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the pResence of this Book 


thej.m. kelly liBRaRV 

has Been maóe possiBle 

thROuqh the qeneROSitv 


Stephen B. Roman 

From the Library of Daniel Binchy 













Lectiirer in Celtic, University of Glasgow 










The appearance of the Auraicept at the present tÍFie, 
however ínopportune, is necessary, because long overdue. 

Recent events have exercised, it is to be fearf.d, an 
adverse influence at least temporarily on Celtic studles, and 
to my deep regret I find myself constrained matírially to 
curtail this preface. But I beg of all friends who have 
assisted me in this undertaking, whether by encouragement 
or advice, to accept my heartfelt thanks. I am specially 
indebted to Mr E. C. Quiggin for his kindness in giving me 
his transcript of the Egerton MS., to Mr W. J. Purton for 
help in deciphering some difficult words in the MSS., ^co 
Prof, Lindsay for friendly criticism, chiefly on the extracts 
from his edition of the Origines, and to Mr Malcolm 
MacFarlane for the labour of verifying the references of 
the Indices to the Text, and for pointing out some errors. 

Every facility has been given by the LÁbrarians of the 
Universities of Glasgow and Edinbuígh, the Advocates' 
Library, the Royal Irish Acadcmy, and Trinity College, 

The Carnegie Trust has generously borne part of the 
expense of publication. 

i , G. C. 


November 1916. 


MSS. Transcribed or Collated .... xiii 


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . * . xix 

I. Text with Translation ..... 2 

II. Text Untranslated . . . . . .171 

Trefhocul with Examples ..... 258 

De Duilib Feda ....... 270 

Ogam. Prologue and Examples, with Translation . 272 

Photographs of Ogham Alphabets, with Transcript 
OF the Interlinear Explanations and Translation 

thereof ....... 300 

Glossarial Index . . . . . . .315 


INDEX OF PeRSONS ....... 368 


FiRST Familv (Short Text). 

BB., B. Book of Ballymote (308 /3 44-333) I4th century, R. I.A. 

E. MS. I., Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

L. Boolí of Lecan, R.I.A. 

M., HM. Book of Hy Maine (Trefhocul, with examples), R.I.A. 

B, E, L contain the mnemonic poem but not the 

Second Familv (Long Text). 

YBL. Vellow Book of Lecan (219 a 23-241 (3 13). T.C.D. 

Eg. Egerton, 88 (63 i b 26-76 i a 41), British Museum. 

YBL, Eg. do not contain the mnemonic poem or 
the Trefhocul. 

T. H.4.22 (pp. 159-207) T.C.D. This MS. is intermediate 
between the first and the second family. It does 
not contain either the Trefhocul or the mnemonic 
poem, but it has a poem of about 200 verses on early 
Bible history. 

LL. xii. century, T.C.D. The Tref hocul with examples. 

Ed. MS. vii. II b 1-39, Advocates' Library, the beginning of 
a glossary of the Auraicept which closely resembles 
the Lecan glossary. 





ALIL Ir. Dicht. 




Arch. C. P. 



Beatha Col. 



Cath Riiis R. 


Cóir An. 


Cor. Tr. 

Death Tales 


The Annals of Ulster, vol. i., ed. Hennessy, Dublin, 

1887 ; vol. ii., ed. MacCarthy. 
Acallamh na Senórach, ed. Stolces, Irische Texte iv., 

Leipzig, 1900. 
Uber die Álteste Irische Dichtung, ed. K. Meyer, 

SPA., 1913. 
The Irish ^neid, Irish Texts Society, London, 1907. 
Aislinge Meic Conglinne, ed. K. Meyer, London, 1892. 
Anecdota from Irish Manuscripts, Dublin, 1907-12. 
Archiv fiir Celtische Lexikographie. 

Glossarium Palaeohibernicum, Archivio Glottologico 
italiano, vol. vi. 

Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Armstrong, 

Beatha Colmáin maic Lúacháin, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 

(With Roman numeral) Beitráge zur Kunde der idg. 
Sprachen, herausgegben von Bezzenberger u. 

K. Meyer's Contributions to Irish Lexicography. 
Cath Ruis na Rígh, ed. Hogan, Dublin, 1892. 
In Cath Catharda, ed. Stolces, Irische Texte iv. 
Cóir Anmann, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte iii. 
Anecdotafrom Irish Manuscripts, vol. iv., Dublin, 1912. 
Cormac's Glossary, translated by O'Donovan, ed. 

Stokes, Calcutta, 1868. 
Zeitschrift fiir Celtische Philologie, 
of the Ulster Heroes, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1906. 
An Irish-English Dictionary, ed. P. S. Dineen, 

Dublin, 1904. 
A GIossary to DonIevy's Catechism, Arch. C. P. ii., i. 
Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis. 


Ed. Dinds. The Edinburgh Dindsenchas, ed. Stokes, 1893. 

Ériu. The Journal of the School of Irish Learning, Dublin. 
Fel} Félire Oengusso, ed. Stolces, Dublin, 1880. 
FeU- id. Henry Bradshaw Society, 1905. 
Fian. Fianaigecht, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1910. 
FM. The Annals of the Four Masters, ed. O'Donovan, 
Dubhn, 1848, 185 1. 
Goid? Goidelica, Old and Early Middle-Irish Glosses, Prose 
and Verse, ed. Stokes, London, 1872. 
Gor. Martyrology of Gorman, ed. Stokes, London, 1895. 
Gr. Lat. Grammatici Latini, i.-viii., ed. Keil. 

HB. Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Macdonald, 
Herne Bay, 1902. 
H. 3. 18. A MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
H. 4. 18. A MS. in the Library of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. 
Hib. Min. Hibernica Minora, ed. K. Meyer, Oxford, 1894. 

Hog. Gaelic Names of Herbs, Plants, and Trees, ed. Hogan. 

Hy. The Irish Hymns in TP. ii. or Ir. T. i. 
HSD. The Highland Society's Dictionary of the Gaelic 
Hail Brigit. Ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 191 2. 

Ir. Ep. Studies in Irish Epigraphy, ed. R. A. S. Macalister, 
London, 1 897-1907. 
Ir. Metr. Irish Metrics, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1909. 

Ir. T. Irische Texte, edd. Windisch and Stokes, Leipzig. 
I.T.S. Irish Texts Society, London. 
Keat. Hist.., K. Irish Texts Society, vols. iv., viii., ix., xv., London. 

Lavvs. Ancient Laws of Ireland, vol. vi., Glossary to vol. i.-v., 
ed. Atkinson, Dublin, 1901. 
Lec. The Lecan glosses, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexiko- 
graphie, i. 
Lism. Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore, ed. Stokes, 
Oxford, 1890. 
Lor. Gild. The Lorica of Gildas, Stokes' Irish Glosses, p. 136, 
Dublin, 1860. 
LL. Facsimile of the Book of Leinster, Dublin, 1880. 
LU. Facsimile of the Leabhar na hUidhre, Dublin, 1870. 
MacNeill. Notes on Irish Ogham Inscriptions, ed. John MacNeill, 
Dublin, 1909. 
Maro. Virgilius Maro Grammaticus, ed. Huemer, Leipsig, 


M'B. Etymological Dictionarv of the Gaelic Language, ed. 
Med. Gl. Three Irish Medical Glossaries, Archiv fiir Celtische 
Lexilíographie, i. 
MR. Cath Muige Rath, ed. O'Donovan, Dublin, 1842. 
MS. Matt. 0'Curry's Lectures on the MS. Materials, Dublin, 1872. 
Metr. Metrical glosses, Bezzenberger, Beitráge, xix. 
Metr. Dinds. The Metrical Dindsenchas, ed. Gwynn, Dublin. 
Ml. The Milan glosses on the Psalms, TP. i. 
O'Br. O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1832. 
O'C. Lect. 0'Curry's Lectures on the Manners and Customs of 
the Ancient Irish, 1873. 
O'Cl. 0'Clery's Irish Glossary, Revue Celtique, iv., v. 
O'D. O'Donovan's supplement to 0'Reilly's Dictionary. 
O'D. Gr. O'Donovan's A Grammar of the Irish Language, 1845. 
O'Dav. O'Davoren's glossary, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexiko- 
graphie, ii. 3, 4. 
0'Molloy Gr. Grammatica Latino-Hibernica, Romae, 1677. 

O'Mulc. 0'Mulconry's glossary, Archiv fiir Celt. Lexilcographie, 

On.., Onn., Onom. Onomasticon Goedelicum, ed. Hogan, Dublin, 1910. 
O'R. 0'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary. 
Origg. Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive 
Originum Libri, xx., ed. Lindsay, Oxford, 191 1. 
Ped. Gr. Pedersen's Vergleichende Grammatilc der Reltischen 
Sprachen, Góttingen, 1913. 
Petrie R. T. Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland, ed. Petrie, 1845. 
PH. Passions and Homilies from the Leabíar Breac, ed. 
Atliinson, Dublin, 1887. 
Pl. Vit. Sanct. Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, ed. Plummer, Oxon., 1910. 
P. O'C. Peter O'Connel's MS. Dictionary. 
RC. Revue Celtique, Paris. 

Sg. Glosses on Priscian (St Gall), Thesaurus Palaeo- 
hibernicus, vol. ii. 
Sil. Gad. . Silva Gadelica, ed. Standish 0'Grady, London, 1892. 
Songs of Summer ^cn.^ Winter, ed. K. Meyer, London, 1903. 

SPA. Sitsungsberichte der kon. preuss. Academie der 
SR, Salt^ir na Rann, ed. Stokes, Oxford, 1883. 
Sí. Crit. Stokes' Criticism on Dr Atkinson's glossary to vol. i.-v. 
of the ancient Laws of Ireland, London, 1903. 




Stowe Gl. 

Str. Dep. 

Str. Gl. 


Three Med. Gl. 


TP. Suppl. 



Trip. Gl. 





Stories from the Táin, ed. John Strachan, Dublin, 1908. 
Stowe glosses, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexikographie, iii. 
The Deponent Verb in Irish, John Strachan in the 

Transactions of the London Philological Society. 
Old Irish Paradigms and Glosses, ed. John Strachan, 

London, 1909. 
Táin Bó Cuailnge, ed. Windisch, Irische Texte, v. 
Archiv fiir Celtische Lexilcographie, i. 3. 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, edd. Stokes and Strachan, 

Cambridge, 1901. 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Supplement, ed. Stokes, 

Halle, 1910. 
Handbuch des Alt-Irischen, ed. Rudolf Thurneysen, 

Heidelberg, 1909. 
The Triads of Ireland, ed. K. Meyer^ Dublin, 1906. 
The Tripartite Life of Patrick, ed. Stokes, London, 

The glosses from the Tripartite Life, Arch. C. P. iii. 
Three Shafts of Death, by Keating, ed. Atkinson, 

Dublin, 1890. 
Togail Troi, ed. Stokes, Calcutta, 1882. 
Togail Troi, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte ii. 
The Wiirtzburg glosses, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, 

vol. i. 
Windisch's Worterbuch, Irische Texte, vol. i. 
Zeuss's Grammatica Celtica, editio altera. 
= CZ. 

MS. contractíons, about which there may be doubt, are 
extended in italics. Interlinear additions to the texts are 
enclosed in round brackets, additions by the Editor in square 
brackíts. Errors or peculiarities in the text are in some 
cases silently corrected in the translation. Where this is 
impracticable footnotes are added. Otherwise the reading 
of the MSS. is unchanged. 

V^'^'j^ íWi^^ mA'^up^ 'Ztf )c^// . 

0^1^ ^ '^■13 


The Handbook of the Learned, here edited for the first 
time, is a \vork that opens up many questions. 

Eces is often equivalent to fili. FilidecJit covered the 
whole field of poetry, romance, history, biography, geography, 
grammar, antiquities, and law. The poet-jurist, who, seated, 
gave judgments in verse, is probably referred to at lines 407,8. 
The Auraicept treats chiefly of the Ogham alphabet and 
grammar, but if the Trefhocul be íncluded, it treats also of 
poetry in the strict sense. 

The poets,yf//^, were a guild, making their own special 
]aws,and exercisingdiscipline upon their own members(2i93). 
They claimed and used the right to quarter themselves 
and their retinue upon society (2221), and they exacted a 
fixed sum for their poetic compositions. In general this 
was cheerfully paid ; the means for enforcing unwilling 
payment was satire. The exercise of this potent weapon 
was moderated by rule (1935), certain forms of satire, such as 
tamall n-aire (1932), being forbidden in the Trefhocul ; and 
though the poets have been abolished by law for over a 
century, even at this day in certain districts the phrase, 
dheanamh aoir air, to satirise one, is not without its 

The poets were a secret society with a language peculiar 
and intelligible to themselves only. According to their 
literary tradition Feníus, at their request, devised this 
language for them (195), and its obscurity was essential (21). 



The people often rose up against the poets and attempted 
to repudiate their claims. One such rising was that 
at Drumketta, a.d. 590 (1472). About that time they 
numbered 15,000. Owing to the advocacy of St Columba, 
himself a fili, they were sufifered to continue, but under 

The filid were a strictly professional class, undergoing a 
rigorous training to fit them for their position. The bards, 
on the other hand, were unprofessional, and more or less 
untrained, but they practised a large number of metres in 
which \.\vQ filid ^\?>o were required to become proficient. 

The foUowing tables {cf. the later scheme in Joyce's, 
SociaL Hist., i. 430), will show what place the Auraicept 
occupied in their studies. 

The Fili, his Rank, Name, and Compositions, with the 
Rewards therefor, and his Retinue (2219-2254). 





Betinue. j 




.9 w 




















a chariot 
( = one bondmaid) 

five cows 

four cows 

one horse 
( = two cows) 

one milch cow 

one cow-in-calf 

one three-year-old 





















The Yearly Studies of the Fili. 
Each year included the studies of all preceding years. 

9, lo 













1. oghum, besides regular oghum ; the Auraicept 
vvith its prologue and with its flexions ; 
1. drécht ; vi. dían. Ir. T. iii. 32. 

1. oghum, besides usual oghum ; vi. detailed 
lessons of filidecht; xxx. drcchtj x. setrada, 
senatnain, and snaithe senavina. 

Ir. T. iii. 34, 9. 

1. oghum, besides ebadach nllmain ; vi. other 
detailed lessons of filidechtj xl. drcchtj 
xvi. láid. Ir. T. iii. 34, 12. 

1. dréchtj 1. hretha nemidj xx. emain. 

Ir. T. iii. 36, 18. 

Ix. dréchtj xxx. anairj xxx. iannberla. 

Ir. T. iii. 37, 21. 

Ixx. dréchtj Ixxx. nath inór j Ixxx. nath becc 7 
berla nafiled. Ir. T. iii. 38, 25. 

brosnacha suad, i.e. the bard metres which the 
poet ought to know, for that is the poet's 
lesson of the seventh year ; e.g. 1. divisions of 
bro^nacha, i.e. dechnad inór, and two species 
of dechnad mór are there recUoned, viz. sned 
and trebrad. Ir. T. iii. 39, 32. 

fiscomarca filed -i- ditili berla 7 clethchor choem 
7 reicne roscadach 7 láide- i- tenmláida 7 immas 
forosnai 7 dichetal do chennaib tia tnaithe 7 
dinshenchus, and all the principal tales of 
Ireland in order to relate them to kings, lords, 
and gentlemen. For thefiti is not yet perfect. 

Ir. T. iii. 49, 91. 

xl. sennath -i- ; xv, luasca 7 vii. enaj eochraid oi 
Ix. words with metres and xiv. srotha and 
vi. dúili feda. Ir. T. iii. 54, 99. 

1. anamain mór ; 1. anamain bccc. 

Ir. T. iii. 59, 113. 

cxx. rochetulj nú.cerda, i.e. cerdoi Ladchend mic 
Bairchida {/Elt., pp. 17, 27), 7 cerd hi Chota, 7 
cerd hui Bicni, 7 cerd Béci. Ir. T. iii. 60, 121. 


A brief study of the Auraicept is sufficient to convince 
one that the leading extraneous source is the Latin 
Grammarians. Some of them are cited by name, Priscian 
(a.d. 450), Donatus (a.d. 350), Pompeius, and Consentius. 

If it be urged that the quotations from these authors are 
a late addition to the Auraicept by way of learned illustra- 
tion, it is answered that in any case the general setting 
of the matter follows closely the didactic style of the 
grammarians, as the foUowing examples, occurring passijii, 
will show : — 

Quaestio est, Gr. Lat. v. 537, 16, 29 ; 541, 20, 32. 

cest, Aur. 9, 57. 

Ouaesitum est, v. 228, 18 "j a ima 

^ ' r. \ conagar, Aur. 1019, 

Quaentur, v. 165, 27; 210, 38 ^ ^o^- 

De qua quaeritur, Origg, xvi. 10, 2 J 

ut sciam, V. 195, 19. 

ut scias, V, 121, 15, 18 ; 173, 18 : co fesear, Aur. 1577. 

ut sciamus, v. 10, 16. 

sciendum est, v. 180, 32: is soigti Aur. 3508, is fisid 

scire debemus, v. 277, 30. 
scire debes, v. 142, 15. 

The matter itself of the Auraicept is largely identical 
vvith that treated of by the Latin Grammarians in their 
early chapters — the alphabet, classification of letters, sounds 
and syllables, consonant and vovvel changes, gender and 
declension of nouns, comparison of adjectives, prepositions 
governing dative and accusative cases, the accent, artificial 
and natural, genus and species, and a few other incidental 
points. The omissions are almost equally significant. 
There is no classification of declensions, no declension of 
adjectives which are tacitly included with the substantives, 
no treatment of pronouns except as tokens of gender 
(aurlonn, 585), or as emphasised by féin = niet {726), and 


the whole accidence of the verb is wanting. The similarity 
between Latin and Gaelic failed at this point. The paradigm 
of the verb is tentative and native (304, 653). An endeavour 
is made to show that, while there is a correspondence in 
meaning between the two languages, Gaelic is the more 
comprehensive (1081). 

The language is Middle Irish, but the basis, which has 
been much worked over, all belongs to the Old Irish 

The composition consists of Text and Commentary, the 
latter forming the great bulk of the work. The text is the 
oldest portion ; the commentary, in parts as old as the text, 
was in a process of continuous growth. The text, written in 
a large hand in most MSS., is printed in leaded type. BB, 
here followed, curtails the text. The Book of Lecan and T. 
make a much larger delineation of text. The question as to 
what is text and what is commentary will require further 
study for a satisfactory solution, but it may be here remarked 
that much of the primary material is embodied in the tract 
in the ordÍnary hand of the commentary so as to be indis- 
tinguishable from the commentary at sight, and that the 
commentary itself occasionally points to the text by the use 
of such expressions as Cid ara tuc-somh {gj), Cid ara n-ebairt 
(378, 484, 512, 385), intan roraidh (421), ata acht lem (2973), 
amal asbert i curp in libuir (173, 241) where corp in libuir 
always means the text of the book under comment. 

Another but a rather uncertain criterion is this. A 
passage which does not occur by way of commentary on any 
previous quotation, but which is itself made the subject of 
commentary, is in a sense primary material, though not 
necessarily so old as the principal text on which the com- 
mentary is written. 

The use oí conagar is generally to introduce commentary 
even though the passage so introduced is itself subjected to 


comment. In a word, there is a primary commentary used 
to explain the original text, and a secondary commentary 
developing the content of the primary commentary {e.g., 
1072 on 1068, 1637 on 15 15). The etymological gloss\vork 
belongs to this last stage, and is incorporated without any 
regard to the context. 

The language even of the commentary is based on 
Old Irish usage. It explicitly recognises three genders in 
substantives and pronouns. In it aií'díbdad {1264) means the 
silencing of the consonants, f and s. In later usage this 
term becomes airdibad, urdubad (uirdhiughadh, 0'Molloy, 
Gr. 61), and denotes eclipsis, obnubilatio. The tract before 
us takes no account of eclípsis. At the time the tract was 
written the combinations mb, nd, had evidently not yet 
become assimilated (but cf. Nembroth, Nemruad). For, 
if such assimilations had taken place, an account would 
have been given of the phenomenon under such questions as 
" What tvvo consonants have the force of one consonant ? " 


As regards ng initial, the evidence ís not so clear. 
The nasal infection may have produced (ng + g) and not 
ng simply (255). On the other hand the combination is an 
Ogham letter (442) — but even vowels of diphthongs were 
pronounced separately (1430) — and is, considered along with 
the example, uingi {4.^26), curiously suggestive of : 

NF. N Latinum adiuncto Gamma Graeco significat 
semiunciam. — Origg. xvi. 27, 4. 

The scheme of declension, also, distinguishes clearly 
between dative and accusative after prepositions (1651, 
1770), a distinction not uniformly or often observed in 
Middle Irish, though a much later tract draws a distinction 
between acc. after a preposition importing motion, siubhal, 
and dat. after a preposition importing rest, comJinaidJie 


{Eriu, viii. 17, § y2, 73). This last, hovvever, may be merely 
a grammatical recrudescence, or an imitation of Latin. 

A few sporadic examples of Old Irish are here added : — 

1. TriE Article. 

n.p.m. in muite 447, in taebomna tuissecha 918 in 
tri focail 2018, but ainm n, has art n.p.m. ind 
anmanda 4828. 

n.p.f. inna iiii. aipgitri-sea 11 32. 

For art. developed from projected n., v. condelc, 
etargoire n-inchoisc 647, in incoisc 641. 

2. NOUN Stems. 

A . o-stems : 

n.p.n. araile crand 1 149. 

B. lo-stejHs : 

n.s.n. a mberla sain 1044. 

ds. oc nach ailiu 1044; ^-S- fria araill 3106, ar araiU 

5613 ; gan araill 3105. 
n.s. 7 araill 3410; 'nas i n-aill 1272. 
quain i n-aill 4593, 4579 no da fhir-inaill 338. 

C. n-stein : 

gach reim n-olc 2177. 

3. NUMERALS : teora, ceitheora 4708, 3747, cf. 872. 

4. TiiE Verb: ailsius 5319, adrodamas 135; copula verb, 

arnid 693, nadat 4588. 

As to the native elements, we are told that Cenn Faelad 
— in English Kinealy — wrote the Prologue (80). As this 
preface is not likely to have been omitted by the compilers 
of the extant tract, one concludes that this must be the 
actual introduction (1-62). This view is confirmed by the 
displacement in version ii. of the section (63-78) which is the 
work of a commentator of Cenn Faelad ; also by the particle 
tra in the first sentence quoted from Cenn Faelad, which 
follows the introduction in both versions. 


There are four authors of the Auraicept proper, Cenn 
Faelad, Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius. 

The excerpts from the Book of Cenn Faelad deal with : 

The origin of GaeHc (loo). 

Divisions of the Latin alphabet (312), and of the Irish 

alphabet (392), 
Latin and Irish treatment of semivowels contrasted 

Genders in Irish (520). 
Degrees of comparison in Latin, and quahtative and 

quantitative distinctions in Irish (639). 

The excerpts from the Book of Ferchertne deal with : 

The seven elements of speech in Irish (739), and 
The formation and powers of Ogham letters (943). 

There is a long excerpt from the Book of Amergen 
dealing with : the origin of Goedelg (1034). This passage is 
of earher date and language than the general run of the 
tract. In substance it is an alternative prologue. 

The excerpts from the Book of Fenius (1102) deal with : 

The alphabets of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (1129), 
hence probably the ascription to Fenius who was 
learned in those languages (160), and contemporary 
with the Exodus (i 104). 

Verse feet or syllabic content of Irish words (12 13). 

Consonant changes (1264). 

The five kinds of Irish (1302). 

The twenty-five inflections (15 15). 

What is alt? (1577). 

The end of the text of the Auraicept is noted (1636). 

Besides those four ancient books cited, the Book of Cenn 
Faelad, the Book of Ferchertne (735), the Book of Amergen 
(1028), the Book of Fenius, lair mac Nema, and Gaedel mac 
Ethiuir (1102), two others are mentioned, the Dúile Feda 
(5416), of which the Ogham tract is perhaps an expansion, 


and the Cin Ollauian (1204, 4385) possibly an early form of the 
tract on Metrics. The quotations from the first four books 
are set forth as usual in large hand ; but possibly other 
passages from them are embodied in the commentary in the 
normal hand. For wherever a passage in the commentary 
is afterwards explained in detail with the usual artificial 
etymologies, this is an indication that the passage probably 
belonged originally to the ancient text. 

While the ascription of the Book of Cenn Faelad is 
probably genuine, the same cannot be said of the Books of 
Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius. The quotations may be 
from writings approximately of the time of Cenn Faelad, but 
of unknown authorship. A commentator (1019-1027) takes 
the view that the work of these authors were successive steps 
leading up to the grand consummation, the Trefhocul. By 
the statement also of a commentator that " what is first 
according to book order was invented last, to wit, the Book 
of Cenn Faelad " {66) may be meant that this author 
co-ordinated all the ancient material, and presented it as it 
now stands. This view is upheld by another commentator 
who says that Ferchertne composed the Auraicept but Cenn 
Faelad rewrote it, or copied it, along with the greater part 
of Scripture (2638). 

There seems no reason to question the ascription of the 
" Book of Cenn Faelad " to the author of that name. He is a 
well authenticated person. He died a.d. 679. His pedigree 
is found in the geneaIogy of the Cenél nEogain. His poems, 
dealing to a large extent with the wars of his kinsfolk, the 
Northern Ui Néill, are quoted largely in the annals. The 
curious tradition about his " brain of forgetfulness " {'j'j) had 
no doubt a foundation in fact. Possibly he got a good 
education in youth, but developed a " brain of forgetfulness " 
by turning from learning to soldiering. He certainly fought 
in the battle of Moira A.D. 6^, where he was wounded. 


Returning again to civil life and his early pursuits, " poetry, 
words, and reading" (78), he laid the foundation of that 
reputation which as " Cenn Faelad, the Learned " he still 
€njoys (O'C. Lecí.). His period as an author therefore 
extends over the forty-two years between the battle of 
Moira and his death, and quotations from him must take 
rank among thc oldest dated specimens of the language. 
But he refers to still older Irish writers, angdair na tiGaideal 
(79), who wrote on the subject of Irish grammar, or of Irish 
origins. He may refer to such works as the Irish Chronicon 
Eusebii (Eriu, vii, 62) which came down to A.D. 609, and of 
vvhich the lost portion at the beginning may well have 
contained the story of Fenius. Writing in 603, S. Columbanus 
refers to antiqui philosopJii Hiberniae as experts in chrono- 
graphy. Thus that earlier than the seventh century a state 
of learning existed which was held in esteem by the writers of 
that century is proved, though the direct products of that 
earHer learning are no longer extant. If we assume Cenn 
Faelad to be really the author, and therefore that the 
Auraicept was begun about the middle of the seventh 
century, how did it happen that while the other Western 
nations were sunk in ignorance, the Irisb enjoyed the light 
of learning? Zimmer (SPA., Dec. 1910, p. 1049) quoting 
the passage in Aur. 1859- 1876 puts the question with great 
force : 

" Das sind die ' Elemente der Kasus- und Numeruslehre,' 
wie man sie als Teil des iiber viele lahre sich erstreckenden 
Studiums der irischen yf/z (Grammatiker, Metriker, Antiquare 
und professionsmássiger Dichter) in den nationalen Schulen 
Irlands traktierte, als Klemens der Ire an der Hofschule 
Karls des Grossen jungen Franken das abc beibrachte, als 
Dicuil in St Denis, Dungal in Pavia, Sedulius in Liittich 
und Metz, Moengal in St Gallen, Johannes Scottus an der 
Hofschule Karls des Kahlen átig waren ; durch diesen 


Unterricht ist Cormac mac Cuilennáin gegangen (gest. 908), 
der nebenbei ganz austándige Kenntnis im Latein, Griech- 
isch, Hebráisch, Altnordisch, Angelsachsisch und Kymrisch 

The high tide of learning at a very early period in 
ancient Ireland was beyond a doubt caused by the influx of 
learned men from the Continent. In his researches Zimmer 
came upon this passage : 

Huni, qui ex nephario concubitu progeniti sunt, scilicet 
demonum, postquam praeheunte caterva viam 
invenerunt per Meotides paludes, invaserunt Cothos 
quos nimium terruerunt ex improviso monstro 
quod in illis erat. Et ab his depopulatio totius 
imperii exordium sumpsit, quae ab Unis et 
Guandelis, Gotis et Alanis peracta est, sub quorum 
vastatione omnes sapientes cismarini fugam 
ceperunt, et in transmarinis, videlicet in Hibernia, 
et quocunque se receperunt maximum profectum 
sapientiae incolis iliarum regionum adhibuerunt. 

The first part of this statement relating to the Huns is 
taken from Jordanis, who wrote about A.D. 550, and fixes 
approximately the date of the depopulation of the empire 
and the rush of learned men into Ireland. We may assume 
that the migration had already continued for a time before 
this account was written. The intercourse between Ireland 
and the continent was certainly kept up. 

Three centuries later we have this testimony respecting 

Natio Scottorum quibus consuetudo peregrinandi jam 
paene in naturam conversa est. 

Quid Hiberniam memorem, contempto pelagi dis- 
crimine, paene totam cum grege philosophorum ad 
littora nostra migrantem ! — (SPA., 1910, p. 1080). 

Zímmer with great learning, breadth of view, and 


mastery of detail builds upon these facts a history at once 
picturesque and surprising. 

Stated briefly his hypotheses amount to this. The 
exodus from Gaul to Ireland (a.d. 419-507) was caused by 
the Homoousian persecution. Aquitania and the modern 
Baskish territory suffered Hke other parts, and Ireland vvas 
then the onIy haven of orthodoxy. Among the' refugees 
from that region was \\\q. fatuus hojnunculus who was so called 
by his fellow-countryman the deacon Ennodius (a.d. 473-521) 
but who called himself Virgilius Maro, Graniniaticus. He 
found an asylum with a native prince as was the fashion 
for learned men in those days, settled, and taught grammar, 
nay more, gained for himself fame, recognition, and a place 
among the native poets, being in fact none other than 
Ferchertne Jili. 

The Auraicept bears abundant evidence of the influence 
of two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro. The latter Zimmer 
laboured to identify with Ferchertne fili. It can be shown 
that the Auraicept lends no support to this proposed 
identification. This Ferchertne fili (CZ. iii. 13) is.described 
in the tract as a contemporary of Conchobar mac Nessa 
(736), who, whatever reckoning be adopted, lived somewhere 
about the second century {cf. A.u. 484). According to this 
chronology, therefore, the identification of Ferchertne fili and 
Maro would place the latter at least a couple of centuries 
before his known fioruit. Again the matter treated of by 
Ferchertne fili — the seven elements of speech in Irish, and 
the formation and powers of Ogham letters — does not 
correspond to anything in Maro's pages. If it be proved 
also that, while Isidore's influence is felt chiefly in the 
earlier part of the Auraicept, Maro's influence is confined 
entirely to the later, Zimmer's main contention that Maro 
was Ferchertne fili cannot succeed. Several centuries lay 
between the inception of the Auraicept and its close. 


Maro's tract had a profound influence on the Auraicept, 
but none on its early stages. According to internal evidence 
Cenn Faelad wrote the part ascribed to him about the 
middle or second half of the seventh century. That is the 
superior limit. The inferior Hmit Hes in the eleventh 
centurv, or perhaps the tenth, and is determined generally 
by two facts — (i) that the Auraicept is found in two 
families of MSS., the variations in which postulate many 
generations of scribes, and (2) the immense development 
which has taken place in the tract itself as it has advanced 
from crude statements to a prosody which is exceedingly 
complicated and difficult. But the argument does not rest 
entirely on general considerations. 

The second text (3382) quotes native grammarians bv 
name, Ua Bruic, Ua Coindi^ Ua Coirill and Ua Finn (3391). 
They are named by their surnames (each being the acknow- 
ledged head of his family), a usage that is not found earlier 
than the tenth century, one of the earliest instances being 
that of Ua Ruairc, A.u. 953. Ua Coirill mentioned above 
may have been the professor of law and history, who died 
A.u. 1083. Hence the Auraicept was not completed before 
the middle of the tenth century, perhaps not till towards 
the end of the eleventh, when Maro's influence is still 
in evidence. 

Let us now look at some excerpts from the works of 
the two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro. 

I. ISIDORE 0Y Seville, who died A.D. 6^6. 

His Etymologiae or Origines in twenty books contain a 
vast amount of information of such a sort that one finds it 
impossible to resist the conclusion that the compilers of 
the Auraicept had this document before them. At least 
that Cenn Faelad and Isidore drew matter from a common 


source is a certainty, for the facts (or alleged facts) and the 
phraseology are the same. 

If we keep in mind that Isidore died the year before the 
battle of Moira, and that after that event Cenn Faelad began 
and pursued his studies with such success that he was 
popularly supposed to forget nothing (so one may interpret the 
words), and if we remember further that there was a constant 
coming and going of learned men, and a steady exchange 
of books between the continent and Ireland, there is no 
inherent improbability in the supposition that Cenn Faelad 
assimilated some of his material from the Origines published 
perhaps some tvventy years before. True, the name of Isidore 
does not occur in the Auraicept, but no more does that of 
Eusebius from whom he probably made extracts, nor that 
of Luccreth Mocu Chiara {^lteste irische Dichtung, p. 51), 
from whose poem the passage about the seventy-two races 
(Aur. 215-227) was certainly taken. 

There being no difficulty as to date or the omission of 
a name, full weight may be allowed to any other con- 
siderations tending to connect the two authors. The 
following quotations from many books of the Origines show 
how much the Auraicept was indebted to that source both 
in general structure and in detail. 

Some references demonstrate that the Irish and Ireland 
were not unfamiliar to Isidore, at least as an author : 

Horrent et male tecti cum latratoribus linguis Scotti. — 
Origg. xix. 23, 6. 

Scotia idem et Hibernia proximae Brittianiae insula, 
spatio terrarum angustior, sed situ fecundior. 
Haec ab Africo in Boream porrigitur. Cujus 
partes priores Hiberiam et Cantabricum Oceanum 
intendunt, unde et Hibernia dicta : Scotia autem, 
quod ab Scotorum gentibus colitur, appellata. — 
Origg. xiv. 6, 6. 


Time, place, person, and cause of writing (Aur. 63, 735, 
1029), define the general plan and treatment of a subject, 
and are usually found in the íntroduction to any serious 
work in Irish. 

lam vero in elocutionibus illud uti oportebit, ut res, 
locus, tempus, persona audientis efflagitat. — 
Origg. ii. i6, I. 

The cradle of letters was in Achaia, or by projection 
of d from art., Dacia, or by early French pronunciation, Asia. 

Ubi fuit Athenae civitas. — Origg. xiv. 4, 10. 
Apud Eotenam (uel Athena) civitatem. — Aur. 214. 

Fuit autem Isis regina Aegyptiorum, Inachis regis filia, 
quae de Graecia veniens Aegyptios litteras docuit. 
— Origg. viii. II, 84. 

These sentences show that, unless the BibHcal Accad was 
introduced from some other source, Achaia (25i)w^as pro- 
bably the original reading ; but the possibility that Achaia 
lay in Maeotidis Paludihns (CZ. x. 126) must not be over- 

Namque omnium ferocissumi ad hoc tempus Achaei 
atque Tauri sunt, quod, quantum conjicio, locorum 
. egestate rapto vivere coacti. — Glossae Juvenalis 
(Sall. Fragmentd). 

Authority, written authority, ugdaracJit (131), perhaps 
includes the following authors of whom, however, only two, 
Moses and Hieronymus (q.v.), are mentioned by name : 

Moyses, Dares Fhrygius, Herodotus, Pherecydes. 

Vnde Sallustius ex historia, Livius, Eusebius et 

Hieronymus ex annalibus tt historia constant. — 

Origg. i. 42 ; 44, 4. 

VVhat are the names of the seventy-two races from which 
the many languages were leariit? (215, 26'^): 

Geiites autem a quibus divisa est terra, quindecim sunt 
de Japhet, triginta et una de Cham, viginti et 



septem de Sem, quae fiunt septuaginta tres, vel 
potius, ut ratio declarat, septuaginta duae ; toti- 
demque linguae, quae per terras esse coeperunt^ 
quaequecrescendo provincias et insulas impleverunt. 
— Origg. ix. 2, 2. 

In definition a bias existed towards the heptad or the 
octave, Aur. 639, 739. 

De septem liberalibus disciplinis. Grammatica dia- 
lectica, etc, Aur. 51. — Origg. i. 2, i. 

Occasionally individual words are closely defined : 

Materia inde dicitur omne lignum quod ex ea aliquid 
efficiatur. — Origg. xix. 19, 4. Fid, Aur. 943, cf. 
later the use of adbar. 

The importance of Hebrew is insisted on : 

Illa lingua quae ante diluvium omnium una fuit, quae 
Hebraea nuncupatur. — Origg. xii. i, 2. 

The Hebrew language was in the world first and it will 
remain after doomsday (190). 

Item quaeritur qua linguain futurum homines loquantur. 
— Origg. ix. I, 13. 

The following passage explains why Gaelic was deemed 
a worldly speech (46), not being one of the three sacred 
tongues in which was written the superscription on the cross 

Linguarum diversitas exorta est in aedificatione turris 
post diluvium. Nam priusquam superbia turris 
illius in diversos signorum sonoshumanam divideret 
societatem, una omnium nationum lingua fuit, quae 
Hebraea vocatur. Initio autem quot gentes, tot 
linguae fuerunt, deinde plures gentes. Tres sunt 
autem linguae sacrae : Hebraea, Graeca, Latina 
quae toto orbe maxime excellunt. His enim tribus 
linguis super crucem Domini a Pilato fuitcausa eius 
scripta. — Origg. ix. i, 1-3. 


The early Irish rhythmical alliterative poetry, e.g. — 

arnin arding [d]éd, 

forsail for fot fedair, 

dinin disail for gair gabhaidh (1546), 

extending up to and running into the eighth century, might 
almost be defined by the words : 

Huic adhaeret rythmus, qui non est certo fine moderatus, 
sed tamen rationabiliter ordinatis pedibus currit ; 
qui Latine nihil aliud quam numerus dicitur. — 
Origg. í. 39, 3. 

A verse of dithyramb or metrical rhythm is to be 
measured by a breath of the poet, five words to each breath 

Periodos autem longior esse non debet quam ut uno 
spiritu proferatur. — Orígg. ii. 18, 2. 

Grammatical questions as to gender and comparison of 
adjectives find a like expression in Latin and Gaelic : 

Neutrum dictum quia nec hoc nec illud, id est nec 
masculinum nec femininum. — Origg. i. 7, 28 ; Aur. 

Octo autem modis conparatio analogiae colligitur : id 
est qualitate, conparatione, genere, numero, figura, 
casu, extremitatibus similium syllabarum, et simili- 
tudine temporum. — Origg. i. 28, i ; Aur. 639. 

Non est maius nisi ad minus referatur. 

Sic et parvum opponitur magno ita ut ipsud parvum ad 
magnum, cui opponitur, sit parvum. — Origg. ii. 31, 
4, 5 ; Aur. 676. 

Inde Ponticus sinus amplissimus a tergo Maeotidis 
paludibus ; quod mare ex multitudine fluminum 
dulcius quam cetera. — Sallust, quoted by Priscian 
Macrobius, Servius, and Ox'xg'g. xiii. 16, 4. 

in dulci aqua xii. 6, 56 ; sive salsae sint sive dulces. — xiii. 
14, I ; Aur. 730. 


Artificial etymologies carry their influence into the Gaelic 
text; vír is derived from vires^ mulier from inollities^fémina 
from femur : 

Vir nuncupatus, quia maior in eo vis est quam in 

feminis. — Origg. xi. 2, 17; Aur. 605. 
Mulier vero a mollitie, tanquam mollier, detracta littera 
vel mutata, appellata est mulier. — Origg. xi. 2, 18 ; 
cf. femina de flescda no maithchnechas, Aur. 010. 

Femora dicta sunt, quod ea parte a femina sexus viri 
discrepet. Sunt autem ab inguinibus usque ad 
genua. Femina autem per derivationem femorum 
partes sunt, quibus in equitando tergis equorum 
adhaeremus. — Origg. xi, i, 106. 

Femina vero a partibus femorum dicta ubi sexus species 
a viro distinguitur. — Origg. xi. 2, 24 ; Aur. 608. 

Consonants, semi-vowels, and mutes are treated similarly 
in the Gaelic and the Latin texts : 

Et vocatae consonantes quia per se non sonant sed 
iunctis vocalibus consonant. Haec in duabus 
partibus dividuntur: in semivocalibus et in mutis. 
Semivocales dictas eo, quod quiddam semis de 
vocalibus habeant. 

Mutae autem dictae quia nisi subiectis sibi vocalibus 
nequaquam erumpunt. — Origg. i. 4, 3, 4 ; cf. Aur. 
358 í'/ seq. ; Z'oJ et seq. ; 468 et seq. 

Vnde et legitimae nominantur illa ratione, scilicet vel 
quod ab E vocali incipiunt et in mutum sonum 
desinunt, ut sunt consonantes, vel quod a suo sono 
incipiunt et in vocalem E desinunt ut sUnt mutae. — 
Origg. i. 4, 10 ; Aur. 488. 

The active and the passive of verbs : 
Etargaire persainni i ngnim (651) ; i cessadh (653). 

In persona verbi agentis et patientis significatio est. — 
Origg. i. 9, I. 


The Orighies contain wel]-known quotations (and the 
above may be of this sort) : 

Litterae autem dictae quasi legiterae, quod iter 
legentibus praestent, vel quod in legendo iterentur. 
— Origg. i. 3, 3 ; Aur. 360. 

Some quotations are hard to find elsewhere : 

Nam unum semen numeri esse, non numerum. — Origg. 
iii. 3, I ; Aur. 688. 

It is not time that is divided but our actions (93). 

Nam tempus per se non intellegitur, nisi per actus 
humanos. — Origg. v. 31, 9. 

These references I have not found. — Aur. 464, 517, 728. 

The foregoing quotations are found in the portion of 
the Auraicept attributed to Cenn Faelad. They occur 
not only in commentary but often in the structure of the 
composition. Hence the conclusion that Cenn Faelad had 
before him the Origines or a document based thereon, and 
closely resembling it, is amply justified. 

The use of the Origines is continued in the Gaelic text, 
after the portion attributed to Cenn Faelad ends. In the 
latter part of the book occur also some few suggestions 
of Ogham. 

What is known as nihilus, Aur. 970, 8, is thus explained : 

V quoque littera proinde interdum nihil est, quia 
alicubi nec vocalis nec consonans est, ut quis. 
Vocalis enim non est quia I sequitur ; consonans 
non est quia Q praecedit. Ideoque quando nec 
vocalis, nec consonans est, sine dubio nihil est. — 
Origg. i. 4, 8. 

A quotation common in the grammarians is : 

Nisi enim nomen scieris, cognitio rerum perit. — 
Origg. i. 7, I ; Aur. 1099. 


A quotation not seen by me elsewhere : 

Lapis autem dictus quod laedat pedem. — Origg. xvi. 
3, I ; Aur. 3396. 

OccasionaIly the Latin helps to decide the reading of the 
Gaelic text : 

Incorporalia, quia carent corpus ; unde nec videri nec 
tangi possunt, ut veritas, iusticia. — Origg. i. 7, 4 ; 
cf. Aur. 3238. 

Occasionally the Gaelic is a running commentary on the 
Latin : 

Perspicuae voces sunt quae longius protrahuntur ita ut 
omnem inpleant continuo locum, sicut clangor 
tubarum (stocaireacht no cornaireacht, Aur. 1477). 
Subtiles voces (cronan no certan bec, 1474) sunt, 
quibus non est spiritus, qualis est infantium vel 
mulierum vel aegrotantium, sicut in nervis (intan 
is cruit, 1484). Quae enim subtilissimae cordae 
sunt, subtiles ac tenues sonos emittunt (intan as 
bindi is tuiu / is isliu ata na a n-aill, 1484). Pingues 
sunt voces, quando spiritus multus simul egreditur, 
sicut virorum (mod -i- mo od -i- od ceol intan is 
mascul 1470). Acuta vox tenuis, alta, sicut in 
cordis videmus (traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda 
1477). Dura vox est, quae violenter emittit sonos 
sicut tonitruum, sicut incudis sonos, quotiens in 
durum malleus percuititur ferum (intan is torand 
no is crand 1479, tourand no caint 4575). 
Caeca vox est, quae, mox emissa fuerit, conticescit, atque 
suffocata nequaquam longius producitur, sicut est 
in fictilibus (tae a ed intan is fod 1479, fouta 4578). — 
Origg. iii. 20, 10-13. 

Occasionally the Latin determines the interpretation of 
the Gaelic, the latter being an almost literal translation of 
the former : 

Superflui sunt, quorum partes simul ductae plenitudinem 
excedunt, ut puta duodenarius. Habet enim partes 


quinque : duodecimam, quod est unum ; sextam, 
quod duo ; quartam, quod tria ; tertiam, quod 
quattuor ; dimidiam, quod sex. Vnum enim et 
duo, et tria, et quattuor, et sex simul ducta 
xvi faciunt et longe a duodenario excedunt. . . . 
Perfectus numerus est, qui suis partibus adinpletur, 
ut senarius ; habet enim tres partes, sextam, 
tertiam, dimidíam : sexta eíus unum est, tertia duo, 
dimidia tres. Haec partes in summam ductae, id 
est unum et duo et tria simul eundem consummant 
perficiuntque senarium. — Origg. iii. 5, 9-1 1; Aur. 

Occasionally the Gaelic gives merely the gist of the 
Latin : 

Primum enim diem a Sole appellaverunt, qui princeps 
est omnium siderum, sicut et idem dies caput est 
cunctorum dierum. Secundum a Luna, quae Soli 
et splendore et magnitudine proxima est, et ex eo 
mutuat lumen. Tertium ab stella Martis quae 
Vesper vocatur. Quartum ab stella Mercurii, quam 
quidam candidum circulum dicunt. Quintum ab 
stella lovis, quam Phaethontem aiunt. Sextum a 
Veneris stella, quam Luciferum asserunt, quae inter 
omnia sidera plus lucis habet. Septimus ab stella 
Saturni, quae sexto caelo locata triginta annis 
fertur explere cursum suum. — Origg. v. 30, 5-7; 
Aur. 3531-9. 

Titles of chapters or sections in the Ongines appear as 
names of Ogham : 

De homine xi. i. daenogam 5709. 

De avibus xii. 7. enogam 5692. 

Oppida nobilia xv. i, 6. dinnogam 5687. 

De aedificiis sacris xv. 4. ceallogam 5702. 

De navibus xix. 1,1. ogam n-eathrach 6132. 

De instruincntis rusticis xx. 14. ogam tírda 5724. 

De coloribus xix. 17 dathogam 5697. 


Bible names suffer change in passing into the Gaeh'c text 
through the Latin transHteration : 

Nebuchadnezzar, Nabuchodonosar, Origg v, 39, 18; 

Nabgodon, Aur, 127. 
Nimrod, Nembroth, Origg. vii. 6, 22 ; Neamruad, Aur. 

Noah, Noe, Origg. vii. 6, 15 ; Nóe, Aur. 107. 

Secrecy — the avowed purpose of Ogham — is outHned in 
a simple code similar to that vvhich finds expression in Aur, 

Caesar quoque Augustus ad fiHum, " quoniam," incjuit, 
" innumerabiHa accidunt assidue quae scribi alterutro 
oporteat et esse secreta, habeamus inter nos notas 
si vis tales ut, cum aHquid notis scribendum erit,' 
pro unaquaque Httera scribamus sequentem hoc 
modo pro a h^ pro /; <:, et deinceps eadem ratione 
ceteras ; pro pj autem redeundum erit ad duplex 
a a. "Quidam etiam versis verbis scribunt. — Origg. i. 
25, 2. 

This reference I have not found : Aur. 3244-8, but cf, 
Maro 24, 10-24. 

II. ViRGiLius Maro, Grammaticus 

The editor, Huemer, in his Praefatio, p. xi., after giving a 
Hst of blunders common to aU the MSS. of Maro, concludes : 

Atque archetypum iHud Htteris scotticis scriptum 
fuerit necesse est, cum a et u, c et t, r et s, s et /, 
p et /, saepe permutatae videntur. 

The concHision is irresistible. Whether the scribe was 
himself perpetrating these blunders, or, as his editor thinks, 
merely copying them from others, the sources of Maro, as 
vve know him, are Irish. 

Meyer, in two Hsts (SPA Jul}', December 191 2), gives. 



from Maro's tract, a selection of forty-t\vo names, which he 

considers to be of Celtic origin. They are as follows : 

Lato-mius (123). 
Lugenicus (162), 
Mart-ulis (92). 

Aemerius p. (22). 
Andrianus (173). 
Arca rex (15). 
Asp-orius (5). 
Assianus (173). 
Bi-entius (137). 
Breg-andus (162). 
Don (15, 30). 
Fassica f. (123). 
Gabr-itius (126). 
Galb-arius (163). 
Galb-ungus (10, 122, 133) 
Gal-irius (146). 
Gall-ienus (129). 
Gelb-idius (36). 
Gerg-esus (15). 
Glengus (122, 133). 
Gurg-ilius (173). 
luu-anus (54). 
Lap-idus (19). 
Lassius (107). 

Mitterius (114). 

Ninus (119). 

Oss-ius (163), 

Perrichius (163). 

Plastus (151). 

Prass-ius (61). 

Regulus (?) (133). 

Rigas f. Rigadis (122). 

Rithea Nini regis uxor (119). 

SagiUius Germanus (17). 

Samm-inius, Virgil's uncle (28). 

Sarbon (122). 

Sarr-icius (123). 

Saur-inus (28). 

Sedulus (138, 139). 

Senenus (138). 

Sulpita (24). 

Ursinus (90). 

Further examination may shorten the list without 
seriously disturbing the contention that if Maro had no 
connection with Ireland, his circle of Irish friends was 
unaccountably large. 

Sua apte (i 16, 1 1 ; 81,4) has been recognised as an Irish- 
Latin hybrid, su-apte, which later camc into common use 
in Irish Latin. 

There is a sprinkling of the /oei communes of Latin 
Grammar, e.g. — 

Maro denies that Latinitas is derived from Latinus, 
preferring latitudo, p. 5, 6 : Aur. 355. 

litera ab ipsis etiam cerae caracteribus usque ad 
quassorum compossitionem hosce ordines directat, 
p. 7, 10; Aur. 1756. 

syllabae monades senas literas transcendere non debent 
ut scrobs, Maro, p. 11,7; Aur. 1229. 


Grama est litteraturae peruidatio, quae quasi quaedam 
totius lectionis semitula est unde et a peritis litera 
interpretatur legitera quod est legendi itinerarium. — 
Maro, p. 19, II : Aur. 1768. 

A certain resemblance is discernible between Maro, 
24, 10-23, and Aur. 3244, and between 

Nec aperte masculinum nec absolute dicitur esse 
feminum. — Maro, 31, 13; Aur. 614. 

verbum est omne quod lingua profertur et voce. — Maro, 
88, 6, and Aur. 1924. 

The device scinderatio foiwrinii., Maro declares (p. ^6, 7), 
was resorted to in order to sharpen the wits, to adorn 
expression, and : 

tertia (causa) ne mystica quaeque, et quae solis gnaris 
pandi debent, passim ab infimis ac stultis facile 

The same reason, here called tertia, is alleged for the 
invention of Ogham : — 

Co mbeth in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais fo leth, sech 
lucht na tirdachta 7 na buicnechta, Aur. 5472. 

One device consisted in breaking up a sentence into 
groups of letters, e.g. — 

RRR. SS. PP. MM. NT. EE. OO. A.V.I., i.e., spes 
Romanorum perit. — Maro, 'j'j, 12; cf. Aur. 3501-3. 

AIso, words may be broken up into syllables, and these 
again may be strewn about in the jingle of a so-called 
sentence, e.g. — 

sicut Lucanus edidit ; ge. ves. ro. trum. quando. tum. 
a. fec. om. ni. libet aeuo, which is thus explained, 
quandolibet vestrum gero omni aeuo affectum. — 
Maro, 77, 6. 

Or in single words, e.g. nodo for dono, nesi for sine, gernien 


for regnum. — Maro 78, 28. This process appears ín Irish as 
delidin sillabacda, Aur. 5312. 

Ainans may be transformed into inanas (Maro, 79, 4), hei'i 
into iwei, is into si {y^, 31) ; atat into tata {jg, 10), a process 
which is called delitin litterda, metathesis of letters, Aur. 5308. 

A meaningless syllable or disyllable may be introduced 
into a vvord, e.g. naviga-be-re for navigare, b-u-onuni for 
bonum (Maro, 78, iy)\ forti-osi-ter íov fortiter, compt-os-e for 
compte (Maro, p. 70, 6). A meaningless disyllable so intro- 
duced into Gaelic is called condall, Aur. 5317. 

The unstressed syllable following an accented syllable is 
sometimes dropped, e.g. rogassem, rogasse for rogauissem, 
rogauisse ; rogarunt, i'ogarit for rogauerunt, i'ogauerit (Maro, 
78, 10). In Gaelic poetry this is called cotut, Aur. 5287. 

Still more does the influence of Maro emerge in the 

The name Trefhocul bears a resemblance to the heading 
of the chapter De trimodo dicendi genere, Orig. ii. 17 which 
may have suggested it. Similarly the twelve items compos- 
ing the Trefhocul might have been originally suggested by 
the duodecim latinitates of Maro, p. 88, 22, e.g. 

\l. lumbrosa, hoc est perlonga, cum pro uno usitato 
totus uersus scribitur, with perlonga, cf. (can) rofota, 
Aur. 5060 ; and for the matter, cf. Aur. 5943 where 
each letter besides being written is spelt. 

VII. sincolla, hoc est perbreuis, uersa uice cum totus 
uersus usitatus in uno continetur fono. With per- 
breuis, cf. (can) rogair, Aur. 5059, and for the matter, 
cf. Aur. 1326. 

VIII. belsauia, hoc est peruersa, cum casus nominum 
modusque uerborum transmutat. With peruersa, cf. 
(can) chl(3en. — Aur. 5057, 5086. 

XI. spela, hoc est humillima, quae semper res terrenas 
loquitur, with humillima, cf a irisel, used of an 
appended syllable, a. — Aur. 5079, 5346. 


XII. polema, hoc est superna quae de superioribus 

tractat. With superna, cf. a irard, an appended 

syllable, aib.—Auv. 5078, 5341. 
II. Assena, hoc est notaria, quae una tantum littera 

pro toto sono contenta est, cf. Q for ceirt, Aur. 

5816, and R for Ruis 5820. 

These coincidences are too numerous to be accidental. 
Omitting- other lesser similaritíes, to lay stress on which 
might be regarded as fanciful, we come to the solid ground 
of quotation, (Hereon Zimmer, not having the whole tract 
before him, could find no footing.) 

V. metrofia, hoc est intellectualis, ut dictantabat, id est 
principium ; sade, id est iustitia ; gno utilitas ; bora, 
hoc est fortitudo ; ter hoc est dualitas coniugalis ; 
rfoph, hoc est ueneratio ; brops, hoc est pietas ; 
rihph, hoc est hilaritas ; gal, hoc est regnum ; fkal, 
hoc est religio ; clitps, hoc est nobilitas ; mymos, 
dignitas ; fann, hoc est recognitio ; ulio, hoc est 
honor ; gabpal, hoc est obsequium ; blaqth, hoc est 
lux solis ; merc hoc est pluuia ; pal, dies et nox ; 
gatrb, hoc est pax ; biun, hoc est aqua et ignis; 
spax, longeuitas. 

With the exception of y and z, which may have been 
added from another source, the explanation following hoc est, 
id est, is in each case identical with that given in Aur. 4211- 

Perhaps more important than all is the following : 
De Ji autem hoc dicendum est, quod semper inspirat, 
nunc ad fortitudinem, nunc ad motationem tantum. 
Nam cum semiuocalem praecesseritT^ solum sonum 
pariter motabunt ut hfascon et faciunt/'pro Jif, si 
uero mutam c uel / uel/», suum sonum non amittit 
ut Jicorda, Jitronus, Jipalanx, Maro, p. 10, 9-14. 

This passage throws light on Aur. 432, 1264-1279. Bogad 
there means aspiration (and apparently on finals) ut clocJi, 


both. It has also another vciQdiXÚng.fortitudo^ ínfluenced by 
Ogham usage, where B + H = P, thus supplying the P which 
is non-existent in pure Gaelic. Seuiigud, again, means 
lenition and apparent]y on initials, but on this point the 
examples are inconclusive (cf. beith mo hsuidhe CZ. x. 266). 
Here the aspirating H precedes the consonant it aspirates, 
and thus Maro and the Auraicept are at one. 

The warrantable conclusions to be drawn from the facts 
are few but very important. Bigerro sermone clefabo (Maro 
8, 13) "in the speech of Bigorre," which Zimmer presses to 
shovv that Maro was a native of that district, though in the 
tenth century he is called Tolosanus, proves merely that 
Maro was more gr less conversant with Baskish. He was 
acquainted with viro athensi, a man belonging to the town of 
Ate south of Limoges (Maro 141, 28). He mentions a Sibylla 
Carginiensis, belonging to the town of Carca, in the Depart- 
ment of the Iberian Bastitani (p.48, 25), and heknewa great 
number of Irishmen. Except perhaps in the passage last 
quoted in which h ad fortitudinevi may be compared with b 
cum aspiratione pro p ponitur (432, 2879), no connection is 
traceable between him and Ferchertne fili^ whose work 
belongs to a much earlier period than the Trefhocul. The 
influence of Maro's book on Irish grammar is confined to 
the Tref hocul, the last stage of the growth of prosody. The 
Auraicept proper, of which Ferchertne fili was one of the 
authors, or one under whose name ancient material was 
incorporated, shows no trace of Maro's influence. 

Interesting questions arise in the text itself, some of 
which need only be mentioned, eg. : — 

The so-called mutes /, n, r, pronounced e/, en, er in Latin, 
le, ne, re 'm Gaelic (490, 511, 2981). 

The frequent absence of aspiration, or aspiration by 
omission, of f and s, 

ni aimser fota 1576, ae aiges (408,9). 


The confusion owing to the distance of the gloss from its 
text; e.g., 15 15 is glossed at 1637, 1533-5 at 1675, 1577 at 
1686, 1579 at 1687, 1591 at 1692, 1609-14 at 1695. 

The tendency of words and phrases Hke alt co fesear 
(827, 1686), 2ináfogn{ (1336, 1871) to become technical terms. 

The French pronunciation of Latin, sirqundimus (4125), 
sircuim (4132), sircumplex (4784), siicuitas (2531), resulting 
in important changes in Gaelic, isinn Asia (2571) for isind 
Achaidh (251). 

The rhymes, some apparently without sense (806), some 
without metre (1546), and some in metre but obscured by 
glosses (253, 4360, 5932). 

The etymological reconstructions : — 

co-fid/í?r cubaid (1512), 

ciallabair/í?r ceileabar (1594), 

ÍQgdAt for fichit (4735), >r fégait, sedhait (4737), segait 

co, hógfégad/6'r cóic (1637), 
ré huamma/í?r réim (1638), 
so-fis/?r seis (479), 
ae gmúilfor aicned (501), 
suad/?r uad (495), 

conod miait (508)/í?r conid muiti (495), 
dorrae for trá (573), smitai, smit ai ( = aue)/í?r smita 
The constant modernising of the text : — 
ceithri gne (872), ceitheora gnee (3747), 
moosoxn for moam (658), 
lugusom/?r lugam (659), 
cinntechsom,cinntichu son (1258)/í?r cinntechem (4368). 

Syllable, the ultimate element of everything in Gaelic 
except gender (1457). Number, case, person, degree, tense, 
mood, are indicated by syllables, whereas there is no 


distinction of gender indicated in spelling ; and inod, tod, 
traeth^seciinduni, quosdani is aurlond (1496) or leading vvord 
that indicates gender, 

The ascription of the same poem to Colum Cille (938), 
and to Cormac (1596, 3867, 5351). 

The repetition of the same passages 1487, 1502; cf. 2616, 
2622, shows that the present text is made up from at least 
two versions which sometimes contained the same material 
in dififerent order. Hence no doubt comes the disjointed 
character of many passages. 

The following terms, however, are of importance in order 
to understand the text : — 

The word inroconiraircnigsioniairne gives the key to the 
plan of inflection called filltigthi, prepositional cases (1515). 
These eight syllables are held to form one word. According 
to our present grammatical methods the basis or unity is the 
compound word of five syllables coniroircnigsemniar. It is 
preceded by a relative pronoun ati- and by an enclitic or 
pre-verb -ro-, and it is followed by an emphasising pro- 
nominal sufifix -ni. But the native Irish grammarians 
regarded all these syllables as parts of one word, and the 
scribes wrote the whole as one word. In their opinion 
proclitics were not separate words, but rather filltigthi, 
inflections, of the accented word. Accordingly, they wrote 
frissinfer as one word, an inflected form oí fer, and gave it 
a distinct technical name. This also explains how is fer 
(1529) comes into the scheme. Is was an unstressed pro- 
clitic, and as such was treated as part of the word following. 
They did not observe that is fer, a thúarascbáil, had already 
been dealt with under the head oí fer, a ainmniugud ; nor 
did they recognise identity of case and inflection in the 
words which they wrote 

hifer^frissinfer; fofiur^ iarfiur (1525). 


Classiíication of prepositions, or any explanation of 
infixed pronouns (653) was thus rendered unnecessary. 

Another flexion is réim, which later means oblique case 
(786). Of this flexion there are three kinds outward, inward, 
and both combined : outward ut est,fer. There is no flexion 
in the word as it stands in the nom., but there may be 
flexion in the context, e.g., in the accus., lasin {bf)fer; fir 
is an inward flexion oi fer ; and in fer is capable of both, 
e.g., dondfiur. 

Tcebreijn prosta •{• fadéin i^'do) is the side-flexion, /.é'., the 
external flexion of mé, tú, etc. 

Tréfhocul rhymes with glé-accur (2179), and hence-has 
é and f. It means "three words" (2018), "and the know- 
ledge of its secret," z>., probably how it came to be so named, 
" is very hard," considering that " already thirty-six words 
have been found comprised under its species iri Irish" (2021). 
Tréfhocul -came to mean a collection of precepts for the 
correction of incorrect versification. For each of the twelve 
technical faults {anochi), there were two correctives, each 
having its technical name, one belonging to the class called 
scíath, the other to that called gm'iis. Thus the whole system 
ofcorrect versification would have beeii comprised under a 
set of mnemonics, each mnemonic consisting of three heads, 
the name of the fault and the name of its two correctives — 
in short, it was a three-word scheme, and accurately named 
Tréfhocul. The original scheme of two correctives for each 
error is commended (2010-3), and still adhered to in rudrach 
(2047), and in uathadfri hilar (2057). But later refinements 
led to overlapping in the application of the correctives. 
Hence we find in the poem that a particular fault may be 
corrected or avoided by having recourse to more than one 
device of each class, scíath or gnúis. 

We read that the 24 helps are increased to 47 (2126). 
The first list (2035-2071) totals 48, not 47; the second list 


(2083-2118) totals 51; the third list (2131-2176) totals 48. 
The discrepancies may be purely scribal, and due to a mis- 
reading of the Roman numerals, e.g., iii. read as iv., ii. as v., 
a constant source of error. 

What is the difference between the two kinds of 
corrective? It will be found that all those called scéith, 
except lugugud, the acjdition of a diminutive suffix, are 
purely artificial distortions of the words ; whereas those 
called gnmst, except cennfochrus túis, airichill, dechtied, and 
dichned, are in accordance with strict grammatical usage : 
e.g., the use metri causa of sofer instead of fer {sóerugud) ; 
dofer instead o'i fer {dóerugud) ; the addition of two proclitic 
syllables {lorga fuach), or of one syllable {dia/t n-etarléme) ; 
the use of issé, issi, issed {tirlonn insce), where they might be 
omitted, e.g. — 

issí ind ala gnúis dég dil, 
urlonn insci ria hairim, 

(where issi completes the number of syllables required but 
might be dispensed with, if the number were complete 
without it) ; the use of singular for plural {óen), e.g. — 

creid uaim féin, is fíor mo rann, 

" my quatrain," meaning (all the quatrains of) " my poem " ; 
the use of plural for singular {Idn), e.g. — 

meni fhuilet (2198) = meni fuil. 

There must be some distinction of ideas in thetwo terms. 
The gnúisi are or were originally the natural devices, and 
the scéith the artificial devices for avoiding metrical faults, 
and perhaps the words were adopted on that principle, 
gnúis being the natural part of the man on the outloolc to 
ward off an enemy, sciath the artificial implement for the 
same purpose. 

A similar touch of imagination emerges in regarding 



head and heart as being supports of man, the male behig 
(1808, 4994), and the further refinements of lánovina and theír 
gene, mated pairs and their progeny. In the original notion 
doubtless the distinction was based on gender, but that fact 
was forgotten, and among the examples are lánomna deime 
(4999), mated couples (mas. and fem. in grammar), belonging 
to dem (a thing which is neuter in nature). This usage is 
even extended to quantity, which is still more remote from 
the original idea of gender. 

The same tendency to personification appears in the 
suggested distinction ■a^xiow^ forcomét^frecomét, and degcomét 
(1818) ; forcomét^ defensive armour, as kneecap on knee ; 
frecomét, armament of offence, as knuckles ; and degcomét, 
that which protects by supplying life and vigour. 


Ogham alphabet was not of Irish origin (388, 2771). 

" Vielleicht," says Zimmer, "schon dem 2. Jahrhundert n. 
Chr. ist der Verkehr des keltisch-romischen Westgalliens mit 
seiner alten Kolonie, dem keltischen Irland, die Einfiihrung 
des Ogamalphabets in Irland und die Sitte, dem Dahin- 
geschiedenen aufrechtstehende Steinpfeiler zu errichten, 
zuzuschreiben (SPA., 8th Dec. 1910, p. 1096). 

According to MacNeill (p. 335) the origin of the Ogham 
alphabet must be placed after the Roman conquest of Gaul, 
because prior thereto the Western Celts of the continent used 
the Greek alphabet, and Ogham is based on the Latin alphabet. 

In our knowledge of written Gaelic, Ogham inscription 
bounds the horizon, and the identity in value of the Ogham 
symbols with later MS. tradition is clear, with a few 

B Group. 

Oghamists are agreed that F, the third letter of the 
group, must be read as V in inscriptions. 


H Group. 

In the Kílkenny Arch. /ourna/, July 1874, P- 231, Mr 
G. M. Atkinson suggested that this group is named after the 
first five Gaelic numerals, haon, do, tri, ceathar, ciiig. This 
suggestion, without touching on the origin of H, is open to 
the objection that óen in O.I. is used only in composition 
with a substantive ; but in the meantime it furnishes a useful 
mnemonic, and, as it stands, it indicates a possible connection 
between this group and nunierosa, No. IV. of the duodecini 
latinitates of Maro, p. 89,9. 

The difficulty is with regard to H, the first letter of the 
group. According to Maro H has two powers, ad mota- 
tioneni and ad fortitudineui, distinctions which correspond to 
the values in the text : {i) H non est litera sed nota aspirationis 
(767), and (2) B cuni aspiratione pro -p ponitur (433). 

There is no demonstrated instance of H occurring in any 
of the Ogham inscriptions, and the sign may have originally 
been devised to represent a consonant value which became 
rare or obsolete before the time of the extant inscriptions ; 
and the first value of H was attracted to, and became 
identified with, the symbol when the letter became familiar 
through Latin sources. 

An endeavour is here made to establish the second or 
Ogham value of H from the following considerations. 

A stop sibilant existed in Gaelic {cf. Ped. 6"r. §51), corre- 
sponding to Gaulish D, which is sometimes written S, e.g., 
Lat. i-uuenc-us, Ir. ó-ac, Cym. ieu-anc ; also without c, Ir. óa, 
Cym. ieu. The sibilant representing / appears also in Ir. as 
s-ó, s-óu, s-ó-oni. That this sound is represented by Ogham 
H is rendered probable by the occurrence of the form 
iJiuinnéis, \^2X. juvenes, Ériu, viii. 5. 

But this sibilant sound is also written d, e.g., Tadg = 
Tasg-os, and probably r, e.g., do-bidc = -dibirc {cf Brér 


Garad for Brég Garad g.s, of Brí Garad). This value 
following B vvould give the Ogham B + H = P. 

Again the three Ogham accents are represented in the 
text by the letters d, s, n, (4800). At lines 430, 2877, 
hovvever, are found the three supplementa written h, s, n, 
except that at line 2878 for s=/í?rj-rt://is written the Latin sign 
of length (T has a sign that may be meant for s), and a 
particular sign is substituted for n. This leaves a probability 
that here H has the same value as D. 

Teora fiiillti ind Uraicepto (430, 2877) seem to be the 
three supplenienta {cf. Origg. i. 3, 6), not of the Ogham but 
of the Auraicept, that is, they are additions made to the 
Ogham orthographic system by the grammarians of the MS. 
tradition. If this Hmitation be correct, examples of supple- 
menta need hardly be looked for in the ancient Oghams. 
No opinion on this point is obtainable from modern 
Oghamists ; for the word forbaid is hardly knovvn, and 
Oghamists have hitherto ignored it. The word, however, 
occurs vvith deíinitions and examples in the Book of 
Ferchertne (810, 3633) one of the oldest parts of the text, 
and some of its provisions are exemplified, e.g.^ n (of cenn) is 
not doubled in Ogham (439) e.g. Qenvendani, Ileí/i^o-ouí 1/^09 
(Ped. Gr. §357). On the other hand a large number of 
inscriptions contain double letters. While some of these, 
dd and s, may perhaps be accents as indicated in the 
Auraicept, others like cc (1358, 1825) and 11 (4788) obviously 
are not. Rhys Pedersen {Gr. § 4), and others incline to think 
them signs of lenition. 

M Group. 

The fact that the third symbol has the efifect of two 
letters ng proves nothing as to that combination (4925). 

In Ogham inscriptions the letters, if they belong to 
different syllables, are written separately, Ir. Ep. i. 49. 


The fourth symbol is saíd to represent sr or str, and the 
examples Stru 247, 2562, Streulse 5690, Strannan 5795, seem 
sufficient to establish that sound. The other examples point 
to a rare or obsolete sound like English z, e.g., stmólach 5695, 
sréghuindeacht 5801, súst 5727, srorca 5700, 

No authenticated instance of this symbol has been found 
in inscriptions. 

A Group. 

The simple vowels have the same order and value as in 

In epigraphy no distinction of long and short vowels has 
hitherto been observed. 

Ea or Diphthong Group. 

The first and the last symbols ea and ae are inter- 

The doubling of each letter in the explanatory script 
(1143) shows that the symbols stand for long vowels as well 
as diphthongs. Examples are given of e and o (2873), of e 
and e (1285). 

The symbol for í (1369) is also used for p {Ir. Ep. ii. 83 ; 
cf. MacNeill, p. 335,6) and for medial y. 

The symbol for 8B (1365,70) is also used for x, which is 
regarded as a double c (oc). 

Prof MacAlister {Ir. Ep. ii. 144-8) has called attention to 
an excellent example — perhaps two — of Nathair im Ceann 
(5821). Owing to his axiom that the Oghams were not 
Cryptograms (/r. Ep. i. 66), he is unwilling to allow that the 
B and H groups were consciously interchanged (ii. 26, 140). 
But this interchange is contemplated (Aur. p. 306, 42), and 
since the study of the Oghams was elementary work pre- 
scribed for junior students, the wonder is perhaps that so 
many of the epigraphs are in regular Ogham. 



A Harmony between the Two Families of Texts. 
I. II. I. II. 





















261, 1242 















2710, 2352 




• 2731 


























































3284, 3306 




3315, 3323 








































































1034, 174 

3989, 2545 


4015-23, 4096-4 lOI 

































































4464, 4512 



























I5I5, 1637 

































4726, 4816 




























491 1 

























300-3 1 1 

Passages in I. only. 

I 446-7 1 1893-1939 

I 806-9 I 1962-2259 

Passages ín 1 1. only. 


































Passages Misplaced. 




BB. 314 a 16 E. 19/3 14 

Incipit Auraicept na nEges -l eraicept, ar er gach 
toiseach. Cid dianad toisseach seo ? Ni ansa. Don tebi 
rotebed isin Gaedilg, uair is ed toisseach arricht la Fenius 
iar tiachtain din scoil gusna berlaib ammuich : gach son 
forrdorcha robae in gach bescno 7 in gach berlu, is ed 5 
doradadh isin Gaedilg, conad airi as foirleithiu gimvi gach 
berla. Ar gach toisseach diíím, uair is ed ba toisseach lais- 
na filedaib gach son fordorcha do riachtain i tossuch -i- 
beithi-luis ind ogaim arbithin dorchadad. Cest, cia tugaid 
ara n-ebí?rar berla tobaide din Gaedilg? Ni ansa. Uair 10 
rotebedh as gach beria ; 7 gach son fordorcha gach berla, 
fo[fh]rith ined doib isin Gaedelg ara forleithi seach gach 
mbescna. Cest óidm, ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe ? 
Robae emh, ar ni fagbaití?r na da berla sechtmogat 
ar cheana. Cest, cia tir i rrugad Gaedeal ? Ni a/isa. 15 
I nEgipt. Ocus cia airm sonnrud? Ni ansa. I 
mmaigh Ucca i rraind iartharaig descertaig Egipti. 
Cia áin scoil dus-cuaid gu suidhe ? Ni ansa. Gaidel 
mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Barachaim do Grecaib Scitie 
(no Scithie) (col. ^). Cest, cia met don-uc di ? Ni ansa. 20 
A huiledeto genmotha inni rothormachtatar fihd tria 
fordorchadh iar torrachtain gu Fenius. Cest, cia berla 

Araicept andso sis ^.[305] 

1 ur E. ° roboi, bescnu E. * ar Q=^yuam') in MSS., asin 

Goedelg, ar gach mberla E. '^ lasin filid E. ** cest writtenout 

1" ar a n-eiper, teipide E. ^^ rotopad ae E. ^^ ana rugad E. 

i'' remradí E. ^** dacuaidh £. ^" Barrcaimh, Sgeithegda E. 

-''' L. dunuch B. ^^ rotormactar E. : dotormachtadar L. 



Incipit Primer of the Poets, that is, eraicept, beginning 
of lessons, for every beginning is er. To what is this a 
beginning? Not hard. To the selection that was 
selected in Gaelic since this is the beginning which was 
invented by Fenius after the coming of the school with 
the languages from abroad, every obscure sound that 
existed in every speech and in every language was 
put into Gaelic so that for this reason it is more compre- 
hensive than any language. Er then is every beginning, 
for this was the beginning with the poets, that every 
obscure sound should come in the beginning, to wit, 
the Beithe Luis of the Ogham on account of obscurity. 
Ouery, what is the reason why select language should 
be said of GaeHc? Not hard. Because it was selected 
from every language ; and for every obscure sound of 
every language a place was found in Gaelic owing to 
its comprehensiveness beyond every speech. Query, 
then, did not Gaelic exist before it was selected ? It did 
indeed, for the seventy-two languages are not found other- 
wise. Query, in what land was Gaedel born ? Not hard. 
In Egypt. And what particular place? Not hard. In 
the plain of Ucca in the South-Western division of 
Egypt. Who of the school went to it thither? Not 
hard. Gaedel son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham, 
a Scythian Greek. Query, how much did he bring 
of it? Not hard. The whole of it except what poets 
added by way of obscuration after it had reached Fenius 


4 BB. 314^18 AURAICEPT E. 19/333 

duna di berlaibh scchtmogat rotaisealbad do Fenius i 
tossuch? Ni ansa. Berla Feni . . . ar is e ba tochu lais 
dia scoil 7 is e rodn-alt asa oetid 7 is e ba soom din scoil 7 25 
ar a forleithi seach gach mbeascna 7 is e berla toisseach 
rugad on tur. Et robíE Eabra 7 Greic 7 Laitin la Fenius 
riasu tissaí/ on Scithia 7 ni rainig a leas a ndeimniughudh 
icon tur, conidh aire sin toisseach rotaissealbad. Cest, 
nach raibi isna berlaib ilib ni bad uaisli du riachtain 30 
i tossuch quam (-i- inas) in Gaidelg? Ni ansa em. 
Ar a cuibdi, ar a edruma, ar a mine 7 a forleithiu. 
Cid ar nad lethiu quam (-i- inas) gach mbescna? Ni 
ansa. Uair is e cetna bescno rugad on tur, bamede 
co mbad leithiu quam gach mbescna, conid íen dia taiseal- 35 
bad i tossach. Caide loc 7 aimsear 7 perso 7 tugait 
din GíEdelg? Ni ansa. Loc di in tor Neamrua[i]d, 
ar is aga arricht i tossuch. Aimsear di aimser chum- 
taigh in tuir la claind Adaimh. Persu di Sachab mac 
Rochemhurcos 7 Gaedel mac Etheoir mic Thoe mic 40 
Barachaim do Grecaib Scithia. Caidhe tugaid ? Ni 
ansa. Tor Nemrua[i]dh di cumtuch. Asberait araile 
conid tugait Gae-(3i5)-del du dul isin tir i rrugad, conidh 
he toissech roscrib i taiblibh 7 i llegaibh isin lug sond- 
rud dianad ainm Calcanensis. Is and roscrib Gaedel in 45 
Gaedealg. Cid ar a n-abar bescna domunda din Gaedhilg 
7 nach di ata briathar lasna hegnadu eolcha ? Ni ansa. 
Arinni aisnedes du ceastaib 7 du chaingnib domundaibh 
eter tuaith 7 eglais. Cid ara n-ep^T comad borb fiadh 
Dia inti legas in Gaedhelg ? Ni di ata briathar and etíT 50 

"^ dib, Fenius ar E. ^4 Something omitted, cf. YBL. 2308, which puts Gredel. 
25 7 ire rodnalt B. ^8 tidecht E. ^9 rothaiselb E. ^ nanraibe E. 
31 quam MS. ar. 32 forlethne E. 37 jon E. ^^ arricht tósaig E. 

39 nAdaim E. mac Roceimbruigemicos E. ''^ a thuccait E. 

■" rr M b, to be wearied, marginal gloss, probably in.tended for n"!*?, 
table, and referring to tables of stone, Ex. xxiv. 12 ; Deut. iv. 13, etc. Lower 
margin glosses 314 B. 

(i) doseadad ambi logos, cf. alogii, Origg, viii. 5, 26 

(2) beascna -i- urlabra '*'' sunraig E. 


Query, what language of the seventy-two was publíshed 
by Fenius first? Not hard. The Irísh Language . . . for 
it is he whom he preferred of his school, and whom he 
had reared from his youth, and it is he that was the 
youngest of the school, and on account of its comprehen- 
siveness beyond every speech, and it was the first language 
that was brought from the Tower. Fenius had Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin before he came from Scythia, and he 
had no need to establish them at the Tower, wherefore 
on that account it was published first. Query, was there 
not among the many languages something nobler to take 
precedence of Gaelic ? Not hard. No indeed, on account 
of its aptness, lightness, smoothness, and comprehensive- 
ness. Wherefore is it -more comprehensive than any 
speech? Not hard. Because it was the first speech 
that was brought from the Tower, it was of such extent 
that it was more comprehensive than any speech so 
that it was the one to be published at first. What 
are the place, time, person, and cause of Gaelic? Not 
hard. Its place, the Tower of Nimrod, for there it 
was invented at first. Its time the time of building 
the Tower by Adam's children. Its person Sachab son 
of Rochemhurcos and Gaedel son of Ether, son of 
Toe, son of Baracham, a Scythian Greek. What is its 
cause? Not hard. The building of Nimrod's Tower. 
Others say the cause was that Gaedel went into the 
land in which he was born so that he was the first that 
wrote it on tablets and stones in the particular place 
which is named Calcanensis. There Gaedel wrote Gaelic. 
Wherefore is 'worldly speech ' said of Gaelic, since it is 
not referred to by the learned sages? Not hard. On 
account of what it relates of worldIy questions and cases 
both of laity and clergy. Wherefore is it said that he 
who reads Gaelic is rude before God ? Not to it is refer- 

6 BB.3i5a8 AURAICEPT E.aoaó 

acht do uilídeataid na feallsamnachta eter gramadaigh 7 

dileachtaigh 7 nm, amal atbert in filz: 

Foglaim, feallsamnacht is fas, 

Legeand, gramadach, zs gluas, 

Litirdheacht leir ocus rim 55 

Is beg a mbrig for nimh thuas. 

Cest, nach fellsamnacht in Gaedhealg? Ni ansa em, acht 
na ndenaid mi«-ughdair fri dereadh in domain ar thucait 
a nderscnaighthi seach na n-ughdrt;7^ toisseacha, no is ed 
as bescna domunda and 7 is fhellsamnacht dimhain : ind 60 
eire[te]acht 7 ind aibres dorigni neach i n-aigidh na 
^nndi diadha 7 daení/a 7 is ed sin is borb fiad Dia and. 

XfcMff"- Caidi log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tugait scribind in Urai- 

cepta? Ni oenlog tra lasna cethri Hbro, amal atbert in fil/: 
a n-as tuiseach, is ed is deghenach, a n-as dedhenach, is 65 
ed as toisseach -i- a n-as toisseach iar n-urd lebhurda, is 
ed as dedhenacho arricht -i- lebor Cindfaeladh mic Oilella. 
Log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tucait scribind in libhuir sin 
Cindfaeladh, log do Daire Luran, aimser do aimser Dom- 
\ naill mic ^Eda mic Ainmireach. Perso do Cendfaeladh 70 
mac Oilella, tugait a scribind a hiwchind dermait du beim 
a cind Chindfaelad i cath Muighi Rath. Ceithri buadha 
in catha sin : Maidm for Conghal ina gaei re nDomnall 
ina firindi; et Suibni i ngealtacht, acht is ar a mhed du 
laidib duroni ; in fear d'AIbanachaib do breith in Erennaich 75 
'na chois dar muir gen airiugudh -i- Dubhdiadh a ainm ; 
etz. inchind dermaid du bhem acind Cindfasladh ar a mhed 
do fhilideacht 7 do bhriathraibh 7 do legeand rothaisigh. 

y_7^ 5'io Asberat tra augdair na nGaideal : Cid ara n-ebairt- 

seom, asberat na hughtair robadar remi ? uair is e Cendfaelad 80 

53'! CZ. IX. 470. ■''•' feallsamlachta E. ^^ gramatagda gluas E. : gluais B. 

56 gun rígfuas E. ^'J toisechu E. ™ Origg. viii. 5, 28 ; 6, i, 19 et secj. 

•51 amaires dogní E. «'' persa E. •'" iar n-urd leabur Ailella E. 

"^ ecc Domnaill mac Aodha R[ig] E[renn] A.D. 642, marginal note by 
CharlesO'Connor «s, 70 pgrsu E. «• Luran Cuili Dremnigh T. 'L " bei« E. 

■^" MR. 279, note e '^•' rian Domnail E. "^* i ngeilt re geltacht E. 

■^s ag airfite caich o sin a leith. Et an fer do .feraibh Albun . , . slicht 
liubair aile seo T. do Albancaibh E. "•> gen artrach E. 


ence made here at all, but to the whole of philosophy, both 
grammar, cHalectic, and metrics ; as the poet said : — 

Learning and philosophy are vain, 
Reading, grammar and gloss, 
Diligent literature and metrics, 
Small their avail in heaven above. 

Query, is Gaelic not philosophy ? Not hard. (No) 
indeed save that which minor authors towards the end 
of the world make as a means for distínguishing them- 
selves beyond the former authors : or this is what are 
worldly speech and vain philosophy, viz., the heresy and 
the unbelief which any one has shown against the truth, 
divine and human, and that is the meaning of *' rude 
before God.' 

What are the place, time, person, and cause of writing 
the Primer? Not one place have the four books, as the poet 
says : What is first is last what is last is first, to wit, what 
is first according to book order was invented last ; to 
wit, the book of Cennfaeladh, son of Oilill. As regards 
place, time, person, and cause of writing that book of 
Cennfaeladh : its place Derry Luran, its time the time 
of Domnall, son of Aed, son of Ainmire. Its person 
Cennfaeladh son of Oilill; cause of writing it, that his 
brain of oblivion was dashed out of Cennfaeladh's head in 
the battle of Moira. Four glorious events of that battle : 
Rout of Conghal in his lie before Domnall in his truth ; 
and Suibne in madness, but it is owing to the quantíty 
of poems he had made ; the Scotsman bcaring the Irish- 
man along with him over sea without being noticed, Dubh 
Diadh was his name ; and his brain of oblivion being 
dashed out of Cennfaeladh's head, owing to the extent of 
poetry, words, and reading that he amassed, 

Now the authors of the Gael say : Why did he 
say that the authors who were before him ' say ' ? since 

8 BB. 3I5«39 AURAICEPT E.20a29 

araíníg in lebar-sa -i- brollach 'md Auraicepta. Ocus na 
ugdair na nGíedheal, roba he sein Fenius Farsaigh J lar 
na n-ilberla mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisli na haimsiri 
asrubairt -i- aimsiri frecnairci uair gebidh in aimsir frecnairc 
arna huilib aimseraib, 7íí dicitur : Prescens tevipus pro oiimi- 85 
bus teniporibus ponitur -i- sam(l)aigther in aimsir frecnairc 
forna huilib aimseraib, Cinnas on 7 se ig a rádh int aen- 
fhocul i mbit in da shilk<^ nach cantar i n-aenaimsir ut 
dicitur lego -i- \, quando dicis (col. ^) Xo,- , futuruni est 
-go \/]uando dicis -go], preterituni est le- -i- intan raide 90 
int ^^\aib toisich todachaiche chugut int shillís:^^ dedenach 
7 seachmadhato seachat int shillab thoisenach. Defir on 
amal asbert in Laidneoir : Tenipus non diuiditur sed opera 
nostra diuiditur •\- nochon i in aimsear fhogailter and 
acht ar ngnimradh-ne. Ni hi dno is frecra dona 95 
haugdaraib robadar i n-aenaimsir ris fen tuc Ceannfaelad 
intan roraidh, asberait auctair na nGaedeal. Cidh ara 
tuc-somh a ar tus suní/a? -i- uair is i i[s] sruithiu i fedaibh 
7 is uaisli i wgw'Oíxaigib. 
Z.^2"^'^' Co mbad si tugait in berla Peni (-i- berla Feniusa) 100 

gnim n-ingnad n-indligtheach i- is gnim n-ingnadh -i- 
ingnath ara ainmenci, indlightheach ara uaibrigi -i- triall 
for neam ina corpaib collaidib gan comairlechudh fri Dia. 

Porcsemnacair and i- cimitach in tuir Neam- 
ruaidh. In Neamruadh sin tra trenfhear sil Adaimh 105 
uile in[a] aimsir e, Neamruadh mic Cuis mic Caimh 
mic Noe. Ni bai iaramh aenrigh for in doman 
gu haimsir Nin mic Bel acht mad comhairlidhe 7 
toisig nama badar and go sin anall. Da comhairlidh 
sechtmogat iaramh robadar isin domun isin aimsir i 110 

^i ocus an L. E. »2 robathesein E. -^ cf. Gr. Lat, iii. 191, 2 

'^ samaigt//^;- E. ^" cf. Origg. v. 31, 9 «'' diuiduntur, fodlaitfr E. 

83 NihiB. noisE. 100 tucait airic E. "3.6 Nemruad E. : Nemruaidh B. 
1*' ina aimsir he L. los, » comairlig L. : comairlede E. 


it ís Cennfaeladh that invented this book, viz., the 
Prologue of the Primer. And the authors of the Gael, 
that vvas Feníus Farsaidh, and lar of the many languages, 
son of Nema. Not hard [2nd Ans.]. Owing to the 
nobility of the time he said it, that is, the present time, for 
he puts the present time for all times : ut dixit : Praesens 
tenipiis pro ouinibns teuiporibns ponitur^ i.e., the present 
time is put for all times. How is that? since he says 
óf the one word in which are tvvo syllables, that they 
are not spoken at one time, ut dicitur^ lego, I read, 
quando dicis \Q-futuruni est-go [quando dicis-go] praeteritum 
est le- i.e., vvhen you say the first syllable, the last 
syllable is future to you, and [when you say the last] 
the first syllable is preterite to you. That is natural 
as the Latinist said : Tenipus non dividitur sed opera 
nostra dividuntur, i.e., it is not time that is divided 
there but our actions. This however, is not a reference 
to the authors who lived at the same time vvith himself 
which Cennfaeladh gave vvhen he said ' the authors of 
the Gael say.' Why has he placed a first here? Because 
it is the eldest among letters and the noblest among 

Tliat this is the reason for the Irish Language 
(that is Fenius' speech) ; a deed wonderful, unlawful, 
that is, an unusual deed, unusual for its infrequency, 
unlawful for its pride, an attempt on heaven in their 
fleshly bodies without permission of God. 

Which happened there, i.e., the building of Nimrod's 
Tower. Novv that Nimrod vvas champion of all Adam's 
seed in his time, Nimrod, son of Cush, son of Ham, 
son of Noah. There vvas not then any king over 
the world till the time of Nin, son of Bel, but only 
counsellors and chiefs vvere in existence up till that 
time. Seventy-two counsellors accordingly were in the 

lO BB. 315/3 22 AURAICEPT E. 20^3 1 

ndernad in tor. Ba he dno in dara comairlib sechtmogat 
Neamruad. Trenfear sidhe dno / fer an i selg -i- for 
aigibh 7 fiadhuch -i- for mila muige 7 arrcheasaib -i- for 
mucaib alltaib 7 fornelaib -i- for enaib, co mbidis sochaidi 
do dhainibh ica leanmain samlaidh co mba lia -i- hi sloghaib 115 
7 co mba nertmairi oldas comhairlid samhlaidh. Conid 
he dorimtas (-i- rotimairg) na da comairHb sechtmogat sin 
i n-aencomairli do dhenum in tuir la hua brathar a athar 
•i- la hiarmo der[b]brathar a shenathar -i- la Fallec mac 
Ragua mic Arfaxat mic Sem mic Noe ; 7 ba he sen in 120 
dara comairlib sechtmogat cena go sin. Et asberatsomh 
iarum co mad aencomairlib 7 inann tuismidh doib uile 
in Faillec. Is imchomarc sun^/ anman<frt: na da fhear 
sechtmogat lais a ndernad in tor, acht chena ni airmed 
scribenda acht anmanda na seacht fear ndeg ba haireg[d]u 125 
dib -i- FaiIIec, Neamruad, Eber, Latinus, Riab^,^ Scot, 
Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus, 
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, Sardain. 
Acht chena is e in cetri iar ndilind iar n-aicniud -i- Neam- 
ruadh. Is e sin in cetri iar n-eladhain in Fallec remraite. 130 
Is e áono iar n-ugdaracht -i- Nin mac Bel mic PIoisc mic 
Pluliris mic Agomolis rnic Fronosis mic Gitlis mic Tiris 
mic Assuir mic Semh mic Noe. Atcotaidhi-seom dno 
anni sin. Et asberat Neamruadh co mbad a ainm-seomh 
fií'rbeith in gnima siiL Adrodamas (-i- rodaimed) dno dosom 135 
anni sin. Tredhe áxdiu ar a ndernad la claind nAdaim 
cumdach in tuir sin -i- ar imuamhan na dileand duridhisi 

111, 17, 22 comairlidh E. "- i seilg E. i»' oldas cac/í E. 

"^ i n-aencomairlid E. ^'^ St. Luke iii. 35 : hiarmuadh E. 

'2" Ragu E. '21 comairligh, conaigi sin E. 

'22 oentusidh E. '-■' Fallecc sin. anmand E. '-s ^^ ^iiii fer E, 

'2'i Eiber .\- mac Salai E. '-'^ Sgarath, Sgithus, Gotus, Sardanius E. 
'^' ugdaras E. Orosius vii. 2, 13 '■''- Piliris, Ithlis E. 

'*' Adcotaitise E. : -i' rotechtaid-sium L. '•* ndamaimh B. 

'*' Adrodmus E. : Androdamas ? cf. Origg. vii. 6, 22 ; xvi. 15, 8 : passage 
corrupt, cf. 2418,9, which is translated. 


world at the time ín vvhich the Tower was made, Now 
one of the ^2 was Nimrod. A mighty man was he 
and a man famous in hunting, to wit, for stags ; and 
in coursing, to wit, for hares ; and in trappings, to wit, 
wild pigs ; and in snarings, to wit, for birds. So that thus 
multitudes of men were following him so that he was 
more numerous, to wit, in armies and so that he was 
thus more powerful than a counsellor, So that it was he 
who united those ^2 counsellors to one counsel to make 
the Tower with the grandson of his father's brother, 
to wit, with the great grandson of his grandfather's 
brother, to wit, with Peleg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad, 
son of Shem, son of Noah. And he was one of the 
72 counsellors, too, up to that time. And they say 
therefore that Peleg was the one counsellor and the 
same parent of them all. A question here is, the names 
of the 72 counsellors by whom the Tower was made, 
only that writings do not enumerate but the names 
of the 17 men who were most illustrious among them, 
to wit, Peleg, Nimrod, Eber, Latinus, Rabiath Scot, 
Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus, 
Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, and 
Sardain. But at any rate after the flood the first king 
according to nature was Nimrod. That was the first 
king according to art, the Peleg aforesaid. According 
to authority, however, it was Nin son of Bel, son of 
Plosc, son of Pluliris, son of Agomolis, son of Fronosis, 
son of Gitlis, son of Tiras, son of Assur, son of Shem, 
son of Noah, He obtains, then, that thing. Nimrod 
said that it was his name that should be on that work 
for ever. Adrodamas, i.e., that thing also was granted 
him. Three things, then, on account of which the 
building of that Tower was accomplished by Adam's 
children, to wit, for dread of the flood again, and that 

12 BB. 3i5i3 49 AURAICEPT E. 30|3 23 

7 do dul for neamh doib 'na corpaib don talmain 7 d' 
urdairciugud a n-anmandh dia n-eis, conid de sin asbert 
righ nimhi fri muintir nimi (316): Uenite ut uideanius 7 140 
confundantus lingas eorum •\- tait co rofegam 7 gu romel- 
achtnaighem berla innani sin. Ba mor tra cumachta sil 
Adaimh 7 a nneart isin aimsir sin ic denum in tuir co 
festais iaramh [in] robhae cumachta righ nimhi uaso, conru- 
- ^jfnMm^ \]^- ai^niesc-sen -i- conremesc impu. In tan asberad neach 145 
dib fri aroili ' tuc damh cloch ' ba crand doberead -i- na 
lecca forsa suaitea in chre 7 na fí^rchai dia suaitea, is iat 
sin cco'md J clocha no-imluaighdis eturru. Dolodar tra 
?[\id asin Scithia riab cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea du 
cuingidh fogluma na n-ilberla icon tur, air dorum^«adar 150 
(•i- rotoiwtnigedar -i- dodochusaigeder) magen asa 
fordailte 7 i [n-]arnechta na hilberla do shil Adhaimh, 
romeartis and iarna comlani. Dolodar iaramh gu mag 
Seannair dochum in tuir -i- mag n-Ucna no mag nDoraimh 
i n-iartharthuascert maigi Sennair ainm soní/rudach na 155 
vnnd'i forsata in tor. Coigiurar sechtmoga[i]t a lin na filed 
•i- fear gach berla 7 na tri saidhi -i- sai gach primhberla 
dona tri primberlaibh -i- Eabra 7 Greic 7 Laidean. Ceit/zrz 
berla sechtmogat as gach berla dib-sen, is ed rofadlad and. 

Fenius Farrsaid, is ed ba hainm a \.tus'\gh 7 ba sai 160 
sen isna primberlaibh (cid siu na-tis<?</ a tuaid asin 
• Scithia). Is e fath ara cmrt/ier primhdhacht i lleith na 

tri mberla sin ara med do eladhnaibh dorighnedh estib 

13!' conad E. »o Vulgate, Gen. xi. 7 '^^ ticidh E. 

i^-' no is inbaid E. ^"'^ rodbe, conamessosen •i- conromesc impu E. 

^*'^ do cria suaite 7 do mitmuiw na clocha 7 na farcaidh dia suaitigh T. 

i^ no-imluaidis E. "" reib E. ree, fili T. 

'•'" ar doruimnetar (•!• brethnag) H. T. ^'^'^ airecta B. : airdechta E. 

'■'•^ romerdais E. i'^' ^ n-Iuchna, iart^?/;'-tuaisciurt E. 

1'''' raindi, a llin E. sechtmogat B. E. na fili T. 

^■'~ tri suidh •!• suidh E. ^^* rofor/bdlad E. 

i"'''' ba suid sen E. The parenthesis follows in B. E. 1. 165, notisis E. 


they should go to heaven in their bodies from the 
earth, and to render their names illustrious after them, 
so that on that account said the King of heaven to 
the people of heaven (316): Venite tit videamus et con- 
fundanius linguas eormn, that is, come that we may see 
and confound those men's speech. Now great was the 
power of Adam's seed and their strength at that time in 
making the Tower, that they might know thus whether 
the power of heaven's King was over them, He con- 
founded them, that is, He confused them. When one 
of them would say to another 'fetch me a stone' it was 
a stick he would bring, to wit, the slabs on which the 
mortar was mixed and the mallets by which it was 
mixed, these are the sticks and stones which they were 
talking about. Novv poets came from Scythia a little time 
after these doings to seek to learn the many languages 
at the Tower since they thought i.e. they supposed i.e. 
they expected, of a place from which were dispersed 
and in which had becn invented the many languages 
by Adam's children that they would remain there in per- 
fection. They went therefore to the plain of Shinar unto 
the Tower, that is, the plain of Ucna or the plain of 
Doraimh in the North West of the plain of Shinar, a special 
name of the point on which is the Tower. The poets 
numbered seventy-five, that is, one for each language, and 
the three sages, to wit, a sage for each of the three principal 
languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. Seventy - four 
languages, which is every one of these languages, that was 
what was dispersed there. 

Fenius Farsaidh was the name of their chief, and he 
was a sage in the principal languages even before he came 
from the North out of Scythia. The reason why superiority 
is claimed on behalf of these three languages is owing to 
the amount of compositions that were made out of them, 

14 BB. 3l6a23 AURAICEPT F. 20^44 

7 arin cumasc rocumaiscit tri gach mberla, no dno is 
arin titul roscribad estib 'na triur i clar na croiche. 165 
O na fuair Fenius comhlainius na mberladh icon tur 
forfodhail a scoil 7 a desciplu fo chaithrecha 7 fo cen- 
nadcha in talman ar gach leath du fhoghlaim na mberla 
7 rosn-othrastar Fenius etir biathadh 7 etghudh i cen 
badar oca fhoghlaim -i- secht mberla 7 anais Fenius icon 170 
tur 7 adrotreb co torracht a scol ina dochum di cach 
aird 7 bai ic forcedul hilchenel in domain icon tur 
inn ead sin. Conad de sin asbert i curp Hbair : 
is and roan Fenius fadesin icon tur 7 is and 
adrothreabh. Asberat aroili auetair ni raibi neach 175 
di cloind lonan mic lafeth mic Noe dia roghenedar 
Gm'c 7 dia rochin Fenius ic cumtuch in tuir. 

Debthir on, ar ni raibi cland etir ic lonau no ni raibi 
fen in mac sin oc lafeth uí Hieronfmus dixit. Cest, 
caite genelach Feniusa? Ni ansa. Farrsaidh á\diu mac 180 
Baath mic Magogh mic lafeth mic Noe. No Fenius 
Farsaidh mac (Eogain mic L) Glunfind mic Laimfind mic 
Etheoir mic Agno[ma]in mic Toe mic Boinb mic Semh 
mic Mair mic Ethecht mic Aurtecht mic Abodh mic 
Aoi mic kxa mic lar^ mic Sru mic Esru mic Boath mic 185 
Riafath mic Gom^r mic lafeth mic Noe 7rl. Et dno i[s] 
Sgithegdha Fenius 7 cuga berthar Scithi 7 Gothi 
iarna ngenek/zrtzA Et robadar sil Nse ar ceana. Berla 
nEbraidi 'na tengtha robai isin domun ri araile cumh- 
dach in tuir [-i- Gorthigernd L.] 7 is ed dno bhias iar 190 

165 Origg. ix. I, 3 '®" cricha E. (do an fine •i- dia fine) T. 

168 na n-ilberlad E. "" do biud 7 d' etach T. ^" ic forcetar E. 

1" conad iarsin doroeipe doib in Gaidealg T. ^~^ roaitreb, nach raibi E. 

1™ dia rogenetar E. ^" rogein E. T. "* ui Mac;>(/«0 dixit E. 

181 Magoth E. ^** Adno?«, Boidb E, i** Abbo, Aoi E. is^ lair E. 

18'? heríah E. ^*'^ Origg. ix. I, I : 13- ceana [a]con tur E. 

189 nEbraide immorro is ed E. : nEbruidh -i- nEher a bruinnip T. 

1»» Gorthigernd ainm in berla robui ac mac t)e Deigerna 7 ac sil Adaimh L. T. 


and owing to the mingling wherewith they mingled with 
every language, or again it was owing to the superscription 
that was written out of the three of them upon the board 
of the Cross. Since Fenius did not get a perfection of the 
languages at the Tower, he dispersed his school and his 
disciples abroad throughout the cities and territories of 
the earth on every side to learn the languages, and Fenius 
supported them with both food and clothing whilst they 
were so learning, to wit, seven languages [I. years], and 
Fenius stayed at the Tower and dwelt till his school came 
unto him from every direction, and he kept instructing the 
many races of the world at the Tower during that space 
of time. Hence he said Ín the body of the book that 
Fenius himself remained there at the Tower and there he 
dwelt. Other authors say that of the children of lonan 
son of Japheth son of Noah from whom the Greeks 
originated and from whom Fenius sprung, there were 
none at the building of the Tower. 

That is natural for Jonan had no children at all, 
or Japheth had not that son himself, iit Hieronymus 
dixit. Query, What is F'enius' genealogy? Not hard. 
Farsaidh, then, son of Baath, son of Magog, son of 
Japheth, son of Noah. Or Fenius Farsaidh, son of 
Eogan, son of White-knee, son of White-hand, son of 
Ether, son of Agnoman, son of Toe, son of Bonb, son 
of Semh, son of Mar, son of Ethecht, son of Aurtecht, 
son of Abodh, son of Aoi, son of Ara, son of lara, son 
of Sru, son of Esru, son of Boath, son of Riafath, son of 
Gomer, son of Japheth, son of Noah, etc. And besides 
Fenius is a Scythian, and up to him are carried Scythians 
and Goths according to their genealogies. And they were 
all the seed of Noah. The Hebrew language is the 
tongue that was in the world before any building of the 
Tower, and it is it too that will be after doomsday, and 

l6 BB. 3l6a49 AURAICEPT E. 21 a 12 

mbrath 7 asberat araile co mbad eadh nobeth la muintir 
nimhe. lar tiachtain tra dona desciplaib co Fenius o 
foglaim 7 iar taispenad a cuarta (-i- a n-imdeachta) 7 a 
n- (col. /3) gresa (-i- a foghluma) is andsin conaitchitar 
gusin saidh -i- gu Fenius berla na beth oc neach eliu do 195 
thebiu doibh asna hilberlaib acht comad acco a n-aenur 
nobeth, conad airi sin conairneacht doib in berla tobaidhi 
cona fortormaigib -i- berla Feni 7 iarmberla 7 a mberla 
n-edarscartha eter na fedhaib airegdhaibh amal duiruirmi 
isin Duil Feadha Mair 7 berla na filed asa n-acailhV cach 200 
dib aroile 7 a ngnathberla fogni do cach o ilcenela. 
Goedeal mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Baracaimh di Grecaib 
in dara sai robai i coemtect Feniusa, conad uadh 
rohainmnigead Gaedealg -i- ealg airdirc in sin -i- Gaedheal 
ros-irdarcaistar. Gaedeal dno glas mac Agnom no Aingi« 205 
mac senbrathar athar do Fenius 7 ba sai sen dno cid he. 
Is esside dorothlaigestar a mberla-sa gu Gsedheal mac 
nEitheoir conid Gaedealg o Gaedel mac Etheoir. Et Gaedii 
o Gsedhel mac Agnon no Aingin. Berla Feni tra arricht 
sund 7 iarmberla 7 berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib 7 210 
berla na filed a ceathramad 7 an gnathberla fogni do chach 
a coiced. Fenius Farsaidh tra mac Eogein 7 lar mac 
Nema 7 Gaedel mac Etheoir na tri saidh doreipsead na 
berlu-sa 7 apiid Eotenam {uel Athena) civitatem arrictha. 

Cest, caidhead a n-anmaní/^ na da chenel sechtmogat 215 
o rofoghlaimet na hilberlae? Ni ansa. Beithin, Scithi, 
Scuit, Germain, Meid (no Moid), Sicil, Hircain, Guit, 

191 alaile E. 192-201 Arch. C. P. iii. 247 i''^ nach beth E. 

19« tebeth, acu sin E. ^**" teibidhi cona fortormaidibh E. 

199 doruirmig E. : doruirmisim T. ^ n-aicilHt E. : aicillidh T. 

201 fogn«5, olcena E. "O- Barathaim E. 203 jara ri, caemthucht E. 

205 rosirdharcaigestair, macc Angin E. '^ pr-ur T. 

207 dorothothlaigestair E. "-ii ;„ cethramad E. ^^^ co coitcend E. 

2U O'D. Gr. xxix. I : Orosius i. 2, 58 : Keat. Hist. ii. 80 : arricta E. 

215 anraand E. 

216 na berla E. Beithin, GoiUi, Lugoil, Creitt . . . Recir . . . Morain 
. . . Boitt E. 2" Guitt L. 


some say that it was ít which the people of heaven had 
Now after the disciples came to Fenius from learning, and 
after showing their journeys, to wit, their wanderings, and 
their works, to wit, their studies, then thev asked the 
sage, to wit, Fenius to select for them out of the many 
languages, a language that no one else should have but 
which might belong to them alone. Wherefore on that 
account for them was invented the Select Language with 
its superadditions, the Language of the Irish, and the 
Additional Language, and the Language Parted among 
the principal letters as he has related in the Great Book of 
Woods, and the Language of the Poets whereby each 
one of them converses with another, and the Common 
Language which serves for every one from many races. 
Gaedel, son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham, 
a Greek, was one of the two sages in Fenius' com- 
pany, so that from him was named Gaelic, to wit, ealg 
means noble, to wit, Gaedel ennobled it. Gaedeal Glas 
also, son of Agnon or Aingin, son of Fenius' father's 
elder brother ; and he too was a sage, even he. It is he 
that claimed this language for Gaedel, son of Ether ; 
wherefore Gaedealg is from Gaedel, son of Ether. And 
Gaedil from Gaedel, son of Agnon or Aingin. Now 
the Language of the Irish was invented here, and the 
Additional Language, and Language Parted among the 
trees, and the Language of the Poets is the fourth, 
and the Common Language that serves everyone, 
the fifth. Now Fenius Farsaidh son of Eugenius, and 
lar son of Nema, and Gaedel son of Ether are the 
three sages who selected these languages, and they were 
invented in the city of Eotenam, or Athena. 

Ouery, what are the names of the ^2 races from 
which the many languages were learnt? Not hard. 
Bithynians, Scythians, Scots, Germans, Medes, Sicilians, 


i8 BB. 316^25 AURAICEPT £.21^33 

Point, Morain, Lugoil, Circir, Gailli, Paimpil, Luidi, Oigii, 
Ciclaid, Creit, Corsic, Sardain, Sicil, Reit, Reicil, Roid, 
Romain, Inair, Massail, Mair, Maigidon, Morcain, Nairn, 220 
Narmais, Narboin, Norith, Nobith, Barais, Bethain, 
Bretain, Boid, Maguich, Armoin, Amuis, Goircc, Galaid, 
Achid, Athain, Taeasail, Ardair, Alain, Albain, Hircain, 
Itail, Esbain, Goith, Guith, Gruind, Sarain, Frainc, Freisin, 
Longbaird, Lacdemoin, Lodain, Essill, Tracdai, Troiannai, 225 
Dordain, Dalmait, Dacia, Ethioip, Egept, Bramain, 
Innecdai. It e sin tra anmanda na da cenel sechtmogat 
lasa mbadar na da berla sechtmogat. Fer gach berla tra 
dona berlaibh-sea, ba he h'n na scoile 7 tri suidh 7 rofaided 
gach fear dib fria berla 7 ni cach comceniuil dochuaidh and 230 
dochum a comcrichi dun fhoghlaim sin acht is cach 
comberlaidh amal rogab Cai Cainbrethach dalta Feniusa 
in dara descipul sechtmogat na scoli. Ba do Ebraib a 
bunadhus 7 ba co hEgeftagda rofaidhedh fobith is and 
robatar a tusdidhe 7 ba hand rodn-alt 7 tuargabat fodesin 235 
as [a] aetidh, conid desin asb^/r-som i curp libair- i- Is cach 
comberlaib dochuaid and 7 ni cach comcheneoil dochum a 
chriche. Seacht mbhadna tra robatar na descipuil forsin 
cuairt 7 teora bliadna doib ic taispenad a ngresa i fus iar 
tiachtain comdar a deich samlaidh, conid desin asb^/r-som 240 
this i curp libhair: A cind (317) deich mhliadan iar 
scaiHud doib on tur for gach leath durebeadh doib am 
berla-sa. Bai tra cuigiur ar xx ba huaisliu dib. It e a 

217-23 Descriptive adjj. are supposed by the scribe to denote nations : — 
muaid = Moid, óig = Oigii, luind = Luid, nair = Niair, mair = Mair, brais 
= Barais, amuis = Amuius, gairc = Goirc, aird = Ardair, grinni = Grumd, 
^li. Ir. Dichiung, p. 30. See, however, Origg. ix. 2, which cf. with Origg. 
xiv. 3-5 : CZ. X. 131 -1» Sicir E. : Circir, goirg, Alain L. 

219 Sardan L. -o Maigidoin L. ~i Nombith L. 

2--« Ardain E. L. 224 q^^^^ Fresin L. '^-^ Tricdai E. : Tracda, Troianda L. 

226 Daicia E. Dardain, Bragmain L. 227 Nectae E. Origg. ix. 2, 2 

228-44 E, om. 230 comchinel T. 233 do Eabraidhibh T. 

235 B. na descipuil forsin cuairt 7 teora bliadna, repeated 238 

2*" comceiwel, amal rogabad lem a ndeismiracht T. 


Hyrcanians, Goths, Pontians, Morini, Lyonese, Cyp- 
rians, Gauls, Pamphylians, Lydians, óig, Cycladians, 
Cretans, Corsicans, Sardinians, Sicilians, Rhetians, 
Rheginians, Rhodians, Romans, máir, Massilians, 
Moors, Macedonians, Morcain, náir, náir mais, Nar- 
bonians, Noricans, Nubians, brais, Bithynians, Britons, 
Boeotians, Magogians, Armenians, amuis, gairg, 
Galatians, Aquitanians, Athenians, Thessalians, aird, 
Alanians, Albanians, Hyrcanians, Italians, Spaniards, 
Goths, Getae (?), grinn, Saracens, Franks, Frisians, 
Langobards, Lacedemonians, Elisaeans (?), Thracians, 
Trojans, Dardanians, Dalmatians, Dacians, Ethiopians, 
Egyptians, Brahmans, and Indians. Those then are 
the names of the 72 races whose were the 72 
languages. Now one man for each of these languages, 
that was the complement of the school, and three sages, 
and each one of them was sent to his own language, 
and unto their common district unto that learning went 
not every one of the same race but every one of the 
same language, as for example, Cai Cainbrethach, Fenius* 
foster-son, one of the 72 disciples of the school. He 
was a Hebrew by extraction, and it was to Egyptians 
he was sent because his parents had lived there, and 
there he was brought up and reared from his youth, so 
that hence he says in the body of the book : Every 
one of the same speech went there, but not every one 
of the same race, unto his own district. Now seven 
years were the pupils on the course, and they were three 
years in displaying their studies after coming home, so 
that they were ten [years] accordingly, wherefore it is of 
this he says below in the body of the book : At the 
end of ten years after their dispersion from the Tower 
in every direction this language was selected for them 
Now there were 25 persons that were the noblest of 

20 BB. 3I7«3 AURAICEPT E. 2ia36 

n-anmariía'c^ foratait feadha 7 taebomna in ogaim. It e and- 
seo a n-anmand-i- Babel, Loth, Foraind, Saliath, Nab- 245 
gadon, Hiruad, Dabhid, Talamon, Ca;, Kaliap, Muiriath, 
Gotli, Gomers, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu, 
lachim, Ethrocius, Uimelicus, ludonius, Affrim, Ordines. 

Iss iat sin anmand in choigir ar xx ba huaisliu bai i 
scoil Feniusa. Asberait araili dno is i sin in aipgitir 250 
arricht isind Achaidh 7 ic Tochur Inbir Moir arranig 
Amairgin mac Miled in mbeithi-luis in oghaim. 

' Cia litir, cia nin, cia son In nach forbaider focol? ' (-i- 
d'min disoil no fern). ' Is cia son ger fogabar O nach fuach 
tren tiníS^scanar ? ' (-i. ernin getal). Na coic feadha aireghdai 255 
immorro inn oghaim, ba hon choiciur ba huaisliamh dib 

rohainmnighthea ^-^Mf^f^^lW-^^fh<- Asberat araile 

dno it vii feadha aireghdha filet and 7 is on morshesiur 

ba huaisleam and rohainmnigthea 7 it e in dana fidh 

duformaighet frisna cuic feda ugut > XQ C 260 

Cest, caidet [airme L.] cinnleacha tuir Nemruaidh ? Ni 

ansa. A viii -i- da comairlibh sechtmogat, da descipul 

sechtmogat, da chenel sechtmogat na ndsene, da berla 

sechtmogat du berlaibh ina scoil, da thuaith sechtmogat 

lasa m[b]atar na berla sin 7 na cenela, da saer sechtmogat 265 

fria gnim, da aic[dh]i sechtmogat eter ael 7 bitumain 7 tal- 

main 7 tathluib ina comhegur, da cheim for sechtmoga[i]t 

i«na leitheat amal asbert : — 

Airimh in tuir togaidhi 

Nemruaidh, ba din do dhainib, 270 

Ceithri cemeand sechtmogat, 

Coic cemend ar choic milib. 

Da chomairhb sechtmogat 

Tugsat sailhiu for sluaighedh ; 

Da berla for sechtmoga[i]t jj-p- 

Rothidhnaic Dia fria mbuaidhred. *^ 

^' Goth, Cec L. ''^5-8 o D. Gr. xxxi. '^ Salamon E. 

^'' Goth, Gomer, Maisse E. lesu T. 

2-'* Reic'him, Etrocus, Orineis, Umelcus L. Afrimp T. 

2^8 anminda E. xx doairmiur-sum, bai ag Lacht isin Aisia T. -•'" aibgidir E. 

■'■'1 ara rainic E. -•'''' sinn oghaim B. : in oguim E. 

253 inni nach, forbiter, fotren tindsgnamar E. 

259 huaisliu, in da íidh doformaigitar E. ^si oireme E. ^65 i^s B. berlada E. 

266 ael 7 bhi E. ^es ^^ laid-sea E. 270 janib B. 2-2 ceimenda T. 

2" comairlig L. E. -''* d' shadhu fri E. 276 Daudnaic L. 


them. These are the names of them after whom are 
named the Ogham vovvels and consonants. Here are their 
names : Babel, Lot, Pharaoh, Saliath, Nebuchadnezzar, 
Herod, David, Talamon, Cae, Kaliap, Muiriath, Gotli, 
Gomers, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu, lachim, 
Ethrocius, Uimelicus, ludonius, Affrim, Ordines. 

These are the names of the 25 persons, the noblest 
that were in Fenius' school. Others again say that that 
is the alphabet which was invented in Achaidh, and at 
the Causeway of the Great Estuary that Amergen, son 
of Mil, invented, the Beithe Luis of the Ogham. 

What letter, what character, what sound is that with 
which no word is ended? dinin disail^orf. Andwhatsharp 
sound is found with which no strong word is begun ? ng. 
The five principal vowels of the Ogham howcver, it was 
from the five persons who were noblest of them that they 
were named, a, o, u, e, i. Others again say that seven prin- 
cipal vowels are there, and that it is from the seven persons 
that were noblest there that they are named, and the two 
vowels that were added to those five vowels are ea, oi. 

Query, what are the definite numbers of Nimrod's 
Tower ? Not hard. Eight of them, to vvit, ^2 counsellors, 
72 pupils, ^2 races of men, 72 languages, the languages 
in his school, 'ji peoples whose vvere those languages, and 
the races, 72 artificers to work at it, 72 building materials 
including lime, bitumen, earth, and cement in equal layers, 
72 paces in width, as he said : — 

The number of the chosen Tower 
Of Nimrod, it was a shelter to men, 
Four and seventy paces, 
Five paces, and five thousand. 

Two and seventy counsellors, 
They took companies on an expedition, 
Two and seventy languages 
# God gave to confound them. 

22 BB. 3i7a34 AURAICEPT E. 21 j3 8 

Da cenel saer sechtmogat 

Dona dainib, ba dodhraing ; 

Da descipw/ sechtmogat 

Fste Fenius fri foghlaim. 280 

Da thuaith saera sechtmogal 
Forofoglaid, fir talmaw ; 
Da primshfer ar sechtmogait 
Fri heladhain na n-adhbar. 

Da aicde for sechtmoga[i]t, 285 

In«a cumhat, roghnathaigh, 

'Eter £el z's bitumain 

Ocus talmhain is tathluibh. 

Seacht cumat deg demnighthi 

Ag nim suas im gaeth ngairigh, 290 

Is da cheim ar sechtmoga[i]t 

Inna leitheat fria airim. Airim in tuir. 

Asberat araili immorro is noi n-adhbair nama badar 
isin tur -i- cre 7 uisgi, oland 7 fuil, ros 7 sel 7 sechim 7 lin 
"] hxtnmdÁn, de quibus didtur : — ~ -^^^ 

Cre, uisgi, oland is fuil, 

Ross is 3el is lin lanchuir, 

Sechim, bitumain go mbuaidh 

Nai n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaidh. 
•i- ainm 7 pronomí'w 7 briathar 7 doibriathar 7 ranngabthach 300 
7 comfhocul 7 reimshuidhiughudh 7 intmacht a n- 
anmanda-seo : Novien, pronomen, tierbuin, aduerbium, 
participium, coniunctio, prepositio, interiectio -i- 

cetpearsu uathaid . . sum •\- ataim 

es •!• ata tu 305 

est -v ata se 
sumus -i- atamait 
estis -i- ata sibsi 
sunt 'i- atait. 

persa tanaisti huathaid 
treas persa Mz.\h.aid . 
cetfear (col. /3) illda . 
persa tanaisti 
tres persa . 

Sum, es, est, a uathrtí/. 310 

Sumus, estis, sunt, a illda. 

'^''^ gn B. 278 fria dodraing E. : doghraing B. ^*- forafodlait E. 

'•*•' da primsDsra sechtmogat E. '•^®^ heladnaib L. : dia fadhnad E. 

28B ina adbur E. : na hadbur co ;;;adgnathrt7V5 T. ^^ talum is tathlaimh E; 
289 cubait L. E : qubuit T. ^ re ngaith E. 29« 9 rc. xii. 466 

300-11 E. om 302 Gr. Lat. iv. 355, 2 3or,26.28, 29 iHraid L. 

3" a illrad L. 



Two and seventy free races 
Of the men, it was hard ; 
Two and seventy pupils, 
Fenius sends them to learn. 

Two and seventy free peoples 

He subdivided, men of the earth ; 

Two and seventy chief artificers 

For the sUilful working of the materials. 

Two and seventy building materials, 
In equal quantity, he used, 
Including lime and pitch 
And earth and cement. 

Seventeen cubits certified, 

Near heaven upwards with a roaring wind, 

And two and seventy paces 

In breadth to reckon it. 

Others say, however, that only nine materials were in 
the Tower, to wit, clay and water, wool and blood, wood and 
lime, acacias, flax thread, and bitumen, de quibus dicitur : — 
Clay, water, wool, and blood, 
Wood, Hme, and flax thread of a fuU twist, 
Acacias, bitumen with virtue, 
The nine materials of Nimrod's Tower. 

to wit, noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, participle, conjunction, 
preposition, and interjection are their names : Noinen, pro- 
nonien, verbuni, adverbiuni,participium, conjunctio, interjectio, 
to wit : — 

I person singular 

I person plural . 

3 " " 

Suni, es, est, its singular. 
Sunius, estis, sunt., its plural. 




atá tú 


atá sé 

. sunius 



atd sibse 



24 BB. 3>7/34 AURAICEPT E. 21/3 18 

Attaat da earnail forsin n-aibgiteir Laitindai i- 
guttai 7 consain. Atait -i- simt a frithinclleadach La- 
tinda -i- a bunadh forleathan : totus a bunadh ruidleasa 
•i- dearbadh in sein -i freagra du thoit na haibgitrech 315 
dobeir sund. Coich raind indsce in foc«l is sunt? ar 
itat viii randa insci and -i- novien, pronomen, uerbuni, 
aduerbiuin, particípiuni, coniunctio,prepositio, interiectio. It 
e a n-anmand lasin Laitneoir ; ainm, / briathar, / 
pronomé';^ 7 doibriathar, xz.Víá^'ahtliach, J remshuidhiugud, 320 
íivA'tfm*'- 'comhíhoc/d 1 interiacht ocon Gaed^/. Is demin eimh 

^" conidh briathar in focul is sunt J ma seadh cia ball in 

brethir? air itait amh a tri i n - uathrt<:/ -i- suni, es, est ; 
7 a tri i n-illí/íz -i- sumus, estis, S7mt ■{• cetperso in 
uathaid sum ; perso thanaisti in uathaid, es ; tres perso 325 
in huathaid, í:í/. Cetperso in '\\\da,sumus ; perso thanaisti, 
estis ; tres perso in 'úXda, sunt. 

Attaat -i- ata ae i n-ait -i- ata ae <M\gidh i n-ait 
in oWaman a inne : no attaat -i- atai ae uait, ar in 
descipul frisin maigistir. 330 

A inne beos attaat a tuitead doaitneat doaigbead 
dotiagat. A airbert -i- atat i n-aigniudh na guttaighi 7 na 
consaini. Dotuitead i litrib -i- tinntuit asinn -dXzniud sin i ■ 
llitrib. Doaitnead -i- taitnit asna litrib sin i íoclaib. 
Doaidhbead -i- du-aispenait do eolchaib eistib -i- a cialla 335 
1 L^Li ^ ^ caireachtaire -i- fuatha na lití^r. Dotiaghat asna íoclaib 
' sin i comighib 7 i sreathaibh roscaigh 7 fasaigh 7 airchetail. 

^^ a frithindlech T. '^^^ ruighlesta T. *^^ haibitleach dobeirsiumh E. 

™ Examples of parsing, Gr. Lat. iii. 459 : in fhocuil E. 

^" Gr. Lat. iv. 355, 2 ''20 rangabtach E. "'^' comfoccumhul E. 

323 don breithir E. 32j j n-illradh E. ^25 thanaisi E. 

32«. 7 in ilair E. «.-io frjsin in B. 

^^1 doaidbead L.: doaidhbhet E. 332 ina aicned 'i- na guttai 7 naconsaine E. 

335 eisib E. 336,7 isna, coibigib E. "■'' aireactail B. : aircetail E. 



There are two divisions in the Latin Alphabet, to 
wit, vowels and consonants. There are, atait, to wit, 
sunt^ its Latin equivalent, to vvit, its very general origin : 
totus, its particular origin, to wit, a proof there, to wit, a 
reference to the whole of the alphabet he gives here, 
What part of speech is the word sunt? For there are 
eight parts of speech, to wit, noinen, prononien, uerbuni, 
aduerbhivi, participiuvi, coniunctio, prepositio, interiectio. 
Those are their names with the Latinist ; noun and verb, 
pronoun and adverb, participle and preposition, conjunc- 
tion and interjection with the Gael. It is certain in truth 
that the word sunt is a verb ; and if so, what part of the 
verb ? for there are in fact three of them in the singular, 
to wit, sujH, es, est ; and three of them in the plural, to 

mus, estts, sunt, to wit : — 

ist person singular 

. suin 

2nd „ „ . . 

. es 

3rd „ „ . . 

. est 

ist person plural 

. sunius 

2nd „ „ . . 

. estis 

3rd „ „ 

. sunt 

Attaat, i.e., there is science in place, i.e., there is science 
of law in the chief poet's place is its meaning : or attant, 
that is, there is science out of thee, quoth the disciple 
to the master. 

Its meaning further, attaat, who fall, shine, show, come. 
Its use, that is, oí ataat, in the nature of the vovvel and the 
consonant. They fall into letters, i.e., they are converted 
out of that primary nature into letters. They shine, i.e., 
out of these letters into words. They show to the learned 
out of them, to vvit, their meanings and their characters, 
i.e., the forms of the letters. They come out of those 
vvords into texts, and series of proverb, commentary, and 
poetic composition. 

26 BB. 317^31 AURAICEPT E. 2i;8 40 

Da ernail -í- da fhirin^zell, no da fhir-inaill, no da 
fhir-dhual, no da erdhul, no da erdhail, no da erdhual, 
no da orru-dhul, no da orru-dhedhail, no da orru-dhail. 340 
Iss iat sin a tri or, / a tri er, 7 a tri fir nUraiceapta. 
Cadiad da dual 7 tri duail 7 cethri duail 7 coic duail 
In Auraiceapta? Ni ansa. Lanfogur 7 defogur da 
dual na nguta : leathgutta ocus mudi 7 tinfeadhaigh- 
the tri dual na conso;;? -i- intan is a ceathair immorro 345 
•i- da dual na nguta 7 da dual na consow -i- leathguta 
e 7 muiti, air is muit h. Intan is a cot'c dno -i- da dual 
na nguta J tri dual na consan. 

Porsin n-aibgitir -i- forsind epe audair no forsind epe ic 
duar -i- ic {oclaz'd no forsin epi ic tur : no ondi as apigitorium 350 
•i- in tin«scedul : no is ed aibgiges a mbescna do chach : 
no aipgitir -i- abcor : no is ed Si'ipgí£-es a Gaedhelg, incipit 
a ha.itin, apix a Greic, a be ce de dybiini a Ebra. 

Latindai -i- luaidit inni -i- inna íoclu: no a Laidinta •i- 
on Latindacht -i- a latitudine •\- on leithet in bescna : no 355 
o Latin mac Puin. 

Edun -i- ed a oen erniud no ed a oen an eolaig. 

Gutta -i- guth fotha -i- fotha in ghota in sein no guth 
fuiti iarsani fuidhit gotha treothu : (318) no guth-seta 
iarsinni at seta gotha, ut Priscianus dixit : Litera quassi Z%0 
legittima eo quod iter legendi prebeat -i- in litir amrt/ intech 
legend iarsinni fuires set in legind : no guth aite -i- doghniat 

*** da fhirindeal no da firanail E. •'"'^ ind Auraicepta E. 

^"^ a tri, a ceithrz', a cuic E. '^*^ tinfedaigh trindual E. 

^^ e 7 L. om. : •i- dual na ngutta 7 tri dual na conson E. adds 

'^^ auctair L. E. *'" -i. i foclaib E. 

•^i aipgidhes L. a «-ibis do cach E. •'°- is aip^í'tir E. 1. abcdr (?) 

=^5-' ailit- B. : a Laiten E. ■'■'■^ Latima B. : la/me E. 

"^^ lethe E. : Virg. Maro Gt. 4, 23 

^° etait guth a n-aenur L. : Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 12 : Origg. i. 3, 3 

^i /egeniidus praeóet E. ■*''^ leigind, fhuirges E. 


Two divisions, i.e., two true arrangements, or two true 
other things, or two true folds, or two intensive goings, or 
two intensive divisions, or two supreme folds, or two 
goings on them, or two divisions on them, or two 
distributions on them. These are the three or and 
the three er and the three fir of the Primer. What are 
the two, three, four, and fíve folds of the Primer ? Not 
hard. Full tone and diphthong, the two folds of the 
vowels : semivowels, mutes, and aspirates are the three 
folds of the consonants, to wit : when there are four of 
them, however, two folds of the vowels and two of the 
consonants, i.e., semivowels and mutes, for h is a mute. 
When there are five of them, however, that is, two folds 
of the vowels and three of the consonants. 

On the alphabet, i.e., for an " author's selection," or for 
" selecting of words," i.e., of vocables : or on the " selection at 
Tower " : or from the word abecedarium, i.e., the beginning : 
or it is that which " ripens " their speech for every one : 
or alphabet, that is, placing a b: or it is "that which 
ripens " in Gaelic, incipit in Latin, apix in Greek, a be ce 
de djrbum in Hebrew. 

Latinda, that is, they speak the thing, i.e., the words : 
or Laitinda, i.e., from Laitindacht, i.e., a latitudÍ7ie, i.e., 
from the extent of the speech : or from Latinus, son of 

Edón, that is, "it" its one explanation : or it is the 
one [-i-] of the learned man. 

Gutta (vowel), i.e., voice foundation, i.e., foundation 
of the voice is that : or voice sent, in respect that 
voices are sent through them : or voice ways, in respect 
that they are ways of voices, ut Priscianus dixit : 
Dicitur auteni litera vel quasi legitera quod legendi 
iter praebeat, that is, the letter is as a road for reading 
inasmuch as it prepares a way for the reading : or a 

28 BB. 3l8a4 AURAICEPT E. 21/3 59 

guth i n-aitt : no guthetait -i- iarsinni doetait guth treothu 
a n-íEnur, íit Donatus dixit : Uocales sunt qitequideni pro- 
fertur et pcr se sillabam faciunt -i- atat na guthacha is iat- 365 
side dourgbad treothu fein / dogniat silla/^ a n-aenur. 

Consain -i- cainsuin -i- suin taitn^w/cha, no consain onni 
is consojiantcs comhfhograightheacha -i- fograigit malle fri 
guthacha : no consaiw -i- com a sain -i- té?rcfograigh- 
theacha ar bec a fogair a n-aenar. Cid ara n-eibert-sium 370 
guta 7 consain, uair guta M2Sh.aid 7 consain 'údal Ni 
ansa. Guttai 7 consain is maith and. Cidh ara n-ebairt 
guta guth fotha no guta guth fuidhit, ar ni fotha in guth 
do fein, 7 ni fuigheand guth trit fein. Cid ara nd-ebairt- 
sium consain comfograighthid, uair ni comhfhogur in 375 
consain fria fein no fria guth ? Cest, caite in condelg in 
etechtu in cheternail ind Auraicept[a] ? Ni ansa. Fors 
is fer[r] a fis is edechta sain, ar ni maith anfhis. Cid ara 
n-eabairt guta -i- guth shet, ar ni set is i fen. 

Caide ruidhles 7 dileas 7 coitchind 7 indles in íocail is 380 
guta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles di guth shet, uair etaidh guth 
a haenur. Diles di guth fuiit, uair nos - foidend fein. 
Coitchind di -i- guth fotha, uair is fotha hi isna íoclaib. 
Indles di immorro guth fotha, uair ni fota hi inti 
fein. Cid ara n-ebairt aibgitir epe ic tur, ar ni tindscain- 385 
tea na h-aibgitr/ amal asbert Fenius ba sai isna tri 
berlaibh cid siu t\sad a tuaid 7 ni saithi cen aipgitri. 

■*^ no guthetait L. om. doedait E. 
^ a n-aenur L. om. : Gr. Lat. iv. 367, 11 : Sg. \^^ 
365,9 guthaigi L. : guthaigthi E. ■'•'" taitnemacha E. 

3^^ guthaigib E. comma sain L.: comsain E.: cuma thonn no cain[sh]oin ; 
fid •i' fo ead a ainm Ed. 1. cáin a suin '''° ndubairt L. 

371 ilar E. ="^ ni fhuideand E. 

3'^' comfongthig uair na comfog«r E. "■'''' O'Mulc. 578, 9 

;!79 guth seta, dissi fein E. •*" coitcend E. 

"'81 is guth, edaidh E. ■*-^ fuit/, nosfuiend E. 

^^ ni hand rotinscainte.i E. •*'^ neach ba, trib E. ■'*" suthi E. 


voice place, i.e., they make a voice in place : or they 
vocalise, i.e., in respect that voice comes through them 
alone, nt Donatus dixit : Vocales sunt quae per se 
profenmtur et per se syllabai)i faciunt, i.e., the vowels are 
those that are pronounced by themselves and alone form a 

Consonants, i.e., beautiful sounds, i.e., bright sounds : 
or consonants from the word consonantes, sounding 
together, i.e., they sound along with vowels : or con- 
sonants, i.e., delicate their sounds, i.e., scantily sounding 
owing to the smallness of its sound by itself. Why 
did he say vowel and consonants, since vowel is singular 
and consonants plural ? Not hard. Vowels and 
consonants is proper there. Why did he say a vowel is 
a voice foundation, or a vowel is a voice which they utter, 
for the voice is no foundation to itself, and it does not 
find a voice through itself. Why did he say a consonant 
is sounding along with, since the consonant does not 
sound with itself or with its vowel ? Query, what is 
the comparison of the unallowable of the first part of 
the Primer? Not hard. Fors, chance, knowledge of 
it is better, that is unallowable, for ignorance is not 
good. Why did he say a vowel, i.e., a voice path, for 
it itself is not a path ? 

What are peculiar, proper, common, and improper 
of the word vowel? Not hard. Peculiar to it, voice 
path, since it finds voice by itself Proper to it, they 
express a voice, for it expresses itself. Common to 
it, i.e., voice foundation, for it is a foundation in the 
words. Improper to it, however, is voice foundation, 
when it is not a foundation in itself Why did he say 
alphabet was a selecting at Tower ? for the alphabets were 
not begun, as Fenius said, who was a sage in the three 
principal tongues even before he came from the North, 

30 BB. 3i8a28 AURAICEPT E 22 a 17 

I ndAchia immorro arrichta aibgitrz in domu[i]n. Cet- 
doichnedh 7 cet-dichnedh ind Auraicept[a] sund -i- A cet- 
doichnedh for -i- ar in focul : A chet-dichneadh dno -i- epe 390 
augdair -i- tepe in focul fadesin. 

Atat dano di ernail forsin beithi-luis-nin in oghaim i- 
feadha 7 taebomnai. Dano i da n-ui in sein uea caingen -i- 
in caingean forsin beithi-luis-nin in ogaim -i- in« oguamma 
no forsin bitheolus litterdha 'mn oghaim. Pedha : fidh 395 
immorro, dorimter da gne for suidiu -i- fidh saerdha J 
fidh aicenta. Fid sserda -i- fid inn oghaim J fid aicenta fid 
na caille. Fid sserda immorro feghthair da gne do bunad 
oca. Fidh áidúí ondi as /uno [(pwvéw], fograigim : no ondi 
\s ficndauientwn ■\- fotha J is coitchend do íliid saerda J do 400 
fidh aicenta in bunad sin •{■ fiindanientuin. Fid áono fo edh 
a inde et^r saerda J aicenta. Fotha dno a airbert etí?r sserda 
7 aicenta. Ingnad cidh fodera na da bunadh icon fid 
saerda 7 aenbunadh icon fid aicenta ■{•funo J fundanientuni ? 
Ni ansa. Funo a dualus foghair J fundanientum a dualus 405 
fotha 7 caitchend do fidh saerda J do fidh aicenta -i- fotha. 

Fidh -i- fedh as uair itat coic as and -i- as ailes J íe chanas 
7 ae aiges J ae mides J ae suides. yE ailes dno -i- i cein 
mbis ior me«mai?í, J ae chanas ica gabail J aei aighes ic 


7 7, auraicept B. •'•'^ teibe \n fccail E. in« B. 392, oguim E. 

•'9'' nae caingen •i- in caingen remund 7 i[n] nai inar ndiaid •'v L. ind ui E. 
395 forsin mbethi luis E. ■''"' dorimthar E. ''^^ fectair E. 

39« cia dichned B. ^«^, 6 g^^ E. ■*«8 i ceim B. 

Í09 fora, aga fhaghbail L. 


and there are no sages without alphabets. In Achaia, 
then, were invented the alphabets of the world. The 
first doichned and the first dichned of the Primer here 
to wit : Its first doichned is for^ that is, ar is the word : 
Its first dichjied, again, i.e. epe, cutting of author, i.e. tepe 
is the word itself 

There are, then, two divisions in the Beithe Luis 
Nin of the Ogham, i,e., vowels and consonants. Dano 
•i- da n-tii, two of them, that is, da n-ui, two questions 
are there. N-ae is question, that is, the question on 
the Beithe Luis Nin of the Ogham, that is, ind oguamma 
of the perfect alliteration, or on the undying literary 
knowIedge of the Ogham. As to fedha, wood vowels, 
moreover, tvvo kinds are reckoned of them, to wit, 
artificial tree and natural tree. Artificial tree, i.e., 
the tree of the Ogham ; and natural tree, the tree of 
the forest. As regards artificial wood, moreover, they 
are regarded as having two sorts of origin. Fidh, wood, 
then, is from the word fimo \fpwvi<a\ I sound, or from 
the word fiindamentuni, i.e., foundation, and that deriva- 
tion, to wit, fundainentuni, is common to artificial and 
natural wood. Now, as to fid, wood, good law is its 
meaning, both artificial and natural. Foundation, how- 
ever, is its use, both artificial and natural. It is strange 
what makes the artificial wood have the two derivations 
and the natural wood one, to \\\t,funo, and fundavientum. 
Not hard. Funo in respect of sound, and fundamentum 
in respect of foundation ; and common to artificial and 
to natural wood is foundation. 

Fid, wood, that \s,fedh ae, extent of them, since five 
forms of ae are in existence, ae that nourishes, ae that 
sings, ae that sues, ae that judges, and ae that sits. 
Now ae that nourishes, i.e., while it is on the mind, 
and ae that sings at giving it, and ae that sues while 

32 BB.3i8a48 AURAICEPT E. 2. a 35 

cuinchidh a lloige 7 ^ midheas ima meit no imma 410 
laighedh 7 ae suidheas iar n-icc a loigi. 

Tíebomnai •i- taebuaim n-ai ; no do thaíbhaib na n- 
omnadh bit -i- do thaebaib na fidh n-aireghdha biit ; no 
ta2b-(col. /3) omnai -i- toba damna -i- iarsinni teipiter damna 
na focul eistib. Cid dia n-ebairt tsebuaim n-ui -i- taebuaim 415 
n-airchedail„'air ni fil int airchetul inna n-ecmais na 
t^hojnna. Cid ara n-ebarthar do tsbhaib na n-omnadh -i- 
na feadha, ar ni do ta;bhaib bit acht rempu no 'na ndhiaidh 
isna íodaid bit na tffibomna. Toba ndamna immorro, is e 
a ruidhles in íocaiV sin. Freagra du breithir tug isin 420 
aibgitir Latindai intan roraidh -i- Itat da ernail forsin 
aibgitir Latinda. Fregra du aicniud immorro tuc intan 
roraidh : Atait da ernail forsin beithi-luis in ogaim. 
Cuin is sení/a in beithi ? 

Niansa. [AJhuile. Cuin as deda-i-feda^taibomna. Cuin 425 
as treda -i- fedha 7 forfedha 7 tasbomna. Cuin as ceathair 
• i- tri aiccmi na txho?nna 7 na x feadha airegdha. Cuin as 
choicdi -i- fedha 7 forfedha 7 tri aicmi na tsebomna. Cuin 
a[s] sedha -i- na tri foilcheasta in;z ogaim -i- ^, j f f'/§^'^ fO 
Cuin a[s] seachta [-i-] teora fuilti ind Auraicepta -i- huath 430 

7 forsail 7 arni«. 

Huath cetumus : is ed fhuilleas b co ngeib greim p amal 
asbert in Laitneoir : b cum aspiratione pro p ponitur -i- 
samhaighthir b cu tinfiudh ar p conid fuilk.7.- h, ar is p 

4iO cuindgidh a loigi E. "" n-ui L. ■'^•' bid L. 

4» teibigter L. ''" focol, ndubairt L. ^^^ 

«» bid L. toba namma E. : na«ma B. L. - aipgidil H. 

422 frecra duaichnigh E. ^^^ centar E. ^'^ foceurta E. «'^ p amair E. 


askíng the reward for it, and ae that consíders about 
its greatness or its smallness, and ae that sits after being" 
paid his reward. 

Taebomnai, consonants, that is, taebuaim n-ai, side 
seam of them ; or to the sides of the oaks they are, X 
that is, to the sides of the chieftain wood they are ; 
or taebomnai, i.e., cutting of material, from the fact 
that material for the words is cut out of them. Why 
did he say taeb uaiin n-ui, that is, side harmony of 
poetry,.'for there is no poetry without the consonantsV 
Why is it said of the sides of the oaks, i.e., the vowels, 
for it is not at the sides they are, but before or behind 
them in the words that the consonants are? Cutting of 
material, however, that is the peculiar meaning of that 
expression. There is a correspondence to a word which 
he gave Ín the Latin alphabet when he said : There are 
two divisions in the Latin alphabet. It was a corres- 
pondence to nature, however, which he gave when he 
said : There are two divisions in the Beithe Luis of the 

When is the Beithe Luis one ? 

Not hard. The w^hole of it . When is it two things ? 
Vowels and consonants. When is it three things ? 
Vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. When is it four 
things? The three groups of the consonants and the ten 
principal vowels. When is it five things ? Vowels, 
diphthongs, and the three groups of the consonants. 
When is it six things? The three composite letters of 
the Ogham ng, sr, qu. When is it seven things ? Tíie 
three additions to the Primer, h, forsail, and ai-7iin. 

H first. It increases b till it acquires the force of p, 
as the Latinist said : b cum aspiratione pro p ponitur, 
i.e., b with aspiration is put for p, so that h increases it, 
for p is the aspiration of the Gael. Forsail is the second 


34 BB. 3i8 i3 20 AURAICEPT £.22^55 

tinfedh in Gaedhil. Forsail [is e L.] in fuilW eile. Boheir 435 
cumang fedha forin son dia fot amal ata sron, slog /rl. 
Arnm, is e in tres fuilled. In baile a rreagar a leas da 
thaebomna geibidh greim indala n-ai arnin, ut est ceand 
7rl., ar ni bhi eamhnad in n-ogam. Tri foilcheasta 'mn 
oghaim -i- ceirt 7 gedal 7 straiph. In baile i mbi c ria 440 
n-u is queirt is scribhtha and, ut est cuileand ']r\. In 
baili i mbi n ria g is gedul i[s] scribtha and, ut est uingi 
7 cuing 7 cingit 7rl. In baile i mbia s ria d [is] straiph 
as scribtha and amal ata st an stial, 7rl. 

Da earnail forsna consainib laisin Laitneoir i- lethgu- 445 
tai 7 mutti. Inna lethgutai ceatamus, a tuistidi rempu. 
In muite immorro, a tuistidi ina ndiaid do suidib. 

Da ernail dno -i- da firdedail á\diu forsna consaiwib 
cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir -i- lasin litertreoraidh no lasin 
legtreoraid no lasin leat[h]anthoirnidh -i- lethguttai 7 450 
muitti; lethgutai -i- leth gotha focertad dia fograigud ; no 
luithguith; no lethguthait no lethguth[sh]et no lethguth 
fotha : 7 ni hiarsan[n]i co mbad leath gotha co cert nobeith 
intibh acht nad roichet lanfoghur ; unde Priscianus dixit : 
Quicquid in duas partes diuiduntur altera pars dicitur 455 
semis -i- secip ni fodhlaidir i ndibh randaib, raiter in 
dara rand gu rub leath, ut Priscianus dixit : Non qui 
demediam partevi habent deoriim uel uiuorum sed qui 
pleni dii uel uiri non sunt -i- cia raidhiter iarum lethfir 
7 lethtii ni arsinni bhatis [dii] leithfir no batis lethfir dii 460 
acht at comlana. Is amlaid sin na leáthghuta nida[t] 
* comfhocrtz7, ut Donatus dixit : Senmiocales sunt que per se 

^^"^ arragar E. ^"^- ^ cenannan, in oguim E. ■**" ngeta;- E. 

■*^2 nin ria ngort is ngiadar E. ^-'^riatE. is straiph L. E. *■" stan 7 E. 
«8 frisna soinib E. ■"» Laitneoiraid E. «1 fodoceardad diar E. 

■*-'2 luthguth E. : luíti T. leathgutaid no lethguitedh E. ^^ fodladir E. 

4-" cen col cert leth T. Gr. Lat. ii. 9, 19 **^" nocon iarsindi batis E. 

461 nach at L. : na- ic B. ^^^ Gr. Lat. iv. 368, 5 : Sg. 5 *4 : nida comlana E. 


addition. It adds a vowel power to the sound to make it 
long, as srdn, s/og, etc. Arnin is the third addition. Where 
two consonants are required, arnin takes the force of 
one of them, e.g. ceann, etc. ; for there is no doubling [of 
letters] in Ogham. Three composite letters of the Ogharn 
exist, qu, ng, and sr. Where c stands before u, it is 
queirt that is to be written there, e.g. aiileand, etc. 
Where n stands before g, it is gedul that is to be written 
there, ut est, uingi, an ounce, cui?ig, a yoke, cingit, they 
step, etc. Where s stands before d, it is straipJi that is 
to be written there, such is st in stial, the belt, etc. 

There are two divisions in the consonants according 
to the Latinist, to wit, semivowels and mutes. The 
semivowels íirst, their parent vowels before them. The 
mutes,however,have their parentvowels following them. 

Two divisions, then, to wit, two true separations 
in the common consonants according to the Latinist — to 
wit, according to the letter guide, or the reading guide, or 
the broad marker — that is, semivowels and mutes ; 
semivowels, that is, half the voice is thrown out in 
order to sound them ; or stammering voice ; or half-voice 
place ; or half-voice way ; or half-voice foundation : and it 
is not because it would be half a voice exactly that would 
stand in them, but that they do not reach a full tone ; unde 
Priscianus dixit : Quicquid in duas partes dividitur, altera 
pars dicitur seinis, i.e., whatever thing it be that is divided 
into two parts, one of the parts is said to be a half 
ut Prisciamis dixit : Seviideos et seniiviros appellavius 
non qui dimidiani partem habent deorum vel virorum 
sed qui pleni dii vel viri non sunt, i.e., though they are 
thus called half-men and half-gods, it is not because the 
gods might be half-men, or half-men gods, but that they 
are not complete. Similarly the semivowels are not full 
sounds, ut Donatus dixit : Semivocales sunt quae per se 

6 BB. 318/3 49 AURAICEPT E. 22/3 17 


quidem proferuntur et per se sillabain non faciunt •\- atat na 
leathghutai nahi dourgabtar treothu fen. Qui\c\quid 
asperum dicitur auditus expellit -i- i«narbaid int eisteacht 465 
(319) secib ni raiter co hagarb. 

Muiti -i- mifothai no maitha no maidthi -i- bec caithte 
a foghur ; no mette, no moite na gotha a mbeith maraew 
friu ; no onni as inutus -i- amlabar 7 ni airsinni batis amlab(7;' 
y di raith, air itat a flioghuir intib cidh diat becca, ut Priscianus 470 
dixit : Informis inulier dicitur non quia caret forma sed 
male formata est -i- atberar in bannscal dodheilb 7 ni iar- 
sinni seachmallas o dheilbh acht midhealb fui-rri nama. Is 
amlaidh sin iarum na muiti nidat nemfograigh acht is terc 
fogur intibh tantum. Unde mute ■{• mifhot/za dicuntur ut 475 
Doíiatus dixit : Mute sunt que per se 7iec proferuntur et 
per se sillabam non faciunt -i- atat na muiti 7 it e na denat in 
sillaib treothu fen 7 noco turcbait^r treothu 7rl. Na 
leathgutai chetamus -i- in cetna ae for seis -i- iar fofis no in 
cetna fis no in cetna amus forsin n-asneis. A tustidi 480 
remibh [-i- in lucht ota a tusmiud -i- na feada L.]. Na muiti 
immorro atustidi ina ndiaidh i suidhihh i- isna feadhaibh 
dlightheachaib. A tustighthidi -i- in lucht ota a teasar- 
gain no a ti«nscital -i- a nguthaidhe. Cid ara n-ebairt 
a tustidhe 'na ndiaidh maso thustidhi tiwnscital, uair 485 
ni gnath in tindscedul fo dheoidh. Ni hedh eimh as 
ail dosum sund ar ma[d] tustidi in ti/mscedul etir, acht 
mad íe roscichestar i«na menmain -i- áX\%ed gotha fil 
i tosuch na leathguta do airisim leis fo dheoidh 7 
in dligé-^ consonata fil intib fo deoidh do chur uad 490 

^^ daurgabadar E. '**'" inarbanait E. asperuntur T. ^ hacarb E. 

^^■^ maithia E. ^ morsen B. a focus E. 

^^^ amlabur •i- ainm do mnai bailb T. Cor.- 937 

^™ cid beacca L. : cid dat, ut dicitur E. : Lat. Gr. ii. 9, 25 : Sg. 5*7 

■*^3 Gr. Lat. iv. 368, 5 *" -i- tait L. ^*™ iar fofis, only L. sup. lin. 1. sofhis 

■**^ na feda di suidib 'i- dona haibedhaibh 7 dona caingnib T. 

^^^ ni gnath L. om. ^~ ar ma B. ^ roseachastar L.: roseichestar E. 

■"*" airisin B. '^^ consonacta E. indti L. E. do churu T. ^'^^ ar tus E. 


quideiH proferuntur sed per se syllabain non faciunt, i.e., 
the semivowels are those that are pronounced by 
themselves. Quicquid asperuni dicitur auditns expellit, 
i.e., the hearing rejects whatever thing is spoken roughly. 

Mutes, i.e., bad foundations, or feeble ones, or sonorous, 
i.e., little spent is its sound ; or weighty, or the greater 
the vowels when they are along with them ; or from the 
word mutus, i.e., speechless, and not because they would be 
speechless altogether, for their sounds are in them even 
when they are small, ut Priscianus dixit : Inforniis diciiur 
niulier non quae caret fornid sed quae viale est forniata, i.e., 
a woman is called unshapely not because she is devoid of 
shape, but only because she has an ill shape. Thus, 
therefore, the mutes are not soundless but a scanty sound 
is in them tantuni. Whence they are called niutae, i.e., 
foundatíonless, ut Donatus dixit : Mutae sunt quae nec pcr 
se proferuntur nec per se sjllabaní faciunt, i.e., the mutes 
are these letters which do not make a syllable by them- 
selves, and are not pronounced by themselves, etc. The 
semivowels flrst, i.e. the first science for learning i.e. 
according to good knowledge ; or the first knowledge ; or 
the first hit upon the mention. Their parent vowels 
hefore them. The mutes on the other hand have their 
parent vowels after them, i.e., in the proper vowels. 
Their parent vowels, i.e., those whence is their deliver- 
ance or their origin, i.e., their vowels. Why did he say 
the parent vowels are after them, if beginning be 
parents, since it is not usual that the beginning is last ? 
That certainly is not his intention here, that parent 
vowels should be the beginning at all, but that science 
wiU be perceived in his mind, i.e., the law of voice 
which is at the beginning of the semivowels should 
remain with it to the last, and the consonantal law that 
is in them to the last should be uttered forth first. 

38 BB. 3i9a24 AURAICEPT E. 22 /3 41 

Nir bu immaircidi son lasin nGsedel, ar mbad aicnead 
doib dib linaib a nguth remib 7 ina ndiaid air is ed 
rob imaircidi la suidi co mbadh an toseach doairesedar 
lais 7 an dedhinach du chur uadh conid muiti uili 495 
beithi-luis-nin in oghaim acht feadha nama i- nir bo 
im(airgidi seon) -i- nir bu em £e aireic son ; no nir bo eim 
aireachtain suad son ; no nir bo imuca urasa soon ; no nir 
bo uca immorro soon lasin nGaedel ; no nochor bo reim 
im gothaidhi -i- lasin ngaeth dul -i- lasin fear iga raibi in 500 
dul gseth ; ar mad aicneadh ; no ar mad se gnithi doibh 
diblinaib -i- duna \^\^%uthaibh 7 dona muitibh a ngotha 
remibh 7 ina ndiaid -i- remib 7 ina ndhiaid -i- remib dona 
lethguth<'í'z<^ 7 ina ndiaidh dona muitib : acht ata acht leam 
and cheana 7 is ed robo em airechtain suad la sen co mbad 505 
in<r/ se rosechastar ina menmain -i- in guth fil isin leath- 
guthaibli no-airisí'í/ lais fo dheoidh, 7 a ndeidenach fuach do 
chor ai int shuadh -i- in taebomnai do chor ar tus conod mi- 
ait labartha in bitheolais litterda in ogaim : acht feadha 
nama per i;^istrofen a ainm sin -i- traide den impsoud -i- 510 
amal ata 1 co mbadh le nobeith and, 7 n co mbad 
ne nobeth and. Cid ar mad fearr leis-sium a mbith 
comtis muiti huili quam (-i- inas) a mbeith leathg?//<^ 
7 muiti amal robatar icon Laitneoir ? Ni ansa. Ar 
sechem G;rc, ar ni filet \Q.\.\i%utai la suidibh 7 roba do 515 
Grecaib do Feinius ; no dno is ar uaisli uird na nGrec Jit 
dicitur: Oinne uile priusponitur, omne bonum postponitur 

-"*-' air nir bud L. *^^ robo, and toisech doairisetar E. 

-••'^ -i- nir ba heimdei airig son -i- nir ba hurusa denam na coingne sin Ed. : 
•i- nirbem ae aircdi son E. 

50Í acht ata E. om. ""^^ la saine E, ■''"*' guthaidi L. 

5"" deidenfuach E. ^o*^ conad imatt E. ''^ litt- B. : lit- da L. 

"0 perinistrophen E. : per aiiastrop/ieti Sg. 4*^8: Gr. Lat. v, 309, 16. 
impoud E. : impodh T. treded L. 

■'^- sleisim L. ®" B. has ata he/ore robatar 

^^•^ lethguth- E. ^^® fobíth soíre ceneiuil innangrec Sg. 40^4 


The Gael did not think that appropriate that the 
nature of them both shoxild be to have their vowel 
before them and after them, for this he thought 
appropriate that it should be the beginning of them 
that should remain firm with him and that their 
closing vowel should be put away, so that the 
Ogham Beithe Luis Nin were all mutes save vowels 
only, to vvit, that was not appropriate, to wit, that was 
not indeed a cause of finding ; or that was not indeed a 
sage's finding ; or that was not an easy choice ; or that 
was not a choice, however, in the opinion of the Gael ; or 
there was not a course with respect to a vowel, to wit, with 
the wise satirist, to wit, with the man who had the wise 
course ; that it should be nature ; or that it might 
be a matter to be done to them both, i.e., to the semi- 
vowels and to the mutes, their vowels before them and 
after them, i.e., before them and after them, before them 
in the case of semivowels and after them in the case of 
mutes : but there is a doubt with me there still, and this was 
in truth a sage's finding with him so that it was the course 
which he foUowed in his mind, i.e., the vowel which exists 
in the semivowels should remain firm with him to the last, 
and as their last word should be put the sage's Wnowledge, 
to wit, the consonants should be put first so that it may not 
be a misplace of speech of the undying knowledge of the 
Ogham : save vowels only, per anastrophen is the name for 
that, to wit, a quickness of the turning, as e.g. 1, so that 
there it becomes le, and n becomes ne. Why should he 
prefer them to be all mutes to their being semivowels and 
mutes, as they were with the Latinist ? Not hard. In 
order to follow the Greeks, for there are no semivowels 
with them, and Fenius was a Greek ; or again it is on 
account of the nobility of the order of the Greeks, ut 
dicitur : Ouine uile priusponitur, omne bonuni postponitur 

40 BB. 3i9a5l AURAICEPT E. 23ai 

•i- samaígthir gach ndereoil (col. /3) ar tus 7 gach sainemail 
co forbu. 

Innsci tra cis lir innsci dochuisin la Peni ( i- ifíw che). 520 
Ni ansa. A tri i- ferinnsci / baninnsci 7 demhinsce 
lasin nG-aidel i- mascul 7 femen 7 neodar lasin Laitneoir. 
Cest, caide deochair eturru ? Ni ansa. Nosdeochratar 
a tri urluimi indsce i hic hec hoc i- ise isi ised i- 
ise in fear, isi in Ibhean, ised in neam. 525 

Cest, cuin immairigh eter in innsci J in duil dia 

n-innisin ? Ni ansa. Intan feadair a hinsci choir fuirri 

lar n-aicniudh. Ni imaircidi immorro eturru intan feadair 

Innsci for a n-aiU i ferinsci for Tbaninnsci no baninsci 

for ferinsci no deiminsci for neachtar n-aei. Peadair em 530 

ferinsce for haninnsce intan asTberar ise in banmhac- 

sa, ut dixit poeta : 

Dia mbadh missi in banmacan, 

Nocechrainn cach faehnacan ; 

Fer nad fintar gu gcluinnter, ,535 

Slancheill chein duib, a muindter. 

Pedair dno baninnsci for fearinnsci intan asberar 

isi in gabur : 

Isi in gabuir uair is each, 

Ise in gabur cid meighleach, - íq 

Isi in chorr cid reil nos-rel, ■ 

Ise in mintan cid banen. 

Pedair dno deiminnsci for ferinnsci no baninsci intan 

asberar is ed a cheann sechis ceann flr on no mna, 

íít dicitiir : 545 

Ceand mna romannair mo mod, 
Doi-far[r]aidh don, ni deilm ndil, 
Is ed ceand is grannium sain 
Do neoch fil for muin fo nim. 

520. 9 inscni E. s-'-' Gaidelc (c added later) B. : lasin nGoidel, neumíur E. 

•^^ urlaind L. : urland E. «-e imaric E. eter indoi T. dia n-indis L. E. 

•^28 ni himaircidh T. '^»" cechtair n-ce, cechthuir n-ái T. : cechtar L. E.' 

^•'■' Da ba misi E. 

■''^ No ceachiaind cach fealmacan L. E. : ni charíhuinn nach felmacchám T. 

■''•^ gluinnter B. : cluindter L. : gluindtear E. 539-42 ^f. O'Mollov Gr ii6 

•^•«* gabar E. "o meidlech L. E. ^ ' 

•'-'1 -i- fo feghthair B. margin. nos-reil B. : nos-raeil E. -'^- mindtán I E 

^ fir oin E. 346-9 HM. 135 a w. " " 

'-'^ mo mogh E. romaimair B. : romandair E. 

'"^^ graindiu L. : granum sin E. •''Ji' fo muin L. 



i.e., every mean thing is placed first, every distinguished 
thing to conclude. 

Now as to genders, how many are there with 
the Irish? (that is, gooseberry (i) \vay). Not hard. 
Three of them, i.e,, masciiline, feminine, and neuter 
gender with the Gael, to wit, masculine, feminine, and 
neuter with the Latinist. Query, what is the difFerence 
among them? Not hard. Their three leading words 
of gender diífer, to wit, hic, haec, hoc ; i.e., he, she, it ; 
he, the man ; she, the woman ; it, the heaven. 

Query, when is there harmony between the gender 
and the element to describe them ? Not hard. When 
its proper gender by nattire is applicable to it. There 
is no harmony, however, between them when one 
gender may be applied for another, i.e., masc. for fem., 
or fem. for masc, or neuter for either of them. Now 
masc. may be used for fem. when a íemale child is 
called he, ut dixit poeta : 

If I were a female child, 

I should love every young student ; 

A man that is not discovered till he is heard of, 

Perfect sense for a while to you, O people. 

Also fem. may be used for masc. when the horse is 
called she : 

The gabur is she, when it is a horse, 

The gabur is he, if it be bleating, 

The heron is she, though clearly it reveals itself, 

The titmouse is he, though a female bird. 

Also neuter gender may be used for masc. or fem. 

gender when it is said "it is his head," no matter 

whether that one is a man's head, or a woman's, nt 

dicitnr : 

A woman's head that has destroyed my work, 
It has gained ground, no dear sound, 
It is a head that which is the most horrible 
Of any that is on a neck beneath heaven. 

42 BB. 319/3 27 AURAICEPT E.23a23 

Fedair dno baninnsce for deiminnsce intan asberar 550 

is i in chloch, ut dicitiir: 

Is he in lia, lith rolas, 

lar srethaib suadh in senchas ; 

Is ed onn iar n-aicneadh ail, 

Is i in cloch iar sserdataid. 5o5 

Is e in daigh d^rg dighdi dath 
Frisna geibthi cath na cith ; 
Is ed ceand is chaemu cruth 
Fail gu mbruth forsmbroeniu bith. 

Samail a dealba ca« chleith 560 

Ealbha ingine Idhaidh ; 

Fri goir ngreni glaine ar gurt, 

Is fris samlaim a caemtucht. 

Mad iar n-urd choir na ndula, immorro, ni ainm 
ferinnsci no baninsci acht du neoch dufuisium / o 565 
tuisimar; 7 ba deme chena aicneadh na huile. 
Duepenar dno deminnsci a ferinnsci no a baninnsci. 
Doepenar dno ferinnsci 1 baninnsci a deiminnsci, amal 
• / ^^ ata isna /rannaibl^, 7 it he sin na deime tebede 7 na 

lanamna deme 7 a ngeni-se. ^'" 

Insci -i- scientia (-i- ecna) a bunadh Laitne. Scothegna 
a airbert. Innische a in«e -i- innisiu iar caei iar conair : 
conar -i- ceangar : tra -i- dorrae cucunn no durae uaini -i- 
inn asneis; no tra -i- a tri -i- na tri hinnsci -i- ferinsci 
7 baninsci 7 deiminsci. Perinnsci immorro forinnsci 575 
no firinnsci no fo[f]herinsce no firenninnsci no ferdha 
innsci no ferr inda innsci na mmna [bis indsci in fir L.] 
no ferinsci nama bis. Baninnsci dno -i- baninnsci -i- 
ba fir no buan innsci no bonen^zinnsci no bona scientia 

852-5 Cor. Tr. 12 : lithar rolass E. : HM. 135, b, I : RC. xx. 264 
S53 i sencas E. •■■"« derg daigi E. '""^ gaibthi L.: gabthai E.: gaphur si T. 
550 fil, bra;nu E. forsm B. L. E. in bith T. ^"^ gan clith E. 

560-3 HM. 135 a 42 ■'^'^ ingeine Idaig E. : Fhidhuigh T. 

56;t caemchucht L. : caemucht E. '^■^ Gr. Lat. v. 159, 22 ; 160, 8 

566.624 tusimther L. : tuisimter E. '"'''' Doepenar L. 

571 indscid oracio no sciencia T. 

572 Indis cíe E. a airbert .i. airlapra no radh T. _ 

57:í uand L. : dorEe uaind E. : trath .i' dorrói -i- d' iarra/a' indsci cugumn T. 
576 fo erindsci L. ^''^ ban fir B. : .1- bá fir L. 


Also fem. gender may be used for neuter gender when 
a stone is called she, ut dicitur : 

The flagstone is he, a feast that has flamed, 
According to the threads of sages is the history ; 
A block is it, according to nature, a rock, 
A stone is she according to artificiality. 

The red flame is " he," a prayer of colours, 
Against which will not prevail battle or shower ; 
A head is " it " of fairest form, 
A place whereon with a glow the world distills. 

The likeness of her form, without concealment, 
Of Elba, daughter of Idad, 
To a bright sun's fire on a field 
Thereto I liken her beauteous shape. 

If it be according to the proper use of the elements, 
however, there is no term of masc. or fem. gender 
save for what generates or for what is generated 
from ; and neuter were else the nature of the whole. 
On the one hand neuter gender is derived from 
masc. and fem. ; on the other, masc. and fem. are '^ftj^ 
derived from neuter, as it is in the v e r ses, and these '^jwf^ 
are the derived neuters and the neuter couples and ^-n^íf' 
their pairs. 

Speech that is scientia, knowledge, from a Latin root. 
Word-wisdom, its use. Speech-way, its meaning, i.e., a 
narration along the way, along the path : conar, that which 
is trodden : tra, that is, let it come unto us, or let it go 
from us, that is, the saying ; or tra, i.e., the three of 
them, i.e., the three genders, masc, fem., and neuter 
gender. Masculine gender is, however, added gender, or 
true gender, or goodman gender, or male gender, or manly 
gender, or better than the woman gender, or man gender 
only that it is. Peminine gender, again, i.e., woman 
gender, i.e., it were true, or lasting gender, or fcmale gender. 

44 BB.3i9^5i AURAICEPT £.23« 42 

•i- dagfis no (320) fo innsci in fir bis innsci na mna. 580 
Demindsci dno -i- deim insci, no deme insci, no deiminsci 
fuirri no in dem is onni as dcm[o] -i- dighbaim ita : no 
dibeo insci -i- insce dimbeoaighthi -i- ni hinnsce sluinnes 
du biu. 

Cuin is erlun;^ ? Is erlon?^ em intan dosb^^re fri a 585 
n-aill, 2ÍÍ est, is e in fear /rl. Is etargaire dno et^r (hemeu 
7 mascul insin : no is etargaire intan deifriche fri neach' 
n-aili co n-anmai;// a athar senrud. Innsci intan asberar 
is e nama gen eraill maille fris, ?// Priscianus dixit : 
Oratio est or^di^natio congrua\_ni\ dictionnni perfectani 590 
\^ué\ sententiani deniostrans -i- ata \n innsci ordugud 
comimaircide na n-epert faillsiges in cei][l] foirbthi. 
Erlonn inund eter da erlonn nach it inund -i- fri se no 
fri sed, air ni erlond is sed, is remshuidiugud. 

Ferinnsci aicnid, is e in fer : ferinnsci saerda, is e an 595 
neam. Baninnsci aicnid, is i in bean : baninnsci saerda, 
is i in chloch. Deminnsci aicnid, is ed an neam : 
deminnsci sairda, is ed in ceand. Aicneadh caem and 7 
aicned etigh. Aicned cíEmh cetumus : is i a sron no a 
suil na mna. Aicned n-eitigh immorro, is i a fhiacail 600 
no a bhel na mna 7 is cail gotha fodera sin -i- ni ni acht 
neamgnathugudh amal atat na focail berlai na athgenwmar 
•i- nit binde lenn uair nis-gnathaigem. Mascol 7 io^men 7 
neod;^;- lasin Laitneoir -i- nias fear 7 cul comet : no 
comfhiscol -i- moo a fis 7 a col quani col na mna ; no is onni 605 
is niasculinus -i- mascuHni. Femen dno -i- femder -i- feme 

■'*^ Demindscean L. doem insgi furri E. 

"*' dimbeo L. : dabse E. : iirdibrtí/ fuirri in dede reomuiníí T. 

•'■*"' dobere L. : asbere E. •"'*^'' is eterscarad E. 

''^'' dosbere L. : dosbi H. : deif^rge E. 

■^^ cen L. Gr. Lat. ii. 53, 28 : Sg. 26 » '''^ orat«í B. L. 

m-i Erland, da erlaind nach at inunda •i- si fri fri si no fri sed E. : isi fri se 
no fri sedh T. •"*^ earlond acht is remsuigugud E. L. sfls. 6, s gser E. 

^"'^ nat athgenmar L. : na haichnemair E. : nad athgenam T. 

""•' ni gnath E. ''O^ cal coimet L. : cail E. 

""•'" mo fis col L. E. Origg. xi. 2, 17 

'"^ •i- masculina, femer •!• feme Grece, largo (,A- og) Laiine E. : masco- 
Jonium masculdo T. 


or bona scientia, to wit, good knowledge, or inferíor to the 
gender of the man that the woman's gender is. Neuter 
gender, again, that is, dark gender or darkness gender or 
dark gender on her, or the deni is from the word deino^ 
i.e., digbaini, I deprive : or unliving gender, i.e. gender 
inanimate, i.e., it is not a gender that applies to quick. 

When is it erlonn, leading word ? Well, it is erlonn 
when it refers to another thing, ut est, he is the man, 
etc. There is then a comparison between the fem. and the 
masc. there : or it is a comparison when it differentiates 
from any one else, with his father's name especially. 
Speech, when it is said it is he onIy, with no other along 
with him, ut Priscianus dixit : Oratio est ordinatio congi'ua 
dictionuni perfectanique sententiani denionstra?is, i.e., speech 
is an appropriate order of the words that shows the 
perfect sense. Erlonn is the same between two erlonn 
that are not the s2,mQ., \.o v^\\., fri se ox fri sed ; for is sed 
is not erlonn, it is an anteposition. 

Natural masc. speech, "he" is the man : artificial 
masculine speech, " he " is the heavens. Natural feminine 
speech, "she" is the woman: artificial feminine speech^ 
"she" is the stone. Natural neuter speech, "it" is the 
heaven : artificial neuter speech, " it " is the head. There 
is beautiful nature and ugly nature. Beautiful nature 
first : It is her nose or her eye — the woman's. Ugly 
nature on the other hand : It is his tooth or his mouth 
— the woman's ; and quality of voice causes that, that 
is, nothing but want of use, as are the words of a 
language which we do not know, i.e., we do not think 
them sweet because we do not use them. Masculine, 
feminine, and neuter with the Latinist, that is, nias, a 
male, and cuí, keeping : or coni-fis-col knowledge, lust, 
i.e., major ejus scientia, et niajor ejus qíiani feminae 
luxuria ; or it is from the word niasculijtus, i.e., masculine. 

46 BB. 320a26 AURAICEPT E.23a63 

Graece.uirgo Latine : ander gach slan. Femdeir didiu -i- 
ogh-ingen ; no íemen quasi fciner -i- a feniore •\- femiir -i- 
sHasat, air is and is ben-si intan fognaithir dia sliasait ; 
no fem^w -i- flesc no maitnechas nnde feniina de flescda no 610 
maithchnechas dicitur ; no is onni ^.s feniinina^femina •{- 
banda no banecoscda no bangnethach no bangnimach. 
Neudur -i- ni fetur cia cenel, uair nach si no se ; no neutur 
onni as neutrum neimhneachtardha -i- nec Jioc nec illud -v 
nec masculinum nec femininum. Cest, onni a[s] sciscor, 615 
com[a]ircim. Caite deochair eturru ? Ni ansa. Nas- 
defrigidar a tri urlundinnsci -i- a iii remslonnudh -i- slointi 
rempu -i- riasna hinscibh -i- ise isi ised : acht ata urlaind 
sin a tindscedul a nd-edargnu remsluind dona foclaib ina 
ndiaidh ; / insce femen J masc//l / neutur tuicthear trethu. 620 

Etardheilighther dno eter na tri cenelaibh. Cest, cuin 
imaric (-i- cuin as aenairectain suad) eter in insci J in 
duil dia n-innisen? Ni ansa. Intan fogabhar a hinnsci 
choir fuirri. Acht do neoch dofuisim / o tuisimar atat da 
thuismiudh and, tuismiudh aicenta / tuismiudh saerda. 625 
Tusmiudh aicenta geine -i- mac sceo ingean o mnai : 
tusmiud sairda -i- fer o tha.hnain, amal asbeir Uraicept : 
mor easba in talman meni tusmedh clanda. Cetheora 
fodhla saerdhatadh -i- deifir rainde J tugait hináiusa J 
iUugud labartha J cuimri raid. Deifir rainni, ut est, is e in 630 
banmac-sa -i- din raind oigi fil and isin ingin is (col. /3) 

^'^^ der Graece for lan, lan femder didiu -i' og- ingen E. : der Grec'ia, id est, 
filiaLatinel:. ^os Qrigg. xi. I, lo6 ; 2, 21, 24 •^**" foghnus T. dia shliasait B. 

^i" maithnechas B. : maitcnechas L. : maithcneas tinde femina •!• deidecasc- 
thach no maethcnesach E. : fiescach no mrtothcnesach T. : Origg. xi. 2, 21 

"i^ se no»H«at«r E. "'^ Origg. i. 7, 28 : Gr, Lat. viii. 82, 25. iscistcoir E. 

615 L Cesc ^^^ nodefrigthar E. 

6" a se remhsloindidh roslointi rompo E. : remsluindte T. 

'Í19 ndeadarg 'i- L. : a tetargnu -i- E. ^'^ immricc E. 

'^'^ indesend E. fogabair E. ^^s, 7 gser -i- feur E. ^^s mana tuistimis T. 

62» defir inde E. ^^ iUud, cumra E. Deithbir L. : Defir a indi E. 

631 Origg. xi. 2, 24 


Next feminine, to •w\\.,fem-der, to \w\t,feme in Greek, tcirgo 
in Latin : ainder every intact one. Femdeir, then, is a 
pure virgin ; ov femen quasi femer, i.e., a femore, '\.&.,femur, 
thigh, for it is then she is a woman qmim femori ejus servi- 
atur ; or femen, i.e., a root of fighting, or contentiousness, 
unde femina dicitur de, a sheltered one, or tender skinned 
.one; or it is from the worás femenina,fe?nina, i.e., womanlv, 
or of womanly form, or womanIy activities, or womanly 
deeds. Neuter, that is, I do not know what gender, since it 
is not she or he ; or neuter from the word neutrum, neither 
one nor other, i.e., nec hoc nec illud, id est, nec masculinum nec 
femininum. Cesc, query, is from the word sciscor, I 
enquire. VVhat is the difference among them ? Not 
hard. Their three leading words of gender distinguish 
them, i.e., their three antedenotations, i.e., denotations 
before them, i.e., before the genders, i.e., he, she, it : but 
these leading words stand at the commencement to 
índicate the antedenotation of the vvords following them • 
and masculine, feminine, and neuter gender is understood 
through them. 

There is distinction, then, among the three genders. 
Query, when is there agreement (i.e., when is there a 
philosopher's one invention) betvveen the gender, and the 
element for telling them ? Not hard. When its proper 
gender is found upon it. But of all that generates and 
is generated from, there are two generations, a natural 
and an artificial generation. A natural generation of 
birth, to wit, son and daughter out of woman : an 
artificial generation, i.e., grass, out of the earth, as the 
Primer says : Great is the uselessness of the earth unless 
it bring forth progeny. There are four subdivisions of 
artificiality, to wit, Difiference of Part, Cause of Euphony, 
Amplifying Speech, and Brevity of Terminology. Diíifer- 
ence of Part, ut est, " he " is this female child, that is, the 


4^ BB. 320/3I AURAICEPT e. 23/318 

ai«m : Tucait bindiusa, ut esf, is i in ghabair 7 d' eoch 
ban is ainm -i- goar -i- solus isin Fenic[h]us (no isin Breat- 
nais) co tuc in file be fris ar tucait mbinniusa : Hilugud 
labartha, ut est, is ed a cend 7 is liate in da urlabra : 635 
Cuimri raid, ut esí, rusc immi 7 criathar arba ; uair ropad 
emilt rusc im imim 7 criathar im arbor do rad. Air it e da 
modh labartha fil and -i- modh n-aicenta 7 modh sserdatadh. 
Secht n-eatargaire tra dochuisneat i- a ngrad condeilg 
lasin Laitneoir is eatargoiri a n-ainm lasin filid. Etar- 640 
goiri in incoisc i persainn, etargaire n-inchoisc persainni, 
etargoire persainni i ngnim, etargoire persainne i 
cessadh. Btargaire derscaigti i nderscugud i- possit 7 
comparait 7 superlait lasin Laitneoir i- fothugudh 7 
forran 7 formoladh lasin fllid : maith 7 fearr 7 fearrson 645 
lasin nGaedeal ; etargoire meite i mmetughudh, etar- 
goire lughaghthe i lugugud. Etargoire n-inchoisc hi 
persaind cetiimus : unnse (i- in fer) xmnsi (í- in ben) 
onnar (i- i[n] nem) : etargoire in inchoisc persainni, me 
faden, tu faden, he faden, sinni fadesin, sibsi fadesin, 650 
siat-som fadesin, Etargaire persainni i ngnim : darig- 
nius, darignis, darigne, darignisam, darignesaih, darig- 
ensad. Etargaire persainni i cessadh: rom-char-sa, 
rot-char-su, rocharsom, roinchar-ne, rom-charabair-si, 
roscarsad. Etargaire derscaigthi i nderscugud i- maith 655 
7 ferr 7 ferrsom (-i- lasin nGsedel coitchend a n-ecmais in 
filed, fothugad immorro la sidhe). Etargaire mete i 
mmetugud : mor 7 ^ioo 7 moosom. Btargaire lug- 
haighthi i llugh[ug]udh : bec 7 lugxim 7 lugusomh. 

^ Feineachus L. : gobur •{• solus isin Fhenacus E. : Cor.- 675 
"■'^ HiUugud L. "•'* cuimredh T. ''^' emilta, Air it e E. ^^ persainde E. 
8^'' lugaide E. ''^^ uindse, uindse L. : uindsi E. ®'^ dorignius E. 

*'■' cf. 335'5, rom-charthar, etc, which is transiated : darignetar siat E. 
*>-^ rom-car-ne, robar-carabar-si, rocarsom L. : romcaraisiu, romcarni, 
robarcarsi, roduscarsum, rodomcarsum E. 

^ i ndersgnaigac/í/ E. *'-^ luguthi E. '"^ lugum-son L. 


name arises from the part of virginity which is there 
in the girl : Cause of Euphony, tit est, she is the gabaii\ 
steed, and it is a name for a white horse, that is, goar, 
that is, sohis in the Feinechus, or in the Welsh, so that 
the poet put b to it for the sake of euphony : Amplifying 
of Speech, tit est, it is her head, and the two expressions 
are the more Iengthy : Brevity of Terminology, ut est, 
a bark of butter, and a sieve of corn ; for it were tedious 
to say a bark round about butter, and a sieve round about 
corn. For these are two modes of speaking that exist, 
the natural mode and the artificial. 

Now there are seven inflections, to wit, the compara- 
tive degree of the Latinist is named inflection by the 
poet. Inflection of meaning in a person, inflection of 
meaning of a person, inflection of person in active, 
inflection of person in passive. Inflection of distinction 
in distinguishing, to wit, positive, comparative, and 
superlative with the Latinist : foundation, aggravation, 
belaudation with the poet : good, better, and best with 
the Gael ; inflection of greatness in increasing, inflection 
of diminution in diminishing. Inflection of meaning in 
a person flrst : unnse, here is the man ; tmnsi, here is the 
woman ; onnar, here is the thing : inflection of meaning of 
a person : I myself, thou thyself, he himself , we ourselves, 
ye yourselves, they themselves. Inflection of person in 
active : I did, thou didst, he did, we did, ye did, they 
did. Inflection of person in passive : I am loved, thou 
art loved, he is loved, we are loved, ye are loved, they 
are loved. Inflection of distinction in distinguishing, 
that is, good, better, best (i.e., with the common Gael in 
contradistinction to the poet : it is foundation, how- 
ever, with him). Inflection of increase in increasing : 
great, greater, greatest, Inflection of diminution in 
diminishing : small, less, and least. 


50 BB. 320^28 AURAICEPT E. 23/343 

Secht n-etargoire -i- i[s] soighthi dia mbe inna eolus ; 660 
no is saighthi dia mbe i n-aineolus. Etargoire -i- isinn 
etechtu ata -i- isin sechtmad ernail in sechta ita in condelg 
uile ut est : Pars pro tota 7 tota pro parte ■\- in rand dar 
eis na toiti 7 in toiti dar eis na rainni. Etargoire -i- 
etardheilighthi i treidhib 7 etargairi -i- gair guth -i- 665 
etarghnugh[ud] in ghotha andsin ; no etargleodh -i- iar 
ngleodh a íheassa etarru. 

In chondealg lasin Laitneoir is etargoiri lasin filid : 
fiHdh -i- fialsaighi no fialshuighi : no fi ani aerais, 7 li ani 
molais : no fili onni is philosophus -i- fellsamh ar dliged in 670 
filed guru fellsumh. Cidh ar nach treidhi lasin Laitneoir 
in condelg amal as treidhi lasin nGaedel in;^ edarghoiri -i- 
meid 7 inni 7 inchosc? Dedhe immorro lasin Laitneoir -i- 
meid 7 inni naz/^ma -i- bonus et vialus is i in indi : Tiiagnus 
et minus is i in meid. Is ed a inni lasin nGaedel -i- maith 7 675 
olc \mmalle. Is i a meid -i- mor 7 beg : 7 is mor lais-j-ium/^ 
a mbeg i coneilg in neich is lughu. Inchosc \mmo7'ro agon 
fhiHd, ni condelg esz^fe etir lasin Laitneoir, acht pronomen 
et uerbum. 

Cidh fodera dosumh a radh a ngradh conde[i]lg lasin 680 
Laitneoir is edargoiri a ainm laisin filid 7 ni fuil acht 
tri graidh condeilg lasin Laitneoir, 7 atat secht n-etargoire 
icon fiHd ? Ni dia chutrumugud eim dosum dno, acht 
ita etargoire lasin fiHd is condelg lasin (321) Laitneoir -i- 
etargoire derscaigthi i nderscugud. Ni cach etargoire is 685 
condeilg 7 is cach condealg is etargoire. Cidh ar madh 
condelg las-[s]ium posit? Ni ansa. Ar is i as fotha, 7 ata 

^ solgthidi ambse E. ^^ saigithi E. inna eolus B. E. 

''*'^ isin ectu E. instechta ita in congaelg- B. 

^ Origg. i. 37, 13. tar es no toidi 7 in toit tar es na rainde E. 

•*'* comprait dombeir-sium arin coinneilg uile T. 

^ etardheilighi B. : etardeiligthi i treib E. •^^'^ etergleod •!• iar ngles E. 

^ •i« felsai A- foglaim 7 sai fogluma hesium iarsani bid foglum aici ic 
foglaim L. : i felsui E. : fel fogluim T. ""i go rob L. •'"'' L. Deighi H. 

'^"^ inn inne E. *''^ in beac L. ''''* esen L. ^ in grad L. ^- i condeilg E. 

^^ Ni cach etargoire B. repeats. etardersgugud inderscnaigtech, In 
gach E. 687 fotta E. 


Seven inflections, that is, it is to be sought out whence 
it is in his knowIedge ; or it is to be sought out whence he 
is in ígnorance. Inflection, i.e., it stands in the unlawful, 
to wit, in the seventh part of the heptad is the whole 
comparison, iit est : Pars pro tota et tota pro paríe^ the part 
for the whole and the whole for the part. Etargaire, i.e., it 
isto beseparated into three, and etargaire, \.Q.,gáir Ís voice, 
i.e., interpretation of the voice is there ; or interdecision, 
i.e., after the deciding of his knowledge between them. 

The comparison of the Latinist is inflection with the 
poet : filidh, poet, that is, generous seeking, or generous 
sitting : or fi, that which satirises, and // that which 
praises : or fili from the word philosophus, philosopher, 
owing to the duty of the poet to be a philosopher. 
Why is not comparison a triad with the Latinist, as 
inflectíon is a triad with the Gael, to wit, quantity, 
quality, and meaning? Well, with the Latinist it is two 
things, quantity and quality only, to wit, good and bad, 
that is the quality : great and less, that is the quantity. 
With the Gael, however, this is its quality, to wit, good 
and bad together. This is its quantity, to wit, great and 
small : and with him the small is great in compari.son 
with that which is less. The poet's inchosc, signification, 
however, is with the Latinist not comparison at all, but 
prononien et verbiini. 

What makes him say that comparative degree 
with the Latinist is named inflection by the poet, seeing 
there are but three degrees of comparison with the 
Latinist, and the poet has seven inflections? It is not 
indeed to equate them does he do so now, but that which 
ís inflection with the poet is comparison with the Latinist, 
i.e., inflection of distinction in distinguishing. Not every 
inflection is comparison, but every comparison is inflection. 
Why is positive with him a comparison ? Not hard. 

52 BB. 32ia4 AURAICEPT E. 23 13 63 

derscughudh di, ut dicitur, airim fri unair, ut est : Unus non 
est nunierus sed fundanientuni nunieri -i- nochon fhil int a;n 
co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, 7 amal ita alt 690 
icon Gaidhel, 7 ni dech fadesin, cidh la deochu adrimt//é'r, 7 
tria saerdataid insin -i- int alt aicenta imniorro de posit 

Cid arnid ainm comparaíti doberat-somh forin condelg 
uili? Ni ansa. Poisit cetumus : Ni derscaigh do ni : dno, ni derscaigt/íer di. Comparait immorro 695 
derscaighidh di neoch, derscaigther di, conid airisin is 
ainm foriata in condelg. 

Caite condelg ceilli cen son, 7 condelg suin cen cheill, 7 
condelg suin 7 ceilli moUe ? Condelg ceilli cen son, ?ít est : 
donus, nie/ior, optinius. Condelg suin cen ceiU, ut est : 700 
bonus, bonior, boninius ; nobhiadh iar sun sain 7 "i fil iar 
ceill. Condelg suin 7 ceilH malle, íit est : niagnus, niaior, 
inaxinius is i in sin in condelg techta. Bid dno maith, 7 
ni bi derrscugud de, ut est Deus. 

Caite deochair eter se 7 uinse ? Uindse cetumus : sluind 705 
persainni [sain]raidchi insin, ut dicitur : unse uait in fer-sa 
saindriud cona anmaim, ut dixit poeta : 

Unse chugut in gillgugan, 

Maí r[e]arrgugan ; 

Bid cach maith lat ar cingugan, 710 

A ceallgugan. 

Sluind ceniuil immorro amal ata is e in fear, 7 ni 

fes cia sainriudh, acht is fer tantuni. Cidh fodera ind 

'^^ dersgnugud E. fri huimif L. : nuraair E. Origg. iii. 3, i 

''S'' nocho fuil E. ''^^ airmi L. : comad airem E. 

^^ Gseidiul, cid la deachu airmither L. : gid la deecu arimt/zír iter saerda-. 
taib insin E. '''■'■■^ t-alt a.\cefita amal aia prois E. do L. 

•'*' Prois cetamus, inderscnaidchi do ni E. 

^^ Superlait didiu ni derscnaigthí?;- di E. 

•'■*' sech derscnaigit, derscnaigther E. ""^ honisimus L. : bonissimus El. 

■'"* Gr. Lat. v. 158, 30 : Virg. Gr. 91, 20 ™'' deochairt^^;- B. 

"'^ persainraice E. 708-ii Cormac, Atiec. iv. § II03 

709 errgugain E. : raragain T. 

"'*' bid can B. ar a E. agad a cinngucan •i- longa brab ifin H. : breib T. 

'^' cellcucan a ceanngucan -i' a cinn gegain H. : ara cindagain, a cenagain 
T. ( = Cenn Gécáin) : CZ. viii. 316, 6 "^ Sluinde coitcend T. : ceiwniuil B. 


Because it is that which is the foundation, and there is 
distinction for it, nt dicitur, a number is opposed to a 
unit, íit cst : Unus non cst nujucrus sed fundanicntuni 
nunicri, i.e., one is not a number, but it is a basis of 
number, and as the Gael has alt, joint, and it is not a 
metrical foot itself, though it is numbered vvith feet, and 
that through artificiality, to wit, the natural alt stands for 

Why is it not the name of comparative that they apply 
to all comparison? Not hard. Positive first : Now it 
■does not surpass anything. The superlative, again, is not 
surpassed. The comparative, however, surpasses, is 
surpassed by something, so that it is for that reason 
comparison is an inclusive name. 

What is comparison of sense without sound, and 
comparíson of sound without sense, and comparison of 
sound and sense together ? Comparison of sense without 
sound, tit est : honus, niclior, optinius. Comparison of 
sound without sense, ?// cst : bonus, bonior, bojiinius ; which 
it might be according to sound, though it does not exist 
according to sense, Comparison of sound and sense 
together, ut est : niagnus, ntaior, niaxinius, that is the 
proper comparison. Yet there is good, and nothing to 
surpass it, ut cst, Dcus. 

What is the difference betvveen sc, ít is he, and uinse, 
here he is? Uindsc first : the denotation of a particular 
person is there, ?// dicitur : here he is, this man in particular, 
with his name, 7it dixit pocta : 

Here comes to thee the dear little fellow, 
Son of a dear littlc black-bird [Mac Lonáin]. 

Have thou every good prepared for him, 
Dear little Cellach. 

\Sé\ is a denotation of gender, however, as he is the man ; 
and it ís not known vvho in particular, but it is a man 

54 BB. 32ia26 AURAICEPT E. 24al4 

irlond conidh inwsci 7 conidh etargoire -i- intan is innsci 
is ac sluind innsci hís, acht isa oen ; J atberat is e 715 
in fer uair is erlond i suidhiu. Is ann is etargoire intan 
asberar unse, Sluind ceneoil amal ata in etargairi 
inchoisc i persaind -i- isin persaind fein ita a hinchosc 
co n-aichniter trit ic sluind cetpersainde J persainde 
tanaisti 7 tres persainde atat na hetargaire uili. 720 

Cidh ar nar ba leor leis-[s]ium a rad me i n-etargaire 
inchoisc persainne? Ni ansa. Etargaire deifrighudh na 
persainde tria hinchosc di fadein -i- in chetpersu uathaid, 
conar bo leor a radh me co n-abair me fadein, air is 
demniti 7 is dehgidi fri cac/i persaind a radh me fadein, ul 725 
dicituv : iniponendo egomet \ipse enini egofeci ~ non alius cuvi 
dicitur egoniet L.] uair is me fein 7 ni neach eli intan asberar 
egoniet. Quicquid iteratur ut firmus fiat -i- biaid corob 
demnite gach ni athairrigthir. Fogabar dno in comparait 
cen phosit, ut est: Dulcius est mare Ponti\c\um quam cetera 730 
maria •\- i[s] somillsi muir Point andat na muiri ar chena, 
7 condelc in etechta in sin. Condelc in etechta á^no in 
cetna ernail in Auraicepta -i- fors -i- ferr a fhis. Is etecta 
insin ; ar ni maith int anfis. Finit primus libcr. 

Incipit do lebur Ferc//í?;-tne. Loc don libur-sa Emain 735 
Mhacha. I n-aimsir Conchobair mic Neassa. Persu do 
Ferchertne fil/. Tucait a denma du breith íesa faind 7 boirb 
for seis (col. /"^). 

rfif lú^"'^ Seachta frisa toimsiter Gaedhelg i- fid 7 deach, reim 

. ,K(jtl í*^^ ' 7 forba[i]dh, alt 7 indsci 7 etargoiri. 

"'■' is aen, isberar E. ^^'' oir is reimsluinne T. ''" uindsi E. "-" ata E. 

"-^ nar bo lór íí. "-- etardethbriugud E. "-•' uathad E. 

"-■' demnidhi 7 is deiligthidi E. '-'• in pronoinine T. : cf. Gr. Lat. ii. 590, 26 

"-" deimnigthi, dehgthi, a tairgiotar L. : aitirgidir E. : aithrigthir T. 

"•''^ co mba poisit T. Origg. xiii. 16, 4: Gr. Lat. ii. 92, 15 ; iv. 374, 29; 
viii. clxxxiii. 8 ""'^ Pointt anait E. "•''^ indecta E. 

"•'•' fors •i' is ferr a tis do« fit/r (/. fir) rofit/;- inas don fir na fit/> T. 
isechta E. '""^ ni ar B. Finit Amen L. "•" borb L. '•"' toimister E. 



tantuui. What malces the irlond^ leadíng word, become 
insci^ gender, and etargaire^ inflection ? When it is indsci^ 
gender, it stands as denoting gender, but of which it is 
one ; and they say " he is the man" when it is erlond, 
leading word, there. It is inflection there when it is said 
unse, there he is. A denotation of gender such as is the 
inflection of meaning in a person, i.e., it is in the person 
itself wherein is its meaning, so that it is known thereby 
as denoting first, second, and third person, wherein are 
all the inflections. 

Why did he not deem it sufficient to say " I " in 
inflection denoting person ? Not hard. Inflection is a 
differentiating of the person through its own defining of 
itself, to wit, in the first person singular it was not 
enough to say " I," so he says " I myself " ; for it is more 
definite, and distinct from every person to say " I myself," 
nt dicitnr : iviponendo egoniet, since it is I myself and not 
another person when it is said egoniet. Quicquid iteratur 
ut firnius fiat, i.e., it will so be that everything which is 
reiterated is confirmed. There is found also the compara- 
tive without a positive, ut est : Dulcius est mare Ponticuni 
quavi cetera niaria^ i.e., sweeter is the sea of Pontus than 
all the seas, and that is an improper comparison. An 
improper comparison, too, is the first part of the Primer, to 
wit, fovs^ chance, i.e., better its knowledge. That is not 
proper; for ignorance is not good. Finit prinius liber. 

Incipit to Ferchertne's boók. The place of this book, 
Emain Macha. In the time of Conchobar MacNessa. 
The person to it, Ferchertne, the poet. Reason for making 
it, to bring weak and rude folk to science. 

Seven things according to which Gaelic is measured, 
letter and verse-foot, deolension and accent, syllable and 
gender, and inflection. 

56 BB.32I/3 4 AURAICEPT e. 24^36 

Seachta -i- septini a bunadh lasin Laitneoir. Seacht 
n-aeahinni -i- seachta da aeib doimiter and. A airbert i- a 
airimh -i- vii primeillge na filideachta ; no brosnacha bairdne ; 
no vii n[d]eich na filidheachta i n-ecmais dialta, ar ni fil in 
seachta annside : is aire rofacbadh. Coitcheand 7 diles 7 745 
ruidhles conadar don foc<v/ is seachta : Coitchend do cach 
airimh seachta Diles do a seacht diuidib. Ruidhles do in 
cetairimh sechta fris a nd-ebradh -i- fri seacht laithib na 
seachtmaine. Innleas a tabairt for airimh n-aiH acht for a 
seacht. Tomus '-i- viensura a bunad lasin Laitneoir. 750 
Toimes a hinni. Toimhes a airbert -i- to tenga 7 meas 
airi fen -i- meas doghnither o theangaidh. In gne 
no in cenel iomhusl Is cenel eimh. Cest, caitet 
a gnee? Ni ansa. Tomus filideachta 7 tomus bairdni 
7 tomus prosta. Cadé ruidhleas 7 dileas 7 coitchend 755 
7 indles hi tomus? Ni ansa. Ruidhleas do filid- 
eacht -i- a breith ria seacht. Diles do bairdni -i- a 
tomus fri cluais 7 ^ri coir n-anala. Coitchend immorro 
de prois o dhialt immach. 

Indles do se« immorro, air ni fil alt and. Seachta fo 760 
vii for sechta inso sis. 

Pidh •\- fundanientuni a bunad haitne: Fo edh a hinni : 
fotha, no fidh ae a airbert. Ruidhles 7 diles 7 coMcJiend 
'má do fedhaib -i- ruidhles do fhedhaib aireghdhaibh, 
diles do f(?;//íedhaib. Coitchend immorro do thaebomnaib 765 
acht huath. Indles do sen immorro, air ni taebomwrr etir, 7it 
est : h non est litera sed nota aspirationis -i- nocho n[fh]uil 
h co mbad Htir acht ata conidh noit tinfidh. Tinfedh i- 

■'^-^ airem, no a vii primeilge, no vii brosnacha E. "■**■ ^ hinnles T. 

"^^ diles dona vii ndechaiph na filidheachta T. atecht diuiti E. 1. ndiuiti 

"'^^ fris a ndubrad L. : i i>d-ebrad E. '^^ airem E. 

"'^ do thenga 7 me is airi fein E. '''^ no in gnim do tomus ? is gnim emh E. 

''•''^ coint B. = coitchend "■"'^ am briatha;- seachta E. "•'^ do E. L. 

'^ do sein e, Secta fo vii-a andso sis E. '*" taeboimwa B. 

'** ni a toebomnaib E. ™" Gr. Lat. ii. 35, 24 ; 8, 22 ; 12, 20 ; sed est E. 

''•* nod tinfid L. 


Seachta, heptad, i.e., septent its root according to the 
Latinist. Seven sciences is the meaning of it, i.e., a 
heptad of sciences are measured there. Its use, to wit, its 
number, that is, seven prime metres of the poetic art ; or 
incitements of bard poetry ; or seven metrical feet of the 
poetic art apart from monosyllable, for the heptad is 
not therein : on that account it was left out. Common, 
proper, and peculiar are asked for the word heptad : 
Common to it is each number of seven. Proper to it 
are its seven simples. Peculiar to it is the first number of 
seven to which it might be applied, to wit, the seven days 
of the week. Improper, its application to a number other 
than seven. Aleasure, i.e., mensura is its root according 
to the Latinist. Measure, its meaning. Tomus, measure, 
its use, i.e., ío, tongue, and vieas, estimate (^ij itself, i.e., jrf 
an estimate which is made by tongue. Is measure a 
species or a genus ? It is a genus certainly. Query, 
what are its species ? Not hard. Measure of poetry, of 
bard poetry, and of prose. What is peculiar, proper, 
common, and improper in measure ? Not hard. Peculiar 
to poetry, that is, its being referred to its seven kinds. 
Proper to bard poetry, i.e., its measure to suit the ear, and 
proper adjustment of breathing. Common, however, to 
prose from a monosyllable onward. 

Improper thereto, however, for alt, juncture, does not 
exist there. Septas, seven times for a heptad from this 
time forward. 

Pid, letter, that \s fundamentuni its Latin root. Under 
law, its meaning : foundation, or wood of science its use. 
Peculiar, proper, common, and improper to vowels, 
i.e., peculiar to principal vowels, proper to diphthongs, 
Common, however, to consonants except h. Improper to 
it, however ; for it is not a consonant at all, ?ít est : h nou 
est litera sed noía aspirationis, h is not a letter but it is a 

58 BB.32i^3o AURAICEPT £.24« 55 

tiniudh feadh -i- nemnigudh feadha doradh friu sin uili. Is 
ed is ruidhles 7 is diles 7 is choitc/iend doib. 770 

Deach dno troich (no ar frithindlidhach) a bunadh Laitne. 
Degfuach no defuach da;/í7 a hinni : dibh uaighthir immorro 
[a] airbert intan i[s] sreath. Caite ruidhles 7 diles 7 coit- 
chend indles isna deac[h]aibh ? Ruidhles doib a n-anmand 
fein do rad friu amal ata dialt. Diles doib dialt do radh fri 776 
cach n-ai dibh, air is dialt duf(?rmaidh gach n-x dib for 
araili. Coitchend doib deich do radh fri cach dib. Indleas 
do dhialt im;/iorro deach duna seacht ndeachaib ele do radh 
fris, air ni fil alt and. 

Reim á -i- re huawma ai a hinni intan is filideacht, 780 
re huam intan is bairdni -i- ni huaim tomais ó\igt/ii£. 
Reim dsLno -i- raid uaim intan is phrois. Reim áano a 
airbert, diall no tm'sesil a bunadh : no reim onni as 
robamus i- comhshuidhiughud a bunadh. Ruidles do reim 
do fid for fid i filideacht : diles do taebreim ceatharcubaid 785 
filideachta 7 bairdne. Zo\tc/iend immorro do reim suin 
cen cheill 7 do reim suin 7 cheilli immaille : diles do 
prois : indles immorro do reim suin namma, uair ni fillt/r. 

Cid dosum nar bo lor lais a radh me nawma 
co nn-earbairt me fadein, ut supra ? 790 

Ceithri gnei immorro for prois o (322) reim -i- 
reim suin, amal ata fer. Is as remnigther. Reim ceilli, 
amal ata Vatxaic. Ni airicar a reim suin, air is aendealb 

■"■'•' ninugud (?) E. '"' ar it indledach L. 

">'''-' 3 dibuaidthir, a airbert E. "^.s deechaib E. 

~'^ cach ni dib, f' araile E. ""'^ deeich, deech E. 

'**" uam/wa L, : rc-cim, huama E. "•'^^ re huaim E. tom;/í L. 

'«^ ruidlesta E. '^'' ceithrecubait E. '*"' leor L. ''•'» co n-abair L. 


mark of aspiration. Tinfedh, aspiration, i.e., a vanishing- 
of letters, i.e., annihilation of a letter to apply to ali 
these. That is peculiar, proper, and common to them. 

Then deach, metrical foot, -ai^-be€a««eit4&-sy iiuiiyiuuus7 ÍJttÁif^jlt tí/Jó 
f«uisxid3LÍQQtirc>flft~aJ-^fH=©ot. Good word or double vvord, "^»^ ^Mdjj\ 
then, its meaning : from them is linked its use, hovvever, ^-T/J _ 
when it is a series. What are peculiar, proper, common, 
and improper in the metrical feet? Peculiar to them to 
apply their own names to them, such as dialt, monosyllable. 
Proper to them, to apply monosyllable to each of them, 
for it is a monosyllable that each one of them adds to 
another. Common to them is to apply feet to each of 
them. Improper to monosyllable, however, is to apply to 
it [the name of] one of the other seven metrical feet, for 
no juncture is contained in it. 

Reim, course, that is, time of composition of ae, sciences, 
is its meaning vvhen it is poetry : time of alliterations, 
when it is bard poetry, that is, it is not composition of 
a legitimate measure. Reiin, then, that is, raid-iiaiin, 
speech-stitching vvhen it is prose. Reiin, then, its use ; 
diall, declension, or tuisea/, case, its root : or reijn from 
the vvord robauius, i.e., its root is a compound. Peculiar 
to reini, alliteration, of letter by letter in poetry : proper 
to a side [or end] reini through the quatrain of poetry 
and bard poetry. Common, however, to declension of 
sound without sense and to declension of sound and 
sense together : proper to prose : improper, however, to 
declension of sound onIy, for they are not inflected. 

What caused him to deem it insufficient to say " I " 
only, and to say " I myself," ut supra ? 

Four species in prose, however, out of reim, declension 
to wit, declension of sound such as fer. Thence it is 
dcclined. Declension of sense such as Patraic. Its declen- 
sion of sound is not found, for there is one form for its 

<50 BB. 322 a 3 AURAICEPT E. 24^39 

fora ainmnid 7 for^' geniíil: reim suin 7 ceilli amal ata 
Fland Flaind. Taíbreim prosta -i- me fadein, ar is 795 
taebreim cach ni nach lanreim. Treda ara togarar reim -i- 
reim as, ut est, fer, air is as remnigther. Reim ind, 7{t 
est, fir, air is ind reimnigther, Reim as 7 iiici 
malle, »t est, in fer -i- a ainmniugud 7 ^ inchosc 
ann malle. Reim dano ceím a airbert : 800 

Bellat mathair Niu[i]l neimnigh 
Do chloind Laitin langeimligh 
Fuair bas i llo grene glain, 
Cele Feniusa Farsaidh. 

•i- reim do fidh for fidh nt est : 805 

Sian sleibi s/Hata serind 
Senshaili senim snechta snac 
Slisiu slice samad saball 
Snaithe snithe saland sacc. 

. Porbaid dno -i- aiccentus lasin Laitneoir, a bunad onni 810 
is finnarius -i- ilghnuiseach : forbid (-i- forin focul) no for 
fut no for cumair. Forbaid no forbeoidh no forbaid a inne. 
Forbeoidh intan is forsail -i- sail fair ; no forsail -i- is for 
fuilliudh, iarsanni fothaighes in focul for fut. Forbaidh dno 
forbaidh intan is dinin dishail -i- sech nin ni sail acht duir ; 815 
no dinin dishail -i- disein di-fuilliud -i- nemhfhuilHudh. 
Forbaidh dno -i- fair bidh intan is ernin -i- ernid nin, no fair- 
nin. Forbaidh dno -i- for [fhjidhbait a airbert : ruidhleas 
do forsail : diles do ernin a beith for fut no for gair. 

Coitchend do dinin disail, no dona huile forbaidibh 820 
forbaid do radh friu. INdles immorro do forbaid 
dib dul i llocc araiH -i- do da forbaid na wgwúiaige 

™^ for an ainmnig L. ''•'•' a taebrem E. '*"' Belaid L. *"'** E. om. 

'■"'•' gloine T. ^'"' Sian sleibi slata seiscind L. : seiscend T. 

80« « iy^ Texíe, iii. 30 '*"'* L. saland B. om. **"J -i- aiceant E. 

**'' Formarius T. ^'^ acht is E. ^'^- '^ nemfuilledh, arnin E. 

817. 18 erned, -i- f<í;baid E. «'» disel L. *'-'" forbaigibh B. 

'^-' inles uadh E. 8-~ na nguth ¥.. 


nominative and its genitive : declension oí sound and 
sense as Fland, Flaind. Side declension in prose, that is, 
" 1 myself," for everything that is not full declension is side 
declension. Three things after vvhich reiin, declension is 
called : Declension out of, ut est,fer, for it is out of it that 
declension is declined. Declension ínto, nt est,fir, for into 
ít is it declined. Declension out of and into together, iit 
est, in fer, i.e., its nominative and its accusative are there 
together. As to m;//, too, its use is céim, pace : 

Bellat mother of envenomed Nél 
Of the children of fuU-fettered Latinus 
Died on the bright day of the sun, 
Spouse of Fenius Farsaidh. 

to wit, alHteration from letter to letter, nt est : 

Now as to forbaid, i.e., acccntns with the Latinist, from 
the root of the word forniarius, i.e., many-faced : " it is 
upon " (to wit, on the word) either on a long or on a short. 
Accent, either " it vivifies," or " it perfects " its meaning. It 
vivifies when it 'xs forsail,\.\\?iX is, s is upon it ; ox forsail, 
that is, it is adding to, because it estabhshes the word as a 
long. Forbaidli, then, " perfects " when it is dinin disail, 
that is after n comes not s but d ; or dinin disail, to wit^ 
from that unadding, i e., not adding. Forbaidli, then, to 
wit, " thereon it is," when it is ernin, that is, it gives n, or on 
it is n. Forbaid then, i.e., " on wood," is its use ; peculiar to 
forsail : proper to ernin, its being on a long or on a short. 

Common to dinin disail, or to all the accents to say 
forbaid, accent, of them. Inappropriate, however, for any 
accent of them to go in place of another, i.e., for the two 

62 BB. 322a36 AURAICEPT F..24|3 22 

7 d'aenforbaid na taebomn« -i- forbaidh 7 forbaidh 
ilair no ilair íor uath^i-^, no íorhm'd fuit for cumair : no 
indles gan a fuath do sgribeand. 825 

Alt onni as ^//?^i- -i- uasal a bunad lasin Laitneoir : alt 
ádino onni alteir ina menmain a inne. Alt co feser 'wimorro 
a airbert -i- co feser cia halt aircetail hcra fri sechta -i- i[n] 
nath, inn anair, inn anamain, in laidh, in setrad, in sainemain. 
Alt in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da sJaX^aib a 830 
inni : [alt L.] co feser a airbert. Caite ruidhles 7 diles 7 
coitchend, indles alta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles -i- do aiste do 
alt filideachta : diles immorro do alt bairdne -i- do aiste. 
Coitchend indles do fhoclaibh na proise -i- coitchend do cach 
focul i mbiat alta ; indles immorro do dialt, ar ni bi alt and. 835 

Indsce áa.7io •\- s\c\icntia a bunad Laitne : in descha; a 
inne : scothecna a airbert : no insci, co feser in aisti urdalta 
i- co feser in si no in se in aisti béra fri sechta amal roghabh 
is e in nath, is i in laid. \\-\dsQA in anma prosta -i- ferin^^sci 
7 banin^sci 7 deminsci. Cate ruidles 7 diles 7 coitchend, 840 
indles, na hinsce ? Ruidles don insci aicenta csemh : diles 
don insci aicenta ecíem : coitchend indles don insci saerda 
•i- coitchend ara gnathugud, indles immorro ara aindilsi. 

Btargaire dno onni is etargradimus -i- foruaslaigeach : 

«-3 taobomnad L. *-'' L, no ilair B. om. 

82-í gac/ia fuat B. ^^ d'íhili immorro E. *■'•' foc?<lB.: focul na proise E. 

835 inde dono -i- ail fuit T. *'*' indischoe L. *" scoitecda E. urdala L. 

8« ceim E. *^ acoeim P2, do indsci L. : indscni E. 

8^^ etargreim -i. foruaisligtech (?) E. 


accents of the vowels, and for the one accent of the 
consonants, i.e., the accent of the singular [on the plural] 
and the accent of plural on the singular, or the accent of a 
long upon a short : or inappropriate not to write its 

Alt from the word altus, i.e., noble, its root according 
to the Latinist : alt, then, from that which is nurtured in 
his mind is its meaning. Alt co feser, however, is its use, 
i.e.jthat thou mayest know what rt'//, limb, of poetry appHes 
to seven, that is the nath, the anaii\ the anainaiíi, the 
láidh^ the sétrad, the saineniain. As to alt an annux, joint 
of the name, in prose, the space of time that is between 
the two syllables is its meaning : alt co feser its use. 
What are peculiar, proper, common, and inappropriate of 
alt? Not hard. Peculiar, that is, to metre of (^//', limb, 
of poetry : proper, however, to alt of bard poetry, that is, 
to metre. Common, inappropriate to the words of prose, 
that is, common to each word in which there are alta^ 
intervals ; inappropriate, however, to a monosyllable, for 
no alt, joint, exists there. 

Now indsce, gender, that is, scientia, from a Latin root : 
in deschae, the right way, is its meaning : word-wisdom its 
use : or, indsce, that thou mayest know the definite metre, 
i.e., that thou mayest know whether "she" or " he " is 
the metre that applies to seven, as for example the nath 
is "he," the /did is "she." Indsce, gender, of the prose 
name, that is masculine, feminine, and neuter. What 
are peculiar, proper, common, and inappropriate of 
indsce, gender? Peculiar to natural kindly gender : 
proper to natural unkindly gender : common, inappro- 
priate to artificial gender, i.e., common owing to its 
being used, inappropriate, however, owing to its inappro- 

Now etargaire, inflection, from the word intergi-adinius, 

64 BB.322.45 AURAICEPT E.24^34 

etargnaghudh gotha a inne : etardeliugud a airbert. Cate 845 
ruidles 7 diles 7 coitchend 7 indles etargaire? Ruidles 
do etargaire derscighthigi i nderscughud, air is i frecras 
in condelc. Diles immcrro do etarg^/r^ inchoisc i 
persaind, uair i[s] sloinniudh persainnisaindredaigi. Coit- 
chend indles immorro donaetarg«/n^ ar chena -i- coitchend 850 
in uird comairme : indles immorro do neoch dib na frecair 


Cest, in gne (col. /3) no in cenel in fidh ? Is cenel emh : 
7 masa chenel, cadet a gnee ? Ni ansa. Fid saírda 7 fid 
aicenta -i- fid scerda fid inn ogaim ; fid aicenta immorro 855 
fid na cailli. Et fid inn ogaim, in gne no in cenel ? Is 
cenel ecin, ar techtaid gne -i- fid aireagda, 7 forfidh, 7 
tsebomna. Is e insin in cenel cenelach gneach -i- fid. 
Cest, in gne no in cenel in deach? Is cenel emh, ar 
techtaidh gne -i- secht ndeich na filideachta. Is e sin in 8G0 
cenel gneach baghabhat ocht n-ernaili c[e]aí//tar ngne na 


Cest, in gne no in cenel in rem ? Is cenel -i- techtaid 

da gne -i- fiHdeacht 7 bairdne -i- reim do fidh for fidh 7 

tsebreim do fidh for fidh, ut est: 

Coluim caid cumachtach 7rl. 

Taebreim immorro ut est : 

A [Fh]laind at luam in gaiscidh grinn 

Co Maistin maiU. 

At glan, at gaeth, is garg do rind, 870 

At laech, a [Fhjlaind. 

8^7 derscaigthi L. *^« sandradaigi L . *" an urd L. 

8-5T feda, forfeda L. «"^ bangabat, cacha dara gne L. 

863 techtaig L. B. om. «60 rc. xx. 146 = /'•• Texte, 56 
868-72 cf. Irish Meirics, p. 19 : /''• Texte, iii. 9> H ; 4°. 19 
8V0 gart B. L. : garg E. T. 


i.e., dominating : interpreting of voice is its meaning : a 
distinguishing is its use. What are peculiar, proper, 
common, and Ínappropriate of etargaire? Peculiar to 
etargaire of distinguishing in distinction, for it corresponds 
to comparison. Proper, however, to etargaire oi meaning 
in a person, since it is the denoting of a particular person. 
Common and inappropriate, however, to all the etargaire, 
that is, common to the ordinal numbers : inappropriate, 
however, to any of them that do not correspond to 

Query, {?, Jidh, wood, a species or a genus? It is a 
genus certain]y ; and if it be a genus, what are its species ? 
Not hard. Artificial wood and natural wood, to wit, 
artificial wood is the Ogham letter ; natural wood, however, 
is wood of the forest. And as to wood, letter, of the 
Ogham, is it a species or a genus? It is a genus neces- 
sarily, for it has species, to wit, principal vvood, vowels; 
cross wood, diphthongs ; and side-woods, consonants. 
That is the genus generic and specific, i.e., wood. Query, 
is ^í^rt^:,^, verse-foot, a species or a genus? It is a genus 
certainly, for it has species, to wit, the seven verse- 
feet of poetry. That is the specific genus which the 
eight sorts of each of the two species of poetry have 

Query, is re'ijn, run, a species or a genus? A genus, 
i.e., it has two species, to wit, poétry and bard poetry, i.e. 
réi)n, alliteration of letter by letter, and taebreini, side 
alliteration of letter by letter, /// est : 

Columba, pious, powerful, etc. 
Taebreini, side alliteration, however, nt est : 

Fland, thou art the pilot of pleasant valour 

Unto gentle Mullaghmast ; 
Art pure, art wise, rough is thy point, 

Thou art a hero, Fland. 


66 BB. 322/3 12 AURx^ICEPT E. 24/352 

Ceithri gne for prois o reim -i- reim suin cen cheill, / 
reim suin 7 ceiUi, 7 taebreim prosta, 7 reim suin namma. 
Reim suin cen cheiU cetumus -i- fer fir : reim suin 7 cheiUi 
•i- Fland Flaind : reim suin tantuin Vatxaic Fatrai'c: 7 S75 
taebreim prosta -i- fadein. Tri gne ara togarar reim -i- reim 
ind, 7 reim ass, 7 reim ind J ass malle : reim ass ut estfer; 
reim ind ut est fir isin reimniugud : reim ind 7 ass -i- iii 
fear -i- [ind L.] teit 7 ass teit a lanreim ind i ndual?/^- fogur 
huathaid 7 ina dualgus foghar ilair. Reim ind 7 ass 880 
maille -i- ind a dualgus foghur uathaid 7 ilair immalle 
inna dualus ceilli : no reim ind -i- FdXraic, ar ni fil 
ind iar ceill : reim ind 7 ass malle -i- Fland Flaind, 
ar ita ind iar ceill 7 ita ass iar suin. 

Is e sin in cenel cenelach gneach cenelrt'ch rochumadh 885 
sund forsna secht remendaib JxX. Cest, in gne no in 
cenel ind forbaidh? . Is cenel, ar techtaidh tri gnee. Is 
e sin in cenel for a tarrasa tri gnee na Gaedelge. Cest, 
in gne no in cenel int alt? Is cenel ecin, ar itat tri gnee 
fai -i- alt sa;rda 7 alt aicenta 7 alt co feser. Int alt co feser 890 
techtaid coic ngne 7 coic cenela. Cest, in gne no in cenel 
indsci ? Is derb conid cenel 7 techtaid na tri indsce. Is 
Á\ saincenel deochraides in doman. Cest, in cenel no in gne 

in etargoiri? Is cenel eim, uair dianairmidi a gnei. Iss 
e in cenel etardefriges na huili 7rl. 

Cest, caide qssq in sechtu frisa tomsigt/í^r in Goe[de]Ig ? 


^"•5 pat- pat- E. : cf. 3751 **^" •!• me fadein L. gnee E. 

*™ fogair uathaid L. lanreim ind 7 ass ina dualus focus E. 

^*^^! a dualus fogus E. 

^■^- ni fil ass iar sun : reim ass «i- fear fir ar ni fil L. indi E. 

^■^"^ genelan rocumad E. *"-** forsa tarasa L. 

í'90 fje E. *"" no in gneech E. 

^'■•^ isin gneech deochraiges E. doine i ndomun L. : daine in domain E. 

syj o-nee L. *''*' toimister L. : frisi toimistear E. 


Four specíes in prose arise out of reivi, flexion, reivi of 
sound vvithout sense, and reiin of sound and sense, and 
prose taebreÍ7n,s\áe flexion, and reini of sound only. Reini 
of sound vvithout sense first \ferfir: reini of sound and sense, 
Flann Flainn : reini of sound taníujn, Vatraic Patraic : 
and prose taedreim, side flexion, I myself. Three species 
by which reiín is called, reim in, 7-eini out of, reim in and 
out of together ; reijn out of, nt est,fer, man : reim in, nt 
est,fir, of a man, in the declining : reim in and out of, in 
fer, the man, i.e., into vvhich goes and out of which comes 
its full inflection in respect of singularsounds and of plural 
sounds. Reim in and out of together, that is, in, vvith 
respect to sounds singular and plural together : in, as 
regards meaning : or reÍ7n in, Patraic, for there is not in, 
according to meaning ; reim in and out of together, Flann, 
Flainn, for it is in, according to meaning and it is out of, 
according to sound. 

That is the genus, generic and specifíc which was 
formed here on the seven flexions, etc. Query, is incí 
forbaid, the accent, a species or a genus? A genus, for it 
has three species. That is the genus in which were 
found the three species of Gaelic. Query, is int alt a 
species or a genus? It is a genus certainly, for three 
species underlie it, to vvit, artificial alt, natural alt, and 
alt co feser. The alt co feser has five species and five 
genera. Query, is indsce, gender, a species or a genus ? 
It is clear that it is a genus and it has the three genders. 
It is a different genus that differentiates the world. Query, 
is etargaire, inflection, a genus or a species? A genus 
•>certainly, for its species are innumerable. It is the 
genus that differentiates among all things. 

Query, what is esse, essence, of the seven by which 
Gaelic is measured ? Not hard. Esse, essence, feda, 
of letter, first : that is the fragment of cut ofif air 

68 BB. 322^35 AURAICEPT e. 25 a 7 

Ni ansa. Esse feda cetamus -i- 'm blog aoir tebide gebhes 
in fid i n-elluch focail, unde poeta dixit : 

Eííe feda is fretede 

Ferr duib a aicne occaib 900 

In blog aeoir thepide 

Techtas i n-elluch focail. 

Caite essQ. deich? Ni ansa. In Xm no inn uaite son n- 
oe^congbalach airimther o dialt co bricht cona n-athghabail 
diblinaib. Caide esse remme? Ni ansa. In bruudh fiUti 905 
fogurda forbriste foil otha in ainmiudh n-uathaid co foxlaid 
n-ilair. Caite e^^e fuirbhthe? Ni ansa. In torraach no in 
digbí^;// n-aimsire airighes ^Xcnedx comhshiniudh fri fog7^r. 

Cate e5íe alta? Ni ansa. In toe tengadh fil don filid 
a[c] ceimniughud don litir for araili mad alt sairda, no 910 
don sillaib for araili mad alt aicenta. Cate %sse insce? 
Ni ansa. In foludh firen f(9z>bthe fegthair isna tri cene- 
laibh. Cate esse etargairi? Ni ansa. Int athfegadh 
mete no laiget no inde no incho[i]sc no edardeifrighi no 
etardelighthi no edarderscaigthe rodealbh Dia eter 915 

Cate tomhus fri sechta ? Ni ansa. In fid tuisseach 
bis isiii rand (323) 7 ir^ taebomna tuissecha do thabairt 
ar aird, 7 co festar na feda bes isin taebchubaidh in raind, 
7 gu robe in fidh cetna bes isind imrecru na tarmthort- 920 
cheand, 7 gu rub inund a lin do thaebomnaib bes impu, 
7 co festar cia deach dona ocht ndeachaib daroigh i n-aisti, 
7 co festar in taebreim no in reim do fid for fidh, 7 co festar 

897 bolgoir E. 8«8 i melluch B. : i n-eulluch L. ssxj esse, is freitigi L. : fretide E. 
900 aithne L. : aichne E. «oi bolg oir teipidhe E. 

903 son n-asn congbalalach L. 904 airmit^ír, don athgagabail E. 

905 reme, fihi E. »06 focurtha E. fil L. E. 

908 comsinead, focus L. : comsuigudh fri foc«r E. 

909 Caite oenaUa E. 9i2 cf. Origg. i. 28, i 

^i-* meidi, laghad L. : laigeat, etardeifrigihe E. 9i6 dainibh E. 

91« taoboim- B. isin dara huad E. ®^9 ina raind P2. 

920 na da tarmorcend E. ^-^ cia deech E. 


which the vowel takes in composing a word, unde poeta 

dixit : 

Esse /eda, essence of a vowel, it is to be studied, 
Better for you to have the kno\vledge of it, 
The fragment cut off of air 
Which it possesses in composing a word. 

What is esse of verse-foot ? Not hard. The whole or 
one of the individual self-sustaining sounds which are 
reckoned from one to eight syllables, both included. What 
is esse reiine, essence of flection ? Not hard. The inflected, 
voiced, articulate change which obtains from the nom. 
sing. to the abl. pl. What \s esse oí accent? Not hard. 
The increase or diminution of time which an accent marks 
in co-extension with a sound. 

What is esse alta, essence of interval ? Not hard. 
The tongue silence which rests on the poet in passing 
from one letter to another if it be alt saorda, or from 
one syllable to another if it be alt aicenta. What is esse 
of gender? Not hard. The just and perfect essential 
which is seen in the three kinds. What is csse etargaire? 
Not hard. The consideration of size, smallness, quality, 
denotation, difference, variety or distinction which God 
hath fashioned among created things. 

What is measure with respect to heptad ? Not 
hard. To bring under notice the leading vowel that is 
in the verse, and the leading consonants, and that the 
vowels that stand in the caesura rhyme of the verse 
may be known, and that the same vowel may stand in 
the corresponding part of the endings, and that the 
number of consonants about them may be the same, and 
that it may be known which of the eight verse-feet enters 
into the metre, and that it may be known whether it is 
side alHteration, or alliteration of letter by letter, and that 

70 BB. 323a6 AURAICEPT E. 25a28 

cia forbaidh bes for son ceneoil ind imfrecrai, 7 co festar 
cia haltdona seacht n-altaibh ind aircetail -i- na filideachta. 925 
Insce -i- co feasar in se fo in si in« aisti. Etargaire 
-i- co feser cia gne in aircetail do gne do thomus 
fri sechta. Et intan ba roscadh na tomaiste and, cindas 
nothomhsidhe ? ar ni bidh lancubaidh no taebchubhaid and. 
Ni ansa. Do íoai\ forba anaile no-taispenta don choiceadh 930 
íocíA, uair is coic foCír/1 romesadh i n-anail in filed. Cate 
sechta in ochta ind Auraicepta? Ni ansa. Intan is ocht 
ndialta i mbricht is and is secht n-alta. Cate in focul 
oenchongbhalach dechongbalach treconngbalach .'' Ai[n]- 
mnigther o trian : 7 i'^i ruidhilsi do in trian o n-ainmnig- 935 
ther nadat na da trian o n-ainmnighther iarcomarc. 

Caitiat na da taebomna gabhait greim gMthaige} ■{• 
c 7 r ar essi a, ut est : Coluim Cille cecinit ; 

Im ba sessach im ba seng, 

Im ba tresach, tuirme glonn, 940 

A Chríst ! in congebha hnd 

O thi co itacht ar lind long ? 

Caite tomus fri fid ! Ni ansa. Co feisear a Uin 7 a 
n-uaite, a met 7 ^ laiget, a cumung 7 a n-ecumung, a 
neart 7 ^ n-aimneart. Is ed a lin : coic aicmi ogaim 945 
•i- coicfear cacha aicmi, 7 oen co a coic cach ae, conda- 
deligitar a n-airdi. It e a n-airdi : deasdruim, tuath- 

•'■-^ forbad E. for focal in imfregraid L. : forin focul in imrecra E. 

"•■^5 aircetaib B. ^''-^ cf. line 1687 "^ ba(d) E. 

"■■^ na toimsidi L. : notomhaisde, ni bad E. ■''^ Origg. ii. 18, 2 

"*' secht n-alta L. ndialta B. ''^'' on triun E. 

''3' Cade iad L. 937-42 e_ o,„^ 

939-42 Translated in Ancient Ir. Poetry, p. 94 ; cf. Zeitschr. x. p. 46, § 9 
coiger L. : 7 cuiger E. cona dheligtír E. 



it may be known what accent stands upon a word of the 

corresponding sort, and which it is of the seven alta of 

trisyllabic poetry, i.e., of poetry. Insce, gender, i e., that 

thou mayest know vvhether the metre is he or she. 

Etargaire, i.e., that thou mayest know what is the species 

of poetry as regards measure with respect to seven. And 

when dithyramb or metricaLrh^thnfj-was-pFesent, how was ".'*' *^^- 

it measured ? for there is not couplet rhyme or caesura 

rhyme in it. Not hard. By a word completing a breath 

which was indicated by the fifth word, for five words are 

adjudged to be a breath of the poet. What is a heptad 

of the octave of the Anraicept ? Not hard. When it is 

eight syllables in briclit that are present there are seven 

alta, intervals. What is the word containing one, two, 

and three syllables? It is named from one-third : and 

not more peculiar to it is the one-third from which it is 

named than are the two-thirds from which iarcoviarc is 

named. y / 

What are the two consonants that take the force of a 
vowel? To wit c and r after a, /// est, Coluim Cille 
c:ecinit : 

Whether it will be firm, whether it will be yielding, 
Whether it will be warlike with numbers of deeds, 
O Christ ! wilt thou keep with us 
When it wiU comc to fare on a sea of ships ? 

What is measure with regard to fid, Ogham letter ? 
Not hard. That thou majrest know their number and 
their singleness, their size and their smallness, their 
power and their want of power, their strength and their 
weakness. This is their number : flve Ogmic groups, 
i.e., five men for each group, and one up to five for 
each of them, that their signs may be distinguished. 
These are their signs : right of stem, left of stem, 

72 BB. 323^27 AURAICEPT E. 25a43 

druim, leasdruim, tredruim, imdruim. Is amlaid 
imdreangair crand i- saltrad fora freim in croind ar tus 
7 do lam dess reut 7 du lam cle fo deoid. Is iarsin is 950 
leis 7 is fris 7 as trit 7 as immi. It e a ndeiligte feada 

7 forfheda ;// cst : .>^4^Jffl-^ffl4- 1tt1tXO (^^*— 
Cest, cid ara n-ebertar feda fri suidiu ? Ni ansa, 
fobith domiter friu 7 co n-uaigiter condaib, tit dicitur luis 
ailme, beithi ailme. Cindas domiter frisna taebomna 955 
amal fidu? Ni ansa. Cach da thaebomna ar fld hi 
cubaid, cach da cobfld i cubaid : is ed is cubaid 
iarum co robe an fld cetna beas isna foclaib in imfre- 
ccrai, 7 co rob inund a lin du taebomna beas intib, ;// 
cst, bas 7 las : 7 bras 7 &i*as : ceand 7 leand : dorn 7 960 
corn : dond 7 cond, 

Caite tomus fri fid ? -i- co fesser a lin 7 ^ n-uaiti -i- 
a lin a coic aicmib 7 a n-uaiti i n-ainaicmi ; a met 
7 a llaiget -i- a met hi coic flescaib 7 a llaiget i 
n-aenflescaib. Caite deochair eter a cumang 7 a neart? 965 
A cumang cetamus : Intan gabaid guth a n-a;nur -i- 
a no o no u. [A L.] nert immorro intan dos-bere 
primshuidhiugud i sillaib, amal ata bais 7 lais. C'aite 
deochair eter a n-egumang J a n-ai;//nert ? Ni ansa. 
Ecumang intan bithi (col. /3) fo nihilus ina guthrt^''^ amal 970 
rogab find. Fir em, air ni thuicter na feda dedhencha filet 
isna deghfoghraibh sin triana cantain fochetoir : aimnert 

'■'^-'^ Is amlaid imdrengair ogum amal imdrengair crand E. 

<j.)0 lomut E. '^^^ as rut 7 ass imme E. "''■' Origg. xix. 19, 4 

"■''"' fontaib iii^ domiditer E. "■''*' a cubut E. 

y;>8 gy rupeadh E. "■''-' a llin do taebomnaib E. 

««•■2 a llin L. '«8 bas 7 las L. E. 

""" bid fo inillius, na nguth- L. : bit fo nilnius ina nguth- E. 

"'^ ni thucatar, deidenaca E. ""- deorcaib E. 


atliwart of stem, througla stem, about stem. Thus is a 
tree climbed, to wit, treading on the root of the tree 
íirst with thy right hand first and thy left hand 
after. Then with the stem, and against it, and 
through it, and about it. These are their various vowels 

and diphthongs, nt cst : .>^J|:pf|HW- HtltXO <gii4^ 

Query, why are those called woods, vowels? Not 
hard. Because they are measured by them and sewed 
with them, ut dicitiir, la, ba. How are they, as vowels, 
measured with the consonants ? Not hard. Every 
two consonants for a vowel in rhyme, every two corre- 
sponding letters in rhyme : that is rhyme, therefore, 
that it should be the same vowel that stands in the 
corresponding words, and that the number of consonants 
that may stand in them shotild be the same, ut cst, bas 
and las : bras and gras : ccand and lcand : dorn and corn : 
dond and cond. 

What is measure with respect to Jid, Ogham letter? 
To vvit, that thou mayest know theír number and their 
singleness, i.e., their number in five groups and their 
singleness in one group ; their size and their smallness, 
í.e., their size in five strokes and their smaHness in 
single strokes. What is the difference between their 
power and their strength ? Their power first : when 
they utter voice alone, that is, a, o, or u : Their strength, 
however, when a prime position brings them into a 
syllable, such as bais, lais. What is the difiference 
between their want of power and their weakness? 
Not hard. Want of power when the vowels are under 
nullifying, as for example fi\p\nd. True indeed, for the 
last letters that stand in these double sounds are not 
understood, through their being pronounced at once : 
weakness, however. when they stand in combinations 

74 BB. 323/3 3 AURAICEPT E.25^4 

immorro intan bit i comsuidigthib cutrumaib na defogair 
7 isna forfedaib amal ata fer 7 b^«. 

Coic feadha car// aicmi : 7 is oen co a coic cach ze -i- 975 
<TEnfleisc co coic flescaib, tit est, beithi a íenur, nin a coicur : 
no dno gne elet^ Ni ansa. Ecumang cetamus : intan bite 
fo nialus nt quoniaiu quideni lasin Laitneoir, no intan bite 
tri ^w'áxaighe a n-aenshillaib lasin nGaedhel, ut Briain, 
gliaidh, feoil, beoir, lasin nGcxdel. Aimnert immorro in- 980 
tan bite fo consonacht, ut seruus, uulgus lasin Laitneoir, 
ut iarum cian 7 ceir 7 uull 7 aball lasin nGaedhel 1x\. 

Lanchumang dano intib etir fedha 7 taebhomna co nd- 
urba uath. Conda-delighetar tria n-airde (-i- tria n- 
ecosc) -i- is caindeifriges a n-aradu. It e a n-airde : 985 
Deasdruim -i- bethi do deas in droma, is ed aicmi beithi : 
Tuaithdruim -i- don leith atuaidh din druim bzV aicw^ uatha : 
Lesdruim -i- leas uait [7 fris] cucut, no leatarsna darin 
druim his aicmi muine : Tredruim, is ed aicmi ailmi : 
Imdruim -i- andiu 7 anall aic7//z na forfidh. Is amlaid 990 
imdrengar -i- is amhlaidh eimh ceimnighthir isinn ogam 
amal cemnigther isin crand -i- do lamh dess reut -i- aicmi 
beithi : 7 do lamh chle foi diudh -i- aicmi h : 7 iarsin is 
leis 7 is fris aicmi m -i- les uait 7 fns cucut : trit \mniorro 
aicmi a: tairis xmnion'o J immi aic;//z na forfidh. Is 995 
amhlaid sin imdheilighter na fedha 7 na forfeda 7 iia- 
taibomna. Cid ara n-eparar fedha fri saidhiu? Ni ansa. 
Fobith domiter na taebomna friu 7 cainuaighter na íocail 

'•''■'' cutrumait na defhoguir isna E. : cf. Gr. Lat. v. 104, 16 ; viii. 189, I 

•'^^ 7 (isna) B. om. 7 : fear 7 bean L. 

""' no flesca gacha haicmi E. co coic L. : gu coic gacha hae E. 

977-83 E. om. 9-8.81 Gr. Lat. iv. 367, i8j 19 «« Amnert B. 

'•'*' con tur uath L. "^^ conda-deligther L. : cona-deiligetar E. 

•''*•' caindeidfriges anaraduite a n-airde E. '•"^ tara hinwdruim E. 

»89.94 m B. : muine E. "^ assiu 7 anall L. : aindiu (no all) 7 anall E. 

"'■'- crund, reout E. "'•'•' fo deoid L. : fa deoid E. ""^ tridruim aicwí" a E. 

•"'^ friusaide E. "'"^ caenfuaigter L. : domidigtír, cainfuaigtí^ E. 


equivalent to the diphthongs, and in the Ogham 
diphthongs such as fer and ben. 

Five letters for each group : and there is one up to 
five for each of them, that is, one stroke up to five 
strokes, ut est, b one onIy, n five of them : or again 
another kind ? Not hard. Want of power first : when 
they stand under nullity, ut quoniani qiiideni with the 
Latinist, or when three vowels stand in one svllable 
with the Gael, as Briain, of Brian, gliaid, a fight, feoil, 
flesh, beoir, beer with the Gael. Weakness, however, 
when they are consonised, ut seruus, uulgus with the 
Latinist, ut iaruni, therefore, cian, far, ceir, wax, ;///// 
{ubull), apple, and aball, appletree, with the Gael. 

Full power, too, is in them, both vowels and consonants, 
with the exception of h. So that they are distiriguished 
through their signs, i.e., through their appearance, to 
wit, clear]y do their conditions differ. These are their 
signs : Right of stem, that is, b to right of the ridge, 
that is the b group : Left of stem, to wit, to the left side 
of the stem, which is the h group : Athwart of stem, to wit, 
athwart is from thee, and against is to thee, or half athwart 
the stem, which is the m group : Through stem, that is the 
a group : About stem, that is on this side and on that, 
the diphthongs group. It is thus it is climbed, to wit, 
it is even thus it is graduated in the Ogham as it is 
graduated in the tree, to wit, thy right hand first, 
that is, group b : and, thy left hand after, that is, 
group h : and after that it is athwart and against, 
group m, to u'it, athwart is from thee, and against is 
towards thee. Through, however, is group a : over, 
however, and about is the diphthong group. Thus are 
distinguished the vowels, the diphthongs, and the 
consonants. Why are those called vowels? Not hard. 
Because the consonants are measured against them, 

76 BB. 323/3 26 AURAICEPT E. 25 /3 20 

dibh, nt est luis ailme, beithe ailme -i- la, Iba. Is e sin in 
sealbhadh saerdha cen reim acht reini remraite^ Ni ansa. 1000 
h.mal ia.rsLhker fidh aire[gh]dha nama ica breith fri sechtu 
si'e ia.rait/ier in tsebhomna bhis and, cach da trebomna ar 
fidh, nt dicitíir : 

Marcach atchonnac anne, 

Etach uaime co ndath cro, 1005 

A dath is gilithear geis, 

Uan tuinni dath a da o 

Deda airegar and : aentugud co ndeliugud amal 
ata bas 7 las 7 is iar comardadh n-airchetail [ata L.], 
air is inand fidh aireghdha fil intib, 7 is inand ta;bomna 1010 
degheanach. Sain iminorro in taebomna taiseach -i- el. 
Cindas toimsiter na taebomna imna fedaibh ? Ni ansa. 
Cach da tíebomna dib imon fidh. Is e in comfhot coir (-i- 
lancubaid insin), tit est, bas 7 las. Is e sin int sentughud 
co n-inannus, 7 int sentugud cen inannus : 7 is iar comh- 1015 
ardugud n-airchetail ata, uair is inund fidh aireghdha fil 
intibh, 7 is comlin do thaebomnaib; J is ed b. choir n- 

. Conagar dno isin aip[g]itir bunad o aen, 7 airic o deda, 
7 a cor a tredhe, 7 a comhuaim fri ceathardu, 7 a com- 1020 
dhluthadh fri cuict[h]i, a moradh a seda, a fogail a sechta, a 
riagail fri ochta, a incosc a nsde, a asdadh a ndeich///^. Is e 
int a;n thuas -i- Fenius Farrsaidh ; in dedha -i- mac Etheoir 
fris ; in tres mac Aingen ; in ceathramadh Cas ; in coiced 
Amaírgen mac Naende mic Nenuail ; in sesedh Ferchertne ; 1025 

'«'« ni- am- B. L. : cf. line 3945 1»*^' in anma L. 1001-11 £. om. 

1004-7 Arch. C. P. i. 481 i»'^^ atchondarc ane L. ^^''> edach imbe L. 

loos •!• c 7 r i n-aigid a ; bas 7 las 7 lancubaid insin. Taebcubaid bras 7 
las 7rl L. ^oi'i tomaist«r, taebomnai E. i"'-' in comad coir L. : in comfat E. 
^"i' is i ar comardad L. i"'" is coir a n-aircetal E. 

1019-27 E. om. 1**^ a fasdad L. i'^-^ Aingin T. 



and the words are fairly woven out of them, Jit est 1 a, 
b a, to wit, la, ba. That is the artificial possessive 
without rhyme save rhyme of vowels only. Not hard ^'"^'(Af'-f*^^ 
[2nd Ans.]. As a principal vowel only is required to ^^ 
refer it to seven, so the consonants that exist are required, 
every two consonants for a vowel, ut dicitur : 

A rider I saw yesterday, 
Round him a cloak with hue of blood, 
White as a swan his colour is, 
Foam of wave his two ears' hue. 

Two things are found there : identity combined with 
difference, as bas and las, and it is according to the corre- 
spondence of trisyllabic poetry, for the principal vowel that 
stands in them is the same, and it is an identical final 
consonant. Different, however, is the initial consonant, 
to wit, 1 [and b]. How are the consonants about 
the vowels measured ? Not hard. Each two cansonants 
of them are about the vowel. That is the proper 
proportion, to wit, that is perfect rhyme, ut esf, bas, 
las. That is the unity wíth identity, and the unity 
without identity : and it is according to poetic corre- 
spondence, for the principal vowel that stands in them 
is the same, and there is an equal number of consonants ; 
and that is the proper arrangement of trisyllabic 

Now in the alphabet there is required origin from one, 
and its invention from two, its placing by three, its confir- 
mation with four, and its binding together with five, its 
amplifying from six, its division from seven, its rule with 
eight, its demonstration in nine, its establishment in ten. 
The one is above, to wit, Fenius Farsaidh ; the two, Mac 
Etheoir with him ; the third Mac Aingin ; the fourth Cae ; 
the fifth Amirgen son of Naende son of Nenual ; the 

78 BB. 323 /3 47 AURAICEPT E. 25 /3 27 

in sechtmad a dalta ; int ochtmad Ceandfaslad ; in nomad 
a dhalta; in dechmad a asdadh i n-sen -i- in trefocal. 

Is e seo a thosach iu Uraiceapta [i]ar nAmairgein 
nGlungeal. Locc don libur-sa Tochur Inbhir Moir i 
crich hUa nEnechglais Cualand : Et aimser do aimsear 1030 
mac Miled (324). Perso do Amairgein Glungm/ mac 
Miled. Tucaid a denma mzc Miled dia tothlugtid fair 
amal ata 'nar ndiaidh; 

CÍa arranic a mberla-sa 7 cia airm i n-arneacht 7 cissi 
aimser i n-arnecht ? Ni ansa. Arranic Fenius Farrsaidh 1035 
oc tur Nemrua[i]d i cind dech mblia</«« iar scailiudh on 
tur for cach leath, 7 is cach comberlaid dochuaidh and 
dochum a crichi 7 ni cach comcheniu[i]i amal rogab Cai 
Cainbreathach, dalta Feniusa Farr[s]aidh, in dara descipul 
sechtinogat na scoili. Ba do Ebraibh a bhunadhus 7 co 1040 
Eigipt rofuidhedh. Ocus is and roan Fenius fodliesin ocon 
tur, 7 is and roaitreabh, conid andsin conaitchetar chuice 
in scol berla tobaidi do theipu doib asna hilberlaibh tucsat 
leo di muich conna beith oc ndich [a]iliu a mberla sain acht 
occaib-seomh a n-aenur, no ic neoch no-foglaindfedh leithiu 1045 
dorisi. Is andsain dorepedh a mbelra asna hilberlaibh, 7 
rotaiselbad do aenfir dib, conid a ainm-se;z fí?;ta a mbelra- 
sa. Ba he in fer hisin -i- Goedel mac Angein, conid 
J^Ji/V ) Gaed// de-side o Gaedel mac Angin mic Glunfind mic 
*^ Laimfhindh mic Agnumain do Gregaibh. Inan[d] tra 1050 

Gaídel mac Aimergin 7 Gaedel mac Etheoir -i- da ainm 

i'^-'^ fasdad, int aen L. ^^^® iar n-Amairgin L. 

i»-!» Indbir L. Origg. ii. i6, i 

1030 F.M. aiino 3501 : A.D. 915, 1154, 1170 : Onomast [641] : O'D.Gr. Iv. 

lo-'i"- tothlugad L. : do Ú3ichi fair E. lo-'^-s^ Written as text in L. 

i0o5 i nd-ernacht E. '^'^'■''^ comcenel E. ^"■'^ hEigepta, bodesin L. 

1012 conna decatar E. ^"^■' theibi L. 

^"^ cona robeth E. oc nech ele am berla sin L. : oc neach aile in E. 

10^3 no-foglaimed L. ^""^ doridisi E. 


sixth Ferchertne ; the seventh his pupil ; the eighth 
Ceandfaelad ; the ninth his pupil ; the tenth its establish- 
ment in one, to vvit, the Trefocal. 

This is the beginning of the Primer according to 
Amairgen Whiteknee. Place of this book, Tochur 
Inbir Moir in the territory of Hy Enechglais Cualann : 
And its period the period of the sons of Milesius : 
the person of it Amairgen White-Knee, son of Milesius. 
The reason for making it that the sons of Milesius 
demanded it of him as is after us. 

Who invented this speech, and in what place was 
it invented, and at what time was it invented ? Not hard. 
Fenius Farsaidh invented it at the Tower of Nimrod 
at the end of ten years after the dispersion in every 
direction from the Tower, and it was every one speaking 
the same language that went there unto its territory and 
not every one of the same stock, as e.g., Cai Cainbreathach, 
pupil of Fenius Farsaidh, one of the 72 scholars of 
the school. He was a Hebrew by origin and he was 
sent to Egvpt. And there Fenius himself remained, at 
the Tower, and there he dwelt so that there the school 
asked of him to select for them a select language 
out of the many languages which they had brought 
with them from abroad so that that speech might not 
be in the possession of anyone else but of themselves 
alone, or of anyone who should learn it with them again. 
Then was selected their language out of the many 
languages, and it was attributed to one man of them 
so that it is his narne which is upon this language. 
That man was Gaedel, son of Angen, so that Gaedil, 
Gaels, is derived from him, from Gaedel son of Angen 
son of Whiteknee son of Whitehand son of Greek 
Agrtumon. Now Gaedel son of Aimergen is the same 
as Gaedel son of Ether, to wit, his father bore 

80 BB.324a20 AURAICEPT E. 25 /3 43 

robadar fora athair -i- Aingin 7 Etheoir. Is and iaramh 
doriaghladh \n mberla-sa. I mba fearr iarum do cach 
berla 7 a nba leithiu 7 a mba caemu, is ed darepedh isinn 
Goed//<;; 7 cach son do na airnecht cairechtaire isna 1055 
aipgitribh aiHbh ol chena arrichta c^ritch.iaire leosumh 

doibh isin beithi-luis-nin in ogaim, ut est: > Kg^'^^ 

Rolatha iarumh a fedha for leith 7 a taebomna dno 
for leith, co fil cach ae dibh fo leth o 'rlaile {sic). Ni fail 
\Qd.thgutai amal na fail la Grego acht na muite namma. 1060 
Cach duil do na rabha ainmniugud isna berlaib ailib 
airichta ainmnighthi doibh (isin Gxáilg), ut est grus 

7 cloch 7 linn. 

Atconnac in lis 

Seach a teged glas, 1065 

Inarb imda a grus 

Gen gurb imda as. 

A nba ferr 7 a nba leithiu 7 a nba caimiu cach berla, is 
ed dora[ta]d aco isinn Gíedelg -i- i nba socair caimiu fri radh 
• i- socarcaine leosum gutta 7 muiti oca and inat leathgutta 1070 
7 muiti 7 guttai amal atat icon l^di\t.neoir. 

Ferr i ceill leosum -i- a v fri fat 7 a v fri gair, 7 a v fri buga 
7 a V fri cruas, 7 a v fri lanfogur 7 a v fri deghfogur, anda a 
haen-choicfothibhuiHamalataicon Laitneoir7 is ed asb«V 
in Laitneoir : Gabaidh a chuic guúiaige-úwm an greim sin 1075 
uiH, utestLatine he omnes uocales produci 7 corripi pos\_s'\unt 
•i. itat na huili gyA\\aige Laitinda -i- co caimnachtar co regdar 
7 co timaircetéT. Leithiu i Hitrib -i- ar ni fil a fhregra sin 

10.-/2 Js -ixíílaid L. ^"•'•' roriddlad in berlasa doib, an ba E. 

1054 cainiu E. "'" Goidelg E. do na airnechtair L. ; donernaclit E. 

1056 arriachta E. ^"•"' lethguthaige, fuil L. ^"^^ ainmnigt/íz E. 

1062 gruis E. ^**'' cainiu E. ^^'^ socharcaimiu L. : socharcanfu E. 

1070 leosum fri rad guta amal ataat L. ^""'^ leosura .i- ailm E. 

10V3 defogur L. ^O'^ futhaib L. io76 Qr. Lat. iv. 367, 20 : hee E. ^- hae 

1077 co regthar 7 co timairgtir L. : ragdar, timairctí/- E. '"" i Hethet E. 


two names, Aingen and Ether. It was there accordingly 
that this language vvas regulated. What vvas best accord- 
ingly of every language and what was widest and finest 
was selected for Gaelic ; and for every sound for which 
no characters were found in all the other alphabets, 
characters were by them found for these in the Beithe 
Luis Nin of the Ogham, iit est : 

Therefore its vovvels were placed apart and its consonants 
also apart, so that every one of them stands apart from 
the other. Semivowels do not exist, as they do not exist 
with the Greeks, but only the mutes. For every element, 
for which there was no name in the other languages, names 
were found in Gaelic, ut est,grus^ curds; cloch^ stone ; and 
linn, pool. 

I beheld the lis 

Past which would come a stream, 

In which its curds were many 

Though milk was not abundant. 

What was best, widest, and finest of every language 
Avas put by them into Gaelic, to wit, what was easier and 
pleasanter to say, to wit, they thought having vowels and 
mutes in it easier and pleasanter than semi-vowels, mutes, 
and vovvels as the Latinist has. 

Better in reason with them, to wit, five of them for a 
long and five of them for a short, and five of them for soft 
sounds and five for a hard, and five for a full sound and 
five for a diphthong than the one five underlying all of 
them as it is with the Latinist, and this is what the 
Latinist says : His five vovvels all take that effect, «/ ^j/ .• 
LatincB vocales ovines et produci et corripi possunt, that is, all 
the Latin vowels are such that they can be lengthened or 
shortened. Broader in letters, to wit, for there is nothing 


82 BB. 324^42 AURAICEPT E.25/3y 

lasin Laitneoir : leithiu a ciallaibh 7 foclaib 7 Htrib -i- lethe 

a litribh ^ jjj^u ^ ^^^ - Ni fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir : leithi 1080 

i íoclaid •{■ grus J cloch 7 lind, ni fil a fregra sin lasin 
Laitneoir : grus -i- tanach : galmula lasin Laitneoir, gruth 
lasin nGoedel : dia ix&cx^ galmariuvi lasin Laitneoir faiscre 
lasin nGsedel : gahnalani lasin Laitneoir, gruthrar// lasin 
nGaedel : grus lasin nGaedel, ni fil a fregarthack-side lasin 1085. 
Laitneoir : lapis lasin Laitneoir, cloch lasin nGaedel : petra^ 
lasin Laitneoir, ail lasin i^Gaedel : sropula lasin Laitneoir, 
carrach lasin nGaedel. , Cloch (no sel) 7 oi^n 7 ailcne 
immorro (col. /3), is iat sin cenela cloch do na fuilet 
freacarthaich icon Laitneoir : aqua lasin Laitneoir, usce 1090 
lasin nGaedel ; aninis lasin Laitneoir, aband lasin nGaedel ; 
piscina lasin Laitneoir, Íachlinn lasin nGaedel ; linn, 
immorro, lasin nGaedel, ni fhil a frecra lasin Laitneoir. 
Leithiu áxdiu in Gaedel i foclaibh 7 i Hitribh desin anda 
in Laitneoir. Is ed asb^z'r in Laitneoir cid leithiu i foclaib 1095 
7 i Ilitrib in Gaed^/(f, ni leithe i ciallaibh ; ar cia bet 
ilanmann icon Gaedel ic sluin;? na raet, tic in chiall 
relait asin uathadh foc«/ fil icon Laitneoir. Ni fir on, 
amal asbert in Laitneoir fein : Nisi sciris nonien, cognitio 
reruni periit -i- atbail int aichnius inna raet meni aichnigther 1100 
int ainm. 

Is e seo a thossach in libhair-sea iar Fenius 7 i^r 
nlair mac Nema 7 iar nGaedel mac Ethiuir. Is iat sin 
a persainn ; 7 is i a aimser -i- aimser tancatar m/t- 
Israel uili a hEigipht. I nDacia arricht ci asberatar alii 1105 
co mbad i mmaigh Sennair. Tucait a scribind -i- a 

lOT'j grus •i' tanach galmula lasin Laitneoir (jiacaf) with pimcia del : o 
ciallaib B. i»8i gruth T. lo».^ ^^/^^^ g 

1084 jjQ galgalam T. : galmath, gruthran E. : gruthrach T. ^'^^ lapis^ lia E. 
'^^^'^ stropula L. : Origg. xvi. 3, 5 ^"^* carracc E. ail 7 ond L. 

1** piscina, iasc E. '^^^ in Gaedelg L. E. ina L. : ana E. 

1096 gebethalaninand E. i^a^ gluind L. ^""s relaití E. 

1099 Origg. i. 7, I : sciueris E. nomen L. om. 

""*' nil prodit with (s) over d E. aichniged L. ^^^'^ iar nEr E. 

110-' persanda E. tancatar L. om. i'"'' asberait L. : asberat E. 


the Latinist has to correspond with that : broader 
in respect of meanings, words, and letters, to wit, 

broader in letters ^ /^^^^^ . The Latinist has nothing 

to correspond with it : broader in words, to wit, gn/s, 
curds ; c/oc/i, stone ; /z'nd, pool, the Latinist has nothing 
to correspond with those ; curd, that is a cheese : ga/mu/a 
with the Latinist, curds with the Gael : to correspond with 
the Latinist's ga/marium is the Gael's cheese : ga/ma/am 
with the Latinist, grutJiracIi with the Gael : " stirabout " 
with the Gael, there is nothing answering to that with the 
Latinist : /apis with the Latinist, stone with the Gael : petra 
with the Latinist, rock with the Gael : scopu/us with the 
Latinist, sharp pebble with the Gael. ,C/ocJi,onn,2.náai/cne, OlJL ^ 
however, these are kinds of stones to which the Latinist has " ' ' 
nothing correspondíng : aqua with the Latinist, water with 
the Gael; amnis with the Latinist, river with the Gael ; 
piscina with the Latinist, fish-pool with the Gael ; to the 
Gael's pool, however, the Latinist has nothing correspond- 
ing. Hence then, the Gael is wider in words and letters 
than the Latinist. What the Latinist says is that though 
GaebV is wider in words and letters, it is not wider in 
meanings; for though the Gael has many names in 
denoting the things, the relative meaning emerges out 
of the paucity of words which the Latinist does have. 
That is not true, as the Latinist himself says : Nisi scieris 
nomen, cognitio rerum periit, i.e., the knowIedge of the 
things perishes, unless the name is known. 

This is the beginning of this book according to Fenius, 
and according to lar mac Nema, and Gael son of Ether. 
These are its persons ; and this is its period, to wit, 
when all the children of Israel came out of Egypt. In 
Dacia it was invented, though others say it was in the 
plain of Shinar. The reason for writing it, because it 

84 BB. 324i3i5 AURAICEPT £.26^17 

thotlugz/í/ do scoil mhoir co Fenius 7 co lar 7 go Goedt'/ 
mac nEitheoir a thepe doibh inna nUraicept iarna 
idnacul do Maissi 7 iar foglaim do Chae Cainbreathach 
occa; conad iarsin arriachta n[a] aip[g]itri a n-aentabaill, 1110 
amal ashet'r : Cat iat aib[g]itri 7rl. Aur cach toisseach : 
aicceacht dano icht aicce (-i- gnim), air iss i n-aicci h/s 
in descipz/1 icon aidi: no aiccept -i- acceptus ■{■ airite;/ 
•i- chucut neach nac/^ ííl agut : na nd-egeas -i- na rídaeí) ^ 
cen cheass -i- na fileadh. III5 

Se primthaisigh lasi ndernad in tor -i- Eper mac Saile 
7 Gregus mac Gomer otait Greic, 7 Laitin mac Puin 
otait Laitinda, Riabad Scot mac Gomer, 7 Nemruadh mac 
Cuis, 7 Fenius Farrsaidh. Da bliadain coecat o scailed 
in tuir co flaithius Nin mic Bel, a do coecat [a] righi ; ceitJiir 1120 
bliadhna deac ar tri fichtib ar secht cetaib o fhlaithius 
Nin mic Bel co deredh flaithiusa Tutaines righ in domain. 
Is re linn rotoghladh in Trae fo dheoidh : secht mbliadna 
ingen Laitin mic Puin : conad tri bliadna cetJiorchat 
ar noi cetaibh o scaileadh in tuir co tuc .^neas Lauina 7 1125 
Laitin fen áoxoine a caingen fris. Is follus as sin co nach 
certtiaghait lucht in Uraicepta-sa co mbad e Laidin in 
sechtmadh primthuiseach in tuir. 

Cest, caiteat Aipgitre na tri primberla eter 
ainmniugud 7 charechtair? Ni ansa, em. Aipgitir 1130 
Ebraidi cetamus. 

"0" thothlugud E. Qom& B. 'ios j^ Uaraicepta L. E. 

ii<'9 iar-fodl- B. : iarna foglaim L. "^' aur L. : aur- B, 
^"2 icht («i. gnim) E. air is aicci E. : Cor. Tr. 14. 
1113 accepta •!• acceptus E. airigthi L. : airite E. 

11" na n-egeas 'i- nanai L.: na n-eices 'i' nanas cen cess (•!• cess in becc 7 
ainces in mor) E. 1116-28 £_ Qf^, 1122 Origg. viii. 11, 23 ; ix, 2, 134, 135 

^i^ d'ingin L. i'^ conad bad B. : co mad he L. 

ii^ cateatt aibgidri na tri primberlad ainmnigt^j 7 E. 1^*^ chairechtaire L. 


was by the great school requested of Fenius, lar, and 

Gaedel son of Ether that ít should be selected for 

them as their Primer after it had been given by Moses 

and learned with him by Cae Cainbreathach ; so that 

after that the alphabets were invented on one table, as 

he says : What are the alphabets, etc. Anr is every 

beginning : also aicce-acht, lesson, is icht aicce, child nurture, M^ K 

i.e., a deed, for it is in nurture that the disciple is with his 

fosterer : or aiccept that is acceptus^ that is, of acceptance, 

to wit, unto thee of something that thou hast not : na 

nd-egeas, of the sages, of the men without doubt, to wit, — ?C>?y^t 

the poets. "- — 

Six principal chiefs by whom the Tower was made, to 
wit, Eber Mac Saile, Grecus Mac Gomer whence are the 
Greeks, and Latinus son of Faunus whence are the Latins, 
Riabad Scot son of Gomer, Nimrod son of Cush, and 
Fenius Farsaidh. Fifty-two years from the dispersion of 
the Tower till the reign of Nin son of Bel with his reign 
of fifty-two. Seven hundred and seventy-four years from 
the reign of Nin son of Bel to the end of the reign of 
Tothmes king of the world in whose time Troy was at 
length sacked. Seven years old was the daughter of 
Latinus son of Faunus : so that there are nine hundred 
and forty-three years from the dispersion of the Tower 
till /Eneas married Lavinia, and Latinus himself made his 
covenant with him. From that it is evident that the 
people of this Primer do not advance accurately, that 
Latinus was one of the seven chief rulers of the Tower. 

Query, what are the alphabets of the three principal 
languages, both name and character ? Not hard indeed. 
The alphabet of the Hebrews flrst, that is, Aleph 


5 BB. 324^35 


E. 26 a 24 

i- Aleph Blbreorum 



>X úlepfv 

^ alp1)a 


y t)cd) 

^ eca 


1? ^eiDd 

V Swtf 


11 oeted) 

d 9élÍJd 



e^ ee 


"5 imaU 

^ ejTtgot) 



5. Serci 


ll 1)ed) 

14 "heott 


n H)ed) 

® iJjem 



U od) 

9 lom 


9 cupf) 

K «tpd 

1> i<m)|íp 

tr ttim 





^ imti 

"P tioi 

^ Ttíincc 

'''% cJn? 


^ "haiTi 


Íj -pbe 

"if t>be 


A T^Oe 

^ cofje 


S ^V^ 

P T«' 


c^ -|tef 

C fitíia 


S f in 

V tf)au 


Tt d)au 

^* U1U1I 




T cf)t 


y r>rv 


jUi 00 


»^ en«acosse. 



Aleph of the Hebrews, Alpha of the Greeks and A of 
the Latins. 

"3, B 

•1 r 

2 A 

b M 

j = 

D O 

V n 

3 p 

^ 1 

P T 

n T 

n X 





^ A X 


n E 

T Z 

í H 

n e 

b I 












(Sampi) 900, évvoL^óaiou 

88 BB. 324 (3 37 AURAICEPT E.26a24 

Is e in fer cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh arainig inna ceithri 
aipgitri-sea -i- aipgitir Ebraidi 7 Grecda 7 Laitinda 7 in 
beithi-luis-nin in ogaim / is airi is certiu in dedenach -i- 
in beith^ air is fo deoidh arricht. Bai coiciur ar fichit 1135 
isin scoil ba huaislzí/ dib / it e a n-anmand for- (325) ta in 
beithi-luis-nin eter fedha 7 tsebomna 

7 bai morshesser ba huaish'u do suidhibh o ran- 

ainmnighthea na seacht fedha aireghdha inn ogaim, 1140 

„ . . . . r ,.1 aoue 1 z^Wo 

conadh oiri rolaithi for leith ^l T)1|l TÍn HIBX 

Asberat araili it deicJi feda airegda filet ann 7 it e indso 
a n-anmand : > t inTl IHI HínX b j^^e ^ ^t e 
a tri doformagat sen frisna secht thuas 'lJíll^ii-ffi. 

conid aire sin rolatha a fedha 7 a taebomna for leith 1145 
7 it e a n-anmand soin fordotait iarumh. 

Asberat immorro araile co nach o dhainibh itz> 
ainmnighter fedha inn n-ogaim isin Gíedhelg acht o 
, chrandaibh gen gu haichinter anniu araile crand dibh. 
\^NJ^ \ Air atat ceit/iri hernaile for crandaib -i- airig:h fedha 7 1150 
athaig fedha 7 lossa fedha 7 fodhla fedha ; J is uaithibh sin 
a ceathrur ainmnighter fedha in oghaim. Airigh fedha 
quideiii -i- dur, coll, cuileand, abhull, uindsiu, ibur, gius. 
Athaig fedha -i- fern, sail, bethi, lemh, sce, crithach, 
cíerthand. Fodla fedha andso -i- draighen, trom, feorus, 1155 

11*^ in aipgidir E. "'■^ oguim L. E. certidi L. "•" bae E. 

^^'^ huaisliu, fotha E. "" rolaiti hi for leith L. : roforletha E. 

"■•^ doformagat sin, fuas E. ^'^ foratait L. int anmand-somh fordorca E. 
1147-97 E_ Q„i^ 114ÍI ggj, gy j,^j aithnig T. : pat aichinti H. 

"•5" airidh B. ^^'^ jair L. ibu«r B. 


Novv Feníus Farsaídh ís the same man that díscovered 
these four alphabets, to wit, the Hebrevv, Greek, and Latin 
alphabets, and the Beithe Luis Nin of the Ogham, and it 
is for this reason the last, to wit, the Beithe is more exact 
because it vvas discovered last. There vvere in the school 
tvventy-five that vvere noblest among them, and these 
are their names, vvhich are upon the Beithe Luis Nin both 
vovvels and consonants :' 

And there vvere seven that vvere most noble among these, 
from vvhom the seven principal vovvels of the Ogham 
have been named, so for that reason they have been 
placed apart : a U e 1 ee[d^oo 

> miT]iin nnix -^ 

Others say that ten principal vovvels stand in it and 
these are their names : 

^ <> ^ ^ L.^^^i'^^ iiu ii ^ 

> lT)iTlt111l11l 1 X0r^||c C 

And these are the three that increase those to the 

above seven, to vvit, *4^I1!1;1L-P1_ , so on that account 

o )^ aaee 

their vovvels and consonants have been set apart, 

and these are their names which are thus upon them. 

Others, however, say that it is not from men at all that 

the Ogham vovvels are named in Gaelic but from trees, 

though some of these trees are not knovvn to-day. For 

there are four classes of trees, to vvit, chieftain trees, 

peasant trees, herb trees, and shrub trees ; and it is from 

these four that the Ogham vowels are named. Chieftain 

trees, qiiidem^ to vvit, oak, hazel, holIy, apple, ash, yew, fir. 

Peasant trees, to wit, alder, willovv, birch, elm, vvhitc- 

thorn, aspen, mountain-ash. The shrub trees here, to vvit, 

90 BB. 325 a 18 AURAICEPT 

crand fir, fedlend, fidhat, fi;?ncholl. Lossa fedha -i- aitean, 

fraech, gilcach, raid, lecla -i- luachair /rl. Beithe dno on 

beithe rohainmnigheadh ar cosmaillius fri cois in bheithe 

^ií dicitur : 

Feocos íoltchain in beithi, 1160 

7 is airi sin is i mbeithi roscribadh in cetainm ogaim 
tucadh a nErind -i- secht mbeithi tugad do Lugh mac 
Rthlenn •!• berthair do bean uait m'si eain custodi^e^ris 
{•\- mine derna tu a ccimét L. om^. Is aire sin beos scríbthar 
beithi a tosach ^v^gitre in ogaim. Luis dno, is o chrand 1165 
rohainmniged -i- o cairtheand •!• uair luis ainm caerthaind 
isint shenGaedelg ut dicitur: Li sula luis •i^ caertheand 
ar ailleacht a caer. Fernd dono, o chrand rohainmniged 
jít dicitur : Airenach Fianw •i^ fernd, air is di na sgeith. 
Sail dano, is o chrand roHainmniged ut dicitur : Li ambi 1170 
•i^ nemli lais •i^ ar cosmaiUius a datha fri marb. Nin 
dno, is o chrand rohainmniged •i^ o uindsind tit dicitur : 
cosdad sida nin •!• uiwnius, ar is di doniter craind g£E triasa 
coscairther in sidh : no cosdudh sidha uindis. Nin -i- 
ginol garmna dognither do uindsind •i^ isin aimsir 1175 
sidha togaibtí^r garmna. Huath dono, is o chrand 
rohainmniged -i^ sce \iit dicitur : comdal cuan huath 
•i- sce L. (?;//.] : no ar is uathmar hi ara deilghibh. Duir 
dono, is o chrand rohainmniged, ut dicitur airde doss- 
aib duir. Tinne dono, is o chrand rohainmniged -i- ]180 
cuileann [trian roith tindi L] •'v ar is cuileand in tres 

"•^ ethleand, idat T. "«• Feochas L. "«o-»'' cf. Ajiec. iii. 43, 45 

"«3 aibgidreach L. "«^ cala T. "*» datha a caer H. 

^^''^ fiada fearn fear •!• is di dogaithear na sgiatha lasna Fianaib T. : is di 
na sgeith B. L. "'" Li ambi mairb soil T. 

^''■' aliter RC. xxvi. 24, § 72. coscrach sida T. 
"'^ coscraidthea L. "'^' trian a rothenne B, 


black-thorn, elder, spindle-tree, test-tree, honeysuckle, 
bird-cherry, whíte-hazel. Herb trees, to vvit, furze, 
heather, broom, bog-myrtle, lecla^ to wit, rushes, etc. 
Now beithe has been named from the birch owing to its 
resemblange to the trunk of the birch, tit dicitur : 

Of wiíhered trunk fairhaired the birch, 

and therefore on the birch was written the first Ogham 
inscription that was brought into Ireland, to wit, seven 
birches were brought to Lugh son of Ethleann, to wit, thy 
wife will be taken from thee tiisi eavi c?ístodieris, to wit, 
unless thou watch her. It is on that account b is still 
written at the beginning of the Ogham alphabet. Then 
as to luis, it is named from a tree, to wit, from mountain- 
ash, i.e., because Itiis is the name of mountain-ash in old 
GdLoWc^ut dicitur : Delightof eye is mountain-ash,i.e.,rowan, 
owing to the beauty of its berries. Fern, alder, again, 
is named from a tree, ut dicitur : The van of the Warrior- 
bands, that is, alder, for thereof are the shields. Sail, 
willow, again, is named from a tree, íit dicitur : The colour of 
a lifeless one, i.e., it has no colour, i.e., owing to the resem- 
blance of its hue to a dead person. Nin too is named from 
a tree, viz., ash, ut dicitur : A^check on peace is nin, viz., 
ash, for of it are made the spear-shafts by which the peace 
is broken : or, A check on peace is uindis. Nin, that is a 
maw of a weaver's beam which is made of ash, that is, 
in time of peace weavers' beams are raised. Huath, again, 
is named from a tree, viz., white-thorn, ut dicitur : A meet 
of hounds is huath, viz. white-thorn ; or because it is 
formidable owing to its thorns. Duir, oak, again, is 
named from a tree, ut dicitur : Higher than bushes is an 
oak. Tinne^ again, is named from a tree, i.e., holly, a third 
of a wheel is holly, that is, because holly is one of the 
three timbers of the chariot-wheel. Coll, again, is named 

92 BB.325a39 AURAICEPT E. 26 a 43 

fidh roith in carbait. Coll dono, is o chrand rohainmnig- 
ed iit dicitur cainfidh -i- coll -i- cach ac ithi a chno, 
Queirt dano, is o chrand rohainmnighead -i- abhuU ut 
dicitur: cHthar boaiscille -i- elit gelt quert -i- aball. 1185 
Muin dono -i- finemhain, ut dicitur, airdi masi muin -i- 
iarsinni fhasas a n-airde -i- finemhain. Gort dono -i- 

Glaisiu geltaibh gort 

•i- edind. Ngetal dono -i- gilcach no raith ut dicitur : 1190 
luth lega getal -i- cilcach no raith. Straiph dono -i- 
draighen, ut dicitur : aire srabha sraibh -i- draighin. 
Ruis dono -i- trom, /// dicitur, ruamna ruice ruis -i- trom. 
Ailm dono -i- crand giuis -i- ochtach. Onn -i- aiten. Ur 
•i- fraech. Edhadh -i- ed uath -i- crand fir no crithach. 1195 
Idho -i. ibhar. Ebhadh -i- crithach (col. ^). Oir -i- feorus 
no edind. Uilleand -i- edleand. Iphin •i- spinan no ispin 

Anmand fidh tra sin uile amal fogabar isna Duihbh 
Fedha inn ogaim 7 ni ho dainib ut alii dicunt. 1200 

Cest, cis lir a cumang? Ni ansa. Lanchumang intibh 
uilibh eter fedha 7 taebomna co nd^jirba huath -i- conas- 
firbade uath -i- amal bes a n-aic?Wcidh mor gidh beg e. Is 
amhlaidh innister isin Cin Ollaman -i- cethirs[h]Ucht fegh- 
thair for fedhaibh -i^ cumang 7 egumang, lanchumang 7 1205 
lenchumang. Lanchumang i fedaib, cumang a forfed- 
aibh, egumang a mutzM, lethchuniang a leathgutaibh. 
Atberat araile is treshlicht as choir and -i- lanchumang a 
fedaibh, 7 cumang a forfedaibh, 7 ecumang a muitibh ; ar ni 

"S5 ceirt L. ^i«8 Eithieand L. "''i raid, Straif L. 

ii''*2 draigean L. sreabhudh sdraibh T. : sraibh B. """ ruisc T. 
ii'J-* dono •i> aitenn, onn 'i- ochtach T. "^'^^ dainibL. FiiiiíT. 

120310 E. o/w. 1204 is amlaidh so huath, cethir slicht L. : gach slicht B. 

1205 j taebomnaib L. i'-'"*' lencumang L. 1208 tre licht L. 


from a tree, ut dicitur : Fair wood, that is, hazel, i.e., 
every one is eating of its nuts. Queirt, again, is named 
from a tree, i.e., an apple tree, ut dicitur : Shelter of a 
boiscill, that is, a wild hind is queirt, i.e., an apple tree. 
Aluin, again, that is, a vine-tree, ut dicitur : Highest of 
beauty is viuin, that is, because it grows aloft, that is, a 
vine-tree. Gort, again, that is, ivy : — ^ 

" Greener than pastures is ivy," 
Ngetal, again, that is, broom or fern, ut dicitur : A 
physician's strength is broom, to wit, broom or fern. 
Straiph, again, that is, black-thorn, ut dicitur : The hedge 
of a stream is sraibJi, that is, black-thorn. Ruis, again, 
that is, elder, ut dicitur : The redness of shame is ruis, i.e., 
elder. Ailni, again, i.e., a fir tree, to vvit, a pine tree. 
Onn, that is, furze. Ur, that is, heath. Edliadh, that is, 
ed uath, horrible grief, to wit, test-tree or aspen. Ido, that 
is, yew. Ebhadh, that is, aspen. Oir, that is, spindle-tree, 
or ivy. Uilleand, that is, honeysuckle. Iphin, that is 
gooseberry, or thorn, etc. 

Now all these are wood names such as are found in the 
Ogham Books of Woods, and are not derived from men, tit 
alii dicunt. 

Query, how many are their powers ? Not hard. FuU 
power is in them all both vowels and consonants, with the 
exception of h, that is, that h might be truly sunk, that is, 
as their nature may be, whether it be great or small. It is 
so set down in the Book of Ollams, to wit, four divisions 
that are .seen on vowels, viz., power and want of power, 
full power and half-power. Full power in vowels, power 
in diphthongs, want of power in mutes, and half-power in 
semivowels. Others say that three divisions are proper 
there, viz., full power in vowels, power in diphthongs, and 
want of power in mutes ; for no semivowel exists with the 
Gael. Query, what is long in vowels and diphthongs, and 

94 BB. 325)3 13 AURAICEPT £.26^45 

fil leathguta la Gsedel. Cest, cate fot i fedhaibh 7 i forfedh- 1210 
aibh 7 gair hi taebomnaib -i- gair suidigud, air is leath- 
aimser for taehomnazl? do gres a corus for/ed. 

Cest, cis lir dech docussin? Ni ansa. A ocht : dialt 
7 recomrac 7 iarcomrac, felis 7 cloenre J luibenchosach 7 
claideamnas 7 bricht, Oenfidh airegda i ndialt, a da i 1215 
recomrac, a tri i n-iarcomrac, a ceithri i fil/i-, a coic 
hi claenre, a se i luibenchosach, a secht i claidemnas, a 
ocht i mbricht, cenmota taebomna. Cest, cia roig 
dialt i mmeit 7 i llaigí-/ -i- dialt co ceill coic litri and a 
n-as mode: rosaigh i llaiget co oenlitir 7 is focal son, tit 1220 
est a, o, i, amal ata á (-i- ard) slebhi. Amal ita Ard 
(A) Cuis, 7 Ard (A) Cartaind, a Slebh Luachra -i- 
anmand slebhe saindriudh ut dixit Mac Da Cerd[a] : — 

Damh conngair eter da a, 

Fon-gluaisi gaeth gulbanda, 1225 

Is uallach int arganda 

Re trichait sed lurganda 

7 o (-i- cluas) for cind 7 [i] inis CoXuim Cilk. Rosaigh 
á\diu i mmeit co a coic littri, uí est, bracht tract druct 
scalp. Scxivithair J ni hairimther uath isna foclaib dedenach- 1 230 
aib arna litrib, acht nod tinfid. Cach ndialt iarum na 
tormaig fri araili cowcumung cach as íocail. Deich co a 
ocht a mbricht 7 is e met 7 laigett cacha Gaeidelgi o dealt 

i-'i gair(de) i taobomnaib E. : Gr. Lat. v. 112, 28 ^"^^ deich dochusin L. 

Margin, pp. 325, 326: Aspiratio H, dassie« \Za.afiav'\ J- , scile« \\pCKy\v'\ -j. 
cf. Thes. ii. 51, 68 : Gr. Lat. iii. 520, 14 ; v. 33, 33 : 132, 28 ; viii. 230, 15 : 
Origg. i. 19, 9 ^'^^'^ recomarc, iarcomarc, feUs L. 

1220, 8 rosig E. 1222-7 E. om. ^'^ scrin E. 

^'•^^ isna htrib L. 1^32 \q^ araili L. iwtormaig E. 



short in consonants? that is short by position, for the 
lavv of Ogham diphthongs is half-time on consonants 

Query, how many verse-feet are there? Not hard 
Eight of them : dialt, one syllable ; recomrac, two syllables; 
iarcouirac, three ; felis, four ; cloenre, five ; luibenchossach, 
six ; claidevmas, seven ; and bricht, eight syllables. One 
principal vowel in dialt, two of them in recomrac, 
three of them in iarconirac, four of them in feles, 
five of them in cloenre, six of them in luibeíichossach, 
seven of them in claidevinas, eight of them in bricht, 
besides consonants. Query, how far does a syllable 
extend to in greatest and least ? To wit, a syllable with 
a meaning, five letters are in it, which is the greatest : 
it reaches an inferior limit at one letter, and that a word, ut 
est, a,^ o, i, viz. such as á, that is, a mountain height. Such 
are Á (Ard) Cuis, and Á (Ard) Cartaind, in Sleeve 
Luachra, to wit, names of particular mountains, ut dixit 
Mac Da Cerda : — 

A stag bells between two heights, 
" N A piercing wind tosses us, 

Proud is the stalker ij) 
Before thirty long-shanked deer. 

and o, on a head, to wit, an ear ; and (I) Colum Cille's 
Island. Then it reaches a superior limit up to five 
letters, ut est, bracht, fat ; tracht, strand ; drucht, dew ; 
scalp, gap. H is written and is not counted among the 
letters in the last words, but it is a mark of aspiration. As 
to every syllable, therefore, that does not add to another, 
each of them is the equivalent of a word. Verse-feet up to 
eight of them are in bricht. And that is the superior and 
inferior limit of all Gaelic from dialt, one, to bricht, eight, 
syllables, both included, to wit, that there may be power 

96 BB. 325^33 AURAICEPT E.26ay 

co bric[h]t cona n-athgabail diblinaib -i- co cumangar du 
gach dialt iarna tinol deach. Is bricht a mbith ocht s'úla/'a. 1235 
Is ^í/bunad cacha Gxáe]ge dialt acht mod / to/// / traeth. 
Domiditer alta uad fri alta duine amal domiditer fri cach 
n-indsci. Cest, cindus domiditer fri cach n-indsci ? Ni 
ansa. Corop cach dialt friscara di araili, ?^/ esl, tis tuas 
tair tiar tes tuaid ; gu rub recomarc friscara di araili, ar 1240 
is cubaid a comfid 7 a comdeich. 

Coig airmi cintecha in tuir -i- da tuaith sechtmogat / 
da comairlig sechtmogat acco 7 da berla sechtmogat for 
fodailt doib 7 da deiscip?// sechtmogat tancadar la Feinius 
do {oglaim na mberla sin 7 da ceimend sechtmogat in 1245 
airdi in tuir. 

Cest, caidi deifir eter indeall 7 tindell ? Ni ansa. Innell 
int imcomurc 7 tinnell int eirwiud. 

Seacht primtoisigh lasi ndernad in tor -i- EbcT mac 
Saili, Grecus mac Gomer a quo Greci, Laitin mac Puin 1250 
a quo Laitini, Riabath Scot a quo Scoiti, ^emxuadh mac 
Cuis mic Caim mic Noi, J Faillech mac Ragau mic 
Arafaxat mic Seim. 

Cest, cate deochraigtíT eter cinniud 7 cintech[u] 7 
cinntichu son? Ni ansa. Cinniud in aipgitir Grecda, ar is 1255 
ceirtiu quam ind aipgitir (326) Aspin Ehraide. Cinntichu 
immo?'ro in aipgitir 'LdÁúanda na in aipgitir Grecda. 
Cinntichu son -i- beithi-luis-nin in ogaim na in aipgitir 
Laitianta uair is fo deoidh arricht. 

Cia haenfocí/1 gebes forna ceit[h]ri ernaili ind Aurai- 1260 
cepta cen deifir tomuis 710 tarmfí?r/cind 710 feda no focail 

i2;'3 E. om. ^'^*'' todh L. : toth 7 troeth E. ^'i- domiter L. : dodomiditer E. 

V339 alaile E. ^'^ tuaid L. om. ^'^ fodail L. : forfodailtea E. 

1-^5 fodluim E. na n-ilberla L. : na mberlad E. ^^^ imcomarc, int erned E. 

12.50 Grecaig E. '-'^' Latini, Riabath Scott, Scoti E. ^^52 -^^^ Reu L. : ix. B. 

1253 ni2c jx. E. adds '^'^'^ cindead L. Caite a meit a dechraigtí-;- E. 

1256 ar B. E. inas L. Grecda E. Cindtichu L. Aspin is written out. 
The marginal gloss (v. p- 94 note) is almost opposite. The glossator thought 
Eabraide should be aspirated to Hebraide. ^-'' nas L.l 

1258 inas L. ^^* tarmsce leam forcind no fedha E. 


to every syllable, after they are gathered into verse-feet. It 
ís bricJit in which are eight syllables. Dialt, syllable, is the 
foundation of all Gaelic except inod, toth, and tmetJi. 
AJta, joints, of science are measured with a man's joints 
as they are measured with every speech. Query, how are 
they measured with every speech? Not hard. That 
each syllable may correspond to another, ut est, down, up, 
east, west, south, north ; that one dissyllable may corre- 
spond to another, for the Iike vowels and the like verse- 
feet of them rhyme. 

Five certain numbers of the Tower, to wit, 72 peoples, 
and 72 counsellors with them, 72 languages divided 
among them, and ^2 pupils that came with Fenius to 
learn those languages, and 72 paces was the height of 
the Tower. 

Query, what is the difference between indeJl, yoking, 
and tindeJJ, unyoking? Not hard. IndeJJ the question, 
and tindeJJ the solution. 

Seven chief leaders by whom the Tower was made, to 
wit, Eber son of Saile ; Grecus son of Gomer, a qno Graeci ; 
Latinus son of Faunus, a quo Latini ; Riabath Scot, 
a quo Scotti ; Nimrod son of Cush, son of Ham, son of 
Noah ; and Peleg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad, son of 

Ouery, what are the different significations between 
definite, more definite, and most definite? Not hard. 
Definite is the Greek alphabet, for it is more exact than 
the Hebrew alphabet. More definite, however, the Latin 
alphabet than the Greek alphabet. More definite than 
the Latin alphabet is this, to wit, the Beithe Luis Nin 
of the Ogham for it was invented last. 

What single word comprehends the four divisions 
of the Primer without regard to difference of measure, 
termination, letter, word, or form ? Not hard. The 


98 BB. 326a5 AURAICEPT E. 26/319 

na forgnuisi ? Ni ansa. In focul is aípgitir, ar gebid ar 
aipgitir Ebraide 7 Grecda 7 Laitianda. 

Treidi doghni uath -i- bogad 7 semigudh 7 airdibdad. 
Bocad cetumus : for tdiQhoinnaib 7 is 'na ndiaidh doeag- 1265 
maing doib -i' do p 7 do c [7] do t ut cloch, both. larsin 
Laitneoir bidh tinfid iar cach i^.ébonma isin Gaed/A:. Semi- 
gudh immorro forna ta.ehonmazd chena 7 is rempo doec- 
main^- do'ih •[• for coic taehomnat'd -i- for Ib, c, d, t, g. Bogad 
beithi cetamus -i- sop 7 lop -i- amal ata B[h]atraig. Uath 1270 
bogas in beithi fil and, ar ni bi p isin Gaedz7<:. Semigud 
amal ata a Batraig, uath and i[s] semiu 'nas i n-aill. 
Bocad cuill -i- clach 7 ach ; bocad d -i- sodh 7 odh. Bocad 
for tinni -i- tath 7 ath. Bocad for gort -i- magh 7 agh. 
Seimigud b immorro -i- a bhen, a bhan, a bhe binn. 1275 
Seimiugud c dono -i- o chiun, do chein, o chianaibh, o 
chetoir. Semigud d -i- d[h]amsa, d[h]uitsiu. Semigud t 
•i- a thir, a thuaigh. Semiugud g -i- a ghradh 7 a 

Airdibdad immorro forta [dá] taebomna -i- for sailig 7 1280 X 
for ferna (-i- taebomna amal fedaib) -i- orro dibdudh -i- 
a mbricht ass di raith amal ata ardibdad sa'úcc/i -i- a 
s[h]al, a s[h]uil. Airdibdad ferna -i- a fhind, a f[h]ir, ind 

Is sain so frisna cuhat'd ^X^TITI ^ -i- euad 7 1285 
edadh in dorusa uerdi (-i- tabair esemplair) gur uinge 7 
cingit 7 cuing is ecen di litt/r'anda ica scribinrt' na 
consani -i- n J g. Ni hecen acht ^j^^ a oenur ar son 

i^ doni E. seimiugad 7 airdibad L. : bocud 7 semed 7 airdibudug«í/ E. 

i2«3 Ebra L, i'*' tinfeadh L. 1268 che(Ona E. 

12"» roc, sop, lot, 0'Molloy Gr. xvii. p. 163 i«i-2 E. om. 

1272 a Phatraig T. 12^5 a bé find, /r. Texíe, i. 132, 34 : abhind E. 

12"« on chiuin L.: o chind E. 12"« a thuath L.: a tuath, guirt •!• agda ogda E. 

12"9 a ogh L. i«PO forda, for sail 7 for fearnd L. airdibad E. 

1281 oir o dibad E. 1282 a mbrat E. 

1285 Sain.sow frisnad cub- E. ^'^ iú dorsa uí^-bi E. uing L. 

i^^'? ica B. : i L. is i n-oen di littzr, na son sin n 7 g E- 


word alphabet, for it comprehends the Hebrew, Greelc, 
and Latin alphabets. 

H causes three things, to wit, bogad, lenition of final (?), 
sémigud, lenition of initial (?), and airdibdud, extinction. 
Bogad first : it falls on consonants and follows them, viz. : 
p, c, and t, ut cloch, stone ; boíh, booth. According to 
the Latinist, aspiration is usual after every consonant in 
'GaeHc. Sérnigud, lenition of initial, however, falls upon 
the consonants in general and precedes them, that is, on 
five consonants, b, c, d, t, g. Bogadh of b first, viz. sop 
and lop, such as Pdtraig. It is h that softens the b that 
stands in it, for p does not exist in Gaelic. Sémigudh, 
such as a Phátraig, h is there, which is softer than 
the other example. Bogad of c, viz. clach, stone, and 
ach, alas ! of d, viz. sódh, turning, and odh, music : of t, viz. 
táth, dissolution, and dth, ford : of g, viz. magh, plain, and 
agh, cow. Séinigud of b, however, a bhen, his wife, a bhán^ 
its blank space, a bhe binn, O sweet woman : of c also, viz. 
chiunn, sínce, do chein, from afar, chianaibh, just now, 
chetoir, immediately : of d, viz. dhamsa, to me, dhuitsiu, 
to thee : of t, viz. a thír, his land, a thuaigh, [to] his axe : 
of g, viz. a ghrádJi, his love, and a ógJia, his virgins. 

Airdibdud, extinction, however, comes upon two con- 
sonants (i.e., consonants become like vowels), that is, the 
letters s and f, that is, extinction is on them, that is, their 
being deleted altogether, such as the extinction of s, to 
wit, a shál, his heel ; a sJtúil, his eye. Extinction of f, to 
wit, a fJiind, his hair; a fJiir, O man ; ind fJieda, of the 

This is different from the rhymes 7 )C > Tín C - euad, 
and edadh of the beginning^f a word (give examples) /\ 
that in uinge, cingit, and cuing there Ís need for two 
Latin letters to write the consonants n, g. There is no 
need but of y^jK onJy for these two letters in Gaelic, 

lOO BB. 326a25 AURAICEPT E. 26 ,3 34 

ín da littr^ sin isin Gsedilc, ut est, ^ V^.0) ^ -i- 
uinge, >tin^^^ < .1. cuing, Í^^^^\m///M'^ cingit. Ni 1290 
dat inunna dno suin fris nad cv^iaid cach íe dib-seo 
J> X^1TW <^> ^^^ ^-^^» seeit in teinid, tria > 7ffl 4 a scribind. 
Seit (-i-) conar tria -^ a scribind. Neim nathrach -i- -fll}- 
a scribind : min (-i- beic) iphi and ; mín arba -i- >4fflK 
and. Nemh im ta.h/iam, neamh im usce -^ andsen. 1295 
Air i[t] trega ar a tugad forfeda eter isin aib[g]itir in 
ogaim -i- do fregra do defoghur amal aáherar isna 
breathaibh nemedh -i- genmota forfeda a fail defoghur 
na nguta J dono do sainigedh fogh/zr forsna fedhaibh, air 
is buga fogair bis isna forfedhaibh, 7ít cst, neamh >^ 1300 
and : naemh ^ and : nem -f|f|< and. 

It e coic gne in berla tohaidi -i- berla Fene 
7 fasaige na filed 7 berla etarsgarta 7 berla fírttide na filcí/ 
triasa n-agaill?V cach dib a chele 7 iarmberla amal rogab : 
Cuic -i- ruin. Et ballorb -i- ball do forbau na ^Aideachtdi 1305- 
aicce ; no is do chawaid is ainm. Et muirne -i- mirum no 
miruine. Gne n-aill do iarmberla -i- iarum 7 dno 7 atat 7 
tra 7 immorro 7 edon 7 iar J d^v J cest J cair J cisne J 
caidat J ni ansa Jr\. Gne n-aill dno -i- forsna (-i- feraib) J 
fona 7 esna J tresna, sec[h]na. It e na lorga fuach in sin 1310 
lasin filid. Gne n-aiU dano -i- he es em co tre tair do o fo 

i"'i frisna decubaid L. i^"-^ seit L. 

'^'•'^ anuscí? E. 12% ^jj.; trega B. 

1Í96-1301 E. om. 1297 asberar L. 

^•'03 fortchide L. 1^-» aigill L. re iarmbérla v. RC. xiii. 267 

1-"» bal dorb T. forbu L. : forban E. 

^■^*« chanaig L. ^'^~ miridi L. ^^» tra B. item L. 


/// est, :> V^.0X ^ ^•^•' ^"^«^^' 0""ce, >im^55^ i.e., cuing, 
yoke, '^lllí TTIII/^Tn??^^ ^•^•' '^if^S^t, they step. Now sounds 
are not the same with which each one of these does not 
rhyme ;> X*fTni C ^^t ^st, seeit, they blovv the fire, is written 
by >-Tim. Seit, a road, by writing -^, Neini, poison of a 
serpent, is written by flfj-. Min, that is, small, is i there. 
Min, meal of corn, i.e., >4Tfll<- ^^^'íh, heaven round earth : 
neamh, with reference to water -^ is there. For there are 
three things for which diphthongs were introduced at all 
into the Ogham alphabet, viz. to correspond to a diph- 
thong as is said in the nenied judgments, that is, except 
Ogham diphthongs in which there are two sounds of 
the vowels ; and also to differentiate sounds upon the 
Ogham vowels, for it is a softness of sound that exists in 
the Ogham diphthongs, tit est, neanih, heaven, y^ ea 
is there : naenih, saint, ^ ae is there, 7ieni, poison, -T||J< i is 

These are the five species of the Selected Language, 
viz, : — Language of the Irish, Commentaries of the Poets, 
Parted Language, Obscure Language of the Poets through 
which each of them addresses his íéllow, and iarnibérla 
such as : Ctiic, a secret. Et ballorb, to wit, he has a 
member for completing poetry ; or it is the name for a 
^ano. Et niuirne, spears, to wit, ill-will, or of iU will. 
There is another kind of iaruibérla, to wit, therefore, now, 
there are, indeed, moreover, even, after, on, query, pray, 
how many, what are, not hard, etc. Another kind also, 
on the (men), under, out of, through, past them, Theue 
are the staves of vvords with the poet, Another kind too, 
to wit, he that, indeed, unto, through, over, to, from, 
under, on. That is an interloping s^llable with the 

102 BB. 326a44 AURAICEPT E. 26 /3 44 

fair. Dialt n-etarlemmi in sin lasin filid. larmberla tra 
cosin annuas. Is aire raiter iarmberla de -i- ara se[c]dacht 
amal iarunn, da fedtar a thaithmeach : no iarmberla -i- 
berla ranig lar mac Nema fo dheoidh 7 ni fetar a thaith- 1315 

Ocus berla n-edarsgarta eter na fedaibh aireghdaibh 
•i- berla tresa fuil deHugud na fid n-aire[gh]da isin aenfhocul 
triana n-inde taithmeach, ut est, amal rogabh ros -i- roi 
oiss quando (-i- intan) as rois cíeIH 7 rass iar Hnd intan 1320 
as ros usce -i- rofhos mad for marbusce no (col. /-J) roidh 
ass mad for sruth 7 ro as intan as ros Hn -i- ar a luas 7 ar a 
thigi asas, Ocus am berla ft^rteidi -i- fordorcha no 
ruamanta inna ^\áeachta, amal asrubairt in file hi scuil 
Feniusa: EtaiH aro ni anfem de -i- i inis; etaH -i- uasal 1325 
7 aro -i- imramh -i- ni a«fem de imram co risam in innsi 
n-uasail -i- Eiri no Espain, no is Espain eicin amal rogab 
i n-Imagallaim na Da Thuar: Brimon smetrac[h]. Berla 
na filed so -i- in gne deidinach i[s] sund -i- bri -i- briathar, 
mon -i- cleas, 7 smit -i- cluas, 7 forrach -i- rigi : no bri -i- 1330 
briathar, 7 mon -i- cleas, 7 smetrach -i- smit forrach -i- 
co forrgidis neach. Cleas brath^rda sin donidis na fiHd 
oc ecnuch -i- smit a cluaisi do gabail ina laimh -i- amal j J 
nac[h] fil cnaim sund ni raib eneach iconti egnaigeas I ( 
in fiH. 1335 

Iss e in coic(ed) gne in gnat[h]berla fogni do cac[h], 

1313 seanacht L. isis-is £_ om. 

13" iar- B. : iarw L. fedthar B. : fegthar L. isi^-ss Arch. C. P. iii. 248 
1319 trian an idi, ross •!• rói oss L. : ross -i' roiss E. i^^" ros cailli L. 

1321 rofois, no rooidais E. : róidh L. ^*^^ rofhás L. : roais qiiando as ross lin E. 
i32:J fhasas L. E. fortchidi L. ^^^ na fil- amal E. ^325 {„^111 aro E. 

1326 anfam, •i^ i inis EtaiII L. : anfam de corraisem in indsi uasal •i- hEriu E. 
1328 RC. xxvi. 8 ; 24, 78 : Bri amain E. 1329-34 Cor.2 j^g . Cor. Tr. 22 

1*^ 7 smit, rach •!• rigi E. ^'^^ L. om. i333 egnach L. 

1334 na fil cnaimh hisuidhiu E. ^^*'-** E. om. 


poet. Unaccented Language, then, down to this point. 
It is for this reason that Unaccented Language, iarni- 
bérla, is said of it, to wit, on account of its hardness like 
iron, iarunn, if it is possible to analyse it ; or iarmbérla^ 
that is, the speech which lar Mac Nema discovered last, 
and it is not possible to analyse it. 

And Language Parted among the principal vowels, 
that is, language through which there is distinction of the 
principal vowels in the individual word through analysing 
their meaning, ut est, for example ros, that is, roi oiss, plain 
of deer, quando (when) it is rois caelli, copses of wood, and 
rass, duck meat, along a pool when it is ross of water, duck 
weed, rofhos, great rest, if it be on stagnant water, or roidh 
ass, . . , out of it if it be on a stream, and ro ás when it is 
ros lin, flax seed, i.e., on account of the swiftness and 
density wherewith it grows. And the Bérla Fortchide, 
Obscure Language, fortchide, that is, the great darkness 
or obscurity of poetry, as said the poet in the school of 
Fenius : Etaill aro ni anfemde, to wit, i, island ; Etall, 
that is, noble ; and aro, that is, rowing ; to wit, we shall 
not cease from rowing tiU we reach the noble Island, 
that is Ireland, or Spain ; or it is definitely Spain, as 
is found in the Conversation of the Two Sages. Brimon 
smetracJi. This is the Language of the Poets that is, the 
last kind here, to wit, bri, word ; mon, feat ; and smit, ear, 
and forrach, that is, stretching ; or, bj'i, word, and mon, 
feat, and smetrach, that is, ear-lobe compression, that is, 
that they might injure some one. A bfotherly trick is 'fjfTt^j 
that which the poets used to do in satirising, viz., to take 
the lobe of his ear in his hand, that is, as no bone exists 
there, the individual whom the poet satirises could have 
no honour-price. 

The fifth kind is the Usual Language which serves for 
every one ; for others say of the Bérla Féine that it is the 

104 BB. 326^15 AURAICEPT E. 26^x 

(ar) asberad araili comad e in berla Feini fasaigi na filed, 
7 conach berla fo leith etir. 

Cest, caide fot 7 gair intib JxX.} Ni ansa. Amal ata 
neam, forfid fil and. Nem immorro in fid aire[gh]da fil 1340 
and 7 is cruaidiu in fid airegh[d]a fil and 7 is buigi 
in forfhid -i- neam; no áxdiu is gair n-aicw/c/ 7 fot suidig////' 
a fedaib 7 gair suidig[th]i i forfedaib 7 fot n-aicw/rf'; no 
dono na feda fileat sund it inunda 7 na guthrt/^/. Na for- 
feda immorro it inunda 7 na deofhoghair. IN defhoghur 1345 
fil intib iarum, amal ata bean, bein dogenta de meni beith 
deofhoghur. Is amlaid na forfeda. Cindus on 7 ebad 
a forfidh ind anma intan asberar fer? Ni codarsna anni 
sin arin defoghur. Is cumair sin 7 ni bi fair acht aimsear 
co leith tantuvi (-i- nama) a n-as modhe. Da aimsir im- 1350 
morro forsin x^^wúiaige fota. Cia bad gairit iarum in 
defoghur remunn inrathaigte. Ceinmota ^\diu in fid 
conicc comardugud fuit 7 gair indib, amal asbert in Lait- 
neoir : [circumplex] forsna úVi2.baib fotta amal ata do, si ; J 
ama/ adberat acuit forsna s'úlabaib cuimri ut est pax -i- 1355 
bacc. Is fon indus [s]in dobeir in Gaedel forshail for fot 
amal rogab sron 7 slog JxX. et ernin arding dead amal 
rogab leacc 7 ceand 1x\. Cid timarta iarum ebad isinni 
is fer ni la Greco as defoghur in sain. Cid fotera in 
codarsna sin 7 na coic fedha 7 "(a secht) fedha 7 na 1360 
deich fedha iar fuilliuc[h]t aili? Ni ansa. Na coic fedha 
cetamus : ic frecra duna coic guthaigib tug na secht fedha 

ix!» gaii(de) E. ata L. om. ^•^•' suigigi B. 

J345 na defogair L. ^''^ fil intib L. om. ^'^" euad E. 
y:s» (-ri mar n-an as mode E. Gr. Lat. v. 28, 27 

'^'■'^'^ inraigthe E. ^■^■"'" comardud L. 
^*^-* circumplex L. E. : defect in MS. BB. 

i:»3 acuit, in a late scrawl. cumri, becc fex E. atbera L. Gr. Lat. v. 
32, I ; iii. 521, 6; iv. 371, 9 

/ i;i57 arding dedhacho E. '*'"* iarsani is fearr L. 

1359 jjg deogur E. ^'^ (a secht)in margin B. 


Commentaries of the Poets, and that it is not a separate 
language at all. 

What is short and long in them, etc. ? Not hard. 
In such as neani, heaven, it is a diphthong that 
stands there. In nein^ poison, however, it is the principal 
vowel that stands there, and the principal vowel that 
stands there is harder and the diphthong is softer, to wit, 
neam ; or, again, it is short by nature and long by position 
in vowels, and short by position in diphthongs and long 
by nature ; or, again, the Ogham vowels that stand there 
are the same as the vowels. The Ogham diphthongs 
are, in fact, the same as the diphthongs. As to the 
diphthong that stands in them, therefore, such as bean^ 
hein would be made of it were it not a diphthong. Thus 
are the Ogham diphthongs. How is that, since ebad is the 
diphthong of the namc when fer is spoken? That 
instance is not contrary to the diphthong. That is a 
short, and there is not upon it save a time and a half only 
at the most. There are two times, however, on the long 
vowel. That the foregoing diphthong was short there- 
fore must be perceived. Besides,'too, the vowel is able to 
adjust itself to long and short ih them as the Latinist said : 
A circumflex is on the long syllables such as do, I give ; 
.$•/, if; and in the same vvay they say an acute accent is 
upon the short syllables, ut est,pax, a kiss. Thus the Gael 
puts forsail on a long, such as srón, nose, slóg, host, etc. ; 
and ernin which compresses a final such as leacc, stone, 
ceand, head, etc. Therefore, although e is short in the 
word fer, it is not according to the Greeks that it is a 
diphthong. What causes the contrary of that, and the 
five Ogham vowels, and the seven Ogham vowels, and 
the ten Ogham vowels, according to another version ? 
Not hard. The five Ogham vowels first : answering to 
the five vowels he gave the seven Ogham vowels, however. 

io6 BB. 326/339 AURAICEPT E. 27 a 15 

immorro. Na deich fedha immorro -i- iphin ar defoghur 
ata : emoncoll ar a n-emnaidi ata intan sin condat a deich 
samlaid. Pin immorro ar p ata 7 amancoll ar x ata conid 1365 
a seacht samlaid. lar nAuraiccept Muman in so. 

Gne aili asberait araili ebad 7 oir is ar fedaib [fod]a 
itat. Uilleann immorro is ar y ata, 7 is ar u intan bis fo 
medontaig. Iphin is ar h-i fo meodontacht, no is iphin is 
coir and ar p. EmuncoII didi'u is ar x ata -i- for foimdin 1.370 
na focul nGrecda no Laitinda do thabairt isinn Gaidelg, 7 
is aire raiter eamancoll ris, ar is coll indarna ta.ehomna fil 
ind X, 7 is airi is coll adberar d' emnad and, 7 ni sail ; ar 
is taisechu coll in x ina sail. 

Conadar didm is[in] bethi-Iuis-nin : Caidi [in fid gabus] 1375 
greim taebomna 7 in fid gabus greim da taebomna 7 in 
fid gabus greim focail (327) 7 in fid na geibh greim 
taebomna nafeda na focail ? Is e in fidh gabus greim taeb- 
omna quidein -i- fid a ndiaid araile 7 fidh bis for primfhid 
a focail no araen re defhoghur a n-sensillaib, ut est, 1380 
beoir feoil Briain 7rl., no fidh teit a consanacht -i- u. Fid 
gabus greim dá taebomna -i- aenfidh fregras in tomus do 
dhib taebomnaibh, ut dicitur : cach da taebomna ar fidh. 
Fid gabus greim focail -i- fidh labhras a senur. Fidh na 
ghabhand greim tasbomna na fedha na focail -i- u x\ihe\sa ut 1385 
dicitur ,' nec uocales nec consonantes habentur {-i- nach gutai 
7 nach consoini iat) no fidh bhis a ndiaid araile ut diximus 
(mar adubramar). 

Conadar dono isin beithi-luis-nin taebomna gabus 

i;i64 g^f n-emnaidi L. : ar a n-eemendi, contat E. 

i-*"' emhanchoU L. ar ax E. ^•"^ inunn E. 

13661409 E. om. !•*" Dcfect in MS. BB. fodaib L. 

i''"3 in X L. ^'^^- greim do B. 

1386 Qj.. Lat. V. 27, 14 1**' consain L. 


Moreover the ten Ogham vowels, that is, iphin^ which stands 
for a diphthong : eiuancoll is doubled then, so that there 
are thus ten of them. Pin, moreover, stands for p, and 
emancoll for x, so that there are seven of them thus. 
This is according to the Auraicept of Munster. 

Some say there is another kind, ebad and oir that K 
stand for simpíe long vowels. Uilleann, moreover, stands 
for y, and for u when it is medial. Iphin stands for i 
medially, or it is the proper symbol there for p. Emancoll, 
again, stands for x, that is, to allow of Greek or Latin 
words being introduced into Gaelic, and on that account it is 
called Einancoll, twin c, for c is one of the two consonants 
that stand in x, and therefore c is said to be doubled 
there, and not s ; for in x, c is earlier than s. 

It is demanded, too, in the Beithe Luis Nin : What is the 
vowel that takes the force of a consonant, and the vowel that 
takes the effect of two consonants, and the vowel that takes 
the effect of a word, and the vowel that does not take the 
effect of a consonant, vowel, or word. It is the vowel that 
takes effect of a consonant, quidevi, to wit, a vowel after 
another, and a vowel that usually stands on the primary 
vowel of its word, or along with a diphthong in one 
syllable, ut est, beoir, hQQv\feoil, flesh ; Briain, of Brian, etc. ; 
or a vowel that becomes consonised, to wit, u. A vowel 
that takes the effect of two consonants, to wit, one vowel 
that answers the measure of two consonants, ut dicitur: 
Every two consonants for a vowel. A vowel that takes 
the effect of a word, that is, a vowel that speaks alone. A 
vowel that does not take the effect of a consonant, vowel, 
or word, viz., u of nullity, ut dicitur: Ncc vocales nec 
consonantes habentur, that is, which are not vovvels and 
which are not consonants, or a vowel which stands after 
another, ut dixivius, as we have said. 

There is asked for, too, in the Beithe Luis Nin a 

I08 BB. 327alo AURAICEPT E. 27ai8 

greim fedha, 7 taebomna gabus grcim tsebomna 7 1390 
feda. Et taebomna gabus greim da fid no da taebomna. 
Et da taíbomna gabus greim fedha. E.t tíiebhomna 
gabus greim coic fidh 7 ^^ tíebomna. Et taebomna 
gabus greim tri fidh 7 ceithri taebomna. Et ta;bomna 
gabus greim focail. /i"/ taebomna na gebhend greim 1395 
taebomna no feda no focail. In taebomna ghabhus greim 
da fid no da taebomna ng. Is i in taebomna gabhus 
greim feda -i- queirt. Is i gabhus greim taebomna 
7 feda -i- c 7 u iniheXsd). Et taebomna gabus greim 
fedha -i- gach da taebomna ar fid i tomus. 1400 

Taebomna gabus greim coic fed 7 se tasbomna -i- duir 
i n-inad dine disoil. Ni machtad intan ghabhus greim 
na coic fidh 7 na se ta;bomna ge gabhaidh greim da fidh 
7 da taebomna. Taebomna gabus greim tri fidh 7 ceithri 
taebomna -i- sail a n-inad forsail. Taebomna gabus greim 1405 
focail -i- taebomna congeb greim forbaidhe. Taebomna 
na geb greim taebomna na feda. na focail -i- taebomna dia 
togaib uath ceand doraith. 

Cest, cislir deich dochuisin? Ni ansa. In traigh lasin 
Laitneoir, in dech lasin filid, nt Donatus dixit : pes est 1410 
sillabaruni et teuiporum certa dinuuieratio •{• ata in traigh 
conid (^rmidetu demin i«na sillab 7 i^^na n-aimser. Ata 
dono airmidetu derb sillab 7 traighed 7 aimser ocon 
Gaidhiul o dhialt co bricht : sillab íoirhthe cdich deach 
dibh di arailiu isin Gaedz7r conid a hocht samlaidh 1415 

i:!fl5 gaband L. '•'*' no da taebomna L. 0*». 

'*'' tri taebomna L. '■'^' congeib forbaidi L. 

'■*"" traidh L. ^""" Gr. Lat. iv. 369, 17 : dicit L. : denuntiacio E. 

'""•* sillab for cach ndeich E. 


consonant that takes the effect of a vowel, and a consonant 
that takes the effect of a consonant and a vowel. And a 
consonant that takes the efifect of two vowels or of two 
consonants. And two consonants that take the effect of a 
vowel. And a consonant that takes the effect of hve 
vowels and six consonants, And a consonant that takes 
the efifect of three vowels and four consonants. And a 
consonant that takes the effect of a word. And a con- 
sonant that does not take the effect o'f a consonant, vowel, 
or word. The consonant that takes the efifect of two 
vowels or two consonants is ng. Thís is the consonant 
that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit, q. It takes the 
effect of a consonant and a vowel, to wit, c, and u of nullity. 
And a consonant that takes the efifect of a vowel, to wit, 
every two consonants for a vowel in a measure, 

A consonant that takes the efifect of five vowels and 
síx consonants, that is d in the place o{ ditiiji disail. No 
wonder, when it takes the efifect of the five vowels and 
the six consonants, thoug^h^ it takes the effect of two /^^/ 
vowels and two consonants. A consonant that takes 
the effect of three vowels and four consonants, to wit, 
s in place of forsail. A consonant that takes the 
effect of a word, that is, a consonant that sustains the N( 
effect of an accent. A consonant that does not take the 
effect of a consonant, vowel or word, that is, a consonant 
along \yith which h constantly appears. ^ 

Query, how many versefeet are there? Not hard. 
The foot with the Latinist : the verse-foot with the poet, 
2it Donatus dixit : Pes est sj'llabaruni et tcinporuni certa 
dinunieratio, the foot is a definite counting of the syllables 
and the times. The Gael also has a sure counting of 
syllables, feet, and times from dialt, one, to bricht, eight 
syllables : each verse-foot of them from one to another 
is a perfect syllable in Gaelic, so that thus there 

IIO BB. 327 a 30 AURAICEPT E. 27022 

i mbricht conid airmidetu dearb sain o oensillaib co 
a ocht. Dialt -i- di fo dhiultadh co nach fil alt 
and. Recomhrac -i- re i comhraiget na di shilkz7; 
immon alt. larcomrac -i- iarum comraigit -i- iar cach 
ndedenach -i- comrac na tri sillab forsna da slUadaz'l) 1420 
tuiseacha. Feleas -i' fi les na lama no fo lais cibeadh dib 
b^ras -i- lesin filid, uair is cudruma. Claenre, uair ar a re 
(•i- claen a rind) is a dho ar indara leith 7 a tri forin leth 
n-aiH. Luibenchossach -i- in choss cona luibnibh -i- na 
coic meoir 7 in traigh in sessed. Claidemnas -i- claidebh 1425 
manus -i- vianus lamh 7 claidebh na laimi in sHndean : 7 is 
e in sechtmad dialt. Bricht -i- bri ocht -i- ocht mbriathra 
and, no bricht iarsinni brigtair ocht sillaba and. Cest, 
cate deochair eter dialt 7 a dheach ? Ni ansa. In trath is 
forfhidh in dialt alt eter defhogur and. Intan immorro is 1430 
taebomna 7 primfidh alt oXer in taebomna 7 in fid and. In- 
tan immorro is aenguthízz^^ amal ata a, o, alt eter da aimsir 
and. ^Enfid i ndialt, a do i recomí^rí: 7rl. -i- primfid no 
forfid. Is airi sin ni talla in trefoghur i n-aendialt. 

Ocht siUaba isan focul is mo isan Gaed//c, utest, fiannam- 1435 
\j___^^^4Á_i^t ailcecheterdarai 7 anrocomrai[rc]nicsiumairne, 1x1. 

^ -■-•^ Tri sillaba deg immorro isin focul is mo isin Laitin 
^S ^- . ut est tinerijicabilitudinetaitibus. 


1-'^* i comraigend L. foecomarc -i- rae •i- comraiced na di sillaib im enalt E, 

^••19 iarcomrag •!• iarcomraicet E. 

^^^ uair isindara rag is a diio air indara leith E. '''"' ar L. om. 

"2' meir E. claidem L. E. "-' in vii. dialt B. 

^■''■^ bridhthair L. "*'' i n-oendialt viii. u. tri L. 

i^^''^ fianamailecharadardae Cor.^ 447 : T. i^"^-^ E. om. 

i4:í8 Qj.^ \.-dX. viii. 164, 17 : Loves Lahours Lost, Act v. Sc. I : Dr Murray of 
The Oxford Dictionary is said tohavegot this transmitted as oneword through 
the Postal Telegraph Office. 


are eíght in bricht, so that that is a definite counting 
from one syllable to eight of them. Dialt^ a syllable, 
that is, di, to deny that any alt^ joint, exists there. 
Recomrac^ dissyllable, that is re, the course in which the two 
syllables meet about the alt. larcomrac, trisyllable, 
i.e., afterwards they meet, i.e., after each last, i.e., 
a meeting of the three syllab]es with the two previous 
syllables. Feieas, tetrasyllable, that is, bad profit of the 
hand ; or he, the poet, is satisfied whichever of them 
he will give, for it is even. Ciaenre, pentasyllable 
(that is, uneven its termination), for with respect to 
its course two of them are on one half and three on the 
other. LuibencJiossach, hexasyllable, that is, the foot with 
its digits, the five toes ; the foot being the sixth. Ciaide- 
mnas, heptasyllable, that is, s,wová-manus, to wit, manus, 
hand, and the sword of the hand is the shoulder-blade: and 
it is the seventh syllable. BricJit, octosyllable, i.e., bri ocht, 
i.e., eight words are there, or bricht because eíght syllables 
are shown there. Query, what is the diíference between 
dialt, syllable, and a dheach, its verse-foot ? Not hard. 
When the syllable is an Ogham diphthong, there is alt 
between (the vowels of the) diphthong in that case. But 
when it is a consonant and a primary vowel, there is alt 
between the consonant and the vowel. VVhen, however, 
it is a single vovvel such as a, o, there is alt between two 
times. One vowel in dialt, two of them in recomarc, etc, 
that is, a primary vowel, or a diphthong. It is on that 
account the triphthong is not contained in one syllable. 

Eight syllables are in the biggest word in Gaelic, ut 
est,fianna7nailcecheterdarai, Fiann-like-every-second-one-í'í"^ "^íÍ^í ^*.^/>. 
of-them, and anrocomraircnicsiumairne, all-the-mistakes- ' 

which-zíy^-have-committed, etc. 

Thirteen syllables, however, are in the biggest word 
in Latin, ut est ab his honorificabilitudinitatibus. 

112 BB. 327/3 1 AURAICEPT E. 27^39 

Iss e int ainm airmi -i- a tri no [a] ceithir. It eat (col. /3) 
na hanmanda uird airmi immorro priimis et sequndus et 1440 
tercius -i- anmand a n-airmi iar prois 7 a n-anmand uird 
airmi immorro iar n-aicned. 

Is i sin an deochair, airim anforbthe amal ata a iii 
no a V, ar nocho nfuillté^r (fogailter) o choitibh. Airim 
forbthe, ut est, a se, a aen fo se, a do fo thri, a tri fo do. 1445 
Airim forbthi in sin, uair airisszV/ o choitibh co coir. 
Airim ollforbthe ut est a do dec -i- a hien a haile dec, 
a do a sessed, a tri a ceathramthu, a cethri a trian, a 
se a ceirtleath samlaidh, amal rogabh a do dec -i- a aen 7 
a do 7 a tri a se sin ; 7 a ceithri iarsin conid a deich sin ; 1450 
7 a se iarsin conid a se dec samhlaid. Conid airimh in sain 
/WV^ ^^^V- is fuilliu anda coit tria taithmet a lethe. Is cach coitidi 
is randaidhi, 7 ni cach randaigi is choitide, 7rl. 

Cest, cia roaig dialt i mmeit 7 i Haiget ? Ni ansa. 
Dialt co ceill -i- coic litri and a n-as mode : aenlitir 1455 
immorro a n-as lughude -i- ic sluin;^ cheilli comlaine 
amal ata o fio i. Dialt á\diu bunad cacha Gaedelge acht 
mod 7 tod 7 troth. Cid fodera r\2ich bunadh doibh-sein ? 
Ni ansa. Ar is dialt cach ai dhibh, 7 ni bunad in ríet 
do fen, no dono is bunadh cach GT&áelge dialt acht mod 7 1460 
tod 7 troth. Acht is momo lem and chena ni dat bunad 
G^áelge acht is bunad ceilli. Caite in cenel dianad 
bunadh? Ni ansa -i- mod cach ferda -i- gach ball ferda 
7 cach comna ferda ; 7 todh cach mbanda -i- cach ball 
banda 7 cach comna banda ; 7 troth cach neoturda -i- 1465 

H4. amal ata is e L. »^^-^« Origg. iii. 5. 9-i i ^«^ cmcth.b, a.rem L. 

14« ^.air iss ed o coilib E. "^^ a h^eli E. '^- a da choit E. 

1«:; randaidh T. "'^ Sg. 20 » ii : i Haidet E. 

"5« an is lugha de L. : lugu dhe -i- ic sluind E. 
14-57 amal ata alt E. '^«^ G^ááelge dialt E. , . , , 

1401 iss ed momo lem anu cheana ciasa bunad Gaidelg is bunad gn- -i- 
, _ i4«J5 cach congaib banda L. 

mod E. 


Thís is a cardinal number, to wit, three or four. These 
are the ordinal numbers, hovvever, primus et secundus et 
tertius, to wit, the names of their number in prose ; and 
their ordinal names, moreover, according to nature. 

That is their diíTerence, an imperfect number, such 
as three or five ; for they are not multiph'ed from factors. 
A perfect number, such as six, contains one of it six 
times, two three times, three twice. A perfect number 
is that, for it properly consists of factors. A quite 
perfect number, ut est^ twelve, to wit, one is its twelfth, 
two its sixth, three its fourth, four its third, six exactly 
its half, thus, as for example in twelve, to wit, one, 
two, and three, these are six ; and foúr after that, these 
make ten ; and six after that are thus sixteen. So that 
that is a number which is greater than its factors through 
telling its halves. Every factor is a part, but not every 
part is a factor, etc. 

Query, how far does dialt, syllable, extend in greatest 
and least? Not hard. A syllable with a meaning, that 
is, five letters are in it, which is its superior limit : one 
letter, however, which is its inferior limit, to wit, denoting 
perfect sense, such as o, ear, or i, island. Therefore 
dialt, syllable, is the origin of all Gaelic save viod, tod, 
and trod. What is the reason why it is not an origirt 
for those? Not hard. Because each of them is a 
dialt, syllable, and a thing is not an origin for itself, 
or again dialt is the origin of all Gaelic save uiod, tod, 
and troth. But I much prefer there certainly that they 
are not an origin of Gaelic but that it is an origin of 
meaning. What is the gender to which it is an origin ? 
Not hard,to wit, mod is everything male, viz. : — every ma/e 
member and every male condition ; and todJi is everything 
female, to wit, every female member and every female 
condition ; and troth is every thing neuter, to vvit, which 


114 BB. 327/3 23 AURAICEPT £.27^54 

nach neachtardíE -i- cach co;/ma nemeguscda : no dano 
nídat dialta etir 7 nidat bunad Gxáe/ge iarum mod 
7 dod 7 traet acht ad bunada ceniuil ííí dicitur acht 
atat arae sin araile G^áelge dianad bunad amal roghabh 
mod -i- mo a ed i n-airde; no mod -i- mo od -i- od ceol 1470 
intan is mascír/ -i- moo in ceol. Is moo quam in ceol is 
lughu amal roghabh ind aidbsi i nDruim Ceata -i- tood 
no to od, tse a ed intan as fem^w : no tod -i- to od -i- 
tod in ceol -i- in ceol bec -i- cronan no certan bec i n- 
aith[fh]egad in moir (-i- in ceol is mo). Traeth -i- treith 1475 
a ed no a odh fri fedhadh mascail 7 femm : no traeth 
iarsinni traithait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda -i- stocairecht 
no cornairecht. Gne n-aile no mod -i- mo a ed i n-airdi 
intan is torand no is craná. Todh -i- ta; a ed intan is fod, 
. . . son aile is taitiu innas in aill. Traeth -i- traethait, 1480 
a thraethas intan is fet ; fo bith is cíeli 7 is cruaidhi inas 
inni eli is traet. Asperaid araili comdis anmand aidmi 
ciuil. Caidi a ndemnigud? Ni ansa. Mo a od intan 
is cruit. Tod -i- tai a od : intan as bindi is tuiu 7 
is isliu ata na a n-aill. Traeth -i- trrethaid in dis eili 14^5 
intan i[s] stocc, fo bith is airdi a [fhjaidh. Is airi is 
traith doib. No dono mod 7 tod 7 traeth -i- anmunda 
ball ferda 7 band[a] 7 neudarda sin amal asbert 
■jn Laitneoir: nomen membri uiri vel nomen membri 
muileiris vel nomen membri neutri ; J it focail Grecda sin 1490 

1-""' neachtarda n-ai, nemeimhidhuseda L, : nemeguseda B. 

iwj diana L. "™ mo a fheadh L. 

»'i moa nas in ceol L. : is mo ar E. "'•' tsen, sedh L. 

"■3 treith seadh L. "" ciuliu E. 

""9 fodronaile is taitiu ior taiuu) L. : fod . . . naile is, taispenu (in 
modern bad hand) B. 

"81 is fet L. om. inas ni aili is traeth aspaidh L. "*^-' indus eli L. 

"«« is airdi a fh^idh L. """ anmand na mball E. ^^'^ membri uili L. 


are neíther one nor other, víz., every impersonal 

condítíon : or agaín they are not dialta, syllables, at all, 

and mod, tod^ and traeth are not therefore an origin of 

Gaelic but they are origins of gender, ut dicitur, but there 

are for all that other Gaelic matters to which they are an 

origin, such as mod^ to vvit, greater its distance upwards ; or 

Diod, that is, mo, greater, is od, i.e., od^ music when it is 

masculine, i.e., greater the music. It is greater than the 

music which is less, as, for example, aidbsi, choral song, in 

Drum Ceat, that ís, tood: or to od, tae a ed, silent its law 

when it is feminine ; or tod, that is, to od, that is, tod (is) the 

music, that is, the small music, that is, humming, or a little 

crooning in comparison with the great, i.e., the music which 

is greater. Traeth, that is, weak its extent or its music in 

comparison with masculine and feminine : or traeth from 

the fact that the loud kinds of music, trumpeting or 

horn-blovving, overpower the lovv kinds. /Another genusX 

or mod, that is, greater its distance up when it is thunder, 

or when it is a tree. Tod, that is, tae, silent its law when it 

is a foetus, and it is , . . another sound vvhich is more silent <^ ^^ 7 °- 

than the other. Traeth, i.e., they overwhelm, which over- 

whelms vvhen it is a whistle ; because it is shriller and 

harder than the other thing it is traet {tre fet). Others 

say that they might be names of instruments of music. 

What is their proof ? Not hard. Greater its music when 

it is a harp. Tod, that is, tai a od, silent its music : when 

it is sweetest, it is more silent and lower than the other. 

Traeth, that is, it overwhelms the other two when it is a 

trumpet, because higher is its mournful cry. On that 

account it is traeth to them. Or again mod and tod 

and traeth, to wit, those are names of masculine, feminine, 

and neuter members, as the Latinist says : Nomen membri 

viri vcl nomen membri mulieris vel nomen membri neutri ; 

and those are Greek vvords although it is in Latin that 

Il6 BB. 327^46 AURAICEPT E. 27a6r 

ciasu Laitine ata deismireacht dib 7 nac[h] dad dialta, ar nis- 
filet o neoch 7 ni fuilter uaitib acht mine derntar mod 
for mod 7 tod for tod 7 traeth for traeth. Secundum 
quosdam cumad etarscarad indsci : Isse, issi, issed, iar 
Macaib Miled :uindius, uindsi, ondor, iar Feraib Bolg : 1495 
mod, tod, traeth, iar Tuathaib De Danand. Iss e so tra 
a cumair (328) -i- is e bunad gach Gaed^-^^ -i- dialt -i- o 
recomrac co bricht ; 7 ni bunad he d' aensillaib amal (rogab) 
mod 7 tod 7 traeth ; 7 iar cach dialt tucad-side sund, 7 is 
aire rotathmetaid-side sech gach dialt, ar dochuaidh 1500 
menma friu comtis recomraig : air fogab<a:r a condaill -i- a 
caindeligud, ut di.ximus. No dno mod 7 tod 7 traeth a 
n-anmand na mball ferda 7 banda 7 neoturda amal asbert 
in Laitneoir : Nomen membri uirilis et nomen inembri mulie- 
bris 7 nomen membri neutri, 7 it focail Grecda sin cidh i 1505 
Laitin ata desmireacht dibh : 7 is airi nach at dialta, ar 
ni fil[et] o neoch 7 ni filter uaidibh acht meni derntar mod 
for mod 7 tod fri tod 7 traeth fri traeth, Domiditer alta 
uad -i- toimsiter aisti inn aircetail fri haltaibh na ndaewi 
amal toims[i]ter fri cach indsce. 1510 

Cindas toimsit^r fri cach insci? -i- corop cach dialt 
frecras-[s]a di araili amal ata tis tuas, air is ed a chubhaidh 
intan is cobfhidh, 7 is cobfhid in focal ind imfrecra 7 is 
comdeach in tarmfortcend. 

"93 fria troth, fria traeth E. 

1494-1508 E. om. 

1495 uindsi insi ondur L. 

"98 recomarcc L. "^» tucait T. i500, n ndialt L. 

1501 recomairc L. ^^^ caindeliugud L. 

1505 gij i iLaitin, is aire nach at, ni filet L. E. 

1508 7 formod B. domiter L. 

1509, 11 tomaistír E. ^'^^^ freagras L. 

1513 coibidh L. : coimfidh 7 as coibidh, inimfrecra E. 

i'" intairemforcend E. 


an example of them occurs, and they are not syllables, for 
they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived 
out of them save that there might be formed mod, upon 
uiod ; tod, upon tod ; and traetJi, upon traetJi. Secundiini 
x/ quosdani, it is ajiistinction of speech : " He, she, it," accord- 
ing to the sons of Milesius : Uindius, uindsi, ondar, 
according to the Fir Bolg : Mod, tod, traetJi, according to 
the Tuatha de Danann. This is, then, the short of it : 
this is the origin of all Gaelic, to vvit, diaJt, syllable, that 
is, from reconirac, two, to bricJit, eight syllables ; and it is 
not the origin of an individual syllable as, for example, 
niod, tod, and traetJi ; and after every diaJt, syllable, they 
have been set down here, and it is on that account they have 
been mentioned beyond every diait, syllable, for attention 
was directed to them that they are dissyllabic : for their 
condaiil is found, to wit, their fair division ut dixinius. Or 
again niod, tod, and traetJi are the names of the masculine, 
feminine, and neuter members as the Latinist has said : 
Nonien nienibri uiriJis et nonien nienibri niuJiebris et nonien 
membri neutri, and those are Greek words though it is in 
Latin that an example of them occurs : and it is on this 
account that they are not diaJta, syllables, for they are not 
derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them 
unless there might be formed mod for mod, tod fri to d a.nd 
traetJi fri traetJi. Aita uad, joints of science, are measured, 
to wit, the metres of the aircJictaJ, trisyllabic poetry, are 
measured with the joints of men as they are measured 
with any part of speech. 

How are they measured with any part of speech ? 
To vvit, that every diait, syllable, may correspond to 
another such as down, up, for that is its rhyme vvhen it is 
the same in vowel, and the word made to correspond is 
the same in vowel, and the ending is the same in verse- 

Il8 BB. 328 a l6 


E. 27/3 6 

Coic filltigthi fichet hi remim amal ros-gabh and- 1515 
so sis : — 


Per a ainmniugud. 
I fitir a aitreib. 
Co fer a ascnam. 
A fir a togairm. 
Sech fer a sechmall. 
O fhir a foxaul. 
Fri fer a freslige. 
Po flur a fothud. 
De fhiur a digbhail. 
La fer a thaebtu. 
Ar fiur a fresgabhail. 
Prisin fer a thormach. 
Is fer a thuarasgbhail. 

Pir a sealbad. 

Ar fear a airicheall. 

In fer a inchosc. 

Hi fer a innothacht. 

Oc fir a furmiud. 

Por fer a fortud. 

In fir a tustidhi. 

Do fiur a dhanad. 

lar flur a thiarmoracht. 

Im fer a imthimcheall. 

Dar fer a thairsce. 

Tre fer a thregdhadh, 

Ri fiur a remiudh. 



Fedar dno a n-'ú\ar -i- fir [a] ainmnigud, na fir a tuar- 1530 
ascbhail, ac feraib a inchosc (sic), na fer a shealbad, dona 
feraib a danadh, si'c in sequentibiis. 

Fear ^\diu ebadh a fhidh in anma asberar fer ; e a 
guta ; dialt a diach -i- son oencongbalach cen alt etir. 
Dichongbail and io no iphin a fidh ina remim no ina 1535 
shealbhadh intan asberar fir -i- ar bit in dis ina reim io 
and amal ata fir iphin and amal ata do fir io amal ata a 
fir ; iphin amal ata o fhir. Is aire nach airimh ebhadh ina 
reim ce beith i n-araileib and amal ata co fer, /rl., air ni fil 
acht reim ceilli namma in gach baile i mmairend in fhidh 1540 
bis isin s\ninnid. Isna filltib as io no iphin bhis intib 


i'i' hi rem L. : hi rreimim amail E. 

i^'8 airchill L. ^"'^ indotacht L. 

1*21 seachis T. ^''-^' frerlige B. i'^-* a adnad L. 

'^■^' a dingbhail B. : a dighbhail T. iarmoracht L. 

1326 taebthu L. ^''"^ sic in sequentihus T. 

15^51 ac feraib B. om. na fir L. 

i-'-'-' gutta L. i'='«-*3 E. om. 



There are twenty-five prepositíonal flections in declen- 
sion, as is exemplified here below : — 

Per its nominative. 
I fiur its locative. 
Co fer its advancive. 
A fir its vocative. 
Sech fer its neglective. 
O fhir its ablative. 
Pri fer its desidative. 
Po fiur its fundative. 
De fhiur its privative. 
La fer its comitative. 
Ar flur its ascensive. 
Prisin fer its augmentative. 
Is fer its descriptive. 

Also their plural may be : 

Fir its nominative. 
Ac feraib its depositive. 
Dona feraib its dative. 

Pir its possessive. 

Ar fear its defensjve. 

In fer its accusative. > 

Hi flr its ingressive. 

Oc fir its depositive. 

Por fer its invocative. 

In fir its parentative. 

Do fiur its dative. 

lar fiur its progenitive. 

Ira fer its circumdative. 

Dar fer its tresp assive.. 

Tre fer its trajective. 

Ri fiur its adve rsativc. prC4/VM/AX^ /? ) 

Najír its descriptive. 
Nafer its possessive. 
sic in seguentibiis. 

Now as to feaf', ebad, ea is the Ogham vowel of the 
iioun which ís pronounced fer ; e its vovvel ; dialt, 
syllable, its verse-foot, to wit, one constituent sound 
without alt, division, at all. Two constituents are in io 
or iphin, its Ogham vowel, in its declension or in its 
possessive, when it is pronounced fir, to wit, because the 
two are there in its declension, io ; e.g. fir, iphiu, is there, 
^.g. do fir,\o; e.g. a fir, iphiri ; e.g. fhir. It is on that 
account that he does not reckon ebhadh, ea, as a declension, 
though it might be present in some cases such as co fer, etc. 
For there is but declension of meaning only in every posi- 
tion where there remains the Ogham vowel which stands 
in the nominative. In the inflections it is io or ipJiin that 
stands in them in every place where the nominative does 
not remain, so that on that account io or ipJiin is declared 

120 BB. 328a38 AURAICEPT E. 27 /3 21 

in gach baile nach mairend conid aire sin a.óberar io no 
iphin a fhidh ina reim no 'na shealbhad Jr\. 

Dinin disail a forbaidh -i- a aicnid lasin Laitneoir ; air 
it e teora fuirbhthe dochuisnet -i- arnin 7 dinin dishail 7 1545 
forsail -i- arnin arding [d]ed, forsail for fot fedair, dinin 
disail for gair gabhaidh : 

Arnin, nt est glonn 7 donn 7 crann 7 glenn : forsail, 
ut est, sron 7 slog 7 mor : dinin disoil, ut est, fer 
7 cor 7 ler 7 tor 7 cach timarta ar chena. Intan 1550 
scribthar int ainm ogai?// is and scribtar na forbaide- 
sea uasu fri realadh fuid 7 g^ir no fri tennad, ar ni 
tuigfidhea cheana : uair amal dobeir in Laitneoir acuit 
forsna úWabaib cuimre, ut est, pax JxX., 7 circumplex forsna 
^\S\abaib fota, ut, res, sic dobeir in Gsedel di;ze dishoil 1555 
arna cuimribh, ut est, fer ; 7 for[sh]aiI forna fodaib amal 
rogab (col. /3) lamh ; 7 amal bis gmib in gach fenebert 
ilfoclaig la acuit no la circumplex, sech is arnin arsen re 
á'mo. disail no araen ri forsail i n-aenfocul ;// ceann 7 sron. 
Airnin iarum ernid nin : no airnin -i- fair nin, air is nin 1560 
scribthar ag fuacra na forbaidi sin -i- nin ain;/; coitcheand 
do gach litir eter feadaib 7 taebomnaib. Forsail dano 
sail fair air i[s] sail scribt[h]ar ig incosc na forbaide 
sin ar is for fut bis forsail, 7 i[s] si;;iud na haimsire do 
forin sail : no forsail -i- foruillid in focul r(?«ad foda : no for- 1565 
sail -i- furail seach in cumair. Dini[n] disail -i- di fo diultad 
and co nach nin 7 co nach sail acht is duir scribthar ac 
inchosc na forbaidi sin -i- ar is digbail na haimsire toirnes 
duir amal as tormach tormaiges sail : no dine disail de 
sin áoímWiud •{■ nemfuill;';/<'/. Asberait araile is aire 1570 
scrib///rt;^ duir ar dine disoil, air is duir fil ar d[t]us an dine 

i''-"' ardinged L. : ardiwg dead diarmachd E. i'*^^ dishail L. '"" lear L. 

1550-76 E. om. i»2 teandad L. i5",5 Qr. Lat. iii. 521, 6, 8 

io.-)5 amal nt, dinin L. ^*'^ sech bis L. '■'•'" dinin L. 

i.-)i).i ^ij. js uin, ag inchosc (^snp. /in.') L. : iwcosc B. 

'•""» forfuiUiud in focail conid L. '•'""^ dinin L. '•'''^ didbail B. 

'5"" atberait L. '-'^' ar duir fil ar tus L. 


its Ogham vowel in íts declension or in its possessive, 

Dinin disail^ its accent, to wit, acceniiis with the Latinist ; 
íor these are the three accents which exist, to wit, arnin, dinin 
disail, SLTíáforsail, to wit, arjiin compresses a final : forsailon 
a long is borne : ditiin disail on a short takes (efifect). 

E.g. arnin, ut est, glonn, deed, donn, dun, crann, tree, 
glenn, glen : forsail, ut est^ sron, nose, slog, host, nidr, 
great : dinin disail, ut est, fer, cor, ler, tor, and all short 
words whatsoever. When the Ogham inscription is written 
there are written these accents above them to make clear 
long and short or to express tension, for they would not be 
understood otherwise : because as the Latinist puts an 
acute on the short syllables, ut est, pax, etc, and a 
circumflex on the long syllables, ut est, rés, so the Gael 
puts dinin disail on the short, ut est, fer ; and forsail on 
the long, e.g. Idmli, hand ; and as there is a grave in every 
single dictum of many words with an acute or a circumflex, 
that is to say arnin is along with diniii disail or along with 
forsail in one word, ut, ceann, head, and srón nose. Airnin, 
/ therefore, it purchases n : or air nin, that is, upon it is n, for 
it is n that is written to mark that accent. Nin is a name 
common to all letters either vowels or consonants. Forsail, 
too, means sail upon it, for it is s that is written to denote 
that accent, for it is upon a long that/í?rj-<í//rests, and there 
is a lengthening of the time by it upon the s: ox forsail, that 
is, it magnifies the word till it becomes long: ox forsail, 
that is, furail, qv^rflmv, beyond the short. Dinin disail, 
that is, di, for negation therein, inasmuch as it is neither 
n nor s that is written but d to denote that accent, i.e., 
because it is a diminution of the time that d denotes, as it 
is an addition that s adds : or dinin disail, de sin from that^ '^ 
i.e., unadding, that is, non-addition. Others say the reason 
why d is written for dinin disail is that d stands at the 

122 BB. 328^14 AURAICEPT E. 27/528 

disoil, 7 is aire scúhthar nin air nin ar is nin fíl fo deoidh 
and, 7 is aire scrib///<i:r sail ar forsail ar is sail fil a medon 
inte ; no ut alii diaint ail -i- aimsí^;' furail seach in cumair. 
Dine -i- dinin -i- ni nin -i- ni fid acht is forbaid. Di[sh]ail 1575 
•i- ni aimsir fota no di[sh]ail -i- nemhf huil/^í/ no nemfurail. 

Alt co fesear cia halt huad dona secht n-altaib -i- 
anamain, nath, anair, eamain, laid, setrud, soinemain, 
dia;/ cona nduanrt//^". O sein inund is o dheachaib sluin- 
tir alta na;? huad ar na rob indsci cumascda. Nath i- 1580 
noaid anair. Anamain -i- an somain. Laed -i- laitir no 
iuaitir : no leoaid intan is air : no is onni as laiis -i- 
moladh. Sedradh -i- sed raid ; no raith air set. Saine- 
main -i- sain a maine risin aisti reamaind. Dian i- di air : 
no dian -i- adbol an no ni ain. O sin anund -i- ota na 1585 
seacht primaisti amach is o deacaib is ni de na deachaibh 
foricfa 7 is uaidibh ainmniugud doib a forba gacha 
rainde a nduain, 7 recomrac a forduain, 7 iarcomarc 
bairdne, ar na rop indsce cumaisci ar na ro[b] prois amal 
aisti na ndaerbard. 1^90 

Lorga fuach -i- lorg ua iocul ■\- amal bite lorga i 
llamaib duine for portaibh sesga og immtheacht o 
purt do phurt ar na torchrad inna lighi, imtha is amlaidh 
it he in so na lorga biti a ciallabair no i ngenaib na filed 
ic fosugud o focul co focul. Lorca fuach iarum -i- rem- 1595 

^"'^ aimser L. '•'*"' Di[sh]ail . . . nemfurail L. dw. 

13"« ín B. '•''■' is fo decaid E, 

i"''w na- huad L. B. : nanhuad 7 na rob E. 

1580-90 E. om. i-^'*! nóidh an aor T. 

1582 lecaidh (?), aeir L. ^''^"' Sedraidh, sed L. 

1585 .j. abran no ni aon no adbal an T. : adbal in domain L. 

1588 recomarcc L. !•*'' 7 na ro prois L. 

1-^92 daiwe E. ^•■^''•* laigi E. is L. om. 

'•''^ no a n-ingenaib L. ciallabair E. T. om. 

1595-1(108 E, 0/«. 


beginning of dmhi disail, and the reason vvhy n is written 
for nin is that n stands at the end in it, and the reason 
why s is written íor forsail \s that s stands in the middle 
of it ; vel ut alii dicunt, ail, that is, time excess past the 
short. Dine, that is, dinin, that is, not a letter, that is, 
it is not an Ogham vowel but it is an accent. 
Di\sh']ail, that is, not a long time or di{sk'\ail, that is, 
non-addition or non-overflowing. 

Aií co fesear that thou mayest know what alt huad, limb 
of science, it is of. the seven alta, to wit, anamain, nath, 
mmain, láid, setrud, soinemain, diatt with their duans. 
From that onward, it is from verse-feet that alta na huad, 
the limbs of science, are named, that it might not be 
mixed speech. Nath, i.e., it praises from the front. 
Anamain, i.e., án somain, glorious profit. Láed, i.e., it is sent 
or hastened : or leóaid, it wounds when it is satire : or 
from the word laus, praise. Sedradh, i.e., path of saying ; or 
surety on a valuable. Sainemain, i.e., special its treasures 
with respect to the foregoing measure. Dian, two satires : 
or dian, huge and splendid ; or ni áin, something of 
splendour. From that onward, i.e., from the seven principal 
metres forth it is from verse-feet, it is something of the 
verse-feet that thou wilt find and it is from them they have 
their name at the close of every part of their duan, and 
recomarc of their forduan, and iarcomarc of bard poetrj', 
that it may not be mixed diction, that it may not be prose 
like the measure of the Daerbards. 

Lorgafuach, staves of words, i.e., a staff out of a word, 
i.e., as there are staves in the hands of a man on barren 
places as he goes from place to place that he might not fall 
prostrate, even so are these here the staves that are in the 
reasonable speech (?) or in the mouths of the poets halting 
from word to word. Lorgafuach, staves of words, therefore, 
that is the interposition of two syllables between the two 

124 66.328,336 AURAICEPT £.271335 

suigeadad da sillaiibh eter in da comuaim, ut Cormac 

bard cecinit : 

Im ba seasach, im ba seang ^rl. 

•i- in ba in lorga fuach. 

A dialt n-etarleme -i- aensillab eter in da comuaim, 1600 

tit est : — 

Cia leth gu br<2t[h] iar cuairt cros 

Cosluidfea mo coblach creas ? 

In ba sair ba siar ri suail, 

In ba tuaid no in bodes ? 1605 

Cia eter lond 7 leath in dialt n-etarleme ; 7 ata lorga 
fuach 7 dialt n-etarleme isin rand ar medon -i- in 
ba 7 is ba. 

Fertot a thelgud noe -i- a telgud duine, ar is nae_ \ 
duine, ut est dia nda;//a nae for tir -i- duleice in duine 1610 
cessad fair, teit iarum dia fothrugud din uisciu, dolece 
don bruch sis isin usce, tot ol in tond fse -i- fa tot dno 
a ainm in foghair sin doghni in tond : tott ; tott dano a 
ainm forcmachta (no forcumascda) di su«, ut est, bu bo 
go ged : no in guth trom dogni \n dae oca lecon forsin 1615 
usce. O fodhar na genemna rohainmnigthea go go i 
fogur, no bu bo -i- tot : no dano arfoem in duine a etach 
immi o nac[h] aiHu. Is ed asb^r-sum i suidi fertom (-i- 
íeráo dam -i-) feartot ar du chele frit, briathar chesta sin 
•i- feartot ar a chele (329) fris, briathar gmina so. 1620 

Aurlond dno ainm d' oreill gae •i^ ind adarc dub bis 
mon gai, is di arsisidar in gai, imtha is amlaid arsisidar in 
indsce don trediu-sa -i- ise isi ised : no dona deich n- 
urlandaib-sea -i- se da tri cethre -i^ urlanda ferinsci sin -i- 

^■^^ remsuidiuchad, da sillaebaib L. : remsuigecad B. 
^•^- ar cuairt L. i^o-J-s Translated, Ancíeiii Ii: Poftij, p. 94 

1603 gug^ \^^ 1 icio dulceiche in duine gesat E. 

1611 i n- uisciu doleiced on bruch sis isin usce dobert o lin tond, fothrath 
dano a ainm E. !••" forcumachta L. : formachta di suind E. 

1616 {hogar L. i^i'' arfoen B. : arfaen L. : arfoem E. 

i'^i^ i suidiu L. E. ferthoi« fertoth ar du ceihu E. 1^'^ l.ferte dam, give me 
1*^ E. oin. 1''" mon gse ar is, imtha samlaid L. 



alliterations, as Cormac the bard cecinit : Im ba seasach ivi 
ba seang, etc, i.e., iin ba is the lorgafuach. 

A dialt n-eierlenie, its interloping s^llable, is one 
syllable between the two alHterations ut est : — 


To what side for ever after a course of crosses 
Shall I beat my narrow fleet ? 

Shall it be east or shall it be west for a short while, 
Shall it be north, or shall it be south ? 

Cia between lo7id and letJL is the dialt n-etarlenie, the 
interloping syllable ; and lorga fuach, staves of words, and 
dialt n-etarleme occur in the middle of the stanza, viz., in 
ba, and ba. 

Fer tot, its telgud noe, its flinging of a man, for 
nae is man, tit est, if a man suíTer on land, i.e. 
the man allows suffering on him, he goes afterwards to 
bathe himself in the water, he lets himself down the 
bank into the water, tot saith the wave under him, i.e., tot 
vvas the name of that sound which the wave makes : tott ; 
tott, then, is its onomatopoetic name, or mixed name 
from sound, /// est, the bu of cows, the go of geese : or the 
heavy voice the man utters dropping himself on the water. 
From the sounds of birth have been named go go in 
sound, or bu bó, i.e., tot: or again, the man takes his 
garment about him from some one else. What he 
then says is fertoni (i.e. give ye to me, i.e.) it serves 
me, feartot it serves thee, quoth thy companion to thee, 
that is a passive verb, feartot quoth his companion to 
him, this is an active verb. 

Now urland, haft, is the name for a spear-bed, to 
wit, the bluck horn that is round the spear, it is that on 
which the spear rests, even as gender rests on these three, 
he, she, it : or on these ten urlaind, to wit, sé he, dá two, tri 
three, cethir four men. That is, these are urlanda, prefixes, 

126 BB. 329«$ AURAICEPT £.27^345 

ise -i- in fear, da -i- da fear, tri -i- tri fir, ceithri -i- cetliri fir : 1625 
no urlonn indsci slondud reimmi -i- ferinsci 7 baninsci 7 
deiminsci. Inunda immorro urlann ferinsce 7 baninsce o 
sin amach. Is aire nach indister seach a ceathair. 

Si di teora cetheora urlanna baninsce andsin. Is i -i- 
in bean, di -i- di mnai, teora -i- teora mna, ceitheora i- 1630 
ceitheora mna. It e 7 at iat immorro urlanna coitcheanda 
eter banindsci 7 ferindsci. Is ed immorro urlann demind- 
sci ut dicitur is ed a cheann. Fri hurlainn ferindsci dow 
asntaigis demindsci a n-urlandaib ilair -i- da nem ut dicitur 
da fear 7rl. No urland indsce -i- ferindsce 7 banindsce 7 1635 
demindsce. Conige seo corp ind Auraicepta. 

Coic fiWtigt/ii fichet i reim -i- a coic gu hogfegad na 
filed i ffilliud re ua;//ma na hai 7 fiche gne saerda 
olchena. Et in fiche gne síerda catead a n-araide foraib? 
Im berat cach ae dibh dochum a ndilis fen ? Berait ecin, 1640 
uair [it] dealba filltechí?. Is ed a lin a tri i n-uathad 7 a 
tri i n-ilar conad a se amlaid. In fichi gne saerda prosta is 
deimin is e so a n-araide, a do dec dibh i forgnuis ainmneda 
7 ainsida, a oen dibh i forgnuis genid/i J togartada, a secht 
i forgnuis tobíz/'tada 7 foxlan : no aon dec dibh a'ndelb ain- 1645 
mnedha 7 ainsida 7 a tri a ndelbh genid/i J togartada J 
a tri a ndelb tobartacha J foxlacha -i- tri fi][l]ti a n-uathad 
•i- fer, flr, ic flr ; a tri a n-il^r na fer, na flr, na flru.. In 

^^^ slondud L. E. reime L. : reimhe E. 
i«2v Inund ainm L. 1627-36 £. om. 

i6;j7 j ri-emim E. 

1638 yg uama L. 

1639 Q iichenela B. : olchena L. 
i«2 iilar, samlaid L. 

16« a viii. E. 

'643 foxlan E. 

i8«-8 E. om. 

16J6 genidi-, togorwí L. 

16*^ foxlaii, a ndeilb L. 


of masculine gender, to vvit, zs é, it is he, the man, dd 
two men, trt three men, cetJwi four men : or urlond indsci 
is a sign of declension, masc, fem., and neuter, Masc. 
and fem, urland are, hovvever, the same from that onvvard. 
Therefore they are not mentioned beyond four. 

Si she, di tvvo, teo7'a three, cetheora four vvomen, are 
feminine urlanna, leading vvords, there. Is i, it is she, 
the vvoman, di tvvo vvomen, teora three vvomen, ceitheora 
four vvomen. It é and it iat, they are, however, are 
common urlanna both fem. and masc. Is ed, it is, hovv- 
ever, is neuter urlann, ut dicitur, it is his head. With 
masculine urland, again, neuter coincides in plural urlanda^ 
to vvit, two heavens, /// dicitur, two men, etc. Or urlann 
indsci, that is, masc, fem., and neuter gender. Thus far 
the body of the Primer. 

Tvventy-five prepositional flexions in declension, that 
is, five for full consideration of the poets in flexion while 
composing the ai, poem ; and tvventy artificial species 
besides. And the twenty artificial kinds, what is 
characteristic of them ? Do they each of them conform 
to their ovvn proper form ? They do necessarily, for 
they are inflected forms. This is their number, three 
of them in the singular, three of them in the plural, so 
that thus there are six of them. As to the twenty artificial 
prose sorts, it is certain that this is their characteristic that 
there are tvvelve of them in the form of nominative and 
accusative, one of them in the form of genitive and 
vocative, seven of them in the form of dative and ablative : 
or eleven of them in the form of nominative and accusa- 
tive, and three of them in the form of genitive and 
vocative, and three of them in the form of dative and 
ablative, i.e., three flexions in the singular fer, flr, ic flur j 
three of them in the plural na fer, na flr, na flru. 
As to the tvvelve flexions of them that pass into the 

128 BB. 3^9^27 AURAICEPT E.27^54 

da fiUiud deg dibh tiaghait i forgnuis ainmneda 7 ainseda 

it e andseo a n-anmand -i- 1^^^ 

Ar [fh]er [a] airceall; co fer [a] ascnamh ; i fer a 
inotacht ; seacli fher a sechmall ; for fer a fortudh ; fri fer 
a freislige ; la fer a thaebtu ; im fer a imthimcheall ; dar 
fer a thairrsci ; frisin fer a thormac/i ; tre fer a tregdad ; 
is fer a thuarascbail, ?// dixit poeta : 1 655 

Is iat sain da íiUtech deg, 
Anndar leam nocho lanbhrec, 
Tiaghait i forgnuis feda 
Ainmneda ocus ainseda, 

Na secht filltigh immorro tiaghait i forgnuis tobartadha 7 1660 
foxlada, i fiur a aitreibh ; oc fiur a furmidh ; fo fiur a 
fothudh ; do fiur a dígbail ; iar fiur a thiarmoracht ; ar 
fiur a fresgabhail ; ria fiur a remid, ut dixit poeta : 

Is iad so na seacht fillti, 

Nit ernaili admillti, 1665 

Tiagait i ngnuisibh glana 

Tobarta ocus foxlada. 

Oenfilltech immorro teit i forgnuis togarthada 7 gen////, 

ut dixitpoeta : 

In fhir a thustidhi thiar thair 1670 

Do sealbhadh do thogartaidh 
Ocus doibh ar ^n ni ric 
Acht mad int asn don fichit. 

Is iad sin in fiche gne saerda cona n-aradnaibh 7rl. 

i'K- indotacht L, ""•'■ in fer B. L. a timchell E. i'''" sin L. E. decc E. 
i'i-"'" Andar L. ^'"** seda E. ^"''^ 7 aiwsera B. : ismera E. 

:tíco fiUtigthi E. ^"^^ foxlan E. fuirmiud L. i"*'-' remidh L. : remud T. 
1*^ sin L. ^*^'^ Ni hernaili L. ^*^ i forgnuis L, ^'^' is E. 

i«»8 teid L. om. togartacha L. ^*'™ a tuisdui E. 

16-1 doselba E. thogartaig L, ^'^'^ 7 doib archena ni r[i]c E. 

1*'^ co n-aradnaib E, 


form of nomínative and accusative, these are their 
names here : 

ar fer its defensive. co fer its advancive. 

1 fer its ingressive. seach fer its neglective. 

for fer its invocative. fri fer its desidative. 

la fer its comitative, im fer its circumdative. 

dar fer its trespassive. frisin fer its augmentative. 

tri fer its perforative. is fer its descriptive. 

iit dixit poeta : — 

Twelve flexions are these 

Which methinks are not quite deceiving, 

They pass into the letter form 

Of nominative and accusative. 

The seven flexions, however, that pass into the form 
of dative and ablative are : — 

i fiur its locative. oc flur its depositive. 

fo flur its fundalive. do flur its privative. 

iar fiur its progenitive. ar fiur its ascensive. 
ria fiur its precessive. 

ut dixit poeta : — 

These are the seven flexions 
Which are not kinds to be destroyed, 
They pass into pure forms 
Of dative and ablative. 

One flexion, however, goes into the form of vocative 
and genitive, ut dixit poeta : — 

Infhir its parentative to all time 
For possessive, for vocative, 
And to them alone there comes not 
Save it be the one form from the score. 

These are the score of artificial forms with their 
characteristics, etc. 

130 BB. 329a44 AURAICEPT E. 28a5 

Fer á'idiu, ebadh a fid, io no iphin ína reimim no 'na 1675 
shealbad /rl. -i- is idad inna selbad 7 ina thoghairm. Is 
iphin immorro ina thobartaid 7 ii'^a foxlaid. Euad 
immorro ina n-ainmnidh 7 'na ainsid. 

Cate diles fedha i fedhaibh, 7 dilis feda i fidh, 7 dilis 
fidh i fedhaibh? Diles fedha i fedhaibh cetamus -i- a 1680 
riasna ceithri g\xth.aigib, ar is i cetlabrad cach bi 7 iachtad 
gach mairb. Dilis fed i fidh dno -i- is dih's in forfidh ogaivi 
secepe fid i scribthar. DiHs fidh i fedhaibh -i- (col. /3) 
amal ata in forfídh as defogur -i- is ed as diles and in 
foghur tuisech, ar ni airimhtear in fogur dedhenachT 1685 

Alt co fesear -i- co festar in n-aisti dona seacht prim- 
ellgibh na ^Mdeachta do ghne do thomhus. O sein inunn is 
du deachaibh sluinter alta uad ar na badh insce chumascda 
•i- o sin inunn isna degfhuachaib -i- is do dadfocW^ sluinter 
aisti airchetail ar na rabi in indsci cumascda amal dogniat 1690 
na ác^rhaird. 

Lorga fuach -i- lairce lorchaine -i- remshuidigthi de- 
s'iW^baig biith riasna foclaib ica sa;rad ar da n-ernail -i- 
rogair 7 claenre (no claen celle). 

Ferthot a thelgud noe. Et bu bo 7 go ged -i- anmand 1695 
sin tria eladain rancádar na filid do reir a fogair -i- fertot 
• i- fer rothoit and ; J ho a uerbo boo no buo -i- fogmigim i- 
on geimim nobeth 7 ged go mbadh on geig gotha áoher 

1675 (jjj^ euad E. ina reim L. 

1676 togarmaig L. 

1678 ainmnig, ainsed L. 
1680.1 LL. 188*17 
1682 oge- sechephe E. 

1685 airm airmit/íí;' E. 

1686 .j. (-0 feiser L. 

1688 ar na bad E. 

1689 jg (j^^ js (ja dagfhoclaib E. 

1692 lorghaine, do ^iAabaib biit E. •i- lairci no lorcaime T. i"*' el-ad E. 

109V ]3o .i. cumudh on buo T. rathoith, fogrugaim E. Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 5 ; 

V. 239, 6 16"** ged ge mbad on geim nobeth, nob^r as E. : nobeiredh T. 


Now as to fer, man, ebadh, ea, is its Ogham vowel ; 
io or iphin in its declension, or in its possessive, etc, 
to wit, idad, i, is in its possessive and vocative. It is 
iphin, io, however, in its dative and ablative. Ebad, ea, 
however, in its nominative and accusative. 

What is proper of fedha in fedaibh, of fedha i fidh, 
and oífdh i fedaib ? Proper of fedha i fedhaibh, a vowel 
among vowels, first, to wit, a before the four vowels ; 
for it is the first expression of all living and the last 
sigh of all deceased. Dilis fed i fidh, proper of vowels 
in a vowel, that is, proper is the Ogham diphthong 
whatever be the fid, vowel, in which it is written. 
Dilis fidh in fedhaibh, proper is a vowel among 
vowels, to wit, such is the Ogham diphthong which has 
two vowels, to wit, what is proper there is the first vowel. 
for the last is not reckoned. 

Alt co fesear, i.e., that it may be known whether it is a 
metre of the seven primary combinations of poetry as 
regards measure, From that onward it is by verse-feet 
that alta, limbs of science, are expressed that it might 
not be mixed speech, that is, from that onward in the 
good words, that is, by good words the metres of airchetal 
are expressed that it could not be the mixed speech 
such as the Daerbaird use. 

Lorga fuach, staves of words, that is, Idirce lórchaine, full 
comely legs, to wit,disyllabic interpositions that stand before 
the (alliterating) words, saving them from two kinds, to wit, 
rogair, overshortness, and claenre or perversion of sense. 

Fertot a telgud noe, its man-throwing. And bu bó and go 
géd, names these which through science the poets have 
invented according to their sound. Fertot, that is, a man 
has fallen there ; and bó^ cow, from the word boo or buo 
\fioá(ii\, I sound, that is, it would be from the géint, roar ; 
and géd, goose, would be from the goose - voice which 

132 BB. 329/3 14 AURAICEPT E. 28a24 

ass nobeth, amal asbert ín Laitneoir : No\i)ié\n de sono 
factiun est -í- forcaemnacair int aínm don fogur ut est 1700 
connall stip is ed a fogur ica loscudh. Is de sin ranic 
stipitla do anmaim do icon Laitneoir. 

Amiond no insce dno d' oreiU in gai is ainm. Caidi 
int erlonn saerda fogabar conad aicniud ? Ni ansa. Erlonn 
in gae. Cate int aurlonn indsci do nach asand insci acht 1705 
insce bais -i- graini in gae. Cate int aurlonn is iarlonn 7 
int iarlonn is urlonn 7 int urlonn is remlonn -i- urlonn -i- in 
gai -i- urlonn fadesin iarlonn dotess, ar is iar cach ndedenach ; 
conid he sin int urlonn is iarlonn 7 is urlonn int urlonn 
is remlonn -i- intan rosaig lar ind airiall. Cate urlonn 1710 
urlainn urlainni i n-urlonn -i- urlonn ferurlonn banurlonn 
nemurlonn : urlainni hen in fir : urlunna a ndis i n-urlaind 
•i- i nem no i n-\íei'n. 

Aurlunna ilair masc«/ 7 femen in so sis : se, da, 
thri, cet[h]ri : si, di, teora, cetheora. Inunna insci airme 1715. 
o sin imach. Is andsain fogabar comrorco ilair neodair 
•i- cena urlanna ilair oca acht i n-uathad tantuni. Cate 
insce saerda fogabar co n-aicned? Ni ansa. Is ed in 
ceand air is saerda a radh 7 se for in duine. Is aicenta 
immorro a radh fris iarna buaiw de. 1720- 

Cia haenfocul recomhracach isna remendaib gebes 
ingrecus -i^ greim na ceithre n-ernaili du remendaib •i^ in 
focul as treghdad ar geibit arin íocul is tregdad 7 as aitreib 

16ÍI9 5g 20*^1 : Gr. Lat. v. 308, 10 ^™ conall scip scip E. 

í™- Origg. xvii, 3, 18 

1703 ^' oireiU E. : do ureill T. 0'Molloy Gr. xvii. p. 170: no E. om, 
1™-« fogaba E. i'0« graindi L. E. 

1-08 dotéis L. E. 1"" -i. ferurlonn L. "'^ fer E. 

^"'^^ in nem no int iffern E. : i nem no intif-, with punct. del. under t, B. : 
i nem no ind if- L. "'** comrorcai T. ilair ondair E. andsin L, 

1"™ iarnasbuai;/ E. "^^ duna E. 


it utters, as the Latiníst has said : Nomen de sono 
factuni est, i.e., the name has happened to the sound, 
ut est, connall, stubble, stip, that is its sound as it burns. 
Thence stipula has come to be the name for it with the 

Then as to aurlond, haft, or insce, speech, it is a name 
for the spear-bed. What is the artificial erlonn, haft, 
which is found to be nature? Not hard. The spear- 
haft. What is the aurlonn indsci, haft of speech, from 
which groweth no speech, but speech of death ? The 
spear-point. VVhat ís the aurlonn, haft, which is iar lonn, 
after blade, the after-blade which is haft, and the haft 
which is remlonn, before blade, to wit, urlonn, haft, that 
is, the spear, to wit, haft itself that will come after 
blade, for iar is everything final ; so that that is the 
urlonn, haft, which is after blade, and the urlonn, haft, 
is the haft which is remlonn, before blade, to wit, when 
the airiall reaches ground. What are urlonn, urlainn, 
nriaitmi in urlond? Urlonn, that is, urlonn, haft, leading 
word, mas., fem., and neut. : urlainni, the wife of the 
man : urlunna, the two in urlond, i.e., in heaven or in 

The urlunna, indices of gender, mas. and fem. plural 
are as follows : (mas.) sé : dá, tri, cethri : (fem.) sí : dí, 
teora, cetheora. From that onward the genders of number 
are the same. It is there is found an error of the plural 
neuter, to wit, its not having urlanna plural but in the 
singular tantujn. What is artificial speech which is found 
with nature ? Not hard. " It " is the head, for it is artificial 
to say " it " while it is on the man. It is natural, however, 
to apply " it " to it after striking cenn off him. 

What single disyllabic word in the declcnsions will take 
the place, to wit, the eíTect of the four partsof declensions? 
The word perforative, for it includes the words perforative, 

134 BB. 329/3 37 AURAICEPT E. 28a45 

7 ís innuttacht 7 as ascnam ; ar ni bia in tregdad cen (i;/<^) 
aitreib, ni bia inn atreib cen in 'mnotac/ií, ni bia int inutacht 1725 
cen inn ascnam, conid tregdad o thuind co tuind teachtas. 
Cia bricht i mbit ocht feda ocon filid co ngeb int aenguta 
greim a leithi ?íí est sli«í-//ta 7 is ogleith in sin ni certleath 
•i- a haenar a n-agaid na secht litz'r. Cia baili inn 
Auraiccepta ata in sealbadh saerda cen reim acht reim 1730 
remraiti, ut est, JT alme "f" alme -i- in selbhad ata do 
-f- forin TT 7 for 7". 

Cia baili i fogabar comtoth consan cen tinfed treothu ? 
Ni ansa. In baili i mbi n ria g cen gutaigi eturu, ut est 
uinge. Cia baili i fagabar in fidh forthormaigh iar forbu 1735 
na n-ocht sillab isin focul is bricht? Ni ansa. In baili 
i mbia defogur isin ochtmad dialt is fidh forthormaigh 
indara fogur. 

Ocht ^xWaba dno isin focul is mo isin Gaed//»", ut est, 
fiannamaile-(33o)-chardaai : tre sillaba dec immorro in 1740 
focul is mó isin Laitin, ut est, tenerificabilitudinitatibus. 

Cia taebomna gebes greim feda 7 focail 7 taebomna? 
Ni ansa. Oueirt. Cia taebomna na geib greim feda no 
focail 7 taebomna ? Ni ansa. Uath. 

Cate bunad ruidles[t]a in íocail is aipgitir? Ni ansa. 1745 
Abecedibon -i- copulatio literaruvi per se -i- ata isin 
aipgitir comhthinol na litir cona fialus. 

Ocus littir fodesein, cia bunad o fil? Ni ansa. Onni 

i'2-j cen in intitacht B. ni bia in indotocht L. "-"•• E. om. 

1""^ in sin in B. L. 7 is oglet L. /;■. Texíe, iii. 66, 23 

í"-"» adaid B. !"•'« indara focal L. i"« xii sili- L. 

^"^' Gr. Lat. viii. 164, 17 

^"■'•' ruidlesta L. : ruidlesto E. 

^'■^ cf. Quinct. ix. 4, 59. Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 15. ata in L. : ita in E. 

"■'" littrích E. 

^"■'s bodesin L. o fuil E. 


locatíve, ingressive, and advancive ; for the perforative 
will not exist without the locative, and the locative wiU 
not exist without the ingressive, the ingressive will not 
exist without the advancive, so that it is perforative 
which holds from end to end, What bricht is it in which 
stand eight Ogham letters according to the poet wherein 
the one letter will contain the force of half of it? ut 
est, sliachta, and that is a virtual half, not an exact half, 
to wit, it alone is against the seven letters. In what 
place of the Primer stands the artificial possessive without 
rhyme save rhyme of vowels only, ut est, la ba ? That 
ís, the possession which a has over the 1 and over b. 

In what place is found a couple of consonants without 
a breath through them ? Not hard. Where n stands 
before g, with no vowel between them, ut est, uinge, 
ounce. In what place is found the augmenting Ogham 
vowel after the completion of the eight syllables in the 

word bricht ? Not hard. Where a diphthong wiU stand 

in the eighth syllable, one of the vowel is an augmenting 


There are eight syllables in the biggest word in 

Gaelíc, ut est, jiannainailechardaai. Thirteen syllables, 

however, form the biggest word in Latin, ut est, 


What consonant will take the force of a vowel, word 

and consonant ? Not hard. Q. What consonant wiU 

not take the force of vowel, word or consonant? Not 

hard. H. 

What is the peculiar origin of the word aipgitir, 

alphabet ? Not hard. A be ce, dibon, i.e., copulatio 

literártini per se, to wit, there exists in the alphabet a 

collection of letters with their relationship. 

And as to letter itself, what is the origin from which 

it is? Not hard. From legitera, to wit, a name for 

136 BB. 330a8 AURAICEPT F. 28 a 62 

as Ugitera ■l ainm tighi araili anmand aitrebas i traigh 
mara dianadh ainm Molosus 7 gíbeadh neach atchi tegh- 1750 
dhais in anma sin foillsigter do fis cen eledain. Am<7/i[s] seí 
iarum faillsighthi eolais 7 fessa do neoch aiscin in tighi 
sin, is amlaidh sin as sét faillsighthi eolais do fis J faiscin 
littri, conid airesain tugadh int ainm is littera o ainm 
tighi in anma remraiti for littzr in gach baili ita. No 1755 
littera a litura -i- on foillgiud -i- on chomailt doberdis na 
harsata forsna claro ciartha, ar intib nacetscribtha leo : 
no litera -i- inteach legind -i- set legind. 

Do bhunadhaibh na remend andseo sis. 
Injliasca di fedaibh 7 deachaibh 7 remendaibh 7 1760 
furbhthi 7 altaibh 7 inscibh 7 etargairib amal rosuidigthi 
la filedu ina scuili cetna robhadar 7 la Fenius Farsaidh iar 
tebiu na Gaedelge asna di berlaibh sechtmogat. Co taiselbad 
do Goediul mac Angein ar is e sen dorothlaigh tepe na 
(j2.Qd.elge -i- int aenberla ba aiIhV^ 7 ba camiu cach berla 1765 
conid aire fognith 7 conid iarum dotaiselbad conidh aire 
dogairther Gxdeic 7 Gaidhil. Nel (no Nin) mac Fenius 
dothuc Scotai ingen Foraind conidh dia ainm-sie dogairther 

Fer a ainmnid uathaid. Pir a ainmnid ilair. 1770 

Fir a shealbad uathaid. Na fer a shealbad ilair, 

Do fir a radh n-uathaid. Do feraibh a rad n-ilair. 

In fer a inchosc uathaid. Inna flru a inchosc ilair. 

A fhir a thoghairm uathaid. A fhiru a thoghairm ilair. 

O fir a oxail uathaid. O feraibh a oxlaid ilair. 1775 

Og fir a thurmeadh uathaid. Oc feraib a fhuirmed ilair. 

^'f ondi ailigt- E. i"'" nolusus T. cibed L. : gibe nech E, 

^"•''1 in anmanna sin, cech ealadan L. : ind a.nmanda. E. 

"^^ faillsiges eolus E. fessa L. E. om. faicsin L'. E. 

"!^ do fhiss 7 do aicsin E. '"'■' o anmaim L. : on ainmnigthi E. 

:75r, jigj L. in anmanda L. E. 

'^'Jf' a literatura A- on foillsiugud (no on fholliudug) E. : Virg. Gr. p. 7, 10 

^"'^ ar is intib L. rosgribtha T. "** legitera E. leang -i- set leai^ L. 

1'« forbhaibh T. : fuirbtib L. E. ^^62 i rrabatar E. 

i"63 na nGaedel B. : tebi na Goed- L. : teipiu naGoed- E. tairillfed E. 

"64 dorathaigh E. Gaedel L. ^'^' na nGaedel B. ba háillemh, caimem L. 

'^'•^ doaiselbad L. : rotaiselbao'do E. i^e- Goedelg 7 Goedil L. 

i"«8 dofuc, Scota L. dia hanmaim-sein L. E. "''9 friu E. adds 

"™ ainmniugud, na íir L. 1770-1807 cf. Stokes, Goidelica, 72-4 

n"i Do fir a selbad ilair L. 


a certain animal lair that dwells on the seashore [in litore] 
named Molossus, and whosoever sees the lair of that 
animal, to him is revealed Unowledge without study. 
Therefore as it is a way for revealing wisdom and 
knowledge for anyone to see that lair, so the Unowledge 
and sight of letters is a way for revealing knowledge 
to him, so that on that account the name littera from 
the name of the lair of the animal aforesaid is 
applied to letter in every place where it occurs. Or 
littera is from litura, rubbing, i.e., from the smearing, 
i.e., from the rubbing which the ancients used to apply 
to the waxen tablets, for thereon they (the letters) were 
first written by them. Or litera, i.e,, path of reading, 
i.e., way of reading. 

Qi the origins of the declensions here below. 
The beginning of letters,^ verse-feet, declensions, 
accents, intervals, genders, and comparisons as they were 
established by poets of the same school in which they 
dwelt, and by Fenius Farsaidh after the selection of 
Gaelic out of thc 72 languages. Hence it was attributed 
to Goedel son of Angen, for it was he that desired 
the selection of Gaelic, to wit, the one language that 
was more beautiful and excellent than any language, 
so that for this reason it used to serve, and therefore it 
was attributed, so that hence Gaelic and the Gael are 
named. Xel, or Nin, son of Fenius it was who married 
Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, so that it is from her name they 
are called Scots. 

Per its nominative sing. Pir its nominative plur. 

Pir its possessive sing. Na fer its possessive plur. 

Do fer its dative sing. Do feraibh its dative plur. 

In fer its accusative sing. Inna firu its accusative plur. 

A fhir its vocative sing. A fhiru its vocative plur. 

O flr its ablative sing. O feraibh its ablative plur. 

Og flr its depositivc sing. Oc feraib its depositive plur. 

138 BB. 330a4l 


E. 28/3 24 

Co fer a ascnam uathaid. 
Sech fer a shechmall uathaid. 

Tre fer a thregdad uathaid. 

I fer a inotacht uathaid. 
I fir a aitreb uathaid. 
Por fer a fhortud uathaid. 

Fo fhir a fhotudh uathaid ilair. 
Tar fer a thairrsci uathaid. 

Ar flr a fhrescbail uathaid. 

Pri fer a fhreslighi uathaid. 

Peron a formoladh, 

Peer a mhallrughudh. 

Ser a chendfliochrus tuis. 

Ni airghear a dhiabhul -i- ferfer. 

Sofer a shaerughudh. 

Ni airecar a urard -i- fera. 

-É'/forsna firu ~J fona firu (?/tresna 
firu eí isna firu et seach na 
firu (col. (8) a lorga fuach. 

E, es, in, co, tre, tar, sech fer a 
dlalt n-etarleime. 

Pertot a thelgad noe. 

Co feraib (no co flru) a ascnam ilair. 
Sech feraib (no sech flru) a 

seachmall ilair. 
Tre feraib (no tre flru) a thregdad 1780 

I flru (no a feraib) a inotacht ilair. 
I firu (no a feraib) a aitreb ilair. 
Por firu no for feraib a fhortud 

ilair. 1785 

Pofhiru no fo feraib a fhotud ilair. 
Tar flru no tar feraib a tharrsci 

Ar flru no ar feraib a fhrescbail 

ilair. 1790 

Pri flri no fri feraibh a fhreslighi 

Per a chodad. 
Refer a delidhmi. 

Pel a chendfhochrus deidh. 1795 

Pirini a ludhughudh. 
Dofer a dhasrughudh. 
Peraib a aurisel. 


Pefrier a chonnail. 

Pe a airchill calaid. 

Ni aíricar (a) arichill fuit no feir a airchill fuit, Perr a 1805 
dechnead, Pe a dichneadh. Ise, issi, issed ; uinnse, unnse, 
onnar a urlunn indsci. 

Ceand cridi fulang a^Jhe demi tebidhi in fhir. Suil 7 
fiacail lanamain in chi«d. Srebann 7 cru lanamaín 

1'«-^ illraig E. 
1'»^ deilidnim (?) E. 
1796 \ygrie.x, firim- E. 
1*08 a deimhi E. 

1''« cotut E. 

^'"•' ceimfocrus tar, deid E. 

1^99 forna E. 1»^ thshelgad B. 

]8«9 lanamoin E. 

Co fer its advancive sing. 
Sech fer its neglective sing. 
Tre fer its perforative sing. 
I fer its ingressive sing. 


I flr its locative sing. 
For fer its attestive sing. 

Po fhir its fundative sing. 

Tar fer its trespassive sin< 

Ar flr its ascensive sing. 

Frí fer its desidative sing. 

Co feraib (or co flru) its advancive 

Sech feraib (or sech firu) its neglec- 

tive plur. 
Tre feraib (or tre flru) its perfora- 

tive plur. 
I firu (or a feraib) its ingressive 

I firu (or a feraib) its locative plur. 
For firu (or for feraib) its attesti\e 

Fo fhiru (or fo fheraib) its funda- 

tive plur. 
Tar firu (or tar feraib) its tres- 

passive plur. 
Ar firu (or ar feraib) its ascensive 

Fri firu (orft'i feraib) its desidative 

Fer its hardening. 
Refer its inversion. 
Fel its change of final. 
Pirine its diminutive. 

Feron its hyperbole. 

Feer its retarding. 

Ser its change of initial. 

Ferfer its reduplication, is not 

Sofer its ennobling. 
Fera its exaltation, is not found. 
And, on, 'neath, through, in, 
past the men, its staves of 
From, out of, in, to, through, 
across, past a man, its 
interloping syHabie. 
Pertot its man-throwing. 

Its theft of a long is not found, or feir is its theft of a long. 
Perr its doubling a final. Fe its losing a final. 

Ise^ etc, he, she, it, its prefix of gender. 

Head, heart cbi^sbitiiíii^g ,the man's ^b'^ neuter selected 
attributes. Eye and tooth the couple of the head. 
Membrane and gore the couple of the heart. (The 

Dofer its enslaving. 
Feraib its humiliation. 

Fefl-ier its internal division. 

Pe its theft of a hard. 

•140 BB. 330 p 7 


E. 28^32 

'1 > 

(lanamain in sxQhuinn -i- bái;me 7 glaiss, lanamain in chru 1810 
•i- ruaidi 7 dergi) in cridi. Lurgu 7 traigb lanamain 
ind fhulaing. Gene dno na lanamnaide deme -i- ebrachtur 
•i- abhrochtur (no 'vnccáned) 7 malu, lanamain (no gene) 
na sula. Bu« 7 lethet lanamain (no gene) na fiacal. 
Croiceann 7 feich lanamain (no gene) na lurgan. Lith 7 1815 
tond lanamain (-i- gene) na traiged. Alailiu dano, it e gene 
na lanamaide demi a forbhthi, air it hi tri gne dochuisnet 
gein forcomeda 7 gein daghchometa [7] gein ixxcometa. 
Gein íorcometa cetamus, uí est, ailmne for gluw, Í7;/mta 
samlaidh, ar is fair annuas ata gai ind [fh]ir forsail 7 is leis 1820 
fochetoir geindir as do beolaibh i fut 7 i nn-airdi. Dinin 
disail biit amal rogabh fuil arrad feola 7 is isin feoil. Is 
amlaidh dinin dishail co ngaib lasin focul o thosuch gu 
dereadh gan urgabail ga;/ airditin. Arnin amal roghabh 
cnaim mullaich 7 leicni 7 cnuicc 7 fii^d, 7 ri^ hai nad 1825 
genat lasin duzwe fochetoir, uair fo cosmaillius alta duini 
doniter alta huadh. Ni taidbet dno int airnin lasin focul 
fochetoir forsa tochradar co mbi fo deoidh arding in focul. 

Ferdialt gu sin. 

{Incipit bandialt.) Bean. 


na mban. 
do bein, 
do mnaibh. 

o mnai (no o bein). 
o mnaibh. 

tri mnai. 

tria mna (no mnaib\ 
oc mnai. i mnai. 

oc mnaa (no oc mnaib). i mnaa (no mnaib). 

inmbein(no inmnai). co mnai. for mnai. 

inna mna. co mna (no co mnaib). formnaa (no mnaib). 

a bean. sech mnai. [aib). tar mnai. 

a mna. sech mnaa (no sech mna- tar mnaa (no mnaib). 


1810 Origg. xi. I, 76-7 '**" Origg. xi. i, 115 «i^. " .de E. om. 

isi:i Origg. xi. I, 42 "i' no leathar 7 tond T. i'S^'7 isind fheóil T. 

^*-" domiditer E. '■*"'• Margin B. In tiasga dij bandialt andso sis T. 

i8:!o-52 ^f. Stokes, Goidelica^ V- 74 


couple of the udder, that is, «hWí— artd— stíeaíaJet : the • 

couple of the gore, that is, redness and crimson.) Leg 

and foot thc couple of ^«pp orfeing . A-paií:, too, of the f^ "IfM^nJ^ 

e o w relat ed neuter, that is, eyelashes and eyebrow, i.e., 

abhrochtur, upper eyebrow (or iincahtead, treating super- 

ciIiously) couple or paif-of the eyes. Root and breadth, 

the couple or pair of the teeth. Skin and sinew the 

couple or pair of the shins. Activity and surface the 

couple, i.e., pair of the feet. In another respect, too, /4€^erMÍlrtl 

these are the pairs of the correlated neuter, its accents, 

for there are three 4ttmÍ5 that are in existence, one for 

warding upon, one for good warding, and one for warding 

against. Gem forcométa, for warding upon, first, ut est, 

aibiine for gh'in, cap on knee, similarly, for on it from 

above stands the spear of the true forsail, and it is there- 

with at once it is produced out of thy lips in length and in 

loudness. Dinin disail are in use as, for example, fuil 

blood, which is along withy^J// flesh, and blood which is in 

the flesh. It is thus that dinin disail permeates the word 

from beginning to end without arresting it, without 

stretching it. Arnin such as cndivi mullaich top bone, 

leicni jaw-bones, cnuicc knuckles, and find hair, and those 

that do not originate with man at first, for under the Iike- 

ness of a man's limbs are limbs of science made. Now the 

arnin does not at once appear with the word on which it 

falls so that it is at the end that it compresses the word. 

Masculine declension thus far. 

Incipit feminine declension. Woman. 

of a woman. from a woman. through a woman. 

of the women. from women. through women. 

to a woman. with a woman. in a woman. 

to women. with women. in women. 

the woman. unto a woman. on a woman. 

the women. unto women. on women. 

O woman. past a woman. over a woman. 

O women. past women. over women. 

142 BB. 330^30 AURAICEPT E. 28^51 

benon a formoladh. no mna a lan. 

ben a codut. ni airecair a dhiabul -i- 1840 

been a mallrugud. benben. 

neb a delidind. ciasberat araili ni bhi 

befrien a chondail, nach lan ina dhiabul. 

ben a oen. benine a lugudud. 

ben a lan. soben a saerugud. 1845 

doben a daerugud, ni airicair a aurard (no i nn-uathad -i- 
benna). Mna i n-ilur a aurard. Ni airecar a airisel -i- 
(benaibh). Forsna, 7 fona, triasna, isna, sech na mna a 
lorga fuach : o, do, sech, for, in, is ben a dialt n etarlemi. 
Bentot a thelgud noe. Be a airichil calaid. Ni bhi a 1850 
airicill fuit no ni airicar airicil (-i- fuit). Bel a cennfochrus. 
Benn a deichneadh. Be a dichneadh. Cich 7 glun a 
ndemi thepide, fair 7 sridit a Ilanamnai : blass 7 millsi 
a ngeni-side. AlmníE 7 ecsait lanamnai in glulm. 
Cnaim 7 feoil a ngeni-side. No hit he a ngene a forbthe 1855 
amal rom-ebhartmar. 

Bandialt conigi sin. 

Incipit do deim-dialt andseo sis. 

Nem. Nemon a formolad. Nime a cotut. Neem a 
mallrugud. 1860 

na nime. oc nim. tre nem. for nem. 

do nim, oc nimibh. tria nime, for nime (no 

do nimib. co nem, i n-nem, nimib). 

a n-nem. co nime. i n-nime. tar nem. 

inn nime, sech nem. i n-nim. tar nime. (331) 1865 

o nim, o nimib. sech nime. i n-nimib, fo nim, fo nimib. 

Nefriem a chonnail. Nem a oen. Nem a lan. Ni airecar 
a lugugud (no a diab«/). Ni fail a saerugud, nach a 

'^^^ cia asberat E, ^***' aurard (•!• mna) E. ^**^" mna (-i- bene) E. 

1848 triana E. ^'^'■' et irridit, blaiss E. i*^' canaim B. 

185« remhebatmar E. 1859-78 cf. Stokes, Goidelica, p. 74 

1«^' chomail B. : condail E. ^*» a diabulug^a', fil E. 



benon its hyperbole. 

ben its hardening. 

been its retarding. 

neb its inversion. 

beft-ien its internal division. 

ben its unily. 

ben its fuU. 

or mna its full. 

its reduplication, to wit, ben- 

ben is not found. 
Though some say that there 

is not any lan in its re- 

benine its diminutive. 
soben its ennobHnir. 

doben its enslaving ; its exaltation is not found (or in the 
singular, that is, benna). Mna in the plural its exaltation. 
Its humiliation, to wit, benaib is not found. On, under, 
through, in, past the vvomen, its lorga fuach: from, to, 
past, on, in, 'tis vvoman, its interloping syllable. Bentot 
its man-throwing. Be its theft of a hard. Its airuhill fuit 
does not exist, or airicil (i.e., fuif) is not found. Bel 
its change of final. Benn its doubjing a final. Be its 
losing a final. Pap and knee their selected neuter, fair 
bearing, and sridit the passage of milk from the breast, 
their couple ; taste and sweetness, their pair. Cap and 
hollow of knee, the couple of the knee. Bone and flesh 
their pair. Or these are their pair, their accents, as 
we have said. 

Feminine declension thus far. 

Incipit neuter declension here below. 

Nem heaven. NemSn its hyperbole. Nime its harden- 
ing. Neem its retarding. 

of the heaven. 
to heaven. 
to heavens. 
the heaven. 
the heavens. 
from heaven. 
from heavens. 

at heaven. 
at heavens. 
unto heaven. 
unto heavens. 
past heaven. 
past heavens. 

through heaven. 
through heavens. 
into heaven. 
into heavens. 
in heaven. 
in heavens. 

on heaven. 
on heavens. 
over heaven. 
over heavens. 
under heaven. 
under heavens. 

Nefriem its internal division. Nem its unity. Nem its 
full. Its diminutive is not found, norits reduplication. Its 

144 BB. 33la3 AURAICEPT E. 29ai2 

daerugud, nach a aurard. Nimib a airísel. Forsna, fona, 
tresna, isna, sechna nime, a lorga fuach : o, do, in, co, es, 1870 
fo, for, [d]e, sech na nime a dhialt n-etarleme. Ni fognse 
a thelgudh noe. Ne a airichill (-i- calaidh) ut est, wein ind 
usíTé?, no nem nathrach, tit est, neiii im thalmain. Ni bi 
airichill (-i- fuit). Nel a chennfochrus. Nemm a deichnead. 
Ne a dichneadh. Ised, isi, ise ; ondar, uinnsi, unnse a 1875 
erlonn indsci. [Ni] airecar a deimi tepidhi, ar is deiminsci 
fadhesin. Nel 7 tuagh nimi a lanamnai demi : dath / 
airdi a ngeni-sen : no it he a fuirbhthi a ngeni. 

Nemdialt co sin. 

A ainmniugud fer. A shelbad flr. A rath 1880 
do fhiur. A inchosc in fer. A thogairm a fir. 
A foxlaid o fliiur. A fuirmid oc [fh]iur. A ascnam 
co fear. A sechmall sech fhear A threghdad tre 
fer. A inotacht hi flr. A aitreibh hi fhir. A fhorthudh 
for fer. A fhothudh fo fhiur. A tharrsce tar fear 1885 
A fresghabail ar fluir. A airchelladh ar fer. A frecnarc 
cia fer. A imthimcheall im fear. A dighbhail di fhiua?. 
- Doformaighet alaile dano a tri frisna hii sin a dighbhail 
•i- den flr; 7 a thuarascbail -i- in fer; 7 a tustidi in flr : 
acht is inunn a dhighbhail 7 a fhoxlaidh ; is inund a 1890 
thuarascbhail 7 a inchosc ; is inund a thuistiudh 7 a 

Incipit do ernailibh in imchomairc in so sis. 

Atat da aithfeghad for imchomarc -i- imchomarc iar 
n-inni thoirni 7 imchomarc iar n-airbhirt nan-airbirenn 1895 
bith. Atat ceithre ernaili fair -i- meit 7 inni 7 inchosc 7 

iS'i e E. i*''^ in tuf- E. : tus- B. i»" tuad E. 

1878 dath 7 airdidi, a ngeni-si, a ngeine E. : a ngeine side T. 
1880-92 cf. Stokes. Goidelica, p. 74, 5 i"»® fuirmtigh E. i8«6 lairecar B. 

1»«' im E. : in B. i^» frisnahai sin E. i«'i tindtudh, Finii E. 

isas-itótí Based on Gr. Lat. iii. 459-515. L. o>n. ^*'''' nonnairbirend T. 

Aftery?«z/'(i892) E. gives Thomas O'Connor's poem, paitly illegible here, but 
printed in 0'Molloy Gr. xiii. pp. 137-9, beginning : 

Beithi senar dom laim deis, 

Is luis dis, co conndeices, 

Fern triur, sail cethrur, gan col 

Ocus nin cona cuiger 


ennobling does not exist, nor its enslaving, nor its 
exaltation. Nimib is its humiliation. On, under, through, 
in, past the heavens, its staves of words : from, to, in, 
unto, out of, under, on, of, past the heavens, its inter- 
loping syllable. Its man-throwing may not serve. Ne its 
theft of a hard, nt est, nem of the water, or poison of 
a serpent, nt cst, nein ini tJiabnain heaven about earth. 
There is no airichill (i.e., fiiit). Nel its change of 
final, nemm its doubling of final, ne its losing a final. 
Ised, etc., he, she, it, its prefix of gender. Its selected 
neuter is not found, for it is itself neuter gender. 
Cloud and bow of heaven its neuter couple: colour 
and height their pair, or it is their accents that are 
their pair. 

Neuter declension thus far. 

Its nominative fer. Its possessive fir. Its dative 
do fhiur. Its accusative in fer. Its vocative a fhir. 
Its ablative o fhitir. Its depositive oc flur. Its 
advancive co fear. Its neglcctive sech fear. Its 
perforative tre fer. Its ingressive hi fir. Its locative 
hi fhir. Its attestive for fer. Its fundative fo fhiur. 
Its trespassive tar fear. Its ascensive ar flur. Its 
defensive ar fer. Its interrogative cia fer. Its circum- 
dative im fear. Its privative di flur. 

Now others add three to these, its privative den flr; 
its descriptive in fer; and its parentative in flr : but 
its privative is the same as its ablative; its descriptive 
is the same as its accusative ; and its parentative is the 
same as its possessive. 

hicipit to the divisions of analysis is this below. 

There are two views of analysis, that Ís, analysis accord- 
ing to the meaning it denotes and analysis according to the 
method which it uses. There are four divisions of it, to wit, 
size, quality, denotation, and accent. Analysis according 


146 BB. 331 ci 28 AURAICEPT E. 29^45 

aicnead. Imcomarc iar n-inni thoir;^^ : Atat ocht fothoir;/í^(? 
faír 7 cethri primthoir;;^'^ na n-ocht fothoir;/^/. It he gabair 
fona iv primthoir;/(a'/^ conid ocht primthoir^zí/í? samlaid, 
cenmota comacomul 7 comfhilltighe 7 comshuidhigthe -i- 1900 
comacomiíl ceilli 7 ceiieóil 7 cetfaidhi cuirp 7 anma 7 
folaidh 7 airmhi 7 aicenta. Is e int aicned hisin 
adasramed uili. Is e in met co fester in met no in 
laighet bis isin focul. Is i in inni co fester in inni uilc no 
maithiusa bá- fond focul. Is e int inchosc co fester coich 1905 
indsci, in indsci no in rann indsci. Masa rann indsci cate 
defir eter raind 7 indsci. Maso indsci coich in indsci, in 
ferindsci no in baninndsci no in deimindsci. Maso ban- 
índsci -i- indsci banda, iit est^ mitrix -i- muimech lasin 
Laitneoir, int uili gne fem/;/da dachuisin dar beolo duine 1910 
is luitficis in cenel sin, ar is nutrix is bhuimeach doaib uih'. 
Maso ferindsci -i- indsci ferdha, iit est, pater -i- athair 
lasin Laitneoir, int uile gne masc;/// 7 femin 7 neodair 
dochuisin dar beohi nduine is pater is athair doib uiH -i- 
Dia Uilichumhachtach, Athair na n-uili dhula. Maso 1915 
dhemindsci -i- indsci dimbeoaighthi, ut est, caeluin -i- neam 
lasin Laitneoir, int uile gnír neoturda dochuisin dar beolo 
nduine is o nim ainmnigter. Is inni in cetna diall 7 diall 
\.2LX\.aiste 7 tres diall 7 ceithreamad diall 7 cuiced diall 7 ran;; 
7 res 7 rece. [I]ssi in [res in] primthor<7;;<;/. Is i in rece in 1920 
fothorrt;;^^. In fhothorrt';/<^ i se;/, atat cethri ranna fuirri i- 
seacht n-airm 7 seacht n-acenta 7 secht ndescena a dheiscin 
iar ceill 7 iar (col. /3) ceniul 7 iar nguth 7 iar mbreithir 7 iar 

1'*'''' aicne, toirne, fothoirne T. ^*^^* Na hocht T. fothoir-B. ^*'''' iimna T. 
^^ comfhocul (no comaccomul) E. cobhfliiilte T. 

1901 cowmocl, gn- B. : cimf/T. : gen^ E. ^■'*''- folu, aigenta. Is é int aicne T. 
1903 adasramed E. : Gr. Lat. iii. 465, 32 : ataraimhet T. '^'■"^ Et masat T. 
i'jos jYiasa ban T. i'-*'" Origg. viii. II, 61. muimmech B. 

i9io,ia, 17 int uilegcí«<?/E.: chinel T. ^"ii Gr. Lat. iii. 494, 26 
1-J14 Patruig T. : Gr. Lat. iii. 506, 7 ^^^^ dimbeodaigthe E. ^»" gn^ i«t uile B. 
1920 rand 7 reis 7 rece. Is í in réis an primthorund. Is i in rece in fothorund. 
In fothoruind hi sin T. : primtoraind isin inrecce ind fhothor E. : primthoir- B. 
19-20-5 •phe whole passage is corrupt ^"^^ n-airmhe, deicsina T. 
liw^ cinéol T. : iar ngn- E. : gn- B. 


to the qualíty which it signifies : There are eíght sub- 
ordinate parts in it, and four primary parts of the eight 
subordínate parts. These are included under the four 
primary parts, so that thus there are eight primary parts, 
besides conjunction, derivatives, and compounds, to 
wit, conjunction of sense and species, perceptions of body, 
soul, substance, number, and accent That is the accent 
in which they have all been reckoned. That is the size, 
that the size or smaUness which is in the word might be 
known. That is the quality, that it might be known whether 
it is a quality of evil or good that underlies the word. 
That is the denotation, that it might be known of what 
innscc it is, whether gender or part of speech. If it be a 
part of speech, what is the difference between part and 
speech. If it be gender, what is the gender? masculine, 
feminine, or neuter gender? If it be feminine gender, 
to wit, female gender, ut est, nutrix, nurse, with 
the Latinist, the whole female species that passes over 
human lips, that genus belongs to nutrix, for nutrix 
is nurse to them all. If it be masculine gender, 
that is, male gender, ut est, pater, father, with the 
Latinist, the whole species of masculine, feminine, and 
neuter that passes over human lips, it is pater that is 
father to them all, that is, Almight}' God, Father of 
all the elements. If it be neuter gender, that is, 
lifeless gender, ut est, caeluin, heaven, with the 
Latinist, the whole neuter species that passes over 
human lips is named from nem, heaven. Quality 
is the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth declensions, 
and rann, verse, and res, tale(?), and rece. Res is 
the first division. Rece is the subdivision. In that 
subdivision there are four parts, to wit, seven 
numbers, seven accents, and seven aspects, its 
aspects according to sense, species, voice, verb 

148 BB. 331 fi I AURAICEPT E. 29 /3 2 

labradh. Is do comachomol in gotha 7 na breithri sin 7 

labartha asait ernaili imchomairc. 1925 


Trefocul in so amal rocumsat na baird J na patreni i- 
trefocul cen cuail cnam. Cen craip cainti. Cen comman. 
Cen comsiudh. Cen dichur n-ecoir. Cen dallbhach dona 1930 
dallbaigzA Cen ellach duna ellgib. Cenmota oenellar//. 
Cen tar. Cen tamall. Cen faií^l^i co cuibdius. Cen faicXf ''dí 
cen chuihdms. Cen a focul frisin n-aprait fil?Ví' frisuithi. 
Cen imsechfaidh indsci. Cen asneis for araile. Cen ecna.c/i. 
Cen ecnuadh. Cen scath dofarce cuitbiud. Cen x íor 1935 
an-se. Cen saebsuidhiugud dialt ic frecra d' iarcomruc i n- 
urd bairdni. Conach in ceathí'^rcubhaidh cummait baird. 
Cona friortud tecta forna focla masa oe congabhthar amal 
asbert : Trefocul tachraid filz'í/. 

No (mar so) ita trefocul : cen chlsen, cen rudraigh, cen 1940 
rofot, cen rogair, cen dimbrigh, cen forbrigh, cen ecnairc fri 
íregnazrc, cen uathad fri ilar, cen ecenel, cen ec[om]uaim, 
cen ecuibdius, cen anocht i- da locht deg na hirlabra in sin. 

Dia nditen-sidhe cethri cenela fichet-i- co[r]raib ann : a 
formoladh, a codut, a mallrugud, a diabul, a deilide;/, a oen, 1945 
a lan, a lugu^^^d, a saerughudh, a daerugud, a aurard, a 
airisel, a dhichneadh, a dhoichnead, a chonnail, a chend- 
fochrus, a airchill fuit, a airchill calaid, a thelgudh noe, a 
urlonn insce, a hinsce mod, a lanamna deimi, a demi thep- 
idhe, a ngen-side, co ndath 7 tothucht, co tomus fri fidh 1950 

1924 7 ijj da bhréithre 7 in da urlabrad T. 

1925 cf. Origg. ii. 18 : imcomraic E. T. ends with a poern of which the 
second line is : ac fiadn- ni himurscel. 

1928 Xrefocul tacraid filid andso sis rocumsat E. r~ » 

i»23-40 Arch. a P. iii. 293 : cf. Origg. ii. 17 ^^^ cual, cinti E. 

19S0 comsimuJ E. '">''' cellgib B. : hellgib L. : heillgib E. 

'932 faicit co, aicitcen E. ^**='^ imsechbaid, ecnach E. 

19-35 dofairce E. casn saebuidigud E. , ,, i, 

1937 Cona aichni cet[h]:ir cuala i cumait E. i^'^ forthudh E. 

19« cloen, rudrach, roat E. i»-*^ ecomu«d E. i»^-' andso indsin E. 

19" corab and E. i^-*"^ deibide E. ^"^" dochned, condail E. 

1949 jnod E. ^**^ ^ ngen-side contath •i- tothocht E. 


and language, It is for conjunction of the voice, and that 
word, and language that the divísions of analysis grow. 


This is irefocul as the bards and the patreni (?) have 
devised it, to wit, trefocul, without a heap of bones, 
without cramping of diction, without plagiarism, without 
sameness, without banishing ornament, without one of the 
dallbach, without one of the ellach, save a single ellach^ 
without disgrace, without pause, without rhyming accident/ 
without unrhyming accident, without -their word which Qny^ l^r. A^ \ 
poets call frisuithi, withottt-^-egular—repetitioi^'Crf -díetion,. 
without narrative on another subject, without blasphemy,, )i 
without detraction, without a word that exceeds derision, > 
without metre {ae) on non-metre {an-ae), without wrongly 
placing single syllables to answer as a trisyllabic word in 
the use of bard measure, so that there Ije not the four- 
rhyming quatrain which bards compose, so that there be 
no violation of law upon the words if it be a measure that 
is kept up, as he said : Trefocul poets plead. 

Or Trefocul is without wrongness, without too many 
rhymes, without an over-long, without an over-short, with- 
out want of emphasis, without over-emphasis, without an 
absenttoa present,withoutasingulartoaplural,withoutfalse 
gender, without false alliteration, without false rhyme, with- 
out error, to wit, those arethe twelve faults of composition. 

To guard against these are 24 kinds, to wit, corraih 
there : its hyperbole, its hardening, its retarding, its 
reduplication, its inversion, its singleness, its full, its 
diminutive, its ennobling, its enslaving, its exaltation, 
its humiliation, its losing a final, its doubling a final, 
its internal division, its change of initial or final, its 
theft of long, its theft of hard, its man-throwing, its 
prefix of gender, its Jiiod speech, its neuter couples, its 
selected neuters, their pairs, with colour and properties, 

150 BB. 33ii3 26 AURAICEPT E. 29^24 

7 dech, reim 7 forbad, alt 7 insci 7 etargoire ar cach cenel 
labartha dotuisim ar beolu duine [dohuisimar L.], ar is a 
dealt domiter recomhrac, a recomrac domiter iarcomrac, a 
hiarcomrac dno feles, a feles domiter claenre, a claenre domiter 
luibenchosach, a luibenchosach domiter claldQmnas, a 1955 
cldiiáemnas domiter bricht : arcomititer alta uad frihaltaib 
in duine, ar ita coic alta sescat ar tri cet in duine, a coic 
sescat ar tri cet aisti archet«/l, J coic laithi sescat ar tri cet 
isin bliadain 7 a coic sescat ar tri cet du luibibtre thalmain 
conastacmai«g tlacht in trefocuil de qiUbiis dicitnr : 1960 

Trefocul tacrait filid. 

Trefocul tacrait filid 

Do didin a n-indligid, 

Ni mo na lucht cuibrind claní/ 

Di neoch tuirmim notuigeand. 1965 

Sceith ocus gnuisi glana 
Aincit lochta linmara, 
Immar roscum Adna ogh, 
Ni tarba gen a tintodh. 

Da anocht deg is derb libh 1970 

Dlegait a fis na fih'í/; 

A main nocho n-fuair Etai«, 

Rofuaigh aib inn aircelail. 

Da sciath dec is da ghnuis deg 

Roordaigh dia n-imchoimet 1975 

Na lochta cen lomrim lac, 

Da da comlin noscobrat. 

Na gnuisi diten ^Xhér 

Cotut is íEn rv?ich aimger, 

Saerugud dasrugud des, 1 980 

Na lorga fuach fria firmhes. 

1951 etargairi cen 7 ce« a lus labartha E. 

i*'''^ dohuisin dar L. : douisiumar air E. ^"''^ recomarc E. 

i95<!-60 Q{ the 5i3 Jewish precepts 365 are negative, which Rabbinical 
anatomy declares to be the number of the sinews — veins or small vessels — in 
the human body. They equal the days in the solar year and are governed by 
365 angels. The Zohar, v. the Jewish Encycl. i. 565 

19" Ir. Texte, iii. 66, 8 


with measure as regards letter, verse-foot, run, and 

accent, interval, gender, and comparison for every sort 

of speech that is produced on human lips ; for it is from 

syllable that dissyllable is estimated, from dissyllable that 

trisyllable is estimated, from trisyllable in turn quadri- 

syllable, from quadrisyllable pentasyllable is estimated, from 

pentasyllable hexasyllable is estimated, from hexasyllable 

heptasyllable is estimated, from heptasyllable octosyIlable 

is estimated : for the limbs of science are equal to the 

limbs of man, for there are 365 limbs of man, 365 measures 

of poetry, 365 days in the year, and 365 herbs through the 

earth, so that the ^pf=otection of the Trcfocul encompasses 

them, de quibus dicitur : 

Trcfocul poets plead. 

Trefocul which poets plead 

To defend their lawlessness, 

Is no more than a burden of a children's part 

From something, I reckon, which thev undcrstand. 

Shields and pure countenances 
Ward off many blemishes 
As perfect Adna has devised them, 
It is no profit not to turn them. 

Twelve " errors," it is clear to you, 
The poets must know them ; 
Etain has found no profit of them, 
She has woven the beauty of poetry, 

Twelve shields and twelve countenances 
She has appointed to guard oneself against them, 
The blemishes without a weak bare rhyme, 
They succour them with double their number. 

The countenances of defence which I shall mention, 
" Hardening " and " singular " that are not unsharp, 
Right " ennobhng," " enslaving," 
The " staves of words " for true measurement. 

'•••'• Origg. ii. 17 ""'■"• d'imditen H. L. 

iim >^j j^^Q ^j^ £_ cuibrim B. : cuibri;/<J L. (craind) E. 

iw» j^Q tucand L. : nos-iuigind E. ''"'" lochtii L. 

i'*''"* :imair roscum Agna og E. '""'-' Eadain L. E. 

'•'"•' Ros-fuaigh K. '•"*' Saeríuidhir daerfuidir deas E. 

152 BB.33I^44 AURAICEPT E. 29.342 

Dialt n-etar/(?OT^ n og, 

AirichiU fuit, is fir on, 

AirichiU calaid, ni cam, 

Cendfochrus tuis ria thodall, 1985 

Dichnead tuis, dechnead tuis tair, 
Ins[c]e [mod L. | cona modhaib, 
Is i dara gnuis deg dil, 
Urlonn insci ria hairimh. 

Na sceith ditin fon domun 1990 

Formolad is mallrugud, 
Fuaradar senfilid sain 
Da deilidin is condail. 

A lan ni lan cen bunad 

A diabul, a lugugud, 199-5 

Memur fri cach sobard sen, 

A fliorard, a fhoriseal. 



Airmim telgud nve co nneim 
Ocus cendfochrus derid, 
Dichn^í/ derid (332), is docair, 
Dechnifí/ deirid degfocaz'/. 

Is iat sin na da sciath deg, 
Eolaig ica n-imcoimet, 
Is na da gnuis deg rodet 
Na ceithri fodla fichet. 

Na filid na fitir so, 
Ni muin fedm eicsi forro. 
Cindas fhailgit a n-ulcu ? 
Cindas aincit anuchtu ? 

In n-aengnuis no [in] ensciath ard 2010 

Icas ar cach locht langarg, 
No in dias im cach locht rolad ? 
Ni de bias olc dia imrad. 

1«»^' a rtirichiU E. i'-«^ calaidh, camm E. ^»*-^ thadall L. : tadall E. 

1988 mod, Is iat E. : Is i in L. i'-'»' L. sorbad B. 2002 ;„ da L. E. gnuis E. 
VÍ002-5 Follow 1989 E. •''0^^ gnius B. 

^i" In oensínuis no censsfiath L. E. : densciath B. 


" Interloping syllable " entire, 
" Theft of a long " it is true, 
"Theft of a hard," it is not wrong, 
"Change of initial" for its visitation. 

"Apocope of initial," "doubling of initial" iu front, 
"Afod speech" with its modes, 
It is a twelfth dear countenance, 
"Prefix of gender" for recUoning it. 

The shields of defence throughout the world 
Are " hyperbole " and " retarding," 
Ancient poets have found out those 
Two " metatheses " and " internal division." 

Its "fuU" is not fuU without foundation, 
Its "reduplication," its "diminutive," 
A memory to each noble old bard 
Its " exaltation," its " humiliation." 

I reckon " man-throwing," with venom, 
And "change of final," 
"Apocope of final," it is troublesome, 
"Doubling of a final" of a good word. 

Those are the twelve shields, 

The learned are in the habit of olDserving them, 

And the twelve countenances which have been granted, 

The four and twenty divisions. 

The poets that do not know this, 
No_back to essay poetry is on them. 
How can they conceal their wrongs ? 
How can they ward off "errors " ? 

Is it one countenance or one lofty shield 

Which saves from each blemish fuU rough, 

Or the twain that are thrown around every blemish ? 

Not thence, from considering it, wiU harm arise. 

^' Re n-aichni re n-imcomet 

In tres rand re rem cen choU 

A ted tall(?) in Trefocul. Trefocul E. 

^'-' ar cach L. E. 

^••' Ni de L. : Ni deas, re imradh E. 

154 BB. 332a7 AURAICEPT e. 29 (356 

Cip he chanas cona cheill, 

Tria intliucht n-amnas n-acbeil, 2015 

Is duiligh is is docair 

A tuirim in Trefocail. Trefocail. 

Trefocul in tri focail, 

Fis a ruine is rodocair, 

Tricha ar a se cose 2020 

Fritha tria gne nGaedilge. 

Da anocht ar a deich dib, 

Ni cubaidh cen a comrim, 

Nit carit a daini dam 

Scarait maini for molad. 2025 

Claen atberim dib ar tus, 

Im eolach ina imthus : 

Ni híEnchloen acht it tri claein, 

O nach saercsem (cach saerchaem B. adds) cach 

s£erlaid. 2030 

Claen creiti rochuala cach, 
Im rannaibh ni ba rognath, 
Re taeb cach duilghiusa de, 
Claen cuibdiusa, claen ceiUe. 

Clíen crete ni clíen cen cheass, 2035 

Is at deich millti milles, 
Taibgit fiach in molta amaig, 
Da sciath corcra 'na chomair. 

In clcen cuibdiusa is cubaidh, 

Da gnuis riasan gliaphudair, 2040 

Ocus da sciath 'na ndegaid, 

Nocho liach a Uandegail. 

Da sciath, da gnuis in gelli, 

Is ed ainces claen ceilli ; 

Cobigi celli, gan col, 2045 

Is ernail di anacfl. 

^'5 int intlecht L. '-'^^' tre gne E. -'^-- daoctorE. 

^^ caraid L. : carait E. -*^ Am L. Imeolach me na n-imtus E. 

-*-'* L. Ni oenclsen acht it tri cloin B. : Ni haenclasn acht a[t] tri clain E. 


Whoever he be that sings with his understanding, 

Through his intellect rough and dangerous, 

It is difficult and it is troublesome 

To talce account of the Trefocul. Trefocul. 

Trefocul the three words 

A knowledge of its secret is very hard, 

Thirty-six up to this point 

Are found through its species of Gaelic. 

Twelve " errors " of them, 

It is no rhyme vvithout their common metrics, 

No friends to me, O men, are they 

Who separate rewards from praise. 

A wrong oí them I tell at the outset, 

I am sUilled respecting it : 

It is not one wrong but it is three wrongs, 

From which every noble lay is not nobly fair. 

Of "wrong of body" everyone has heard, 
In my verses it wiU not be very usual, 
Besides every difficulty therefrom, 
A "wrong ofrhyme," a "wrong of sense." 

" Wrong of body " is not a wrong without doubt, 
It is ten injuries that it injures [works], 
They levy a debt of praise outside, 
Two purple shields over against it. 

The "wrong of rhyme," fitting are 

Two countenances against the clear defect, 

And two shields behind them, 

Not mean is their full protection. 

Two shields, two countenances of the cheek, 
It is that which protects " a wrong in meaning " ; 
" A text of sense," without sin, 
Is a species of protection. 

^-''* O nach saercam cach saerlaid E. -'"*- nirbo E. 

•j):w Retaeb gan E. : roiaeb B. : rothseb L, '■*'•'** isa x. E. 

-'"•'7 fiachu E. '-'^" gle pudair L. : riasin glanpudair E. 

'*^' na deguid L. •-''»^-' geilli E. '-'"»« as E. dia L. E. 

156 BB. 332a22 AURAICEPT E. 3oa7 

Da ernail ainces rudrach, 
Co nach be in gres glephudrach, 
Tri sceith^ tri gnuisi, gan glor, 
• Aincit in ro[lh]at romor. 2050 

Cuic sceith, tri gnuisi, gan goimh, 
Is ed ainces ar rogair ; 
Oengnuis ainces dimbrig dib, 
Is tengnuis ainces forbrig. 

Oengnuis diten, na ro«-dairt, 2055 

Ainces egnairc fri frecnairc ; 
Sciath marsen ocus gnuis glan 
Aincit uathad fri hilar, 

Nai sceith diten, co nduilgius, 

Aincit uili ecuibdhius ; 2060 

Cia nach labair con a luis, 

Ocus no-ainic íengnuis. 

Na tri gnuisi, gruaid fri gruaid, 

Is maith aincit ecowmuai»» ; 

Ocus da sctath, ni sícb lib, 2065 

Aincit ecowmuaiw n-eitig. 

Ecenel, nocho n-ord mear, 
Non-anaig íengnuis diten ; 
Anocht no-aincet da sciath, 
A beith ranocht is roliath. 

Anocht ainm coitchend cubaid 
Dolean do gach lanphudair ; • 

Int anocht, ni hainm cen cheass, 
Cia ralocht dian ruidles. 

Anocht mas ainm do cach locht, 

Cid dia n-aidera d' oen[l]ocht .^ 

Uair nocho n-aenlocht ce« on, 

Is taebhnocht i Trefocul. Trefocul. 

'^^'■^ nocon he E. '■*•* ainces L. rofhad L. : rofat F. 

•2()5i fairbrig E. '^^ naron-dairt L. : narond dairt E. 

•2053, 9 diten L. : ditin B. 2058 aincid L. 

•3m gej^ duilges E. ^"^" ecuibdes E. 

^i L. gon o luis B. : cun a ¥.. ^^ non-anaig L. : non-anaic E. 




Two lcinds which defend " too many rhymes,-"' 
So that the work be not clearly blundering, 
Three shields, three countenances, without noise 
Defend the excessive " overlong." 

Five shields, three countenances, without anguish, 

It is that which defends against "overshort" ; 

One countenance that wards ofiffrom you " want of emphasis," 

And one countenance that wards ofif " over-emphasis." 

One countenance for defence, lest it cost us a heifer (.?), 
Which defends "an absent to a present" ; 
A shield also and a pure countenance 
Defend "a singular" for "a plural." 

Nine shields of defence, with difificulty, 
Defend all " false rhyme ''' ; 
Though he does not speak with his good taste, 
Seeing that one countenance defends it. 

The three countenances, cheek by cheek, 
Well do they defend "false alliteration '^ ; 
And two shields, ye do not think it deceitful, 
Defend hideous "false alliteration." 

" False gender," it is not a reckless i se, 
Which one guarding countenance defends ; 
Two shields defend "error" 
Lest it should be too bare and too grey. 

" Error " a common harmonious name 

Has clung to every complete blunder ; 

The "error" is not a name without ambiguity, 

Though it is great blemish to which it is peculiar. 

" Error " if it be a name for every blemish, 

Why shall it cleave to a single blemish } 

Since it is not one blemish, without fault, 

That is naked sided in Trefocul. Trefocul. 

2»^" 7 ix. L. E. 2069 non-aincet L. : non-aincit E. 

20-0 roliach L. E. «m radiles L. : dia bo dileas E. 

2"™ n-aidicra aenlocht L. : Cid ma ndubrad re hcenlocht E. 
'•*"** in Trefocul E. 

158 BB. 332a37 AURAICEPT E. 3oa2j 

Sceith is gnuisi fogeib daib 

Amal iccait cach n-anaebh ; 2080 

Dingbaid din, ní socht solam, 

Da locht co fir formol^í/. 

Oenicc ic catut, cen col, 

Is oenícc ic mallrugud ; 

Ni gne mergnima midid, 2085. 

Sei deigdina ic delidnid. 

Aichnid dom' anmain, cen ail, 

Se cabartha 'na conrtíáil, 

Ar asnlocht ainceas a h?en 

Ocus a lan co lanchagm. ^090 

Diabull dingbad din, gu da[/]th 
Na tri lochta co lanmaith ; 
Aincid, ni holc in monor, 
Ar da locht a lugugod. 

Aincit ar da locht, gen log, 2095 

Sserugud is dserugud : 
AÍLCÍt da firlocht masead 
A urard a uiriseal. 

Aincit lorga fuach a bos 

Ar da locht gu lanfhollus : 2100 

Dialt n-etarleimi n-oll 

Icaid da anocht acon«. 

A thelgud nai, niamda a bhlas, 

Is ar da anocht icas ; 

AirichiU fuit is ferr de, 2105 

Ni dingaib dín acht deide. 

A airchill calaid, can cheass, 

Ro«n-anaig ar da ainges 

No dos-díngaib gan tochrus 

Amal atchi cendfoc^r^j. 2110 

2080 itait, n-anaeib L. : n-anaib E. ^**^ dind L. E. solum L. 

•208i ig Qgf) ica E. 

^**" Se deigniwa ic delidhnig L. : Is degsnima is deiligin E. 

2087 <Som menmzin L. ^^ dingbaid dind E. gu daith L. E. 

2093 monar L. E. ^094 ludugad E. ^' lod E. 


Shields and countenances it finds for them 
As they heal every unbeautifui thing ; 
From us, it is not a sudden silence, 
" Hyperbole " wards off two faults truly. 

One remedy has " hardening," without sin, 
And one remedy has " retarding " ; 
It is not a kind of mad act it meditates, 
Six good protections has "metathesis." 

Knovvn to my mind, without reproach, 

Six helps in their "internal division," 

Against one blemish which its "singleness" defends 

And its " fuU " full gracefully. 

"Reduplication" wards off from us, with colour, 

The three blemishes full well ; 

Defends, not iU is the work, 

Against two blemishes its "diminutive." 

Against two blemishes defend, without decay, 
" Ennobling " and " enslaving " : 
Against two veritable blemishes defend indeed 
Its "exaltation" and "humiliation." 

" Staves of words " protect here below 
Against two blemishes fuU plainly : 
A great " interloping syllable " 
With us remedies two "errors."' 

Its "man-throwing," beauteous its taste, 
It is against two "errors" that it heals ; 
" Theft of long " it is the better of it, 
It does not ward off from us save two things 

Its "theft of hard," without doubt, 

Has saved us from two difficulties, 

It wards it off, without winding up of yarn. 

As it sees it, " change of initial and final." 

*«« a urord B. ^■> i fus L. '-i'"--' a conn L. 

-»»•■' L. sealgad B. '•^10« din« L. deighe B. -í"" Airichill chalaid L. 

•2108 ronn-amiig B.: ron-anaid E. ances L. : ainces E. 

210« Ocus dingbaid E, 

l6o BB. 332a5i AURAICEPT E. 30a38 

Dingbaid dichnead tri phudra (col. /3) 
D'ar n-anochtaib anumla 
O dechnead gan tromsnimh tra 
Foirther in comHn cetna. 

Innse mí>í/nocho mod n-olc, 21 1 o 

Nocho n-ai«/g acht aenlocht ; 
Aurlond insci, ainm cubaid, 
Ni ainic acht íenphudhair, 

Is iat sin gnuisi z's sceith, 

D'eicsib nochon at anfheigh ; ^ i ^u 

Ni ma teit du rigi rand 

Cach fili nachasforband. 

D' icc na da fichet, gan ail, 

Frith d'flioghlaib for anochtaib, 

Adharta don righ dos-rat, -125 

Secht g[c]abartha cethrachat. 

Na filid tancadar tall 

Maraen re Tuaith De Danann, 

Rob imda ollam ocaib 

Ag toUadh in Trefocuil. Trefocul. 2130 

Da sciath ainces cl?en creiti, 
Uaim 'sin rand-sa is rochreti, 
Deilidi foclach fíebrach 
Is deilidi s'úlaiacA. 

A airchiU fuit, is feidil, 2135 

Naroi cendfoc/írus deiridh, 
Codut mallrugud measa 
Aincit in claen cuibdhiusa. 

Aincit ar in clasn ceilU 

Lorga fuach, diaU deglemi, 2140 

Ocus cobfighe, cen col, 

Is ernail dia n-anacol. 

-"1 L. pura B. ^"•' iromgnim L. ^n^ Poirther L. : foTt/ter E. : foirid B. 

^i'*^ a«ic ic sccr E. -'"^ anaig: L. "'^" anfeich L. : nocho ga.ta.nd feich E. 
21-1 do righi L. Cat ma E. ^''^ na as forbawd E. 

•^i'-^i d'fodlaib L. : o foglaib E. ^^"^'^ A da trian E. 

-1-"« cabartha L. E. ceathrachat E. ^^'^ marsen la L. 


" Losing a final" wards off three blunders, 
Of our disobedient " errors," 
By " doubling a final," without heavy sorrow, too, 
The same equal number is assisted. 

*^ Afoíí speech," it is not an evil mode, 
Does not protect but one blemish ; 
" Prefix of gender," harmonious name, 
Uoes not protect save one blunder. 

These are countenances and shield^ 
To sages they are not unsharp ; 
Not well goes to stretch verses 
Any poet that does not carry them out. 

To pay the two score, without reproach, 
Which are found of damages on blunders, 
Worshippings to the King Who gave them, 
Seven and forty helps. 

The poets that came over 

Along with the Tuath De Danann, 

There was many an Ollave with them 

Malcing holes in the Trefocul. Trefocul. 

Two shields which defend " wrong of body," 
From me in this verse it is greatly to be believed, 
" Metathesis " of sharp-edged words 
And "metathesis" of svllables. 

Its "theft of a long," it is constant, 
That there may not be its "change ofa final" ; 
"Hardening," "retarding," of measure 
Defend the " vvrong of rhyme." 

Against the "wrong of sense" defend 
"Staves of words," "a well-leaping syllable," 
And " perfected sense," without sin, 
Is a species of defending them. 

-'■•^ 'sa ruinnsa L. : sa randsa E. ^ujs, 4 deilide L. : deiledu E. 

213* siUcebach L. E. '■^'•■^' is fedil L. : feidil E. : feidhin B. 

-'"■* Na ra L. Octis E. "^'^ measa L. : mesa E. : masea B. 

■í\m claena cuibdesa L. -^3'* Aingit arin. ar cloena celli E. '^^ ecnail E. 


i62 BB. 332,315 AURAICEPT E. 30 a 52 

Cach rand romilleadh immaig 

A Uus rudraighe i rrandaib, 

Rudhrach noco n-airisead 214o 

Dar urard, dar uirisel. 

Na da condail mar itclos 

Na da airichiU i fos, 

Na dichneda, Dia dos-rat, 

Tarso noco ria rofat. 2150 

Formolad, diabul, cen on, 
Telgudh noe, ocus lugugud 
Uaitighit cdxh rogair rib 
Lorga diaUa, deichnid. 

Saerugud doine in domain 2155 

Ar dimbrig is degcobair, 
Dserugud gach duini dib 
Nos-aincenn uili ar forbrig. 

^n ainces ar ilar ndan, 

Ar uathad ainces a lan, 2160 

Ecnairc fri frecnairc co fir 

Indsce modh ica mordhin. 

Aincit ecuibdius a fir, 

Formolad, da delidin, 

Telgud noe, niamhda in monor, 2165 

Condail litr/, lughugud. 

Airichill calaid, mo chean, 

A dichned, is a dheichnedh. 

Da dehdin, diabul des, 
Foirit ecommuaim n-indles, 
Ocus na-foiret hi fus 
Deicned, dicned, cendfochrus. 


Ecenel airmidir an^, 

Is luath non-anaigh aurland. 

Aingit ar anocht ria head 2175 

Diabul, aurard, auriseal. 

21*6 L. airis hed B. : nos-rihed E. "'*® fuit i fos L. : fuair os B. 

2wa dos-rot B. '^^^ L. decobair B. 

21" derughugud B. -i^* L. uili a B. 2159 \\^^ nan L. 


Every verse has been destroyed utterly 
With respect to "excess of rhymes" in verses, 
" Excess of rhyme " would not abide 
Despite " exaltation," " humiliation."' 

The two " internal divisions," as was heard, 
The two " thefts " here below, 
The " losings of finals " God gave them, 
Beyond these "over long" will not reach. 

" Hyperbole," " reduplication," without blemish, 
" Man-throwing," and " diminutive," 
They make rare each " over short " before you 
" Staves of syllables," " doubling of fínals." 

" Ennobling " of the world's men 

Against " want of emphasis," it is a good help, 

" Enslaving " every man of them 

Helps them all against "over emphasis." 

" Unity " defends against " plural " in the poems, 
Against "singleness" its "fuU" defends, 
"An absent to a present" verily, 
" il/í>^ speech " for its great defence. 

Against "false rhyme" defend, oh man I 

" Hyperbole," " two metatheses," 

" Man-throwing," omamental the work, 

" Internal division " of letters, " diminutive." 

" Theft of hard," O happy one ! 

Its "losing of final," and "doubling of final." 

Two " metatheses," right "reduplication" 
Help unlawful " false alliteration," 
And these help it here below 
" Doubling," " losing," "change of final." 

" False gender" is taken account of there, 
Quickly aurland " prefix " defends it. 
Against "error" to some extent protect 
"Reduplication," " exaltation," "humiliation." 

2ia> L. In se mod ica moroiw B. : A innsi mod 'ca mordin E. 

^«« diabail deis E. •-'"« focrait E. '^''^ forfed E. i bus L. E. 

-'"■' airmithir L. E. -'"•' ar n-anaig E. 2'"' Aincit L. re L. E. 

104 BB. 332^30 AURAICEPT 

MiUiud [remi L.] gach reim n-olc, 
Do ni ainm ni acht anocht ; 
Lemm ni gleaccí/r a gait 

Asin trefhocul tacrait. 1. 1. f. 2180 

Do dhligegaibh dunta na nduan inso sis. 

Dunta for nduan decid lib, 

A ges in dana dlighthig, 

Cest, nocho caingen falaigh 2185 

In daiwgen ros-dunsabair. 

Menip dunta cach duan dron 

Cia locht isin Trefhocul ? 

Air is e tall rostecair 

Lochta imda airchetail. 2190 

Mini dunta a duan ndmnain 
Csic/i fer dona filedaibh, 
Cia heraic dlegair uaid ind, 
On fir doni in laid lanbinn? 

Cia ainm cach dunta dibh sein 2195 

Sluinnet na baird dia mbraithiib? 
Caisted cach, cluined in fis, 
Meni fliuilet 'na a«fis. 

Comiwdsma do Donc/chad Do, 

Ascnam Dond, im cach deglo, 2200 

Saighid so, is e in slicht amra, 

Dondchadh int ainm ollamda. 

Ascnam iar saigid suairc [modh L.], 

" Dondcad dia fich [in domon L.],'" 

Uaim do rind " Don</chud na ndrech, 2205 

Dia fich in domun daightheach." 

In inund dunad dlegair 

P'inntar ona filedaid, 

Ar curp na duai«e 'na ndan 

'S ar in iarcomarc n-imslan. 2210 

21" MiUid roime E. : remmi B. -"* Do nach frith ainm E. 

21-9 Lem gniwaib legair a ngait E. accur L. ^isojsaE. 218í-l'íd9 £. <,„,• 
218:' dechaid lib L. ^isí diigthig L. ^iss sin i L. 


Destruction of flexion is every bad flexion, 

For it there is no name but "error" ; 

I have no clear desire that it shoiild be pilfered 

Out of the Trefocul which thev plead. Trefocul. 

Of the Laws for closing Poems here below. 

Consider the closings of your poems, 
Ye people of the lawful art. 
Query, it is not a question of concealing 
Whether firmly ye have closed them. 

Unless every compact poem is closed, 
What fault is in the Trejocul? 
For it is that which has put them away of old, 
MaTiy fauhs of poetry. 

Each man of the poets, 

Unless his vigorous poem be closed, 

What fine for it is due from him, 

From the man who makes the full pleasant lay? 

What is the name of each close of these 
Which the bards name to their brethren .'' 
Let each one listen, let him hear the lcnowledge, 
Unless he would remain in his ignorance. 

The comindsma to Dondchadh (Duncan) is " Do," 
The ascnam, "Dond" on each fair day, 
The saigid (is) this, it is the famous version, 
Dondchadh the Ollave name. 

Ascnam (approach) after full approach is a pleasant mode, 
" Dondchadh through whom the world boils," 
Uaim do rind (alliteration at end) " Duncan of the many hosts, 
Through whom boils the fiery world." 

Whether the same close is due 

Let it be found out by the poets, 

For the body of thc duan in their poem, 

And for the complete conclusion. 

•^18« ros-teacail L. -^'-^ in airchedail L. ■-''•" duain ndreamhain L. 

219« 'na ainfis L. ■-'i»»-220fl /;-, jexte, iii. 29, 26 ; 39, 33 -^*" in cach L. 

•-'•-'"•' ndrec B. '^^ Findum L. ~^^ n-imlan L. 

l66 BB. 332/346 


Saighit[h], ascnam, uaim do rind, 
Dunait curpu duan, derb lind ; 
Cach iarcomarc is gloir glan, 
Comi«dsma is coir dia ndunad. 


A £ES dana in domain tiar tair 

Eter Erinn is Albain, 

Ni dleghait seoto sona 

Cach duaine na ba dunta. d. 


d. d. 


Da cuincead neach a ndliged 

Cia lin dam na firfhiled 

For feacht feili, for cai cuir, 

For gnathlessaib, for fledaibh : (333). 


Ceathrur ar fichit iar fir 
Fecht feili ollaman righ, 
Ochtur for caei, cen chessa, 
Da fer dec fria gnathleassa. 


Deichenbhur fri fleadha fuair 
Dlegair do in ghleiri caemshluaigh, 
It e sin fri bagha bladh, 
Ceithri damha in ollaman. 


Da fer dec d' anruth donfa, 
Coicfhiur fer fria gnathlessa, 
Seissiur for coe, caemthuit cluidh, 
Ochtar iar fir fri fleadaibh. 

Tobair do chli ar a dhan 
Ochtar, uasal a fordamh, 
Seser for fleadaibh na fess, 
Coicer cae, cethrar gnathless. 



Seissiur du canait, na ceil, 
For cach feaclit feili feithith, 
Cethrar for fleadaib fessa, 
Triur cas, dis fri gnathlessa. 

■^12 is derb B. : is L. om. 
-^" seotu L. 
■■^'^•^ Coicer L. 


■^" da L. '---''s in domain L. Pm. 

■•^' chuir L. ■-—•'■ c.ic, chesa L. 

223;!, 9 Seiser, cx L. 


" FuU approach," "approach," " alliteration at end" 

Close bodies of poems, it is plain to us ; 

Every concluding word, it is a pure glory, 

Repetition of first syllable is due to their close. Closed. 

Ye poets of the world, West and East, 

Both in Ireland and in Scotland, 

They deserve no lucky treasures 

For every poem that wiU not be [properly] closed. Closed. 

If any one ask the law 

What is the number of a company of the true poets 

On a journey of entertainment, upon the road of a circuit, 

For customary needs, for feasts : 

Twenty-four verily 

[For] a journey of entertainment of a royal Ollave, 

Eight for a circuit, without anguish, 

Twelve men for customary needs. 

Ten for prepared feasts 

Are due to him, the choice of learned people, 

For glorious contests are these, 

The OUave's four companies. 

Twelve men vvill fall (?) to a poet of the second order, 
Five men for their customary needs, 
Six for a circuit, scholars of renown, 
Eight verily for feasts. 

Give to a poet of the third order íor his song 

Eight, noble his great company, 

Six for feasts of knowledge, 

Five for a circuit, four for customary needs. 

Six to a poet of the fourth degree, hide it not, 
For every journey of entertainment pjovide ye, 
Four for feasts of knowledge, 
Three for a circuit, two for customary needs. 

•■;-•• Tabair L. -"■' Seiser L. '^ fethid L. 

■^» Seachtnar (vii) B. ^^ L. Triur cadais B. 

l68 BB.333all AURAICEPT 

Ceathrur do dus, damh as deach, 

Is triur fri fleada fiW, 

Dias for coe, ria meass dun mhal, 2245 

Is fria leass a asnuran. 

Triar for fecht feili dofhidh, 

Dam thoga do mac fuirmidh, 

Dias for fleadhaibh, co fathach, 

Oen coe, oen leas roghnathach. 2250 

Ni theis dar diis iar sin, 
In da daim do fochlocain, 
^n for coe, oen for fleid fead, 
Oen fria leassa : dia cuinged. 

Dia cuincead neach a ndiigedh cia. 2255 

Ftmt Amenfinit Solamh ODroma noniine scripsit. 

L. y[.wxc\\ertach riabach O Cuindlis do scrib so da 
aide diles -i- do Mac Fhirbisig 7 ar mbennacht leis da 

-'^•" is L. 2345 cíE, don mal L. ••^" tboga L. 

— ■''^ tar, iar sain L. ^a-is jjj^^ fochlu cain L. '^'" cDe, fed L. 



Four to a poet of the fifth degree, a band which is best, 

And three for feasts of poets, 

Two for a circuit, to be adjudged to the poet, 

And for his needs one alone. 

Three for a journey of hospitaIity on which he goes, 
A chosen company for a poet of the sixth degree, 
Two for feasts, with cleverness, 
One for a circuit, one for quite customary needs. 

Thou shalt not exceed two after that, 
The two companies to poets of the seventh degree, 
One for a circuit, one for a feast provide thou, 
One for his needs : if any one ask. 

If any one ask the lavv what. 

Finit, Amen.finit^ Solomon O'Droma nomine scripsit. 

L. Muircheartach Riabhach O'Cuindlis wrote this for 
his faithful fosterer MacFirbis, and for his blessing besides. 


YBL. 219 a 23 Eg. 63 I b 26 

Incipit eraicept na n-Biges í- eraicept, uaír er gach 2260 
ts.o\seack: aicicht dono -i- icht aici, ar is i n-aici bios in 
deisgiop/^/ agin maigister ; no dono aicept, z'd est, acceptus, 
airiti cugad \ná «eiche nach bfil ogat : na n-eiges i- na nai 
gan ches -i- na bfiW. Cid [Eg. diana] tois^ac// so? Ni 
ansa. Don teipi doteip^í/ asin^Gaoid//^, oir iss ed X.o\seach 2265 
•Axúcht la Fenius ier dtiachtain gusan sgoil amuigh. 
Gach son do na hawmcht ca.\rechta.\re J gach son for- 
dhorcha ropui in gach beusgna J in gach berla, fofrith ionad 
doibh isin Gaidilc, conid aire sin is forlethi quani gach 
mbesgna : er gach toiseach Aano, uair is hed is toiseacha 2270 
lasna filedha, cech son fordorcha duo riachtain i tossach 
•i- bethe-luis-ni« an ogaim ar bithm a ndorchtí-zV/eta. Cest, 
cie tugait ar a n-ab^?rberla tob/í/i don Gaoidilc ? Ni ansa. 
Uair as gach perla roteip^c/, J gach son fordorcha roboi 
in cech beusgna, fofrith ionad doibh isin nGaoidhilc ar a 2275 
forleithe sech gech mbeusgna. Cest, dono, in raibi 
Gaidelc resiu rotopcrc/? Ropuoi eimh. [Caidi a deimh- 
niugud ? Eg. o/u.] Ar ni fagbaigté';' in dá berla sechtmogat 
[ceana Eg. ;] gan in Gaoidilc. Ceithri hanmanwa dono 
for Goid/Zc- docom nuibir a ranna no coma[d] ainm gach 2280 
primberla dona tri primberlaib -i- Ebra J Gret'g J Laidin, 
7 ainm diiis o Gao'iá/u/ -i- Gaoidelg, ud dixsit : 

[Ticalod a hEbrad aird, 

Is nialot a Greig glegairg, 

Legulus a Laitin le, 2285 

Tinoltach fir a fine. 

Eg. ■'"'^ ineich -•** don sgoil giisna berla amuig 

172 YBL. 219^45 AURAICEPT Eg. 63 2a4 

In berla teip/^i tric 

Roleasoig Gaoidel (col. (i) glanglic, 

Uatha do tsiol Gaoidil gairg 

Duine aga mbia a firainm. 2290 

Gaoidel aderaitsim fris 
Lucht timeolai's is ainpfis, 
Ni neasa dho Gaoid^/glic 
Indas do gach ealg o'náei'rc. 

Ma hail dam a radh fri cach 2295 

Co (rubh) [co] follus an fath, 

It iat re garmain gan gai 

Cethri hanmanrt'a an berla[i]. E^: otn.] 

Cest, cíe tir a rugad Gaoidelc? Ni ansa. A iiEigeipt. 
Eí cie hairm sonnradach a ruccad ? Ni ansa. I muig 2300 
Uga a rand iart//(7/'deisgert(?;^// na hEigipti. Cest, cie 
don sgoil dochwiTz^ co suidhe? Ni ansa. Gaidel mac 
Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do Gregaiph Sgeithia. 
Cest, cie méud don-uccrr^/di. Ni ansa. A huiletaighie cen- 
motha indi dotormachtadí?/' filid trie fordorcha ier dtorr- 2305 
acJit^Xn co Fen///i'. Cest, cie berla don da berlaib secht- 
mogat rotaisealp(7c/ do Fenius i Mío^acJi ? Ni ansa. Berla 
Feine -i- Gaidí'/c, ar is he Gaidí'/ pa tocha leis die sgoil, ct 
is he ron-alt asa oighe no asa oidig, ct is he pa soam don 
sgoil, 7 ar a íorlethe sech cech mbeusgna r/is he berla tois- 2310 
ech rucad on tuor 7 ropoi eimh Ebra 7 Grr/g 7 Lait/// la 
Feinius riesiu this(7^on Sgeithia ct ni rainig a leas a \\-ai{ty 
denamh icc in tor, conid aire sin is 'íoisecJi^. rotaisealpad, 
Cest, nach raibi isna berlaiph ni bud uaisl/// do riachtr?/// 
qiiaiii in Gaoidelc? Ni ansa. Ar a cuibhdi, ar a hetruime, 2315 
ar a forleithe, ar a mine. Cest, cidh ar madh forlethe quaiii 
cech mbesgna ? Ni ansa. Ar is he cetna besgna rugad 
on tor, 7 pa mete co mad lethe quain cech mbesgna conid 
aon die taiselp^'í/ a \.o'~,acJi. 

^8-«'>8CZ.x. 134, 17 --''"' garmaimVBL. '^'*^^'\^x\.zx -'"Monnucedi -n-.> ^^ jms. 

YBL. 219/325 AURAICEPT Eg. 6321125 173 

Caite Log et Aimsear et Persa et Tucait Sgribinn na 2320 
Gaoideilge ? Ni ansa. Tor Nemruaid c^/us Locus Faci- 
\é\ndi^ ar is aici \xx\cJit a tos^cZ'. Ocus aimser di 
aimser cwvaáaig an tuir la cloinn Adaim. Persa di 
Sacap mac Ruicimorcus, uair is he rodus-fucc on tuor 7 
Gaoidel mac Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do 2325 
Gregaip Sgeithia. A tugait sgribhinn tour Nemruaid do 
chumdach. Esmberat araile conid tugait di Gaidel do 
duola isin tir a rugad he, fobith is he \.o\'s,ecJi rosgribh a 
dtaiphhbh 7 a lecaiph isin lucc tsenrcrc/ach dienat ainm 
Calcaneinsis. Is and rosgriph Gaoidel in Gaid//r, no dono 2330 
is he Sacab mac Ruicimorcus rosgribustar, 7 adberait 
araile comad aonleapar int Uraicept uile, 7 comad he 
so a log-aimser. 

Cidh ara \\-d.^ai\liar besgna doumanda don Gaedilg 7 
nach di ata briathar lasna hecwrtdaibh eolchu ? Ni ansa. 2335 
lersinní aisní'c/es do cestaibh 7 do caingnibh domundu iter 
thuaith et eclrt/í. Cid ar a n-abar co mad borb fie[d] Dia 
inti leighius Gaedilc? Ni di ^Xa briathí^r sund, acht do 
uiledetaidh na feallsamnachta iter gramatíz^^ 7 dilliochtc?/^ 
7 rim, ut dixit poeta : 2340 

Foglaim feallsamnacht[a] is fas, 
Leigeand, gramatach is gluas, 
Literdacht leir ocus rim, 
Is bec a mbrigh for nim tsuas. 

Cest, nach feallsamnacht an Gaidelc ? Ni hedh eter acht 234.5 
a ndmiaid mion-(22o) ughdair fri deredh an domain 
ar tuccait derscaighti sech na hugdaraiph toisecha. No 
is ed is beusgna domunda and 7 is feallsamnacht dimain -i- 
ind erritacht et an aimiris dogni nech a n-agaid na firinne 
diadha 7 daon;^a, 7 iss ed sin is borb fia[d] Dia [anti 2350 
leighius Gaedilc no Eg. om.] andaidi. Cidh ar a ndebert 
aipcitir -i- eibi ioc duar -i- ic focul, ar ni hi iocus na ioc/u 

■^-•* sainredach -'••'' and<|idhthi ( = and aridhthi) 

1/4 YBL. 220a5 AURAICEPT Eg. 63 2 b 8 

acht is iad na íocail nus-icainn-si. Is he [focul Eg.'] itbert 
sund -i- rand, tit est: 

Cie duar donesa nath. 2355 

Aaspearat tra ughdair na nGaoidel dano. Cidh ar a 
ndepertsim : asberad na hugdair robatar roimhe, uair 
is he Cendfaolad arainic in leapar-sa -i- ^ro\ach i[n]d 
Uraic[e]pt[a] 7 ugdair [na nGaidel Eg.l dano, rob iad-siden 
Yenms VarsaidJi 7 lar mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisle na 2360 
haimsire isrup^rt -i- aimser frecnairc, uair geipzV/ an aimsir 
frecnairc for na huih'^ aimseraiph \íit dicitnr : presens 
teuipus pro omni tonpore ponitiir. Samaigt//^;- in aimsir 
fhrecnairc for na huil/<^ aimsir//5 Eg.l. 

Cinnus on 7 he da radha int aonfoc/// a mbit na da 2365 
sill^iv'a nach gcantar a n - aonaimsir, nt dicitnr, lego -i- 
legaim, quando dicis \e- futurunt est -go, preteiretuvi est le- 
quattdo dicis -go •l intan raidhi in siWad toiseac/t, to- 
dochaidi cugut in sillab deighinach et sechmatu sechat 
in sillab toiseach. [Deitbir on Eg.] amal isbert in Lait- 2370 
neoir : Tempus non dividitur sed opera nostra diuiduntur i- 
nocha n-í ind aimser fogailter and acht metugud aimsire 
bis iter na siWaba, no ar ngnimrad-ne feisin : no dano is 
fr^íTra dona hugdaraiph robatar a n-aonaimsir ris fein t?/c 
Cendfaolrtíf in tan ispert asperat ughdair na nGaidel. 2375 
Cid ar a dtugs(?m a sound ar tus sech na guthaigi aili ? 
Ni ansa. Ar is i as sruithi a bfedhaib 7 is uaisle a nguthai- 
ghaiph 7 is i cetlapra cech pi -i- a, 7 i^o^tadh cech mairph 
• i- aclL Asperdis na cetughdair, asperat na hughdair 
deighencha : Comba si tugait airic in perla Feine gnim 2380 
n-ingnath -i- nemgnathach ar a ainminci, n-indlig///^í-// i- 
ar a uaiphrigi forcaomnaccair isin áontun ■i- cumdach tuir 
]^entruaid -i- do triall dola ior neam ina gcorpaiph 
daon«a gan comairleigud fria Die. Nemruad itsin dono 

2^ blolach with r under first 1 ^aee siHaeba ^"'^ sechmat?^ ^"'^ n-i an 
•2373 grimroigne '-^"^ n YBL. aili Eg. om. ^ss-i ^j^ ^^^^^ 2394 jnsin 

YBL.220a3i AURAICEPT Eg. 63 2b4o 175 

treníer tsil Adawi uile ina aimsir fein e -i- Nemruadh 2385 

mac Quis meic Caim [meic] Nai. Ni pi ierum aonri forsin 

doman go haimsir Nin meic Peil acht mad comsLÍrUd J h 

toist'c/i namá batar and co sin anall. Da comairlzrt' 

sechtmogat ierum robatar isinn aimsir sin isin doman a 

ndernadh in tor J pa he indara comairlzflf sechtmogat 2390 

Nemruad. Trenfear iarum ind [N]emruad sin, fer án 

occ seilg -i- for aighiph [-i- coip Eg:] J íor [f]ieduch -i- 

for milaib trachta muigi, 7 airrcheis -i- for mucaip allta, 

7 air;nielaib -i- for eunaiph. Co mbitis sochaide do 

daoinip oca \&nmain, co m[b]a lie samlaidh -i- a 2395 

s\ogaibh 7 co mba nertmaire -i- iim. coXaind fein s^mXaidJí 

oldas cach, conid he dorimart in da comairl/V/ sechtmogat 

isinn aoncomairli, do denam an tuir, la hua brathar a 

athar -i- la Faillec mac Regua meic Arafaxat meic Seim 

meic Nai, 7 pa he sin an dara comairlid sechtmogat 2400 

chena co sin anall, 7 isberatsum ierum co mba he an 

comairlid 7 co mba ^ontoisecJi doiph (col. /3) uile in 

Faillec. Is imcom^irc sund anmanda in da fer sechtmogat 

lasa ndernad in tor ; acht chena ni airmit sgribenda acht 

anmanda na se bfer ndec ba airecam diph, edon Faillec, 2405 

Nemr«<7í/, Eiber, Laiti«[u]s, Ribat, Nabgaton, Asur, Ybath, 

Loncbard, Bodbus, Britus, Germanus, Garad, Sgithus, 

Bardanius, Sardain. [ler ndilz'ww 7 ier n-aicc;/^^acht chena 

is he Neamruad in cetri : is he cetri ier n-ealad^'/;/ in P^aiIIrt 

reimraiti. Is he immorro Eg. onii\ iar n-ughdaras in cetri 2410 

Nin mac Peil meic Ploisg meic Piliris meic Agamolis meic 

Fronoisis meic Gitlis meic Trois meic Asuir meic Seim 

meic Naei. Is he immorro flaith lasa ndernadh in 

tor -i- Faillec mac Regua meic Arafaxat meic Seimh meic 

Noi : uel Faillec mac Eber meic Saile meic Arafaxat 2415 

meic Naoi. Asan panaictti, id est, propriuin noinen lipri 

tuccad in g\uas coir. Adcuodsuwí dano indi sin [ad- 

••»« sil ■-'^ airnel«/-5 -«•" YBL. xx. 2407 Bodlibu'^ 

'•"12 Gither -^"' panaC.i ■-^'' adqod«íu/« YBL. 

1/6 YBL. 220/3I2 AURAICEPT £g. 64 1 u 24 

codasti;« dano anisin. Aspí'/i; Neuirttad comad a ainm 
sin forbeith ant saoirsi sin go brath. Adrodimes do;/i3 
dosum anísin Eg.'\ o ua brathar a athar o ímWter go 2420 
mad tor Nemruaid he ar chena. Tred'i ar a ndernadh 
in tor la cloui;;^ [Adaim Eg^^ •{• ar uaman na dilend 
moire do \ho\geac/it doridhise, ar ni rocr^^siot do derp- 
airdip De -i- do sduaigh nime, 7 do dol doiph ina 
gcorpaip daonda for nem do talmain •!• comadh arad 2425 
fr^'jgaphala doip dochum nime 7 d' oirrdercugud 
anmand in VcúdMaig lasa ndernad an tor dara n-eisi, 
conid e sin itbert Ri nime fri muinter neime : Ueniti 
Ht vidanms et confonndanius lingas eoruni -'x' taoit co 
raufegam 7 co romelírc/^/naigem 7 co robuaidrem 7 co 2430 
rasgaoilem a dtengta impo. Pa mor tra cumachta tsil 
háaini 7 a nert ag denam in tuir cona festaois ierum 
in roibhi cumachta Righ neime uais tis. Romesgaighti 
ierum impo int aonberla poi oca •i^ goÍrtig//;mi, cona 
roaithn^^ nech dip berla aroile •i- antan adbered nech 2435 
dip 'tuc cloich dam' is crand doberti dho. [Dethbir on, ar 
ni do clochaib na do chrandaib doroigned an tor acht do 
cria[i]dh tsuaiti 7 do bidm<7/;;. Cinnus on, oir intan adb^;^[t] 
nech diph 'tuc cloich dam' is cran« adberedh do. Eg. om.] 
Ni ansa. Na leca fora suaiti in cr^ 7 na (orchuda. frie 2440 
s;//te is iat sin clocha J cran;;a noimluaidis etorra. 
Ashe ir áono : 

, Da aicce for sechtmogha[i]d 

Arim suas frie gnim ngaphaz^ 

Iter aol is bitouma/« 2445 

Ocus talmain is tathlí/zA 
ut est : 

Oel, ola and ocus fuil, 

Cre, uisgi, ros, Hn lancuir, 

Tuis, mirr, bitomain co mbuaid, 2450 

Noi n-adhbair in iuir Nemruaid. 

^•" dilinne -^*' uaistib ^4« forquda -^ Is (-ocus) 


YBL. 220^33 AURAICEPT Eg. 64ib6 1/7 

Dolotar tra filedha ímda asin Sgeithia reib chianaiph 
iarna gnimaiph sin do foghlíz/w na n-ilperla ogcon tour, 
ar dorui;//net<2r maigm as rofoghl<?mti accus a n-aírneachta 
na hilberla do tsil Adaim, robatar and ier gcomloinntius. 2455 
Doloutar ierum co magh Senair -i- mag in rocumóac/ií 
in tor, coicc^r sechtmogat lion na sgoile -i- fer gech 
berla 7 saoi gacha primberla diph sin dona [tri E^:] 
primberlaib -i- Eaphra, Greig, Laitin. Ceithri berla 
sechtmogat as gach primberla dipsin, iss ed rofoghlrt'rt' and, 2460 
co n-athgaprt// na primberla. Filz'ía' do radh riu, uair 
doboi filideacht osgarda acu cen co raibi filidecht e/adnac/i : 
no is filideacht ealsLánac/i ropui acu in tan sin et is ierum 
aricht filideacht osgarda J is iadside doniat Gaidelcho. 

Feinius Farrsaidh ainm a tois?^ -i- mac 'Eogain meic 2465 
Glunfind meic Lamfind [meic Agn<2;;/ain E^'.] mcic Toi 
meic Semair [meic Mair E^.} meic Eiteachta meic Urtechta 
meic Abosth meic (221) Aoir meic hescr meic Seth meic 
Sru meic Esru meic Baith meic Ribath meic Goimeir meic 
laffeith meic Naoi meic Laimfiach. 2470 

Pau saoi sidhein isna tri primberla cidh riesiu tisad 
atuaidh. O na hairnig iarum Fem'iís comlainius na 
n-ilperla agin tuor, forfodaz'/ a sgola et a deisgipla uad 
fo crichaib J fo cendadhachaibh bfer dtalman for gach 
leith do foghlaim na n-iolperla, 7 nosnothrustar -i- 2475 
adfoirith^í'/ uais, Fenius iet ider biathad et etugud in gcein 
patar agin foghlaim -i- vii mbliadhna na foghlama 7 tri 
bliadhna in taispenta cona[d] detc/i samlaidh ; occus anais 
Fem'us icin tor in n-airit sin 7 roaitr^^ and co dtorrachtadar 
[a E^-.] sgo/a. cuige as gach aird, conid desin asbersim i 2480 
ccurp lipair : I gcionn (/e/c/i mbliadan ier sgaoikí3' on 
tor for gach leth, is and doreib€<af in Gaedelg. Isperat 
araile ughdair nat pui nech do cloinn lonain meic 

-^ comlaintes ^456 rocumdoch 2^' el-n, YBL. eladns 

34W isjde 2468 Aboith 2469 QqIh 2478 taispcnusa 


178 YBL. 22iai3 AURAICEPT Eg. 64ib34 

lafeth meic Nai die xocmetar Gregaig et die rochin Fenius 

a[c] cumdach an tuir et patar siol Nai olchena. Deithper 2485 

oun, ar ni raiphe in mac sin ag leffeth mac JVoi, 7rl. 

[Cest caiti ^^in ¥e{nius} Ni ansa. Fenius mac Baath 

meic Maghach meic laffeith meic Nai /rl. Eg.'\ Berla 

nEpraide tantuin roboi isin doman re cumdach an tuir 

7 is si da«í? bies da«í? ier mbrath, et isberat araile co 2490 

mad edh nobeth la muinntir nime, Pa haonberla boi isin 

doman ititan rogabsat, da berla dec is tri fichit tan ro- 

sgarsat, ut est: — 

Goirtigern ainm an berla 

Rophui ag mac De [den Eg.^ deghergna, 2495 

Ociis ag sil Adaim uair 

Rie cumdach an tuir 'Keinruaid. 

Perla n-Ebrazí/e dano cidh o rabainmniged ? Ni ansa. 
Is he Eber ainm in toisigh rocoimeiustah'- he iar sgaoikí/ 
na mberla, ar ba he an dara comairlid sechtmogat roboi ag 2500 
deanam an tuir no aga cumdach, et is aca aonur áovxxdiXaid 
an berla dorad Die [dorat Dia Eg.'\ do Aáain, conid de 
sin dogarar in berla nEbraidi -i- berla nEb^rdoigi innsin : 
no Abraim -i- siol xAprahaim i- berla n^h^'aide dono. ler 
dtieachtain tra dona deisgioblaibh co Fenius on íog\\\aim 2505 
•i- ier dtaispenadh i gcuarta -i- a n-imtheachta 7 ^ ngresa 
•i- a bfoglama, is and conaitciotar cusin saoi -i- go Fenius 
berla na beth ag nech aile do theip/« doibh as na hilperlrt//;, 
acht comad accc? a n-aonar nobeith, conid airesin 3.x\cht 
doiph in berla tohaidi cona f(í»rtor;;z[('?<;///']aiph -i- berla Feine 2510 
cona fortorm[acht]aiph 7 iarmberla et berla n-etarsgarta 
iter na fedhaiph airedhaibh amal doruirmisim isin Duil 
Fedha Mair, id est, novien lipri, J berla na bfiled asa 
n-aigillzV cach diph a cheile 7 in gnathberla fogní do chach 
iter fira 7 mhna. Gaidé'/ mac Eitheoir meic Taoi meic 2515 
Barachai;^ do Gregaib Sgeithia in dara sai roboi ag coime- 

-^**' cf. Keat. Hisf. ii. xv. 12-15 ; Rawl. B. 502, p. 69, 24 
24a5 Dopoi, dethergna '■"'•^ tur '^'•'^'^ doruirmisum, Duile 

YEL. 2-'ia36 AURAICEPT Eg. 64 2 a 17 1/9 

tacht Feniusa, conid uad rohainmniged Gaedelc -i- elg -i- 
oirrderc indsin -i- Gaedel ros-oirdercaigh. Gaoidel Glas mac 
Agnoin meic Gluinfind meic Laimfind [int en Eg.'\ brathair 
athár do Fenius 7 ba saoi sidien áono cidh edh e, Is edh 2520 
sidhe dono dorothluigestar in berla so go Gaoidel mac 
Ethiuir 7 conadh Gaoidelc o Gaidel mac Ethiuir 7 Gaid^/<f o 
Gaoidel mac Aingin no go madh o Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil 
meic Feniusa Farrsaidh rohainmniged Gaidel. Is he sin 
a fhir. Berla Yeine tra arricht so sound, eí iarmberla, 2525 
7 berla n-etarsgarta iter [na Eg-^ fedhaib airedhaib ind 
ogaim, 7 berla na bfiled in cethramrtí/, 7 i^i gnathperla 
fogni do chach in cuicced. Feníus Farsaidh tra mac 
Eog<r/« et ler mac Nema et Gaoidel mac Eithiuir na tri 
saidhi doreibsit in berla-sa ocon lug tsainredach á'ienaá ainm 2530 
Euateno siicuitas zxXacht príus. Caitet anmanda in da cenel 
sechtmogat o rafoghlí^/«ti na hilberla? Ni ansa : Ut sunt 
hic .' Beithm, Sgeithi«, Sgouit, Germain, Gaill, Point, Paim- 
p//, Moiet, Morann, Luigdin oic, Ircair, Sgill, Siccir, Ciclait, 
(col. /3) Coirsic, Creit, Sarda/w, Sig//, Reit, Reicir, Roait, 2535 
Romain mas, Masg«j-a, Mair, Maicidoin, Morcain nair, náir 
mais, Narmaint, Nombith brais,Britain, Boit mais.Magoig, 
Armaint, am«/5 gairg, Galus, Actaiw, Acai;/, Tesail airt, 
WXain., Alp<?/«, Ircair og, Etail, Espain, Guit, Goith, grin?/e 
sair, Affrainc, Freisin, Longbaird, Laidich, Laicdemo/;/, 2540 
Eisil, Tragianda, Traig, Dardain, Dalmait, Daic, Eithiop, 
Egiptda, Indecda, Braghmaint. Perla sain tra cech cinel 
dip so, fer tra cech perla dhiph sin, iss ed rofoghlad and. 
Pa he lion na sgoile, et na tri saidhe, rofaid^í/ o Fenius 
cech fer diph fria berla. Ni cech comchin/«//dono dochuaid 2545 
and dochum a criche don foghl<^/;;/ acht is commberlaig, 
amal rogabh Cai Cainbr^///ach, dalta Feniusa Farsaidh, 
in dara deisgipul sechtmogat nasgoile, pa do Eaphr^í/aiph 
a bunad et pa go hEcipta rofaided, fobith pa hand patar a 
tuisdigi 7 pa hand ron-alt 7 tuargpad asa aididh, conid aire 2550 

^** Sicir *'■*" mais Mesgail mair '^^^ araais 

i8o YBL.22i^i5 AURAICEPT 

[sin Eg.] asp^ri gcurp lipair : Is cech comberla dochuaid 
dochum a criche 7 ni cech comchineoil. Secht mbliadna 
robatar na deisgipuil forsin gcuairt sin, 7 teora bliadna 
doiph ag taíspenadh a ngresa a bos iar dtiacht comdar a 
deic/i samlaidh, conid desin asbertsim tsis i curp lipair : i 2555 
cind deic/t mbliadan iar sgailed doiph on tour for gach 
leth doreibed an berla-sa doib. 

Poi tra cuicc^r ar fichit pa huaislem don sgoil [dono %.] 
et it e tra an; anmanda-sidhe fordotait fedha J taobomna > 
ind ogaim, ut est : Bobel, Loth^Forand, Saliath, Nabgad^;;/, 2560 
Hiruath, T)ab/iiá, Tailimon, Cainaen, Calebh, Moreth, 
Gadmer, nGomer, Stru, Ruben, Acap, Ose, Uriath, Etroi- 
chius, lumelcus, Esu, laichim, Ordinos, ludonius, Afrim. 
Is iet sin anmanda in cuicc/r ar fichit pa huaisH poi 
a sgoil Feniusa. Na coig fedha airedha ind ogaim 2565 
dano, is on coig/z^r pa huaislé diph rohainmnig/rr 
iet a o u e i [secundum aili tri in trop). Atberat araile it 
secht fedha [airegda Eg?^ filit and, is on moirseiser pa 
huais// 7 ba haredha diph rohainmnigí-í/. It e na da fidh 

dofoirin^et frisna cuig tuas »fe< [ea oi]. Itberat 2570 
araile da«o is i ind aipgitir z.x\c/it isinn Aisia, 1 ic 
Tochar Inbir Moir aranic Aimergin Gluingeal mac 
Miled an bethi- luis-nin an ogaim. ' Cie litir, cie 
nin. cie son Ina forbaigt//^r foc«/? ' -i- dinin disail no 
forsail, * Ar is son ger fogapar O nach fuach tre'n tin^^sganar ' 2575 
• i- airnin no ngetal gilcach -i- ngetal. Cest, caiti iet 
airme tur Nemruaid? A hocht. Da comairl/^ Ixx, da 
deisgip;^/ Ixx, da cenel Ixx na daine, da berla 
Ixx ina sgoil, da thuaith Ixx lasa mbatar na berlada 
et na cenela. Da tsaor Ixx frie gnim. Da aigdi ar 2580 
Ixx, iter aol is bí is bitamain 7 talmain 7 tath/«/<^ ina 

2561 Calep '^^^ huaislim "-"^ coigir 

2M7 secundum ailia trii troip, 1. secundum alios tri in troip 

2568 xnoirtseiser '^^» an . b . 1 . n . a . n ^^M nach "-^" cinela 

YBL. 221/3 42 


coimhecar. Da cheím Ixx ina lethet amal (ríher hic: 
Airem cinntech an tuir so : — 

Aiiim an tuir togaidi 

Neamruaid, pa din do daoiniph, 2585 

Cethri ceimend sechtmogat, 

Cet ceimend ar coig milib. 

Da comairhV/ sechtmogat 

Tugsad cuigi fri s\\xa\%ed ; 

Da berla for sechtmogait 2590 

Rothidhnaic Die dia mbuaidred. 

Da chiní?/ for sechtmogait 

Dona daoinib frie dograind, 

Da deisgipul sechtmogat 

Fedozí/ Feinius fria foglaim. 2595 

Da tuaith tsaora sechtmogat 
Forofoglait fir thalm<2« ; 
Da prim tsaora sechtmogat 
Frie helartfain na n-adpar. 

Da aigdi for sechtmogait 2600 

Na adhpar comadh gnathach, 

Iter ael is bitamain 

Is \.2\vs\ain ocus tathlaiph. 

Secht cubait dec deimnighti 

Ag nim suas fri gaoith ngairz^ ; 2605 

Is da ceim for sechtmogait 

Ina lethet frie haiream. 


(222) Adberait aroile immorro is naoi n-adhp^zV nama 
batar isin tour -i- cre 7 uisgi, ola 7 fuil, ros et aol, seuchim, 2610 
lin, bitamain de qidpiis dicitnr : — 

Cre, uisgi, ola, is fouil, 

Ros, u aol, is lincuir lan, 

Tuis, mirr, biodamain co mbuaid, 

Naoi n-adhpair in tuir Nemruaidh. 2615 

"•'''■' na dp- VBL. : na n-adb- Eg. '-^' na adbair '■*!" seichim 


l82 YBL.222a5 AURAICEPT Eg. 65 i a lo 

Caiti log 7 aimser eí persa 7 tugait (sgribind) ind Urai- 
cepto? Ni ansa. Haonlog eim is coir dona ceithrib 
leapraip sin, amal isber in file : In os toisechu is ed/i is 
deighencu ; in os dethencu is ed is toisichu. In us toisichw 
a gcurp lipair is edh is deighencu ariecht -i- leapar Cinn- 2620 
faolidh meic Oilella. 

Log 7 aimsir 7 persa et tuccait sgriphind an lipair-si. 
Loc do ceudus : Doire Luruain, J aimsir di aimsir 
Domnaill meic Aodha meic Ainmerech. Persa do 
Cendfaolaidh mac Ailella. A tuccait sgribin^ a inchin<^ 2625 
[dermait Eg.] do bein a cind Cin^'faolad i gcath Muighe 
Rath. Ceithri buadha didm in chatha sin -i- maidm 
for Congall ina gaoe rie nDomnall ina firiní/e ; et Suiphne 
Geilt do dol for gealtacht ar médh do laidhiph doroine ; J 
in fer d'feraiph Alpan do phreit/i ind fir d'feraiph Erenn 2630 
ina chois leis gan airiugud -i- Duip Die ainm ind [flijir 
thall dono ; et a inchind dermaid do \>/treit/i a cind Cinn- 
faoladh ar a mhed do filidecht J do bhreathemnw.? J do 
leighend áolQ^saig. 

Caiti log 7 aimser et persa J tugait sgribind ind 2635 
Airraicepto? Ni ansa. Log do Emin Macha J a 
n-aimsir Conchubair meic Nessa arichta. Feirchertne 
filé? dorinne do breith aosa faind for seis. Cendfaolad 
mac Ailella doathnuaighiuster i nDoire Lurain maille 
re hurmor na sgreaphtra. Atberat aroile cona had 2640 
aenliphar acht liphair imda J ni hinan<^ log-aimsera doiph. 
Is e log-aimser an cetliphair iarsin c/ieííaidsi. Log dó 
Daire Lurain, J aimser Domna/// meic Aoda. Persa dó 
Cendfaolad mac Oilella. A tugait sgribhiní^' 7rl. 

Atat da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta (i- coin- 2645 
dealc annsin, Eg.) •{■ guta J consain -i- doaithned da 
firdegail asin fis fointhnec/i for eibe ind ugtair luaidius in 
ai ier bfiordliged fothu an gotha uais toghaidhe lasa 

^'^^Ji/e written out YBL. '-^'^ an libair '-S-^ goe '^'■■^ Dubh Diad 2634 doleassi 

YBL.222a3o AURAICEPT Eg. 651343 183 

gcomhfograígit .suin. Atat i- sunt a frithindlid^r/^ 
Laitianto -i- a bunad for lethon : totus a bunad ruidlista 2650 
•i- derp(?í/ andsin -i- frecra do toit na haipgitre dobeirsim 

Ar atait tri hernaile for bunad -i- bunad ier fogar 
nama, 7 bunad iar gceill nama, 7 bunad iar gceill 7 fogar : 
ie[r] bfogar amal ata modao a noinine quod est modus : iar 2655 
gceill prius^ id est, ab uno a bunad: iar gceiU 7 fogar, 
/// est, quartus a quatuor, uel tercius a teirsio. Bunad ier 
gcosmailius foghair nama totus don focul is atat, ar is 
ainm totus, 7 briathar atat. Coic rand indsgi ind focail 
is atat, ar atat ocht randa indsgi and, id est : Nonien -i- 2660 
ainm. Prononien -i- ni ar son anma -i- nie, tu. Uerboni, 
atuerbiuni. Participiuni -i- ni cruthaigther a hainm 7 ^ 
breithir. Coniungcio -i- ni cenglus na ioclu re cheile. 
Preposlitlio ■{• ni geinter a breithir 7 ciell preithri aici 7 
cena beith 'na pre^//air. Inteiriectio ni asa dtuigther toil 2665 
na hinntindi 7 gan a peth 'na íoail -i- ac, ua, u. It e a 
n-anmanda laisin Laitneoir -i- ainm, pronomen, briathar 
7 dobriathar, randgap/r/ 7 comacomal, remsuidigud et 
interecht lasin nGaidel chena. Is deimin am is briathar 
in focul is atat -i- sunt ; J masa bríathar ca ball do breithir ? 2670 
ar atat a tri a n-uathad 7 a tri a n-ilar and. 

Sum •{■ ataim, es ■{■ ata tu, ^í/ -i- ata se, a tri a n-uathad. 
Sumus ■{■ atamait, estis ■{■ atathai, simt ■{■ atait siat, a tri 
a n-ilar. Ceudpersa uathaid sum, persa tan<7/j-e uathaid 
cis, tre persa uathaid est. Ceudpersa ilair sumus, persa 2675 
tanusa ilair estis, (col. ^) tre persa ilair sunt. 

A indí dano -i- atat da ai a n-ait i- ai guta 7 ai 
cowsaim. Ata ai a n-ait -i- ata dlig^í/a n-ait ind ollaman. 
No atat -i- ata ai uait ar in deisgipul frisin maigistir. 
A inde beus ataat a tuided, doaithnet, doaidbed, doiagod. 2680 
A airpert -i- atat a n-aigne -i- na guta 7 na consaine : 

■-'•'•"'•'' uwJo '^'*''^ proposicio '-''"'•''' tuicthar ^'"« Origg. i. I4 -*'" emh 

i84 YBL.222/3 5 AURAICEPT Eg. 65 i b 28 

dotuidhet uait a lipriph [uaid a Htrib, Eg:] -i- tinwtaidhid 
asinn aignedh sin i litriph : doaithnet asna litriph sin i 
bfoclaiph : dotiagat asna foclaib sin a sretha rosga 7 
fasaigh 7 airchetail on ^MdecJit -i- ros eolus 7 sgoth indsgi 2685 
•i- indsge eoWí: doaitbet -i- doaisbenad d'eochtaiph -i- a 
ciall 7 a caireachtaire -i- fuatha na \itrec/i : no go mad 
íoíus a bunad Laitne in {ocail is atat ud docent ali. Da 
erndail -i- da duer deil -i- eur wdiSal 7 deil degail -i- da 
degail uaisle indsin. Is cotearsna dono anisin arin bfail a 2690 
mbith da degail uaisle bit vii randa and. Ni cotarsna dono, 
ar atat a secht indip iar sonaib cen co beith iar gceiU. 
Da erndail -i- da dul ferrda no da ard dul -i- da dul arda 
no [da Eg^ eur dul -i- da uas^r/ dul. Da ernduil -i- da -i- da 
fir-indeall nou da firnaill no da firdul no da erdeghail no 2695 
erdail no da eurdual -i- lanfogur 7 defogur 7 consanacht -i- 
an u 7 an í it e da dual na ngutha no da orra dul no da 
orra dul no da orra degail no da orra dail. Is iat sin tri 
or 7 tri er 7 tri ir ind Uraiciopta. Caidiet da dual 7 tri 
duail 7 [ceithre duail 7 Eg^ v duail 7 vi an Uraicepto? 2700 
Ni ansa. LanfogrtT 7 defogírr da dual. na nguta, leth- 
guta 7 muiti et tinfedh, tri duail na consaine. ; intan is 
cethair immorro, da dhual na nguta 7 da dual n[a] 
gconsaini ; 7 intan is a cuig, da dual na nguta 7 tri 
duail na gconsaini ; 7 intan is a se -i- tri duail na consaini 2705 
7 tri duail na nguta -i- lánfogí^r J defoghar 7 consí'/^acht 
•i- in i 7 in u: lethguta 7 muiti J úníed, tri duail na gcon- 
saÍ7n. Da dual na consaini, lethguta 7 muiti; ar is muiti 

Forsin aipcitir -i- ondi is aipcitorium •i- tin^/sgetal : no 2710 
epe actor no ebe Mgháair: no ebe ioc duar no ic tur -i- 
rohicrt^ ic an tor : no aipcitir ondi -i- iss i aipcidhius a 
mbeusgna do chach : no aipcitzr ondi is apericis, ar is hi 

2"'"'' ro eolus 7 scoth innsci -"^'' d'eolchaib 'i- a ciall, dicunt aili 

-*'^'' da erdeil '-''''"' fhirindell '-'""'- tinfedhaigh '-"'" appcidhes 

YBL.222/3 32 AURAICEPT Eg. 65 2al4 1S5 

sgaiHus a mbesgna do chach : no aipgitir ondí is aipex a 
Greig [i- cindedh no tosach aipcitre a Gaidilc, incipit a 2715 
Laitin, apex a Greic Eg\ apexe de deubam a hEpra, no 
aípgitir ab agitorio, ?it dixit quasi a, b, c, d, 7 reliqiia J ais e 
sin a main in duol coir, ar is lor do taithmech gacha focail 
a hhreith co punad Laitne. Aipgitir est copula con uel 
litcrarain per se -i- ata ind aipgitir ina coimtinol no com- 2720 
cengal litrioch cona comfielus archena, no dano aipgitir 
a Gaidz7c, incipe a Laitin, apexa a Greig, apexade depham 
a hEeapra, Jrl. Laitin o Laitin mac Puin meic Picc 
meic Sadairn dictus est. Latinatass, Laitianda uada-side : 
no Laitin a latitudine dicta est, ar is leithe i [quani 272.5 
cech mbesgna cenmotha Gaid//c ar is Eg. oni.'\ ier 
dtogail Troe ropoi Laitin, 7 is fada roime sin rofoghlait 
na heúd.da 7 ropui Latinatas o tsin ale. No Laitinnda 
luaided inde na {ocal. Edon -i- ed aon a eirnedh -i- 
edh dliged, 7 eirnedh -i- fuasgladh no dliged bis aenar 2730 
ag fuasgladh : no edh ain a aineol^'w : no edh ind so on 
•i- is edh son a bfuil remaind : no edhon -i- edh áWged J 
don [tidloc?*^ no Eg. 07n.] tiónocií/ i- tidnocw/ dligth^í:// 
dobeir se don íocul da cheile. 

Guta -i- guth fhotha -i- fotha gotha iad-sidhen no 2735 
guth faiti iersinni faoidit triotha : no guth sed -i- sed in 
gotha : no guth fed iersinní fédaid guth ind aonar. Ut 
Prisianus dixit : Litera quaisi leigitcria co quod itcr lcginti 
prebed -i- ita in litir amal inwtech in leigi«<:/ iersinni faoires 
scd an leighind : no guth-eth[ai]t iersinni fedaid guth 2740 
treotha a n-aonar, amal ata a ard, 7 í inis, 7 o cluas, 7 o 
ft'rcend : no guth ait -i- dogniat guth a n-ait, /// Donatus 
dixit : Uocaileis dicuntur quaepcr se (223) quidiniproferuntur 
et pcr se sillabani faciunt -i- atat na guthír/>i doturgbat 
treotha fein 7 dogniat sillaoba a n-aonar, ut Prisianus dixit : 2745 

'^'^* ubhan -'^ " edhu ain -'^■"- iss edh suo 

2740 ormh cL '-"^" ata '^'^' Prisiens dicitui 

l86 YBL. 223a3 AURAICEPT Eg. 652:149 

Uocaleis dicmitaur que per se voces eficiutiUir -i- is ed is uocales 
and litr/ dogni guth tretho fein, uel sine quibus vox 
literailis profeirri 7ion potest -i- litir na fetar guth do denam 
'na hecmrtzV. Consoin onni is consanantes comfograightech 
•i- iarsinnifograided Iaguth<?^ibh dogreas. Noconsoini- 2750 
cuma suoin no caoin suin no caom tsoin -i- soin caoma 
ar is caimiti a n-irlapra fogar na consaine maille fri 
guthíí^aiph inti : no consain -i- coma tsuin -i- suin cumaidhi 
•i- caomsuin -i- iainic [a Eg.'] fogar a n-aonur : no -i- coma- 
son -i^ foc«/ et sioniol fri guthííz^i dogniatswm iozul. Cid 2755 
ar a n-eipertsium guta 7 consaine, uair guthrt/^i uathaid 7 
consaini iolair? Ni ansa. Guta 7 consaine is maith and. 
Cid ar a n-epert guta -i- guth fotha no guth fouiti? uair 
ni fotha in guth do fein, 7 ni {?io\á\\end guth trid fein. 
Cid ar a nd-eupert consain comfograigtech ? uair ni com- 2760 
(ogrsiigend in consain fria fein na frie guthaioi. Cid ar 
a nd-epert guta -i- guth séd ? uor ni sédh disi hi puddein. 

Caiti ruidlius J dilius, coitcend 7 iní/lius in iocail is 
guta? Ni ansa. Ruidles di guth fet, uair fedhaig guth 
a aonar. Diles di guth fuiti, uair nos-fuidhend fein. 2765 
Coitcend di guth fotha, uair is fota cend dona foclaiph. 
Indles di guth fotha, uair ni fotha is i innti fein. Cid ar a 
nd-uprtrt aipgitir -i- eipi ic tuor, ar ní agin tor rotin^scointi 
na haipgitri amal isbeir Feinius. Pa sai sidhe isna tri 
^x'mCo&xXaib cid riesiu tisíS'c/ atuaid 7 ni saithe cen aipcitr/, 2770 
Is a nAisia dono aricht aipgit/r ind oghaim amal 
remebartmar. Cest, caiti in condelg n-eteír///a ? Ni 
ansa. In cetna hernail ind Airaicepto. Fors, -i- ferr anfis 
•i- etargaire conipai'aitio -i- fors Jiic tre fortciudh na 
Gaideilgi -i- conndelg n-edtCír/^/a ■{• fors ferr fios •i- etechta 2775 
indsin, ar ni maith ainbfios. 

■-'"■"'" fograidhí -"■'•' coma suin -^^ úortwú^/. siniul 

•27.% ^jjj guto ^'' gute -''^ comfoghruidhend 

-"" aipcitre -'^^ fortced -''■' conn-eitiecht, for fid 

YBL.223a29 AURAICEPT 1 8/ 

Cíd doichned, 7 ced áichned an Airatceptai sond ? A 
ceddoichwéí/ fern arin focul is /ors, no forail arin bfociil is 
for. A ceddichned •{• eipi ugdair, oir teibi in foc;// fein 
dono. 2780 

Atat dano da erndail forsan mbeithi-luis-nion an 
ogavn. Roraidius atad romaind. Dana-i- da n-ai indsin -i- 
ai caingen -i- in caingen remaind 7 an ai i n-ar ndiagh. 
Da ernail -i- da ier ndail forsin mbeithi-luis-nion an ogaivi 
•i- foirithn^^in beithi luis -i- bioth ai eolus -i- eolus na hai 2785 
isin mbith : no bithi leisna s,mdih nobith slonnad leis on 
•i- fedha 7 taobom?/^:, id est, uocales et consonantes, uair 
doradus da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta. Da erndail 
dano forsan mbeithi-luis-nin an ogaivi -i- in og uma -i- 
forsin mbitheolus leiterda ind ogaim ■'i- onní is Ogmu -i- 2790 
mon ogaini J nion ton^, ar is nin ainm da gach litir amal 
ispert in file : 

Mell suide, dar mo nio«a Neidhi. 

Ni fortgealW >^9BK ^^ H< >4lfH ^^ heigius -i- ?\\id. 
Ailiter {oxX.gے\aid eiccius tar idha 7 ailm ceinelo lugha 2795 
andsin. Idhedh is he a fidh is moaum toraind dona v 
primfedhaiph. Ailm didiu c^/lapra gach pi 7 iachtad 
gach mairp. Is sruithe \&xuni in dedi sin. No bethi-luis- 
x\\n ainm d' aipgitir ind ogaim, ar is do is ainm aipgitr/ 
don ni doinsgain o a. Is airi itet beithe sech gach fidh, 2800 
ar is and rosgripí?^ ogum 7 is hi in xo?,cx\^ad indi 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -i- in beithe xosgx\^ad do hxeitli xohaid do 
Lug mac YÁ\}c\end im dala a mna ' na x\xgiha uad hi a 
sidhaip' i- vii mbethi a n-aonfleisg do beithi i- 'br;thar 
do ben uait fo vii a sith no a bferandaip aile muna (col. /3) 2805 
coimeta hi.' Bethi-luis-nion ainm aipgitrz an ogaini, ar 
is o beithe doinsgain in ogunt -i- in ogh uama, ar is de 
fuaigther go hog a n-irlapra, No oguni -i- og uaim a 

-"'*' mbeithi-luis-nion, written out -"•* doradais -""" Oghma 

-'^'■'•' niono Nedhe fortgella eolus Feine 7 ^w jsJq fortgell geall a 

i88 YBL. 223^4 AURAICEPT Eg. 66 i a 10 

bfocl(t/<^ cid anogh cugam a litribh. No occuiii ■{■ o 
Ogma mac Ealathan meíc Dealphaith, ar is he rainig 2810 
Htri na Sgot cusna hanmandoiph filet forra aniugh, ut est 
ÍH Britainia, id est^ libro isto nomine uocatíir 7iel in lingua 
7 amal isber in leapar ogaim : Athair ogaim Ogma, 
mathair Ogaiin lam no sgian [Ogma Eg.'\. 

Fedha dano 7 fi<^) ^tat da gne for suidhe -i- 2815 
fidh saorda 7 fid aiccenta : fidh saorda -i- fidh ind ogaim : 
fid aiccenta -i- fidh na coilled. Fid saorda cetamus : atat 
da gne do hnnadh occa. Fiod dano on breithir \sfundis -i- 
fothoigim, uel a nomine fundaj/ientuni ■\- fotha ucl a funo, 
fogmidim. Feda xeruin iersinni is fotha foghair isin 2820 
Gaidilc in guth^zz^i 7 is coitcend d'fidh saorda 7 aigenta 
in bunad sin -i- fundanientiini. A indi imniorro fidh fo 
fedh -i- maith a edh ag foghrugud. Ingnad cid fodera na 
da bunad agin fid saorda 7 aonbunad icon bfid aiccenta, 
Ag phfidh saorda •i- funo 7 fundanientuni, funo a dualgus 2825 
íogair,fundajnentuni a dualgus fotha, 7 is coitcend doibh 
araon fotha. A airp^rt \n\?norro ■{■ eipert aire -i- (focul) 
is aiúieantsi indas fein fair -i- coill no doire forin bfidh 
intan is fid aigenta : litir \mnwrro no guthí^z^i no 
consain fair intan is fidh saorda : no go mad fotha a 2830 
airpfc^rt '\\.er saorda 7 aigenta. Coitchend dano a taprt/rt 
frie sloinrtfedh saorda 7 aiccenta. 

Indles dono a tap(t//'t for losaiph fedha intan is fidh 
aigenta, ut est int 2i\t.end no in fraoch 7rl. : no a tapíZzV-t for 
legtachrtí/ no for fonialus intan is fid saorda ct is techta 2835 
in secht sin do iarraidh in gach focul Gaoidelce. Cid 
fodera comad iar q no g no st do beith niabrt for u sech gach 
consoin 1 Ni ansa. Ar is h\oá do q quidini u, ni hingnad 
cia mad solma tista di forsin nguthrt/^d iermo. Ata dano do 
med fogrt/> s cona rathoigther fogaur u ierum, ut Ogricus (?) 2840 
dixit : s in principio ucl ut sillabani sonat. Comacsi dano 

-'^^'' coilte ^•'■'' ar leith- a no for ú fonialus T. '^^^ Ogria/s T. 

YBL. 223/3 34 AURAICEPT Eg. 66ia45 1 89 

luicc beime g don guthai'g-i iermo no cid do u fein no ar a 
cairdius fri q. Fid aiccenta immorro fidh na coilled -i- 
fo edh a airdi : no fo edh -i- teine i suidhiu ina inne : no 
fo a edh -i- a fosgadh no (fo) a suth -i- a torad a indi 2845 
•i- is e sund a inne -i- fedha fo edh a aei uair atat coic 
aoi and, ai ailius, 7 aei canus, 7 ai shaighiw^-, aoi 
miodius, aoi suighius. Ai ailius dano in gcein pis 
fora menmain : ai chan//i- -i- oga gapail : ai saigi?/^' -i- 
og cuinccé-íif a loige : aoi miodius -i- ima med no ima 2850 
loiget : ai tsuigius -i- ier n-ioc a loigi. 

Eí taopomna i- taoph uaim na haoi -i- taob uaim a 
n-airchet<?/: aoi -i- onní is aoi' [azo Eg.\ raidim : no taob- 
omna -i- do thaobaiph na n-oumna mor bit [i- na fidh 
n-airechda bit Eg.l : no taob uaimnecha : no taob ova^ia 2855 
•i- tobadamwrt iarsinni tophar damhna [na fo«/l, Eg.'] eisibh. 
Cid ar a nd-epairt taob uaim n-ai -i- taop uaim n-airchet<^//, 
ar bi ant airchetal a n-QCVcú\ais na dtaophoumna. Cid ar 
a nd-epíí/rt do taobaiph na n-omna mor (bit), ar ní 
da taophaib na bfiod bit acht rempa no ina ndiaigh 2860 
isna foclaib pit na taopoumna. Toba damhna immorro 
is he ruidhHus in focail. Frecra do breithir [tug intan 
roraid : 'atat da erndail forsin« aipgitir' •i- frecra do 
a.\genía Eg. o/u.] tug intan roraid, 'atat da ernail forsin 
mbethi-\uís-m'u an ogaim! 2865 

Cuin is aoní/a in beithi-luis-nion ? Ni ansa. Uile 
(234). Cuin is deda? -i- fedha et taophomna. Cuin is 
treda ? -i- fedha 7 forfedha 7 taopomna. Cuin is ceth- 
arda ? Ni ansa. Tri haicm^? na taopomna -i- b, h, m, 7 
na cuig fedha airedha ind ogaiui. Cuin is coicti ? -i- 2870 
fedha 7 forfedha 7 taopomna -i- tri haicmi na dtaopomna : 
no co mad hed bud coicti and -i- seichimh nGreigda 
frisinni roraidius > XQ -C '^' ® ^^^^ 7 o fota, Cuin [is Eg.] 

^" ina airde, aedh '^'^^ fo a adh no a suth 

I90 YBL. 224 a 7 AURAICEPT ' Eg. 66 I b 28 

seda? -i- tri foilcesta in ogaini |j|(| /// f/// 

No comad hed pud seda and seichimh coicte in Gaoid// 2875 
frisna -v- rannaiph ut est -^ .,•1^^. 

Cuin is seachta ? -i- teora fuillti ind Uraicepto -i- 
^-J — iC- — 2 ^. No tri foilcesta in ogaiin frisna se 

remaíní^ i- ) ^^* ^^ //^ /ff/ ' C H cetus is ed fuillius 
beth[e] conngaip greim p, amal isbeir in Laitneoir : b 2880 
cuin aspiracione ante omnes vocaleis ponitur pro p -i- 
remsamuigth^r b co dtinfed ar p coitiá iwxWes h, ar is p 
tinftv/ a nGaidilc. Dicunt aili co na bi h araon re b do 
lucc p acht is b a aonar bis ar p, ut dixit Priscianus : 
Atnbo pro anipo, buxus pro puxus : b inntib sin ar p 7 ni 2885 
b co tinfed amail adberat araile. 

Forsail is e in fuillé'^ aile -i- dobeir cumang fedha 
forin son do fot -i- sron. Airnin is e in tres i\x\\\ed 
oile, bfail i recair a les da taobomna, gaibid airnin 
greim in dara n-ai, ut est c&nn no gloun;/, ar ni bi &mv\ad 2890 
in ogaim. 

Is aire gaibius airnin greim in dara taobomna. Teora 

fuilcesta i«n ogaim > ^ ^ *^^ /^^ ///f C -i- >" bfail 

a mbiad coll ria -u- is q sgript//rtr and amal ata 

>^^^# <- Coll cetus ar coll ndiuit ata. 2895 
Cech baile i mbiadh nion re ngort is ngetol ^.gúhihar 
and, ut est ^ [[[[ \ |||| jf^ ([|(| íl ^ qccus 

^ (j ^/ \\\\ <• Gort cetus ar gort ndiuit ata. Cech 

-**'^ str represented by only 3 cross strokes in YBL. 

•J87.5 seichem in Gaidil T. : sechim ín in Gaoedhail ,.,,-d -'S'S ranna 

^''■- > 'y 1 < T. ÍS83 „t Ji^^„t 

-^« Gr. Lat. ii. 20, 18 ; 142, 14 28«:! -^^^ -2896 ^s sgripta 

YBL.224a28 AURAICEPT Hg. 662:16 I9I 

bfaili i mbia sail rie tinne is sdraiph is sgripta and amal 

ata yyy^^~'j-rrTn — <^- Sail cetus ar sail ndiuit ata ; ar 2900 

is iat sin treidhi is coir do imcisin isinn ogam. Is aire 
is coir teora foillcesta na íormcesta [is coir £g.] and. 

Da ernail dano for consana'ibh lasin 'La.itneoi'r i- da 
firdegail i- lethguta J muiti. Ina lethguta cetus -i- f, 1, 
m, n, r, s, X a ttuisdigi rempa. Cia adupramrtr gu rab 2905 
lethguta f, ni fir sin acht is ed o guth J ni hedh o fogur. 
Na muiti -i- b, c, d, g, h, k, p, q, t a dtuistige ina ndeoig 
de suidhip. Di ernail dano i- da firdegrt// forna con- 
Sfzwaiph cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir -i- lasin lethanfoirzV/^m 
•i- iarsinni foirius in Laitneoir gach red isin Laitin : no 2910 
Laitneoir -i- laithreoir -i- iarsinni laithres co treorach : no 
Laitneoir -i- onní is latinatas : no Laitneoir -i- lit/r- 
threorcr/í/ no legh-treorí?/^ no lethan-toir«/t. Lethguta 
■i- lethghotha foc^rdad dia fogrugad no luitguth no 
luaidhit guth no lethguthait no lethguthsédh no leth- 2915 
guthfotha 7 ni hiersinni co mad leth gotha go cert nobeith 
inntib acht nad roichit lanfogur, ttt Priscianus dixit : 
Seiine dei seinie uiri dicuntur sed [I. non\ quia qui de- 
nicidiain partini deoruin uel uirorum Jiabent sed qui pietii dei 
uel uiri non siint -i- cia raiter lethdei no lethfir, ni hier- 2920 
ún7ii baitis lethdei no lethfhir acht na tot comhlana, sic 
na lethguta ni dod comlana -i- amal at^ a mbaili oile 
quicuit [/«] duas partes dividitur altera pars seniis dicet -i- 
secib ni íogJiailt/iQr a ndiph randaip ra'úer in dara rand co 
rab leth (col. B) cin cob cudruma, sic na lethguta ni dot 2925 
comlana, ud Donatus uel Priscianus dixit : Senie uocaies 
sunt que per se quidim proferuntur et per se sillabam non 
faciuntjv\si : Atat na leth guta ni hi doturgbat treotha fein 
et ni denait sill<^?/^ treotha fein. Quiquid asperum dicitur 
auditus expeillit -i- indarbaid int esticht secip ni raiter 2930 

'^ Gr. Lat. V. ico, 3 '-'"«•^ r oui. '^'~ p p. zíwh decch- 

291^ toirnid -'■-"« hiersin 29->.' ^ta •■»-!0 auc/i(ur YBL. 

192 YBL.224P6 AURAICEPT Eg.66 2a35 

co hacarp. Muiti -i- mi-aiti -i- bec ait a fogair : no a muiti 
• i. muitid a n-aonur no muiti -i- meto a n-aonar iet : no 
[muiti -i- moiti £^n] muiti -i- míiti in guth a mbeth maraon re 
guthrt^aib: no muiti -i- onni is viutus, amlapar -i- ainm do 
mnai bailph, 7 uodhside for chat [cach £-] n-amlapar 7 as- 2935 
sidhie forsnahisi 7 ni ara ni batis amlabm doraith, ar atat 
a fogur inntib cid ad beca iit Priscianus dixit : Informis 
mulier dicitur non quia caretforvia sed qui\_a\ vialeformata cst 
.\. adberat in bansgul dodhelpha 7 ni he sin ni tsechmallus 
o deilph acht drochdealph fuirre tantiim. 2940 

Is amlaidh sin [iarum Eg^, na muiti ni tat nemfogairacht 
ar terci a Uogair inntib nama. No muiti -i- mifotha 
indsin ar thanacht 7 [ar Eg:\ etroime a fogair, ut Donatus 
dixit : Mutae sunt que nec per se proferuntur et per se 
sillabam non faciunt -i- atat na muiti acht nocha denait int 2945 
sillaib treotha fein 7 nocha turgbat treotha budeisin. Ina 
lethguta cetumus -i- in cetna mes br^/Z/emhnus : no don 
cetna hamus forsinn aisneis : no don cetna hai for seis : 
no don cetna hai fis : no co na ba heicc^« a taithmech it^r 
a menm^ thaithmig/z^r in timarr o fil a[c] clusail na muiti ar 2950 
is o quidem at^ cechtar de. A tuisdige -i- an luchd ota a 
tuism^í/ .i- na fedha oirechda do suidhiph -i- dona haib 
adhaip -i- dona caingnibh dligtechaib no for suidhiph no 
do suidhiph -i- doipsidhe. A tuisdige -i- an lucht o ata a 
tuisdige -i- tesargain no a tinnsgna -i- na guthaigi. Cid 2955 
ar a nd-epertsum a tuistigi ina ndiaig masa tustaigi in 
tinsgetal, uair ni gnath in tinsgetal fa deoigh. [Ni hedh 
eimh is ail dosum ar mad tuisdighe acht madh in aei 
roseichiustar ina menmain -i- in dHged gotha fil i dtocht 
na lethguta do airisim leis fa deoigh, Eg:\ 1 an dHg^^ 2960 
consanachta fil inntib fa deoigh do chur uad/r/«.y. Nir po 
himairgidi son lasin nGaidel mac Eithiuir ar mad ^xzcex-^ta 

29.^ amlabhar •-'«^« uodo-side '^^^ amlabra ^^ set qra YBL. 

2939 atberar ^ muili YBL. ^»=0 i^ g marro ^^« tustighe, YBL. 

YBL.224^30 AURAICEPT Eg. 66 2b26 193 

doip diplinaiph an guth reimhiph 7 ina ndiaig. Ar as ed 
roba himairgiífí? laisium comad in tuisech do airisim lais 7 
an deigenach do chur uadh conid muiti uile bethi-luis-nin 2965 
an ogaim acht forfedha nama. Nir po himairgidi son -i- 
nir ba himaruga son -i- togaidi -i- nir bo heim airec suadh 
son i- nir bo himaireachtain suadh son -i- s'úlad for- 
tormaigh. Cid ar narpo himarccií/(? son lasin nGaoidel i- 
lasin ngaoth dul -i- an fer aga raibi in dul gaoth. Ar mad 2970 
aigned no ar mad aigenti doip dib lionaiph -i- dona 
lethgutaiph 7 dona muitibh -i- remaibh dona lethgutaib eí 
ina ndiaighdona muitibh. At^ acht lem and chena iss ed 
ropui eimh airechta suad iaisium on comad a ix rosheich- 
ustar ina menmain -i- in gutha/ge fil isin lethgutanoairij-^í/ 2975 
lais fo deoigh 7 an deigenach do cur uadh -i- in deigenac/i 
fuach do choir ai int suad -i- in tdaopomna do cur ar tus co 
na m[b]a miait lapartha ata bitheolus literda ind ogaim acht 
fedha nama. Per ewistrafen a hainm sin lasin Laitneoir 
•i- tria deigé'/zach impí'í^ amal ata el, le nobeith and, 7 en 2980 
comad ne nobeith and. Cid ar mad ferr laisiw a mbeth 
comdis muiti uile Ína mbeth comdis lethguta J muiti 
amal robatar agin Laitneoir? Ni ansa. Ar seichimh 
nGreg, ar ni filet lethguta leoside, ar robad do Gretgaip 
do Feinius : no dono is ar uaisli uird na nGrec no na nguth- 2985 
uigcdh fri suidiugud a n-uord íoca/, 7it dicitur : Oimne uile 
prius po^iitur et oinine bonuni postponitur i- samaigther 
(225) 7 gach [ndereoil ar tús 7 cach Eg^^ maith fa deoig et 
gach sainemail co forbha ar mad a.iccenta -i- ar mad óUged 
togaide no madh ai gnith/ diphlinaiph -i- dona lethgutaib 2990 
7 dona muitibh. Ciarpo himairccide isna muitibh nir bo 
hedh isna lethgutaió. Roimhe isna lethguthaigib 'na 
ndeoigh -i- isna muitiph nir bo himairgide son et nir puo 
coir son, et nir po hecoir son. Ar is ed roba himaircc/</e 
lasuidhe comad touisech doairised lais, et in deig^//ach 2995 

^ airisiod 2969 Quij MSS. 

'■'^''•^ sus fedha .MSS. *™ \./er a^iasirophen a hai//m-sium 


194 YBL. 225 a 7 AURAICEPT Eg. 67 i a 19 

do chur uadh co na muiti uile beithi-luis-nin an ogaim 
acht fedha nama: la suidhi -i- lasin suidh -i- la Gaidel 
mac Eithiuir no comad o Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil [meic 
Feníusa Farsaidh Eg. 07h.] nohainmnig///é?r (jaidelg: no la 
suidi -i- laisidhe, co mad a \xi\?>ech do airisiodh lais -i- go v(\ad 3000 
in^ídi is tuisech -i- guthaigi agin Laitneoir isna lethguthí?^,^/^^ 
noairised lais -i- nobeth fo deoig inwtip uile \ethguthzXg\ 
7 go mad isin guthaige nobeth forp<2: na CcLntana. indiph 7 
in deigenach do cur uad ar tus -i- muiti conach muiti uile 
•i- co nach a ngne muiti uile. Ata bitheolus literda an 3005 
ogm'm acht fedha nama -i- a tinsgetal uadaibh fen 7 a forpa i 
nguthrt^aiph. Cinnus is fir sin, ar ni a nguth^^oiph ior- 
pat'gter uile, ut est f, s, n, 7 reliqva, 7 is eid/r na muiti a 
tinsget^/ uadaiph fein 7 a forpa a nguthí^^aibh cidh 
uadhaibh fein 'CmsganX.zx [tinscai^^t^r Eg\ Ni a nguth<7^- 3010 
aiph forphaighter. Ni insa. Ni tha.patr ínt ugdar in 
airemh a fil on guthaigi sis acht amal bid fhe -i- fern, no 
ne -i- nin, no saoi -i- sail nopedh and, no ni mo ni ar 
[a] n-apar muiti risna mmtt'd quam ar a dtinsgetul uadaiph 
fein 7 ata do litriph an ogaim sin 7 ni heiccí'w co mad aisdi 3015 
do 'iexraidh do litrib ind ogaim 7 do 'muitibh na Laitne, ar 
is a ngutha^oip íorhaigter-s'\á& do gres. 'Na nguthí^^- 
taibh '\mmorro íorpaigter f, s, n: forpaigter immorro litri 
ind ogaim a nguthíz^ip, ut est beithi, tinne, Jr\. ; J a 
lethguta, ut est luis, fearn /rl. A muitib, ut est uad, quert. 3020 
Muiti iat, ar is o muiti tinsganait acht fedha nama ; 7 mad 
iadside is o guthíí^aiph tinsganait. 

Insgi tra cis lir insgi docuisin? Ni ansa. A tri -i- fer- 
indsge banindsge demeindsge lasin nGaid^/. Masg^/ 7 
feimm 7 nemutur lasin Laitneoir. Cest, caiti deochair? Ni 3025 
ansa. Nus-deochrend a tri herlanna innsge, id est hic, 
hec, hoc ; is i, is e, is edh : is e in fer, is i in ben, is 
edh i[n] nem. Insge tra orasio uel sginnsia z. bunad Laitwi 

30«i aní ''<^fi Nus-deochra/i'id 


YBL.22Sa3o AURAICEPT Eg. 67ib9 195 

•i- a índi sgieitsia -i- a inde fesa : no indi sin ier cai -i- 
ier conair: no inniscai -i- cai innis/i neich a in//e. A 3030 
airpert -i- erlapra no rad /rl. Coitcend a thapazrt 
for cech innsge 'Víer ciallaide no neamciallaide, saorda 7 
aigenta. Dilius a tapairt for gach [n-insce Eg?\ n-aiccenta 
iter ferinnsgi 7 haninnsgi. Euidlius a tapairt for gach 
ferinsge aiccenta nama ; ar is fer toisech do rad innsge 3035 
•i- Adani dixit : Ecce otis de osibus ineis et cara de carne 
mea -i- adcimsus [-i^ adcimsi Eg^ cnaimh dom cnamhaibh 
7 feoil dom feoil. INdlius a tapairt for innsgi tsaorda. 
Tra -i- dorae uain -i- dorae innsge cuccaind -i- aisneis 
iar n-indisin aipcitr^ : no tra -i- tri -i- na tri hinnsge — fer, 3040 
bí7«, áeme. Cis lir -i- cia ler : no cia lin -i- se himcomair- 
snig airme filet lasin nGaidí'/, a tri a n-i\ar, a tri a 
n-ua.thad. [It e cetus na tri a n-ilar, cislir, cidne, caidiet 
Eg. om.] It e dono a tri a n-uathad, cesc, cuin, cid. 
Docuisin -i- douisim in//sge : no docuisin -i- do coi sin -i- 3045 
don conair sin : no don coi 'mnisin : no d'fis cuinngid fair, 
no disgnaigter, no tarrustar. Cia lion atat na hinnsge 
(sin)? Ni ansa ; -i^ ni handsa lasin saidh indsin : no ni 
anond said ag [saei in Eg.] son : no ni handsa son -i- ni 
doiligh. A tri -i- ier n-airem. Atat dano tri hernaile for 3050 
nuimir -Í^ i[n] nuimir anfoirphti amal ata a tri no a cuig 
ar ni fasand o quoitibh. NuimzV foirpti immorro amal ata 
a se, ar tairisigh co cóir a gcoitzM •i- aon a tseissed, a do 
a trien, a tri a leth. Ant aon ierum 7 ri^ do et na tri, 
a se sin •i^ a haon fo se, a do fo tri, a tri fo do, 7 airemh 3055 
foirpti sin, uair airiszV/coir 'na coitibh. Nuimir oullforpthi 
immorro amal ata (col. /3) a dó dec, oir is he i sé déc 
íasait estiph •i- a haon a oile dec, a do a seissed, a tri a 
CQthrainie, a cethair a trien, a se a leth, amal rogaph a 
do dec a haon ierum 7 na do et [na Eg.] tri a se sin, a 3060 

'■^'■^ do raidh ^'^ Vulgate, Gen. ii. 23 ^°^^ tri imcomairsnigh T 

^^*' coi in« fin«i sin •^''' is he 16 fasait ^"^ fasaid dip 

196 YBL. 225,8 2 AURAICEPT Eg. 671^40 

cethair iar [sin Bg.] conií/ [a E^^.] deich samlaidh eí ina 
se iarsin conid a se dec samlaidh conid nuimir and- 
sin is uille ara bunad tria na coitidhecht n-airme -i- trie 
taithmech a lethae i coitidhe. Is cach coitz'ti is rannoigi 
eí ni gach rannaighe is coitige dano. 3065 

F'erin^sgi -i- ferrda a n-in^sge -i- ferr ina in^sge na 
mna : no firin</sge : no fireninfafsge : no foirindsge iarsinni 
foirius im dula do luga : no uir innsge íd est a uiro : no iir 
innsge na mna pios indsge ind fir dano. 

Panindsge -i- bo7ia in^sge -i- \x\ds^Q maith : no bo 3070 
in^sge [i- fo indsce Eg?^ in fir bios iní/sge na mna : no 
bannda ínífsge -i- inífsge bannda in<^sin : no baniní'/sge -i- 
firin^sge i- banfir iuí/sin. 

Deiminí/sge i- deimz'w in^/sge : no doeim innsge fuirrz' 
o neoch oile : no do ou//^a iní/sge -i- iní/sge do duine, ar 3075 
is duine raidius : no in deime fil and is on brethir is deino, 
digbaim, ata ; ar rodigbait fuirre in dedha remain// : no 
demhoe cech neotar lasin Laitneoir is deime laisin h^Md 
r\GdiO\áelac/i. No deiminc/sge -i- in^sg[e] dembeoaigh///i 
•i- ni hi hindsge sloinnius do phiu. Deiminí^sge dano -i- 3080 
'mdsgQ neotur. 

Masg/^/ -i- mo a sgel no a sgoul quavi in feim^// : no 
[mascul -i- uias fer 7 cul coimet : no mascol mo a fis 7 a 
col quaui an femen no ^^.] onni is masgolinus^ mascaldo. 

Y€\vcien -i- foimin -i- fo fir : no femin onni is feviur, 3085 
sliasat, ar as and is hen [siEg.] intan fognaigther die sliasait : 
no feme G/rcio, id est uirgo Latina. Der Gr^co, id est, 
filia Latine. Feimder dono -i- ogh mgen: no onní is 
fem/«///us i- feimenda : no feimder dono : no flesgda : no 
maothcnesach dicitur onní is femen : feme//ina -i- bannda, 309G 
no banecusgda, no bangnimach, no bangneithech. Neut///- 
•i- ni fid//- cía cinel, uair nach se (no) nach si : no neut///- 

''"'i YBL. fir (la vi\ú\ punct. del. ^''^ no do eimh -'o™ YBL. dewa 

=0^- a scol ' s"»-» masculdota =»85 YBL. /emair s»»» ondi 

YBL.225/325 AURAICEPT Hg.67 2a28 197 

onni is neiitnun -i- nemnechtarda, ncc masgulionum ncc 
feminionmn, nec [/i]oc nec illat: no neuwtor ni masgal ni 
feimi/í. ^^^^ 

Cesc, caiti deochair etorra i- cia hait ^Xa etourra -i- 
ití7' da aoi : no cia hait ita degcorug?^í/ etorra -i- Wcr da ai 
nos-deih'ghther -i- nos-dedualoigther. A tri herlanr/a 
in<:/sge: is e, is i, is ed i- is he in fer, is i in ben, is ed in 
neum. 3100 

Cesc, -i- cia haisg, onni i[s] sciscor ■{■ comarcim. A tri 

heúo'md -i- a tri firloin^: no a tri erWmd : no a tri 

remhsloin^. Cuin is urlaní/, cuin is in^^sge, cuin is 

etargairi ? Is he [isi, issedh : indsci emh intan itberor Eg.} 

nama gan araill imaille fris. Xjúond eim ant^r;^ dobeire 3105 

fria araill, ut est is he in feur. Etargaire dono 'xUr feimr/^ 

et masgul 7 neutur : no is etargaire dono intan dechrí?4''i 

fria nech aile co n-anm<^?/w a athar sainrud, ut dixit mac 

Lonain : 

Uin«si cugut in giUc^can, állU 

Mac rergoccííí'w, 

Pid gach maith ara cionwccocca?;, 

A chendgoccaz^. 

Urlaní/ ria n-urlan(r/ 7 urlani'/ iar n-urlanc/ 7 urlanc/ 
inand it^r da urland nach it inaní/a. Urland rie n-urlanc/ 3115 
quidcui, iní rie se, no rie sí, no re séudh. Erlan<^ ier 
n-urlanrf' -i- in se, no in si, no in sedh. Urland inand 
'xtcr da urlaind nach it inanda -i- in st' inanc/ fil in gach 
focul, ni herlond is achd reimtsuidugud : no is fri se no 
fri sedh. Tri herlonda inafege -i- tri remsloiní/ -i- tri 3120 
sloinnti rempa riasna hin</sgibh -i- is se, is si, is edh ; 
achd at urlunci'ír, it inc/sgi, it etargaire -i- it remtsloinnti 
dona foclaip ina ndegc^/c/ 7 inc/sge feim/// 7 masgc?/ 7 
neuot/cr tig ina ndeoigh eitirdeiligt/!Í treotha. Ata dono 
dedha in gach inc/sge -i- aiccenta 7 ealadha. Feirinc/sge 3125 
aigenta, is he in fer : feirinc/sge tsaorda, is he i[n] nemh : 

■■'«'■■ Oiiííg. i. 7, 28 ; X. 187 : Gr. Lat. viii.*82, 25 •'"" VBL. is cis^ur 

198 YBL.225^48 AURAICEPT Eg. 6721,17 

ba[n]iní/sgi aigenta, is i in ben : bainin^/sgi tsaorda, is i 
in cloch. Deimin^sgi tsaorda, is ed in cend. Deimindsgi 
aigenta, is ed i[n] nemh. Aigned caom and 7 aigned 
n-eitig (226). Aiccned caom cetumus : is i sron no suil 3130 
na mna. Aiccned n-eitigh : is e (no is i) fiacail no bel na 
mna et cail gotha fodera sin et ni ni achd nemhgnathugud, 
amal atat na íocuil perla nat-aithgeunam, ni h'md lind 
uair nis-gnathoigim ; ar ni h\nd la nech ni nach 
gnathoigend. No in deime fil aní/, is oni is dejno ita, ar 3135 
rodiprt^ fuirre in dedha remain^^: no deme cech neut?/;- 
lasin bfilid nGaid^/ach. Deimhin<^sge -i- ina'sge neut//;-. 
Insge tra sgieinsia a bunud Laitne. Sgothecna a airprz-t. 
In inniscoi a hin«e -i- coi conair, conair in<:/iste neich : 
conair -i- gan fher no gan ar. Insge tra intan ismberar 3140 
se nama cen araill imalle fris, ut Priscianus dixit : Oracio 
est ordinacio cojtgruani dixiojiijji pj'ofectaj-ujji scentejiciaj-ujji 
dejjionstrans -i- ata ind in</sge ina hordugud comimairccide 
na n-epert foillsigius in cheill foirpti. Cesc, cuin imaricc iter 
ind iní/sge -i- an foghar et in duil dia n-in//isin -i- an diail, 3145 
et is he sin an red fomamoighti -i- coxx\aij-c\m. Cuin is 
eimh irrochtain suad it^;' in indsge agus in duil dia n-iuís'isi ? 
Ni ansa. Antan fedhair a hin<^sge coir fuirre i- ni himair- 
cc/í/e immorro \\.ir etourra intan fedhair in</sge for araile 
•i- feriní/sge for baniní/sge, no banin<r/sge for feriní/sge, 3150 
no deimindsge for cechtar n-ae. Imaric -i- imaric -i- 
eim airecht/zz>/ a n-ai -i- iter in indsge 7 in duil. Duil 
•i- diail : fedair -i- athtairgith^?;- : no fedhair •i- fiadhair 
•i- aisn^ter indsge coir, ut est : — 

SamazVa dealpha, gan cleith, 3155 

Elpa ingine Y\á.aidh, 

Fri gour grene glaine ar gurt, 

Is fris tsamhlaz>« a caomhcucht. 

;!i:!8 scunsia •'i'''* coi conair conaiia indesti neich conana 

"''-'1 Gr. Lat. ii. 53, 28 '^^^ rét •■'^" arochtazw 

'^^^ attaircidhter •'^■'■' aisneidtí;- ■"■''•' Elbo, Fiduigh T. 


YBL. 226a25 AURAICEPT Eg. 68ia5 199 

Ni himaircide -i- ni heim aireachta iter i n-ai -i- it^rin 
indsge 7 in duil -i- indisi oile fair achd indisi coir. Fedhair 3160 
eim ferindsge for banindsge antan adberar, is he in 
banmac-sa, uí dicitur : — 

Die mad meisi in banmacam, 

Ni cechrain</ nach fealmaca;? : 

Fer nat-íinntar go gcloinnter, 3165 

Slawceill cei« dib, a imanUr. 

Fedhair eim banindsge for ferindsge intan isberar ' is i 
in gohur,' ut dixit: — 

Is i in gopar tan is each, 

Is he in gabar cid meglech, 3170 

Is i in corr cid reil nus-reill, 

Is he in menntan gid banen. 

Fedhair dano deimindsge for ferindsge no four ban- 
indsge intan isberar ' \ss ed in cend,' sech is cend fir 
no mna. Deimhindsge for ferindsge quidem, ut est : — 3175 

Is e in daigh di?rgdighe dath 
Fris nach ga.par cath no cioth ; 
Iss ed cend is caoime cruth 
Fil go mbrath for braoine in bith. 

Deimindsge for banindsge, ut dixit : — 3180 

Cend mna romaní/air mo modh, 
Don-farraz*</ duin, ni deilm ndil ; 
Is ed cend is grainí/e in</sin 
Do rveoch fil for mui« fo nim. 

Ferindsge for banindsge, ut dixit Colum Cille fri 3185 
\{\nzzin Aodha mic Gaphram : — 

Alain</damna marphai« bai« 

Doching \.ar airther in lair, 

Mac marph et ua aroile, 

Is mairg recfus dia aire. 3190 

31«« ceiUi no cein T. ■"'' chorr. T. reill nus-reill •"" cith '""^ eacoime 
31'™ com mbruth forsmbruinne mbith T. ^i*i romanmhuir ar T. 

31*- domfarruidh don T. ■"*' hing/« Aodhí7/« "•i'*" damno 

200 YBL.226a42 AURAICEPT Eg. 68ia26 

Fedair eimh ferindsge eí banindsge for demindsge 
intan isberar, ' is i an cloch, is he an lia,' ?// est liicc: — 

Is e in lia, lith rolas, 

lar srethazí suadh in sí«chas ; 

Is ed oun« iar n-aiccn^í/ail, .3195 

Is i an cloch iar saordataid. 

Ait a n-abar deinie don«, 

For foun« feim/« fichtibh clanúf, , 

Ni cheil in f^r a n-aigníi'íj^ n-oll, 

Iss ^íf [inond £^.] in ingn<r an</. 3200 

Ata tra amlaid sin (col. /3) aign^:^ et saordat?/ in gach 
mdsge, ar atae da modh laprt;rda fil and -i- mod aigenta et 
modh saorda. Atat dano ceithri fodla for tsaordat^/í^ -i- 
deichfer raindi, 7 tugait mbin<^iusa, 7 cuimre raid, 7 iolugwc/ 
lap<2rda. Deichfer rain^/e cetumus amal rogaph, is he an 3205 
banmac so -i- don roin^ oighi fil isinn ingin is ainm : 
Tuccait mbindiusa amal ata, is i in gobar et d'eoch ban 
is ainm -i- goour, solus isin mBr^/'nus, go dtug an file 
b fris ar tucait mbiní/iusa : Iolug//<^ laparda amal ata, iss ed 
in cend, sech \s, liaiti a n-irlapra : Cuimri raid amal ata, 3210 
rusg ime 7 criathcír arba 7 leastar uisgie, ar xohad eimilt J 

rusg im imb 7 criathar im arp«r 7 lestur im uisgi do rada. 
Gabar intan is trie ailm quaisi caper is ed rotruailkc/ and ; 
gobar tria onn -i- don eoch is nonien son 7 is Combrec. Ro- 
truailWgoor, cach solus, a suidhe nnde dicitur gohar donn 3215 
eoch giuol. Cidh nach dath oile bes fair, is in ech die mbe 
bec do giul aní/ is gobar a nomen, ar is asan dath 
is airechdam bes ^nd noniinatnr. Rotuill an fik 
Gaoid^/ach b fair no anc/, ar rob aille leo gobrtrr qua^n 
goour unndi dicitur gobar noniinatur. 3220 

Atad dono indsge and ata coitcend iter ferin</sce ~ ban- 
indsge, ut est Flanw no Cellach no Buodach. Phidh dono 

sax) YBL. indonrt' ^aoo jabortha "-^•' Cor. 22 : ^Maj-ííraí/ (?) MSS. 

•'-'' gial (or) giul ^-^is airaghamh ■•-i» b and ar rob aille 

YBL. 226/3 17 AURAICEPT F.g. 68 2aii 20I 

iní/sgi qumusda isin [Gaidilc amal bis an cenel cumassu 
isin Eg.] Laitin, ;// est in menntan eí an truid 7 in coirr, 
uí dicitu7- : — o's^h 

Is he in minntan cid boinend, cid firend. 
Mad iar n-aigned coir [immorro Eg?\^ na ndula ni hainm 
ferindsge na banindsge achd do neoch dofuisim -i- fer, 
7 o dtuismer -i- beun 7 ba deime chena ^\zcx\ed na ndul 
uili archena. 3230 

Atat dano da ernail for tuismzV/í/ -í- tuism///<a^ saorda 7 
tuismiud aigenta. Tuismiud saorda cetomus -i- fer o 
toalmrtzV? 7 luibi ar is ní don talmain fein an fer, tit est 
espa in talman muna tuism^'íT' clanda 7 P^ deime chena -i- 
pa sloin*^ neMt?/r int uile 'dXcQ.enta ar chena, ut cst Povipeus 3235 
dixit : Oniniuin rerum uocabalouju aut corparailium \aut 
iticorporalium Eg^^ sexu naturaliter carencium per arteim 
Graciam e^s^se asgribimus, Jioc est ne utruni i.e. nec inasgo- 
■linum nec feimininum,ut est{?) /i[a\ec iusticia, h{a]ec ueritas. 
Consinsius dicit : Quiquit per naturam sexsus nofi assingnat 3240 
neutrum habere oportet set ars qui Jioluit gignere seu liquenda 
seu dicenda asgribsit i- iar saordatíz/í/. Cid inní is aiccenta 
raiter suond? Ni ansa. Foillsiugisgtair go n-apair : 
Natura quae motatur per tempera nec uairitatur nec 
separabitur et natura non est quiquid motatur et non sdaire 3245 
uidetur et quaecunique extrinsccus accidundur sed quac 
constant in se\ ud sdabilitas in terra, gurbitas in /apedebus, 
umeditas in aqua, claritas in aere, calar in ingne. 
Doepenar dano deimindsge a ferindsge no a banindsge. 
Doeipenar dono ferindsge 7 banindsge a deimindsge amal 3250 
ata isnahaib reimendouiph 7 it iat sin na deime teibidi 
7 na lanomna deime 7 a ngeine-sidhe. It e an//so 
deismerachta in deime teiphighe isnahaibh re'imendaibh ■{■ 
cend 7 cride fuk/;;^ a deime deiph/afe a ndetbir áxplinaib. 

^^^^ cumuscda -^^ truit •'^■> toismer •«'••' thalam, ar is ni don talam 

.■)2;t5 Basloindeiis dixit H. =«« sinit sed \\aec íerra hic />aries T. 

"^ Gr. Lat. V 343, 32 ••-'" coiisaii/ 325i, :; jgnaib »^^^ desmbeirechto ■-•'^ fulach 

202 YBL. 226^43 AURAICEPT Eg. 682^41 

Lanamna in cínd suil 7 fiecail : lanamna an cride srebanrf 3255 
7 cru : lanamna in fulamg lurcca 7 troig : geine dono ina 
lanamna deime : gene na sul -i- abrachtur 7 malo ; gene na 
fiecrt/ bun 7 leithe : gei'ne int [s]rephain(3^ tanoigecht 7 dath 
•i- baine eí glaisi : geine in cride tigi 7 dath beos -i- rimde 
7 deirge (227). 3260 

Secht n-etargairi tra docuisnet -i- disgnaigter -i- [in ££'.] 
grad conne[i]]g lasin Laitneoir, etargaire a ainm lasin 
pfilid. Etargairi incuisg i persoiní/. Etargaire incuisg 
persain^e. Etargairi persainí/e a ngnimh. Etargaire 
persainí/e i gceussí?^-i- caisaí-/^/ antan is maith, cxacht intan 3265 
is oulc. Etargaire derrsgaigti a nderrsgugud -i- poisit, 
comparait, 7 superlait laisin Laitneoir. Fothugud et fourran 
et fourmoulad lasin bfilid. Maith et ferr et ferrsoun, lasin 
nGaidel. Etargairi meiti a meudugud -i- mor et moo et 
moosoun. Etargoire lugaidhe a lugugud -i- pec et luga 3270 
et lugasoun. [Etargoire incoisg persain^/e -i- me budein, 
tu budein Eg. om.'] se budein, sib budein, s'inde budeisin, 
siphsi badeisin, siadsum padeisin. Sechta -i- seiptivi a 
bunad Laitne. Secht n-ai a in^/e no sech/'ai, i[s] soigti 
dia mbe a n-eolus, i[s] saigti dia mbe a n-aineolus. 3275 
Rtargaire -i- isin etechtu ita -i- isin sechtmad ernail in 
Uraicioptou : no isin sechta ita in conn^felc -i- in 
caindeiliugud, t/t est : Pars pi-o toto et totoni pro pairte 
•i- in x2Sid tar eis na toiti et in toit tar eis na rainde. 
Etargaire •i^ eitercoraigti -i- eiterdeiffrigti : no etargaire 3280 
•{■ eiterdeiligti a treidiph : no etargaire ■{• gair guth i- 
etergnougt/d in gotha andsin : no etergleithi •i^ gleas 
etarro : no etargaire •i^ ed^rgleodh iar ngleodh a fesa 
etorra : in gradh onni is gradus -i- ceim. Qo\nde\g •i- 
caindeiligti : no comdheiligte ar in gcoin(afeilg uile, iit 3285 
est .' Pars pro toto et totum pro parte. Cid ar nach treide 
lasin Laitneoir in coindeilg amal is tred'x lasin phfilid in 

^■■^'^ maolo ^^ craidi, ruaighie •'-"" tote "-** eiterdeiffriti 

YBL. 227a2| AURAICEPT Eg. 68ib27 203 

etargoire? Is treidi eim lasin bfilid -i- mét et 'mdo. 7 
incosg ; et adbeurait aroile fouirend and nach bfil acht 
deidhe nama agan Laitneoir -i- in^/e et met et bonus et 3290 
inalus, is i in inde. [Is edh a inde immorro lasin nGaidel 
•i- maith 7 olc Eg.'\ Magnus et parims, is i an mét -i- mour 
et bec -i- is mor lais-jium in bec i gcon^eilg neich is lugha. 

Incousg immorro icon pfilid ni conn^elg side lasin 
Laitneoir z.c\\\. prononien J dopriathar. Cid fodera dossw;// 3295 
a radh a ngrad conndeilge lasin Laitneoir, is etargaire a 
ainm lasin bfilid ? Ar ni filit acht tri graid connfafeilge 
agin Laitneoir, 7 atat secht n-etargaire icon pfilid. Ní 
da cwáxviomugud eim dosum ani adbersiom [sin Eg.'\ acht is 
fior a mbeith amlaidh. Is ed [s'm Eg.] ata etargoire lasin 3300 
fih'd is conndelg lasin Laitneoir -i- etargaz're derrsgaighti a 
nderrsgugud, ar ni gach etargaire is grad conn^eilgi acht 
etargaire derrsgoigti a nderrsgugud. Is cack grad 
connflfeilge is eutargaire, no ar ni leithe conndelg oldas 
eutargaire. 3305 

File -i- fel sai no fial sai : no fik onni is filososubus i- 
fc feallsoum, ar dlegar don filid feallsamhníj'ír/í^ aigi : no file 
•i- fi ani aorus, 7 h anni molus : no file •i- [it Eg?\ fele ai, ar 
dlt'^'-ar de ar is ed nodus-saora, feile dano iní/racus nos-ditne 
an file 7rla : no file a flectendis carmhiibus : no file \- fel sai, 3310 
sai fhoglama, amal ata felmac : no file -i- fi a oumna 7 li a 
dawu fair : no file i- fial do aei : no file •i- fi oulc 7 H maith 
•i^ moulad 7 aorad. Cubhaidh cia fhasus deisidhe ainm 
in fhilid dia fhognat. 

Cid ar mad conelcc \zs-s'\um in poisit, uair nocha 3315 
derrsgugud do ní? Ni ansa. Ar o is i is foutha 7 ata 
derrsgugud dhi, ut dicitur airim frie hunair, (col. ^) ut est : 
JJnus non est numerus set fundamentum numeri 'x- nocha 
nfuil int aonni conid airim acht ata conid fotha airme ; 7 

n-iipn YBL. hounus, iiialas : cf. Gr. Lat. viii. 72, 24 •*'-'"'■' da cudruwa, ani om, 
■'"'■' fe, fellsom om. ""^'^ YBL. a flechtendi cirmenibus *"^ /. filed 

*"" YBL. nuiiuerus •""" YBL. conid airme 

204 YBL. 227 ^ 3 AURAICEPT Eg. 68 2 b 15 

amal ata deach icon bfilidh -i- dialt, ni deach side(n) fodhei- 3320 
sin cid la deachaiph atrimther. Ettrla. tsaordatír/V in^sin 
•i- int alt aigenta immorro do posit : posit a positits -i- 
suidhiugte. Cid ar mad ainm compariti doberitsim arin 
gcoin^/eilcc uile ? Ni ansa. Posit cetuiuus : ni dersgaig 
do ni. Comparit immorro seoch derrsgaig/<^ do neoch 7 3325 
derrsgaigt/í^r di. SnpexXdJiX. immorro ni derrsgaigt//^r di 
conid airisin is ainm foriata in connr/elg uile. Atberat 
araile foirend connach dersgaight/zé'r do comparit acht do 
posit derrsgaigit araon -i- comparit ct superlait. Bec brab- 
beirius comparit, mor brab-beirius superlait. .3330 

Caiti conní/elg cheille cen soun ? bonns, vielior, optinius. 
Coiní/elg suoin cen cheill, ut est : Uirgi/ns, Uij-glior, 
U irglisiunms no-rad fr/e sin arai tsouin / ni bfuil connelg 
arai cheille and, ar ni connr/elgter anma//í/a dilsi do gres, 
acht is cruthugud frie fousgadh anc/sin. Coiuí/elg souin 3335 
gan cheill bonus, bonior, boniinus nobiad sin iar sowi et ni 
bfuil iar gceill. Coiní/elg suin 7 ceilli imalle, amal ata 
fortis, fortior, fortissinius, J is hi sin in connelg techta. 
Coindealg tsoin 7 ceille imalle -i- niagnus, niagior, niaxinius 
7rIo. Pid dawí» maith J ni bi derrsgugud di, ut boujius 3340 
Deus, fó Die [maith Dia Eg\ Bid dano conealg an</ et 
ni dia hinwe fein dersgaigius, nt est : Mairie Pounticuni 
duilsius est quani setera mairia -i- is somillsi an muir 
Ponteca oldat na maire oile olchena ; 7 ni hiarsani badis 
somillsi acht is luga a serbiu. Conndelg cotursna auí/sin 3345 
do;? indsi áono. 

Etargaire inchouisg i persainf'/e cetnnius •[■ uinr/si 
uin</sie ouní/ar : uinía?se [no sonnse Eg.'] ■{■ uainse no 
sonwse: uinwsi -i- uainsi no suin^zsi : on^/ar -i- ander -i- 
aun^ a fir isin nem, id est Deus. Uiní/sie -i- an fer: 3350 
uin^/si an ben : ounrt^aur i- in dem. 

^^ YV>\.. positius •'•'■•^' YBL. compraiti •'"■* foirend YBL. repeats 
•■'■'■^ bec prabh-bíres comprait 7 mor brab-beres superlait T. 
•m\ YBL. hounus, meliour •'■'•■'^' rofetfaigh sin arai T. 

:i:i4:! ceiera •"''^•' serbe, cotiirsna indsi;/ dono 

YBL. 227/3 31 AURAICEPT Eg. 69135 205 

Etargaire incouisg persaiiiiafe i- me budein, tu budein, 
se budein /rlo, amal adubramar romhain<:/. Etargaire per- 
sain^e angnimh : dorignes, dorignis, dorigne ; dorigensum 
dorighensat, dorigheunsait. Etargaire persainrtfe i ceussad 3355 
•i- a foditen dia n-echtair -i- nom-cartar-sa, not-carthar-si, 
carthar-sim ; non-cartar-ne, nobar-carthar-si, carthar-sim. 

Etargoire deurrsgaighti a ndersgugud -i- fouthugud in 
cetna graidh -i- poisit : íorrau i- forrain fair in gradh tanaisi 
•i- comparit : fourmoulad -i- formfuilled fair in treas gradh 3360 
•i- formoulad i- molad for molad reimhtechtíTr// •i^ brabh 
for in mbrabh toisiuch i- superlait [i- B/^.] maith eí ferr et 
feurrsoun laisin nGaoidí'/ coithcend i híecma/s in filfc/. 
Fouthugud, immorro, 7 {orrau, J fourmolad lasidhe. Etar- 
gaire meide a meudugud ■{■ mour J mouo J moosoun : J 3365 
etargaire lugaiti a lugugadh •i^ bec J lugha J lughasoun. 
Atberait araile ni bfuiht acht cuig etargoire and, ar is aon- 
etargaire leo na tri hernaile deighenc/ia •i- edargoire mí'Ve 
7 ]uga/de occus eutargaire dersgaigti a nderrsgugud. [Cie 
adberadsim eutargaire mete a metugud J eutargaire 3370 
lugaite a lugugad is ionaní/ (228) et etargaire dersgaigti 
a ndersgugud E^. om.\ ar is derrsgugud in meud et in 
laighet fil inntip beuos. 

Etargnoug^c/ beurla ct ni ar cheana, ar roghaphar 
na da perla Ixx. ina fecmais fir don foirind ce^chtar sic. 3375 
Gaidr/cc •i^ guth ealg -i- guth irdercaigti. Elg •i^ Eire 
•i- guth Y.\renímch an^/sin •!• berla is gnath i nEirinn 
dano. Ní certtuirem na gcinedh ar ni phfilet do reir inn 
wgdará^Ás. Secht bfeudhu oiredha filet and fo aisti an 
Grí'gaid i^ ebo et oir suas. Itberat araile co mad aon- 3380 
leapí?/' int Uraicipt uile. Is iat adber sin an lucht-sa anuas 
dono -i^ ua Bruic cona tseitchib. Atbeurat dano in 
lucht-sa sis is liophair imda i^ hua Coirill J ua Coindi 

3*'3 i fecmais ■*■*" cuicc ^'"^^ fogabar •'^'"'' EIcc *'** filet, ind ughdarais T. 
3"^ ugí/ai8, feda oireghro '^'^ cona seitib, Bruich F.M. Iiio: O'Coinne 1126 

206 YBL.228aii AURAICEPT Eg. 69ia36 

et na maithi ar cheana. Do thoit na h-aipgitr^í-/^ dobeir 
fr^í-ra souní/ et ni da hurbernadh -i- is fairre uile Hess da 3385 
eurndail do beith fuoirre. Da erndail -i- da fir n-aile, 
nocales et consanantes. Madh fo athargí?^ beus ni [ni Eg. 07n.] 
con fil isin coipdi, iss ed bid foullus as sin go mbetis and 
guthaige na turgbadis/í'r j^ 7 na tagendais úWaib per sc. 
Go heiccintech is coir a beith -i- connahi quidiin. Atber 3390 
ua Bruic is áohriath2.x. Adber ou Y\\-\d immorro is com- 
dicoinal J ag ívecrn o ádi-n-imorr o fil ag clusail na nuimre 
primo frecrus. Atat tri heurnaile for fuirmí-^ foucrt/. 
Patronoimic is leithe a ímrmed quam a in«de ar ni hebertai 
do reir a inde acht risin patronomic dogentai a patre 3395 
7 aderar riu uile cid a patribus tiel a matribus beit. Lapis 
dicitur eo quod leidit peidim is cumga a í\x\xvc\ed quidim 
deiside qiiam a inde. Robad dir deiside lapis do rada fri 
gach ni [fris tairtaigt//^r Eg?\ taxxaigt/ier cois. 

Bonus is comforlethan a fuirmed et a inde, ar ni habar 3400 
bonus acht bail a mbi cail bonitatis. Laitneoir -i- lethan 
foiré'i' -i- ara leithe fouirius cech ni a nLaitin : no Laitneoir 
• i- ar feuphus a treor«<:// isin Laitin. Ni lanceurt dochoidh 
in Gaoid^/ i ssund ac deunam muiti dona taophomnaibh 
ar in fath sin -i- ar a tosach do airisiw occa 7 an dered 3405 
do chur uada, sic est in beithi-Iuis, ar robdis muiti uile 
na feudha ar in bfath sin no ceudna. Ar is ed fil doip- 
side tosach a n-anmaní/o do airisiw ag nech do deunam 
foucail et a nderedh do chur uadha, amal ata ailm -i- a 7 
on« o 7 araill and dano die ndenait muiti dona taoboumnaiph 3410 
agon Gaid^/ i dtossach do airisim aicce. Robtis muiti 
uile Mtri na haipgitre Ephraide 7 Gregda, ar is toiseach a 
n-anman^-side do airis[im] ag nech et an deired do chur uad, 
ut est alebh [-i- a Eg.] agconn Ephraide, alpa [-i- a icon Eg.l 

^^ ni d' airbernad T. '^^ atharcadh, an \ T. '^^'^ q — , coibdi '^ turbadis 

^^ freccra dó : ag fregrad dclifn T. '•^■'" Gr. Lat. v. 146, 19 

3396 Origg. xvi. 3, I '^^ tartaidther T. :moo, 1 YBL. bounus. boiinaiatis 

^^ isin Laitin T. '■'^ feabus a treorach : treoru T. •'^'^^ Gaidiol 

»»<*« chora ="i° derna T. •■'^^•' deired foco/ 

YBL. 228a39 AURAICEPT Eg. 69 i b 27 207 

agcon Gr^gda, ailm agcon Gaoidel. Is amlaidh sin atat 3415 
na tri haipgitri -i- i dtusach do airisim ag nech 7 an 
deredh do cur uad. Is ar seichim Gré'gda immorro 
7 Ebraide bud couir don Gaoid^/ int ord dorinne et ni 
arai comdis muiti iar mbrigh na dtaobomna uile, sic 
nach dat muiti ag Ephr<2:í/aiph 7 ag Gr^gaip na cow'iainx 3420 
uile cid i dtousach do a'insÍ7U leo. Ma do reir [immorro 
E^.] na sgrephtra naibe 7 \igh.áair in leighiní/ is [i 
E£'.] in aipgitir Ephraide is bunad don aipgitir Gregda 
7 Laitianda 7 don bethe-luis-nion a n-ogaim cen co n-in<a^isit 
ugdair in leighind, zít est aleb isinn Eabhra, alpa uadha- 3425 
side isin [Greic Eg\ a isin Laitm, ailm isin Gaoidilc 
ogaini. Inscie tra a2.n0 inde in iocail is indsge (col. /3), 
ar is iuí^ sgie fil iar gcomtach isinni is a sciensia, an ecna, 
i n-aendefoghair. Ni ceart dochuaid in Gaid^/ i sund -i- 
tiachtain dó o aipgitir co hiní/sge cen taithmech sillaibi 3430 
no-eperta rempe, ar is tousacha iat quavi in«sge. Femm 
7 reliqua -i- foimin -i- mion an ben i n-?i\.\\{cgad in fir : no 
fo an bfer bis an ben. Mion foir deisidhe an ben. Deithpir 
raindi (-i- idir da rain<3^-i- \ngen 7 mac) is he in banmac- 
sa [d'airighti go \X\xgad as sin co nderna fermac co rannda 3435 
de a ndeip/r iter in mbanmac 7 in fermac E.g. om.]. Is he 
deismeracht na hetargaire i ssun^/a iarsin deuda remainí/ -i- 
irlaní/ 7 indsge -i- taithmech deidhe and for aird -i- 
taithmeth masgail 7 feim/« do neoch dofuisi;;/ et o 
ttuism/t//£r -i- a tuismiud and o mnai et ata tuismiud di 3440 
•i- in modh ar a tuism^í/ si budein o neuch oile 7 dano an 
modh o dtuismen^-si cloin^ uaithi pudein na tr/au /rlo. 
Iss iarmo [si Eg.] tucc erc/io'úiud aiccenta /lic. Ar ta.nic 
taithmech aigenta reime, quando dixit -i- tuismiud saorda 
7 tiusmiudh aigenta ideo dorad ercoiliud aigenta ar 3445 
aird /lic. 

Incusg et inwde et méud is amlaidh so is treidhe in 

""" dirinne T. '^-' Gr. Lat. viii. 302, 3 »«27 ^/;-^ 3435 tucca, dernadh T. 
»*« taithmit T. 3^« tuisme T. ^ natura T. »^« aicne hic T. '^^ YBL. idio 

20S YBL. 228/3 15 AURAICEPT Eg. 69 2 a 17 

sechta remaind. Ina hetargaire incoisg persain^e uile 
ig gabail fo incousg, oir is incosg fil inntib uile. 'Eiargaire 
derrsgaighti i nderrsgugud ag gapail fo 'mdQ 'úer poisit 7 3450 
comparit 7 superlait. Etargaire meidi a meudugud 7 
etargaire lugaite i lughugud ig gap//rt//fo mét dip lionaibh. 
Conid hamlaid sin is treidhe in sechta remhainí/. Adberat 
aroile '\minorro is deda dip lionaibh. Is amhlaid so beus 
oun -i- eutarom're dersgaighti a nderrsguccud ic gaphail [o 3455 
indi, sícuí dixit prius. Etargoire meidi a mheudugud 7 
etargaire lugaite a Uigugud ic gapail beos fo meud, is 
amlaid sin feught/^rt:r so conid deudo. 

Caiti deochur ider is e 7 uin^si ? Ni ansa. Uindsie 
cetomus: sloiníafedh persain<^e s'aXnáxedaige indsin -i- ua- 3460 
tuaslaictech,?^/í/z!.i7V." DiciturvXndsQ uait in {qx S2\r\dxedach 
cona anmaim, ut dixit poeata : — 

Uin«si cwgat in gillccuccaw 

Mac rerccucca/« (-i- Lonain) 

Bith gach maith agat ar a ciní/gucca« (-i- long brab iffin) 3465 

A ceundgaga/w (-i- a Chiní/ Geucca/»). 

Sloiní/ed zo'\\.chend immorro amal ata se in fer et ni feus cia 
saindredach acht is fer tantuin, sic uin</sie 7 si 7 ouxidar 
7 sed. Cidh íodera in irlaniaf conid iuír/sge 7 conid 
edargaire -i- intan is in<^sge is ag sloini^edh indsge a 3470 
haonur bioss, et itberat araile is e in fer, uair is rem- 
tsloinrffedh i ssuidiu. Is and is etargaire 'witan isbeurar 

Sloin^ed cenil amal ata etargaire ioncoisg i persain<3^ 
•i- issin persainíaf fein ita a hincousg co n-aithnigt/íi^A' trit 3475 
icc slouin</ed ceutpersain</e, et persaiuíaí'e tanuise -i- triena 
n-ioncosg doip budeine 7 tre persain^/e amal atat na 
hetargaire aile. Cidh ar narbo lor \a.\5-s'\u7n a n-etargaire 
incoisg persainíí'e a rad me nama con n-abair me budein ? 
Ni lor eim, uair is deimnigte et is deiligte eimh rie cach 348O 

'■'^^* is d. 1., bes son T. ^*^" sluinde, sundruidhe T., uatuasloigtech 

34«; gecain ■'^'^ bis, atberar, araile om. 

YBL.228/34i AURAICEPT Eg. 69 2bii 209 

persainí/ a rad me budein, ut diciíur an protioinine egoniet 
ipsi. Nam ego feci et non alius cum dicitur egomet -i- is 
me budein 7 rii nech aile intan isberar egomit. Q^iiqjiid 
iterator infirmas fiat •i- biaid gurab deimnigthi cach 
ni athraigther. 3485 

Fogaphar dano comparit cen posit amal ata : Dnlcis est 
mare Ponticum quam setera mairia •{• is somillsi an muir 
Pountiogda oldtait na muire oile ar cheuna 7 i^i hiarsiní 
batis somillsi acht is lugam a serbi. Coindealg Ín edtachtau 
son. Coiuí/ealg n-edteuchta in ceudna hernail (229) 3490 
hid Airraiceptau -i- fors ferr anfios : etoechta sin ar ni 
maith ind anbfios. Finis don ceudliophar. 

hicipit leaphar Feircheirtne sunc/o. Log do Emhain 
Machuo : 7 aimser do aimser Concaprt/r meic Neusa. 
Persa do Ferchertne file. [A Eg?^ tuccait dono do breith 3495 
aossa faind for seis. 

Duiphithir daol dath a berrda 

Ge raga co ngeog na craunn, 

Caisithir casnaide a chul, 

Glaisithir sul frie bugha mor. 3500 

D : : b : • r. d. t. h : br, t. sc : th : tt : br : : n : : rbr 
t. n. f. c : : b. c. n : : cusnt : : rb : • r. t. s : • u ; : : ds : : n. 
gl : • cc. c. r : : ch : : mu. rt. 

Sechtau frise toimsighther Gaidelc \- fidh 7 deach, reim 
€t íorpaid, alt 7 indsge et etargoire. Seuctu -i^ seiptim 3595 
a bunad Laitne : secht n-ai a inde : no sech/ui i n-ai, 
Secht do aiph domiter and •i^ secht n-aisti na filidechta 

*»«» ol chena »492 31,^ ambfes '^*^ locc :'**» Nesa 

'•'^'^' daipither dael, berrta **^ geog, crann ^soi-s cf. Virg. Gr, 77, 12 (t seq. 
*^'' sechto '^^ sechtai '^*''^ n-aisti ina 


210 YBL.229ai5 AURAICEPT Eg. 69 2 b 40 

7 vii mhrousnac/isi na bairdne : no ai[s] soigti die mbe 
a n-eolus Jr\. 

A airb^rt i- a airiom -i- vii primeillgi na filidí'^///a 3510 
• i- vii mbrosnacha na bairdne : no secht ndeichit na fili- 
dechta i nd-ecrr\ais dialta, ar ni bfuil in sechta andsin 
Ís aire rofagprtr. 

Coitcend et d'úius, ruidliz^.? 7 indlius, connagar don 
focul i[s] sechta. Coitcend do cach uile airem sechta 3515 
frisand - euprííí/. Dilius do vii ndiuitip na fiHdechta. 
Ruidlius don ceísiirj/i vii frisand-euphradh -i- fri vii laithib 
na sechtmaine. IndHos a thapairt for airem aile acht 
four a vii. 

Tomus, t'd est mensura, a bunad Laitne -i- tomeus a 3520 
inde : no tomess i- to teunga a airbert 7 meus aire fein : 
no cudrumad aairp^rt -i- meus dognither o Úx&nngaid. Is 
fisid an gne no in cinel in tomus. Is ceinel eimh. Cait 
eat a ngnee ? Ni ansa. Tomus fiHdechta et toumus 
bair^/«e 7 tomhus prosta -i- a breith frie seachda cach ae 3525 
diph. Caiti ruidhHus 7 diHus, co'iichend et in</Hus i tomus ? 
Ni ansa. RuidUus do fiHdecht a preith re sechta. DiHus 
do bair[d]ne a tomus re cluais et coir n-anak. Coit- 
ceund indHus do prois -i- co'xUhend o dialt imach. IndHus 
do sidein, ar ni fil alt d.\xnd. ^^^^ 

Cindus aithfeugthar in íomcuI is sechta fri vii laithibh 
na sechtmaine ? Ni ansa. Grian mar T^oumnach -i- fiodh. 
Eusga mar Luan -i- deach. Mars mar Mairt -i- reim. 
Meurcuir mar Ceudaoin -i- fourpaid. loib mar Dardaoin 
•i- alt. Uenir mar Aoine •!• in^sge. Satarn mar Satharn 3535 
• i^ eutargaire. Conid amhlaidh sin cuirter na vii n- 
airdrenda 7 vii n-aiste na fiHdechtu 7 vii la na sechtmaine 
fri comuaim n-uad, a tri a ndialt, 's a tri a reucomarc, 7 a 
haon a n-iargcomarc. 

Gaidelc -i- guth Elg -i- Ealg Eire •i- guth K\renn^ch -'i- 3540 

3510 eiiigi "'511 ndeichith ""^^ ouccus diles 

*^-^i re vii-a •■'•'' Origg. v. 30, 5, et seq. : cf. Gr. Lat. viii. 240, 15 

3-537 airdrennaigh ^^' ^ hErinn T. 

YBL.229a40 AURAICEPT Eg. 70a29 211 

berla Eírenn : no Gaidelcc -i- ealg oirderc i- Gaaid^/ 
rus-oirrdercaich, ar ni dut[h]cha do xeir an indaithmz^ sin 
ina do cach ni dooirdhercaigh Gaidel. In gach Gaid//c 
tomustí?/' re sechta. 

Is edh eím a secht dialt 7 cid edh oun touimsighter iar 3545 
saordataid, uair adcodar a choní/ail amal ata fe-fn'-er, 7 ni 
gach sechta domiter and, ar is aonseachta fil aund. 
Connaghar áono a secht fo tsechí. A sechta -i- punaí/ 
7 iní/e 7 airbert, coitchend J dilius 7 ruidhlius 7 indliuí in 
gach foc//l don tsechta (col. B). 3550 

Fid ceutumus -i- fundamentuin : uel a funo a bunad 
Laitne. Fo eadh a inde isna ioc\.aib. A airbert -i- a 
thapaírt ior v ÍQá\\aib fichit inn ogaim : no airbert -i- air 
ep^Tt -i- eipert aire -i- lit/r no guthaighi no consaine fair. 
Ruidlmj, á\\\us, coitcend, indlzV/j-, do feudhaiph. Coitcend 3555 
doip uili fedha do radh riu. 'RxááMus do feudhaiph 
airedhaiph. Dilius do forfedhaiph. Coitchend immorro 
dona taobomnaib acht uath. Indlius immorro doip- 
siden, ar ni taophomhna it/r, ut est : h non est litera sed 
nota aspiracionis -i- nochan fuil uath conid Htir acht ata 3560 
conid not úniidh. Tiniedh -l tinug/^í/ feudha -i- neimtniug- 
ud feda do radh riu sin uile acht is dilius J indlius 7 
coitcend daip ouile, Fid na filidechta -i- in ceudna fiodh 
airedha phis a bfocul an imfrecra, J an taophomna docuir- 
ither reisín bfiod sin do thapairt ar aird, J go rab inand 3565 
fidh oiredha beas a dtaopcuibdiph an raind J a n-imfrecra 
na dtarmartcend, Fid in anma prosta. in cetna fidh airedha 
bis and J in taobomna docuirethé?r reisin fid sin J deuoch 
•i- traig i frithindlidhí'í:// Laitne, Deach -i- di fuach intan 
is dialt : no daghfuach no defuach intan is recomrac : no 3570 
is de fuaigther int aircetal -i- coruige ocht sillaoba, 
Connagar dono bu«adh J inde J airbert, coitchend J dilius 
7 ruidluis 7 indlius a ndeach. Pu«ad quidevi onni is tectum 

3542 rohorrd<frc acht ni duthchrt do Gaidilc : ar nimduthcuigh, in imtaithmigh T. 
•'«» Gr. Lat. ii. 35, 24 ^ YBL. nochin ^'^^ cuidibh 

212 YBL.229i32i AURAICEPT Eg. 70ibi5 

•i- didiu arinní is ditiu in deach do [gach Eg.'\ xonnd. A 
inde immorro daghfuach no defuach. A airbert -i- o dialt 3575 
cohncht: no focrt/ aile fair -i- slWab. A inde áono á\ph. 
fuaigther intan is sreth. Coitchend doib uile dialt do rad 
riu, ar is dialt doformaigh for cach n-ai dibh fri araile. 
Ti'úius iar sun didiu : rmdlius iar ceill 7 son imale ina 
n-anma dilsi budhein do radh fria cach n-ai -i- rechomarc 3580 
no iarchomarc /rlo. Indlius do dialt ainw deigh dona vii 
ndeachaibh aile do radh fris, ar ni foil alt and, ^^^ dicitur 
cenib deach-side fo deisiu is la á&^c\\aib atsamrtz^/zther. 
Deach na filidhÉ?^>^^a -i- in lin s\o\\ab mbios isin rund. 
Deach in anma prosta in lion síIIít^ mbios isin ainm -i- a 3585 
fios cie deach do na hocht ndech^/^ doroich int ainm. 

Reim -i- re uama aei a indi antan is filidhecht : no 
uaim dognith^r i reidhe cen cowuaim ioniuis áWgihig 
antan is bairnde acht tomhus fri cloais 7 coir n-anala : no 
raidh uaim intan is proiss. Reim dono cém a airbert : 3590 
diall no tuisil a bunaidh Laitne : no rem a bunadh quidein 
•i- onni is robanius comsuidigti. Ruidlius do rem d'fidh 
for fiodh i filidecht. Dilis do taibrem cethorcubaidh fili- 
dechta 7 bairdne. Coitqent do rem suin cin cheill 7 cio 
rem suin 7 cheilli imale. Dilis di prois. Indlis do rem 3595 
suin nama, uair ni filltir. Cesc, in gne no in cenel in rem } 
Iscineleimh. Caitetangne? Niansa. Reimh fidliachta, 
7 rem bairdne, 7 rem proisi. Da gne immorro for fili- 
dhacht 7 bairdne -i- rem d'fidh for fidh 7 taobreimh. 
Rem d'fidh for fidh cetamus: 3600 

Colum caidh comachtach. 
Sian sleibi slatu seiscind, 7rlo. 

Taobhreimh amal ata sund : 

A FlaÍHí/, a luam in gaisce grind 

Co Maistin moill ; 3605 

It glana, it gaoth, it gart, no it garg, do rinn, no it griní/, 

It laoch, a Flainí/. 

^^''* ruiií/ ''^'' deachi«j de, atsamther •'^ glan 

YBL. 229/344 AURAICEPT Eg. 70 2a2 213 

Ceithri gne immorro for prois o reim -i- reim suin amal 
ata fer, ar is as reimmthar. Rem ceille dano amal ata 
Patraic. Ni herecor a reim suin, ar is aondelb for a 3610 
ainmnigh 7 for a ginitii. Reim suin J ceille imale, amal 
ata Fland Flaind. Taobreimh prosta me budein, ar is 
taobhreim cach ni nach lanreim. Treide ara (230) togtar 
reim -i- reim as amal ata fer, ar is as reimnighther : reim 
ind amal ata fir, ar is ind reimnigther. Reim ind 7 as 3615 
imalle, ut est in fer, zSx\nmid 7 inchousg aund imalle. 
Reim dano ceim a airb^rt : 

Bellat maihair Niuil neimhnigh 

Do clainí/ Laidin langeimlx^í^, 

Fuair bas a lo greine glain, 3620 

Ceile Feniusa Farsaidh. 

Cia taopomna na techt rain^.'' 

I mbeth-luis-nií7« an ogaim 

On lo rocruta na ceoil - ' 

Is guta lasin Laitneoir ■!• v consaini. 3625 

Connagar áono i ssund hunad J 'mde J ai'rdert, coitchend 
7 dilius 7 ruidlius J indlius. Bunad quidivi oní as robamus 
amal 2iáx\xbruvi^\x. Re J uaim a inde. A airbert -i- ceim. 
Co'úchend dona hn'úib reimendaiph reim do radh ríu. 
Diles a beith a n-uathad. Ruidles a beith a n-ilar ; 3630 
no diles do reim na bairdne. Ruidles do reim na 
filidhechta. Indlius do reim na proisi : no indlius [reim 
Eg.'\ inn uathaigh i n-ilar cen adcodar a ilar. Et forpaid 
• i- fair bith for in bfocul no forsin rand •!• forsail J airnin 
7 dinion disail: no forpaid -i- fourbeoaid intan is forsail : 3635 
no forpíwV/ intan is dinion disaiT : no fair bidh intan is 
airnion. Forbaidh •i^ foirbeoaidh •i^ foirid in mbeo i 
dtuigsin ind anma dia dtap//!art//írr in forbaidh no in rand 
dia breith re seachta. 

Caiti bunad et '\nde J 2.irbert, coitchend J dilius 7 3540 

•*''^ togar •*'-* rocruthuigh T. : rocruto na ceol "^^ Is guta a ainm T. 
'^^ forbeodhaidh .**•■'* taborthar, dtaparT YBL. 

214 YBL.230a22 AURAICEPT Eg. 70 2Í129 

ruidlíus et indlius isin focul is fourbaid ? Bunad cetoumus : 
oni is accentus -i- formatrius, Wgnmsseach. A in^^e -i- fair 
á'x^ad bid foursin bfoucul four fot no cumair -i- airnin, 
íorsail, áinin áisail: no íowx^paid a airpert -i- for [fh]idbaith 
dono a airbert. Couitchend dona huilib íor^aidhibh 3G45 
fourpaid do rad riu. Diles a beth for fut no gair. Rudlius 
a radh fri fourbaid fordingi. Indlius do fourbaidiph dul a 
loag aroile -i- do da forbaid na nguta 7 do aonforpaid na 
gconssaine : no forbaid ilair for forbaid uathaid : no 
forpaid fuit four qumair no forbaid cumair for fout : no 3G50 
indles cen a fuath do sgr'ihend. Forbaid intan is foursail -i- 
sail fair no foursail -i- four ímWiud iarsinni foutaighes an 
foucal: fourpaid antan is dinion dissail, sech ni nion ni sail 
acht is duir: no dinin disail -i- disin áUu'úMud -i- nem- 
fuilliud. Forpaid dono fair bid intan is airnion no forbuaidh 3655 
intan is airnion. Airnin -i- eirnidh nion : no fourpaid -i- for 
[íh]idhbaid a airbert. Ruidlius do forsail. Dilius do airnin. 
Couitchend do dinion disail. Indles do fourpaidip dul a 
log araile -i- do da forpaid na nguta 7 do eunforpaid na 
consaine, ar at iat tri fourbaidi docuisin -i- airnion, forsail, 36G0 
7 dinin disail. Airnin arding defidh -i- ding fil and is 
teirce feuda fodera -i- di fo á\u\\.ad co nach fidh acht is 
taobomna, ut est ceun^ no glouna'. [No airnin arin bfoucal 
fir-ding^eas a deiredh Eg. om.] Dinin disail ar gair ge'ipid 
• i- di fo diultad co nach nion co nach sail gairdigius in foucal 3665 
acht duir, ar is duir (sgnhthar) ag ionchousg na íourpaide 
sin, ut est feur 7 leur 7 gach timourta oulchena. Forsail 
for fuot feudair -i- sail fair forin bfoucal dia fot amal ata 
bán 7 lán. 

Alt onní is altus .• uasal a bunad Laitne : no onní 3670 
ailt^^ ina menmain no go feiser cia halt (col. ^) airchetail 
berar re seachta -i- i[n] nath, no ind an^zV, in laid, no 

:s6i8 lag 3650 fot "''«1 .i. in dig •"**'■' MSS. taobógmna 

.•Í663 gardiges ''^''^ co fesar "*'''- in anair 

YBL. 230|Si AURAICEPT Eg. 7o2bi2 215 

ind emain, in sethrad, [in seutrad Eg. om.], no in sainemain, 
in dian dona dianaiph o sin anon« -i- ota na seacht primaiste 
inon« is o deach slouinwter. Alt -i- onni ailter ina men- 3675 
main. Alt in anma prousta i- in re n-aimsire bioss iter 
na da tsill<í//5' a iní^e. Alt go bfeisser a airbert. Connaghar 
dono bunad 7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend, dUms, ruióh'us, indbV/i' 
isin híouctí/ is ault. Bunad quidim oniss altus, ut diximus. 
A inde dano -i- ail fuit no oull ait no ailid. A airpert -i- 3G80 
aigned saordatad. Coitchend do gach alt, alt do rad ris. 
DiMus do ault saorda no da ault bauirdne. Ruiáh'us da 
ault 3.igx\id no filidechta. Indlius do dialt, ar ni bi ault 
and : no alt aiccenta a n-inad ailt tsaorda no alt saorda a n- 
inad ailt aiccenta : no ruidlius 7 dilius, coitchend et indlius 3685 
7rl. Alta ruidlius do ault filidechta i- aisti. Dilius 
immorro do alt bairdne -í- do aisti coitchend, no do 
fouclaiph na proisi, 7 coitchend do gach íocul i mbi alt. 

Indsge -i- co bfeisser an aisti urdalta, no go bfeisser in 
se no in si in aiste beraid re seachta, amal rogaph : is e i[n] 3690 
nath, is i an laidh. In^s'sge an anma prosta -i- firindsge no 
banindsge no deimindsge. Connagar dono bunad 7 inde 
7 airbert, coitchend 7 diHus 7 ruidlius 7 indlius ind 
indsge. Bunad cetamus : oniss ouratio a iní/e -i- inwis coi 
•i- coi inwisti [neich Eg\ Airbert dono -i- irlapra. Coit- 3695 
chend do ferindsge 7 do banindsge 7 do deirnindsge: no 
indsge is coitchend do ferindsge 7 do banindsgi, ut est 
Flann no Ceallach : no is couitchend dona huil/í^ 
masgal is se. DiMus antan raiter, is si sron no suil 
an fir : no is he beul no fiacail na mna. D'úius is se an 3700 
fer, is si in beun. Ruidlius intan raiter, is e bel no fiacail 
an fir : no ruidlius is se an fer so, cona anmaim samdre- 
daig. índlius is e do radha risin gcrand na tuism/í/ 
ní ier n-aiccned no intan fedhair indsgi for araile. No 
bunad 7 inde 7 airrbert, coitchend J dilius 7 ruidlius 7 3705 

367!., 94 onni is ■'••>*'^ fris ■'''■'^ bera ■«"" laoidh ■''"■' YBL. risin an 

2i6 YBL. 230/326 AURAICEPT Eg. 7021,45 

indlius. Indsge, sgiencia, a bunad : indis coi a 'mdo. : 
sgouthecne a airbert. 

Ruidlius do indsge aiccenta caom, Dilius do indsge 
aiccenta euccaom. Coitchend indiles don indsge saorda. 
Indlius ar indilsi. Couitchend ar a gnathugud : 7 3710 
etargaire -i- co feusair ind aisti eurdalta bera re seachta 
•i- i[n] nath debrichta no in trebrichta, an laid ar a chair no 
in luipencoussach no in imrind bera re seachta. Etargaire 
an anma prosta, is se an fer urdalta no is si an ben 
urdaulta. Caiti bunad 7 inde J airbert, coitchend, dilius 3715 
7 ruidlius 7 indlius an e[targra]diamus i- foruaslaigt//^<:// a 
inc/ei- euturgnod goutha. guia ^í ga.{r -i- guth. Airbert -i- a 
\ixeith re toumus no re seacht : no eipert aire -i- deiliugud no 
de dualugud. Coitchend dona h.vúMb etargairzM etargaire 
do rad riu i- couitchend i n-ord comairme. Dilius a rad 3720 
risna seacht n-etargairip tuas : no do etargaire ínchoisc 
i persain, uair is sloinded persainde sa.ndradaig-e he. 
RuidHus a rad fri hetargaire deurrsgugud a nderrsgugud, 
uair is si frecrus in coindealg : no ruidlius a radh re 
hetargaire a tomus no frissna hetargaire iar ndilsi. 3725 
Indlius i- etargaire inchoisg persainde : no a rad fri 
heutargaire aile cenmota in sechta tuas do neoch dip 
na feo air coindfc7c. Coitchend indHus immorro dona 
heutargairib ar cheuna. Couitchend a n-uord comairme. 
Indlius do neoch diph nat frisgair in coina'é'/cc. 3730 

Cesc, an gne no in cinel in fidh ? Is cenel eimh. Masa 
cinel, catet a gnee ? Ni ansa. Fiodh saorda 7 fidh 
aigenta. Fidh saorda -i- fidh ind ogaim. Fidh aiccenta 
•i- fiodh na coiUe (231). Fidh in ogaim, an gne no in cinel 
e? Is cinel eiccen uair techtaig gne -i- fid airechda et 3735 
fourfiod et taobomna, is e sin in cinel cinelach gnethac/i ■l- 
an fiod. 

Cesc, an gne no an cinel an deach ? Is cinel eimh uair 

3708-4103 £g^ q„i :i7(w jndiles ""1" oní is etargrediamus foruaisligthech T. 

YBL.23ia4 AURAICEPT 21/ 

techtai'd gnee -i- secht ndeich na filideechta. Is e sin in 
cinel gneithech fogapaid [ocht] n-ernaili na filidechta. 3740 
Cesc, an gne no in cinel in reim ? Is cinel eim, uair 
techtaid gnee -i- da gne filidechta et bairdne -i- reim 
d'fiodh four fidh J taopreim lanreim, ?it est : 

Coulvim caid cumachtach 71I0. 
Taobreim, /// í.f/.* 8745 

A Floiiií/, a luam an gaisgid griní/. 

Ceitheora gnee four proiss o reim -i- reim souin gan 
ceill, 7 reim soin 7 ceiUe imalle, 7 taophreim prosta, 7 reim 
soin nama. Reim suin gan ceill cetumus -i- fer, fir. Reim 
suin et ceille imalle -i- Flaní/ Y\o\mi. Taophreim prosta 3750 
me pudein. Reim suin nama -i- Patroig V?iXroig. Ni 
hairccar a reim souin, ar is aondelph fora ainmniugud 7 
fora ginitz'/. 

Tri gneithi ara togtar reim ind, 7 reim aus, 7 reim ind 
7 ass imalle. Reim as, amal ata fer, ar is as xeimnigtlitx . 3755 
Reim [ind, amal] ata fir, ar is ind a reimniugud. Reim ind 
7 ass imalle, amail ata in fer -i- ind teit í 7 ass tét á -i- reim 
ind ina dualgus foghair uathaid 7 reim as ina dualgus 
foghair ilair 7 ind imalle 7 in^ dualgus ceille imalle : no 
reím ind -i- Patraic ar ni bfil as iar soun, Reim as -i- fer 3760 
fir, ar ni fil ind iar gceill. Reim ind et ass imale -i- Flan^^ 
Flaind, ar ata ind iargceill, 7 ata ass iar son. 

Is e sin in cinel cinelach gneithech ce'me\ac/i rocoumad 
sound forsna reimendaib. Is e in reim -i- reim Laitne 
no Ebra no Grege no Gaoidelce as a fogbad bunad an 3765 
focail, uair ni bunad acht cechtar de (no dib) sin. 

Cesc, an gne no in ceinel in forpaid ? Is cinel eimh, 
uair techtaid tri gneithi. Is e sin an cinel foura 
dtaurrustar tri gneithe na Gaid^/cci. Cesc, in gne no in 
cinel int alt? Is cinel eimh, uair atait tri gnee fair -i- 3770 
alt saorda J ault aigenta 7 ault go bfeisser. Ant alt co 

2l8 YBL.23ia27 AURAICEPT 

bfeisser immorro teuchtaid coig gne 7 coig c'me/a. Cesc, 
an gne no in cinel ind indsge? Is derp conid cinel tria 
chail na tri n-indsge sin 7 teachta na tri hindsgi, An 
cen^/ deochrrt'z^us daoine an domain. Cesc, an gne no 3775 
in cenel inn etargaire? Is ceinel eim, uair is diairmhiti 
a gneithe. Is e sin in cenel etardeochraigius na huile. 

Caiti eisi in tsechta frisa dtoimsigther Gaoidelc? Ni 
ansa. Eisi feuda (pndini -i- in \i\og aieoir teipidi gaibius 
an fhiodh i w-éWuch in focail, ut dixit in filé' : — 3780 

Eisi fedha is freitighe, 
Ferr daiph a aithne ogaibh, 
In blad eieoir theip/í/>^e 
Techtas ind eallach {oncail. 

Caiti eisi deiich ? Ni ansa. An Vxon no in uaiti tson 3785 
n - aowconngbalach ainmnigther o dialt gou briocht cona 
n-athgapail diplinaiph. Caiti eisi reime ? Ni ansa. An 
hruud fiUti fourbriste íogaLxda fil otha ainmniugud in 
uataigh co ioy.laid an ilair. Caiti eisi forpaide ? Ni ansa. 
In toxmach no in dighbail aimsire airigius aigní'í^^ a 3790 
gcomsinedh fri fogur. Caiti eisi alta? Ni ansa. In toi 
tengad fil don filid ag ceimniugud don litir for araile mad 
alt saorda, no don tsiWaid four araile mad alt aiccenta. 
Caiti eisi indsge? Ni ansa. In (oulud firen foirbthe 
feudhair isna trib cenelaiph. Caiti eisi etargaire. Ni ansa. 3795 
Ant athfeugad meidi inde no inchoisg no eiterdethbere 
no etarderrsgaigti rodealph Die iter na duilib. Eisi -i- 
go mbeith Qsse d'ccensia i- mar roinnius rann J uilidhecht 
•i- mar ta crauí^ 7 ^ geuga J a cousmailius. Ese cruthoigti 
7 eisi adbarrda : Iss ed ís eisi adbarrda and -i- mac do 3800 
geineimain on athair 7 a- cosmailius. Is ed is eisi 
cruthoighti and mar ata mac aga íoghlaini [0] oidi no 
maigistz'r ; 7 fiagfr(7Ídh int ugdar cie ai [i]s uaisle, eisi 
cruthoighthi na eisi adbarda, 7 ader gu rab (col. /3) uaisli 

37K YBL. don fil don filid "'•« /. esseniia 

YBL. 231/3 1 AURAICEPT 219 

eisi cruthoighthí : 7 is he a adpert sin nach bfil acht 3805 
óa.mna arna geinemain and no go gcruthoigther he o 
fhoglaim, uí dixit Plato. 

Cret iat na tri hernaile ata agin Laitneoir frecrus na 
secht n-etargaire agon filid? Ni ansa. Coin</ealg 7 
pronomen 7 dobriathar. Secht -i- sechta do aib domiter 3810 
aní/ -i- secht n-aisti na filidechta 7 secht n-aisti na 
bairdni domiter isi bfocal is sechta -i- seiptiin sin. Punadh 
(no capail) deside fri sechta do aibh and ai -i- secht 
n-aisneissi«a na secht n-aisneis (no iozul so) anuas in 
seacht atat iar n-aisneis isin bfocz// is seiptini co fail deiside 3815 
in sechta do aib ind ai -i- ind aisneis sic. lÁxeith rie secht 
gach ai -i- foucal na filidechta cach ae diph -i- foucal do 
breith re secht an seuchtsa anuass do iarair and sic 
iarrtoigther i sidea aile -i- a bfoclaibh na bairdne 7 ^a 
proisi. Ruidlius do filidecht 7 is air[e] is mo is ruidlius 3820 
do filidecht, ar is innti is moum recar a les im[fh]recra 
imcu^aid. T)\\gther comardad do beith iar bfeudaiph 
aircdhaiph, conid aire sin is ruidlius do fhilidecht. Dilius 
do bairdne, ar is lugam rig a less comardad imcubaidh 
dligther do iarair innti acht conub binn re cluais 7 co rab 3825 
coma.róad cheudna J in gach Gaid/lcc 7rl. Is douil/^'" cetus 
dialt aontsilIaop(?<;/z do tomus fri sechta, Is amlaidh so 
eimh, uair fogabar deiliugud aimsm-da cen go bfoghabta 
deiliugud (olpt/iaigi. Is amlaid sin toimsigther dialt fri 
sechta J ni gach sechta frisa dtoimhiuster Gaoidelc, ar 3830 
is fri haontsechta toimsigther hi -i- frisin sechta romainc/ 
•i- fidh 7 deach sic a bfoclaib ailiph in tsechta, larroigter 
bunad J inde J airbert, coitchend J ruidlius J dilius J indlius. 

Lorc Luocha hEgbric hui Briain, 

Gourt a mbith bouth brat seoil, 3835 

Aide Mide meic don Grein, 

Sidhe na haoine im feil Eoin. 

3806 Diog, Laert. v, l, 19 : Virg. Gr. 161, 5-7 

:!835 Gort a mbid botha brat sroill T. •'**•'" um feil T. 

220 YBL.23i^27 AURAICEPT 

larraígther isin rand so soudhcuipdius -i- soad 
cuipdiusa, 7 cretcuipdi[us] 7 lethcuibdius ; 7 iarraigther 
isin deig^^ouch beous salcuibdis 7 cretcouibdius, lancu- 3840 
ibdius, iargcuibdius. Coitchend doip uile deich do rad 
riu. D'úms iar soun dialt do rad fri gach n-aontsilW^ 
neamciallaidi, si'c est coax J ar a tsuin nemciallaide sin : 
no dilius a radh iar híougar friu uile. Ruidlius iar gceiU 
7 soun imalle -i- gac/i bfail i mbia deich ciellaidi, 3845 

Caiti tomus fri sechta -i- an fiodh touisech biss isin 
ruouí'/, 7 an taobomna tois^r// do tapairt ar aird ; 7 go 
bfeisiur in da taophcupía'/í/j' an raind -i- go raibe an fhidh 
cetna beass a n-im[fh]recra na da tarmortchend ; 7 co rab 
inand a lion do taophomní?/*^ beus impo ; 7 go bfeiser cia 3850 
deach dona hocht ndeachaiph doroich an aisti; 7 go bfeiser 
in taophreim no in reim d'fidh for fiodh ; J co bfeisiur 
cia íorpazd bes a bfoclaip ind im[f h]recra ; 7 co feusair ca 
halt dona secht n-altaibh an ercetail -i- na filidechta. 

Indsge -i- go bfeiser an se no an si an ais/i 7 eutargaire 3855 
gne n-aircetail do gne do tomus re sechta, 7 intan ba 
rosgad no tomusti and cibiní/as notomhusti ; ar ni bi 
\a.ncuhdius no ^^0^^^^^//?/.? and. Ni ansa. Do ioclaib 
forbta ainaile xoX.dXshenad -i- don coiáá. focrt/, oir is coic 
íocail romesad a n-anail in ?í\ed. Caiti secht an ochta in 3860 
Airrrt;/í:^//u ? Ni ansa. Intan is ocht ndialta i mbricht, is 
andsin is secht n-alto and. Caiti in foucal aoncong- 
baulach, deconngbalach, treconngbalach? Ainmnigther o 
tnun (232). Ni rodilssi dó an trian o n-ainmnigther ouldas 
in dá trian o nach ainmnigther -i- iargcoumarc, tretsill- 3865 
cebach. Caitet na da taophoumna gauphus gxeini guthaige 
•i- coull 7 ruis taur eis a, ut est Cuormíí;^: baurd : 

Im pa seussach, im pa seung, 

Im ba treusach, turmi? nglound, 

A Criosd ! in congena friom? 3870 

O ti go techt tar forliond louní/. 

•■'^^■' Gr. Lat. ii. 5, 15 -^^' in fid deidinach T. 

•"■*^'* na feuda beus isin da taobhcub«/í/ T. =*"■• tuirmibh T. 

YBL.232a6 AURAICEPT 221 

•i- reimtsuidhiugud da tsill^í^ iter da choumuaim fidhrat'd, 
is i sin an lourcc buddein bios uag imful?/«^ an íoucat'/ co 
auraile et ni louitend couir úodrat'd: 

Cie leuth cou pr-a/A ier gcuairt chruos 3875 

Cusalua mo chouplauch creus : 
Im ba souir no siar, ni suaiU, 
Im ba bu-thuaidh nou bu-deus. 

'Lounfl'' 7 ' leuth cou prat/i iar gcuairt crous,' a Mhrad 
freucuomfa:// sin no gu dtainic dialt n-eitterleime etraiph. 3880 
'Cia' iter ' lound ' 7 'leuth' an dialt n-eiterleime -i- eiter 
deired in roind toisigh 7 toussach an rouind deighenaigh. 

Cesc, caiti toumus fri fiodh -i- caiti iat na feudha frisin 
a nd^wtar an toumus ? Ni ansa. Co fesar a lion, a llion 
et a n-uaiti e/ a mét eí a loighet, a gcumang 7 a n- 3885 
eugcuomaung, a n^rt e/ a n-aimn^rt. 

Is ed a lion -i- cuicc aicme an ogaim eí cuiccí-r ceucha 
haicme. A n-uaiti -i- aon -i- aonaicme. A meut (-i- a 
toirne, id est nion) -i- coic flesga. Et a laighet -i- aon- 
fleusg, ut est bethe. Caiti deochair iter a cumang -i- a 3890 
ÍQ\xdhaib 7 a near'L -i- a bfedha/<^ air^dhaiph fri suidug/^í/ 
úWaibe. Ni ansa. Cumoung cetamus : intan dogniat 
guth ind-aonaur -i- a no o no u. A n^rt immorro antan 
dusbere fri suidugud a siWaibe, amal ata bethe, ailm, souil ; 
7 luis, ailni, souil. Caiti deochair iter a n-eugcumaung 3895 
7 a n-aimn^rt -i- a dtuohoumuaib/i fri suidiugz/í^ s'úlaibe. 
Ni ansa. Egcumoung cetamus: antan is fo nialus na 
guthí?z^e amal ata fídh : no egcumong -i- intan don- 
occaibh uath cend douiph. Caiti deochair iter a n- 
egcumang 7a n-aimn^rt? Ni ansa. Egcumang cetamus : 3900 
intan is fo nialus na uguthaigQ., amal ata fidh -i- a 
taophomn<«M intan don-ouccaiph uath cend doiuph. 
Fior eimh, ar ni tuigter na feuda deghenchuo filit isna 
defougraibh sin tria na gcant^m fo chetoir. Aimnert 
ummorro antan bit ag comhsuidightíph cutrouma na nde- 3905 

222 YBL.232a33 AURAICEPT 

fougar isna {oríeuáhmd, amal ata (er J beun. Cuicc fedho 
gaucha haicme 7 o aon go cuicc cachai i- oenfleisc go coic 
flesgaibh -i- amal ata beth[e] 'na haonur J nion 'na cuicczV^r 
do/<^. Gne aile : Egcumong cetuomus : antan piti fo 
ma.\us, ut esí .' quoniam, quidei)i,\z&m. Laitneoir : iio intan 3910 
biti tri guthaighe a n-aontsillaib lasin nGaidel, ut est 
Briain, gliaid, feoil, beoir. Caiti deochair iter an egcuw- 
oung 7 an aimhnert? Eccoumong cetomus : intan na 
bit comung occai. Aimnert immorro ni berar a comang 
uadhaibh auchd ni mor chena i bfarr^'rf' na bfidh n-airedha. 3915 
Aimhnert immorro intan biti fo consanachd, ut est 
seru[u]s uulgus, lasin Laitneoir ; íit est iarum, cian 7 ciar, 
uuall 7 auall lasin nGaidel. Lanchumang inntibh iter 
fedhaibh 7 taophoumnaibh co nd-ouorba uath -i- co 
(col. /3) ndofir-baidhe, no co n-irdiphand. Cuicc aicme 3920 
ougaim 7 cuicc^r gacha haicme cenmotha na forfeudha 
7 o aon co cuic cacb ai -i- o aonfidh co cuicc fedha 7 o 
aonfleisg co coic fleisgaiph co ndod-deilighther -i- is 
cain-nus-deiligther triana n-airde -i- trian a n-egcosg 7 it 
e i n-airrde: Desdruim -i- bethe do deis an droma, is e 3925 
aithne aicme bethe : Tua[th]druim -i- do leth tuaidh an 
droma, is e aithne aicmi uath : Tredruim aithne aicmi 
muin : Imdruim aithne aiccme ailm adiu 7 anaull. Aithne 
aicme na bforfiodh -i- on rand is mou rohainmniog^^ -i- 
ouna tri feudhaiph 7 is iat shou anmoun^/a dringtacha 3930 
ind ogaim. Is amlaid (sin) imdrichaur ougam -i- amal 
imdreng//írtr crand -i- is amlaid ceimnigther isinn ogam 
diUjnail ceimnigther isin craund 7 iss ed is crand sound 
conair aipgitri ind ogaiin. Is hi frem -i- frem na craoiphi 
• i- sdiXtvad four frem an crouind ar tus, J do lam dheuss 3935 
remhat -i- aiccme bethe, et do lam cleith fo deoigh -i- 
aicme uath. larsin is leiss -i- uait, J is fris -i- cuccut -i- 
aicmi muin, J is trit aicme ailm. Tairis J uime aicme na 

"91" Gr. Lat. iv. 367, 19 

YBL.232/3is AURAICEPT 223 

bforfiodh. Is amlaid sin deiligter feudha et forfeudha 
7 taophoumna. Cesc, cid ar a n-eibertar fedha friusidhe 3940 
•i- frisna taopoumna amal fida? Ni ansa. Fobith domio- 
ter na taoboumna friu i- a n-ainm prostu i- '\\.er fedha 
7 taopomna 7 cainfuaigter na {owcail dip, ut est luis ailmi 
7 bethe ailme -i- la 7 ba. Is he sin in sealpad saorda 
cin reim acht reim remraithi -i- do fedhaiph nama. Ita 3945r 
in comuaim amal ata fidh aíredha in lethraind toisigh 7 in 
lethraind deirig i teit in dis fuaigedh in rand. Cesc, 
cinnus domither frisna taopoumnrt/^ amal fidha? Ni 
ansa. Cach da taopomna ar fidh a cupaid. Is ed a 
cupaid iarum cach da coibfid a cubaidh co x^eth a fidh 3950 
cetno beus i bfoclaiph ind im[fh]recra 7 corab inand a 
llion do taopomnírz'í^, ut esí bas 7 las, frass bras, cend 
lend, corn dourn, áoxxnn cownn, nem cel. Cid ar a n- 
aubaur feudha friusidhe -i- frisna taoboumnaiph ? Ni 
ansa. Amal iarraigther fidh airedha in an;//a icca hreth re 3955 
sechta, sic sin iarroigther in taoboumna bis and -i- isin 
bfoucal cauch da taopoumna ar fiodh, Jit dicitur : — 

MarcacA autconní/aurc ane, 

'Eutac/í uime co nndath cro, 

A dath at gilithir geiss, 3960 

Uan tuinne dath a da o. 

■ i- coll 7 i'uis a n-agaid onn : no cro a cubaid fri honn 
tantuni. Bas lass, lancupaid indsin. Taobcubaid -i- 
bras 7 l^ss : no is e ant aontug[ud] co n-inan^/us 7 int 
aontug«í3^ cin inan^/us andsin. Dedha airecor and -i- 3965 
aontugud co ndeiliugud amal ata bas 7 las, 7 is iar 
comardad n-aircetail ata, uair is inan^ fidh ^weghdhz. fil 
intibh 7 is xnsxíd taobomna deighenoch ; sain immorro 
taobhomna toisich. 

Caite ruidlius 7 dilus, coitchend 7 indlius do fedoibh 3970 
do tomus friu ? Dilius do forfedhoibh. Ruidles do fedh- 

224 YBL. 232(338 AURAICEPT 

uibh airedhoibh. ' Coitchend do taobomna. Inlius do 
taobomnrt/<^ sic isna foclaibh ailiph in tsechta. 

Conagur dono isin aipgitir bunath o aon, 7 airec o 
dedha, 7 a cor a tredhai, 7 a comuaim fri ceathardha, 7 a 3975 
comhdluthugh fri cuicthi, a morudh fri sedhai, a foghrt:/'/ a 
sechda, a riagh?/! re hochta, a hincosc a noie, a fastad 
a ndeicthi. Is e tra int aon tuas -i- Feinius Farrsaidh, 
in dedho mac Etheoir, in tredhath mac Aíngín, in ceth- 
ruim//íe Cae, in coicidh Aimergin mac Noiwe meic Nionuail, 3980 
an seisidh Fercheirtne (233), in sechtmad a dalta, int 
ochtmad Cendfaolrtíf//, an noimad a dalta, an dechmad 
Cínaptha, a {o?>\.ad a n-aon -i- int uachdarach (-i- Fenius) -i- 
in trefocul. Iss e so tosach an Airaicepto iar nAimirgin 
nGluingeal -i- Aimirgin a fearsa : a n-aimsir mic MíIí'í/ 3985 
arriacht : Tochur Inbir Moir a crich hui nEnechglas 
Cualunú? a loc : 7 tucaid a denma -i- Ir mac Miled dia 
tolugud go he«ingen amal ata i n-ar ndeoigh. 

Ceasc cia rainig in beurla Feine, 7 cia hairm a 
n-airrniocht, 7 cisi haimsir i rriochd ? Iss e immorro 3990 
irrainic Feinius Farrsaidh -i- in persa : ogin tour -i- in 
loug : in dara deisgiopul sechtmadad na sgoile. Pa do 
Ephradaiph a bunadus 7 ba go hEceptacta rofaoide^/, fobith 
iss and batar a tusdige 7 pa hand ron-alt. Is and roan 
Feinius feissin accan tour no go tdourracht a sgoul cuigi 3995 
as gach aird i cionn deich mbHedan iar sgailed oun tour 
four gach leth, connaitchend cusin sai -i- gou Feinius berla 
na beith ag nech aile douiph asna hilperl.^/^, achd comad 
ouca a n-aonur no beith, no ag nech nofouglainnedh leo 
doridisi. Is andsin áoxéí^ed doip in berlu-sa asna hilper- 4000 
laiph rotaispenadh do aonfer diph, 7 pa he an fer sin 
Gaidel mac Aingin, uair is he is mo daroth/rzzV^ no toro- 
thlaig, 7 is he rob ferr diph conad he a ainm-sidhe for- 

S972 \x^iiis •'®^" dedhas ^**** leg. mac nGoimeir 

■''**' Cinaodh T. '■''^' 1. a phersu •'**^ gu hAimirgin ^rl. T. 

YBL.233a20 AURAICEPT - 22$ 

dota in berla sin,conid Gaidelc deiside o Gaidel mac Aingin 
meic Glunfind meic Laim[fh]ind meic Eithiur meic Aghno- 4005 
maín do Gregaiph. Inand tra Gaidel mac Aingin J 
Gaidel mac Eithiuir -i- da ainm patar four a athair -i- 
Aingein 7 Eitheoir. Is aní2Ísin iarum doreip^í/ in berlasa 
u mba ferr -i- a n-edargna in gach berla, 7 u mpa caoine -i- 
fri turgp^// 7 u mba leithe -i- i gclsLUií£-ud, iss ed doreipí?rf' 4010 
insin Gaidilc. Gach soun do na hairrniocht cairecht^zri 
isna haipgitribh ailibh arnichta cairachtaire leosum 

doip isin mbethe-luis-nion an ogaim, uí est ^ ^ ■ Iq ^ J^ —- 

It iet sin no huocht litri sechnait in Gaidilc dona haip- 
gitribh aile. Rolaiti iarum i feudha for leth 7 a dtaobomna 4015 
for leth lasin nGaidí'/ go bfuil cach dip four leth (do) 
araile ge nacha cumusg atait agín Ga.ide/ amal atat agin 
Laitneoir : cros ar ani is crux Latine is croch agin Gaidel : 
grus ni fil a fregra lassin Laitneoir, ut est : — 

Aithrií? dam an lios 4020 

Sech a teit an glas 
Inab imda grus 
An gob imda auss. 

Ceitheora ran^/a forfogailti agin tour -i- da deisgiopul 
sechtmogat, 7 da comairlech sechtmogat, da thuaith 4025 
sechtmogat, da berla sechtmogat. Is e primthoiss^r// 
lasin ndernad an tor i- Eber mac Saile, 7 Gregus mac 
Gomer otat Gregaig, 7 Laitin mac Puin otat Latianda, 7 
Ribath Scout otat Scuit, 7 Nemruad mac Cuis meic Caim 
meic Nai F. F. ^^3^ 

Brec dano a rad so i- Greccus mac Gomer do beith 
agin tour, ut est in parabulamb genilogia -i- leapair 
geinealrt?>í? na nEapríz/^i i- ni rabatar acht tri meic ag 
Gomer, Aisc, Necus [1. Aschenaz], 7 Riíath a n-anmanda 
7 Togarma iarsin go rogenair Greccus o n-ainmnigtir 4035 

♦«*•» I Chron. i. 32 «^J Fenius FarsazV/// /rl. T. «-^ i Chron. i. 6 


226 YBL. 233^42 AURAICEPT 

Greicz. Ni raibi immorro ingra -i- ingar (col. /3) go mad 

mac do Gouimer Grecus, co nnach raipe ic cumdach an 

tuir amlaid sin. Coumaimsir<i:í/ andso sis. Da bliadain 

coicat o sgailiud an tuir go flaithius Nion meic Peil, a do 

coicait dopoi a righe. Ceithri bHadna dec ar tri fichit ar 4040 

secht cetaiph o flaithus Nion co deired flaithiusa 

Tuta^eis ri an doumain. Is re lind rotoglad an Trai fa 

deigh secht mbliadna iarsin co dtug ^nias ingen Laitin 

meic Puin, conid deich mbliadna ar ochtmogaid ar oucht 

cetaiph o sgailiud an tuir Lauina 7 Laitin fein dorinne 4045 

a caingzV/ fris. 

Is follus assin co nnach c^rt-tiaghait oes ind Uiraicepto 

co na bou in sescatmad primhtois^r/z an tuir. Sgouta 

ingen Fouraind ri Eigipti o n-ainmnigtir Scuit et as sou 

rofaus -i- Nel mac Y€minsa Farrsaidh fer frichnam//í7<:// 4050 

he go dtainig asin Sgeithia go magh Seunair m«r a 

rapatar na teungtha ar na sgailed 7 dob ail leis do 

dtuicced se na teungtha 7 docuala ri Eigipti Nell do beith 

ag sduid/r in^^to. Dotogairm cuige fein he co tecusgrtí/ 

se na hEigipti fo na tengt/z« 7 tug se a ingin fein do -i- 4055 

Scouta 7 onoir romor, conid uaiti ainmigtir Sguit, ut 

dixit poeta : 

Feine o Feinius atbertai, 

Brig gan douchta, 
Gaidz/ o Gaidz«/ G\as garta, 4060 

Sguit o Sgota. 

I mpau ferr 7 i mba lethe ina cach berla 1x\o -i- ferr 

leosim a n-etargn^ a mbith coumdis muiti uile quam a 

mbeth comtis lethguta 7 muiti amal atat agin Laitneoir. 

A mba caoine -i- caoime leis a cuig fo fut 7 a cuig fo lan 7 4065 

a cuig fo cruaidh -i- fedha airedha andsin. Caoime leosim 

dono a cuig fo gair, a cuig fo bugu, a cuig fo deghfog^/r, 

forfedha indsin, quam aon quig fuithzM uile amal ata agin 

^O" YBL. ar ouchtmadad 

4068-61 cf. Keat. Hist. ii, i6, 319-22 : Maolmuru Othna, 69 

4060 YBL. Gald- o Gaidg 

YBL. 233 i3 25 AURAICEPT Eg. 71 I a I 22/ 

Laitneoír fo dichronus -i- nemcinnti no nemtsealpí7í/. 
Iss ed isbeir in Laitneoir gabait na cuig guthaige an greim 4070 
sin uile, ut est : Latini oinneis suont uocales producti 7 
corropti posunt -i- atat na huile guthaige Latianda co 
gcaomnagtar 7 co roectar 7 co dtimairgter. Leithe i gciall- 
aibh 7 a bfouclaib 7 a leitriph. Leithe i leitriph cetoumus : 

Ni fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir. Lethe 4075 

a bfouclaiph dono -i- grus 7 cluoch 7 lind : ni fil a frecra 
lasin Laitneoir -i- grus 7 tanouch: gourmaulo lasin 
Laitneoir, gruth laisin nGaidel dia frecra. Gourmarium 
lasin Laitneoir, ^xnúixach laisin nGaidel. Grus immorro 
laisin nGaidel, ni fil a frecra-sidhe lasin Laitneoir : lapis 4080 
lasin Laitneoir clouch lasin nGaidel : pcutra laisin, 
Laitneoir, ail lasin nGaidel : sdrupala lasin Laitneoir 
c^LXxac lasin nGaidel, OMx\d 7 ailcne, immorro, is iat na 
cenela clouch do nach filit a íx&zz.x\.\iaich agin Laitneoir. 
Lethe dono i bfouclaib 7 i gciallaib 7 i litribh in Gaidelc 4085 
de sin inas in Laitin. Cid leithi i foclaib, ni lethi i 
gciallaib, ar cia beith ilanman(/a agin Gaidel ag sloinr/edh 
na ret, tic an ciall reullait sin isinn uathadh foucal fil icon 
Laitneoir. Ni fior on amal isber in Laitneoir : Nicienciivi 
sgieris no7nen, cognico rerum perit -i- atbail aithne na reut 4090 
muna hetftrgnaither (234) ant ainm. Aqu\a\ lasin Lait- 
neoir, uisgi lasin nGaoidel : aimnis lasin Laitneoir, aphouní/ 
lasin nGaidel : pisginai laisin Laitneoir, iechlind lasin 
nGaidel : lin^ immorro lasin nGaidel, ni fil a frecra lasin 
Laitneoir. 4O95 

Rolaiti iarum a feudha four leith et a thaophoumna 
four leth co bfil cach ai diph for leith ou'raile, ar ni bfil 
leuthguta ^x\d amal nach bfil la Grecca ^Mcht muiti nama. 
Gach duil do nach raibe ai«mniucc«í/ isna beurlaibh ailiph 

'^^ 1. scopulus, Origg. xvi. 3, 2 *^^ rellait ■***^ Nisi enim 

««' Origg. xiii. 21,1-3 *^ abond ^ Gaidl YBL. 

228 YBL.234a7 AURAICEPT 

arichta a ainmniugud doiph isin Gaidilc, ut ^.y/, grus.cluoch, 4100 


•i- an dara i\\\ab deigi?«ach oir is 'penuilt' is ainin do 

Cidh fuodera penuilt chumair 

laisin Laitneoir 7 'uilt' in sillab deg^wich -i- o circu«das, 

a ' siorcundamas,' et conat 410j5 

oir is on persain tanuisi uathaigh cruithíT in cetpersa 

on persaind tanaiste do- 

ilair Lasin Laitneoir ar cor 'mu' iter a 7 S na persainí/e 

gnither tria 'mu' d'eturtsam- 

tanuisi amal ata i ' circundamus ' : oir ' circunda,' 4110 

ugud iter ' a ■" et ' s ' ? Ni ansa. 

'circundis,' 'circundit,' poi an^ ar tus. Neoch ata 

' Do,' ' dis,' ' did,' ropui 

cumair rolean in cuimre (no coibhiti Eg. om.) sin. 

Dobai ar ' circundimus ' i tosach ' circundamas ' 41 1 5 

'de' ria 'm' fertar 

ina aimsir<3í/7 is uime sin ita in penuilt 

cuimre et ' dimus ' don 

tuas do beith cumair [oir dobai si cumair Eg?[ a ' sircundimus ' -i- is iat 

ilur et rolen aimseradh 4120 

na tri persanc/a huaíhaid : ' sircunrtí?,' 'sirqundas,' 

na cuimre sin a cet- 

'sirqundad' 7 na tri persan^/a iLair ; 'circun- 

persain ilair tuas, gen gur- 

damus,' ' sirqundimus,' 'cirqundercimus' -i- 4125 

len i litrip, ar ni lenand i fout 

nior doluidsi on a qumachtain -i- ar ' do' do 

acht do aonsillab. 

bhi fada co nnderna. 

Cid foudeura aiccent forin penuillt comair sen i- 4130 
' da ' et nach ar ' cund ' ata ? Ni ansa. Ar ata do 
met is luigtech in dobriathar is ' sircuim ' rei ' do ' 

^103 pindiult T. -'^"^ sillad -'i"'' conid ^^^'' tanusi ■*'"» d'etorsamugud 

■"i"-^ iDai '*^'-' robai '*"^ rolen aimserud ■"^'' ferthor 

J"8 fertur coibhfidh T. ^i^i ybl. persaní/aní/a «22 ^a cobihfidh T. 

^'-•* cin go lenand T. ^'-'^ aon tsiollaobha dhe T. ■"•* airnin forin T. 


YBL.234a34 AURAICEPT Eg. 711^43 229 

conna romill uimpi a haimsered nach a haiccent amal na 
romiU a ' cailirefacio.' Millidh immorro in 're' in 
Buidiugud a rolagat. Is laigtech risin mbreithir. 4135 

Is ed \x\d son tosach ind Uraiciopta iar Feinius 7 iar 
nlar mac Nema 7 iar nGaidel mac Eitheoir no mac 
Aingin. Is iat sin a persanda 7 aimsir dano an aimsir a 
tangadar meic Issrael a hEigipt. Is a nAisia arií-///, cia 
isberait isa muig tSeunair doriacht. Tuccait a sgriphind 4140 
a touthlugud don sgoil moir go Feinius et co hlar mac 
Nema 7 go Gaidel mac Eitheuir a tep/V/Z'i doiph ind 
Uraiciopt[a] 7 iar dtiodnacul (in) rechta do Maisi 7 iar 
bfoglrtz';// do Caei Cainbrethach oga, conid airi sin arriachta 
na haipgitri a n-aontapaill amal isbeir : cuiteut aipgitri 4145 
na dtri primberladh 7rla. 

Se primtoisigh lasin dernad in tour -i- Eimer mac 
Saile, Greccus mac Goimer otat Gregaigh /rlo, amal 
adrubrumair romaind. Partab;; mac Sdairw (col. /3) meic 
Seura meic Sru meic Eusru cetnarogaph Eire rie [iar ii>.] 4150 
ndilinn Neimnmid meic Aghnoumain meic Paim meic 
Seura meic Sru /rlo. 

Cest, caitiat aipgitri na tri primberla iter ainmnighe 
agus cairechtí7í!;'i ? Ni ansa eim, aipgitir Ephrat'de 
cetamus andso sios : — 4155 

K aleph (H. Eg.) t'd est doctrina -i- forcetul. 

n beth (s- Eg.) i.e. donius -i- tech. 

j gemel (r-) '\.e. plenuin i- lan. 

T deleth (ci) tabalaruni \- clair. 

í^ hee (u-) i.e. ista \- andssou. 4160 

7 uau (-g-) \.&. prinncess {prinnceps Eg.) i- tigerna. 

"t sdai[n] (•!<•) /lee i.e. is he. 

" heth (h) i.e. uita -'v beutha. 

•j teth (n) i.e. bonuui •i- maith. 

'■^■■' VBL. MiU : Gr. Lat. ii. 402, 13 ; viii. 177. 9 

230 YBL. 234/3 1^ i\URAICEPT Eg. 7iib30 

- ioih. (•{•) prtnndj>m)n -i- tossdich. 4165 

3 cap (S) i.e. inanus -i- lamh. 

V lamiach (-s-) suni cordis, disciplina. 
n mem (-x-) i.e. excipsis -i- uaitib. 

3 [n]un (-ci-), sempiternunL -i- co suthain. 

D samet (-ri-), adiutorium •i- furtacht. 4170 

ith -i- ri. 
j; in,fons.sum, oculus -i- topur no suil. 
íi fe, osa ab ore non ab osse (-i- on bel 7 ni on chnaim). 

V sade (f-) iusticia •i- coir. 

P cop (-i-) uocacio i- gairm. 4175 

"I res (-c-) capites -i- cend. 
^ sen dentium -i- fiacla. 
n tau •!• xz>«(i: •i^ comarda. 

Finit disin. 

Aipgit/r Grecda suoniafa :— 4180 

A alpa (i). 

]] beta (ii). 

r gama (iii). 

A delta (iv). . 

E ersion (v). • 4185 

Z steta (vi). 

H eta (vii). 

e teta (8). 

I iota (ix). 

K kapa (x). 4190 

L luta (xx). 

M imos (xxx). 

N oz xl. 

'B csi Ix. 

n phi [0] Ixx. [^] 700. 4195 

418« "pijg Digamma, vi, is omitted ; and consequently the numerals there- 
after are one place wrong up to xl. 

YBL.234/344 .AURAICEPT Eg.7iib37 23I 

Fi [tt] Ixxx. § [sampi] 900. 

um [koppa] 1x1 us 

pro [p] centum us 

csima [o-'] centum ono [1. duo] us 

uu [r] tri centum. 4200 

[ ]xc. 
hi [H] cuic cet us (p. 
psi 5 [sampi] nai cet us 
uio [xf/] seacht cet us 
rav [da 00 = w] uocht cet. 4205 

[Finit disin o Domnall ua Aoda 7 doberim mo secht 
mallacht 7 mallacht Dia dob[er]air air sin di ollo;//<a;m O 

Maolchonaire. Is olc in cuwain dam cuige so é — 

uile raot 7 is damsa is mo dobeir se cunain (?) aithigh 

uile Eg?[ 4210 

Aipgitir \^^\\.ianda indso. a \.q. prinncipiuvi -i- tossach. 
b i.e. iusticia -i- indrucus. c i.e. utili[t'\as ■{• tarbdacht. 
d '\.^. fortitudo -i- nert. e i.e. duailitas -i- eathwadh (1. étrad). 
f i.e. ueneracio -i- ogmoir [oinoir Eg.\ g i.e. pietas -i- 
trocaire. h i.e. [h^ilaritas -i- subachas, i i.e. regnouni -i- 4215 
flaithemnus. k i.e. religio -i- craphrrr/^/. 1 i.e. nobilitais 
■\- nertmairecht. m i.e. dignitas -i- diuiti. n i.e. 
recongnitio -i- aithne. o i.e. onora (sic) -i- onoir. p i.e. 
opsequiuni -i- umla. q i.e. lux solis -i- griansolustur. r 
i.e. pulnia (1. pluvid) -i- fertain. s i-e. dies et nox -i- la 7 ^220 
adaig. t '\.Q.. pax -i- sithchain. u i.e. aqua et ignis 'v uisgi 
7 teine. x i.e. longa uita -i- betha fota. y i.e. auruni -i- 
or. 2, presiositas -'v loghmaireacht. 

Is e in feur cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh (rainic) na 
ceitheora haipgitri asrubartamírr -i- aipgitir Greccda 7 ^225 
aipgitir Ephraidhe 7 aipgitir Laitianda 7 iri bethi-Iuis-nion 

^•' uioo *2u-22 cf. Virg. M;iro Gram., p. 89, v. 

'^ YBL. rt'z>/í ^' YBL. 7«5;/?í '»^-^ YBL. lan^us 

232 YBL.234i330 AURAICEPT Eg. 71 2 a r6 

an ogaim 7 ís aire is certi in deigenach ar is fa deoigh 
arichta in beithi-luiss-nion an ogaim. 

■i- a sgrip>^^«^ a n-aontapaill a ropatar roimhe uile no 4230 
comad he fath arriachta aipgitri ind ogaim 7 sgribhind 
na n-aipgitr/ oile i nd-aontapaill -i- aipgitir ind ogaim 
imalle, uí dixiums -i- uair itait -u- forfeuda agin Gaidilcc 
7 rola a ^\x'Cs\aigi for leith a n-urd aipgitri o consanaip, 
non sic na haipgitri aile acht a [c] cumusg atat inntip uocales 4235 
7 ar b[a Egi\ coiger ar fhichit Hon na sgoile is aire 
is he lin aipgitri in ogaiin 7 it e an anmanda fordota in 
bethi-luis-nion an ogaim, conid uadh rolaiti for leith. 

It e in anmanda fordota iarum, 7it est 7l|1]|1|D]]í||)^0 - 

Asberat araile conid deich feudha airedha filit and 7 it e 4240 
an tri dofhourmaghat frisna vii tuas, uiUeand, ifin, eman- 
coull, conidh aire rolaiti four leith (235). Ismberait araile 
co nnach o dainiph itir ainmnigther aipgitir (no fedha) in 
ogaim isin Gaidilcc acht o chraní/aiph cin cob aithionta 
in[d]iugh araile croind diph, ar atat tri hernaile for 4045 
cran<^aiph -i- aire feudha, 7 aithig fedha, 7 losa feudha et 
uaithibh sin ainmnigter feudha ind ougaim. Aire fedha 
quidim: dair, coull, cuillení/, aball, uindis, ibor, gius. 
Aithig fedha : fern, [sail Eg\ bethe, lem. sceu, caorthan<'/, 
crithouch, droigen, trom, feorus, cranís' fir, feithlend, 4250 
fidhout, fion^coull. Lousa feudha -i- aitend, fraoch 
gilcach, rait, eidhend, driss, spin, leclo -i- luachair 7rIo. 
Beithi dixdiu o beithe rohainmnig//íí^r ara chousmalius fri 
cois an beithi, ut dicitur : 

Feochuos foultcain -i- beithi. 4255 

7 is airi sin is a mbeithe xosgxi^ad in ceutna hainm 
ougaim tuccadh a \\YÁxinn -i- secht mbeithe tug///rt do 
Lug mac Eithk«« -i- bertar do ben fo shecht a 

YBL.235ai2 AURAICEPT Eg. 7i2bi 233 

sidhaiph uait nisi eain custodieris -i- muna coimhéta tu hi. 
Et is airi sin beoss sgript/m/r béthe i dtousach aip^zVrz ind 4260 
ogaim. Luis dono is o craní/ rohainmnigther -i- o chaor- 
thaní/ uair luis ainm do chaorthana^, isin tseunGaidilcc, ut 
dicitur li sula luis i- caourthaní/, ar ailleacht dath a 
chaor. Fern dono is o cran^ rohainmnigther -i- fern, ut 
dicitur aireunrtí-/^ Fian fern ar is di dogniter na sgeith. 4265 
Sail á'xdiu is o chran<^ rohainmnigther, ?/^ dicitur li ambi 
soil -i- nembi soil ara cosmalius a datha fri marph. N/« 
dono is o chrand rohainmnigther -i- o uinnsin<'/, nt dicitur 
coscrad sidhe ni;/ -i- uin^is i- ar is di na croind gaeí 
triesa cosgarthar an sith : no costad side \i\wd\s -i- nin 4270 
giniol garmno dognither do uint/is -i- ar isinn aimsir tsidha 
togbír/th^rgarmna. Huath dano is o chranc/rohainmnigther 
•i- sge, ut dicitur comdal qua« uath, ar is uath mor hi ar a 
deilgniph : no is miwic la cach comdail ic sgiaigh. Duir 
dono is o chrand rohainmnig///í?r -i- dair, ut dicitur airdem 4275 
dosaiph dair. Tinne dono is o chran^ rohainmnigther -i- 
cuWcnd, ut dicitur trian roith tinne -i- cu'úend ar is cu'úend 
in treus fidh roth in chdirpaid. Coll dono is o 
chranrtf rohainmnigther i- coull, ut dicitur cno-car 
fer -i- cach ag ithe a cno i- coull : no ith-car fer : no 4280 
•cain-car fid. Queirt dono is o chran<^ rohainmnigther i^ 
apall, ut dicitu r clithour baisgell i- eilit. Ouiert (•i- cli) •i- 
abull, ce/zV gelt queirt -i- apall. Muin dano is o chraní/ 
rohainmnigther i^ finemain, /// dicitur airden maisi mui« 
•i- finemain •i- iarsani fasas a n-airdi -i- finemain. Gort 4285 
•dono eidheand, ut dicit'ur glasibh geltaip gort -i^ eidheand, 
Ngedal •i^ gilcach nuo raith, ut dicitur luth lego ngedal Í- 
gilcach no raith, ar is luth laisna legaib 7 coibnes iter k 7 
ng : no miod<7í-// ice -i- ar imad a ice no [i^ Eg?[ gilcach no 
raith. Straif dono -i- áro'igend, ut dicitur aire sraba 4290 
ssdraibh -i^ áro'xgetid no straif i^ saididh nell -'x- a dhe 

■'*^''' Fiand ^-''■'" nembeth ^'^< ^ airden ^"" sraib 

234 YBL.235a38 AURAICEPT 

ssuass. Ruis dono -i- troum, ut dicitur ruamna ruici 
ruis -i- trom : no ruamna ruisg -i- teine truim. Ailm 
•i- o<r/ítach : no ailm airdeumh iachtadha -i- feth -i- 
fe ue^ at uath feirrdris : no aihn, id est, quaisi pailm a 4295 
palma. Onn ■[■ aitend, ut dicitur cuánoviáh eich -i- aitend no 
echlaisg. Ur -i- fraoch, ut dicitur guiremh dal -i- frech. 
Edath -i- edh uath -i- crand fir no crithach, ut dicitur 
erchra fer fe fe flesg. Idedh -i- iobhar, ut dicitur 
sio«eim fedha iobair : iobhar -i- eo barr siinper. Eba -i- 4300 
crithuch, ut est snamchar fer. Oir -i- feoruss no edlend, 
ut dicitur tuathmar fidh -i- eithlend, ut dicitur 
sruith^;« aicdhe feorus -i- fiarses. Uiileand -i- eidleand, 
ut dicitur tuathmar fid no edleand. Ipin -i- spinan no 
spin, ut dicitur millsim fedha pin -i- caor. Emrt^coll -i- 4305 
umda a fedha : no emancoll -i- gabar emancoll ar ach 
cia gabar ar aill -i- midiuiti, ut dicitur oud saothaid -i- uch : 
no emancholl -i- seim muin caol. 

[Uch is tinn mo chorp Eg. om.'\ 

(col.^) Anmanda fiodh tra sin uile amal foghaphar isin 4310 
Duili Feudha, / is uadaiph ainmnigter feudha in ogaim isin 
Gaidilc 7 nochan o dainip itir ut aili dicunt. Cesc, ciss 
lir a cumang? Ni ansa. Lancumang inntib uile iter 
fedha 7 taobomna co nd-ourba huath -i- amal bes a 
n-aign^rt' cidh mor cidh bec iat. Is imne innister isin 4315 
Cin Oulk;//an -i- ceithirtsliocht fedhair for fedhaib 7 
taobhoumnaiph -i- cumang 7 ecumang lancumang 7 
lethchumang : cumang a forfeudhaiph, ecgumang a 
muitibh, lanchumang a fedhaiph; lethchumang i leth- 
gutaibh. Itberat araile is tretslicht is coir and -i- 4320 
lanqumang a muitibh ar ni bfilet lethguta lasin nGaidel. 

Treidhe dogni uath -i- \>ogad et s€\vs\\\\xgud 7 má\)^dad. 
Bogí7(^ cetamus : for taobomnaib 7 isna ndiaigh do-ecaiph 

^-« airdemh ^ piU-, YBL. pawk 4-»<» sínemh T. 

''•'^^ co ndurboi ^^'^ amne •*•'-•■• doecamni 

YBL.235/ii2 AURAICEPT Eg. 72iai7 235 

doibh -i- do p 7 do c 7 do t 7 do duir 7 do gourt. lersin 
Laitneoir, immorro, bidh tinfé-í/ ar gach taobomna don 4325 
Gaidilc 7 seimiugud for gnt/iaigiph [J Eg.] is rempa do-ecaiph 
doiph. Bouccad beithi, sop ; boucí7<^ cuill, cloch ; bogad 
tiní/e^ath; bog<a;<iduir,sodh; bogad guirt, magh. Seimugud 
dono for taophomnaibh 7 is rempa do-ecaip doiph. 
Seimiugud uatha, Phatraig. Seimhiugud d, dhamsa, 4330 
dhuitsi. Seimiugud b, a bheun. Seimiugud c, a cheun. 
Seimiugud tini^e, a thir, Seimugud g, a gkrad, a oghda. 
Seimugud ar gutaibh J is rempu do-ecaiph doibh. Pidh 
dano tinfed ar gach taoboumna iní/sa Gaidilcc. 

Boccad b cetaviws : amal ata Bhatraig, ar as uath bogas in 4335 
b fil and ; ar ni bi p lasin nGaid//c. Seimugud uathd; amal 
ata a Vh^Xraig ; ar cia beith uath and, is seime ina [a] n-aill. 
A\rá\pdad (-i- o rodipad) sail immorro -i- a shail : airdip- 
dad f, a fhind, a fhir, in f[h]eudha -i- in taobomna do hxicht 
as do raith, ut est [amc?/ no Eg. 07U.] cin^^us domiter frisna 4340 
taopoumnaiph amal fidha sie fidhau. Iss ed rop<tí/ c//<?rt 
and acht uath baidhius in f^rn, conidh airdipí/<'?í/ fil and. 

Seimugud immorro amal ata a fher -i- ni tét as air ec J 
ni bí lancumang ind. [Ar at e teora fuillti in Uiraicepto 
•i- uath 7 forsail J airnin Eg.] Ni ansa. Huath cetumus. 4345 
Is ed fuillius b conngaib greim p, ar ni bi p lasin nGaidí-/. 
Caiti a deimniug/^í/? Ni ansa. Amal ata ogin Laitneoir : b 
cum aspiracione ponitur pro p -i- samaigther b co tinfed ar 
p. Dicunt ali cona bi uath araon re b do [log /iV.] p 
acht bi a aonur ar p, ut Presens : buxus pro puxus, anibou 4350 
pro ampo -i- b inntib sin ar p, 7 ni b co tinfed amal 
adberait araile. 

Forsail dono in fuilled tdirxaise. i- doberat for in son dia 
fattugud, ut est sroun. 

Airnin is e in tres fuilled -i- in baile i recar a leuss da 4355 

4.-Í2.Í, » doecam doib ^•-' bean ^-^ Patroic, MSS. uath- ''•'■" fidho 
«^" .;. inti as airec ^■'-''" Gr. Lat. ii. 20, 18 

236 YBL.235/3 37 AURAICEPT Eg.72iu24 

taopoumna gaip/</ aimiw greim in dala n-ai, ?^^ í'í-/ cení/; 
ar ni bi eumhnad in ogaim. [Teora foilcesta in ogaim /i>.] 
■i- quert, p /^ JffJ — <. Is iat sin treidhe is coir do 
imchisin isin ogam. Is aire is teora ioxxmzcstw no \mcest2i 
is coir and ut dicunt ailii: ' Cia haon fid bog blath 4.360 
mí?rbuan Bis ag ugdar [da imluad Eg. oin\ Geiphius 
greim fedha is fcrpai ? Is consain i[s] taophomna -i- huath.' 

Caiti deochair iter indell 7 tindell ? Ni ansa. Indell 
ínt imcomíz/'c 7 tindell int ernedh, 

Cesc, caiti deochair itir oSúwnedh 7 cinwtech 7 4365 
cinntecha son ? Ni ansa. Cinnedh a n-aip^///r Gregdo ar 
is cinntechem oldas ^X^gitir Eupm. Cin«tech[a] an aipgitir 
Laitianda oldas an aipgitir Grecdu. Cin«t^í-/ísom in 
bethi-luis-nion uair is fa deoig irriachta. Cia haonfoucal 
gaibius ar na ceithri hernaile an Airraicepto cin nach 4370 
dethbir tomuis na tarmortcind na fedha na iocal na 
forgnuisi? Ni ansa. In focal is aipgitir Gregda 7 Ebra, 
Lait/«zVas 7 ogam. Is e in cethir sHcht for fedaibh 7 
for [for]fedhaibh -i- fot ,n-aiccenta (236) et fot suidigthe i 
bfoclaiph fotaiph -i- i bfedhaiph airedhaiph : gair n-aigenta 437,5 
7 gair suidigthi i bfoclaip gairdiph, Fot n-aicenta quidini 
isna forfeudhaiph 7 gairtsuidigti -i- gairdi iar suidiugud 
i bfoclaip iet fecht and 7 fotaig fecht aile, ut est cain cáin, 
laig láig, coir cóir : no amal ata feur eua a fidh in anma 
a fhiodh airechda amal rogab i mbreth<3:/M n€\med -i- 438O 
cenmotha forfeuda a bfil deghafoghar na nguta. 

Cesc, caiti fout ct gair inntiph? Ni ansa. Fout i 
bfeudaip 7 ^ forfeudhaibh 7 g^ir i taopoumnaiph -i- 
gairtshuudighti ar is lethaimser for thaophoumna do 
ghreus -i- a corus forfedh. Asin Cin 011«;// toucc<7c/ in 4385 
blog-sa x&wmaind 7 ni do chourp ind Uraicepta. 

Cesc, caiti fot et gair ? Ni ansa. Amal ata nemh, for- 
fedh fil and. Neim, immorro, fidh airr<?^;^ía^o fil and. Nidat 
inonda suoin frisna da c\\VL^aid ^ X ' IHH •!• ® co ndefogur 

*''■'■ I-aitne -'•■'™ fe;ir eiia, YBI.. iieua 

YBL. 236ai6 ' AURAICEPT Eg. 72 2 a 33 23/ 

7 e glan 7ierbi Gracia, ui est, seudu óir 7 sét conaire, 4390 
éua and : no seut -i- It'paid, is eugad icca sgribend-sidhe ar a 
cruaidhe. Is an e glain teid, is aire sgript//«/- eghad and. 
Sét an teínid immorro tre eughadh a sgnpend. Nemh 
im X.3.\jnain, eua and. Neim nathrach, eghad and 'na 
sgnphend. M'ind, iphi;/ aní/. Min immorro, beg, ip//z>/ 4395 
and. Min arbí^, immorro, idedh aund, ar deudha ar a 
dtuc//m forfedha itir isin n-aipgitir in ogaim -i- do fregra 
do defoghur amal ata isnahip brr///aibh nemed geun- 
mótha forfedha a bfil defougur na nguta Jr\o, J dono do 
tseimugud foghair forsna feudhaibh, ar is buigi bis isna 4400 
forfeudhaibh. Cruas immorro i bfeudaibh airedhaiph : 
forfedha, ut est nem, eua and : naom, immorro, emhan- 
couU and : nim in uis^i, idedh and : fourfeudha idio 
dicuntur •{■ foirithnz^ na fedha im fout, ar is ed ismbert 
araile iscuimre foghair fíl isna feudhaibh 7 fot a f<?rfedhí?//^ : 4405 
no forfedha -i- firfedha : no forfedhai -i- fidh for fid inntib : 
no forfedhai -i- for eudha ar no-sechantais iat : no forna 
feudhaiph atat and for ail 7 i"^i for a n-aild : no forfeuda 
dono it inan^a 7 na defoughair -i- in defoghar fil inntiph, 
amal ata peun, 7 bein dogeuntai de mina beth defoghur 4410 
is amlaidh na forfedha. Cionwus on 7 ebai a fidh in anma 
intan isberar fer ? Ni cotarsna inní sin arin defoug?/r. Is 
cumair sidhe 7 ni bi fair achd aimser co leth nama anas 
mode. DÍ aimsir dono forsin nguth^íz^e fouta. Cia bat 
gairit iarum in defoghar xQwmaiji inrathoighti. Ceun- 4415 
mota do;/í; an fed, connicc comard^d fuit 7 g^ií" inntib 
amal itber in Laitneoir : sircumplex four na sillabaib 
foutaiph, ut est do, si 7rl. : acuit.four na sillabaib cuimribh, 
ut cst pnx 7rlo. 

Eba-i- eadhad pudhein. Oir i- oun;/ iar bfir. Uilleand -i 4420 
u uile and, Ipin -i- i budein. Emhancoll -i- emhnad col 
a fuath -i- fuat cuoill emnaither and. Atmberat araile 

*^ tactha ^^'" Gr. Lat. v. 128, 22 *-^~ eamhnoigther 

238 YBL.236a45 AURAICEPT Eg. 72 i b 19 

dono ebad 7 oir is ar fheudhaibh fotaibh atat : uilleand 
immorro is ar y fo meuáontm'o;- no is ar ú fo meáhontatg/i 
ita : ipin is ar í fo meáhontaig- ita : no is pin is coir and 4425 
ar p. Emhancoll dono is ar x ata fri foimdin na íoca/ 
nGregda no Laitne do thaphairt isin Gaidilc 7 is aire 
raiter emhancoll friss, ar is coll indara taoboumna fil an 
X 7 is (col. /3) aire is coll roheumnad and 7 ni sail ar is 
toissecha coll an ix quam sail. 4430 

Connaghar dono isin beithi-luis-nin an ogaim caiti 
in fidh gaipius greim taoboumna 7 an fidh ghaiphius 
greim da thaoboumna -i- in fidh gaiphius greim foucail 
7 in fidh na geiph greim taopoumna na fedha na 
foucail. Is e in fidh gaiphius greim taopoumna quidem -i- 4435 
fidh a ndiaigh araile -i- fidh bis araon re primfidh a íocuil 
no araon re defogur i n-aontsillaib, ut est íeoW, beoir, Briain, 
7rl. : no fidh tet a gconsanacht, i 7 u. Fidh gaipius greim 
di thaopoumna -i- aonfidh frecrus i tomus do diph 
taopomnaibh, zit dicitur gach da taopomna ar fidh. 4440 
Fidh gaiphius greim focail -i- fid laphrus a eonar. Fiodh 
na geip greim taopomna na feudha na foucail -i- u niabí?, 
ut dicitur : nec uocales nec consanantes habentur: no fidh 
bis a ndiaigh araile, ut diximus. Connaghar dano isin 
beithi-luis-nin an ogaim taopomna gaiphius greim feudha 4445 
7 taobomna 7 foucail, et taophomna gaiphius greim da 
fidh et da taopoomna, 7 ^a taopomnai gaiphius greim 
feudha, et taopomna gapus greim quicc fed 7 se 
dtaopomna, 7 taopomna gaipius greim foucail, 7 taobomna 
na gheiph greim taophomna na feudha na foucail. [Ni ansa 4450 
Eg?}^ Is i an taophomna gapus greim feuda 7 taopomna 
7 foucail -i- q. Et taophomna gaibhius greim da fiodh 
7 da thaoboumna -i- ngeda/. Et da thaopomna gaiphius 
greim fedha -i- gach da thaophomna ar fidh a thomais. 
Taopomna gaiphius [greim] v bfedha 7 se dtaophomna 4455 

*^26 na om. ^^^ gaip 

YBL.236/3i9 AURAICEPT Eg. 72 2b3 239 

• i- duir i n-ait dinin disail. Ni machtnadh intan gaphus 
greim na coic bfedh 7 ^^^1 se dtaophoumna, cia nogap/!ír<7' 
greim da fiodh 7 da thaopomna. Taopomna gapus greim 
tri bfidh 7 ceithrz dtaopomna -i- sail a n-inad for[s]ail. 
Taopomna gaphus greim focail -i- taobomna congaib 4460 
greim forpaidi. Taopomna na geibh greim taopomna na 
fedha na focail -i- taobomna die dtogaiph h cend conad 
marbh do raith, no uath budein. 

Cest, cis lir deach dochuisin ? Ni ansa. A houcht -i- 
dialt,regcomrac, iarcomrac, feiles, claonre, \uipenchoussac/i, 4465 
claidemnus, bricht. Deach -i- daghfuach -i- focal intan is 
dialt : dagh -i- maith : fuach -i- focal invenitjir. Daglifuach 
intan is regcomrac, dib fuigther intan is sreth. Dialt -i- 
di fo diultad co nnach bfuil alt and : regcomrac re i 
gcomraicz'/ in da tsillaib umann alt -i- (no) re iarsin 4470 
comarc int alt tanaise. largcomrac -i- iar comraigit -i- 
iarsin comrac int alt iachtarach -i- iar gach ndeighenach 
•i- comarc in (tres) sillab forsna da tsillabrt:/^ toisseacha. 
Feiles -i- fillis na lama -i- ^Wed luis -i- lam -i- 
baile ata Wí\ed an duir;/ : no filis -i- fis fillti : no 4475 
fo lais cebe dibmus -i- leisin mbfilid, uair is cudr?/wa di 
tsillaib di gach leith de. Claonre -i- claon indara re -i- a 
do ar an dara leth 7 a tri ar in leith aile. Luipencoussach 
•i- an coss cona luibnib •i- na coic meoir 7 in traig in 
seissedh ádiib. Claidemnus -i^ claidé'/// manus •i- vianus 4480 
lamh, 7 claidem na laime in sliní/ean, ar is he in sechtmrtaT 
dialt claidemnus, Bricht -i- brigh a hoc//t •i^ brigh 
briathar •i^ hocht mbriathar and : no bricht iarsanni 
\)xighx.d.r ocht sillaba and cenmota a taobomna agin 
bfiiid 7 consain agin Laitneoir. Aenfid a ndialt, a do a 4485 
recomarc, a tri a n-iarcomarc, a cethair a íheilius, a cuig 
a daenre^ a se a luipencoussach, a secht a clouidemnas 

♦^■^ nogabad *^7» YBL. da with/««f/. de/. .- tres sut>. lin. 

"''' dibfrse : cf. 142 «« brithor' 

240 YBL. 236/342 AURAICEPT Eg.72 2b38 

a hocht a mbricht, ceinmóta taobhomna andsein da.fto. 
Is aire sin ni taWa in trefogur a nd-aonndialt. 

Is e int ainm airme a tri no a ceuthir, It iat na 4490 
hanmanda uird airme priinus, secundus, tersius : a tress 
•i- anmanda uird airme iar bproiss, 7 anmanda uird airme 
immorro iar n-aigned. Is si sin in dethber airme anforbhthe 
amal rogabh a tri no a cuig, ar nach fuillter o chouitibh. 

Caiti sechta in ochta ind Uraicepto? Ni ansa. 4495 
Intan is ocht ndialta a mbricht is and it secht n-alta 
and -i- dialt co gceill : cuig litri and a n-us moam de, 
aowHt//' a n-us lughamh dei -i- ig sloindedh ceilli 
comhlaine. (237) Rosaig a lagat co haonfid. Cid 
timarda iarww eba isini is fer, ni luga is defoughar ind sin 4.500 
chena. Ni la Gréugda iss defougar sin. Cidh fodera in 
cotarsanai 7 na coig feudha 7 ri^. secht fedha 7 na x 
bfeuda iar hixúWiucht aile? Ni ansa. Na cuig fedha '^ 

cétumus : ag fregra dona cuig guthrt'4''^b t//c na secht 
fedha fregra dona defograiph tuc -i- ea oi : na x feudha, 4505 m 
ipin ar defougar, ata emhancoull ar x no ar &mvíad, ata ^ 

pin ar p, conid x samlaidh. lar n-Uiríí/recht Muimn?> so. 

Caiti bunad 7 in^/e et airbert, coitchend 7 diles, ruidles 
7 indles isin bfoucal is deach? Ni ansa. Bunad quidem 
oní is deach us Grecuin nonien. Defuach a inde, ut 4510 
diximus. A airbert -i- troig o dialt go bricht, ut 
prodiximus. An troigh lasin Laitneoir is deach a ainm 
lasin bfilidh, ut Doiiatus dixit : Pes est sillabarum et 
temporum cert[a] enumeratio •\- ita in troig -i- an chous 
conad airmideta derbh na sillab et na n-aimser icon 4515 
Laitneoir. Ata dono airmideta derpta a síll<3'<^ -i- ceithri 
troigi á^sxWcEbaig et a houcht \.XQÚW(Ebaig 7 a se dec 
emnaiti 7 txox'gid et aimsir agan Gaidel o dialt go bricht 
• i- sillab forbes cech deach dip di araile isin Gaidilcc, conidh 

«»» tallot ■»•*=' MSS. fuills 

YBL.237ai6 AURAICEPT Eg. 73 i a i8 24I 

a hocht samlaidh a mbricht conid airmideta deurph sin 4520 
o ha.onts'ú\azd conicce a houcht. 

Ocht s'iUaóa (-i- minabdis ecsamla) isin pfoc?// is mo 
isin Gaidilcc, ut est fianam«//echaradharírti 7 inrocomrairc- yWt 
nigsiomairwe Jrlo. YQ>zail doilphdi so rodolpset 'vMd na tf^i,^{ 
Gaidhilcci et na Laitne a n-agaid araile dia mbreith re 4525 
sechtu. Teoj'a sillaba x isin bfoc/// is mo isin Laitin, tit 
est teinerifficabiletudinetatibus. 

Cesc, cia roich dialt a meut ogus a laighet ? Ni ansa. 
Rosouich a laighet co haonfiodh -i- ag sloin^edh cheille 
comlaine 7 is ioncul so, ?// í'j/ a 7 i 7 o -i- a sleibhe 7 o 4530 
forciní/ 7 i inis -i- I Cholaim Cille, amal ata A' Chuisi 7 A' 
Chairtend i Sliab Luachra -i- anman«a'a sleibhi sain- 
riud, ut dixit Mac Da Cerda : — 

Dam congair iter da a, 

Fongluaisi glaodh gulp<2«da, 4535 

Is waXXach int arganda 

La tricha segh (-i- os) lurganda, 

(•i- dialt co ceill andsin, coic Htri is mo do, lit[ir] is luga). 
Rosoich dano co a cuicc a mét, ut est flesg 7 triosg, brisg, 
sgailp, tracht, et bricht -i- epaid, et bracht -i- iit est: — 4540 

Conberbtar brachta 
[A Eg.\ n-ebron bru, 
Feisi gan lachta 
Nac^ fuor tnu (-i- teine). 

Ni airm////^r h isna foclaib deighenchu, ar ni lit/r fiadha 4545 
amal adbert in Laitneoir : H non est litera seut nota 
spiracione -i- nochin fuil uath conidh litir acht ata conid 
not úxÁid. Tinfed -i- tinugud fedha -i- neimtniugwú^ -i- a 
chor as do raith. Gach dialt 'iarujn imatormrtz"^ fria araile 
cocumaong cech a.on íocail. Deich co houcht [i] mbricht 4550 
7 is he meud 7 laiget cecha Gaidilci o dialt conna n- 

^'^ dian i^*^-* cf. Laws i. 140, 47: Stokes' Crit. p. 24: Conttib. suh conberbaim 

^^^''•' airmend 

242 YBL. 237a36 AURAICEPT Eg. 73 2 a 7 

athgap«/7diplínaiph -i- co gcumangar do gach dialt diph 
iarna tinol deach. Isin mbricht a mbit ocht s'úlal^a. 

Etargairi a n-in«sgib : is e, is i, is eudh, iar macaib 
Miled : masgoul, (eimi'u, neotor lasin Laitneoir : uiní/se, 4555 
uin^si, oun^ar, iar bPeraib Bolg : moth, touth, traoth<'?í7, 
la Tuaith De Danann. Is e punad gacha Gaidilcci dialt 
acht moth toth traoth. Madh iadsidhe is iat fein ata 
bunad and, ar ni bfil nach focal Gaidilici na bud indip-sut 
dano, Mod (it) gach ferda, gach feirindsgi. Toth cach 4560 
banda, gach handa indsgi. Traoth gach neotcr, gach 
neotarda, iss ed bunad gacha Gaidilci Jrlo -i- ar ni 
dialt is buonadh doibsidhe ar ni bunad aonreud do budein : 
nuo nit dat bunadh Gaidilci indso acht it bunad cecha 
ceniiiil. Masa cen^/, caiti in cxnel dianat bunadh ? Ni 4565 
ansa. Moth -i- gach ball ferrda 7 gach cuma ferrda. Toth 
•i- gach (col. ^) mbannda no gach bauU bannda et gach 
cuma bannda oulchena. Traoth<^í/-i- gach neutírdai -i- gach 
(no nacli) nectorde -i- gach cumai neimnecht(?rda -i- gach 
cuma neimecuscdai : no dano is bunad gacha Gaidilcci 4570 
dialt acht mouth touth traoth. Iss ed is moam Jem cheuna 
ciasa bunad Gaidilgi is bunad ceinil : no dono ni dat 
dialta it/r amal ata moudh mo a odh -i- in ceol is mo ina 
in ceol is luga amal rogaph ant aidhpsi a nDruim Cheutai : 
no mo a fedh a n-airdi intan is tourand no caint. Toth 4575 
•i- tai a oudh an ceol mbec a n-athfheugadh an ceoil is 
mo -i- cronan no certan : no toth taoi a edh no a oudh 
intan is fem/;/ : no tai a edh intan is fouta ron-cluine no 
ronaile is tai et is isliu qiiani a n-aill. Toth -i- ar a- 
ni traothait na ciuil isli na ciuil ardai -i- sdocairecht no 4580 
cornairecht : no troeth -i- traothaig, traotus intan is cruit 
fo bith is caile 7 is cxuaidJA quavi ani aile is traoth : no 
traoth treith a eudh no a odh fria feugad feimin -i- 

■'•'"'' banindsci ^•'*- \'BL. ni bun ^*^ cach cumma ferrdai 

■*'"^ lus^hai "'•5'** feman ^''^•^ femin 

YBL. 237/316 AURAICEPT Eg. 73ib6 243 

masguol : no dono moth 7 touth 7 traoth -Í- anmanda ball 
ferrda et bannda 7 neotí?;' amal itbeir in Laitneoir : Nomen 4585 
Dieinbri uirilis et nomen meimbri mulieris et nomen membri 
naturalis J is at íocail Grecdu issin cias a Laitin ata 
deismerecht dip 7 is aire nadat dialta, ar ni failit o neoch 
7 ni ía'úter uathaib acht mina nderntrt'r mot for moth 7 tot 
for toth 7 troeth for traoth. Ismberat araile comdis 4590 
anmand aidhmz' ciuil. Caiti a deimhniugud? Ni ansa. 
Moth mo a odh intan is cruit. Toth -i- tai odh intan is 
biníJ^e -i- is tai et is isliu c/uam i n-aill. Troeth -i- tr3iOÍhaid 
in dias aile intan is stocairacht fo bith is airde a faidh is 
aire is traotha doiph. Is e so tra a chumair is he bunad 4595 
gacha Gaidilci dialt -i- o regcomarc co bricht 7 ni bunad 
he do ents'úlaib amal roghaph mot tot traoth 7 is ar gach 
ndialt tugait-sidhe i sunda J is aire rothogait-sidhe sech 
gach ndialt, ar dochuaidh menma friu comdis regcomrac, 
ar fogabar a chondaiU ut dixinms. 4600 

Domiter alta uadh fri halta daine -i- toimsigter alta 
an airchetail fri halta duine amal toimsigtir fri gach 
n-indsge, sic domiter fri gach n-indsge. Cesc, cindus 
domiter fri gach n-indsge? Ni ansa. Corab cach da dialt 
fr/sgara araile, ut est dair 7 cair, tiar 7 ciar, tis cis, tuas 4605 
luas ; 7 corab gach da regcomrac frisgara araile, ut est 
aingeal 7 daing^;/, lebhar 7 remhar, duine 7 mouine. 
Iss ed a cupaid intan is comfid -i- focal imfrí-^rra 7 is 
comhde[ch] -i- in tarmfortcind. Cidh ara dtugs//;// na 
{ozlu sin ar aird sech gach ndialt archena? Is aire eimh 4610 
dus-fug-sidhe, ar ata tuigsi cé\n€íacJi and (no inntib), 
cidhad dialta, J ni c&nelach dialt[a] archena ?ita andsin. 
Ni dialt dono cia madh iadsum adberdis ar aird suond, 
ar ni bunad in reut do huáhéin. Is bunadh an dialt do 
gach Gaidilc uadh fein sechtair. Ni bunad immorro e 4615 

*^ failt-, mona ^'^- ^ recomarc *'*^" condail ■'*'•' fri cach indsci 
*xto ^air **'"* dialta arata •!• ar a ctnd 

244 YBL.237/3 46 AURAICEPT Eg. 73ibx 

(no iat) do budein. Ismberat araile comad aire na budh 
bunadh Gaidiige, ar ni dialt itzV he 7 ni bunad Gaidilge 
aroile acht dialt. 

It e [v Egi] gne in berla thobaigi -i- teipide •i- berla 
Feine J fasoighe (238) 7 iarmberla 7 beurla n-etarsgarta 4620 
7 berla {ortcide na bfiled tresinn aigillzV gach diph araile. 
Berla Feine tra -i- in Feinechus no araile berla robui 
ag Feinius ar leith. 

Fasaigh -i- fis oghai na bfiled -i- dliged firfurtacht : 
no na lurga fuach -l forsna f<?roiph, fona, isna, tresna, 4625 
fresna, sechna fira 7rl. : 7 na diailt n-eterleime, uí est e, 
es, et, in, co, tre, tar, re, fo, fair 7rlo. lermberla dono cuic 
(no coic) -i- rum, ballorb -i- ball d'fírp^ na filidechta occa 
muirwi i- miruine 7 is do cdSíaidi?, ainm ballorb. Gne n-aill 
do iarmberla -i- ierum, 7 dono, 7 tra, 7 hautein -i- ouccus, 4630 
acht, et gidhed chena, 7 atat, cesc, cislir, cair, cisne, catiat. 
Is aire raiter iarmberla de ara secucht 7 ara cruaidh/ amal 
iaran<a^, uair ni heidir a thaithmech. No iarmberla lar 
mac Nema arrainic fa deoigh 7 ní fedtar a thaithmech. 
Berla n-etarsgarta iter na fedhaibh airedhaibh -i- berla 4635 
triasa bfil deiliugud na bfiodh n-airedha isinn aonfouc^r/ 
tria na n-indaithmech, ut est (ros) re os intan is ros coiUe. 
Ros -i- raidh as intan is ros uis^i : no roíhos intan is 
marbhusge forsa mbi ros -i- roas intan is ros lin -i- ar a 
luas 7 ar a tighe fasas. Berla fí?rtc/^i na bfiled -i- 4640 
ford[or]chaidhe amal ismbert in filidh a sgoil Feiniusa -i- 
etaill -i- etaill aro 7 í inis, etaill uassal 7 ar a 'imrum -i- 
ni a«fam d'iomraw go risuw an inis uasal -i- Eire 7 amal 
rogabh 'san Imagallaim in Da Suadh no in Da TudiVad: 
Brimow smitrach ■{■ brigh briathar 7 mon cleas : sm&trac/í 4645 
• i- smit íovrach -i- {ourrach neich o smit a cluaisi -i- cleas 
briatharda donidis na filid fo daigin ecxxaig go bfourrgitis 

^6« fasaid -"^^i aicille ^^ rofhas ^^'^ tighi fhasas 

^" fordorcaidhe ^^^ an do taradh ^^^'^ egnaidh 

YBL. 238a23 AURAICEPT Eg. 73 2 b 31 245 

nech tria smíot a chluaisi do ta.rramg-: no sm'idrac/i -i- 
smit cluas 7 rach rigi, forrach smit ai (?) ainm in cleasa sin. 
Is e in coiged gne in gnathberla fogní do chach. Ismberat 4650 
araile comad he in berla Feine fasoighe na bfiled, 7 co na 
ba berla fo leth eiU'r. 

Alt go bfeiser cia halt dona secht n-altaib uad -i- i[n] 
nath, in anair, in laid, in anamain, in sétrad, in sainemain, 
in dian dona dianaiph. O ssen anond is o deachaibh 4655 
tslointer alta ar na rob indsge cumusgai. Nath -i- no 
fidh -i- in</sge -i- anaor anair -i- a n-aor no an-air -i- aon a 
hiar. Laidh -i- laitzV no luater intan is aor : no onni is 
lapus -i- moulad : no laid -i- lí suad no leth fedh fedh co 
leith intan is luipencosach fo do reith. Anomam an a 4660 
somaine reisna haistibh roimpi. Setrud -i- séd raid no 
séd rith -i- rith iar seut cin cuibdius cosin lethraníjf 
ndeighíwach. Sainemain -i- saine a maine risna aistib 
romaind. Dian -i- dion no dian -i- aápo/ an -i- di fo á'mltad 
connach cutroma a hai reisna haistibh oile. O sin anond -i- 4665 
ono sechd primaistibh imach ios o deach adrimtar -i- 
is ni dona dea.cható foricfa 7 is uathaip ata ainmneach<3'í/ 
doip -i- dialt a forbai cech rain<3?e in duain J regcomrac a 
íorpai' a bforduain, iarcomarc [a casbairdne Eg:] J 
bairdne ar na rob in;^?sgi cumusgcdhai ar na rab prois amal 4670 
aisdi na ndaorbard. 

Lorga fuach -i- lourga focul arusc reire -i- amal biti 
lorga i lamhaip daoine iga n-imfouWw^ o port do port 
arna dtaoth- (col. /3) satis ina lighe, samlaid (imthá) it e 
andso lorga biti a ngeiniph na bfiled ig fousugud o 4675 
foc/^/ d'foucu/: lorga fuach -i- lorga foucu/ i- remtsuid- 
iugud desilIíZ'í^ach biti iter da comuaim focul, u/ est 
Cormac : — 

Im ba sesach im ba seng /rlo. 

■>«» iwach «59 labhus -i- molad *66i haistib, set 

^'■'*' is o ^'^ cumusgc YBL. ^«"^ llgiu 

246 YBL. 238^5 AURAICEPT Eg, 74iai5 

A dialt n-eterleime -i- aontsillab iter da chomuaim, 4680 
II t dixit : — 

Cia leith co piaM iar gcuairt 7rlo. 

'Cia' iter 'lound' 7 ' leth ' an dialt n-etarleime. Ita 
dono lorga fuach 7 dialt n-etarleime isin rand, ' im ba' 
is he in lorga fuach 7 in 'ba' in dialt n-etarleime. 4685 

Fertot a tealgud nae -i- a tealgud duine, ar is nae 
árnne, ut dicitur .' Dia nda;«ad nai for tir -i- dia nádimad 
in duine for tir, dolleici in duine ceusadh fair. Teit 
iarum dia fothrugud donn aphainrt', doleigi sis don 
bruach isinn uisgi. Arfaomsi eutach imat o neoch aile 469«) 
i ssuidi. Iss ed isbeir-sim dano fertom -i- ferde dam, 
briathrtr cesta uoch (no och) 'mds'm. Fertot ara cheile 
fris, briathar gnimach son -i- gnim fairsium o nach aile 
ailiter. Tét in duine iarum dia fuotrugud don uisgi, 
doleici don hruach sis isinn uisgi. Tot tot, ol in tond 4695 
fai -i- ainm don foghar sin dogni an tom\d frisin duine, 
tot ua buo bo, go ged an anmanda fcrí-machta do soun 
•i- do foghar in geinemnai rohainmnigter. 

Aurland dano ainm d'airell in gai. In adharc duph bís 
fonn gai, is di arsisider in gai, imtha samlaidh arsisiodhar an 4700 
indsge dona deich n-airlondaib-si : no airisider gach indsge 
dona tri hirIon</aip-si -i- is e, is í, is ed. It e andsin 
irlanífa ferindsgi 7 banindsgi 7 deiminsgi hic, hec, hog, lasin 
Laitneoir. Se, dai, tri, ceithri urlanda ferindsge indsin. 
Se -i- is he an fer, da i- da fher, tri -i- tri fir, ceithri -i- 4705 
ceithri fir. Inanda immorro irlanda ferindsge 7 banindsge 
o tsi/í imach. Is aíre nach sint^r sech a ceithr/. Si, da, 
teora, ceitheora urlanda banindsgi andsin : is i -i- is si in bean, 
di -i- di mnai, teora mna, ceitheoram -i- ceitheora mna. 
It he 7 atat immorro irlanda qí?//cenda iter ferindsge 7 4710 
banindsge indsin. Is ed immorro irlanda deimindsge, ut 
dicitur iss ed in ceund fir; herlond ferindsgi dano 

^^ don abaind 

YBL. 238^33 AURAICEPT Eg. 74 2ai2 247 

aontaíghius deimin<^sge a n-urlan^aibh ilair -i- da nem, 
ut dicitur da fher : no urland indsge -i- remsloní/z^^ in 
indsgi -i- banindsge no ferindsge no deimindsge : urlanda 4715 
•i- airslin;^^;^ -i- ainm bis a^riní/ ria '&Xxtmen an gai : airell 
áxdiu -i- iarial -i- iar« bis, ar rs do is ainm cro in gai, is de 
airsisiodí?;- in gai fo deredh. Is e urland indsge andsin, 
ar ni bi erlan^/ gan iarlain<^. Gne n-aill : Se, da, tri, 
cethair, -i-.da masgal iter uath<7í/ 7 ilar : Si, di, tri,ceitheora 4720 
•i- di feim;« iter uathadh 7 ilor : hic, hec, hoc -i- do 
nemtor iter uathad 7 ilar. CoiUend immorro doib iter 
masgal 7 feimin 7 neutor o cethair imach, ut est v fir, v 
mna, v anmando occu : freisHgi foghair no ercro erlapra 
aroile indsln. 4725 

Cuig flUte xx a reim i- a cuig. 
go hogfegait na úlid re uama na hai (239) [7 xx 
gne saorda olchena. Caite iat anmon<^rt; na n-i;?adh 
asamberat cach ai diph do coma dilis budhein ? Ni 
ansa. A nai dib a ndeilb ain;;me<aí'a 7 ainseda, 7 a tri 4730 
a ndeilb geinit// et togarto, a secht a ndeilb togarto 7 
foxlada •i^ tri a n-ilor (-i^ fillti) 7 a tri i n-uathad : fer, fir, 
og fir a n-uathad : na fir, na fer, na fira a n-ilor. Cuig 
fillti XX (ri rei;;; l reimmgiud an anmo do filliud ina v 
XX ta V fhegait na fih'd. Is edh reidhe inde cach anma 7 4735 
XX gne olchena. Tre brectr^'í/ ciall remsuighther friu no 
is ed sedhait ac eimniugud fillti na fuach i^ na focla -s^ 
cin ainmniugad a n-airemh, 7 xx pro feugait an^si;; •i- 
segait ut dixit A- fer diall ata andso sis. Eg\ Fer a 
ainmniugud, in fir a selpad, ar fer a aircill, a fiur a aitrebh, 4740 
do fior a dhan;/ad, a fir a togairm, o fir a foxal, co fir a 

^"'•' iliair YBL. ^^-^i VBL. do- 

•*"-' neuotur YBL. cethair ^"^-^^ YBL. illegible 

4-3i» yiargin : twminaíiuus (•i- fer) 'i- ainmneachadh 

genitiuus (•!• fir) •!• sealbad 

(iatiuus ('i- do fior) tobarta 

acusatiu\u'\s {A- inand 7 a ainmneachadh) •i^ ainsed 

ofilatiuus (•!• inand 7 a tobarta) •i- foxia 

uocaliuus (■!■ inand 7 a geni//7) •[• togairna 

248 YBL. 239CII2 AURAICEPT Eg. 74 2a3 

asgnam, an fer a incousg, i fer a inotacht is inand 7 
ainmnechrt^, og fer a íuirmiud, for fer a fortad, fri fer a 
freisHgi do, o fior a (oxa/ •[■ digbail, la fer a thaophda, iar 
bf(?r a tiarmoirecht is inand 7 a inatacht, im fer a timcell, 4745 
frisin bfer a tormac/i is inand 7 a- dhan^zadh, tre fer a 
tregdad, dar fer a tairrsge. Is fer a tuarusgbail -i- 
ainmniugud, fo fer a {outhuc/ -i- a ciall inotachta uathaid, 
re feur a remudh, ar fer a fresgabail. Feughthar dono a 
n-ilar na delpa-sai fon gcuma cetnai -i- fir a n-ainmniugud, 4750 
na fir a tuar;/^gbail, it fir a incosg, na fer a selpad, dona 
feraibh a danad, uair a.'m?/miugud ag ainmnechrt'^f, geinitz'/ 
ag selpad, tobart/z/í/ ag t'mnlocud, a'ms/d ag faicsin, 
togar;«(T«n ag gair;//, foxla ag dibail no ag fagail, s/c íu 
sequentibus : fer didiu eba a fidh an an;/;a, e a guta, dialt 4755 
a deach. Son aonconngbalach cin alt and iter in da 
s'úlaid : idedh no ipfin in tselpad no ina reimh intan is- 
mberar fir, ar bit a ndis and ina reim, idhedh and (amal) 
ata a fir, iphin and o fiur, síc in sequentibus. 

Is aire didiu na hairim eubhai ina reim cia dobeith i n- 4760 
aroih'ph and, iit est co fer, ar ni bfil acht reim ceille nama i 
[in cach Eg7\ mbaile a marand in fíd bis a n-ainmniugud 
isna fillt;7/ tsios. 

Idedh immorro no iphin bis inntib cach baile na 
maraní/, conid aire sin itmberar idheth no iphin, a fidh ina 4765 
reim no ina tselpad. 

Dinin disail a ioxhaid i- aiccent lasin Laitneoir. Ar 
at e teora forbaidi docuisin lasin nGaidel -i- airnin 7 
íorsai/ 7 dinin disail. Airnin arding defid -i- deredh na 
bfocal : no defidh -i- nemhfidh, acht is taobomna : no is 4770 
forbaid. Forsail for fout feudhair -i- tairgither fair conit 
fota : no forsail -i- sail (no ail) fair -i- aimser sech an 

Dinin disail ar gair geip/í/ -i- gaib/í/ fair con/^/gairit. 
Airnin arding defidh -i- dered na {oca/ no defidh -i- 4775 

*'^- YBL. repeats asgn;im ^™' MSS. dib- 

YBL. 239«39" AURAICEPT Eg. 74 2a35 249 

nemfidh, acht ís taobhomna : no is forbaíd íorsail for 
fot feghair -i- tairgither. Arnin arding defid : tít est 
cend, glend /rl. : íorsaíl íor 6d íaáa, ut cst slogh, sron. 
Dinin disail ar gair geibz^, ut est fer, ler, 7 gach 
timorta olchena. Intan sgripthar ainm ogaim, is and 4780 
sgriptar na forbaidhe so uasa fri rellugud fuit no cuimre 
no fri tendrt:^, ar ni X.vXc'íitis chena; uair amal itber in 
Laitneoir acuit for na ■sXWaba cuimbr^, ut est pax, bac, 7 
sircumplex for na sillaba foutaibh, ut est res, sic dober an 
Gaidel dini;z á\sail forsna cwxmxib, ut est (col. ^) fear, 4785 
forsail 7 for na fotaib, ut cst lám ; 7 amal bis graif ar gach 
aoneipíTt iLfoclach la hacuit 7 la sircumplex, sic bis 
airnin araon re forsail 7 re dinin disail, ut est cend, sroll 
7rl. Airnin -i- eirnzV/ nion : no airni/^ i- nion fair, ar is 
nin sgriphthar ag incosg na forbaidhe sin, ar is nin ainm 4790 
coitchend da gach litir iter feudha 7 taophoumna : no 
airnin -i- nin fair, ar is he nin cettaopomna riam in 
rohairccí^^ in forbaid sin. Forsail i- sail fair, ar is sail 
sgript[h]ar ag incosg na forbaidi sin, ar is for fot feghair 
forsail. (Is) sinedh n-aimsire doforne s amal is tiumort^^ 4795 
tornes duir : no forsail -i- forfuillí?^ an foucail conid fouda : 
no forsail sech in qumair. 

Dinin disail i- di fo diultad and connach nion cownacJi 
sail sech is duir : no dinin disail disin difuillm^ -i- nemh- 
fuillíW. Ismbeurat araile as aire sgriphthar duir a ndinin 4800 
disail, ar is duir fil ar tus a ndinin disail 7 is aire sgribthar 
nion ar airnnin, ar is nin fil fa deoigh and 7 is aire 
sgribhthar sail ar forsail, ar is sail fil ar medhon and, uel 
ut alii dicunt : Ail i- aimser iur^W sech in qumair. V>\mn 
áisai/ \- ni fidh, ni nin. acht is forb<^?/V/. Disail -i- ni 4805 
haimsir fota no diail -i- nemforail -i- nemhfhuill/W. 

Cesc, in ar tomus tuccait i suoun^/ in íoucul is feur? 
Iss ed eim, ar gen go dtoimsigt//í'/' iar n-aiccned, toim- 

^~'' memfidh YB1,. ^'W din/;iii YBL. *»'• fota no ^» gin 

250 YBL.239i3i7 AURAICEPT Eg. 74ib23 

sighther iar saordat^/í/, ar atcout<«r alt saorda and -i- 
fefr/ar a chouwail. Atmberat araile na budh ar tomhus 4810 
dobsrta sound acht ar deo[c]hair iter fedha 7 forfeudha 
•i- fot n-a.'igm'd J gair suidhighti a bforfedhaib, amal ata 
fer. Fot suighighti 7 gair n-aiccm'd a bfedaibh airedhaibh, 
amal ata alt co bfeisser cia halt dona secht n-altaib an 
airc-^et^z'/ -i- go bfeisair i[n] nath, in anuir 7rlo. 4815 

Gne n-ail do ferind.sge 7 do banindsge andsou. Cuicc 
fillti fichit a reim -i- a cuig go hoghfheughait na fihd a 
bfillzW re uama na hai 7 fiché' gne saordu áono in xx 
gne saorda sin. Cesc, caitiet a n-aradnai foraib o mberar 
gach ai dip cum a dhilis fein ? Berat eicc^« uair delpm/ 4820 
filltechíz. Iss ed a lion : a tri a n-uathad, 7 a tri a n-ilar, 
conid se samlaid -i- fer, fir, og fir, a tri a n-uathadh : 
a tri a n-iolar -i- na feur, na fir, na fiora, An xx gne 
saordai sin is deimin eim is he so a n-aradhnrt/. A do 
x dibh a forgnuis aiwuneda J ainsí^í/a, J aon diph a 4825 
forg[n]uis geinit// J toghartíra'rt', J a secht a ndeilph 
thobartha J foxlaidae, in da fill/«^ dec dibh tieghait a 
bforgnuiss aim/ineda J ainseda. It e andso ind anmanda 
•i- ar fer a aircioll, go fer a asgnamh, i feur a inoutacht, sech 
fer a tsechmall, for fer a fourtadh, fri feur a freislige, iar 4830 
bfer a tiarmoracht, im fer a timceall, da[r] feur a thairrsgi, 
frisin bfer a thormach, tre fer a tregdadh, is fer a tuar- 
usgbail, ut dixit in file : — 

Is iat so in da úUtec/í dec, 

(Dar) lemsa nocha lanbr^f, 48-35 

Tiagait a bforgnuis feudha, 

A'mfuneda ocus ainseda. 

Na secht bfillti, immorro, tiaghait a bforgnuis thobart^í/í? 
7 Ío^Xada i- a fior a aitreuph, og fior a fuirmí'^, fo fior a 

^^"^ atcotar ■•«« condail ■»«« uamai, saordai ^>«i a llin 

"'*^' firai ^*-^J i n-aradhn- YBL. ^a» aimnedai 

■****' geinitil 7 togartodh ^«' toborta, tegait ^^ a n-anmondo 

■**-^ airchell ^'^^ nocha, \\kh punc/. del. ■>«■•» a fiiir 

YBL.239^4i AURAICEPT Eg.74 2ai6 2$! 

fouth^í/, do fir a danadh, do fir a díghpail, iar fir a 4840 
thiarmoirac/ií, fri fir a fhresgabail, ria fir a reimnwg^d, 

uí poeta : — 

Is iat so na secht fiUtí, 

Nit ernaile adhmillti, 

Tiagait a ngnuisibh glana, 4845 

Tobharta ocus foxladha. 

hon^Wtech immorro teit a forgnuis toghorta 7 geinitli, 
ut dixit in file : — 

In fer a tusdighe tiar tsoir 

Do tsealpad, do togharta/í/^, 4850 

Ogus doib araon ni ricc 

Gus mad int aon don fichit (240), 

Is iat sin in fiche gne saerda con a n-aradhnaib corraib 
forra /rlo. Fer á'xdiu, ebadh a fiod, idedh no iphin ina 
reim no ína tsealpad, no is idhedh ina tsealpad 7 ina 4855 
thogairm, ipin ina togart<7/</ 7 ina foxlaid. Eba immorro 
a fidh ina ain^unid J ina n-aini-/<^ar chena. Cidh ini is ipin 
and (?) -i- guthai£-e inna comaccoinal frisna guthoighibh oile. 
Cinwus didiu a radh comad ipin fiodh in a^^ma is fir, ar 
is ididh glan fil and? Ni ansa eim, qumusg nobeith 4860 
and -i- áinin áisail a forbaid ina tsealpad -i- in fir, 7 iphin 
a fidh ina reimim -i- don fir, ar is reim gach tuissí'/ on 
dLÍnninid sis : no dono int ipin isb^r i suond, is ar 
idhedha ata, ar is o idhedh doinsgain ip[h]in. 

Caiti dilius feudha a bfeudhaibh, 7 dilius feuda a bfidh, 7 4865 
dilis fid i bfedaibh? Dilis fedha i bfedoibh cetumus i- a 
riasna ceithri guth^^aibh oiliph, ar is hi cetlabra gach bi 
a 7 iachtí?í/ gacha mairb ach : dilis fedho i fidh dono -i- is 
dilis in forfidh ogaim secip fid ina sgripthar. Dilis fidh a 
bfedhaib -i- amal ata in fidh is defoghar -i- is ed is dilis 4870 
and an foghar toisech, ar n[i] hairmither in foghar 

•'^^'' :i adanadh YBL. ^^*-' aidhmiUte ^^^' geinitli written out *'*•"'■'' coraibforra 
^*-'* fid oiredha, oiredha with iiuncí. del., no ispin YBL. **"* íoxal- 

252 YBL.240al7 AURAICEPT Eg. 75 i b 6 

Alt go bfeisser -i- go bfesor an aisti dona secht n-aisti 
bprimda na filidhechta do gne do thomhus. O ts'm anoni^ 
is o dedLchat'ó tsloinnter alto uadh -i- na rab iníS^sgi 4875 
cumusgda -i- o sin anounfsf is do defuachaib [-i- is do 
deghfoclaib, E^:] tsloinnter aisti in airchetail, ar na rab 
indsge cumusgda -i- amal dogniat na daorbaird. 

Lourcca fuach -i- lairge no lourgaidhe : reimtsuígiugrt</ 
detsillaebach bis riasna da chomuaim ica saorí^íf ar da gne 4880 
[ernail E^.] -l fogair 7 claon ceille. 

Fertout a tealccud nea. Eí buo bo [7 E^.] go ged -i- 
anmanda sin rangaut^r na filedha tre Qa.\a.dam do'ib do 
reir foughair. Fertout -i- fer dotuit aund J bou comad a 
buo on geim nobeith 7 gedh comad on gedh ghoutha 4885 
dobir as nobeith, amal isber in Laitneoir : Noinen de suono 
factuni est -i- fourcaomnagair int ainm don foughar, amal t 

itá condall, sdip, stip. Iss ed a fogh^r ica luosgadh, Is 
aire sin rainicc stipula do anmoim do icon Laitneoir. 
Tout d^no nonien de suono factunt -i- in guth trom doni an 4890 
duine oga legad for an toiní^. 

Aurland indsge -i- do airell gai is ainm. Caiti int 
eurland saorda foghaprtr conid aicc«<7í/? Ni ansa. Urland 
in gai. Caiti in erland indsge do nach bfasand indsge 
acht aonindsge -i- indsge in bais? Ni ansa. Indsge 4895 
grainde in gai. Caiti int erlond is iarlond, 7 int iarlond 
is urland, 7 int urland is remlond ? Ni ansa. Urland in 
gai [-i- urlond Eg^ fodeisin, iarlond doteis, ar is iar gach 
ndeigheunrtc/í, conid he sin int irlound is iarlound 7 
int urlond is remlond -i- antan rosauoigh lar co haireill. 4900 
Caiti urland urlainne a n-urlaind ? Ni ansa. Ferurlond, 
beunurlond, nemurlond. Urlond \iox\aind& a x\.-Mx\ondl 
[Ni ansa Eg. oni.] -i- heari an fir. Aurland a ndis ind 
urlond -i- ind eum [a nemh Eg.] nou a n-ifféTn. Aurlanda 
ilair masgail et feimin andso sis : Se, dha, tri, ceithre : Si, 4905 

■'*'* cumuscdai ^™ remtsuigh '**^-' dib- ^*^" forcaomnacair 

YBL.24oa4i AURAICEPT Eg. 75 i b 40 253 

di, teora, ceitheora ; inanda insge airme o tsin imach. 
Is andsin fogabar comrargai 'úat'r neuUiir ■{• cen urlrt'//<^ 
iolaír ogaib acht i n-uathííd namd.. Caiti ind indsge 
tsaorda fogbur conid aicc^n/<2? Ni ansa. Iss ed in cend, 
ar as saorda a radh, J se for in duine. Is aiccenta 4910 
immorro a radh ris iarna buain de. Cia haonfoucal 
regcomarcach isna remend- (col. /3) aiph gebes eungradus 
• i- greim ceithri n-ernaile dona reimeundrtz'^^ ? Ni ansa. In 
foucal is treghdad 7 is aitrioph J indotouacht 7 is asgnam : 
ar ni bl in tregdad gan Ínt aitreph ; ni bi ant aitrioph cin 4915 
int indotacht ; ni bi int inotacht cin int asgnamh ; ni bi 
int asgnamh cin an treghdad, conid treghdad o tuoiní/ go 
tuoin</ techtus. Cia bricht a mbit ocht bfeudha ocon 
bfilid congeiph an aonguta greim a leithe, í/t est sliachta 
et is ogleth andsin 7 ni certleth -i- a aonar a n-aghaidh 4920 
na secht litrioch aile. 

Cia baile in Uraicept[a] idta in sealp«<3f saordu cin reim 
acht reim reimraiti, ut est luis ailme no bethe ailme -i- 
sealpad ita do ailm isin bethe 7 isin luis? Cia baile 
i bfoghapízr comtath condsained cen tinfed threothaip? 4925 
Ni ansa. An bail a mbi ni« ria ngourt gan guthaigie 
eutorra, iit est uinge. 

Cia baile i bfogapar in fidh fourtormrtzV/^ iar bfourp^ 
na n-ocht sAWab isin bfoucal is briocht? Ni ansa. In 
baile a mbi deufougar isinn ochtmad dialt, is fidh four- 4930 
\QXV[\aigh indala fogh^r, 

Cie taopoumna gapus greim taopoumna et feudha 
et foucail? Ni ansa. Quert. Cia taobomna [na] gabh 
greim taoboumna na feudha na foucail? Ni ansa, h. 
Caiti bunad ruidliusta in foucail is aipgitir? Apexedebam. 4935 
Aipgitir, id est : copula con literarum per se -i- ita in 
aipccitir ina comtinol lit/r cona comfialus : a litera oni is 
legití'ra -i- ainm tighe aroile anmanda aitreupus a dtraigh 

*9os a n-uatha ■*«!•' n-ernailedh «'« fedhai 

^^^ sliachtai •'■™ defoar *"^ taoibomnai na geb 

254 YBL. 240;8i9 AURx^ICEPT Eg. 75 2a24 

maura dienad hainm Molosus / gibe nech adchi tegdus 
a n-anman^a sin foillsigt/zé?/' do fis cecha healadna. Amal 4940 
i[s] seud iarum fouillsigius eolus do neoch faicsin na 
teghduse sin, is amlaid is edh fouillsigius do neoch fiss 7 
aicsin lit/r, conid airesin 'i.nccad int ainm is litzV o anmaim 
tige an anmaní/a sin reimraiti for litir cach baile ita : 
no litera a literatura -i- on fouillsiugud 7 on coimilt 4945 
dob^rdis arsanta forna claraib ciarta, ar inntib nosgripta 
ar d^us. 

Condagar bunad 7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend 7 ó\\es 
7 rudlius 7 indles áon fouca/ is aipgitir Bunad eim 
di epe ugdíz/r: no eipe icon tor. A hairpert dano a 4950 
taprt/rt four ni nach inde, 7it dicitur : Aipgitir dno -i- 
tossach 7rlo. 

Cach tan tiaghait na foucail sech a n-inde toirne 
amach co ni nach ni is in^e inntib : no comad i in airbert 
[focí?// -dX\.\\nigte eile ar an focal anaithnz^^"^ -i- tinscetol 4955 
no tosach no comad i a n-airbert Egi\ réim dia rosuigidh 
na foucail ut. Beurla n-airperta : coitchend dona litriph 
uile : diles dona consainib : ruidlius do guth<^^aibh : indh'us 
a tapairt for lethgut^/^ intan legait 7 for ni as lugaií/í? 
as a \7ide. 4960 

IN tiasca do fedhaibh 7 deachaibh 7 reimeund(í//; 7 
for forbaidh/í^ 7 ^\taibh J indsgibh 7 eutargairip amal 
roshuidhigti la ?i\eáaib na sgoile ceuta robautrtir ag Feinius 
^diurvsaidh ia[r] dteip^ na Gaidilci doip asna di berlaiph 
Ixx co rotaissealpad do Gcááel mac Angin. Ar is he sin 4965 
rotoXhhistar ant aonbeurla do teip^ asna hilberlaiph dona 
mba haiile 7 pa caine in gach berla dona dib berlaibh 
Ixx. Conid airesin doraisealpaí/ do, conid de dogarar 
Gaidelc 7 Gaidil. Nel mac Feiniusa Farrsaidh dia dtar- 
thar Sgouta, ingen Forain^ conid dia hainmside raiter 4970 
Sguit amal adrupromar. Fer a hainmniugud uathaidh, fir 

■1939 niarai dianad, cidh be ^'^' ainm tige, onamaim- YBL. 

■''•*■'■' coimmilt, ailiteratura MSS. 

YBL. 240^41 AURAICEPT Eg. 75 2bi2 255 

a sealpad uathaid, fir a ainmnech<2rt' 'úai'r, na fir a sea.\pad/i 
ilair, do fior [a danodh uathaid, do feroib Eg:] a danodh ilair, 
in fer a incousg uathaid, na fir a incosg ilair, a fir a toghairm 
uathaid, a fhira a thogairm ilair, o fer a foxal uathaz'd, o 4975 
feraibh a íoxal ilair, oc fir a fuirmed uathaid, og 
feraib a fuirmed ilair, co fer a asgnam uathaid, co 
feraiph a asgnam ilair, sech fir a sechmall uathaigh, sech 
fera a sechmall ilair, tre fer a tregdad (241) uathaid, tre 
fera a tregdad ilair, a fer a inotachta uathaigh, a fera a 4980 
inotac/it ilair, fo fer a íortud uathaigh, for íema a {orUtd 
ilair, fo fior a íonthud VL?Xhaid/i, fo fera a fouth«^ ilair, 
tar fer a tairrsge uathaid, tar feura a tairrsgi ilair, fria fir 
a fresgaprtz/ uathaid, fri fera a fresgapail ilair, fri feur a 
íre'ishge uathaid, fri feura a freisHge ilair, sic in sequcntibiis : 4985 
feron a formoulad, fer a eoáud, feear a mallrugud, rer a 
deilidin, fefriar a choní/ail, fer a aon, fer a lan, ser a 
chendfochrus tuois, fel a chend foch/?/ j- áexrid. N[i] airecor 
i diab/z'I -i- ferfir, firin a \\igugad, sofer a saorugud, dofer 
a daorugud, ni hairecour a urard -i- fera, feraibh a urisiol, 4990 
feurtot a te\ccud nai, fe a aircill calaidh, ni hairecor a 
aircell fuit, firr a deichned, fe a dichned, 7 is é iurlond 

Cend cridhe fuolach deime teib/^i in fir. It e sin 
deismerecht na ndeime teib/V/i in fir isna reimendoibh : 4995 
no lanamna an cind, suil 7 fiacrt//: lanamna in cride 
srephand 7 cru : lanomna in {\i\aiug, luorga 7 tragha?V/: 
lanamna in chind, suil 7 {^ecail. 

Gene dano na lanomna ndeime : abratchor 7 maula, 
geine na sula : bun<7í/ 7 leithet, geine na fiacla : tanaig- 5000 
ec/tt et dath -i- ban no glas, geine int [sjreupaind : tighe 
et dath beos -i- ruaidhe 7 deirge gene in cru : tor\d 1 lith, 
gene na traigeudh : croicend 7 feithe, gene na lurgaw : no 
lethor et toun^, geine na traigedh. 

^*- YBL. fo fiora 

256 YBL. 24ia2i AURAICEPT Eg. 76 I a 7 

Araile dono it e geine na lanomna deime a fuoirpdai. 5005 
Ar at e tri geine docuisnet -i- ge^ie forcometa 7 gen 
frithchometa 7 gen decomhéta. Gen forcoiméta cetumus : 
amal rogap faircle for glun. 

Imtha samlaid is fair anuas ginither forsail is focetoir 
geinither as do belaiph i fiout 7 gairdi. Gen decométa 5010 
dini« álsai/ amal rogap fuil ar dh' feo/1 agus isin feoil. 
Is amlaz'd/i dono dinin díW/congaib lasin bfoucal o tousach 
godeired cin urgahaz'/ cin urditeun. Gen frecometa airnin 
amal rogab cnaim m\ú\aic/z J leicne 7 cnuic 7 find 7 nahi 
nat geiniter lasin dune fochetoir, uair is fo cousmí2'/ius 5015 
alta duine domit^r alta uad. Ni taidbeut dono in foucal 
is air«in lasin bfoucal forsa dtouchrauthar foceutoir co 
mbi fair fo deoigh ardingidh in foucal. Ferdialt co sin 

In tiasca do bandialt andso siss : ben, mna, do bein, na 5020 
mban, dona mnaib, in mnai, ina mna, a ben, a mna, on 
mnai, ona mnaib, oc mnai, og mnaib, co mnai, co mnaib, 
sech mnai, sech mnaib, tre mnai, tre mnaib, im 
mnai, im mnaib, for mnai, for mnaibh, tar mnai, tar 
mnaiph. Benon a formoulad, bein a cout^/í^, beean a 5025 
maullrugud, ben a ao«, ben a lan, ni hairechar a diabal 
•i- beanbean, gia isberat aroile ni bi nach lan cin a diabal, 
beinin a \ugugad, sobeun a saorugud, doben a daorugud. 
Ni hairecar a urard -i- beana : airecar immorro mnaa. 
Ni hairecar a urisil -i- benaib, bentot a telccud nae, be a 5030 
aircealla calaith. Ni hairechar a aircealla fuit, bel a 
cendfochrus deirid, beund a dichned, len a chendfochrus 
tuis, be a dichned, si 7 uindsi a urland indsge ; oig 7 glun 
a deime teipidi ; fair 7 srithiti a lanomna ; blas 7 millsi 
a geinsidhe ; faircli J esgat a lanomna in g\u'in ; 5035 
[cnaim Eg:'\ J feoil a ngeinid-sidhe : no it e i fuirmth^ a 
ngeinsidhe amal reimeipertmor (col. /3). Banndialt co sin. 

^" fuil ar dh' feo/1 as i sin feoil : cf. line 1822 ^" tochralur 

YBL. 241^1 AURAICEPT Eg. 761 .141 257 

Don deimdialt so sis. 

Nem, nime, na nime, do nim, do nimibh, in nim, in 
nimip, o nimh, o nimibh, oc nim, oc nimiph co nemh, 5040 
co nimip, sech nem, sech neimibh, for nemh for neimibh, 
tre nem, tre nimibh, tar nem, tar nimiph. Nemon a 
formolad, neimh a cotud, neemh a mallrugud, nefriam 
a chondail, nem a aon, nemh a lan. Ni hairecar a 
diabal, na a tsaorugud, na a daorugud, na [a] urard, na 5045 
[a] urisiol. 

Forsna, fona, esna, isna, tresna, sech na nime a lourga 
fuach : o, do, im, co, es, fo, for, e, sech nime a dialt 
n-eitarleime e. [Ni fogabar a thelga nue. Ni hairecar 
•a air- Eg.] cell fuit, nel a cheundfouchrus deridh. Nemm 5050 
a deichned, nea a dich[ned], is ed 7 oundar a urlanda 
indsge. Ni hairecar a deime teipidi, ar is deime fo- 
deisin : nell J sduag neime a lanamna deime ; dath 
7 airdi a ngeinidh-sidhe : no is he is a foirbti an gen. 

Dialt cou sin anuas. Finit. Amen. 5055 




37 « I 


Can chlóen. 


Can ecnairc fri frecnairc 


Can rudrach. 


Can uathad fri ilar. 


Can rogair. 


Can ecuibdius. 


Can rofota. 


Can ecenelas. 


Can dim[b]ríg. 


Can écomfhuaim. 


Can forhrig. 


Can anoc[h]t. 


[At he sin na XII annuas. 
Corraib immorro co ndath / co tothucht. H.] 

Co ndath 7 tóthocht cona thomus fri fid 7 deach 7 reim 5065 
7 forbaid 7 alt 7 insci 7 etargaire. Cor[r]aib and : 

A formolud. 

A chotut. 

A mallrugud. 

A delidin. 

A chonnaiL 

A oen (-i- a uathad). 

A lan (i- can dichned, can 

A diahul. [dochned). 

A lugug-ud. 

A shaerugud. 

A doerugud. 

A irard. 

A iriseL 

A lorgga fuach. 

A dialt n-etarleme. 

A thelgud noe : 

noe, duíne -i- in tan tuttes 
in duine forsin tuind, is e 
son imme foccul eturru 5070 
insin, tot. 

A airichill fuit, 

A chendf hochrus. 

A dichned. 

A dochned. 5075 

A indsce mod. 

A erlond indsci. 

A demi thepidi. 

A lanamna demi. 

A genis de i- géin 5080 

ón lanamain for cach 
cenel labartha docussin 
o dialt co bricht. 

5038 In marg. •i- can 7 rcoir uch L. ^*'^^ Cain dimríg L. 

5065 /„ marg, ili in airí//; íi«d Itar ecc ifaar ^^^ mad L. 



LL. 37 b I H. 143 I b 6 


ENTIUM 5085 

I. Can cloen cuíbdiusa. 

Gabiam la seise soirche 

Seotu sochraide soirthe, 

Ria ndul issin fargge 

Gleam ar lessu re n-aidche. 5090 

•i- soirthe 7 aidche exempluni. 

[A \a.namn3i demi a geni-síde cen claen cetus, uí est in 
hoc i- ata andseo -i- 

Gabam la sesi soirche 

Seotu sochraidi sorthi 5095 

Re ndul dun as is fairthi 

Gleam ar les ria n-aidhchi. 

Soirthi ocus aidchi is e in cloen and mana derntar oidche 
de i n-aigidh soirthi. Atat dano tri ernail for cloenadh 
• i- cret cloen 7 cloen ceilli 7 cloen cuibdiusa. Claen 5100 
cuibdiusa fil hic -x- andseo. H. 143 l b 6.] 

Cloen crétti. Fland mac Lonain d'Ua Delbna 

cecinit : — ~ - i 

Tir da Locha forsiurig fotha, h^U^ ~ i 1 5 

Fond fochrotha, cricha cuan, 5105 

Caille cailfota, cuibrend buadach, 
Barcc reil rohetrocht rúamach ruad. 

2. Oan rudrach. Mac Da Cherda cecinit.' — 

Mo thipran i Collamair 

Ní cách atarodamair, 5110 

Intí atarodomair 

Atib cona commadair. 

»si scirthe L. "«^- lon«ai;/ L. 

26o LL.37bi9 TREFHOCUL 

[Mo tipran i Collammair 

Ní cach atarommadair, 

Intí rodas-rommadair 5115 

Attib conna commadair. 

Mac Da Cerda dixit in rand-sa annuas. Desmirecht 
aile dano for rudrach, ut dixit Cellach Corrach : — 

Roscathatar mo longa 

Ocus mo glonna uile, 5120 

I«nid acum contuili 

In fer robí Moeltuile. H. 143 i b 12.] 

3. Can rogair. 

Is caingen 

Bith frisin less n-imdangen 5125 

Ocus gairm neich 'na dorus 

4. Can rof hota. 

Atá sund os chind int shU'iaig 

Eo find fota fo néim, 5130 

Focheird fáid ngluair ngrind cloc bind 

I cill Q\iQ)\uim hui Néill. 

[Cen root, ut dixit Mac Lonain i nduain Delmna. Cert 

cloen 7 root inso : — _ , , 

Tír da Lacha fairsiung fotha, 5135 

Fond fochrotha, cricha cuan, 
Cailli caelfhota, cuibrend buadas, 
Barc rer n-oen etrocht ruamach ruadh. 

Cen rogair dano, ut dixit Liadain. 

Root rogair inso : — 5140 

Ata sund os chind int láidh 

Heo find foda fath fo neim, 

Focert find grind cloc blaith bind 

Hi cill CoIu[i]m hi NeiII. H. 143 i b 17.J 

5124-7 ir, Texte, iii. 18, § 48 ^^^ Delnma L. I. cret 


LL. 37 b 27 

5. Can dimbrig. Fer Muman cecinit : — 5145 

Ind hue issind assgandfhir (?) 
Fo tarrib tasbleirg tuignech, 
Deoraid ama/ cech Laignech, 
Maignech ama/ cech Muwnech. 

[Fer Muman í:m«zV. Cen dimbrig, z// ^.y/ .• — 5150 

Ind uea innd ra sgaindair (?) 

Fo tharraib taeblerg tuignech, ' 

Deoradh amal cach Laignech, 

Maignech amal cach Mumneach. H. 143 i b 23.I 

6. Can fhorbrig. Rechtgal hua Siadail i nduaín 5155 
Oengusa mic Domnaill cecinit : — 

Badbn' Chuicid hl£.renn uile 

Ard bara, brass bile, 

Dobádi sís, ni síd chena, 

Cach ríg acht rig nime. 5160 

[Cen forbrigh dano, «/ dixit Rechtgal hua Siadail : — 


Gemtís ganna fir betha 

Otha Liphi gu Letha, 

Nasfurfead ol niptais ga[i]nn 

Digi do d^maind DomnaiU. 5165 

Desmirecht aile 

Badbrí Cuicidh hErend huili 

Art bara, bres bile, 

Dobbadi sis, ni sid chena, 

Cach ríg acht ríg nime. H. 143 1 b 26.] 5170 

7. Can ecnairc fri frecnairc. 

A Fhlaind Locha h'nib same, 

At fond flatha fine, 

Gnath la Fland, lathar n-áne, 

Ba re secha díne. 5175 

262 LL.37b TREFHOCUL H. 143 r b 34 

[A [Fh]laind Acha h'nib same, 

At fond flatha fírí ; 

Is gnath rí Fland, lathar n-ani, 

Ba rí secha dini. H.] 

8. Oan uathad fri ilar. ól80 

Maelcainníg hua Tolaig -i- mac Lairi Láidig. 

Cormac súi amra dess, 

In dagda imma-radim, 

Mac Culennáin can écnach, 

Co cetlaib mora alaind. 5185 

[Cormac sin, amra legind, 

D'eis in daghda norraidhim, 

Mac Cuilennáin, can ecnach, 

Co cetlaibh moraib alaind. H. 143 i b 31.J 

9. Can écuibdius. 5190 

Oengus mac Oiblen cecinitr — 

Oc cungid na féile 

Asa fortrén taitnem 

Túir la féige frithgnam 

Co léir ord na caibdel. 5195 

[Cen cuibdius, ut dixit .^ngus -i- 

O cuingid na fele 

Is a forthren taitnem, 

Tuer la fegi frithgnam 

Co ller ord na caibdel. H. 143 i b 36.] 5200 

10. Can ecenelus. 

Tanic sund de muntir Dé 

Cleirchén gelbán, cáin a lí, 

Ni fhetar císi rún 

Bud messu dún oldas díu. 5205 

[Cen ecenelus -i- na dertar [1. derntar] ferinsci do baninsci, 

no baninsci dferinsci, nt est: — 

Tainic sund do muintir De 

Clereach gelban, glan a li, 

Nucu n[fh]etar ciasa run 5210 

Bad meassu dun oldas di. H. 143 i b 38.] 

^^^ L. dagdai with i crossed out ^^^ ecuach H. 

5192-5 FéHre, Prol. 329-32 '^^^ 1. dí 


LL. 37 c I 

1 1 . Can écomfúaim. 

Is hé rí Senchae same, 
■Gel cloe gaile iar crud chuile, 

Do[rat] feolairecht ngona 5215 

For Eoganacht fer Maige. 

[Cen ecomuaim fidraid do beith and, ut: — 

Is e rig Sencua Sanz, 

Gel chlue gaili cruth cu ri, 

Dorat feolairecht ngona ÓL^O 

For Eoganacht fer Muigi. H. 143 i b 41.] 

12. (Can anocht i- cia locht i- a nda nocht iarna diriuch 
don dligiud LL. inargin.) 

Fogonar airchetul i n-anocht n-ellag, ar is coitchend- 
sium uile son. 5225 

[Cen anocht i- cen nocht and stcut (?) asberat na 
hugdair, Fogonar airchetul i n-anocht, tit est : — 

Imcomarc flatha FGtmn, 

Fotait mail Macha im Mumain, 

Torc atchiu argair gabair 5230 

Fiu Corc no Lorc no Lugaidh. 

" Argair " and cen ni fris cia rodligh co fil nocht and 
foesin. H, 143 i b 44.] 

Co ndath 7 tothucht, nt dicitur: Tlachtga na n-uath . . . 
dub a n-aerthar, brec i fochanar, find i mmohar, ut cos . . . 5235 

Ciaptis ganna fir betha — 3/í? ^ 

Ótha Liphe co ILetha, 

Nosfirfed ol niptis [gainn] 

01 dige di dernainn Do;/niaill. 

Maelruanaid ruad imma rind 5240 

Archiiig dorair lidualaig 

Is caiU tón bo can buaraig 

Yor aiU sron cherr Maelruanaid m/c Flaind. 

S228-31 ir. Texte, iii. 13, § 24 : 42, § 49 . ''''-^ dernaiwl L. 

■"'^' In marg. dui ut idei 

264 LL.37CI2 TREFHOCUL H. 1431^48 

[Corraib co ndath 7 co tothucht. Att e tri datha' na hec[se] 
sini-find /dub/brecc. Find ua moltar : dub uan-aerthar: 5245 
brecc ua focarar mad comsan, ut dixit Fingen mac Flaind :— 

Dosronusaa doib droing mbind bairdni briathar glesi, 
Gnim cen tlaisi ni tartatsom duais da hesi. H.] 

Brecc i íochanar, ut dixit Fíngin mac Flaind :— 

Daronusa doib drohg bind bairdne brethir glei[si] 5250 

Gniim can tlási nistartsatsum duas dar esi. 
Nislen ecnach ond oes chetlach cruth roncuala 
Ar ar hdála acht na tucsatsum duas for duana. 

Tothocht dano -i- am^/beit a bésa, corop amlaid moltair 
•i- molad laich do laech 7 molad clerich do c\i\Qxech. 

[Tothucht dano -i- beit a mbesa, corob amlaid moltar 
cach -i- moladh laich for laich, molad cleirigh for clerech, 
molad mna for mnai. Moladh laich do laech, ut dixit Urard 
mac Coisi : — 

Crithir crithes crothas cuan 
Riches rochas corc buan 
Ua rig Lemna leotha cend 
Bres B^rba buiUe dilend. 

Molad clerigh for clerech : — 

Tuthal dluim do deirc De dil 5265 

Hua Chonaill mic Amirgin 
Huasal escop Insi Fail 
Comarba cathrach Ciarain. 



Molad mna for mnai 

Ciall cruth cen^l cen chairi 5270 

Gaes gart genus co ndruin cland, 
Compert cen grain gaili 
Atat ic d/>7^bail uili. 

5247. 8. 5250-3 Arch. C. P. iii. 296, 44, 5 3-'5.3 /^_ 7-^,./^^ ;;;_ 30, 19 ; 121, 31 


LL. 37 c 18 H. 143 I b w 

Sechta frís tomsíter Goedelg, fidh 7 insci 7 etargaire. 
Is ed a fid as gu -i- cona thomus fri fidh -i- in cetna fidh 5275 
ind focail as guthas. Is ed as deach a traig. Is ed a reim 
a thuisel. Is ed a forbaid a aicent iversd). Is ed a alt int 
alt airchetail 7 ni he int alt bis etir cach da dealt ziTia 
deachaibh. Is ed a insci na teora insci docoisnet -i- ferinsci 
7 baninsci 7 deminsci. Is ed a etargaire a dehgud 5280 
n-indsci. Corraib and, a formoladh, tit dixit Mac Lonain. 
Feron a formolod. 

Cenn o lochaib do lindol 

Co clothaib, chi nadh gandon, 

Techt for eocho i cind crichi, 5285 

Maith bethu bithi annon. H.] 

A chotut, ut Fer Muman dixit : — 
Goth gruce golfad breice 
Bíeth críche crich co ndorthor, 

lar mbeithsiu sasb a thigthol 5290 

Taistel Milcon mic Onchon. 

[A cotot (-i- timorcain fri aicnead no i cind) dano, ut 
Fer Muman dixit so sis : — 

Goth gruice gulfad mbreice 

Bseth criche crich iar torthor 5295 

lar mbeith sund s^b a thiugthol 

Taistel Milcon mic Oncon. H. 143 2 a. 7.] 

A mallrugud, ut Cormac cecinit do Inis Cáin: — 

Nech nobiad bliadain láin 

I taig aiged Indsi Cain, 5300 

Rabad glebán a níab 

Oc dul dar sliab Sion sáir. 

\iit quidain : — 
[A mal[l]rugud dano -i- fri haicnead -i- a rad co mall, 

Nech nobiad bliadain lain 

Yor cuit aigcd Inse Cain, 5305 

Robad ainglaidi a máin 

Ic dul tar sliab Sioin sair. H. 143 2 a 10.] 

'''■'■'■' docoiscet 528.;-6 rc. xx. 150 

266 LL. 37C23 TREFHOCUL H. 143 2 a 13 

A delidin litterda, ut dixit . . . 
Glainidir gol co amson 

Súi dian sosad silochta 5310 

Sínc' . . . Inse Catlií?/^" cóir. 

A delidin siUabacda, ut Mac Lénin dixit: — 
O bi mac cleib caindlech 
Saer sert cach n-ainm aimi . , . gossa fer (-i-) Fergossa. 

[A delidin, iit dixit Mac Lenin : 5-315 

bi mac cleib caindlec sersit c?Lch. H.] 

A chondail. Cormac dona Cnoib Segsa : — 

^d Ailig ollchathach, 

Aiisius deir lidianim á\S!oach 

As goam giHdir gési Locha Leín. 5320 

A diabul : — 

A'gur águr iar céin beith 

1 péin péin, ní sid sid, 

Amal cách cách co bráth bráth 

In cach thráth thráth cid scíth scíth. 5325 

A lugugud, ut Y\and mac Lonain : — 
Mo chara-sa Cnámine 
Car aslach n-Eile n-achtach, 
Bid fálid frim Dámine, 
Cia dom-fhacced cét marcach. 5330 

A oen, ut Clothna mac Oengusa dixit : — 
Imchomarc roruad rogda 
D'fhir imdích soshluag sadha, 
A iath na trenfher tigba, 
U'aim do threnfher glegel gabla {inargin triadi). 5335 

A doerugud, Mac legind fri gilla rig Resad :— • 

Ar corrucan cumraide, 

OUurgbail ar liglanbaile, 

Nis-fuar caem a chomdile, 

Ciaso drer is dagduine. 5340 

5»2 cf. RC. XX. 144, 27-8 : Goed? 158 5327») /;-. Texte, iií. 63 

5*-* 1. Caras íath 


LL. 37 c 40 

A urard :- 

Frim gruad corcra ma chora, 

Dom-ruacht bochta {om-hera. ; 

Ni chehm, uair it cara, 

Feib atberim atbera. 5345 

/f /T rn: /v ^'^0 

A irísel, in ben side cecinit: — 

Secht mbhadna lána o noc[h]t 

Fotgluasfither on oenphort, 

Feraib mnaaib mairg rósbi 

Im ín Dond cathach Cualiigi. 5350 

A lorgga fuach. Cormac cecinit issin tririg : — 

In tocéb mo churchan cíar 

For in n-ocian n-ucht-lethan n-án ? 

In rag, a Rí richid réil, 

As mo thoil féin ar in sál .-' 5355 

Im ba sessach, im ba serig, 
Im ba fressach, torgib drorig, 
A Dé in curigene fri;«m, 
O thí oc techt for lind lond ? 

Lorgga fuach Qter da iocul i- sal 7 sessach ; 'wi ba, is í 5360 
m lorga iuach. 

A dealt n-etarléime -i- remshuidigud óenshillrt/<^^ eter 
da chomfhuaim fhidraid, ut ideiu in eodein: — 

Ced leth co bráth iar cuaird chross 

Coslafe mo bachlach cress, 5365 

Im bá sair, im ba siar, ní súail, 

Im bá fo thúaid, im ba fo dess. 

Is é in desmerecht andsin i- ced eter dered ind raind 
toesig -i- lond 7 tossach ind raind tan[aisi]. 

A thelgud noe : — 5370 

Orddan na rrig recht as gleo céin ba beo bert 

SíErthot slantot cech . . . sa tathot rota rodatí. tisat. 

*352-6» cf. ^lt. Ir. Dichtung, p. 9 ^^'> 1. tressach, cf. 940 


A urachil calaidi : — 

Cen cob delb alaind mo drech 5375 

Nimthá a chleith ceil na guth 

Deithbir dam cid diuir mo dath 

Uair nach i rochiur ma chruth -i- rochiguir. 

(LL. 38 a) A airichil fuit. 

Colum Cille céin nom-bó 5380 

Bid mo dú can da co fei[rc]. 
Fri cach hguas ge radat 
No mohir méit mo de[i]rc. 


Fegsat fihd Fail i fus 5385 

Fenchas co feig la Fergus, 

Mad tar mal cach maige immach 

Doróscib dóinib Dubthach. A Dia a ri. 

[A dichned.] 

Dal rodalus, ba mor in báes, 5390 

Issinn arus os Druim Lias. 

A mmo Chomdiu, [a rí] ru ra (-i- dichned littri) 

Cach riibi bui (-i- di s'úlaió) ba bas ni thias. 

A dechned. 

La mac fir neit fadb corcra, 5395 

Teit daig demin ni tercdu, 
[Forruim] tenn co cruind ochtga, 
Gnath cend i crub Con Echtga. 

Cellach cemind inmain fer 

. . . febra . , . eise. . . . 5400 

mac ríg rigi tuir la . . . as dilid dam Jf^ . . . 

A demi thepidi. 

Is hé daig derg dige dath 
f . . . gaidther ca . . . 
chainem cruth fifotr. . . . 


5385.S Rc XX, 152 «»» /n marg. a de;;/i 

5390-3 Amra C.C. (Stokes' Goed.'^ 158 : RC. xx. 144) 

5395-8 RC. XX. 150 53<j7 denn L. 3-103-5 cf. <^tfi-^ q{ Aiiraicept 


A lanamna demi. 

indsci no banindsci do thabairt isin ndemi . . . ut quidam 

cechiit : — 

Is he a bna is a ri fuair 

lass . . . gruad gland ama/ grt'in 5410 

sein sith fri silbad rig co. . . . 

A genis de. Quidam dixit : — 

Is he mac milis ne tar cach triath . . . 

issí ímcain imchess caich 

fri fath a finchruib ar fuach. 5415 


BB. 305 /3 10 LL. 38 |8 7 

Incipit do, L. De, duilib feda na forfid, L. fored, lasiw 

fiHd, L. la filidaib, Is aen, L. oen, dialt fri righe, L. rigi, 

is a do fri timargain, L. dó ri timmargain. 

Corus forfid fedat filz^, L. Ca ri fored fegait fuid, 5420 

firthar do, L. dá, eo -^^, aire ' •, ar aen, L. oen, ^; 

uair ^ , iar ^fe - . 

^d uird na fí'r/ed, L. hetir, (-i- etis B.) bail 7 baile, 

ata L. om. L. da emancoll, ^^ . bairc, L. bairg, We- 

L. baire ^^ ,. is bair (-i- suid B.) 7 brai 7 brais 7 braiwd 5425 

(•i- mna), L. bran, 7 bairt (-i- ingen), L. bairi, bairen^/, 7 ba« 
B., 7 bai 7 baill, L. bair, 7 baile it emuncholla nosb^waní/, 
L. id emanchuill nodabenadar, uile 7rl. Beoil [7 heoii >^-, 

eo 7 ceo it >X-> L. í?w.] 7 beoir, 7 gleoir L. oni., 7 treoir, i[t] 
tria ebaid, L. -^. Beid 7 teid 7 reid 7, sgleit L. om., 5430 
L. geid, 7 seid, L. 7 gleid, dead 7 scead, L. stead, 7 treat, 
L. tread, it ^X" nodusb^/^adar, L. nodabenadar, uile. 

Liag, L. lian, 7 Brian 7 grian, L. 7 trian, 7 triall 7 srian 
7 cliar, L. 7 riar 7 mian 7 tiar 7 miad, fin, L. ifin, a 
feda uile. 5435 

Feoil -i- -^, fian, L. fial, -i- "V"» feo, L. feoil, -i- 
-)f>; fian, L. fia, -i- 1§^; feagh, L. feaigh, -X-' 

fiad, L. fiag, -i- "5"', nodusb^^adar, L. nodabenadar, 

^ etis over bail B. ^ L. corr. 


BB. 305^21 DE DUÍLIB FEDA ll. 38/321 271 

Buidle (i- dall B.) 7 buidlen arem, L. 7 airemh ard, da 5440 
-^. Buaid 7 druaid it, L. da, ^^; duar (-i- 
focul, L. feoil), cruan (-i- trefocul) mual (-i- mulenn, 
L. muilend) fuar (-i- muir, L. dilend -i- muir) nuall (-i- err, 
L. oin.) fuam (-i- muis, L. muir) 7 duan " v^ " a fid, 

L. fida, uile. Cual is ^J^" ceol, L. coel, is Q , boaid 5445 
(•i- eblud B.) boar 7 boa, boilglan, ovi. L. 7 boilban, (-i- 
banefes B.), guit, L. cuitti, yj^' ; coich is ">-0-, buar 

is ~5^, boir, is oir, L. ^^, boairech, L. boairig, 

is »í , L. -0-, nodusbí-wdai, L. nodambentar uile. 
Ocus rai 7 cai 7 mai 7 lai 7 gnaíi, L. Dói 7 rói 7 cói 5450 
7 mói 7 lói 7 gnói, is -0-, L. adds dabenadar uile. 

Nasr, L. noer is, -0-, nuar (i- gabad), L. suad (-i- 

gabud), is ~^^, muad (-i- med), L. muag is, "^^ 

[L. om. maíid is ")-0-, suad Ís -^ druad 7 suad "^ 
nodus-bí';/tar]. ^^fj^ 

Lanchumang a firfedaib, L. i forfhedaib, cumang i 
forfedaib, L. fhorfhedaibh, fegthair do thaebomnaib. Téit 
dede i n-aen, L. n-oen, ata-boing, L.-bong, tui teachtaid fili, 
L. file, fad, L. fath, nad fubai. Is e in lanchumang, teid, 
L. eter, in da fid aireghda i coimfrec/Vi'. Is, L. é in, cumang 546O 
immorro in bail[e L.] i mbit in da guttai, L. gutta, isin 
■^nsxWaib l in bail[e L.] i toc/zradar, L. tochdar, i forfid 
L. in da fhorid [i- ^^ L. om.']. 


BB. 308 /3 44 

Caide loc 7 aímser 7 persu 7 fath airic in ogaÍ7«? Ni 5465 
ansa. Loc do Hibernia insola quam nos Scoti habitamus. 
I n-aimsir Brese mic Elathan rig Erenn dofrith. Persu 
do Ogma mac Elathan mic Delbí^zV^ d^rbrathair do Bres, 
ar Bres 7 Ogma 7 Delbí^M tri mic Elathan mic Délhc^it/i 
SLndsen. Ogma didiu, fer roeolach a mberla 7 a filidecht, 5470 
is e rainic int oga.m. Cuis airic (309) derbad a intlechta J 
co mhet/i in bescna-sa ic lucht in eo]ais fo leth, sech lucht 
na tirdachta 7 na buicnechta. Can as fuair ainm iar su;/d 
7 ret int ogam, J caide mathair 7 athair in ogaim, J cia 
cetainm roscribad tri ogam, J cia fid in roscribad, J cuis ar 5475 
roscribad, J cia dia roscribad, J cid ara remtet bethi ria cach, 
(Aic uoluuntur omnid). 

Ogam o Ogma suo inuentore primo ria sun;í quidem ; 
iar ret, immorro, ogwm og-uaim •!• og-uaim, dob^rait na 
fiHd forsin filideacht trid, ar is fri fedaib toi;;/sit//^/- 5480 
Gaidelg icna ^Xedaib : athair ogai;;/ Og;;/a, mat/tair ogaÁm 
lám no scia« Ogma. 

Is e so immorro in cetna ni roscribad tri ogam,>Tm — m — 

• i- in beithi roscribad, J do bmth robaid do Lug mac 
Etlenw roscrib^í/ im dala a mna na ru[c]tha uada hi 5485 
i sidaib •i- secht mbethi i n-aeníhlesc do bethi : Berthar 
fo secht do hen uait i sid no a íerand ali m<a:;ns-co;;/eta 

5165-9 O'D. Gr. xxviii. note e ^^'^ suwd vvritten out (= sun) 

"" Margin '^^^ arris B. 



What are the place, tíme, person, and cause of the inven- 
tion of the Ogham ? Not hafd. Its place Hibernia insiila 
quavi nos Scoti habitamus. In the time of Bres son of 
Elatha king of Ireland it vvas invented. Its person 
Ogma son of Elatha son of Delbaeth brother to Bres, 
for Bres, Ogma and Delbaeth are the three sons of 
Elatha son of Delbaeth there. Now Ogma, a man well 
skilled in speech and in poetry, invented the Ogham. 
The cause of its invention, as a proof of his ingenuity, and 
that this speech should belong to the learned apart, to 
the exclusion of rustics and herdsmen. Whence the 
Ogham got its name according to sound and matter, who 
are the father and the mother of the Ogham, what is the 
first name that was written by Ogham, in- what letter it 
was written, the reason why it was written, by whom 
it was written, and why t) precedes every letter, Jiic 
Hobiuntur oninia. 

Ogham from Ogma suo inventore privio in respect to 
its sound, qtiidem ; according to matter, however, ogum is 
og-uaini^ perfect alliteration, which the poets applied to 
poetry by means of it, for by letters Gaelic is measured 
by the poets ; the father of Ogham is Ogma, the mother 
■of Ogham is the hand or knife of Ogma. 

This moreover is the first thing that was written by 
Ogham, -^TnT — jTj — , i-^- (the birch) b was written, and to 

convey a warning to Lug son of Ethliu it was written 
respecting his wife lest she should be carried away from 
him into faeryland, to wit, seven b's in one switch of birch : 
Thy wife will be seven times carried away from thee 
into faeryland or into another country, unless birch guard 

273 c. 

274 BB. 309 a 15 OGAM 

het/il. Is aire immorro remitet bethi, ar is a mbethi 
ro-cetscribrtí/ ogam. 

Cis lir fogla ogavn J caiteat ? Ni ansa. A iiii : bethe 5490 
a V, uath a v, muin a v, ailme [a] v, forfeda olcena. 

Cis lir aicme ogaim? Ni ansa. A iii -i- viii n-airigh 
fedha, 7 viii n-athaigh, 7 viii fidlosa. Ocht n-airigh 
cetus : — (ernn, dur, coll, muin, gort, straif, onn, or. Ocht 
n-athaig -i- bethi, luis, sail, nin, huath, tlnne, quert. Ar 5495 
chuit a feda is athaz'g- feda fidlosa olchena. 

Qiiot sunt genera \n ogaiml Ni ansa. CL, et 
figuras eorum et potestates secundum ordinem nuntiabimus, 
asnedim primus do fedaibh na cranw o tuctha an;//aní/ 
for fedhaibh \n ogaim secundum alios et alios nomin- 5500 
antur. Cesc, masí?<^, can asin -ainmni[g]ter feda 7 
t-&ho7nna \n ogaim} Ni ansa. Secundum alios quidein 
is o scoil Y&niusd. ¥arsaidh -i- scol na filideachta rofaid 
Fenius fon domun d' fhoglaim na mberla. Bai xxv ba 
huaish'u di[b] conid iat a n-anman«-saide tuctha for bethi- 5505 
luis-nin \n ogdHm et^r feda 7 tsebomna; 7 bai cethrur ba 
huaisli dibh-side iterum, conid iat a n-an;;/anw-side tuctha 

forna vii fedaib aire[g]daib ^ H^ Ifl ITtt ItílíXO 

7 rotuillset triur eli friu, conid uaidib-side ainmnigter na 

tri forfeda aile, conad aire deglait<?r ar leth ' lg^'"'^— - 5510 

Secundum alios is o fedaib na caille tuctha an;;/an;z for 
fedaibh \n ogaim trin-troip. Beithi immorro o bethi na 
cailli forsin cetna fid ior set na aipgitri in ogaim. Luis -i- 

r,4w umha V B. mui« 7 B. 

53*- Maigin. Molgalraig «i» ach no uch ar emuncoll ar gabar emuncoll 
ar ach no uch '""^ d'fhodlaim B. 

550G Pq,, cethrur /. morshesser, vii confused iL'ith iiii 


OGHAM 275 

her. On that account, moreover, b, birch, takes pre- 
cedence, for it is in birch that Ogham was first written. 

How many divísions oí Ogham are there, and what 
are they ? Not hard. Four : b five, h five, m five, a 
five, besides diphthongs. 

How many groups of Ogham ? Not hard. Three, 
viz., eight chieftain trees, eight peasant trees, and eight 
shrub trees. Eight chieftain trees first : — alder, oak, hazel, 
vine, ivy, sloe, furze, heath. Eight peasant trees, viz., birch, 
quicken tree, willow, ash, whitethorn, whin, apple tree. 
As to their letters all other shrubs are peasant trees. 

Qííoí sunt genera of the Ogham ? Not hard. 
CL^ et figuras eoruin et potestates secimdum ordinem 
nuníiabimus. 1 shall speak primum of the woods of 
the trees whence names have been put for the Ogham 
letters, secundum alios et alios nominantur. Query, well 
then, whence are the Ogham vowels and consonants 
named ? Not hard. Secundum alios quidem, it is from 
the school of Fenius Farsaidh, to wit, the school 
of poetry which Fenius sent throughout the world to 
learn the languages. There were five and twenty that 
were noblest of them so that it is their names that were 
put for the Bethe Luis Nin of the Ogham, both 
vowels and consonants ; and there were four who were 
the noblest of these again, so that it is their names that 
were given to the seven principal vowels : — 

>>i TnmTn nítíxo 

and they added other three to them so that from 
these are named the other three diphthongs, wherefore 

■^^ "'rT"-» are classified apart. Secundum alios it is 

from the trees of the forest that names were given to the 
Ogham letters metaphorically. Moreover beitJie, b, is from 
the birch of the forest for the first letter on the path of the 
Ogham alphabet. Luis, 1, that is, elm in the forests. 

276 BB. 309 a 38 OGAM 

lemh sin isna cailltib. Fern -i- fearn sin isin caill. Sail 
i« ogahn ■[• sail dono sin isin caiU. Nin 'm ogaim -i- 5515 
gi«ol garmna no nenaid isna feadaib. Uath 'm ogaim 
craní/ fir no sce ar a delgaighe insin. Dur 'm ogaim dair 
dono isin caill. Tinne in ogaim -i- quulen^ no trom isin 
caill. Coll 'm ogaim -i- coll isin caill. Quert in ogaim 
quulení/ isin caill no cairthen^ no crithach. Muin -i- 5520 
midiu. Gort -i- gius. Getal -i- gilcach. Straif saildrong 
isin caill. On« -i- aiten no mnius. Ur -i- draighen. Edad 
•i- eu. Ida -i- ibhar. Ebad -i- elenaf. Oir -i- feorus. 
U'iWeann -i- edlení/. Pin in ogaim, pin dano isin caill, 
De atbertar caera pin;^^ ; ifin dano secundiwi alios ainm in 5525 
feda sin. Emancoll dono -i- coU emnaide iar ret no iar 
fuath -i- coll dar coll ina fuath. 

Briatharogízw Moraiwd mic Mhai« aní/so. Feocus 
foltchain ar beithi sen isin briatharogí?;;/, uair an- 
mz.x\d tuc (col. ^) Moraní/ uaidh fen for fedaib 'm 5530 
ogaiw is iat gabus greim feda isin briatharogí?;//. 
Feocus foltchain ar son bethi, ar at e sin da egosc 
in bethi, 7 tucad uadsan for fidh 'm ogaim rogab ainm 

Li sula -i- luis sin -i- in luisiu. 5535 

Airinach Fian -i- sciath ar ien\ aigiseom sin ar a 
ndergi ar aenrian : no air is i in fern adb/^r in sceith tucad 

'•'^ Anec. iii. 43 ^^ Origg. xvii. 9, 93 

OGHAM 277 

Fern^ f, that ís, alder in the forest. Sai'/, s, of the Ogham, 
that is, willovv, again, in the forest Nm, n, of the 
Ogham, to wit, maw of spear, or nettles in the woods. 
Uaí/i, h, of the Ogham, that is, test-tree or whitethorn, on 
account of its thorniness. Bur, á, of the Ogham is oak, 
again, in the forest. Tinne, t, of the Ogham, to wit, 
ho]]y or elderberry in the forest. Coll, c, of the Ogham, 
to wit, hazel in the forest. Quert, q, of the Ogham is 
ho]]y in the forest, or quiclcen tree, or aspen. Muin, vine, 
m, to wit, mead [from it]. Gort, cornfield, g, to wit, fir. 
Getal, ng, to wit, broom. Straif, str, willowbraUe in the 
forest. Onn, o, to wit, furze or ash. Ur, u, to wit, 
thorn. Edad, e, to wit, yQ^N. Ida, i, to wit, service tree. 
Ebad, ea, to wit, elecampane. Oir, oi, to wit, spindie tree. 
Uilleann, ui, to wit, ivy. Pin, io, of the Ogham, pine, 
again, in the forest. Hence are named caera pinne, goose- 
berries ; ifin, again secunduni alios is the name of that 
letter. Eniancoll, witch hazel, ae, again, to wit, c doubled 
according to fact or according to form, to wit, c across 
c in its form. 

Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main here. Feocus 
foltchain, faded trunk and fair hair, that is for birch, b, 
in the Word Ogham, because names which Morann 
gave of himself to the Ogham letters, these are they 
which take the effect of letters in the Word Ogham. 
Feocus foltcJiain for b, for these are two aspects of the 
birch, and it was hence put for the Ogham letter which 
has taken a name from it. 

Li súla, delight of eye, that is luis, quicken tree, 1, to 
wit, the flame. 

Airinach Fian, i.e., shield of warrior-bands, i.e., shieid 
for fern, f, with him owing to their redness in the same 
respect : or because the alder, the material of the shield 

278 BB. 309/3 6 OGAM 

o fernae forsin fid ogaiin rogab ainm uaidhi. Airenach 
Fian -i- sciath fern sin aigz'sium. 

Li n-aimbi -i- li mairb -i- am fo diultad conach beo 5540 
acht is marb. Li n-ambi dono -i- sail aigiseom sin, 
7 tugad uaidisium forsin fid n-ogaiui. 

Cosdad sida -i- nhi se;/ : ginoX garmna fri fid e : airde 
sida sin. Cosdad sida aigi sin o nin na garmna. 

Conal cuan -i- uath sin, ar is uath la nech conal chon 5545 
alladh. Conal cuan do rad re huath \n ogaim ar coib;/zV/i' 
in anma, ar uath iat ar aenrian. 

Ardam dossaibh -i- dur sin a dualus a feda isin caill. 

Trían -i- aill \r\d& sin aniu. 

Caíniu fedaib -i- coll sin ar a chaim a fedaibh. 5550 

Clithar mbaiscaill -i- buaiH -i- boscell -i- gelt -i- basceall 
• i- is aní/ tic a ciall do in tan degas a bas. CHthar boiscell 
dono -i- quert sin : no bosceH -i- elti -i- edruma iat. CHthar 
boisceH dono -i- gelti no elti : quert a dualus a feda. 

Tresi;;/ fedma -i- muin \Q.\s-s\uin sin -i- ar sentaidh anma 5555 
fri muin duine no daim, ar is iat is tresi feid;;/ ann. 

MiHsiu feraib i- gort leis-i'i;/;;/ sin ar aentaidh [in] 
anma frisin gort arba. In tan {qiiuvi) bis ina fuacZfon;?, is 


'vn B. •^•'■'- on tiagas *"'* ann UTÍtten oiit •''•'•''^ in f)y late hand 

OGHAM 279 

vvas from ferme given to the Ogham letter which has 
taken a name from it. Airenach Fian, i.e., shield, that is 
fern, f, with him. 

Li n-aimbi, hue of the lifeless, i.e., hue of one dead, to 
wit, am for denial, so that he is not living but is dead. Li 
n-ainibi^ again, to wit, that is sail^ willow, s with him, and 
hence it was put for the Ogham letter. 

Cosdad sida, checking of peace, that is nin, ash, n: it 
is the maw of a weaver's beam as applied to wood : a sign 
of peace is that. A checking of peace with him is that 
from the ash of the weaver's beam. 

Conal cuan, pack of wolves, to wit, that is uatJi, thorn 
h, for a terror to any one is a pack of wolves. Conal cuan 
said of the Ogham li, owing to the affinity of the name, 
for they are a thorn, in the same way. 

Ardavi dossaibh, highest of bushes, that is dur, oak, 
d, with respect to its wood in the forest. 

Trian, t, another thing the meaning of that to-day. 

Cainiu fedaib, fairest of trees, that is hazel, c, owing 
to its beauty in woods. 

Clithar mbaiscaill, shelter of a hind, i.e., a fold : to wit, 
boscell, lunatic, that is bas-ceall,á&dX\\ sense,it is then his sense 
comes to him when he goes to his death. Clithar boiscell, 
again, that is an apple tree : or boscell, that is, hinds, to 
wit, they are light. Clithar boiscell, again, i.e., lunatics or 
hinds: quert, an apple tree, q, with reference to its letter. 

Tresim fedma, strongest of effort, that is muin, vine, m, 
with him, i.e., owing to identity of name with muin, back of 
man or ox, for it is they that are the strongest in existcnce 
as regards effort. 

Milísiu feraib, sweeter than grasses, that \s gort, ivy, g, 
with him owing to the identity of the name with the corn- 
field. When it is in the blade, sweeter than any grass is that 
grass, to wit, the cornfield. Hence for that letter in Ogham 

28o BB. 309 ^ 24 OGAM 

miUsi na fer in fer sin -i- in gort arba. Uad-side 
forsin fid ut i n-ogam ar comaentaidh in anma atura, 5560 

Luth legha getal sen -i- ar is luth lasna leigib, 7 
coihnms etir cath 7 getal. 

Tresim ruamna -i- straif \e\s-s\um sin i n-o^am. Straif 
iar raet ; ar isin straif is tresiu ruamna ic dathadh na 
raet, ar is i dogni in airget ngeal conad gorm ic denum 5565 
airgit decht de. Is i berbthar tresin fual isin or mban co 
ndene áerg de. Tresi;/^ ruamna in straif ia[r] raet. 
Tugad uaid-side isin fid dianad ainm straif ar aentaid 
anma aturu -i- straif ainm cechtar de. 

Tinnem ruccae ruis sin -i- on ruidiudh no on riiis iar 5570 
ret, ar is tre rtiis scribthair, 7 is ruidhiud fasas a n-aigid 
in duine tri sug in lossa do cuimilt faethi. Tindi rucae 
dono do rad frisin ruis o rus no on ruided, ar is tri ruis 
scribtair-side fen. 

Ardam iactadh i- mactad -i- ailm aígisium sin ; ar is 5575 
ailm (no a) adber in duine ac iachtad i ngalc?r, no ic 
machtad i- ag ingantugud secip raeta. 

Congnawaigh Qchraide -i- onnaid in carpait -i- na roith 
•i- onn \e\s-s\u7n sin, ar is tri onn scribthar onnaid in 
carbait. Aliter comguinidech -i- aiten. Tucad uad-side 5580 
forsin fid ut dianad zXnm on« ar aentaid ataru ar is ainm 
onn do cechtar de ; 7 is on aitenw tucad int ainm is onn 
frisin fidh n ogaim secundum alios. 

5571 a n-aidid B. ■'''•''■•' luir o rufl- B. ''■''™ i nefalair B. 

OGHAM 281 

owíng to the complete íde4itity of the name between 

Luth legha, a physician's strength, that is broom, ng, 
to wit, because it is strength with the physicians, and there 
is an affinity between cath, panacea (?), and getal, broom. 

Tresiiu ruauina, strongest of red, to wit, that 
is str with him in Ogham. Straif, sloe, according 
to fact ; for in the sloe red for dyeing the things 
is stronger, for it is it that makes the pale silver 
become azure, making it genuine (.?) silver. It is it which 
is boiled through the urine into the white gold so as to 
make it red. Tresiiu ruauiua is the sloe according to fact. 
Hence it was put in the letter named str, owing to 
identity of name between them, i.e., straif is the name 
of each of them. 

Timieui rucccE, intensest of blushes, that is ruis, elder- 
berry, r, to wit, from the reddening or shame according to 
fact, for by r it is written, and it is a reddening that grows 
in a man's face through the juice of the herb being rubbed 
under it. Tiudi rucccB, an ingot of a blush, again, said of 
the ruis, elder-berry, from shamc or from reddeníng, for it 
is by r that it is itself written. 

Ardaui iachtadh, loudest of groanings, that is wonder- 
ing, to wit, that is ailui, fir, a, with him ; for it is ailui or a 
a man says while groaning in disease, or wondering, that 
is, marvelling at whatever circumstance. 

Conguauiaid echraidc, helper of horses, to wit, the 
j^nnaid of the chariot, i.e, the wheels, to wit, that is on7i, 
furze, with him, for it is by onn, o, that the wheels of the 
chariot are written, Aliter, couiguinidech, equally wound- 
ing, i.e. whin. Hence it was put for that letter whích is 
named ouu, o, owing to identity between them, for onn is 
a name for each of them ; and it is from whin that the 
name onn was put for the Ogham letter secundum alios. 

282 BB. 309^47 OGAM 

Etiud midach -i- cath. Tucad ua-side for getal. 

Uaraib adbaib -i- ur aigisium sin ar is do uir in talman .3585 
is ainm uaraib adbaib. Tucad uada-side forsin fidh 
dianad ainm ur iu ogatiu, ar aentaid anma aturu -i- ur 
cechtar de, 7 tre ur scribthair. 

Ergnaid fid -i- edad (310) aigisium sin, ar is don crunw 
crit[h]aig is ainm ergnaid fid. Tucad uada-side forsin 5590 
fidh ogaiin dianad ainm edhadh, ar is uad tucad edad 

Siniu fedhaib -i- idad aigiseom sin ; ar is do ibar as 
ainm siniu fedaib. Tucad uad-side forsin fid ut i n-ogani 
dianad ainm idad, ar is uad tucad int ainm is idad fair ; 5595 
ar is do ibar is ainm idad. 

Snamchain fheda -i- ebad les-.yi?/;// sin, ar snamchaiw 
fid i- don bran mor is ainm sen. Tucad uad-side forsin 
fid dianid ainm ebad in ogai;;/, ar is ainm do bratan é 
7 is tri ebad scribt[h]ar side am^/ aipgitir in betha -i- 5600 
tre seg (-i- os), eo(-i-)tre eonasc (-i- lon). 

Sruitem aicdi -i- or iar ret. Tucad uad-side forsin fid 
ar aentaid in anma fil aturu -i- or ainm cechtar de. 

Tutmur fid u'úleann -i- uiWeann leis-[s]ium sin, ar is do 
eálenn is ainm. Tucadh uad-sidhe forsin ogaw dianad 5605 
ainm u'xWeann, ar is uadh tucad mWeann fair, ar is do eáUnn 
is ainm. 

Millsim feda -i- pin sin aigisium, ar is don chrun;? 
dianid ainm pin is ainm millsium feda. De atbertar caera 
p'inne. Tucad uad-side forsin fid dianad ainm pin, ar is 5610 
uadh tucad pin no ifin air. 

5588 tj-i B. 

558» aerc[h]aid fer no fid 'i' idhadh •i> fefe a tuth no fe a flesc — Afiec. iii. 43 

aerchaid íid edath 'i' ind aor rolil in flesc cui nomen est fe — Cor.^ 606 
5''"i sed B. 

OGHAM 283 

Etiud midach, robe of physícians, to wit, catJi, panacea (?). 
Hence it was put íor getal, broom, ng. 

Uaraib adbaib, in cold dwellings, to wit, that is tir, 
fresh, with him, for from iiir, the mould of the earth is the 
name uaraib adbaib. Hence it was put for the letter named 
ur, heath, in Ogham, owing to identity of name between 
them, to wit, each of them is ur, and it is written by u. 

Ergnaid fid, distinguished wood, to wit, that is aspen 
with him, for ergnaid fid is a name for the trembling tree. 
Hence it was put for the Ogham letter named edad, aspen, 
for hence was edad, e, put for it. 

Siniu fedaib, oldest of woods, to wit, that is idad, 
vew, with him ; for siniu fedaib is a name for service-tree. 
Hence it was given to that letter in Ogham named idad, 
yew, i, for hence the name idad was put for it ; for idad, 
y&\\, is a name for ibur, service-tree. 

SnavicJiain feda, most buoyant of wood, to wit, 
that is ebad, aspen, with him, for fair swimming is wood : 
to wit, that is a name for the great raven. Hence it was 
put for the letter named the Ogham ebad, for é is a name 
for salmon, and it is written by ea like the alphabet of 
the fauna : i.e., by stag (deer), eo by eonasc (ousel). 

Sruiteni aicdi, most venerable of structures, i.e., oir, oi, 
spindle tree, according to fact. Hence it was put for the 
letter owing to the identity of the name that is between 
them, to wit, oir is the name of each of them. 

Tutinur fid uilleann, juicy wood is woodbine, that is 
woodbine with him, for it is a name for honeysuckIe. Hence 
it was put for the Ogham named woodbine, ui ; for hence 
was woodbine put for it, for it is a name for honeysuckle. 

Millsevi feda, sweetest of wood, that is gooseberry with 
him, for a name for the tree called pin is niilseni feda. 
Gooseberries are hence named. Hence it was put for the 
letter named pin, for hence //';/, or ifin, io, was put for it. 

284 ^^- 310 a 19 OGAM 

Luad saethaig -i- ach no uch, emancoll leis-[s]ium sin, 
ar gabair emuncoll ar ach gia gabar ar araill. Finit 
Briatharogam Morai;/d. 

Alargin: Ab^it^r briathairogam Mic \nd 0[i]c annso 5615 

Glaisium cnis -i- beithi sin 'm ogaiin o bethi na caiUi, 
ar is uad tucad bethi fair ; sic in reliquis sequentibiis. 

Cara ceathra (-i- lem). Cara -i- dil lasna ceathra in lem 
ar a blath 7 ar canach. Tucad uad-side for luis \n ogaim, 5620 
ar is uad tuccad luis fair. 

Comet lachta -i- ferrw in ogaim sin o fern na caill, ar 
is i coimetas in lacht, ar is di doniter lestair imon lacht. 

Lut[h] bech -i- sail sin ara blath 7 ar a canach. Tucad 
uad-side ara fid coibhnesa \n ogaiin. 5625 

Bag ban -i- ni« garmna -i- ginol garmna. Uad-side 
fora nd coibnesa. 

Banadh gnuisi -i- uath, ar is ban gnuis in duine in tan 
doberar uat[h] no uamun uimi. Uad-side for fid \n ogaini 
ar asntaid anma aturu fen -i- uath cechtar de. 5630 

Gres saír -i- daír. Tucad uad-side fora fidh coibnesa 
\n ogaivi. 

Smir guailí ■\- cuillenw sen. Uad-side fora fidh coib- 
nesa in ogaim -i- tinne secunduni alios ; ar is ainm tindi 
do cmWenn, ut alii dicunt. 5635 

8615-58 cf. Anec. iii. 44, 7-25 

Lower margin col. I A Dhia a libair bai ^*^" guailli B. 

OGHAM 285 

Luad scBíhaig, expression of a weary one, i.e., ach, ah ! 
iich, alas ! that is einancoll, ae, witli him, for onancoll is 
taken for ach, though it may be taken for something else, 
Finit Word-Osham of Morann. 

Alphabet of word-oghams of Mac ind Óic here below. 

Glaisiuni cnis, most silvery of skin, to wit, that is the 
birch of the Ogham from birch of the forest, for hence 
birch, b, was put for it ; sic i)i reliquis sequentibus. 

Cara ceathra, friend of cattle, to wit, elm. Cara, to wit, 
dear to the cattle is the elm for its bloom and for down. 
Hence it was put for the Ogham luis, quicken tree, 1, for 
hence was quicken tree, 1, put for it. 

Comet lacJita, guarding of milk, to wit, that is the 
Ogham alder, f, from alder of the forests, for it is it that 
guards the milk, for of it are made the vessels containing 
the milk. 

Luth bech, activity of bees, to wit, that is willow, s, for 
its bloom and for its catkin. Hence it is put for the 
cognate Ogham letter. 

Bag ban, fight of women, to wit, ash, n, of weaver's 
beam, le., maw of weaver's beam. Hence for its cognate 

Banadh gnuisi, blanching of face, to wít, fear, huath, h, 
for blanched is a man's face when he is encompassed with 
fear or terror. Hence for the Ogham letter owing to 
identity of name between the same two, to wit, uath 
stands for each of them. 

Gres sair, carpenter's work, to wit, oak, d. Hence it 
was put for its cognate Ogham letter. 

Smir guaili, fires of coal, to wit, that is holly. Hence 
for its cognate Ogham letter, i.e., tinne, t, secunduni alios ; 
for tindi is a name for holIy, ut alii dicunt. 

286 BB. 3ioa36 OGAM 

Cara bloisc -i- [coll]. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa in 

Brigh Sinnnin -i- quert. Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa. 

Aruusc n-arrligh -i- muin duine. Uad-side fora fidh 
comainmnig[th]ech. 5640 

Mednercc, -i- gort. Uad - side fora fidh comainm- 

Moridrun 'i- straif. Tucad uad-side fora fidh comainm- 

Ruamna dreach -i- sug in rois doní ruamna na ndrech 5645 
co mbi ruidead intib. Ruamna drech dano do rad fri 
ruis in ogaini on ruidead no on rus, ar is tri ruis scribthar 
side fen. 

Tosach fregr^: -i- ailm sin ; ar is i cetlabra gach duine 
iarna genemain a. 5650 

Fethim saire no fedem -i- onn -i- o. 

Siladh clann, ur les-[s]ium sin, ar is i uir in talman 
dogni silad na clann cuirtir inti. Silad clann dono do 
rad o uir in talman do radh frisin fid n-ogaiw rogab 
comainm fria -i- ur cechtar de. 5655 

Comainm carat -i- edadh isin caill. Uad-side fora fidh 
coma.\ninnigíhech i n-ogani. 

Crinem feada no claidem -i- ibar. Uad-side forin fidh 
n-ogaim, rogab ainm aile uadh -i- idadh. 

Cosc lobair (col. /3) -i- elenw for in fid \n ogaim, rogab 5660 
ainm uad -i- ebad. 

8638,9,43 cf. Anec. iii. 44 '^ cowai«;«ingech B, 

OGHAM 287 

Cara bloisc, friend of cracking, to vvit, coll, hazel, c. 
Hence for its cognate Ogham letter, 

Brigh an duine, force of the man, to wit, queirt, q, 
apple tree. Hence for its cognate letter. 

Arusc n-airlig, condition of slaughter, to vvit, a man's 
back, m. Hence for its synonymous letter. 

Med nercc, to wit, ivy, g. Hence for its synonymous 

Morad run, increasing of secrets, to wit, sloe, str. 
Hence it was put for its synonymous letter. 

Ruanma dreach, redness of faces, to vvit, sap of the rose 
which causes the redness of the faces, so that blushing is 
in them. Ruanina dreach, again, said of the Ogham ruis, 
elder, r, from the blush or from the reddening, for it is by 
elder, r, it is itself written. 

TosacJi fregra, beginning of an answer, to wit, that is 
ailni, a ; for the first expression of every human being 
after his birth is a. 

Fethini saire, smoothest of work, or fedeni, to wit, onn^ 
stone, o. 

Silad clann, grovving of plants, that is ur, heath, u vvith 
him, for it is uir, the soil of the earth, that causes the 
growing of the plants that are put into it. Growing of 
plants, again, said of the soil of the earth, is said of the 
Ogham letter which has taken the same name with it, to 
wit, each of them is ur. 

Coniainni carat, synonym for a friend, to vvit, aspen, e, 
in the forest. Hence for its synonymous Ogham letter. 

Crineni feda, most withered of wood, or sword, to wit^ 
service tree, i. Hence for the Ogham letter, which has 
taken a name other than it, to vvit, idad, yevv. 

Cosc lobair, corrective of a sick man, to vvit, woodbine 
for the Ogham letter, which has taken a name other than 
it, to wit, ebad, aspen, ea. 

288 BB. 3IO/3I OGAM 

Lí crotha -í- or. Uad-side fora fíd com2ánmnigthech •{• 
or 'm ogaiw. 

Cubat n-oll -i- u'úleann -i- eálenn. Uad-side forsin fid 
in ogaim rogab uaide -i- uilleann. 5665 

Amram blais -i- pin no ifin. Uad-side forsin fidh 
rogab ainm uaid i- pin no iphin. 

Mucogam in so. Aicme bethi s>o pj'ius. 
Finn (b), Hath (1), loch (f), cron (s), forglas (n) 

Aicme huat[ha] -i-cetothfind (h), cetoth leith^ (d), cetdoth 5670 

loichi (t), cetoth cron (c), cetoth forglam (q). 
Aicme muine : indoth finni (m), indoth \eithe (g), in- 

doth \oichi (ng), indoth cron (atr), indoth forglaisi (r). 
Aicme ailmi : orc a cru finwi (a), orc a cru \eithi (o), 

orc a cru loichi (u), orc a cru cron (e), orc a cru 5675 

forglaisi (i). Foraicmi annso : 

Fororc a cru findi (ea), fororc a cru \eithi (oi), fororc 
a cru loichi (ui), fororc a cru cron (iph/;/), for[or]c a cru 
[forglaisij (cc). 

Linnogam. Aicmi bethi in so prius -i- ^Qgo 

B^^-ba (b), Luimnech (1), Febal (f), Sinand (s), Nid (n). 

Aicmi huath[a] : hon (h), Derg (d), Tearc (t), Teith (t), 

Catt (c), Cusrat (q). 
Aicme muine -i- Muinten (m), Gabal (g), nGrian (ng), 

Strur (str), Rigi (r). 5685 

Aicme ailme -i- Aru (a.), Eobul, Uisiu, Erbos, Indiurnn, 

Dinnogam -i- 
Aicme bethi -i- Bruiden, Lifi, Femin, Seolae, Nemthend. 
Aicme huathíz : h-Ochae, Dindrigh, Temair, Cerae, Quorann. 
Aicme muine : Mide, Gabar, nGarmon, Streulae, Roigni. 5690 
Aicme ailme -i- i5£, Ogba, Uisnech, Emain, IHu. 

5668-5829 cf, Kilkenny Archaological Journal, July 1874, pp. 212-16 

OGHAM 289 

Li crotha, beauty of form, to vvit, heath. Hence for íts 
synonymous letter, to vvit, the Ogham oi. 

Cubat ?i-oll, great equal-length, to vvit, vvoodbine, i.e., 
honeysuckle. Hence for the Ogham letter vvhich it has 
taken from it, to wit, woodbine, ui. 

Amrani blais, most wonderful of taste, to vvit, pi?i or 
ijin, gooseberry. Hence for the letter that has taken its 
name from it, to \v'ú.,pin or iphin, io. 

This is Sow Ogham. This is group B prius. 
White b, grey 1, black f, amber s, blue n. 

Group H. Accompanying litter of a white (i.e. milch-) 

sow h, grey d, black t, amber c, blue q. 
Group M. Litter of a white sow m, grey g, black ng, 

amber str, blue r. 
Group A. Pig-in-pen of a vvhite sow a, grey o, black u, 

amber e, blue i. Diphthong group here : 
Hog-in-pen of a vvhite .sovv ea, grey oi, black ui, amber 
io, blue ae. 

River-pool Ogham. This is Group B prius, to wit, 
Barrovv b, Lower Shannon 1, Foyle f, Shannon s, Nith n. 

Group H. h Othain (Fahan) h, Dergderg d, Teith t, 

Catt c, Cusrat q. 
Group M. Muinten m, Gaval g, Graney ng, Sruthair str, 

Rye r. 
Group A, to vvit, Aru a, Eobul, Uissen, Erbu.s, Indiurnn. 

Fortress Ogham, to vvit, 
Group B. Bruden, Liffey, Femen, Seolae, Nephin. 
Group H. h-Ocha, Dinn Ríg, Tara, Cera, Corann, 
Group M. Meath, Gabur, nGarman, Streulae, Roigne. 
Group A. yE(Cualand), Odba, Usney, Navan, Islay. 


290 BB. 310/3 23 OGAM 

Rnogam i- 

Aícme bethi : besan, lachu, faelinn, segh, naescu. 

Aicme uathrt : hadaig, droen, truiteoc, querc. 

Aicme muine -i- mintan, geis, ngeigh, stmolach, rocnat. 5695 

Aicme ailw^ -i- aidhircleog, odoroscrach, uiseoc, ela, illait. 


Aicme bethi -i- ban, liath, flann, sodath, necht. 

Aicme huatha -i- huath, dub, temen, cron, quiar. 

Aicme muine -i- mbracht, gorm, nglas, srorca, ruadh. 5700 

Aicme ^.ihne: alath, odhar, usgdha, erc, irfind. 


Aicme bethi -i- Beanchar, Liath, Fearna, Saigear, Naín- 

Aicme hnaíha: hlrard, Durmach, Tir-da-glas, Chiain 5705 

macfu Nois, Quell dara. 
Aicme muine -i- Mugna, Sruthair, Raithen, /rl. 
Aicme ailme -i- Ard macha, /rl. 

Da^nogam -i- 

Fer no laech ar aicmi bethi : i fer, ii fer, iii fir, iiii fir, v fir. 5710 
Minna (no mna) no clerig ar aicme uathís: : i bean, ii 

mnaí, iii mna, iiii mna, v mna. 
Oglach ar aicme muine : i oglach, ii oglach, iii oglaich, 

iiii oglaich, V oglaich. 

•'^'■'^ Oíigg. xii. 7, I ■''^'*^ nycticorax (.') Origg. xii. 6, 41 

■^'^' Origg. xix. 17 ^™' cf. Maro Gr. pp. 7, 14 í/ se//. 

OGHAM 291 

Bird Ogham, to wit, 

Group B. besan pheasant (?), lacJm duck, fceli^m gull, seg 

hawk, m^scu snipe. 
Group H. liadaig night raven (?), droeíi wren, truith 

starling, querc hen. 
Group M, i.e., inintan titmouse, ge'is swan, ngéigh goose, 

stniólach thrush, rócnat small rook (?). 
Group A. aidhircleóg lapwing, odoroscrach scrat (?), uiseóg 

lark, ela svvan, illait eáglet (?). 

Colour Ogham. 

Group B, i.e., hán white, liatJi grey, fianji red, sodatJi 

fine-coloured, necJit clear. 
Group H, i.e., huatJi terrible, dub black, tenien dark grey, 

cron brown, quiar mouse-coloured. 
Group M, i.e., mbracJit variegated, gorni blue, 7igias green, 

sorcJta bright, ruad/i red. 
Group A. aJad piebald, odJiar dun, usgdJta resinous, erc 

red, irfind very white. 

Church Ogham. 

Group B, i.e., Bangor, Liath, Ferns, Saigear, Noendruim. 
Group H, h-Irard (Cluain), Durrow, Terryglass, Clonmac- 

nois, Kildare. 
Group M, i.e., Mugna, Shrule, Rahen, etc. 
Group A, i.e., Armagh, etc. 

Man (Human Being) Ogham, to wit, 

Man or hero for group B, one man, two, three, four, five 

Minna nobles (or women) or clerics for group H, i.e., a 

woman, two, three, four, five women. 
Youth for group M, one youth, two, three, four, five 


T 2 

292 BB. 310/3 39 OGAM 

Mac no gille ar aicme ailme : i mac, ii mac, iii mic, §715 

iiii mic, V mic -i- ^ninac ar ailme, a ii ar onn, a iii 

ar ur, sic in reliquis. 
Daenogam : Laechesa ar aicme bethi iarsin imraet (no imirt) 

cetna -i- a i ar bethi, 7 a ii ar luis, mar sin sis uih'. 
Caillz^^ ar aicme huatha siniiliter. ^"^'iS) 

Macdachta ar aicme muine siniiliter. 
Ingena bega ar aicme ailme siniiliíer ■{■ oen ar ailm, a 

do ar ur. 

Ogam tirda. 
Aicme bethi annso -i- biail, loman, fidba, strathar, nasc. 5725 
Aicme huatha -i- huartan, dabach, tal, carr, qual. 
Aicme muíne : machad, gat, ngend, sust, rusc. 
Aicme ailme -i- arathar, ord, usca, epit, indeoin. 

Rigogam -i- 
Bran, Labraidh, /rl. / mar sin uile, -i- ainm in righ 5730 
tinnscanas on fid do gabail ar in ainm. 

Ogam usceach -i- 
Glais ar aicme bethi : -i- a;nghla[i]s ar bethi, v n. 
Soud ar aicme huatha : i soud, ii soud, iii suid, iiii suid, v 

suid. 5735 

Abann ar aicme muine : i abann, ii abainn, iii d^ibne, iiii 

diibne, v ^ibne. 
Tipra ar aicme ailme : i tipra, ii iiprait, iii iiprait, iiii 

tiprait, v iiprait. 

Conogam -i- 5740 

Archu ar aicme bethi : i archu [ii archu], iii 3.rchoin, iiii 

zrchoin, v ^rcJLOin. 
Milchu ar aicme huatha : i milchu, ii milchu, a tri 

milchoin, iiii milchoin, v milchoin. 

57-^ Origg. XX. 14, r ; 12-13 5729 rigj^ g^ 



Boy or lad for group A, one boy, two, three, four, five 

boys, to vvit, one boy for a, two for o, three for u, sic 

in reliquis. 
Woman Ogham : heroines for group B after the same pro- 

cedure (or method), to wit, one for Tb, two for 1, thus 

all down. 
Nuns for group H simi/iter. 
Maidens for group M siiniliter. 
Girls for group A simiHter, to wit, one for a, two for u. 

Agricultural Ogham. 
Group B here, i.e., biail axe, lojnan ropc, Jidba hedge-bill, 

srathar pack-saddle, nasc ring. 
Group H, i.e., huartan , dabach cask, tal adze, cart 

waggon, cual faggot. 
Group M machad , gat withe, ngend wedge, sust 

flail, rusc basket, 
Group A, i.e., arathar plough, ord hammer, usca heather- 

brush, epit billhook, indeoin anvil. 

King Ogham, to wit, 
Bran, Labraidh, etc, and so all, to wit, to take for the 
name, the name of the king that begins with the 

Water Ogham, to wit, 
Rivulet for group B, to wit, one rivulet for b, five for n. 
Weir for group H, one weir, two, three, four, five weirs. 
River for group M, one river, two, three, four, five rfvers. 
Well for group A, one well, two, three, four, five wells. 

1-^og Ogham, to wit, 
Watch-dog for group B, one watch-dog, tvvo, three, four, 

five watch-dogs. 
Greyhound for group H, one greyhound, tvvo, three, four, 

five greyhound.s. 

294 BB. 3iia7 OGAM 

Conbuachaill ar aicme muine : i conbuachaill, ii conbuach- 5745 
aill, a tri conbuachaille, iiii conbuachaille, v conbuach- 

Oirci ar aicme ailme : i oirci, a dho oirci, a tri oirci, iiii 
oirci, V oirci. 

Damogam -i- 5750 

Tarb ar aicme bethi : i tarb, a do tarb, a tri tairb, iiii tairb, 

V tairb. 

Dam ar aicme huatha : i damh, ii dam, iii daim, iiii daim, 

V daim. 

Colpthach firenn ar aicme muine : i colpthach, ii colpthach, 5755 
a tri colpthacha, iiii colpthacha, v colpthacha. 

Dartaid ar aicme ailme : i dartaid, ii dartaid, a tri áartada, 
iiii áaríada^ v áartada. 

Boogam -i- 
Lilgach ar aicme bethi: i Hlgach, ii \Wgaig, a tri Mlgacha, 57G0 

iiii lilgacha, v lilgacha. 
Gamnach ar aicme huatha : i gamnach, ii ga.mnaig, iii 

gamnacha, iiii gavinacha, v gamnacJia. 
Samaisc ar aicme muine : i samaisc, ii samaisc, iii samaisce, 

iiii samaisce, v samaisce. 5765 

Dairt ar aicme ailme, 1x\. 

Caech««ogam -i- 
fodailter ainm in duine -i- aicme bethi don leth des : 
aicme huatha don leth cli: aicme muine don leth 
des: aicme ailme don leth cli. 5770 

Loscogam i- 
inann iat -i- fogail in anma. 

Macogam -i- 
ogam ban torrach -i- ainm na mna fodhailter ann mani 

bera lenum roime. Dia mbera, immorro, lenum, is e 5775 

OGHAM 295 

Herd's dog for group M, one herd's dog, two, three, four, 

five herds' dogs. 
Lapdog for group A, one lapdog, two, three, four, five 


Ox Ogham, to wít, 

Bull for group B, one bull, two, three, four, five bulls. 
Ox for group H, one ox, two, three, four, five oxen. 
Bullock for group M,.one bullock, two, three, four, five 

Steer for group A, one steer, two, three, four, five 


Cow Ogham, to wit, 

Milch cow for group B, one milch cow, two, three, four, 

five milch cows. 
Stripper for group H, one stripper, two, three, four, five 

Three-year-old heifer for group M, one three-year-old, 

two, three, four, five three-year-old heifers. 
Yearling heifer for group A, etc. 

Blind man Ogham, to wit, 

the man's name is divided, to wit, 
Group B. to the right side. 
Group H. to the left side. 
Group M. to the right side. 
Group A. to the left side. 

Lame Ogham, to wit, 
they are the same, viz., a division of the name. 

Boy Ogham, to wit, 

pregnant women Ogham, that is, the name of the woman 
is divided there unless she bear a child previously. 
íf, however, she bear a child, it is the child's name 


296 BB. 3IIC124 OGAM 

ainm in lenim fodailter ann ; 7 dia mbe litir forcraidh 

ann, is mac. Mad coimlin, bud ingen berthair don 

Cossogam i- 

mera da laime ar son na feadh imon lurgain 7 a tabairt 5780 
don lethdeis imon lurgain ar aicme beithi. Don leith 
cli ar aicme huatha. Fiartharsna na lurgan ar aicme 
mmm. Cearttharsna ar aicme ailme -i- aínmer ar in 
cetfidh na /z-aicme, a dho ar in fid tanaise, co soised a 
coig ar in zoiged fid s^cip aicme. 5785 

Sronogam i- 

mera na lam imon sroin -i- siniiliter do deis 7 do chli, co 
fiar, cear[t]tarsna. 

Basogam i- 
nianus aliani percutit lignoruni (col, /3). 5790 

Nsemogam i- 
ainm 'm nai;// i tinnscanfa gabar ar in fid -i-, 

Brenaiwd, Laisrean;/, Finden, Sinchell, Nesan. 
hAdamnan, Do;man, Tigernach, Cronan, Ouiaran. 
Manchan, Giurgu, nGeman, Strannan, Ruadan. 5795 

Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, Ite. 


Bethumnacht, luamnacht, fihdeacht, sairsi, notaireacht. 
H-airchetul, druidheacht, tornoracht, cruitireacht, quis- 

lenacht. -''f^OO 

Milaideacht, gaibneacht, ngibaí, sreghuindeacht, ron- 

Airigeacht, ogmoracht, umaideacht, enaireacht, iascair- 

eacht no ibroracht. 

Biadogam -i- 5805 

bairgen, leamnacht, sic usque in fineui. 

OGHAM 297 

that ís dívided there ; and if there be a letter over, it 
is a boy. If it be an even number, it would be a 
daughter tliat will be born of that pregnancy. 

Foot Ogham, to wit, 
the fingers of the hand about the shinbone for the letters 
and to put them on the right of the shinbone for 
group B. To the left for group H. Athwart the 
shinbone for group M. Straight across for group 
A, viz., one finger for the first letter of the groups, 
two for the second letter, till it would reach five for 
the fifth letter of whichever group it be. 

Nose Ogham, to wit, 
the fingers of the hands about the nose, viz., similiter to 
right and left, athwart, across. 

Palm of hand Ogham, to wit, 

UMiMS alicijn percutit lignorum. 

Saint Ogham, to wit, 
the name of the Saint with which it will commence is 
taken for the letter, viz., 

Brenainn, Laisren, Finnen, Síncheall, Neasan. 
H-Adamnan, Donnan, Tighearnach, Cronan, Ciaran, 
Manchan, George, nGeminus, Strannan, Ruadhan. 
Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, Ita. 

Art Ogham. 
Livelihood, pilotage, poetry, handicraft, notary work. 
Trisyllabic poetry, wizardry, turning, harping, fluting. 
Soldiering, smithwork, modelling, deer-stalking, dispensing. 
Sovereignty, harvesting, brasswork, fowling, fishing, or yQw 
wood work. 

Food Ogham, to wit, 

Bread, sweet milk, sic usque iji finem. 

298 BB. 311 /3 II OGAM 

Lusogam i- 

ainm secip nac-^ losa do ga[ba]il ar in fidh a tindscanfa, 
ut est, braisech ar bethi, Jú. 

Cend a muine -i- 5810 

tairisem fo fid i tosach in anma -i- in fad as a hainm frisa 
cosmailHgeacht tosach secip anma, in fidh sain do 
scribhinw i tosach in anma ar son a anma fen ; ~ 
deredh in anma do scvihenn iarsna fedaib dilsib. 
Ocus ogum n-airismech ainm ele \n ogmm-sed., ut est, 5815 

> Hi l l ° l lll -i. certle. 

Cend fo muine dono : 

Cotarsna int oga/;// remut -i- tairsem fo fid i nderid in 
anma, a tosach do scx'ú^enn iarna fedaib dilsib, ut est 
> /[ (1)1 Ifll -i- Míel R -i- ruis. 5820 

Nathair im ceann -i- 

in fid toisech in anma do scriben^ i medon na craibi, / int 
ainm do scxVoenn co direach uada co dered na craibi ; 
7 a scx\}oenn frithrusc co tosach na craibi conid inann 
ni bis i tosach 7 a nderedh na craibi -i- dered in anma 5825 
issed bis a cechtar de, tit est in hac figura, Q^^WacJi, 
coimdes a airlegind sis 7 suas, 7 is asa medon 
airlegthar int ainm, ar is ann ita in fid tosach in 
anma, ut est. 

> /\ \\\\\\§/ 

S820 /_ 

821-9 /;-. £"2). ii. 145-8, 159 

OGHAM 299 

Herb Ogham, to wit, 

to take the name of whatever herb it be for the letter 
with which it will commence, tit esí, braisech, kale, for 
l), etc. 

Head in Bush, to wit, 

consisting of a letter at the beginning of the word, i.e., as 
far as the name of it (the letter) resembles the begin- 
ning of whatever word it be, to write that letter at 
the beginning of the name for its own name ; and 
to write the end of the name according to the proper 
letters. And persisting Ogham is another name for 

this Ogham, ut est, ^ "'" ■■ 1| |[ i.e, cert-/e, ball of 


Head under Bush, again : 
The opposite of the foregoing Ogham, to wit, consisting 
of a letter at the end of the name, to write the begin- 
ning of it according to its proper letters, ut est, 

) ^ I I jl j — -M—, i.e., Mael R, to wit, Ruis. 
Serpent about Head, to wit, 
to write the first letter of the name in the middle 
of the stem, and to write the name straight thence 
to the end of the stem ; and to write it backwards 
to the beginning of the stem, so that it is the 
same thing that stands at the beginning and at the 
end of the stem, i.e., it is the end of the word 
which stands on each of them, ?it est in hac figura, 
Ceallach, indifferent to read it up or down ; and it is 
from the middle of it that the name is read, for there 
stands the first letter of the name, ut est (p. 300 /5. 29). 

BB. 311 

1 1 

.^éRfJ 11 nii.T^ 

iffl.Tyti.r <|\f)tfcti :^»w.1íí:i<J)iIcu"^i- 

'^oj.i. i^lf. ^dlf tni ■ i-<ínat.T»i 

<^ a).iifl.<l)-ii.<i) D^tManlIi/vtic mw 

•1. jWácír.'W. á^ iir. íCtnr. aí". II ot Ot/in 
j4íicuihl.0l;«in *Kto^J <í?.o.iin g if-o 
rttC CWj/*^»|ptíWtB.í)'on' iif.Oo'írn.txr 

.'U.oSO'íp^tif in^iSi 4'»itc tmiíé i.ctrffXti 

"Tttto-n 0.<*^ 3 ttrj u ti t> (.í'tj.t 'JJuiHje«íri 
Qoí^ i.Iil5<ictj<«c l>7i- t-Iih II. 7 jé.l ttn t 
ítí2:^i-53tK^.ii.5-ttT.pTrti.s^-ti ^.S«» 
«Hfc <^»/ 9 ■ 
^^^VKrif<t^<iit Tiír if 1i ber.<íic.1fríxniti 
^tí^ojíi.íMtHHtf <íflb?ínoe T dTc.tTioí 
•>«di.<fic tmiTtwili DÍf uif tíiíraOTjtf*! 
tofw^i- Ttwtf t<tr. 1. ^Mjdit tnínw.Vl)c 03= 
■tos5''b<iii xtsp^cr<fm tHimiHí.-porhífaji 
<W -itnt^ letm ;io?» trhrtnBtt i'-'t«Tm tfe <n2 
TUnTttJWitc OTi ~i Dwnitw "tic •f ao ^Si tfi. 
V ofpí?T.Tne;Krthitarmi^ afinj THíppo icmtti;i 
•S«ni'}<Siiyr9oiií«c aíif *íbiit«;rÍ5ar<j<tif; 
tiwn.'Ooiitm- cti :^<'pK{c^jfTHiTMti7 
^S*! <t;Htie.trrtm . C<?<|<^^jmrf j^?: di1-- 1 . ^ 
vwefi i)ii' •<> t^o tMiiic . vlbo vj tpia nm. <o 
T«rít><iti- <íí^u.-pio ■pfctp vii?í $7101105^ 
•1- vfi?n<i iwttím ibu T^wtTi . 1 . -^ttc 00 OCTf 7 

I>x^^tv ^ .1< :^.' -c. c >(. S-Tttr,^ 

pavros.ittnti FTKft'TnTifiMnf<t5«%^fpa ' 
I>7i«ww.ttn;7K»fiTÍ.|:wn. St^^-N^^ 
IVRHítntn . vJorwnXT5iKjc ."CTwwHi'; ^^tn. 

U^iWOrtti.^UTIJH tTSWKIt1.^<tínK|tl.7t1WÍM"r 

.^<l«j ofim. iiíniT). e/iTien. Tt^. S^^'^cc. 

U*i^<'F ^ecínBTf. ttiSíif.^íioe^^.fi^ 
T)<iT/icmiJ."c?ntnopf: vvrmo^ C/nmjp/f 
<finf<<irtf. vthfjta^.soi&TWjr.tijitvV ^'ie- 
Stttnoíf^. /li3Tf^<fj\\íytíStp cjmOTf. ÍHtfo 

i ti^pgm- TmÍ^. 7,v tif fpTTM: 6í7^i.<»iíi 
jKKip ihj( fi»' i,\itrj^fp£rarfí77\.Ttn|sr. 
tlC4.t9ivU^Vt sj íji /t C*no <tnnne.i.f^j 
fv'fupj iíC;<K-f»fti!i.T TTaoOíWTTÍ^-pfací^ 
nwi%if cojoc |wp umi tpcrpft íi(rf?í|»j 
t<o;tic tUTÍ^ivf tVD iMffa frfti 70*71«/ f'írjar 
"WfÍB^tífiwp-'i'^nB cfiff,-6-705r<r'fi^TJ'\\-^ 
i^ efe 1057-^ tici .it^^'vWc 1. «jftcíe • 
CcTi p3imin> t)o-C<Jty7-r)ti ftD3«'7iWitir.l.^ 
iv* fpo f CK7ncr Himi vrrofíic oofí&^t^thí^ 
twiliíníptifrira' rfr^WI^' c 1 tí)<á^.1. ^ 
^iinjf.lUitc^ laHiíi-i.ffio roTpícT<fTWOO 
f?ÍOT Tk)OTi iMct&i7faJtT?t»^f6'-a3tri7KC 2| 
ti4Ío<ícoí^eoTKicí&t7<i)ní&:f^coocD7* ,' 
ac txíciln 3iof<ftrTiT&Tf Tro7ac7<ít)0^a&.'^ 
iKíci6T.i.Oi7ieoí<fT»<f T^brf «tvTOj;»eMca.~ 

Tiuc ftsS^.C^anb^ <^l€5íoyr7f(Wf 2^WJ 
foo4:r<Sí5 mim^rfm Tccffio ottííctS&wS., 

- I 


.■ 5 





1 Aradach Finn andso sis. — Ladder (Ogham) of Fionn 5830 

here below. 

2 et reliqiia sic foraicme i n-ar ndeigh. — etc. sic diphthong 

group behind us. 

3 Luthogam an^/so. — Hinge Ogham here. 

4 Tredruimnech so. — This is three-ridged (Ogham). 5835 

5 Trelurgach Fínd. — Three-stemmed (Ogham) of Fionn. 

6 Ladogam. — Canal Ogham. 

7 (Unnamed.) 

8 Ceathardruimnech Cruteni. — Four-ridged (Ogham) of 

Crutine. 5840 

9 Aliter bethi, mar so uili. — Aliter Ib, so all. 

10 Osogam -i- dam ar aicme beithi, elit ar aicme h, iarnu ar 

aicme m, laeg ar aicme 2Í\\.ine -i- aen dib ar in cetfid 
na aicme, a do ar in fid tanaise, 7 n^ar sin uile co 
roised ar in fid dedenach -i- a v. — 5845 

Stag Ogham, i.e., hart for group B., hind for group 
H., fawn for group M., calf for group A., í.e., one of 
them for the first letter of the group, two for the 
second letter, and so on till it would come to the last 
letter, i.e., five. 5850 

11 Runogam na Fian. — Secret Ogham of the warrior-bands. 

12 (Unnamed.) [of Ilann. 

13 Ebadach Ilaind. — Ebad-fashioned, > ^^ <, (Ogham) 

14 Ogam BriíTcrenw -i- in doimni i mbi in fid isin aipgitir is 

e lin flesc scribthar hia uath ut in figura -i- aen do 5855 
beithi, XX do idad. — 

Ogham of Bricriu, i.e., the depth in which the 
letter stands in the alphabet, that is the number of 
strokes which are written in its formation ut in figura, 
viz., one for b, twenty for i. 5860 

(Then follows a composition in this Ogham.) 


BB. 312 











>»ic -QíCC -WC vmhM V.1H ^ A^ 


v5i^<»SF.^ _ ., r "p 4.1.71 tsi^^Híí Í5;m»líf? wlr 




,, n-^l^"?^ 

■'■mítrifc5t,fv' c * 



15 Ogam uird : ínt ord bis for na fedhaib i n-aipgítir -í- in 

fidh is toseachu quam aile i n-aipgitir is e is tosec[h]u 
scribthar ac denam anma ; áedencJia, dedencha he 
isin ainm ut est in hac figtira, b n r a -i- Bran ; 5865 
b 1 d r a a i, Labraid.— 

Order Ogham : the order which the letters have 
in an alphabet, i.e., the letter vvhich is earHer than 
another in an alphabet is written earlier in forming 
a name ; and the last, last in the name ut est in hac 5870 
figura, b n r a, i.e., Bran ; b 1 d r a a i, Labraid. 

16 Ogam ar a mbi aen -i- aenflesc forcraid do zcxxhend la gach 

fid : et reliqua go v gacha. — 

Ogham on which is one, i.e., one stroke too many 
to be written with every letter, etc, up to five of each. 5875 

17 Ogam adlenfid. — Letter rack Ogham. 

18 Gleselgi [glese selge] i- da ainm do ?.cx\\)end •\- cach 

trina cele dib -i- tosach in cetanma do scrib^wí/ connigi 
a leth, 7 tosach in anma ele ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in 
chetanma ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in anma ele postea ; 5880 
7 ita anmanda a ndentar, sin anma tosaigh, sin 7 
derid, inund, amal atait isin da craib an<^. — 

Hunt-track, i.e., two names to be written, i.e., each of 
them through the other, i.e., the beginning of the first 
name to be written up to half of it, and the beginning 5885 
of the other name after it, and the end of the first 
name after it, and the end of the other name postea ; 
and wherein are names which are formed identically, 
those of a first name and those of a last, as they stand 
in the two stems there. 5890 

bec-an,ler-an: gleselgi -i- da ai;/m.— A little.a small sea: 
gleselgi, to wit, two names. feth-nat, seg-nat, aliter 
gleselge. — A little calm, a small deer, aliter hunt- 

19 Crad cride ecis. — Anguish of a poet's heart. 5895 

20 Armogam -i- gai ar aicme bethi. Sciath ar aicme h. 

Claidim ar aicme m. Calgadeg {sic) ar aicme a -i- 
aen dib ar in cetfid gibe aicme, a da ar in tanaise. — 

Arms Ogham, i.e., spear for group B. Shield 
for group H. Sword for group M. Tusk-hilted sword 5900 
for group A., i.e., one of them for the first letter of 
whatever group, two for the second. 

21 Ogam ac[c]omaltach -i- in fidh is nesa don fidh do 

^cx\hend imaille fris ga?2 to/r;;n*sc. — 

Conjunct Ogham, i.e., the letter which is next the 5905 
letter to be written along with it without interruption. 

6804 d-gidencha B. 

^^^2 cf. conlisio. Origg. i. 32, 9 : Gr. Lat. v. 387, 26 


22 Ogam eamnach -i- da fidh Inunda. ar in fhid -i- da bethi 

ar b sic. — 

Twin Ogham, i.e., two identical letters for the 
letter, i.e., bb for b su\ 5910 

23 Do foraicmib 7 deachaib in ogaim andso air n<ircumai[n]g 

brogmoir lasna biat a deich 7 a foraicme 7 a forbethi, 


Of extra groiips and syllables of the Ogham here 
according to the excessive powers whereby there 5915 
are syllables, extra groups, and extra alphabets of 
them, etc. 
Sigla. — Abbreviations, (i) bacht, lact, fect, sect, nect : 
huath, drong, tect, caect, quiar : maei (MS. naii), gaeth, 
ngíE], strmrect, rect : ai, ong, ur, eng, ing. 5920 

24 Sigla. — Abreviations, (2) cai no sei, c no onn, p no ui, -i- 

ol on, no no no, ach ui oi aí au, air cair, s, bran, tri, 
bran, tru, cru, cru, ColumciUe, Ceallach, Cuilibadh. 

25 goach, tucht, ict, miliu, uili, eth, ean. 

26 Beithi, leam, fern;/, sail, nendait : sge, dair, trom, coll, 5925 

qu'úlenn : midiu, gius, g'úcac/i, saildrong, rait : aball 
uinus, draigin, ibur, elen<r/, ferus, edlenc/. 

27 Bethi, luis, fernn, soil, nin : \\tiatJi, dur, ti;/di, coll, quert : 

muin, gort, ngedar, straiph, ruis : ailm, onn, ur, edadh, 
idad ; ea, oi, ui, ia, ai. 5930 

28 (Unnamed.) 

29 Saitheach fochrom, clu co ;;/boil, 
Dodaiwg foluaich lucht as;;/bir. 

Brec oc f(?rglais, áerg (gl. midoth findi Jú.), oc 

fínd, 5935 

Mailsem (gl. ardoth findi 7^1.). fuirid (gl. derg 
ma;se;«), leitheal, bran;/ (gl. sa.-tech). 
Cruithean f^rorcan so sis : dodai;zg brec. 

30 Mucogam : find, liath, loch, cron, forghlas : cedoth fin[n]i, 

cedot[h] leithi, 7rl.— 5940 

Sow Ogham white, grey, black, amber, blue : 
accompanying litter of a white, grey sow, etc. 

31 Ogam romesc Breas i- -Bres mac Elathan i- ba ges do 

dul sech gan a legad. Rolad iarum int ogam-sa ina 
ucht ic tec[h]t a cat[h] Muige T;//>eg. Romebaidh 5945 
iarum in cath fair-sium gen robai ac legad in ogai;;;. 

''"-** beithi, with -i- above the first i 


Is í so apgitír ín ogaim-sea -i- scribthar ín fid iarsín 
lin Uti'r bis isin ainm in duine. — 

The Ogham which confused Breas son of Elatha 
vvho was under a prohibition not to pass on without 5950 
reading it. This Ogham was afterwards thrown into 
his bosom as he went to the battle of Moytura. 
Afterwards he lost the battle while he was reading the 
Ogham. This is the alphabet of this Ogham, to wit, 
the letter is written with all the letters that stand .5955 
in the person's name. (Each letter, besides being 
written, is spelt.) 

32 Ogam áedenach. -i- in litir deghinach don ainm scribthar 

ar son in feda -i- edad ar bethi, sail ar luis, nin ar {ern, 

luis ar sail (si'c /.), nin ar nin : ae, no da cc, no ch. — 5960 

Final Ogham, i.e.,the last letter of the name (of the 
letter) is written for the letter, viz., e for b, s for 1, 
n íor f, 1 for s, n for n, Jú. : x, or cc, or ch. 

33 Cend ar nuaill -i- in fidh dedinach do gach aicme scribthar 

ar in fidh toisech, 7 in fid toisech do gach aicme ar in 5965 
fid ndedinach -i- nin ar bethi, / bethi ar nin, 7 gach 
fid ara cele isin aicme uili, 7 gach ni d'impodh inti 
fein uile frithrosc : ia no p : se, no cc, no ch. — 

Head on Proscription, i.e., the last letter of every 
group is written for the first letter, and the first letter 5970 
of every group for the last letter, i.e., n for b, and b for 
n, and every letter for its fellow in the whole group, 
and everything to be turned all bacUwards into itself : 
ia or p : ae, or cc, or ch. 

34 Ogam ar abairtcír cethrur -i- ceathar feada nama 5975 

labairtízr anc/ -i- duir, 7 tin«i, luis, fern -i- duir ar 
bethi, a v ; t'mm ar uath, a v ; luis ar luis [/. muin], 
a v; fer« ar ail[m], a v -i- duir ar bethi, da duir ar 
luis, 7 mar sin uili. duir, ii duir, tri duir, iiii duir, 

V duir : tinne, da tinni, iii tinni, iiii tinni, v tinni, /rl. — 5980 

Ogham which is called a foursome, i.e., four letters 
only are spoken in it, i.e., d and t, 1, f, i.e., d for B., five ; 
t for H., five ; 1 for M., five ; f for A., five ; i.e., d for b, 
dd for 1, and so all. d, dd, ddd, dddd, ddddd : 

t, tt, ttt, tttt, ttttt, etc. 5985 

35 Ogam buaidir foranwa -i- in cetna fid do gach aicme ar 

bethi, a v ; in fid tanaise do cach aicme ar uath, a 
v; in tres fid do gach aicme ar muin, a v, /rl. : 
ae, no cc, no ch. — 

Ogham of uproar of anger, i.e., the first letter of 5990 


every group for B., five ; the second letter oí every 
group for H., five ; the third letter of every group for 
M., five, etc. : se, or cc, or ch. 

36 (C/. 70.) Ogam rind fri derc -i- fraech frit[h]rosc -i- aicme 

ailme frit[h]rosc ar aicme bethi -i- idad ar bethi 7 bethi ^^^^ 
ar idad : aicme mu'we ar aicme uath[a] -i- ruis ar uath 
7 uath ar ruis 7rl. Aicme bethi ar aicme ailme 
frithrasc J aicme uath[a] ar alaue m {rhhrosc. — 

Point-to-eye Ogham, i.e., mane (?) back\vards, i.e., 
group A. backwards for group B., i.e., i for b, and b 6000 
for i; group M. for group H., i.e., r for li, and h for 
r, etc. Group B. for group A. backvvards, and group 
H. for group M. backwards. 

37 (C/. 71.) Ogam maignech -i- maigin iter gach da fid -i- 

cocrich na;//c? don fidh fen. — 6005 

Enclosed Ogham, i.e., an enclosure between every 
two letters, i.e., a limit only to the letter itself 

38 Fraech frithrosc. — Mane (?) backwards, secunduui alios. 

39 (Unnamed.) 

40 Brec mor. — Great dotting. 6010 

41 Ogam cumusgda -i- gach dara fid d' aicme bethi 7 hnatha 

do scúhend cumasgda ; gach dara fid d' aicme mmne 
7 Si'únie, in cedna. — 

Mixed Ogham, i.e., every second letter of groups 
B. and H. to be written mixed ; every second letter of 6015 
groups M. and A., the same. 

42 Ogam imarbach -i- aicme h re aicme b, 7 aicme a'úine re 

aicme mu'me. — 

Combative Ogham, i.e., group H. before group B., 
and group A. before group M. 6020 


BB. 313 

- ^ í t 1: r •" in TlTltl,'miHf"^^"'""^T*^Tffl' 

48 Í5»*^' 



54 :^s«m^'^tePfef ^""' 

i_" li iiii ,m 

I II W liM'lil 

56 ItTimw^^™"^^ 


^ r/r , t^jrffixt.-^V^:'i-- ^^-^^0Í^ 

nn nwwii i 



-" -flft^ 


66 P ^ u ^'^3^1!^r^ iné(^i ^\i^ l ^ 



^v. 1. 





tnqjufg- 3Í41 



43 Sluagogam i- in fid fen do s,zx'úiend ter (-i- ina thri) aire fen 

•i- bethi ter (ina thri), luis ter (ina thri), /rl. — 

Host Ogham, i.e., the letter itself to be written 
thrice for itself, i.e., b thrice, 1 thrice, etc. 

44 Ogam ind co ind -i- do ind na craibhi do ac[c]omal -i- 6025 

aicme ailme do mesc frithrosc ar aicme bethi -i- idhad 
eter b 7 1, /rl. ; aicme m do mesc ar aicme h. Na 
foraicme mar sin. — 

End to end Ogham, i.e., the tvvo ends of the stem 
to be joined, i.e., group A. to be mixed backvvards with 6030 
group B., i.e., i between b and 1, etc. ; group M. to 
be mixed with group H. The extra groups similarly. 

45 Ogam leni da reib -i- riab eter gach da fid i certogam. — 

Two stroke smock Ogham, i.e., a stroke between 
every two letters in regular Ogham. 6035 

46 Ogam sesmach, ar is a medon inonn, ar is and forbait//É'r, 

7 as a leth deginaigh leghthar prms, ar is and bis 
aicme b 7 h, ar is ina medon ata forba na ceithri 
n-aicme. — 

Steadfast Ogham, for its middle is the same, for 6040 
there it is completed, and from its latter half it is 
read prius, for there are the B. and H. groups, for in 
its middle is the completion of the four groups. 

47 Gort fo lid, ar na bet da fid for aenlit[ir] -i- tri feda eter 

gach da fid d' aicme bethi. — 6045 

Corn-field under colour, that there might not be 
two Ogham letters for one letter, i.e., three letters 
between every two letters of group B. 

48 Coll ar guta -i- aicme b 7 aicme m gan cumscugud, 7 coll 

ar aicme ailme, a v -i- aoncholl {sic /.) 7 da choll 7 tri 6050 
cuill 7 ceithri cuill 7 coig cuill. — 

Coll, c, for a vowel, i.e., group B. and group M. with 
no change, and c for group A., five, i.e., c, cc, ccc, 
cccc, ccccc. 

49 Brecor beo. — Lively dotting. 6055 

50 Ceand imreasan. — Strife head. 

51 Ogam Dedad. — Ogham of Dedu. 

52 Ceand debtha. — Head of dispute. 

53 (Unnamed.) 

54 Insnitheach. — Infilleted. 6060 


55 Didruim. — Ridgeless. 

56 Ogam focosach. — VVell-footed Ogham. 

57 Ogam negladae (1. ndedlaide) -i- in cuiged fid fod- 

ailter. — 

Separated Ogham, i.e., the fifth letter is severed. 6065 

58 Ebadach -i- ebad etar gach da fid. — 

Ebad-fashioned, >— ^^— c (Ogham), i.e., an Ebad 
between every tvvo letters. 

59 Ogam Fí?;z/usa -i- in fid benai [1. benas] in fid ara 

gualaind do buain imaille fris gan fognum fair. — 6070 

Ogham of Fenius, i.e., the letter which touches the 
letter on its shoulder to be taken off along with it 
without making use of it. 

60 Indiupartach ands[o] -i- diupairt gach aicme ar aile imon 

cetfidh. Is e cetfidh na haicme tanaise, ut est. — 6075 

Fraudulent (Ogham) here, i.e., each group's 
defrauding another of the initial letter. It is the 
initial letter of the second group (which ends the 
first group), ut est, 

61 Taebogam Tlachtga -i- d' aentaib uile na fega-sa sis. — 6080 

Side Ogham of Tlachtga, i.e., on one side all these 
letters below. 

62 (Unnamed.) 

63 Ogam Erimoin. — Ogham of Erimon. 

64 Snait[h]i snimach. — Interwoven thread. 6085 

65 Ogam fordunta. — Foreenclosed Ogham. 

66 Xathair fria fraech. — Snake through heath. 

67 Bacogam. — Bend (or angle) Ogham. 

68 {Cf. 36.) (Unnamed.) 

69 Ogam tregdae. — Pierced Ogham. g090 

70 (Unnamed.) 

71 {Cf. 38.) Locogam. — Place Ogham. 

72 Fiaclach Find, 7 is ar cuimri nach scribthar acht da fid 

do gach aicme. — 

Toothlike [Ogham] of Fionn, and it is for brevity 6095 
that there are but two letters of every group written. 

73 Ogam airenach. — Shield Ogham. 


74 Rothogam Roigni Roscadhaig 

bethi a v, huath a v, muin a v, ailm a v. — 

Wheel Ogham oí Roigne Roscadach 6100 

B. five, H. five, M. five, A. five. 

75 Fege Find.— Fionn's Window. 

76 Traig (stc /.) sruth Ferc[h]ertne -i- coig feda in gach 

snaithi. — Stream strand of Ferchertne, i.e., five letters 

in each thread. 51Q5 

77 Sigla. — Abbreviations. 

iul, og, ech, ind, lii, rii, Hi, fii, ict, arb, insci, ruidriug 
di ailm, fict, dacht, gart. 


BB. 314 

79 í" 

80 .;,r, 

81 \ 

83 ; 

tlaf^cecK7'<&rmníft.Woe..TnD.lKfe.3,ten.^e eÍKn 

V tu 1^ -rr flr- '*2'^\ -T -o- «.71. ■»!•-?.■■'• cl,-m.fl JT7~ 




v^ féo.Tff.Xfomeín fiowfiw Tf 

3 w-^^lJlaitímTincsa-p-psJifiri 

, _?TOrfpí«'mt<í^TfT><«n'tip««ctor'"*'_ 
'■píwofb 5tí |xm ^Ww'ro t»7rh»D!nK0jfuc 
1.1»eici ttnf iinws«itT» »f1ncm oqjCHWB-CVf . 

.trrthff/ir^" xfT^jdctrlíiTstílwr^ 
ctí sac títi piptv iT>«i wtT) TKnyéoeÍ5^ , 
(jaefá T^ ?* <mW>ciM-Cf íniTK^6i 
T?^wk riv' 7,*« TwoJtHtioe- 7totkf etO vfn tn 
p^iirTKi3<itííd ttf^pf-C^rf «^^ 

^. ■^iKfi5-i«tít;7»<n5Ji4P^o?r^^5TP"-_ 
cwo^ jti? Toe Toc í^íá><ím> oosélíil» ffft» 

C-f ci^mn Tnmiicat.i>rvl1nntia«t)5?ii'oWfm 
7ioto;ntHtcaR5 •plio ^ ^oo;«o 1 vjííjmiwn 

-jíípMTp .Cf cM ■cld miiM^^i ^ff^rw^r 

Twm aTftrtml-j^ijplM _í r»í6ys: •ti*«'?ottf 
■7iTY-6íii nítT^tc ;tu3/>(«i onc^inolHP 
<sfÍ!^-,57ieic7l«a( ^. IflTSn^Ttw 
rii xT;fon7tj|n<liTnÍ \7KitiTiyjSir 

vnioeTTtTU5iiotcofr\^ ;wáeí« 
TOir7Pvtc;waaT;5^Q--tK^ ;wtlntr^ 
l<jit>itit)ititK»-iKttríi oumaczw^i^H 







l)MÚ»1« .1 iCl'''^- 


78 tii : diailt : ban bachlach inscii : maidm cridi eors : gai : 

eet : ara : sesd : lat : nact : dec indsci so anuas. — 6110 

These are ten expressions above. 

79 Forfeda : — sigan fain aihn : remar ailm : srub-aigi : 

troigi : trenoct : enoct : duiriu : coeliu : aupai : ui : 
bang : ue : gort guinche : ailm guinche. — 

Additional letters. 6115 

80 Forfeda:— 

mane : esci : goth : te : ongan : ail : dea : eth : oeth : 
neal : taeb : icht : fisidect : Hasairect : emridoth : 
maicc. — 

Additional letters. 6120 

81 Forfeda:— 

uaitea : caetrae : samuil : huic : oe : dind : híE : 
uilen : tre : ebaid : enebaid : dirdin : dur : didad : fir 
ailm. — 

Additional letters. 6125 

82 Fiarogam. — Oblique Ogham. 

83 Traigsruth Ferc[h]ertni. 

monere nemnig nuaill brethaigh dian Ogam ni dan 
n-imraigea. rosluinni di rig dian indscib ga;^ irrluní/. 
Ogam anaichnid i ceastaib coirib comairci ar is crand 6130 
fo loch ler ceartach. 111 n-ogam n-ilarda dorada fri 

huair irrscrudain. 

Ogam n-eathrach -i- barc fri beithi, a v. 

Long fri huath •i- a v. No fri muin, a v. 

Curach fri ailm, a v. /En dib ar in cetfid, a do ar 6135 
in fid tanaise co roised a v, in fid deginach secip na 
n-aicme. — 

Strand stream of Ferchertne. . . . 

Boat Ogham, i.e., barque for B., five : 

Full-rígged ship for H., five : 6140 

Ship for M., five : 


Coracle for A., five. One of them for the íirst 
letter, two for the second till it reach five, the last 
letter of vvhatever group it be. 

84 Fí>rcas-. Aipgitir Egipta andso. — Egyptian [^read, 6145 

Hebrew) Alphabet here. 

85 (Unnamed.) 

86 Apgitir Afraicda. — African Alphabet. 

87 Suag Ogam. — Rope Ogham. 

88 Ogam cuidec[h]tach :— bachlaid, laichesa, Fianna, senada, 6150 

noeim, mar sin uili. — 

Company Ogham : — Priests, heroines, Fian, 
Synods, Saints, thus all. 

89, 90 (Unnamed.) 

91 Ogam Lochlannach andso. — 6155 

Scandinavian Ogham here. 

92, 93 Gallogam.— Anmand na feda -i- fea, ar, turs, or, 
raid, caun, hagal, naun, isar, sol, diur, b^wgann, 
mann, langor, eir.— ViUing Ogham.— Names of the 
letters, i.e. 6160 

Finit dona hogmaib. Incipit dona huraiceptaib. — 
■ End of the Oghams. Beginning of the Primers. 
In dei nomine A nien. 

Cinnus sin, a pein;/ } 7 dar lim is maith. — 

How is that, pen? and methinks it is good. 6165 



A a height, •!• ard 1221,2,4, 4530il.4' 

&'b&ll {. apple-tree ()2,2, II53, 1185,4248, 

4283. C. 
aband f. amnis 1091, 4092, 5736 
abrochtur eyelashes, eyehrow 1813, 

3257, abratchor 4999. abrat-chur, 

Wi. : C. Add. and Corr. 
acarb bitter, rough, co hagarb 466, 

co hacarp 2931 
accur hunger, desire, ni gleacc;/;- 2179. 

accor, C. 
acht doubt, uncertainty 504, 2973. C. 
achtach brave, doughty, energetic 5328. 

acht -i^ gnim, Cor. Tr. 114: SR. 

2881, 7093 
acuit an acute accent 1355, 1553,8, 

4418, 4783 
ada due, lawful, right, dona haib adhaip 

adaig night raven (?) 5694 
adbae f. a d-welling, a house, uaraib 

adbaib 5585,6. Fel.''- 
adbarrda causal 3800 
ad-ci sees, i s. pres. atchiu 5230 ; with 

affixed pronoun adcimsus 3037 •!• 

adcimsi, Eg. ; 3 s. fut. pass. ros- 

cichestar 488. Str. Gl. : Thur. 

ad(in)-com-ta obtains, 3 s. pres. with 

pronoun affixed adcotaidi-seom 133 ; 

3 s. pres. pass. adcodar 3546, atcouiar 

ad-daimim / acknowUdge, recognise 

grant, 3 s. pret. atarodamair 5110,1 ; 

3 s. perf. pass. adrodamas 135. 

adroghmus •!• rodamad, Ed. ii*'i, 

32 : adromus, Stowe GL, hence 
probably r-aromus 5126 


adem f. instrument, g.s. anmand aidmi 

adfoirithim uais / succour, relieve, 

nos-nothrustar •!• adfoirithed uais 

2476. Cf. adfoirichin, Laws 
ad-gládur / speak to, address, 3 pl. 

pres. triasa n-agaiiht 1304 
adlenn f. rack for spears, hoohshelf, 

adlenfid 5876. C. 
ad-midiur / iry, aítempt, 3 s. pret. 

atarommadair 51 14, rodas-rommadair 

adoralm / adore, /oz'e, follow, cling to, 

3 s. fut. cid dia n-aidéra d' oen[l]ocht 

2076. C. 
adrad m. a worshipping, n.p. adharia 

ad-rím-im / numher, count, rechon, I s. 

pres. airmim 1998 ; 3 s. pres. pass. 

airmidir 2173 ; 3 s. pret. pass. 

adasramed uili 1903. ataraimhet, T, 
ad-tibim / laugh, 3. s. pret. atib 

5112, attib 5116 
áel lune, cloch (no ael) 1088 
áen, óen (i) one : (2) a singular •\- a 

uathad 5072, 1844,67, 1945, 20?9 

2159) 5331, e.g. do threnfher, margut 

triadi[b] 5335 
áenta m. umty, Ecnda 424, 2866, ar 

ícntaidh 5555,7, ar aentaid 5568. Wi. 
áentai£rim / coincide, agree, 3 s. 

s-pret. abs. aentaigis 1634, 4713 ; 

inf. aentugud m. coinciding, identity 

áer the air, g.s. blog aeoir 901 
áer f. a satire, lampoon, air 1582, di 

air 1584 
áeraim / satirise, 3 s. rel. ani serais 

669 ; pass. dub a n-aerthar 5235 



águr 1 fear 5322 

ái possession, tc suidheas 408, 411, 

ái a swai!y oc chanas 407,9, 2847,9. •i- 

eala, O'Cl. 
ál f. kuowledge, scieiice, art 488, 742) 

2958, oe 1938 ; n.s. se mides 408, 

410, 2847,50 ; g.s. taoph uaim na 

haoi 2852, cia halt huad 1577, alta 

huadh 1827 ; a.s. cen ce for an-ce 

1935 ; d.p. da asib 742. aei •!• ealada, 

Ed. vii. II, 21 : O'Cl. 
ái cause, as ailes 407,8, 2847,8, ce 

aireic 497 
ái f. guestion, suit 2782,3, te aiges 408,9, 

2847,9, ui, uea caingen 393 ; g.s. 

eolus na hai 2785. aei •!• caingen, 

Ed. II, 21 
áib beauly, rofuaigh aib 1973. Wi. 
aibgitir f. Lat. ahecedarium, alphabet, 

apigitorium 350, aipcitorium 2710 ; 

n.s. aipgit'r 2717,9, 2720,1, 2771 ; 

g.F. aipcitre 2715, du thoit na haib- 

gitrech 315 ; d.s. forsin aibgitir 349, 

aipcitir 2710; a.p. cen aipgitri 387, 

aipcitri 2770 
aicce deed, IwHseheeping A- gním III2. 

gním -i^ tigedus, Stowe G/. 
aicce fosterage III2, 2261. O'Dav. 

137 : Cor. Tr. 14 
aicceacht, aicicht instruction, teacli- 

ing, lesson II 12, 2261. Laws 
aiccent m. accent 4130,3, 4767 ; g.s. 

aicenta 1902 ; n.p. seacht n-acenta 

1922. Sg. 220^6, 7 
aiccept a lesson III3. acept bliadna, 

Ir. T. iii. 31, 10: Lism. 
aicde f. malerial, aicce 2443, 266, 

da aigdi 2580, 2600 
aicenta natural 397, 91 1, aiccenta 

2816, 3443,5 
aichnes m. hiowledge, int aichnius 

iioo. C. 
aicme m. a tribe, group 5668 ; g.s. 946, 

975 ; n.p. 945, cis Hr aicme 5492 ; 

g.p. secip na n-aicme 6137. Wi. 
aicnid m. accent, a forbaidh •!• a 

aicnid 1544, int aicned 1902 ; a.s. fri 

aicnead 5292. Cf. Gr. Lat. iii. 466, i 

aidbse f. a choral song ind aidbsi 1472. 

RC. XX. 181, 49 note 
aidircleóg f. a lapwing 5696 
ail f. h-^t. petra 554, 1087, 4082 
ail a time, a long time, •v aimser furail 
sech in qumair 1574, 4804, ail fuit 
3680, di-ail 'i^ ni haimsir fota 1575, 
4805. ail -i. aimsir, Ed. vii. II ^'43 : 
ailcne a small roclc, spUuter, stone 

1088, 4083. c. 
aild (?), ni for a n-aild 4408. Cf. dut- 

aild, Thur, Hdsf. und Litt. 38, 8 
aile dec one-twe/fth 1448. Laws 
aill nob/e 5243. O'Dav. 65 
áilleaeht f. beauty 11C8, 4263 
ailm a palm-tree, •!• quasi pailm 4295 
ailm (l) a fir-tree, n.s. II94 -i- 
ochtach 4293 : (2) the letter a, is ailm 
5575- 5649, 2795- 2797 ; g.s. aicmi 
ailmi 989, luis ailme 999, 5491, 5674 
aim-ger unsharp 1979 
aim-nert weahness 969, 972, 980 
aimserad m. a timing, duration 4133, 

4117, a. na cuimre 4120. Sg. 5*10 
áin f. a driving 2731 
aincess pain, sirait, difficulty, ar da 

ainges 2108 
ain-dilse inappropriateness 843 
ainm m. (l) a name, doroich int ainm 
3586 : (2) a noun, an adjective 2659, 
319) ^533) 2667: (3) a combination 
ofletters, inscription, in cetainm ogaim 
I161, int ainm ogaim 1551, 4780 : 
(4) a numeral, cardinal number, int 
ainm airme 4490, 1439 
ain-mence infrequency io2, 2381 
ainmnechad m. a naming, nominative 

case 4667, 4972 
ainmnid the nominative case, n.s. 
1770, otha in ainmiud 906 ; g.s. i 
forgnuis ainmneda 1643, 1645 9, 
1659; d.s. ina n-ainmnidh 1678 
ainmniugud m. (i) a namtng ^^^,2 : 
(2) nominative case 799, 1517, 1530, 
ainsid the accusative case, g.s. ainsida 
1644, ainseda 1649, 1659 ; d.s. 'na 
ainsid 1678 



aipgigim / ripeii, 3 s. rel. pres. aib- 
giges 351,2, aipcidhius 2712 

airbert use, practice 332, 742, 818, 
1895, 2681, 2827 

airbiur bith / use, practise, 3 s. pres. 
iarn-airbhirt nan-airbirenn bith 1895. 
Cf. C. 113 

aircellad m. (i) a plundering .- (2) 
abrept'ive case airchelladh 1886. Laws : 
airceallad •i- goid, H. 4. 18 : for 
airichell q.v. 

airchell calaid ///</? ofa /lard, dropping 
of a final hard consonant 1948, airichiU 
c. 1984, 2167, a urachil calaidi 5374 : 
e.g. fer, fe a airchill calaid 1804, 
2107, 499' ; ben, be a airichiU 1850, 
a aircealla calaith 5030 ; nem, ne a 
ainchill 1872 ; ceilm. guth 5376 

airchell fuit theft of a long, inserting 
i, airchill fuit 2135, 1948, airicil 
1851, airichill fuit 1874, 1983, 2105, 
5072, 5379> aircealla f. 5031, na da 
airichill 2148, a airichil f. 5379: 
e.g. feir a airchill fuit 1805, deirc 

airchetal trisyllabic poetry,poetrv, n.s. 
hairchetul 5799 ; g.s. 337, 2685 ; 
1973. 1509. 2190. C. 

airde a height 1246, a n-airde aloft 
1187, 1470,8 

airde a sign, token, n.p. 947, 985 ; a.p. 
984. C. : -i- egusc, Ed. 

airdíbdud m. (l) an extinguishing, 
quenching : (2) lenition of t and of 8 
1264, 1280,2,3, 4322, 4338, 4342 

airdítiu f. (air-di-fed) a stretching, 
producing, a.s. gan airditin 1824, 
urditeun 5013. Z? 979, note 

aire m. a chiefprince, n.p. airigh fedha 
1150,2, 5492,3, aire 4246,7 

aire a dam, fence, hedge 1192, 4290. 
•i- fal, ut est aire srapha sraibh, 
O'Dav. 180 : Anec. iii. 43 : aire -x- 
ime no fal, O'Dav. 60 

airec a finding, inventing, n.s. airec 
3974, airic 1019 

airechtu a finding^ invention, n.s. air- 
echta 2974, aireachlain 498, 505, 
622. Hih. Min. 

airéll, airiall f. a bed, n.s. intan rosaig 
lar ind airiall 1710, airell 4716,7 ; 
d.s. d' oreiU 1703, d' airell 4699, 
4892 ; co haireill 4900. C. 

airlchell a guarding, preparingfor, de- 
fence ; defensive case, e.g. ar fear a airi- 
cheall I5i8,airceall 1651, airchelladh 
1886 q.v., aircioll 4829, aircill 4740 

airigeacht f. sovereignty 5803. Ó'Br. • 

air-inech ( i ) the van, beginning (O' R.) : 
(2) a shield, airenach Fiann •!• fernd 
1169, airinach Fian -i. sciath 5536,8, 
ogam airenach 6097. C. : Lec. 

airísel, aurísel (i) very low .- (2) 
humiHation, the addition of aib to the 
laord 1947, a irisel 5079, 5346, a 
fhoriseal 1997, a uiriseal 2098, 2146, 
auriseal 2176; e.g. fer-aib 1798, 
4990 ; ben-aibh 1847 ; nim-ib 1869 ; 
Fer-aib mna-aib 5349 

airismech persisting, continuous, ogum 
n-airismech 5815 

airitiu f. acceptance, reception, g.s. 
airiten II13, airiti 2263 

airlech a slaughtering, arusc n-airlig 
5639- Laws 

airmidetu a counting, enumeration 
1412,3,6, 4:520 

airndel a trap for birds, fornelaib 
114, airnnelaib 2394. Arch. C. P. 
i. 474 

aisc reproach, cia haisg 3101 

aiste f. (i) a metre, ind aisti 371 1 ; 
832,3,7,8, 926, 1686 ; n.p. aisti 1509, 
1958 ; d.s. risin aisti reamaind 1584 : 
(2) pattern, fo aisti an Gregaid 
3379- C. 

aitenn m. furze, aitean 11 56, int 
aitend 2834, 4251; I19I) 5522, 
5580,2. Laws 

aitheanta known, characteristic 2828 

aithnigte known, familiar 4955. 
aithnigim, CC. 

aittreb m. f. (i) a habitation : (2) 
locative case, inn atreib 1725 ; 1518, 
1661, 1723, 1783, 1884, int aitrioph 

a,la.ó. piebald, sóeck/ed, alath 5701. C. 



allm / rear, hring í<^, 3 s. pres. ailid 
3680 ; rel. ailes 407,8 ; with affixed 
pronoun, 3 s.f. pret. ailsius 5319 ; 
3 s. pres. pass. ailter 3671,5 

almne a knee-cap, almnse 1854, ailmne 
for glun 1819, faircle for glun 5C08. 
almne glunae, Sg. 47*3: falman, 
HSD. : falaman a' ghliiin, M'Alpine : 
this word is stiU spoken in the High- 
lands, falman, failmean m. 

alt m. (i) a joiní, litnh, a measure 740, 
925. 1577, 4814; g-s. alta 832,3, a 
n-inad ailt 3684,5 ; a.s. 195 1 ; n.p. 
alta 835, 1957 ; d.p. altaib 925, 1577, 
fri alta 1237, fri haltaib 1956: (2) 
a juncture, interval (between letters 
or syllables, in spelling or pronounc- 
ing) 830, 760, 779, 835, 909, 910,1, 
1417,30, 3862: (3) int alt co fesser, 
Lat. ut scias : 826,7,8,31, 890, 1577 

am-beó li/e/ess, li ambi 1 1 70. C. 

am-lres f. unbelief^ L. infidelitas, n.s. 
an aimiris 2349, ind aibres 61 

am-labar dumh, Lat. inutits 469, 2934. 

amne thus, imne 4315. Wi. 

amra wonderful, superl. amram blais 
5666. Wi. 

amus m. a soldier, n.p. amuis gairg 2538 

ó,n (i') splendid, glorious 1581,5, 5353: 
(2) splendour, n.s. 4660 ; g.s. ni áin 

an-áib n. unbeautifulness , cach n-anaeb 

2080. co n-anaeb, SR. 18 
anair f. a laudatory hexasyllabic metre 

proper to a clí, ind anair 3672, 15781 

4654, 4815. C. 
an-air (l) from the East : (2) from 

the beginning or front 1581 
anál f. a breath, a poeís breath of five 

zvords, g.s. 930, 3528 ; d.s. i n-anail 

931, 3860 
anamaln f. a metre proper to an ollam, 

in(/a. 829, 1578, 1581, 4654. Ir. T. 

iii. 116 
anastroplie a metathesis, e.g. el, le ; 

en, ne ; Lat. per inistrofen 510, per 

enistrafen 2^1^ 
and there, then, a formolad, ann-on 5286 

andalde there, andaidi 2351. Wi. 

ander f. a woman, virgin, ander gach 
slan 607, 3349 

áne f. splendour 5174,8. Wi. 

an-fhéig unsharp 2120. Cf. Wi. 

an-fls m. ignorance, ni maith int anfis 
734, 2773, ind anbfios 3492, anfhis 
378, ainbfios 2776 

an-forbthe imperfect, airem a. a prtme 
number 1443, 4493 

anglide angelic, ainglaidi 5306. C. 

anocht m. (l) a metrical mistake, 
fault, error 1943, 5062, 1970, 2022, 
2069,71,3,5, 2102,4, 2178, ar anocht 
2175 ) "i-P' 'i'^'' n-anochtaib 21 12, 
for a. 2124 ; a.p. anuchtu 2009 : (2) 
a specific meirical fault, absence of 
nocht, q.v. 2069, int anocht 2073 ; 
e.g. 5222, argair and cen ni fris 5232, 
Ir. T, iii. 126 

anrocomraircnlcsiumairne the 
longest -Líjord in Gaelic 1436, 4523 ; 
V. comroircnigiur 

ansruth, anruth, anrad m. a poet of 
the second order, a.nruth. 2231. Ir. T, 
iii. 112, and Index 

árad m. a ladder 2425 ; adj. aradach 
5830. ZCP. 8, 70 

aradu f. a preparing, characteristic, 
condition, n.s. is caindeifriges a n- 
aradu 985 ; catead a n-araide 
1639, 1643, a n-aradnai 4819 ; 
cona n-aradnaib 1674, 4853- C. 

arathar m. a plough 5728 

arbor n. corn, g.s. criathar arba 636, 
gort arba 5558 ; d.s. c. im arbor 637 

ar-chingim I go to, appi-oach, enter, 3 
s. pret. arching 5241 

ar-chú m. watch-dog ; or, ár-chú ra. 
slaughter-hound 5741,2 

ard high, compar. airdi masi muin 
II 86, airden 4284 ; superl. ardam 
dossaib 5548, a. iachtadh 5575 

ardingim / crush, compress, intensifv, 
3 s. pres, arding dead 1357, 1546, 
arding in focul 1828, arding defidh 
3661 ardingidh in foucal 5018 

ard-rind n. aplanet, na vii n-airdrenda 



arg'anda m. sialher (?) 1226, 4536. 
Cf. argg, argan, C. 

ar-garim I forbid^ prevent^ c/ieck, 3. s. 
argair 5230,2 

ar-légim / tead aloud, airlegihar 
5828 ; inf. airlegind 5827 

arnin m. an Ogham acce/ií, 'which eom- 
presses a Jinal letter, and the sign 0/ 
ivhich is n 1560, int arnin 1827, 
arnin is e in tres fuiUed 437,8, 
1545,6, 1558, 1824. airnin 2888,9, 
3634, 4355, 4768, airnion 3637 

aró a vovage, rowing, •{• imramh 1326, 
4642. Stowe Gl. 

áros m. ahode, drcelling, d.s. issinn arus 

arsata old, ancient 1757, arsanta 

ar-sissiur, airisslm / reniain, rest, 
3 s. pres. airissid 1446, 3056 ; is di 
arsisidar 1622, 4700,1 

arusc n. a stipitlation 5639. Laws 

arusc rére Lat. verbum voluntatis, for 
example 4672. TP. Síippl. p. 25, 

asa, isa u-hose is 5194 

ascnam m. (ad-com-sní) (i) anadvanc- 
tng, seehing, attach : (2) the repetition at 
the close of a medial stanza in a poem 
of half the accented opening uord of 
the poem 2200,3,11. Ir. T. iii. 30,1 : 
Ir. Metr. § 28 : (3) the advancive case 
1519, 1651, 1724,6, 1777, 1882,4742, 
int asgnamh 4916,7, 4977 

ass tnilk, as 1067, auss 4023 

astad m. a holding fast, seltling, estab- 
hshing, asdadh 1022,7, fastad 3977, 
a fostad 3983. Wi. 

a-ta-boind proclaims, ata-boing, ata- 
bong tui 5458. Ped. Gr. § 668 

áth m. aford 1274, 4328 

atharraigim / repeat, reiterate, gach 
ni aihairrigthir 729, alhraigther 3485 

ath-denam doing again, repeating, a 
n-ai(t)-denamh 2312 

athech m. a tenant-at-will ivho pays 
interest (aithe) for the land lent him 
hy hts chief apeasant, churl, n.p. athaig 
íedha 1151,4, 5493,6, aithig 4246,9 

athfégrad m. a regarding, considering, 

comparing 913, 1475, 1894. C. 148 
ath-forgab m. a weapon, strife, S}'n- 

cope, madh fo athargab 3387. Cf. C. : 

F:an. : Wi. 
athgabáil f. a retahing, including, 

cona n-athghabail diblinaib 904, 1234, 

ath-nuaigim / renew, make a copy of 

(_MSS.), 3 s. pret. dep. doathnu- 

aighiuster 2639. Cf. ros-atnuidh, 

Ir. T. iii. 66,3 
ath-taircim I reproduce, refer to, fedair 

•i- athtairgither 3153. attaircidhter, 

auraicept m. a primer, first lesson, a 

grammaiical treatise, n.s. int Uraicipt 

3381, eraicept 2260 ; g.s. coicduail in 

auraicepta 343, 733, 2699, auraicepto 

2773 ; uraiceapta iar n-Amairgein 

1028 ; a.s. iar n-uiraicecht Mmmnig 

4507 ; d.p. dona huraiceptaib 6161. 

a. na n-ecsine, Ir. T. iii. 32,3 
aurba a hreahing, exception, co nd- 

aurba 1202, co nd-urba 983, co 

nd-ourba 4314 
bacc a kiss, Lat. pax 1356. póg, HSD. 
bacc crosier, crook, shelf bac Ogam 

bend or angle Ogham 6088. hinge or 

staple Ogham, Kilk. Arch. fr., p. 225 
bachlach m. cleric, priest, monk, n.p. 

bicUaid 6150 
bachlach m. a crffiud, crew SS^^- 

badb, bodb a war goddess, badbrí a 

ivar king 5157,67 
bádim / droicn, merge, elide, rel. 

baidhius 4342 ; conas-fir-bade 1202, 

co ndofir-baidhe 3920. 0'MolIoy 

(h: 149 
báes m.follv, vanitv, lust 5390 
báeth afool, baeth criche 5289,95 
bág í. afight 5626. Wi. 
bail excellence, prosperity, success, clu co 

mboil 5932 
baile place, township, monastery, g.s. ar 

nglanbaile 5338 
bairdne f. bard poetiy, g.s. 743, 754 ; 

d.s. 757 



balrend f. piece of rock, stone 5426. 
rbc. : C. 

balrt «i' ingen daughter, girl 5426 

ball a member 1305 

ballorb (i) a member or facullv for 
perfectingpoetry 1305 : (2) a namefor 
a cano 1306, 4628. •i- in bard ica fuil 
ball don bairdne agas bairdne ar 
filidecht sin, i.e. a bard who has the 
member for bardship^ and bardship is 
the namefor that poetry, O'D. 

bán a blank space 1275. O'Br. 

ban- female ; banda 'womanly- 1464,5, 
1503 ; ban-ecoscda of ■womanly form, 
ban-gnethach of ivomanly activities, 
ban-gnimach of tvomanly deeds 6l2 ; 
ban-en a female bird 542 ; banmac 
m. a female child 531, banmac 631, 
3162, banmacan m. id. 533, ban- 
macam 3163 

bánad a blanching^ making pale 5628 

bar a sage, bair «i- suid 5425. C. 

bara anger, wrath 5168. C. 

bárcc f. a boat, barque^ barc 6133 

bárcc f. a stronghold 5107 

bargen f. a cake, bread, bairgen 5806 

bé a ivonian 1275. C. 

bec smali, liítie, compar. lughu 677, 
1472, luga 3270 ; sup. lugum, 
lugusomh 659, lugam 3489, lugasoun 
3271, lughude 1456, 3369 

benaim I strihe, 3 s. pres. nos-benand 
5427, benai (1. benas) 6069 ; 3 s. perf. 
robí 5122, ros-bi 5349 

beó living, alive, g.s. cellabrad cach bi 
1681, cach mbi bui 5393 ; d.s. du 
biu 584 

beóir f. beer 980, 1381, 5429 

berbaim / boil, 3 s. pass. rel. berbthar 
5566. Wi. 

bérla n. f. m. a speech, language, berla 
nEpraide . . . is si 2488 90,8, 1044, 
in mberla-sa 1053, int aonberla 2434, 
1765, 4966 ; berlada 2579 

berrad m. tonsure, hair of head, g.s. 
dith a berrda 3497 

bert f. clothes, robe of a king 537 1. C. 

besan a kmd of bird, a pheasant (?) 

béscna a speech, ianguage, beusgna 
2268, besgna 2270, 2317, in bescna-sa 
5472. 'i. sith no berla, Ed. .• -i. gach 
tír na gach talamh a mbid berlada, H. 
4. 18 

bethe m. (i)the birch-tree, g.s. fri cois in 
bheithe 1158, I154, 1160, 4249: (2) 
the letter b, n.s. in beithe 2802, 5486 : 
(3) alpliabet, forbethi 5912 

bethe-luis-nln the ogham a/phabei, 
bethi-Iuis-nion 2806, 5505 

bethumnacht livelihood 5798. Cf. 
bethamnas, C. 

biáil f. an axe, hatchet 5725. C. 

bile rim, border, iip 5158,68. C. 

bith m. worid,fauna, aipgitir in betha 
5600. C. 

bith-eólus the everliving bncivledge 
395. 2790, 2978 ; g.s. 509 

bitumain bilmnen 287, 298, 2438, 

bláth bloom, ar a blath 5620,4. Wi. 

blog f. a piece, fragment 901, is blod 
2838, in blad 3783, 4386. Fel? 

blosc a noise, report, craching, cara 
bloisc 5636. -i- guth, H. 3. 18, p. 
626« : C. 

boaid •i- eblud a rearing, briuging up 
5445. Cf. buanann nurse, Metr. 

bó-aire cow-chief boairech 5448. 

bocad m. (i) a softening, unvoicing : (2) 
lenition {pf a final consonanf) 1264,5,9, 
1273,4, 4322,3,7,8, 4335, confused 
with (3) the Ogham H followmg its 
consonant t.g. B -1- H = P 1270, 4335 

bochta í. poverty 5343. Wi. 

bogaim / soften, rel. bogas 4335 ; inf., 
bogad, boccad q.v. Cf. C. 

boiscell a mad hind g.s. boaiscille •!• 
elit gelt 1185, 5554, baisgell -i- eilit 
4282, Ed. vii. ii''39, basceall 5551, 
boscell 5553, boiscell 5552. probably 
a folk etymology, bo-asa-ceill. Metr. 

brab supremacy, superlative •\- bárr 
néithe the top or point of a thmg, 
P. O'C, molad -i^ brabh 3361,2, bec 
brab-beirius comparit, mor brab- 
beirius superlait 3329,30, brab ifíin 



3465. Mod. Ir. brabach m. in- 

crease^ ta b. air an oidhche cheana 
- the fiighí is already lengthening (after 

bracht (l) /a/, meaí-juice 1229, 4540 ; 

pl. brachta 4541. Laws : Cor.'^ 42 
bracht (2) variegated^ mbrácht (O.I. 

mrecht) 5700 
braisech f. kale 5809. O'Mulc. 685 : 

praisech hroth, M'B. : Aisl. 
bran a raven 5598. Wi. 
brann a •woman^ braind •i- mna 5425- 

brann gl. saethech u'eary 5936. Cf. 

braon •\- bocht, Meir. 
brass, bress great^ big ; brish^ eager 

5158 ; n.p. brais 2537 
bratán a salmon 5599 
brátharda broíherlv, cleas b. /eat of 

sympatheiic magic (?) 1332. Cf. brí, 

Cor. Tr. 22 
bréc f. a lie^ deceit, breice 5288,94 
brecc m. a dotiing 6010 
brecc spechled, variegated, cheqiiered 

brechtrad m. variely 4736. Wi. 
brecor a dotting 60^,^. Ir. T. iii. 84, 

8 : for mrecc-cor 
bress shapely, beauliful 5168, 5263 
breth f. a judgment, decree, isna 

breathaib nemedh 1298, 4380, 4398 
Bretnas f. the British language, Welsh, 

isin Breatnais 633, Bretnwí 3208 
brí a word -i- briathar 1330, brigh 

4482, 4645 ; n.p. bri ocht •!• ocht 

mbriathra 1+27 
brian a ww-í/ 5433, 3912. O'CI. : H. 

3.18, p. 624» 
briathar m. f. (l) a word, reference 50, 

PH. 3148 : (2) a written word 1924 : 

(3) a verb, n.s. 2667, 2670, 319 ; 

g.s. breithri 2664, ball in brethir 322 ; 

d.s. do breithir 2670, 'na prethair 

bricht a f/;a;-w -i. epaid 4540. Wi. 
bricht a foot or verse of eight syllables, 

octosyllable 904, 1218, 4482,3, 1727, 

1736; 1233,4, 4550,3; 1414, 1427, 

1956 ; i mbricht 933 

bricht ass dotting out, deletion, a 

mbricht ass di raith 1282, 4339. v. 

bracht (2) 
brlf^aim / declare, adjudge, bricht 

iarsinni brigtair ocht sillaba and 

1428, 4484 
brimon smetrach ' a deadh' operation 
performed by poets on those tvho refused 

their demands' 1328,4645. briamon 

s., RC. xxvi. 14 : Cor. Tr. 22 
tiriacfriable, fratl 4539 
bróen(a)im /í/ro/, distil, forsmbroeniu 

bith 559 
brogmar excessive, mighty, air na 

cumaing brogmoir 5912 
brolach a prologue 3358, brollach 81 
brosnacha bairdne incitements of 

bard poetry 743, b. na b. 3511. 

d.p. Ir. T. iii. 66, 22 
brúud m. a briiising, crushing, ariicula- 

tion 905, 3788 
búachaill m. a co^vherd, herd, con- 

buachaill watch-dog 5745, n.p. con- 

buachaiUe 5746 : Laws 
búaidir a disturbance, uproar, b. 

foranwa 5986. Wi. Cf. buadir-mesc, 

búarach n. a spancel for cattle, spancel- 

iing, can buaraig 5242 
búe original, well-descended, steadfast, 

virtuous, g.s. bui 5393. C. : cf. Boii 
buga a soft sound 1072, ar is buigi 

bis isna forfeudhaibh 4400, 1300. 

Sg. 3''I3 
buge n. a bluebell, hvacinth, bugha 3500. 

buicnecht f. a herding, lucht na 

buicnechta 5473 
buidle ? blind A- dall 5440 
buidlen ? a uumber, a high nmnber 

bunad origin, basis, one of the 7 heads 

of definition,viz.,bunad,inde, airbert, 

ruidles, díles, indles, coitchend 741, 

810, 3548, 3626,40, 3678 
cáechán m. a blind man, caechanogam 

5767. Cf. C. 
cáem (i)yá/r, heautiful, indsge aiccenta 

caom 37o8,caimiti 2752, socaircaimiu 



1068,9 : (2) a scholar, poet, g.s. caem- 

shluaigh 2228 ; n.p. caemthuit cluidh 

cáer f. a berrv, g.p. caer 1168, a 

chaor 4264. Wi. 
cáerthand m. t/ie motaitain-as/i, rowan 

I155 ; 1166,7, caorthand 4249,62, 

cairthend 5520. Wi. 
cái, cói f. a waj, pal/i, for cai cuir 

2221, for cíei 2225, for coe 2233, 

2245, coicer cae 2238, triur cae 2242, 

oen coe 2250, aen for coe 2253, in 

deschae 836, ifin che 520 
cáil f. qualitv, condition, c/iaracter, 

reputation, cail gotha 601, cailfota 

5106, tria chail 3774 
caill f. a wood, forest, n.s. coill 2828 ; 

g.s. fid na caiUe 398, 856, na coiiled 

2817,43. rois caelli 1320 
cáille a division of/and 5IC6 
caillech f. a nun, n.p. caillige 5720 
GékSx\.- fair . beaiitifii/, cainiu fedaib 5550, 

caindeifriges 985, caindeligud 1502, 

cainfidh 1183, cainuaighter 998, folt- 

chain 1160, socarcaine 1070 
caindlech /uslrous, s/iming-w/iite 5313 
caingen f. hiisiness, question, trouble 

caire f. biatne,faiilt 5270 
caisacht f. visihility, perspicacitv, c/ear- 

ness 3265. caisiu seeing, C. 
caithim / consume, spend, waste, pass. 

ros-cathatar 5119; P-P-p. caithle 

spent 467 
canach cotton-grass, Img-down, b/oom of 

eini 5620, of wi//oiu, cat/iin 5624 
cano m. a po^t of t/ie fourt/i degree, d.s. 

do chanaid 1306, 4629, du canait 

cantain f. a saxing, pronouncing 

capail (gl, bunad) a foundation, basis 

3813. capall, O'Dav. 572 
-CB.V ioving,fond of, cáin-car fid tribute- 

giving wood 4281, cno-car fer one 

fond ofnuts 4279, ith-car fer one fond 

of eating 4 2 80, Anec. iii. 43, 15, 

snámchar fer one fond of swimming 


cara m. afriend, n.s. 5326, 5619 ; g.s. 
comainm carat 5656 

caraim / /ove, 3 s. pret. rom-char-sa, 
etc. (paradigm) 653, 3356 ; i s. pret. 
of fut. nocechrainn 534 

carechtar c/iaracter, /etter, pl. cair- 
eachtaire 336, 2687, 4011,2 

carpat m. a c/iariot, fidh roith in carbait 

carr m. a waggon, cart 5726 

carrac f. Lat. sropu/a, /. scopulus 
carrach 1088, 4083 

casnad a u/iit, partic/e, pl. casnaide 
c/vps, s/iavings 3499 

cass quick, active, ras/i, passionate, 
rochas 5261 

cass cur/y, equat. caisithir 3499 

cath panacea (?) 5562,84. O'Mulc. 

cathach /laving batt/es, war/i/ce 5318, 

cathir f, city, monaslery 5268 

céim (i) a pace, n.d. da ceimend 1245 : 
(2) grade, rank, order ; gradus •i- ceim 
3284 ; secht ngrad immorro •\- gradus 
grad no gradus ceim •!• secht ceimenna 
na filidechta, Ed, vii, 6 : (3) t/ie 
airbert of réím, phps. perfect a//iiera- 
tion in eac/t /ine of a quatram, wit/i 
uaimm do rind 8co, 3590, 3617. Cf. 
O'Duv, 392 

céimnigim / pace, graduate, ceim- 
nighthir 991,2 

eéir f. %vax 982 

ceirt (i) an app/e-tree, quert 1185 : (2) 
t/ie og/iatn /etler q 440, queirt 441 ; 
1184, 4281,7,3 

ceitheoram •!• ceitheora mna 4709 

cendfochrus f, a c/iange of (a) an 
miiia/, c, tuis 1985, 4988, 5032 : e.g. 
fer, íer 1795, 49^7 ; ben, /en 5032 ; 
£enchaF,y%nchas 5386 ; í/licht •i^slicht 
•i' cendfochras, Anec. v, 22 ; (b) a 
fina/ /etter of a word 1947, 2110, 
2172, 5073, 5384, c. derid 1999, 
2136,4988, 5032, c. deidh 1795 : e.g. 
fer, fe/ 1795, 49^8 ; ben, be/ 1851, 
5031 ; nem, ne/ 1874, 5050 ; doróscií 
5388, doroisce, RC. xx. 152 



cenél m. (i) genus 856,7,8,9, 861,3, 

885,7,8,9, is e in cenel 895, 3777 ; 

a.p. cenela 891 : (2) gender^ sex, 

1462, sluind ceniuil 712 
cenélach generic 858, 3736 
cerc f, a hen, querc 5694.. Cf. Lat. 

cerr maimed., wry 5243. C. 
cert right, exací, regular, 1 certogam 

6033; compar. certiu Ii3t, 1256, 

go cert 2916 
certach ra^jg^af 6131. C. 
certán a kind 0/ music, crooning, hiun- 

ining 1474, 4577. O'Mulc. 830 e. 
certle f, a ball of thread, cleiv 5816. 

ceirsle, HSD. 
cess m. gloom, weariness, grief, gan 

cheas 2264, cen cheass II15, 2035, 

2073, can c. 2107, cen chessa 2225. 

céssad m. (i) sufering 161 1 : (2) 

passive voice 643, 653, g.s. briathar 

chesta 161 9 
cest, cesc f. quevy, Lat. quaestio, 9, as 

from Lat. sciscor 615 
Cét- first, cet-ainm first inscripiion 

I161 ; cet-iabra first speech 2378, 

2797, 5649, cet-labrad 1681, RC. 

xxvi. 32, 145 ; na-cet-scribtha 1757, 

cétfaid sense, perception, d.s. iarsin 

chetfaidsi 2642 ; n.p. cetfaidhi cuirp 

7 anma 1901 
cethar-chubaid Jour-rhymed, having 

Joiir rhyming verse-endings in a quat- 

raÍH ceatharcubaid 785, 1937, taibrem 

cethor-cubaidh filidechta 7 bairdne 

3593. Ir. T. iii. 15, 6; 22, 26 
cetharde four things, quartette 2868, 

cethair 426, fri ceathardu 1020, 

ceathardha 3975. Wi. 
cethraime a fourth part 3059, ceath- 

ramthu 1448 
cethrar m. four persons, a tetrad 

cethre coli. cattle, cara ceathra 5619 
cethruimthe four things, quartette, 

quaternion 3979 
cetlach íí7«^«/ 5252. C. 

cia m., cesi f., ced n. who f •what f 

císi rún 5204, ciasa run 5210 
ciacht mistiness, obscurity 3265. cía 

mist, C. : ciachda misty , foggy , TSh. 
ciallabair reasonable speech (?), a 

ciallabair no i ngenaib 1594. Cf. 

ceileabar f. zcarbling, Lat. celebrare 
cíallalde sensible, having a meaning, c. 

no neamc. 3032. C 
cian lo7tg, riab cianaib a long titne 

before 149. Cf. ST. 
cíar mouse-coloured, darh-brown 5352, 

quiar 5699. Wi. 
cíartha waxen, waxed, forsna claro c. 

1757, forna claraib ciarta 4946. 

labula cerata, PL Act. Sanct. 
cín f. book, a set of five velluni sheets, 

Lat. quinio, isin Cin Ollaman 1204, 

4316,85. Cor. Tr. 31 
cingim I step, go, cingit 1287, 1290 
cinniud m. a determining, definition 

1254, 4365.6. FelP- 
cinntechy?.iví/, definitive 1254, compar. 

cinntichu 1255,6; sup. cinniechem 

4367, cinntechsom 4368, cf. cinntichu 

son 1258 
circumplex the circumflex accent 

1354, 1554,8 
cith m. a shower 557 
claidemnas a word or verse of seven 

sy//ab/es, heptasy//ab/e 1217, 1425, 

1955,6, 4480 
cland f. (r) a p/ant, meni tusmed 

clanda 628, siladh clann 5652,3 : (2) 

progeny, chi/dren 5271 
clérech m. a c/eric, n.s. 5209 ; n.p. 

clerig 571 1 ; dim. cleirchén 5203 
clí a poet of the t/tird rank, do chli 2235. 

/r. T, iii. 112 : Cor. 
clí an app/e-tree, gl. quiert 4282 
cliab m, basiet, chest, breast, mac cleib 

5313. c. 

clithar u. she/ter 1185, 4282, clithar 

mbaiscaill 5551,2.3. C. : clithchar, 

Anec, iii. 43 
cloch f. (i) Lat. iapis 1086, 4081 ; 

555 : (2) cloch (no ael) /imestone 1088 
clóe f. storm, whir/wind 5214, chlue 

5219. móra in chlóe, Tbc. 4997 



clóen (i) sloping, inclined, perverse : (2) 

m. a wrong, cen chlaen 1940, can 

chloen 5057, cloen 2026,8, 2031,4,5,9 ; 

c. ceiUi a wrong of sense 2139, 5100 ; 

n.p. tri cloein 2028. O'Dav. 49 
clóen eretti m. a wrong 0/ body or 
frame, a change in tlie form ofa word 

metri causa 5102, claen creiti 2031,5, 

clóen cuibdiusa m. a wrong of rhyme, 

ihe change of rowel, e.g. e to i, or i 

to e metri causá, claen cuibdiusa 

2034,9, 2138 ; 5086, 5098, 5100: e.g. 

5088-90, 5095-7 
clóenad m. a perverting, falsifying 5099 
clóenre (l) a word or verse of five 

syllables, peniasyllable 1214, 1422, 

1954, 4477 : (2) perversion of sense, 

claenre (no clsen celle) 1694. /;-. T. 

iii. 21, 16 
cloth (i) n. faine, honoitr, g.s. caemthuit 

cluidh 2233 : (2) famous, co clothaib 

5284. Cf. C. n. 
clusal f. a ferminatio7i,fna/, ending, fil 

ac clusail na muiti 2950, 3392 
cnoc m. a hill, lump, wen, knnckle 5014 
cnú f. a nut, cach ac ithi a chno II83, 

d.p. cnoib 5317 
cobair f. help, n.s. is degcobair 2156 ; 

a.p. seacht gcabartha 2126 
CObflge f. a weaving together, text, con- 

text, concatenated sense, n.s. 2141 ; 

i comighib 337, isin coipdi 3388, 

coibhiti 41 14 ; cobigi celli the same 

sense in the narrative froin beginning 

to end of the quatrain 2045. /;-. T. 

iii. 30, 6 
coblach m. a fleet, a boat 1603. /En. 

253. 428 
cóicer m. five persons, quintette, pentad 

2238, coiciur I135, coicfhiur 2232 
cóicthe five ihings, quintette, coicdi 

428, coicti 2870,2, fri cuicti 1021, 

cuicthi 3976 
coimdiu m. the Lord, v.s. a mmo 

Chomdiu 5392. Metr. 
coip .i- buidhéan band, troop, company, 

Lat. copiae, P. O'C, for aighiph •i> 

coip [Eg.] 2392 

cóir n. a proper arrangement, the right 
way coir n-anala 3528, 3589, couir 
fiodraid 3874, achoir n-airchetail 1017 

coitchend common use 380,3, 745, 

coitide a part, factor 1452,3, 3064,5. 
cote emm diuidere, O'Mulc. 258 

coitideeht f. partition, division, triana 
c. n-airme 3063 

col n. incest, lust, sin 605 

colg dét tusk-hilted sword, calga deg 

5897. c. 

coll m. (l) hazel 11 53, 4248, 5494, 
5519: {^2) the ogham letter c 1182,3, 

4278,9, 4280 ; 2895, 1372,3 ; g-s. 

1273, 4327. Proceed. Brit. Acad., 

p. 26 
colpthach firenn m. two-vear-old 

bulloch 5755. Laws 
com-accomal (l) a conjoining, connec- 

tion, co-ordinating 1900,1, 1924 : (2) 

an adjunct 3391 : (3) a conjunction 

2668. Z.- 991 
com-aentu m. complete identity, ar 

comaentaidh 5560 
com-aimserad m. a synchronising 

4038. Trip. xxviii. 
com-ainm n. a svnonvin, c. carat 5656 
com-ainmnigtheeh sy n ny m ons 

5640,1,3, 5657 
com-airem f. a computation, coitchend 

in uird comairme ordinals 851, 

comairlid m. a counsellor 109, da 

comairlig 1243, comairhb lli, com- 

airiech 4025 ; n.p. comhairlidhe 108. 

St Mol. 
comarbae m. heir, successor 5268. 

comardad m. a correspondence, rhyme, 

adjustment 3822,6, c. imcubaidh 3824, 

iar c. n-airchetail 1009, 3967 ; 1353, 

4416. O'Don. Gr. 415 
comardugud m. a corresponding, ad- 

justing 10 15, 1353 
combérlaid m. one using the same 

speech, cach comberlaidh 232, com- 

berlaib 237, comberlaid 1037, comm- 

berlaig 2546, comberla 2551 



combert, compert f. conception 5272 
Combrec the Wehh language, Cymric 

3214. isin Combric, O'Mulc. 266 
comcengal a joiningtogethe)\ c. litrioch 

comcheniúil m. one of the satne race. 

cach comcheniuil 230,7, 1038, 2545, 

cf de-cheneuil C. 
comchumung an equivalent, c. cach ae 

focail 1232, cocumaong cech aon 4550 
comdál f. a meeting, weet, c. cuan 11 77, 

comdeach m. the same verse-foot, n.s. 

1514, 4609 ; n.p. 1241 
comdes equally right, equall^ ready, 

mdijfferent, coimdes 5827. C. 
comdíle f. a flooding together, great 

concourse 5339 
comdlúthad m. a pressing, hinding 

together 1020. C. 
comecar m. an equal layer, ina comh- 

egur 267, ina coimhecar 2582 
comét a guarding, ieeping, cul comet 

604, comet lachta 5622 ; g.s. for- 

comeda, daghchometa, fricometa 1818 
cométaim / guard, keep, 3 s. subj. 

manis-comela 5487, muna coimeta hi 

2805 ; rel. is i coimetas 5623 
com-fhilltech a co-inflection, derivative, 

n.p. com-íhilUighe 1900 
com-fhot, con-fot m. equal lenglh, 

proportion, is e in c. coir 10 1 3, cubat 

n-oll 5664. Cf. //'. /". iii. 30, w. 
com-fhrecra an answering, correspond- 

ing, i coimfrecru 5460. C. 
com-flalus m. relationship 4937, 2721 
comfld m. the same or corresponding 

vowel or letter, cach da cobfid i cubaid 

957> 3950. 's cubaid a comfid 1241, 

151 3, 4608 
comfograighthid m. a consonant 375 
comfograigim / sound along xuith, ni 

comfojíraigend 2760 
comfograisthech a consonant 2749, 

2760 ; comhfhograightheacha 

368. Sg. 221*1, 15*4 
comforlethan equally hroad, 0/ the 

same exient 3400 
comgruinidech equa!ly wounding 5580 

comh-fhocul m. (1) a conjunciion 
321 : (2) a full sound, nidat com- 
fhocail 462 

comimairclde appropriate 592 

com-indsma a rivetting ; the repeti- 
tion at the end of the fitial stanza in a 
poem of a syllahle {or a part thereof) 
of the first accented word occurring at 
the opetiing of the poem 2199, 2214. 
Ir. T. iii. 30, 4 

comláintlus m. perfection, completion, 
ier gcomloinntius 2455 

comlán complete, nach at comlana 46 1, 
1456, ni dod comlana 2922 

comlín an eqiial nutnber, 1017, I977i 
in comlin 2114 

commailt f. (con-mel) a rubhing to- 
gether, on foillgiud •i- on chomailt 
1756, on coimilt 4945, do cuimilt 

commann a commutiily, cotnpany, 
plagiaristn (?) 1929. C. 

comna condiiion, funciion 1464,5,6, 
cuma 4566,8,9, 4750, do coma dilis 
budhein 4729. Cro li bais o tri 
modaib •i- o . . . 7 o bas 7 o atharach 
gnee no o tri tondaib -i- tond fhola 7 
tond comna 7 tond sceathraigi, Ed. : 
cf. Fei:- 228 

comocus near, compar. comacsi 2841 

comparait f. the comparative degree 
644, 695, 729 ; g.s. ainm comparaiti 

comraicim / tneet, join, utiite, re i 

comhraiget 1418, comraigit 1419 
comrím (l) an equal nutnher : (2) the 

saiue tnetrics 2023 
comroircnigiur (denom. from «om- 

rorcon error, inf. of com-air-orgim). 

/ err, make a mistahe, i^erf. I p. a-n- 

ro-comraircnicsiumair-ne 1436, i-n- 

ro-comraircnigsiomair-ne 4523. i.e. 

Lat. dehita nostra 
comrorcu f. ati error, tnistake, com- 

rorco 1716, coinrargai 4907. Str. Gi. 
com-shíned m. an equal stretchtng, 

equal duratioti, co-extension, same 

quantity, i comhshiniud fri fogur 908, 

3791. CZ. iii. 18, 22 



comshuidiugud m. a compound, com- 
Hnation 784, comshuidhigthe 1900, 
i comsuidigthib 973 

comsiud equality^ sameness 1930. 
coimsid, Laws 

com-son the same or a similar sound, 
comsan 5246 

comtoth a couple., union, c. consan 
1733) comtath condsained 4925, 
iar gcomtach 3428. Cf. Hail Brigtt, 
n. 8 

comúaim n. m. (i) « stitchtngtogether, 
composition, fri comuaim n-uad 3538, 
cen comuaim tomuis 3588, 1020 : (2) 
alliteration 1596, 1600, c. fidhraidh 
3872, 4880, 5363 : (3) correspondence, 
rhyme 3946,75 

conberbaim / hoil, conberbtar 4541 

condail, connail f. an intemal 
division, the insertion of two meaning- 
Uss syllables into a word, connail 
5071, 1947, a chounail 4810, condail 
1993, 2147, 2166, 5317, condaiU 
1501, se carbartha 'na condail 2088 : 
e.g. fer, f-efri-er 1801 ; ben, b-efri-en 
1843 ; nem, n-efri-em 1867 ; as-goam- 
gilidir 5320 

condál f. a meeting, pack (pf hounds'), 
conal cuan 5545,6. condal con, 
Anec. iii. 43 

Condel£r n. f. a comparison, the com- 
parative degree, n.s. in chondealg 
668 ; 662, 687, 698,9, 700,2, 732, in 
condelg n-eteichta 2772, is i in sin in 
condelg techta 703, •!• conndelg n- 
edtechta 2775, condeilg 686, coin- 
dealc 2645 ; g.s. a ngrad condeilg 
639, conndeilge 3304 ; d.s. i coneilg 
677, forin condelg 693 

con-gairiu, con-garim / cry, bell, 3 
s. pres. conngair eter da a 1224,4534. 
Metr. sub á 

cong'balach supporting, having constitu- 
tnts or syllables (con-gbál, a literal 
translation of cmX-Xa^Tj), son n- 
oencongbalach 904, focul oenc. 934, 
1534) 3786, 3862, 4756, dechongbalach 
934) 3863, treconngbalach 934, 3863. 
O'Dav. 381 

congnamaid m. a helper, congnam- 

aigh echraide 5578. C. 
con-gníu / help, 2 s. fut. in cungene 

frimm 5358 
con-midiur / adjudge, measure, equal, 

am able for, 3 s. perf. commadair 

5112,6; 3 pl. pies. pass. comiiiter 

connal a stalk, stubhle, Lat. stipula 

1701, 4888 
con-scaraim / scatter, destiov, triasa 

coscairther I174, 4270; inf. coscrad 

con-slaidim / heat, maie for (?), i s. 

fut. cosluidfea 1603, coslafe 5365, 

cusalua 3876, cossalua, Ailt. Ir. 

Dicht., p. 9. Cf. com-sla goes, Ped. 

Gr. ii. § 816 
conson f. a consonant, n.s. consain 367, 

2753, consoin 2750; n.p. consaine, -i 

2757, consoini 1387; g.p. tri duail 

na consan 348, na consaine 2702, 

consonacht f. consonisation 2706, con- 

sanacht 2696 ; g.s. an dliged conson- 

achta 2961 ; d.s. fo consonacht 981, 

3916 ; a.s. teit a consanacht 1381, 

consonata consonantal, dliged c. 490 
con-tulim I sUep, contuili 5121 
cor f. a hand, n.s. a urard, ma chor-a 

5342. Fel? 
corc a clan 5261. Metr. 
cornairecht f. horti-blowing 1478 
corr m. f. a heron, in chorr 54 1, in 

coiir 3224 
corraib the 24 poetical licences, ihe 

sréith and the gnúise of the Trefocul 

1944, 5064,6, 5244,81 
corrucán small littU corner 5337. 

corr()C a corner, AcalL : C. 
córus m. an arrangement, /aw 12 12, 

4385, 5420 
cosc a corrective {medicine), cosc lobair 

5660. Cf. C. : Laws 
cosmallligeacht f. a resemblance 5812 
costud m. (con-suidim) a restraining, 

checking, costad sida 4270, 1173,4, 

5543,4. Cf. RC. xxvi. 24 



cotarsna the opposite 5818, cotarsanai 

cotut a hardening, loss of weak svUable 
follonving accent, and consequejit de- 
Unition, •!• timorcain fri aicnead no i 
cind a shortening at an accent or at 
an end 5292; I945i79. 2137, 4986, 
5068 : e.g. fer a chodad 1793, ben 
a codut 1840, nime a cotut 1859 ; fer 
a codud 4986, bein a couiud 5025, 
neimh a cotud 5043 ; 5287 ; torthor 
( = torathor) 5289, 5295 : cadad, 
Eriu viii. p. iv. 

crád torture, anguish 5895 

crand tree, musical tree 1479. Lect. 
lii. 323 

crand fír test-tree 11 56, 4250; 1195, 
4298, 5517. Laws iv. 102, l: St.Crit., 
P. 38 

crap a cramping, shrivelling, cen craip 
cainti 1929. Cf. C. 

cress narrow, slender, coblach creas 
1603, bachlach cress 5365 

cretcuibdius (l) an intemal rhyme : 
(2) au end rhyme 3839,40 

crett f. a body, trunk,framework,form, 
cret cloen 5100. 'i- cneas aspect, 
vtsage, countenance, complexion .' also 
a skin, shell, or rind, P. O'C. 

críathar a sieve 636,7 

crín ■withered, superl. crinem feada 5658 

crithach an aspen 1154, 4250 ; 1195,6. 
4298, 5520 ; don crunn crithaig 5590, 

crithim / íremhle, shiver, rel. crithes 

crithir f. a spark 5260 

cró ( I ) the metal hoop of a lance, socket, 
is ainm cro in gai 4717. C. : (2) a 
pen,pig-stye, a cru 5674,5,7. Wi. 

crob a hand, d.s. i crub 5398 

crón saffron-coloured, amber, nut-brown 

5669,71,3,5, 5699 
crónán a crooning, humming 1474 
cross f. a cross, g.p. 5364, l6o2 
crothalm / shake, caust to tremble, 

crothas 5260 
crú m. gore 1809, g.s. lanamain in 
chru 1810 

crúan A- trefocul 5442 

cruas hardness, a hard (i.e. voiced') 

sound, fri c. 1073 
crúd a destroying, iar crud chuile 5214. 

cruittirecht f. a harping, cruitireacht 

cruth m. shape, ?nanner, as adv. 

how, as, crulh roncuala 5252, 5219. 

cruthaigim / form, create, 3 s. pass. 

pres. 2662, no go gcruthoigther he o 

fhogUim 3806 ; inf. cruthaiged ; g.s. 

as adj. ese cruthoigti creative 3799, 

3802,4. Laws 
cúal a faggot, hundle, heap 5445, cen 

cuail cnam 1929, qual 5726. C. 
cúan fst, army, Lat. pugnus 5260. 

host Laws : Sg. 50*12, note 
cúan a haven 5105 
cúan f. pack or litter of hounds or 

of ifolves II 77, conal chon alladh 

5545-6. C. 
c^x\>8i\ó.{l) harmonious, ainm c. 2117 : 

(2) rhyme. the same vowel flanked hy 

the same numher of consonants of 

which the closing ones are the same 

957, 3950; 1241, 1285, 1291, 1512, 

cubat m. a cubit, an ell, secht cubait dec 

2604, secht cumat deg 289, C. 
cudnud a hastening, cudnoudh eich 

4296. C. 
cuibde suitableness, ar a cuibdi 32 

cuibrend a part, share, portion 5106 

cuic -i- rún a secret 1305, no coic 4628. 

Stowe GI. ; Cor.^ 300, 388, 698 
cuidechtach having or forming a com- 

pany 6 1 50 
cuilenn m. W/v, cuileand 1153, ii8r, 

cuillenn 5633,5, 4248, quulenn 5518 
cuimbre f. (i) brevity, cuimri raid 

630,6, 6093 : (2) a short syllable, 

arna cuimribh 1556 
culns f. ayoke 1287, 1290 
culslennacht f. a fluting,flute-playing, 

quislenacht 5799 



cuit f. (i) a share, portion .' (2) aii 
arilhmetical factor, n.p. coit 1452 • 
d.p. ochoitibh 1444,6, 4494, o quoitibh 
3052, a gcoitibh 3053, 'na coitibh 
3056. cuit graece diuisio, O'Mulc. 
cuitbiud m. a deriding^ coniempt 1935 
cul a guarding, protecting, cul coimet 

604. Metr. 
cumaide common 449, 2909. Laws 
cumair (i) short^ forin penuilt comair 
sen 4130 : (2) a short, a short syllable 
812, 1349, 4413, seach in cumair 
1566 : (3) a summary, sum 1497 
cumang power, force of individual 
vowels 965,6 ; I20I, 4313, dobeir 
cumang fedha forin son dia fot 435, 
2887. Cf. Sg. i8m 
cummaim / shape, compose, 3 p. pres. 
cummait 1937 ; pret. immar ros-cum 
1968, rocumsat 1928 
cummascda mixed, indsgi qumusda, 

cenel cumassu epicene gender 3223 
cumraide sweet,fra°rant 5337. C. 
cumscugud m. a mcving, change 6049 
cumung narrow, compar. is cumga a 

fuirmed 3397 
curach m. a coracle 6135 ; dim. 

curchán 5352. C. 
cutruma having equal weighi or pro- 
portion, indifferent, cudruma 1422. 
cutrummusud m. an equating, 
balancing, comparmg 683, 3299. C. 
dáe, dóe m. a human being, man, n.s. in 
dae 161 5 ; g.p. na ndasi cen cheass 
II14, na nai 2263, Metr. 
dáen, dóen a man, human being, 
dcenogam 5709,18. do gach dáen, 
Anec. V. 23, 2 : O'Dav. 342 
ÚíLS- good, dag duine a good man 5340, 
ÁAg-íis good hnowledge 580, dagh-fuach 
a good word 3 5 70 
dagda m. a hero 5183,7. Dagdae a 
mythological hero, C. In dagda one of 
the xHiii. staraide Gasdel rochuwísat 
i« leb/^r n-airise, a sdaraib, 7 a 
n-annalaib, BB. 308 /3 32: -£";?« viii. 62 
daig f. aflame,fire 556, 5396, 5403 

daigthech fiery, in domun daigh- 

theach 2206 
daimim I grant, allow, pf. pass. rodét 

2004, rodaimed 135 
dairt f. a yearli7ig heifer 5766, 2055 
dál f. meetitig, tryst 5390 
dálim / meet, tryst, i s. pret. rodalus 

5390. Tbc. 
dallbach a rhymed reproach or satire 

not conforming to ordinary metrics 

1930,1. H. 3. 18, 69^^, ^^sb : .i. 

dallfuach, Cor. Tr. 61 
dám f. a company, party, retinue, cia 

lin dam 2220, ceithri damha 2230, 

damh as deach 2243, dam thoga 2248, 

in da daim 2252 
dam m. a hart, ox 5750, 5842 
dán m. a poem, poetry, art, craft, g.s. 

a oes in dana 2184, aes dana 2215 ; 

ar ilar ndan 2159, ar a dhan 2235 ; 

danogam 5797 
dana tuo 259. Laws i. 230 : dána, St. 

Crit., p. 9 
dánad m. dative case 1524, 1532, 

dannad 4741, danodh 4973 
darignius, darignis, etc. (paradigm) 

dartaid m. a year-old bull 5757. 

CC. : Laws 
dasía et psile the rough and the 

smooth breathing, dassien, scilen p. 

94, note. Gr. Lat. v. 132, 28 : Sg. 

5''io, i'j^i^ 
dath (i) a colour, g.s. datha 1171 : (2) 
poetic colouring, co ndath 5064,5, 

5234,44. Anec. V. 23, I, n. : dath -i. 

uaire ut dicitiir dath air non-molum, 

H. 3. 18, p. 635 
dé f. smoke,fume 4291 
déach m. a verse-foot ; in poetry the 

number of syllables in the verse, inprose 

the number of syllables Í7i the noun 

3584,5 ; 771, 859, 922, 1414.29, 5276, 

dech 691, 1213, 1410, 1951, diach 
1534 ; n.p. vii ndeich 744, 777, 860, 
1232, 1409, 4550, vii ndeichit (?) 
351T ; g-p. 1235, 4553 ; d.p. 778, 
922, 1579,86, 1688, 1760; a.p. la 
deochu 691 



déad, deod n.f. an end, ajinal, the end 
of a li'ord iic,T, ded 1546, fo deoidh 

debrlcht m. a verse-foot, a verse con- 
sisting of a double octosvUable, g.s. in 
nath debrichta 3712 

dechenbor m. a set of ten persons, 
deichenbhur 2227 

dechned, dochned m. a hi-heading, a 
douhling of (a) the initial, dechnead 
tuis 1986 : or (b) the final letter of a 
ziord, dechned deirid 200 r, e.g. tenn 
5397> fiiT 4992, nemm 5050 : doich- 
ned 389. 390, 1947, 2168, 2777,8, 
dechnead 1806, 2113, deicned 2172, 
deichneadh 1852 74, dochned 5074,5 ; 
n.p. 2154, g.s. dechnada, /r. T. iii. 39 

decht pnre, genui/ie, airgid techt 5566. 
P. O'C. 

décsiu f. a loohmg at, regarding, vietv, 
n.b. deiscin ; n.p. descena 1922 

déde m. tivo things, a pair 545^, in 
dedi sin 2798, deda 425, 1019, 2867, 
dedhe 673, deide 2io6 

dedlaim / separate, sever, 3 pl. pass. 
deglaiter ar leth 5510 ; p. pass. ogam 
negladae 6063 

defid m. tico letters, arding defid 3661, 

defogur m. a diphlhong 343, 129S, 

1684, 2696, 2706, deghfogur 1073, 

deofhogur 1347, do defoghur 1297 ; 

n.p. 1345 ; ^-V' ^'^'^'^ deghfoghraibh 

sin 972 ; g.p. 973 
defuach a dissyllahle, d. intan is recom- 

rac 3570 
deg- good, dialt deglemi a loell-leaping 

svllable 2140; mac De degergna of 

good wisdotn 2495 
deichthe ten things, decade, a ndeichMí 

1022, a ndeicthi 3978 
deifir a difference, d. rainni 630, cen 

dei6r 1261, defir 1907 
deifrigim / sever, differentiate, dis- 

ttnguish, 3 s. rel. caindeifriges 985 ; 

3 s. pres. subj. intan deifriche 587 ; 

3 s. pres. dep. nas-defrigidar 616 
deil a separation, deil degail 2689 
deilm a noise, din, rebort 547. C. 

deime tepide a selecled nenter 569, 

1808, 1853, 1876, 5078, S402 ; e.g. is 

ed ceann 558 
delb Lfortn,declension\t\\,\']ZiO ; Z-983 
delg a thorn, ara deilghibh II 78, ara 

deilgniph 4274 
delgaige f. thominess 5517 
delidind (i) a metathesis (a) of letters, 

e.g. silochta, sliochta 5310; gelli, 

géill 2043; (b) of syllables, gossafer, 

Fergossa 5314; n.s. deilidi 2133, 

dehdin 5308,12,5, deiliden 1945 ; d.s. 

da deilidin 1993, ic delidnid 2086 ; 

n.d. da delidin 2164. 9, 5070; (2) 

icriiing a word bachuards and for- 

wards, fer, refer 1794 ; ben, neb 1842. 

Cor. Tr. 126 
deochair f. a distincíion, difference 523, 

616, 1429, 3025, is i sin an d. I443 
deochraigim / differentiate, deoch- 

raides 893, 3775, deochraigter 1254 
deochr(a)im / dffer, 3 s. pres. nus- 

deochrend 3026 ; 3 s. pi. pass. ind. 

nos-deochratar 523 
deórad m. an exile, outlaw, stranger, 

n.s. deoradh 5153 ; n p. deoraid 5148 
der f. a daicghter, n.s. der Greco 3087 ; 

a.s. ailsius deir 5319. C. 
derc n. (i) a grave, g.s. 5383 : (2) an 

eye 5994 
dernu f. the pa/m of the hand, d.s. do 

dernaind 5165 
á.eTÓi\ iceah, feehle, dereoil 518, 2988. 

derscugud m. a distingiiishing, excel- 

ling 643, 655, 685,8, 704, 847 ; g.s. 

derscaigti 643, 685, 847 
dethbir difference, distinction 4371, in 

dethber 4493 ; 1. defifir 
díabul (i) rt douhle, douhling, reduplica- 

tion, ferfer 1796, benben 1841 : (2) 

the repetiiion of accenied words in a 

quatrain 1945, 5074 ; 1995, 2091, 

2151, 2169, 2176, 5321, eg. 5322-5 
díall m. a deviating, declension 783, in 

cetna d. 1918,9. Wi. 
dl-alt n. (l) a monosyllable, syUahle 759, 

1231. 4549; 1497,9; 835, 1414,7, 

1429, 1454, 4528 ; 904, 1534, a 



dealt 1953 ; n.p. dialta 933, 1491, 
1506 : (2) a declension, ferdialt 1829, 
bandialt 1857, deimdialt 1858, nem- 
dialt 1879 

dialt n-etarlemme n. a syllahle leap- 
ingbetween, interloping ; anunaccented 
svllable occurring between two allitera- 
tions 1312, 1600,6,7, 1803, 1849, 
1871, 1982, 2101,4680, 5081, 5362 ; 
n.p, na diailt n-eter!eime 4626 ; e.g, 
lond. CedX^th. 5364. Lec. 363, 177 M. 

dían f. a metre proper to a fochloc(án) 
1579. 4655. C. : /r. T. iii. 112, 162 

díanalrmide innumerable 894, a con- 
fusion of di- and an- 

díanim í/otóíí, unblemished 5319. C. 

dí-beó unliving, neuter 583 

dichned n. (l) a beheading,- (2) the 
dropping 0/ (a) an initial, dichnead 
tuis 1986, e.g. /epe 390, /eibi 2779, 
or (b) afinal letter 0/ a word 389, 390, 
2777.9. 1947. 2111,68,72, 5074; n.p, 
na dichneda 2149; dichned derid 
2000, e.g. fer,y^ 1806 ; ben, be 1852 ; 
nem, «I? 1875; rura 5392. RC. xx. 150 

díchongbail f. two syUahles, two con- 
stituents 1535 

díchronus a word having fwo cjuan- 
tities, uncertainty •i- nemcinnti, or 
non-possessive ■[• nemtsealpad 4069. 
Gr. Lat. i. 424, i, 14, 25 

dí-druim ridgeless, without arris 6061 

dí-fuilliud m. non-adding, non-addition 
816, 3654 

dí-gabim, dígbaim / take away, Lat. 
demo 582 

dígbáil f. (i) a tahing away, diminish- 
ing 908, 1568 : (2) privattve case 
1525, 1662, 1887,8, 1890. digbál, 
C. 643 

dígde f. prayer, blessing, dighdi dath 
556. O'Dav. 590 

dil dear, beloved, fond 547, 5619 ; g.s.m, 

díle f. deluge, g.s. dilend 5263. diliu, 

dileachtaig f. dialectics 52, 2339. C. 

dlies the proper use 745, 819, dileas 
380,2, dilius 2763 

dimbeóaigthe inanimate, dead 583, 

dim-bríg f. powerlesstiess, weaíiiess, 
wani of emphasis, cen d. 1941, 5061, 
5145 ; 2053, 2156 ; e.g. amal cech(?) 
5148,9- c. 
díne a gronp, a generation, stocí, /; ihe 

ding difficulty, want, arding defidh -i. 
ding fil and is teirce feuda fodera a 
difficully which is there is caused bv a 
scantiness of lelter 3661 
dingbaim / ward off, repel 208 1, dos- 
dingaib 2109; inf. ic dingbail 5273. 
dínin dísail the Ogham acceiit on a 
short syllable, the sign for -which js d 
254. 815,6, 820, 1544,5,6,9, 1566, 
1821,3, 2574, 4767, dine disoil 1402, 
1555.9. 1569. 1571.5, dinion disail 
3635,6, duir i n-ait dinin disail 4456, 
duir a ndinin d. 4800 
dír due, proper, fit, meet, robad dir 

deiside 3398. C. 
dírech an uncovering, stripping 5222. 

dltiu f. protection, shelter, n.s. 3574 ; 
g.s. na gnuisi diten 1978 ; d.s. dia 
nditen-sidhe 1944, do didin 1963 
di-ud-rethim / remain over, 3 s. pret. 

doruaraid 2501 
diuir small, mean, irifling 5377, ííy. 

V. 31 
diúit simple 2895,8, 2900, do a seacht 

diuidib 747 
diúite f. simplicity, Lat. dtgnitas 4217, 

midiuiti want of dignity 4307 
diupart f. a depriving, defraudjng, 

deprivation 6074 
díxnigur / am, exist, docuisnet -i- 

disgnaigter 3261, 3047 
dligtech right, lawful, proper, isna 
feadhaibh dlightheachaib 483, 2184, 
do-ar-rethim / overtahe, seize, find, 3 
s. pret. dos-farraidh don 547 ; 3 p. 
pret. pass. for a tarrasa tri gnee 888 ; 
pres. subj. foura diaurrustar 3769. 



do-ar-sissiur / sland fast, remain, 3 

s. pres. subj. doairesedar 494 ; impf. 

doairised 2995 
do-ath-com-icclm / reach round, 

encompass, conas - tacmaing 1960. 

tachmaic snechta ferna fer, Cor. 

sul> V. ferend : TP. i. 493, 21 : O'D. 
do-báidim Idvown, extinguish, 3 s. pres. 

dobadi 5159,69 ; inf. díbdud m. 1281 
do-benaim / cut, destroy, pres. pass. 

nodusbenadar 5432,8, nodabenadar 

5428,38, dabenadar 5451, nodusben- 

^3^ 5455) nodambentar 5449, nodus- 

bendai 5449 ; 3 s. pret. o rodipad 

4338, ar rodipad fuirre 3136 
dobriathar an adverb 2668, 320 
docair hard, difficidt, tronblesome 2000, 

2016, rodocair 2019. Acall. 
dochta f. tightness, closeness, niggardli- 

ness, gan douchta 4059. Acall. 
dochuisin exists fwith acc.) 520, 

dochuisneat 639, 1545, 1817 
dóchusaigiur / deem likely, I expect, 

dodochusaigedar 151 
dodaing difficult, variegated, dodaing 

trec 5938, 5933. CC. 2308 
dodeilb unshapely, dodheilb 472 
dodraing (l) hard, difficult, doghraing 

278 : (2) a difficulty, frie dograind 

2593- CC. 
dóerbard m. a bard of the second class, 

n.p. djcrbaird 1691 ; g.p. doerbard 

1590. Ir. T. iii. 107, 14 
dóerugud m. an enslaving, a prefixitig 

do to the word 1869, 1946, 1980, 

2096 ; e.g. do-fer 1797, do-ben 1846, 

daer 5340 
do-ess-benaim / cut, select, derive, 3 

s. pass. duepenar 567, doepenar 568 ; 

is ed darepedh 1054, don tebi 

rotebed 3, 2274 ; 3 pl. perf. na tri 

saidh doreipsead na berlu-sa 213, 

242 ; iarsinni teipiter damna na focul 

eistib 414 
dofarce overloohs, exceeds 1935. Thur. 

Hdb. ii. 66 (do-for-ad-cí) : TP. ii. 

290,7 : /v/.- 
do-fo-ethaim I go, 3 s. pres. dofhidh 

2247. Ped. Gr. § 716 

doformaigim / add, increase, 3 s. 

pres. is dialt duformaidh 776, 3578 ; 

na tormaig 1232 ; rel. tormaiges 

1569; 3 pl. act. doformaighet 1888, 

doformagat I144, dofhourmaghat 

4241 ; pass. duformaighet 260 ; inf. 

tórmach, q.v. 
do-for-od-gaibim / raise, 3 s. impf. 

pass. dourgbad 366 ; 3 s. impf. subj. 

pass. na turgbadis 3389 
do-fuillim / add, 3 s. pret. rotuiU 

do-gníu / do, make, natagendais (nad- 

dogentais) 3389 
do-imm-dí-ásaim / shorten, imite, 

Lat. coarto, 3 s. pret. dorimtas 117. 

Str. SR. dosrimthos 6331, dorimthas 

5973 : 3 p- pres. pass. doimmthastar, 

Sg. 3*3: p.p.p. timmthasta, Wi. : 

timtasta, PH. 
do-im-orgim / compress, unite, shorten, 

3 s, pres. dorimtas •'i- rotimairg 117 ; 

3 s, fut. in timarr 2950, da-n-imorr 

3392 ; 3 s. pret. dorimart 2397 ; pass. 

co timairceter 1078 ; inf, fri timar- 

gain, timmargain 5419 
do-(in-com-iccim) / chance, happen, 3 

s, pres. do-eagmaing 1265,8, do- 

ecaiph 4323,6,9. doecam, Eg. 
dolbim / form, fashion, devise, charm, 

focail doilphdi sorodolpset filid 4524. 

dalbhdha 'i. dolbha 'i. draoidheacht, 

H. 4. 18 
domidiur / judge, measure, consider, 

domiditer 1237,8, 1508, doimiter 

742, domiter 954, 998, 1953 
do-moiniur / think, 3 pl, perf, doru- 

menadar 150, ar doruimnetar 2454, 

dorumunadar •\- doshailedar, Ed. 
domunda ii'orldly 60, besgna dou- 

manda 2334,6. mundanus, Origg. 

viii. 5, 28 
don a gtft, don tidnocul 2733. Lec. 
don f. place, ground, dos-farraidh don 

547, duin 3182, Cf. nad tairlic don, 

gl, non cedentem, MI, 131 ''2; cia 

dudfailci don, gl, cesserit, MI, lii'>23 ; 

co dufailced don, gl, incideret, Ml. 

35'=2 : don terra, O'Mulc. 320 



donfa(?) 2231 

do-od-saisim J nurse, hoard, sustain, 

3 s. pret. rothaisigh 78 
dorar f. battle, conflict, a.s. arching 

dorair ndualaig 5241. Wi. 
do-ro-saiglm / stretch to, reach, go, 

3 s. fut. dorrae cucunn no durse uaini 

573, dorrói, T. : 3039 
doróscaim (di-ro-od-scuich) I surpass, 

excel, 3 s. pret. a cendfochrus, dorósci<5 

5388. doroisce, RC. xx. 152 
dorus, i ndorusa hefore 1286. Lism. 

929, 1975,85 
doss, dos m. a bush, ardam dossaib 

doss m. a poet ofthe fifth rank, do dus 

2243. Ir. T. iii. 112 : Cor. 
doth a litter, cpds. indoth finni 5672,3, 

cetoth ( = cet-doth) 5670,1, 5939,40, 

rci\^o\h, bad litter 5934, ardoth 5936. 

Cf. doithid in cú, Cor. s. Mugeme : 

inf. dothad, Ériu, ii. 153: doth a 

hatching, Laws : Triads : inddoth, 

indoth offspring, RC. xii. 122 
do-tuitim / fall, 3 p. sec. fut. arna 

dtaothsatis 4674 
draisen a blachthom 11 55, droigen 

4250; 1192,4290; 5522. Laws 
drech f. face, D. na ndrech D. of the 

many faces or hosts 2205 
dremun sudden, vehement, vigorous, 

a duan ndremain 2191. Wi. 
dringtaeli relating to advancing, com- 

passing, defining, climbing, RC. xiii. 

120: anmounda dringtacha 3930 
droén a wren 5694. dreoán, St Molig. 


drong ahundance 5247,50. Lec. 

drúcht (l) d^'^ •* (2) a rising, elevation 
1229. Metr. 

druideacht f. wizardry 5799- Wi. 

druim n. a ridge, stem. arris of Ogham, 
deasdruim right of stem 94.7, 986, 
tuathdruim left of stem 947, 987, 
leasdruim athwart stem 948, 988, 
tredruim ihrough stem 948, 989, 
imdruim ahout stem 948, 990 ; do 
deas in droma 986, darin druim 

druin clever, co ndruincland 5271. 
•i' glicc, Lec. 

dú a place 5381 

dúal m. afoldlZ<i, 344, 2697, 2701,3 ; 
n.p. duail 342, 2700,2. Wi. 

dúal m. a cause, origin, derivation, in 
duol coir 2718. Tbc. 

dualus right, due ; a dualus in right 
of, in respect 0/405, a dualgus 2825,6. 

duan m. f. a poem, n.s. 2187 ; g.s. an 
duain 1588 ; a.s. a duan ndremain 
2191, na duaine 2209, cach duaine 
2218; g.p. dunta na nduan 2182,3, 
cona nduanaib 1579; a.p. for duana 

duar a word -'i- focul 2352, 5441, 2355, 


dúil f. elements, means, in duil dia 
n-innisin 526, 623, eter duilib 916, 
duil •i- diail 3152 

dúil a book, isin Duil Feadha Mair 
200, isna Duilib Fedha 1198, isin 
Duili F^udha 4311, De duilib feda 
5416,7. O'Dav. 601, 369, 1286 

duilgius m. a difficulty 2059 

duir (i) oak 11 80, dur 1153, 5494, 
dair 4248, 4275,6 : (2) the Ogham 
letter d 815, 4274, 1401, 1567,9, 

dul m. a satirist 500, 2970. P. O'C. : 

dúnad m. a closing, close of poem, n.s. 

2207 ; g.s. ainm gach dunta 2195 ; 

g.p. do dhligegaibh dunta na nduan 

2182 ; a.p. dunta 2183 
dúthaig fit, due, compar. ni duthcha 

3542, Laws 

Ó salmon 5599. Metr. 

ehad f. (i) an aspen I196, eba 4300, -i. 
elend 5523, 5597,9, 5600, 5661 : (2) 
the Ogham diphthongs beginningwith e, 
ebad 1347, 1358, 1367, I533,8, 1675, 
euad 1677, eua 4379, eubhai 4760, 
tria ebaid 5430 ; adj. ebadach 5853, 

eblud m. a rearing, bringing up 5446. 



Bbra f, the IleJneiv íoiigue, Hebre^v, 

n.s. 2281, 2311, Eaphra 2459; g.s. 

Ebra 3765 ; d,s. a Ebra 353, a 

hEpra 2716 
■ebrón iron 4542. Cor. Tr. 67 : 

O'Dav. 1026 : eabron pan, cahiron, 

■éeenel a false gender 1942, 2067, 2173, 

cau ecenelas 5060, 5201 ; e.g. díii 

5205, di 5211 
■éces m. a poef, sage, n,s, eiccius 2795 ; 

a.s. la heigius 2794 ; g.s. cride ecis 

5895 ; gP- na nd-egeas I114, na 

n-eiges 2263; d.p. d' e'csib 2120. 

eices -i- gei can ceas, aircetal -i- fili- 

decht uo uasal cantain, Ed. 
ech-fhlesc f. horsewhip, horselash, 

echlaisg 4297, Wi. 
echta/^/v, d'eochtaiph 2686. CC. 
écnach n, a satirising, reviling, 

blasphemv, n.s. 5252, oc ecnuch 1333, 

cen ecnach 1934, 5184,8. Wi. 
ecnald m. a learned man, philosopher, 

lasna hecnadaibh 2335, hecnadu 47. 

•écnaigim / satirise, egnaigeas 1334. 

écndairc, écnalrc (i) ahsent : (2) a 

past tense, an absent for a present 

1941, 2056, 2161, can ecnairc fri 

frecnairc 5057, 5171 ; e.g. At-Ba 

5173.5. 3215-8 

écnuad detraction 1935. écndag, 

O'Mulc. 357 
écomúalm a false allileration 1942, 

5061, ecomfúaim 5212, ecommuaim 

2064.6, 2170, ecomuaim fidraid 5217 ; 
e.g. 5215,6 

«cor an overlaying, adorning, orna- 

menting, g.s. 1930. Tbc, 
ecsait hollow of knee, hough 1854, esgat 

5035. Lor. Gild. 180, 4 
écse f. learning, poetry 2007, 5244. Wi. 
écuibdius m. a false rhyming 1943, 

5059. 5190- 2060, 2163 ; e.g. 5192-5 
écumans -want ofpotuer, weaJtness 969, 

970,7, 1205,7,4317,8 
éd fre, fo edh 4« teine 2844. áed, 


ed law A- ed dliged 2730, 1479, 4577, 
fo fedh -i- maith a edh 2823. Lec, 

ed a space, extent, mo a ed 1470,8, 
treith a ed 1476, f-edh ae 407, mo a 
fedh a n-airdi 4575, ria head 2175. 


ed ^;-//f/, ed uath 1195. 4298. O'Dav. 

éd protection, shelter, fo a edh •i- a 

fosgadh 2845. O'Cl. 
edad (i) an aspen : (2) the Ogham 

letter e 1195,4298, 5591, 5656, edad 

•i- eu 5522. O'D. Gr. xxxii. 
edenn itiy, edeand 1188,90, eidheand 

4286, edind 1197. O'MuIc, 
edlend honeysuckle, gl. uilleand 11 97, 

4301,3, 5524, 5605,6, eithlend 4302 
eiplt f. a billhoot, epit 5728. St. Crit., 

p. 33 : O'Mulc. 407 
eireteacht f. heresy 61, 2349 
ela swan 5696. Ir. Gl. 509 
eladnach artistic, trained, professional, 

fiiideacht e. 2462,3 
eladu f, art, skill, craft, g.s. do fis 

cecha healadna 4940 ; a.s, cen 

eledain 1751 
elend elecampane, woodbine 5523, 5660. 

Hog., p. 31 
elet f. a hind, doe, elit 1185, eilit 4282,3 
elg nohle •!• oirrderc 2517, 2294, 3541. 

ellach n. (l) a union, comhination, com- 

posiíion, i n-elluch focail 902, 3780, 

Sg. 25 ''13: (2) a 7>ietre, n.p. vii 

primeillge 743, 3510 ; g.p. i n-anocht 

n ellag 5224 ; d.p, dona vii primell- 

gibh 1686. Ir. T. iii. 28, 28 : 

O'Dav. 765 
emain f. metj e proper to a cano, eamain 

1578, ind emain 3673. Ir. T. iii, 

emancoll {\)witch hazel .• (2) Ogham 

douhle c, X 4421,6, 5526, 5612, 

emoncoU 1364, amancoU 1365, emun- 

coll 1370, 5613, eamancoll 1372 
emilt prolix, tedious 637 
emnach double, twin 5907 
emnad a doubling 439, 2890, 1373, 

Lat, dualitas \2ii. Sg. 3 "II, 16^7 



emnaide (i) doubled, coll e. 5526 : (2) 
a doubling, a se dec emnaiti 4518, 
emoncoll ar a n-emnaide 1364 
emnaim / doufile, 3 s. pres. pass. 

emnaither 4422 
énalrecht f. a fowling 5803. énaire, 

enech honour, honour price 1334 
engracus place, effect, ingrecus 'i' 
greim 1722, eungradus -i' greim 
4912. Sg. I2»4, 3o''i6, 61*5 
enistrafen v. anastroprie 
ennacosse Sampi 900, Gk. éfva.^ócnoi, 

p. 86. TP. ii. 285, note h 
eó a yew-iree, a tree, iobhar •!• eo barr 

semper 4300, 5130, eu 5523. Aíetr. 
eólach leamed, shilled, im eolach 2027, 
eolaig 2003, fer roeoiacli a mberla 
5470. Laws 
eónasc ousel A- lon 5601 
epaid f. Lat. veneficium, a philtre, 
charm, bricht •i^ epaid 4540. TP. ii. 
248, 7 
©pe a cutting, apocope, selecting, selection 
349) 350» 385, 2711, a dichned, epe 
•i' tepe 390. Laws 
epert f. a word, d.s. 1557 ; g.p. 592 
epscop m. Lat. episcopus, bishop, escop 

5267. Fel? 
ér noble •i- eur uasal 2689, 2694. Metr. 
er a beginning, er gach toiseach i, 2270. 

ur, Metr. 
erc red, spechled 5701. O'Mulc. 414: 

earc, O'Br. 
érchoiliud m. definition 3443,5 
erchra a withering aivay, decay 4299,- 

ercro erlapra 4724. Wi. 
er(ar)-dl-báidim / submerge, destroy, 
elide, 3 s. pres. co n-irdiphand 3920 ; 
inf. airdíbafea'4338, urdipí/aí/4322 
ergnaid distinguished 5589,90. Gor. : 

cf. Wi. 
éric f. a fine, penalty, cia heraic 2193. 

erlabra f. (l) speech, expression urlabra 
635: (2) a composition, da locht deg 
na hirlabra 1943 
erlonn f. m. (l) a hafit, shafit of spear, 
spear-bed, aurlond 1621, erlonn 1704, 

aurland 4699 : (2) a preceding luord 

indicating the gender ofi the noun 

fiollowing ; it comprises the pronouns 

é, í, ed 618, 1623,4, and the numerals 

dá dí, trí teora, ceithri ceitheora 

1625,9; aurlond no insce 1703, int 

aurlonn indsci 1705, ised, isi, ise 1876, 

585. 5934) 1626,7, 1632,5, irlond 

714, urlonn 1949, caiti int eurland 

4893 ; a.s. fri hurlainn 1633 ; n p. 

urlanda 1624,9, 1631, 1717, aurlunna 

1714; d.p. urlandaib 1624, 1634; 

erlond indsci 5077, urlonn insce 

1949, 2174, aurlond insci 21 17 

ernail f. kind, species, division 2046, 

d.p. ernailib 1893 ; n p. 3368, ernaili 

imchomairc 1925 partiiiones, Gr. Lat. 

iii. 459 : earnal •i- gne, BB. 302, 


erned m. an opening, analysis, explana-- 

tion, a oen erniud 357, 1248, ed aon a 

eirnedh -i- fuasgladh 2729,30. Lec. 

ernin ihe Ogham accent on final double 

consonants markitig an apparent vowel 

lengthening, the sign fior tvhich w n 255, 

817,9, 1357, 1547) airnin 2576, nion ar 

airnnin 4802, q.v. 

esba uselessness 628. Wi., 

esca moon, eusga mar Luan 3533 

esse f. (i) a zone, track (vix subst. esse 

status, iocus, Z? 657''), cf. for set na 

• aibgitri 5513, 1751,3,8 ; the meaning 

is strongIy influenced by (2), 896,7,9, 

903)5.7,9, 911,3, 3778,9, 3781.5,7- 

esse ab esoce •i- piscis, Cor. Tr. 70 ; 

esoce from zodiace (sc. zona). Pisces, 

the I2th sign of the zodiac, repre- 

sented by two fishes tied together by 

the tails, reproduced in the Oghara 

arris > — < (?). Cf. Origg. iii. 45 : 

RC. XXX. 416 : (2) Lat. 'esse, essentia 

3798, eisi adbarrda causal esse 
3800,4, eisi cruthoighti c7-eative esse 

3799, 3803,5. SR. 25 

etall no/de -i- uasal 1325, etaill 4642 
etardefrigim / differenliate, etarde- 

friges 895 ; inf. etardefriugud 914 
etardeliugud m. a distinguishing, dis^ 

tinction 845, 915 



etardeochraiglm / distinguish be- 

íween, etardeochraigiiis 3777 
etarderrscaigiud m. a distinguishing 

etargaire f. (i) Lat. comparatio^ etar- 

gaire . . • ar is i frecras in condelc 

847, 2774, 586, 587, 643,6, 3276; 

d.p. 850 : (2) inflection^ n.s. etargoiri 

640, 740 ; 848, 3280 ; deismeracht 

na hetergaire 3437 
etargnugud m. an interpreting, inter- 
pretation, etargnaghudh 845, etarg- 

nougiid 3282, 3374 
etargradimus (phps. Lat. inter- 

gredimur tve intervene") separation 

•i- foruaslaigeach 844, etargreim, E. ; 

foruaslaigthech 3716. Lec. 
etarsgarta parted, separated, berla 

n-e. 210, 1317, 2526, 4635 
étechta -improper, unallowahle 2772,5, 

edechta 378 ; as subst. isinn etechtu 

662, in etechta 732 
ethaim I go,Jind, take, 3 p. pres. guth- 

etait 363, 2740 ; 3 s. ? do-etait 363. 

Ped. Gr. § 716 
ethar f. a boat, ogam n-eathrach 6133. 

Lism. 2227, 4795, 4825, p, 310 : Wi. 
étlg hateful, hideous, base^ ugly 2066, 

aigned n-eitig 3130 
etir (in-ta) is eidir 3008, L. hetir •!• 

etis B. ivhich are found, i.e. lahich 

might have 5423. Cf. Ped. Gr. § 838 
étiud clothing, vesture, robe 5584. Wi. 
étrad eathradh 4213 L. dualiías con- 

jugalis, MaroSg, 18 
étrocht glancing, bright, luslrous, ro- 

hetrocht 5107 
étruime lightness, delicacv 2315, 2943 

faebrach keen-edged, sharp 2133 
fáed f. a crv, faidh 1486,4594, fáid 5131 
feelinn a seagull 5693. foilenn king- 

fsher, Wi. 
f-aicit an accident (?), f. co cuibdius 

1932. aicid, C. 
fair a bearing, littering, titter 1853, 

5034. foir, O'Dav. 360, loio 
falrcle a knee-cap, f. for glun 5008, 

5035. Tbc- Acall.'}Íoi,á, 

faiscre Lat. galmarium 1083. ■\- cáise 

no mulchán cheese, O'Cl. : LJsm. 
farcha a mallet, n.p. na forchai 147, 

na forchuda 2440 
fásach n. m. a commentarv, g.s. fasaigh 

337, 2685; n.p. fasaige 1303, 1337, 

fasoighe 4620, 4651, fasaigh 4624 
fáth a garment, coí^ering, shelter 5142. 

O'Dav. 855 
fáthach cleverness 2249. fath •!• 

íáthach -i- gliocas, O'Cl. : cf. O'Dav. 

fé fé alas ! fe fe flesc 4299, v. feth 
fecht a journey, company on a journey^ 

for feacht feili 2221,4, 2240,7. Wi. : 

cf. Laws 
fedem a stone •\- onn 5651 
fedil constant, steady 2135 
fedim / lead, send, put, 3 s. pres. fedoid 

2595) fédaid 2737,40, with affixed 

pronoun fsete 280 ; ipv, 2 s. fead 

2253, 2 p. feithith 2240 ; 3 s. pres. 

pass. antan fedhair a hindsge coir 

íuirre 3148, 3153, feudhair 4771, 

feghair 4777 
fedlend honeysuckle 1156, feithlend 

4250. Three Med. Gl. : C. 82 
fedm an effort, function 2007, 5556. 

fégaim / look on, regard, fegthair do 

thaebomnaib are regarded as conson- 

ants 5457 
fége f. heenness 5194. Fel? 
fége, féice a ridgepole, window 6l02. 

(juia praestat lucem domui, Cor. Tr. 

81 : Ir. T. iii. 76, I : RC. xiii. 120 
féil f. a feasí, hospitaIiíy, feacht feili 

2221,4, 2240 ; d.s. im feil Eoin 3837 ; 

g.p, féile 5192 
feis f. a pig, soTv, feisi 4543. 

féith a sinew, feich 1815. Cf. Laws 
fel poetry 3306, 3310,1. .i- éigsi, O'CI. 
fele/o,//-v, fele ai 3308. Cor. 7V. 74 
féle f. honour, uprightness, modesty, feile 

dano indracus 3309. Wi. 
feles a word or verse containing four 

syllables, teirasyllable 1214, 4474 ; 

1421, 1954 



fellsamnacht f. philosophv 53,7, 

2341)5.8, 3307 ; g.s. do uiledetaidh 

na feallsamnachta 2339 
fellsumh m. Lat. philosophns^ a philo- 

sopher 671, fellsamh 670, 3307. Wi. 
felmac m. a yonng síudenl^ pupil 331 1 ; 

dim. fjslmacán $34. Cor. Tv. 74 : 

femder a virgin 606 •[• ogh-ingen 

607, 3088 
feme Lat. rirgo 606, 3087 
femen •i- flesc, q,v. 610. Cf. femen •!• 

bean : seach ba fémen ba feindidh 

besides heing a woman she was a 

champion, O'Cl. 
femen feminine gender 522, 603,6,8, 

610, 620, 1714, feimin 3025, 3085 ; 

g.s. 191 3 
fenchas v. senchas 
Péne, Pélne the ancient /rish, berla F. 

2525, 1302. Fene •i- do rad dib ó 

Fenius Farsaid, Hy. ii. 40 n. 
Pénichus m. the old Irish laus, customs, 

and language, n.s. in Feinechus 4622 ; 

d.s. isin F. 633 
feochos having 7cithered /ooí, or trunh 

1160, feochuos 4255, feocus 5528,32. 

feochta, feochad, Din. : feodaigim / 

wiiher, Lism. .' Anec. iii. 43 
feólairecht f. Jieshiness, hutchery 

f eoru s a spindle-tree 1155,4250; 1196, 

4301. Lavvs 
feraim I give, serve, supfice, fit (?), 3 s. 

pres. feraid + pron. ist and 2nd sing. 

fertom it serves me 1618, 4691, feartot 

it serves thee 1619, 4692. Cf. Thur. 

§ 428 : fóirim, Din. 
ferda manly, masculine 1463,4, 1503, 

191 2. Thc. 
fernn f. (i) an alder, air is i in fern 

5537, fern 1154, 4249, fernn 5494, 

5622, in fern 5536 : (2) the Ogham 

letter f, fernd 1168,9, 4264, airdibdad 

ferna 1283, for ferna 1281, tucad o 

fernas 5538, fern •i- fearn sin isin 

caill 5514 
ferrdris a doghrier, cur-hrier 4295. 
Three Med. Gl. 

ferthain Lat, p/uvia, rain 4220 

féth 'i. fe 7.'e, alas ! 4294,9. Cor.- 

§ 606 : Tr. 75 
feth smooth, sup. fethim saire 5651. 

O'Dav, 1004 
íí poison, venom, fi a ournna 331 1. Cor. 

Tr. 79 
fí had, fi oulc 3312, 1421. Metr. 
fí anger, indignalion, fi ani aerais 669, 

3308. aimríar, Metr. 4 
íiaclach toothlihe 6093 
fíad f. honour, g.s. litir fiadha 4545 
fíadach ^í7;«i?, hunting, for fiaduch 113^ 

fialus m. hindred, relalionship, cona f. 

1747. Laws 
flannamailcecheterdarai the biggest 

u'ord in Gaelic 1435, 1740, 4523 
fiar croohed, awry, co fiar athwart 5788 
flchim / boi/, 3 s. pres. dia fich in 

domun 2204,6. VVi. 
fid m.(i) wwí/ 853,4,5,6,7,8, 1182 : (2) 

a vowel 917, 1340,1 ; n.p. feda 919 ; 

d.p. 764, 1343 ; a.p. frisna cuic feda 

260 : (3) a letter, an Ogham leiter, 

one 0/ the 7 heads 0/ accidence or 

structure, i.e. fid, deach, réim, forbaid, 

alt, innsce, etargoire 739, 762,3 ; g.s. 

feadha 769 ; g.p. feadh 769 
fidat hird-cherry (?), fidhat II 56, 

fidhout 4251. fidach copse, shruhs^ 

hrushwood, Lism. : Blog. 
fidba hedge-hill 5725. //-. Gl, 797 
fidbad f. wood, for fhidhbait 818, 3644. 

fidrad coll. vowel letters, letters, n.s. 

3879 ; g.s. couir fiodraid 3874, cen 

ecomuaim fidraid 5217, 5363. Cf. co 

n-imuaim fidraig, //-. /. iii. 29, 12 
fidrad freccomail an alliteration he- 

iween t/ie /ast word of a stanza and 

t/ie first (stressed") word of the fo//ow- 

ing stanza, fidhrad freucuomail, e.g. 

/ound. Cie /euth 3879, comfhuaim 

fhidraid 5363. Cf. Fe/."-, p. 14 x : 

/;-. T. iii. 29, 24 ; 30 y 
filidecht f. the art of the poet, poetry 

5798 ; g.s. vii ndeich na filideachta 




fillim Ifold, bend, inflect^ 3 s. rel. fillis 

4474 ; impf. subj. filled 4474 ; pass. 
ni filltir 788, 3596 ; inf. filled m. 

4475 ; d.s. i ffilliud 1638 ; n.p. fillti 
1664, 4732, isna filltib 1541 ; part. 
pass. fiUti inflected 905, 3788 

filltech (l) injiected^ dealba filltecha 
1641 : (2) m. infiection 1656 ; n.p. 

filltigh 1660 ; oenfilltech 1668 
filltiugud m. an vtfieclioH, a preposi- 

tional case, n.p. filltigthi 1515, 1637 
fín L. ifin q.v. 5434 
find, finn white, muc finn milch-sovj 

5669,70 ; g.s.f. finni 5672,4,7 ; irfind 

5701. Metr. Dinds. ii. 42, 20 
findcholl white-hazel llS(>, 42 5 1 
fine f. afamily, trihe, g.s. 2286 
finemain f. a vine-tree 1186,7, 4284,5 
fír-dinggim / truly press, compress, 

arin bfoucal fir-dinggeas 3664 
fisid Lat. sciendum 3523. Wi. 
fiss m. kiiowledge g.p. fess 2237 
fíu worthy, worth, like (with accus.) 

5231, na feo air coindelc (?) 3728. 

Cf. a forbthib fio from perfections of 

goodness, RC. xxvi. 16 : •i- cosmail, 

H. 3. 18, p. 625* 
flaithius m. a reign, g.s. co deredh 

flaithiusa 1122 ; d.s. o fhlaithius II2I 
flann red, blood-red 5698. Wi. 
flesc f. a rod, line, a strohe or score for 

an Ogham letter or part thereof 964, 

jenfleisc 976 
flesc bun fich a root offighting, Metr. 

E. 13 ; femen •i- flesc 610, Lat vimen 
flescda sheliered, delicate 610, 3089. 

flesc afence, hedge, O'D. 870 
fó good -X' maith 2822 ; 580, 1421, 4476, 

2844,5, íó Die 3341 ; in compos. 

fochosach well-footed 6062, fond 

fochrotha 5105, iar fofis 479, fo- 

fherinsce 576. Ascoli, cccxxxiv. 
fo-berlm / attach, seize, catch, 3 s. fut. 

fombera 5343 
fo-chanaim / sing to, brec i fochanar 

5235,46. TP. ii. 290, 7, 8, 9 
focheird throws, 3 s. pres. 5131, 

íocert 5143 ; p. pass. focertad 451, 


fochloc, m. dim. fochlocán a poet of 
the seventh rank, do fochlocain 2252. 
Ir. T. iii. 112 : Laws : Cor. 
fo-chrom slightly hent 5932 
foplach having words 2133 ; d.s.f. 

ilfoclaig 1558 

fod Lat.foetus 1479. O'MuIc 561, 587 

fodail f. a division, n.s. fogail in anma 

5772 ; n.p. fodla 2005, fogla 5490, fodla 

feda shruhs 1151,5. Laws, sub fid 

fodá(i)lim / divide, 3 s. pass. fodailter 

6064, secip ni fodhlaidir 456 
fodailt a dividing, division, for fodailt 

doib 1244 
fodb n. arms, spoils, fadb 5395 
fogal f. injury, damage, d'fhoghlaib 

2124. O'Dav. 929 
foglaim f. learning, vii bliadhna na 

foghlama 2477 
foglaimim / learn, o rofoghlaimet na 

hilberlac 216. Laws 
fo-gliunn / learn, 3 s. impf. subj. 
nofouglainnedh 3999 ; 3 s. fut. pret. 
nofoglaindfedh 1045 ', 3 ^- pret. pass. 
rofoghlointi 2454. Wi. 
foglúaisim / move, disturb, disqiiiet, 
3 s. pres. fon-gluaisi 1225, 4535 ; 
3 s. fut. pass. fotgluasfither 5348. 
Triads .• Wi. 
fo-gonaim I wound, destrov, 3 s. pass. 

fogouar 5224,7 
fograigim / sound, i s. pres. fograigim 
399, 2820 ; 3 s. pres. fograigit 368, 
fograided 2750 ; inf. dia fograigud 
451, 2823, 2914. Cf. Laws 
fogurda voiced 906, 3788 
fóidim / send, 3 s. pres. nos-foidend 
382, 2759 ; 3 p. pres. fuidhit 359, 
2736 ; pret. pass. rofuidhedh 1041, 
2544 ; p.p.p. guth fuiti 359, 382, 
faiti 2736, fouiti 2758 
foilchesta the composite Ogham letters 
qu, ng, sr 429, 439, 2874,8, 2893, 
foillgiud (fo-sligim) a smearing 1756. 

Felr : Eriu vii. 194 
foimtiu f. a consenting, allowing, ad- 
imtting, for íoimdin na focul 1370, 
4426. Laws 



foirbthe perfect^ complete 592, 1414, 

airim forbthi 1445,6 
foirim / help, 3 s. pres. foirid 3637, 

pass. foirther 2114, rel. fouiiius 3402; 

3 p. pres. foirit 2170, foiret 2171 ; sec. 

fut. 3 s. nasfurfead 5164, nosfirfed 

foirithnech helpful 2647, 4404. Laws 
fo-línim / make full^ supply, multiply, 

nocho nfuillter 1444, nach fuillter 

folliucht (fo-slicht) track, version, re- 

cension, iar fuilliucht aili 1361, 4503. 

foltchain having iJuhite hair 5529,32 
foluach m. a small whaie (?), n.p. 

foluaich (fobluaich) 5933. bloach, 

folud m. substance 912 
fo-luigrim / hide, conceal, cindas 

fhailgit a n-ulcu 2008 ; inf. folach, 

caingen falaigh 2185 
fond m.feld, land 5105. CC. 
fo-nialus slight nullity, for fonialus 

foraicme an additional or diphthongal 

group 5676 
foráil an excess, addition 2778. Wi. 
forba an end, completion, n.s. a forpa i 

nguthagaiph 3006, 3003 ; g.s, do 

focul forba anaile 930 ; d.s. a forba 

1587, iar forbu 1735, co forbu 519, do 

forbau 1305. Fel? 
forbaid f. an accent, n.s. is forbaid 

1575. 740, 810,2,5,7,8, 821,2,3,4, 924, 

1544, 3633, 4767 ; g-s. 1406, ag 

fuacra na forbaidi sin 1561, ig incosc 
na forbaide sin 1563, 1568, esse 
fuirbhthe 907, 3789 ; a.s. fri forbad 
1951 ; n.p. scribtar na forbaide-sea 
1551, forbaidi 4768, a forbhthi 1817, 
fuirbthe 1545, 1878, forbthe 1855, a 
fuoirpdai 5005, i fuirmthe 5036 ; d.p. 
forbaidib 820 
forbaim, forbim / complete, perfect, 
achieve, 3 s. pres. forbaid 812,5, 
nachas-forband 2122 ; rel. forbes 
4519 ; pass. forbaider 253, forbaither 
6036. Gor. 

forbeóim / vivify, forbeoidh 812,3, 

for-bríg f. overstrength, overemphasis, 
overstress, cen f. 1941, 5062, 5155, 
2054, 2158 ; e.g. in 5157-9 the last 
sjllables of uile, chena, are stressed to 
begin the next line, with no elision 
before vowels (?) : so betha 5162 

forbriste brohen up, articulate 906, 

forcmachta facticious, onomatapoetic, 
ainm f. 1614, 4697. Sg. 30 '^I 

forcraid excess, oenflesc forcraid 5872. 

for-dám f. a great company or party 

fordingim / compress, 3 s. pres. fri 
fourbaid fordingi 3647, v. ardingim 

f ordúnta foreclosed, fore-enclosed 6086 

forfid m. (i) a diphthong, n.s. 1340, in 
forfhid 1342 ; n.p, na forfeda 1344, 
549I1 5510 ; gp- na forfid 5417 ; d.p. 
do forfhedhaib 765 : (2) forfeda 
additional letters 6112,6, 6121,5 

f orfuillim / add to, fill up, 3 s. pres. 
foruillid 1565, 4796 ; inf. forfuilled 

forglas blue, dark blue 5669 ; g.s.f. 
forglaisi 5671,3,6 ; d.s.f. oc forglais 
5934- Cf. Tbc. 

foriadad m. a shutting up, g.s. foriata 
inclusive, 697, 3327. Tbc. PH. 

forinnsce added gender 574 

forleithe breadth, comprehensiveness la, 
2276, 2316 

formarius many-faced, vigilant 3642, 
811. Dignitas in Monasteriis. Qui 
in bonis sit forma, qui caeteris 
monachis vitae suae ratione prae- 
luceat, siu potius qui monachorum 
spiritualitati invigilet. Senior qui 
aptus sit ad lucrandas animafe, qui 
super monachos omnino curiose in- 
tendat et sollicitus sit. — Ducange 

formcesta f. composite Ogham letters 
2902, teora foirmcestu no imcesta 

foi'molad m. (l) a belauding, hyperbole, 
superlative degree 645, 3268 : (2) the 



addition of a syllahle, on, to a luord 
1945, 5067, 1991, 2082, 2151, 2164 ; 
e.g. fer-on 1793, ben-on 1839, nem- 
on 1859, fir-on 1983, gand-on, ann-on 
5284,6. án •!• tormach siUaéibe (•i- 
lormolad), Cóir An. ; RC. xx. 150 

foro-fodlaím and for-fodlalm / sni- 
divide, 3 s. pres. forofoglaid 282,foro- 
foglait 2597, 3 s. pret. forfodail 2473 ; 
p.p.p. forfogailti 4024. fofodail sui- 
division, Laws : Str. Gl. 6, 20 

fororc m. a ^o<§' 5677,8; dim. fororcán 

forrach a stretching -i. rigi 1330, 4646 

forrán (l) aggravation, anger, oppres- 
sion, violence, g.s. buaidir foranna 5986 : 
(2) comparative degree 645, 3267. 
forran •!• fírbrised, Triads, 186, gl. 

forrgim / injure, hurt, co forrgidis 
1332,4647. Wi. : CC. 5681: Aisl. 

fors chance iTj, 733, 2773,4,5,8. -i. 
toceth, TP. ii. 362 : .i- casus -i- 
totaim, O'Mulc. 579, 578 : cf. Origg. 
xviii. 15, I f. 

forsail the accent on a long svllahle, the 
Ogham sign of -which is s 1405, 1573, 
gai ind fhir forsail 1820, sail a n-inad 
forsail 4459, forsail for fout feudhair 
4771, scribthar sail ar forsail 4803,435, 
813,19. 1356, 1546.8, 1556,9,62,4,5, 
3634,5, 4769,93 

for-tá is upon II3Ó, fordota 4003, 
4237,9, forsata 156, forbid 81 1 ; 3 p. 
foratuit 244, fordotait II46, 2559; 
impf, subj. 3 s. forbeiih 2419 

fortciud m, a covering, obscuration, 
tre f. 2774 ; g.s. berla forteidi 'i. for- 
dorcha no ruamanta 1323, fortcidi 
4640,4621. fortuigim, Tbc: fortched, 
RC. XX. 148, X : fortchide, Ml. 29"! 14, 
fortgaidi, 90"^ 2 

fortgellaim / declare, express, pres. 
3 s. forlgellaid 2795; P^ss. ni fort- 
gelW/2794. -^"^- 

fortórmach n. an addition, a super- 
nddition, g.s. in fidh forthormaigh 
1735,7. 4928, sillab fortormaigh 2968 ; 
fortormacht f. id., cona fortormacht- 
aiph 2510,1 

fortud invocative case (?) 1522, 1652, 
1784, 1884, 4981 

foruaslaigeach an intervenin^, 
dominating, etargradimus ■\- f. 844, 
foruaslaigthech 3716. Cf. fuasglad, 
fuaslaicteach a loosening, Lec, sub 

fossugud m. a resiing, halting, ic 
fosugud o focul co focul 1595, 4675. 

fot n. m. (l) length, in fad as as far as 
581 1 : (2) a long syllable 1339, fot n- 
aiccenta 4374 ; g.s. fuit 824, 1353, 
fuid 1552 ; d.s. for fut 812,4, 1564, 
for fot 1546, fri fat 1072 ; d.p. forna 
fodaib 1536. Sg. 5 »9, 12 

fotach long, n.p. fotaig 4378 

fotaigim I make long, lengthen, iarsinni 
foutaiges 3652 ; inf. dia fattugud 

fotha m. a foundaiion, basis 687, 690, 

2735,58,9- Wi. 

fothalgim I foiind, fothoigim 2819; 

3 s. rel. fothaiges 814 
fothorand f. a suhordinate part, suh- 

division 1897,8, 1920,1 
foth.VLÚ.fundative case 1524, 1662, 1786, 

1885, 4982. Cf. feinne fothud, Wi. 
fothugud m. a foundinfi, positive 

degree 644, 657, 3267 
foxul ablaiive case, n.s. foxal 4741, 

foxaul 1522, foxla 4754, foxlaid 1882, 

1890 ; g.s. foxlan 1645, foxlacha 

1647, foxlada 1661,7 ; d.s. ina foxlaid 

1677 ; a.s. co foxlaid 906 
fráech, fróech m. (i) heath, heaiher, 

n.s. in fraoch 2834, 1157,4251 ; II95 : 

(2) hair, mane, fraech frithrosc 5994, 

6008 Metr. : Fian, 
frecnarc interrogative case 1886. Gr. 

Lat. iii. 133 <*/ seq. 
frecndairc, frecnairc apresent person 

or tense 1942, 2056, 2l6l. Sg. 167'' 
fregarthach m. an answering to, cor- 

responding to, equivalent 1085 i n-P^ 

freacarthaich 1090, 4084 
fresgabál f. (i) an ascending, arad 

fresgaphala 2426 : (2) ascensive case, 

íresgabhail 1527, 1663, frescbail 1789, 



fresghabail l886, fresgapail 4984. 

freslise (i) íí lying down, subsiding, 

freisligi foghair 4724 : (2) desidative 

case 1523, 1653, 1791, 4985. Wi. 
frichnamach diligent, carefu/, attentive, 

keen 4050. Din. 
fris-oirgim / violate, hreak, cona 

fri[th]ortud tecta (?) 1938. Ped. Gr. 

frith has heen found 2124 ; 3 pl. fritha 

frithgnam m. diHgence $194. FeU^ 
frithindleadach a counterpart, eguiva- 

lent 313, 771, frithindlidech 2649, i f. 

Laitne 3569 
frithrusc hacku'ards 5824, 5968, 

5994,5,8, 6008. friLhrosc, Lisni. : 

frithroisc, Acall. 2327 : frithroisc •i- 

i n-agaid tsrotha, Anec. v. 25, 7 n. 
frith-saisim I attach repeatedly, fre- 

quent, study, part. necess. is fretede 

899, is freitighe 3781 
frithsuide retaliation, reprisal, fri- 

suithi 1933. focul i frithsuide, Arch. 

C. P.\. 160 : Laws : O'D.: O'Dav. 1547 
fuach a ivord 254, di fuach 3569, 

daghfuach 3570 
fuachonn, fochann a hlade of corn, 

hraird c^e,c,S. Fel? : fochannm.,HSD.: 

fochon, Lism. : cf. foichne, Triads 
fuam sea .i- muir 5444 
fiiar sea •{• muir, B. ; •i- dilend •i- muir. 

L^ 5443 
fubai (fo-ben) error,fault, fad nad fubai 

5459. cen fubae, Sg. 26»8: cf. Wi. 
fuirid (?) gl. derg maesem 5936 
fuirmed (l) a placing : (2) depositive 

case 1776, 4976,7 
fuirmim (fo-rimim) / place, set, 3 s. 

pret. forruim 5397 
f ulang supporting 1 808 . fuolach 4994 
furáil excess, too much, overfow 1566, 


gabul f. afork, hranch of a family, g.s. 

gabla 5335. WL 
gabur m. a goai 540, gabar 3170 ; gabair 5230. Cor. Tr. 83 

gáe, gá m. a spear, g.s. craind gíe 

1173, airell gai 4892 
gáes f. acuteness ofmind, wisdom 5271 
gáeth wise, gceth 500,1, 2970 
gair n. a short syllable 819, 1072, 1339, 

1547, gairn-aigenta 4375,6; g.s. 1552 
gáir f. a shout, voice, gair guth 665, 

3281, •'v guth 3717. Felr 
gairdigim I shorten, 3 s. rel. co nach 

sail gairdigius in foucal 3665 
gait f. (inf. of gataim) a tahing away, 

stealing, a gait 2179 
galmalam lasin 'L-úta&oxx pressed curds 

1084, gourmarium 4078. galmiUa^ 

galbanum, genus pigmenti vel succus 

vel lac ferule, Ducange, Suppl. : gal- 

mulum, Pl. Vit. Sanct. ii. 382 : gal- 

mirum (galmarium), BB. xviii. 68 
gamnach f. a milking cow with a year- 

old calf a stripper 5762. Wi. : Laws 
gann, gand sparce, scanty, a formolad, 

gand-on 52S4, ann-on 5286 
garmain f. a weavers bsam, g.s. ginol 

garmna 1175, 427I1 5543) 5626, o 

nin na garmna 5544 ; n.p. togaibter 

garmna 1176, togbaither garmna 

4272. Wi. 
gart hospitaiity, generositv, honourahle 

conduct 5271. Death Tales 
garta well-faced, comely 4060. gart -i. 

eineach, O'Cl. 
gat a withe, tie 5727 
géd a goose 1698, 4885, ngeigh 5695^ 

d.s. on geig gotha 1698. Wi. 
geilt (O.L gleith) a grazing, paslure, 

d.p. gehaib 1189 ; inf. of gelim 
géim n. a roar, shout, d.s. on geimira 

1698, on geim 4885. Tbc. 
gein n. (i) hirth 626, 2487: (2> 

pl. gene generations, younglings, off- 

spring, glossed as couple, pair 570^ 

1812,3,4,5,6, 1854, 5) 1878; a ngen- 

side 1950, a genis de -i^ géin 5080^ 

5412. Cf. O'Dav. 1034 
geind f. a wedge, ngend 5727, Wi. 
géis a swan, gilithir geiss 3960, 5695, 

giHdir gési 5320 
gelt mad, wild 1185, 4283, 5551 ; n.p. 

gelti5554. CC. 



Senas m. chaslitv 5271 

senemain a birih, iarna g. 5650. Wi. 

genitll f. genitive case^ a ndelbh genidli 

1644,6, 1668, geinitli 4847, for a 

ginitil 361 1. Laws 
ges, geis a ban, prohibition, tabu, ba 

ges 5943. Wi. 
getal (l) a reed, the brooni plant A. 

gilcach 1190,1, 2576, 4287, 5521 : (2) 

the Oghatn letter ng 255, 442, 2896, 

5584, ngedar 5929. O'D. Gr. xxxii. 
giall m. /oiver jaw, tnandibU, cheeh, g.s. 

a delidin litterda, da gnuis in gelli 

gibe a modelling (in gypsum), ngibue 

5801. O'Mulc. 651 : Ml. sg*»? : cf. 

Origg. X. 119 
gllcach the broom plant II 57, 4252 ; 

1190,1, 4287,8 ; 2576, 5521. TP. ii. 

46, 18 
gille m. a lad 5715 ; triple dim. in 

gillgugan 708, in gillccuccan 3463 
gin m. mouth, i ngenaib 1594. VVi. 
ginol maw, g. garmna 1175, 55 16, 

5543) 5626, giniol garmno 4271. 

gíUS afir-tree II53, 4248 ; 5521 ; g.s. 

irand giuis I194 
glaiss f. a stream, rivulet 1810, glais 

glas a streain 1065, teit an glas 4021 
glas green, grey, silverv nglas 5700 ; 

compar. glaisiu I189, glaisium cnis 

5617 ; equat. glaisithir 3500 
gléim / make clear, set in ordev, I pl. 

imper. gleam 5090. Wi. 
gleó a fight, n.s. 5371 ; a.s. gliaidh 980 
gleóir splendour 5429 
glére f. choice, elite, fiotver, n.s. in 

ghleiri 2228 
glése traci, pursuit 5877, etergleithi 

•i'gleas etarro 3282. glethe •!• slicht, 

Tbc. 712 ; V. geilt 
glése f. brightness, g.s. 5247,50. /y/.'- 
glólr Lat. gloria is gloir glan 2213. 
glonn ni. a deed 1548 ; g.p. 940. Wi. 
glonn m. champion, hero 5120. RC. 

XX. 144, 23: 'i- gaiscech, H. 3. 18, 

p. 626'= 

glór a noise, sound, gan glor 2049, 

glúar/«;v, c/ear, bright 51 31. Wi. 
gluas f. a gloss, n.s. gluas 54, 234.2, 

2417. Z.- 22*» 
gnáthach usual, leas roghnathach 

gnáthugud m. a using, usage 843 
gnéach specific 858, 861, gnethach 

gním m. (l) rt deed : (2) active voice, 'i 

ngnim 642, 65 1 ; g.s. briathar gnima 

1620. torand gnima 7 cesta, Sg. 

gobur f. a horse, a lahite horse, is i in 

gabuir 539, is i in ghabair632, gopar 

3169, gobar 3207,15. Meír. 
goibnecht f. smithwori, gaibneacht 

5801. Laws 
góidelc f. the Gaelic language, gaidelc 

3504, 3541, gaedelc 2517, gaedelg 

2482, gaoidelg 2282 ; g.s. filid na 

gaidhilcci 4525, gaidilci 4964, gaoi- 

delce 2836 ; d.s. isin gaidilc 401 1 
goim f. paiji, anguish, gan goimh 2051. 

golaim / wail, weep, 3 s, pret. fut- 

gclfad 5288, gulfad 5294. Fel? 
goour, goor light, solus isin mBretnus 

3208, cach solus 3215. O'Cl. : cf» 

gabar bright, Lec. : Metr. 
gorm blue 5700 ; sup. ? guiremh dal 

gort (i) ivy •{• edeand 11 87, eidheand 

4286, 5494, -i- gius 5521 : (2) the 

letter g 2896,8 ; g.s. bogad guirt 

4328 ; d.s. do gourt 4324 
gort m. a cornfield, n.s. in gort 5559 ; 

d.s. ar gurt 562, frisin gort arba 

5558, 6044. do gherr a nguirt uile, 

A.U. 1412 
gortigernd the language 0/ heaven 

190, goirtigern 2494, goirtigthern 

2434. Keat. Hist. ii. 3. Cym. 

vortegernos, Ir. Fortchern overlord 
grád m. rank of the poets, in gradh 

onni is gradus •i- ceim 3284. H. 4. 

22, 4-6 : nemid fri gradaib filed, LL. 



graif fl grave accetit, amal bis graif 

4786, graib 1557, in graiph fil and is 

ondi is grauis, Cor.^ 708 : graif, 

Sg. 22o»4, 22o*'8, 213*2 

gráinne a point, pin, graini in g£e 1706, 

4896. Arch. C.P. i. 479: Wi. 
gramadach grammar, n.s. 54, 2342, 

eter gramadaigh 51, 2339 
grande Jmteful, hideous, super. 

grannium 548 
Grec f. the Greeh tongue, Greek, n.s. 

Greig 2281, 2311, 2459; g.s. Grege 

3765 ; d.s. a Greic 353, 2716 
grés a ii<ork, handicraft 239, 2554, gres 

sair 5631. Wi. : Beath. Col. 
grinne a bundle, band, company, grinne 

sair 2539. Gor. 
gruc a hero, g.s. golh gruce 5288, 

gruice 5294. 'i- laoch no garb, tit 

dicitur, guth gruice cruth mbrege 

7rl., Cor. 7>. 90 : grúig -i- Isech, 

H. 3. 18, p. 625« 
grus curds, cheese, grus •i- tanach 

X082, 1066, 4019,22,79, 1081,5, 4100. 

Laws : -i- tanach, Ed. 
gruth curds, Lat. galmula 1082, gour- 

maulo 4077. Wi. : Beath. Col. 
gruthrach Lat. galmalam 1084, gour- 

marium 4079. gruthlach curdled 

milk, P. O'C. 
gúal coal, g.s. smir guaili 5633. 

gúas danger,peril 5382 
S^iXhdiXi^&beahed, piercing 122%, 4535- 

Cf. gaeth guibelta, Acall. 383 
gus strength, povjer, high spirit, g.s. 

gossa 5314. CC. 
guthas wording, vocalisation 5276 
gutta f. m. (i) at'owí/358,ni sédh disi 

hi puddein 2762,7, e a guta 1534, 

guta 2735 ; n.p. guttai 1071, gutai 

1386 : (2) a letter, int aenguta the 

one letter, i.e. s, =sail 1727 

1 f. (i) an island^T^i, 4642 : (2) the old 
Norse name of lona, the latter being 
a misreading of Adamnan's loua 
(Jnsuld), i inis Coluim Cille 1228. 

iachlinn afish-pool, Lat. piscina 1092, 
4093. iach (g.s. of eó) •i- bradan, 
Lec. 239 
iachtad m. a screaming, yeUing, shout- 

ing\i,%\, 2378, 2797, 4868, 5575>6 
iarcomarc a concluding it'ord of a 
poem, a repeating two-thirds of the first 
accented word of the poem 936, 3865, 
ar in iarcomarc n-imslan 2210,3, 
iarcomarc bairdne 1588 
iarcomrac a word or verse containing 
three syllables, trisyllahle, •i- tret- 
sillasbach 3865, 1214, 4465 ; 1419, 
1953,4, d' iarcomruc 1936, a haon a 
n-iargcomarc 3539 
iarcuibdius an end rhyme 3841 
iarmtoerla (i) unaccented words i.e. 
dialt n-etarlemme and lorga fuach 
1307,13, 4620,30,2 : (2) the speech of 
lar Mac Nema, cryptic speech 13 14, 
1304, 4627,33; 2511,25. Cf. RC. 
xiii. 267 
iarnu a fawn 5842. iarndeo, O'R. : 

iarndoe, Trip. Gl, 31 
iarunn iron, amal i. 1314, iaranV 4633 
iascaireacht f. afishing 5803 
íath land, country 5328 34 
ibor a yew, service-tree, ibur 1153, ibor 
4248; 1196, 4299, do ibar 5523, 
5593,6, 5658 
ibroracht f. yew wood worh 5804. 

Petri R. T. 347 
íc a paving, d' icc na da fichet'2123 
íc 'a healing, remedy, oenicc 2083,4. 

^.(i)a.tprogeny, chiidren, race III2, 2261. 
•i- clann nó cenél, Cóir An. : Cor. 
Tr. 98 
idad (i) the yew, aspen 5593.5 : (2) 
the Ogham letter i, n.s. idad 1676, 
5659; tar idha 2795, idho I196, ida 
.i^ ibhar 5523, idhedh 2796, 4299 
ifín m. (i) a gooseherry, a gooseherry 
bush 5666, 520, brabifíin 3465 : (2) an 
Ogham diphthong or triphthong hegin- 
ning with the letter i, int ipin 4863 
5525,5611,5667. iphin, O'Br. 
llar n. (l) multitude, plurality : (2) 
plural number, n.s. a n-illar 1530; 



g.s. ceudpersa ilair 2675,6, 2757; 

d.s. tri a n ilar 2671,4, 1642,8, fri 

hilar 2058, ar ilar ndan 2159 
il- man\\ il-foclaig many-ií'Orded ISS^i 

il-ghnuiseach many-/aced 811 
illalt an eaglet (.') 5696. il-nat 
ilug"ad. m. ati amplifying, multiplying, 

illugud labartha 630, hilugud 634. 

ím hutter, g.s. rusc immi 636 ; d.s. im 

imim 637 
im-ad-cíu / consider^ part. nec. imcesta 

4359 ; inf. do imcisin 2901, imchisin 

4359- Cf. Ped. Gr. § 683 
imagallaim a conversation, i n-i. na 

Da Thuar 1328, 4644 
imairechtu a mutual sufficiency, in- 

vention, nir bo himaireachtain 2968 
imbert f. a playing, practice, prepara- 

tion, method, iarsin imraet no imirt 

imcholmét a mutual guarding, observ- 

i>'g 1975' 2003 
imchomarc m. (l) a question, int im- 

comurc 1248, is i. 123, 2403 : (2) an 

enquiring after, greeting, salutation 

5228, 5332: (3) anah'sis, parsing, áo 

ernailibh in imchomairc 1893, for im- 

chomarc 1894 ; v. ernail 
imcomairsnech mutual/y neig/ihourfy, 

cúrresponding, se himcomairsnig airme 

imcubaid mtduai/y r/iyming, imfhrecra 

i. 3822, comardad i. 3824 
imdaingen very strong, imdangen 5125 
imdeiligim / divide, distinguis/i, 

imdheilighter 996 
imdíchim (imb-di-fich) I protect, 3 s. 

pres. imdích 5333 ; inf. (im)degal, 

u llandegail 2042 
im - drengaim / g« round ahout, 

encompass, climb, imdrichaur 3931, 

imdreangair crand 949, imdrengar 

991. 3932 
Imfreccra a mutual corresponding, a 

corresponding, cenel ind imfrecrai 924, 

1513, isna foclaib in imfreccrai 958, 

immaircideyí//'/«,o' 492 

imm-air-iccim / meet, suit, fit, 3 s. 

pres. immairigh 526, imaric 622 
immar as 1968. Tbc. 
impsoud (imb-sóim) a turning about, 

anastrop/ie 510. tre impúth csl, Sg. 

im-raet a business, met/iod 5718 
imrind mutual point, common rhyme or 

termination, no in imrind bera re 

seachta 3713. Tbc. 
imsechfaid a regular repetition 1934 
imthimchell circumdative case 1526, 

1653, 1887 
imthormalgim / increase, 3 s. pres. 

rel. imatormaig 4549, 1232 E. 
imuca mutua/ c/ioice, c/ioice 498 
inannus a sameness, identity 1015, 

3964,5. Laws 
inchosc m. (i) a meaning, signification, 

denotation of gender and person, etar- 

goiri in incoisc 641,7,9, 673, ig incosc 

1 563181 ise int inchosc I9o5,ahincosc 

3977: (2) accusative case 799, 1519, 

ac ferjib(?) 1531, 1773, 1881, 1891 
indaithmech an anaiysis, explanation, 

do reir an indaithmige sin 3542, 

triana n-indaithmech 4637 
inde f. (i) a meaning 742, triana n-inde 

taithmeach 1319, inne 331, inni 831, 

2680, 2729: (2) quaiity 673, is i in 

indi 674. Lec. 169 
indell a yo/ting, question 1247, 4363. 

Wi. : O'Mulc. 
Indeóin an anvil 5728. Wi. 
Indid, innid in w/tic/t is, w/ien, since 

5121. Ériu I, 12; 120, 12: Thur. 

Hdb/c. § 776 
indilse inappropriateness, indlius ar 

indilsi 3710 
indische speec/i-way 572 
in-diupartach fraudu/ent, privative 

6074. diubartach /;■«««/«/('«/, Laws 
indles an tmproper use, Lat. barbar- 

ismus, Origg. i. 32, 4 ; 760,6, 821, 

indiles 764, innleas 749 
indotacht m. (i) an entrance, begin- 

ning : (2) ingressive case, ni bia int 

inutacht 1725, 1520, 1652, 1724,82, 

1884. Laws 



indsce m. (l) gender, indlius ind indsge 
3694, innsci 520,6, 714,5, 740, 3023, 
ferinnsci 521,9,31, 543, 565,7, 595, 
839, 3023, 3066, 1908, baninnsci 
521,9,31, 543, 550, 565, 596, 840, 
3024, 3070, 1908, demhinsce 521, 
530, 543, 550, 597, 840, 3024, 3074, 
1876, 1908 : (2) speech, i. cumascda 
1580, 1690, cumaisci 1589 

indsce airme ordinal speech 1715, 

indsce mod narration mode, repetition 
ofa itíord in the quatrain 1949, 5076. 

Ric in sithbi sithlas mag, 
Ric in dam tri coecat nglonn, 
Ric in giUa gusmar gann, 
Forfacaib Cú dinisc donn. 

RC. XX. 144, 

In-gra •i> ingrar unjilial, impious 4036. 
angar •!. mac ionghar nach bhfoghann 
da senoir do réir a dhualgais an 
unfilial son that is of no service to his 
father according to his due, Triads, 
159, gl., 235, gl. : cf. O'Dav. 1102 : 
ingor, Ascoli cccclx. 

innisiu f. a narration 572 

innunn to that side, thiiher, inund 
1579, anund 1585 

inrathaiste to be perceived 1352, 4415 

inrocomraircnigsiomairne the long- 
est word in Gaelic 4523, cf. 1436 ; v. 

insnitheach. infillited 6060. snithe. 

intech a ií>ay, amal intech legend 361, 
inntech in leigind 2739 ; inteach 
1758. Wi. 

interiacht an ititerjection 321, interecht 

intshliucht, intliucht m. sense, 
invention, research, g.s. derbad a 
intlechta 5471 ; a.s. tria intliucht 

iphín m. (l) a gooseberry \l<yj, 4304, 
int ipin 4863 : (2) the Ogham long i, 
the Ogham diphthong io, iphi 1294, 
1363, 1535.7.8, 1541,3, 1675,7; i 
medial and p 1369, 4425 

isa -whose is, ofwhich it is, isa oen 715, 

ithe an eating, ac ithi a chno 1 183, 4280 

labrad m. a speahing, speech, g.s. 

labartha 1952 
lacht milk, g.s. comet lachta 5622, 

imon lacht ; a.s. is i coimetas in lacht 

5623 ; a.p. gan lachta 4543. Wi. 
lachu a duck 5693. Wi. 
lad a mill lead, canal 5837. O'R. 
láiches f. a lay-woman, heroine, laechesa 

5718, laichesa 6150. Ériu vii. 194 
láld f. a metre proper to a doss 829, 

1578, 3672, 4654, Ised 1581, saerlaid 

2030, is i in laid 839 ; a.s. doni in 

laid 2194. Ir. T. iii. I16 
laiget smallness, weakness 1455, 45^8 ; 

4551, arolagat4i35 
laigtech weakly, weak 4135, luigtech 

láirce lórchaine, gl. lorga fuach, q.v., 

1692, lairge no lourgaidhe 4879. 

láarg f. 'L^X.furca, Cor. cf. Thc, 
Laitin f. tht Latin language, Latin, do 

muitibh na Laitne 3016 
Laitneóir m. a Latinist, n.s. 2910,2, 

lasin L. 449, 2909 
lán {l') full,- (2) afitll, a pbiral for a 

singular A- can dichned can dochned 

5073, mna a lan 1839, ben a lan 

1845, nem a lan 1867, 1946, 1994, 

2090, 2160, e.g. meni fhuilet 2198 
lánamain f. a couple, pair, neuter 

couple, n.s. 1809, 1810,1,3,4,5,6, 

lanamnai 1853,4 ; n.p. lanamna deme 

570, I. deimi 1949, 3257, 5079, 5406 
lánamnaide a couple, correlated pair 

1812, 1817. lánamanda, Laws 
lanchubaid (l) a couplet rhyme 929 : 

(2) perfect rhyme, ut est bas, las 1014, 

lán-chuibdius a rhyme at the end of 

the couplets in a quatrain 3840,58. 

/;-. T. iii. 9, 8 ; 130, 20: Ir. Metr. 

lánchumang m. full po^ver (pr tone') 

in simple vowels 1201,5,6,8, 43137,9, 

is e in I. 5459 



lánfogur a full totie 343, 454, 1073, 

2696, 2706, 2917 
lÁ.n.geimlec'h /ull-fettei-ed 802, geim- 

lech, l'ian. 
lánrélm (i) a full declension 796 : (2) 

full or perfect alliteration of the last 

two words ofthe line 3743, e.g. 3746. 

O'D. Gr. 416 
lár the ground, rosaig lar ind airíall 

17 10, rosauoigh lar co haireill 4900. 

Cf. bail ná ró do choss lár, Tbc. 1298 
Latindacht f. Latinity 355 
lébxLTÚBi pertaining to boois, iar n-urd 

lebhurda 66 
lec f. a stone, leacc 1358. Wi. 
lecla rushes '\- luachair I157, leclo 

4252. leclaidhe "i- luachair, H. 3. 

18, p. 626» 
legtachad m. a liquidising 2835. Cf. 

do lechdagaib, Sg. 5*10 
legulus m. Lat. a galherer 2285 
lóir diligent 55, 2343, 5195 
lem an elm II 54, 4249, 5619, 5925. 

lemnacht sweet milk, leamnacht 5806 
lenaim / follow, adhere to, 3 s. pret. 

nislen 5252 
léne a smock, g.s. leni 6033 
lenum m. a chiid, g.s. ainm in lenim 

5776 ; a.s. 5775 
leóalm / wound, 3 s. pres. leoaid 1582 ; 

inf. leóad ; g.s. leótha cend 5262. 

O'Dav. 1146 : leód ST. : cf. CC. 
léss m. a light, a.p. lessu 5090. •!• 

solas no soillsi, O'Cl. : Din. 
less advantage, need, fi les 1421, cethrar 

gnathless 2238, oen leas 2250, for 

gnathlessaib 2222, fria gnathlessa 

2226, 2232, 2242, fria leass 2246, 

íria leassa 2254. Wi. 
less m.fortress, frisin less 5125. CC. 
lessai£rim / attend to, provide for, 

studv, 3 s. pret. doleasaig 2634, 

roleasoig 2288 
lestar m. a nessel, n.p. lestair 5623 
leth a half ni certleath not an exact half 

1728, a ceirtleath 1449, ni certleth 

lethar leather, lethor 5004. Wi. 

lethchumangr a half-power in senii- 

vowe/s 1207, 4318,9 
lethcuibdius an internal half-rhyme 

lethgutta a semivoTvel, n.p. lethguttai 

445, 450,1, na leathghuta 461, na 

leathgutai 479, 513,5, 1060,70, l2lo, 

2904,6,25,82,4; d.p. 1207 
lethrand m. a couplet, half of a 

quatrain, g.s. fidh airedha in lethraind 

toisich 7 in 1. deirig 3946,7 ; a.s. 

cosin 1. ndeighenach 4662 
lí n. colotir, beauty, \\ n-aimbi 5540,1, 

li ambi II 70, \\ crotha 5662, li a 

danu fair 331 1 
II delight, pleasure, li sula 4263, 5535, 

li suad 4659, li anni molus 3308, 669. 

O'Dav. 1157, I197 
11 good, li maith 3312 
lia more, compar. of il many, is lia-te 

the more 635 
liaier m. a physician, g.s. luth lega 

1191, 4287, 5561 ; d.p. laisna legaib 

4288, 5561. Wi. 
Uath grey 5698, rohath 2070 ; g.s.f. 

leithi 5672,4,7 
líg beautv, colour, fo lid 6044. •i^ dath, 

O'Dav. 1197 : •!• maise, Lec. 
lige a lying down, inna lighi 1593 
líim / accuse, charge, sue, 3 s. pres. rel. 

liess 3385 
lil^rach f. a milch cow 5760. lulgach, 

Wi. : Laws ; loiligheach, Din. 
XÍTíflax 297 

lín m. a number 943,5, 959, 962, 5172 
líth activity 1815. -i. luth, O'CI. 
litir f. a letter, g.p. comcengal Iitrioch 

litirdeacht f. Hterature 55, 2343 
litterda consisting of letters, literary 

395. 2790, 5308 
locc a place, locality 1029, dul i llocc 

822. Wi. 
loch hero, cenn o lochaibh 5283. do 

loch •i^ do loech, RC. xx. 151 
loch í5/í7<-/f 5669 ; g.s.f. loichi 5671,3,5. 

log decay (?) 2095. logh loosing, dis- 

so/ving, untying, O'R. 



loman f, a rope^ cord 5725. Wi. 

londy?i?/-í:í, bold 5359 

lons f- aship, n.p. longa 5119 ; g.p. 942 

lonn f. a blade, a sword, aur-, ur-, iar- 
rem-Ionn 1703,14,4699, 4719. dorat 
beim don luinn •{• cloideb Conchobair, 
Tbc. p. IS9 

lorc, lorg f. (i) a staff, handle, n.s. 
1591 ; n.p. 1594: (2) lorga fuach 
staves of words, two unaccented short 
syUables betueen alliterating words 
1310, 1595,9, 1606, 1692, 1849, 1870, 
1981, 2099, 2140, 4672, hirga f. 4625, 
lorga dialta 2154, 5080, 5351, e.g. 
sal. Jm ba sessach, im ba seng 5355 

losc lame, loscogam 5771. •i- bacach. 
Ed. II, 22 : Lec. 

luaidim I speak, mention, luaidit 354 ; 
inf. luad expression 5612 

luam m. a pi/ot 868. /v/.^ 

luamnacht í.pilotage 5798 

lúan (i) moon : (2) Monday, doomsday 
(the Celtic world ends on a Sunday) 

lugugud m. (i) a diminishifig, lessen- 
ÍHgd^'j, 659: (2) a diminutive 1868, 
1946, 1995, 2094, 2152, 2166, 5075, 

5326, e.g. firini 1796, firin 4989. 
benine 1844, beinin 5028 ; Cnamine 

5327, Damine 5329 [i959- Wi. 
luib f. a plant, herb, d.p. du luibib 
luibenchosach m. a metrical foot or 

verse having seven svllables, hexasyllable 
121 7, 1424, 1955, in luipencoussach 
luibne a digit,finger, toe, cona luibnibh 

1424, 4479 
luis a hand •1« lám 4474. Metr. 
luis (i) the mountain-ash, elm, .i- o 

cantheand 1165, 5495, 5513, -i- 

lemh : (2) the Ogham letter 1 5535, 

5620,1. Lec. 
luisiua/rtwc, in 1. 5535. O'Dav. 1185 
lúith stammeting, diimb, luithguith 

452. luitguth 2914. Fel.^, Prol. 

287 note, cen loti (-i- cen bailbe) ; 

299 note, gen luithi •i- gen bailbe : 

loith, Songs ofSummer 
lurganda long shanhed 1227, 4537 

lurgu leg, shatti, shinhone, n.s. 1811 ; 
a.s. imon lurgain 5780,1 ; g.p. lana- 
main na lurgan 1815, 5003. Wi. 

lús f. taste, good taste, cona luis 206 1. 
•i- blais, O'Dav. 1195 

luss m. a plant, herb, n.s. lusogam 
5807 ; g.s. £ug in íossa 5572, ainm 
secip nach losa 5808 ; n.p. lossa 
fedha 1151,6, 4251, viii fidlosa 5493,6, 
for losaiph 2833. Wi. 

lúth strength, power, activity, 1. legha 
5561, I. bech 5624 

macdacht f. a maiden, n.p. macdachta 

5721. Wi. 
mac fuirmid m. a poet of the sixth 

rank 2248. Ir. T. iii. 112 
maccu, moccu a genitive, ofthe hittdred 

or race which follows, Cluain maccu 

Nois 5706 ; cf. Oenu (maccu Laigsi) 
machad some kind of agricultural in- 

strument 5727 
machdad wonder, mactad 5575, 

machtad 5577. Wi. 
mad- wel/, ni ma teit 2121. ST. : 

Thur. Hdb. § 383 
máel ba/d, hair/ess supl, maelsem, 

máeth de/icate,feeb/e, maitha 467 
máidthe to be praised, g/orified in, 

praiseworthy, magnificent, sonorous 467. 

a ghlaodh ghuithbhinn mhaoidhte, 

Re/iq. Ce/t. ii. 428, 30 : cf. Din. 
maigin f. an enc/osed p/ace, sanctuary 

6004; adj. maignech 5149, 5154, 

6004. Laws : Wi. 
maith good, compar. fearr, fearrson 

645, 3268 
maithchnechas a de/icate comp/exion 

611, cf. maothcnesach 3090 
maitnechas contentiousness 610, 

taidiuir -i- maidnech, Lec. 327 : cf. 

maitnechtaige, PH. 
mál m. a prince, nob/e, /ord, d.s. dun 

mhal to the poet 2245 ; a.s. tar mal 

5387 ; n.p. mail 5229. Wi. 
mala an eyebrow, malu 1813,4999 
mallrugrud m. a retarding, by (a) 

diaeresis 1945, 1991, 2137, 5069, 



5303 ; e.g. nobiad 5299, 5304, niab 

5301 : (b) introducing a letter into 

the viord, e.g. fer, feer 1794; ben, 

been 1841 ; nem, neem 1859 
malot fir]\áT7]s n shepherd (?) 2284 
mandraim, mannraim / destroy, 3 

s. pret. romannair 546. Wi. 
marbhán n corpse 3187. Din. 
marb-usce stagnant luater, for marb- 

usce 1321, 4639 
mascul 7iiasculine gender 522, 620, 

masgal 3024, 3082, mascol 603 ; g.s. 

1913. Sg. 66''I4, 18, 20 
masculini masculine 606. TP. ii. 

122, 24, Snpp. 
mass stately, handsome, n.p. Romain 

mais 2536, mais 2537. Wi. 
mednerc ivy •i- gort 5641. Anec. iii. 

41. 18 
medontach a medial position, fo medh- 

ontaig 4424,5, fo meodontacht f. 

1 369. medonda, /r. T. iii. 1 24 
raeighleach a bleating 540, 3170. 

méidhleach m. O'R. : méigiollach, 

O'Br. : megill, AisL 
mélachtnalgim / disgrace, i p. pres. 

subj. co ro-melachtnaigem 141, 2430. 

melacht, Wi. 
mell f. ruin, destrtiction 2793, RC. 

xxvi. 14, § 8 : Fei:^ p. 10 : Hail 

Brigit, 3 n. 
mér m. a finger, a toe, n.s. aenmer 

5783 ; n.p. mera 5780,7 
mét, méit f. size, greatness, meid 

673,4,5,6 ; a s. meit 5383 ; ar ata do 

met is luigtech in dobriathar for so 

u<eak is the adverb 4131 
métu£rud m. a magni/ying, increasing 

646, 658 
mi-alt a bad place, bad position, co na 

ma mi-ait lapartha 2978 
midach Lat. medicus, a phvsician, 

miodach ice 4289, etiud midach 5584. 

Co'. Tr. 113 : O'D. 
midiu a vine, gl. muin •!• midiu 5521, 

midiu 5926 
mí-diúite non-simplicity 4307 : v. diúite 
midiur / judge, estimate, mides 408. 

410 ; romesadh 931 

mí-fotha a badfoundation, n.p. mifothai 

míl an animal, beast, n.s. milchu grey- 

hound 5743 ; n.p. 5744 ; a.p. for mila 

muige hares 1 1 3 
milaideacht f. a soldiering 5801 
milis sweet, comp. millsiu feraib 5557, 

millsi 5559 ; sup. milsim feda 5608,9 
millse sweetness, millsi 1853 
min meal, m. arba corn meal 1294, 4396 
mín smooth,fine 1294, 4395 
mind n. a diadem 4395. Wi. 
minn m. a noble, sage, n.p. minna 5711. 

mind -v uasal no súi, O'Dav. 1220 
mintán m. f. a titmouse 3226, 542, 

5693, menntan 3172. O'Br. : mintu, 

Tog. Tr."^ 1356 
mirr myrrh 2450, 2614. PH. : RC. 

xii. 466 
mí-rún f. iU-will, ill-intent, g.s. miruine 

1306, 4629. Acall. 
mo chean well is he borti, happy one ! 

2167, originall^ 3 s. pret. cinim. Cf. 

mo chen gach fer, /r. T. iii. 128 z, 

mo ghean-ar an bfhear, Ivi. ; v. mad 
mod -worh 546 'i- gnim O'Mulc. 
■moó. everything male láfol, 1236, 1458, 

1467, 1493,6,9, 1502,8, moth4558 
Molossus Molossis in Epirus 17 50, 

4939 ; the place or tribal name seems 

confused with tlie Molossian hounds ; 

0'Molloy, Gr. 118, equates fearchu 

li'erewolf with Molossus. Cf. Ir. T. 

iii. 421, § 215 : O'Mulc.269: Origg. 

xiv. 4. 9 
mon a írick,feaí •\- cleas 1331, 4645 
monar a u'ork, deed, in monor 2093, 

2165. Wi. 
mórad m. anamplifying 102 1, morudh 

3976, morad run 5643 
mór-mór very great, T. T.^ 1 666 ; 

compar. momo 1461, moam 4571, a 

n-us moam de 4497 ; cf. a n-as modhe 

1350, moie 1456. mómó, Cóir An. 
mórshesser m. seven persons, bai 

moríhesser II 39, is on morshesiur 

258, 3568 
muad ueighing-beam -x- med 5453 
mual a mill •{• mulenn 5442 



muimech f. a nurse •!• nutrix 1909, is 

bhuimeach 1911 
muin (i) a vine 1186, 4283,4, 5555 : 

(2) the Ogham letter m 5491 ; g.s. 

muine 5672 
muin neck, haci:, for muin 549, fri muin 

5556. Wi. 

muine a bush, cend a muine 5810,7. 

muirenn a spear, n.p. muirne 1306. 

muirni 4629. O'Dav. 1235: Cor.^ 

S 882 
mút m. f, a miite consonant^ n.p. in 

muite 447, mutti 446, muitti 451, 

muiti 467, 513, 2904, na muiii 2907. 

2931,2,2982. cenith mút, Sg. $''4, 

is mút si, 17''* 3 

náe, nóe, nái a inan •\- duine, noe 
1609, 1695, 1948, nue 1609, 1610, 
nae 4686, nai 4687. Lec. : Cor.- 93, 

náede nitie things 1022, noie 3977 

nasc a ring 5725. Wi. 

nath m. (i) the metre proper to an 
ansruth 829, 1578, 1580, 4653, is e in 
nath 839, 3690 : (2) any metre -'x- 
ainm da cach uili aisti, Ed., ii*i, 33 ; 
•i- ainm coitcheann don uile aisde 
éigsib, H. 4. 18. O'Mulc. 

nathair f. a serpent 5821. Fel? 

nau, nó f. a ship 6134. Wi. : nói, 
náoi •i^ long, H. 4. 18 

neam •i- ball fearrdha fir ; neamh im 
usce 1295, nim in uisgi 4403. 
H. 4. 18 r O'CI. 

necht clear,pure •{• glan 5698. O'Dav. 

neim poison nem 1301,40, neimnech en- 
venomed 801. Wi. 

néit, neóit fight, battle, wound ; Neit 
god' of hattle 5395. Wi. : RC. xx. 

néll m. acloud, saididh nell 429T. CC. 

nem- un- (denoting negation), nem- 
eco=rda impersonal, neuter 1466, 
nemfh illed tton-adding 1570,6, nem- 
fhuil iiid 816 ; nemfurail iion-orerfiow- 
itig I 76, nem-fograigh soutidtess 474, 

nem-gnathach unusual 2381, neam- 

gnathugudh ivatit of use 602, nemli 

lais it has no colour 1171 
nemed m. a dignitarv^privilegedperson^ 

isna breathaibh nemedh 1298, 4380 
nemnifTud m. an annihilating, atitii- 

hilation 769, neimtniugud 3561,4548.. 

neimnigim, O'R. 
nenaid nettles 5516, nendait 5926. Wi. 
nert Lat. fortitudo 4213, power, 

strength : of a vowel in a syllable 

3893, 965,7 

nertmairecht Lat. nobilitas 4217 

neutur neuter gender 613, 620, neodur 
604, nemutur 3025 ; g.s. neodair 
1913 ; adj. neoturda 1465, 1503, 1917^ 
neudarda 1488. Sg. 66*20, I, 2, 8 

níab vigour, vivacitv 5301. W. nwyf : 
niaba, Thc. 5790 : adj. niabthach, 
imniabthaig, Ir. T. iii. 106, 19 : SPA. 

nihilus a tiullifyitig, tiullity, g.s. u 
nialííz 4442, do beith xAAsa 2837, u 
niheha 1385, 1399; d.s. fo nihilus 
970, fo nialus 978, 3897, 3901,10. 
arthaidbsin nihelsa, Sg. 6''5, dliged 
nihelsa, 14*2, 3 

nin (i) the ash 1173,4, 4269, 5495, 
nenaid 5515, 5626: (2) the Oghatti 
letter n 815,7, 976, 1171, 4267, 
1560,7, 1572: (3) any letter 1561, 
2791, 4790 ; a.p. dar mo niona 2793,. 
dar mo littre, RC. xxvi. 15, § 8 

nin a wave, tond 2791. Meir. 

noaim / renew, viahe conspicuous,. 
praise, keep, 3 s. pres. noaid 1581. 
O'Dav. 1287, 1336: nóadh -i- 
coimhéd, H. 4. 18 

nocht (i) tiahed, hare, a beith ranocht 
2070 : (2) an ititernal assonance or 
rhyttte, a nda nocht 5222, cen nocht 
5226, cia rodlig co fil nocht and 
5232, e.g. argair 5230 

nóescu a stiipe, naescu 5693. náiscu» 
Cor.'^ 986 : naosca f., Din. 

nóie tiitie thitigs, a noie 3977 

not f. a note, tnarh, n.s. not tinfidh 
3561, 4548, nod 1231, noit 768. 
not inchoisc, Sg. ^''i^, na nota áram,. 




notaireacht f. notarv wori, marking 
a text to assist reading 5798. Origg. 
i. 22, 2 : cf. notire, Wb. 21^1^ 

nuall Tíarrior (fighting in a chariot) •{• 
err 5443 

núall a shout, lueeping, proclarnation of 
incapacity, proscription, cend ar nuaill 
5964. Laws : Felí' : -i- gul, O'Cl. 

ó m. an ear •\- cluas 1228, 1457 ; g s. 

smit ai (?) 4649 : LL. 187 a 2 
ochta eight things, an octave^ g.s. sechta 

in ochta 932, fri ochta 1022, re hochta 

ochtach f. a pine-tree •\- ailm 1194, 

4294 ; g.s. co cruind ochtga 5397. 

'L^X. pinus, habies, TP. ii. 362 
ochtar m. eight persons, an octad 2234. 

ocian ocean 5353. Wi. 
od m. music 1470,3, 1483,4, odh 1273, 

1476, 4573>83, oudh 4577, oud 

saothaid 4307, /. od saethaig, Anec. 

iii. 45. O'Cl. 
odor-oscrach a scrat (?) 5696. 

SPA. : odhar óg f., O'R. 
óegi m. a guest, g.p. aiged 5300,5. 

og an egg, n. du. f. oig mammiz (?), oig 

7 glun 5033, cf cich 7 glun 1852- 

Wi. : ogh •!• ceile, Lec, 96 M. : na 

huige. Lor. Gild. 209 
ógleth the poetry which the anrad 

shared with the ollam ; a virtual half, 

not an exact half \']2%, 4920, v. leth, 

certleth. Ir. T. iii. 66, w. 
Ogmolr m. an oghamist v. Morann 
óermoracht, fógmaracht f . a hai-vest- 

ing 5803. Cf. fogiharac, O'R. 
ogum n. ra. ogham, n.s. ogum n- 

airismech 5815, rolad int ogam-sa 

5944. 547 Ii4 ; g^s- fid inn oghaim 397 
Names of the Various Alpha- 

BETS :— 
accomaltach 5q03 
ad'enfid 5876 

aipgitir A'raicda 6148, P-gipta 6145 
airenach ^^97 
ar a mbi aen 5872 

Names of the Various Alpha- 

BETS : — coniinutd. 
aradach Finn 5830 
arm 5896 
bac 6088 
bas 5789 
biad 5805 
bo 5759 
brec mor 6010 
brecor beo 6055 
romesc Bres 5943 
briatharogam Mic ind Oig 5615 
briatharogam Moraind mic Mhain 

Briccrenn 5854 
buaidir foranna 5986 
caechan 5767 
céall 5702 
ceand a muine 5810 
ceand ar nuaiU 5964 
ceand debtha 6058 
ceand fo muine 5817 
ceand imreasan 6056 
cethardruimnech Cruteni 5839 
cethrur 5975 
coll ar guta 6049 
con 5740 
coss 5779 

crad cride ecis 5895 
cuidechtach 6150 
cumusgda 601I 
daen 5709 
dam 5750 
dan 5797 
dath 5697 
Dedad 6057 
dedenach 5958 
didruim 6061 
dinn 5687 

do foraicmib 7 deachaib 591 1 
eamn 'ch 5907 
ebadach llaind 5853, 6066 
en 5692 
Erimoin 6084 
fege Find ^^\oZ 
Feniusa 6069 
fiaclacb Find 6093 
fiar 6126 
focosach 6062 



Names of the Various Alpha- 
BETS : — continued.^ 
fordunta 6086 
fraech frithrosc 6008 
gleselgi 5877 
gort fo lid 6044 
imarbach 6017 
ind co ind 6025 
indiupartach 6074 
insnitheach 6060 
lad 5837 
leni da reib 6033 
linn 5680 
loc 6092 

Lochlannach 6155 
losc 5771 
lus 5807 
luth 5834 
mac 5773 
maignech 6004 
muc 5939 
noem 5791 

nathair fri fraech 6087 
nathair im ceann 5821 
negladae 6063 
os 5842 

rig 5729 

rind íri derc 5994 

roth 6099 

run 5851 

sesmach 6036 

sluag 6021 

snaithi snimach 6085 

sron 5786 

suag 6149 

taebogam Tlachtga 6080 

tirda 5724 

traig sruth Ferchertne 6103, 6127 

tredruimnech 5835 

tregdae 6090 

trelurgach Find 5836 

uird 5862 

usceach 5732 
olr (l) a spindle-tree : (2) the Ogham 
diphthong ol, 'i- feorus II96, 4301, 
5523 : (3) a long vowel, 5, 1367 
olc (l) had : (2) m. an evil^ wrong, 
wrongdoing, a n-ulcu 2008 

oll great, cubat n-oll 5664 ; compar. 

uiliiu, f-uilliu 1452, uille 3063 ; cpds, 

ouU-ait (or 3 p. of verb ollaini) 3680 ; 

ollchathach 5318, ollforbthe Lat. 

super/luus, Origg. iii. 5, 9, I447, 

ollurgbail 5338 
ollam m. a poet ofthefirst rauk, a chief 

poetf an ollave, n.s. imda ollamh 2129 ; 

g.s. a n-ait ind ollaman 2678, feili 

ollaman righ 2224, 2230 ; adj. 
, ollamda 2202 
omna a satire, fi a oumna 331 1. 

omna an oak, g.p. do thaebhaib na 

n-omnadh 412, oumna 2853. 'i- dair 

•i- crann, H, 4, 18 
onn n. a stone 554, 1088. Wi. 
onn (l) an ash^furze •\- aiten no uinius 

5522: (2) the Ogham letter o 1194, 

5494 ; n.p. onnaid wheels in carpait 

•!• na roith •!• onn 5578,9 
ór heath 5494, 5662,3, v. úr 
orc m. a pig 5674,5. Lavvs 
orce m. a lapdog. n.s. oirci 5748. ba 

marb in t-orci, Cor.^, sub Mug-éme 
ord m. method, use, custom, iar n-urd 

choir 564, iiocho n-ord mear 2067, 

i n-urd bairdni 1937. •i- dliged, 

O'Dav. 1309 
ord m. a hammer 5728. Wi. 
ord alrme m. an ordinal number, g.s. 

uird airmi 1441, 4492 ; d.s. i n-ord 

comairme 3720, a n-uord c. 3729 
ordan rank, dignitv, sovereigntv, orddan 

5371. /v/.2 
oscarda rude, untrained, unprofessional, 

filideacht osgarda 2462,4 
oss, os a deer, g.s. roi oiss 1320, 

osogam 5842. Wi. 
óthá, from which is, from . . . to (co), 

ota 483, otha in ainmniud n-uathaid 

906, otha Liphe co ILetha 5237, otait 

othrur / iend, care for, support, rosn- 

othrastar 169, nosn-othrustar 2475, 

rohothratar, roothratar, T.T? 1258: 

othraim, Tog. T} 
ozail, oxlald ablative case 1775» ^* 




panaictti Lat. propn'um nomen libri^ 
the Pandects (of Jerome) 2416. 
Panechte, CZ. iii. 17 

parabulamb Lat. genilogia, íhe Book of 
Chronicles entitled rá irapa\enr6/j.€va 
in Ixx. 4032 

patrene (i) a bard so named : (2) his 
folloTvers or imitators (?), na baird 7 
na patreni 1928. Arch. C.P. iii. 300 

patronoimic a patrotiymic 3394, risin 
patronomic 3395 

penuilt Lat. paenuitima, penultimate 
syUable 4102,3,17,30 

persu f. a person, n.s. 736, 5467, in 
chetpersu 723, perso 1031 ; g.s. 
persainni 641,2,9, 651,3, 706, 719, 
849 ; d.s. i persainn 641,8, 718 ; n.p. 
persainn 1104 

pin (l) a rowan, pine, gooseberry 5524, 
5608,9,10,11, caera pinne gooseberries 
5525, 5608; pin no ifin 5666,7, pin •!• 
caor 4305 : (2) the Ogham letter p, 
ata pin ar p 1365, 4506. píon-chrann 
ii pine iree, O'R. 

possit positive degree 643, posit 687, 
692, cen phosit 730, poisit 694 

prím- Lat. primus, prim-aiste a prin- 
cipal metre 1586, prim-ellach primary 
combination 1686, 3510 ; prim- 
fid primary vowel 1431, 1379, 2797, 
prim-thoirnde/);-?'wa;7'/>or/7o«j 1898,9, 
1920, prim-thuisech chief ruler 11 28 

prímda primary, principal, pre-eminent 

pronomen a pronoun 320, 3667 
prós f. Lat. prosa, prose, n.s. prois 

1589 ; g.s. 834, reim na proisi 3632 ; 

d.s. de prois 759, do p. 788, for p. 

791 ; n.s. intan is phrois 782 ; a.s. 

iar prois 144I. Hib, Min. : BB. 

xviii. 79 
prósta consisting of prose 755) 795, 

830, 1642 
pudar a mistahe, blunder, harm, d.s. 

nasin gliaphudair 2040, do gach 

lanphudair 2072 ; a.s, aenphudhair 

2118 ; n.p. tri phudra 2II1. Wi. 
pudrach harmfiil, blmidering, in gres 

glephudrach 2048 

quert (i) an apple-tree 1185, 5495, 
5553, 5638 : (2) the Ogham letter q 
I184, 5519, 5554 

rait bog-myrtle, raid 11 57, rait 4252, 
5926, Laws 

rsiith. a fern 1190,1, 4288,90. O'Cl. : 

raith a surety, security 1583. Laws 

randai£re a part, randaigi 1453 

rand^abthach a participle 300,20 

randgapál f. a participle 2668. 
Z.2 989» 

rath n. the dative case, a radh n-uathaid, 
a rad n-ilair 1772, a rath 1880 

ré f. space, luhile, d.p. riab cianaib 149, 
reib 2452. arnaib réib ilib, Wb. 22*8 

reargagán m. a little blachbird, O'R., 
rearrgugan 709, raragain, T. : Din., 
rergoccan 3111, rerccuccain •i» Lónain 
3464, a triple dim. of rear, P. O'C. 

rece 1920 

recoriar&c m. a dissyllable 12 14, 1418, 
1498, 1588, 1953, recomarc 1240, 
1433, a tri a reucomarc 3538 ; n.p. 
recomraig 1501 ; adj. recomhracach 

réidhe f. plainness, explanalion, scheme, 
i reidhe 3588, 4735 

réim remraithe (i) remraiti ajore- 
said 1755, cia hairm remrade ? 16, 
E. : (2) rhyme ofvowels only (?) 3945, 
1000, e.g. la, ba 3944, 999, 4923, 1730 

réimm n. (i) a ritn, course 780,2,3 : 
(2) infection, declension, is reim gach 
tuissel on ainmnid sis 4862, 739, 
786,7,8, 791,2,3,4, 1951, gach reim 
n-olc 2178 ; g.s. slondud reimmi 
1626, esse remme 905 ; d.s. ina reim 
1536,9, ina remim IS3S, 1675, 1"^'™ 
ceilli 1540, 4761 ; g.p. na remend 
1759; d.p. remendaib 1721,2,60: (3) 
alliteration 800,63 (a) of letter by 
letter, do fid for fid 784, 805, 3592, 
3742 ; {p)of tiL'O accentedwords enduig 
a verse, orwith dialt etarleime or lorga 
fuach (?), taebreim 867, 3593, 3745 

réimmaim / rhyme, infect, is as 
reimmthar 3609 



rél(a)iin / make clear, 3 s. pres. isi in 
chorr cid reil nos-rel 541 ; inf. fri realad 
fiiid 1552, rellugud fuit 4781. Wi. 

relalt relative, cognate, Lat. relatmts^ 
in chiall relait 1098, an ciall reuliait 

remlud adversative case 1529, a remid 

rémnlglm / inflect, decline, 3 s. pres. 
pass. remnigther 792,7,8, 3614,5 » 
inf. isin reimniugud 878, 4734 

remshuidiugud m. (i) a prepositioti 
320, 2668 : (2) an anteposition 594 : 
(3) an interposition 1595, 4676; n.p. 
remshuidigthi 1692. Sg. 220^8 

rem-tiagaim I precede, cid ara remtet 
5476, is aire remitet 5488 

VBmM.-D.i\ foregoing 1352, reuma/w 44 1 5, 
remaind 2732. Felr: according to 
Meyer, a locative use of the verbal 
noun rem-áin, "in the front drive," 
"in the foremost rank," RC. 
xxxiii. 96 

res f. (l) a tale (?) 1920, is í in réis, 
'l"' : reisi •i- racas, Ed. vii. 11, 29: 
Ir. T. iii. 21, w, y ; 48 w, y ; ressach 
23, 4 : Tbc. 6124 : or (2) res -i- cend 
4176. res hebrea litera est quae 
interpretatur caput. res ergo hoc 
est quod et primarium nomen, Maro 
Gr. V. 27, 12 

resíu (conj. followed by subj.) hefore, 
riesiu tisad 2770, cid siu 387 

rét m. a thing, tnatter, fact, g.s. secip 
raeta 5577 ; d.s. iar ret 5474.9i 5564. 
5602 ; g.p. ic dathadh na rset. Wi. 

rial) f. a streak, stroke, riab, da reib 
6033. Din. : cf. reó f. (reb^), g. du. 
reib, W. : -i- sriab, /r. 'T. iii. 443 

ríaglaim / regulate, doriagladh 1053 

ríagul a rule, n.s. riagail 1022, riaghul 

3977. Wi. 
ríched n. heaven, g.s. 5354 
riches f. a live coal 5261. Wi. : ML 

40"= 5, 6 
rlge a stretching, lengthening, length, du 
rigi rand 21 21, oen dialt fri righe, 
rigi 5418, rach rigi 4649, Ed. vii. 
11^42. Triads I16 

rlge a reign, righi 11 20 

rím (i) a numher : (2) metrics 55, 

rind apoint, termination, front, claen a 

rind 1423, imma rind 5240, v. uaimm 

do rind 
robad a waming, g.s. do breith robaid 

2802, 5484. Thc. 
rócnat (f.) a small rook (?) 5695 
ro-crinim / destroy, 3 s. fut. rochiur -i. 

rochiguir 5378 
rofot m. an overlength, an overlong, in 

roíhat 2050, rofat 2150, cen rofot 

1941, can rofota 5060, 5128, root 

5133,4. e.g. 5138 
rogair overshortness, an oversliort 1694, 

1941, 2052, 2153, can rogair 5059, 

5123, e.g. 5132, 5144, 5124,7 
rogda chosen 5332. Wi. 
rói f. afield, plnin, ros •!• roi oiss 1319, 

Fel. ^ ; phps. roi oiss very keen are 

deer, roe roaitha, /v/.\ LB. Ap. 26. 

Aug. 27 
roidh f. red dye plant (?) 1321, raidh 

4638. O'Dav. 937 
ronnaireacht f. a dispensing, dis- 

trihution 5801. O'R. 
ros great hnowledge eolus 2685. 'i' 

rofhios, rosa •!• rofheasa, O'Cl. : rus 

•i^ roifios, Triads 143, Gl. 
rós a rose, sug in rois 5645. rós f., 

RC. xii. 467 
ro-saigim / reach, extend, 3 s. pres. 

cia roich 4528, cia roaig 1454, rosaig 

4499, rosouich 4529 ; 3 p. nad 

roichit 2917 ; 3 p. sub. pass. co 

regdar 1077, co roectar 4073 
roscad a dithyramb 928, 3857 
roscad a maxim, proverb, precedetit, 

g.s. í sreathaibh roscaigh 337, asretha 

rosga 2684. Laws 
ross m. a wood, copse, rois coelli 1320, 

ros coille 4637, ross 297, 2613 
ross, rass duckweed, duckmeat, rass 
1320, ros usce 1321, 4638. Cor. Tr. 
141 : Med. Gl. 
voss flax-seed, ros 1322, 4639. Laws 
roth m. a wheel, g.s. trian roith Il8l,2, 

4277 ; g.p. in tres fidh roth 4378 



rúamna redness, hJush 1193, 4292, 

5563,4.7, 5645,6 
rudrach (i) a siaying too long on a 
neighbour's land, prescription : (2) too 
many rhymes •!• roimda cubaidh ann 
over much rhyme ihere, O'Dav. 1345 ; 
n.s. 2047, 2145 ; g.s. rudraighe 2144 ! 
a.s. cen rudraigh 1940, rudrach 5058, 
5108. rudrad, Cor. : O'D. : Fel? : 
rudhrach, O'CI. 
rulce f. shame, hlush, g.s. ruamna ruice 
1193, 4292 ; g.p. tinnem rucca; 
5570, tindi rucae 5572. Wi. 
ruidiud m. a blush, redness 5570,1, 

ruided 5647. Wi. 
ruidles m. peculiar vse 747, 818, 2074, 
380,1, ruidljus 2763,4, is e a ruidhles 
420, 2862 ; compar. ni ruidhilsi 935 
ruidlista specialised, particularised 
2650, ruidlesta 1745, ruidliusta 4935 
ruis f. (0 an elder tree 5570,1.3, 5647 : 
(2) the Ogham letter v •\- trom I193, 
3rúii rán (ro-án) a very splendid secret, 

a dichned littri, rú rá 5392. Wi. 
rúsc m. a bark, Jirhin, hamper 637, 

rúss, viís face, shame, o rus 5573, o" 
rus 5647. Wi. 

saball 808 

sacc 809 

sádud a thrusíing in, invading, g.s. 
sadha 5333- Laws 

8á,eb false, deceitful, ni saeb lib 2065. 

sáeb-suidiuerud a placing ivronglv 

sáerse a handicraft, sairsi 5798 

sáethach weary, exhausted, luad 
saethaig 5612, oud saothaid 4307, 

sai^d (i) a seehing, saididh nell 4291 : 
{i)fullapproach, the complete repetition 
at the end of a slanza in the hody of a 
poem of the first accented word occur- 
ring at the heginning of the poem 
2201,3, saighith 221 1. //-. /". iii. 
29, X ; 121 

saÍGrim / make for, seek, sue, 3 s. pres. 
rel. 32 aiges 408,9, ai shaighius 2847, 
ai saigius 2849 ; 3 p. sedhait, segait 

sail f. (i) wHIoti' II 54, 4249; 5495, 
5624, 1373,4, 1405, 1563,7,9: (2) 
the Ogham leííer s 813 5, I170, 2899, 
3668 ; g.s. 1282. Wi. 
saildrong a ii'i//oii<hraie (?) 5521, 

5926. Cf. Drong in place-names 
sainemail especia//y good, distinguished 

518, 2989 
sainemain m. a nietre proper to a 

mac fuirmid, in sainemain 3673, 

829, 4654, 1578.83. ]r. T. iii. 116 
sainiged m. a differentiating, separat- 

ing 1299 
sainredach pecu/iar, particular, g.s.f. 

849, 3460,1 
saithe m. a sti'ann, company^ multitude, 

a.p. saithiu 274. Metr. 
sáitheach sated 5932 
sál f. a hee/ 1283, 4338. Wi. 
salannlus sa/twort, saland 809. 

sal-chulbdius m. a rhyme at the end 

of the first and tliird verses of the quat- 

rain, caesura r/iyme, salcuibdis 3840. 

Ir. T. iii. 9 ; 25 ; 130, 20 : ír. Meir. 

Í 10 
saltrad m. a treadingq\<^, 3935 
samad sorrel 808. P. O'C. 
samaigim I put, p/ace, 3 s. pres. pass^ 

bumhaighthir 434, 518 
samaisc í. a three-year-o/d heifer 5764. 

Wi. : Laws 
sáme f. rest, (juietness, p/easure, delight 

5172,6, 521 3^ Wi. 
Satharn Saturday, Satarn mar Satharn 

3535. dia sathairnd inid . . . casc, 

Goid.~, p. 88 
scalp f. rt^í7/> 1230, 4540. Wi. 
scé a ■white-thorn II 54, sceu 4249; 

1178, sge 4273. Wi. : Laws 
sciath m. a shield, n.p. 2120 
scoth a li'ord indsgi 2685, scath 

1935, scothegna liord-vcisdom 571, 

837, 3138. 'i' innsce, H. 4. 18: 

St. Crtt., p. 42 



screptra f. Scripture^ g.s. hurmor na 

sgreaphtra 2640, do reir na sgrephtra 

nailje 3422 
sduidir Lat. studére^ a studying, ag 

sduidir 4054. stuidéar m., Din. 
secdacht f. hardness 1313, secucht 

4632. Laws 
sechad m. a reslraining, cheching, g.s. 

secha 5175,9. sechise, T'íÍí:. : fechad, 

Laws : cf. O'Dav. 1338, where I. 

sechem shittim-wood 298, seuchim 

2610. SR. 4224: CC. : D'«t3K' 

(shittim) acacias, Gesenius, Dict. : 

the timber 0/ which NoaVs ark was 

made, O'R. : seichim m. shechem- 

wood, Arms. 
sechidir he follows, 3 s. perf. dep. 

rosechastar 506, roseichiustar 2959, 

2974. Wi. 
sechmall (i) an omission : (2) neg/ec- 

tive case 1521, 1652, 1778,9, 1883, 

4978. Wi, 
sechmallalm / neglect, am devoid of 

(o), ni iarsinni seachmallas o dheilbh 

473, ni tsechmallus o deilph 2939 
sechmatu /«5;* 2369 
sechnaim Iseparate, I distinguishf-om 

(do), 3 p. pres. sechnait 4014 ; 3 p. 

impf. no-sechantais 4407 
eechta seven things, heptad 430, 2877, 

741.2,5,6,7,8, 760, 828, 838, 917, 

932, fri sechtu looi, sechda 3977 
sechtmain f. a week,y\\ la na seacht- 

maine 749, 3518, 3532,7 
Séda six things 429, 2874, 102 1, fri 

sedhai 3976 
ség a deer segh -i. os 4537, 5601 ; g.p, 

re trichait sed 1227 ; dim. seg-nat 

5892. Cor. 
séig f. a vulture, hawk, segh 5693. •{• 

seabhac, H. 4. 18 : Wi. 
séis a hand, a troop, a.p. la seise 5087, 

fiarses 4303. CC. 
séis learning, shill, hnowledge, for seis 

•i- iar fofis 1. sofis 479, 738, 2638, 

2948, 3496. gen. sése, RC. xxvi. 20, 

§ 43 : Metr. : Laws 

séitig f. (i) wife : (2) companion, 

follower, like, cona tseitchib 3382. 

for tosach a sétci, /;'. T. iii. 26, 25 : 

ma seitche dligidh, CC. 414 : Tbc. 
selbad m. (i) « possessing 173 1, 4924 : 

(2) possessive case looo, 1517,31,43» 

.1771, i8?o, 1892 ; d.s. inna selbad 

1536, 1676, do sealbhadh 1671 
sémigud m. a smoothing, aspiration, leni- 

tion of an initial consonant, the Ogham 

H preceding its consonant H + B = Ph 

1272, 1264,7, 1271,5,6,7,8, 4322,6,8, 

sen old, compar. siniu fedhaib 5593,4 ; 

super. sioneim 4300, senim(?) 807. 

senim feda, Anec. iii. 44 
senchas m. ancient history, story 553, 

a cendfochrus tuis,yfenchas 5386. Wi. 
senod a synod, n.p. senada 6150 
senshaill 807 
serbiu bittemess 3345, serbe Eg., 

serbi 3489 
serind/;-z>«/wí 8o5. seimhirin, seithir, 

sertim (?) / strengthen, pret. 3 s. saer 

sert 5314; 3 pl- ser[t]sit 5316. 

sesc diy, barren, forportaib sesga 1592, 

segsa (?) 5317 
sesmach steadfast, stable 6036. CC. 
sessach steadfast, strong 939, I598> 

5356, 5360 
sessed one-sixth 1448. Laws 
sesser m. six persons, a hexad, seissiur 

2233,9, seser 2237. Wi. 
sét m. a road, way, seit .i' conar 1293, 

sed raid 1583, for set na aipgitri 

sét m, anythÍHg valuahle, a treasure, 

chattel, raith air set 1583 ; a.p. seoto 

sona 2217, seotu 5088 
sét a bed, seut •i- lepaid 4391. sét 

bedding, Aisl. 
sétim I blow, 3 p. pres. seeit 1292, sét 

sétrad m. a metre proper to a mac 

fuirmid 829, 4654, in sethrad 3673, 

setrud 1578, sedradh 1583. /;-. T. 

iii. 116 



sian Bléihi /oxg/m'e 806 
sí6.fau-ylan(í, a sith 2805, i sid 5487 
síde the fairies, d.p. a sidhaip 2804, 

sigla signs^ abbreviations 5918, 6106. 

Lat. sigilla, Origg. xix. 32, I 
sílad m. a sowing^ silad clann 5652, 

na clann 5653 
sillab m. f. a syllable (i) m. n.s. in 

siJlab deighinach 2369, in tillab 

toiseach 2370 ; a.s, in úWab Xoxseach 

2366 ; n.du, in da shillab 88, 1420 : 

(2) f. n.s. int shillab dedenach 91, 

int shillab thoisenach 92 ; a.s. int 

shillaib toisich 91, úWaib 366, 2929, 

2946; n.du. na di shillaib 141 8 ; 

a p. sillaoba 2745, 3571. Z? 981* 
sillabacda consisting of syllables, syl- 

lahic 5312 
sillaebach having syllahles^ syllahic, 

deilidi s. 2134, aontsiliaopach 3827, 

deisillaebach 4880, 1692, 4517, 4677, 

tretsiilsebach 3865, 4517 
Sínim / streich, extend, lengihen, 3 s. 

pres. pass. sinter 4707 ; inf. siniud 

na haimsire 1564, 4795 
sircumflex a circmnflex, sircumplex 

4417, 4787. Z.- 980-' 
si^hchaln Lat. /«.t 4221 
slat f. a j-od, tvjig, stem, sirslata name of 

a p/ant(?) 806 
sliasat a thigh, n.s. 609 ; d.s. dia 

bliasait 609. slíasat, CC. 
slice 808 
slicht r. a tracÁ-, division, version, 

descendants, g.s. sliachta (s = sail = slia 

is half of ■i\\-&-Qh.\7!Í) 1728, 4919; n.p. 

is treshlicht 1208, ire tslicht 4320, 

ceithir tsliocht 4316 ; a delidin lit- 

terda, silochta 5310 
slisiu 808 
slondud m. a natning, surname, patro- 

Hxmic, frie sloindedh 2832 
smér m. a fire, n.p. smir guailí 5633. 

smetrach a compressing, compression 

(?) -i- smit forrach 1328,31, 4645 
smit lohe of ear 1333, 4646,8,9. Wi. 

g.s. smitai (?) 4649 : v. ó. 

snac 807 

snáithe a thread, snaithe 809, 6104, 

snaithi 6085 
snámchain fair swimming, s. íheda 

5597. snámchar fer, Anec. iii. 43 : I. 

snámcham, cf. snámach, /;-. Gl. 391 
snímach spinning, iwisting 6085. Din. 
sníthe íwisted, plailed 809. Fian. 
SO- laudatory prefix, so-bard a noble 

bard 1996, so-dath finely coloured 

5698, so-s:hIuag a goodly host 5333 
sóam youngest 2309, soom 25. só 

younger, O'D. : PH. : cf. sósar na 

mac, MR. 48, 20: a tabairt do'n 

t-sosar, MR. 58, 15 
sochraide f. reinforcements, help, re- 

sources, g.p. 5088,95. /F.n. 691, 

2083, 2793 : CC. 
socht silence 2081. Wi. 
sód a turning 1273, 4328 
sod a "weir, soud 5734. Laws : O'D. 
sóerda artificial, sserda 396,7,8, 

595,6,8, 910, saorda 2816,7, 2821 
sóerugud m. an ennobling, a prefixing 

so to the li'ord 1868, 1946, 1980, 2096, 

2155, 5045. 5076, e.g. so-fer 1797, 

4989, so-ben 1845, so beun 5028, so- 

bard 1996 
soirche hright 5087,94, •!• solasda, 

O'CI. : -i- soillsi, H. 4. 18 
solam quick, sudden 2081. Wi. 
solma quichiess 2839 
solus bright, goar -i. solus isin Fenichus 

no isin Breatnais 633, goour, solus 

isin mBretnus 3208,15. goor gach 

solus, Cor. Tr. 83 : Tbc. 
solustur brightness, griansolustur lux 

so/is ^2ig. Laws 
somáin wea/th, profit 1581 ; g.s- 

somaine 4661. Wi. 
so-milis siceet, fresh, compar. somillsi 

73I1 3345- aquae sive salsae sint 

sive dulces, Origg. xiii. 14, i 
son a word, for son ceneoil ind im- 

frecrai 924, forin son 436, 2888. 

son a sound, cia son ger 253,4 ; g.s. suin 

786,7, 792,3,4 ; d.s. do soun 4697, 

iar sund 5473 ; a.s. ria sunn 5478 



SO-réld easv, ready, handy, g.p. f. 
soirthe 5091,5,8,9. solrthe •!• soi- 
réidhe, O'Cl. 
sossad a duuelling, ahode 5310. Wi. 
soud-culpdius an intemal rhyme 

spín f: (i) a thorn, spinan no ispin 

I197 : (2) gooseberry, spinan no spin 

4305, PH, : RC. xii. 467 
spínán a gooseberry bush II97, 4304. 

Three Med. Gl. : O'Br. 
srábh m. a stream, g.s. aire ,srabha 

I192, aire sraba ssdraibh 4290. 

SR. 6780: O'Dav. 180, 1491: /r. 

T. iii. 336, 115: aliter cf. Betha 

Colm : Ailt. 23, 17 
srathar f. pach-saddle, strathar 5725. 

srebann a tiiembrane, udder 1809, 

1810, 3255, srephand 4997 ; g.s. 

gene in tsrepaind 5001, 3258. lán a 

srebuinn, Sil. Gad. 90 
sréguindeacht f. deerstalking (?) 

5801. Cf. séguindeacht, /En. 
sreth (i) a series, intan is sreth 3577, 

i sreathaibh 337, a sretha 2684 = (2) 

a thread of alliteration, iar srethaib 

suadh 553, 3194. Cf. /r. T. iii. 

30, 14 
srithid f. the passage or stream of milk 
from the hreast, sridit 1853; n.p. 

srithiti 5034. cóil srithide, Triads 

75 : srithide fola, CC. 
sroll light 4788. Cor. Tr. 148 
srón f. nose, imon sroin 5787 
srorca, sorcha bright 5700 
srulth venerable, compar. is i as 

sruithi 2377, 2798 ; sup. sruitem aicdi 

5602, sruithem 4303. Wi. 
Stmólach a thriish 5695. Agall., 

st = z 
stocaireacht f. a trumpeting HTJ. 

Lat. clangor tuharum, Origg. iii. 20, 


stocc m. a trumpet 1486. PH. 

straiph, straif (i) a sloe-bush, n.s. in 
straif 5567, 1191,2, 4290,1, 5494, 
5563,8,9- 5643, saildrong 5521 : (2) 
the Oghain letter str, sr 443, 2899 

suad (?) danger A- gabud 5452,4 
suag a rope, cabie 6149. Din. 
súaillT^w, small, little, mean, ri suail 

1604, ní súail 5366 
suath(a)im / hnead, 3 s. impf. pass. 

2440,1 ; p. part. pass. suaiti 2438. 

súg sap, juice, tri sug lossa 5572, sug 

in rois 5645. Wi. 
súi m. a sage, n.s. 5310, sai 386, 2769 ; 

g.s. suad 498, 508, 2967,8 ; n.p. saithi 

387, saithe 2770; g.p. 553, 3194; 

g.du. 4644 
suidim I sit, ae suides 408, 411, 2848, 

superlait the superlative degree 644, 

SÚSt f. afail 5727. PH. 

taball a tablet, d.s. a n-oentabaill II 10, 
4230 ; d.p. i taiblibh 44, a dtaiplibh 

tacmains (to-ad-com-icc) encompasses, 
surrounds, conas - tacmaing 1960. 
O'Cl ; V. do-ath-comiccim 

taccraim / plead, argue, 3 p. pres. 
tacrait 1961,2, 2l8o, tachraid 1939 

taebchubaid í/í/í or end rhyme ; (i) 
caesura rhyme of first and third verse- 
endings of a quatrain 919, 929, a 
dtaobcuibdiph an raind 3566 : (2) 
a rhyme consisting of identical voweh 
and of idetitical consonants following 
the vorvels, brass 7 lass 3963 

taebchuibdius m. the ttí'o end rhyines 
of a quatrain 3848, 3858 

taeblerg a sloping plain, sloping land, 
g.p. 5147, 5152. Acall. 

taebomna f. a consonant, n s. in t. 
1396, 766, 1389, is i in taebomna 
gabhus greim 1397; g-s- 1376,8; 
n.p. taebomnai 412 ; n.du. na da 
taebomna 937 ; g.p. 1401 ; d.p. do 
thoebomnaib 765, 921 

taebréim side or end run or declension ; 
(l) in ^oeiry, perfect alliteration 785, 
923, 3743,5 : (2) in prose, everything 
ivhich is not full declension, external 
fiexion 795,6, 876, 3750 v. réimm (/3) 



taebta (i) a sidijig li'it/i, fnisting : (2) 
comitative case 1526, 1653 

tái, táoi, tó, túa silent, still, tse a ed 
1473, tai a od I484, 4576,7, to od 
1473 ; compar. tuiu 1484, taítiu 
1479 n. tai no taoi •i-tostacii, O'Cl. 

táircim / effect^ cause^ refer lo, feudhair 
•i- tairgither fair477l, feghair •!• tair- 
gither 4777. ni taircither, Ml. 17* 5 

tairisem an abiding, consisting, tairisem 
fo fid 5811,8 

tairsce (1) a trespassing : (2) trespas- 
sive case 1527, thairrsci 1654, 1787, 
tharrsce 1885, tairrsgi 4983. O'D. : 

taisselbaim lascvihe, attribute,publish, 
rotaiselbad I047, dot. 1766, co taisel- 
bad 1763 

taistel a traversing, journey, voyage 

5291.7. tastel, Ó7 J/o/. 
taithmech. a loosening, explafiation, 

derivation 1315,9, 2718, 2949, 3438, 

taimeth 3439 
taithmet a mentioning, telling, counting 

1452 ; denom. 3 s. pres. rotathmetaid- 

side 1500. PH. 
tál an adze S726. Wi. 
tamall a w/iile, pause (?) 1932. Cf. 

tamall n-áire, Arc/i. C.P. i. 160: 

BB. 299 ^ 8 
tanach f. c/ieese 1082, 4077. Aisl. 
tanacht f. t/iinness, slenderness, ar 

thanacht 2943 
tanalf^echt f. réjinement^fitieness 5000, 

tanoigecht 3258 
tár contempt^ disgrace, cen tar 1932. 

•i^ olc, Cor. : cf. tair n-áire, Arc/i, 

C.P. i. 160 : BB. 299 a 45 
'tarmforcenn m. end of a verse, n.s. in 

tarmfortcend 1514; g.?. tarmfortcind 

1261, 4609 ; n.p. 4609 ; g.p. imrecru 

na tarmthortcheand 920, 3567. Cat/i 

Ruis R. 168 : //-. r. iii. 130 
tarr f. belly, bac/i, fo tarrib 5147, fo 

tharraib 5152 
tarsna at/iwart, wit/i gen. íiartharsna 

na lurgan 5782, cearttharsna across 

5783.8. dar fíartharsna t/iwartness, 
RC. xiv. 441 : O'Múllov Gr. 137 

táth dissolution ; solder, g/ue, cement 

1274. AisL : Tbc. 
táthluibh cement 267, 288, 2446, 

2581, 2603. táth luib /lerb, materia/, 

tebede cut off, selected, deime tebede 

569, teibidi 4994, teipidi 5052 
tech n-oͣred n. /louse of guests, /tospice 

of an Iris/i monastery, i taig aiged 

5300. Pl. Vit. Sanct. 
tecraim (to-ailh-cuiriur) / pnt away, 

s. pret. 3 s. ros-tecair 2189. Cf. Ml. 

imme-thecrathar 65=^1 : Str. Dep. 

p. 96, n. 3 
telgud noe m. tnant/irowing, t/te 

addition of t/te syllahle tot to a word, 

q.v. 160 j, 1695, 1804, 1850, 1872, 

1948, 1998, 2103, 2152, 2165, 4686, 

4882, 4991, 5067, 5370,3 
temen dar/:, darl;-grey 5699. Wi. 
tenyí;-«, a dechned, tenn 5397. Wi. : 

RC, XX. 152, I 
tenn strong, intetise, super. tinnem 

ruccae 5570 
tennad m. an itnpressing, etnp/iasisittg, 

expressing tension 1552, 4782. Wi. 
tepe a cutting, selectioti 391, 1764, 

I108 ; d.s. don tebi 2, iar tebiu 1763 
terc scarce, scanty, a formolad, terc-du 

5396. Cf. RC. XX. 150, where it is 

cited wrongly as a dechtied, the ex. 

being tenti 
terce sparseness, scaniiness, ar terci 

2942, teirce feuda 3662 
tessargon a savittg, deliverance, teasar- 

gain 483, 2955 
tiagalm bás / die, 3 s. pres. rel. in 

tan degas a bas, on tiagas Eg. 5552 ; 

I s. pres. subj. ba bas ni thias 5393. 

Wb. I5''28 
tiarmóracht f. (i) a following : (2) 

progenitive case 1525, l663 
tiasca a liegittning, in tiasca 1760, 

4961, 5020. Cf. O'Dav. 1564 
ticalod Tiglaih, the r. Tigris (?) 2283 
tigbae /ast, wiih no survivor, tigba 

5334- Wi. 
tige t/iickness, denstty 1323, 4640. 




timarta a short vowel or syllab/e, Lat. 

correptiim 1358, 1550 
tindell ati iinyoking, answer, explatta- 

tion 1247,8, 4363,4 
tinfed, tinfeth (i) a breath 1733, 

4925 : (2) aspiraiion, n.s. 435, 768, 

2883, tinfid 1267, 4325 ; g.s. noit 

tinfid 768, 1231, 4548 ; d.s. cu 

tinfiudh 434, co dtinfed 2882. Cf. 

Meir. : tinfedaigud an aspirate 344 
tiniud m. an attenuating, vanishing 

769. Trip. 
tlnne (i) holly A- quulend no trom 

5518, 1180,1, 4276,7, 5495, 5634: 

(2) the Oghatn letter t 2899; 1274, 

4328 ; 3019 
tinne an ingot, tindi rucíc 5572. Fel.'^ 
tinnlocud m. a givitig up^ deliveritig 

4753- tidlacad, Laws 
tinóltach m. a collector, /ounder, chief 

tinscetal a beginning^ n.s. tindscital 

485, in tindscedul 486, in tinsgetal 

2957- Wi. 
tinugud m. a becoming attetiuated, a 

vanishitig 3561, 4548 
tipra atuellt^Ti'í, ; dim. tiprán 5109,13. 

tírda agricultural, rustic^ ogam t. 5724 
tlrdacht f. agriculture, lucht na tir- 

dachta 5473 
titul a superscription, arin titul 165 : 

LU. 9^14 
tiug-thol a last ii'ish, a thigthol 5290, 

a thiugthol 5296 
tlacht protectioti 1 960. Death Tales 
tláse softness, timidity, tveahiess, feeble- 

n'ss, cen tlaisi 5248, cen tlási 5251. 

tlás, O'R. : Laws 
tadfire •\- teine 4544. Metr. 
tóe f. sitetice, n.s. in toe tengadh 909, 

in toi 3791 ; a.s. ataboing tui 5458. 

d.s. is e dliged na mban beth i tai, 

Atiec. V. 23 : v. tái 
tó tongue 751. Lec. 
tobarthid dative case, n.s. 4753 ; g.s. 

tobartada 1645, 1660, 4838, tobar- 

tacha 1647, tobarta 1667, 4846 ; 

d.s. ina thobartaid 1677, 4856 

tochrus a witiding up of yarn, gan 

tochrus 2109. Laws 
tograirm (l) a callitig, sumtnonitig : (2) 

vocative case, n.s. 1520, 1774, 1881, 

4741, togarmann 4754 ; d.s. inna 

thogairm 1676, 4856 
togarthid vocative case, g.s. togar- 

tada 164.4,6, 4826, togarthada 1668, 

toghorta 4847 ; d.s. do thogartaidh 

1671, 4850. Wi. 
toglaim / saci, destroy, 3 s. p. pass. 

rotoghladh in Trae 1123. Wi. 
toimsigim / measure, 3 s. pres. pass. 

toimsigther 4808,9 ; 3 p, toimsigtir 

4602 ; 3 s. impf. pass. no-thomh- 

sidhe 929, nolomhusti 3857. Cf. 

CC. 4062 
toimslm / measure, toimsiter 739, 

I012, 1509,10,11 
toimtnigim / thitik, I atn of opinion, 

rotoimtnigedar 151. denom. toimtiu, 

tóirndim (do-fo rind) / mark out, 

signifv, 3 s. pres. iar n-inni thoirni 

1895,7, toirnes 1568. Wi. 
toirne a share, portion 3889. Laws : 

O'Dav. 1497 
tóirnid m. a broad marher, measurer, 

lethan-thoirnid 4S0, 2913 
\.o\xvc\A^xs m. pregtiaticy, don t. 5778. 

toirches, Laws 
toit f. the vjhole, Lat. totus, n.s. in toiti 

664, in toit 3279 ;■ g.s. dar eis na 

toiti 664, 3279; d.s. do toit 2651. 

toit -i' uiHataidh no uilidhe, O'Cl. 
toraa.iste metrical rhyíhm 928, tomusti 

3857. aircedal 'i- tomsidhe, Anec. v. 

24, I, 10 n. 
tomus m a measure, Lat. tnensiira 

750,3,4,5,6,8, 917, 943, 962, toimes 

751 ; d.s. i 1400, do thomus 

927, 1687, 3856, co tomus 1950; 

a.s. aenfidh fregras in tomus 1382. 

cinteacht shiolladh a defitiite tiuttiher 

ofsyllables, 0" Molloy Gr. 149 
tón f. tail, Lat. podex, g.p. 5242. Wi. 
tond f. shin, surface, etid 18 16, o thuind 

co tuind 1726, 4917. Wi. 



tórand denotaiion, signijication, hound- 
^^yi g'-s- is moaum toraind 2796. 
U'Mulc. 823 

torathor a monster, monstrositv, a 
chotut, co ndorthor 5289, iar torthor 


torc a boar, a prince 5230 

torÉT 5357 killing, destroying, O'R. : 
torghan HB. 

tormach m. (l) «« increasing, in 
tormach 3790 : (2) augmentative case 
1528, 1654 

tornóracht f. the tiimer^s craft 5799. 

torrach pregnant 5774 

to-sárigrur / violate, injure, Lat. laedo, 
3 s. pres. lapis áo rada fri gach ni 
tarraigther cois 3399, fristartaigther 
Eg., lapis dicitur eo quod leidit peidim 
3396. O'D. 

tot the onomatopoetic sound of a mans 
lody falling on water 4890 ; e.g. 
fertot 1609, 1612,3,7,9, 1620, 1804, 
ferthot 1695,6, fertout 4882, feurtot 
4991, bentot 1850, saerthot slantot 
5373 ; n-P- caemthuit 2233. tot -i^ 
tormán •\- tonn, H. 4, 18 

toth everything feminine, todh cach 
mbanda 1465, 4560, 1236, 4558, tod 
1459, 1462, 1493,6,9, 1 502,8, dod 1468 

tothlugud m. an asking, demanding 
1032, 3988, II07 

tothocht (i) possession, properíy, ad- 
junct : {2) propriety in poetic praising, 
e.g. a hero by a hero 5256, co 
tothucht 1950, 5064, 5234, 5244, 
5254. Cf. Wi. : Triads: O'Dav. 
1568 : /r. /'. lii. 121 

to-tluchur / ask, demand, 3 s. pret. 
is mo darothlaig no torothlaig 4002 

trá 'V do rae chugainn no rae uainn no 
trá-i-tn' neithe, H. 4. 18 : 573, 3039 

tracht a strand,shore 1229, 4540 ; g.s. 
for milaib trachtamuigi 2393. Laws 

tráeth everything neuler 1465, 4561, 
1236, 1475.6, 1480,5,7, 1493,6,9, 
1502,8, troth 1458, 1461, trast 1468. 
tráoth -x- nemh neachtarda, H. 4. 18 : 

trág, tráig f. strand 6103 

traide f. quichiess 510. ST. : Cor. 

Tr. 162 
traig f- afoot, n.s. 18 11, 1409,11, 5276, 

troich 771 ; 1413, 1816 
tre- in comp. three, trebrichta trip/e 

octosyllabic 3712, tredriaimnech three- 

ridged 5835, Tbc, trelurgach three- 

stemmed 5836, Xxt\.ú\\iebach three- 

syllahled 3865 
tréde three things 426, 2868, 2901 ; 

1264, 4322 ; 671,2, 796, 1020, 1296 ; 

d.p. i treidhib 665, 3281 
tré-fhocul m. the iaws of poetry 

negatively stated : (l) xii. laws of 

filidecht, chiefly as to form 1940-3, 

5057-62 ; (2) xxii. laxvs of bairdne, 

chiefly as to matter 192839; n.s. 

1928,9, 1939, 1940, 2018, in trefocal 

1027 ; g.s. tlacht in trefocuil 1960 ; 

2017, 2130 ; d.s. i trefocul 2078, isin 

t. 2188, asin t. 2180 
tregdae pierced 6090 
tregtad m. (i) a transpiercing : (2) 

perforative case, ín tregdad 1724,6, 

1780, tregdhadh 1528, 1654, treghdad 

1723, 1883. Wi. 
treith wea^ 1475, 4583. Wi. 
trén strong, compar. iresi 5556, tresiu 

5564 ; sup. tresim fedma 5555, 

ruamna 5563,7. Wi. 
treóir n. strength, guidance, means, 

n.s. 5429 ; g.s. treorach 3403. 

treórald a guuíe, litirtreoraid 449, 

2913, legtreoraid 450. treóraidhe, 

tressach warltke 940, {sic /.) 5357 
trian m. one-third, n.s. in trian 935, 

1181, 1448; d s. o trian 935; n.du. 

na da trian 936 
trian (l) holly : (2) the Ogham letter t, 

tri'an 5549. trian -i- cuilenn, Anec. 

iii. 43 
tríath m. king, lord, a oen, do thren- 

fher, marginal gl. triadi[b] 5335. 

triosgr grains, refuse of malt 4539. 




trírech f. a lay, lyric, poent, issin 

tririg 5351- Wi. 
trócaire f. mercv, 'L?l\.. pietas 4214 
tróethaim / overpcrwer, suppress, 3 s. 

pres. traethaid 1485 ; rei. a thraetlias 

1481, 4581 ; 3 p. pres. trcethait 1477, 

1480. Wi. 
trom an elder tree I155, 4250, 4292, 

5518. tromm m. Triads 
trop Lat. tropus, metaphor, figure of 

speech, a.s. tri in trop 2567, trin-troip 

5512. trop, Mi. 15*2 : g.s. in truip 

40*= 19 
truld m. f. a starling 3224 ; dim. 

truiteóc 5694. Cor. Tr. 161 : 

P. O'C. 
túagr f. an axe, d.s. a thuaigh 1278. 

túag f. a bow 1877. Wi. 
tna,r a poet, sage, g.du. i n-Imagallaim 

na Da Thuar 1328, in Da Suadh 

no in Da Tuarad 4644. RC. xxvi 8 
túarascbail f. (i) a describing, descrip- 

tion : (2) descriptive case 1529, 15 30, 

1655, 1889, 1891 
tuccait f. a caiise, t. a denma 737, 

1032, 3987, tugait bindi«5íj: 629, 

Lat. periphrasis Gr. Lat. v. 308, 15, 

tucait 632,4, tucait a scribind 1106, 

2320,6, 2347. f. Hib. Min. 
tuignech rohe, cloak, cape, as adj. 

sheltering 5147,52 Acall. 
tuirem f. a recoiinting, a numher, n.s. 

ni certtuirem na gcinedh 3378 ; n.p. 

tuirme glonn 940 
túirim (do-sírim) / scrutinise, search, 

2 s. imper. túir 5194. /v/.^ 
tuisel m. a case (in grammar) 783, 

5277, tuisil 3591, tuissel 4862 
tuismiud m. a begetting, origin 481, 

tuistid m. a parent, n.p. tuistidi 446,7, 

480,2,3,5, 2905,7 ; 2951,4,6,8. Wi. 
tuistide (l") a parent : (2) parentative 

case 1523, 1670, 1889, tuistiudh 1891. 

tustige, PH. 
tús f. Lat. ius, /ranhincense, incense, 

tuis 2450, 2614. PH. : RC. xii. 

túthmar (i) /W/ri', O'MuIc. 870: (2) 
stron^-smelling, fetid, CC. : O'Dav. 
1265 : Death Tales, tutmur 5604, 
tuathmar 4302,4 

ua m. a grandsojt, descendant, n.s. 
5262,6 ; n.p. ind hue 5146, ind uea 

úagrim / se-w, stitch, compose, 3 s. pres. 
pass. co n-uaigiter 954, dib fuigther 

úaimm n. (i) a stitching, seam, union 
5335 • (2) a composition, ni huaim 781, 
raid-uaim 782 ; g.s. re huamma 780, 
1638, 3587 : (3) alliteration 5479, 781 

úaimm do rind alliteration at ihe end 
of a verse, the word in the second verse 
exceeding the alliterating word in the 
first by one syllable 2205, 2211, e g. 
2205,6. Ir. T. iii. 30, c ; 121, c 

uais m. poverty, slight poverty, ad- 
foirithed uais 2476. is e in t-uais, 
O'Dav. 112 

uáls noble, ier bfiordliged fothu an 
gotha uais toghaidhe 2648. uáis «i- 
duine úasal, H. 4. 18 : O'CI. : Gor. : 
O'Dav. 788 : Laws 

úaite f. singularitv, singleness, oneness, 
inn uaite 903, 944, 962,3 

uartan some agriculturalinstrument (?), 
huartan 5726. Cf. uairtnech .i- in bo 
blegar risin uartan •!• risin salann no 
risin mbalgum, Laws v. 260 : O'D. : 
fuartanach anodyne, HB. 

úas, ós over, 3 pl. uaso 144, uais tis 
243 3i í^ úas tis above and below, cf. 
tiar tair 2215 

úath (l) white thorn, n.s. huath 432, 
766, 1176,7, 4272: (2) the letter h 
1230, 1270, 4335 ; 1408, 5491 ; g.s. 
huatha 5699. Wi. 

úath (i) horror 5628,9, 5234 : (2) 
horrible II95, 5547, 5699. Thc. 

úathad (i) unity, fewness 1098 : (2) 
singular numher, a singular, g.s. 
325,6, 3756 ; d.s. 323, 1641,7, 2671,2, 
1846 ; a.s. 2058, cen uathad fii ilar 
without a singular with a plural 1942, 
5058, e.g. mora, alaind 5185,9 



úatlglm / make singíe, I make rare, 

3 p. pres, uaitighit 2153 
uatuaslalctecli analytic, explanatorv, 

(hmomtraiive 3460. Cf. Laws 
usrdaracht f. a (written') aHthorily\ 

131. E.g. Eusehi Chron. 
u£rdardas, augtortas m. authority, 

/listorv 3379. PH, 
uilidecht f. tota/ity 3798 
ullidetu tota/ity, n.s. a huiletaighie 

2304; d.s. do uilideataid 51, 2339. 

uilleand (i) honeysuck/e •!• edlend 

5524, 5664,5 : (2) the Og/iam 

diphthong ui I197, 4303: (3) the 

Ogham y andvL tnedial 1368, 4423 
uinge f. an ounce 1286, 1290, 1735. 

Ascoli cxxxviii. 
uinnius f. an ash, n.s. uinnius I173, 

uinius 5522, uindsiu liS3i uindis 

4248 ; 4269, I174 ; d.s. uindsind 

1172,5, 4268. uinsenn, Gor. : ind 

huinnius ardd, Sg. 67*11 
ulseóc f. a /ark 5696 
umaideacht f. 6rassKork 5803, Cf. 

umaide, Wi. 
úmda = immda 4306 ; n.p. iumda, PH. 
Úmla Lat. obsequium 4219 
únair a xinit 688, 3317: Origg, iii. 

3, I 
unnse m., unnsi f., onnar n. here is 

648,9, uindse 705, unse 706,8, 717, 

uinnse i8c6, 1875, uindius, uindsi, 

ondor 1495, uindse no sonnse 3348. 

úr, úir f. earth, mou/d, do uir 5585, is 

i uir 5652, o uir 5654. Wi. 
úr (l) /leath -i. fraech (2) t/u Og/iam 

/etter u I194, 4297, 5587, •!• draighen 

5522. ór, LL. 38''37 
urard (i) very high .• (2) exa/tation, 

the addition of & to the word 1946, 

2098, 2146, 2176, 5341, a fhorard 

1997, a irard 5078, e.g. fer-a 1798, 

sing. benn-a pl. mna 1847, ma chor-a 

ur-bernad a Lreach, gap, share, part, 

ni da hurbernadh 3385 
ur-dálta dejinite, in aisti u. 837. Wi. 
ursabál f. (l) a capturing, seizing, 

arresting, gan urgabail 1824 : (2) 

a receptac/e, oilurgbáil 5338. Wi. 
urluime readiness, preparation, /eading 

li'ords, a tri urluimi 524, cf. a tri 

herlanna 3026. txXúxaz preparedness ^ 

urmór a great part 2640. fur-mhór 

m. Donl. 
usca (l) /leat/ier i>rush (?) 5728. 

f-usgan, HB. (2) grease Eg. G/. 
VLScáÍíB, greasy, resin-co/oured (ji) 5701. 

usgadh goose-grease, O'R. ; uscaide 

/ardy, Aisl. 
usce Lat. aqua 1090, 4092 
usceach pertaining to water, water^, 

ogam u. 5732 


í9Ej Ae Chualand Sliabh Chualand in 

Leinster, or (Cruachan) Aí 5691 
Achaid Accad in the plain of Shinar, 

Gen. X. 10: isind Achaidh 251, 

confused with Ac/iaia, Dacia, and 

later with Asia, q.v. 
Achia Achaia, i ndAchia 388 
Achid Aquitani Aquitania, Origg. 

xiv. 4, 27: 223, Actain 2538, 

Achuid, y£//. 30, 46, Acit 55, 28 
Afraicda African 6148 
Ailech Greenan Ely on Isthmus 

between Innishowen and mainland, 

Co. Donegal, JEá Ailig 5318 
Aláln Alani, Origg. ix. 2, 94: 223, 

ALlt. 30, 47, AUain 2539 
Alba f. (^Britairi) Scotland, in fer 

d'feraiph Alpan 2630 
Albain Albani, Origg. ix. 2, 65 : 223, 

yElt. 30, 47, Alpain 2539 
Albanach Scoísman, d.p. fer d'Alban- 

achaib 75 
Ard Cartaind Carrthand in West- 

meath 1222, A Chairtend i Sliab 

Ard Cuis 1222, A Chuisi 4531 
Ard macha Armagh 5708 
Armoin Armenii, Origg. ix. 2, 61 : 

222, Armaint 253S, Armein, Aílt. 

30, 46 
Aru Ara, a river flowing through the 

town of Tipperarjr (^Tipra Arann') 

Asia Asia, isinn Aisia 2571, a nAisia 


Athain Athenienses, Origg. ix. 2, 76 : 
223, Ailt. 30, 46, Acain 2538 

Bendchor Bangor on the south of 

Belfast Lough, Co. Down, Beanchar 

Berba the river Barrow 5263, 5681 
Bethain Bithvni Bithynia, Origg. xiv. 

3, 39 : 221, /Elt. 30, 45, Beithin 216, 

Boid Boeoti Boeotia, Origg. xiv. 4, 

II : 222, Boit 2537, Boet, yE/t. 

55, 27 
Brag'main Brachmanae, Bramain 226, 

Braghmaint 2542, Bragmain, ^lt. 

31, 50 
Bretain Brittones, Origg. ix. 2, 102 : 

222, Ailt. 30, 45, Britain 2537 
Britania Britannia, Britainia 2812 
Bruiden f. Bruiden Da Derga in crích 

Cualann 5688 

Calcanensis Calneh in the land of 
Shinar, Chalanne, Origg. xv. I, 13, 
the place where Gaedel wrote Gaelic 
45, Calcaneinsis 2330 

Catt a river-pool 5683 

Cell dara Kildare, Quell dara 5706 

Cera in barony of Carra, Co. Mayo, 
Cerae 5689 

Ciclaid Cyclades 219, Aílt. 30, 43, 
Ciclait 2534 

Circir Citii, id est, Cyprii, Origg. ix. 
2, 36 : 218, Siccir 2534, Cicir, PH, 
5388 : Aílt. 30, 43, Cypri 55, 25 


Cluain maccu nois Clúumacnois on 
the west border of the barony of 
Garrycastle and of King's Co., eight 
miles south-west of Athlone 5705 

Collamalr in Munster (?), i Collamair 
5109, Collammair 5113 

Corann a barony of Co. Sh'go, but 
which of old included also Gailenga 
in Co. Mayo and Luighne in Co. 
Sligo, or (Bruiden Chéisi) Corann, 
Uuorann 5689 

Corsic Covsi Corsica, Origg, xiv. 6, 
41 : 219, ^lt. 30, 43, Coirsic 2535 

Creit Cretes Creta, Origg. xiv. 6, 
15-16: 219, 2535, ^lt. 30, 43 

Cuailnge Coolev in Louth 5350 

Cusrat a river-pool 5683 

Dacla Dacia, i nDacia 1105 

Daic Daci, Origg. ix. 2, 90: 2541, 

.Elt. 31, 49, Dacia 226 
Dalmait Dalmatae Dalmatia, Origg. 

xiv. 4, 8 : 226, 2541, A^Jt. 31, 49 
Dardain Dardani Dardanus, Origg, 

ix. 2, 67 : Dordain 226, Dardain 

2541, /Elt. 31, 49 
Delbna Delvm D. tíre dá Lochse in 

Connacht 5102, i nduain Delmna 

Derg the river Derg, Co. Tyrone, 1. 

Dergderc Z. Derg between Killaloe 

and Portumna 5682 
Dind ríg Burgage moat in townland 

of BalIyknockan south of Leighlin- 

bridge on the west bank of the 

Barrow, an ancient palace of the 

kings of Leinster 5689 
Doire Luran Derryloran, a parish 

near Crookstown, Co, Tirone, where 

Lebar Cindfaelad was written, Daire 

Luran 69, 2643, Doire Luruain 2623, 

i nDoire Lurain 2639 
Doramh a plain in the north-west of 

the plain of Shinar, mag nDoraimh 

Druim Cetta in Roe Park near 
Newion - Limavaddy, Co. Derry, 
Mórdail held there A.D. 590 (or 587, 
or 574), d. Ceata 1472, 4574 

Druim Liias Drumlease, a parish in 
Dromahaire, Leitrim 5391 

Durmag Durrow in Ossory, a parish 
and town in the barony of Clarallagh, 
Queen's Co., part of tbe parish is in 
the barony of Galmoy, Co. Kilkenny, 
Durmach 5705 

Ebra a Hehrew, d.p. do Ebraib 233, 

Ebraide Hehrew, aipgitir Ebraide 
1263, berla n-Ebraidi 189, 2498, pa 
do Eaphradaiph 2548, 3993 

Egept Aegvptii, Origg. ix. 2, 39 : 226, 
Egiptda 2542 ; a.s, hEcipta 2549, 
hEceptacta 3993, hEgeftagda 234 ; 
a.p. na hEigipti 4055, Egeipt, /Elt. 
31, 50 

Egipt f. Egvpt, g.s. Egipti 17, na 
hEigipti 2301 ; d.s. i nEgipt 16, 
2299, a hEigipht lioS; a.s, co 
Eigipt 1041 ; adj. Aipgitir Egipta 

Elgr f. Ireland 3376, Elg, Ealg 3540 

Eile Ely in North Munster, comprising 
the baronies of CIonlisk and Bally- 
brit in King's Co., and of Ikerrin 
and Eliogarty in Co. Tipperary, K. : 

Emain Macha Navan fort in the 
parlsh of Eglish, barony and Co, of 
Armagh, two miles west of Armagh 
town 735, Emin Macha 2636, Emhain 
Machuo 3493, Macha im Mumain 
5229, Emain 5691 

Eobul a river or lake 56*6 

Eoganacht a coUective name of ihe 
septs descended from Eogan Mor, 
son of OiIiII Olom, CZ. viii. 303, 25, 
for E. 5216, 5221 

Eotenam a city on the plain oí Shinar 
where Fenius Farsaid established his 
school of languages, apud E. 214, 
Euateno 2531 

Erbos the river on isjhich was fought the 
hattU of Cuil Fabhair, K, ii. 120 : 

Érennach Irish, Irishma», g.s, 75, 
guth Eirennach 3540, 3377 
2 A 


Ériu f. lieland, n.s. Eiri 1327, Eire 

3376, 3540 ; g-s. Erenn 5157, 5167 ; 

d.s. i nEirinn 3377 ; a.s. cetnarogaph 

Eire 4150 
Ssbain Hispani, Origg. ix. 2, 109 : 

224, Espain 2539, 1327, liEspain, 

/Elu 30, 47 
EIssill Elisaei, Origg. ix. 2, 34 : 225, 

Eisil 2541 
StaiU Italia 1325 
Ethioip Aethiopes, Ori^g. ix. 2, 10 : 

226, Eithiop 2541, Etheoip, ^lt. 

31, 50 

Fál Ireland, filid Fail 5385, Insi Fail 

Pearna Fems, a town, see, and parish 

in Co. Wexford, K. : 5703 
Pebal Loch Foyle 5681 
Pemen a plain which extended from 

Cashel to Clonmel, Flath Femin 

5228, dinn Femin 5688 
Pir Bolg Firbolgs, iar Feraib Bolg 

1495, iar bFeraib Bolg 4556 
Prainc Franci, Origg. ix. 2, loi : 

224, .Elt. 31, 48, Affrainc 2540 
Preisin Frisii 224, 2540, Fresin, Ailt. 


Gabal the river of Fid Gaible, Feeguile, 

in King's Co. 5684 
Gabar f. Goivra, Gabhair Aichle, hill 

of Skreen, near Tara, K. : or the 

island fortress of Loch Gabor, 

" Lagore," 5690 
Gailli Gat/i, Origg. ix. 2, 104, 106 : 

218, Gaill 2533, Aí/t. 30, 4'i 
Galaid Ga/atae, Origg. ix. 2, 68 : 222, 

Galus 2538, Galait, Aí/t. 30, 46 
Gall a Vihing, Gallogam 6157 
Garman Druim n-Airthir near the 

ford of Ath Luain, or eclipsed form 

of Carman, seat of Oenach Carmain, 

nGarmon 5690 
Germain Germani, Origg. ix. 2, 97 : 

217, 2533 
Goith Gothi a Magog, Origg. ix. 2, 

27, 89 : 224, 2539, ^tt. 30, 47, Gothi 


Greic m. Greeks, n.p. Gregaig 2484, 

4028, Greicc 4036 ; d.p. do Grecaib 

19, 41, 516, 29S4, di Grecaib 202 ; 

g.p. 515,6; a.p. la Grego 1060, la 

Greco 1359, la Grecca 4098 
Grian the river Granev which falls 

into L. Graney, Co. Clare, Onom, 

nGrian 5684 
Guith Getae (?), Origg. ix. 2, 89 : 

224, Guit 217, 2539, Guich, ^/t. 

30, 47 

Hibernia f. Ire/and 5466 

Hircain Hircani, Origg. ix. 2, 42, 

43 : 217, 223, /E/t. 30, 47, Ircair 

hOn, Othain f. rivers, becc 7 wzoV, 

Fahan, Onom. : 5682 

Ile f. Is/ay, the southernmost island 

of the inner Hebrides, Argyllshire, 

Scotland, Iliu 5691 
Indiurnn a river-pool 5686 
Inis Cáin Inishheen in Louth and 

Monaghan, A.U. : do Inis Cáin 

5298. aiged Indsi Cain 5300,5 
Inis Cathaig Scattery Is/and in the 

Shannon, A.U. : Inse Cathaig 531 1 
Inis Páil Ireland Insi P'ail 5267 
Innecdai Indi, Origg. ix. 2, 5 : 227, 

Ai/t. 31, 50, Indecda 2542 
Iraird C/úain Eraird, C/onard, a 

parish and bishopric on ihe Boyne 

in Co. Meath and near Co. Kildare, 

hlrard 5705 
Israel the chi/dren of Israe/, mic Israel 

II05, Issrael 4139 
Itail Ita/i, Origg. ix. 2, 85 : 224, Etail 

2539, ^E/t. 30, 47 

Lacdemoin Lacedaemones, Origg. ix. 
2, 81 : 225, Laicdemoin 2540, /FJt^ 

31, 49, Lacdemonnai 55, 31 
Laisnech a Leinsterman 5148, 5153 
Latinda Latin, Latins 421,2, Laitianta 

1259, Laitianda 1263, 4028 
Lemaln in Leth Cuinn, near Clogher, 
Co. Tyrone, Trip., g.s. Ua rig 
Lemna 5262 


Iietha, Latium i.e. Italy, Rome, gu 

Letha 5163, co ILetha 5237 
Liath Liath Mhancháin, parish of 

Lemanaf;han, King's Co. 5703 
Life, Liphe the Liffev, otha Liphi gu 

Letha 5163, 5237, a hill over the 

Liffev, K. ii. 284 : 5688 
Loch g.s. A Fhlaind Locha h'nib same 

5172, Acha 5176 
Loch léin Lake{s) of Killartiey 5320 
Lochlannach Scandinavian 6155 
Lodain Laodiceni, Laudiceni, Laudicia, 

Origg. XV. I, 14 : 225, Laidich 2540, 

Ladaich, Ailt. 31, 48 
Longbaird Luingohardi, Origg. ix. 2, 

95 ■• 225, 2540, ^íE"//. 31,48 
Luigdin L.Hgdunenses 2534, Lugdoin, 

-/-.7/. 30, 42, Lugoil 218 
Luidl L.vdii, Origg. ix. 2, 3 : 218, Lid, 31,48 
Luimnech Estuary 0/ the Shannon at 

L.imeruh 5681 

Mag Rath ALoyra, a parish and town- 

land in ihe barony of Lower Iveagh, 

Co. Down, g.?. i cath Muighi Rath 

72, 2626 
Mag Tuired \Loytirra East and Moy. 

tirra West, barony of Tirerril, Co. 

Siigo, K. : a cath Muige Tuireg 

Maguich .Vagogii (?), Magog a quo 

arbitrantur Scythas et Gothos traxisse 

originem, Origg. ix. 2, 27 : 222, 

Magoig 2537, Magoich, /Elt. 30, 

Ma.ig the plain, fer Maige 5216, fer 

Mui^i 5221 
Maig'idon ALacedones, Origg. ix. 2, 

78 : 220, Maicidoin 2536, Macidoin, 

yElt. 30, 44 
Máir Mauri, Origg. ix. 2, 118,9, 

120,2 : 220, 2536, máir, ^Ell. 30, 44 
Maistiu f. Mullaghmast 869, 3605 
Massail Massyli, Oíigg. ix. 2, 123 : 

220, ALisgusa 2536, Masail, .Elt. 

30, 44 
Meid, Moid Medi, Origg. ix. 2, 46,7 : 

217, Moiet 2534 

Mide .\Leath 5690 

Molossus Molosus 1750, 4939, v, 

Morain Morini 218, Morann 2534, 

Moraind, /Elt. 30, 42 
Morcain Marcomamii (?), Origg. ix. 

2, 97 : 220, 2536, ^lt. 30, 44, Mosin, 

Mussin 55 26, =.\Lycenae (.'), Origg. 

XV. I, 47 
Mugna m. Monmohennoc, Dunmanogue^ 

a parish and townland three and a 

half miles west of Castledermot, Co. 

Kildare, On. : 5707 
Mulnten a river-pool : VoW-mount^ 

river, which enters the Barrow north 

of New Ross (?) : 07iom.sub.m\MMtá\ 
Muir Ponteca the Black Sea 3343 
Mumnech a Munsterman 5149, 5154 

Naendruim Noendruim island and 

church 5703 
Narboin Narbona, Origg. xv. I, 64 : 

221, ^lt. 30, 45, Narmaint 2537 
Nemthend Mount Nephin, parish of 

Addergoole, barony of Tirawley, Co. 

Mayo, K. iii. 302 : 5688 
Nith liver Nith of the Boyne, Nid 

5681, Onom. 
Nobith Numidae, Origg. ix. 2, 120-2 : 

221, Nombith 2537, Nombithi, A^Jt. 

30, 45, Numin 55, 27 
Norith Norici, Noricus ager, Origg. 

xiv. 4,5 : 221, Nordi, Ailt. 30, 45, 

Noric 55, 27 

Ocha óchter Ochae in Leinster: or 
Faughan, in ihe parish of Martry, 
south of the Blackwater, three miles 
from Teltown, Ériu viii. 75 : Ochae 

Odba a {cnoc and) moat near Navan 
still called An Odba, Onom. : Ogba 

Paimpil Pamphylii Pamphylia, Origg. 

xiv. 3, 44: 218, 2533, Pampil, Ailt. 

30, 42 
Point Pont{ic)i Pontus, Origg. ix. 2, 

83 : 218, 2533, A'Jt. 30,42 


Pontlcum mare the Black Sea 3487, 
mairie Pounticum 3342, Ponteca 
3344, Pountiogda 3488 

Quorann 5689 v. Corann 

Raithen Rahan near Tullamore, in 
barony of BallycGwan, King's Co. 

Relcil Rhegini, Origg. ix. 2, 32 : 
219, Reicir 2535, Recin, ./-,7/. 30, 

Reit Raeti Raetia, Origg, xiv. 4, 26 : 

219, 2535,^//. 30,43 

Resad in Leinster, Onom. : gilla rig 

Resad 5336 
Rige the river Rre which joins the 

Liffey at Leixlip 5685 
Roid Rhodii, Origg. ix. 2, 37: 219, 

Mlt. 30, 44, Roait 2535 
Roigne a plain in the baronyof Kells, 

between the Siur and the Barrow 

Romain Romani, Origg. ix. 2, 84 : 

220, 3536, ^Elt. 30, 44 

Saigear Saighir Chiarain, Sairkeira>i, 
four and a half miles south-east of 
Birr, Co. Tipperary : burying place 
of the kings of Ossory, K. : 5703 

Sarain Saraceni quasi a Sarra, Origg. 
ix. 2, 6 ; 57 : 224, grinne sair 2539, 
grinne fairne, y^ílt. 31, 48 

Sardain Sardi Sardinia, Origg. xiv, 6, 
39, 40: 219, 2535, 128, 2408, .^:it. 
30, 43 

Scithi Scythae, Origg. ix. 2, 27 : 
187, 216, Sgeithin 2533, ^^ílt. 30, 


Scithia Scythia 28, 41, asin Scithia 
149, 162, Sgeiihia 2452, 4051, do 
Gregaiph Sgeithia 2303, 2516, Scitie 
no Scithie 19, on Sgeithia 2312 

Scoti m. the Irish 5466 

Scuit m, Scctti, Origg. ix. 2, 103 : 
217, 1769, 4029, 4049, Sgouit 2533, 
Sguit 4056, 4o6r, a quo Scoiti 1251, 
Scoti 5466 

Senchua townland and parish of 
Shancough, barony of Tirerril, Co. 
Sligo, Sencua 5218, Senchpe 5213 

Sennar the plain of Shinar, g.s. gu 
mag Seannair 154,5, Sennair 1106, 
Seunair 4051, tSeunair 4140 

Seól a plain given by Ugaine to his 
son Eocha, g.s. Seolae 5688 : Seól- 
mag, Mag Seólai, in barony of Ciare, 
Co. Galway, Ononi. 

Sicil Siculi, Origg. ix. 2, 85 : 217, 219, 
SgiU 2534, Sigil 2535, SciU, .Klt. 

30, 41, Sicil 30, 43 

Sinand f. the river Shannon 5681 
Slon Mount Zion, sliab Sioin 5307, 

Sion 5302 
Slíab Luachra Slieve Logher mountains 

in Kerry and Cork, Onom. : 1222, 

Sruthair Shrule in the baronies of 

Kilmain and Clare, Co. Mayo 5707 
Streulae Stirling in the Lothiam 5690 
Strur, Sruthair the river Blachcater 

between Mayo and Galway 5685 

Teith river 5682 

Temalr f. Tara, Co. Meath 5689 

Tessail Thessali, Origg. ix, 2, 69 : 

Tesail 2538, Taeasail 223, Tessail, 

AUt. 31.49: 55. 31 
Tír-dá-glas Terrvglass village, town- 

land, and parish in the barony of 

Lower Ormond, Co. Tipperary 

Tír-dá-Locha in Connacht between 

Lough Corrib and Lough Lurgan, 

Onom. : 5 104, Tír da Lacha 5735 
Tochar Inbir Móir at Arklow, in Ui 

Enecbglais Cuahnd 251, 1029, 2572, 

Tracdai Thraces, Origg. ix. 2, 82 : 

225, Traig 2541, Traic, .7-7/. 31, 

Troe f. Trov, n.s. rotoglad in Trce 

II 23, 4042 ; g.s. dtogail Troe 

Troiannai Troiani, Origg. ix. 2, 67 : 

225, Tragianda 2541, Troian, ^7-:it. 

31, 49, Troia 55, 31 


Tuath Dé Danand the triheis) of 
Daniis ^ods^ an invasion of Ireland 
after the Firbolgs, iar Tuathaib d.d. 
1496, marsen re Tuaith d.d. 2128, la 
Tuaith d.d. 4557 

Ucca a plain in the sonth-west of 
•E?yi^^ i mmaigh Ucca 17, Uga 
2301, mag n-Ucna 154 

Ui Enechglais Cualand in the 

baroQy of Arklo\v, Co. WicWlow 

1030, 3986 
Uisiu f. g.s. Cissen, a river in Mag 

Uatha 5686 
Uisnech Usnagh, Usna, a hill in 

the parish of Conry, barony of 

Rathconrath, Co. Westmeath, K. : 



Aboth son of Aor, ^Elt. 30, 38 : g.s. 

Abodh 184, Abosth 2468 
Abram Abram, Abraim •!• siol Apra- 

haim 2504 
Achab Ahab, Origg. vii. 6, 78 : ihe 

eponym of the letter a 247, Acap 

Adam Adam, g.s. 39, 105, 136, 143, 

152, 2323, 2385, 2422, 2432 
Adamnán St., son 0/ Rónán and 

Rónnat : ninth abbot of Hi 5794 
Adna mac Uthldir, LL. 186*11, 

RC. xxvi. 8, a chief poet to Conchubar 

mac Nessa, Adna 1968 
Aed 6"/., of Ferns 5796 
iEd Aedan mac Gabhrain, King of 

Scotland, A.U. 589 : g.s. .-Eda fri 

hinccin Aodha mic Gaphrain 3186 
-^d Ailig Kmgof Ireland 1879, A.U. 

^neas of Troy 1125, ^Enias 4043 
^ngus Oengus Céie Dé, son of 

Oengoba, author 0/ the Félire, g.s. 

Oengusa epscoip hui Oibleain, Fel?, 

5196, Oengus mac Oiblen 5191 
Affrim the eponym of the diphtbong 

ae 248, Afrim 2563 
Agnoman son of Toe, ^Flt. 30, 37 : 

Etheoir mic Agno[ma]in 183, 2519, 

209, mic Agnumain 1050, Agnamain 

2466, Aghnomain 4005, Aghnoumain 

Agomolis son of Fronosis 132, 

Agamolis 241 1 
Axagenfather of Goedel, Gaedhel mac 

Agnon no Aingin 209, mac Aingen 

1024, Aingin 3979, 4002,4, 1052, 
4965, Goedel mac Angein 1048, 
1764, 2523, Angin 1049 

Ainmeri Ki7tg of Ireland, at Druim- 
Ceta, A.U. 574 : g.s. mic Ainmirech 

Aiscnecus Ashchenaz 4034 

Amairgen Conall mac Amirgin (i.e. 
Conal Cernach) 5266, Goedel mac 
Aimergin (i.e. mac Aingin) 105 1 

Amairgen mac Naende mic 
Nenuail 1025, Aimergin mac Noine 
meic Nionuail 3980 

Amairgein G-lungeal son of Mil 
1028, Amairgein Glungeal mac 
Miled 1031, Aimergin Gluingeal 
2572, 3984, Amairgin mac Miled 
252. CZ. iii. 16 

Aor son of Ara, Aur, ^Elt. 30, 38 : 
g.s. Aoir 2468, Aoi 184 

Ara son of /ara, ^FJt. 30, 38 : 185 

Arfaxat Arphaxat, Origg. ix. 2, 5 : 
120, 1253, Arafaxat 2399, 2115. 
Gen. X. 22 

Assur a builder of Babel, son of Shem, 
Origg. ix. 2, 45 : Assur 127, mic 
Assuir 133, meic Asuir 2412, Asur 
2406. Asshur builded Nineveh, 
Rehoboth, and Calah, Gen. x. 11 

Aurtheeht son of Ethecht, ^Flt. 30, 
38 : g.s. Aurtecht 184, Urtechta 2467 

Baath son of Magog, FeniuE mac Baath 

181, 2487 
Babel the eponym of the letter b 245, 

Bobel 2560 



Baracham a Scythian Greek, great 

grandfatherof Goedel, mic Barachaim 

19, 202, Barachain 2303, 2325, 2516 
Bardanlus a builder of Babel 128, 

Bel soti 0/ Plosc 1 3 1 
Bellat wife of Fenius Farsaid, mother 

of Nél 801, 3618 
Boatb son 0/ Riafath^ Boad, .Klt. 30, 

39: g.s. Boath 185, Baith 2469 
Bodbus a builder of Babel 127, 2407 
Bonb, Banb son of Shem, Bodb, .ísVA 

30, 37 •■ g-s. Boinb 183 : v. Pam 
Bran 5730, 5865 
Brénaind Sí. 5793 
Bres mac Elathan ríg Erenn King 

of the Tuath De Danann, n.s. 5469, 

5943 ; d.s. 5468 ; g.s. i n-aimsir 

]5rese 5467 
Brlan 979, 1381, hui Briain 3834 
Brlccrlu Bricri mac Carbri in 

biheanga, CZ. iii. 16 : g.s. Briccrenn 

Brlttus a builder of Babel 127, Bntus 

Buodach 3222 

Oai Cainbrethach dalta Feniusa 

232, 2547, Cjc II09, do Caei C. 
4144, 1024, 3980: the eponym of 
the letter c 246, Cainaen 2561 

Cam Ham, Gen. x. i. : Cham, Origg. 
ix. 2, 13 : g.s. Caimh 106, 1252, 
Caim 2386, 4029 

Cellach 3222, Ceallach 3698, 5826, 
5923, dim. 711 

Cellach Oorrach a poet 5 1 1 8 

Cendfáelad ihe author of the Aurai ept 
80, Cendfaolad 2358,75, 3982, Ceann- 
faelad 96, Ceandfaeiad 1026 ; g.s. i 
cind ChindfaelAd 72,7, Cindfaeladh 
67,9 ; d.s. do Cendfaeladh 70, i 
leapar Cinnfaolidh meicOilella 2620. 
1679, //-. Meir. 

Cenn Oécáln goose head, a byname of 
/■'iniiguine, A'ing of Mtimier, deposed 
by Cormac mac Cuilennáin, A.U. 
901, vol. iv. p.c. (5) : Ir. T. iii. 
loiu : v.s. ar Cingugan 710 

Cíarán St., ahhot of Clonmacnois, 

Quiaran 5794, comarba cathrach 

Ciarain 5268 
Cinaotha (?) Cináed ua Hartacain 

t975, 3983 
Cloth[g]na mac Oensusa prímfhili 

Erenn, chief poet of Ireland tioog, 

Ir. Metr. 5331 
Cnámine 5327 
Colum St. Columba, Colum Cille.3185, 

5380, 5923, Coluim caid 866, 3601, 

i Colum 5144, i Cholaim Cille 4531, 

Coluim CiIIe 938, 1228, ciU Choluim 

hui Néill 5132 
Conall, Tuthal hua Chonaill 5266 
Conchobar mac Nessa A'ing of 

Ulster 736, i n-aimsir Conchubair 

meic Nessa 2637, Concapair meic 

Neusa 3494 
Congal Claen, of the royaI line of 

ihe Cruithni of Dál Araidi, cf. Slcene, 

Celt. Scot. \. 198, 248, for Conghal 

73, 2628 
Conslnslus, Consentlus Grammati- 

cus Latinus 3240 
Corc son of Lugaidh, K. of Munster 5231 
Cormac dona Cnoib Segsa 5317 
Cormac mac Culennáin poet, bishop, 

A'ing of Cashel t9o8. 5182,6, 1596, 

3867,4678, 5298, 5351 
Críst Christ 3870 
Cronán .SV, 5794 
Crutene Critmifili, CZ. iii. 16: g.s. 

Cruteni 5839 
Cú £icht£re i crub Con Echtga 5398 
Cuilibadh 5923 cf. Colabot, Coilla- 

bot-as, Celibatt-igni, //-. Ep. ii. 75, 

78, 81 
Cuis Cush, Gen. ,\. 6 : Chus, Origg. 

i.x. 2, to, 13: niic Cuis 106, I119, 

1252, 2386,4029 

Dabhid David, the eponym of the 

letter d 246, 2561 
Dámine dim. of Damianus, Daimine, 

5329, Fel? p. 70: but also an Irish 

iiame, e.g. A.C. 785, 869 
Danu f. g.s. Danonn,Danand, v. Tuath 

Dc Danand 



Dedu eponyin of Ogham, g.s. Ogam 

Dedad 6057 
Delbaeth son 0/ Elatha, brother of 

Bres and Ogma, mic Delbaeith 5468,9 
Deus 704, 3350 
Domnall grandson of Ainmire, the 

hero of the battle of Magh Rath, 

A.U. 641 : g.s. Domnaill 69, 2624, 

2643, do dernaind Domniill 5165, 

5239 ; d.s. re nDomnalI 73, 2628 
Domnall ua Aoda a scribe w/io tvroie 

Eg., 4206 
Donatus Grammaíiciis Latinus 364, 

462, 476, 1410, 2742, 2943, 4513 
Donnán 6V., of Eíg 5794 
Donnchad son of Domnall, K ing of 

Ireland, A.U. 797, 2199, 2202,4 
Dubdiad Duh Diad, son of Daman, 

MR. 282 n., Dubiidiadh 76, Duip 

Die 2631 
Dubthach 5388 v. Fergus 

Eialba daughter of Idad or Fidad 561, 

Eipa ingine Fidaidh 3156 
Ejber ex Heber Hebraei, Origg. ix. 2, 

38: a builder of Bibel, Eber 126, 

2415, 2499, Eper mac Saile II16, 

1249, 4027, Eiber 2406, Eimer 

Egbrec hui Briain 3834 
Elatha faiher of Bres, g.s. Elathan 

5467.9, 5943 
Eogan son of Glunfind, g.s. Eogain 

182, 2465, 2529, Eogein 212 
■Bóin the apostle John im feil Eoin 

Éremón son of Mil, Ogam Erimoin 

6084, Eremon, A-'Jt. 29, 32 
Brnén St., bishop, Gor. 5796 
Bsru son of Boath, Boad, .Klt. 30, 39 : 

g.s. Esru 185, 2469, Eusru 4150 
Bssu Esaii. the eponym of the letter e 

247, Esu 2563. Esáu, PH. 8400 
Etan ingen Dencecht in banfili, Etan, 

d. of Diancecht, the poetess, CZ. iii. 16 : 

Etain g. Etnae, RC. xii. 126 : Etain 

Ethecht son of Aurthecht, Aílt. 30, 38 : 

g.s. Ethecht 184, Eiteachta 2467 

Ether son of Agnoman, Fether, Ailt. 
30, 37 : g.s. Etheoir 19, 40, 183, 
202, 213, 1023, 1051,2, 1103, 3979, 
Eitheoir 1108, 2515, 4137, Eithiuir 
2303, 2325, 2529, 2962, 2998, 4008, 
Ethiuir 2522 

Ethlu V. Lug 

Ethrocius the eponym of the diph- 
thong ea 248, Eiroichius 2562 

Paillec Pe'leg, a builder of Babel, • 
Fallec 119, 130, Faillec 123,6, 2399, 
2403,5,9, 2414,5, Faillech 1252 

Paunus g s. Puin 1117 v. Latin 

Penius Parsaidh son of Baath, 
Eogan, or Glunfind, Fenius 166,9. 
174,7, 187, 1102, do F. 516, hi 
Fenius 2266, 2312; 27^9, g.s. Feniusa 
100, 180, 203, 804, 6069, 5503 ; a.s. 
22 ; Farsaidh 212, 1762, 2360, 2465, 
2547, 3978, 4224, Farsaigh 82, 
Farrsaid 160, 180, 1023, 1035,9, 
4963,9. Farsaid [rharisee], PH. p, 

Per Muman Laigeach fili Mumu eicis. 
CZ. iii. 16: Mui«e ecÍF, /;■. 7". iii, 
66, 2 (?) : /;-. Metr. 5145. 5150, 5287, 
5293 : iar oAuraiccept Muman 1366, 

Perchertne poet, auíhor of A uraicept, 
contemporary of Conchobar mac 
Nessa 735,7, 1025, 2637, 3493,5, 
3981, 6103, 6127 

Pergus Dubthach {or Cennfada) 
son ofConall Gulban, A.U. 586. 5386, 
a delidin sillabacda, gossa fer •i- Fer- 
gossa 53 '4. Dubthach may refer to 
another person 

Pidad 3156 V. Idad 

Pindén St. 5793 

Pingen mac Plaind poel, floruit 
circa 850, Ir. Metr. 5246,9 

Plnn mac Cumaill ua Báiscne (.'), 3rd 
cent., /;-. Metr. 5830,6, 6093, Fege 
Find 6102 

Pland F/ann, FJand Floind 3750, 
Fland Flaind 795, 871,5, 883, 3612, 
376 r, 5246,9, a Fhlaind 868, 3604,7, 
Flann 3222, 3698 



Pland mac Lonáin d'Ua (?) Delbna 

of the royal sept Ui Fiachrach Aidni 
5102, mac Lonain i nduain Delmna 
5133. 5281, 5326, a Fhlaind Locha 
5172, Acha 5176. (Mac Laitheóge). 
tgiS. Ir. Metr. 

Foraind Pharaoh, the eponyni of 
the letter f 245, 1768, 2560, v. 

Pronosis son of Gitlis 132, 2412 

Oadmer 2562 v. Gotli 

Garath a huilder of Bahel 128, Garad 

Gemmán V/., nGeman 5795 
Germanus a huilder of Babel 128, 

Gitlis son of Tiris 1^2. 2412 
Giurgus S"/., Georf^e, Giurgu 5795 
Glas Goedel Glas, son of Nél 2518, 

2523, 2998 
Glúnfind son of Lamfind, ^lílt. 30, 37 : 

182, 1049, 2466, 2519. 4005 
Goedel eponym o^ Gaelic, Goedeal 202, 

Gaoidel 2288, Giudeal 15, mac Aingin 

205, Gaedel 43, Gaedheal 204, lasin 

nCaidel 522, 646, 672, 675. 979, 982, 

1083, 4078, Gaedel mac Aimergin 

1051, Gasdel mac Rtheoir 18, 213, 

Gomer son of lapheth, Origg. ijc. 2, 

26 : Gen. x. 2 : 4034 ; g.s. Gomer 

186, Goimeir 2469, Goimer 4148 
Gomers the epoiym of the Ogham 

letter ng 247. nGomer 2562 
Gothius íi huilder of Bahel, Gotius 128 
Gotli the eponym of the letter g 247, 

Gadmer 2562 
Grecus, Gregus son of Gomer 1117, 

4027, Grecus 1250, 4037, Greccus 

4031, 4148 

Hieronymus Stjerome 179, Cirine, E. 
Hiruad Herod, the eponym of the 
letter h 246, Hiruath 2561 

lachim the eponym of the letter i 248, 
laichim 2563 

lafeth lapheth, Gen. x. i : Origg. ix. 

2, 26: 2484, 176, mic lafeth 181,6, 

meic laffeiih 2470, 2488, oc lafeth 

179, ag leffeth 2486 
lar mac Nema 82, 212, 1103, 2360, 

2529, co lar 1107, 4141 
lara son of Sru^ ^-lilt. 30, 38,9 : 185 
Ibath a huilder of Babel 127, Ybath 

Idad/rt/Z/í'r of Ealba, g.s. Idaidh 561, 

Fidaidh 3156 
Iland Ogham ebadach Ilaind 5853 
Indiurnn a river-pool 5686 
lo\\) Jove 3534 
lonan /rtfrtw, son of Japheth, Gen. x. 2 ; 

Origg. ix. 2, 28 : 176, 2483 
Ir son of Mil 3987 
íte f. St. 5796 
ludonius eponym of the diphthong lo 

248, 2563 

Kaliap Caleh,^ the eponym of the letter 
q 246, Calebh 2561. Caleph, Origg. 

vii. 6, 52 

Labraid 5730, 5866 

Lamfiach Lamech, father of Noah, 

Lamiach, .Ell. 31, 52: g.s.^Laim- 

fiach 2470 
Lamfind son of Ether, ^EIt. 30, 37 : 

g.s. Laimfind 182, 2519, 4005, Lam- 

find 2466 
Laisreann St 5793 
Latin son of Faunus, mac Puin 356, 

1117, 1124,6,7. 1250 2723, 4028, 

4043, do chloind Laitin 802, 3619 
Latinus a builder of Babel, Origg. ix. 

2, 84 : 126, 2406 
Lauina Lavinia, daughter of Latinus 

II 2S, 4045 

Leser son of Seth, g.s. Leser 2468 
Liadain a poetess^ ban-éces di Chorco 

Duibne, 7lh cent., Ir. Metr. 5139 
Lonéin father of Fland q.v. 
Lon^bardus a builder of Babel 127, 

Loncbard 2407 
Lorc Lóeguire Lorc, son of L'gaine 

Már, King of Ireland 5231 



Lorc Luocha hBgbric hui Briain 

foslerer of Mide 3834 
Loth Zo/, the eponym of the letter 1, 

Origg. ix. 6, 9 : 245, 2560 
Lug mac Bithlend King 0/ the 

Tuath Dé Danand 2803, 4258, mac 

Etlenn 5484. lithlenn 1162 
Lugaid sonof Lóegaire'Q'), FM. 478,9 : 

Lugaidh 5231 

Mac Dá Cerda mac Máileoehtraig 
maic Dínertaig a poet, "jih cent., 
/;-. Meír.: 4533, 5117: Mac Da 
Cerd 1223, Mac Da Cherda 5108. 
Tamall n-áire amal dorigni Mac 
Dá Certa, BB. 299 /3. 8. Possib]y 
a late development of moccu Cherda, 
of the Cerdraige (used as nom.) ; 
Maccu-lasrius, Lasn'an, Goed? 62 n. ; 
Dil mac Da Crecc = Dil moccu Crecca, 
of the Creccraige, LL. 290* 33; cf. 
£r7u iii. 42 

Mac Fhirbiseach Mac Fir Bisig, son 
of man of leap year, probabIy born 
29th Feb , suppHed MSS. to. FM. 

Mac ind Oic (ind Oc, according to 
Stoke?, son of the two youttg ones') 
Oengus, son of the Dagda, eponym 
of Ogham, briathairogam mic ind Oic 
5615. Anec.m. \á„T : RC. xii. 127 ; 
xxvi. 31 : Pl. 

Mac Lénín a poet, Colmán mac Léníne 
1604, Ir. Metr. 5315, Mac Lénin 

Maelcalnnig hua Tolaig i- mac 
Láiri Láidig a poet 5181 

Maelruanaid 5240, Maelruanaid mic 
Flaind 5243 : three princes so named, 
all of loth cent. 

Maelruis (?) 5820 

Magog son of Japheth, Gen. x. 2 : 
Oiigg. ix. 2. 27 : Magogh i8r, 
Maghach 2488 

Maisse Moses, do Maissi I109, Maisi 
4143 ; g.s. Moysi, Origg. vii. 6, 

Manchán St., of Liath 5795 
Már son of Ethecht 184, 2467 

Mars Mars 3533 

Meurcuir Mercunus 3534 

Mide son of the Sun 3836. O'C. lect. ii. 

191, 226 
Miled Mil or Milesius, Mil, ^f^V/. 29, 

32 : mac Miled 252, 103 1, mic Miled 

1032, 3985, iar Macaib Miled 1495, 

4554, Ir mac Miled 3987 
Miliuc g.s. laistel Milcon mic Oncon 

Móeltuile a poet, ua Burcháin, 8th 

cent., /;-. Metr. 5122 
Morann mac Main /;// oghmoir, the 

Oghatnisl, CZ. iii. 15: legendary 

judge of Coirpre Cinn Chait, CZ. 

iii. 16: n.s. Morand 5530; g.s. 

briatharogam Moraind 5528, 5614 
Muiriath Martha (?), the eponym of 

the letter m 246, Moreth 2561. 

Origg. vii. 10, 3 
Murchertach riabach O Ouindlis 

the scribe ofthe Book cf Lecan version, 

who wrote for Mac Firbis : 2257 

Nabgadon Nebuchadnezzar, a builder 

of Babel, eponym of the letter n 

245, 2560, Nabgaton 2406, Nabgodon 

Naende soti of Nenual 1025, Noine 

Néde son of the poet, Adtia, g.s. Neidhi 

2793. Néde mac mac Gutháir, 

Cor.'-^ 300, 698 : LL. 38^^40, i86b2 
Nél son of Fetiius, no Nin 1767, 4050, 

4969, Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil 2523, 

malhair Niuil 801, 3618 
Nemruad A'imrod, a bLÍlder of Babel, 

Nembroth filius Chus, Origg. xv. 

I, 13: 105.6, 112, 126,9, 134. 2391, 

2406, 4029 ; g.s. Neamruaid 104, 

261, 1036, 2321, 2451 
Nenual father of A'oine, g.s. Nenuail 

1025, Nionuail 3980, cf. ^Clt. 30, 

Ness ttiother of Conchobar q.v. 
Nessán St., Nesan 5793 
Nin son of Bel 108, 131, 1120,2, Nin 

mac Peil 2387, 2411, Nion meic Peil 




Nóe Noah, Gen. x. I : Origg. vii. 6, 
15: mic Noe 107, 120, 133, 186, 
1253, sil Nae 188, Nai 2386, 3400, 
meic Naei 2413, meic Naoi 2416, 

Noine son of Nionual 3980 

Oengus mac Domnaill 5156 : A.U. 

650 : his father, Domnall mac Aeda, 

and his son, Loingsech, were kings 

of Ireland 
Oenu (maceu Laigsi) 6"/., Abbot 

of Clonmacnois, Oena 5796. Lisi,i. 

Ogma mac Balathan meic Deal- 

phaith the inventor 0/ Ogham 2810, 

5468 9, 5478,81, Alhair ogaim Ogma 

2813, onni is Ogmu 2790, CZ. 

iii. 16 : RC. xii. 128 
Ogricus (?) 2840 
OiiiWfather of Cennfaelad, Cindfaeladh 

mic Oilella 67, 71, 2621, 2644, 

Ailella 2625, 2639 
Oise Hosea, eponym of the letter o 

247, Ose 2562. Ozee, Origg. vii. 8, 

10 : Osse, PH. 3660 
Onchú father of Milmc, mac Oncon 

5291,7. Beatha Colm. § 65 
Ordines the eponym of the diphthong 
^oi 248, Ordinos 2563 

Pam son of Seura, meic Aghnoumain 

meic Paim meic Seura meic Sru jrl. 

4151. Probably the same as Banb, 

Partolon mac Sdairn melc Seura 

meic Sru Partaion 4149, Bartholo- 

meus . . . Syrum est, non Hebraeum, 

Origg, vii. 9, i5 
Patraic Patricius 875, 882, Bhatra'g 

4335, Batraig 1270,2, Phatraig 

4330.7i Patraic 3610, Patroig 3751 
Picc Picus, son ofSaturn 2723 
Plato 3807 
Tloae son of Pluliris, CC. : g.s. PIoisc 

131, 2411 
Plulirls son of Agomolis 132, Pih'ris 

Pompeius Grammaticus Latinus 3235 

Prisclanus Grammaticus Latimts 360, 
454,7, 470, 589, 2917, 2926, 2937, 
3141, Prescens 85, Prisianus 2738, 
2745, Presens 4350 

Puin Fauni 1117 v. Latin 

Quiará,n 5794 v. Cíarán 
Quis 2386 V. Cuis 

Ragau son of Arfaxat 12 52, 120, 
Regua 2399, 2414. Ragau, Lk. iii. 
35, for Reu, son of Peleg, Gen. xi. 18 

Rechtgal hua Siadail a poet, 7th 
cent., Ir. Metr. 5155, 5161 

Riabad Scot son of Gomtr, a builder 
of Babel, Gen. x. 3 : Origg. ix. 2, 33 : 
Rifad, Aílt. 30, 39: 126, 1118, Ria- 
bath Scot 1251, Riafath 186, Ribat 
2406, Rihalh Scout 4029, 2469, 
Rifath 4034 

Rochemhurcos father of Sachab 40, 
Ruicimorcus 2324, 2331 

Roigne Roscadach a poet, mac 
Ugaine Móir, CZ. iii. 16 : 6og8 

Rúadán, Ródán St., abbot of Lothra 

Ruben Reiiben, the eponym of the 
letter r 247, 2562 

Sachab son of Ruchemhurcos 39, Sacap 

mac Ruicimorcus 2324, 2331 
Saíle son of Arphaxat, Salah, Gen. xi. 

12 : Sale, Origg. ix. 2, 5 : g.s. Saile 

II16, 1250, 2415 
Saliath the eponym of the letter s 

245, 2560 
Sardain a builder of Babel 128, 2408 
Satarn Satumus 3535 
Scithius a builder of Babel 128, 

Sgithus 2407, Sgithegdha 187 
Scota f. daughter of Pharaoh, King of 

Egypt, n.s. Sgouta ingen Fouraind ri 

Eigipti 4048, 4056, 4970 ; a.s. Scotai 

1768, Sgota 40C1 
Sem Shem, Gen. x. I : 120, mic Semh 

133, 183, Seimh 2414, micSeim 1252, 

2399, 2412 
Semar son of Már, Sem Mair, ^i7/. 

3o> 37 : g-s. Semair 2467 



Séth soii of Adam, ^Elt. 3r, 54: 

Seura son 0/ Sdaim, g.s. Seura 4150 

Sinchell St. 5793 

Solamh O Droma a scrihe 2256, v. 
Ii'ish ./',"«. xviii. 

Strannan St. 5795 

Strú the eponym of the Ogham letter 
str (according to MacNeiIl, origin- 
ally z, which became st by metathesis 
of ts) 247, 2562, Sru, son of Esru, 
Aílt. 30, 39: laramic Sru 185, 2469, 

Suibne Geilt mad Suibne, Í.T.S. xii. 
p. XXX. : Suibni i ngealtacht 74, 
Suiphne Geilt 2628 

Talamon the eponym of the letter t 

246, Tailimon 2561 
Tigernach Sl., bishop of Cluain Euis 

Tiras son of Assur, g.s. Tiris mic 

Assuir 132. Tiras, son of Gomer, 

Gen. X. 2 
Tlachtga na nUath daughter of the 

Archdruid Mogh Ruith, MS. Afatt. 

402 : Ed. Dinds. § 73 : 5234, taebogam 

Tlachtga 6080 
Toe son of Bonb, of Baracham, Tai 

(mac) Bodb, Aílt. 30, 37 : 202 ; g.s. 

183, Toe 19, Thoe 40, Toi 2466, Tai 

2303, 2325, Taoi 2515 
Togarmaío« ofGomer, Gen. x. 3: 4035 
Trós son of Assur, g.s. Trois 2412 
Tuta(i)nes Tothmes, g.s. righ in do- 

main 1122, 4042, confused vvith the 

Titanes (?), Tanis metropolis ^gypti 
ubi Pharao fuit, et Moyses cuncta 
signa fecit quae in Exodo scribun- 
tur. Hanc construxisse perhibentur 
Titanes, id est, gigantes, et ex nomine 
suo nuncupaverunt, O ri gg. xv. i, 32: 
Tuthin .!• Titan •i- grian, H. 4. 18 : 
and Teutamus, Rex Assyriorum xxvi., 
Eusehi Chron, ; Tautanes, rex mundi, 
CZ. X. 87 
Tuthal hua Chonaill Tuathal comarb 
of Cuiran, i.e. abbot of Clonmacnoise, 
A.U. 970 : 5265 

Ua Bruic 3382, 3391, frish Gram- 

Ua Coindi 3383, Irish Grammarian 
hUa Coirill 3383, A.U. 1084, Irish 

Ua Pind ou FinJ 3391, Irish Gram- 

Ua Maoilchonaire mentioned by ihe 

icribe ofEg. (FM. 1487), di ollomain 

O Maolchonaire 4208 
Uenir Venus 3535 
Uimelicus eponym of the diphthong 

ui 248, lumelcus 2563 
Uirgilus, Uirglior, Uirglisiumus 

Ultan St. 5796 
Urard mac Coisi chief poet of Ireland, 

Airard mac Coissi príméces Erend 

■1-990 A.U. : 5258 
Urith Uriah, the eponym of the letter 

u 247, Uriath 2562 
Urtecht 2467 v. Auithecht 



.PB 1397 .A8 1917 SMC 
Auraicept na n-eces. 
Auraicept na n-eces