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■■ (^OiS . (^ 


This little book is inscribed in rentenibrsnce 
of the late 

Kommerzienrat W. Kohlhatnmer 

as a token of regard. 




This little book lays no claim to any special merit 
beyond furnishing in convenient form some material for 
those beginning to study tlie Avesta. As it is intended 
merely for an introduction, and being designed as the 
first of a series of reading books, tlie number of pages 
of texts has been limited. The selections here given are 
such as may easily be mastered by a class in one college 
term; the beginner, moreover, always finds a certain de- 
gree of pleasure and satisfaction in a book that can be 
read through in a comparatively short time, and he feels 
he is making a certain amount of progress when another 
book has to be taken up. With that in view, a second 
volume is being prepared; this will contain longer texts 
and will be so arranged as to imply a step in advance. 

The present selections in prose and verse, are fairly 
representative, as far as excerpts can be, of Yasna, Vis- 
parad, Yasht, and Vendidad. The chapters Ys. a6 and 57 
are given complete. The passage from Vd. 19 has the 
advantage of presenting a specimen of texts in which 
grammatical decay is to be observed. 

The notes in gcnernl have been made brief and con- 
cise, but it is ho5>ed that beside being explanatory they 
will also prove useful in giving the student an occasional 

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hint regarding books of reference, and will thus interest 
him in the literature of the subject. A brief list of useful 
books has already been given in Avesta Grammar Part i, 
p. xl-xlii. Attention is now also called to tlie new Avesta 
translation by Darmesteter, Lc Zend-Avesta (3 volumes, 
Paris 1 892-3), the last hwo volumes of which reached me 
after the greater part of the present book was already in 
press; I was pleased, however, to note several co-incidences 
in interpretation of certain Yasht and Vendidad passages. 

The vocabulary has been made a little more full 
perhaps than is necessary; but this was done from a de- 
sire to give the beginner a fair start. It seemed advis- 
able, for example, to add frequent grammatical references, 
and to designate the verb forms in full. A slightly dif- 
ferent plan will be followed in the Second Series. 

With regard to the etymologies in the vocabulary, 
compariscHi has been confined to Sanskrit, Old Persian, 
Pahlavi, and New Persian. It is presupposed, of course, 
that the student has made some progress in Sanskrit. The 
comparisons with Old Persian, Pahlavi and New Persian 
are added, not at all with the idea that they will be 
mastered by a beginner, but in order to show the pupil 
tlie importance of the Iranian as well as the Sanskrit 
side of interpretation, and to familiarize him with the 
studies next akin to his subject. Old Persian is easily 
mastered after Avestan, and the earnest student will soon 
discover that the well-equipped scholar can not of course 
long dispense with Pahlavi and New Persian. The 'tradi- 
tional' and 'comparative' method must go hand in hand. 

In preparing the book 1 have had before me W. Geiger's 
Handbueh der Awestasprache, the manual with which I 
first began my Avesta studies. Of course C. dc Harlez' 

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Manuel dt VAvesta, and Dartholomae's Altiranisehe Dia- 
lekte have been often consulted. Justi's Handbuch der 
Zendspracke was necessarily used at evety step; and 
Lanman's admirable Sanskrit Reader furnished many a 
hint or apt English rendering for kindred Avesta-Sanskrit 
words. The material for comparison with Old Persian 
was drawn from Spiegel's Altpersische Keilinschrifttn; 
and that for comparison with Palilavi words, mainly 
from West's Glossary and Index of Arda Vtraf. In 
the case of New Persian, reference was made to Vullers' 
Lexicon Persico-Lattnum and to Palmer's Persian-English 
Dictionary. Paul Horn's new Grundriss der Neupersischen 
Htymologie (Strassburg 1893) came late but happily as 1 
was reading the final revision of the proof-sheets of the 
vocabulary; from this source, therefore, a number of good 
additions were made. To each of the above authors I 
desire to made cordial acknowledgment. To my friend 
Professor Karl F. Geldner my sincerest thanks as always 
are due. 

With this word, and with the hope that scholars will 
give their helpful criticism, corrections and suggestions, 
which 1 shall gladly and personally acknowledge, this little 
Avesta Reader is started on its course. 

A. V. Williams JookBon 

September 1893. Colambia College 

New York City. 

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TEXTS, 1—33 





Selection oi- Texts. 

(1) Y*. 1 


(3) V«, 57.a-34- 

(4) V.1). is.1-3. 

(s) vi. 5.1-9. 13a- 

(6) Yi. i,.i.i7. 

(7) V.L 3.n-»9. 

(8) Va. fl.44-S>- 

(9) V.I. 19.S-10. 

, Ihe horse, ami 

Duty lownnls 


Sacrifice and praUe (o the Fmvnshis . 
rmiae of ihe Aagel Smotha 

EiihorlatioD In riehleouineas and worslup 

Praise of ih« Goddeu of Walen .... 
of the Geniut of Victory 


The bletsings of agriculture 38 — 30 

Origin of the Towen of Silence 30—31 

The lemptaiion of Zoroattei 31—33 

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Yasna xi. 

The cow, horse, Haonia, if misused, utter imprecations. 
I'he homage due to Haoma. 

uarw'**!^^^ ■^■^i° ^^ (o-»w" 
-»"(,) ■nJly-"^(i)al -»"i^ .piijj\mu| 

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■.•■■<iS(J'>3 ■■"t-(i*''>(ir >nf'v 1^ 
-^y .,»-i,; ^-s^j |o^p .^,^ ^„ 5 

■H^aH' >Vor" (o^ij^ (^ i^n)* 
•■■-*(Vi«>3 -"c-d^'-'^a;' ^D/v i*^ 

•Kj^o^puM^J -topi^tf) -»^oi'-u -^^ 


Yasna 1 1 and 26. 5 

"X?!/ p"(y-y-^ ■io))^'^(5 ■lo-tfijH' 


Yasna a6. 

Sacrifice and I'raise to the Fravashis. 

!05*"V'/"ro ■■■*^w*nJ) -^w^ .*^'^wK>i) "^^w^ 

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u-»'u 4)rp'"^*'^-"Qi -<WK'ejty-"9(^ -(?)("K""V'^-"Q) 4 
■"TO -"r-('yej*)P*Vj -"p^hj-hV -"pu-v^^ -"p-tjcits^ 

*^4H'f"ny -(ve^"»*'^ >i^-"^;^ '>i(JAH' -r)wio"-"c 

■ Mj^^j^ro ■-(ve^))AJ >i^-»^-" ■io(U'-^i>»'ie»Oi'(^ 

-"pD-'lj^ -"y-h)fm^ -"p^^f-u .j-p^)f)^j*^^ .-(jjc-i 
■""^-" -^ro ■R)5'H'^/"ro ■■"p-ti'^j^j>AJ -"P-('(K"»V 

•>«jJ^Ji))jAlJ "^^'l^-"^-" '>w)-"'QH)y(^ -ja^-t ■(^■"[^■"(^ 

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.^Jd^S^gJ^ .^^^^JJ,^ .jij^Upw,^ 

■H»TO ■W3"^^*'/■"^o >i)r))V ■^w\"iOi3'\' -"^ 7 
-t)cr»o"'<tf^(J|t^ -(f)c•^*v^■'^'■-"^-"(B ■■hyf]^)&o^f"y^^\ 

-"e^-")pAiJ ^XT^^^e^" -^yf^y^Xi;" -twroiwO ■■■wj 
.^|S^.^^ .-fyi^ -^rft^ony^ip ■.■M3"'-fr"/*To '>■" 

"••Qnwy 9 V ■io3"^M'/"ro '>*»^e^))A5 -('ic'ri^**^^ 

•(ficV't lo V ■i03"^-"/"m '>w■"e^>^*^J ■•('ici^*^^^ 
+*»^iv^ ■■ i03'-H^"/"ro '>«-"^-")>jA(J -tjci^i^^^^^" -"f 
"Sj.jj.ou .gj^oiVj-tf .gjcM^o' ■■"^■"Q*' p^ro ■iu3''-"-(M'/"ft) 

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8 Yasna 26 and 57. 

^orwV -<?)CP'K>u*V vKQ^-u-d-u^ro -twip*'^-" >" 


Yaana 57. 

Sposh Yasht. 

Praise of the Angel Sraoslia. 

■■"p-"ar>"i(^r" ""■»^ ■lov-*' 3 

-t)rh"K>^)^po ""W-"Po RMr-" 
■-IU-PO -"K»*)>i>Vu ■*^f"ro -into 

-tv»o*"j(\(j -^mi^i^ -»rVe^-" 


Yasna ;;. 9 

■■■■^t^yiy "ijwi^ny ^■"^'^^^ 
v'>j>^-" ^eP'^^i' -f^d^^ 

-*T-"je'o^-"0 Rg*^-"/"!^ -"itJ'^^^^'yo -"leJoHw -"k 

j^^(P3j*l^(^ -"pwu-^Wy-"^ ■•"P-»J"|J>"rO -tx'P'io^fOlU 

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lo Yasna 57. 

jo3'^*^)^ro ■■■■ 
^»o -^jfwo -(jifewep^ -(')ni?ro ■»^'^-"f^ro ■■■■ 

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Vasna 57. ii 

v4(tu-"ro HMrM**e^ ■toor^'^-'Au 

•'K'.^'toro P*1l*>t,) ■H^IU^'fi' ■P»*t;" 

■t™l^-"M(^) '^'''e^" ^^j^^^i) .jijwpu-ti ■to(i»'-y)om* 

■■feh"(^VJftKp ■■i^^^Mi' -W^r' ■-('tei^-^u »5 VII 

■t03'-^'-")^ro ■■■■ 

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'* Yasna 57. 

■I)C^P3 V^f^ J|0"»ilil 

>^^ -"Pivfo ^)>.r"^i >io,^(»u .^pivro' 
t*"(i|!f"c •io(ir-"B;" >Wej'(ir 

n«""Mp"t"\} >ieioV"K> |3'>i •>(»■ 18 
■■"»BJj3 loawv >'*^<» ■i^HiQ)'-" -"\i 

•.•■10^(^23 •>(»v'-(„K> -uiemV-io 

••• jOjMi^/^ro •"t'-»Qn-"i(Vr •-"•M K»r" 

-(^a^ei-Wfliy -tif=^W ^vej" -(«g;i>4u 19 viii 

--r^f-m -ti'fo •it)3""V/"ro • 

-'(ir-"/Aj3 -•lo'-o) loieio'/iVj 


Yasna 57. 13 

■Vwttf"iiOmDv/p '>i-<?^*-"[w 

•y im-w^fjj^)^ -"f'-"(y)-"l(V"K' -"■•"A ■n>0^*' 

■i03*H'*/"i*o ■ ■■ 
v^dt^l^ ■-"jo*n>iV ■V'^*^u 

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■4 Yasna 57. 

■■"}y\^-" t;;^^ ^W-" 
-rf^w -"-w^-u -"^p>-»Ai) .*j" 

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Yasna 57. 15 

.-(,)f^^*«^jj(o -tFi>)e'U(^-"(im->^>^of 

*U>"K""t^ .jj(y.jaJi»jjju .j>M^J|UJ)QQyM .jiQf^J*]>(u 38 38 

'ty^m^-fe -"(yt^wi>»" -"^'iy-"V"(^ .■"(tf'i-"«ijj" -^ 

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'6 Yasna 57. 

-War -fcej^-^u 4-nif^if -t<ro 

4(rer^(5i\(V -^i^Am -W^)^ 4iejMi) 30 XII 

■Mj'j'^/i'm •■•■ 

•vn3-"<wi^*^*i .|ic-(^»»3 H^^^ 

^hfrtlOjAj -U*>-ii^lJJj.| .-yj^jjj^, 

"-i-m >K'^ •'0)|"tHi lOM-^t" "-(i"nj 3» 

•low-" ■: -ivfiiisf^ -fotr-dnwy j^fj-^iu -drrDBja 
V ■KQ*'^f"ro -"M^(yi-"r^p ^jjjj'\ 

*r|^W(\H) ■(Kf>-A)OP -(wgj-. ^Igj^^u 33 XIII 

■.' ■io3"H^"/"ro ■ ■■ 


Yasiia 57. 17 

':>^»ji))j,oj(V"£|)-tx'<y ■ioa»'-"-<'(i'-"i« 

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Visparad 15 {§§ 1-3). 

Exhortation to Righteousness and Worship. 

'isj'-wyo ■feirp'ieHjVHQOj^ ■-txr'"iiu(J^V" -t)Ch""K>«"ij" 

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Yasht 5 {§§ 1-9; 132). 

Ardul SQr Yasht. 

I'raisc of Ardvl Sora An&hita, the Celestial Stream 

and Goddess of Waters. 

■njxJA*'/ .""-t^fo-MBij K^^f^j '>V(ir-*' (o^>"Vfr I 
-(')C"/"e)iy:^ .-(j)f>«A(J.^(\((H 

"^^ro H^)ej(i' -tjn^V" -(^jc")-"!!!!^/^ -^ro » 

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i Yasht 5. 

...JKx^Aj^-"))^ ■-H'|0-"QI -WlMl>0^^ .-(fytOJJMi^ 

.j(o^jpjj.(OjA(J ■■'fO'-^ ■■»*'■('(/ HTO 

.iK>-L"p-"io^^(J ■*^-" -tyfor Q^ro 

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Yasht 5- 21 

•iWQ) ""K-oJiof-a^j^ ■-»'K-v)[f«^-"/ ■"no(w-"i)i'0 -"hrw ' 
.j.foj'umju ■"^)/ -AiAi) -»*A(J 

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22 Yasbt 5. 

.ajpjjji»|ju^.jj)jj .j>fjjjji,^^^pjj(y. .>ny>«.f*jj(y.)jj(ip) .■^^^ 

.M^^Qf. .|OJu^(^ .Mi^^ip '>V(y-" p^)^ '>(yi^^ 
.j^(y.j>^ .jifogjjj -^iyro -"to^ 13a 

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Yasht 5 and 14. 23 

■■■■fefOQf-"***" ■■nJ■•^d^ ■**">*'fgf-"*1t*"(i 

7 7 w^^^^^/to ■"p-"(y!^(V'r -""-^ ■inytn'-" 


Yasht 14 {§§ 1-17). 
Bahram Yasht. 

Six of the [ Incarnations i of Verethraghna, 
Genius of Victory. 

4rr(i(ifc (V-K^j^ ■■")QK}*\imy 

■?>^p<s>«j'/ -t)C't-"Kw/-*'ro ■•(')cv)H'"i'H? ■'joi)-" ■>» 
■^(["^jor-" ^n^^£i?l^J -v^j^-t ^^jv^ ■|o^-"H 1^*^ 

^(^(/■"^ ■l^i>*t^ '^A*^-"ia -wu-tfur^ a 

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24 Yasht 14. 

•^"^ly:^ -(')C'K»-"H^y(^ -<?»ri-"(»i>i'i,) ■■'tlo■"■"»^^"^=> 
-"p-"(yj-"i(Vr ■■"*'A lour-" 5 

•; AiQfoyoA^f -"■ir't^'w ■■■• '^i&0)6A-"f q^h 
■iO(ir-")AiA>-"i-"V/ ■io(y-4AD 

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Yaslit 14. 25 

(Vol ■■l03J-"-tr-"/-*'po -<«><w"^W-" ■4(^t;"^6t^((^ 8 III 

•:At&o)^^f ■*^-"to*m} ■■■■ '>'\)G«jjo-"V"/ i^u 

'^f^'(/"0 ■e^U-'T^ '>"tO''^(5 JJu^iyj* g 

.■(^t-"i3 -hii'i'-" A^-"<B) -h'ro 

¥ ■!03"^-^/"ro ■ ■■■ -"K-^dfr'ijVr ■■"«-"'\ roar-" 
i^fiy ■■!03-*H^")^ro -<«k»>"^W-" -('Ht;"^(J(\«p 10 iv 
V ■■"^)e»0)(>"'V")' ■■»*4^K'>Qii} ■■■■ '^^jetoJoA"/ ■(?*'i) 
'^H't/-"^ (^i>"ei*" '>wV^K> ■>-»"■%■-" II 


=6 Yasht 14. 

-*»«)|!;-"V) i^dr -dic-ro' 13 
■•■«»"ieio'io"™)(i). ioVi'^>-iB}(i'u)- 


Yasht 14. 27 

■.■ioQr-")^))'W» -loiy-^^m 
V ■w)'-^^-"/"?^ ■"p-"iy)j'i(Ur -""A war-" 

'^H'l/^i; ■(^-»'iH't,-»" '>men36' "'-^"-tiu'^ 17 

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Vendidad 3 (§§ 23-29). 

The Blessings of Agriculture. 

■(^-"ro vt-^/^-t "^xif-" e^-"^■(' (o-"-^ ■.' ■'^3Jio-*>-")) 

A"/ ■H'^K>-'(»1} "»fOJ|0-'"'Wj -('(te'OtJJ^^Qi -'»o'-"QI ^ 

■■"p-t')C'i-"^-")A> -"P-(')Ch"V»iv(^ .a.j^^)t.,j.„jj|^ -*A(e«j)^ 
■-"IjV^ ■■"''V p^e; >***/ "*v v/ i^^r *4 

-jKJ'g^ -"'\(J)(B-" -"ifVj3 -^ro 

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Vendidad 3. 29 

—•QU"' -t')c/ -(w-t' "^ro 36 ■.■ .*,oiA^-"})^ j)>u Mip 

>am -•K'>to"/(^(ip■»(|^'■" j^^r -tic/ -(')c-(?' ■>ro *8 
"'arto^/fVO'^''-" ■g-'>i -<?)H' >ro 

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30 Vendidad 3 and 6. 


Vendidad 6 (§§ 44-51). 

Disposal of the dead bodies. — Origin of the Towers 

of Silence. 

-"W-" -Hr^V^ ■■<)>>K'»o -<;)c*rH>l>'^■' -<?)cA-"i ■"))9 

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...(jujjj*^ '>^)(yoj -jobuA^ .jOJUM. 48 •■.MQ*fj ->;Oi>u 
"n> 10^ -uw^AieKV IO(V-"(IID-" (o*>/»"(Wt -^Wh"!*/ 

-^xy-" -»H?-*"Vy -wg)^ -t)Cf-"»ou*V ■{'K'V"! -")» 
■"•a^" ■>/ioro -"ii>««jj3)H' -lofoi^ iJOh^K* -^/loro s» 

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32 Vendidad 19. 

Vendidad 19 (§§ 5--10). 

The Temptation of Zoroaster by the Evil Spirit, 

-"6^ro -tft^ro -"^.^'(^ -('■t'lu-""^)^"^ ■-('(ciiyj^ 
-")>j^-" ■>i»^?(y-" .>K>-*"(i) 8 v(^"i>T'))Vyip -^u-**^^ 

.wop.(p -"K-"(^ IOQr*9 ■■■X))'"!-^ >V "^-fr^OlJJJ -"to 

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Vendidad 19. 33 

j|4U|*y -"M-^y -"h" ■-t'Oe'O-M*'-"^,) ■■•»oi>" ■■"Jiuj' ■■*'p*<) 

■-•^^Qiu ■t-'eJ(-<^" KtJj^-Aj -lui^V"}-" lowV (^-"(J;^. 

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(Compnred with Jusli, Ilamlimk iler Xernhprathi^^ 
A. Vowela. 

Sbon -rt •»' )« \ » n e "^ o 

» i u CO (I) <, 

Lonj —a -tt ^u (/ ^e ~>d y^m x-ij 

« t a (i) i i (Sq) (a) 
B. Conionanu. 
Outturkl »^4'^P^l,/ 

* r«J S (£*} 
PalaUl f^ — cJ ~- 

< y 

Dental »•' Aj* _jrf (,(/ 1^/ 

Labial «p y» 4 / . J * «J w 

/ / i s» 

Haul 10 tf V r » «< 1 ^ »< 

(-*; W « W « 
Semivowel and 

Liquid rv(") y (i)* ^ r f) (w) w f«^* 

y re 

Sibilant uJ -oi Bl/'ro/'i£ wi 

fr; r-c» Of-} w 5 (-«*> 

Aaplration . . . . v A f^ ^ 

* r?; 

Ligature t" A" 


' Forms in iKironlliescs () uliow whuru Jiinli has lieeii dcvinleil rrom. 

' Tlie iiigiia j, jf need onlf be employed for puiely uienlific pur- 
pose!;; ihe leiiers y, v for hnlli initial and Internal ru", ^n, answer 
fully for practical purposes. 

' The diflerenliation i, f, / need only be made in Kcientllic iiliclc^ 
The single sign / \n nrdinnrily quite sufricient for the three it, (g, W. 

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■dj, = odjedive 
ndvl. = udveibinl 

cpd. = compound 
ddn, = ileclCDSion 
np. = especially 

eipl. = example 

indccl. = indeclinable 

infin. = inflnliive 

nom, propr. = itamtH (•refrriam 

num. '= oumeral 

orig. = originnl, originally 

Dpp., opp. lo = opposcfl to 

par. = paragraph 

pteL = preterite 

ptcpl. = parliciple 

sb., lub(L = substantive 

tcdry. = Kccondory 

vb., vbl. = verb, verbal 
w. = with 

Afr. = Aniogan 

A.U.S. = American Otienlal Society 

It.It. = Ilezzenberger'.-i lleilriigc 

(JAv.' = Gathn Avesta 

Gr.* = Grammar 

IF. = Ind<^ermaniBche Forsclumgen 

Ind.Iran. = Indo-lrnnian 

K.Z. = Kuhn's Zeilschrift 

MS. = Manuscript 

MSS. = Manuscripts 

Nnr. = Naryosongh 

Ny, = NyaUh 

P. = Persian 

Phl.Verj. = Pahlavi Version 

S.B.E. = Sacred Dooki of East 

Sir. = Siroiah 

Ski. = Saukrii 

Vd. = Vendidod 

Vsp. = Visparad 

YAv.' = Younger Avesta 

Vs. = VMna 

Y[. = Yosht 

Z.A. = Zcnd-Aveita 

ZPhl. Gl. = Zand-Pahlavi Glosiary 

' For explanation of GAv., YAv. see Gr. p. xlvii. 
' All rererence* to Gr. ^ () arc to Jackson, Aveila Grammar 
ituttgort 1891). 

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Yasna it Notes. 

General Remuke. On the book of the Vtuna and iu divisions, 
■ee Gr. Intrad. p, xvii g 13. The present selection from it is one of 
tUicc chnplcrn, Vi. g, 10, 11, wliicli were siiecially rcciieil in )irc)inring Ihe 
llaoma as pail of the sacrillce. 'I1te veises of this short chapter, mingled 
vith the prose lines of the liturgy, formed the conctaiiion of the Haoroa 
ritnil. The sacred wine wu then drunk by the priest, and the perfor- 
mance of the Yasna laerilice continued. 

The introductory verses here given narrate how three good creatures, 
if misused, will utter imprecations; the closing stanzas are in praise of 
Haoma. The Metre may be compared with the Sanskrit fUka but is 
sometimes defective; occasionally it reminds one of the Kalwala verse of 
Longfellow's Hiawathn. See Gr. Part II, chap, on Metre. 

Yb. II. I. 
ganJ atpaica haemasta: Ihe inference is plausible that the three 
creature* are respectively typical of the three classes, peasant, war- 

kStlUm hnlilaht: llic I'M. Vers, renders 'who dost not give me M a 
precious thing (to worthy people)'.— See Vocabulary. 
Yl. ii.a. 

aip6 iajantu: apparently the second, or warrior class is here alluded 
to — see above. 

mqm wSvar': on the construction, cf. Gr. 9 930- 

pcruma^ti .... karfayS: rither in the race or in battle, 

YS. 1 1.3. 
kSlSTim: ptesiiinably an allusion to the priest who does not falfd 

Ilia duty. 
a'wilhul>m daraytki: the I 'hi. Vers, renders 'who witboldest me 
from being prepareil'. 

T.. M.i 
pile: Ahura Mazda is of course to be understood (see neit paragraph). 

Yb. 1 1.6. 
vorjita: 'serpents, snakes', as shown by the fragment given by Geldner, 
in K.Z. ixvii. p. 5S8. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

; Holes to Vmim ii and 36. 

Yb. ...7. 

aaratjSitiiu ... pBh-iilra\tiitt: accordiDg lo the legend, Itie mur- 
derer Franriuyan (i. e. laier Afr&syab), took reruge in an undergrouml 
palace or iron chamber; in spite of which, liowerer, Horn captured 
him. See Darmesteter, Eludet /raiuiuiut, vol. ii. pp. Iis-I39i S.B.E., 
vol. xxiii. pp. 64 note, 1441 Li Zind-Avtila, vol. i. p. Ill note. 

Yasna 36 Notes. 

Oeneral Remaric. In the performance of the Yoioa sacrifice this 
ihort chapter is recited by the priest (Zil) and bin ossiiitanl (KHifl) as 
part of the invocation of the Fravaihii. 

Yb. a8.i. 

ilaemi Miaytmi ufytmi: compare the rommlaicj'iuu^d vaJwiliai etc, 
Ys, 57,6 et a). 

Ys. 8S.4. 

ahUrn . . . /ravaftm; the usual five-fold ulassilicalion of the spiritual 
faculties of man. 'llie tame divition is found also in later Pamism — 
(1) ahii (l>lil. aMa) 'spirit, brealb uf lifu'i (1) dalHiJ (I'hI. lUn) 'rvligion, 
conscience*! (3] iaiutih (Phi. iod) 'consciousness, perception'; (4) urvau 
(Phi. mUn) 'soul'i (5) /ravali (I'bl. frfhar) 'Fravashi, guardian angel'. 

gtul huilitmki: an allusion to (he Primeval Hull slain by Ahriman, but 
from which all animals are sprung. Similarly, mankind are descended 
from Ills coualeTpart Gaya-martlaii, the primtlivi: nrnn, a sort of Ira- 
nian Adam, who was also slain by Ahiimon, See Vs. IS.S below. 

Yb. 96.9. 
utdaliytinqiiiea: Zoniaslrianiim distinctly recognized the righteous in 
other lands betides Iran, cf. Vl. 13.143,144 — a glimiise of the idea 
of the universal brolheriiood of mankind. 

Aaeii .. . 3 taoiya^lSt: an allusion to llic coming of the Saviour (Sa»- 
shyanl). 'Hiu phrase kaca — i etc. is here about equivalent to 'from 
the beginning of the worid to the resurrection', cf. i Corinlhiani xv.45. 

Yb. »6.ii. 
"rvqnl ... /* /ravafayi: here the souls of the dead are Fravashis, 
cf. Y(. 13.17. "^^ relative y» (f.) is attracted to frmiafayi. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Notes to Yuna 57. jg 

Yasna 57 Notes. 

General Remark. Two Ynshts (Vi. 57, Yi. tt) ore dedicaied la 
Snoslia the dtvinily of Religious OIkmUcticg nnd Devution. 'llie tatter 
Yatbt (Vl. ii) is commonlf termeil ."^dtA Yaihl HSdIakhl nnd is rather 
the more liturgical of the two. The fonncT, our present seiection (Ys. 57), 
is the Srsih YasM si skaba or 'Srosh Yasht of the Three Nights*, since it 
is used at funenil ceremonies during the three nights after the decease, 
OS weli 09 lieing in comiuon use at the saciitice. See Darmesteler, Ll Ztnd- 
jtvtsia, vol. i. p. 358. The MSS. gcncmlly divide this Vosna into thirteen 
Kardu 'sections', each of which closes with the repetition of a formula. 

Ya. 57'- 
afim voku: the opening verse beginning with these words, consists 
mereljr of fonniilas| It ts tlierefoTe here omitted. 

Yb. 57.a. 
/rasltr'iai pa'ti ior'imtn: on the conslniclion, cf. Gr. §966 N. 1. 
pSyti ^wdr'JUra: a Uvandva compound (Gr. % 879 expl.), and it re- 
fers apparently to Milhra and Rashnu, the keeper and (he judge at 
the Cinvat Uridge after death. It seems at least reasonable to regard 
Mithra (cf. Yl 10) as the watchful guardian (pay«); it is fair to pre- 
Kume that Rashnu the Just (cf. Yt. la), the divinity who weighs In the 
balance the deeds of men, may be the paifitar who has the decision. 
The rhI.VcTS., moreover, Mipporu the view ns it aclunlly glomes the 
(ilirnse ns pinak barhikar Mtrd Hlie keeper and former Milhm'j it 
fnils to recogniie the dual of the Uvandva, treats the wonls as sin- 
gular, and hence makes no mention of Koshnu. 
Yb. 57.3. 
roya ... yaitia: on the conslniclion, cf. Gr. g 941 expl. 

Yb. 57-6- 
prya^lltJ etc.; nouns in expUnalory apposition to barfima. 

Yb. 57-8. 
gspt fraiTivayal a/smanivqn: 'who chanted the Ullhls, the me- 
trical selections', etc 

Yfl. 57-'°- 
yapa aja ni'dyawkim: a reminiscence of the Gstl^ (Ys. 34.8 b), 
hence nJti/* (d) rather than nS'S' (d). 

Yb. 57.11- 

ttr'to'dtm: the Phi. Vers, has M/dm/ 'tail' which would rather favor the 
M5S. reading hrtio'lSiit, this would imply a «tem itr*Ka'lya-. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

AQ Notes to VuDB 57- 

Yb. 57.14. 
darOf ...vvijna yt'nli: compare Ihe wurdx of ihe PsalinUt (Ps. 
'there shall do evil befall thee, neither shall any plague come 
nigh thy dwelling'. 

vltfaya /raviii gatfayit: i. e. 'the prosperity ol all mankbd'. The 
PhL Vers, has /arulfilh 'prosperity, comfort, growth'. 

Y8. 57.18. 
frSuamttitt fwailSt: on the syntax, see Gr. g 961 expl. 

fSpi.vaca pairi.g5.vacS: Ihe Phi. Vers, glosises 'he spcakes protM- 
lion' etc. ... a^ tai pdnSkih yiHiaMantd , . . For the foriu pa'ri.glti' 
, . (Geldoer's text) instead of '^' (as here), see Gr. §g 354. '93 N. a. 

Yb. S?^. 
Halnl.iliia dalnaySi: for the apparent re<lum)ancy compare Iheplimsu, 
Av. visa vlipa'tlni Yt. IO.18, etc., Skt vUpdtiiu visSm R.V. 3.13.5, 
On tialaoyai see Gr. g 957. 
fratr'Hta .. frO ., /rS: for the reiHilitiaii of /rd, cf. Cr. 8753 
N. 3 expl. 

Yb. 57.35. 
akiea awkSuJ: on the siyDlai, cf. Gr. § 977. 
drvafbyi kainJiyi: on the collocatioo (m. o. — f.) see Gr. % 906. 

Yb. 57.37. 
at ay a: the Phi. Vers, has tHyalia = V. idyiii, as Ih. E. W. West kinilly 
wrote me (Dec. 5 18SS); hence the suggestion 'not casting n shadow', 
with which Geldner compares the Ski. epithet ciJySAiillya 'accom- 
panied by a shadow', the characteriiiiic mark dislinguiKhing man from 
the divinities MBh. 3.57.35. 

Ya. 57-38. 
Siyaaha aipal'iya: on the dual niimlier here, cf, Gr. % 908 N. 3 eiipl. 

Yb. 5739. 

avt vyt'itli ■■. iivt a/fif/t: i. u. 'they pursue and overtake others, but 
they themselves never can be overtaken'; ave refers both limes to the 
horses of Sraosha. 

Ya. 57-30. 

ulaila're Aindvi: the river of (he Orient is the Imlus, as the Phi. 
Vera, has it; the river in the west is perhaps the Hgris. 

Digitized byGoOgle 

Notes to Vuna 57, Viapand ■$ and Vuht 5. 41 

Yl. S7-3i- 
karlvaf kaniraptm: the middle one of the M»ei» Karabvars and 
the one on which we live. The name* of (he seven are giyen at 
Vd. 19.39. 

Y8. 57-33- 
viips: on the form cf. Gr. §§ 333, 906. 

Viaparad 15 (1-3) Notes. 
Oeneral Remarlt. On the Vjspatail and iu character, compare Gr. 
Inlrod. p. ivjii § 14. 'Hie Karde liere given serves as an intro«1uction to 
the VasDB lUplanhliti (cf. par. 3), in coonecllon with which it was re- 
cited at the ritualj hence the signlRcance of the allusions /ravUalca etc. 

Vap. 1 5. 1. 

vtr'Myaliim: no rcndin); with MS. aiilhoritx. Tlic verb here is pasdve 
(cf. Gr, g 485 expl.), the subject in vohM vSslryB. 

nyamiia aniiyamnaii: 'in order to |my olT the deficiu (i. e. in the 
Ijfe Book) with a auri>)ua'. See Gr. Introil. p. jxtUI § 44. On yjS- 
'give' = 'pay', see SIcL I'Wii. pn^ ''<>*• ii«V^"i <U-, cf. Lat peenai 
dart, flere anayitnimlil is n regular instrumental of means, price. 

Vap. 15.3. 
ids atia ... y3 iia illi: (he (iAv. ciiiliiiip give nil nrchaic tune, On 

«« i}i3, cf. Gr. g loio NotL'. 
fravSkatta ... auopyO^lt: on the locatives see Gr. g 993. 

Yaaht 5(1-9; 132) Notes. 

Oeneral Remarks. 'I'he AbBn Ynsht 'Yasht of Waters' from which 
the selection is taken, is one of (he longest of the Vashts, cf. Gr. Inlrod. 
p. xviii g 15. It ceicbrntex (he ]>rniiwi of Ardvi Sum AnRhi(fl. (he Celestial 
Stream and Goddess of Watcrii, dcscrilics her deMcnl from (he licnrens, 
and her worship, and closes with a description of her appearance. 

The worship of Ardvi Suro AuBhita was widely spread in the East. 
She appears on Anlhata in (he cuneiform inscription of the Persian king 
Artaxerxes (4th century B.C.); her name (Avatttc) is found in Slrabo, 
riiKATch, etc., and she became familiar in Greece as Venus Anahi(n ("A^po- 
aitijs, AveitTis). 

Only the oiiening sec(i<>ns ami closing verse of tiie Yasht are 
here given. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

4a Hotel to Yubt 5. 

Yt 5.4- 
yifht! for ihe mate (iosiead of rem.) Torm, lee Gr. § 903 N. i, ami 
cf. oMt VL 5.9 below. 

Yt. 55- 
vt.JaiB^li: the lubjunciive mode here, as also al Vs. 57.31 avatO'lt, 
Vs. 37>1S gtr'nrnqn, seems to denote ibe repetition or continuity of 
the acli th« idea seenu to be developei) Irom the future force of 
Ihe subjonclive. 
vttpaiJ aei kar/vqn: cf. Gr. g§ 338, 40a, 

Yt. S-6. 
Aitvar'Ha: the reading of this woni, as well as its meaning, is not clear. 
By some, Mutuar'na hat been read and explained as 'with mighty 
power". Perhaps the word U to be connected with kite- 'tongue' 
(q. *.) and Y"^' 'move', and to be referred to Omiaxd's act of creat- 
li^ by a mere word, a movement of the tongue. 

Yt 5.7. 
aipS.ilatjfihiJ: better here lo omil the punctuation (v) and inserl it 

after iitu^lnvythi ; all that intervenes is parenthetic. 
tftra ... afrvaUi: ihcK two epithelt, like Ihe participle ma^HimHu, 

refer . to Ardvi Sura Ihe lubject of litfola. 

Yt 5.9- 

aht raya: see note on par. 4 Jfht, 

ka»nntyi: thus good MS. authority; the form is perhaps to be explained 
OS borrowed from such a passage as Vt. 14.5 (see below), Ny. 4.9 eic 
In Yt. 14.S, Ny. 4.9, haomayi is properly nom. plur. i it agrees with 
the subject of yamm^dt and alludes to Ihe worshippers or oflicialing; 
priesU. From tuch formulaic passages wilh yatamaidi (pi.), Ihe lorm 
iaamayS (pi.) seems to have been trauKferred to those like Ny. i.i6 
yaiii (ig.) and Ihe present YL 5.9, where Ibe plural form kaamayi U 
not appropriate. If, however, Aaama yi gaiia be read with certain 
MSS., it probably must be explained as havma yi (titti) gava, which 
is open to objection. 

yifht ASIqnt: this formula is commonly found at the end of the Yasna 
chopten, cf. Yt. 4.36, Ys. s-6. It is a later imiution of GAv, Ys. Si-31. 
See Gr. Intiod. p. nviii g 13 end. 

Yt 5- 1 3a. 
' a'rvanta tatv^aha: a concluding prayer that the warriors may come 
back a* lucceiirul at did those of King Vishtaspa. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Note* to Yubt 14. 43 

Yasht 14(1-17) Notes. 

General Remark. Verelhraghna, or Bahrtm, the Genini of Vidorr, 
(o whom Ms Yuhl is itedicaleil, corresponds in certaiD reipecU to Indra 
Vrtrahan o( the Hindu mjrtholi^. lie may In fact be regarded a> the 
Iranian reflex of the latter. 

The Vasht, of which only the opening is here ^*en, contains some 
64 paragraphs. The ten incarnations in which Verelhraghna appeared be- 
fore Zoroaster are deseril>ed; the powen which the divinity iKstows npon 
hia worshippers are ennmeralcd; his glurificnlion in cnjoineil. 

Yt 141. 
aknra ... a/Sum: the regular formulaic manner of addressii^ Urmaid; 
for a briefer forro of the same see Vd. 3.33 below. 

Yt. 14.9. 
paelryS ajatat: on the adjective here cf. Gr. § 997. The successlfe 
aj>pearances of Verethraghnn are probnb)]^ to be underttood as seen 
by Zoroaster in n vision. .SimiinT visions elsewhere may be cited. 

Yt 14.3. 
Ja/ ahmSi: In construction sc. mraol- Observe llial ahmSi is Zoroaster, 

and aMmmtO/ui Verelhraghna. 
vtr'Pra v»r'fravatt»mi: on the instrumental, see Gr. % 941 end. 

Yt. 14.S- 
aht rttya ... yainn: cf. Gr. § 941 expl. 
yiiJ daidiJ: 'according to (what are) the hrsl laws'. 
katmayi: see Vt. 5.9 note. 

Tt. .4.7- 
yim upatri iruyt: for the two accusatives, see Gr. § 930 N. 3. 

Yi 14. i I. 
uJtraht: the whole piclurc of the camel (parr. 11-13} is graphically and 

accurately drawn. 
malyl.vavAakt: the use of camel's hair for raiment has been familiar 

in all timesi we need only recall St. MatL iif.4: hence the approptiale- 

ncsEi of the preceding gafdui 'shaggy'. 

Yt. I4-I3. 

yi iittfirifvo; here yi = yal hi 'when he'. 

Yt. 14-I3- 
yqnt hi dUrals&ktm: 'which {}. c. iiafrtiu) his far-glance descries way 
ah<a<l of him'. The metre of the line is defective ; but there is no 
need of supplying ilaima. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

^ Notet lo Vuht 14 and Vendidad 3. 

Yt 141 5. 
As; Ihis woril is uieirically dissylUbii: and stand:! as a geo. i|{. fumi. 
Wiih Ihe comliination Aa varStaAt Ul. Swiiiii-lioftr' (cf. Eng. nluJ- 
hone) compare pai. 1 1 uIlraAt vadaryiui. In each cose Ihe first term 
(titi, uiira) is generic; the aecood (varita, vadaryti) is specinc. 

Yt 14.17- 
uarJ paiiea.datamhi: this denotes the ideal age in the Avesta, the 
bloom of youth, a sort of Iranian 'sweel-sixteen', cf. Vs. g.J; Vd. 14.15. 

Vendidad 3 (23-29) Notes. 

QenerKl Remarks. The 3rd Fargard of the Vendidad comprises 
43 sections; it describes various piaces and persons that delight or grieve 
the earth (conceived of as a divinity); it pictures the blessings of agri- 
culture and of grain-raising; and closes with various prescriptions relating 
to the Holy I^w and its observance. The present selection is in praise 
of agriculture. 

Vd. 3.33. 
d4lar' gai}auqai .. alium: see note on Yl. 14.1. 
lairlm: for the accusative see <!r. g 934. 

yaf ^S pa'ti: these words are lo be construed togethc.r, cf. Vd. 3.1. 
anafim ... tir'nat'li: the chnnging of desert land into culiivated 
tracts by irrigalion, or i:onve[sely rendering it arable by draining, 
played an important rAle ainong ihe ancient Iranians. The frequEnl 
alluiions to the irrigation canals both of Asia Minor and of Ihe sur- 
rounding country in Xenophon's Anabasis, are not without interest in 

Yd. 3.34- 

Jar'ja .. saita: iee Gr. § 997 expl. 

kartivata: this word is extra nietrum, and apparently is an expla- 
natory gloss. 

afiif la/: 'desiring ihls (/al) from a good laboring man'.— /«/ depends 
upon a^iii (cf. Gr. § 931) and refers to the idea implied in tarjya. 

vaitkful alv/Lleifint: compare the folloiving vaahlul ar^nS; the enrlh 
dedret a husbandman, the maid desires a husband. On the colloca- 
tion gen. dal. (= abl.) cf. Gr. g§ 957, 9J8, 963, 9S0. 

Yd. 3.25. 
hSvfya bStvS dalinaca: 'with the left arm and the right'. On the 
use qf Umi as instr. (cf. \rviMrv» Ys. 10.8), see Gr. §§ 265, 983 N., 
992 N. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

' Notes to Vmdidad 3 and 6. ^e 

gae*}m iaraUi .. fu^rim avc.iaraiii: (he subject in the one 
cue is the husbandman, in the other cue the husband — he gives 
hcT (hi) a good color, or blooming appearance. 

Yd. 3.27. 

aini t»r'Pt: '1 ihnll go Inden' = 'become pregnnni', opp. to afu^ra 

nl^li in par. 34 above. 
vJifit A'ar'ii/n . . . yavakt: olwerve the dlKtinclion betireeii Marr^li 

anil yava i. e. 'nil sorts of fruits shall ihey reap, beside the harvest 

Vd. 3-a9- 
kiHaMe: the pre*, here, like ha'ryti^t Iwlon, is used with a future signi- 

ficaUon. The line metrically lacks n syllable. , 

ftr'tmana Ifnta: observe ca. 
is /la ptaqm: the fomi 9iik9ni is gen. abl. and upon it jalfum Indirecttjr 

Ill abya hairftf^fi}: this seems to lie nn interpolntlon from Vs. Sa.lJ 

lit ahya talyyantl 'ihey shall be carried by these two'. 
dim: sec Cr. % 1013 N. 

Vendidad 6(44-51) Notes. 

General Remarks. In the development of the Zoronstrian religion 
the worship of the elements played an Important part. The parity of the 
earth, fire, and water, must not be defiled, especially not by contact with 
a corpse. Hence arose that pecidiar mode of disposing of the dead, which 
has ever been a characteristic mark of the Parsi religion. 

The body (lana), according to the present prescription, is to be 
carried to some high place, fattened (nidarftByin), and left to the d<^ 
and birds to devour. The bones (atdHi) were afterwards taken to 
vault or receiver (laHSna) and preserved in some sort of a receptacle that 
recalls the nntiiiuarian remains of the ailMin at 'bone-rece]itacles' that 
have been found in I'ersia. 

The present selection docs not directly mention the Dakhma (da^tt), 
but the word appears elsewhere in the Vendidad. The two-fold treatment 
of the body (lana) and the bones (otdHl) may practically be paralleled 
in the modern Dakhmas, or Towers of Silence. 

For desGrii>tions of the Towers of Silence in Bombay, see Doaabhni 
Fromji Karaka'i HUtcry of Ikt Partis, vol. i. p. 199 seq.; Ragoiin's Aftdia, 
p. 135; Peshotan and Gelger's Eiultrn Iraniam, vol. i. p. 90 seq. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

46 Note* to VcDdiilad 6. 

ViL «.44. 
lamttm: Lc the entire body before denuded of fleih, in cootnut with 
the ikeletoti (amW par. 49). 

Td. «.«. 

iar'tHtailvaea faifi gaiujva[(a]: 'even upon the hlgliesl placet' 
i. e. 'upon the mounlaini', u the Phi, Vers, itself explains. The first 
-<a stand* at the opening of the sentenee (cf. Vsp. 15.1 yamaMtco), 
•* sometime* also in Skt.; the best MSS. omit the second -ea tind 
read simply gUiufiia. 

Jim; here refers to lantim, cf. Gr. § 1013 a. 

avasanqn lanl: on the form tOne, see Gr. g 936 expl. 

Va. 6.46. 
afamkaimm etc.: these acciuatives, like some others, are commonly 

explained as 'accnsallvei of material'^ they ultimately fall under Gt. 

8§ 933, 938. 
tarittttm frajatqn: 'they will go bearing' = 'will go anil cnrry'. On 

the construction see Gr. g 93S. 

Va. «.47. 
frajatSfi on the change to singular from plural, see Gr. § 915 (4) expl, 
ka hi atli tifa: compare Gr. § loaoN.. expl. 

Td. 0.48- 

altakt fa'li! *0D this account'. I.e. the person hiu ipso facto be- 
come ptfetattu. 

duyt ta'lt ufaiaHqa; the subject of ufia:SH is eviilenlly 'self. The 
use of lelf-casligalion to drive out the demon that has temporarily 
taken posscEsion of the body in familiar in religious auEleriliei. The 
tipawana, however, have been interpreted as referring to the killing 
of BO and so many noxious animals (cf. Hdt. t.140, Vd. 16.13). 'I^c 
term later came to have a monetary sense; sins could be compensated 
for by a payment of money to the priests. 

aiditJ: the skeleton, opposed to tOHSm (cf. jmr. 44), sec Gcuerol Re- 
marks above. 

utHltHim: apparently a structure, vault or edifice of some sort in which 
tiie bones were placed and preserved in receptacles (cf. aiSiialJva, etc.). 
The Phi. Vert, rightly recogniies this by its allusion to the iistatiaii 
'bonc'receptacles'. See Casartelli, Attadaiit and Av. Fbniml ftilti, 
B. ami 0. Ricerd 1S90 p. 7. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Notei to Vendidad 6 and 19. a-j 

Tl 6.5a 

ttr'nael! on the ImperaliTC force of the 'iojiiiictiTe', cf, Gr. g 445 N. a. 

npalri ipintm: it ii here to be obiKTved thU the booes (atilW) tie 
carefully placed 'out of reach of the voracioui animali. Observe the 
contrast with kiT*fl.haTB (par. 46) in the cate of trnm. 

anoi^i.var'titlin: to be conetnied with tatUium, 

afi yaf valryajrit: compare Gr. g 980 expl. 

upafri.naimaf: the better reading it upara.nalma(, see now Geldner'a 

Td. e.s>- 

ytti faV4n matdayama: as ao apodotU to the condition supply m- 
itafpyqn from nidaf^ta below. The idea li that 'according to cir* 
cumstancei' (ym tanqn . . ytti nsi0 the bones may be placed either 
(ytid) in ■ ilone receptacle, or (yai) in mortar, or may be simply 
laid upon the dead man's mat (hraMa>Til) upon the ground under 
the lienting sun. 

atinallva: the Phi, Vers, has lagiiii 'made of stone' L e. In stone urns, 
cf. Casartelli loc. dt. 

hta.slalril: on the ace. of gool '^l" nidai^ta, see Gr. % 987. 

ra«tit.aimi.var'na: this loose compound adjective refers to A^ ('= ou/Ui'^ 
a.1 a general neut. pi. case. 

nidtilpila: on the singular, cf. Gr. g 915 (4) expl. 

Vendidad 19 (5-10) Notes. 

Oeneral Remark. The present little eslmct from the I9lh VendidatI 
{wcsents something of a parallel lo the struck of Bnddhn with MSra, or 
to the templalion of our Saviour by Satan. 

Angm. Mninyu through the agency of one of his fiends hod tried to 
slay Zoroaster, hut the latter combats him. Whereupon the Spiritual Enemy 
himself tempts the master to renounce the good religion and follow him; 
he is repulsed, hnwuvcr, hy Zornnster. 

llic mntcrini of the whole chnplcr is daulille.ts old, but signs of 
grammntical decay are so evident that its composilton al least must 
l>e later. See Gr. § 903. 

Td. 19.5. 
natul dalvd.d/ltim: on the case and on the adjective agreement, see 

Gr. gg 9af>, 903 N. a, 91a. 
joniini fa'rikitm .. {aqpa'ti: the passage is not clear j hat the lense 
of the rhl.Vers. 'I destroy the love of aorcerestes [the worship of idols)' 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

48 Notei to Vcn^tdod 19. 

may perlupt b«it be followed. The dat. yakmSi is probably used in 
a fioiti tense will) llie subjunctive, lliough in Vd. 1.18 v«T*H)m yim 
ta^ru^aajHH yakmai tayala fraitatui it Is Appireotly local. 

Td. 19.6. 

fairuiatfahe ptiPri: roiiriishnspn, tlic father nf Zutoq^Ict, is often 
meiitimied in the Avvata. The nnnie of Koroa-sler's mother, ncconling 
to the tradition (Ilund., et al.), wns Dugheita, though it happens 
not to occur in the extant texts of the Avestn ilself; but it is found 
in on Av. fragment from the llSdkikhl Mask, see West in S.BJi. 
vol. xKKvii, p. 483. 

vaiajanB: see note by West, I'M. Ttxls Tmatlalnl. S.II.E. vol-i. xviil. 
p, 317; xxiv. p. 103; xxxvii. p. Ill N. J. 

Vd. I9-7- 
hi . . vapuAtm dalmqm; here ki (itnt. gen. «g. =: ncc. %g.) onlicipntcs 

ilttlnqm, cf. Gr. § I019 N. 
niij ... vl.'rvlsjrSl: 'not though etc' Tlie subjunctive vT.TviiyHi 

here denotes conceuion. On the nngular number of the verli, cf. 

<'''' § 9>5 (4); tuid for ullOnfm (ace. nom.), ef. Gr. % 937. 

Yd. 19.8. 

iana taya kuktr'lSmhi: the grammar here, as in par. 9, is corrupt; 
it is not worth while to try to defend It by any forced explanation. 
The epithet huk>r*iawkt (pi.), and probably also atti vaUhim (|>ar. 9), 
may well be regarded a* gloss. 

mana d^ma oarS: the ace. dqma depends upon vanSt, For the col- 
location mana .. aari see preceding note, and cf. Gr. gg 911, 903. 

Vd. 19.9. 
mana taya atli vohilltm: see note on pnr. 8 above. 
daPaf .. fradafm: i.e. Orroaid made the weapons; his minislcis, 

the Anishatpandt, delivered them to Zoroaster. 
trant akaraae: on the agreement see Gr. % 993 N. i. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 






In the alphabetic BTrangement no distinclion is made between /, f, 
nor between kv, Ir. 



(For Explanations and AbbieviatioDs see p. 36.) 

Av. ■- «. 
. Id-, an- (berore vowels): neg. prefix *un-*. — Cf. ofratah^-, anSpa-, 
[Ski. a; an-,- Old P. a-,- rhl. a-, m-\ 
1 4 (vbl. preHx and pMlpo*.). kc under J. 
a'fiimiina-, see under Y'"*- 
atfie, a^pitf etc., see under aim, Gr. § 422. 

offyejaA- (riom 1 a + '^J'</^-) ' "Ij' ' IncowiptlWe '. — a'fyfjanki nom. 
pi. m. Ye. 10.3 (epithet of Amesbft Spen(as). 

[lid. Vers, bni ailj'hiitiaml ; Nar. has amftyamattl-} 
' ainita-: sb. m. 'face'. — Vt 14.9. — Cf. alto parfvamka-. 

|Slit. ^nfl«-.- Phi. tnik (Eiom)) 
I oiniila{ (Ironi 11 + riAt/); ndv. 'elaewbere'. — Vs. S7-33 'l><>th here and 
elsewhere '. 
, a'fi: (1) adv. 'also, too'j (1) vbl. prefix; (3) prc)>. w. ncc. 'unto, upon'.— 
Vs.57-33 lYt. 14.13.— See also nndcry^j/J-. — [Skt.<i/j,'01dr.<i/i>t 
a'bi, see under atwi {Gr. g 83,4). 

atiil (? perhaps Trom imM+ yU-, cf. Skt gav-if, faJu-if): vbl. adj. 'de- 
siring'. — Vd. 3.34, see note ad loc. Otherwise aUiJ must here 
be taken prepositionally, i. e. a'H! taf . . . o'iil lal 'in this 
case ... in that case'. Uncertain. 
)a'v(, d'£(.- (i) adv. and vbl. prefix 'to unto, ovet'; (3) prep. same. 

[Skt. aihi; Old P. aiiy; Phi. a/-; New P. a/-, aw] 
afmutacina- (from a^m + y/ac-): adj. 'mnnlng upon, attacking'. — 
Yt. 14.11. 
, a'niiSna- (from a^wi -^ Y •*'')'■ '^- "*' 'l>ridle, halter'.— Cf. %nranjS.- 
aiwidena-. — (Cf. Ski. oMiiiMnJ- 'halter'] 
tr/iiii.var'ii(i-(tti>n\ n'wi + v): sb. n. 'coveiuiK'. — Vd. 6.31, in tlie loose 
compound raBf<t.a'm.tiar'na ace. pi. n. (hi s= agdhtj) 'clothed 
onlf with the sunlight' (lit. 'having light as coveririg'). 


52 a^vifatlar- — uo/- 

, a'teijatlar- (from a'wi+Yhad-, ct Gr. § 754, i): tb. m. 'a tider, 

one who beitridei'. — aiwiJaila nom. sg. Vs. ii.a. 

, atwi.iiilan- (from af-wi + fiiian- ftam Yi!-): »b. m. 'peasant, dweller". 

— lAuLJiifM dat, »g. Vd. 3.^4. 

a^niJAiita- (from ahii + kuta- from V.(u-, cf. (7r. g 732,2): pus. ptqil. 

at adj. ■extracted, prepued'. — Vs. 11. 3 noie. 

, aiwyi\1lar- {(torn a'wi + aillar-. Cr. g Sa c, from V""*'- q. v.): sb.ra. 

■oveneer, guaidian'. — V». 57.15. 
^ a'wya\lira- [Uoxa aiwi + a\ilra-. Gr. g 5a c, from yo^/- q. v.): sb. n. 
■overaeeing, guardlanahip'. — Vt. 5.6. 
aivySma- (Uam aijui + ame; Gr, % 53 c): adj. 'exceedinf ■bong*. — 
1 n'ru/a.: adj. 'white'. — ¥». 57.27: Vt. 5-7! Vt. 14.9. 

(Cr. Skt. arufd- 'reddiub'j I'hl. arm] 

, a^rvapa- (from \a-\-ttrvapa-\. »b. m. 'enemy'. — Vs. 57.26. 

ia"rva9'- (Irom y>>r-): adj. 'awifi, valiant, gatlani'. — ib. in. 'gallant 

waniora, gallant chargera' (steedi). — Yi. ti.a; Yi. 57.271 

Vl. 5-132; YI.S.7. — [Ski. drwiii/-; I'hl. urta«./,N«vf I*. <iwi«rf) 

lalitt-: demonitr, proa. {Gr. § 417 dcln.) 'thia'. — Vt. 5.132; Yl. 14.13; 

Vd. 6.46 leq. — [Skt. iid-; Old T. aito-; Phi. I,] 
k eiiada (rroin >r?/ii/ + pottpos. a): ndv. 'then, thereupon'. — Vd. 6.46,47. 
al^ra-: ib. n. peihaps 'fire-wood' (yii/- = Ski. yii/A- 'burn', cf. Av. 
aismo: If EO, compiTe with Av. ai!/rit/aiVi, kamidfa'li-'^l. 13.105, 
Ski. samil-fSni- 'pupil wiih (iie-wood in his hand'. Otherwiie, 
posub))' ' instruclion ' (}) if + V'-. cf. Ski. ufia + Y'-- 
- aiprapalti- (from al}ra- ■\- paUi-): sb. n. ' teacher '. — Y». 26.7,8. 

[Phi, alrpal: New P. hirtaJ\ 
' otprya- (horn atpra-): sb. m. 'disciple'. — Vs. 26.7,8. 
[Phl.V. hiu hai/ill; Nar. /('j^a-J 
aini, lee under yi'-. 
' a^M (Blenu a-, /-, («a-, una-): demonstr. pron. 'this', Gr. % 422 dcln. — 
Vs. 11.5 etc — [Ski. aydm] 
(i/va-.-nuin.adj. {Gr. § 369) 'one'.—Vl.S.S. — [OldP.itfVa-;, ivat] 
•. a lima- (from Y^ '^')'- *^' ■"■ 'wrath, Fury" (penonilied). — Aeshma I>aeva, 
the Demon of Wralh, opponeot of Sraosha; the Aimodeus of 
the Apocrypha (Tobil iii.8,17). — Vs. 57.10,25,32. 
{I'hl. ida. oHm: New 1>. f)/«] 
aei, see under avi, 
at^la, see under Y''V'- 
^Y"")'-' ^^- '^'' * 'speak, tay'.^acfla prel. indie, mid. 3^. {Gr. % go) 
Vs. ii.Si Vd. 3.26,18 (gnoroic). 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

aejaaktiatil anSpa- ' r \ 

• ejawhvaul' {from itojah-); nilj. 'Bininc'.—Yi. 37.11, ^[SkL if/snu>i/-] 
aejah-: sh.n. *»trength'. — adj. 'strong'.— ao/^ aec, Kg. n. (tabsL) Yt. 14.121 

aejA nom. sg. m. (a.Ij. ffr. § 341) Y». 57.10. 
(Skt. ijas-! I'hi. ij\ 
aejiila- (superl. lo aoJaA-, or «yra-, Cf. g 365): adj. 'strongeat'. 

(Ski. />■;/*<.-] 
akarana- (from 10 + *'): adj. 'boundltM'.— Vd. 19.9 (see under trvan-). 
aharJIa- (ham i «i-\-t<tr3lit' q. v.): adj. *unpIowed'. — Vd. 3.34. , 

yaiJ-: vli. 'Bee'.— + '>'n'< 'overaee, regard' (form causal.).— Cf.A'tpyd- 

ii/«r-.—[a. Skt. «,.,■ fli,;. 'eye'] 
aja-; adj. 'evil, harmful'. — sb. n. 'evil, caUmitr'. — Y*. S7>i4 (nam. pi. 

EubM.).— (Skt. ag»4-; ef. New P. fli] 
yap*-, see UDder yiait-. 
BMhu-, ahu- (Irani y t s^-): lb. m. (1) 'being, life, apiril'i (i) 'world' 

({. e. all that U). — i>4i>/m ace. t^- 'oplrit' Ys. 36.4 (sec note); 

vltfmt aiam 'all lile' i. e. the world Ys. 57.i6i timnht dat, tg. 

Yt. 5.i[ avhJu] gen. sr. (Cr. § 981) Ys. 57.25; ahutya dat. dii. 

Vs. 57.35.- cr, also'iic: — [Skt dsu-: VYA. aha) 
aura- (piob. from yaat-): adj. 'evil, bad'.— tdsp. aura m<^nyu 'the 

Evil Spirit, Ahrimao'. — Ys. 57.17,33; Vd. 19.5,6,8,9. 
aia (from a, Cr, g 436): adr. 'then, bo'. — Ys. 57.35,16. 

[Skt. idha; Old P. orfd] 
adi'lya- (from 1 n + o'iI'Vjw-): adj. 'ttnlawful'. — Vsp. 15.1. 
iiifd/ (frum (i*iH-n/)L adv. 'tbeteupon, •fterwwd*'.— Vd. B.50. 
a/ (from d, (;'-.g43i): adv. 'then, but, and'.— ajro Yi. 57.10.— Cf.abo4.ft/. 

\ana, see under aim, Gr. § 433. 

3anii.- (1) prep. w. ace. 'along, upon'; (i) vbl. prefix, Gr, § 733,5. — 
Cf. anajttana-. 

aHaiwi.var'^ti- (from I o + d'tci -f ^Jr'afi- q. v.): adj. 'out of the rain' 
(lit. ' not having rain '). — Vd. 6.50. 

aaafitata- (from la-^afijaia-): adj. 'without interruption'. — Vsp. 15.3 
(the I'hI.V. at Ys. ig.J explains as not intemipted by falling asleep). 

anapyalio' (from i a -\- ajiyalda-): adj. 'without additian'. — Vsp. 15,3 
(the Phi.V. at Ys. 19-5 explains the addition to be the insertion 
of some other Av. text in the midst of the recital). 

eaa.inaiia- (from iana-\-yman-): adj. 'devoted'.— Yt. 5.8. 

aaavaphaidiiuua- (Uom in+yH'aiia- q. v.): ptcpl, adj. 'never Bleep- 
ing'.- Vs. 57.16 (bis). 

anSpa- (from la + ia/-): adj. 'without water'.— sb. m. 'a deaert'.— 
Vd. 3.33.^ (Pill, anap; New P. nSi 'pure, unmixed' (lIorn)J 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

tA ana/ilia ' ammiant- 

anahita- (from i a-\-ahila- q. v.): adj. 'undeRled '.^Esp. nomen propr. f. 
Ardvt Sara AiiOJtia ('ihe high, powerful, nodelited goddess'), 
'Avrftts.— Yt. S-" »«)■, »" pote. — {Old I'. «nahala-\ 
aitu: (i) adv., vbl. prefin {Gr. § 733).— (i) lirep. w. «cc. 'olonK, aftet', 

Gr. § 735— [Skt i-": Old P. anav] 
anu.f»ipvia- (from anu--^Ypi- q-».): "dj. 'purmulng'. — Vi. 14.15. 
anuyamna- (From t d + uyamHii- q. v.): picpl. adj. 'not wanting'.— sb.n. 

■a Buiplus*. — Vip. 15.1 note. 
anutah- (fiom id-fi^M' "^j- 'unwilling'.— anuid ace. sg, n. advl. 

(Gr. §934) Y».S7l8. 
anya-: |«on. adj. {Cr. § 443) 'another, else".— Vd. 3.29. 

[Skt. anyd-: Old P. aniya-; I'hI. (k}an] 
a^lar': ad*., prep, 'within, hetween'. 

[Skt. antdr; Old I'. a(H)lor; Phi. andarg; New P. oMUlir] 
a^lar'.naema- (from a* -(-'**) ' sb. n. 'the inside'. — a^larfjialaiBf {Gr. 

§ 731,4) v.. 57-21. 
«/-, J/.; (b.f.(dcln. Cr.8286)'water'.— Yt.5.3elc.; Vd. 3.23; Vd. 8.46 
»eq.; Vd. 19.5.— [Ski. ap-; Old I', ap-; I'lit. J/; New 1'. ah] 
Yap-, ap-! yb. cl. 1, 8| 10 'reach, overtake'. — apayt'itli pres. indie, acl. 

Yi. ST.a9i a/'nlt pau. ((Tr. § 578) Ys. 57.»9— fSI". 'p-] 
e/»fl/ adv., vbl.prefix'away, forth', C/-.§§ 733, 73S. — [Skt-J/n/Olil l'.it/ld<>) 
apajiara- (from 0/a+VV''"'')^ ■'>■ <"- 'outlet'.— Yt. 5.4,5. 
apaHiitMO': tuperl. adj. 'highest, aupreine'. — Ya. 1O.3; Ys. 57.4. Ap- 
parently apanitima- is formed from apaiia- pf. ptcpl. mid. Y'P'' 
ap- = Skt. apani-; hence, 'having reached (he most, highest, 
supreme'; coiutrued also with abl. Ys. 57.4. So Geldner, 
apHata- (from a'pi -\-Yiu-): ptcpl. adj. 'interrupted'. — Cf. aiiapiiala-. 
apupra- (from I a+/*)- "d)- 'childless'.- Vd. 3.14. — (Ski. apiilra-] 
apir'tiayakO' (From i a + pjr'iia + ayii-): nh. m. 'youth'.- Ya. »6.9. 

[Phi. afamait; New 1'. iur»«] 
apya^da- {from «'pi + u^da' q. v.): adj. 'intercalated'. — CI. anapyefda-. 
ii/rata^^ti- (from i<i-t-/r*): adj. 'without offspring'. — Ys. 11.1,3. 
a/iman-: ih. n. 'measure, metre'. — Cf. asmanivaifl-. 

[Phl.Vert, hu palJuSii 'measure'; Nar. has prauiaim-] 
aftmanivant- (from afmau-^: adj. 'metrical'. — afimaHivqii 'the me- 
trical parts' ace. pi. n. (Gr. § 292) Ys. 57.8 note. 
ama-: sb. m. 'strength'.- Ys. 57.3ia3i Yt. 14».3; Yt. 14.7,9 ('Slrenglh', 

personified). — |Sk(. 4ma-\ 
amavanl- (ttovxama-, Gr. g 19a b. dcln.); adj. 'strong'. — Y*. 57. lO; 
Vsp. 15,3; Yt. 14.11.— Fem. amimiii'/t nom. tg. Yi. 5.3.— Supetl. 
amavaiUmi Yt. 14.3. — |Skt. itHavaal-; Pli). awaBami] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

amtfllU- — avoitt- t| j 

«»i>r*tit'{^\wr\ \a\'\fmaT', (7r.g 843): sb. f. 'Immortality, Amcretat'. 

On« of llie Amesha Spentna, and alwajs uienlloned Id coDnection 

with HaiirvatSt q. v. See Gr, Introd. p. Mvi g 38.— Vs. S7>34. 
(l>hl. amurilal] 
amtia- (form *amarta- from yiwar-, Gr. g 163): adj. 'Immortal'. E»p. 

Amtfa Sfi^ta, the Anuhaspondl, Gr. lotrod. p. xxt g 33. — 

Y». 16.3; Ys. 57.3 (ace. pl.),6,8,ii,33; Vd. 19.9. 

(Skt. amfla-; cf. Phi. amiSsfiand; New P. amJSipatid] 
nya, see umlcr ahit, Gr. g 413. 
ayaoha- (fToin ayoA- q, t., Gr. g 344): sb. n, 'Iron'. — ayaahaht gen. f-^. 

{Gr. % 980) Y». 11.7.— (.Skt. a/aid-] 
ajrapttttna- (from d/oA- q. v., cf. (^r. g 839): adj. 'made of Iron'. — 

aubtt n. 'Iron'.— Vd, 6.46. — [Phi. oxlnrn,- New P. ManJa] 
ayar-. ayan- (ddn. Gr. gg 311, 337): »b. n. 'day' — Y». 57.17,31. 
ayar'.iara- (from ayar- -\- tar-): sb. m. 'day'a Journey '.—Yl. 5.4. 
ayah-: sb. d. 'metal, iron'. — Ct. ayauhalna-, ayaaha-. 

[Rkt. ifr^^-.' I'hl. ijfn,' New F. Skeu\ 
tiyiftt-, sec uiwlcr ayar-. 
\'ar-: vli. cl. 5 'go, move, come (as fortune)'. \-ta...fra 'bestow, 

nllot'. — + /M'/i 'advance, attack'. — w./r/r'mw/ (Cr. 

g S69) Vs. 11.4.— Cf. also fia'li.»rht-. — [Skt. ar-, r-] 
ara/viya- (from la+r"); adj. * iU-ordetcd, iropioper'. — Vsp. 15. 1. 
ar'iiu-: »dj. 'higb, exalted'. — Fern, aritt^, epithet of AnShJta q. ». — 

Vl. 5.1. — [Cf. Ski. lirdh-d; Or. g 48.] 
ar'dra': adj. 'geneious, giving gifts'. — Yt 5.131. 
ar'ta-: sb. m. 'battle'.— Vs. 57.11, — (Cf. New P. ratm (Horn)] 
arJ', >r'f*: adr. "right, tmly'.— Cf. ariuida-, arl/i-. 
arjau-: adj. 'male, vliile '.— ar/tfnd, arfinahe (i.dclD., Gr. g 310), arltii Vd.a-Hi Yl. 14.7,15; "''/"an Ecr>- pi- m. Yt. 5.1,51 

Vt. i4.l»- — [Cf. Skt. rKhbhi-\ 
arluida- (from ar/+«-): adj. 'rightly spoken '.—•j/iuni abl. pi. m. 

Vt. 5.9: Vt. 14.5- 
«r//»-(fT.«/-/i, ct.Cr. §788); Eb.f.' rectitude, Afahil'(lAiyaltjr).— Vs. 57.33. 
I ava-: dcmonitr. pron. stem {Gr. g 43a) 'that'. — Vs. aS.3; Ys. 57-391 

Yl. 5.71 YL 14.11. 

(Old i". ava.; Phi. *, avt {i); New P. B (au)\ 
aava: adv., vbl. prefix 'to, down to, upon, in'. 

(Ski. dot.- Old P. ava (in ava-t/d-]; m. i-] 
ava/-a (from 1 /ifrt-): ndv. 'thus, »'.— Yt 14.7 sc'i. 
avatfl- (from lava-): dcmonstr. deriv. {Gr. g 441) 'that, sucb'. — haea 

ava^yi sttr'hyd dat. abl. pi. Vt. 5.133, — [Phi. h»)aad\ 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

e6 avatfaiil afava/i- 

avavant- (from lava-): pron. adj. 'aucta, ao great'. — evavatfi num. ig. t. 

Yt. 5.3. — [Phi. aotvoHd] 
avajala, ice under yfa/-. 
avaia^li, lee noder yvai-. 

afaii-: sb. n. 'help'.— Yt 57.3! Vl. 5.13a. — [Skt. iftMJ-] 
avi^li, avSitt, see under Y''- 
avi, aoi (cf. oMoi): (l) adv., vb). prefix. — (1) prep, and poslpos. w. ace, 

gen. 'to, unto'.— Ai adv. Vd. 3.15. — As prep. w. ace. Ys.S7'33iM: 

Vl. S3,4>i3*: w. gen, Vd. 6.46,47. 
yai-: vb. cl. 5 {Gr. % 566) 'reach, attain'.- Cf. «a*- — [Skt m-\ 
. ttiou-: ab. m. 'naa^'.—atanattva (Blem aiSiia-, Gr. g 309) loc. pi. 

Vd. 6.51, see note. 

[Ski. Hon-; Old P. oA"*-." Phi- i"^: New P. jow^^ 
asaya: adj. 'ahadowleaa' (epithet of Sraosha's divine horses). — Ys. 57.27, 

see note. — [Skt aclayd.. Gr. % 17J 
atah- {horn ya^-): tb. m. 'place, apace'.- Cf. malttivataA-. 

(Cf. Ski. ita-] 
aiara-: sb. m. 'bmlle'(^), cf. Lat. aeiiUus (Gelilner). — Cf. lili.aiara-. 
atl-: sb. m. 'bone*. — aila nom. pi. Vd. 19.7; aidUI, atd^ifJ instr. general 

pi. {Gr. g§ 339, 944) Vil. 6.49; tii/qm gen. pi. Vd. 6.46,47. 
[Cr. Ski. ailHn-. iilii-,- I'hi. att,- New P. atlaA] 
ailvaitt- (from asl-, Gr. § 857): adj. (dcln. Cr. §391 b) 'corporeal, nute- 

fial' (epilhel of 4»Aii-,fii?^-).—Feni.a»ft'a'tf-.—Ys. 57.16,24,35; 

Yt.5.1; Vr. 14.I: Vd. 3.33J Vd. 6.44,47,49- 
[Cf. Skt. ailhttvinl: ailhiinanl-\ 
aipa-: sb. m. 'hone'.- Fern. lu/j- 'mare'.- Ys. ii.i,3; Ys. 57.18; Yi.14.9. 

— On aspaki ollraya see under allrS-. 

[Skt. diva-; Old P. aipa-; Phi. aif; New P. aii\ 
atfi.itaayak- (from (i>-^i/<): adj. 'atouter than a horae'. — iSzava 

aips.itaayila1 noro. pi. f. Yl. 5.7. 

al: inlenuve prefix w. adjt.— Cf. a1.afjak; alMai-. 
— n/o- (for aria- from If'^'' ''''■ S '^3)' **>■ "■ '''Bht, rigbteouancaa, 

Aaha, Righteauaneaa ' (persooified). See Gr. Inlroil. p. xxv § 34. 

— ajBl haea 'in accordance wilh Klghleousness'; ajakt ralUm 

'Ifae master of K.'i ajti^i gaip^ 'the Household of Faith'.— 

Ys.l6.3i Y*. 57.2,4,171 Yt. 5.9; Vl. 14.5. — Cf. also aja vahilla. 
[Skt. rl^-; Old P. aria-; Phi. ahlav] 
afavau-, afaan-, atian- {Srom ala-]: adj. (dcln. Cr. § 313) 'rjght- 

eoua' (of persons), 'aacred, holy' (of things). — Fero. afaaal-, 

— This woird correjponds to the Biblical use of 'righteout, godly' 

in the Psalms. It* opposite is drtgvaift-, drva^t- q. v. See Gr. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Introd. |). XXV §34. — ajiivtiiii nom. pi. ni. 'jinrc cicnturct' Vs. it. I; 

afaiinqm gen. pi, V». »8.I; etc.— (Ski. r'^on-] 
Ilia- vahilta (from a' + v): sb. n. 'Ashs Vahlihu' (Best Righ(«aus- 

nesi), oDe of the Ameslia Spcnlni. See under aja-. — ajtm 

vehillim nom. ag. n. Vs. 57.14. 

[Phi. arlavakiil, aJavahill; New P. aritiitMl] 
ai.aejah- iftom at ■\- anjah-'): adj. 'rooM bWoiib'.—Vh. 57.15. 
o/i- {(or arli- from yar-, ffr. § 163): sb. f. (1) 'piety, viHue'; (z) 'grace, 

favof, bleulng'; (3) 'Aahi V«nahi' (incarnation of IHely and 

its resulting bli;!uiin[^). — Vs. aCj; Vi. 57.3. 
[Cf. rill, ardiivattg] 
altra- (from Ya*-, cf. Gr. § 166): sb. f. 'goad, wbip'.— Esp. <tj//t^ 

oArJ a horse-goad, or whip used in connection with the irne/i.- 

carana (q. v.) in religious castigation, — Vd. 8.48, see note. 
[Slit. 4//rd-; Phi. aBr] 
al.iiliu- (from 1*/+^}: adj. 'having Btrong fote-lega' (of camel). — 

alMnSnl nom. »g. m. {Gr. fS 165) Vt 14.1a. 
"iy- (from afa-, aji-): tulj. 'tighteous, plotia, bleaaed' (i-pilliel of Sraa- 

Bha).— Vs. 57.i(fl/ip.acc.),3,4,i3,i4,as,i6.33.34.— [I'hl. a«;] 
Yat-: vb. cl. I 'drive'.— + «/Wi 'strike, inflict blows' (in religious 

castigation, see upatana-). — ufStSif pre*, opi. act. 3 ig. Vd. 6.48. 

(Skt. «;.) 

atSla- (from i a+iOia- q, v.): adj. 'unborn'. — Vs. iS,6.'— (Skt. ajata-] 
atini: |iron. IsL jicrs. (dcln. Gr. g 386) '1'. — atist yi kaamS 'I who [am] 

llaoma' Vs. 11.3; cf. Vl, S-6 e'c- 

[Ski. ah&m; Old 1'. adam: PhL nm. -m (end); New P. man, 
■at (end.)] 
atdAiI, see nnder ait-. 
yi a4-.- vb. cl. 3 {con}n. (?r. g 530 seq.) 'be'.— aAixr Vs. 11.3; YL 14.3; 

n«Vd.iQ.6! aiti Vs.57.i4,3S; Vt. 5.3; Vd.6.47j 

Vd, 19.91 owhn prcL 3 pi, Vt 5.71 asm imperat. Vsp. i5.a. — 

Cf, also hSiqat. 

(Skt. I ai.; Old r. ah-! cf. Phi. Mait; New P. am, t, ail\ 
ya tft-; vb. cl. I, 4 (pass.) 'throw, dart'. — a'fhimanayit pres. pass. ptcpL 

(see Hvasia-) Vs. 57-i8,— (Skt, 301-] 
taku-, see nndcr awka-. 
iahu-: sb. m. 'lord'. — Cf. ahura. 
akuna- (from »iw-, Gr. § 848): sb. m, 'the Ahuna Vairya', Une of 

the sacred formulas or prayers, and lo nnmed from its initial 

words yafa oka va'ryi. Sec Gr. Introd. p. iviii g 13. — 

V«.S7-aa: Vd. 19,10. 

■ Digitized byGoOgIC 

e 8 ahura- — ifrivacah- 

akura- (from ahu-, Gr. % 853): sb. m. (1) 'lord'; (3) 'Loid, Ahura 
Maxda' (cf. matdllk\ the (upieme god Ormaid. ,5ee Gr. In- 
trotlutlion p. xxlv § 31. — Vi. 11.4, ul putini, 

[Ski. dtura-; Old I', aura-; \'\\\. aOharmatd, ktrmatJ; 
New r. Jermnn/] 

tthttradaia- (from a'+i^M-): ndj. 'CTeated by Ahura'.— Yi. 5.131; 
Vt 14. 1 seq. 

akurf.(hoiIa- (from a*+/°): adj. 'belonging to the faith of Ahtira'. 
—VI. 5.1. 

aiani.iHtr'nt- (from I «*«- + yma«-, Cr. g 877a): adj. 'world- 
deatroying'.- Vs. 57.15. 

tthmSi, •mSI, •myo, lee under aim, Gr. g 423, 

Av. — a. 
S, a: (i) adv., vbl. prefix 'hither, unto, in'; (1) prep, and end. poslpos. 

w. ace, abl., gen., loc. 'up to, in'.— Vs. 11.7; Vs. a6, 10; Ys. 57.33 

(ytfhSd-a). See also dtla\yu' cic. 

[Skt. J; Old P. a.- Phi. a: New I'. a\ 
aaf (from a-, Gr. § 431): adv. 'then' (lit. 'from llinl').— Vs. 11.8; Vt. 14.1 

Uc— Yt. 11.1,6 'liut', — |St(l. dl] 
ai: interj. w. voc. 'O'. — Y». 57-iSi Vd. 19.9. — As piirticle(P) 'indeed' 

Yd. 3.33. — [Ski. *■; Phi. it: New P. ai] 
a/ar-; »b. m. (dclo. Gr. § 331) 'tat'.—spraica gen. sg. Vsp. 15.3. 

[Phi. aiar; New P. adar, aiai\ 
afinu- (from a+ianu-. Gr. g§ 77 N. 1, 889): ndj. 'knee-high'.— Va. 57.6 

(Phi. Vers, hu eauJ jaiiui). — [a. Ski, aMi-jAi4-] 
afravon- (from Jtoi--): sb. m. (dcln. Gr. % J13 N. i b) 'priest'. Dt- 

ilgnalion of the lilehesi cnsle in lliu Avesln. Sec also iindui 

rafatilar-, vailrya fluyant-. — Yl. 11.6. 

(Cf. Skt. dliarvan-; Phi. atarvan; New P. aitriBn-] 
aprilfm {from a+/rilya., Gr. §§ 375, 731); adv. 'thrice'.- Ys. ST-S'- 
adahyu- (from 4 + oii,^u-}: adj. 'in this country'.- Ys. a6.g. 
adu-: sb. m. 'spring, atream'. So rendered if I'hl.Vers. be read as jay 

'tpring', cf. Av. adavi {Gr. g 19) Vt. 8,39; otherwise Plil.Ven. 

i* read a jan 'life'. — Cf. Bda.fradana-. 
BdH.fradana-((Ti>m adu-+/r*): adj. 'increBaing the apringa'.— Yt. 5.1. 
af-, tee under af-. 
aft^li, »ee under ^^ap-. 
afrivaeak- (from 4/ri- + v*): adj. 'speaking words of benediction 

(malediction)'. According to the Phi, Vers, this word afr; like 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

tavaftili, m»y be used of cnralng at well a» of blcs^ng, — B/ri' 

vaianlii nom. pi. m. Vs. 11. t. 
S/rl- (from Y/ri- q.v.): sb. f. 'benedictlan (malediction)'.— Cf. e/ri- 

vacaA- (a/rili-). — [Cf. Skt. afrt-; cf. Neir P. a/rtn] 
ihja, see under atm, Gr, § 411. 

Smananha- (from J -|- monff^-) : sb. R. 'eagemeM, ardor'. — Vl. 14.13. 
Bfapta- (from a + V"«/-); sb, n. 'reward, boon'.— Yt. S-Ija. 
|Phl. aySft; cf. New P. ySfian[ 

Syu-: ab. n. 'age'.— Cf, aptr>iajfQta [Skt. OyA-] 

Arma'li (from Yar- + ma'ii- q. v.); sb. f. 'harmony, Concord, AnnaUl' 

(Genius of the Earth), one of the Ameiha Spcntai. See Gr. 

Introd. p. «iTi § jS.—ifitvla drmaftii Yi. S7-"4- 

[Skt ardmaH; Phi. jftitd-armat; New P, i/tnd-ariaat] 
SsiHa-, tee under itu-. 
St It-: ndj. (compar. Gr. % 365) 'awift '.—*«» ace sg. m. Ys. 57.11, — 

Compnr, Hsyaaka nom, du, m, Ys. 57.38. — SnperL diijttm ecc. 

sfi. m- Ys, 57-13- 
(Ski. aitt; aiiifAa-] 
MMttltiti- (from yasun-): sb, f, ' undcratandinf , explanation'. See Gr. 

Inlrod, p. xii § 3.— Cf. mafOMo'ifti; po-ruJIiaiifli: 
{Cf. Ph), tatui] 
ysh-, ij- (q.v.): vb. cl. 3 'aeek diUgently', e.g. ifitriaila Yt, 19,53. 

— Cf. foUyaili; yi U-. 
ahita-: ndj. 'defiled".- Cf. anahiia- (HhUi-). — [Cf. Ski. «("/«-] ^' 
a/m'ri- (from nAurd-, Cr. §§ S35 d, 30): adj.'of Abura' akil'riJ fraini, 

ShB<rii (kalfs Ys. 57.»4. — [Cf. Skt. Jjui-f] 
gka'rya- (from akura-, Gr. §§ 83511, zo): adj. 'lordly, belonging to 

Ahura'.— Ys, itS.3 (of Amesba Spentu). 

i-.- dem. pron. stem, see under aim, Gr. g 412, 

Y'-: vb. cl. 3 'go, come'. — Vava 'come down'. — y/m.-aoa 'at- 
tain to, descry'.^orti ptes, indie, aci, 3 sg. Vd.3.i4i yi 
ffafrifim avdtii 'when he goes to his females' (of male cover- 
ing the female) Yt. 14.13; /ravS'ti 'he descries' (cf. Ski, frali 
., ava .. i 'erreichen') Vt 14.13; yi^n'' pres, indie, act. 3 pL 
(Gr. 365 esmpl.) Vs. 57.33; alai pres. sub), net. I ^. VtL 3.17 
note — [Ski. <-, Old P. (■-] 

'l-yijak-: sb. n. 'dlstreSB, corruption".- '^/a nom. pi, Ys. 57.14. 
(Ski. lyijai-; Phi, sfj; cf. New P. ifj\ 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

60 '<*' — ufarii' 

ida (froini-): adv. 'here',— Ya. a6.a.6; Vip. 15.1, a 'now' (i, e. at this point, 

SkL lid aj BO Angl. Sax. hlr); Vd. 3.34 lOit laraUi 'just so, ihc 

muden' (lit here i.e. in ihis s|iecial ctx); Vtl. 3.i7,ag. 
[Ski. iM; Old P. ida\ 
ia,it (from id-'Y adv. 'here '.— /rffl/ffl Vs. 57.33 (M- 
it (rrom I-); strenelhenlng particle, Gr. g 397. — [Ski. id\ 
ima-: ileni. pron. stem, see under aim, Gr, § 4aa. 
{Skt. ioii-; Old P. inta- ; New P. iiw<] 
Y'ri^-: vb. cl. 4 'die'. — \-/iara '[lerish'.— 'Wi/h-, /mraJrisIa- ' Ae3,A' 

pM). ptqil. Ys.a6.7,iti Vd.S.44,46,491 'rlripulqm yl. act. |)lcpl. 

gen, pi. Vs. ae.6. 
Ifiila-, lee under Y'^'h- 
iririfutiim, see under Y'rif-. 
iial.vSttra-: nomen propr. m. 'lastvaelTa'— oldest son of Zoroaster, 

and according lo tradition the founder of the priestly caste. — 

Vs. ae.5.^[Pht. iialvailar-] 
yHT- (see also Ydi-, it-): vb. cl. « 'seek, desire petoro'.— +/oW 

'busy one's self with' (worship). —/a^/(/i7/ii pres. imiierat. 

act. a pi, Yi. 57.13; itu pas*, ptcpl. nom. sg. m. Vsp. ts.a. 

[Skt. /H 

yail-! vb. cl. 4 'lend, drive'.— Cf. alfma- [Ski. tif; Old I', ii-\ 

Av. y t. 
tm, «ee under aim, Gr, § 421, 

u^da- (from yvac-, posa, picpl, w. lAa, Or. g 77 N. 3): adj. 'apoken'. 

— lubst. n. 'word'.— Cf, nRn/j'Affii-. — (Ski. utiM-] 
ujra-: adj. ' mighty ".—Cf. aejiJla- (au perl. ). — [Ski. wfrrf] 
via-: conj. 'and'. — u/n ... ii/a 'both — Hnd' Vs. 11.1,3: Vt. 14.3. 

[Skt. utd; Old P. B«,- Phi. a; Htv P. «) 
Ufa: (i) adv., rbl. prefix. — (a) prep, and poslpos. w. ace, dat. *to, upon, 
on'.— With ace. Vl. 14.13; *■ 'lat. Vd. 3.25. 

|.Skl. lipa; Old P, u/J; New P. 6a, ia&] 
ufa'ri (cf. Ufa): prep, 'above'.— With ace. Vd. fi.50; Yl. 14.7,9 ""t"^- 

(Skt. ufdri; Old P. ufariy: Phi. afar; New P. iar] 
ufa'ri.natBia- (from u' + n*): sb. n. 'upper aide, top'. — Vd.C.Jo note. 
ufaaMacaytni, see under yhac-. 
ufara- (from ufa): adj. 'aupetioT'.— Cf. ufaraiat-. — [C(. Skt. ufara-] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

ufaraldt- — wn/Juit- 6 1 

ufaratSt- (rrom uf-ara-, Gr. g S43): tib. T. ■ ■uperiority ', up. Victo- 
rioui Sniieriority (vana'nti ufaralSt). Geniui oC Viclory.— 
Y». 57-33-— ICf. Ski. Hfariiai-\ 
upatana- (from ufa+ym-): sb. n. 'blow, stiipe'— Technical expret^n 
for itroke or iliipe inflicted upon the body, as a religiou* cu- 
tigation (o remove tin.— Vd. S.48 note. 
u/j/tmi, see under 1/1*1/-. 
ayamna-, sec under Y^'- 

"rvafa- (rrom "[/"i war-, Gr. § 793 N. a); ib. m. 'friend'. — Cf. tfrvaf-tt-. 

"rvon- (diMjl., prol>. -ritvan, from yifnr*, Gr. gg 191, 314); »li, m. 

'Baul'i or thai fnciilly in man which give* freedom of will to 

choote good or evil. — Yi. 36.4,7,11 note. 

[Phi. rOiStt; New 1>. ruvin] 

"rvaifl- (prob. from Yivar-, Gr. g 191): »dj, ..,?, epilhel of cameL 

— VL 14.11 (cf. Vd. 33.10; Yt. 14.19). 
urvard-: sb. f. 'tree, plant'.— Vd. 3.33; Vd. S.46,47. 

[Cf. Slit. iirvirS-; I'hI. urvar-] 
Y',rvij-; vb. cl. 4, fl, 10 'turn'. — \-vT 'part asunder'. — vLortttyif 

pres. (scdry.) subjuncl. act. 3 sg. Vd. 19.7. ^(Cf. Ski. vrii-] 
uva-, ge- (-*^, (7r. g68N. 1): «dj. du. 'two, both'. — j^^ttrii Vs. 57.35,39. 

(Cf. Skt. uihA) 
at, at {Gr. g 7J3 N. i); adv., vhl. prefix 'up, fonh, out'.— Vs. ti.4; 
Vs. S7'iS- — Cf- ■'■'> usdalijiu-. 

[Skt. udi 01.1 1'. u<l: rill. <».■ New P. t-, H-] 
uta/t. (from yfji-): sb. n. -will'.— Cf. aHusah-. 
Yul-, see under Y-^vaX-, 

tilailara- (from iija/i-): adj. 'eaatem'. — ufattafrt (hi^ilvi) loc. se- m. 
Vs. 37.19; uiaslarai hata (Gr. % 19b) . . ufattaraiifyi Vd. 19.5. 
[Phi. hilaslar] 
u/ai-, ulah- (from V^3i«ii-, «/-): ab. f, (dcln. Gr. g 357) 'dawn' — 

Cf. uJaslara-.-'lSVl. uidi-; Phi. il. hJl. hH-iSm\ 
Mil' (perh. from Y^vaA-, ui- 'enlighten'): sb. n. 'mind'. — up aecsg.n. 

(not dunl) V^p. 15.1. — [Plil. Hdl; New P. idl] 
uJlStta-: sb. m. 'vital principle' (of the body). — uHSmm (ace = nom,^. 

Gr. g 937) V4. 19.7. 
ttllra-: sb. m. 'camel'.— Yt. 14.11,1a. 

[Cf. Skt. iirtra-: PW. uttar-; New P. uJtar] 
UI, see under ut, and cf. Cf. g 753 N. a. 
iitdaliyu- (from ui + ''t^"-) ! lulj. 'outside the country'. — Ys. 3S.9. 

. [Phi. uulaAlk] 
utdana- (from »i + V<i'<>-)' sb. m. 'elevation, atructure'.—Vd. 6.50 note. 


Av. ^ «. 
yd-: 4 'bewaniliiE, deficient'. — uyamua prei. picpl. mid. ace. pi. n. 
'd«rtcils- (i.e. in the audit of Life Book).— Vsp. isi.— Cf. 
armyamm-, (ana-). — [Cf. Slit. e«d-\ 

At. H" ». 
aakan-: tb. n. 'moutb, fsce'. — ituhini gen. nbl. sg. Vd. 3.39 nole. 
[Skt asdn-\ 

tT»S«a-: «dj. (Cr. 9 819) 'nlMd, uplifted '.—V*. ST-iO- 
[CT. Skt. OrdlaA-^ 

At. 1 *. 

ka-: JDletrog. pron. {Gr. % 406) 'who, what'. \-ci( indef. pron. (Cr. 

§4o8)'eTery, nny'.-** nom. sg. m.Yi. 5.8; Vt. 14.1; Vd. S-aj: 
kana tajra initr. ig. m. Vd. tQ.8; iakuiSi dnl. &g. m. Vl, 5.81 
jtdA^ gen. Kg. m. Vd. ig.8.— jt2 nom. »g. f. Vd. O.47. — Indef. 
katcilca nom. ig. m. Yl. 5.4. 

(Skt. ka-; Old r, id-,- Pill. kt. kai New I'. ki&-\ 

kao/a-: tb. m. (t) 'hill', (1) 'hump' (of came1}.-Cr. itvLkae/a-. 

[Old P. kaufa-i Phi. kif; New P. ;ldj 'inountaiu', kdhah, 
kckat 'humji'] 

kaoyqm, ue UDder aiavi-. 

iaftt-: »b. m. 'foam, ■lime'.— Yl. i4-'3- 

(Ski. kopki-; rill, ka/; New I'. Xw/J 

kamtr'da-: sb. n. 'skull, cranium' (of evil beings).— Ys. S7' '*>; Vs. 57.31 
(collectlTe). — [rill. tamSr; Nuw 1>, kamar 'cu|H>la'] 

kamir'di.Jan- (from A' + l/yaM-); adj. 'smiting the tkvW. — 'jani 
gen. sg. m, (of Sraosha) Vs. 57.33: Phi. Vers, has kamSr%tUir. 

hay a da-: adj. 'heretic (?), Kayadha'. — An'obtcure word denoting nn im- 
pious person or class of beings; rhl.Vers. bas tJtIar. — Vs. 57.15. 

yiiac-.- Tb. cl. S {Gr. g 568) ■ make '.—Caul, 'cultivate'.— i»r»»Mo'/i 
prei. indie, act. 3 ig. Vd. 3.33 ; kir'naol prel. indie, (injunct.) act. 
Vd. 6.$o;—ianiye^li caus. pre*, indie, act. Vd, 3.a3.~cr. also 
ilrfla- [Ski. kar-; Old P. kar-; Phi. iarUm; New P. kardan] 

yakar-: 5,9 'z\a.'.—Ctakaraaa-.-^[V\\\.kari)iilan;iitmV.kirntdaii\ 

karaua- (from yfakar-): sb. m. 'end, boundaiy'. — (vlspi) karatiS (sg. 
for pi. Gr. § 913 N. i) Vt. 5.4.— Cf. also akarana-. 

[Phi. kOHaroM; New P. kanarah, karUa] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

lar'/an tqiaeya- 63 

har^fan-: sb. m. 'Karpan*, — name of a dim of wicked imbelleTen. 
The tradition rendera 'detiT' (i.e. to the word of God). Ac- 
coiding to Z&d Spatam there were five brother* of the KtojAn 
family, foes of Zoroaster, cf. West, FAL TtxU tr. S.B.E. V. p. 187. 
See also 3 tmii below. — kar^Jnqm geo. pi. Vt. 14.4. 

YkarJ-: »b. cl 1 (1) 'draw', (3) 'draw ciiclea, furrowa, to plow'. — 
karfya gerandive oom. sg, f. {Gr. % 716) Vd. 3->4> — Cf. nlso 
akarJia-, karlS: 

(Skt kari-; Phi. kailiau,- New P. kaJldan, kiilatt] 

tar/a- (from Y^"''^')' *''■ ^' 'circuit'. — karfaya gen. ig. Vi. ii<3 note. 
[Cf. Skt. tirfmaa- 'race-courie ' ] 

karjivaiit- (from Ykarh): sb. rn. 'plowman, peaaani*.— ior/iiu'dlQitr. 
Eg. Vd. 3.14- 

iarita- (from yitur/-): pan. pIcpL, adj. ' plowed '.—Cr. akarila-. 
t.Skt. krfid-] 

tarivar-, karlvan. (from ykarJ-): sb. n. (dcln. Gr. gg 311, 337) 
■lone, clime'. Name of the seven divisions into which, accord- 
ing to the Imnians, the world was divided. — iarfvar* ace, sg. 
Vs. 57.31; viifSil iarivqa general p]. {Gr. gg 315, 330, 308) 
Yt. 5.5.— Cf. also kaplS.tartvairi-. — [Phi. klh/ar; New P. kilv«r\ 

I kavi-: sb. m. 'King', — title of the Persian monarchs of the Kaj^ian 
dynasty, Kni Kobad, K»i Khosraw, etc. — kaviil viJIAifakt 'of 
King Vishlaspa (q. v.), Kai Gnshtasp' Vs. 16.51 Yts-i33- 
(Cf. Skt. kavi-; Phi. kal; New P. kai\ 

t kavi-: sb. m. 'Kavi', — name of n class of wicked infidels or demons. 
According to the tradition 'blind' (i.e. to the faith), cf. tar"- 
fmi. — kaayqiH gen. )il. {fir, g 63 1>) Yt. 14.4. 

kaiu-: adj. 'BinaU, litUe'. 

[Cf. Skt. k<uu- (} nomen propr.); Pbl. iai; New P. kiA] (from k'+fi'): adj. '■mall-heeled'.— Vt. 14.17. 

kateilta, see under ka-, 

kiidya- (from kayadu- q. v.): adj. 'belonging to the Kayadha'.— sb. m. 
'adherent of K.\~tei\fytit gen, sg. masc. Vs. S7-I5 (cf. Vs. O1.3). 

ktr'la- (from Ylkar-): pass, ptcpl., a<lj. 'made'. — Cf. dahmiJtn^ta-, 
kttkifla.. — (SkL kfti-; Old 1'. ktu-ta-i Phi. kart: New P. kardaK^ 

ktr'/hhar- (from kthrf^-^Y '""")' adj. 'corpae-eailng'.—Vd. 8.45,46,47. 

kfhrf-: sb. f. 'form, body'. — ktkrpa inslr. »g. Yt.l4.3seq. 
[Skt. kfp.; Phi. ktrf\ 

kiisaoyti-: sl>. 11. nomen propr. ■ Kansavya '.— name of a lake, from the 
waters of which the Saviour, SaesAyanl, is to arise. — Vd. 19.5. 
[Phi kyaniai\ 


kva (from ka- or ku-, Gr. gj 406-407): iDlemig. adv. 'triwre'. — 
Vd. 6.44,49.— [Ski. 1^^] 

Av. ir |. 

faqfa^/e: mi unccKaiii worti, V1I. 19.5. Tlie Plil.Vcn. rcmlcni (he wonU 

ytm fiiqfa'U u 'to whom on« prajrs' and implkt thu Ihe farm 

is > verb. See note id loc. Some render u nomen propr. 
f roffii/iiv/ (from yf/'oali/-): plcpl.adj. 'tutrd, firm*. — (/rat/ajlm} ^raol- 

diJiqm (uperl. icc. ig. (. Vs. aS.a. PhLVen. here hu 'aioni 

firm, most severe in matters of decision '. 
(raotd- (from Yt"'^' I'^'i '^^- ^^' S ^9>)' tI>- 't«iv. 'make hard'. — 

Cf. ^raoldant-^ 
\ratu- (fiom J/'liar-)( sb. m. ■ wriBdom '.— Cf. ^ra^tvUla-. 

(Skt. *rrf/«-,- Phi. iiral: New 1'. fVarf] 
fra^wilie' (snpeil. attached to frafu-, fraluiriaii,'-); adj. 'wieeM'. — 

Ys. a6.3. 
Ytrv-: vb. 'hurt, be raw'.— Cf. fmra-, vffrtfjnaq/-. — [Skt. ;lrv-| 
yirnt/- (i-formalion fii>m y'^ru-); vh, 'be terrible'. 
irgra- (from yif^-): ed]. 'terrible, woutidinB'.— Vs. 57.15. 

[Ski. irflrrf-] 
trvl- (from Vfrw-): adj. 'terrible, wounding'.— Cf. frara-, ^rvLdrii'. 
froi-tiru- (tram yfr»- + ^r«-): adj. 'of wounding mtee'.—frvl.i/raBf 

gen. Kg. in. Ys. 57.31, Nor. has AiAtiHHsIra: 
tiatia- (from V"**"-. ♦/<-)■ «*']■ (') 'ralmt. princely'; (1) '■hlning'.— 

Ys. lS.3 (Phi. here fil/ai, Nar. ivimiu-); Vt. 14.17. 
(Phi. A/; New P. ]^J] 
ilafra- (from Vfta-, |/<-): »1>. n. 'rule, power, Kingdom '.-Cr. next 

word, and ^fii/rf; iauii.^japra-, Auf/a^ra: 

[Skt. i/alrd-; Old P. fpif^a-; Piil. /afar.- Kew 1>. Mar] 
ilafra- va'rya- (from |/> + v>) : sb. n. nomen propr. ' Khshathra Vairya ' 

(lit. 'wished-for Kingdom'), one of the Ametha Spentas. See 

Gr. Introd. p. xxvi g i^.—^la^rim va'riai Ys. 57.14. 
[Phi. Janalro,- New P. Jarlvar] 
i/d/rl- (from flti/ra-): sb. m. 'miitrees, wife, female'.— YL 5.5; 

Yl. 14.11 (bU). 
ifafrya- (from iiafra-): adj. 'kingly'.— Aai7mJ iioffyt (cf. Skt. siaii 

r/tja) Ys. 57.19. — [Skt. tfalrfya-] 
tiaf-, iiafian-: sb. f. •aigbt'.—ifafi gen. sg. Ys. 57.3' 1 kiof""" 

a«. ^. Yl 14.13; ^a/Hoira ace pi. Ys. 57.I7- 

[Skt. kiap-; Old P. ^lapaH-; Phi. fd/,- New P. loJ] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

ija gaoma- 65 

YiiJ-, tii-: vk cl. I, a 'riil», be niajeatic be splendid'.— Cf. j/a/r*- 

elc. — (Ski. li/'-; PKI. I3/aifan,- Neiv P. Id/iilan] 
Yiiuil-; vb. cl. t 'flow'.— Cr. ifudre-. 

[Ski. ifuJ-; Phi. /firfiTH,- New P. imlaa] 
i/udra- {from Yiiud-): sb. n. 'senien, ■eed'.— j/s^z-i* ace. pi. t. n. 

(Cr. § 131) Yt. S-2,5 — [Ski. *;Wr<(-; Phi. lasar] 
iitva- {from ^/, Gr. % 366): num. ailj. 'sbth'.- Yt. 14.17. 

[ehl. JoAot.- New P. Js/um] 
itJnat^ra- (from j/nw- n.»-): sb. n. 'propitiation'. Freqiienl in llic 

fiirmiitii yatiiSUa t'/iAmitua ^iiaofrdiea fraiatiayaita ' for llie 

wonihip, prnlu,' etc. Vs. 57.6,8— [Cf. Skt. tfiiS/ra-] 
i\jniiiifra- (proli. best from ulnii-, iaii-, cf. ('r. ^ 164, 77 N. 3, 188): 

»b. n. 'knee'.— See htt^jnaepra-. 
i/naema- (from Yttiu-. cf. Gr. § 808): ib. n. ■ Joy ■.— i/Mtfwa inslr. 

sg. Vd. 3.23. — [Phi, /««™] 
YH'm-- vb. cl. 3 're>olce, be pleased '.—Cnus. 'propilUtc'.— j/inf- 

vayt'Ii cnas. pres. indie, act. 3 sg. {Gr. g 685 e) Vd. 3.23. 
[Cf. Skt. */»«-,■ Phi. Jtayllan, hiffylnflan (cnus.)] 

J/ca/.- num. {Gr. g 366} 'six' Cf. j/rt-o-. 

(Skt. «f/.- Phi. iiJ.- New P. /.I/] 

gat^a. (from ]/><-, >(-)? ab. f. (1) 'being, Hvii^t cteature'j (l) 'world' 
(i.e. 'all lliot lives', cf. tivAu-), — vttpayS galfayji 'of all the 
worlil' Vs. SJ.ISf esp. w, etivaitl- (q. v.) 'ninteriiil worlil, living 
beings, mankind' Y». 57.241 Yt. 14.1; Vd. 3.13J Vd. 6.44,47,49; 
afiitprf/a (see afa-) Vs. 57.15. 

[Cf. Old P. gai^; Phi. gliin; New P. glMa, gtMii. jtiSn] 
gaipu- (same as galtii- 'hairy'); ailj. '■haggjr'. — ujtraht gelfSui gen. 

sg. m. Yt. 14.1t. — (Cf. Phi. gls; New P. ^s, glsa\ 
gaips.frSdana- (from gaipa- + fr'-, Gr. % 866); adj. 'helping man- 
kind' (III. ' fitrlhering living lieings'). — Vt. 5.1. 
gac-, gava-, gSu-: sb. m. f. (dcln. Gr. § 278) (1) 'beef, bull, cow'i 
(a) ■meat'(beef)! (3) 'milk'.— Vs. 11.1,7; Yt 5.9; ¥1.14.5,7. 
II — gJiii hud^Blid gen. sg. Vs. 36.4 nolo, 

(.Skt. gi-: Phi. gi, gav; New P. gdv] 
gaena-: Kb. m. (i) 'color'; (2) 'exuberant appearance'. — Vd. 3.35, 
Ilil.Vcrs. here liM ifrlh 'fullnens, repletion'. 
(Phi. gjin, gflnati New P. gilna/i] 
gaama- (from gav-, gau-): sb, m. 'meat, milk'. — Cf. gaomavaul-. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

66 gatmavani caPviar' 

gaemavatii- (rrom gaoma-): adj. ' conaiating of roe*t, or milk'.—: 

Yt. 5,8 (%aopriiyt}. 
gaaja- (from Vj«/-): »b, in. 'ew'. — Cf. talri^ao/a-, xarauye^»la-. 

[SkL gkita-; Old P. gauli-: Phi. gH; New P. gll] 
']fgaiti', jam-, see undct yfjaoi-. 

gaya- (from V"*)-, y>-): «b. m. 'lift'.— Sue also under mar»tan-.— 
Y*. iS.5,)0 (Gayomail). — [Skt. ^j'a-.- Phi. jiit; New P. y^}' 
gar'wa- (from yfu/TC-): ib. m. ' womb'.— Yl. S-*,;. 
[Ski. giriha-; Pbl. fa/r, gair] 

')fgarn-: vb. cl, }, 10 'Hiie, grasp'. |-ai 'uplift'. Va 'seize 

upon'.— ^r%n4» pre*, subj. act. 3 pi. (cl. g, Gr. § 588) Yt.57a5! 
)lgt^rv»fittt pres. iodic, mid. 3 sg. (cl. 10) Ys. 57.29. 

[Skt. graih.; Old P. gari; Phi. graftan; New P. giri/tan^ 
Y*Slf-' vb. cl. a 'Ko'.^[Skl. fd-,- New P. jA/nn] 
Yiga-: vb. ct 4 -aing;, chant'.-Cf. fH/J-. — |Skt. fJ-] 
f jM-,-see under gao-, gov-. 

gSlu- (from ]/*ifil-): ib. m. (l) 'place'; (») •AiVMn'.—gJtufi/a loc. pi. 
Yd. 6.45.— Cf, iilso JW?-»/(i.fflf«., 

[Skt gSlw; Old P. £a/tt-/ Phi. gdi; New P. fUA] 
gSfS- (from yi/S-): sb. f. 'hymn, psalm'. Esp. the live Gat has, 
see Gr. Inlro.1. p. ivli 8 ijb.— Y». 57.8. 
[Skt. gdM-; Phi. i4i] 
V>i-, y<-. see under Y'Ji-. 
y^w/-; vb. cl. 1 'hear'.— cr. gaoja-, iSiaigal-. 

(Sk(. ghuf! rW. Hj/iililan; New P. nyiJldaH] 
Ygtr'v)-, see under ygane-. 

Ygram-: vb. 'be ungty'.—graiilaAe pass, plcpl. gen, sg. ((7<-. g 711, S) 
Yt 14.15- 

Av. I, J. 

Yji'f-' vb. cl. I, 10 'flow, aiream'. — \-vt 'overflow'. — vijiara- 
yil^aM pres. ptcpl. Yt, 5.13a.— Cf. also Vijar-, afajUra-. 
[Skt. ktar-\ 

At. f (. 
-<'a.' end. con], 'and' (Lat. -fw). — fS ... ca 'both — and' Ys. ii.ii 
Yt. 57.17. As in Ski. somelimes apparently 'even', cf. bar'- 
tillaltiiata Yd. 0.45.- Observe -tS (GAv.) Yl. 5.9; Vt. 14.5. 
(Skt. -«,■ Old P. -ca: Phi. -c. -ii\ 
ca^war-: num. (Cr. § 37a) 'four'.- Yt. 57.17.— Cf. also U^rya-, 
[Skt. cahiir-; Phi. cakSr, eikar; New P. i-oiJr, rfr] 


cafviar*^altt jam- 67 

tapnar'.taia- (from c + i*): sb. n. num. (Cr. § 366) 'forty'.— Vt. S-4- 

[New P. eikil] 
year-,' »b. cl. i 'move, go'. V/ra 'go forth, tonte'^^raearSlti 

pr«i. «ubj. act. 3^. Vs. 57.34.^[Skt. car-,- New T. rorli&RJ 
rarana- (from J/'itdr-); sb. n. 'Inatrument'. — Cf. trafjt.eartuia-. 

[SkL idratli-; cf. New P. rffa*-] 
eard'li-: »b. f. ' nwiden ".— Vd. 3.^4.— (l*hl. carButk] 
car'lar- {from yiiar-, ffr. § 76 N.): sb. m. 'tiMker'.— Cf. /r«/i(.- 

eer'iar-.^[S\iX. idrtitr-] 
Y»ei-; vb. cL 3 (Gr. § 551) 'Btone'.— Cf. «/a-.— [Ski, ri-J 
(■(/a- (from V"*"'-)! "l*- f- '•tonement, penalty '.—.(d iM atti cifa {Gr. 

§ lozo N., eipl.) Vd. 6.47. 
-f'/.' end. particle (1) emphatic, 'even, Indeed'; (3) geoeralizing, yaldf 

Ys. 57.19; iascifca Yl. 5.4. — [Skt. -<iV,- Old P. -ny] 
Ytii-, (HI'): *b. cl. 7 (Cr. g SS5) '•niwiince'.— Cf. /:t<w/ii-. 

Av. K >. 

yfl'd'- (from YJati-): sb. f. '■mltinK',— Cf. /cili.jt^li- (Skt. Aati-] 

jajnvtt, see under YJaa- 

jajmalttma- {ftom JajiHvah-, see 1/7ain-): 'iiiperl. adj. 'tnoet pronipl'. 

-V», 57-4- — [Cf. Skt. ^flm,>/Ai-] 
YJaii-; vb. cl. 4 'ask, pray, dtnand'.^a'Jjntii pres. indie, act. asg. 
(w. two ncc, (7r, g 930) V«, 11, 3; Ja'JjiaglSi pre*, ptcpl. act 
dat. ig. m. (d-dchi. Gr. g 297) Yt. 5.133. 

[Cf. Ski. gat/.; = Ohl P. Jad; New P. rfj-Kfln (Horn)] 
YJ"'*-- son-' Tb. cl, a 'strike, smite, aI«y'.~ + Hi 'strike down'. 
^ja'iili pres. indie, act. 3sg. Yi. 57.10; nijni prei. indie, mid. 
3sg, (Cr. g 525) Ya. 57.29; Jaadni pre*. »ubj. act. Kg. {Gr. 
% Sai) Vd. 19.5; jtgnva pf. ptcpl. act. Vi. 57.10.— Cf. immr*- 
ii.jaa; haktr't-jan-. 

[Skt. itoR-.' Old P. /an-,' Phi. m/itn,' New P. tadati] 
Jaiilar- ((rom YJ^"')' ^l*- *"■ '■miter' nom. tg. ¥1.57.15. 
[Ski. hantdr-; Old P. ^i/ar-/ Phi. so/J/-] 

YJ'""' giM-, jas-: vb. cl. 3, i (inchoat) 'fo, come'. l-wa 'come 

down'. +1I 'come hither'. +ftt<H 'come back, come 
to'. +/ra 'go forth'. +v/ 'go apart, diitribti te'. — 
SjamySf aor. opt. 3 sg. Ys. 57.3; faUi.jasaUi ]>res. indie, act 
3 sg. (bchont. Gr. g§ 697-S) Ys. ; Sjatal pres. Indie, act 
Vl. 14.3 seq.; ava.jaia pres. impeiat. act. iSg. Yl. 5.133; tff.jaiaUi 
, jires. subj. act 3 sg. Yt. 5.4 ; frajasqa (fritjasai) iarnil"" pres. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

68 ji"' — /fl'T- 

■ubj. let. (Gr, § 9t5i4 exmpl.) VH. 0-471 paUi.jaiqit pres. subj. 
3pL Yt. S.133; /^wtuA- pr. picpl. net. u ailj. ia jajmaiUma-. 
[SVt. gaat; gath-; Old 1'. gam-, jam'; cr. IMil. (g)matan, 
a-utalan; New I'. a-mada>i\ 
YJ"- (inchoaL), we under ')fjam: 

yzji-: vb. 'live'.— Cf. gaipa., Jlra- (Cf. Skt. aJi-\ 

Jlra-{U. Y2ji-): adj. 'Uvely, quick*. — [ New P. drat (Horn)] 
JlrJ.iJra- (ftttmj'+f): adj. 'moving the bead qukkly '(?).— Vi. 

('rntilitloD bu ' inlelligcnt ', ct. New 1'. tirat, ite Jira-). 
YJff-' vb. el. I ■ live '.— yvirq/qw (&. § CS N. 1) prei. ptcpl. act. gen. pi. 
m. Yt.aS.6. — [Skt. /If-,' Old I'.Jlu-; Phi. MivailiiH,- New 1'. ai/ait] 
Y/"'' *'* under YJ^""' 

Av. f /. 

la- (ka-, AS-, la-).- dem. pron. (dcln. Gr. % 409) 'this'.— Vs. 11.5; 

Ys. 57-3iiS,i9; Vt. S9i>3a; Yl. 14,5; Vd. 3.i4iZ9- 

[Skt. la- (sa-. tS-, la-)\ 

laiia- (cf, Skt, Y''}')'- '•'■ "'■ '•^•"pneM. edge*.— Cf. irti}ri.laHa-. 

[Cr. SkL Itjat-] 
ta»rvayitti, see under y/Brf-. 
Y/it-i »=« under y/af-. 

latma- (from y/af-) : adj. 'bold, Murdy'.—Ys. 36.31 Ys. 57. 11,33; 
Vt. 14.15. — [Old f' ''aJHM/ (Phi. /afw.) New P. UAam] 

y/dc-, /oi-, la^e-: »b. cl. i 'run, rush'. h/fd 'run along, 

floit'.—/r'>/i'ca'li, •ivli pres. indie, act Vt. s-3i4- — Cf. also 
a'loUatiua; tafaia; lauciJIa-. 

[Ski. tak; tae-, lattL-; Phi. Mj/ori.- New P, MjM«] 
taniimnPra- (rrom ftiHiJ- + M*); ailj, 'the word Incamaie' (i. u. |icr- 

sonificaliun of ilic Manlhn). — Vb. S7'33. 
tana-: sb. f. (ddn. Gr. § 271) 'body'.— Vs. 57.261 Vd. 6.44. 

[Ski. tau6-, lanu-; Phi. lana; New P. taa] 
Y'aV'-i «e« untler Y^"-- 
YliVtUt"- (from y/uf-. /04f-): tuperl. adj. {Cr. § 365 N. a) 'moai 

Sturdy'. — Ys. 11. 7i Ys. S7-I3i M>r. has Jr^Aalamit: 
larattii (inslr. adrl. Gr. g 3S7): prep. w. occ. 'acroM, past'.— Yd. 3.39. 

[Skt. liraltd-] 
Ylorf-: vli. cl. 4 'Steal'. — larf/ySf piei. (acdry.) subj. act, 3!>g. \i. II. 5. 
(Skt. Iff- (In /r/"-); Phi. lar/iiiiilm; cf. New I", tarjami, 
lart 'lie, deceit'] 
y/drc-: vli, cl. 10 'overcome'.— /ir^nni/mi pres. kuIij. act. isg. Vt. 14.4. 
[Skt. lurv; tarv-i Phi, /aniinilHH] 


Ian ftvaifa- gg 

yiari- (from frak-, Gr. % 698 N.): vb. JDchool. 'flee' — larlla pui. 
picpl. v.. S7.I8 (bis). 

[Cr. Skt. tras-i Old P. tars-; Tbl. larttlan; New P. tarsldan] 

ytai-: vb. cl. 9 'hevr, shape'. \-iqitt 'coDsttacl'.—-iqmjaIli pre*. 

iodic ncl. 3%. Vs. 57-io.— Cr. also hutaita-. 
[Skt. latf! Old P. la^-i Ptil. /ff/r/an] 
litlla- (rrom I/"/!?/-); sb. n. 'eup',^lhe «ncred chalice inio which ihe 
linomn was [lourcd. — /n/Ai instr. sg. Vd. 19.9. 
[I'hI. M/; New P. /fl//) 
/iTCM-.- Kb. ni. 'tbief'.— Vs. tl.3. — (.Skt. />>/<!-. cf. t/fyii-, -\ftm- 'alcal'] 
lijra', till (in com|>ds,), cf. SItl. YHj--' "''j- '"harp'.— Cf. Iili.asara-. 

|Cr. Skt. lig-ma; Phi. //»,- New P. fij] 
liii', see nnder lijra-. 

lili.atara- {see lili + a-): adj. 'bavlng obarp brl«le»(?)'.— YL 14.1$. 
liii.dqiira (see /fij+(/>): adj. 'aharp-tUBked'. — Vt. 14.15. 
yiH-: vb. cl. I 'be able'.— Mt^ii prei. (scdry.) subj. act. 3 pi. (Cr. § 48(1) 

Vd. 6.51. — (Skt. /«■,- Phi. laiaii; New P. luvBn] 
I intrya- (fnt 'c^l^rya-, cf. a-^lli'rjra- from taf^ar-): nunLadj. 'fouilh'. 
— Vt. 14.11 J («/r/iM (Cr. § 934) Vd. 3.13. 

(Skt. lurya-i cf. Phi. cahtram; New P. faiidram] 
itairya-: adj. 'Turanian', — belonging to the land hostile to IraiL — 
lairlai (Gr. § 63) Yt. ll.7.^[Phl. Mr, tarSa; New P. /drJo] 
Ittluc-: lib. f. 'carpet. cloth(j}'.~i'0/iff^ loc. pi. Vd. S.51, see note. 

(c:f. Ntw \\ liiiut < ciirlnin, veil ') 
lilm; pron. 3|>en. (del. Cr. § 390) 'thou'.— Vi.ii. 1,7; Ys. 57,26; Vd.3.*9! 

Vd. 19.6. — [Ski. Iviim; Old I'. Iinrani; Phi. la; New P. «J 
Dmah- (cf. Kk(. ]/'rijn-): sb. n. 'darkncBB, Hell '.— MwfrvJd gen. Rg. 
[Gr. § 982) Vs. 57.18. — (Skt. lim-as; Phi. tarn,- cf. New P. Ittm\ 
li, see ander /o- above. 
Ilfrya- (cf. Skt, V/nm-); adj. 'dark'.— Yt. 14.13. 

(Cf. Skt. /rfw-tfj-etc; Phi, tir. Idrtl; New I'. tSr] 

Av. A/. 
YfavJ-- »b. cl. 10 'draw, drive, leln'.— Cf. nifa^litr-, 
fvittlia-: sb. m. 'fright'.— Vs. 57.18. 
Yfiv^ajl-; vb. d. t 'work, be active, be stirring, make haste'. 

(.Ski. Ivatf-; Phi. lOiJllan] 
fwii^fa- (from YfniaiJ-]: adj. 'active, bufly*. — fuia^iilUm superl. 
Ys. 57.13, 

[Cf, Skt, lz>dirnr- 'activity'; = Phi. M#Wi; New P. lafja] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

70 /war dtUiifJIia- 

Yfiear-: vb. 'haMen'.— Cf. fiwart-, fmaia-. — [Ski. tvar-\ 

y^wari- (from Yptuar', Gr. % 698): vb. Inchoat. (t) ■cut, create'; 

(a) -decide, judfe'.— +/ro 'cut off.— +/a'« 'to «hoe' 

(of honci).— /svr'TOM pres. indie, icl. 3du. Vs. 57.1; /ripwir'id 

pret. (Injunct,) act. a sg. V». 11. 7; faUi.fviarh9thS pass, plcpl. 

nom. p]. Yi. 57.17.— Cr also pniir'ilar: 
PvB, pviqm, tee under IHih, Gr. § 390. 
pviia. (from Y^ar-. Gr. § 163): ■ quick '. —/«.a/>/H ace. sg. n. advl. 

(<!'■■ § 934) Vt. 11.7. — [Ski. Mrld«i\ 
fv>lr*1lar- (from ^ari-, Gr. g 39 expl,): sli. m. 'Judge' (i.e. who 

decidet).— Yu. 57.1 note. 
Prak.; vb. 'fear, be terrified '.—Sec yinrs: — [Ski. lras.\ 
Pri-: num. (dcln. Gr, § 371) 'thiee '.— /r2)M nom. pi. m. Ys. ll.l. 

[SWt. tri.; Phi. II ; New P. sih\ 
Prilya- (from /rf-): num. adj. ■ third '.-/nVrd [Gr. % 997) Yl. 14.91 

sprilim (Gr. § 375) Yi. 57.31. — (Skt. irltya-; Old V. yni/a] 
Prilva- {Uom pri; Gr. § 376 N., 817): ib. m. 'a third'.- Ys. 11.7. 

[Phi. irlMlak} 
Pru/-: vb. 'to satiafy '.— /rri/>i£f pwi. ptcpl. nom. ig, m. (Gr. §77 N- 3) 

Vi. 57-14. — (Cf. Ski. Irp- (trntpMi). 
iryaiili- (from pri- + yailii; Gr. % 68a)i lb. f. 'three atalka' (of 

haoma) Gr. § 891.— Yi. 57.6 note. 

Av. J 1/. 

da'fhu-, dahyv (from y</ai>4-, i/aJ-): sb. f. (dcin. Cr. g 370) 
'country, nation ',—llie iargcsl division in Ihe four-fol<l con- 
stitution of llie lianian slate, vi:c.(i)n»(JHa-, (i}f(V-, (3)mv/h-, 
(4) <ia\yu..-'ii. 57.14; Yt. 5-6; V.l. 3,17. 

[Cf. SkL dityu; Old 1>. dakyu-; Phi. ^ajj-fl, ^M.- New P. dih\ 

da''li- (from d'-^-tf): sb. m. 'lord of the nation, gfovemor*. 
— Vd. ig.6. — [Phi, dahyilfal\ 

dai^kti.fridana- (from ^+/<-): adj. 'increasing the country'.- 

dalttS- (from -\fdl-): lb. f. 'comcience, Religion'. The '/«?»<! (New P. 
•/f») is on inleeral element in the spiritual constitution of man, 
by the light of which he dlscemi right and wrong; hence 
the divine iasigbt, religion.- Ys. aO.4.6 ) Yi. 37.a4 (bU); 
Vd. i«.6,7. — [Phi. dtn, dm; New P. iOh] 

dalria.dita- (from daiHa. + Ydit-, Gr. § 866): ib. m. 'teacber of the 
religion '.—Yi. S7.a4. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

dalitttm- - 


rf(i;(n«w-(fromy"ift-):*li. n. 'eye'. — C^.tmarfia.daiman-.^[^viiV.Him\ 

daioa-: $b. m. 'devil, Demon'. Esp. plur. 'the Doevki', Gr. Itiltod. 

p. xxvli § 41. Fern, dalvt- — adj. 'deviUah'.— Vs. 57.i7,i8(bit), 

3'.3»,33i VI. 14.4; liatv'jia gen. ^. f. wl). [Gr. §§ 68 N. 3, 

357) Vs. 37-iS- 

[Opp. Ski. dWvf- ('EDd, diWoe'); = Phi. dlo ('demoii'); 
New P. dm, dtv ('demon')] (from diHva-+ i data-): adj. 'created by the Dentona'. 

-Y.. 57.35. ■ Vd. I9.S(W.). 
daalttiaro-: adj. 'wesiem, occidental'. — Vs. J7.19 (loc. sg.). 

[Cr. Ski. dtfi- ' evening '1 VVtl. dslatlar ; of. New P. del] 
ydaah-. dah-: vb. 'be mighty, be wise' (nuhel).— Cf. damhak-, 

daAaia-, — [Ski. dqi-, dai-] 
datthah- (from Ydawh-, dak-): sb. n. ' masteiy '.— Yt. S'9i Vt. 14.5. 

[Skt. dqtat-] 
dap-, see under l^i/d-. 
dapulal, see under dadvah-. 

dadgtii- (redupl. from "^dgs-, dtu-): ndj. 'biting'. — YL 
dadvah- (pf. picpl. from y^da-, Gr. § 349); *b. m. 'creator, HaJter'. 
—Heputai nbl. sg. (Cr. g 86) YL 5.7. 

Ydar-: vb. el. i, 10 'hold, keep'. \-ava 'apply'. — ddnt/eAi (c\. 10) 

pres. iniltc. net. asg. 'hold back, keep from' Ys, ti.Jj ova ... 

dSrayadatm (cl. 10) imperat. mid. I pi. Vsp. 15.1. — Cf. also ^nu-. 

(Skt. dhar-; Old 1'. dai-; I'hl. dallait; New P. ntd^/An] 

dar'ja-ift»m ydraj-): adj. 'long, cantlnnal'.—Vil. 3.14 ((7r.§ 977 expl.). 

|Skt../rr^*i-((;r.§48); OldP.rfflr^-.- l'W.-/fr; NcwP.rflr] 

ydars-: vb. tl. t 'aee, look*. — Cf. fraihr'tra-, hvar>.dar*tja-. 

[Skt. rfar/.J 
ydarl-: vb. cl, s 'be bold, be hardy'.— Cf. darfi-, dartiia-. 

(Skt. dkari-: Old P. rfiir/-) 
darfi- (from yrfor/.): adj. "bold, haxAj'.—dartyiil (observe ^1) gen. 

sg. m. {Gr. % 254) VI. 14.3. — {Cf. Ski. didhrt'-] 
darjUa- (from Ydari-, pass. ptcp). (7r,§§7i3, 786 N. i): adj. 'daring'. 
—Vs. S7-11- — (Ski. dkrfild-: cf. New P. durult (Horn)] 

ydari- (cf. V'''™;- helow): vb. cl. 10 'hold, fasten'. \-m 'fasten 

down, secure'.— n(iAr'»if9Kprel. (injunct.) act. 3 pi. Yd. 0.46; 
nidar'taji^i pres. subj. act. 3p1. Vd. 6.47.^[Skl. dark-\ 
data-: num. adj. (Gr. § 366) 'ten'. — Cf. pa^cajiatai-. 

(Ski. ddJa-; I'lil. daA. dainm; New P. nfaAj 
daili- {(TomydS-)'. sb. n. 'paying'. — datit daL sg. ai inlin. ((7r. g 354 
Val.) Vsp. 15.1 note. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

72 JafiHtt JSHyama~ 

ilaliHa-: adj. 'right'. — Jafiiia iSaii kavfyaca 'with the riglil arm nad 
Ibc leff Vd. 3.25 note. — [SkL dJi/m-; PI1I. ifa£ti\ 

dakSka-! lb. Di. some kind of a serpent. Esp. aii dakaka 'Azlii 
DalukK, the dngOD'. — In Vs. ti.6 dakakBea {Gr. % 19) denol«s 
fiendish creatures. 

dttkma- (from Ydaph; dak-): (1) »b. m. 'master' (a Dostur);— (z) adj. 
■pioua'. — [C(. Skt. daimi-; V\t\. flakm] 

dakmi,i»r»la- (from d' + kir'lit-): adj. 'begotten of pious parenta' 
(see dakma-) Vs. a6.9.^[Ph1. dahman-karl] 

doty II-, see under da^fku-. 

yds-, dap-: vb. cl. 3 {Gr. § 541 seq.) 'give, put, create, make'.— 
+ fl'K'/ 'place around'.— + «3 'elevate, prescrve'.- 
+/ra 'prefer, eive'. — + «* 'deposil'.- + r/ 'erect' 
(a house). ^</iTi£l'V/ prcs. indie, act. 3 sg. Yl. 5.1 \ da'JII)m ))ret. 
iiidlc. act. 3du. (Gr. § $43] Vs. 57.17; dafml prct. indie, acl. 
3*8- {Gr. § 553) Vs. ii-Si Vd. u.9; /ra,hfm {Gr. § SS3) 
Vd. tg.9: nidapSma pres. (ubj. aet. I pi. Vd. 6.44,491 nidapua 
pres. subj. mid. 3 ^. {Gr. g 546) Vd. O.51; daylt aor. opt. act. 
3sg. (Cr. g 634] Vs. 57.161 vtdSUot pais, picpl. Y(. 57. 11. — 
Cr. tdviidSiia-, uidSiia-. 

[Ski. dd: dka- {Cr. 8 83)i Old l'. dS-; I'lil. daiau; New I'. 

daUya- (from : (/<I/a-, I7r.g85i): adj. 'lawful, n^W—dstljattnai gen, 

pi. n. Vsp. 15. 1; di'tiiH falaia ace. sg. n. Yl. 5.3. 
I data- (from ]Ai«-): pass, ptcpl. as adj. 'created, eaubliabed'.— Cf. 

akura.daia; matda; dalsi'. 
2daia- (from preceding); sb. in. 'law, ordinance'. — Vt. 14.5. 

(Old P. idaia-: Phi, dst; New 1'. did] 
daear-{fiom yds-): sb. m. (dcln. Gr.% 311) 'maker. Creator'.— Vl. 14.1; 
Vd. 3.13; Vd, 6.44se<|. 

(Skt. dhatir-! Pbl. dSiar: New V. dSdar] 
dapn- (from ddlar-): sb. f. 'giver, benefactreas '.— ya'^/Kn^di dapril 
■ayafttiH 'she that grants a Tavor to the unu that asVs' Yt. 5.133. 
(Skt. dairl-] 
damau- (from V</(I-): sb. n, (dcln. Gr. g 308) 'crealuie, crealton' (col- 
lective).— Vs. 57.1 (bis, Gr. g 308 exp).),lC,l7,30. 
[Ski, dkiluaii-; Phi, da^i] 
dak-; sb. f. 'wisdom', — in dutdah-, hudah, and according to I'hl.Vers, 

>iiaidah-. — \Q.{. Skt. dht-\ 
dahyuma- ifiam dal^yu-, Gr. § Sasd); adj. 'belonging to the country, 
national '.— Ys. lO.i. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 



di-: end. pron. 3r(t. pcre. {Gr. §396) <he, it'.— Vd. 3.19 (Ca § 1023 N.); 

Vd. 6.45.— [Old P. rf.-l 
ydii-: vli. d. 4, >o 'point, sbaw, teach'.— C(. Jalui-dha-.—^Vt. iHi-] 
yjl-, did-! vb. d. a, 3 'aee, look' \-vl 'look around'.— vAAJkA 

(Cr. § 68 N. a enpl.) pf. act. ptq)!. nom. ag. Yt. 14.13.— Cf. 

aJ«o dalnian-, dtipre-. 

[Cr. Skt. diS-, ladU-; Old. P. oT-.- Phi. rfl/on .- New P. dldan] 
dl- (fi. Y,n-): sb. r. 'thought, devotion'.— Sec imAa i»rHalJt: — [S)A. dhS-] 
Ydu-: tIi. d. I 'apeak (of e*il bdogs), shout', h/"*/' 'vociferate 

in rctponie '.^/iKA' ... oi/irvala pret. indie ntid. 3 ag. 

Vd. 19.6,8. — [Phi. daiMitan] 
dui-. dui- {Cr. % 7S3 N. a): tiweparable prefix 'evil, bad'.— Cf. dtfl- 

varSa-. Peculiar is dluijravah- (ij. v.). 

[Ski. duf; Old r. dui^; Phi. duf^; New P. d«i'\ 
duimainyu- (rrom i/vJ + fi*): ulj. 'evil<nilnded'. — >b. ni. 'foe'. — 

Yfl. 57.36.^|rhl. dalntan; New 1>. dulnan] 
dnl*, tee imder dul'. 
duLdSinaH (ftora dul-\-d'): adj. 'evil-creating, maleficent'.— </i(Ij/iI»rt 

nom. ig. m. (>t-fldn., (7r. % 334b) Vd. 19.6,8. 
i/Hl(/J<i- (from <A</+rMii- q.v.); adj. 'evil-thlnUng, malifpiant'. — dulda 

nom. »g. m. Vs. 57.25; •/ul</a voc. sg. m. Vd. i9-5i9' 

\SkK.di>4ki-; yVi.dHld.dnldanOi; ^ew V. diadT, duW \\\wV\ 
dulvarltn- (from duj^v): adj. 'ill-done'. — »b. n. 'evil deed'.— 

Vs|<. 15.1. — [Pill. diHhilvarit\ 
dura-: mlj. 'fat'.— rftorJ/(Cr. g 731,4) Y». 57.14; Yt. 3.3; rfrt'rt ..atlakt 

'foT from him' Vt, 14.13— Cf, dUralsHka-. 

IHkl. ,/<Jr.f.,- (}ld I', dara-; Plil. rf«r; New P. <Wr] 
daraliaka- {Uom dira-, loc, Cr. § 877^ + Jtfto-): »b. n. 'far-reaching 

glance'.— Vl. 14.13. 
dUraafa-; adj. 'holding death afar' (so Phi. IradiUon). — iaamd daraofi 

Dom. sg. m. Vs. 11.3. — ((^f. Ski. darifa-,- = Phi. darH] 
dlultravtth- (from dui + iravaJi; Cr. % 60): adj. 'iU-famed'.— sb. n. 

'slander'. — dful.tratnt AaciniHa 'attended by slanders' Vs. 11.1,3. 
dJifra- {from V'"''-)' *•>■ "■ 'eye'.— Ys. 11.4.— Cf. vtr'tiMlfra-, tpili\ 

ta'ri'. — [Phi. diUar) 
dqata, see under ildman-. 

yd/ii-. dai-.- vb, 'bite',— Cf. dadqiu-, dqslra-. — (Skt. dqi-, dal-) 
dqitra- (from Vrffl/-, dai~): sb. n, 'tiwk' (of boar).— Cf. //'i/Wflrfra-. 
draenak-: sli. n. 'oDeting, portion*. — Later the darOn a tmall Hat cake 

URUil, like (he Hebrew xhew-brcad, In the olilalinn. — Yh, 11.4,5,7. 
(Cf. Ski. drdvivat-i I'hl. daran; New I', daran] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

•J* draaman fialla- 

dratman- (from V^™- q. v.): sb. n. 'auault'. — Ys. 57.25. 
Yilraj-, (drag-); vb. cl. I 'hold'. — draUmni pres. ptcpl. mid. [Gr. 
g 177) Y». 57.31,— Cf. dai^ja- and Ydaru- — |Cf. Skt. dark-] 
dra/}a-: sb. m. ' Bpeftr, banner' (attached lo spear). — Va. 57.15. 

[Skt drafiA-; PhL dra/1; New P. dira/J] 
driju-: adj. 'poor'. — drijaelca drXvy^Ha gen. sg. m. f. {Gr. g 361, a) 

Vs. 57-10. — (Phi. dargal; Htw P. rfo(T«] 
drlvyaica, lee under driju-. 
ydru-: vb. cl. i 'rush'.— Caus. 'mftke onslaughts'.— </r2iu>>^/ caus. 

subj. act. 316- (w. ace.) Y». 57.*5,— (Skt. rf««-] 
dru-: sb. n. (i) 'wood', (2) 'mace' (wooden club). — Cr. ^rvtJru-. 

(Skt. rfrri-] 
'\fdruj-: vb. cl. 6 'deceive, He' (esp. hurt by deceit). — Cr. I'V-v/-, drvaift-. 

[Skt. ,/«(<-,■ Old P. dumj.- Phi, drajltaa] 
druj- (from yal-i(/-)i ib. f. 'Rend, Paleehood', — lie and comiplion per- 

sonilie<l.— Vs. 57.15. — [Ski. drtih-; l>hl. droj\ 
drva- (from yfdar-): adj. 'flim, aound'.—Cf. drvalSl-.^[SV\, dhruvd-} 
drvaiai- (from drva-, Gr. § 8^*): sb. f. ■ aoimdneaa '. — Vs. 57,a6. 
drva^i- (fTom druj-, Gr. g 31 expl.): adj. (dc)n. Gr. g sqi) 'wicked, 
flendlab'.— tb. m. 'fiend, (pL) the wicked' {Gr. Inlrod. p. iiv 
8 34)— Vi.57.»S ('>•»). 3». 

[Cf. SkL druhvan-; Phi. darvaad; New I', lAMfiiiu/] 
./va-.- num. {Gr. g 370) •twa'.—duyt safti ace. du. e, Vd. B.48. 

[Skt. dvi-: Phi rfs; New P. rfu] 
dvaiJiva- (from yiA-ii-): ib. n. 'hatred'.— Cf. vldvalltva-. 
"yfdvar-: vb, cl. i 'ruab' (of evil beings).- i/inrr^q/' pf«. indlc. act. 

Ys. 57.18. — [Hhl. davariilau] 
dvar-, 'dvara-x sb, n. 'door'. — Vd. 3,19. 

[Skt. dvar; dvSra-: Old V. duvara-; New P. ./ar] 
Ydvii- (cf /*(/-): vb. 'hau, be malicioua*.— Cf. dvalUva-. 
[Skt! rfi/v-,' PU. WilWn) 

Av, C /■ 

- (conn, w, ytit-, cii- 'announce'): tli. m. 'announcement' (ro- 
vclaliun, promulgation of llic Religion). — adj. (as subsl.) 'pro- 
claiming the religion, promulgator'. — Eip. pa^ryt-^lji the 
first faithful i. e. the disciples of Zoroaster who made the first pro- 
paganda, including also himself (Vt. 13.90). — fao^ryaaqot Ikai/a- 
nqm gen. pi. m. Ys. aa.4; ahafrU {iaifS 'the Ahurian Revelation' 
Ys. 57.»4.— Cf. also akurS.fiaiia-. — {Ph\. kli; New P. kU\ 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

(iaitali- (from YfiH'): »b. n. 'haired, inalice'.— YL 14.4. 

(SWL dvtfot-.- Phi. W] 
YltiJ- [zL<hii!-): vb. cl. 4 'bate'.— /^i^dq/ifBi pru. plcpl. Ml. gen. pt. m. 

Ys. 57.a6.— {Cf. Ski. ihif-; Phi, Utllan] 
iiiivanl- (from Yfiil): adj. 'hadnK, maUcioiu'.— VL 14.4 (gen. pi.). 

n<i°.' neg. 'n-' (in compoddon). — Cf. nova. 

(Ski. nd; Phi. »-,- New P. nJ, xdJ-] 
tta^rya- (from nor-): adj. 'manly, haman'. — Cf. n^rjijmika-. 

(Ski. n&rya-: cf. Phi. «r<ii.- New 1". (rirt) 

Ha'ryS.iawka- (from Bo'Vya- -!-/•): sb, m. nom, propr. (ffr. g 893} 

' Natryoeanha ', messenger of Ahnra Matda; later Ntryit^ig. 

Compare Vedic A'lJriUiiia.^ luuneof AgnL — na'r%B*^amk>m'i%.^^.%. 

nalda (cf. «(i*) ; neg. conj. 'not, nor'. — Vs. 11.6. 

Hiiliim-: »b. n. 'tide'. — Vd, 19.5 (bis). — QX. iai(iira.natiKi-, upafrh, aijlara: 

[Cf. SkL iilmi-: I'hl, tilBt, tilHtak; New P. ttiM. nlmai-] 
nabHttatdillii- (from iwii- ' navel '+ mtx^/'a-) : adj. 'next-of-kin' 
(nearest relalivei). 

(Cr Ski. iMhSn/>liilkii- nom. propr.; Phi. natanatdisl] 
Ynam-: vb, cl, i 'bow, bend, flee'.— +/rii 'flee from', — frS ... 
taiHaiflt pre». indie, mid. Ys. 57.18; fTinSaHfiU pre*, snbj. mid. 
(on 'n&m', cf. Cr. § 478 N. 1) Ys. 57.18. — (.Skt. »am-\ 
nar-, iiera-: sb. m.(dcln. Cr. 8331) 'man'.- Y5,a6.6,7,lo; Ys. 57.14,34; 
Yt.5.4! Yi. 14.17; Vd.3.17 seq.j Vd. 0.44.49. 
[SkL adr-; PH. mw-; New P. nar] 
I nava (from na + va): neg. partkle 'not'.- Vs. II.J. — (Cf SkL nd va] 
t neve: onm. (Gr. § 366) 'nine '.—[Ski. tiiva; Phi. hSv, nuk; New P. nuk] 
naaa.ya\ili- (from inava -^-y): sb. m. 'nine stalks' (of Banom). — 

Ys. S7-6 Hole. 
Y\ itat-: vb. cl. 4 'perlsb, be ruined'. — Cf. ttaia-. 

[SkL I ho/-,- Phi. naaiatan (cauB.); New P. naildan\ 
iiaiu- (from Y'"""')' '^. '' (') 'corpse', (3) nom. propr., esp. w. ilmj 
'llie Uruj Nasi)' [corpse -fiend); the spirit of complion, which 
in the form of a (ly takes possession of the dead body. — niuul 
(nom. as ace, Gr. % 916) Vd. ig.J. 

(PhL nasal; New P. nha; cf. Ok. v(x-uc) 
naiHfah-, natdilla-: ndj. compnr., luperl. 'nearer, nearest'.— Cf. 

[Ski. iitdlyas; nldiflha-; I'hl. iiiudlb, natJitl; New P. mud] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

76 "' — ^'''' 

hS, see under uar-, 

na'dxah ■ (rrom YnSJ-): adj. compar. 'weaker'.— nAt^yavibw {Gr. % 346) 

Y*. 57,10 nole. 
Mllirt- (rrom «ar-, Cr. § 83;): t\t. I. 'woman, wife'.— Vs. aB.7,S, 10; 
uS'ryU sen. >g. Yi. 11. 1. 

[Skt. Mdrf-/ I'hI. «J//-tt; New P. nSrt] 
Ynsa-: vb. 'be needy, be weak'.— Cf. sJ'rf/a*-.— JSkt. niJA, nSlk-] 
HI', see under hI. 
HtjHt, Me under Y/""'' 
Hi/aflar-{{tara Y'^H/-): »b. m. 'driver' (i.e. he who holds ihc reins). 

— nifaifa nom. xg. Va, ii.i. 
Hifa'ti- (fiom V/J-): »b. f, 'Bafe-lieepinK'.— Yt. 5.6. 
ni/{cr. nl): vbl. prefix {Gr. % 749) 'out, forlfa'. — (Skt. nii] 
Hiiamkar'li- (from- hU. nt+yhar-, Gr. % 754,3): sb. f, 'guardian- 

. ■hlp'.—Vt. 5.6 (dat. sg.). 
uiiaBkatli-, see under Yhad-. 

niifara- (from nil): >dj. 'outer'. — Cf. iiiltarii,anliiia: 
nillara.nolma- (from »• + »•); tb. n. 'the outside'.— Yi. 57-31 iGi: 

g 731.4)- 
nilhai'rvalli, tee under Yhar-. 
ul (at'): vbl. prefix ((.'r. g 750) 'down, in, unto'. 

(SWt. Hi; Old P. niy; Plil. »<•,■ New I'. «(■>) 
Himah- (from ywun-): sb. n. ' homagie '. — Y». 11.8. 

(Skt. tidiHai-; PUI. namOt, aaiiiBc; New 1'. hahiJ:) 
M«, na, see under ot^M, Cr. § 386. 
Hiif (cf. »ia>); adv. 'not', — Vs. 11. i; Ys. 57.17 ct passim. 

(SkL nid; Old P. Haiy; New P. «i\ 
nmSua- (GAv. d'maaa-, YJam- 'build', cf. Ski. datitas; Or. g 1S5): 
sb. D. 'bouse, abode '. — The unit (family) in (lie fout-fold arTangc- 
inenl of the Iranian stale, vii. (1) nmaaa-, (3) vli-, (3) uiflu-, 
{4)'/aVu-.— Vs. 11,6; Y*. 36.7; Vs. 57.10, I4(bis).ai,34i Yl.5.6. 
[Old P. maniya-; Phi. mSu; New P. mSH\ 
HHiSnya- (from umdaa-): adj. 'belonging to Ibe bouaa' (baving Ihe 
. rank of a householder).— Ya. 36,1 (cf. Ya, 13.1). 

- (from Yfa-): sli. m. 'lord',— Cf. ai'/rnpai/i: kalpit'pya-. 

(.Skt. p&ti-; Phi. fat, •pal; New P. -*ai/] 
: (1) vbl. prefix {fir. ^ 735, 750) 'towarda, against, back'.— 
(3) prep, 'to, upon, for, with'.'^Wilh ncc. /a/ hi fa'U ' whcr- 


faUi.jaUi faclrya- 77 

«VCT imiecd' Vii. 3.33[— wilh instr, sfinS paUi Yt. 5.31— with 

dat. ^mt pa'li Vd. 8.51; cf. Vd. tg.6, 7.8,9 j— wilh abl. /ra- 

iumS( pi^li barUmtu (Gr. § 966 N. 2) Yi. 57.1;— with gen. 

herafpyt pa'li 'upon Albore' Ys. 57.19,11; all«ht pa'ti 'on lhi« 

account' Vd. 6.48;— wilh loc. Vs. 57-l9i3l.3li Yl. 5.9 fite'i'f),- 

Vd. 6.45- — Cr. alio paUijaia'ti, paUiitina- etc. 

[Skt. prili; Old V. paliy; Phi. pat; New P. p'J, fi] 
palti.jaUi- (from f-^jaUi-): ib. f. '•cnlllnE'.—Ys. 57-16.'tt- (from fri'li + ^ar-); ndj. 'oppoilng, combative' (cr. /d'- 

t/dra-y—fttl/'iii gen. sg. m. Yl. 14.15. 
pa'lillSna- (from pa'/i + YiM-): sb. m. 'fool, leg' (ML 'lupport').— 

Cf. hupaltilliiut [Ski. prali/tiiliM- ; Phi. palUian] 

paiti.tanta- (from Yitan-): piisx. ptcpl. adj. 'welcomed, received' 

(lit. 'acknowledged, recognized ').—Yi. ST.l4i33- 
pa'lySiti- (froni pa'ti ■\--)f^*-, il-)): sb. f. ■ aoqtiialtion, rec eiving ' *'kt\ 

(mcmnlly).— V»p. i5.a. , V f^'^^ ' 

pa^pimaa-, see under y/o/-. 1 

pa'Pya- (from IpaUi-): (l) «b. n. 'lordihlp, poiuaaion '.— (3) luflix of 

possession.— Cf. hatptt'fyii-. 
ptiiri {Gr. §§ 735, 750): (l) adv. and vbl. prefix • aroimd '.— (s) prep. 

w. ace. dai. abl. 'from, agalnM'.— With abh Ys,{bii): 

— with dat. pairi ... var*tai 'agsinsl doing' V>p. 15.1. — 

Ct. pa'rivtia: — [SVLpdri; OUP. party; Phl.;>or,- NewP./ar] 
pa'riavharlla-, sec under '^ilar-, 
, poirika-: sb. f. 'Pairika, Perl', — a class of female fairies bewitching 

and seductive.— Yl. 14,4; Vd. 19.5 note, 
[Phi. parlk; New P. pert, pari] 
pa'ri.gS- (from YgB-, cf. Ski. furSga-): sb. m. 'cycle, period' (cf. 

ntpi-ofioc). — Cf. following. 
pa'ri.gS. vatah- (from ;WWi^- + tiacail-) ; adj. ' apeaking timely wotda' 

(10 righlly Phi. Vets.).— Yb. 57.30 note {Gr. % S64 end, -»-). 
fa'rillta\ta-, see under l^*ii/-. 

pa-rva-: odj. 'before, prior'. — [Ski. /*drwf-, Gr. §48; Old V. paruva-] 
fia'rvatai- (from pa-rva-): sb. f. 'priority, maatery '.—Ys. 57.30. 
palman-; sb. n. 'milk'.- Vl. 5.1,5. 

[Cf. Skt. pAyai-; Phi. pint; New P. ptm\ 
palsah-, palsa- (from ypii-. q.v.): sb, n. 'form, figure, beauty'.- 

Cf. vispd-paUa-, slthf. — [Skt pUat; /«(t-| 
p«o'ry,i- (from paxrva-, Gr'. gg 6a, 853 expl,): ■flr«f.— Vs. 36.3,3; 

Yl. 14.3, 5.— Wilh Italia- q. », Vs. aC.4. 
(Skt. parvyi-; Old P. pamviya-] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

78 P"'- — ^A"- 

yfpat-: vb. cl. 4 'pOMeaa' (Lat. paliri). — pa'}imni (Gr. § 63 eipl.) pres, 

ptcpl. mid. Vs. 37.30.^ [Ski. fal-, patyatl 'poueis'j 
falar'ta- (from *pal>ra- 'wing'): adj. 'winged'. — Vs. 57.38. 

[Cr. Skt. fiatlrila-] 
pad-: ab. m. 'foot'.— padi wc. pi. Vip, ij.l. — Cf. pSiti: 

[Skt. pdd-; Old P. pod-] 
panca: num. (Cr. § 366} 'five'.— V*. 57.8. 

[SkL fdAttt,- Phi. poHi: New P. panj\ 
pa^ta.daiah- (from p'-^d-): adj. 'of flfieen (years) '.—Yt. 14.17 note. 
pa^ea.ya\iti- (from >■ 4- J"): *b. m. 'five etallM' (ihe haomu twigs). 

-Vs. S7.4 note. 
■■\f\paf-: »b. cl. g {Gr. § 591) 'fill'.— Cf. fffa-. — [Skt. \par-\ 
para-: (1) aA\. will vbL prefi* (Gr. § 75*") 'ioiUtt, »w«y';— (i) prep. 
ifii"- § 73S) 'before, from'.— Cf. under yfiar-. 

[Skt. ^(vl; Old P. pars: Phi. /ar/ New P. par] 
pari (cf. /««); prep, and postpoi. (Cr. g 731), with abl. 'bel<>Te, from'; 
— w. ace. 'besldet'.— Vs. S7.i8(w. abl. bii),z;i Vd.3.z7 (with 
ace. hr'fiwqni). — [Skt. paras; cf, Gk. udpod 
parikatarittiHa-, MS. pari.iatar1t>ma- (prob. parika- = Skt. parSko' 
+ larilo- q. v.): siiperl. ndj. 'fled from even at a distance'. — 
Vs. S7-I3- Here the MS. reading parB.katarUim>m is given by 
the Phl.Ver*. pti-kSmak-lSin 'foremost in loving'. 
parStt- (if SkL ypart; prufi): sb. n. 'drop, atreaii) '.— Cf. farfva- 

ni'&i-(?). — [Cf. New P. pari 'brook, spring'] 
farfvanika- (j^'h. Uom parju- -^ ainika-): ndj. 'having a drippinc(?) 
Aice' (i. e. foanung from madness or nit). Uncertain. Perhaps 
here a'aika- is 'line of battle', cf. ptr'pvaiiiika-.—'Vl. 14.15. 
p a liai {from patat. Gr. % 731,4); (1) adv. 'behind, from behind';— 

(a) prep, 'behind'.— Vs. 57.»9(l'is). — [Skt. pa/cH/] 
paica: prep. w. ace. 'after'.— Vs. 57.10,16. 

[Skt. paiti; Old P. paid; cf. Phi. pat; New P. pat] 
paxalia (from pasca): adv. 'after, afterwardt'.-Vs. 57.17 paicalln... 
yal 'since' (cf. Biblical 'after that' Jer. xxxi.19). 

y/*-; vb. cl. a 'Iceep, protect'. \-ni 'keep talt'.-^ps'li pres, indlc. 

act. 3sg. Yt. t4.ia; uipS'li Vs. S7>l6 (bis); iiipaylb pres. opt. 
act. asg. Vs. S7-»S; 't^" P»"- Pt^P'- V»- 57-34; Vt. 14.IJ. 
[Skt. pa-: Old P. pa-: New P. pSy1daH\ 
pa'rivSta- (from pa'ri + Y^"*'' ^''- § 60a): adj. 'niBhlng about'. — 

Vt. 14.15- 
pspra- (from '\fpS-)\ sb. n, 'keeidng, protection'.— Vt. 5.6 dit, sg. infin. 
[Skt. /hf/ra-; cf. Phl.^(Rund.); New P. /Jt, /Alro^ (Horn)] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

fiia ptjijira- yq 

pada- (from fad-): »b. m. 'foot'.— Vd. 6.46. 

[Skt. pida-! I'hl. fat; New P. pai. pa] 

papa- (from Yf^-)'- •'•J- ' protecting '.—Cf, next word. 

/J/ «. fii ; o il • (from /J/o + 1^) : ailj- ' whose wordt protect '.—Vs. 57.30 note. 

paytt- (from V/J-): >b. m. 'keeper, fxrAitaat'.—pAyA pviir'Uarti ace. 
da. (dvnndva, Gr. % 879} Y». 57-» iwte. 
ISkL iWj'B-; cf. PU. panak\ 

paftta-: sb. m. 'heel'.— Cf. kaiu.paina- 

(Cf. Skt. pirtta-; Phi. /afto*,- New P. >WnoA] 

}ffi-, pinv-: vb. cl. 5 ' ■dvance '.— Cf. anu.piipwa-. — [Skt p!-, ^nv-\ 

pilar-, patar-, piar-: sb. m. (dcln. Or. %% 3», 335) 'ftthei'.- 
Vs. II. 4. 

[SkL pilir-; Old P. pilar-; Fh). /iV; New P. pidar, pid] 

Yfii-: vb. 'fomii edoni'. — Cf. paiiak: 

(Skt. pi/-; t'bl. piillan; New P. aj^^/an '«dom'] 

Ypu\Ja- (from /<i«<-o): num. nilj. (ffr. § 374} 'fifth'.— Yt. 14.15. 
(Cf. Skt. pmte^lha-] 

puprtt-i sb. m. 'Bon'.— Vs. ii.I; Vd. 3.35; Vd. 19.6.— Cf. apufra-. 

[^)a.pulri-;Q\AV.fiup^a-;V\A. patar, pat iHtviV.piiiar.p^lr] 

ptr'pu-r ndj. 'broad, wide".— See Bent word. — [SkL /f M«-] 

ptr'pi>.fraka- (from /•+/'"); adj. 'wide-eipandlnj'.- Yt. S-i- 

pir'na- (from y/ar-): sdj. 'full', — sb. f, •« full veMel'.— «a< pft*nqm 
■down lo the full (vessel of milk at the sacrilice)' Vl. 5.133.- 
Cf. also apifttayika-, — [.Skt. pHrvd-; Phi. par; New P. pur] 

p>r*t-, »ee under Y/'""'- 

ptfa- (foi ptr'la-, Gr. g 163, probably from yi/or-): pass, plc'pl. adj. 
' filled (f. e. with sin), condemned, forfeit '. A difficult and 
unceriain word, though its geneial idea is clear. In the ex- 
pressions piji-latm-, pijijara-, the reference seems to be to a 
luperHuity ol sins which wonld render the bod; (or head) for- 
feit when weighed In the balance and would prevent the soul 
from safely crossing the Chinvat Bridge. When a person be- 
comes p>iS.ta»U; ptiH-tara-, he is |>ractically condemned as one 
possessed ; atonement by caatigalion etc, (see upStana-^ is ne- 
cessaty in order drive out evil and to increase the weight on 
the right side of the scale. — See next word. 

pm.lanu- (from p>Ja- + laaH-): (1) sb. f. 'a body filled with lln'i— 
(2)adj. 'having etc' i.e. 'damned'. See andtt pi/a-.—^ptii.- 
lamiye dni. sg. Vd. 6.48. — (Cf. New P. talilan 'vile wretch'] 

piii.tara- (trom pi^- -V tSra-): (1) adj. 'whose head Is forfeit' (cf. 
/^^-).— (3) sh. m. 'criminal'.- Vb. 11.3 (cf. Vt. 14.46). 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

So pa-ru- — //-OPJilr- 

pa'ru- (from '^l/or-); adj. 'AiU, many, tlch'. — Comparison po'ru-, 

frSyak-, fratha- 'iroX6c, nJlt[ci>v,n].iT9iO£' (<?/-. g 365) Vd, 3.23,29. 

— See next word. 

(Sltt. purA-: Old P. paru-; Phi. par; New P. pttr\ 
pfru.Ssa'nti- ((torn p^+Sia'tii'- Q' *.)! adj. 'rich in undenUndinK'. 

pa'Tm.Hara- (From p'-Vnar^: ndj. 'thronged with men'. — Vs. it. a. 
pe'ruiuaitl- (from po'ru; Gr. g 851): adj. ' wmA^' .^pofruma'ti 

loc. 8g. n. 
pB'm.iar'da- (from p* -^ sarfda-): adj. 'manifold'.— Vt. ir.6, 

[Phi. partarlak] 
pe'ru.spaiiii. (from j*' + i-): sb. f. 'full watch over'.— Vs. 57.1'', 

Phl.Vcr«. has pal pStpSHih (cf. New P. /JiJJii 'keeper'). 
pg^rujaipa- (cf. aipa-): ib. m. nomen propr. 'Pouruabaspa', falher of 

ZoKia»ter,— Vd. 19.6 ooie. — [Phi. parliup; New P. pHriJaip] 

Av. i /. 
fra', /rS: adv. and vbl. prefix (Gr. § 750) Torwarda, forth'. 

[Sltt pr4; OldP. /«,■ Phi. far, fra. ct /ram New P. /«r] 
fraiita- {tct fa'ru-): lupcrl, oilj. 'most'.— Vd. a-SJ. 
fra»\ta- (from /ffl- + y'pac-) : pass, plcpl. adj. 'pronounced'. — Cf. 
[Sltl. pr6kta-\ 
fraa^li- (from Yvac~, Gr. § 788): «b. f. ' pronunciation '.—Vsp. IJ.J. 
fraer mia, tee under yiM*--. 
froitratyaw: ib. m. nom. propr. 'Pranraayan' (later AfrBsyHli). 

—See Yi.11.7 note. 
fravhar'tiHlqm, tee under ■j/'Akm-. 

fradapa- (from yi/d-): sb. n. 'Increaae, furtherance'.- Vt. 5.6 (inlin.). 
fram>r'li. (from ^3 war-): sb. f, *reciUtion'.-Vtp. 15.2. 
fravaji- (for */ravarli; Gr. § 163, from |/'t«ir-): 'Pravasbi' — one of 
the elemenlt in ihe spiritual coaslitulion of man, and serving 
as a sort of guardian angel. See Vs. aS.i note; and for Ihe 
worship of the Fravasliis, tee the Fravardin YathI (Vl. 13). — 
Yi. i0.t,3 teq. 

[Old V. fravarti- nomen propr.; \'\A. fravfolar (frthar): 
New P. farvar, fravariHii] 
fravahi, tee under }[>; and Gr. § ji N. i. 

fravSka- (from /ra- + V^t""-) ' ■!>■»■ 'pronouncing, recital'.— Vsp. 15.3. 
[Cf. Ski. pravaema-\ 


fravi^a frUJana- g I 

fravUfa- (from -^vakl-Y sb. m. (i) '■ sprout, shoof; (a) 'atick of 
wood"; {3) 'penis'.— Cf. frava^ama-. 

fTava\laina- (from frava^-, Gr. % 8*9): «lj, -made of a Ior'.— ' 
sU. m. -log-.-Vir. 6.46 nole. 

fravi- (from l/y"" 'move' = SkL V/rw-): »b. f. 'progress, prosper- 
ity'.— Vs. 57.1S note. 

y/rai-, ftr'i-: vb. inclioiil. (Gr. % 698) 'ask, question'. \-a "re- 

ipond lo, Tequile, repay'. ■^fi»r'ia{ prct. indie, acl. 3 sg. 
Vt. 14.11 9fra»Sm snbj. net. t sg. Vd, 3.37; ftr'sinanaliu prex. 
[ilcpl. mid. )uc. ]i1. III. 'nniont; ihnfic llint Ikc' Vd. 3.19. 

[SkL fral-; Old 1". fras-; I'hi. filrstlan; New 1'. fiiirtti/aii] 

fr«saiti- (from ysanh; lah^-. sli. f. •KtoriBcatton'.— Vs. S7<i,8. 
[Ski. firaiat/i.] 

fraatir'la- (from ^i/nr- r|, v.): pass, ptcpl. adj. 'stretched, extended' 
(iiseil of Ixirsem before belli); tied up). The I'til.Vers. renders 
lijr 'linuitd in bundles', in nccordnnce witli tlie Inler custom. — 
/ratUrrtal /•«''! ififtiri/a aid. sg. n. (Gr. g 966 N. t) Ys. 57.J. 

frutfaTiina- (from ytfiar; Gr. § 507): adj. 'stamping forwards'. — 
Yl. 14.11. 

frairata- (from /ro- + f/i-*/-); posi. ptcpl. adj. 'famed'.— Yt, 5.3. 

/rati-: ndj. 'forward, renovated, prepared' (in the Biblical sense). — 

frali.ear'lar- (^TOtti fra]a- + tar'lar- q.v.): adj. 'making ready, pre- 
paring' (ihe world, cf. Ys. 30.9; Yl. ig-li), i.e. ready for the 
resurrection and final tesloralion, Frashokereti. — frajitear'Prqm 
gen. pi. m. Ys. aB.6, cpilhct of the Snosliyntits, q. v. 
Jralna- (from yf/raf-, Gr. § 160): sb. m. 'quesUon'.— jAfi'Wi/rn/u^ 
'Ihe Revelation of Ahnra' (peisonified) Vs. 57.24. 

[Ski. praind-; Phi. /rain. fartUa; New P. furiil] 
fraiainti- (from fra--\-yf\ tan-): sb. f. 'progeny '.—Cf. afraia'i^i-. 

[Phi. fartand; New P. fartanii\ 
frS, see under /ra». 

fraka- (from //-flfi^- q. v.): ndj. 'forward, expanding'. — Cf. far'Jia./rOta^ 
fradat-gaipa- (from Y/ra4-+gaifa-): adj. 'making the world In- 
crease' (I.e. helping mankind).— Ys. 57.1. 
/rS,l,r'sra- {Uom /ra--\-Y,lart-): ndj. 'aeeo afar '.-Yi. 57.17, Phi. 

Vers. \its /rSt fiiak ' for-consplcaous'. 
Y/rSi-: vb. cl. i 'increase, promote'. — Cf. 'frSSatia-, frSgaf^^ipa- 
fnldaua- (from Y/rad-, Gr. % 763): adj. 'increasing'.- Cf. Sda./rS- 
4ana; vqf-ivs; el a1. 

(Cf. I'hl. fradai, /rayai 'help'; New P. /aryad) 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

82 frOyah- —ftu^- 

frSyak- (see /«■/■»-): compu. »<!]. 'OMt^'.—friyi tieiunqn 'a super- 
fluity or good thiuca ' Vd. 3.29. — See neit word. 

friyS.huptata- <^tam frSyah- ■\' k'): adj. 'ricb In good Ibouchts'. — 
nS frSyiJiuiaati nom. %%. m. Vi. 57.14,34, i.e. ihe niui who 
bos more i^ixl (than liad) Ihougbti, wordi, deetln (reconlud lo 
hi* account). Tlie ri^hleoui man hoi a suq>lui (frSyS) lu lijn 
credit wheo ihe account at death b balanced. See Gr. Inlrod. 
p. xxviii § 44, and Vsp. 15.I note. 
[Phi. frakamat\\la- (rrom frSyah- -^ l^a^la^■. adj. 'ricb in good words'.-- 
Vs. 57.14,34. See tMAnt frSyi-kumala: — [I'hI. fr3ha^t\ 

frayl.kvarita- (Uom /rdyak--^Av): adj. 'ricb in good deeds'. — 
Yi. 57.14,34. See anitr /rSyi-kumata- above. 
[Fhl. /rOAOvarlt] 

/rSramia- (perhaps from /ra-+Y''^-- ft^-): adj. 'bestowing gifts'. 
— Yt. 5,8. 

/rijini-; adj. 'teatoring, TCgener*ting'(P). — Aavuii /rS/mil Vs. Sj.ig, 
uncertain, but probably alludes 10 the pari played by llaunia 
at the reiurreclion and regeneration of the world (FralSktrHi). 
— Cf. ka frifmiMlli-. 

fr&lPtS.di'ti- (ci. frSfmi-, and ]/'iiH-): lb. f. 'sunset'— first quarter of 
the night, evening twilight. — paica hn frSfmijilkUliH 'after sun- 
down' Y«. 57.10,16. 

(PM.Ver». merely transcribes kil-frmiai~daii\ 

frifa- (from V/rf-}: adj. ' beloved '.-Y.. 57-34. 
Y/ri:- vb, cl. g {Gr. g 585) 'gUdden, love'.— + d Miles*, curse'. 
— See imdet ifr'niaeak- above. 

[Ski. prl-i PH. a/rllan, afrhiUan; New 1'. affhlaii^ 

/r}r'Ha«t, see under Y"''' nbove. 

frqnc' (from fra, Gr. % aBy): adj. 'forward'.— Cf. friUia- above. 
(Skt. friAc-; I'hl. fric, frSt; New P. /orii] 

/r/o-(from YM')'- *^\- 'dear'.- sb.m. 'ftiend'.— Yi. 57.34; Vd.3,»s(bis), 
[Slit, priya-; New P. JarJ (Horn)] 

/laenaya- (from //ohih-) : vb. deoom. {Gr. g 695) 'fatten' (4u. >•*•(■)■ 
—ffaoaaytki prei. Indic. uiid. 1 sg. Ys. ti.i. 

ftaeni- (from Y/f"')' *^- (ij'fatneH', (3)'food, fodder '.—Cf. //asna/a-. 

Y/f"-' vb. cl. 4 'make thrive, incteaae, raise cattle '.—//w^i pres. act. 
ptcpl. noni. sg. m. {Gr. § 391) Yi. 11.6. See under vdilrya-. 

//«/ii-(from VV?u-): adj. 'thriving, proBperouB'.— //a/nim miiJirS 'Hie 
World of I'TOiperity ' (i. e. tbe Fahusha Manlhia Chapter, Ys. SB) 
Ys. 57.JI. — [I'hl. /Juf-mUmar] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

t«irya- (from yAir-, Gr. % 8ia): adj. ■ bearing '.—Cf. H-ar^fdMrya-.' 
taiiattt' (ftom Y^'f"' '^"■^')' ^b. n. 'temedy, balm'. — Yl. 14.2,3. 

[Skt. Mf/aJ4-; I'hl. Mat.- cf. New P. iiuii] 
ialfatya- (from iaifant-, Gr. § 851): adj. ■beallnK'.— Vs. 5719: Vt. 5.1; 

Vt. 14.3. 
beaiak- (fTom y^ur/- q. v.): »b. n. 'conaclouanesa' — one of Ibe spiri- 

lunl fncnlllesi Ihe leime or perception wherebjr impreafiloiit nrc 

recdveil.— Ys. sS.4 (see note); Vd. 19,7. 
Y^^i^-' Tb. cl. I (i) 'divide, share, pTeaent'; (3) 'partake, eat'. — 

iafJait prcs. iodic, mid. 1 !:g. Vs. ii.i (cf. Yt. 6.7). 
[Skt. Maif-.- Phi. taiUlan, banian; New P. taiRdan] 
■(/"iojir/-.- vb. cl. 1, 10 'bind'. — iaifdayat pret. Iodic. icL 3 sg. Ys. 11.7; 

ianilayai juhj. act. 3 sg. (cf. beloir under nd) Ys. 11. 7. 
[Skt. bamlh-; OKI P. h«d-; Phi. iojlan; New P. tatf«n\ 
Y/'ar-: yK cl. I 'bear, carry*. — y ova 'bestow upon' (Yt. j.j); 

also 'flow' (inltans.Yl. 5.5). |-<>'bTine forth, diitplny'. 

— +U/B 'bring unto, bestow'.— + i« 'bring forth'.— 

■^pitra 'bear awajr' (reap a harvest). — avaJaraitt pres. Indlc. 

net. 3 sg. Yt. 5,a,5! Yd. 3.1s; "i^ra'/i Yt. 14.13; ifia . . . iara'li 

Vil. 3,35 ; triMrt pren. Indie, mid. I sg, Yt. 5.6 j ba'ryifiil' pres. 

indie. pas«. 3 pi. Vd. 3.191 barqt pret. Indic. act. 3 sg. Yt. 14.1; 

barHma tulij. net. i pi. Vd. G.44,49; faraMrqn subj. act. 3 pi. 

'tbey (i.e. men) shall reaj) a harvest' Vd. 3.37; bar»illim frajatqn 

in-es. ptcpl. net. ace. sg. m. {Gr. § 938) Vil. O.46, 47 ; iarlmiidi pres. 

plci)!. mill, dat sg. m. 'riding' Yt. 5.4. — Cf. also ta'rya-, Aqm.- 

birffwa-.^lSXn. bkar-; Old P. bar-: PW. bUrtan; New P. burdau] 
bnr'fri- (fern, to bar'tar- m, from y^or-, Gr. g 787): sb. f 'mother'. 

— Cf. bar'Prytt: 
bar'Prya- (from bar^frl-): sb. n. 'mother's womb'. — Yd. 19.6 (cf, lu-). 
bar'tmita- (from y^ars-): sb. n. 'barcama, barsom', — the Micred Iwlgi 

Dsed by llie I'aniU at their religious ceremonies. The number 

of tlie twigs (cf. Yt, 37.4) »aried accoriling to the ceremony. 

The (ireeks flcscrihed them as ^i^fioi. Dross rods linve in Inter 

times replaced the real twigs,— Ys. 57.6; Yt. 5. 9r Yl. 14.5; 

bar'smtn for abl. sg. {Gr. § 30S) Ys. S7.3. 
[Pht. barsoni; New P, bantim} 
bar'tak- (from y^ri-): sb. n. 'heiKht'. — ¥1.57.19,31 'upon the 

highest height' (loc. sg.); Vt. 5-3. ' 

[Cf. Skt. 'bariai.; Phi. burt; New P. burt] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

84 iar'id iir'iaql- 

iar'ta- (from Yiari-): sb. (ailj.) f. ■ height '.—nomen propr. Haroiti 

Bareia (Mount Albori).—Ya. 57.19, at ' "pon MounI Alltori". 

— Cf. far'M-. 
iar'til- (from "/Airf-): eb. n. 'nwrt, cu«hton'.— Cf, haMr*u!: 

[Cf. Skt. *orJ/i-,- I'hl. Ai/(7h; New 1'. AW/7 'pillow,*] 
jdr'd'f'n- (super). \o hrftanl-): ndj. ■highest'.— Vs. 57.19,11; V<l. 6.45. 

(Skt. UrhirlMa.; Phi. JdA'j/] 
■|/'*ori-.' vb. 'grow, b« high, be gre«»'.— Cau'i. 'exalr. — Cf, *^r»Mi!(/-. 
#<): DtRngtheDing particle, 'TMily, indeed'. — yaf in faUi '(it is Ihere) 

verily, wherever etc' Vd. 3.»3. 
iaiitilta-, see under fa^o. 
*«rfo(cr, Skt. yidrtt- 'press'}: ailv. 'continually '.—Vs. 57.10; V<). 3.37, 39. 

Superl. iaidiinm {Gr. g 731. 1) Vtl. 6.4;. 
bdmya- (front Aima- = %\X. iMma- 'brightness'); adj. 'bright'. — irani- 

ra^im bSmlm ace. ig. n. Vs. 57.31. — [I'hl, InliHlt; New 1'. hirni] 
idfar- (for barHaT-, from -^bar-. Cr. §§ 163, 787 N. i): sb. m. 'rider'. 

— y*. 11.3. — [Cf. Slit, bharlar-: Pld. barlar\ 
idzu-: sb, m. f. (i) 'arm', (z) 'foreleg' (of niiiinals), — Miava nom. pi. 

Vl. 5.7; boaii loc. inslr. sg. ro. Vd. 3-l5.36,l8.— Cf. alMtu-. 
[Skt, bahu-: Phi. bStti; New P. Mfw, lUi] 
bStu.i/atyai- (from £• + !/*): adj. 'stouter than an trm'.—idtu.- 

ilaaythi Yl. 5.7. 
bStui.aejah- (from Mtu- + aojah; Gr. § S67 N. 1): ulj. 'Btrong' 

armed'.- V». 57-33.— (Ski. ba/iii-BJas-\ 
bitya-: num. adj. (Gr. g 374) ' second '.—Yt. l^.^ {Gr. % 997 espl.). 

[Skt, dvillya-! Old P. dimiliya-; cf. I'lil, rfi/few| 
Ybiiil-: vb. cl. I, 4 'know, perceive, he awake'. — Cf. biuiJah- nbuvc. 

[Skt. iuM-] 
ia-: vb, cl, I 'become, he'.— A/<yi» oor, opi. 2 sg. ((-V. g 645) Ya. 11. 1 

seq, ; Yt. 5.9. 

[Skt. Ma-; Old P. m-; Phi, ba/aa; New P. baian] 
bir'pya- (from y*or-): adj. 'hurdcned, laden*. — birfpe nom. tg. f. 

(Cr. gg 345, 67) Vd. 3.37 note, 
bir>ia- (from (/"Air*-): adj. 'high, tall',— Ys, 57,30; Yt. 14,13.— Cf, also 

iar'iJ-, tir'si; 
biT'ta'dl- (from bfr'to- + iS- q. v.); adj. 'high-spirited, valiant'.— 

bfr'talJim ace. sg. m. Ys. 57.11. On the variant iir'ut'llm here 

see note ad loc.^[l'ld, burs, burcdi; New I', burt] 
btr'ia»l- (ptcpl. of Y^"-)' '"'J- (del". <'V. g 391) 'great, lofty'.— 

V«. 36.3; Y*. 57-3 (««. >g. f,),4. 

[Ski. brMAnl-; Phi. «>7/nm/,' New P. bulami] 


tifi^ii mniataiifli- gj 

iir'ti-: Hidc-rurni of hi-'^i- in cuin{>oiindi. — Sci; next word. 
tlr'tyilsln- (rroiii Airi^'- + (/jvM-) : ndj. 'high-gilt' (wilh loins e''' "P 

for TiBhling or tor Iii;l|)inB).— Vs. 57-30. 
Y6rl-: vb. cl. 9 (Gr. % 591. a) *cut'.— Cf. driifra-. 

[Ski. ihrJ-; Thl. bBrUari; New P. burUau\ 
brei/ira' (frum yirl-, Gr. § 791): %h. n. -knire, bmtUe-axe'. 
irii^rd.taiia- (from ir' .\- laHa-): ndj. 'sharp as a knife'.— Vs. 57.31 

iHa^fii . . , iriipril.taib'H ' n keeo-edgcil ivenpun '. 

hi. * m. 
ma'li- (from yaiaii; Gr. g 788): »b. f, 'mind, thought '.-Cf.A/-M>A'//-. 

[Ski. »!«//-,■ I'll). 'JMlt/I 

, ma'dya-: adj, 'middle' (medius). — Vl. 5.4. — Cf. ma'dygi; madima-. 
[Ski. midhya-; cf. Phi. mSyam New P. mr/dH] 
tualJydi.paUiililn,<- (ftom mn'rf|ia., 6V. § 877 + (W/tffJwft-): mlj. 
'half a foot (or leg) hi^h' .—prya^llU ...'tiitllnqsca 
ncc. |>1. 111. Vs. 57.1). Pill. Vets, hu fdir</ miy&na fatiJldiw. 
ma'uimaa-, see under ^'"bww-. 

mahiivasah- (for mahiyv-otak; from ma'nyH- \- asak; Gr. g 68): adj. 

'darling through the heavenly space' (epilhet of hones, nrrow). 

The Phi. Vers, has pavaii matiidg dtvOklh ' through (he domaiii 

of Ihe spirit' (K. W. Wcsl).— Vs. 57.17. 

mainyava- (from mn'iiyu-): adj, 'spiritual, heavenly'. — mafnyavauqm 

yazalanqm gen. |>1. Yl. 14.1. 
Bta'iiyii- (from Ymaii-, Gr. g 814): sb. m. • Spirit '.—wa'w/fl .. ift^U 
.. aara num. du. ' Ormazd and Aliriman' V). 57-I7- '>cc also 
Vs. 57.31; Vt.14.1: Vd. ig.5 seq. 

(Cf. Ski. mttiiyA-; Phi. mahiig; New P. mJni\ 

mn'rya- (from (/"i mar-); Bilj. 'deadly, murderous'. — sb. m. 'murderer, 

criminal'. — malrlia ace. sg. 111. (Cr. § 339) Vs. 11. 7. 

[Phi. m«r\ 

mat'ja- (from ymis): sb. m. 'cloud'.— Vs. 57.J8 (nbl. du,), tee iiule. 

[Ski. falg/ii-; k{. I'lil. mitiidk, ia^(Vd.)j New 1>. mij] 
madima- (supcrl. to ma'dya; ilr. g 63 N, 3 expl.); adj. 'midmost'.- 
Vs. ii.7 'in Ihe middle third of the eaith'. 
(Ski. madiyamd; Gr. g 63 N. 3] 
Wfl/.- [ircp. w, instr. abl, gen. {Gr. g 735) 'with',— Ys, 11.4,5; ^^- '8.6; 

Y*. 57*S— [Skt. i"-d/. Gr. % 140] 
maj.aia'^/i- (from »in( + Sm'iili-) : adj. 'wlth'the explanation' (i, c. 
Zcnil coniuiciitnry). ~-;i7/iS .. mit/Jha'iifil ace. pi. f. Ys, 57.8. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

86 iHat.palli./rata- — mat' 

mal.paiti.frata- (rrom mal -^^ pa^li -\- /rata- 'queslion'): adj. 'with 
kiuwera to the queationa '.— Ya. 57.8, compare perhaps i^iich 
calechelical chopten ni Vs. 19.16-11; Vs. ai.1-5. 

(Cf. I'hl, fa/lit ■ inquisilion, punithment ' ; New 1'. ba,ia/rVi\ 

Y"! <"!'■' vb. c1. 4 'think'. — Cam. 'make believe'. — mqnayin ahi yii^a 

prel. (injunct.) acl. 3 pi. Vd. 3.35 'lul tbem think ihereor lu' 

[Gr. § 974 gen.) = 'just as' (used regularly in comparisons); — 

ma'nimaa pres. mid. ptcpl. nom. sg. f. {Gr. % 63 expl.) Yl. 5.7. 

[Ski. MUM-,' Old r. MBit-,- Phi. iMfnllaii] 

man a, see under aum, Gr. § 3S6. 

monah- (from yfmait-): sb. n, 'thouKbt, spirit, TDinA'.— viiku maiii 'Ihu 
Good Mind' (personilied, Gr. Inlrod. p. xiv g 34) Vs. 57-14: 
ntanaaha ma'nimHa ' thinking in mind ' {Gr. § 94 1 expl.) Yl. 5.7. 
— Cf. abo iManamha. — [Ski. minas-; I'hl. *maH; New P. •iHatt\ . 
manakyo' (from maaah-): mlj. 'apiritual'.— Vs. 57.25- 
l/'i mar-: vb. cl. 4 'die' (see also Gr. g 677).— Cf. amfr'tiU; aimla-, 
ma'rya-, mar'laH-, 

[Skt. mar-: Old P. mar-,- i'hl. martan; New 1*. murdan] 
yiMur-.' vb. cl. I, 3 (i) 'iMve in mind, remember'; (z) 'recite'. — 
Cf framtfti: 

[Skt. tmor- (Gr. § 140); I'hl, kihaarlau; New 1>. iumurdtii] 
mar'lan- (from Y^""""')'- '■^- "'■ 'ntortai, man'. Esp. gaya mer'laa 
'Gaya Maretan' (lit. 'living-man'), the first man, Adam. — 
Ys. aCj, io.^[Phl. gdyimart; New 1'. gayi>mard\ 
Ymari-, mir'nt-: vb. cl. 7 'deetroy' ((7r. gg 555, 563).— «(//»«(-arffAu 
pres. im|)enil. mid. »t^. {Gr. % 563) Vd. ig.6, 
(Cf Skt. mare-; I'lil. tnaranriiiitaii] 
marfvl; ab. f. 'paunch, pll'. — marjiiya yen. sg. (Gr. g 6i, 1) V». 11,1. 

Nar. here bos Ju/loiiar/lya (cf Kng. 'Brccily-giit'). 
Mai- (side-form at maM- q. v.): adj. 'great'. — Cf laaiiiA; maiila-. 

[Phi. mas; New P. mik] 
ma t a A^ {from mai'): sb. n. 'greatneM, aiie'.— Yt.5.3 ace. sg., Gr. g 934. 

[Cf I'hl. mailk] 
matita- (from mas-): adj. 'great'.— Y«, 5.3. 

Maiii- (for *mad-li, Gk. pa«-, cf. oiati/aA-): sl>. f ' wiadom '.— Ys. 57.10. 

Hia//ii- (fromyninr-, (7r. g 163 expl.) : sb. 111, 'mortal, man'.— Vt. 14.4. 

|Skt. mirlya-; Old V. marliya-; Phi. martam; New P. Ma/-iM«| 

malyi.vamha- (from miij^--|- (/"apa.*-): adj. 'aerving a* clotblng for 

man' (i.e. camel's hair). — Vt. 14.11 note. 
mat- (from ywoi- 'be great' = Skt Y""*^")'- *''i' 'Kreat'.— See also 
Miij-.^(5kt. >nJ4-] 


maaa^ mqm 87 

(»(i«<iyf-(uri);. |>lc)>1. from |/~M(u-'be great' = Ski. Ymah-): ailj. 'great'. 

— Hhiifl noiu. sg. 111. ((7r. § 29S) Vsp. 15.3. — (Skt. maMiU-] 
matilta- (superl. to moi-, matagl- q.v.); adj. 'greateat, f.ifioxos'. —; Vt, t4.12(bis)i Vd. 3-23 'with the grcalesi joy'. 
[SkL maiiflha-; cf. Old F. mafiUta-] 
m»%dadilta- (from fvan/AA* + yob-) : adj. 'created bjr Maida'. — 
Vs. ti.S(bis); Y(. I4.z(bit). 
[Cf. rhl, ttaharmat.iit\ 
luacilayatna (from mtf ^M -|- j-iuHit-) : adj. al>. m. ' Mazdayasnian, wot- 
shipper of Maida'.— Vs. 57.13; Vsjt. ij.i; Yd. 6.46,51. 
[I'hi. mlltdayasii\ 
matdd'H- (from 1/"omW.I- i.e. mttJA- + Ml; cf. matdSA-): sb, f. 're- 

memberlnc'. — Vsp. 15.2 (dot. sg.). 
ma Ida A- (from Y*niaia- = GV.\^-): sb. f. (m.) ddn. Gr. % 2J6 'Mazda, 
Wiadom'. I>hl. traditiun deriren it as»i>i(--f'/J-'mngnaScien(la'. 
Ahnra Mav/a 'OniiiiKl' ('I^ord of Wisdom'] Vs. 11.4 et ptunim. 
— a:>ia yd nliuri miia/iB ' I who [nm] Aliurn Mnzdn ' Yt. 5.6. 
[.SkL msdhit-: Old r. aura-maaia- ; I'lil. anharmiad; New I', 

matda.frao\la- (from iiiatdah--\-fr'): adj. 'pronounced by Mazda'. 

— Vd. IJ.9. 
mahrka- (from Ymark-, mir'ifc-, Gr. % 100 N. 1]: sb. m. 'deiolatlon. 

Death'.— Ya, 57.25. 
mS: ndv. nad conj. 'not, jif)'. — Willi opl. Vs. 11.3; with impcrnt. Vd. ig.6; 

witb sidijunct. 'in order ihal not, Icsl' Vs. 11. 7. 
[Skt. mi; Old P. iiH; l4w 1>. mali\ 
manii'ujiii-: nilj. 'Mazanlan'. Epitlivt of a class of dcmuns, 'the Dim 

of Mar.andernn ', n province aoulh of Caspian Se». — Vs. 57.17,3a. 
mazdayaina- (from mnithyasiia-, Gr. § 60): adj. ' Mazdayaanian ' 

(l>«loiiging to ihc woishippeis of Maidn).— '/ffJ/iflw mStdayairilm 

ncc. sg. f. {Gr. § 361) Vd. 19.6. 
Y'"!'-: vb. cl. t 'make water, drop rain'.— Cf. maija-. 

[Sk(. mih-; I'hl. uiWlati; New )'. mtatdaii] 
mOraka- (perh. from Av. uiara- 'dumb'): adj. (sb. m.) 'dumb, Idiola'. 

— laSrakata noiii. pi. Vs. it.C, see note. 
mtr'ne- , see imder ]/'mariS-, mart-. 
ml, see under a*>in, Gr. § 3S6. 
MtfPra- (from Y"""'')'- ^^- '»■ 'word, spell'. Esp. mufra Jftiila 'the 

Holy Word'.— Ys.,i2; Yl. 3.9; Vt. 14.5. 
[Skt. m&nlra-; Phi. niJniar] 
mqia, see under atim, Gr. § 386. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

ymra-; vb. d. 1 (pdgm. Gr. § 517) 'speak, aay, call '.— (ar-no/ prel, 
indie, act. 3 sg. ¥[.5.1; Vt. 14.1 ; Vd. 3-33 ; Vd. 8.45. 
(Ski. ira-] 

Av. ro J". 

ya-; rel. pron. {(7r. § 399) 'who, which'.— (i) prun. uf rcTeruncu, 
pSyU pwSr'ltSra yS ponr'tati ' llie keeper and judg« wlio de- 
cide' Vs. 57.1. — (i) equivaleni in conjunct. + demoostr., yi 
(-=_ra/W«,jw/A<iJYs. 11.1, a; Vl. 14.1a.— (3) as conned ivc, 
or retembling Gk. article, avmyo ahuri mania 'I wlio [am) 
Onniud' Yt. 5.6; vat?niua yim vekOm iraajim 'carrying (lie 
(Tdv) good Sraosha ' Vs. 57.19 ; aahJul yi aitfalo ' iIil> ninlcri.-il 
world ' Vs. 57.15 ; JravafibyS y9 •ririfatqm ' Ihe Kravashis of 
the dead ' Vi. 36.6.— See Gr. I'arl ii, Syntax of rronouna. 
[Sbt. ya-; Old P. hya-; Phi. /,■ New P. i] 

yati, yavi': advl. geo. sg. u prefin (Gr. g 750 N.) 'tight, proper'. 
Cr. next word. — [Skt. ySi\ 

Yyaeida- ifiomyaol-\-de-, Gr. §g 750 N., 692): vh. d. 3 'purify, cleanse'. 
— yaffldaitd^ti pres. indie, act. 3 sg. Yl. S.1,5; yavli/dldiya past, 
plcpl. dal. abl. f. Vt. 5.8. 

yafi/i-.- i\i. m. 'twij, stalk'. — Cf. ^ryailli; fatiia.yafili-, Aafia'. 
(Skt. ya,li-\ 

y^o/- ,' vb. cl. 10 (1) 'stretch, strive'; (z) 'reach, come'. — +/ra 
'stretch forwards, speed'. — JrHyalayc'^ti |>ri:B. indie, act. 
3 pi. Ys. 57.39. — [Ski. ^/-J 

ya^a (from^-): rel. adv. and conj, (l) 'as, like'; (i) 'that, so that". 
-Y.. 11.3,7; V».57-tOi VI. 5-3; VI. 14.13; V.l. 3.25; Vd. 19.6; 
yxpa paUi.jasqtt . ..yapa ' that tlicy may return ... ns' Yl. 5.13a. 
(Skt. y&lha; Old P. yaps\ 

yada (from ya-): rel. adv. 'when'.— Cf. next word. — (Ski. ya-M] 

yadiil (from yaJa + iff: adv. 'in order thw'.— Vd. 6.4$. 

yal (from ya-, Gr. § 731, i): adv., conj. 'that, since, when'.— /iii<-ar,Vit 
... yai 'since- (lit. 'aflcr ihal') Ys. 57.17; yai^ii ... yiifJl 
'whether ... or' (sivi ... sive) Va, 57.^9; yaf ... /ratataUi 
'when she flows lorlh ' Yl. 5.4. — |Sk(. yal\ 

Yy<">'-i yat- (i.e. *yy-i, Gr. g 698): vh. 'hold, reach, graDt'.-r 
+ 1/0 're pel'. — afa.yaiai(i.e.yaia[AJi,V\.V<:vaiia[A]i, Gr. %4So) 
aubj. act. 2 sg. Vd. ig.S; a/ia.yasJue subj. mjil. i sg. Yd. 19.9. 
[Ski. yam; yacA-] ' 

yava-: di. m. 'grain, corn' (lielcl pniducts, opp. Irar'nli-). — Vd. 313, 37 
note. — [Ski. ydva-; I'hI. jav, yav; New P. Jap] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

yti-—ya\i<tr- 89 

'\fjrat-: vb. jnclionl., »«c under YJ"""' "bovc. 

If am a' (horn VJ'<"-)' sl>. m. (1) 'worship' (cunststing of sacririce, prabc, 
thnnk^ving, otTerings); {») 'Yaaiw' (Cr. Inlrod. p. xvii g 13). 

See olio haplanbaUi- Vs. 57.3 (bis),6,8, 13,10; Vsp. iS.i{Uis); 

Ti'l' S'9, '3*; Vt. 14.5. — Cf. matHayiuiia-. 

[Skt. yajM-; Phi. ^n/n, j'a/j/M,- New P. imJb)»rni- (from ^imi- + |>rob. I/"! tar- 'cut'); sb. f. 'Yfcsno- 
kereti ',— 1. e, section of the Yuna, cf. Visparad Kanlis. The 
I'hl.Vcn. would rnlher imply y*! kar- 'mnke' I.e. performance 
uf the Mcriricc, nivl rufcrs it to the cuncliiding formula Venhe 
IlRtflm. — Si. 57.23. 
'^yttx-: vl>. ct. t 'worship' (with sncrifice, praiie, thanksgiving, oblation). 
^yatama'Ji pres. indie, mid. 1 pi. Yi. 16.I ct pusim; yatala 
pret. indie, mid. 3 sg. Vs. 57.3 (bla), 19; yatlU subj. mid. I sg. 
Y». 57.3; Vt. 5.0: Vt. M.5; yatSUt subj. mid. 3 sg. Yl. 5.8; 
yatalfa yta. opt. mid. 2 .ig. (Cr. § 487) Yt 5.1 ; yauniium, 'Hi 
prei. ptcpl. mid. nee. (dnt.) sg. Yl. 5.131. 
[Skt. yaj: I'hl. yajlan\ 
yaxala- (from V'.f«-> cf. Cr. g 786 N. a): adj. tb. m. 'divinity, Angel'. 
—Vs. 57.3,33; Yt 14.1. 

[Skt. yajala-! YW. yaid: New I*. Itad, yavtSii} 
yStu-: sb. m. 'aorcerer, Yktu', — a class of evil male magicUns.— j-^/vfiu 

gen. pi. VI. 14.4. — [Skt. ySti-; Phi. yiiak; New P. /Jrftf] 
ySna- (from 1/>iot- i|. v.): s1>. m, 'favor, reward'.— Yt. 14.3; Yd. 15.6. 

[Cf. Skt, yina-; Old P. yStta-i Phi. yllu\ 
yinavanf- (from ySno^: adj. 'aboundinK in hvqrs'. — Superl. jSna- 

vasltmi Yt. 14.3. 
yy^'- (prob. ji-fonnation from Yyam-, Gr. § 698): vb. d. 1 'seek'.— '' 
■\-apa 'seek to withhold'. — ape ... yHsd'li subj. act. 3 sg. 
Vs. U.S. — [Cf. New P. ySsUan] 
ySila-, see under YyS^: 

Yyi/t-t yatiha-: vh. el. a, 10 ' %\iA' .—y&ttn- pass, ptcpl. cf. bir'yStta-. 
Yy"}-- *'''■ el. I 'yoke, bind, gird'. — Cf. yeflar; yafitii-, ■ 

(Sht. yiij-; Phi. Byajllan] 
Yyufl-: vb. cl. 4 •i^'M.'.—yO'Jyt'li pres. indie, act. 3 sg. Ys. 57.17. 
[Ski. ymlk-] 

Yyu'-: vb. el. i *sbake, alir'. hil 'boll up, bubble',— jwnuijri 

|irca. indie, act. 3 pi. Yt. 5.4; d . .. yaaiaUi pres. indie, net. 3 sg. 
Vt. 5-4. 
yO^lar- (from V/'V')- *''■ •"■ '*"" *''* hameBBea '.— j'rf|/o nom. ^. 
Vs. Il.». — |I'M. ayiihir] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

ya^da- (from Yyuj; Gr. g 77 N. 3): ailj. 'girded, ready for battle'. 

— varlUaki ... yO^iiAt 'uf a boat ready lo (i|;hl' Yt. 14.15. 
jiUnqm, lee under ^iiii below. 
ytltfli, see under yi-. 
ytfkaaa (from /a-): rcl. adv. (nhl. f. niW., Cr. §g 3J9, 731) 'where'. 

— vhpt tiiudiia . ■ . ftuhSita ' all ihu hoiisci . . . wliurc ' Yii. 57-34' 
ytfhi kal^m, see Yt. 5.9 note. 
yonya- (from yaina-, Gr. g Sja expl.): adj. 'wonby of worabip'. — 

Yt. 5.1, — [Ski, yajAiya-\ 
yiti (from ya-Y conj. 'if'.— V.l. 6.46,47,51. — [Ski. yddi; OW I". ya.liy\ 
yXahqm, tee under j'a-, Gr. § 399, 
yuan-, yUfi-; ib. m. (dcln. Gr. % 314 N, l) 'youth, younE man'.— 

Yt. 57- 13- 

[Ski. yi'aiau- {Gr.% 681)); I'M. yuvau, javdn; New 1". >jmI«] 

Av. ^ r. 
ritivaiil' (ftom /•*"-); ndj. 'radiant, Bplwidid'. — /virfu num. su- in. (<7r. 

g 295) Yt. r4.11. — [Cf. Slit, rivdut-: I'hl. rdydmaiul] 
raniJaa- (from y"'')- ■"')■ ' ahining ',— Vs. 57.37 (of white sIcciIk).— 

Cf. alw &vd.raoiJua: — [I'lil. rtA/«; New 1*. rilaa] 
raacah- (from yrw-): ib. n. 'lifht, day '. — rawA occ. pi. in loose cpd. 

raeea.alwi.var'Ha Vd. Cji. See alv>i.var'iia: 

|Cf. Skt. riris-! OW 1'. raueak-; I'hl. rij; New T. /•»•] 
raaita- (from ^t ru/-):' lb. ro. 'form, face'. — Cf. huraaJa-. 

[Skt r^Afl-; cf. I'lil. rA/; New I'. rai\ 
raaia-: iL. m. 'fox'.— Vd. 6.50. 
ralu-: stA ni. (1) 'mailer, Ralu',— a spiiilunl chief 01 head inesidinj; 

over n claim of ihlnys or liuin^x, or over n division of liiiiOi — 

(1) 'division of a day' (named from ill presiding genius).— 

Ys. 57.2 (bis). — [Phi. ral, rata; New 1'. rm/.—Cf. Ski. r"*"! 
rafa-: sb. m. 'wagon, cbarfot'.- Cf. ra/o/M-, — [Skt. rilMa-] 
rafalild-. rafaUlar- (from rflj*J-+ yjM-. C*-. §§ 877, 881): sb. m. 

(dcln. Gr. gg 349, 330) 'warrior', a man belonging lo the 

lecond clast; »ee Spravan-, vSstrya fluyaHL—rapalilA nom. sg. 

Y>. 11.6; gen. tg. Ys. 57-33' 

[Ski. ralhl/lAA-; Phi. arallJtSr: New P. aratiMBr] 
rapteya- (from rafu; Gr. g 85a expl.): adj. ' well-ordered, proper'. — 

Vsp. 15. 1 ; raftulm palma ace. t%. n. Yl. 5,3. 
[Cf. Ski. TMyO''\ 
Yra-, rah-: vb. cl. 1 'grant, bestOw'.-Cf. /fArii«fa-. — [Ski. VrJ-] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

rat- — vat- gi 

rai-, rai' (from yra-): ib. (. (dcln. Gr. § 177) 'ndluice, splendor'. 
— oAe raya hMr'naviara 'for \\\% nuHnnce and hii glory' inilr. 
»g. (fonnulaic) Vs. 57-3; VL 5.9; Yt. 14.5. — [Ski. rBl-,- Phi, rii] 
■\fru(-: vL. c1. lo 'ahlne, be bright'. 

[Skt ru<-; Phi. rt/-rt|(o»,- New P. af'rt\taH\ 
'^xrud-: vb. d. i 'grow'. — Cf. huravda-. 

[Ski. r«A-,- I'bl. rittm; New P. rMi(a»] 

Av. y p. 

va'ri- (from V" "*"'-): '!>■ ">■ 'l«ke',— Cf. iva'rya-. 

[Cr. Ski. tJr/-,- Phi. wir-1 
ivafryn- (from iw'rj-): tb. ni. *channcr. — Vl. 5.4. 
ava'rya- (from {/'ivar-): adj. ' wlabed-for, desirable'. Etp. aiutia 

va'rjit (»ee ffAwmi-), l^itfra wi'rya {f!r. Introd. p. xxvl g 35). — 

¥•1.57.33,14; Vit. 19.10. — [.Ski. virya-] 
vagtiya i.e. fjo^bya, sec under wiw. 
valja- (from ■/oy- 'dart, sirike' = Ski. Yvij-): »b. m. 'stroke' (of 

weapon). — Cf. kvH-vafja-. — [Ski. viga-^ 
valfS, see below under yi vid-. 
valdya- (from J/'i wrf-): (i) odj. 'knowing'.— (a) »b. n. 'knowledge'. 

— poA/filcn inslr. ig. {Gr. §941) Vs. 57a3- 
vatnar', see under yWn-. 
vajitaiia- {tXj.t, cf. tMc-): nb. m. 'mouth, head'. — Vt. 14.13. 

[11.1. vajlan] 
Vttwhu-, viriw (from "vii-ta from Y"""-' Geldner): adj. 'good' (orig. 

something won, prsuseworthy). — vaphul nom. sg. m. Vs. 11. 8; 

vahCm iraejiitt ncc. ^. m. Vs. 37-I9J vamklui ahm^iipnt gen. 

ng. m. Yd. 3.14 notej vehu kar'ni ace. sg. n. Yl. 14.2 i vokn 

vHsirya ace. ))1. n. Vsp. ij.i i vahumqm gen. pi. n. Vd. 3.19. — 

vamuMtm ace ^. f. Vs. 57.3 ; Vd. 1 9.6, J ; vomuM /ravajayi occ 

pi. f. Vs. a6.i. — Comparal. vaehd ace. sg. n. (Gr. g 365), Vl. s.9- 
(Ski. vitu- : Old r. vehu- (In nom. propr.) ; Phi. vth ; New P. bak\ 
Yvat., see under Yvai-. 
Y^oc-i vak-: vb. cl. a 'say, speak'. \-/ra 'pronounce'.^/ra- 

imcrt pf. indie, mid. (pass.) 3 sg. (cf. Gr. % 606) Vsp. 15.3; 

/rava^iytili fuL mid. (pass.) 3 sg. (Cr. § 671) Vsp. 15.3; 

'/rao^la- pass, ptcpl. (cf. inaii69./r<). — [Skt. vot-] 
v.ff-, f<lr- (from V'l*''-); ib. mnsc.(Cr. giioN. 1, dcln. g 285) 'speech, 

word, prayer'. — vaeqm gen. pi. Vsp. 15.3; vaca inslr. sg. Vt. S-9 

(bis); Vd. 19.8,9. — (Skt. vie.; Phi. wl/,- New P. Mj. Mr, nwJi] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 


tiaeai- (rroro y^vae-): ib. n. 'word'. — Cf. vacailalli; hvaeah; 

vacailalli- {{torn vacaA- + Y^''^')'- ^^'- ^- 'Btroptae'. v ilcsi]; nates 
both the single sirophu and Ihe uhnraclGiistic stru|ib(:-lyiiu ur 
It OnihK. .S«e reinnrk on inlrodiiclion lu Ya. 35 (Uclilner's edi- 
tion). — Cr. next word. 
[Phi. vardasi] 

vacailalliva^t- (from v): adj. 'containing a special strophe'. — 
Vs. ST.8 ace sg. n. 

ywad- (a sidu-fom of yvas-. cf. Ski. vmlh-li 'bride', yvah-): yl>. 
(i) 'to lead", (i) 'marry', (3)'cover, copulate' (of animals). 
— A verb iiircrobli: from fBilayiiita, /tallvailajia- (f), varlrtytioiiu-, 
vaita'ryu- (? 2 vaibr-, cf. dx*(a)i cf. Giildner, lirei Yasbt p. 69. 

tiada'ril, see next word. 

vada'ryu- (from assumed 2vadar- [torn yivad- q. v.): adj. 'male, 
rattlDK' (epithet of camel eager fur the female). — uUri vada'ril 
[written for vada'rful) nom. sg. m. Yt. 14. IZ; vadairyool gen. 
sg. m. Yt. 14.11 (cf. also uitrttpki vadairyavo Vt. 17. '3)- •'"f- 
mesteter renders 'burden-bearing'. 

vadujana-: sb, m. nom. propr. ' Vadaghana ', a wicked ruler favored 
byAhiiman; cf. West, I'aldavi Texts, S./i.E.ii.v\u.nT, xxiv.103. 
—Yd. 19.6. — [rhi. vangliaii] 

yf rtn-,- vb. cl. I 'win.slrive for, conquer'. — ivhiFhi itubj. act. asg.Vd. ig.g; 
vaaai (i. e, vattS[li]i, Gr. § 450) siibj. act. 2 sg. Vil. 19.8; vaaaar' 
(Gr. § 614) pf. indie, act. 3 pi. Ys. 36.4,5,6; — oanati (rananl ) 
pres. ptcpl. act. gen. ig. m. Ys. 57.331 vaim'itllHt prcs. plcpl. act. 
^ ■ ace, sg. f. Ys. 57.33 i vaitani ptes. ptcpl. mid. nom. ^. ni. ((>V. 
§ 507) Vi. 57.15; vavanva pf. plcpt. act. nom. sg. lu. ((7r. g 6ll) 
Vs. 57.lj.^[Skt. van-; I'ld. vaiiilaii] __ 

vana'ti- (from ycaii-, cf. \Vliilney, Skt.Gr. § IIS7g); sb. f. 'victory'. 
— vaiiaUii ace, pi. Vs. 57.33. 

vanatlivani- (from wna'/;-) ; Vdj. ' endowed with victory",— Ys. 57-33' 

paylu- (from yvuM-): sb. m. ' spotise '.— /f/di vaiilave (used of a wife, 
cf, Eng. 'spouse' m. f.) dat. sg. Vd. 3.35. 

Yva/-; vb. cl. 4 'pray, iovoke'.^iijyemi pres. indie, net. I sg. Ys. 3(1.1. 
— cr. also vaAma-. 

vaya- (perhaps from Yvl- ij. v.); sb. m. (dcln, Gr. g 356 H.) 'bird',^ 
vayal'bya abl. du. Vs. 57.28, see note. — (Cf. !>kL vi-\ 

yi var-: vb. cl. 5 (Gr. § 567) 'cover, enclose, protect'. yid-wi 'be- 
deck'.— +A?w 'defend'. — [Skt. var-; Old P. var-\ 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

i var- — vakilla- pa 

yjfflf-.- vb. cl. g ([Klgni. Cr. g 584) 'choose, wish, believe'. Vfr" 

'profeis a tel igian ' («. inMi.). — fraofttla pret. indie, mid. 
3 pi. {Gr. § 586 e^pl.) Vs. 57.24. — ISkl. var-; Old P. var-\ 
vardta-: si), m. 'boot '. — kSveriteht (i.e. genus and ispecies) VI. 14.15. 

[Skt. varSha-i Phi. vat-at: New V. ^rUs] 
var'na-, see a'mi.var'na-. 

var'i-, var'ta-: sh. m. 'badr'. — kalfa'/iyaca var'ta inslr. Bg. Vd, e.46. 
(rhi. van, ffart; New I', (gurtj] 

^vir'sii- (from Y^"'''-)' *'*'■ *'•■ "■ ''*•* doing'. — var^zdi dni. infm. [Gr. 
§ 7ao.5) V<|.. 15.1. 

vitrila- (rrom yrrtri-}; pftM. plcpl. (i) ndj, 'done*. — (a) sli. n. 'deed'. 
— Vs. 57.4- — Cf. also ilHlimrlla; hvarJtn-. 

varina-: sb. m. 'Bnake' (?)— Vs. 11.6, sec note. 

■\fvari-! vb. cl. « 'do, work". ha'wJ 'cultivate, I i 11 '.— o^wj.i'Jr'i- 

yiki, *^li pres. tndic. act. 3,3^. Vd. 3.25,26,18; virHyalijm 
pres. Impcrat. mid. (pass.) 3 sg. (ffr. § 485 cxpl.) Vip. 15.I 
note; varita |uiss. plcpt. ace. pi. n. Vs. 57.4; var'j/amna fut. 
mid. (pa«0 ptcpl. ace. pi. n. (Gr. gg '^S. I^SA 673) Vs. 57-4- 
— Cf. also hvarlla-.^W'W. variHan; New P. oartlitan] 

vavanva, see under yf"""'- 

Yvai-: vl>. cl. a 'will, wish'.— Cf. anuiak-, ivi^oA-. — [.Skt. vai-\ 

vaiaA- (From Yvas-); sb. m. 'wlU, wish'.— S«e next word. 

|Cf. Ski. rdla.; Old 1'. vaJua-: Phi. vai; New P. iat] 

vaia.flo/ra- (hom vaiai- + jl']: adj. 'ruling at will, independent*. 
—Vs. 57.24- 

yen/- (prol). orig. »-nor. to Y""'"' cryslalliicdftsnew root, Cr. gg 156,48s): 
vb. cl. I 'speak. My'. — avafala pret. indie, mid. 3sg. Vd. 19.7. 

Yvas-: vb. cl. I 'carry, draw (irans.), drive' (intrans.). (-J 'drive 

hither'. — vauq/i pres. indie, act. 3 pi. Vs. 57.17; avatSUt 
inbj. mid. 3 sg. Vs. 57.31 ; vattmni, •mna pres. plcpl. mid. nom. 
ag., pi. Vl. 14.2 »eq.; Vs. 57.29.— Cf. f^rivSia. 
[.Skt. vak.; Phi. vaaSlan; New P. vatJdmt\ 
. yii-fli-.- vb. ol. I 'dwell'. — [Ski. va,-\ 

Y'tvah-! vb. cl. s ' clothe '.—Cf. mtijyS.v<taka-, vSslra:^\^\A. vat-\ 

Yl vah-. Ill-, nr- (Gr. % 698): vb. cl. I, « 'gleam, bum'.— Cf.' ma*-, 
etc^[Skt. vai; us-, uck-\ 

vabiilB- (tuperl. to vaobu-, Gr. § 365); ndj. 'most excellent, best'. 
— fravapm vahillqm ace. sg. f. Vs. sC.l; ai>m vakillim (sec 
"I"-) Vs. 57.14; iiiana taya aili vahijlim Vd. ig.9 note. 
[Skt. vdiiflAa.,- Phi. voMll: New P. iakiit] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

p4 vaima vl (vi*) 

vakma- (from "yfvaf-, Cr. page 373): sb. m. "prByer, invocation*. 

Chiefly ia the fuiiDuIa, yasniica vahmiica ^ti%ae}rBiea frasasta' 
yalca 'for worsllip, piayer, propitiation, and glorification'. — 

Vs. 57-6,8; sHa vahnta instr. ig. Vt. 5.133. 
vahmya- (rrom vahma-y. adj. 'worthy to receive prayer'. — Yl. 5.1. 
vJ; conj. 'or'.— Eoiph. particle 'indeed'.— Y». 57.31 'either... 

or' Yt. 11,1,5; Vd. 3-13 et pasiiin; trtra vJ ' fair indeed' Yt. 5.7. 
[Skt. va; Old P. dJ] 
vd'rya- (from vira-): od). ' telatinc to rain'. — api yaf vB'ryiiya 'rain 

water' gen. %g. f, [Gr. % 980 expl.) Vd. 
vSjIiiyi, Me under vac-, Gr. g 285. 
vata- (from (/"ibI- ' blow ' ) : »b. in. 'wind'.— Yb. 57.»8, tee note; Yt. 14.1. 

[SkL Vila-,- Pbl. (^/; New P. Afrf] 
yvdr- (denom. fr. vira-): vb. cl. t 'to Tain'. \-a'vri 'rain upon'. 

— Cf. ana<wi.vSr*iili: — [Phi. vSrilan; New P. Mridaii] 
vSra-! sb. m. 'rain'. — vBral^tya abl. du. Y». 57.a8 note. — Cf. aUo vS^rya-. 

[Cf. Skt. var-: Phi. vSrSn; New P. Mrdn] 
vSr'ftli-, or vUr'nli- (from '\fvSr-, cf. Irafiili- from |/'i'ar-): sb. f. 

'rain'. — Cf. aiiaiwi.vSr'ifli: 
vSr'}rajni- (from vir'^rajna- q. v., and cf. Cr. § 825d): adj. 'vic- 
torious '.-^Yi. 57.11, ai; Vip. 15.3. 
vSitra- (from yivoJ-): ib. n. 'graH, paature'. — Vd. 3.13. — Cf. also 

i^/r/d-. — [Phi. vSitarX 
vSilrya- {from vitira-, Cr. § 851 expl.): adj. 'relating to husbandry'. 

— lb. m. 'huabandman, farmer' (man of the peasant class; 

tee dfravait; rafialitar-). — vSttryi /fiiyqt 'the thrifly husband- 
man' Yt.ii.6; veAa vdttrya 'the good decd» of hiubandiy' 

Vsp. 15.1. — [Phi. veitryil] 
If/*, tec under vt below. 
ivi- (perh. from Yvl-): sb. m. (dctn. Gr. § 156 N.) 'bird'.— vay3 nom. 

pL Vd. 6.4S »eq.— Cf. Bbo vaya: — [Ski. vl-,- I'hl. vai] 
Yivid-: vb. cl. a > know '.— Caus. +m 'address*.— ««.■/« (GAv.) pf. 

act. 3 sg. (Gr. 8 621) Yt. 5.9; vHvAphi 'knowing' pf. picpl. 

act. nom. pi. (Gr. § 349) Vs. 57.27; utvaldayal caus. prel. Itidic. 

act. 3*B. Vd. 19,5.— [Skt. viJ-\ 
yftvid-, vind-: vb. cl 7 ifir. % 565) 'find, obtain'.— vi^i/o/ pret. Indic. 

act. 3ig. (Cr. g S^S) Vd. 19,6; vi^i (i.e. vi-tt-d-a[hj-i. Gr. 

§9 5*5. 450) subj. act. 2sg. Vd, 19.6. 
[SkL vid-, viud-; Phi. vaiidllan] 
vl (vi'); adv., vbl. prefix 'apart, affaiast'. 

[Skt. vl; Old P. vi {ytar-)-. Phi. vf, gw; New P, gtf] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

vl vlf/it/a- O 5 

Y^t-; vb. cl. 6 'go •(ter, drive, piuBue'. — oye'ifli pies, indie, act. 3 pi. 

Yii. 57.19. — (Skt. K/-] 
vHrOoiaiil- (from Yiru-): adj. ■ brnfaing '.— Vs. 57'lo. 
vttita: sb. m. 'mortar, poHery'. — vTacatfva loc. pi. Vd. C.ji (i, e. the 

bones arc to be placed In «tone ossuaries, or in terra-cotta vases, 

or in bags). — [Plil. gae; New V. gtu] 
vtilalva- (from vl ■\- daitia-): adj. 'agcinat the Demona',— epithet of 

Zoroastrinn divinities or ucred things. — Ys. 5. 1 (anSkilqm), 
vtHidva, see under Y'^'- 
vldvatJIva- (from vl -^^ ifvaiifua- r). v,): adj. 'destroying malice'. — 

V«p. 15-3- 
vtdata-, see under yiM-. 
VliStH- (from vt-\-Y<^'-)' i^' "■' 'VIdhalu' (dissoliilion), demon of 

Death.— i>r.0'<>B/ ab). sg. Vs. 57.15. — {Phi. vlkai] 
vtdvawhd, see under Y^'"'-- 
Y^li-: vb. cl. C 'come to, become'. — vUala prel. indie, mid, 3 sg. 

V,. 57-"— [Skt. w/-.] 
vts- (from yi-Ii-): lb. f. (dcln. Gr. % f}^) 'village, clan'. Designation 

of the second division in the constitu^on of the Iranian stale; 

see nmana, (vU), ta^lu; dafffu. — vfiaf obi. sg. Ys. 5714; vliaht 

gen. 5g. (o-dcln„ Gr. g aSj N.) Yl. 5.6. 
[Skt. vU-; Old P. i/f>-; I'hI. vlt\ 
vJipa- (cf. {iff-, Y""-)'- P™"- ■''J- (''''■ § 443) '•111 every'.— Masc. 

vttfS ma'dfi nom. sg. Yt. 5.4; vUpim aham ace. ig. V*. 57.16; 

vUlii dalva (karani, anrva^a) nom. pi. Ys. 57.18, Yl. 5.4,132; 

vUfS a,i^c. pi. Vs. 57.19; vtsf<ai! inslr. general pi. Vs, 57.17, 

Yl. 5.5 ; vXspalihyS ilnt. nbl. pi. Ys. 57-13; vUfanqm narqm 

(lialvaiiqm, arfaqm) gen. pi. Vs. i(t.8 etc., Ys. 57.31, Yl. 5.1. 

— Neiit. vlifa diimqtt (itmJIna) ace pi. Ys, 37.2,4,34. — Fem. 

oltfiqiii sqitt acc. sg. Vs, 57.15; Dlsfa ace. pi. Vs. 16.10, Vs. 57-33, 

Yl. 5.1, Vd. 3.17 ; vtsfOtyS dal. pi. Ys. s6.6; vli/<angm gen- pi. 

Vt. 5.1. — [Ski. vJitia-: Old P. trls«-: Phi. visf] 
vlsfi.palsa- (from t^+Zn^jflii-): adj. 'all-adomlng, manifold '-—v/r/d.- 

paitim matttm 'univcisal knowledge' ace sg. f Ys. 57.10. 
[Cr. Ski. vUvAf^iai-; cf. Phi. kervltf-fliu] 
vlsya- (from vi)-): adj. ' belongltig to the village '. — sb. m. nom. propr. 

■Viaya" (hierarch of the village)- — adj. propr. 'of the VUya". 

— vhya fravalaya. 

[Cf. Skt. vilyA.; Old P, vi}iya-] 
viHitifa- (cf. lupa-): sb. m. 'VlahUapa' (Gushtasp), the Iranian king, 

patron of Zoroaster. (Not to be confounded wiih VLshtaspa 


g6 vtr'Pra ^a^bya 

'raii£on>i5, the Talhcr of Dnrius.) — kavoii vlhSspahi 'of King 

Vblilasp' geo. »g. Yt. S-rjJ. 

(i'hi. vUltttf; New I', giiilatf; cf. OUI 1'. w7/J//*ol 
vtr'^ra- (rroni yiwi/--): sb. n. (i) 'defcnM', (i) 'fiend'. — Yt. 14.3. 

[Cf. Skt. vrtr&-\ 
Vtrtfrajna (from i'«'/™- + V>*,"'-); »l.. m. (l) 'victory ' (Vs. 573 t;!':.); 

{2) 'Verethlashna' (genius of Viclory, lalei Varahraii, Uahraiii). 

—V*. S7-3,33; Vt. 14.1,2 seq. — See next won!. 
v>r'/>rajan- (from vtr'fra--\'Yjan-): mlj. (ilcln. (;/-.§ 317) 'victorioua'. 

-v..; Y.. S7.i,S.9("cc,).3,4,w(nom.}; Vk,.. ,5.2 

(dat.),3(aom.): V<i. ig.J (nom.).^Cf. also vSr'firejni-, 
[Cf. Skt. vftrahdu-] 
vtr'Pravati- [ham vir'fra-, Gr. g 855): mlj. ' defensive ".—Suiicrl. 

vfr'prttvatUmi noiii. sg. m. (C>. § 365 N. 3) Yt. 14.3. 
vtr'ti- (froin '(/'I'lin-): ad), 'working, effective'. Form regularly useil 

in compounds. See next word. 
vtr'ti.Jiipra- (from vff'ti--\-diipra-): adj. 'of beneHcent glance'. — 

Ys. 36.3, see note. 
v»hrka- (probably from "^vrat- 'tear' = Ski. vraU-^: sb. ni. 'wolf. — 

Yd. 6.50 ftcc. sg-, cf- C^- 8 935- 

(Skt. viia-i Phi. garg: New 1'. fu»xl 
fifru- (from '\f\var-, Gr.%l%): adj. 'broad, wide'.- See next word. 

(Cf. Skt. urii-, virl</qt- (compar.)] 
ve'ru.tala- {cf. VB-ra-]: sb. 111. nom.propr. ' Votuuluiha ', a mylliicnl 

sea. — Yt. 5.3,4.^Cf. below under trayai: 
vehu'. Bee under vauku-. 
paAii- NiiinaA- (from v + m'): »li. n, 'Good Thought*. One of lliu 

Aiiieilia S|>cnta(, guardian genius of the cattle; Iniur unllcil 

llaliman. Gr, Introd. p. xxv % 33.— Vs. 57.34, 
(1^1. vak^man; New 1*. ia&aian] 
viijaa- (prob. from Vwy- = Skt, vij- 'dart, strike'): sb. f. 'plague'. 

— Ys. 57- 14- 
vqfizaa- (from ]/'*«"-> (^r. % 791): sb. f. 'berd'. 

vtPwi./rSJatta- (froro»fl^trf--f/i"); adj. ' herd-increaaing '. — Yt. 5.1. 
vya^man- (prob. from Y^y"'' = S'''- Y^i""' 'ciicompnss, assemble'): 

sb. n. 'council, ouembly'.—Ys. 57. II (ace. of goal, 6V. § 933 


Av. II if (v). 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Av. u I. 
latla, see below under yil- pret. indic. 
saeka- {ftom yfsu- q.v.): ib. n, 'weal, welfare, saving health' (In 

teligioua sense). — saeka instr. sg. Yt. t4-3' 
tatkavittil- (from /kaIii-)'. adj, 'abounding in weal'. — laekavatlimi 

superl. nom. ng, ii>. Yl. 14.3. 
timiya^t- (fat. plepl. net. from ']fsH- q, v.); sb. m. 'Saosbyanl, Saviour'. 
(1) Designilion of the jiropheU or apostles of (he failli, espe- 
cially (liu^c holy men who will appear In a goodlj' company at 
the millenium and will make ibe worlil prepared for the linnl 
restoralion. (1) In pnrticdnr, their leader, the Saoshyanl. 
^ tafjyatllqm gen. pi. Ys. aS.6i tatfya^Hl (n-dcln.) abl. sg. 
Ys. aS.loi laojyqs nam. ig. Yd. ig.5. — [Phi. taejyii] 
Ytapk-, tak-: vb. 'apeali, say, announce' (of format speaking). — Cf. 

frtaatti-, nn'rfil.jorfn-.^f.Skt. iift-; Old V, pah-\ 
sawha- (from yfiaah'): sb. m. 'word'. — iia^rtm lavAim com. propr. q. v. 

Vs. 57-3. — [Ski. ij.o-) 
»ata-: nnm. ((//■- § 374) 'hundred'.— rfar< leUt ace. dn. n. Vd.6^8.— 

Cf. niM «/icor'.j<i/fl-. — [Ski. iatA-; Phi. sal; New V. sail] 
YsaJ-: vb, cl. ft, 10 ' appear '.—in«(i/ pret. indic. act. 3»g. (Cr. § 591) 
Yt. 14.7.9. — [Ski. I'irf-,- OWP./arf-,- cf. NewP,/*-rtnrf(Hom)] 
satta{, sec under ysad-. 
sa/a-: gh. m. 'haoC—ia/aMi nom. pi, Ya. 57.37, 

[Skt. tafkd-,- I'hI. lumA; New P. turn, lumi] 
tarah-: sh. m. 'bead'.— See $ara-. — [SkL iiras-; Phi. lar; New P. lar] 
tar*<ta-: sb, ra. 'kind, »ort'.~Cf, fvriijar'da: 

[Cf. Ski. l&rHhas.; Old I'. ParJa-; Phi. wrf/ai; New P. 
tardak, iarliUi\ 
yf'K^-i see under yjirei-. 

sillar-: sb. m. 'tonnentOT, oppresBor'. Designation of a class of evil 
beings, men or demon*. — tajirqin gen. pi. Yl. 14.4. 
[Itil.Vcn. ha^ sStlSiSu; Nnr. hat atiySjIlnSm^ 
litra- (cf, tara-): sb. m, 'head'. — Sec jlri.sSra', f>ii.iSre: 

[I'hl, sSr-var 'helmet'; New P. vJi-] 
tiala- (pass, ptcpl. from |/'jil^-): nilj. 'commanded'.'-Cf. Mtvn^jJ/At-. 

[Ski. ilisla-\ 
iSstar- (from y'ja*-): sb. m. ■ ruler '. —jA/h nom. sg. Vl. 14.13. 

[Skt. iilslir-; PH. illiiar\ 
silinil- (from xil'i-): sb. f, 'commandment, doctrine'.— Cf. lOsui.guI-. 
[IX Ski. /«/»««■] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

g8} — tlafta^Slu- 

iSiHi-sui (from iBsHd--^- Ygui)' ailj- 'hearkening unto the command- 

menta'. — iSina,gfifiim gen. pi. m. Vs. aB.4. 
YtaA- (cf. YtaA-): vb. d. 1 (i) 'direct, teach'; (2) 'command, rule'. 

— Cf. sdita-, latlar-, latiul: — [Ski. iSi-, iiI-\ 
titfala, lee under Y^'f^'- 

Y*f-: vb. cL a, i 'lie down, recline'. — lalla pret. indie, mid. %*g. 
Vd. 3.24; lajfamiii (cl. i) pres. picpl. mid. nom. (g. m. Vd. 3.15. 
[Skt. /r-] 
Y""-: Tb. ci. I 'bum, gleam'. — Cf. i6ka-. 

[Ski. tac-; I'bl. idjMH,' New 1'. iAJ/iih] 
fruHvatfl- (fram V^rw-, (;r. g 811 expl.): adj. 'beard, following oral 
tradition '.—j-rMMimfa inslr. tg. m. Ys. 57.3; Yt. 5.9; Vl. 14.5. 
yVti-.' vb. ci. 4 'ewell, increase, prosper, save' (<:ip. of good beings 
or holy tliiogi). — Cr. laeka-, mUla-, etc. 
[Ski. ii-: I'bl, a/tBlaa; New P. a/*adaa\ 
seia- (from ]/'jHf-): adj. 'bright, gleaming ' ;^sb. m. 'glance, algbt'. 

— Cf. Mmi.saJut: 
tQni, tee under tfian-. 

tOra- (from Y'^- 4' '')■ adj. 'mighty, valiant, helpful' (to savu). Epi- 
thet of good diviniliei.— Yi. 36.1,10; Y», 57.1 1; Yl. 5'I>4i7>9 
(Annhiln)i tUri voc. s|[. f. Yl. 5.9,131. 

(Skt. iAra-; Old 1'. fara-vikara- nomen propr.) 
tivilta- [from ysH- q.v,): superl. adj. 'moat mighty' (10 help and 

a.ivc).—s>viHaAt Vsp. 15.3 (Miuda]. — [Ski. idvi/IAa-] 
ila'rii [from Y'""'-)- »■>. n. 'bedding, carpel'.— Cf. kS.slaifH-. 

[Cf. .'Skt. Hard-; cf. New 1'. W-j/«r] 
slotyah- (from r/'Ji'-, rA'f'-): compar. adj. 'stouter, thicker'.- -Keni. 
' •tlaoftla-.—CX. aipi,sf, 
[Ski, ith&vlyat-\ 

Y'lar-! vl), cl, 9 'sireich, spread, extend'. V/ra 'extend'.— /ni.- 

ihr'nala prct. indie, mid. 3 ig, (Cr. g 591 expl.) Ys. 57.6; fra- 
tUr'la- pass. jHcpL (see «. v,) Ys. 57-*.— Cf. liar'lo^u-, s/a'rii-. 
(Ski. liar-; I'Id. vailarlait, viitarlan; New I'. guttarihn\ 
//ar- {from V^/ii*-): lb, m. (dcln.' (</•. § 329) 'sur'.— Aiii-a avapiyi Hir'- 
hyS dal. nbl. pi. 'from yomler eiars' Yl. 5.132. 
(Ski, lAtr-,' Phi, itar, itdrak; Nkw i>. siMr'ah] 
slar'ta- (from Y''"'")' P""- ptcpl. adj. 'spread, stretch '.—Cf. slar'la- 

gilu-, /ratUr'la-.^[SVt. t/rld-] 
slar'ta.gaiu- (from itar'ta- ■\- g*): ndj. 'having a divan spread'.- 
ni jtar'ta.gdluJ myamni 'a man lying; upon a spread itivon' 
V,U 3.15. 


tta — s^i- ^ 

Y'lS-: Tb. cL 3 'aUnd'. — hillakt pres. indie, mid, a sg. Vd. 3.19; hUtafit 
pres. iadic raid. 3 ig. Yt. 14.13, — Cf. paUiliSna-. 
[Shi. Hka-; Old P. tia-\ 

ynu-: vb. cl. 1, I (Cr, § 529) 'praise, Uud'. \-apa 'rcDOunce'.. 

— stuBBti pre*, indie, act 1 sg. Vs. aS.I; iAisJ/ pre*, (sedry.) 

subj. act. 3!%. {Gr. g 529. 3] Vt. 5.8; apaMavSnt pren. Rubj. mid. 

I sg. Vd. 19-7; ofia.slavaMuha prea. imperat, mid. 3 %g. Vd. 19.6. 

(Skt. !/«-,■ I'hl. alaian, stSfilait; New P. lifHiiaa] 

y^ia- (a sid«-fonn of Y''^')'- ^^' ''Mnd, stand firm, be stout'. — Cf. 

ftvlJum/a-, slaeyoh: — [Skt, trfrt-J 
itai-, tlvi- (rrom yjftf-) : adj. 'fitm, Btoat'.— CI. rlvi.taf/a-, ttaeyai-. 

[Cf. Sht. tlh^rd-, iMvlyiti-] 
iHlnB- (fTDin y^/fl- q.v,): »b. f. 'column, pillar'. — Cf. hatawri^tlOna-. 

[SIct. ilhOvA-; Fill. T/dH,- New 1', luian] 
mr'fwaiti- (Irom Ytlar-, (Jr. § 8z I ) : adj. ' leveling, striking down '. 

— iltr'pwala ma'^ija instr. sg. n. Ya. 57.10. 
liihrpalta- (from j/9r-+^); adj. 'star-adorned'. — Vs. 57.21. 

[Phi. tlar-fitH] 
tlvi.kae/a -{horn jMi- + i«): adj. 'stOUt-bumped' (of camel).— Yt. »4.i». 
siialpii- (from Vrno/-): sb. n. (dcln. Gr. g 359) ' weapon '.—Vs. 57.10, 

16,32,39,31. — {Phi. inah!, >na/ (Horn)] 
Yinap-: vb. cl. I 'smite, pierce'.- Cf. snapa-, tnaipii-. — [SVx. /boM-] 
tnapa- (from yiixr/-): sb. m. 'smittng'.— ^nd/Ji dat t%. 'for smiling 

down' Vs. 57.32. — [Phi. siiaki, laai (Horn)) 
spailila- (from V'j/i/-, (.V. g 78O): adj. 'white'.- Yl. 14,13, 

[Skt ttaiiln-; Phi. $p«; New P, j//*rf] 
ipuilli- (from Yipatl; an ,f-foni)ation from Y'fi"'- 1- *-■ '"''■ § 'S8): 

sb. f. 'observation, watchfulness*. 
tpan- (from V^tf-): 'b, m. (dcln, Gr. g 314 N. lb) •iog'.—tfdatm 
a«. sg, Vd. 8.50; lam nom. (ace) pi. Vd, 6.45,46,47. 
[Sltt, tviin-; Phi. lat, lag; New P. jay] 
Y'por-: vb, cl, 6 'go, ticad, stamp, Bpring'.— Cf. fraiparana-. 

[,Skl. tphar-, spbuT-; Phi, ipurlaa (Band.); New P. iipardan\ 
Y'Pi"- vb. c!, 4 'watch, observe '.—Cf. pfriiJpa^lli-. 
[Skt. ipai; fal-] 

Y"p^-- vb, cl, 4 'throw'. |-o'/» 'loss'.^a'/i'j/ajV'W pres. indie. 

3«g, Yt 14,13. 
y"2*/J-.-.vb. cl. 3 'deck, adom'.— +/ra 'decotale'.— /rJ ... j/r/aM 

pret indie, mid, Vt 5,7. 
ytfit-: vb. cl. I 'be bright, shhiing, white".— Cf. ifalllla-, spilt-. 
(Skt, ivU-\ 


lOQ tfilBma sravak' 

tpilSma-, tfiiama- (cf. Y'f'''' '^^- *'''• 9 ^*9)' pWonym., tb. m. 
■deacendent of Spluma'. Esp. SpitamK Zamthathtra.— 
Yi. ae.S; V*. S7.8; Yt. 5-1 ; Ve.14.Ii Vd. 3.13; Vd. 6.4S; Vd. 19.7. 
[Phi. t^lamSn] 

tfi/i- (from Y'f'^')- '^J- 'white, clear, bright'. — Cf. ipilSiaa-, spili.- 
diipra-. — (Cf. Skt. ivity-if\ 

ifili.dSi}ra- (from ifili- -^ d*): adj. 'cleat-eyed'.— Yt. 14.17 (of a 
young man). — (Phi. ifii-dtsr] 

ip»nlt- (from ^itf- q-v.): ad), 'wboleaome, beneHcent. holy'. A 
citrdiiukl word in the Avesln, nnd rendered in I'hi. Vers, by 
a/tantk 'increasing, bounteous' (cf. for meaning Eng. 'augnsi' 
= reverend, from \M.aiig-eii 'to increase'). Nar. generally has 
a compd. or super!, auikat-, guru:—'^%. 36.1,3,10 (Fravashis); 
Ys.a6.3, Ys. 57.3,6,8, 13,13, Vd. 19.9 (Amesha Spenias); Vs. 5714 
(Spent! Armaiti); Yt. 57.17, Vd. ig.9 (Holy Spirit of Ormnxd); 
Vs. 57.37 (horses of Sraosha). 

(Cf. Ski. Hianii-,- I'hl. •ifaiid; New P. atfaiid. it/end] 

tpluUla- (super), la ipfifla; Gr. § 365): adj. 'holiest, moat bene- 
flcem'. Epithet of Ahura Mazda. ~Vl. 14. 1 (voc. sg.). 
[Phi. tfalaill] 

taiariiia- (? cf. Skt. imiUrii- 'beard'): sIj. m. 'hair'.— See next word, 

tiuarlui.dalma- (from tmarjai + daluiaii-): 'having hairy eyes'. — 
Yt. 14.13 (sha^y brows of Uactrian camel). 

srallla- (tuperl. to noun iri- q.v.): adj. 'fairest, moat excellent'.— 
Ys. a».i. — [Skt. Irhtha-^ 

iriioja- (from Y"""')'- ^^- "'■ 'hearing, obedience'. Esp, iiersonified 
as diTiaily, Sraoilia (see Introil. to Ya, 57.1).— Ya. 57:1,3,4, 
•3.Ui*S.*6i3*i33i Vsp. 15.1 (iicrsonifieil devotion). 
(I'hl. troi; New 1'. itriJ] 

iraoii.earana- (from iraefa- + caraita- q.v.): sb. f. 'whip, rod' (lil. 
'causing obedience'). A sort of whip or scoui^e used in con- 
nection with the aifoAf altra (q. v.) for inllicling stripes in 
religious Hagellation or self-casligalion.— Vd. 6.48 (inslr. sg.). 

traaia.paia- (from »<■• + J//*- q.v.): adj. 'protected by Sraoaha, 
under Sraosha's keeping'.— Ys. 57.34 (ace. pi.). 

iraika. (from ^rrorc- q.v.): sb. m. 'drop, hail'.— Svc neit word. 
[Phi. srilk; New V. lirilt 'drop'] 

Y'i'iic-: vb. 'fall in dropa, or aa hail*. — irasehjiil kafpit prcs. picpl. 
nom. pi. fern, 'victuals trickling from the moulh' Vd. 3.39. 

iravah- (from Y""')'- '■^- "■ ' word'.— jruK^ ace. pi. Ys.57.4. — Cf. 
also dmltravak: — (Ski. ir&vat- ; I'hl, srav (Uom)] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

iri- — ta'ri^ela- loi 

Y'fi-: vb. cl. I (i) 'lean, rest'; (i) 'betake oiuielf'. — irayani prei. 

plcpl, mid. nom. »g. m. (Gr. § 507) Vd. 3^9- — [Skt, iri-] 
irl-; sl>. f. 'beauty, fairness '.—Cf. irlra-, iratHa- — [SkL iii-] 
srJra- (rrom irl-): adj. 'fair, beautiful '.—Ys. 57.191 Yl. 5-7 (bis); 

Yt. n.2,7,9,17. — (Skt. iHrd-] 
Yiru.; vb. cl, 5 ' heat '.— Cam. ' tecile'.— +/rj (cmw.) 'chant'. — 

fra$rlteaya$ preL indie, act. 3»g. Ys. 57.8, Vd, x^-lOi—frattrala 

(see s. Y.). — (Skt. ini-; I'hl. $rman; New V. trOdan] 
iri/-: hIi. II. 'horn'. — C'f, mS-, irtniiia-. ^[I'M. trOi,- New 1'. lura] 
iriiyt, sec timlcT srvH: 
irvaina- (from tru-, Gr. g 819): ftdj. 'made of hotn'. — trvaiaa nom. 

pi. 111. Yb. 57.J7 (hoof* of horn). — [Pbl, st^tn] 
irvd- (cL trn-): sb. f. 'horn'. — sruyi ace. du. Yl. 14,7. — Cf. also ta- 

raitj/i^rva-. — [I'M, srHi, srini; tievi V. tura] 

A*. O/- 
tall ft- (fr. ■(/"/<•): sb. n, 'land, property. pOBseMlon'.—Cf. /o^W./fJifiiHn-. 
falld./rilitana- {tram fai/a- +/r*): ndj. 'incieaaing property, furtber- 

ing- the land*. — Yt. 5.1. 
id-: ttilj. 'happy, loyful".— /» noro. >g. f. {Gr. § 150) 'V''- 3.H' 
Yi'-' >'l>' cl- * 'dwell, occupy, posseas'. — Cf. a'Tei.fiilan-, faila-. 
ISki. i,i-. Gr. % 158 N. 1] 

YS"-' "''■ cl. I 'move, stir', t-<i'j*i 'inlerruiil'. — anefii.liita- jtass. 

ptcpl, (4. V.) Vsp. 15.1.— Cf. also frafuiaf, jyaofna-. 
[Ski. tfii-; Old r. iiyii-; New 1', /Woh] 
Yiiis- (from V"/"-' 'ichoat.. Cr. § 697): incboal. vb. cl. 6 {Gr. g 697) 
'■tart, atif'.— + /rn 'come forth, proceed'.— >«/««./ 
prcl. indit. net. 3 sg. Yl. 5.7. 

At. to /. 

jyaofiia- (from y/«-, Gr. % 1&3): sb. n. 'deed, action '.—Vs. 57.41 
Vsp. 15.1; Yt, 5.9: Vl. 14.5. — [Skt. tyauliii-] 

Av. /,. 
ta'ri-.- adj. 'yellow, golden'. — Cf. ta'ri.gaala-, *Hiipra-. 

[Skt. biri-: I'lil, tar, taria; New P. mr-\ 
ia^rLgopfa- (from i« + f ): ail), 'golden-eared'. — Yl. 14.9 (of a horse). 

[Cf. I'hl, tarl»geS\ 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

I02 tahUaifrtt- — taya- 

ta'ri.dnpra- (from f-\-d'): »A]. 'golden-eyed' (epithet of Haoinn, 

because of its yellow Aowers). — Vs. 57.19. 
talnah- (from Yu-): sb. d. >vi^Unte, watcbfubieaa '.— Vs. 5716. 

[Phi. Vers, has tl«avaiidili\ 
Itaalar- {ftata Yltu-): tb. m. 'invoker, prieal'. Tide of the Zoraa- 
tlrlan prieil, later ZSl.^aoi tatlar'm ace. ig. 'to (he officiating 
priesf Yt, 5.13a, — [Skt. hSiar-i Phi. til] 
atavtar-; uncertain. — taalXrtm ace. sg. Vs. 11. 1. Perhaps 'keeper, 
tlrove('(?). HaiAim gr^USram 'kceiMr, retainer'; I'hl.Vers, 
transcribes as til (possibly sd/, cf. West & llaug, Ania Virof 
Cleitarji p. 150). The reference in utaiarmi \i at all events to 
a man of the (hirti class, since Mplnm and Ira/irnu jtiitt 
respectively to the warrior and priestly classes, 
*avfra- (from l/'liw-): sb. f. 'ofTerlng, obladon, libation' (esp, con- 
secrated water).— Ys. 573; Vt, 5.8,9; Yt. 14.5. 
(Ski. hSira- ; I'hl. aikr; New P. >J/-] 
latfri.tara- (front taofrS- + y'iar-): adj. 'offerinf tibatioiw'.— 

Yt. 3-133. 
^iia»-.' vb.el.t,4 (i) 'beget, bear'; (i)'be born' (intmns. and mid.). 

Vt 'be bom'. — tiiiS^lt [ires. s"bj, mid. 3sg. (on 3, cf. 

^r*' § 478 K. 1) Vs. 11.6; tayailt (cl. 4) pres. subj, mid. 3 pi. 
Vs. 11,6; w.aay^ti pres. subj, mid. 3 sg. Vd, 19.5. — Cf. also 
laMo; foiif/o-. ^[Skt. Jan-; Phi. sSlon; New P. tidan] 
Y»taa-: vb. el. i 'know'. i-fa'li 'recogniie, receive, wel- 
come*. i-ava ' perceive'.— ava.iaii^n pres. (scdry.) snbj. 

act, 3 pi. Vd. 0«t5 ; fa'li.atiili pass, ptcpl. (adj.) nom. sg, m. 
Yi. 57.14,34, — Cr also Staf^li; hutatilu: 

|5kt, jaH: jAS-; cf. I'hl. Jaiiitlm; New V. dSaiilan] 
tati/u- (from Y^ *<"'-)■ sb, m. 'tribe, town' ([.at. ^ru)— the third 
largest division in the four-fold constitution of the Iranian slate, 
vii. (l)nmJ»T-, [i)vit; (3)siiq/u-, (4) rfa^M-.— auj/an/ abl. sg. 
'from that town' Vs. 57.14; saiillal gen. sg. Vt. 5.6. 
[Skt. Janlii-: Phi. laHd] 
tanl"!""- (from ta^ln-): adj. 'belonging to or presiding over the 

tribe'.— Y». 18.1. 
Mam-, *'»)-; sb. f. (dclo. Gr. % 3i8)<eanh'.—KB nom. tg. Vd. 3.34,36, 18; 
tqm ace. sg. Vs. 57-33.33. Vd. 3, 33,15,26,18; vma faUi instr. 
sg. Vl.5-3; "Mi fo'/i dn. sg. Vd.e.51; fits gen, Ig. Vs. it.7. 
[SVi. Jam; jm-; Phi. tamtk; New P. tam\\ 
taya- (from l^c'-)- ab. m. n. 'weapon, misaile'. — Vd. 19-8,9. — Cf. also 
tayitma-. — (Phi. ai\ 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

toyana taxv^Klia 103 

Mayaaa- (rrom }fd; cf. Av. syam-, dm-; inrya 'hienu'); n<lj. 'relating 
lo winter';— sb. m. ' winter ■.—Yt. 5.5 (see Gr. % 93a wpl.)- 
(Cf. Ski. ASyana.] 
sayatima- (snperl. conesp. lo noun laya- q.v.): oHj. 'beat-armed'. — 

Yl. 14.1. 
yiar-: vb, 'grow old, waate away'. — Cf. trvan-. 

[Ski. I jar-; cf. Phi. tBr; New P. tSr (Hom)J 
taraliuJlra- (<S. ullra-): sb. m. nom. propr. ' Zarathuahtta, Zoroailet', 
(!k. Zinpodotptjc. The founclcr of tlie Aveslnn religion and pro- 
phct of anciciil Iran.— Ys. ti.S; Ys. !<!.;; Vs. 57.8; Yl. 5.1,7,9; 
YL 14. 1; Vd. 3.33; Vil. S.45; Vd, ig.; leq. 

[11)1, sarlull, saraluhaJt; New 1'. jardutl elc] 
sarapujiri- (rrom >•): adj. ' Zarathuibtrlan, belonging to or descended 
from ZoroaMer'. — lara^uJlrSU gen. sg. m. '«>n of Z.' Ys. aS.j; 
«irajiiillri srava ace. pi. n. 'words of Z.' [Gr. g 151) Vs. 37.4; 
tarafuilray) voc. pi. m. 'ye follawers of Z.' Vsp. 15.1. 
p'ht. tariajtan] 
MariifullrdliBia- (superl. lo urrir/wAra-): sb. m. 'Zaratbuehtrotema', 
the chief high-priesl, Dastur i Daslnran; — adj. 'belonging to 
the ZaratttuahtTOteiiia'. — Vi. 16.1 (fravalayi). 
(Phi. idrd/0/MM] 
taranya- (cf. ta'ri-): ad}, 'golden'; — sb. m. 'gold', — Maranya inalr. sg. 
m. Vs. 57->7 (liones' boob shod wilh gold). 
[Skt. Afrapya-; IMil. sarin; New 1'. tarla] 
s-iraiiyi.nhviltaHn- (from f + a'reiMaa-): adj, 'with golden bridle, 

or caparison '.^Vl 14.9. 
saraayd.srva- (from s' -^ srvS-): adj. 'golden-horned'. — Yl. 14.7. 
tttr<'adS'li (from zard--\-Ydil-): sb. f. 'laying to heaH, heart's de- 
votion, propagation (of the Gospel)'.— Vsp. 15.3 (dat. sg). 
aartl-: sb. n. (cf. Ys. 3r-ia) 'heart'.— See preceding word. 

[Skt. kfd-. I'lil. dil: New P. rftV (cf. Hon.)] 
siirlloii-; sb. ni, 'alone'.— Cf. uir}lvalna-. 
sarilvalna- (from mr/Zvo-, Cr.^Zag): adj. ' made of stone ' ;—sb. m. 

'Blone'.- Vd. e.46, see note. 
sapana- (from ]/~l «<■); sb. m. *caU, Invocation '.—Cf. lavanijasla-. 

[Ski. hdvana-] 
lavani.sSsIa- (from i* + j^i/a-) : ndj. 'commanded at call, al call 

when invoked',- V.s. 3.9. 
sail a-: all. tn. 'band'. — sailttya luc. sg. Ys. 57.31; tai/Jmc, pi. Vsp. 15.1. 

[Ski. Adsln..- Old P. datla-,- Mil. dot/; New P. dtui] 
sazvaaha, see under yti-. 

Digitized byGoOgIC 


.■- (tre. 

-.avar- (fr 


-; vb. 

104 "- — 'y'- 

yjj-.- vb. ct. 3 'set, obtain, win '.— mii^v^ii y\. picpl. acl, nom. |>l. 

■viclorloui' Vl. 5.133. 
tSItt- (from yiuM-, pui. plcpl.): adj. 'bora'. — Cf niSIa-. 

[Skl./2/d-,' Phi. U/} 
taua'li, tee under V"! ^h-' 
tJMM-.- sb. in. 'knee'. — Cf. ifliitt: 

[Skt. ya«w,- Phi, iSHui, janak 1 New 1'. :«»«] 
nt y*! son-): (b. f 'birth'.— Cf hiaamil-, nnd Au:ami- Yl. 5-87. 

(Ski. y»jm/-] 
rom j/'aw-): sb. n. 'HeetneM, vigor'.— Vs. Vs. 57.26. 

(Phi. atf/-, tavSr; New I', sit/"] 
e under ^l )«-. 

■impel, drive'.— Cf. talaak-, aifa-. — [SLt Ai-] 
liuaf, see under yftyS-, si-. 
If: panicle poslpos. 'for, indeed, verily'. — Vt. 14.11; Vd. 3.34. 

(Stt Ai-] 
tufa: uncertain word.— Vt. 5.7, cf. t,\^o frazujiai Vt. 5.116, bari.iulim 
Vt. 19.42, possibly also zuia, ZPlil.GI. p. 30.3. Perhaps a siiecinl 
garment or adornment, possibly 'bracelet', serving also as ann- 
l>roleclor in the ctue of nn archer. See represenlalion of Atdvi 
Sura in Justi's GttckiiAli dti alien Piriiliii p. 94 ; and nieu- 
lafoy'i Persian archen from Susa in the Louvre, 
ytfd-.' vb' cl. I (1) 'call, invoke'i (1) 'cry out, chide, curie ' (euphe- 
mistic).— Mi«'/i, •a'^i pres. indie, net. 3 sg-, pi. Vs.ii.i,z,3i 
— MOvifi aor. indie, mid. pass. 1 s^. (Gr. g 664) Vd. ig.6 (Phi. 
Vers, also has ' thy ancestors worshipped me, do thou also wor- 
ship me').— See J/'i&l- below. 

[Skt. 6a-. Ava-; cf Phi. rfjirI>..7H 'invocation, prayer ' (llorii)! 
ysid*.' vb. cl. I 'speed, hasten, drive'. — Cf tUvar-. 

[Ski. jH-; ct. I'hI. %m; New P. ziU 'quick'] 
%'m9, fml etc., see woder lam-. 
tqfa- (from yi som-): tb. ni. 'birth'. — Vt. 5.1 'Aidvi Surn piiriries the 

wombs for child-bearing'. 
tqm, tee under tarn-, 

yijj-.- vb. cl. 4 'call. Invoke '. -sJdjYJ'i/ pre), indie, act. 1 sg. Vs. 36.1. 
— See yi ta- above. 

[Skt. Ava-, ka-; Phi. aMyiln ' invuealiun, (wiiyer' (Itorn)) 
Y%ya-. i(-,- vb. cl. 9 {Gr. § 588) 'Uke away, deprive forcibly".— 
h'hJ/ pres. (scdiy.) subj. act, 3sg. Vs. it. 5 (with two ace). 
[SVx.jya-, }i- Qindli); OldP.i//-; cf. Phi. (fo/r/dr (ZPhl.GI.); 
New P. tfM/fon] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

tra/ah &aomaHiiali«- 1 05 

rayah' (from l/'«W-): si), n, '««, expanse of ocean', Esp. the Sen 
Vonruknihn.— 001 vrayi ace. sg. ' lo the sea' Yt 5.31 nrayHi 
loc. sg. (Cr. §S 3*". 357 N. a) Yl.5.4- 

[Cf. Skt. jriyai-.- Old P. drajah-; Phi. flbrj-^i,- New P. 
«S.ri«I (llotn)! 
^/■sr/-; vb. cl. I 'go, Btretcb, expand'.— Cf. trayah-.—^Vx. }ri-\ 
rvari- (from yi Mr- i.v,); sb. n.^'litne'. Esp. with oiarano- (q. v.) 
' Doandless Time, Eternity'. In later Zoronslrinnism Otmazd and 
AhTininn arc conceived uf n.% ^lining fioni Zorvan. — Vil. ig.g 
{Gr. § ggx N, Z expl). — [I'hl. sanMIa; New P. larvan] 

Y^gar- (aide-fonn of y^r- q.v.): vb. cl. i 'flow, run, stream'.— 
, +/<vr 'flow forth'. ^/raijnni'ri jwes. indie, act. 3»g, Yl, 5.4, 

Av. r, c- »- (») *■ 4. * ("**> 
I Aft-, Ad-, la-; ileni. pron. (dcln. (7r. g 409) 'this'.— 4it nom. xg. m. 
Ys, S7-I8; Aj nom. ig. I. Yl. 5.5.— See nlso la-. — [Ski. in-, /J-, M-] 
iA>T> (from 4n/», it<^, cf. Gk. A-itXoo;, Lai. lemet) iniep. prefix 'togetbsT, 

one'.— Cf. iatfr't, i«m»ra-. — [Skt. sa'\ 
ha'/'ya' (from ia^l- ij. v., (Tr. § Ria); adj. 'real, true, very'. — ka'fim 
see. HR. ailvl. [dr. § 934) ' cssenlinlly ' Vs. ii-i. 
(Ski. s/il)'4-; OW r. hajiya-] 
hfiTva- {from yior-, f,V. g 8ig): ndj. 'whole, entire'.- Cf. ha-nmiai-. 
[Ski. tinia^; Old P. harirva-: I'hl. ia/-, tar-vtif; New P. 4nr] 
An-rvalJf- (fioni Aa'n'O-, Cr. § 841); sb. f. 'wholeness, perfection, 
Hautvatat' (Salvation). Cf. Gr. Introd. p.xxvi § 37.— Ai"7fa/Ji 
nom. sg. (Gr. g 181) Ys. 57.24.— Sec amtr'W- above. 
[Ski. larvilSl-; I'hl. iJriial; New P. fardai/} 
halna- (from V^f-): sb. f. 'band, host, horde' (always in bad sense, 
ravaging axn\y).—lialn}liyi dat. abl. pi. {Gr. % 147 expl.) Vs. 57.15. 
(Skt, sina-; Old P. hainS-; Phi. *?ii] 
iaiva-, iaaya-: mij. 'left, left side '.— Ailjitw see. ^, n. (ffr. g 63 

N. 3 expl.) Vs. II. 4. — (Skt. taoyd-! Phi. <U/J 
haeine- (from yiiw-): sb. m. ' baoma-plant, juice, Haoma' (divinily). 
-Ys. 11.1,3,4,7,8; Vs. 57.19; Vd. 19.9. 
(Skt. sSma-: rill, him; New P. him] 
AaomananAn- (from in + atanuA-, cf. Gr. g 60 N. c): adj. 'well- 
minded '.—Yt. 5.8 (dat. sg, in.).^[Skt. idunmnatd-] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

1 06 iaemajrl — kafla 

haomayt, see below, under adjective haemi-, 

katmavaiil- (from haaaia-y. ndj. 'conaliling of \t».vm».'.—ha»mava'li- 

iyS uuPrSiyi AaX. ibl. f. |)1. 'liooma oblations' Yt 5.8. 
[Skt tiuiavaiil- ; et. Phi. himiBmtul\ 
kaomi- (from itonma-, cf. also Yi. 7.3): adj. 'provided with haoma*. 

— kaemayi Yt. 5.9, lee note. 
kaofS, Me under kava-. 
kamitPvia- (from iusaiffu- q.v.): sb. n. '([lacioua knowledge, reverence'. 

— haotq^a inslr. ag. Ya. 57.^3. — [Phi. -iflioWM] 
haktr't (from i <o« + V"*"""-) ■ ad' k^-"- §8 375. 73o} 'ftnce'. — Cf. 

hah>r'l.jan- {itam h* ■\- Yjaa-): adj. 'kiUing at one stroke '.—Yt. 14.15 

(epithet of a boar). 
havuhar'na- (from yi*iir-): sb. n. 'jaw-bone' (cf faUihlnar'na- 

'jaw'). — hawukar'iu ace. du. Vs. Ii>4,S. 
yjar-.' vb. cl. i 'accompany, attend, follow'. \- upa 'attend'.— 

ufaphatajiHi caus. prei, subj. act. ■ sg. 'attach myself to' Yt. S.Sj 

hatimuS pret. ptcpl. pass. nom. Eg, m. 'altenduil liy evil rviiorb' 

Ys. II.1.3— rSkt. M^.] 
haea- (from '\fliitc\. (1) prep. w. inslr, alil. 'with, together with, from'; 

—{2) ptefij, cf. AdCd.noRa-.— With abl. Ys. aO.Io; Ys. 57.11,14; 

Vi. 53.7.9.»3ii Vt. 14.5; Vd. 19.6. 

(Skt. s&ca: Old r. ha<S: Phi. aj: New P, nj, i] 
Aacd./naiia- (from i>iiv + yvroH-): adj. 'attentive inlhouEht'.— Yt. S-8. 
Aapra: adv. 'together, complete'. — See next wotd,^[Skt. lalrii] 
ka^rS-ttivaUi- (from lia}ra ■{■ Y*""'-)'- si*- f 'complete conquest'. — 

Ya. 57.a6. 
yhad-: vb. cl. i, 3 'ait, seat oneself. \-»i 'descend to'. — »f- 

iaphaiti pres. indie, act. Jsg. (Gr. g 754.3) Ys. 57.30.— Cf. also 


[Ski. tail-; Old l*. .iai^; I%I. ni-iailau; New P. n/-£M/Du| 
Aada-: (t) adv. 'always'! (a) P'cp. w. ttbl. instr. 'with".— Vs. S7-'7- 

[Ski. said. cf. lAM/ Old P. AoaBJ 
hanJaMaHa- (from Aiim + Ys<""-' j'""-)'- si'. »' ' meeting '.—Aai^HtaHf 

loc. ^. Ys. II. I (llic race-course, ur billle). 

[Cf. Skt siigaatd'; Tbl. haajamtiH; New 1'. anjumaii] 
haift-, lial- (from yiah-, pres. plcpl.): adj. 'being, living being, 

creature '.->-A(I/4«( gen. pi. m. (Gr. g 18 N. 3) Yl. 5.9. —Cf. also 

iui>/a-.^[Skt. linl-, lat-] 
hitfta: num. ((7i-.g 366) 'seven '.—jterAiiM ^i7 Ad/fa ' Ihe *eveo Kanh- 

van' Yt. S.5. — [Ski. lopld; PH. h^/l; New P. An/'] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

haplawWli kava- \ 07 

hapiaahS'ti- {from itf//a + M'/i- q. v.) : adj. < compriainK Mven cbap- 

lets';— sb. m. 'Yrnsn* Hkplanhaiti' (mc Gr. Introd. p. xviii 

8 I3)-Ys, S7.a*; Vsp. 15.3. — [Phi. haft.hSl\ 
hapia.ya^Hi- (from ^-f/afA/-): sb. m. 'Beven Btalks' (of btrtoni). — 

Vs. 57-6 (ace. pi), see note. 
hapti.k<trfv»irim, see under next word. 
hapid.kartvait- (from h + t-): adj. 'cDnBlsting of seven Kstshvars 

or tonw'. — hapl6Jiariva'r!m ace. Kg. fern. (Gr. § 855 expl.) 

Vs. S7.J3. — [Phi. ha/l-tllvari-] 
ikam, hqm. Aav'; adv., vbl. prefix [Gr. §g 750, 753 N. a) 'with, 

tOKetber'. — Cf. kama-, hamir*pa-, kqm.liJti, ka^amana-, 
(SUL sim; Old P. kam: I'hl. kam; Htw P. Aow] 
ikam-: sb. f. ' Bummer '.— Cf. iqmin-. — (Cf. Skt, sdmS- 'year, season'] 
kama- (from liam): adj. 'same, entire'. — hamakt ... Aamayit gen. sg. 

m. (. Vs. 57.31.— Cf. also haini.^]apra-. 

[SkL sami-; Old P. ^mn*,- Phi. Ja>w«t,' New P. ^md^J 
kamapa- (from itdfwi-, Cr. §§ 844, 941): adv. 'continually'.— Yt. 5.5. 
kami-iiapra- (from An»»o- + {^): adj. 'all-powerful, monarch'.— 

kam»r'Pa- (from iam + Yar-): »b. m. 'adverMTr, foe'.— Vs. 57.16. 

[Cf. Skt. simrli- 'conllict'] 
Ykcr-: vb. cl. i 'gnard". \-m 'keep guard over, preserve'. 

— niJho'rva'ti pre*, tadic. act. 3 sg. {Gr. g 7S4») Vs. 57-l6. 

— Cf. also ka'rva; kar'lar-, kar'^ra-, iilara-. 
iaralll- (cf. AarS-): sb. f, nom. propr. 'Handti', name of a mountain, 

Ilnratli Unreia, Mount Mhott.—k<ir<i%3 gen. sg. (Gr. § 259) 

Vs. 5719.»'- 
kar/l-: sb. f. nomen propr. 'Hara', Mount Albon In Maiandenu, south 

of Caspian Sea.— Cf. kara'll- 
kar'lar- (from Y^""')' ^''- i"- 'goardian, keeper'. — karila nom. sg. 

Vs. 571 s. 
kar'Pra- (from y^ir-): sb. n. 'guarding'.- Adr^/-J( dat. sg. (inlin.) 

Yl 5.6. 
Ykarz-: vb. cl. 6 'acnd forth, let go'.— +/a'« 'strain, filter' 

(haoma juice). V/ra 'emit iKt&'.'^frarhttr'iintqn pres. 

picpl. act. gen. pi. m. 'of males that nreinrul' Yt 14.13: tat- 

Pr^i pa'Tiawkarltibyi pass, ptupl. dat. abl. pi. f. (Gr. § 754. 3) 

VI. 5.8. — [Skt. tar}-: Phi, Milan: Hew V. kiilau] 
kava- (side-form of kva-, kia- i|-v.): poss. adj. pron. (Gr, § 440 N. 1) 

'own', l.nt. suus.— AacfA gen. sg. f. (Gr. §§ 440 N. 1, 62.2) 

Ys, tt.i; kavapliya pada^bya instr. du. Yd. B.46. — [Skt. nu-] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

I08 hmaara haka'rya- 

ketawra-: ouni. sli. n. (Cr. g 374) 'IhouBand'. — Yt. 5.4.— See also 

next word. — [Skt, lak&tra-: I'hI. Aazir; New t'. !iazdr\ 
hataari.stiiHa- (from h- ■\- ilitiia-): adj. 'with a lliousind cotumni'. 
— Y«. 'a bouse of a ihousanU columfia'. 

[Skt. lohitra-stha^a-: Phi. kaiar-iiait: cf. New 1'. katSr tulQii, 
Dame for Persepolis] 
ha, M« under ka; la-, 
kd'ti-: lb. r. 'leaion, chapter, Ha'.— Cf. iaf/avia'ti-. 

(Cf. perb. Skt. idli- (V""""); ^ I'l'l- *"'. New I', ka] 
kalrifi- (prob. from y^df-, Gr. § 777): sb. (. 'female'.— Yt. S-a (ace. 

and gen. pi). 
kdlqm, see under kaiil-. 

kSvaaa- (from yi ku-): sb. m. 'monar, havana' (in which the bauma 
was pounded). — Vd. ig.9 (insli. sg.). 

[Cf. Ski. sdvana-; l*bl. k^paii; New 1'. kavau] 
kSvdya- (from katva-, kaeya-y. adj. 'left'. — kOvSya iiitvS Vd. 3.35,36, 

ICC note. — [Cf. Ski. iavy.i. Or. g 60 N. d) 
■\fAi-: vb. 'bind, Bpfuj'.— Cf, kUa-, kalna-, kallii: — [Ski, ii-\ 
iita- (from Y*'')- '^- '"• 't^*"*' *P*" <>' horaea '.— Y:i. 57.36 (ilnt. pi.). 
kitidu-: sb. m. uomen propr. 'rivet, \nA<M'.--hhtilvi luc. yen. (('V, 
§§ =6S. 933 N.) Vs. 57-19. «ce "O'e. 

[Ski. simiku-; Old P. ki(n)du-: Phi. kindUkSa; New R klnd\ 
kijara- (from y^ar- redupl.): adj. 'keeping guard over'.— Vs. 57.17 

(with ace). 
kilta'lt, see under Ysta-. 

kita-, kitvd-: sb. Ill, (Or. § 120 N. i) ' tongue '.-wo/ -f/swo gen. abl. 
Vs. 11,4,5; kiivS daiiitiiikt 'vii[\\ skill uftnugue' Vl. 5.9; Yl. 14.5. 
[SVt. Jikiid- ; I'hI. urtian, kuivSii, tavHii; New P. m^Jm] 
iUvHr'na: uncertain word.- Yl. 5.6, see nole ad luc. Similarlx also 

now Darmesteler. 
Aim, kll, see under ki. 

kw; prefix 'well, good'. — Cf. kukft^la-, kulalla-, kumala- elc. 
[Skt. w; Old P. tt, uv; I'b). ka\ 

Y^ ku-: vb. cl. 5 'preiB out' (csp. extiacl liauina juice). \-aiwi 'ex- 

Iracl'. — a'wilki/l/m (4. v.) ddrayihi 'wilhuldust uiu when ci.- 
tracled' Y». 11.3 (sec nutc on J'hI.VcrE.).— Cf. also iaema-. 
AdiMHii-. — [Skt. iw; Phi. hantlait] 
Yikii. ((irolmbly orig. conn, with yiA«-); vb, cl. fl (Cr. gg 583, S'Jl) 

'generate, produce'.^ [.Ski. tu-, ta-\ 
kuta'rya-: sb. n. nomen propr. 'Hukairya', name 01 
VI. 5.3. — [Phi. hukar. kugar] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

huktr'ta z ha- 109 

A»i(Jr'/a-(froin hii-\-t>fla- q, v.)t adj. ' we11-m«d«'.— Vit. 19-8,9, »ee 
Dole. — (Ski. ifiilla-; Phi. hukari\ 

kuifr'fla- (from ^/'irtr/t. = Ski. V*a//-): ndj. 'well-fotmed, of per- 
fect shape '.~-//'i7iw//iV( huhir'piimqm super), ncc. i^, f. Ys. aS.i. 

(Ski. .ai,i^-\ 

kii^lapra- (from A»-|- j/*): ntlj, 'having goodly power, rightly ruling'. 

— Vd. ig.g (nom. jil. m., Ameshn Spenlo«).^[Skt. ruHalra-] 
kuiiaaf/ra- {trora Au + t HiMff/ra-): sb. n. 'good knee' (Cr. § 88i.l). 
- ku^liiaopri huf^jflillSiie ace. dii. (dvandva c|iil., Gr. § 879) 
'upon hh firm knees and his wire feci' Vt. 14.13. — See hti- 
kutallii- (from hu-\-iaJta.): adj. 'well-shapen'.— Vt. 14.7,9. 

[Ski. iii/arfa-; Phi. kulHt] 
kajdh- {ftom ku -^^ dak- n-T.): adj. 'beneficent, benevolent '.^f/wJ .S«- 
4avkd gen. sg. Vs. aS.4, see note; ktulapki nom. pi. m. Vd. ig.9 
(Ainesha Spcntas). — [Cf. Skt. imlAi-; Phi. hudak\ 
AufallilfaMiT- {Iiom Ait + fia'lUliltta.) : r,h. n. 'sure fool' (Ci-. g 881,1). 

— Vl, 14.13, «ce kiiijnacj-rn- nI)ove. 
hiipaiB. (from A«- + yjW- c|.v.): ailj. 'well-kept, protected'.— |/o/rM 

kapiU»t3mt1> ^w^tA. nom. pi. f. ^'1. 14.12. 
hum a la- (from kii + mala-, |Mis!i, picpl. yiwrtH- 1|. *.): ndj. ' well-thonght * ; 
— sli. n. 'good thought'.— Cr. /r2j^.i)«»i<i/(t-. 
(Cf. Ski. sumali.; Plil. kumal, hamal\ 
Armin'/ir- (fri>ni itn + '''"^'- <|- *-)' "*'}' ''''' "^ form, beaullfnl'. — 
Ys. S7-2,5.9,a5,«C(.'iraosh«); Vs. 57.3(Nniryo-Sanhn); Vt. 14-7,9 
(StrenRlh); Vd. 3.14 (maiden). — (Phi. hayitl\ 
ktiyaila- (from An+yalla-, pass, picpl. Yyas-, Gr. § lOO): ndj. 'well- 
offered'. — kiiynila yaiim inslr. sg. m. Vt. 5.9; — kiiyaHara- com- 
parative nom. sg. f. Vl. 5.9. 
htiikafah-. 'an (from V*fl/-q.v., pf. ptcpl. Gr. § 348, (ind ffr. g 95, 
correction): pf. ptcpl. mlj. 'soundly ileeplng'.—Vs. 57-17 '»lii> 
hn<i not slept since' (sc. aid, as often w. pf. picpt.). 
knsanl"- (from An-f ^3 iifi-): adj. 'well-minded, wise'.-Cf. koo:^- 

/„-B.._[Cf. Phi. iijM«,i7Aj 
kmamil- (from A« + cJ«/- q. v., cf. Skt. kdri; r.iaril-): ndj. 'hsving 

easy childbirth '.—Vl. s-a (ace. pi.). 
I k a (in Ad /rS/mO.ifJlfli-'^, see under kvtir-. 

aki}- (from ■j/'aAw- q.v.): sh. m. 'swine'.— AiJ (dls^yllaliic) foAr/>n itarilzake 

i;cn. !!(;. 'In the shape of a wild lioar' (III. 'boar-|rig') Vl. 14.1s. 

— Cf. niso faraao: g 

[Ski, til- (in sillayi- 'swine'); I'hl- \Ht: New P- |/?i (Horn)] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

no Aflfa- — *a/- 

ka^la- (from ku-\-u^ta-, pus. picpl. Y""^' I'*')' ^'^j- ' well-ipoken * ; 
— *b. n. 'good wbrd'.^Cf. frayi-ha^a- 
[Cr. Skt. lOklA-; t>hl. hakl\ 

kt, him, hii: iiron. end. 3>l pers. {Cr. g§ 395. 1016 Mq.) <be, it etc' 
— Mtm (ardvlm tHrqai) ace. sg. f. Yl. 5.1 1 — lii kaiiar'diia dot. 
gen, i%. 'his ikuU' Vt. 37.10) hi Jaraistiktm 'his glance' 
Yt. 14.13; Ufa hi baraUi dai. b)>. f. 'he beilows upon her' 
Vd. 3.35: ka hi aili cijta {Gr. § laiQ N.) Vd. 6.471 altada hi 
... niilar'tayitt (perb. cf. Cr. g (019 N.) Vd. S.46; iiiif hi ... 
apajlavSnt dalnqnt (dat. = acc. sg. f. proleplic, Gr. § [019 N.) 
Vd. 19-7; tadSiam hi hr'natl 'lei one moke a raised place ot 
repoiilory for ihem' (i.e. atiiiH, Cr. g 1019) Yt. 0.50; hi 
nidafifla 'deposit them' (sc. atdMi, Gr. % 1019) Vd. 6.51 ;— 
hil (i. c. vtsfi karaitS) acc, pi. m. Vl 5.4. 
[Skt. (I'raliril) li, tim eacl.] 

htyUm, see under kalva-, haajra: 

hqm, lee under ^jn. 

hqmin (from thaia-, Gr. gj 316, 835): adj. 'relating to Bummer*;— 
lb. 111. 'euntmer', — /iqmintmca tayammea ncc. sg. 'l>olli summer 
and winiet' {Gr. § 931 e»pl.) Vl. s-j.— [Ski. M«r«-J 

hqm.liir>}via- (from ]/"*«''■. Cf. Q 791): «b. t. 'collection, burden, 
barveil'. — Vd. 3.17 (acc. sg.), see note, 
[cr. Phi. hamtaralml\ 

Aq>».var'/i-{Iiomham + ypar; (Jr. g 788) : sb. f. 'defense, courage*. 
E*p. iia'rt hqiH.var'lil 'tintij Courage'.— Cf. hqm.var'livanl: 

hqm.var'livtttii- (from hqm.var'li-): adj. 'endowed with muily cout- 
age'. — 'vali gen. >g. m. Vi. 97.33 (Sraosha). 

hva-, ha- (cf. hava-\. poss. pron. rnlj. {Cr. % 440 N. l) *own, wif', 
l.At. luus. Sec kttva' above.— Cf. hijtairil-, )rllrae\t»^-, kal- 
falpya- [.Skt svd-; Old 1'. uliS-\ 

kal* (from koa; ♦a;); prefix in cjids. 'self, own'.— Cf. katfa'Jiya-. 
(Cf. Skt. tvay-im; Old 1'. uviSi'] 

halpa^Pya- (from hal- -^ faipya-y. adj. 'own, personel'.— *a^/a'i>j^I«i 
var'ta 'by hit own hair' Vd. 6.46. 

[Cf. Skt. tvafatyi-; cf. Old V. uvaifaJiya-] 

hvacah- (from hii + vaiah; Cr. g 68b): adj. 'whose word ia gracious'. 
—hvaca Dom. Eg. m. {Gr. g 339) Yi. 57.20. 
(Ski. luvHcai-, Cr. § 17] 

Yh'aJ-, MaiiJ-: vb. cl. I 'cncompaB*, embiace'. i-fafri 'surround'. 

^pahUhrailim ayauhakt pass, ptcpl. acc. sg. ' though encompassed 
round vrilh iron' Ys. 11.7, ice note. — [SkL maj; nmilj-] 


htad- — hvarlla- III 

"yfkad-, hid-: vb. cl. i (irans.) 'make desirable, sweeten'j (inlniiii.) 

'be liked, desired, relished'. — See under kSita-, 

[Skt. svad-, svSd-! Phi. ^sUtn 'wish'; New P. ^ailatt\ 
kaniral>a-: sb. n. noiiien propr. ' Hvaniratba ', nitme of Ihe central 

Karshvore, Ihe lone on which men live. — Ys. S7'3'' 
[Phi. Iaianiras\ 
y*fl/-.- vb. 'Bleep, alumbcT '.— See huShafah- pf. plepi,, cf. ne«l word. 
[Sk(. svnp-; Phi. ^aflan, ia/lan; New P. ^a/tan, tm^dan] 
yiraida- {from l/'*fl/-, ffr. §693): vb. cl. I. 10 -fall, aaleep'.— + fli'rt 

'drop asleep', cf. an-avnuhahdlmaa' pros, ptcpl. mid. 
yi har-: vb. cl. i 'eat, dtink, conaume'.— cr. Irar'fia; hSfar-, kir'/l.- 

4.dr-.^[Phl. ^rlaii, fur/nii; New P. fardan] 
^zhar-: vb. 'ahine, be bright'.— A root Inrerable from hvar-, kar'aah: 
Yzl"""-' vb. 'consume. Injure, wound'. Prob. originally Ihe some as 

yflirar-. — See kara-, (also ! akar'la- ' uDconsumed ' ). 
hvar- (from V*dr-): sb. n. (dcln. Gr. § 333} 'aun'.— Art (dissyllabic) w 

gen. %%. in ha fraimi-dsUi- q. v. Ys. 57.10,16. — Cf. also knar*.- 

dar'tya.. — [Ski. rt^r-,- Phi. hvar, far; New P. fur] 
hara- (from Ylkar- q. v.); »b. m. 'wound'.— Vs. 57.10. 

(I>1il. iar; cf. New P. iarah] 
kar'Pa- (from V"l*<jr-): »b. n. f. * food '.— *<ir'A» nom. pi. n. f. (Gr. 

§ 13J) 'food, vieluali' Vd. 3.29. — Cf. also l^ar'/aMrx"-. 
[Cf. Phi. inariia] 
kar'fid.hairfa- (from *• + rfiTfr/ir-) ; adj. ' fruit-bearing;'. — Vd. 3.13 

(gen. pi. r). 
hvart.dar'iya- (from litmr- + ^''/''w-. Gr. § 716): adj. 'beheld by 

the Bun, eiposed to the eunliKhl'. — 'sya ace. pi. n. (hi = 

aidiil) Vd. 6.S1. 
kar'iiavuhatii- (from kar'nah-y. ndj. ' f^vAov»' .—kar'naouhattfmi 

super!, nom. sg. m. Yt. 14.3. 
har'nah- (from .ysifrar-}; sb. n. ' glory '.—Esp. tavaiit hafnd 'Ihe 

Kingly Glory', a divine light or halo supposed lo be po!ise<ued 

liy kings. — har'nS ace. sg. Yl. 14.1; kar'aamha Inilr. sg. {Gr. 

g 94i) Ys. 5^.3; Y15-9: Yt. 14.1,5- 

[I'hI. ivilrlh; New P. inrrah, /arrah] 
kar'^li- (from y/"! i'lir-): sb. f. 'food' (eap. food other than grain). — 

— vii/ia kar'Hlti ace. pi. 'oil kinds of fruils' (pi.) Vd. 3,17; 

kaf^tii Vd. 3-2g. 
Avarlln- (from ha + varJia- q. v.) ; adj. 'well-done 'j—sb. n. 'good 

deed'.— Vs. 57.4; Vsp. 15.1.— Cf. also /rBydJvarJ/a-. 
(Phi. havari/] 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

112 hvatia Mfar- 

kvasta- (from Au + ai/a-, pus. ptcpl. ]/"* jA-): »b, m, (*c. ifti-) '« [ood 
anow-shol' (cf. Vl. lo.zl). — hvattaya afakimanayO (probably 
gen. du.) Yi. 37-28- 
bvatpa- (from hu-^atfa-^\ adj. < well-faoned '. — Yt 5.4 ((int. sg, m.) 
'for a man mounted on a good hone'. 

(SkL svilva-; Old 1'. ttvatfia-; I'lil. ktt-aip\ 

yHfaA-; \}>. cl. 10 'prcM together'. \-paili 'crush'. —/tn'rt hauha- 

' ' yl^ti prel. indie, act. 3 sg. Ys. 57.10. 

k3.iar'tij (from Ava- + i'): ih. n. 'own cuabion'. — leHJiar'tH nida'pua 
ace. Eg. 'deposit (the dead) upon liiit own cushion' (f/r. § 897) 
f, Vd. 6.S1. 

Avdraa-l/Ha- (from hia- + ra»tiiia-): adj. ■■elf-ahlning'. — Ys. 57.11, 
riii.Vers. has mm btiia/imaa rBlane ' shining of itself'. 
[Cr. 'SV\. tvdiitii-] 
'■* hva-.vatjJt- (from koa- -\- viaja- <\.s.): adj, 'striking of itself. — Ys. 57.31 
(with ina'pU). 
iri.sta'ril (from Ava- + ita'ri}]: sb. n. 'own bed, carpel'.— Vd. 6.51, 

Irdila- (from ykad; i-M- i-y.): pass, ptcpl. adj. 'liked, desired, sol)- 

eiled'(^]. — /ii mgm hatlqm iiiil tm^/a/rt Ys. ii.i. UnccTt.iin. 

I'hI.Vers. explatos as 'giving llie cow to good people as a treo- 

., sure' (ioSttaiJ; Nar, has latfrnya. I^ob. therefore, 'wbo iloesl 

^ not present me when desired (i, e. to worthy men), hut fattenest 

I me for. thyself. It can hardly mean 'cooked'. 

[Cf. Skt. svaild-] 

t^afar- (fur lear'tar- from yk-ar-, Gr. % 164, and compensatory a): 

sb. m. 'drinker*. — kltiartm ace. sg. Vs. 11. 3, allustoD is to one 

. of the [irieslly class who keeps the baonta from being drunk. 




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