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Full text of "The Automotor Pocket Book of Automotive Formulae and Commercial Intelligence"

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&prsBi?raKxiiSTi. 



I COACH BUILDERS 

supplied with complete frame of every system, 
to which any body within reason may be fitted. 




AUTOMOBILE 

ASSOCIATION, 

Limited, 

Princes Road, Holland Park Avenue, 

x.c>»rx>oxa', "w. 

THE LARQEST FACTORS ■— 

nc^o-^xK -vxi^xoxa^fli 

ir THE KINODOM. 



■1- -L'^'- '" 




ELECTRICAL VICTOR lA-OPPERM ANN'S PATENTS. 



VICTORIAS . . . 

LIGHT DELIVERY CARTS, 

. . . "SOCIABLES." 

READY FOR EARLY DELIVERY j ALSO 

Electric Motors, Accumulators, Oearlng, Ball Bear- 
ing Axles, Controllers, and parts of every description 
supplied to the Trade and Inventors. 



e. ©PPERMaNN. 

a, WYNYATT STREET, CLERKENWEU, E.r 



ADTBBTtflBU KBITS. 



MOTOR CARS 

FOB 

( iSSENGER OR GOODS TRAFFIC. 




JULIUS HARVEY & CO. 

MOTOR MAIL CONTRACTORS ^^^ 

. . . TO . , . 

M^ HER MAJESTY'S OOVERNMENT, 

11, QUEEN VICTORJA STREET, 

X.09B-X>0ia', XI.O. 

CATALOGUES and PARTICULARS on APPUCATION. 



Specimen Vehicles can be seen In operation by 
appointment. 



VI ADYBBTISEMBNTS. 



THE BRITISH 
MOTOR COMPANY, Limited 



lii avTii 



Sole Owners of all Leading Systems 

in England — 

DAIMLER, 

DE DION, 

BOLLEE, 



&c., &c. 



o c 0. q.c p p.c so oooo oo o opp o c coo C Cj> 



London Office- 



40, HOLBORN VIADUCT, E.G. 

Telegrams : Telephones : 

** EMOTIVELY.'' 314 and 263* Holborn. 

And at 

366 & 367, Euston Road. 



ADYEBTI8EMBNTS. TU 



WARNING TO MANUFACTURERS. 

Spurious Patents and bad infringements are always on offer 

from abroad. Users and makers are liable. Save expense 

by using our recognised systems. 



5k Sieaal'^icloie^ oj Ik }(toloie 

TO MOTOR MAKERS. 

MORE IMPROVEMENTS. 

MOTiOE ^ ^ ^ 

In the great Motor Contest of 1898, from Paris to Amsterdam 
and back, the superiority of the British Motor Systems was proved 
beyond all question. All the winners rode British Motor Patents. 
This is the fourth year of continued triumph over all others. 

In view of the falling off in the cycle trade we have been 
approached by leading manufacturers to urge the fixing of more 
moderate royalty so that they may unitedly take up the manufacture 
of machine tra&c in the country. 

Our Directors have decided to reduce the terms of royalty to the 
moderate sum of 5%, our Company supplying the difficult portion, 
namely, the motors ready for fixing. The securing of this License 
will add a new value to the goodwill of your business, and put your 
firm in the very first rank of Motor Manufacturers. This small 
royalty secures to you the continued advance of new improvements, 
thus keeping you ahead of all others, inventions are being patented 
daily by our Engineers, thus saving you the ruinous expense of 
experiments. 

By supporting the British Motor Company you keep out foreijjn 
competition in one of best coming industries of the day ; substantial 
profits are made certain, and cutting of prices altogether avoided. 



The BRITISH MOTOR COMPANY are now applying for injunctions 
against all infringers, and liaye already won every action heard. 



THE BRITISH MOTOR COMPANY, LIMITED^ 

40, HOLBORU \\M>\iCrt, ^-^- 



MOSSBERG ROLLER BEARINGS. 




Straight and End Thrust bearings marie in alt sizes, 
MOTOR CAR WORKS A SPECIALITY. 

SacQBSsfnUy applied to Street and Railway Car Axlea, Roll- 
ins- Mills, Wool and Cloth Dryers, CaJleuder Rolls, Fans, 

Ad. Bearings speciall; manufactured to bear Heavy Strains. 

(jDder thpse conditionB plain bearinga heat and eut, ball bearings 
ore quickly crushed, while UOSSBEBQ ROLLER BEARINOS 
«riU Fun smoothl;, and outlast all other bearinjra. Durability 
BnarEinteed. SavliiK from 10 °/^ to 33 '/, of power previouilj' used ; 
tee information on page 94. 



APPLY FOR 



TO - 



MOSSBERG ROLLER BEARINOS, LTD,, 

6, VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W. 



ELECTRICAL ICNITION. 



SPECIAL SPARKING COILS for GAS and 
OIL ENGINES, gmag a Flaming Spark. 




INSULATED PLUGS 
and portable Accumulators a speciality. 



Transmiasion gear made to any specification ; 

Special parts made at short notice. 



PROMPT ATTENTION QiVEN TO ALL MOTOR CAR REPAIRS. 



F. C. BLAKE, 

Rinnscoiit Voits, Dalllig Bond, Itmmtntf.V^^^v'^. 



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TELEonAvs-C'SMIDDY, LONDON, 
^ *^1"SMIDDY, QLASQOV 



Si5e '"Saeai" 'Sj/re. 



T»A.TEITXBX). 



PERFECTION OF RUBBER TYRE 

FOR LIGHT AND HEAVY VEHICLES. 

GUARANTEED NOT TO ROLL OUT. 




The Tyre is held in position by two heavy Steel Wires that 
are Electrically welded into circles. 

Xelt LiamtC! tind HaHu/actifrr! fir tkt Vmtid Kingden-. : 

J. W. li T. CONNOLLY, 

17 to 67, marftlalt Rd., ail Albioi Vorks, Klit's tas, I. 

BAANCHSI, CLEVELAND LAHE, GUkSGOW. 



^SJMk^V*^^^ • 



1/ 



THE AUTOMOTOR i^"^ 



AND 



HORSELESS VEHICLE 



POCKET BOOK 



OF 



AUTOMOTIVE FORMUL.^ 



AND 



COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE 



FOR 



1899. 

Copyright. Entered at Stationers' Hatx. 



London : 
F. KING & Co., Ltd., 62, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 

1899. 



Advb&tisemeitts. 



THE 

MOTOR CARRIAGE gUPPLY COMPANY 

IrinsportatlM (limited). 

,^ All descriptions of 

Motor Carriages, Motor Cycles, and Motor 
Launches— Petrol, Electric, and Steam. 

Speciality : 

DAIMLER MOTOR VEHICLES, FROM 4 TO 20 H.P., 

manufacturer^ in accordance with instructions of Mr. Fredk. 
R. Simms, C.E., at Mb. Daimleb's Own Works at Cannstatt, 
and fitted with bodies of best English Construction. 

Daimler Motor CARRIAGES. 

Daimler Motor CHAR-A-BANCS. 
Daimler Motor OMNIBUSES. 
f+"2 < n^'r%*aimler Motor DELIVERY VANS. 
|'^teSrafX^''^.J)aimler Motor LORRIES. 

Daimler Motor TRAMCARS. 

Daimler Motor RAILWAY CARS. 
Daimler Motors for LAUNCHES. 
Daimler Motors for STATIONARY 
PURPOSES. 



i 



SOLE LICENSEES OF 



$immr Patent magneto-Electric Ignition 6ear 

For Explosion Engines of every description. 

No Battery, Accumulators, or Re-charging Necessary. 

SIMPLE, RELIABLE, AND ECONOMICAL. 



MAKEBS OF 

SIMMS* PATENT LIGHT MOTOR VEHICLES. 

The only Motors which work entirely automatically, 

SIMMS' PATENT OIL MOTORS a^ & 3 HP.) FOB CYCLE MAKERS. 

THE MOTOR 

CARRIAGE SUPPLY COMPANY (Limited), 

Donmglion Eouae, JS'orfolk Street, Strand, London, W.C. 



PREFACE. 



THAT the foiiner issues of tliis work havo met a distinct want on 
the part of those engaged in the Moto- Vehicle industiy is shown 
by the fact tliat every copy of them has been sold. In the present Edition 
niany alterations will be noticed. Matter which seemed to the Cpmpiler 
either obsolete or inappropriate has been eliminated, being replaced by 
other and, in many cases, original matter. On the appearance of the 1898 
Edition, it was criticised in some quarters as being too scientific and 
technical, and embodying much information of but littlc! or any us(» to 
the Autoraobilist. The reply to this is that, as th<' result of C(msidtation 
with leading Enginc^ers, this information has been inci-easeil. To 
mention but a few criticisms : It was asked, "What haid the Morse Code 
of Signals to do with Automobilism ? Tin* answer is, Moto- Vehicles 
now i)lay am imj>ortant ]>art in military ojienitions. On fairly good roads, 
they are sui)erior to cavalry for scouting piu'ixjses, while a knowledge of 
the Morse Code enables a Volunteer Automobilist to become a most 
imjMirtant unit. This liAsbeen abundantly demonstrated during the recent 
Military Manajuvres on the Continent. In the i)resent Pocket Book not 
only is the Morse C\)de n^tained, but Coulomb's Flashing Signals are ad<led. 
Similarly, certain Nautical Tables havt^ l)een retained, to enable the time 
of sunset — i.e., the time for lighting lamps — to hv ascertained accurately, 
us cases have already arisen in which the liability for collision, &c., in 
largely determined by the exhibition of lamps at the proju'r time. It must 
be remembered, too, that the object in view in publishing this Poc-ket Book 
is jwirtly educational and partly a desu'e to isKU(^ in a convenient and compwt 
form, for the use of Designers, Constnictors, and Mechanics, a Handbook 
embodying most of the information likely to bt^ required by tliem. 

The second part of the I'ocket Book is devoted to the Commercial aspect 
of Antomobilism. This part of the work "will be especially valuable to 
the business man, as it not only tells him Who's Who in the industry, but 
gives the financial status of every Company engaged in the manufacture 
of Moto- Vehicles or of their component parts. In order to indicate the 
growth of th(^ Antoniobih? industry, it may be mentioned that last year 
the Automotor Directoiy was comprised in the comj>ass of five pages : 
this yeai* it occupies tw(;nty. Last year the list of Foreign Manufac- 
turers filled eight pages, this year the list occupies thirteen. A feature 
wliicli Avill doubtless be much appreciated is the French and English 
Glossaiy of Technical Terms. This has been jire];ared with special 
reference to the construction and handling of Moto- Vehicles. 

It only remains to say that the reception of last year's Pocket Book is 
most encouraging and gratifying to its Compiler and Editor, 



GEO. HKIJBEKT LITTLE, C.E. 



62, St. Martin's Lane, 

London, JJecember 22, 1898. 



ADTBBTMraiXTS. 



The Liqoiil Fael Engineering Company. 

STEAM VAN BUILDERS. 

MARINE and GENERAL ENGINEERS. 

STEAM YACHT BUILDERS. 




LONDON OFFICE: 
Telegrams : ' Telephoi 



" Padrino, London." 



782, Bank. 



WORKS: 

Telegrams: Telephone: 

" Padrino, Eastcowesi" 8j East Gowei. 



CONTENTS. 



PACK 

Absolute units of force. . . . 67 

Accumulators, Elieson lamina 182 

„ Faure-King , . 181 

„ Fulmen.. .. 178 

„ Lithanode .. 180 

,, Bosenthal . . 179 

„ testing of . . 176 

Advantages of liquid fuel . . 131 

Advertisers, names of .. .. 214 

Agricultural Society's trials. . 169 

An", data relating to . . . . 117 

Allojs and bronzes . . . . 92 

Angles, iron and steel . . . . 87 

Angular and linear velocity of 

wbeels 70 

Animal power 83 

Areas of circles 58 

Aritbmetical section . . . . 57 

Associations and Clubs 191 

Astatki .. .. 131 

Aatomotor directory . . 195-214 

„ library, the . . 256 
„ list of newspapers 

and periodicals 255 

log 20 

,, the law relating to 262 

Average work of horses. . . . 83 



Ball bearings 93 

Bearings, roller and ball 93, 94 
Beau de Eochas cycle . . . . 153 

Belt driving « 95 

Belting, leather 105 

Benzene 132 

Boilers and steam generators 

140-147 
Brake horse-power . . . . 153 
British ieet in metres . . . . 50 
„ inches in centimetres 50 
„ statute miles in kilo- 
metres . . , , . , . . , , 50 



PAOB 

Burners, Artemeff 128 

D'AUest 129 

„ Diirr 125 

Holden 130 

„ Korting 128 

„ liquid fuel . . . . 121 
„ „ Co.'s, or 

Lifu 123 

,, LoDguemarre . . . . 122 

,, E>usden and Eeles . . 131 
„ Sargeant's . . 125, 126 

Tweddle 127 

„ Urquhart 129 

Carburettor (Lucas) .. .. 166 
Carriage and storage of petro- 
leum on land . . 37 
„ What is a . . . . 165 
Centimetres in inches . . . . 51 
Centre of gravity of vehicle . . 100 

Centrifugal force 70 

Chains and chain gearing 97, 98 

Circle, properties of . . . . 57 

Circular measure 70 

Circumferences of circles . . 58 
Clubs and Associations . • . . 191 
Coals and coal analysis . . . . 118 
Combustion motors (internal) 153 
Companies (limited liability) 215 
Comparison of different ther- 
mometers 55 

Composition of gas from petro- 
leum 153 

Compound equivalents . . . . 52 

Condensers, surface . . . . 138 

Consumption of steam . . . . 138 

Continental trials of motors . . 171 

Copying graphs . . . . . . 53 

Crane chains 96 

Cranks 101 

Cycle gearing *5i^ 

Cycle in^ec\i«bTv\«tCL »• »- -» '^^ 



HEA DLAN D'S 

Patent Electric Storage 

Battery Company, Ltd., 
12, PALL MAIL, LONDON, S.W. 




The Headland Battery has proved to be eminently 
successful in &II forms of storage work, particularly electric 
traction. Its special form of construction renders buckling 
and dropping out of paste practically impossible, even 
under very heavy rates of charge and discharge ; and at 
the same time, it combines compactness and lightness with 
Surest mecftanieal strength. 



CONTENTS. 



XIX 



PAOK 

Daimler motors 163 

Decimal equivalents of a foot 49 
DeDion et Bouton generator 145 



Design of ball bearings . . 
,1 steam engines 
Difference of time . . 
Dimensions of shafting. . 
Dr. Clarke's weather table 
Driving (belt) 
Dry saturated steam 
Dryness fraction of steam 
Duplex pumps 

Diirr burner , 

Dynamics 

Dynamos and motors, working 
of • 



93 
139 

15 
102 

17 

95 
135 
134 
116 
125 

67 

174 



Economy, Kelvin's law of • . 119 
Efficiency of a boiler . . . . 138 
Electric motors, efficiency of 

tramway 187 

Electrical section . . . . 173-187 
Elieson lamina ace um ulat ors 1 82 
Evaporative power of boilers 138 
Expansion of metals . . . . 113 



Falling baiY)meter, a .. .. 17 

„ bodies, dynamics of . • 69 
Faure-King accumulators . • 181 

Feed pumps 115 

Feet or shilUngs, decimal 

equivalents of 85 

Fire streams 116 

Fixtures for 1899 1 

Flash-point of petroleum and 

other hydrocarbons .. .. 120 

Fly-wheeU Ill 

Foreign manufacturers and 

engineers 242 

Fourth powers of numbers . . 66 
Fractions of an inch, and their 

decimal equivalents . . . . 49 

Fuels 118 

Fulmen accumulators . . . . 17 S 



PAOK 

G-as taps (Whitworth) . . . . 89 
G-earing, power transmitted by 99 
G-eneral Postal Union . . . . 26 
G-enerators, steam . . . . 140-147 

Governor 71 

Gradient 78 

Gradients, Table of . . . . 79 
Gravity, specific . . . . 84, 86 
Grouping cells 183 

Hackney carriage 147 

Highways, the law of . . . • 57 
Hollow V, solid shafting . . 101 
Horse-power required for 

vehicle 80 

Horse-power transmitted by 

shafting 102 

Horses, work of 83 

Hydrocarbons, flash-point of 120 
Hydrometers 121 

Imperial standard wire gauge 54 
Inches as decimals of a foot. . 48 

Indiarubber 111-112 

Induction factor of motor . . 173 
Inland Revenue regulations . . 40 
Internal combustion motors . . 153 
Inventions, patents for . . . . 188 

Joel motor 187 

Joists, steel 104 

Keller's proportions for chain 

gearing 98 

Kilometres as statute miles . . 50 

Knots and miles 76 

Latent heat of steam . . . . 135 

Law as to footpaths . . . . 52 

of economy, Kelvin's . . 119 

of highwajs 57 

„ relating to automotors . . 262 

Lifu burner 123 

„ generator 141 

,, motor ,* .» ,. .. V^ 



)i 



» 



ROOTS & VENABLES 




ifGOmllsa. Tben<M!e 
a3JB.H.P. Motor: 



XOOrS A VSITABLBB, 100, WestminBter Bi-tdse Bd., London. 



CONTENTS. 



XXI 



PAGE 



Limited Liability CompanieB 215 
Liquid fuel burners . . 121-133 
List of newspapers deuling 

with A-utomobilism .. .. 255 
Lithanode accumulators . • 180 

Local Authority 124 

Locomotives on Highways Act 27 



9t 



1i 



tt 



Explanatory 

chapter on . . 35 

„ tractive power of 80 

Logarithms 66 

Longuemarre burner . . . . 122 
carburettor . . 168 
178 



>« 



Lundell motors 



Mannesmann steel tubes • • 105 
Manufacturers and engineeis, 

foreign 242 

Mean effective pressure of 

steam 139 

^ pressure of steam . . 137 

Mechanical data 84 

Melting point of metals . . 133 

Metres in feet 50 

Metric system 43 

Millimetres in inches . . . . 51 

Morse code 19 

MoBsberg roller bearings . . 94 

Motors, the Daimler . . . . 163 

„ Lifu 149 

„ Paris Singer .. 162 

Soots . . . . 155 

Sargeant .. .. 150 



91 
ft 



M 



» 



,, Simms .. .. 164 

,, „ Wiedknecht .. 148 

„ efficiency of tramway 187 

„ Joel 187 

„ working dynamos and 174 

Karnes of advertisers . . • . 214 

Nuisance 167 

Nuts and bolts, Whitworth 88, 89 

Oppermann's grouping of cells 

183-187 



»» 
»» 



»> 



»» 



PAOB 

Paris Singer motor 161 

Patents fur inventions . . . . 188 
Pendulum governor . . , . 71 

Petrol 158 

motors, tests of . . . . 160 
„ weights, &c., of 159 

Petroleum 119-133 

carriage and storage 

of 37 

gas 153 

Pipes, weight of 87 

Postal information 23 

Power, animal 83 

„ transmitted by gearing 99 
Powers of numbers . . 64-66 
Precautions in use of liquid • 

fuel 133 

Pressure of water 114 

Priestman*s motors . . . . 158 

Prony, The 82 

Properties of the circle . . . . 57 
Propulsion of vehicles, horse- 
power required 80 

Pumps, &c 112-116 

Regulations of Local Govern- 
ment Board . . 30 
„ for moto-vehicles 

in Scotland . . 39 

Resistance of road 77 

Rising barometer 17 

Roads and weather (influence 

of, on traction) 78 

Roller bearings 94 

Roots motor 155 

„ of numbers . . . . 64!-66 
Rosenthal accumulators . . 179 

Sargeant's motor 150 

Saturated steam, properties of 135 

Saturation point 135 

Sea water . • 113 

Secondary cells, testing. . . . 176 
Serpollet generator . . . . 146 
Shafting VQCi, V^^ A^>, 



^s» 



XXll 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 






)> 



»> 



}) 



>> 



Simins motor 164, 165 

Space or stowac^e of goods . . 91 
Specific gravity . . . . 84, 85 

„ heat 134 

„ volume 135 

Speed and revolutions . . , . 72 
of steamships . . 73, 76 

table .. 72 

(nautical) . . . . 74 
(railway) . . . . 73 

Spiral springs 107 

Springs (spiral and plate), 

strength of 107-109 

Square roots of numbers 64-66 

Steady barometer 17 

Steam engine design . . . . 139 

„ motors 147 

„ section on .. .. 134-151 
' Steamships (co-efficient of 

merit of 73 

Steel joists 103 

„ tubes 105, 106 

Strength of shafting . . 100, 101 
timber.. .. .. 85 

wheel gearing . . 99 
Superheated steam 135 






Table for finding time of rising 
and setting of sun, moon 

and planets . . 14 

Table of conductors or wiring 

table 177 

fourth powers of 
numbers . . . . 66 

gradients 79 

knots into miles . • 76 
moonhght nights . . 18 
Tables of wire gauges • • . . 53 

Teeth of wheels 99 

Testing secondary cells . . . . 176 
Tests of petrol motors . . . . 160 
Thermometers, comparison of 55 j 



» 



}> 



a 



>> 



TAGE 

Thomycroft generator . . .. 140 

Tolch's motor 156 

Torque in shafting 101 

Toward generator 143 

Traction, influence of grade on 79 
Tractive power of locomotives 80 
,j resistance on tram- 
ways 81 

Trials of motors, continental 171 

Tubes, steel 105 

Tvres 110 



Valve gear, Joy*s .. .. 151, 152 

Vehicles, friction in , ^ . . 81 

„ horse-power required 

for 80 

„ names on 156 

Velocities of wheels in gearing 99 

Vosper's motor ... .. .. 157 



>i 



a 



Watch as a compass . . . • 54 

"Water and pumps 112 

power required to 

raise •• .. .. 115 

pressure of 114 

Weather table. Dr. Clarke's , , 17 

Weight of animals 91 

bolts and nuts . . 90 

iron 86 

pipes 87 

steel tubes .. .• 106 

Weights and measures . . . . 42 
Wheel gearing .. ,. 99,111 

Whitworth bolts and nuts . , 88 

„ ' gas taps . . • . 89 

Wiedknecht generator . . , . 144 

„ motor . . . . 148 

Wind pressure 18 

Wire gauges 53, 54 

Wiring table 177 

Work of horses 83 



)» 



)i 



>> 



it 



iHOTORMANUFAGTURINfi 

CO., LTD. 

MOTOR PLEASURE CARRIAGES from £175. 
MOTOR CHAR8-A-BANCS. MOTOR CYCLES. 
MOTOR VANS MOTOR WHEELS. 

All Ready for immediate delivery. 

B THADB SUPPLIED UPON" PAVOXTRABLE TSBHS. 




Works: MOTOR MILLS, COVENTRY. 

OPnCES AND SHOW ROOMS i 

47, NOLBORN VIWUCiT, \AY!Wi«i, X&. 

Telegrams; PROPEL, \ 



THE 

STEAM CARRIAGE & WAGON 0°'^ 

THORNYOROFT SYSTEM. 




VEHICLES WITH IKTEKCHANGEiBLE BODIES 
FOR MDMICIPIL WORK. 



ALMANACK FOR 1899. 



Beginning of the Seasons. 

d. h. 

Spring . . . • Sun enters Aries March 20 8 

Summer .. .. ,, Cancer June 21 4 

Autumn .. .. „ Libra Sept. 22 18 

Winter .. .. „ ^, Gapricomus Dec. 21 13 

The Equinoxes occur when Spring and Autumn begin, and the 
Solstices at the beginning of Summer and Winter. 



Dates of Festivals, &c. 



Ash Wednesday . . . . . . . . . . . . Feb. 15 

Ladj Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mar. 25 

Ghx)d Friday „ 31 

Easter Sunday . • . . . • . • . . , . April 2 

St. George * „ 23 

Whitsunday May 21 

Trinity Sunday „ 28 

Accession of Queen Victoria •• •• •• .. June 20 

Midsummer Day . . . . • • . . . . . • „ 24 

Michaelmas Day . . . . . . . • . . . . Sept. 29 

Birth of Prince of Wales . . . . . . • . . . Nov. 9 



Principal Fixtures foe 1899. 

Jan. 14-21. Bradford Cycle and Moto-Car Exhibition. 

April Accumulator Trials in Paris, Organised by Automobile 

Club, Paris. 
April 11. Annual General Meeting of the S.P.T.A., Liverpool. 
Mai/ Mid- European Moto-Car International Exhibition, 

Berlin. 
June 1. Moto-i 'ab Competition. Org-^nised by Automobile 

Club, Paris. 
June Moto- Vehicle Exhibition and Competition. Organised 

by Automobile Club, London. 
June 19. Eoyal Agricultural Society's Show at Maidstone. 

June-iSept. Exhibition of Moto- Vehicles at Ghent. 
Sept. Heavy Moto- Vehicle Trials. Organised by S.P.T.A., 

Liverpool. 
Oct. Les Poids Lourds Trials. Organised by Automobile 

Club, Paris. 







JANUARY, 1899. 








SCN»La>JDDN|Ap-[ l>ec1l- 


7f^:: 


The MOON at I 


«N|10\. 




















I.l«,. 


Seu. 


^«n"o. 


^^iVZ 


RI..B Utt, 
*ft. Mum 


N,^„. 


£ 












h. u, 






2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 


S 8 


4 




3 47 


5 


9 54 


19 


lb 


B 8 


4 1 


23 r,5 


4 IS 


10 H 


10 8 


200 


\r 


8 8 


4 2 


22 4» 


443 


11 23 


10 23 


31-0 




8 fi 


4 3 


22 43 


6 U 


Uom. 


10 39 


22-0 


p 

a 


8 8 


4 4 


22 36 


5 38 


36 


10 56 


23-0 J 
240 


8 7 


4 8 


32 2B 


6 4 


1 53 


11 18 


8 7 


4 7 


22 22 


6 30 


3 11 


1146 


35-0 


M 

'Ht 


S 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


8 6 


4 8 


23 14 


6 56 


4 29 


iO 24 


260 


8 6 


4 9 


23 5 


7 ai 


5 44 


1 16 


27-0 


8 5 


4 10 


21 56 


7 46 


6 48 


2 25 


28-0 


F 


8 S 
8 4 


4 12 
4 14 


21 47 
21 38 


8 10 
8 33-1 


8 IS 


3 48 
5 18 


29-0* 
0-6 


S 3 


4 15 


21 28 


8 66 


9 44 


6 49 


1-6 




8 2 


4 17 


21 17 


9 18-] 


9 6 


8 16 


2-6 


3 
M 

■Ri 

Til 
F 
S 


IB 

16 
17 
18 
19 


8 1 


4 19 


21 G 


9 40 


9 25 


9 39 


3-6 


8 

7 5i* 
7 58 
7 57 


4 20 
4 21 
4 23 
4 24 


30 5S 
20 43 
20 31 
20 19 


10 01 
10 21 
10 40 
10 58 


9 44 
10 2 
10 22 
10 45 




4'6 
5-8 
66 > 

7-6 
8-6 


Horn. 

18 

1 33 


21 


7 6S 4 2fl 


20 6 


11 16 


11 13 


3 46 


7 55 ; 4 38 


19 53 


11 33 


11 49 


3 53 


9'6 


3 
M 
Tti 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


23 
23 
2i 
25 
26 
37 


7 3t , -I 30 
7 53 ' 4 32 
7 52 4 33 


19 3fl 

19 25 
19 n 


11 50 

12 SI 
12 20 


iO 33 

1 35 

2 26 


4 54 

5 46 

6 35 


10-6 
11-6 
12-6 


7 51 4 3i 


18 66 


13 34 


3 31 


6 58 




7 50 1 4 36 


18 41 


12 47 




7 33 


14-6 3 
15-6 


7 49 4 38 


18 26 


12 591 


5 47 


7 43 


38 


7 48 ! 4 W 


18 10 


13 11 


6 56 


8 1 


16-e 


M 


29 


7 46 1 442 


17 54 


13 31 


8 4 


8 17 


176 


31 


7 45 1 4 44 


17 38 


13 31 


9 13 


8 32 


18-6 


7 43 4 46 


17 21 


13 40 


10 24 


8 47 


19 6 


"iwi 

Ob 

M 


ma eiv 
ndon,.'n 




sss 


UmesorR 


lilHDy times. Id 


IhuMoT 





















3 



FEBRUARY, 1899. 



SUN at LONDON Ap't Decli- 
! nation at 



Rises. 



Sets. 



.Mean Noon 



Equation The MOON at LONDON, 
of Time. I . 



Sab. f m 
M'n Time. , 



Rises 
Aft. 



Sets 
Mom. 



Age. 
Noon. 



w 


1 


•Ri 


2 


F 


3 


S 


4 


& 


5 


M 


6 


lb 


7 


W 


8 


Th 


9 


F 


10 


S 


11 



M 
It 
W 

Tk 
F 
S 

s> 

M 

"R; 
W 
lb 
F 

S 

S> 

M 
lb 



12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 

28 



h. m. 
7 41 
7 40 
7 38 
7 36 



7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 

7 

7 
7 



34 
32 
30 
29 
27 
25 
24 

22 

20 
18 
IG 
14 
12 
10 

8 
6 
4 
2 




6 58 
6 56 

6 54 
6 52 
6 50 



h. m. 
4 48 
4 49 
4 50 
4 52 

4 54 
4 56 
4 57 

4 59 

5 
5 2 
5 4 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 



6 

8 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 

19 
21 
23 
25 
27 
29 
30 

32 
34 
36 



S17 4 
16 47 
16 29 
16 11 

15 53 
15 35 
15 16 
14 57 
14 38 
14 19 
13 59 

i:i 39 
13 19 
12 59 
12 38 
12 17 
11 56 
11 35 

11 14 
10 53 
10 31 
10 9 



9 
9 

9 



47 

25 

3 



8 41 
8 18 
7 55 



m. 8. 
13 48 

13 56 

14 2 
14 8 

14 13 
14 18 
14 21 
14 24 
14 26 
14 27 
14 27 

14 27 
14 26 
14 21 
14 21 
14 17 
14 13 
14 8 

14 3 
13 56 
13 49 
13 42 
13 34 
13 25 
13 15 

13 5 
12 54 
12 43 



11 37 



Morn. 

52 

2 9 

3 23 

4 31 

5 25 

6 9 

6 41 

7 6 

7 28 

7 47 

8 6 
8 25 

8 48 

9 15 
9 49 

10 29 

11 20 
\kO 18 

1 23 

2 29 

3 36 

4 4-3 

5 54 

7 3 

8 14 

9 27 



h. m. 


9 4 


9 22 


9 47 


10 19 


11 3 


aO 1 


1 15 


2 40 


4 10 


5 40 


7 7 



8 32 

9 53 
I1J^3 

Morn. 

29 

1 41 

2 45 



3 

4 
4 
5 
5 
6 
6 

6 
6 

7 



40 
24 
59 
26 
49 
8 
24 

40 
55 
11 



d. 
20-6 
216 

22-6 C 
23-6 

24-6 
25-6 
266 
27-6 
28 6 
0'19 

ri 

21 

31 

41 

5.1 

61 

713) 

81 

9,1 
101 
11-1 
121 
131 
141 

15-10 

16-1 
171 
18*1 



^ 



The. times xiven above are Greenwich Mean Times or Railway times. In order to 
obtain the actual or apparent time of the Rising and Settinurof the Suxvo^vA 
Moon the equation of time must be applied, ^ox \a.W\AX!^a& ^i'Ocvec \Jv:cbsv>2vvQ!4fc "cJv 
London another correction must be applied. 



\ 







MARCH 


. 1 899 










The 




oItuI™ 


TUbUO 


ON at LOSDOM. 1 






srViitL;iNDOS 


''n^l'^U 














MmnNo^n 


JTnTln". 


"'JT 


^Z. 


Aire. 


Ufc. 1 ScU. 












hTlir 








1 


6 48 5 37 


37 33 


12 31 


10 41 


7 30 


19-1 


Th 


2 


6 46 1 6 39 


7 10 


IS 19 


U 56 


7 53 


20'1 


F 


3 


6 45 5 41 


6 47 


12 6 


Mo™: 


8 22 


211 


S 


4 


643 1 543 


B 24 


11 53 


1 11 


9 


22-1 


& 


6 


6 40 1 e 45 


6 1 


11 40 


2 18 


9 52 


23-11 


M 


6 


6 38 5 4fi 


fi 37 


11 26 


3 IS 


10 57 


241 


l\i 


7 


6 36 ! S 48 


5 14 


11 11 


4 2 


AO 14 


25-1 


■w 


8 


6 3* , 5 60 


4 51 


10 57 


4 38 


1 39 


281 


Ih 


9 


e 31 5 51 


4 27 


10 42 


5 fi 


3 6 


S7'l 


P 


10 


6 28 & 53 


4 4 


10 26 


5 29 


4 34 


2S-1 


S 


11 


6 2(J 1 5 55 


3 40 


10 11 


5 49 


5 59 


29'IA 


£ 


12 


6 23 


5 37 


3 L7 


9 54 


6 R 


7 23 


0-7 


M 




21 


5 58 


S 53 


9 38 


6 28 


8 45 


1-7 


III 


14 


6 18 


6 


2 29 


9 21 


6 50 


10 5 


2-7 


W 


15 


6 le 


6 2 


2 6 


9 6 


7 16 


11 20 


3-7 


111 




6 13 


6 4 


1 42 


8 47 


7 47 




4-7 


F 


17 


fi 11 


6 6 


1 18 


8 30 


8 25 


29 


57 


S 


18 


9 


6 8 


55 


8 13 


14 


1 30 


6-7 


£ 


19 


6 7 i e 10 


31 


7 S5 


10 9 


S 19 


7-7 B 


M 


20 


6 5 1 6 11 


7 


7 37 


1] 11 


2 58 


8-7 


■|l> 


21 


6 3 6 12 


HO L6 


7 19 


aO lU 


3 2S 


H-7 


W 


22 


6 : 1 6 14 


39 


7 1 


1 24 


3 53 


10-7 


Til 


23 


5 59 ' 6 15 


1 3 


6 42 


2 32 


4 12 


11-7 


F 


34 


5 57 


6 17 


1 26 


6 S4 


3 41 


4 30 


12'7 


S 


25 


5 54 


18 


1 50 


6 6 


4 50 


446 


13-7 


a 


26 


6 53 


6 20 


2 14 


6 47 


S 1 


5 S 


14-7 


M 


27 


5 50 


6 22 


2 37 


628 


7 13 


5 18 


1570 


Th 


28 


5 48 


6 24 


3 1 


6 10 


8 28 


6 37 


16-7 


W 


£0 


5 45 


6 ne 


3 24 


4 52 


9 41 


5 59 


17-7 


■Hi 
F 


30 
31 


6 43 ' 6 28 
5 41 1 6 30 


3 47 

4 LO 


4 33 
4 15 


10 58 


7 3 


18-7 
197 


Mora. 


Tb~i 


eairiv 


a BboTe Hit Orcu 


»ich Ut-i 


times or H 


jjl„aj I 


lEci m 


oi'derw 






alualvrappnna 






d SetUn 


of the 




M 


ion, tbe 




lUtlMBlil 










V^ 


^Jo^. ^ 


al/iereorreitlaa 


IUBtlM.«l)p 















APR! L, 


1899. 






The 




Equation 
of Time. 

Sub. f ni 

"Add to 
M'n Time. 


The MOON at LONDON. 






SUN at LONDON 


A'pt Decli- 
nation at 
Mean Noon 




Rises 
Morn. 


Sets 
Mom. 


Age. 
Noon. 


Rises. 


Sets. 






h. m. 


h. m. 


o / 


m. B. 


h. ill. h. m. 1 


• 

u. 


s 


1 


5 38 


6 31 


N4 84 


3 57 


10 


7 49 


20-7 


s> 


2 


5 36 


6 33 


4 57 


3 39 


1 11 


8 49 


21-7 


M 


3 


5 34 


6 35 


5 20 


3 21 


1 59 


10 2 


227 a 


lb 


4 


5 32 


6 37 


5 43 


3 3 


2 37 


10 23 


23-7 


W 


5 


5 29 


6 38 


6 6 


2 45 


3 7 


aO 46 


24-7 


Th 


6 


5 27 


6 40 


6 28 


2 28 


3 31 


2 10 


25-7 


F 


7 


5 24 


6 41 


6 51 


2 11 


3 52 


3 33 


2S-7 


S 


8 


5 22 


6 43 


7 13 


1 54 


4 11 


4 56 


27*7 


& 


9 


5 20 


6 44 


7 36 


1 37 


4 30 


6 17 


28-7 


M 


10 


5 18 


6 45 


7 58 


1 21 


4 52 


7 37 


0-2# 


lb 


11 


5 15 


6 46 


8 20 


1 5 


, 5 16 


8 56 


1-2 


W 


12 


5 13 


6 48 


8 42 


49 


5 44 10 9 


2-2 


111 
F 


13 

14 


5 11 
5 9 


6 50 
6 52 


9 4 
9 25 


33 

18 


6 21 

7 6 


11 14 


3-2 


Morn. 


4-2 


S 


15 
16 


5 7 
5 5 


6 53 
6 55 


9 47 
10 8 


3 


7 58 

8 59 


10 
53 


5-2 


11 


6-2 


M 


17 


5 2 


6 57 


10 30 


25 


10 4 


1 28 


7-2 ) 


lb 


18 


5 


6 59 


10 51 


39 


11 11 


1 54 


8-2 


W 


19 


4 58 


7 


11 11 


52 


aO 17 


2 16 


9-2 


Ik 


20 


4 56 


7 2 


11 32 


1 5 


1 24 


2 36 


10-2 


F 


21 


4 55 


7 4 


11 52 


1 18 


2 34 


2 52 


11-2 


S 


22 


4 53 


7 6 


12 13 


1 30 


3 45 


3 7 


12-2 


s> 


23 


4 51 


7 8 


12 33 


1 42 


4 56 3 23 


13-2 


M 


24 


4 49 


7 10 


12 53 


1 53 


6 10 3 42 


14-2 


'Rj 


25 


4 47 


7 11 


13 12 


2 4 


7 27 


4 2 


15-20 


W 


26 


4 45 


7 13 


13 32 


2 15 


8 44 


4 28 


16-2 


Th 


27 


4 43 


7 14 


13 51 


2 25 


9 58 


5 1 


17-2 


F 


28 


4 41 


7 16 


14 10 


2 34 


11 3 


5 46 


18-2 


S 


29 


4 38 


7 17 


14 29 


2 43 


11 56 


6 44 


19-2 


^ 


30 


4 37 


7 19 


14 47 


2 51 


Morn. 


7 53 


20-2 



The times given above «re Greenwich Mean times or Railway times. In order to 
obtain the nctuul or apparent time of the Rising and Setting of the Sun and 
Moon, the equstion of time must be applied. For latitudes other than, thawe. <^1 
London, anotnej correction must be av\A\ed. 



\ 










M AY» 


1899. 






■ 




TliH ' 


^Tili™ 


iThtMOOVtiL 


ondOK. 








S0Na[IJ)NI'0KApJ,O^'fJ|- 




\- ']"g^^ ~ 


A e 








^sa.. 1 f.^j""""™ 


Addio 


' S, 1 Mo" . 


soon. 










b. m. = ' 










M 




4 35 


7 21 N15 5 


2 59 


1 88 1 9 12 


212 




■Rt 


2 


4 33 


7 23 15 23 


3 6 


1 10 |10 35 


22'2(t 




w 


3 


4 31 


7 25 15 41 


3 13 


I 35 11 56 


23-2 




111 




4 2a 


7 2e 1 15 59 


3 19 


1 56 Al 18 


24-2 




F 


6 


4 28 


7 27 ' 16 Ifi 


3 26 


2 16 2 89 


25-2 




S 


C 


426 


7 29 1 16 33 


3 30 


2 35 3 £8 


26-2 




£ 


^ 


4 24 


7 30 : 16 4B 


3 34 


a 55 


5 16 


272 




M 


a 


4 22 


7 31 1 17 6 


3 38 


1 3 17 




a8'2 




Tt 


g 


4 21 


7 33 ' 17 22 


3 41 


3 43 


7 49 


29'2« 




W 


10 


4 If) 


7 34 17 38 


3 44 


1 4 18 


8 58 


0'8 




Di 


11 


4 17 


7 36 17 5^1 


3 40 


4 58 


9 68 


1-8 




P 


12 


4 15 


7 38 ' 18 9 


3 47 


■ 5 47 


10 47 


S'8 




S 


13 


4 14 




18 24 


3 48 


, G46 


11 id 


3-8 




s 

M 


14 
15 


4 12 
4 11 


7 41 
7 42 


18 3S 
18 53 


3 49 
3 48 


7 EO 

8 57 


U 55 


4-8 
5-8 








It 


16 


4 10 


7 44 


19 7 


3 46 


10 4 19 


6-8 




w 


17 


4 8 


7 45 


19 2U 


3 46 


11 11 ! 38 


7-81, 




■ni 


18 


4 B 


7 47 


19 34 


3 44 


iO 18 , 55 


88 




F 


19 


4 6 


7 48 


19 47 


3 42 


1 27 1 1 U 


9'8 




S 


20 


4 4 


7 49 


19 59 


3 39 


2 3fi 1 27 


lO'S 




B 


21 


4 3 


7 SO 


20 12 


3 36 


3 48 ' 1 44 


11-8 




M 


22 


4 2 


7 51 


20 21 


3 32 


5 4,23 


13'8 




Jb 


23 


4 


7 53 


20 36 


3 27 


6 21 


3 27 


13-8 




W 


24 


3 59 


7 55 


20 46 


3 22 


7 38 


2 57 


14-8 




Hi 


25 


3 06 


7 57 


20 67 


3 17 


H49 


3 37 


15-80 




F 


2li 


3 57 


7 58 


21 8 


3 11 


1 50 


4 31 


16-8 




8 


27 


3 56 




21 16 


3 5 


.10 36 

1 


3 39 


17-8 




£ 


28 


3 65 


8 


21 28 


2 58 


11 11 


6 57 


I8'8 




M 


29 


3 64 


8 1 


21 37 


S 50 


11 46 


8 21 


19-8 




III 


30 


3 53 


8 2 


21 47 


2 42 




S 44 


20-8 




W 


31 


3 52 




21 S5 


2 34 


3 


11 7 


21-8 4 




The! 


mestt'v 


n alujvrire OrOEii"!* Mrm 


time, or 


tailwsr tLaiBB !n 


order to 




Ob 




^oallDnottimBml^UieappL 


, K,mg 


nd StalBK at tilt 
ntltudci ottier Iba 


^honTof 




■Ld 


c'diSX 


Xrc^.r«tlionmQ»tl>e.pp 


Bd, 













JUNE, 


1899. 




1 


The 
SUN at LONDON 

1 Bises. 1 Sets. 


Ap't Decli- 
nation at 
Mean Noon 


Equation 
of Time. 

Add to 

Sub. f m 
lITn Time 


The MOON at LONDON. 1 


Rises 
Morn. 


Sets 
Aft. 


Age. 
Noon. 




» 


h. m. 


h. m 


6 / 


m. B. h. m. 


h. m. 


d. 


Tk 


1 


3 51 


8 4 


N22 4 


2 25 


22 


28 


22-8 


F 


2 


3 51 


8 5 


22 12 


2 16 


41 


1 46 


23-8 


S 


3 


3 50 


8 6 


22 19 


2 6 


1 


3 5 


24-8 


S> 


4 , 


3 50 


8 7 


22 26 


] 56 


1 21 


4 21 


25-8 


M 


5 


3 49 


8 8 


22 33 


1 46 


1 45 


5 36 


26*8 


lb 


6 , 


3 48 


8 9 


22 39 


1 35 


2 15 


6 45 


27-8 


W 


7 . 


3 47 


8 10 


22 45 


1 24 


2 53 


7 48 


28-8 


Th 


8 


3 47 


8 11 


22 51 


1 13 


3 39 


8 41 


0*29 


P 


9 


3 40 


8 12 


22 56 


1 1 


4 35 


9 22 


1-2 


S 


10 


3 46 


8 12 


23 1 


50 


5 37 


9 56 


2-2 


s> 


11 


3 45 


8 13 


23 5 


38 


6 42 


10 21 


3*2 


M 


12 


3 45 


8 14 


23 9 


25 


7 50 


10 42 


4-2 


lb 


13 , 


3 45 


8 15 


23 13 


13 


8 57 


11 


5-2 


W 


14 
15 


3 45 
3 44 


8 16 
8 16 


23 16 
23 19 





10 4 

11 11 


11 16 
11 32 


6-2 
72 


11 


F 


16 


3 44 


8 16 


23 21 


24 


aO 19 


11 48 


8*2 J> 


S 


17 


3 44 


8 17 


23 23 


37 


1 28 


Mom. 


9-2 


i^ 


18 


3 44 


8 17 


23 25 


50 


2 41 


6 


10-2 


M 


19 


3 44 


8 17 


23 26 


1 3 


3 57 


27 


11-2 


lb 


20 


3 44 


8 18 


23 26 


1 16 


5 13 


54 


12-2 


W 


21 


3 45 


8 18 


23 27 


1 29 


6 28 


1 28 


13-2 


lb 


22 


3 45 


8 18 


23 26 


1 42 


7 34 


2 16 


14-2 


F 


23 


3 45 


8 19 


23 26 


1 55 


8 27 


3 17 


15-2 O 


S 


24 


3 45 


8 19 


23 25 


2 7 


9 10 


4 32 


16-2 


s> 


25 


3 46 


8 19 


23 24 


2 20 


9 41 


5 57 


17-2 


M 


26 


3 46 


8 18 


23 22 


2 33 


10 6 


7 25 


18-2 


lb 


27 


3 46 


8 18 


23 20 


2 45 


10 28 


8 50 


19-2 


W 


28 


3 46 


8 18 


23 17 


2 57 


10 47 


10 14 


20-2 


Ifa 


29 


3 47 


8 18 


23 14 


3 9 


11 6 


11 34 


21-2 


F 


30 


3 47 


8 18 


23 11 


3 21 


11 27 


aO 53 


22*2 d 


Thel 

Ol 

Id 
L 


times K'ly 
>tain the 
[oon, the 
ondon, ai 


en above 
aciuaJ 
equation 
lother CO 


are Gree 
r apparel 
of time I 
nrection i 


nwich Meai 
at time of t 
nust be app 
nust be appl 


1 times or Ilailway 1 
he Rising and Settir 
lied. For latitudes c 
led. 


times. Ii 
g of the 
>ther thai 


n order to 
Sun and 1 
a thoie of \ 



JULY 1899. 





8DN.tl 




UlK.. 






1i 


3 48 


8 


aw 


8 


3 50 


8 


3 61 


H 


3 52 


H 


3 53 


« 


3 54 


H 


3 65 


8 


3 56 


)^ 


3 57 




3 58 


8 




8 


4 


8 






4 2 


H 


4 3 


fi 


4 4 


« 


4 5 


8 


4 fi 




4 7 




4 9 


8 


4 10 


8 


4 11 


8 


4 12 


7 


4 14 




4 IB 








4 19 




4 21 




4 23 




4 24 





.e MnriK ai LONDON. 



Im^j^J^I^^^ 



22 41 
22 35 

•22 20 



21 50 I 
21 41 I 
21 32 I 



21 12 5 54 



11 14 


10 11 


i0 24 


LO 30 


1 35 


10 53 


2 50 


11 23 


4 4 




S U 


2 


6 14 


55 


7 


2 4 


7 38 


3 25 


8 7 


4 53 


8 31 


6 22 


8 52 


7 4H 


9 12 


9 14 


9 32 


10 37 


ft sr. 


n 57 


10 23 


il 14 


10 53 


2 28 


11 34 


3 35 



AUGUST, 1899. 








The 




lilimlioii 


ThoM 


OS ni t 


nsms. 








SDS4.1 LONDON 


Ap'tDwli- 

















Ww.. 


E.U. 


Uuii. Xooo 


11 'n TLmi 


IMki 


All' 


n™. 
















h. m. 








lb 


1 


4 2<; 


7 46 


N18 1 


6' 7 




4 33 


24 6 




W 


a 


4. 37 


7 44 


17 4(i 


6 3 


1 23 


5 21 


25-6 




Ti. 


3 


4 2S 


7 43 


17 30 


6 58 


1 20 


5 s:( 


26 6 




F 






7 42 


17 14 


5 53 


' 3 22 


6 29 


37'6 




8 


6 


4 33 


7 40 


16 68 


5 48 


3 28 


6 6i 


38-6 




S 


R 


4 33 


7 38 


16 12 


5 43 


■ 4. 35 


7 14 


oot 




M 


7 


4 35 


7 36 


16 ::5 


5 35 


5 43 


7 31 


10 




-lb 


a 


4 36 


7 31 


16 8 


5 28 


6 50 


7 47 


20 




W 





4 37 




15 51 


& 30 


7 56 


8 3 


30 




111 


10 




7 31 


15 34 


» 11 


9 3 


8 19 






P 


11 


4 4u 


7 :;» 


15 16 


5 2 


10 13 


ti ::g 


5-0 




s 


12 


4 42 


7 27 


14 58 


4 52 


11 23 


8 57 


60 




s 


13 


4 44 


7 25 


14 40 


4 43 


'iO 34 


U 23 


7-0 




M 


14 


4 45 


7 23 


14 21 


4 31 


' 1 18 


9 59 


80 5 




llr 




446 


7 21 


U 3 


4 20 


2 55 


10 13 


90 




W 


ifi 


4 47 


7 19 


13 44 


4 H 


3 58 


11 42 


100 




111 


17 


4 49 


7 17 


13 25 


3 55 


4 50 


"jfor^ 


110 




P 


18 


4 51 


7 15 


13 5 


3 43 


5 32 


55 


120 




S 


19 


4 52 


7 13 


12 46 


3 29 


6 4 


2 19 


130 




3 


2U 


4 5a 


7 U 


12 26 


3 15 


, G 31 


3 47 


14 




M 


21 


4 53 


7 9 


13 6 


3 


1 54 


5 16 


15-03 




Tb 


2g 


4 57 


7 7 


11 46 


2 16 


7 U 


6 44 


160 




W 


23 


4 6b 


7 5 


U 26 


3 30 


1 7 36 


H ]0 


171) 




Th 


24 


5 1 


7 3 


11 e 


2 14 


1 7 58 


9 31 


180 




F 


25 


6' 3 


7 1 


10 45 


1 sa 


! 8 34 


10 55 


190 




S 


26 


5 3 


G 59 


10 21 


1 43 


8 55 


aO 13 


300 




z 


27 


e s 


6 57 


10 3 


1 25 


9 34 


1 34 


21 0( 




M 


28 


5 7 


(i es 


9 42 


1 7 


10 20 


2 26 


220 




lb 


2» 


5 8 


(i 53 


9 31 


50 


n IS 


3 17 


23 




■w 


30 


5 10 


G 51 


8 59 


32 




3 &9 


240 




Th 


31 


5 13 


G 49 


B 38 


13 


15 


4 32 


35 




Tba 


p>«e1. 


iiaboTC 






limex or 


ItaiLw.jr 1 




nnler lo 














Ihc mln 




QEulUi 


KtuA«A 








Xrf 


«l1lISc' 


nil It tit apu 


M. YD 


\»v\bAs» 


aSMTV^v-Cw-M 










m,,-u.„i:v 








m 




















m 





10 



F 

S 

& 
M 

W 
Th 
F 
S 

& 
M 

T\} 
W 
Th 
F 

S 

& 
M 
lb 
W 
Tk 
F 
S 



SEPTEMBER, 1899. 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 



s> 


24 


M 


25 


lb 


26 


w 


27 


Th 


28 


F 


29 


S 


30 



fhe ' ' Eqaation 

SUN al London! Ap't Decli- of Time. 

I nation at — 

Mean Noon' Add to 
I M'n Time. 



Bises. Sets. 



The MOON at LONDON. 



Kises 
Morn. 



Sets 
Afr. 



Age. 
Nooo. 



h. III. 
5 13 
5 15 



5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
a 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



16 
18 
20 
21 
23 
25 
?6 

27 
29 
31 
32 
33 
35 
36 

38 
40 
42 
43 
45 
46 
48 

49 
51 
53 
55 
56 
58 



li. ni. 
6 46 
6 44 


o / 

N8 16 
7 54 


6 42 
6 40 
6 37 
a 35 


7 32 
7 10 1 
6 48 1 
6 25 



6 32 

6 29 
6 27 

6 25 
6 22 
6 20 
6 18 
6 16 
6 14 
6 12 



6 
5 
5 



3 

40 
18 



4 55 
4 32 
9 
46 
23 

37 



4 
3 
3 
3 
2 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 

^ 

o 
5 
5 



10 
7 
5 
2 

58 
56 

54 
52 
50 
47 
45 
53 



2 14 
1 51 
1 28 
1 4 
41 
18 
SO 5 

28 
52 



m. s. 
5 
23 



43 

1 2 
22 
42 

2 
22 
43 



1 
1 
2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 

5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 



3 
24 
45 

6 
27 
48 
10 

31 
52 
14 
35 
56 
17 
38 



7 59 

8 20 



5 59 I 5 41 



h. m. h. m. 

1 20 4 58 

2 27 i 5 19 



3 33 

4 41 
47 
55 

3 



5 
6 

8 



9 12 

10 23 

11 34 
aO 43 

1 47 

2 41 

3 25 

4 1 
4 30 



5 37 

5 54 

6 11 
27 
45 

4 
29 



6 
6 

7 
7 



8 

8 40 

9 32 

10 37 

11 54 



Morn. 
1 16 



4 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 
7 



54 
15 
37 
59 
23 
54 
31 



1 15 


8 40 


1 88 


9 


2 2 


9 20 


2 25 


9 40 


2 49 


10 



8 15 

9 7 

10 7 

11 11^ 
Mom. 

17 

1 23 



2 
4 
5 
7 



43 

10 

36 

2 



8 26 

9 47 
11 3 



aO 
"1 
1 
2 
3 
3 
3 



12 
10 
56 
32 

24 
44 



I 



d. 
26-0 
270 

280 
^90 

0'4# 

1-4 

2-4 

34 

4*4 

5*4 

6*4 

7-4)) 

8-4 

9-4 
10-4 
11-4 

12*4 
13-4 

14-40 

15*4 

164 

17*4 

18*4 

19*4 
20-4 

21*4 C 

22*4 

23*4 

24-4 

26-4 



Tlie times given abovA are Greenwicti Mean limes or liailway times. In order to 
obtain the actual or apparent time of the rising and setting of the Son and Moon, 
the equation of time must be applied. For latitudes other than those of London, 
another correction must be applied. 



11 








OCTOBER, 1899. 


1 




The 
SUN at LONDON 


Ap't Decli- 
nation at 
aiean Noon 


Equation 
of Time. 

Add to 
M'n Time 


The MOON at LONDON. 1 


Rises 
Mom. 


Sets 
Aft. 


Age. 
Noon. 


Rises. 


Sets. 




i 


h. m. 


ta. m. 


O 1 


m. s. 


h. m. 


1 h. m. 


d. 


5 


1 


i « 1 


5 40 


1 S3 12 


10 19 


2 30 


4 1 


26-4 


M 


2 


6 3 


. 5 38 


3 35 


10 38 


3 36 


4 17 :f7-4 


-Rj 


' 3 


6 5 


: 5 35 


3 58 


10 56 


4 43 


4 34 28*4 


W 


i ^ 


6 7 


5 32 


4 22 


11 15 


5 53 


4 52 ' 29-49 


Th 


1 5 


6 » 


5 30 


4 45 


11 33 


7 2 


5 11 0-7 


F 


n 


6 10 


1 5 27 


' 5 8 


11 50 


8 12 


5 35 


1-7 1 


S 


7 


6 12 


5 25 


5 31 


12 7 


9 24 


6 4 2-7 


& 


8 


6 14 


5 22 


5 54 


12 24 


10 34 


6 42 3-7 


M 


9 


n 10 


5 20 


6 17 


12 41 


11 38 


7 31 4-7 


lb 


10 


6 17 


5 18 


6 40 


12 57 


aO 3fJ 


8 30 1 5-7 


W 


11 


6 19 


5 15 


7 2 


13 12 


1 22 


9 41 6-7 


Tk 


12 


6 20 


5 13 


7 25 


13 27 


1 59 


10 59 1 77 }) 


F 


13 


6 22 


5 11 


7 47 


13 42 


2 29 


Morn. 8*7 


S 


14 


6 21, 


5 8 


8 10 


13 56 


2 55 


21 9-7 


^ 


15 


6 25 


5 6 


8 32 


14 


3 17 


1 44 1 10-7 


M 


16 


6 27 


6 4 


« 54 


14 22 


3 38 


3 8 11-7 


T\i 


17 


6 28 


5 2 


9 16 


L4 34 


3 59 


4 32 i 12-7 


W 


18 


6 30 


5 


9 38 


14 46 


4 23 


5 55 ! 13-70 


Tk 


19 


6 31 


4 58 


10 


14 57 


4 51 


7 18 


14-7 


F 


20 


6 32 


4 56 


10 22 


15 8 


5 25 


8 37 


15-7 


S 


21 


6 34 


4 54 


10 43 


15 18 


6 6 


9 51 


16-7 


5 


22 


6 36 


4 52 


11 4 


15 27 


6 58 


10 55 


17-7 


M 


23 


6 38 


4 lO 


11 25 


15 36 


7 55 


11 46 


18-7 


lb 


24 


6 40 


4 47 


11 46 


15 43 


8 58 


aO 29 


19-7 


W 


25 


6 42 


4 45 


12 7 


15 51 


10 5 


1 


20-7 


Ik 


26 


6 44 


4 43 


12 28 


15 57 


U 11 


1 26 


21-7 (C 


F 


27 


6 46 


4 41 


12 48 


16 3 


Mom. 


1 47 


22-7 


S 


28 


6 48 


4 39 


13 8 1 

1 


16 7 


18 


2 5 


23-7 


^ 


29 


6 60 


4 37 


13 ^8 


16 12 


1 24 


2 22 


24-7 


M 


30 


6 51 


4 36 


13 48 \ 


16 15 


2 30 


2 39 


25-7 


T\3 


31 


6 53 


4 34 


14 1 ' 


16 17 


3 38 


2 56 


26-7 


Tbeti 
Ob 
M< 
Lo 


Imes give 
tain the < 
>on, the < 
ndon, on 


n above 
actual 01 
equation 
other C01 


are Gree 

apparen 

of time 1 

erection i 


nwich Meai] 
t time of tl 
nnst be app 
nust be app] 


I time« or R 
le Rising; ai 
ied. For la 
[led. 


ail way ti 
Qd Seitin 
ititudes 


mes. In 
K of the 
ther than 


order to 
Sun and 
L those of 



12 





» 


NOVEMBER. 


1899. 


1 


1 The 1 
SUN at LOXDOXAp't Decli 
_ -. . nation at 
Eises. , Sets. Mean Noon 


Kquation 
of Time. 

Add to 
M'n TiniP. 


The MOON at LONDON. 1 


Rises 
Morn. 


Sets 
Aft. 


Aire. 
Noon. 






h. m. 


li. III. 


o / 


ni. s. 


h. ui. 


h. m. 


d. 


w 


1 


6 55 


4 32 


S14 27 


J6 19 


4 47 


3 15 


27-7 


Til 


2 


6 57 


4 31 


14 46 


16 20 


5 58 


3 88 


28-7 


F 


3 


6 59 


4 29 


15 5 


16 20 


7 10 


4 6 


01# 


S 


4 


7 


4 27 


15 24 


16 19 


8 22 1 4 41 

1 


11 


5 


5 


7 2 


4 25 


15 42 


16 18 


9 31 


5 27 


21 


M 


6 


7 4 


4 24 


16 


16 15 


10 30 6 24 


31 


lb 


7 


7 5 


4 23 


16 18 


16 12 


11 20 7 82 


41 


W 


8 


7 7 


4 22 


16 36 


16 8 


aO 2 8 49 


51 


Ik 


9 


7 9 


4 20 


16 53 


16 3 


33 110 9 


61 


F 


10 


7 10 


4 19 


17 in 


15 58 


57 11 30 


7-1}) 


S 


tl 


7 12 


4 17 


17 27 


15 51 


] 20 Morn.' 


81 


s 


12 


7 14 


4 16 


17 43 


15 44^ 


1 41 50 


91 


M 


18 


7 16 


4 14 


17 89 


15 36 


2 2 2 12 


101 


lb 


14 


7 18 


4 12 


18 15 


15 27 


2 24 3 33 


111 


W 


15 


7 19 


4 11 


18 30 


15 17 


2 50 4 54 


121 


Tk 


16 


7 21 


4 10 


18 46 


15 6 


3 20 6 13 


131 


F 


17 


7 23 


4 9 


19 


14 55 


3 57 7 29 


141 


S 


18 


7 25 


4 8 


19 15 


14 42 


4 44 8 38 


151 


S> 


19 


7 27 


4 7 


19 29 


14 29 


5 40 1 9 36 


161 


M 


20 


7 28 


4 6 


19 43 


14 15 


6 42 10 23 


171 


Tn 


21 


7 30 


4 4 


19 56 


14 1 


7 48 ilO 59 


181 


W 


22 


7 31 


4 3 


20 9 


13 45 


8 56 11 26 


191 


lb 


23 


7 33 


4 2 


20 22 


13 29 


10 3 11 50 


201 


F 


24 


7 34 


4 


20 34 


13 11 


11 9 aO 10 


211 


S 


25 


7 86 


3 59 


20 46 


12 53 


Morn. 1 27 


221([ 


& 


26 


7 37 


3 58 


20 58 


12 35 


1 
15 ! 43 


231 


M 


27 


7 39 


3 57 


21 9 


12 15 


1 22 , 1 


241 


lb 


28 


7 40 


3 56 


21 19 


11 55 


2 30 i 1 18 


251 


W 


2'.^ 


7 42 


3 55 


21 30 


11 34 


3 38 1 40 


261 


Tk 


30 


7 44 

1 

1 


3 54 


21 40 


11 12 


4 50 2 4 

1 
1 


27-1 


The t 
Ob 
M( 
Lc 


imes giv( 
tain the 
[)on, the ( 
'DdoB, an 


in above 
actual 01 
equation 
other cor 


are Greei 
' apparex 
of time 11 
rcction n 


iwich Mean 
It time of t 
lUSt be app 
lUBt be appl 


times orAf 
be Rifling ai 
lied. For le 
led. 


lilway times. In 
nd Setting of the 
ititudeti other thai 


I order to 
Sun and 
i those of 







DECEMBER, 1899. | 






SONae'l'lSNDOK 


'S^Zt 


iS^F 


Tl.ff MOON 11 LOSnON. 






Biwf. 


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3 52 


21 68 


10 27 


7 15 3 IM 29-1 


2 


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33 7 


10 3 


8 19 4 12 0-59 


M 


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22 15 


9 39 


9 15 5 19 ' 1'6 


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7 51 


3 61 


22 23 


9 14 


9 59 , 6 35 1 2'5 


w 


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22 30 


8 49 


10 35 ' 7 56 1 3-5 


th 


7 


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22 37 


8 23 


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F 


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22 a 


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11 26 !lO 40 1 5-5 


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22 60 


7 30 


11 48 1 Morliri 6-6 11 


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22 65 


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23 24 


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15 6 


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23 25 


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16-5 


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19-5 


8 


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11 6 10 48 


20-5 


£ 


S'l 


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Miira. 11 5 


21-6 


M 


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32-0 (t 


lb 


26 


8 8 


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23-5 


W 


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3 51 


23 £0 


1 14 


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24 5 


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3 56 


23 17 


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23 13 


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26-6 


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B 


3 57 


23 10 


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8 1 1 5fl 


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& 


31 


8 9 


a 5S 


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7 1 1 2 C8 


28-6 




inu-B bH 










a»llnu)- iiDiti. In order to 1 


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15 



£xample — At what time must the lamps on a motor vehicle be lit at 
Edinburgh on May 20 ? 

On referring to the almanack it is seen that the sun's declination 
for that date is 20° N., and Edinburgh is in Lat. 56° N. From the 
table the correction is 22 minutes, and from the almanack the sun 
sets at 7.49 p.m. Since the declination is N., the correction has to 
be added. We thus have : — 
Time of sunset, London 

Correction + 

Time of sunset, Edinburgh 

Allow one hour extra hj Act of Parliament 

Time of lighting lamps at Edinburgh 



h. m. 
7 49 
22 


p.m. 


8 11 
1 


)) 



9 11 



a 



To Find thb Timb op Rising or Setting of the Sun Accueately. 
Bule — To the log. tangent of the latitude add the log. tangent of 
the correct declination, the sum will be the log. cosine of the hour 
angle or the time of setting ; or the time from noon if rising. The 
time so found must be corrected for equation of time, parallax and 
refraction, and also for the elevation of the observer. 

DIPFEBENCE OF TIME. 

Birmingham is slow on Greenwich 



Chester 


)) 






» 


Dublin 


)) 






>» 


Edinburgh 


>> 






»» 


Exeter 


>* 






»» 


Glasgow 


)> 






)) 


Hull 


»> 






X 


Leeds 


»> 






)} 


Liverpool 


a 






>» 


Manchester 


ii 






>1 


Newcastle 


» 






)» 


Oxford 


»» 






»> 


Portsmouth 


)} 






)) 


York 


» 






»» 


Office of the Autohotob 


Jo 


UBl 


Cambridge is fast on 


Greenwich 


Colchester 


» 




>» 




Dover 


}) 




)) 




Norwich 


>» 




j> 




Boston 


>> 




M 




Grimsby 


» 




»> 




Paris 


}• 




)) 




Bome 


»• 




it 




Vienna 


)) 




>» 




St. Petersburg 


)> 




» 




Constantinople 


)) 




>» 




Frankfort 


a 




>> 




3erlin 


ft 




>1 




'Qenera 


it 




» 





on Greenwich 



MIN8. 


8BC8. 


7 


33 


11 


32 


25 


22 


12 


43 


14 


18 


17 


00 


1 


8 


6 


4 


11 


53 


9 


00 


6 


24 


5 


00 


4 


24 


4 


24 





32 





23 


3 


32 


5 


16 





12 














9 


21 


49 


54 


65 


32 


121 


00 


115 


4.V 


^V 


^^ 


^^ "JJ^ 



^^t 



16 

SiaNS OF WEATHEB. 

Whether clear or cloudy, a rosy skj at sunset presas^es fine 
weather ; a red sky in the morning, bad weather, or much wind, 
perhaps rain ; a grey sky in the morning, fine weather ; a high dawn, 
wind ; a low dawn, feir weather. 

Soft-looking or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, with moderate 
or light breezes ; bard-edged, oily-looking clouds, wind. A dark, 
gloomy blue sky is windy ; but a light, bright-blue sky indicates fine 
weather. Q-enerally, the softer the clouds look, the less wind (but, 
perhaps more rain) may be expected; and the harder, more 
" greasy," rolled, tufted, or ragged, the stronger the coming wind 
will prove. Also, a bright yellow sky at sunset presages wind; 
a pale yellow, wet ; and thus, by the prevalence of red, yellow, or 
grey tints, the coming weather may be foretold very nearly — indeed, 
if aided by instruments, almost exactly. 

Small inky-looking clouds foretell rain ; light scud clouds driving 
across heavy masses show wind and rain ; but if alone, may indicate 
wind only. 

High upper clouds crossing the sun, moon, or stars in a direction 
different from that of the lower clouds, or the wind then felt below, 
foretell a change of wind. 

After fine, clear weather, the first signs in the sky of a coming 
change are usually light streaks, curls, wisps, or mottled patches of 
white distant clouds, which increase, and are followed by an 
overcasting of murky vapour that grows into cloudiness. This 
appearance, more or less oily, or watery, as wind or rain will prevail, 
is an infallible sign. 

Light, delicate, quiet tints or colours, with soft, undefined forms of 
clouds, indicate and accompany fine weather ; but gaudy or unusual 
hues, with hard, definitely-outlined clouds, foretell rain, and 
probably strong wind. 

When sea-birds fly out early and far to seaward, moderate wind 
and fair weather may be expected. When they hang about the land, 
or over it, sometimes flying inland, expect a strong wind, with stormy 
weather. As many creatures beside birds are afiPected by the 
approach of rain or wind, such indications should not be slighted by 
an observer who wishes to foresee weather. 

Rema**kable clearness of atmosphere near the horizon, distant 
objects, such as hills, unusually visible, or raised (by refraction), 
and what is called ** a good hearing day," may be mentioned among 
signs of wet, if not wind, to be expected. 

More than usual twinkling of the stars, indistinctness or apparent 
multiplication of the moon's horns, haloes, *' wind dogs " (fragments 
or pieces of rainbows, sometimes called "wind galls"), seen on 
detached clouds, and the rainbow, are mors or less significant of 
Jnoreasing wind, if not approaching rain, with or without wind. 



17 



Lastly, the dryness or dampness of the air, and its temperature 
(for the season) should alioays be considered, with other indications 
of change, or continuance of wind and weather. 

On barometer scales, the following contractions may be useful :^ 

A Bisingr Barometer. 

A "rapid" rise indicates unsettled weather. 

A " gradual V rise indicates settled weather. 

A "rise" with dry air, and cold increasing in summer, indicates 
wind from northward, and if rain has fallen better weather is to be 
expected. 

A " rise *' with moist air and a low temperature, indicates wind 
and rain from northward. 

A "rise" with southerly wind, indicates fine weather. 

A Steady Barometer. 
With dry air and a seasonable temperature, indicates a continuance 
of very fine weather. 

A FaUingr Barom.eter. 

A " rapid " fall indicates stormy weather. 

A " rapid" fall, with westerly wind, indicates stormy weather from 
northward. 

A "fall," with a northerly wind, indicates storm, with rain and 
hail in summer, and snow in winter. 

A "fall," with increasing moisture in the air, and the heat 
increasing, indicates wind and rain from southward. 

A "fall," with dry air and cold increasing (in winter) indicates snow. 

A " fall," after very calm and warm weather, indicates rain, with 
squally weather. 

Dr. Clarke's Weather Table. 



If the Moon 
change between 



Summer. 



Winter. 



12 and 2 p.m. 



2 

4 

6 

6 

8 

10 

12 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 



— 4 

— 6 

— 8 

— 8 

— 10 

— 12 

— 2 

— 4 

— 6 

— 8 

— 10 
—12 



>) 



>> 

a 
a 
a 

a.m. 

»> 

it 



Very rainy 

Changeable 

Fair 

Fair, if wind at N.W. 
Rainy, if at S. or S.W. 
Rainy, if at S. or S.W. 

Fair 

Fair 

Cold and showery. . . . 

Rain 

Wind and rain 

Changeable 

Frequent showers. . . . 



Snow and rain. 

Fair and mild. 

Fair. 

Frosty, if wind N. or N.E. 

Rain or snow, if S. or S.W. 

Rain or snow, if S. or S.W. 

Fair and frosty. 

Hard frost, unless S. or S.W. 

Snow and stormy. 

Snow and stormy. 

Stormy weather. 

Rain if wind W.» snow i£ H* 

Cold, mVitL\!i^'^r«v^. 



18 

TABLE OF DCOONLIGHT NIGHTS. 

When the moon is 4 days old, it shines till about 10 p.m. 

it » " >j » -^^ >» 

II » " » >» 12 }, 

»i »» • » » •*• ft»ni. 

When the moon is 15 dajs old, full moon rises about 6 p.m. 

a if *" » a • >i 

a a •'•« a a " >» 

»» >» ■*■" » >» -^-^ >» 

a a 20 „ „ 12 „ 

Many people believe that there is some connection between the 
moon 8knd the weather. From a scientific point of view this is a mere 
Tulgar superstition ; at the same time a long series of obserrations 
indicates that certain weather is probable with certain positions of 
the moon. According to this theory, if the new or full moon takes 
place between noon and 2 p.m., or between 4 and 6 a.m., rain may be 
predicted. Fair weather may be expected when either new or full 
moon t>ake8 place between 4 and 6 p.m., or between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. 

Wind Pressure. 

The pressure of the wind is, it is generally agreed, expressed with 
tolerable accuracy, sufficient for all practical purposes, by Hawksley's 
formula — 

Let V = velocity in feet per second ; 

h = height through which a body must fall in order to. 

generate a velocity, v ; 
w « weight of a cubic foot of air = 0'0765 lb. ; 
ff = acceleration of gravity. 

Then— 

And since |7, the pressure of a fluid striking a plane perpendicularly, 

and then escaping at right-angles to its original path,, is that due to 

the height A, we have — 

tvv^ 
p = . 
9 

•07C5 1)2 



32 • 



19 



From this formula ie 


constructed the following table : — 


Velocity in feet per 
second, v. 


Velocity in miles 
per hour. 


Pressure in lbs. per 
square foot. 


10 

40 

70 

100 


6-8 
27-2 
47-6 
680 


0-25 

4-00 

12-25 

25-00 



If the pressure is applied to an inclined surface, then the effective 
pressure, pe, will be — 

(V sin a\2 

where 6 is the internal angle made between the direction of the 
wind and the plane surface. 

The ICorse Code. 

As all moto-vehicles must be furnished with a sound-producing 
instrument, either a whistle, horn, or bell, as well as with lamps, 
automobilists are readily enabled by the Morse code to signal or send 
a message, either by soimd or by flashing signals, a considerable 
distance. Apart from this, a knowledge of the Morse is invaluable 
to the traveller, soldier, and seaman. 

A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I 



_^ 


J 


- -i. .i. ii. 


s 


■ - - . 


K 


.» - .» 


T — 


■ - .» . 


L 


- _■ _ . 


U - - — 


• a a 


M 


■» >-■ ' 


Y B B B aM 




N 


— - 


w- — — 


a — ■ . 


O 


—■.— —■ 


X — " - - — 


* .. . 


P 


. .i. « . 


Y — - — — 


a . . 


Q 


—■.»*.» 


Z — " — " - - 


" 


R 


Numerals^ 




1 




4 


7 


■ >».».».» 




-«.*.» 




2 




5 


8 


3 


1 


6 




9 



^'^ 



20 



TH^ AUTOMOTOR LOG, 



Log of the Automotor. 



owned hy. 



in charge of- 



while on a journey from 



to. 



Time of departure. 

State of Roads 

Weather 



.date. 



No, of ' Persons on board. 



Weight of Persons on hoard . . 



a 



a 



»» 



Fuel 



Stores 



Luggage 



a 



it 



» 



Total Weight 



lbs. 



• • • • 



• • • • 



• • • • 



2; 



Total distance traversed. 



.miles. 



Whole time on journey 



A, 



%.. 



m. 



Deduct for stoppages 



.d. 



h.. 



jn. 



Net time in motion . . 



d.-. 



Ji _«i. i 



Greatest speed attained. 



. / miles \ 



miles per hour. 



Power developed by Motor. 



I.H.P, 



a 



»> 



)) 



B.H,P, 



Fuel Consumption 



lbs. 



i> 



» 



j> 



>» 



per mile 



Water Consumption 



• • • • • • 



perJS.H.P,,, 



, * 






Stores 



ft 



per mile , , • • • • 



(Oil, Waste, ^c.> 



• • • • 



k 



22 



M 

o a 

So 



00 

a. 

OS 



CO 

o 

g 



00 



•4S 

c3 



e8 



/ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



28 

POSTAL INFOBMATION, STAKPS, Ao, 



Bates of Postasre. 

To and from all parts of the United Kingdom, induding Channel 
IsUnds, for Prepaid letters : — 

The Inland Letter Bate has been reduced for all weights — under 
4 oz. Id.f and for every additional 2 oz. \d. 



"Not exceeding 4 oz. • . Id. 

Ex. 4, but not ex. 6 oz. . . lid. 

„ 6, „ 8 „ .. 2d. 

„ 8, „ 10 „ .. 2^d. 



Ex. 10, but not ex. 12 oz. 3^. 

12, „ 14 „ Skd. 

14, . „ 16 „ 4<f. 

And so on, ^d. for every 2 oz. 



}) 
)> 



A letter posted unpaid is chargeable on delivery with double 
pobtage, and a letter posted insufficiently paid is chargeable with 
double the deficiency. Size not to exceed 24x12 inches, by 12 
inches in depth. 

Post Cards. 

Post Cards, bearing a halfpenny impressed stamp, are available for 
tranomission between places in the United Kingdom only, in packets 
of JO for 5id. " Stout" cards 6d. 

Postafire on Inland Begristered Newspapers. 

Trepaid Rate. — On each Registered Newspaper, whether post-ed 
singly or in a packet, the postage when prepaid is one halfpenny ; 
but a packet containing two or more Registered Newspapers is one 
halfpenny for every two ounces. Newspaper Wrappers, 7 for 4d. 

No packet of Newspapers to exceed 5 lbs., or 24 x 12 x 12 inches in 
size. Name of sender should be put on cover to prevent loss. 

Inland Book Post. 

The Book Post rate is one halfpenny for every 2 oz. or fraction of 
2 oz. This rate is now the same as letter rales. See above. No 
Book Packet to exceed 5 lbs., or 24 inches in length, 12 inches in 
width, and 12 inches in depth. 

Inland Pattern and Sample Post. 

Same rates as for Letters. See above. 

Begristration. 

By the prepayment of a fee of 2d., any letter, newspaper, book 
packet or jparcel may be registered to any place in the United 
Kingd:m, British Colonies, or Foreign Countries in Postal Urda^. 



24 

The Post Office will not in any way undertake the safe conveyance of 
unregistered letters containing valuable articles ; and all letters found 
to contain coin, etc., will be charged on delivery with a double 
registration fee. Money sent by post ought to be enclosed in 
envelopes sold at Post Offices. A receipt should be obtained. On 
certain conditions, compensation is given on loss of ordinary 
registered letter with fee of 2d.^ to £5. Secured with fee of Sd., £10; 
4d., £15 ; 6rf., £20 ; 6d., £25 ; 7d., £30 ; 8rf., £35 ; 9rf., £40 ; 
10<;., £45 ; and lid., to £50. 

N.B. — Compensation only allowed on Loss of Money if sent by 
Letter Post. 

Bank Notes or Postal Orders must be claimed for by production of 
the number of each. 

Inland Parcels Post. 

Parcels not exceeding 11 lbs. are received for transmission between 
places of the United Kingdom — 
Under 1 lb. . . . . 3d. 
And for every lb. or part Id. 
Up to 9 lbs. llrf., or 11 lbs. 1/0 
Parcels to be marked on left hand comer ** Parcels Post," must be 

prepaid, securely packed and plamly addressed, and not contain 

anything offensive or explosive. 

^ " .. r 1 r On ordinary Parcels up to £2 

Compensation given for loss, I ^j^j^ ^^ ^/^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ £5 

partial or total, on certam < Sd £\0 

conditions [ Up to a fee 'of lid., covering £50 



Maximum length . . 3 ft. 6 in. 
„ length & girth 1 ^ X|. 
combined J 



Express Delivery Service. 

Messages, letters, or parcels, and other articles are conveyed the 
entire distance by special messenger from all offices from which there 
is a delivery of telegrams, and are delivered in any part of the town or 
rural district at the following rates, handed in over the counter : — 

Letters, parcels, etc., under 1 lb., Sd. for every mile or part. 

Letters, parcels, etc., over 1 lb., are charged lie?, each pound or 
part over the first, in addition to 3d. per mile. 

If distance exceed 2 miles, and if no public conveyance is available 
in both directions, the cost of a speeinl conveyance must be paid in 
addition to the above fees — generally 1/- per mile. 

Reply delivered en route to offices, or half mile from originating 
office, at half rates. 

Prepaid letters under 1 oz. can be accepted by the principal 
railways at their stations to be forwarded by passenger train at a fee 
of 2d. Letters, on arrival at town, to be posted at nearest letter box 
A? Btaiion, to be delivered in usual manner. 



25 

Postal Orders. 

{Broken Amounts Affixed in Stamps up to bd^ 
Are issned in the United Kingdom at the following rates : — 
Orders for sums, 1/- and 1/6 . . . . . . . . . . \d. eack. 

2/.,2/6,3/.,3/6,4/-,4/6,5/-,7/6, 10/-, 10/6 Id. „. 
,. 15/-, and 20/-) < .. .. .. .. 1^^. „ 

• These Orders may be crossed thus & Co., and thus made 
payable only through a Bank. All Orders must bo signed at foot by 
the party to whom they are payable. 

Money Orders for the United Kingrdom. 

Money Orders are granted in the United Kingdom 
For sums under £1 . . 2d, For £3 and under £4 . . 4<^. 
„ £1 and under £3 . . ^d. 

Telegraph Money Orders— Inland. 

Money may be transmitted by Telegraph Money Order between all 
head and branch offices in the United Kingdom authorised to transact 
Telegraph and Money Order business. The commission is — 
For sums under £3 - ^. \ For sums from £3 and under £10, ^d. 

In addition to the commission a charge is made at the ordinary 
r.ite of an Inland Telegram, and reply at the minimum charge of 9<i. 
Telegram to Payee, minimum Qd, 

Money Orders payable Abroad. 

Money Orders are issued in the United Kingdom, payable abroad in 
British Possessions, Colonies, and Agencies, and nearly all Foreign 
Countries, for sums not exceeding £2, ijd. ; £6, 1/- ; £10, 1/6. 

Foreigm Parcels Post 

Is now in operation to most of the European States and British 
Possessions abroad, as per special rates. 

Post Office Savingrs Banks. 

No deposit of less than a shiQing is received, nor any pence, and 
not more than £50 in one year. No further deposit is allowed when 
the amount standing in depositor's name exceeds £209, inclusive of 
interest. Interest is allowed at the rate of 2^ per cent, (or sixpence 
in the pound) per annum — that is, at the rate of one halfpenny per 
pound per month. 

Post Office Telegrrams, Jidy 1891. 

The charge for Telegrams throughout the United Kingdom is Qd. 
for the first twelve words, and \d. for each other word, addresses 
counted. Messages are repeated where nece-sary at half rates, and 
repaid if P.O. is in error. Telegrams are now delivered free within 
3 miles of the Terminal Office, or within the Town Postal Delv?«r^ ^^ 
the Head Office when that extends beyoiid ^ tdcA.^*. 



26 



Telegrams to Countriea in Europe are cliarsred per word : — 



Austria 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Gibraltar 






Sd, 

2d, 
Skd. 

2d. 

2d. 
Hd. 



Greece 

Holland 

Hungary 

Italy .. 

Malta 

Norway 






6i<2. 
2d. 
3d. 
Sd. 

ed. 

3id. 



New York, U.S. 1/- 
Victoria . . 4/10 



Portugal 


S\d. 


BuBsia •• 


Hd. 


Spain .. 


dkd. 


Sweden 


4d. 


Switzerland . . 


Zd. 


Turkey in Europe 6i«?. 


Canada 


1/0 


Tndia . , 


3/8 



California . . 1/6 
Hons: Kong . . 5/6 
Signalling Ships at Foreign Semaphore Stations, lOd. 
The number of letters allowed to a word in plain language is now 
16, and the number of figures allowed to a word in cypher is now 5. 

General Postal Union. 

Correspondence with all Foreign Countries, with certain exceptions* 
as to prepayment and registration, is now transmitted at the following 
uniform rate :— 

Letters, 2^d. per half -ounce ; Post Cardi>, Id. each. 

Newspapers and Printed Papers, id. per 2 oz. ; limit, 4 lbs. ; 
British Colonies and Possessions, 5 lbs. 

Patterns of Merchandise, and legal and Commercial Documents, 
id. for every 2 oz. Minimum charge. Id. ; limit of size, 12 x 8 x 4 ; 
weight, 12 oz., with exceptions. 

Letters not prepaid will be returned to sender. Eegistration fee 
2d.y which, in addition to the postage, must be prepaid. No money, 
jewellery, nor articles of saleable value, may be enclosed. Patterns 
not to exceed half a pound, nor printed papers 4 lbs. 

Inland Bills for sums — 



Under £5 
10 



»> 



Id. 

2d, 



Under £75 
100 



)) 



9d. 

II' 



Under £25 . . M. 
,, 50 . . Qd. 
And for every £100 or part, in addition, 1/-. 

Eeceipt or DiscHAEGE for payment of £2 or upwards, Id. 
Deaft or Oed£S for any sum payable to bearer or to order on 
demand, Id. 



• The postage on letters from this coiintrj for 
Biitish Colonies and Piotectorates is Id. per ^ oz.: 



Aden 

Ascension 

Bahamas 

Barbados 

Bermuda 

British Central Africa 

British East Africa 

British Guiana 

British Honduras 

-Canada 

Ceylon 



Falkland Islands 

Fiji Islands 

Gambia 

Gibraltar 

Gold Coast Colon7 

Hongkong 

Johore 

Lagos 

Leeward Islands 

Malay States 

Natal 

Newfoundland 



India and the under-mentioned 



Niger Coast Protectorate 

Niger Territory 

St. Helena 

Sarawak 

Seychelles 

Sierra Leone 

Straits Settlements 

Tobago 

Trinidad 

Turks Islands 

Uganda 

Windward Islands 



27 



LEGAL. 



LOCOMOTIVES ON HIGHWAYS ACT. 
59 & 60 v., c. 36. 

An Act to amend the Law with respect to the Use of 
Locomotives on Highways, 1896. 

Be it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, 
and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

1. — (1) The enactments mentioned in the schedule to this 
Act, and any other enactment restricting the use of locomotives 
on highways and contained in any public, general, or local and 
personal Act in force at the passing of this Act, shall not apply 
to any vehicle propelled by mechanical power if it is under 
three tons in weight unladen, and is not used for the purpose of 
drawing more than one vehicle (such vehicle with its locomotive 
not to exceed in weight unladen four tons), and is so constructed 
that no smoke or visible vapour is emitted therefrom except 
from any tem])orary or accidental cause ; and vehicles so 
exempted, whether locomotives or drawn by locomotives, are 
in this Act referred to as light locomotives. 

Provided that — 

(a) The council of any county or county borough shall have 

power to make bye-laws preventing or restricting the 
use of such locomotives ujjon any bridge within their 
area, where such council are satisfied that such use 
would be attended with damage to the bridge or danger 
to the public. 

(b) A light locomotive shall be deemed to be a carriage 

within the meaning of any Act of Parliament, whether 
public, general, or local, and of any rule, regulation, or 
bye-law, made under any Act of Parliament, and, if 
used as a carriage of any particular class, shall be 
deemed to be a carriage of that class, and the law 
relating to carriages of that daa^ ^^ ^Y^ ^^' 
cordingjy. 



28 

(2) In calculating for the purposes of this Act the weight of a 
vehicle unladen, the weight of any water, fuel, or accumulators, 
used for the purpose of propulsion, shall not be included. 

2. During the period between one hour after sunset and one 
hour before sunrise, the person in charge of a light locomotive 
shall carry attached thereto a lamp so constructed and placed as 
to exhibit a light in accordance with the regulations to be made 
by the Local Government Board. 

3. Every light locomotive shall carry a bell or other instrument 
capable of giving audible and sufficient warning of the approach 
or position of the carriage. 

4. No light locomotive shall travel along a public highway at 
a greater speed than fourteen miles an hour, or than any less 
speed that may be prescribed by regulations of the Local 
Government Board. 

6. The keeping and use of petroleum or of any other inflam- 
mable liquid or fuel for the purpose of light locomotives shall be 
subject to regulations made by a Secretary of State, and regula-< 
tions so made shall have effect notwithstanding anything in the 
Petroleum Acts, 1871 to 1881. 

6.— (1) The Local Government Board may make regulation* 
with respect to the use of light locomotives on highways, and 
their construction, and the conditions under which they may be 
used. 

(2) Regulations under this section may, if the Local Govern- 
ment Board deem it necessary, be of a local nature and limited 
in their application to a particular area, and may, on the applica- 
tion of any local authority, prohibit or restrict the use of loco- 
motives for purposes of traction in crowded streets, or in other 
places where such use may be attended with danger to tbe 
public. 

All regulations under tins section shall have full efi^ect not- 
withstanding anything in any other Act, whether general or 
local, or any bye-laws or regulations made thereunder. 

Every regulation purporting to be made in pursuance of this 
section shall be forthwith laid before both Houses of Parlia- 
ment. 

7. A breach of any bye-law or regulation made under this 
Act, or of any provision of this Act, may, on summary conviction," 
be punished by a fine not exceediu^i: ten pounds. 

8. — (1) On and after the first day of January next after the 

passing of this Act there shall be granted, charged, and paid in 

c?reat Mn'taln for every light locomotive, which is liable to duty 



29 

either as a carriage or as a hackney carriage under section four 
of the Customs and Inland Ke venue Act, 1888, an additional 
duty of excise at the following rate ; namely : — 

£, 8, d* 
If the weight of the locomotive exceeds 
one ton unladen, but does not exceed 

* two tons unladen 2 2 

If the weight of the locomotive exceeds 

two tons unladen 3 3 

; (2) Every such duty shalt be paid together with the duty 
.on the licence for the locomotive as a carriage or a hackney 
carriage, and shall in England be dealt with in mauner directed 
with respect to duties on local taxation licences within the 
meaning of the Local Government Act, 1888 ; and in Scotland 
he paid into the Local Taxation (Scotland) Account, and be 
dealt with as part of the residue within the meaning of 
section two, subsection (3), of the Local Taxation (Customs and 
Excise) Act, 1890. 

9. The requirements of sub-section (4) of section twenty-eight 
of the Highways and Locomotives Amendment Act, 1878, may 
be from time to time varied by order of the Local Government 
Board. 

10. In the application of this Act to Scotland a reference to 
the Secretary for Scotland shall be substituted for a reference 
to the Locsd Government Board, a reference to the road 
authority of any county or burgh for a reference to the council 
of a county or county borough, and a reference to sub-section (4) 

, of section three of the Locomotives Amendment (Scotland) 
. Act, 1878, for a reference to sub-sestion (4) of section twenty- 
eight of the Highways and Locomotives Amendment Act, 1878. 

11. In the application of this Act to Ireland a reference to the 
Local Government Board for Ireland shall be substituted for a 

' reference to the Local Government Board, and a reference to 
the council of a county shall be construed in an urban sanitary 
district under the Public Health (Ireland) Act, 1878, as a 
reference to the urban sanitary authority, and elsewhere as a 
reference to the grand jury. 

18. This Act may be cited as the Locomotives on Highways 
: Act, 1896, and shall come into operation on the expiration of 
three months from the passing thereof. 



30 

THE REGULATIONS OF THE LOCAL 
GOVERNMENT BOARD RESPECTING 
AUTO-MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



ENGLAND, WALES, AND IRELAND. 

The Local Govemment Board have issued the following 
Regulations to the county councils and certain other local 
authorities in Eugland and Wales with respect to the 
use of light locomotives on highways, and their coq- 
struction, and the conditions under which they may be 
used, and directed that the same should have effect on and 
after November 14th, 1896 ; — 

Article I. 

In this Order : — 

The expression "carriage" includes a wagon, cart, or other 
vehicle. 

The expression " horse " includes a mule or other beast of 
draught or burden, and the expression " cattle " includes sheep. 

The expression " light locomotive " means a vehicle propelled 
by mechanical power which is imder three tons in weight unladen, 
and is not used for the purpose of drawing more than one vehicle 
(such vehicle with its locomotive not exceeding in weight unladen 
four tons), and is so constructed that no smoke or visible vapour 
is emitted therefrom except from any temporary or accidental 
cause. 

In calculating for the purposes of this Order the weight of a 
vehicle unladen, the weight of any water, fuel, or accumulators 
"used for the purpose of propulsion shall not be included. 

Article II. 

No person shall cause or permit a light locomotive to be 
used on any highway, or shall drive or have charge of a light 
locomotive when so used, unless the conditions hereinafter set 
forth shall bo satisfied, namely : — 

(1.) The light locomotive, if it exceeds in weight unladen five 
hundredweight, shall be capable of being so worked that it may 
travel either forwards or backwards. 

(2.) The light locomotive shall not exceed six and a half 
feet in width, such width to be measured between its extreme 
projecting pointi. 



31 

(3.) The tyre of each wheel of the light locomotive shall be 
smooth, and shall, where the same touches the ground, be flat 
and of the width following, namely : — 

(a) If the weight of the light locomotive unladen exceeds 
fifteen hundredweight, but does not exceed one ton, not less- 
than two and a half inches ; 

(ft) If such weight exceeds one ton, but does not exceed two 
toDS, not less than three inches ; 

(c) If such weight exceeds two tons, not less than four inches 

Provided that where a pneumatic tyre, or other tyre of a soft- 
and elastic material is used, the tyre may be round or curved, 
and there may be upon the same projections or bosses rising 
above the surface of the tyre if such projections or bosses are 
of the same material as that of the tyre itself, or of some other 
soft and elastic material. The width of the tyre shall, for the 
purpose of this proviso, mean the extreme width of the soft and 
elastic material on the rim of the wheel when not subject to 
pressure. 

(4.) The light locomotive shall have two independent brakes- 
in good working order, and of such efficiency that the applica- 
tion of either to such locomotive shall cause two of its wheels- 
on the same axle to be so held that the wheels shall be 
eflTectually prevented from revolving, or shall have the same 
effect in stopping the light locomotive as if such wheels were so 
held. 

Provided that in the case of a bicycle this Kegulation shall 
apply as if, instead of two wheels on the same axle, one wheel 
was therein referred to. 

(5.) The light locomotive shall be so constructed as to admit 
of its being at all times under such control as not to cause 
undue interference with passenger or other traffic on any 
highway. 

(6.) In the case of a light locomotive drawing or constructed 
to draw another vehicle or constructed or used for the carriage ^ 
of goods, the name of the owner and the place of his abode 
or Dusiness, and in every such cjise and in the case of every 
light locomotive weighing unladen one ton and a half or 
upwards, the weight of the light locomotive unladen shall be 
painted in one or more straight lines upon some conspicuous 
part of the right or off side of the light locomotive in large 
legible letters in white upon black ov bl"a.ck xx^w:^ ^Xj^'is ^'^^j 
less than one inch in height. 



32 

(7.) The light locomotive and all the fittines thereof shall be 
in such a condition as not to cause, or to oe likely to cause, 
danger to any person on the light locomotive or on any 
highway. 

(8.) There shall be in charge of the light locomotive when used 
on any highway a person competent to control and direct its 
use and movement. 

(9.) Tbe lamp to be carried attached to the light locomotive in 
pursuance of Section 2 of the Act shall be so constructed and 
placed as to exhibit, during the period between one hour after 
sunset and one hour before sunrise, a white light visible within 
a reasonable distance in the direction towards which the light 
locomotive is proceeding or is intended to proceed, and to 
exhibit a red light so visible in the reverse direction. The 
lamp shall be placed on the extreme right or off side of the 
light locomotive in such a position as to be free from all 
obstruction to the light. 

Provided that this Reenilation shaU not extend to any bicycle, 
tricycle, or other machine to which Section 85 of the Local 
Government Act, 1888, applies. 

Article III. 

, No person shall cause or permit a light locomotive to be used 
on any highway for the purpose of drawing any vehicle, or shall 
drive or have charge of a light locomotive when used for such 
fiu'pose, unless the conditions hereinafter set forth shall be 
.fiatisued namelv * 

(1.) Regulations (2), (3), (5), and (7), of Article II of this 
Order shall apply as if the vehicle drawn by the light loco- 
motive was therein ref eired to, instead of the light locomotive 
itself, and Regulation (6) of the Article shall apply as if such 
vehicle was a light locomotive constructed for the carriage of 
goods. 

(2.) The vehicle drawn by the light locomotive, except where 
the light locomotive travels at a rate not exceeding four miles 
an hour, shall have a brake in good working order of such 
efficiency that its application to the vehicle shall cause two of 
the wheels of the vehicle on the same axle to be so held that the 
wheels shall be effectually prevented from revolving, or shall 
have the same effect in stopping the vehicle as if such wheels 
were so held. 

(3,) The vehicle drawn by the light locomotive shall, when 
ander the last preceding regulation a. brake ia re(\uired to be 



38 

attached thereto, carry upon the vehicle a person competent to 
apply eflBciently the brake : Provided that it shall not be 
necessary to comply with this Regulation if the brakes upon the 
light locomotive by which the vehicle is drawn are so con- 
structed and arranged that neither of such brakes can be used 
without bringing into action simultaneously the brake attached 
to the vehicle drawn, or if the brake of the vehicle drawn can 
be applied from the light locomotive independently of the 
brakes of the latter. 

Article IV. 

Every person driving or in charge of a light locomotive when 
used on any highway shall comply with the Regulations herein- 
after set forth, namely :— 

(1.) He shall not drive the light locomotive at any speed 
greater than is reasonable and proper, having regard to the 
traffic on the highway, or so as to endanger the life or limb of 
any person, or to the common danger of passengers. 

(2.) He shall not under any circumstances drive the light 
locomotive at a greater speed than 12 miles an hour. If the 
weight unladen of the light locomotive is one ton and a half 
and does not exceed two tons, he shall not drive the same at a 
greater speed than eight miles an hour, or if such weight exceeds 
two tons, at a greater speed than five miles an hour. 

Provided that whatever may be the weight of the light 
locomotive, if it is used on any highway to draw any vehicle, he 
shall not, under any circumstances, drive it at a greater speed 
than six miles an hour. No light locomotive may travel along 
any public highway within the limits of the Dublin Metropolitan 
District, or of any city, town, or village, at a greater speed than 
six miles an hour ; or, if its weight unladen exceeds two tons, at 
a OTeater speed than five miles an hour. 

Provided also that this Regulation shall only have effect during 
six months from the date of this Order, and thereafter until We 
otherwise direct. 

(3.) He shall not cause the light locomotive to travel back- 
wards for a greater distance or time than may be requisite for 
purposes of safety. 

(4.) He shall not negligently or wilfully cause any hurt or 
damage to any person, carriage, horse, or cattle, or to any goods 
conveyed in any carriage on any highway, or, when on the light 
locomotive, be in such a position that he cannot have control 
over the same, or quit the light locoisiotiN^ V\\XiWiX» V'a?T>cw^ 
taken due precautions against its \>em^ B.taxX^^vcL^^^'^'^'^^^'^ 



34 

or allow the light locomotive or a vehicle drawn thereby to 
stand on such highway so as to cause any unnecessary obstruction 
thereof. 

(5.) He shall when meeting any carriage, horse, or cattle keep 
the light locomotive on the left or near side of the road, and 
when passing any carriage, horse, or cattle proceeding in the 
Sime direction keep the light locomotive on the right or oflF side 
of the same. 

(6.) He shall not negligently or wilfully prevent, hinder, or 
interrupt the free passage of any person, carriage, horse, or 
cattle on any highwav, and shall keep the light locomotive and 
any vehicle drawn thereby on the left or near side of the road 
for the purpose of allowing such passage. 

(7.) He shall, whenever necessary, by sounding the bell or 
other instrument required by Section 3 of the Act, give audible 
and sufficient warning of the approach or position of the light 
locomotive. 

(8.) He shall on the request of any police constable, or of any 
person having charge of a restive horse, or on any such constable 
or person putting up his hand as a signal for that purpose, cause 
the light locomotive to stop and to remain stationary so long 
as may be reasonably necessary. 

Article V. 

If the light locomotive is one to which Kegulation (6) of 
Article II applies, and the pai-ticulars required by that Regula- 
tion are not duly painted thereon, or if the light locomotive is 
one to which that Regulation does not apply, the person driving 
or in charge thereof shall, on the request of any constable, or on 
the reasonable request of any other person, truly state his name 
and place of abode, and the name of the owner, and the place of 
his abode or business. 

This Order may be cited as " The Light Locomotives 
on Highways Order, 1896." 

In a letter addressed to the County Councils Sir Hugh Owen, 
the Secretary of the Local Government Board, draws attention . 
to the provisions of the Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896. 
He refers to the exemption of light locomotives from certain 
enactments, and points out that the duties imposed by Section 4 
of the Customs and Inland Revenue Act, 1888, will be payable 
lor Tight Jocomotives which are carriages or hackney carriages 
as denned by the Act^ and that such \\g\A \ociOiao\\N«a 'will &y 



\ 



35 

on and after January Ist next an additional excise duty at the 
following rate : — £2 2«. if the weight of the locomotive exceeds 
1 ton but does not exceed 2 tons unladen, and £3 3«. if the 
weight exceeds 2 tons unladen. A summary of the above 
Order issued by the Local Government Board is given, and on 
the subject of speed Sir Hugh Owen states : — " Section 4 of 
the Act directs that no light locomotive shall travel along a 
public highway at a greater speed than 14 miles an hour, or 
than any less speed that may be prescribed by regulations of 
the Board. There is considerable difficulty in laying down 
definite rules as to the speed of light locomotives at the present 
time, as no experience has been obtained of their use in this 
country ; but the Board have been strongly urged to make some 
general regulations on the subject, and they have dealt with it 
by Article IV of the Order." 



EXPLANATORY CHAPTER ON THE LOCO- 
MOTIVES ON HIGHWAYS ACT. 1896. 

For the convenience of our readers we have compiled 
the following summary and explanation of the effect of 
the various clauses of the above measure, which governs 
the manner in which automotor carriages can be em- 
ployed: — 

Weight Limits. — Light locomotives — the term by which 
all descriptions of horseless vehicles affected by the Act are 
to be hitherto known — must not exceed three tons in weight 
unladen, and must not draw more than one independent 
vehicle. When such other vehicle is attached to the locomo- 
tive the weight of the two together unloaded shall not exceed 
four tons. In reference to this question of weight, an impor- 
tant provision is contained in Sub- section 2 of Clause 1, 
to the effect that the weight unladen shall be calculated 
without any reference to the weight of any water, fuel, or 
accumulators which may be used for the purpose of pro- 
viding motive power. In cases where steam or electi'icity 
derived from storage batteries is used as a means of pro- 
pulsion, the dead weight of the locomotive may be^ tbe\!^- 
lore, enormously greater than tb.at ineTitKoxia^Vw^Oci^ KaH.* 
Wi*2i regard to oil or gas engines, ttie y70t^^ '''' xi^^^ ^^^ '^'^ 



06 

purposes of propulsion," may be safely interpreted to mean 
that oil carried for the purpose of forming an explosive 
gas, and water to be used to cool the cylinders, may be 
properly deducted from the gross weight, as they are as 
essential to the working of the locomotive as the water 
used in a boiler, or the coal which is consumed to 
evaporate it. 

Smoke and Vapour.— No smoke or vapour must be 
emitted from the engines, except from temporary or 
accidental causes. This restriction will, doubtless, be con- 
strued in conformity with the practice under the Smoke 
Nuisances Act, and the bye- laws with reference to traction- 
engines. A reasonable amount of smoke will be permissible 
on getting up steam, and when firing heavily on a gradient. 
The onus of pi'oving that such a nuisance was unavoidable, 
however, rests upon the defendant in these matters, and 
justices in various parts of the country are apt to widely 
vary in their opinions on the subject. 

Dangerous Bridges. — By Sub-section (a) the Council of 
any county or borough have absolute power to prohibit or 
regulate the use of any such locomotives on any bridge 
within their jurisdiction, if they are satisfied that the us© 
of such vehicles will be dangerous. As the highest limit 
allowed in the majority of districts by the Council is four 
tons, and often falls as low as two, this will automatically 
have the effect of keeping down vehicular weights in cases 
where loads are intended to be taken from one county to 
another, or where streams or rivers intervene. 

Duties Payable. — The heavy incidence of the dues pay- 
able on road vehicles under this Act has been one of its 
surprises, and there can be no question that an effort will be 
made at any convenient season to obtain a reduction. By 
Clause 8 it is provided that after the 1st of January, 1897, 
an excise duty shall be paid on all light locomotives as 
follows : — Where the weight exceeds one ton and is under 
two, £2 28.; where the weight exceeds two tons, £S 3s. 
^Jn both cases the unladen weight is taken). By Sub- 
section (b), Clause 1, such, vehicles «iTe ch».rgeable ip 



87 

addition with cnstoms duty as carriages wheo they come 
within the existing law. 

Lamps and Bells. — ^By Clauses 2 and 3 it is provided 
that between one hour after sunset and one hour before 
sunrise a lamp must be carried in accordance with regu- 
lations to be made by the Local Government Board ; while 
at all times a bell or other appliance capable of giving 
sufficient warning to other vehicles or passengers must be 
carried and presumably sounded at necessary intervals. 

Rate of Spred. — The maximum rate of speed along a 

Sublic highway is fixed by the Act at 14 miles per hour, 
ut any less speed may be, as it has in fact been, prescribed 
by the Local Government Board. 

Penalties. — Any breach of the Act or of any bye-law 
made in respect of it will render the offender subject to a 
fine not exceeding £10, or imprisonment in default of pay- 
ment thereof. 

Operative Date. — The Act came into force at the 
expiration of three months from the date of its passing, 
viz., on the 14th November, 1896, the Royal Assent having 
been signified on 14th August, 1896. 

Miscellaneous. — The remaining provisions not com- 
mented upon at length in the above summary extend ihe 
Act to Scotland and Ireland, provide for the disposal of 
the revenue to be obtained from it, and gives the Central 
Board power to vary the present stringent regulations 
which exist as to the construction of wheels of locomo- 
tives on roads. 



THE CARRIAGE AND STORAGE OF 
PETROLEUM ON LAND.* 

The Home Secretary, in issuing the regulations as to 
petroleum for motor-cars, states: — 

In promulgating the following regulations relating to the 
keeping, conveyance, and use of petroleum in connection with 
light locomotives, the Secretary oi State for the Home Depart- 

♦ For information relative to the carriage oi peXxcAcxiTa. «X ^fta^ *«. '''''^»*:ask 
Tranaport of Petroleum." By G. H. Little. ^55>^n, IftTi^QiOw.^ 



38 

ment desires to call public attention to the dangei's that may 
arise from the careless use of those more volatile descriptions 
of petroleum to which these rules apply, beiug petroleum to 
which the Petroleum Act, 1871, applies, and commonly known 
as " mineral spirit." 

Not only is the vapour therefrom, which is given off at 
ordinary temperature, capable of being easily ignited, but also, 
when mixed with air, of forming an explosive mixture. Hence 
the necessity for strict precautions in dealing with and handling 
the same, and for the emplojnnent of thoroughly sound and 
properly closed vessels to contain the same, the importance of 
avoiding the use of naked lights in dangerous proximity to the 
same or to any place where such petroleum may be kept, and 
generally of taking precautions to prevent contact of the highly 
inflammable vapour of this very volatile liquid with any form 
of artificial light. 

Kegulations. 

1. Petroleum shall not be kept, used, or conveyed, except in 
tanks or cases of metal so made and closed that no leakage, 
whether of liquid or vapour, can take place therefrom, and so 
substantially constructed as not to be liable, except under 
circumstancfS of gross negligence or extraordinary accident to 
be broken or become defective or insecure in course of con- 
veyance or use ; and every air-inlet in any such tank or case 
shall be at all times, except when the valve, if any, is required 
to be removed for immediate use or repair, protected by securely 
affixed wire gauze, the openings in which shall not be less in 
number than 400 to the square inch. 

2. Every such tank or case shall be '^learly stamped or securely 
labelled with a legible metallic or enamelled label with the 
words " mineral spirit, highly inflammable, for use with light 
locomotives." 

3. The amount of petroleum to be in any one such tank or 
case at one time shall not exceed 20 gallons. 

4. There shall not be at the same time on or in any one light 
locomotive, more than two of such tanks as aforesaid. 

5. Before repairs are done to any such tank or case, that tank 
or case shall, as far as practicable, be cleaned by the removal of 
all petroleum and of all dangerous vapours derived from the 
same. 

6. When petroleum for use in, or in connection with any light 
locomotive is not being so used, it shall be kept either in 

accordance with the provisions of the Petroleum Acts, or in 



39 

such tanks or cases as aforesaid ; provided that the amount of 
petroleum which may be so kept in tanks or cases as aforesaid 
shall not exceed the amount of petroleum which may be kept 
on or in any one light locomotive at the same time, and that the 
tanks or cases shall be kept in the open air, or in some suitably 
ventilated place. 

7. The filling or replenishing of a tank with petroleum shall 
not be canded on, nor shall the contents of any such tank be 
exposed by artificial light, except a light of such construction, 
position, or character as not to be liable to cause danger, and no 
artificial light shall be brought within dangerous proximity of 
the place where any tank containing petroleum is being kept. 

8. In the case of all petroleum kept or conveyed for the 
purpose of or in connection with any light locomotive (a) all due 
precautions shall be taken for the prevention of accidents by fire 
or explosion, and for the prevention of unauthorised persons 
having access to any petroleum kept or conveyed, and to the 
vessels (containing or intended to contain, or having actually 
contained the same ; and (b) every person managing or 
employed on or in connection with any light locomotive shall 
abstain from every act whatever which tends to cause fire or 
explosion, and which is not reasonably necessary, and shall 
prevent any other person from committing such act. 

9. These regulations shall come into operation on the 14th 
day of November, 1896, and be in force until further notice. 



REGULATIONS FOR MOTO-VEHICLES 

IN SCOTLAND. 

The Secretary for Scotland has issued the general regulations 
respecting Light Locomotives on Highways applicable to 
Scotland. It is stated as a preliminary that the expression 
" carriage " includes a wagon, cart, or other vehicle ; expression 
" horse " includes a mule or other beast of draught or burden ; 
and the expression "cattle" includes sheep. The expression 
"light locomotive" means a vehicle propelled by mechanical 
power which is under 3 tons in weight, unladen, and is not used 
for the purpose of drawing more than one vehicle (such vehicle 
with its locomotive not exceeding in weight, unladen, 4 tons), 
and is so constructed that no smoke or visible vapour is emitted 
therefrom, except from any temporary or accidental cause. 
When calculating the weight of a vehicle, unladen^ t\Nfe ^^ax'^^i^ 
of water, fuel, or accumulators waed. iox ^;)cvfc ^xxr^ofofc <25v >^^«>$'^- 



40 

sion shall not be included. No one must drive or allow one to 
be driven if it exceeds 5 cwt., unless it can travel either 
forwards or backwards. It shall not exceed six and a half feet 
in width. The tyre of each wheel shall be smooth and flat 
where it touches the ground. For a machine, unladen, weighing 
between 15 cwt. and 1 ton, not less 2j inches wide ; exceeding 
1 ton and not exceeding 2, not less than 3 inches wide ; and if 
exceeding 2 tons, not less than 4 inches. There must be two 
independent brakes provided to act on two wheels, but in the 
case of a bicycle it is provided that one wheel will be enough to 
be acted upon. The name of the owner and place of abode 
must be painted on locomotives used for haulage, in letters 
black upon white or white upon black, not less than 1 inch in 
height ; and it shall be built so as not to cause danger to any 
person on it or on the road ; and a competent person must 
always be in charge. A white light is to be used at night in 
the front, and a red one exhibited at the rear. The vehicle 
drawn by the locomotive must have a brake, except where the 
speed is less than 4 miles an hour, and some one must be on the 
vehicle to work the brake, unless it can be worked from the 
locomotive. The speed must not be greater than is reasonable 
and proper, and must not exceed 10 miles an hour in any case. 
If the weight unladen is Ij tons and does not exceed 2 tons, 
the maximum speed allowed is 8 miles an hour, and if the 
weight is over 2 tons, the speed shall not be greater than 5 miles 
an hour. If the locomotive is used to draw a vehicle, no matter 
what its weight is, the speed shall not be greater than 6 miles 
an hour. The rules for passing and being passed are also given, 
but are the same as those already in force. 



THE INLAND REVENUE REGULATIONS 
AS TO MOTO-VEHICLES. 

The following is an extract from a General Order issued by 
the Inland Revenue Department to their Officers with reference 
to the Licence Duties upon Light Locomotives : — 

" Under Section 1 a light locomotive is referred to as * Any 
vehicle propelled by mechanical power if it is under three tons 
in weight unladen, and is not used for the purpose of drawing 
more than one vehicle (such vehicle with its locomotive not to 
exceed in weight unladen four tons), and is so constructed that 
no smoke or visible vapour is emitted therefrom except from 



41 



any temporary or accidenial cause/ and by proviso b to that 
section a light locomotive is to be deemed a carriage, and if used 
as a carriage of any particular class is to be deemed to bo a 
carriage of that class. 

" Under Section 8 it is provided that on and after the first day 
of January next there phall be paid in Great Britain for every 
light locomotive which is liable to duty either as a carriage or 
or as a hackney carriage under Section 4 of the Customs and 
Inland Eevenue Act, 1888, an additional duty of excise at the 
following rate, namely : — 

If the weight of the locomotive exceeds £ s, d. 
one ton unladen, but does not exceed 
two tons unladen 2 2 

If the weight of the locomotive exceeds 

two tons unladen 3 3 

"This additional duty is payable at the same time as the 
ordinary duty on a licence for the locomotive as a carriage or 
hackney carriage. The full duties payable for light locomotives 
of the above description are therefore as follows : — 



- 


Weight, 

exceeding 

one ton, but 

not exceeding 

two tons. 

£ 8, d, 
4 4 
2 17 

2 17 
2 17 


Weight, 
exceeding 
two tons. 


Locomotiyes with four or more wheels — 

If used as an ordinary carriage 

If used as a hackney carriage 

Locomotives with less than four wheels — 

If used as an ordinary carriage 

If used as a hackney carriage 


£ s. d. 
5 5 
3 18 

3 18 
3 18 



"The above rates are subject to the reduction of £1 1^. or 
7«. 6c?. as the case may be if the locomotive be first used on or 
after the 1st October in any year. 

" In calculating for the purposes of the Act the weight of a 
vehicle unladen, the weight of any water, fuel, or accumulators 
used for the purpose of propulsion is not to be included. 

" It will be ol^erved that there is no additional duty charge- 
able in respect of a locomotive not exceeding one ton in weight 
unladen, or in respect of a locomotive of three tons or upwards 
in weight unladen. These will remain subject to t\\fe ort^^ccas:^ 
provisions as to carriage licence duty?' 



42 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

'British lleasures of Weigrht. 



Drams. 


Ozi. 


Lbs. 


Qrs. 


Cwts. 


Ton. 


Grammes. 


1 


•0625 


•0039063 


•0001395 


•000o349 


•00000174 


1-771846 


16 


«l 


•0625 


•0022321 


•000558 


•00002790 


28-34954 


256 


16 


= 1 


•0357143 


•0089285 


•00044643 


4535927 


7168 


448 


28 


= 1 


•25 


•0125 


12700^59 


28672 


1792 


112 


4 


= 1 


•05 


50802^38 


573440 


35840 


2240 


80 


20 


= 1 


1016048 



British Lineal Measure. 



Inches. 


Hands. 


Feet. 


Yard?. 


Fathoms. [ Chains. 


Furlongs. ' Mile. 


1 

4 

12 

36 

72 

792 

7620 

63360 


1 

3 

9 

18 

198 

1980 

15840 


1 

3 

6 

66 

660 

5280 


1 

2 

22 

220 

1760 


1 

11 

110 

880 


1 
10 
80 


1 

8 


1 



The span = 9". The hand = 4". 

Tlie cubit = 18". The mUitary pace = 30". 

The itinerary pace = 5'. 

British Square Measure. 



Sq. inches. 


Sq. feet. 


Sq. yards. 


Acres, 


Sq. mile. 


1 


•0069 


•0007 






144 


= 1 


•11 


•G0002 




1296 


9 


= 1 


•0062 


—— 


6272640 


43560 


4840 


-1 


•00156 


4014489600 


27878400 


3097600 


640 


= 1 



Acres x 0-0015625 = Sq. miles. 
Apothecaries' or Medical Measures of Weight. 



20 grains . . 
60 
480 






1 scruple 
3 
24 
2SS 



>j 



» 



it 



Draichms. 
1 
8 
96 



Ounces. 

1 
12 



Pound. 



43 



Apofheoaries' or lledioal HeaBures of Capacity. 



GO Minims 
480 
9600 
76800 






1 Drachms 
8 
160 
1280 



if 



» 



Ounces. 
1 
20 
160 



Pints. 

1 

8 



Gallon. 



1 Drachm 

2 Drachms 
4 Drachms 

2 Ounces 

3 Ounces 



1 Tea-spoonful. 
1 Dessert-spoonful. 
1 Table-spoonful. 
1 Wineglassful. 
1 Teacupful. 



liand DEeasure. 



• • 



• • 



• • 



Perch 

Square chain (lOO^X) sq. links) 

Bood (40 perches) 

Acre (4 roods, or 10 sq. chains) 

The Cheshire acre 



• > 



• • 



sq. yds. 


sq. ft. 


30i 


272i 


484 


4357 


1210 


10890 


4840 


43560 


10240 


92160 



The lletric System of Dfeasures and their eauivalents 

in British Units. 

Lineal. 



Ulillimdtre 

Centimetre 

Dteimdtre 

Mdtie ... 

D^camdtre 

Hectometre 

Kilometre 

Myriametre 



inches. 



-03937 
0-3937 
3 -an 
39-37 
393-0 



Feet. 


Yards. 


Miles. 


0-003281 


_ 


^^^ 


0-08281 


— 


— 


0-32«l 


0- 10936 


— 


3-281 


1 -0936 


— 


32*81 


10 -936 


— 


328 -08 


109-36 


C -06213 


3280-8 


1093-6 


-6213 


32808 -0 


10936-0 


6-218 



The millimetre is roughly ^V^ ^i^^^ i the centimetre a full §th ; and the metre 
Z feet 3f inches. 1 inch =2 *£ 39 centimetres; 1 foot=:3-0479 decimetres-.. l^S^x^.— 
■91438 metre ; 1 mile = 1 '6098 kilometres. 



44 



1 Myriametre = 10,000 metres = 6-21382 miles. 

1 Kilometre - 1,000 metres = 1093*6 yards = 32809 feet. 

1 Hectomel.re=100 metres = 006213 mile = 109-36 yards -=3280 feet. 

1 Decametre = 10 metres =0 0062 mile = 10'936 yards = 32*809 feet. 

1 Metre =000062 mile = 1*0936 yards = 3*2809 feet=39-37079 inches. 

1 Decimetre =01 metre = 0*000062 mile = 0*1093 yard =0*328 feet = 
3*937 inches. 

1 Centimetre =0*01 metrc = 0*0109 yard=0*328 foot=0-3937 inch. 

1 Millimetre = 0001 metre = 0*00109 yard = 0*00328 foot = 
003937 inch. 



SUBPACE. 





Sq. Inches. 


Sq. Feet. 


Sq. Yards. 


Acres. 


Sq. Millimetre ... 


0-0015 


'00001 


0*000001 


_ 


Sq. Centimetre ... 


0-l»6 


0-001 


0-0001 


»- 


Sq. D^im^tre ... 


16-6 


0-1076 


0-01 


■_ 


Sq. Mdtre 


1650-0 


10-76 


1-196 


0-0002 


Sq. D^camdtre ... 


155008-0 


1076-4 


119-6 


0*0247 


Hectare 


— 


107641 -0 


11960-0 


2-47 


Sq. Kilometre ... 


0-386n Sq. 
31-61 J miles 


10761101-0 


1196011-0 


247-1 


Sq. Myriametre... 


mmmm 


^" 


24711-0 



1 sq. inch=:6 -45137 sq. centimetres ; 1 sq. foot= 9*2899 sq. decimetres; 1 sq. yard 
:0 *88609 sq. metre ; 1 mile^O -40467 hectare. 



1 Hectare = 10,000 square metres = 11,960 square yards. 

1 Decare = 1,000 square metres » 0*2471 acre = 1,196 square yards. 

1 Are = 100 square metres =-* 0*0247 acre = 119*6 square yards =» 
1076'4 square feet. 

1 Deciare = 10 square metres = 11*96 square yards = 107*64 square 
feet = 15,501 square inches. 

1 Centiare or 1 Square Metre = 1 square metre = 0*00025 acre = 
1*19 square yards = 10*764 square feet «« 1,550 square inches. 

1 Milliare = 0*1 square metre = 0*119 square yard « 1*076 square 
y»e^ ~ J£i5 square inchea. 



45 



H 

M 

Si 




46 




d 

ails 









s 
i 



H 

M 







OOOOOOOO 



~ — « 05 CO 00 
~ iH 05CO 00 
O "H OiCO 

. . . . SS9? 

OOOOOOOO 




Q cq <M 

P Q ^ N 
O Q p O ^ 
00000 



000000 



^ 



09 o 



(M (M 

CO (M 

CO N 

CO <M \a 

~ CO 09 -H »ra 

O CO 09 fH »0 

6ooOOC009r; 

00 09 

CO 




5 00 _ 

10 rj< CO 



iH iO "^ OfJ 
O»H»OTjiC0©9C0"* 



^ 00 00 
CO ^ Op 



OOrH 



10 ^ CO 09 CO 

iH tO ^ CO 09 

iH »0 Tjt CO 

iH lO -"^ 

iH kO 



o 2 



S 

I 






o 

g 

^ 



QCO 



CD 



g 



/ 






CO 

a 

I 

00 

n 

09 

o . 

li 

■s a 

O f« 

■5 I' 

00 

00 t^ 
§«0 

as 



^< 



1® 

CO 
O C3 



n 



O 

\o 

00 

6 
R 



ff9 

o 



00 

« 

a 
a 



H 

CD 

"1. 

.1 

O 



o 
o 



CD 



I ^ 



00 



H 

a 

i 

bo 



to 






o 
6 



Ho 



u n 

0) 0) 

ttfO bO 



9 

o 



O 09 

fH 09 (B 

n 8-1 n 
K-Tj a 09 fi 

SP C fl 00 bo iw'»- 
oojsT^oPag 



I" 

a 
a 



.1 



II 

o 

a 
a 

08 

u 
bO 




a 

:.2S 

as 

^ S g fl 00 CO « 

. © 9 s «^ fl 09 a 



Dj 



§ ? g.S a*?' a 
I * 1 2 a^ a 

O 41 II 09 Q> O 




5 



CD 
O 00© 




;^ 



7*3 9^7^r3o © 



00 



ivmimmmmM. 



imsmSm_ 




li 



gg ggsg 



mmmmmm 



"■SgSSSSSSS 



iliiiiii 



a-^Bogggogoggg 



!!!JSIil|!ig|jjj| 



■"""-"'SSSggSgSSg 



.wanHigsi 



m 

li 

iOili 

f 



\ 



Iiicll*a •xpreaacd i 



■ Dwitmala of « Poot. 






■onoo 

-oow 


■!» 


[^ 












































































■D2M 




IDM 












































































































■UMI 







'33U a -MH) 8 



' »j3z '3iet SfK '1 



, ti/t3 1 -aer: ; is,32 ' -5139 im ■: 



■■■SJ7B nm -MM 

'■■iUta < W/IB -M69 

! -itsa ! i»,3! -Nos 

"IBM I S,« -M2I 

: I '3880 I zi/t! -km; 

I, '3906 :- ll/ie -Mil 

1 . -sm: ' !3;W -SMS 

■HIM 1/4 -MZt 



1-/32 ■; 

BIS -| 

II, n '■■Eli 



Zl/n -aiiu ZT i2 ■mjo ii/ts ', -4D3B 

T/H -OTtB I 1/8 -2iUe Tid '-JIAS 
~~" -0763 as/JS -MW M/Mi'«W 



«i/«Z 



-oass '< 1/ie -2US i/ib 



6/3'd I '2630 3/32 



ilS/JBI __._ 



'4!9; A/>2 '.1U64 II/BS -1 
-4323 3/16 -S'lSG 3/13 -t 



1/4 '<iM2 l/« 





■fl'4l 






































B22' 2B1S2 


-GM3 



1 A wiat\-wyi 'i,^\fftYw 



49 



FBAOTIONS OF AN INCH AND THEIR DECIKAI* 

EaXTIVAIiENTS. 



Frac- 
tions. 


DecimaU. 


Frac- 
doni. 


Decimals. 


Fruc- 
ttons. 


Decimals. 


Frac- 

tiOQI. 


Decimals* 


1/84 


0015625 


17/64 


0*265625 


1 
33/64 


515625 


! 49/84 


0-765625 


1/32 


0*03125 


9/32 


0*28125 


17/32 


0*53125 


25/32 


0-78125 


8/64 


0046-J75 


lH/64 


0*296875 


85/64 


0*546875 


51/64 


0*796875 


1/16 


0-0625 


5/16 


0-3125 


9/16 


0*56-25 


13/16 


0*8126 


5/61 


0-078126 


21/64 


0*328125 


37/64 


0-578125 


53/64 


0*828126 


8/32 


0-09375 


11/32 


0*34375 


19/32 


0-59375 


27/82 


0*84375 


7/64 


1U9375 


23/64 


0-359375 


89/64 


0*609375 


55/6 1 


85^375 


1/8 


0125 


3/8 


0-375 


5,8 


0*625 


7/8 


0*875 


9/64 


0140625 


25/64 


0*390625 


41 64 ; 


0*640625 


67/64 


0*830625 


5/32 


0- 15625 


13,32 


0*40 J25 1 


12/32 ■ 


0*65625 


•29/32 


0*90625 


11/64 


171875 


27/64 


0*421876 


: 43/64 


0-671875 


59/64 


0*921876 


3/16 


01875 


' 7,ln 


0-4375 


11/16 


0-6876 


15/16 


0*9375 


13/64 


0-203125 


29/64 


453125 


45/64 


0*703125 


61/64 


0-953126 


7/32 


0-21*75 


15/32 


0*46875 


23/32 


0-71876 


31/a2 


096875 


15/64 


0*234375 


31/64 


0*484375 


47/64 


0-734375 


63/64 


0-984375 


1/4 


0*25 


1/2 


0*5 


»/4 ; 

1 


0*75 


1 


' 0-1 ■ 



DECIMAL EaXJIVAIiENTS OF A FOOT. 



In. 





iV 


* 




I 


^ 


f; 1 iV 


In. 





0-0000 


0*0052 


0*0104 


0-0156 


0-0208 


0-0260 


i 
0-0313 


*0365 





1 


0*0833 


0-0885 


0*0937 


0-0990 


1042 


0-1094 


0-114H 


0*1198 


1 


2 


0*1667 


0*1719 


0-1771 


0-1823 


0-1875 


0-19-27 


0-1979 


0*2031 


2 


8 


0*2500 


0-2652 


0*2604 


0*2666 


0-2708 


0-2760 


0-2813 


0*2^65 


3 . 


4 


0*8348 


0-3385 


0*3437 


0*3490 


-3542 


0-3594 


0*3646 


0-3698 


4 


5 


0*4 16V 


-4219 


0-4271 


0-4323 


0*4376 


0*4427 


0-4479 


0*4531 


5 


6 


0*5000 


0-5052 


0-5104 


-6156 


0*5208 


0*6260 


5313 


0-6365 


6 


7 


0*5833 


0-5885 


0*6937 


-5990 


0-6042 


0-6094 


0-6146 


0-6198 


7 


8 


0*6667 


6719 


0-6771 


0-6823 


0-6875 


0*6927 


0-6979 


0-7031 


8 


9 


0*7500 


0-7552 


0*7604 


0-7656 


0-7708 


-7760 


')-78l3 


-7865 


9 


10 


0*8333 


0-8385 


0-8437 


0*8490 


0*8542 


0-8694 


0-8646 


0-8698 


10 


11 


0*9167 


0*9219 


0-9271 


0*9323 


0*9375 


0-9427 


0-9479 


0-9531 


11 

• 



In. 


i 


1^ 


f 


U 


J 


H 


i 


n 


In. 





0*0417 


0-0469 


0*0521 


0-0573 


0-0625 


0-0677 


0-0729 


0-0781 





1 


0*1250 


0-130*2 


0*1364 


0-1406 


0-1458 


0-1510 


0*1563 


0-1615 


I 


2 


0-2083 


0-2135 


0-2188 


0-2240 


0-2292 


0-2344 


0-2396 


0-2448 


2 


8 


0*2917 


0-2969 


0-3021 


0-3073 


0-8125 


0-3177 


-3-229 


0*3281 


8 


4 


0*8750 


0*:?802 


0-3854 


0-3906 


0-3968 


0*4010 


-4063 


0-4115 


4 


5 


0*4«88 


0*4635 


0-4688 


0-4740 


0-4792 


0*4844 


0*4896 


0-4948 


& ; ■ 


6 


0*5417 


0*5469 


0-5521 


0-5673 


0-5626 


0-5677 


0-5729 


0-5781 


6 . 


7 


0*6250 


-6302 


0-6364 


0-6406 


0*6468 


0-6510 


0-6663 


0-6615 


7 


8 


0-70p3 


0*7135 


0-7187 


0*7240 


0-7292 


0-7344 


0-7396 


0*7448 


8 


9 


0*7917 


0-7969 


0-8021 


0*8073 


0-8125 


0-8177 


0-8-229 


0-8281 


9 


10 


0*8750 


0-8802 


0-8854 


0-8906 


0-8958 


*90I0 


0*9063 


0-9115 


10 ! 


11 


0*9588 


0*9635 


0*9688 


0-9740 


0-9792 


0-9844 


0*9896 


0-9948 


]] 



.'V^ 



50 



Britiflh Statute Miles Expressed as Kilometres. 




Kilom. 
•000« 

lOr i6*09a 

20 82*186 



SO 



48*279 
•872 



4C *€4 
60 '80-466 
60 96-668 
70112-66 
80128 
90144 



•74 

•86 



100160-93 



Kilom 
1 -6093 
17 -702 
.33-79fi 
49-888 
66-981 
82-074 
98-167 
114-26 
130-35 
146-44 
162 -ftS 



Kilom. 
3-2186 
19-321 
35 -405 
bl -498 
67 -591 
83-684 
99-777 
115-87 
131 -96 
'48-05 
164-14 



8 



Kilom. 



4- 

20 

37 

53 

69 

85 

101 

117 

133 

149 



H279 

921 

014 

107 

200 

293 

•39 

'48 

•57 

•66 



165-75 



Kilom. 
6-4372 
22-530 ] 
38-623 
64-716 
70-809 ; 
86-902 ' 

102-99 ! 

119-08 

185-17 I 

151-26 

167-35 



Kilom. 
8 -0465 
24-139 
40 -232 
56 -325 
72-418 
88-511 
104 -60 
120-69 
136 -78 
152-87 
168-96 



Kilom. 
9 -6558; 
25 -749 
41 -842 
57 -936 
74-028 
90-121 

106-21 

122-30 

138-39 

154 -48 

170-57 



Kilom. 

1 1 -2652 
3A8 
451 
544 
637 
730 
•82 
91 
00 
-09 
18 



8 



27 

43 

59 

76 

91 

107 

123 

140 

156 

172 



Kilom. 
12-8745 
28 -967 
45 -060 
61-153 
77-246 
93 -339 
109-43 
125-52 
141 -61 
157-70 
173 •7d 



Kilom. 

14-4848 

677 

670 

768 

856 

949 

04 

18 

22 

81 

40 



30 

46 

62 

78 

94 

111 

1-27 

143 

159 

• 76 



Kilometres Expressed as British. Statute Miles. 



• 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




'.Miles J 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 





-0000 


0-6214 


1 -2427 


1-8641 


2-4855 


3-1069 


3 -7282 


4-3497 


4-9711 


6-6924 


10 


6-2138 


6-8352 


7-4665 


8-0780 


8-6994 


9 •320s 


9-9421 


10-562 


11-185 


11-805 


20 


12-427., 


13-049 


13-670 


14-292 


14-913 


15-534 


16-156 


16-776 


17-399 


18-019 


80 


18*641 


19 -263 


19-884 


20-506 


21-127 


21-748 


22-370 


22-990 


23-613 


24-233 


40 


24*865 


'25-477 


^6-098 


26-720 


27 -341 


27 -962 


28 -584 


29 -204 


29-827 


30-447 


60 


81 -069 


31 -690 


32-311 


32 -983 


83 '554 


34-175 


34-797 


36-417 


36-040 


36 -660 


60 


87-282 


37 -904 


38-526 


39-147 


89-768 


40-389 


41-011 


41 -C31 


42-254 


42-874 


70 


48-497 


.44*118 


,44-739 


45-361 


46-982 


46-603 


47 -225 


47 -845 


48-468 


49-088 


80 


49*711 


60-332 


'60-963 


51 -675 


52-196 


52-817 


53 -439 


54 -059 


64-682 


65-802 


90 


65-924 


66-646 


*67 -166 


57 -788 


68-409 


59 -030 


59 -652 


60-272 


60-895 


61*618 


100 


62*138 


62 -759 ] 


[^63-380 


64 -002 


64-628 65-244 


65 -866 


66-486 ' 67-109 


67*729 







Brttlsh Feet Expressed as Metres. 






^ 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 ! 6 


7 


8 


9 




Metres. 


"Metres. 


Mdtres. 


Metres. 


Metres 


Metres. 


Metres. 


Mitres. 


Metres. 


MMres. 





•000 


0*3048 


0-6096 


0-9144 


1 -2192 


1 -5239 


1 -8287 


2-1335 


2 -4383 


2-7481 


10 


8^0479 


3-3527 


3 -6575 


3-96:^3 


4 -2671 


4-5719 


4-8767 


5-1816 


5-4863 


.=>-7911 


20 


6*0369 


6-400t> 


: 6 -7C55 


7-0102 


7 -3150 


7-6198 


7 -9246 


8-2294 


8 -5342 


8-889( 


30 


9*1438 


9-4486 


9 -7534 


10-058 


10-363 


10-668 


10 972 


11-277 


11-5-2 


11-887 


40 


12*192 


12-496 


:i2-801 


13-106 


13-411 


18-716 


14-020 


14-325 


14-630 


14-936 


60 


16-239 


16-644 


16-849 


16-154 


16-459 


16-763 


17-068 


17-376 


17-678 


17 988 


60 


18*287 


18-692 


18-897 


19-202 


19-507 


19-811 


20-116 


20 -421 


20 -726 


21 -031 


70 


21 *835 


21*610 


21 -945 


22-250 


22-555 


22 -859 


23-164 


23-469 


23-774 


24-079 


80 


24-383 


24-688 


24-993 


26-298 


25 -602 


25-907 


26-212 


26-517 


26 -822 


27 -126 


90 


27*431 


27-736 


28-041 


28 -346 


28 -651 


28 -955 


29 -260 


29 -665 


29-870 


30-174 


100 


80-479 


30-784 


31 -089 


31 -394 


31-698 1 32-003 


32 -308 


32-613 


.32-918 


33 -2-22 



Metres Expressed as British. Feet. 



i 



10 
20 
80 
40 
60 
60 



Feet. 

•000 

82*809 

66 61^ 

98*427 

131 *24 




Feet. 
8*2809 
36*090 

•899 

■71 

•62 

'38 



I Uin l«70 Oil 

Tff/ 229-66 
6^ 262 '47 
9gf 295'28 
"V 32i 



Feet. 
13-123 
45 -932 
78*741 
111-55 
144-36 
177*17 
209*98 
242-79 
276-60 
808*40 
341 



6 



•21 



Feet. 
16-404 
49*213 
82-022 
114-83 
147*64 
180-45 
213-26 
246-07 
278-88 
811*69 
344*49 






Feet. 
19-686 
62-494 
85*308 
118*11 
150*92 
183-73 
216-64 
249-86 
28a -IS 
»\4'91 
441 -Ift 



8 



Feet. Feet. 

22*966 26*247 

66-776 69 •066 

88-684 91-866 

121-89 124*67 

164*20 167-48 

187*01 190*29 

219-82 228*10 

262-68 265-91 



62- 
95 < 
127- 
160- 
198* 
226- 
269' 



•^a\" 
^•^^^ 



51 



Britiflta. Inohes expressed as Centimetres. 



In. 




10 
20 

to 

40 
80 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 



Cm. 

•0 

25*4 

SO -8 

76 -2 

101*6 

127-0 

1S2-4 

177 "8 

203-2 

228-6 

264*0 



C<-n. 

2-64 

27 •P4 

63*34 

78*74 

104*14 

129*54 

164*94 

180*84 

206*74 

231*14 

266*64 



Cm. 

5*03 

30*44 

65*88 

81*28 

106-68 

132 -08 

157 -48 

182*88 

208*28 

233*68 

259*08 



3 



I 



5 



Cm. 

7-62 

33 '01 

58*42 

83 -82 

109*22 



134 
160 
185 
210 
2J6 
261 



62 
02 
42 
82 
22 
62 



Cm. 

10*16 

35*66 

60-96 

86*36 

111 76 

137*16 

162*56 

187*96 

213-36 

238*76 

264-16 



Cm. 
12*7 
88*1 
63*6 

88*9 
114-3 
139-7 
1651 
190-5 
215*9 
241*3 
266*7 



Cm. 

16 24 

40*64 

66*04 

91-44 

116*84 

142*24 

167*64 

193 *04 

218*44 

243 *84 

269*24 



8 



Cm. 

17-78 
43*18 
68-58 
93-98 
119*38 



78 
18 



144 

170 

195*68 

220*98 

246*88 

271*78 



Cm. 

20*32 



46 
71 



72 
12 



96*52 
121 *92 
147*32 
172-72 
198*12 
228*62 
248*92 
274*32 



9 



Cm. 

22 •€ 

48 *a 

78 -fi 

99 *« 

124*4 

149-6 

176*2 

200 -S 

226 *C 

251*4 

276 -8 



4 mches=Tather more than 10 centimetres. 
Centimetres expressed as British. Inches. 



i 



*® 

20 
SO 
40 
60 
60 

7o; 

80' 

90 

100 



Inches. 

-000 

8*987 

7*874 

11*811 

16*748 

10-685 

28*622 

27*660 

31 *497 

36*484 

89*370 



1 



Inches. 

0*894 

4*381 

8*268 

12*205 

16*142 

20*079 

24*016 

27 *9.'>3 

31 -SHO 

35 *827 

39*764 



Inches. 

0*787 

4*742 

8*t)62 

12*599 

16*536 

20 *473 

24*410 

28*347 

32*284 

36*221 

15S 



40 



3 



Inches. 



1 
5 



•181 
•118 
9*C55 
12*992 
16*929 
20*867 
24*804 
28*741 
32*678 
36*615 
40 -552 



Inches 

1*575 

5-512 

9*449 

13*386 

17 -323 

21 -260 

26*197 

29*134 

33*071 

37 -009 

40 -945 



Inches. 



1 
5 

9 
13 
17 
21 
2!. 
29 



969 
906 
H43 
780 
717 
654 
591 
528 



33*465 
37 *402 
41 *339 



Inches. 
2*362 
6*299 
10*236 
14-173 
18111 
22-048 
25*985 
29 -92/ 
33-859 
37 *796 
41 -733 



8 



Inches. 
2 •7.':6 
6*693 
10-630 
14-567 
18-504 
22*441 
26 -378 
30-316 
34-253 
38-190 
42*126 



Inches. 
3-150 
7-087 
11-024 
14 -961 
18-898 
22*835 
26-772 
30*709 
34-646 
88-583 
42 -520 



9 



Inche 
3*64 
7-48 
11*41 
16*36 
19*2fl 
28*22 
27*16 
31*10 
35*04 
88*97 
42*91 



2*5 centimdtres or 25 millim6tre8=nearly 1 inch. 
Millimetres and their equivalents in British Inches. 



• 


Inches. 


a 


Inches. 


S 
36 


Inches. 


62 


Inches. 


1 

69 


Inches. 


• 

S 
86 


Inches. 


1 


*0394 


18 


*7087 


1 *3780 


2-0473 


2*7166 


3*3859 


2 


*0787 


19 


*74hO 


36 


1 4173 


58 


2 -OSKO 


1 70 


2*7559 


87 


3*4252 


8 


*1181 


20 


-7874 


37 


1 -4567 


54 


2*1260 


71 


2 -7953 


88 


3-4646 


4 


•1675 


21 


•8268 


38 


1 -4961 


65 


2-1664 


1 72 


2 -8347 


89 


3*5040 


6 


•1968 


22 


-8661 


39 


1*6354 


56 


2-2047 


73 


2-8740 


90 


3*5433 


6 


-2362 


' 23 


•9055 


40 


1*5748 


57 


2 -2441 


. 74 


2*9134 


91 


3*6827 


7 


•2^86 


24 


-9449 


41 


1 *6142 


58 


2*2835 


1 75 


2*9528 


92 


3 -6221 


8 


-8160 


25 


•9843 1 


42 


1 -6536 


59 


2*3228 


76 


2*9922 


93 


3*6614 


9 


•8648 


26 


1*0238 ! 


43 


1-6929 


60 


2*3622 


77 


3*0315 


94 


3*7008 


10 


-3937 


i 27 


1*0630 


44 


1 -7323 


61 


2*4016 


78 


3-0709 


95 


3*7402 


11 


*4331 


28 


1 -1024 


45 


1 *7717 


62 


2*4410 


79 


3-1103 


96 


3*7796 


12 


*4724 


29 


1*1417 


46 


1*8110 


63 


2-4803 


80 


3 1496 


97 


3*8189 


18 


*5118 


30 


l-Hll 


47 


1*8504 


64 


2-6197 


81 


3*1890 


98 


3*8683 


14 


*6612 


31 


1-2205 


48 


1*8898 


65 


2*5591 


82 


3.*2284 


99 


3 -8977 


16 


•6906 


«2 


1 -2598 


49 


1*9291 


66 


2-5984 


83 


3*2677 


100 


8*9370 


16 


'6i99 


33 


1 -2992 


50 


1 *9685 


67 


2 -6378 


84 


3-3071 






17 


-6698 


34 


1 -3386 


51 


2 *0079 


\ 6a 


I ^'^T\^ \^ \%^V^^ '< 


\ 



52 



Compound Equivalents, 

1 Atmosphere (14*7 lbs. per square inch) »» 1*0335 kilogrammes per 

square centimetre. 
1 Foot-pound » 0*1382 kilogrammetre. 
1 lb. per square inch =0*0703077 kilogramme per square centimetre « 

0*7031 gramme per square millimetre = 5*170 centimetres of 

mercury at degree Centigrade. 
1 Kilogramme per square millimetre = 1422*32 lbs. per square inch = 

0*635 ton per square inch. 
1 Kilogramme per square centimetre = 14*2232 lbs. per square inch. 
1 G-ramme per square millimetre = 1*422 lbs. per square inch. 
1 Kilogrammetre ^ 7*233 foot-pounds. 

1 O-ramme per square centimetre = 0*01422 lb. per square inch. 
1 Calorie or French unit of heat = 3*968 English heat-units. 
French mechanical equivalent of heat (425 kilogrammetres) » 

3,074 foot-pounds per unit. 
1 Calorie per square metre — 0*369 heat-unit per square foot. 
1 Calorie per kUogramme = 1*800 heat-units per lb. 
1 English unit of heat, or heat-unit = 0*252 calorie. 
English mechanical equivalent to one heat-unit (772 foot-pounds) = 

10*67 kilogrammetres. 
1 English heat-unit per square foot = 2*713 calories per square metre. 
1 English heat-unit per lb. = f calorie per kilogramme. 



The Law of Footpaths. 

By the Highways Act, 1835, it is enacted : — If any person shall 
wilfully ride upon any footpath or causeway by the side of the roafl 
made or set apart for the use and accommodation of foot passengers ; 
or shall wilfully lead or drive any horse, ass, sheep, mule, swine, 
or cattle or carriage of any description, or any truck or sledge upon 
any such footpath or causeway ; or shall cause any injury or damage 
to be done to the said highway, or the hedges, posts, rails, walls, or 

■ fences thereof ; or wilfully destroy the surface of any highway ; or 
shall in any way wilfully obstruct the free passage of any such high- 
way : Every person so ofiPending in any of the cases aforesaid shall 
for each and every such offence forfeit and pay any sum not exoeed- 

/a^ forty sbillinga over and above the damages occa«von.ed thereby. 



53 



TABIiES OP lUPEBIAL STAKDABD WIBE GAUaES, 



with EauiTalents in Decimals of an Inch and in Millimetres. 



SIZE. 




SIZE. 






Decimals 


Equivalent 




Decimals 


Equivalent 


8.W.G. 


of 


in 


S.W.G. 


of 


in 




an Inch. 


Millimetres. 




an Inch. 
-018 


Millimetres. 


Wo. 1 


•800 


7^620 


No. 26 


0^457 


2 


•276 


7 010 


27 


•0164 


-4166 


3 


•252 


6-401 


28 


•0148 


-8769 


4 


•282 


5-893 


29 


•0186 


*8454 


5 


•212 


5-385 


30 


•0124 


0-3150 


6 


•192 


4-877 


81 


•0116 


0-2946 


7 


•176 


4 '470 


82 


•0108 


-2743 


8 


•100 


4 064 


83 


-0100 


0-2540 


9 


•144 


8-658 


34 


•0092 


0-2337 


10 


•128 


8-251 


35 


•0084 


0-2134 


11 


•116 


2-946 


36 


•0076 


0-1930 


12 


•104 


2-642 


37 


-0068 


1727 


18 


•092 


2 337 


38 


-0060 


0-1524 


14 


•080 


2-032 


39 


-0052 


0-1321 


15 


072 


1-829 


40 


-0048 


0-1219 


16 


•064 


1 -620 


41 


•0044 


0-1118 


17 


•056 


1-422 


42 


-0(»40 


0^1036 


18 


•048 


1-219 


43 


•0036 


0-0914 


19 


•040 


1-016 


44 


•0032 


-0818 


20 


•036 


0-914 


45 


-0028 


^0711 


21 


•032 


0-813 


46 


•0024 


0-0610 


22 


•028 


0-711 


47 


•0020 


0-050S 


28 


•024 


0-610 


48 


•0016 


0-0406 


24 


•022 


0-559 


49 


-0012 


0-0305 


26 


•020 


0-508 


50 


-0010 


-0254 



Copying Graphs. — ^Talie 8 oz. of glycerine, 2 oz. best glue ; to 
the glue add 8 oz. of water, and when dissolved, stir in the glycerine, 
pour the mixture into a zinc dish, and ns soon as it sets it is resdj 
for use. If too much glycerine is used, the paper will stick to it ; if 
too much glue, it will not take a good impression. Tba T«tt»R&^ Vst 
this is re-melting, and adding either g\.\xe or ^^c»Takfe>a^S^»''>A^^^^ 



54 



Imperial Standard Wire Gkiuffe. 
Issued htf the Iron and Steel Wire Manufacturers* Association, 



Size 


Diameter. 


Sectional 


Weight of 




Ultimate Strength. 


on 






Area in 
Square 






Length 
of Cwt. 






Wire 




Mill!. 










Gauge. 


Inch. 


metres. 


Inches. 


100 yds. 


Mile. 




Annealed. 


Bright. 










lbs. 


lbs. 


Yards. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


7/0 


'500 


12-7 


•1963 


193^4 


3404 


58 


10470 


15700 


6/0 


•464 


11-8 


•1691 


166 5 


2930 


67 


9017 


13525 


5/0 


•432 


11^0 


•1466 


144^4 


2541 


78 


•7814 


11725 


4/0 


•400 


10-2 


•1257 


123-8 


2179 


91 


6702 


10052 


3/0 


•372 


9-4 


•1087 


107 1 


1885 


105 


5796 


8694 


2/0 


•348 


8-8 


•0951 


93-7 


1649 


120 


5072 


7608 


1/0 


•324 


8-2 


•0824 


81^2 


1429 


138 


4397 


6595 


1 


•300 


7^6 


•0707 


69-6 


1225 


161 


3770 


5655 


2 


•276 


7^0 


•0598 


58-9 


1037 


190 


3190 


4785 


3 


•252 


6-4 


•0499 


49^1 


864 


228 


2660 


3990 


4 


•232 


5 9 


•0423 


41^6 


732 


269 


2254 


3381 


5 


•212 


5 4 


•0365 


34-8 


612 


322 


1883 


2824 


6 


•192 


4-9 


•0290 


28-5 


502 


393 


1544 


2316 


7 


•176 


4-5 


•0243 


24-0 


422 


467 


1298 


1946 


8 


•160 


41 


•0201 


19-8 


348 


566 


1072 


1608 


9 


•144 


3-7 


•0162 


16-0 


282 


700 


869 


1303 


10 


•128 


3 3 


•0129 


12-7 


223 


882 


687 


1030 


- 11 


•116 


3-0 


•0106 


10 6 


183 


1077 


564 


845 


12 


•104 


2-6 


•0085 


8-4 


148 


1333 


454 


680 


13 


•092 


2-3 


•0066 


6^5 


114 


1723 


355 


532 


14 


•080 


2 


•0050 


5 


88 


2240 


268 


402 


15 


•072 


1-8 


•0041 


40 


70 


2800 


218 


326 


16 


•064 


16 


•0032 


3 2 


56 


3500 


172 


257 


17 


•056 


14 


•0025 


2-4 


42 


4667 


131 


197 


18 


•048 


12 


•0018 


1-8 


32 


6222 


97 


145 


19 


•040 


1^0 


•0013 


1-2 


21 


9333 


67 


100 


20 


•036 


0^9 


•0010 


10 


18 


11200 


55 


82 



The Watoh as a Compass. — Due south can be readily ascertained 
if one possesses a fairly correct watch and the position of the sun is 
distinguishable. Point the hour hand to the sun, and the south is 
exactly half-way between the hour and the figure XII on the watch. 
For instance, suppose that it is 4 o'clock. Point the hand indicating 
IT to the sun and II on the watch is exactly south. Suppose that it 
iff. 8 o'eiock, jpomt the hand indicating YIII to the sun, and tne figure X 
oa the watch is due south. 



55 

COMPABISOK OF DIPFE&ENT THESMOMETESS. 



9 ' 




• 


• » 




• 


« » 




• 


11 


• 

1 






a 




1-2 




a 


as 




6 

1 


O o 


4 


1 


1« 

as 


§ 
3 


1 


+ 260 


+208 


+500 


+215 


+ 172 


+419 


+ 170 


+ 136 


+338 


259 


207-20 


498*20 


! 214 


171*20 


417 -20 


169 


135-20 


336 -2(1 


258 


206*40 


496*40 


! 218 


170*40 


415*40 ! 


168 


184*40 


334140 


257 


205*60 


494 *60 


i 212 


169*60 


418*60 1 


J 67 


138*60 


332 *«0 


256 


204*80 


492-80 


1 211 

1 


168*80 


411-80 

1 


166 


182*80 


330*80 


255 


204 


491 


' 210 


168 


410 


165 


132 


329 


254 


208*20 


489**«0 


, 209 


167*20 


408*20 


164 


181*20 


827:20 


258 


202*40 


487*40 


208 


166*40 


406*40 i 


163 


180*40 


825140 


362 


201*60 


485-60 


; 207 


165*60 


404*60 


162 


129*60 


828*60 


251 


200*80 


483*80 


206 


164*80 


402*80 


161 


128*80 


321*80 


250 


200 


482 


205 


164 


401 


160' 


128 


320 


249 


199*20 


480*20 


204 


163*20 


399*20 


159 


127-20 


318^ 


248 


198*40 


478 -40 


203 


162*40 


397 '40 


158 


126-40 


316 r40 


247 


197 -60 


476-60 


i 202 


161 '60 


395-60 


157 


1-25-60 


314 '60 


246 


196*80 


474*80 


. 201 


160-00 


393-80 ' 


156 


124-80 


312*80 


245 


196 


473 


200 


160 


392 


155 


124 


311 


244 


195*20 


471*20 


199 


159 -20 


3P0-20 


154 


123*20 


309*20 


243 


194*40 


469 40 


198 


158*40 


388-40 


153 


1^2 40 


307*40 


242 


198*60 


467-60 


197 


157-60 


386*60 1 


152 


121 -60 


305*60 


241 


192-80 


465*80 


196 


156-80 


384-80 


151 


1-20*80 


303^80 


240 


1 192 


464 


195 


156 


383 


150 


120 


302 


289 


191 *20 


462*20 


194 


155*20 


381 *ro 


149 


119-20 


300 '20 


288 


190*40 


460*40 


198 


154-40 


879*40 


148 


118-40 


298-40 


287 


189*60 


458-60 


192 


153*60 


377-60 


147 


117-60 


296*60 


286 


188*80 


456*80 


191 


152-80 


375-80 


146 


116-80 


294*80 


285 


188 


455 


190 


lfi2 


374 


145 


116 


293 


284 


187*20 


468*20 


189 


151-20 


372-20 


144 


115*20 


291 20 


288 


186-40 


451*40 


188 


160*40 


370*40 


143 


114*40 


289-40 


282 


185*60 


449*60 


187 


149*60 


368-60 


142 


113*60 


287*60 


281 


184*80 


447*80 


186 


148-80 


366*80 1 


141 


112*80 


2(55-80 


2»0 


184 


446 


185 


148 


365 ! 


140 


112 


284 


229 


188*20 


444*20 


184 


147-20 


363*20 ! 


139 


111-20 


282-20 


228 


182*40 


442-40 


183 


146-40 


361*40 


188 


110*40 


2b0*40 


227 


181 -60 


440*60 


182 


145 -60 


359*60 


J 37 


109-60 


278-60 


226 


180-80 


438-80 


181 

1 


144-80 


357-80 


13(5 


108-80 


276-80 


225 


180 


437 


i 180 


144 


356 


135 


108 


275 


224 


179*20 


435*20 


, 179 


14» 20 


354 -20 


134 


107 -20 


273*20 


228 


178*40 


43^5-40 


178 


142-40 


35/ -40 


133. 


106-40 


271-40 


222 


177*60 


431 -60 


177 


141 -60 


850-60 1 


132 


105*60 


269-60 


221 


176*80 


429 -80 


176 


140 -80 


348*80 ; 


131 


104*80 


267-80 


220 


176 


428 


175 


140 


347 


130 


104 


266 


219 


175*20 


426*20 


174 


139*20 


345*20 1 


129 


108*20 


264*20 


218 


174-40 


424-40 


173 


188 '40 


348*40 ' 


128 


102-40 


262*40 


217 


178*60 


422*60 


172 


187 -60 


> a4\*ft0^ 


V x'i.i 






216 


172*80 


420-80 


171 


136*80 


\^ Vl'S 



56 



Oomparison of Different Thermometers — continued. 



® M 




4i 


« ji 




• 

4a 


• >* 




jJ 






a 


MM 

1 


11 


i 






i 


.m4 


?5 

55 


3 

i 

+ 100 


1 


15 

1 O o 


1 


.a 

52 : 


Centi 
or Cc 


s 


1 


+ 125 


+267 


'+80 


+64 


+ 176 


+85 


+28 


i +95 


124 


99-20 


255 -20 


79 


63*20 


174*20 


34 


27*20 


1 93-20 


123 


98>40 


258*40 


78 


6-i-40 


172*40 


83 


26*40 


91-40 


122 


9Teo 


251 -60 


77 


61*60 


170*60 


82 


25*60 


89 60 


121 


96-80 


249-80 


76 


60*80 


lt8*80 


! 31 


24-80 


87-80 


120 


96 


248 


75 


60 


167 


80 


24 


86 


119 


95-20 


246-20 


74 


59-20 


165-20 


29 


23-20 


84-20 


118 


94-40 


244*40 


73 


58*40 


163*40 


28 


22*40 


82-40 


117 


93*60 


242 -60 


72 


57 60 


161 -60 


27 


21-60 


80-60 


116 


92-80 


240 -80 


71 


56 -SO 


189-80 : 

1 


26 


20-80 


78-80 


116 


92 


239 


70 


56 


158 


25 


20 


77 


114 


91-20 


237 -20 


69 


55-20 


156-20 


24 


J 9*20 


75-20 


118 


9'>-40 


235 *40 


68 


54*40 


154*40 


, 23 


18*40 


73-40 


112 


89-60 


233 *60 


67 


53-60. 


152*60 


22 


17*«0 


71*60 


111 


88-80 


231-80 


66 


52 80 


150-80 


21 


16*80 


69*80 


110 


88 


^30 


65 


52 


149 


20 


16 


68 


109 


87*20 


228*20 


64 


51*20 


147 -20 


19 


15*20 


66*20 


108 


86-40 


226-40 


63 


60*40 


145 -40 


18 


14*40 


«54-40 


107 


85*60 


224*60 ; 


62 


49-60 


148*60 


17 


13*60 


62-60 


106 


84*80 


222*80 


61 


48-80 


141 -80 


16 


12-80 


60-80 


105 


84 


^221 


60 


i 48 


140 • 


15 


12 


59 


104 


8a -20 


219*20 j 


59 


47-20 


138-20 


14 


11*20 


57-20 


103 


82*40 


;2I7*40 


58 


46*40 


136-40 


13 


10-40 


55 -40 


102 


81-60 


'215*60 ; 


57 


• 45-60 


134*60 


12 


9-60 


53-60 


101 


80-80 


;213 -80 


56 


44*80 


132 -8a j 


11 

1 


8-80 


51*80 


too 


80 


212 


55 


44 


!l3I 


, JO 


8 


50 


99 


79-20 


210-20 


54 


43*20 


129*20 


1 9 


7*20 


4S*20 


98 


78*40 


208-40 


63 


42-40 


127 -40 


' 8 


6-40 


46*40 


97 


' 77-60 


206 -60 


52 


41*60 


125*60 


7 


5*60 


44*60 


96 


76-80 


204 -80 


51 


40-80 


123*80 


6 


4*80 


42 *80 


95 


76 


!203 


50 


40 


122 


5 


4 


41 


94 


76*20 


201 *20 


49 


39-20 


120 -20 


; * 


3-20 


89*20 


93 


74*40 


199-40 


48 


38*40 


118*40 


' 8 


• 2-40 


37*40 


92 


78*60 


197 *60 


47 


87*60 


116*60 


, 2 


1*60 


35-60 


91 


72*80 


|195 -80 


46 

1 


36-80 


114-80 


, 1 


0-80 


33-80 


90 


72 


;194 


45 


' 36 


113 








82 


89 


71*20 


•192*20 


44 


35*20 


111-20 


-1 


-0*80 


?0*20 


88 


70*40 


190*40 


, 48 


34*40 


109*40 


2 


1*60 


28*40 


87 


69*60 


188*60 


' 42 


33*60 


107-60 


8 


; 2*40 


•/« *60 


»6 


68*80 


:i86-80 

1 


41 


32*80 


105 -80 


4 


3*20 


: -24-80 


85 


68 


:185 


40 


32 


104 


5 


1 4 


t;3 


84 


, 67*20 


,188*20 


39 


. 31*20 


102-20 


6 


4*80 


21*20 


83 


'■ 60*40 


181 *40 


38 


80*40 


100-40 


. 7 


5*60 


19*40 


-ft?/ 


6!5'ff0 / 


179-60 


37 


29*60 


98*60 


8 


6*40 


17*60 


^ 


64-80 1 


177 '80 I 


36 1 


28*80 


96*80 






, 10*80 

V w 



57 
ARITHMETICAL. 

Properties of the Circle. 



A = 
D « 
O = 

Tbis 
2ir = 

86 IT = 

IT __ 

¥ 

ir 

4 " 

ir __ 

v/2- 

v/r= 



Area. 

Diameter. 

Circumference. 

ratio is denoted by ir. 
6 -2832. 

12-5664. 

113 0973. 

1 -57079. 

0-7853981. 

-52359. 



S = Side of Square. 
C 



^ = 3-14159 



\/»_« 1-77245. 

\/ - = 0-564189. 

2 \/~ = 3 -5449. 

= 01746. 



ir 

T80°" 
180° 



= 57 -29578. 



v/T- 



- =- 0-63f;6. 

IT 



1 -4142. 
-70710. 

C =Dir = R2ir = \/"a x 2\ 
D « C . 1 = V^ >< 2 A / 1 . 

C.J- « v/'a! X a/ A. 



4 -4428. 



B 



2 IT 



A = R2ir = 1.2 



S =-R\/ir = Di\/7r = Ci A / -- . 



The Law of Hifirhways. 

Bj Sees. 78 and 79 of the Act of 1835 it is provided inter alia 
that, in the event of a driver of a vehicle offending against the rule 
of the road as there laid down, the (driver may be apprehended without 
any warrant by any person who shall see such offence committed. 
A refusal by the driver to give his name and address can be punished 
by three months hard labour. If, however, the driver is knovni to the 
local surveyor or assistant surveyor he can only be arrested by an 
authorised officer of the law. It would thus appear that only in 
cases where the driver is a stranger to a district can he be arrested by 
anyoife, A suryeyor or his assistant has power to arrest a person 
who offends against the provisions of the Act. This: Act does not 
apply to turnpike rosids or to roads made imAftT ViceiX. kt\."«»^^x \a *'^Ckfc 
VrnversitieB or to the City of London. 



58 



TABLE OP ABEAS 



AND CIBOUMFEBEXCES OF 
OIBCLES. 



Diaii.. 


Circum. 


Aren. 


D'am. 


Circam. 


Ai-ca. 


1 
Diani. 


Circum. 


Area. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. 111. 


In. 


lE. 


Sq. In. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


1/32 


0-098175 


0*00077 


2 


6-28319 


3-1416 


5 


1 
15 -7080 


19-635 


3/64 


©•147262 


0*00173 


1/16 


6 -47958 


3-3410 


1/16 


15 -9043 


20-1-29 


1/16 


0*196350 


0*00307 


1/8 


6 -67688 


3 -5466 


1/8 


16-1007 


20 -629 


3/32 


0*294524 


0-00690 


3/16 


6-87223 


3-7583 


3/16 


16-2970 


21*136 


1/8 


0*392699 


0-01227 


1/4 


7 -06858 


3*9761 


1/4 


16-4934 


21 -648 


«/32 


0*490874 


0-01917 


5/16 


7 -26493 


4-2000 


5/16 


16*6897 


22-166 


3/16 


0*589049 


0-02761 


3/8 


7-46128 


4-4301 


3/8 


16*8861 


22-691 


7/32 


0*687223 


0-03768 


7/16 


7-66763 


4-6664 


7/16 


17*0824 


23 -221 


1/4 


0*785398 


0-04909 


1/2 


7 -85398 


4-9087 


1/2 


17-2788 


28 -768 


9/32 


0*883573 


0*06213 


9/16 


8 -05033 


6-1672 


9/16 


17-4751 


24-301 


6/16 


0*981748 


*07670 


5/8 


8-24668 


5-4119 


5/8 


17-6715 


24*850 


11/32 


I *07992 


0*09281 


11/16 


8 -44303 


5-6727 


11/16 


17 -8678 


26-406 


3/8 


1 -17810 


0-11045 


3/4 


8-63938 


5 -9396 


3/4 


18-0642 


25-967 


13/32 


1 *27627 


0-12962 


13/16 


8 -83573 


6 -2126 


13/16 


18-2605 


26-525 


7/16 


1 '37445 


0*15033 


7/8 


9-03208 


6*4918 


7/8 


18*4669 


27 -109 


15/32 


1 *47262 


*17257 


15/16 


9 -22843 


6-7771 


15/16 


18-6532 


27-688 


1/2 


1 -57080 


0*19635 


3 


9 -42478 


7 -0686 


6 


18-8496 


28-274 


17/32 


1 -66897 


0*22166 


1/16 


9*62113 


7 -3662 


1/8 


19-2423 


29-465 


9/16 


1-76715 


0-248S0 


1/8 


9*81748 


7 -6699 


1/4 


I9-G350 


30*680 


19/32 


I -86532 


0-27688 


3/16 


10 -0138 


7-9798 


3/8 


20-0277 


31 -919 


6/8 


1 '96350 


30680 


1/4 


10-2102 


8-2958 


1/2 


20-4204 


38-183 


^1/32 


2*06167 


0-33824 


6/16 


10*4066 


8-6179 


5/8 


20-8131 


34*472 


11/16 


2 15984 


0-37122 


3/8 


10-6029 


8 -9462 


8/4 


21 -2058 


86*786 


23/32 


2-26802 


0-40574 


7/16 


10-7992 


9 -2806 


7/8 


21 -6984 


37*122 


3/4 


2-35619 


0*44179 


1/2 


10-9956 


9*6211 


7 


21*9911 


38*485 


■26/32 


2-45437 


0-47937 


9/16 


11-1919 


9*9678 


1/8 


22 •3838 


89-871 


13/16 


2-55254 


0-61849 


1 5/8 


11-3883 


10*321 


1/4 


22-7766 


41 -282 


^/32 


2-65072 


0*55914 


11/16 


11 -684G 


10-680 


3/8 


23-1692 


42*718 


7/8 


2 -74889 


0*60132 


3/4 


11-7810 


11-045 


1/2 1 


23-5619 


44 179 


29/32 


a -84707 


0*64504 


13/16 


11-9773 


11-416 


•V8 , 


23 -9546 


46*664 


15/16 


2 -94524 


-69029 


7/8 


121737 


1 1 -793 


3/4 i 


24-3473 


47-173 


41/32 


3*04342 


0*73708 


15/16 


12-3700 1 


12-177 


7/8 


24-7400 


48*707 


1 


3*14159 


-78540 


4 


12.5H64 


12-566 


8 


25-1327 


50*265 


1/16 


3 *3 an4 


-88664 


1/16 


12-7627 


12 -962 


1/8 


25-5224 


51*849 


1/8 


8*53429 


-99402 


1/8 


12 -9591 


13*364 


1/4 


25-9181 


58-456 


Z/16 


3 *73064 


1*1075 


3/16 


13 -1554 


13-772 


3/8 


26-3108 


65*088 


1/4 


3 -92699 


1 -2272 


1/4 


13-3518 


14-186 


1/2 


26*7035 


66*745 


«/16 


4 *I2334 


1 -3630 


5/16 


18-5481 


14-607 


5/8 


27 *0962 


58 -462 


3/8 


4*31969 


1 *4849 


3/8 


13*7446 


15*033 


3/4 


27 -4889 


60-132 


7/16 


4*51604 


1 -6230 


7/16 


13*9408 1 


15*466 


7/8 


27*8816 


61 *862 


1/2 


4*71239 


1 •7671 


1/2 


14*1372 


15*904 


9 


28*2743 


63-617 


9/16 


4*90874 


1 -9176 


9/16 


14*3335 


16*349 


1/8 


28*6670 


65 -897 


6/8 


8-10609 


2*0739 


5/8 


14*6299 


16*800 


1/4 


29*0697 


67*201 


11/16 


5 •301 44 


2*2365 


11/16 


14-7262 


17-267 


8/8 


29-4524 


69*029 


3/4 


6*49779 


2*4063 


3/4 


14*9226 


17*721 


1/2 


29*8151 


70*882 


13/16 


6*69414 


2-5802 


13/16 : 


16*1189 


18*190 


6/8 


30*2878 


72*760 


7/8 


6 •89049 


2*7612 
2-94B8 


7/8 16*3163 


18*666 


8/4 


80*6806 


74-662 


Jff/J6 1 


6-08684 j 


16/16 16*6116 


19*147 


7/8 


81 *0232 

1 \ 


76*589 



59 



TABLE OF ABEAS AND CIBCUMPEBEKOBS OE 

CIECLES. 



Diam. 
In. 



10 

1/8 

V4 
S/8 
1/2 

8.4 

7/8 

U 

1/8 
1/4 
8/8 

1/2 
6/8 
t/4 
7/8 

IS 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 

6/8 

8/4 
7/8 

18 

1/8 
1/4 

8/8 
1/2 
6/8 
8/4 
7/8 

14 

1/8 

1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
6/8 
8/4 
7/8 

16 

1/8 

3/8 
1/2 
6/8 
8/4 
7/8 



Gircam. 
In. 



81 -41^9 
81 -8086 
82*2018 
82*5940 
82*9867 
88*3794 
83*7721 
84*1648 

34*5676 
34*9502 
85*3429 
35*7856 
36*1283 
86*5210 
36*9137 
37 -3064 

87*6991 
88*0918 
88-4845 
88*8772 
39*2699 
89*6626 
40-0553 
40*4480 

40-8307 
41*2334 
41 *6261 
42*0188 
42*4115 
42*8042 
43*1969 
43*5896 

43*9823 
44*3750 
44*7677 
46*1604 
45*5531 
45*9458 
46*3885 
46-7812 

47-1289 
47*5166 
47*90P3 
48*8020 
48*6947 
49*0874 
49*4801 
49-8728 



Area. 
Sq. In. 



/ 



78*540 
80*516 
82*516 
84-541 
86*590 
88*664 
90 763 
92 *886 

95*033 
97-205 
99*402 
101 -62 
103*87 
106 14 
108*48 
110*75 

118*10 
115*47 
117*86 
120*28 
122*72 
126-19 
127*68 
130*19 

132*73 
135*30 
187*89 
140*50 
143*14 
145*80 
148*49 
151 *20 

153*94 
156*70 
159*48 
162*30 
165*13 
167*99 
170*87 
173*78 

176*71 
179*67 
182*65 
185*66 
188*69 
191*75 
194*83 
197-93 



I>iam. 
In. 



16 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 

1/2 

5/8 
3/4 
7/8 

17 

1/8 

1/4 
8/8 
1/2 
5/8 
84 
7/8 

18 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 

5/8 
3/4 
7/8 

19 

1/8 
1,4 

8/8 
1/2 
5/8 
3/4 

7/8 

20 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
5/8 
3/4 
7/8 

21 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
5/8 
3/4 
7/8 



Cricuin. 
In. 



50 
50 
51 
51 
51 
52 
52 
53 



■26ft5 
•6: 82 
>0509 
•4436 
•8363 
••J290 
•6217 
•0144 



59 '6903 
60*0830 
60*4757 
60*8684 
2611 
6538 
62*0465 
62*4392 



61 
61 



62*8319 

63 "2246 
6:^*6173 

64 *0100 
64*4026 

I 64*7953 
65*1880 
65*5807 

65*9734 
66*3661 

66 *7588 
67*1515 

67 *5442 
67 '9389 
68*3296 
68*7223 



Area. 
6q. In. 



201 *f 6 
204*22 
207*39 
210 *^0 
213*82 
217-08 
2-20-35 
223-65 



53*4071 
53*7998 
54*1; 25 
54-5852 
54-9779 
55*3706 
55-7733 
56-1560 

56*5487 
56*9414 
57*3341 
57 -7268 
58*1195 
58*6122 
68-9049 
59 -2976 



71 
10 



226*98 

230-33 

233 

237 

240*53 

243*98 

247*45 

250*95 

254*47 
258*02 
261 -59 
265*18 
2h8 -80 
272*45 
276*1-2 
279*81 

283*53 
287 -27 
291*04 
294*83 
2»8*65 
302*49 
306*35 
310*24 

314*16 
318*10 
322-06 
326-05 
330 -06 
334-10 
338-16 
342-25 

346*36 
350*50 
354*66 
358-84 
863*05 
367*28 
371*54 



Diam. 
In. 



22 

1/8 

1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
5/8 

3/4 
7/8 

23 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 

5/8 
3/4 
7/8 

24 

1/8 
1/4 
8/8 
1/2 

5/8 
3/4 

7/8 

25 

1/8 
1/4 
8/8 
1/2 
58 
3,4 
7/8 

26 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
12 
5/8 
3/4 
7/8 

27 

1/8 
1/4 
88 
1/2 

5/8 

W *l^ 



Circum. 
In. 



Area. 
Sq. In. 



69*1150 
69*6077 
69*9004 
70*2931 
70*6858 
71 *0785 
71 -4712 
71*8689 

72 -2566 
72-6493 
73-0420 
73*4347 
73 *8274 
74*2201 
74*6128 
75*0055 

75*3982 
75*7909 
76*1836 
76 *5763 
76*9690 
77*3617 
7544 
1471 



I 



77 
78' 



78*5398 
78*9325 
79*3.'52 
79-7179 
80-1106 
80*5033 
80*8960 
81 *2887 



81 
82 



31b*%i>\ 1\% 



6814 
0741 
82 *4668 
82*8595 
88*2522 
83*6449 
84*0376 
84*4303 

84*8230 
85*2157 
85*6084 
86*0011 
86*3938 
86*7865 
ViTv *\\^3fL 
V«l*\A\^ 



38C-I3 
384-46 
888*82 
398*20 
397 *61 
402*04 
406*49 
410*97 

415-48 
420*00 
4-24-66 
429-13 
433*74 
438*36 
443*01 
447 *69 

452-39 
45i -II 
461*86 
466*64 
471*44 
476*26 
481*11 
4b5-98 

490-87 
495*79 
500-74 
505-71 
510-71 
515*72 
520-77 
525*84 

530*93 
536 -05 
541-19 
546*35 
551*55 
566-76 
662 -00 
567 *27 

572*56 
577-87 
583 -21 
588-57 
593*96 
699-37 



60 



TABLE 


OF AB 


EAB 


AVD CISCX7MPEBBK0ES 


OP 










OIECLES. 








Diam. 


Circuro. 


Area. 


Diam. 


Circum. 


Area. 


Diam. 


Circum. 


Area. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


In. 
40 


In. 
125*664 


Sq. In. 


88 


87 9646 


615*75 


34 


106*814 


907-92 


1266*6 


1/8 


88'3:73 


621 *26 


18 


107*207 


914-61 


1/8 


126*056 


1264*5 


1/* 


88 7ftC0 


626*80 


1/4 


107*600 


921 *32 


1/4 


126*449 


127i*4 


8/8 


89*1427 


1 682*36 


3/8 


107*992 


928 *06 


3/8 


126*842 


1280*8 


1/2 


89 -53.54 


687 *94 


1/2 


108*385 


934*82 


1/2 


127 •235 


1288*2 


ft/8 


89-9281 


648*66 


5/8 


108*788 


941*61 1 


5/8 


127*627 


1296*2 


8/4 


90-8'i08 


649 18 


3 4 


109*170 


94S -42 


8/4 


128 020 


1304*2 


m 


90 •7136 


6o4*84 1 


7/8 


109*563 


955*25 , 


7/8 


128*418 


1312*2 


29 


91 1062 


660*62 ! 


35 


109*956 


962*11 ! 


41 


128*806 


1820*8 


1/8 


91-4989 


666*23 i 


1/8 


110*348 


V69*00 


1/8 


129 198 


1328*3 


1/4 


91 -8916 


671*96 ' 


1/4 


110*741 


975*91 


1/4 


129*591 


1886 -4 


8'8 


92*2843 


677*71 


3 '8 


lll-l:U 


982*84 


' 8/8 


129*998 


1344*6 


1'2 


92-6770 


683 *49 


1/i 


111-527 


989-80 


1/2 


180*876 


1852*7 


5/8 


93*0697 


689*30 


5/8 


111*919 


996*78 


5/8 


180*769 


1360*8 


8/4 


93*4624 


69.S 13 


8/4 


112*312 


1003*8 


: 3/4 


131*161 


1369*0 


7/8 


93*b651 


700*98 


7/8 


112*705 


1010*8 


7/8 


181*664 


1877*2 


80 


94*2478 


706*86 


36 


113*097 


1017*9 . 


42 


131 *947 


13^5*4 


1/8 


94 -6405 


712*76 1 


!/«* 


113*490 


1025*0 


1/8 


132*340 


1893*7 


1/4 


95 *0832 


718*69 


1/4 


113-883 


1032*1 


1/4 


182 -782 


1402*0 


3/8 


9ft*425f> 


724 *64 


3/8 


114*275 


1039*2 


3/8 


133*125 


1410*8 


1/2 


95*8186 


730*62 


1/2 


114-668 


1046*3 


1/2 


183*518 


1418*6 


5/8 


96*2118 


736*62 


ft/8 


115*061 


1053*5 


5/8 


133*910 


1427*0 


8/4 


96*6040 


742*64 


3/4 


115*454 


1060*7 i 


3' 4 


134*308 


1435*4 


7/8 


96 '9967 


748*69 


7/8 


115*846 


1068*0 j 


7/8 


184*696 


1448*8 


81 


97 *8894 


754*77 


37 


116*289 


1075*2 1 


43 


186*088 


1452*2 


1/8 


97*7821 


760*87 


1/8 


116-632 


1082-5 


1/8 


185*481 


1460*7 


1/4 


98*1748 


766 *99 


1/4 


117*024 


1089*8 


1/4 


185*874 


1469-1 


8/8 


98 *5675 


778*14 


8'8 


117*417 


1097*1 ■' 


8/8 


186*267 


1477*6 


1/2 


98*9602 


779*31 


1/2 


117*810 


1104*5 


1/2 


l;i6*659 


1486*2 


6/8 


99*3.529 


785*51 


5/8 


118 202 


1111*8 


5/8 


187*052 


1494*7 


8'4 


99 -7456 


791 -73 


8/4 


118*596 


1119*2 


3/4 


137 *445 


1503-8 


7/8 


100*138 


797 -98 


7/8 


118*988 


1126-7 


7/8 


187*837 


1611*9 


82 


100*631 


804*25 


38 


119*381 


1134*1 


44 


138*230 


1520*6 


1/8 


100*924 


810*54 


1/8 


119*773 


1141*6 


1/8 


138 -623 


1529*2 


1/4 


101*316 


816*86 


1/4 


120-166 


1149*1 


1/4 


189*015 


1537*9 


8/8 


101 *709 


828*21 


3/8 


120*559 


1156*6 


8/8 


139*408 


1546*6 


1/2 


1C2*102 


829*58 


1/2 


120*951 


1164-2 


1/2 


139*801 


l.*»ft5*3 


6/8 


102*494 


835*97 


5/8 


121 *344 


1171*7 


5/8 


140*194 


1564*0 


8/4 


102*887 


842 ^i) •! 


3/4 


121 *737 


1179*3 


8/4 


140*5^6 


1572*8 


7/8 


103*280 


848-83 : 


7/3 


122*129 


1186*9 


7/8 


140*979 


1581 -6 


38 


108 673 


855*80 ; 


39 


122*522 


1194*6 


45 


141 •372 


1590*4 


1/8 


104*065 


861 *79 


1/8 


122*915 


1202*8 


1/8 


141 *764 


1599-8 


1/4 


104*458 


868*81 


1/4 


123*308 


1210*0 


1/4 


142*167 


1608*2 


8/8 


104*851 


874*85 


8/8 


123*700 


1217*7 


3/8 


142-550 


1617*0 


1/2 


105*248 


881 *41 


1/2 i 


124*093 


12?5'4 


1/2 


142 *942 


1626*0 


5/8 


105*63'* 


888*00 


5/8 


124*486 


1233*2 


5/8 


143*835 


1684*9 


m 


106*029 


894*62 


8/4 


124*878 


1241 *0 


3/4 


148*728 


1648*9 


r/s j 


106 422 \ 


301 -26 


7/8 


125*271 


1248*8 


\ 7/8 


144*121 


1652*9 



Gl 



TABLE OF ABE AS 



AND CIEOTTMPEBEKOES 
CIRCLES. 



OP 



Diam. 
In. 



46 

1/8 

1/* 
«/8 

1/2 

6/8 
8/4 
7/8 

47 

1/8 
1/4 
S/8 

1/2 

ft/8 
S/4 
7/8 

48 

1/8 

1/4 
8/8 
1/2 

5/8 
8/4 
7/8 

49 

1/8 

1/4 
8/8 
12 
5/8 
8/4 
7/8 

50 

1/8 

1/4 
8/8 

1/2 
6/8 
3/4 
7/8 

51 

1/8 

1/4 
8/8 
1/2 
6/8 
8/4 
7/8 



Circum. 
In. 



/ 



44-513 
44*906 
4A*2b9 
45 '691 
46-084 
46*477 
46*869 
47 *262 

47*655 
48-048 
4b '440 
48*833 
49-226 
49*618 
M>-0I1 
50-404 

50-796 
51*189 
M-582 
51 -976 
52*367 
52*760 
53-153 
53-545 

53*938 
54*d31 
64*7*/3 
65*116 
55*A09 
55-904 
56*294 
56*687 

67*080 
57 *472 
67*865 
68 -254 
5»*650 
59*043 
59*436 
59*829 



Area. 
Sq. In. 



60*221 
60-614 
61*007 
61*899 
61 '792 
62'185 
62*577 
62-970 I 



1661*9 
1670-9 
1680*0 
16a9*1 
1698*2 
1707-4 
]7I6'6 
1725-7 

1734*9 

1744 '2 

1753*5 

1762 

1772 

1781 

1790 

1800 



1809*6 
1819*0 
1828*5 
1837*9 
1847 '5 
1867*0 
186H-6 
1876*1 

1885*7 
1895-4 
1905*0 
1914*7 
1924*2 
1931*2 
1943-9 
1963*7 

1963*5 

1973*3 

198:t 

1993 

2008 

2012*9 

2022*8 

2032 -8 

2042-8 
2052*8 
2062 9 
2073 
2083 
2093*2 
2103*3 
21 13 '6 



*0 
*1 



Diam. 
In. 



// 



52 

1/8 

1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
6/8 
3/4 
7/8 

53 

1/8 

1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
5/8 
3/4 
7/8 

54 

1,8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
6/8 
3/4 
7/8 

55 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
6/8 
3/4 
7/8 

56 

1/8 
1/4 
3/b 
1/2 
6/8 
3/4 

7/8 

57 

1/8 
1/4 
3/8 
1/2 
5/8 
3/4 
7/8 



Circum. 
In. 



Area. 
Sq. In. 



163 -363 
163 766 
164*148 
164*541 
164-934 
165 -326 
165*719 
166*112 

166*504 
166*897 
167 *290 
167 *683 
168*0 .'5 
163*46 8, 
168*861 I 
16U*253 

169 -646 
170*039 
170*441 
170*8-24 
171*217 
171-609 
172*002 
172*895 

172*788 
173*180 
173-573 
173*966 
174*368 
174-751 
175*144 
175-536 

175*9-29 
176 •322 
176*715 
177*107 
177*500 
177-893 
178*285 
178*678 

179*071 
179*463 
179*856 
180*249 
180*642 
181 -034 
181*427 
181*820 



2123 
2131 
2144 
2154 
2164 
2176 
2185 
2195 



2206-2 
-2216*6 
2227 '0 
2237*5 
224H-0 
2>68*5 
2269-1 
2279*6 



2290*2 

2300*8 

2311 

2822 

2332 

2343 

2354 

2365 



2375*8 
2386*6 
23M7 *5 
2408*3 
2419*2 
2430*1 
2441*1 
2452 *0 

2468 
2474 *0 
2486*0 
249'<*1 
2507 -2 
2518*3 
2529*4 
2540-6 



•8 
*0 
*2 
*4 

•7 



2551 
2563 
2574 
25ct6 
2596 
2608*0 

^JWO'l 



Diam. 
In. 



Circum. 
In. 



Area. 
Sq. In. 



\ 



182-212 
182*005 
182*998 
1h3'}<90 
183*783 
181*176 
184*569 
184-961 

186*364 
185*147 
186*139 
186*532 

186 925 
187*317 

187 710 
188*103 

188*496 
188*8o8 
189*281 
189*674 
190-066 
190 459 

190 *852 
191 *244 

191 -637 
1J»2*080 
192*423 
192*815 
193*208 
193*601 
193*993 
194*386 

194*779 
195*171 
195*564 
195*957 
196*350 

196 *742 

197 •135 
197*528 

197 *920 
198*313 
198-706 
199*098 
199*491 
L9Q*%^ 



2642*1 
2653*5 
2664*9 
2676-4 
2687*8 
2699-3 
2710*9 
2722 -4 

2784-0 
2745*6 
2767 -2 
2768*8 
2780*5 
'2792-2 
2803*9 
2815*7 

2827 *4 
2839 *2 
2851-0 
2862*9 
2874*8 
2886-6 
'2898*6 
2910-5 

2922 *5 
2934 '6 
2946*5 
2968*6 
2970-6 
2982*7 
2994-8 
3006*9 



3019 

3031 

3043 

3065 

3068 

3080 

3092*6 

3104*9 



3117*2 

3129*6 

3142' 

3164' 

3166' 



-0 
*5 
•9 






62 



TABLE OF ABBAS AND OIBOUMFEBBKOES 

OIBCLES. 



OF 



Diain. 


Gircomf. 


Area. 


Diatti. 


Circumf. 


Area. 


Diam. 


Circumf. 


Area. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


64 


201062 


3217-0 


70 


219*911 


8848-5 


76 


238 761 


4536*6 


1/8 


20i-4ft5 


3229-6 


i/8 


220*304 


3862-2 


1/8 


239*154 


4551-4 


1/4 


201-847 


3242 2 


!/■» 


220*697 


3876-0 


1/4 


239-546 


4566-4 


3/8 


202-210 


3id4-8 


3/8 


221-090 


3889-8 


3/8 


239*939 


4581*3 


1/2 


202 633 


3267-5 


1/2 


•221-482 


8903*6 


1/2 


240 332 


4596*3 


6/8 


203-0-.'5 


3230-1 


5/8 


221-875 


3917-5 


5/8 


240-725 


4611-4 


3/4 


'203-418 


3-292-8 


3/4 


2-22 268 


3931-4 


3/4 


241-117 


4626*4 


7/8 


203't5ll 


3305-6 


7/8 


222-660 


3945*3 


7/8 


241510 


4641*5 


65 


204-204 


3318-3 


71 


223-053 


3959-2 


77 


241-903 


4666-6 


1/8 


204-596 


3331-1 


1/8 


223-446 


3973-1 


1/8 


242-295 


4671*8 


1/4 


204 -98« 


3343*9 


1/4 


223-838 


3987-1 


1/4 


242 688 


4e86*9 


3/8 


205-382 


3356 7 


3/8 


224-231 


4001*1 


3/8 


243081 


4702 1 


1/2 


205-774 


3369 6 


1/2 


224 624 


4015-2 


1/2 


243-473 


4717*8 


6/8 


206-167 


3382-4 


5/8 


225 017 


40-29-2 


6/8 


243 866 


4782-5 


3/4 


206-560 


33!*5-3 


3/4 


225-409 


40433 


3/4 


244-259 


4747*8 


7/8 


206-952 


3408-2 


7/8 


225-802 


. 4057*4 


7/8 


244-652 


4768*1 


66 


207-345 


3421-2 


72 


226-195 


4071-5 


78 


245-044 


4778*4 


1/8 


2C7-738 


3434-3 


1/8 


226-587 


4085-7 


1/8 


245-437 


4798-7 


1/4 


208-131 


3447-2 


1/4 


226- h80 


4099-8 


1/4 


245*830 


4809-0 


3/8 


208-523 


3460-2 


3/8 


227-373 


4114-0 


3/8 


246 2-^2 


4s24*4 


1/2 


208-916 


a473-2 


1/2 


227-765 


4128-2 


1/2 


246*615 


4839*8 


6/8 


209 309 


3486-3 


5/8 


228*158 


414-2-5 


5/8 


247 008 


4855*2 


3/4 


209 701 


3499-4 


3/4 


228 551 


41!^68 


3/4 


*247 400 


4870*7 


7/8 


210-094 


3512-5 


7/8 


228-944 


4171-1 


7/8 


247*793 


4886*2 


67 


210-487 


35-25-7 


73 


229-336 


4185-4 


79 


248-186 


4901-7 


1/8 


210-879 


3538-8 


J/8 


229-729 


4199-7 


1/8 


248-579 


4917*2 


1/4 


2ir272 


3552-0 


1/4 


230-122 


4214-1 


1/4 


248-971 


4932-7 


3/8 


211-665 


3565-2 


3/8 


230 514 


4228-5 


3/8 


249-364 


4948*8 


1/2 


212-058 


3578-5 


1/2 


230-907 


4242-9 


1/2 


249-757 


4868-9 


5/8 


212-450 


3591-7 


5/8 


231-300 


4257-4 


5/8 


250-149 


4979-6 


3/4 


212-843 


8605-0 


34 


231-692 


4271-8 


3/4 


250-542 


4995-2 


7/8 


213-236 


3618*3 


7/8 


232-085 


4286-3 


7/8 


250-935 


6010*9 


68 


213*628 


3631-7 


74 


2;i2*478 


4300*8 


80 


251-327 


5026*6 


1/8 


214 021 


3645-0 


1/8 


232 871 


4315-4 


1/8 


251720 


5042 3 


1/4 


214-414 


3i!58-4 


1/4 


233-263 


4329-9 


1/4 


252*113 


5058-0 


3/8 


214-806 


3671-8 


3/8 


233-656 


4844-5 


8/8 


252*506 


5073-8 


1/2 


215-199 


3685-3 


1/2 


234-059 


4359-2 


1/2 


252-8ii8 


5089 6 


5/8 


215-592 


3698-7 


5/8 


23i-441 


4373 8 


5/8 


253-291 


6105-4 


3/4 


215-984 


3712-2 


3/4 


234-834 


4388-5 


3/4 


253 684 


5121*2 


7/8 


216-377 


3725-7 


7/8 


235-227 


4403-1 


7/8 


254076 


5i;i7-l 


69 


216-770 


8739-3 


75 


28ft -6 19 


4417-9 


81 


254-469 


5153-0 


1/8 


217163 


3752-8 


1/8 


236*012 


4432-6 


1/8 


254-862 


5168-9 


1/4 


217-565 


3766-4 


1/4 


236-405 


4447-4 


1/4 


255-254 


5184*9 


3/8 


217 948 


3780-0 


3/8 


236-798 


4462*2 


3/8 


255-647 


5*200-8 


1/2 


218-341 


3793-7 


1/2 


237*190 


4477-0 


1/2 


25*5040 


5216*8 


5/8 


218-733 


3807-3 


5/8 


287-583 


4491-8 


6/8 


256-433 


5232*8 


3/4 


219126 


3821-0 


3/4 


237-976 


4506*7 


3/4 


256-825 


5 48 9 


7/S / 


219-619 j 


3854-7 I 


7/8 


288-368 


4521*6 


7/8 


257-218 


6264*9 



Gi) 



TABLE OF ASEA.S AND CIBCUMFEBEXCES OF 

CIRCLES. 



Diam. 


Circamf. 


Area. 


Diam. 


Circumf. 


Area. 


Diam. 


Circumf. 


Area. 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 
: 5281 -0 


Jn. 
88 


In. 


Sq. In. 
6082-1 


In. 


In. 


Sq. In. 


82 


257 '611 


276-460 


94 


295-310 


6939 -8 


1/8 


258-003 


5297 '1 


1/8 


276-853 


6099-4 


1/8 


295-702 


6958-2 


1/4 


258-396 


5313-3 


1/4 


277-246 


6116-7 


1/4 


295 -095 


6976-7 


S/8 


•268 -789 


6329-4 


8/8 


277 -638 


6134-1 


3/8 


296-488 


6995-8 


1/2 


269-181 


5345-6 


1/2 


278-031 


6151 -4 


1/2 


296-881 


7013-8 


5/8 


259-574 


5361-8 


5/8 


278 -424 


6168-8 


5/8 


297 -273 


7032-4 


«/4 


259-967 


5378-1 


3/4 


278-816 


6186-2 


3/4 


297 -666 


7051 -0 


7/8 


260-359 


6394 -3 


7/3 


279-209 


6203-7 


7/8 


298 -059 


7069-6 


88 


260-752 


5410-6 


80 


279-602 


6221 -1 


95 


298-451 


7088-2 


1/8 


261-145 


5426-9 


1/8 


279-994 


6238 -6 


1/8 


298-844 


7106-9 


1/* 


261 -538 


5443-3 


1/4 


£80 -387 


62')6-l 


1/4 


299 -237 


7125-6 


3/8 


261-980 


54.'>9 -6 


3/8 


280-780 


6273-7 


3/8 


299 -629 


7144-3 


1/2 


262-323 


5476-0 


1/2 


281-173 


6291 -2 


1/2 


300-022 


71P3-0 


5/8 


262-716 


5492 -4 


5/8 


281 -565 


6308-8 


5/8 


3C0-415 


7181-8 


8/4 


263 -108 


5508 -8 


3/4 


281 -958 


6326 -4 


3/4 


300 -807 


7200-6 


7/8 


263-501 


5525-3 


7/8 


282-351 


6344-1 


7/8 


301 -200 


7219-4 


84 


263 -894 


.'541 -8 


90 


282 -743 


6361 -7 


96 


301 -593 


7238-2 


l/B 


1 264-286 


5558 -3 


1/8 


283-136 


6379-4 


1/8 


301 -986 


72.^7-l 


1/4 


' 264-679 


5574-8 


1/4 


283-529 


6397 -1 


1/4 


302-378 


7276-0 


3/8 


, 265 -07-^ 


5591 -4 


3/8 


283 -921 


6414-9 


3/8 


302-771 


7294-9 


1/2 


265-465 


5607 -9 


1/2 


284-314 


6432-6 


1/2 


303-164 


7813-8 


5/8 


265-857 


5624 -6 


5/8 


284-707 


6450-4 


5/8 


303 -556 


7332-8 


3/4 


266-250 


5641 -2 


3/4 


2i'5-100 


6468-2 


3/4 


303-949 


7351 -8 


7/8 


266-643 


5657 -8 


7/8 


285 -492 


6486-0 


7/8 


304-342 


7370-8 


85 


267 -035 


56 74 -5 


91 


285 -885 


6503-9 


i 97 


304-734 


7389 -8 


1/8 


267-428 


5691 -2 


1/8 


286-278 


6521 -8 


: 1/8 


305-127 


7408 -9 


1/4 


267-821 


5707-9 


1/4 


286-670 


6539 -7 


1/4 


305 5>0 


7428-0 


3/8 


268-213 


5724-7 


3/8 


287 -063 


6657-6 


3/8 


305-913 


7447-1 


1/2 


268-606 


5741 -5 


1/2 


287 -456 


6575-5 


1/2 


306-305 


7466-2 


6/8 


268-99'» 


5753 -3 


5/8 


287 -848 


65!>3 -5 


5/8 


306 -698 


7485 -3 


8/4 


269 -392 


5775-1 


3/4 


288-241 


6611-5 


3/4 


307-091 


7504-5 


7/8 


269-784 


5791 -9 


7/8 


288 -634 


6629 -6 


7/8 


307 -483 


7523-7 


86 


270-177 


5808-8 


92 


289-027 


6647-6 


98 


307 -876 


7543-0 


1/8 


270-570 


5826-7 


1/8 


289-419 


6665-7 


1/8 


308-269 


7562-2 


1/4 


270-962 


5842-6 


1/4 


289-812 


6683-8 


1/4 


308-661 


7581 -6 


8/8 


271 -355 


6859-6 


3/8 


290-205 


6701-9 


3/8 


309-054 


7600-8 


1/2 


271 -748 


5876-5 


1/2 


290 -597 


6720-1 


1/2 


309 -447 


7020-1 


5/8 


272-140 


5893 -5 


5/8 


290-990 


6738-2 


5/8 


309 -840 


7639-5 


3/4 


272-533 


5910-6 


3/4 


291 -383 


6756-4 


3/4 


310-232 


7668-0 


7/8 


272-926 


6927 -6 


7/8 


291-775 


6774-7 


7/8 


310-625 


7678-3 


87 


273-319 


6944-7 


93 


292-168 


6792-9 


99 


311-018 


7697 -7 


1/8 


278-711 


6961-8 


1/8 


292-561 


6811-2 


1/8 


311-410 


7717-1 


1/4 


274-104 


5978-9 


1/4 


232-954 


6829 -5 


1/4 


311-803 


7636-6 


8/8 


274-497 


5996-0 


3/8 


293-346 


6847 -8 


3/8 


312-196 


7756-1 


1/2 


274-889 


6013-2 


1/2 


298 -739 


6866-1 


1/2 


312-588 


7775-6 


6/8 


276-282 


6030-4 


5/8 


294-132 


6884-5 j 


5/8 


3l2-aft\ 


, Vv^^-'t 


^4 


275-675 


604/ -6 


3/4 


294-624 


690"i-ft \ 


\ ^\V ^ 


V^Vi-'KX^ 


\ '\'^\»kr'^ 


7/8 j 


276-067 


6064-9 j 


7/8 


294-917 


697i\-a^ 


^ M* 


\ ^x^-v^n 


l\ '\'^'i;w-^: 


1 

1 






\\CNO 


\ ^\V*\^ 


^S^\ '\WA»^ 



04 



SaUABBS, CXrBBS, SaTXABB BOOTS, AND OUBE 

BOOTS. 









Square 


Cube 


• 






Square 


Cube 


No. 


Square. 


Cube. 


Koot. 


Bout. 


No. 


Square. 


Cube. 


Boot. 


Boot. 




1 




I'OOO 


V 

i 

1*000 


1 






y 


V 


1 


1 


61 


2601 


132651 


7141 


3*708 


2 


4 


8 


1*414 


1-259 


' 52 


2704 


1406(18 


7*211 


3-732 


3 


9 


27 


1-732 


1 *442 


58 


2809 


14S877 


7*280 


8-766 


4 


16 


64 


2 000 


1-687 


' 64 


2916 


157464 


7*348 


3*779 


6 


26 


126 


2*236 


1*709 


66 


3026 


166375 


7*416 


3*802 


6 


86 


216 


2-449 


1*817 


56 


3136 


176616 


7 '488 


3*826 


7 


49 


848 


2*646 


1*912 


67 


3249 


186193 


7*649 


3*848 


8 


64 


612 


2-828 


2*000 


1 ^ 


3364 


196112 


7*615 


3*870 


9 


81 


729 


3*000 


2*080 


59 


348L 


206379 


7*681 


3*892 


10 


100 


1000 


3*162 


2*154 


60 


3600 


216000 


7*745 


3*914 


11 


121 


1331 


3*316 


2*223 


61 


3721 


226981 


7*810 


3*936 


12 


144 


1728 


3*464 


2*289 


62 


3844 


238328 


7-874 


8*967 


18 


169 


2197 


3*606 


2-351 


63 


3969 


260047 


7-937 


3*979 


U 


196 


2744 


3*741 


2-410 


64 


4096 


262144 


8*000 


4-000 


16 


226 


3376 


3*872 


2 -466 


66 


4225 


274625 


8-062 


4-020 


16 


266 


4096 


4*000 


2-519 


66 


4366 


287496 


8*124 


4-041 


17 


289 


4913 


4*123 


2*571 


67 


4489 


300763 


8*186 


4-061 


18 


324 


6832 


4*242 


2 -620 


68 


4624 


314432 


8-246 


4*081 


19 


361 


6849 


4*368 


2*668 


69 


4761 


328509 


8*806 


4-101 


20 


400 


8000 


4*472 


2*714 


70 


4900 


343000 


8*366 


4-121 


21 


441 


9261 


4*682 


2 *768 


71 


6041 


367911 


8*426 


4-140 


22 


484 


10648 


4*690 


2*802 


72 


5184 


373248 


8*486 


4-160 


23 


629 


12167 


4*796 


2*843 


73 


5329 


389017 


8*544 


4-179 


24 


676 


13824 


4*898 


2-884 


74 


5476 


405224 


8*602 


4-198 


26 


62iS 


166J6 


6*000 


2-924 


75 


6625 


421876 


8*660 


4-217 


26 


676 


17676 


6*099 


2*962 


76 


5776 


438976 


8-717 


4-286 


27 


729 


19688 


5*196 


3*000 


77 


6929 


456333 


8*774 


4-25f 


28 


784 


21962 


5*291 


3*036 


78 


6084 


474552 


8*831 


4-272 


29 


841 


24389 


5-385 


3*072 


79 


6241 


493039 


8*888 


4*290 


80 


900 


27000 


5-477 


3*107 


80 


6400 


512000 


8*944 


4*308 


31 


961 


24791 


5 -5^7 


3-141 


81 


6561 


631441 


9*000 


4*826 


32 


1024 


32768 


5*656 


3-174 


82 


6724 


661368 


9*055 


4-844 


83 


1089 


36937 


6*744 


3-207 


83 


6889 


671787 


9*110 


4-362 


34 


1166 


a9:{04 


6 *830 


3 -239 


84 


7056 


692704 


9*165 


4*379 


36 


1226 


42876 


6*916 


3*271 


i 86 


72/5 


614125 


9 *219 


4-896 


36 


1296 


46666 


6*000 


3*301 


86 


7396 


636066 


9*273 


4-414 


87 


1369 


60663 


6-082 


8-332 


87 


7669 


668503 


9*327 


4-431 


38 


1444 


64872 


6*164 


3*361 


88 


7744 


681472 


9-380 


4-447 


39 


1621 


69319 


6*244 


3*391 


89 


7921 


704969 


9*433 


4-464 


40 


1600 


64000 


6*324 


3-420 


90 


8100 


729000 


9*486 


4-480 


41 


1681 


68921 


6*403 


3*448 


91 


8281 


753571 


9*639 


4*497 


42 


1764 


74088 


6*480 


8*476 


92 


8464 


778688 


9*591 


4*514 


43 


1849 


79607 


6*667 


3*603 


93 


8649 


804857 


9*643 


4-580 


44 


1936 


86184 


6*633 


3*630 


94 


8836 


830684 


9*696 


4-546 


46 


2026 


91126 


6*708 


3*556 


95 


9025 


857376 


9*746 


4-660 


46 


2116 


97336 


6*782 


3*683 


96 


9216 


884736 


9*797 


4*678 


47 


2209 


10.S823 


6*866 


3*608 


97 


9409 


912678 


9*848 


4-694 


48 


2804 


110692 


6*928 


8*634 


98 


9604 


941192 


9*899 


4*610 


49 


2401 


117649 


7*000 


3*669 


•99 


9801 


970299 


9*949 


4*626 


60 


2600 


126000 


7 071 


8*684 


100 


10000 


1000000 


10-Oi^O 


4-641 



65 



SaUABBS, OUBES, SaUABB BOOTS, AND OUBB 

BOOTS. 



No. 



Square. 



106 


11026 


110 


12100 


116 


13226 


120 


14400 


126 


16626 


ISO 


16900 


18ft 


18226 


140 


19600 


145 


21026 


160 


22600 


166 


24026 


160 


26600 


166 


27225 


170 


28900 


176 


30626 


180 


32400 


186 


84226 


190 


86100 


196 


88026 


200 


40000 


206 


42026 


210 


44100 


216 


46226 


220 


48400 


226 


60626 


230 


62800 


286 


60226 


240 


A7600 


246 


60026 


260 


62600 


266 


66026 


260 


67600 


266 


70226 


270 


72900 


276 


76626 


280 


78400 


286 


81226 


290 


84100 


296 


87026 


800 


90000 


S06 


93026 


810 


96100 


816 


99226 


820 


102400 


826 


106626 


880 


108900 


886 


112226 


840 


116600 


846 


119026 


860 


122600 


866 


126026 



Cube. 



Square 
Boot. 



Cube 
Boot. 

V 



1157626 

18810C0 

1620876 

1728000 

1958126 

2197000 

2460375 

2744000 

3048626 

8376000 

8723876 

4096000 

4492125 

4913000 

53A9376 

5832000 

6331626 

6869000 

7414876 

8000000 

8615126 

9261000 

9938375 

10648000 

11890626 

12167000 

12977876 

18824000 

14706125 

16626000 

16681876 

17676000 

18609626 

19683000 

20796876 

21962000 

28149126 

24389000 

26672875 

27000000 

28872626 

29791000 

31265876 

32768000 

84828125 

36987000 

37595375 

89304000 

41063625 

42875000 

44738876 



10-24 
10-48 
10-72 
10-95 
11*18 
11-40 
11-61 
11*83 
12*04 
12*24 
12*44 
12-64 
12-84 
13-03 
13-22 
18-41 
13*60 
13*78 
13*96 
14-14 
14*31 
14*49 
14-66 
14*83 
15 00 
15 16 
15*32 
16*49 
15*66 
15*81 
16*96 
16*12 
16*27 
16*43 
16-58 
16-78 
16*88 
17-02 
17*17 
17*32 
17*46 
17*60 
17*74 
17-88 
18 02 
18-16 
18-30 
18-43 
18-67 
18-70 
18-84 



6' 

5 

5 

5 

6' 

A 

5' 

5' 

5- 

5' 

5 

5' 

5 

5 

5 

5 

6 



4-717 
4*791 
4*862 
4-932 
6-000 
6*065 
•129 
•192 
'253 
•813 
•371 
•428 
•4^4 
>639 
'593 
646 
'698 
•748 
•798 
•848 
•896 
•943 
-990 
6*036 
6-082 
6*126 
6*171 
6-214 
6-257 
6-299 
6-341 
6-382 
6*423 
6-463 
6-502 
6-542 
6-580 
6*619 
6-656 
6-694 
6-731 
6-767 
6-804 
6-839 
6-875 
6-910 
6-945 
6-979 
7*013 
7*047 
7*080 



No. 



360 
366 
370 
375 
380 
386 
890 
395 
400 
405 
410 
415 
420 
425 
430 
435 
440 
446 
450 
455 
460 
465 
470 
475 
480 
486 
4iK) 
496 
600 
510 
520 
540 
560 
580 
600 
625 
650 
675 
700 
725 
750 
776 
800 
825 
850 
875 
900 
925 
950 
975 
1000 



Square. 



I29(>00 
133226 
126900 
140625 
144400 
118225 
152100 
156025 
160000 
164025 
168100 
172225 
176400 
180626 
184900 
189225 
193600 
198025 
202500 
207025 
211600 
216225 
220900 
225625 
230400 
2352-J5 
240100 
245025 
250000 
-260100 
270400 
291600 
313600 
336400 
360000 
390625 
422500 
455625 
490000 
625625 
662500 
600626 
640000 
680626 
722500 
766625 
810000 
855626 
902600 
950625 
lOOOOQO 



Cube. 



Square 
Boot. 



Cube 
Boot. 

V 



\ 



46656000 

48627126 

50663000 

52784375 

64872000 

57066626 

59319000 

61629875 

64!<00000 

66430126 

68921000 

71473875 

74088000 

76765625 

79507000 

82312875 

85184000 

88121125 

91125000 

94196375 

97336000 

100544626 

103323000 

107171875 

110592000 

114084125 

117649000 

121287375 

125000000 

132651000 

140608000 

157464000 

175616000 

195112000 

216000000 

244140625 

274625000 

307546875 

343000000 

381078126 

421875000 

465484375 

512000000 

561515625 

614125000 

669921875 

729000000 

791453125 

857375000 

926859375 



18*97 
19*10 
19*23 
19*36 
19-49 
19*62 
19*74 
19*87 
20-00 
20*12 
20*24 
20*37 
20-49 
20-61 
20-786 
20-866 
20-976 
21*095 
•213 
-330 



21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 



447 
563 
679 
794 
90y 



22-02-2 
22-135 
22*248 
22-360 
22-583 
22 -803 
23*237 
23-664 
24-083 
24 -494 
25-000 
25-495 
25-980 
26-457 
26*925 
27-386 
27 -838 
28-284 
28*722 
29-154 
29*580 
30-000 
30 -413 
30*822 
31*224 






7*116 
7-146 
7*179 
7*211 
7*248 
7*274 
•806 
•387 
•868 
'896 
'428 
■469 
'488 
•618 
'647 
•576 
605 
684 
668 
691 
719 
7-747 
7*774 
802 
829 
'866 
883 
910 
937 
989 
041 
143 
247 
8-339 
8*484 
8*549 
8*662 
8-772 
8-879 
8-983 
9-086 
9*186 
9*288 
9*878 
9*472 
9-664 
9-664 
9-748 
9*830 
ft*^V^ 



7" 

7 

7' 

7" 

7- 

7 

7' 

7" 

7' 

7" 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7" 



7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

8 

8' 

8- 



1>\'«lffi\^*^*«^ 



'^^ 



66 



TABLE OF FOTJBTH POWERS OF NXTDCBEBS. 



N 


N* 


N 


N^ 


N 


N^ 


N 


N* 


1 


1-00 


3i 


112 


5i 


916 


7f 


3607 


1* 


1-60 


3g 


130 


51 


1000 


7i 


3846 


li 


2-44 


3* 


150 


5f 


1093 


8 


4096 


It 


3-57 


31 


173 


H 


1191 


8^ 


4358 


li 


5-06 


3J 


198 


6 


1296 


8i 


4632 


11 


6-97 


3f 


228 


6i 


1408 


81 


4920 


U 


9-38 


4 


256 


6i 


1526 


8i 


5293 


u 


12-4 


4* 


289 


6t 


1652 


81 


5534 


2 


16 


4i 


326 


6i 


1785 


8f 


5861 


2i 


20-4 


4f 


366 


6f 


1926 


Si 


6204 


2i 


25-6 


4i 


410 


6f 


2076 


9 


6561 


2f 


31-8 


4f 


458 


6J 


2140 


n 


6933 


2i 


39-1 


4i 


509 


7 


2401 


9i 


7321 


21 


47-5 


4f 


565 


7i 


2577 


9f 


7726 


21 


57-2 


5 


625 


7i 


2763 


9i 


8145 


2i 
3 


68-3,-^ 


6fr 
i 5i 


690 
760 


7f 
7i 


2959 
3164 


91 
9f 


8582 
9036 


3i, 


6f 


835 


71 


3380 


9J 


9509 



yiiosrarithms.— The logarithm of a number to a given base is the 

ibdex of the power to which the base must be raised to give the 

■^number ; thus if j»=a* a? is the log. of m to base a. In the common 

r tysiem of logs, the base is 10, or the successive values of a?, which 

/' satisfy the equation »»= 10', that is, ar is the log. of w to base 10. In 

the Napienan or natural system of logs., also called hyperbolic logs., 

the base is denoted by the symbol « and is the sum of jbhe series 



2 



♦-^ 



2.3 



1 
2.3^4 



+ ^ — 



^/I^^® ^ ^'^^® *^® ^^e- of which to the base^. t is 

2*8026 ; hence the modulus of common logs, is [ 



log. € 10 2-3025 



0*43429 



that is, to find the common log. of a number, multiply its Napierian 

wr hyperbolic log. by 043429 Conversely, to find ^he 

r *2J«""? ®^ hyperboHo log. of a number, multiply its common l*3g. 



67 
DYNAMICS. 



Abftolate Units of Force. — The " absolute unifc of force " is a 
term used to denote the force which, acting on a unit of mass for a 
unit of time, produces a imit of velocity. 

The unit of time employed is always a second. 

The unit of Telocity is, in Britain, one foot per second; in 

France, one metre per second. 
The unit of mass is the mass of so much matter as weiehs one 
unit of weight near the level of the sea, and in some definite 
latitude. 
In Britain the latitude chosen is that of London ; in France, 

that of Paris. 
In Britain the unit of weight chosen is a pound avoirdupois, and 
is equal to 32*187 of the corresponding absolute units of force. 
In France the unit of weight chosen is a gramme, and it is equal 
to 9*8087 of the corresponding absolute units of force. 
The proportions borne to each other by the absolute imits of force 
in different countries are nearly the same as those of the units of 
work, and would be exactly the same but for the variation of the 
force of gravity in the latitude. G-ravity is about 1*00017 times 
greater in London than in Paris. 

Power is expressed in units of work in unit of time as foot-pounds 
per second or per minute. 

1 horse-power = 550 foot-pounds per second. 

= 33,000 foot-pounds per minute. 
= 1,980,000 foot-pounds per hour. 
1 horse-power = 1*0139 cheval-vapeur. 
1 cheval-vapeur = 75 kilogrammetres per second. 

= 542*5 foot-pounds per second. 
= 0*9863 horse-power. 

Work. — 1 kilogrammetre = 7*23314 foot-pounds. 

1 foot-pound »- 0*138253 kilogrammetres. 

Enersry. — It is known that energy manifests itself under different 
forms, and that one form of energy is quantitatively convertible into 
another form, without loss. It is also known that each form of 
energy is expressible as the product of two factors, one of which has 
been termed the ** intensity factor,'' and the other the " capacity 
factor." Prof. Ostwald, in the last edition of his " Allgemeine 
Chemie,'' classified some of these forms of energy as follows : — 

Kinetic energy is the product of mass into the square of velocity. 
Linear „ „ length into force. 

JBurface „ „ surf ace into s\ix1%^ca \ATkSvsnv. 

Volume „ „ volume into '^T«%«va^. 



68 

Heat energy is the product of heat capacity (entropy) into tem- 
perature. 
Electrical „ a electric capacity into potential. 

Chemical „ „ " atomic weight " into affinity. 



Let t 


=time ( 


seconds). 








s 


= space 


in feet. 








V 


= initial 


Telocity in feet 


per second. 


V 


= final 


»» 


» 


>» 




U 


=average „ 


>» 


»> 








Then * 


= U tj 


v—sjt. 








U 


-i(y + V). 








s 


-U^ 


= i(f + 


V)t, 



If velocity increases or diminishes uniformly from V to tr foot 
seconds, then the acceleration or retardation / is given, by 
f= {v—Y)t foot seconds per second. 

U ^Y + ^ft, 
s ^Yt + \ftK 
Again, since i? — V =/ ^, — 

Multiplying we get — 

If a force of P pounds acts on a weight of W lbs., it produces an 
acceleration given by — 

— = W = 32-2) 
g W 

If the force P pounds acts through s feet for t seconds, and 
produces a velocity of v foot seconds, — 

then since \ t^ — f s^v = / 1 — 

.-. i W ©2/^ = P *, and Wvjg^T t. 

The expression i W t^lg denotes the " kinetic energy " of a body 
in foot'pounds. 

A force of P pounds acting for t seconds is called the *' impulse " 
in second pounds, and, since W vjg^V t, W vfg is called the 
" momentum " or quantity of motion that a body of W lbs. weight 
possesses, and is measured in second pounds. 



f 



69 



Thus, a body sfcarting from resfc, the energy deyeloped 

P * = i W v^lg (foot pounds), 
the momentum — P ^ = W vfg (second pounds), 
but if a body already has a motion of Y foot seconds, the energy is— 

i W D'/ijr - i W Y^lg = P *, 
and the momentum — 

W vjg — W \jg = "P t (second pounds). 

Thus, if a body such as a truck on a railway is acted on by a hori- 
zontal force of P pounds for t seconds, the yelocity acquired will be^ 

p 
r=- g t (foot seconds), 

ihe energy acquired will be — 

p2 

i "W 9 ^^ ^'^^^ pounds), 

the momentum acquired will be — 

P t (second pounds), 
and the distance gone will be — 

i^^^Mfeet). 

If the body is on an incline making an angle of a° with the 
horizon, it slides with an acceleration given by — 

/ W sin. o" 



o 



g W 

/ = ^ sin. o° 

Formule of Falliner Bodies in Air. 

^ = 32 "2. « = Velocity in ft. sees. 

8 — Space in feet. t •= Time in sees. 

v^ gt == is/2gs ^ -r- 



a V 



Vlr 



When a body is thrown upwards with an initial velocity of V 
ft. tecs., if T is the time taken to reach the height S feet, these 
formulss become — 

2^ 2g 

t> « V - a/2^* =z V - gt V ^y/2gS 

^ _ 2gs + Y^ + Yv T = L 
«^ 9 



70 
If the body is thrown downwards — 

V = V + '/^8 == y + fft 

. 2,gs + V2 - Vi? 
Sfv 

g =r 32-2 -^ = 16 1 

f- = 8-05 i ^ 0-03106 

4 ^ 

— ^ 0-01663 2g = 64-4 

^/Tg^ 8-025 

Circular Measure. 
AnfiTular and Linear Velocity of Wheels. 

Unit of oircular measure that angle whose arc equals radius, 

180 
usually called a radian, and is = 57° -3. It is denoted by oa. 

If r be the radius of a circle, and v the linear yelocity of any point 
(jn its circumference — 

to ^ m T and w = — . 

T 

1 reyolution per min. ^ 2 v units of circular measure per min. 
Circular measure = degrees x 0*01745. 

Centrifa^al Porce. 

W = Weight of body. 

r =3 Badius of circle it describes. 

A*— Angular velocity in the circle in radians. 

Cf.*^' Centrifugal force. 

^ WAV W V2 

Uf. = ., =» — — . — 

9 9 r 

* If the Ixne.Q.T velocity is given, V, A = — and V =» A r. 

T 



PBNDITL'UIC OOVBBK'OB. 




Simple Watt Gotbbnob. 
(Foot-lb.-eeaond nnita.) 
LetW - Weight of each ball in Ibe. 
R = Radius of ajstom iu feet. 
H = HeigM „ „ 

B — Telooilj ofrotatioD in feet per seoond. 
n ^ Beiulutions per aei^aiid. 
g ^ Acceleration due to gi^rit; ^ 82'3. 
"Biuik boll as the Bjstem revolTes is under the action of three fohsec : 
A deflecting force, which produces a oironlar instead of a reotiline^ 
T — L- i the tension in the rod, e ; and the weight, w. 



motioii, given b; 



W 



Thati«— 



If A be the height in inches — 

, yB» „ y.R'.SO'.lZ S6,20O. ^ 



/35,200 



45r»R»N' 

35,200 187-6 

^7k 



72 



Speed and Bevolntions. 

Let M be the speed in miles per hour; 

K the revolutions of driving wheel per minute, 

C the circumference of driving wheel in inches, then — 

1056 M 



C - 



M 



C 

1056 M 
It 
B.C 

" 1056 



Spbed Table. 
Specially Computed for the " Automotor ** by G, H, Little^ C.E, 

1 Statute Mile =- 1,760 yards. 



Miles per 


Yards per 


Yards per 


Time in seconds 


hour. 


minute. 


second. 


for 100 yards. 


1 


29*33 


-49 


204 -57 


2 


58-66 


•98 


102 -28 


3 


88-00 


1-47 


68 19 


4 


117 -33 


1-95 


51-14 


5 


146-66 


2*44 


40-91 


6 


176 00 


2-93 


34-09 


7 


205 -33 


3-42 


29-22 


8 


234 -66 


3-91 


25-57 


9 


264-00 


4-40 


22-73 


10 


293 -33 


4-89 


20-46 


11 


322 -66 


6-37 


18-60 


12 


352 00 


5-87 


17-05 


13 


881 -33 


6-35 


15-74 


14 


410 -66 


6-84 


14-61 


15 


440-00 


7-33 


13-64 


16 


469-33 


7-82 


12-78 


17 


498 -66 


8-31 


12 03 


18 


528-00 


8-80 


11-36 


19 


557 -33 


9-28 


10-77 


20 


586-66 


9-78 ' 


10-23 


21 


616 00 


10*26 


9-74 


22 


645-33 


10 -75 , 


9-30 


23 


674 -66 


11-24 


8-75 


24 


704-00 


11-73 


8 -52 


25 

■ 


733-33 


12-22 


8-18 



73 
B»UwBr Bpeed Table. 



i! 


Timt at 


Ill 


Time of 


11 


pBrt™ii(I 


iB.1. 


)mi. 


!»,. 


iml. 


)inl.|lml. 


l»i. i„..|i».. 








































I 


rt 


11 




1 


3^ 


1 Hi 




si'si 












































\u 


11 






W J 68 ! 1 (6 


49 


il se 


1 1? 




! i 


' ' 




*' 


n OM 


i ?fl 


I? 


It m ' 1 'b 
























i: 




36 








:i si li 


w 




!" 












Ib ao 1 1 




















UM 


" 










, 



Spaed of Steamships. 

Let T = ^>eed is knots. 

D — Displacement io torn. 
I.H.P = Indicated horse-power. 
C be a conattuit, or diaplacement co-effioieot,— 



l/D» 



~ I.H.P. 



Co-effloieat of Harlt for SteamcMp*. 
Co-efflcient = ■ ^* * ^' . 



I 



1 



u 

fa 

3 ® 



I ^ 

3-1 



?3'2 



CO 



:ll 



I 

la 



QQ 






* 

I 



I 



a 



s 



a 



a 

00 



a 



a 

(O 



I 






I 



a 



ca 



74 

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76 



To determine Speed of Steamships. 
A knot is frequently, but yerj erroneously, used as expressing the 
length of a nautical or sea mile. A knot is a speed of one nautical 
mile, or mean minute of latitude per hour, and it is a speed of 101*4 
feet per minute, the nautical mile being taken as 6,080 feet. 

Let T be the time in minutes occupied in ** running the mile ** 
with the tide. 
t be the time in minutes occupied in " running the mile " 

against the tide. 
Y be the speed of ship in knots (nautical miles per hour). 

SOT + t 

^ " Tt 

Table for Convertiner Knots into Miles. 
(The Admiralty Knot =6,080 feet. 1 statute mile =5,280 feet.) 



Knots. 



Miles. 



Knots. 



Miles. 



Knots. 



MUes. 



1-152 
1-439 
1-727 

2 015 
2-303 
2-591 
2-879 

3 167 
3-455 
3-742 
4-030 
4-318 
4-606 
4-894 
5 182 
5-470 
5-758 
6-045 
6*333 
6-621 
6-909 
7-197 
7-485 
7-773 
8-061 
8-349 
8-636 
8-924, 

9-212 
9-600 ,y 
9-788 II 



8-75 

9 00 

9-25 

9-50 

9-75 

10-00 

10-25 

10-50 

10-75 

11-00 

11-25 

11-50 

11-75 

12-00 

12-25 

12-50 

12-75 

13-00 

13-25 

13-50 

18-75 

14-00 

14-25 

14-50 

14-75 

15 00 

16-25 

15-50 

U'lo 

16-00 

16-26 



10 -076 
10-364 
10 -652 

10 -939 

11 -227 

11 -515 
11-803 

12 -091 
12-379 
12-667 

12 -955 

13 -242 
13-530 
13-818 

14 106 
14 -394 
14 -632 

14 -970 
15-258 

15 -545 

15 -833 

16 -121 
16 -409 
16 -697 

16 -985 

17 -273 
17 -561 

848 
136 
424 
712 



17 
18 
18 
18 



16-50 

16-75 

17-00 

17-25 

17-50 

17-75 

18 00 

18-25 

18-50 

18-75 

19-00 

19-25 

19-50 

19-75 

20-00 

20-25 

20-60 

20-75 

21-00 

21-25 

21-50 

21-76 

22 00 

22-25 

22 50 

22-75 

23-00 

23-50 

24-00 

24-50 

2500 



TRACTION. 

Boatitanoe of Soad. 
Iliia ia lunall; expressed aa being r lbs. per Kin of vehicle, butr 
onrvA the equalioii of which ia — 

r = A + B o>, 
vhere A ii the reeiglance at starting and B > term which u 
with the square of the speed. 

A and. B are determined as fdllowe : — On a giTen load the gradient 
of 1 in Bt ia meaaured, and the apeed at wli'ch the vehicle first begins 
to move is observed ; and on another and steeper gradient of 1 in «, 
die speed of the vehicle is observed, then 

""■" 22*0 






A - - 
IB which enablo 



— , and A + B «> = : 

s to determine A a 



3unro Showin, 
on Vuioni 



78 

Aooording to data obtained recently by the United States Agri- 
cultural Bureau, the resistance to traction is as follows, per ton of 
2,000 lbs. :— 

Asphalte level, poor condition . . . . . . 26 lbs. 

Macadam „ good „ . . • • • • 38 „ 

Dirt Boad „ „ „ 96 „ 

Macadam, 10 per cent, up grade . . . . . . 236 „ 

Average result for Good Macadam Boad on the 

level .. •• .. .. •• .. 4il „ 



Influence of Boads and Weather on Traction. 



According to tests made by E. Whyte-Smith, and communicated 
to the Institute of Electrical Engineers, the pull required per ton 
of vehicle for various roads and for three different conditions of 
weather is given in the following table : — 



Asphalte « » . . 
Wood 

Macadam (good) 
Macadam. . 
Macadam (soft) . . 



Pull in lbs. per ton. 

22 23 22 

22 31 36 



52 
60 
97 



23 
31 
50 
51 
51 



49 
50 
52 



Gradient. 

If a road makes an angle of a° with the horizon, or rises vertically 
by m feet, the grade is usually expressed as 1 in m, and tan. a^=s — . 

The friction is estimated by the resistance, r, in lbs. per ton of vehicle, 
so that on the level the co-efficient of friction /a =>■ 



2240 



The acceleration or retardation, fy of a vehicle on an incline is 
given by — 



'=^(i-r) 



" \ m 2240/ 



79 



Inilaenoe of Grade on Traction. 
P = F* + a W, 
where F is pull in lbs. as shown by a dynamometer ; F* is the ^uU in 
lbs. requured to draw the vehicle on the level ; a is the inclinaraon of 
the grade expressed as a fraction ; and W is the weight in lbs. of the 
Tohicle. 
More accurately 

P =s W sin. a + fjL cos. a, 

where fi is*the co-efficient of traction. If P for any grade is known 

then 

p 

fjL = — - — per cent, of grade. 

Values of fi for trams : — 

12 lbs. per ton at a speed of 1 mile per hour. 

13 

14 

151 



»» 


)» 


ft 


JLvr 


»> 


a 


»» 


it 


15 


» 


>» 


>» 


it 


20 


» 



(Dawson.) 



Table of Ohradients. 



Q-rade in — 






Load considered 


X^ A iMrv^^ 




EquoJ to 
Angle of — 


Rise or Fall 
in 1 Mile. 


as unity, propor- 


Per Cent. 


Units. 


tion that horse 
can draw. 


20 


1 in 5 


IV 19' 


1056 




17 


1 „ 6 


9° 26' 


880 




14 


1 „ 7 


8" 09' 


754 




121 


1 „ 8 


7° 08' 


635 




11 


1 „ 9 


e** 17' 


586 




10 


1 „ 10 


5° 43' 


528 


•25 


9 


1 „ 11 


5* 11' 


480 


•265 


8 


1 „ 12 


4° 46' 


440 


•28 


7f 


1 „ 13 


4° 24' 


406 


•295 


7 


1 „ 14 


4° 05' 


337 


•31 


6i 


1 „ 15 


3^ 49' 


352 


•325 


€i 


1 „ 16 


3° 35' 


330 


•34 


6 


1 „ 17 


3° 22' 


310 


•355 


5i 


1 ,, 18 


3** 11' 


293 


•37 


5 


1 ,, 19 


3'' 00' 


277 


•385 


6 


1 „ 20 


2° 52' 


204 


•4 


4 


1 „ 25 


2" 18' 


218 


•52 


3-3 


1 „ 30 


1° 55' 


155 


•64 


2^8 


1 „ 35 


1° 38' 1 


151 


•73 


2^ 


1 » 40 


1° 26' i 


132 


•85 



80 

Horse-power reaxiired to propel a Vehicle on an Incline. 

Ijet W= Total weight to bo moved. 
a — Angle of grade. 
V = Speed in miles per hour. 
S) = Resistance to traction in lbs. per ton. 
„ „ (R Cos. a ± 2240 Sin a) W v 

^'^' 375 



If the gradient be expressed as 1 in m the formula may be 
written — 



( 



■o , 2240\ Wc 
* =^-^7 375 



A locomotive exerting a pull of F tons and hauling a train of 
W tons up an incline of 1 in m, and the resistance of the road being 
r lbs. per ton, will in a time of t seconds generate a velocity — 

in the distance — 

VW m 2240/ ^^ ^ ^* 
and will develop a kinetic energy, K E, of — 

KE = W (|.- 1 - ^y i^^ (foot tone). 

(Gbeenhill.) 

Tractive Power of Locomotives. 

For simple engines 

^ D2.F".L 

~^~ 
For compound engines 

J. D/.P«.L 

^ 2rf— ' 

where D is diameter of H.P. cylinder, "D, diameter of L.P. cylinder, 
L length of stroke, P is the mean pressure of steam in simple 
engines, but in compounds P is the sum of the mean pressures in 
the H.P. and L.P. cylinders divided by ratio of cylinders, and d is 
diameter of driving wheels. 



81 

Tractive Besistanoe on Tramwasrs. 
The average pull required per ton of load to keep a car moTing is 
30 lbs. With exceptionally clean rails, as during a heary rainndl, 
and with the rail grooves void of dirfc,- the pull may be as low as 
20 lbs. per ton, or below this figure, approximating to the 10 or 12 lbs. 
of railway work. Again, a very dirty, clogged rail, may demand 
more than the 30 lbs. Multiplying the pull by the speed in feet per 
minute gives the power in foot-pounds, so that the horse-power is 

simply H.P. = , where T is the pull in lbs. per ton 

33,000 

necessary, W is the load in tons, and Y the speed in feet per minuted 

This rule gives the horse-power on the level. To find the power on a 

grade, the vertical rise of the car is found by dividing tne speed of 

the car in feet per minute by the length of road in which there is a 

rise of 1 foot. The number of feet of vertical lift multiplied by the 

total weight in pounds is the measure of the work done against 

V X W 

gravity, or g , where W is the load, V is the speed, and D is 

the distance in which the road rises 1 foot. Thus on a 1 in 30 grade, 
D = 30. The addition of the two results gives the total horse-power. 

^ Friction in Vehicles. 



e « c 

In order to determine the friction in a vehicle, a convenient smooth 
road is selected, which has one portion level and the other on a 
known grade. Let A B C be such a road, and let the distances 
A B, B C be measured. The vehicle is placed at A, and allowed to 
run down the slope A B and along the level portion B C. 
Let W be the weight of the vehicle in lbs. 

h the verticfd drop. 

V the mean speed m feet per second, while passing the point «. 

s the distance from the starting point A to middle of B C. 

/ the frictiori of the vehicle in lbs. per lb. of W, then — 

W A -» The foot-lbs. of work due to gravity. 

W tj2 . . 

—n — *» The kmetic energy of the vehicle while passing #. 

fW s ^^ The work expended in friction in foot-lbs. 

Wi/ 

• f* s. A — — — The friction of the vehicle in lbs. per ton 
• '-^ l 2^ is 2,240/. 



82 



The Prony as the Unit of Power for ICoto- Vehicles. 

The poncelet is 100 kilogrammetres per second, and the horse- 
power 18 75 kilogrammetres per second. The kilogrammetre per 
second is too long a name, and is also an unscientific derivation. 
The prony is a unit of 10 kilogrammetres per second, or the tenth 
of a poncelet, and almost equal to the hectowatt or one tenth of a 
kilowatt in electrical nomenclature. The prony is exactly 
98'1 watts, or practically 100 watts. 

The advantage of the use of the prony as a unit in the calcula- 
tion of powers for motor vehicles is its simplicity. The calculation is 
as follows : — 

Let P be the power in pronys. 

F be the weight of the vehicle in tons. 

Tc be the coefficient of traction in centimes ; tan a the gradient 

in centimes. 
V be the speed in metres per second. 

Then— 

P = F (Ar X Tan a) n (pronys). 

^Eximple. — A vehicle weighing 1,500 kilogrammes is required to 
ascend a gradient of 2 per cent, at a speed of 4 metres per second ; 
the coefficient of traction being 3 per cent. 

The power neressary to apply to the periphery of the wheel 
will be : — 

P = 1-5 (3 X 2) 4 = 30 pronys. 

If the efficiency of the system is 80 per cent, the power of the 
motor to give the speed must be : — 

30 
P = ^rr = 37*5 pronys. 

If an electric motor is in question it should furnish 37 hectowatts 
or 3,700 watts. 

Now that the horse is so rapidly losing his importance as a motor 

it is reasonable to search for a substitute for him by creating 

a unit more suitable for the actual requirements of the cycle and 

automobile industries. The prony seems to fill the greater number 

o^ ^/le required conditionB, 



83 



ANIMAIi POWEB. 

Average power of a man working to the best advantage is lifting 
70 lbs. 1 ft. in 1 second for 10 hours per day, or 4200 ft. lbs. per 
minute, = 0*127 horse-power. 

The average work of a horse in a day of 8 hours is 22,500 lbs. 
raised 1 ft. in 1 minute, or 0*68 of the theoretical horse-power. 

A horse can only exert a theoretical horss-power for 6 hours per day, 

1 indicated horse-power =1*4 times the average power of a horse. 

The strength of a horse is equivalent 1x> that of 6 men. 

Averagre Work of Horses. 



Miles per 


Time of 
Working. 


Useful effect for 1 day, drawing for 1 mile. 


hour. 


On a Canal. 


On a Railroad. On Tampike. 




Hours. 


Tons. Tons. 


Tons. 


2i 


11-5 


520 


115 


14 


3 


8 


243 


92 


12-0 


4 


4-5 


102 


72 


9 


5 


2-9 


52 


57 


7-2 


6 


2 


30 


48 


6 


7 


1-5 


19 


41 


5-i 


8 i 


1-125 


12-8 


36 


4-5 


10 


0-760 


6-6 


28-8 


3-6 



(Kempe.j 



Pol] 

Lite. 350. 




\ 
















SOOi 




\ 


PoU 


of a 


Horse 


at 

tnm 


Vtaiaoi 


Speed 


1 

to. 


itsa 




\ 
















.200 






V 














ISO. 






•\ 


\, 












too. 








\ 


\ 










-50. 












\ 


\ 


\ 


^ 




4>Mtf 


1 




i 


1 




&. 




M^jA" 



"^ "^ 



MECHANICAL DATA. 



WZIOHTS, &0., OP MATEBIAIiS. 
Speoiflo Ohravity — Weiarht and Strength of Uetals. 









Weight 


Weight 


Strength per square inch. 


Metals. 


Specific 


of 


of 


1 


1 




Gravity. 


1 cubic 


1 cubic 


Tensile. 


Crush- 


Trans- 








foot. 


inch. 


ing. 


verse. 








lbs. 


lbs. 1 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


Platinum 


••• ••• 


21 '6Z\ 


1343-9 


•775 


— 


— 


— 


,, sheet... 


•«• ••• 


23-0 


1435-6 


•828 


— 


' 


^^ 


Ctold, pure 


••• ••• 


18^417 


1160-0 


•665 


9-1 


^^" 




Mercury 


••• ■•• 


13*596 


848^75 


•49117 


— 


^^~ f 




Silver 


••• ■•• 


10-474 


653*8 


•377 


18-2 


_. 


— 


Lead, cast 


••• ••• 


11 •se 


708 6 


•408 


•8 


3^1 


— 


„ sheet 


•« ■ ••• 


11-4 


711^6 


•41 


1-5 




^..^ 


Bismuth 


••• ••• 


9^822 


613-1 


•353 


1-45 


^ 


^ 


Copper, bolts ... 


••• ••• 


8^86 


652-4 


•318 


17-0 


— 


— 


„ cast 


••• ••• 


8-607 


537-3 


•31 


8-4 




._ 


„ sheet ... 


••• ••• 


8^78 


648-1 


•316 


13*4 


— 





,, wire ... 


••• ••• 


8*9 


555-0 


•32 


26 




__ 


Tin, cast . 


• •• •• • 


7-291 


465^i 


-2r)2 


2-0 


6^7 


__ 


Zinc, cast 


«•• ••• 


7-0 


437-0 


-252 


3*8 






Iron, cast, from ... 


••• ••• 


7-0 


487-0 


-262 


6-0 


36-0 


2-0 


„ ,. to 


•-• ••• 


7-6 


474-4 


•278 


18-0 


64*0 


3-4 


„ „ average 
Iron, wrought, from 


••• ••• 


7 23 


451^0 


•26 


7^3 


48*0 


2-6 


••• •• 


7-6 


474-4 


•273 


16^0 


16-0 


3-d 


n »> to 


*•• • - 


7-8 


486-9 


•281 


29-0 


18 •O 


5*5 


„ „ average 


7^78 


485*6 


•28 


, 22-0 


16-9 


3-& 


Iron Wire 




— 


— 


— ~ 


40-0 




— 


Dt66i 4 « • • • 




8-0 


499 -0 


•288 


62-0 


150-0 


— 


If JL i&rcs ••• 




. 




— . 


36-0 


90-0 




Antimony, cast ... 




6-72 


419-5 


•242 


-47 






Aluminium, sheet 




2-67 


, 166-6 


•096 


— 






cast 




2-56 


159 •d 


•092 


— 


— 




Aluminium ") 20 to 95% of 
Bronze S copper 


7-68 


478^4 

1 


•276 


'. 32-0 

1 


58-0 


— 


Qun-Metal, 10 coppei 


, 1 tin ... 


8-464 


' 528^36 


•306 


16-1 


— 


— 


It tf ' •! 


* ,, ... 


8-456 


527 -89 


•305 


! 13 •& 




— 


Brass, cast, 3 copper, 


Izinc ... 


8-397 


524 •IS 


•3 


; 13-1 




— 


White Metal Hiabbit'i 


J) 1 7 •SI 


456 -32 


-263 


1 ^"" 


— 


— 



Useful Numbers for Weifirlit of Iron.— The following are 
useful uumbers to carry in the memory : — 



i inch dia. = 1 lb. per ft. run. 
I inch dia. = 2 lbs. per ft. run. 



li inch dia. = 4 lbs. per ft. run. 
l| inch did. ■= 8 lbs. per ft. run. 
1 inch square of iron weighs 10 lbs. per yard, or 3 '33 lbs. per foot. 
1 square foot of iron 1 inch thick weighs 40 lbs. 
1 cubic inch of wrought iron weighs '28 lb. 
1 cubic inch of cast iron weighs '26 lb. 
400 cubic inches of wrought iron weigh 1 cwt. 
^^cf euAio inches of cast iron weigh. 1 cwt. 



85. 



Speoiflo Gravity and Strenfirth of Timber. 



Name. 



Specifle 


Tenacity 


gravity. 


per 
square inch. 




lbs. 


1^19 


— 


1^05 


8,000 


•98 


15,000 


•95 


20,000 


•93 


14,500 


•93 


15,000 


•85 


15,000 


•76 


15,000 


•75 


17,700 


•70 


12,000 


•68 


17,000 


•56 


14,000 


•54 


10,500 


•53 


11,000 


•53 


12,500 



Cmshine 

BtresB per 

square inch. 



Ebony 

Greenheari . . 

Teak 

Lancewood . . 
Oak, Dantzic 

„ English 
Mahogany ,. 
Hornbeam .. 

Aflh 

Pitch-pine .. 

Beech 

Elm 

Bed Fine.... 
Fir, Larch .. 

„ Riga.... 



lbs. - 

18,000 

12,000 

12,000 

7,000 

7,700 

8,250 

8,200 

8,500 

9,000 

6,000 

8,500 

10,300 

5,000 

5,500 

5,300 



Decimal Bq.uivalent8 of inches and feet or pence and shillings. 



Inches 




Feet 


Inches 




Feet 


or 




or 


or 




or 


Pence. 




ShiUinii^. 


Pence. 




Shillings. 


k 


ss. 


•04166 


6i 


=1 


r54166 


1 


=£ 


0-08333 


7 


s 


'58333 


H 


= 


0-125 


7i 


= 


:6250 


2 


5= 


0- 16666 


8 


=s 


r66666 


2* 


^ 


^20832 


8i 


^ 


;70832 


3 


^ 


0^25 


9 


= 


0-75 


H 


= 


-29166 


91 


= 


-79166 


4 


^ 


•33333 


10 


^ 


-83333 


4i 


=s 


-3750 


lOi 


^ 


*8750 


5 


:= 


-41666 


11 


ss 


-91666 


5i 


=: 


0-45833 


114 


s 


Q-<i'y^'^ 


« 


^ 


0-5 


I ^^ 


^ 


^-^*>W^ 



86 



Weifirht of Iron. 

Cubic inches x '28 lb. 

Thickness of plates in inches x 40 — lbs. per square foot. 

„ ff eighths X 5 = 

tenths X 4 = 



>> 






if 



it 
it 



Weigrht of Plate Iron per Square Foot. 



Inch. 



_!_ 
10 

i 

s 

10 



fo 

i 

10 



Lbs. 



2-517 
5-035 
7-552 
10070 
12-588 
15-106 
17-623 
20141 
22-659 



Inch. 






1 ^ 

r- 

1 6 

To 



1 

u 
li 



Lbs. 



25-176 
27-694 
30-211 
32-729 
35-247 
37764 
40-282 
45-317 
50-352 



■' Inch. 



II 

If 
If 
li 

2 

2i 
2i 
2i 



Lbs. 



55-387 
60-422 
65-458 
70-493 
75-528 
80-563 
85-604 
90-639 
100-709 





Weierht of Flat Bar Iron per Lix 

Thickness in Fractions of 


Leal Foot. 


Width. 


Inches 


• 




1 


i 






i 
•84 


A 


t 


-h 


i 


1 


f 


i 


1 


105 


126 


1-48 


1-69 


2-11 2-53 


2-95 


li 


•95 


1^18 


1-42 


1-66 


1-90 


2-37 


2-85 


3-32 


li 


105 


132 


158 


1-85 


2 11 


264 


3-17 


3-69 


If 


116 


1^45 


174 2-03 


2-32 


2-90 


3-48 


4-06 


li 


1-26 


158 i 1^90 


2-22 


2-53 


3-17 


3-80 


4-43 


If 


1-37 


171 


206 


2-40 


2 74 


3-43 


412 


4-80 


If 


1^48 


1^85 


2-22 


2-59 2 95 


3-69 


4-43 


517 


li 


1-58 


1-98 


237 


277 


3-17 


396 


4 75 


5-54 


2 


169 


211 


253 


2-96 


3 38 


4-22 5-07 


5-91 


2i 


1^90 


237 


2-85 


3-33 


3-80 


4-75 


5-70 


6-65 


2i 


211 


264 


317 


3-69 


4-22 


5-28 


6-33 


7-39 


2f 


2-32 


290 


348 


407 


4-65 


581 


6-97 


813 


3 


2-53 


317 


380 


4-43 


507 


6*34 


7-60 


8-87 


H 


2-74 


3-43 


4-12 


4-80 


5-49 


6-86 


8-24 


9-61 


H 


2-96 


369 


4-43 


5-17 5-91 


7-39 


8-87 


10-35 


3f 1 


317 


396 


4-75 


5-54' 6 33 


7-92 


9-50 


11-09 


^ / 


3-38 


4-221 


5'07 


5-91 


6-76 


8-45 


10-14 


11-83 



3-38 

3-80 

4-22 

4-64 

5-07 

5 49 

5-91 

6-33 

6-76 

7-60 

8-45 

9-29 

10-14 

i 10-98 

11-83 

12-67 

13-52 



87 



Weigrht per Foot of Bound and Square Bar Iron. 



Inch. 


Bound. 


Square. 


Inch. 


Bound. 


Square. 


i 


•165 


•211 


1 2 


10-616 


13-520 


1 


•373 


•475 


1 2i 


13-440 


17112 


i 


•663 


-845 


2i 


16-588 


21120 


1 


1043 


1-320 


2f 


20076 


25-560 


f 


1-493 


1-901 


3 


23^888 


30-416 


i 


2032 


2-588 


3i 


28^040 


35-704 


1 


2-654 


3-380 


3i 


32512 


41-408 


1* 


3360 


4-278 


3f 


37-332 


47-534 


li 


4147 


6-280 


4 


42-464 


54-084 


If 


5019 


6-390 


4i 


47 952 


61055 


li 


5-972 


7-604 


4i 


53760 


68-448 


If 


7-010 


8-926 


4i 


59-900 


72-264 


If 


8128 


10-352 


5 


66-350 


84-480 


n 


9-333 


11-883 









Weifirht of Steel or Iron Angles. 



Let S be the sum of the flanges in inches. 
„ t ,f thickness of the flanges in inches. 
„ W „ weight in lbs. per foot run. Then — 

W = # (S - K. 
Fop iron, K = 3 '333. For steel, K = 3 -40. 

The weights of channel and Z bars can bo found from this rule by 
regarding them as made up of two angles. 



Weifirht of Pipes. 



D = Outside diameter in inches. 
d — Inside „ ,, 

K =3 A constant. 
W = Weight in lbs. per foot run. 

W - (D2 
For brass, K = 2 906. 

copper, K = 2 -994. 

iron, cast, £ => 2 *428. 



}» 



ft 



- rf2) K. 

For iron, wrot., K = 2 -61^, 



»» 



)) 



88 



WHITWOBTH STANDABD BOLTS AND 

Table of Safb Load in Lbs. 



NUTS. 



• 

I 

Urn, 

O 

• 


Diam. 

at 
Bottom 

of 


Area 

at 

Bottom 

of 


Approximate 


Safe Load in Ins. 


At 
4,000 lbs. 


At 
6,000 lbs. 


At 
8,000 lbs. 


At 
9,000 lbs. 


P 


Thread. 


Thread. 


per sq. 
inch. 


per sq. 
inch. 


per sq. 
inch. 


per sq. 
inch. 

1 


in. 


in. 


sq. in. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


^ 


0-13 


0-01 


66 


1 84 


112 


126 


i 


18 


02 


108 


! 162 


216 


243 


-ft 


0-24 


04 


184 


276 


378 


414 


i 


0-29 


0-06 


272 


408 


546 


614 


T^ 


0-34 


0-09 


! 876 


504 


752 


846 


i 


0-39 


12 


484 


726 


970 


1,090 


A 


0-45 


0-15 


620 


930 


1,240 


1,395 


-1 


0-50 


0-20 


816 


1,224 


1,620 


1,824 


H 


0-57 


0*25 


1,024 


1,536 


2,048 


2,304 


f 


0-62 


0-30 


1,216 


1,824 


1 2,430 


2,734 


•H 


0-68 


0-36 


1 1,468 


2,202 


2,936 


3.303 


i 


0-73 


0-42 


1,688 


2,532 


3,376 


3,800 


« 


0-79 


-498 


1,984 


2,976 


3,968 


4,464. 


1 


0-84 


0-554 


2,216 


3,324 


4,430 


4,990 


li 


0-94 


0-697 


2,788 


4,182 


5,575 


6,270 


U 


1-06 


or-894 


3,576 


5,364 


7,145 


8,035 


If 


1-16 


1-058 


4,232 


6,348 


8,455 


9,510 


li 


1-28 


1-299 


5,196 


7,794 


10,320 


11610 


H 


1-36 


1-472 


5,888 


8,832 


11,760 


13,230 


1* 


1-49 


1-753 


7,012 


10,518 


13,950 


15.700 


li 


1-59 


1 -986 


7,944 


11,916 


15,890 


17,875 


2 


1-72 


2-311 


9,244 


13,86R 


18,480 


20,790 


2i 


1-93 


2-926 


11,704 


17,556 


23,400 


26,325 


2* 


2-18 


3-733 


14,932 


22,398 


29,855 


33,590 


2f 


2-384 


4-464 


17,856 


26,784 


35,680 


40,140 


8 


2*634 


5-450 


21,800 


32,700 


43,520 


48,960 


8i 


2-856 


6-402 


25,608 


38,412 


51.216 


57,618 


3i 


3-105 


7-563 


30,252 


45,378 


60,504 


68,065 


8J 


3-320 


8-673 


34,692 


52,038 


69,384 


78,057 


4 


3-573 


10 -027 


40,108 ■■ 


60,162 


80,216 


90,240 


4i 


3-804 


11 -365 


45,480 1 


68,190 


90,9f?0 


102,305 


4i 


4-054 


12-908 


51,632 


77,448 


103,264 


116,172 


4f 


4-284 


14-404 


57,616 


86,424 


115,232 


129,636 


6 


4-534 


16-146 


64,584 


96,876 


129,168 


145,314 


6il 


5-012 


19 -720 


78,880 


118,320 


157,760 


177,480 


y / 5-48^1 


28 '640 1 
^ leas than 


94,660 1 
i" dia. Shi 


141,840 ; 
>aldnotbeRli 


189,120 


^ 212,760 


^-B. —Entail boh 


'eased a^>0Ne 4, 


<(^\^)%.^T 



square inch of section. 



89 



"WHITWOBTH STANDARD BOLTS AND NUTS. 



Size of 




■ 




1 






bolt and 


No. of 


Diameter 


Area at Thickners 


Nut. 


Nut 


thick- 


threads 


at bottom 


boTtom of or ' 


across 


across 


ness of 


per inch. 


of thread, j thread. holt head. 


flats. 


comers. 


nut. 


1 












1 


1 

40 I -09 




•006 


•10 


•83 


•39 


1 


24 i -13 


*014 


•16 




•44 


•51 


20 -18 


•027 


•21 




•52 


•60 


1 


18 


•24 


•W6 


•27 




•eo 


•69 


16 


•29 


•068 


•82 




•70 


•81 


^ 


14 


•34 


•094 


•88 




•82 


•94 


12 


*39 


•12 


•48 




•91 


i^oe 


A 


12 


*46 


•16 


•49 




1^01 


1 16 


1 


11 


•M) 


•20 


•54 




1^10 


1-27 


H 


11 


*67 


*26 


•60 




1-20 


P88 


1 


10 


•62 


•30 


•65 




1-30 


1-50 


IS 


10 


•68 


•36 


•71 




1-89 


i 60 


9 i -73 


•42 


•76 




1-47 


1^71 


H 


9 -79 


•49 


•82 




1-57 


P82 


r 


8 ' -84 


•6fi 


•87 




1-67 


1^95 


w 


7 -94 ' -69 


•l»8 




1-86 


2^15 


7 1 "06 -89 


l-0!» 




2^04 


2-86 


If 


a 1-16 . 10ft 


1-20 




2^21 


2^55 


J, 


6 i 1*28 1 1-29 i 1-31 




2^41 


2^78 


] 


ft ! 1-dH 


1-47 


1 42 




•^•57 


2^97 


1 




1*4» 


P74 


• •58 




2-75 


3 •IS 


1 


4^ ' 


l*ft9 


1-99 


l^d4 




3-01 


3-48 


2 




1-71 


2^81 


l-?5 




3^14 


8^63 


2i^ 


4: ' 


1 84 


2^66 


1-85 i 


3 -33 


8^86 


2i 


4 1*93 ! 2-92 


1-96 




3-54 


4*09 


2« 


4 2-05 


3*31 


2-07 




3-75 


4^88 


2^ 


4 2*18 


3-73 


2^18 




3^89 


4^49 


2I 


4 2*30 


4^17 


2 -29 




4-04 


4-67 


2| 


3^ ; 2-38 


4^4H 


2-40 




4-18 


4^82 


2} 


3; ' 2*.'»0 


4-92 


•-' -51 




4-34 


5^02 


8 


3} 1 2*63 




^•44 


2 -62 




4^58 




5^28 






WORTH Gi 










DIAMBTEB OF 


WHIT 


LS TAPS. 


1 


1 


Diameter 


No. of 


1 


Diameter j No. of 


T« Diameter. 1 


at. bottom threads ; 


oize. 
In. 


l>iameter. 


at bottom 


threads 


m. 1 

1 


— 


of thread. |perincli.| 




- 


of thread. 
1-90 


per inch. 


1 


0'38 


0-33 


1 
28 


If ! 2 '02 




1 


0-ftI 


0-45 


19 


l| ; 2^04 




19» 




' 


66 


0-ft8 19 !> 


13 2-24 




2^12 




• ■ 


0-82 


0-73 14 2 2-34 




2^23 




0*90 1 0-81 ! 14 i 2\ : 2'fi8 




2^47 




1 . 

« 


1*04 


0-94 ' 14 


2i ' 3 -00 




2^88 




118 


1-09 14 ; 


2| i 8-24 




8^13 




1 


ISO 


1-19 ; 11 


3 3 ^48 




8^36 




H 


1-41 


1-37 ! 11 


31 3^69 




3^68 




n 


1*65 


1 -53 1 11 


3^ . 3^91 




3-79 i U 


if 


1-74 


102 • 11 I 


3| \ Wl. 


\ v-^ \ w 

\ IW-*K1 \ VV 

\ J . 




2-88 J -76 ' U \\ 


4 - 4-\^ 



90 



5 

o 

M 
o 

O 

1^ 



M 
o 

H 

o 

Q 
SB 

A 

O 
H 






O 

•< 

p; 

Q 
se; 

o 

09 

H 

Z 
'J 

M 
ST. 



OQ 

O 

n 

o 

H 
H 
CJ 
SB 



CO 



00 



(N 



C4 



ea 



nl^ 



s 

« 



/ 






•*'Mr-lNlOOi'^OCOeO 

^23eo^iO©u5coi>» 
'^ • • • ^ ^ o *- rH eq 



C eO ;0 r-l r-l 
_ v CO »^ 05 ''f 

i> "^ i-i qj CO t^ 
«n CO "* ^ ooo 



^ CO O) O 09 
i-l -^ (N 00 



00 
00 
CO 



lO 



t^ 00 CO t> 05 
CO r-l CO lO — 

CO i>>ad O) 00 



00 <M 

|>QD 05 C< 

-^ pt*- CI 

• • • • 



•>. <M 00 

81-1 l> 
i-H i-( 



OCO^tO-^OOOOiWOOCP— • 

io05coooeflioaboi>oo5 
'<^ioodooo:)CO^kocococo 



iHr-iNOO'^lOOOCQ 



8»-icoi^u3c^35i-icooo(r*oi«t'0»oefl 
_OW3<M^g'^l>OCOCDOaO<>i»000 

Oi-ii-i(Noo"^»oa«oo-^ooeQ'*cqo5 



•-iiH5qco'*»ex»- 



WOQ»2CC»O'^C0©0005i-lt^r-l'^00 
»0^<^QOO®000-^W300COC001>- 

pOiTHNCQooioooe^^coiHOiHga"^ 

iHfHC<IOO"*»Ot*r-l 



O»0(N"^^Ht^.-iC0»0i— iCOi— lOJfM 
5'Qpe0O5t^CO00t^COCp00"^»OC0 

OOi-ifHeQooH^i>.f-icoc«oo. o 



rH I-H CQ 00 00 »0 



00'^e0l>O>00©lr-l'^Tj<-^,H 

SO«lQOiO'*f"»OTftCQO-'iOiO 
iH -^ (N CO -^ t* ijH CO N OJ 00 

iH r-i »;i eq CO 



(Moocoe^coocoo5i>cooo 
"^t>f-il>'^ooeo ~ 



O O i-l iH (N 00 



• O lO r-i 



»H I-H (M 



oooooo--aO(N^r>.ooo5 

OOCOOCO<N^r-ll>-COOP 
Op»H'yH©9JO'»fiCop^ 

»Oi-iOQ"^iO'-<"^05 
CO CO O W5 iH Oi 05 "^ 00 . 
wOfHiHC'ie^Cp'pOi . 

i-HCDOlOiOCOOiCO 

00 »0 Oi 00 O l> CO -- . • 

O O O I-H <M 99 CO CO • . 






91 



Weifirht of 1 cubic inch of various Metals. 



Steel 


Weight in lbs. 
*2833 


Weight in ounces. 
4 -533 


Cast iron 


-263 


4 -208 


Wrought iron .. 
Copper ,. 
Brass 


-2777 
-3225 
0*308 


4 *444 

5 -159 
5 333 



Weifirht of Fuels. 



Coke. 

4 bushels = 1 sack. 
12 sacks = 1 chaldron. 

Peteoleum. 
1 ton = 275 Imperial gallon?. 



Coal. 

A bushel of coal = 74f lbs. 

A sack of „ = 224 

A chaldron of coal « 2088 
A Newcastle chaldron = 5208 
A keel of coal =41664 



>i 



if 



a 



Weifirht of Animals. 



A dense crowd of people, 85 lbs. per square foot. 


Average weight 


of a man, 140 lbs. 




„ cart-horse, 14 cwt. 




„ riding „ 11 „ 




„ ox, 7-8 „ 




„ cow, 6i-8 „ 




„ pig, 1-li „ 




„ sheep, 1 „ 



Space in cubic feet occupied by 1 ton of various Goods. 



Cub. i 


t, to I ton. 


Cub. ft 


. to 1 ton. 


Ballast 


.. 22 


Gravel 


. 23 


Coal, Newcastle 


.. 45 


Hay, compressed 


. 105 


„ Welsh 


,, 40 


Kice in bags 


45 


Coffee in bngs 


. 61 


Sand . . . . : 


21-22 


Cotton, compressed 


.. £0 


iSugar in bags 


. 39 


Darth 


. 33 


Tea in boxes 


111 


Flour in barrels . . 


. 50 


Timber » » 


AsS^^ySi 


Granite 


.. 14 







92 

Alloys and Bronzes. 



The addition of i to 1 % of aluminium to the ordinary brass and 
bronze mixtures effects a great improvement. The metal runs 
better and is more duriable and tough. A higher percentage of 
aluminium will produce brittleness. 

Aluminium Bronze consists of copper 90 %, aluminium 10 % ; 
or copper 95 %, aluminium 5 %. The former alloy has a tensile 
strength of 80,000 lbs. It is largely used for bearings, gearing, 
chain belting, and for all purpopes where great strength and toughness 
are required. 

• Silicon Bronze — copper 95 %, silicon 5 % — is, as regards strength, 
equal to aluminium bronze, but does not resist corrosion so well ; it 
howerer, casts better. 

Manganese Bronze, as now made, consists of — 

Copper . . . . . , per cent. 53 I 

^"^ ^l^Axoooo 

Manganese .. .. „ 3*75 [ 

Aluminium . . . . „ 1*25 j 

This is perhaps the best material to employ for heavy or light 

gearing wheeU. 

Imitation German Siher — 

Copper . . . , . • per cent. 67*25^ 

5*»"g»°«''« ' jf:^ 1 100-00 

Zmc . . . . . . .„ 13*00 I 

Aluminium .. .. „ 1*25 J 

This takes a good polish, and is besides very strong. May be usefully 

employed for motor-car purposes. 

Aluminium Solder — 

Aluminium .. .. percent. 2*38' 

Zinc „ 26-19 

Tin „ 7119 

Phosphorus .. .. „ 0*24. 

Another solder for aluminium is known as Gl-reen*8 ; it is stated to be 

composed of — 

Zinc .. .. .. percent. 5003' 

Tin „ 47-99 

Aluminium . . . . „ 1*76 

Phosphorus .. .. „ Q-22, 

No flux is required, but the faces of the joint are cleaned and coated 

rr/M golder, nnd a hot hit is UBod to make the joint. 



V 100-00 



^10000 



TKB SESIO-N OF BALL BEABUTOS. 



F 


, I 


^ 


^^ 






y* 


Mv 


/ 


pi 


Tr--— 


o_ 


% 


^^ 


^ 


2c^ 


i— -^=^ 




r^ 


^ 


iir 









"A propei'lv conatrocted bull besring should be laid out on the 
lines of a, cone beating. Tlius if O be tlie centre of revolution, 
draw OF, 0£, at equal angles, cutting the ball at points a. b, c, d. 
Tben will the cone a, b, c, d be the equiraleot coDC which would 
run trulj on mrfuces ¥0 Hud EO, and to pet true rolling results with. 
ball bearings iDstesd of cones there must be drawn tangents to these 
four points, viz., the tangents hh, U, mm, rh. Then »iil tlieae . 
tanfeats represent the eurracee of the cones in which tlie ball will 
roll trulf without grinding, the length of path rolled on bi-ing 
eioctlj proportioned to tlie spherical sections through the eontaut 
points. Thus the line ad bears the same ratio to the iine if as 
does the radius of revolution On to the radius Ob. We have 
hatched the lines showing the bearing cones to rend>.'r our diagram 
more clear. The dimensione of the angle ^ relative to the ball 
determine the shape of the bearing surfaces. When 0£ and OF 
become tangents to the balls, these roll on one section only, and 
would be extruded b; the pressure. With a Sat angle, ^. the bearing 
cones become acute, as may at once be seen bj a rough sketch. It 
is doubtful it the angle at the apei of the bearing cones, that is, 
between the tangents tl and hh. should be Irss than 90°. At smaller 
angles the destructiTe effects of the balls is intensified, and the speed 
of rotation of the balls is much increased hj reason of their rolling 
on a smaller circle. Even when used tor rectilinearlj moving pieces, 
we would prefer the surFaces to be slightly coned in order to secure 
two bearing circles. Between two flat surfaces the bolls can only 
run on one circle. Cones, however dat, give two paths on the ball, and 
only half Che load on any one point. Balls must not run in a curved 
groove, for then they grind all over their area of contact. 

" The narrowness of pnth in a ball bearing demande tK«A. '^Tvst.'vi'S* 
ifaall not be too heavy, and, forhea\jmac'taLnieT3,tfto.«t».tA."Kt^'i'*'*^'*-' 



94 

which »u1}»tituU lineifOT poiuU, secure apractic&ladT&atage, though 
if materials were quits unyielding, balls would touch on mathe- 
matical points, uid would hare exactly the same bearing surface as 
ojlinden, where theoretical area of contact ia a line or the trace of a 
mnthematical point, and, therefore, no greater than a point. The 
■mallest amount of jield in materials of construction pute, however, 
quite a different oomnleiion on affairf, and malies a cjlinder beurin^ 
superior to it ball bearing where loads are hear;. — Electrical 
XecieiB. 

BAJJ, BBASINOS. 

The balls should be of higli quality steel, truly spherical in shape, 
and without any surface Saws. They should run in accurately cut 
y-shaped races, and all dust, &c., should be prevented from entering. 



Biumeter of Ball. 


i \-h 


i A 


i 


A 


i 


A 


i 


Working load per 
ball (in lbs.) .. 


126 


280 


600 780 


1125 


1530 


2000 


3530 


3125 



BOI1.BB BEABINOS: "UOSSBBBO" STSTSIC 

These heariugsnre eitensively used for railway wOigon and carriage 
azles, and are eniineutty suitable for use in motO'Vahicles. The 
rollers are made of a very hard steel, and are supported in a gun- 
metal or phosphor-bronze cage. 




Thb Mossbebg Bolleb Bearino. 



BoUer V. Plain BeariUBB. 

The economy in tractive effort obtained by the use of well-designed 
roller bearings is shown in the following table, which relates to a test 
made on a railway car fitted with ordinary plain bearings, and then 
" T bearinga on the Mossberg system. 



Steed with n 



style of 
Bearing. 



95 



Total 

1 load in 

sq. inches, p^^^j^ 



Area in 



Plain .. 
BoUer . . 



76-58 
76-58 



8,000 
8,000 



Load in i „„i^^ *?£ I Friction 
pounds |P"\^o'^?'- co-effi. 
persq.in. .{^ • cient. 



104-5 
104-5 



4CO 
20 



05 
•0025 



It will be seen from this that the friction co-efficient decreases 
greatly bj the use of these roller bearings. 



BELT DBIVINa. 

Let T = Tension in driving part of belt in lbs. 
t = Tension in slack part of belt in lbs. 
V = Speed of belt in feet per minute. 
K = Radius in feet of puUej. 
N = Number of revolutions per minute of pulley. 
I = Length of arc in inches embraced by belt. 
r = Eadius of pulley in inches. 

fi = Co -efficient of friction : for leather belting on iron this is 
from 0-3 to 04, but 15 if oily. Then— 

Log. ("7 ) = ^'43 /x ± 

Driving pull = (T - t). 

(T — i) Y 
Horse-power transmitted = — oo nnn ~~ 

00,000 

But V = 2 IT RN 
. (T-02irRy 

• • ^•'^' - 33,000 

In calculating the strength of belting the allowable stress should 
be 320 lbs. per square inch. 



96 



CBANS CHAINS (Iron). 

Short link ; quality J3.B.B. Lengtli == 5 diameters ; width 3i. 

Strength and Weight of Ieon Ceane Chains. 









Weight 


1 






Weight 


Diam. 


Safe 


Breaking 


per 


Diam. 


Safe 


Breaking 


per 


load. 


load. 


fathom 


load. 


load. 


fathom 




tons. cwt8. 




(6 ft.;, 
lbs. 


1 


! 


(6 ft.). 


iucbes. 


tonH. cwts. 


1 

' incbeo. 


tons. cwts. 


tons. cwts. 


lbs. 


^ 


6 


1 5 


3 


it 


5 


20 


42 


i 


11 


2 5 


44 


i 


6 11 


22 5 


48 


A 


17 


3 7 


64 


H 


6 7 


25 10 


53 


t 


1 4 


4 15 


g 


I 


7 2 


28 10 


60 


^ 


1 12 


U 10 


12 


^^ 


7 17 


31 10 


72 


i 


2 1 


8 5 


16 


U 


8 12 


34 10 


90 


^ 


2 11 


10 5 


20 


u 


13 4 


42 15 


105 


f 


3 1 


12 5 


25 


n 


14 7 


67 10 


120 


H 


3 12 


14 10 


1 31 


If 


19 7 


79 10 


160 




4 7 


17 10 


37 


2 


26 


104 10 


220 



CTCLE MECHANISM. 

To find the pull exerted on the chain, and the taugential force at 
rim of driving wheel. 

XiCt p — Mean pressure on pedals in lbs. 
r = Kadius of crank in inches. 
S = ,, large sprocket wheel in inches. 

« = a snial) „ „ „ 

R = „ driving wheel in inches. 

T = Tangential force in lbs. at rim. 
V = Pull on chain. 

T=^J^, andP = ^. 
SB 8 

CYCLE aEABINa. 

The number denoting the " gear " of a cjcle is the diameter of a 
wheel which bears the same ratio to the driving wheel as the crank 
wheel bears to the hub wheel. 

Let n be the number of teeth on hub wheel. 
N „ „ „ crank wheel. 

d „ diameter of driving wheel. 

D „ „ wheel bearing the same ratio to the driver 

as crank wheel does to hub wheel : then — 

— p= — ; whence, D = — . 
an n 

If D so found be multiplied by tt (3*14) it gives the distance 
tTATersed during one revolution of the crank. 



97 

CHAIN QEABINa. 

In cases where a considerable amount of work has to be transmitted 
between two shafts at a slow speed, the tension in a flexible trans- 
mitter may easily be much greater than ordinary belts can sustain. 
In such cases metal chains may be used, so formed that the links fit 
into the projections of toothed wheels on the shafts. There can then 
be no slipping of the belt on the toothed wheels, and, as the chains 
may have almost any strength, an extremely great force can be exerted 
through the chain. Such chains forming a class of transmitting 
organ intermediate between belting and gearing are termed gearing 
chains, or pitch chains. The chief objection to their use is that, how- 
ever well they fit the toothed wheels at first, they are liable from 
stretching and wear to become of slightly greater pitch than the 
toothed wheel, and they then work very badly. To obviate this as 
far as possible the links should be short. A high velocity ratio is 
obtained by the use of chain gearing more simply than by any other 
method, except worm gear. (Unwin.) 

To Desifim Chain Gear. 

Let 2 T be the total tension on the loaded span of the chain. 
2 i the number of links in the width of the chain — 1.0., the niunbor 
of plates on each side of a single link. 

S the thickness of plate of I 
h the breadth of plate of Vlink. 
d the diameter of pin of J 
The tension in each half of the chain having * links is T 
If » T is the greatest tension in any one link, then the stress f on 
a section through the link eye is given by — 

« T = (6 - rf) a/, 

Usually h = 2*5 rf, then — 

« T = 1-5 rf a/^ 1 

The average bearing pressure of the pin in the link eye / is — 

» T = rf ay; 2 

The pins are subjected to bending action, which will increase with 
the total stress T, and with the thickness d of the links. Hence what- 
ever the distribution of the tension T among the Unks, the greatest 
bending moment in the pin will be — 

M = i»Ta 
and the stress due to bending will be — 

M-mT5 = ^(i3/ 8 

where / is the greatest intensity of the bending stress, and m a 
co-efficient depending on the distribution of the tension in the link. 

Supposing the tension in each link to act at the centre of the link, 
the greatest bending moment — 

M = Tfi. .<^ 



98 



Hence equations 1, 3, and 4 give- 

1-5 dZif^=- 



./ 



32 S 

and, supposing the stress in the link and pin equal, and taken 
at/ — 10,000 lbs. per square inch, we get — 

a 0*256 



d /T- 



d = 0-01614 




• • • • 



and if/ - 14000 lbs. 

d -= 001365 



\ 



/. 



T 



6 



(TJnwin.) 
Professor Keller's Proportions for Chain Q-earin?. 

Breadth of link, h = 2-5 d. 
Thickness of middle part of pin, di » 1*2 d. 
Width of thickened part of pin, w = 1-7 rf + 0"2. 
Width of eye of link between hole and end of link = 0*85 d. 
Length of Hnk, centre to centre of pins = 2*9 d, 

d is diameter of pin. 

Table op Peopoetions op Flat Link Geabing Chains (Kellee). 

All Dimensions in Inches. 



1 




*A 


■.J 




1 








Load on Chain, 
2 T lbs. 


No. of Links, 
2i. 


Pin Diameter a 
Ends, d. 


Pin Diameter a 
Centre, rf^. 


Length of 

Middle Part of 

Pin, w. 


Thickness of 
Link, «. 


Breadth of 
Link, h. 


Length of 
Link, I. 


Total Thick- 
ness, 


220 


2 


16 


0-20 


0-43 


0-060 


0-39 


0-55 


0*35 


550 


2 


0-26 


0*32 


0*67 


098 


0-65 


0-83 


0-51 


1100 


2 


0*37 


0'47 


0-83 


0-118 


0-93 


1-10 


0-65 


1650 


2 


0-45 


0-55 


0*94 


0-158 


1*12 


1-42 


0-75 


2200 


4 


0-49 


0*59 


102 


0-158 


1*24 


1-42 


0-83 


8300 


4 


0*61 


0*75 


1-22 


0-177 


1-52 


1-77 


1-04 


4400 


4 


0-69 


0-83 


1-38 


0-216 


1-79 


2 01 


1-18 


5500 


4 


0*85 


1-02 


1-61 


0-25^ 


2*11 


2*44 


1-42 


8820 


6 


0*85 


1-02 


1*61 


0-177 


2-11 


"2-44 


1-42 


12100 


6 


0-94 


114 


1*81 


0-197 


2-36 


2-76 


1*61 


16500 


'6 


1*08 


1-30 


2-05 


0-216 


2-70 


3-15 


1-85 


^OO^O 1 


6 -j 


'I'-Ze-^ 


'1*54 


2-32 


0-256 

1 


3-15 

\ 


3-68 

\ 


214 

\ 



99 

POWER TRANSMITTED B7 QEABINa. 

li p — Circumferential pitch in inches. 
B =s Breadth of wheel in inches. 
V = Velocity of pitch line in feet per minute. 
H.P. = Horse-power transmitted. 
Then 

H.P. = J92 X B X V -^ 1000 for cast-iron. 
= ^2 X B X V -^ 625 for cast-steel. 

(Mfsgeave & Sons, Bolton.) 



Number of Teeth and Bevolutions of Wheels. 

N = Number of teeth in driving wheel. 
R = Bevolutions of driving wheel. 
n = Number of teeth in driven wheel. 
r = Bevolutions of driven wheel. 



NR 

n — 

r 


NR 
r = 

n 


^=E 


^ N 



Strengrth of Wheel Q-earin^. 

To find the least number of teeth in either wheel of a pair which 
will eiisure sufficient strength : — 

Let T be the least number of teeth. 
H the horse-power transmitted. 
p the pitch in inches. 
N the number of revolutions per minute, then — 



Velocities of Wheels in Chain and Belt Qearlnir. 

Let V = The velocity of chain or belt. 
D = The diameter of driving pulley. 
d = The diameter ot driven pulley. 
N = The revolutions of driving pulley. 
n = The revolutions of driven pulley. 

Then tt D N = V, 
and IT d n = V j 

D « 

d IS 



100 



POSITION OF CENTBE OF QBAVITT IN 4-WHEELED 

AT7T0M0T0B VEHICLES. 

w = Load on front wheels. 
«r' = Load on rear wheels. 
B = Length of wheel base. 
W = Total weight of vehicle. 
I) = Distance of C.G. 

If w > w\ D from rear axle is --— - . 

to' B 
But if w' > to, then D from front axle = . - . . 

W 

When to ~ w' the CO-, is midway between them. (The CO-, should 
be in front of driving wheels.) 



STBENQT^ OF SHAFTINQ. 

If a force P lbs. is applied to a crank of length B. inches, and 
tending to rotate the shaft, the twisting moment T = B P inch lbs. 

If the shaft make n revolutions per minute, the twisting moment 
wiU be T 2 ir>. 

If the shaft is transmitting H.P., then the work per minute is 
* * X 33,000 X H.P. inch pounds ; 
tnat is— T 2 TT « = 12 X 33,000 x H.P. 

.-. T = 63,024 5:^ inch lbs. 

n 

If Z be the modulus of the section with regard to torsion, the 

shaft will be sufficiently strong when T = f Z. 

If D be the diameter of the shaft, 

Z = ^?-^ = 0-196 D3 
16 ' 

hence, by substitution. 

For steel shafting, / has the following values : — 

Stress not changing / — 13,500. 

Stress reversing at each revolution , . f = 9,000. 
8treB8 const&ntlj cban^ng , . • • / = 4,500. 



101 



Hollow V, Solid Shafts. 



In order that a hollow or annular shaft maj be of the same 
strength as a solid shaft, the moduli of the sections must be equal j 
that is, if D be the diameter of a solid (circular) shaft, and d and di 
the outside and inside diameters of an annular shaft, then for them to 
be of the same strength to resist torsion, this equation must hold- 



Da TT d* -- <«,* . 



16 16 



that is, D3 = ^. 

d 

Let di ^ n d, then 



d = 



Crankshafts. 

Let P = Indicated horse-power. 
n = Number of revs, per min. 
d = Diameter of shaft. 

Proportions of Cranks. 

If 6 is the thickness of crank web, h the width of crank face, 
and d the diameter of shaft, and c a constant = 0*9 to I'O, then 
hh^ =^ cd^. 

Torque in Shafting. 

H.P. = Horse-power transmitted. 
n = Revolutions per second. 
N s= Revolutions per minute. 
T =» Torque in inch lbs. 

550 
T = 

2 irn 

H P 
= 1050*4 — '—^ inch lbs., or 
» 

H P 
T = 63,024 • ' ixiCi\i\\i^, 



snisNsioNS OF asAiTisa to tbansuit a aiVEN 



To find the diameter of a ehaft, capabU, within good norbing 
limita, of trftnainittiiig a, given horse-power : — Multiplj the horae- 
'iT 190 for iTKiught-iron, or bj 92 for steel, and divide by 
jlutione per minute. The cube-root of tie quotient is tliB 
: ia inches. To find the maiimum horse-power of a abaft, 
■within good working limits ! — -Multiply the cubs of the diameter in 
inches bv the revolutions per minute, and divide b; 190 for wrought- 
iron, or by 92 for steel. Tlie quotient is the horse-power. 



Z 



li I It I 2 ] 2^ I 21 I n I 8 I H I 1 I 4i I 



s 


1^0 


^ 


s 


Tfo 


■m 




tia 


4m 


















































B4I 


63 


IkI 



For powsr ol wronstaMraD at 



» 10 per cent, at iteel utaifClne of t 

(UlJBflaATI A Soul, BOLTOI 



103 



STEEL JOISTS. 

Table giving the Weights, Sizes^Moments of Resistance and Inertia 
of Steel Joists suitable for Railway and Boad Vehicle Construction, 
from the catalogue of Messrs. Dobman, Long & Co., Middlesbrough. 



Number 

of 
Section. 


Weight 

per Foot 

in lbs. 


Sizes 
in inches. 


Web 
Thick- 
ness. 


Mean 

Thickness 

of 

Flange. 


Moments 

ol 
Besiskance 

in 
sq. inches. 


Vertical 

or 
Greatest 
Moments 

of 
Inertia. 


a. 17a 


16 


7 x3i 


•25 


•375 


10^28 


35^98 


a. 18 


18 


6ix3i 


•339 


•5 


10-58 


33^09 


a. 19 


25 


6 x5 


•423 


•52 


14-48 


43-46 


a. 19a 


20 


6 x4i 


•434 


•4 


11-11 


33 35 


a. 20 


16 


6 x3 


•39 


•45 


8^38 


25^14 


Q-. 20a 


13 


6 x3 


•322 


•35 


6^92 


20-77 


a. 21 


12 


6 x2 


•381 


•38 


5-52 


16-58 


a. 22 


10-5 


5ix2 


•329 


•38 


4-69 


12^9 


0. 22a 


9 


5ixli 


•368 


•312 


3-34 


8-77 


a. 23 


24 


5 x5 


•371 


•56 


11^82 


29-55 


a. 24 


22 


5 x4i 


•342 


•57 


10-77 


26-94 


a. 24a 


19 


5 x4,^ 


•44 


•45 


8-88 


22^09 


a. 25 


15 


5 x3 


•4 


•44 


6-43 


16^09 


G-. 25a 


11 


5 x3 


•23 


•38 


5 46 


13^65 


a. 26 


10 


4ixlf 


•4 


•38 


3^57 


8-48 


Ot. 26a 


6-5 


4ixli 


•1875 


•3125 


2-73 


6^6 


a. 27 


14 


4|x3 


•2 


•43 


5-68 


13-17 


a. 28 


12 


4 x3 


•299 


•48 


4-51 


9-03 


a. 28a 


9-5 


4 x3 


•225 


•34 


3-769 


7-638 


a. 29 


8 


4 xl| 


•331 


•36 


2-58 


5-16 


a. 29a 


5 


4 xlf 


•18 


•24 


1-814 


3-628 


Gh. 30 


10-9 


3tx3 


•35 


•85 


3 85 


5 87 


a. 31 


6 


3ixU 


•296 


•3 


166 


2 91 


O. 32 


10 


3 x3 


•29 


•38 


2-8 


4 21 


a. 83 


4 


3 xli 


•218 


•25 

\ 


•9& 


V ^.-«v. 





s 


: 




•iSiS ;:: 


1 


s 

i 7 
i — 


^'P-?^ ? PC »p?r 


iS":" "SE. iiiis" "s;*" ' 

iiSia ,-S«» iipi^ ^SS^^ -^_S^ 


II 


:„.r,s ;s:n isn," :,:e: :;:;,>■ 


M 


s...: -;:,. s;:;: i„:s :.s;^ 


a 1 


„„5 ttU. ._,tii S£S:. 5„K 


,::. : :..e: !:.„: 


t 


. : 


|| 


1 


=-....= =-., .===. -=.. .»=. 


1 


ji 


!l!!::!i!!&lll^"!i:! 




SSSIS ^^33^3 Slals issis SS^SS 
o-dcJdtf soaSda cJocod 66666 66666 



105 



Stren^h of Mannesmann Steel Tubes. 

Tbnsilb. 



Class of 
Tiihfl 


Quality. 


°/o Con. 
traction in 


% Elon. 
gation in 


Ultimate 
Strength 


Remarks. 


^ uuc 




Area. 


8 inches. 


in tons. 




Cycle 


1st qual. 


49-9 


17-5 


36-71 




>» • • 


1st „ 


46-95 


16-25 


37-5 




>» • • 


2nd „ 


5308 


18-625 


33-3 




i> • • 


2nd „ 


56-17 


18-75 


32-75 




Boiler tubes 


1st „ 


54-17 


28-8 


24-1 J 


Mean of 5 


11 JJ"! 


Medium 
Steel 


1 69-68 


28-75 


25*5 


r Admi- 
l ralty 


Steam „ 


2nd qual. 


38-73 


19-4 


28*73 


Mean of 3 


Hollow 
Shafting 


Medium "1 
Steel J 


53-92 


22-5 


31-49 





Beaeino Stress. 



Class of Tube. 


Span. 


Ultimate 

Strength 

in lbs. 


Elastic 

Stress in 

lbs. 


Ratio : 

Elastic Stress, 

Ultimate 

Stress. 


Dellection 
in inches, 
Load Re- 
moved. 


Mannesmann 1 
2 
3 


50" 4,731 
50" 4,379 
50" 4,186 


3,500 
3,400 
3,300 


84-7 7o 
77-6 Vc 
78-8 °/, 


3" 

4" 
4-5" 



Approximate Wei8:lit of Leather Belting in Lbs. 

Per 100 feet in Length. 



Width in Inches 



Single Belts — Strong. . 

Medium 
Double Belts — Strong. . 

Medium 




31 


43 


55 


29 


41 


52 


59 


83 


100 


53 


76 


92 



67 I 79 , 94 

64 75 89 

120 145 ' 172 

110 [ 135 : 160 



109 


125 


103 


118 


200 


230 


186 


215 


\ 


\ 



160 
150 
280 
265 

\ ^ 



106 



H 

S . 

^ o 

, o 

h\ ^ 

SB "^ 

3 ^ 

P H 



s 

o 

O 



a> 
g 



1 

a 

a 



go 

00 

o 

S 

o 



^ 



eo 



yi 
N 



<N 



O 



O 



lbs. 
•080 


o 

• 


iH 

• 


O 

• 


• 


• 


2 

• 


• 


o 

CO 

• 


o 

CO 

• 


lbs. 
•090 


• 


'(ft 

i-H 

• 


CO 
00 

iH 

• 


00 

I-H 

• 


• 


00 

• 


— 

CO 

• 


CO 

• 


00 

CO 

• 


lbs. 
•105 


iH 

• 


• 


CO 

iH 

• 


eo 

• 


• 


CO 

• 


CO 
CO 

• 


• 


00 

CO 

■ 


• 


CO 

• 


• 


• 


00 

00 

• 


o 

CO 

eo 

• 


• 




CO 

• 


00 


lbs. 
•130 


to 

• 


• 


CO 

• 


CO 

■ 

to 

90 

• 


-H 
eo 

• 


o 

• 


• 


00 

I-H 

o 

• 


• 


lbs. 
•145 


OD 


to 

• 


s 

CO 

• 


o 

• 


• 


CO 

• 


Oi 
CO 

• 


CO 

• 



00 



as 



J^ l§ 



CO 






CO 
04 



00 
CO 



00 

CO 



eo 



N 



•UIBld 



CO 



o 

CO 

eo 



"* 

^ 



00 
00 



lO 
lO 



CO 

•-H 
CO 



CO 



CO 






s 

o 



00 



04 

1^ 



to 

CO 



to 



CO 



.t^ 




CO 


55 


.o^ . 


i 


C<1 

»o 


S 




• 


• 


• 


• O 


0) 


00 


i>- 


od Q 

-O CO 


!3i 


lO 




^^ • 


• 


• 


• 


. O 


US 


r^ 


lO 


g oi 


t^ 


CO 


CO 


-o eo 


"* 


CO 


1^ 




• 


• 


• 



CO 
\n 
00 



5 



CO 



00 



»o 



CO 
05 
00 



I-H 

o 



o 
o 



00 
CO 



to 

O) 

o 



s 



to 



CO 



S 



CO 



CO 
00 



CO 
09 






CO 

to 



. 1^ 



00 
o 






o 
to 
00 



G4 

o 



O) 



CO 
CO 
CO 



CO 
lO 



to 

o 



C9|aO 



•flloo eoN Hoo 



-4b 



00 




-H 



CO 



tft 

to 



to 

•-H 



CO 
00 



f*o H" 



107 

Spiral Sprinsrs. 
E = Modulus of transverse elasticity = from 10,500,000 to 

12,500,000 for Swedisli spring steel. 
L = Load in lbs. 

B = Mean radius of coil in inches. 
d = Diamet(>r of circular wire in inches. 
s = Side of square wire in inches. 
"N = Number of free coils. 
S = Deflection of spring in inches. 

64NVR% . ■ 
= — Wd* — Circular section. 

48NLR3 ^ 
o = — pr~4 for square section. 

Taking 11,500,000 lbs. as the value of E, these formulae become — 

^ = :; „ -. _^^ ;4 for stccl of circulaT section, 

and — 

5 = irr;r-/x;vx :i for steel of square section. 
240,000 *■* ^ 

By substitution, we obtain — 

r 3-43 d^ 

L = -Q-^D— for circular section, 

and — 

T _ 3-638 ^ ^ 

■L* ■* — 2~^^ square section j 

and finally — 



3/L2ja 
V 3-43 ' 



8 /l 2 E 
and*= Y^ 3-638 



Plate Springs. 

W = Total load in tons. 

E = Modulus of elasticity for spring steel = 36,000,000 lbs., or 
16,000 tons. 

f = Stress in tons per square inch = 40. 

L = Half length of spring. 

b — Breadth of plates in inches. 

n = Number oC plates. 

t = Thickness of plates in inches. 

8 = Deflection of spring in inches per ton of load, then — • 

cafe working load on spring in tons is = or — ^ f ' 

' ~ 4000 bi^n' ^ 13-3 h t^ ^ 



THtB of SpriuK'. 
Single Spiral Spring of Bectangular SecUon. 




DimensioDB : — 

7i inches high. 
4i inches diameter. 
2^-inch hole. 



8 coila, tip to tip of stoel. 
Section of steel, lA" '< i' 
Weight, 15i lbs. 



The following results have been obtained by actual ti 
Free. 1 2 3 4toi 



A similar spring gave the following resnlti : — 
DimenBJons : 

6i inches high. 

6 inches diameter. 

2J-iiich hole. 

6 coils. 

Steel, IJ" X I" 

Beeiabuice, 1 ton 12 cwt. for each 1 inch of deSeddon. 

Ultimate resistance, 5 tooB. 

Weight of spring, 22 tbs. 

Single Spiral Spring of Bound Steel. 
Dimensions : — 

6 inches high. 6 coils, tip to tip of steel. 

41 inches outside diameter. Steel, ]-inch round. 
Sj-inch hole. Weight, 6i lbs. 

Free. 1 2 tons. 48cwts. Home. 
Inches.. -.6 5 4J 4 3|i 




Dimensions :— 
6 inches high. 
7i-ino!i hnsB. 
IJ-inch hole. 



3 4 te^a. 'I&:n&&. 



110 



Pneumatio and Iron Tyres. 

The relative advantages of these have formed the subject of an 
investigation by M. Michelin. 

The first experiments were made with iron and pneumatic tyres of 
the following diameters and weights : — 

Diameter of 
Wheels. 
Kind. Front. Back, 

ft. ft. 

302 3-67 

2-95 3-93 



Weight of 
Wheels. 
Front. Back, 
lbs. lbs. 

127-6 158-4 

85-8 123-2 



Weight of 

Empty 

Vehicle. 

lbs. 

1269-4 

1192-4 



Iron tyres 
Pneumatic tyres 

To the weight of the empty vehicle the weight of the driver must 
be added ; and to make this feature comparable the same driver was 
used in both cases. These experiments were made over various soils, 
over different lengths of road, with varying loads, and at different 
speeds* The results of the trials are summed up in the following 
table : — 



Experiments in Snow. 



Carriage at a walk, empty . . . • 

Carriage at a walk, load of 330 lbs. 
Carriage at a trot, load of 330 lbs. 
Carriage at a trot, load of 660 lbs. 

Experiments in Mud. 



Carriage at a walk, empty . . 
Carriage at a walk, load of 330 lbs. 
Carriage at a trot, load of 330 lbs. 
Carriage at a trot, load of 660 lbs. 



Iron 

Tyres. 

lbs. 

34-89 

39-22 

6512 

68-57 



Iron 

Tyres. 

lbs. 

35-20 

38-06 

4301 

5073 



Pneumatic 

Tyres. 

lbs. 

25-23 

27-96 

33-59 

39-51 



Pneumatic 

Tyres. 

lbs. 

23-10 

27-34 

28-53 

31-15 



Mean of Trials upon Macadam ; Dry^ New^ Dusty ^ and Well-paved^ 
with Grades varying from 1*2 to 5-8 per cent. 

Iron Pneumatic 



Carriage at a walk, empty . . 
Carriage at a trot, empty . . 
Carriage at a walk, load of 660 lbs. 
Carriage at a trot, load of 660 lbs.. . 



• • 



Tyres. 

lbs. 
38-32 
44-90 
45-65 
65-34 



Tyres, 
lbs. 

30-91 

3509 

35-51 

36-08 



These figures show that under all the conditions given the use of 
the pneumatic tyre diminishes the tractive effort ; and this economy 
23 greater upon a bad than upon a good road, and it also increases 
wiili the speed and the load. 



Ill 

FLY-WHEELS FOB GAS AND OIL MOTOBS. 

W= Weight of fly-wheel rim in tons. 
I.H.F. = Indicated horse-power. 

»= Number of strokes during which the fly-wheel receiyes no 
impulse + 1 to allow for compression. 
N = Maximum number of revs, per min. 
0= Ratio of minimum to maximum speed per cent. 
D = Mean diameter of wheel in feet. 
W=l7lQ5f? (I.H.P.)» 

Usually n=S and 0=0*95, and the formula becomes 

W = ^ X 14,109,209. 

(Pbactical Enginkeb.) 

WHEEL GEARING. 

Let p = the circular pitch. 
Let 8 = the diametral pitch. 
Let d = the diameter of the pitch line. 

LetT = the number of teeth, then circumference of pitch 
line=«Ti>. 

d=^J*-.T = 0-3183 j»T. 

IT 

T-J^ =(?3-1416--. 
P P 

5=.-^-^ = 0-3183 i?. 

IT 

T«— . (Unwin.) 

INDIA-BTTBBEB, TESTS FOB. 

India-rubber should not give the slightest sign of superficial cracks 
on being bent to an angle of 180 deg. after five hours' exposure in a 
closed air bath to a temperature of 125 deg. Cent. The test-pieces 
should be about 6 centimetres thick. 

Bubber containing not more than 50 per cent, by weight of 
metallic oxides should stretch to five times its length without break- 
ing. Pure caoutchouc free from all foreign matter, except the 
sulphur necessary for its vulcanisation, should stretch seven times its 
length without breaking. The extension measured immediately after 
rupture should not exceed 12 per cent, of the original length of the 
test-piece. The test-pieces should be from 3 to 12 millimetres wide, 
and not more than 6 millimetres thick and 3 centimetres long. The 
percentage of ash gives a certain indication of the degree of softness, 
and may form a basis for the choice between different qualities for 
certain purposes. Any excess of sulphur over \iJ£\»X. T^Qj:cct<i^ \sst 
vulcanisation should be removed at the -wotVls, «cA ^o^^ ^'s^* -^j^sg^?^ 
OD the Burfaoe of any object. (;^^»i^\»xass«^^ 



112 



VULCANIZED INDIA-BTTBBEB. 

Yulcanized india-rubber made as tyres should float in water. 
If it does not, it shows adulteration. To effect proper vulcanization 
a little more than 3 per cent, of sulphur ia required. Yulcanized 
indiarubber is adversely affected by light and air. 



Composition for TJnitingr India-rubber. 

Dissolve 10 parts of finely shredded India-rubber in bisulphide of 
carbon ; add if parts resin, and 1 part of shellac. 



WATEB AND PUMPS. 
Water. 



Pure fresh water or hydric oxide HoO. 

Composition of 1 kilo, of ordinary spring water 

Water . . . . 998 '5 
Calcic carbonate 0*8 
Calcic sulphate '4 

Other salts .. 0*3 



1000-0 



1 cub. ft. = -0279 ton = 62 '39 lbs. 
1 gallon -: 0045 „ =^ 10 00 „ 

1 ton = 35 '905 cub. ft. :^ 223 '76 galls. 

Freezing point at sea level . , , , . , . . . , 32° F. 

Point of maximum density . , . • . . . , . . 39*1° F. 

British standard for specific gravity . . . , 62° F. 

Boiling point at sea level . . . . 212° F. 

Weight per cab. ft. per cab. in 

32° F 62-418 lbs. . . 0*03612 lb.* 

39-1° F 62*425 lbs. .. 0036125 1b. 

62° F 62*355 lbs 003608 lb. 

J^l^'^F. 59-760 lbs. .. 003458 lb. 



113 

Sea-Water, 

Composition of 1 kilo. of. sea-water : — 

Water 

Sodic chloride 

Magnesic chloride . . . . 

Calcic sulpliate 

Other salts (bromides, iodides, &c.) 



962 •$ 

29 

4 

1^5 

3 

1000 



1 cub. ft. 


= 


0-0286 ton 


ss: 


64-05 


lbs. 


1 gallon 


zs 


0-0046 


)> 


^ 


10 -276 


}) 


1 ton 


=s 


34 -973 


cub. ft. 


= 


217 -95 


gaUs 



Expansion of iBCetals. 

Metals expand by heat, and contract by cold ; and in almost all 
mechanical operations, unless the tendency to expand is allowed to 
act, very great stresses are brought to bear upon the material. The 
following table shows the amount of expansion for different materialB 
per foot: — 





Expansion per 
Degree Fahr. 


Expansion from 
32° to 212^ 


Iron 

Steel 

Copper .. 

Zinc 

Tin 


•0000067 
•0000069 
•0000090 
•0000160 
•0000120 


•90122 
•00124 
•00171 
•00294 
•00217 



Almost all solid bodies expand equally for each dcirrce between 
freezing and boiling, or from 32° to 212° of F.ihrenheir's thermometer. 
A bar of iron, therefore, which is 12 feet long, by an mct«a««k-^l ^ft? 
of temperature becomes 50 x 12 x -OQlCiO^l =^ \^'V^^^\fe^\.SsOvOTiJ#0L, 



114 



Pressure of Water. 

The pressure of water in pounds per square inch for every foot in 
height to 270 feet. By this tahle, from the pounds pressure per 
square inch the feet head is readily ohtained, and vice versa. 



• 


Pressure 

per Square 

Inch. 


• 

t 
» 

1 


Pressure 

per Square 

Inch. 


1 


Pressure 

per Square 

Inch. 


i 

1 W 

1 


Pressure 

per Square 

Inch. 


Feet Head. 


l*ressuTe 

per Square 

Inch. 


Feet Head. 


Pressure 

per Square 

Inch. 


1 


0-43 


46 ' 19-92 


91 


39-42 


136 


58*91 


181 


78-40 


I 226 


97-10 


2 


86 


47 


20-85 


92 


39-85 


137 


69-84 


182 


78-84 


227 


98*33 


8 


• 1-30 


48 


20-79 


93 


40-28 


138 


69*77 


183 


79-27 


228 


98-76 


4 


1-73 


49 


21-22 


94 


40-72 


139 


60*21 


184 


79-70 


229 


99*20 


5 


2 16 


50 


21-65 


95 


41*15 


140 


60-64 


186 


80-14 


230 


99*68 


6 


2-69 


51 


^2-0." 


96 


41*68 


141 


61-07 


186 


80-57 


231 


100-06 


7 


3-08 


52 


22-62 


97 


42-01 


142 


61*51 


187 


81-00 


232 


100-49 


8 


3-46 


58 


22*96 


98 


42-45 


143 


61-94 


188 


81-43 


233 


100*93 


9 


3-89 


54 


23*89 


99 


42-88 


144 


62*37 


189 


81-87 


234 


101-36 


10 


* 4-33 


65 


23*82 


100 


43*81 


146 


62*81 


190 


82-30 


235 


101 -79 


11 


4-75 


56 


24*26 


101 


43*75 


146 


63*24 


191 


82-73 


236 


102-23 


12 


5-20 


57 


24-69 


102 


44-18 


147 


63-67 


192 


83-17 


237 


102-66 


13 


5-63 


58 


28-12 


108 


44-61 


148 


64*10 


193 


83*60 


23S 


103 -09 


14 


6 06 


59 


26 '66 


104 


45-05 


149 


64-64 


194 


84*03 


239 


103*63 


15 


6*49 


60 


25*99 


105 


45-48 


160 


64-97 


196 


84*47 


240 


103*96 


16 


6*93 


61 


26*42 


106 


46-91 


161 


68*49 


196 


»S4 90 


241 


104-39 


17 


7-36 


62 


26-85 


107 


4€-34 


152 


65-84 


197 


85 *33 


242 


104 *88 


18 


7*79 


63 


27-29 


1C8 


46-78 


153 


66*27 


198 


85-76 


243 


105-26 


19 


8-22 


64 


27-72 


109 


47-21 


154 


66-70 


199 


86*20 


244 


105 *69 


20 


8*66 


65 


28*15 


110 


47-64 


155 


67-14 


200 


86*63 


245 


106-13 


21 


9-09 


66 


28-58 


111 


48 08 


156 


67-57 


201 


87-07 


24P 


106 -56 


22 


9 '53 


67 


29*02 


112 


48-51 


157 


68-00 


202 


87-50 


247 


106-99 


23 


9-96 


68 


29-45 


113 


48*94 


168 


68-43 


203 


87-93 


248 


107 48 


24 


10-39 


69 


29-88 


114 


49-38 


159 


68-87 


204 


88-36 


249 


107 -86 


25 


10-82 


70 


30-32 


115 


49-81 


160 


69-31 


205 


88-80 


250 


108-29 


26 


11-26 


71 


30-75 


116 


50 -24 


161 


69-74 


206 


89-23 


251 


108-78 


27 


11-69 


72 


31 18 


117 


50-68 


162 


70-17 


207 


89-66 


252 


109 -16 


28 


12-12 


73 


31*62 


118 


61-11 


163 


70-61 


208 


90*10 


' 253 


109 -69 


29 


12-66 


74 


32-05 


119 


51-54 


164 


71-04 


209 


90*68 


254 


1 10 -08 


30 


12-99 


75 


82-48 


120 


61*98 


166 


71-47 


210 


90-96 


256 


110*46 


81 


13-42 


76 


82 92 


121 


52-41 


166 


71-91 


211 


91-89 


256 


110-89 


32 


13*86 


77 


88 -36 


122 


62-84 


167 


72-84 


212 


91-93 


257 


111-32 


83 


14-29 


78 


33-78 


123 53-28 


168 


72-77 


213 


92-26 


258 


111-76 


84 


14-72 


79 


34-21 


124 1 53-71 


169 


73-20 


214 


92-69 


289 


112-19 


35 


15-16 


80 


84-65 


126 


84-15 


170 


73-64 


215 


93-18 


260 


112*62 


86 


16 •59 


81 


85 -08 


126 


54-58 


171 


74-07 


216 


93-56 


261 


118-06 


37 


16-02 


82 


85-52 


127 


88-01 


172 


74-50 


217 


93-99 


262 


113-49 


88 


16-45 


83 


85-96 


128 


86-44 


173 


74-94 


218 


94-43 


263 


113-92 


89 


16*89 


84 


36-39 


129 


88-88 


174 


75-37 


219 


94-86 


264 


114*86 


40 


17-32 


85 


86-82 


130 


86-31 


175 


75*80 • 


220 


96*80 


266 


114-79 


41 


17-75 


86 


37-26 


131 


86-74 


176 


76-23 


221 


96*78 


266 


115-22 


42 


18-19 


87 


^ 87-68 


182 


67-18 


177 


76-67 


222 


96*16 


267 


116-66 


43 


18-62 


88 


88*12 


138 


67-61 


178 


77*10 


228 


96*60 


268 


116*09 


44 


19*05 


89 


88*55 


184 


68*04 


179 


77*68 


224 


97 03 


269 


116*62 


V 


Jff'dBj 


90) 


89 '9B ; 

/ 


185 


58*48 


180 


77*97 


226 


97*46 


270 


116*96 



115 

Head in feet «= 2*306768 x pressure in lbs. per sq. inch. 
„ ,, = 00160192 X „ „ „ foot. 

Pressure in lbs. per square inch— 0'433507 x head in feet» 

foot=62-425 X „ 

Power required to raise water. 

Q^GhiUons per minute. 

h = Height in feet. 

E.H.P. = Effective horse-power. 

E.H.P.= QlIOA 
33,000 

Add ^ to f for losses due to friction, slip, &c. 

Pump FonnulsB. 

D =s Diameter of pump in inches. 
A ^Area of pump in square inches. 
U = Piston speed in feet per minute. 
Qtm c= Gallons per minute. 
G* •= G-allons per hour. 

. G"» 23 1 . G* 

A = — — — ; also A = 



U ' 0-385 U 

n.« AU , ^ AU 
G"* « : also Q^ — • 

23 ' 0-385 

G-* = D2 X 0-034.U; also G* = D^ x 2-04 U 



VG» / G^ 

If quantity required is in cubic feet, multiply gallons by 0*16 for 
water, and by 0*128 for petroleum. 

Feed Piimps. 

Feed Pumps should be at least of twice the capacity required by 
the boiler. 

D = Diameter of barrel in inches. 

L « Stroke, in inches. 

n = Number of strokes per minute. 

w — Cubic feet of water pumped per hour. 

W= lbs. of water „ „ 

w =r7D2Lw 

^^D^Lj* 

36-6 ^ 



116 

Duplex Puxnps. 

D» Diameter of steam pistons in inches. 

d = Diameter of plungers in inches. 

L= Length of stroke. 

N» Number of single strokes of one piston or plunger per minute. 

17 =: Speed of pistons in feet per minute. 

Q^Qallons of water delivered per minute. 

Ps Pressure in lbs. per square inch on pistons. 

p B Pressure in lbs. per square inch on plungers. 

Q - 2 (0-78S4 d' L N) ^o.ooge7 ,P L N. 
277 

Since U»^^ Q-0-068 d^ U. 
12 

Also d = a/~^ andD = a/^"^ 
V 0068 U V P 



FIBE STBEAKCS. 

Pressure required at nozzle and at pump, with quantity and pressure necessary to 
throw gt)od effective streams Tarious distances through different size nozzles, using 
100 feet of ordinary 2HQcb rubber lined hose and smooth nozzles. — (FaBEHAN.) 

Size of Xozzle, f inch. 



Pressure at Nozzle, in lbs. per sq. in. 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


110 


Pressure at Pump, ., „ 


46 


57 


68 


80 


91 


102 


114 


Imperial Gallons per Minute 


86 


96 


105 


114 


122 


129 


136 


Distance thrown Horizontal, in feet... 


44 


60 


54 


58 


62 


65 


68 


Distance thrown Vertical, ,, 


60 


67 


72 


76 


79 


81 


83 



Size of Nozzle, | inch. 



Pressure at Nozzle, in lbs. per sq. in. 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Pressure Ht Pump, „ „ 


50 


63 


75 


88 


101 


113 


126 


Imperial Gallons per Minute 


118 


132 


144 


156 


167 


177 


186 


Di^ance thrown Horizontal, in feet... 


49 


55 


61 


66 


70 


74 


76 


Distance thrown Vertical „ 


62 


71 


77 


81 


85 


88 


90 



Size of Nozzle, 1 inch. 



Pressure at Nozzle, in lbs. per sq. in. 


40 


60 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Pressure at Pump, „ „ 


58 


72 


87 


101 


115 


130 


144 


Imperial Gallons per Minute 


154 


173 


189 


204 


218 


232 


245 


Distance thrown Horizontal, in feet... 


55 


61 


67 


72 


76 


80 


83 


Distance thrown Vertical, „ 


64 


73 


79 


85 


89 


92 


96 



117 



Fire Streams — (continued). 
Size of Nozzle, 1| inches. 



Pressure at Nozzle, in lbs. per sq. in. 


40 


60 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 


Pressure at Pump, „ ,, 


69 


86 


108 


120 


138 


166 


172 


Imperial Gallons per Minute 


197 


221 


241 


260 


279 


295 


312 


Distance thrown Horizontal, in feet... 


ft9 


66 


72 


77 


81 


85 


89 


Distance thrown Vertical, „ 


65 


76 


88 


88 


92 


96 


99 



Size of Nozzle, 1^ inches. 



Pressure at Nozzle, in lbs. per sq. in. . 40 
Pressure at Pump, „ „ 84 

Imperial Gallons per Minute ; 246 

Distance thrown Horizontal, in feet .. J 63 
Distance thrown Vertictil, ,. ...j 67 



60 


60 


70 


80 


90 


106 


127 


148 


169 


190 


275 


801 


826 


848 


868 


70 


76 


81 


86 


90 


77 


85 


91 


96 


99 



100 
211 
888 
98 
101 



Size of Nozzle, 1$ inches. 



Pressure at Nozzle, in lbs. per sq. in. 
Pressure at Pump, „ ,, 

Imperial Gallons per Minute 

Distance thrown Horizontal, in feet... 
Didtance thrown Vertical, 



M 



40 


60 


60 


70 


80 


90 


107 


184 


160 


187 


214 


240 


301 


337 


869 


398 


426 


462 


66 


73 


79 


84 


88 


92 


69 


79 


87 


92 


97 


100 



100 
268 
476 
96 
108 



N.B. — The above pressures are based on the supposition that the hose is coupled 
direct to the delivery of the pump and while the stream is flowing; if, however, the 
hose is coupled to a hydrant which is supplied direct from the pump, then the corret- 
ponding fire pump pressure must be greater than the hydrant pressure by an amount 
equal to friction loss, and difference of head between hydrant and pump. The 
pressures given are indicated pressure(>, not effective pressures. Effective pressores 
would be slightly greater. The distances given are for ^ective fire streams adapted 
for fire purposes, and are not for mere isolated drops. 



1 Atmosphere 



i 



"14*7 lbs. per sq. inch. 
2116'4 lbs. per sq. foot. 
1-0335 kilos, per Cm^. 
29-922 inches of mercury at 82° F. 
30-000 „ „ 62° F. 

33-947 feet of water at 62° F. 
76 cms. of mercury at 0° C. 
1^10-347 metres of water at 17° C. 

cubic foot of air at, al^^.^^ ^^ 320 jr.=o-08073 lbs. or 1-29 
pressure of 14-7 lbs. V J^^^^ ^^ ggg.^ ^^ 
per sq. inch • ^ 



1 litre of air, 
1*293 grammes. 



at a pressure of 1 atmosphere at 0° C^-^^ss^^ 



118 
FUELS. 

Calorific Power of a Fuel. 
Units of heat = (14500 x % C) + |62535 x /"% H - ^-2^ I 

where 0, H, and O represent carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 

Example : A sample of petroleum contains 85 '3 % G and 14 *7 % H. 
What is its calorific power ? 

(14500 X 85 >3) + (62535 x 14 '7) ^ 21561 units. 

100 

A coal contains 82 % 0, 5 % H, and 8 % O. What is it heating 
value ? 



(14500 X 82) + 1 62535 x A - ^ 



100 



= 15016 units. 



Coke being practically all carbon (0 *935 G) its heat value cannot 
exceed 14500 x '935 ^ 13557 heat units. 

Units of Work contained in a Fuel. 

Found by multiplying the niunber of heat-units contained in 1 lb. of 
fuel by 772, the mechanical equivalent of heat. Thus, 1 lb. of coal 
containing 15,061 heat units has a dynamical value of 15,061 x 772 = 
11,627,092 foot pounds of work. 

Composition of Coals. 
Good Quality Coals. 

Semi- 
Anthracite, bituminous. Bituminous. 

1 00 . . 1-00 

18-00 .. 4000 

75-50 .. 53-50 

0-50 . . 0-50 

5-00 .. 5-00 



Water 1 -00 

Volatile matter 5 *00 

Fixed Garbon 88-50 

Sulphur ; 0*50 

Ash ...,, 5-00 



100-00 



100-00 



100-00 



\\\) 



Coal Analyses. 



o 

6 



B 

to 

o 



C 
08 . 

V be 

02; 



»4 

.a 



^ 



I 



Englisli coal (average) 
South Wales 



Aberdare (average). . . . 

Aberaman steam coal . . 

Carmarthen (Anthra-l 

cite) (Rockcastle) j 



81 -979 
86-63 

88-0 
86-29 

93 10 



5 156 

4-33 

V 



7 
2 



946 
46 



8-5 
10-37 



3 10 



ro-86\ 

1 1 -59 J 



I -295 
0-99 

0-80 
0-90 

0-56 



3-387 
4-70 

2-70 
2-44 

0-79 



0-89 



PETROLEUM. 

The following table shows some of the characteristic properties of 
the petroleum and shale oils sold in this countrv : — 







Spfidliu 


i<'lashing 


Wholesale 


Name of Oil. 


1 Colour. 


gravity at 


Point. 


Price, per 




I 


60° V. 


F. 


gallon. 


American Boyal Dayli^lit 


. Light Straw 


0-8Ii 


83^ 


4 


,, Ordinary 


»» 


O-TU! 


75° 


H 


„ Water White 


. Colourless 


0-7-0 


\0b° 


5 


„ Tea Hose 


. Light Straw 


0-797 


rs> 


4 


Bussian Ordinary (Uussoline).. 


»f 


0-824 


82° 


H 


Bussian Lustre 


«} 


0-825 


130° 


4 • 


Broxbume Lighthouse 


n 


0-810 


160° 


5 


American Mineral Sperm 


Straw 


0-S33 


270° 


— 


Storrar's Scotch Gas Oil 


. Iteddish 
Brown 


0-843 


110° 


2 


Scotch Intermediate Shale Oil 


; Clear Brown 1 


0-846 


— 


2i 


Light Lubricating Oil 


' 1 
•1 •• ! 


0-863 


•225° 


2 



The Law of Economy. 
By this law we are enabled to say whether there will be an 
economical advantage in altering or extending a given plant. 
In symbols this law may be thus written : — 
Let £ be the cost of a plant. 
Let 2 be the annual cost of working it. 
Let A £ be the cost of an addition to the plant, the annual interest 

on which at n per cent, is . 

100 

Let V be the annual cost of working the plant after the addition is 

made, — 

Then the most economical design is that in which — 



FBTS0X.E1TK AIO) COAL. 



Durbj-sMreATc 





CUem 


■"<>»—■ II i'srr'ip 




1 


1 


1 












fit 


1' 

I 


1 


i 


1 


1 
1= 


1 


■sue 

■881 

■Ki 

■»a) 

■2IB 
■27B 


ai-9 

HI-. 

S3 -6 
83-8 

Tfl-J 


4-e 


% 

1-0 

|:; 

1-2 


% 
- 

1% 


% 
1-4 


% 

4-1 
it 


I4,«0 

18,862 
13,604 


21 


48 

w 

46 


14-21 


IS 

;:l 

9-05 

7 -84 
B-l» 



Tta« Plaali-poiiit of varionB Hydrooarbona. 



72 
72 

"Petioleum (ordinaiy Amerifan Lamp Oil) ., 78 
Baioline 110 

Orxiiuarj Higli-teet PatrolBum .. 110-120 

Crjetttl Oil 150 

Ihitn-r'B Oil 270 



121 

This shows that potable spirits are really more liable to ignition 
than petroleum, a fact corroborated bj the experience of Insurance 
Companies. 

I^aphtha vapour, benzoline vapour, petroleum vapour, and alcoholic 
yapour, by themselves, are so far as an explosive is concerned perfectly 
harmless. 

In order to produce an explosion, there must be a mixture of the 
spirit or petroleum vapour and air, and it is the proportion in which 
the latter is present that determines the intensity of the explosion. 

H3rdrometers. 

The hydrometers chiefly used in this country are Twaddell's and 
Beaume's. Following are r u les for reducing them to specific gravity : — 

Bbaum^. 

144 
For liquids lighter than water. Rule : = sp. gr, 

ii. + 134 

Thus ^^o -}^^ ,»/ =^ -935 sp. gr. And J^ - 134 = B. 
20^ B. + 134 ^ ^ sp. gr. 

144 

Thus 1^ = 154 - 134 = 20° B. 

-935 sp. gr. 

144 
For liquids heavier than water. Bulc : = sp. gr, 

144 — B. 

Thus ^^^^o-FT = 1 '074 sp. gr. And 144 - Jii_ = B. 

144 — 10 B. sp. gr. 

Thus 144 - -ill. = 10° B. 
1-074 

TWADDELL. 

Tw. to sp. gr. : multiply by 5 and add 1 000. Thus 80° IV. x 5 
= -400 + 1 000 = 1 400 sp. gr. 

Sp. gr. to Tw. : deduct 1 '000 and divide by 5. Thus 1*400 sp. gr. 
- 1 -000 = 400 -^ 5 = 80° Tw. 

Liquid Fuel Burners. 

These are mainly of two distinct types, gas'ifiers and sprayers. In 
the former the fuel, usually a heavy liquid hydrocarbon, flows into 
a chamber called a vaporiser, upon which impinges a flame. The 
liquid is converted into a vapour or gas which burns in the free 
presence of air with a yellow flame, or it can be mixed with air as in 
a Bunsen burner, when a blue flame is produced. The latter system 
is the better, but difficulties are experienced in preventing the 
deposition of carbon in the small orifices through which the vapour 
passes. The former system is that generally adopted for moto- 
vehicles and small vessels. This type of burner is usually re^^iA-tA.- 
tive, that is the vaporisation is eftecleA. Vj V)cl^ ^wbl^ ^■^^^^'t^. '''S2^M6l 
following are examples of this type. 



122 

Fig. 1 illustrates the Longuemarre burner as employed bj 
M. SerpoUet in his oil fuel boilers. In it ordinary kerosine is supplied 
imder pressure at A to the coil J9, and after circulating through it 
passes away as oil gas at (7, down the pipe D into the central chamber 
of the burner, which is closed by means of a valve on the end of a 
rod ^, actuated by some form of lever JP. From the central chamber 
the gas can, when the valve J& is opened, pass to the burners G Q Q-, 




Fia. 1. 



It also passes to two burners at the ends of arms at right-angles to 
the arms carrying the burners G^, and shown by dotted lines, but as 
it enters these from the lower chamber below the valve, these burners 
fure not extinguished when the three first mentioned are : thus, when 
it becomes necessary to stop the engine, one half of the heating power 
of the burner is shut oi?, and the other half remains to keep the 
boiler warm and to act as pilot lights for the other burners when full 
steam is again required ; the lever F moves the valve F. 

Figs. 2 and 3 are a plan and section of the " Lifu " burner, manu- 
factured by the Liquid Fuel Engineering Co., of Cowes. 




7ia. 8. 

Ihu burner coneUti of ttro purtd, an upper chuiriber, liavrng varioui 
pasaagee, forming the generator, and iLe burner proper. The principle 
is clearly shown in the above drawings, in which Pig. 2 is the generator 
or yaporiaer, and Fig. 3 the burner. The oil enters the upper chaiiJsfe* 
and, after traversing the paasages, dBBOeivds Vi ftia Vxnwst \ '■«>• 's^u'* 



124 

to vaporise it, the oil is turned on from the tank, and a temporary 
flame applied to the generator ; the oil becomes heated and vaporised, 
and, in the condition of a hot vapour, passes to the burner, lifting the 
needle valve; on ignition a large and compact volume of iiame is 
produced which keeps the generator hot, and also maintains in a red- 
hot state a chamber, called an igniter, filled with firebrick ; this 
chamber, by means of a central stalk, fits into a central hole in the 
generator. The object of the igniter is to act as a reservoir of heat in 
case the burner flame is temporarily extinguished from any cause. 

In connection with the oil supply pipe a diaphragm valve is fitted; 
the diaphragm is acted upon by the steam pressure, and actuates a 
spindle which controls the supply of fuel to the generator. Should 
the pressure of steam fall or be too low the supply valve is opened full, 
and on an excess of steam pressure it is closed, or partially so. The 
valve can be set to work within any stated limits, the oil supply, 
and consequently the volume of flame and quantity of steam produced, 
being entirely automatic. 



Local Authority. 

Local authority is not defined in the Locomotives on Highways Act, 
but the following is the definition given in the Public Health Act, 
1875 :— 

By Sect. 4 of that Act ** local authority " means " urban sanitary 
authority " and " rural sanitary authority.'* By Sect. 6 urban sanitary 
authorities are either corporations of boroughs, local boards, or 
improvement commissioners. Under the Local Government Act, 1894, 
Sect. 21, all urban sanitary authorities, other than corporations or 
councils of boroughs, are to be called urban district councils, and for 
every rural sanitary district there is to be a rural district council, to 
whom, by Sect. 25, all the powers, duties and liabilities of rural 
sanitary authorities are transferred. "Local authority," therefore, 
in England, outside the metropolis, must be taken to mean either—' 

(1) The corporation or councU of a borough or county borough, or 

(2) The urban district council of an urban district, or (3) The rural 
district council of a rural district. 

In London, having regard to the definition of " sanitary authority " 
contained in the PubSc Health (Metropolis) Act, 1891, " local 
authority " probably means — (1) In the City, the Commissioners of 
Sewers. (2) The Vestries. (3) The District Boards. (4) The 
Local Board of Woolwich, it is doubtful if it includes the London 
County Council, which has no direct control over the streets of the 
metropolis except the Thames Embankment. In Ireland "local 
authority" means the urban sanitary authority or the grand jury. 
In Scotland ** local authority " probably means the road authority of 
any county or burgh, and the commissioners of police burghs. 

(TAe Laio of Motw CorSjliKWift &. 1Ba«i:^"B..'^ 



125 



ThB DiJBB BUBKEB 



Consists of two burners and one vaporising cliaraber — one burner 
being used to beat the latter and so vaporise the oil, while the other 
acts as the burner proper, i.e., it performs the function for which the 
apparatus is intended. These burners are placed the latter in front 
oi the former, and both are enclosed in chamber A, as shown in 
Fig. 4. 






mr 



0)C 




Fig. 4. 

The vaporiser consists of a chamber d, having two pipes, a and e, 
at right* angles to each other, the whole forming one casting. The 
upper one of these pipes, a, is connected with the source of supply, 
the admission of the liquid fuel being regulated by a valve c. The 
other pipe, e, supplies vapour to the heating burner f. This burner, 
after a preliminary heating of d, keeps the latter hot so as to 
vaporise the oil flowing into it. Fart of the vapour thus formed goes 
to /, and the greater part to the main burner, ^. There are thus two 
burners, which produce a compact body of flame. 

Sabgeant's Bubnbb. 



This burner consists of a vaporising chamber A, Fig. 5, of cast-iron, 
and formed with numerous passages in. "wHcIq. t\ift oTJLitwxi.'C^^^'sra;:^^^ ^ 




rro 5 



The burner comprises a central tube C, through which passes the 
squared or longitudiaallj grooved stem of a Talve c, and tlie lube C 
ie BUTTOUuded bj a shield D, hanng inlet for air entering &b 
indicated by the arraws. In the lower part of the toItb stem there 
is a slatted hole, in which is engaged the eccentric end of a 
spindle B, which extends along a tube F, and thiougb ■ stuffing hoi, 
and terminates in a handle/, bv which it can be turned. 

The TapoDT ascending from the space b, up the tube C, issues 
between the ralve e and its Sfating, and, being ignited while it 
miira with the air, forms a flame which heats the raporiaer A, and, 
passing upwards around it, serves to heat a boiler situated abore the 

^jr turning the iiandJo f, the valve c con ba wiwA ot \o'w«Ma. 
'tag, to aa to iaoreaee oi diminiah the fiame as mai \)6 xeopiiwi.. 



127 

Sprayers are subdiTided into two kinds — flat and jet sprayen. 
!□ these air or steam pulrerises the oil into a fine spray, which 
renders the combustion Tery easy ; and this is stjll more so whei> 
Bt«am is emplojeii, as the oil particles are projected in a heat«d state, 
and more rratdilj combine with the oijgen. The disadrantage of usinff 
Bteam is, howeror, the amount required, which is variously estimated 
at 5 to 18 per cent, of ths total quantity produced. This is an 
objection of great weight in situations such ss for sea and river 
Berricee, where fresh water is, or may be, an expensiTe item. Sprayers 
also inTolre the use of larger feed pnmps. 

Of flat jot sprayers, Tne<ldle's, figs. G, 7, and 8, is much used in 
Great Britain and on board oil-fired steamers. It is simple and 
ineipecsive, and eaeily cleaned. 




128 



Figs. 6, 7, show perspective views of the burner, and Fig. 8 
sectional elevations. At g it is tapped for a \\" oil pipe, and at h for 
a \" steam pipe, e ee\& the oil passage \ d d d the steam passage, 
and these are each 3" x f ". The oil coming through the passage eee 
falls directly on the steam shooting through the narrow slit at the end 
of the passage d d d and is completely pulverised, passing into the 
furnace as a fine spray. The holes h and m at the back of the burner 
are closed with plugs. By unscrewing these the burner can be 
quickly cleaned without removing; this, however, is rarely found 
necessary, the burner as a rule keeping perfectly clean for an indefinite 
period— ('* Engixeebing.") 





Fig. 9. — Kobting. 



STEAM 




Fig. 10. — ^Abtembff. 

Other examples of gasiBera are a Korting (Fig. 9) and an Artemeff 
(CKr^. JOJ, both these kinds being extensively eniig\oyedLm\)ti«>«Xft«jai 
»sele on the C&apisai and Black Seas. 



Ol' jet epravfrs llip following are the better known !- 




Fio. 12,— D'A.i.A.TOT. 



130 



■^^i^^^MTSN^ 




^^i:^^^ : ^^^Y^;j^^vK^ 




AIR 



Fig. 13.— Holdbn. 

Of 'these, Urquhart's is used very extensively on the Russian 
railways ; D'Allest's is used on some French torpedo boats ; while 
Holden's is used on the Great Eastern Eailway. 

A burner which has given very excellent results, and which is 
simple to make and fit, is that of Rusden & Eeles (see Fig. 14). 




W44.-3 

\ 



BXTSBEIK & 'El^'A^. 



1$1 

AdiFaatatfeor of Idqiiid Fuel. 

1. The combustion of liquict fuel' is comjdete, whereas that of coal 
is not, consequently in the former case there is no lost heat in smoke 
or soot. 

2. There are no ashes or clinkers, and consequently no fires to 
clean, with the accompanying loss of heat and drop in the steam 
pressure — the steam pressure and revolutions of the engines being 
maintained at one point throughout. 

3. The boiler tubes are always free from soot, and are clean; 
therefore always in the best condition for transmitting the heat from 
gases passing through them to the water of the boiler. 

4!. The temperature of the escaping gases may be considerably 
lower than is required to create the necessary draught for coal firing. 
With coal the air has to be drawn through the bars and the fire in 
the furnaces ; by natural draught this requires a temperature of the 
escaping gases about 600° to 700° F. But in the case of liquid fuel 
there are no bars or thick fire for the air to force its way through, 
and the required amount of air can be drawn through the furnaces 
by a much lower uptake temperature — about 400° to 460° F. being in 
most cases sufficient. 

5. The admission of air to the furnace being under complete 
control, and the fuel being burnt in fine particles in close contact 
with the oxygen of the air, only a very small excess of air above that 
actually necessary for the complete combustion of the fuel is required. 
With coal, in order to ensure as complete combustion as possible, a 
very much larger excess of air is required. 

In addition to its higher calorific value, liquid fuel has many other 
advantages, especially on board ship. 

Stowage.- -A ton of coal will occupy about 45 cubic feet of bunker 
space, and a ton of oil will require about 40 to 45 cubic feet. 
Assuming that both coal and oil will require the same bunker space 
per ton, then, since one ton of oil fuel is equal to two tons of coal, 
the bunker space necessary to steam the same distance at the same 
speed is only one-half. In addition to this, there is no lost space 
caused by the projection of frames, stringers, or beams. Also, 
portions of the ship which, if used as coal bunkers would be inacces- 
sible, can be utilised for the stowage of oil. 

Test of Boiler using: Astatki (Petroleum Refuse) Fuel, 
fitted with a Husden A Eeles Burner. 

The boiler, which was of the ordinary marine type, evaporated 
with cold fuel from 7 to 8 lbs. of water from and at 212° F. for each 
pound of coal burnt, the uptake temperatuse b^\s!i% ^wsi^ ^&s§ "% » 
With Ensaian Astatki, the evapoTO.\,\OTv -w^^ iToav^a^ \*i ^S> ^^'^..Vtss^ 



132 



and at 212° F. per lb. of oil. The following are the average data 
from some experiments with a Eusden & Eeles sprayer, and a heat 
account from the same data : — 

Kind of Liquid Fuel. 
Specific gravity . . 
Chemical analysis (approximate) : — 

Carbon . . 

Hydrogen . . 

Oxygen . • 
Temperature of stokehold 

„ escaping gases 

Weight of steam required to spray 1 lb. of oil. . 

Assuming that the air contained 23 per cent, of oxygen, and that 
the excess of air over that required for complete combustion passing 
into the furnace was 20 per cent., which would be about correct 
because the slightest reduction of air caused smoke to issue from the 
chimney. 



Russian 


Astatki. 


.. 0-9 




87 


per cent. 


12 


n 


1 


». 


. 60° 


F. 


. 450° 


F. 


.. 0-3 


lb. 



Heat Units. 



Equivalent 

Evaporation 

from and 

at 212° F. 



Total heat from combustion of lib. of oil- 
Carbon 0*87 X 14,500 

Hydrogen 0*12 x 62,032 



12,616 
7,444 



Heat lost in waste gases at 450° F. — 

Carbonic acid gas 

Nitrogen 

"Water vapour from combustion ... 

„ „ sprayer 
Surplus air, 20 per cent 



Heat lost in radiant heut, &c. 
Heat absorbed bv water in boiler 



20,059 



3 19 lbs 
10-72 ,. 
1-08 „ 
0-30 
2-78 



u 



269 

909 

1,452 

29 

257 



2,916 

17,143 
1,687 

15,456 



20*7 



3-0 



17*7 
1*7 



16 



(Wallis.) 



Benzene. 



Benzene gas is nearly three times as lieavy as air. One cubic foot 
of benzene gas weighs 0*2181 lb. ; while 1 lb. of gas occupies at 
ordinary temperature and pressure 4*58 cubic feet. The corresponding 
^ffures for air being O'OS w, and 12*39 cubic feet respectively. 



133 



Precantions to be taken in usingr Liquid Fuel in 

Furnaces. 

In lighting up from '* all cold," it is as well to open the fire 
door and damper so as to create a draught, and thereby drive 
away any possible explosive mixture of air and oi| gas which might 
be present through leaks in the oil valves. If possible, blow through 
with the steam jet from an adjacent boiler, then introduce the lighted 
torch, and then {not before) turn on the oil supply. If reUghting 
a " hot " furnace, i.e., that in wliich the oil has been shut off for a 
timei as, say, during a meal hour, blow through thoroughly with 
steam first as a precaution, and proceed as before. The gi*eat danger 
to be guarded against is the formation of an explosive mixture in a 
very confined space. As a general rule, the lighted torch should be 
afiSxed to a bent rod, so that the attendant can stand away from the 
fire door. Eemember, that a Jlame must never he brought to the oil^ 
hut the oil must always he brought to the Jlame, i.e., in oil fuel 
furnaces, there must first be a flame in the furnace, then the oil can 
be turned on. 

Petroleum. — In carrying petroleum or its products on motor 
vehicles, never allow the containing vessel to be quite full, as petroleum 
sensibly expands when heated, and unless provision is made for this, 
the tank might be ruptured. 



Meltingr Point of Metals, &c. 



Names. 


Fahr. 


Names. 


Fahr. 


Platina 


.. 1590° 


Wrought iron . . 


.. 2900° 


Antimony . . 


.. 842 


Steel 


.. 2500 


Bismuth . . 


.. 487 


Copper . . 


.. 2000 


Tin 


. 475 


Glass 


.. 2377 


Lead 


.. 620 


Beeswax . . 


.. 151 


Zinc 


. . 700 


Sulphur . . 


.. 239 


Cast iron . . 


.. 2100 


Tallow 


92 



mmmi «r*-v>'i" 



134 



STEAM. 



The intensity of heat is measured by a thermometer. 

The quantity of heat is measured in thermal units, the British 
thermal unit heing the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of 
water through 1 degree F., when the water is at its greatest density, 
Tiz., 39-1 F. This amount of heat = 772 ft. lbs. 

Specific Heat is the power a body or substance possesses for 
absorbing heat. It is the amount of heat in JBritish thermal units 
required to raise the temperature through 1 degree F. 



Water at 39° F. .. TOO 
„ „ 212° F. .. 1013 
Ice at 32° F. . . 504 



Specific Heat. 

Iron . . . . . . 11 

Copper . . -09 



Coal . . . . . . '24 



Mercury . . . . '03 ! Air . . . . . . 23 

Specific Density is the number of pounds in a cubic foot. 
-^ _. .. ' .-i ^' Weight of dry steam 

Dryness Praotxon is tlie ratio weight of water panicles •" » S"'*'* 
Tolume. If 1 lb. of wet steam has a weight of 'to dry steam in 
it, then (1 — w) is the weight of the water particles, and drjness 

fraction =-tz c . 

(1 - w) 

Total Heat of Evaporation is the quantity of heat required to 
raise 1 pound of water from 32° F. to a giyen temperature and then 
eTaporate it. 

latent Heat is the quantity, of heat units absorbed or giyen 
ou^ in changing one pound of a substance from one state to 
another without altering its temperature. The latent heat of water 
is that quantity of heat required to melt 1 pound of ice = 144 units. 

Latekt Heat of Stbam. 

Let T be the temperature of the steam. 
L the latent heat. 



L=966-| (T- 212°) 0-7 } 



ToTAii Heat op Steam. 

Let T be the temperature of the steam. 
H the total heat. 
B:=1082 + 0-305 T. 



185 



The Saturation Point is attained when all the latent heat 
required for the steam has been taken up. 

The BoilinfiT Point occurs when the tension of the water orey- 
comes the surrounding pressure. 

Dry Saturated Steam is that which has a specific yolume, 
])ressuTe and temperature corresponding to its complete formation. 

Wet Saturated Steam is that in process of formation, and iq 
contact with water. 

Superheated Steam, is that which has its temperature raised 
above formation point. 

Specific Volume is the number of cubic feet to the pound wei^t. 
From recent experiments, it would seem that superheating results in 
an economy of from 10 to 20 per cent, in the weight of steam required 
per I.H.P.-hour, and from 16 to 20 per cent, in weight of coal 
consumed. 



Properties of Saturated Steam. 



Abso- 
lute 

Pres- 
sorc 

in lbs. 



Pressure 
above At- 
mosphere 
in lbs. 



Temp, or 

Boiling 

Point in 

degs. F. 



Total Heat in 
units required 
to {generate lib. 
of Steam from 
Water at 32° F. 
under constant 
pressure. 



Volume : 

cubic feet 

per lb. 



Weight of 

1 cubic foot 

of Steam 

in lbs. 



Beladve 
Volmne or 
cubic itet 

of Steam 

from 

1 cubic foot 

of Water. 



1 
2 

4 
5 

8 
U) 

12 : 

14-7! 

15 I 

18 

20 

22 

25 

30 

35 I 

40 

45 

50 

55 

60 



3 

3-3 

5-3 

7-3 

10 3 

15-3 

20-3 

25-3 

30-3 

35-3 

40-3 



•1 
•3 
•0 
•3 
•0 
•0 
•1 
•5 



45-3 



102-0 

126-4 

153 

162 

183 

193 

202 

212 

213 

222 

228-0 

233-3 

240-5 

250-5 

259-4 

267-0 

274-5 

281-0 

287-1 

292 -6 



1113 01 
1120 -49 
1127 -02 
1131 -44 
1137 -75 
1140-89 
1143 -55 
1146 -60 
1146 -93 
1149 -80 
1151 -47 
1153 -09 
1155 -29 
1158 -34 
1160 9 
1163 -3 
1165 -4 
1167 -64 

1171 -S^ 




•0030 : 
•0058 
•0112 
•0138 
•0214 
0264 ! 
•0314 ' 
•0380 i 
•0387 
•0459 , 
•0507 
•0555 
-0625 
-0743 
•0858 
-0974 ' 
-1089 
-1202 1 



20760 

10728 

5625 

4559 

2923 

2863 

1988 

1644 

1614 

1360 

1231 

1125 

998 

841 

780 

640 

574 

522 



136 



Properties of Saturated Steam — continued. 









Total Heat in 






Relatiye 


Abso- 
lute 
Pres- 

• sure 
iB lbs. 


Pressure 
above At- 
mosphere 
in lbs. 


Temp, or 

Boiling 
Point In 
degs. F. 


units required 
to general e 1 lb. 
ot Steam from 
Water at 32° F. 
under constant 
pressure. 

• • 


Volume : 

cubic feet 

per lb. 


Weight of 

1 cubic foot 

of Steam 

in lbs. 


Volume or 
cubic feet 
of Steam 

from 

1 cubic foot 

of Water. 


65 


50-3 


298-0 


6-54 


-1538 


407 


70 


55-3 


302-8 


1174 -29 


6-10 


-1648 


381 


75 


60-3 


307-5 


• • 


5-72 


-1759 


360 


• 80 


65-3 


312-1 


! 1177 -13 


5-39 


-1869 


337 


85 


70-3 


316-1 


• • 


5-08 


-1980 


322 


90 


75-3 


320-3 


1179 -63 


' 4 -83 


•2089 


301 


95 


80-3 


324-0 


• • 


4-58 


-2198 


286 


100 


85-3 


327-7 


1181 -88 


4-37 


•2307 


273 


105 


90-3 


331-2 


1182-95 


' 4-18 


-2414 


261 


110 


95-3 


334 6 


1183-99 


1 4-00 


I -2521 


250 


115 


100-3 


337-0 


: 118 -0 


3-83 


•2628 


239 


120 


105 -3 


341 1 


': 1186 -0 


3-68 


i -2759 


230 


125 


110-3 


344-2 


< 11^6 -92 


i 3 -54 


-2867 


221 


130 


115-3 


347-2 


1 1187-85 


3-42 


-2977 


213 


135 


120-3 


350-1 


; 1188 -72 


3-30 


-3080 


206 


140 


125-3 


352-9 


] 189 -57 


3-18 


-3184 


199 


145 


130-3 


355-6 


' 1190 -40 


; 3-08 


-3294 


192 


150 


135-3 


358-3 


1191 -22 


2-98 


-3397 


186 


155 


140-3 


361-0 


• • 


• • 


•3500 


180 


160 


145-3 


363-4 


1192 -77 


2-81 


•3607 


175 


:^65 


150-3 


366-0 


• • 


• • 


•3714 


170- 


170 


155 3 


368-3 


1194 -27 


2-65 


•3821 


166 


175 


360-3 


370 -8 


• • 


• • 


•3928 


162 


180 


165-3 


373-0 


1195 -70 


2-51 


-4035 


157 


185 


170-3 


375 3 




• • 


•4142 


153 


190 


176 -3 


377-5 


1197 -07 


2-39 


•4260 


149 


195 


180-3 


379-6 


. . 


• • 


-4357 


145 


200 


185-3 


381-8 


11' 8 39 


2-28 


-4464 


142 


210 


395-3 

1 


385 -8 


1199 -60 ' 


2-18 


•4668 i 


136 



What is a Lig-lit lioooznotive P 

Any Tehicle propelled by mechanical power, and weighing under 
three tons unladen, and whicli is not used for the purpose of drawing 
more than one vehicle. 

Moto-cycles are light locomotives. 

Anj vehicle drawn bj a light locomotive is also legally u light 

^ Jigbt locomotire is also a "carriage." 





Hn'orbolic 
of Iht D.^(ire« 


me Str.iks, 


Burp being 


Ahwiiiw PiT*mrt. 


ofTimci 
SUnni la 
Expanded. 


ifnrulalbi. Mnn 

GivBi. Decree tq.ln. 
0. Exrwslon 



1-9459 

1 -9810 
2-OUQ 

2 -0477 
2-0794. 
2-1102 

:;-uoi 

a -1691 
2 1972 



3-3979 
2-4201 
a -4.130 

2 '4636 



3-5649 
2-5SiO 
2 -6037 

a -0211 



2-7081 
I 2-7408 



4l>f3 


no 


41-8 


1532 


'J3 -75 


4a -4 


J4I8 


97-6 


13 


4:tlO 


101 -25 


43-4 



3779 


J 23 -75 


. 46-3 


3li94 


127-5 


47 


3621 


181 -25 


47-5 


3552 


133 


47 -U 


3486 


138-75 


48-3 


J422 


142-5 


18-7 


3361 


146-2--. 


49 


3302 


150 


49 S 


3246 


153-75 


49-8 


3191 


157-5 


50 -a 


3139 


161 -25 


50-6 


3089 


165 


50*9 


3040 


108-75 


51 -a 


2;.93 


172-5 


61-6 


2947 


176-25 


51 '9 


^904 


180 


52-3 


3S61 


1S3 -75 


52-3 


2621 


187-5 


52-8 


2780 


191 -25 


53 


3742 


193 




2704 


198-75 


53-8 



2502 
■2473 
M\2 



54-8 

55 

55-3 



11 ojlindon. mulUcl; ilioorB«»"«*^*»^* 



138 



To find Quantity of Steam used by an Engine. _ 

Multiply piston area by piston speed in inches per minute, and by 
numerator of fraction denoting cut-off, and divide the product byl&e 
product of 1,728, and by the denominator of fraction denoting cut-off. 
The quotient will be cubic feet per minute, which if multiplied by ^ 
will give cubic feet per hour. 

To 'find Quantity of Water evaporated to Steam, per hour. 

Multiply piston area by piston speed in inches, and by the 
numerator of the fraction denoting cut-off and by 60; divide the 
product by the product of the vol. of steam (see p. 135), 1,728, and 
the denominator of fraction denoting cut-off. 

Consumption in Steam Enerines. 

lbs. Water per I.H.P. lbs. Coal per LH.P. 

Non-condensing . . 30-45 . . . . 3-75-5'0 

Condensing .. .. 22-30 .. .. 2-75-3-75 

2-Stage Compound .. 14-22* .. .. 1-75-2-75* 

3. Stage Compound .. 11-5-15* .. .. 1-25-1 75* 

Evaporative Power and EfBLoiency of a Boiler. 

Tho approximate evaporative power of a boiler may be found by 
t.liis Rule : — 
Let E = the theoretical evaporative power of the fuel. 

in = the weight of coal burned on the grate in lbs. per hour. 

H» = the heating surface in square feet. 

\y — the weight in lbs. of water evaporated per lb. of fuel. 

W = 1-833 ( — S! \ E. 

And tlie efficiency is 

1 -833 ( ^^' \ 

Surface Condensers, 

H = Total heat of 1 lb. of exhaust steam in B. T. Units. 

/ = Temperature of hot well. 

f - „ cooling water on entering. 

^" = „ „ „ discharge. 

W = Weight of water in lbs. required per lb. of steam. 

W = lll-^ 



Condenshig. 



139 

To find the Mean Effective Presstire P'" on the Piston of a 

Cylinder. 

Let P be the absolute initial pressure (i.e., pressure shown by 

gauge + 14*7 lbs.), r the rate of expansion, and -- the cut off; then 

r 

P« = I* 1 + log' g ^ 
r 
Example 1. — A pair of simple engines take st^am through a 

reducing valye at 90 lbs. r = 9 and -. = — . Absolute initial pres- 

r 9 

sure P is 00 + 14-7 - 105 and -^^ = 11*7 lbs. final pressure. 

if 

Log. I r « 2 107 

9 ):^i9 7 

•3552 
105 



1-7760 
35-52 



. • . P"* = 37'29tJO 
N.B. — This is the mean pressure in each cylinder. 

Steam Engrine Desigm. 

Let D = Diameter of cylinder in inches. 

d = Any other required diameter in inches. 
A = Area of piston in square inches. 
L -= Length of stroke in inches. 
P = Standard steam pressure, taken as 100 lbs. 
H.P. = The horoe-power. 

V = Kevolutions per minute. 
W = Weight in lbs. 



Crank-shaft d 



"</^-f 



Piston rod d = 0145 \/ D L 

Connecting rod, rectangular section, where d is the thickness 
and is one half the breadt h, and L' is the length — 

d = 05 y/ DW 
Piston face = 0-44 D. 

Weight of flywheel : W= SSB^ . ^^^ 

D- ]S' • 

Total weight of engine : W = 117 II. P. 



140 



BOILERS OB STEAM GENEBATOBS. 

The Thomycroft Generator. 
This is vertical, water- tubular and ceiitral fired. Heating surface, 
65 square feet ; grate area, 21 sqiiare feet ; steam pressure, 175 lbs. 
per square inch. Fuel is coke or coal. Fan is fitted for forcing the 
draught. 




Fig. 15. — Thobxtcboft's Geneba^tou •. "El.^^' kiio-s 




Fm. 16. — iHORVTORorr Q-bhebatob i Sectional Elbvaitov. 



> " Lifa " Stc 

>r (aee Fig. 17) codbibU of > tower horizontal circulAr 
drum ^dan upper vertical one, both connected by eniBll copper pipea 
amnged spiral!; aa shoim. There is about SO square feet of heating 
Buriace, aad the working pressure in 280 Ihs. igar i'^^ioKB msJo.. "^^a. 
flrod bj liquid tael (kerosine), the buraec \«vtii Aio-wti.'«>--'{i*%«''^'^- 




Vj:^ 



Fia. 18.— Tax Towabd &B8EliiToa-.'V-KKn.ofci.'SivaNwa«»- 



144 

The Towaxd Generator. 

This (sef Fig. IB) is of the I'ectBngalar vertical type, and is 
conetructed to Board of Trade requirementB. It hae 111 square feet 
of besting surface, ani! 21 square feet •>{ grate area. Thp normal 
presaure o! steam is 190 Iba., and Ibe valves are set to blow at 200 lbs. 
per square inch. The weight of the generator with all mountings and 
fittings is about 1.000 lbs., and the weight of the contained water 
120 lbs. The DOnsumption of fuel (coke) is about 8 lbs. per mile. 
This gpnerator U used with a motor developing about 25 I.H.F. 

The Wiedknecht Qeuerator. 

This {see Figs. 19 and 20) is a vertical boiler fitted witli cross tubes. 

It has a grate area of 3 square feet. There are 87 tubes 1'18 inches 

diameter eiteraal, the total henting surface being 61 square feet. 

The boiler will evaporate 572 lbs. of water per hour. 




145 

The De Dion and Bonton Steam Oenerator. 

The Bcoompanjing illUBtrsitLon (lee Fig. 21) represents the hleit 
detigii of tliU generator, which is guaranteed to generate from 4f6 lbs. 
to 6 lbs. of dr^ sl«am per square foot of heating surface, and httm. 
7 lbs. to 8 lbs. per pound of coal, luing natural draught. I'rom trials 
recently conducted bj MesBra. Sautter, Harlfi et CieT it appears that 
this b<nler, weighing 1,430 lbs. empty, vitli a heating surface of Sl'G 

square feet and a grate sur&oe of less than 8 square feet, r 

88 lbs. of coal per hour, and generate! S50 lbs. of steam. 




Via. 21. — Elbvation o 



146 



The Serpollet Generator. 

This consists of a chamber {see Figs. 22 and 23). liaving insulated 
sides, and having within it three separate groups of tubes — all, however, 
being in series. The water is fed into the lower tubes, which are of 
plain section, and heated by the petroleum burner ; it then passes 
into the twisted tubes, where it is " flashed " into steam, which 
becomes superheated on passing into the upper group. A feature 
about this generator is the automatic feed pumps, by which the 
quantities of petroleum and water are regulated by the work to be 
done. 




^z&. 22. — The Sebpollet &eneeatob: Section KL^i.^^ki\oi&. 



117 




Fig. 28. — Sebpollet G-enkbatoe : Plan. 



STEAM MOTORS. 

The Wiedknecht Motor. 

This {see Fig. 24) is a horizontal high-pressure engine, having two 
cylinders each 4-"92 x 4-"92 stroke. They are fitted with a Solen's 
valve gear. At 350 revs, per minute the power developed is 19*7 h.p. 



What is a Hackney Carriagre P 

A " Hackney Carriage " means any carriage standing or plying for 
hire, and includes any carriage let for hire by a coachmaker or other 
person whose trade or business it is to sell carriages or to let carriages 
for hire, provided that such carriage is not let for a period amounting 
to three months or more. 




^ — "Ijiru" Stbau SlOToai ft^ci^^o**^^^*^' 




J^o. 26.— Sabobikt's Steau WoToa. 



151 

Sarffeant'8 Steam Motor. 



// 



This {see Fig. 26) consists of a pair of vertical compound engines, 3f 
and 7i" x 5^" stroke. A piston valve is fitted to the H.P. cylinder, and an 
ordinary D slide to the L.P. cylinder. The cylinders are jacketted, and 
the tops and bolts are covered with aluminium covers. The cranks 
ave balanced and are of steel, as are the connecting rods, which are 
hollow. The link motion is of the Stevenson type, the links being 
solid slotted. The feedr is worked through reducing gear o£P a crank 
at one end of the shaft, and is a gunmetal construction. With a 
boiler pressure of steam of 250 lbs. per square inch, the engines run 
at 500 revs, per minute, and give off about 35 I.H.P. The weight of 
the engine as shown in the condition in the drawing is 600 lbs. with 
pumps. 

JOT'S VALVE QEAB. 

This gear is shown in Fig. 27, which represents the connecting and 
valve rods of a horizontal engine, the former being at the end of its 
stroke, and the latter, G, being practically at rest, but just about to 
make a sudden movement to the left, which constitutes the admission 
period of the ordinary steam cycle. To the connecting rod, at a 
point A, about one- third or so from the piston-rod end, is attached 
one end of the link B ; the other end being attached to the end of a 
simple vibrating link C, the end of which, C, swings on a fixed pin. 
The point path described by A is an ellipse, hence the path described 
by a point in the link B will be the resultant of the elliptical path 
due to Ay and the circular arc described by C ; the result is that the 
point D describes a peculiar flattened oval as shown (in dotted line). 
At 2) is attached the swinging lever link Ej which is f ulcrumed to a 
pin F; this pin is held in a slipper which moves in the curved slotted 
path Jy of radius equal to the slide-valve connecting rod Gy the end 
of this rod being joined to the link JS. The point 2> of the link JE, 
during a complete revolution of the crank describes, as stated, the 
flattened oval as shown ; the other end of My viz., that connected to 
G, describes, as the fulcrum slides up and down the curved slot J, a 
vertical ellipse. The proportions of the links are so chosen that the 
lesser diameter of this ellipse is equal to twice (lap + lead). As 
shown, the curved slot is in a position at right-angles to the axis of 
the cylinder, this gives the mid-gear position. If now the curved 
slot, which is also f ulcrumed at Fy be inclined, the ellipse described by 
the end of rod Gy where it joins link JSy will be inclined ; hence, by 
inclining this slot in either direction, direct and reverse motion is 
obtained With this gear the ** lap " and ** lead " are constant, but 
the admission is regulated by the position of the curved slot. 

The point F represents the centre of oscillation for th.e links, -^jjcl^ 
the centre or fulcrum of the lever. 



152 




5 

H 

m 
O 



6 

M 

CE4 



153 



IKTEBNAL COMBUSTION MOTOlEtS. 

(Including those using Kerosine, Mineral Spirit, 7.0., Petrol, and 

Coal Gas.) 

The Beau de Boohas or Otto Cycle. 

Outstroke of piston — Draws in air and gas or oil vapour. 

Instroke of piston — Compresses this charge. 

Outstroke of piston — Ignition and explosion of charge. 

Instroke of piston — Scavenger stroke, i.e., products of comhustion 
driven out. 

Thus the cycle comprises two revolutions, during which there is 
but one impulse given to the piston. In a steam engine there are 
two impulses every revolution. 

To find indicated horse -power : — 

L = Length of stroke in feet. 

= Area of piston in square inches. 

= Number of explosions per minute. 

= Mean pressure in lbs. per square inch on piston. 

'^' ^ 83,000 

Brake Horse-power Tests. 

Let .S ^ Menn spring balance reading, in lbs. 

W = Total weight hanging upon the brake, in lbs. 
B. = Effective radius of brake wheel, in feet, — 

= Badius of wheel + Badius of rope. 
N. = Bevolutions per minute. 
Then 

B.H.P. = (W - S) ?JLA^ 
^ ' 33,000 

Composition of Gas obtained from Petroleum. 



A 

N 



No. of cubic ft. per gallon 

Hydrogen 

Methane 

Ethane 

Olefines 

Carbon Monoxide 

Carbon Dioxide 

Oxygen 

Nitrogen 



American. 
72 



Russian. 
104 




26-0 

41-6 

12-5 

14 1 

3-3 

1-7 

0-8 

nil. 




100-0 



100-0 







1 


1 -if' 


1 


i 1 




-,i7"ii!u> J«i 


|s s a i 
i is i i 


1 


8 § 

ie is 




u( iiiitniiuenp ass) 




H 'j«!i«ll 


111 


Hi! 




S 1 

5?| 


■JTi 1 s!| : : : 


? 


s s t 




■mo^ 


ill ! ■ ■ 


? 


! T 




■5p! 


■joon 


s 


1 ; 

Jl_il 




- 


=1 






1 






: 


s g 




a.«BidlBD3 


iis 3 s s 




.uu»,ud 


«s .IS 


• 

s 

■i 
1= 


i- 1 

11 




Is ■.™ 


da 3 s 2 
.-a i- ."" - 

!lPi 


/ 




Is 

Ji 



Fie. 




-Sectional Elevation Boots Eebosimb Oil Motob. 



A is.lbe cylinder, B piBtoii, C crank, D balance weigbta, E taper 
on shaft to enable Uper brasses to take up slank, F small toothed 
wheel, O toothed wheel, having twice the number of t«eth of wheel 
J, H eccentric cast with wheel S, J" reciprocating rod carrying a 
rocking wdght goyernor on the pin J for opening the eibaust reive 
K. The pin £" operates the lever which reciprocates the usual oil- 
feed spindle of the Koota oil engines. L is the admission valve 
opening directly into the vaporiser. M ii the cw>\ii% t»ijusa£ia^*OaK 



156 

air-lieater and vaporiser, haying at its centre the ignition tube 
N of nickel alloy or of platinum. The engine is started with a 
burner, which is then put out, and the heat is maintained bj 
an automatic burner, a portion of which shows at O. A second 
groove is out on the oil-feed spindle, the oil from which is swept 
off by an air blast supplied by the closed crank-pit, the air and 
oil being mixed and vaporised in the pipe O, and directed upon the 
ignition tube N. P is the water jacket. 

Tolch's DCarine Kerosine Oil Engine. — Type A. 



Actual 
orBr ake 
Horse- 
Power. 



Revolu- 
tions per 
Minute. 



Overall Dimensions. 



Length. 



Width. 



Height. 



Weight 
Complete. 

Net. 



SiNOLB CXLINDEB. 







ms. 


ms. 


ms. 


cwts. 


1 


360 


29 


23 


37 


64 


2 


360 


31 


23 


40 


8 


3 


350 


33 


25 


43 


9i 


4 


320 


40 


28 


48 


12i 


5 


290 


44 


31 


54 


15 


6 


270 


49 


33 


61 


16 


8 


260 


53 


40 


65 


24 


10 


250 


57 


43 


69 


27 


15 


230 


65 


47 


80 


42 



DouBLB Cylinder. 



6 


350 


47 


25 


44 


13i 


8 


320 


49 


28 


48 


21 


10 


290 


52 


31 


53 


22^ 


15 


270 


55 


33 


59 


33i 


17 


260 


59 


40 


66 


441 


20 


250 


63 


43 


69 


52 


30 


240 


68 


47 


80 


63 


40 












50 












60 










• 



Name* on Vehiclea. — ^AU vehicles used in trade or husbandry 
must have the christian name and surname, and place of abode or 
place of business visibly and legibly painted in letters of not less 
th»D one inch in length. 



157 



Vosper'a Xeroaine Oil ICotom. 
Single Engines. 



Actnal Brake 


Approximate 


Approximate 


Approximate 


Approximate 


Howe-Power. 


Height. 


Breadth. 


Length. 


Weight. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


cwt. 


i 


2 


1 


1 


1* 


1 


2 6 


1 6 


1 9 


2f 


21 


2 9 


2 2 


2 2 


44 


3i 


3 2 


2 6 


2 8 


6 


5 


4 2 


3 2 


3 2 


10 


6 


4 6 


3 6 


3 6 


12 



Two-Ctlindeb Engines. 



Actual Brake 
Horse-Power. 


Approximate 
Height. 


Approximate 
Breadth. 


Approximate 
Length. 


Weight of 
Engine. 


6 

9 

10 


ft, in. 
4 

4 10 

5 


ft. in. 

2 6 

3 
3 6 


ft. in. 

2 9 

3 6 

4 


cwt. 
11 
16 
18 



Foub-Cylindeb Engines. 











Weight of 


Actnal Brake 
Horse-Power. 


Height. 


Breadth. 


Length. 


Engine, Inters 
mediate Shaft, 
and Stem Tube. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


cwt. 


12 


3 8 


4 2 


3 8 


25 


14 


3 9 


4 3 


3 9 


27 


16 


4 


4 7 


4 


35 


20 


5 6 


6 2 


5 6 


50 



(These engines are arranged that one cylinder can be shut off to 
work the engine at f -speed. This type of engine, taking up yery 
little room, is particularly adapted for auxiliary bQQ.t&«x!L^^^kf^Qi^K»>^ 



158 



Particulars of Ijaunclies. 




Length and Beam. 


B.H.P. 


Speed. 


Total Weight 
in Cwts. 


ft. in. ft. in. 








12 X 4 


1 


5i 


n 


14 X 4 


1 


5i 


8 


16 X 4 6 * 


2i 


6 


lOi 


18 X 4 9 


3i 


6i 


16i 


20 X 5 


3i 


7i 


m 


22 X 6 


3i 


6i 


18 


26 X 5 6 


5 


8 


24 


30 X 6 10 


6 


7i 


40 


35 X 7 


6 


7 


50 


40 X 7 4 


9 


7i 


70 


40 X 7 


12 


8 


10 


50 X 8 


16 9 


120 



(Vospee). 

Particulars of Priestman's Oil ICotors suitable for Car or 

ICariue purposes. 
N.B. — These motors use heavy or ordinary petroleum, and are fitted 
either with flame or electric ignition. 





Size of Engine, Brake H.P. 




2 


8 15 


Revolutions per minute 


350 


260 


250 


Diameter of disc 


1ft. 8 in. 


2 of 2 ft. 


2 of 2 ft. 7 in. 


r Length 


3 ft. 3iin. 


4 ft. 3i in. 


5 ft. 10 in. 


Overall Dimensions •< Breadth 


3 ft. in. 


3 ft. 2 in. 


4 ft. in. 


[ Depth 


3 ft. 10 in. 


5 ft. 1 in. , 5 ft. 11 in. 


Weight . . cwts. 


14 


29 


54 



These motors are made up to 75 and 90 B.H.P. for yachts, 
trawlers, &c. 

PETBOL. 
This liquid is one of the products obtained by the distillation of 

?etroleum, and forms one of the naphtha series of hydrocarbons. 
*etrol, known also as " Light Oil," *' Mineral Spirit," '* Moto-car 
Spirit," *' Moto-Essence," "Petroline," *' Moto-naphtha " is an exceed- 
ingly volatile and inflammable liquid, hence it readily evaporates, and 
an explosive mixture of air and petrol vapour is easily formed. It 
forms a clean, compact and very eflScient source of energy for 
internal combustion motors. The principal varieties of petrol are : — 

sp. gr. 
G^asoline . . . . . . . • . . . . 0*650 

Moto-car spirit .. .. .---.- .. .. 0'680 

Benzoline 0700 

Benzine , ., Cil^^ 



159 



Of these the moto-car spirit, 0*680 sp. gr., is the most suitable for 
use in motors, and a grade for this purpose, known as " Pratt's 
Moto-car Spirit," is specially prepared by the Anglo-American Oil 
Company. Benzoline is largely used for this purpose, but it is 
objectionable on account of the smell given off when the motor is 
not in perfect working order. With Pratt's moto-car spirit there is 
no smell, but its price is somewhat higher than that of benzoline. 
In the choice of a mineral spirit for use in a motor-yeliicle the state 
of the weather must not be disregarded. In summer or in dry 
weather benzoline may be used, but in winter or in damp weather, 
when the dry and wet bulbs of the thermometer are nearly alike, the 
purer spirit will bo found much more satisfactory. 

In using petrol, the regulations issued by the Home Office {vide 
Automotor Pocket Book, p. 37) should be carefully and intelligently 
followed. Should any difficulty be experienced in obtaining *' Petrol " 
or Moto-Car Spirit, communicate with Carless, Capel, & Leonard, or 
the nearest dep6t of the Anglo-American Oil Company respectively. 

Petrol Stores, Bepairers, and Storagre of ICoto- Vehicles. 

A full alphabetical list (names of towns) of these was published 
in the Automotoe Joubxal of November 15, 1898, occupying 
6^ pages. The following are the particulars and references given in 
this and the additional lists published in subsequent issues of the 

AUTOMOTOB JOUENAL : — 

References, 
(a) Moto-Car Spirit or Petrol; (b) Repairs, (c) Accommodation 
for storing Moto-veliicles. (d) Hold Moto-Car Spirit License; 
will stock when requested and as demand grows, (i) Iron- 
monger, (o) Oil merchant. (*) Authorised Agents of Messrs. 
Carless, Capel, & Leonard. 
The issue for November 15 and following numbers can be obtained 
from the publishers of this Pocket Book, price 7id, each, post free. 

Weigrhts of some typical French Petrol ICotors. 



Name of Maker. 



Horse- 
power. 



Rovs. 
per iiiin. 



Weight. 
Kilos. 



Dion efc Bouton 
Landry et Beyroux 

>> >» 

Panhard et Levassor 



If 
>» 
f> 

if 
>) 



>> 

>> 
ff 
>> 



u 

5 
10-12 
4 
6 
8 
12 
5-2 
8 

1<3 




« -„; 



-h5hV SXaj 


•■«l»|sHSi;!n s 


VBttBOJ-IiimiU 


"^!i!!Sips!:! : 


M-H t '(imnoi 


"il^SillSjbs i 


■p^imj-fiSDM 


-s;i£B;s|8;!ji : 


-»n.a » i[TU>iiJ 


"s?i!a!s|i:!-3 : 


■J Hit 

'pjBnniM-jE,iaiii.a 


"=lshh|is!ss i 


* --Si 


-=h!5!3|!sir: ; 


-Biafsijj. 


"■ili^SisP!!!! ! 


' 


■ ; • i ; ! : E : : : i i ih ! 

i i : M , i M I5I 1 i| i 

iiiiiiiiiit 
iiiiiiiiiiii 



161 

The Paris Singer Motor. 

The accompanying illustration is a sectional eleyation of a 
i B.H.P. tricycle motor. The working parts consist of piston, 
connecting rod and crank shaft. No valves are used. The cylinder, 
D, is of cast iron, h«ving radiating rings cast with it. There are two 
elongated port openings in its sides, one of which is the " suction," 
the other the " exhaust.'* 

These port openings are controlled by the rotary and reciprocating 
action of the piston, and its two round ports, one of which is shown 
atE. 

The body (or crank chamber), K, is in two halves, and is of 
aluminium. It contains tho two fly wheels, marked J, and can readily 
be taken apart for inspection. 

The fly wheels are coupled together by the crank pin, and form 
one complete shaft, on the side of one of the fly wheels, close around 
the end of crank pin, is fitted a scroll (or quick pitch) screw, which 
drives the tangent wheel fixed on the front portion of connecting 
rod H, and through which is conveyed the rotary action to the 
piston, the gear being so arranged as to perform the Otto cycle. 

The back portion of the connecting rod, I, acts as a stay and guide 
bearing for the front half to turn in, and also secures the crank pin 
brasses. 

The connecting rod is attached to the piston by a ball (or universal) 
joint, marked F. 

The electric ignition, marked A, and the relief cock (for use at 
starting), marked C, are attached or screwed into the cylinder cover B, 
which is of a hollow (or dished) shape, and is screwed into the 
mouth of the cylinder, and consequently can be removed at a 
moment's notice, for inspection, if desired. 

The combustion (or explosion) chamber is in the interior of the 
piston, instead of being surrounded by the walls of cylinder, as in 
other motors, thus protecting the cylinder bore from the effects of 
the heated products of combustion, as at no part of the stroke of the 
engine do they come in contact with the walls of the cylinder. 

The fuel of the motor is "gasolene," or "petrol," and flows by 
gravity to the cylinder, and is introduced into the air passage, close 
to the cylinder, where it is vaporised. 




Fia. aD.-l'iEia SiKGisa Motob (i B.H.P.). 



168 



The Paris Singrer Petroleum-Spirit ICotor. 





T% 1 


«,_„. 


Space Occapied by Engine. 


Weight of 


^*^®* ; H.P. ! Eev8. 

1 : 


Length, 
inches. 


Breadth, 
. inches. 


Height, 
inches. 


Engine, 
lbs. 


A 1 1 


960 


8.^ 


n 


18 


50 


C 2 

I 
1 


800 


20} 


Hi 


28 


142 


CO 


4 


800 


20i Hi 

1 


28 


230 , 


DD 


7k 


700 


27 


13 


34 


— 



Particulars of Daimler ICotor, as fitted in Boats. 




ffc. 
18 
21 
23 
25 
28 
31 
34 
38 
41 



ft. in. 

4 10 

5 8 



5 
5 
6 
6 
7 
7 



8 
8 



6 



8 



Dimensions of 
Motor. 



a 



s 



4a 

'3. 



O 

o 



o 



ft. in. 






in. 


1 8 


6 


1 


21 


1 10 


8 


2 


26 


1 10 


10 


2 


26 


2 


12 


3 


27 


2 2 


15 


3 


27 


2 6 


18 


4 


31 


2 8 


20 


6 


36 


2 10 


25 


8 


44 


3 


30 


10 


52 

1 



m. I in. 
15 36 
18 I 39 

18 39 

19 42 

19 ; 42 

20 , 44 
22 46 



24 
26 



48 
50 



cwts. 
2i 
3i 
3i 
3i 
3i 
4i 
6i 
8 

10 



cwts. 

f 

1 
1 

li 

li 
H 
If 

2\ 
3i 



o 



4> 



5i 

7 

7 

7i 

7i 

71 

8 

8i 

9 



Nefflifirence. 

Negligenqe is defined as " Absence of care according to the circum- 
fitances." In actions for damage, &c., plaintiif must give evidence of 
the negligence of the defendant, and the onus of dis^^ONrvc^^i, *'i«Ns^ 
rests upon the defendant. 




In this motor tlio vulreB am arranged so m to be co-incidiil in tlieir 
horizoDtal aicB, and are so constructed that it is a simple matter to 
ramoTe eithar valre or gain acoeas to the ignition contact breakei-, 
by breaking one joint only, which can be remade with but little 
difficulty. 

The ignition is effected in the following manner;— The Imlf-apeed 
shaft is continued throuih the orank-chamber casing, and carries 
a bush 01 eleere throughout ita entire length. On tbis bush is a 
second loose sleete, marked a, driven by a lug piece from the gear 
wheel fitting into the arcbimedean thread cut on the side of the 
■ISPTe, and free lo glide on the ley fitted on to the last-mentioned 
*//sA,- f/iM bush aho earrii's, on its outer estvemitj, the cam actuating 



165 

the rod connected to the contact-breaker on the cylinder head, and 
also the crank pin which, by means of a connecting rod, actuates 
a soft iron envelope of the magneto machine simultaneously 
with the time of the spark. By this arrangement the spark can be 
" timed," i.e., formed at any portion of the stroke of the piston and 
altered to any other point while the motor is running. This is done by 
.means of a lug piece projecting between the gear casing and moved by 
a small lever. As the bush a is drawn outwardly, the lug piece in 
the archimedean thread forces the cam at the extremity of the 
crank pin to take up a different position with regard to the crank, 
graduidly altering the time the spark takes place. By this means 
the speed of the motor can be nltered at will as it is running. 

The following are the principal dimensions of this motor : — 
Piameter of cylinders 70 m.m., stroke 78 m.m., clearance space 
1,346 '33 cu. cm., B.H.P. 14, at 900 revs, per minute. Bange of speetl 
300-1,200 revs, per minute. Weight of motor 42 lbs. Two fly- 
wheels 20 lbs. each. 



THE AUTOMOTOR 

AND 

Horseless Vehicle Journal. 

An Illustrated Record and Review of applied 
Automatic Locomotion. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY— PRICE 6d. 

Post free, 7id. ; Yearly, 78. to any part of the World, 



Proprietors and Publishers. 



F* KING & CO., LTD., 

62, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, LONDON, W.C. 




Fio, 31.— Lucas Cabbohatob. 



Tbia coneista of a cjliDdrical cbambei*, having a, conoection on its 
lower end to the cjlinder of the molor, and fitted with a epring- 
coiitrolled pietoa p, and Talre k; on tbe upper part la a, perforated 
corer n, upon which is a eliding cifculBr baSte-plato o; thus the 
holes in the cover oan be opened or closed to any desired extent for 
the admission of air. The upper central spin^e h is hollow, and. 
forms the feed-pipe «, for the spirit; at its upper end is a needle- 
Tilre i, operated either bj hand or by gearing from the motor. 
Williio Ibe cylinder ara a series of p!ates I, also perforated with 
tnmll holes, irliiie just below the piBton-Ta\^e \8 a fina «\to ^aure, q. 



167 

The action of the carburator is as follows : — Petrol spirit comes 
through the pipe a, and on opening the needle-Talre 6, flows down, 
in very minute drops, the central tube e, the quantity of spirit so 
admitted being regulated by the valve. The spirit cannot then 
enter the carburator, as the passage g is closed by the pointed 
liead of the spindle Tc, which is held up to its seat by the spring. The 
lower part of the carburator is in communication with the cylinder of 
the motor, and on the suction stroke of the latter the piston p of 
the carburator is sucked down with its spindle and opens valve ICy 
the spirit runs through the passages w, and falls upon the per- 
forated plates I. At the same time air rushes into the partial 
vacuum in the chamber through the ports «, and through the per- 
forated plates ly and hence becomes intimately mixed with the 
spirit. This explosive mixture of air and spirit passes or is sucked 
through g', and tlience to the cylinder of the motor, where on ignition 
an explosion ensues, the pressure thus generated depending upon the 
proportions of air and spirit in the mixture. These can be regulated 
to any desired degree. 



NuisazLce. 

A private person cannot maintain an action for nuisance unless he 
suffers personal wrong or inconvenience over and above that caused 
1o the public at large. The smoke, steam, noise, and speed of light 
locomotives, may be regarded as nuisances ; so i|iay the fcecal 
evacuation of horses. 



•»i 



A nuisance is either public or private ; and is generally an unlaw- 
ful act or omission to discharge a legal duty such as endangers the 
lives, safety, health, property, or comfort of the public, or by which 
the public are obstructed in the exercise or enjoyment of any right 
common to all Her Majesty's subjects. 



What is a Carriage P 

Carriage means and includes any carriage (except a hackney 
carriage) drawn by a horse or mule, or horses or mules, or drawn or 
propelled upon a road or tramway, or elsewhere than upon a 
railway, by steam or electricity or any other mechanical power; but 
shaU not include a waggon, cart, or other such vehicle which is- 
constructed or adapted for use, and is used solely for the conveyance 
of any goods or burden in the course of trade or husbandry. — 
(Sub-sec. 3, sec. 4, Customs and Inland "Re^ewxx^ KfcV^^SS8>^y 



\ 




Caububatqk. 



This is of the float va\\e Ijpo. A chamber (seen on tlio left) lias 
a Boat to whioh is attached a spindle forming a, tioedle Talve. Spirit 
enters this cbnmber tlirougli the needle tuIvo. and floirs either b; 
purity or air pressure into the vertical pipe (seen on the right) ; 
this pipe is in comrounicalion with an air pipe, ocd is fo eonatnicted 
that, on the suction stroke of the motor, an intimate mixture of spirit 
and air is formed which goes in the usual way to the ojlinder, and t> 
there exploded. Bj means of the needle and air valres the praporliona 
of spirit and air can be regulateA at nilt. 



169 



The Agricultural Society.'s Trials of Motor Vehicles, held at 

Birxuinffhaxn, June, 1898. 

General Dimensions of the Competing Vehicles. 





1 

The Daimler 

Motor 

Companf, 

Article 4930. 

10' X 5' 


The 
Lancashire 


The Carriage 
and Wagon 




Motor 

Company, 

Article 4936. 

18r' X 6i" 


Company, 

Chiswick, 

Article 4938. 


Overall diraen sions of vehicle 


16' X er 


Inside dimensions of van . . 


44' X 5' 


i2r X 51" 


9i' X 6V 


Diameter of wheels, front . . 


2'G" 


3' ir 


2^9" 


„ „ back .. 


2' 3" 


3' ir 


3' 3" 


Tyres 


2V' solid 


4" a.nd 5" 


4i" ii-on 




rubber 


iron 




Length of wheel base 


69i" 


121" 


87" 


Katio of gearing between 


8-8, 12-6, 18, 


8, 13i, and 


8 to 1 


engine and road wheels . . 


and 35 to 1 


28tol 




Type of engine 


2 -cylinder 


Compound 


Compound 




vertical. 


vertical, 


vertical. 




4 H.P. 


14 B.H.P. 




Size of engine cylinders 


31" X Gi" 


3" & 5" X 6" 


4"&7"x5" 


Kevs. of engine at full speed 


700 


500 


500 


Type of boUer 


— — 


Vertical 
tubular 


Water-tube. 


Heating surface of boiler . . 


— 


110 sq. ft. 


65 sq. ft. 


Working pressure per sq. in. 


— 


200 lbs. 


175 lbs. 


Water-tank capacity 


15 galls. 


46 galls. 


60 galls. 


Condenser .. 


!None 


Air surface 


Air surface. 


Fuel 


Benzol ine 


Eussian 


Newcastle 






petroleum 


coal. 


Capacity of oil tank 


7 galls. 


20 galls. 




„ of coal bunker . . 


— 




2 cwt. 


Weight of vehicle empty . . 


1-162 tons 


2'86 tons 


300 tons. 



Consuznption of Fuel and Cost of Bunningr. 

The following table gives the data of the amount of fuel used, the 
amount of water used, and the calculated cost of running. Benzoline 
is taken to cost *7\d» a gallon ; lamp oil, such as was used h^ ti\«> 
Lancashire car, 4|rf. per gallon; coal, 20s. tttox^.. 



170 



Consumption of Fuel and Water. 



Daimler. 



Lancashire. Chiswick. 



/Short Course. 
Total weight of car and load 
Coal used 
Bnming-oil used 
Water used 
Cost of fuel for journey 

per mile . . 

per ton per mile 

per ton of cargo per 
mile , , 






>> 
ft 



rV 



Long Course. 
Total weight of car and load 
Coal used 

Buming-oil used « . 

Water used 
Cost of fuel for journey 

per mile . . 

per ton per mile 

per ton of cargo per 
mile 



>> 






tons I 
cwts. ' 
galls. I 

pence 
>> 

j> 

it 



tons 
cwts. 

galls. 

» 
pence 

)) 
it 

>} 



2-43 

0-63 

None 

4,-7 

0-355 

0-146 

0-366 



2-49 

2'8l 

13 

21-1 
0-45 
0-18 

0-465 



6-45 

7-50 

45 

35-6 
2-69 
0-416 

0-873 



6-54 

23-5 

165 

111-6 
2-38 
0-36 

0-774 



6-82 
1-37 

50 

16-4 
1-24 
0-181 



0-415 • 



6-88 
7-5 

193 
90 
2-10 
0-30 

0-704 



Coefficient of Performance. 



Kockoned on gross running time- 
Short course . . 
Long course ,, 

Reckoned on net running time — 
Short course . . . . • , 

Tiong course 



Ton-miles of Cargo per Hour. 



Daimler. I Leyland. ' ChisWiek. 



9-30 
8-12 


15-81 • 
17-62 


17-40 
12-70 


9-30 
8-12 


17-74 
20-38 


19 -93 
18-92 



1'71 



Effective fforses* Power Exerted. 



Total weight • • • . . . tons 
Coefficient of friction . . 
Eesistance on level . . , . lbs. 
Net mean speed. . miles per hour 

Net mean speed. . . . ft. per sec. 
Eflfective H.P. on level 
Eesistance due to gradient . . lbs. 
Total resistance on gradient . . „ 
Assumed speed on gradient ft. per sec. 
Effective H.P. on gradient 



Daimler. 
2-49 


' Leyland. 


Chlflwick. 


6-54 ' 


6-88 


44 


■JJT" 


1 


126-8 


542-6 


497-2 


7-82 


6-48 


6-20 


11-47 


9-50 


9-09 


2-64 


9-38 


8-20 


464-8 


1221 -0 


1284-0 


591 G 


1763 -6 


1781 -2 


5-73 


4-75 


4*64 


, 6-16 

1 


15-23 


14-72 



Continental Trials of some FetroleunL* and Steam Motors. 

CoMPAEATiVE trials have recently been made at the Brussels Exhi-- 
bition and at Tervueren as to the working and cost of fuel of light- 
weight petroleum and steam motors. La Nature gives an account 
of this, according to the data furnished by Mr. Max Bingelmann, in 
Le Journal d' Agriculture Pratique. The competition included 
petroleum motors, semi-portable, of 4 to 6 H.P., and automotors of 
8 to 10 H.P. 

The Nagel and Hermann motors, of Brussels ; the Capitaine motor, 
of Frankfort ; and the Soci^te Fran9aise de Materiel Agricole, were 
amongst the first class of motors. 

The Nagel and Hermann motor, set in motion in 9 minutes, fur- 
nishes a force of 4 H.P. at 288 revs, per minute, and consumes 
4-66 lbs. petroleum per hour, of which 0'386 lb. are for the lamp, or 
1*139 lbs. per H.P. per hour. 

The Capitaine takes 7 minutes to be set in motion, and furnishes 
a force of 4 H.P. at 334 revs, per minute, with a total consumption 
of 4*7828 lbs. petroleum, or 1*194 lbs. per H.P. per hour. 

The Societe Fran(jaise de Materiel Agricole motor takes 12J- 
minutes, and two men, to be set in motion ; at 354 revs, per minute 
it furnishes a force of 4 H.P. with a total consumption per hour of 
4'448 lbs. petroleum, or 1*44 lbs. per H.P. per hour. 

The weights of these three motors are respectively 2,310, 1,386) 
and 1,760 lbs., and their price varies from 2,50K) to 2,275 francs. 

The locomotives of 8 to 10 H.P. belonged to Messrs. Swiderski, 
Hille, and La Societe Fran9aise de Materiel Agricole. 



Ordinary burning- petroleum, sp. g. abo\x\. Q*^ axviL^'wit&xv^'oX'^&ivsvaN.X'?^^ 



S»^. 



172 

The Swidcrski motor, at 274 revs, per minute, furnishes a force 
of 8 H.F. vrith a total consumption of 8*518 lbs. of petroleum per 
hour, or 1*0648 lbs. per H.P. per hour, and was set in motion 
in lOi minutes by two men. Its weight is 5,390 lbs., and price 
5^0 francs. 

The Societe Fran9aise motor was set in motion in 5 minutes by 
one man ; at 219 revs, per minute it developed 8 H.P., and consumed 
7*559 lbs. of petroleum, or 0*945 lb. per H.P. hour. Its price is 
5,400 francs, and weight 9,600 lbs. 

The Hille motor can be set in motion by one man in 11^ minutes. 
At 240 revs, per minute it develops 8 H.P., and consumes 10*1398 lbs. 
per hour, or 1*2675 lbs. per H.P. hour. Its weight is 9,350 lbs., and 
cost 7,000 francs. 

The steam automotor section comprises motors of 4 to 6 H.P., 
made by MM. Lefebre-Albaret, Laursedat, et Cie., and M. A. E>aze, 
and also motors of 8 to 10 H.P. by the former firm. 

As regards the former, these give off 5 H.P. at 140 revs, per 
minute, and consume 24*64 lbs. of coal and 303*6 lbs. of water per 
hour, or 4*93 lbs. of coal and 607 lbs. of water per H.P. hour. The 
weights vary from 7,040 lbs. to 7,480 lbs., and the cost is about 
5,000 francs. 

The Baze motor gives off 5 H.P. effective (brake) at 154 revs, per 
minute, and consumes 28*6 lbs. of coal and 131 lbs. water, or 5*7 lbs. 
of coal and 26 lbs. water per H.P. hour. The weight is about 
7,480 lbs., and cost 5,000 francs. 

Motors of 8 to 10 H.P. give an effective power of 8 H.P., and 
consume per hour 44 lbs. coal and 442 lbs. water, or 5:5 lbs. coal 
and 55*2 lbs. of water per H.P. hour. They weigh about 9,790 lbs., 
and cost 6,650 francs. 

These trials are interesting, as they show the practical value of the 
two systems — petroleum and steam — side by side. It may be con- 
cluded that petroleum motors of 4 to 6 H.P. consume from 1*1 to 
1*3 lbs. of petroleum per H.P. hour, while those of 8 to 10 H.P. 
consume from 0*88 to I'l lbs. of oil per H.P. hour. Steam motors 
of 4 to 10 H.P. consume from 4*4 to 5*5 lbs. coal, and from 55 to 
66 lbs. of water. 

It is also to be noted that, whereas petroleum motors only require 
a few minutes to set in motion, steam motors require often an hour. 



173 
ELECTRICITY. 

Electrical Formulse. 

Let C = Current in amperes. 

E = ElectromotiTe force in volts. 
B = Resistance in ohms. 
Q. = Quantity in coulombs. 
W = Work in foot-pounds. 



Then— 



HP =r^ - 



C2 R EC E^ 



746 ~ 746 " 746R 
W = 0-737 E Q. 

n -\ - A /746 H.P. _ 746 H.P. 
^ - R - V — K E 

746 HP. W 

K = C R = — ^- = ^H.i>.746^ = 737Q 

_ JE^ __ 746 H.P. W 

^ ~ C "^ C- "746 HTP. 

W 
^ " -737 E 

If L be the length of a circuit in feet, out and in, and A the 

L . 8*4 
sectional area in square inches, then R at60°F =« . x r-- 



A 1,000,000 

If the E.M.F. drops from E to e volts, and the current from C to c? 
amperes in flowing from dynamo or battery to motor, and if W is the 
work put into the djnamo or battery and w that received by motor 

w e C— r 
then efficiency of circuit = ^V" = i^" = ~c~ 



To Calculate the Induction Factob (M) of a Motor : — 

Let A = Number of conductors on surface of armature. 

N .— Number of lines of force = number of lines of 
force per square centimetre, multiplied by area of 
pole piece. 
'p — Number of polar divisions of armature connected io 

series ; for ordinary 2-pole machines, j9 = 1. 
M = The induction factor, then — 

M =-i? ANlO-8 



174 

To calculate the tension or E.M.F. between the brushes : — 
Using the previous notation, and let N be the revolutions per 
second of the armature, and E the electromotive force or 
pressure in volts, then — , 

E = A»N10-8 

If jp be the number of polar divisions of the armature connected 
in series, — 

E = j9 A « N 10 8 
or knowing M — 

E = M» 

To calculate the torque or twisting moment on the armature 
shaft — 

Let t = The torque. 

C = The current in amperes. 

M =* The induction factor; then — 

t = 1-41 C M 

To calculate the tractive force or draw-bar pull T : — 
Using the previous notation, and — ^ 
Let d = Diameter of driving wheel. 

« = The velocity ratio between armature and driving 

wheel. 
"E — The mechanical efficiency of the gear (usually taken 
at about 80 to 85 %), then— 

J 

T = t^ . B 

2 

(Cakus Wilson.) 

Working: Dynamos and Motors. 

Belting. — Where practicable, the drive should be arranged so that 
the under side of the belt is the tight or driving side. A flexible belt 
should always be used. Leather-linked belting, arched on the face 
next the pulleys and flat on the outside, is \^ery suitable. Such a 
belt should not be taken off after working. 

Single belting with double edges makes a good cheap belt for ordinary 
use, and may be jointed with a butt joint, secured by belt fasteners. 

If an ordinary single belt is used, it should be straight and of good 
quahty. It should be jointed with a laced butt joint, \mtil it has 
stretched, and then a proper spliced and cemented joint made. 

A dynamo belt must run evenly. A belt which lashes either up 
and down, or from side to side, should not be tolerated. 

Steadiness, — It is important {a) that the machine be firmly fixed to 
a good foundation. If supported on solid joists (either timber or 
jroa), a machine may be run successfully on an upper floor, (b) That 




175 

no Tibration be set up in the armature and spindle by a lashing belt. 
The machine will spark and the brushes and commutators wear 
unduly if there is vibration. 

Commutator and Brushes. — These will always repay careful 
attention. If the brushes are left to wear unequally, and the 
commutator is not cleaned, the machine will soon commence to spark 
badly, and both brushes and commutator will wear rapidly. If, 
however, these parts are attended to in accordance with the following 
instructions, the wear and tear will be very small. 

The commutator is built up of a number of segments of copper, 
insulated from each other by thin plates of mica; the ends of the 
plates are turned to a cone, and are held by strong plates turned to 
fit the cone, and bearing tightly upon it by nuts threaded on a bush 
which carries the whole and takes the spindle. 

The bush is driven by a feather let into the spindle, and the 
copper plates are insulated from the end plates by means of coned 
insulating washers of mica, and other insulators. 

The ends of the armature coils are soldered into the copper segments. 

The commutator is built so that it may be disconnected from the 
armature and replaced in small machines by unsoldering these 
connections and loosening two set-screws. 

The brushes bear upon the smooth surface of the copper segments, 
which are turned to a true cylinder. 

Adjustment of Brushes. — The brushes must be set truly on a 
diameter, so that the point of one is diametrically opposite the point 
of the other. As they wear they must be advanced to maintain the 
same distance, and consequently to bear at the same angle on the 
surface of the commutator. 

They must be advanced frequently, even though the wear may be 
very small, otherwise the brush will not bed properly on the surfaces 
of the commutator when advanced. 

Each brush must always bed equally well at the point, or toe, and at 
the heel. If brushes are allowed to wear too much before advancing 
(but this should not be), they must be taken out and filed to fit truly. 

In filing a brush, clamp it firmly, and file by taking long strokes 
with a file always in one direction. If it is the toe that requires 
filing, after filing to fit, take off the sharp edge, leaving the toe 
always ^ inch thick. 

One brush often wears faster than its fellow (or fellows), and must 
be set up accordingly. Moreover, sometimes a whole set of brushes 
on one side of the commutator will wear faster than those on the 
other side, and this must be allowed for, or the brushes will cease to be 
on a diameter, and sparking and flatting of the commutator may result. 

Flats, — The most fruitful source of the formation of little " flats " 
upon the surface of the commutator is \^e brushes being out of 
adjustment. Another cause is vibration of the bruahea^dwa '«^^\ssaax'^ 



176 

to vibration of the macliine, owing to improper foundations or a 
badly- jointed belt. The flats are sometimes caused by the pressure 
of the brushes being reduced to too low a limit. 

Pressure.— It is well to have the pressure as light as possible, so 
long as no sparking and no vibration takes place at the brushes. 

Oiling and Cleaning the Commutator. — LTse a little good mineral 
oil or vaseline, applied with a piece of rag. Do not on any account 
apply oil with a feeder, or on a piece of waste. 

A commutator well looked after will acquire in time a dark- 
coloured, smooth polish. When this takes place run a piece of 
No. O O emery cloth on the commutator occasionally before starting 
to work. 

In flour-mills and dusty places it is necessary to clean the commu- 
tator with a little benzoline every day before starting, or, if run 
continuously, during the run, taking care not to drench the 
commutator; also to apply emery cloth about once a week as just 
directed. 

Oiling the hearings. — Adjust the sight'feed lubricator to give 
about 3 to 10 drops per minute. The amount required varies with 
the quality of the oil used and the load on the machine. If the 
machine has been standing, give it a few extra drops before starting. 

Good castor-oil is the best lubricant. It is well to use an oil 
feeder made entirely of copper. Keep the machine clean — free from 
copper du3t and waste oil. 

Should the commutator wear out of truth or become very uneven 
(scored), take out the armature and turn up the commutator in a 
lathe, being careful to use a fine-pointed tool and not to take heavy 
cuts ; afterwards polish with emery cloth. If the commutator should 
be only scored, it may be dressed in the machine with coarse, and 
afterwards fine, ornery cloth, finishing with No. O. Slight " ringing '* 
does not matter. 



TESTING SECONDARY CELLS. 

If C is the discharge current in amperes, T the time of discharge 
in hours, then — 

C» T ;= A constant, 

where the exponent » has usually some value between 1*35 and 1*5. 

If K denotes the capacity of the cell for a discharge current C and 
time of discharge T, the capacity K for some other discharge 
current C and time of discharge t will be given by — 

>i- = K r^"^ " - •• 



(f)" 



Tftble KlvluK Sizes, Areas, CaTrylng: Oapaelty at 1,000 AmpirsB 
per Ehiuare Inch, and Besiataaoe In Ohnui per Statute Uile 
of Sleetric Oabtea. 

TilLtlcHLABa at COSDDCTOIS. 




178 



THE *«LTTNDELL" CONTINUOUS CUBBBNT MOTOBS. 



Brake 

Horse 

Power. 


Anipdres i 

at 
115 Volts. 


Voltage. 


Approxi- 
mate 
Speed. 

1 


Pulley. 


Weight 


Diameter. 


Face. 


in lbs. 


i 


2-2 


115, 230 


1,700 


2i" 


U" 


40 


i 


4-3 


115, 230 


1,500 


3i" 


2" 


75 


1 


8-7 


115, 230 


1,300 


4V' 


2f" 


135 


2 


' 16-7 


115, 230, 500 


1,150 


6" 


-Si" 


210 


3 


23-9 




1,150 


6" 


31" 




4 


32 




1,200 


7" 


3|" 




6 


39-4 




1,100 


H" 


4f' 




n 


57-8 




1,050 


9" 


5" 




10 


76-1 




],000 


11" 


6" 




15 


118-7 




850 


13" 


Gh" 


• • 


20 


145-2 




800 


15" 


7" 




25 


179-5 




750 


17" 


8" 





THE FULMEN ACCUMULATOB. 



Traction Type. 



Average 
rate of 
charge. 



] 



Normal 
rate of 

dis- 
charge. 



1 Capacity 
jat Normal 
I rate. 



External Dimensions. 



Length. 



Width. 



Amperes. 



Amp6res.:Amp.lIrs.' Inches. 



Inches. 



Height 
over all. 



Inches. 



Bll .. 


9 


17 


85 


B 13 . . 


10 


20 


, 100 


B15 c. 


12 


23 


' 115 


B 17 . . 


14 


27 


; 135 


B19 .. 


16 


30 


150 


B21 .. 


17 


33 

1 


165 

1 



3^ 


4 


4^ 


>} 


5 


ri 


5f 


»> 


' 6i 


>♦ 


. 7 


a 1 



llf 



» 
>J 
it 
>> 



Approxi- 
mate 

weight of 
cell 

complete. 



lbs. 



15 

18 

20i 

23 

26 

28i 



These cells are stated to bo capable of standing four times the 
normal discharge for heavy inclines. The makers have found by 
experience that the most economical way to charge these cells is by 
constant E.M.F. (110 volts for a battery- of 44 cells). 



fi 


— 


-1 


-I 

"a. 


?s 


■iini>a 


V 


Zi 


■SS 


■U.P!« 


b 


Zs 


. 


-qiilaa 


i 


k?. 


-s 


■>L.P1M 


i. 




T 


■s 


ss 


^ 


SS 


■'A 
If 

w 

i 


■S*.^.!"!" W 


s 


■ijjf dum 01 


s 


.«^u.»OE 


i' 




i 1 


5 
1 


s 

if- 


— 


^ 


if 







___• 





180 



THE LITHANODE CELL. 
Data of 30 Ampeee Houe Batteey. 



1 

1 

No. of ' 
cells. 


Outside dimensions of 
battery. 


Open E.M.F. 
of battery. 


Approximate 
gross weight 


Length. 

ins. 


Width, 
ins. 


Height, 
ins. 


of battery. 




volts. 


lbs. 


1 


3-75 


7-00 


6-37 


2 


8i 


2 


5 12 


7-00 


6-37 


4 


16 


3 


7-27 


7-37 


7-00 


6 


22i 


4 


9-50 


7-37 


7-00 


8 


29 


5 


11-60 


7-37 


7 00 


10 


36 


G 


13 -75 


7-37 


7-00 


12 


43 


7 


15-78 


, 7-37 


7 00 


14 


50 


8 


18-00 


7*37 


7-00 


16 


56i 


9 


20 12 


! 7 -37 


7-00 


18 


63i 


10 


22-24 


i 7-37 


7-00 


20 


701 


11 


24-36 


7-37 


1 7 00 


22 


77f 


12 


26-50 


7-37 


7-00 


24 


84i 



Particulars of Cell. 

6 '25 inches long. 
2 -12 „ wide. 
5 -25 „ high, 
weight, 10 ozs. 

Two plates in each cell, 5 '9 inches long. 

3 -9 „ wide. 
-25 inch thick, 
weight, 1 lb. li ozs. 
"Three plates in each cell, 5 -9 inches long. 

3 -9 „ wide. 
-13 inch thick, 
weight, Hi ozs. 
Weight of connectors, 3 ozs. 

Weight of cover, vent plug, sealing, and separators, 2 ozs.. 
Quantity of electrolyte, 15 -5 fluid ozs. 
Gross weight of complete cell, 6 lbs. 7 ozs. 
iNTormal charging rate, 3 amperes. 
Normal discharging rate, 3 to 4 amperes. 
Maximum safe discharging rate, 9 to 12 amperes. 
Approximate internal resistance, 0*015 ohm. 



Vulcanite containing 
cell 



Positive element 



Negative element 



It 




mmm 


H 


3"»'°'~i-»2 


a 


fii 


sssijsssag 


J 


— ^— 


IS3332S3S 


Hi 
1 


1=1 



a 
f 


aasisssS 


ifeysssk^r 


|.i.i.!.-^-V 5. 


SFll 

H 

1 

i 
i 


sasssssB 



3 = 8 . ^ s 
g „ 2 5.S? * £ 



S lllil^ 






- I 



3 1s.1|S.|.f 



182 



THE ELIESON LABIINA ACCUMULATOR Co;, Ltd. 



"C" TYPE, in Ebonite Boxe^.^ 



(For Motor Cars.) 



No. of 
plates. 



Kates of 
Working. 




Approximate 

Capacity in 

amp. hrs. 



ad 






•3 03 



7 


15-25 


20 


100 


120 


9 


25-35 


30 


130 

1 


160 



Approximate 




O 


dimensions 




5 . 




overall. 




^<3 




• 










5 




be 




£3 
01 


^ 




a> 


^ 


*A 


» 


n 




in. 


in. 




in. 


f 

lbs. 


7 


4 




13 


27 


i 


51 




13 


35 



"T/B" TYPE, in Ebonite Boxes. 

These cells are specially made for tramcar and heavy traction 
work. 



No. of 


Bates of 
Working. 


1 
Approximate 
Capacity in 
amp. hrs. 

- 


Approximate 

dimensions 

overall, 

- 


9y< 


plates. 


1 

Charge 
in amps. 


Discharge 
in amps. 




43 

1-1 q> 

Sits 


• 


• 

1 

n 


• 

% 


^^ XI 

1 


5 

7 


25-35 
35-45 
45-60 


30 
40 
50 


180 
260 
360 


220 
320 
450 


in. 
lOi 
10^ 
lOi 


in. 
6 


in. 
13 
13 
13 


lbs. 
40 
56 
72 



The following method is that adopted bj Mr. Carl Oppermann in 
his electro-motor yeliicles. There are tiro batteries, each conluuillg 
21 elements, the Kverttge diecbarge being 26 umpires at 84 -rolt*. 



Fig. 1. — Slow ahead, Battebies in paballbl, F. M. Coilb 




184 



Fig. 2. — HALr-SPEED ah.ead, Batteries and F. M. Coils 



IN series. 





•o <i 8 




-^ LJ LJ 4 




6 S <) 3 ft 



■t' 



Fi&. 3.— FuLL-apEKD AueiD, Batteuiks iw BEBiBS, f. M. Coils 



^- 



LJ tJ -LA.. 



-llh^i 




THE CABSAS CELL. 

Tills is iiianuFuctiti^ by the General Electric Couipaii} , wlio state 
tliat it is eminentl; suitable for spnrk ignition in moto-tricjcle*. 
It is claimed for the cell that it has a low internal resEstance and 
high, output nliEcb ia gteodilj maintained. The electrolyte ii 
"Salectron,"or salammoniae. In Hie largest aiia of cell, 8i" x 5", 
Ha initial current is 14ampSres and tiie internal resistance -12 ohm. 



18; 



a 



JOEL»' PATENT ELECTRIC MOTORS. 



The National Motoe Cabriagk Syndicate, Ltj)., 37, Walbeook, 

London, E.G. 



Type. I B.H.P. 



« I ■ Weight 
Tj ^ * of ! Electrical 

__-_f_ Motor. ! efficiency. I 
lbs. 



minute. 



Reirarks. 



JM- 
JM« 



2 

4 



600 
600 



112 

loO 



90^0 
90«/, 



' These motors will 
run at 1/4, 1 .'2, or 
full speed of 
600 as required 
for carriages, 
and are made to 
give 50 per cent, 
more B.H.P. for 
short periods, 
and Avill give 
100 per cent, 
more power if 
pressed. 



ELECTRIC MOTORS. 



Efficiencies of Electric Tramway System. 



Steam engines • • 

Mechanical efficiencr of djnamos. 

Overhead line and feeders.. 

Motors, including gear 

Single reduction gear 

Accumulators in central stations . 

Rotary transformers. . 

Stationary alternating-current transformers 

Return circuit 



Per 


Per 


cent 


. cent. 


70 to 95 


80 


„ 95 


85 


„ 95 


70 


„ 85 


90 


„ 95 


70 


„ 86 


90 


„ 96 


94 


„97 


1 


o 


~5' 


„ ^ 




^K^^«5rSs^ 



188 



PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS. 

BY 

R, H ADD AN, of the firm of Serhert Haddan ^ Co. 



Patents for Inventions are grants from the Crown to inventors, by 
virtue of wbicli they are entitled to the exclusive use and manu- 
facture of their inventions for a limited time, in return for an exact 
and complete description of their inventions, so that others, at the 
termination of such monopolies, may be able to employ the invention 
as beneficially as they themselves have done, or could have done. 

To support a claim for a patent, it is essential that the invention 
be ITEW and not previously disclosed, for it is a principle of great 
importance that no patent should exist for anything that any other 
subject of the Crown could at the time have freely from his own 
knowledge have employed. Mere slight changes that required no 
ingenuity to produce, and mere exercise of ordinary skill, such as any- 
one skilled in the trade could have performed without cudgelling his 
brains, do not entitle to a patent. There must be a substantial 
novelty. 

An invention must also be useful, or it cannot properly be 
patented. 

Thus novel and useful inventions, which are for the benefit of trade, 
are alone proper subject matter for patents. 

Usually, when an idea for an invention occurs to anyone, it is 
desirable to at once protect it by making an application for a patent 
for it. It is not necessary, nor is it advisable, to wait until the details 
of the invention are worked out ; first, because the law permits an 
application for patent to be made while the invention is stQl in a 
crude state ; secondly, because if two persons should independently 
apply for patents for the same or similar inventions, the first applicant 
has, in law, the preference. 

With such an appHcation a provisional specification has to be 
filed explaining clearly the nature of the invention. 

The inventor having taken this course (the cost of which, including 
the government stamp of £1 on the application form, is usually, 
with agent's charges, about three to five guineas) has now nine months 
in which to perfect his invention, and ascertain whether it is desirable 
to proceed. 

As soon as the invention is worked out and proved, and presuming 

it is a sufficient success to warrant further expense, the complete 

SPECIFICATION y giving full particalars oi tla.© tx^^Wt© oi ^\i«i \\w<i\iUoiL 



189 

and the method of performing it, is prepared, with drawings if needed, 
and lodged at the Patent Office. The cost is usually about seven to 
twelve guineas according to length, time, &c., including the 
government stamp of £3. 

After *' acceptance '* by the Patent Office, which issues in about four 
to eight weeks, the inventor then acquires a fuller measui'e of pro- 
tection ; and at the expiration of a further two months, during which 
his application is exposed to opposition, he obtains the letters patent, 
with the full rights thereto pertaining. 

There is another course, namely, to begin at once with a complete 
specification. The patent is obtained, of course, more quickly, but 
this course is not advisable, and the expense in government fees is^ 
the same. 

It is to be observed that as the specifications are the very basis of 
the patent rights, they must be most carefully drawn ; and it is 
desirable that they should satisfy not only the ordinary workmen in 
the trade, but also experts in the wiiting and construction of such 
documents, and last, but not least, lawyers, for the inventor's ultimate 
resort in case of infringement is the court, where the meaning of the 
specification will become the great bone of contention. 

Another point to observe is that the inventor must be the applicant, 
or, at least, one of the applicants, or the patent is invalid. The 
inventor cannot, therefore, permit any other person to take the patent, 
but must apply for it himself j he can then assign it, or undertake to 
assign it, to others. 

Patents date from the day they are applied for, and their term ia 
fourteen years. No further fees are due on them until the end of the 
fourth year, when a £5 tax becomes due. Thenceforward there is a 
yearly tax increasing £1 per year during the remainder of the four- 
teen years. When any such is not paid the patent lapses, but three 
months' grace at the longest can be had for paying any of the taxes 
by petition, and payment of a fine. 

The British patent, to which the above remarks almost exclusively 
apply, extends only to England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and the 
Isle of Man. If the colonies and other countries are to be covered, 
separate patents must be taken, each having its own laws and 
regulations. Most foreign and colonial patents cost from £5 to £20 
each. 

By applying for patent here, under a convention, the applicant 
obtains a priority of right to obtain patents in some twenty-two other 
countries and colonies, including France, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, 
Italy, Switzerland, Victoria, New Zealand, Queensland, Western 
Australia, Brazil, and the United States of America. That is to say, 
if he applies in any of these countries within six months his patent 
will not be affected by anything done in the meantime. This is & 
very valuable privilege. 



190 

Most government Patent Offices make no examination of the 
invention or specification before granting the patent, leaving these 
entirely at the inventor's risk. Some, such as the United States, 
Geifmany, Austria, Hungary, Sweden, Norway, &c., make such ex- 
amination. That in the Unite(i States is extremely good, and it is 
desirable to make early application for this patent, not only for its 
own sake, being valuable and cheap, but to obtain the result of such 
examination which would save a search and considerable trouble in 
preparing the complete specification for England. 

It is desirable to say a few words on the cost of foreign patentxS. 
This is made up of certain factors, first the government fees, 
unalterable in amount, the foreign agent's fee, depending somewhat 
on his professional standing, and lastly the charges for preparing 
specifications according to the practice, translations, copies, and 
similar expenses. It is obvious, therefore, that as a specification will 
often do for several countries or colonies, needing simply copying, 
tliere can be a considerable saving when several patents are taken at 
the same time. Unfortunately it is not generally customary in the 
profession to itemize these charges, so that such reductions are 
not always offered or properly computed. 

In conclusion, the reader may be reminded that patents may be 
very valuable properties, and though many so-called inventions are 
worthless, and the readiness with which patents can be obtained 
facilitates the grant of many rubbishy and invalid patents, it is still 
desirable when an inventor recofi;nizes that he has a valuable novelty 
that the patenting of it should be carefully undertaken, and the 
necessary expense of so doing borne at the outset, since faults are 
not afterwards repairable. 



191 



CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



BERLIN. 

MiTTELEUBOPAiscHEB MoTOB Wagen-Vebein, 1, Univorsitatstrasse. 
• Herr A. Klose. 

BIBMIKGHAM. 

MOTOB AND CrcLB Tbades Club, Corporation Street. 

BORDEAUX. 

Automobile Club de Bobdeause, 42, A116e3 d'Orleans. President, 
M. le Dr. Treuzaii. 

BRUSSELS. 

AuTOMOiiiLE Club de Beloique, 14, pi. Royale. President, M. le 

Comto Francois van der Straton-Pontlioz. 
ToxJBiNa Club de Belgique, 11, r. des Vauniers. President, M. 

Graston Beirlaen. 

CHICAGO. 

American Motob League, 335, Dearborn-street. 

DIJON. 

Automobile Club de Dijon, Caf6 Americaine, r. Lomonnoye. 
President, M. Grastion. 

LIEGE. 

Automobile Club Lij^geois, 2, r. Hamal. President, M. A. Dawaus- 
Preudliomme. 

LIVERPOOL. 

The Automobile Club of Gbeat Bbitain and Ibeland. Local 
Centbe : The Livebpool Incobpoeated Self - Pbopelled 
Teafpic Association, Royal Institution, Colquitt-street, Liverpool. 
President, The Earl of Derby, K.G., &c. j Hon. Secretary, E. 
Shrapnell Smith. 



192 



LONDON. 

Automobile Club of Gbeat Britain axd Ireland (with which 
is incorporated the Self-propelled Traffic Association), 4, Whitehall- 
court, S.W. A Social Club and a Centre of Information and adyice 
on matters pertaining to Motor Vehicles (for those who are not 
Owners as well as for Owners of Motor Vehicles). 

Administrative Committee: — Roger W.Wallace, Esq., Q.C., Chair' 
man; The Hon. Evelyn Ellis, Vice- Chairman ; Sir David 
Salomons, Bart., Vice-Chairman; Messrs. Frederick R. Simms, W. 
Worby Beaumont, Frank Butler, Hon. Treasurer; C. Harrington 
Moore, Hon. Secretary/; Arthur James Walter. 

Andrew W. Barr, Auditor ; C. Johnson, Secretary. 

Among the Pounder Members are : — The Rt. Hon. the Earl of 
Galloway, K.T., The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot, 
*The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Carnarvon, The Rt. Hon. the Viscount 
Templetown, *The Rt. Hon. Lord Suffield, K.C.B., The Rt. Hon. J. 
H. A. MacDonald, C.B., LL.D , F.R.SS. (L. & E.), the Lord 
Justice Clerk of Scotland, *The Rt. Hon. Sir Bernhard Samuelson, 
Bart., The Rt. Hon. Sir Richard Paget, Bart., *The Hon. Reginald 
Brougham, *Capt. The Hon. Cecil Buncombe, J.P., *The Hon. 
Evelyn Ellis, The Hon. J. H. Berkeley, *The Hon. C. S. Rolls, Sir 
William Neville Abdy, Bart., *Sir David L. Salomons, Bart., J.P., 
*Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S., J.P., *Maj.-Gen. Sir Arthur 
ElUs, K.C.V.O., C.S.I., Maj.-Gen. E. L. England, C.B., Messrs. 
*Roger Wallace, Q.C, *Andrew W. Barr, *Capt. Ironside Bax, 
Messrs. *W. Worby Beaumont, *W. C. Bersev, *Alfred Bird, 
*Prof. Vernon C. Bovs, F.R.S,, Messrs. *E. H. G. Brewster, 
♦Frank Butler, *Hugh Campbell, *R. E. B. Crompton, *Capt. A. B. 
Cunningham, Messrs. *Bryan Donkin, *Robert Gray, * Walter 
Hancock, *Chas. Heyermans, *Bayntun Hippisley, J.P., *H. E. 
Sherwm Holt, *J. T. Hopwood, J.P., *H. A. House, *Alfred 
Jones, J.P., *John Henry Knight, Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, 
LL.D., F.R.S., *Col. John W. Lee, Messrs. *W. J. Leonard, 
♦Edmund Macrory, Q,.C., *Uiram S. Maxim, *Patrick J. McManus, 
*Harry Melvill, *C. Harrington Moore, *Richard Muirhead, 
♦Arthur Paget, *Boverton Redwood, F.R.S.E., *E. R. Shipton, 
♦Alexander Siemens, *Fredenek R. Simms, *Paris Eugene Singer, 
*E. Shapnell Smith, Stanley Spooner, *James Swinburne, *John 
I. Thornycroft, F.R.S., *Arthur J. Walter. 

* Members of the Club Committee. 

The entrance fee is, at present, £1 1*., and tbe Annual Subscription 
is £3 3*. Members who do not own Motor vehicles can take part 
in the Club Tours (of which there are some 5 or 6 each season), by 
securing seats in the Motor Carriages engaged by or placed at the 
disposal of the Club. 



193 

The Axtto SCO bile Club was founded towards the close of the year 
1897, and has now a membership of over 400 members. Its purposes 
are similar to those of the yerj successful Automobile Club of 
Paris, and the recently formed Automobile Clubs of Berlin, Vienna, 
Milan, &c., viz. : — (a) To provide a Club house for those interested 
in Motor-Vehicular traffic, (b) For the general advancement of 
the Automobile movement. A Member has no liability beyond his 
subscription and entrance fee (if any). House dinners are held 
periodically ; in the Winter at the Club House ; in the Summer at 
Country Hotels, the journey to and from which is made on Motor 
yehicles. Lectures on matters of general interest and discussions 
on matters of technical interest take place frequently. A technical 
committee deals with scientific and legislative questions affecting 
automobilism. Boad maps are provided for use of members, and 
the usual illustrated and other papers, as well as the British and 
foreign papers specially connected with Motor vehicles are on the- 
Club tables. A copy of the list of Members, together with the- 
rules of the Club and forms of application for membership, may 
be obtained on application to the Secretary, 4, Whitehall Court, 
London, S.W. 

Engineers' Disoitssion Club (Hon. Sec, A. E. Power), 31, 
Kenwyn-road, Clapham, S.W. 

Motor Car Club, 40, Holborn- viaduct, E.C. President^ Mr. Harry J. 
Lawson. 

LYON. 

Bicycle et Automobile Club db Lyon, 12, r. du Bat-d* Argent. 

MADRID. 

Automobile Club de Madrid. 

MILAN. 
Club Iutomobilisti Italiani, 6, via Giulini. 

NICE. 

Automobile Velo. Club de Nice. President ^ M. Jacques Gl-ondouin. 

PARIS. 

luTOMOBiLB Club db France (Soci^tk d'Encouragembnt) 
4, Place de TOpera. Pre^ndent, Baron de Zuylon de Nyevelt; 
Vice-Presidents f MM. le Comte de Dion and Henri Menier; 
Technical Secretary, M. ie Comte de la Valette ; Club Secretary ^ 
C. de Morlhon. 



11)4 

€h;ambsb Syndioale db lIAutomobixb bt dbs larDinsTBiBB qui s*y 
Battaohent, 4, Place de 1* Opera. PreMtdemt^ M. le Comte de 
Dion ; Vtce-FresidentSf MM. Ben^ Fanhard and (Hh, Jeanteaud. 

Ohambbe Syndioale DBS Cabbosbibbs, 8, Cite et r. de Eu ^ce. 

FbDEBATION BBS M^OHAKIOIENS BT ChAUFFBTTBS FbANCAIS, 7, pi. 

de PHotel-de-Ville. 
TouBiNO Club db Fbance, 5 r. Coq-H^ron. President^ M. A. Ballif . 

RUSSIA. 

Automobile Club de Bussb, St. Petersburg. President, M. 
Delorme. 

SWITZERIiAND. 

Automobile Club db Suisse, Q-eneva. P resident y M. Alois Naville 
de Fontenex. 

TOULOUSE. 

Sopi^T^ DBS ChaUffbubs du Midi, 25, r. Eoquelaine. President , 
M. Guy. 

TURIN. 

Automobile Club d'Italie. President y Count Biscaretti di Euffia ; 
Vice-President^ M. Gatti-Qoria. 

VIENNA. 

iEsTEBBBiCHisCHBR AuTOMOBiL Club, ' 19, Joliannesgosse. Presi- 
dent^ Le Comte Gustave Potting Persung. 



195 
AUTOMOTOR DIRECTORY. 



List of firms and indiTiduals, other than the Companies, included 
in the Limited Liability Co. list, concerned, more or less 

" directly, with Automobilism, either as Makers, Owners, Users, &c., 
of Motor Vehicles or component parts. 

The reference figures in brackets after a name signify the page and 
volume of the Axjtomotob on which will be found an invention or 
some reference to the person against whose name they stand 
explanatory of their connection with Automobilism. 

The names with a * denote owners of Motor Vehicles. 

Abbrbviatioits — Dir., Director; Man. Dir., Managing Director 
Sec, Secretary. 

Fob full alphabetical list of Patentees' names, see Indexes to, and 
Vols. 1 and 2, of Automotob Joubnal. 

*AcCLEs, J. Q-., Perry Barr, Birmingham. 

. AcLAND, Capt. F. E. Dyke, Woodmansteme, nr. Epsom. 

Adams, S., & Co., Lowestoft (Motor Vehicles, &c.). 

Adleb, E. N. (Dir., Delecroix Motor Synd., Ltd.). 

AiTKEN, A. P. (Dir., Madelvic Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
*Albone, D., Ivel Cycle Works, Biggleswade (Ball Bearings, Petro- 
leum Stores). 

Allabd & Co., Coventry (De Dion System). 

Allen, A. J., London Institution, Finsbury Circus, E,C. 

Allison, Q-. (Dir., Boag's Crescent Carriage Co., Ltd.). 

Allsop, E. D., 37, Norfolk Street, Strand. (Vol. 2, p. 35.) 

Altbee, a. H. D., 219-229, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. (Man., 
Daimler Co.). 

Amos, E. C, 11, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. (Engineer). 
*Amps, J. W., Old Lodge, Uckfield. 

Andbews Bbos., 14, Above Bar, Southampton (Engineers). 

Appleton, W. M., Hill Eoad, Weston-super-Mare. 

Abmistead, E. (Dir., Thomas Parker, Ltd.). 
•Abmstbono, a. W., 85, Broadhurst Gurdens, West Kampstead. 
*Abnold, Q-., Frant, Tunbridge Wells. . 
*Abnold, W., East Peckham, Kent. 
•Abnold, W. H., Holland Gate, Kensington (Whitlocks, Ltd., &c.). 

Abbol, Sib William, 241, Baltic Street, Q-lasgow. (Vol. 2, p. 34.) 

Atkins, Sydney (Automobile Assocn., Ltd.). 
•Atkinson. & Philipson, 27, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle-on-T'^^'ek 
(Motor and Carriage Builders). 



i 



196 

Atkinson, D. B., Ele«. Eng., Cardiff (Dir., Marquand Accumulatop 

Co., Ltd.). 
AuBA-NEL, W. W. (Sec, G-. R. Blot & Co., Ltd.). 
Aylesfobd, Earl of (Dir., Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., 

Ltd.). 

•Bainbs, W., 6 and 6, Great Winchester Street, E.C. (Pennington & 

Baines, &c.) 
Bakeb, C. N. (Dir., Humber & Co., Ltd. ; Leather Shod Wheel Co., 

Ltd. ; Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., Ltd.). 
Baebb, J. S. (Dir., Chloride Elec. Storage Synd., Lt'l.>. 
Baxlantyne, W. R. (Dir., Blackpool Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 
*Bambeb & Lewis, Meopham, Kent (** Vesta" Motor). 

Bannisteb, W., J.P. (Dir., Chloride Elec. Storage Synd., Ltd.). 
•Baeclay, Major, The Warren, Cromer. 
Babgate, G-. (Sec. and Man.. Mossberg Roller Bearings Co., Ltd.). 
BABHABf. J. A... Trafalcar Buildings, Charing Cross, W.C. (Elec- 
trical Undertakinsjs, Ltd.). 
Babkeb, J. (Dip., Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., Ltd.). 
Bablow, H. B., & Co., Combrook Works, Manchester (Engineers). 
Baenabd, J. W., 4, Gh-eat Winchester Street, E.C. 
•Babon, F. B., 11, Buchanan Street, Blackpool (Blackpool Motor 

Car Co., &c.). 
Babb, Andbew W., 30, Moorgate Street, London, E.C. 
Babbaclofoh, W. W., 30, Scotland Road, Nelson, Lanes. 
Babbett, a. (Dip., Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.) 
•Babbett, Dr., 29, Park Crescent, Southport. 
Babton, W. J. (Sec, Nottingham Motor Car, &c.. Exhibitions 

Co., Ltd.). 
Bast>en, D. F. (Dir., Humber & Co., Ltd.). 
Bastian, C. O. (Dir., Britannia Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
Bax, Capt. Ibonside, Eldon, Weybridge, Surrey. 
Bayley, E. H., J.P., South wark (London Steam Omnibus Co., &c.). 
Bayliss & Thackbay. Victoria Foundry, Huntingdon (Motors, 

Frames and Accessories). 
Beaplb, F. J. (Dir., Jesse Ellis k Co., Ltd.). 
Beadon, R. (Dir., Paris Singer, Ltd.). 
Beabcboft, R. (Dir., Smith, Parfrey, & Co , Ltd.). 
Beaumont, W. Worby, M.I.M.E., &c.. Outer Temple, 222, Strand, 

W.C. (Consulting Engineer). 
Beckwith, a. (Dir., Shippey Bros., Ltd.). 
Bepfobd, J., Sheffield (Springs). 
Beevob, S. F., 25, Leinster Square, W. 

Bebesfobd, Lobd M. (Dir.. Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
Bebesfobd, Lobd Wm., The Deopdene^ Dorking (Dir., Marquand 
Accumulator Co., Ltd.). 



197 

*Bbbeel£y, Hoif. J. H., Junior United Service Club (Dir., Britannia 

Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
•Bbbsky, W. C, 39, Victoria Street, S.W. (London Electrical Cab 
Co., Ltd. ; W. C. Bersey & Co., Ltd.). 

Bbssbmeb, H. a., 42, Therapia Eoad, Honor Oak. (Vol. 2, p. Sia.) 

BiOKFOKD BuBNEBS Co., Cambome, Cornwall. {See Advt. p, xxzii.) 

BiKNiE, W. M. (Dir., Britannia Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 

BiBOHAM, E. E. S., 6, Park Street, Taunton. 
*BiBD, A. jb'.. The Jblrs, Moseiej, Birmingham. 

Blaikie, B. M. (Sec, London Steam Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 

Blake, Jb\ C, JJalling Boad, Hammersmith (Springs, Electrical 
Ignition, &c.). {ISee Adot. p. ix.) 

Blakiston, B., 10, Blackstock Street, Liverpool. 

Blot, G. K.., 33, St. Swithin's Lane, E.C. 
•Blythsvbood, Lobd, '*Blythswood," Eenfrew, "?J.B. 

BoAa, A. (Dir., Boag's Orescent Carriage Co., Ltd.). 

Bolton, A. S., J.P. (Dir., British Aluminium Co., Ltd.). 

BoNMiE, W. (Dir., Fluid Pressure Eng. Sjnd., Ltd.). 

Booth, F. R. (Dir., Kelham Rolling Milis, Ltd.). 
♦BouLT, A J., 11, Hatton Garden, E.C. (Boult & Wade). 

BowDEN, E. M., 9, Eopstone Bd., Earls Court (Transmission System). 

BowDEK, J. T., City Carlton Club (Crowdus's Storage Battery). 

Bowman, E. H., D.Sc. (Chloride Elec. Storage Synd., Ltd.). 

Boys, Peof. C. V., E.E..S., The Grove, Boltons, S.W. 
*Bbadshaw, J. A., 4, York Buildings, Sweeting Street, Liverpool. 
(Daimler Co.). 

Bbamfton, a. (Dir., Brampton Bros., Ltd.). 

Bbamfton, C. H. (Dir., Brampton Bros., Ltd.). 

Bbampton, p. W. (Dir., Brampton Bros., Ltd.). 

Bband, a. (Dir., Mew Genl. Traction Co., Ltd.). 

Bbandbeth, a. B. (Soc. Intern, de Const, d' Automobiles, Ltd.). 
^Bbiggs, F., b, Park Crescent, Torquay (Automatic Conveyance 
Co., Ltd.). 

BsiauTON Cycle & Motor Co., Marine Parade, Brighton. 
•Bbigstocke, W. p.. The Terrace, Kyde, Isle of "Wight. 

Bbitannia Co., Colchester (Petroleum Oil Engines and Engineers' 
Tools). 

Bbitannia Supply Co., 49, Lime Street, E.C. (Lubricating Oil). 

Bbodie, J. A , 3, Cook Street, Liverpool. 

Bbomfibld, G. G. T. (Dir., W. C. Bersey & Co., Ltd.). 

Bbouoham, The Hon. Beginald, 22, Dorset Street, Portman 
Square, W. (Du*., Elect. Cab Co., Ltd.). 

Bbown, a. (Dir., Lon. Motor Car Wks., Ltd.). 
•Bbown, W. H., Beechci*oit, Devizes. 

♦Bbown & Buoktok, Mjtholme Cycle Works, Hipperholme 
(Engineers). 



198 

Browne, Jessop, 104, Q^reat Brunswick Street, Dublin (Patent 
Wheels). 

Bbownb- Martin, Joseph, 28, Victoria Street, S.W. (Dir., Power 
and Traction, Ltd., &c.). 

Browne, T. B., 121, Barkston Qtirdens, S.W. 

Bryan Donkin & Co., Ltd., Bermondsej, S.E. (Engineers). 

Bryant, J. (Dir., Britannia Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 

BuCKEA, M. H. (Dir., Motor Manfg. Co., Ltd.). 
•Btjcknall, a. L., Wickhurst Manor, nr. Sevenoaks. 

Bullock, F., Strange ways Cycle Works, Bury New Boad, Man- 
chester (Wheels, &c.). 

BuRQESS, A., 47, Holbom Viaduct, E.C. (Sec, Motor Mfg. Co.). 

BuRNiE, W. M. (Dir., Motor Development Corp., Ltd.). 

BuRRBLL, Chas., & SoNS, Thetford (Traction Engines). 

Butler, E., Coatesworth Boad, Q-ateshead. (Vol. 2, p. 376.) 
•Butler, F. H., 5, Cleveland Row, St. James's Street, S.W. 

Butler, H. W. (Ch. Eng., E.P.S. Co., Ltd.). 
•BUTTBMER, R. W., St. Mary's, Q-odalming. 

♦Campbell, H., 16, Tokenhouse Yard, E.C. 

Campbell, R. M. (Works Man., Paris Singer, Ltd.). 

Capel & Co., 168, Dalston Lane, N.E. 
*Capel, H. C, 204, Amhurst Road, West Hackney, N.E. 
•Cappellen, M., 45, Esmond Road, Kilbum. 

Carless, Capel & Leonard, Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, 
N.E. (Petrol). (See Advt. p. xxxv.) 

Carmont, W. H. (Dir., Motor Attachment Syn., Ltd., &c.). 
•Carnarvon, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, 13, Berkeley Square. 
•Carter, F. T., Portmore Park, Wey bridge, Surrey. 

Cary, W. E., Red Bank Works, Manchester (Springs, Axles, &c.). 

Cathcart & Co., 3, Dorset Buildings, Salisbury Square, E.O. 
(Accumulators re-charged) . 

Chadburn, W. J. (Dir., Mansfield Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 

Challiner, C. (Dir., Challiner, &c., Tyre Co., Ltd.). 

Charnock, Gt. F., Technical College, Bradford. 

Cheeswrig-ht, F. R. (Dir., Paris Singer, Ltd.). 
•Chilton, Bros., Wolverhampton (De Dion System). 

Clarke, A., Roller Mills, Soham, Cambs. 

Clarke's Crank and Forge Co., Lincoln (" Libra " Oil Motor). 
•Clarkson, T., Q-rove Villa, Sutton, Surrey. 

Clayton & Shuttleworth, Lincoln (Traction Engines). 
•Clear, J. P., 83, Little Park Street, Coventry. 

Clerk, Dugald, MJ.C.E., &c., 18, Southampton Buildings, W.G. 
(Consulting Engineer). 
•Clift, E. H., 51, Sinclair Road, Kensington. • --^ • 

CziFTON, J. Talbot, Rhidoroch Forest, Ullapool, N.B. ) 



199 

Clubbb, E. J., 16, Elm Street, Q-rav's Inn Boad. 

Collier, A. T., St. Alban's (The Twin Tjre). 
•CoLLiNGE, Jas. (Jan.), Xiunerton Lodge, Chester. 

Common, A. A., LL.D.,^c. (Dir., Nat. Motor Carriage Synd., Ltd.;; 
British Aluminium Co., Ltd.). 

CoNLON, B. J., 60, Warwick Boad, Kensington. 
*CoNNAHi& Co.", Queen Street, Bh^l, North Wales (Agents). 

Connolly, J. W. & T., 65, Wharfdale Boad, King's Cross (Bubber 
Tyres). T.A. : " Smiddy, London.'* (See Advt, p. xii.) 
•CONOLLT, W., Buckhurst, Bedhill, Surrey (Dir., Pretot Motor 
Synd., Ltd.). 

CooPEB, Sib Daniel, Babt. (Dir., E.F.S. Co., Ltd.). 

CoBDiNOLBY, Chas., 39, Shoe Lane, E.C. 
•Cornell, A., Tonbridge, Kent (Arnold's Motors) . 

CoTTKELL, S. B., 31, James Street, Liverpool. 
*CouLTHABD, T., & Co., Cooper Boad, Preston (Steam and Oil Motor 
Vehicles). (See Advt. p. ixv.) 

Coupe Co., Britannia Boad, Fulham, S.W. (Wheels). 

CouRTBNAY, 1. 1. (Chairman, E.P.S. Co., Ltd.). 
*Cowen, a. B., 22, Hound Boad, West Bridgford, Nottar. 

CowPBB-CoLES, Shebabd, 26-27, Q-rosvenor Mansions, Victoria 
' Street, S.W:' 

Cox, B., J.P. (Dir., Madelyic Motor Carriage Co.," Ltd.). 

Cbabtbee, J. (Dir., Blackpool Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 

Cbaddooe, S. (Dir.,^ Elec. Street Car Manufg. Synd. Ltd.). 
•CBAGa, Capt. A^ C.f Bodafon Hall, Llandudno. (Man. Dir., Motor- 
Toiu-ing Co., Ltd.). 

CsAia, A. (Engineer, Huiober & Co., Ltd.). 

Craig, Tnoek (Dir., Yorkshire Motor Co., Ltd.). 
*Cbampton, "W. J., 56, Begent Boad, Great Yarmouth. 
•Cbastin, C, 16, Tollington Boad, HoUoway (Oil Motors and Calcium 
Carbide). (See Advt, p. xxxiii.) 

Cbawfobd, M., 37, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

Obeese & Co., 58, Middleton Street, Bosebery Avenue, E.C. (Oil 
Motors.) 
^Cbitchly, J. S., Wyley House, Coventry (Daimler Co.). 

Croix, Ad. db lb (Dir.,' Delecroix Motor Synd., Ltd.). 

Cboix, X. r»E LE (Dir., Delecroix Motor Synd., Ltd.); 

Cbompton, B. E., Thriplands, Kensington Court, W. 

Cbos, Habvby.du (Dir., Dunlop Motor Co., Ltd., &c.). 

Cbossl^y, F. W., Openshaw, Manchester. 
•Crowden, C. T., Motor Works, Leamibgton. (See Advt, p. xxxiv.) 
*Cumming, Sir M. Gordon, Ghordonston, Hopeman, Elgin, N.B. 

Cunningham, Capt. A. B., 98, Buckingham Palace Boad„ 
S.W. 

Cutting & Co., Viaduct Engineering Works, H^xvw^KL* 



200 

Dagnall, E., 80, Maude Grove, Fulham. (Vol. 2, p. 314.) 
*Daimleb, Q-., Cannstodt, "Wurtemberg, Q-ermauj. 
Davis, C. (Dir., W. 0. Bowey & Co., Ltd.)- 
Davis, H. T., 115, Lewisham Boad, 8.E. (Steering Gear). 
*Dbaein, J. H., Bothaj, Ambleside, Windermere. 
Dbmpstbb, a. (Dir., Blaokpool Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 
D'Eblangbb, Babon (Dir., New Genl. Traction Co , Ltd.). 
*De Stbbn, H., 26, Princes Gate, S.W. 
Dbs Vignbs, G. F. G., Strand-on-the. Green, Chiswick. 
Dick's Asbestos Co., Victoria Works, Trinity Street, Canning 

Town, E. (Packings, Lubricating Oil, Engineers' Stores). 
DiSMOB, J. S. (Dir., Pretot Motor Synd. Ltd.). 
DoMiNY, G., King Street, Weymouth (Transmission Gear, Ac). 

(Vol. 2, p. 35.) 
DoKKiN, Bbyav, Southwark Park Koad, Bermondsey, S.E, 
DouBLEDAY, V. C., C.A. (Sec, Nat. Motor Carriage Synd., Ltd.). 
Dowsing, H. J., 24, Budge Bow, E.C. (Pretot Motor Synd., Ltd., 

&c.) . 
Dbaee, J. A., " Brandon," Ellys Boad, Coventry (Daimler 

Co.). 
Dbesden, G., 11, South John Street, Liverpool (Butler's Motor 

Tricycles, &c.). 
Dbuobbb, a., 39a, Curzon Street, W. 
*Dbummond, p., Batterflats, Stirling, N.B. 
DuGABD, W.H., Vulcan Mills, Bridge Street West, Birmingham. 

(Vol. 2, p. 80.) 
*DuNCOMBE, Capt. tbb Hon. Cbcil, The Grange, Nawton, Yorks, 

B.S.O. 
DuNKELSBUHLEB, B. (Dir., Cycles and Automobiles Michauz, Ltd.). 
*Dunk:ley, W. H., World's Factory, Birmingham (Gas Motors). 
Dyson, T. (Dir., JBradford Cycle and Motor Oar Assocn., Ltd.). 

*Edge, S. F., 7, Tavistock Chambers, Hall Street, W.C. (Dir., Paris 

Singer, Ltd. ; Dimlop Motor Co., Ltd., &c.). 
•Edmunds, H., 71, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 

Eeles, B. (Dir., David Martyn & Co., Ltd.). 
*Egebton, H. W., Weston Bectory, Norwich. 
•Electbic Motitb Poweb Co., 74, Caisior Boad, Balham, S.W. 

Elias, E. (Dir., Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co.. Ltd.). 
*Elieson, 0. P., 75, Edith Boad, West Kensington, W. (Dir., Elieson 
Lamina Accumulator Co., Ltd.). 

Ellice-Clabk, E. B. (Dir., Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
♦Elliot, T. B. B.. Clifton Park, Kelso, N.B. 
•Ellis, Jesse, & Co., Maidstone, Kent (Engineers). 
•Ellis, Maj.-Gen. Sib Abthub, K.C.V.O., &c., 22, Portland Place, 



201 

*Ellib, The Hon. Evelyn, Datchet, nr. Windsor (Dir., Daimler Co. ; 
Lon. Elec. Cab Co., Ltd.). 

England, A. V. (Dir., Motor Omnibus Synd., Ltd.). 
♦England, Maj.-Gen.E.L., C.B., King's Gatcheil, Trull, nr. Taunton, 
Somerset. 

Epstein, L., M.I.E.E., 28, Yietoria Street, Westminster. 
♦EsTCOUBT, £., Elemere Mansions, Canfield Gardens, Hampstead. 

Eyans, a. F., 107, Wool Exchange, E.C. (Monarch Motor). 

EvERATT, G. (Dir., Challiner, &o.. Tyre Co., Ltd.). 
♦Etbe, H. S., 6, GrosTenor Ghurdens, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 

Faibclough, a. (Dir., Motor Van Synd., Ltd., &c.). 

Faibclough, M., 10, Christian Street, St. George*s-in-the-EaBt 
(Dir., Motor Van Synd., Ltd., &c.). 
• Fanta, F. (Dir., Nat. Motor Carriage Synd., Ltd.). 

Fabnell, a. (Dir., Bradford Cycle and Motor Car .issocn., Ltd.). 

Feathebley, W., Watford. 

Fennbll, G. W., 82, Westgate, Wakefield (Dir., London Auto-car 
Co., Ltd.). 

Fenney, Howabd, Messrs. Bearl & Tonks. 

FiBTH, T. W., 140, Upper Tulse Hill, S.W. 
• Fish, G. A. (Dir., Mansfield Motor Car Co.» Ltd.). 

Flack, T. S. (Dir., Lon. Elec. Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 

Fletcheb, J. R. (Dir., Boags Crescent Carriage Co., Ltd.). 

Fletcheb, W., 207, Woodbridge Boad, Ipswich. 
*FooBT, R., 19, Queen Street, Oxford. 
*FoBBE8, Sib Chas., Queen's Gute, S.W. 
•Fox Bbos., Ltd., Wellington, Somerset. 

Fox, H. (Dir., Lon. Elec. Omnibus, Co., Ltd.). 

Fbadd, M. (Dir., Elieson Lamina Accumulator Co., Ltd.). 

Fbaseb, F. H., 98, Commercial Road, £. 

Fbemlin, R. J. (Dir., Jesse Ellis & Co., Ltd.). 

Fbentzel (Automobile Assocn.). 
♦FbistVell, Chas., 18, Holbom Viaduct, E.C. 

Fby, Sib T., Babt. (Dir., Pennington Motor Foreign Patents Synd., 

Ltd.). 
*FuLLEBS, bMiTH & TuBNEB, Chiswick (Brcwers), 

FuBNEAUX, T. B., Victoria Works, Gateshead-on-Tyne. (Vol. 2, 
p. 376.) 

» 

Galloway^ The Rt. Hon. The Eabl of, K,T., 17, Upper 

Grosvenor Street. 
Galton, Sib Douglas, K.C.B., &c., &c., 12, Chester Street, 

Grosvenor Place, S.W. 
Gamble, H. E. (Dir., Fluid Pressure Eng. Synd., Ltd.). 
G-amble, J. (Dir,, Kelham Rol\ingl&\W^,\A.5L>^» 



202 

Gas LiaHTiNO iMPBOVEirBNT Co., Ltd., 18, Pevon^hire Street, 

Bisliopsgate, E.C. (Wholesale Petrol). 
*G-ASCOiGhNB, E., Hamiltoo Lodge, Ascot Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 

Gbddbs, W. M. (Dir., Motor Touring Co., Ltd.). 

G-ILBBBT, Balfh, & SoN, John Bright Street, Birmingham (Petrol 
Motors,. Axles, &c.). 

6I-(LLESPIE, T. (Dir., Boags Crescent Carnage Co., Ltd.). 

Q-ILLETT, E. (Dir., Motor Omnibus Synd., Ltd.). 
♦GiLLETT & Co., Hounslow (Steam Vehicles). 

Glew & Co., 40, Chancery Lane, W.C. (Tyres). 

Q-LOUCESTEB Cabbcaoe Co., G-louccster. 

Glover & Sons, Eagle Works, Warwick. 

Qoddabd, F. (Dir., Humber& Co., Ltd.). 
♦Goodall, a., 78, Gorton Street, Blackpool. 
•GooDALL, A. W-, 78 to 82, Gorton Street, Blackpool. 

Goodwin, A. S., 9, John Street, Hampstead (Tyre). 

GoBTON, S. (Dir., Beeston Motor Co., Ltd.). 
*GowAN, F. M., 26, Clarendon Square, Leamington Spa. 
•Gbahame- White, C, Blairmore, Bedford. 

Gband Colossbum Wabbhousb Co., 70, Jamaica Street, Glasgow 
(Motor Vehicles). 

Gbbbn & BouLDiNa, 21, Featherstone Street, City Boad, E.C. 
(Friction Clutch). 

Gbeen, F. (Dir., E.P.S. Co., Ltd.). 

Gbebnwood, a. (Dir., Power and Traction^ Ltd.). 
•Gbbio, a. Bubness, A.M.I.C.E., St. Dunstan's House, Idol Lane, 
E.C. 

Gbbtton, J. H. (Chairman, Motor Manfg. Co., Ltd.). 
♦Gbbville, a. E., 2, Staple. Inn, Holborn, W.C. 
♦Gbimsiiawe, C, The Avenue, Apsley Guise. 

Gbindle, G. a. (Dir., Chloride Elec. Storage Synd., Ltd.). 
*Gbose, J., 63, Gold-street, Northampton. 

Gbovek, F., A.M.I.C.E., &c., Grepk Street Chambers, Leeds. 
^Gudgeon, J., Temple Bar, Stowmarket, Su£Folk. 
.GuNN, Mabcus, Shipowmer, Cardiff (Dir., Marqnand Accumulator 
Co., Ltd.). 

Hall, J..W., 1, Wiltshire Eoad, Brixton. (Vol. 2, p. 428.) 

Hall, R. Gbbsley (London Steam Omnibus Co.). 

Hameyeb, F. (Dir., Mansfield Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 

Hamilton, G. T. (Dir., Blackpool Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 
♦Hamilton, P., Seaford Lodge, Ryde. 

Hancock, W., 10, Upper Chadwell Street, Myddelton Square, E.C. 
♦Handtside, G., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Hankby, Hebbekt, J.P., 67, Elm Park Gardens, S.W. ■, 

Hankinson, R. M., 12, Norfolk Street, W.C. ; 



203 

Habdy & PoDMOEB, Worcester Foundry, Worcester (Southall's Oil 
£ngine). 
*Habgebaves, J. R., Witchingham Hall, Norwich. 
Habkfb, W. E. (Dir., Boags Crescent Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
Habpeb, John, Jun., ^eath Park, nr. Aberdeen. 
Habbap, G. T., 34, Queen Street, E.G. 
" Habt " AccuMULATOE Co., X.TD., 75, Colcman Street, B.C. 
Habvby, Julius, & Co., 11, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. (Coneultlng 

Engineers). (See Advt p. v^) 
HatIiES, C. (Dir., Motor Omnibus Sjnd., Ltd.). 
Heath, Robt., J.P. (Dir., British Aluminium Co., Ltd.). • 
Heckfobd, a. E., Birmingham (Hubs and Ignition Tubes). 
Hedges, K., 92, Victoria Street, S.W. 
Hble-Shaw, Pbofbssob S., University College, Liverpool. 
HsMiNa, A. E., Amberley House, Norfolk Street, W.C. 
Henwood, E. N., 22, G^reat St. Helens, E.C. (Engineer, Ac.) 
*Hewetson, H., 77, Oxford Street, W. (Man. Dir., Htwetson's, Ltd.). 
•Hbtebmans, C. 71, Eardley Crescent, S.W. 
Heywood, T. M., Shipowner, Cardiff (Dir., Marquand Accumulator 

Co., Ltd.). 
Hick, W. T. (Dir., Accumulator Synd., Ltd.). 
HiGGiNS, E. S., 127, Brixton Hill, Brixton. (Vol 2, p. 313.) 
HiGGiNS, T. W., A.M.I.C.E., Surveyor, Chelsea Vestry. 

(Vol. 2, p. 241.) 
■High AM, R. (Dir., Thornton Motor Co., Ltd.). . , 
Hill, Rowland (Dir., Biseston. Motor Co., Ltd.). 
HiLLiBB, Q-. LAcr, 75, Old Broad Street, E.C. 
•Hippisley, B., Ston Eastou Park, Bath. 
Hodge, R. (Dir., David Martyn & Co., Ltd.). 
•Hodges, W. M., 86, ChisweU Street, E.C (Loud. Motor Van and 
Wagon Co.). 
Hoffmann, R. (Dir., Motor Manfg. Co., Ltd.). 
•HoLDEN, Majob H. C. L., R.A., The Eves, Belvedere, Kent. 
""HoLDEB, J. A., Pilmaston, Moor Green, Birmingham. 
HL'olmbs & Sons, Norwich (Engineers). 
Holmes, J. H., & Co., 17, Soho Square, W., and Newcastle (Electrie 

Motors). 
•Holboyd, E. (Dir., Bradford Cycle and Motor Car Assocn., Ltd.). 
HoLROTD, J. (Dir., Compound Hydro-Carbon Motor Synd., Ltd.)» 
Holt, H. E. S., 1, St. James's Street, S.W. (Daimler Co. j Taxameter 

Synd., Ltd.). 
Holt, H. P., 22, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

Honey, E. (G. R. Blot & Co., Ltd.), 17, GodJiman Street,. E.C. 
Hopkins, E, A. (Dir., New Gen. Traction Co^ Ltd.). 
Hopkins, G., Clun House, Surrey Straet, W.C. (Consulting 
Engineer). ... 



204 

HoPKiNSON, Ed., M.A., &c. (Dir., Chloride Elec. Storage Sjrnd., 

Ltd.). 
HoPWooD, J. T., 5, Bury Street, St. James's, S.W. 
HoBNB, J. J. (Dir., Motor Touring Co., Ltd.). 
HoKNSBY, R., & Sons, Grantham (Automotors). 
House, A., Unicorn Passage, Ivegate, Bradford (Sec, Bradford 
Cycle and Motor Car Exhibition). 
•House, H. A., Jun. (Liquid Fuel Eng. Co., East Cowes, Isle of Wight). 
How, T. W., Roller Bearings Co., Delahaj Street, Westminster. 
HoWABD, 13, Theobald's Row, W.O. (Tyres and Repairs). 
•HowAED, R., Durdham Down Villas, Westbury Road, Bristol. 
Howes Bbos., 13, Prince of Wales Road, Norwich (Cycle and 
Motor Makers). 
*HowBT, Majob J. E. W., The Grange, Woodbridge. 
•HuNTEB & Co., East Down Works, Lewisham (Automotor Vehicle 
Manufacturers) . 
HuBST & Lloyd, 257, High Holborn, W.C. (Gauges, &c.). 
HuTTON, A. H., Stonehall, Eccleshall, Bradford (Chairman York- 
shire Motor Car Co.). 
*Hyleb-White, J., Coventry. 

*Jden, G., A.M.I.M.E. (Motor Mfg. Co. ; London Steam Omnibus 

Co.; &c.). 
Ilipfe, C. W. (Dir., Beeston Motor Co., Ltd.). 
Illingwobth, E. (Dir., Bradford Cycle and Motor Car Assocn., Ltd.) . 
Illstone, G. (Dir., Brampton Bros., Ltd.). 
*1nstome, E. M. C, 229, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. (Daimler Co.). 
♦Intebnational Motoe Cab Co., 15, High, Road, Kilbum, N. 
(Manufacturers and Agents). 

Jackson, F., & Co., Motor Dep6t, 77, Oxford Street, W. 
Jafpbay, J. M., The Stydd House, Lyndhurst, Hants. 
Jameson, Majob J. E.,* (Dir., Leather Shod Wheel Co., Ltd.). 
Jabbott, C, 40, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. (Sec, British Motor Co.). 
Jakyis, G. E. (Dir., Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., Ltd.). 
Joel, H. E., A.M.I.C.E. (Dir. Nat. Motor Carriage Synd., Ltd.). 
Johnson, C, 14, Argyll Mansions, Addison Bridge, W. 
Johnson, Mathey & Co., 78, Hatton Garden, E.C. (Ignition Tubes). 
Johnson, W. H., & Sons, Cycle and Motor Works, St. James's 

Street, Sing's Lynn. 
Johnston, G., 94, Hope Street, Glasgow (Carburator, &c.). 

(Vol. 2, p. 34.) 
Jones, A., Esq., Castle Street, Liverpool, M.C.S.P.T.A. 
Jones, Alpbed L., J.P., 14, Castle Street, Liverpool. 
Jones, Lawbence, 14, Castle Street, Liverpool. 
Jones, W. H.^ Gloucester Works, Smithfield Passage, Birmingham. 



205 

Jukes, S., Cirencester. 

JuvBNET, J. P. (Dir., Paris Automobile Cab Co., Ltd.). 

♦Kennedy, F. Shaw, Dyrock, Majbole, Ayrshire, N.B. 

King, F. (Dir., E.P.S. Co., Ltd.). 

" King ** Motor Car Co., 70a, Rye Lane, Peckham. (See Advt. 
p. xxvii.) 

King, R. R., 7, Greek Street, Leeds (Dir., London Auto-car Co., Ltd.) . 

KiRBY, F. Hall, M.I.C.E., East Dulwich and Peckliain Rye (Dir., 
G. R. Blot & Co., Ltd. ; Leather Shod Wheel Co., Ltd.). 

KiTTO, W. H., " Norvah," Hartington Road, Chiswick. 
•Knight, J. H., Barfield, Farnham. 
•Knowles, R. M., Colston Bassett Hall, Brighani. 
*Koo8EN, John A., 1, Sussex Place, Southsea (Lutzmann Oil Motor). 

Lambert, T. H. (Dir., Humber Co., Ltd.). 
Lambert, W. (Dir., Leather Shod Wheel Co., Ltd.). 
•Lancashire Steam Motor Co., Leyland, Lancashire (Steam 

Motor Vans, Buses, Drays, &c) . T.A. : ** Motor, Leyland.** 
Lancaster, E. S. (Dir.. Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., Ltd.). 
Lane, Howard, 184, Corporation Street, Birmingham. (Vol. 2, p. 35.) 

(Dir., Hydro -Pneumatic Traction Synd., Ltd.) 
♦Laurence, Rev. F. S., 30, Augustus Road, Edgboston, Birmingham, 

Law, J., Gilmore Place, Edinburgh (Steam Motors). 
•Lawson, H. J., 40, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. (Dir., British Motor Co., 

Ltd. ; Dunlop Motor Co , Ltd. ; Lond. Steam Omnibus Co., Ltd. j 

Motor Manfe. Co., Ltd., &c.). 
Lazarus, E. (Dir., British Thomson-Houston, Ltd.). 
Lea, J. P. (Dir., Thornton Motor Co., Ltd.). 
•Ledger, A., May field, Eltham Road, Lee, Kent. 
Lee, Col. J. W., Budleigh Salterton, Devon (Dir., Motor Car Supply 

Co., Ltd.). 
Lee, p., 34,Trongate, and 7, High Street, G-lasgow (Oil and Petrol.) 
Leedeb, E. H. (J. M. Leeder & Son), Swansea (Dir., Swansea Motor 

Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 
Lefbbure, E. E., A.M.I.C.E., Donnington House, Norfolk Street, 

W.C. (Motor Carriage Supply Co.). 
•Lehwess, E. E., Ph.D.. LL.D., 10, Clanricarde Gh-rdens, W. (Dir., 

Automobile Assocn., Ltd., &c.). 
Lenchters, S., 41, Acre Street, Leeds. 

Leonard, W. J., Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, N.E. 
Leslie, Q-. J. (Dir., Pennington Motor Foreign Patents Synd., Ltd.). 
Lbver Bros., Ltd., Port Sunlight, Birkenhead. 
Lewis & Lewis, Townmead Engineering Works, Fulham, S.W. 
•Liquid Fuel Engineering Co., 20, Abchurch Lane.,E.G, <^vs^J«i.% 

East Cowes, Isle of Wig\it\ ^eo., ^, ^. %wvs^x«^^» V^Xjassss. 

Engines, Steam Vans, Lorriea atvaLOmm\i\x&^^. V.^^^^^ A^-vA-.^^^s^^-^i 



206 

Lisle, E. (Dir., Elec. Street Car Manufg. Synd., Ltd.). 
♦LisTEE, F., Keigliley, Yorks. 

Little, Q-. H., 62, St. Martin's Lane,W.C. (Consulting Engineer). 

LiVEESiDaE, A. J., 196, Old Street, E.G. (Dir., Hydro- Pneumatic 
Traction Synd.. Ltd.). 

Liversidob, p. B., 196, Old Street, E.G. (Dir., Hydro-Pneumatic 
Traction Synd., Ltd.) 

LiVEESiDGE, W. H., Leadenhall Market, E.G. (Dir., Hydro- 
Pneumatic Traction Synd., Ltd.). 
*LovE, John, Jun., & Go., Motor Car Works, Kirkcaldy. 

Lfdlow, F. (Dir., Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., Ltd.). 

MacDonald, The Rt. Hon. J. H. A., C.B., &c., 16, Abercromby 

Place, Edinburgh. 
Mace, J. H. (Dir., Daimler Co.; London Steam Omnibus Co.; 
Leather Shod Wheel Co., Ltd. ; Lond. Elec. Cab Co., Ltd. ; Motor 
Manufacturing Co , Ltd., &c.). 
Mackenzie, H. (Dir., Elieson Lamina Ace. Co., Ltd.). 
Mackenzie Cabeiage Woeks, 26 and 27, Walnut Tree Walk, 

Kennington E.oad, S.E. {See Advt, p xxviii.) 
MacLachlan, E. a., 55, Brighton Boad, Stoke Newrington (Oil and 

Klectric Motors). 
MacLulich, J. M. (Sirdar Rubber Co.), 30, Moorgate Street, E.G. 
Macrory, E., Q.G., 19, Pembridge Square, W. 
*Magrath, Col. J., Bann-Aboo, nr. Wexford. 
Mahon, J- F., Hyde Park Club, Albert Gh,te, S.W. 
Mallam, J. S., 30, Moorgate Street, E.G. 
Mander, C. T. (Dir., Thomas Parker, Ltd.). 
Manning, R. (Dir., Motor Omnibus Synd., Ltd.). 
*Mann, J. J., c/o Messrs. Marshall & Sons, Birmingham. 
Mann & Charleswoeth, Canning Works, Dewsbury Road, Leeds 

(Steam Vehicles). 
Maequand, a. J., Con. Eng., Cardiff (Dir., Marquand Accumulator 

Co., Ltd.). 
Marquand, H. B., Shipowner, Cardiff (Dir., Marquand, Accumu- 
lator Co., Ltd.). 
Maeshall & Co., Bel size Works, Clayton, Manchester (Makers of 

Motor Cars, &c. — Hurtu System). 
Maeshall, H. C, 7, Fen Court, E.G. 

Maeshall, Sons, & Co., Britannia Ironworks, Grainsborough). 
Maeson. p., Tillington House, Cardiff (Dir., Marquand Accumulator 

Co., Ltd.). 
Marten, A. R. (Dir., Humber & Co., Ltd.). 
Martin, W. A., & Co., 9, Pocock Street, Blackfriars, S.E. (Steam 

Motors). . .^.^^ 

Mabtindaze, W. (DiT^T^B^^tisli Thomson-Houston, Ltd.). 



207 

Marttn, D. (Man.. David Marfcjn &, Co., Ltd.). 

MAinrDBB, J. B. W. (Dir., Lon. Elec. Omnibus Co., Ltd.) 

Mawbby, E. Q-. (C.E.),Town Hall, Leicester (Borough Engineer). 

Maxih, H. S., 18, Q.ueen*8 Gate Place, S. W. 

Maxim, Hudsojt, c/o T. A. Dennison & Co., 71, Graoechurch Street, 

E.G. 
Mayeb, a., Hillmorton House, Coundon Boad, Coventry (Daimler 

Co.). 
McAbthxte, W, a. (Dir., British Thomson-Houston, Ltd.). 

McDonnell, A. (Dir., Roots* Oil Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 

McIntosh, R. Y. (Dir., David Martyn & Co., Ltd.). 

McManfs, J., 12, Pall Mall, S.W. (Headland Battery Co.). 

•MoManus, p., Albion Lodge, Brook G-reen, W. 
Melling, J., Dash wood House, E.G. (Pretot Motor). 
Melville, H., 19, Kensington Court, W. 
Meeeyweather & Sons, Long Acre, W.C. 
'Miles, C. F. (See Onward Motor Works). 
Mills, W., Atlas Works, Bonner's Field, Sunderland (Aluminium 

Castings). 
MiBBLEES, Wa^tson & Yaeyan Co., Ltd., Glasgow (Diesel Engine). 
Mitchell & Smith, 59, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow (Accountants). 
MoLLETE, J. (Dir., Yorkshire Motor Co., Ltd.). 
Monks, H. R. (Dir., British Thomson-Houston, Ltd.). 
*M0NTAGUE, Hon. J. S., M.P., Beaulieu, Hants. 
^Montgomery, Majoe-Gen. H. P., 35, Southgate Street, Win- 
chester. 
*MooBE, C. Habbington, The Lodge, Avonmore Road, Kensington 
(Dir., Motor Carriage Supply Co., Ltd. ; Taiameter Syndicate, 
Ltd.). 
Mobecbaet, Wellington & Co., Clement Avenue, High Street, 

Clapham, S.W. 
♦MoBBis Bbos., Pontypridd, Wales. 
MoBBis, J. C. (Viner, Leeder & Morris) ; Swansea (Dir,, Swansea 
Motor Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 
*M0T0B Cab Co., 93 & 94, Long Acre, W.C. 

*Motoe Toubing Co., The, Head Quarters, Llandudno (Petrol 
Stores, Accumulators charged, &c.). 
Muibhead, R., Lenrick House, Station Road, Maidstone. 
*MrLLiNEB, A. F., Bridge Street, Northampton (Dir., Mulliner, 
London, Ltd.). 
Mulliner, A. G. (Dir., Mulliner, London, Ltd.), 
Mfllineb, H. H. (Dir., Lond. lilec. Cab Co., Ltd.). 
MuLLiNEB, H. J., Iris House, Grove Park, Chiswick. 
MuBBAY, D. O. (Dir., Cycles and Automobiles Michaux, Ltd.). 
*MusKETT, J., Higher Walton, near Warria^tftTi. 



208 

Nanheim, J. ¥, (Dir„ British Thomson-Houston, Ltd.)- 

Nbale, D., 21, Rutland Square, Edinburgh (Electric Cars). 
*N"bw, a. G-., The Voltage, Woking. 

N"bw8TEAd, a. C. (Dir., Pretot Motor Synd., Ltd.). 

•NiBLETT, H. (Sec., Steam Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd.). 

NiBLETT, J. T., 16, Colerain Boad, Blackheath, S.E. 

NiBLETT &SFTHBBLAND,Chando8 Street, W.C. (Electrical Engineers). 
♦NoEBBET, Rev. D., The Priory, Pulborough. 

NoEEis, W., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., &c. 

NoETHET, p. W., Rectory Farm, Ewell, Surrey (Elec. Motive Power 
Co., Ltd.). 

Onwabd Motoe & Cycle Woeks, 417, Brighton Road.. Croydon. 
*Oppeemann, C, 2, Wynyatt Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. (Electro-motor 

Cars). (See Advt, p. iv.) 
*OuTHWAiTB, T. R., Elie, Fife, N.B. 

Page, Majoe Flood (Dir., Elec. Street Car Manfg. Synd., Ltd. ; 

London Elec. Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 
♦Paget, R. A. S., 2, Harcourt Buildings, Temple. 
Palethoepe, C. H., Killiney, Rhyl, North Wales. 
Palmee, J. W., St. Paid's Road, Dorking (Dir., Marquand 

Accumulator Co., Ltd.). 
Palmee, T. C, 98, Commercial Road East (Dir., Motor Van Synd., 

Ltd.). 
*Paeis Singee & Co., Clapham, S.W. (Q-as and Oil Engines). (See 

Advt. pp. X., xi.) 
Paeeee, Tho8., J.P., Wolverhampton (Q-. R. Blot, Ltd., Elec. Street 

Car Manfg. Synd., Ltd. ; Thomas Parker, Ltd.). 
Paekee, Thos. H. (Dir., Elec. Street Car Manfg. Synd., Ltd.). 
Paekes, E., M.P. (Brampton Bros., Ltd.). 
Paee, Ellis, Brazil House, Isleworth, Middlesex. 
Paesons, Hon. C. A. (Turbines), Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Pateeson, H. R. (Dir., Lond. Elec. Cab Co., Ltd. ; Carter, Paterson, 

&c.). 
PA.VY, F. (Dir., New Q-eneral Traction Co., Ltd.). 
Pedley, Q-. F. (Lond. Motor Van & Wagon Co.). 
*Peek, Feean & Co., Readinfir. 
Peek, W. (Dir., Madelvic Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 
Pendee, Sie James, Baet. (Dir., E.P.S. Co., Ltd.). 
Pennington & Baines, 5 & 6, Q-t. Winchester St., E.C. (Oil 

Engines, &c.). 
•Pennington, E. J., 5 and 6, Q-reat Winchester Street, E.C. (Pen- 
nington & Baines, &c.). 
Peeeett, Thos. J., 181, Queen Victoria Sti*eet, E.C. (Dir., Hydro- 

Pjieumatic Traction Synd., Ltd.). 



209 

*Pbtteb, E. W., 30, Trebovir Koad, Earls Court, S.W. 
^Phillips, R. E., 70, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

Phillips, W. (Gen. Man., Humber & Co., Ltd.)- 

PiNKNBY, C. W., 77, Raglan Road, Smethwick, Stafford; (Vol. 2, 
p. 313.) 
*Playbb-B»ig STOCK E, "W*., The Terrace, Ryde, I. of W. 
' PoAD & Helps, St. Phillips Bridge, Bristol. 
♦Porter, Dr. H. E. B., 5, Queen's G-ardens, Windsor. 

Potter, W., A.M.I.C.E. (Dir , Nat Motor Carriage Synd., Ltd.). 

Powell, R. L., Heatherbank, Chislehurst. 

Power, P. A., & Son, Saltley, Birjungbam (Steel Sections and 
Wheel Nipples). 
♦Power, H., 24, Portland Place, W. 

Preece, W. H., Gothic Lodge, Wimbledon. 

Progress CrcLS Co., Coventry. 

PoGH, C. v., 34, Spon Street, Coventry. 
•Purchase, E. K., Brackley Lodge, Weybridge, Surrey. 
♦Purchase, J. B., 14, Regent Street, W. 



♦Rawlinson, a., Winwick Warren, Rugby. 

Raynb, H. (Dir., Motor Attachment Synd., Ltd.). 

Read, E. T. (Universal Motor Carriage & Cycle Co., Ltd.). 

Reaney, D. L. (Bradford Cycle & Motor Car Assocn., Ltd.). 
♦Redwood, B. B., Glen Wathen, Church End, Finchley. 
♦Redwood, Professor Boverton, F.R.S.E., F.I.C., 4, Bishopsgate 
Street Within, London, E.C. (Petroleum Expert). 

Reliance Lubricating Oil Co., 22, Water Lane, E.C. 

Renold, Hans, Brook Street, Manchester (Noiseless Transmission 
Chains). 
•Reynolds, E. P., Ashdell Grove, Sheffield. 

Rhodes, J. (Dir., Kelham Rolling Mills, Ltd.). 

Richardson, P., 47, Holbom Viwiuct, E.G. (Motor Mfg. Coi). 

Richter Manufacturing Co , Bradford (Automatic Safety Guard). 

Rickard, J. R. (Dir., Lond. Motor Car Wks. Co., Ltd.). 

RiGAUD, Capt. H. C. (Dir., Motor Development Corp., Ltd. ; Accu- 
mulator Synd., Ltd.). 

Ristort, E. (Dir., British Aluminium Co., Ltd.). 
♦Robinson, F. A., The Pai'k, Mansfield (Mansfield Motor Car Co.). 

Robinson, Tiios. (Man. Dir., Motor Manufactuiing Co.; Lond. 
Steam Omnibus Co.). 

RoL^E, J. H. H. (Dir., Pretot Motor Synd., Ltd.). 

ROLLASON, A., Winnick Warren, Nottingham. 

RoLLESTON, Sir J. F. L. (Dir., Clyde Cycle & Motor Oar Co., Ltd.). 
♦Rolls, Hon. C. S., South Lodge, Rutland Qt^iXft^^r^ t 



210 

♦Roots, J. D., 100, Westminster Bridge Road, 8.E. 

RbsE, A. A. (Dir.,.Madelvic Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
♦Ross, W. Dm Oakthorpe, Palmer's Green, N. 

RovEE Cycle Co., Coventry. 

RowBOTHAM, W., 27, Vittoria Street, Birmingham. 

RuBEBY & Co., Victoria Ironwork?, Darlastou, S. Staffs. (Frames), 
{See Advt. p. xxxii.) 

Rfckeb, M. D. (Dir., Humber & Co., Ltd.). 



Salmons & Sons, New|X)i*t Pagncli, Bucks. 

♦Salomons, Sie David, Baet., Tunbridge Wells. 

♦Sampson, Capt. G. D., 18, Hyde Park Gate, S.W. 

♦Sampson, J. Lyons. Harewood Chambers, 274, Oxford Street. 

Samuelson & Co., Ltd., Britannia Wk8.,Banburj (Motor Engines). 

Samuelson, E., Bodioote Q-range, Banbury. 

Samuelson, Rt. Hon. Sib Beknhaedt, Baet., 56, Princes Gate. 

Saeoeant, W. S., Kew Bridge, Chiswick (Launches and Tubular 
Boilers). 

Sabtobis, F., J.P. (Dir., Motor Development Corp., Ltd. ; Accu- 
mulator Synd., Ltd.). 

Sabtobis, H., J.P. (Dir., Motor Development Corp., Ltd. ; Accu- 
mulator Synd., Ltd.). 
♦Saundebson, H. P., Kemptou Road, Bedford. (Vol. 3 p. 1.) 
♦Sayeb, R. C, 11, Clyde Road, Redland, Bristol. 
♦ScHENLEY, G. A., Warsash, Hants. 

Scott, T. (Dir., Jesse Ellis & Co., Ltd.). 
♦Sennett, a. R., Royal Institution, London (Consulting 
Engineer). 

Sevieb, C. J. F. (Sec, Power and Traction, Ltd.). 

Shanks. F. (Dir., Anglo-French Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 

SiTANN, M. H. C. & R. E. C, Westfield, Bromley, Kent. (Vol. 2, 
p. 268.) 

Shaw, M. W., Eastbourne (Dir., Hydro -Pneumatic Traction Synd., 
Ltd.). 

Shaw- Kennedy, F. D. C. (Dir., Roots' Oil Motor Carriage Co., 
Ltd.). 
♦Shelley, C. E., M.D., Hertford, Hants. 

Shebbin, J. Vafghan (Dir., Britannia Motor Co.; Accumulator 
Synd., Ltd.; Motor Development Corp., Ltd.). 

Shippby, a., King Street, Cheapside (Dir., Shippey Bros., Ltd.; 
Riker Motor). 

Shippey, F. J. (Dir., Shippey Bros., Ltd.). 

SniPTON, E. K., 49, Victoria Street, S.W^ (Cyclists' Touring Club, 



211 

*Shebwsbuey and Talbot, The Rt?. Hon. The Eabl op, 
12a, George Street, Hanover Square. ' 
Siemens, A., 12, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W. 
*Sim:us, F. R. (Simms & Co.) (Dir., Motdr Carriage Supply Co., 
Ltd. ; Taxameter Sjnd , Ltd., &c.). 
SIMMS & Co., Amberley House, Norfolk Street, Strand (Consulting 

Engineers). i 

Simpson, J. F. (Man. Dir., Smith, Simpson &. Co., Ltd.). 
Simpson, O., 14, Edward Terrace, New Town, Oct, Yarmouth. 
Simpson & Bodman, Didsburj, Manchester. 

Simpson, Steickland & Co., Dartmouth, S. Devon (Launch and 
Automotor Vehicle Builders). 
•SiNOEE, Paeis, 19, Kensington Court, S.W. (Dir., Paris Singer, Ltd.). 
Skelton (Dir., Yorkshire Motor Co., Ltd.). 
Sleath Bbos., Leamington. 

Smith, E. Sheapnell, Royal Institution, Colquitt Street, Liverpool. 
•Smith, Holeotd, 47, Victoria Street, S.W. (Oil Motors). 
Smith, Paefeey, & Co., 141, Buckingham Palace Rd., S.W. 

(Wheels, &c.). {See Advt. p. xxxvii.) 
Smith, R. A. (Mang. Dir., Power and Traction, Ltd.) . 
Smith, T., 40, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. (British Motor Co.). 
Smith, T. V. (Dir., Smith, Parfrey, & Co., Ltd.). 
*Soames, E., 102, Windmore Road, Bromley. 
SoNGHFEST, J. (Liquid Fuel Engineermg Co.). 
SoUTHEEN MoTOE Car & CrcLE Co., 59, Brixton Road, S.W. 
SorTHEY, A. W., 16, Elm Street, Gray's Inn Road. 
Spagnolbtti, C. E., 2, Craven Terrace, Ealing, W. (Electrician). 
Spaekes, S. H. (Fox Bros., Ltd.). 
Spooneb, Stanley, 62, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 
*Spdbeiee, H., Jtjn., The Lodge, Ley land. Lanes. 
♦Spueeiee, H., Sen., Marston-on-Dove, Derby. 
Stanley, W., St. Mary's Ghite, Chesterfield. 
St ABLE Y, J. K., Barrs Hill House, Coventry. 
Stattee, J. G-EiCB (Man., Lond. Elec. Cab Co.). 
*Stbdman, H., Towcester. 
*STiELiNa, J., Ingleton, Hamilton, N.B. 
•Stopes, a. D., Hillsleigh, Colchester. 
Steaeeb, p. W., Gilmeston, Peim Road, Croydon (Daimler Co.). 
Steakeb, Sidney, 110, Cannon Street, E.C. (Oil Motors). 
Stbinoee, Gt. E., 92, New North Road, Huddersfield (Dir., Lond. 

Autocar Co., Ltd.). 
*Steingee, J. C., Park Hill, Kenilworth. 
Stbong, H. O., Norfolk Works, St. Paul's, Bristol (GTas, Steam and 
other Engines). 
*Stfemky, J. J. H., 19, Hertford Street, Covetvtr^ (Jl^Vt . '^-^aos^kSstL 
Co. J Pennington Motor Foreign Pal©iA% ^^ivQl.,"VA^., ^^j.^. 



212 

SuPWELD, The Rt. Hok. Lobd, "K.C.B., 4, Manrlierter Square. 
Sullivan, Sib E., Babt., (Dir... P^nington Motor Foreign Patents 

Synd.. Ltd., Ac.)* 
SwiNBOUBKB, J., 66, Victoria Street, S.W. 
Symok, B. R., 20, Abchurch I^uw, E.G. ("Lifu " Co.). 

Tatlob, Queen's Boad, Nottingliam (Automotor Yehicle Frames). 

Teable, J. (Dir., Compound Hydro-Carbon Motor Synd., Ltd.). 

Tebby, S. H. (Dir., Motor Attachment Synd., Ltd.). 

Thomas, T. P., Port Tennant, Swansea (Dir., Swansea Motor 
Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 

Thomas, W. (Dir., Thomas Parker, Ltd.). 

Thompson, A., 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. 

Thompson, Q-. F., 29, Newstead Boad, Liverpool. 

Thompson, Sib Thos., Babt. (Dir., British Tliomson -Houston, 
Ltd.) 
*Thobnycboft, J. I., Ghiswick (Automobile Torpedo, Launch and 
Vehicle Builder). 

Thobnhill, W. J. (Sec., Paris Automobile Cab Co., Ltd.). 

Thobnton, J. E. (Dir., Thornton Motor Co., Ltd.). 

Thbupp, G. H., Jun., 425, Oxford Street, W. 
•TiNNE, T. P. S.. The Hall House, Hawkhurst, Kent. 

Tod, a. M. (Dir., Nat. Motor Carriage Synd., Ltd.). 

ToLOH & Co., The Boat- Yard, Fulham. 

•TouLMiN, J. H. (Dir., Pennington Motor Foreign Patents Synd., 
Ltd.). 

TousEY, F. W., 3, Cambridge Terrace, East Cowes, I.W. 
*TowAET) & Co., St. Lawrence Ironworks, Newcastle-on-Tyne (Auto- 
motor Vehicle Builders). 
♦TowNSEND, E., Pembroke Lodsre, St. John's Boad, Sevenoaks. 

" TfirsTY " Engine Wobks, Cheltenham (Oil Engines). 

Tube, J. E., Burleigh Villa, Harrogate (Dir., Yorkshire Motor Co., 
r Ltd.). 

TuBNBULL, Lt.-Col. (Mang. Dir., Lond. Elec. Omnibus Co., 
Ltd.). 
♦Tfeneb (Db.) Dawson, F. D., 37, George Square, Edinburgh. 

Twist, C. F., 36, Kidbropk Park Boad, Blackbeath. 

Ubquhabt, R. J^ CiE., 6, Clayton Square, Liverpool (Engineer). 
(Vol. 2, p. 68.) 

Valektinb, a., Croxton House, Leamington (Arnold Motor and 

Petrol). 
Vaxlance, R. F. (Dir., Mansfield Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 
Van Toll, J,, 18^ Radford Street, Co-ventry (Dfiimlcr Co.). 



2i3 

*Venables, C. E., 100, Westminster Bridge Road, S.E. (Dir., Boots' 

Oil Motor Carriage Co., Ltd.). 
Verity Motob Co., East Street, Bradford. 
Victor Eno. Co., Seaside Boad, W. Marina, St. Leonards (Motor 

Car and Cycle Makers). 
Victoria Carriage Works, 25, Long Acre, W.C. (Carriage 

Builders). 
Victoria Cycle & Motor Co., Cook Street, Dublin. 
Vine, Sir J. R. Somer^, C.M.Q-., Members* Mansions, S.W. 



Wadsworth, R., Thomas Street^ Halifax (Parochial Motor 
Vehicles). 
•Wagner, J. W., 13, Castlenau Villas, Barnes, S.W. 
Wallace, RooEit W., Q.C., 2, Harcpurt Buildings, Temple, E.C. 
(Chairman, Automobile Club, &c.). 
* Walker & Hutton, 37, Huntress Row, Scarborough. 
Walker, il. C. (Dir., Power and Traction, Ltd.). 
Walker, R. W. M. (Dip., Smith, Parfrej & Co., Ltd.). 
Wallis-Tayler, a. J., Mechanical Institute of Civil Engineers. 
Walter, A. J., 3, Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C. (Dir., Auto- 
mobile Proprietary, Ltd.). 
Walters, O. (Walters & Johns), Morriston (Dir., Swansea Motor 

Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 
Ward, J. J. (Dir., Mansfield Motor Car Co., Ltd.). 
Ward, Radcliffe, Trafalgar Buildings, I>Jorthumberland Avenue 

(Engineer) . 
Wastage & Co , 213, Maida Vale, W. (Motor Builders). 
Weatherill, VV. p. W., 33, Beach Street, Hightown, Manchester 
(Wheels). 
*We6UELin, B., 61, Pont Street, W. 
*Weguelin, H., 16, Ashley Place, S.W. 
*Weir, a., Bendarrocb, Otterv-St.-Mary, Devon. 
Weiser, B. (Dir,, Delecroix Motor Synd., Ltd.). 
Weldless Steel Tube Co., Icknteld Port Road, Birmingham. 
Wells & Co., Hardman Street Oil Works, Manchester (Lubricating 

OU). 
Werner Accumulator Co., 11 and 12, Devonshire Chambers, 

Bishopsgate Street, E.C. 
West, H. H., Liverpool (Consulting Engineer) . 
*West, J. R., ^Uscot Park, Stratford* on-A von. 
*Whattox, Rev. A., Burleydown Vicarage, Southampton. 
White, A. J., Surrey House, Littlehampton (Dir., Motor Carriage 

Supply Co., Ltd.). 
White, G-. F. (Dir., Smith, Parfrey & Co., Ltd.V 



, ^i 



214 

^Williams, J., St. Helen's Koad, Swansea (Dir., Swansea Motor 

Omnibus Co., Ltd.). 
♦Williamson, L., Albert Boad, Ho wick, Southport. 
. WiLLOUGHBY, F. S. (Dir., Challiner, &c., Tyre Co., Ltd.). 
♦Wills, W. P. C, Soutbfield, IJxbridge, Middlesex. 
. Wilson^ Pbof. Caeub (Electric Traction). 

"Wilson, W. H. (Dir., Challiner, »\(c., Tyre Co., Ltd.). 

"Wise, A. L. (Sec. Hjdro- Pneumatic Traction Synd., Ltd.). 

"Wiseman, E. (Dir., Compound Hydro-Carbon Motor Synd., Ltd.). 

"Wolesley Sheep Sheabino Co./Birmingham (Automotors). 
♦Wood, A. H. E., Sudbourne Hall, Wickham Market, Suffolk. 

"Wbides, J. T., 3, Blomfield Pavement, Uxbridge Road, W. (Motor 
Builder). 

"Weight, Wm., "Wollaton, near Nottingham (Daimler Co.). 



Zachabias, H. L. E. (Dir., Motor Car Emporium, Ltd., &c.). 



NAMES OF ADVERTISERS. 



Anglo- American Oil Co., xxxvi. 
Automobile Association, Ltd., The, ii., iii. 

Bickford Eurners Co., xxxii. 

Blake, F. C, ix. 

Britisli Motor Co., Ltd., The, vi., vii. 

Carless, Capel <fe Leonard, xxxv, 
Connolly, J. W. & T., xii. 
Coulthard & Co., T., xxv. 
Crastin, C, xxxiii. 
Crowden, C. T., xxxiv. 

Harvey & Co., Julius, v. 

Headland's Patent Electric Storage 
Battery Co., Ltd., xviii 

' King" Motor Car Co., xxvii. 



Liquid Fuel Engineering Co., xvi. 
London Autocar Co., Ltd., xxvi. 

Alackenzie Carriage Works, xxviii. 

Mossherg Holler Bearings, Ltd., viii. 

Motor Carriage Supply Co., Ltd., The, 
xiv. 

Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., The, 
xxiii. 

Oppermann, C, iv. 
Paris Singer, Ltd., x., xi. 

Koots & Venables, xx. 
llubery & Co., xxxii. 

Shippey Brop., Ltd., xxix. 

Smith, Parfrey, ds Co., xxxvii. 

Steam Carriage and Wagon Co., Ltd., 
xxiv. 



215 



LIST OF 

LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES 

MANUFACTURING MOTOR VEHICLES OR COMPONENT 

PARTS AND ACCESSORIES. 



[Note. — To render this list of as much practical use as possible, 
those Companies appearing in the 1898 Pocket Book have 
been omitted wliich, although holding power under their 
Articles of Association to manufacture and deal in Motor Cars, 
obviously, in the opinion of the Editor, have no intention of 
exercising those powei-s, at least for tlie present. The registered 
particulars have been compiled from the latest Official returns 
at Somerset House, and submitted for further verification 
to. the Secretary of each Company individually. Where the 
particulars have been returned by the Company verified, an 
asterisk (*) is prefixed to the title.] 

'* T. A." denotes Telegraphic Address, 

[XoTE. — For Limited Liability Companies not in this list, refer to 
the 1898 Pocket Book.] 

A. K. Atkey, Ltd., City Buildings, Carrington-st., Nottingham. 
Kegd. Nov. 7, 1898. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

Abel Moreall, Ltd., 10, Newhall-st., Birmingham. Regd. Jan. 3, 
1898, Cap. £50,000, m £5 shs. (4,000 Pref.). 2,290 Pref. and 3,757 
Ord. shs. taken up. 1,950 Pref. and 3,750 Ord. issued as paid. £5 
per sh. called on 340 Pref. and 7 Ord. £1,735 paid. 

♦Accumulator Syndicate, Ltd., 21, Regent-st., Waterloo- place, 
S.W. Regd. May 13, 1897. Cap. £30,000, in £1 shs. All shares 
taken up, 25,000 issued as paid, 10*. per sh. called on 4,993 shs., 
and £1 per sh. on 7, £2,503 10*. paid. Dirs., Capt. H. C. Rigaud, 
H. Sartoris, J.P., F. Sartoris, J.P., J. V. Sherrin, W. T. Hick. 
Sec, J. W. Oakley. 

Akester Electro-Motor and Accumulator Co., Ltd., 8, Wells-st., 
Oxford-st., W. Regd. May 16, 1887. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. 
4,848 shs. taken up, 3,500 issued as paid, £1,324 12.y.paid, £175 8*. 
unpaid, £475 12*. paid on forfeited shares. 

Allan & Adamson, Ltd., 88 and 90, Tabernacle-st., E.C. Regd. 
Dec. 17, 1896. Cap. £30,000, in £1 shs. 7 shares taken up. No 
calls. 



21G 

AtfeLB8BY Motor Bus Co.. Ltd. Kegd. Oct. 12, 1898. Cap. 
£1,400, in £10 dhs. Begd. by A. II. Atkins, Ltd., 22, BouTerie-st.,. 
E.C. No office or returns filed. 

*ANOLo-FEBNon MOTOE Cabeiage Co., Ltd., 80, Digbeth, Birming- 
ham. Regd. July 29, 1896. Cap. £300,000, in £1 shs. 171,107 
shs. taken up, 100,000 issued as paid, £69,954 2s. 6d. paid, 
£1,152 17«. 6d. unpaid. Purchase consideration, £133,000. Dirs., 
Lord M. Beresford, A. Barrett, E. B. Ellice-Qark, F. Shanks, 
E. EUas. 

AusENAL Motor Co., Ltd., Priory Park Villa, Priory Park, London-rd.,. 
St. Albans. Begd. Oct. 21,1898. Cap. £100, in £1 shs. No returns, 

AirsTEx's Patent Wheel-Making Machine, Ltd., 10, Draper's- 
Gardeus, E.C. Begd. Dec. 30, 1897. Cap. £75,000, in £1 shs. 
No returns. 

Austealian Cycle and Motoe Co., Ltd., Broad Street House, Old 
Broad-sfc., E.C. Regd. Nov. 7, 1896. Cap. £75,000, in £1 shs. 
56)337 shs. taken up, 21,500 issued as paid, 168. per sh. called on 
34,837, £21,396 lOy. paid (including £164 paid in adrance),. 
£4,726 unpaid. Purchase consideration, £25,000. Dirs., W. Calcott, 
John G-riffiths, J. B. Dunlop, C. H. Fox, W. J. Stoneham, T. BayUss,. 
L. W. Budd. 

♦Automatic Conveyance Co., Ltd., Market Buildings, Market-st.,. 
Torquay. Begd. Mar. 1, 1898. Cap. £6,000, in £1 shs. 3,907 
shs. taken up. 3,600 issued us paid. £307 received. Sec, W. T. 
Briggs. 

*Autom:obile Association, Ltd., 1, Prince's-rd., Holland Park 
Avenue, W. Begd. July 16, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 slis. 
No returns. {See Adt^t. pp. ii., iii.) 

♦Automobile Club of Gee at Beitain, Ltd. Begd. Aug. 17, 1897. 
Cap. £100, in £1 shs. No returns. Merged in the Automobile 
Club of 4, Whitehall Court, London, S.W. 

•Automobile Pbopeibtaey, Ltd., 4, Whitehall Court, S.W. Begd. 
Dec. 7, 1897. Has no capital, but is limited by guarantee. Object i 
To promote and finanee the Automobile Club of Great Britain and 
Ireland. J)irs., Boger W. Wulhue, Q.C. (Chairman), W. Worby 
Beaumont, Frank Butler, Hon. Evelyn Ellis, C. Harrington Moore, 
Sir David Salomons, Bart., Frederick B. Simm:?, A. J. Walter. 
Sec, Claude Johnson. 

Auto-Motoe Express Co., Ltd., 1, York Street, Bamsgate. Beg* 
Aug. 20, 1896. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. 251 shs. taken up, 2*. 6rf. 
per sh. called, £31 7s. 6d. paid. 

Auto-Motoes, Ltd., 40, Holborn Yinduct, E.C. Begd. Feb. 9, 1898* 
Cap. £60,000, in £1 shs. 32 shs. taken up, £32 paid. 

Beesjton Cycles (Continental), Ltd., Q.uinton Works, Chevles- 
more, Coventry. Begd. Feb. 18, 1898. Cap. £15,000, in £l'shs. 



217 

2,475 shs. taken up. 15*. per sh. called, £2,005 paid. Dirs.^ 

R. Hill, S. aorton, C. W. lliffe. 
*Beeston Motob Co., Ltd., Ohejlesmore, Coventry. Reg. Nov. 3,. 

1897. Cap. £110,000, in £1 shs. (44,000 Pref.). 26,592 Pre^. and 

39,889 Ord. taken up. All issued with 17s. considered as paid,, 
. 1*. called. £3,781 8*. Dirs., Rowland HUl, C. W. IlifPe, 8.. 

Gorton. (T.A. : Quintons, Coventry.) Motor Cycles. 
Bell-Hall Txbb Syndicate, Ltd., County Chambers, Westgate-rd.,. 

Newcastio-on-Tyne. Regd. July 11, 1898. Cap. £50,000, in £1 

shs. No returns. 
Bibmingham; MANUPACTFBiNa Co., Ltd., 70, Lombard-st., Birming- 
ham. Regd. June 3, 1898. Cap. £11,000, in £1 shs. All shs. 

taken up. 10,997 issued as paid, £3 paid. Ordered to be wound 

up compulsorily on Sept. 28, 1898. Dirs., C. T. Mitchell, E. S. 

Lermit, W. Davies, T. £Spencer. 
BiBBfiKGHAM MoTOB CrcLB Co., Ltd., 34, Waterloo-st., Birminghami. 

ICegd. Apl. 5, 1897. Cap. £125,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
BiBMiNOiiAM MoTOB Omnibus Co., Ltd. Regd. Apl. 7, 1897. Cap.. 

£10,000, in £1 slis. No office or returns filed. Filed by Jordan. 

<fc Sons, 120, Chancery -lane, W.C. 
Blackpool Motob Cab Co., Ltd., Talbot Chmbrs., Talbot-sq.,. 

Blackpool. Regd. July 30, 1897. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shn. 

7,538 slis. taken up, 5,U00 issued as paid. 10*. called, £1,240 15?. 

paid, £28 5*. unpaid. Dirs., A. Dempster, J. Crabtree, W. R. 

Balluntyne, J. Robinson, G-. T. Hamilton, J. Ifarvey. 
Blenheim Cycle Co., Ltd. 110, Queen Victoria-st., E.C. Regd^ 

Oct. 8, 1897. Cap. £100, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up, £7 

paid. 
*Boag's Cbescent Cabbiage Co., Ltd., 54, Westgate-rd., Newcastle^ 

on-l'yne. Cap. £12,000, in £4 shs. 2,664 shares taken up, £3 per 

sh. called and £7,992 paid. Dirs., G. Allison, W. E. Harker,. 

T. Gillespie, J. R. Fletcher, A. Boag. 
Boulton anj> Paul, Ltd., Rose Lane Works, Norwich. Regd. Dec^ 

13, 1897. Cap. £128,000, in £10 shs. 11,157 shs. taken up.. 

11,150 issued as paid, £70 received. Dirs., J. J. D, Paul (Govg. 

Dir.), H. Fiske. 
*Bbadfobd and Distbict Cycle and Motob Cab Tb a debs' 

Association, Ltd., Unicom Passage, Ivegate, Bradford. Cap. 

£500 in £1 shs. 125 shs. taken up, called, and paid. Dirs.,. 

A. Farnel, R. Blaymines, D. L. Reaney, E. Illingworth, T. Dyson^ 

E. Holroyd (Sec. and Man.). (T.A. : Cyclist House, Bradford.). 

Not a Trading Compuny. 
♦Brampton Bbos., Ltd., OUver-st. Works, Birmingham. Regd. 

May 11, 1897. Cap. £200,000, in 15,000 Pref. shs. of £5, and 

£125,000 Ord. shs. of £1 eacb. All shares taken up, Ord. issued as- 
paid, £5 per sh. called and paid on Pref. DuNi., \i». ■S.«a?«J^s^^'^^-^ »> 



218 

F. W. BramptoD, G. Illslon, C. H. Brampton, and A. Brampton. 
Sec, J. J. Marriott. (T.A. : Brampton, Birmingham.) Driving 
Chains, Wheels, Piniocs and Saddles. 

Brayton Oil Motor Co., Ltd., 74, Coleman-st.. E.C. Regd. .Tan. 
13, 1898. Cap. £110,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

Brayton Fetroi-eum Motor Co., Ltd., 74, Coleman-.st., E.C. Regd. 
Nov. 8, 1894. Cap. £80,000, in £1 shs. All shs. taken up, 79,993 
issued as paid, £G paid, £1 unpaid, nnd now in liquidation. Per- 
mission has been given for the registration of the lirajton Oil 
Motor Co., Ltd. 

♦Britannia Motor Caruiage Co., Ltd., Britannia Motor Mills, 
Woodstock-rd., Uxbridge-rd., W. Regd. Mar. 24, 1896. Cap. 
£100,000, in £1 shs. 52,345 shs. taken up, 35,950 issued as paid, 
15s. called on 16,595. £11,629 7;?. (id. paid, £816 17*. Gd. unpaid. 
£1,250 paid on 5,000 forfeited shares. Purnhase consideration, 
£50,000. Dirs., Hon. J. H. H. Berkeley, W. M. Biunie, C. O. 
Bastian, J. Brjaut. Sec, C. H. Hancock. (Ro-conptruction pro- 
])osed at Exty. Gtn. Mg., Dec. 19, 1898, under title of British 
Electric Motor Can*. Co., Ltd.) 

British Alcolite, Ltd. Regd. May 26, 1898. Cap. £50,000, in 
£1 shs. Regd. by Walker & Rowe, 8, Bueklersbury, E.C. No 
office or returns filed. 

♦British Aluminium Co., Ltd., 9, Victoria-st., S.W. Regd. Mav 7, 
1894. Cap. £300,000, in £10 shs. (20,000 Pref.). All shs. taken 
up. 9,992 Ord. and 3,230 Pref. issued as paid, £10 per sh. called 
and paid on 8 Ord. and 16,770 Pref. Deb-i., 1st, £50 000, 2nd, 
£150,000. Dirs., R. W. Wallace, Q C, A. A. Commo n, LL ])., &c., 
A.S. Bolton, J. P., Robt. Heath, J.P., E. Ristori. Sec. C. F. Jones. 

. (r. A. : Cryolite, London.) Divs. 7 per cent, to July, 18 9f5, on Pref. 
shs. Aluminium castings of all kinds for sprocket wheels, gearing, 
bearings, &c 

*British Electric Traction Co., Ltd., Douington House, 
Norfolk-st., Strand, W.C. Regd. Oct. 26, 1896. Cap. £600,000, 
in £10 shs. (30,000 Pref.). 30,000 Ord. and 10,000 Pref. shs. 
taken up. £10 called on Ord., £6 10^. (including a premium of 
£2 10*. per sh.) called on Pref. £354,817 paid, £57 paid iu 
4idvance of calls, and £10,183 in arrears. Dirs., Sir Chas. 
Rivers Wilson, Earl of Suffolk, Sir C. Fremantle, J. S. 
Raworth, Emile Garcke. Sec, C. Walmsley. (T.A. : G-arcke, 
London.) 

British Electrical Cycle and Motor Engineering Co., Ltd., 75, 
Finsbuiy.pavement, E.C. Regd. Mar. 26, 1897. Cap. £40,000, in 
£5 shs. No returns. 

British Horseless Carriage and Motor Cycle Co., Ltd. Regd. 
May 6, 1896. Cap. £10, in £l shs. No office or returns. Regd. 
hj Lumlej & Lumley, 37, Conduit-st., W. 



219 

British Hydraulic Jointing Co., Ltd. Kegel. May 18, 1898. 
Cap. £1,200,000, in £1 shs. E^solution passed July 5, and 
confirmed July 22, 1898, for winding up voluntarily. The final 
meeting was held on Oct. 12, 1898. 

♦British Motor Co., Ltd., 40, Holborn- viaduct, E.C. Kegd. 
Nov. 21, 1895. Cap. £1,000,000, in £1 shs. 250,000 shs. taken 
up, 249,999 issued as fully paid, £7 paid. Lirs., H. J. Lawson, 
T. Kobinson, and H. Hewitt Griflui. {See Advt. pp. vi., vii.) 

British Motor Syndicate, Ltd. Name changed to British 
Motor Co., Ltd. (q.v.) 

^British Thomson-Houston, Ltd., 83, Cannon-st., E.C. Regd. 
May 18, 1896. Cap. £240,000, in £10 shs. All shs. taken up, 
7,469 issued as paid, £165,310 paid. Dirs., E. Lazarus (Chair- 
iDan), A. R. Marks (Man. Dir.), Sir Thos. Thompson, Bart., W. A. 
Mc Arthur, M.P., W. Martindale, J. F. Nanheim, J. Hamspohn, 
J. Loewe, E. Thurnauer, C. Burrell, Capt. E. Grriffin, and J. T. 
Merz. Divs. 1896-7, 5 per cent. ; 1897-8, 10 per cent. (T.A. : 
Asteroidal, London.) 

British Wagon Co., Ltd., 22, Moorgate-st., Rotherham. Regd. 
Feb. 10, 1898. Cap. £700,000, in £20 shs. All shs. taken up. £3 
per sh. called, £105,000 paid. Dirs., F. L. Harrop, E. Drabble, 
J. Gibbs, F. Wheatley, J. C. Smith. 



Cam Gear Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. June 11, 1898. Cap. £12,000 

in £1 shs. Regd. by W. T. Hick, 2, Church-court, Clement's-lane, 

E.C. No office or returns filed. . 
CiiPSULE Battery Co., Ltd., 32, Great St. Helens, E.C. Regd. 

Sept. :i5, 1894. Cap. £100,000, in £1 shs. 33,157 shs. taken up. 

30,000 issued as paid. £3,150 paid, £7 unpaid. 
Carmont's Noiseless Shielded Rubber Tyre Co., Ltd., Ti*afalgar 

Works, Murphy-st.,Westminster Bridge-rd.,S.E. Regd. Aug. 27,1897. 

Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. All slis. taken up and issued as fully paid. 

CflALLINEtt & WiLLOUGHBY CARRIAGE TyRE Co., Ltd., 1, Kay -St., 

Ard wick -green. Manchester. Regd. May 16, 1898. Cap. £50,C00, 

in £10 shs. 1,200 shs. taken up, and £12,000 paid. 
Challiner Carriage Tyre Syndicate, Ltd., 1a, Kay-st., Ardwick 

Green, Manchester. Regd. Mar. 2, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 

407 shs. taken up, 2.5. called on 400, £20 paid, £20 unpaid. 
' Resolution passed July 11, 1898, and confirmed July 27, for 

voluntary liquidation. Dirs., G. Everatt, W. H. Wilson, F. S. 

Willoughby. 
•Chitty Dynamo and Motor Co , Ltd., 4. Hythe-rd., Willesden- 

junction, N.W. Regd. Dec. 15, 1897. Cap. £200,000, in £5 shs. 

(24,000 cum. Pref.). 6,036 Ord. shs. taken up, 4,921 issacd -s^a. 



^0 

paid. £3 per sh. called on 1,108, and uothine on 7. £3,«S7G paid. 
Dire., H. Lane, A. Dawson, W. J. P. Moore, H. Cliitty (Man. Dir.), 
Sec., F. Martin. 

•ChlobideElectbical Stoe age Syndicate, Ltd., Clifton Junction, 
near Manchester. Regd. Dec. 12, 1891. Cap. £262,500, in 80,000 
" A," 30,000 " B," 140,000 " C," and 12,500 Founders' shs. of £1 
each. All " A," " B," and Founders', and 100,000 " C " shs. taken 
up. 157,500 issued as paid, £65,000 paid. 7 per cent. Pref. Cum. 
Div. paid Nov. 4, 1898, on " A " shs. for 1893. Dirs., F. H. Bowman, 
D.Sc, &c., Ed. Ilopkinson, M. A., &c., A. R. Harrev, W. Bannister, 
J.P., J. S. Bcker. Manager, Gr. A. Q-rindle. See., Holland Dell. 
(T.A. : Accumulate, Pendlebury.) Accumulatoi-s. 

Clarkson & Capel Steam Cab Syndicate, Ltd., 34, Queen-st., 
EC. Regd. Feb. 13, 1897. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. (10,000 
Pref.). 8,289 Pref. and all Ord. shs. taken up. All Ord. and 
3,500 Pref. issued as paid. £1 per sh. called on 4,789. 
£4,789 paid. 

♦Clyde Cycle and Motob Cab Co., Ltd., Wyrern Buildings, 
London-rd., Leicester. Regd. Feb. 2, 1897. Cap. £25,000, in 
£1 shs. (10,000 Pref.). 10,125 shs. taken up, 7,000 issued as 
paid, £3,125 paid. Purchase consideration, £15,000. Dirs., 
Sir J. F. L. Rolleston, A. E. Burnaby, Gt. Parr, G. H. Wait. 
DiT., 1897, 10 per cent. 

♦CoMPOFND Hydko-Cabbon Motob SYNDICATE, Ltd., Guildford-st., 
Luton, Beds. Regd. Aug. 4, 1898. Cap. £12,000. in £1 shs. No 
returns. Dirs., J. Holroyd, M.I.M.E., E. Wisennin, J. Tearlc. 

Co-opebative Cycle MANUFACTUBiNa Co., Ltd., 11, Clerkenwell- 
green, E.C. Regd. Jan. 13, 1898. Cap. £10,OOU, in £1 shs. No 
returns. 

Cosmopolitan Cycle and Motob Wobks, Ltd., 52, Queen Vic* 
toria-street, E.C. Regd. Sept. 20, 1897. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. 
7 shs. taken up, £7 paid. 

Cotentby Accessobies, Ltd., Triangle-chambers, Martineau-st., 
Birmingham. Reg. Feb. 9, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. 3,007 
shs. taken up. 3,000 issued as paid, £7 received. 

Coventby Motob Co., Ltd., 40, Holbom Viaduct, E.C. Regd. 
Oct. 5, 1896. Cap. £250,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up, 
£7 paid. 

Cbaven Cycle Co., Ltd., S^ill-st., Corentry. Regd. Oct. 5, 1897. 
Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. 1,207 shs. taken up. 1,20 J issued as paid. 
No calls on 7. 

Cbawfobd CrCLB " and Motob Co., Ltd., 4, Mesnes-st., Wigan. 
Regd. July 3, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 4,715 shs. taken 
up, 3,550 issued as paid, £1,165 paid. Dirs., R. Ffarringfcon^ 
W. Thorn, A. Hewlett, T. M. Dixon, J. Wood, T. J. S. Clepham, 
O. Oee. 



221 

CfiEANCHE AuT0M0BiLi2 AND Cycle SYNDICATE, Ltd., 76, Queen 

Victoria-8t., E.C. Regd. Aug. 17, 1897. Cap. £4,000, in £1 shs. 

Besolution passed on Nov. 19, 1897, for voluntary liquidation, 

with A. Pajol, of 5, Rue Scribe, Paris, as liquidator. 
Cbbwdson, Habdy & Co., Ltd., Yorkshire Tube Works, Middles- 
brough. Regd. July 16, 1898. Cap. £55,000, in £5 shs. No 

returns. Dirs., Sir Raylton Dixon, J.P., John Livingston, W. 

H. Hardy. 
Cboll's Imfboybd Bbaee Holdeb Co., Ltd., 34 and 36, Grosham-st., 

E.C. Regd. Oct. 1, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

Report of Post Office, *' G-one away." 
*Cbossley Bbos., Ltd., Potterv-lane, Openshaw, Manchester, 

Regd. April 5, 1897. Cap. £973,700, in £10 shs. (40,339 Pref.). 

All shs. taken up and paid. 12,519 Pref., and 57,031 Ord. issued 

as paid. Dirs., W. J. Crossley, D. H. Irwin, H. P. Holt, 

R. Wilson, A. Simpson. Sec, W. S. Huffson. (T.A. : Crossley s, 

Openshaw.) Qas and Oil Engines. 
Ckowdus Aocttmulatob Syndicate, Ltd., 34, Victoria-st., S.W. 

Regd. Sept. 29, 1898. Cap. £50,000, in 35,000 she. of £1 and 
. 30,000 shs. of 10*. each. No returns. 
•Cbypto Wobks Co., Ltd., 29, Clerkenwell-rd., E.C. Regd. 

April 13, 1888. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. 11,543 shs. taken up, 

£11,543 paid. 
*Cycle Components Manitfactubino Co , Ltd., Bournebrook, 

Birmingham. Regd. Jan. 29, 1894. Cap. £175,000, in £1 shs. 

All taken up. Dirs., H. Du Cros, H. Du Cros, Jun., A. Du Cros. 

S. F. Edge, F. Warwick, C. Sangster. Sec, J. Carter. 

(T.A,: Components, Selly Oak.) Component Parts. Dirs., 

1895-6, 20 per cent. ; 1896-7, 20 per cent. 
Cycle and Motob Accessobibs Co., Ltd., 7, Southampton-row, 

W.C. Regd. Nov. 26, 1896. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. Now in 

liquidation. 
Cycle and Motob Cab Impbovement Coepobation, Ltd. Struck 

off Register, Oct. 4, 1898. 
Cycle, Motob Vehicle, and Accident Insubance Co., Ltd. 

Struck off Register, Oct. 4, 1898. 
♦Cycles and Automobiles Michaux, Ltd.,7, Gt. St. Helens, E.C. 

Regd, June 24, 1897. Cap. £100,000, ;n £1 shs. 62,082 shs. taken 

up, 55,000 issued as paid, £7,082 paid. Dirs., B. Dunkelsbuhler, 

D. O. Murray. 
Cycles, Ltd., 21, St. Mary-axe, E.C. Regd. Jan. 10, 1898. Cap. 

£10,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Cyclists' Chalet Co.^ Ltd., 8, Eensington-place, Rrislington, Bristol. 

Regd. Oct. 7, 1897. Cap. £30,000, in £1 shs. 2,796 shs. taken up. 

140 issued as paid, 5«. per sh. called on 2,656, £667 IBs, piaid. 



222 

*])AiMLER Motor Co., Ltd., 219 to 229 Sliaftesbury-avenue, W.C. 

Regd. Jan. 7, 1896. Cap. £100,000. in £10 sLs. All shs. taken up 

(37 forfeited). £99,685 10*. paid. Purchase consideration, £40,000. 

Dira., J. A. Bradsbaw, Hon. E. H. Ellis, H. E. S. Holt, J. H. Mace, 

J. J. H. Sturmey, W. Wright. Q-en, Man., A. H. D. Altreey 

Wks. Man., J". S. Critchley ; Sec, E. M. C. Instono. (T.A. : Daimler, 

London or Coventry.) Oil Engines. Component Parts, Fmmes, 

lijnition Apparatus. Steering Gear, Wheels, and complete Motor 

Vehicles and Launches of all descriptions. 
*D. P. Battery Co., Ltd., 66, Victoria-st., S.W. Regd. May 11, 

1895. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. All shs. taken up, 14*. per sh. 

called on 9,992, and £1 per sh. on 8. £7,002 8*. paid. 
Dare Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 14, Uorough High-st., S.E. 

Regd. Mar. 17, 1898. Cap. £2.000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
*Darlingtox Cycle and Motor Car Co., Ltd., 5, Norfchgate, 

Darlington. Regd. Feb. 26, 1897. Cap. £3,000, in £25 slis. 70 shs. 

taken up, £25 per sh. called, £1,750 paid. Dirs., J. Latham, T. 

Summei-sen, S. .T. Summersen, A. Ton Bergen, R. B. Summersen, 

R. M. McLachlan, J". G. Harbottle. 
•David Maetyn & Co., Ltd., Engine Works, G-len-st., Hebburn-on- 

Tyne. Regd. Sept. 25, 1897. Cap. £3,000, in £10 shs. 170 shs. 

taken up. 90 issued as paid, £7 10^. called, £550 paid, £50 unpaid. 

Dirs., R. Hodge, R. Eeles, R. Y. Mcintosh. G-en. Man., David 

Martyn. (T.A. : Martyn's, Hebburn.) Steam Vehicles. 
Davidson's Air Car Construction Syndicate, Ltd., 59, Jermyn-at., 

S.W. Regd. Oct. 20, 1897. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. 10,750 shs. 

taken up. 10,000 issued as paid, £600 paid, £150 in arrears. 
Da VIES Motor Co., Ltd. Name changed to Nalder Bros. & 

Co., Ltd. (q.v.). 
Defiance Cycle and Motor Car Co., Ltd., 15, Temple-st., Swansea. 

Regd. Dec. 24, 1896. Cap. £10,000, in £10 shs. 250 shs. taken up, 

£2,500 paid. 
♦Delecroix Motor Syndicate, Ltd., 15, Copthall-avenue, E.G. 

Regd. Jan. 19, 1898. Cap. £60,000, in £1 shs. 3,307 shs. taken 

up. £3,300 paid, £7 unpaid, 28,900 issued as fidly paid. Dirs., 

E. Nadler, B. Weiser, X. de le Croix, Ad. de le Croix. (T.A. : 

Upupa.) 
Devon Traction and Motor Co., Ltd., 1, Budge-row, E.G. 

Regd. Mar. 1, 1898. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., 

R. C. Fenton, J. E. Parnell, W. J. Dart. 
♦Drake and Gobham Electric Power and Traction Co., Ltd., 

66, Victoria-st., S.W. Regd. Sept. 28, 1898. Cap. £250,000, in 

£1 shs. No returns. Man. Dirs., J. F. Albright, B." M. Drake. 

Sec, R. Dand. (T.A. : Trainoirs, London.) 
•Drake and Gorhah El3Cteic Power and Traction (Pioneer) 
Syndicate, Ltd., 6R, Victoria-st., S.W. Regd. May 14, 1898. 



223 

Cap. £20,000, in £10 shs. 1,107 slis. taken np. £5 ner sh. callecP. 

Man. Dirs., J. F. Albright, B. M. Drake. Sec, R. Band. (T.A. r 

Traiuoirs, London.) 
Deuid Cycle Co., Ltd. Regd. Nov. 23, 1898, by T. T. Hull, 

22, Cliancery-lane, W.C. Cap. £ 1 ,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
♦Dttnlop Motor Co., Ltd., 14, Regent-st., London, S.W. Regd, 

Oct. 16, 1897. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. No official returns filed. 

Dirs., S. F. Edge (Chairman), Harvej da Cros, H. J. Lawson. 

Sec, L. M. Bergin. 
DiJNLOP Pneumatic Tyee Co., Ltd., 14, Regent-st., London, S.W. 

Regd. May 6, 1896. Cap. £4,000,000, in 1,000,000 Pref ., 1,000,000 

Ord., and 2,000.000 Def. shs., of £1 each. All shs. taken up, 

full amount called, £3,999,024 10*. paid, £975 10*. unpaid. 

Debs.. £550,000. Purchase consideration, £5,000,000. Dirs., Earl 

de la Warr, The Duke of Somerset, The Earl of Albemarle, Harvey 

Du Cros, Arlhur Du Cros. 

*E. C. Clark, Ltd., Irongate, Derby. Regd. Nov. 11, 1897. Cap. 

£7,000, in £1 shs. 4,651 shs. taken up. 2,625 issued as paid, 

£2,001 12*. 6d. received, £24 7.v. 6d. in arrears. Dirs., P. B. 

Chadfield (Chairman), E. C. Clarke and W. N. Ilallam. Man. 

Dirs., R. W. Spriggs, C. E. Oliver. 
Eclipse Tyre and Rim Co., Ltd., 58, Broad-st., Birmingham. 

Regd. Oct. 22, 1898. Cap. £16,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Epward Foster & Son, Ltd., Central Brass Works, Woolshops,. 

Halifax. Regd. Oct. 14, 1897. Cap. £50,000, in £5 shs. 8,400 

shs. taken up. 3,000 issued as paid, £27,OCK) received. Dirs., 

W. H. Foster (Chairman, Man. Dir.), R. Irvine, jun., H. H. Stocks, 

J. M. Jackson, J. Frobisher, J. Barlow. 
Edward Preston & Sons, Ltd., 21, Whittall-st., Birmingham. 

Regd. Jan. 19, 1898. Cap. £50,000, in £1 shs. 21,500 shs. taken 

up, and all issued as paid. Dirs., E. Preston, J. E. Preston, C. H. 

Preston, F. W. Preston. 
*Edwin Clark & Co., Ltd., Brimscombe, Rodborough, GHoucester. 

Regd. Oct. 8, 1897. Cap. £3,500, in £1 shs. 1,086" sbs. taken up. 

£1,086 paid. Dirs., J. W. Earle, T. H. Fisher, F. S. Saunders. 

Water-tube boilers, &c, 
Egdell Cycle and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 59, Holbom^ 

viaduct, B.C. Regd. June 18, 1898. Cap. £2,500, in £1 shs. 

7 shs. taken up. £7 in arrears. 
Electrical Cab Co., Ltd. (see London Electrical Cab Co.. Ltd.). 
Electrical Light and Power Co., Ltd., 20, Victoria-&t., S.W. Regd. 

April 1, 1898. Cap. £6,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up. £7 paid. 
*Electrical Power Storage Co., Ltd., 4, Gt. Winchester-st., EC. 

Regd. Dec. 3, 1889. Caj). £100,500, in £5 shs. (100 Founders'). 

66 Founders', and 18,590 Ord. shs, tokftw m^. ^Si^56S5» ^x^- 



.224 

assued as paid. £5 per b1i. culled on 66 Foundera', and £3 per sh. on 
3,182 Ord. £9,618 7s. 4d, has been paid, £121 15«. 6d. is 
"unpaid. £400 has been paid on 404 shs. forfeited. Debentures 
'£2S,400 (5 per cent.) issued and taken up (part of £30,000 
authorised). Div. 6 per cent, for past 6 years. Dirs., I. Irving 
•Courtenay (Chairman), Sir Daniel Cooper, Bart., Q-.C.M.Q-., Sir 
•James Itender, Bart., M.P., F. G-reen« and Frank King. Chief 
»Engr., H. W. Butler. Sec., Davis Smith. 

IEleotrical Traffic Stndicatb, Ltd., 6, Old Jewry, E.C. Regd. 
Dec. 11, 1896. Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. Now in liquidation. 

Klectbio Automobile Syndicate, Ltd., 1, St. Swithin*8-lane, E.G. 
Regd. Nov. 29, 1898. Cap. £900, in £10 shs. No returns. 

Electbic CrcLE Syndicate, Ltd., 37, Walbrook, E.G. Begd. 
Apr. 12, 1892. Cop. £3,000, in £l shs. 2,827 shs. taken up, 
1,000 issued as paid, £1,742 10*. paid, £84 10*. unpaid. 

Electric Hansom Cab and Carbiage Syxdicate, Ltd., 
28, Brook-st., Grosvenor-square, W. Begd. Dec. 11, 1897. Cap. 
C2,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

Electric Railway and Tramway Cabbiaoe Works, Ltd., 
13, Spring • gardens, Manchester. Regd. Apr. 25, 1898. Cap. 
£150,000, in £5 shs. 16,087 shs. taken up. £2 per sh. called, 
£32,174 paid. £11,019 has been paid in advance of calls. Dirs., 
G. Flett, G. F. Fry, J. Kerr, R. H. Presl.wicli, G. Richardson. 

Electbic Stbeet Cab Manufactubin^ Syndicate, Ltd., 
Wednesfield-rd., Wolverhampton. Regd. Dec. 3, 1897. Cap. 
£25,000, in £1 shs. 7,130 shs. taken up, 10*. calletl, £3.552 10*. 
paid, £12 10*. unpaid. Dirs., S. Craddock, T. Parker, E. Lisle, 
S. Flood Page, T. H. Parker. 

Electbic Tbaction Co., Ltd., 16, Gt. George-st., Westminster. 
Regd. Mar. 22, 1894. Cap. £300,000, in 1,200 sh. of £1, and 
29,880 shs. of £10 each. All shares taken up. £1 per sh. called 
on £1 shs., and 10*. per sh. on 29,880 £10 shs. £300,000 paid. 

Electbic Vehicle Syndicate, Ltd., 6, Old Jewry, E.C. Regd. 
Sept. 21, 1897. Cap. £25,000, in £1 ehs. All taken up, 13,000 
issued as paid, 10*. called, £6,993 16*. 8/. paid, £1 3*. 4>d. 
unpaid. 

*Elie80N Lamina Aocumulatob Co., Ltd., 4, Greenland -place, 
Camden Town, N.W. Regd. Aug. 14, 1897. Cap. £65,000, in 
£1 shs. No returns. Dirs., Martin Fr«dd, Earl of Gtilloway, K.T., 
C. P. Elieson, II. Mackenzie. Sec, W. S. Naylor. (T.A. : 
Emancipist, London.) Accumulators, Carriage Bodies, Chains, 
Frames, Gearing. Ilecoiver for Deb. holders appointed, Nov., 

1898. 
'ENDtJBANCE MoTOB Co., Ltd., 18, Hertford-st.. Coventry. Regd. 
V Jan. 28, 1S98, Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. 192 shs. taken up. £182 
issued as paid, £10 received. 



225 

English Sbepollet Motor Syn dig a.te, Ltd., 7, Poultry, E.G. Begd. 

Nov. 18, 1896. Cap. £100,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up, £7 

paid. 
♦EssoN Motor, Ltd., 8, Old Jewry, E.G. Eegd. Sept. 29, 1896. Cap. 

£20,000, in £200 shs. 14 shs. taken up, called up and paid. 

Resolution passed July 12, and confirmed Aug. 5, 1898, for 

voluntary liquidation. 

F. Jackson & Co., Ltd., 77, Oxford-st., W. Regd. Dec. 13, 1897. 

Cap. £n,000, in £1 shs. 2,250 shs. taken up. 1,000 issued as paid, 

and £1,250 received. 
Fabley-Cartman Co., Ltd., 25, Miles- st., Wandsworth-rd., S.W. 

Regd. Aug. 29, 1898. Cap. 20,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Fblschb's Patent Tube Joint Syndicate, Ltd., 15, Copthall- 

avenue, E.G. Regd. Mar. 31, 1898. Cap. £700, in £1 shs. Reso- 
lution passed July 4, and confirmed July 27, 1898, for winding up 

voluntarily. 
Fluid Pkessuee Engine Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Nov. 26, 1898, 

by Mann & Taylor, 109, New Oxford-st., W.C. Cap. £15,000, in 

£1 shs. No returns. Dirs., W. Bonnie, H. E. Samble. 
FoBWAHD ENfcuNEEEiNG Co., Ltd., 67, Scholcficld-st., Birmingham. 

Regd. Oct. 4, 1893. Cap. £50,000, in £5 fhs. No returns. Dirs., 

L. W. Hodson, F. B. Barker, J. D. Garrett. 
FowNES Forge and Engineering Co., Ltd., 37, Lime-st., E.G. 

Regd. Aug. 13, 1898. Cap. £50,000, in £10. shs. No returns. 
Fbiswblij, Ltd., 8, New Bridge-st., E.G. Regd. June 8, 1896. Gap. 

£40,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up. No calls. 
Franco-English Motor-Ca.r Factory Co., Ltd., 4, Copthall- 

chmbrs., E.G. Regd. July, 3, 1897. Cap. £22,000, in £1 shs. 

(20,000 Pref.). No returns or business done. 
Franklin's Cycle & Motor Carriage Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 

Struck off Register on Oct. 4, 1898. 



0-. AND J. Smith, Ltd., Tunbridge Wells. Regd. Dec. 13, 1898. 
Cap. £25,000, m £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., Q-. Smith, J. Smith, 

D. a. Cornwell, E. E. Smith. 

*G. R. Blot & Co., Ltd., 33, St. Swithin's-lane, E.G. Regd. Oct. 16, 
1897. Gap. £75,000, in £1 shs. 30,693 shs. taken up. 14,400 
issued as paid, £16,293 paid. Dirs., Th. Parker (Chairman), 

E. Honey, Gt. R. Blot. Sec, W. W. Aubanel. (T.A. : Microater, 
London.) Accumulators. 

♦Q-ARRARD Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Ill, Ryland-st., Birmingham. 
Regd. July 3, 1896. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. 8,000 shs. taken up, 
5*. per sh. called, £2,000 paid. Debs. £5,000. ^"sa^.^sfv^.^^-^^- 
Qumrd. (T.A. : Gearing, Birmm^OiTXi^) CJtvixsA. 



226 

Geobge F. Milnes & Co., Ltd., 43, Oastle-st., Liverpool. Regd. 
Sept. 10, 1898. Cap. £150,000, in £10 sha. No returns. Dirs., 
Gt. F. Milnes, W. H. Edwards, A. Bruce, W. Busch. 

GiBLiNa Cycle & Motob Cab, Co., Ltd., 185, Westem-rd., Brighton. 
Begd. Dec. 7, 1896. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. 11,960 shs. taken 
up, 10,000 issued as paid, £1 per sh. called on 1,960. £1,507 10*. 
paid, £452 10*. unpaid. Dirs., T. W. Girling, H. A. Arnold, C. B. 
Stoner, F. J. Cully, H. J. Funnell, W. S, Ratcliffe, J. O. 
Stringer. 

Glbw's Steel-Shielded Eubbeb Ttbe Syndicate, Ltd.. 17, Tower 
Royal, Cannon-st., E.C. Regd. Sept. 22, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in 
£1 shs. No returns. 

*Gloeia Cycle Co., Ltd., Priory-st., Coventry. Regd. Feb. 5, 1898. 
Cap. £100, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up. No calls. 

Gbeat Hobseless Cabbiage Co., Ltd., 47, Holborn-viaduct, E.C. 
Regd. May 14, 1896. Cap. £750,000, in £10 shs. 61,502 shs. taken 
up, 25,000 issued as paid, £10 per sh. called on 36,502. 
£327,546 10*. paid, £37,473 10*. unpaid. Purchase consideration, 
£500,000. Dirs., H. J. Lawson, J. C. Mace, E. J. Pennington, 
— Robinson, T. H. Lambert. (Resolution passed Dec. 22, 1897, 
and confirmed Jan. 7, 1898, for voluntary liquidation, with John 
Baker, of Chiswell House, E.C, as Hquidat.or. Re-constructed 
accordingly by the British Motor Syndicate, Ltd., under the title 
of the ** Motor Manufacturing Co., Ltd.") 

"Habt" Accumflatob Co., Ltd., 75, Coleman-st., E.C. Regd. 
Dec. 23, 1898. Cap. £40,000, in £1 shs. 

•Hastings and St. Leonards Engineebing, Cycle, and Motor 
Cab Co., Ltd., Seaside-rd., St. Leonards. Regd. Nov. 18, 1896. 
Cap. £2,500, in £1 shs. 2,409 shs. taken up, 700 issued as paid, 
£1,711 10*. paid (including £2 10*. paid on 20 forfeited shares). 
Du-8., R. H. Gaby, L. O. Glenister, N. Chennells, T. C. Miller, 
W. Slade, Jun. The whole undertaking purchased by the Victor 
Engineering Co., St. Leonards. 

♦Headlands' Patent Elbctbio Stobage Batteby Co., Ltd., 12, 
Pall Mall, S.W. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. 19,663 shs. taken up, 
14,993 issued as paid, £2,389 10*. paid. (See Advt. p. xviii.) 

*Heabl & Tones, 1897, Ltd., Victoria ^nd Albert Works, Sampson- 
rd. North, Birmingham. Regd. Mar. 18, 1897. Cap. £160,000, in 
£1 shs. (50,000 Pref.). No office or return filed officially. Purchase 
consideration, £160,000. Dirs., Col. Cox, A. E. Sayer, E. H. 
Hearl, W. W. Tonks, H. J. Tonks. (T.A. : Peerage, Birming- 
ham.) 

Hbnby White & Co., Ltd., Pontymister Steel and Iron Foundries 
and Engineering Works, near Newport, Mon, Regd. Oct. 1, 1897. 
Cap. £50,000, in £1 shs. No retuxns. 



227 

Hbwbtson's, Ltd., 77, Oxford-st., W. Begd. Oct. 31, 1898. Cap. 

£25,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
HiLLSDON & Stones, Ltd., Alexandra Works, Alexandra-gardens, 

Folkestone. fiegd. Mar. 25, 1898. Cap. £6,000, in £1 shs. 

8,558 shs. taken up. 3,550 issued as paid, £8 received. 
Hoffmann ManufactueingCo., Ltd., King's Head Court, Beech-st., 

Barbican, E.C. Works, Chelmsford. Regd. Jan. 11, 1898. Cap. 

£100,000, in £1 shs. (40,000 Pref.). 20,035 Pref. and 40,000 Ord. 

shs. taken up. 20,000 of each issued as paid, £1 per sh. called on 

the Pref., and 8*. per sh. on the Oixi. £8,035 received. Man. 

Dirs., E. G-. Hoffmann and C. A. Barrett. (T.A. : Hoffmann, 

Chelmsford.) 
HoMB AND Colonial Cycle Supply Co , Ltd., 16, High-st., 

Borough, S,E. Regd. Jan. 14, 1898. Cap.N £5,000, in 5s, shs. 

811 shs. taken up. £2(>2 15«. paid. 
♦Hopkins, Taylor, & Co., Ltd., HoUoway Head, and 49 to 51, ElUs- 

8t., Birmingham. Regd. Mar. 1, 1898. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. 

1,008 shs. taken up. 1,000 issued as paid, £8 received. Dirs., 

R. C. Hopkins (Man. Dir.), P. Everitt. Sec, R. C. Hopkins. 

(T.A. : Fenders, Birmingham.) 
Hull & District Cycle Trades Association, Ltd., Grosvenor 

Hotel, Carr-lane, Hull. Regd. Oct. 31, 1898. Cap. £500, in 

£1 shs. No returns. 
Humber & Co., Ltd., 32, Holbom-viaduct, E.C. Regd. Feb., 1895. 

(Reconstruction of " Humber ^ Co., Ltd.," regd. June 14, 1887.) 

Cap. £500,000 (250,000 Pref.), in £1 shs. All shs. taken up, 

475,000 issued as paid, £25,000 paid. Dirs., A. R. Marten, C. N. 

Baker, T. H. Lambert, F. Goddard, M. D. Rucker, J. Ellis. 
HuMBUBTO Patent Cycle & Engineering Co., Ltd., 31, Market-st., 

Nottingham. Regd. June 1, 1898. Cap. £100, in £1 shs. No 

returns. 
*HYDao - Pneumatic Traction Syndicate, Ltd., 181, Queen 

Victoria-st., E.C. Regd. Dec. 9, 1897. Cap. £3,000, in £1 shs. 

1,503 shs. taken up. 750 issued as paid, 5«. per sh. called on 753. 

£187 10*. paid, 15*. in arrears. Dirs., T. J. Perrett, W. H. Liver- 

sidge, M. W. Shaw, H. Lane, J. Liversidge, and P. B. Liversidge. 

Sec, A. L. Wise. (T.A. : Inclined, London.) 

Idbis Wheel Syndicate, Ltd., 14, Bartlett's-buildings, Holborn- 

circus, E.C. Regd. Nov. 11, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. No 

returns. 
•I.E.S. Accumulator Co., Ltd., 78 and 79, Palace-chmbrs., Bridge-st., 

Westminster. Regd. July 26, 1895. Cap. £100,000, in £1 shs. 

55,000 shs. taken up. 50,000 issued as paid, £5,000 paid, Debs'. 

£6,000. Dir8.,.E. Mann, A. Gt. New. Sec, H. Woodfield. I.^ 

liquidation, but no returns officially ^e^. 



228 

IiTDiAN Cycle & Gbnbbal Engineering Co., Ltd., 2, Gresham- 
buildings, Basinghall-st., E.C. Regd. Nov. 23, 1897. Cap. 
£10,000, in £1 shs. 2,267 shs. taken up and issued as paid. 

♦Indiarubbeb, Gutta Pebcha, and Telegraph Works Co., Ltd. 
106, Cannon-st., E.C. Works, Silvertown, E. Cap. £812,000, in 
£1 shs. 500,000 taken up and paid. Dirs., S. W. JSilver, Hon. H. 
Marsham, A. Scott, A. W. Jarvis, Major L. Darwin, Matthew Gray 
(Man. Dir.). Sec, T. J. Lloyd. (T.A., Silvergray, London.) 
Divs., 1896, 1897, 10 per cent. ; 1898, 2^ per cent, interim, balance 
due Feb., 1899. 

♦Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers, 30, Moor- 
gate-st., E.C. Begd. May 3, 1883, as a guarantee Company, not for 
profit (the word " limited ** being omitted by permission of tho 
Board of Trade), the liability of members in event of liquidation 
being £1 . (T. A : Stenia, London.) 

•International Engine Patents Development Co., Ltd., 33, St. 
Swithin's-lane, E.C. Regd. Feb. 17, 1898. Cap. £3,760, in U. shs. 
7 shs. taken up, 7*. unpaid. Dirs., R. Hunt, W. Shrimpton, A. G. New. 

International Steam Carriage Syndicate, Ltd., 18, Hertford-st., 
Coventry. Regd. Dec. 11, 1897. Cap. £1,083, in £l shs. All 
shs. taken up. 883 issued as paid, £200 received. 



J. & L. Lact, Ltd., 35, Parr-st., Liverpool. Regd. Sept. 10, 1898. 

Cap. £50,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., L. Lacy, L. Lacy, 

Jun., J. J. Lacy. 
Jackson & Harrison, Ltd., Bon March^, New Briggate, Leeds. 

Regd. Aug. 24, 1898. Cap. £3,000, in £5 shs. No returns. Dirs., 

H. R. Webster, B. Mountain, R. R. France, G. H. Jackson, 

W. C. Harrison. 
Jesse Ellis & Co., Ltd., Invicta Works, Maidstone. Regd. Mar. 4, 

1898. Cap. £60,000, in £1 shs. 33,165 shs. taken up. 19,793 

issued as paid, £13,372 paid. Dirs., F. J. Beadle, R. J. Fremlin, 

J. Ellis, T. Scott. 
J. J. Hagan & Co., Ltd., (Irish Co.)., 46, Carlisle-rd., Londonderry. 

Reg. Dec. 7, 1898. Cap. £3,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., 

E. A. Hamilton (Man.), C. M. Boyton, J. H. Welch, C. O'Neill, 

and J. J. Hagan. 
Joseph Lucas, Ltd., Little King-st., Birmingham. Regd. Nov. 12, 

1897. Cap. £225,000, in £5 shs. 40,000 shs. taken up. 12,151 

issued as paid, £139,245 received. 



*Kelham Rolling Mills Co., Ltd., Kelham Island, Sheffield. 

Regd. May 17, 1873. Cap. £100,000, in £10 shs. All shs. issued, 

£4 10s. paid up, £45,000; mortgaj^ea £25,685. Dirs., J. Gamble, 



229 

J. Rhodes, F. R. Booth. (T. A.: Kelham, Sheffield.) Diva., 
1893-4 to 1895-6, 2s. per sh. ; 1896-7, 3#. per sh. j 1897-8, 4*. 
per sh. Tyre Bars, Steel Springs, &c. , 
Kendal Bicycle Co., Ltd., Beezon-lane, Xendal. Begd. May 27, 
1898. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. 5,673 shs. taken up. 5,666 
issued as paid. £7 received. Dirs., W. lliffe, C. J. Cropper, 
W. H. Saurey, W. Gaddum, P. Manning. 



Lancashire and West Coast Motob Co., Ltd., 78, Q^orton-st. 

Blackpool. Regd. Nov. 23, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. No 

returns. Dirs., A. W. Gk>odall and W. B. Brown. 
Leather Shod Wheel Co., Ltd. Regd. Feb. 12, 1897. Cap. 

£300,000, in £l shs. No office filed. 230.087 shs. taken up, 

120,000 issued as paid. £1 per sh. called on 110,087. £37,127 6*. 

paid. £72,959 14«. unpaid. Purchase consideration, £240,000. 

Dirs., Major J. E. Jameson, M.P., W. Lambert, C. N. Baker, 

F. Hall Kirby, J. H. Mape. Reconstructing. 
Letland and Birmingham Rubber Co., L&., Q^olden Hill Works, 

Leyland, Lanes. Regd. Mav 18, 1898. Cap. £300,000, in £1 shs. 

233,557 shs. taken up, 233,550 issued as paid. £7 in arrears. 

Dirs., J. A. Baxter, A. S. Morrison, R. T. Byrne, J. W. Browne, 

S. Whitehead. 
Licensed Tyre Syndicate, Ltd., 33, Cjrnhill, E.C. Regd. Oct. 5, 

1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 507 shs. taken up. £507 paid. 
*Lithanode Electric Storage Co., Ltd., 3, Harvey's-bldgs., Strand, 

W.C. Regd. Sept. 23, 1895. Cap. £12,000, in £1 shs. 8,157 shs. 

taken up. 5,500 issued as paid, £2,657 paid. Dirs., J. M. 

Richardson, J. T. Niblett. Sec.,F. (i. Buries. (T.A. : Lithanode, 

London.) Divd., 1897, 5 per cent. Accumulators. 
Liverpool Cycle and Motor Show, Ltd. Regd. Aug. 3, 1898, 

Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. Regd. by Hulse, Trustram & Co., 61. 

Cheapaide, E.C. No office or returns filed. Dirs., J. C. Robinson, 

R. MacLennan, C. Coops, 0. Hughes, M. Maclumpha, H, Robinson. 
Liverpool and District Cycle Trades Association, Ltd., 72, 

Duke-st., Liverpool. Regd. Sept. 5, 1898. Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. 

No returns. 
London and Provincial Motor Syndicate, Ltd., 52, Queen 

Victoria-st., E.C. Regd. Mar. 6, 1897. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. 

No returns. Post Office report " not known." 
XoNDON Auto-Car Co. Ltd., 7, G-reek-st.', Leeds. Regd. Nov. 28, 

1898. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., G-. E. Stringer, 
C. W. Fennell, R. R. King. {See Adot, p. xxvi.) 

•London Electric Omnibus Co., Ltd., Room 526 and 7, No. Il.,Q5Nft«^ 
Victoria-street, E.C. Regd. May 1%, \'^^'c>. <^^^. ^ns*^V*^.>; 
£1 Bhs. (80,000 Def.). 17, US Ot^l. mx^ %^,W^^^'^. -^^^ '^*^' 



^ca. 



230 

up. All Def. issued as paid. 19*. 6d. per sh. called on 50,007. 

£33,274 2s. 6d. paid, £15,500 9*. unpaid. £16,520 8*. 6d. paid 

on 32,189 forfeited shs. Dirs., Major Flood Page, M.I.E.E., 

Chairman, Lt.-Col. Turnbull (Man. Dir.), H. Fox, T. S. Flack, 

J. B. W. Maunder. Sec, F. S. Tomkins. 
London Eleotkical Cab Co., Ltd., 7, Juxon Street, Lambeth, 

S.E. Regd. Nov. 12, 1896. Cap. £160,000, in £1 shs. 62,523 

shs. taken up. £61,223 10*. paid, £1,229 10*. unpaid. Purchase 

consideration, £50,000. Dirs., H. R. Paterson, Hon. Beg. 

Brougham, H. H. Mulliner, J. H. Mace. 
•London Motoe Cab Wokks Co., Ltd., Albert Mills, Beavor-lane, 

Hammersmith, W. Regd. Not. 6, 1896. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 

5,800 shs. taken up, 4,000 issued as paid. £1,775 paid, £25 unpaid. 

Dirs., A. Brown, J. R. Rickard. (T.A. : Motionist, London.) 

Motors, Controlling Gear, Parts built to order. 
•London Motor Van and Wagon Co., Ltd., 86, Chiswell-st., 

B.C. Regd. Feb. 10, 1897. Cap. £300,000, in £5 shs. 32,400 

shs. taken up, 27,6uO issued as paid, £5 per sh. called on 4,800. 

£23,984 paid, £16 unpaid. Purchase consideration, £150,000. 
•London Steam Omnibus Co., Ltd., 133, Finsbury Pavement, E.G. 

Regd. June, 30, 1898. Cap. £420,000, in £10 shs. 14,087 shs. 

taken up (623 Founders'), £2 per sh. called; 13,960 (665 Founders* 

and 13,295 Ord.) shs. issued as fully paid. Dirs., E. H. Bayley, J.P. 

(Chairman), R. Gresley Hall (Vice-Chairman), J. H. Mace, 

Thos. Robinson, Geo. Iden, H. J. Laweon. Sec , R. M. Blaikie. 

(T.A. : Proof, London ) 

Manchester Acetylene Gas and Cabbide Co., Ltd., St. Simon-st., 
Salford, Manchester. Regd. Feb. 15, 1898. Cap. £40,000, in £10 
shs. 1,624 shs. taken up. 600 issued as paid, £5 per sh. called on 
1,024. £5,300 received, and £420 in arrears. 

Mannksmann Tube Co., Ltd., 110, Cannon- street, E.C. Regd. Jan. 
6, 1888. Cap. £582,830, in £10 shs. 54,923 taken up, 20,783 
issued as paid. £341,400 paid. Dirs., Carl Heinrich von Siemens, 
G. A. Barkley, A. von Siemens, G. W. von Siemens, F. von 
Siemens, C. G. R. Chambin, C. Herbert (Manager). Sec, R. V. 
Tulloch. 

•Mansfield Motoe Cab Co., Ltd., 24, Leeming-st., Mansfield, !Notts. 
Regd. Apr. 9, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in £10 shs. 105 shs. taken up. 
£1,050 paid. Dirs., W. J. Chadburn, F. A. Robinson (Man. Dir.). 
Sec, F. Hamejer. 

•Mabquand Accumijlatoe Co., Ltd., 2, Dock Chambers, East Moors. 

Cardiff. Regd. Sept. 26, 1898. Cap. £20,000, in £10 ths. 

(£9,000 Pref.). £1,875 subscribed. £2 10*. per share called. 

£1,500 Pref. and £11,000 Ord. aha. issued aa fully paid. Dirs., 

Ht. Hon. Lord Wm. Beresiord, Marcus QtuTiii^'fiL. \i.^wQ^\ial» 



231 

F. Marson, T. M. Heywood, J. W. Palmer, D. B. Atkinson, A. J. 
Mapquand. Sec, G-. T. Llewelyn. (T.A. : Accumulate, Cardiff.) 
Martin Noiseless Safety Motor Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Mar. 2, 

1897. Cap. £24,000, in £10 shs. No office or returns filed. 
No business has been done, and it is not intended to proceed with. 
the Company. 

Martini Ozone Co., Ltd., 8, Princes-st., E.C. Eegd. Aug. 22, 1898. 

Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., D. Martini, 

J. Dunham- Massey. 
Maxibc Autocar Syndicate, Ltd., 6 and 8, Eastcheap, E.C. Segd. 

Jan. 27, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. 3,757 shs. taken up. 2,500 

issued as paid. 15s. per sh. called on 1,257, £780 paid. £162 15«. 

in arrears. 
*Maxim Foreign and Colonial Motor S indicate, Ltd., 151,Wool 

Exchange, Coleman-st., E.C. Regd. July 6, 1897. Cap. £35,000, 

in £1 shs. No returns. No shs. issued yet. 
Middlesex Railways Extension (Motor Scheicb), Ltd., 40, 

Holborn-viaduct, E.C. Regd. Dec. 15, 1897. Cap. £100, in £1 

shs. 7 shs. taken up. £7 in arrears. 
Midland Cicle and Motor Car Exhibition Co.. Ltd., 174, 

Corporation-st., Birmingham. Regd. Oct. 23, 1896. Cap. £1,000, 

in £10 shs. All shs. taken up. £1,000 paid. 
•Midland Motor Carriage Syndicate, Ltd., 37, Vittoria-st., 

Birmingham. Regd. Feb. 27, 1897. Cap. £13,000, in £5 sh». 

2,274 shs. taken up, 1,810 issued as paid, £5 per sh. called 

on 464. £1,516 paid, £804 unpaid. 50 shs. forfeited. Dirs., 

W. Somers, J.P., J. A. Cooke, C. C. H. MiUar, H. Levetus, 

E. L. Levetus. Sec, A. Levetus. Steam Motor Vehicles, Rotary 

Valves (Schumacher Patents). 
Millet's Patent Motor Wheel Co., Ltd., 17, Newington-cause- 

way, S.E. Regd. Dec. 18, 1896. Cap. £100,000, in £1 shs. No 

returns, and nothing done beyond registration. 
Milver Portable Electric Battery Syndicate, Ltd., 24, 

Harleyford-rd., Vauxhall, London. Regd. May 4, 1895. Cap. 

£22,000, in £5 shs. 4,381 shs. taken up, £21,869 paid, £36 

unpaid. 
Model Cycle Company, Ltd., 3, Earl-st., Coventry. Regd. Oct. 26, 

1898. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

MoLAX Motor Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Nov. 17, 1898, by Day & 
Co., 37, Norfolk-st., E.C. Cap. £2,000, in £10 shs. No returns. 

Monarch Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 12, Cherry-st., Birmingham. 
Regd. Mar. 31, 1898. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

•MoNOPOLE Cycle and Carriage Co., Ltd., Union Mills, Foleshill, 
near Coventry. Regd. Sept. 18, 1896. Cap. £50,000, in £1 shs. 
(10,000 Pref.). 24,510 shs. taken up, lU^OQCi Sasss^s^ -«»». -^^&Ss.^ 
2,000 shs. surrendered. Eull amoxxxi^ <i^«>\ ^v:^ ^fio«Si. >^'«^.^« ^xs». 



232 

R. Illingworth, J. Crowle, G-. Naylor, J. Clough, J. W. Beacher, 
J. W. Maude. Sec, T. L. Husselby. (T.A. : Monopole, Coventry.) 
Three-speed Driving G-ears. 

*Mo88BEKa BoLLEB Beabings, Ltd., 6, Yictoria-st., S.W. Begd. 
May 18, 1898. Cap. £80,000, in £1 shs. 32,007 ahs. taken up. 
2,000 issued as paid. bs. per sh. called on 80,007. £7,501 15«. 
received. Dirs., H. P. Holt, S. Lowe, E. P. Bainbridge. See. 
and Mq,n., G-eorge Bargate. (T.A. : Mossberg, London.) (See 
Advt. p. viii.) 

•MoTOB Attachment Syndicate, Ltd., The Works, Ceres-rd., 
Kingston-on-Thames. Begd. Feb. 15, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £10 
shs. 606 shs. taken up. 500 if>8iied as paid. Dirs., U. Bayn^, 
S. H. Terry, W. H. Carmont (Man. Dir.). 

MoTOB Car Components Co., Ltd. Begd. Dec. 24, 1896. Cap. £7, 
in £1 shs. No office or returns filed. £990 paid, and £70 in arrear. 
Never proceeded beyond registration. 

*MoTOB Cab Empobium, Ltd., 7, Princes Boad, Holland Boad, West 
Kensington. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. Dirs., £. E. Lehwess, 
H. C. E. Zacharias. 7 shs. taken up, £7 paid. (T.A. : Motorium, 
London.) 

MoTOB Cab Syndicate of Austkalia, Ltd., 120, Chancery-lane, 
W.C. Begd. July 31, 1896. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken 

, up, £7 paid. 

MoTOB Cabbiagb and Cycle Patents, Ltd., 3, Delahay-st., West- 
minster. Begd. April 21, 1896. Cap. £5,000, in £50 shs. 33 shs. 
taken up, and £1,650 paid. 

•MoTOB Caebiage Supply Co., Ltd., Donington House, Norfolk-st., 
Strand. Begd. Jan. 5, 1898. (Cap. £12,000, in £1 shs. 6,000 shs. 
taken up. 15.9. per sh. called, £3,000 paid. Dirs., F. B. Simms 
(Chairman), C. H. Moore, Col. J. B. Lee, and A. J. White. Man., 
G. E. L'»febvre, A.M.I.C.E. (T.A. : Motemus, London.) Ignition 
Apparatus, Motors, Oil Engines, Steering Gear, Magnets, &c. (See 
Advt. p. xiv.) 

MoTOB AND Cycle Tbades Club, Ltd., 26, Corporation-st., Birming- 
ham. Begd. Sept. 6, 1898. Cap. £5.000, in £5 shs. No returns. 

Motor Chae-a-Banc Co., Ltd. Begd. Nov. 25, 1898, by Ashurst & 
Co., 17, Throgmorton-avenue, E.C. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. No 
returns. 

•Motob Development Cobpobation, Ltd., 28, Victoria-st., S.W. 
Works: 36, St. George's-sq., Begents Park, N.W. Begd. Nov. 24, 
1896. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. 20,007 shs. taken up, 15,000 
issued as paid, £1 per sh. called on 7, and 10«. per sh. on 6,000, 
£2,507 paid. Dirs., H. C. Bigaud, J. V. Sherrin, H. Sartoris, J.P., 
W. Malcolm Burnie, F. Sartoris, J.P. Sec, H. T. Turner, 
Motors, Ignition Tubes, General Motor business. 



233 

*MoTOB Manffactueixg Co., Ltd., 47, Holborn-viaducfc,. E.G. 

Works: Motor Mills, Coventry. Regd. Jan. 12, 1898. Cap. 

£300,000, in £1 shs. 201,681 shs. taken up, and all issued, vrith 

17«. per sli. considered as paid. Ss. per sli. called and paid on each. 

Dirs., John H. Gretton (CJbairnian), R. Hoffmann, M. H. Buckea, 

T. Robinson (Man. Dir.), J. H. Mace, H. J. Lawson. Sec., Alfred 

Burgess. (T.A. : Propel, London or Coventry.) Oil Motors, Oil 

Engines, Motor Car Makers, Brakes, Frames, Wheels, Steering 

Gear and all component parts. (See Advt. p. xxiii.) 
Motor Omnibus Syndicate, Ltd., 27, Chancery-lane, W.C. 

Regd. Mar. 29, 1898. Cap. £6,000, in £1 shs. 4,097 shs. taken 

up. 3,560 issued as paid. £517 paid. Dirs., Messrs. C. Hayles, 

A. V. England, R. Manning, E. Gillett. 
MoTOB Patbnt Fuel Co., Ltd, 8, Cambrian- place, Swansea. Regd. 

Oct. 14, 1898. Cap. £20,000, in £10 shs. No returns. 
*MoTOB ToufiiNO Co., Ltd., 20, Jubilee-st., Llandudno, and 68, 

Broad-st., Birmingham. Regd. Sept. 6, 1898. Cap, £5,000, in £1 

shs. No returns. Dirs., J. J. Home, W. M. Geddes, A. C. Cragg. 

(T.A. : Motors, Llandudno.) Motor Agents and Contractors, 

Repairs, &c. 
Motor Van Syndicate, Ltd., 5, Lancaster-place, Strand, W.C. 

Regd. Mar. 25, 1898. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. 807 shs. taken up. 

300 issued as paid. £1 per sh. culled on 7, and 5«. per sh. on 500. 

£132 paid. Dirs., M. Fairclough, T. C. Palmer, A. Fairclough. 
Motors, Ltd., 12, Camomile-st., E.C. Regd. July 28, 1896. Cap. 

£5,000, in £1 shs. 3,414 shs. taken up, 1,100 issued as paid, 

£2,314 paid. 
♦MuLLiNER, London, Ltd., 28, Brook-st., W. Regd. May 12, 

1897. Cap. £10,000, in £10 shs. 250 shs. taken up, £8 per sh. 

called. £2,000 paid. Dirs., A. F. MuUiner, A. G. MuUiner. 
MuLLiNEBS, Ltd., 10, Gas-st., Birmingham. Regd. Apl. 25, 1895. 

Cap. £42,000, in 2,400 Pref . shs. ot £5, and 30,000 Ord. shs. of £1 

each. 800 Pref. and 13,192 Ord. shs. taken up. Full amount 

called, £17,192 paid. 

National Carriage AViieel (Parent Syndicate), Ltd., Victoria- 
buildings, Albert-street, Birmiiighaui. Regd. Oct. 10, 1898. Cap. 
£30,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

National Cycle and Motor Car Insurance Co., Ltd., 
33, King William.st., E.C. Regd. May 6, 1896. Cap. £250,000, 
in £1 shs. 16,001 shs. taken up, 3,0(;0 issued as paid ; £L called, on 
11,164, Ss, called on 1,837. £10,041 hs. paid, £1,857 lU. unpaid. 
Dirs., Col. C. W. Wilson, C. A. Ravenscroft, D. F. Carmichael, 
C. H. Tindel, Sydney Lee, Sir Edward Lee. 

♦National Motor Carriage Syndicate, Ltd., 37, Walhi!OQk.,"^ff», 
Regd. May 25, 1897. Cap. £^0,000, vcv «,\ ^%. V>A?*^ ^^\->,, 



234 

18,000 Ord. issued as paid, 6,000 Def. taken up and paid. 

Dirs., A. A. Common, LL.D., &c., A. Maxwell Tod, F. Fanta, 

W. Potter, A.M.I.C.E., H. F. Joel, A.M.I.C.E. Sec, V. C. 

Doubleday, C.A. (T.A. : Safety beams, London.) Electric 

Vehicles. 
*Nbal Cyclb Co., Ltd.. Bordealey Green-rd., Biinningham. Eegd. 

Map. 9, 1897. Cap. £20,000, in £1 slis. 10,000 shs. taken up, 

£10,000 paid. Dirs., H. Huggins, J. Neal, H. Neal, F. Huggins, 

E. Palethorpe. 
*N"bw Brothbbton Tctbb Co., Ltd., Excelsior Works, Commercial-rd., 

Wolverhampton. Regd. Mar. 29, 1897. Cap., £65,000, in £1 

shs. All shs. taken up and paid. Purchase consideration, £50,000. 

Dirs., E. Lisle, S. Q-orton, J. Griffiths, E. T. Hargraves, E. 

White. Div., 1897, 2i per cent. (I.A. : Weldless, Wolverhamp- 
ton.) Weldless Steel Tubes. 
New Electricity Supply Syndicate, Ltd., 23, Throgmorton-st., 

E.C. Begd. Apr. 2, 1898. Cap. £40,000, in £1 shs. 35.000 shs. 

taken up. 30,000 issued as paid, £5,000 received. 
•New General Traction Co., Ltd., 35, Parliament- st., Westminster. 

Eegd. Mar. 24, 1896. Cap. £270,000, m £5 shs. (30,000 Pref.). 

30,000 Pref. and 24,000 Ord. shs. taken up, all Ord. issued as paid, 

£5 per sh. celled on 30,000 Pref., and paid. Dirs., F. Pavy, 

A. Brand, Baron D'Erlanger, E. A. Hopkins. 
New Motive Powee Syndicate, Ltd., 11, Pancras-lane, E.C. 

Regd. Dec. 22, 1896. Cap. £15,000, in £1 shs. All shs. taken up, 

10,000 issued as paid. £4,850 paid, £150 unpaid. 
New Power Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Feb. 9, 1898. Cap. £15,000, 

in £1 shs. Regd. by R. I. Pelman, 143, Cannon-st., E.C. No 

office or returns filed. Post Office report, " Gone away." 
New Raleigh Cycle Co. (Spain), Ltd., Brougbam-chambers, 

Wheeler Gate, Nottingham. Regd. Dec. 22, 1897. Cap. £100,000, 

in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up. No calls. 
New Rock Cycle Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Rock Cjcle Works, 

John-3t., Sheffield. Regd. Jan. 12, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 

4,175 shs. taken up. 3,000 issued as paid, £1,175 paid. 
NoBTHAMPTON Cycle Tbades ASSOCIATION, Ltd., 18, Market - St., 

Northampton. Regd. Dec. 16, 1897. Cap. £250, in £1 shs. 

140 shs. taken up. 10*. per sh. called, £70 paid. 
Northern Counties Electric and Motob Co., Ltd., 13, 

Crossley-st., Halifax. Regd. Jan. 7, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 

shs. 1,100 shs. taken up. 10s. per sh. called, and £550 paid. 
•Nottingham and District Cycle, Motor Car and Accessobibs' 

Exhibition Co., Ltd., Bentinck-buildings, Wheeler Gate, Notting* 

ham. Regd. Apr. 29, 1898. Cap. £1,000, in £5 shs. 36 shs. taken 

up. £2 10*. per sh. called. £90 paid. Sec, W. J. Barton. 



235 

Oepington, Cudham, and Tatspield Light Railway Co., Ltd. 
Regd. Not. 16, 1898, by Dollman & Co., 39, King-st., E.G. Cap. 
£1,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

Pabis Aftomobile Cab Co., Ltd., 142-3, Palmerston - buildings^ 

Old Broad-st., E.G. Regd. Mar. 1, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 she. 

No returns. Man. Dir., J. P. Juvenet. Sec, W. J. Thomhill. 

In course of being re-reaiistered in another name. 
♦Paris Singer, Ltd., Park Mansions, Knightsbridge. Regd. Sept. 21,. 

1898. Cap. £100,000, in £10 shs. No returns. Dirs., Paris E. 

Singer (Chairman), P. R. Cheeswright, S. F. Edge, R. J. Beadon. 

{See Advt. pp. x., xi.) 
Patent Folding Perambulator Co., Ltd., 16a, Limes-road, 

Croydon. Regd. Dec. 8, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 6,008 shs. 

taken up, £6,008 paid. Dirs., J. F. Tee, P. Gillespie. 
Patent Wheel and Axle Co., Ltd., 50, George-st., Newport, 

Mon. Regd. July 6, 1898. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Peerless Accumulator Syndicate, Ltd., 63, High-st., Tooting. 

Regd. May 28, 1897. Cap. £15,000, in £10 shs. No jetums. 
Pennington Motor Co., Ltd. Regd. Jan. 21, 1897. Cap. £100,000, 

in £1 shs. No office or returns filed. Regd. by Jordan & Sons, 

Ltd., 120, Chancery-lane, W.C. 
•Pennington Motor Foreign Patents Syndicate. Ltd., 5 and 

6, Gt. Winchester-st., E.C. Regd. May 14, 1896. Cap. £100,000, 

in £1 shs. 99,142 shs. taken up. 80,000 issued as paid, hs. per 

sh. called on 19,142. £4,503 15*. paid, £281 15*. unpaid. Dirs., 

Sir T. Fry, Bart., Sir E. Sullivan, Bart., J. J. H. Sturmey, 

J. H. Mace, J. H. Toulmin, W. Baines, G. J. Leslie, E. J. 

Pennington. (T.A. : Compact, London.) Oil Engines. 
Perambulator and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Bromsgrove-st., 

Halesowen, Worcs. Regd. Oct. 5, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 

1,630 shs. tnken up. £1,592 10*. paid, £37 10*. in arrears. 
•Pioneer Electro Carriage Co., Ltd., 4, Great Winchester-st., E.C. 

Regd. June 8, 1893. Cap. £20,000, in £50 shs. 64 shs. taken up. 

£3,200 paid. 
Pioneer Motor Car Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Nov. 11, 1896. 

Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. No office or returns filed. Regd. by 

S. H. Fry, 8, Devonshire-chambers, Bishopsgate, E.C. (Post office 

report " not known.") 
•Platt Brothers & Co., Ltd., Hartford New Works, Oldham. 

Regd. Nov. 10, 1898. Cap. £3,091,800, in 20,612 4i per cent. 

Cum. Pief. sbs. of £60 each, and 20,612 Ord. shs. of £90 each. 

No returns. Private Company. 
Pneumatic Direct Propulsion Syndicate, Ltd., 2, Basinghall* 

St., E.C. Regd. July 21, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in £5 %bA, ^^ 

returns. (Post office report ** not Vhoyiiq.."^ 



236 

♦PoEOUS AcCTJMULATOE Co., Ltd., 24, Queen Victoria-sfc., E.C. 
Regd. May 26, 1898. Cap. £3,000, in £1 shs. All she. taken up. 
1,993 issued as paid, and £1,007 received. 

♦PowKE AND Teaction, Ltd., 79, Palace-chambera, Westminster, 
S. W. Reg. Nov. 8, 1897. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 5,707, shs. taken 
up. 1,600 issued as paid. 10*. on 4,107. £1,800 paid, £507 
unpaid. Dirs., J. Browne-Martin, A. Greenwood, H 0. Walker, 
R. A. Smith (Man. Dir.). Sec, C. J. F. Sevier. (T.A. : Emis- 
sivity, London.) 

Peeston and Beck, Ltd., 8 & 12, William-st., Deritend, Birming- 
ham. Regd. Dec. 3, 1897. Cap. £11,000, in £1 shs. Resolution 
passed Aug. 15, 1898, for voluntary liquidation, with E. M. Sharp, 
of Colmore-row, Birmingham, as liquidator. Dir., W. E. Preston. 

Peetot Motoe Syndicate, Ltd., 24, Budge-row, E.C. Regd. 
April 27, 1898. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. 18,105 shs. taken up. 
13,500 issued as paid, 15*. per sh. called on 4,605, £3,453 151. 
paid (including £50 in advance). £50 in arrears. Dirs., W. 
ConolJy, A. C. Newstead, J. II. H. Rolfe, J. S. Dismor. 

Peimaey Engine being and Development Syndicate. Ltd., 
22, Chancery-lane, W.C. Regd. Sept. 16, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in 
£1 shs. No returns. 

Peince Motoe Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Nov. 30, 1896. Cap. 
£50,000, in £1 shs. Resolution to wind up voluntarily passeii 
Dec. 29, 1897, and confirmed Jan. 18, 1898. Final meeting 
held Oct. 8, 1898. 



Railway Developments, Ltd., 34, Victoria-st., S.W. Regd. 
July 23, 1898. Cap. £100,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 

♦Ramsay's Hobse, Caeeiagk, Cycle and Autocae Repositoby, 
Ltd. Regd. Nov. 11, 1896. Cap. 60,000, in £1 shs. (30,000 Pref.). 
No office or returns filed. Regd. by T. Bore, 91, Finsbury- 
pavement, E.C. Dirs., Sir E. Lee, C. Fox, R. Johnson, W. D. 
Ramsay. Did not go to allotment. 

Rbavell & Co.. Ltd., Ranelagh Works, Ipswich. Regd. June 11, 
1898. Cap. £50,000, in £1U shs. 3,300 slis. taken up. 600 
issued as paid, £5 per sh. called on 2,700, £12,261 paid, and 
£1,239 in arrears. Dirs., W. Reavell, C. aaskell, W. H. 
Scott. 

Receeation Motoe Caes, Ltd. Regd. Sept. 8, 1898. Cap. £10,000, 
in £1 shs. Regd. by F. Scott, Devonshire-chambers. Bishopsgate. 
No office or returns filed. Dirs., W. M. Q-ow, A. Eliot, H. Johnson. 

Redditch Disteict Elbcteic Teaction Co., Ltd., 37, Waterloo- 
street, Birmingham. Regd. May 26, 1898. Cap. £2,000, in 
£iO sbe. No returns. 



237 

BiBBESDALE Cycle Co., Ltd., Whalley Banks, Blackburn. Eegd» 
Mar. 17, 1898. Cap. £25,000, in £i shs. 11,180 shs. taken up. 
10,173 issued as paid, £1,007 paid. 

BoAD Tbaoiion, Ltd., 16, Craven-st., Strand, W.C. Begd. Mar. 10, 
1897. Cap. £4,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. taken up. No calls. 

BoBEETSON Bfios. & Co., Ltd. Begd. Oct. 27, 1898. Cap. £1,000,. 
in £1 shs. Begd. by Waterlow Bros. & Layton, Ltd., Birchin- 
lane, E.C. No returns. 

EoLAND Elastic Wheel Syndicate, Ltd., 20, Bucklersbury, E.C. 
Begd. June 22, 1898. Cap. £12,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Post ofl5ce report '' gone away." 

*BooTs' Oil Motob and Motor Cab, Ltd., 100, Westminster 
Bridge-rd., London. Begd. July 15. 1897. Cap. £30,000, in £1 shs. 
7 shs. taken up. No calls. Dirs., A. McDonnell, E. D. C. Shaw- 
Kennedy, J. D. Boots, C. E. Venables; Sec, Chas. E. Dorreil. 
(T.A. : Petroline, London.) Oil Engines, Frames, Motor Cars^ 
{See Advt. p. xx.) 

Bosses Cycle and Vehicle Bbaee Co., Ltd., 23, College-hill, E.C. 
Begd. Oct. 20, 1896. Cap. £50,000, in £1 shs. (since reduced to- 
£10,000, in 4*. shs., but the certificate for such reduction has not 

. yet been granted). 29,007 shs. taken up, 27,507 shs. taken up,. 
15*. per sh. called on 1,500, £1,125 paid. Dirs., E. Edeveain, 
H. II. G-riffin, T. Lambert. Besolution passed Mar. 31, 1898, for 
voluntary liquidation. H. B. Smith, 23, College Hill, E.C.,. 
liquidator. 



S. Q-oodby & Sons, Ltd., Petit-st., Wolverhampton. Begd. Oct. 31,. 

1898. Cap. £15,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
"Safety Motor Syndicate, Ltd., 49a, Lincoln's Inn-fields, W.C. 

Begd. June 21, 1897. Cap. £1,500, in £1 shs. 125 shs. taken up. 

£118 paid. No calls on 7 shs. 
Samuel Weston, Ltd., Bjirclay's Bank-chambers, Terminus-rd.,. 

Eastbourne. Begd. Nov. 15, 1897. Cap. £52,000, in £10 shs. 

49 shs. taken up. £10 per sh. called on 9, and £5 per sh. on 40,. 

£290 paid. 
Saxton & Datiks, Ltd., 52 and 53, Newgate-st., E.C. Begd. 

Jan. 12, 1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. 4,064 shs. taken up. 

10*. per sh. called, £1,259 5*. paid, £772 15*. unpaid. Dirs., 

F. T. A. Davies, E. C. Lucas, W. P. Johnson, B. F. A. Bayspoole^ 

J. Tourunen, A. Saxon. 
Scott's Engine Syndicate. Ltd., Gothic Works, Norwich. Begd» 

Aug. 26, 1897. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. 1,200 shs. taken up. 

500 issued as paid, 15*. per sh. called and paid ou 7Q<i ^Vsa, ^x»-. 

W. H. Scott, W. B. Sisling, B. li«ur€.ivQ«,O.N^"^'eftTL. 



238 

Self-Charghno Elbctbical Traction Co., Ltd., 40, Holbom- 
viaduct, E.G. Regd. Feb. 10, 1898. Cap. £100, in £1 ahs. 7 shs 
taken up, £7 paid. 
Selp-Genebating Electeic Vehicle Light Syndicate, Ltd., 
3 and 4, Crooked-lane, King William- st., E.C. Kegd. Oct. 13, 
1897. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
*Selp-Pbopellbd Traffic Association, 30, Moorgate-st., E.C. 
Kegd. Apl. 1, 1896, as a Q-uarantee Company, not for profit (the 
word "Limited" being omitted by permission of the Board of 
Trade). Unlimited number of members, each liable for £1 in 
event of liquidation. No returns necessary. Amalgamated with 
the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland, 4, Whitehall 
Court, S.W. 
Shakespeare, Kibkland & Eeost, Ltd., 114, Bradford-st., Bir- 
mingham. Begd. Oct. 19, 1897. Cap. £15,000, in £1 shs. 
5,821 shs. taken up. 5,814 issued as paid, £7 paid. 
♦Sheffield Cycle, Motor Car and Accessories Exhibitions Co., 
Ltd., Sports Office, High-st., Sheffield. Regd. Feb. 12, 1897. 
Cap. £1,000, in £10 shs. All shs. taken, £1 per sh. called. £100 
paid. Dirs., C. D. Leng, C. Clifford, J. T. Thompson, T. G. 
Evans, W. S. Moiser, H. Guest, F. Vick, J. H. Stainton, R. 
Hagen. Sec, R. Hagen. 
Shippey Brothers, Ltd., 13 and 14, King-st., Cheapside, E.C. 
Regd. Dec. 30, 1887. Cap. £30,000, in £5 shs. 2,412 shs. taken 
up, £3,060 paid. 1,800 issued as paid. Dirs., A. Beckwith, Fred 
J. Shippey, Arthur Shippey. (T.A. : Shippey Bros., London.) 
Accumulators, Electric Motors and Vehicles, Ignition Coils, 
Dynamos, Brakes, Steering Gear, Controllers, &c., &c. (See Advf, 
p. xxix.) 
Simpson, Strickland & Co., Ltd., Noss, Brixham, South Devon. 
Regd. Mar. 3, 1891. Cap. £32,000, in £5 shs. 6,039 shs. taken 
up, 5,410 issued as paid, £5 per sh. called on 629, £3,145 paid. 
Smith, Parfrey, & Co., Ltd., 141, Buckingham Palace-rid., S.W. 
Regd. Oct. 3, 1898. Cap. £250,000, in £5 shs. No returns. Dirs., 
T. V. Smith, R. W. M. Walker, R. Bearcroft, G. F. White. (See 
Advt. p. xxxvii.) 
♦Smith, Simpson, & Co., Ltd., 49, Deansgate, Manchester. Regd. 
Nov. 3. 1898. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., J. F. 
Simpson (Man. Dir.), Harold Smith. (T-A. : Mittimus, Man- 
chester. ABC Code.) Oil Engines, Electric Motors, Accumu- 
lators, &c. 
♦Socr^TJ^ International de Construction d' Automobiles, Ltd. 
Regd. Sept. 1, 1898. Cap. £60,000, in 5,000 shs. of £1, and 
11,250 shs. of £4 each. Regd. by G. St. G. D. Massey, 
8, Princes-st., E.C. No office or returns filed. Communications 
to be addresBed to Mr. A. B, Brandreth, 24 r. Taitbout, Paris. 



239 

South Afbccan Ekpbess Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. Nof. 2, 1898. 

Cap. £5,000, in £100 she. No oflSce or returns filed. 
South Wales Motor and Cycle Co., Ltd. Regd. Dec. 11, 1896. 

Cap. £5,000, in £5 shs. Resolution passed July 30, 1898, for 

voluntary liquidation, as the debenture holders had foreclosed. 

J. J. Murphy was appointed liquidator. 
Sfideb Motob Cab Syndicate, Ltd. Regd. July 15, 1897. 

Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. Regd. office not filed. Vendor, J. C. 

Stevenson, 80, Peach-st., Liverpool. No returns. 
Speed Indicator Co., Ltd., 60, Watling-st., E.C. Regd. Jan. 14, 

1898. Cap. £10,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Stabley's, Ltd., Aiken-chambers, Cannon-st., Birmingham. Regd. 

Oct. 14, 1897. Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
♦Steel Nut & Tube Co., Ltd., Openshaw, Lancashire. Regd. 

Nov. 9, 1898. Cap. £50,000, in £1 shs. No returns. (T.A. : 

Steel Nuts, Manchester.) Forgings, Nuts, &c. 
♦Steam Cabbiage and Wagon Co., Ltd.. Homefield, Chiswick. 

Regd. Oct. 8, 1896. Cap. £10,(X)0, in £1 shs. All shs. taken up. 

500 issued as paid. £1 per sh. called on 1,000, £1,000 paid. 

(T.A. : Manageable, London and Basingstoke.) Sec, H. Niblett. 

Boilers, Air Condensers, Steam Motors, Wagonf, Drays, Omnibuses, 

Friction Clutches. (See Advt. p. xxiv.) 
Stirling's Motob Cabbiages, Ltd., 105, West Gleorsie-st., Glasgow. 

Cap. £100,000, in £1 shs. 25,000 issued as fully paid. Purchase 

consideration, £25,000. No official returns. Dirs., R. Crawford, 

J.P., &c., R. Thomson, H. Or. Cooper, H. A. Mavor, J. T. Boyd, 

M.I.M.E., John Stirling. Oil Motor Vehicles. Scotch Co. 
♦SuBBBY Machinists' Co., Ltd., 71, Mansion House-chambers, 

Bucklersbury, E.C. Regd. Mar. 16, 1898. Cap. £1,000, in 

£1 shs. 7 shs. taken up, £7 paid. Cycle makers only. 
♦Swansea Motob Omnibus Co., Ltd., 102, Oxford-at., Swansea. 

Regd. lyec, 1898. Cap. £20,000, in £10 shs. No returns. Dirs., 

T. P. Thomas, J. C. Morris, J. Williams, E. H. Leeder, O. Walters. 

Sec., John Roberts. 



Tavebnieb Safety Motob Syndicate, Ltd., 61, Cheapside, E.C. 

Regd. July 25, 1896. Cap. £4,000, in 60 shs. of £50 and 1,000 shs. 

of £1 each. 60 shs. of £50 each taken up, and issued as paid. 
♦Taxambteb Syndicate, Ltd., Clun House, Surrey-st., W.C. Regd. 

Feb. 26, 1898. Cap. £20,(/C0, in £1 shs. 16,50u slis. taken up. 

10,500 issued as paid. 15*. per sh. called, £4,878 paid, £5 in 

arrears. Dirs., F. R. Simms, H. Sherwin Holt, C. Harrington 

Moore. Sec, J. W. Scott. (T.A. : Taxameter, London.) Fmjl 

Indicators. 



240 

Thames Rubber Co., Ltd., 14, Coventry-st., Piccadilly, W. Begd. 
Oct. 8, 1897. Cap. £25,000, in £1 shs. 17 shs. takeu up. Ho 
calls. 

Thomas Kendeick, Ltd., Summer Works, Summer-lane, Birming- 
ham. Regd. Dec. 22, 1897. Cap. £70,000, in £5 shs. Dirs., 
T. H. Kendrick, E. H. Kendrick (Man. Dirs.) 

*Thomas Paseeb, Ltd., Wednesfield-rd., Wolverhampton. Regd. 
April 19, 1894. Cap. £75,000, in £10 shs. All shs. taken up and 
paid. 1,750 issued as paid. Debs. £15,000. Dirs., C. T. Mander, 
W. Thomas, R. Armistead, T. Parker. Sec., F. Walton. 
(T.A. : Coils, Wolverhampton.) Divs., 1896, 5 per cent., 
1897, 7 per cent. Dynamos and Diiotors. 

Thomas and William Caldwell Syndicate, Ltd., 3, Winwick-st., 
Warrington. Regd. Apr. 23, 1898. Cap. £3,000, in £10 shs. Ail 
shs. taken up. £5 per sh. called, and £1,500 paid. 

Thobnton Motor Co., Ltd., Worsley Mills, Worsley-st., Hulme, 
Manchester. Regd. May 1, 1897. Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. All 
shs. taken up. £1,000 paid. Dirs., J. E. Thornton, J. P. Lea, 
R. Higham. 

Traffic Sy>dicate, Ltd., 6, Old Jewry, E.C. Regd. Nov. 4, 1896. 
Cap. £10,000, in £1 .««h8. 9,007 shs. taken up. £y,000 paid, 
£7 unpaid. Final meeting held on Oct. 17, 1898. 

♦Tudor Accumulator Co., Ltd., 16, Victoria-st., Westminster. 
Regd. Sept. 16, 1897. Cap. £50,000, in £10 shs. 4,000 shs. taken 
up. 1,200 issued as fully paid, and 1,200 issued with £7 10*. per 
sh. considered as paid. £10 per sh. called on all shs. issued. 
£19,000 paid. (T.A. : Subcorneal, London.) Accumulators. 

Twentieth Century Development Syndicate, Ltd., 21, Baker.st., 
Portman-sq., W. Regd. Mar. 10, 1897. Cap. £25,000, in £10 
shs. 1,757 shs. taken up, £10 per sh. called, £17,570 paid. 



Universal Motor Carriage and Cycle Co., Ltd., 30, Moorgate- 
8t., E.C. Regd. June 5, 1896. Cap. £200,000,'in £1 shs. 119,010 
shs. taken up. 90,820 issued as paid. £11,743 received, £16,447 
in arrears. Dirs., Earl of Aylesford, C. N. Baker, J. Barker, 
Gt. E. Jarvis, E. S. Lancaster, F. Ludlow, E. T. Read. 



W. C. Bersey & Co., Ltd., 39, Victoria-st., Westminster. Regd. 

Nov. 28, 1898. Cap. £5,000, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., 

W. C. Bersey, G-. E. Thompson, G. G. T. Bromfield, C. Davis. 
Werner Cadmium Electric Accumulator Syndicate, Ltd., 

Devonshire - chambers, Bishopsgate - st. - without, E.C. Regd. 

May 19, 1898. Cap. £6,000, in £1 shs. 4,515 shs. taken up. 

4,100 isflued as paid, £415 received. 



241 

Westminstbe CrcLB WoEKS, Ltd., Doris-yard, Doris-st., Kenning- 

ton, S.E. Regd. Aug. 13, 1897. Cap. £20,000, in £1 shs. 

5,007 shs. taken up. 5,000 issued as paid. No calls on the 7 shs. 

Dirs., E. P. Lawrence, A. B. Southam, J. R. Rickard (Man. Dir.). 
Westbalian Motor Cabbyin& Co., Ltd., 28, Basinghall-st., E.C, 

Regd. Nov. 21, 1896. Cap. £7, in £1 shs. Final meeting held on 

June 6, 1898. Report ot* post office, " not known." 
Wheel Manufactueing Co., Ltd. Regd. Nov. 25, 1897. Cap. 

£90,000, in £1 shs. Regd. ^y Ashwell & Co., 30, Ely-place, E.C. 

No returns or office filed. 
White and Middleton Gas Engine Co., Ltd., 7, Fenchurch-av., 

E.C. Regd. Nov. 19, 1897. Cup. £200,000, in £1 shs. 7 shs. 

taken up. £7 paid. 
Whitehead's Auto Cycle Co., Ltd., 11, Cross-sq.. Wakefield, 

Regd. Nov. 13, 1896. Cap. £2,000, in £1 shs. All shs. taken up 

and £2,000 paid. 
White's Caeeiage Co., Ltd., 6, Bentley-road, Liverpool. Regd. 

Sept. 1, 189S. Cap. £50,0U0, in £1 shs. No returns. Dirs., 

R. B. Crowe, W. White. 
WooDWAED Electeical Stoeage Battery, Co., Ltd., Trafalgar- 

bldgs., 6, Northumberland-av., W.C. Regd. June 11, 1897. Cap. 

£60,000, in £1 shs. No returns. 
Wolveehampton Ttee Syndicatc, LtJ., Blakenhall Works, 

Villiers-st., Wolverhampton. Regd. Jan. 27, 1898. Cap. £1,000, 

in £1 shs. 850 shs. taken up. 75 issued as paid, bs. called, 

£193 15*. paid. Dirs., J. Marston, C. Mardton, F. H. Parkyn, 

H. H. Chiltern, J. H. Herbert, W. Clarke. 

* Yeovil Motoe Cae and Cycle Co., Ltd., Bank Chambers, and 
Reckleford, Yeovil. Regd. Nov. 5, 1896. Cap. £1,000, in £1 shs. 
All shs. taken up, £1,000 paid. (T.A. : Motor Company, Yeovil). 

*Yoekshiee Motoe Co., Ltd., Albert-buildings, Horton-lane, 
Bradford. Regd. Mar. 24, 1897. Cap, £2,500, in £1 shs. (500 
Def.). 1,492 Ord. and 500 Def. shs. taken up, 170 Ord. and 500 
Del", issued as paid, £1 per sh. called on 1,322 Ord. £1,147 paid. 
£175 unpaid. Dirs., E. H. Hutton, Thos. Craig, J. Mollete, 
— Skelton, J. E. Tuke. (T.A. : Motor Co., Bradford.) Steam 
and Petrol Cars, Petrol Stores, Accumulators charged. Motors, 
Vehicles on hire and sale, and Sundries supplied, &c. 



2i2 

FOREIGN 
MANUFACTURERS AND ENGINEERS. 



Afstbia • , 


. . page 1:42 1 


Italy 


. . page 251 


Bblgium . . 


. . „ 242 


Sweden 


„ 251 


France 


„ 243 


Switzerland 


.. » 251 


GEEMA^Y . 


„ 250 


United States 


,,261 


Holland . . 


. . „ 251 







Except where specified to the contrary, the specialities of all the 
firms and Companies included in this list are Oil (Petrol, &c.) 
Motor Vehicles or Motors. 

*^ Distinguishes firms also making Electrical Motor Vehicles and Accessories. 
t M „ M Steam „ „ „ 

t ,, ,, which do NOT make Oil Motor Vehicles. 



ATJSTBIA. 
. Loliner, Jacob, & Co., Vienna. 

BELaiUM. 
Bovy, J., et ills., Herstal. 

Comp. Belfire de Construction d' Automobiles, 4, pi. Louise, 

Brussels. 

Construction I/iegreoise d' Automobiles, 83, r. Lairesse, Liege. 

Fabrication de Velocipedes et Automobiles (Soc. an., capital, 
500,000 francs), 23, r. Van der Keilen, Antwerp. 

Pevrier freres, Couillei;. 

Gerkinet, H., et C"., Herstal-lez-Liege. 

•JJenatzy (Camille), 222, r. du Progr^s, Brussels. 

Linon, L., Verviers. 

Matthys, J., 533, At. Louise, Brussels. 

Poste Electrique Internationale (La) Brussels. Capital 
£370,000 (Electric Charging and Posting Stations). 

Societe Anon3rme des Ateliers Germain, Monceau-sur-Sambre. 

Societe Anonyme des Cycles et Automobiles Belffica, 14, r. 

van der Straeten, Brussels. 

Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Pieper Automobiles, 
&c., Liege and Jf essonvaux. 

Societe de Manuf. Belgre de Velos Automobiles et Pidoes 
JDetacheea, Heri^tal, Liege. 



243 

Society G^nerale des Automobiles, Brussels. 
Taiilez et C***., Lokeren. 
Vincke (Nestor), 78, r. Leopold, Malines. 
Vivixms et C**., 244, r. du Pyogr^s, Brussels. 

FRANCE (Paris). 

*j:Accamiilateur Fulxnen, 139, de Clichy. 

Amiot et Peneaii, 47, r. du Chateau, Asin^res (Seine). 

Arclideacon, E., 11, r. du Font-Suresnes. 

Astresse, P., 10, av. de Madrid, Neuilly. 

Aiidin, H., 21, r. Morand. 

Augre, 184, r. d'Allemagne. 

Auge, D., et C*«., 92, r. des Arts, Levallois- Ferret. 

Baille-Lemaire, 22, r. Oberkampf and Crosnes (S. et. O.). 

Balincoiirt (Comte de) et Richard, Ch., 17, r. Blanche. 

Barriere et C»«., 22, r. St.-Sabin. 
"^jlBarthelemy et C**., 13, r. Descombes. 

BattaieUie, H., 32, r. de Tilsitt. 

Belvallette, A., et C'^., 21, av. des Champs>Eljsees. 

Bollee, 163, av. Victor-Hugo (See Societe Anonyme). 

Boyer et C^«., Noe, 30, ay. de la Q-rande Armee. Works: 

Suresnes. 

Brosse, P., et C'«., 22, r. Berenger. Works : Jeumont (Nord). 

Brule, H., et C*«., 31, r. Boinod. 

Cambier, Th., et C"., 34, r. d'Hauteville. Works : Lille-Saint- 
Maurice. 

Cliauduii, 93, r. Eichelieu, & r. St.-Maur. 

Clienard, E., 7, r. de Normandie, Asnieres. 

Clement, A , 9, Miuhelet, LeyaUois. 

Clement et C'*., 20, r. Brunei. 

fCohendet et C'*'., 166, q. Jemmapes. 

C'**. An8rlo-Pran9aise de voitures autom.obile8 (E. Boger 

patents), 52, r. ded Dames. 

C'*'. des Automobiles et Moteurs Henriod, 5 and 7, r. de 
Sablonville-Neuilly. 

C^^. des Moteurs et Automobiles M.L.B., 54, r. Erlanger 
(Syst^me Landry efc Beyroux). Works : 54, r.d*&t\».\!k!^'«^^'«k»a!^^ 
and Hondouvilie-Sure. 



244 

O^*. des Moteurs Duplex, 130, r. Lafayette. 
C^<*. des Moteurs Nlel, 22, r. Lafayette. 

C'«. des Moteurs XJniversels (Qrob Motor), 56, r. Lafayette. 
•Jo*®. Electrique O. Patin, 3, r. du Chateaux. Puteaux. 

C*". Fraacaise des Cycles et Automobiles, 7, r. Darboy 

(Systeme Q-aulois). 
C'<'. Francaise des Moteurs d. Gazet des Constructions 
Mechanique, 155, r. Croix-Nivert (Sjst^me Otto). 
*jQic Francaise des Voitures Electromobiles, 20, r. Taitboufc 
(Capital 10,000,000 francs). 

C**'. Generale des Automobiles (Socieie anonynie), 2, r. de 
Compi^gne. Works : G5, boul. Soult. 

C^^ Generale des Cycles (Capital 2,000,000 francs), 23, av. des 
Champd Elys^es (Systeme Rochet). 

C*^ Generale des Petites Voitures, Paris. 

^JC'c. Generale des Transports Automobiles, 56, r. de la 

Victoire (Systeme Jenatzy). Works : 225, boul. de Strasbourg, 
Boulogne-sur- Seine. 

Crouan et C'®., 21, boul. National, Olichy. 

fDalifol et C^*., 183&w, faub. Poissonni^re. 

Damas, J., et C*®., 64, r. de Yilliers, Levallois (Systeme Sphinz). 

David et Bourg-eois, 19, r. Q-eofProy-St.-Hilaire (Systeme Q-autier). 

*tJDecauville-Aine, 13, boul. Maleslierbes. 

De Dietrich et C^«., 20, r. Louis-le-Cl-rand. Works : LuD^vIlle. 
(Amedee Bollee fils Patents.) 

fDe Dion, Bouton et C^*., r. de la Grande Armee, 12, r. Ernest 
Puteaux. 

Delahaye, E., et C'®., 10, r. du Banquier. 
Deleau, H., 27, quai d'Asnieres, Asnieres. 
tJDemont, 14i, ay. Victor- Hugo. 

Diligreon et C^®., 54, r. St.-IVIaur, k Albert (Somme) (Systeme Hurtu). 
*Dore, L. Q-., 179, r. de Courcelles. 
Dorey, W. H., 14, r. Torricelli. 

Dumas (Alexandre) fils, 129, av. Philippe-Auguste. 
Fagreot, P., 2, r. Boutard, Neuilly. 
Farman, D. J., Mioot et C'^,, 15, r. des Epinettes, St. Maurice. 

(Seine). 
Faugrere, 25, r. des Mathusius. 
JFiaeon, L., et C*®., 14, r. Maublanc. 



245 

Forest o- Surcouf, 76, q. de la Kipee. 

Foucher et Delaohanal, 3, r. Taylor. 
tjFouque et C^*., 12, r. de Crimee. 

G-irardet, L.-P., 8, r. Breguet. 

G-ouirand, 128, r. du Bois, LeTallois. 

G-oujon freres, 7, r. des Acacias. 

Goyet et Legrros, Neuilly. 
tJGros, F., 188, boul. Pereire. 

Guyenet et Balvay, 83, aT. de la Grande -Armee. 

Herlicq et C^*., 59, r. de Flandre (Capitaine-Motor) . 

Humber et C*'., 19, r. du 4-Septembre. 

Hurtu, 5 1-, r. £/t.-Maur. 

Huzelstein et C'"., 39, r. Rivay, Le?alloia. 

Japy, freres et C'«., 7, r. du Ch^teau-d'Eau. Works : Beaucort. 
♦JJeanteaud, Ch., 51, r. de Ponthieu. 

Joumaux, J., 56, r. des Ce venues. 

Kellner et ses flls, 125, av. Malakoff (Systeme Kellner & Faug^re). 

Kl&us, 42-44, r. de Paris, Boulogne-sur-Seine. 

Koch, 6, r. Martel. 
*:j:Kriegrer, 80, r. Taitbout. 

Liapsolu et C^®., 33, r. du Faubourg Sb.-Autoine. 

Ijarippe, A., 11, r. Tesson. 
tjlie Slant (Maurice), 10, av. de TOpera. 

Le Blon freres, de la Forest e **> Maus, 56, r. du Vieux-Pont-de- 
Sevres. Billancourt (Systeme Lynx). 

Lefebvre, A., et C"*., 18, r. Simart. 

Lefebvre, Leon, 4, r. de Commines (Systeme Pygniee). 

Lepape, H., 23, r. Montaigne. 

Longruexnare (V^*. L.), 12, r. du Buisson-St.-Louis (Burners). 

Loyal, A., 204, r. St.-Maur. 

Maison Parisiexine de Voitures Automobiles (Systeme Benz), 
71, av. de la Grande -Arm^e. 

Marot, Ph., Gardou et C^«., 33, r. Brunei. Works: Levallois- 
Verret (Svst^me Cr^anche). 

*JMilde. C, et C^'., 60, r. Desrenaudes. 

Monin, H., 3, boul. Poissonni^re. 

Mors, 48, r. du Thetttre, Grenelle (^ya^^Taa ■^Qiti^ » 



246 

ttN^erre, H., 21, ay. du Maine, and r. Bembault, Amiens (Somme). 
Nicolas, P., et O*^., 14, fmpasse Gaudelet (114, r. Oberkampf). 

Fanhard et licvassor, 19, ay. d'lvrj (Daimler & Phoenix 
Motors). 

•;|;Patin, 3 & 7, r. du Chateau, Puteaux. 

Petitjean, H., et Sevette, F., 196, r. St.-Maur. 

Petreauo, E., 12, r. Lantounet. Works : Vaugirard. 

Peugreot freres (Les flls de), 22, ay. de la G-rande-Armee. Works : 
Valentigney (Doubs). 

Peug-eot (Societe Anouyzne deQ Automobiles), 83, boul. Go uyion- 

St.-Cyr. Works: Audincourt (Doubs). 

Philippon et C'«., 8, r. du Debarcad^re. 

Popp et ais, 80, r. Taitbout. 
•JPostel, Vinay et C*''., 41, r. des Volontaires. 

Pretot, 42-46, av. Philippe-Auguste. 

Bavasse, E., 99, r. de Crimea. 

Bavel, J., 7. r. Fromentin. 
•jBeynaud et C^^, H. (capital 70,000 frcs.), 49, boul. Gouvion -St.-Cyr. 

Bheda, fi8, r. de la Folie-Mericourt. 

Biancey, H. de, 3, place Daumesnil. 

Bichard, G., 13, r. Theopliile-Gautier, Passy. 

Bollaud, Vinot et Degruinand, 22, q. National, Putcaux. 

Bose, L., 23, r. Fontaine. 

Boser, N., 38, r. de la Briche, St. -Denis. 

Bosier et C'®., 115, r. des Freres Herbert, Levallois (Seine). 

Boussat, J., 131, boul. Murat. 

Bupalley, G., Bouxel et C'^., 36, av. de Wagram. Works: 

Suresnes. 

tJSanteuard et C*«., 59 bis, r. Popin court. 

Seeruin, L., 44, r. Lafayette. Works : Petit Gennevilliers (Le 
Gnome Motor). 

Societe anonyme de Construction de Cycles et d' Auto- 
mobiles de la marque Georgres Bichard, 13, r. Theophile- 

Gnutier, Passy. 

Soci6te anonyme des Accumulateurs Fulmen, 18, q. de Cllchy. 

Societe anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Panhard et 
LevaBBor, 19, av. d'lvry. 



247 

Societe anonyme des Automobiles Elan, 64, av. de la Grande 
Arnoee. 

£k>ciete auonyxne des Automobiles Peugeot, 83, boul. GouTion- 
St. Cvr. Works : Audincourt (Doubs), &c. 

*Sooiete anonyme d'Electrioite et d' Automobiles Mors (capital 
2,000,000 francs), 48, r. du Theatre, Grenelle. 

Societe anonyme des Moteurs Niel, 22, r. Lafayette. Works : 
Evreux. 

Societe anonyme des Voiturettes Automobiles Leon Bollee, 
163, av. Victor-Hugo. 

f JSociete anonyme Franco-Belgre (Syst^me le Blant), 10, av. de 
rOpera. Works : Eaismes & la Croy^re (Belgium) . 

Societe anonyme PAutomobile, 146, boul. Haussmann. 

Societe Continentale d' Automobiles (capital 2,500,000 francs), 
.Etablissements Gautxer & Wherle, 31, r. Cave-Levallois. 

*;|;Societe d'Eolairagre i^lectrique, 15, pi. Yend6me. 

t;|;£k>ciete de Chaudieres et Voitures a vapeur (Syst^me Scotte), 
56, r. de Provence. 

Societe de Construction et d* Exploitation des Moteurs 
Auriol, 23, r. Godot-de-Mauroi. 

Societe de Constructions mecaniques des Velocipedes 
Micbauz et de Vehicules Automobiles, 14, r. Favart. 
Works : 12 et 12 bis^ av. de Madrid, k Neuilly. 

*{Societe de la Voiture Electnque Bouquet-Scbrivre, 34, r. 

Taitbout. 

Societe des Automobiles et Automobilettes Bheda, 68, r. de 
la Folic -Mericourt, and 23, r. du President Carnot, Saint Cloud 
(S. et O.). 

Societe des Automobiles et Moteurs Henriod, 5 <& 7, r. de 
Sablon?ille, Neuilly. 

Society des Automobiles Koch (capital 300,000 francs), 38, r. 
de Berlin. 

f };Societe des G-enerateurs a vaporisation instantee (Syst^me 
SerpoUet), 61, r. Cuumartin. 

f };Societe des Moteurs et Voitures Automobiles (Syst^mc Filz), 
13, boul. Maleslierbes. 

Societe des Moteurs Gobron et Brille, 17, r. Philippe de Gerard. 

Societe des Voitures Automobiles " La Farisienne," 71, ar. 
de la Grande Armee. 
•JSociete des Voitures Electrioae* Qsa.^v\s\ ^55f^$i^ 'ttssMs.'^^ 
(Sysfc^me Krieger) , 80, t. Ta\t\>o\\V.. 



248 

Societe des Voiturettes Automobiles (Syst^me L^on Boll$e), 
163, av. Victor-Hugo. 

Societe Fran9aise des Cycles et Automobiles Liberator, 

47, r. Curtier-Bresson (Seine). 

Sooiete Fran9ai8e du Moteur equilibre, 41, r. de Ohabrol. 

Societe Q-ladiator, 18, boul. Montmartre. Works : au Fr^-St.- 
Gervais. 

*{Societe Gramme, 20, r. d'Hautpoul. 

*ttSociete iudustrielle de Moteurs eleotriques et a Vapeur, 
38, r. do Laborde. Works : Havre. (Sjstfeme J. J. Heilmann.) 

Societe Nouvelle d'^tudes Commeroiales et Industrielles, 
Th. Comle et C**., Bourse du Commerce, r. du Louvre (Syst^me 
D. Nault). 

f:|:Societe Nouvelle des Etablissements Deoauville aine, 

13, boul. Malesherbes. Works : Petit Bourg (S. et O.). 

•JSociete Fostel-Vinay, 41, r. des Voltaires. 

Syndioat de I'Autooycle de Lecroix, 35, boul. Haussmann. 

Teutingr, H. (La Nationale Societe de Constructions de Moteurs et 
Automobiles, H. Tenting), 46, r. Curial. 

Touxey, J., 66, r. do Sevres. 

Vallee, Mans (Sarthe) and 19, r. des Arts, JLevallois. 

fWeidknecht, 1, boul. MacDonald. 

Werner, freres et C^*., 85, r. Richelieu. 



FRANCE (Froviuces). 

Ateliers Diederichs, Bourgoin (Is^re). 

Aubert, E., 15, ter. pi. de I'Eperon, Le Mans (Sarthe). 

Audibert, Lavirotte et C^«., 12, eh. des Quatre-Maisons, Lyon 
(Rhone). 

Baud, E., 53, boul. du Nord Lyon (Rhone). 

Bebeli et C**., 24, boul. Carnot, Toulouse (Hte.-Q-ar.). 

Belville, HE., Vervins (Aisne). 

Blondel, Amiens (Somnie). 
•jBogard, 10, r. St.-Martin (Versailles). 

fBoUee (Am.edee), fils am6, 99, av. do Paris, Le Mans (Sarthe). 
fBoUee (Leon), 101, av. de Paris, Le Mans (Sarthe). 

Bonneville, 60, boul. Carnot, Toulouse. 
Brieat et Armand, Villers-Cotteretfi (Aisuft^ , 



249 

Briest frhres, 109, r. de Bennes, Nantes (Loire-Inf.). 

Brouhout et C*'., Vierzon, Cher. 
ttBuiliEiud, B., et Bobatel, T., 29, r. de Baraban, Lyon. 

Cassan fils, Bourgoin (Is^re). 

Croznbez, Nuxna, Baismes (Nord). 

Delahaye, Em., 34, r. du Ghizom^tre, Tours (I.-ct-L.). 

Delaxinoy, Q-., Beau vols (Nord). 
ftDeneuville, Chtlteau-Thierry (Aisne). 

DeBsaules, E., Chalon-s.-Saone (S.-et-L.). 

Duoroiset, J., 15, r. Voltaire, G-renoble (Is^re). 

Estdve, A., La Reole, Gironde. 
•JFortoTiI, L., 24, r. Fongate, Marseille. 

Fritscher et Houdry (Noel Motor), Provins (S.-et-M.). 

Frogrer, E., Feneu (Maine-et- Loire). 

G-obiet et Mersier, Joigny (Yonne). 

Goudefer, Gros et Biobard, St. ^tienne (Loire). 

Japy freres et C'«., Beaucourt (Doubs), and 7, r. du Ch3,ieau 
d'Bau, Paris. 

Jussy et C'®., r. Barrouin-St.-fitienne. 

Laooxnbe et Tissaudlier, Agen (Lot-et-Gar.). 

li'Hirondelle (Societe), Sfc.-!fifienne (Loire). 

Lotz, fils de PAine, r. Clanclaux, Nantes (Loire-Inf.). 

liunant, J., 218, av. de Pare, Lyon (Rhone). 

Mallen, V., Beaumont-de-Lomagne (Tarn-et-Gar.). 

Halliary, G., Essonnes (S.-et-O.). 

KCaret, T., Bourgoin (Is^re). 

Menard, M., 45, r. de Bel- Air, Nantes (Loire-Inf.). 

KCetche jBls, 32, boul. Carnot, Toulouse (Hte.-Gar.). 

KCillet, Felix, Persan- Beaumont (S.-et-O.). 

Hillot freres, Gray (Haute-Sadne). 

KCorel, Cb., Domene (Es^re). 

Morisse, P., et C*^, Boul. St. Michel, Etanipes. 

KCuard, J., Tournus (S.-et-L.). 

Negrre, H., 50, r. B^embault, Amiens. 

Planteau, J., Bolbec (Seine-Inf.). 

•jPoucbain, P., Armentieres (Nord). 

Bocbet et Scbneider, 202, r. PauV^eT\>,\r3QrD. V^^^^- 



250 

Bossel, E., 82, r. des Sarrazins, Lille (Nord). 
Sooiete anouyxne des Automobiles Feugreot, Audincourt 
& Mandeure, & Valentigney (Doubs). 

Societe auonyme Ghenerale Francaise des Moteurs a Fetroles 
et Voitures Automobiles, faub. do Cambrai, Yalenciennes 
(Nord). 

Societe des Voitures Automobiles et des Moteurs F. Filain, 

60, Grande Rue de Montplaisir, Lyon (Rhone). 

Societe Fran9aise d' Automobiles (capital 600,000 francs), 
1, Qua! National Puteaux (Syst^me Gaillardet). 

Sooiete Fran9aise du Moteur Diesel, Longeville, Bar-le-Dac 
(Mouse) . 

Societe Lyoxinaise de^ Velocips. et Automobiles Bocbet et 
Schneider, 202, r, Paul-Bert., Lyon. 

fSociete nouvelle des ^tablissements Deoauville aiii6, Petit- 
Bourg (S.-et-O.). 

t^Societe nouvelle des ^tablissements de I'Horme et de la 
Buire, 8, r. Victor-Hugo (Lyon). 

tJTamarelle (Syst^me Capeyron), Bergerac (Dordogne). 

Tauziu et C^^, 11, r. Bellanger, Levallois. 

Truchelet, G-evrey-Chambertin (C.-d'Or). 

Uhlenhutb, 44, r. du Bellay, Angers (M.-et.-L.). 

Vallee, 60, r. d' Australie, Le Mans (Sarthe) . 

Vermorel, M., Villefranche (Rhone), Systenie Pilain. 



GEBMAinr. 

Allgremeine Gesellschaft fiir Dieselmotoren, Augsberg. 

Allgremeine Motor- Wagreu G-esellschaft, Berlin. 

Benz & C''., Mannheim. 

Bergrmanns Industrie Werke, Gaggenau. 

Bitschwiller Motor -Wagren Works (Martinet & Galland), 
Bitschwiller, Thann (Alsace). 

Cudell & Co., Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Daimler Motoren G-esellsobaft, Cannstadt (Wurtemberg). 

Diesel, B., 2, Sehakstrasso, Munich. 

Guns'VTind, Harm., 10, Herberstr. Schoneberg, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft fiir Automobil Wagrenbau, Nuremberg (capital 
:^oO,000 fnwcs). 



251 

Hildebrandt, H., Munich. 

Hille, HL., Lobtau, Dresden. 

Kilffus, Jacob, Kayensbourg. 

liUtzxnann, F., Dessau (Saxe). 

Hittel-Europaisohen Hotor-Wa^en Verein, Berlin. 

Motorenfahrzenerfabrik Gesellsohaft, Dusseldoi*f. 

Werziugrer, Friedriob, 13, Maria Yictoriastr., Baden Baden, 

HOIiliAND. 

Eysingr, D. ,H., Amersfoort. 

Van G-ink, Ott Bultmann & Co., Amsterdam. 

ITAIiY. 

Ferrari, E., 14 Corso San Celso, Milan. 
Figrini, Ijuifiri) 70, Via Moscova, Milan. 
VentTirino & Tartaglia, Milan. 

SWEDEN. 
Wagrnfabriks Aktiebolagret, Sodertelge. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Borxnann, S., et C'«., 40, Stadelhoferstr, Zurich. 
Motorenfabrik Wetzikon A. G-., Wetzikon. 
Saurer et C^^, Arbon. 

UNITED STATES AND AMEBICA. 

Althaxn International Motor C<>., 27, State St., Boston (Mass.). 

American Motor C^., 32, Broadway, N.Y. 

American Carriagre Motor C°., 414, East 125th Street, N.Y. 

Armstrong: Mfgr. C^., Bridgeport (Conn.). 

Balzers, M., 370, Gerard Avenue, New York City. 

•JBarrows, C. H., 140, W. 29th St., N.Y. 

Bay State Motive Power 0°., Springfield (Mass.), and Jersey 
City (N.J.). 

Best Manufgr. O^., San Leandro (Cal.), Crude Oil Motor. 

Bird, H. R., Buffalo, N.Y. 



252 

Bramwell-Bobinson 0°., Hyde Park (Mass.). 

Brown, Edwin P., Evanston (111.)- 
♦JC. H. Barrows Co., 310, West 53rd Street, N.Y. 

O. H. Black Mfgr. 0°., Indianapolis (Ind.). 

Olapp, H. W., New Haven (Conn.). 
titCllark, E. S., 272, Preeport Street, Boston (Mass.). 

Cross, A. T., Providence (R.I.). 

Daimler Motor C°., Stein way (N.J.). 

Detroit Horseless Carriagre C^., Detroit (Mich.). 

Dnryea Hanufacturingr C^., Peoria (111.). 

Duryea Motor Wagron C^., Springfield (Mass.). 

Eisenliuth, J. W., 40, Wall Street, N.Y. 

*JEaton Electric Motor Carriage O^., 383, Washington Street, 
Boston. 

•JElectric Carriagre & Wagron C°. (Morris & Salom), Drexel 
Building, Philadelphia. 

♦jElectric Vehicle Co., 1684, Broadway, N.Y. 

Emerson & Fisher Co., Cincinnati (Ohio). 

Empire Motor Co., Pittsburg. 

Erie Cycle & Motor Carriagre Co., Anderson, Ind. 
t^Everett Motor Car Co., Everett (Mass.). 
*jFischer Equipment Co., 340, Deaborn Street, Chicago. 

Fox, Irving: W., Rochester (Minn.). 

G-ardner Motor Co., 301, Cora Bg., Common Street, New Orleans 
(Louis.). 

♦JQ-eneral Electric Automobile Co., Philadelphia (Pa.). 
•fJG-eneral Electric Co., Lynn (Mass.). 

Oreuter, C. R., 29, Laurel Street, Holyoke (Mass.). 

Q-uy, E., Toronto (Canada). 

Harris, O-. T., 628, The Bourse, Philadelphia. 

Hart & CO., Detroit (Mich.). 

Hay & Hotchkiss Co., New Haven (Conn.). 

Haynes & Apperson, Kokomo (Ind.). 

Hertel, Max, 454, Lincoln Av., Chicago (111.). 

Hesrman Motor Vehicle and Manufacturing: Co., Melrose 
(Mass.). 

Hitchcock Mtg, C°., Cortland (N.J.). 



253 

Holly, H. E., 343,. Butler Exchange, Providence. 

Home, Battan & C°., Wells Street, Chicago (111.)* 

^tlndiana Bicycle 0°., Indianapolis (Ind.) ; Waverley Electric 
System. 

Krajewski, Fesant, & C°., Erie Basin Iron Works, Brooklyn, 

N.Y. 

Lengrert & Co., 12th Street, Philadelphia. 

Lewis Hotooyole Works, 153, Jackson Boulevard, Chicago (111.) 

liovell Cycle & Ether Motor C°., Portland (Me.). 

f}:llarsli Bros., Brockton (Mass.). 

Martin Motor Wagon C^., Buffalo, N.Y. 

Mueller Mfgr. C«>., Decatur (lU.). 

National Motor Carriagre C., 1, Madison Av., N. Y. j Duryea 
System. 

Oakman Motor Vehicle C^., G-reenfield (Mass.) ; Hertel Motors. 

Olds Motor Vehicle C^., Lansig (Mich.). 

Overman Wheel C^., Chicopee Falls (Mass.). 
*JPackard, It, B., Salem (Mass.). 

Fawtucket Motor Carriagre C^., Pawtucket, Bhode Island. 

Fierce Crouch Engrine C^., New Brighton (Pa.). 
tjPiper, J. W., Crescent Pk., Waltham (Mass.). 

Fittsburgr Motor Vehicle C*., Pittsburg (Pa.). 

Fneumatio Carriagre C*'., 253, Broadway, N.Y, 
*tFopeMfgr. C^, Hartford (Conn.). 
♦jBae Motocycle C^., Chicago (111.)- 

Beeves Pulley C°., Columbus (Ind.). 
♦JBiker Electric IMotor C°., 45, York Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Bogrer American Mechanical Carriagre C<>., 80, Broadway, N.Y. 

Sintz G-as Engrine C<^., G-rand Rapids (Mioh.). 
*tSperry, Elmer A., Cleveland (Ohio). 
titStanley, F. E., Newton (Mass.). 

Stealey, A. D., 450, Main Street, dan Francisco (Cal.). 

Struss, H. W., East 42nd Street, N.Y. 
*:|:Stxirgress Electric Motor Cycles C«., Chicago, 

Sullivan, F., 621, Common Street, Philadelphia. 

Thomas Kane & C®., 137, Wabash Av., Chicago (111.). 

Walton Tinkham Mfgr. C*»., aoa-^10,^ft^\.^^"Co.^^Jt^^^»^^^- 



254 

Welch & Lawson, 203, Centre Street, N.Y. 

Wesley B. Ohorohill & 0<»., Cambridge (Mass.). 

White, Lewis B., New Power 0«., Trenton (N.J.) ; Carbonic 
Acid O^hs Motor. 

ft Whitney Motor Wagrou O*., 24, New Street, East Boston (Mass.). 

Wingr & CO., 189, Liberty Street, N.Y. 

Wintou Motor Carriagre €<>., Cleveland (Ohio). 

Woods, O. E., & CO., Manhattan Bg., Chicago. 



THE AUTOMOTOR 



AND 



Horseless Vehicle Journal 

A EECOED AND REVIEW OF APPLIED 
AUTOMATIC LOCX)MOTION. 

Published the middle of each month, price 6d. ; post free, 7d. ; 
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"Locomotives on Highways Act, 1896." was passed. 

The articles and news contained in the paper cover the whole field of 
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A special feature is the attention devoted to *' Patents." This branch is 
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Editor of this branch of the paper is at all times available to those who may 
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Special prominence is given to the doings of Companies, Societies, and 
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Legal questions generally, and the interpretation of bye-laws which are or 
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25o 

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Das Journal fUr Wagenbankunst. — 31-32, Kanonier Strasse, 
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Horseless Agre, The. — 157-159, William Street, New York. Monthly. 

La France Automobile. — 10 faub. Montmartre, Paris. Weekly. 

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L'Annee Automobile. — 2G place Dauphine, Paris. Annual Review. 

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256 

L'Avenir industriel du Cycle et de L' Automobile. — 17 rue des 

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L' Industrie Velooipedique et Automobile. — 75 rue Vieille du 
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Le Chauffeor. — 26 plac*e Dauphine, Paris. Bi-monthly. 

Le Monde Automobile et Oyoliste. — 18 rue Richer, Paris. 
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Le Veloce. — 22 rue des Sables, Brussels. Daily. 

Les Sports. — 4 rue de faub. Montmartre, Paris. Daily. 5 C"*". 

Motocycle, The. — 1410, Monadnock Block, Chicago. 

Motor, Cycle and Component Parts Official IntelUgrenoe. — 

Annual. 5s. Effingham Wilson. 

Motor- Wag-en Zeitschrift des Mitteleuropaischen Motor- 
Wag-en Vereins. — Pass & Q-arleb, Berlin. Monthly. 
1^ marks. 

Samokat, The. — Glinka Street 3, St. Petersburg. Weekly. 

THE AUTOMOTOR LIBRARY. 

Autocars. — By D. Fabman, M I.E.E. (From the French original 
of Lucien Serraillier, '* Les Automobiles.*' 5fr.) With preface 
by M. le Baron de Zuylen. London : Whittaker & Co. 

Calculus for Engrineers. — By J. Peeey, F.R.S. E. Arnold. 

Carriagres without Horses Shall Go. — By A. R. Sexxett, 
M.I.M.E., &e. 28. Wliittaker. 

Conseils pratiques d. I'usagre des Amateurs de Voitures Auto- 
mobiles d, Petrole. — By Tabdy-Pigelet. Ofr. 50c. "La Loco- 
motion Automobile," Paris. 

Construction of Carriageways and Footways. — By H. P. 
BouLNOis, M.Inst.C.E. bs. Whittaker & Co. 

Dynamometer. Dynawiometers and the Measurement of Power. — 
By John J. Flathek, Ph.B., Professor of Mechanical Engi- 
neering, Purdue University. 8*. 6d. Spon. 

Electric Motive Power. — By A. Snell. 10s, 6d. The Electrician 
Publishing Co. 

Electric Railways and Tramways, their Construction and 
Operation.—By Philip Dawsok, C.E. 30a-. Ulustrated. 
Whittaker & Co. 1896. 



257 

Electric Traction, More Especially as Applied to Tramways. — 
By A. Rbckbnzatjn. Illustrated. lOs. 6d. Whittaker & Co. 

Electric Tramways and Bailways Popularly Explained. — By 
H. SoHOLEY. Alabaster, Q-atehouse & Co., London. Limp 
cloth, 2*., post free. 

Electrical Boats and Navigration. — By Thomas Gohmebfobd 
Mabtin and Joseph Sachs. Alabaster, Ghttehonse & Co., 
London. 143 illustrations, 232 pp. Price (cloth 870.) 10«. 6d, 

Electrician Primers, The. Secondary Batteries ; Motors ; Electric 
Traction. — The Electrician Publishing Co. 2«. each. 

Electro-Motors. Dynamo-Electric Machinery, a Text-book for 
Students of Electro-Technology. — By Silvanus P. Thompson, 
B.A., D.Sc, M.InstE.E., F.R.S. Illustrated. 24*. Spon. 

Electro-Motors. An American Supplement to Dynamo-Electric 
Machinery. — By Silvanus P. Thompson, B.A., D.Sc, &c. 
Illustrated. 4*. 6d. Spon. 

Fuels : Solid, Liquid, and Gkiseous. Their Analysis 
and Valuation. — By H. J. Phillips, F.C.S. 2s, Crosby, 
Lock wood & Sons. 

G-as Engines. Q-as and Petroleum Engines, a Practical Treatise on 
the Internal Combustion Engine.— By Wm. Robinson, M.E., 
Professor of Civil, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering at the 
University College, Nottingham. Spon. 

Gas and Oil Engine, The. — ^By Duoald Clebk, A.M.Inst .C.E. 
&c. 15*. Longmans, Green & Co. 

Gas and Oil Engrines. — By G. D. Hiscox. Engravings. 12*. 6d. 
Spon. 

Horseless Carriagre, The.— By Sib David Salomons, Bart., 
Tunbridge Wells. 

Horseless Carriag-es. — By J. E. Tuke, Burleigh Villa, Harro- 
gate. 6d. 

Horseless Boad Locomotion.: Its History and Modern 
Development. — By A. R. Sbnnett, AM Inst.C.E., Member 
of Council of the Self -Propelled Traffic Association. £2 2s. 
net. Whiktaker & Co. 

How to Bun Engrines and Boilers. — By Eobebt Pomeboy 
Watson. Illustrated. 3*. 6d. Spon. 

Indicator. A Treatise on the Richards Steam-Engine Indicator. — 

By Chas. T. Pobteb. 9s. Spon. 
Inventor's Adviser on Patents, Desigrns, and Trade Harks, 

The. — By REaiNALD Haddan. 3s. 6d. Harrison & Sons. 
L' Automobile de 1822-1835.- -By G-, de B^K?s."Yi^^'a.. K.^^^^^si^'^icw^ ^ 

Brussels. * ,5. 



258 

ItSL Voiture de Demain-Histoire de I'AutomobillBxne. — Bj 
John Q^eawd-Cabteret. 6fr. 250 Illustrations. 11 rue de 
Grenelle, Paris. 

Law of Hotor Cars, Hackney and Other Carriagres, The. — By 
G. A. Bonner, B.A. 7s. 6d, Stevens & Sons. 

Law of the Hotor Car, The. — By G bin wood Meabs.']^ Ss. 6d. 
Reeves & Turner. 

Law relating: to Hotor Cars, The.— By Lewis & Pobteb. 2s. 

Butterwortli & Co. 

Le Carnet du Chauffeur. — By M. le Comte de La VaIiETTB. 
Ifr. 50e. *' La Locomotion Automobile," Paris, 

L'Industrie Automobile. — By Paul Sabre r. (Le Monde 
Moderno, Nov., 1896.) 

Les Automobiles, Voitujres, Tramways et petits Vehicules. — 
By M. D. Farman. Illustrated. J. Eritsch, Paris. 

Les Tramways ; les chemins de fer but routes ; les Auto- 
mobiles et les chemins de fer de monta^ne d. cremaillere. — 
By E. Si^RAPON. E. Bernard et C**., Paris. 

Liquid Euel. Liquid Fuel for Mechanical and Industrial Purposes. 
— Compiled by E. A. Bratley Hodoetts. Illustrations. 5*. 
Spon. 

Locomotive. Catechism of the Locomotive. — By W. N. Forney. 
Illustrated. 15*. Spon. 

Locomotive Engine Driving: : A Practical Manual. — By Michael 
Reynolds, Member Soc. of Engineers, formerly Locomotive 
Inspector, L. B. and S. C. E-. Ninth Edition. Including a Key 
TO THE Locomotive Engine. Illustrations. 4*. 6d. ; Crosby, 
Lockwood & Sons. 

Lubricants, Oils and Greases. — By Iltyd I. Bedwood. 4*. 6d. 
Spon. 

Manuel du Conducteur Chauffeur d' Automobiles. — By 
Maurice Farman. Illustrated. 3fr. "La Locomotion 
Automobile," Paris. 

Hanuel Pratique du Conducteur d' Automobiles. — By Pierbe 

and Yves Guedon. 5fr. J. Fritsch, Paris. 

Manuel Fratiq.ue du Constructeur et du Conducteur de Cycles 
et d' Automobiles. — By H. de Grapfiony. Hetzel et Cie., 
18 rue Jacob, Paris. 

Mechanical Bead Carriagres. — By W. "Wobbry Beaumont, 
M.I.M.E., &ic. Society of Arts Journal. 1895. 

JtToteurs a Oaz et d, Petrole. Paris. 1^^^. 



259 

Motive Power and Glaring:. — By E. Teemlett Caeteb, C.E. 
12*. 6d. The Electrician Publishing Co. 

■ 

Motor Cars and the Motor Car Act, 1896.— By W. Smyth. 6d. 
Hodges, Figgis & Co., Dublin. 

Motor Cars or Power Carriagres for Common Roads. — Bj 
A. J. WAiiLTS-TATLEE, C.E. Illustrated. 4*. 6d. Crosby, 
Lockwood & Sons. 

Narrow G-augre Railways. — By C. E. Spooner, C.E. Plates. 15*. 
Spon. » 

Notes on> Bollee Steam Carriagre. — ^By H. Tbesca, Proc. Inst. 
Civil Engineers, 1875, 

Notes on Motor Carriagres. — B7 J. H. Knight. Hazell, Watson 
& Yiney. 

Parliamentary Papers : — 

Report from the Select Committee (of the House of Commons) on 
Steam Carriages, with the minutes of evidence and an appendix. 
1831. No. 324. 

Report from the Select Committee (of the House of Commons) on 
Mr. Goldsworthy Gurney's Case, with the minutes of evidence. 
1834. No. 483. 

Report from the Select Committee (of the House of Commons) on 
Mr. Golds worthy Gurney's Case, with the minutes of evidence. 
1836. No. 373. 

Report from the Select Committee (of the House of Lords) on the 
Tolls on Steam Carriages Bill, with the minutes of evidence. 
1836. 

Report from the Select Committee on Turnpike Trusts, with the 
minutes of evidence. 1839. 

Report to the East India Company, by Sir Frederick Abbott, 
upon the capabilities of Boydell's traction engine. 1857-58. 
No. 249. 

Report to the War Department respecting the applicability of 
Bray's improved traction engine to the transport or conveyance 
of heavy artillery. 1857-58. No. 451. 

Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the 
Locomotives Bill, with the proceedings of the Committee. 1859. 
No. 116. 

Report from the Select Committee on Locomotives on Roads^ with, 
the proceedings, minutes of evidence, ^w6. ^x^. «:^"^'ev!>Sc!cv.. ^sSV^ 
No. 812. 



260 

£eport from the Select Committee (of the House of Lords) on 
Highway Acts, together with the proceedings, minutes of 
eyidence, and an appendix. 1881. No. 371. 

Patroleum. The Marine Transport of Petroleum. — By Q-bobge 
HsBBEBT Little. 10«. 6d, Spon. 

Petroleum. A Practical Treatise on Mineral Oils and their By- 
products. — By Iltyd I. Redwood, Assoc. Mem. Am. Soc. M.E., 
&c. Forty tables and illustrations. 15*. Spon. 

Power Locoxuotion on the Higrhway. — By Khys Jenkins, 
M.I.M.E. 2.V. 6d. Wm. Gate. 

Practical Treatise on Hodern Gas and Oil Engines. — By 
F. Gboveb, A.M.I.C.E. 4*. 6d. Technical FubUshing Co., 
Manchester. 

Practical Treatise on the *'Otto" Cycle Gas Engrine, A. — By 
William Nobeis, M.I.M.E. 10*. Gd. Longmans, Green k Co. 

Principles of the Transformer. — By Fbedebice Bedell, Ph.D. 

Macmillan & Co. 

Boad Locomotives. The History and Development of St^am 
Locomotion on Common Roads. — By William Fletcheb, 
Mechanical Engineer. Illustrated. 6*. Spon. 

Beads. A Treatise on Highway Construction. — By Austin T. 
Btene, C.E. £1 5*. Spon. " 

Beads. The Maintenance of Macadamised Roads.— By Thomas 
CoDBiNdTON, M.Inst.C.E., &c. 7s. 6d, Spon. 

Some Beminiscences of Steam Locomotion on Common 
Beads. — British Assoc. Reports, 1894. 

Steam Carriagres.— By A. F. Yabbow. Proc. Society of 
Engineers, 1862. 

Steam on Common Beads. — ^B. J. MoLaben. Froc. Inst. Civil 
Engineers, 1890. 

Steam Engine. The Steam Engine considered as a Thermodynamic 
Machine. — By Jas. H. Cotteeill, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of 
Applied Mechanics in the Royal Naval College. 15*. Spon. 

Steam Locomotion on Common Boads. — By W. Fletcheb. 
5^. Spon. 

Storagre Battery, The.—By Augustus Tbeadwell, Junr., E.E., 
&c. 7*. 6d. Whittaker & Co. 

Teeth of Wheels. Gear Tables for Laying out Accurate Tooth 
Profiles. — By J. F. Klein, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, 
Lehigh UDirerBitj. On card, 17 in. b^ ^0 vtv. ISs. Spon. 



261 

Traite de la Constmotion, de la Conduite et de I'entretien dea 
Voitiires Automobiles. — By Ch. Milandbb and E. P. 
Bouquet. Vol. 1, 4 frcs. ; Yol. 2, 2 frcs. E. Bernard et C'«., 
Paris. 

Traite des Vehicules Antomobiles. — By Louis LocKEET,Ing^»nieiir 
de8 Arts et Manufactures. 1 : Lea Yelocip^des. 2 : Les 
Voitures h. Vapeur (out of print). 3 ; Les Voitures k Petrole. 
4 r Les Yoitures ^lectriques et autres. Price 2fr. 50c. each. 
" La Locomotion Automobile," Paris. 

Traite tlieoriq.ue et pratique des Hoteurs a ga,z et d. petrole. — 
By A. WiTZ. E. Bernard et C*»., Paris. 

Tramways : Their Oonstruction and Workiner. — By 
D. KiNNEAB Glabe, M.Inst.C.E. 400 Illustrations. 780 pages. 
28*. Crosby, Lockwood & Sons. 

Velocipedie et Automobilisme. — By F. B^oamey. Illustrated. 
A. Mame et fils, Tours. 

Voitures Automobiles. -r-By Or, Collier. Corapte rendu de la 
Course Paris - BordeauT. Society des Ingdnieurs Civils de 
France, Paris, 1895. 



262 



STATUTES 

Affecting: more or less directly those who Mianu&ctiire, 
Own, or Drive Antomotor Vehicles. 



Abbitbation, 17 & 18 V.. c. 125. (C.L.P.A., 1854.) 

between master and workmen, 5 Gt. 4, c. 96 j am., 7 W. 4 

& 1 v., c. 32 ; 30 & 31 v., c. 105. 

between railway companies, 22 & 23 V., c. 59 ; by 



joint-stock comp., 25 & 20 V., c. 89, s. 72. 

- official referees, 36 & 37 V., c. 66, s. 83 j 44 V., c. 12, 



BoABD OF TBADE, inquiries and arbitrations, 37 & 88 V., c. 40. 

BoiLEB EXPLOSIONS ACT, 1882, 45 & 46 v., c. 22. 

Bridges, county, 4 & 5 V., c. 49 ; repairs, 5 & fi W. 4, c. 31, s. 22 ; 

33 & 34 v., c. 73 ; 41 & 42 V., c. 77, ss. 21, 22 ; 43 & 44 V ., o. 5. 
€anal boats, registration and regulation, 40 & 41 V., c. 60 ; 47 & 

48 v., c. 76. 
Canals and navigable eivers, preserration of peace on, 3 & 4 V., 

c. 50. 
CAEEiERS ACT, 8 & 9 V., c. 42; am., 10 & 11 v., c. 94; 

(traffic Act) 17 & 18 V., c. 31 ; 21 & 22 V., c. 75. 
tolls, 8 & 9 v., c. 2S.—See " Eailway and Canal. 



Caeeiages, hackney, waggons, carts, and dravs (metrop.), 1 W. 4, 
c. 22 ; 6 & 7 v., c. 86 ; 13 & 14 V., c. 7 ; 37 & 38 V., c. 35, sched. ; 
IG & 17 v., c. 33 ; 16 & 17 v., c. 127 ; 30 & 31 V., c. 134 ; 

32 & 33 v., c. 14 ; 46 V., c. 10, s. 7 ; 32 & 33 V., c. 115. 
Oaeeiers, protection of, 11 Gr. 4 & 1 W. 4, c. 68; am., 28 & 

29 v., c. 94. 
Copybigbt, 6 & 7 W. 4, c. 59 j 5 & 6 V., c. 45 ; 10 & 11 Y., c. 95 ; 

am., 15 y., c. 12. 
ov designs, 5 & 6 Y., c. 100 ; 6 & 7 Y., c. 65 ; 13 & 

14 Y., c. 104 ; 21 & 22 Y., c. 70 ; 24 & 25 Y., c. 73. 
Combinations of woekmen, 34 & 35 Y., c. 32 ; 38 & 39 V., c. 86. 
Customs laws, 34 & 35 Y., c. 103 ; 39 & 40 Y., cc. 35, 36 ; 45 & 46 Y., 

c. 41 ; licences for letting horses, hackney and stage carriage 

licences, male servants, armorial bearings, &c., 32 & 33 Y., c. 14 ; 

33 & 34 v., c. 32 ; hired carriage licences, 38 & 39 Y., c. 23 ; 
tea and carriages, 47 & 48 Y., c. 25. 

Dangeeous Goods, carriage and deposit of, on railways, 8 & 9 V., 
c. 20 ; on tramways, 33 & 34 A'., c. 78 ; in ships, 36 & 37 Y., 
c. 85 J 38 & 39 Y., c. 17 ; nitro -glycerine, 32 & 33 Y.,c. m.See 
" Petroleum." 

2)ssiaNB. registration of, 46 & 47 V., c. 57. 



263 

Electbic lighting act, 1882, 45 & 46 V., c. 56. 

Employees and woekmen, 38 & 39 V., c. 90 ; 41 Y., c. 16 ; 43 & 

44 v., c. 42. 
Explosive substances, malicious injuries by, 24 & 25 V., c. 100 ; 

46 y., c. 3 ; Explosives Act, 1875, 38 V., c. 17. 
Factoey and wobkshop act, 1878, 41 V., c. 16 ; steam whistles, 

35 & 36 v., c. 61 ; white lead factories and bakehouses, 46 & 47 V., 

c. 53. 
FiEB brigade in LONDON, 28 & 29 Y., c. 90 ; 32 & 33 Y., c. 102 ; 

38 & 39 v., c. 65, s. 3 ; 39 <& 40 Y., c. 55 ; 40 & 41 V., c. 52 ; 

41 & 42 Y., c. 37. 
Hoese duties and licences, 32 & 33 Y., c. 14 ; 33 & 34 Y., c. 32 ; 

37 & 38 Y., c. 16. 

slaughtering, 7 & 8 Y., c. 87 ; 37 «& 38 Y., c. 67. 

administration of poisonous drugs to, 39 & 40 Y., c. 13. 

Highway bate assessment and expenditure" act, 45 & 45 Y., 

e.27. 

BATES (distraining), 12 & 13 Y., c. 14. 

^ app. of, to 'turnpike-roads, 4 & 5 Y., c. 50 ; 

S. L. R. A., 1874 (No. 2) ; cont. 46 & 47 Y., c. 40. 
Highways, consol., 5 & 6 W. 4, c. 50 ; am., 2 & 3 Y., c. 45 ; 4 «fc 

5 Y., 0.51; 8&9 Y., c. 71. 
IiTTENTiONS, protection of (international exhib.), 33 & 34 Y., c. 27. 
Locomotives on highways act, 1896, 59 & GO Y., c. 36. 

1898, 61 & 62 Y., c. 29. 



BOADS, 24 & 25 Y., c. 70; 28 & 29 Y., c. 83 ; cont., 

46 & 47 Y., c. 40. 
Master and sebvant, 30 & 31 Y., c. 105 ; 36 & 37 Y., c. 75 ; 38 & 

39 Y., cc. 86, 90. 
• wobkmen, councils of conciliation between, 30 «& 31 Y., 

c. 105 ; 35 & 36 Y., c. 46. 
Mebchandise mabks act, 25 & 26 Y., c. 88 j hops, 29 & 30 Y., 

c. 37 ; 46 & 47 Y., c. 57. 
Mbtbopolitan building act, 18 & 19 Y., c. 122 ; 23 & 24 Y., 

c. 52 ; 24 & 25 Y., c. 87 ; 32 & 33 V., c. 82 ; 41 & 42 Y., c. 32. 
hackney cabbiage acts, 1 «& 2 W. 4, c. 22 ; 6 & 

7Y,, c. 86; am., 13&14Y., c. 7; 16 & 17 Y., c. 33 ; 30&31Y., 

c. 134 ; 32 & 33 Y., c. 115 ; 38 & 39 Y., c. 66. 

FIBE, 28 & 29 v., c. 90 ; 32 & 33 Y., c. 102 ; 38 & 



39 Y., c. 65, s. 3 ; 39 &40Y., c. 55 ; 40&41 Y., c. 52; 41«&42 V., 
c. 37. 

STBEET TBAFFIC, 2 & 3 Y., c. 47, S. 53 ; 6 & 7 Y., 



c. 86; 16 & 17 Y., cc. 33, 127; 30 & 31 Y., c. 134 ; am., 31 & 
32 Y., c. 6 ; 48 Y., c. 18. 
Patent law, 6 & 7 Y., c. 38 ; 7 & 8 Y., c. 69 \ 46 & 4^ X ..vj,.^^ n 
48 & 49 Y., c. 63. 



264 

Patent, stamps on, 1(5 V., c. 5 ; 33 & 84 V., c. 97. 

Pktboleum, 34 & 35 V., c. 105; 42 & 43 V., c. 47 ; Hawkers Act, 

1881, 44 & 45 v., c. 67.—" Dangerous Goods." 
Public cabbiages (hackney and stage). — See " Carriages." 
Railway and CAifAL tbafpic BEauLATiONS, 17 & 18 Y., c. 31 ; 

(cheap trains, canals) 23 & 24 Y., c. 41. 
Bailways, construction and regulation of , 3 & 4 Y., c. 97 ; 5 & 6 Y., 

c. 56 ; 7 & 8 Y., c. 85 ; 27 & 28 Y., c. 120 ; 30 & 31 Y., c. 127; 

31 & 32 Y., c. 119 ; 33 Y., c. 19 ; 34 & 35 Y., c. 78 ; 36 & 

37 Y., c. 70 ; 42 and 43 Y., cc. 49, 56 ; 36 & 37 Y., c. 48 ; cont. 

4G & 47 v., c. 40. 
CLAUSES consolidation ACT, 8 & 9 Y., c. 20 ; 26 & 27 Y., 

c. 92. 

CHEAP TBAIKS ACT, 1883 ; passcngers duty, 46 & 47 Y. 



c. 34. 

obtaining of further powers by, 27 & 28 Y., c. 120; and 



for construction of, 27 & 28 Y., c. 121 ; 33 & 34 Y., c. 19 ; 

rolling stock protection, 30 & 31 Y., c. 127; 38 & 39 Y., c. 31. 
Restbaint of TRADE, statutes as to, rep., 7 & 8 Y., c. 24. 
Registration of designs, 46 & 47 Y., c. 57. 
Trade marks. — See " Merchandize." 
Trades union (general Act, 1871), 34 & 35 Y., c. 31 ; 39 & 40 Y., 

c. 22. 
Tbadixg comp. incorp., 25 & 26 Y., c. 89 ; 30 & 31 Y, c. 131. 
Tramways, 33 & 34 Y., c. 78 ; 34 & 35 Y., c. 69 ; 35 & 36 Y., c. 43; 

Nortli London, 32 & 33 Y., c. ci. ; South London, 32 & 33 Y., 

c. xcix. 
Turnpike roads, 3 a. 4, c. 126 ; 4 a. 4, c. 95 ; 7 & 8 G. 4, c. 24; 

9 a. 4, c. 77; 4 & 5 Y., cc. 33, 51 ; 12 & 13 Y., c. 87; 13 & 

14 \.y c. 79 ; 25 & 26 Y., c. 56 ; 26 & 27 Y., c. 94. 
locomotives on, 24 & 25 Y., c. 70 ; 28 & 29 Y., 

p. 83 ; 41 & 42 v., c. 77. 

nuisances on, 27 & 28 Y., c. 75. 



trusts (union), 12 & 13 Y., c. 46 ; 13 & 14 Y., c. 79, 

24 & 25 v., c. 46. 

(applic. of highw. rates to), 4 & 5 Y., c. 59 ; 46 & 



47 Y., c. 40. 

debts, 14 & 15 Y., c. 38 ; 16 & 17 Y., c. 135 ; 17 



& 18 Y, c. 58; 24 «fe 25 Y., c. 46 ; 32 & 33 Y, c. 90, s. 7; 37 & 
38 Y., c. 95, 8. 11 ; 40 «& 41 Y., c. 64, s. 9. 

CONTIN. AND REPEAL ACTS, 42 & 43 Y., c. 46 ; 43 & 



44 v., c. 12 ; 44 & 45 Y., c. 31 ; 45 & 46 Y., c. 52 ; 46 & 47 Y., 

r. 21 ; 47 & 48 Y., c. 52 ; 48 & 49 Y, o. 37. 



265 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN AUTOHOBILISM. 



FRENCH— ENaiilSH. 



Acier, steel. 

Acierfonduy cast -steel. ' 

Aiguille^ needle. 

Aile d'heiice, blade of a screw- 
propeller. 

Ailettey flange, projection, studs. 

Alliagey alloy. 

Aimantj magnet. 

Allere, drawn in. 

Amiantej asbestos. 

Angle oblique ^ bevel. 

Appareily gear, works, arrangement. 

Appareil a chauffer I'eau d'alimen- 
tation, feed-water heater. 

Arhre, shaft. 

Arhre a manivelle, crank-shaft. 

Arri^re, astern, backwards. 

Aspiration, exhausting, suction. 

Avantf ahead, forward. 

Avarie, damage. 

Bagnolety waterproof cover, tar- 
paulin. 
Bague de piston ^ piston ring. 
Bailhy bucket. 
Banc, seat. 
Banquihre, clamp. 

Barre 

Barre de gouvernail 

Basse pression, low pressure. 
Bee, candle, stack. 
Bielle, connecting rod. 
Bielle d'excentriqtie, eccentric rod. 
Bielles pendentes, side rods. 
Blanc de ceruse, white-lead. 
Blindage enfer, iron sheeting. 
Boite a tiroir, slide-valve chest. 
Botte a vapeur, steam trap. 
Boulon, bolt, pin. 
Brinqtiehalle, pump-handle. 



steering- 
handle or 
tiller. 



Brise circuit, circuit breaker. 
Broche, spindle. 
Bronze de canon, gun -metal. 
Bruit, noise. 

Cailhhottis, grating. 

Caisse a eau, water tank. 

Caisse a petrole, petrol tank. 

Caisson, box. 

Carneaux de ehaudih'e, boiler flues. 

Chaine, chain. 

Chaine a la vaucauson, pitch chain. 

Chaine sans Jin, endless chain. 

Chaloupe d. vapeur, steam-launch. 

Charni^res, hinges. 

Chassis, frame of a vehicle. 

Chaudiere, boiler, generator. 

Chaudronnier, bpiler-maker. 

Chavirer, capsize. 

Chemin, road, track. 

Cheminee, chimney. 

Cheval vapeur, horsepower. 

Cheville, bolt. 

Cheville a aeillet, eye-bolt. 

Clapet, clack valve. 

Cloison etanche, watertight bulk- 
head. 

Clou, nail. 

Collerette, flange. 

Collet, neck, collar. 

Collier d'excentrique, eccentric 
strap. 

Compose explosif, explosive com- 
pound. 

Compteur, meter or counter, 

Condenseur, condenser. 

Comet d, longuin, foghorn. 

Cornihre, angle-irou. 

C6te, side. 

Cou de cygne^ gpoaeivQQk. 
\ Coulisseoti, ^<iO\^, 



266 



Courbaton, bracket. 
Courie Joint, butt joint. 
Couronve a empreviente, sprocket 

wheel. 
Courroiej belting. 
CoursBy stroke. 
Course de piston, length of piston 

stroke. 
Coussinet, bush. 
Crampe defer, iron staple. 
Crapattdine, bed plate. 
Creux, depth. 
Cric a vis, screw-jack. 
Cuir, leather. 
Cuicre, cop2)cr. 

Dedans, internally, witliin. 

Defauts, defects. 

Dehors, externally, from without. 

Dent, ratchet, cog, tooth. 

Dessinateur, designer. 

Dessous, under, below. 

Detente, mechanisme de, expansion 

gear. 
Detente, origine de la, point of 

cut-otf. 
Dimanche, Sunday. 
Doueement, slowly. 

^chappement, escape, exhaust. 
JEchelle, laddsr. 
JEgouttoir, grating. 
JElancS, projecting. 
En avant, go ahead, ahead. 
Mngregage-conique, bevel gear. 
Engregages, gearing. 
JEscarhilles, cinders. 
JEssieu, axletree. 
JEtain, tin. 
^trort, narrow. 
Evacuation, discharge. 
Bxcentriqiie, eccentric. 

Fanal, lantern. 
JFer, iron. 
J^er d rudan, hoo])-'iron. 



Fer d^ angle, angle-iron. 
Fer en harrer^ bar-iron. 
Fer en T, tee-iron. 
Filon, rope. 
Fils, wires. 
Flotteur, float. 
Fonte crue, pig-iron. 
Fonte defer, cast-iron. 
Fontes, castings. 
Foret, drill. 

Fort loin, a great way off. 
Fourneau, furnace. 
Frein, brake. 
Fdt, cask. 

Garniture etoupe de moteurs, engine 

packing. 
Oarniture mStalliquei metallic 

packing. 
Olissiere, guide. 
Gond, hinge. 
Gouverner, to steer. 
Grue, crane. 
Guindaux, windlass. 
Guirlande, girder. 

I 

I Hampe, handle. 
Heaume, tiller. 
Helice, screw-propeller. 
Hors, without, except, out of. 
Houille, fuel. 
JIuile, oil. 

Inflammation, ignition. 
Introduction, admission. 

Jamhes, brackets. 

.Tout d cm I lapped joint. 
; Joint superpose j ^^ •» 

i Joint a collet, flanged joint. 

• Leger, light. 
Lest, ballast. 

Liaisons, strengthening pieces. 

• Linguets, pawls. 



267 



Machine d basse pressiorty low- 
pressure engine. 

Jfachine a haute pression, high- 
pressure engine. 

Machine d percer^ drilling machine. 

Machine a vapuer, steam engine. 

Main d'aeuvrej workmanship. 

Mamelonf nipple. 

Mani^hy shuttle. 

Manivelle^ crank. 

Manchons cCembrayagey friction 
clutch. 

Manomeiref steam-pressure gauge. 

Marfeau, hammer. 

Mechanisme de detente^ slide-valye 
or expansion gear. 

M^che, spindle, barrel. 

Melange^ mixture. 

Minium^ red-lead. 

MotricCy moving, motor. 

Niveau y leyel. 

Palievy level, plummer block. 

JPeinture, paint. 

Penturet hinge. 

Pile, battery. 

Plaque defondation, sole plate. 

Plombe de sHrete, fusible plug. 

Pompe d air, air pomp. 

Pompe d bas, hand pump. 

Pont, deck, platform, bridge. 

Pontre, girder, 

Poulie, pulley. 

Presse Stoupe, stuffing-box 

Pression, pressure. 

Presson, crow-bar. 

Propulseur, propeller. 

S.egulateur, governor. 
Memorquer, tug-boat. 



, Renifiard, blow-through valve. 
I Reservoir, tank. 

Ressort, spring. 

Robinet, cock, tap, valve. 

Roue, wheel. 

Roue conique, bevel or mitre wheels. 

Roue de gouvernail, steering wheel. 

Rouler, to roll. 

Saille, cam, projection. 

Samedi, Saturdav. 

Serrures, locks. 

Siege, seat. 

Son, noise. 

Souffleur, blower. 

Sovpape, valve. 

Soupape de sutrete, safety valve. 

Soute, bunker. 

Tambour, drum or barrel. 

Taquet, cleat, clamp. 

Tente, awning. 

Tige, spindle. 

Tille, platform. 

Tirage, draught. 

Tirage forch, forced draught. 

Tole, boiler plate. 

Tourillon, gudgeon, trunnion. 

Toute Vitesse, full-speed. 

Tube de hireau, water gauge. 

Tuyau, pipe. 

Tuyau d^asperation, suction pipe. 

Tuyau d^ecoulement, delivery pipe* 

I Vapeur, steam. 
' Fendredi, Friday. 

Ventre d terme, purchase - hire 
system. 

Vitesse, speed. '^ 

Volant, flywheel. 



268 



£NaLISH--PBENCH. 



Ahead, eu avaut. 

Air pump f pompe k air. 

Air valvey soupape atmospherique. 

Alloy i aillago. 

Angle iron, for d'anglo. 

Apertures, ouwrl ures. 

Asbestos, aiuiante. 

Astern, ea arriSre. 

Awninfj, tonte. 

Barrel, tamboiu'. 

Battery, pile. 

Bearlny, portie de I'arbre, cous- 

sinets. 
Bilye pump, pompe do calc. 
Belting, courroic. 
Bevel year, ciigregage-conique. 
Blades (of a screw), ailes. 
Blow-off cock, robinet d*extraction. 
Blow-throuyh valve, reniflard. 
Blower, soufflour. 
Boiler, chaudiere. 
Boiler composition, compoBitiou 

pour cbaudieres. 
Boiler mount inys, aceessoircs de 

chaudiere. 
Bolts, boulons. 
Brackets, jambes. 
Brake, frein. i 

Brass, laiton. 
Bridyes, pouts. 
Buffer, ressort. 
Bush, coussiuet. 
Butt strap, courie joint. 

Capsize {to) chavirer. 

Castinys, fontes. 

Cement, ciment. 

Chest (slide-valve), boite h, tiroir. 

Cinders, escarbilles. 

Circuit breaker, lo brise circuit. 

Circuit closer, le ferme circuit. 

Clack valve, clapet. 

Ci?a/, charbon, hovdlle. 



Compound engine, macliine com* 

pose. 
Condenser, condouBeur. 
Condensing engine, macliine ^ 

condenseur. 
Conducting wires, file, condacteurs. 
Connecting rod, bielle. 
Crane, grue. 
Crank, maniyelle. 
Crank-shaft, arbre coude. 
Crosshead, un te, une traverse. 

Damage, avarie. 

Defects, defauts. 

Design, devis, desain. 

Draught, tirage. 

Draughtsman, dessinateor des 

machines. 
Driving shaft, Tarbre de couche. 
Dynamo, djnamometr^s. 

Ease h^r, doucement. 

Eccentric rod, bielle d'excentrique. 

Eccentric strap, collier d'exoen- 

trique. 
Eduction pipe "I tiiyeau d'evacua- 
Exhaust pipe J tion. 
Endless chain, chaino sans fin. 
Endless screw, vis sans fin. 
Exhaust valve, soupape d'eyacua- 

tion. 
Expansion year, mechanisme de 

detente. 
Explosive compound, compose 

exploaif. 

Fan, ventilateur. 
Faster, plus vite. 
Feed'Water heater, appareil a 

chauffer I'eau d'alimentation. 
File, lime. 

Fire-box, botte h. feu. 
Fire enyine, pompe k incendie. 
Fire-grate, ^YOkia. 



269 



Firing battery ^ pile d' inflamma- 
tion. 

Fixed expansiony detente naturelle. 

Flange^ ailette. 

Fluea (boiler) y earneaux de chau- 
di^re 

Fog signal, fogliorn, cornet a 
longuiu. 

Forced draughty tirage force. 

Force pumpy pompe foulante. 

Fore axletreey essieu de I'avant. 

'ForgingSy oeuvres de forg. 

Forwardy en avant. 

Frame, un couple, chassis. 

Friction clutch, manchons 
d'embrayage 

Friday y vendredi. 

F^ely combustible. 

FalUspeedy toute vitesse. 

Funnel (cAmiiey),clieminee,tuyou. 

FurnacCy foumeau. 

Fusible plug y plombe de sfirete. 

Gauge cocky robinet jauge. 
Gauge glassy verres d'indicateurs 

de hauteur d'eau. 
Gauge glassy tube de niveau. 
Gauge {steam), manometre. 
Gas engine, moteur h. gaz. 
Gearingy engregages. 
Girder, guirlande. 
Governor, regulateur. 
Grease cocky robinet graisseur. 
Groove, coulisseon. 
Gudgeon, tourillou. 
Guide, glisaiere. 

Mammer, marfccau. 

Seating apparatus, apparcils de 

chauffage. 
Seating surfaccy surface de chauffo. 
High-pressure enginCy mticliine a 

haute pression. 
HingeSy charni^res. 
Kose, tujeaux de condiiite. 



India-rubber, caoutchouc. 
Ignition valve, robinet d'inflamma- 

tion. 
Injection valvCy robinet de prise. 
Injectory injecteur. 
Irony fer. 

Iron plate, plaque de blindage. 
Iron sheeting y\}\mdLai.gQ en fer. 

Joists {steel), solives en acier. 

Ladder, echelle. 

Lantern, a, un fanal. 

Lap {of valve) y I'avance ^ I'evacua- 

tion. 
Lead {metal), plomb. 
Lead {of valve), Tayance a I'intro- 

duction. 
Leaky ay une voie. 
Length of piston strokcy course de 

piston. 
Lifting jack y cries et virers. 
Lighty ay une lumi^re. 
Locks y serrures. 
Low pressure, basse pression. 
Lubricatory graisseur. 

Magnets, aimants. 

Mean pressure, moyenne pression. 

Metallic packing, garniture m6tal- 

lique. 
Meter, comptour. 
Mill, moulin. 

Mitre wheel, roue conique. 
Mixer, melange ur. 
Monday, lundi. 

Nail, clou. 
Naphtha, naphte. 
Narrow, etroit. 
Neck, cou, collet, 
NeedlCy aiguille. 
Nipple, mamelon. 
Noise, son, bruit. 
Notch y coche. • 
2^ut, ecTOW. 



270 



Off (a fjood wat/)j fort loin. 
on, huile. 

Pace, pas. 

Packing {engine), garniture etoupe 

de motours. 
Path, chemin. 
Pawls, longuets. 

Petroleum tank, rescrroir i\ petrole. 
Pig-iron, fonte-crue. 
Pipe, tiijau. 

Piston ring, bague de piston. 
Piston rod, tige du piston. 
Piston stroke, coup de piston. 
Plummer block, palier. 
Point of cut-off*, origine de la 

detente. 
Projection, saille. 
Propeller, propulseur. 
Propelling power, force mot rice. 
Pulley, poulie. 
Pump, pompc. 
Purchase hire system, ventre li 

terme. 

Ratchet, dent. 

Rear axletrce, I'essieu de arriere. 

Red-hot, toute rouge. 

Red-lead, minium. 

Reducing valve, soupape de reduc- 
tion. 

Ring, I'organneau. 

Road rollers, rouleaux et com- 
presseurs des routes. 

Roll (to), rouler. 

Rollers, galets. 

Rotary, tourvant. 

Rope, filon, corde. 

Safety valve, soupape do silrete. 
Saturated steam, vapeur 8aturee. 
Saturday, samedi. 
Screto, vis. 

Seat of valve, siege d'une soupape. 
Sentinel rnlve, soupape d'avertisse- 
ment 



Shafting, arbre de transmission. 

Sheet iron, t6le de fer. 

Side rods, bielles pendentes. 

Slide-valve, tiroir. 
; Slow, doucement. 

Snifting valoe, soupape de purge. 

Spanner, clef. 

Speed, yitesse. 
, Sp indie f goujon. 

Spring, rossort. • 

Sprocket wheel, couronne k em- 
previente. 

Stalk or stem, tige. 

Steam, vapeur. 

Steam generator, chaudi^re h 
vapeur. 
i Steam-launch, cbaloupe h vapeur. 

Steam pipe, tuyau de vapeur. 

Steam port, orifice d'introduction. 

Steam trap, bolte k vapeur. 

Steam whistle, sifHet a vapeur. 
I Steel, acier. 
! Steering wheel, roue de gouver- 

nail. 
I Stoker (mechanical), chauffeur 
j mechanique. 

Stop, stop. 

Stop valve, soupape d'arret. 

Stroke, course. 

Submarine, sousmarin. 

Sunday, dimanche. 

Superheated steam, vapeur sur- 
chauffer. 

Superheater, sur chauffeur. 

Surface {heating), surface de 
chauffe. 

Tank, citerne, reservoir. 

Thursday, jeudi. 
i Timber, hoia. 
I Tin, etain. 
I Tools, outils. 

Tow ito), remorquer. 
! Traction engine^ machines k 
• traction. 
\ Trunnion^ \.o\xY^<svi» 



271 



Tube expanders, elargisseur^ dc 
tubes. 



WaslierSy rondelles. 
Watch, montre. 



Tubinff (flexible metallic) tujaiix : Wednesdayy mei'credi. 



en metal ^lastique. 
Tuesday, mardi. 
Tyre, bandage, bande d'une Rone 

Upset, renversement. 

Valve, sonpape. 



WheeUmaking machinery, charron- 

age mecliunique. 
Wheels, roues. 
Wind, yent. 
Windlass, guindaux. 
Wire rope, fils metalliquep. 



"^ 



MEMORANDA. 



ADVBETISBMENTS. XXV 



. . PATENT . . 

High-Speed ENGINES. 



PATENT STEAM-DRIVEN 



MOTOR VEHICLES. 



Capacity-15 Cwt. to 4 Tons. 



T. COULTHARD & CO., 

PRESTON, 

England. 



^'=1* 



XXVI 



ADTESTISBHBKTS. 



182, GRAYS INN ROAD, W.C. * 



V 



5S^^ 



LARGEST FACTORS IN THE MOTOR INDUSTRY. 



AGENTS 

Tricycles and Quadricycles. 
Beeston. 

De Dion and Bouton. 
Chen^d. 
Phoebus. 
Clement. 
Barre. 
Comiot. 

Carriages aod Vans. 

Motor Manufacturing Co. 

Daimler. 

Panhard. 

Peugeot. 

Hurtu. 

Benz. 

Bollee. 

Humber. 

Moret. 

&c., &€., &c. 



FOR- 

Spare Parts and accessories for 
all Leading Systems in stoclc. 
Waiting avoided. 

Carburettors. 

Condensers. 

Motor Castings and Forgings. 

Component parts for Tricycles. 

Tricycle Frames complete. 

Motors complete. 

Sparking Plugs. 

Sparking Coils. 

SPECIALITY in Batteries 

L.A.C. De Dion size. 
Voltmeters and Amperemeters. 
Densimeters. 
Lubricators. 
Horns and Bells. 
Platinum Tube^. 
Chains. 

Tricycle Tanks. 
Pressure Pumps. 
Special Seats and Saddles. 
Motor Tyres of all makes. 



EVERY MAKE OF CARRIAGE -STEAM, OIL, OR 
ELECTRICITY-QUOTED FOR. 



EXPERIMENTAL WORK CAREFULLY EXECUTED. 



Bepairs a Speciality at the shortest possible notice. 



ADVEETISEMBNTS. XXVll 



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The Automotor and Horseless 

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Posted regularly, immediately upon publication, 
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subscribers. 

VOLUME III. COMMENCED WITH THE OCTOBER ISSUE. 

Proprietors : F. KING & CO., Ltd., 62, St. Martin's 

Xane, London, W.C. 

The ''XING" Motors awarded Two Gold Medals, London General Trades 

Exhibition, 1898, for 

MOTOR CAB S AND MOTDB VWI8 AT BEA80 NABLE PBICES. 

The ^^KING" MOTOR OAR OOm, 

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(Clost to L.C, ib D. and L.B. <b S.C, Railway/ SlcUiont. 14 miniUes froM City), 
Wholesale and Betail Agents for — 

THE CALCIUM CARBIDE COJS ^^:V^^, ^ .. 

Patent Acetylene Gas Greneratora— liv%\a.\\aXAOus \xom^-^ft^'f*5f^^^'^5P^''^^**^ 
Lights, &c. Call and see our Bhow Koovc\*» 



"^e Proprietors of these Works beg to infonn Electrical 
Engineers, Carriage Builders, and Inventors of Motor Can, 
that they have laid down an Engineering Plant for the inaiui- 
facture and complete equipment of ELECTRIC CARRIAGES, 
PHiCTONS, MOTOR CARS, ELECTRIC CA3S, VIC- 
TORIAS, also OIL MOTORS and PARCEL VANS of 
every description. 




' Special desiias preptred far Motor Car Inventors, and Expert 
Electrical Advice given. VtirlonB Electrical Vehicles on view 
daily for Inspectiaa and testing purpoKS. 



WORKS AND OFFICES— 

: 27, Walnot Tree Wall[, KeimlDgton Road, 

LONDON, S.S. 



AHEBICAH ELECTRIC MOTOR CARS 

AND 

AMERICAH ELECTRIC CARRIAGE MOTORS. 

RIKER-QEARINOS, FRAMES, AND LAMPS. 




(SPORTING DOG CAET TO CAEEY 4.) 



3 



SHIPPEY BROTHERS, 

LIMITED. 

VBOLESUE DEUERS IS MOTOR MR iPPUMES, 

13 & 14, King Street, Cheapside, London. 



trnunmuna m iu.mm,w&i8R«s«a»»^- 



I 



I! 



ADTERTISEMBN'TS. 



F. KIN6 & CO, L 



ESTABLISHED 1875. 



CONTRACTORS. 

62, ST. MARTIN'S LA; 

CHARING CROSS, W.C. 



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THE AUTOMOTOR 

AND 

HORSELESS VEHICLE JOUR 



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ADYSBTISEMENTS. XXXI 



THE AUTOMOTOR 



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The articles and news contained in the paper cover the whole field of 
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A special feature is the attention devoted to " Patents." This branch is 
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P. KJNa A Co., Ltd., 62, St. ^ILaT\.Vn!%\iSMaa^^5^^^^^^'^ '^^ 



{ 



PETROLEUM BUNSEN BURNERS 

FOR STEAM RAISING- IN 

MOTOR CARS, LAUNCHES 

OTHER SMALL BOILERS. 




RUBEI^Y & Co., ■•RTO^rDARLASTON. 

Victoria Ironworks, 
Darlaston, 

South Staffs. 

SPEaALITY . , , 

MOTOR FRAMES OF ALL DESCRIPTIOHS 



ADVEETISEMENTS. XXXUl 



Established 1872. 



C. CRASTIN, 

ENGINEER, 

16, Tollington Road, Holloway^ 

LONDON, N, 



ACETYLENE AND OIL MOTORS CONSTRUCTED 
FOR HORSELESS VEHICLES. 



MABUMCTUEER OF 

Baldwin and Crastin's Patent Auto- 
matic Acetylene Gas Generators for 
Lighting, Heating or Motive Power, 
and all Appliances and Improved 
Fittings for use with Acetylene Gas» 



I ■ ■ ■ 



ESTIMATES SUBMITTED FOR PUBLIC OR P^W ^:^^ 



XIXIV 



ADVEBTISEMB^IS. 



Telegrams- • MOTOR," LEAMINGTON. 

CH AS. T. CROWDEN, 

^ Engineer and Expeft in . . 
Mechanical Road Traction, . . 

MOTOR WORKS, 

Weamingfon, 



Near BIRMINGHAM^ 



twwttWy 



n^mmmmmm' 



MOTOR VEHICLES for Light 
and Heavy Traffic in Stock 
or Progress. 



STEAM MOTORS, 

Light and Heavy 

OIL MOTORS, 

ELECTRIC MOTORS, 

ACCUMULATORS, &c., 

For Cars or Launches. 



Patent 
MOTOR VEHICLE FRAMES. 

GEARING. 

STEERING 

GEARS. 

„ ROAD WHEELS. 

AXLES. 



♦» 



** 



»♦ 



»> 



»♦ 



DIFFERENTIAL SHAFTS. 



IGNITION TUBES. 
LAMPS. 



»> 



ELECTRIC IGNITION 
APPARATUS. 



tf »» 



CARBURATORS, CONDENSERS 

EXHAUST SILENCERS, 

MOTOR FUEL, OILS, 

LUBRICANTS, &c.. 

In Stock. 



INVENTIONS EXPLOITED. 



MOTOR CARS BOUGHT,