Dav. 1564 
ticalod Tig/a/h, the r. Tigris (?) 2283 
tigbae last, 'li.,tlh 110 survivor, tigba 
5334. Wi. 
tige thirlmess, dmsltv 1323, 4640. 

35 8 


timarta a short vowel or syllable, Lat. 
correptum 1358, 1550 . 
tindell an unyoking, answer, explmza- 
li011 1247,8,4363,4 
tinfed, tinfeth (I) a breath 1733, 
49 2 5: (2) aspiratioll, n.s. 435, 768, 
2883, tinfid 1267, 4325; g.s. noit 
tinfid 768, 1231, 4548; d.s. eu 
tinfiudh 434, eo dtmfed 2882. Cf. 
Jfetr.: tinfedaigud an aspirate 344 
tiniud m. an attenuating, vanishing 
769. Trip. 
tinne (I) holly .i. quulend no trom 
55 18 , 1180, I, 4276,7, 5495, 5634: 
(2) the Ogham letter t 2899; 1214, 
43 2 8; 3 01 9 
tinne a11 ingot, tindi rucre 557 2 . Fel. 2 
tinnlocud m. a gwing uþ, de/zt'erÙzg 
4753. tidlacad, Laws 
tin61tach m. a collector, flU1lder, chÜf 
tinscetal a beginning, n.s. tindscital 
485, in tindscedul 486, in tinsgetal 
2957. \Vi. 
tinugud m. a becoming attenuated, a 
1'alllshÙzg 3561, 4548 
tipra a we/I 5738 ; dim. tiprán 5109,13. 
tírda agricultural, rustic, ogam t. 5724- 
tírdacht f. agriculture, lueht na tir- 
dachta 5473 
titul a superscription, arin titul 165 : 
LV. 9 b 14 
tiug-thol a last wish, a thigthol 5290, 
a thiugthol 5296 
tlacht protection 1960. Death Tales 
tláse sqftness, timidity, weakness, fteble- 
1l'SS, cen tlaisi 5248, cen tlåsi 5251. 
tlás, 0' R.: Laws 
tnúfire .j. teine 4544. .JIetr. 
t6e r. silma, n.s. in toe tengadh 909, 
in toi 3791; a.s. atab::>ing tui 5458. 
d.s. is e dliged na mban beth i tai, 
A,zec. v. 23 : v. tái 
t6 tongue 751. Lec. 
tobarthid dative case, n.s. 4753; g.s. 
tobartada 1645, 1660, 4838, tobar- 
tacha 1647, tobarta 1667, 4846; 
d.s. ina thobartaid 1677, 4856 

tochrus a wÙzdÙzg uþ of yarn, gan 
tochrus 2109. Laws 
togalrm (I) a calling, summoning.. (2) 
vocative case, n.s. 1520, 1774, 1881, 
4741, togarmann 4754; d.s. inna 
thogairm 1676, 4856 
togarthid vocative case, g.s. togar- 
tada 16H,6, 4826, togarth3da 1668, 
toghorta 4847; d.s. do thogartaidh 
1671,4850. Wi 
toglalm 1 sack, destroy, 3 s. p. pass. 
rotoghladh in Træ 1123. Wi. 
toimslgim I measure, 3 s. pres. pass. 
toimsigther 4808,9; 3 p. toimsigtir 
4602; 3 s. impf. pass. no-thomh- 
sid he 929, notomhusti 3857. Cf. 
CC. 4062 
toimslm 1 measure, toim!>iter 739, 
1012, 1509,10,11 
tOimtnigim 1 think, I am of oþz,zioll, 
rotoimtnigedar 151. denom. toimtiu, 
t61rndim (do-fo rind) I mal"k OUI, 
signify, 3 s. pres. iar n-inni thoirni 
1895,7, to:rnes 1568. \Vi. 
toirne a share, pm"tioll 3889. Laws: 
O'DJ.v. 1497 
t6irnid m. a broad marker, measurel, 
leth:m-thoirnid 450, 2913 
toirrchius m.preglZa1Zcy, don t. 5778. 
toirches, Laws 
toit f. the whole, Lat. totus, n.s. in toiti 
664, in toit 3279;' g.s. dar eis na 
toiti 664, 3279; d.s. do toit 2651. 
toil .i. uiliataidh no uilidhe, O'CI. 
tomaiste metrical rhythm 928, tomusti 
3857. aircedal .i. tomsidhe, Anec. v. 
2-t-, I, 10 n. 
tomus m. a measure, Lat. 11le1ZSU1"a 
750,3,4,5,6,8, 9 1 7, 943, 9 62 , toimes 
751 ; d.s. i tomus 1400, do thomus 
9z7, 1687, 3856, eo tomus 1950; 
a.s. ænfidh fregras in tomus 1382. 
cinteaeht shiolladh a dijÙzite 1lllllzber 
o/syllables, O'Jfolloy Gr. 149 
t6n f. tail, Lat.þOdex, g.p. 5242. Wi. 
tond f. skin, szu/aa, elid 1816, 0 thuind 
eo tuind 1726,4917. \Yi. 


tórand dmotatio1f, signification, bound- 
ary, g.s. is moaum toraind 2796. 
U'1\1ule. 823 
torathor a monster, 11l01Istrosi
v, a 
chotut, co ndorthor 5289, iar torthor 
5 2 95 
tore a boar, a prince 5230 
torg 5357 killing, destroyÙlg, O'R.: 
torghan HB. 
tormaeh m. (I) an Ùlcreasing, in 
tormaeh 3790: (2) augmmtati1le case 
15 2 8, 1654 
tornóraeht f. the turner's craft 5799. 
torraeh pregnant 5774 
to-sårlgur I violate, i1zjure, Lat. laedo, 
3 s. pres. laPis do rada fri gach ni 
tarraigther eois 3399, fristartaigther 
Eg., lapis dicitur eo quod leidit peidim 
3396. O'D. 
tot the ollomatoþoetic sound of a mall's 
tody falling on u'ater 4890; e.g. 
fertot 1609, 1612.3.7,9, 1620, 180-1, 
ferthot 1695.6. fertout 4882, feurtot 
4991, bentot 1850, saerthot s1antot 
5373; n.p. eaemthuit 2233. tot .i. 
tormán .j. tonn, H. 4. 18 
toth everything ftminine, todh each 
mbanda 1465, 4560, 1236, 4558, tad 
1459,14 62 ,1493.6,9. 1502,8, dod 1468 
tothlugud m. an asking, demanding 
1 0 3 2 , 3988, 1107 
tothoeht (I) possessioll, property, ad- 
junct: (1) p1"OprÙty in poetic praising, 
e.g. a hero by a hero 5256, co 
tothucht 1950, 5 0 '54, 5 2 34, 5244, 
5254. Cf. Wi.: Triads: O'Dav. 
1568: 11'. 7: Iii. 121 
to-tIuehur I ask, demand, 3 s. pret. 
is mo darothlaig no torothlaig 4002 
trå .j. do rae chugajnn no ræ uainn no 
trá .j. trí neithe, H. 4. 18: 573, 3039 
tracht a st r alll!, shore 1229, 4540; g.s. 
for mi1aib trachta muigi 2393. Laws 
tráeth eve1:vthÙlg nfUler 1465, 456 I, 
1236, 1475,6, 14 80 ,5,7, 1493,6,9, 
1502,8, troth 1458, 1461, træt 1468. 
tráoth .i. nemh neachtarda, H. 4. 18 : 


tråg, tráig f. strmld 6(03 
traide f. ljuick1ltsS 510. ST.: Cor. 
Tr. 162 
traig f. afoot, n.s. 1811,1409,11,5276, 
troich 771 ; g.pJ. 1413, 1816 
tre- in comp. three, trebrjchta trlþle 
octosyllabic 3712, tredq.limnech three- 
rt'dged 5835, Tbc., treIurgach three- 
stemmed 5836, tretsillæbach thl'u- 
syllabled 3865 
tréde three things 426, 2868, 2(]01; 
1264,43 2 2; 671,2, 796, 1020, 1296 j 
cl.p. i treidhib 665, 3281 
tré-fhoeul m. the /au-s of poe")' 
negati'l/ely stated: (I) xii. laU's of 
filidecht, chieß.y as to form 194-0-3, 
5 0 57-62 j (2) xxii. lau's of bairdne, 
chiefly as to matter 1928. 39; n.s. 
19 28 ,9, 1939, 1940, 2018, in trelocal 
1027; g.s. tlacht in trefoeuil 1960; 
2017,2 1 30 j d.s. i trefocul 2078, isin 
t. 2188, asin 1. 2180 
tregdæ pierced 6090 
tregtad m. (I) a transpierci1lg: (2) 
perftrative case, jn tregdad 17 2 4,6, 
1780, tregdhadh 1528,1654, treghdad 
1723. 1883. Wi. 
trelth u'eak 1475,4583. Wi. 
trén strong, COm par. Iresi 5556, tresiu 
55 6 4; sup. tresim fedma 5555, 
ruamna 5563,7. Wi. 
treóir n. strength, guidance, means, 
n.s. 5429 ; g.s. treorach 3403. 
treóraid a guide, litirtreoraid 44-9, 
29 1 3, legtreoraid 450. treoraidhe, 
tressaeh U'arliJ:
 940, (sic I.) 5357 
trian m. one-third, n.s. in trian 935. 
1181, 1448 j d s. 0 trian 935; n.du. 
na da trian 936 
trian (I) holly: (2) the Ogham letter t, 
trían 5549. trian .j. euilenn, A,lee. 
triath m. kmg, lord, a oen, do thren- 
fher, margÙzal gl, triadi( b] 5335. 
triosg grains, rifuse of malt 4539. 

3 6 0 


trírech f. a lay, lyric, poem, issin 
tririg 5351. Wi. 
trócaire f. mercy, Lat. pietas 4214 
troethaim 101}erPOWer, suppress, 3 s. 
pres. træthaid 1485 ; reI. a thraethas 
14 81 ,45 81 ; 3 p. pres. træthait 1477, 
1480. Wi. 
trom all elder tru 1155, 4250, 4292, 
5518. tromm m. Triads 
trop Lat. tropus, metaphor, figure if 
speech, a.s. tri in trap 2567, trin-traip 
5512. trop, MI. 15"2 : g.s. in truip 
4 0 CJ 9 
truid m. f. a starling 3224; dim. 
truiteóc 5694. Cor. Tr. 161: 
túag f. an axe, d.s. a thuaigh 1278. 
túag f. a bow 1877. Wi. 
tuar a þoet, sage, g.du. i n-Imagallaim 
na Da Thuar 1328, in Da Suadh 
no in Da Tuarad 4644. RC. xxvi 8 
túarascbail f. (1) a describing, descrzþ- 
tl011: (2) descriptive case 1529, 1530, 
1655, 1889, 1 8 9 1 
tuccait f. a cause, t. a denma 737, 
1032, 3987, tugait bindiusa 629, 
Lat. periphrasis Gr. Lat. v. 308, 15, 
tucait 632,4, tucait a scribind 1106, 
2320,6,2347. f. Bib. Min. 
tuignech robe, cloak, cape, as adj. 
sheltering 5 q 7 ,52 A cal!. 
tuirem f. a 1"eCountÙlg, a 1lllmber, n.s. 
ni certtuirem na gcinedh 3378; n.p. 
tuirme glonn 940 
túirim (do-sírim) I scrutinise, search, 
2 s. imper. túir 5194. Fel. 2 
tuisel m. a case (in grammar) 783, 
5277, tuisil 3591, tuissel 4862 
tuismiud m. a begetting, origin 481, 
62 5.6 
tuistid m. a parmt, n.p. tuistidi 446.7, 
480,2,3,5. 2905,7 ; 2951,4,6,8. \Vi. 
tuistide (I) a parent: (2) þarentative 
case 1523, 1670,1889, tuistiudh 1891. 
tustige, PH. 
tús f. Lat. tus, ÎrankÙlceme, inceme, 
tuis 2450, 2614. PH.: RC. xii. 
4 68 

túthmar (I) jztiC)', O'Mule. 870: (2) 
strong-smelling, fttid, CC.: O'Dav. 
126 5: Death Tales, tutmur 5604, 
tuathmar 4302,4 

ua m. a grmlds011, descendant, n.s. 
5 2 62,6; n.r. ind hue 5146, ind uea 
5 1 5 1 
úagim I sew, stitch, compose, 3 s. pres. 
pass. co n-uaigiter 954, dib fuigther 
úaimm n. (I) a stitching, seam, ulziol1 
5335: (2) a composition, ni huaim 781, 
raid-uaim 782; g.s. re huamma 780, 
1 6 3 8 ,35 8 7: (3) alliteration 5479,781 
úaimm do rind alliteration at the end 
of a 'IIerSe, the word in the second 'I'erse 
exceedi1lg the alliterating word Í11 the 
first by one syllable 2205,2211, ego 
2205,6. fr. T. iii. 30, c; 121, c 
uais m. povert)', slight p01 1 erty, ad- 
foirithed uais 2476. is e in t-uais, 
O'Dav. 112 
uáis noble, ier bfiordliged fothu an 
gotha uais toghaidhe 2648. uáis .i. 
duine úasal, H. 4. 18: O'CI. : Gor.: 
O'Dav. 788: Laws 
úaite f. singlllan{r, singleness, oneness, 
inn uaite 903, 944, 962,3 
uartan some agricultural Í1zstrummt (?), 
huartan 5726. Cf. uairtnech .i. in bo 
blegar risin uartan .i. risin salann no 
risin mbalgum, Laws v. 260: O'D.: 
fuartanach anodyne, H B. 
úas, ÓS 01/er, 3 pI. uaso J 44, uais tis 
2433, I. úas tis abO'l:e and be/ow, cf. 
tiar tair 2215 
úath (1) white thom, n.s. huath 432, 
766, 1176,7, 4272: (2) the letter h 
1230, 1270, 4335; 14 08 , 5491 ; g.s. 
huatha 5699. Wi. 
úath (I) horror 5628,9, 5234: (2) 
horrible 1195. 5547, 5699. Tbc. 
úathad (I) unity, ftw1less 1098: (2) 
singular 1lumber, a s11lgular, g.s. 
3 2 5,6,2756; d s. 323, J641,7, 2671,2, 
1846; a.s. 2058, cen uathad (,i ilar 
without a singular with a plural 1942, 
S058, e.g. mora, alaind 5185,9 


úatigim I make si1lgle, I make I'm e, 
3 p. pres. uaitighit 2153 
uatuaslaietech allatytic, explmzalol)', 
,{emolzslra!1'u 3460. Cf. La \\ s 
ugdaraeht f. a (written) allt/lOrit}', 
131. E.g. Eusebi Chron. 
ugdardas, augtortas m. azt/horit)', 
hist01J' 3379. PH. 
uilideeht f. totality 3798 
ullidetu totali
J', n.s. a huiletaighie 
2304; d.
. do uilideataid 51, 2339. 
uilleand (I) hOllfysuckle .i. edlend 
5524, 5664,5: (2) the Ogham 
diphthong ui 1197, 43 0 3: (3) the 
Ogham y a1ld U medial 1368, 4423 
uinge f. an ounce 1286, 129 0 , 1735. 
AscoIi cxxxviii. 
uinnius f. ml ash, n.s. uinnius 1173, 
S22, uindsiu 1153, uindis 
4248; "269, 1174; d.s. uindsind 
1172,5. 4268. uinsenn, Gor.: ind 
huinnius ardd, Sg. 67 & II 
uiseóe f. a lark 5696 
umaideaeht f. brasswork 5803. cr. 
umaide, 'Vi. 
úmda=immda 4306 ; n.p. iumda, PH. 
úmla Lat. obsequizml 4219 
únair a ulzit 688, 3317: Origg, iii. 
3, I 
unnse m., unnsi C., onnar n. here is 
64 8 ,9, uindse 70S. unse 706,8, 717, 
uinnse 18c6, 1875, uindius, uindsi, 


3 61 

ondor 1495, uindse no sonnse 3348. 
.1fe" . 
úr, úir C. earth, mould, do uir 5585, is 
i uir 5652, 0 uir 5654. Wi. 
úr (I) heath .i. Craech (2) the Ogham 
letter u 1194,4297,5587, .i. draighen 
5522. or, LL. 38 b 37 
urard (I) Vl1:Y high: (2) Haltahon, 
the additi011 of a to the 'U'ord 19t6, 
2098, 21 4 6 , 2176, 5341, a fhorard 
19<)7, a irard 5078, e.g. fer-a 1798, 
sing. benn-a pJ. mna 1847, rna chor-a 
534 2 
ur-bernad a breach, gap, share, part, 
ni da hurbernadh 3385 
ur-dáIta definite, in aisti u. 837. 'Vi. 
urgabál f. (I) a capturing, seizillg, 
arresti1lg, gan urgabail 1824: (2) 
a receptacle, ollurgbáiI 5338. Wi. 
urluime readiness, preparatÙm, leadl1lg 
'U'ords, a tri urluimi 524-, cf. a tri 
herlanna 3026. erlaime preparedness, 
urmór a great part 2640. fur-mhoT 
m. DonI. 
uses. (I) heathl1' brush (?) 5728. 
C-usgan, HB. (2) grease Eg. Cl. 
usedha greasy, resin-coloured (?) 570I. 
usgadb goose-grease, O'R.: uscaide 
lczn!..v, Aisl. 
usee Lat. a'll/a 1090,4092 
useeaeh pertaining to 'water, water}', 
ogarn u. 5732 


Æ A l Chua/mld Sliabh Chualand in 
Leinster, or (Cruachan) Ai 5691 
Achaid Accad in the plain of Shinar, 
Gen. x. 10: isind Achaidh 251, 
confused with Achaia, Dacia, and 
later with Asia, q.v. 
Achla Achaia, i ndAchia 388 
Achld Aquitani Aquitania, Origg. 
xiv. 4, 27: 223, Actain 2538, 
Achuid, Æ/t. 30, 46, Acit 55, 28 
Afralcda A/ricmz 6148 
Allech Greenan Ely on Isthmus 
between Innishowen and mainland, 
Co. Donegal, Æd AiIig 5318 
Aláln A lam', Grigg. ix. 2, 94: 223, 
..-Elt. 30,47, Allain 2539 
Alba f. (Britain) Scotland, in fer 
d'feraiph Alpan 2630 
Albaln Albani, Grigg. ix. 2, 65: 223, 
Æ/t. 30, 47, Alpain 2539 
Albanach Scotsmall, d.p. fer d'Alban- 
achaib 75 
Ard Cartalnd Carrthand in \Vest- 
meath 1222, A Chairtend i SHab 
Luachra 4532 
Ard Culs 1222, A Chuisi 4531 
Ard macha A rmagh 5708 
Armoln Armmii, Origg. ix. 2, 61: 
222, Armaint 2S3
, Armein, Æ/t. 
30, 46 
Aru A ra, a river flowing through the 
town of Tipperary (Tiþra Armm) 
5 68 6 
Asla ASia, isinn Aisia 2571, a nAisia 
277 1 ,4 1 39 

Athain Athmimses, Origg. ix. 2, 76: 
223, Ælt. 30, 46, Acain 2538 

Bendchor Bangor on the south of 
Belfast Lough, Co. Down, Beanchar 
57 0 3 
Berba the river Ban'ow 5263, 568[ 
Bethaln Bithym O Bithynia, Origg. xi.... 
3, 39: 22[, Ælt. 30, 45, Beithin 216, 
Bold Boeoti Boeotia, Origg. xiv. 4, 
II: 222, Boit 2537, Boet, Ælt. 
55, 27 
Bragmaln Brachmmlae, Bramain 226, 
Braghmaint 2542, Bragmain, Æ/t. 
31, 50 
Bretain Brit/ones, Origg. ix. 2, 102: 
222, Ælt. 30, 45, Britain 2537 
Brltanla Britannia, Britainia 28 (2 
Brulden f. B1'ul"dm Da Dn'ga in crích 
Cualann 5688 

Calcanensls Ca/neh in the land of 
Shinar, Chalanne, Origg. xv. I, 13, 
the place where Gaedel wrote Gaelic 
45, Calcaneinsis 2330 
Catt a river-pool 5683 
Cell dara Ki/dare, Quell dara 5706 
Cera in barony of Carra, Co. Mayo, 
Ceræ 5689 
Ciclald Cyclades 219, Æ/t. 30, 43, 
Ciclait 2534 
Clrcir Citii, id est, Cyþrii, Origg. ix. 
2, 36: 218, Siccir 2534, Cicir, PH. 
53 8 8: Ælt. 30,43, Cypri 55, 25 

 A TIO:\TS 3 6 3 

Cluain maccu nois CltJllmaC1lOis on 
the west border of the barony of 
Garrycastle and of King's Co., eight 
miles south-west of Athlone 5705 
Collamair in Munster (?), i Collamair 
5109, Collammair 5II3 
'Corann a barony of Co. Sligo, but 
which of old included also GaiIenga 
in Co. Mayo and Luighne in Co. 
Sligo, or (ßruiden Chéisi) Corann, 
(]uorann 5689 
'Corsic Corsi Corsica, Origg. xiv. 6, 
.1-1: 21 9, /E/I. 30, 43. Coirsic 2535 
Creit Cutes Creta, Origg. xiv. 6, 
15- 16 : 219, 2535, Ælt. 30, 43 
Cuailnge Cooley in Lomh 5350 
Cusrat a river-pool 5683 

Dacia Dacia, i nDacia 1105 
Daic Daci, Origg. ix. 2, 90: 25.P, 
.Elt. 31,49, Dacia 226 
Dalmait Da/matae Dalmatia, Origg. 
xiv. 4, 8: 226, 2541, Æ/t. 31. 49 
Dardain Dardllni Dardanus, Origg. 
ix. 2, 67: Dordain 226, Dardain 
254 1 , ÆII. 31,49 
Delbna Deh'11l D. tire dá Lochæ in 
Connacht 5102, i nduain Delmna 
Derg the river Der/?, Co. Tyrone, I. 
Dergderc L. Derg between KillaIoe 
and Portumna 5682 
Dind rig Bur/{a/{e moat in townland 
of Ballyknockan south of Leighlin- 
bridge on the west bank of the 
Barrow, an ancient palace of the 
kings of Leinster 5689 
Doire Luran Derry/oran, a parish 
near Crookstown, Co. Tirone, where 
Lebar Cl1ldfatlad was written, Daire 
Luran 69, 2643, Doire Luruain 2623, 
i nDoire Lurain 2639 
Doramh a plain in the north-\\est of 
the plain of Shinar. mag nDoraimh 
Druim Cetta in Roe Park near 
Newton - Limavaddy, Co. Derry, 
:\Iordail held there A.D. 590 (or 587, 
or 574), d. Ce.tta 1472,4574 

Druim Lias Drum/eau, a parish in 
Dromahaire, Leitrim 5391 
Durmag Durrow in Ossory, a parish 
and town in the barony of Clarallagh, 
Queen's Co., part of the parish is in 
the barony of Galmoy, Co. Kilkenny, 
Durmach 5705 

Ebra a Hebrew, d.p. do Ebraib 233, 
10 4 0 
Ebraide Hebrtu', aipgitir Ebraide 
1 26 3, berla n-Ebraidi 189, 2498, pa 
do Eaphradaiph 2548, 3993 
Egept Aegvplii, Origg. ix. 2, 39: 226, 
Egiptda 2542 i a.s. hEcipta 2549, 
hEceptacta 3993, hEgeftagda 234; 
a.p. na hEigipti 4055, Egeipt, .-'Iill. 
31, 50 
Egipt f. Egyp/, g.s. Egipti 17, na 
hEigipti 2301 i d.s. i nEgipt 16, 
2299, a hEigipht 1105; a.s. co 
Eigipt 1041 i adj. Aipgitir Egipta 
61 45 
Elg f. Ireland 3376, Elg, Ealg 3
Eile Ely in North 
Iunster, comprising 
the baronies of Clonhsk and Bally- 
brit in King's Co., and of Ikerrin 
and Eliogarty in Co. Tipperary, K. : 
53 2 8 
Emain Macha Navall fori in the 
parish of Eglish, barony and Co. of 
Armagh, two miles west of Armagh 
town 735, Emin Macha 2636, Emhain 
Machuo 3493, Macha im 
52Z9, Emain 5691 
Eobul a rir:er or lal.-t 56F6 
Eoganacht a collective name of the 
septs descended from Eo/?all Mar, 
son of Oilill Olom, CZ. viii. 303, 25, 
for E. 5216, 5221 
Eotenam a city on the plain of Shinar 
where Fenins Farsaid estabti"hed hi3 

choJI of languages, apud E. 2 (4, 
Euateno 2531 
Erbos the rifler all whic" was fought the 
bai/k of Cuil Fabhair, K. ii. 120: 
Érennach /1' is" , Irishmmr, g.s. 7S, 
guth Eirennach 3540,.3377 


Ériu f. Inlmld, n.s. Eiri 1327, Eire 
3376, 354 0 ; g.s. Erenn 5157, 5167; 
d.s. i nEirinn 3377; a.s. cetnarogaph 
Eire 4150 
Esbain Hisþmli, Origg. ix. 2, 109: 
224, Espain 2539, 1327, hEspain, 
Ælt. 30, 47 
Essill Elisaei, Origg. ix. 2, 34: 225, 
Eisil 2541 
Etaill lialia 1325 
Ethioip Aethioþts, Origg. IX. 2, 10: 
226, Eithiop 2541, Etheoip, Ælt. 
31, 50 

Fál Irelalll/, filid Fail 5385, Insi Fail 
5 26 7 
Fearna Ferlls, a town, see, and parish 
in Co. \V exford, K.: 5703 
Febal Loch Foyle 5681 
Fernen a plain which extended from 
Cashe! to Clonmel, Flath Femin 
5228, dinn Femin 5688 
Fir Bolg Firbolgs, i.lT Feraib Bolg 
I.J.95, iar bFeraib Bolg 4556 
Fraine Frmzc1, Origg. ix. 2, 101: 
Elt. 31,48, Affrainc 2540 
Freisin FrislÏ 224, 2540, Fresin, Ælt. 
3 1 ,48 

Gabal the river of Fid Gaible, Fuguile, 
in King's Co. 5684 
Gabar f. Gowra, Ga'bhair Aichle, hill 
of Skreen, near Tara, K.: or the 
island fortress of Loch Gabor, 
"Lagore," 5690 
GaUl1 Galli, Origg. ix. 2, 104-, 106: 
218, Gaill 2533, Ælt. 30,41 
Galaid Galatae, Origg. ix. 2, 68: 222, 
Galus 2538, Galait, Ælt. 30,46 
Gall a Vikillg, Gallogam 6157 
Garman Druim ll-A irihir near the 
ford of Áth Luain, or eclipsed form 
of Carman, seat of Oenach Carmain, 
nGarmon 5690 
Germain Germmzi, Origg. ix. 2, 97: 
21 7, 2533 
Goith Gothi a ,tIagog, Origg. ix. 2, 
27,89: 224,2539, ÆII. 30,47, Gothi 

Greie m. Greeks, n.p. Gregaig 2484-, 
4028, Greicc 4036; d.p. do Grecaib 
19, 41, 516, 2934, di Grecaib 202 ; 
g.p. 515,6; a.p. la Grego 1060, la 
Greco 1359. la Grecca 4098 
Grian the river Grmzev which (ails 
into L. Graney, Co. Clare, 01l0m. 
nGrian 5684 
Guith Getae (?), Origg. ix. 2, 89: 
224, Guit 217, 2539, Guich, Ælt. 
30, 47 

Hibernia f. Irelmzd 5466 
Hireain Hircani, Origg. ix. 2, 42, 
43: 217, 223, Ælt. 30, 47, Ircair 
hOn, Othain f. rivers, becc 7 mór, 
Fahan, O,lOnz.: 5682 

lIe f. Islay, the southernmost island 
of the inner Hebrides, Argyllshire, 
Scotland, lliu 569 I 
Indiurnn a river-pool 5686 
Inis Cáin Illishkem in Louth and 
Monaghan, A. V.: do Inis Cáin 
5298, aiged I ndsi Cain 5300,5 
Inis Cathaig Scat/ery Islalld in the 
Shannon, A.V.: Inse Cathaig 5311 
Inis FáU Inland Insi Fail 5267 
Inneedai hzdi, Origg. ix. 2, 5: 227, 
Ælt. 3I, 50, Indecda 2542 
Iraird C!úa111 Eraird, Cl01wrd, a 
parish and bishopric on the Boyne 
in Co. Meath and near Co. Kildare, 
hlrard 5705 
Israel the children of Israel. mic Israel 
1105, I ssrael 4139 
Itail Itali, Origg. ix. 2, 85: 224, Etail 
2539, Æli. 30,47 

Laedemoin Lacedaemones, Origg. ix. 
2, 81: 225, Laicdemoin 2540, ÆII. 
31, 49, Lacdemonnai 55, 31 
Laigneeh a Le11zslernzmz 5148, 5I53 
Latinda Latin, Latl1zs 42I,2, Laitianta. 
1259, Låitianda 1263, 4028 
Lemain in Leth Cuinn, near Clogher, 
Co. Tyrone, Trip., g.s. Va rig 
Lemna 5262 


Letha. Latium i.
. Italy, Rom
, gu 
Letha 5163, co I Letha 5237 
Llath Liath 
Ihancháin, parish of 
Lem lIltl/[hml, King's Co. 5703 
Life. Liphe th
 Li/ft..v, otha Liphi gu 
Letha 5163, 5237, a hill ov
r the 
Lifft'v, K. ii. 284: 5688 
Loch g.s. A Fhlaind Locha línib same 
5 1 72. Acha 5176 
Loch léin Lake(s) of Killal 1ley 5320 
Lochlannach Seandina'/}Ùm 6155 
Lodain Laodiemi, Laudiceni. Laudicia, 
Ori!!g'. xv. I, 14: 225, Laidich 2540, 
Ladaich, ./Elt. 31,48 
Longbalrd Langohardi, Origg. ix. 2, 
95: 225. 2540, Ælt. 31,48 . 
LUigdin Útl!.lunmses 2534, Lugdoin, 
. Fit. 30. .p, Lugoil 218 
Luidi L rdii, Origg. ix. 2, 3: 218, Lid, 
. Elt. 31, 48 
Luimnech Estuary of the Sha1l11011 at 
I /1n
nd; 5681 

Mag Rath J.fol'ra, a parish and town- 
land in the barony of Lower Iveagh, 
Co. Down, g.
. i cath 
Iuighi Rath 
72, 2(;26 
Mag Tuired .!foytirra Ellst a1ld Jf
trrm nest, barony of TirerriJ, Co. 
Sligo, K.: a cath .\Iuige Tuireg 
5 Q 45 
Maguich Jill/[o!?ii (?), .\Iagog a quo 
arbitrantur Scythas et Gothos traxisse 
originem, Origg. ix. 2, 27: 222, 
.\Iag-oig 2537, .\Iagoich, Elt. 30, 
-t- 6 
Malg the plain, fer l\Iaige 5216, fer 
.\Iuigi 5221 
Maigidon .llrlcedonps, Origg. ix. 2, 
78: 220, l\1..1Ìcidoin 2536, l\Iacidoin, 
. Elt. 30. -H 
Máir J/aur;, Origg. IX. 2, 118,9, 
120,2: 220, 2536, mãir, ./1:.ït. 30, 44 
Maistiu f. Jlullaghmast 869, 3605 
Massail Jlllss}'li, Origg. ix. 2, 123: 
220, .\1a
guEa 2536, Masail, /Elt. 
Meid, Moid J/edi, Origg. ix. 2, 46,7 : 
21 7, .\10iet 2534 

Mide .!hath 5690 
Molossus .\IoIosus 1750, 4939, v. 
Morain Jforini 218, Morann 253t, 
l\Ioraind, .-Elt. 30, 42 
Morcain J1'arcoma1l1li (?), Origg. ix. 
2, 97: 220,2536, Æ/t. 30,44, MOSIn, 
l\Iussin 55 26, =Jfyee1ra
 (?), Origg. 
xv. 1,47 
Mugna m. _
f011moIu1l11OC, DUnma1lOgu
a parish and townland three and a 
half mile5 west of Castledermot, Co. 
Kildare, On.: 5707 
Muinten a river-pool: Poll- moullty 
ri\'er, which enters the Barrow north 
of New Ross (?): O'lom.sub. muntech 
Muir Ponteca thi! Black Sea 3343 
Mumnech a lj,fu1Is/erma11 5149, 5 1 54 

Nændruim Nomdruim island and 
church 5703 
Narboin Narbona, Odgg. xv. I, 6-t-: 
221. Ælt. 30, 45, Narmaint 2537 
Nemthend .Jfount Aéphin, parish of 
Addergoole, barony of Tirawley, Co. 
Mayo, K. iii. 302: 5688 
Nith river Nith of the Boyne, Nid 
5681, 01lom, 
Nobith Numida
, Origg. ix. 2, 120-2: 
221, Nombith 2537, Nombithi, Æ"t. 
30, 45, X umin 55, 27 
Norith A"orici, K oricus ager, Origg. 
xiv. 4,5: 221, Nordi, Ælt. 30, 45, 
Noric 55, 27 

Ocha óchter Ocha
 in Leinster: or 
Faughan, in the parish of Martry, 
south of the Blackwater, three miles 
(rom Teltowo, .f:ri14 viii. 75: Ochae 
5 68 9 
Odba a (atOe and) moat n
ar Nll1.'{l1l 
still called An Odba, Onom.: Ogba 
5 6 9 1 

Paimpll Pllmphylii Pamphyli:l, Orig-
xi\". 3, H: 218,2533, Pampil, ./Flt. 
30, 4 2 
Point Pont(ie)i Pontus, Origg. ix. 2, 
83: 218,2533, J"lt. 30,42 

3 66 I

Pontieum mare the Black Sea 3487, 
mame Pounticum 3342, Ponteca 
3344, Pountiogda 3488 

Quorann 5689 v. Corann 

Raithen Rahall near Tullamore, in 
barony of BallycGwan, King's Co. 
57 0 7 
Reien Rhef[ini, Grigg. ix. 2, 32: 
219, Reicir 2535, Recin, 
1:ït. 30, 
Reit Raeti Raetia, Origg. xiv. 4, 26: 
21 9, 2535, Ælt. 30,43 
Resad in Leinster, Onom.: gilla rig 
Resad 5336 
Rige the river R..J'e which joins the 
Liffey at Leixlip 5685 
Roid Rhodii, Úrigg. ix. 2, 37: 219, 

Elt. 30,44, Roait 2535 
Roigne a plain in the barony of Kells, 
between the Siur and the Barrow 
5 6 9<> 
Romain Roma1li, Origg. ix. 2, 84: 
220, 2536, /Elt. 30,44 

Saigear Saighir Chiarain, Sairkeirall, 
four and a half miles south-east of 
Birr, Co. Tipperary: burying place 
of the kings of Ossory, K.: 5703 
Barain Saracmi quasi a Sarra, Origg. 
ix. 2, 6 j 57: 224-, grinne sair 2539, 
grinne fairne, Ælt. 31, 48 
Sardain Sardi Sardinia, Origg. xiv. 6, 
39, 40: 21 9, 2535, 128, 2408, 
30. 43 
Seithi Scythae, Origg. ix. 2, 27: 
187, 216, Sgeithin 2533, A
l'. 30, 
Seithia Scythia 28, 41, asin Scithia 
149, 162, Sgeilhia 2452, 405 I, do 
Gregaiph Sgeithia 2303, 2516, Scitie 
no Scithie 19, on Sgeithia 2312 
Seott m. the Irish 5466 
Seult m. Seelti, Origg. ix. 2, 103: 
217,1769, 402 9, 4 0 4-9, Sgouit 2533, 
Sguit 4056, 4061, a quo Scoiti 1251, 
Scoti 5466 

Senehua townland and parish of 
Sha11Cough, barony of Tirerril. Co. 
Sligo, Sencua 5218, Senchæ 5213 
Sennar the plain of Shillil1', g.s. gu 
mag Seannair 154,5, Sennair 1106, 
Seunair 4051. tSeunair 4140 
Seól a plain given by Ugaine to his 
son Eocha, g.s. Seolæ 5688: Seùl- 
mag, Mag- Seolai, in barony of Clare, 
Co. Galway, 0,10111. 
Sieil SIculi. Grigg. ix. 2,85: 217,219, 
Sgill 2534, Sigil 2535, Scill, l:ït. 
30, 4 1 , Sicil 30, 43 
Sinand f. the river Shamloll 5681 
Sion MOlmt Zion, sliab Sioin 5307, 
Sion 5302 
Slíab Luachra Sitet'e Loghermountatns 
in Kerry and Cork, On011l.: 1222, 
453 2 
Sruthair Shrule in the baronies of 
Kilmain and Clare, Co. Mayo 5707 
Streulae StirlÙlg in the Lothia1lS 5690 
Strur, Sruthalr the river Blad1i'ater 
between Mayo and Galway 5685 

Teith river 5682 
Temair f. Tara, Co. 
J eath 5689 
TessaU Thessali, Origg. ix. 2, 69: 
Tesail 2538, Tæasail 223, Tessail, 

Elt. 31,49: 55. 31 
Tír-dá-glas Tenyglass village, town- 
land, and pari
h in the barony of 
Lower Ormond, Co. Tipperary 
57 0 5 
Tír-dá-Locha in Connacht between 
Lough COlrib and Lough Lurgan, 
01lom.: 5104, Tir da Lacha 5 T 35 
Tochar Inbir Móir at Arklow, in Vi 
Enecbglais 251, 1029,2572, 
39 86 
Tracdal Thraces, Origg. ix. 2, 82: 
225, Traig 2541, Traic, 41
tt. 31, 
Troe f. Troy, n.s. rotoglad in Træ 
11 2 3, 4042; g.s. dtogail Troe 
27 2 7 
Troiannai Troia1li, Origg. ix. 2, 67: 
225, Tragianda 2541, Troian, J l:t/. 
31,49, Troia 55, 31 


Tuath Dé Danand the trzbe(s) of 
D.l1llt's Kods, an invasion of Ireland 
after the Firbolgs. iar Tuathaib d.d. 
1496. maræn re Tuaith d.d. 2128, la 
Tuaith d.d. 4557 

Ucca a plain in the south-\\est of 
Egypt, i mmaigh Ucca 17, Uga 
2301, mag n-Ucna 154 

Ui Enechglais Cualand in the 
barony of Arklow, Co. "ïcklow 
103 0 , 39 86 
Ulslu f. g.s. [lissen, a river in Mag 
U atha 5686 
Uisnech US11aglz, Uma, a hill in 
the p:uish of Conry, barony of 
Rathconrath, Co. '" estmeath, K.: 
5 6 9 1 


A both 5011 of A or, 
 Elt. 30, 38: g.s. 
Abodh 184, Abosth 2468 
Abram Abram, Abraim .i. siol Apra- 
haim 2504 
Aehab Ahab, Odgg. vii. 6, 78: the 
eponym of the letter a 247, Acap 
25 62 
Adam Adam, g.s. 39, 105, 136, 143, 
15 2 ,23 2 3, 2385, 24 2l , 2432 
Ádamnán St., son 0/ RÓllån and 
RÓ1l1wt: Izillth abbot 0/ Hi 5794 
Adna mae Uthldlr. LL. 186&11, 
RC. xxvi, 8, a chief þoet to Conchubar 
mac Nessa, Adna 1968 
Aed St., 0/ Fenls 5796 
Æd Aedan mac Gabhrain, King 0/ 
Scotland, A.V. 589: g.s. Æda fri 
hinccin Aodha mic Gaphrain 3186 
Æd All1g A'zugo/ Ireland t879, A.V. 
53 18 
Æneas 0/ Troy 11 2 5, Ænias 404-3 
Ængus Oengus cae Dt, son of 
Oengoba, author oj the Fé/ire, g.s. 
Oengusa epscoip hui Oibleain, Fel. 2 , 
5196, Oengus mac OibJen 5191 
Affrim the epon}"m of the diphthong 
ae 248, Afrim 2563 
Agnoman 5011 0/ Toe, .<Elt. 30, 37: 
Etheoir mic Agno[maJin 183, 2519, 
209, mic Agnumain 1050. Agnamain 
2466, Aghnomain 4005, Aghnoumain 
4 1 5 1 
AgamoUs SOIL of FrOllOsis 132, 
Agamolis 24 II 
Aingen.father o/Goedel, Gaedhel mac 
Agnon no Aingin 209, mac Aingen 

102 4, Aingin 3979, 40Q2,4, 1052, 
49 6 5, Goedel mac Angein 1048, 
17 6 4, 2523, Angin 1049 
Alnmerl King of helalld, at Druim- 
Ceta, A.V. 574: g.s. mic Ainmirech 
Aiseneeus .4. shchC1laz 40H 
Amalrgen Conall mac Amirgin (i.e. 
Conal Cernach) 5266, Goedel mac 
Aimergin (i.e. mac Aingin) 10S I 
Amalrgen mae Naende mle 
Nenuan 1025, Aimergin mac Noine 
meic Nionuail 3980 
Amairgein Glungeal son 0/ .
1028, Amairgein Glungeal ffiac 
Miled 1031, Aimergin Gluingeal 
2572, 3984, Amairgin mac l\liled 
252. CZ. iii. 16 
Aor 5011 0/ .-Ira, Aur, ..J:ït. 30, 38: 
g.s. Aoir 2468, Aoi 184- 
Ara SOIL 0/ lara, .. Elt. 30, 38: 185 
Arfaxat Arþhaxat, Origg. ix. 2, ;,. 
120, 1253, Arafaxat 2399. Z P5. 
Gen. X. 22 
Assur a builder of Babel, SOil 0/ ShnJ1, 
Origg. ix. 2, 45: Assur 127, mic 
Assuir 133, meic Asuir 2412, Asur 
2406. Asshur builded Kineveh, 
Rehoboth, and Calah, Gen. x. I J 
Aurthecht SOIL 0/ Ethecht, .J:ït. 30. 
38: g.s. Aurtecht 184, Vrtechta 2

Baath SOIL 0/ ð/agog, Fenius mac Ba:lth 
181, 2487 
Babel the eponym of the letter b 245, 
Bobel 2560 


Baracham a Scythian Greek, great 
grandfather of GoedeI, mic Barachaim 
19,202, Barachain 2303, 2325, 2516 
Bardanlus a builder of R:.bel 128, 
Bel SOil of Plosc I 3 I 
Bellat wife of Fenius Farsaid, mother 
of Na 801, 3618 
Boatb son oj Riafath, Boad, .F;lt. 30, 
39: g.s. Boath 185. Baith 2469 
Bodbus a builder of Babel 127, 2
Bonb, Banb son of Shull, Bodb, .Eli. 
30. 37: g.s. B;)inb 183: v. P"m 
Bran 5730, 5865 
Brénalnd St. 5793 
Bres mac Elathan rig Erenn King 
of the Tuath De Danann, n.s. 5469, 
59+3; d.s. 5468; g.s. i n-aimsir 
Brese 5467 
Brian 979, 1381, hui Briain 3834 
Briccriu Brier; mac Carbri in 
hilteanga, CZ. iii. 16: g.s. Briccrenn 
5 8 54- 
Brittus a builder of Babel 127, Bntus 
Buodach 3222 

Cai Cainbrethach dalta Fenlusa 
232, 2547, Cæ 1109, do Caei C. 
4144, 1024, 3980: the eponym of 
the letter c 246, Cainaen 2561 
Cam Ham, Gen. x. i.: Cham, Origg. 
ix. 2, 13: g.s. Caimh 106, 1252, 
Cairn 2386,4029 
Cellach 3222, Ceallach 3698, 5826, 
59 2 3, dim. 711 
Cellach Corrach a pot! 5118 
Cendfáelad the author of the Aurai ept 
80, Cendfaolad 2358,75, 3982, Ceann- 
f.!el.!d 96, Ceandfælad 1026; g.s. i 
cind ChindCael.1d 72,7, Cindfaeladh 
67,9; d.
. do CendfaeJadh 70. i 
leapar Cinnfaolldh meic Oilella 2620. 
t679. /1'. J/etr. 
Cenn Gécáin goose head, a bynarne of 
FI1ll1/?u;'le. 1I.'ÙIg of Jfumter, deposed 
by Cormac mac Cuilennáin, A. U. 
901, vol. Ï\". p.C. (5): /1'. 7: Iii. 
101 u: v.s. ar Cillgug.m 710 

3 6 9 

Cíarán St., abbot of C/onmacn01s, 
Quiaran 5794, comarba cathrach 
Ciarain 5268 
Cinaotha (?) Cináed ua Hartacain 
t975, 39 8 3 
Cloth[g]na mac Oengusa prímfhili 
trenn, chief þoet of Ireland tlo09, 
/1'. Metr. 5331 
Cnámine 5327 
Colum St. Columba, Colum Cill
5380, 5923, Coluim caid 866, 3601, 
i Colum 5144, i Cholaim CilIe 4531, 
Coluim Cille 938, 1218, cill Choluim 
éill 5132 
Conall, Tuthal hua Chona ill 5266 
Conchobar mac Nessa J..îng of 
U/sler 736, i n-aimsir Conchubair 
meic Nessa 2637, Concapair meic 
N eusa 3494 
Congal Claen, of the royal line of 
the Cruithni of Dãl Araidi, d. Skene, 
Cell. Scot. i. 198, 248, for Conghal 
Consinsius, Consentius Grammati- 
cus lati"us 3240 
Core SOil of Lu/[aidh, ft.: ofJIrmstel 5231 
Cormac dona Cnoib Segsa 5317 
Cormac mac Culennáln poet, bishop, 
King of Cashel t908. 5182,6, 159 6 , 
Crist Chrisl3870 
Cronán SI. 579
Crutene CritÙ,i fib, CZ. iii. 16: g.s. 
Cruteni 5839 
Cú Echtge i crub Con Echtga 5398 
Cuilibadh 5923 cr. Colabot. Coilla- 
bot-as, Celibatt-igni, /1'. Eþ. ii. 75, 
7 8 ,81 
Cuis (i/sh, Gen. x. 6: Chus, Origg. 
ix. 2, to, 1.3: mic Cuis 106, 1119, 

Dabhid David, the eponym of the 
letter d 2,.6, 2561 
Dámine dim. of Damianus, Daimine, 
5329, Fe/. 2 p. 70: but also an Irish 
name, e.g. AX. 785, 869 
Danu f. g.s. D:monn, D.mam1, \.. Tuath 
Dt DananJ 

37 0 


Dedu eponym of Ogham. g.s. Ogam 
Dedad 6057 
Delbaeth S011 of Elatha, brother of 
Bres and Ogma, mic Delbæith 5463,9 
Deus 70
. 3350 
Domnall gralldS011 0/ A Ùlml"rt. the 
hero of the battle of l\Iagh Rath, 
A.V. 641: g.s. Domnaill 69, 2624, 
26 43, do dernaind Domn till 5 16 5, 
5 2 39; d.s. re nDomnall 73. 2628 
Domnall ua Aoda a scribe who 'li.'rote 
Eg., 4206 
Donatus Grammal1cus Latinus 364, 
462. 476. 1410, 2H2, 2943.4513 
Donnán St., of Eig 5794 
Donnchad son of D01Jl1lall, I, ing of 
Ireland, A.V. 797,2199.2202.4 
Dubdiad Dub Diad, son of Damall. 
MR. 282 n., Dubhdiadh 76, Duip 
Die 2631 
Dubthach 5388 v. Fergus 

Ealba daughter of fdad or Fidad 561, 
Elpa ingine Fidaidh 3156 
Eber ex Heber HebraÚ. Origg. ix. 2, 
38: a builder of B.1bel, Eber I26, 
24 1 5, 2499. Eper mac 
aile J 116, 
12 49. 4027, Eiber 2406, Eimer 
4 1 47 
Egbrec hut Briain 3834 
Elatha fålher of Bres, g.s. Elathan 
54 6 7.9, 594-3 
Eogan SOil oj Gbmlnd, g.s. Eogain 
182,2465,2529, Eogein 212 
Eóin the apostle John im feil Eoin 
3 8 37 
Éremón 5011 of Mil. Ogam Erimoin 
608 4, Eremon, ./1:ït. 29, 32 
Ernén St., bishop. Gor. 5796 
Esru SOil of Baath, Boad, ./1:"lt. 30, 39: 
g.s. Esru 185,2469. Eusru 4150 
Essu Emu. the eponym of the Jetter e 
247, Esu 2563. Esáu, PH. 8400 
Etan ingen Dencecht in banfili, E/ml, 
d. of Dia11uch/, the poetess, CZ. iii. 16: 
Etain g. Elnae, RC. xii. 126: Etain 
Ethecht son of Aurthecht, ./Elt. 30, 38: 
g.s. Ethecht 184, Eileachta 2467 

Ether SOil of AgI10111a11. Fether. .1:"lt. 
30. 37: g-.s. Elheoir 19, 40, 183, 
202, 213, 10 2 3, 1051,2, 1103. 3979, 
Eitheoir 1108. 2515. 4[37. Eithiuir 
2303.23 2 ;, 2529, 2962, 2998. 4008. 
Ethiuir 2522 
Ethlu v. Lug 
Ethroctus the eponym of the diph- 
thong ea 248, Elroichius 2562 

FaUlec Peieg. a builder of Babel, 
Fallec 119. [30, Faillec 123.6, 2399, 
2403,5,9,2414.5, Faillech 1252 
Faunus g.s. Puin 1117 v. Latin 
Fenius Farsaidh SOil of Baath, 
Eagan, or Glu1(ji1lll, Fenius 166,9. 
174.7, 187, 1102. do F. 516. Ia 
Fenius 2266. 2312; 27
9, g.s. Feniusa 
100, 180, 203, 804. t069, 5503; a.s. 
22; Farsaidh 212, 1762,2360, 2465, 
2547. 3978. 422{, Farsaigh 82, 
Farrsaid 160, 180, 1023. 1035.9, 
4963,9. Farsaid [rharisee]. PH. p, 
Fer Muman Laigeaclz fili Jlu111u eici\. 
CZ. iii. 16: Muille eci!', fr. T. iii, 
66.2 (?): fr. J.letr. 5 [45.5150.5287, 
5293: iar nAuraiccept l\I umall 1366, 
45 0 7 
Ferchertne poet, author of A uraicept, 
contemporary of Conchobar mac 
a 735,7, 102 5. 2637, 3493,5, 
39 8 [,6103.61 2 7 
Fergus Dubthach (or Cenn fad a) 
son o/Cotlall Gulball, A.V. 586. 5386, 
a delidin sil1abacda. gossa fer .i. Fer- 
g05sa 53 f 4. Dubthach may refer to 
another person 
Fidad 3156 v. Idad 
Findén St. 5793 
Fingen mac Flaind poel, florUlt 
circa 850. fr. Jfelr. 5246,9 
Finn mac Cumaillua BáisC11e (?). 3rd 
cent., 11'. ,
fel1. 5830,6, 6093, Fege 
Find 6102 
Fland Flal1ll. Fland Floind 3750. 
Fland FJaind 795. 871.5, 883, 3612, 
376f, 5246,Ij, a Fhlaind 868,3604.7, 
Flann 3222, 3698 



Fland mac Lonáin d'Ua (?) Delbna 
0/ the rOJ'al sept lJi Fiaehnch Aidni 
5102, mae Lonain i nduain Delmna 
5 1 33. 5281, 5326, a Fhlaind Loeha 
5 1 7 2 , Aeha 5176. (:\Iac Laitheöge). 
t918. fl'. .lfetr. 
Foraind Pharaoh, the eponym of 
the letter f 245, 1768, 2560, v. 
Fronosis son ofCitlis 132. 2412 

Gadmer 2562 v. Gotli 
Garath a buiUer of Bahel 128, Garad 
Gemmán SI., nGeman 5H5 
Germanus a builder oj Babel 128, 
Gitlis son of r,ris 132. 2412 
Giurgus SI., CeorKe. (;iurgu 5795 
Glas Goedd Glas, SOIl of Nil 2518, 
25 2 3, 2998 
Glúnfind son of lamþnd. .1"11. 30.37 : 
182. 10'9.2466, 2SIQ. "005 
Goedel epollym 0 ' Cadie, Goedeal 202, 
Gaoidel 2288, GædeaI 15, mae Aingin 
20 5, Gaedel 43, Gaedheal 204, lasin 
nGaidel 522, 646, 672. 675.979, 982, 
1083, 4078, Gædel mae Aimergin 
]05 1 , Gædel mae Etheoir 18, 213, 
10 5 1 
Gomer rOIl of laphelh, Origg. ix. 2, 
26: Gen. X. 2: 4034 i g.s. Gomer 
186, Goimeir 2469, Goimer 4148 
Gomers the epo'1ym of the Ogham 
letter ng 2H, nGomer 2562 
Gothius a {,lIiltler of Babel, Gotius 128 
Gotli the eponym of the letter g 247, 
Gadmer 2562 
Greeus, Gregus SOIl of Comer I I 17, 
4 02 7, Greeus 1250, 4037, Greeeus 
4 0 31, 4 1 4 8 

Hieronymus StJerorne 179, Cirine, E. 
Hiruad Herod, the eponym of the 
letter h 246, H iruath 2561 

Iaehim the eponym of the letter i 248, 
Iaichim 2563 

3ï I 

Iafeth laphe/h, Gen. x. I: Origg. ix. 
2, 26: 2484-, 176, mic Iafeth 181,6, 
meie (affeiLh 2470, 24-88, oc lafeth 
179, ag Ieffeth 2486 
Iar mae Nema 82, 212, 1103, 23 6 0, 
25 2 9, co Iar 1107,4141 
lara son of SI1I, .-l:11. 30, 38,9: 185 
Ibath a huilder qf Babel 127, Ybath 
Idadfillhtr of Ealba, g.s. Idaidh 561, 
Fidaidh 3r56 
Iland Ogham ebadaeh Ilaind 5853 
Indiurnn a ri' 5686 
loib Jm.e 3534 
lonan }ávall, SOIl of Japhtih, Gen. x. 2 i 
Ori,{g. ix. 2, 28: 176, 2483 
Ir SOIl oj Mil 3987 
Íte f. St. 5796 
Iudonius eponym of the diphthong io 
24 8 , 25 6 3 

Kaliap Caleh, the eponym of the letter 
q 24 6 , Calebh 256[. CaIeph,Origg. 
vii. 6, 52 

Labraid 5730, 5866 
Lamfiaeh Lamech, father of N o:lh. 
Elt. 31, 52: g.s...Laim- 
fiach 2470 
Lamftnd SOIl of Elher, 
-r.ït. 30, 37: 
g.s. l.aimfind 182, 2519, 4005, Lall1- 
find 2466 
Lalsreann St 5793 
Latin SOIl of Paullus, mae ruin 35 6 , 
1117, II24,6,7. 1250 2723, 4028, 
4 0 43, do chloind Laitin 802, 3 61 9 
Latinus a builder of Babel, Origg. ix. 
2, 84: 126, 2406 
Lauina Im'illla, daughter of Latinus 
112 5. 4045 
Leser son of Seth, g.s. Le5er 2468 
Lfadaln a poeÜss, ban-eces di Chorco 
Duibne. 7lh cent.. fl'. Mel1'. 5 1 39 
Lonån father of Fland q. v. 
Longbardus a builder of Babel 12 7, 
LonebarJ 2407 
Lore Loeguire Lore, SOIl of 19ame 
.I/dr, King of Ireland 5231 

37 2 


Lore Luoeha hEgbrle hul Brlaln 
fosterer 0/ .JIide 3834 
Loth Lot, the eponym of the letter I, 
Origg. ix. 6, 9: 245,2560 
Lug mae Eithlend Kin,({ ùf the 
Tuath Dé Danand 2803, 4258, mac 
Etlenn 5484. Ethlenn 1162 
Lugald SOIl of Lóega ire "(?) , FM. 478,9 : 
Lugaidh 5231 

Mac Dá Cerda mae Málleoehtralg 
male Dfnertalg a poet, 7th cent., 
11'. J.letr.: 4533, 5117: Mac Da 
Cerd 1223, 
Iac Da Cherda 5108. 
TamaIl n-áire amal dorigni Mac 
Dá Certa, BB. 299 ß. 8. Possibly 
a late development of moccu Cherda, 
of the Cerdraige (uEed as nom.); 
Maecu-Iasrius, Lasrían, Goed.'!. 62 n. ; 
Dil mac Da Crecc= Dil moeeu Crecea, 
of the Creccraige, LL. 290& 33; d. 
.i'-riu iii. 42 
Mac Fblrblseach Mac Fir Bisig, SOIl 
0/ man of leap year, probably born 
29th F eb, supplied M SSe to F 
225 8 
Mac ind Óle (lnd óe, according to 
, son of the two young ones) 
Ot1l/:us, son of the Dagda, eponym 
of Ogham, briathairog:Jm mic ind Oic 
5615. A nee. iii. 44, 7: RC. xii. 1 2 7 ; 
xxvi. 3 I : PI. 
Mac Lénin a poet, Colmán mac Lénine 
t604. II'. .Jletr. 5315, l\lac Lénin 
53 12 
Maelealnnlg hua Tolalg .1. mac 
Láirl Láldlg a poet 5 181 
Maelruanald 5240, Mælruanaid mic 
Flaind 5243: three princes so named, 
all of loth cent. 
Maelruls (?) 5820 
Magog son of Japheth, Gen. X. 2: 
Uligg. ix. 2. 27: Magogh 181, 
Maghach 2488 
Malsse ."loses, do Maissi 1109, Maisi 
4143; g.s. Moysi, Origg. yii. 6, 
Manchán St., of Liath 5795 
Már son of Etheeht 184, 2{67 

Mars .'11m's 3533 
Meureuir .11ereurius 3
Mlde SOIl of the SUIl 3836. O'C.lect. ii. 
191, 226 
Mfled MiloI' ./l1ilesius, 
1iI, ./1:'It. 29. 
32: mac l\liled 252, ICl31. mic Miled 
103 2 , 39 8 5, iar Macaib Miled 1495. 
4554, Ir mac Miled 3987 
MIUue g.s. taiste! Milcon mic Oncon 
5 2 91.7 
Móeltulle a poet, ua Bureháin. 8th 
cent., I,.. Jietr. 5122 
Morann mae Main int oghmoir, the 
Oghamist, CZ. iii. 15: legendary 
judge of Coirpre Cinn Chait, CZ. 
iii. 16: n.s. Morand 5530; g.s. 
briatharogam Moraind 5528, 5614 
Mulrlath Jlartha (?), the eponym of 
the letter m 2+6, l\Iorc:th 2561. 
Origg. "ii. 10, 3 
Murehertach riabach 0 CulndUs 
the scribe of the Book c.f Leean vtrsÙm, 
who wrote for Mac Firbis: 2257 

Nabgadon l\T e buchadllezzar, a builder 
of Babel, eponym of the letter n 
245,2560, Nabgaton 2406, Nabgodon 
12 7 
Naende SOIl of l\"elllwl 1025, Noine 
39 80 
Néde SOIl of the poet, Adna, g.s. Neidhi 
2793. Néde mac Adnæ mac Guthäir, 
Cor. 2 300, 6g8: LL. 38b40, 1
Nél son of Fmius, no Nin 1767, 4050, 
4969, Gaoidel Glas mac NiuiI 2523, 
mathair Niuil 801, 3618 
Nemruad .\,mrod, a bLilder of Babel, 
Nembroth filius Chus, Origg. X\-. 
I, 13: 105.6, 112, 126,9, 134. 2391, 
2406, 4029; g.s. Neamruaid 104, 
261. 1036, 2321, 2+51 
Nenual fa/her of ,"oÙre, g.s. Nenuail 
10 2 5, Nionuail 3980, cf. Æ'It. 30, 
Ness mother of COllchobllr q.". 
Nessán St., Nesan 5793 
Nin SOIl Lý Bel 108, 131, II 20,2, Nin 
mac Peil 2387, 241 I, Nion meic Peil 
4 0 39 


N6e Noah, Gen. x. I: Origg. vii. 6, 
15: mic Noe 107, 120, 133, 186, 
1252, sil Næ 188, Nai 2386, 2400, 
mtic Naei 2413, meie Naoi 2416, 
Nolne son of /';;onlfal 3980 

Oengus mae Domnaill 5 I 56 : A. U. 
650: his father, Domnall mac Aeda, 
and his son, Loingsech, were kings 
of Ireland 
Óenu (maeeu Lalgsi) St., Abbot 
of Clonmacnois, Oena 5796. Lisltl. 
Ogma mae Ealathan meie Deal- 
phaith the int/ell/or of Ogham 2810, 
54689,5478,81, Athair ogaim Ogma 
28 I 3, onni is Ogmu 2790. C Z. 
iii. 16: RC. xii. 128 
Ogrieus (?) 2840 
Oilill/ather o[ Cmn.fadad, CindfaeIadh 
mic Oilella 67, 71, 2621, 2644, 
Ailella 2625, 2639 
Oise Hosea, eponym of the letter 0 
247, Ose 2562. Ozee, Origg. vii. 8, 
10: Osse, PH. 3660 
Onehú father o[ Jlzltuc, mac Oneon 
5291,7. Bea/ha Calm. 
Ordlnes the eponym of the diphthong 
.01 248, Ordinos 2563 

Pam son o[ Seura, meic Aghnoumain 
meic Paim meie Seura meic Sru 7r1. 
4151. Probably the same as Danb, 
Partolon mae Sdalrn mele Seura 
meie Sru Partalon 4149, Bartholo- 
meus . . . Syrum est, non Hebraeum, 
Origg. vii. 9, 16 
Patrale Patridus 875, 882, Bhatra;g 
.. 335, Batraig 1270.2, Phatraig 
4330,7, Patraic 3610, Patroig 3751 
Pice Picus, SOIl of Sa/urn 2723 
Plato 3807 
Plose son of Pitt/Iris, CC.: g.s. Ploisc 
13 1 ,24 11 
Pluliris son of Agomolis 132, Piliris 
24 11 
Pompelus Crammaticus Lat;'lus 3235 


Priseianus Cmmmaticus LatÙms 360, 
454,7, 470, 5 8 9, 29 1 7, 29 26 , 2937, 
3141, Prescens 85. Prisianus 2738, 
2745. Presens 4350 
Puln Fauni 1117 Y. Latin 

Quiarán 5794 v. Ciarán 
Quls 2386 v. Cuis 

Ragau SOIl of Arjåxat 1252, 120, 
Regua 2399, 2414. Ragau, Lk. iii. 
35, for Reu, son of Peleg, Gen. xi. 18 
Reehtgal hua Siadail a þoet, 7th 
cent., II'. J'ldr. 5155, 5161 
Riabad Scot SOIl of Comtr, a builder 
of Babel, Gen. x. 3 : Origg. ix. 2, 33 : 
Rifad, /E'/t. 30, 39: 126, II 18, Ria- 
bath Scot 1251, Riafath 186, Ribat 
2406, RiJ-ath Scout 4029, 2469, 
Rifath 4034 
Roehemhureos [ather of Sachab 40, 
Ruicimoreus 2324, 2331 
Rolgne Roseadaeh a þoet, mac 
Ug-aine Muir, CZ. iii. 16: 6098 
Rúadán, R6dán St., abbot of Lothra 
Ruben Rmbm, the eponym of the 
letter r 247. 2562 

Saehab son of Ruchemhurcos 39, Sacap 
mac Ruicimorcus 2324, 2331 
Saile son of A rphaxat, Salah, Gen. xi. 
12: Sale, Origg. ix. 2, 5: g.s. Saile 
III6, 1250,2415 
Saliath the eponym of the letter s 
245, 25 6 0 
Sardaln a builder of Babel 128, 2408 
Satarn Sa/urnus 3535 
Seithlus a builder of Babel 128, 
Sgithus 2407, Sgithegdha 187 
Seota f. daughter o[ Pharaoh, King of 
Egypt, n.s. Sgouta ingen Fouraind ri 
Eigipti 4048, 4056, 4970; a.s. Scotai 
1768, Sgota 4061 
Sem Shem, Gen. x. I : 120, mic Stmh 
133, 183, Seimh 2414, mic Seim 1252, 
2399, 24 12 
Semar son of J.lár, Sem Mair, "Elt. 
30, 37 : g.s. Semair 2467 



Séth SOll of Adam, . Elt. 3[, 5
Seura son 0/ Sdairn, g.s. Seura 4150 
Sinehell St. 5793 
Solamh 0 Droma a scribe 2256, v. 
Irish .+:,1. xviii. 
Strannan St. 5795 
Strú the eponym of the Ogham letter 
str (according to MacNeill, origin- 
ally z, which became st by metathesis 
of ts) 247, 2562, Sm, son of Esru, 
.Elt. 30, 39: Iaramic Sru 185, 2
4 1 5 0 
Suibne Geilt mad SuilJ1le, I.T.S. xii. 
p. xxx.: Suibni i ngealtacht 74, 
Suiphne Geilt 2628 

Talamon the eponym of the letter t 
246, Tailimon 2561 
Tigernaeh SI., bishop 0/ C!uaÙl Euis 
Tiras son 0/ Assur, g.s. Tiris mic 
Assuir 132. Tiras, son of Gomer, 
Gen. x. 2 
Tlaehtga na nUath daughter 0/ the 
A rchdruid Mogh Ruith, MS. Jla//. 
4 02 : Ed. Dinds. 
 73: 5234-, taebogam 
Tlachtga 6080 
Toe SOil 0/ Bonb, 0/ Ba , racham Tai 
(mac) Bodb, ÆII. 30, 37: 202; g.s. 
183, Toe 19. Thoe 40, Toi 2466, Tai 
2303,2325, Taoi 2515 
Togarma son 0/ Gomer, Gen. x. 3: 4035 
Tr6s son 0/ Assur, g.s. Trois 2412 
Tuta(i}nes Tothmes, g.s. righ in do- 
main 1122, 4042, confused with the 

Titanes (?), Tanis metropolis Ægypti 
ubi Pharao fuit, et l\foyses cuncta 
signa fecit quae in Exodo scribun. 
tur. Hanc construxisse perhibemur 
Titanes, id est, gigantes, et ex nomine 
suo nuncupaverunt, Origg. xv. I, 32: 
Tuthin .j. Titan .i. grian, H. 4. 18 : 
and Teutamus, Rex Assyriorum xxvi., 
Eusebi Chron.: Tautanes, rex mundi, 
CZ. x. 87 
Tuthal hua Chonaill Tualhal comarb 
0/ Ciar1l11, I.e. abbot of Clonmacnoise, 
A.V. 970: 5265 

Ua Bruie 3382, 3391, h-ish Gram- 
Ua Coindi 3383, Irish Grammarian 
hUa Coirill 3383, A.V. 1084, Irish 
Ua Find ou Find 3391, Irish Gram- 
Ua Maoilehonaire 11Imtioned by the 
jC1 ibe oj Eg. (F M. I.I.87), di ollomai:l 
o Maolchonaire 4208 
Uenir ru/Us 3535 
Uimelieus eponym of the diphthong 
ui 2
8, I umelcus 2563 
Uirgilus, Uirglior, UirgIisiumus 
333 2 
Ultan St. 5796 
Urard mae Coisi chief pDel 0/ Ire/mid, 
Airard mac Coissi príméces hend 
t990 A.V.: 5258 
Urith Uriah, the eponym of the letter 
u 247, Vriath 2562 
Urteeht 2467 v. Aurthecht 


.PB 1397 .A8 1917 SMC 
Auraicept na n-eces. 
Auraicept na n-eces 


 11111111 11 11 111 '1 11 ',1' 

II , I . 111 '111 

I I 
111 1 III I 111111 I 
II III 1111 111 11 1 1 "11: II III III I 









I 11 ::: I