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> THE 




IN THE YEAR 1616. 



Intboduction Pages xL — ^xlviii. 


War in Flanders. — League between the Emperor Maximilian and 
Heniy of England against the King of France. — Capture of 
Terouane. — Surrender of Toumay. — Charles assumes the Title of 
King 1516. — He assembles the Cortes of the Kingdoms of Castillo 
at Yalladolid. — Death of the Emperor Maximilian. — Charles is 
elected Emperor. — ^Visits England. — Has an Interview with Henry 
VIII. — Visits Flanders. — Commencement of the Beformation. — 
Luther. — ^War with France. — Siege of Pavia. — Visits England a 
second time. — ^Francis I. is made Prisoner. — The Battle of Bicocca. 
— Capture of G-enoa.— Peace with France. — ^Birth of Philip, Prince 
of Spain (1627). — The Pope made a Prisoner . . 3 — 17 


Birth of a Second Son. — Concludes Peace with Venice. — ^Death of the 
Prince of Orange. — Siege of Vienna by the Turks. — Conyocation 
of a Diet at Augsburg. — The King of the Romans. — Holds a 
Chapter of the Golden Fleece. — ^The Diet at Ratisbon. — ^Defeat of 
the Turks. — Interview with .the Pope. — Holds the Cortes at 
Monzon. — ^Expedition to Tunis. — ^Pope Paul succeeds Clement. — 
Barbarossa. — Sack of Tunis. — ^Visits Italy a third time. — ^Death 
of the Queen of England. — Interview with Pope Paul (1536). — 
Antonio de Leyra. — The Count de Buren. — Capture of MontreuiL 
— ^Peace with France. — Is attacked by French Galleys . 18< — 34 

viii Contents, 




Second Interview wi{k the Pope. — Offensiye League against the 
Turks. — Interview between Charles and Francis I. — Charles 
returns to Spain. — Convokes the Cortes at Toledo. — Capture of 
Castel-Nuovo. — ^DeatH of the Empress (163^). — The Keformation. 
— ^Appoints Prince Philip Governor o^ the Spanish Dominions 
during his Absence. — ^Visits the Kingf^fSance. — Visita Flanders. — 
Count Egmont.— The Duchy of Gueldire4— The Duke of Cloves.— 
M. de Granvelle. — ^The Queen of Hungary (1541). — Expedition to 
Algeria. — The Spanish Fleet dispersed by a Tempest. — Gives up 
the Expedition. — Convokes the Cortes of Castille at Valladolid. — 
Has a severe (the Ninth) Attack of Gx>ut — Holds the Cortes at 
Monzon. — Renewal of War with France. — Pope PauL — Diet at 
Niiremberg. — Visits Italy again (1543) . Pages 35 — 61 


Barbarossa joins the King of France. — ^Visits the Rhine. — Capture of 
Duren. — Submission of the Duke of Cloves. — He restores Gueldres 
to the Emperor. — ^Visits the Netherlands. — Siege of Landrecies. — 
Visits the Rhine and Spires. — Surrender of Luxembourg. — Capture 
of Saint Dizier. — The King of England lays siege to Boulogne. — 
Advance into France. — Reaches Epemay . . . 52 — 67 


Negotiations for Peace continued. — Charles consults the Eling of 
England. — Mission of the Bishop of Arras. — Surrender of Bou- 
logne to the King of England. — Surrender of Soissons to Charles. 
— Henry consents to Peace. — Conclusion of Peace. — ^M. d*Orleans 
and M. de Vend6me visit the Emperor. — Charles disbands his 
Army. — Is laid up with Gout at Ghent — Convocation of 
the Council of Trent. — The Diet of Worms. — Secret Treaty 
against the Protestants. — The Popes Legate is alarmed. — He 
refuses to join the Treaty without seeing the Pope. — The Pope 
convokes a Consistory and preaches a Crusade against the Pro- 
testants. — Death of the Duke of Orleans . . 68—84 

Contents. ix 


The Emperor proceeds to Bruges. — Charles holds a Chapter of the 
Crolden Fleece at Utrecht. — Visits the Duchy of Gueldres. — The 
Electors request Explanations respecting a League against the 
Protestants. — The Emperor denies its Existence. — Progress of the 
Keformation. — The Smalcalde League. — The Diet of Batisbon. 

— The Pope*s Emissaries endeavour to persuade the Emperor to 
take up Arms. — ^Duke William of Bavaria joins the secret League. 

— The Protestants prepare for the worst. — Charles concludes an 
Armistice with the Turk. — Commencement of Hostilities against 
the Protestants. — The Protestants capture Fiissen and Clusa. — 
Charles resolves, living or dead, to remain Emperor of Germany. — 
The Emperor marches on Neustadt . . Pages 85 — 101 


The War with the Protestants. — Charles crosses the Danube. — The 
Protestants at Ingolstadt. — Count de Buren. — Position of the 
Emperor's Army. — A Night-Assault. — The Protestants bombard 
the Imperial Camp for eight consecutive Hours. — Retreat of the 
Protestants. — Surrender of Neuburg. — Arrives at Maresheim. — 
The Emperor hears Mass in the expectation of a great Battle. — 
The Protestants occupy the Heights near Nordlingen. — The Em- 
peror prepares for Battle. — Is dissuaded fix)m crossing the River. 
— The Duke of Brunswick is killed in a Skirmish. — Surrender of 
Donauwerth to the Emperor 102 — 117 


The Emperor crosses the River. — Surrender of Hastat. — Surrender 
of Dillingen. — Surrender of Laubingen and Gondelfingen. — 
Skirmish with the Enemy. — Crosses the Brenz and encamps at 
Sontheim. — Lays an Ambuscade for the Protestants. — The Pro- 
testant Position at Giengen. — The Papal Troops leave the 
Imperial Camp. — The Protestants wish to treat for Peace. — The 
Elector of Saxony is defeated by Duke Maurice. — Dissensions in 
the Protestant Army. — They raise their Camp and retire to 


Heydenhoini. ^ The Imperial Army pursues them. — A Buttle 
mumnaQt. — Ib prevented by a Snow-storm. — Surrender of 
NordlingcQ and other Towns. — The Protestants capture Gmiindt. 

— Dispersion of the Protestajit Army. — John Frederick of Saiony 
retreats to Oatha. — Surrender of Frankfort and of Ulm 

PiOBB 118 — 134 


The Emperor enters Wiirt^mbyrg. — Augsburg and Straflhurg sur- 
render. — Death of the King of England. — The Elector of Saiony 
reaasomblBB an Army.. — Pope Paul recalls his Italian Auiiliiiries. 
Defeat of the ImperialiHtB under Margrave Albert of Brandenhuig. 

— Death of the Queen of the Romans. — The ETaporor is taken 
BBrionsly ill at NSrdlingen. — Death of the King of France. — The 
ProteslantB encamp near Meiaaen, on the Elbe. — Surrender of 
Meissen to the Imperialists. — The Pcoteatants take up a Position 
at Miihlberg. — The Emperor reaoWes to give Battle. — A dense 
mist conceals his Movements. — The Protestaula are ta^en by 
aurprise and commence retreating. — The Imperialists cross the 
KivBT. — Comniencemant of the Battle.— The Emperor attaefcs the 

Protestant Army with Cavalry only. — Duke Maurice defeats the 
Protestant Horse. — Total Defeat of the Protestants. — Capture of 
Duke John Frederick ot Saxony and of Dnke Ernest of Brunswick, 
April 24 13o— 150 


Siege of Wittanbetg. — The Town capitulates. — Surrender of other 
Towns. — Duke Maurice is appointed ElectJir. — War in Bohemia. 

— Convocation of a Diet. — Submisaion of the Elector of Saiony 
and of the Landgrave of Hesse. — Mutioy amongst the Imperial 
Troops. — Disturbances in Italy. — CoBBpinicy of Fiesco. — The 
Slates of the Empire snbmit to thn Council — Revolution at 
Placentia. — Charles's Nephew is appointed King rf Bohamia. — 
The Emperor returns to llie Netherlands . . 161 — 161 





FOK some years the attention of the most 
eminent minds has been earnestly directed 
to the study of the history of the sixteenth 
century, and Charles V., who occupies the first 
place in that history, is indebted to a greater 
impartiality, as well as to the revelations of a 
great number of unpublished documents, for 
a tardy justice to his memory. Where it had 
been agreed to accuse him of ambition, sin- 
cere convictions have been recognised, which 
neither numerous obstacles nor long sufierings 
could alter ; and his abdication itself, by show- 
ing him superior to all the grandeurs he had 
traversed, has shed a calm and serene halo 
upon the last years of his life, of which there 
are few examples in the agitated career of the 
rulers of the world. 


Ill our days, it ia no longer the case that 
historiographera alone and official coronistes are 
consulted ; men study especially those intimate 
narrators who, without burnishing their narrative 
by a pomp which always excites some mistrust, 
adhere strictly to truth. At times it is necessary 
to refer to the confidential reports of the skill- 
ful negotiators of Venice to judge the Emperor 
at the apogee of his power ; again, to follow 
him in the repose which he sought in the shade 
of a cloister, we must interrogate the re- 
membrances of those Hieronymite monks who 
saw him day by day bending towards the 
tomb where their prayers were to follow him. 
The same interest is attached to the familiar 
letters written by his most faithful servants, 
and among those there are none more valuable 
than the letters addressed to Louis de Praet by 
William van Male, who close to his person 
had admired the glory of the Emperor before 
climbing with him that rough pass of Puerto- 
!Novo, when Charles V. exclaimed, ' This is 
the last pass that I shall have to cross before 
that of death ! ' 

William van Male wiis born at Bruges. His 

Introduction. xiii 

family does not appear to have belonged to 
the ancient noblesse, and he was poorly pro- 
vided with the gifts of fortune. For a long 
time his sole occupation had been to shut 
himself up in his library, which he afterwards 
called ' the dear prison of his youth.' Finally, 
he found himself reduced to seek his fortune 
in Spain, and attached himself to the Duke 
of Alba, who was then only the generous and 
brilliant Captain, who was called Hhe father 
of the soldiers ; ' through him he was enabled 
to gain admission to the cabinet of the Em- 
peror, not to soUdt the honour of girding on 
a sword, but to consult a manuscript relating 
to the war in Germany, by Don Louis d'Avila, 
much more complete than that which had been 
published in Spanish in 1548. WiUiam van 
Male managed so well that he was allowed to 
translate it into Latin, and, thanks to the re- 
commendation either of the Duke of Alba,* 
or of Louis d'Avila himself, Cosmo de Medici 
— the great Cosmo, as Brant6me calls him — 
accepted the dedication of that work, which 

* Cosmo de Medici had married a cousin of the Duke of 
Alba; Eleanor of Toledo. 


narrated in a pure and elegant style the events 
which had recently taken place. 

On the conclusion of a dedicatory epistle to 
the Duke of Florence, WiUiani van Male 
expresses himself as follows : — 

If it is thought that I do not reply completely 
enough to the reproaches wliich might be addressed 
to me, people must at least bow before the sound 
judgement and high intellect of the illustrious Sei- 
gneur de Praet, The latter, always animated by an 
admirable zeal for learned men, has kindly consented 
to read this hook before it was published, and piissed 
the file of his enlightened mind over those parts 
which appeared to bJTin rough and unpolished,* 

It will be readily understood that Wilham 
van Male attached much value to the approval 
of Seigneur de Praet, who was a Enight of the 
Golden Pleece, at the head of the Finances of 

a. ratione, si obtrectatoribua per rae non factum est satis, 
3 eat Ulustriaa. D. Pratensis acemmuni 
judicium et g[uvitat«ni. Is eaim pro incredibili quadam erga 
etudiosos omnea humanitate, lifaellmn prius ijuom. ederetur, 
diligBnter perlegit, quieque inexpolita et rudia Tiderentur, iia 
perapicociEaimi ingeDii sui limam addidit. Ipse itaque celsitU' 
dinem tuam in partem defensionia juvabit, si vitilitigatonim 
tiEdio et molestia affeetua, eoa ad tantaai Priiicipia viii dignita- 
tem et eruditioiteiii relegaTeris, 


Introduction. xv 

the Netherlands, and who, moreover, held the 
office of Grand Bailiff of Bruges.* 

To this testimony of the honom^able relations 
of the translator of Louis d'Avila's work, a few 
lines must be added, in which he proclaims the 
mission incumbent upon letters of perpetuat- 
ing the glory of the Emperor, and wherein he 
insists upon the legitimate authority of the his- 
torian, when it has been his lot to take a striking 
part in the exploits narrated in his recital. 

* Louis de Flandre, Seigneur de Praet, descended from 
Louis de Male^ last Count of Flanders. His mother^ Isabella 
of Burgundy, was, also in illegitimate line, the great-grand- 
daughter of Philip the Good ; her grandmother, Louise de la 
Gruthruse, was the sister of that illustrious Seigneur de la 
Gruthruse, who was not less honoured by the hospitality he 
gave to King Edward at York than by the protection he ac- 
corded to letters by having MSS. copied and enriched with 
sumptuous miniatures. Louis de Praet shared the same tastes. 
Xenophon, Plato, Polybius, Cicero, Seneca^ were his favourite 
authors: he corresponded with Viv^s and Yiglius, and the 
historian of the Counts of Flanders, Jacques Meyerus, ad- 
dressed an ode to him, in which he says -^ 

^ All the Muses bear thee up towards heaven. The histo- 
rians who relate thy great deeds, and the poets that sing them, 
call you their father and their Mecsenas. You are our gloiy 
and the honour of our country, you who count among your 
ancestors the kings and princes whom Flanders has obeyed. How 
can I praise you sufficiently ? The nobility of thy origin is 
heightened by so many virtues, it is revealed to the world by 
so many brilliant acts, that even should old Homer, the bard 
of the kings of Greece, return among us, his lays would not 
suffice for thy glory.' 



It is probable that William van Male returned 
to Brussels with the Duke of Alba and the son of 
Charles V. Tan Male, who aspired to write the 
contemporary annals of the Netherlands, doubt- 
less did not foresee the future when he saw that 
yoirng prince, who was afterwards Philip II,, 
preside at a festival between the Duke of 
Alba and the Counts of Egmont and of Homes, 
in that great square at Brussels, where after- 
wards .... But then his country presented 
itself only to the heart of Van Male surrounded 
by images of prosperity and of happiness,* and 
he entreated Louis de Praet to find for him some 
honourable position, which might lead to his 
appointment as Belgian historiographer of the 

It was about the Easter festivities of 1550 
that Louis de Praet obtained for William van 
Male the situation of Ayuda de Cdmara in 
the Emperor's household, and Charles V., who 
was fond of hterature, and regretted that he 
had not cultivated letters sufficiently during his 
youth, took him at once into his intimacy. Did 

Ualiuieum tuum plane beaTens. — Lettret de GuiUaame 
RM Mak, publislied by M. de Heiffenberg-, p. 10. 

Introduction, xvii 

Charles V. confine himself to repeat to Wilham 
van Male certain recitals which he had borrowed 
from Louis d'Avila ? Did he ask him to explain 
to him, according to the Latin text, the commen- 
taries of Caesar, which he only knew from a 
translation in the tongue of Dante, and of Mac- 
chiavelli ? It is only allowed to suppose so : 
but what we know with more certainty is, that 
the Emperor honoured him daily with long 
interviews, that Van Male was incessantly occu- 
pied reading or writing under his dictation near 
his table or at the fireside, even at night at his 
bedside,* and that he was, in some measure, as 
he himself expresses it, tied to a post by his 
functions and occupations.f 

On May 31, 1550, Charles V. left Brussels 
for Germany on important business. On reach- 
ing Cologne he embarked on June 14 on the 
Ehine, and took five days to reach Mayence. 
WiUiam van Male, who accompanied the Em- 
peror, hastened to write to Mayence to his 

* Quotidianum colloquium ... ad forum. In lectione 
noctuma ... — Lettrea de Gfuillawne van Male, pp. 26, 27, 

t Tanquam ad palum alligatus. — Ibid., p. 64. 

— a 


illustrious friend, Louis de Praet ; but this letter, 
the las of which cannot be too much n^retted, 
no longer exists, and we only know its contents * 
fi:om a. rapid recapitulation f which Tan Male 
inserted in another letter, also addressed to 
Seigneur de Praet, and written at Augsburg on 
July 17, 1550. We reproduce it here, borrow- 
ing the &itbful translation of it, published by 
ILMign^: — 

lia the leisures of his naTigation on the Rhine, 
the Emperor, h&Ting plenty of leisure time on board 
flhip^ andertook to write his journeys and espeditions 
from the year 1515 ap to the present moment. The 
woikis admirably polished and elegant, and the style 
attests great strength of mind and eloquence. Sniely, 
I should not easily have imagined that the Emperor 
possessed such qualificatioos, as he has avowed to 
me himself that he was indebted for nothing to 
education, and that he had ac<]uijed them entirely by 
his own meditations and labour. As regards the 
wei^t and value of the work, they consist espedalij 


in that fidelity and that gravity to which history 
owes its credit and its power.* 

William van Male added in a postscript : — 

The Emperor has allowed me to translate his 
work as soon as it has been revised by Granvelle and 
by his son, I have resolved to adopt a new style, 
which partakes at the same time of Titus Livius, 
of C^sar, of Suetonius, and of Tacitus ; but the 
Emperor is unjust towards ua and oiir century when 
he wishes his work to remain secret, and protected 
by a hundred keye-f 

If anyone is desiroua of knowing what Wil- 
liam van Male meant by this new system of 

• Scripsi B Mogimciaco CeBsaris iter; liberalissimaa qus 
occupatiuDCS in Davigntione fliuninia Rbeni, dum otii occa- 
sione invitatus, striberet in Davi peregrination es auas et expedi- 
tiones, quaa ab anno XV, in prtesentem usque diem eusceplBset 
. . . Libellus eat mire teraua et elegims, ntpote magna is- 
genii et eloquentiso vi cnuacriptus. Ego certe non tcmere cre- 
didissem Cteaari illaa qnoque dotes inesae, quum, ut ipse niihi 
fatetur, nihil talium rerum institutiune sit coneecutiis, aed aola 
meditfttione et cura. Quod altinet ad auctoramentom et 
giatittm, vide, obsecro, quibua fuluris inoitentur, scilicet fide 
et dignitate, quibua potiasimum duubus et conimendatui et 
vigel historia. 

t CasBar indulsit mihi libri sui versioBem, ubi fuerit per 
GianTeUaDum et filium recognitas. Statui novum qaoddam 
Bcribendi temperamentum effingere, mistuni et Livio, Csesare, 
Suetonio, et Tacit*. Iniquus est tanien Cfesar nobia et Bfeculo, 
quod rem supprimi velit et servari centum claribus. — Lettres 
de GitiUaume van Male, p. 13. 


interpretation, he may refer to what he liimself 
wrote on the subject of the nan'ative of Don 
Louis d'Avila : — 

It is right that deeds which have surpassed what 
has been most famous iu dipera countries should be 
narrated in a celebrated language, and understood 
by all nations. Perhaps I may be accused of em- 
ploying a new and too free system of translation ; 
I have followed the exact text before me, without, 
however, holding myself bound to give it literally, 
but without altering the sense, even when I have 
not adopted the same order and the same words. 

The conqueror of Bsu-barossa, hke the con- 
queror of Gaul, had endeavoured, to quote an 
expression of Montaigne, to recommend, not his 
sayings, but bis acts.* Van Male wished this 
book to offer, at the same, time, a model to war- 
riors and to historians ; ^ his idea, therefore, was 
to give to tlie Commentaries of the Emperor a 
classical tinge of Latin hterature to bring the 
ancient and the new Ca3sar into approximation. 

* Si les gestea de X^nophoa et de C^sar n'euBSent de bien 
loing Burpass^ leur Sequence, je ne croy pas qu'its les eiissent 
jftmaia eaoripts ; ils ont chercli^ a recommaiider non leur dire, 
mais leur fiiire. — Eiaaif, i. 39. 

t Les comnient&Lres de Cdaai, dit Plutarque, ont 6i6 lou£a 
pfiT lea meilleura esprita de son tempa, comme ud modele par- 
fiut de ce genre d'uui-n^, et comme iSgalcment pioprea a 
former les lustoiieiis et lea guenieia. 

At Augsburg Charles V. closeted himself 
with Van Male to dictate to him, four hours 
consecutively. It was here that he completed 
the work which extended from 1516 to the 
month of September 1548. Did the Emperor, 
in terminating his recitals at the end of the year 
1548, consider them as given summarily in the 
most clear and precise form in the instructions 
which he transmitted to his son on Januarj' 18 
of that same year ? • There also he dwelt upon 
the infirmities which tormented him, the dangers 
which he had braved, the uncertainty of God's 
intentions towards him, before tracing the rules 
which Ilia successor would later have to adopt in 
his poHcy. First, it was an absolute devotion to 
rehgion, which, without weakness as without 
usurpation, should maintain the hopes attached 
to the convocation of the Council of Trent: 
abroad it was a prudent and skiUful system, 
which should not compromise the relations with 
France, and should seek the friendship of Eng- 
land ; at home a crenerous and conciliating 

■ Stmdoval ("Edition d'Anvers), ii. p. 475 — Papiera d'Etai de 
Granvdle, iii. 367. I have seen an Italiiui tranalation of these 
' instructions in the Vatican Library, No, 75G. 


govemmeat in Gennanj, active and vigilant in 
Italy, wise and enlightened in the Netherlands, 
which had always shown themselves hostile to 
foreign rule ; * finally, he recommended to him, 
everywhere and always, the love of peace, which 
the very experience of wars ought to render 
more intense, economy in the administration of 
the finances, impartiahty in that of justice, sup- 
pression of abuses, respect for the rights of all 
men. In these instructions, as in his Commen- 
taries, Charles V. had incessantly before his eyes 
the instabilitj' of Imman things. •}■ 

William van Male assures us, moreover, that 
Charles V. wished to continue his Commen- 
taries up to the last moment.J Doubtless he 
could not find time, and the dictations which 
have been preserved to us occupied in 1550 
and in 1551 the greater portion of the leisure 
hours he had at his disposal at Augsburg, under 
the refreshing shade of the Fugger Gardens.^ 

* Lob de alii no pueden bien BufTrii ser govemados por 

f La contiitua instabilidnd j nudan^a de las coBsaa tei~ 

I In prtDsenlem uaque diem. — Lettret de i 
Stale, p. 12. 

5 1 dare niit aaj- all thoBe leisure hours, as I find from a 


Did the Emperor cany out the more or less 
vague promise which he made at Mayence? 
Did he commence submitting his work to the 
revision of his son, then in his twenty-third 
year, and to that of Granvelle ? The negative 
seems but Httle doubtful, for nothing has been 
found in connection with such a communica- 
tion. The last lines of tlie postscnptum of the 
letter of July 17, already announced, as M. 
Mignet shrewdly observes, that the Emperor 
had altered his intention, and on reading the 
later letters of Van Male, we only find him 
somewhat laboiiously occupied with the pubUca- 
tion, which the Empei-or had imposed upon him, 
of his translation of the ' Chevalier delibere ' of 
Ohvier de la Marche. It seemed that Charles V., 
on the point of touching upon the most difficult 
period of his life, endeavoured to draw himself 
away from modem histoiy, troubled, agitated, 
disturbed, replete with struggles, harassed by 
hesitation and doubts, to fiud recreation in the 

note for which I am indebted to thekindnesaof oi 

petiiai secretary, M, Quetelctj that Ilulsius ir 

which Charles V., about the aame time, is said to have coin 

posed on artillery ; viz. ' Dlacoreo de I'artilleriB de I'iinperadori 

Carlo V,, Hcritto a mano, 1652.' 


was already j 

on. I 

; year 1551, I 

fables of chivalry, whieli itself was 
nothing more than a poetical fiction. 

Nevertheless, at the end of the ; 
Charles V, took up his residence at Inspruck. 
where he was nearer to Italy ; but he soon 
regretted having done so. The distance he was 
at from the centre of Germany encouraged the 
efforts of his enemies, and the absence of any 
army which might have protected him made 
him in some measure a prey to their audacity. 

On April 4, 1552, Charles V. wrote thus to 
his brother, the King of the Romans : — 

I find myself actually without power or authority. 
I find myself obliged to abandon Germany, not 
having anyone to support me there, and so many 
opponents, and already the power in their hands. 
What a fine end I shall have for my old age 1 . ■ . 
Everything well considered, recommending myself 
to God, and placing myself in His hands ; seeing at 
this hour the necessity of submitting either to great 
shame or of placing myself in a great danger. I 
prefer taking the part of the danger, as it is in the 
hand of God to remedy it, than to await that of 
shame, which is so apparent.* 

• Lasz. CorraBp. des Rrueors Karl V., iii. p. 161. Bucholz, 
GeBcliichte der Kt'gieruug Ferdinand dea Ersten, ix. p. 649. 

The following is the text of the Emperor's 
letter : — 

Je me trouve pre sen tern ent desnue de forces et 
desauctorise. Je me voia force d'abandonner I'Alle- 
mayne pour n'avoir nul qui Be veiiUe declarer pour 
moy, et taut de contraireSj et ja lea forces en leurs 
mains, . . . Quelle bel fin je feroie en mes vieuls 
jours ! . . . Le tout bien considere, me recom- 
mandaat a Dieii et me mettant en ses mains, voyant 
a cette hein-e necessite de recevoir une grande honte 
on de me mettre en ung grand danger, j'ayme 
mieulx prendre la part du danger, puisqu'il est en 
la main de Dieu de le rem^dier, que attendre celle 
de la honte, qui est si apparente. 

Six weeks afterwards, Charles V. was com- 
pelled precipitately to leave Inspruck during 
the night, not to fall into the hands of his 

Under these grave circumstances, Charles V., 
threatened in his authority and in his liberty, 
was concerned about the fate reserved to his 
memoirs, in which he had explained the secrets 
of his poUcy, and judged the faults of the Pro- 
testant princes of Germany. He thought it 
prudent to intrust them to some devoted ser- 
vant, who coiJd take them to Spain beyond all 


danger, and he added a few lines addressed to 
his son, in which he revealed to him the import- 
ance of this deposit, which was not to be opened 
until at an epoch or on an eventuality which he 
meant to indicate. In the midst of the alarms 
and emotions of Inspruck those lines remained 
incomplete ; but, despite the French and Turkish 
galleys which were cruising in the Mediter- 
ranean, the mission was faithfully executed, and 
the narrative dictated by Charles V. to Van 
Male was remitted (everything at least announces 
it) to the young Prince of Spain. 

As soon as the troops of Maurice of Saxony 
had entered Inspruck, tliey pillaged everything 
which had belonged to the Emperor. His 
books and papers, which were in Van Male's 
house, shared the same fate. Were the Protes- 
tants aware, from the letter Van Male wrote at 
Mayence, which was intercepted, as he relates, 
of the existence of the imperial work ? It 
would doubtless have been the most precious 
part of the booty which they made. 

Between the flight from Inspruck, which 
aroused the indignation of Don Juan of Austria, 
and the abdication of Biiissels, so easily accepted 

bj' Philip n., there was no time for the continua- 
tion of the Commentaries : each clay had its 
combata and its dangers, or at least its strugglea, 
of every description, and it.s renewed agitations. 
But what happened later at Yuste ? Opinions 
are divided : we shall endeavour to explain our 

Charles V. had the fixed intention of com- 
pleting in silence and in peace the work 
which he had commenced ia the midst of wars 
and of political struggles. He wished to show, 
by justifying his conduct towards popes and 
kings, that in the religious troubles of Ger- 
many, as in the great wars against Prance, he 
always remained what he had been on the burn- 
ing shores of Tunis and of Algeria — the real 
chief and legitimate representative of the Chris- 
tian poHty, which was violently threatened at 
home as well as abroad.* He hoped, he said 
in a letter, every sentence of which we shall 
have carefully to consider, to do something 

* 'The Emperor,' writes Tiepolo, ''neg-leetsnotliingofwhBtwe 
hava a right to Kxpect from n Christian Emperor Ml of zeal 
for faith and for the Church.' (See Chrontque da Chartei- 
Qaini, par M. Pichot, p. 149.) 


which God shoultl not judge useless to His 

He took with him into his retreat his able 
Secretary, William van Male, and, declaring that 
he had resolved no longer to occupy himself 
with the affairs of the present, he had an- 
nounced immediately on his arrival in Spain, 
that he intended sending away all his attend- 
ants, with the exception of Van Male,* that is 
to say, to be able to shut himself up with liim 
as he did at Augsburg, and the better shielded 
against aU ideas of vanity, as these memoirs of 
hia life would be traced at the foot of his 

However, other occupations came to inter- 
rupt these plans, and Van Male, who became 
such a favourite that he excited all the jealousy 
of the Spaniards, seemed to have shared his 
days in reading to the Emperor during his 
dinner, and in drawing up bulletins relative to 
his health, which were addressed regularly to 
the Secretary of State, Don Juan Vasquez.f 

• Lettre de Oastela, du II Oct,, l&m.^JietraiU et Mart de 
Charlei- Quint, par M. Gachard, i. pp. 18 iiTid 10. 

t Lettre da Ouillftunie Tan Mnle, du 11 Avril, 15S7. — 
Gachnrd, Eetraile d Mart de Charlei- Quint, ii. p. 167, 


Tliere were two distinct periods in the sojourn 
of Charles V. at Yuste (St. Just). During the 
first, Btill dreaming of the restoration of his 
strength and health, which had been prema- 
tui-ely weakened, he wished to create for him- 
self in his solitude, less sombre than it was at 
a later period, commodious buildings, gardens 
planted with lemon and orange-trees, sparkling 
fountains and basins full of trout. In the 
second, strugghng in vain against the malady 
which ravaged bis body without affecting the 
vigour of his intellect, he beheld only in the 
remembrances of his glory his weaknesses and 
his miseries, and his mind, absorbed by pious 
meditations, detached itself from earthly things. 
Eead through the letters (and they are very 
numerous) which were written at Yuste by the 
attendants of Charles V. ; you will find therein 
all the incidents, all the episodes, of his daily 
life, but you will not find any trace of the 
historical dictations to William van Male ; and 
if there may be a few allusions, far from re- 
compensing on a large basis the apology of that 
most chequered life, they are reduced to broken 


Charles V., it is true, was occupied at times 
with thinking what judgement posterity would 
pass upon hiui ; but at those moments he re- 
commended to be collected carefully the vast 
compilations of Florian Ocampo and of Gines 
Bepulveda.* However, it so happened that he 
said to Father Francis de Boi^ia, whom he had 
charged with a mission to Portugal — 

Do you think that there is any sign of vanity in 
writing one's own acts ? You must know that I have 
related all the expeditions (Jomadas) that I have 
undertaken, with the causes and motives which urged 
me to them, but I have not been actuated, in writing, 
by any desire of glory, or any idea of vanity.f 

It. is impossible for us not to see in these 
words of Charles V. an allusion to his work of 
1550, which he had entitled 'Summario das 
Yiages e Jomadas,' adding thereunto a letter 
protesting that he liad not composed it out of 
vanity. It appears that Charles V., in forgetting 

• LettiB de rEmpereur, di: 9 Jidllet, 1668. — Gaciinrd, 
Rdraii^ el Mart de Cliai-le>-Q«ita,i. p. 310. 

t Ribadenejra, vida del P. Francitea de Boija, p. 113.; 
Sondotal (id. d'Anvers), ii. p. 617. Compare what Scpulveda 
aiys; 'thiit Cbarlos V. saw a proof of ambition in the en- 
couragement which certiiin princes (jranted to recitals which 
faToutahle to them.' 

Introduction, xxxi 

at Yuste all his great and glorious acts, has given 
the strongest proof of humility, and the Pre- 
sident of the Council of Castille, Juan de Vega, 
on hearing of his death, wrote — 

No noise of his armies, with which he had often 
made the world tremble, had followed him to the 
monastery of Yuste ; he had forgotten his steel-clad 
battalions and his floating banners as completely as 
if all the days of his life had been passed in that 

The testimony of Ambrosia de Morales is still 
much more precise than that of Juan de Vega. 
Ambrosia de Morales, who wrote in 1564, six 
years after the death of Charles V., aflSrms that 
his Commentaries were not composed at Yuste, 
but in Germany. ' What (he says) ought espe- 
' daily to excite admiration is that this Prince 
' himself, in the midst of the fury of his wars,f 
' drew up an exact and sequent narrative of his 
' acts.' 

In the enumeration of the books found at 
Yuste after the death of Charles V. we find the 

* Sandoval, Vida del Emp, Carlos V, en Yuste (6d. d'Anvers), 
p. 619. 

t En toda la brayeza de sus guerras. 


following: — Abookofmemoirs(i/emon'a5),-n-ith 
a golden pen. Bid this book of memoirs con- 
tain tlie Commentaries ? Was that golden pen 
the Emperor's pen, left forgotten between two 
unfinished pages? It must be observed that 
GranveUe designates the Commentaries as Me- 
moires, and the place itself which this notice 
occupies in the inventory, side by side with the 
Emperor's papers, and the maps which he con- 
sulted, ia of some importance. But how comes 
it that the notary or clerk who, in describing the 
cups and spoons, always points out what use 
was made of them by the Emperor, dould have 
forgotten to add that those memoirs were neither 
accounts nor notes (the word Memorias signifies 
both), but the autobiography of Charles V. ? 

There were also at Yuste a portfolio of black 
velvet and papers intrusted to the care of 
WUHam van Male. This doubtless contained 
the political correspondence of Charles V., but 
Q,aijada took from him at the same time, and 
almost forcibly * (Van Male complained of it 
bitterly), the sheets which contained tlie text of 

■ Quasi por fuei^a, Lettre du Cardinal de GranTelle, du 7 
MftTB, 1661.— Pa|»eM ^Mat de Oranix^ vi. p. 200. 


the Commentaries, such as they had been written 
under the Emperor's dictation, 

' That is my work ! ' exclaimed Van Male ;* and 
here again it can only be question of an un- 
finished manuscript in many points, as Van 
Male assured us that the greater portion of it 
was engraven on his memory. ■}• 

What became of those manuscripts, complete 
or incomplete, left such as they issued from the 
first dictation, or partially revised and touched 
up ? Did Philip H. destroy them ? We dare 
not either accuse him of it or absolve him of it. 
Assuredly he would never have authorised their 
publication; but he allowed Morales, his historio- 
grapher, to quote the memorable example of 
Charles V. writing his own history, and the 
very preservation of the manuscript sent from 
Inspruck is an irrefutable argument. J 

' Diziendo que eraa sua traTajoa. — Papisrs ^Etat ds Gran- 
■veOe, vi. p. 200. 

t Tenia en la raemoria buena parte.^-Ziiii 

} Does the codicil of Philip IX, which orders certain 
papers to he burnt after his death, refer to the Commentaries 
of Charles V ? This appears to me very difficult of admission. 
Could Phillip II. have designated the work of hia father by 
these terms, as vague as they are disdainful : 'Papelea de otras 
qualesquier personas especialmente de los defuncfos ' P and how is 
it compatible with that system of reserve which is applicable to 




Did Van Male, who had returned to Spain 
laden with rewards, and who, moreover, had the 
distinguished honour of being mentioned in the 
will of Charles V., execute from gratitude* his 
project of taxing his memory for the elements 
of a new text of the Commentaries.'}' Did he 

all important papers that are to be preserved : ' Papel de impor- 
tancia que convenga guaidor.' 

* Por memoria. — Papier» iFJEtat du Cardiml de Qramieile, 
ri. p. 200. 

-f- M. Arendt fancies to Ixave found in the long account of the 
CAptuie of Ilesdm and T^rouanne, by Sepcdveda, an extract 
itom. the Commenfaries of ChatleB V., completed at Yuste. If 
tlioBe Commenteriea had devoted sixteen long chapters to the 
capture of those two towud, what extent would it not be 
neceasarj to attribute to them P It appeara only that Von 
Male had pictured to Sepulveda that campaign as of very great 
importance, and that he had piomiaed him a detailed narrative 
of it But there is cot the slightest alluMon to tt aource which 
■would have been treated with the utmost respect. If Sepulveda 
had thought to attain from Van Male the communication of a 
fragment of the Commentaries of Charles V., would he not 
have solicited that of some other more important portion ? It 
must also be observed that Sepulveda's latter waa published in 
1657. Now, of two thingB, one — either he would not have 
dared to mention the communicaliou of Charles V., who was 
atill alive, if he had prohibited it, or, had he authorised it, 
his generosity (himanitatem) would have been extolled. 
Charles V. was not present at those two siegea, and all that 
we know gives rise fo the belief that he only related at any 
length those espeditions in which he took a direct and iia- 
mediale part. It is, however, easily understood that Van Male 
could procure from hia friends in Flanders some detailed nar- 
rative of an expedition of irhich they were wittiesses. M. de 


take advantage of his leisure hours in his native 
land to compose that Latin translation, which 
would at the same time have recalled the great 
actions of modern times and the most perfect 
hterary works of the ancients ? We are reduced 
to the testimony of Cardinal de Granvelle,* who 
relates that Van Male complained at not having 
been able to commence his work, because he 
had always been unwell, and suffering since his 
return. In fact, Van Male died on January 1, 
1561, two years and three months after him 
whom he loved to call his master. f 

Van Male, as we also learn from Cardinal de 
Granvelle, had many Mends,J mth whom he 

Eeiirenljetg observes (Introduction to 'Van Male's Letters,' p. 20) 
that many ■well-informed peraona had promised to proyide him 
-with reliable ajid circuinatAntial accounts. Maechetus, pub- 
lishing in 1566 a. narrative of that i^mpaigu, at which he was 
present, says that there exist others where the same facta will 
be found with more dutoils (laculaUiua). 

* Que esperava algun dia escrivir algo par memoria de su 
arao, la qual dezia que no havia aim empezado por haver es- 
tadopor acd siempre achacoBo y doliente. — Papiere d'Stat du 
Cardmal de Granvdie, vi. p. 300. 

t Hems mens. — Lettres de GuUlautne van Male, p. 47. 
8u amo. — Papierg dEtiA de GrmiveUe, vi. p. 290. 

X He sabido que mucbo 4titea que muriesae, niflgo y quenifi 
muchos papeles, y que viviendo se baria quexado muchsa veiieB 
& dpuiOB amigofl auyas. — State Pnpere of Cardinal tie Granvelle, 


repeatedly conversed respecting this work, 
whicli would have fulfilled the dream and 
desire of his whole life.* Licontestably these 
rumours, these intentions, found an echo in 
other countries, which had also been witnesses of 
the exploits of Charles V., and no astonishmeut 
can be felt if they were known in Italy. 
Venice, whose affairs were, according to Co- 
mines, 'more wisely managed than by any other 
living prince,' was not ignorant of anything 
which occurred in Europe. In 1559, Marco- 
Antonio da Mula was sent on an extraordinary 
mission of the Repubhc to the Netherlands, and 
each day its merchants exchanged long letters 
between Antwerp, the Queen of the Scheldt, and 
Venice, the Queen of the Adriatic. 

At the very hour Van Male was breathing 
his last, a Venetian gentleman, Louis Dolce, ob- 
serves in a life of Charles V. that he was a good 
French scholar, 

• It was probably onlj after the return of Van Male to the 
NefJierlanda that the report was spread in vajioufl quartera that 
Charles V. had dictated his Coinmentaries, and that they 
were to be translated into LaUn. In 16G9, Zenocarus ia still 
ignorant of their exislence, but, however, he alleges, in denial, 
the conaiderationa which alarmed the conacience of Charlea V. : 
' Veritufl ne laudis proprite avidua A Deo cenaeretur.' 

It ia said (he adds) that he composed in that 
language some very fine comraentariea of the acts 
which he had performed, and, as I am iuformed, 
they are actiially being translated into Latin, and 
will be published." 

All Italy was still full of the memory of 
Charles V., and both Bernardo Tasso, whose 
illustrioua son called glory the shadow of a 
dream, and Girolamo EusceUi, who had for a 
long time been engaged in collecting biographies 
of illustrious men, entertained the idea of 
writing his history. Ktiscelli repeated what 
Dolce had said, giving more or less exactly the 
name of the translator : — 

It is hoped that the Commentaries translated 
into Latin by William Marinde will shortly appear. 

Dolce had announced that a translation was 
under preparation. Euscelli, who wrote from 
the same city, and at the same period, goes 
farther : he asserts that it is being printed. It 

' Alcnni bellissimi cominentari dalle cose da lui &Ue, i qimTi, 
eoate odo, bora ^ traducono in latino e ai danmo fuori. 

In 1565 Dolce pubiiehed a oew edition of his book. The 
sentence which refers to the Commentaries of Chariea V., which 
is both va^e and ambiguous, was not modified. Nothing 
&ilher was known at Venice from 1661 to 1565. 



is doubtful whether any sucli translation ever 
■was made, but it appears to ua perfectly inad- 
migsible that it was achially sent to the press at 
Venice. Would William van Male, who had 
received the appointment of Major-Domo of the 
palace at Brussels, and di'ew a pension, have 
dared surreptitiously to make a publication at 
Venice which would have called down upon 
him the anger of Pliilip II. ? * The whole, 
moreover, is reduced to the very suspicious 
authority of BrantSme, who has exaggerated, 
without understanding them, the data collected 
by Dolce and Euscelli : — 

It is said that the great Emperor wrote a book 
with his own hand, as Julius Ciesar did in Latin. I 
do not kttow whether he did so, but I have seen a 
letter published amongst those of Belleforest, which 
he has translated from Italian into French, which 
testifies to it having been turned into Latin by 
William Marinde; which I cannot quite believe, as 
all the world would have hastened to buy a copy, 
like bread in time of famine ; and certainly the 

* We should be more inclined to admit that the reports 
spread at Venice contributed to the aearch which took pkce 
amongst Van Male's papers after his death. ' lie entendido,' 
wrote PhOip II. to Cardinal de Granvelle, whoa he seat him 
the order to mslte the search without delay. 


desire of possessing so great and rare a book would 
have made the price very high, and everyone would 
have liked to have his own copy. 

For three centuries, with the exception of 
the vague indication of an impression said to 
have been made at Hanau at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, under the 
auspices of a son-in-law of William the Silent,* 
all the questions which refer to the translation 
of WiUiam van Male have remained veiled in 
the same darkne^ ; but these very mysteries 
seem to have added to the interest, and it must 
be stated to the honour of the country of 
Charles V., that the first learned body of Bel- 
gium has taken the most prominent part in 

• Teissier, who has been copied bj all those wlio have spoken 
of the edition of the Commentaries of Charla V. at Hanau, 
confines himself lo gay — 'Carolua Quintua Bcripsit de propria 
vita libellum qui prodiit Hanoviie, 1603.' But is there nut an 
error here, which may very easily be explained if we subatitufe 
the name of the Emperor Charles IV. for Charles V. P In fact 
a life of Charles IV., written by himflelf, was published at 
Hanau in 1(!03, and ia to be found in a collection of the his- 
toriaDS of Bohenuft. I am indebted for this information to Dr. 
Hoifinann of Hamburg, The collection ia that of Slarquard 
Freher, and the life of Charles TV. is thus desigTUited :— 
' Carol! Bohemite reg^s et postea imperatoris de vita sua com- 
mentarins ab ipso scriptua.' It seems to me very difficult not 
to recognise in this title of a work published at Hanau in 1Q()2 
the sonrce of Teisaiei's mistake. 


the efforts that have been made to fill up the 

In 1845, M. Gacliard, whose name will 
always remain associated to the researches which 
have spread so bright a light upon the histoiy 
of the sixteenth century, entertained the Eoyal 
Academy of Belgium with his investigations 
at Simancas, at the Escurial, and at Madrid, 
respecting ' a document, the discovery of which 
would have excited universal interest ; ' and he 
dwelt upon how much was to be regretted ' the 
loss of those memoirs traced by the hand of 
the most powerful of monarchs, and perhaps 
of the most profound political genius of the 
sixteenth century.' Fourteen years which the 
learned Keeper-General of the Archives of the 
Kingdom bad devoted to new studies, which had 
remained fruitless on one single point, though 
so fruitfiil on every other, had passed by, when 
the examination of the same question was taken 
up by M. Arendt, in a notice which attracted 
pubhc attention in the highest degree. 

Assuredly the honour of discovering the 
'Commentaries of Charles V.' is due legitimately 
to my honourable colleagues of the Koyal 

Introduclion. sli 

Academy of Belgium, and if a chance has de- 
cided it otherwise, it is doubtless that we should 
have it in our power here to proclaim all that 
is due to their excellent labours. 

Moreover, we hasten to say so ;. we have not 
had the good fortune to disinter the actual 
test of the Commentaries of the celebrated 
Emperor. We have simply discovered a trans- 
lation in the Portuguese language, — a transla- 
tion which was the only work in the southern 
tongue inscribed in the great inventory {grand 
inventaire du fond franqais) at the Imperial 
Library at Paris, where, however, a refereace 
is given to the Spanish division, No. 10,230. 
It is this error which probably has so long con- 
cealed it from the curious eye of researchers.* 

The manuscript, which is in elegant and 
polished handwriting, bears the following 
title : — 

' Historia del invictissimo Etnjperadm- Carlos- 

* My researciies at Paris were connectBd with the publican 
tion of various of our ancient aiith-ors of the fifteenth century, 
which was intrusted to me bj the Academy. I cannot Buffi- 
iTienily aeknowledge the obliging kindness with which MM. the 
Guardiiuia of the Impeml Library facilitated i 

Qui/nto, Rey de Hespanka, compoata ■por Sua 
Majestade Ceea/rea, conw ee vee do papel que vai 
em a eeguinte foUia, traduzida da lingoa franceaa 
e do propria original, em Madrid, anno 1620.' 

That ia to say : — 

'The History of the most invincible Emperor 
Charles V., King of Spain, composed by his Imperial 
Majesty (or his Cesarean Majesty, as Bran tome 
styles him), as is shown by the paper on the follow- 
ing page, translated from the French, and from the 
original at Madrid in 1620.' 

Thus in 1620, in the reign of Philip HI. and 
under the ministry of the Duke d'Uzeda, the 
original manuscript of the Commentaries stQl 
existed at Madrid : what has become of it since ? 
Did some prejudice of national honour cause 
it to be destroyed when the grandson of a 
King of France came to occupy the throne of 
Charles V. ? Has it been tlie foot-ball at the 
commencement of this century of some of those 
soldiers, who Httle thought tliey were avenging 
the vanquished of Pavia when they made their 
weapons clang in the caverns of the Escurial, 
where reposes the rival of Francis I, ? Or is 
it, on the contrary, preserved amongst a lot of 



secret arcbives? Spain, we hope, will deem 
these doubts worthy of aolution. 

However, the weakness and the decay of tlie 
monarchy under Pliilip m. may explain, at the 
same time, how the public mind looked back 
■with a feehng of sorrow and regret towanl the 
relgu of Charles V., and how the documents 
which remained hidden from the Sandovals and 
Sepidvedas were allowed to be seen by the 
Coronistes, their successors. In 1623, GiUes 
Gonzalez d'Avila, Historiographer of Philip III., 
again affirmed the existence of the Commen- 
taries, and perhaps he saw them. The translation 
into Portuguese is easily explained.* Portugal 
was stiil united to Spain, and it was about the 
same period that Francis d'Andrada and An- 
tonio de Souza wrote in Portuguese the ' Life of 
King John HI.,' so intimately connected with 
that of Charles V. It will have been seen that 
our manuscript announced a note which was to 
estabhsh its authenticity. It is, in fact, to be 

• If ft putli cation did take place at Ilanau, end if it is poate- 
ior to 1602, aa woidd be supposed by seeing' it mentioned for 
lie first time in a catalogue of 1705, would it not have lieen 
n the Portuguese lunguog-e ? Enimamiel of Portugal married, 
n 1040, a daughter of tlie Count of Ilanau. 


found in the second sheet, and is conceived in 
these terms : — 

' Frealado do papel que esta em o principio desta 
hietoria, eecritto per truo propria do Emperador 
Carlos V. em a lingoa Oastelhama, o qual papel 
Sua Majeatade mandou d^A lemanha com a Tneama 
hietoria a el rey Don Philippe aeu filko que entdo 
era princi'pe de Eeapanha' 

Which translated means : — 

' Copy of a paper placed at the commencement of 
this history, which was written in Spanish in the 
Tnanu-proprio of the Emperor Charles V,, and 
which was sent to Germany with this same history, 
by His MajestVj to his son the King Phihp, then 
still Prince of Spain.' 

Immediately afterwards follow a few lines 
addressed by Charles V. to the Prince of Spain, 
and they give a summary of the history of the 
composition- of the Commentaries. As we learn 
from Van Male's recital, they were commenced 
on the Rhine when Charles Y. went up it with 
his son,* then completed at Augsburg, which 
confirms the ingenious conjectures of M. Arendt, 
Charles V. protests his good faith, which modem 


historians are disposed to admit. He declares 
ttat lie has not written from vanity, and we 
know how all his historiographers attribute the 
honour to him of having been at the same tune 
great and modest in his successes.* In address- 
ing posterity he places himself under the eye 
of God. It is God whom he invokes to grant 
him time to complete his work, that it may serve 
His glory ; it is under the protection of God 
that he hopes to be dehvered from his anxieties 
and troubles, the trace of which is to be found 
in these unfinished hues. 

Here we are on the threshold of the Commen- 
taries. The reader is doubtless impatient to 
pass it, and we shall content ourselves with 
adding to this introduction a few words, not to 
judge the work of Charles V., but to explain, 
under the circumstances when it was written, 
what it ought to be, and what in fact it is. 

For the more distant period, the Emperor, 
assisted by Van Male,f and attaching himself 

* Inania g'loriffl et falsEe laudis contemptor.^ — Scpulveda. 

t Qua in re iisus est opera meii et suggestione, nmn velut. 
nomenclfttor rerocabam in meraoriam si quid sentirem nut 
effluere aut prmtermitti. — Lettria de GuiUaiime van Male, 
p. 12. 


especially to dates and facts, is satisfied with 
grouping some details together, and enume- 
rating his numerous crossingg of the sea, which 
he alluded to so eloquently in his abdication 
speech, when drawing a brihiant picture of the 
past, combining with them the cold and sombre 
images of the fnture, and pointing out what 
would be the last. But as soon as he touches 
upon the era of the memorable campaigns in 
France and Germany, we recognise in the 
narrator as great a sldll in strategy as in 
politics. Despite the obstacles multiphed by 
the violent attacks of his enemies or by their 
disguised subterfuges, he, unaided, sufficed for 
that task, too immense, as Mignet observes, 
for one man ; and it is especially in these Com- 
mentaries that he will be found firm in his con- 
victions and in his projects, and struggling 
courageously, though infijm and ill, against the 
most formidable leagues, and against the most 
audacious outburst of the hberty of the himian 
mind, which discarded all principle of authority. 
Aa regards the fonn, it is a methodical nar- 
ration without adornment, in which perhaps may 
be discovered some imitation of the immortal 



work of Caisai'.* It recalls the assertion of 
Sepulveda, that the Emperor loved truth in all 
its simplicity : — 

s ventaiiB amantisBimus.' 

We have endeavoured to preserve to him that 
character, by following a system contrary to 
that of Van Male, by iaithfully reproducing the 
sense and even the phraseology of the narration 
which we have before us. The importance of 
this historical document, which we only know 
by a first translation, appeared to us to demand 
that the one which we now pubhsh should re- 
nounce elegance of style to be the more faithful. 
It would have been an easy task for us to 
add numerous notes to every page, and to 
compare the narrative of the Emperor with 
that of contemporary historians. We have not 
done so out of respect to his memory. It is 
said that Don Louis d'Avila, in his retreat at 
Placentia, had placed between the busts of 

• Charles V., like Cfesar, speaks of himaelf only m the third 
person, and the opinion of Cicero upoo the CommentaiieB of the 
i^nqueror of Gaul must not he forgotten : — ' Commentarios 
qnoadani scripsit rerum auariun, valde probandos. Nudi enim 
aunt, recti et venuflti, omni omatu oratioDis detracto. Nihil 
ecitn est, in historia, pura et illustri brevitate dulcius.' 

xlviii Introduction . 

Augustus and Antoninus that of Charles V., with 
this inscription : — 

' Carolo Quinto — ed ^ aseai questo.'' 
(To Charles V. — that name suffices.) 

Lite Louis d'Avila, we think that, after hav- 
ing announced the Commentaries of Charles V., 
there is nothing to be added to the title. It is 
just that the voice of the Prince, whom the faith- 
fid Quijada called 'the greatest man that ever 
lived or ever will live,' should be heard after 
three centuries of silence, free and unshackled 
by murmurs and contradictors. At a later 
period history will resume her rights, but 
henceforth, before appreciating the pohtical 
career of Charles V., it will be necessary to study 
his own judgement of it at a moment when, the 
better to interrogate his conscience, he was pre- 
paring voluntardy to relinquish the most vast 
power that ever was known. 





rS history is that which I composed in 
French, when we were traveUing on the 
Ehine, and which I finished at Augsburg. It 
is not such as I could wish it, but God knows 
that I did not do it out of vanity, and if He has 
been offended at it, my offence must be 
attributed rather to ignorance than to malice. 
Similar things have often provoked His anger : 
I should not like this to rouse His ire against 
'me! In these circumstances, as in others, 
reasons will not be wanting to Him. May He 
moderate His anger, and deUver me from the 
dilemma in which I see myself I 

I was on the point of throwing the whole 
into the fire ; but, as I hope, if God gives me 


Charles the Fifth. 

life to arrange this history in such guise that 
He shall not find Himself ill served therein, 
and that it may not run the risk of being lost 
here, I send it to you that you may have it 
kept down there, and that it may not be 
opened until • , . . 

I THE King. 

Inapruck, 1552. 

* Bata liubiria ea \& que jo hize en roniaiice, qnaado TenilnOB 
por el Rin, y la aeabS en Anguata, Ella no eata hedm como queria, 
y Dioa ea1je q^ue aa la hiza con vanidadr j k della ^1 Hc tnvo por 
ofendido, mi ofensa fti£ mas par ignorancia qne por malicio. Por 
Gcsas BemejEinteB, £1 se Bolia mucho enoju' : no qaeiria q^ne por csta 
lo nyiasBB becho agora eonmigo. Anei por es(a como por otras 
ocosioQes, na le fkltoiin cmiBoB. Rega i 61 ds Mmpkr su yra, y 
Baearme del trabajo en que ma vso. Yo eatuve porqnemarlo todo; 
mas porque. si Dios me da vida, conEo ponerla de manera qne ^1 no 
Be deaervira della, para que por aca no ande en pcligro de perderse, 
OB la embio para qno por aca no anda en peligro dc perderse, os la 
embio paxa que agaya que allA eea guaidada, y no abierta hasta. . . 

To El Bet. 




War in Flanders. — Leagae between the Emperor Maximilian and 
Heniy of England against the King of France. — Capture of 
Terouane. — Surrender of Toumay. — Charles assumes the Title of 
King 1516. — ^He assembles the Cortes of the Kingdoms of Castille 
at Valladolid. — Death of the Emperor Maximilian.*— Charles is 
elected Emperor. — Visits England. — Has an interview with Henry 
VTTT, — ^Visits Flanders. — Commencement of the Beformation.— 
Luther. — War with France. — Siege of Favia. — ^Visits England a 
second time. — Francis I. is made Prisoner. — The battle of 
Bioooca. — Capture of Q«noa. — ^Peace with France. — ^Birth of Philip 
Prince of Spain (1527)*— The Pope made a Prisoner. 

AFTER the death of King Philip, there were at 
intervals various wars in the States of Flanders, 
which we call the Netherlands. One of those wars 
was that undertaken by the Emperor Maximilian, in 
concert with King Henry of England, against Louis, 
King of France. By the prudence, as well as by the 
habitual bravery of the Emperor,* the French were 

* Pola pxodeDcia oomo polo esfor^ oostomado do Eiio^tecador. 


Charles the Fifth. 

defeated whilst endeayouriug to relieve Terouane. 
After the capture of that city, siege was laid to 
Tonmay, which, sbortly afterwards, also surrendered. 
The rrault was, that the Archduke Charles, grandson 
of the Emperor, proceeded to Toumay, which was 
then in the hands of King Henry, and to Lille, 
where he had his first interview with the same King, 
and where, amount other things, his emancipation 
was discussed and resolved upon. This took place 

iei5 in the year 1515, during which he was immediately 
recognised as Lord of tlie said States of Flanders. 
Shortly afterwards, the same Archduke sent ambassa- 
dors to King Francis of France, who at the same period 
had inherited that kingdom, on the death of King 
Louis. These ambassadors negotiated and concluded 
peace. In the same year, His Maj esty visited a portion 
of the States of Flanders, and whilst making that 
visit, there arrived at the Hague, in Holland, M. de 
Vendome, sent by the King of France to ratify that 
pea^je. That portion of his States which he had not 
tinie to visit this year, was visited by him in the 

leie following year, 151(>, and he held his first Chapter 
of the Order of the Golden Fleece at Brussels. This 
was the year of the death of the Catholic King ; and, 
dating from that moment, the Archduke assumed 
the title of King." 

■ E d'onl&D por lUanto o Archiduquu tomun o titulo de Key. 

Assumes the title of King. 

At the same period he recovered, not without 
some resistance, his domains in Friesland : then the 
King of France, on the occasion of his recent acces- 
sion, expressed a desire to open other negotiations 
with His Majesty,* which took place at Noyon, at 
the same time and in the same year. The Kinjg of 
France sent the Seigneur d'Orval to ratify what had 
been newly agreed upon. His Majesty remained 
in the Netherlands until September 8, 1517, upon 1617 
which day he embarked at Flushing for Spain, and 
he left for the first time, in his absence, Margaret, 
his aimt. Governor of his States, 

This same year. His Majesty maintaining the peace 
concluded in France, and the friendship of the King 
of England,! embarked, as already stated, at Flush- 
ing, crossed the ocean, and for the first time saw 
Spain, where his sojourn was to be prolonged till 
1520. Continuing his journey to Tordesillas, he 
went to kiss the hands of the Queen his mother, 
and starting from thence, he proceeded to Mojados, 
where he met the Infant Don Ferdinand, his brother, 
whom he welcomed with great fraternal love.{ 
At this time Cardinal Fray Francis Ximene^, 
whom the Catholic King had instituted Grovemor of 

* Despois el Bey de Fraii9a desejou de trattar de noTo com Sua 
Hajestade, por causa da nova snccessaS. 

t Continuando a paz feita em Franca e amuade com el Bej 

X Com grande e fraternal amor. 


Charles the Fifth. 

his kingdoms, died. Continuing hia journey. His 
Majesty arrired at Valladolid, where be assembled 
the Cortes of the kingdoms of Castillo ; and he was 
recognised as King conjointly with the Qneen his 

At this time the King of France intimated to His 
Majesty a certain intention and wish to go to war 
with the King of England, to recover, he said, the 
town of Toumay, which, as has been seen, had been 
captuied. To which His Majesty rephed in terms 
in keeping with the conventions he had concluded 
with the two Kings. This reply, though moderate, 
just, and reasonable, was interpreted in such guise 
that the King of France felt insulted, and, shortly 
afterwards, he commenced war. On the other hand, 
the English monarch did not display the gratitude 
which such a reply deserved. For soon the tw 
Kings came to an agreement, and formed an alli- 
ance, taking little into account the conventions which 
had been concluded between them and the Catholic 
King. In consequence of this agreement and this 
aUiaQce, the town of Tournay was restored to the 
French, t 

• E foi jurado por Rey Juntamenta com a Rainlia sua mai. 

t El Rey de Frani^ fez adyertic a Sua Magcatade de Cfrta lenc;a5 
ena e Tontside que tinha de fazer guetra ao Key d'lnglatcrm por 
cobrar, et^gundo dizia, a Torcay qu<', como danti^fi ee dii,se, fora 
toniada, Ao que Sno Magoatado rospondeo confonne os codccMob, 
quo tinha feitos com os dittos dons Beya. h. qml tespostu, oiuda 

Charles is elected Emperor. 

At this time, that is to say in the year 1518, His 1518 
Majesty, and the Infant his brother, left Valladolid, 
for Saxagossa; and during this journey he parted 
company with the Infant at Aranda, who, leaving 
that town, embarked at Santander, going by sea to 
Flanders, where he was received by Madam his aunt. 
His Majesty continued his journey to Saragossa, 
where, in the same manner, he convoked the Cortes, 
and was recognised as Bang.* 

In the year 1519 His Majesty assembled the 1619 
Cortes at Barcelona, where the same ceremony took 
place. On his way he learnt the death of the 
Emperor Maximilian, his grandfather; and, whilst 
holding the Cortes, the news reached him of his 
election to the Empire, which Duke Frederick, Count 
Palatine, was charged to annoimce to him. From 
thence he left for Corunna, to embark to receive the 
Imperial Crown at Aix-la-Chapelle.t 

His Majesty embarked at Cdhmna, leaving as 
governor Cardinal de Tortosa, to whom he after- 
wards gave as adjuncts the Constable and the Ad- 
miral of CastiUe, Don Inigo de Velasco, and Don 

que branda, justa, e oonfonne a razaS, foi tomafla de sorte que el 
Bey de Fran9a se resentio tee pouco despois come^ar a guerra, e o 
Ingrez n&o teve o reconhecimento que a tal resposta mereda, porque 
logo Be concertaram e unirao ambos, fazendo pouco caso dos con- 
certos, que estavam feitos entre elles e o Eej Catholioo. 

* Onde da xnesma maneira iguntou cortes, e foi jurado por Bey. 

t A primeira corSa. 

Charles die Fifth. 


Frederick Henriquez. Having crossed the ocean a 
second time, lie landed for the first time in England, 
where he had hia second interview with the liing, 
and, despite what has heen said ahove, a closer 
alliance waa negotiated and concluded with the 
Bald King." From thence he crossed over to his 
States of Flanders, where he was received by Madam 
hia aunt, and by the Infant his brother. This was 
the first return of His Majesty to his States of 
Flanders : a third interview was the result, at 
Gravelines and at Calais, between the Emperor and 
King Henry of England. He then continued his 
journey to Aix-la-Chapelle, where he was crowned. 
He again appointed Margaret his aunt Governor of 
Flanders ; he also left his brother the Infant there, 
and held his first Diet at Worms. This is the first 
time that he visited Germany and the Ehine. 
About this time the heretical doctrines of Luther 
jn Germany, and the Oommunidades in Spain, began 
to manifest themselves.f 

His Majesty, being at the said Diet, sent for hia 
brother, who from thence went to marry the sister 
of King Louis of Hungary, according to what had 
been settled by the Emperor Maximilian. 

During this same Diet, Eobert de la Mark com- 

• Maia particolar paz. 

t Come^aram & puilular as teregias do Lutheio eni AJemanlia e 
te commimidadtie em HeBpsiLha. 

Visits England and Germany. 

menced hostilities.* This act had its origin in the 
reply, mentioned above, which in 1518 the Catholic 
King Charles had addressed from Valladolid to the 
King of France. Not only could that King not 
conceal his mortification and little satisfaction it 
gave him, but it gradually increased, especially when 
the Catholic King was elected Emperor.f 

He was continually making complaints and such 
unreasonable proposals, and in such exorbitant terms, 
that the Emperor could neither accept them nor 
condescend to notice them.J From this reason and 
from other practices, and other communications which 
the King of France entertained in Italy and in Spain 
with the Communidades,^ war commenced in 1521 
between His Majesty and the King of France, in 
which Eobert de la Mark lost the greater portion 
of his domains, which were taken from him by 
Count Henry of Nassau, then Captain-Greneral of 
the army. These wars lasted till 1525. For this 
reason the Emperor was obliged to close the Diet at 
Worms. By so acting, he rather did what he could 

* Comegou a mover guerra. 

t Ba qual nao soo mente nao pode dissimular o desgosto e pouca 
satisfia^o que tinha, mas cada dia ia em crescimento, e muito mais 
despois que o ditto Key Catholico foi eleito em Emperador. 

\ E Ihe foram continuamente feitos requerimentos, e postas con- 
^qZea tao desarrezoddas e per termos ta5 ezorbitantes que nao pode 
cir, nem condescender nellas. 

§ Fola qual causa, e outtras pratticas e intelligencias que liaTia 
em Italia> e em Hespanha com as communidades. 

lo Charles the Fifth. 


than what be wished and had resolved to do,* and 
he left to oppose those hostilities. 

1521 Hia Majesty returned by the Rhine, into hi» States 
of Flanders for the second time. At this period the 
Com/munidades were suppressed in Spain, and the 
French beaten and] driven out of the kingdom of 
Navarre, which they had occupied ^in like manner as 
they had established themselves at Fonturabia. All 
these things occurred before the close of the year. 

At this time the King of France sent an army 
into Lombardy. It laid siege to Favia, which was 
defended by the Marquis Frederick of Mantua. An 
army having been assembled, in virtue of the league 
entered into by the Emperor with Pope Leo and the 
Venetians, the French were driven out of the Duchy 
of Milan, Prosper Colonna was chief of the army of 
the League; and, in virtue of the same League, the 
Duchy of Milan was given to Duke Francis Sforza. 

At the same time, by the Emperor's orders, 
the Count of Nassau laid aiege to the town of 
Toumay, which was surrendered by the French to 
Hia Majesty, who had occupied it since they received 
it from the King of England, into whose power it 
had previously fallen. The army of the King of 

1522 France again attempted, in 1522, to reenter the 
Duchy of Milan, but Prosper Colonna and the army 
of the League made so valiant a resistance that the 

10 pode que »mo descjava e detGnninarB fazer. 

Commencement of the Reformation. 1 1 

French lost the battle of Bicocca. The capture of 
Genoa followed. 

The Emperor, for the third time, leaving the 
government of Flanders to his aunt, embarked at 
Calais, and, for the second time, visited England, 
where he had his fourth interview with the King. 
Having remained there some days, he embarked at 
Southampton, crossed the ocean for the third time, 
and arrived a second time in Spain, where he again 
went to kiss the hands of his mother the Queen, and 
where he remained tiU 1529. At the very time of 
his arrival. Pope Adrian, who had been elected on 
the death of Pope Leo, embarked at Barcelona for 
Eome. His Majesty continued his journey to Valla- 
dolid, where he assembled the Cortes to complete the 
reconciliation of past differences, excepting a few of 
the more culpable &om the general pardon granted 
to all those who had offended him. 

In the year 1523, during the war with France, the 1623 
Emperor entertained certain communications and 
certain correspondence * with Duke Charles of Bour- ^ 
bon, who felt himself injured by some acts of injustice 
done towards him-f This is why he entered the 
service of His Imperial Majesty. The Emperor 
proceeding to Pampeluna with an army to invade 


Teye alg&a communicatS e intelligencia. 
t O qual se tinha por injuiiado de aJg&s aggravos que Ihe foram 

Charles the Fifth. 

France, gave the commanii of it to Don Inigo de 
Velasco, Constable of Castillo, who penetrated into the 
kingdom, and who on his return recaptured Fonta- 

1524 This achieved, the Emperor returned in 1524 to 
the kingdom of Toledo. He was taken ill with fever, 

ifi25 which he got rid of earlj in the following year, 1525. 
At this time the King of France laid siege to Pavia, 
which was held by Antonio de Leyva, and, in the 
battle fought in front of that city, the King was 
made prisoner by the Duke of Bourbon," Captain- 
General of the Emperor, Charles de Lannoy, his 
Viceroy at Naples, and Don Francis d'Avalos, 
Marquis of Pescaria, his principal captains. The 
King was taken by the Viceroy of Naples into Spain 
to Madrid, where he fell sick, and the Emperor 
went to pay him a visit. This is the first time they 

Whilst the Emperor was in the said city of Madrid, 
peace was negotiated and concluded with the said 
King, and his mairiage with the Queen-widow of 
Portugal, Eleanor, sister of the Emperor. At the 
flame time the Duke of Bourbon also arrived, who 
returned soon to Milan, having been invested witii 
that state by His Majesty. 

1626 In 1526 the Emperor left Toledo for Seville, 

* Pelo dantes ditto duque de Borboa. 

Siege of Pavia by Francis the First 15 

where he married. On his journey, he received the 
news of the death of his sister the Queen of Den- 
mark. In the same city of Seville, he was visited 
by his brother-in-law, the Infant Don Louis of 
Portugal, who accompanied the Empress his sister. 
This was the first time His Majesty saw the said 
Infant. At the same time he set at liberty the King 
of France,* receiving in exchange two of his sons as 
hostages, confortnableto the conditions of the conven- 
tions made at Madrid. The latter, shortly afterwards, 
renewed the war, and His Imperial Majesty received a 
message of defiance f at Grenada, consequent upon a 
league concluded between Pope Clement, who had 
been elected on the demise of Adrian, the Kings of 
France and of England, and the Signoria of Venice. 
His Majesty sent a reply to that defiance. 

In the same city the news reached the Emperor 
that his brother-in-law. King Louis of Hungary, had 
been defeated by the Turks and had perished. This 
is why His Majesty convoked the general Cortes of 
all his kingdoms of Castille, to concert measures to 
remedy such a state of things, and to organise the 
necessary means of defence against the Turks. His 
Majesty was in this city, in 1527, when his son Philip 1527 
Prince of Spain was born. About the same time, 
and in the same city, he received the news that the 
army raised by the Duke of Bourbon had entered 

* Soltou. t Foi desafiado. 


14 Charles the Fifth. 

Koine, after an asaault, in which the said Duke was 
killed, and that Pope Clement was shut up " in the 
fort of St. Angelo. A guard was placed in the fort 
bj the Prince of Orange, who, after the death of the 
Duke of Bourbon, took command of the army. 

The Pope remained in the said fortress until, 
having come to terms with the army,"!" he was by 
His Majesty's orders aet at liberty. 

At the same time, in the city of Burgos, the Em- 
peror received a message of defiance from the Kings 
of France and of England, under the pretest of the 
detention of Pope Clement. J His Majesty replied that 
there were no grounds for such an act, as the Pope 
bad already been liberated ; and that the fact of the 
detention of the Pope ought to be reproached less to 
the Emperor than to those who had compelled him 
to raise for hia defence so many soldiers who did not 
obey him well. 5 

All this having taken place, His Majesty returned 

to Madrid, where he convoked the Cortes of the 

kingdoms of CastiUe, where his sou Philip was 

recognised II Prince of the said kingdoms. In the 

lfi28 year 1528, His Majesty, on his way to Valladohd, 

• EneeiTttdo. 

+ Tee que tpndo se conoertado com o excrcito. 

% Sob color da deteni^ri do papa Clemente. 

I E que tinha ncontocido de sua dutenijio foca raaia por culpa 
daquellcs □ obrigaram a mandar para sun defeiiBBr6 tanta gente ix 
guerra que oaa fai bem obedecido, que por BVO. 

II Foijuiado. 


ezp^enced a first attack of gont. He received the 
news that an army sent by the King of France into 
Italy, under the pretext of delivering Pope Clement, 
(who, as has already been said, had been libe- 
rated,) " had advanced to invade and attack the 
kingdom of Naples ; that it had abeady conquered a 
large portion of it, and had laid siege to the capital, 
into which the army which was before Rome had 
withdrawn. In that army were the Prince of 
Orange, Don Alphonso d'Avalos, the Marquis du 
Giiast, Alarcon, who had occupied the castle of St. 
Angelo, and Don Hugo de Moncada, who was in 
the said city of Naples, happening to be there at the 
time of the death of the Viceroy Charles de Lannoy ; 
and as each laid claim to the supreme command, 
they were not on very good terms with each other. 
Nevertheless they performed their duty so well that, 
with God's blessing, the said kingdom and capital 
were defended, and the French army vanquished 
and routed.f Dimng this siege, Don Hugo de 
Moncada attacked the galleys belonging to the 
squadron of Prince Doria; but Hugo de Moncada 
was killed, and most of bis galleys captured. 

His Majesty, conformably to the resolution he 
had taken, proceeded to Monzon to hold the Cortes 
of the three kingdoms of Aragon. This done, he 

■ Com eoT do querer liyrar o papa Clemmte, o qnal, como flea 
ditto, estaya ja li-vre. t Botlo a desbaratado. 

1 6 Charles the Fifth. 

rHturned to Madrid, where the Empress was residing, 
who had given hirth to the Infanta Dona Maria, her 
first daughter. Soon after envoys arrived from 
Prince Dona, who, from certain reasons and bad 
treatment he had received,* offered to join His 
Majesty with his galleys and with those he had cap- 
tured at Naples. His Majesty willingly accepted 
the offer, which was most welcome to him, and indis- 
pensable for the success of the plans he had in view.t 

From this city the Emperor proceeded to Toledo ; 
and in this town he charged the Empress to govern 
in his absence all his Spanish dominions, which he 
resolved to leave, animated by the desire of counter- 
acting as much as possible the errors in Germany 
which, owing to the wars he had been engaged in, 
he hud only been able to remedy imperfectly.^ He 
also wished, by resisting the attacks incessantly 
directed against him on the Italian side, at the same 
time to assume the crowns which he had not yet 
received, and finally to be in a better position to 
oppose the Turk, who, it was said, was advancing 
against Christendom, 

From these various motives the Emperor left the 

• Por nlgnaa causHS e mao trattamento qua lie fora feito. 
+ qual Sun Majestadp Hi^ceitou deboaTontade por eate o: 


e qno caila dia se Ihe podia offprecer. 

t Po lo desejo qne tinha de dar a mplhor ordera que Ihe foBBa 
possivel aoB erroa autca dittos de AJemanlia que, como esta ditto, Sua 
Miyestide deixam o remedio impecfBito. 


Visits Italy. 


city of Toledo for Barcelona, where Prince Doria 
shortly afterwarda arrived with his galleys. Here 
he got his fleet into order so as to embark, as 
already stated, and have himself crowned in Italy, 
despite the league already inentioned which had been 
formed against His Majesty, and which, at the same 
moment, was beginning to break up : for, whilst he , 
was still at Barcelona, negotiations were set on 
foot between Pope Clement and His Majesty. Here 
the news came that M. de Saint Pol had been 
defeated in the states of Milan, and that he was the 
prisoner of Antonio de Leyva, Governor of those 
states. At the same time, his aunt Margaret was 
negotiating at Cambray a peace with the Queen 
fiegent of France, mother of the King. This done. 
His Majesty embarted and set sail with his whole 
fleet, landing for the first time in Italy. Whilst 
cruising along the French coast, he received the 
report that peace had been concluded ; but he only 
received the confirmation of it on his anival at 
Savona. He consequently sent Seigneur de la 
Chaulx, one of bis household, fi-om Genoa to ratify it. 
From Genoa he proceeded farther into Italy, where 
he leamt that the Turks had entered Hungary and 
laid siege to Vienna, This led to the first interview 
between Pope Clement and the Emperor at Bologna, 
where Kin Majesty experienced asecond attack of gout. 

Charles the Fifth. 


Birth of s Second Son.— ^lonclndes Peace mth Venice. —Death of the 
Priope of Orange.— Sioge of Vienna by the Tnrka.— Conrocation 
of a Diet at Augsburg. — The King of the Romans. —Holds a 
Ohapter of the Golden Fleece.— The Diet at Eatiabon,— Defeat of 
tliB Turks.— Interriew with the Pope.— HolJs the Cortes at 
Monion. — Eipedition to Tunis.— Pope Panl succeeds Clement. — 
Baitanwsa.— Sack of Tnnis.— Visits Italy a third time. — Death 
of the Queen of England.- loterview with Popo Paul (1536).— 

Antonio do Lejvi — TheCoont de Buren.- Capture of Mod treniL 

Peace with France. —Is attacked by French Galleys. 

i T Bologna the Emperor was informed that the 
■^*- Empress had given birth to a second son, Fer- 
dinand, whose death was announced to him the 
following year at Aiigsburg. To be more firee to 
oppose the Turks and to leave Italy tranquil,* he 
assumed the crowns that belonged to him, in the 
said city of Bolf^na-f 

He concluded peace with the Venetians, and again 
intrusted the states of Milan to Francesco Sforza. 
After a long war waged by the Pope and His Majesty 
the Florentines, in which the Prince of 

■ E per Sot M^'otade Smt mais Mrn pom leaSai » 

Convocation of a Diet at Augsburg. 1 9 

Orange, who was already Viceroy of Naples, fulfilled 
tlie functions of Captain-General, the House of the 
Medici was reestablished in riorence, and Duke 
Alexander invested with that state. In this expedi- 
tion the Prince of Orange was killed. He was 
replaced in his command by Don Ferdinand de 
Gonzaga, and in the government of Naples by Car- 
dinal Caracciolo, until His Majesty should decree 

Meantime so vaUant a resistance was made by the 
King his brother, and by those who were with him 
at Vienna, that the Turk, as well from this reason 
as from the information he received of the great 
preparations that were being made to oppose him, 
thought fit to withdraw. At the same time the 
Emperor asked His Holiness to convoke and assemble 
a general council, as most important and necessary to 
remedy what was taking place in Germany, and the 
errors which were being propagated throughout 
Christendom." To this effect His Holiness appointed 
a Legate to attend the Diet at Augsburg, and there 
to adopt all such resolutions as might seem best 
suited for such an object. 

These matters settled, the Emperor, taking leave 1530 

• Como de consa mois principal e necBssaria, o Empwador Bolli- 

citon a Sua Suntitade quo, para rcmedio da Oennatiia e dos enos 

qne iio multiplicando em a Christandade, qoisease, como unico e 

ptisdpal remedio, <x>u\xax e celebru hum csncilio g«iaL 


Charles the Fifth. 

of the Pope, left Bologna to proceed to the Diet 
which he had convoked at Augsburg. Here be was 
joined by the Pope's Legate to consider the remedies 
for the said errors, aad at the same time to provide 
for and obviate the evils which were feared on the 
part of the Turk. The Emperor, passing through 
Mantua and the territories of Venice, arrived at 
Trent and in Germany for the second time. During 
this voyage he met the King his brother, and they 
proceeded together to the said Diet of Augshurg, 
where good measures were concerted against the 
Turk, which were afterwards carried out at Ratis- 
bon. At this time he entered into negotiations 
with the electors.* As the Emperor, because of the 
great kingdoms and large domains which God had 
given to him, could not prolong bis sojourn in the 
empire as long as he desired and was suitable,! the 
question of the election of his brother as King of the 
Romans was brought forward. On the closing of the 
Diet they all started together, and for the third time 
the Emperor visited the Rhine, following it up to 
Cologne, It was here that (owing to the plague 
prevailing at Frankfort) the election of the King 
his brother as King of the Romans was concluded on 
1 the proposition of His Majesty. From the said city 
of Cologne the Emperor proceeded to Aix-la-Cha- 

* Fratticu et intelligencui. t Qiuicto dee^era e conFiulia. 

The King of the Romans. 

pelle to crown the said King. This being done, the 
King and the electors commenced treating their 
private interests, and the Emperor returned a third 
time into his states of Flanders to put things into 
order there, as well on account of his long absence, as 
in consequence of the death of Margai'et, bis aimt, 
the news of which reached him on his joiuney down 
the Rhine. So as to place everything in the best 
order, he intrusted the management and direction of 
affairs to tiis sister, the Queen of Hungary. This 
having been all settled and (Completed, he made a 
tour through his states, visiting a portion of his 
domains. It was with the aaaiatance and in company 
of the said Queen that he took all the measures that 
appeared to him most suitable and most necessary. 
Amongst other things he held a third chapter of the 
order of the Golden Fleece at Toumay, 

At the commencement of this year the Emperor, 1532 
leaving for the first time the Queen of Hungary, his 
sister, in the government of the said states of Flanders, 
started the fourth time for the Ehine, so as to enter 
Germany a third time, as well as to see whether he 
could not hit upon some means of putting a stop to 
the heresies that were spreading there* as to oppose 
the invasion of the Turk, who, as was announced, was 
preparing to invade Germany with a great army, 

• For ver eb podia fuzer algia cousq de provciWi para remedio Jaa 
beregUj ^ue havia nellii. 


ai Charles the Fifth. 

For this purpose the Emperor convoked an Imperial 
Diet at Ratisbon, to carry into execution what had 
been agreed upon, as has ah-eady been said, at 
Augsburg. During this journey, whilst out hunting, 
he had a fall from his horse and hurt his leg ; ery- 
sipelas having ensued, he suffered from it the whole 
{dme he was at Batisbon. He also experienced a 
third attack of gout. His nephew the Prince of 
Denmark died in the same city. 

Whilst His Majesty was thus laid np, the Diet 
discussed what remedy could be applied to the state 
of religious matters, and the certain news arrived of 
the advance of the Turk with the object mentioned 
above. For this reason. His Majesty, conjointly 
with the King of the Romans, his brother, appealed 
to the states of the enapire, who showed themselves 
full of zeal in the performance of their duty. 
Eeligioua matters were therefore left aside, as there 
was no time to discuss them,* and they were left 
in their actual state. Such an army was assem- 
bled by the empire, as well as by their Majesties 
the Emperor and the King of the Eomana that 
the Turk, who wished to besiege Vienna, where 
the Emperor and the King of the Romans had 
anticipated him with their troops, finding that a 
portion of his troops which had advanced on different 

" Pola Lreridade do tempo. 

Sack of Tunis. 27 

army, commanded by General Marquis du Guast. 
After being delayed by Bome skirmishes, he besieged 
Goulette for some days with heavy artillery," and 
finally carried it by storm. 

At this time the Emperor received the news that 
the Empress had given birth to the Infanta DoSa 
Jiiana, her second daughter. A few days afterwards, 
leaving Goulette and the fleet well provided for, he 
advanced towards Tunis with his infantry and cavalry 
and some pieces of artillery. Whilst advancing, 
Barbarossa made a sortie from Tunis with a large 
body of Moors on horse and foot, supported by nu- 
merous artillery, and attacked the Emperor between 
some pits and awamps, where he bad halted to rest 
his army. 

The Emperor took possession of the ground, and 
compelled the enemy to withdraw, with the loss of 
their artillery and of a portion of their troops. His 
Majesty also suffered Bom.e loss on his side ; on the 
same day Barbarossa beat a retreat toward Tunis. 
At daybreak next morning, the Emperor drew up 
his army in order of battle and advanced against 
the said city of Tunis, and neither Barbarossa nor 
his men could prevent him forcing an entrance 
with his army. After having sacked the town 
and liberated the Christian slaves, he restored 

* Com grande batteria. 


28 Charles the Fifth. 

it to King Hassan, and, having returned to La 
Goulette, whicli he fortified, he embarked with the 
intention of taking the city of Africa,* He was pre- 
vented from doing so by contrary winds. Leaving 
Calybia, which is also on the coast of Africa, he again 
made sail, and landed for the first time in Sicily. 
Having held an assembly there, and having given 
suitable orders for the welfare of that kingdom, where 
he left Don Ferdinand de Gonzaga as Viceroy, he 
crossed the straits of Messina and proceeded to 
Naples via Calabria, This was his third visit to 
Italy. During this journey he had a fifth attack of 
the gout at four different intervals. Whilst at 
Naples the Emperor convoked an assembly, in which 
he discussed the affairs of the kingdom. Here he 
received news of the death of the Queen of England, 
of the Prince of Piedmont, who was in Spain, and 
of Francis Sforza, Duke of Milan. 

Meantime Francis, King of France, commenced 
a third war, with a view to seize the states of the 
Duke of Savoy. This compelled His Imperial Ma- 
jesty to leave Naples as soon as possible to take the 
necessary measures to meet that invasion. 
1536 The Emperor visited Rome, where he had his first 
interview with His Holiness Pope Paul, as much 
with a view to negotiate peace, for which propositions 

■ Mehedia — Ibe andent Aphrodisiom. 

Enters France with an Army. 29 

had been made to him, as to induce him, should it 
not he concluded, to take the part of the Duke of 
Savoy, who, besides being a vassal of the empire, was 
married to hia sister-in-law and cousin-german, the 
Infanta DoSa Beatrice of Portugal. All these 
matters were discussed at Rome, and led to various 
negotiations, but did not end in anything." A cor- 
respondence ensued, which the Emperor declined to 
reply to, as beneath his notice.f He therefore 
resolved to follow up his plans. Having made all 
possible arrangements, and desirous of finding the 
most suitable means to restore to the Duke of Savoy 
the greater portion of his estates, of which he had 
been forcibly despoiled, he left a portion of his 
army near Turin and advanced another army through 
the Netherlands, the command of which he intrusted 
to the Count of Nassau, so as to alarm and do harm 
to the enemy. Finally he accompanied the re- 
mainder of his troops, the command of which he 
gave to Antonio de Leyva, and advanced as far as 
Ais iu Provence. This was the first time he entered 
France with an army.J However, as the season was 
far advanced, and it was necessary to oppose an 
attack from the enemy, he withdrew with his whole 

* Em Bomn ae tmttou e pcaticou deata materia, <■ passHFsm muitaE 
couaas ijue nSo foram maie palTraa sem effceto. 

t Donde sp seguiiBBi laea escrittursB que Sua M^estade nKo quie 
tomar cuidado de lliee reapond^r, Dom a coueas muito friTolas. 

t Que foi a primeirs res ijue entroa em Frau^ e com execcito. 

20 Charles the Fifth. 

army to Nice. From thence lie proceeded to Genoa, 
where he dismissed and sent home all that portion 
of his army which was superfluous or useless. He 
took care to provide for the safety of the frontierB of 
Piedmont, of Montferrat, and of the stats of Milan, 
of which he appointed the Marquis du Guast Gover- 
nor and Captain -General. He then embarked at 
Genoa and returned to Barcelona. This was his 
fourth visit to Spain. 
' The Enaperor proceeded by post to Tordeaillas, 
where the Queen his mother and the Empress his 
wife were residing. From thence he went to Valla- 
dolid, where he convoked the Cortes. For the sisth 
time he experienced a severe attack of the gout. He 
received the news that Duke Alexander de Medici 
had been treacherously killed, and he conferred the 
state of Florence upon Dnke Cosmo de Medici. At 
this time the Infant don Louis of Portugal came to 
Valladolid to visit His Majesty and the Empress- 
It was the third visit which he paid to their Majes- 
ties. A few days afterwards the Emperor, leaving 
the Empress enceinte, proceeded to Monzon, where 
he convoked the ordinary Cortes. At this time 
the King of France, with troops hastily levied, in- 
vaded Flanders, and successively took Hesdin and 
Saint Pol, which latter town was soon recaptured by 
assault by an army assembled by the Queen of 
Hungary, commanded by General Coimt de Buren. 

Peace with France. 3 1 

At the same time this armj' took Montreuil, and 
defeated Annibal, who waa endeavouring to throw 
provisions into Terouane, then besieged. Never- 
theleas the city waa relieved, the siege raised, and 
Montreuil abandoned. 

The King of France, finding that the lands of the 
Dute of Savoy, which he had conquered in Piedmont, 
were wanting in provisions, and hard pressed by the 
ImperiaUsts, and that, moreover, he had no means of 
coming to their support unless he could get rid of 
the resistance he encountered in Flanders, proposed 
a general armistice, which the Emperor had some 
difBculty in accepting, as he was aware of tiie sad 
condition of the territory which the King of France 
occupied in Piedmont. It resulted from these nego- 
tiations that the Emperor, having been informed of 
the sad condition of the said lands, and knowing that 
his forces were such as to render it impossible for 
them to receive succour, and from other reasons, 
concluded a general armistice with the said King, 
excepting only Piedmont. It happened, however, 
that the King of France sent so many men and troops 
into Piedmont that those lands were succoured. 

The Cortes being closed, the Emperor returned by 
post to Valladolid to see the Empress, who had just 
been brought to bed of her fourth son, the Infant 
Don Juan, who died shortly afterwards. Almost at 
the same time died the Infanta Doua Beatrice of 

Charles the Fifth. 

Portugal, Duchess of Savoy. The Empress suffered 
much after her confinement, and since then until the 
day of her death waa in very had health. Whilst the 
Emperor wm at Monzon negotiations for peace were 
opened between His Majesty and the Kiug of France. 
The result was a conference hetween their respective 
ambassadors, which were, on the Emperor's side, Covos, 
Grand Commander of Leon, and M. de GranveUe, and 
on the King's side the Cardinal de Lorraine and the 
Constable of France ; and as there were some hopes 
of an interview between their Majesties, the Emperor 
posted back to Barcelona to see what the negotiations 
had led to. However, Pope Paul observing that no 
conclusion had heen come to, wished to interfere, 
offering to proceed in person to Nice, whilst the 
Emperor should go to Villafranca, and the King of 
France to Antihes ; to which the Emperor agreed, 
hecause he was always inclined towards peace." 

Meantime the Emperor visited Perpignan and the 
frontier of Rousillon; on his return he found his 
brother-in-law, the Infant Don Louis of Portugal. 
This prince, from his good inclinations and a desire 
to work in the service of God and to do good,t had 
proceeded to Barcelona in all haste to see if he coidd 
be of any service in helping to the conclusion of 

• Pot Ser aempre inplinado no bein da puz. 

t Pola boa incliaacio o deaejos quo tlrha de se empregar em 
cotuas da servi^o de Deus e ser caosa d'alguin bem. 

Truce with France. 


peace. He was welcomed and entertained by His 
Majesty in the most hospitable manner. But, con- 
sidering that the journey to Nice had already been 
agreed upon, and that His Holiness wished to act as 
a mediator in this matter, His Majesty thought that 
it was more advisable the Infant should not leave 
Barcelona. He therefore returned. This was the 
fourth visit to His Majesty. 

As already stated, the Emperor had posted to 
Barcelona; and there, conformable to his intention 
of seeing what would ensue from these conferences, 
he embarked for Nice, Whilst he was yet at Bar- 
celona, negotiations for an armistice had been opened 
between His Majesty and the King of France, and 
the Emperor thought there was no inconvenience in 
doing BO, as he was going to Nice to treat for peace. 
He therefore gave his assent on the point of embark- 
ing, and sent his ratification, although he had not yet 
received that of the King, because he could not have 
been informed of it in time. At the same time a 
report was spread that a Turkish fleet was proceed- 
ing eastward, and with the purpose of preventing 
this journey to Nice. Hia Majesty having arrived 
at Pom^gues,* near Marseilles, discerned some latine 
Bails coming eastwards, Tlie Emperor, aware that 
a short time previously the King of France had sent 

* In insalaa quae enut ante AsBilium, rulgo Fomegaa dictas. 



J4 Charles the Fifth. 

some of hie galleys in that direction, and fancying^ 
that tlie vessels seea were of that number, made 
the usual signals to them, eo as to enter into con- 
versation, and ascertain what newa they had of 
the Tiu'kish fleet. But the said galleya either did 
not or would not understand the signals; and 
as they knew notliing of the armistice, and were 
enemies, they opened fire upon the galleys of the 
Emperor, and by hard rowing endeavoured to reach 
the French coast. Hia Majesty, perceiving this, 
ordered his galleys to give chase, and captured four 
of them in the open sea ; but he did not follow those 
that had gained the land. The Emperor severely 
reproached the captains of the galleys which he had 
captiu-ed for the fault which they had committed, and 
informed the Governor of Provence of this mistake, 
and of the disorder which had ensued, making him 
acquainted, moreover, with the armistice which 
had been concluded at Barcelona, of which the 
Governor had not received any intimation. Agreeable 
to this truce, the Emperor restored the four cap- 
tured galleya, and shortly afterwards he received the 
ratification of the same by the King of France. 


Second Interview with the Pope. 35 



Second Interview with tlie Pope. — OffensiTe League agamflt the 
Turks. — Inteiriew hetween Charlea and Francis I. — Charlea 
returns to SpaUL^ConvokeB the CortpB at Toledo,— ^^apturc of 
Castel-Nuovo.— Death of the EmpreHS (1539).— The Reformation. 
— Appqinta Prince Philip Governor of the Spanish dominiona 

doriug his ahsence Viaita the King of France, — Visits Flanders,— 

Count Egmont.— The Duchy of GueldKS.— The Bufce of Clfcves,— 

M. de Qranvelle.— The Qneen of Hungary (1641) Eipeditinnto 

Algeria. — The Spanish Fleet disperHed by a tempesL — Gives up 

the Eipeditiou Convokes the Cortes of Castille at Valladolid. — 

Has a severe (the Ninth) Attwk of Gout— Holds the Cortfla at 
Monzon.— Renewal of War with France.— Pope Paul.— Diet at 
Niircmtitrg, — Visits Italy again (1S13). 

rpHE Emperor continued hia journey to Nice, 
-'- where he had a second interview witli His Holi- 
ness, and, after having kissed his feet, he discussed 
with him the different negotiations for peace with the 
King of France, who had also arrived at Saint 
Laurent. However, the concli^ioD of a truce was 
all that was effected, and various motives led to it.* 
The Emperor being at Villafranca, near Nice, and 
desirous of seeing the most Christian Queen Ms sister, 
as it was a long time since he had seen her, that 
Princess, anxious to conciliate and comply with the 

* Pal's! BB quae! ae a^ 

^6 Charles the Fifth. 

wishes of the Emperor her brother and of the 
King her husband, proceeded to Villafranca with 
Madame la Daiiphine, the actual Queen," Madame 
Margaret,t and many other ladies and high per- 
sonages of France. As she found the time she 
spent with him extremely short, she returned a 
second time with a less numerous suite, and passed 
one night in the same city. The Queen having 
left, and the armistice having been concluded, the 
Emperor accompanied His Holiness as far as Genoa, 
where he experienced his seventh attack of the gout. 
This was his fifth viait to Italy. At this time the 
Pope, the Emperor, and the Signoria of Venice con- 
cluded an offensive league against the Turk; after 
which His Majesty embarked at Crenoa to return to 

Ab it had been agreed that an interview should 
take place between His Majesty and the King of 
France, His Majesty announced that on his return 
he should cruise along the French coast and stop at 
the port of Aigues-Mortes. The King at once, in a 
small boat, paid the Emperor a visit on board his 
galley, and the latter, in return for bo great an act of 
courtesy, and to show equal confidence,! P^*^ "^ ^^^'t 
to the King in the town of Aigues-Mortes. He 

• CathnrineofMediciB. 

t Margaret, daughter of Francifl I., aftacwiirda DaoheBfl of Siiyoj. 

X For pugai taS gctmdc cortezia e mostru a mesma conflan^a. 


Interview between Charles V. and Francis I. 

stopped there till the following day, well treated and 
feasted by the King, who, not Batisfied with the 
courtesy he had already shown to the Emperor, 
insisted upon accompanying the Emperor in his gig, 
with his two sons. Monsieur le Dauphin and Mon- 
sieur d'Orleans, other princes of the blood, and high 
personages, to his galley. They all went on board, 
and great compliments were exchanged on all sides," 
and various propositions were made, and the result 
was (as from the said visits and armistice) a great 
continuation of good friendship and greater confi- 
dence.! This was the second time that His ImperiaL 
Majesty saw the King of France, and the first time 
that he set foot in that kingdom as a friend. The 
Emperor again set sail, and returned for the fifth 
time to Spain. He landed at Barcelona and left for 
Valladolid, where he found the Empress much better 
than when he left her, but atill indisposed. To 
put into execution the league which he had con- 
cluded, he for a second time convoked the general 
Cortes of all his kingdoms of Castille at Toledo, 
where their Majesties were residing, and where the 
support and assistance were discussed which it was 
possible and suitable to grant. In the same year a 
great dearth prevailed in Sicily, It was here prin- 
cipally that the fleet had to procure its provisions; 

• Muitoa compriiiieDtDS. 

t Hua grands coDfiaua^u de boa amizade e m^'or coofiiiii^B. 

38 Charles the Fifth. 

and, alUiough the Emperor was quite prepared 
part, the Pope and the Venetians were of the opinion 
that it was not to be thought of to carry out this year 
the projected enterprise, and the contributions from 
the Cortes demanded by His Majesty were ceased to 
be levied. It however happened that Hia Holiness 
and the Signoria of Venice, deeming tliat it was not 
advisable to allow the year to pass by without doing 
something, united their fleets and sent them to 
oppose and fight the Turk by sea as well as by land. 
The result of this expedition was the capture of 
Caste] -Nuovo.* 
1639 The sufferings of the Empress continued, and her 
malady made daily progress, especially since it was 
ascertained that she was again enceinte : the Emperor 
remained the greater part of the year 1539 at Toledo. 
The state of the Empress grew worse, and having 
given birth to a fifth son it pleased God to call her 
unto himself, and it may be held for certain that he 
did so in his great mercy. This death caused great 
sorrow to everyone, especially to the Emperor, wlio 
ordered everything to be done that is customary and 
suitable under such circumstances, 

Since the interview at Aiguea-Mortes, negotiations 
had continued without interruption for the conclusion 
of a satisfactory and permanent peace between the 

nhis I 

Dalaiatiii, at the Kouths of Caltaro. 

Emperor and the King of France. Aa it happened 
that at this period certain innovations commenced to 
show themselves in Flanders, from whicli His Majesty 
had been ahsent since the year 1531, he deemed that 
his ahsence might be an obstacle to the remedy which 
those evils required, and give rise to other and stiU 
greater ones.* The Emperor had lost his companion ; 
he was animated by a great desire to do everything 
that was possible to obtain a good result, and the 
conclusion of peace ; and although be felt that the 
Prince bis son was stiU much too young to govern 
in his absence and to replace the Empress in her 
functions, and despite the other inconveniences which 
were represented to hira and brought to his notice, 
he hearkened only to the good and sincere intention 
he had to do good, and to fulfill his duties towards 
bis subjects so as to prevent them suffering greater 
inconveniences and giving rise to more ecandals-f He 
was also desirous of bringing to a conclusion certain 
matters which he had left in suspension in Germany, 
He had formed the design of embarking at Barcelona 
for Italy ; but at the same time the King of France 

■ Naquells tempo Be commeni^ a mover alg^as noviudes nos 
eatadoa do Fiandrea, e que oHtando sua MajeBtnde Imperial auaento 
d'elles deailo anno de xzri, sua longa aWncia padin fuzer falta 
paia rempdio doB males qve haviu e dar owusiio a outros maiorea. 

t Poapondo tudn a bca e rerdadeira inteniaa que tinba de bem 
fszer e comprir com o qne devia a, seus vusullos por eTitar que nao 
caisaem em outros maioree iiicoiiTeiiieiites e eMandalos. 

40 Charles the Fifth. 

Bent him many pressing invitations to visit his king- 
dom, oflFering all security and a hearty welcome, whilst 
on the contrary he would have been much grieved 
had TTia Majesty shown any mistrust or acted other- 
wiae.* The Emperor therefore decided on taking 
hJB departure from Spain, leaving for the first time 
the government of his kingdoms to the Prince his 
son, despite his youth. 

At the end of this year the Emperor put this reso- 
lution into execution, and, on the word and the 
promise of the King of France (with whom a truce 
had been concluded at Villafiranca, near Nice), be 
passed through his kingdom, where His Majesty was 
ieted and well received. This was the third interview 
between their Majesties, the third time that His 
Majesty set foot in France, and the second time that 
he entered the kingdom as a friend. 
) The Emperor visited Flanders for the fourth time. 
Here he took the most prompt measures possible to 
put a stop to the disorders which had sprung up 
there, t 

He commenced the fortress of Ghent, assembled 
the estates, and visited the greater portion of the 
domains. During this visit he experienced at tlie 

• Offferecendo Ihe toda segnran^ b bom trattitmenW o qnc do 
eanttaru) recepeHa graiidB peaaf e eentimento polaa monstros que 
Soa Mi^eatade daria de descoafiani^ 

t FroToa b leznedio 6 mais presU's que podo as desordts qae 

Visits Flanders. 


Hague, in Holland, an eiglitt attack of gout, and 
conformably to the intention he entertained, and 
to the desire which had always aniniated him to 
conclude a good peace, he offered to the King of 
France, immediately he had arrived in the said states, 
such favourable conditions, that he was surprised to 
find they were not accepted and the desired peace 
not concluded.* 

Some time previously Count Charles of Egmont 
had died, after having for many years ruled the 
duchy of Gueldres, which, however, did not belong 
to him. More than that, he had seized upon every 
opportunity to develope and increase his power, and 
at various periods he had attempted to get possession 
of Friesland, Overyssel, and Groningen, from which 
he was always driven back by the Imperialists, and 
which territories were in the peaceful possession of Hia 
Majesty, Not content with this, he made war against 
the Bishop of Utrecht, who was a prince of the empire, 
and took the town of Utrecht from hini by force. 
As soon as the Emperor heard of this, to whom the 
Bishop had sued for assistance (an obligation ta which 
he was bound as lord of the fief), and it was all the 
stronger, as it was necessary to maintain tranquillity 
in the Netherlands,t he concerted measures with the 

• Offerecrado Ihe tao grandes paHidoa quo se maravilhon de n 
lerem d'elle acceilados e de ae quo segair a. paz dcacjada. 
t Hob Pajses-Baizos de Imrer qiiieta^ 


4a Charles the Fifth. 

Bishop, and came to his assistance in siicli guise that 
the said Count Charles of Egmont was driven out of 
Utrecht by the Imperial troopa. The Emperor, who 
proceeded there in person shortly afterwards, ordered 
a new fortress to be constructed there, and for this 
purpose obtained from the Pope and from the empire 
all the necessary acts and ratifications. 

Afterthedeathof Charies of Egmont, Duke William 
of Clfivea seized upon the government of the duchy 
of Gueldres, asserting a claim to it. His Imperial 
Majesty, seeing how matters stood, and how he con- 
sequently ought to and could act, made him offers, 
the conditions of which were such that they ought 
reasonably to have been accepted. But, at the 
request, and through the intrigues of France (the 
French were dissatisfied, although without grounds, 
with the terms of the peace, which were not conform- 
able to their wishes and designs),* the Duke, who 
moreover was young and followed the counsel of his 
mother, would not accept them. The Emperor having 
thus achieved all that was to be done in the states 
of Flanders, and having convoked a Diet at Ratisbon, 
where he wished distinctly to show his claims relative 
to the duchy of Gueldres, resolved to leave for the 
said Diet, as already, whilst in Spain, he had opened 

• Como poc 09 Francerez ficarem di9C0QtBnto9{ai'adaqiiesf!DirazBo) 
dsB coiidi9o^ (la pflz por nao aerem todas ponfonnees a flua vontade e 
>o quo tiDhain propoeUi. 

Tfie Diet of Ratishon. 

negotiations on the subject with the states of the 
empire. The King of the Romans came to visit his 
brother in Flanders, and tlie deputies of the empire 
assembled at Worms to deliberate upon this question. 
The Emperor, finding that all was not quite settled 
in the Netherlands, requested the King his brother to 
remain there during his absence, and he also charged 
M. de Granvelle and hia other ministers to push on 
matters whilst he was attending the said Diet. How- 
ever, as this assembly at Worms, and the negotiations 
which took place, did not lead to the result which he 
had anticipated, everything was reserved for the 
future Diet of Ratisbon. 

The Emperor, leaving for the second time the 1^*1 
government of the Netberl:5nds to the care of the 
Queen of Hungary, proceeded to the Diet at Ratis- 
bon, for the first time passing through the state 
of Luxembourg. This was the Emperor's fourth 
visit to Germany. He had convoked this Diet 
chiefly to establish concord and to effect a remedy 
in the state of religious affairs. After various de- 
bates, the Emperor observed that the princes of the 
empire had not attended tliis Difet, and that they 
were stUl far from a conclusion, and still more so 
from the means of execution which ought to be 
adopted ; * moreover, the report was current that 

que eoDrinlia 

Charles tin Fifth. 


the Turk intended to invade Austria, and no ordi 
had been given to oppose that invasion and to take 
the necessary measures of defence. Already, before 
this news was received, the Emperor, from various 
reasons which actuated him, had on his return to 
Spain made great naval preparations for an expedi- 
tion to Algeria. He therefore left Ratiabon before he 
was fully informed of the invasion of the Turk, and 
started for Italy to embark, and commence the said 
enterprise. This was His Majesty's sixth visit there. 
Immediately on his arrival, positive news was re- 
ceived that the Turk was making great preparations 
to invade Hungary. From this reason the Emperor 
proceeded to Lucca, where he had his third inter- 
view with Pope Paul to arrange the means for 
organising a defence against the Turk, But finding 
that this interview and these negotiations led to no 
result, he proceeded to Spezzia, a port in the Gulf 
of Genoa, to wait there until his fleet was in perfect 
readiness. Already the equipment and preparations 
for this fleet had occupied more time than was neces- 
sary ; and although the season was almost past, never- 
theless, as the outlays incurred could not be turned 
to any other account, and from other reasons which, 
as already said, actuated the Emperor, considering 
that weather is in the hands of God,' he embarked 
at the said port of Spezzia for Corsica, which he saw 

* CoBtiduando qae o t«mpo SBtava em mSo de Dens. 


Expedition to Algeria. 

for the first time, and from thence for 
touching at the island of Sardinia, at Majorca, and 
at Minorca, for the second time. This was the 
eighth time that he crossed the Mediterranean, and 
the second time that he landed in Africa. Diiring 
this journey the weather was seasonable. The 
Spanish fleet also arrived, and after a few skirmishes, 
when the troops were already suitably posted to 
attack the town, and provided with everything that 
was necessary to open their batteries, so fierce a 
t«mpeat arose on sea that many vessels perished, 
and the army on land also suffered considerably. 

Nevertheless the men mutually assisted each 
other, and the best order possible was organised, as 
well to resist the fury of the eea as the attacks of the 
enemy by land. Finally the annoyances became so 
great that the Emperor deemed it the wisest plan to 
relinquiflh the expedition and put to sea. But this 
could not he done immediately, as the tempest had 
not subsided. He was therefore obliged to march 
twenty miles by land, to cross two large rivers, so as 
to reach Cape Matafons, where he reembarked. 

The whole time the army was on land (it remained 
there twelve days before reembarking) it suffered 
from great want of provisions, because, as already 
said, the weather was so boisterous that nothing 
could be got from the ships. After those twelve 
days the Emperor set sail during a great atorm, and 


Charles the Fifth. 

was compelled to touch at Bougie. The winds were 
BO contrary, and he was retained so long, that he and 
his troops suffered much from the scarcity of provi- 
sions; and the evils would have been still greater 
had the fine weather not returned. The tempest was 
BO fierce that everyone sought shelter where best he 
could, and many ships were driven in directions 
quite contrary to where they wished to go. Never- 
theless the troops recovered so well that, without so 
much loss as might have been expected from such 
weather, they all returned to the appointed rendez- 
vous. The Emperor dismissed the superfluous men 
and those least wanted, and the others returned to 
their garrisons. The Emperor, having embarked at 
Bougie, arrived with fair weather at Majorca for the 
third time, from whence Prince Doria returned to 
Grenoa with his galleys, after passing by Barcelona. 
J The Emperor, with the Spanish galleys, touched for 
the first time at Ivica; for the ninth time he navi- 
gated the Mediterrauean. He arrived at Carthagena : 
this was his sixth visit to Spain. He then continued 
his route as far as Ocana, where he met his children, 
the Prince of Spain and the Infantas. 

lu the commencement of the year 1542, the 
Emperor proceeded to ValladoUd, to hold the Cortes 
of the kingdom of Castille. Here he experienced a 
ninth attack of gout, and at the monastery of La 
Mejorada he suffered from it generally in nearly all 


Tlie Cortes of Castille and of Aragon. 47 

liis limbs. At tMa time negotiations were on foot 
for the marriage of the Prince his aon with the 
Infanta Dona Maria of Portugal, and of Prince Juan 
of Portugal with the Infanta DoSa Jiiana, second 
daughter of His Majesty. 

Aa soon as the Cortes had terminated, the Enaperor, 
although unwell, proceeded as qiuckly aa he could, 
passing through Navarre, to hold the Cortes of the three 
kingdoms of Aragon at Monzon, with the intention of 
retumiug as soon as possible to Germany to provide 
some remedy for the affairs of religion, and to recover 
hy all means in his power the duchy of Gueldres, 
which belonged to him. The King of France, how- 
ever, seeing the bad success which had attended the 
Emperor in his enterprise against Algiers, and fancy- 
ing that the outlays he had been put to must have 
drained hia finances, commenced by making a small 
complaint, and the Emperor replied to him by offering 
all the justifications to which he was bound by the 
conditions of the truce concluded at Kice.* The' 
King of France nevertheless transmitted to him from 
all parts the assurance that he bad not the slightest 
intention of going to war with him ; f but he suddenly 
attacked the Emperor in the Netherlands, Mari^in 

» Algiia fraca qneLia a qual bb tmham offerecido todas as jnfiti- 
flca^oes quo o Emperador polas coadi^'oeB da tregoa felta em Niza 
eatuTu obrigado, 

t Assf^inindo o de todae as partes que duo tiulia mteiito de Ihe 
Sntm goena algua. 

Charles iht Fifth. 



Van Eoasem commencing operations in Gueldres, 
M. d'Orleans in Luxembourg, and M. de Vendome 
in the states of Flanders and in Artois. Moreover, 
he ordered his son the Dauphin to lay siege to 
Perpignan, and proceeded himself as far as Narbonne 
to stimulate the enterprise, Nevertrheless, by the 
grace of God, the Emperor, and those who had the 
management of his affairs, set things so well in order, 
and organised so able a defence, that this time the 
said King did nothing of importance. 

At this period Pope Paul, not satisfied with having 
issued a bull, which was a testim.ony of his good will, 
hut which had scarcely any other effect, convoked a 
general Council at Trent, and at the same time sent 
his Legates to His Majesty and to the King of France, 
not only to invite them and to ezhort them to peace, 
but also to restrain thera by ecclesiastical censure if 
they would not obey his behest to conclude a truce. 
This happened, as already said, at the period His 
Majesty was attacked, and when the French were 
repulsed on all sides and compelled to withdraw. 
His Imperial Majesty, seeing with what intentions 
His Holiness wished to effect a peace between their 
Majesties, and that thereby His Imperial Majesty 
would have been mulcted and dispossessed of all that 
had been taken from him by a sudden and unespected 
invasion, did not think it either equitable or suitable 
toaccept such propositions of peace; but he felt indig- 

Pope Paul. 49 

nant, and obliged to reconquer what belonged to him, 
and to show his resentment for such an injury. The 
Emperor therefore rejected the said propositions, and 
would not hearken to them at all.* He somewhat 
drily dismissed the Legate, who had addressed him in 
a tone without that respect which was due to His 
Majesty.! He however still protested that he was, 
as he always had been, inclined to treat for peace, 
provided that the adverse party was governed by 
reason, and provided that the peace was sure and 
suitable to the service of God and to the welfare of 


The Cortes of Aragon having terminated, the Em- 
peror left for Barcelona. He had sent the Prince 
his son from Monzon to Saragossa, that he should be 
recognised Prince of that kingdom ; from thence His 
MajestyproceededwithhimtoBarcelona, where he was 

* Yendo Sua Magestade Imperial a ten94o, com que Sua Santitade 
queria trattar de por em paz Suas Magestades, pela qual Sua Magestade 
Imperial ficara aggravado, e desapossado do que per aquella subita 
e repentina invasao Ihe fora tomado, n&o Ihe parecendo nem justo, 
nem conyeniente acceitar taes modes e meios de paz, antes sentindo 
se mais stimulado e for9ado a recobrar o seu e mostrar o sentimento, 
que tinha de hum tal aggrayo, refiisou os dittos modos propostos e 
de nenbua maneira os quis ouyir. 

t Despedio assaz seccamente ao legado o qual tambem tinba usado 
de termos pouco grayes, nem guardaya o respeito que a Sua Magestade 
se deyia. 

\ Offerecendo se com tudo de estar, como sempre esteye, prestes 
para trattar da paz, com tanto que a parte contrariase accommoda sea 
raz&o, e ella fosse segura e conyeniente ao 8eryi90 de Deus e bem 
da Chiistandade. 


50 Charles the Fi/ih. 

also rera^nised. Having passed throogh Valencia, 
where the same ceremonial was observed, the Emperor 
tookthedirectionof Alcalatoseehisdanghters. Here 
ti»e affiance per verba de futuro of his daughter 
the Infanta Dofia Jiiana took place with Prince Don 
Joan of Portugal, according to what had been agreed 
npon. This done, the Emperor proceeded to Madrid, 
which city he left as soon as he conld, because he 
much desired, according to his first intention, to 
retnm to Germany. In fact he had convoked a Diet 
at Niirembei^, to discuss defensive measures against 
the Turk, and matters of religion. The King his 
brother and M, de Granvelle proceeded there, in the 
name of His Majesty, with many others of his 
ministers whom he had sent there. The Emperor, 
having terminated all that he had to do in the 
kingdoms of Spain, commenced his journey, having 
left for the second time during his absence the 
Prince, his son. Governor of the said kingdoms. He 
therefore left Madrid, and arrived at Barcelona, 
which city he would willingly have left earlier, but 
I5*j various obstacles prevented his embarking before 
May 1, and in consequence of storms and boister- 
ons weather he was not able to gain the open sea 
till the 19th of that month, when the weather 
was still unsettled and doubtful. When off Po- 
mSgues, near Marseilles, some French galleys sallied 
out and commenced skirmishing, supported by the 

Diet at Nuremberg. 5 1 

land batteries ; but they were so ably responded to 
that they were compelled to retreat, and place them- 
selves under the protection of the artillery on shore. 
The Emperor, not wishing any delay, continued his 
journey to Genoa. This was the tenth time he 
crossed the Mediterranean, and the seventh time he 
landed in Italy. 

X 8 

CkarUs the Fi/ih. 


jama OteEitg<^Fmtee^-V\ala the BhJB^—OtflmKor 
ItanL— Solnnunca of the Sidx of CUrcs.— He ratona Ooddita 
toOe&BpcTor— ^Vlalathe Kcduiluid*.— Sege of lamdnoH. — 

of SiitiX IKewt.. — T^ King of P ngl""^ lajf ^^S^ to Bmlcgiw. — 
AdTaux inlo Fnnee. — BeatJiee Ep«iuiT. 

WHILST passing in front of Xioe the Kmperor 
ieamt that the galleys of France wished to 
capture the castle of that town, and whilst His 
Majesty was landing at Genoa Prince Doria ap- 
proached with his galleys to watch the movements 
of those of Fiance. Observing that they came with 
the intention of executing the project attributed to 
them, he attacked them so briskly that he captured 
four of them. At this period His Majesty learnt 
that Barbarossa was expected with a large fleet to 
support the King of France. 

This Barbarossa arrived later, remained at Toulon 
during the whole time the war against the Emperor 
lasted, and returned without having performed any 
act of importance. His Majesty proceeded to 
Snsseto, where he was joined by His Holiness, as 
much to discuss the afi^irs of Germany as to see if 


Fourth Interview with the Pope. 53 

there were no possible means of concluding a peace.* 
Tills was the Emperor's fourth interview with Pope 
Paul, and he experienced a tenth attack of gout. A 
few days afterwards, perceiving how little good re- 
sulted from this interview, he continued f his journey 
towards Germany, where he found himself for the 
^ fifth time. 

Aa the Diet had not heen long sitting, and the 
Emperor, in a time so replete with troubles, did not 
see any chance of regulating and discussing the 
affairs of religion, he continued his journey as far as 
Spires, where he made all the necessary preparations 
to enter the campaign with a good army, at the 
head of which he placed Don Ferdinand de Gon- 
zaga. He was desirous of resenting the injuries and 
damage perpetrated by the King of France, who 
had penetrated into the territory of Hainault as far 
as Binche, and had taken Landrecies, which he was 
fortifying. He was also compelled to do so by the 
war waged against him by Duke William of Clfivea, 
who had taken up arms at the instigation of the King 
of France, and in conceit with him. On his way, the 
Emperor heard of the defeat and route of the Duke's 
troops at Heinsberg. Nevertheless His Majesty, on his 

* Fara SB verem ambos asei polm consas d'AJemaaha, come 
ver Be hayeria algiiae modo de pa^. 
t PoucoB dioa despois yendo o poaeo effeito, quo daq^uella 


54 Charles the Fifth. 

arrival at Spires, wished, the better to justify him- 
aelf, to propose to the electors, who had assembled on 
the banks of the Ehine, to treat with the said Duke 
of Cloves by means of a pacific arrangement as 
regarded the duchy of Gueldres. This proposal did 
not meet with a good reception, and the only plan 
left for him was to reassemble his army and ad- 
vance with it (this was the sixth time he was on the 
Ehine) as far aa Bonn, from whence he took the 
direction of Duren. Having there made a recon- 
naissance of the ground, he established his batteries, 
bombarded the town, and carried it by storm. The 
Prince of Orange then came up with his army from 
the Netherlands. The two aiTuies having united, 
and Duien having been captui'ed, aa already stated, 
with other possessions and lands appertaining to the 
duchy of Gueldres, as also to the duchy of Cloves and 
of Juliers, His Majesty took the direction of Eure- 
mond, which immediately surrendered, and from 
thence he advanced in the direction of Venloo- 
And as Duke Hemi of Brunswick arrived as a 
friend of the said Duke of CUves, the Emperor 
demonstrated and exposed to him his error, ex- 
horting him to renounce it. At this time the mother 
of the 'Duke of Cleves died. This latter recog- 
nised the bad counsel he had received, and the wisest 
men of the states of Gueldres also entreated him to 
witiidraw from the danger be was in, and to follow 

Submission of the Duke of CUves. 55 

better advice ; he did so, and came and threw him- 
self at the feet of His Majesty, confessing his fault 
and asking pardon. He handed over and restored 
the whole state of Gueldres to the Emperor. But 
the Emperor, considering that the error of the Buke 
originated rather in his youth than from any evil 
inclination or wish to do evil, ordered the towns and 
localities taken &om him in other territories to be 
restored to him. Not content with what he had 
done, and seeing the Duke's repentance, and how 
well he persevered in his good intentions, he took 
his marriage into haiid; in fact he gave him in 
marriage bis niece, a daughter of the King of the 
Eomans. This marriage increased the obligations of 
the said Duke towards His Majesty, and the love 
of His Majesty for that Prince. At the com- 
mencement of the spring the King of France, to 
be the first in the field, and to be enabled to oppose 
superior forces to the Emperor, brought forth two 
armies destined to wage war in the Netherlands. A 
portion of one of these armies, in which the King 
was present in person, occupied Landrecies, and the 
other portion established itself in the neighbourhood 
whilst the fortifications were strengthened. The 
two sons of the King had meantime marched on 
Binche, from whence they were driven back with loss, 
without having accomplished anything. Finally, 
M. d'Orleans joined the other army, which was at 

56 Charles the Fifth. 

Luxemboui^. This town, not being in a state of 
defence, had surrendered, and had been fortified 
by the French. At the same time happened what 
has already been related before of the war that 
the Ihike of Cloves, at the instigation of the same 
King, had commenced in Brabant. The Emperor, 
having put an end to that war of Cleves, and having 
taken possession of Gueldres, as already stated, left, 
suffering from the gout, Venloo for Diest, where the 
Estates of the Netherlands were assembled. They 
granted him a large subsidy, on the footing of the 
one granted to him the prec^iing year. This was 
the fifth visit of His Majesty to the Netherlands. 
The King of France, apprised of all these facts, 
withdrew with^his troops into his kingdom, after 
having fortified Landrecies. 

This done, the Emperor, leaving under the walls of 
Landrecies the army which was in the Netherlands, 
with the gendarmerie which the King of England 
had sent to bini in virtue of conventions which had 
been concluded, ordered the army which he had with 
him to march, as also that which had arrived from 
England, as far as Guiae, But as the season was 
already advanced, and the weather inclement, he 
soon ordered it hack to join that before Landrecies. 
The Emperor, although suffering much from the 
gout, left Diest to attend the siege ; and knowing that 
the King of France was assembling new troops to 

Siege of Landredes. 57 

relieve the besieged, he did not wish to be absent 
from his armies. He therefore estabKshed his 
quarters at Avesnes, although, as already stated, 
suflfering from the gout, and he remained there until 
the troops sent to the succour of the garrison of 
Landrecies had withdrawn. This was his tenth 
attack of the gout. 

The King of France, knowing that his troops 
were in danger and in want of provisions, proceeded 
with his army to Chateau-Cambresis, from whence he 
sent a heavy body of cavalry to reconnoitre the 
ground, so as to attempt to succour the garrison of 
Landrecies. To prevent this the armies of the 
Emperor formed a junction, and made such a resist- 
ance that this cavalry did not attain its object and 
had little subject of congratulation.* It is true that 
during this time some French knights, with sacks of 
gunpowder and a small supply of provisions, of which 
the besieged stood much in need, succeeded in en- 
tering Landrecies at a point where there was no 
obstacle, which rallied the besieged a little. As the 
season was advanced and the weather bad, and as, 
moreover, the chief object of the Emperor, when he 
ordered his army in France to besiege Landrecies, 
was to compel the King to give battle,! he ordered 
his army to decamp, and approached France. 

* Nem tene muito de que se jactar. 

t For9ar el rey de Fraii9a a Ihe dar batalha. 

58 Charles the Fifth, 

On the same day the Empeioi, still unwell and 
carried in a litter, left Aveanea and paased the night 
at Quesney. From thence he rejoined liis army, 
which had already taken up a position opposite that 
of the King of France. On the following morning 
Hia Majesty, leaving his quarters, advanced with all 
biB men within cannon range of the enemy, close to 
the King's camp, and offered him battle. A few 
sbirmishea and dischargee of artillery took place on 
both sides, and finally a bold charge against the 
French, who had the worst of it, and they thought it 
advisable not again to leave their entrenchments. The 
Emperor, finding they would not come out, advanced 
with his army close up to the enemy's camp. The 
following day was passed in skirmishing ; at night-fall 
the King withdrew with his army, and retreated as 
far as Guise. The Emperor, through the negligence 
of his scouts, was ignorant of this retreat until the 
following day; the result was that he coidd not 
come up with the King and his army." He ad- 
vanced as far as a wood or thicket, to a distance of 

* MoTendo an ontro dia pelii manliaa, Sua Magestade do ditto 
aJojamento bp foi por com todn sua gente a tiro de bomharda, junto 
ao anaial del Eey e llit^ aprcsentou batollia. E com alguaa 09- 
caramn^ad e tiro9 d'artillieria de hua e outra parte e eom hua l>on 
Carga, que bo den aoa Franceaas daqual bUbs Ciiareia com peer, se 
contentaram por eatonces e tlnerao por bem uuo sair do iuraial. E 
vpndo Emperador qua eile« nao fariam ouira eouaa, se foi por com 
sua gente bcm junto ho campo enemigo ; ontio dia aa passou com 
alguas cBCaramu^as, e vindo a Doato ul Rcj com sell ciercito ae 

Operations after the Siege. 59 

three leagues, but he could not, owing to the dis- 
order of his matchlock-men (who most of them were 
followed or accompanied by more baggage than 
soldiers ought to have), attempt to cross the wood 
with his army. A few light cavalry and matchlock- 
men, and a disorderly few, traversed the thicket. 
M. le Dauphin observed it, and having collected his 
French gendarmes he turned round and charged his 
pursuers. The latter sought refuge in the thicket, 
and then returned to the infantry. It may easily be 
believed that, if the Emperor had had his matchlock- 
men, with whom he coftld have passed through the 
thicket in safety, he might have attained in part the 
object of his desires ; * but as nothing else was to be 
done on this day, and as it was already late, he left 
the thicket, and established his quarters in the very 
camp and on the very spot which the King of 
France had left He arrived there at one hour after 

The Emperor remained some days at Chateau-Cam- 
br^sis, to see if he could not undertake something 
against his enemy. But the latter resolved to dis- 
band his army at once, and sent the troops back to 
their garrisons. The Emperor, considering also that 

partio, e se foi tee Giiis& E n&o sabendo o Emperador por des- 
cuido dos seus desta partida atee a ontro dia pela manhaa, foi no 
alc&nce del Eej com sua gente. 

* Chegara em parte ao fim do sens desejos. 

6o Charles the Fifth. 

the festival of All Saints had already passed, deter- 
mined to do likewise; and consequently he proceeded 
to Cambray, and from thence to Bmssela, where lie 
was taken ill (not from the gout) and was laid up 
during the rest of the year. At the end of this same 
year the PrinccBS of Spain, the Infanta Dona Maria 
of Portugal, was, conformably to the engagements 
which had been made, taken to Castille and handed 
over to the Prince of Spain at Salamanca, where 
their nuptials were solemnised, after having been 
contracted per verba de presenti, 
I The Emperor, leaving the Queen of Himgary his 
sister, for the third time. Governor of the Nether- 
lands, left Brussels, and for the sisth time went up 
the Rhine as far as Spires. This was also the sisth 
time that he entered Germany, where he had con- 
voked a Diet with a view to explain to the electors of 
the empire the causes which had induced him to 
undertake the Gueldres expedition and to march 
against the King of France, causes which have been 
briefly given above, but which were more developed 
in the proposition then made. And seeing that at 
this moment there did not appear any likelihood of 
the Turk advancing against Christendom, and that it 
waa also impossible to do anything in matters of 
religion," or to discuss any important aCFairs, he 
demanded a subsidy against the King of France, who 
■ £ tambem que b cercn da religiio nao te podia &feT. 

T^isits the Rhine and Spires. 61 

had seized upon various towns and lands of the 
empire, and who daily accomplished or negotiated 
things to ite great detriment." This having been 
well considered and fully appreciated, all granted 
good aid to His Imperial Majesty. 

Whilst the Emperor was on his way to Spires, Pope 
Paul aent Cardinal Fameae to His Majesty, under 
colour and pretext of making representations to bim, 
and of endeavouring to treat for peace. The Emperor, 
well aware that these were empty words And sheer 
pretests, would not allow himself to be caught, nor 
relinquish the plana and pursuit of the enterprise 
which he had commenced to recover the territory of 
which he had been despoiled. Thus he soon dis- 
missed the said Cardinal, declaring that he was always 
willing to negotiate for a sincere, good, and perma- 
nent peace.f Then, supported and strengthened by 
the aid he had received from the empire, he com- 
menced reassembling his army. 

* Contra el Key da Fra!i9a o qnal tinim tornado alguaa Ciiiades e 
terras do Imperio, o fazia e trattava caila dia couaaa em grande 

t Indo Emperadot per caminlio para Eepira, tbo ter com sua 
Magcatade a Csj'dinal Fames da parte do Papa Paulo sob color a 
Eombra di amaestar e querrer trattar de paz. E conhecendo Suit 
MagBBtado qua niato n5o hayia maia que palavras geni algiia moetra 
de tjoa condusao, iiao ae qnis deixar Icrar d'eEos, nem d'cxeentar a 
inten^io, e seguir a boa causa, qae tisha e a impreaa comefada, por 
reeobrar o que Uie fora tornado. E a^si dispedio logo ao ditto 
Caideal, offerecendo se de eatar aemprc preates para enteuder e 
trattai de bua Tardedeiia, twa, aegun. e firma paz. 

62 Charles the Fifth. 

Meantime the Emperor received the news that 
the army which he had in Italy had been defeated 
near Carignano. It was at a bad time, and tmder 
bad circumstaaces/ Whatever might come of it, 
having previously leamt that the city of Luxembourg, 
although carefully fort.ified, was short of provisions, 
and that the King of France was endeavouring to 
throw supplies into it, he ordered, in all haste, Don 
Ferdinand de Gonzaga, to whom he had entrusted 
the command of his army, to prevent any supplies 
reaching that city. This General, with a small body 
of men, performed hia mission so well that the city 
shortly surrendered. 

The Emperor soon reinforced his army in such 
guise that his said Captain-General captured in a 
few days many towns and strongholds on the French 
frontier on the Lorraine side, and laid siege to Saint 
Dizier. On his part, the Emperor left Spires and 
passed through Metz, to join him with the remainder 
of the army. This was the fourth time that His 
Majesty entered France, and the second time as an 
enemy. Fire was opened against Saint Dizier, the 
assault given, and the town captured in a few days. 
At this siege, the Prince of Orange was struck by a 
cannon-ball in the trenches, and died shortly after- 

According to what had been agreed upon between 
* One fbi em nuK> tempo e DcauiiQ^ 

The King of England lays siege to Boulogne. 62 

His Majesty and the King of England^ the said King 
had come in person with a large army to molest and 
attack the kingdom of France,* and His Majesty had 
also sent to him the forces he had promised by the 
said convention, under the orders of M. de Bnren. 
The said King had stopped at the siege of Boulogne 
and of Montreuil ; and during the long lapse of time 
during which His Majesty was before Saint Dizier, 
the King of France had leisure to assemble his whole 
army, and to garrison the greater portion of the 
frontiers of his kingdom. The Emperor, taking all 
this into consideration, observing moreover that he 
had not at his command as sufficient a supply of 
provisions as he required, and that the season was far 
advanced, found difficulties for any ulterior enterprise. 
However, not to leave the King of England alone 
against his enemy, he would not retire with his army. 
Already previously, during the siege of Saint Dizier, 
he had captured Vitry, defeated the French light 
cavalry there, and made other incursions. The 
Emperor, leaving the town of Saint Dizier and other 
more important places in a good state of defence, 
and persevering in the intention already mentioned 
above of employing every means to bring the King 
of France to give battle,t resolved to penetrate into 

* Molestap e offender o reino d© Fran9a. 

t Be por todos modoe e meios tirar e trazer el rhe de Fran9a a Ihe 

64 Charles the Fifth. 

the interior of that kingdom as far as he could, 
always seeking the said King and his army.* Con- 
sequently, the Emperor, passing by Vitry, established 
himself in a plain near Chalons. Here some good 
skirmishes took place, where the French gained 
nothing, and where they had no reason to be satisfied 
with the piatols and small matchlocks of the German 
horsemen-t But as Chalons had a strong garrison, 
and there was a French army at three short leagues 
from it on the other side of the IMame, considering, 
moreover, tliat the Emperor and his army had no 
other provisions to depend upon except what they 
found in the country villages and small towns, it 
appeared to His Majesty that he ought not to make 
a longer stay in this locahty.t And although he had 
marched during the whole of the day upon which he 
arrived there, he left with his whole army at fen 
o'clock in the evening ; and so quick was the advance, 
that at daybreak he found himself in view and in 
face of the spot where the French had taken position 
with their entrenchments, carefully fortified, espe- 
cially on the side on which the Emperor had arrived. 

• Delenninon d'entrsr o maia que pndasee per dentro daqueUo 
reino, indo He eemprc inogondo e buBcando so ditto Bo; e eon 

t Nem. Gcarani muito cont^^ntoa doB pistolctea ou pinqucnos arca- 
bozes doa AlcnmeB Ae CHvallo, 

t A Sua Magestade parecao que nao convenha Uxei mnis longs 
demora no quelle lugoi. 

Advance into France. 65 

Tlie Maroe flowed between the two armies. Hia 
Majesty might certainly have crossed the Marne, as 
there was a wooden bridge, which, although broken 
down, might have been repaired so as to allow the 
passage of the infantry. There was also one where 
both cavalry and infantry might cross. But when that 
was accomplished, there would still have been much 
to be done, to the great disadvantage of the Emperor's 
troops. For supposing the bridge and ford crossed 
(which could only be done in file), it would have been 
necessary to reform in order, as a fine open plain lay in 
front which could be swept by the enemy's artiEery. 
It would have then been necessary to advance to the 
attack under continual fire ; and when all this was 
done tliere was still a branch of the Mame, which, 
though narrow, was deep, and offered some difficult 
points which could not be ovei'come without disorder. 
Then it was necessary to climb a hill or mound to 
reach the enemy, who counted a good number of 
Swiss in his ranks. The Emperor saw that all these 
difficulties rendered it impossible to put the army in 
good order of battle ; he therefore persisted in the 
resolution which he had taken to make a long raaiTh 
that day to get ahead of the French army. In fact 
it was the Emperor's intention to advance, so as to 
find the places he passed through undefended, and 
he hoped that he should forCe the French to ad- 
vance so far as to offer him the opportunity he 

66 Charles the Fifth. 

desired. On the same moming Count William of 

Fiirstenberg, not knowing what he was about,* 
crossed the above-mentioned ford, and fell into the 
hands of the French. On the other hand. Prince 
de la Roche-sur-Yon, whilst endeavouring to join the 
French camp with his company, came across some 
Imperial light horse, who pursued him and charged 
in such guise that he, his lieutenant, and many others 
were made prisoners and his men put to flight. 

On the same day, the Emperor continued to 
advance, and almost reached Ay, where he was 
stopped by the bad state of the road and the nume- 
rous streams. Moreover, his rear-guard did not 
arrive till ten in the evening. Thus the army had 
been marching for twenty-four hours, and on the pre- 
ceding day it had performed the same march. If it 
is permitted to form a judgement on what might 
have happened if the Emperor had that day reached 
Epemay, which was only a short French league 
fiirther on (the thing was impossible), so as to 
have enabled the army to cross the river on the 
morrow over the atone bridge of that city, and by 
the boats constructed on the same river, he might 
have, by following the ridge of hiU above men- 
tioned, attacked the French camp by the slopes, 
which had not yet been fortified, and God would 


* Kua aabendo o que tozia. 

Capture of Chateau-Thierry. 67 

have given the victory to whom it pleased Him." 
However, in consequence of the obstacles already 
mentioned, the Emperor did not reach Epemay till 
the evening of the following dny, and he proposed in 
council what has been related above. But this pro- 
ject could not be carried out, because, in consequence 
of the delay of this day which had been lost, the 
French had time to fortify all the slopes as they had 
done on the other aide ; of which fact the Emperor re- 
ceived speedy inforniati on. In consequence the Em- 
peror left Epemay, advancing always with great dili- 
gence and precaution-t But the road offered great 
obstructions, owing to the numerous streams and 
rivulets that intersected them. In some localities 
they were so bad that it was often necessary to 
make long detom^, so that, when it was hoped to get 
over two or three French leagues during the day, it 
happened that, owing to the circuitous road taken, 
not more than one was accompHshed. This de- 
cided the Emperor to send forward in advance a 
good number of men without their baggage, that 
they might capture (and they did capture it) the 
town of Chateau-Thierry. The Emperor followed 
them as fest as he could, always with the intention 
of advancing farther and continuing his route, 

■ E Dana dera n Tictoria a quern fora servido. 
t Com gruidai preesa e cuidado. 

Charlts Ike Firth. 



Kegatiatioiti tcx Peaeev nrntiniud. — Chides eansnlts (lie King <rf 
So^MiA—UiBaoa of the Bidiop of Anu^-Smr^dsef BobIi^h 
Id tlw King of ^■g'"^ — Smmidn i^ Smmov to CStarin. — 
Baaj taaaaUB to Fate. — CoDchinoD at Ftafee^—TL t Odtaaa 
waA IL de r«idcHie ririt Hie Sarpartr. — Chailea diab«ads bk 

Aii^. — Ib bid ^ wiih Goat at Gfaent Canmlioii of ilie 

Cbond] of Tirat— He INet (€ VTarms.— Secret Tifatj aguiOt 
Ik notestaotB. — Hie Pi^'i L«gal« is akmud. — He rtAta to 
join the Treai^ viAoot Kong the Fope. — The Pope nmnJies a 
Canastarj and [iieada a Cnisade «g«''»* &» PmUtta^M. — 
]>Galh of the Duke of Odtau: 

"^OW it must be known that, duriiig this eipedi- 
•^" tioD of the Emperor into France, the King's 
ministers never ceased to negotiate daily, and to offer 
proposals for peace ; and the Emperor, who was, and 
always had been, desirous of peace,* bad not re- 
jected them. K at the oatset the Eing^s minigtera 
had spoken of peace, they did so much more eagerly 
when they saw that His 31aje^ had passed Chalons 
with his whole army.f They therefore continued 

■ Aoqne Saa Hagesfade como qnen Die 

Negotiations for Peace. 69 

these negotiations, and displayed such zeal that the 
articles and conditions of peace bad almost heen 
settled. Nevertheless, as the King of England was 
before Boulogne, aa ah^ady stated, and as His 
Majesty, who had advanced bo far into the interior 
of France, had no news of what he was doing, and 
bad no means of sending him any information as 
regards his own acts, be could not, according to the 
conventions concluded with the said King, sign a 
peace with the King of France without the know- 
ledge and the consent of the King of England. To 
effect this, the miniaters of the King of France 
allowed the Bishop of Arras, the Emperor's minister, 
to proceed, on the part of His Majesty, to inform 
the King of England of what was actually taking 
place. The Emperor informed him that if with Ms 
forces he would on bis side penetrate farther into 
France, he was ready on his part to push forward 
bis advance and his enterprise until the two armies 
should form their junction before Paris, or in any 
locality deemed most suitable.* Should he not 
accept this proposal, he asked his consent that His 
Majesty might negotiate for peace, including him 
according to what had been agreed upon before- 

• Offereoendo che qua bo com burs foi^as e gente qiieria da sna 
parte entmr maifl pep !Fran^, quo o Kmporodor da a\i& 
eeu caminbo e emprFSSi aXse Be arrem junior OS doUB 
paia apartB de Pdris, ou aoude mt 

TO Charka the Fifth. 


However, dtmng this time the £iiig of Englaitd, 
coidinmng the dege of Boult^ae, pressed the place 
60 hard that it vas compelled to sorreiider, vtucfa 
n&tnrally gave him great satis&ction.* Findii^ the 
seaBOD &T advanced, and consideriiig the great out- 
lays this var had co?t him, h& came to the concla- 
don that he had neither the necessary means nor 
resources to advance farther into France,! and con- 
sented that the Emperor should conclude peaces 

Now, whilst the Emperor was awaiting, as already 
stated, a prompt reply from the King of England, 
he found that he could not remain longer in the 
locaUty where he was, owing to the want of all 
necessary things, experienced by his army, and he also 
found that it would be difficult for bim to continue 
to advance. In fact, firom the motives indicated 
higher up, he conld not have been more rapid in his 
movements; and the hostile army being nnfettered 
in itE action, owing to the river which separated it 
&om the Emperor, had time to gain the advance and 
oiganise its forces. The result was that the Em- 
peror, in want of provisions, which it was impossible 
for him to procnre so fitr in the interior of France 
(from Chateau-Thierry to Paris there are scarcely 

^rrender of Boulogne ; conclusion of Peace. 7 1 

twenty short leagues), could not remain long enough 
to attack those places which would have defended 
themselves — a point of the highest importance.* The 
Emperor weighed all these considerations, the more 
80 aa the soldiers' pay was in airear, and the money 
requisite to pay them was to be had in the Nether- 
lands ; but there was no means of conveying it, and 
his determination was almost imposed upon him by 
necessity, as well to obtain sooner the reply of the 
King of England as to approach the Netherlands, 
where he could more easily procure money and 
other indispensable things, and also to organise his 
plans better, according to the reply he should receive 
from the King of England. He therefore left 
Chateau-Thierry, taking the road to Soissons, which 
surrendered on his approach. From this place he 
could carry out the propositions which he had made 
to the King of England, as well and even better 
than he could have done at Chateau-Thierry. 

Meantime the reply of the King of England 
arrived. As already said, he consented that the 
Emperor should conclude peace. Peace having been 
concluded, M. d'Orleans 'arrived on a visit to the 
Emperor. M. de Vendome also arrived soon after- 
wards, and the Emperor continued his journey with 
his whole army aa far as Cateau-Cambresis, where 

• Couaa que fora 3a gmade importancia. ^ 

72 Charles the Fifth. 

he paid it off and dismissed i^ and from thence 
he proceeded to Camhray, where he foand his sister 
the Queen of Hungary, as also the hostages that 
were to be handed over to him. With all this com- 
pany he returned to Brussels. This was the sixth 
time that he revisited his states of Flanders. Shortly 
afterwards he received there Her Most ChristiaD 
Majesty and M. d'Orleans, accompanied by many 
lords and ladies, who had left after having been 
hospitably entertained for some days. The Empe- 
ror turned his attention to the aSaiis of his states 
of Flanders with the intention of visiting them. 
He therefore left Brussels, where he had been 
threatened with an attack of the gont, for Ghent. 
In this city he experienced so severe an attack of 
gout, that from December till Easter he suffered 
from it extremely, although the r^ime and diet he 
submitted to for the first time were most severe: 
this wBs his eleventh attack of gout. 

The Emperor had intended visiting Sermany 
about this time to restore order." For it must be 
known that, since the year 1529, when, as already 
staled, he visited Italy for the first time, and had an 
interview with Pope CItment, he never ceased when- 
ever he saw either Pope Clement or Pope Paul, and 
in every jonmey, and at every Diet in Germany, and 

* I^n liaUa; it tea rnsMlia 

The Emperor and the Pope. 73 

at every time and opportunity, continually to solicit, 
either personally or through Ma ministers, the con- 
vocation of a general council to provide a remedy 
for the evils which had arisen in Germany, and for 
the errors which were Iteing propagated in Chris- 

Ah regards Pope Clement, owing to various diffi- 
culties of a personal nature, and despite the promise 
he had made to His Majesty to convoke such 
a council within the delay of one year, it was 
never possible to make liim fulfil itf His successor 
Pope Paul declared at the commencement of his 
Pontificate that he had promised to announce and 
convoke the council immediately, and exhibited a 
lively desire to provide a remedy for the evils which 
had befallen Christianity, and for the abuses of the 
Church ; nevertheless those demonstrations and first 
zeal gradually cooled down, and, following the steps 
and the example of Pope Clement, he temporised 

* Porque lieder saTier, qne eomo ja be ilisBo, dpsdo anno 29 quo foi 
a primoira yez que passou a Ilalia e se via com o Papa ClementB 
Danqna deixou todas as vezes, quo se vio assi com o mosma Pupa 
Clemente como com o Papa Paulo, a etn todas aeus caminhoa, e 
dietas, que tinlia feito ca ditta Gennania, e em todoa os outros 
tempos e occaeioes de contimiamonte soUi<^Itur liora em. peraoa, hora 
p«r meio de seus ministros, coDcUio geral para remedio da ditta 
Oennania e doa eiros, que lam multipHcBudo na Chri&taDilade. 

t Qaanb) ao Papa Clemtmte, por algrie inmnTenientes, che bnvia 
em sua pessoa, Bern embargo da promi'ssa, que tinba feilo a Sua 
Magestade de dentro de hum amio convocar o ditto condbo, ja mois 
fbi paasirel accabar com elle, que □ ^uisesse cxecutar. 

74 Charles the Fifth. 

with aoft words, and always postponed the convo- 
cation and meeting of the council," until, as already 
observed above, he sent to Monzon, where the King 
of France commenced the war in 1542 — a bull of 
convocation of the said council at Trent. The time 
and opportunity show what his real intentions were. 
God knows them, and they are easily discernible in 
what then took place, and by His Majesty's reply.f 
Nevertheless, in consequence of changes which oc- 
curred in affairs -^changes far different from what 
had been calculated upon by discerning minds — 
matters were arranged,^ and were in such guise 
conducted that the said convocation was held. The 
council met and continued for a long time to sit at 
Trent, until the aaid Pope Paul, from certain reasons 
(G-od will it that they were good ones 1) wished to 
transfer it to Bologna.§ His Holiness therefore, 

• A Papa Panlo, ainda que no principio do flea Pontificado pub- 
licasBB qno tinha ppomettido de logo publicar e convocar concilio, B 
moEtrasfle grandca dEflojofl de Teme<li[iT a ChtistGcdada e abnsos da 
Igroga, com tudo despois com o tempo aqQellas mostras e ardor pri- 
meiro bo foi es friondo, e Btguiado as passes e cxomplo do Paps 
Clomente, com boas polavraa proloDgou, e ODtretene sempre a con- 
TO^o e aj untamente do concilio. 

t A BB2ao oppoiituoidade do tempo mostram bem, com qua 
ton^io isto era, e Dena o aabe, e pelo que ent^ pBSBOU, e ana 
Magestada Foapondeo, ae pode claramento cntendor. 

\ Con tudo polas madan^as qae noB negocioB Eobrevieram bem 
differentas do que algiis agudos eogenhos tinliao diBcorrido, as coneaa 
ee ordenaiam. 

I Atee que o ditto Papa Fanlo pof n i (oi 

The Diet of Worms. 75 

eatertaining towards the Emperor the sentimenta 
alluded to above, and seizing the opportunity of the 
propositions made by His Majesty at the Diet of 
Spires, addressed to bim a brief, little in accordance 
with the sentiments which His Majesty had professed 
during the whole of his life.* The Emperor declined 
giving a reply, as it could not be done without com- 
promising the honour and authority of the two heads 
of Cbristianity, and he was much grieved that the 
Protestants took advantage of this opportunity to 
reply to the Pope in the name of His Majesty.f The 
Emperor followed up what had been resolved upon 
at the Diet of Spires relative to the assembling of 
another Diet at Worms ; but this latter having been 
convoked, the Emperor, in consequence of being laid 
up, could not proceed there on the day appointed. 
He therefore requested the King his brother to go 
there in his 8t«ad; and he also sent M. de Granvelle 
there that they might attend it and hasten to discuss 

quaes Dena qtc forsem bona) tratton do aTixai e transferii' a 

• E londo Sua Santitiide 'para com o Emperador a tpncao, quo 
acima bc mostFou, e tomando occasiao da pnittica, que Sua MagestAde 
fpB na dieta dw Spira, che eecreTeo hum breve bem differente de 
profiBBam, qup Sua Msgeatade fizera toda sua vida. 

t Ao qual Sna Mageatade nao qnis rCBpoader por qnaulo se noo 
podia bem fazer, gnardando o decora e auctboridado daa duas 
cabei^ da Christaudade, e Ihe pezou bem da occaaiao, que com 
grande audacia tomaram as pioteatautea de Ihe respoudci' em nome 
de Sua Magestado. 

76 Charles the Fifth. 

and settle the business in band, adopting the best 
expedient possible,* 
1645 With the object above mentioned in view, the 
Emperor left Brussels for Antwerp, although still 
Buffering from the gout and the medical treatment 
he had undergone, and there he received a visit from 
M. d'Orleans. Leavingj for the fourth time, the Queen 
of Hungary, bissbter, Governor of the states of Flan- 
ders, he proceeded by the Rhine to Worms. This was 
the seventh time that the Emperor performed this 
joiuTiey. He entered Germany with the intention 
and lively desire to remedy what was taking place, 
which he hoped to do more easily by means of some 
amicable arrangement, as he was at peace with the 
King of France, and there was no appearance of the 
Turk attacking Germany. But as he knew and had 
seen the great arrogance and the obstinacy of the 
Protestants, he feared that no good result would be 
obtained-f He had always maintained the conviction, 
with many others, that it was impossible to lower 
by means of severity such obstinacy and so great a 
power as that possessed by the Protestants : he was 
therefore perplexed how to act in a matter which it 
was so necessary and so important to see settled.} 

* E indo ganhaiido tempo encamiuliarem e ordinarcm aa cousas 
tomando o maia breve e melhor expedients que podtsse b^f. 

"t Mas oomo Sob- Mag^tade tinlin. ojitGDdido e visto a graude 
Boberba e obstina^o doB protestanteB, recenTa quo per Tirtnde 
uenhila coufia fiz^fiBem, que HmTeoieitte fosse. 

f E por quanta Sua Magestade tiverti eempre, e muibiB oqItob 

TTie Diet of Worms. 


But God, who never forsakes those who have recourse 
unto Him, even when they do not deserve it,* was not 
satisfied with granting the grace \a the Emperor to 
give him Gueldrea so promptly. The experience of 
what was occurring also opened the Emperor's eyes 
and enlightened his mind, so that no longer did it 
seem to him impossible to subjugate such pride by 
force, but on the contrary it seemed to him most 
easy, under suitable circumatances and by proper 
means, t As this matter was one of the highest im- 
portance and of such great weight, he would not 
take upon himself to decide it, and he communicated 
it only (because of the secrecy it was necessary to 
maintain) to a few of his most trustworthy ministers, 
who had experience of the past, and to whom in 
consequence he communicated his plans.f Their 
advice agreed with His Majesty's opinion, but the 

tinham pars si que via impoeisiTel per via de for^ abaixoF hum tao 
olMtinado e grande poder, qnal era a que os protestaiitee tmbam, hb 
achiLTa perplexo ij^rva do que poderia fa^er, per remodlar couaa que 
tanta coDTinha importaTa. 

* Mas DeuB que jamais desatnpara aquellea, qua a. ella reeoirem, 
ainda que q oao roere^ni. 

t Has camo a. experieacia do que poBsaTa Ihe abrio os olhos, q 
oJluiaiou pnt^ndimento de sort^ qua daUi pordiaate duo ioo nao 
Ihe pareeeo impoHsivel, podec poc via d« for^a domar tao grande bo- 
berba, mas o tere poi mnj facil, empr^ndeudo o em tempg e modo 

} E por o- negocio ser de grande importancia a peso, nao quccendo 
fiar de si, soo a resolu;aS dulle, a commimicou com algilis pouras do 
Beus min iat-ma maia SeLi por cousa do B^gredo, que couviuha Be 
tiT«SBe, c que tanibem tinham expei'ieui^ia do passado, aos quaes por 
CDUsa della se leprcacDt^u o mesmo. 



78 Charles the Fifth. 

Emperor postponed the execution of the plan, hoping 
tiiat it would be sanctioned by the Diet of Worms, 
and foreseeing that in default of restoring order in 
Grermany by quiet and pacific means it would be 
necessary to have recourse to arms, according to 
circumstances and opporiiunities.* 

The Emperor, as already said, continued his 
journey to Worms, where he found but few princes 
of the empire, but many representatives or com- 
missaries with whom he commenced negotiating, 
continuing what had already been concluded in a 
conference previously held in the same citj. But 
the slackness and carelessness which they displayed 
in this negotiation clearly denoted with wliat in- 
tentions and in what spirit they treated these 
matters. t The Emperor, perceiving this, com- 
municated his idea and the considerations explained 
-above to the King of the Eomans, his brother, who 
had come to the Diet as a brother and a prince 
much interested in this question.} The latter, with 
the zeal which he displayed in all things connected 

* E Sua Magestade deizou a exccn;^ para quando e ivmlbrme ao 
que Be podesBe ceBOlyer na dieta de Vonaea, porque 1^0 podendo por 
bona meios e modos pacifiismenta Teduidr Alemanljs, ent4o ea Toia 
as armas e foc^ segando e tempo e opportunidiide que ee offereeesse. 

+ D'onde se segnia lao fraca e fria negooia^io, que se ria dara- 
mente, com que teni^D e animo se IrattjiTa de taea negocios. 

I que vendo Sua MngeataJe yindo nesto tempo i dieta el Ray 
de KomaQos, eea irmao camo a irmait e a quern o negocio graude- 
11 parecer a discurBo acima ditto. 


Secret Treaty against the Protestants. 79 

with the aerviee of God, and with a great desire to 
remedy such great evils, seeing the obstinacy of the 
Protestants, and the small or no results that were 
obtained by acting towards them by measures of 
kindness, approved the Emperor's project as prac- 
ticable, and agreed to it." The Emperor considered 
that time and opportunity were propitious and 
favourable to the accomplishment of this project, 
and that to this end it was proper and necessary that 
he should have the support of the spiritual and 
temporal power of the Pope, as being the person 
most concerned in putting in order and procuring a 
remedy for such great evils-f Their Majesties there- 
fore agreed upon it between them, swearing to 
secrecy, and on the condition that, should the secret 
not be kept, they should not be bound to what might 
have been revealed ; and they resolved to communi- 
cate their determination to Cardinal FarnSse, grand- 
son and legate of Pope Paul, who, at this period, 

* O qiul com a furror que t(Mn nas coneae, que sho de sorri^o de 
DeoB, e graode deago do remedlo de tau grandea mdee, vendo a 
obstiaa;ao doa protestantes, e a ponto on cenbiun effeeto, ijue se 
Begum di' pmcedor twin ellos per modoa e t^rmus biandoa, at^Iiau o 
ditto discursD do Emperador, fundado em naaa e pesaibilidade, e se 
eonformou com elle. 

t E conaiderando, que tempo o oppottunidado pnt mui propieia 
e aceommodjida para exe<mlar o ditto diseureo, e que para eate effeilo 
COnyinha a »ra neeesaario qne o Papa conporresse e ajudasse com suaa 
fbr^os apirituaes e temporuea, eomo aq^uelle que estaTa muis obrigado 
a dor Dcdem e procmar remedia a tantoa malea. 



80 Charles the Fifth. 

arrived in the city of Worms,* Consequently, after 
having sworn to secrecy, and accepted the above- 
mentioned condition, they communicated to him 
that, if His Holiness would, as has been said, give 
them the support of his spiritual and temporal 
power, their Majesties, considering that kind and 
conciliating measures were of no avail, and that the 
obstinacy and the insolence of the Protestants in- 
creased daily to such a degree that it could no longer 
be tolerated, would undertake by force to remedy 
and obviate their obstinacy and their insolence.f 
Cardinal Farnfee was so startled at this overture 
that, although he bad previously declared that he 
was provided with full powers to discuss everything 
connected with the remedy for existing evils, he 
would not take any steps in going further into the 
conclusion of this matter.J And as their Majesties 

* Suas MageatadcB BBsentaram ambas entra a, de com juramento de 
Segredo e condi^, que ae este se eSo gimrdaase, oUea nao eatariani 
obrigiulos B Coosa, ehe tivessem dittn, e oSerecidn comnnmicar sua 
determina^o com o cardeal Fomoa, neto e entoncea legado do Papa 
Paulo, que neste tempo chegou ao mesmo lugar de Tormt^. 

t E asai, deapoia que dedsJim a Snaa Mageatades com juramento 
e condi^ dantea ditta Ihe pTopoaeram e oSerecesao que Be Sua 
Santidade quiaeaae ajudar, como ditto he, <H>m soaa fbr^a apiritnaes 
e temporaca (viato com os modoa e meioa suaves e de coneordia naa 
tinliam lugar, e a obatina^ e insolGnda doe protoatantea ia tsAa. dia 
crpecendo de Borte qua se nSo podia ja sofirei:) Suna Mngestadea em- 
prenderiam por via di fbr^a remcdiar e otmar a tarn olistiiiafoea e 

X Do qual offerecimentD o ditto Cardeal ficou t^3 espantsdo, que 
dizendo donCea, que trazia ampLoa poderea paia tratUr de tudo o qua 

The Pope convokes a Consistory. 8 1 

said that, as he would not take any farther steps nor 
take any resolution upon himself, it would be best to 
consult His Holiness without delay hy an express 
messenger who would bring ba<:k his reply, he posi- 
tively declined to do anything, but he wished himself 
to he the messenger, saying that he would make 
good haste ; and in fact it was such as suited a person 
of his authority, hut not such as the importance of the 
matter demanded.* The first thing he did on arriving 
at Eome was to go against his oath, and ^;ainat the 
condition imposed by Hia Majesty. In fact. His 
Holiness immediately convoked a consistory, where 
there are always conflicting opinions and parties, and 
he communicated to it the offers of the Eniperor.f 
The Pope chose as his legate the same Cardinal 
Farn^e, and as Gonfaloniere or General of the 
Church hia brother Duke Octavio ; other captains 
and ofScers were immediately appointed ; the drum 

tncaa^p so remedio do9 presentea miilsa, nao quia paasac mois an 
diante na coadnsao deste negocio. 

'* E Jkcndo Ihe Suas Magpstadea, que ja que nao possOiTS tnaia 
aTante. nSo querendo per ai concloir Dadu, o melhor seria ooEsnltap 
com toda diligoncia. Sua Santidads per bum proprio, que Ihe 
tronxesse a resposto, de nenbnm moda □ quis fazer, ma^ eWe mesino 
quia ser o meaBageiro, dizendo que fiiria boa diligendJi. a qual foi (ill 
quid a lium pE^rsonagem de sua auirhtoridade convinlia, mas niio a que 
a qoalidade de negocio requeria. 

t Porque tnnto que cbegou a Eoma, a primeira cousa qae se fea 
foi ir em tndo oontni o juramcnto e condijao, que Saa Magcatade 
tinlia poato ; porqae logo Sua Santidade cliamou o conaislorio onde 
aempre costuma baver opino^ e bandoB coutrarioa, ta qaol commn- 

ii Charles the Fiftk. 

was beaten to bring men to the Papal standard, 
calHug upon them to join this holy expedition and 
avenge the sack of Rome.* 

His Majesty considering that, when the above 
proposal was made to Cardinal Farn^se, it was near 
the festival of St. John, and that with all the speed 
the Cardinal coiild display the reply would arrive 
too late and the season would be too far advanced 
to commence assembling an army, and to make the 
necessary preparations for bo great an undertaking, 
presuming also that the secret would not be kept, 
sent an express to His Holiness representing to him 
that the plan could not be carried out tliis year, but 
that it was necessary the secret should be kept close, 
as otlierwise he should not hold himself bound by the 
offers he had madcf As the secret was violated, 
and as the Protestants were warned, the Emperor 
thought fit to act in such a manner that they added 
no faith to the report which was circulated.J The 

• Pnblirando que vinhiuQ a. eata Hanota empresa e a tomai Tin- 
gnu^ do Sacco de Bonm- 

+ Vcndo Sua Magestade Imperial quo quando proposo acima ditto 
ao Cardial Fames era pclo St. Jao, e qne conforme a dilegencia qoe 
D ditto Cardeal podiiL fazer, a resposta veria ja foca de tempo e em 
aazao muita adeantado para come^r a trattar de por em orclcin o 
exercilo. e apprpclor as cousaB conTenientes a tal negoeio, prasumindo 
tsmbem que o aegredo se nao guardaria, deapachou hum proprio a 
Sua Santidade advertido o que por esteanno a ditta d.etcrmiiia9a5 bb nao 
podia exeeutar e que por tanto ae guardasee bem o negredo, porquc 
d'outra raaneira nao ae tinhapor obrigado aos oEferedmentoa quo fizera. 

] E por qoanto o eegredo M rompeo, e os protostantea focam 

Leaves Worms and returns to Netherlands, 83 


Emperor also saw that at the said Diet nothing would 
be done except to waste time (he however wished it 
to sit until he had received the Pope's answer), and 
he confined himself to short and curt communi- 
cations,* postponing the negotiations for a Diet 
convoked to meet the following year at Eatisbon. 

Meantime a conference was held in the same city 
as to the best means for remedying these diflfei;- 
ence^. f During this Diet the Emperor received the 
news that the Princess of Spain, his daughter-in-law, 
had been delivered of a son, who was afterwards 
called Don Carlos, and four or five days afterwards 
he received the very diflferent news of the death 
of the same Princess, which naturally caused him 
great grief. At the same time the King of the 
Eomans also received the news of the death of his 
eldest daughter, which afflicted the Emperor as much 
as if he had been her own father. 

All these things terminated, the Emperor left 
Worms, and for the eighth time, taking the Ehine 
route, he returned for the seventh time to the Nether- 
lands, where he found the Queen of Hungary his 
sister at Louvain, and from thence he proceeded to 
Brussels, where he received the news of the death of 

advertidos, se teve contudo tal modo, que a fama que corria nao foi 
per elles corda. 

* Lhe fez hira breve e seira prattica. 

t No mesma lugar se fez hum colloquio a cerca dos modos, que 
poderia haver para remedio destas differen9a8. 

o 2 


Charles the Fifth. 

the Duke of Orleans, eight days before the anni- 
rersary of the peace of Crespy, one of the conditions 
of which was, that the duchy was to he conferred 
upon him. This death came opportunely, for, as 
it was natural, it may be believed that God had 
resolved it in His secret judgements." 

* A qual morte reo it tempo, que sendo notural pode parecer, que 
foi ordeoadit de Deaa per eeoa secretos jnizoa. 

T}ie Emperor proceeds to Bruges. 8j 


The Emperor proceeds to Bruges. — Charles holds a Chapter of the 
Golden Fleece at Utrecht, — ViBits the Ihiolij of GueldreB. — The 
Ekctora reqneet ExplanatioDS respecting a League againHt the Fro- 
testantB. — The Emperor denies ita Existence. — Progress of the Ro- 
formatian.— The Smalcaldo League.— The Diet of Ratisbon.— The 
Pope's Emissaries endeavour to persuade the Emperor to lake up 
Arms. — Duke William of Bayaria. joina the Secret League. — 
The, ProtealBJita preparu for tlie worst. — Charles coneludes an 
Armisljee with the Turk. — CommecoemeDt of HoatilitieB against 
the ProteatantH. — The ProteHtants eaptnro Fiisaen and Cluaa. — 
Charles reaolvee, living or dead, to remain Emperor of Germany. 
— The Emperor marebsa on Nonatadt, 

rpHE Emperor now proceeded to Bruges, where 
J- different grand personages arrived both from 
France as well as from England, charged, in conse- 
quence of this change, to modify, correct, and draw 
up anew the conventions concluded between the 
three monarchs ; * but, not being able to come to 
any agreement on the subject, they had recourse to 
the expedients that suited them best. And hence- 
forth the treaties of peace concluded between their 
Majesties were maintained as much by the disBimu- 
latdon of some as by the tolerance of others.f 

* Pars per oecasiao desta modan^a, innovar, mudar, e fazer do 

Charles the Fifth. 

This done, the Emperor left for Bois-le-Duc, to 
proceed from thence to Utrecht to hold a Chapter 
of the Golden Fleece. But at Boia-le-Duc he was 
attacked by the gout, so that he waa obhged to 
remain there, and to postpone the Chapter to some 
other time. Shortly afterwards, feeling better, he 
held it at Utrecht, where he had a relapse. The 
Chapter over, and having somewhat recovered, be 
left Utrecht to visit his possessions in the state of 
Gueldrea, which he occupied again in virtue of his 
ancient claim to it. The necessity he was under of 
taking the field against his enemies had prevented 
him from going there at the time the duchy was re- 
stored to him. Having paid this visit, he continued 
bis journey as far aa Maestricht, still very weak from 
bis laat attack of gout, which was the twelfth. In 
this city he received deputies from some of the 
Electors and Princes of the empire. They said that 
they had been informed that His Majesty was com- 
ing to Germany at the hoEid of an army — something 
quite new, and which scandalised the greater portion 
of that country.* They explained their mission on the 
grounds of a report in circulation, and which had its 
origin in what had taken place at Rome in the pre- 
ceding year at the time of the journey of Cardinal 

■ Dizendii, que foram advortiiJos, que S 
mao armada a Germasia, cousa hots, a qa 


The Diet of Ratisbon. 91 

left, he would endeavour to bring them hiick to 
Katisbon, where a Diet had been convoked, he 
nevertheless did nothing of the sort, and the con- 
ference was broken up and dissolved. The Emperor 
therefore continued his journey to Ratisbon. There 
he found only the commissioners of the states of the 
empire, but not a single prince ; but the Elector of 
Mayence arrived there a few days afterwards, as 
much on private business as respecting the convoca- 
tion of the Diet, as a short time previously he had 
been elected, on the death of the Cardinal, Elector of 
Mayence. However this may be, the Emperor was 
obliged to open the Diet, and to make his proposals 
to those who were present; but they were received 
so coldly, matters were treated with so much negli- 
gence, and the Protestants contiBued to display so 
much arrogance, that the Emperor came to the 
decided conviction that measures of kindness would 
be of bttle avail, and that he would be compelled, 
much against his inclination, to have recourse to 
more rigorous measures," 

At this time the Pope'a emissaries and some 
ecclesiastics were incessantly endeavouring to in- 
duce the Emperor to take up arms against the 

* A qual I'oi tio friamcnte tomada a 03 cegociiw com tao grnndo 
npgligeada trattadoe, p peloe protestantes eontinuada hna tio grando 
BrrogBQcia, que Sua AlageHtailB julgava e via durameDte. que os re- 
medioa braudos aerviram de pouco, e ainda que muito conlra sua 
Tontade, aeria for^ado UBOt d'outros maU fortsB, 


92 Charles the Fifth. 

Protestants.* His Majesty, however, hesitated, aS 
much on account of the greatness and difficulty of 
such an enterprise, as also to have time to consult 
the King his brother, whom he daily expected.f As 
already stated, the secret had been badly kept; the 
Protestants were on their guard,and were commencing 
their preparations and armaments, not wishing to be 
taken by surprise ; they even thought of surprising the 
others.J The Emperor was unwilling to do anything 
to create agitation in Germany, but all admitted that 
any further delay on his part might make him lose 
many advantages which he might otherwise obtain. § 
As soon as his brother the King had arrived, he 
made him acquainted with the exact state of affairs ; 
and as a long time previously Duke William of 
Bavaria had offered bis services, requesting and 
endeavouring to persuade their Majesties to take up 
arms, as the sole remedy for so much in8olence,|| 

• NoBte tempo oa miniBtroB do Papa e algus ecclpsifliti coa nao 
ceeaaram de eollieitor ao Empfradur. que quisesee coDduic os con- 
certos com scu iiino, e come^ar do tomuj' aa iinnaH contra oh pcoti-e- 

t O que todavia Sua Ujigvslade dilataTa obbi pola grandeza e 
difficuldado da cmprcBa^ como por se roBolvor com ol Roj aou irmiio. 

{ Porquc, eomo ditto he, BPgrpdo se guardara mal, e oa proii'S- 
tantas andaTini Botre avieo, o come^avam de ae prover e anniir, 
pomo aquellts, que nao aoomouto nSo quoraam aeF tomadoa desapcr- 
cebidoB, mas ainda trattaTam de tomsr aoB outroa deacuidadoa. 

I O qua Sua Mageatade nio tinha feito per menoB aitecar a Gcr- 
mauia at«o que todaa yirum que aao podia fnx^i, a que por Vei tanto 
£«pecado, perdera muito da Tentsgem, que podera ter. 

I Como muito tempo antes Daqoe Gni]h«lma de Baveia se tinba 

The League against tlie Protestants. 93 

their MajeBtiea entered into negotiations with him 
to induce him to join the aUiance or le^^e proposed 
by the emissaries of the Pope ; " but, notwithstanding 
the zeal and energy he at first had displayed in this 
matter, he cooled down so much, that he was the 
cause that its conclusion was postponed longer than 
was necessary.f At last an alliance waa made with 
him, from which little profit was derived except that 
his country supplied the Imperial army with provi- 
sions. The churchraen were also called upon to 
come forward and join the League. But when it 
came to the point of assembling and adopting a 
conclusion, though they had displayed immense zeal 
before, their hearts failed them, either from fear of the 
Protestants, or from reluctance to enter into so great 
an enterprise, or from other considerations, and they 
did not venture to join the League. J They consented, 
however, to contribute a sum of money, in virtue of 
an agreement passed in preceding Diets, a contribu- 
tion to which the Protestants not only did not hold 

offeFGcIdo. incitjindc) e isduzido Suae M^estades a tomai as anna i 
como unico remedio dn tantae insoleDciaB. 

* No concerto, 01 ligna. qne os do Papa HoUicitarum e offereciam. 

t MsB moatrando an de principio t4o sollidto e quciito no negocio, 
ao csfrion dn eorte, que por sua caaaa ae dilatoa a, conciusao mais 
doquG convinlia. 

t Os qiULPs dn mesma maneira antes do vir a obr^ se tichaia 
moBtnido muito dcacjos, mas quando se yen ajuntar e cooclair, ou 
poF Tteeo que tiveteem doe protestantes, on per medo d'entrar em 
h6a lao grands oouso, ou por outcos ivspeiloa, ulo ae aTentuniram, 
nem atrererant e eaVnx na liga. 



54 Charles the Fifth. 

themaelvea bound, but which moreover thej op- 
posed,* preyeDting many from paying their share. 
Thus the Protestants, by these preparations, had 
gained the advantage wliich the Emperor might have 
had over them had the secret been well kept. From 
all these reasons this affair incurred great difficulties 
and risks. Yet the Emperor felt that it would be 
difficult to avoid carrying out what had been agreed 
upon, that time was being lost, and that the longer 
it was delayed the more public would it become, 
the more difficult and perilous.^ He, moreover, took 
into consideration, as already said, that he was at 
peace with France, and that King Francis was much 
hampered by the war he was waging with tbe King 
of England ; J that it was rumoured that the Turk 
was engaged in wars at home ; that consequently it 
might be presumed, with some probability, that no 
danger was to be feared from that quarter. More- 
over, to make matters more sure, the Emperor and the 

* Do qual OS protestantes nao boo nSo fizeram creo para contri- 
buirem, mas antes contra TJnliHin, e iao a m5o a nlgils pur pagarpm 

t Asei ainda que polo apparallio dant^g ditto, os protestantea tinbanj 
ganhado e tornado a ventagem eotire o Empera4or, que tllo podcra 
toroar Bobre ellos, se segredo bo nao rompera, u poc todaa ealas iwusas 
D aogocio fii»Ta mats diflicultoao e arrisoado, com tudo veado Sa& 
Magegtade, qne ja mal Be podia eseusar d'eiecu^ao do que eetava trat- 
tado, e que o tempo le hia pasEiindo e quo quanta mais ae tardava, 
tanto a cousa rnais ee pul;licavn,diffieuItBva e ee fazis mais perigosu. 

t E el EcjFrflneiscomargastadopor cousa da guerraque teve com 
el Bey d'lugla terra. 

League with the. Pope. 95 

King of the Eomans had sent emissaries to the Turk 
to negotiate, should such a step Beem advisable, an 
armistice with him, which in fact was afterwards 
concluded. He moreover observed that the Pro- 
testants had cast off all shame, and were actively 
enlisting troops, with a view to accomplish their 
designs.* Their Majesties therefore resolved to 
conclude with the Pope, and put into execution that 
which necessity compelled them to do, and wliich 
had been the object of such lengthened negotiations, t 
In fact, matters had already so far advanced, that had 
the Emperor not gone into the enterprise, the organ- 
isation of the Protestants would have enabled them 
to carry out the plan recommended by the Landgrave, 
as narrated be fore 4 

Immediately after the arrival of the King at 
Batisbon, the Queen, his wife, came there vrith her 
daughters ; and Duke William of Bavaria and Duke 
William of Cleves also amved with their wives and 
children, and other princes of the empire. In the 

• E eonBiderando nltjmamente que o8 proteatanteB timlara ja de 
todo perdido o vergonlia e com todu a. pTeaaa fazinia geatc. a puuham 
por oliro eema dHernhoa. 

t Sb deteriDinarain SuaB Magcatadus As conclnir com o Papa, F dar 
execu^ao a qne a, ntceHsidade os obrigavti. c estaru trattado havia 
lanlo tompo. 

{ For que as cousas eatarani ja tanto aTontp, que se o Empcradpr 
nao d^ra principio a emprraa. oa protoatantea exlavam cm tal ordrm, 
que poderam por em ripcu^-ao a cotis«llio, que daiites se disse, que a 
Lantegrave Ihea tioha dado. 

g6 Charles the Fifth. 

same city were celebrated tlie nuptiab of Duke 
Albert of Bavaria and of Duke William of Cloves 
witli two daughters of the KiTig and Queen of the 
Romans. When the nuptials were over, the Queen 
and her daughters, the dukes and duchesses, and 
newly-married couplea, left. Then the King and 
Duke Maurice took their departure to attack, each 
on their side, the lands of John Frederick of Saxony, 
which they carried out in such guise that, after 
defeating his army, they took from him a lai^e 
portion of bis domains. It was at Batisbon that the 
Emperor commenced assembling his army, entering 
into negotiation B for that purpose with various 
princes, captains, and warriors ; so that in a few days 
he assembled a certain number of German soldiers, 
who were joined by the Spaniards who were in 

The principal towns of Suabia, which belonged to 
the League of Smalcalde, had previously received a 
letter written by the Emperor, in which he told them 
that he was informed that they were assembling 
troops, in consequence of a report which was spread 
that he intended to wage war against them for the 
sake of religion, and in which he assured them that 
the report was false, that he had not entertained the 
idea of waging war, especially against those who had 
obeyed him, and who had done nothing against the 
Imperial authority, and that consequently, if they 

Hie Smalcalde League. 97 

diBbanded their army and gave proof of obedience^ 
they might come to terms with His Majesty; but 
the deputies which they sent about this time showed 
so much obstinacy, and in their insolence they 
replied with ao much arrogance, that TTia Majesty 
dismissed them as they deserved.* In like mannei 
the Protestant commissioners who were at the Diet 
waited one day upon His Majesty, and, referring to 
the rumours of war that were in circulation, re- 
quested him to make known his intentions. f His 
Majesty replied to them that he did not wish to go 
to war, unless compelled to do so to uphold hia 
authority, which was daily attacked and attempted 
to be lowered and diminiahed4 As soon as they 
had received this reply, all the Protestants withdrew 

• Nflste tempo oe deputadoa daa prineipaea cidadpB do Suevia, qua 
Bram da liga EBmalcaliiiana, Bobre Ma carta, qna o Eniperador 
escrerera dizeudo ]heB, como fara avisaJa, que f^iziam gcnte de guerra 
por aigua fama qne coma, qua Ihes queria fazer gueira por canea da 
laligioD, assegurando Iha qua tal fnma era jalsa, c que alia nao tinha 
peuEHmento dc fazer tal cousn. priDcipalmant« coutra aquelles, que 
Ilia fosBam obedientefl, e uao Szassain contra a aurilioFidaiii! Impariol, 
B qua por tanto b' ellea aram deatea, dtrsBzaBSem o axcFciM. e ae moB- 
traseem ob!4iantcB, Tii'ram tar com Sua Magestade, ea com grands 
ol>stma^o am sua inaolencia respondaram mui sobarbaineatB. que 
Teudo o EmpcTador, oa daspadia, Codjo eileg mpraciam. 

t B propouda llie a fama, qua coi'na de gucrra, pediram que oa 
certificassp da sua tan^ao. 

I Que elle nao quma ikzar gneira senao forfado por conserrar snq 
aucthoridada, contra a qual via que cada dia ee att^utara, a traballiaTB 
pola abaixar a demiauir. 

y8 Charhf the Fifth. 

without even taking leave.* The Emperor, seeing 
that the Diet might already be considered as ter- 
minated and broken up, had a short and curt 
explanation with those who remained.! Then the 
men of anus that tbe said towns had levied were 
taken to Fiissen, under the pretest of preventing tie 
entrance of foreign soldiers into Germany. They 
took Fiissen and another fortress called Clusa, which 
belonged to the King of the Bomans, ao that they 
were the first to commence hostilities and open the 
wur.J They also committed a Eerioos error in their 
bad designs and evil mspirations, by taking that 
road instead of that of Eatisbon (it was the second 
error that they committed by the will of God who 
blinded them) ; for at this period His Majesty was 
not yet in a position to offer them any formid- 
able resistances^ The Emperor, aware that the 
Italians, whom the Pope had sent under the orders 
of Cardinal Famese, as his Legate, and of Duke 
Octavio as his Gonlaloniere, were on their way, as 

■ E traido (sta re^xnta todos na jHolMluitiB ae Gmm seta diierem : 

t Com oa que ficsram fta boa ten« o asm pnttita. 

I DcBodoqiieeDofimoiiiBiniiieito^qiie cometarsBi a ofitndar 
t aroD^er a gaena. 

J £ nio enaiam pooco por Mgnir ma nw traca^ f toaos prin- 
tipns em tmnar anIM cEto mtninh r^ que o de Satifboita (e foi este 
o Hgmdci BTO qoF fauaa po pemunio de Heta, que os eegmi) por 
qne Sua Migcsbde nao otara aiiida aqadle tMpB bcm ({lacebido 
pan Uiee tait6t, eoBa ocmvinliL 

War with the Protestants. 99 

abo the SpaniardB, who were f.o come to Lombardy, 
considered what difficulties they would have to en- 
counter in forming a junction with him; ho also 
observed that John Frederick of Saxony and the 
Landgrave were already at Donauwerth with their 
whole army, and that if they were to place them- 
selves between. Hia Majesty and his troopa, those 
forces would be divided, and each corps consequently 
weaker; and although some of his advisers were 
scrupulous, out of respect for HJa Majesty's reputa- 
tion, about leaving Eatisbon, the Emperor paid no 
heed to such vanities." He was decided when he con- 
ceived this enterprise with the principal object which 
determined him to do so, to lead it to a successful 
issue whatever might happen, aa he resolved, living 
or dead, to remain Emperor in Germany-t He 
therefore resolved to quit Eatisbon, leaving it pro- 
vided with a good garrison, and to proceed to Land- 
shut, a. tovm of the Duke of Bavaria. He arrived 
there with the few troops that were with him ; but, 
seeing the multitude of enemies that awaited him 
there, he held coiracil with the Luke of Alba, whom 
he had appointedhis Captain-General, and with other 

' Hao fazendo caso deslas Tuidades. 

t EsUndo dotenainado quando propos de eeginr esta emprese, 
yiata a cuiiBa principal por que a empreodia, de yir ao flm dells, 
qualqu^r couea que ouTeEBe d'acconterar, par qne Uaha, proposto e 
BsscBtado dentra de d, Tito du morto, Acbf Bmperador em Ale- 

Charles the Fifth. 

captains, aa to the best fortified position to occupy, 
and the best measures to be adopted, as well to 
resiBt the enemy, as to await the arrival of his troops, 
who, in consequence of the length and difficulty of 
the journey, did not arrive so promptly as all 

At this time the Protestants who had taken Rhain, 
a domain of the Duke of Bavaria, were advancing on 
Ingolstadt, a town belonging to the same duke, into 
which the Emperor had placed some troops. They 
sent him by a trumpeter and a page, according to 
their custom, a letter, as long as it was insolent, of 
which His Majesty took no heed, and to which he 
did not take the trouble to reply.* As they had 
entered into this path, it would have been better for 
them if they had adhered to their defiance, throwing 
off all reserve and carrying out their threats, than to 
■waste their time in such empty fanfaronades. f God 
blinded them ; he allowed this to be the third fault 
which they committed, that they might not obtain 
the object of their perverse designs. J The Emperor, 

* LliB maDdaram per hum tnjmbeta e tnm page, conformQ acu 
coBtume, huB carta Xxra compriiia, e cSo meuos deeaTOrgonhada, da 
qu^ Sua Mogeatade nem Uimon peua As Ihe cesponde. 

t Melhor fora para ell«s, ja que eHtavam postoa om tal oominio, 
de Beguir sua pouca vergonha no cartel, e ffitiioufar os Eos, de que 
nelle naavam, que deepoia da ee terem mostrado ta5 bravos e iuso- 
eatee firarem quaes ficnrcm. 

% Deus OS eegon b pprmittie, que esta fosse a teroeira falta, que 
telles commettenua pot nao cbegar ao fim do sua pervecaa tea^. 

War with the Protestants. 

tuming this time and advantage to account," hastened 
the arrival of the Papal troops, as well as of those of 
the other Italian princes, of the Spaniards, who had 
been called from Lombardy, and of some Germans, 
who, in consequence of impediments and obstacles 
caused by the advance of the Protestants, had not 
been able to arrive sooner. They all reached Land- 
shut, and the Emperor immediately commenced to 
march with aU the troops he had assembled, in the 
direction of Neustadt, a town belonging to the Duke 
of Bavaiia, with the intention and wish of establish- 
ing hia bead-quarters there, to entrench himself and 
gradually approach the enemyj which he could not 
do at the present moment, from a scarcity of pro- 
visions, because, as the war had only just commenced, 
the necessary measures bad not yet been completed 
to provide the army abundantly with all that it 
stood in need of. Consequently the Emperor left 
Neustadt for Eatisbon; and there he so well or- 
ganised matters, that no further want of provisions 
was felt ; at least nothing worth mentioning. In the 
same city arrived the Spaniards, who came from 
Naples by the Adriatic ; and also Marquises John 
and Albert of Brandenburg, and the Master of 
Prussia, with all the German cavalry they could 
collect, thereby rendering eecvice to His Majesty.f 

* E BHifi tenda dado esta commodidada e espa^D ao £mpi>cador. 
t D'ouds Sua Magestade tinba bem que fuier. 



Cliarles the Fifth. 


The War wilh the Prolestanta. — - Charles crossea the Donobe. — 
The Protestants at IngoUtadt. — Count de Buran. — Position of the 
Emperor'B Army. — A Night Assunlt. — The Protsstants bombard 
the Imperial Camp for eight conaecntiTa Honra. — Ttetreat of the 
Prot«Btanta. — Sncrender of Neuburg. — The Emperor arrires at 
Mareshoim. — Hears Mass in the Expectation of a great Battle. — 
The Proteatantfl occupy the Heights neat NDrdlingen. — The 
Emperor prpparea for Battle. — la dissuaded from croaaing the 
Rirer. — The Duke of ErunawiA ia tilled in a Skirmish.— Sur- 
render of Donauwerth to the Emperor. 

NEVERTHELESS the Protestants imagined in 
their arrogance that the Emperor was heating a 
retreat, and getting away from them, and they crossed 
to the other side of the Danube to occupy the hills, 
which, on that side, dominate Eatishon, so as to hring 
their artillery into play, which they held in high ac- 
count,* against the Emperor's army, which had its 
quarters there, and could not take up any others, 
except on the banks of the river. But the Emperor, 
having, as already said, made all his arrangements for 
provisions, and not wishing to lose time or remain 
distant from his foes,f left Eatishon, and proceeded 

* Para dalli Jogar da artilhnijia, de que ellcfl fiujam grando case. 
t S nao querenda perder tempo, nem ea tar longe de aeus adver- 

Charles crosses the Danuhe. 103 

by raarchea to Neustadt. Whilst he was on the road, 
his enemies took the one which we have indicated 
higher up, and they arrived within three leagues of 
Eatisbon; but finding that their plan had failed, 
and that they were marching through a difficult 
and mountainoua country, they feared lest the 
Emperor should attack them in the flank, and cut 
off their suppliea. They therefore retraeed their 
Btepa as quickly as they could, to gain a narrow and 
difficult pass near a place called Perengries, at two 
German leagues' distance &om Neustadt, at which 
latter place, aa already stated, the Emperor had 
arrived with his army. In consequence of not having 
been informed of the enemy's movements by those 
who were aware of them, and whose duty it was to 
give the information* of the advantage he would 
have had in attacking the enemy in a spot so disad- 
vantageous for them, the Emperor lost an excellent 
opportunity; but it was not through his fault-t 

His Slajesty now crossed the Danube, and pitched 
hia camp in an excellent and strong position op- 
posite Neustadt. The enemy, having got through 
the defile already mentioned, continued their march, 
and encamped near the Danube, at two leagues 
nearer to Neuhurgthon to Ingolstadt. The Emperor 

• Por falfa de nSo ser advirtido pec aquolles que sabdani, 
podiam n o duviam luivirtir. 
t Que todsvia se Q^o psrdeo por ana culpa. 


I04 Charles the Fifth. 

a to attack them, despite the great dis- 
proportion of strength," as much with a view diuly 
to gain ground, as to facilitate the movementa of 
M. de Buren, whom he had charged to assemble a lai^e 
number of Germans, both horse and foot, which he 
had done, bringing with Mm also other German 
horsemen, sent by Duke Henry of Brims*"iek and 
other captains in the service of the Emperor. This 
cavalry, which the Protestants had prevented passing, 
had, from this reason, joined 51. de Buren, to ad- 
vance with him and join His Majesty together. The 
Emperor, carrying out his intention and above- 
mentioned plan, left the camp near Neustadt, to 
assume a position near IngoUtadt, where he would 
have hia face turned towards the enemy ,t the Danube 
on his left-, the town of Ingolstadt in his rear, and 
on his right an open plain. But as this position 
offered some difficulties, the Emperor had another 
excellent and strong one in reserve between Neustadt 
and Ingolstadt, The Emperor having made a recon- 
naissance of the one he had the iutention of occu- 
pying before Ingolstadt, sent some light horse to 
skirmisb as far as the enemy's camp, which had the 
effect of making them move ; and it was deemed 
certain that they were advancing straight to take 
up a position close to the encampment which His 

* Ainds que se achaTa bcm differcnta em for^. 
t A can f&n o caiapo doa eQcmigoa. 

Position of tiie Emperors army. 105 

Majesty had resolved to occupy : this they could 
easily have done, because they were much nearer to 
the spot, and were greatly superior in numbers. 
This induced the Emperor to halt and establish his 
camp in the locality which be had kept in reserve, 
as already said, until lie had exactly ascertained the 
enemy's intentions. Finding that they returned to 
the quarters which they had left, he immediately 
advanced with his army, and occupied the position 
he wished to take before Ingolstadt ; and he did so 
with such speed, that he arrived there, though at a 
late hour, the same day. During the whole of this 
night (which did not pass without some noise, as the 
multitude who followed could scarcely find their 
quarters in the dark) he ordered trenches to be dug, 
in BO far as time allowed it ; and what could not be 
done dtuing the night was completed, as far as 
possible, at daybreak. 

For some days the two camps remained close to 
and opposite each other, and a few skirmishes took 
place, in which, with God's blessing, the enemy 
always had the worst of it." Nevertheless, they came 
and established themselves one league nearer to His 
Majesty. A night assault caused them great damage, 
and on the following day a good skirmish ensued ; 
on the day following that, very early in the morning, 

• Sempra leTaram o peer. 



io6 Charles tlie Fifth. 

they advanced with the whole of their army and 
artillery in good order, within cannon-range, towards 
the Imperial camp. The Emperor, having been 
immediately informed of this by hia general, the 
Duke of Alba, donned hia armour, mounted his 
charger, and ordered the duke at once, without 
making any noise or causing any alarm," to put the 
whole army in order of battle. The Emperor had 
scarcely shown himself, and the order which he bad 
given had scarcely been executed, when the enemy, 
who had already established a portion of their artil- 
lery on a ridge, which was very convenient for them 
for this purpose, opened fire with that artillery, and 
with a number of other guns placed at different 
points, upon the camp and army of the Emperor, with 
Buch good will, that from eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing till four o'clock in the afternoon, they fired fi:om 
eight hundred to nine hundred rounds of heavy 
artillery ; an event hitherto unprecedented, for never 
bad an army in the open field been exposed to such 
a fire, without being protected by entrenchments. 
Nevertheless, the soldiers of the Emperor supported 
it 80 well that not one of them displayed the slightest 
semblance of fear, and, by Grod's blessing, the said 
artillery did not do much harm. The enemy suffered 
.much more from the artillery with which the Imperial 


Tlie Protestants bombard the Imperial Camp. 107 

army replied to them. It was reported that they 
had the plan of ceasing the fire of their artillery and 
attacking the Emperor's camp. It is possible that 
they had good reason not to do bo; at all events, 
they must not be blamed for not having done so.* 

Thus passed this day, and the enemy retimied to 
their quarters which, meantime, they had repaired. 

The Emperor ordered all his men to sleep in the 
trenches, that, on any alarm, the horsemen should 
proceed on foot to the trenches, and that everything 
should be done to strengthen them; which order 
was cheerfully obeyed. During that night and on 
the following day, when the artillery of the enemy 
was silent, these trenches were placed in so good a 
state of defence, that they offered perfect protection 
to all within them. 

At the same time one of the trenches was ex- 
tended in the direction of the enemy's camp, which 
caused them some annoyance, as they sent out 
troops to prevent the work and report upon its pro- 
gress. From this trench 800 Imperialists armed 
with muskets sallied forth, and a skirmish ensued. 
The enemy finding that the ImperiaHsts were in the 
open plain, sent three squadrons of cavalry aganst 
them ; but the Imperialists not only held their ground, 

" So disBC quo piles detprminoTain dfi eessar com a arl.ilhpria p 
■cpommettfc o Brralal lio Empprador ; pode aer, qup anJaram mclliop 
em o nao fazer, so meuoB nito hb devem. cnlpot par que o nuo flzerun. 

t .0. ^ n 

^^H UB>leabaBntad«ge,tkataeoa^a 1 

^^^K ni^ldaadb<kte^^iaBpt>tli»,«aadtkiT 1 

^^^H On Kttnnd Is Ac boiL n_ imd Uae 1 

^r --''^ 1 

■ GI>aelIad47.at6>ei>i>:kiBraiki<M<,tlie 

1 t^mywpmvftaeitbar AxbrnmAar ardSiaji 

' h^acfUdnpaimgmimcmwicmA^mmi^bM. 

i^. ll«>ai.iid»ea>»dfi.i»ae »!<>>«•< 

tkeo^ wen: aMR apMd to dags tkia Oe 

an m tke tnadn, lad Ob EapenA staiajr l£d 

_„ <lai>«e to Oe CB9IJ on Oil «>; tin «• Ike 

fait. Dsiie Oe >^t bte >iin» .n gHo 

dna, •laik pm; Skb EUli! ntf. Ok Oe teilli 

eiBfl, ae isb^e If • fa< sboll «1 ime ikir- 

fi« Ik taotfe -d »ik tker U ni<,«.»C »>1 

dnj^tke i^U, >t Uic luie hm iipoa vUdi it 

(ffder, and nuidMd to tlie amp, atoted at two 

k^neifrom I^ofetadt, vboe dic^liad preriood^ 




Advance of Count de Buren. 109 

two leagues farther, and encamped at Neuburg, 
where they remained for some days. The Emperor 
meantime did not move from his camp, awaiting 
advices from Count de Buren, and from the troops 
he brought with him, so as to be able to regu- 
late his line of action; for he was of the opinion 
that he had done enough with such inferior numbers, 
both as regards his entrenchment and the number 
of his troops by compelling the enemy, which had 
come to attack him with so much fury, to leave their 
positions and beat a retreat." 

Nearly at the same time the Emperor and the 
Protestants received the news that M. de Buren had 
operated the junction which he had been ordered 
to make, and that after having held a general in- 
spection of hia troops at the other side of the Rhine, 
he was advancing to cross that river to join His 
Majesty. The Protestants, who were daily andmore 
exactly informed of the movements of M, de Buren,t 
had placed a large body of troops on the Rhine, on 
the Frankfort side, to prevent M. de Buren from 
crossing. The latter, however, displayed 30 much 
courage and activity, that he forced the passage in 

* Pot qua Iha parecia, que tinliB, ossa^ feito de havenda tio grsndp 
difFpren^ do bbu carapo e gante a do3 enemigos que i 
taata brayeza accommetter, fasGr loa dcixar o bsu 

t Ob ProteitanteB qoe mais pad 


Charles the Fifth. 


spite of the enemy." The Proteatanta on being in- 
formed of this left Neuburg, where they had their 
camp, and took the direction of Bendingen, a domain 
of the Duke of Bavaria, an excellent position for 
an advance, and to close the road by which Count . 
Euren intended joining the Emperor. But as to 
perform this march it would be necessary to leave at 
a distance the principal towns of Suabia which, as 
may be believed, were but Httle reassured at seeing 
the Emperor and hia army so close to them, they 
altered their resolution, and returned to establish 
themselves at Donauwerth, which they bad left at 
the onset. They would have done much better for 
the success of their plan if they bad returned to 
Neuburg, where they were more capable of keeping 
the Emperor at check than at Donauwerth. This 
was the fourth and not the least mistake which they 

At this time the Emperor received the news that 
Count de Buren had crossed the Rhine, and that he 
was gradually advancing to form a junction with His 
Majesty. He was also informed of the design of the 
Protestants when they took the road to Bendingen; 
and this caused him coneiderable anxiety, as he felt how 
important it was that Count de Buxeu should arrive 

• O qual contudo tere tonto esfor^o e poB tanta diligpncia que 
apezap dcllea e per for^ o [a^sou. 
t Che foi o qaacto, e nuo laeoor erro, que commetteram. 

Pursues the Protestants. 

without accident." Conaequently the Emperor re- 
Holved to advance on the rear of the Protestants, and 
BO to regulate his mai-ches, and take up well fortified 
positions, that the Protestants could not give battle 
to the Count without being immediately obliged to 
come to blows with His Majealy; and, should they 
turn round against the Emperor, the Count would 
find the road free and open to form his junction with 
him.f The Count made such good speed that he 
arrived with all liis men safe and sound before In- 
golstadt, at the Emperor's camp. The latter having 
made in person a reconnaissance of the town of 
Neuburg, crossed the Danube with his whole army, 
near the camp, in front of Ingolstadt, and marched 
against the said town of Neuburg, where there were 
four bodies of infantry, which surrendered. The 
Emperor left a garrison in N^euburg, and after hav- 
ing made all necessary arrangements, he encamped 
in the Danube, at a place called jMaresheim, a good 
league from Donauwerth, where the enemy, as already 
stated, had an entrenched camp, and where they had 
been reinforced by the troopa which they had left 

* Tjsto qnanM importavai que o ditto coiide viesea eeguraoiente. 

f Para o que o Emp«rador Uaha, determiufldD de iudo ims coataa 
dos Proteat^ntefl fkzer jonuidafl t4o ptt^porcionadafi, e tomar sempre 
alojaiQBiitoB too fortlficados, que as Proteatontes, Daopudeascmpemal 
com o conde, que subilo uio onyeseeni tambem de vir ae maos com 
Sua ]U!HgeEtade, ou, ee virassam Bubro Sun Mi^estade, o eoiideBi»SBe 
o oiiniaho livre e dceembarafado, para ee podcr vir ajoutai' com Sua 

Charles the Fifth. 

in the rear to close the passage against M. de Buren ; 
and although the camps were bo close to each 
other during the few days passed in this position, no 
engagement took place.* 

This induced the Emperor to hit upon another 
plan. He left his position at Mareaheim, and leav- 
ing the Danuhe, upon which he had always held his 
camp, and leaving his enemies to the left, lie reached 
a place in the Neuburg territory called Moaheim. 
On the following day, which was the eve of St. 
Francis, starting from thence he went and eatabhshed 
himself near a small mountain, situated opposite 
Ettingen and Nordhngen, upon which he placed a 
portion of his artillery, pitclung his camp round it. 
Having done this, the Emperor at dusk was informed 
that the drums of the enemy were heard. The 
sound came from a wood which lay hetween the 
Emperor and the enemy; the darkness increased, 
and at the same time a mist arose : these various 
causes rendered it irapossihle to ascertain what the 
enemy was doing. The sound of drums was beard 
during the whole night, and during the morning of 
the following day, which was the festival of St. 
Francis. During the night the army and the Cap- 
tain-General remained in camp to ascertain the 
movements and intentions of the army. The Em- 

• Jamais se poderam morder. 

Expected Battle. 1 1 3 

peror, who two daya previously had an attack of the 
gout in the foot, waB himself up during a greater 
portion of the night, to receive any information that 
might be acquired, and to give the necessary orders ; 
and though suffering great pain, he was up again 
before daybreak. He confessed himself, and heard 
mass, holding it for certain that on that day a 
battle would be fought. Despite the mist and 
despite the pain he experienced, he mounted on 
horseback; and leaving the camp he rode up the 
mountain upon which he had placed his artillery, 
that he might sooner be informed of what was ta.king 
place ; but he suffered bo much from the gout that 
he was obliged to have a linen pad to liia stirrup 
to rest his foot, and he rode thus the whole day.* 
All this time nothing could be ascertained respect- 
ing the enemy's movements, owing to the mist which 
had arisen the preceding night, and which became 
so dense that it was impossible to see two yards 
before one as long as it lasted, and it did not clear 
off till ten o'clock in the morning. It was then 
ascertained that the enemy had passed through the 
wood already mentioned, and that they occupied the 
ridge of hills which stretch as far as Nordlingen, 
upon which they had posted all their squadrons in 
good order. It is true that the last of the rearguard 

• Que for for^ado por ham lenpjl sobro o an^o da bpUb em qae 
respoDEUSBe o pee, e asai o treoxe todo o dlo. 


1 14 Charles the Fifth. 

aod some others who were still in the ravine between 
the wood and the mountain had to sustain such a 
charge from the Imperial Ught horse, that they took 
a much haetier moTement than the ordinary step to 
the mountains to join the main body of their army.* 
In the interval the Emperor had ordered liis whole 
army to leave the camp. As soon as the fog had 
cleared off, he drew up his squadrons in Hne of 
battle; and having been advised that the enemy's 
army was in sight, he advanced in good order and at 
a measured step in the enemy's direction. He toot 
up his position on a small hill, which was nearer the 
river, BO as to be better able to see and give the 
necessary orders. Here were assembled the Duke of 
Alba his general, and many other captains and liigh 
personages, discussing and saying each what he 
thought most advisable. Tlie Emperor, who owing 
to his being so unwell, could not attend to work aa 
was his wont,t found that the majority of his cap- 
tains were of the opinion that the river ought to be 
crossed and battle given, or at least that a num- 
ber of horsemen supported by infantry should be sent 
across to charge the rearguard, and ascertain the 
enemy's position, at the same time to keep the army 
ready, as it was, to make a movement as soon as it 

* 'Sia. tal ca^a qae elleB se retiram maU quo do poaso para as 
t Kem baballui (»mo coetnmava fiizer. 


Protestant Position at Nordlingen. 1 1 5 

was necessary. As the Emperor, as already eaid, 
had not made a very careful study of the groimd, 
and that all were ^reed upon the necessity of giving 
battle, he adopted that opinion, and at once ordered 
the cavalry to cross the river. But whilst on the 
point of addressing his soldiers, to encourage them 
to advance to the battle, a better counsel was given 
him by one of the grandees of hia house,* who 
explained to him the topography of the ground, and 
the impossibility of crossing the river to give battle, 
without running the evident an d almost certain danger 
of defeat, owing to the great advantage which the 
enemies would have. The Emperor fully understood 
this, and immediately ordered the cavalry, which had 
already with some difficulty crossed the river, to be 
recalled; and it re crossed with still greater difficulty, 
as the passage was a very bad one ; and the whole 
army returned to camp. As regards the enemy, they 
continued their march until they had established 
themselves on the high ground already spoken of, 
near Nordlingen. 

Ought the river to have been crossed and battle 
given ? On this point there was then, there has been 
since, and there are still to-day great discussions and 
divers opinions. The Emperor marched later to 
make a minute and careful examination of the 

* Lbo foi dodo tratro pareo«r melhor de bimi grande de eua caach 

ii6 Charles the Fifth. 

ground, with no one to influence bis opinion. The 
result was that His Majesty, and all those who were 
of the opinion that the river ought not to be crossed, 
and that battle ought not to be given, were con- 
firmed in their view, which ceased to be doubtful ; 
and the thing appeared to them the more impossible, , 
as it was far more easy for the enemy than for the 
Emperor to have given battle. Those who on that 
day had recommended battle, avowed, when they 
had studied the ground, that their advice was worth- 
less, and those who after the discussion expressed 
their opinion that it would be wrong not to give 
battle, confessed their mistake, also, as soon as they 
had visited the ground. Those who have not seen it, 
and who still maintain the opinion that battle ought 
to have been given, would do well to visit the spot ; 
and should they still persist in their idea, it would 
be advisable for them to represent to themselves 
exactly the army which was on the other bant : * this 
might probably modify their opinion. 

As already said, the Emperor returned to sleep that 
night in camp ; hut finding that the enemy were farther 
off than he wished, he broke up the camp in the 
morning, and pitched his tents on the hanks of the 
river, which the evening before had been the object of 
HO much discussion ; and it was then seen which advice 
was the best. The camp included two small hills 

• Famn bem d^imaginar o ^ue eieroilo estua em wntmrio. 


Surrender of Donauwerth. 

close to each other, and most favourably situated, 
Wlien the Emperor took up these quarters, some 
Protestant horsemen came down from the mountaina 
into the plain, and a body of Imperialists immedi- 
ately crossed the rirer. A amart skirmish ensued, 
in which a number were killed on either side, but 
the loss of the Protestants was much more severe 
and important. Among others who fell was the 
Duke of Brunjwick. However, it was already late, 
and the Emperor could not advance to support his 
men which the enemy could do, as he should have 
been obliged to cross the river. The Emperor, 
moreover, wished to fix hia camp and ordered the 
skirmish to cease. At various times he examined, 
and ordered to be examined, different points, to see if 
there was any means of doing harm to the Protes- 
tants, but not finding any he secretly considered and 
weighed his plans ; ' at last he resolved to send the 
necessary number of troops to attack Donauwerth, 
an Imperial city, which the enemy had left when 
they advanced on Nordlingen, and where they bad 
left a garrison entrusted with its defence. Conse- 
quently at nightfall he ordered the said troops to 
depart, who reached their destination at daybreak, 
and who at the first assault carried the outskirts. 
The city capitulated shortly afterwards. 

• Cttidoii e pratticou em eegredo o que se poderia farer. 

Charles iU Fifth. 


The Emperor croaaeH tiie River. — SurrendEr of HsBtaf , — Surrender 
of Dillingen. — Surrander of Laubingen and Gondelfingen. — 
Skirmisli wit^ tlie Enemj. — Crosses the Brpnz and eucanipa a,E 
Sontheim. — Lays an Ambuscade for the Prutestante. < — The Pro- 
t^stant Position atOiengen. — Tho Papal Troops leave thelmpejial 
Camp. The Proteatante wish to treat for Peace. ^ The Elector of 
Saiony is defeated by Duke Maurice. — Dissensions in the 
Protestant Army. — They raise their Camp and retire to Heyden- 
heim. — The Imperial Army pursues them. — A Buttle imminent. 
Ib prevented by a Snow-storm. — Surrender of NordlJngcn and 
other Towns. — The Protestants capture Gmtindt. — Dispersion of 
the Protestant Army, —John Frederick of Saxony retreata U> 
Ootha. — Surrender of Pranlifort and of Ulm. 

A FTER the surrender of Donauwerth, His Majesty 
-^^ left his camp, and proceeded to that city with 
the intention of following the Danube on the Ulm 
Bide, to see if there were any means of cutting off 
the enemy's supplies, and the hope of weakening 
them and exhausting them (and the inhabitants 
of the town of Ulm with them), by obliging them 
to abandon the mountains and come to some spot 
where it would be more easy to give them battle.* 

It must be understood that, to go to Donauwerth, 
the Emperor had neceeaarily to cross the river with 
his army, and place liimself in line in the open plain 

* Onde mais fadlmeate cha les podesse dar batalba. 

Surrender of other Cities. 119 

near the Protestant camp. Although bridges of 
boats had been established for crossing the river, 
and although the fords were better known than when 
they first arrived, the passage was nevertheless so 
difficult (and there were still other rivers to cross on 
the other side), that if the enemy had entertained 
any great desire to fight, they might have done so on 
that day with great advantage : * therefore, it may be 
said, without knowing the motives that guided them, 
that this may be counted as the fifth error which 
they committed,! 

The Emperor, finding that the Protestants would 
not move, advanced in good order to the camp, which 
was on the Danube, between Donauwerth and Hastat. 
Those who occupied it abandoned it, and the inhabit- 
ants of Hastat brought the keys of their city to the 
Emperor, who, on the following day, advanced on 
Dillingen, which followed the example of Hastat. 
He then established himself near Laubingen, a do- 
main belonging to Duke Otho Henry of Bavaria, 
where there were four German detachments, and, 
that evening, they showed an intention of defending 

The Emperor, having been informed that the 

* Que se os enemigos tiyeram grande yontade de pelejar, elles o 
poderam fazer neste dia com grande ventagem sua. 

t Pelo que se pode julgar, sem saber as eausas que a isto os 
moyeram, se posse esta contar pola quinta feilta ou erro que elles 

Charles the Fifth. 

enemy wished to come to the support of this town, 
and take up a position on some high ground at the 
verge of a forest, ordered, although some distance 
from the town, that on the following day at day- 
break the whole army should hold itself ready to 
advance on whatever point he might think it advis- 
able. He started himself early with the Duke of 
Alba, his general, and many of his council, to ascer- 
tain which would be the most advantageous position 
to assume to attack the enemy as they emerged from 
the said forest. Whilst on hia way, some of the 
inhabitants of the town came and smrendered it 
to His Majesty. The inhabitants of Gondelfingen 
did the same. Those of Laubingen informed him 
that the four detachments had withdrawn, and crossed 
the bridge over the Danube before daylight, with 
some pieces of artillery, and with one of the captains 
of the League who had arrived there the evening 
before, and had prevented them surrendering at once ; 
and they added, that with those four detachments 
and artillery they had taken the Augsburg road. 

On the receipt of this news, Uie Emperor, observ- 
ing that he was not aware of any movement having 
taken place in the Protestants' camp, rejoined the 
army, and passing by Laubingen, in which town he 
left a sufficient garrison, he ordered some light-horse 
to cross the river in pursuit of the said four detach- 
mente. They came up with them, and, after a skirmish. 

own, I 

tthe I 



77*e Emperor arrives at Sontheim. 121 

pressed them bo closely that they ahandoned their 
artillery, which was brought to the Emperor. In his 
eagerness to advance, the Emperor marched ao ra- 
pidly, that on the same day he crossed the river Brenz, 
and pitched his camp at Sontheim, a town situated 
on the bank of another river, which runs towards 
Ulm. On arriving there, the Emperor was informed 
that some of the enemy's horse was in the vicinity, 
in a small Imperial town named Giengen, on the 
said river Brenz. His Majesty sent hiB General there 
with a suitable force, hut as soon as the horsemen 
perceived him they beat a retreat. Some of the 
enemy's gendarmes were in the same town: these 
latter, hoping or knowing that their whole army 
would arrive on the following day, dissimulated, as 
it was already late when they were summoned to 
surrender, giving their word that they would sur- 
render on the morrow, and thus gained a night by their 
deceit. That same night, the Emperor having come 
to the camp, he sent out spies in various directions 
to learn something of the enemy's movements. Some 
came back without any news, and others were made 
prisoners by the enemy's videttes. The Emperor 
was consequently irresolute and undecided how to 
act in the morning ; he did not know whether it would 
not be better to take the direction of Ulm and steal 
a march upon the enemy, or stop where he waa, 
because, by making haste, tbey might also have 

122 Charles the Fifth. 

taken up a position which would have cut off his 

The Emperor, being; in this doubt, received the 
news that the Protestants were on their march; hut 
he did not yet know where they wished to establish 
themselves. Consequently the Emperor and his 
General and many other personages went to recon- 
noitre the movements of the enemy, who were 
advancing in good order to take up a position at 
GKengen. The Emperor, not having phiced his army 
in order of battle, on the contrary, being ready to 
march on the opposite bank to that occupied by the 
enemy towards Ulm, returned to the camp and 
ordered his troops back to their quarters; the enemy 
did the same. 

The Emperor, having ascertained the position and 
plana of the enemy, resolved that day to lay a good 
ambuscade for them, but it was not well carried out. 

It is presumed, however, that, had it been so, it 
would have been attended with good results ; for, 
despite the carelessness with which it was done, the 
Imperial musketeers did ho much havoc among the 
enemy that they always remembered that day. In 
fact, whenever afterwards the Emperor wished to lay 
an ambuscade, such as it ought to be, taking advan- 
tage of a favourable opportunity, and sending out 
fikirmisbera to attack the enemy, it was never pos- 
sible to induce any number of them to go far from the 


The rival Armies at Giengen. 1 23 

camp. The failure of the amliuscade is perhaps also 
to be attributed to the fact that Giengen ia situated 
iu a hollow, and the Protestants had their camp on 
the banka of the river, on the side oppoaite to that 
upon which His Majesty had his. On this side of His 
Majesty's camp there was a mound, which dominated 
Giengen as well as the Protestant camp. The latter 
therefore crossed the river, and took possession of 
that mound with a considerable force; and as it 
was difficult to come Xx> their support from one camp 
to the other, they entrenched themselves strongly in 
that position, and from their encampment they 
discovered a portion of the ambuscade which had 
been laid. The residt was that His Majesty ordered 
the troops employed in it to retmn to camp. With 
a view to try every means to annoy the enemy, a 
night assault was resolved upon ; but the enemy 
were on the alert, and took their precautions so well, 
that it was wisely given up. As the Protestants 
occupied the mound already mentioned above Gien- 
gen, on the same side of the river as the Imperial 
camp, and as His Majesty occupied another mound 
in the same manner, on the side where the Pro- 
testant quarters were, for many reasons, as soon as 
they arrived at Giengen, it was resolved to fortify 
the mound which was opposite the Imperial camp, 
to lodge the ItaKans there who had remained : for 
most of them bad left, complaining of bad tjeatment 

114 Charles the Fifth. 

and bad pay. Those who remained were disaffected, 
80 much 80 that when the Pope's Leg;ate left, having 
been recalled by Hia Holiness, they endeavoured to 
seize upon the opportunity of returning to their 
country, at the very moment when it was desirable 
to increase the numerical strength of His Majesty's 
army, because the Protestants were receiving nu- 
merous reinforcements from Wiirtemberg, and were 
placing a garrison in a fort under construction. 
Out of the 4,000 men belonging to His Holiness, 
3,000 one morning took theirdeparture, TheEmperor 
was thus frustrated in his plana,* as he had not suffi- 
cient troops left to garrison the fort which he had com- 
menced, and which consequently was left unfinished. 
The season waa already far advanced, as it was 
near the festival of All Saints, and the rains had 
commenced. The Emperor, finding that from hia 
camp he could do no harm to the enemy, resolved, 
after some petty skirmishes, to recross the river and 
take up hia quarters near Laubingen. He therefore 
broke up his camp and advanced in good order, 
expecting the enemy to try their fortune, which, 
according to some, they might have and ought to 
have done-t However, from good reasons of their 
own, they did not move on that day, and the 

• Ficou frnatrada de sea iutenlo. 

+ Sb OS nemigOB quereriam tpnlar a fortuna, o que algiis qucrem 
qne ellea podeiam e deTeram tazcr. 


The Protestants wish for Peace. 115 

Emperor contintiecl to march to the spot where he 
wished to establish himself. The rain and had 
weather continued. Moreover, the ground was heavy 
and damp, and the Imperial camp full of mud. 
Although the enemy's camp was on the heights, it 
was not) as waa learnt afterwards, in a hetter con- 
dition.* This explains why, the whole time the 
Emperor was in camp, nothing of importiinee was 
achieved. On the contrary, at the same period the 
Protestants wished to treat for peace ; hut His Majesty, 
finding that no suitable agreement could be come to, 
broke off the negotiations. Whilst His Majesty was 
at the said camp, he received the news that John 
Frederick of Sasony had been defeated by the troops 
of the King and of Duke Maurice. 

In consequence of the inclemency of tlie weather, 
and from other reasons which actuated some persons, 
it was the general opinion that the Emperor ought 
to place his troops in garrison. In this manner he 
would have closely pressed the Protestants, especially 
the towns held by them, for these garrisons would 
liave cut off all their provisions and supplies, and 
thus harassed them considerably ; hut the Emperor 
considered that the whole good effect of his enter- 
prise consisted in dispersing the army of the Protes- 
tants, and in separating their forces : he fancied 

• Nbu GcHram do mfllior pondipio. 

1 26 Charles the Fifth. 

that placing Ma army in garrisons was to divide, 
weaken, and break it up.* The Emperor repeatedly 
had quarters examined which appeared advantageous 
and suitable for wintering and keeping the enemy at 
bay, until it was seen which of the two armies would 
be the first to relinquish the struggle or obliged to 
disband itself.f He then left the above-mentioned 
locahty, because it was damp and muddy, and con- 
sequently not very agreeable or advantageous for an 
army; and he looked out for another position free from 
humidity, strong, and well situated to suit and satisfy 
his soldiera.J It has been maintained that on that 
day the Protestants might again have given battle 
with advantage.5 If that was the case, and if they 
committed an error, the fault must rest with him 
who committed it[| His Majesty resolved therefore 
to carry out his enterprise to the end, and to perse- 
vere until one of the two armies should be obliged 
to disband, either by compulsion, had weather, 
famine, or any other calamitj.lf 

■ Mas KmBideraadD Sim Mageataile que todo o bom eSeito de sua 
emprt-sa conuistia em rompor o eiarcito b dividic as for'9Hfl dos pro- 
testante*, parereo che qua per BflU em gacni9Des seria diyidilo, 
dimmuilo o romp^lo. 

t AUe vpr qual doa dona excreitos se dexizam primeito, on seria 
for^ido a ne d^sfozer. 

I Poro outro euxuto, forte, da bcllo aasGQto, e agosto b satisfa^ 
dos Boldados. 

II Se aasi lie e Be commctcTsm erro, se deve deboir so que niaso ba. 
^ Sua Mageatode determiDou Beguii sua empresa atca fim e 


Occupation of Nordlingen. 


The Emperor was informed that there was another 
spot in an excellent situation, where he might, hy 
keeping close to the enemy, cause them some damage, 
and acquire such an advantage over them as to 
compel them to break up and separate;" and he 
resolved to carry out this enterprise within a brief 
delay. But as the matter was one of high impor- 
tance and not without its difBculties, and as no one 
ought to undertake an arduous and perilous enter- 
prise without the necessary preparations, the Emperor 
put off its execution to an opportune moment. Now, 
it ao happened that at the same time the town of 
Nordlingen offered to amrender, and the Emperor 
thought that, by occupying it, he should find another 
means of annoying the enemy, leaving it optional 
to adopt and take either measure. The Emperor 
admitted the good position and the great advantages 
of this locality, and endeavoured to turn it to account 
to overthrow his enemy. Like others, who also after- 
wards examined it, he deemed that it was feasible 
and practicable, provided that it was well executed. 

The Protestants thought that the march of the 
Emperor on Laubingen was the result of some 
necessity or discouragement;! but on finding that 

* Qae por for^a oa lovaria debaixo, e faria romper o dividir. 
t Frocedera ds algua necessidada ou dea&Uec: 

128 Charles the Fifth. 

the Emperor occupied the quarters above indicated, 
they found themselvee deceived in their hopes. Thus, 
when they learnt that His Miijesty was agaio 
preaching them, they displayed much less energy 
and courage than formerly,* and, despite the skir- 
mishes opened by the Emperor, and the opportunities 
he offered them to leave their camp, there was no 
means of inducing them to do Bo.f Already dif- 
ferences and disputes had arisen amongst them ; the 
Imperial cities were weary of the heavy sums levied 
upon them, and the other members of the League 
could not provide them.f Consequently the Protes- 
tants sent away their heavy artillery; and finally, 
on the morning of November 22, wearied and 
worn by labour, bad weather, and by many other 
annoyances, and from other motives which they knew 
better than anyone else, they raised their camp and 
withdrew to the mountains at the other side of the 
Brenz, under the protection of a castle situated on 
the frontier of Wiirtemberg, called Heydenheim. 

On the preceding night, the Emperor had been 
informed by a spy that the heavy artillery of the 
Protestants had left ; and, fearing what actually did 

* Mostroram logo mruto menoa apiritOB e coragt^m do que d'antcs 

t Nao auva remedio para oa tira fora. 

t E tendo ja paasiido entrellca algviHs contradii^a e diaputfls, e 
enfadiiDdo Be as cidades imperials doa grandes gnstox e despesas quu 
faziam, e nSo podeado os outros da liga Bupprir oa gostoa. 


Retreat of the Protestants. 129 

occur, he Bent back the same spy to the enemy's 
camp witb orders to return, no matter at what hour, 
and report, what they were doing. This spy, who 
left at midnight to give the information, related that 
at that hour they were on the move, but as he had 
met troops on his road, he was obhged to turn back, 
and, owing to the darkness of the night, and the fog, 
he had lost his way; so that he did not reach the 
Emperor's camp until His Majesty had left it. 
Whether he told the truth, or whether these were 
only false excuses, the result was that he returned 
very late, and not in time to be of any service ; for 
the Emperor, having been informed about t«n o'clock 
in the morning that the Protestants, as stated, had 
left, at once sent his General with a small body of 
horse and musketeers to ascertain the truth.* His 
Majesty followed him with other knights, leaving 
orders for the whole of the cavalry to advance 
promptly, and for the whole of the infantry to he 
prepared to act at a moment's notice. Having 
passed the camp abandoned by the Protestants, 
they were pursued, until one of their squadi'ons,t 
which served as a rear-guard, was come upon, with 
which a skirmish ensued, so that all their army 
formed in hne of battle, and commenced to march 

* Cum algils caTallos, e arraliuzeiras di^smatidadoa. 
t Aflsi dnspois dfl t^ atraTesBodo o seu campo, oa protaBtontea 
dos atee foram SEgai ee rer hum dos sen^s esquadT6e8. 

130 Charles the Fifth. 

to sustain the struggle." Aft«r some discussion aa 
to what ought to be done, the Emperor ordered all 
the cavalry to stop where it was, in \"iew of the 
enemy ; and as it was already late, he returned im- 
mediately to his camp to order the infantry and the 
artillery to advance, as his intention was to establish 
that very night his whole army so close to the 
enemy that he could attack them at daybreak. The 
infantry and artillery immediately began to advance, 
following His Majesty, who served as a guide,t and 
they arrived, one hour after midnight, where the main 
body of the troops were quartered, and where they 
rested, each man as best he could, according to time 
and place, without leaving his detachment the re- 
mainder of the night. 

The Emperor had proceeded forward to rejoin 
his General closer to the enemy ; but when the day 
broke upon which he hoped to carry out his designs, 
a heavy fall of snow succeeded the severe cold of the 
preceding night, and the Emperor, seeing that his 
eojdiers, having only their arms with them, had 
nothing to protect them from the cold and from 
hunger,! resolved to return to the camp which be 
had left the evening before : and it is well he did 

* E cornei;on a caminliar pacft ter rauo, B TOGtentar a escaramnpi. 
t Se^endo a Sua Mm^pflfjirtfi nufi b+tiHil rli rniiH. 
t Vend 
frio que Bi 

* E cornei;on a caminliar paca ter rauo, B TOGtentar a escaramn^^ 
t Sei^endo a, Sua Mogpst^de que servia di guia. 
t Vends que 09 Enlcladoa uSo tinhajn outro Teparo <!ontTQ □ femes 
frio aue suae armas. 

Nordlingeii and other Cities surrender. 131 

so, as tlie Protestants were so well posted that, had 
it been the finest weather in the world, nothing could 
have been attempted against them with any success. 

The Emperor, on his return to camp, did not remain 
there long, but immediately advanced to prevent 
the Protestants gaining some strong and favourable 
position;" for at this moment they sought for support 
in the strength and situation of the ground, and were 
in the midst of mountains, and in steep and difficult 
paths. This induced the inhabitants of Nordlingen, 
and of other towns and castles where they bad left 
troops, and who saw themselves abandoned without 
hope of help, to submit to His Majesty. The Em- 
peror, whose object was rather to scatter and dis- 
unite the Protestants than to tske vengeance on the 
said place3,f accepted their submission, and took the 
road to Nordlingen. 

As already said, the winter had set in severely. 
The soldiers were fatigued and worn out, and the 
majority, or nearly all, were of the opinion that it 
would be well if the Emperor remained satisfied with 
the results obtained, and were to place bis troops to 
garrison on the frontier and allow his army to re- 
pose. The Emperor would willingly have done so, 
as well to spare his troops, as not to appear to follow 

* Que dho tamBBsem para a ttTra bca o gro«sa. 
t Cnja tf ni^ sendo maia accobar de romper e diyidir a 
t«9tajites, ijue tomor vingonja doa dittos lagarea. 

132 CharUs the Fifth, 

only hia own couneel ;' but he foresaw to what in- 
convenieocee it would lead, and thus the fruit would 
be lost of all the successes already obtained, for the 
Protestant* bad agreed between themselves that they 
would go with their whole army, and take up their 
quarters in Franconia, to reprovide themselves with 
money, men, and supplies, so as to recommence the 
struggle with renewed obstinacy. He therefore re- 
solved, much against bis will, to follow his own 
opinion-! To this must be added tbe important 
consideration, that he had some reason to hope that 
if the two armies continued on the road which they 
were following — the one always in the track of tbe 
other, at a distance of foiu, five, or six leagues — 
an opportunity might offer itself, by approaching 
the enemy as near as possible, and by marching 
during a whole night, the nights being long, of at- 
tacking them at daybreak. His Majesty therefore 
Btartfid, following tbe road to the right through a 
good country, in the direction of Dingelspubeb That 
town had also joined the League, and, although it 
held out a long time before it returned to its duty, 
it at last surrendered. The Emperor then advanced 
on Rotenburg, which had not joined the League, 
and which also sent a deputation to meet His 
Majesty. The Protestants marched through a moun- 

* Corns poF n£o SFgoir quasi soo opiniao. 

t Se determinou l>eiii Gontra sua Toatade de seguir eua opiniao. 

Dispersion of Protestants. 133 

tainoua country, making circuits and returning on 
their steps, so tliat they had to endure much more 
fatigue and embarrass m.ent tlian the Imperial army. 
To showthat they were doing something, they attacked 
and captured Grmiindt, an Imperial town, which had 
always remained faithful, and which still adhered to 
the ancient religion ; therefore the Emperor after- 
wards indemnified it handsomely for all that it had 
suffered, at the cost of those who had been the cause 

The Protestants found that, by the plan adopted 
by the Emperor, their own projects were discon- 
certed, and that they were obliged to separate and 
dissolve,* as on the road which it was following the 
army of the Emperor did not deviate from the direc- 
tion indicated above. The Protestanta daily dis- 
persed, leaving behind a portion of their artillery 
and baggage, bo that in a short time their army 
was completely broken up. All that remained 
consisted of a small body of troops under John 
Frederick of Saxony, who, througli a woody and 
mountainous country, succeeded in crossing the 
Maine, and sought refuge at Gotha, a stronghold 
in his estates. The Emperor, the better to ascer- 
tain what was actually taidng place, sent on Count 
de Buren with the men that remained under his 

134 Charles the Fifth. 

orders from Rotenburg, and he did not meet witli 
the same obstacles which he had to contend against 
on his arrivaL Akeady the Imperial city of Frank- 
fort had amiounced that it submitted to the Emperor, 
and, after having received a garrison, it sent deputies 
to perform the act of submission. This having been 
done, the Emperor, finding that he did not meet with 
any further resistance, and that, on the contrary, 
many towns which had been hostile t-o him com- 
menced to treat for their submission, halted a few 
days at Rotenburg, where he placed his soldiers 
under cover, and allowed them some repose. Here 
he had an attack of the gout ; hut as soon as he felt 
a little better, and the army had rested and restored 
itself, he advanced towards the town of Halle, in 
Suabia (which had joined the League, hut which 
recognised its error), where he had another attack 
of gout. In this town the Elector came to greet him, 
regretting that he had not done better." The in- 
habitants of Ulm also returned to obedience, avowing 
their fault. A garrison was placed in the city. 


n pezoroflo de o uuo 


Wiirtemburg surrenders. 


The Emperor entera Wortemliei^. — Augsburg snd Strasbuig 
anrrender. — Death of the King of England. — The Elector of 
Saxony reaasemblea an Ann;. — Pope Paul rec&Ua hiu Italiiin uux- 
iliuries. — Defeat of the Imperialists under Margrare Albert of 
Brandenbnrg. — Death of the Qn^en of the RomanB. — The Em- 
peror ia taken Eerioualj ill at Nordlingen. — Death of the King of 
France. — The Protestants encamp near Meissen on the Elbe. — 

Surronder of Meissen to the Impeiriitiifits The Protestants take 

np a. position at Mohlberg. — The Etoperoi^ resolTea to gire Battle. 
— A dense Mist eonceali his More men ta. — The Froteslants are 
taken bj surprise and commenca retreating. ^ The Imperialists 
cross the Birer. — Commencement of the Battle. — The Emperor 
attacks (he Protestant Armj irilh Cayalry nnlj, — Duke Maurice 
defeats the Protestant Horse. — Total Defeat of the Protratants.— 
Capture of Dulfi John Frederick of Saxony, and of Duie Ernest 
ofBrunswict, April 24. 

-L tbe 

B gout, atart«d for Heiltron, a town which had 
also joined the League, and which had acted like most 
of the others, and he sent forward Mb General into 
the state of Wiirtemberg. As soon aa he had entered 
it, in a few days all the towns in the plain surrendered 
to him. The Duke of that state sent a deputatioQ 
to enter into negotiationa, and, after an exchange of 
propositions and replies, an arrangement was con- 
cluded, and the Duke was received hy the Emperor, 
to whom he did obedience. The Emperor was again 
tormented by the gout at Heilbron; and it lasted 

136 Charles the Fifth. 

so long thut, eveii when he left for Ulm, where he ar- 
rived early in the year 1547, he bad not yet recovered 
Ma health. As happened in Ma previous attack, he 
had continued relapaes; so that this may be considered 
his thirteenth attack of gout At last he resolved 
to master it by strict adherence to treatment and 
diet. Meantime the inhabitants of Augsburg, also 
admitting their error, waited upon Hie Majesty, and 
tendered their obedience. A garrison was sent also to 
their city. The inhabitants of Strashurg followed their 
example. The news of the death of the King of 
England reached His Majesty about the same time. 
"Wliilst the Emperor, as already said, was at Ulm, 
where he waa awaiting the fine season, to place him- 
self under a regular system, a,nd asatire his conva- 
lescence,* each day brought hira news after news 
that John Frederick of Saxony (who, it will be re- 
membered, had only preserved with him a small body 
of troops from the great Protestant army, with which 
he had retired to Gotha) was reinforcing himself 
and constantly increasing the number of his men. 
Not only did he wish to attempt to reconquer what 
the King of the Romans and Duke Maurice had 
deprived him of, but moreover he was exerting him- 
self, and making preparations to seize upon their poa- 
aesstons, to excite and agitate their subjects, and to 

* Esparando sazio arrotnodiida para so poc tm regimoaM, f bo 
corai pam a effeito b Sm. 


Surrender of Augsburg and Straslurg. 137 

do them as much harm as he possibly could,* The 
King of the Komans and Duke Maurice kept His 
Majesty daily informed of what was taking place; 
and it was agreed that a portion of the army which 
remained with the Emperor, which, from the fatigues 
it had undergone, was considerably diminished, should 
be sent in that direction ; what had still more con- 
tributed to reduce it was, that it happened precisely 
at this time that Pope Paul (in addition to all the 
bad acts he had done, as in part already related, and 
which he afterwards did by writing certain things 
to the Swiss, which he thought would be very pre- 
judicial to the Emperor t) charged bis Nuncio to 
inform His Majesty that he recalled all the Italian 
soldiers whom he had hitherto paid. Despite all the 
Emperor's entreaties that he would not do so, and that 
he would associate himself to the honour of victory,! 
the Pope would not hearken to him, and the said 
Italians withdrew. 

The Emperor therefore found himself much put 
out § on finding that, on the one hand, it was difficult 
to separate bis troops, and on the other that his 

• Trftbfllhava e pnwnrava ds lomai o seu delles, e concitar o altorar 
BSU9 snbdlkis e em €m dp Ihea fazer o peor que pudcxBe. 

t Alem de tcdos os officios que o Papa Paulo tinha feitos eomo em 
parte aeima ae contem, e doepoia fez cserevtndo aoa Sui^oa algia 
consB, qan cmdava ser dc grande prcjoizo. 

I For meds que o SmperaiiaF inatoa que tal nSo fizt^o e quo 
quisesae ter parte ca honia da victoria- 

S Confuso. 

ijS C/mite Ae Fifth. 


health required careful treatment," and he did not 
know what to decide upon. However, seeing the 
sueeesB of John Frederick, and, later, the defeat and 
the captivity of the Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, 
who had been sent by the Emperor with a body of 
horse and foot to the support of the King his 
brother, and of Duke Maurice ; having at the same 
time learnt the death of the Queen of the Romans, 
hia sister-in-law, and considering the sorrow and 
afEiction which the King her husband felt at it, he 
resolved (as much to console him as to assist him f) 
to adjourn the treatment and diet which the state of 
his health required. He therefore deemed it advis- 
able to leave at Augsburg, at Ulm, and at Frank- 
fort, the garrisons which he had placed there, and 
left at once with the rest of hia army ; and as not 
only was it not advisable to divide it, but, on the 
contrary, it was necesaary to increase it, he raised a 
new regiment of Germans. Having done this he 
took his departure from Ulm, and, on reaching 
Nordlingen, he was taken so iU from all the suffer- 
ing and fatigue which he had .undergone, that he was 
compelled to remain some days there. However, 
seeing the inconveniences which might result from 
too long a delay, he started again, as best he could, 
carried in a litter,J and continued liia journey to 

* Que sua eaiide pedis c\ii&. 

f Assi polo cangolH.r em hiun caao, como polo n^judor em outro. 

J Em liteira o couse podc. 

P Nuremberg, -9 

Is seriously indisposed. 139 

Nuremberg, where he waa received as in a city which 
had not taken part in the League, and which had 
never been hostile to him. Here he had a relapse, 
so that be was obliged to remain there longer than 
he wished. However, he made auch an effort* that, 
sometimes in a Utter, sometimes otherwise, he reached 
Egra. During this journey he met with the King 
bis brother and Dute Maurice, and the son of the 
Elector of Brandenburg. The latter, from the 
affection bis house had always shown towards that 
of Austria, and leaving all questions of opinion aaide,t 
had agreed with the King of the Eomans to provide 
him with troops, and to assist bim in this war, which, 
as has been said, was not engaged only with Duke John 
Frederick, but which bad disturbed t* such & point the 
populations of Bohemia, that they wished to partici- 
pate in it more than became them.J Whilst their 
Majesties were at Egra, they received the news of 
the death of the King of France. They so settled 
their affairs that, a few days afterwards, they left 
with all their troops. The Emperor had previously 
issued orders to the Duke of Alba, bis general, and 
to other captains, to remove certain obstacles which 
might delay the march : they performed their duty 

* Contudo BO ceforcou e fa tanto. 

t Si^ndo a ii6ei<,'iiu que sna casa tirera sempre a de Austria, 
deiximda today aa opiDio4« susptDaua. 

I Mas tambem eJIe tinlis. de tal modo concitadi) hob dc Eacmi:i i^ud 
si quiaeram mettai maia nella do que Uiea estara bem. 

140 Charks the Fifth. 

so well that they subjected all the towns and places 
of the opposite party which were on their passage, 
and the garrisons which occupied them were routed 
and their colours taken from ihem. Their Majesties 
left on the day foUowing, bo that after nine days 
they reached Somhof, a property belonging to Duke 
Maurice, As soon as they arrived there, Duke 
Maurice and the Duke of Alba went to reconnoitre 
the lower part of the river to see what ought to be 
done. On their return, after some reports and some 
false alarms, they acquired the certain information 
that Duke John Frederick had hia camp at Meissen, 
on the other bank of the Elbe, at three good leagues 
from the spot mentioned above, where their Majesties 
were staying. As the soldiers had marched during 
these nine days almosit without stopping, the Em- 
peror thought it as well that they should repose 
the day after their arrival, as an opportunity might 
offer itself, which in fact was the case, of striking a 
blow." During tiiis day of repose given to the 
army, the Emperor, not to remain idle, and to be 
informed of the enemy's movementa, sent out re- 
connaissances on two aides. One party went straight 
to Meissen, where they did not see the enemy's 
camp, because, as they convinced themselves, they 
bad decamped during the mght. That town sur- 

* De lazer idgua lom Ecgocio. 

Surrender of Meissen. 


rendered, but they found the bridge broken and 
burnt. The other party, who had gone up the river," 
discovered the enemy's army in march on the other 
bank of the river; and about three o'clock in the 
afternoon they saw the advanced guard establish 
itself on a spot on the left bank of the Elbe, called 
Miihlberg, at three leagues from the camp of their 
Majesties; and thej judged from the baggage that ac- 
companied it that the rear-guard could not take up its 
quarters before midnight This various information 
reached the Emperor almost at the same time, about 
five o'clock in the afternoon ; and God knows how 
aorry he was at having stopped that day, as it ap- 
peared to him that the following day would be too 
late to reach the enemy ; but God in his goodness 
willed that it should be so.f 

The Emperor calculated that the army of the 
Protestants had marched nearly twenty-four hours, 
and that it was impossible for them to dislodge at 
once and do a long day's march ; he had also been 
informed the day he arrived at Somhof that there 
were one or two fords near or opposite Miihlberg, 
where the river was passable, though broad and deep. 
He therefore sent without delay for the King his 

* Ob qnfl foram contra a corrente do rio. 

+ DenB sabe ae se arrependeo bem de se ter detido oqupllo dia, por 
que Iho parecia, que nao haveria tompo ao outro dia para podor 
olcan^ ima enemigoa, q^ue tudaTia De-us por sua boutade remediou. 

I42 0iafies the Fifth. 

brother and Duke Maurice, to whom, as also to his 
General, he commimicated what his ideas and plans 
were.* Although he met with opposition from some, 
especially because they did not beUeve there was 
any ford, his opinion -was nevertheless approved by 
the others, and prevailed. To compensate for and 
repair the fault which he thought he had committed 
by not starting on that day, he wished to leave at 
once at that very hour with his whole army, leaving 
behind the invalids and baggage; but he found 
opponents,t because the camp was surrounded by a 
rivulet and difficult to be got out of, so that, as it was 
already night, an exit from the camp could not be 
done without much confusion and disorder. The 
Emperor giving in to this opinion, seeing that it was 
reasonable, resolved to postpone the departure till 
the morning. And so as not to be wanting in any- 
thing of which he might stand in need, he ordered 
his General to take along with him some pieces of 
light artillery from the camp, and all the boat and 
pontoon carriages. In fact, should one of the fords 
not be practicable, he wished to throw over a bridge 
of boats to send promptly across a sufficient body 
of infantry to support the cavalry, which was to cross 
by the other ford ; and should that not answer, he 
resolved at last to attempt (by crossing the river 

■ que tinhft no pensamento e TOntade de hxei. 
t Mas foi llie isto contraiiodo. 

The Protestajits at Muhlberg. 


somehow or other) every means to inflict as much 
damage and do as much harm as possible to the 

Having adopted this resolution, and everything 
which ought to be done during the night having 
been performed, the Emperor retired to rest till 
midnight. He then got up and gave the signal to 
saddle," so that everything might be ready for march- 
ing at daybreak. Before dawn he sent forward the 
Duke of Alba with Bom.e light horse and mounted 
miisketeers to reconnoitre the enemy's movements 
and position. The Emperor, after having heard 
mass with the King his brother and Duke Maurice, 
followed him with the advanced guard, and, having 
set his whole army, or at least the greater portion of 
it, in movement, as was required, he commenced 
the mai'ch at the first rays of dawn {which at this 
season breaks about three o'clock in the morning), 
and at eight o'clock in the morning took up a po- 
sition opposite the enemy's camp. 

During the whole of that morning there was a 
dense mist, which was a great obstacle to the march, 
and the Emperor was much annoyed at the em- 
barrassments and delays which under these circum- 
stances the fog occasioned him. The fog still 
prevailed when they arrived opposite the enemy's 

Charles the Fifth. 

camp, so that nothiug could be discerned. However, 
the Emperor placed everything in the hands of 
God, that, whether he should he preserved or perish, 
His will should be done," and God in His mercy 
deigned all of a sudden to clear away the fog, and 
give such a clear sky, that it was discovered that the 
supposition which His Majesty had made on the 
previous day had been realised | for not only had 
the enemy not taken their departure, nor were they 
making any show of moving, but they were not 
aware of the arrival of their Majesties with an army ; 
and, moreover, the fog which had impeded the march 
of their Majesties was favourable to them by pre- 
venting the enemy discovering the Imperial army 
up to this moment, which, despite the fog, had ad- 
vanced in such good order that every man was in 
the rank allotted to him. 

Their Majesties and Didte Maurice proceeded in 
advance to examine the resources and the nature of 
the ground. The Emperor's General brought him 
a report of his observations, still maintaining his 
doubts as to the existence of a ford. Consequently, 
their Majesties took the direction of a small village 
in the vicinity, to find some one to point them out 
the ford, and they succeeded so well tliat they met 
a young peasant on an ass, who had crossed it the 


Contudo poado o EmpeFSiior tnda naa mSos de Beos para qi 
qnisesBe cohkitb ou airmnar, aus votitade fosse itaXA. 

Advance on the Protestant Camp. 145 

preceding night, and oflFered to point it out to them. 
Their Majesties sent him on to the Greneral; and 
whilst their Majesties and Duke Maurice were eating 
a mouthful,* they sent forward a strong body of 
matchlock-men to open the ball as soon as the fog 


As soon as the fog cleared oflF the enemy dis- 
covered what they had not yet seen ; for they fan-p 
cied that the troops which had arrived at the bank 
of the stream they had seen were not more nu- 
merous than those which they had seen the evening 
before, and of which they made no account. But 
as soon as they recognised what they had by no 
means expected, they immediately commenced taking 
down their tents and flags, mounting their horses, 
and placing themselves in marching order. They 
moreover sent their pontoon boats down the river in 
the direction of Torgau and Wittenberg, towns which 
belonged to John Frederick of Saxony, thinking 
thereby to save them. 

Their Majesties had already left the village, where 
they had breakfasted, to give the necessary orders. 
Some Himgarians, light horse, and mounted mus- 
keteers, were ordered in all haste opposite Torgau ; 
and when they arrived there a skirmish ensued, in 
which the troops at Torgau sent them some volleys 

* Temiam hum bocado. 

t Paraque, tanto que a nevoa caisse, come9assem a festai 



146 Charles the Fifth. 

of artillery. During their inarch their Majesties 
were informed of what was taking place, and of the 
measures taken to save the hoats. The Emperor 
then ordered his General to throw forward the 
above-mentioned musketeers, whom His Majesty 
met; they at once returned towards the river, some 
of them wading into it, and opened fire. The 
enemy, despite the resistance they made with their 
artillery and musketry, were compelled to abandon 
their hoats, and some Spanish musketeers, who had 
8wam across the river with their swords between 
their teeth, brought them to their Majesties on the 
bank. Meantime a portion of the enemy's army had 
commenced leaving the banks of the river; this 
allowed the young peasant above-mentioned to point 
out the ford. The Emperor immediately ordered 
the Hungarians, some light horse, and the musketeers, 
to attempt the passage, which they did bravely. 
Finally, after a double volley on either side, the 
enemy deemed it prudent to leave the river, and this 
was doubtless the sixth error which they committed.* 
For had they made a stand and attempted to defend 
the river, it would have been impossible on that day 
to have found the ford or to dislodge them, and the 
night would have enabled them to place themselves 

podc tiem contar, c sem davida ter pola sua seita falla 

Passage of the Elbe. 147 

in safety. They must know best what induced them 
to do this.* 

The enemy having abandoned the river to the 
Emperor, he was eagerly entreated to allow the 
cavalry to cross and pursue them. But, considering 
that it was by his determination and advice that the 
army had been led there, he replied that he had not 
acted thus to receive an insult, but rather, with God's 
blessing, he hoped to obtain the honour of victory.f 
He held this language because the enemy was as 
strong as he was in cavalry, and had moreover five 
to six thousand infantry with artillery, which His 
Majesty could not have so promptly at hand, as a 
little time was requisite to throw over the bridge, 
which was too short for so broad a river ; and whilst 
this was being done, the Emperor sent one of the 
principal personages of the army J to the other bank, 
with the express order to inform him as soon as the 
enemy was a short league distant from the river. 
For he was convinced (taking into consideration the 
impediments occasioned to their march by the 
Hungarians and the light horse) that that distance 
was not too great, after effecting the passage, to 
come up with them. If, on the contrary, they 

* EUes devem saber o que os moveo a fazer isto. 

t Mas considerando que por sua detenniiia94d e parecer tinha la 
levado o exercito, respondeo que nao fizera isto para receber affix>nta, 
antes entendia com o feiYor de Deus alcan9ar a honra da yictoria. 

X Alg^a pessoa principaL 

L 2 


148 Charles the Fifth. 

wished to make a stond against the Emperor, the 
bridge was already so far advanced, and such dili- 
gence had been shown, that infantry and artillery 
were ready to sustain the combat. 

As soon as the Emperor received the information 
he was waiting for, he immediately ordered all the 
Hungarians and Hght horse to advance with the 
whole of the vanguard, with which was Duke Maurice, 
and which was commanded by the Duke of Alba, 
Their Majesties having left sufficient troops to 
guard the camp, followed them immediately with 
the main body, and they made such good speed that, 
after three German leagues, they came up with them. 
Although some thought it hazardous to attack with 
cavalry only, without infantry and artillery, as the 
enemy was strongly entrenched in a position near a 
avramp, the Emperor considered, nevertheless, that 
it waa already late, and that it was impossible, after 
the distance they had gone, for the infantry and 
artillery to follow up. He considered also that it 
waa important to put an end to this war, and that, 
if the enemy escaped this time, it might be cantinued 
longer than it ought. He moreover discovered a cer- 
tain fear amongst the enemy," and he saw by their 
movements that they were disconcerted and taken 
by surprise ;t he therefore resolved to do his best 

: paunadM. 

Battle of Muhlberg. 1 49 

with the cavalry he had with him. Consequently he 
ordered his General to advance and reconnoitre the 
enemy's position and movements. The latter found 
them such that at the entrance of a wood (where 
their infantry were posted in good order with some 
artillery) he charged with Duke Maurice and the 
vanguard. The enemy's horse were broken, and 
carried disorder among the infantry, and those who 
escaped took to flight. As, owing to the swamp, 
their Majesties could not keep the main body in 
that order which they had maintained in the open 
country, they were obliged to follow the vanguard, 
which they did to keep up the habitual order, and 
to serve as a reinforcement and support if required. 
The enemy was pursued for nearly a good German 
mile ; and when their Majesties pulled up, they were 
informed that Duke John Frederick had been taken 
prisoner. The Duke of Alba having returned from 
the pursuit (it lasted the whole night and a portion of 
the following day), the Emperor charged him to seek 
out John Frederick, and the Duke of Alba brought 
him and presented him. The Emperor entrusted 
him to the watchful custody of the said Duke, with 
an escort of soldiers sufficient to guard him in safety. 
Duke Ernest of Brunswick was also brought as a 
prisoner to His Majesty, and handed over to the 
same custody. These orders having been given, 
their Majesties, with the troops which they could 

1 50 Charles the Fifth, 

reassemble, and which were returning from the pur- 
suit, started on their return to the camp, which was 
on the other side of the river, and on their way they 
met the infantry and light artillery, which had fol- 
lowed them as rapidly as was possible. They were 
entrusted with the care of the chariots and baggage 
which had remained on the road, and after having 
marched three more good German leagues, the 
bridge was crossed, and the camp reached about 
midnight. This occurred on April 24. 

Siege of Wittenberg. 151 


Siege of Wittenberg. — The Town capitulates. — Surrender of other 
Towns. — Duke Maurice is appointed Elector. — War in Bohemia. 
— Convocation of a Diet. — Submission of the Elector of Saxony 
and of the Landgrave of Hesse. — Mutiny amongst the Imperial 
Troops. — Disturbances in Italy. — Conspiracy of Fiesco. — The 
States of the Empire submit to the Council. — Ee volution at 
Placentia. — Charles's Nephew is appointed King of Bohemia. — 
The Emperor returns to the Netherlands. 

THEIS Majesties remained two days in the camp* 
On the third day they left for Torgau, which at 
once threw open its gates to the Emperor. During the 
march^ all the flags and standards taken in the battle 
were presented to him. Their Majesties continuing 
their march, pitched their camp opposite Wittenberg, 
where they received the news of the defeat, near 
Bremen, of Duke Henry of Brunswick. The siege 
of Wittenberg took place in the usual manner. The 
Elector Margrave of Brandenburg proceeded to the 
Emperor, and negotiations were commenced for an 
arrangement, as well on the part of John Frederick 
of Saxony, as on that of his wife and children, who 
were inside the town ; and the result of these nego- 
tiations was, that the town capitulated. Other towns 
also surrendered, others were demolished, all accord- 

ing to what had been agreed upon ; and, according 
to the aame conventions, the said Duke continued to 
remain guarded at the Court of His Majesty, who 
gave the title of Elector, and the appointments 
belonging to it, to Duke Maurice, for the good ser- 
vices which he had rendered him, and for the good- 
will and affection he entertained and showed towards 
him.* The Emperor ordered to be set at liberty 
the Marquis Albert of Brandenburg and Dtdce Henry 
of Brunswick, and others who had been made pri- 
soners previously. 

The King of the Romans and the Elector, Duke 
Maurice, with the troops which they had brought, 
with them, left Wittenberg two days before the 
Emperor's departure; the King to put down the 
disturbances in Bohemia, and the Duke to put his 
affairs into order, according to what had been agreed 
upon by common accord.f 

The Emperor, considering that it was a long time 
that he had been carrying on these two wars, and 
that there did not remain any leader of importance 
who could take the field against Mm, resolved to 
disband his troops, and wished to terminate what 
remained to be done by friendly measures, and by 

^^^^^ Ihe tiaha 

^^^^ For I 

^^^^H certado. 

* FoIhh bonoB sprvicos, que Ihe fizera e boa Tontade e affbic 

Submission of the Landgrave of Hesse. 153 

a general conference of the Deputies of the Empire. 
He resolved upon the convocation of a Diet, and for 
that purpose he left for Halle in Saxony, where he 
was received with complete obedience. During this 
journey a deputation arrived from the inhabitants 
of Bohemia, requesting from the Emperor, and also 
from the King his brother, the necessary troops and 
means to pacify that kingdom: this the Emperor 
granted at a later period. 

Before the departure of the Emperor from Wit- 
tenberg, certain conditions or offers of reconciliation 
and amende honorable had been proposed by the 
Electors of Saxony and of Brandenburg, in the name 
of the Landgrave of Hesse ; but the Emperor rejected 
them, because they were of too general a nature and 
offered little importance or guarantee.* Another 
document was then submitted to him, which, after 
having been approved by the same Electors and by 
the Landgrave, was examined by the Emperor, who 
accepted it to content all parties.t The conditions 
having been ratified by all parties concerned, the 
Landgrave of Hesse waited upon His Majesty in the 
town of Halle, where he admitted his error, and did 
act of obedience as he ought to do.} The Emperor 

* Per serem musto geraes, e de pouca emportancia e segoranra. 
t E bem yisto e considerado de Sua Magestade polos contentar a 
todos quis arreitar. 
X Eseguindo a disposi9ao delle sendo per todos ratificado, o ditto 

154 Charles the Fifth. 


ordered hia general to keep >ii>in guarded, which, 
according to the stipulations, he ought and had a 
riglit to do.* And although then and afterwards 
the said Landgrave and the Electors have pretended 
that the Emperor acted wrongly, by giving to the 
document signed an interpretation conformable to 
his own wishes,! '' cannot, nevertheless, be denied, 
that the Emperor could not have acted otherwise 
than he did, and that what he did do was in keeping 
with the convention.J 

A great number of princes and towns of the 
North, who had adhered to the Smalcald League, 
and who had taken part in the said wars, admitting 
their error, tendered their submission to the Emperor ; 
and the other cities, which had not joined the league, 
and had not taken part in the wars, sent deputies to 
to do the due and customary homage and tender 
submission. § 

As is often the case with soldiers who, as soon as 
they are unemployed, feel the want of doing some- 
thing, it happened that as the Emperor had no work 

LontsgraTe Be veo appresectar na ditta cidode de Alia a Sua ATbjpb- 
tade onde dflipois doronhecer sua culpa, e dai a obedjcai^ia que 

* Que conforme ao ditto papel ee devia e podia fazec. 

t Interpretanilo o eacritto eonformpa seus desejos. 

t Contndo uSo Be pode negar que o Emperadoc podo fiizcr o quo 
tax, e qua o qna fez foi oonforme ao papeL 

% Fare llie tann e dar adevida e costumada obcdieucia, e lecon- 

Disturbances in Italy. 155 

for them,* they mutinied amongst themselves, 
nation against nation, and differences arose which it 
was no easy task to settle. Nevertheless, the Em- 
peror regulated all, and established such good order 
that, having found the time and means to separate 
them, he assigned them different habitations, so that 
all differences and all the causes of disturbance vian- 
ished. Having done this, the Emperor started for 
Niiremberg, and, according to the intentions spoken 
of above, he convoked a Diet at Augsburg. 

After these two great victories, which God, in His 
boundless goodness, designed to grant to the Em- 
peror,t he received from various countries a great 
number of embassies, and some brought him ex- 
pressions of congratulation which by no means came 
from the heart.]: In fact, the machinations which 
were then discovered, before and afterwards; the 
agitation which manifested itself at Naples; the 
conspiracy of Count Fiesco at Genoa ; the isolated 
movements, caused perhaps by foreign intrigue, 
which broke out at Sienna, and other events al- 
ready mentioned, sufficed to indicate the existence 

* Como he cousa ordinaria entre os soldadoB, que quando estio 
ociosos, buscam em que se empregar, nao tendo o Emperador cousa 
em que os occupar. 

t Estas duas t^ grandes yictorias alcan9adas, que Deus foi servido 
por sua immensa condade de dar apEmperador. 

X Algds Ihe raaudaram dar os parabema, que estavam bem peza* 

156 Charles the Fifth. 

of a wish aud attempt to disturb and prevent the 
accomplishment of ao good a work, and at the same 
time the prosperity of tlie Emperor's affairs.* 

There were some persons who abstained from 
taking a greater share in events, despairing of success. 
But later they were so sorry for it that, in endea- 
vouring to find a remedy, they destroyed what they 
had done and established, and matters changed to 
this point that they were obliged to modify their 
designs and dissimulate their wishes. If those persona 
are not such as they ought to he, may God remedy 
it, aa He has done for the past, by regulating matters 
in such gniae that their desires shall not he accom- 

All this having been done, the Emperor left. Nurem- 
berg, where he bad an attack of the jaundice. He had 
almost recovered, when, having continued his journey 
as iar as Augsburg, he had a relapse, and he was so 

" Porque pelaa pratticaa, que naquelle tempo, hum poaco anlys a 
denpoi^ se dtambriramT rbb\ da isquiptfl^^o que ouve em Napolea, 
como da. qneUa que condo de Ficaco fpi em Genova, e doutras 
paxoos parti cuIareHj qneporTeaturaper inatigiu^an d'olgus bq moTeram 
entre 03 de Sena, et outras ds quo se tcm feito men^, ee pode bem 
julgar a ten^iS e Tontade, que havia de perlurbar e impedir t4o boa 
obra, e as cousa^ do Emperador. 

t 1^*6 pode ser deieirim d« so roBttec mais neste ufgocios, dra- 
eonfiando do bono euqccsao deijes, dos qu(i«8 despois arrependinieoto 
foi lal, que querendo remediar, perderam que tinlmm feito e posto 
da Bua parte, aa conaaa se trocaram f s mancira que pllas foram 
tor^adoB a mudar seus deflenhoe e dissimular suas Tontadee. Se e)Ias 
dAu suo quaes derem aer, Deus queira remediar, como feco pasaado, 
Oldenando ai couaas de numeirH, que eeus dea^oa u&o teveiam effeito. 

Diet at Augsburg. 1 57 

weakened by it that he suflfered from it a long time 
after his arrival. Before he was perfectly convalescent, 
he made his proposition to the Diet, to take into 
consideration a remedy for the affairs which were 
brought before it, and which all tended to the service 
of Grod, to the welfare, tranquillity, and union of 
Germany, and to its defence against whomsoever 
should dare to attack it.* The Diet had abeady 
commenced its sittings when the King of the Eomans 
arrived, who had succeeded in subjecting Bohemia 
to obedience to him. The Queen dowager of Hungary 
arrived a little later at the same city of Augsburg, on 
divers matters upon what she had to settle at this time. 
After the jaundice, the Emperor had an attack of 
the gout ; and although it was not so general as his 
previous attacks, he suffered from it at various 
intervals and divers parts, so that it lasted till the 
spring of 1548. This was his fourteenth attack; 
and, in the spring, to hasten his convalescence, he 
took a concoction of China-wood.t 

During the Imperial Diet of Augsburg various 
hostile machinations were set on foot, tending to 
prevent the good results alluded to higher up.J In 

* Para que se tratasse do remedio das cousas nella contendas, as 
quaes todas eram encaminhados ao servi90 de Deus, bem, tranquilli 
dode, 6 uniao de Gennania, e defensao contra os que a quiessem 

t Saxifrax (?). 

I Duruado a ditta dieta imperial, ouye alg^ pratticas todas 
contrarias e para impedir o bem efifeito do que arima se trattou. 

ijS Charles the Fifth. 

this same Diet the Emperor succeeded in inducing the 
States of the Empire to submit to the Council, which 
he had always claim.ed, as stated previously, ever since 
1529.* But at the moment when that council con- 
voked at Trent was called upon to exercise the 
highest influence, Pope Paul, by a jnotu 'proprio, 
wished to transfer it to Bologna, and convoke it 
himself, God knowE with what intentions.^ The 
Emperor, seeing the great evils that might arise 
therefrom, opposed it, and consequently prevented it, 
insisting so strongly that the said council remained 
at Trent4 

The Emperor had recovered from the jaundice, 
and one day, whilst out hunting with a view to 
regain strength, he received certain news from Pla- 
centia, which informed him that, in consequence of 
the severity of Duke Peter Louis, son of the said 
Pope Paul, and the hardships he inflicted upon the 
inhabitants, they had risen against him, and having 
taken possession of the town, they offered to hand it 
over to whomsoever offered them the most favourable 

* Tamhem o coDdlio, que, eomo ditto b«, deade □ emio 29 o 
Emperadoc tinlia Bempre procnrudo, e tanto feito, que pelofl eatadoa 
do Imperio na ditta die tta se aci^eitau. 

t No metimo t«npo, quando ee havia. de dar nmior calor, o Papa 
Paulo de aea motu proprio tentou dp o tranafarir a Bolonha, e ayocar 
a eI : com que ten^io isto fosae, Deus o eabe. 

I Vendo o Eniperailor o grande mat. que disto podaria resultar, o 
coatradiBBP, e impedio sempra, e de tal raodo persistio, que o ditto 
coBcilio Bila em Treuto. 


Revolution at Placentia. 159 

conditions. The governor of the state of Milan 
accepted, in the name of His Majesty, the proposi- 
tions made to him, before anyone could enter the 
Duchy of Placentia. The Emperor, from the reasons 
mentioned, and also to preserve and guard the rights 
of the Empire,* ratified and confirmed that treaty. 

Despite all this, and despite the machinations 1548 
alluded to above, suitable measures were taken at 
the Diet of Augsburg, to attain the object of its 
meeting ; and, as regards religion, a regulation was 
adopted, which was to be observed until the Council 
at Trent should have pronounced itseltf 

At the same time the German soldiers who formed 
the Emperor's body-guard mutinied. This produced 
more scandal than danger,} as, on investigating the 
cause of the mutiny, it was found that it was to be 
attributed to the interests of some isolated individuals 
rather than to the ill-will of the soldiers. 

The Diet adopted all the resolutions that it could,§ 
and as it had been sitting a long time, the Emperor, 
on the advice of the King his brother, and of the 

* Polas causas dittas, e tamten por conserva e guardar o direito 
do Imperio. 

t Nao obstante tudo isto e as pratticas dantes dittas, se trattoa na 
ditta dietta o que conyinlia para o effeito e fim polo qual se ajnntar^ 
e quanto a religiao, hum modo de Tiver atee que o concilio se cele- 
brasse em Trento. 

I Que foi causa de maior scandalo que de perigo. 

§ £ tendo se concluido nella o quo entao se pode concluir 


1 60 Charles the Fifth. 

saiil Estates, addressed to it a good proposition ; • the 
Diet then broke up, and the members rettimed home. 
Before the departure of the King, the Emperor's 
brother, their Majesties agreed upon the marriage of 
the eldest daughter of the Emperor with the eldest 
Bon of the King his brother, who assumed the title 
of King of Bohemia; and as the Emperor enter- 
tained the intention and the desire to send for his 
son, the Prince of Spain, that he might visit his 
States and make the acquaintance of his vassals,t he 
be^ed the King his brother, and the King his son- 
in-law, to proceed to Spain, for the marriage of the 
said son-in-law, and that be should remain there in 
the name of Emperor, to govern those kingdoms 
during the absence of the Prince his son ; to which 
they consented. Thus the said King of Bohemia 
left Augsburg, and passing through Italy, embarked 
at Genoa, landed at Barcelona, and from thence 
posted to Valladolid, where the nuptials were cele- 
brated. The King of the Eomans also left shortly 
afterwards to look after his interests ; the Emperor 
remained a few days longer to complete what still 
remained to be done. 

After arranging all his affairs, the Emperor took 
his departure from Augsburg, after leaving two 
thousand Spanish troops in garrison in three strong- 

* Hiia boa prattioi. 

t Jpoia Ttr a^uellea tertaa e aei; eonhDrido dp aeaa vasaaJ 


Returns to the Netherlands. 1 6 1 

holds of Wiirtemberg, and after having withdrawn 
the troops which had been sent to Augsburg. Hav- 
ing thus provided for the welfare and good order 
of public affairs,* he took the road to Ulm, from 
which city he also withdrew the garrison, taking a 
portion of it with him. He then took the direction 
of Spires, by the Rhine to Cologne. This was the 
ninth time that he made this journey, and the eighth 
time he visited the Netherlands. 

The Emperor found the Queen his sister at Lou- 
vain, from which city he proceeded to Brussels, to 
look after his own affairs as well as to attend to 
those of his States of the Netherlands. 

* Deixando a republica bem provida e ordenada. 






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