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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



IN MEMORY OF 



ERNEST DAWSON 

1882-1947 

GIFT OF THE TRUSTEES OF 

THE PUBLIC LIBRARY OF 

NEIV SOUTH WAILES 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



*1515— a 



Public Library of New South Wales 



THE niTCHELL LIBRARY rOUNDATION 



Australasian 

TOKENS AND COINS 



A HANDBOOK 

BY 

Dr. ARTHUR ANDREWS 
President of the Australian Nua\isa\atic Society 



Issue^i 6y tf\e 'trustees of tFve J^itcfxell Library, <6ySr\ey 



SYDNEY 
WILLIAM APPLEGATE GULLICK, GOVERNMENT PRINTER 

1921 



Preface, 



Thh hook xvas intended in the first place to he a catalogue of the Australian 
tokens and coins in the Mitchell Library. Its scope was enlarged to include 
descriptio)is of all known varieties, with a hrief historical introduction. 

The Trustees desire that very cordial acknowledgments should be made to 
Mr. A. F. Basset Hull for information freely drawn from a manuscript on the 
subject compiled hy him and Dr. W. E. Roth nearly thirty years ago. T/ie 
typescript of this -work is in the possessio)i of Mr. William Di.xson, of Killara, 
and was courteously loaned hy him in order that Dr. Andrews slwuld utilise tite 
data collected hy its authors. Mr. Hull and Dr. Roth were able to procure first- 
hand information from individuals who fiad been actually employed in the 
production of Aiistralasian tokens, and tJiis, with the historical data in tlieir 
compilation, made it of value in the preparation of the present work. 

The Trustees desire to tJiank Mr. William Di.xson, wlio has rendered 
considerable assistance, not only in placing tfie above-mentioned typescript and the 
manuscript catalogue of his own coin collection at Dr. Andrews' disposal, but in 
lending specimens for illustration xchen the Library pieces icere not in good 
condition. 

Dr. Andreii'S desires also to thank the many other collectors and corre- 
spondents wfw fiave ungrudgingly given information and encouragement. 

The order of sections and numbering were decided hy the arrangement of 
specime)is in the Library cabinet. The Mitcfiell Collection is shown by asterisks 
against the numbers. Tfw remainder are catalogued front the colhctions of the 
.Australian ^Dlseunl. Mr. William Di.xson, Mr. Alfred Chitty, Dr. Yelland, attd 
Dr. Andrews. The Trustees are anxious to obtain specimens of these desiderata. 

I desire to record the Trustees' appreciation of the work of the compiler 
in arranging and cataloguing tlieir coins and tokens, and of his care and 
entJtusiasm in miking this fiandbook so complete. The thanks of the Trustees 
are also due to the Government Printer, Mr. IT. .1. Gullick, for suggestions 

concerjiing its format. 

W. H. IFOULD. 
Principal Librarian and Secretary. 



Introduction 



IN these days it is hard to picture to oneself the conditions which prevailed 
in Australia at the beginnin,!,^ of the last century; but no description of 
the Tokens and Coins of this Commonwealth would be complete without 
some reference to the difficulties those in authority had to contend with and 
the steps taken to ameliorate their conditions and relieve their inconveniences. 

The scanty records of the time afford but little reliable information ; but 
there is no doubt that almost as soon as the Settlement was first formed the 
scarcity of Coin was severely felt. 

For many years before the end of the eighteenth century it is kno\\Ti that 
the issues of the Royal Mint in London were far below the requirements of the 
Home Country alone ; and it will be easy, therefore, to understand that a Depend- 
ency so far removed from the seat of Empire would suffer even more inconvenience. 

Such was the dearth of coin in England, and so greatly were the few shillings 
and sixpences circulating depreciated by wear and tear, that the Government was 
compelled to take steps to remedy matters. In 1787, shillings and sixpences, 
now known as " wire money," to the value of £55,000 (Plate 60, Nos. 818 & 819) 
were issued, and for a time relieved the situation. However, the very quality 
and weight of the new issue being so much superior to those previously in use 
defeated the object, most of them soon finding their way to the " melting pot." 

The only other British siher coins circulating were crowns and half-crowns, 
and these were very scarce. Of less value, there were only halfpence and farthings 
of copper, no copper pence being made before 1797. The ditftculties of those 
requiring small change can easily be understiHul. 

In 1797, the firm of l>ouUon and Sons, of Birmingham, was employed to 
produce 500 tons of the tliick-rimnuHl copjier coins so much in evidence fifty years 
ago. 

*I5I5-A 



2 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

Of these it is shown by a despatch of Governor Iving that £1,200 worth were 
sent to New South Wales in 1800, and the Governor, hoping to better alleviate 
local troubles, issued a Proclamation making them current in the Colony and fixing 
the value of the i oz. piece (the penny) at twopence (No. 821, Plate 61), and making 
them legal tender to the amount of /5. Early writers say that at the same time 
the value of the halfpenny was raised to one penny and the farthing to a halfpenn5^ 
It is also understood that the 2 oz. or twopenny piece (No. 820, Plate 61) was 
circulated as fourpence. The Proclamation, however, says nothing about these. 

At the same time (November, 1800) the Governor fi.xed the amount at which 
various foreign coins which were current should be accepted'; generally above their 
face value. 

This Act was decidedly unpopular, as it entirely prevented the export of 
these coins except at considerable loss; the size and weight of the copper coins 
was also a great inconvenience. There soon arose a tendency for them to get into 
few hands, as shown In' a transaction which is said to have taken place within a 
year or two. 

All land purchased from the Government at that time had to be paid for 
in flash, and a man who had bought a farm appeared at the Treasury with no less 
than ^^480 wortli of these coins in payment. As they were only legal tender to 
the amount of £5, the official refused to accept them. The man, not to be outdone, 
took his dray into the next street and soon appeared with an instalment of £5, 
which had to be accepted. In a few minutes he appeared again with another, 
and repeated the process till the official became tired of the game and accepted 
the lot. 

However this may have been, there is plenty of evidence that at that time 
nearly all transactions were carried out on a system of barter, so many pounds 
of tins for so many of that, and where goods were not forthcoming, notes of hand 
or I.O.U.'s of often very doubtful value had to be accepted. 

Most of these paper issues were made payable in currency, as the various 
foreign coins and local paper were called, and shortly we find that tradesmen, having 
given these notes, when requested to redeem them declined to do so except by 
consolidating them into larger notes or giving those of other issuers in place, as 
these were all known as " Currency." 

In 1803, Governor King wrote to the Home Government :^ 
" The preparation of a peculiar coin of the intrinsic value of Sixpence, but 
to pass here as One Shilling, to the amount of £1,000 would be advantageous, 
but the advantage of this to Masters of ships might set the people of Bir- 
mingham to work unless the responsibihty of a heavier penaty than exists 
now for the importation of copper was ordained." 

The following extract from the Official Records of 1803 -1804, which is in 
the Mitchell Library, comments on the conditions thus :— 

" It appears that Spirituous Liquors are the real measure of property, these 
and the Notes of Individuals almost the only circulating medium . . ." 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKEXS AND COINS. 3 

" The Colony at present possesses no coin but that struck by Mr. Boulton 
and sent out in 1800, its amount is . . . and it consists of Farthings, 
Halfpence, and Pence, each of which is issued at double its English nominal 
value, which has given an opportunity to the Birmingham Coiners to exercise 
their ingenuity, and they have already nuu h increased the number of these 
pieces in circulation . . ." 

" In order to accommodate the Colony properly it is proposed first of all 
to call in the present Copper currency, and reissue it at its English value ; next 
to send out an additional stock of Copper Coin of the same denominations; 
and, thirdly, that Tokens representing Sixj)ences, Shillings, and Half-crowns 
be also struck here and issued by the Govc-rnment. 

" As the issue of a circulating medium will in this case be made for the first 
time, it will be easy to arrange it on a decimal scale in order to induce the people 
in due time to keep their accounts in Decimal Numbers instead of Pounds, 

Shillings, and Pence . 

" Few Englishmen arc aware how easily this may be done by assuming the 
Farthing as the Monetary Unit, in which case the following set of Tokens will 
answer this important purpose : — • 

One piece of 20 farthings or 5d. 

50 ,, IS. oM. 

,, 100 ,, 2s. id. 

Ten of these will be twenty shillings and ttn pence, very near a Guinea." 

The difficulty of retaining coin in the country was increased by the custom 
of ships' captains of the time. When they arrived in port they generally opened 
a shop for the sale of their cargo, and, of course, took care to have in exchange 

something more tangible than the current promissory notes. 

Forgeries of these notes were plentiful, and persons having no resources 
did not hesitate to take advantage of conditions and scattered their paper money 
wherever they could get it accepted, regardless of their inability to redeem their 
promises. Endless litigation was the result, and so great was the distress arising 
from the depreciated value of these notes that in 1807, the Governor issued a 
Proclamation making all paper payable in cash at the established value of current 
coins. 

There was one coin which had almost uni\'ersal circulation throughout the 
world at this time, and often changed hands at a considerable premium. This was 
the Spanish Dollar or Piece of 8 Reals. The enormous output of silver from the 
mines of South America was coined at various mints into this handy form, and the 
purity of the metal combined with the millions issued soon rendered them the 
standard of exchange between various countries. Still, even these were subject 
to fluctuations in value as that of the metal rose or fell, and in 181 2 they were 
generally freely taken at a premium of one shilling above their face value, and hence 
could not be retained in Australia, where the value was fixed at a lower rate. 



4 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

In man\- of the British colonies a custom had arisen of so inulihiting these 
pieces before circulating them locally that they would be worthless for export. Judg 
ing from a despatch by Governor King to the Home Government, dated 20th 
December, 1804, something of the kind had been attempted here. He writes thus :— 

" The fallacy of endeavouring to keep Spanish dollars or any sterling coin 
in circulation within the Colony has long been proved, even when the former 
has been cut into eight or ten parts, as these coins are never seen after they 
arc paid away." 

There is nothing to show that this was an official action, nor is there any 
reference to the practice of most of the other Colonies of countcrmarking in some 
way even the smallest cUvisions of the dollar. 

When, therefore, Governor Macquarie contemplated taking action to relieve 
the situation, it is not surprising to find that he decided to not only mutilate the 
dollar, but to entirely change the appearance of the pieces by stamping the value 
at which they were to circulate on them, and obliterating, as regards the smaller 
parts, all sign of their origin. 

His opportunity arrived when, in November, 1812, the Sloop of War Samarang 
arrived with £10,000 worth of dollars on board, and he was quick to take advantage 
of it. 

Hence the Holey or Ring Dollars and Dumps so often mentioned in early 
Australian literature, and which will be more fully described later. 

B}- Proclamation, Macquarie fixed 30th September, 18 13, as the date on which 
these were to be issued and become legal tender, but they did not actually circulate 
till early in the following year. 

He, at the same time, by Proclamation, forbade the issue of paper money for 
any lesser sum than half-a-crown, and also decreed that from that time " all trans- 
actions were to be deemed to have been made in these silver pieces, which were then 
declared legal tender." The value of the Ring or Holey Dollar was fixed at five 
shillings, and the Dump at fifteen pence, as marked on them. This gave the Govern- 
ment a good profit on the transaction. The limit of copper money as legal tender 
was also reduced to fifteen pence. 

Though this Proclamation appears to have been effective in New South Wales, 
we find that in Van Dieman's Land, as Tasmania was then called, there was little, 
if any, restriction, and as late as 1826, paper notes for such small amounts as 3d., 6d., 
and IS. were common. 

The premium on copper coins remained unchanged till December, 1817, 
when, in deference to the opinions expressed at a public meeting, the Governor 
ordered that on and after 7th December the officials at the Government Stores should 
receive depreciated copper coin " at upon and after the rate of an advance of 50 
per cent, on the English sterling value." It was required that all copper should 
be presented before ist January, 1818, from which time all copper coins were to 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 5 

circulate onl}^ at the value of the same in England. It was, lunvever, also required 
that all copper presented should be dated prior to 1800, when it was first issued 
in the Colony at a j)reniiuni. The limit of legal tender of copper coins was fixed at 
£5 again. 

Spanish Dollars continued to be the principal basis of cxxhange, and the 
Bank rf New South Wales issued notes on this basis as late as 1822. and 1823. They 
were then superseded by large amounts of sih'er received from England, where 
the coinage had been greatly improved, especially in quantity. The Dollars soon 
fell into disrepute, and all transactions from that time were in pounds, shillings, and 
pence. It was also declared illegal to issue any note for less than /i. 

In 1823, we note the appearance of the first Australian Token. It was issued 
in Hobart by the firm of Macintosh and Dcgraves, carrying on business at what 
was known as " The Cascade Saw Mill." It was the size and value of the English 
shilling, and is now very rarely seen. Probably but few were made. 

No reference to this piece has yet been found in contemporary publications, 
and one cannot help feeling some surprise that the example was not followed, as 
the abundant copper issues of tokens by tradesmen in England must have been 
familiar to most of the residents of the Colony. 

A reference to the press of the time shows that though much more com was 
circulating, the system of barter had by no means passed away, especially in 

Tasmania. 

In the Hobart Town Gazelle of 1822-23, advertisements are ft)und of prices 
at which Spanish Dollars will be accepted at stores, generally at a premium on the 
face value. In others, wheat or other produce will be taken in i-xchange for goods. 

In the Colonial Times and Tasnianian Adverliser of March, 1S26, a weather- 
board house is advertised for sale, wheat or approved bills taken in exchange. A 
little later a storekeeper advises " Cash, clean wheat, or well-fed green hams taken 
in payment." Another instance is " .\ substantial brick house for sale. \Micat 
oats, barley, sheep or cattle in exchange." Many others could be cpioted such as 
" Books o Promissory Notes." ..." They will be found useful to innkeepers, 
&c., and equally useful to trawllers." 

In its issue of nth .\ugust, 182(1, wt- lind :— 

" During the present week a number of Spanish Dollars cut into five 
parts, have made their appearance, each being considered worth one shilling. 
We know not whether they have been cut by sanction of the Government or by 
some private indi\'idual, but we are convinced that Governor Macquarie's plan 
of stamping the dollar is infinitely much better than the present system of 
cutting, which, in our opinion, opens the door to fraud. There is machinery 
in this Colony capable of performing the operation of stamping; and there 
are persons fully competent to make the dies. We woidd, therefore, again 
recommend the Government to issue a mone\' which could not be taken out of 
the island in order that people may benefit by it." 



6 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

From this time larger consignments of coin appear to have been received, 
and many persons arriving as intended settlers bronght out their capital in cash. 
Between 1830, and 1840, speculation ran riot through the Colony, and everything 
rose enormously in price. Drought affecting the back country soon resulted in 
great lessening of stock values, and a corresponding wave of distress passed over the 
conununity. The population of New South Wales was increasing rapidly in spite 
of large settlements in the other Colonies, and again (1844, to 1846), we find paper 
money beginning to circulate for small amounts, though not to the extent experienced 
in earlier years. 

In 1849, for the first time we hear of Copper Tokens, and the honor of 
priority belongs to Melbourne. In the Melbourne Argus of 20th October, 1849, 
the following appears : — • 

" To obviate the extreme inconvenience occasioned by the scarcity of 
coppers, particularly by the grocers, who have not unfrequently to pay a 
premium of from sixpence to a shilling a pound for their Saturday night's 
supply, Mr. Councillor Annand has had coined at Birmingham a large supply 
of penny pieces, having on one side the figure of Britannia, and on the 
obverse the inscription , ANNAND, SMITH & Co., family grocers Melbourne." 
Mr. F. Gardner, of Melbourne, quoting the above, comments: — ■ 

" Thus we have in addition to the fixing of the date of issue the place 
of origin of the coins and concisely the reason for the issue of all tokens." 

With the close of the first half of the century, business had generally recovered 
from the period of depression, and a swing of the pendulum in the opposite 
direction was greatly strengthened by the discovery of gold. For a few years money 
became so plentiful, wages were so high, and all produce sold so quickly at very 
remunerative prices that the want of small change was not" so urgent. In fact, 
it was the plethora of gold that became troublesome. The banks and others who 
bought the metal from the " diggers " rarely gave lull value, and it is on record that 
in 1852, only £2 15s. per oz. was paid on Ballarat. Suggestions were made for 
converting it into marketable shape, and the South Australian Government was the 
first to adopt definite means. They not only issued coins of the value of £1, but 
also converted any amount brought to them into ingots stamped with weight and 
value in standard gold. Agitation commenced for the establishment of Mints in 
Australia, and this was conceded in 1853, and completed in regard to Sydney in 
1855- 

In 1852, the first dated copper tokens were issued in Sydney by Peek and 
Campbell, who had them made locally by J. C. Thornthwaite, as will be more fully 
described later. After this such issues became very common, many undated. 
Silver pieces of the value of three pence were also largely issued by Thornthwaite 
and Hogarth, Erichsen & Co., of Sydney. Each year increasing numbers of fresh 
issues were made in the various Australian Colonies and New Zealand, the climax 
being reached in 1862, when no less than thirty-three firms or individuals adopted 
the practice, in man^^ instances issuing several varieties, and in one case (Thomas 
Stokes) no less than fifty dated pieces of different design. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. J 

Tokens which whtn first issued were decidedly a blessing to the communitv 
soon became a nuisance, and steps were taken to stop the issue in the various 
Colonies. 

After i860, the extensive and lighter bron/.e issue from the Imperial Mint 
soon replaced the cumbrous pieces previously in use, and within a few years all 
tokens were declared illegal. Many were taken by the Governments in exchange 
for the new coins, and many more melted down for the metal they contained, which 
was generally very pure; in cjuality. 

The issues from the Local .Mints will be described in due course, and also 
the Commonwealth pieces commencing in 1910. 

Many checks and medalets have been used from time to time by various 
establishments, but practically exclusively for use in the issuer's place of business 
or for pure advertisement. Such are the well-known Auckland Ferry, Wairarapa 
Farmers' Association, and Nelson Brewery zinc pieces of New Zealand, or the 
Achilles King and variously surcharged Hosic issues in Victoria, and many others. 
These not having been issued for circulation as small change, have not been taken 
into consideration in the following pages. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Copper and Bronze Tokens. 



WHEN considering the issue of an illustrated Catalogue of Australasian Tokens 
and Coins, one of the most important matters requiring decision was 
whether to follow the example of previous writers on the subject, or to 
adopt what will probably be thought by some an unwise innovation. It 
was hoped to produce a volume worthy of the notice of numismatists generally, 
and which should include all known issues, if possible. Hitherto little attention 
has been paid to Australasian Tokens by numismatists generally, possibly because 
it would be natural to conclude that they could not have age to render them 
interesting, nor have they any great artistic claim to consideration. With the 
exception of Atkins and Stainsfield, whose publications are nearly or quite forty 
years old, no one has attempted any detailed description of them, and their lists 
do not cover half the varieties known. Certainly the outline catalogue of Mr. A. 
Chitty is more complete as regards numbers, but unfortunately gives but very meagre 
details. These writers also have all arranged their hsts on the same plan. They kcp 
the various Colonies or States as they are now denominated separate, place alpha- 
betically the towns in each where tokens were issued, and similarly list the names 
of issuers in each place. Persons living in and well acquainted with the geography 
of Australasia have little difficulty in hnding the information they require about 
any piece, but it seems hardly reasonable to expect that numismatists living on 
the other side of the world will be sufficiently cognisant of Australian geography 
to decide in what State to look for, say, " Jamberoo, Kiama, Eaglehawk, Timaru," 
and many others. Again, there is an important town in New South Wales named 
" Wellington," and it is known to most that the same name is attached to one of 
the largest cities of New Zealand. Further, it is well known that practically all 
Australa'ian Tokens bear the name of the issuer in such form that there can be no 
doubt as to the person responsible for their redemption. It was considered that 
it would probably be easier to pick out the name from an alphabetical list than to 
seek for an obscure township without knowing which State to search. Fortunately, 
also, there is no clashing of names in the various places. 

It was decided, therefore, to definitely break away from the old custom, and 
to list the tokens in strict alphabetical order of the names of issuers, giving with 
each piece the place of issue with the other details. To assist those who would 
prefer the former plan, lists of the issuers in each State, with their places of abode, 
have been included. 

In another matter, and one, perhaps, more important from a strictly numis- 
matic point of view, I have followed the custom of those Australian collectors whose 
publications have passed into authoritative reference issues on the subject — -of 
placing the advertisement face of the token first as the obverse, it being the mark 
of domicile or origin. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 9 

Australian Tokens were not an authorised issue, and the figures and emblems 
they carry, not being arms of Dominion, or always signs of national origin, the real 
guarantee vested in the token was the advertisement of the firm or person Issuing. 
Hence this came to be considered the principal side, or obverse. This practice, 
although it may at first sight appear somewhat irregular, will, on consideration, 
I feel sure, be duly recognised by numismatists generally. Further, by adhering 
to previous practice, uniformity is secured, and the danger of confusion in comparative 
reference lessened. 

In a minor matter I have again differed from the previous writers mentioned 
in that I have placed the halfpence of any issuer immediately after the pence in 
each case, instead of grouping them together at the end of the list. 

Varied Upsets have not been listed as \arieties, as they are mere accidental 
occurrences. Many issues are found, both normal and upset, and in such cases they 
are marked as normal, while if they are usually found upset it is indicated in each 
case. 

A careful examination of a very large number shows that, even with the best- 
made pieces, it is cpiite common to iintl Lluil the obverse and reverse are neither 
normal nor upset within lo^ or 15 \ an amount that would not attract attention 
generally. 

Tokens have been described (Tepper) as metal discs with tlevices cr 
inscriptions, or both, impressed on them by specially-prepared dies, and circulated 
by mercantile firms, companies, or individuals as mone}', like ordinary coins. By 
far the greater number consist of copper. As their adoption arose from the 
insufficiency of legitimate small change in circulation, they supplied an obvious 
want ; and so long as they represented a fair value and remained restricted to 
circumscribed locaUties they evidently did no harm, but were beneficial to all parties 
concerned. 

However, wlun it was discovered that the tokens not only formed an excellent 
medium for advertising, but that also a handsome profit could be made by dcba.-ing 
the value much below that of the current legal coin which the token replaced, they 
were issued in such \ast (luantities thai the jtublic and the State suffered loss. Hence, 
during the sixth decade of last century, Aiis were i)assed for their suppression in 
the various British Dominions. 

As palpable exideiice of populai i>hases of nalioual life-, both in Britain and 
the Colonies, they will e\er remain objects of interest to the collector and the 
historian, for in both they are conti'mporaneous with the most important periods 
of national development. 

As in other British colonies, the copper tokens of -\usiralasia, in size and 
weight, roughly agreeil with the Regal pence and halfpence of the time. While 
the thick-rimmed pence of George III weighed 410 grs., his later issues weie reduced 
to 290 grs., and those of Queen Victoria also. Verv fevv of the token pence weighed 
more than 260 grs., and some were under 200 grs., and the halfpence in proportion. 



10 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

As long as the piece bore some relative size and weight to the official issues, it passed 
current without trouble, but when, as in the case of Fleming (No. 128), it was not 
only reduced in size, but also in weight to 140 grs., the public would have none of 
it, and the unfortunate issuer was left to dispose of them as best he could. 

The bronze pieces were evidently not popular with issuers, as we find but 
few issues in that metal, and these generally of later dates after the issue of the 
British bronze of i860, had made people familiar with the size and the convenience 
of a lighter medium of exchange. 

But three issuers made use of brass for their requirements. Of these Whitty 
and Brown, of Sydney, only produced a few as an experiment. Morris Marks, of 
New Zealand, at the same time reduced the size to little over that of a halfpenny, 
with the result that they were refused general circulation, and hence specimens 
are generally in good condition. Fenwick Bros., of Melbourne, made tw^o issues 
in this metal of the ordinary size which apparently satisfied the communit}^ Their 
pieces are also found of copper, but all are scarce. Noah Shreeve also issued small 
brass tokens, now considered by many merely as advertisements. They certainly 
had a limited circulation. 

There are many brass counterfeits in existence, but they can always be easily 
distinguished by the roughness of the surface, due to being cast in plaster of paris 
moulds. They are also generally somewhat smaller than the piece copied. 

With the exception of the penny of R. Henry, of Hobart (No. 225), and a 
halfpenny of Marsh Bros., of the same place (No. 348), which are milled, all 
Australasian Tokens have plain edges. Some of the earlier colonial-made issues being 
roughly struck on plain blanks without the edges being raised, the body of the coin is 
not protected by a thickened rim, leading to more rapid effacement of the design. 

The following extract from an unpublished treatise, compiled by Dr. Roth 
and Mr. A. F. Basset Hull, about 1893, and made available by the courtesy of Mr. 
William Dixson, of Sydney, gives a graphic account of some of the difficulties 
colonial makers met with when first endeavouring to meet a public want without 
the experience or machinery required. 

" The late Mr. Peek, of George St., Sydney, . . . was the 
originator of the Token coinage for Australia. Being acquainted with J. C. 
Thornthwaite, Peek engaged him to carry out his plan. Owing to his position 
as a large shareholder in the ' Burra Burra ' copper mines of South Australia, 
Peek was enabled to procure a supply of ingots of that metal. These, however, 
proved of but little use to Thornthwaite, who had no suitable appliance for 
manufacturing sheet copper from the ingots. They then procured some copper 
rods of the required size and thickness, and George Parkin, the apprentice, 
was set to work with a handsaw to cut off the blanks one by one. Needless 
to say, this proved a very tedious and tiring business. Fortune smiled at last, 
for they chanced, after manufacturing a few by the above method, to make 
the acquaintance of an individual in the employ of Mr. John Baptist, the 
gardener at Surry Hills, who, having had some previous experience, showed 
them how to cut blanks from sheet copper. The funnel of a discarded steamer 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. II 

was thus suljscqucntly utilised. 1 he press used for stamping the tokens was 
an old affair, and hardly suitable for the purpose, being worked on the same 
principle as a letter-copying press. Incapable of giving the necessary force, 
they weighted the stamper with some of the copper ingots, but no better results 
were obtained. They finally had recourse to a drop-hammer worked with a 
block and pulley, somewhat resembling the machines used on a lareer scale 
fur driving piles. This method answered only too well, as it not only gave 
the sharp blow required, but sent the dies flying in all directions, simply 
bombarding the inside of the workshop and rendering it somewhat unpleasant 
and unsafe for the occupants. Such, then, is a short history of the difficulties 
the first die-sinker of the copper currencies had to contend with, and, taking 
all in all, the result reflects great credit on his industry and perseverance. 
The first tokens thus struck comprise those for the Tea Stores (Peek & Co.), 
Sydney, for Thornthwaite himself, for Allen, of Jamberoo, and for Bell & 
Gardner, of Rockhampton. Those manufactured for Allen were refused by 
that trader on account of what he considered their bad workmanship. 

The whole quantity was subsequently disposed of by Thornthwaite 
at a penny each to the toll gatekeeper at Annandale, who passed them on in 
change to the hapless wayfarers." 

Thornthwaite also made the pence for John .Allen, of Kiama, a brother of 
William Allen, of Jamberoo, and it is generally considered that the last paragraph 
of the above extract should apply to his pieces. In view, however, of the fact that 
but two of John Allen's pieces are known, while those of William Allen, though rare, 
are not extremely so, we may conclude that the above gives a correct account of 
the matter, and the extreme rarity of the John Allen pieces may have arisen from 
his refusing to receive his also when but a very few patterns had been struck. 

With such primitive appliances it can be understood that but very limited 
numbers could be produced and that the expense would be in proportion. Colonial 
makers also were handicapped by competition with English firms who, with their 
extensive plants, thought orders for less than two or three large barrels of tokens 
at one time of little importance. It is known that in 1S54, James Campbell, of 
Morpeth, put into circulation no less than two tons of pence and halfjKMice. 

The workmanship displayed in the manufacture of the Australian-made 
issues, as might be expected, compares badly with the imported article. The 
English firms, with some of them a centuiy or more of experience to guide them and 
very extensive connections, could afford to employ well-instructed and capable 
men to produce their designs, cut the dies and give the proper finish to the com- 
pleted article, while the colonial maker had to undertake an unaccustomed job 
with very inferior appliances. It was not till Thomas Stokes, of Melbourne, in 
1857, purchased W.J. Taylor's plant and many of his dies that the local product 
became in any way equal to the imported. To Stokes belongs the credit of 
producing not only well-made tokens, but a large series of designs typically 
Australian in character, by which his issues can be easily distinguished from 
those made in England. 



12 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

The time of issue of nuiny tokens cannot be fixed, as they bear no indication 
of date, and this is especially noticeable with the imported pieces, where in some 
cases repeated orders must have been filled to account for the numbers and varieties 
in design well known to collectors. 

Though, as has been already shown, Annand, Smith cS: Co., of Melbourne, 
were the first to issue copper tokens in 1849, they were not dated, and had we not 
the contemporary notice of their appearance it could not be otherwise decided. 
There is in existence a very roughly struck piece (No. 578) bearing the date 1850 
which was in Heuzenroeder's collection. It appears to be an early attempt or 
pattern by Thornthwaite and thus antedates his first known issue by two years. 




The penny of Joseph Moir, of Hobart (No. 384), bears the date 1850, but 
this is generally taken to apply rather to the date of the establishment of his 
business than the actual date of issue. The Melbourne halfpence of W. J. Taylor, 
which bear a legend showing that he w-as Medallist to the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
have been claimed for that year, but as they were struck in Melbourne and his plant 
did not reach that city till late in 1852, it can only be taken as an advertisement. 

The first dated regular issue is that made by Thornthwaite for Peek and 
Campbell, of the Tea Stores, Sydney, in 1852. It consists of a penny which is very 
rare and two varieties of halfpence. The following year (1853) a further issue of 
pence was made for the same firm. The next date found is 1854, when Thornthwaite 
issued both pence and halfpence for himself in Sydney, and James Nokes and T. W. 
Thomas & Co., in Melbourne, distributed large numbers of halfpence. 

From this time each year brought forth increasing numbers. Issues rapidly 
increased in 1857, when Stokes purchased Taylor's plant and seriously took up the 
business. The year 1862 is the most common date, as no less than thirty-five new 
firms or individuals made dated issues with, in some cases, several varieties. Stokes 
himself also produced a very extensive series bearing his own name or his exclusive 
designs. Over fifty of his varieties are known, some few not previously listed 
having been lately recognised and described. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 13 

By 1862, such cnormcnis numbers (A tokens were in circulation that they 
began to be a nuisance instead of a blessing, and eff(jrts were made to stop the issue. 
Over 640 are described in this catalogue. Tlie latest date we hnd on X'ictorian 
pieces is 1863, in which year they were declared illegal in that Colony. Almost 
at once we find complaints from South Australia that large numbers have been 
bought up cheaply in Victoria and introduced into that Colony to the detriment 
of the people. The introduction also of the new British bronze money rendered 
tokens unpoi)ular, though they did not disappear from circulation till after 1875. 
Tn New South Wales and Oueensland the latest date is IM65, while Western 
Australia still utilised tlicni till i<S74, and in New Zealand the beautiful scries of 
Milner and Thompson bears the date 188 1. These latter, however, were used 
quite as much as an advertisement as for small change. 

In New South Wales, in 1868, tokens were made illegal and were largely 
withdrawn from circulation, together with the old copper money at nominal value, 
being paid for in tlie new bronze issue. The total amount of tokens was not to 
exceed that of Imperial copper money handed in at the same time. It was also 
noted that anonymous tokens, roughly cast and only recently circulated, counter- 
feits, or made of brass, were not receivable. Macgregor, who issued a neat penny 
and halfpenny in Sydney (Nos. 339-340), was unfortunate enough to imix>rt no less 
than a ton weight just at this time, and the Mint refused to receive them, rendering 
what would have been a very profitable transaction a heavy loss, as he sold most 
of them for the metal. 

The wholesale disappearance of these pieces is accounted for not only by the 
various Acts passed for their suppression, but in no small degree by the purity <»f 
the copper of which they were made rendering them particularly valuable for 
alloying. This latter fact is em])hasise(l on the halfpenny issued by Joseph Lane 
and Son, Birmingham, which boars on the reverse : — • 

REFINED AUSTRALIAN COPPER / FOR ALLOYING /GOLD 

in four lines 

Much dissatisfaction was caused in Sydney by the interpretation placed on 
the Act governing the withdrawal of cojiper moneys, as the officials demanded two 
Imperial pence as the (Hpii\aU'nt of one penn\' token, but this ap]>ears to have been 
changed, for the official return in March, iSbq. of old copper coin and tokens with- 
drawn gives the value of the coin as £1,191, and the tokens /i,2|0. The we ght 
of the total was 10 tons, and they were forwarded to Ivngland by the S.S. 
Himalaya as " Crown treasure." 

In 1877, notice was given that old copper coins and tokens would be received 
at the Mint after 31st December only as old metal. The Master of the Mint, in 
his report, stated tliat although the greatest encouragement had been given to the 
collection of old copper coin the whole amount received during the past nine years 
only amounted to £273 14s. 5d., and the exchange was finally closed. 

Tasmania passed an Act in i87(), making the British bronze money current 
and all copper coins illegal. 



I^ AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



B 



The Medallists of Australasian Tokens^ 

OTH English and Colonial Medallists were engaged in the mannfacture of 
Australasian Tokens, but as only about one-third of the issues bear the 
name or initials of the maker it is often difficult to decide their origin. 

The English makers were : — • 

Allen and Moore, 

Heaton and Sons, 

Pope & Co., 

Smith and Kemp, all of Birmingham ; 

Todman, 

Taylor, W. J., and perhaps 

CoARD, all of London. 

The firm of Wood and Son has also been mentioned, but no particular issue 
has been traced to them, nor does any indication ol their name appear on any known 
piece. 

Colonial makers were : — • 

J. C. Thornthwaite, 

Hogarth and Erichsen, 

Whitty and Brown, all of Sydney; 

Thomas Stokes, 

Stokes and Martin, and, again, 

W. J. Taylor, of Melbourne. 

In the above list Coard is included, because his name appears on several 
issues, and he will be noticed further with W. J. Ta\lor, whose name appears in 
both the EngUsh and Colonial lists. 

Heaton and Sons, the well-known firm, engaged in the production of the 
British bronze issue with many other Imperial and Colonial pieces, were responsible 
for some of the best designed and executed Australasian Tokens. Their Mint mark, 
a minute H&S, only appears twice in the whole series. In both cases it is to be 
found beneath the shield of Britannia. It is on one variety of each issuer only, 
viz., the Annand, Smith & Co. penny with twelve leaves on the olive branch (No. 
i8), and Iredale & Co. (No. 291). The figure of Britannia on the second variety 
of Annand, Smith & Co. is so similar that there can be no doubt of a common origin. 
Then, reverting to the Iredale series, the obverses of the eight varieties are so uniform 
that they may unhesitatingly be ascribed to the same press, and thus enable us to 
identify the source of th(; design of the reverses. Though, as mentioned above, 
No. 291 has Britannia on the reverse, the other seven Iredale pieces have what is 
generally described as a " stanchng figure of Justice, blindfolded, with scales borne 
by the right hand, while the left rests on the upturned point of a cornucopia, with 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. I5 

sea and a sliij) in the background." This reverse does not occur on any piece bearing 
a medallist's name, nor with any obverse known to belong to another maker. 
Therefore, all issues having this reverse are now ascribed to this firm, an opinion 
strongly supported by a careful examination of the workmanship and general 
characteristics of the pieces. It appears on the issues ol sixteen firms or individuals, 
viz. . — Battle and Weight, James Campbell, Smith, Peate & Co., and Weight and 
Johnson, of New South Wales; Moubray, Lush & Co., K. Parker, W. Bateman 
(junr.), and W. Jamicson & Co., of Victoria; R. A. Mather, of H<jbart ; John 
Martin, Martin and Sach, and Alfred Taylor, of South Australia; T. H. Jones, of 
Queensland; H. Ashton (pence, 1862-3), J- W. Merrington, and D. Anderson, of 
New Zealand. 

Allen and Moore are not represented as a firm, but Joseph Moore, one of 
the partners, placed his name on the abundant issues of Holloway, which flooded 
Australia and other Colonies for years, and is now the commonest token found. 
We know, however, that he submitted several designs for the Imperial bronze 
coinage of i860, one of which he used for what is known as " The New Zealand 
Penny "' (No. 399). He also used the same design for tokens in other Colonies. 
There is reason to believe that only about a dozen of these rare pieces were struck, 
and, as the dies were destroyed in 1886, there is little dangei of re-strikes being pro- 
duced. From the similarity of the Queen's head on the Licensed \'ictuallers' pieces 
issued about the same time they ha\'e been ascribed to him. 

Pope & Co. This firm's name only appears once, and that on their own 
issue, but there are, however, two others at least that have been ascribed to them. 
These are I. Booth, of Melbourne, and E.De Carle & Co., of Melbourne and Plenty. 
The ground for thus ascribing them is the exact similarity of the figure of Britannia 
on the reverse to that on their own issue. The bust is decidedly fuller than on 
the Heaton issues, the exact regularity of the leaves on the olive branch, three 
together below, two on each side higher and two at the top, while they are longer 
and thicker stemmed. The two stones behind the shield are also quite separate. 
So alike are they that it would appear that the same master die had been used in 
their manufacture. 

Of Smith and Kemp's work we have but one example — 'Miller and Dismorr, 

of Melbourne, well made, but not remarkable. 

Todman, of London, is only represented by one issue. That is of Hurlev 
& Co., of New Zealand (Nos. 276-7), which bears his name. The pieces are well 
struck and designed, Init in no way remarkable. 

W. J. Taylor and Coard will be best considered with the \'ictorian maker, 
Stokes. Of colonial die-sinkers, J. C. Thornthwaite was the first, as alreadv related. 
Ke was a seal engraver by trade, and, as might be expected, his designs and 
finished pieces did not compare favourably with those of the British die-sinkers. 
While his silver pieces do him a good deal of credit, those he struck in copper exhibit 
some want of depth in relief, and of a raised rim to protect the design fron\ wear. 
Possibly the low relief of the designs was partly the result of his having to 



1 6 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

improvise the means of striking tlieni in the absence of a proper screw press. He 
usually placed his initials on the silver pieces, and those that he struck for other 
persons in copper, while placing his name in full on his own copper issues. Speci- 
mens of his work are known in silver for himself and Campbell, of Morpeth, and in 
copper pence and halves for Peek & Co. and himself, and pence only for John and 
William Allen and Bell and Gardner. 

In addition to these it is known that he designed pence for Campbell, and 
Iredale & Co., of Sydney, though for some reason they were never put into circu- 
lation, and no specimens are known to exist. 

Hogarth, Erichsen & Co. were jewellers in Sydney, and confined their 
energies to the issue of large numbers of threepences bearing their name. There 
are not less than eight varieties, often of very inferior metal. Indeed, so poor was 
the quality that it is said that they were withdrawn under Government pressure. 
Erichsen is credited with being the actual maker, and also with having a habit of 
striking a few whenever he felt in need of refreshment. Hogarth was also a 
practical die-sinker, and for years after the firm was dissolved worked largely for 
Stokes, in Melbourne, though never in his workshop. The reverse of some very 
fair- medals for the Exhibition in Melbourne in 1872, was designed by him. 

Whitty and Brown issued a large series bearing portraits of the members of 
the firm and its name on the obverse. They were also responsible for what are 
known as the " Ram " pieces, and another series with ONE PENNY on the obverse. 
These are all of inferior woikmanship and most irregular in upset, it being difficult 
to find two having exactly the same angle of upset or exactly similar lettering. 
This was due to their having been struck on an anvil with some species of drop- 
hammer. They are also credited with making the copy of W. J. Taylor's penny 
with the same obverse and a kangaroo and emu on the reverse. Certainly these 
copies all show a flaw between the C of ADVANCE and the inner circle, which is also 
constant on Whitty and Brown's own One Penny series. The firm is not known 
to have made any tokens for others. 

With the Melbourne group of medallists, W. J. Taylor, Thomas Stokes, and 
Stokes and Martin, it is necessary to consider the work of Coard, generally included 
with London medallists. 

Though Coard's name and address, LONDON, appear on the issues of John 
Andrew & Co., and A. G. Hodgson, of Melbourne, both in i860, and 1862, there is 
reason to believe that he was merely an employee of Taylor. His name does not 
appear in Forrer's " Biographical Dictionary of Medalhsts," and inquiry by Dr. 
Roth and another over twenty years ago satisfied them that he merely obtained 
orders in Australia and had them executed by Taylor. When Taylor's plant and 
dies were sold after his death, Coard's dies were included in the sale. 

William Joseph Taylor,- born in Birmingham, started in business in London 
in 1829. In 1852, financed by a small syndicate, he sent a coining press and plant 
to Melbourne under the charge of Mr. W. R. Scaiffe. The latter was awarded a 



AUSTRAI.ASTAX TOhT.XS A\J) COIXS. \J 

Bronze medal for pieces struck at the Mell>oiirne Exhibition in 1854. An office 
known as the " Kangaroo Office " was opened, and work done, all dies being prepared 
by Taylor in London. The Kangaroo Office pieces and several proposals for silver 
and copper issues will be considered later. In Australasian Tokens he did a large 
business. His name only appears on nine occasions, but judging by design and 
execution, fully forty other issues emanated from his establishment. Here again 
we find his connection with Thomas Stokes confusing, making it impossible to 
decide in many cases whether Taylor issued the pieces or merely supplied Stokes 
with the dies, many of which are in the possession of the successors of the latter 
at the present day. Stokes made no tokens till after he purchased Taylor's plant, 
so we may credit Taylor with at least the dated issues prior to 1857. Taylor 
continued in business till his death in 1885. 

Thomas Stokes arrived in Melbourne about 1854. He was a die-sinker and 
button-maker in 1856, at 115 Flinders Lane East. He himself stated that he issued 
no tokens till after he purchased Taylor's plant in 1857. There is no indication 
that he prepared any pieces bearing his owti name before 1862, but it is hardly 
reasonable to conclude that he kept the plant idle with the dies already to hand, 
and it is probable that he supplied many customers from them, and procured other 
dies from Taylor when necessary. It is supposed that during this time he was 
responsible for the issue of many of the " mules " known to collectors. 

In 1862, Stokes seems to have taken quite an independent line, and produced 
his well-known series of reverses bearing a \'ine branch, the Australian Arms, an 
Emu, or a Wheatsheaf, which are so characteristic of his work, and appear on so 
many different issues. At this time he became responsible for many pieces bearing 
no issuer's name, and ha\int; on obverse and reverse his reverses variously muled. 
He was accustomed, when asked for a supply of tokens by one who did not care to 
go to the expense of a special die, to take the first that came handy, and strike off 
the required number. Thus originated most of the fifty or more varieties now 
credited to him. He also used these reverses in over thirty instances with obverses 
bearing the name of the issuer in that year alone. 

Among medallists, Stokes must be credited with ha\ing issued more tokens 
if not more varieties than any other by himself, and when his work in conjunction 
with Taylor is taken into consideration, it seems probable that between them they 
. were responsible for a very large majority of the total issued. 

Stokes's business was greatly interfered with by tokens being declared illegal 
in Victoria in 1863, and there are few issues of later date, but he still continued to 
supply persons in other colonies till niucli later. 

In 1870, Stokes took ]\Ir. Martin into partnership, by which time the use of 
tokens was rapidly passing, and we find but few of their issues, and these chiefly for 
New Zealand. Those they made for Henderson in \\'estern .\ustralia in 1S74, 
would appear to be the last colonial made pieces for ordinarv currency. 



-515-B 



i8 



A V ST R A LA SI AN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Medallists and their Issues. 



Allen and Moore. 



No. 

326. Licensed Victuallers. 

399. New Zealand Penny. 



No. 

9. Anderson, D. 
17. Annand, Smith & Co. 
21. x\shton, H. (Pence). 

30. Bateman, Wm., Junr. 

31. Battle and Weight. 
59. Campbell, James. 

155. Grundy, J. R. 

291. Iredale & Co. 

299. Jamieson, W. W., & Co. 

305. Jones, T. W., Ik Co. 



No. 

660. Holloway. 



Heaton and So'ns. 



No. 

349. Martm, John. 

350. Martin and Sach. 
356. Mather, R. Andrew. 
363. Merrington, J. H. 
391. Moubray, Lush & Co. 
409. Parker, R. 

479. Smith, Peate & Co. 

567. Taylor, Alfred. 

615. Weight and Johnson. 



Pope S- Co. 



No. 
44. Booth, L 

104. De Carle, E. & Co. (Melbourne and 
Plenty). 



No. 

65 8. Pope & Co. 



No. 

375 



=;. Miller and Dismorr. 



No. 

276. 

No. 

5- 
6. 

43- 



No. 
686. 



No. 
623. 
628. 



Hurley & Co. 



Allen, John. 
Allen, William. 
Bell and Gardner. 



Smiili and Kemp. 



Todman. 



Thoynihwaite, J. C. 

No. 

426. Peek & Co. 

578. Thornthwaite, J. C. 

685. Campbell, J. (Silver 3d.) 



Hogarth, Erichsen S- Co. 
Hogarth, Erichsen & Co. (Silver 3d.) 



Whitty and Brown. 
" Ram " series. 



Whitty and Brown. 

No. 

632. ONE PENNY series. 

635. Copy of Taylor. ONE PENNY 



AVSTUAJ.ASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



19 



Coard. 



No. 

II. Andrew, J., & Co. 



No. 

254. Hodgson, A, G. 



Taylor, \V. J. 



No. 
I. 

3- 
19. 

49- 
51- 
65. 



Abrahams, R. 

Adamson, Watts, McKechnic & Co. 

Ashton, H. (Halfpence). 

Brookes, W. and B. 

Butterworth & Co. 

Clarkson, S. 



84. Crombic, Clapperton & Co. 

98. Day and Mieville. 

99. Dease, E. F. 

loi. De Carle, E., & Co. 
105. De Carle, Edwd., & Co. 

122. Fisher. 

123. Flavellc Bros. 
130. Forsaith, T. S. 
133. Friedman, I. 

142. Gaisford and Edmonds. 
159. Hall, H. J. 
184. Hanks & Co. 
188. Hanks and Lloyd. 

195. Harrold Bros. 

196. Hedberg, O. H. 

226. Henry, Saml. 

227. Hide and Dc Carle. 
278. Hutton, G. 

280. Hyde, Robt., & Co. 



No. 

308. Jones and Williamson. 
313. Larcombc & Co. 
315. Lazarus, S. and S. 

320. Levy Bros. 

321. Levy, Lipman. 
364. Merry and Bush. 
366. Merry, T. F., & Co. 
385. Morgan, Wm. 

392. Mulhgan, D. T. 
406. Nokes, James. 
435. Perkins & Co, 

437. Petersen, W. 

438. Pettigrew & Co. 
440. Petty, Geo. 

650. Peace and Plenty. 

464. Rocke & Co. 

505. Stewart and Hemmant. 

571. Taylor, W. J. 

576. Thomas, T. W., & Co. 

584. Thrale and Cross. 

586. Toogood, A. 

592. Wallace, James. 

603. Warnock Bros. 

620. White, Thos. and Son. 

639. Wilson, A. S. 



Stokes, TJiomas. 



No. No. 

3. Adamson, Watts, McKechnic cS: Co. 106. 

7. Alliance Tea Co. iii. 

28. Barraclough. 118. 

32. Beath & Co. 122. 

42. Beaven, S. 141. 

45. Brickhill, Joseph. 145. 

57. Calder, R. 149. 

62. Caro & Co. 153. 

64. Clark, Archibald. 159. 

72. Colhns & Co. 260. 

75. Cook. W. C. 265. 

76. Coombes, S. 318. 
80. Cope, T. H. 333- 
84. Crombic, Clapperton & Co. 359. 
86. Crothers & Co. 371. 

90. Davey, James. 392. 

91. Davidson, A. 395. 
94. Davies, Alfred. 404. 



Deeble, S. 
Dixon, James. 
Evans and Foster. 
Fisher. 
Froomes, W. 
Gippsland Co. 
Gittos, B. 
Grieve, R. 
Hall, H. J. 
Hodgson Bros. 
Hosie. J. 
Leeson, J. D. 
Love and Roberts. 
McCaul, Geo. 
MiUor Bros. 
Mulligan. 

Murray and Christie. 
Nichols, Geo. 



20 



AUSTJiALASTAX TOKF.XS AXD CorXS. 



No. 
406 
433 
437 
438 
447 
453 
458 
467 
468 



Stoles, T/ionias — continued. 
No. 



Nokes. 
Peck, Hugh. 
Petersen. 
Pettigrew. 
Reece, Edward. 
Ridler, R. B. 
Robison Bros. 
Ryland, G. 
Sawyer. 



469. Smith, Hague. 

501. Southward and Sumpton. 

503. Stead Bros. 

508. Stokes, Tliomas. 

568. Taylor, J. 

584. Thrale and Cross. 

594. Warburton, T. 

611. Watson, W. R., & Co. 

638. WilHams, J. W., & Co. 



Stokes and Martin. 



No. 




No. 


216. 


Henderson, John. 


566. 


249. 


Hobday and Jobberns. 


588. 


263. 


Holland and Butler. 


609. 


354- 


Mason, Struthers & Co. 


Uncertain. 


No. 




No. 


27. 


Barley, Chas. C. 


331- 


46. 


Brookes. 


339- 


50. 


Brown and Duthie. 


34T. 


56. 


Buxton. 


342. 


69. 


Clarkson and Turn bull. 


353- 


82. 


Crocker and Hamilton. 


360. 


95- 


Davies, Alexander & Co. 


362. 


120. 


Fenwick Bros. 


369- 


128. 


Fleming, J. G. 


376. 


143- 


Gilmour, John. 


384. 


150. 


Gourlay & Co. 


387- 


152. 


Gratten, R. 


400. 


225. 


Henry, R. 


408. 


248. 


Hindmarsh Hotel. 


443- 


273- 


Howell, John. 


497- 


300. 


Jarvey, \V. Andrew. 


5qo. 


304- 


Jones, David. 


606. 


309- 


Josephs, R. 


640. 


311- 


Kirkcaldie and Stains. 




319- 


Leigh, J. M. 


659- 


329. 


Lipscombe, H. 


494. 



Stokes and Martin. 
Union Bakery Co. 
Waters, Edward. 



Lloyd, E. F. and D. L. 
Macgregor, J. 
Marks, Morris. 
Marsh and Brother. 
Mason and Culley. 
McFarlane, H. 
Mears, J. W. 
Metcalfe and Lloyd. 
Milner and Thompson. 
Moir, Joseph. 
Morrin & Co. 
Nicholas, Alfred. 
Palmer. 
Pratt, W. 
497. Somerville, M. 

United Service Hotel. 
Waterhouse, R. S. 
Wood. W. D. 

Hodgins, Clochjordan. 
494. Shreeve, Noah (Adelaide). 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 21 



Designs on Copper Tokens* 

IT has been pointed out (koth ;iii(l Hull) that the designs on the copper 
tokens can mostly be arranged in three groups, according as they arc " Local, 
Home, or Allegorical " in their significance. Of the " Local " group the 
representation of the Australian Anns comes easily first. In its earliest form 
(THORNTHWAITE, No. 57(8) the emu is on the left and the kangaroo on the 
right. The shield is quartenxl by plain lines in the form of a cross, and it bears 
as quartcrings, a ship, a fl(>(*ce, an anchor, and an ox. 

A few years later we iind the same maki-r placing the emu on the right 
and kangaroo on the left, the shield quartered by double lines forming bands with 
stars at the points and the intersection (No. 582) and a scroll under with 
ADVANCE AUSTI^ALIA on it. The rising sun as crest in both cases. Whether 
the stars were intended as a reference to the Southern Cross or the five Colonies 
then existing cannot be decided. Of the quartcrings the ship runs through the 
whole series, and appears alone on No. 346 with the legend TO FACILIT.ATE 
TRADE to explain its significance. The golden fleece also runs through the series 
and is found alone on the issues of DAVIES, ALEXANDER & Co. {No. 95), and 
E. F. DEASE (No. 99). The ox was soon replaced by a wheatsheaf, probably 
indicating that in the eyes of city people the farming was more important than 
the pastoral interest. The anchor was also replaced by a pick and shovel, 
indicating the importance of the mining interests. 

As time passed, the engravers became impressed b\- the imf-)ortance of the 
Supporters, and we find the shield of .\rms disappear, leaving the kangaroo and 
emu alone as on No. i, and further the kangaroo alone, as No. 573 of W. ]. 
TAYLOR. The emu also appears alone on STEWART AND HEMMANT 

(No. 505). 

The rising sun as a crest gave way to the fully risen orb on the pieces of 
WARNOCK; BROS. (No. 603), and in Western Australia to a swan in No. _'i6, 
and the latter forms the full design on No. 94. 

The motto on the scroll reads \-ariously as .\1)\'.\NC1C .\r> rivAl.l A, 
VICTORIA, or BALLARAT, and on No. 216 becomes TANDEM NUn'ICrrR. 
On many of the Stokes issues we find a rose, shamrock, and thistle below, and 
sometimes also above the scroll with varied arrangements of the leaves and 
tendrils. Lastly, we find the emu and rising sim witli ov without the rose, 
shamrock, and thistle below the scroll, with instances of thirteen ov fifteen long 
rays to the sim. 

Other strictly Local designs we luwe in the form of views of places, as in 
No. 50, a representation of Mt. Egmont ; No. 69, the breakwater at Timaru : a mining 
plant on McCAUL (No. 359) : landscape on MILNER AND THOMPSON (No. 
376) ; a view of a toll-gate JOSEPHS iNo. 309). There are also illustrations of the 



22 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

places of business of the issuers, as the TEA STORES of PEEK AND 
CAMPBELL (No. 426) ; the MontpcUier Retreat Inn (No. 640) ; Regent House of 
CROCKER AND HAMILTON (No. 83) ; Argyle House, named after a Clan, on 
No. 32 ; the Liverpool Tea Warehouse with the City's arms (No. 40) ; and the crest 
of Liverpool on No. 275. 

Sj'-mbols of trade are also found, as the three balls of a pa\\-nbroker on Nos. 
300 and 341, musical instruments on MILNER AND THOMPSON'S (No. 376) ; 
a tobacco plant on GRUNDY (No. 155), &c. A long list of articles dealt in could 
be added, such as a saw, buggy, baby jumper, clock, watch, coin press, cup, flowers 
and fruit, painter's palette, sugar-loaf, saddle, and agricultural implements. 

Portraits of the issuers appear on COOMBES (No. 76) ; WHITTY AND 
BROWN (No. 623), and the very common HOLLO WAY pieces, which when 
suppressed in England were exported in thousands to these and other colonies. 

Three commemorative pieces must be mentioned — -HANKS AND LLOYD 
(No. 188), noting the opening of the Sydney Railway in 1855 ; the NOKES (No. 
406), and THOMAS (No. 576) halfpence, the landing of Sir Charles Hotham in 
Melbourne in 1854. 

Of what have been called " Home " designs, which are almost of a national 
character, are the various representations of Britannia, the Royal Arms on No. 
loi, the portraits of Queen Victoria as on No. 120, the Prince Consort on No. 470, 
and the " GOD SAVE THE QUEEN " found on the penny of C. C. BARLEY 
(No. 27). With these may be included the various groups of rose, shamrock, and 
thistle on SOMERVILLE (No. 497), and others. 

Among Allegorical designs are the standing figure of Justice blindfolded, 
with scales in the right hand and the left resting on the point of a cornucopia from 
which fruits are issuing, the sea and a ship in the background. We have also in 
many cases a figure of Justice seated on a bale, with similar surroundings as in 
No. 318, we have the sea and ship replaced by a Maori and a digger shaking hands. 
In No. 360 we have a supposed representation of Peace in a very benign-looking 
female facing front, an olive branch in the right hand, the left resting on the head 
of a lamb, while from behind her on the right side a most benevolent-looking lion 
is emerging, round above is PEACE & PLENTY, indicative of a lively hope 
of future blessings. Then we have Stokes' series of vine branches with the motto 
IN VINO VERITAS, as so many have proved to their ultimate discomfort. 
On the Holloway pieces, as has been before mentioned, we have the figure ol 
Hygeia with her attributes. 

The standing figure of Justice occurs so often that it is worthy of more than 
cursory note. This design w'as used by Heaton and Sons evidently as a stock 
piece, and there is good evidence that the dies used in preparing the tokens they 
provided were almost all made from a master die. Mr. Chitty lately pointed out 
that a careful examination of the fruits falling from the cornucopia would disclose 
the presence of a very minute G, probably the die-sinker's initial. The design is 



AUSTRAL.ISLIX TO K ESS AS I) COISS. 23 

used in fully iifty varieties, and in no less than f(jrty-tsv(j is this small letter found. 
The exceptions arc the large series of R. PARKER (Xos. 417 t(j 422), and 
GRUNDY (Nos. 157-8). Other slight differences can be discerned, as the right 
hand and wrist ' are straighter and not so graceful and the fruits vary 
considerably. The ship is nearer the edge of the coin and the masts are all of the 
same height. 

The figure of Justice seated .)n a bale with a cask behind is met with almost 
as frequently. This evidently was a favourite stock design by W. J. Taylor, but 
it shows more variation of the dies. In a decided majority of instances, as well 
shown on the HIDE & Di: CARLE pieces (No. 227 et seq.), the hair is confined 
to two stiff curls covering the ears, the neck is thin and rather long, the fruits falling 
from the cornucopia extend to the front of the bale and the point docs not reach 
the elbow. In JONES & WILLIAMSON (No. 308), the neck is shorter, the hair 
fuller, the point of the cornucopia in the bend of the elbow, while the fruits extend 
only half way across the bale. In E. Dk CARLE & Co., Dunedin (No. loi), the face 
is turned slightly to the right and tlie fruit again extends to the front of the bale. 
Then in Coard's named pieces we have the same design with flowing hair, fuller 
drapery, the cask tapering, the bale almost covered by the drapery, and the fruits 
larger and passing the front of the l)ale. There is also another variety in Nos. 65 
and 142, which show almost as much hair as Coard's pieces, but the cornucopia 
point is more curved and curls past the elbow, while the fruits differ largely. 

With both these designs of Justice, many slight variations of the relative 
positions of the scales and the legends will be found noted in the following pages. 
These slight differences are evidently due to the use of a master die for the 
figure, from which all those used were prepared, and the legend was added to the 
latter as required. It was naturally impossible for anyone to always place the 
letters in the same position relatively to the figure, and hence the number of 
varieties of some issues which liave to be listed. 

W. J. Taylor also in the PETTY pieces (No. 440) gives us a varied standing 
figure of Justice not blindfolded, holding the scales in the right hand and a wand 
in the left. The base is plain and there is no indication of sea or ship. 

Whitty and Brown appear to have been satisfied to copy roughly the Heaton 
design, but their imitation is very crude. On their tokens bearing either a jx)rtrait 
of one of the firm, a ram, or their ONE PENNY series, which iiave narrow folds of 
drapery, the head is long, and there is no bandage over the eyes, while in those with 
wider folds of drapery the head is short and the bandage very evident. 

Another Local design very C(Miimonl\- found is what is known as the PEACE 
& PLENTY illustration of the Australian Arms, with the kangaroo to right and 
emu to left, and the fully risen sun as crest. This design by Taylor was certainly 
used by Stokes in later years for the extensive series listed among the Miscellaneous 
Class Nos. 650 to 656, he having probably obtained the dies from Taylor. This 



24 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

design appears on the tokens of twelve issuers, willi prartieally no xariation. On 
No. 656 there will be nolicfd more space between the back of the emu and the 
commencement of the legend. 

On the BEAVEN piece (No. 42), the scroll, strangely enough, bears the legend 
ADVANCE AUSTRALIA, hardly to be expected on a New Zealand issue. On 
No. 501 we have the ship in the upper left corner, a fleece on the right, the pick and 
shovel on the left below, and the wheatsheaf on the right. The kangaroo to left 
and emu to right are partly behind the shield, and on the scroll is ADVANCE 
BALLARAT. In still another case, J. SAWYER (No. 468), the kangaroo is on 
the right and emu on the left. There are only four stars on the shield. The 
supporters stand on a patch of grass, and the crest is a rising sun. Though this 
issue is credited to Stokes, the treatment of the grass is almost an exact copy of 
Taylor. 

\\'e must here note the \-arions issues of Stokes, which all bear either the name 
of the person for whom they were made, or his own as the maker. There are at 
least seven different treatments of the Australian Arms and ten varieties of a vine 
branch with grapes, four differing illustrations of an emu and rising sun, and two of 
wheatsheaves, all emanating from his workshop, as will be described more fully 
later. 

The design of a kangaroo and emu facing each other appears to have been 
first used by Taylor, as both he and Coard use it with almost identical details. 
Stokes used it later, and again the workmanship points to the dies having been 
prepared by Taylor. • In the latter maker's own ONE PENNY series. No. 571, the 
kangaroo has a perfectly straight tail. In those he made for FLAVELLE BROS., 
(No. 132), it is slightly curved upwards. Coard in JOHN ANDREW & Co. and 
A. G. HODGSON (Nos. 13 and 257), shows a broader base and the ears of the 
kangaroo exaggerated in size. With Stokes, in those made for COLLINS & Co. 
(No. 72), the base is again smaller, the kangaroo and emu further apart, and the tail 
of the former well curved upwards. 

There is also a group of four Tasmanian issues — L. x\BRAHAMS (No. i), 
HUTTON (No. 226), S. HENRY (No. 278), and THOMAS WHITE (No. 620), 
which wx^re supplied by Stokes on which the kangaroo is found more naturally 
posed, the ears and head smaller, though the former give rather a foxy appearance 
to the animal. The grass is also more rush-like in character. 

Of the " Home or National " designs, the figure of Britannia is the most 
important, and, appropriately enough, it appears on the earliest known issue, that 
of ANN AND, SMITH & Co. (No. 17), where it is an almost exact copy of that 
found on the copper issues pf George III and his successors. Most of these were 
made in Birmingham, and hence probably its adoption by Heaton and Sons. The 
tokens bearing this design by this firm show but little variation, No. 17 having 
eleven leaves on the olive branch. No. 18 fourteen, while on the IREDALE (No. 
2Qi) there are twelve. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 2^ 

POPE & Co. (No. 658) used the same design on their own issue vsith a 
decidedly fuller bust and a different treatment ot the base in that there arc two dis- 
tinct stones behind the shield instead of a rock. They also have twelve leaves 
on the olive branch. Witli this the figure on K. De CARLE &. Co. 'No. 104) 
and I. BOOTH (No. 44) is identical in all respects. Another treatment of the 
same subject is found on the issues of ALFRED NICHOL.'\S (No. 401) and J. M. 
LEIGH (No. 319) where we find the head laureatcfl. the hair brought to a decided 
knob at the top, the olive branch having eleven leaves on No. 401 and No. 319, 
while on No. 402 it has but ten. On the halfpenny of NICHOLAS (No. 403) there 
are only eight leaves. 

Again we have a decided variation in the figure ui Britannia on Moore's 
NEW ZEALAND penny, No. 399. This is one of the designs he submitted for a 
new Imperial coinage, but unsuccessfully. There Britannia apjX'ars helmeted with 
a trident in the right hund, a shield supported by the left, in which an olive branch 
is held, on her right an anchor, and behind the prow of a boat. 

By far the most beautiful and artistic representation of Britannia is that 
by W. J. Taylor, on the pattern pence of Hedberg (Nos. 200, 201, and 203], LII'M.VN 
LEVY Wo. 324), and his proposed pattern for a copper fcnirpence, No. 7.S1, PI. 50. 
With slight variations in the accessories, the figure is the same in all. In No. 200 
the rock on which she is seated is surroundi'd by the water, giving a somewhat 
corrugated appearance to the base. The wand touches thi- hnvest point of the I of 
AUSTRALIA, and the tip of the olive branch is between the S T. It will be seen 
that the ship generally accompanying this design is here replaced by a steamer. 
In Nos. 201, 324, and the fourpence, the water does not surround the rock, the base 
is regular, and has W. J. TAYLOR, LONDON on it. The wand points to the base 
of I, and the leaves on the t)li\"e branch are differently arranged, with tlu- three 
upjHT ones embracing the base of the S of AUSTRALIA. In No. 203 the broad, 
raised rim alters the appearance of th(> design, which is identical with that on No. 202, 
except that the makiT's iianu' and the steamer are omitted. It would appear that 
this was struck before the die was ijuite finished. 

Taylor also used this design on his Melbourne halfpenn\-. and those he made 
for ADAMSON, WATTS, McKECHNIE cS: Co. (No. 3). and THRALE AND CROSS 
(No. 585), where the olive branch has fourteen leaves and two fruits on it. 

J. C. Thorr.thwaite, in the issues he made for PICJ-.K AND C.VMl'HELL. 
generally known as the " Tea Stores pieces," placed an entirely different ropre- 
sentition of Britannia helmeted, seated, looking to the right, with a shield on which 
she appears to be sitting steadied by the right hand, and in her left a trident. 

It is only necessary here to mention that in a number of cases both sides 
of the tokens bear legends only, giving the style of business carried on, the place 
where they could be redeemed, and any other purely advertising matter which 
seemed good to the issuer. A few peculiarities of spelling should be mentioned, as on 
one of GRUNDY'S (No. 155), the place of issue is spelt BALLAARAT, and on 



26 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

No. 157 the last word of the legend is misspelt VINCET, instead of the correct 
VINCENT on No. 155. HENDERSON, of Fremantle, in No. 216, had originally 
two letters F in the name of the place, and one afterwards partially erased. On 
No. 196 we have HOBART TON for HOBART TOWN, and on MARSH AND 
BROTHER'S (No. 342), MURRY for MURRAY. On No. loi, E. De CARLE & 
Co., Dunedin, have VIVANT REGINA, and, lastly, on THORNTHWAITE (No. 
582), we find MEDALIST, and on No. 583, when inserting the second L, he makes 
it read MEDALL SIT. On No. 76 we find GRAHAM TOWN, which on No. 359 
is spelt GRAHAMSTOWN \nth S and one word. 

A general view of the various designs abovementioned leads us to the 
conclusion that, in most cases, the side which we have selected for the obverse was 
designed more or less in accordance with the ideas and wishes of the person 
responsible for their redemption, and as an advertising medium, while the reverse 
was often left to the discretion of the die-sinker employed. Hence the frequency 
with which certain designs appear — designs, too, already used by the makers of 
tokens for other colonies. The comparatively small orders received from 
Austrahan traders for use among the limited population would not strongly appeal 
to the larger class of manufacturers accustomed to supplying the wants of more 
numerous peoples. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. zy 



Copper and Bronze Tokens. 



An asterisk against a number denotes that the piece 
is in the Mitchell Collection. 

stokes' Reverses so freciuently indicated by uuinhers in 
this List are shown on Plates 53 and 54. 

I. ABRAHAMS, Lewis. Hobart. Tasmania. 

♦Penny. 1^55. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor ftcit.) I'l. i. 

0.— DRAPER in large capitals across centre, LEWIS .\HR.\H.\.MS in 
curved line above, LIVERPOOL STREET / HOBART TOW N in 
two curved lines below, all within a beaded rim. 

R. — A kangaroo and emu facing each other on a grassy base, 1855 under, 
TASMANIA over. Beaded rim. 

2* Halfpenny. 1855. 2j}> mm. PI. i. 
O.— As No. I. 
R. — As No. I. 

3. ADAMSON, WATTS, McKECHNIE, & Cd. Melbourne 
♦Halfpenny. 1855. 28 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fi-cit.) PI. i. 

O.— WHOLESALE / & RETAIL / WAREHOUSEMEN in three lines 
across centre, ADAMSON, WATTS, McKECHNIE & Co. round 
within indented rim. A group of four small dots in oval form at 
bottom. 

R.— MAY 1ST / 1855 in two lines across crntre, ii COLLINS St EAST 
MELBOURNE round within the beaded rim. Group of four dots 
between EAST and MELBOURNE and aftir the latter. The date 
indicates the time of the establishment of the business. 

4. Halfpenny. 1855. Normal. 28 mm. Scarce. 

O. — As the reverse of No. 3. 

R.— Britannia seated on a rock on the seashore, with olive branch in right 
hand and wand supported in left arm, AUSTRALL\ ovir. 
Indented rim. 

5. ALLEN, John. Kiama. New South Wales. 

*Penny. 1855. 34 mm. LIpset. (J. C. Thornthwaite fecit.) PI. i. 

O. — A group of rose, shanuock, and thistle in centre with GENER.\L 
above STORES beneath and JOHN .M.I.I-N. KIAM.\. round 
within beaded rim. 

R. — A crudely designed Australian Coat of .\rms with rising sun as crest 
and a kangaroo and emu as supporters. .\1>\'.\NCE .\USTRALIA 
round above within the beaded rim. 

This is a very rare piece, but two specimens being known, one in the 
British Museum and the other from which the illustration is taken in the 
Mitchell Library, Sydney. 



28 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

6. ALLEN, William. Janibcroo. New South Wales. 

*Penny. 1855. 34 mm. Upset. (J. C. Thornthwaitc fecit.) PI i. 

O. — Group of rose, shamrock, and thistle in centre, WILLIAM ALLEN / 
GENERAL in two curved lines above, STORES / .JAMBEROO. 
in two curved lines below. Beaded rim. 

R. Australian Arms as No 5, with 1855 under and ADVANCE 
AUSTRALLA over, within the beaded rim. 

This is also rare and seldom found in good order. 

7. ALLIANCE TEA COMPANY. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny. i8bb. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. i. 

O.— Has OPPOSITE / BANK OE / NEW^ ZEALAND / ROBERT 
THO.MPSON / MANAGER in five hues across field, a short bar 
between the third and fourth hues. ALLIANCE TEA COMPANY 
curved above, 1866 below. The Y of COMPANY is level with 
the bottom of the D of ZEALAND. Rim beaded. 

R.— ITALIAN / W^AREHOUSE / FANCY / GOODS in four lines across 
field with short bar between the second and third, surrounded by 
TEAS COFFEES FRUITS & SPICES . 1866 . within the 
beaded rim. 

8. Penny. 1866. 34 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O. — As No. 7 but the name is more extended, bringing the N of COMPANY 
level with D of ZEALAND. 

R.— As No. 7. 

9. ANDERSON, D. Wellington. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 2. 

O. — GENERAL / STORES in two straight lines across centre. D. 
ANDERSON'S above, WELLINGTON below. Beaded rim. 

R. — A standing figure of Justice bhndfolded on the sea shore with ship 
in the distance. In her right hand she holds scales, while the left 
rests on the point of an upturned cornucopia from which fruits, 
&c., are issuing. Among them a minute G, probably the die-cutter's 
initial. Rim beaded. 

10.* Halfpenny (n.d.) 2yh mm. Normal. PI. 2. 
O. — As No. 9. 
R.— As No. 9. 

II. ANDREW, John & Co. Melbourne. 

*Penny. i860. 34 mm. NormaL (Coard fecit.) PI. 2. 

O. — In centre a Lion "passant regardant " supporting a shield with right 
fore paw, COARD LONDON in minute capitals under base, all 
within a small plain circle. Round this enclosed in a beaded circle 
II LONSDALE STREET WEST •.:.• MELBOURNE' •.:; and within 
the indented rim. JOHN ANDREW & CO. •.••; IMPORTERS & 
GENERAL DRAPERS :••; 

R. — Justice seated on a bale with cask behind and ship in the distance 
MELBOURNE VICTORIA above, i860 in the exergue. Indented 
rim. 



AVsrnAi AsiAs toi<i:ns and coiss. 2q 

12.* Halfpenny. i?>()(). 27.I mm. Xonn.il. PI. 2. 

O. — As No. II l)ut with plain stops l;ctw<-('n the words. 
R.— ^As No. II. 

13. ANDREW, Jno. & Co. .Melbourne. 

* Penny. i(S()2. 54 mm. Normal. PI. 2. 

O.— J'^:'» ANDREW & C9 / DRAPPIRS &c. in two straight lines across 
centre, with pointed bars above and below MKLBOrRNR over 
LONSDALE St. WEST under within the Ix-ad.-d rim. 

R. — A kanf<aroo to right and emu to left facing each other. CO.\RD 
LONDON in minute capitals under base, VICT(JRL\ aUjve, i«(j2 
in exergue. Beaded rim. 

14.* Halfpenny. 1862. 27^1 mm. Normal. Pi. 2. 
O. — As No. 13. 
R. — As No. 13. 

15.* Penny, i860. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 3. Rare. 
O. — As No. 13. 
R. — As No. II. 

16.* Halfpenny, i860. 28 mm. Normal. Rare. 
O. — As No. 14. 
R. — As No. 12. 

17. ANNAND, SMITH & Co. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. ^,. 

O.— FAMH.Y ' riROCP:RS in two straight lines across centre. ANNAND 
SMITH .\; CA' above, . MELBOURNE . below within beaded 

rim. 

R. — Britannia seated on rock against whicli a shield rests. In her right 
hand an olive branch with eleven leaves in the left a trident 
BRITANNIA above. Beaded rim. 

18.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 3. 

O.— As No. 17. 

R. — As No. 17 but the olive branch has fourteen leaves and there is a 
minute HS:S on the rock behind the shield. 

19. ASHTON, H. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Halfpenny. 1858. 27.1 nun. Normal. (W. J. Tavlor fecit.) PI. :;. 
O.—H. ASHTON /IMPORTER OF HABERD.VSHERV & T-MLORS 
/ TRIMMINGS / OUEEN S' AUCKLAND m eight hnes within 
a beaded rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale with a cask behind and ship in the distance. 
NEW ZItALAND above, 1858 in the exergue. 

20.* Halfpenny. 1859. 27^ mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 19 with slight variation of the relative position of letters and 

lines. 

R. — As No. 19 except date. 



30 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

21.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 3. 

O. — Similar legend to No. 19. The T of TAILORS is between the T 

and R of TRIMMINGS and the T of the latter opposite the first 

E of QUEEN. 
R. — Justice standing as in No. 9, with minute G and date 1862 in the 

exergue. 

22.* Penny. 1863. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 21. 
R. — As No. 21 but dated 1863. 

23.* Penn^^ 1863. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — Similar legend to 22. A minute . over &, the T of TAILORS 
over T of TRIMMINGS and the latter word shortened bringing 
the T nearly over the second E of QUEEN. 

R. — As No. 22. 

24.* Penny. 1863. 34 mm. Normal. 

O!^— Similar legend. The word HABERDASHERY is a full mm. higher 
and longer, bringing the I and R of IMPORTER almost in contact 
with the letters E, the words TAILORS and TRIMMINGS are in 
bolder letters and the T of the latter opposite the first E of QUEEN 

R. — As No. 22. 

25. AUSTRALIAN STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY. Sydney. 
*Size 35 mm. (n.d.). Scarce. PI. 3. 

O.— Three men in a boat on a rough sea, with A.S.N. C9 over, surcharged 
on a Penny of Queen Victoria. 

R. — Queen's head, &c. 

26.* Size 30 mm. Scarce. PL 4. 

O. — As No. 25 but on a halfpenny of Geo. III. 

These two pieces though strictly being surcharges have been included 
here because generally classed as tokens by early collectors. There 
is some doubt whether they were ever used in ordinary circulation. 
They are known on other coins and copper blanks. 

27. BARLEY, Charles C. Auckland. New Zealand. 
*Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 4. 

O.— WHOLESALE / GROCER / AUCKLAND in three straight lines 
across field, CHARLES C. BARLEY above, NEW ZEALAND 
below. Beaded rim. 

R.— Justice seated on a bale, &c. GOD SAVE THE QUEEN above, 1858 
in exergue. Beaded rim. 

28. BARRACLOUGH. Richmond. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 4. 

O. — W'ithin an inner plain circle an ornamental bar with 
BARROWCLOUGH in half circle above and 100 / BRIDGE / 
ROAD in three straight lines below. Round within the beaded 
rim, BOOKSELLER & STATIONER * RICHMOND * 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' No. 11 reverse. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 3I 

29.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 28. 
R. — As Stokes' Arms reverse No. 10. 

30. BATEMAN, William, Junr., & Co. Warmambool. Victoria. 

*Penny. ICS55. 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & S^)ns fecit) Pi. 4. 

O. — Within an inner plain circle VICTORIA straight across centre, 
WILLIAM BAT1<:MAN jUN!< & C.> . WARNAMP.OOL . n.uiul. 
Between inner circle and beaded rim, 1MI'( )k'i"i:RS .AND 
GENERAL MERCHANTS. 1855. 

R. — Justice standing, AUSTRALIA over. 

31. BATTLE AND WEIGHT. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 4. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle, BATTLE / & / WEIGHT in three lines 
across and between the inner circle and the indented rim, DRAPERS 
&c., 81 & 83 SOUTH HEAD ROAD SYDNEY. 

R. — Justice standing, no legend. Minute G among fruit. 

32. BEATH, G. L., & Co. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 4. 

O. — DIRECT / IMPORTERS in two straight lines across centre, a quatre- 
foil above and below. G. L. BEATH & CO. / CLOTHIERS in 
two curved lines at the top, DRAPERS / CHRISTCHURCH in 
two curved lines at bottom. The I of CLOTHIlvRS is under the 
T of BEATH and the vertical stroke of the I) of DIRECT in line 
with the last vertical line of M of IMPORTERS. 

R.— Argyle Arms with ARGYLE HOUSE above and CASHEL STRICET 
below. The last T of STREET being close to the foot of the lion 
supporter. 

33. Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O. and R. as 32, but the piece is brass in place of copper. 

34. Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. L^pset. 

O. — As 32 but with the vertical stroke of D inside the right hand vertical 
stroke of M. 

R. — As No. 32. 

35.* Penny (n.d.). 31mm. Normal. PI. 5. 

C— As No. 32 but with crosses in placeof quatrefoils. The I of CL(^THIEKS 
under the first vertical line of H, and the vertical stroke of D in 
direct line with the last vertical stroke of M. 

R. — As No. 32 but with more space between the T of STREET and the 
hon's foot. 

36.* Penny (n.d.). 31 mui. Normal. 

O.— As No. 35 but the I of CLOTHIERS is between the T and H of BEATH 
and the vertical stroke of D is over the middle of M. 

R.— As No. 32. 



32 



AUSTRAL,! ST. -iX TOKEXS AND COINS. 



37. Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O. and R. as No. 36, but the piece is brass, not co])])er. 

38.* Penn3^ (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 36. 
R. — As No. 35, with more space after T. 

39. Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O. and R. as No. 38, Init the piece is brass, not copper. 

40.* Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O.— The Pof CLOTHIERS is mider the T of BEATH and the vertical 
line of D in line with the last vertical of M. 

R. — As No. 32. 

41. Penny (n.d.). Normal. 

0. — As No. 35. 

R. — As No. 35. This is a larger piece. In the Yelland collection. 

42. BEAVEN, S. Invercargill. New Zealand. 

*Penn3'. 1863. Rare. 31 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 5. 

O.— IRONMONGER / & / MERCHANT in three hnes across centre, with 
S. BEAVEN above and INVERCARGILL N.Z. below. Beaded 
rim. 
R.— Austrahan Arms, PEACE AND PLENTY over, 1863 under. 
ADVANCE AUSTRALIA on scroll. Beaded rim. 

43. BELL AND GARDNER. Rockhampton. Queensland. 

.*Penny (n.d.). Scarce. 34 mm. Normal. (J. C. Thornthwaite fecit.) 

PI. 5. 
O.— BELL / & / GARDNER in three lines across centre, IRONMONGERS 

above and is ROCKHAMPTON 1^ below. Rim beaded. 
R. — PENNY / TOKEN in two lines, enclosed by a wreath of flowers tied 

with ribbon and surmounted by a rising sun. Rim beaded. 
This is also found Upset. 

44. BOOTH, 1. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Pope & Co. fecit). PI. 5. 

0.— DRAPER / OUTFITTER &c. / MELBOURNE in three straight 
lines across field, .;. I. BOOTH .;. above, VICTORIA below. 
Beaded rim. 
R. — Britannia seated on rock, with olive branch in right and trident in 
left hand, BRITANNIA over. Beaded rim. 

45. BRICK HILL, Joseph. Campbell Town. Tasmania. 
*Penny. 1856. 34 mm. Normal. (Stokes, T., fecit.) PI. 5. 

O.— DRAPER / AND / GENERAL / IMPORTER in four lines across 

field, JOSEPH BRICKHILL. CAMPBELL TOWN, round within 

the beaded rim. 
R._ADVANCE / TASMANIA / 1856 in three hnes in field, ONE PENNY 

TOKEN. COMMERCIAL HOUSE, round within the beaded 

rim. 



AUSTRALASIA X lOKEKS ASD COISS. . 33 

46. BROOKES. Brisbane. Queensland. 

*Pcnny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 5. 

O.— BROOKES in large capitals straight across centre, IRON.MONtiKRS 
above and BRISBANE below in fancy letters. Beaded rim. 

R. — As the obverse. 

47.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 6. 

O.— BROOKES straight across centre, IRON.MONfiERS in h;df rirrle 
above, BRISBANE below. All plain letters. 

R. — As the obverse, but BROOKES is slightlv higher, brmgiug tin- I and 
S of IRONMONGERS close to the B and S of BRO(JKES. 

48. Penny (n.d.). Scarce. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 47, Init witli the top corner of the P> of BRISBANE under 
the B of l^ROOKES. 

R.— As No. 47. 

49. BROOKES, W. & B. Brisbane. 
*Penny. 1863. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 6. 

O.— IRONMONGERS in curved line across centre, W. A: P.. lU^OOKES 
curved above, BRISB.ANE bilow. Rim beaded. 

R. — Australian Arms, QUEENSLAND over, i^G^ under. I^-aded rim. 

50. BROWN AND DUTHIE. New Plymouth. New Zealand. 
*Penny. i86(). 31 mm. Normal. PI. (). 

O.— WHOLESALE / & RETAIL IRONMONGERS in time lines in 
centre, BROWN AND Dl THIE BROUC.HAM STREET round 

within indented rim. 

R. — A conical mountain, probably Mt. Egmont, with T.\K-\NAKi , i>'iO 
in two lines in the exergue. Indented rim. 

51. BUTTERWORTH, T., & Co. Castlemaine. Victoria. 
*Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 6. 

O. — A large figure I and EOREST /' STREET in three lines across field. 
T. BUTTERWORTH & C^^ . CASTLEMAINE . round within the 
beaded rim. 

R.— WINE / & / SPIRIT ' M1:KC HANTS in four lines in centre. 
WHOLESALE & RETAIL GROCERS & DRAPERS * round 

within the beaded rim. 

52. Penny (n.d.). Rare. 34 nun. Normal. 

O. — As No. 51. 

R. — As No. 51, except that the up stnd<e of Ov: ends in a dash instead of 
a knob. 

This was in the cabinet of Mr. \\'alters, of Crafers. S<iuth .\ustralia. 
• 53.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 51, with a smaller muneral i and a - replaces the . under the 
o of O} thus. 

R.— As No. 51. 
"lU;— c 



^^ AVsTir-iLAsi.JX roh'i-:xs axd cofxs. 

54.* Penny. 1859. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 6. 
O.— As No. 53. 
R.— Justice seated on a bale, \ntli 1S59 in the exergue. 

55. Penny. 

This is referred to in the Fourobert Catalogue as No. lUy, but there is no 
definition of the variety. 

56. BUXTON, J. W. Brisbane. Queensland. 
*lVnny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 6. 

().__j. w. BUXTON straight across centre, STATIONERY in half circle 

above, STORES below. Beaded rim. 
R.— BRISBANE straight across centre, LADIES WAREHOUSE in 

half circle above, : QUEENSLAND : below. Beaded rim. 

57. CALDER, R. Castlemaine. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PL 7. 

0. — Within a plain inner circle, BARKER SJ. straight across centre, 
R. CALDER in half circle above, CASTLEIVL\INE below, and 
between the inner circle and beaded rim . WINE SPIRIT & 
GENERAL PROVISION MERCHANT : 1862 : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 

5S.* Penny. Scarce. 1862. Normal. 34 mm. 
O. — As No. 57. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

59. CAMPBELL, James. ;\lorpeth. New South Wales. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 7. 

O.— GENERAL / STORES in two curved lines across field, JAMES 
CA:\IPBELL . MORPETH . round within the beaded rim. 

R. — Justice standing, scale pans level with the bottom of the first A of 
AUSTRALIA which is over the figure. 

Co.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 59. 

R. — As No. 59, but AUSTRALIA is slightly extended, bringing the scale 
pans to the middle of the first A. 

61.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 27 mm. Normal. PI. 7. 

0._As No. 59. No stops before or after MORPETH. 
R.— As No. 59. 

62. CARO, J,, & Co. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 7. 

O. — Within a plain inner circle & CO. straight across, J. CARO curved 
above and HIGH ST. in smaller letter below. Round within the 
beaded rim, GENERAL IRONMONGERS : CHRISTCHURCH : 

R._A man ploughing, TRADE AND AGRICULTURE round STOKES 
MELB. in minute letters at bottom, beaded rim. This is often 
found half upset right or left, also in brass. 



AUSTIi.M.ASIAS lOKI.SS AM) COLVS. 35 

63. Penny (n.d.). J5 nini. 

O. and I^. as No. ()2, but a larf,'cr piece. 

64. CLARK, Archibald. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 7. 

O.— Within an inner beaded circle, STRKKT straight across centre with 
SHORTL.VND curved above and AUCKLAND Ixlow. 
ARCHIBALD CLARK above, DRAl'lCR below Ixtween inner 
circle and the beaded rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, NLW /J].\L.\N1) (At-r, 1.S57 in cxcrgiie. 
Beaded rim. 

65. CLARKSON, S. Christchurcli. New Zealand. 

*Pcnny. 1875. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 7. 

O.— S. CLARKSON / BUILDLR / & / IMPORTER / CASHLL 
STREET / CHRIST / CHURCH / NEW ZEALAND in eight 
lines. Indented rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, NEW ZI", ALAND over, 1S75 in exergue. 
Indented rim. 

66.* Penny. 1875. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 8. 

O. — As No. 65, but the second and third lines are replaced bv two sprays of 
foHage, the C of CHRIST is directly over the first "C of CHURCH 
and the words NEW and ZILXLAND are close together. 

R. — As No. 65. 
67.* Penny. 1875. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 66 but with CHURCH slightlv more extended, bringing the 
first C a little to the left of the C" of CHRIST, also more space 
between NEW and ZEALAND. 

R. — As No. 65. 

68.* Penny. 1875. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 66, but CHURCH still longer, bringing the first C more to the 
left of the C of ( HRIST. There is also more sjxace between NEW" 
and ZEALAND. 

R. — As No. 65. 

69. CLARKSON & TURNBULL. Timani. New Z<-aland. 
*l\'nnv. i8()5. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 8. 

O.— Within an inner beaded circle. C.ENiiRAL IMPORTl^RS 
DRAPERS / CLOTHIERS lS:^ in five lines, between the inner 
circle and the beailed rim. CI..\RKSON .\ND TURNHULL . 
18G5 . 

R. — A breakwater with lighthouse and a steamer in harbour. NEW 
ZEALAND over. TIMARU in exergue. 

70.* Penny. 1865. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 69, with the word IMPORTERS longer. 
R.— As No. 69. 



36 AUSTRALASIA!^ TOKENS AXD COINS. 

71.* Penny. 1865. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 69, but all the words in the inner circle are extended, 
especially GENERAL. 

R. — As No. 69. 

72. COLLINS & CO. Bathurst. New South Wales. 

*Penny. 1864. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 8. 

O. — Within a plain inner circle & CO. straight, with COLLINS curved 
over, and between inner circle and the beaded rim, CHEAP 
CLOTHING BAZAAR : BATHURST : 

R. — A kangaroo to right and emu to left, facing each other, NEW SOUTH 
WALES over, 8 1 under, and T. STOKES on left side, 
MELBOURNE on right in minute letters. Beaded rim. 

73. Penny. 1865. 34 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O. — As No. 72. 

R.— A plough, with T. STOKES MELBOURNE in minute letters under 
the base, and 1805 below. Round wathin the beaded rim THh] 
COMMERCIAL PASTORAL & FARMING INTERESTS ; 

74. Pcnnv (n.d.). Scarce. 34 mm. Normal. 

().~As No. 72. 
R.— As No. 62. 

75. COOK, W. C. Sandridge. Melbourne. 

*lVnnv. 18C2. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Smokes fecit.) PI. 8. 

O. — Within an inner plain circle, W. C. COOK / BAY . ST. in two straight 
hnes, ODDFELLOWS STORE in half circle above, and 
SANDRIDGE below. The circle is broken at the bottom bj- 
ORDERS PUNCTUALLY / ATTENDED TO in two lines. 
Between the inner circle and the beaded rim SUGAR COMPANIES 
TREACLE DELIVERED. 

R. — Australian Arms, as Stokes' No. 13. 

76. COOMBES, Samuel. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) . PL 8. 

O.— Portrait of issuer in centre, with SA^MUEL COOMBES above, 
MANUFACTURING CLOTHIER in half circle below, QUEEN 
S^" on right side of face, and AUCKLAND on the left. The A of 
AUCKLAND is between the M and B of COOMBES. There is a 
small tuft of hair at the top of the head, and the first vest button is 
over R. Beaded rim. 
R.— TAILOR, OUTFITTER / QUEEN STREET / AUCKLAND / 
S. COOMBES / ALBERT STREET / GRAHAM TOWN / 
GENTLEMEN'S MERCER in seven hnes. Indented rim. 

77.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 76, but with a shghtly larger head and wider opening to vest, 
the first button being between R and I, the A of AUCKLAND 
under B, and the words QUEEN S^ and AL^CKLAND are more 
extended. No tuft at top of head. 
R— .As No. 76. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS 



37 



78.* Penny (n.d.). Rare. ,54 mm. X(;rmal. 

O. — As No. 77. 

R.— As No. 76, with the word .M'CKLANI) liiKher, bringing the first A 
close to U and the I) close to \l. Indented rim. 

79. Penny (n.d.). Rare. 34 mm. X(irm;d. 

O.- — As No. 77. 

R. — As No. 77, hut .\r( KLANI) is l<jnger, bringing the D under the T 
of STREET. 

80. COPE, Thomas H. Soutli Yarra. Victoria. 

♦Penny. i<S()2. 34 mm. Upset. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 8. 

O. — In inner plain circle GENERAL / DRAPER in two straight lines. 
with THO*^ H. COPE in lialf circle al)ove. ]-Jetw<«-n inner circle 
and beaded rim, GARDENERS CREEK ROAD : SOUTH 
YARRA : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 15. 

81.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 80. 
R. — Australian .\rms, Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

82. CROCKER AND HAMILTON. .Vdelaide South .Vustralia. 
*Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Normal. PI. 9. 

O.— CROCKER / & HAMILTON ' ADELAIDE PORT ADELAIDE 

in five Hnes. Beaded rim. 
R.— DRAPERS / CROCKER / & / HAMILTON / CLOTHIERS &<: 
in five lines. Beadefl rim. 

83.* H dfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. Pi. ij. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle, DR.VPERS SILK MICKCERS ' AND 

/ CLOTHIERS and between the inmr circle and the beaded rim 

CROCKER .\ND HAMILTON . 1837 . 
R. — In inner circle view of shop, with Rl'lliENT HOUSE on it. 

ADELAIDE, PORT ADl-.LAlDh: . AND lU'RR.V CREEK . within 

the beaded rim. 

84. CROMBIE, CLAPPERTON AND FINDLAY. .MellH)unu. 
*Halfpeimy (n.d.). 28 nun. Upset. (W. J. TayK)r fecit.) PI. 9. 

O.— 41 / WEST LONSDALl-: STRlCl-yP in four straii^ht lines in centre 
with CROMBIh: CLAPPERTON cS: EINDLAY round within the 
indented rim. .\ rose on a short bar at the bottom. 

R.— A kani^-aroo to right, Ml-LBCH'RNE over, W. J. TAYLOR. 
MEDALLIST TO THIC C.RICAT EXHIBITION L^5 in 
four lines of minute capitals in the exergue. Indented rim. 

85. Halfpenny (n.d.). Scarce. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 84, but with the words WEST and STREET shorter. 
R.— As No. 85. 



38 .AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

86. CROTHERS & Co. Stawvll. Victoria. 

*Pt'nny, Bronze (n.d.). 31 mm. Upset. (T. Stokes fecit.) I'l. 9. 

O.— CROTHERS / & CO. in two lines across centre, TEA MERCHANTS 
above and & GENERAL STOREKEEPERS under within the 
beaded rim. 

R.— THE / ORIGINAL / CASH STORE / :\IAIN S'" / STAWELL in 
five lines, with an ornamental bar between the third and fourth, 
all enclosed in a beaded rim. 

This is a^so often found in copper. 

87.* Penny, Copper (n.d.). 31 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 86, but with & close to the C of CO, the circle of legend is 
shghtly smaller, bringing the S of CROTHERS close to the last S 
of STOREKEEPERS. There is also less space between the 
words TEA and MERCHANTS, the latter word is shortened, and 
ends at a greater distance from the S of the name. 

R.— As No. 86. 

88. Penny, Bronze (n.d.). Scarce. 

O. and R. — As No. 86, but tlic piece is larger. 

8g.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 24 mm. Normal. PI. g. 
O.— As No. 86. 
R.— As No. 86. 

go. DAVEY, James, & Co. Sale. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 m.m. Upset. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. g. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle JA^ DAVEY / & C" / GIPPSLAND / 
STORE FOSTER ST. / SALE in six hues, and between it and 
the beaded rim, WHOLESALE & RETAIL DRAPERS GROCERS 
& IMPORTERS : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 

gi. DAVIDSON, A. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 10. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle A. DAVIDSON / 112 / COLLINS S'" 
EAST / CORNER / OF / RUSSELL ST. / MELBOURNE in 
seven hnes, and between it and the beaded rim, GROCER WINE 
& SPIRIT MERCHANT : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

92.* Penny. 1862. 34 nun. Partly upset. 
O. — As No. gi. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 7. 

g3.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Partly upset. 
O. — As No. gi. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes" reverse No. i. 



AUSTJi'lL LSI.IX 10 KENS AND COINS. 39 

94. DAVIES, Alfred. IniiKuitlc WY'stcrn Australi;i. 

*Pcnny. 1HO5. 31 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) I'l. i". 

0._PAWNBR()KKR str:iif,'lit across centre, .M.lRIll) D.W'IKS in hall 
circle a1)ove, and HlCiH S' FRl-:MANTfJ:: Ixlow. leaded rim. 
R._A swan with WESTERN AUSTK'AI.IA over, 1865 under. Beaded 
rim. 

(j5. DAVIES, ALEXANDER & CO. <.uull)iini. New South \Valf>. 
*Pcnny (n.d.). 34 mm. Norm:'!. I'l. 10. 

O. — Within a beaded inner circle a f,'(jldcn lleece, and U-twcen it and 
llic ])eaded rim DAVIES, ALEXANDER & C2 above and 
. (iOULBURN . below. 
R. — Within a beaded inner circle the .Xustralian .\rm> with ADVANCE 
AUSTRALIA on the scroll, ESTABLISlllvD abovi-. iSj; beneath. 
and between it and the beaded rim Al'STRALlAN STORES above. 
GOULBl'RN Ix'low. Tiie tail of the kangaroo against the second 
S of STORES. 

96. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

0.— As No. 95, with the word GOI'LBIRN shorter, and a slightly different 

golden fleece. 
R.— As No. 95. 

97.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 95, with the omission of the connna after D.WTES. a slightly 

different fleece, and GOl'LBURN whiK- rath.r lomj.r than in 

No. 96, is not so long as in No. 95. 
K — As No. 95, but with wider space between the words Al'STRALlAN 

and STORES and the word GOULBURN shorter. The tail of 

the kangaroo also points close below the ?2 of STORES. 

9S. DAY AND MIEVILLE. Dunedin and Otago. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1^57. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 10. 

O.— DAY & MIEVll.I.l' MERCHANTS DINLDIN OTAGO in 

four lini'S within .1 bi-aded rim. 
R.— Justice seated on a bale. NICW Zi:.\l..\N D over. KS37 in exergue. 
Beaded rim. 

99. DEASE, E. F. Launceston. Tasmania. 

♦Penny (n.d.). 34 nnn. Upset. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 10. 

O— ONE / E F. DEASE PI':NNV in three lines, with p<iinted bars 
between in centre. WHOLESALE .S: RETAIL DRAPERY 
WAREHOUSE •;. BRISBANE S'" •;• within the indented rim. 
R._A fleece with SIC VOS NON VOBIS VELLERA EERTIS OVES 
rouiul within the bt\uled rim. 

100.* Halfpenn>' (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. PI. 10. 

O. As No. 99, except the substitution o\ HALIPLNNY lor PENNY. 
R.^As No. 9Q. 



40 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS 



loi. De CARLE, E., & Co. Dunedin. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1862. 31 min. Normal. P. 11. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) 

O. — The Royal Arms in centre with Crown and round within the indented 
rim. E. ii£ CEAiainiH $c (E® miESaii^ANSg'. SllNiES3N 

(0a:A(S(0 c^<3- 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, VIVANT REGINA over and 1862 in the 
exergue. The scale bar is almost level with the point of V. Beaded 
rim. 

102.* Penny. 1862. 31 mm. Normal 
O. — As No. loi. 
R. — As No. loi, with the scale bar shghtly below V. 

103. DE CARLE, E., & Co. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1855. 34 mm. Normal. (\V. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 11. 

O. — In a small plain circle in centre, a lion supporting a shield with right 
forepaw, and between that and a larger beaded circle, OUEEN'S 
ROYAL ARCADE OFFICE + and within the beaded rim E. DE 
CARLE & 01 AUCTIONEERS & LAND AGENTS. 

R._justice seated on a bale, &c. MELBOURNE VICTORIA over, 1855 
in the exergue. 

104. De CARLE, E., & Co. Melbourne and Plenty. 

*Penny (n.d.), 34 mm. Normal. PL 11. 

O.— GROCERS / & SPIRIT / .MERCHANTS in three lines across centre 
and round within tlie beaded rim, . E. DE. CARLE & C2. 
MELBOURNE & PLENTY VICTORIA. 

R. — Britannia with olive branch and trident, BRITANNIA over. 
Beaded rim. 

105. De CARLE, Edwd., & Co. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1855. 33 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 11. 

0. — AUCTIONEERS / &c. in two lines across centre and round within 
the beaded rim, EDWP DE'CARLE & C9 MELBOURNE An 
oval ornament above and below the centre lines. 

R.— Seated female figure with scales, TASMANIA above ANNO. 1855 
below, and a small cross at each side. Rim beaded. 

106. DEEBLE, S. Melbourne. 

^Penu}-. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) 

O. — Within a plain inner circle S. DEEBLE / DRAPER in two straight 
lines with a scroll work cross, and between it and the beaded rim, 
LONDON HOUSE BOURKE. ST : MELBOURNE : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 12. 

107.* Penny. 34 mm. 1862. Normal. 
O. — As No. 106. 
R. — Austrahan Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 



AUSTRALASIAN TDK HNS AND COINS. 4I 

108.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 11. 

O. — As No. 106. 

R.— A whcatshcaf with ADVANrK Al'STRALIA over and 1802 under. 
Beaded rim. 

109. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 106. 

R. — An emu and rising sun as Stokes reverse No. 20. 
no. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 106. 

R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

111. DIXON, James. Wangaratta. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 11. 

O.— GENERAL / STOREKEEPER in two straight lines across centre. 
JAMES DIXON in half circle above, WANGARATTA below. 
Beaded rim. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes" reverse No. 14. 

112. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. iir. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes reverse No. 13. 

113. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. III. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes reverse No. 5. 

114. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. I'pset. 

O. — As No. III. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes reverse No. 3. 

115. Penny. i8()2. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. III. 

R. — Emu, lS:c., as Stokes* reverse No. jo. 

116. Penny. i8()2. 34 nun. Ujistt. 

O. — As No. III. 

R. — As Stokes' reverse No. 16. Australian .Arms more linely drawn ami 
all letters smaller than the usual design. 

117. Penny. 1802. 34 mm. Ipset. 

O.— As No. III. 

R.— As the obverse of R.GRll':\'l-: of Eaglchawk. (A mule.) 

Though seven varieties of JAMIiS DIXON are here catalogued, it must 
be noted that most of the specimens now known are re-strikes. Dixon 
was unfortunate in business, and very soon after Stokes completed his 
order had to close down, and it is doubtful whether they were ever circulated. 
All are very scarce. 



42 AUSTNALASIAN TOKENS AXD COINS. 

ii8. EVANS AND FOSTER. Mrlljoiime. 

*Penny. 1862. Scarce. 34 mm. Upset. (T. Stokes fecit.) 

0.~EVANS ' & / FOSTER / 78 / BOURKE ST. / EAST in six lines 
in field with BOOKSELLERS & STATIONERS : MELBOURNE : 
round within the beaded rim. 

R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 18. 

119.* Penny. 1862. Scarce. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 12. 
O.— As No. 118. 
R. — Emu, &.C., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

120. FENWICK Bros. Melbourne. 

*Penny. Brass, (n.d.). Scarce. ^^ mm. Normal. PI. 12. 

O. — A flagstaff and signal station with FLAG STAFF in small capitals 
under the base, FENWICK BROTHERS IMPORTERS & 
CLOTHIERS . 225 KING S^ round within the beaded rim. 

R. — A well-designed head of Queen Victoria in an inner plain circle and 
between the latter and the beaded rim, 225 KING STREET 
MELBOURNE . VICTORIA. 

Also known in copper. 

121.* Penny. Copper, (n.d.). Scarce. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 12. 

0. — As No. 120. 

R. — A larger head of the Queen without the inner circle, the same legend 
as No. 120. Beaded rim. 

Also known in brass. 

122. FISHER. South Yarra. Melbourne. 

*Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 12. 

O.— FISHER DRAPER / MARLBOROUGH HOUSE / GARDINER'S 
CREEK ROAD in five lines within a beaded rim. 

R. — A kangaroo and emu facing each other, AUSTRALIA over, 1857 
under. Beaded rim. 

123. FLAVELLE BROS. & Co. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). j,^ mm. Upset. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 12. 

O. — ONE / PENNY in two straight lines across with an ornamental bar 
above and below, FLAVELLE BRO^ & C" SYDNEY & 
BRISBANE, round within the indented rim. 

R. — A kangaroo and emu facing each other, W. J. TxAYLOR. LONDON 
in minute capitals under the base. Indented rim. 

124. Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. LTpset. 

O. — As No. 123. 

R. — As No. 123 but the paws of the kangaroo are in a shghtly different 
position and the grass, &c., on the base is straighter and somewhat 
varied. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 43 

125.* Penny (n.d.). jj mm. Ui)S(_;t. I'l. l^. 

().— As No. 123 witli the addition of (d'TK lANS cV JKWKLLEKS 
curved below the bottom bar. 

K. — As No. 123. 

126. Penny (n.d.). .;/, mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 125, but with two dots under the S in HK(J^. JKW not joined. 
R.— As 123. 

127. Penny (n.d.). 33 nun. Upset. 

O. — As No. 125 with tlie letter> Jl'LW of [l-lW'lJ.LlCKb joined at the 
top. 

R. — As No. 123. 

It is doubtful if this is really a variety, it beinj,' probably due to ll»e 
wearing of the die. Another variety, in which not <jnly these three but 
the two following letters are joined probably has the same origin. 

128. FLEMING, J. G. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*Penny. Bronze. 1874. 31 mm. Normal. PI. i,;. 

O. — A scroll design within a beaded inni-r circle, witii between it and the 
beaded rim J. G. FLKMINCi . CROCER cS: TEA DEALER. A 

point of the scroll is opposite the R of DEALER. 

R. — Within an inner beaded circle a sugar-loaf with E in an oval between 
two curved lines on it. Between this circle and the beaded rim 
SUGAR LOAF above, . HOBART TOWN 1,^71 . 

129.* Pennv. Bronze. 1874. 31 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 128 but the point of the scroll is opposite- the . between (i .in<l 

R and the rim is indented. 
R. — As No. 128, with a wider base to the sugar-loaf and an indented rim. 

130. FORSAITH, T. S. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1858. 34 nun. Normal. (W. J. Tay|,or fecit.) PL 13. 

O. — Within an inner plain circle. HOUSE straight across centre with 
MANCHESTER . AUCKL.VND. round, and betwe<n the inner 
circle and the beaded rim, T. S. FORSAITH. WHOLESALE & 
RETAIL DRAPER. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, N1A\ Z1-..\L.\N1). <n.r, 1S3S in the exergue. 
Beaded rim. 

131.* Halfpenny. 1858. 28 nun. Normal. PI. 13. Rare. 
O. — As No. 130. 
R. — As No. 130. 

132.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. and R. as No. 130. Tliis is probably a pattern of 130 in brass. It 
is in splendid state in the Mitchell Library cabinet. 



_^ AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

133. FRIEDMAN, I. Hobart Town. Tasmania. 

*Pcnny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Ta^dor fecit.) PI. 13. 

O.— PAWNBROKER in straight line across centre, I. FRIEDMAN 
in half circle above and ARGYLE STREET below, the cross bar 
of the last T of STREET under the vertical stroke of the last R 
in PAWNBROKER. Indented rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale with TASMANIA over, 1857 in the exergue, 
and head of figure exactly under A. Beaded rim. 

134.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 133 with corner of T under the middle of R. 

R. — As No. 133, but head of figure a httle to right of the middle of A. 

135.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 133, with corner of T under middle of R and ARGYLE starting 

a little higher. 
R. — Head under the middle of A. 

136.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

O^— Corner of T under middle of R. ARGYLE STREET extended 
bringing both the first A and last T nearer the word PAWNBROKER. 

R. — Head exactly under the middle of A. 

137.* Halfpenny. 1857. -7 n^^i- Normal. PL 13. 

0.— As No. 133, with PAWNBROKER long, the second T of STREET 
close to and in hne with the vertical stroke of R. 

R. — As No. 133. 
138.* Halfpenny. 1857. 27 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 133 with PAWNBROKER .slightly shorter, the cross bar 

of T pointing within the vertical stroke of R. The m ddle stroke 

of the letters E in the third line incomplete. 

R. — As No. 133. 

139.* Halfpenny. 1857. 27 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 133 with PAWNBROKER short. ARGYLE STREET more 
extended bringing the first and last letters nearer PAWNBROKER. 
Middle stroke of letters E incomplete. 

R. — As No. 133. 

140. Halfpenny. 1857. 27 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 133. The name begins and ends slightly lower. Middle 

stroke of letters E incomplete. 
R.— As No. 133. 

141. FROOMES, W. Castlemaine. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PL 13. 

O. — Within an inner plain circle MARKET SQ^ straight across centre, 
W. FROOMES in half circle above and CASTLEMAINE below. 
Round within the beaded rim, FAMILY DRAPER CLOTHIER 
& OUTFITTER : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 



AVSTUALASIAN TOKENS AST) COIS'S. 45 

142. GAISFORD AND EDMONDS. Christcliurch. NVw Zt-aland. 

♦Penny. 1875. 34 mm. Normal. (VV. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 14. 

O.— PORK / & GENP:RAL / BUTCIiKRS / COLOMBO STRKHT / 
CHRIST / CHURCH in si.\ straight lines with GAISFORD & 
EDMONDS in half circle above, NKW ZKALAND below. Indented 
rim. 

R. — Justice seated with NEW ZEALAND over and 1.S75 in the e.\ergiie. 

Indented rim. 

143. GILMOUR, John. xWw Plymouth. New Zealand. 
*Penny (n.d.). _;i mm. Normal. J'l. 14. 

O.— NEW / PLYMOUTH in two straight lines across centre, JOHN 
GILMOUR in half circle above, NEW ZEALAND below. A stop 
to right and left of PLYMOUTH. Beaded rim. 

R. — View of Mt. Egmont, with three jialm trees on the right foreground. 
a lake and canoe in the middli- distance and a moa (juite in front. 

Beaded rim. 

144.* Penn3^ (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 143, l)ut the stops before and after PLY.MOUTII are not 
quite so high. 

R. — As No. 143. 

145. GIPPSLAND HARDWARE COMPANY. Port Albert. Victoria. 

*Penny. iM()2. 54 mm. Xonnai. (T. Stokes fecit.) 

O.— In inner i)lain cinlc, PORT / ALBERT / & / SALE in four lines 
and between it and the beaded rim Gll'l'S L.WD : 1 1 \KI )W.\ KE 
COMPANY : 

R. — Australian .\rms as vStokes reverse No. 13. 

146.* Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Normal. PI. 14. 

0. — As No. 145. 

R.— A plough in centre, TKADIC Ov AGRlCUl.TUKl-: in hall circl.- alx.ve, 
T.STOKES. MAKER. 100 COLLINS ST. 1-:.\ST Mi: Ll'.oUKNE 

in two lines. of minute rajiitals below. 

147. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Noiinai. PI. 14. 

O.— As No. 145 but with GIPPSL.WD in one word. 
R. — Australian .\rms as Stokes" reverse No. 13. 

148. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Noruial. 

O.— As No. 147 with GlPPSL.Wn mu,. \v..rd. 
R.— As No. i4(). 

149. GITTOS, B. .Vucklaud. New Zealand. 

*Penn3'. 1864. 34 mm. Normal. (T Stokes fecit.) PL 14. 

O.— B. GITTOS / LEATHER MERCHANT IMPORTER Ol- BOOTS 
& SHOES / &c. <S:c. in six lines. Beadeil rim. 

R.— WHOLESALE & RETAIL LEATH1:R Ov GRINDERY / 
STORES ' WYNDHAM STREET AUCKL.VND , N.Z. / 1S64 

in nine lines within the beaded rim. 



46 AUSTRALASfAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

150. GOURLAY, T. W., & Co. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Pcnny (n.d.). Scarce. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 14. 

O.— A fire grate in centre T. W. GOURLAY & C^.' / IMPORTERS / OF 
in three curved lines above, AND / KITCHENERS / 
CHRISTCHURCH similarly below. Beaded rim. 

R.— A crosscut saw in centre, ECONOMY HOUSE / BUILDERS / & / 
FURNISHING in four lines over, IRONMONGERY / HIGH 
STREET in two lines under. Beaded rim. The handles of the 
saw are its width long. 

151.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 150. 
R. — As No. 150 with shorter handles to saw. 

152. GRATTEN, R. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Pcnny. 1872. 32 mm. Normal. PI. 15. 

O.— R. GRATTAN straight across centre, THAMES HOTEL curved 
above, AUCKLAND below. Indented rim. 

R. — A Maori in a canoe with foliage on both sides, 1872 under. Indented 
rim. 

1-53. GRIEVE, R. Eaglehawk. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 15. 

O. — In an inner plain circle R. GRIEVE straight across, EAGLE curved 
above and HAWK below. Round between inner circle and the 
beaded rim. WHOLESALE & RETAIL GROCER : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes reverse No. 14. 

154. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 153. 

R. — Australain Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13, 

155. GRUNDY, J. R. Ballarat. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1861. 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 15, 

O. — A tobacco plant in centre wath TOBACCO in small capitals under. 
Round within the beaded rim, J. R. GRUNDY, MERCHANT, 
BALLAARAT . 1861 . 

R.— Australian Arms, with INDUSTRIA ET FIDES OMNIA VINCENT 
• VICTORIA • round within the beaded rim. The horizontal line 
on the shield if continued to the left would cut the U of 
INDUSTRIA. 

156.* Penny. 1861. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 155. 

R. — As No. 155 except that the Arms are placed a little lower, the legend 
is also extended leaving less space before and after the word 
VICTORIA and the horizontal hne on shield if continued would 
cut the S of INDUSTRIA. 



AUSTIN U..1SIAN roKHXS AM) rofXS. 



47 



157.* Penny. i<SOi. 34 mm. .Xormal. I'l. 15. 

O.— A branch of a tobacco j)lant in centre with J. R. GRUNDY 

MERCHANT BALLARAT . i«6i . round within the beaded rim. 
R. Justice standing on sea shore, ship in the distance, within a beaded 

circle. The rim is raised and bears as legcnfl INDUSTRIA KT 

FIDES OMNIA VINCET . VICTORIA . 

15S.* Penny. icSOi. 54 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 157 but with tl:e arrangement of the l<.wcr b\ids slightly 
different. 

R. — As No. 157. 

159. HALL, Henry J. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 15. 

O.— ONE / PENNY in two straight lines with a pointed bar above and 
below in the centre, HFNRY J. HALL •;: CHRISTCHL'RCH •;: 
COFFEE MILLS •.': round within the indented rim. 

R. — H. J. HALL in straight line across centre with a i)ointed bar above 
and below and FAMILY -.V GROCER WIN!-: AND SPIRIT 
MERCHANT •.*: round within the indented rim. 

160.* Penny (n.d.). Scarce. 34 mm. I'pset. PI. 13. 

O.— As No. 159. 

R. — A kangaroo and emu facing . W. J, ^A^■1,^R in minute letters under. 
A mule. 

161.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. PI. 15. 

O. — As No. 159, except H.\Lh' iu i)lace of ONIC. 

R. — As No. 159. 

162.* Halfpenny, (n.d.). 28 mm. I'pset. PI. 16. 

O.— As No. 161. 

R. — As the reverse of the halfpenny of Lipman Levy. .\ nuile. Rare. 
163.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Xoruial. PI. lO. 

O. — As No. 161. 

R. — As the obverse of tlu- halfpinny of K. F. Deasi- of Launceston. 
Tasmania. A mule. Rare. 

164. HALL, H. J. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

y^nall letter Scries. 
*Penny (n.d.). 3,,: nun. N\)rmal. (W. j. faylor fecit.) PI. i(). 

O. — H. J. H.VLL with squari' stops across ci-ntre and a floriated cross 
before and behind, a pointed l)ar above and below. CHRIS TCHl'RCH 
in half circle above, COFFl'lIC MILLS below. The top bar jx>ints 
to the lower part of C ami H, the lower bar left to the top of C 

and right to i)etween 1. and S. Rim beailed. 

R. — As No. 139. 
105.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. i()4 but with lower bar pointing to the miildle of C and S. 
R. — As No. 159. 



A^ AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

i66. Penny, (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 165 with the bars heavier and the top one chibbed at the riglit- 

hand end. 
R. — As No. 159. 

167.* Penny, (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 164, with lower bar pointing to the bottom of C and S. 
R. — As No. 159. 

168.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 164, with the top bar lower pointing left below C, the lower 
bar points between C and O on the k'ft and L and S on the right. 

R. — As No. 159. 

169.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 164 but the top bar is higher pointing to the top of C and H. 
The lower bar points left to O and right to top of the second L 
of MILLS. 
R. — As No. 159. 
Though Nos. 164 to 169 are described as Normal they are all also often 
found Upset. 

170. 

171. 

Large letter Series. 

172. *Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal or half upset. PI. 16. 

O. — Round stops. H. J. HALL in large letters across centre, 

CHRISTCHURCH above and COFFEE MILLS below within the 

beaded rim. 
R._Round stops. H. J. HALL across centre, FAMILY GROCER : 

WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANT : round within the beaded rim. 

The bottom of the second L of HALL level with the middle of N. 

Name long. 

173. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 172. 

R. — As No. 172, but the name is shorter. 

174. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 172. 

R. — As No. 172, but with the bottom of L level with the back of N. Name 
long. 

175. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 172. 

R. — As No. 172, but name again shorter, and the bottom of the second L 
is slightly above the back of N. 



AU ST n A LA SI AN TO K ESS AM) COINS. 49 

176. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 172. 

R.^ — As No. 172, with name long, but the W ui \\INI-", (f,inmtnr.->, ^liclitly 
above the initial H. 

177.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O, — As No. 172, but with stjuaro stops, anrl the name is much shorter. 
Beaded rim. 

R. — As No. 172, with round stf)ps, name long, the W of WINl*! slightly 
above the initial H and the second L of UALL level with the back 
of N. Beaded rim. 

17S.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 177. 

R. — As No. 177, but name shorter, \V level with toji of H and the second 
L of HALL to middle of N. 

179. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 177. 

R. — As No. 177, but name shorter still, and the second L of U.\LL just 
above the back of N. 

180. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 177. 

R.^ — As No. 177, witli name long, W commences level with top of H and 
the second L of HALL is level with the back of N. 

181. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 177. 

R. — As No. 177, but with square stops and name short. 

182. 

183. 

184. HANKS & COMPY. Sydney. 

♦Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. (\V. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 16. 

O.— HANKS / & / COMP'' in three lines in centre. AUSTRALLVN TLA 

MART above, SYDNEY below within the beaded rim. 
R. — Australian Arms as No. 24 on PI. 54. with 18:>7 beneath. IVaded 
rim. 

185. Penny. 1857. 33 nun. Normal. 

O. and R. — As No. 184, but a smaller coin. 

r86.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 17. 
O.— As No. 184. 
R.— As No. 184. 

187. Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 186, Init mueli heavier lettering. 
R._As No. 186. 
*15I5-D 



50 AUSTh'-iLASfAX TOKENS AKW COINS. 

i88. HANKS AND LLOYD. Sydney. 

*Penny. 1855. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 17. 

O.— HANKS / AND / LLOYD in three lines in centre, AUSTRALL\N 
TEA MART . SYDNEY . round within the beaded rim. 

R.__Round within the beaded rim. TO COMMEMORATE THE 
OPENINO OF . 1855 . and in four lines in centre, THE / SYDNEY 
/ RAH.WAY / 2r)TH SEPT'^ 

1S9.* Halfpenny. 1855. 28 unn. Normal. PI. 17. 
O.— As No. 188. 
R.— As No. 188. 

190.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 188. 

R.— Australian Arms, PEACE & PLENTY above, 1857 below. Beaded 
rim. 

191.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. PL 17. 

O. — As No. 188, I>ut the word SYDNEY in taller narrower letters. 
R. — As No. 190. 

192.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 188. 
R. — As No. 191, but the name LLOYD is shorter. 

193.* Halfpx'nny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 17. 
O.— As No. 188. 
R. — As No. 190. 

194.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 193, without the stops before and after SYDNEY and the 
word AND is in larger letters. Beaded rim. 

R. — As No. 193. 



195. HARROLD BROTHERS. Adelaide. 

*Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 17. 

O.— HARROLD BROTHERS / WHOLESALE / & / RETAIL / 
IRONMONGERS / HINDLEY ST / ADELAIDE in seven lines. 
Beaded rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, AUSTRALIA over, 1858 in the exergue. 
Beaded rim. 



196. HEDBERG, 0. H. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. (\V. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 18. 

O.— O. H. / HEDBERG in two hues across centre. OIL & COLOR 
STORES •;. ARGYLL St. HOBART TON •:• round within the 
indented rim. A short pointed bar above O. H. extending over 



AU^-fkALAStAK rOf^ltXS AXD COtS'S. ^t 

the first vertical stroke of H stops to left of vertical strokes of B 
and K. The & is exactly equidistant from L and C. A level with 
H and (i sHf^htly above the (i of WAyHlAiO which is 21 mm. long. 

R.— (). H. Hl<:i)HKR(i •:• SWEDISH H- )rSK HOHAkT T(A' •;• round 
withm tlie indented rim, OXK , PENNY in two lines in centre, 
PENNY short, only 15 mm. long. Tfie ornamental stop after the 

name is slightly nearer the O than the N of TON. 

197.* Penny (n.d.). J4 mm. Upset. Pi. i8. 

O.^ — As No. igf), but the & is slightly nearer the I, than the ('. The () and 
H are wider apart, and stops come between DP. and just to left of K. 
A and N are both above H and (i of Hi:i )P.i:k(i which is only 

20 mm. long. P>eaded rim. 

R.— .'\s No. }(}(), l)ut llie Word PI'',NN\' i^ 17 nun. long. 
19(S.* Penny (n.d.). J4 nun. I'psel. Pi. iN. 

O. — Has cS: nearer L than C, (). H. wide, bringing stops (»ver H and R. .\ 
and N level with H and (i of HI'DP>I-^I\( i whieh is jn^t under jo mm. 
long. Beaded rim. 

R. — As No. iQf), with Pl'^NN'S' only 15 mm. long. 

199.* Penny (n.d.). 34 nim. Upset. Rare. 
O. — As No. 197. 
R.— As the i8(x), penny of Jno. .\n Irew «!v ("o., No. 11. 

2 X).* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. Pi. iS. Rire. 
O. — As No. 197. 

R. — A beautiful design of Britannia seated on a rock, an olive branch in 
the right hand and a wand in the left, pointing to the end of the 
lower serif of the letter I of AUSTRALIA curvi-d aU.ve. A 
steamer in the distance, tlu' wati-r surronud> the rock, makinu' a 
wavy broken ])ase line. Pn'adeil rim. 

201.* Penny (n.d.) 54 mm. l^pset. PI. 18. Rare. 
O. — As No. 197. 

R. — A variation of No. 200, with a more ngxdar base lin«\ the sea only 
one side of thie rock, the wand points to the base of I and tlu- «<live 
branch embraces the letter S. Beailed rim. 

202.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. Rare. 

O. — As No. 198, with wide space after cS:. 
R. — As No. 201. 

203.* Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Up^i. Rare Pi. 18. 
O. — As No. 198. 
R. — Britannia as on No. 201, but the W(U(l .\US PR. \1.1.\ is on a broad 

raised rim, and the olive branch points between the letters U and 

S. The maker's nam(> is omitteil. 

204. Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Rare. 

O. — Blank, with brass centre. 
R. — As No. 203. 



D-^ 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



205. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Scarce. 
O. — As No. 196. 
R. — As reverse of Lipman Levy of Wellington, New Zealand. A mule. 

206. 

207. 

20S.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. PI. 19. 

O. — As No. 196, but with HALF for ONE. The upper bar only overlaps 

the first vertical stroke of H and the lower bar extends to the left 

of 1). 
R.— The top line of the letters of PENNY cuts below the T of TON. 

209.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. PI. 19. 

O. — Upper bar overtops H but docs not extend beyond the R in COLOR. 

Lower bar does not extend past D. 
R.— As No. 208. 

210.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. LTpset. 

O. — As No. 208. 

R.— Line of top of letters in PENNY cuts T of TON. 

211.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. 
0. — As No. 210. 
R. — As the reverse of No. 208. 

212.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. Scarce. PI. 19. 
O. — As reverse of No. 208. 
R. — As the reverse of the halfpenny of E. F. Dease. 

213.* Halfpenny (n.d.). Normal. Scarce. PI. 19 
O. — As No. 208. 

R. — As the obverse of the halfpenny of Lipman Levy, of Wellington, 
New Zealand. 

214.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 208. 
R. As obverse of No. 209. 

215. 

216. HENDERSON, JOHN. Fremantle. Western Austraha. 

*Penny. 1874. 31 mm. Normal. (Stokes and Martin fecit.) PI. 19. 

O. — A shield of Arms, with a swan for crest, kangaroo and emu as sup- 
porters, and rose, shamrock and thistle above the scroll. JOHN 
HENDERSON in half ciicle above, PAWNBROKER below, 
STOKES & MARTIN in veiy minute capitals on the left side, 
and MELBOURNE on the right. The head of the kangaroo is 
against the N, of JOHN. Beaded rim. 

R. — In an inner plain circle a large building, with ONE PENNY TOKEN 
in half cuxle above, 1874 below the base line. Between the 
inner circle and the beaded rim PACXENHAM STREET 
FREEMAN TLE . W.A. The N of TOKEN rests on the roof of 
the building, and the die shows that originally there were two 
letters F in FREEMANTLE and the first was erased. 



AUSl h'.ll..lS/.L\ l(U\i:XS AS'lJ coiss. 53 

217. Penny. ^'^7-\- Ji mm. Normal. 

(). irnd R. — As No. 216, but the piece is of li{,'liter m^.-tal. 

218.* Penny. i<'^74. ji imn. Normal. 
O. — As No. 216. 

R.— As No. 216, but the words ONK PICNXV TOKFCN are sliortencd. 
and end above the roof of the buiUlinj.,'. 

219. Penny. 1874. 31 mm. Normal. 

O. and R. — As No. 21.S, but the i)iece is lighter metal. 

220.* Penny (n.d.). 31 nun. Normal. Fl. 19. 

O. — As No. 2i(). 

R. — The building in centre with ONIC PKN.NN r«)Kl-.N m tw.. lines 
under the base. PACKKNHAM STR1:i:T above PRKK.MANTLE 
. W.A. below. 

221. Penny (n.d.). 31 nmi. Normal. 

O. and R. — As No. 220, but tlu' piece is lighter metal. 

222.* Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 216, but the kangaroo's head is level with the N <.f JOHN 
and the emu's neck is bent backward. The maker's name is placed 
below the scroll instead of at the sides. 

R. — As No. 220. 

223.* Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 222, but the kangaroo's head is above N and the emus neck 
is straight. 

R. — As No. 220. 

These last four j)ii'ces wire struck in 1878, and are believed to have been 
the last tokens issued on the continent of Australia. 

224.* Penny (n.d.). 31 nun. Normal. Rare. 

O. — As No. 223. 

R. — As No. 22^, With ONI-: P1-:NN\' [\)1\1':X incuse and retrograde ju^^t 
bebw PACKENHAM STREET. This is in the Mitchell Library 
CoHection. 



225. HENRY, R. Uobart. Tasmania. 

*Penny (n.d.). 33 uuu. NoruKd. PI. 20. 

O.— WHOLESALE AND RETAIL lRt)NMC)N(.i:K in three Unos 
in centre, R. HENRY. \)\ LIVERPOOL S' HOBART TOWN 
round within the beaded rim. 

R. — A group of tifteen various tools in centre. ONIC Pl'NW rv)Kl{N . 
PAYABLE ON DEMAND AT R. HI'NRYS. round within the 
beaded rim. 

This piece is the only milled penny among .Australian Tokens. 



^4 AUSTR.lLASfAX TOKENS AXD COINS. 

226. HENRY, Samuel. Dclorainc. Tasmania. 

*IV]iny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. {\\ . J. Taylor frcit.) PI. 20. 

O. — A beaded inner circle broken by two straight lines across centre, 
enclosing SAMUEL HENRY and between the inner circle and the 
beaded rim DELORAINE above, and EMPORIUM below. 
R. — A kangaroo and emu facing each other, TASMANIA in half circle 
above, and 1857 below. 



.i^/. 



HIDE & De CARLE. .Alelbourne. 

*lVnuy. 1857. 34 mm. l'p)set. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 20. 

0. — Within a small plain circle in the centre a lion (passant regardant) 
supporting a shield with the right forepaw. Surrounding this and 
enclosed in a beaded circle, ELIZABETH STREET . MELBOURNE . 
and between that and the beaded rim, HIDE & DE CARLE . 
GROCERS & WINE MERCHANTS. The paw of the lion is 
above the L of ELIZABETH, the first E of the latter opposite the 
O of GROCERS and the second T of STREET opposite the N of 
MERCHANTS. 

R.— Justice seated on a bale with MELBOURNE, VICTORIA . over 
and 1857 in the exergue. The scale pans are level with the back 
of the letter E. 

228.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.^ — As No. 227. 

R,__Scale pans below E, less space between the words MELBOURNE 
and VICTORIA and the latter ends lower. 

229.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 20. 

O. — As No. 227, but while the lion's paw is at L the first E of ELIZABETH 

is opposite the tail of R and the second T of STREET is between 

the NT of MERCHANTS. 
R. — As 227, with scale pans just below the back of E, small space between 

E and V above, and the head of the figure is close under V. 

230.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 20. 

O. — As No. 227, with E opposite G, paw at E, the 2nd T of STREET 

between TS of MERCHANTS. 
R. — As No. 227, with scale pans below E and head of figure under V. 

231.* Penny. 1857. 34 n^""^- Upset. 
O. — As No. 230. 

R. — Scale pans level with back of E a wider space between E and V with 
the head of Justice between them. 

232.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Upset. PI. 20. 

O.— As No. 227, with the E of ELIZABETH opposite the tail of R the 
lion's paw above E and the second T of STREET opposite the T 
. of MERCHANTS. 

R. — As No. 227, with scale pans just below the back of E. 



AU ST HA I. ASIAN lOKIiNS AM) COIXS. 



D.-) 



2JJ.* Ilullpciuiy. i'S57. 2S mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 227, with E opposite the vertical stroke of R the paw just 
below E and the T opposite the T of MERCHANTS. 

R. — As No. 227, with scale pans near the top of E. 

234.* Haltpenn\-. 2iS mm. Normal en" Tjiset. 

O. — As No. 233. 

R. — As No. 227, with the scale pans below K and the words MELBCJURNE 
and VICTORIA shortened, with less space between them. 

235.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Uj)set. 
O. — As No. 233. 

R. — As No. 227, with scale pans level witii the back of E and the head of 

tile h^aire closer to V. 

236.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Upset. 

O.— As No. 227, witli the E of ELIZABETH opposite the () of GROCERS 
Hon's paw above L and the second T of STREET oj>|X)site the N 
of MERCHANTS. Narrow space before and after MELBOURNE. 

R. — As No. 227, with scale pans just below the back of the E and the date 

1858. 

237.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 227, with E opposite the tail of R. jkiw slighth' below L. T 
very slightly below the T of MERCHANTS. mYiLIUJURNE 
shorter, leaving wider space before and after. 

R. — Scale pans just hrlow the back of E. 

238.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. NoniKil. 
O. — As No. 237. 
R. — Scale pans below E, head betuveu \i ami \' which are wider apart. 

239.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. N\)rm d. 
O.— As No. 237. 
R. — Scale pans down to M. 

240.* Penny. 185S. 31 mm. Normal. 

O. — E of liLlZABhyni o])i)ositt tlic upper part of i\, TopjMisite or slightlv 

above the T of MICRCIUNIS. Paw at L. 
R. — Scale pans le\el with the Ixuk ot IC, narrow space between !•-. aiul W 

241. Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 240. 

R. — Pans hi-low IC. iu-ad close to \'. 

242. Penn3^ 1858. 34 nun. Nonnil. 

O. — As No. 240. 

R. — As No. 241, but With the head nearer \'. 



^6 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

243.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — E opposite the tail of R, paw just below L, and the second T of 

STREET just below the T of MERCHANTS. 
R. — Legend in heavier lettering, a stop after MELBOURNE and none 
after VICTORL\. Pans just below E. 

244. Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 243. 

R. — As No. 243, but the scale pans are nearly down to M and the scales 

are nearer the legend, which is lower, so that the head of Justice 

appears higher. 

245. Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 243. 

R._As No. 243, but with . after MELBOURNE, and VICTORLA. 

246. Halfpenny. 1858. 28 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 232. 

R. — As No. 232, -with scale pans level with the back of E. 

247. 

248. HINDMARSH HOTEL. Adelaide. 

^Eourpence (n.d.). 23 mm. Copper. 

O.— A large 411 in centre, HINDMARSH HOTEL above, . PIRIE ST . 
below. Beaded rim. 

R.~Blank. 

The Hindmarsh Hotel was kept by T. Cook. 

This piece is often included in lists of tokens, though it wa,s not generally 
circulated. It is known that other traders accepted it as current, and some 
pieces are found surcharged with BULL the name of another hotel, where 
they were received by Charlotte Smith, the hostess, as current fourpences. 

249. HOBDAY AND JOBBERNS. Christchurch. New Zealand. 
*Penny (n.d.). 33I mm. Normal. (Stokes & Martin fecit.) 

O.— DRAPERS / WATERLOO / HOUSE in three lines in centre, with 
short pointed bars above and below the first, HOBDAY & 
JOBBERNS. CHRISTCHURCH . round within the beaded rim. 

R.— Arms of the province of Canterbury, ADVANCE CANTERBURY 
on scroll, STOKES & MARTIN in minute letters below. Animals' 
heads touching the bars. 

250.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 21. 
O. — As No. 249. 
R. — As No. 249, but tlie opening of the tunnel is rather larger. 

251.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 249. 
R. — As No. 249, but with much larger opening to tunnel. 



AUSTRALASIAN lO KILNS AND COINS. f)J 

252. Penny (n.d.). J5 nun. Normal. 

O. and R. — As No. 249, hnt a largt-r piece. 

253.* Penny (n.d.). ,54 nnn. Normal. 

O. — As No. 240, hut the name commences lower, tlie word 
CHRISTCHl'RCH higher. 

R. — As No. 249, hut the animals' heads do nut touch the bars and the 

maker's name is omitted. 

254. HODGSON, A. G. Melbourne. 

*Penny. i8(k). j4 mm. Ncjrmal. (( oard ttiit.j PI. 21. 

O. — A similar design to the issue of HIDK & I)K (WRIJC. hut having in the 
inner circle 13 LONSDALK STRKKT WKST •:• MlJ.BorKNK .;. 
and in the outer, A. G. H()D(iS(JN /. OlTI ITTKR AND 
TAILOR .*. Inder the base of the lion'cOARI) LONDON in 

minute letters. Indented rim. 

R. — A female figure seated on a bale with cask and ship, .MICIJiOLRNL 
VICTORIA round above, iiS()o in e.xergiie. Indented rim. 

255.* Penny. icS6o. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 21. 

0.— As No. 254, but with the wonl W'LST omitted from the address. 
R.— As No. 254. 

256.* Halfpenny, i860. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 21. 
O. — As No. 234. 
R. — As No. 254. 

257.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 21. 

O.— A. G. HODGSON / OUTFITTER / &^ in three lines in the centre. 
MELBOURNE in half circle above. 13 LONSDALl-: SI WEST 
below. Beaded rim. 

R. — A kangaroo and emu facing each otln r. \'1( r()l\l.\ in half circle 
above, 1862 in exergue. COARD LONDON in minute letters 

below base line. 

258.* Halfpenny. 28 mm. i8()2. Normal. PI. 21. 
O. — As No. 257. 
R. — As No. 257. 

259. — Halfpenny. 28 mm. i8()(). Normal. 
O. — As the obverse of No. 238. 
R. — As the reverse of No. 23(). 

260. HODGSON BROS. Hiiuligo. \'ictoria. 

♦Penny. 18(12. 34 nun. I'pset. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 22. 

O.— In inner plain circle, HC^DGSON l^KO-"^ SAILCM'iS GULLY & / 
CALIFORNIA GILLY HENDIGO in seven lines and between 
it and the beaded rim. \VHOLESALE & RETAIL GROCERS 
& PRODUCE MERCHANTS : 

R. — Emu, &.C., as Stokes' reverse No. 18. 



58 AUS'IRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

261. Pcnn\'. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 260. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes reverse No. 13. 

262. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 260, but with less space between the conitnencement and end 
of the legend in the outer circle. 

R. — As No. 260. 

262A. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 262. 

R. — As No. 261. 

This variety was only described after the book was in the hands 
of the Printer. 

263. HOLLAND AND BUTLER. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Penuy (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Stokes & Martin fecit.) PI. 22. 

O. — Within a plain inner circle the outline of a painter's palette, with 

• STOKES & MARTIN above and MELBOURNE below in very 

minute capitals. The palette bears in four lines OIL, COLOR / 

& ' GLASS / MERCHANTS and round within the beaded rim 

^HOLLAND & BUTLER:^ 28 &30 VICTORIA S^ AUCKLAND. 

R.— IMPORTERS / OF / PAPERH^NGINGS / GILT MOULDINGS / 
GLASS SHADES / & / PAINTERS MATERIALS in seven lines. 
Beaded rim. 

264. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 263, but owing to a flaw in the die it reads BUILER in place 
of BUTLER. 

R. — As No. 263. 

This is mentioned here as it is almost as common as the complete 
piece and it has been claimed as a variety in the past by some collectors. 

265. HOSIE, J. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 18O2. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) 

O. — Within an inner plain circle a flower and two leaves ui thistle with 
J. HOSIE in half circle above and - 10 & 12 - / BOURKE S^ / 
EAST in three straight lines below. Between the inner circle and 
the beaded rim THE SCOTCH PIE SHOP : MELBOURNE : 

R. — An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 2c. 

266.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. Pi. 22. 
O. — As No. 2()5. 
R. — A vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 7. 

267.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 265 but the bars before and after 10 & 12 are omitted the 
inner circle is sHghtly smaller and the thistle flower more upright. 

R. An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 



AUSTRALASIAN JO KENS AN J) COINS. 5C) 

268.* Penny. iHCrz. 35 nnn. Xorniil. Larger scries. PI. 22. 

O.— Generally as No. 267, but the thistle leaves anr smaller and sIoikuI 
upwards and the flower is almost uprif,'ht brinf^inf^ it close to the 

bottom of O. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 12. 

269.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
O.—As No. 2()S. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse N(j. 10. 

270.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
0.— As No. 268. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse.No. 11. 

271. Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 2()8. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 

272. Halfpenny (n.d.). 30 mm. Brass. Normal. PI. 22. 

O.— THE ORKilNAL ^ SCOTCH PllC SHOP ii round within a beaded 
rim. 

R.— 12 / BOURKE ST / EAST in tiini- straight lines. Beaded rim. 
This variety is also found in copper and with various amounts 
surcharged on it as i/-, 1/6, 1/3, (S:c., suggesting that it was more use-d in 
the service of the eating-house than as a token for circulation. 

273. HOWELL, John. Adelaide. 

*Penny (n.d.) 34 mn;. No mal. PI. 2]. 

O.— A short bar in centre with JOHN HOWld.l. I'.ooKslil.l.lCK m 

two curved lines above and RlNDLl-: S' .\l)i:i All )!•: in two 

lines below, a stop at each side. Beaded rim. 

R.— A bird (the Liver) holding an olive branch in its beak. LI\'ERP()()L 

in half circle above, CH1':.\P BOOK .XRCADl-: below. Rim Ix-aded. 

274.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. L'pset. 

(). -As No. 273 but with a dot instead of — under the T of S"" 
R. — As No. 273. 

275.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normil. PI. 22. 

O.— As No. 273 witii lUM)Li:V S' substituted t... KlNhil' S^ 
R. — As No. 273. 

276. HURLEY, J., & Co. \\an,i;.iuui. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. (Todman fecit.) PI. 2\. 

O. — An inner dotted circK- broken bv two straight lines across centre 
enclosing J. HUKPEY Cv 0\ in the upjH-r segment. SHIPPINC / 
SUPPLllvl) in two lines and in the lower. \V.\NC.ANIT NEW 
ZbLAl..\Nl) in two lines. Rounil between the dotted circle and 
the beaded rim. C(A'PEt TlONl-.KS. BAKl-RS. \- C.RCX'ERS. 
ESTABLISHEH 18.-):<. 
R. — A seated female with an anchor, beehive, wheatsheaves. a IxUe and 
case to left, water and ship in the distance. TODM.XN LONDON 
in small capitals at the sides near the base of the design. 



6o AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

277.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 25 nun. Normal. PI. 23. 
O. — As No. 276. 
R. — x\s No. 276. This variety is also found in brass. 

278. HUTTON, G. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*reiuiy (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 23. 

O. — A crosscut saw and sickle in centre and round within the beaded rim, 
G. HUTTON IRONMONGER. HOBART TOWN. 

R. — A kangaroo and emu facing each other. No legend. 

Varieties of this piece are described with the point of the sickle at 
varying distances from the saw apparently due to more or less choking of 
the die. 

A pattern in brass in the ]\litchell Library has the point almost in 
contact with the saw. 

279.* Halfpenny (n.d.). zH mm. Normal. PI. 23. 
O. — As No. 278. 
R.— As No. 278. 

280. HYDE, Robert & Co. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 23. 

O.— Within a plain inner circle, GENERAL / MARINE / STORE / 
SHIPPERS OF / RAGS GLASS / METALS &c. in seven hues 
with a straight bar between the third and fourth and between the 
inner circle and the beaded rim, ROBERT HYDE & C" above 
and MELBOURNE below. 

R.— Australian Arms, PEACE & PLENTY over, 1857 below. Rim 
beaded. 

281.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 24. 
O.— As No. 280. 
R.— As No. 280. 

282.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 281, with a larger inner circle and the word GENERAL longer. 
R.— As No. 281. 

283.* Penny. 1861. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As the obve se of No. 280. 
R. — As the reverse of No. 280 except date 1861. 

284.* Penny. 1861. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 280 but there is no - under the o of Co and the & is between 
the ET of METALS not under T. The word GENERAL is also 
longer. Beaded rim. 

R.— As No. 283. 

285.* Halfpenny. 1861. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As the obverse of No. 283, with the S of METALS clear to the left 
of the first S of GLASS. 

R.— As No. 283. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 6 1 

286.* Halfpenny. i<Sr)r. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As the obverse of Xo. 285, Init tlic S of MKTALS is partly under the 
first S of GLASS, the inner circle is slightly larger and the word 
GENERAL lonf,'er. 

R.— As No. 285. 

287.* Halfpenny. 1861. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 285 with the S of MICTALS (luite und.-r the first S of GLASS 

R.— As No. 285. 

288. Halfpenny. 1861. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 285. hut the S of METALS is sli^litly to tlu- ri^'ht «.f the first 
S of GLASS, the inner circle is fhcidedly larj^er and there is more 
space between the fifth and si.xtli liiifs. 

R.— As No. 285. 
289. 
290. 

291. I RE DALE & Co. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). J4 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PL 24. 

O. — Within an inner plain circle, IRICDALE & C" straight across centre 
with ESTABLlSHhH) / 1820 in two lines above, a short bar and 
SYDNhLV under. Between the inner circle and the indented rim. 
IRON MEI>i( HANTS AND GENERAL n<()N.M()NGERS. a 
five-pointed star below with the odd point downwards. 

R, — Britannia with olive branch ..nd trident. BRITANNLX over. A 

nuuiite H & S on the rock behind the shield. 

292.* Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Normal. 

O.— As No. 291, with the I of 1K1:DALE .)pposite the H of MERt ILVNTS 

and small oval o in CV 
R. — Justice standiuf,', Al'STR-XLLA oxer. .\ miuiite G among the fniits 

falling from the cornucoj)ia. 

293.* Penny (n.d.). 34 uuu. Normal. 

O. — As No. 291, but with the 1 of lRi:n.\I.E opposite the CH of 
MERCHANTS. 

R.— As No. 292. 

294.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 24. 

O. — I opposite C a large oval O in C? opposite the first N of 
IRONMONGER, a small stop after GENERAL, tlu- bar alx)ve 
SYDNEY higher, and the five-pointed star at the bottom has the 
odd point upwards. Rim beaded. 

R. — As No. 2()-', with scale pans to middle of A. 

295.* Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Noruial. 
O. — As No. 294. 
R. — As No. 292, with scale pans at top of .\. 



52 AVsriiALAStAM TOKENS AND COINS. 

296. Penii}' (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 294, without the small stop after GENERAL This is 
probably the result of a damaged die. 

R.— As No. 295. 

297.* Pemiy (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. PI. 24. 

O.— As No. 291, with I opposite CH and a small round o m C9, the Word 

SYDNEY is extended and the five-pointed star has the odd point 

downwards. 
R. — Scale pans at bottom of A. 

29S.* IVnny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 297. 
R. — As No. 297, with the scale pans well below A. 

299. JAMIESON, W. W., & Co. Wamambool. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 24. 

O.— W. W. JAMIESON / & C9 / STOREKEEPERS in three straight 
lines across centre, a short bar above and below, LIEBIG STREET 
in half circle over and WARRNAMBOOL under within the beaded 
rim. 
R._ Justice standing, AUSTRALIA over, 1862 in the exergue. Minute 
G among fruit. Beaded rim. 

300. JARVEY, William Andrew. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. PI. 24. 

O —PAWNBROKER / AND GENERAL / CLOTHIER in three straight 
lines across centre with WILLIAM ANDREW JARVEY HOBART 
TOWN round within the indented rim. 

R —Three balls suspended by bars to a bracket in centre, ONE PENNY 
TOKEN PAYABLE AT W. A. JARVEY'S. MURRAY STREET. 

round within the indented rim. 

301.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. PL 25. 
O. — As No. 300. 

R. — Has the three balls suspended by chains from a bar which points 
left to the O of TOKEN. The same legend. Indented rim. 

302.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 300. 

R_ — Balls on chains, the bar lower pointing to the T of TOKEN, the centre 
chain is shorter. 

303. Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Normal. Scarce. 
0. — As No. 300. 

R_ — As No. 302, but the bar is longer, and points between T and O and 
on the right is closer to the initial W. 



AVSTU/llASlAS JOhllNS AND COlSS. 63 

304. JONES, David. P.;ill;ir;it. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1802. 32 inin. Normal. PI. 25. 

O.— DAVID JONKS / IMPOKTl'lR Jl\l,l. \AK.\T / PLST.AB : 18)3 in 
four lines in ccntro, * CRITKKION DR.XPKKY KST.\BLISH- 
MP:NT * WHOLES M.IC & RlilAIL. nnuui within t\w Ix-adcd rin. 

R.— A view of tlie shop in the centre with CRITKRION HOl'SE / 
STl'RT S' al)ove and ]^ALI.AAI^\T i.Sf.2 , DA\'ID |()NKS 
PROPRU-rrOR in three lines Ixlow. P..a(|.(| rim. 

305. JONES, T. H., & Co. i[)swi( h. ()neensland. 

*]'enny (n.d.). ',4 nun. Xoiiiuil. (ll^'aton cS: S^)ns fecit.) 

O.— Within an inner . in Ir, T. IL. |()i\'ES / ik C" / li'sWK II 

OUICKNSLANl) AISTK'.M.IA in five lines anri n.innl u.thin 

the beaded rim, I ROXMONCICRS c\: GKXMR.M. IMI'()RTI-:RS 

and a small cross at the bottom. 

H. — Justice stan(lin^^ Al^STi'iALI.X oxer, head almu-,t iiniler R and >cal<- 
pans level with the toj) of A. 

306.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 305. 

R. — As No. 305, but with tlie liead between R ami A, the scale bar almost 
touching U. 

307.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 25. 
O. — As No. 305. 

R. — As No. 305, with lu'ad jiartly under .\ and s<ale ]>an-> down to the 
middle of A. 

308. JONES AND WILLIAMSON. Dunedin. New Zealand. 
♦Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. (\V. J. Tayhn- fecit.) PI. 25. 

0.— JONES & WILLIAMSON \\HOLESALE .S: RET.ML 

GROCERS. / WINE, SPIRIT. cS: PROVISION , MERCHANTS / 
DUNEDIN in nine lines. Beaded rim. 

R, — Justice seated on a bale. &c.. NEW ZE.\1..\N1) over, 185S in exergue. 
Beaded rim. 

309. JOSEPHS, R. Newtown. Tasmania. 

*Penny. 1855. 34 nun. Normal. (W. J . Taylor fecit.) PI. 25. 

O. — A representation of the toll-gate with birds llying over. NEW TOWN 

TOLL GATE in half circle above and * R. JOSEPHS * under. 

Beaded rim. 
R._justice seated on a bale, <S;c. VAX DllAll'.X'S I. .VXD in half circle 

above, 1855 in exergue. Beaded rim. 

310.* Halfpenny. 1855. 28 nun. Normal. PI. 25. 
O. — As No. 309. 
R. — As No. 309. 



64 AVSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

311. KIRKCALDIE AND STAINS. Wellington. New Zealand. 
*Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. PI. 26. 

O.— GENERAL / DRAPERS / AND / OUTEITTERS in four lines in 
centre and KIRKCALDIE & STAINS . WELLINGTON . round 
within the indented rim. 

R.— Arms and crest. Motto on scroll FORTISSIMA VERITAS. 
KIRKCALDIE & STAINS in half circle above and .WELLINGTON, 
below. 

312.* Halfpenny (n.d.). Normal. 25 mm. PI. 26. 
O. — x\s No. 311. 
R. — As No. 311. 

313. LARCOMBE & Co. Brisbane. Queensland. 

*Peniiy (n.d.). ^2 t^t^- Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 26. 

O. — ONE / PENNY in two straight lines in centre with a pointed bar 
above and below. LARCOMBE & COMPX in half circle above, 
BRISBANE below. An ornamental cross at sides. Indented 
rim. 

R.— LARCOMBE / & / COMP^' in three straight lines in centre, 
FURNISHING DRAPERS TAILORS &c round within the indented 
rim. A short ornamental bar above and below the centre lines 
and an ornamental cross at the bottom. 

314.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. PI. 26. 
O. — As No. 313. Reverse. 
R. — An emu in centre with W. J. TAYLOR under in minute capitals, 

CRITERION . BRISBANE & ROCKHAMPTON. round within 

the beaded rim. 

315. LAZARUS, S. & S. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 26. Scarce. 
().— S & S LAZARUS / WHOLESALE / AND RETAIL / FANCY 

REPOSITORY / 29, 30, 31, 69, 70, & 71 / QUEEN'S / ARCADE / 

MELBOURNE in eight hues. Beaded rim. 
R.— IMPORTERS / OF / BIRMINGHAM / AND / SHEFFIELD / 

WARE / STATIONERY &^ in seven lines. Beaded rim. 

316. Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O.— As No. 315, with the S of QUEEN'S between the figures 70 instead 

of directly under 7. 
R.— As No. 315. 

317. Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O. — As No. 315, but with S a httle to the left of the figure 7. 
R. — As No. 315. 

318. LEESON, J. D. Sale. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PL 26. 

O.— Within a plain inner circle FANCY / MUSEUM / SALE in three 
lines of large capitals and round within the beaded rim, J. D. 
LEESON : W' ATCHMAKER cS: JEWELLER : 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 



AUSTli.M.AStAX JOKhXS AXD COIXS ()^ 

319. LEIGH, J. M. Sydney. 

♦Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. PI. 27. 

O.— TOBACCONIST / 524 GEOK(,K STKJ:1::T in two straight lines 
across centre, J. M. LEIGH in half circle above and SYDNEY 

below. Indented rim. 

R. — Britannia seated with olive branch and trident, BRIT.\NN1.\ over. 

Indented rim. 

320. LEVY BROTHERS. Melbourne. 

*Penny. ICS55. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. zy. 

O.— Within an inner Ix-aded circle IMPOkTIvRS / OF / EANCY / GOODS 
in four lines, and between it and the beaded rim, I.E\'Y 
BR(>THERS . ARCADE, MELBOURNE . 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, .AUSTRALIA over, 1.S55 in the exer^e. 

Beaded rim. 

321. LEVY, LIPMAN. Wellington. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 27. 

O.— Round within the indented rim, LIPMAN LE\'Y . WIiLLINGToN. 
NEW ZEALAND, and five lines in the centre. IMPORTER AND 
/ MANUEACTURER / OF BOOTS / & SHOES. 

R.— ONE PENNY TOKEN . PAYABLE AT L. LEVYS LAMBTON 
OUAY. round within the indentetl rim, with LEATHLR .V 
GRINDERY / OF ALL / DESCRIl'TloX THI-: TKADI- 
SUPPLIED in si.\ Hues within. 

322.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. PI. 2y. 
O.— As No. 321. 
R. — As No. 321. 

323.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. Rare. PI. 27 
O. — As No. 321. 

R.— A laureated head of Wellington with \V1-:LLL\( .T« )X ,v I-RIX GO 
BRAGH roinid within the beaded rim. 

324.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Niuinal. Rare. PI. 27. 
O.— As No. 321. 

R. — Britannia seated on a rock, with olixi- brancli ami wand. .\USTlv.\l.l.\ 
over, W. J. TAYLOR in minute letters on base. Indented rim. 

325. Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O. — As No. 321. 

R. — As the obverse of Uedlnrg halfpenn>'. No. 213. .\ mule. 

326. LICENSED VICTUALLERS ASSOCN. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1871. 31 mni. Normal. (I. Moiuv fecit.) PI. 28. 

O.— Within an inner beaded circle, ESTABLISHICD IN Ni:\\" ' 

ZEALAND / APRIL 4 / 1871 in hve lines, and between it and 
the beaded rim, AUCKLAND LICENSED MCTUALLERS 
ASSOCIATION. 

R. — A laureated head of Oueen \'ictoria in a beaded circle, and between 
it and the beaded rim. MCTORIA . BORN MAY 24 ISIO . the 
front curl of hair touches the inner circle just above the figure 2. 



66 AVSTRALASIAK TOKENS AND COINS. 

327.* Penn}'. 1871. 31 mm. Normal. 

O.^ — As No. 326. 

R. — As No. 326, but tlie curl ends between 2 and 4. 
328.* Penny. 1871. 31 nam. Normal. 

O. — As No. 326, with the inner circle slightly larger and more space between 
the beginning and end of legend round rim. 

R. — As No. 326. 

329. LIPSCOMBE, H. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*Penny (u.d.). ;^^ mm. Normal. PI. 28. 

O. — A group of various fruits in the centre, with H. LIPSCOMBE . 

MURRAY STREET . HOBART TOWN, rf: SEEDSMAN & 

SALESMAN ::: round withm the indented rim. 
R. — ONE PENNY TOKEN in two straight lines across centre, 

. SHIPPING SUPPLIED WITH ALL KINDS OF COLONIAL 

PRODUCE tgi Indented rim. 

330.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 329. 

R. — As No. 329, but with wider space between SHIPPING and the orna- 
mental stop, also there is no . before SHIPPING but one is placed 
after PRODUCE. 

331. LLOYD, W. F. & D. L. Wollongong. New South Whales. 
*Penny. 1859. 34 i™!'^- Normal. PI. 28. 

O.— W. F. & D. L. LLOXD / DRAPERS GROCERS / WINE / & 
SPIRIT / MERCHANTS / WT)LLONGONG in six lines vvithin a 
beaded rim. 

R. — Within an inner plain circle the Austrahan Arms, and round between 
it and the beaded rim COLONIAL PRODUCE . above, TAKEN 
IN (1859) EXCHANGE . below. 

332. Halfpenny. 1859. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 28. 

O. — As No. 331. 

R. — As No. 331. Rare, and seldom found in good condition. 

333. LOVE AND ROBERTS. Wagga W^agga. New South Wales. 

Penny. 1864. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.). 

O.— LOVE & ROBERTS straight across, with WAGGA WAGGA curved 
above and STOREKEEPERS / NEW SOUTH WALES in two 
curved lines below. The V of LOVE points to the middle of the 
S of STOREKEEPERS. Beaded rim. 

R.— A kangaroo and emu facing, NEW SOUTH WALES over, 1864 at 
the bottom, T. STOKES in small letters at the left side, an J 
MELBOURNE on the right. Beaded rim. As No. 72. PI. 8. 

334. iVnny. 1864. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 333, but the word STOREKEEPERS is lower and extended, 

bringing the point of V to the top of S. as in No. 337. 
R.— As No. 72. PI. 8. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKl-S'S AM) COIS'S. 6? 

335.* Penny. i<Sr)5. 34 nun. Normal. I'l. 28. 
O.— As No. 333. 

R.— A plough with T. STOKl'JS MJ:LJi(jLKNK in Mnall Icttc-rs under 
the base and 1805 below, also THK COMMERC lAL PAST(JRAL 
& FARMING INTERESTS : round within the beaded rim. The 
maker's name does not tourh the Ijasc, and the plough handles 

toucli the lower part of N and (". of I- A l\'M i N(;. 

336.* Penny. 34 mm. 18O5. Norm.-I. PI. 28. 

O. — As No. 334. 

R. — As No. 335, but i)l()iij,'li haiulh s to]) of NC .ind in;ik.r^ nam.- tmirhes 
the base. 

337.* Penny. 1865. 34 mm. ITpset. PI. 28. 

O.— As No. 333, but tJic won! STOREKEEPERS is Inwr an<l more 

extended, bringinj,^ the ])oint of V to the top of S. 
R. — As No. 335. 

338. Penny. 1865. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 337. 
R. — As No. 336. 



330. MACGREGOR, J. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. PI. 29. 

O.— Within an inner beaded circle, 320, / GEORGE STREET ' SVDNICV 
in three straight lines with J. M.ACGRICGOR curwd alxtve. 
and between it and the beaded rim, THi-: ("ITV TliA WARE- 
HOUSE 0-)C-0 

R. — Australian Arms in centre, witli ESTABLISHlvD above, fb.")") Ixlow. 
enclosed in a beaded circl(\ and bi-twein it and thi' lH\iiled rim. 
THE SULTAN'S STEAM ('01-l'i:i- WORKS SVONEV. 

340.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 25 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 339. 

R. — As No. 339. 

These are believed to ha\e been tlu^ last tokens issueil in New South 
Wales, as they were only recei\-ed in the Colon\' just as the .\ct suppressing 
tokens was passed. 



341. MARKS, Morris. Auckland. New Zeahuul. 

*Penny (n.d.) Brass. 30 mm. Normal. PI. 2(). 

O.— MORRIS MARKS PAWNBROKER AND . S.VI.i:SM.\N ■ 
CORNER OF QUEEN SI / WELI.ESLEY SI AUCKLAND 

in seven lines, with an ornamental bar betwt>en the tifth ami sixth. 
Beaded rim. 

R. — Three balls in an inner jtlain circle, no legend, beade»l rim. 



68 AUSTJiALASlAK TOKENS AND COINS. 

342. MARSH, H. J., & BROTHER. H )bart. Tasmania. 
* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 29. 

O.-H. J. MARSH & BROTHER .HOBART TOWN, round within the 
beaded rim with IRONMONGERS / MURRY AND / COLLINS 
S.' in three Hnes in centre. 

R. — A scythe and two other tools enclosed in a small double circle in centre 
with PAYABLE AT above and a spade and fork below, and within 
the beaded rim ONE SHILLING EOR 2 PENNY TOKENS. 
H. J. MARSH & BROTHER. 

343.* Penny (n.d.). _^^ mm. Normal. PI. 29. 

O.— Legend as No. 342, but all in larger type, the I of IRONMONGERS 
is above the initial J. the address has MURRAY not MURRY 
and the rim is indented. 
R. — A scythe, hay, and chaff knife with spade and fork bek)W in the centre 
and legend similar to No. 342. The spade handle is to the left. 
Indented rim. 

344.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. 
O, — As No. 343. 
R. — A different arrangement of the tools, with a longer handle to the hay 

knife, and the handle of the spade is to the right. Legend as 

No. 343. Indented rim. 

345.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 343, but with the word IRONMONGER lower, with its first 
and last letters almost touching the line below. 

R. — As No. 344. 

346.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 27 mm. Normal. PI. 29.. 

O.— IRONMONGERS straight across centre, with J. MARSH & 
BROTHER . HOBART TOWN, round within the beaded rim. 

R. — An auxihary steamer in the centre, and HALEPENNY TOKEN 
.TO EACILITATE TRADE, round within the beaded rim. 

347.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 26 mm. Normal. 

O. and R. — As No. 346, but the piece being smaller, no beaded rim is 
shown. In the Mitchell Library. 

348. Halfpenny (n.d.). 27 mm. Normal. Rare. 

O. and R. — As No. 346, but with milled edge. 

349. MARTIN, John. Adelaide. South Austraha. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 29. 

O.— JOHN MARTIN / GROCER / AND / TEA DEALER / 29 / 
RUNDLE STREET / ADELAIDE in seven lines, with an 
ornamental bar between the first and second lines, and a short 
plain one between the sixth and seventh. Beaded rim. 

R. — Justice standing with AUSTRALIA over, a minute G among the 
fruits. Beaded rim. 



AUSTUALASI.W TOKIiSS AS I) COISS. 69 

350. MARTIN AND SACH. Ad. hiid. . South Australia. 

*Pcnny (n.d.). .54 mm. Normal. (Heaton and S<jns fecit.) PI. 30. 

0.— IRONMONCiEKS straight across centre, .MARTIN & SACH curved 
above . ADELAIDE . below. Beaded rim. 

R— Justice standing with AUSTRALIA over. Minute (i among fruits. 

Beaded rim. Scale jKins level with the top of the fir»t \ tA 
AUSTRALIA. 

J51.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 350. 
R. — As No. 350, but the scale pans are le\(l with the Ixntftin (jf the A 

352.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 350. 
R.— As No. 350, b\it the scale })ans are W(41 l)t4(>w \. 

353. MASON AND CULLEY. W'illiamstown. Victoria. 

Penny (nd.). 34 mm. Normal. Very rare. PI. 50. 

O. — Within an mner plain circle, MASON ».\: ( ULLE\' in three lines 
and between it and the beaded rim. (iENI'LRAL STORICS. above 
WILLIAMSTv)WN below. 

R. — Britannia seated facing to right, trident in right hand and >c.dt> ui 
left. VICTORIA over. Beaded run. 

354. MASON, STRUTHERS & Co. Christchurch. New Zealand. 
*Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. (Stokes & Mirtin fecit.) PI. 30. 

O.— In inner plain circle WHOLESALE / AND RETAIL 

IRONMONGERS in four lines with quadruple scroll interia ing 
words. The scroll cuts the letters T and A of RETAIL. Round 
within the beaded rim MASON STRUTHERS .S: CO with STOKES 
lS: MARTIN. MELBOURNE in very minuti- htters below. 
A plain circle just inside the beaded rim. 

R._A Maori head with ONIC PILNNV In hin.l and TOKEN in front 
surrounded by a plain circle just within the In-ailed rim. 

355.* Penny (n.d.). 31 mm. Normal. 

O.^As No. 354 but the scroll work is all clear of the words and there is 
a . after CO. 

R.-As No. 354- 

35b. MATHER, R.Andrew. lUlxut. Tasmmia. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Upset. (H-Mton \- Sons fecit.) PI. 30. 

0,__1.-AMILY DRAPER lS;c. in tluee lines in cxMitre. K. .XNDKEW 
MATHER. HOB.VRT TOWN, round within the beaded rim. 
The tail of the initial R is above the D of DRAPERS. A line drawn 
from the left top point of T of HOP< \RT through the apex of A 
of DRAPER passes just left of the point of M of EAMILV and 
touches the left top point of W in the line above. E.\M1LV is 
18 mm. long. 

R.— Justice standing with T.\SMANIA over. Minute G among fruit. 



70 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



357.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 356 with the tail of R level with top of D. A line from the 
top left point of T of HOBART through the apex of A of DRAPER 
passes left of M and cuts the middle of E of ANDREW. FAMILY 
is 19 mm. long. 

R.— As No. 356. 

35S.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 356 with the tail of R above D. and the line from T through 
the apex of A passes left of M and also E of ANDREW. FAMILY 
19 mm. . 

R. — As No. 356. 



359. McCAUL, George. Grahamstown. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1874. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 30. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle COPPERSMITH / TINSMITH / 
PLUMBER / AND / GASFITTER in live lines of small plain 
capitals, GEORGE MCCAUL above, GRAHAMSTOWN below 
with 18 to left and 74 to right all in Old English characters. Between 
the inner circle and the beaded rim. . . N . E . W . . . . 
Z.E.A.L.A.N.D. 

R. — In an inner plain circle a view of a working mine with ADVANCE / 
THAMES GOLDFIELDS in two lines under. Between the inner 
circle and the beaded rim are sixteen dots at equal distances. 



360. McFARLANE, J. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 30. 

0.— J. MCFARLANE / WHOLESALE & RETAIL / GROCER in three 
lines in centre and round within the beaded rim CORNER OF 
ELIZABETH & LONSDALE-ST^ . MELBOURNE . 

R. — A standing female with olive branch in right hand, the left hand resting 
on the head of a gambolling lamb and on her right side a very 
placid looking lion. PEACE AND PLENTY round above within 
the beaded rim. 

361. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 360 with the omission of the . after MELBOURNE. 
R. — As No. 360. 



362. MEARS, J. W., Wellington. New Zealand. 
*Halfpenny (n.d.). 29 mm. Normal. PI. 31. 

O.— A saddle in the centre, J. W. MEARS . LAMBTON QUAY 
WELLINGTON, round within the beaded rim. 

R.— ONE HALFPENNY TOKEN / PAYABLE / AT / J. W. MEARS / 
COLLAR & / HARNESS / MAKER / NEW ZEALAND, in 
eight hues. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. ji 

363. MERRINGTON, J. M., & Co. Xds.m. New Z.-:il;ind. 

♦Penny (n.d.). 34 mm- Normal. (Hc-aton & Sons fecit.) PI. 31. 

O.^J. M. MERRINGTON cS: C" / WHOIJCS.MJ-: / & / KKTAIL / 
DRAPERS / & / OUTFITTICRS , NJCLSON in . i^l.t lin. >. P>< a<le<l 
rim. 

R.— Justice standing, ADVANC1-: NEW ZI:ALA.\U <.v. r. B<.adcd nm. 

364. MERRY AND BUSH. Queensland. 

*Penny. l6()^. 34 m:u. Normal. (^V. J. Taylor fc-cit.) PI. 31. 

O.— MERRY cS: BlSll curved over QITCENSLAND in ccntn- and round 
within the beaded rim, MERCHANTS cSc GENERAL IMPORTERS 

. 1863. 

R.— Australian Arms witli PE-VCIC & PL1-:NTV uvt-r. Beaded rim. 

3()5. Penny. 1863. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 364 with the name beginning lower bringing the first stroke 
of M level with the first stroke of II in MERCHANTS. 

R. — As No. 364. 

366. MERRY, T. F., & Co. Toowoomba. Queensland. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (\V. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 31. 

O.— GENERAL / MERCHANTS in two lines across centre, T. P. MERRY 
& C" in half circle above, TOOWOOMBA below, the A of the last 
word being clear of the S of IMERC ll.\NTS. Beaded rim. 

R. — Austrahan Arms. PEACE cS: PLENTY over. Beaded rim. 
A pattern in brass is in the Mitchell Collection. 

367.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 3()() but the circle of legiaul is slightK" less ui tliameti-r bringing 
the A of TOOWOOMBA partlv under the S of MER( HANTS. 
R.— As No. 3b6. 

368.* Half^)enny (n.d.). 28 mm. Xormd. PI. 31. 
O.— As No. 367. 
R.— As No. 366. 

3O9. METCALFE AND LLOYD. Sydney. 

*Penny. i8()3. 34 nun. Normal. PI. 31. 

0.— METCALFE / & / LLOYD ITS Gl^Okul-, .s' ui Uuir hne> in centre, 
SHIPPING AND FA:\11LY GR0C1:RS SYDNEY round within 
the beaded rim. 
R._\VI,\E AND SPIRIT MERCHVNTS in four lines in centre. 
PURVEYORS OF THE CONCENTRATED FAMILY COFFEE. 
1863 . round within the beaded rim. 

370.* Halfpenny. 1803, 28 mm. NoruuU. PI. ^2. 
O. — As No. 369. 
R. — As No. 369, 



72 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

371. MILLER BROTHERS. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) V\. 32. 

0. — A buggv in the centre with COACH over and Bl'ILDERS under. 
MILLER BROTHERS MELBOURNE round withni the beaded 
rim. 
R. — A vine brancli as Stokes' reverse No. i. 

372.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 371. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes reverse No. 7. 

573* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 371. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

374.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 371. 
R. — An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 



J/D- 



MILLER AND DISMORR. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. (Smith & Kemp fecit.) PL 32. 

O.— DRAPERS / HABERDASHERS &c / COLLINS . SI in three lines 
in centre with MILLER & DISMORR above and MELBOURNE 
below within the beaded rim. 
R.— ONE / PENNY / TOKEN in three lines of large capitals with SMITH 
& KEMP. BIRM. in minute letters at the bottom. Beaded rim. 

37(). MILNER AND THOMPSON. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

Large Series. 
*Penny. 1881. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 32. 

O. — A group of musical instruments, wreathed, with a cherub above and 
radiated, CHRISTCHURCH / 1881 in two lines below. The first 
ray points to the top of the first C and the last just passes the final 
H of CHRISTCHURCH. Round within the indented rim, 
MILNER & THOMPSON'S CANTERBURY MUSIC DEPOT & 
PIANOFORTE WAREHOUSE. 
R. — A landscape with a Maori standing with shield, spear, &c., a mountain 
in the distance. NEW to left and ZEALAND to right above. 

377* Penny. 1881. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 32. 

O. — Generally as No. 376, but the first rav touches the top of the first 

H and the last the final C of CHRISTCHURCH. 
R.— A bust of a Maori chief with shield and spear. ADVANCE NEW 
ZEALAND round abo\'e within the indented rim. 

378.* Penny. 1881. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As the reverse of No. 376. 
R. — As the reverse of No. 377. 

Small Series. 
379.* Penny. 1881. 32 mm. Normal. PI. 32. 

O. — Design similar to No. 376 with the first and last ravs passing clear 

of the word CHRISTCHURCH. Indented rim. ^ ' 
R. — As No. 377. 



I 



AUSTRALASIAN l()Ki:\'S AM) COISS. 73 

380.* Penny. 1881. 32 mm. Ncjrmal. 
O. — As No. 379. 
R. — As No. 376. 

381.* Penny. 1881. 32 mm. Ncjrmal. PI. 33. 

O. — As No. 379. 

R.— SOLE AGENTS / FOR / jOHX 1',R1NSM1-:.\1) cS: SONS PI.\NO.-) 
in five lines in centre with .MII.NI:K A: THOMPSON'S 
CANTlCRiaJRY MUSIC DEPOT & PIANOEORTE WAREHOUSE. 
round wltliin the indented rim. 

382.* Penny. 1881. 32 mm. Normal. 
O.— As the reverse of No. 381. 
R. — As No. 377, but the chief's head is smaller and thf ornaments in the 

hair differ, the spear is more slender and the lettering of the legend 

smaller. 

^^S* I'cnny. 1881. 32 mm. Normal. 
O. — As the reverse of No. 381. 

R. — As the reverse of No. j,y() with slight dilfereiiee in the plant near his 
left hand. 

384. MOIR, Joseph. Holxirt. Tasmania. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 33- 

0.1-jOSEPH MOIR / WHOLESALl- .\N1) / RETAIE/ 

IRONMONGERY / ESTABLlSH.MENT l.s^><i , HOBAKT 

TOWN in eight lines. Indented rim. 
R.— ECONOMY HOUSE / ONE / PENNY TOKICN P.\YABLE ON 
DEMAND / HERE / MURRY STRliET in seven lines. Indented 
rim. 

3S5. MORGAN, William. Adelaide. South Australia. 

*Penny. 1858. 34 nun. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 33. 

0._WILLIAM MORGAN / WHOLESALE cS: RETAIL GROCER 
/ HINDLEY STREET / ADEL.MDl-: in seven lines within a 
beaded rim. 
K._justice seated on a l)ale, cVc. .\U>riv\I.l\ owr, 1858 in exergue- 
Bead(>d rim. 

386.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 385. 

R. — As No. 385 with the word Al'STR.\l.l.\ in smaller letters and the 
head between R and A instead of luuK-r A. 

387. MORRIN & Co. Auckland. New Zealand. 
*Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Normal. PI. 33. 

O.— A palm tree in centre, with Ol'EI-'N STREET above m hall cudc 
and AUCKL.\ND below and round wiihn the leaded rim. 
MORRIN cS: O' (.ROCERS. WINE .S: SPIRIT MERCHANTS 
The topmost frond of the tree is under tl;e S of STREET. 
^^ — A standing figure of justice with scales and cornucopia, a digger 
and a Maori holding hands in the distance. ADV.ANCE 
AUCKLAND above within the beaded rim. 



74 AUSTRALASIAN lOKliX'S AND COINS. 

388.* IVnii}' (n.d.). j4 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 387, witli the tree wiried bringing the top frond nndcr ST and 
a smaller base. 

R. — As No. 387. 

389. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 388. 

R.— As No. 387, with the words ADVANCE AUCKLAND contracted, 
bringing the head between A and U. 

390- 

391. MOUBRAY, LUSH & Co. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Hcaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 33. 

O.— MOUBRAY LUSH curved above, MELBOURNE below enclosing 
& C" / DRAPERS in two lines. Beaded rim. 

R. — Justice standing with cornucopia, &c. AUSTRx\LIA over. A 
minute G among fruit. Beaded rim. 

392. MULLIGAN, D. T. Rockhampton. Queensland. 

*Penny. 18O3. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 33. 

O.— ROCKHAMPTON straight across centre, QUEENSLAND STORES 
m half circle above and D. T. MULLIGAN below. Beaded rim. 

R.— Australian Arms with ADVANCE AUSTRALIA on the scroll. 
QUEENSLAND above 1863 below. Beaded rim. 

393.* Halfpenny. 1863. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 34. 
0. — x\s No. 392. 
R. — As No. 392. 

394.* Halfpenny. 1863. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.-^As No. 392, but the word ROCKHAMPTON shorter. 
R. — As No. 392. 

395. MURRAY AND CHRISTIE. Castlemaine. Victoria. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 34. 

O.— MURRAY / AND / CHRISTIE / CASTLEMAINE in four lines, 
with a scroll between the tliird and fourth. Beaded rim. 

R.— GROCERS / IRONMONGERS / CHINA & GLASS / WARE / 
MERCHANTS in five hues. The R of GROCERS exactly over 
the G of IRONMONGERS. Beaded rim. 

39b. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O.— As No. 395. 

R. — As No. 395, but the word GROCERS is longer, bringing the second R 
over the space between G and E in the line below. The word 
WARE is shorter with the E exactly over the N in the line below. 

397.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — i\s the reverse of No. 395. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 



^1 



AUSTIiALASIAX JOKI-.SS A SI) COINS. j^ 

398. Penny (n.d.). 3.4 nini. Normal. 

O.— As No. 397. with slight variatif)n of tin- letters K. G, L and K in the 

four linos in their respective positions. 
R. — As No. 397. 

399. NEW ZEALAND. 

*Penny. 1879. J" >"'i^- Nomuil. (J. Mn,rv fecit.) I'l. j.j. Kart-. 

O. — A laureated head of Ouccn Victoria with a ros<', th sth- flower an<l 
sjiamrock leaf below, VICTORIA OUKKN Oj- (,ki;.\T I'.KIT.M.N 
round above within the beaded rim. 

R. — Britannia seated hclmeted with trident in right hand, a shield and 
palm branch held by left, NEW ZK/\L.\NI) ab«)ve. |S7'.» in exergue. 
Beaded rim. Only twelve struck (Roth tV Hull). 

400. NICHOLAS, A. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 34. Rare. 

O.— A. NICHOLAS / 30 / LIVERPOOL S' in three lines in centre with 
scroll, LIVERPOOL TEA WAREHOISI-: . HOp.ARTON . round 

within the indented rim. 

R. — The Arms of Liwrpool, h2n.t;l.uid. 

401. NICHOLAS, Alfred. Hobart. 

*Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. PI. 54. 

O.— LIVERPOOL / TEA WAREHOISE LIXICKPOOL S" in three 
straiglit lines in centre, .\LERlvl) Nl( HOL.\S curved above and 
HOBART TOWN below. Run uidmi.cl. 

R.— Britannia seated with tricUnt in left and oliw branch with eleven 
leaves in the right hand. BR1TANNL\ over. Indented rim. . 

402.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 401. 
R. — As No. 401, but the ohvc branch has onlv ti-n leawb. lnd*nle<.l rim. 

403.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 2b nun. Normal. PI. 34. 
O. — As No. 4^)1. 
R. — As No. 401, but till- olixe branch lias only eight leaves. 

404. NICHOLS, George. Melbourui'. 

*Penn\-. iS()2. 35 nim. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 33. 

O.— Withui a plain inner circle : C.EORC.E NU HOLS ; OPPOSITE / 
CORNER / TO / POST 01- PIC E in si.\ lines ;nd between it and 
the beaded rim, BOOKSELLER & STATIONER . MELBOURNE. 

R. — Australian .Arms as Stokes' reverse Ncv 11. 

405.* Penny. i8b2. 35 mm. Upset. 
O.^As No. 404. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 10. 



76 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

40O. NOKES, James. Melbourne. 

*Halfpenny. 1854 (?). 28 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. J5. 

O.— GROCER straight across centre, JAMES NOKES in half circle above. 
MELBOURNE below. Indented rim. 

R.— IN C0MME:\I0RATI0N OF THE LANDING OF -— round, SIR / 
CHARLES / HOTHAM / 22 1> JUNE / 1854 in live lines in the 
centre. Indented rim. 

407.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. PI. 33. 

O. — As No. 406. 

R. — Britannia seated with wand and olive branch, AUSTRALIA over- 
Indented rim. 

408. PALMER, B. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 35. 

O.— B. PALMER / PITT & KING S'^^ SYDNEY in three lines in centre, 
WHOLESALE curved above, WINE & SPIRIT DEPOT below. 
Beaded rim. 

R.— A bird (Liver) with olive branch in beak, LIVERPOOL above, 
ARMS below. Beaded rim. 

-ptj. PARKER, R. Geelong. Victoria. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton and Sons fecit.) PI. 35. 

O. — R. PARKER in bold open capitals curved above an ornamental bar 
7 mm. long, IRONMONGER in smaller letters straight across below, 
round within the beaded rim MOORABOOL STREET above and 
GEELONG below. The stop after the initial is square, the word 
IRONIMONGER 22 mm. long and the lowest point of the initial 
R is level with the lowest point of :\I of MOORABOOL. Beaded 
rim. 

R. — Justice standing, AUSTRALIA over. Scale pans and the lowest 
points of the first and last A of AUSTRALIA level, 8 mm. above 
the sea and the head of Justice almost touching A. Beaded rim. 
A minute G among the fniit. 

410.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 409. 

R. — As No. 409, but while the scale pans remain at 8 nun. the letters A 
are only 7 mm. above the sea and the head of Justice is almost 
under R. As No. 409, there is a minute G among the fruit issuing 
from the cornucopia. 

411.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 35. 

O. — Generally as No. 409, but the legend is in smaller letters, the bar is 
9 mm. in length, IRONMONGER 21 mm., the L of GEELONG 
under the last stroke of M in the line above, the vertical strokes of 
the L of MOORABOOL and the first R of PARKER in fine and 
the top of the initial R opposite the middle of M. 

R. — Scale pans opposite centre of A, which is just over 7 mm., while the 
last A is 9' mm. above the sea. The head of Justice between R and 
A almost touching the latter. 






AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

412.* Penny (n.d.). 54 mm. XoiukiI. 

O. — As No. 411, with the middle R in the second line under the space Ix-twven 
O and L in the first, the corner of the initial K. level with the point 
of M, tlie bar <S mm. hnig and IR()NM(JNGKK over 22 mm. 

R- — Has the scale pans almost level with the t<jp of A whirh with the last 
A is 7 mm. above the sea. The head of Justice almost wnder K. 

Second Series with : hclivccn R ; 1'. 

413.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. PI. 36. 

O. — Legend as No. 409, with the name in large letters and the tails of the 
R's curled up, a : between the initial and 1*. (;KKI.()N(i large br(»ad 
letters, the bar with clubbed ends fully 7 mm. lonj^'. IR()NM()N(iEK 

22 mm. and a . close after it. 

R. — As No. 409, with head of justice almost under R, scale pans well 
below the first A wliicii is 9 mm., while the last is (tnly >< mm. above 
the sea. 

414. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

0. — As No. 413, but the tails of the R's are not quite so much turned up. 
R. — As No. 413. 

415.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. PI. 36. 

O. — Has the same legind in smaller letters, the stops close together, the 
initial R pointing to the middle of M and close to it, the middle K 
almost under (), lR()NM()X(il'~R 21 mm. and the following . close. 

R. — As No. 413. 

416.* Penn}' (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O, — Slightly larger letters with spread R's. the initial R lower but still 
close to I\I, dots close, the last R almost touching T, bar 7^ n.m.. 
IRONMONGER 22 mm. with stop close. 

R. — As No. 413. 

Tliird Series. Larger Toke>.s. 

417.* Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. PI. 36. 

O. — The same legend as the Second Series, the initial R almost touching 
the middle of M. the dots after it close, the bar 7 mm. and not 
clubbed, IRONMONGER 1^ mm. long and . after cl«>se. The first 
G of GEELONG under I. Beaded rim. 

R. — A sHghtly varied figure of Justice standing with head between R and 
A, and nearly touching both. The first and last A of AUSTRALIA 
are 10 mm. abo\e the sea, with the scale pans only 9 nun. The 
hand and wrist are almost straight and the folds of drajH^r\- vary. 
The fruits issuing from the cornucopia are \tMv different an<l there 
is no minute G among them. Beaded rim. 

418.* Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 417, but with the middle R under L in line above, liie 
initial R is higher, dots closi'r, the final R almost touching T. 
IRONMONGER t)ver i^^ mm. and following . rather more distant. 
The word GEELONG 2^) mm. long, and the first G under R. 

R.— As No. 417. 



^S AUSTRALASlAX TOKF.XS AXD CO/.V.S. 

419.* Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. 

O. — Has the middle R under L, the initial R lower, dots further apart, 
more space between final R and T. Bar slightly longer and 
IRONMONGER also with the following . more distant. 

R. — As No. 417. 

420.* Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. PI. 36. 

O. — R between O and L, initial R near the bottom of M, dots still further 
apart, bar 8 mm. with thick ends, tlie . after IRONMONGER still 
more distant, and GEELONG in slightly larger letters. 

R. — As No. 417. 

421. Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. 

0. — Middle R between O and L, initial R slightly higher, dots wide apart, 
bar nearly 8 mm. with pointed ends, IRONMONGER 23 mm. 
with distant stop after. 

R.— As No. 417. 

422.* Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. 

O. — Tlie middle R almost under O, the initial close to M, the dots after 
almost touching, and the stop after IRONMONGER nearer. 

R. — As No. 417. 

So many different dies have been used in making the above series that 
it is probable that fresh varities may be found at any time, especially as the 
differences are so slight. Stainsfield thought that probably fully a doz.en 
dies were used for the obverses alone. 

423. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — Legend as No. 415, with the first R of PARKER under the L of 
]\IOORABOOL. The dots after the initial are very far apart, the 
upper being practically level with the top of the letters. Bar 
quite 8 mm. long. Stop after IRONMONGER very distant. 

R. — Head touching A, scale bar almost touching U. 

This piece was only found after the book was in the hands of the 
Printer, and is remarkable as being the only variety with : after tlie initial 
which is known as Normal. 

424. 

425- 

426. PEEK AND CAMPBELL. Sydney. 

*Penny. 34 mm. I'pset. 1852. (J. C. Thornthwaite fecit.) Rare. PI. 36. 
O. — A view of the Stores . 424 over the door. In the rear a second 
building on which is TEA / STORES / STEAM / COFFEE / 
MILLS in five lines, ESTABLISHED / 1835 / SYDNEY in three 
fines in the exergue, J.C.T. in minute letters under the base on 
the right. Beaded rim. 
R.— Britannia seated to left, trident in left hand, right hand resting on 
shield, BRITANNIA over, 852 in exergue, and J.C.T. under the 
base to left. 



^1 



AUSTUAI,AS1AN lOh'I-N.S A SI) COISS. rg 

427.* Penny. I^>52. 34 nun. Very rare. 

O.— As No. 426, but with TE\ STORKS / STKAM ( 01-1-i:K MIIJ.S 
in four lines and KST.M^LISIIKI) i«vS ' SVDNKV in two lines 

beneath the front biiihUng. 

R.— As No. 426. 

This piece is described by .\tkins, who staterl that he had s<-cn it in 
Stainsfield's collection in 1^92, i)ut since tliat time its whereabouts are 

unknown. 

42.S.* Halfpenny. 1852. 29 mm. Normal, i'l. V'- 
O. — As No. 426, with bricks in relief. 
R. — As No. 426. 

429.* Halfpenny. 1852. 28 mm. Upset. 

O. and R. — As No. 428, but a decidedly smaller pun-. MittluH (*«i||.(tion. 

43(X* Halfpenny. 1852, 28 nun. Normal. PI. 37. 

O. — As No. 428, but with the bricks sunken and joints in relief, the I) of 
ESTABLISHED is also under the rif^ht-hand j«»st of f,'at«-way 
instead of within it. 

R.— As No. 428. 

431.* Penny. 1853. 34 mm. Normal. 
().— As No. 426. 
R. — As No. 426, except date 1853. 

432.* Penny. 1854. 34 nun. rj)set. 
O. — As No. 42O. 
R. — Roughly executed Australian .Arms as on the issues of Thomthwaitc, 

ADVANCE AUSTRALIA above. 1834 below. (Mitchell Collection.' 

(Noted as unique by Roth cS: Hull. 

433. PECK, Hugh. .Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 37. 

O.— 67 LITTLE COLLINS STREET EAST EST.ATE AC.ENT .<v 
MONEY / LENDER HUC.H PLCK HOTLL HROKKR & 
VALUATOR / ESTABLISHi:n 1853 MI-LHOURNE in ten 
lines within a beaded rim. 

R.— 67 LITTLE COLLINS STREET EAST RENTS Ov DEBTS 
COLLECTED / HUCH PliCK PROCESS SERVED LEVIFS 
FOR RENT ESTABLISHi:i) 1853 MIILBOURNE in nine 
lines within the b.eaded rim. 

434.* Penny. 1862. 34 nun. I'psi't. PI. j,j. 
O. — As No 433. 
R. — Australian .Vrms as Stokes' re\'erse No. 13. 

435. PERKINS & Co. Dunediu. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.tl.). 31) mm. Normal. (W . J. Taylor ficit.) PI. 37. 

O.— DRAPERS straight across centre. P1:RKINS & C'J •• in half circle 

above, DUNEDIN below. IncUiiteil rim. 
R.— Justice seated on a bale, cS;c. DUNEDIN NEW ZEALAND alxive. 
Beaded rim. 



8o AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

436.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 25 nun. PI. 37. 

O. — As No. 435, with . under o of Co. 
R.— As No. 435. 

437. PETERSEN, W. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 37. 

O.— Within a plain inner circle WATCHMAKER . JEWELLER . round 
AND straight in centre, and between it and the beaded rim W. 
PETERSEN : HIGH ST. CHRISTCHURCH : 

R. — A prize cup and clock in centre with a watch face below, 
EVERYTHING SOLD GUARANTEED / ALL REPAIRS WELL 
EXECUTED . in two curved Hues above, T. STOKES to left. 
MELBOURNE to right in minute letters. Beaded rim. 

438. PETTIGREW, John, & Co. Ipswich. Queensland. 

*Penny. 1865. 31 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 38. 

O.— JOHN PETTIGREW / & C? / IPSWICH in three hnes in centre. 
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GENERAL MERCHANTS, round 
within the beaded rim. 

R. — Australian Arms. QUEENSLAND over, 1865 under. Beaded rim. 
A pattern silvered is in the Mitchell Collection. 

439.* Halfpenny. 1865. 26 mm. Normal. PI. ^^. 
O.— As No. 438. 
R.— As No. 438. 

440. PETTY, George. Melbourne. 

*Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 38. 

O.— GEO. PETTY / 157 / ELIZABETH SI in three lines in centre, 
SMITHFIELD OJ curved above, MELBOURNE below. Beaded 
rim. 

R. — A standing female figure with scales in right hand, VICTORIA over. 
The scale bar is level with the point of V.W.J. TAYLOR LONDON 
in minute letters on base. Beaded rim. 

441.* Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 440. 

R. — As No. 440, but the scale bar is slightly lower, bringing the i)oint 
below the point of V. 

442. Penny (n.d.). 35 mm. Upset. Scarce. PI. 38. 

O. — As No. 440, but the figures 157 are bolder, and the last has a decidedly 
rounded back, the - under the o of C9 is closer, and that under 
the T of S^ is curved. 

R. — As to No. 441. 

443. PRATT, W. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PL 38. 

O.— WILLIAM PRATT / DIRECT / IMPORTER / OF / EVERY 
DESCRIPTION / OF LINEN DRAPERY / AND /CLOTHING 



ATISTRAf..1Sr.l\' TOKENS AXD CO/S'S. 8l 

in eight lines, scroll to right and lift of OV and another round 
AND. The vertical strokes of tli.- K of KVKKY and L of LINEN 
in line. Beaded rim. 

R.--1854 straight across centre, ESTABLISIIHD straight alxjve. a bar 
under and CASHEL STREET in half circle. Dl'NSTABLE 
HOUSE above, CHRISTC lUKCH N.Z. Ixlow, round within 
beaded riin. The first C of ( HKIST( Hrkril ..pp^jsite the A of 
CASHICL. 

444.* Penny (u.d.). ,;4 inin. Norma!. 
O. — As No. 44J. 

R. — As No. 443, but with the first (' of ( lli\ I^T( III Kc 11 opix.site the 
space between C and A of (WSHICI.. 

445.* P(mny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 445, but with smaller narrower scrolls and more spa«<- i>. iwi < n 
AND and CLOTHlN(;. 

R.— As No. 44'„ with the first C of ("1IR1ST(HI'K( H <.pposite the C of 
CASHEL. 

446, Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 445, but the vertical stroke of L is under the middli- of R and 
I exactly under the point of V in E^'ER^'. The scmlls are also 

sHghtly different. 
R. — As No. 445. 

447. REECE, Edward. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 nun. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 38. 

0.~EDWARD REECE / WHOLESALE / AND RETAH. BUILDERS 
/ AND EURNISH1N(; IRONMC^NC.ER BIRMINGHAM / 
AND SHEFFIELD \\'.\Ri:il()l'Sl-: ( HRlSTCHlRt H ' 
CANTERBURY / N.Z. in twelve lines. The W ui WHOLESALE 
touching the W of EDWARD, the A of AND to Uft of W. the S 
of BUILDERS to left of the 1 of R1:T.\1L. I^-adcd rim. 

R, — Wheatsheaf and sickle toleft, a shearer working to right. .ADVANCE 
CANTERBIU>JV over NEW ZEALAND below. Beaded rim. 

44S.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Nornnl. 

0"_As No. 447, with W of WHOLESALE lower and opix)sue D. tlie .\ 
of AND under the W and the S of BUILDl-lRS under the I of 
RETAIL. 

R. — As No. 447. 

449.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 447, with W toucJiing W. with the .\ of AND i.ndir . The S 

of BUILDERS is under the I of KirrXIl . 
R. — As No. 447. 

450.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mn\. Normal. PI. j,q. 

0.— As No. 447, with legend in twelve lines, the W of WHOLESALE 
almost touching the W of l-.DWARD. the A of AND slightly to 
the left, the S of BUILDERS to the right of the 1 «<f RET.ML. 
R. — .\s No. 447. 

A pattern in brass is in the Mitchell Collection. 



82 AUSTRALASfAN TOKEXS AND COIXS. 

451. Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 450. 

R. — A smaller sheaf with the sickle lower and two wheat ears opposite D 
instead of one. ADVANCE CANTERBURY in sHghtly smaller 
letters. 

452. Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 450. 

R.— As No. 451, but the sickle still lower, leaving more space between 
the handle and the A of ADVANCE. 

45,;. RIDLER, R. B. Richmond. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 39. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle R. B. RIDLER / 87 / BRIDGE ROAD 
/ RICHI\IOND. and between it and the beaded rim WHOLESALE 
& RETAIL BUTCHER : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

454.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 453. 
R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

455. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
0.— As No. 453. 
R. — An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 18. 

456.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 453. 
R. — Wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

457. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

0.— As No. 453. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. i. 

458. ROBISON BROS. & Co. .Mdbourne. 

Thin Scyies. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 39. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle ROBISON BRO'^ / & CO. / 31 / 
FLINDERS St ' WEST in five lines, and between it and the beaded 
rim, VICTORIA COPPER WORKS : MELBOURNE : The S 
of BRO^ is very small and there is no dot under the T of S^. 
FLINDERS ST is above V and S in the outer circle. 

R. — Emu without flowers as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

459.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. PI. 39. 

O. — As No. 458 except that the inner circle is a mm. larger, the ^ of BRO^ 
is larger, there is a . under the T of S^ and the relative positions 
of the letters in the two circles of legend differ. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 12. 



ATJSTRAI.ASIAS TOKISS AS I) COl.KS. 83 

460.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
O. — .^s No. 459. 
R.- Emu, &c.. as Stokes' reverse; No. kj. 

riiick Scries. 
461.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. I^I. 39. 

O.— Generally as No. 458 but the line ILINDI-IKS S'' i^ l..u-. r l.riiiL'im.' 

it almost below the V and S in outer circle. 
R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

462.* Penny. 1S62. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 4O1. 
R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' rewrse N<». 20. 

463.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
0. — As No. 461. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' revers/' No. 8. 

464. ROCKE, G. & W. H. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1859. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 39. 

O.— G. & W. H. ROCKE . ENGLISH 1 rRNITlRE IMPORTERS . 
round between the beaded rim and inner dotted circle. lb 
LONSDALE STREET . MELBOURNE . betw,«n dotted circle 
and a smaller ])lain one containing a crowned lion with paw on 
shield. 
R. -Justice seated on bale, cS:c., .MELBOlRNl-: VK TORIA over. 1859 
in the exergut'. The scale pans are le\-el with tin- last stroke of ^L 

465.* Penny. 1859. 34 mni. Normal. 
O.— As No. 4^4. 
R. — As No. 459 but the scale pans an- only just below th<' lett«'r l-'. 

4()().* Penny. 1859. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 464. 

R. — As No. 464 but the scale pans are higher King level with the middle 
of E. 

467.* Penny. 1859. 34 nun. Normal. 

O. — As No. 464 but with a stop after the initial G, making it thus : G.«S:. 
W. H. ROCKl-: instead of G \- W. H. ROCKI- . 

R. As No. 4(14. 

4()8. RYLAND, G. Castleni.iiue. Victi»ria. 

♦Penny. 1862. 34 mm. I'pset. (T. Stokes fecit.) V\. 40. 

O.—G. RYLAND DR.\PER AND CLOTHIER MARKET SQ«^' 
CASTLl^MAINI*: in six lines within a beaded rim. 

R. .\ustralian .\rms as Stokes' reverse No. 15. 

46(). SAWYER, J. Brisbane. Oueenslaml. 

*Penny. i8()4. 35 mm. Normal. (V. Stokes fecit.) PI. 40. 

0._j. SAWYER WHOLESALE & RETAIL TOBACCONIST 

BRISBANE in live lines within a beaded rim. 
R.— .\ustralian .\rms with OIEENSL.XND over. l8(54 under. I^Mded 
rim. 



84 AUS'l k.iLASlAX TOKENS AND COINS. 

470.* SMITH, S. Hague. Auckland. New Zealand. 

Penny, (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 40. 

O. — S. HAGUE SMITH between two straight lines across the centre, 
WHOLESALE & RETAIL / IRONMONGER in two lines above 
and IMERCHANT / AUCKLAND below. The A of AUCKLAND 
opposite tlie space between ME in line above and D between NT. 

R.— A portrait of the Prince Consort with PRINCE ALBERT above 
and BORN AUGT. 26 1819. DIED DEC!^ 14 1861 round below. 
Beaded rim. 

471.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 470, but ALTKLAND longer bringing the A under M and D 
under T. 

R. — As No. 470. 

472.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 470, but the name is longer, AUCKLAND short, bringing 

D to left of T. 
R. — As No. 470. 

473.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 40. 

0. — As No. 470. 

R. — As No. 470, but without the . after IcSiq and less space before PRINCE. 

474.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 471. 
R. — As No. 473. 

475.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 40. 
O. — As No. 471. 

R. — Has wider space before PRINCE and slightly more between DIED 
and DECR. 

476. Penny (n.d.) 34 mm. Normal. 

0.~Has A to right of M, W and L of WHOLESALE & RETAIL closer 

to line. 
R. — As No. 473. 

477. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— Has W still closer to hne and the I of IRONMONGER decidedly higher. 
R. — As No. 473. 

478. *Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— AUCKLAND long, A slightly to left of M, D under T. 
R.— As 473. 

479. SMITH, PEATE & Co. Sydney. 

*Pcnny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 40. 

O.— SMITH, PEATE & 0° / GROCERS / TEA DEALERS / & / WINE 
MERCHANTS / 258 & 260 / GEORGE SI / SYDNEY in eight 
hnes. Beaded rim. The & is slightly to the right of E in line 
above the vertical line of which if continued would pass between 
OC of GROCERS above. 

R. — Justice standing, ESTABLISHED over, 1836 in exergue. A minute 
G among the fruit. 



1 



AUSrh'AI..ISfA.\' lOKIlSS AS I) COIS'S. 85 

480.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 479, but with cS: under i:. The vertical stroke of K in line 
with the back of C in (iKOCICKS. Th.- S of DIC.VLKKS is nearer 
the o of CP than the T of .MI-:k("U \.\TS, the fifth lin.- is slightly 
hif^'hcr, (lir seventh lower and S\'I).\IC\' longer. 

R. — As No. 479. 

481.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 4(So, with cV under ]i. In hnes 2, 3. 5, 7 the ii|>|H.r 
portion of the middle stroke of all th<- letters E are missing. 

R. — As No. 479. 

482. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 480 with letters perfect with the vertical stroke of E jxjinting 
between OC of C.ROCKRS. The S of DIC.MJCRS nearer O than T. 

R. — As No. 47(). 

483.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

0. — Has & under E and a minute dot under it. 'i'he vertical stroke in 
line with back of C, S equidistant from O and T. 

R. — As No. 479. 

484. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 483 but having the S of DEAIJ-LRS ni'anr () than T. 
R. — As No. 479. 

485.* Penny (n.d.). ',4 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 485 but the name starts higher and is contracted and the S 
of DEALERS nearer T than O, 

480.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 nun. Normal. 1*1. 41. 

O. — As No. 483 with tlu' name extended. TV..\ 1 )i;.\I.El\S low the T of 

S'" to right of o of 2()o. Beaded circle with a plain circle U-tween 

it and the rim. 
R. — As No. 479, with scale bar le\el with the middle of E. 

487.* Halfpenny (n.d.) 2^ mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 48b but the beaded circle is slightly larger .ind tlu-re is no plain 
circle between it and the rim. The name is shorter, TEA DEALERS 

higher and tln' T of Sf' under (>. 
R.— As No. 48b. 

488.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 unn. Normal. 

O.— As No. 487 with no plain circle. Hie T of S.>" is to right ()f O. and the 
second E of DEALERS under the S of (;R(X'1-:RS. 

R. — Scale bar lower just below E. 

489.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 nun. Normal. 

0._As No. 487, with the E of DEALERS to right of S of GROCERS and 

the T of S.'' under o of 260. 
R. — Scale bar low. 



86 AUSTRALASIAN lOKEXS AXD COINS. 

490.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. 

0.— As No. 487, with E of DEALERS partly under S of GROCERS and 
the S of SYDNEY exactly under the first E of (iEORGE. 

R. — Scale bar low. 

491.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 487, with E of DEALERS under S of GROCERS and S of 
SYDNEY to right of E above. 

R. — Scale bar low. 

49J. Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 487 with the A of TEA to centre of G of GROCERS and the 
of 260 to right of A in line above. 

R. — Scale bar low. 

49J.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. PI. 41. 

0.^ — As No. 490 with a well marked dot under iS: as in some of the pence. 
R.— Scale bar low. 

494. SH REEVE, Noah. Adelaide. 

Brass. 24 mm. Normal. 

O.— N. SHREEVE ADELAIDE round edge, IMPORTER /& /GENERAL 
/ AGENT in four lines within. Beaded rim. 

R.— Head of Queen Victoria in centre, VICTORIA QUEEN OE GREAT 
BRITAIN round edge. Beaded rim. 

495.*" Brass. 24 mm. Normal. 
O. — Similar to No. 494. 
R.— Similar to No. 494, but with two letters T in BRITAIN. 

These pieces were not intended to circulate as small change, although 
in some instances they were taken in place of a halfpenny. 

496. 

497. SOMERVILLE, M. Auckland. New Zealand. 
*Penny. 1857. 34 "'^i''^- Normal. PI. 41. 

O.— M. SOMERVILLE / WHOLESALE / FAMILY GROCER / CITY 
MART / AUCKLAND in five lines within a beaded rim. 
WHOLESALE long with the W in line with and almost touching 
the point of M. 

R. — A group of rose, shamrock and thistle with NEW ZEALAND over, 
1857 under. The middle leaflet above the rose almost vertical 
and touching the corner of E of ZEALAND. 

498.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 497, with the outer circle of legend shghtly larger and 
WHOLESALE shorter and higher, leaving more space between 
M and W. 

R. — As No. 497. 



AUSTRALASIAN J OK ENS AND COINS. Sj 

499.* Penny. 1857. 54 nun. Xornnl. 
O. — As No. 498. 

i^-— A group of rose, slianirock and thistle .i^ bdon-, witli the >t.ilk> t<UKliinK 
the top of the fif^nrc 5, the midfllc leaflet al^jw the rose leans to 

the left and points l)et\veen Z and 1^. 

500. Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Xornvd. 

O. — As No. 498. 

K-— The circle of Kj^end is sonv-what smaller and the word ZKAL.VND 
longer. Tiie stalks do not touch the figures, hut «nrl rlos*.- to 7. 
The top leaflet above the rose leans to the left and the right-hand 
one more to the right, while th.e leaf to right is straighter with its 

top leaflet i)ointing to the down stroke of A. 

501. SOUTHWARD AND SUMPTON. j-lallarat. Victoria. 

*Pcnny (n.d.). ^4 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 41. 

O.— Within a plain inner circle, SOUTHWARD / & / SUMFFON / 
BALLARAT in four lines and between it and the bea<Ied rim, 
WHOLESALE GROCERS • WINE & SPIRIT MERfllANTS • 

R.— Australian Arms with ADVANCE BALLARAT on the scroll. 
SOUTHWARD & SUMPTON in half circK- alcove. BALLARAT 
below, T. STOKES in very small letters on the left, and MAKER 
MEL. on the right within the beaded rim. 

502. 

503. STEAD BROTHERS, Sandhurst. Victoria. 

*Penny. i8()2. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 41. 

O.— STEAD BROTHERS FRUITERERS C.ROCERS ' & 

SEEDSMEN PALL M.\LL SANDHURST in six lines within 

a beaded rim. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' re\erse No. ij. 

504.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Ujiset. 
0. — As No. 505. 
R. — Vine branch a'^ Stokes' reverse No. r. 

505. STEWART AND HEMMANT. Brisbane. Oueensland. 

♦Penny (n.d.). jj mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. ^i. 

O.— ONE PENNY in two lines in centre with a jx.inted Ixir aU.ve and 
below the upper pointing to the thick stroke of A and first stroke 
of M. the lower above D. and S. STICWAR P A HKMM.\NT above 
and DRAPERS below. Beaded rim. 
R_An emu with W. J. TAYLOR LONDON in minute letters under the 
base. CRITERION . BRISB.XNI- \ R(HKH \MPT(^N round 
within thV beaded rim. 

506.* Penny (n.d.). jj mm. Nornud. 

0._As No. 505, with the bars lower, the upjxT jwinting to lower jxirt of 

A and M. and the lower to D. and S. 
R.— As No. 505. 



88 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

507.* Penny (n.d.). 30 mm. Normal. PI. 42. 

0.— CRITERION straight across centre, STEWART & HEMMANT 

round above, BRISBANE below. Beaded rim. 
R.— DRAPERS in large letters across centre, WHOLESALE above, 
RETAIL below. Beaded rim. 

508. STOKES, Thomas. Melbourne. 

*Penn3-. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 42. 

O.— 100 / COLLINS ST. / EAST in three hues in centre, l^C THOMAS 
STOKES MAKER ^ MELBOURNE round within the beaded rim. 
The lower line of the letters of COLLINS ST. level with the bottom 
of H and E. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 12. 

509.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
0.— As No. 508. 
R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 11. 

510.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
0.— As No. 508. 
R. — An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

511.* Penny. 1862. 35 mm. Normal. 
0.— As No. 508. 
R. — An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 20. 

512. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. See No. 515. 

O.— As No. 508, but the words THOMAS STOKES MAKER are contracted, 
bringing the H and E partly above COLLINS ST. The word EAST 
is also shorter. Beaded rim. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 

513. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 512. 

R. — Emu, cScc, as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

514. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 512. 

R. — As emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 20. 

515.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. PI. 42. 
O. — x\s No. 512. 
R.— LETTER / CUTTER / BUTTON CHECK / & TOKEN / MAKER 

in five lines in centre, DIE SINKER SEAL ENGRAVER round 

within the beaded rim. ^ at bottom. 

516. T. STOKES. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 42. 

O.— T. STOKES / DIE / SINKER / SEAL ENGRAVER / LETTER 
CUTTER / CHECK & TOKEN / MAKER / MELBOURNE in 
eight lines. Beaded rim. 

R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 



AU ST U A I.ASIAN T0KI:NS AND COINS. 89 

517.* Ilalfpcuny (n.d.). ^^S iiiiii. I'jjsct. PI. 42. 

O.— As No. 516. 

R.— Round within the beaded rim, MILIT.MA' ORNAMKNT & HLTTON 
MAKER enclosing a circle of legend in ^mall letters 

T. STOKES : 100 COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE : 
and in centre ELECTRO / PLATL\(. , AND , (,ILDL\(^ 

in four hues. 

518. Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O.— ONE PENNY / TOKEN in two hn.> .iu..s> ,.uii., 1. .V1(JKES 
MAKER MELBOURNE round within the beaded rim. 

R. — As the reverse of No. 515. 

519.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 42. 

O.— T. STOKES / 100 / COLLINS ST. ,' EAST, in four lin.s in the 

centre, BUTTON CHECK & TOKEN MAKER : MELBOURNE : 

round within the beaded rim. 
R. — An emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

520. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— T. STOKES / 100 / COLLINS ST. '' EAST in four lints, the 
centre, CHECK cS: TOKEN MA KICK above MELBOURNE 
below. Beaded rim. 
R.— Wheatsheaf, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

521.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 43. 

0._Within a plain mner circle. T. STOKES KH) COLLINS ST , EAST , 
MELBOURNE in five lines. No stop after ST. Between the 
inner circle and the beaded rim, LETTER CITTICR BITTON 
CHECK lS: TOKEN MAKER : 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 8. 

522.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
0. — As No. 521. 
R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

523.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 43. 

0._Within an inner plain circle. T. STOKES 1(Hi COLL I N.^ >T. 

EAST MELBOl'RNE in five lines, stop after ST. anti round 
between it and the beaded rim, l.l-TTl-K CUTTER BUTTON 
CHECK & TOKEN MAKER : 
R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

524. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 523. 

R. — Australian .\rms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

525. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

0.— As No. 523. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. i. 



90 



AUSTRALASIA X TOKENS AND COINS. 



526.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 43. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle, T. STOKES / 100 / COLLINS ST. / 
EAST / MELBOURNE in five lines and round within the beaded 
rim, LETTER CUTTER SEAL ENGRAVER TOKEN MAKER. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 7. 

527.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 526. 
R. — Emu, cl'c, as Stokes' reverse No. 20. 

528. Penny. 34 mm. Normal. 1862. 

O. — As No. 526. 

R. — Emu, &:c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

529. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

0. — As No. 526. 

R. — Wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

530. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 526. 

R. — Australian Arms as vStokes' reverse No. 14. 

531.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 43. 

O. — Legend in five lines in centre as No. 526, and LETTER CUTTER. 
SEAL ENGRAVER. TOKEN MAKER : round within the beaded 
rim. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. i. 

532. Penn3^ 1862. 35 mm. LTpset. 

O. and R. — As No. 531, but the piece is larger. 

533. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 531. 

R. — Wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

534.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. LTpset. 
O. — As No. 531. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 3. 

535-* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 43. 

O.— As No. 531, but with stop after .AIAKER. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 7. 

536. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 535. 

R.^Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

537. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — Legend in five lines in centre as No.. 521, with no stop after ST and 
round within the beaded rim LETTER CUTTER^ SEAL 
ENGRAVER-TOKEN MAKER. 

R. — Austrahan Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 



AUSTRALASIAN TO K ESS A S b COINS. (jl 

538. Penny. 1862. 34 nun. Xornuil. 

O. — As No. 537. 

R. — Australian Arms as St(^kcs' reverse No. 14. 

539. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 

0.— As No. 537. 

R. — Wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

540.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. l'])sei. PI. 43. 

O. — Legend in five lines as No. 523. with stop after ST. in innr-r rirele 
and round within the beaded rim, MlIdT.\kV OKNA.MI-INT 
BUTTON & TOKEN MAKER : 

R. -Vine branch as Stokes' rcvx-rse No. i. 

541.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 540. 
R. — Wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

542.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 44. 

O. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 2. 

543.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 3. 

544.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 543. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 5. 

545. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. I'pset. 
O.— As No. 543. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 3, but with stops instead of colons 
before and after VICTORIA 18O2. 

54().* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O.— Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 
R.— Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. (). 

547.* Penny. i8()2. 34 mm. Upset. 
O.— As No. 54b. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 3. 

548.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O.— As No. 54b. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 2. 

549. Pennv. 1862. 34 nun. Upsit. PI. 44- 

O.— Wheatsheaf with AD\'ANCK AUSTK.\L1.\ over, If^G'J under, as 

Stokes' reverse No. 21. 
R.— Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. b. 



92 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



550. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 549. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. j. 

551.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 549. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 3, but with stops in place of colons 
before and after VICTORIA 8(j2. 

552. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 549. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 6. 

553.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O.— As No. 549. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 9. 

554.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — A larger wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 22. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 3. 

555-* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O.— As No. 554. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 9. 

556.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 44. 
0. — An emu as Stokes' reverse No. 18. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 4. 

557.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O.— As No. 556. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 5. 

558. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — An emu as Stokes' reverse No. 20. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 9. 

559. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. No. 16 on PI. 54. 

0. — Austrahan Arms drawn much more lightly than usual, VICTORIA. 

1862 over in small capitals and STOKES MEL. . . below in very 

small letters. Beaded rim. 
R.—Blank. 

This obverse has not yet been found on any token with a reverse or bearing 
the name of any issuer. 

560. 
561. 
562. 
563- 



II 



AUSTRAI.ASIAX TOKF.S'S AM) COISS. 



93 



564- 

566. STOKES AND MARTIN. Aklbouni.. 
*Penny (n.d.). ;i mm. Normal. HI. 44. 

O.— ST()KI-:S cS: M.VRTIN / DIE / SIXKKRS SKAL KNr.R.WKRS 
MEDALLISTS / BUTTON CUKC K TOKEN .MU.ITAKV & 
MASONIC / ORNAMiCNT MAKERS / 100 (OI.LINS ST 
EAST / MELBOL'RNi:. in eleven lines. A pointed bar Ix-twet-n 
the fifth and sixth and the eighth and ninth lines. All enclosed 
in a plain circle within the beaded rim. 

R.— A Maori head. ONE PENNY behind. TOKICN in front, with plain 

circle and beaded lini. 

567. TAYLOR, Alfred. Adelaide. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) PI. 44. 

0.— DRAPER / AND / CLOTHIER / ADl'LLAIDE in four lines in 
centre with short l)ar above and ImIow, ALLRICD TAYLOR .31 
RUNDLE STREET, round within the beaded rim. 

R. — Justice standing with AUSTRALIA over, a minute (i among the 
fruits falling from tlie cornucopia. 

568. TAYLOR, J. Ballarat. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 44. 

O.— Within an inner plain circle, }. TAYLOR , RED HOUSE CORNER 
OF / DANNA & RAGLAN STREETS BALLARAT in six 
lines and round within the beaded rim. BRE.VD \ BISCUIT 
BAKER FAMILY GROCER : 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

569.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 5()8. 
R. — Whcatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

570.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. I'pset. 
O.— As No. 5()8. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' rewrse No. i. 

571. TAYLOR, W. J. Melbourn(>. 

♦Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. (W. L T.iylor fecit.) PL 45. 

0._Within an inner plain circle, ONE PENNY in two lines with short 
bar above and below. Round within the beadetl rim. .-XDV-ANCE 
AUSTRALIA cjj. gj t^i 
R.— Kangaroo to right, emu to left facing. W . j. I'.Wl OR under the 
emu, and LONDON under the kangaroo in minute letters. Beaded 
rim. 

572. Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O.— As No. 571. 

R. — As No. 371, with the maker's name tuiiitted. 



94 



AUSTliALASlAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



573.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 45. 

O.— A kangaroo with AUSTRALIA over and W. }. TAYLOR 
MEDALLIST TO THE GREAT / EXHIBITION / 1851 in 
four lines of small capitals in the exergue. Beaded rim. 

R. — Britannia seated with olive branch in right and wand in left hand, 
AUSTRALIA over. Indented rim. 

574. Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O. — As No. 573, but with no legend in the exergue. 
R.— As No. 573. 

575.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. Scarce. PI. 45. 
O.-As No. 573- 

R. — Britannia seated with ohve branch and a cap of Lil)ertv on the wand, 
UNITED STATES over. Beaded rim. 

576. THOM/VS, T. W., & Co. MelbDurne. 

♦Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 45. 

O.— GROCERS in straight line across centre, T. W. THOMAS & C9 . 
MELBOURNE . round within the indented rim. 

R.— Round within the indented rim, IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 
LANDING OF. and SIR / CHARLES / HOTHAM / 22D JUNE 
/ 1854 in five lines in centre. 

577. Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. Rare. 

O. and R. as No. 576 but the legend in ornamental letters. 

578. THORNTHWAITE, J. C. Sydney. 

Penny. 1850. 35 mm. (J. C. Thornthwaite fecit.) See page 12. 

O.— Australian Arms surmounted by rising sun supported by kangaroo 
on right and emu on left. The whole design impressed slantingly 
. ADVANCE AUSTRALIA above ONE PENNY / TOKEN / 1850 
in three lines in the exergue. 

R.— Blank. 

This crudely designed and roughly struck piece was probably merely a 
trial piece when Thornthwaite was first turning his attention to token- 
making. It was in the Heuzenroeder Collection in 1893. (Roth and Hull.) 

579.* Penny. 1854. 35 mm. Normal. PI. 45. 

O. — In an inner plain circle AND in centre with rose, shamrock and thistle 
above and a rose with three leaves under, surrounded by DIE 
SINKER . MEDALLIST, and round within the indented rim, 
J. C. THORNTHWAITE . BOURKE STREET SURRY HILLS. 

R. — Australian Arms with kangaroo to left and emu to right, ADVANCE 
AUSTRALIA over, 18o4 under. Beaded rim. 

580. Penny, (n. d.) 35 mm. 
O. — As No. 579. 
R.— Blank. 

Evidently a trial piece. (Dixson Cabinet.) 



AVSTRMASl.W TOh'l-XS A XI) COIS'S. Q5 

581. Penny. 1H54. l^arc if not iiiii(|iic. 

(). Australian Arms witli DIl-: SIN KICK in inni-r circle, J. C. 
THOlv^NTHWAITi: JiOrkKl-: srKi:i:T SIRRV mi.I.S round 

within rim. 

K. — A semicircle in centre on ornamental i^ase withui which is iJllv SINKHR 
and rose and thistle-; 1854 below. A1)VAN( K AI'STRAI.IA, 
J. r. THORNTHWAITE in two lines above. 

The (Mily specimen of this known was in the Heu/.enr<>'d<r rnHrction in 
1893. (Roth and Hull.) 

582.* Halfpenny. 1854. 28 mm. Upset. PI. 45. 

().— As No. 579 but with the word Ml-:i)AMdS'i sp.lt .MI-:i)ALIST. 

R.— As No. 579 but with SVJ)\KV Xi:\V SOUTH WAITCS over and 

1854 . below. 

583.* Halfpenny. 1854. 28 mm. Partly npset. PI. 46. 

O.— As No. 579 with MEDALLIST spelt MKDALL SIT. 
R.— As No. 582. 

584. THRALE AND CROSS. .Melbourne. 

*Halfpcnny (n.d.). 28 mm. Normal. (\V. J. Taylor fecit.). PI. 46. 
O.— FAMH.Y / GROCERY / cS: / EGG POWDi: R STORE in tuv lines 
in the centre, THRALE & CROSS . HOWARDS' NORTH. 
MELBOURNE, round within tin- indented rim. 

R. — As No. 575, a kangaroo, i.\.c. 

585.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 2N mm. Normal. PI. 4(). 
0.— As No. 584. 
R. — Britannia seated with oli\c branch ;ind wand. .\USTR.\I.I.\ «nvr. 

586. TOOGOOD, A. Sydney. 

*Penny. 1885. 34 mm. Normal. (W. j. Taylor fecit.) PL 40. 

0.— A. TOOGOOD / MERCHANT PITT \- KING ST SYDNEY in 

four lines. Beaded rim. The highest jioint of the first and last 
letters in the third line level with the bottom of the line above. 

R. — Justice seated on a Inde, tSrc, .XUSTR.M lA over. 1855 in the exergue. 

587.* Penny. 1855. 34 mm. Nornial. 

O.— As No. 58O with MERCHANT slightly shorter antl the highest jxunts 
of the tirst and last letters of the third line \^a in. below the K»tt«»ni 

of the si-cond line. 
R.— As No. 38(). 

588. UNION BAKERY Co. Christchurch. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 30 nun. Normal. (Stokes cS: Martin fecit.) PL 4(>. 

O.— A wheatsheaf in centre with I'NION BAKERY COMPANY in two 

lines above and CHRISTCHURCH below. Beaded rim outside 

a plain circle. 

R.— WHOLESALE AND RETAH. BAKERS CONEECTK^NERS 

AND / GROCERS in seven lines in a plain circle just within 

the beaded rim. 



96 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



589. Penny (n.d.). jo mm. Normal. Scarce. 

O.— As No. 588. 

R.- Head of a Maori, ONE PENNY beliind and TOKEN in front, enclosed 
in a plain circle just within the beaded rim. 

590. UNITED SERVICE HOTEL. Auckland. New Zealand. 

* Penny. 1874. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 4(). 

O.— UNITED SERVICE / HOTEL in two straight lines in an inner plain 
circle with a short bar below. Round within the beaded rim, 
CORNER OE QUEEN & WELLESLEY STREETS. 
AUCKLAND. N.Z. 

R.— A filleted head of Queen Victoria with VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 
over, 1874 below. 

591.* Penny. 1874. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 47. 

O.— As No. 590 but with UNITED SERVICE curved over HOTEL 
straight. 

R. — As No. 590. 

592. WALLACE, James. Wellington. New Zealand. 

*Penny. 1859. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PL 47. 

O.— GROCER / &9 in two hues in centre, JAMES WALLACE above, 
WELLINGTON below. Beaded rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, &c. No legend. 1859 in exergue. Beaded 
rim. 

593.* Halfpenny. 1859. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 47. 
O. — As No. 592. 
R. — As No. 592. 

594. WARBURTON, T. Melbourne. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 47. 

0.— Within a plain inner circle, T. WARBURTON / 11 / LITTLE 
BOURKE ST / WEST in five lines, and round within the beaded 
rim, IRON & ZINC SPOUTING WORKS : MELBOURNE : The 
O of WARBURTON is opposite the W of WORKS, there is no 
stop after ST and the seat of the G of spouting is wanting. 

R. — An emu as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

595.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 594. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 8. 

596.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 594. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. i. 

597.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
0. — As No. 594. 
R. — Wheatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 



1 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKKSS A\'D COISS. Q7 

598.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 47. 

O. — Legend similar to No. 594 but that in the outer circle is spread out 
bringing the O of WARBL'RTON opfKjsite the space between 
SPOUTING and WORKS. There is also a stop after ST.. the 
last letter of the name slants slightly upward, and the U is slightly 
to right of the U of SPOTTING. Seat of (', e.xtends w.-ll into the 
concavity of the letter. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 13. 

599. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 598. 
R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

Ooo.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O.— As No. 598. 
R. — -Whcatslieaf as Stokes' reverse No. 21. 

6or. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
0.— As No. 59S. 
R. — Whcatsheaf as Stokes' reverse No. 22. 

602.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 47. 

O. — As No. 598 with O between G\V but th<' initial T is slightlv higher 
and the final N is quite horizontal. The U of WARIU'RTON is 
exactly under the U of SPOUTING and the relativf po^ition^; of 
the other letters is slightly altered. Stop after ST. 

R. — Emu, &c., as Stokes' reverse No. 17. 

603. WARNOCK BROS. Melbourne and :\Ialdon. Victoria. 

*Penny. 1861. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 48. 

O.— Britannia seated on a bale with WARNOCK HRO^ MELBOURNE 

& round above and MALDON in the exergue. Beaded rim. 
R. — Kangaroo and Emu supporting Australian Amis, PEACE tSc PLENTY 
over, 18G1 beneath. Beaded rim. 

604.* Halfpenny. 1861. i^^ mm. Normal. PI. 48. 
O. — i\s No. 603. 
R. — As No. 603. 

605.* Penny. Bronze. 1863. 31 mm. Noruial. PI. 48. 
O. — As No. 603. 
R. — As No. 603 except date 1863. 

This piece is the exact size and weight of the bronze jvnco of oven 
date. 

606. WATERHOUSE, R. S. Ilobart. Tasmania. 
*Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. PI. 48. 

O.— DRAPERY ESTABLISHMENT H(^B.\RT TOWN ONE 
PENNY / TOKEN in live lines in centre with R. S. W.XTICRHOUSE 
MANCHESTER HOUSE round within the indented rim. 
R.— A child suspended in a jumper. BABY LINEN to left WAREH(U'SE 
. to right and FOR RHAPY MONEY. THIC SPIRIT OF TRADE 
round within tlie indented rim. 
*ui5— G 



q8 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

607.* Halfpennv (n.d.). 26 mm. Normal. PI. 48. 

O.— As No. 606, with the Y of DRAPERY over the M of 

ESTABLISHMENT. 
R.— As No. 606. 

608.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 26 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 606 but with the Y of DRAPERY between ME of 

ESTABLISHMENT the word DRAPERY being extended. 
R. — As No. 607. 

609. WATERS, Edward. Auckland. New Zealand. 

*Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Normal. (Stokes & Martin fecit.) PL 48. 

O. — EDWARD WATERS under a broken bar in straight line in centre. 
OUEEN ST. / AUCKLAND in two lines below, WHOLESALE & 
RETAIL / CONFECTIONER in two half circular lines above. 
QUEEN ST. 23 mm. long. Beaded rim. 

R.— Maori head ONE PENNY behind. TOKEN in front. STOKES & 
MARTIN MELBOURNE in very small letters under the bust. 
Beaded rim. 

610.* Penn\' (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 609 with OL'EEN ST. only 19 mm. in length. The word 

CONFECTIONER is also in a smaller semicircle. Beaded rim. 
R. — As No. 609. 

611. WATSON, W., & Co. Ballarat. Victoria. 

Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 49. 

O.— W. WATSON & Co. straight across centre, TOWN HALL HOTEL / 
WINE & SPIRIT in two semicircular lines above, MERCHANTS / 
ARMSTRONG ST. BALLARAT under. Beaded rim. 

R. — Australian Arms as Stokes' reverse No. 14. 

612. Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 611. 

R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. 7. 

613. WATSON, W. R., & Co. Ballarat. 

*Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Normal. (T. Stokes fecit.) PL 49. 
O. — As No. 611 with the addition of tlie initial R. in the name. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. i. 

614.* Penny. 1862. 34 mm. Upset. 
O. — As No. 613. 
R. — Vine branch as Stokes' reverse No. i. 

Nos. 611 to 614 are all probably the issue of one firm, and the alteration 
of the name a correction made with a renewal order. 

615. WEIGHT AND JOHNSON. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Normal. (Heaton & Sons' fecit.) PI. 49. 

O.— WEIGHT / AND / JOHNSON / DRAPERS / & / OUTFITTERS 
in si.x lines in centre, with LIVERPOOL & LONDON HOUSE 
PITT STREET SYDNEY . round within the beaded rim. 

R. — Justice standing with scales, &c. No legend. A minute G among 
the fruit. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. ()9 

6i6.* Halfpenny (n.cl.). 2.S mm. N(M-m;iI. PI. 49. 

O.— WEIGHT & JOHNSON / DRAI'KRS / &C / LIVKRPOOL / & / 
LONDON ilorSE / 249 & 251 PITT S^ / SVDNKY in eight 
lines. The word DRAPERS is low, the I) Ix-ing Ix-tween IV of 
LIVERPOOL and th( V of SYDNi:V und. r the second T of PITT. 
Beaded rim. 

R. — As No. 615. l)ut witli \'aricd fruits and no muiute G among them. 
617.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 2(S mm. Nor'nal. 

O. — As No. (n() witii l)R.\r'i':RS higher and th.- D ov.r I in line Ik-Iow 
the word LIViCRPOOL longer. 

R.— As No. ()i(). 

618.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 2<S mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. (nU, with LIVERPOOL short, DR.M'l-RS rather higher, but 
D still over I. 

R.— As No. 616. 

()I9. Halfpenny (n.d.). 2S mm. Normal. 

O.— Legend as No. ()i6, with L1\'ERP00L long and I) over I. The 
word SYDNEY is short, bringing the Y under the first T of PITT. 
There is also a minute dot over the cV under R. 

R.— As No. 616. 

620. WHITE, Thomas, & Son. Westbury. Tasmania. 

♦Penny. 1855. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 49. 

O.— THOMAS WHITE . WESTBURY . round within the Ix^aded rim 

with AND / SON in two lines in the centn-. 
R. — A kangaroo to right, emu lo left facing. T.\SM.\NI.\ over. 1855 
under. 

621.* Halfpenny. 1855. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 41). 
O. — As No. 620. 
R. — As No. 620. 

622.* Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 
O. — As No. 620. 

R._As No. C20, except date 1857. and that the word T.\SM.\Nl.\ is in 
larger lett(>rs and 1857 in largi'r ligures. 

623. WHITTY AND BROWN. Sydney. 

*Penny (n.d.). ^^ nun. Normal. (Whitty Cv: Browii fecit.) PI. 50. 

0. — Young head in centre with truncatit)n of neck a double curve and 
pointed at the front, space between heail and name ; nose short and 
blunt. Round within the beaded rim. WHITTY .S: BROWN. 
MAKERS SYDNEY. 

R. — Standing female figure with scales and cornucopia the drajXTV in 
narrow folds, sea and ship in the backgrovuul with the lu>rizon level 
on both sides of the figure. NEW SOUTH WALES in half circle 
above, the scale bar levil with the back of E. and the S of W.VLES 
well above the hand on the cornucopia. Beaded rim. 



100 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

624.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Upset. 

O. — Very similar head to No. 623, with the hair roughened at the top, so 
that it touches the O of BROWN and there is httle space between 
the head and WN. 

R.— As No. 623. 

625.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Upset. PI. 50. 

O. — A young head with pointed nose, the truncation of the neck pointed 
to left and slightly turned up. Space between head and name. 
Legend similar to No. 623. 

R. — As No. 623, but with thicker folds to the drapery on the l)ody of the 
figure while those at the right side are narrower and hardly reach 
as low, the scale bar is at the top of E and the S of WALES below 
the hand and the head of the figure between TH of SOUTH. 
Beaded rim. Horizon higher on left. 

626.* Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Upset. PI. 50. 

0. — As No. 623, but with an older head which reaches to the O of name, 
the neck is thicker with the truncation a single curve with convexity 
downwards and ending in a blunt point in front. 

R. — As No. 623, but the horizon is higher on the left than the right of the 
figure. Beaded rim. 

627.* Penny (n.d). 34 mm. Upset. PI. 50. 

O. — As No. 623, but a much older head with whiskers and short pointed 
nose. The top of the head touches O. There is a projection from 
the forehead perhaps the result of a damaged die. The neck is 
broader and the truncation a sinuous curve ending in a point in 
front. Beaded rim. 

R.— As No. 626. 

628.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O.— A ram on a plain base in the centre, with PEACE AND PLENTY . 

SYDNEY . N.S.W. round within the lieaded rim. 
R.— As No. 626. 

629.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 628, but with a projection from the base at the right-hand 
end. 

R.— As No. 626. 

C30.* Penny (n.d.). Brass. 34 mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 628, with two projections from the base. 
R.— As No. 626. 

631.* Penny (n.d.). y^ mm. Upset. 

O. — As No. 628, with three projections from the base. 
R. — As No. 626. 

632 Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. Upset. PI. 50. 

O. — Within an inner plain circle ONE / PENNY in two straight lines 
with a shart broken bar above and below. Round within the 



AUSTRALASIAN JOKJiXS A SI) COINS. lOI 

indented rim ADVANCE AUSTRALIA above and three crosses 
below. The hnc of the top of the h.-tters ONK if continued to the 

right passes well al)ove tlie second A of Al'STKALI A. 
R.— As No. 626. 

633.* Penny (n.d.). j j nun. Upset. 

O. — As No. 632, but the rehitive position of the word ONE and the le^ind 
differs, bringing the top line level with the second A of AUSTK.\LI.\ . 

R.— As No. 626. 

634.* Penny (n.d.). 3; nun. Ui)S(t. I'l, 50. 

O. — As No. 632. 

R. — Similar to No. 626, but witli wider folds of drapery, tlmsr <<n tin- right 
side ending much lower. The horiz(»n on the left side is slightly 
higher than on the right. Indented rim. 

Several varieties of Nos. 632-3-4 have been described by collectors 
generally depending on slight differences in the shape and size of the letters 
and bars, but all appear to have been the result of the manner of striking. 
which is believed to have been by means of a drop hammer. A careful 
examination of very many specimens has shown that all havt- one thing 
in common and that is a flaw connecting the C of AI)\'.\NCK with the 
inner circle. Tliis would indicate that the variations are due U> the mode 
of manufacture entirely. Sec Illustration of No. 634 on PI. 50. 

635.* Penny (n.d.). 33 nun. Partly upset . IM. 51. 

0.— As No. 632, with the top line of ONE level with tin- A of AUSTRALIA. 

Indented rim. 
R. — A kangaroo and enui facing, very similar to the tlesign on \\". J.Taylor's 

Penny No. 571, but no maker's name. Indentetl rim. 

636. Penny (n.d.). 2i ""^"i- l^V^'^'t- 

0.— As No. 632, with top line of ONE above the second A of AUSTK.\LL\. 
R.— As No. ()35. 

637. Penny (n.d.). 33 mm. L'pset. 

O.— As No. 636. 

R. — As No. 635, but with tlu' kangaroo and emu further apart and slight 
variation in the herbage. 
Nos. 635-6-7 have been included here as they all show the same llaw 
as on Nos. 632-3-4, between the C of A1)\'ANCE and the inner circle. 
The roughness of workmanship and tendency to double striking of letters 
as on Whitty «S: Brown's undoubted issues strongly indicate a common 
origin. They have generally been listed with Mi.^cellaneous Tokens as 
bearing no name of the maker or issuer responsible for their reden^ption. 

638. WILLIAMS, J. W. & G. h:aglehawk. \'ictoria. 

*Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Partly upset. (T. Stokes fecit.) PI. 51. 

O.— J. W. & G. WILLIAMS (.ROCERS 1R( A'MONU.ERS Cv 

DRAPERS / EAGLEHAWK in si.\ lines within a beaded rim. 
R.— GOLD OFEICE / WINE. SPIRIT / & / COLONIAL PRODUCE / 
MERCHANTS EAGLEHAWK, in si.x lines within a beaded 
rim. 



102 AUSTRAL. ISIAX TOKHNS AND CUJXS. 

639. WILSON, A. S. Dunedin. Otago. New Zealand. 

*renny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. (W. J. Taylor feeit.) PI. 51. 

O.— A. S. WILSON / DUNEDIN / OTAGO / MEDICAL HALL in lour 
lines within a beaded rim. 

R. — Justice seated on a bale, &c., NEW ZEALAND over, 1857 in exergue. 
Beaded rim. 

640. WOOD, W. D. Hobart. Tasmania. 

*Pcnny. 1855. 34 mm. Upset. PI. 51. 

O.— MONTPELIER RETREAT / W. D. WOOD / WINE / & / SPIRIT / 
MERCHANT /. HOBART TOWN . in seven lines within a beaded 
rim. 

R.— A view of the inn on a straight base, with MONTPELIER RETREAT 
W. D. WOOD WINE MERCHANT over the doorway and sides 
of the building. HOBART TOWN curved above, 1855 in the 
exergue. Beaded rim. 

641.* Penny (n.d.). 34 mm. Upset. PI. 51. 

O.— ONE PENNY TOKEN / PAYABLE / ON DEMAND HERE / 
MONTPELLIER RETREAT / INN / HOBART TOWN. W. D. 
WOOD in se\'cn lines with . •.': . between the sixth and seventh. 
Indented rim. 

R- — A view of the inn on a curved base, with a tree and flagstaff behind. 
.AIONTPELLIER RETREAT INN curved above, W. D. WOOD 
below. Indented rim. 

*542.* Halfpenny (n.d.). 28 mm. Upset. PL 51. 

O.— As No. 641, except the substitution of HALFPENNY for PENNY in 

the first hne, and -•- between the sixth and seventh. 
R. — As No. 641. 



H 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Miscellaneous Tokens. 

650. PEACE & PLENTY or MELBOURNE PENCE. 

*Penny. 1858. 34111111. Nonuiil. (W. J. Taylor Iccit.; i'l. 5-'. 

0.— Australian Arms with risen sun as crest, ADVANCK AUSTRALIA 
on scroll, PEACE & PLENTY in half circle above. Beaded rim. 

R.— Justice seated on bale, &c. MELBOUKNl-: VICTORIA over. 1.S5.S 
in exergue. The M of Melbourne is 4 mm. and the A of \'ICTORIA 
3 mm. above the sea. Scale pans centre oi V.. 

651.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal and Upset. 
O. — As No. 650. 

R. — As No. 650, but with M 4 mm. and .\ 3I mm. abo\-e sea. Scale {lans 

to back of K. 

652.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal and Upset. 
O. — As No. 650. 

R. — As No. 650, with scale pans slightly bel(»w IC, M 4! mm. and .\ jl mm. 
above sea. 

^53-* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Norniil and I'pst't. 
O. — As No. 650. 
R. — As No. 650, with pans bilow K, M 4! mm. and .\ 4 mm. above sea. 

654.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal and Upset. 
O. — As No. 650. 
R. — As No. 650, with jians will below U, M 5 mm. and .\ (> mm. aliovc sea- 

655.* Penny. 1859. 34 mm. Nonivd. 

O. — As No. 650, with 1859 below tin- scroll. 

R.— As No. 650, with no legend, and 1^3.) in the e.xergue. 
05().* Penny. 1859. 34 mm. Normal. I'l. 3_'. 

0. — As No. 055, but with more si)ace betwiiu the back of the emu and 
the commencement ol the legend. 

R.— As No. 055. 

b57- 

058. POPE & Co. l^inniugham. 

Penny (n.d.). ^4 mm. Normal. Scarce. (Pope Ov Co. tecit.) Pi. 3J. 
O.-THE AUSTRALL\N TOKENS M.\NUl ACTUKED BY T. 
POPE & Co. (COIN cS: PRESS MAKERS. S' PAULS SOR. 
BIRMINGHAM,) , ARE VERY PROl rrABLP T(^ FXPcM^T 
in nine hues. Beaded rim. 
K.— Britannia seated with oliw branch in right hand and indent m kit. 
Beaded rim. 



104 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKEI\^S AND COINS. 



659. HODGINS, William. Cloghjordan. Ireland. 

Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. PI. 52. 

0.— WILLIAM HODGINS CLOGHJORDAN round within the beaded 
rim, BANKER straight across centre. 

R. — A group of rose, shamrock and thistle, as on No. 497, with 
IRELAND above, 1858 below. Beaded rim. 

This piece, though made for use in Ireland, appears to have been largely 
sent to Australia and freely used in currency, and hence is generally included 
among Australasian Tokens. 

660. HOLLO WAY, Professor. London. 2. 

*Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. (J. Moore fecit). PI- 5\. 

O. — Head of the Professor to left, maker's name incuse on the truncation 
of the neck, which runs to a sharp point in front just past the L of 
LONDON wiiich is below. PROFESSOR in front and HOLLOWAY 
behind the head. Small double tuft at back of neck. Indented rim. 

R.— Hygeia seated with attributes, HOLLOWAY'S PILLS AND 
OINTMENT round above, 1857 in exergue. Indented rim. 

56i.* Penny. 1857. 34 n^i^i- Normal. 

O. — As No. 660, but the point of the neck does not pass the L of LONDON 
and there is a triple tuft at the back of the neck. 

R.— As No. 660. 

562. Penny. 1857. 34 i""^""^- Normal. 

0. — As No. 660, with a dot in front of the front curl on forehead. Triple 

tuft at neck, but proceeding entirely from the head. Point of 

truncation past L. 
R.— As No. 660. 

663. Penny. 1857. 34 ^^^n. Normal. 

O. — As No. 660, with a dot in front of the front curl, the tuft at neck is 
triple and thicker, and proceeds from both head and neck. Point 
of neck past L of LONDON. 

R.— As No. 660. 

664. Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 660, with a dot after PROFESSOR and point of neck barely 
reaches the L of LONDON. 

R.— As No. 660. 

665. Penny. 1857. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 660, but the maker's name is in relief in place of being incuse, 
R.— As No. 660. 

666.* Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 52. 
O.— As No. 660. 
R.— As No. 660. 

667. Halfpenny. 1857. 28 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 665, with maker's name in relief. 
R.— As No. 660. 



AUSTR.ILASLIX J UK HNS ASD COISS. 



i<^5 



668.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 660, with triple tuft at back ai neck. 
R.— As No. 660, l)ut dated 1858. 

669.* Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 660, with triple tuft and a lon^ one lianging nearly a quarter 
of an inch down neck. 

R.— As No. 668. 

670. Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 6()0, but the triple tuft is tliinniT, and there is a small curl 
close against the forehead. 

R.— As No. 668. 

671. Penny. 1858. 34 mm. Normal. 

O. — As No. 670, without the small tuii close to the (<ir«licad. 
R.— As No. 668. 

672.* Halfpenny. 1858. 28 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 660. 
R.— As No. 668. 

673. LANE, JOSEPH & SON. Birmingham. England. 

. Halfpenny (n.d.). 29 mm. Normal. 

O.— JOSEPH LANE & SON . BULLION DEALERS .\: REFINERS. 
round edge within the beaded rim, 3 / G' CHARLES S' 
BIRMINGHAM in three lines in centre. 

R.— REFINED AUSTRALIAN COPPER round edge. FOR / 
ALLOYING / GOLD in three lines in centre. Beaded rim. 

674. In Spinks' Numismatic Circular, Mar. -April, 1920, Col. 108, it is noted that 

Mr. L. G. P. Messenger exhibited at a meeting of the Royal Numismatic 
Society on 15th January a token bearing the head of NNVllington with 
ERIN GO BRAGH on one side and Britannia seated with AUSTRALIA 
over on the other, as an Australian issue. 

This is probably a mule of two of Taylor's re\-ersos. but may bo a 
product of his son, who is known to have anuiseil himsi-If by producing 
various irregular pieces while apprenticed in his fathers works. 

STOKES' REVERSES. 

Vine l^K.wrn Serii:s. (Pl. 53). 

1. Has within an inner plain circle a vine branch with nine large and four small 

leaves with a bunch of grapes under the ()th antl ()th largo. Tiio first four 
large leaves are in two pairs. At the liottom of the circle T. STOKES 
MAKER MEL. a small leaf being between the initial T and STOKES and 
the first large between MAKER and MEL. Between the leaded rim and 
the inner circle, VICTORIA i8(i2 : above. IN \"INO VERITAS : Ix^Iow. 

2. Has nine large and fi\-e small lea\es. Tlu" first three largo loaves are grouped 

together, the grapes are under the 3th and 8ih with a small leaf over the 
latter. There is no maker's name. Legend as No. i. 



j06 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

3. Has nine large and four small leaves. The grapes are under the 6th and gth 

with a small leaf over the latter. No maker's name and similar legend. 
There is another with exactly similar arrangement of leaves and grapes but 
which differs in showing only stops in place of colons in the legend. It is 
probable that this is the result of a damaged die and it only occurs on No. 545. 

4. Has nine large and five small leaves, grapes under the 6th and 9th. The first 

four large leaves are arranged in pairs not parallel as in No. 3. No maker's 
name and similar legend. 

5. Has ten large and four small leaves, grapes under the 7th and loth. The first 

three large leaves are grouped together. No maker's name and similar 
legend to No. i. 

6. Has eleven large and three small leaves, grapes under the 6th and nth. No. 

maker's name. Less space between the upper and lower parts of the legend. 

7. IrEas eleven large and four small leaves, grapes under the 7th and nth. T. 

STOKES - MAKER - MEL. in small letters at the bottom the word MAKER- 
being separated from MEL. by one of the first pair of large leaves. 

8. Has eleven large and four small leaves, grapes under the 7th and loth. The 

inner circle is broken below by T. STOKES. MAKER in small letters and 
100 COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE replaces IN VINO VERITAS 
within the beaded rim below. There are no stops before or after VICTORIA 
18(32 

9. Has eleven large and five small leaves, grapes under the 7th and gth with a 

small leaf over the latter. No maker's name and legend as No. 6. 

Australian Arms Series. (Pls. 53-54.) 

10. A shield of Arms with a kangaroo to left and emu to right as supporters. In 

the place of a crest a rising sun. The shield is quartered by double lines 
enclosing stars at the extremities and intersection. Whether these are 
intended as a representation of the Southern Cross or the five Colonies 
existing when the design was adopted is not knowoi. In the quarters are a 
ship, a fleece, an anchor, and a wheatshcaf. On the scroll is ADVANCE 
AUSTRALIA with between it and the shield a rose, shamrock and thistle. 
These are repeated below the scroll having a tendril between the thistle 
flowers and shamrock leaves right and left. Above all is VICTORIA. 1862 
and below in very small capitals in two lines T. STOKES. MAKER. / 100 
COLLINS ST. EAST MELBOURNE:. The top long sunray points directly 
to the base of I of VICTORL^ and the kangaroo's head is under T, Beaded 
rim. 

11. Similar to No. 10 with VICTORIA commencing lower and more space before 

1862. The kangaroo's head is level with the top of the base of T and the 
highest ray points between I A. The tendrils under the scroh are outside 
the shamrock leaves and the T. STOKES. MAKER, is higher. Beaded 
rim. (PI. 53.) 

12. Similar to No. 10 with VICTORIA even shorter and less space before 1862. 

The kangaroo's head is partly under the base of T. There are no flowers 
above the scroll and the tendrils are again between the thistles and shamrocks. 
The maker's name and address are in larger letters. The centre top ray 
points to the base of I as in No. 10. (PL 54.) 



II 



AUSTRALASIAN TO K ESS A SI) CUISS. 107 

13. As No. 12 witli tlie kangaroo's head below T. and more spac- Ix-fore 1m. 2, iiie 

initial T almost touching the shamrock leaf. ADN'ANCE V^ICTCJRIA on 
the scroll. Beaded rim. (PI. 54.) 

14. Very similar to No. 13 but has VICTOR I. \ contracted and le>,> space Ix-fore 

1862. The kangaroo's head down to C. There are no tendrils between the 
thistle and shamrocks. Tlio initial T is t(j the l<'ft <>f the shamrock leaf 

(PI. 54-) 

15. As No. 14 with head against C. The initial T is to the left and touching the 

shamrock leaf. The top ray points a little to the right of I. (PI. 54.) 

16. The whole design is much more lightly drawn and the lettering smaller. The 

kangaroo's head is level with C and the emu's neck bent more. T. ST(JKKS. 
MAKER, only under, in very small letters. ADVANCE AUSTRALIA 
on the scroll and rose, shamrock and thistle above under the shield. Tiie top 

ray points just to the left of I. (PI. 54.) 

P^MU Series. (Pl. 54.) 

17. An emu and rising sun, with thirteen long rays. Tlie head of the emu en the 

6th long ray. A scroll below with ADV.XXCI-: VICTORIA. VICTORIA. 
1862 above and T. STOKES. MAKER. / 100 COI.l.lNS ST. EAST 
MELBOURNE in two lines below. Beaded rim. 

18. As No. 17, but with fifteen long rays and the head between the ()th and 7th. 

No stop after VICTORIA. Maker's name as No. 17. Beaded rim. 

19. Similar to No. 17 with thirteen long rays and head on bth. Rose, shamrock 

and thistle under the scroll. 

20. As No. 19 but with fifteen long rays, the head on the 7th. There is a stop after 

VICTORIA. The name of the maker is extended the initial T being well 
to the left of the shamrock leaf. Beaded rim. 

WiiE.\TSiiEAF Series. (Pl. 54.) 

21. A wheatshcaf in the centre, ADVANCE AUSTR.\!.I.\ over JSti^ under. Bc>adcd 

rim. 

22. A larger thicker sheaf with the wheatears more regular and more even at the 

bottom. ADVANCE AUSTRALIA over, 18G2 .under. Beaded rim. 



io8 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Issuers of Tokens in each State» 



STATES. 



New South Wales. 
New Zealand. 
Queensland. 
South Australl\. 



Tasmania. 

Victoria. 

Western Australia. 



New South Wales. 



5- 
6. 

25- 
31- 

59- 

72. 

95- 

123. 

184. 
188. 
291. 

319- 
331- 
333- 



Allen, John 
Allen, William 

A.S.N. Co 

Battle & Weight ... 
Campbell, James ... 
Collins & Co. 
Da vies, Alexander 

&Co 

Flavelle Bros. 
Hanks & Co. 
Hanks & Lloyd 
Iredale & Co. 
Leigh, J. M. 
Lloyd, D. F. & W. L. 
Love & Roberts 



Kiama. 

Wollongong. 

Sydney. 

Morpeth. 
Bathurst. 

Goulbum. 
Sydney. 



Wollongong. 
Wagga 
Wagga. 



339. Macgregor, J. ... Sydney. 

369. Metcalfe & Lloyd ... 

408. Palmer, B 

426. Peek & Campbell ... ,, 

479. Smith, Peate & Co.... 

578. Thornthwaite, J. C. ,, 

586. Toogood, A. ... ,, 

615. Weight & Johnson .. . 

623. Whitty & Brown ... 

Silver Tokens. 

685. Campbell, James . 

686. Hogarth, Erichsen 



681. 



&Co. 
Thornthwaite, 



J. c. 



Morpeth. 
Sydney. 



New Zealand. 



9. Anderson, D. 
19. Ashton, H. 
27. Barley, C. C. 
32. Beath & Co. 
42. Beaven, S. ... 
50. Brown & Dutliic 

62. Caro, J., & Co. 

64. Clark, Archibald ... 

65. Clarkson, S. 

69. Clarkson & Turnbull 

76. Coombes, S.... 

98. Day & Mieville 
loi. De Carle, E., & Co.... 
130. Forsaith, T. S. 

142. Gaisford & Edmonds 

143. Gilmour, John 

149. Gittos, B 



Wellington. 
Auckland. 

Christchurch. 
Invercargill. 
New Ply- 
mouth. 
Christchurch. 
Auckland. 
Christchurch. 
Timaru. 
Auckland. 
Dunedin. 

Auckland. 
Christchurch. 
New Ply- 
mouth. 
Auckland. 



150. Gourlay, T. W., & 

Co. 
152. Grattcn, R. ... 
159. Hall, Henry J. 
249. Hobday & Jobberns 
263. Holland & Butler ... 
276. Hurley, J., & Co. ... 
308. Jones & Williamson 
311. Kirkcaldic & Stains... 
321. Levy, Lipman 
326. Licensed Victuallers 
341. Marks, Morris 
354. Mason, Struthers & 

Co 

359. McCaul, G 

362. Mears, J. W. 

363. Merrington, J. M., & 

Co 

376. Milner & Thompson. 



Christchurcli. 

Auckland. 

Christchurch. 

Auckland. 
Wanganui. 

Dunedin. 

Wellington. 

Auckland. 



Christchurch. 

Grahamstown. 

Wellington. 

Nelson. 
Wellington. 



II 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



109 



New Zkai.and— con/inut'rf. 



387 
399 
435 
437 
443 

447 

470 



Morrin & Co. ... Aucklanfl. 

NEW ZEALAND PENNY. 

Perkins & Co. ... Diincdin. 

Petersen, M. ... Christcliurcli. 

Pratt, W 

Reece, Ed 

Smith, S. Hague ... Auckhind. 



497. Sfjmerville, M. 

588. Union Bakery Co. ... 

590. United Service Hoti-I 

592. Wallace, J 

609. Waters, E. ... 
f\V). Wilson, A. S. 



Auckland 

Christchurch. 

Auckland. 

Wellinjiton. 

Auckland. 

Dunedin. 



Queensland. 



43. Bell & Gardner 

46. Brookes 

49. Brookes, W. & B. 

56. Buxton, J. W. 
305. Jones, T. H., & Co 
313. Larcombe & Co. 



Korkliamp- 
ton. 
]>risl)ane. 



Ipswich. 
P)risl)ane. 



364. Merry & Bush 

306. Merry, T. I'., ifcCn.... 

392. Mulli},'an, I). T. 

438. Pettigrew, John. cV 

Co 

468. Sawver, J. ... 

505. Stewart cV lleninimt 



< jm < n-i.iiid. 

ToowiMiinlxi. 

Kockliampton. 

Ipswich. 
Bri>sl)anc. 



82. Crocker & Hamil 
195. Harrold Bros. 
248. Hindmarsli Hotel 
273. Howell, John 
349. Martin, John 



ton 



Sorni Australia 
Adelaide. 



350. Martin cS: Sach 
385. Morj^Mn, Wm. 
494. Shree\'e, Noah 
5()7. Taylor, .Mfred 



Adelaidt 



Tas>l\nia. 



I. Abrahams, L. 
45. Brickhill Jos. 

99. Deasc, E. F. 
128. Fleming, J. G. 
133. Friedman, I. 
196. Hedberg, O. H. 

225. Henry, R. ... 

226. Henry, S. 
300. Jarvey, W. A. 
309. Josephs, R. ... 



Hobart. 
Campbell- 
town. 
Launceston. 
Hobart. 



Deloraine. 

Hobart. 

Newtown. 



329. LipscomlH', II. 

342. Marsh & Brother 

33h. Mather. R. A. 

3S4. Moir, J. 

400. Nichol.is, .\. 

(h)(). Waterhouse, R. S. 



lli>bart. 



()2o. White. Thos.. 
(qo. W.)od. W. 1). 
()S(). Macintosh \' 
Degraves i 



iV Sm Westburv 
... Hokirt. 



VlCTORLV. 



3. Adamson, Watts, 
McKechnie & Co... 
II. Andrew, John, & Co. 
13. Andrew, Jno., & Co. 
17. Annand, Smitli & Co. 
28. Barraclough 
30. Bateman.Wni., ]unr.. 
& Co. ... ' ... 
44. Booth, I 



Melbourne 



Richmond. 

Warnambool. 
Melbounu". 



51. Butterworth CV" Co.... 

57. Calder. R 

75. Cook. W. C 

80. Ci){x\ Thos. H. 

84. Cnimbie, Clap|xM"t«>n 

(S: Findlay 

8(1. Crothers iS: Co. 

()o. IXivey, Janu 

()i. n.wivlson. .\. 



Castlemainc. 

Sandridgo. 
South Yarra. 



Melbourne. 
... StawoU. 
Cv: Co. Sale. 

... MoUxiume. 



no 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKEXS AND COIXS. 



103. Dc Carle, E., & Co.... 

106. Deeble, S. ... 

III. Dixon, James 

118. Evans & Foster 

120. Fenwick Brothers ... 

122. Fisher 

141. Froomes, W. 

145. Gippsland Hardware 

Co 

153. Grieve, R. ... 
155. Grundy, J. R. 
227. Hide & De Carle ... 
254. Hodgson, A. G. 
260. Hodgson Bros. 

265. Hosie, J 

280. Hyde, Robt., cS: Co. 
299. Jamieson, W. W., & 

Co. 
304. Jones, David 
315. Lazarus, S. & S. 
318. Leeson, J. D.. 
320. Levy Bros. ... 
353. Mason & Culley 
360. McFarlane, J. 
371. Miller Bros. ... 



94. Davies, Alfred 



650 Peace & Plenty 
658 Pope & Co. 



Victoria 


— continued. 




Melbourne. 


375. Miller & Dismorr .. 
391. Moubray, Lush & Co 


Melbourne. 


Wangaratta. 


395. Murray & Christie ... 


Castlemaine 


Melbourne. 


404. Nichols, Geo. 
4ub. Nokes, Jas. ... 


Melbourne. 


South Yarra. 


409. Parker, R. ... 


Geelong. 


Castlemaine. 


433. Peck, Hugh 
440. Petty, Geo. ... 


Melbourne. 


Port Albert. 


453. Ridler, R. B. 


Richmond. 


Eaglehawk. 


458. Robison Bros. 


Melbourne. 


Ballarat. 


464. Rocke, G. &W. H.... 


, J 


Melbourne. 


468. Ryland, G 

501. Southward & 


Castlemaine 


Bendigo. 


Sumpton ... 


Ballarat. 


Melbourne. 


503. Stead Bros. ... 


Sandhurst. 




508. Stokes, Thos. 


Melbourne. 




566. Stokes & Martin ... 


,, 


Wamambool . 


568. Taylor, J 


Ballarat. 


Ballarat. 


571. Taylor, W. J. 


Melbourne. 


Melbourne. 


576. Thomas, T. W., & Co. 


, , 


Sale. 


584. Thrale & Cross 


,, 


Melbourne. 


594. Warburton, T. 


,, 


Williamstown 


.603. Warnock Bros. 


Maldon. 


Melbourne. 


611. Watson, W.R.,& Co. 


Ballarat. 


" 


638. Williams, J. W., & G. 


Eaglehawk. 


Western 


Australia. 




Fremantle. 


216. Henderson, John ... 


Fremantle. 


Miscellaneous. 






659 Hodgins 


Clochjordan 




660 HoUoway 


London. 



AUSTliALASlAM TOKEXS AND COISS. HI 



Silver Tokens, 



TH1<2 first silver token issued in Australasia was undoubtedly the shilling of 
MACINTOSH & dec; RAVES, of the CascarU- Saw " Mills. Hobart. 
Tasmania. It l)cars the date 1823, but the time of actual issue is 
surrounded by considerable obscurity. Early in 1H23, Thomas Stacc. 
whose paper notes are so well known to numismatists, certainly owned a sawmill. 
at the Cascade. The earliest reference which can be found to either of the m<-ml)ers 
of the firm of MACINTOSH lS: T)E(;RA\'ES is in Bent's " Tasmanian Almmac." 
compiled in 1824, and ])ul)lislie(l on ist January. 1.S25. where Major Macinto.«h is 
given as the owner of a sawing mill at the Cascade, and Peter Degraves as an engineiT 
in Brisbane-street. Stace does not appear again in connection with the s.'iwmill. 
The next reference docs not occur till nine years later, when, in 1.S34, Degraves 
advertises in the Hobart Ton'ii Gazette for hay wanted at the Cascade Sawmills. 
and in the same year the " \'an Dieman's Land Almanac " has another advertisem-nt 
from him, stating that ;dl kinds of timber can be obtained at the Cascade Sawmills. 
Major Hugh Macintosh died in December, 1S34. and was buried on 24th Decembtr 
in St. David's Churchyard, Hobart. 

It is quite probable, froni the above, that Macintosh and Degraves purchased 
the mill from Stace in 1823, and the date on the token inchcates the establishment 
of the business. Though the exact circumstances surrounding the preparation 
of this piece are not clear, it can be definitely affirmed that the token was prepared 
at or about the date noted on it, and certainly by the jx'rsons indicated thereon. 
Whether it was issued generally or not, or what reasons led to its withdrawal if 
issued, cannot now be ascertained. 

It is surprising that at a time when the want of coin was so severely felt no 
notice of the issue of the piece should a]i]iear in contenijiorary publications, a fact 
that supports the clain\ made tliat it was issued rather as a memi-nto than for 
ordinar\' currency. 

It being of pure silver, which at the time held a very high value, no profit 
could have been made from the issue. The beautiful condition in which these rare 
coins are generally found would also su]iport the idea that they were looked on as 

patterns or curios, and not generalh' circulattnl. 

The design, though perhaps not p.uticularly artistic, is fairly well executed, 
while the presence of the name TASMANI.V is remarkable, as that name was not 

a])plicd to the colon\- till fully twenty years later. 

Electrotypes luu-e been prepared from the original, but they are easily 
distinguished from the genuine coin, as a Haw was purposely made in the copy to 

prevent its substitution for an original. 



112 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

More than thirty years passed before the next silver issue was made. In 
1854, J. C. Thornthwaite commenced to make silver threepences bearing his own name 
and that of James Campbell. In considering these we have to remember that the 
dies were made by Thornthwaite with seal engraver's tools, and they were struck by 
his apprentice, George Parkm, who had no previous experience in such things. All 
fi\'e of Thornthwaite's issues are rare, and an especial interest attaches to them in 
that, for the first time in the history of colonial-made tokens, a machine called a 
fiddle " was used to raise the edge of the blanks prior to the striking of the design. 
The difference is very noticeable when these are compared with the later issues 
of Hogarth, Erichsen & Co. The latter are of uniform thickness throughout and 
the wear of the piece more noticeable. 

The " Oakleaf " token. No. 681, PI. 56, was the first made and not more than 
eighteen or twenty were struck, as Thornthwaite was not satisfied with the reverse. 
Nos. 682 and 683 followed. About five or six pounds' worth of the former and less 
of the latter were issued. No. 685, PL 56, was then made for the Hon. Jas. Campbell, 
of Morpeth, and of these exactly five pounds' worth were struck. All these were of 
good silver, procured by melting down old English and foreign coins, and at the 
time of issue were intrinsically worth at least fourpence each. 

Mr. S. Thornthwaite, who is still following his father's occupation, and also 
making use of some of his original plant, informs the writer that his father cut a 
die for a sixpence in silver, but only struck a single piece from it. This piece he wore 
on his watchchain for several years till it was stolen. Years after it was seen in 
a pawnbroker's shop, but shortly disappeared, and it was believed it was sent to 
England and has never been heard of since. The design was, on the obverse, very 
similar to that of his threepences, with on the reverse the words SIX j PENCE 
in two lines across the centre, with J. C. THORNTH\Vx\ITE above. 

The Hogarth, Ericfisen pieces are of later date, and generally of inferior metal. 
They were mostly struck at Leichhardt in a press owned by Mr. Thornthwaite, 
who knew both Hogarth and Erichsen intimately. No. 6g2, PL 56, bearing the 
effigy of a black with a boomerang, was first mentioned in the Berliner Mvntzblatter 
as in the Heuzenroeder Collection, and is almost, if not quite, unique. Report 
has it that Hogarth was himself very like a blackfellow, and knew a lot about them, 
and was fond of taking them off. He may have prepared the die for this piece, 
and possibly others, though Erichsen is generallj^ credited with the making of the 
dies. That Hogarth was able to do such work is well known, and is mentioned 
elsewhere in these pages. 

SILVER TOKENS. 

680. MACINTOSH & DEGRAVES. Hobart. Tasmania. 

♦Shilling. 1823. 22 mm. Normal. 66| grs. Rare. PL 55. 

O.— Has ONE / SHILLING / TOKEN in three straight fines across the 
centre, SAW MILLS above and MACINTOSH AND DEGRAVES 
below within the indented rim. 
R. — A kangaroo sitting to right, with the head turned backwards. 
TASMANIA over, 1823 in the exergue. Edge plain. 




AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. II3 

681. THORNTHWAITE, J. C. Sydney. 

♦Threepence. Silver, ih mm. 1854. Nc^rmal. I'l. 5O. 

O.— The Austrahan Arms witli rising sun as crest, with a kangaroo on the 
left and emu on the rif,dit as supporters, on the scroll beneath is 
ADVANCE AUSTRALIA round within the beaded rim NKW 
SOUTH WALKS witli 1S54 b.-low. 

R.— A large numeral 3 formed by an oak leaf branch Ix-nt into the required 
shape and surmounted by a rising sun. SILVKK to left. TOKKN 
to right, and 1854 at the bottom within the beaded rim. 

682. *Thrcepence. 1854. if) mm. Upset. PI. 50. 

0.— As No. 681. 

R. — A smaller numeral 3 surmounted by rising sun, the horiwmtal stroke 
of the 3 is straight and tlie tail of the loop ends in a knob. SIL\'KK 
to left and TOKEN to right, with J.C.T. below. 

683. Threepence. 1854. lO mm. Normal. 

O.— As No. 682, but the legend NEW SOUTH WAL1-:S is contracted. 

bringing the E of WALES instead of tlie L against the tip of the 

tail of the emu. 
R.— As No. 682. 

684. *Thrcepcnce (n.d.). 16 mm. Upset. 

O.— As No. 681. 

R. — A large numeral 3 with the horizontal stroke sinuous and the tail i»( 
the loop tapering to a point. SILVER to left, TOKEN to right. 

No initials or date. 

685. CAMPBELL, James. Morpeth. New South Wales. 
*Threepence (n.d.). 16 mm. Normal. PI. 56. 

O. — A floral device in centre, with GENERAL STORES forming an inner 
circle of legend and round within the beaded rim, J.\MES 
CAMPBELL MORPETH. 

R.— As No. 683. 

686. HOGARTH, ERICHSEN & Co. Sydney. 
♦Threepence. 1858. 16 mm. Normal. PI. 56. 

O. — A kangaroo to left and emu to right of a palm tree on a curved base. 

HOGARTH ERICHSEN CvrC JEWELLERS. SYDNEY, round 

within the beaded rim. 
R. — A large 3 in centre with 18 to left and 58 to right in very small fig\ires 

enclosed in an oak wreath, two aconis on wreath close to the 

figure 8. 

687. *Threepence. 1858. 16 mm. Normal. PL 56. 

O. — A slightlv different tree with kangaroo to K-ft and emu to right. 

HOGARTH ERICHSEN cS: O' JEWELLERS . SYDNEY. The 

base is not quite so rounded. 
R. — Oak wreath rather more open, 3 slightly larger, no acorns at 8. 

688. *Threepence. 1858. 16 mm. Upset. PL 56. 

O. — A kangaroo to left and emu to right of a palm tree on a straight base, 
PAYABLE AT HOGARTH ERICHSEN Ov CO. SYDNEY round 

within the beaded rim. 
R.— As No. 687. 
*i5i5— n 



114 AVSTJiALASLW TOKENS AND COINS. 

689. Threepence. 1858. 16 mm. Upset. PL 56. 

0. — The kangaroo to right and emu to left of a grass-tree on a straight 
base which extends to the edge of the piece. HOGARTH 
ERICHSEN cS: CO. round above SYDNEY in curved Hne in 
exergue. 

R.— As No. 686. 

690. *Threepence. 1858. 16 mm. Normal. PI. 56. 

O. — As No. 689, with SYDNEY in straight line in the exergue. 
R.— As No. 686. 

691. *Threepence. i860. 16 mm. Normal. PL 56. 

O. — A kangaroo to right and emu to left of a different grass-tree, with the 
flower spathe curved strongly to the right. Both kangaroo and 
emu crouching. REMEMBRANCE OF AUSTRALIA round 
within the beaded rim. 

R. — A smaller numeral 3 enclosed in a wreath of pointed leaves possibly 
intended for laurel or olive, i860 in very minute figures under the 
knot. HOGARTH & ERICHSEN SYDNEY round within the 
beaded rim. 

692. Threepence (n.d.). 16 mm. Normal. PL 56. 

O. — As No. 691. 

R. — A naked blackfellow with boomerang in right hand, the left raised 
as shading the eyes, a flower like a Uly in front. HOGARTH to 
left, ERICHSEN to right within the beaded rim. A mark on the 
breastbone said to represent a man. Edge roughly milled. 

693. Threepence (n.d.). 16 mm. Normal, 

O. — As 691, but the lettering is lighter, the head of the grass-tree larger 
and looser, and the flower spathe ends against the C of 
REMEMBRANCE instead of N. 

R. — A naked blackfellow in shghtly different position, and the boomerang 
drawn further back. The flower also is sflghter and taller. Edge 
roughly milled. 

694. Fourpence. 16 mm. i860. 

O. — As No. 691. 
R. — As No. 692. 

This piece is mentioned in the Berliner MuntzUaUer as having been 
m the Heuzenroeder Collection, and there marked as of the value of 4 pence. 
It is exactly the same size as Nos. 692 and 693, but has no indication of value 
on it. It has been suggested that the Heuzonroeder piece was one of the 
above, as they have the edge roughly milled. This would render it more 
easily passed for the then current groat or fourpence which was milled, 
and thereby distinguished easily from the threepence. This latter coin 
was first struck for ordinary currency in 1845, and was only tardily dis- 
placing the fourpence in the favour of the public. The latter has long 
disappeared from circulation, and none have been struck since 1856. 

Mr. Heuzenroeder was a resident of North Adelaide for some years, 
and there formed his Collection. 



A U ST R A LA SI. J. \' T()K/:NS AND COINS. II5 

Holey Dollars and Dumps. 

TTIE reasons for the intrfKluctujii of the King or llcjlcy Dollars and Dumps 
liave been already discussed, and we have liere to consider the details 
connected witli their issue, their currency, and the varieties hitherto 
recognised. 

The sloop-of-war Samayang arrived in Port Jackson on 26th NovemlxT, 
1812 (Hist. Rec, Vol. 9, p. 859), with dollars valued at £10,000, which had been 
brought from Madras by the Government. 

On 5th December they were conveyed to .Government House and there 
examined and counted by a committee consisting of William Hroughton, Acting 
Commissary; H. C. Antill, Major of Brigade; and Thomas Archer, Acting Deputy 

Commissary. 

By direction of Governor Macquarie, these dollars were cut and rcstamped 
by William Henshall, making " Holey Dollars and Dumjjs." 

In one of Macquarie's despatches (Hist. Rec, \'()1. 7, p. 722) he mentions 
that the " machine for stamping, milling, and cutting out the centre was made in 
the colony. It failed more than once, but after many failures and trial- ultiniatelv 
succeeded." 

In a despatch, dated 28th June, 1813, Macquarie writes : " Wdl commence 
cutting and stamping in a few days, and the man engaged promises to have the 
whole cut, stamped, and milled in less than three months." 

The Historical Records, \'ol. 9, p. 884, give ii rei)ort of the deposition taken 
before Judge Bent, a Judge of the Supreme Court, and made by William Henshall 
when protesting against his arrest and punishment without trial for a trivial offence. 
as follows: " All the colony can speak to my character, and that I was tinsted 
by the Government from time to time with near to 40,000 dollars, and Ixjth made 
the tools to cut them and had above 1,000 dollars in my possession at a time." 

Henshall was a whitesmith and silversmith by trade, and there is some doubt 
about his real name. In early records he first appears under the name of John 
Hersell, a little later as John Henshall, and both in Macquarie's despatch and in 
the deposition taken before Judge Bent he is shown as William Henshall. At 
Commissioner Bigge's inquiry Mr. D. Wentworth stated that : " He was generally 
employed, but much suspected of coining dumjis . . . wa>^ employed to cut out 
the dumps from the dollars." 

No trace of the dies usihI has Ineu found, but it is known that they were cut 
by Henshall, and included among the tools he mentions having made in his 
deposition. 

Mr. William Dixson has in his jx)ssession a letter written many years ago 
by a Mr. E. Stillworthy, of Wagga Wagga, which mentions that the punch used to 
cut the piece out of the dollars was made by a Mr. Hany Richardson, a well-known 
first-class workman of Sydney. Mr. Stillworth>- states that his information was 



ii6 



AUSTRAL.! SI AX TOKENS AND COINS. 



obtained first hand, when he was himself employed by Richardson, in 1844. This 
punch later came into the possession of Mr. Parkin, previously referred to as an 
assistant of Thornthwaite. Also the i)ress used, which he describes as a very 
" prjmiti\'e affair of the hand lever type." There is reason to believe that the 
process of stamping was assisted by the heating of the pieces. 

Mr. Parkin expressed the opinion that the inscriptions were struck on the 
ring dollar and dump by means of a drop-hammer or ordinary sledge. This would 
account for the irregularity of the relative positions of the obverse and reverse, and 
the appearance of greater pressure on one portion of the inscription than on other, 
which is so noticeable in all these pieces. 

Referring again to the Historical Records, we find, in Vol. 7, p. 830 : " The 
piece cut out of the centre of the dollar was known as a dump. The whole surface 
was cleaned and restamped. The general surface of the ring was not cleaned . . . 
Several distinct varieties of the coins are extant, but it is not known whether these 
varieties were made officially or by persons desirous of appropriating the increased 
value, amounting to 25 per cent." 

The principal differences in the dollars are the presence or absence of what 
has been described as a " dagger " or " trefoil leaf," but quite as much resembles 
an attempt at showing a " fleur-de-lis," and the varied distance between the words 
FIVE and SHILLINGS. On the dumps the size of the Crown varies, also the 
position of the legend NEW SOUTH WALES on the obverse, and the words 
FIFTEEN PENCE on the reverse. 

Macquarie's Proclamation fixed the 30th September, 1813, as the date on 
which the dollars and dumps should be issued, but from evidence given before 
Commissioner Bigge it is shown that after being made they remained in the 
Governor's possession till the Deputy Commissary General David Allan demanded 
them early in 1814. His official receipt shows that he received them as follows : — 

... Walue 



Jan. 


25th, 1814 ... 


.. 3,000 ... 


Feb. 


loth 


.. 3,000 ... 


,, 


23rd 


.. 3,000 ... 


,, 


24th 


.. 3,000 ... 


Mar. 


4th 


.. 6,000 ... 


,, 


loth 


.. 3,000 ... 


, , 


i6th „ ... 


.. 6,000 ... 


,, 


23rd „ ... 


.. 3,000 ... 


,, 


24th 


.. 3,000 ... 


Ap. 


15th 


.. 3,9081 


Aug. 


2nd 


.. 3,000 ... 



£937 


10 





937 


10 





937 


10 





937 


10 





1.875 








937 


10 





1,875 








937 


10 





937 


10 





1,221 


9 


8-1 


937 


10 






39,908! ... .... 12,471 9 8i 

Mr. Allan gives the figures as " the number of dollars received and rccoined 
in this Countr\' and delivered to me at Six Shillings and Threepence each." 

In a despatch dated 23rd April, 1814, Macquarie states that " the greater 
part were in circulation." 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. Ij- 

During the currency of these pieces tlie \alue of the Spanish dollar seeias to 
have fluctuated between 4s. 6d. and 5s. 6d., but never reached the fictitious value 
placed on its parts in this country. In 1823, when they were recalled, the dollar 

was worth 4s. iid. in ICngland. 

Genuine ring or holey dollars are known which have been struck from Spanish 
pieces of the reigns of Carolus III, Carolus IV, and Ferdinand \'1I, and of lIjc follow- 
ing dates : 1783, 1786, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1797, 1798, 1799, 1800. 1803, 1804. iH*)^. 
1808, 1809, and 1810. Probably coins of other years were used, but to the present 
have not been listed. They are all naore or less buckled from the process of 
launching, to assist which process it is said that they were first- heated. 

The inscriptions have been added, regardless of their falling cither on the 
obverse or reverse of the original. 

The Sydney Gazette of 2nd January, 1819, mentions the discovery of forged 
bank notes for live shillings and counterfeits of the Spanish ring dollars. On the 
5th May, the same year, the Secretary of the Bank of New South Wales advertised 
that " Counterfeit dollars and dumps were in circulation," and gave particulars 
by which the counterfeits could be detected, as follows : — 

1. Dollars and dumps that are not silver. 

2. Dollars having the holes in the centre, but without the Coloniid stamp uixin 

them. 

3. Colonial dollars from which a portion of the silver has been removed round 

the centre (filed or clipped), whereby the hole is made considerably larger. 

4. Dollars bearing a counterfeit stamp intended to imitate the Colonial one 

surrounding the hole in the centre. Many of these may he detected by 
the figures of the date being transposed from 1813 to 3181. 

Dr. Roth mentions having seen a ring dollar made from one of Ferdinand Vil, 
minted in 1813, without any date to the Colonial stamp. As the reverse of the 
Colonial stamp of this particular coin also differs from any of the other ring dollars 
examined, he inclines to the opinion that it is one of the forgeries .ilhidrd to in 
Class 4 by the Secretary of the Bank of New South Wales. 

For nine years the ring dollars and dumps were current at their marked value. 
and in 1822 Governor Brisbane decided to remove their enhanced value, first from 
the ring dollar, which had never been more than tolerated by the Colonists. 

The official returns of the Bank of New South Wales fr»)m time to time show 
at least a tendency for these pieces to get into few hands rather than circulate freely. 
In a report dated 19th Julv, 1820, the specie held by the bank consisted of : - 

/ ■> d. 
16,680 Colonial dollars ... 
7,000 Spanish dollars ... 
5,900 dumps at is. 3d. 
Coppers ... 

£"6.301 4 5 



4.170 








1.75^^ 








. 368 


15 





12 


9 


5 



Il8 AUSm.lLASIAX TOKENS AND COINS. 

By Proclamation, dated 25th July, the Governor ordered that the Commissary 
General should receive such as were in circulation at the marked value for a period 
of six weeks after the publication of the Proclamation in Sydney and Hobart. It 
was gazetted in Sydney on loth August. 

The dumps were dealt with by another Proclamation on I5tli November, 
when notice was given that after six weeks they would be received only as a fourth 
part of a Spanish dollar. 

In spite of these notices, that after the end of the year the fictitious value 
of these pieces would end, and any accepted would only be at the current value of 
the Spanish piece, and also that they would no longer be legal tender, they are known 
to have been in circulation as late as 1829. An extract from the Sydney Gazette 
of 2ist November, 1829, has the following : " We understand the pierced dollars, 
with their children the dumps, now safely lodged in the Military Chest, amount 
to about £5,000 sterling. What is their destination has not yet transpired, but 
we believe the pierced gentlemen are not to be permitted to resume their travels 
in the Colony." 

About 25,000 dollars would be accounted for in this account. There is no 
record of any issue, except that in the year 1813, and it is highly probable that many 
of those returned to the Government at the time of the issue of the Proclamations 
were melted down or otherwise disposed of by the authorities, so that the number 
now accounted for would probably include all but a small fraction of those struck. 

At the present day specimens are much sought after, and are vcr}' scarce, a piece 
in good order fetching as mucli as £7 or /8 among collectors. 



HOLEY DOLLARS. 

701.* A Spanish dollar of CAROLUS IIII, date 1805. PI. 55. 

O. — The centre has been removed and the inner edge roughly milled. The 
words NEW SOUTH WALES round the inner rim above and 1813 
at the bottom. The words NEW and SOUTH are closer together 
than SOUTH and WALES and the date 1813 is about equidistant 
between N and S. 

R. — FIVE SHILLINGS round within the inner rim above, with a double 
spray of olive at the bottom. At the junction of the two sprays 
a diamond-shaped dot. Each spray has six leaves, the first on 
the right being above the stalk and the first on the left below. 
The letter F is 10 mm. from the end of the spraj', and the letter S 
on the right 7 mm. The words FIVE and SHILLINGS are 6 mm. 
apart . 

702.* A Spanish dollar of CAROLUS IIII, date 1803. PI. 55. 

O. — As No. 701. 

R. — Has the words FIVE and SHILLINGS much further apart, nearly 
12 mm., and between them a small ornament representing probably 
a dagger or a fleur de-lis. The distance from the ornament to 
the S on the right is 4 mm., while between it and the E of FIVE 
is 8 mm. The spray has six leaves on each portion, and the first 
leaves are both above the stalks. 



11 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



119 



703. A Spanisli dollar. As bef(jrc, with centre removed. 

O. — As No. 702. 

R.— As No. 701, but the words l-IX'l-: and SHILLINGS arc closer. Jx-ini: 
only 5 mm. apart. 

704. A Spanish dollar of FERDINAND \'II, date 1810. 

O. — As No. 701. 
R. — As No. 702. 

705. A Spanish dollar of CHARLI<:S IV, date 1S04. 

O.— As No. 702. 
R. — As No. 703. 

706. 

707. 

708. 

DUMPS. 

709. * A piece 19 mm. in diameter cut from a Spanish dollar. I'l. 55. 

O.— A crown in the centre, NEW SOUTH WALES round aJM.vr. 1S13 

below. A line along the base of the crown cuts the letter N on 

the left and right near the top of S. 
R.— FH^TEEN / PENCE in two lines straight across tkld. A ^<]\uitc 

stop between the lines. 

710.* A similar piece, 19 mm. in diameter, date 1813. PL 55. 

0. — Has a smaller crown, and stops between the words. The base line 
continued would pass below N and cut the middle of E on the right. 
This piece shows remains of previous striking. 
R. — There is no stop between the lines, and the word PENCE is slightly 
shorter. 

711. Similar, 19 mm., date 1813. PL 55. 

O. — Has a bolder crown, stops between words, and the base line is level 

with the bottom of N and S. 
R. — As No. 709, but lines sUghtly wider apart. 

712. Similar but larger, 20 mm., date 1813. PL 35. 

O. — No stops between words, base line cuts middle of N and top o( S. 

CrouTi slightly smaller. 
R. — As No. 709. 

713. Similar, but 19 mm., date 1813. PL 55. 

0. — A larger crown, 9 mm. across, no stops between w.>r<L b.>»e hue 

above N and S. Double struck. 
R. — Upset. Stop between lines, wliicli are closer together. 

714.* Similar, 18 mm., date 1813. PL 33. 

O.— A smaller and more compact crown, which is only /i mm. xNndc. the 

cross slopes left. The base liui' cuts the bottom of N and Ix-low S. 
R.— Has a stop between lines, wliich are still closer together. PENCE 

in bolder letters and 1- II' TEEN slightly smaller. 

715. Similar, but 20 mm., date 1813. PI. 33. 

O.— No stops between words, base line top of S and middle of N. 
R.— No stops between lines, PENCE only xi nnn. long. 



120 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

The South Australian Ingots and One Pound 

Tokens* 



o 



X gtli January, 1852, a Memorial was presented to the Lieutenant 
Governor (Sir H. E. F. Young) of South Austraha, from the mercantile 
community of the colony, containing the following clauses : — ■ 



That the recent discovery of gold in the neighbouring colonies has 
produced a serious and alarming depression in this Province, not only by 
attracting a large proportion of the population, but by the drain upon the 
current coin of the Colony to purchase that gold. 

That in consequence of the limited supply of gold coin the gold dust 
which finds its way into the Colony cannot, by your memorialists, be converted 
into a circulating value and be used as a means of purchasing the commodities 
of life. 

That your memorialists believe — unless this value can be made 
convertible by the interference of Government, and by the Government 
i-eceiving, assaying and coining [i.e., stamping) the gold, accepting the gold 
thus coined, in payment for land and taxes — the most serious results, involving 
the ruin of many, must immediately ensue, particularly to the mercantile and 
trading community. 

That such a measure on the part of Government would give a con- 
vertible value to the gold which is brought into the Colony, would create a 
demand for the land and give stability and create order through all classes of 
the community. Your memorialists invite your Excellency to take this 
decided step — a step suited to the extreme emergency of the times, and thus 
save the Colony." 

Some discussion followed, but not much delay, as on the 28th of January, 
a special meeting of the Legislative Council passed a short Act to provide " for the 
Assaying of LTncoined Gold and to make Bank Notes " under certain conchtions 
a legal tender. The operation of the Act was limited to twelve months. Within 
thirteen days an Assay Office was opened for the receipt, assaying, melting into 
ingots, and stamping the value on any parcel of gold over twenty ounces in weight. 

This Act, known as " The Bullion Act," has a unique record in Australia, 
as, from the time that the Parliament met only two hours passed before it having 
passed three readings and been signed by the Governor, the latter ended the special 
sitting of the House by a message of thanks for the promptitude with which the 
House had complied with his request in the emergency. 

The Act remained in force till the following February, and during this period 
no less than 412,088 oz. of gold was r-eceived, valued at ;£i,507,262. 



II 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 121 

The Bullion Act was partly repealed in November, 1852, by an am'-ntUng 
Act being i)assed by which persons were no longer entitled to demand bank notes 
in exchange for bullion, and the issue of coins of the value of {5, I2, £1, and los. 
authorised. Dies were i)rei)ared for the {5 and £1 pieces, but none ol the former 
were struck for currency, and it is belie\'ed that only six patterns were made, the 
whereabouts of these being now unknown. 

It is now impossible to obtain reliable information regarding Ui. -i.unp-. «.r 
dies used for impressing the ingots that were stami)ed in accordance with the Ait, 
and at the present tinu- but two ingots are known to be in existence. Both arc- 
small, one weighing 5 dwt. 11 grs., and the other 5 dwt. i gr. It is known that 
the Assay Office melted the gold received into ingots of suitable sizi-s, and that 
all were not made as sniall as these, and we can only surmise that these two have 
been preserved as curiosities, while the rest went as intended, into the " nvlting- 
pot." 

When the Assay Office was closed there remained in the hands of the officials 
a (juantity of gold unclaimed, and an Act was passed late in i<S5J, authorising its 
sale, the proceeds to be paid into the General Revenue, and accounts kept, so that 
any person proving a title to any portion at any time could be recoujK'd to the 

extent of the amount realised by the sale. 

The dies for stamping the coins were madi' by Mr. Joshua Pavne, who was 
still working as a jeweller and engra\-cr near the end of last century. About i^).\ 
the writer interviewed him, and inquired about the dies. He had quite forgotten 
that he had made two different ones for the /i pieces until his memory u'as 
refreshed by his being shown the two varieties known to numismatists. The 
second die was required on accoimt of a flaw developing in the first after \irv few 
pieces had been struck. 

The ingots were marked by ;i circular stanip showing the weight and its 
equivalent in standard gold. The actual figures of weight were afterwards added 
by punches in syjaces left for the purpose. Reside the usual stamp they bear a 
shield with a crown and S.A. under, and other figures denoting the fineness cither 
above or below the word CARATS, also affixed by a lozenge-shajH'd punch. No 
regularity in the position of the stamp appears to have been ■■<ni^idored neetlful. 
See Nos. 720 and 721, PI. 55. 

Of the One-Pound pieces, 24,648 in all were issueil. As a test of their value. 
four were sent to the Pondon Mint for assay and report. They were found to In? 
intrinsically worth £1 is. lod. each, a fact which soon resulted in a very large jxr- 
centage being exported for the profit to be made on them as metal. The first 
issue was made on 26th November, 1852, and the last were coined on 13th Febmary, 
1853. They are now rare, especially those made with the first die. ^-^ ■ V '^ -24 
and 725, PI. 57. 

There is little doubt that (ioveruin- Young exceeded his i-nnvei-s. though 
supported by the local Parliament, when he signed an Act not only making bank 



122 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

notes legal tender under certain circumstances, Init also authorised the opening of 
what was really a Mint, in South Austraha, without autliority from the Home 
Government. Some discussion took place regarding tlie Royal Prerogative in the 
matter of the issue of coins, and it is said that for that reason no suggestion was 
made to extend the life of the Act or continue tlie coinage after the period originally 
fixed. 

GOLD INGOTS AND POUND PIECES. 

720. ADELAIDE TREASURY. South Austraha. 

Gold ingot (n.d.). Upright oblong, 44 mm. by 27 mm. Very rare. PI. 55. . 
O. — A single line circle containing WEIGHT OF INGOT curved at the top 
OZ. DWT. GR. 
055 
EQUIV: WEIGHT. 

OF 22 CARAT 
OZ. DWT. GRS. 
o 5 II 

On the left below, a shield bearing a crown over S.A. at right angles 
to the legend on the stamp, under the shield 8 23 / CARATS on 

I 
two labels parallel with the bottom of the shield. Near the top 
left corner SAWTELL incuse, probably the name of the maker of 
the electro from which the illustration is taken. Electro in gold 
in Mitchell Collection. 

721. Ingot (n.d.). Upright oblong, 42 mm. by 26 mm. Very rare. PI. 55. 

O. — As No. 720 with 4 dwt. 19 gr. in place of 5 dwt. 5 gr. in the third 
line and 5 under DWT. and i under GR. at the bottom. No 
indication for the ounce weight. The stamp is placed obhquely. 
The shield has a smaller cro\vn and below it CARATS 

25 I 
8 

All these are placed above the stamp. 
722. 
723. Five Pound Piece. 1852. 32 mm. PI. 55. 

O. — In the centre a crown over 1852 with J. PAYNE in very minute letters 

under. The inner circle crenellated inside and beaded outside. 

Round between it and the beaded rim, GOVERNMENT ASSAY 

OFFICE above •.:.• ADELAIDE •.:.• below. 

R.— Within a similar inner circle, VALUE / FIVE / POUNDS in three 
hnes with a short pointed and slightly curved bar between the first 
and second and the second and third. Round within the beaded 
rim, WEIGHT, i OZ : 8 DWT : 4 GRS : •.:.• 22 CARATS •.:.• 

The June, 1894, issue of NUMISMATOLOGY, (Spink & Son, 
London), has the following note by the late G. G. Shaw of Adelaide, a 
well known and successful collector of Austrahan Tokens and Coins, in 
reference to this piece : — 

" There were only a few of these struck, not more than six. None 
are known to be in existence now. None were issued as legal tender. Only 



II 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 1 23 

electrotype copies can be ()l)tuiii(fl ; these also are very scarce. These 
electrotypes were cast from a wax ' impression ' taken of (nie of the 
originals." 

724.* Pound Piece. 1852. 25 mm. PI. 57. 

O. — As No. 725, witliout the maker's name. 

R. — A double line inner circle with a circle of dots between tiie lines. 
VALUE / ONE / POUND in three lines without bars in centre. 
Round within the beaded rim, WEIGHT 5 DWT : 15 GKS : 
:•; 22 CARATS :'■: There is visible a flaw from the inner circle to 

tlic outer edge against the vertical stroke of the I). 

725.* Pound Piece. 1852. 23 mm. PI. 37. 

0. — As No. 724. 

R.— The second die. Has in the centre VALUE / ONE / POUND in three 
hnes without bars, the inner circle is crenellated internally and 
beaded extcrnall}-. The legend in the outer circle as No. 724. 



124 AUSTRALASIAN TOKICNS AND COINS. 



The Kangaroo Office Gold and Copper Issues* 



r 



OR the following history of the Kangaroo Office pieces I am indebted to the 
treatise prepared by Dr. W. E. Roth and Mr. A. F. Basset Hull, made 
available by the courtesy of Mr. William Dixson, the present possessor. 

" About the end of the year 1852, or the beginning of 1853, news reache 1 
luigland tliat owing to the scarcity of gold coin and the large quantity of the 
precious metal already discovered, Ballarat gold dust was selling on the fields 
for £2 15s. an ounce. The idea of the promoters of this office was to start a 
large store in Melbourne, buy up the dust at the above price, and with it strike 
their own gold pieces of 2, i, ^ and ^ oz., which in the course of their business 
they proposed rendering current respectively at £8, £4, £2 and £1. With this 
object in view, Messrs. Hodgkin, Taylor and Tyndall chartered a full rigged 
ship, the ' Kangaroo,' of 600 tons, which with a cargo of colonial stores, 
arrived at Hobson's Bay on the 23rd of October, 1853. As managers of the 
store they sent out Messrs. Rignold Scaife and Morgan Brown ; with them 
they brought the necessary dies which had been cut by W. J. Taylor, the 
machinery and stamping press. This last, however, proved too heavy an 
encumbrance, for when once the press itself had been landed on the wharf, no 
available assistance could be obtained for the purpose of removing it to their 
store — the so-called Kangaroo Office — which was situated near the flagstaff, 
at near, or in the present Franklin-street West. Indeed, it was fully six 
months before the whole machinery was fixed up and in full working order; 
but by this time there was a glut of English sovereigns in the Melbourne banks, 
and the price of gold went up to £4 4s. an oz. 

The whole affair collapsed, and instructions having been received 
from the promoters in London to sell all up, the managers attempted to realise 
whatever they could. Already over £13,000 had been invested in the ship 
and stores concerned. Mr. Scaife, the senior manager, sent a lot of machinery 
and cUes home — the remainder, together with the press he sold through Lloyd, 
his agent to Stokes (Martin & Stokes) of Melbourne, where it is being used up 
to the present day. 

The dies that were sent home have been carefully examined; they 
are all incomplete, and have been struck in soft steel from the original dies in 
various stages of their manufacture. 

It is from these dies that were returned to England that the specimens 
numbered 775 a, b, c, yyy a, b, and 779 a and b, PI. 59, in the synopsis, have 
evidently been struck. 

Lest the completed dies should ever fall into other hands, and so render 
the managers of the Kangaroo Office subsequently responsible, Mr. Scaife, on 
leaving Melbourne, gave pertinent instructions that the dies of the four gold 
pieces should be taken out into the bay and sunk. Owing to Morgan Brown 



i 



AUSTRALASIAS TOKENS AND COINS. 125 

having died some years ago, it is impossible to prove now whether the orders 
were carried out — at any rate the (hes have been hunted for at home and abroad, 

and no trace of the in lias been discovered." 

(Long after the writing of the above, and quite within reeiui years, the dies 
have been found in the possession of the successors of Thomas Stokes, in MeUxjurne. 
In 1917, Messrs. Stokes, the present holders, presented replicas in soft m -tal of the 
2, I, I and \ oz. pieces to the Numismatic Society of Victoria.) 

Whatever may have been done previously, there can be no doubt 
but tliat only one set of these pieces was ever issued at Port Philip; this set 
was subsequently exhibited at the first Melbourne E.xhibition. but its after 
history is unknown. As bearing on the rarity of these pieces, it may not be 
out of place to mention that the British Museum contains a complete set ; the 
U.S. Mint Collection at Philadelphia possesses the \ oz. and the 2 oz. piece, 
while a i, \ and \ oz. piece appeared at the sale of Montague's Collection 
(by Messrs. Sotheby) in May, 1892, fetching £37 13s. and £^ 12s. 6d. 
respectively . . . 

During the short time that the office was in existence very large 
quantities of the comparatively common Melbourne-Australian halfpennies 
were issued. 

" One of the firm's practical hands, Arnoldi, used to strike m.Hlals for 
some of the local societies — agricultural and other. 

" Mr. Reginald Scaife is still li\'ing (1892-1893) ; the authors are under a 
great debt of obligation to him, for the above first detailed account of the 
Kangaroo Office, and the true history of what have hitherto been known as 
the Port Philip-Australia pattern gold pieces." 

THE KANGAROO OFFICE GOLD AND 
COPPER ISSUES, 

775. Gold. Two ounces. 1853. 35 mm. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) 

O. — A broad raised engine-turned rim with PORF Pill LIP above 
AUSTRALIA below incused on it. Within, a kangaroo to right 
with date 1853 beneath. 
R._A similar raised rim with PURE .VUSTRALl.W COLD above. 
TWO OUNCES below incused on it. Within, a large figure 2 
with TWO OUNCES incused on it. 
Edge milled. 

A similar piece with plain edge was included in the Murdoch sale as 
unique, but doubts have been expressed regarding its genuineness. 

* On PL 59 there are sho\ni impressions taken from the dies in various 
stages of manufacture. No. 775<J, of the obverse, with Nos. 775^ and 7754- 
of the reverse. These are in the Mitchell Library cabinet. 

776. Gold. Two ounces. 1854. 

This piece, which is said to have been similar on both obverse and 
reverse to No. 775, except as to date, is listed in the catalogue of the Murdoch 
sale. 



126 AUSTR.U.ASL'IN TOKENS AND COINS. 

yyy. Gold. One ounce. 1853. 28 mm. PI. 59. 
O. — Similar to No. 775. 
R. — Similar to No. 775, except that the numeral is i with ONE OUNCE 

incused on it. 
Edge milled. 

* On PI. 59. No. 777CI is an impression from the obverse and yyyh from 
the reverse of this piece made from the dies before completion. These 
are in the Mitchell Library cabinet. 

778.* A copper proof of the obverse of No. 777, with edge milled. 

779. Gold. Half ounce. 1853. 22 mm. 

O. — Similar to No. 775. 

R. — Similar to No. 775, except that the numeral is I and quite plain. 
HALF OUNCE incuse on rim. 

Edge milled. 

* No. yyga, on PI. 59, is an impression in white metal, and yygb, in 
copper of the die of the obverse of this piece in various stages. These 
are in the Mitchell Library cabinet. 

780. Quarter ounce. Gold. 1853. 18 mm. PI. 59. 

O. — As No. 775. 

R. — As No. 775, with tlie numeral I quite plain, and QUARTER OUNCE 
incuse on rim.- 

781.* Four pence (n.d.). Copper. Upset. PI. 56. 

O. — A plain broad raised rim with FOUR PENCE incuse above. Within 

on a trelhsed base a large figure 4 quite plain. 
R. — Britannia seated to left with olive branch in right hand and wand 

in left, the sea and a steamer in the distance. AUSTRALIA over. 

W. J. TAYLOR LONDON on the base. 
Edge plain. 

782.* Halfpenny (n.d.). Copper. 28 mm. Normal. PI. 56. 

0._PURE / AUSTRALIAN / GOLD / ISSUED AT THE / KANGAROO 
OFFICE / PORT PHILIP / NATIVE GOLD / EXCHANGED 
in eight straight lines with PIECES of j, i, i & 2 OZ. curved above 
and ON THE BEST TERMS below. Beaded rim. 

R. — A kangaroo with MELBOURNE over and legend in four hues in the 
exergue, W. J. TAYLOR. MEDALLIST / TO THE GREAT / 
EXHIBITION / 1851. 

Edge plain. 

783. Halfpenny (n.d.). Copper. 28 mm. Normal. 
O.— As No. 782. 
R. — As No. 782 without the legend in the exergue. 

.784. *Medal. Copper. 39 mm. Normal. 

O. — A coining press in sunken centre, with COINS MEDALS & 
TRADESMEN'S TOKENS STRUCK round. On raised rim 
KANGAROO OFFICE above, MELBOURNE below, surrounded 
by a plain circle and enclosed by the projecting rim. 

R. Head of Queen Victoria in high relief, wreathed with rose, shamrock 
and thistle, VICTORIA over, W. J. TAYLOR LONDON in minute 
letters below. 

Edge plain. 

784A. *\\'hite metal. 39 mm. Normal. 
Obverse and reverse as No. 784. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKf-NS AND COINS. 



127 



The Australian Pattern Shilling and Sixpence. 

THESE pieces, about \vlii( h little is known, an- generally suppcjsed to have 
been issued from the Kangaroo Office originally. The dies certainly were 
prepared by W. J. Taylor in England, but whether cither they or the 
pieces themselves were sent to Australia is unknown. When Dr. Koth made his 
inquiries in 1892 in England, Taylor had already passed away, and his successors 
were unable to state anything more definitely concerning the date and object of 
the issue than that they were struck in gold, silver, and copper, somewhere alxiut 
1855, or a little later. 

Since that time one or more re-strikes have been issued, but it is believed 
that the original sets were all milled (and these are certainly the rarer), the sub- 
sequent issues having plain edges ; there is also reason for supposing that the first 
issues had their reverses upset, but this is not certain. In the earlv " sixties" 
the reverse of the Australian shilling was muled with the obverse of two or tliree 
varieties of the English pattern " Wiener " shillings, and copies taken both in silver 
and copper. A specimen of this, witli patterns of the shilling and sixpence in gold. 
silver, and copper, both with niilled and plain edges, are in the cabinet of the Mitchell 
Library, Sydney. 

After Taylor's death the puncheons used for these coins passed into the 
hands of Dr. Bousfield, with other dies, and because part of his extensive collection. 

790.* Pattern Shilling (n.d.). zz mm. (W. J. Taylor fecit.) PI. 56. 

O. — Head of Oueen Victoria wreathed with rose, shamrock and thistle 
in centre. On broad raised engine-turned rim \TrTOl\l.\ incuse 
above, AUSTRALIA below. 

R. — A large figure I (grained) in centre, antl on bmad raised enginr-turn.d 
rim, ONE SHILLING incuse above. 

Edge milled. 

791.* Pattern shilling (n.d.). zz nuu. Mddc in gold. 
O. — As No. 790. 
R. — As No. 790. 

Edge milled. 

792.* Pattern shilling (n.d.). zz inm. Made in copper. 
O. — As No. 790. 
R. — As No, 790. 

Edge milled. 



128 
793- 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Pattern shilling (n.d.). 22 mm. Silver. 

O. — Has a varied head of Oueen Victoria by Wiener with his initials on 
the base of the neck and VICTORIA DEI GRATIA on the rim. 

R. — As No. 790. 

Edge plain. 

794.* Pattern shilling (n.d.). 22 mm. Made in copper. 

O. — As No. 790. 

R. — As No. 790. 

Edge plain. 

Other varieties of shillings muled with other of Wiener's designs are known 
both in silver and copper. 

795.* Pattern Sixpence (n.d.). 19 mm. PI. 56. 

O. — As the shilling, No. 790. 

R. — As the shilling, No. 790, with a figure 6 in centre and SIXPENCE on 
the raised rim. 

Edge milled. 

796.* Pattern Sixpence (n.d.). 
O. — As No. 795. 
R. — As No. 795. 
Edge milled. 

797.* Pattern Sixpence (n.d.). 
O. — As No. 795. 
R. — As No. 795. 
Edge milled. 

Patterns of this piece in gold, silver, and copper with plain edge are 
known. 



19 mm. Made in gold. 



19 mm. IMade in copper. 



AUSTRALASIAX TOKENS AST) COIS'S. 120 



Coins Current in the Early Days of Australia. 

A ANY Foreign coins as well as British issues were current in Au-stralia 
during the early years of settlement, as in many other countries alx»ut 
the same period. Much has been written alxjut them and their 
fluctuating values, and there would be little gain in a detailed description of them 
here. A few have been noted, and will be found on Plates 59, 60, and 61, which 
will give the reader a fair idea of the variety of currency, which must liave been a 
great tax on the patience of the honest trader. The vidues fluctuated as the mvtal 
they contained rose or fell in the world's markets, but the difficulty of retaining 
any coin in countries having no Mint of their own led to the fixing of artificial prices 
at times; generally above that for which they were current in their country of 
origin. Hence it was unprofitable to export, and possibly the local wants were 
occasionally better met. As an instance of this latter practice we need only refer 
to a Proclamation made by Governor King in New South Wales on 19th Xoveinln'r. 
i^oo, in which he fixes the rates at which certain coins wrre to pass current in that 
Colony : - 

is. d. 

An English Guinea i 2 o 

A Johanna 4 o o 

A Half Johanna 2 o o 

A Ducat o 9 6 

A Gold Mohur i 17 6 

A Pagoda o 8 o 

A Spanish Dollar o 5 o 

A Rupee o 2 6 

A Dutch Guelder 020 

An English Shilling <> i i 

A copper coin of i oz o o 2 

It will be noted that with the exception of the last-mentioned cop^xT coin of one 
ounce, which was the current penny, the value was fixed near tliat of the intrinsic 
value of the piece. It is also added by some writers that the English halfiXMiny 
was to pass as a penny and the farthing as a halfpenny, and others claim that the 
twopence was current at 4d., but the Proclamation says nothing alxnit tliese last 
three. The following is a list of the coins principally passing at tlie time, but is 
by no means complete, almost any coin passing for the value of its metal contents 
when at all near purity. 

801.* Joannes V. Portugal. Gold. jC) nun. 444 grs. PI. bi. Generally known 

as a " Johanna " and passing at £4. 
802.* Joannes V. Portugal. Gold. 31mm 220 grs. PI. 39- A Half Johanna. £2. 
8o3.*Carolus IIII. Spain Gold. 35 mm. 418 grs. £3 15s. to £4. PI. 61 



130 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

804.* Ferdinand VII. Spain. Gold. 418 grs. £^ 15s. to £4. 

805.* Maria L. Portugal. Gold. 32 mm. 220 grs. £1 i6s. to £2. PI. 59. 

806.* Ducat. Gold. 55 grs. 21 mm. 9s. 6d. PI. 59. 

807.* Pagoda. Gold. 46 grs. 16 mm. 8s. PI. 59. 

808.* Gold Mohur. £1 17s. These varied in weight and value, coming from different 

parts of India. 
809.* EngHsh Guinea. George III. £1 2s. PI. 6r. 
810.* Half Guinea. lis. 
811.* Spanish Dollar. 5s. PI. 60. Silver. 
812.* Half Dollar. 2s. 6d. PI. 60. 
813.* Quarter Dollar, is. 3d. PI. 60. 
814.* One-eighth Dollar. 9d. PI. 60. 
815.* Dutch Guelder. 2s. PI. 60. 
816.* Sicca Rupee. 2s. 6d. 
817.* Rupee. 2s. 

818.* Enghsh Shilling (Wire money), is. id. PI. 60. 
819.* English Sixpence (Wire money). PL 60. 
820.* Twopence. Copper. George III. 4d. PI. 61. 
821.* Penny. Copper. George III. 2d. PL 61. 
822.* Halfpenny. Copper. George III. id. PL 61. 
823.* Farthing. Copper. George III. ^d. PL 61. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 1^,1 



Australian Gold Coins* 

WHILE South Australia grapi)kd boldly with the difficulties arising from 
the abundant yield of gold from many fields, the other colonies were by 
no means idle, but evidently preferred to act in more constitutional 
ways. As early as December, 1851, the Legislative Council of New South Wales 
sent Home a petition to the Queen, asking for the establishment of a branch of the 
Royal Mint in Sydney. In July, 1852, the Legislative Council of \'ictoria presented 
a similar petition, asking for a Mint to coin gold in Melbourne for Victorian use only. 
In October the same year South Australia also petitioned for a Mint in Adelaide. 
The necessary delay while the Home Authorities were considering, with an accen- 
tuation of the local trouble, led to the South Austli-alian action, as above mentioned. 

The Home Authorities evidently thought the matter worthy of very grave 
consideration, and especially the question whether one Mint in Sydney would not 
be sufficient to meet the difficulty and avoid the expense of several establishments. 
The intention then was merely to mint gold coins to supply the local wants of Aus- 
tralia, and render the gold more easily marketable elsewhere, though there was no 
intention of making the coins legal currency outside of New South Wales. Under 
a Proclamation by the Queen, and an Order-in-Council dated 19th .\ugust, 1853, 
the Sydney Mint was decided on, though not brought into action till May, 1855. 
It was constituted a branch of and subordinate to the Royal Mint for the coinage 
of gold only — sovereigns and half-sovereigns. The Sydney coins were not accepted 
as legal tender outside the limits of New South Wales, and consequently much 
dissatisfaction and trouble was caused by their circulation in other colonies. 
Though assay showed that they were intrinsically worth about one-tenth part of a 
penny more than the produce of the London ]\Iint, they were only received there as 
bulhon, and each worth 19s. lod. Melbourne would only receive them at a discount 
of a shilling, and most of the London banks made the same charge. 

The Mint was opened for the receipt of gold on 14th May, and the hrst issue 
of coins made on 23rd June, 1855. It is claimed that the very first piece struck 
is now in the possession of a well-known resident of Sydney. It was preser\ed by 
someone attached to the Mint as a curio. 

Within a very short time a change of opinion regaiding the \alue of the 
colonial product must have taken place, for the S\dney Empire newspaper, in 
June, 1856, shows that the fact of it being alloyed with silver instead of cop^x^r, as 
were the Imperial issues, was officially recognised; the balance in favour of the 
Sydney coin being about lod. per ounce. In July, 1857, they were made legal 
tender in Victoria. In this connection there is some explanation wanted. The 
legislation appears to have been under Section 14 of the Act 26 Vict. No. 425. dated 
20th April, 1864. Under this section it is provided that — 

" Certain gold coins called Australian sovereigns and luilf-sovereigns, 
struck at the branch of Her Majesty's Royal Mint at Sydney, in the colony of 



t32 AUSTliALASlAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

New South Wales, shall be, and shall be deemed to have been irom, the four- 
teenth day of July, A.D. 1857, current and lawful money within X'ictoria, 
together with and in like manner as current coin of the realm." 

It is difficult to understand the circumstances which would be met by the 
Act being made retrospective for such a long period as seven years when dealing 
with transactions generally completed within a day or two. 

In July, 1862, a Select Committee of the House of Commons recommended 
that : Gold coins issued from the branch Mint at Sydney should have as nearly as 
possible the same alloy, and the same quality of execution as those struck at the 
London Mint, and also should have currency in the British Dominions as those 
minted in London. Further, that they should be distinguished by a Mint mark 
sufficient to allow bankers and others to recognise their origin. These recommen- 
dations were given effect to by Imperial Proclamation, 6th February, 1867, but 
not carried out till 1871, since which time the London and colonial issues have been 
identical, except that the latter bear a Mint mark. In 1872, a second branch of the 
Imperial Mint was opened in Australia at Melbourne ; and in 1899, a third at Perth 
in Western Australia. Many millions of pieces have been struck in these establish- 
ments, and frequently they have supplied the whole Imperial gold coinage for a 
year. 

The dies used from the commencement have been supplied from the London 
Mint, those used for the first issue in 1855, being by James Wyon ; the second issue 
in 1857, by I- C. Wyon; in 1871, by W. Wyon; in 1887, by J. Boehm ; in 1893, 
by T. Brock; in 1902, by De Saulles ; and in 1911, by Bertram Mackennal. 

Since the commencement of work at the Sydney Mint, sovereigns have been 
issued each year, and also at Melbourne and Perth Mints since their installation. 
Half-sovereigns have not been issued every year, there at times being a gap of three 
or four years when none were coined. It is not uncommon when looking over a 
series to find pieces with dates which the detailed lists of the Mints indicate as years 
when none were struck. This is accounted for at times by the delay in the dies 
reaching Australia, and then being used perhaps after the commencement of the 
following year. In the detailed list which follows, every date will be indicated as 
far as possible, with the understanding that errors may be found due to that 
circumstance. 



SOVEREIGNS AND HALF-SOVEREIGNS. 

826.* Sovereign. 1855. Sydney Mint. PL 57. 

O. — Plain filleted head of Oueen Victoria to left with date under. 
VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D: round. 

R. — AUSTRALIA under a Royal Crown; within a wreath of laurel, above 
SYDNEY MINT, and below, ONE SOVEI^EIGN. 

Edge milled. 

A pattern of this piece with the date 1853 is in the London Mint 
Museum 



AUSTRALASIAN TO K HNS AND COINS. 



133 



827.* Half- Sovereign. Sydney Mint. 1855. 

O.— As No. 826. 

R.— As No. 826, witli HALF SOVEREIGN below, in place of SOVEREIGN. 

In 1856, both denominations were issued with alteration of the date 
only. 

828.* Sovereign. 1857. Sydney. (L. C. Wyon.) PI. 57. 

O.— Has VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REG: !•: D: with the Oueen's 

head to left wreathed with waratah round the hair, which is plaited. 

the date below. 
R.— As No. 826. 
Edge milled. 

829.* Half -Sovereign. 1857. Sydney. 

0.— As No. 828. 

R.— As No. 828, with HALF SOVEREIGN. 

These two issues were repeated each year till and including 1870, except 
that no half-sovereigns were issued in i8()4, 18O6, 1868, and 1870. 

830. Sovereign. 1871. Sydney. (W. Wyon.) PI. 57. 

O. — Filleted head of the Queen to left, with W'.W. on the truncation of 
the neck and a minute S under. Legend, VICTORLV I): G: 
BRITANNIAR: REG: F: D: 

R. — St. George and Dragon as designed by Bernardetto Pistrucci for the 
Crown of Geo. Ill in 1818. His initials in very small letters are 
under the base on the right. Tlie date 1871 in e.xergue. 

Edge milled. 

831. Sovereign. 1871. Sydney. PI. 57. 

O. — As No. 830, without the Mint m;irk S under the head, .uul tiie legem! 

reading VICTORIA DEI GRATL\. 
R.— BRITANNIARUM REGINA FID: DlCl": with >hi. Id ..I arms 

garnished and crowned ; below a minute S as Mint mark. 
Edge milled. 

Both Nos. 830 and 831 were issued by the Sydney Mint for each year 
till and including 1887. the No. 831 pieces were made for exjx>rt to India 
chiefly as the design was preferred there. Similar issues with a small M as 
Mint mark were also issued by the Melbourne Mint each year from 1S72. 
when that Mint was established. 

832. Half-Sovereign. 1872. Sydney. PI. 57. 

O. — As No. 830. 

R. — As No. 831 with the omission of the laurel wreath and rose, shamrock 
and thistle under. 
These were issued bv Svdnev Mint in 1872, 1874. 187(1, 1878, 1879. 1880. 
1881, 1882. 1883, 1886, and 1887; by Melbourne in 1873. 1877. 1881, 1884. 
1885, and 1886. 

833. Sovereign. Sydney. 1873. 

0.— As No. 830, but th.e Mint mark S i^ larger. . 
R.— As No. 830, 



134 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

834. Sovereign. 1880. Sydney. 

O. — As No. 830, but the Mint mark S is decidedly smaller and more distant 

from the head. 
R.— As No. 830. 

835. Sovereign. 1883. Sydney. 

0. — As No. 830, with the Mint mark still lower. 
R.— As No. 830. 

836. Sovereign. 1887. Sydney. PI. 57. 

O. — As No. 830, with the Mint mark very low and more to the right. 
R.— As No. 830. 
This was issued early in the year. 

837. Sovereign. 1887. Sydnev- (Designed by J. E. Boehm and engraved by 

L. C. Wyon.) PI. 57. 
O. — The well-known Jubilee head of the Queen to left with flowing veil 
and small crown above. J.E.B. on the truncation of the bust. 
VICTORIA D: G: BRITT: REG: F: D: 

R.— As No. 830. 
These were issued yearly by Sydney till 1893, and also by the Melbourne 
Mint. 

838. Half-Sovereign. 1887. Sydnev. PI. 57. 

O.— As No. 837, but reading VICTORIA DEI GRATIA. 

R. — A somewhat larger shield of arms with a very minute Mint mark S 

under the point which divides the date having 18 to left and 87 to 

right. 

These were issued by Sydney in 1887, 1889, and 1891, and Melbourne in 
1887, and 1893. 

839. Sovereign. 1893. Sydney. (Designed by T. Brock, engraved by G. W. 

De Saulles.) PI. 57. 
O. — Veiled head of the Oueen to left with T.B. under and reading 

VICTORIA DEI GRA: BRITT: REGINA. FID. DEF. IND. IMP. 
R.— As No. 830. 

These were issued yearly by Sydney and Melbourne till and including 
1901 ; by Perth from 1899, to 1901. 

840.* Half-Soveregin. Sydney. 1893. PL 57. 
O.— As No. 839. 

R. — St. George and the Dragon as on the Sovereign, with the engraver's 
initials omitted. 
These were issued by S\^dney in 1893, 1898, 1899, and 1900 ; 
Melbourne in 1896, 1899, and 1900; and Perth in 1900. 

841. Sovereign. 1902. Sydney. PI. 57. (G. W. De Saulles.) 

O.— EDWARDUS VII D : G : BRITT : OMN : REX F : D : IND : IMP : 

Head of King to right uncrowned with DeS below in small letters. 
R. — St. George and the Dragon ; below the date and BP in very small 

letters. 
Edge milled. 
These were issued by Sydney, Melbourne, and Perth each year till 1910. 



AUSTRALASIAN TO K HNS AND COINS. 1 35 

842. Half-Sovereign. 1902. Sydney. PI. 57. 

0. and R. as No. 841. 

These were issued by Sydney in 1902, 1903, I9<jO, and i(/)>^ '-^ 
Melbourne 1906, 1908, 1909, and 1910; Perth 1904, 1908, and 1909. 

843. Sovereign. George V. 1911. (Designed by Bertram Mackennal.) 

0. — Head of the King to left witli the truncation of the neck running 
downwards to a sliarp point. (;K(JK(,IL'S V D. C. BRITT: O.MN 
REX F. D. IND: IMP: round witliin the indented rim. 

R.— St. George and the Dragon as on previous issues, with date in the 
exergue. The designer's initials B.P. in very minute letters under 
the base. 

Edge milled. 

The piece illustrated on PI. 57, No. 843, is a pattern struck at the 
Melbourne Mint and bears theMint mark M on the base on the reverse. 

Sovereigns similar excepting date liave been issued by Sydney, Melb<iurne. 
and Perth each year to and including 1920. 

844. Half-Sovereign. 1911. George V. 

0. — Similar to No. 843. 

R.— Similar to No. 843. 

These were issued with differing dates by Sydney in 1912, 1914, 1915. 
and 1916; by Melbourne in 1915; and Perth in 191 1, 1915, and 1919. 



136 



AUSTILALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Commonwealth Coins* 

THE enormous production of silver by the Broken Hill and other mines in 
Austraha during the ninth decade of last century, concurrently with 
increased yields in other countries, led to a great depreciation in the value 
of the metal in the markets of the world. British silver issues, as well as those of 
other countries, which had nearly always an intrinsic value below that at which 
they circulated, showed an enormous profit from their manufacture, a fact which 
Colonial Treasurers did not overlook as a new source of revenue it the Home 
Authorities could be induced to allow a distinctive silver coinage here. Negotiations 
were opened by the Governments of both New South Wales and Victoria with the 
British Government, and after much interchange of documents permission was 
given in 1898. for the coinage of both silver and bronze at the Mints in Sydney and 
Melbourne. 

At that date the question of Federation overshadowed all others in the 
minds of Australian pohticians, and nothing was done. When Federation became 
an accomplished fact, in 1900, the Constitution made " currency, coinage, and 
legal tender " a Federal concern. The first few years after Federation the hands 
of the Government were full of more important matters, and it was not till 1908, 
that the Treasurer announced his intention of initiating the coinage of silver in the 
near futuie. 

The official return for that year showed that the actual cost of i lb. of 
silver, which produced 66 shillings, was but £1 4s. 4|d., leaving a very large margin 
to meet expenses and repay capital outlay, and the cost of the withdrawal of coin 
when it became worn. Doubtless this prospective profit strengthened the desire 
for a distinctive Australian coinage. In 1909, a Bill was passed by the Common- 
wealth Parliament, which provided that in future the current coins of Australia 
should be in gold, £5, £2, £1, and los. ; in silver 2s., is., 6d., and 3d. ; and in bronze 
or nickel id. and Jd. At the same time permission was given for the coinage of 
silver and bronze or nickel pieces. All were to be exactly the same size, fineness of 
alloy, and weight as the British coins of equal face value. 

Much discussion followed regarding the design to be adopted, and ultimately 
it was decided that the obverse should be exactly similar to the corresponding 
Imperial issue with the King's head and Latin inscription. On the reverse of the 
silver pieces the " Ensigns iVrmorial of the Commonwealth of Australia," as 
authorised by the Royal Warrant dated 7th May, 1908, with the value above and 
the date below. 

The bronze pieces have the same obverse, and on the reverse the value in 
two lines across the centre enclosed in a double linear circle, and the legend, 
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA, with the date. 

An arrangement was made with the Imperial Government by which, until 
the coinage could be undertaken in Australia, the necessary supplies should be 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



^37 



provided by the Royal Mint in London on account of the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment. Orders were at once given for £20o,o(jo of silver, consisting of i.ooo.ooo 
each of florins, shiUings, and sixpences, with 2,000,000 of threepences. It was 
also decided to shortly order £10,000 worth of bronze pieces, viz., 1,560,000 pence 

and 1,680,000 halfpence. 

The first consignm'>nt of silver reached Australia early in igio, and before 
the end of the year the whole order was met. All the pieces bear the (Lite 1910. 
and the head of the kite lamented King Edward \'II. They were distributed 
through the Melbourne and Sydney Mints. Xo bronze j^ieces were mide in this 
year. 

In 1911, again, the siher issues were repeated, with the necessary alteration 
of date, and bearing the head of the present King George V, who had then succeeded 
to the Throne. The silver issues also were for the first time supplemented by bronze 
pence and halfpence. All were mide at the London Mint. 

In later years the assistance of the celebrated hriu of Heaton & Sons was 
secured to supplement the output of tlie London establishment, as will be noted in 
the detailed list. The Calcutta Mint also was employed in producing some of the 
bronze issues. By 1916, alterations at the Melbourne Mint were completed, which 
enabled the staff there to produce, first shillings in Januarv. florins almost 
immediately after, sixpences by the middle of the year, and threepences in December. 
All the issues of silver in that year bear the Melbourne Mint mark — a small M — to 
indicate their place of origin. From that time all sUver coins have issued from that 
Mint. During the three 3'ears 1916, 1917, and 1918, the bronze pieces wore procured 
from Calcutta, and at length, in 1919, the Melbourne Mint produced the whole 
Commonweath issues, except the half-pence, which were struck in Svdney. The 
bronze pieces do not bear a Mint mark. 

Much work has been done in Melbourne with a \iew of jiroducing a smaller 
and handier coin than the bronze, either of nickel or other light metal, but no dehnite 
decision has yet been made. The production of coins of inferior alloy, owing to 
the enormous appreciation in the value of siher, has also engaged the attention of 
the officials in Melbourne, as in other jiarls of the British Lmpire. It would apjx^ar 
that a depreciation in tlie fineness of the material enijiloyed in the production of 
any coins must e\'entually lead to a differentiation and possible loss in exch.mge. 
especially while the former issues of better alloy remain in circulation. Howevrr. 
it would seem that all civilised countries are experiencing the s;ime ilitVirultw a\u\ 
we may surely hope that wise financiers will hnd soiu',- wav of lessening tlie loss 
that now apparently looks ine\itable. 

COMMONWEALTH COINS. 

881. Florin. 1910. (London Mint.) PL 38. 

0.— EDWARDUS VH D : G : BRITT : OMN : Ri:.\ V : D : IXD : IMI' : 

Crowned and robed bust of King Edward to right. 
R. — The Ensigns Armorial of the Commonwealth of Australia, above 
ONE FLORIN, below the date. 1910. 



jog AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

882. Shilling. 1910. PI. 58. 

O.— Similar to No. 881. 

R— Similar to No. 881, but reading ONE SHILLING. 

883. Sixpence. 1910. PI. 58- 

O.— Similar to No. 881. 

R.— Similar to No. 881, but reading SIXPENCE. 

884. Threepence. 1910. PI. 58- 

O.— Similar to No. 881. 

R.— Similar to No. 881, but reading THREEPENCE. 

885. Florin. 1911. 

O.— GEORGIUS V D. G. BRITT. OMN: REX F. D. IND: IMP: Cro^vned 

and robed bust of King George to left. 
R. — As No. 881, except date. 

886. Shilling. 1911. 

0.— As No. 885. 

R. — Similar to No. 882, except date. 

887. Sixpence. 1911. 

O.— As No. 885. 

R. — Similar to No. 883, except date. 

888. Threepence. 1911. 

O.— Similar to No. 885. 

R. — Similar to No. 884, except date. 

889. Penny. 1912. Bronze. (Heaton & Sons fecit.) 

O. — Similar to the British penny of even date and design as the florin. 

R. — ONE / PENNY in two straight lines in centre with a scroll ornament 
above and below, enclosed in a double linear circle with a circle 
of dots between the lines. Round the edge COMMONWEALTH 
OF AUSTRALIA. 19 U. 

890. Halfpenny. 1912. Bronze. 

O.— As No. 889. 

R._As No. 889, but has ONE / HALF / PENNY in three lines and a short 
bar under in the inner circle. 
In 1913, florins, shillings, pence, and halfpence were issued by the London 
Mint. No sixpences or threepences were issued. 

In 1914, the London Mint supplied all six denominations and Heaton & 
Sons supplemented the florins and halfpence. 

In 1 91 5, florins, shillings, threepences, and pence came from the London 
Mint, Heaton & Sons also supplying florins, shillings, pence, and ah the 
halfpence of that year. 

891. Florin. 1916. PI. 58. (Melbourne Mint.) 

0.— As No. 885. 

R.— Similar to No. 885, with the Melbourne Mint mark M under the date, 
1916. 



II 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 1 30 

892. Shilling. 1916. PI. 58. 

O.— As No. 885. 

R. As No. 886, with M under the date, 1916. 

893. Sixpence. 1916. PI. 58. 

O.— As No. 885. 

R.— As No. 887, with .M under the date, 191 6. 

894. Threepence. 191 6. PI. 58. 

O.— As No. 885. 

R. — As No. 888, with M under the date, 191 6. 

895. Penny. 1916. (Calcutta Mint.) 

O.— As No. 889. 

R. — As No 889, with a minute I (Calcutta Mint mark) under the lower 
scroll and date 1916. 

896. Halfpenny. 1916. 

O.— As No. 889. 

R. — As No. 890, with a minute I under the lower scroll and date 1910. 

In 1917, and 1918, similar issues were made of both silver and bronze, 
the latter bearing the Calcutta Mint mark. 

In 1919, the Melbourne Mint issued florins, sixpences, threepences, pence, 
and halfpence. No shillings were struck. The silver pieces have the usual 
Mint mark, but there is none on the bronze. (See PI. 58, Nos. 897 and 898.) 

899. Penny. 1920. 

O.— As No. 889. 

R. — As No. 889 with a minute dot just Ih'Iow tlu- centre of tin- li)wer scroll 
to indicate that it was struck in Meli)ourne from dies made locally. 

900. Penny. 1920. 

O.— As No. 889. 

R. — As No. 899, but with the dot a])ove the centre of the scroll, indicating 
that it was struck at the Sydney ^iint. 

1920, October. — The Commonwealth issues bearing the date 1920, did 
not appear till after the end of the first half of the year. Six}->ences, three- 
pences, and pence of tlie usual d(>sign were struck from dies of 1910. and 
it was not till September that halfpence bearing the date 1920, were issued 
from the Sydney Mint. About the same time pence with this date were 
struck in Melbourne from dies prepared in that establishment. They arc 
distinguished from the ordinary coins by having a minute . or Ix^ad placed 
just below the centre of the lower scroll on the reverse, but have no regular 
Mint mark. On October 6th a similar issue was commenced in Sydney, 
the first piece being struck by Dame Margaret Davidson, wife of the State 
(lOvernor. These have the . or bead placed just above the centre ot the lower 
scroll instead of below. 

In December a small coinage of shillings was made in the Melbourne 
Mint of the usual design. 



140 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Surcharged Tokens* 

THE following list of various names, letters, or figures surcharged on tokens, 
coins or blanks of similar size is added, because many give some evidence 
that certain people carried on various trades, &c., during the time that 
tokens were in general use. These were nearly all business men that were not 
sufficiently attracted by the possible profit attached to the issue of tokens bearing 
their own name, and carrying therewith the responsibility of their redemption, or 
did not consider that mode of advertisement any great advantage. There are 
many that now give no information to anyone finding them, but possibly at the 
time they were surcharged, the initials &c., on them would be easily connected with 
the issuers. In other cases it would appear that they were probably imports from 
the Mother Country, and only accidental. Again, there are some, as those of 
LLOYD'S newspaper, which were in all probability sent out in large numbers as 
pure advertisements, with perhaps a fair chance of repaying the cost of transfer 
from Home, where they may have been purchased merely for the metal (they being 
nearly always extremely worn), and circulated in Australia at their face value. 
Again, some may undoubtedly be classed as " sports," having been produced merely 
for amusement to show the ingenuity of the maker, while in other cases, as BULL 
on the Hindmarsh pieces, it did signify a certain responsibility in that the suicharge 
made the piece current as cash, at another than its place of origin. 

1 001. A & S on obverse, 6 on reverse of Stokes penny. 

1002. A & S on one side, 4 on the other on a blank. 

1003. An Anchor on Hague Smith penny. 

1004. A.S.N. Co. over three men in a boat, on copper blank, pence and halfpence 

of Geo. Ill and Victoria. These have also been listed among tokens, as 
they have been claimed to have been current as such. 

1005. J. ABEY on obverse, ZZ on reverse of Geo. Ill penny. 

1006. J. ADKIN on Geo. Ill twopence. 

1007. A. L. with I on Robt. Hyde & Co. penny. 

1008. ALLAMBY on Miller Bros, and other pence. 

A Mrs. Allamby was a greengrocer at 50 & 52 Oueensberry-street 
East, North Melbourne, in i860. 

1009. J. ANNSON & CO MELBOURNE in a circle, I in a depressed circle in centre 

on a Stokes penny. 

loio. AUCKLAND TOLL GATE 6d. QUEEN ST. on copper blank, 31 mm. 
loii. B. on Alfred Nicholas penny. 

1012. B. on both sides of Hide & De Carle penny. 1858. 

1013. B. on Stokes penny. 

1014. B. on obverse, B.B. on reverse on Friedman penny. 

1015. B.B. on Hide & De Carle penny. 1858. 

1016. BBB on Edwd. De Carle penny. 




AUSTRALASI.IM TDK ESS AND COISS. 



141 



1017. J. BLACKMORE on J. lldulcrson rrccmantlc p<nnv. 

1018. J. BLYTHON on dcd. Ill iwoixncc 

1019. J. BLYTHON on both sides of (jco. Ill twoixiK v. 

1020. J. E. BONNEY on White Thos. Westbury jx-nny. 

1021. W.B. on Parker penny. 

1022. W. BOX on Holloway jK'nny. 1H58. 

1023. W. BROWN on Geo. Ill penny. 

1024. WILLIAM BROWNIE. / MAKER / UXBRIDOE in three lines on Hanks 

&. Lloyd penny. 1855. 

1025. BURTON on obverse, BURTON . J. . HALL . NEWCASTI,!-. ..n nwr^e r.f 

Geo. Ill penny. 

1026. BULL on Hindmarsh fourpence. 

1027. A. BUSH on both sides of ANNAXl), SMITH cS: Co. penny and f»th«T tokens. 

Bush was a livery stal)le keejjcr in i85f) at 281 Eli/.abeth-slreet, 
Melbourne. 

1028. J. BUTCHER on Oueen Vietoria jx'nny. 1841. 

1029. lOU / 3 / AC on one side of plain brass disc. 

1030. E.C. on Peace & Plenty penny. 1858. 

1031. J.A.C. on Holloway penny. 1857. 

1032. J. E.C. on Hide & De Carle penny. 1857. On reverse. 

1033. J. E.C. on Hide & De Carle penny. 1857. ^^'^ obverse. 

1034. J. E.C. on Robt. Hyde halfpenny. 1857. 

1035. J. E.C. on Melbourne penn\'. 

1036. J. E.C. on Stokes penny. 

1037. J. E.C. on Wood Hobart penny. 

J. E. Crockford kept the Eountain Inn, I)a\-street, SandricL'e in 
1859. 

1038. F C on Somerville penny. 

1039. J McC on Geo. HI penny. 

1040. J McC in a parallelogram on a Geo. Ill piMiny. 

1041. F. CADE on Annand, Smith & Co. penny. 

1042. F. CADE I on Annand, Smith & Co. piMm\-. 

1043. F. CADE 6 on Annand, Smith tS: Ca). penny. 

Frederic Cade, Chemist and Drugi^ist, 134 Collins-street East. 

1044. J. CLEMMET with spray of flowers above ; double spray of leaves Ix'low 

on Isle of Man penny. 

1045. G. COBLEY' on Davies, AlexancUr iS; Co. juMiny. 

1046. I. COBLEY' on Davies, Alexamler tS; Co. penny. 

1047. T. COKER on both sides of Hanks iS: Lloyd piMiny. 

1048. T. COKER on Hanks cS: Co. penny. 1857. 

1049. T. COKER on Melbourne penny. 



142 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



1050. T. COKER on Petty penny. 

T. Coker was a greengrocer in 1855, at 51 Lonsdale-street, Melbourne. 
One of the same name had the City Loan Office at 21 Lonsdale- 
street in 1859, and in 1865, was a Stock and Sharebroker at 69 
Collins-street. 

1051. COOK W. C. BY / W. C. COOK / BAY ST / SANDRIDGE in four lines 

in the centre, SUGAR WORKS TREACLE DELIVERED round the 
edge of a Geo. Ill penny. 

1052. E. COTTRILL LATE COTTRILL & CO on Pope & Co. penny. 

1053. E. COTTRILL LATE COTTRILL & CO on obverse, 2I on reverse Pope & 

Co. penny. 

1054. E. COTTRILL LATE COTTRILL & CO on obverse, 8 on reverse Pope & Co. 

penny. 

1055. A. COVERLID on Gippsland Co. penn}'. 

Hairdresser, 37 Little Bourke-street, East Melbourne. 

1056. J. COVERLID on Stokes penny. 

Greengrocer, Church-street, Richmond, 1S59. 

1057. CROXOX on Geo. Ill twopence. 

1058. CROXSON on Geo. Ill penny. 

1059. D. on Smith, Peate & Co. penny. 

1060. D. on Robt. Hyde & Co. penny. 

1061. D on Stokes penn3^ 

1062. JD on Parker penn3^ 

1063. J.D. on Parker penny. 

1064. J. DALTO on Holloway halfpenny. 

1065. JD/G in two lines on Holloway penny. 1858. 

1066. JD/G in two lines on Holloway halfpenny. 1858. 

1067. TD with heart-shaped ornament on Hide & De Carle penny. 1857. 

1068. WD on Stokes & Martin penny. 

1069. W'DD on Stokes & Martin penny. 

1070. WDD on Stokes penny. 

1071. WD on old Irish penny. 

1071a. DALRY on Geo. Ill penny; also surcharged both sides, LLOYD WEEKLY, 
&c. 

1072. I. Dx\XIELS on Hide & De Carle penny. 1857. 

1073. I. DAXIELS on Holloway penny. 1858. 

A Mrs. Daniels was a grocer at Leveson-street, North Melbourne. 

1074. J. DEAN on Parker penny. 

1075. W. DEAN on Parker penny. 

1076. DOVER CASTLE on several pence of Queen Victoria. A crown in the centre. 

The Dover Castle Hotel was at North Adelaide. 

1077. T. DAVIS on Geo. Ill penny. 

1078. S. DAWE in two lines on Geo. Ill penny. 

1079. E on both sides of Melbourne penny. 

1080. TE & Co. on Holloway penny. 1857. 




AUSTh'AL.lSf.lX lOKIC.XS ,1X1) COIXS. 



143 



1081. GORDON EVANS STOCK & SHARK BROKER MELBOURNE on 

Geo. Ill twopence. 

In 1866, Hall of Commerrc, roljins-stnct, .Mcllioiirne. 

1082. F on L. Abrahams penny. 

1083. F on R. Josephs penny. 

1084. FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER in three lines on Parker pennv.\ 

1085. FAX / LEATHER / CUTTICR in three lines on Holioway 

penny. 1857. ' | 

1086. FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER in three lines on Ifolh.way -A<l.lai<le. 

halfpenny. 1857. j 

1087. FAX / LEATHER / CUTTER in three lines en Hollow.iv 

penny. 1858. J 

1088. G I over an anchor on a zinc blank. 
io8g. H.G. both sides of Stead Bros, penny. 

1090. H.G. on obverse and twice on reverse on J. W. i\: (i. Williams pennv. 

1091. J.G. on Geo. Ill lialfpenny. 

1092. J.A.G. on Robison Bros, penny. 

1093. W.H.G. 1838 on Geo. Ill penny; and W.ll.G. in two lines on the reverse. 

This is W. H. Geary, Sydney. 

1094. GARDNER & CO / SYDNEY in two lines on a halfpenny of 1883. 

1095. GARDNER & CO / SYDNEY in two lines on halfpennv. 1883 ; NER .'v CO / 

SYDNEY on the reverse. 

G 

1096. Geelong Volunteer Fire Brigade on copper halfpence B 6 V 

F 

1097. W H GIBB on Stokes penny. 

W. H. Gibb & Co., merchants, 50 Collins-street, Melbourne, in 1835. 

1098. WM GIBB on Stokes penny. 

1099. J GRAY on HoUoway halfpenny. 1857. 

John Gray, grocer. Bridge-street, Richmond. i8C)(). 

1 100. J GREGG on Hanks & Co. halfpenny. 
iioi. H on Geo. Ill penny. 

1102. J.H. on Geo. Ill penny. 

1103. HAMMOND / & / MEAD in three lines on Hidc> Cv De Carle penny. 

1104. R. HARRIS on Warburton penny. 

Tinsmith and plumber, Swan-street, Richmoml. i860. 

1 105. J. HAMMERTON on Parker penny. 

1 106. T. C. HERMSIDE on Holland & Butler ix'uny. 

1 107. J. HOLLAND on Marsh & Brother penny. 

J. Holland, 1855, Globe Inn, 108 Swanston -street, Mell-K-mnic. 
John HoHand, 1861, Stock Hotel, 288 Elizi\beth-street, Melbourne. 

1108. HOLLAND / & / MEAD in three lines on Geo. Ill penny. 

[Query : HOLLAND & MEDE ?] 

1109. M. M. HARMONY LODGE NE\VCASTLE 1885. on bronze penny, 
mo. A. HOLMES GEELONG on Parker penn>-. 

Till. T. HOWITT on Geo. Ill penny. 



I^^ AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS 

II 12. C. HYDE on Butterworth penny, 

iiij. C. HYDE on Cope penny. 

1 1 14. C. HYDE on Levy Bros, penny. 

1 1 15. C. HYDE on Miller Bros, penny. 

iiig. C. HVDE on Hide & Dc Carle halfpenny. 

1 120. C. HYDE on A. G. Hodgson halfpenny. 

1 121. C. HYDE on Stokes penny. 

1 122. J. HYLAND on Kangaroo Office halfpenny. 

1123. C. JENKINS ADELAIDE on Martin & Sach penny, and others. 

1 124. C. JENKINS AUCTIONEER ADELAIDE on Holloway penny, and others. 

1 125. JOHNSON & CO MELBOURNE round edge, I in circle in centre, on a blank. 

Johnson & Co., importers of photo, goods, 62 Little Collins-street, 
and Emerald Hill. 

1126. JOHNSON & CO MELBOURNE as No. 1125, on Geo. Ill penny. 

1 127. W. JULER on Geo. Ill penny. 

1128. A.K. on Holloway 1858, penny. 

1129. J.E.K. on Holloway 1857, penny. 

1130. J. KELLY on Geo. Ill penny. 

1137. R.K. on Butterworth penny. 

1 138. T. KELLY on Geo. Ill Irish halfpenny'. 

1 139. W. KERNOT on Parker penny. 

1 1 40. W. KERNOT on McFarlane penny. 

1141. W. KERNOT on obverse; W.H.K. on reverse Parker penny. 

1 142. \V. KERNOT on obverse; W.H.K. on reverse on IMcFarlane penny. 

1 143. W. H. KERNOT CHILWELL on obverse; in large letters on Thos. White 

penny. 

1 144. KERNOT CHILLWELL on obverse, W.H.K. on reverse of Holloway 1857, 

penny. 

1145. KERNOT /W KERNOT /CHILLWELL /W.H.K. in four lines radiating 

from the centre on obverse ; CHILLWELL on reverse of Annand, Smith 
& Co. penny, and others. 

W. H. Kemot was a chemist at Chillwell, Geelong, and some of his 
descendants still reside there. 

1146. KING on several tokens. 

J. King, restaurant, 25 William-street, INIelbourne. 1855. 
N. King, 1856, tobacconist, 89 Bourke-street East. 
Peter A. King, Crown Hotel, High-street, Prahran. 

1 147. KING under a crown on Robt. Hyde & Co. penny. 

1148. KING under a Crown on Robt. Hyde & Co. halfpenny, and others. 

1 149. AL with I above on R. Hyde & Co. penny. 

1 1 50. J. LEE on Parker penny. 

Broker, 17 Queen-street, Melbourne. 1858. 

1151. LLOYDS WEEKLY NEWSPAPER THREEPENCE on Geo. Ill penny. 

1152. LLOYDS WEEKLY NEWSPAPER THREEPENCE on reverse on Geo. Ill 

penny. 



AV ST HA I.ASIAN TOKF.NS A SI) COINS. I 45 

1153. LLOYDS WEEKLY NEWSPAPER THREEPENCE on Geo. Ill penny 

1806. 

1154. LLOYDS WEEKLY NEWSPAl'i:!^ THREEPENCE on Geo. Ill halfpenny 

1155. LLOYDS WEEKLY NEWSPAPER THREEPENCE on Irish halfpenny. 

1156. LLOYDS PENNY SUNDAY TIMES on Geo. Ill penny. 

1 157. A.M. 27 on Melbourne penny. 

1 158. J.M. on several tokens. 

1 159. W.M. on G. McCaul penny. 

1 160. W.M. on Stokes penny. 

1 161. W.H.M. on Grieve penny. 

1 162. W.H.M. on Stokes penny. 

1 163. A. McBAIN on Stokes penny. 

1 164. CHS. McBEAN on Parker penny. 

1 165. R. McDonald cm. both sides of Smith, Peate & Co. penny. 

1 166. G. MITCHELL / M R C V S imce on a Mulligan penny. 

1167. MITCHELL / M R C V S on both sides of T. H. Jones cS: Co. penny. 

1168. N in a serrated circle on both sides of Hanks & Lloyd penny. 

1 169. N in a serrated circle on both sides of Smith, Peate & Co. penn\-. 

1 1 70. N in a serrated circle on botli sides of J. Brickhill penny. 

1171. N. in a serrated circle on both sides of Melbourne penny. 

1172. N. in a serrated circle on both sides of Murray & Christie penny. 

1 173. MN on McFarlane penny. 

1174. ABE NATHAN o on Hobday & Jobbems penny. 

1 1 75. No. on Parker penny. 

1176. No. on Stokes penny. 

1177. R. NURSE on Holloway and English pence, and also old half-crowTi. 

1 178. OWEN & SONS on Holloway 1857 penny. 

1179. P on Thos. White penny. 

1180. W.P. on Warburton penny. 

1181. W.P. on Hide & Dc Carle penny. 1857. 
T182. W.P. on Stokes penny. 

1183. W.P. 6 on obverse, WP on reverse of Andrew halfpenny. 

1184. PATTISON / GUNMAKER / SYDNEY in three lines on Geo. Ill jx-nny. 

1185. PATTISON / GUNMAKER / SYDNEY in three lines, with a large letter 

right, left top and bottom, on Geo. Ill penny. On reverse 1S41, 16 in two 
lines. 

Pattison lived in King-street, Sydney, in 1848. 

1 1 86. W. PLANK on a zinc blank. 

1 187. O on a Campbell penny. 

1 188. C P or C R three times on Whitty & Bro\m penny. 

1 189. D. POWER / a basket of flowers / J. MACINTOSH with a bunch of leaves 

above and below on obverse of a Tasmanian penny. 

1 190. R.R very large on A. Toogood penny. 
»t5i5-K 



146 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COlNS 

1 191. R five times on old English penny. 

1 192. C P R on W. A. Jarvey penny. 

1193. G.P.R. on Friedman penny. 

1 194. RR on zinc blank. 

1195. p p on a sixpence, filed smooth. 

1 196. J R / No. 7 in two lines on Geo. Ill penny. 

1197. J. RIDLEY on Geo. Ill penny 

1198. ROBERTS on both sides of Geo. Ill penny. 

1199. T. ROBINSON / BREWER / MELBOURNE in three lines on Annand, 

Smith penny. 

In 1859 Robinson & Co. were ale merchants at 122 Collins-street West, 
Melbourne. 

1200. USE ROGER'S LOTION &c. on Geo. Ill penny. 

1201. S. ROW on McFarlane penny. 

1202. S. ROW on Hedberg halfpenny. 

1203. S. ROW on Holloway penny. 1857. 

1204. S twice on Robt. Hyde & Co. penny. 

1205. S. on T. F. Merry & Co. penny. 

1206. S & F on Hide & Dc Carle penny. 

1207. J S on Milner & Thompson penny. 

1208. T SALISBURY / ENGRAVER / & STAMPCUTTER in three lines on 

Brookes penny. 

1209. J. S^IITH on Gippsland penny. 

1210. J SMITH three times on Holloway penny. 

1211. W SMITH on Gippsland penny. 

1212. Shamrock or vine leaf incuse with three pellets in relief. 

1213. A STRETTON on Melbourne penny. 

1214. W STOW on HoHoway penny. 1857. 

In i860, a W. Stow was a carpenter and undertaker at Gore-street, 
Coilingwood ; in 1862 at Gore-street, Fitzroy ; and a little later 
at 169 Smith-street and St. David-street, Fitzroy. 

This is also said to refer to W. Stow of Adelaide. 

1215. SUSSEX ARMS in curve above, D over a large figure 8 in centre on a blank. 

1216. T twice on a Melbourne penny. 

1217. H T on Hide & De Carle penny. 1858. 

1218. J.T. on Hosie penny. 

1219. J.T. twice on obverse, once on reverse of G. & W. Rocke penny. 

1220. J.T. with ornamental design between on Holloway penny. 1857. Which 

is also surcharged J. T. THOMAS / AGENT / GEELONG in three lines. 

1221. J. T. THOMAS / AGENT / GEELONG on Holloway penny. 1857. 

1222. J. T. THOMAS / AGENT / GEELONG in tln-ee lines of smaller letters on 

Holloway penny. 1857. 

1223. THOMAS / AGENT / GEELONG on Holloway penny. 1857. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



147 



1224. THOMAS / AGENT / GEELONG / KERxNOT / CHII.LWELL in five line 

on HoUoway penny. 1857. 

1225. TILLY . BULLS . CREEK in a circle on J. I Lowell penny. S<juth Australia. 

1226. J TOWNSEND on Parker penny. 

J. Townsend, fruiterer, 125 Elizabeth-street and Little Bourke-street, 
East Melbourne. 

1227. TREGEA on zinc blank. 

1228. U on Milner & Thompson penny, 

1229. V on Ryland penny. 

1230. J M on Deeble penny. 

V 

1231. G V on R. A. Mather penny. 

R 

1232. VINCENT on Parker penny. 

1233. A WALKER on Rocke penny. Mentioned in Berliner Miniizhlaltcr. 

In 1855 A. Walker, merchant, 99^ Collins-street West. 
In 1858, 91 Flinders-street and 118 Collins-street West. 

1234. A WALKER on Stokes penny. 

1235. W on Butterworth penny, 

F P 

1236. EW on Cook's surcharged Geo. Ill penny, and on reverse w 

1237. W. WATSON on Hide & De Carle penny. 1858. 

1238. W. WATSON on Parker penny. 

In 1856-8 W. Watson, carpenter, 125 Lat robe-street West. 

1239. W.H. on Geo. Ill penny. 

1240. W W twice on Geo. Ill penny. 

1241. W J WAUGH on Toogood penny. 

In 1855 J. W. Waugh, carpenter, &.C., 65 Stephen-street. 

1242. WILLS on Melbourne halfpenny. 

1243. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Davies. Alexander 

& Co. penny. 

1244. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Hanks & Co. ^x^nny. 

1245. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Hanks & Lloyd 

penny. 1855. 

1246. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Hanks cS; Lloyd 

halfpenny. 1855. 

1247. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on four varieties ot 

Iredale pence. 

1248. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in throe lines on Smith. Peate & Co. 

penny. 

1249. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on A. Toogood penny. 

1250. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Weight & Johnston 

penny. 

1251. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in tluve lines on Robt. Hvde cS: Co. 

penny. 

1252. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Stokes penny. 



148 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

1253. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Friedman penny, 

1254. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Friedman halfpenny. 

1255. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three hnes on Holloway peni?y. 

1256 WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Holloway half- 
penny. 1857. 

1257. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Peek & Campbell 

penny. 1853. 

1258. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST in three lines on Marsh & Brother 

penny. 

1259. WILSON / ENGRAVER / 390 PITT ST / SYDNEY in four lines on several 

tokens 

1260. J. F. WALSH GUNNIGAR on copper blank hke old halfpenny. 

1261. D. WOOD on Mather penny. 

1262 V Z on Petty penny. 

X 

1263 J M on Deeble penny. 

V 

1264. 1859 on Holloway penny. 1857. 

1265. 1862 on Henry penny. 

1266. 1863 on Parker penny. 

1267. 414 on blank, with Iredale reverse 

1268. 414 on penny, with blank reverse 

1269. 65. 

1270. 2714 on Ashton penny 

1271. 37 on Harrold Bros, penny. 

1272. 20 on both sides of Hedberg halfpenny 

1273. 2 on Thomas halfpenny 

1274. J. HAND on Geo. Ill penny. 1797 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 149 



Bibliography. 



The following books, articles, &c., are in the Public Library of New South Wales, 
either in the General Reference Library or the Mitchell Foundation. Those marked 
with an asterisk are in the latter collection. 

The items arc arranged chronologically (commencing with the latest dates) 
in the following groups, viz. : — - 

1. Books and Pamphlets. 

2. Articles in Periodicals. 

3. Manuscripts, &c. 

The bibliography was compiled by Miss M. Flower, M..V., Cataloguer in 
the Mitchell Library. 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 
♦Australian Numismatic Society. Reports of meetings. 1915 to date. 

[Chroinographed MS. and stoncilled typescript.] 

Spink and Son's Monthly X iimismutic Circular. 111. 4to. Lond. 1891-1920. 
Victorian Numismatic Society. Reports of meetings, to date. 

* Abbott, George Henry. — ^False coins and how to discern them : presidential address, 

delivered . . . 27th March, 1919, before the Australian Numismatic Society. 
Roy. 8vo. pp. 16. Syd. Printed by the Sydney and Melhonrne Publishing Co.. 
Ltd. [1919.] 

[References to Australian coins on pp. 9, 16.] 

* Abbott, George Henry. -Some Australian coin collectors: presidential address 

(Austrahan Numismatic Society), 27th March, 191S. Roy. 8vo., 8 pp. Syd. 
Printed by the Sydney and Melbourne Publishim^ Co., Ltd. [1918.] 

* Australia -Bureau of Census and Statistics. ' -OfTu ial \"car I'ook of the Conuiion- 

wealth of Australia, 1901 18. Ri)y. 8\o. Melb. McCarron, liird, d- Co., 

Printers, 19 12-19. 

[Contains a section on .\ustrali in currency.] 

'''Chitty, Alfred.— Outline catalogue of Australasian tokens; [also] (Supplement, with 
table of Commonwealth silver and bronze coinage.) 111. 2 vols. Adel. Pub. 
Lib. Mus. and Art Gallery of S. Aust. 1912-18. 

* Coghlan, Sir Timothy Augustine. Labour and industry in .\ustralia. 4 vols. 

8vo. pp. viii, 2449. Loud. Oxford University Press. 1918. 

[Contains chapters on currency and iiuuiorQuir rpfereuces iu the text.] 



150 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

* Gullick, William Applegate. — [Descriptive catalogue with photographic repro- 

ductions of Australian non-military medals, arranged chronologically. Printed 
in iy6 Jcp. fol. pp., 1918.] 

[Unpublished. Proof copy only.] 

Forrer, L. — -Biographical dictionary of medallists, coin-, gem-, and seal-engravers, 
mint-masters, «S:c., ancient and modern, with reference to their works, B.C. 
500— A. D. 1900; [with bibl.J. 111. 6 vols. 8vo. Lond., 1902-16. 

Victoria — ■Parliament — -Statutes. — -Mint Act, 1915. Act to consohdate the law 
relating to the Maintenance in Victoria of a Branch of the Royal Mint. 
6 Geo. V, No. 2,700. 6th September, 1915. 

United States — Bureau oj the Mint. — -Catalogue of coins, tokens, and medals in the 
numismatic collection of the mint of the United States at Philadelphia Pa. 
3rd ed. Ill 8vo. Wash., 1914. 

[Catalogue of Australian and Tasmanian coins and tokens on pp. 569-570, 663.] 

* Brooke, G. 0. — Brief survey of the coinages of Africa and Australasia from the 

earl'cst times to the present day. 111. (Bartholomew, J. G. — ^Literary and 
historical atlas of Africa and Australasia, pp. 67-92 [1913]). 

* Gill, Thomas. — ^Brief sketch of the coinage and paper currency of South Australia 

Reprinted from Proc. oj Roy. Geog. Sac. Atist. — South Aust. Br. 
111. Maps. 8vo. pp. [vi], loi, Adel. Vardon & Sons, Ltd., Printers, 1912. 

[.\ppended are facs. of the original Acts of 1852, the Bullion Act of 28th January, and the Act repealing it of 
23rd November.] 

* Dodd, Agnes F. — History of money in the British Empire and the United States ; 

[with bibl.]. 8vo. pp. xiv + [i], 356, Lond. Longmans, Green & Co. 1911, 

[Part of chapter 15 relates to Australian currency.] 

* Schulman, J. — L'Amerique, I'Asie, I'Afrique, et I'Australie. Collection . . . 

de Mr. A. L. collection de Mr. R. W. Bignell . . . doubles de 

la collection de Mr. C. Rev. Dr. Foster Ely . . . collection de feu Mr. A. 

Santesson . . . 111. 8vo. pp. [iv], loS, Amersfoort. S. W. Melchior, 
Printer, 191 1. 

[Lists of .-Xustralian coins on pp. 46, 97, 107.] 

Hocking, William John. — Catalogue of the coins, tokens, medals, dies and seals in 
the Museum of the Royal Mint. 2 vols. Roy. 8vo. Lond. 1906-10. 

[Australasian tokens, vol. i, pp. 342-3.] 

Australia — -Parliament— -StatiUes.^- Act relating to- Currency, Coinage, and Legal 
Tender. 1909. 

Rawlings, Gertrude Burford. — Coins and how to know them. 111. 8vo. pp. xix,' 
374, Lond. Methuen d- Co. [1908]. 

[A short account of Australian coinage on p. 323.] 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. I5I 

* Bank of New South Wales.— Photograplis of premises . with a short 

sketch of the ])rogress of the Bank . . . 1817 to 1907. III. Sm. fol. pp. 
[305], Syd. Printed by J. Sands, Ltd. [1907]. 

[The introductory pages give a sketch of Australian curreney, with illustrations.] 

* Beattie, J. W. — GHmpses of the Hves and tinus of the early Tasmanian Governors, 

being lectures delivered in Hobart during the Centenary Celebrations, in 
February, 1904. 111. Maps, 8vo. pp. [iii], 46, H(»bart. Duvies Firn<.., Ltd. 
[19051- 

[Contains illustrations of early paper money, Holey Dollar, and Dump.] 

Hamilton, Augustus. — New Zealand tokens. 111. .\U). pp. 5, Wellington. J. 
Mackay, Govt. Printer [1905] {N.Z. Dominion Mus. — Bull. 1). 

[A supplementary list by this author is included in Teppcr, J. G. O. Descriptive list of tokens in the Miucum 

Collection, . . . Public Library, .' . . South .\ustralia, 1890.] 

Australia — ■Parliament — -Committees. — Coinage : precis of replies received from 
various institutions and persons with regard to the expediency or otherwise 
of decimalizing the coinage of the Commonwealth, on the basis suggested by 
the Select Committee appointed by the House of Representatives. Fol. pp. 8, 
Melb., 1904. [Aust. — Pari. — Papers, General, 1904, vol. 2, p. 20.) 

Australia — Treasury. — Silver coinage : copies of communications that have passed 
between the Commonwealth and Imperial Governments on the question of the 
coinage of silver for the Commonwealth. Fol. pp. 16, Melb., 1904. {Aust. — • 
Pari. — Papers, General, 1904, vol. 2, pp. 211-224.) 

* Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge.- -Catalogue of the Murdock Collection of coins 

and medals : the coins and tokens of the British colonies and deix'ndcncies. 
111. Foy. 8vo. pp. 107, Loud. Dryden Press, J . Davy and Sons, 1903. 

[A descriptive list of .■\ustralian coins, on pp. 56-61, with some illustrations.] 

AnsiTaliar— Parliament — Committees. --Rv\-)OYt of the Select Connnittee on Coinage, 
together with the proceedings of the Committee, minutes of evidence, and 
appendix. Fol. pp. xxvii, 117, Melb., 1902. (.l;/.s7. — Pari. — Papers, 1901-2, 

vol. I.) 

* Long, Mark Henry.— ^ Skeleton catalogue of Australian copper tokens. 8vo. 

PP- 39. Syd. F. W. White, Printer, 1901. 

Western Australia,— Parliament. — Return showing value of coin exported from 
Western Australia from ist July, 1897, to 30th June, 1898. Fol. p. i, Perth, 

1898. {West. Anst.—Parl.— V. tf- P. Papers, 1898. vol. 2. Xo. A2(v) 

Western Australia. — Prt;/iin»t'»/.— Correspondence with reference to he desirability 
of establishing a branch of the Royal Mint in Western Au tralia. Fo!. pp. 6, 
Perth, 1894 {West. Aust.--Parl.—V. cO P. Papers. 1894, vol. 2, No. 18 ) 



152 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

* Chalmers, Robert.^-History of currency in the British colonies. Roy. 8vo. 

pp. viii, 496, Lond. Printed by Eyre and S pottiswoode [1893]. 

* Hyman, Coleman P. — -Account of the coins coinages, and currency of Australasia ; 

published by authority of the N.S.W. Commissioners for the World's Columbian 
Exposition, Chicago, 1893 [with bibl.]. Roy 8vo. pp. viii + [iij, 159, Syd. 
C. Potter, Govt. Printer, 1893. 

* Hyman, Coleman. — Catalogue of coins, coinages, and currency of Australasia, 

with specimens of medals ; published by authority of the N.S.W. Commissioners 
for the World's Co'umbian Exposit on Chicago, 1893. Roy 8vo pp. 17 Syd. 
C. Potter, Govt. Printer, 1893. 

Queensland — Parliament — Statutes. — ^Coinage Acts, 1889, 1891, 1S93. 

[Make provision for expenses of exchange of light gold coins, and give schedules of weight and standard fineness.] 

Great Britain and Ireland— i?ova/ Mint—Sydney Branch. — -[Despatches, returns, 
papers respecting the work ng of the Mint, &c., 1853-1892J. {N.S.W. — Parl.^ 
V. & P.— 1853-1892.) 

[The early despatches and returns give information respecting the establishment of the Mint.] 

Great Britain and Ireland^T^oA'a/ Mint. — -Reports of Deputy-Master ... on 
weight and fineness of gold coins struck at the Melbourne Branch of the Royal 
Mint, 1873-4, 1884-90. {Vic— Pari.— V. & P. 1873-4, 1884-90.) 

* Howorth, Daniel F. — -Coins and tokens of the English colonies and dependencies 

[with bibl.]. 111. 8vo. pp. 93, Lond. Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1890. 

* Tepper, Johann Gottlieb Otto.— Descriptive list of tokens in the Museum collection, 

Numismatical Department, Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of South 
Australia. 4to pp. 20, Adel. C. E. Bristow, Govt Printer, 1890. 

[Included in this work is a supplementary list of tokens, by .•\. Hamilton.] 

'Vxciondk—Parliamcnt-Statittes.—W^wi Act, 1890. 54 Vic. No. 1167. 

Victoria — Parliament. — -Proposed coining of silver at the Melbourne Branch of the 
Royal Mint : correspondence. Fol. pp. 14, Melb., 1890. {Vic. — Pari. — V. & P., 
1890, vol. 4, p. 835.) 

* Atkins, James.— Coins and tokens of the possessions and colonies of the British 

Empire. 111. 8vo. pp. vii, 402, Lond. B. Quaritch, 1889. 

* Stainsfield, C. W.— Descriptive catalogue of Austrahan tradesmen's tokens, also 

some account of the early silver pieces, and gold coinage of Australia 111- 
8vo. pp. iii, 74 + vi, Lond. C W Stainsfield, 1883 



AUSTRALASIAN TDK [INS AND COINS. I ^^^ 

* Great Britain and Ireland -Mint — Melbourne Branch.— Catalogue of exhibits shown 

at the Melbourne liilci national Exhibition, 1880. 111. Roy. 8vo. pp. 42, Mclb. 
/. Ferres, Govt. Printer, 1880. 

Western AusiraMa, -Governor. — Correspondence Ijetween liie . . Secretary of 

State for the Colonies and His K.xcelleney the (jovernor, resi)ecting the supply 
of new silver and bronze coin to the Colony. Fo . pp. 5, l\rih, 1879. (VVesl. 
Aiist. — -Leg. Coiinc. — V. dc 1\ Papers, 1879, No. 11.) 

South Australia -Governor. — ^Stipply of British siher c(jins io colonial governments : 
circular, 27th February, 1879. {S. Aiisl.- -Purl. -Proc., 1879, vol. 3, A'o. 66.) 

Tasmania — -Parliament — Statutes.- 1-^ronze moneys. 39 \'ictoria, No. 15 An Act 
to make current British P>ronzc Moneys in this Colony, 30th September, 1875. 

Victoria — Governor — Royal Mint : [report transmitted by the Governor from Citjoml 
Ward on the present condition and future prospects of the Mint, with his 
suggestions as to its more useful and economical management.] Fo'. pp. 6, 
Melb., 1874. {Vic.— Pari.— 'V. d- P., 1874, vol. i, />. 597.) 

Victoria — -Parliament. — Mint charges : Order in Council dated 29th December, 1873, 
altering charges for the Receipt and Coinage of Gold at the Mint, i-'ol j). i, 
Melb., 1874. {Vic— -Pari.— V. c6 P., 1874, vol. i, p. 457.) 

Queensland — Parliament — Statutes. — Coinage Act, 1870, ]] \'ic. Cio. 

[Declares standard of coins and legal tender, &c.] 

South AustraMa^-Parliament. — Correspondence relative to silver and copper coinage. 

1869. {South Aust —Parl.-^ V . d- P., 1869-70, vol. 3. No. 179.; 

New South Wales — Treasury. — -New bronze coin : correspondence, (Jvc, respecting 
issue of. {N.S.\V.~Parl.— V. d- P., i8()8, vol. 2, pp. 623 631.) 

Victoria — Parliament- -Statutes -yictovidu Mint .Vet ; .\n .\ct to make ivrmanent 
provision for a Branch of the Ro\al Mint in Victoria. 31 \' c. 1867, No 307 
6th September, 1867. 

South Australia— GoTt';-;;o/' —Sydney gold coinage : proclamation declaring gold 
coins made at the Branch Mint at Sydney, N.S.W., a legal tender within the 
United Kingdom. {South Ausf.—Parl.—V. d- P., 1886-7, vol. 2, No. 25.) 

New South VJa,\es— Parliament—Staiutes.— 'Act to make permanent provision tor 
the Sydney Mint. 38 Vic. .No. 3, Ap. 21, 1865. 



154 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

New South Wales — (iovcnwr-in-Council — Ads. — 

5 Geo. IV, No. i, 28th September, 1824. [All bills and notes payable in Spanish 
dollars to be as valid as if drawn payable in money of the Realm.] 

7 Geo. IV, No. 3, I2th July, 1826. [Repealing the above, sterling money to 
supersede Spanish dollars, British copper money to be a legal tender.] 

2 W'm. IV, No. 6, loth Feb., 1832. [Fines, &c., to be paid in sterhng money of 
the Realm in place of Spanish dollars.] 

18 Vic. No. 39, 2nd Dec, 1854. [Regulating the currency in N.S.W. of gold and 
silver coin issued from the Branch of the Royal Mint in Sydney, repealed 
by the following.] 

ig Vic. No. 3, i8th July, 1855. [British and colonial coins to be the only legal 
tender, weight and fineness to be the same as at the London Mint.] 

* Westgarth, William. — Remarks upon the proposed branch of the Royal Mint about 

to be commenced at Sydney, with an estimate of its probable relations to 
colonial commerce. 8vo. 14 pp. Melb., Goodhugh and Trembath, Printers, 1854. 

New South Wales — Orders in Council and Proclamations. — Coins of the United 
Kingdom current in Australia : despatch from His Grace the Duke of New- 
castle to Governor Sir C. S. Fitzroy. Fol. pp. 2, Syd., 1853. (A'.S.I^. — Pari. — 
V. d P., 1853, vol. I.) 

New South Wales — Parliament — ■Committees. — -Report from the Select Committee on 
the coins of the United Kingdom current in Australia. Fol. pp. 5, Syd. 
Printed by W. W. Davies, at Govt. Printing Office, 1853. [N.S.W. — Pari, — • 
V. & P., 1853, p. 403.) 

New South Wales — Governor.- — Proposed establishment at Sydney of a branch of the 
Royal Mint : copy of a despatch from the Rt. Hon. Earl Grey to Governor Sir 
Charles Fitzroy. Fol. pp. 3, Syd., 1852. {N.S.W.—Parl.— V. & P., 1852, 
vol. 2). 

* South Australia — Parliament — Statutes. — Act to provide for the Assaying of 

Uncoined Gold, and to make Bank Notes, under certain conditions, a Legal 
Tender. No. i, 1852. Sm. fol. pp. 7, Adel. Printed by W. C. Cox, Govt. 
Printer, 1852. 

[This is known as the Bullion Act. A facsimile is appended to Gill's Coinage and Currency of South Australia' 
1912.] 

* South Australia — Parliament — Statutes. — -Act to repeal part of an Act, No. i of 

1852, To provide for the Assaying of Uncoined Gold and to make Bank Notes, 
under certain conditions, a Legal Tender, and to provide that Stamped Gold 
shall be a Legal Tender. No. 14, 1852. Sm. fol. pp. 63-5, Adel. Printed by 
W. C. Cox, Govt. Printer, 1852. 

[.A facsimile of this original -Act, under which .Adelaide sovereigns were coined, is appended to Gill's Coinage and 
Currency of South Australia, 1912.] 



^ 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 1 53 

* New South Wales -Parliament — Committees. — Monetary confusion : report from 

the Select Committee . . . with Apj)endix and Minutes of evidence. Sni. 
fol. pp. 65, Syd. W.J. Rome, Govt. Printer, 184J. {X.S.VV.—Parl.-V. d: P., 
1843, pp. 607-677.) 

[This Report is on th(^ confusion of the currcnry, e.K-, promissory notes, bills, ronimlssariat nol<^, rrr^ipt*, 4c.. 
circulating in large numbers. The only reference to coins is on p. 63 (f>75), where W. C. Wcijiwortb in hii 
evidence stated that there were a few Spanish dollars and bits in circulation.] 

* Currency of the British Colonies. — Anon. 8vo. pp. iv, 247, Lond. Printed by 

W. Clowes and Su)is, jor Ilcr Majesty's Stationery Office, 1848. 

[I'p. 189-90 contain a short description of the currency of New South Wales and of the various valu«i o( the 

Spanish dollar.] 

New South Wales — -Commissariat Office. — Statement of British silver coin received 

in New South Wales from England, the Cape of CnnA Hojw and Mauritius. 
{N.S.W.—Parl.— V. & P., 1835, p. 201.) 

[Gives only the total value of the coin received, not the number of coins.] 

Great Britain and Ireland- -7y^i7s//rv'.— Return of the <iuaiuuy of dollars imported 
into New South Wales, in the years 1821, 1822, and 1823, on account of G«)vern- 
ment, specifying the date of purchase, where and at what prices they were 
purchased ; and of the prices at which the same were issued in the colony of 
New South Wales. Also, Copy of the Government General Order, dated the 
5th of February, 1823, for regulating the currency of New South Wales. Sm. 
fol. I p., Lond., 1824. [Pari. — -Documents, vol. 5.) 

* Bigge, John Thomas. — ^Report of the Commissioner of iiujuiry on the Judicial 

establishments of New South Wales and \'an Dienun's Land. Sm. fol. pp. 92, 
Lond., 1823. 

[At the foot of p. 71 will be found the name of Heushall, a man who had been omployrd in rutting dollars.'] 

* Australia — ■Parliamentary Library Cowm/Z/tv.— -Historical records of Australia, 

1788-1825. 13 vols. 8vo. Syd. W. A. Gullick, Govt. Printer, 1914-1920. 

[Contains reprints of despatches, Government notices, and other doi-umenl> relating to coinage and currency.} 

* New South Wales -Historical Records, dlislorical records t)f New South Wales, 

1799-1811. 7 vols. 111. 8vo. Syd. Government Printer, 1893-190 r. 

[Contains reprints of despatches. Government notices, and other documents relating to coinage and ca^.^^acJ•.] 

* New South Wales — Governor. — General Standing Orders : selected from the 

General Orders issued by former Governors, from ibth February, 1791. to 
6th September, 1800. Also, General Orders issued by Governor King, from 
28th September, 1800, to 30th September, 1802. Sm. 4to pp. XII. 122, Syd. 
Government Press, 1802. 

[Contains a proclamation of 19th November, iSoo, regarding circulation of copper coin, and value of specie.] 



156 AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 

ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS. 

* Andrews, Arthur. — Notes on the medallists of Australasian tokens ; read before 

the Australian Numismatic Society, 24th April, 1918. Roy. 8vo. pp. 8, 
[stencilled typescript], n.p., 1918. 

[This paper is printed in Spinl< and Son's Numismatic Circular, 1918, pp. 499-505.] 

* Chitty, Alfred, and others. — -[Letters on Tasmanian coins.] {Hohart Mercury, 

12-14 August, 1918.) 

* Andrews, Arthur. — -Commonwealth silver and bronze coinage ; read before the 

annual meeting of the Numismatic Society of Victoria, March, 1917. 8vo. 
400. n.p. n.d. 

* Kemp, Richard Edgar. — Commercial life in Austraha a century ago. {Roy. Aust. 

Hist. Soc. — Jour. vol. 4, 1917-18, pp. 153-8.) 

Whellams, S. E. -Australian coins and tokens, being a short history and a complete 
catalogue of coins and tokens, in gold, silver, and copper, of the States of the 
Australian Continent and New Zealand. 111. {Spink and Son's Monthly 
Numismatic Circular, Jan. -Dec, 1916, various pp.) 

* Gardner, F. — -Trade tokens and the firms who issued them. {Aust. Storekeepers 

and Traders' Jour., Mar.-Ap., 1913, Jan., 1914.) 

* Royal Australian Historical Society — ^Journal and Proceedings. — vol. 3, 1906-14, 

pp. 93-5 ; Notes and queries. 

[Cnntaliis a reprint of Macquarie's despatches with reference to the introduction of the holey dollar and dump.] 

* Andrews, Arthur. — Copper tokens of Victoria. {Antiquarian Gazette, May, 1911, 

pp. 5-11.) 

* Andrews, Arthur. — Copper tokens of New South Wales. {Antiquarian Gazette, 

Aug, 1910, pp. 17-22.) 

* Andrews, Arthur. — Copper tokens of Queensland, South and Western Australia. 

{Antiquarian Gazette, Dec, 1910, pp. 17-19.) 

* Andrews, Arthur.— Traders' tokens in Australasia. 111. {Antiquarian Gazette, 

June, 1908, pp. 72-6.) 

* Chitty, Alfred. — ^A few thoughts on Australian tokens. 111. {Antiqua>ian Gazette, 

September, 1908, pp. 120-122.) 

* Dangar, Henry Carey. — -A Numismatic curiosity. {Antiquarian Gazette, June, 

1908, pp. 88-9.) 

[A letter discussing the bit, or fourth part of a holey dollar.] 

M., P. J. — An uncommon counter-stamp. {Antiquarian Gazette, September, 1908, 
t)b. 126-7.) 

[Note upon an English shilling stamped with a shield and the letters N.S.W.] 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. I57 

Chitty, Alfred. — Australian surcharged and cast tokens. [Spink and Son's Monthly 
Numismatic Circular, August, 1907, pp. 10020-10021.) 

Chitty, Alfred. -Early Australian coinage. 111. [Brit. Xumismatic Jour., 1907, 

pp. 179-187.) 

* Cripps, A. J. — -Australian numismatics. 111. {livening News, 14th September, p. 3, 

28th September, p. 11; 2nd November, p. 12, 1907.) 

* Cripps, A. J.— Small change : copper tokens fifty years ago. 111. {Evening News, 

29th June, 1907.) 

* Oakes, C. W. — -Australia's early currency. {Daily Telegraph, isl June, 1907, p. 7.) 

* Australian numisma,iics.'{A)!iicjuarian Gazette, 1906, July, pp. 5-6; 11/// August, 

1908; June, pp. 88-9.) 

Chitty, Alfred.— Australian surcharged tokens. {Spink and Son's Monthly Numis- 
matic Circular, September, 1905, pp. 8585-7; February, 1906, p. 8914.) 

* Chitty, Alfred. — Australia's silver coinage. {Antiquarian Gazette, August, 1906, 

pp. 9-10.) 

* Chitty, Alfred; and Stokes, Thomas. -Australian numismatics (correspondence). 

{Antiquarian Gazette, 1906, July, pp. 5-6, August, p. 11.) 

[Correspondence between A. Chitly and T. Stokes with regard to certain Mkin coins, also the medal press sent 
out by W. J. Taylor, ca. 1S51.] 

W. F. — Coins and tokens. {Every Saturday, ^th August, i90(), and co)itin.). 

Tokens of the Australian colonies numbered according to Atkins : Coins of British 
possessions and colonies. --.4 »o;/. [Spink aiul S())i's .Monthly .XuniL^fUiitic 
Circular, October, 1905, pp. 8690-8692.) 

Where money is made. — The mint and its work. Anon. 111. {Daily 1 elegraph, 
2,rd June, 1902.) 

Shaw, George Gerard. — ^Gokl and copper coins of South Australia. 111. {Numis- 
matology, June, 1894, pp. 41-6.) 

* Hull, A. F. Basset. — -Australian currencies [abstract report only]. {Aust. Assoc 

Adv. Sci. — Report, 1892, pp. 591-9.) 

Zur Miinz — ^und Siegelkunde Australiens. {Berliner Miinzblatter, no. 99-102, 

105-106, 110-113, 1888-90.) 

* Colonial Times ami Tasmaiiian Advertiser, 1826, ijtli March, nth August, 

6-26th October, 10th November. 

[Reference to currency, cut dollars, barter, forged dumps, &c.] 

Hobart Town Gazette, 1823, 26/// July. 

fContaias Government notice fi.\ing value of dollars ami dump.l 



158 AVSTliALAStAN TOKEKS AND COINS. 

Many of the following references to paragraphs in the Sydney Gazette are of 
importance in connection with the early history of currency in New South Wales : — - 

Introduction of the copper currency mentioned in a letter to the Printer of 

Sydney Gazette. (1-5-1803, p. j). 
General order, 25th October, 1804, declaring value of coins in circulation. 

(28-10-1804, p. I.) 
General order, 24th December, 1804, concerning usurious sale of dollars. 

(29-12-1805, p. I.) 
General order, ist November, 1806, declaring the signification of the term 

" currency." (2-11-1806, p. i.) 
Copper coins to the value of £^ declared by Civil Court to be still legal tender- 

(22-9-1810, p. 2.) 

Articles on the proclamation regarding Bills payable in copper coin. (6-6-1S12, 

P- 3-) 
Article on traffic in Bill Money. (10-10-1812, p. 2.) 
Reduction in the price of sterling money. (17-10-1812, p. 2.) 

Diflerence between sterling money and currency determined at 20 per cent. 
(24-10-1812, p. 2.) 

Scarcity of sterling money. (27-2-1813, p. 2.) 

Governor Macquarie's proclamation re holey dollar and dump. (3-7-1813, 
p. I.) 

General order declaring that all purchases made on account of Government 
must be paid in dollars or in store receipts. (25-3-1815, p. i.) 

Government pubHc notice re consolidation of Government colonial specie. 
(29-4-1815, p. I.) 

General order re consolidation of dollars and store receipts. (8-7-1815, p. i.) 

Letter from '' Scrutator " re issue of notes. (4-11-1815, p. 2.) 

Answer to above by " Advocatus." (11-11-1815, p. 2.) 
Reply by " Scrutator." (18-11-1815, pp. i, 2.) 

Answer by " Marcus " to first letter of " Scrutator." (25-11-1815, p. 2.) 

Letter by " Observer " re currency. (25-5-1816, p. 2.) 

Letter by " Amicus " re currency. (9-11-1816, p. 2.) 

Proclamation that no promissory note of other or less than sterling value is to 
be current or negotiable. (23-11-1816, p. i; 30-11-1816, p. i.) 

Resolutions at public meeting on a sterling currency. (30-11-1816, p. 2.) 

General order that all copper money in circulation in the Colony to be rated 
at 50 per cent, in advance of the English sterling value. (7-12-1816, p. i.) 

General order, no issue of store receipts — payment in silver or Treasury notes- 

(13-2-1819, p. I.) 
Letter by '' Mercator " on currency. (17-5-1822, p. 4.) 



AVSTtiAI.ASlAN TOKENS AND COINS. 1 59 

Replies to " Mercator." (24-5-1822, p. 3; 31-5-1822, p. 2.) 

Number of dollars imported per Ninirod. (19-7-1822, p. 4.) 

Discussion on value of Spanish dollars. (14-6-1822, p. 4; 5-7-1822, p. 4; 
19-7-1822, p. 4; 26-7-1822, p. 4; 2-8-1822, p. 4.) 

Proclamation, 25th July, 1822, concerning dollars. (2-8-1822, p. i.) 

Notice, calling attention to the above proclamation, prohibiting circulation of 
holey dollar. (23-8-1822, p. 3.) 

Controversy about dollars. (6-9-1822, supp.) 

Petition to the Governor from landlords and merchants, &c., and his reply. 
(30-8-1822, p. 2.) 

Letters discussing the petition and reply. (20-9-1822, p. 3; 27-9-1822, p. 3.) 

Government notice re quarter-dollar or dump. (29-11-1822, p. i.) 

Government and general order, 31st December, 1822, re circulation of Colonial 
or pierced dollars issued by Governor Macquarie. (2-1-1823, p. i.) 

Public warned against the circulation of dollars with holes punched through 
them. (30-1-1823, p. 4.) 

Government and general order, 5th February, 1823, relating to currency. 
(6-2-1823, p. I.) 

Discussion of the currency question in a letter to the Editor. (6-2-1823, PP- 

■ 2-3.) 
Article on the value of the dollar. (13-2-1823, p. 2.) 
Notice from Commissarial Office declaring value of dollars. (24-4-1823, p. i.) 

Leaden dumps and bad sixpences stated to be plentiful, in a letter to the Editor. 
(20-11-1823, p. 4.) 

Notices from Connnissarial Office declaring value of Spani^h dollar, Colonial 
dollar and dump. (22-7-1824, p. i; 21-11-1825, p. i ; 12-12-1825. p. i.) 

Proclamation on currency of the Colony. (30-9-1824, p. i.) 

Government public notice declaring value of Spanish dollars. (7-7-1825, 
p. I.) 

Value of rupee. (12-12-1825, pp. 2-3; 15-12-1825, p. i ; 22-12-1825, P- -•) 

Government and general order, 31st December, 1825, referring to coinage, 
weights, and value of specie imported. (5-1-1826, pp. 1-2.) 

Scarcity of dollars and value of bank notes. (16-8-1826, p. 2.) 

Article on Bank of New South Wales and circulation of dollars. (26-8-1826, 

p. 2.) 

Comment on Commissarial Department's refusal to receive holey dollars and 
dumps. (30-8-1826, p. 2.) 

Government notice re currenc}'. (2-9-1826, p. i.) 

Bank of New South Wales and currency. (6-9-1826, p. 2.) 



l6o AUSTRALASIAN TOREK S AND COINS. 

Arrival of twenty thousand pounds in British specie by H.M.S. Success. 

(29-11-1826, p. 2.) 
Description of one of the coins imported by H.M.S. Success. (9-12-1826, p. 2.) 
Shipment of £8,250 on board the Success for Van Diemen's Land. 

(17-1-1827, p. 2.) 
Ten tons of copper coins brought by the Brottiers for the use of the Colony. 

(3-2-1827, p. 2.) 
Spurious coin in circulation. (15-10-1828, p. 2.) 
Current value of dollars, dumps, and rupees. (21-11-1829, p. 2.) 
Letters, &c., re value of dollars. (3-12-1829, p. 3.) 

Republication of all official orders relating to the dollar currency. (22-12-1829, 

pp. 1-2.) 
Current value of dollars and dumps. (2-12-1830, p. 2.) 
Current value of dollars and dumps. (7-12-1830, p. 2.) 

Gold and silver coin exported from England to the Colonies. (1-9-1836, p. 4.) 
Bad money in circulation. (11-4-1837, p. 2.) 

MANUSCRIPTS, ETC. 

* New South Wales, — Government Printer. 

[Volume containing photographs, by the Government Printer, of coins and tokens of the Cakes and Dixson 
collections, 1916.] 

* Gullick, William Applegate.— 

[Collection of photographs illustrating the origin of Australian Arms, among which are examples of coins and 
tokens, 1914.] 

* Hull, A. F. Basset.— Colonial currency. 8vo. 338 ff. [c. 1892]. 

[A MS. volume, giving a detailed history and description of the currency from 1812 to 1852. A copy of this is 
inrUuifd in typescript notes of Australasian tokens, &c., by VV. E. Roth and A. F. B. Hull.] 

* Roth, Walter Edmund. — Catalogue of Austrahan tokens. 4to. 123 ff. [c. 1892]. 

[\ MS. catalogue of tokens issued in the six States of Australia and in New Zealand. .\ copy of this is included 
in typescript notes on Australasian tokens, &c., by W. E. Roth and A. F. B. Hull.] 

Roth, Walter Edmund ; and Hull, A. F. Basset.— Typescript notes on Australasian 
tokens, coins, patterns, and currency. 

[This is the work in the possession of Mr. William Dixson, mentioned in the Preface as such a valuable aid. 
MS notes and catalogue, in 2 vols, of which fhis is a copy, are in the Mitchell Library. 

* Macquarie, Lachlan.— Despatch addressed to the Earl of Bathurst, 29th March, 

1817, giving a history of the colonial currency. 

* Macquarie, Lachlan. — -Despatches to the Earl of Bathurst, Secretary of State for 

the Colonies, with reference to the introduction of the Holey Dollar and Dump, 
28th June, 1813, 28th Arpil, 1814. 

Proposed Circulating Medium for New South Wales. Anon. Fol. 7 pp. [c. 1804]. 
[Bonwick Transcripts, Misc. 292.) 

[Transcript of an unsigned, undated document in the Record Office, London. It contains suggestions for 
remedying the existing unsatisfactory state of the currency, by the issue of coins and tokens, and the creation 
of a Government Bank of Exchange.] 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



i6i 



INDEX. 



Abrahams, L, 24-27. 

Adamson, Watts, McKechnie & Co., 25, 27. 

Adelaide Ingot and Pound pieces, 120. 

Allen, John, 11, 23. 

Allen, William, 11, 28. 

Allen and Moore, 14, 15. 

Alliance Tea Co., 28. 

Anderson, D., 28. 

Andrew, John & Co., 28. 

Andrew, Jno. & Co., 24, 29. 

Annand, Smith & Co., 6, 11, 29. 

Ashton, H., 29. 

A.S.N. Co., 30. 

Australian Gold Coins, 131. 

Assay value, 131, 

Die-sinkers, 132. 

History, 131. 

List, 132. 

Standard fixed, 132. 
Australian Pattern Shilling and Sixpence, 127. 

Barley, C. C, 30. 

Barraclough, 30. 

Bateman, William, junr., & Co , 31. 

Battle and Weight, 31. 

Beath, G. L.. & Co., 31. 

Beaven, S., 24, 32. 

Bell and Gardner, 11, 32. 

Booth, I., 32. 

Boulton & Sons, 1,3. 

Brickhill, Joseph, 32. 

British Silver scarce, i 

Brookes, 33. 

Brookes, W. and B., 33. 

Brown, Morgan, 124, 125. 

Brown and Duthie, 33. 

Butterworth, T., & Co., 33. 

Buxton, J. W., 34. 

Calder, R., 34. 

Campbell, James, 11, 34, 112, 113. 

Caro, J., & Co., 34. 

Checks and medalets, 7. 

Clark, Archibald, 35. 

Clarkson, S., 35. 

Clarkson and Turnbull, 35. 



Coard, 14, 15, 16. 

Coins current in early days, 129. 

List, 129. 

Values fixed, 129. 
Collins & Co., 36. 
Commonwealth Coins — 

Act providing for, 136 

Design, 136. 

Detailed list, 137. 

Latest issues, 139. 
Cook, W. C, 36. 
Coombes, Samuel, 36. 
Cope, Thomas H., 37. 
Copper Tokens, 6, 8, 27. 
Crocker and Hamilton, 37. 
Crombie, Clapperton and Fmdlay. 37. 
Crothers & Co., 38. 
Currency, 2. 
Cut dollars, 5 . 

Davey, James, & Co., 38. 

Davidson, A., 38. 

Davies, Alfred, 39. 

Davies, Alexander & Co., 39. 

Day and Mieville, 39. 

Dease, E. F., 39. 

Decimal Coinage proposed, 3. 

De Carle, E., & Co., Dunedin, 40. 

De Carle, E., & Co., Melbourne, 23, 40. 

De Carle, E. & Co., Melbourne and Plenty, 40. 

De Carle, Edward & Co., Melbourne, 40. 

Dixon, James, 41. 

Dumps, 4. 

Detailed List, 119. 

History, 115. 

Withdrawal, 118. 

Evans and Foster, 42. ' 

Fenwick Bros., 42. 

Fisher, 42. 

Flavelle Bros. & Co., 24, 42. 

Fleming, J. G., 43. 

Foreign Coins current in early days, 2. 

Forsaith, T. S., 43. 

Friedman, L, 44. 

Froomes, W., 44. 



l62 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS. 



Gaisford and Edmonds, 45. 
Gilmour, John, 45. 
Gippsland Hardware Co., 45, 
Gittos, B., 45. 
Gourlay & Co., 46. 
Gratten, R., 46. 
Grieve, R., 46, 
Grundy, J. R., 25, 46. 



Hall, H. J., 47. 
Hall, Henry J., 47. 
Hanks & Compy., 49. 
Hanks and Lloyd, 50. 
Heaton and Sons, 14. 
Hedberg, O. H., 50. 
Henderson, John, 26, 52. 
Henry, R., 24, 53. 
Henry, Samuel, 54. 
Henshall, William, 115. 
Hide and De Carle, 54. 
Hind marsh Hotel, 56. 
Hobday and Jobberns, 56 
Hodgins, William, 104. 
Hodgson, A. G., 57. 
Hodgson Bros., 57. 
Hogarth, Erichsen & Co., 
Holey Dollars, 4 115. 

Forgeries, 117. 

History, 115. 

List, ITS. 

Manufacture, 11;. 

Number and value, 1 16 

Withdrawal, 118. 
Holland and Butler, 58. 
Hollo way, Professor, 104. 
Hosie, J., 58. 
Howell, John, 59. 
Hurley, J., & Co., 59. 
Hutton, G., 24, 60. 
Hyde, Robert, & Co., 60. 



14, 16, 112, 113, 114. 



Introduction, i. 

Iredale & Co., 6r. 

Issuers of Tokens in each State, 



Jamieson, W. W., & Co., 62 
Jarvey, W. Andrew, 62. 
Jones, Da\ad, 63. 
Jones, T. H., & Co., 63. 
Jones and Williamson, 63. 
Josephs, R., 63. 



108 



Kangaroo Office Issues, 124. 

Detailed list, 125. 

Dies now in Melbourne, 125. 

History, 124 
Kirkcaldie and Stains, 64. 

Lane, Joseph, and Son, 13, 103. 
Larcombe & Co., 64. 
Lazarus, S. and S., 64. 
Leeson, J. D., 64. 
Leigh, John, 65. 
Levy Brothers, 25, 65. 
Levy, Lipman, 65. 
Licensed Victuallers, 65. 
Lipscombe, H., 65. 
Love and Roberts, 66. 

Macgregor, J., 13, 67. 

Macintosh and Degraves, 5, iii, 112. 

Marks, Morris, 67. 

Marsh, H. J., and Brother, 26, 68. 

Martin, John, 68. 

Martin and Sach, 69. 

Mason and CulLey, 69. 

Mason, Struthers & Co., 69. 

Mather, R. A., 69. 

McCaul, George, 70. 

McFarlane, J., 70. 

Mears, J. W., 70. 

Medallists, 14. 

Their Issues, 18. 
Merrington, J. M. & Co., 71. 
Merry and Bush, 71. 
Merry, T. F. & Co., 71. 
Metcalfe and Lloyd, 71. 
Miller Brothers, 72. 
Miller and Dismorr, 72. 
Milner and Thompson, 72. 
Mints — ■ 

Melbourne, 132. 

Perth, 132. 

Sydney, 131. 
Miscellaneous Tokens, 103. 
Moir, Joseph, 7, 12, 73. 
Morgan, William, 73. 
Morrin & Co., 73. 
Moubray, Lush & Co., 74. 
Mulligan, D. T., 74. 
Murray and Christie, 74, 

New Zealand Penny, 15, 75. 
Nicholas, A., 75. 
Nicholas, Alfred, 25, 75 . 
Nichols, George, 75. 
Nokes, James, 76. 



AUSTRALASIAN TOKENS AND COINS 



163 



Palmer, li., 76. 

Paper money, 4. 

Parker, R., 76. 

Parkin, George, 10. 

Payne, Joshua, 121. 

Peace and Plenty tokens, 103. 

Peck, Hugh, 79. 

Peek, II. 

Peek and Campbell, 78. 

Perkins & Co., 79. 

Perth Mint, 132. 

Petersen, W., 80. 

Pettigrew, John, tS: Co., 80. 

Petty, George, 80. 

Pope & Co., 14, 15, 103. 

Pratt, W., 80. 

Reece, Edward, 81. 
Ridler, R. B., 82. 
Robison Bros. & Co., 82. 
Rocke, G. and W. H., 83. 
Roth and Hull, 10, 124. 
Ryland, G., 83. 

Sawyer, J., 24, S3. 
Scaife, Reginald, 124, 125. 
Silver Tokens, iii . 
Smith, S. Hague, 84. 
Smith and Kemp, 14, 15. 
Smith, Peate & Co., 84. 
Shreeve, Noah, 86. 
Somerville, N., 86. 
Southward and Sumpton, 87. 
Spanish Dollars, 3. 

Divisions of, tried, 4. 

Basis of Exchange, 5 . 
Stead, Brothers, 87. 
Stewart and Hemmant, 87. 
Stokes, Thomas, 11, 17, 88. 

Purchases Taylor's Plant, i : 

Reverses, 105. 



Stokes, T., 88. 

Stokes and Martin, 14, 17, 93. 

Surcharges, 140. 

Sydney Mint, 131. 



Taylor, Alfred, 93. 

Taylor, J. 93. 

Taylor, W. J., 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 25, 93. 

Thomas, T. W.. & Co., 94. 

Thornthwaite, J. C. 6, 10, 12.26,94, "2, 113 

Thrale and Cross, 24, 95. 

Todman, 14, 15. 

Tokens — 

Brass, 10. 

Bronze, 8. 

Copper, 8. 

Definition, 9. 

Detailed List, 27. 

Milled, 10. 

Use and abuse, 9. 

Withdrawn, 13. 
Toogood, A., 95. 

Union Bakery Co., 95. 
United Service Hotel, 96. 



Wallace, James, 97. 
Warburton, T., 97. 
War nock Bros., 97. 
Waterhouse, R. S., 98. 
Watson, W. & Co., 98. 
Watson, W. R. & Co., 98. 
Waters, Edward, 98. 
Weight and Johnson, 98. 
White, Thomas, and Son, 99. 
Whitty and Brown, 14, 16, 23, 09. 
Williams, J. W. and G., 10 1. 
Wilson, A. G., 102. 
Wire money, i. 
Wood, W. D., 102. 



[61 plates.] 



Sviincv : Wjlli.un AppU t;:itr <!iillick. Oovprnmpnt Printer — \'Xl 



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SYDNICY: 

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