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NOV. 1913 TO OCT. l^lC -c;. I/; 

54 HATTON GARDEN, E.G. 1914. 


Contents. ' iii. 



Title Page ------ i. 

Contents ------ iii. 

Council's Report - - - - - iv. 

Alphabetical List of Conteibutors- - vi. 

List of Plates - - - - - xi. 

List of Mehibees, October 1913 - - 1 

Rules of the Avicultural Society- - 18 

The Society's Medal - - - - 22 

Magazine ------ 23 

INDEX ------ 381 

iv. Beport of the Council. 

FOR 1913-1914. — — - 

A PART from the election of Councillors, the only change in the 
Executive to be recorded in the past year is the retirement 
of Mr. E. I. POCOCK, F.R.S. from the Honorary Business Secretary- 
ship after the five years tenure of that office allowed by the rules 
of the Society. Owing to the increasing pressure of other work, 
Mr. Pocock felt unable to offer his services for another term of 
five years and Mr. T. H. NEWMAN, who held the Secretaryship 
from 1904 to 1909, kindly consented to resume the office. 

Under Mr. AsTLEY'S able and energetic Editorship the 
excellence of the Magazine has been fully maintained, and the 
increase in the number of members, attesting the growing interest 
in aviculture, has permitted the expenditure of more money upon 
illustrations than was possible in former years. 

The Council wishes to express its obligations to all those 
members who have helped the Executive by the generous donation 
of subscriptions to the Illustration Fund and by the contribution of 
articles to the Magazine. Especially indebted is the Society to 
Mr. ASTLEY, who has cheerfully devoted his time to the onerous 
duties imposed upon him by the Editorship. In addition to the 
large number of illustrations he has given to the Society, his articles 
and notes have far exceeded in extent those of other members. In 
this connection the Council ventures to repeat its appeal to members 
to send in "copy," no matter how trivial the subject-matter may 
appear to be. By so doing they can add enormously to the interest 
of our periodical and relieve considerably the undue pressure of work 
that falls upon the Editor, with whom the sole responsibility for the 
monthly production of each number of the Magazine rests. 

Beport of the Council. v. 

But flourishing as is the condition of the Society up to the 
present tinae, the Council feels it a duty to point out that the 
financial crisis resulting from the European War cannot fail to 
affect adversely the prosperity of the Society in the ensuing year. 
The cost of printing the text of the Magazine and of reproducing 
plates and text figures will probably rise ; . dealers' advertisements 
may be withdrav^n or curtailed, and the funds generously subscribed 
for illustrations may be required for more important things. It 
cannot be expected that the average number of new members for 
the past two or three years will be maintained and, on the other 
hand, the number of resignations will probably be increased. It 
may, therefore, be necessary for the Executive to reduce some- 
what the size of the Magazine and lessen the number of illustrations. 
Nevertheless the Council feels that it may confidently rely upon 
Members to continue to support the Society in every way that is 
possible through the time of stress and anxiety that is to come. 

Signed for the Council, 

Hon. Business Secretary. 
Sept. 1914. 

vi. Alphabetical List of Contributors. 


The Asterisk denotes in the Correspondence Cohmin. 

Albekson, Miss R. 

Green-Witiged Doves, i 
Notes on 1913, 171 

A LovKK OF Birds in France. 
My Sunbirds' Aviar}-, 89 

ASTtEY, Hubert D., M.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U- 

Tlie Red-lieaded Tiluiouse {CEgilhalisus erythrocephalus), 23 
Reviews, 49, 50, 146, 281 

* Illustration P'und, 52 

* Some Birds from Yucatan, 52 
Editorial, 56, 318 

Some Birds of tlie Phillippiue Islands, 78 

* Notes, 88, 147 

The Celebean Ground Thrush {Geocichla erythronota) 137 
The Golden Eye Duck [Clangula ^laiicioii) 160 
The British Shelduck {Tadorna cornula) 161 

* Blue Budgerigars breeding in a cage, 178 

My Birds at Brinsop Court, 191, 203, 252, 278, 308 
Tlie Reed Warbler [Acrocephalus streperus), 200 

* Note on Humming-birds. 201 

The Amethyst vSun-bird [Ciunyris ainethystinus), 231 

* Importation of Rare Australian Birds, 286 
Flamingos, 287 

The Red-breasted Merganser {Mergus senator), 319 

The War, 337 

Powers of Resuscitation in Humming Birds, 339 

Bainbridge, W. a. 

Breeding of the Grey Waxbill [Est/ilda cinerea), 83 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, F.Z.S. 

Some Notes 011 the White-legged Falconet [Microhierax 

inelanoleucns), 93 
Some Notes on Tame Serpent Eagles [Spilotnis cheeld), 154 

Blaauw, F. E., C.M.Z.S. 

Breeding of Long-tailed Parrakeet [Henicognalhus leptorynchus), 24 

Alphabetical List of Contributors. vii. 

Bi,ACG, E. W. H. 

The Apparent Assumption of a distinctive phase of Breeding 

Plumage in the male Plumed Ground Dove, 112 

* The Nightjar, 56 

Brabournk, Lord. 

Aviculture in Paraguay, 185 

Glimpses of South American Ornitholog\', 324 

Bright, HkrbkrT. 

* Plumed Ground Dove, 178 

Brook, E. J. 

* Notes on Amethyst Sunbird, 286 

Buti^KR, ARTHUR G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.vS., M.B.O.U. 

* On Sexing- Birds, 86 
Hand-rearing British Birds, 105 
Egg-laying and Nesting Experiences, 179 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture, 194, 224, 246, 272, 290, 330 

* English Names of Birds noticed in article on Egg-laying (April 

number), 230 

Ckcii,, Lady Wir^r^iAM. 

A few Bird Notes from Southern Provence, 138 

Chambkrlain, Walter, 

* Longevity in Captivit}', 119 

Chawner, Miss. 

* Hardiness of Rainbow Buntings, 229 
Garden Friends, 255 


* "Bobs" and "Billy," 115 
Breakfast Guests, 144 

A Tame Bullfinch, 335 

Ezra, Ai^fred. 

The Amethyst Sun -bird {Cinnyris aniethystinus), 232 

* Note on the Red-headed Bullfinch, 258 

Ezra, David. 

* Note on Cotton Teal, 258 

Galloway, P. F. M. 

The Grasshopper Warbler {Locustella noevia), 164 

* Notes, 1 78 

viii. Alphabetical List of Contributors. 


Notes on Gaiiiiets in Confiiieiiient, 312 

Harkwooi). The Countess of. 

* I.oiiijevity of a White-eared Bulbul, 53 

Hkumann, G. a. 

Soniething^ aljout Hooded Panakeets and other Birds of 

" Tlie Northern Territorj' " of Australia, 135 
I'.ii'ds of New vSouth Wales I have caught and kept, 236, 267, 368^^ 

HoPKiNSON, Dr. Em runs, 

English Names for the Parrots, 282, 315, 341, 377 

HoRSBRUGH, Major Boyd. 

The Cinnamon Teal {Qiterqu-edula cyauopleia), 261 

Ingram, CoLrjNGWooD. 

Birds of Paradise in the West Indies, 35 

Job, Herbert K, 

Wild Ducks from an Incubator, 64, 99 

Lekke, Miss E. Dorothy. 

On Bullfinches as Decoys, 85 

Lovei.t,-Keays, Dr. L. 

A Paper on Sexing Parrakeels, 43 

* Sexing Parrakeets, 120 

Note on Sexing Black-cheeked Love-birds, 162 
Some Grassfinches in my Aviary, 243 

Low, Georgh; K. 

My Indian Shamah, 221 


* Waxwing in Yorkshire, 177 

Medi.ano, Miss LiiviAN M., F.Z.S. 

Nutcracker versus Chough, 169 

The Greater vSpotted Woodpecker, 265 


* A Mouse Hunt, 55 

* Birds laying two eggs in twenty-four hours, 55 

Al2)]ic(.betical List of Contributors. 

Or.iPHANT, Trevor. 

Foreign Doves at liberty, 177 

Pack, Wksi^ky T. 

* Re Sexing Parrakeets, 87 

PHir.iviPPs, Rkginald. 

The Priceless Value of the I^ive Bird, 29 

POCOCK, R. I., F.R.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 
Protection of Birds, 177 

* Note on the Cock of the Rock, 202 

PORTAIv, Maurick. 

* Motacilla alba, 53. 

* Note on early hatching of Partridge, 202 
Crowned Cranes and Stanley Cranes, 233 

Rathborne, Henry B. 

* Accha Seed (?) from Nigeria, 53 
Some Canadian Birds, 348 

Renshaw, Graham, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Horubills, 57 

Aviculture at the Amsterdam Zoological Gardens, 167 
The Great-billed Touraco, 361 

ROTHSCHir.D, Hon. Walter, F.R.S., Ph.D, 

Notes on some Conures of the Enops Group, 153 

Sexh-Smith, D., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Bird Notes from the Zoological Gardens, 47, 320 

The Sun-Bittern [Eurypyga helias), 121 

Rufous-necked Laughing Thrush {Dryonas/es ruficollis), 347 

SiCH, H. L. 

A few notes on Wading birds, 313 


* Accha Seed (.?) from Nigeria, 54 

* Foreign Bird Exhibitors' I^eague, 54 

Smith, C. Barney. 

Desirable Waders and Water Birds, 222 


* Breeding in cages, 37H 


The Yellow Wagtail, 259 

X. Alphabetical List of Contributors. 

Tavistock, Thk Makouis of 

* Coscoroba Cygnets at Woburu Abbey, 53 
On Sexiiig Parrakeets {Platycetcincs), 59 
Adelaide Parrakeets, 72 

Foreign Doves at liberty, 123 

vSome Hints on Parrot-keeping, 207, 296, 353 

* Note on Pennant's Parrakeet, 318 

TKMPr.K, W. R. 

* White Common House Sparrow, 258 


Nesting of the Yellow Wagtail {RFotacUla flava), 81 

Thom, Ar^FRKD A. 

* Breeding Budgerigars, 346 


* Notes, 229 

Vkrnon, Mrs. Warren. 

A Tame Hunting Cissa, 62 

A few of my Birds in Cages, 113 

Waddei.Tv, Miss E. G. R. Peddie. 
Notes on my bir<ls, 311 

WaTERFIEI^d, Mrs. NoElv E. 

Bird Notes from Port Sudan, 70 


The Oyster Catcher {Hcematopus osiralegus), 45 

Williams, A. R. 

Birds in Autumn, 362 

Wormald, Hugh. 

* Wild Ducks from an Incubator, 148 

* Ducks breeding at Dereham, 258 
Ducks nesting at Dereham, 334 

List of Plates. 


* The Asterisk denotes a Coloured Plate. 

Red-headed Titmouse {CEgitlialisus erythrocephalus) ... 

Little Tobago, West Indies 

Tropical Vegetation on Little Tobago, West Indies ... 

Oyster Catcher on Nest 

Oyster Catcher approaching its eggs 

South African Ground Hornbill {Bucorax cafer) and Black 

Hornbill {Sphagolobus atratus) 
Willow Wren with Nestlings 
The English Starling 

Himalayan Yellow-backed Sunbird {QStliopyga seherics) 
Meadow Pipit 

Whitethroat Warbler on nest 

Four Rare Exhibits at the L.C.B.A. Show, Nov. 1913 
Display of the Sun Bittern (Eurypyga helias) 
Celebean Ground-Thrush {Geocichla erythronota) 
Australian Green-wing Dove [Chalcophaps chrysochlora) 
Golden-Eyed Ducks {Clangula glaucion) 
Sheldrake {Tadorna cornuta) 

The New Bird House in the Amsterdam Zoological Gardens 
Amsterdam Zoological Gardens : Cage in Old Bird Gallery 
Egg-laying and Nesting Experiences 
Young Green-winged Doves 
Reed Warbler on Nest 
Reed Warbler by its Nest 
Reed Warblers and Young 
Reed Warblers feeding Nestlings 
Cranes at Brinsop Court 

Brinsop Court, South Front and West Front 
Indian Shamah {Kittacincla macrura) 
Indian Shamah {Kittacincla macrura) 
Male Redstart carrying food to its Nestlings {Ruticilla phosnicurus) 
Female Redstart at entrance to nest 
Amethyst Sunbird {Ginnyris amethystinus) 
Crowned Cranes {Balearica regulorum) 
Nest and Eggs of Crowned Crane, and Young Crowned Crane 
Stanley Crane {Antliropoides paradisea) 
Young Crowned Crane and Crowned Crane (Balearica pavonina) 








List of Plates. 

Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) 

Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla raii) 

Nest and Eggs of Yellow Wagtail {Motacilla raii) ... 

Male Yellow Wagtail bringing Food to Nestlings 

Tame Pied Woodpecker (Picus major) 

Yellow Wagtail {Motacilla raii) 

Male Yellow Wagtail covering Young 

Flamingos on Lake Hannington {Phoeniconais minor) 

Half a Million Flamingos 

Lake Hannington and its Flamingos 

Cuban Finch, Female and Nest 

Flamingos at Brinsop Court 

Meadow Pipit and Nest 

Flamingos' Nests, Lake Hannington 

Red-breasted Merganser (Merg7is serrator) 

Gadwall {Anas strepera) 

Female Tufted Duck on Nest, and what she had in it {Fuligula 

The Rufous-necked Laughing Thrush {Dryonastes ruficollis) 
Great-billed Touraco {Turacus tnacrorhynchus) 






Officers for the Fear 1913-4: ... 

List of Members ... ... ... 

Bides of the Avicultural Society 
The Society's Medal 

The Red-Headed Titmouse {ivitli Coloured Plate), by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 

Breeding of the Long-billed Parrakeet, by F. E. BLAAUW 

The Priceless Value of the Live Bird, by REGINALD PHILLIPPS 

Birds of Paradise in the West Indies (Illustrated), by - 

A Paper on Sexing Parrakeets, by Dr. L. LOVELL-KeaYS 

The Oyster Catcher (Illustrated), by H. WILLFORD ... 

Bird Notes from the Zoological Gardens, by D. SETH-SMITH ... 

REVIEWS: The Peregrine Falcon at the Eyrie ; The Emu 

Correspondence, Notes, etc. ; 

Illustration Fund ; Some Birds from Yucatan ; The Countess of 
Harewood on Longevity of a White-eared Bulbul; Motacilla Alba; 
Coscoroba Cygnets at Woburn Abbey : Accha Seed (?) from Nigeria ; 
Foreign Bird Exhibitors' League ; A Mouse Hunt ; Birds Laying 
Two Eggs in Twenty-four Hours ; The Nightjar ... ... 52- 

Editorial ... ... ... ... ... ... 








Vol. V. No. 1. 

The price of this 
number is 2/6 

-19 13.- 

NOTE. — A new volume commences every Novem)3er. 

All Subscriptions 

should be sent to the Publishers, 
Messrs. WEST, NEWMAN &, Co.. 54-, Hatton Garden, E.C. 


Persons wishing to join the Avicur/ruRAL Society are requested to 
coinninnicate with eitlier of the Hon. Secretaries or the Editor. 

Jg^^The Magazine can also be had from the Publishers by NON-MEMBERS 
at a Subscription of 15/- per annum. 


The Subscription to the Avicultural Societ}' is \0!-vev annum, (iue on 
the 1st of November in each 3ear, and is payable in advance. The emrance 
fee is 10/6. The Avictdtural Magazine is sent free to meniijers monthly. 
Members joining at any time during the year are entitled to the back 
numbers for the cnnent year, on the payment of entrance fee and 

All AISS. for ftihlicatuni in the Magazine, Books for Review, and Private 
^i^T'ifrZ/j^wd^w^j should be addressed to the Kditor, Mr. Hubert D. A.STIvEY, 
Brinsop Court, Hereford. 

All Queries respecii?ig Birds (except post mortem cases) should be 
addressed to the Honorary Correspondence Secretary, Dr. A. G. Butler, 
124, Beckenham Road, Beckenhain, Kent. \^Enclose Stamp for reply']. 

All other correspondence, should be sent to the Honorary Business 
Secretary, Mr. R. I. PococK ; Zoological Society's Gardens, Regent's Park, 
London, N.W. Any change of address should at once })e notified to liim. 

Dead Birds for postmortem examination should be sent to Prof. 
G. H. Wooi.DRiDGE, Zoological Society, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Advice is given, by post, by members of the Council to members- of 
the Societ}', upon all subjects connected with P'oreign and British birds. 
All queries are to be addressed to the Hon. Correspondence Secretar}- 
and should contain a penu}' stamp. Those marked " Private " will not 
be published. 

Tlie Magazine is published bv Messrs. West, Npavm.-vn & Co.. (54, 
Hatton Garden, E.C.) to whom all SUBSCRIPTIONS, orders for extra copies, 
back numbers, and bound volumes (accompanied by remittance) should be 

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The following can be obtained from the Publishers at the prices given 

below. Postage 6d. per volume extra : 
/ol. II., 6/- to members; 8/6 to the public. Vols. V. to VII., 10/6 each to 
Members; 12/6 each to the public. Vol. VIII., 14/- to members; 17/6 to 

the pul)lic. 
Tew Series — Vols. I. to IV., (sets only) £i^ net to members ; ^^5 to the public. 

,, Vols. II. to VII., 16/- each to members; 21/- to the public, 

bird Series— Vol. I. to III., 16/- „ „ 21/- 

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1. To encourage the keeping of wild animals, birds and reptiles 

by private individuals. - 

2. To help such private individuals, when starting, with advice 

as to the purchase of animals and birds and the man- 
agement of same. 

3. To enable members to get in touch with other members or 

persons desirous of selling or exchanging wild animals 
and birds, etc., etc. 


The Eeceipt of the Annual Year Book and Monthly Bulletin 

The right of advertising Stock for Sale, or Wanted, in the 
Monthly Bulletin, FREE, etc., etc. 

Annual Member's Subscription £1 Is. 
Life Membersliip, £10 lOs. 

For further particulars apply to — 

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Pp. 142, Ci.oTH, Dkmy Svo., Pkicp: 5/- net; Postagp:; 4(1. 





J. L. BONHOTE, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

A Manual intended as a practical help to those who find both 
pleasure and profit from the keeping of wild birds in confinement. 
Contributed to by specialists in each class of birds described. 

With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Uncoloured. 

London: WEST, NEWMAN & Co.. 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 





RINTKRS and PUBLISHERS of Natural History Books 
and General Printer.s. 

Lithographers for various Government and other Museums, 
and for learned Societies in Londoji, India, South Africa, &c. 
Original drawings are accurately reproduced by Lithography or 
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half-tone blocks. Coloured plates of Birds, Insects and Animals 
a speciality. 


Importer of and Dealer in Rare Birds, 8c., 


Hamburg -Grossborstel 

Mexican Tree-Quails. Chukar Partridges. 

Mexican Spoonbills. White Ibisses. 

Herons. White Peafowl. 

Demoiselle Cranes. Crown Cranes. 

White 5wans. Black Swans. 

Black- necked Swans. Bewick's Swans. 

Canadian Geese. Brent Qeese. 

Fulvous Tree-Ducks 

Bahama Ducks 
Carolina ,, 

Mandarin „ 
White-eyed ,, 
Rosy-billed ,, 

Whistling Red -crested Ducks 

Ruddy Sheldrakes 

Blue-winged Teals 

Red-shouldered „ 

i^Nettiuni torquatunt) 

Chilian Teals 
„ Pintails 

„ Wigeons 




Price List Free on application. 




Leiiiurs, Coati-Muiidi, Jackals, Civets, Ocelots, Caracals, Mongoose, 
F'errets, Porcupines, Wombats, Gazelles, Deer of kinds. Antelopes, Shetland 
Ponies, Tortoises, Lizards, vSnakes, Crocodiles, &c. 

Monkeys, &e. Cliimpanzees, Baboons, Apes, Mandrills, Dogfaces, 
Soolies, Caratrix, Moustaches, Piitt3'nose, Capuchins, Spiders, Squirrel 
Monkeys, Marniozeets, Hussars, Jews, Rhesus, &c. 

Larg'e Animals. Klephants, Yaks, Camels, P^mus, Rheas, Ostriches, 
Canadian Bears. Japanese Bears, Russian Hears, Wolves,. Hyenas, Lions, 
Tigers, Panthers, Wild Asses, Buflfaloes. 

A million Cowrie, Tridacna, and giant clam shells, also Curios of 
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Waterfowl, &e. Swans of kind, Marabous, Cranes, vStorks, Gali- 
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Fronted, Pink-footed, Barheaded, and other geese. Flamingoes, Pelicans, 
Cormorants, Heron. 

Dueks. Tree Ducks, Mandaiins, Carolinas, Sheldrakes, Roseybills 
Pochards, Pintail, Widgeon, Wild Ducks and fancy varieties of Call Ducks, 
every kind. 

Birds. Talking Grey Parrots, Amazon Parrots, Piping Bullfinches, 
Hartz Mountain Roller Canaries always in stock, Alexandrine Parrots, 
Bengal Parrakeets, Conures, Loiies, Rose Cockatoos, Slenderbill Cockatoos, 
Lemoncrest Cockatoos. Quaker Pairakeets, Banded Parrakeets, Madagascar, 
Red-faced ami Australian Love Birds, Macaws. &c. 

Falcons, trained and untrained. 

Miscellaneous. Small P'inches, &c., talking Mynahs, Pies, Weavers, 
Whydaiis, Saffron Finches, Black-throated Finches, Java Sparrows, White 
Doves, Ring Doves, 'J^amboniine and Blood-breasted Pigeons, Australian 
Crested Pigeons, South American Spotted Pigeons, Californian Quail, Car- 
dinals, Toucans, Peafowls, Japanese long-tailed Fowls, Silky Fowls, Guinea 
Fowls, Ornamental Pheasants, T^-pical Poultry of all varieties. 

Please enquire for Wants. 

JUST ARRIVED. One Great-billed Parrot; one Malabar Parrakeet; 
one pair Yellow thighed Caique Parrots , one hen Blossom-head 
Parrakeet; one pair rare Madras Hanging Parrakeets, one pair 
Blue Bonnets. Mealy Rosellas, &e 

Cables and Telegrams : " Cross, Liverpool." 

National 'Phone 6491 Central. 







Officers for the Year, 1913-1914. 

President : 

The Hon. & Rev. Canon F. G. Dutton. 

Vice-President : 

Her Grace the Duchess of Bedford. 

Council : 

Miss Alderson. Mr. albert Pam. 

Mr. H. D. Astley. 

Mr. Arthur Denman. 

Major r. b. Horsbrugh. 

Mr. E. G. B. Meade-Waldo. 

MR. T. H. Newman. 

Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. 

]Mr. W. L. Sclater. 

MR. D. Seth-Smith. 

Mr. C. Barnby Smith. 

The Marquis of Tavistock. 

Mr. B. Thomassett. 

Mr. H. Willford. 

Mr. H. Wormald. 

Executive Committee: 

Mr. D. Seth-Smith. Mr. W. R. Ogilive-Grant, 

Mr. E. G. B. Meade- Waldo. 

The Hon. Secretaries and the Editor, 

Hon. Business Secretary : 

Mr. R. I. POCOCK, Zoological Society's Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Hon Correspondence Secretary : 

Dr. a. G. Butler, 124, Beckenham Road, Beckenham, Kent. 

Hon. Treasurer: 

Mr. B. C. Thomasett. 

Editor : 

Mr. Hubert D. astley, Brinsop Court, Hereford. 

Auditor : 

Mr. a. Trevor-Battye. 

Scrutineer : 

Mr. E. J. Brook. 

W. T. Moulton &- Co., Ltd 


4, Church Stieet, Brighton. 

List of Members. 

Corrected to October 26th, 1913. 

NOTICE. — Menibers are particularly requested to inform the Hon. Secretary 
of any error in the spelling of their names, addresses, or 
descriptions, so that it may be corrected. 

The date following the Member's name is the date of his election. " Orig. Mem." signifies 
that the Member joined the Society on its formation in October 1894. The asterisk 
denotes that the Member belonged to the U.K. Foreign Cage Bird Society, either at the 
time of the amalgamation or some time before. 

Abraham, Mis.s Beatrice; Grove Lodge, Muswell Hill, N. ^Feb. 

AiNr.KY, John Wili^iam ; i6, Daltoii Green. Dalton, Huddeisfield. 

(June, 1895). 
Ai^DKRSON, Mis.s R. ; Park House, Worksop, Notts. (.April, 1896). 
Ar.r.EN, Rev. U. H. ; Hambletou Vicarage, Oakham. (1913). 
AmE-S, Mrs. HoBART, North Easton, Mass, U.S.A. (1913). 
AMSr.ER, Dr. Maurick; Eton Court House, Eton, Windsor. (Dec, 

AnningSON, Mrs. ; Walt-haui-Sal, Barton Road, Cambridge. (May, 1899) 
Armstrong, Charles; The Grove, Cambridge. (Sept., 1913). 
Arthur, Charles P. ; Market Place, Melkshain, Wilts. (Jan., 1895).* 
10 AsTLEY, Hubert Delaval, M.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; Briusop Court, 

Hereford. [Editor). (June, 1895).* 
ASTLEY, Reginald B. ; The Cottage at the Crossways, Hoe Benhani, 

Newbury. (July, 1902). 
AsTley, Mrs. Reginald; The Cottage at the Crossways, Hoe Eenhain, 

Newbur}'. (Oct., 1905). 
Atherley, Mrs.; Eastnor Castle, Ledbur}', Herefordshire. (April, 1903). 
ATTEwell, Harold E. ; "Cassia Grove," Kingston, Jamaica. (July, 


BainbridgE, W. a. ; Hazelwood, Thorpe, Surrey. (1913). 

Bahr, Dr. Philip H., B.A., M.B.O.U. ; 12, Vicarage Gardens, West 

Kensington, W. (Nov. 1907). 
Baily, W. Shore; Boyers House, Westbury, Wilts. (Feb., 1910). 
Baird, Sir Alexander, Bart; Urie, Stonehaven, Kincardine, N.B. 

(Oct., 1904). 

4 List of Members. 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, F.Z.vS., M.B.O.U. ; 6, Harold Road, Upper 

Norwood, S.E. (Feb. 1904). 
20 Baker, Dr. F. D. ; Superiiiteudeiit, Nat. Zoological Park, Washington, 

D.C., U.S.A. 
Baker, John C, M.B., B.A.. M.B.O.U.; Ceely, Aylesbury. 

(June, 1903). 
Baldei.t,!, La Contk.ssa Guilia Tommasi; 4, Via Silvio Pellico, 

Florence, Italy. (April, 1902). 
Bamford, WirxiAM ; The Coppice, Werueth, Oldham. (Maich, 1904)., The Hon. Mrs.; Court Hall, North Molton, N. Devon. 

(Oct., 1910). 
Barber vStarkey, F'. W. G. ; {no peiinaiient address). (June, 1906). 
Barclay- Watson, Miss F. ; The Court House, Goiing, Sussex:. (July, 

Bari,ow, AivFRED; Superintendent, Alexandra Park, Oldham. (April, 

BARtow-MASSiCK.S, ; The Mount, Rotherham, Yorks. (1913). 
Bedford, Her Grace the Duchess of, F'.Z.vS. ; Woburn Abbey, Woburn, 

Beds.; and 15, Belgrave Square, S.W. (Feb., 1903). 
30 Bfcebe, C. WirxiAM ; Curator of Ornithology ; New York Zoological 

Park, New York City. (July, 1903). 
Bentlev, David; 80, St. Hubert's Street, Great Harwood, Blackburn. 

July, 1S95). 
BerE.sford-Webb, G. M. ; Norbryglit, vSouth Godstoiie, Surrey. (May, 

BerkeIvEV, The Rev. C. J. Rowr.ANO ; Sibbertoft Vicarage, Market 

Harborough. (Nov., 1902). 
" Eerridge, W. S., F.Z.S. ; 24, Fortisniere Avenue, Muswell Hill, N. 

(Dec, 1909). 
Br,ACKBURN, H. R. ; Woodlands, Surrenden Road, Preston, Brighton. 

BtAAUW, F. E., C.M.Z.S., M.B.O.U.; Gooilust, 's, Graveland, Hilversum, 

Holland. (Nov. 1901). 
Blagg, E. W. H.; Greenhill, Cheadle, Staffs. (Sept., tgii). 
Br^AiNE, G. ; Whitedaile, Hambledon, Hants. (Oct., 1908). 
Br,AND, F. I/. ; Rookwood, Copdock, Ipswich. (1912). 
40 Br.ATHWAYT, A. P. ; The Grange, Northwood, Middlesex. (Jan., 1895). 
BONHOTE, John Lewis, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U.; Zoological 

Gardens, Ghizeh, Egypt. (Dec, 1894). 
BORTHWICK, Alex.; Vereena, Canonbury Grove, Dulwich Hill, 
Sydney, N.S.W. (Feb., 1909). 

BosCawen, The Hon. VERE Douglas; 2, St. James's Square, S.W, 

(Nov. 1910). 
BosCAWEN, Townshend E., I, Old Burlington Street, London, W. 

BouGhton-LeiGH, Henry; Brownsover Hall, Rugby. (May, 1900). 

BouRKE, Hon. Mrs. Ai,GERNON ; 75, Gloucester Place, Portnian Square, 

W. (Feb., 1911). 

List of Members. 5 

Box, E. A. GRANVir.r.E ; 76, Broomwood Road, Battersea, S.W. (Nov., 

BOVD, Haroi^D; Box 374, Kelowiia, British Columbia. (Marcli, 1902). 
BoYES, Frederick ; Norwood, Beverley, Yorkshire. (Sept., 1907). 
50 Brampton, Miss H. ; 31, Church Cresceut, Church Eud, Fiuchley, N. 

(Feb., 1898). 
Brazil, Prof. ; Uuiversite de Caen, France. (1913)- 
BridGEman, Lieut, and Coniuir. The Hon. Richard, O.B., R.N., 

M.B.O.U. ; H.M.S. "Druid," ist Destroyer Flotilla, Home Fleet. 

(Dec, 1904). 

Bridgeman, Colonel The Hon. I'"rancis C. ; Neachley, Shifnal. 
(Oct., 1905). 

Brook, F. J.; Hoddam Castle, Ecclefechaii, N.B. (August, 1905). 

Browning, 'vViIvI<iam H. ; 18, West 54th vStreet, New York City. 
(March, 1906). 

Burdon, Mrs. W. ; Hartford House, Bedlington, Northumberland. 

BURGOYNK, F., P\Z.S., 116, Harley Street, W, (1912). 

Burton, WAi/rER; Mooresfoot, East Sheen, Alortlake, .S.W. (Dec, 

BuTi.ER, Arthur G., Ph.D., F.IvS., I-.Z.S., M.B.O.U. {/^ou. Corres- 
pondence Secretary); 124, Beckenham Road, Beckenham, Kent. 
(Orig. Mem.) * 
60 BuTi.ER, A. L,., P'.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; Superintendent of Game Preservation, 
Khartoum, Soudan. (Aug., 1906). 

BuTiyER, Arthur Larchin, M. Aust. O.U. ; Wainiarie, Lower Sandy 
Bay, Hobart, Tasmania. (July, 1905). 

BuTTiKOFER, Dr. J., CM Z.S., M.B.O-U., Director of the Zoological 

Gardens, Rotterdam, Holland. (Oct., 1907). [Hon. Member). 

Buxton, E. Hugh; Fritton Hall, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. (June, 

CadoGan, Dr. Francis, Hatherop Castle, Fairford, Glos. (Sept., 1913). 

CampbkIvT,, a. C. DremncourT; 48, Rockliffe Road, Bathwick, Bath. 

Camps, H. T. T., F.Z.S. ; Linden House, Haddenhaui, Isle of Ely. 
(Orig. Mem.) 

Capern, P\ ; Avenue House, Cotham Park, Bristol. (March, 1903). 

Carr, Richardson, Home Farm, Tring, Herts. (1913). 

Carpenter, The Hon. Mrs. ; 22, Grosvenor Road, S.W. (Feb., 1898). 

70 Carpenter, Prof G. H. ; Royal Zoological Society of Ireland, Phceuix 
Park, Dublin. (Oct., 1905). 

Carrick, George; 13, King's Terrace, Marvhill, Glasgow. (March, 

CasTEI,i^an, Victor E. ; Hare Hall, Romford, Essex. (Orig. Mem.) 

CaTTIvE, C. F. ; Thurston, Bury St. Edmunds. (Jan. 1905). 

CKClt, Lady Wl 1.1,1 AM ; Baroness Amherst of Hackney; Didlington 
Hall, Stoke Ferry, Norfolk and 23, Queen's Gate Gardens, S.W. 

6 List of Members. 

Chamba, H. H., Sir Bhuri vSinoh, K.C,S.I., Rajah of; Cbamba, via 

Dalhousie, Punjab, India. (Jan., 190S). 

CHAMBH;Rr.AlN, WAi/rER ; Peiidock Grove, Cobhaiii, Surrey. (1912). 

Charrington, Mrs. Mowbray; How Green, Hever, Rdenbridge, Kent. 
(May, 1906). 

Chawner, Miss; Forest Bank, Lyndbuist, Hants. (July, 1899). 
CwTHEROW, Mrs. CCAUD Stracey; 20, Park Square, Regent's Park, 
N.W. (June, 1903). 

80 CoNNELL, Mrs. KNATCHBur.r, ; The Orchard, Brockenluirst, Hants. 

(Nov., 1897). 

CoNSTAsr.E, The Rev. W. J.; Uppingham School, Uppingham. 

(Sept., 1901). 
CooKE-HuRt^E, Mrs. Edward, Netherwood Farm, Lyndhurst, Hants. 

Cooper, E. E. ; Berrydown Court, Overton, Hants. (1912). 
Cooper, James; Cayton, Scarborougli. (Orig. Mem.) 
Cooper, Wilmam; .\i.slaby Hall, Pickering, Yorks. (Rlarch, 1907). 
Corbet, SirRor.,AND J., Bart.; CoMstream Guards, Chelsea Barracks, 

S.W. (May, 1911). 
Corbet, Mrs. Bertram; 19, St. James's .Square, S.W. (1913). 
Cory, Reginald R. ; Duffryn, near Cardiff, (.\ugust, 1905). 
Craig, Prof. Wallace ; Orono, Maine, U.S.A. (1912). 
90 Croft, A. I?. ; The Clock House, Ashford, Middlesex. (May, 1907). 
Cronkshaw, J. ; 193, Manchester Road, Accrington. (Dec, 1894). 
Cr0.SS, W. Simpson, F.Z.S. ; 18, Earle Street, Liverpool. (Jan. 1908). 
CUMMINGS, A. ; 16, Promenade Villas, Cheltenliam. (Dec, 1S96). 
Cunningham, Martin; Goffs Oak House, dies hunt, Herts. (Oct., 

CURREY, Mrs.; The Pit House Ewell, Surrey. (Feb., 1906). 
CuSHNY, Charles; [No petinanent address). (June, 1906). 

DaviES, Claude G., M.B.O.U. ; "D" Squadron, Cape Mounted Rifle- 
men, Matatiele, E. Griqualaud, S. Africa. (July, 1909). 

Dawnay, The Lady Adelaide; Brampton House, Northampton. 
(July, 1903). 

Dell, Charles; 12, High Street, Harlesden, N.W. (July, 1900). 
100 Denman, Arthur, M.A., F.Z.S., F.S.A., 29, Cranley Gardens, South 
Kensington; S.W. (Sept. 1909). 

Dennls, Mrs. H. E. ; St. Leonard's Park, Horsham. (March, 1903). 

De Taintegnies, La Baronne Le Clement; Cleveland, Minehead, 
Somerset, (p-eb., 1902). 

Dewar, D., I.C.S. ; c/o Messrs. Grindley & Co., 54, Parliament vStreet, 
S.W. (Sept., 1905). 

deWinton, William Edward, F'.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; Southover, Burwash, 
Sussex. (Aug., 1903). 

Director, The ; Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. (1912). 

List of Members. 7 

DiMOCK, C. W. ; U.S. Cartridge Co., Boston, Mass, U.S.A. (1913). 
Donald, C. H. ; c/o The Alliance Bank of Simla, Ltd., Simla, India. 

(March, 1906). 
DouGr.AS Miss ; Rose Monnt, Pitlochr}', N.B. (Jnne, 1905). 
Douglas, William C, F.Z.S. ; 9, Trebovir Road, Pearl's Court, S.W. 

(Nov., 1900). 
no Drewitt, Fkbdekick; Dawtkey, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.Z.S., 

M.B.O.U. ; 14, Palace Gardens Terrace, Kensington, W. (May, 

Drummond, Miss; Mains of Meggincli, H,rrol, N.B. (I'^eb., 1905). 
Duff, The Lady Grant; Earl vSoham Grange, Framlingham, Suffolk. 
(Aug., 1905). 
. DunlEaTh, The Lady; Ballywalter Park, Ballywater, co. Down, 
Ireland. (August, 1S97). 

DuTTON, The Hon. and Rev. Canon ; Bibury Vicarage, Fairford. (Orig . 

Dyott, R. a. ; Freeford, Lichfield. (1912). 

Eckstein, F. ; Ottershaw Park, Ottershaw, Surrey. (1912). 
Ezra, Alfred ; no, Mount Street, Ivondon, W. (1912). 
Ezra, David; 3, Kyd Street, Calcutta. (June, 1912). 

Farmborough, Percy W., F.Z.S. ; Lower Edmonton. ( June, 1896).* 
120 F'arrar, The Rev. C. D ; Micklefield Vicarage, Leeds. (Jan. 1895). 
F'aSEY, William R. ; The Oaks, Holly Bush Hill, Snaresbrook, N.E. 

(May, 1902). 
Field, George; Sorrento, Stapelhurst, Kent. (March, 1900). 
Field, Miss Hilda; Ashurst Park, Tunbridge Wells. (1912). 
FiSHER-RowE, Herbert; St. Leonard's Grange, Beaulieu, Hants. 

FirEbrace, Mrs. ; 26, Old Queen vStreet; Westminster, S.W. (Feb., 


Flower, Captain Stanley Smyth, F.L.S., I'.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; Director 
Egyptian Government Zoological Gardens, Giza, Cairo, Egypt. 
(Jan., 1913). 

Flower, Mrs. Stanley; Longfield, Tring, Herts. (March, 1909). 

Focklemann, August; Tier Park, Hamburg-Grossborstei, Germany. 
(Nov., 1907). 

FoLLETT, The Lady Julia; Woodside, Old Windsor. (Oct., 1903). 
130 ForTESCUb:, Col. H. ; Falmouth House, Newmarket. (Oct., 1908). 

Foster, E. Hubert, Lower Bowden, Pangbourne, Berks. (1912). 

Fowler, Charles, 26, Broad Street, Blaenavon. (Dec. 1894). 

Frost, Wilfrid ; 13, Fairlawn Avenue, Chiswick Park, W. (July, 

Galloway, P. F . M. ; Durban, Rectory Road, Caversham, Reading, 
(March, 1907). 

8 List of Members. 

Ghigi, M. le Prof. Alessandro ; Via d'Azeglio, Bologna, Italy, (March, 

GlBBS, Mrs. H. Martin; Barrow Court, Flax Bourtoii, R.S.O., Somer- 
set. (April, 1904). 

GiBBlNS, Wii^i^lAM B. ; Ettiiigtoii, near Stratford-on-Avor.. (June 

Gii.BEY, Sir Walter, Bt., F'.Z.S. ; Elsenhain Hall, Elsenham, Essex. 

(Dec, 1907). 
Giles, Henry M., M. Aust. O.U. (Orig. Mem.) ; Zoological Gardens, 

Perth, Western Australia. (June, 1903). 
140 Girj., Arthur, M.R.C.V.S,, Mount Denison, Novia Scotia. (Dec, 1899). 
Gladstone, Miss J.; The Lodge, Patkstone, Dorset. (July, 1905). 
GODDARD, H. E. ; Rothsay, Thicket Road, Sutton, Surrey. (Feb., 1899). 
GODMAN, F. DuCane, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.Z.S. ; President of the British 

Ornithologists' Union, 45, Pont Street, S.W. (Oct., 1904). 

{ Honoi ary Metnber). 

Goodall, a. a.; 12, Udersley Grove, West Dulwich, S.E. (Nov., 1909). 

GooDCHiLD, Herbert, M.B.0.U.;66, Gloucester Road, Regent's Park. 
N.W. (Oct., 1902). 

GOODFELLOW, Walter, M.B.O.U. ; The Poplars, Kettering. (June, 

GORTEK, Madame; The Delta, Walmer, Kent. (Nov., 1901). 

GOSSE, Philip, M.R.C.S. ; Curtleniead, Beaulieu, Hants. (April, 1911). 

Gow, J. Barnett ; 86, vSt. Vincent Street, Glasgow, and I^edcameroch, 

Bearsden, Glasgow. (Feb., 1906). 

150 Grabowsky, F., Director of the Zoological Gardens; Breslau, Germany. 
(June, 1905). 

Gray, Henry, M.R.C.V.S.; 23, Upper Phillimore Place, W. (June, 

Greening, Linn^us ; Fairlight, Grappenhall, nr. Warrington. (Jan. 

Gregory, Mrs. ; Melville, Parkstone, Dorset. (Dec, 1901). 

Grey, Rt. Hon. Sir Edward, Bart, K.G., M.P.,3, Queen Anne's Gate, 
S.W. (1913). 

Griffiths, M. E, ; Caizley House, Temple Road, vStowmarket. (May, 

Gronvold, Henrik ; 26, Albert Bridge Road, Battersea Park, S.W. 

(Nov., 1902). 

Guilford, Miss H.; 23, Lenlon Avenue, The Park, Nottingham. 

(March, 1903). 
GULDENKiAN, C. S. ; 27, Quai D'Orsay, Paris. (Dec, 1908). 
Gunn, W. Cecil; The Red House, Bickley, Kent. (Jan., 1910). 
160 Gunther, Albert, M.A , M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S,, M.B.OU. ;2, 

Litchfield Road, Kew Gardens. (Sept,, 1902). {Honorary Member). 
Gurney, John Henry, F.Z.S,, M.B.O,U, ; Keswick Hall, Norwich; 

and Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, S,W. (Dec. 1904). 

HaaGNER, A. K., F,Z.S., M.B.O.U., Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, South 
Africa. (Nov., 1905). 

List of Members. 9 

HagKnbkck, Hp;inrich ; Stellingen, Hamburg, Gennany. (Nov., 

Hai.ked, Lieut. N. G. B. ; King's Owu Yorkshire Light Infantry; 3rd 

Battalion, Egyptian Army, Kliartoum. (Dec, 190S). 
HarcourT, Rt. Hon. Lkwis, P.C., 14, Berkeley Square, W. (1913). 
Harding, W. A., M A., F.Z.S. ; Histon Manor, Cambridge. (Dec. 1903). 
Hardy, Lawkknck, M.P; Sandling Park, Hytlie, Kent. (Nov., 1906). 
Harkwood, The Countess of; Harewood House, Leeds. (March, 1903). 
Harley, Mrs. F. ; Brampton Bryan, Herefordshire. (1908). 
170 Harper, Miss; 6, Ashburuham Road, Bedford. (March, 1902). 

Harper, Edward Wilciam, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; c/o Wardle & Co., 

Nairobi, British East Africa. (Feb,, 1901). 
Hartley, Mrs.; St. Helen's Lodge, Hastings. (April, 1897). 
Harvey, Tlie Hon. r,ady ; Langley Park, Slough. (Oct., 1906). 
Hawke, The Hon. Mary C. ; Wighill Park, Tadcastar. (Nov., 1900). 
Hawkins, L. W. ; 206, Clive Road, West Dulwich, S.E. (Jan., 1899). 
Hazelrigg, Sir Arthur, Bt. ; Noseley Hall, Leicester. (March, 1907). 
Kkmsworth, The Rev. B., M.A., J. P. ; Monk Frystou Hall, South 

Milford, Yorks. (June, 1901). 
HetIvEY, Mrs. Hfcnry; Beaufort House, 114, Church Road, Norwood, 

S.E. (July, 1910). 

Hewitt, H. C. ; East vSooke, Vancouver Island, B.C. (Jan., 1905). 

180 Heywood, Richard: Narborough, Norfolk. (Oct., 1911). 

Hir,L, Mrs. E. Stavei^EY; Oxley Manor, Wolverhampton. (Oct., 1905). 

HiNCKS, Miss E. Marjorie; Barons Down, Dulvertoti. (Feb., 1908). 

HindIvE. R. Franklin; 34, Brunswick Road, r,iverpool. (Sept., 1898). 

Hodgson, The Hon. Mrs. ; Cloptou, Stratford-ou-Avon. (March, 1903). 

HOLDEN, Ralph A., F.Z.S. ; 5, John Street, Bedford Row, Loudon. 
(May, 1906). 

HOPKINSON, Dr. Emilius; D.S.O., M.A., M.B. Oxon., 45, Sussex 

Square, Brighton. (Oct., 1906). 

HOPSON, Fred C. ; Northbrook Street, Newbury. (March, 1897), 

Horsbrugh, Major BoYD R., A.S.C. ; Tandridge Priory, Oxted, Surrey. 

(Jan., 1898). 
HOUSDEN, James B. ; Brooklyn, Cator Road, Sydenham, S.E. (Orig. 

190 Howard, Robert James, M.B.O.U. ; Shear Bank, Blackburn. (April, 

Howard-Vyse, H. ; Stoke Place, Slough. (Nov., 1906). 
Howman, Miss; 6, Essex Grove, Upper Norwood (Mar., 1897). 
Hubbard, George; 112, Fenchurch Street, E.C. (Jan., 1905). 
Husband, Miss; Clifton View, York. (Feb., 1896). 

- Hutchinson, Miss Alice; Alderton Vicarage, Chippenham, Wilts. 
(August, 1907). 

Inchiouin, The Lady, Dromolaud Castle, Newmarket-on-Fergus, 
Colinty Clare, Ireland. (Nov., 1897). 

10 List of Members. 

Ingram, Coi^ItIngwood ; The Bungalow, Westgate-oii-Sea. (Oct., 1905). 

Ingram, Sir Wii^TvIAM, Bart; 65, Cromwell Road, London, S.W. (Sept., 

Isaac, Charles; Sonierton, Bath Road, vSlough. (March, 1906). 

200 IvENS, Miss; 13, Rua de Piedada, Campo D'Ourique, Lisbon, Portugal. 
(August, 1903). 

Jamrach, Albert E., j8o, St. George's Street, E. (April, 1913). 

Johnson, Major Frank; Melrose House, Wilbury Road, Hove, Sussex. 


Johnstone, Mrs. E. J. ; Burrswood, Groombridge, Sussex. (May, 1900). 

Keavs, Dr. C. LOVELL ; Park Lodge, East Hoathley, Sussex. (Aug., 

Kennedy, Lieut. G. ; [No permanent address). (1911). 
KiRCHNER, Mrs. ; Sea Copse Hill,Wootton, Isle of Wight. ( Jan., 1911). 
Kr.oss, C. Boden ; {No permanent address). (1912). 

KuSER, Anthony R. ; P.O. l^ox 590, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.A. 
(Dec, 1908). 

KusER, J. Dryden; Faircourt, Bernardsville, New Jersey, U.S.A. (1912). 

210 Lancastp:r, John ; Duuchurch Lodge, near Rugby. (March, 1904). 

Lascelles, The Hon. Gerald, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; The King's House, 
Lyndhurst. (Oct., 1896). 

Lee, Mrs. E. D. ; Hartwell House, Aylesbury. ( July, 1906). 

Leeke, Miss Dorothy ; 9, Hertford Street, Mayfair, W. (May, 1909). 

Leicester, The Earl of, G.C.V.O., etc. ; 15, Hill Street, Berkeley 
Square, W. (May, 1913). 

Leigh, Cecil; Lybum Park, near Lyndhurst, Hants. (Nov., 1906). 

Legge, Hon. Gerald; PatshuU House, Wolverhampton. (Feb., 1913). 

LE SOUEF, A. Sherbourne; Zoological Gardens, Sydney, New South 
Wales. (Aug., 1913). 

Le SoueF, Dudley ; Zoological Gardens, Royal Park, Parkville, Mel- 
bourne, Australia. (1912). 

LiLFORD, The Lady ; Lilford Hall, Oundle, Northamptonshire. (Jan., 

220 Lloyd, Capt. A. M. ; i/24th Regiment, Chatham Barracks, Chatham. 

(April, 1912). 
LoCKYER, Alfred ; St. Monica's Lodge, Elm Park Road, Winchmore 

Hill, N. (Dec, 1905). 
Logan, Mrs. Carleton ; Roydon, Lyniington, Hants. (May, 1913). 
Long, Mrs. ; Sherrington Manor, Berwick, Sussex. (Feb., 1907). 

Lovelace, The Countess of; Wentworth House, Chelsea Embankment, 

London, S.W. (May, 1906), 
LovETT, C. ; Route 3, Brentwood, Tennesse, U.S.A. (Dec, 1912). 
Low, George E. 14, Royal Terrace East, Kingstown, Ireland. (Mar., 


List of Members. 11 

Lucas, Dr. N. S., 19, Westbourne Terrace, Hyde Park, W. (Jan., 1913). 

Manchester Pubuc Libraries ; Reference Library, Piccadilly, Man- 
chester. (July, 1913). 
McGeagh, Dr. R. T. ; 23, Breeze Hill, Bootle, Lanes. (Aug., 1908). 

230 McGee, The Rev. Father; Keppel Street, Batliurst, N.S.W. (July, 

Mai.onE, Mrs. M. L'EsXkange, The Manor Cottage, Clewer Green, 

Windsor. (Jan., 1902). 
Manners-Smith, Lieut.-Col. ; The Residency, Nepal, India. (1911). 
Mappin, Stanley ; 12, Albert Hall Mansions, Kensington Gate, S,W. 

(April, 1911). 

Marshai,!,, Archibai.d Mci^ean; Chitcombe, Breds, Sussex, (Jan., 

Martin, H. C. ; 147, Victoria Road, Old Charlton, Kent; and Saladero, 

Liebig, Fray Bentos, Uruguay. (Jan., 1S97). 

Martin, H. J. ; Clock House Farm, Woodniansterne, Surrey. (June, 

MARTOREivti, Dr. Giancinto, M.B.O.U., etc.; CoUezione Turati, 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milan, Italy. (July, 1906). 

{Honorary Member). 
Mathews, Gregory M., F.R.S., Edin., F.L.S. ; Langley Mount, 

Watford, Herts. (Dec, 1909). 
Maud, Mrs. E. ; Monterey, California. (July, 1913). 
240 MEADE-WAI.DO, E. G. B., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U-; Stonewall Park, Eden. 

bridge, Kent. (Jan., 1895). 
Medland, Miss LiiviAN M. ; 10, Newcastle House, Northumberland 

Street, W. (Oct., 1913). 
Mercer, Wii.i,iAM ; Doylestown, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. (March, 1913). 
Mirxs, The Hon. VIOLET ; The Wilderness, Sevenoaks. (Oct., 1907). 
MiLi.SUM. O. ; 7, Cliftonville Parade, Margate. (Aug., 1909). 
MiTCHEiviv, Harry ; Holmefield, Lyndhurst, Hants. (Feb., 1904). 
MoKRSCHELiv, F. ; Imperial Hotel, Malvern. (June, 1895). 
MoMBER, Mrs.; La Junia, San Reino, Italy. (Sept., 1907). 
Money, L. G. Chiozza, M.P. ; The Grey House, Hampstead Lane, 

London, N. (Nov., 1913). 
Montagu, Hon. P:. S., M.P., M.R.O.U. ; 59, Bridge Street, Cambridge, 

and 12, Kensington Palace Gardens, W. (May, 1912). 
250 MoNTGEON, .Mdlle. de ; Covertside, Hasfield, Gloucester. (Oct., 1913). 
Morgan, Hon. Evan V. ; 37, Bryanston Square, W. (1912). 
Morrison, Hon. Mrs. McLaren; Parkfield, Park Lane. Southwick, 

Siissfx. (Sept., 1911). 
MoKSHKAD, Ladv ; Forest Lodge, Binfield, Bracknell, Berks. (Dec, 

894). * 
Mortimer, Mrs. ; Wigmore. Holinwood, Surrey. (Orig. Mem.) * 
MUNDY, Miss vSybii. Mii,i,ek ; Shipley Hall, Derby. (Jan., 1909). 

12 List of Members. 

MUNT, Henry; io, Ashburn Place, S. Kensington, S.W. (I912). 
MYtAN, JAS. George, B.A., M.B. (Univ. Col.); L.R.C.P. and L.R.C.S., 
(Ed.)&c., 90, Upper Hanover Street, Sheffield. (Dec. 1901). 

Naylor, Rowi.and E. ; Eton College, Windsor. (Mar., 1913). 

Newai^l, Mrs.; Red Heath, Croxley Green, R.S.O., Herts. (June, 

191 1). 
260 Newman, T. H., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U.; Newlands, Harrowdene Road, 

Wembley, Middlesex, (May, 1900). 
Nichols, WAVrER B., M.B.O.U. ; Stour Lodge, Bradfield, Manningtree. 

(Jan., 1907). 

Nicole, Michael J., M.B.O.U. ; Zoological Gardens, Giza, Cairo,. 
Egypt. (Jnly, 1906). 

Noble, Mrs. ; Park Place, Henley on-Thames. (Oct., 1900). 

Oakey, W. ; 34, High Street, Leicester. (March, 1896). 

Oberholser, Harry C. ; 1444 Fairmont Street, N.W., Washington, 

D.C., United States of America. (Oct., 1903). 
Ogilvie-Grant.W. R., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; British Museum (Nat. Hist.), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. (Dec, 1903). 

Ogle, Bertram Saville, M.B.O.U. ; Steeple Aston, Oxford. (Dec, 

Oliphant, Trevor; Bale Rectory, Melton Constable, Norfolk. (May, 

Onslow, The Countess of; Clandon Park, Guildford, Surrey. (July, 

270 O'Reilly, Nicholas S. ; 144, Eastern Road, Kemp Town, Brighton. 
(Dec, 1894). 

Ostrehan, J. Eliott D. ; Bank House, Thame, Oxon. (April, 1903). 

Page, Wesley T., F.Z.S. ; Glenfield, Graham Avenue, Mitcham, 
Surrey. (May, 1897). 

Painter, K. V.; 2508, Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. (Dec, 

Palmer, Mrs. G. W. ; Marlston House, near Newbury. (Oct., 1905). 

Pam, Albert, F.Z.S. ; Womiley Bury, Broxbourne, Herts. (Jan. 1906). 

Pam, Hugo, C.M.Z.S. ; 65, Bishopsgate, E.C. (Sept., 1911). 

Parker, Duncan, J. P. ; Clopton Hall, Woolpit, Bury St. Edmunds. 

(June, 1903;. 
Parkin, Thomas, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U.; Fairseat, High 

Wickham, Hastings. (Oct., 1903). 
PaTTInson, Mrs. ; The Deanery, Brisbane, Queensland. (April, 1913). 

280 Pauwels, R. ; Everberg, par Cortenberg, Brabant, Belgium. (Dec, 
Peir, p. ; c/o W. G. Peir, Esq., 60, Elizabeth Street, Sydney, N. S. 
Wales. (July, 1903). 

Pennant, Lady Edith Douglas; vSoham House, Newmarket, Cambs. 
(Sept., 1908). 

List of Members. 13 

Penrose, Frank G., M.D., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; c/o Mr. R. H. Porter, 

7, Princes Street, Caveiidisli Square, W. (Dec. 1903). 
Perreau, Major G. A. ; 6, Marlborough Street, Bath. (Dec, 1903). 
Percy, The Lord WiIvT.iam ; Alnwick Castle, Alnwick. (May, 1913). 
Perring, C. S. R. ; I, Clareniont Avenue, New Maiden, Surrey. 
PHir.Tjpps, Reginat^d ; 26, Cromwell Grove, West Kensington Park,W. 

(Orig. Mem.) * 
PHII.1.IPS, John C. ; Knobfields, Wenham, Mass., U.S.A. (March, 1910). 
PhiIvUPS, Mrs. E. I.ORT, F.Z.S. ; 79, Cadogan Square, S.W. (April, 

290 PiCARD, Hugh K. ; 298, West End Lane, N.W. (March, 1902). 

PiCHOT, M. Pie;rre A.; 132, Boulevard Hausmann, Paris. (vSept., 1910). 
PiCKFOKD, Randolph John ; Thorn Lea, Carmel Road, Darlington. 
Pike, L. G. ; Kingsbarrow, Wareham, Dorset. ( , 1912). 

POCOCK, R. I., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; Zoological Society's 

Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. (Feb., 1904). (Ho7i. Secretary) . 
Portat,, Maurice; High vSandhoe, Hexham. (April, 1913). 
Portal, The Lady Rosemary ; Kingsclere House, Newbury. (April, 

POWIS, The Earl of; 45, Berkeley Square, W. ; and Powis Castle, 

Welshpool. (April, 1902). 
Princeton University, Library of'; Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

(Nov., 1907). 
Pycraft, W. p., A.L.S., F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U. &c. ; British Museum (Nat. 

Hist.), Cromwell Road, S.W. (Nov., 1904). 

300 QuiNCEY, Richard vS. de O. ; Inglewood, Chislehurst, Kent. (April, 

Radcliffe, Captain A. Delme ; 105th Maratha Light Infantry, Poona, 

Rathborne, Henry B. ; Dunsinea, Castleknock, co. Dublin. (May, 

RaTTIgan, G. E. ; Lanarkslea, Cornwall Gardens, S.W. (Aug., 1908). 

Raven, W. H. ; 239, Derby Road, Nottingham. (Dec, 1909). 

Reid, Mrs. ; Funchal, Madeira. (Feb., 1895). 

Renshaw, Dr. Graham, M.B., M.R.C.S. ; Bridge House, Sale, Man- 
chester. (Jan., 1910). 

Rice, Captain G. ; Persey House, Blairgowrie, N.B. (Ma}', 1912). 

Rii.EY, Joseph H. ; U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
(June, 1906). 

Ritchie, Norman ; The Holmes, St. Boswell's, N.B. (Feb., 1903). 
310 Robbins, Henry; (Address tmknozvji). (April, 1908). 

Roberts, Mrs., C.M.Z.S., M. Anst. O.U. ; Beaumaris, Montpelier Street, 
Hobart, Tasmania. (June, 1903). 

14 List of Mef)ibers. 

Rogers, Lt.-Col. J. M., D.S.O., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. (Late Royal Dra- 
goons); Riveihill, Sevenoaks. (April, 1907). 

ROGERSON, A.; Fleurville, Ashford Road^ Cheltenham. (Dec, 1902). 

ROTCH, Mrs.; Park House, Park Road, Teddington. (June, 1897). 

Ro'rHSCHir,D, Lionel dk, M.P., 46, Park Street, W. (Nov., 1913). 

RoTHWEivL, James E. ; 153, Sewall Avenue, Brookline, Mass, U.S.A. 
(Oct., 1910). 

St. OuinTin, William Herbert, F.Z..S., M.B.O.U.; Scanipston Hall, 
Rilliiigtoii, York. (Orig. Mem.) 

SCHLUTER, John C. ; " Heathwood," 5, Dacres Road, Forest Hill, S.E). 

(Dec, 1910). 
SCLATER, W. L.. M.A., F.Z.S. ; 10, Sloane Court, S.W. (Aug., 1904). 
320 ScoTT, B. Hamilton; Hamildean, Ipswich. (1912). 

Seppings, Captain J. W. H. ; The Arm\' Pay Office, Canterbur}'. (Sept., 

Seth-SmiTh, David, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U.; 34, Elsworthy Road, South 

Hampstead, N.W. (Dec, 1894). 
SeTH-SmiTh, Leslie M., B.A., M.B.O.U. ; AUeyne, Caterham Valley, 

Surrey; and Kampala, Uganda. (July, 1902). 
SherbrookE, Mrs. P.; Raveuswyke, Kirbymoorside, Yoiks. (March, 

Sibag-Montefiore, Mrs.; 2, Palace Houses, W. ( , 1913). 

SiCH, Herbert Leonard; c/o Dr. L. Lovell-Keays, Park Lodge, East 

Hoathly, Sussex. (Feb., 1902). 
Silver, Allen; 303. High Road, Streatham, S.W. (Aug., 1904). 
Simpson, Archibald ; Oakfield House, Stanks, Crossgates, ur. Leeds. 

(Feb., 1901). 
Smalley, F. W., F.Z.S. , M.B.O.U.: Challan Hall, Silverdale, near 

Carnforth, Lanes. (1912). 
330 Smith, C. Barnby ; Woodlands, Retford. (August, 1906). 

Smith, Miss Dorrien-Innis ; Tresco Abbey, Isle of Scilly, Cornwall. 

(August, 1908). 

SouTHESK ; The Countess of; Kiunaird Castle, Brechin, N.B. (Feb., 

vSouTHPORT Corporation; Curator; Hesketh Park, Soulhport. (Jan., 

Spence, G. O. ; Elmwood, Hartburn, Stockton on Tees, ( , 1913), 

Stansfeld, Captain John; Dunniald, Montrose, N.B. (Dec, 1896). 

Staples-Browne, R. ; Bampton, Oxfordshire. (August, 189S). 

Stevens, H. ; Fairfield Road, Morecambe, I,ancs. (Oct., 1911). 

Stirling, Mrs. Charles; Old Newton House, Donne. (Sept., 1904). 

Stockport Corporation ; Superintendent ; Vernon Park, Stockport. 
(Oct., 1902). 

340 STURTON-Johnson, Miss ; Oratava House, Ore, Hastings. (May, 1897). 

List of Members. 15 

SuFFOl^K and Berkshire, The Countess of; Chailtou Park, Malines- 
bury. (Feb., 1909). 

SuGGiTT, Robert; Snggitt'sLane, Cleethorpes, Grimsby. (Dec, 1903). 

SuTCLiFFFC, At.berT; Field House, Grimsby. (Feb., 1906). 

Sutton, Lady; Brinsop Court, Hereford. (Dec, 1901). 

SwAYSr,AND, WaltKk; 47, Queen's Road, Brighton. (Orig. Mem.) * 

Tanner, Dr. Frank L. ; Vanvert House, Guernsey. (Jan., 1904). 
Tanner, Mrs. SlinGSBY ; 48, Lower Sloane Street, S.W. (Oct., 1906). 
TavIvSTOCK, The Marquis of; Woburu Abbey, Beds, (1912). 
Teck, H.H. the Duchess of; Frogmore Cottage, Windsor. (April, 

350 Temple, W. R. ; Ormonde, Datchet, Bucks. (June, 1907). 

Terry, IMajor Horace A., M.B.O.U. (late Oxfordshire Light Infantry); 

Tlie Lodge, Upper Halliford, Shepperton. (Oct., 1902). 

Teschemaker, W. E., B.A. ; Ringuiore, Teignmouth, Devon. (May, 

Thom, Alfred A.; The Citadel, Weston, near Shrewsbury. (June, 

Thomas, Henry; 15, Clinning Road, Birkdale, Southport. (Jan., 1895). 

Thomas, Miss I'\ G. F. ; Weston Hall, Towcaster, Northants. (March, 

Thomas, Mrs. Haig, F.Z.S.; Movies Court, Ringwood, Hants. (August, 

Thommasset, Bernard C, F.Z.S. ; The Manor House, Ashmans- 

worth, near Newbury, (Hon IVeasurerJ . \July, 1896). 
Thomasset, H. p. ; Cascade Estate, Maye, Seychelles. (Nov., 1906). 
Thompson : Mis. F. F. ; Canandaigna, N.Y., U.S.A. ( Juh', 1907). 
360 Thorniley, Percy Wright; Shooter's Hlil, Wem., Shrewsbury. 
(Feb., 1902). 

Thorpe, Charles; Selborne, Springfield Road, Wallington, Surrey. 
(Dec, 1901). 

TiCEHURST, Dr. C. B. ; Grove House, Lowestoft. /1912). 

TicEHURST, Norman Frederic, M.A., M.B., F. R.C.S., F.Z.S. , 35, 

Pevense)' Road, St. Iveouards-on-Sea. (Dec, 1906). 

Tomes, W., J. P.; Glenmoor, 31, Billing Road, Northampton. (Dec, 

TOWNSEND, Stanley M. ; 3, Swift Street, Fulham. (Sept., 1898). 

Trenow, Evelyn Henry, F.Z.S.; Ivy Lodge, Epping, Essex. (Nov., 

Trestrail, Mrs.; Southdaile, Clevedon. (Sept., 1903). 
Trevor-Battye, Aubyn, B. R., M.A., F.L.S ; Stoner Hill, Peters- 
field. (July, 1898). 

TUCKWELL, Edmund H. ; Berthorpe, Conipton, near Guildford, Surrey. 

370 Turner, Mrs. Turner; Abbey Spring, Beaulieu, Hants. (July, 1910). 

Tweb:die, Major W., Arg. and Suth. Highlanders; c/o Cox & Co., 16, 

Charing Cross, S.W. (April, 1903). 

16 List of Members. 

Urwick, Doucr,AS R. ; St. Cross Mill, Wiuchesler. (March, 1913). 

VAl.KN'riNE, Ernest; 7, Highfield, Workington. (May, iSgg). 

Van OorT, Dr. E- D. ; Museum of Natural History, Leiden, Holland. 

Vernon, Mrs. E.Warren; Laniancha House, Laniancha, Peebleshire. 

(Nov., 1907). 
V11.TJERS, Mrs.; The Shielding, Ayr, N.B. (August, 1906). 

Waddell, Peddie; 4, Great Stuart Street, Edinburgh, N.B. 

(Feb., 1903). 
Wade, Lawrence M. ; Oakhill Road, Aslistead, Surrey. (Sept., 1913). 
Wait, Miss L. M. St. A.; 12, Rosary GardeiLS, S.W. (Feb., 1909). 
380 WalcotT, F. C. ; 14, Wall Street, New York, U.S.A. (March, 1913). 
Walker, Miss; Persey House, Blairgowrie, N.B. (Jan., 1903). 
Wai^ker, Miss H. K. O. ; Cheshani, Bury, Lanes. (Feb., 1S95). 
Wali^ace, Mrs. Wilwamson ; Kelton, Dumfries. (1912). 
Wa 1,1.0 P ; The Hon. Frederick; 33, vSouth Audley Street, London,W. 

(Feb., 1902). 
Waude, The Lady Harriett; Knotley Hall, Tuiibridge. (Aug., 1903). 
Waterfield, Mrs. NoKiv E. ; Port Soudan, Red Sea. (Sept., 1904). 
Waterhouse, Mrs. D. ; 6, F;splanade, Scarborough. (Feb., 1903). 
Watson, S. ; 37, Tilhebarn Street, Preston. (Feb., 1906). 
Waud, Reginai.D; Hoe Benham, near Newbury. (May, 1913). 
390 Wellington, Evelyn, Duchess of; West Green House, Hartley 

Wintney, Winchfield, Hants. (1912). 
Wellington, Her Grace the Duchess of; Ewhurst Park, Basingstoke. 

(Oct., 1913). 
Whitaker, Joseph I. S., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. ; Malfitano, Palermo, Sicily. 

(August, 1903). 
Whitehead, Mrs. Henry; Hasleni Hey, Bury, Lanes. (March, 1902). 
Whitehead, JeFFERY ; Mayes, East Grinstead, Sussex. (1912). 
White, Mrs. Carl; Chaltanooge, Tennessee, U.S.A. (Nov., 1913). 
White, Stephen J. ; Lloyd's, London, K.C. (Oct., 1913). 
WiglESWORTh, Joseph, M.D., M.B.O.U.; Springfield House, Wins- 
combe, Somerset. (Oct., 1902). 
WiLLFORD, Henry; Upland View, Havenstreet, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

(Nov., 1907). 
Williams, Mrs. C. H. ; 49, Okehampton Road, St. Thomas, Exeter. 

(May, 1902). 
400 Williams, Mrs. Howard ; Oatlauds, Sunbridge Avenue, Bromley, 

Kent. (April, 1902). 
Williams, Sydney, Jun., F.Z.S. ; Holland Lodge, 275, I'"ore Street, 

FZdmonton, N. (Feb., 1905. 
Wilson, Maurice A., M.D.; Kirkby Overblow, Panual, S. O., York. 

(Oct., 1905). 

List of Members. 71 

Wilson, T. Nbedham; Oak Lodge, Bitt.eriie, nr. vSoulhanipton. (Dec, 

WiNCHELSEA and Nottingham, The Countess of; Harlech, Merioneth. 

(April, 1903). 

Wolfe, Miss Georgina ; S. John's, 37, Granada Road, E. Southsea. 
(August, 1904). 

WoOLRiDGE, Prof. G. H., M.R.C.V.S. ; 30, Brixton Hill, S.W. (1912). 

Workman, Wm. Hughes, M.B.O.U. ; Lisniore, Windsor, Belfast. 
(May, 1903). 

Wormald, Hugh ; The Heath, Dereham, Norfolk. (Dec, X904). 

Wright, R. N. ; Church Hill, Rohert Road, Handsworth, near Bir- 
mingham. (Dec, 1908). 

410 Yealland, James; Binstead, Isle of Wight. (July, 1913). 

Younger, Miss Barbara Henderson; 4, Douglas Gardens, Edin- 
burgh. (July 1909). 

18 Bides of the Avicultural Society. 

Rules of the Avicultural Society. 

As amended January, 1908. 

I. — The name of the Society shall be The Avicultural Society 
and its object shall be the study of Foreign and British Birds in freedom 
and in captivilj'. Poultr\', Pigeons and Canaries shall be outside the scope 
of the Society. The year of the Society, with that of each volume of the 
Society's Magazine, which shall be known as The Avicultural Magazine, 
shall commence with the month of November and end on the 31st of 
Octol)er following. 

2. — The Avicultural vSociety shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary 
Members; and the latter shall be restricted in number to six, and be elected 
by the Council. 

3. — The Officers of the Society shall be elected, annuall}' if necessary, 
by members of the Council in manner hereinafter provided and shall 
consist of a President, one or more Vice-Presidents, a Business Secretary, a 
Correspondence Secretar}', an Editor, a Treasurer, an Auditor, a Scrutineer, 
and a Council of fifteen members. The vSecretaries, Editor, and Treasurer, 
shall be ex officio Members of the Council, 

4. — New Members shall be proposed in writing, and the name and 
address of every person thus proposed, with the name of the Member 
proposing him, shall be published in the next issue of the Magazine, 
unless the candidate shall, within two weeks after the publication of his 
name in the Magazine, be objected to by at least two Members, he shall be 
deemed to be duly elected. If five Members shall lodge with the Business 
Secretary objections to any candidate he shall not be elected, but the 
signatures to the signed objections must be verified by the Scrutineer. If 
two or more Members (but less than five) shall object to any candidate, the 
Secretar)' shall announce in the next number of the Magazine that such 
objections have been lodged (but shall not disclose the names of the 
objectois), and shall request the Members to vote upon the queston of the 
election of such candidate. Members shall record their voles in sealed 
letters addressed to the Srntineer, and a candidate shall not be elected 
unless two thirds of the votes recorded be in his favour; nor shall a 
candidate be elected if five or more votes be recorded against his election. 

5. — Each Member shall pay an annual subscription of 10/- , to be due 
and payable in advance on the 1st of November in each year. New Mem- 
bers shall pay in addition, an entrance fee of io/6'; and, on paj'ment of 
their entrance fee and subscription, they shall be entitled to receive all the 
numbers of the Society's Magazine for the current year. 

Hules of the Avicultural Society. 19 

6. — Members intending to resign their membership at the end of the 
current year of the Society are expected to give notice to the Business 
Secretary before the first of October, so that their names may not be 
included in the " List of Members," which shall be published annually in 
the November number of the Magazine. 

7. — The Magazine of the Society shall be issued on or about the first 
day of every month,* and forwarded, post free, /o all the /Members zvho 
shall have paid their sicbscriptions for ike year : but no Magazine shall be 
sent or delivered to any Member until the annual subscription shall have 
reached the hands of the Business Secretary or the Publishers. Members 
whose subscriptions shall not have been paid as above by the first day in 
September in any year shall cease to be Members of the Society, and shall 
not be re-adniitted until a fresh entrance fee, as well as the annual sub- 
scription, shall have been paid, 

8. — The Secretaries, Editor, and Treasurer shall be elected for a term 
of five years, and should a vacancy occur, it may be temporarily filled up 
by the Executive Committee (see Rule 10). At the expiration of the term 
of five years in every case, it shall be competent for the Council to nominate 
the same officer, or another Member, for a further term of five years, unless 
a second candidate be proposed b)' not less than twenty-five members of at 
least two years standing, as set forth below. 

In the September number of the Magazine preceding the retirement 
from office of the Secretaries, Pxlitor, or Treasurer, the Council shall 
publish the names of those gentlemen whom they have nominated to fill 
the vacancies thus created; and these gentlemen shall be deemed duly 
elected unless another candidate or candidates be proposed by not less than 
fifteen Members of at least two j'ears standing. Such proposal, duly 
seconded and containing the written consent of the nominee to serve, if 
elected, in the capacity for which he is proposed, must reach the Business 
Secretary, on or before the 15th of September. 

The Council shall also publish j'early in the September number of 
the Magazine the names of those gentlemen nominated by them for the 
posts of Auditor and Scrutineer respectively. 

9. — The Members of the Council shall retire l)y rotation, two at the 
end of each year of the Society (unless a vacancy or vacancies shall occur 
otherwise) and two other Members of the Society shall be recommended by 
the Council to take the place of those retiring. The names of the two 
Members recommended shall be printed in the September number oi The 
Avicultural Magazine. Should the Council's selection be objected to by 
fifteen or more Members, these shall have power to put forward two other 
candidates whose names, together with the signatures of no less than 

*Owing to the extra pressure of work, the October and November numbers are Hable to 

be late. 

20 Rules of the Avicultural Society. 

fifteen Members proposing them, must reach the Hon. Business Secretary 
by the i^lh of Sepievibci . The names of the four candidates will then be 
printed on a voting paper and sent to each Member with tlie October 
number of the Magazine, and the result of the voting published in the 
November issue. Should no alternative candidates be put forward, in the 
manner and by the date above specified, the two candidates recommended 
by the Council shall be deemed to liave been duly elected. In the event 
of an equality of votes the President shall have a casting vote. 

If any Member of the Council does not attend a meeting for two 
years in succession, the Council shall have power to elect another Member 
in his place. 

10.— Immediately after the election of the Council, that body shall 
proceed to elect three from its Members {ex officio Members not being 
eligible). These three, together with the Secretaries and Editor, shall form 
ia Committee known as the Executive Committee. Members of the Council 
shall be asked every year (whether there has been an election of that body 
or not) if they wish to stand for the Executive, and in any year when 
the number of candidates exceeds three there shall be an election of the 

The duties of the Executive Committee shall be as follows : 

(i). To sanction all payments to be made on behalf of the Society. 

(ii). In the event of the resignation of any of the officers during the 

Society's year, to fill temporarily the vacancy until the end of 
the year. In the case of the office being one which is held for 
more than one year [e. g. Secretaries, Editor, or Treasurer, 
the appointment shall be confirmed by the Council at its next 

(iii). To act for the Council in the decision of any other matter that may 
arise in connection with the business of the Societj'. 
The decision of any matter by the Executive to be settled b}' a 

simple majority (five to form a quorum). In the event of a tie on any 

question, such question shall be forthwith submitted by letter to the 

Council for their decision. 

The Executive shall not have power 

(i). To add to or alter the Rules ; 

(ii). To expel any Member ; 

(iii). To re-elect the Secretaries, Editor, or Treasurer for a second term 
of office. 
It shall not be lawful for the Treasurer to pay any account unless 

such account be duh' initialed by the Executive. 

It shall be lawful for the Business Secretary or Editor to pledge the 
Society's credit for a sum not exceeding £1^. 

Eules of the Avicultural Society. 21 

Should a Member wish any matter to be brought before tlie Council 
direct, such matter should be sent to the Business Secretary with a letter 
stating that it is to be brought before the Council at their next meeting 
otherwise commuuications will in the first place be brought before the 

A decision of a majorit)' of the Council, or a majority of the 
Executive endorsed by the Council, shall be final and conclusive in 
all matters. 

II. — The Editor shall have an absolute discretion as to what matter 
shall be published in the Magazine (subject to the control of the Executive 
Committee). The Business Secretary and Editor shall respectively refer 
all matters of doubt and difiBculty to the Executive Committee. 

12. — The Council (but not a Committee of the Council) shall have 
power to alter and add to the Rules, from time to time, in anj' manner they 
may think fit. Five to form a quorum at any meeting of the Council. 

13. — The Council shall have power to expel any Member from the 
Society at any time without assigning any reason. 

14. — Neither the Office of Scrutineer nor that of Auditor shall be held 
for two consecutive years by the same person. 

15. — The Scrutineer shall not reveal to any person how any Member 
shall have voted. 

22 The Society's Medal. 

The Society's Medal. 


The Medal may be awarded at the discretion of the Coimnittee, to 
any Member who shall succeed in breeding,in the United Kingdom, any 
species of bird which shall not be known to have been previously bred in 
captivity in Great Britain or Ireland. Any Member wishing to obtain the 
Medal must send a detailed account for publication in the Magazine within 
about eight weeks from the date of hatching of the young and furnish such 
evidence of the facts as the Executive Committee may require. The Medal 
will be awarded only in cases where the young shall live to be old enough 
to feed themselves, and to be wholly independent of their parents. 

The account of the breeding must be reasonably full so as to afford 
instruction to our Members, and should describe the plumage of the j'oung 
and be of value as a permanent tecord of the nesting and general habits of the 
species. These points will have great weight wlien the question of awarding 
the Medal is under consideration. 

The parents of the young must be the bona fide propertj' of the 
breeder. An evasion of this rule, in any form whatever, will not only dis- 
qualify the breeder from any claim to a Medal in that particular instance, 
but will seriously prejudice any other claims he or she ma}' subsequently 
advance for the breeding of the same or any other species. 

In every case the decision of the Committee shall be final. 

The Medal will be forwarded to each Member as soon after it shall 
have been awarded as possible. 

The Medal is struck in bronze (but the Committee reserve the right 
to issue it in silver in very special cases), and measures 2| inches in 
diameter. It bears on the obverse a representation of two birds with a nest 
containing eggs, and the words " The Avicultural Society — founded 1894." 
On the reverse is the following inscription : "Awarded to {name of recipient) 
for rearing the young of {name of species), a species not previously bred in 
captivity in the United Kingdom." 

Avicultural Magazine. 

West,H e'wm.aiL clir. 

CEgiblnali sus erybli.i^oGep'hal'as . 






Third Series.— Yol. V.— No. i.—All rights reserved. NOVEMBER, 1913. 


QSgithcdisus erytkroceijhalus. 
By Hubert D. Astley. 

Nothing more dainty and more fascinating can be found 
amongst birds than this tiny Titmouse. Inhabiting the forests of 
some parts of the Himalayas, it probably there bears in its habits a 
cousinly resemblance to the European Long-tailed Tit, but the Eed- 
headed has more of a curve in the minute bill, and less length to the 
tail. Major Perreau brought some to England in March 1913, but 
owing to their cage being violently upset on board the channel 
steamer, they did not long survive. 

Two were landed at Genoa last spring in Major Horsbrugh's 
collection, which I took with me to Lake Como, but they succumbed 
in two days, after having lived long enough for me to be all but 
moved to tears at their departure ! It was a chilly rainy evening 
when the ship was towed in to the dock at Genoa, looking as if she 
was tired-out after her voyage from India. Perhaps the little Tit- 
mice contracted a chill, anyhow they succumbed within a few hours 
of each other. I did all I could. I collected sprays of rose branches 
rich in green " fly," and those small birds eagerly and without the 
slightest fear clung to ^he stems as I held them in my fingers, pick- 
ing off the " fly." 

The grtice and confidence which they showed would have 
impressed even a hippopotamus ! which always strikes me as the 
most hideously uncouth and self-centred creature on the face of the 

24 Mr. F. E. Blaauw, 

globe. Chacun a son gout! There viay be those who would i^refer 
that monstrous mammal to a Eed-headecl Titmouse as a pet. 

If these tiny birds could recover the disadvantages of a voyage 
to England, I see no reason why they should not be easily kept, so 
long as in addition to a good artificial insectivorous mixture, they 
were supplied with fresh ants' ' eggs,' flies, and other insects, in 

Every aviculturist has his list of departed over which he sighs, 
but on mine there is no name written which I more deeply regret 
than that of the Eed-headed Titmouse. 


Henicognathus leptorhyncJms. 
By F. E. Blaauw, C.M.Z.S. 

When I visited Chili in March, 1911, I, for the first time, 
made the acquaintance of this interesting and little known parrot. 

I was riding between Osorno and Puerto Octay, on the lake 
of Llanquihu6, a distance of some sixty kilometres, and was tra- 
versing a large wood consisting of mixed trees, amongst which the 
Southern beech largely preponderated. I had been admiring various 
birds, which w^ere busy along the side of the road, when my attention 
was attracted by shrill screams from birds with pointed tails and 
wings, that were flying in small parties high over the forest trees. 
Of course I knew at once that they must be parrakeets, but at first 
I did not realise to which species they belonged. Then some birds 
by flying not quite so high, or by moving in their flight so that the 
light fell more fully on them, showed themselves to be green with 
red tails, and then I knew what they were. 

As I rode on, the little flights of these birds became more 
and more numerous, and for a long time they were quite a feature 
in the landscape. As I passed a cottage I saw in front of it, sitting 
on a pile of wood, one of those parrakeets with stunted wings and 
tail, looking the picture of misery. 

Puerto Octa^^ — which I reached in the evening by a beautiful 

on the Breeding of the Long-hilled Parrakeet. 25 

moonlight — is on the border of the lake Llanquihue, in more or less 
open country, and I saw no more parrakeets there. 

From Puerto Octay I crossed to Puerto Varas, and continuing 
to travel eastwards towards the Cordilleras the Los Andes, I reached 
Casa Pangui after two days, which is near the foot of the Tronador 
Glacier. Here again I met numerous flocks of this parrakeet, and 
as I saw them perch on lower trees than they had done before I had 
a better view of them. 

Five or six days later found me at Puerto Montt, and riding 
westwards from this place I traversed some splendid woods in which 
enormous Urmus trees {Eucryphia cordifolia) were particularly 
numerous. These woods were full of Long-billed Parrakeets, which 
screamed loudly and were very active, flying about in small flocks or 
perching on the tops of the giant trees. It is probable that these 
birds were feeding on the seeds of the Urmus trees which look like a 
thin small olive, and no doubt they found any amount of seeds and 
berries in those woods. I never saw the birds on the ground, and 
it seems that they liked to perch as high as they could. I was told 
that the inhabitants of Puerto Montt go out on Sundays to try and 
shoot the parrakeets and that they found them good eating ! 

Having returned to Puerto Varas, I spent the night there and 
decided to go north again next morning by a steamer which was to 
take me to Puerto Octay, from which place I would ride to Osorno 
to join the railroad there. An hour before I left I noticed near the 
inn a tame Long-billed Parrakeet, which, with stunted wings and 
tail but looking rather contented, was sitting on a railing in front 
of a small house. The bird was quite tame, and when the old 
woman who inhabited the house saw that I noticed it, she at once 
offered it to me for sale for a few pesos, and, rather foolishly, un- 
mindful of all the miles that separated me from home, I could not 
resist the temptation to buy the bird. I carried him to the inn in 
my hand, and as no such a thing as a cage was to be got anywhere 
I with great difiiculty obtained a small box to put him in. This was 
just done when I had to go on board the steamer with all my 

In the evening we reached Puerto Octay, having to travel on 
the following morning on horse-back to Osorno, whilst the heavy 

26 Mr. F. E. Blaauw,, 

luggage was to be taken by oxen-cart. A pack horse was to carry 
my valise along with me, as the cart would take some twelve hours 
longer to reach Osorno. Now the first difficulty with my " lorito " 
began. How was he to travel ? I had thought of the oxen-cart, 
but I was told that this was not safe. Then I suggested to the 
peon that he should fasten the box with the bird on the pack-horse 
that carried my valise, but the man, apparently an exception to most 
of the people in those parts, was fond of birds and was horrified at 
the idea, saying that it would shake the bird to death and that he 
was quite willing to carry the box in his hand. This certainly was 
the best plan and I gladly accepted his proposal. The man was as 
good as his word and carried the bird the whole 60 kilometres in his 
hand, bringing him safely to Osorno. 

Having resolved to try to bring this one bird home, I of 
course thought how I could obtain a second one, and as we passed 
the same wood, where a week previously I had noticed a cabin with 
one of these birds in captivity, I took great care not to miss the 
cottage and, having found it, enquired after the bird I had seen 
there. The answer was disappointing ; the bird had died the day 
before ! 

In Osorno I asked the innkeeper where I could get a second 
parrakeet, and his answer was that the only way was to take a walk 
through the streets and listen for the screams of a bird of this kind, 
and then to enter the house and try to buy it. Following this 
advice, after some time a parrakeet's screams were heard right 
enough, and on going to the door of a bookseller, thinking the bird 
was there, I was informed that it was in his neighbour's house, 
to which I betook myself and asked to see the bird, of which I, ten 
minutes later, became the happy owner for the sum of one peso. 
The woman (a milliner) said that it belonged to her boy, but that he 
did not care about it any longer and she would be glad to get rid of 
it. So I carried off my prize in a paper box, taking it to the inn, 
where I introduced it to the other bird. A great battle followed but 
no harm was done, and as I had to leave by train soon after, I put 
both birds in the small box and took them away with me. Their 
travelling about in this manner quieted their tempers and they were 
soon great friends. In Valdivia I had a better box made for them. 

on the Breeding of the Long-hilled Pctrraheet. 27 

and next day I carried them on board the river-boat which was to 
take me to Corral, where I was to find a steamer to go south to 
Punto Arenas, in tlie Straits of Magellan. 

On the steamer everything went all right, but in Punta 
Arenas, where I landed, new difficulties began. I was going to 
spend a few days in Tierra del Fuego, and as that meant so many 
■days on horseback I could not possibly take the parrots with me. 
Fortunately, at the Kosmos Hotel there was a bird-loving housemaid 
who promised to take care of my birds whilst I was in Tierra del 
Fuego, and she kept her promise, for on my return I found them as 
noisy and as funny as I had left them. 

By steamer, via the Smith Channel, I returned northward to 
Conception taking the train from there to Santiago. From Santiago 
I brought them to Buenos Ayres, under the same difficulties men- 
tioned in a previous paper treating of my Antarctic Goose, and in 
Buenos Ayres I embarked w^ith them on board the '' Zeelandia," 
bound for Amsterdam, where I landed them safely. 

Notwithstanding all the knocking about, my two birds had 
done very well, and the bird which I had first acquired and which 
afterwards proved to be the male — the other one being a female as 
luck would have it — was fast moulting his stumpy feathers when I 
got them safely home in an aviary at Gooilust. The other bird was 
not quite so robust, and as she had apparently no strength to get rid 
of her old feathers I tried a stronger remedy and pulled out all the old 
stumps, which had a very good effect, for after a few weeks of good 
feeding and rest both birds were in splendid plumage and robust 
health, remaining delightfully tame and always extremely glad to see 
me. Although they were a true pair, they were constantly quarrel- 
ling over something, and the male would never allow the female to 
■come near me if he had not been fed or played with first. 

There is hardly any difference in the sexes, but the male is 
perhaps a trifle larger although the colours are identical. They like 
to imitate noises and with pains could probably be taught to speak. 
The female imitates a whistle with which I used to announce myself 
on board the ship, and the male reproduces the loud spluttering call 
of the red Oven Birds, which were its travelling companions on 
t)oard the " Zeelandia." Oven Birds, by the waj^, which are delight- 

28 On the Breeding of the Long-billed Parrakeet. 

ful birds when free in their own country, and are very numerous in 
the parks of Buenos Ayres, do very badly in confinement and are 
very delicate. 

For two years the life of my parrakeets was rather un- 
eventful. They spent the summer in a large garden aviary and the 
winter in a bird-house, where they did all they could to demolish the 
woodwork of their flight. Last spring, however, in the second half 
of May, one of the birds was missing, and on closer investigation it 
was found sitting in a roomy nesting log which hung high near the 
roof of the covered part of their aviary. Of course we did not 
disturb the sitting bird, and so I could not tell at first how many 
eggs were laid, nor can I tell the exact time of incubation. Sufiice 
it to say that after some three wrecks the bird-keeper heard noises 
proceeding from the box resembling the cries of young Green Wood- 
peckers. These noises gradually grew louder, and one day, not very 
long before they left the nest, the head of a young bird was seen 
looking through the opening of the nesting-log. Some time earlier 
two addled eggs, more or less cracked, were found under the box. 
They were fine large white ones. At last, on the 3rd of August, I 
was agreeably surprised at seeing a splendid strong young bird in the 
outside flight, and the next day number two also appeared. This 
was the end of the supply and the box had no more treasures to 
reveal, so that probably four eggs had been laid, of which the two 
birds were the result. 

The young birds are exactly like their parents, but the green 
is darker {i.e. less yellowish) and all the feathers have dark edgings. 
The upper mandibles are shorter than those of the adults and the 
tops or points of them are white, the same colour being seen on the 
top part of the under mandibles. The naked skin round the eyes is 
also whitish. 

The old birds are extremely fond of their children, and one 

usually sees each of the parents with a baby under its care. They 

show their afi'ection by fumbling in their children's feathers, and 

when the wings, tails, etc. have had their turn, the legs are passed 

through the bills to the great discomfort and annoyance of the little 


Besides the usual seeds, the youngsters were fed on bread 

On the priceless value of the Live Bird. 29 

soaked in milk, and also on grass roots. Little bits of Berheris 
dulcis were also very much appreciated, and the birds always loudly 
clamoured for some branchlets as soon as I approached the aviary. 
And thus my little green friends from Puerto Varas and 
Osorno have well rewarded me for all the trouble they gave me dur- 
ing the long and arduous journey across South America, and have 
contradicted and disproved the reputation they have with the natives 
of their own country of not living in confinement longer than a year. 
The reason of their not living there for long is probably that after 
a while the owners, like the child of the milliner in Osorno, " don't 
care for them any longer," and then the end is near ! 
Gooilust, August. 1913. 


By Eeginald Phillipps. 

A few summers ago, the gardeners, especially perhaps the 
rose-growers, complained of the prevalence of blight. 

One lovely afternoon found me in a large garden in the 
suburbs, where flowers abounded ; and round and about the lawn 
there were masses of roses in faultless bloom, none showing a trace 
of injury or harm — -yet the neighbours were complaining of the 
green fly. 

In addition to her flowers, our hostess had a weakness for 
birds, which were regularly and bountifully fed ; and the garden was 
alive with birds, not a few of them being as tame as chickens. 

As I lounged in an easy chair on the lawn, some two or three 
feet from my lazily extended extremities I noticed a male House 
Sparrow closely shadowed by a fledgeling. Ignoring the humans and 
their chatterings, father Sparrow was searching a rose-bush, inch by 
inch, picking off aphides, and passing them on to his young hopeful. 
Here, then, was the secret of the beautiful roses and flowers : — the 
plague was being kept under by the Live Birds. 

Not far away there lived another relative, the happy possessor 
of larger grounds, to whom we eventually repaired ; and I was taken 

30 Mr. Eeginald Phillipps, 

off by my host to give an opinion on the unhappy condition of a 
valuable tree, which I found in a parlous plight. Here was a 
splendid stick of timber — I forget tlie species, it was new to me — 
with the bark, from tlie top to tlie bottom of the trunk and along the 
main boughs, not peeling off so mucli as bulging out and becoming 
detached from the stem : never before nor since have I seen such 
a case. Doubtless the tree was or had been infested with the larvae 
of some moth, probably of one which bores into and lives in the 
wood for some four years before it develops into its imago state. If 
the tree had been in the country proper, our familiar friend the Green 
Woodpecker, or some of its congeners, would have found it and 
would not have rested until every grub had been cut out — and the 
life of the tree would have been saved. But, in the absence of the 
Live Bird, man was helpless, and could only look on in despair 
while the tree was being done to death by a miserable grub. 

I have read somewhere that certain savants of the U.S.A. 
(? of the United States Forest Service) have expressed the opinion 
that, if it were not for the Woodpeckers (and, presumably, other 
genera, such as the Cassiques — see our Magazine VI. pp, 24, 25, 
December, 1899), there would not be a living tree in the whole of 
Tropical America, so rampant there is insect life. Is it going too 
far to suggest that the three Americas are saved by the wondrous 
variety of their marvellous coUection of Live Birds ! 

At my house here, there are two little bits of ground which 
we will call, respectively, the front garden and the back garden. 
During a good part of the year, the garden in the front is as full of 
flowering plants as we can manage to squeeze in. Until some time 
towards the end of June, matters progress very well, and the flowers 
are our delight, and the admiration of all who pass to and fro. But, 
as soon as the House- Sparrows (the only avian visitors to the front) 
have reared their broods and moved on to the parks and other open 
spaces, a change comes over the scene — the birds go and the cater- 
pillars come, caterpillars and grubs of various sizes, shapes and 
shades, differing in form, colour and habits, but all alike in their 
determination to turn my garden into a wilderness. In vain I try 
quassia, hellebore, tobacco powder, and other cures recommended 
by experts — they care for none of these things. Some of the "cures," 

on the priceless value of the Live Bird. 31 

indeed, by injuring the leaves of the plants, do more harm than good. 
There is only one remedy in the circmnstances — hand-picking. But 
it is not a bit of fun, day after day, for half-hours at a stretch some 
two or three times a day, rain or shine, examining leaf after leaf and 
bud after bud ; and there is no visible end to the loathsome work. 
For even the very buds are attacked immediately they appear, and 
are ruined before they open into flower. And this summer I have 
had a new experience that has aggravated me exceedingly. Hitherto 
I had found that the enemy did not attack fuchsias, so, last year, I 
increased the number, tended them carefully through the winter, and, 
this summer, placed a selection of them (in pots) all round the 
dining-room window, outside, on the sill. One of them is a fine 
specimen, which, last year, in the same spot, was a mass of bloom. 
But woe is me, for this year they have been freely attacked ; and the 
pride of my heart now looks more like a cairn on the top of a Trans- 
Himalayan pass, stuck full of Tibetan prayer-poles and streamers, 
than a respectable, well-brought-up, British-grown fuchsia. 

The gardener in the country will not understand this ; he 
will attribute it to incompetency, stupidity, feebleness, he would 
soon put matters straight if the place were in his hands, and so on ; 
and, with an air of superiority, he will look with self-complacency on 
his own beautiful garden. But could he manage one whit the better 
if he were here ? Just let him try, single-handed, without his allies 
the Live Birds ! He is simply ignorant of the fact that his own 
garden is in good trim, not through his own exertions alone but 
because he has the Live Birds to keep the army of caterpillars and 
other undesirables at bay. 

The man in the country is thrice blessed. He has the seed- 
eaters which, feeding their young largely on insects, during the 
breeding-season at any rate are of real value. Then, the whole year 
round, there are certain residents and some winter immigrants which 
devour insects in any form or at any stage they may be able to find 
them. And, during the summer, when insect-life is most abundant, 
he has the Swallow family , ceaselessly hawking after winged creatures, 
the summer Warblers, the Flycatchers, the Cuckoo, and many other 
Live Birds that stand between him and the destruction of his woods, 
his crops, his orchards and his gardens. 

32 Mr. Eeginald Phillipps, 

Our nearest public gardens of any size are those in Eavens- 
court Park. On July 31, after caterpillar-picking in, and a look of 
despair at, my own little plot, I took a tram to this place, and sat 
for a while in that quiet little retreat which is or used to be known 
as the Shakespeare Garden. The masses of rambler-roses and other 
flowers were charming — and not a sign of caterpillar or fly. As I 
lolled and looked and envied, I noticed a little mouse-like shadow, 
running from the copse at my back, enter and disappear amongst the 
flowers. It came into sight again a few yards away at the base of 
an arch of roses, which it proceeded to climb; and it carefully cleared 
the tree of insect-life as it ascended. It was much smaller and 
slimmer than an Accentor, and the movements were altogether 
different : to me it seemed to be one of the rarer Warblers, but my 
eyes are old, and I will not venture to give it a name, neither does 
it matter for our present purpose. The staff of gardeners could 
arrange for the production of the display of flowers, but not all the 
gardeners in the world could have preserved them. That stupendous 
work was performed, with marvellous efficiency, by the fragile birds, 
of so many shapes and colours and modes of procedure, working 
silently and without thanks, and ofttimes so secretly as in the case 
cited, but all with one accord, guided by to them an Unknown Hand, 
working for the comfort and well-being of man. The head gardener 
gets the praise, but where would he have been without the Live 
Birds ! 

Now let us take a peep at my back garden, with the house at 
one end and a four-foot-high wall along the other three sides, and 
overshadowed by my neighbours' houses and trees. Some trees and 
shrubs will not grow here, the place is so shut in : moreover, it is so 
full, so overfull, of such trees and shrubs as will live, if but for a 
time, that to attempt to grow flowers would seem to be a hopeless 
task. Last year, however, I chanced to move some geraniums, 
which had apparently been ruined by caterpillars, from the front to 
the back garden, and found that they did very well. Taking the 
hint, this spring, as early as I dared, I planted several dozen of the 
best obtainable scarlet geraniums in this back garden ; and all 
through the summer- — and they are still (August) going on — I have 
had a magnificent display of brilliant colour, set off' and toned by a 

on the priceless value of the Live Bird. 33 

rich background and framework of greenery in many shades, quite a 
sight to behold and feast one's eyes upon. But how about the 
caterpillars, the grubs, the fly, and all the hosts of the enemy ? 
Ne'er a one ! ! ! And herein is the marvel. When I go caterpillar- 
hunting in the front garden, I take with me what sixty odd years 
ago was known by the homely name of a pomatum pot — what its 
modern scientific name may be I do not know. In this receptacle, 
I tenderly and carefully place every grub, caterpillar, fly, and other 
beastie I can lay my hands on, and I forthwith set them free, itn- 
harmed, amongst the flowers in the back garden : — that is, for some 
weeks, there has been a continuous stream of living creatures flow- 
ing from the front to the back — and, yet, the front garden languishes 
and the back garden flourishes ! Of course there can be only one 
explanation of this little phenomenon — those Live Birds again ! — 
but never before have I had the value of the Live Bird brought to 
my own personal notice so prominently. The back garden is covered 
over with wire-netting, and in it I still have a few little seed-eaters, 
but not a single insectivorous bird ; yet these little waxbills and 
finches keep the flowers and foliage clean ; and I must emphasize 
the point that, for the most part, the geraniums in the front are 
identical with those at the back ; for several dozen pots were brought 
to the house, of which so many were allotted to the one garden, so 
many to the other, yet those in the front have not been permitted 
by the insects to continue blossoming while those at the back have 
blossomed and still blossom as they like. The birds, those I now 
have at any rate, while damaging some flowers, do not injure the 

And it is not alone the small bird that is of such value ; 
agricultural man has other enemies besides the grub and the fly. 
How about the mouse and the vole ? and where would he be with- 
out the Kestrel and others to rule the day and the Owl to look after 
and protect his interests at night, during the time when he, good 
easy man, full surely is — or ought to be — lying in his bed, not too 
seldom, in his stupid ignorance, abusing his midnight saviours for 
making such a noise and disturbing his slumbers. 

It is a red-letter day in mouse-land when a man, say in 
London, sets up a garden aviary. There are cats in all the gardens 

34 On the 'priceless value of the Live Bird. 

around, and occasionally^ not too much food ; and the mice are often 
put to it to find meals for themselves without serving themselves up 
as meals for the cats ; but set up an aviary, and there you have a 
paradise for the mice straight away. Outside, the cats may prowl 
and hunger and gnash their teeth, but — Inside ! ! ! Canary, and 
millet, and other delights and toothsome delicacies, even an occa- 
sional dish of bird's head — and not a ghost of a cat to disturb the 
digestion or the sweet harmony of the place. In the aviary, mice 
may squeak and grow fat without a care in the world, for as for man 
and his traps — jpis-s-s-sh — poor feeble ci-eature. 

Years ago, I had hawks and owls — but no mice. Times 
changed ; the hawks and owls took their departure — and I had 
mice. Generation after generation of mice came and went until, 
by inherited instinct, they knew every kind of trick and trap as 
soon as they could run ; as for poisons and steel traps — they 
scratched and covered them up inches deep with earth. Virus they 
ignored : why should they eat such poor fare '? A learned chemist, 
in his wisdom, said, " Oh, they want feeding up to it ; now I should 

begin with a little toasted cheese ." Fiddlesticks; they were 

not such gudgeons ! 

Then came a thought : — " Phillipps, old man, you have never 
kept the Burrowing Owl " ; and a pair were obtained as soon as 
might be. For a part of the year, the Owls were shut up by day 
and the other birds loosed ; in the evening, the birds generally were 
driven into and shut up in the birdroom and the Owls set free. 
From the nature of things, this arrangement was inconvenient and 
unsatisfactory, and had to be modified from time to time ; neverthe- 
less, it disposed of the mice in my aviary so completely for the time 
being that I was thankful when anyone made me a present of a 
mouse for the Owls' dinner. And this notwithstanding that the 
Burrowing Owl is a poor mouser compared with most of our splendid 
British species, in whom the nation has a veritable treasure, some 
indeed killing rats as well as mice. In short, while boastful man 
could not do more than keep down the mice, the Owls could and 
did exterminate them. '"' 

* My Burrowing Owls and their young were incidentally referred to in the 
New Series of the Aviculiural Magazine — at p. 388 of Vol. I. and at p. 39 of 







1— 1 






























hJ o 

071 Birds of Paradise in the West Indies. 35 

Apply this little picture to the whole country ; and I hope it 
may be realized what a friend and ally man has in the Live Birds, 
how hopeless his toil and how helpless he would be without them, 
and how, if he loves his country, he ought (for the most part) to 
cherish and preserve them and their eggs, instead of carelessly 
slaughtering them, or recklessly turning them into " specimens " for 
Love of Science, for Love of Dress, or for any other love whatever. 


By Collingwood Ingram. 

Although Birds of Paradise have been known to Europeans 
since the sixteenth century, our knowledge of them until compara- 
tively recent times was limited to a few imperfect skins and some 
idle tales invented by the earlier Portuguese or Spanish navigators. 
Of these travellers' tales possibly the most fanciful was the one that 
led to the Greater Bird of Paradise being described as "the bird 
without any feet, which flies about continuously and never sleeps ! " 
This fable undoubtedly arose from the fact that in most of the old 
native-made skins the feet were wanting, and Linnaeus has unwit- 
tingly perpetuated the fallacy by calling the bird Paradisea apoda ! 

Since then our knowledge has gradually accumulated. Wallace 
met with this and other forms of the family Paradiseidae during his 
wanderings in the Malay Archipelago. Then their curiously marked 
eggs — for so many years the coveted prize of every oologist — were 
discovered, and now the living birds themselves have been imported 
into England. 

It seems that the Greater Bird of Paradise has lately become 
very scarce in its native home, the Aru Islands, Dutch New Guinea. 
This marked diminution is doubtless attributable to the great demand 

Vol. II. One of the young birds found her way, indirectly, to the Zoological 
Gardens ; and, later, certain papers were not slow in trumpeting abroad the 
intelligence that a Burrowing Owl had been bred at the Zoo. But that the 
mother herself had been bred in my aviary was too insignificant a trifle to be 
thought worthy of mention ! — R. P. 


that now exists for their side plumes for milUnery purposes, for the 
high price put on these feathers encourages the native hunters to kill 
the birds in a very reckless manner. Believing that they were 
threatened with extermination, a few years ago, my father, Sir 
William Ingram, decided to make a serious attempt to save them 
from this fate. 

His first difficulty, of course, was to obtain a suitable tract 
of land in a tropical climate, and this he finally overcame by the 
purchase of the West Indian Island of Little Tobago. The second 
was to procure the birds themselves. For this purpose he sent a 
collector to the Aru Islands in 1909, and this man succeeded in 
bringing back about fifty living specimens, forty-four of which were 
ultimately released on Little Tobago in September of that year. Two 
more were liberated in the winter of 1910, and a third in 1912 — 
these latter having been procured from M. Pauwels, the well-known 
Belgian aviculturist. All these were in the uniform chocolate-brown 
plumage of the immature bird, in which stage it is almost impossible 
to distinguish the sexes. From previous experience, however, my 
father believes that the majority of these birds were males, but from 
their very small size, there was every reason to suppose that the 
last three, at any rate, were undoubted females. 

On Jan. 2 last my father and I paid our first visit to Little 
Tobago. Situated roughly in 11° 30' N. latitude, and 60° 32 ^ W. 
longitude (it is interesting to note that the Aru Islands are roughly 
in 6° S. latitude) it lies about a mile and a half off the north-eastern 
end of the main island of Tobago ; a group of rocks known col- 
lectively as Goat Island, dividing the channel about mid-way. A 
strong current almost constantly runs through these straits in a 
northerly direction, and this, meeting the incoming ocean swell, is 
very liable to create a choppy sea, when the crossing in a small boat 
becomes a difficult and sometimes dangerous undertaking. A very 
convenient landing place, how^ever, is formed by a small sandy cove 
on the leeward side of the island. 

Little Tobago, about a mile in length, is obviously formed by 
the crests of three or four small but tolerably steep hills of meta- 
morphic rock, the highest of which now stands some 490ft. above 
the sea level. According to the official estimate, the acreage is only 

on Birds of Paradise in the West Indies. 37 

240, but if one takes into consideration all the inequalities of the 
ground, there can be no room for doubt that the area of the 
island has been greatly under-estimated, and a proper survey will 
probably show it to be nearly twice that figure. 

The island is clothed with a dense vegetation, the ground 
being covered with verdure almost to the sea's edge. The salt- 
sprayed rocks, notably on the eastward or windward side, are over- 
grown with thickets of a fleshy-leaved, upstanding cactus (Cereus sp.?) 
among which are dotted here and there the more curious spherical 
Turk's head (Melocactus communis). The rest of the island is more 
or less evenly wooded, an unusual feature for a tropical country (where 
gregarious trees are the exception rather than the rule), being the 
extensive groves of fan palm {Thrinax radiata). A striking charac- 
teristic of the undergrowth is the immense quantity of " big-leaves" — 
an aroid plant, bearing as its local name suggests, gigantic lanceolate- 
shaped leaves. It is also an epiphyte, and many of the trees are 
burdened with ponderous clumps of this great plant, and it will even 
find a foothold on to the small columnar trunks of the Thrinax. 
Breaking off one of the leaves at random, I found it measured fully 
7ft. in length. 

In the sheltered and richer valleys, the vegetation assumes 
a more imposing character, and here the trees in their struggle to 
reach the light, attain the great heights so often found in a true 
tropical forest. Among these trees I noticed the hog plum {Spondias 
lutea), pimenta, fiddle wood, plummer cherry, cannon wood, and, 
here and there, the majestic cabbage palm. 

Water is unfortunately rather scarce, and can only be relied 
upon normally at one point, where a spring of water (apparently 
full of organic matter and unfit for human use) percolates through 
the soil of one of the little ravines. As it does not appear to be 
extensively used by either the Birds of Paradise or any of the native 
species, one can only assume that the heavy dews are sufficient to 
satisfy all their wants in this respect. 

We left the main island of Tobago about ten in the morning, 
one boat containing our luggage and provisions, and the other our- 
selves and friends. Owing to the strong tide rip, it took us over an 
hour to pull across, and another to carry our goods and chattels up 


38 Mr. CoLLiNGWooD Ingram, 

to the small wooden shanty that was to be our sleeping quarters for 
the night. 

Although from time to time we had received encouraging, if 
somewhat conflicting, reports from the various people who had 
chanced to visit the island, I confess I was not very sanguine of 
seeing many Birds of Paradise. Surely, one argued, even if their 
new surroundings had not proved uncongenial to them, the majority 
must have flown across the narrow straits and become lost in the 
forests of the main island 

It was, therefore, with a sense of great relief that we pre- 
sently heard the well-known "wark-wark-wark " of a Paraclisea, the 
sound being carried to us faintly from a remote part of the island — 
but the cry was unmistakable. So one, at least, had survived its 
three years' exile ! 

In a little while we heard a second bird calling from some 
trees immediately behind the building. On being answered by its 
fellow, this one rose from the forest and flew boldly across the 
valley with a leisurely, Jay-like flight. In so doing it passed quite 
near to us, and in the bright sunlight I could clearly discern the 
details of its plumage. No side plumes were yet visible, but the 
dark green plush-like growth on the throat pronounced it to be un- 
questionably a male. ''' 

In several parts of the island my father has had clearings 
cut for the cultivation of papaws and bananas. The food supply 
afl'orded by the fruits and the young vegetation of these compara- 
tively open spaces, seemed to attract nearly all the bird life on the 
island, and it was to these places that we went in the evening, in 
the hope of seeing something more of the Birds of Paradise. Nor 
were we disappointed. We saw single birds on several occasions, 
and once I observed as many as four together — two young males and, 
if one could judge by their smaller size, two females. 

* These side plumes do not appear before the fourth or fifth year (perhaps 
even longer), and are then only retained for a comparatively short season. — C.I. 

* In a letter which I read lately from some person evidently connected 
with the plume trade, it was announced that the males do not breed after four 
or five years of age, and that therefere they could be killed off. A convenient 
but completely false statement. One expects this kind of argument from such 
quarters ! ! — ED. 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by Collingwood Ingram. 

Tropical Vegetation on Little Tobago, West Indies, 
SHOWING "Big-Leaf" and Thrinax Palm. 

on Birds of Paradise in the West Indies. 39 

Birds of Paradise are apparently omnivorous, but, in common 
with several other native species, they seemed to be very partial to 
the soft fruits of the papavv^. One would have thought that no bird 
would have dared to interfere with the Paradisea, yet the much 
smaller, yellow-tailed Cassiques {Ostinops decuvianus) were obviously 
their masters, and only permitted them to feed on the papaw trees 
when they had finished their own meal. By the way, these 
Cassiques, or "corn-birds" as they are termed locally, are delight- 
fully quaint birds, and deserve a few words of comment, if only for 
their extraordinary repertoire of strange sounds. Their song, for in- 
stance, opens with some very singular notes that sound more like the 
hollow " gobble " of liquid being poured out of a large-bellied flagon 
than anything else I can think of ; these are usually followed by a 
prolonged creaking note, which Chapman has aptly likened to the 
chafing of boughs in a wind ; or again by the very curious splutter- 
ing sound that cannot be expressed in black and white. These birds 
are also wont to utter a singularly human whistle — so human, in 
fact, that on more than one occasion I have turned sharply round 
under the impression that someone was trying to attract my attention 
by this means. Many of their remarkable purse-shaped nests were 
to be seen swinging from the outer branches of the higher trees. 

Another bird that we found feasting greedily upon the papaws 
was the handsome Blue Tanager — Tanagra cana sclateri (Berl). 
Some of these were constantly present, fighting and bickering to- 
gether for possession of the ripe fruit. Humming-birds, Petcharies, 
Grass-finches, House Wrens, and, of course, the " day-clean," or 
Mocking-bird {Mimus gilvus)''' — an extraordinarily plentiful species on 
Little Tobago — were likewise usually to be seen about the clearings ; 
but these were all inoffensive species that never disputed the rights 
of their larger brethren. 

It must not be supposed that the Birds of Paradise are the first 
birds to be introduced into Little Tobago ; domestic fowls have lived 
there in a feral state for a number of years. The story of their 
introduction is not lacking in romantic interest. Some thirty-five or 
forty years ago, an old man named Mitchell dwelt alone on the 

* cf. Notes on Birds from Yucatan in this number. — ED. 

40 Mr. CoLLiNGWooD Ingram, 

island — alone, that is to say, with his dog, his chickens, and his 
goats. This hermit's life was evidently not of Mitchell's own choos- 
ing, for it is rumoured that his friends had quietly marooned him 
there to keep him from the bottle that was so speedily killing him. 
One fine day, when his friends sailed across with their weekly gift 
of provisions, they found the beach deserted save for Mitchell's little 
dog, who greeted them ominously with frantic barks. As soon as 
they landed, the distracted animal led them over the hill to a certain 
rock on the windward side. Here they found an old coat, some 
fishing tackle, and three sun-scorched fish lying on the edge of the 
cliff and, below — the everlasting surf beating angrily against the 
jagged boulders. 

Although Mitchell's goats survived him for many years, they 
ultimately disappeared. The fowls, on the other hand, soon multi- 
plied, and their descendents exist to the present day, though their 
numbers have recently been greatly reduced by my father's "watcher," 
for it was deemed inadvisable to have the place overrun by these 
birds. It is said, and there is every reason to credit the statement, 
that these fowls have largely reverted to the plumage of their wild 
progenitors. [It would be interesting to obtain some skins to verify 
this.— Ed.j 

Whether the Birds of Paradise have actually increased — or, 
indeed, nested at all — on Little Tobago, is a very moot point, and 
one that is almost impossible at the present time to answer satis- 
factorily. Towards sundown and in the early morning they become 
more noisy, and it is at these hours that one can best estimate their 
numbers. Personally I am of opinion that they are at least main- 
taining their numbers. That they should be able to do this after 
nearly three and a half years' liberty, is certainly encouraging, and 
I think there is now every reason to hope that the colony will 
continue to thrive in their new West Indian home. 

Additional Notes by Sir William Ingram. 

Eobert Herold, the guardian of Little Tobago, writing in 
July, informs me that he has seen two or three young birds accom- 
panied by their mothers, one of which was very small and appeared 

on Birds of Paradise in the West Indies. 41 

to have left the nest only about ten or twelve days. If this is really 
the case, it is curious as showing that the Apoda breeds at a different 
period of the year from that in New Guinea. There the Paradise 
Birds breed in the latter part of October or November (see Dr. 
Simson's account of Journey in New Guinea, Ibis, Vol. for 1907). 
I am also informed that, in the far corner in the north part of the 
island, there are three separate pairs of Apodas which remain in 
that locality and may have nests ; at any rate, it is satisfactory to 
know that after nearly four years on the island the male birds are 
now easily distinguished from the females, as they have now obtained 
the distinctive colouring on their heads and necks, and, according to 
Herold, have recently grown short " wires," although up to the 
present no side plumes have been observed by the guardian. I am 
told that the birds were moulting in April ; in New Guinea they 
change their plumage at the end of November and December. 

Now that the different sexes can be recognised I expect to 
have more reliable accounts of the habits of the Apodas. To assist 
Eobert Herold in his observations a good pair of glasses has been 
sent out to him, and perhaps in a few weeks I may have further 
interesting notes to contribute. [We shall be very glad to publish 
them. — Ed.] 

As to the number of Apodas on the island, I estimate there 
may be thirty, but do not feel certain of more than sixteen, out of 
which there may be six or seven females. I shall soon know more 
on this point, and one can only hope the number of females may be 
more than my estimate, as so much will depend on the " ladies " for 
the success of my experiment in acclimatizing the Birds of Paradise 
in the West Indies. 

42 Dr. L. Lovell-Keays, 


By Dr. L. Lovell-Keays. 

This article is not intended to be a recondite treatise on sexing 
birds, but I trust it may be of help in determining the sex of certain 
of the Platycercina {i.e. Broadtails). Lately I have taken up parra- 
keets, and I was at once struck by the apparent difficulty people had 
of sexing the parrakeets they offered to me. Out of upwards of fifty 
birds only quite a few, in which it was impossible to make a mistake, 
came to me properly sexed. I think one may take it as an indis- 
putable fact that sexing birds is to a great extent a gift. But it can 
be cultivated and greatly improved with practice, accurate observa- 
tion and patience. 

These remarks are somewhat in the way of an apology for 
writing so elementary a paper, and yet I remember my friend Major 
Perreau remarking that he thought one got most help and more 
interest from the earlier numbers of his bird papers than from the 
later ones. We are apt to think that what we have learnt or found 
out everybody else has, but it is not so, and very often the most 
elementary papers are those most eagerly read. 

To return to our parrakeets. It is obvious I think that it is 
fairly hopeless to attempt to sex immature specimens, at any rate in 
the majority of species. One may often make a guess, more or less 
lucky, but one cannot tell certainly. This is, I think, particularly 
true in such birds as Pennants, Eedrumps, and so on. 

Given a mature specimen, how are we to commence ? You 
must get the birds in a good light, and if possible in a cage and as 
near each other as possible. In most cases, it is almost entirely a 
matter of comparison, and to sex individual or isolated birds is often 
exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. 

Now the chief points of difference are as follows : — 

(1) The size and shape of the beak. 

(2) The size of the bird. 

(3) The shape of the bird, particularly the head and shoulders. 

(4) The colour. 

oil Sexing Parrakeets. 43 

I have put the points in this order as seeming to me to be 
the most rehable guides in that order. 

To take the first point. I beheve the beak of practically 
every bird is an index to its entire nature and character. And sex is 
shown more by the beak than by any other characteristic. In the 
hen bird in most parrakeets, particularly those parrakeets with which 
we are dealing", the beak of the hen is smaller, narrower, and more 
tucked into the bird's " face." In the Eosella this is a very constant 
and marked characteristic. The beak is altogether a more lady-like 
and less dangerous looking appendage in the hen. 

(2) "With very few exceptions, it will be found that the hen 
bird is smaller than the cock, but of course one may have a well- 
developed hen and a poorly developed cock. 

(3) In examining some dozens of living birds, not only those 
that have actually passed through my hands, but at the large dealers 
and London Zoo, I came to the conclusion that there was a marked, 
though not easily described, difference in the shape of the bird. 
The hen bird was more kestrel shaped and slimmer with narrower 
shoulders and the head more daintily and neatly set on than in the 
•cock. The neck, too, less well marked, and the head being propor- 
tionately smaller, the neck in the hen is a more graceful and 
deliberate curve than in the cock bird. The head itself in many 
parrakeets is flatter on the crown in the cock than in the hen.''' This 
point comes out nicely in Mr. Page's "Aviary and Aviary Life," 
page 189, in which I should say the nearer bird is undoubtedly the 
hen and the other the cock. On page 207 of the same book we 
have what one would, in absence of another bird to compare, call a 
" certain cock," although in Bauer's, Barnard's, and others it is 
rather hard to sex these birds unless one sees them side by side. 

(4) Finally, we come to the colour. Generally speaking the 
hen bird is decidedly duller and less plainly marked than the cock, 
and in many species, e.g. the Eedrumps, the colour is the great 
characteristic, but in practising sexing birds we should try and ignore 
colour as much as possible or one is apt to lose sight of the more 

* Note " How to Sex Cage Birds "p. 106 " the females of many of the 
Parrots . . . have rounder heads " — Mr. Page probably had his attention called 
to the fact by this note, but I believe I h&d previously published it. — A.G.B. 

44 On Sexing Parrakeets. 

general and (in many birds) only other means of sexing them. In 
Rosellas the colour may lead one absolutely astray, and Butler's 
theory of the green spot on the nape of the neck is, I am absolutely 
convinced, not only unreliable but also untrue.'" It is quite true that,, 
generally speaking, the hen bird is very much duller than the cock 
bird, and I must confess it was colour that first led me to doubt that 
my Eosellas were a true pair. When I saw a solitary hen the 
difference appeared to me so marked that I bought her on sight,, 
and subsequent events justified my judgment. Bright coloured hen 
Eosellas may and no doubt do exist, but if I was buying a " pair " 
of birds I should want to make very sure of their sex in other ways 
before I ventured on such a hen. In Pennants the colour is very 
variable but, on the whole, the cock birds seems to be a purer red 
with less dark marking than the hen, and he is too an altogether 
finer fellow. In Bauer's, Barnard's, and others, as far as I could 
ascertain, the colour difference is but slight. I need hardly say 
that, if colour is but little guide in adults, it is practically speaking 
of no value at all in the great majority of immature birds. In short,, 
colour is likely to prove the greatest pitfall of all in sexing birds, 
and sexing birds is to the aviculturist of such moment that one 
wonders more is not written on the subject, for without properly 
sexing your birds you cannot breed them, and without breeding 
them you cannot study them properly, and, after all, it is the pro- 
duction of young that appeals to the average aviculturist above 
everything. The difficulty I had in getting true pairs of birds, led 
me in the first place to study and find out the difference in the sexes 
for myself, and in the second to place my observations on record, in 
the hope that if correct they may be of help to others, and if in- 
correct they may stimulate controversy and debate. For any errors 
I take full responsibility and crave indulgence. 

[Further correspondence on this subject would be very useful. 
Perhaps Lord Tavistock and a few other members who have had 
experience with the Platycercin.os, will contribute. — Ed.] 

* In " How to Sex Cage Birds," pp. 127, 128, Dr. Butler states this on 
the authority of the late Joseph Abrahams, a most acute observer. Moreover 
the shape of the green spot was the character noted, not its presence.— ED. 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Oyster-Catcher Brooding Eggs. 

Photos by H. Willford. 

Oyster-Catcher Asleep on Nest, but always with one eye open. 

The Oyster Catcher. 45 


Hcematopus ostralegus (Linnaeus). 

The Oyster Catcher — which my friend Dr. Heatherly has 
rightly christened "the coastguard of bird-land" — is more or less 
common all round out coasts both summer and winter alike. At all 
times it is one of the most wary birds I have met with in my many 
attempts at bird-photography, for as soon as one gets near its haunts 
off it flies with its piercing warning call. 

The nest, if it can be called such, is merely a sci'ape or hollow, 
sometimes without any other material than the bare earth, and at 
others just a few bents of dried grass, amongst which are deposited 
two or more, often three, greenish yellow^ eggs, plentifully spotted 
with black. 

The nesting site varies. I have found the eggs laid within 
a few feet of high-water mark, and at various heights among bare 
roqks, also in the shade of Mallows and amidst the beautiful wealth 
of sea-pinks [Thrift] . 

Both male and female take their turns at incubating, although 
it is generally supposed that this is carried on by the female alone. 
The particular pair of birds, to which most of my observations refer, 
nested on a shelf of rock some ten feet from high-water mark, and 
about three feet above the beach. The sitting birds were protected 
from the north-east by the rocks at the back. Two eggs were laid, 
and when found had most likely been incubated over a week. The 
first thing to do on finding a nest with eggs is to test the eggs by 
looking through them to see if they are newly-laid or if incubation 
is well advanced. If the latter, one need have little fear of the birds 
deserting, providing care is taken in fixing up the hide. This is best 
done at dusk, as it gives the birds a better chance to get accustomed 
to it during the night, and then, by the following morning, most of 
their fear will have vanished. 

Sea-birds sit very little during hot sunny days, and can leave 
their eggs day after day for seven or eight hours at a stretch without 
harm ; this I have proved, for the day after I had fixed up the hide 


46 On the Oyster Catcher. 

set up my camera, I prepared to await the birds home-coming. After 
seven hours had passed I began to think something was wrong, for 
during this time botli birds had been sleeping and feeding within ten 
yards of me, and. after a good doze of half-an-hour or so, one of 
tlaem would begin to walk towards the nest, covering a few yards 
and then retreating. This would go on time after time, the distance 
growing less between the bird and the eggs after every effort, till one 
felt certain that the next time the bird would surely come on its 
nest ; but not so, the bird at this stage would think another sleep 
desirable, walk off to its original position and perching itself on a 
rock commanding a view of the nest, push its beak in the feathers 
of its back and, with one eye always open, doze for a further period. 

On the island I was working, which was quite tiny (about 
two acres) there were four pairs of Oyster Catchers nesting, and, at 
intervals, the sleeping pair would be visited by the others. On these 
occasions the most extraordinary dance took place. The birds would 
strut round each other, beating time to their curious call with their 
beautiful coral red beaks. Sometimes this " dance of the Oyster 
Catchers " would last several minutes, then, one by one, the in- 
truders would fly off leaving my pair to continue their broken sleep 
with still one eye always open. 

After my long wait, I returned home rather disheartened, but 
next morning, on paying a visit to the eggs, I found them quite warm. 
My friend therefore took up his position in the hide, and I left him 
for the day whilst I visited another island for Einged Plover. On 
returning, I found he had made two exposures, and on the following 
day a second friend secured three or four. The fourth day I visited 
the hide again, and after ten minutes wait the bird came on the nest 
again. I got her to go off twice by talking to her. After this, 
however, she took no notice of my voice and so I had to scratch tlie 
canvas of the tent. Eventually she grew so accustomed to me that 
she allowed me to put my hand out of the front of the tent and 
remove the lens and replace it with one of a longer focus. This 
shows how a bird can be accustomed to almost anything provided 
one has time, and is almost on a par with my friend C. J. King's 
exj)erience when stalking a Shag. Of course he is a past master at 
the art and had got so near to the bird that it completely covered 

Bird Notes from the Zoological Gardens. 47 

the field of a half-plate. He then began to wonder how near he 
really could get, so crept slowly on until at length the Shag allowed 
him to stroke it on the back. This took quite a long time, for 
nothing scares a bird more than sudden movements. 

The Oyster Catcher lives principally on small marine insects, 
Crustacea, limpets, etc., and the young when hatched are piloted 
down to the edge of the water within a few hours of drying. The 
parents are very solicitous of their offspring, and if you should by 
chance be close to the young, which will " squat " down by a stone 
and almost defy detection, the old birds will keep flying round 
and calling, sometimes coming to within a few feet. 

The wonderful red eye of the Oyster Catcher gives it a fierce 
look which is in keeping with its character. When defending its 
young it is afraid of no birds frequenting its realms, not even the 
Greater Black-backed Gull. 



Since my last instalment of these notes appeared in the 
August number, interesting new arrivals to the collection have been 
few. Five examples of the Seed Snipe {Thinocorys) were received, 
four of these being males, apparently the first consigment of these 
very interesting and puzzling little birds. Mr. Astley secured the 
other two, and as both he and Dr. Gosse have written about them 
in these pages I have nothing further to add, except that they 
seem as though they are likely to do w^ell, and I hope that both our 
Editor and the Zoological Society may be successful in breeding 
from them next year. 

In the Summer Aviary we succeeded in breeding the Spotted 
Tinamou {Notlioprocta maculosa) , a common bird in the Argentine, 
but one seldom seen in aviaries. It is very small for a Tinamou, 
not much larger than a quail, and the sexes are just alike. We had 
three birds of which we did not know the sexes. A nest, composed 

48 Bird Notes from the Zoological Gardens. 

of a few bits of grass and leaves, was formed in the long grass : three 
glossy purple eggs were laid, and the bird (presumably the male, for 
in this group the male alone sits) sat steadily for three weeks, all 
three eggs hatching. 

The young birds were of a pale huffish -brown colour with 
three dark brown stripes on the head. The down with which they 
were clothed was very long and hair-like, giving the chick the 
appearance of being covered with spines. They appeared to be some- 
what weak, and we discovered that the parent bird seemed to take 
very little interest in them, and they would undoubtedly have died 
had we not taken them and placed them with a bantam, which took 
to them at once and successfully reared them. Subsequently a 
second brood of two was reared in the same way. 

In the summer we liberated seven Roseate Cockatoos in the 
hope that they would remain in the Gardens. For a time they did 
so, and the flight of this flock as they circled about over the trees 
was well worth a special visit to London to see. They stayed about 
in the trees during the heat of the day, but about sunset, with loud 
cries, they flew high into the air and took long flights round the 
Park. One by one, however, they disappeared. They were some- 
what tame, and, I have no doubt, allowed themselves to be captured 
by some unscrupulous person or persons who, I suppose, managed 
to get a few shillings each for them. 

In one of the aviaries in the Small Bird House a pair of 
Spot-billed Toucanets {Selenidera maculirostris) have their abode, 
and as they seemed very friendly towards one another, we fixed 
them up a nesting log, of the type that one uses for Parrakeets. 
It was at once appropriated by them, and after a short time it was 
noticed that the hen spent a good deal of her time inside. This 
went on for some time, and then, when she came out, the cock took 
her place. We guessed that the hen had laid, and when, one day 
the keeper noticed both birds were out, he climbed up and peeped in, 
and there, sure enough, were two white glossy eggs. 

About four weeks, as we judged, after the eggs had been first 
laid, it was noticed that both birds had left the nest and ceased to 
visit it, and an inspection revealed the fact that this was empty. 

Beviexvs. 49 

We can only presume that young had been hatched but, apparently, 
devoured by then- parents. 

The birds commenced to visit the nest again, and we knew 
there must be eggs, for they again took turns in the nest, and were 
evidently sitting. 

On July 29th, when, as far as we could judge, incubation had 
been going on for three w^eeks, the birds were noticed to take food 
into the nest. Evidently a young bird or young birds had been 

On August 5th the keeper looked into the log and discovered 
a naked young bird, apparently well nourished. On August 14th it 
was about half as large as its parents, with dark feathers showing. 
The birds fed the young one entirely upon animal food, cockroaches, 
mealworms and gentles. No fruit was taken to the nest, so far as 
the keepers could tell. 

On the 21st of August the parents ceased to visit the nest, 
and the young bird was found to be dead. 

An interesting and valuable collection of birds has just arrived 
from Para, a present from the Museu Goeldi, through the interme- 
diary of Messrs. A. and H. Pam. It contains twenty-four birds, of 
which the most interesting are the American Tantalus {Tantalus 
loculator), Snowy Egret {LeucopJioyx candidissima) , Boat-bill {Can- 
crovia cochlearia), Darter {Plotus anbinqa), Grey-necked Tree Duck 
{Deudrocygna discolor), Eufous-necked Rail {Aramides chiricote), 
Pileated Guan [Penelope pileata), and Araucuan Guan (Ortalis 
araucuan). D. Seth-Smith, 

October 23, 1913. 



Beautiful photographs to accompany six chapters, the con- 
tents of which reveal to us intimately the daily life of the Peregrine 

* Tho Peregrine Falcon at the Eyrie, by FRANCIS HeaTHERLY. 
"Country Life" Library. 

50 Bevieivs. 

Falcon's nursery, with minutely recorded details of the babies' beha- 
viotir and diet, not to mention the parents' mode of living as anxious 
husband and wife who realize their great responsibilities, make up a 
book of unusual interest ; showing how absorbing the very smallest 
details can be in recording the daily life of any creature carefully and 
patiently watched ; how it is that just those very details, unseen 
and unnoticed by the man in the street, enhance the interest, teach- 
ing one to look more closely into nature ; to learn of her rather than 
destroy. And on the destruction of such birds as the Peregrine, 
Mr. Heatherly has something to say, warning us against the wiles 
of the egg-shell collectors, helping us to throw stumbling-blocks in 
their way. " A simple method," he writes, "is to wet each egg and 
" then scrawl all over it with a violet marking-ink pencil. This has 
no prejudicial effect on incubation, but renders the egg useless to 
collectors, as the violet marks are more indelible than the natural 
" blotches." 

To put a stop to these greedy destroyers, we gladly accept any 
means of selling them, whereby we can prevent them from selling \ 
To climb up and take a clutch of Peregrine's eggs need not 
be always difficult ; any fool who can shoot at all, can kill the parent 
birds ; let those who are really sportsmen try to do what Mr. 
Heatherley and his companions did, leaving many species which are 
in danger of extinction to rejoice in life and reproduction of life, 
whilst giving to the world a record of interest, with the satisfaction 
that good and not harm has been done. H. D. A. 


We have received copies of this interesting publication of 
January, April, and July, 1913. 

A paper worth reading, amongst others, in the January No. 
is one on the habits of the Cassowary by H. L. White, in the 
Eockingham Bay district, the eggs of which bird appear to be ex- 
tremely difficult to find. Two excellent photographs accomi^any the 
article, of the nests and eggs of Cassowaries, the one concealed in 
Palm Scrub, the other amid a tangle of ' Lawyer ' canes. 

In the April No. one's interest is again maintained. In a 

Bevietvs. 51 

lengthy treatise upon the osteology of the Cereopsis Goose, we are 
told that it is necessary to record a complete description of its 
skeleton, because " this extraordinary fowl is now on the road to 
extinction " ! ! 

Capt. S. A. White's paper on Field Ornithology on Kangaroo 
Island is interesting. Amongst numerous birds, he mentions meet- 
ing with the Kangaroo Island Crimson Parrot {Platycercus melanop- 
tera) and the Black Cockatoo {Gahjptorhynchus ivhitecs). 

The July No. also has a lengthy article by Capt. S. A. White 
on Field Ornithology in S. Australia (The Gawler Eanges), in which 
he tells his readers that probably the first ornithologist to work that 
country was Mr. J. F. Andrews in 1880, who mentions in letters 
written at that time, that amongst other skins he obtained those of 
the Night-Parrot {Geopsittacus occidentalis) for a trifling sum, so 
that evidently these birds were much more numerous then than they 
are now. 

" Bird-Life of Kow Plains " (Victoria) by L. G. Chandler 
helps to swell this number with good 'copy,' illustrated by beautiful 
photographs of nests and eggs. H. D. A. 


Messrs. Witherby & Co. are publishing this Autumn the 
following works : — 

" The Gannet, a Bird ivith a History," by Mr. J. H. GURNEY, who has for 
many years been studying the life history of this bird and the historical 
references to it, 
"Indian Pigeons and Doves," by Mr. E. 0. STUART BAKER ; which will be a 
companion Vol. to the same author's well-known '' Indian Ducks." 

■' Camping in Crete," by Mr. AUBYN TREVOR-BATTYE who gives, in addition 
to an account of the Country, Mountains, etc., descriptions of its birds. 

We hope to be able to review these books at greater length 
later on. — Ed. 

52 Correspondence. 



At the comniencenient of the Magazine's year, may I once more, whilst 
thanking those members who so generously responded to my appeal, again 
remind others that in order to maintain and increase the quantity and quality 
of our illustrations, donations to the fund are needed. One would like to publish 
a coloured illustration every month, for no mere black and white one can do 
justice to, or give a full idea of, many species of birds. 

Quite lately one of our members told me that he was enabled to procure 
one particular species from China, owing to his sending out a coloured illustra- 
tion from our Magazine, which was at once recognized by a Chinaman who had 
been asked to procure the living birds. 

No description or black and white drawing is of any assistance to many 
natives of different countries ; indeed the same thing often applies in our own 
case. Hubert D. ASTLEY, Editor. 


At the end of September INIajor Horsbrugh deposited at the London Zoo- 
logicM Gardens some birds which had been brought from Yucatan, amongst 
which were two species of jMocking Birds, one of which seems to be Mimus 
gilvus, syn. gracilis. There were two of them, charmingly tame, and quite 
youngsters, still at that time opening their mouths wide for food. They are in 
my possession and are smaller than the better known M. polyglothis- — the North 
American Mocking-Bird ; the head and mantle are of a purer ash-grey, with the 
wings and central tail feathers blacker. The Mocking-Birds are somewhat 
difficult to distinguish, for there are many of them, and all bear a very close 
family resemblance. 

Some Red Cardinals in this collection seem to be merely a rather smaller 
race of the N. American birds, and the male is more vermilion in colour. 

Two species of Hangnests {Icterus mesomelas mesomelas and another), very 
handsome, with shorter bills and more refined heads than has the " common " 

Five Yucatan Jays {Cissoloplia yucaianica) all but nestlings, their heads 
still whitish instead of black. When young this bird is white, gradually 
changing to the adult plumage, which is very handsome. Bill, head, and 
underparts, black ; upper parts, with long tail, smalt Kingfisher blue. Yellow 
rim of skin round eyes. Legs and feet orange yellow. 

The Yucatan birds ought to be hardy, for Mr. Gaumer wrote about the 
glimate and seasons as follows : — 

" I reached Yucatan on the 14th of Oct. in the first heavy norther of the 
" season. The weather had been good for some ten days before, the summer 

Correspondence. 53 

" rains having ceased about ten days. During October, November and Decern- 
" ber north wind followed north wind every ten to fourteen days, with light 
" drizzling rain, which generally lasted from two to fourteen days, and with 
" increasing cold, until the thermometer is said to have fallen at one time to 
"610 Fahr. In January there were four moderately heavy rainfalls, with 
" strong north winds and cold nights. One very heavy rainfall occurred on 
" the 23rd February, with a considerable sprinkling of hail. After that came 
"the dry season, with the heat very great in April and May." 

Hubert D. Astley. 


Sir, — Having read in the Avicultural Magazineloii October of the longevity 
of birds in captivity, I think it may be of interest to some of your readers to 
know that I had a White-eared Bulbul given to me on Sept. 16th, 1S75, which 
only died (in a fit) on May 3rd, 1893. It travelled about with me wherever I 
went, both abroad and in the British Isles, and was absolutely tame, always 
flying on to my finger directly it was called. It lived a great deal out loose in my 
room and I even used to let it out in the train when I could have the windows 
shut and 1 knew no one would open the door, F. HAREWOOD. 


Sir, — Mr, Teschemaker's interesting article on the White Wagtail raises 
the point as to whether it is a very rare breeding bird in England or not. Per- 
sonally I am inclined to think that it is often casuall}^ mistaken for the Pied 
Wagtail {M. lugiihris) owing to the difference in the colouring on back and wings 
being overlooked. 

There were certainly a pair this year near the coast of Northumberland, 
not far from Holy Island, though I did not find the nest myself. 

M. Portal. 


The Marquis of Tavistock writes on the 17th of October :— 
' ' The young Coscoroba Swans were looking very fine when I last saw them about 
" a fortnight ago — full-grown and fully feathered, except for their pinions, so I 
"think they really ought to survive." 

[We believe this is the first time that this species of Swan has bred suc- 
cessfully in England, perhaps even in Europe? — ED.] 


Sir, — I am sending you enclosed a sample of Accha seed from Nigeria. 
Some time ago there was a privately imported collection of African small finches 

54 Correspondence. 

from the West Coast, only two birds were lost on the voyage and those that 
arrived did well. I got the bag of seed they were brought over and fed on. I 
could not find out what it was, but now have received similar seed from my now enclosed to you. 

I always felt that we wanted something of a special kind to keep small 
tropical seed-eaters in health as millet seems not to nourish and all birds will 
not eat Canary seed. I have a couple of pounds of "Accha," and shall be pleased 
to send samples to any of our members who may be interested. 

Hbnby B. Rathborne. 

Dunsinea, Castleknock, Co. Dublin. 

* * # 
The foUoiving ansivers tvere received from Mr. Silver : — 

(i.) Sir, — In answer to your note with reference to saniple of seed known as 
Accha (?) I went wp to South Kensington this morning to try and find out some- 
thing about it. There they do not know it, cannot identify it, or find any 
reference to it whatever. In my botany (Bentley) there is a reference to a plant 
(graminaceous) called Paspalum exile, which the natives call Fundi or Funding! 
and it is described as the smallest seed grown as a cereal. Pennisetuvi dichotomum 
is called " Kasheia," but I do not know either of them. Mr. Trower has never 
seen it commercially, but it will be shown to Hurst, the seed importers, after 
which I will write you, and in the meantime I will plant some and try to get it 
identified from the plant. ALLEN SILVER. 

*- * # 

(ii.) I am informed by the authorities at Kew Gardens that the seed appears 
to be Paspahmi exile, and is known in Gambia as Hungry Rice Fundi, or 
Fundungi. It is not known by the London houses commercially. 

ALLEN Silver. 


Sir, — I take the present opportunity of advising raembers that, in addition 
to the extensive classification for Foreign Birds, to be given at the London Cage 
Bird Association's Show, which will be held at the Horticultural Hall on Nov. 
27, 28. and 29th, a class has been added for Gouldians and extra one for in- 
sectivorous birds, making a total of 30 classes. You kindly printed particulars 
of this earlier in the year, and I again beg to remind those members who may be 
inclined to show birds that I should be pleased to supply them with any inforraa- 
tion they require. There will be no cancellation or amalgamation and full prize 
money will be paid in all classes , and every care will be taken with the exhibits 
by experienced hands. 

If this venture is properly supported, the League will be able to provide a 
really good annual fixture. Entries close on or about the 18th of November and 
schedules will be ready by November the first. 

The judges are Mr. D. Seth-Smith and another. ALLEN SILVER. 

Correspondence. 55 


Sir, — Some time ago. when I was on a visit to the Zoological Gardens, I 
was much interested in watching the curious way in which a hen Reeves' 
Pheasant was behaving. I stood still observing her movements for some time, 
and then saw that a mouse seemed to be the cause of her trouble. The bird was 
continually running after it, as if trying to catch it, and after some time gave 
the chase up as if tired of the game. 

The cock bird then took up the running, and after a sharp chase eventually 
caught the mouse, which he held in his beak, notwithstanding its struggles, and 
walked about as if he was very proud of his capture. Then he proceeded to 
shake the mouse just as a terrier would a rat, and after it was dead, threw it up 
into the air, caught it in his beak and swallowed it whole. 

I was not aware that pheasants ever fed in this way, or upon such food, 
and upon mentioning these facts at a meeting of the B.O.C., was informed by 
the late Mr. Tegelmeier that he had never heard of such a case. I thought it 
possible these facts may be of interest to the readers of the Magazine. 



Sir, — I have read in the Avicultural Magazine of June 1907, on page 
255, a letter from Mr. Bonhote recording instances of birds laying two eggs in 
twenty-four hours. Mr. Bonhote, in the last paragraph of his letter, asks if any 
of our members could furnish further instances. 

I have in my collection of parrots' eggs, three eggs of the Undulated 
Grass Parrakeet {Melopsittacus undulatus) that were laid in the night, 13th 
November, 1912. These eggs are abnormal, being about a quarter the size of the 
typical egg. I could supply the exact measurements if it is considered necessary. 
The chief point of interest about these eggs is the colour, which is a light blue. 

I have a fine collection of parrot eggs, and some hundreds have passed 
through my hands, but these are the first specimens I have ever seen coloured. 
I may add that a similar egg was laid by the same bird and coloured in the same 
way a day or so afterwards. This egg I also possess. H. MUNT. 

[Such eggs ought to produce Blue Budgerigars. — ED.] 


Sir, — Miss Leeke will perhaps pardon me if I tell her that the bird she 
heard and saw flying at a height round a marshy meadow last June was not a 
Nightjar but a Common Snipe, executing those peculiar evolutions which it 
usually indulges in during the breeding season. She is not the first to be deceived 
by the strange sound made by this bird in passing obliquely downward through 
the air and which naturalists usually call "drumming." We are suddenly 
arrested by hearing a tremulous sound, much resembling that of a lamb bleating 

56 Correspondence. 

on the uplands, and from -which the Snipe is sometimes called the "heather 
bleater," the prefix of heather being added from the Snipe often breeding 
amongst heather. 

The bird sweeps round in circles in the sky when suddenly it seems to fall 
obliquely downwards, and in so doing produces the drumming or bleating sound. 
If we watch a Snipe closely we shall notice that every time it swoops downward 
the feathers of the tail are widely spread and the wings seems to tremble or 
quiver, and I have long held the opinion that the shrieking sound called drum- 
ming or bleating is produced by the passage of the air through the stiS outspread 
feathers of the tail, naodulated by the humming made by the quivering feathers 
of the wings. F. BOYES, Beverley. 


May I express my thanks to all those who have helped me 
in zxiy Editorial work by contributing to the Magazine, etc., with a 
hope that they will continue to do so. 

If other Members who can write any papers or notes will 
follow their example, my work will be further enlightened ; being, as 
it were, a china nest-egg, never to be hatched, but only to promote 
the laying of other eggs. 

If I can have in hand sufficient copy ' for at any rate a 
month ahead of that which is published, I shall be grateful. 

An editor cannot expect to please everyone, so that I may 
consider myself fortunate in having met with almost unvarying 
courtesy from the Members of the Society. 

Being a mere amateur at the work, and having often to 

snatch half-hours here and there in which to write and answer 

letters, etc., in addition to sometimes attempting to illustrate the 

Magazine, I feel that Members will very kindly continue to bear 

with any shortcomings. 

Hubert D. Astley, Editor. 

Notices to Mkmbkks — (Continued from page n. of cover.) 

Hrr Grack Thk Duchuss of WklIvIngton, Ewhurst Park, Basingstoke. 
Miss Lii^TAN M. Mkdland, I'\Z.vS., io, Newcastle House, Northuiuberlaiid 

Street, London, W. 
Mademoisei<LK de MonTGKON, Covertside, Hasfield, Gloucester. 
Mr. Stephen J. White, of " Lloyds," London, E.C. 
Dr. Francis Cadogan, Hatherop Castle, I'^airford, Glos. 


Herr Heinrich Hagenbhck, Stellingen, Hamburg, Germany. 

Mr. L. G. Chiozza Money, M.P., The Grey House, Hampstead Lane^, 

London, N. Proposed by Mr. Hubp;rt D. Asti.ey. 

Mr. Lionet^ de Rothschild, M.P., 46, Park Street, W. 

Proposed by Mr. A. Ezra. 
Dr. Geffrey, West Linton, Peeblesliire. 

Proposed by 'Sli^. Warren Vernon. 


HorsbruGh, Major Boyd, Taudridge Priory, O.xted. 

AsTr,EY, Reginai.d B., The Cottage at the Crossways, Hoe Benham, 

AsTlvEY, Mrs. ReGinai.d, The Cottage at the Crossways, Hoe Benham, 


Mr. A. Ezra .. .. ,. .. ^'300 

The Editor .. .. .. .. 500 

'J'he charge for private advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
words or less, a'>id one penny for every additional three ivords or less. 
Trade advertisements are not allowkd in this column. Dealers 
who areinejubers, ivishing to advei tise, shoidd apply to the Publisher for terms. 
Advertisements must reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Council rese)ve the right oj refusing any advertisement 
they may consider undesirable. 
Major Hoksbkugh, Taudridge Priory, Oxteil, has the following birds for 
disposal : — One pair of Blue-winged vSivas, ^5; one White's Thrush 
(male) Geocichla varia, £^; i Maroon Oriole (O. tiailii), £^; one cock 
and two hens. Black Francolin (F. vulgaris), £5 the trio (Cyprian 
form); 2 pairs Cyprian Chukor Partridges, 40/- per pair ; one Spanish 
Sparrow (cock) 10/-. Haud-reaied Tamaulipos Thrush — tame and 
recordin.g its song, 20/ — cocks : Plumbeous Redstart, 30/-; Red-flanked 
Bush-Robin, ;^5 ; Rufous-necked Babbler, 50/-; Long-tailed Babbler, 
40/-; Masked hong-tah {M. pe> sonata), £i; Guatemalan Black Ouzel 
(Mernla fuscata) 30/- ; Yucatan Black and Blue Jays [Cissolopha 
yncatanica) tame, band-reared, first time imported alive, ^"5 each ; 
genuine pair Gold-fronted Chloropsis, imported last May, ^5 ; cock 
Hardwicke's Bnlbul, 50/-; cock McClelland's Bulbul, 30/-; pair of 
Pagoda Starlings, 40/-; pair of Hooded Hangnests, 40/- ; cock Black- 
backed Hangnests, ^i ; cock Yucatan Red Cardinal— smaller and 
brighter than the Virginian Cardinal—;^! each. True pair of Cereopsis 
Geese, ^7. Pair of Black-bellied Sandgrouse from Cyprus, hen laid 
regularly every sea.son ; tame and in beautiful plumage, ^6. Pair of 
Crested Larks, 25/- ; cock Calandra Lark, 20/-; House-Finches from 
Yucatan (rare), 10/- each; cock Olive Finch, 10/-. 

i Coiil'nnied f)oin page iti. of cover.) 

For Sale. — Few 1913 early-batched Chinese Geese. 

C, F. Catixe, Thurston, Bury St Edmunds. 

For Sale — Eight pairs hand-reared Carolina, 33/- pair ; 5 pairs Brown Call 
Ducks, lu/- pair. 

Maurice Porta r,, High Sandhoe, Hexham. 

1'he charge Jor members^ adverlisenients uiider this heading is fouk 
PKNCFC FOR TWEr<VE WORDS or under, and one penny for every additional 
three words or less. 

Wanted. — Pair of hand-reared pinioned Pintail — 1913 birds. 

Maurice Portal, Esq , High Sandhoe, Hexham. 

Wanted — Natal YiwshShri'k.&siLanarinsquadricolor); Heuglin's Rohin Chats. 
H. D. AsTr.KY, Esq., Brinsop Court, Hereford. 






Finest Selected Seeds for all kinds of Cage or Aviary Birds 

British, Foreign, and Canaries, 

As supplied by us to the leading Fanciers and Exhibitors at the Crystal Palace and 

" CECTO " '■^'^ ^^^^ Insectivorous Food on the Market, 1/- per lb 
H^^i^B^MM postpaid 1/3. 

Ground Silk Worm Pupae, Mealworms, Ants' Eggs, Dried Flies, etc 

" EGBISCO." ^^^^ fi'iest Egg and Biscuit I-ood jet made. 

^^g^^H^i^^BB^M 3d, . 6d, 1/'- and 2/- Tin 



B-ornhills, (Illustrated), hj GRAHAM Bs^SBSAW, M.B.... ... ... 57 

On Sexing Parrakeets, by THE MARQUIS OF TAVISTOCK ... .... 59 

A tame Hunting Cissa, by Mrs. WARREN VERNON ... ... ... 62 

Wild Ducks from an Incubator, by HERBERT K. JOB ... ... 64 

Bird Notes from Port Sudan, by Mrs. NoiiL E. WATERFIELD ... ... 70 

Adelaide Parrakeets, by THE MARQUIS OF TAVISTOCK ... ... 72 

Some Birds of the Philippine Islands, by RICHARD C. MCGREGOR ... 78 

Nesting of the Yellow Wagtail, by W. E. TESCHEMAKER ... ... 81 

Breeding of the Grey Waxbill, by W. A. BAINBRIDGE ... ... ... 83 

On Bullfinches as Decoys, by Miss E. DOROTHY LEEKE ... ... 85 


On Sexing Birds, ; re Sexing Parrakeets, ; Notes ; A Late 

Swallow ... .. .... ... ... 86—88 

Vol. V. No. 2. 

The price of this 
number is I/O. 

-19 13,- 

NOTE. — A new volume commences every November. 

All Subscriptions 

should be sent to the Publishers, 
Messrs. WEST, NEWMAN &. Co.. 54. Hatton Garden, E.G. 


Persons wishing to join the Avicultural Society are reqnested lo 
conininnicate witli either of the Hon. Secretaries or the Editor. 

Jl^TheiMagazine can also be had from the Publishers by NON-MEMBERS 
at a Subscription of 15/- per annum. 


The Subscription to the Avicultural Society is 10/- per annum, due on 
the Jst of November in each year, and is payable in advance. The entrance 
fee is lo/6. Tlie Avicultural Magazine is sent free to members monthly. 
Members joining at an)' time during tlie year are entitled to the back 
numbers for tlie current year, on the payment of entrance fee and 

All MSS. for publication i?i the Magazifie, Books for Review, and Private 
Advertisements should be addressed to the Editor, Mr. Hubert D. AsTLEY, 
Brin.sop Court, Hereford. 

All Queries respecting Birds (except post mortem cases) should b^ 
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124. Beckenhaui Road, Beckenham, Kent. [^Enclose Stamp for reply]. 

All other correspondence, should be sent to the Honorary Business 
Secretary, Mr. R. I. POCOCK ; Zoological Society's Gardens, Regent's Park, 
London, N.W. Any change of address should at once be notified to him. 

Dead Birds for post mortem examination should be sent to Prof. 
G. H. WooivDRiDGE, Zoological Society, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Advice is given, by post, by members of the Council to members of 
the Societ3% upon all subjects connected with Foreign and British birds. 
All queries are to be addressed to the Hon. Correspondence Secretary 
and should contain a penny stamp. Those marked " Private " will not 
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Tlie Magazine is published l>v Messrs., Newman & Co., {54, 
Hatton Garden, E.C.)to whom all SUBSCRIPTIONS, orders for extra copies, 
back numbers, and bound volumes (accompanied by remittance) should be 

Cases for binding the Magazine (in art cloth, with gold block on side, 
can be obtained from the Publishers, post free and carefull)' packed, at 1/6^ 
each ; or the Publishers will undertake the binding of the Volume for 2/6^- 
plus 8d. for packing and postage. Members are requested to state whether 
they want the wrappers and advertisements bound in at the end or not. 


The following can be obtained from the Publishers at the prices given 

below. Postage 6d. per volume extra : 
Vol. II., 6/- to members; 8/6 to the public. Vols. V. to VII., 10/6 each to 
members; 12/6 each to the public. Vol. VIII., 14/- to members; 17/6 to 

the public. 
New Series— Vols. I. to IV., (sets only) £t\. net to members ; ;!^5 to the public. 

,, Vols. II. to VII., 16/- each to members; 21/- to the public. 

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1. To encourage the keeping of wild animals, birds and reptiles 

by private individuals. 

2. To help such private individuals, when starting, with advice 

as to the purchase of animals and birds and the man- 
agement of same. 

3. To enable members to get in touch with other members or 

persons desirous of selling or exchanging wild animals 
and birds, etc., etc. 


The Eeeeipt of the Annual Year Book and Monthly Bulletin 

The right of advertising Stock for Sale, or Wanted, in the 
Monthly Bulletin, FEBE, etc., etc. 

Annual Member's Subscription £1 Is. 
Life IVIembership, £10 lOs. 

Bor further particulars apply to — - 

G. TYEWHITT-DEAKE, B.Z.S., M.B.O.U., Hon. Sec, 


Edited by Frank M. Chapman. 


About 400 pages, with 12 full-page colored plates of our owu birds, 
and many photographs from nature. 

Descriptions of experiences with living birds in their haunts, and help- 
ful articles on how to study birds. 

Migration tables, .showing when birds may be expected at many places 
throughout the country. 

A list of prominent ornithologists who will help you in your study of 

Bird Censuses by numerous observers. 

Reviews of books and of magazine articles relating to birds. 

Editorials on current questions in bird study. 

A School Department. An Audubon Society Department. 


D. APPLETON & Co., 25 Bp;dford Strkht, Covrnt Gardkn, London. 

Pp. 142, CXoTH, Dkmy 8vo., Price 5/- net; Pcstage 4d. 





J. L. BONHOTE, M.A., E.L.S., F.Z.S. 

A Manual intended as a practical help to those who find both 
pleasure and profit from the keeping of wild birds in confinement. 
Contributed to by specialists in each class of birds described. 

With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Uncoloured. 

London: WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 


Importer of and Deakr in Rare Birds, Sc, 


Hamburg -Grossborstel 

Mexican Tree-Quails. Chukar Partridges. 

Mexican Spoonbills. White Ibises. 

Herons. White Peafowl. 

Demoiselle Cranes. Crown Cranes. 

White Swans. Black Swans. 

Black- necked Swans. Bewick's Swans. 

Canadian Qeese. Brent Geese. 

Fulvous Tree- Ducks 

Bahama Ducks 
Carolina ,, 

Mandarin „ 
White-eyed ,, 
Rosy-billed ,, 

Whistling Red-crested Ducks 

Ruddy Sheldrakes 

Blue-winged Teals 

Red-shouldered „ 

(^Nettiiwi torquattim) . 

Chilian Teals 
„ Pintails 
„ Wigeons 




Price List Free on application. 




I,eiiiurs, Coati-Muiidi, Jackals, Civets, Ocelots, Caracals, Mongoose, 
Ferrets, Porcupines, Wombats, Gazelles, Deer of kinds. Antelopes, Shetland 
Ponies, Tortoises, Wizards, Snakes, Crocodiles, &c. 

Monkeys, &e. Chimpanzees, Baboons, Apes, Mandrills, Dogfaces, 
Sooties, Caratrix, Moustaches, Puttynose, Capuchins, vSpiders, Squirrel 
Monkeys, Marniozeets, Hussars, Jews, Rhesus, &c. 

Large Animals. PHephants, Yaks, Camels, Phnus, Rheas, Ostriches. 
Canadian Bears, Japanese Bears, Russian Bears, Wolves, Hyenas, I.ions, 
Tigers, Panthers, Wild Asses, Buffaloes. 

A uiillion Cowrie, Tridacna, and giant clam shells, Curios of 
every description. 

WalePfowl, &e. Swans of kind, Marabous, Cranes, Storks, Gali- 
nules, Ibis, Egyptian Geese, Bernicie, Brent, Canadian, Chinese, White- 
Fronted, Pink-fooled, Barheaded, and other geese. Flamingoes, Pelicans, 
Cormorauts, Heron. 

Dueks. Tree Ducks, Mandarins, Carolinas, Sheldrakes, Rose\bills 
Pochards, Pintail, Widgeon, Wild Ducks and fancy varieties of Call Ducks, 
every kind. 

BiPds. Talking Grey Parrots, Amazon Parrots, Piping Bullfinches, 
Hartz Mountain Roller Canaries always in stock, Alexandrine Parrots, 
Bengal Pariakeets, Conures, I,ories, Rose Cockatoos, Slenderbill Cockatoos, 
I,emoncrest Cockatoos, Quaker Parrakeets, Banded Pairakeels, Madagascar, 
Red-faced and Australian Love Birds, Macaws, &c. 

Falcons, trained and untrained. 

Miscellaneous. Small Finches, &c., talking Mynahs, Pies, Weavers, 
Whydans, Saffron Finches, Black-throated Finches, Java Sparrows, While 
Doves, Ring Doves, Tamboniine and Blood-breasted Pigeons, Australian 
Crested Pigeons, South .American Spotted Pigeons, Californian Quail, Car- 
dinals, Toucans, Peafowls, Japanese long-tailed Fowls, Silky Fowls, Guinea 
Fowls, Ornamental Pheasants, Tj'pical Poultry of all varieties. 

PBease enquire for Wants. 

JUST ARRIVED.— One Great-billed Parrot; one Malabar Parrakeet; 
one paip Yellow thighed Caique Parrots , one hen Blossom-head 
Parrakeet ; one pair rare Madras Hanging Parrakeets, one pair 
Blue Bonnets, Mealy Rosellas, &e. 

Cables and Telegrams : " Cross, Liverpool." 

National 'Phone 6491 Central. 





Third Series.— Yol. V.— No. 2.— All rights reserved. DECEMBER, 1913. 


By Gkaham Eenshaw, M.B. 

The curious birds known as Hornbills must be reckoned 
amongst the rarities of aviculture. Quaint, intelligent, amusing, 
they are unfortunately but little known to the private aviarist. Long 
acquaintance with the principal European Zoos has shown the 
present writer that comparatively few species are regularly exhibited : 
even in dealers' lists they figure spasmodically and uncertainly, but 
two or three times a year. Apparently the finest collection of living 
Hornbills is to be seen in the Gardens in Eegent's Park. For many 
years the writer has taken a special interest in Hornbills, and has 
found them to well repay the closest study. 

Ground Hornbills present a remarkable appearance owing to 
the ' eyelashes " [modified feathers] which fringe the lids. Essen- 
tially terrestrial, when on the ground they suggest dishevelled, 
monstrous turkeys with the nightmare beaks of Toucans. They 
walk well, but are quite able to fly. Ground Hornbills in captivity 
are exceedingly playful. They are fond of amusing themselves with 
any small movable object such as an iron bar or rod, dancing round 
it with much display of their wings. Probably they make believe 
that their toy is a snake or other reptile, seizing and dropping it 
repeatedly, as if to swiftly disable some dangerous prey. Two 
species are recognised, one from Abyssinia {Bucorax ahyssinicus), 
the other from South Africa {B- cafer). 

The Black Hornbill {Sphagolobus atratus) is a West African 
species : one kept by the writer proved a most charming pet. 

58 On Hornbills. 

Exceedingly tame, this bird enjoyed being caressed, allowed itself to 
be picked up without struggling, and fed readily from the hand. It 
enjoyed being scratched on the back of the head, slowly bending its 
head and raising the crown and nape feathers in parrot fashion. It 
could catch any food thrown to it, '' fielding " the morsels with 
marvellous unerring accuracy. The cry of this bird was loud and 
harsh. The building in which it was kept was warmed by a stove, 
before which the bird would squat at night, like a dog crouching 
before a fire. x\lways good tempered and alert, this Hornbill used 
to amuse itself by jabbing at the stove with closed beak : it never 
attempted to bite anyone. On the ground it progressed in a series 
of long hops. Other individuals which I have observed flew well, 
making a loud swishing sound which has aptly been compared by 
travellers to the puffing of a railway engine. 

The Ehinoceros Hornbill {Buceros rhinoceros) is but little 
known to aviculture. At present there is a very fine example in the 
Bird House at the Amsterdam Zoological Gardens, obtained from 
Sumatra. It appears to agree very well with the mixed collection of 
birds which share its cage. During the hot part of the day this 
Hornbill prefers to sit aloft, high up on a suitable perch. I do not 
remember seeing this species alive in the United Kingdom. 

The " Two-horned" Hornbill {DicJwceros bicornis) is perhaps 
the oftenest imported species. It is of large size and somewhat 
clumsily built, and is further remarkable for its hoarse braying cry. 
As far as the writer has been able to observe, this is a sluggish 
species in captivity, entirely lacking the vivacity that characterises 
the enterprising, alert Ground Hornbills or the vivacious black 
species. Its quaint appearance is its chief claim to the attention of 
the aviculturist ; possibly it requires a warmer temperature than is 
generally allotted to it, in order to display suitably its mental 

Temminck's Pied Hornbill {Anthracoceros convexus) is a small 
bird of convenient size for the aviary. In summer it can be kept 
out of doors in the day time : it will eat fish, frogs, mice, grapes and 
bananas. Some years ago I saw five of these Lesser Hornbills in 
the same cage in the Antwerp Zoo. : occasionally they figure in 
dealers' lists in this country. In common with so many picarian 

On Sexing Parrakeets. 59 

birds, these Hornbills have the curious habit of shaking their plum- 
age as if shivering. I can cordially recommend them as pets. 

The Pigmy Hornbills of the genus Lophoceros, though ap- 
parently very little known in captivity, are sometimes exhibited in 
■Continental collections. A few years ago I saw an example in the 
Jardin des Plantes, and a few weeks ago another in the Bird House 
at Antwerp. These w^ere apparently the grey South African species 
{L. epirliinus), and in many years of study were the first living 
examples seen by the writer. 

Hornbills are easily kept and can be acclimatized like any 
other birds. Like all creatures which have succeeded in the battle of 
life, they have most accommodating appetites and will eat almost 
anything" — boiled rice, chopped bananas, fruits of various descriptions, 
fish, small birds, mice. Although possessed of harsh voices their 
cries are not disagreeable : the Pigmy Hornbills indeed are said to 
warble like a Thrush. Hornbills are certainly gifted with high 
intelligence, are affectionate, and soon become attached to their 
owner. In winter a warm room should be provided for them ; in 
summer they may be kept outdoors in the day time. Like parrots 
they are subject to tuberculosis. The Black Hornbill mentioned 
above was examined by the writer after death : the liver was studded 
over with characteristic small, pale tubercular nodules. 


By The Maequis of Tavistock. 

Having had some experience of the majority of the Broadtail 
Parrakeets, I should say that, when adult, they are not on the whole 
very difficult birds to sex ; nothing like so hard, for instance, as the 
true Parrots, Conures, and Macaws. 

I quite agree with Dr. Lovell-Keays, however, that the sexing 
of immature specimens is in most cases largely a matter of guess work, 
though I am rather surprised to see that he mentions Eedrumps as 
being difficult to distinguish when young. I have never bred Eed- 
rumps, although I have seen some not more than a few months old, 
and I have ahvays been under the impression that the immature 

60 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

cocks were very much greener than the hens from the time they left 
the nest ; probably, however, I have been wrong, and anyone who 
has bred Eedrmnps will of course know what they look like in their 
first plumage. '"' 

I will now deal briefly with such of the Platycercmce as I 
have kept, referring to what I consider the principal external sexual 
differences and the degree in which they are apparent. 

Common Eosella. Adult hen decidedly smaller than the cock 
and w^ith a smaller head and beak. Body colours usually less 
bright ; the red bib smaller and its edges much more uneven. 
An adult cock is quite unmistakable, but it is possible to confuse 
an adult hen with a young cock. The best way is to look at 
the back of the head ; in most young birds there is a strip of 
green about half inch wide, running from the neck right up on 
to the crown. In old hens this is seldom noticeable, and the 
green strip, if it exists at all, is shorter, irregular in outline, and 
frequently edged with orange yellow. 

Yellow-mantled Eosella. The only hving specimen of this, 
beautiful local race I hajve ever seen, was an old cock, till lately 
in my jpossession. The sexual differences of plumage, size, etc. 
would undoubtedly be the same as in P. eximius. In Gould's 
Birds of Australia " there is a figure of a parrakeet with an 
almost entirely yellow head, wdiich is described as an immature 
P. splendidus. It is, however, very imiDrobable that young 
Yellow-mantles differ so remarkably from young Eed Eosellas 
as to possess yellow heads, and it is much more likely that the 
bird from which the figure was taken was an abnormally-coloured 
adult, possibly with a dash of Mealy Eosella in its pedigree. I 
am, indeed, half inclined to think that Yellow-mantles are of 
hybrid origin. 

Mealy Eosella and Blue-cheeked Pareakeet. Cock rather 
larger than the hen and a little brighter coloured. Head deci- 
dedly larger and squarer than that of the female. 

Brown's Pareakeet. Cock a shade larger than the hen, with, in 

* The males are easily distinguished, for amongst other differences, they 
have some red on the rump. — ED. 

on Scxinq , Parrakeets. 61 

most cases, considerably more black about him. Head and 
beak of the male always decidedly larger and heavier. Hen 
Brown's vary a good deal in colom', some being much brighter 
and more heavily marked than others. This fact, combined 
with the great excess in the number of females imported, is 
responsible for the frequent mistakes made in sexing this 

Pennant's Paeeakeet. Hen decidedly smaller than the cock, 
with a smaller head and beak ; in captivity often duller in 
colour, but not invariably so. An easy species to sex. 

Adelaide Paeeakeet. Hen rather smaller and sometimes much 
redder than the cock. Beak and head also smaller, but many 
cock Adelaides have rather narrow beaks, which makes them 
somewhat deceptive birds to sex. 

Yellow-bellied Paeeakeet. Hen decidedly smaller than the 
cock with a much smaller head and beak. The species is an 
easy one to sex. 

Yellow - eumped Paeeakeet. Cock rather larger and brighter 
than the hen ; beak a little broader. Difference in the appear- 
ance of the sexes, often slight, as in the case of the Adelaides. 

Baenaed's Paeeakeet. Hen a httle smaller than the cock and 
usually less blue. Head smaller and bill much narrower. 

Bauee'S Paeeakeet. Sexes much ahke in colour, but the hen is 
decidedly smaller and has a much smaller head and beak. 

Yellow-COLLAEED Paeeakeet. Hen smaller than the cock, with 
a rather smaller head and narrower beak. The great size of 
this bird — the largest of the Broadtails — makes one rather apt 
to mistake single hens for cocks, when one has no opportunity 
of comparing them with males of their species. 

Stanley Paeeakeet. Hen easily distinguishable by her dull and 
patchy tints. Her head is mainly green ; her cheek patches 
very dull in colour and her breast with a lot of green feathers 
interspersed among the red. Young cocks have usually a little 
more red on their heads than young hens of the same age, or 
■" even than old hens. In some cases they assume the crimson 
breast of the adult in the course of their first autumn, but 
not as a rule before thev are eighteen months old. Gould's 

62 Mrs. Waeren Vernon, 

statement that the sexes when adult are ahke, appears to be 
Eed-CAJ-PED Pareakeet. Hen duller in colour than the cock : 
cap usually streaked with green, even in old birds. Hen Eed- 
capped Parrakeets appear to retain their immature dress much 
longer than males. 
Eed-VENTED Blue-Bonnet.) Cock rather larger and brighter 
Common Blue-Bonnet. ' than the hen, with a slightly 

larger beak ; more vigorous and perky in demeanour, and 
"bobs" with greater energy when alarmed, 
easy one to sex. 
Eedrump and other Pseplioti. Sexes easily distinguishable by 

striking differences of colour. 

BouRKE's Pareakeet. Adult cock rather brighter coloured than 

the hen, but extremely hard to distinguish. When in breeding 

condition he has a habit of occasionally drawing himself up 

and slightly depressing his shoulders. The best way of sexing 

Bourke's is therefore, if possible, to watch their behaviour in 

an aviary. [The head of the female is smaller, the skull less 

broad, whilst the male has more blue over the cere, etc. — Ed.] 

Of the Elegant and Blue-winged Grass Parrakeets I 

have had so little experience that I can only say that I am inclined 

to think that the males have rather larger and squarer heads than 

their mates. Slight differences in plumage are I believe said to 

exist, but I have not been able to observe them. 


By Mrs. Warren Vernon. 

A few weeks ago, Mr. Frost told me he had a very charming 
pet — a Hunting Cissa. I was at that time feeling very virtuous and 
quite determined to buy no more birds, at'an^^ rate till after Xmas. 
Alas ! for human nature when hobbies come in. One morning, a 
few days later, my maid brought a large travelling cage and said A 
bird has come :" I was expecting none, and was very much surprised. 
On taking off the paper a curious purring noise was heard, and I saw 

A tame Huntmg Cissa. 63 

looking" at me, through a piece of thin perforated tin, a lovely bright 
eye and saw also a scarlet beak. Before that bird was quite un- 
packed all the good resolutions were forgotten. 

I must say he is the most delightful pet one could keep, 
besides being so pretty. At present he is deep in his moult and 
looks more like a porcupine than a bird. 

Now as to his funny ways. The first thing in the morning 
he comes out in my room to be petted ; he likes to be held in your two 
hands and stroked and told he is lovely, growling all the time. He 
then helps himself to a small piece of butter off my tea tray, and 
holds it in his mouth till nearly melted, when he swallows it with a 
gulp. I take him on my hand into the bath-room, where he at once 
takes a bath in tepid water, and sits on the back of a chair in the 
sun to dry. Everything that is bright is carried away, and generally 
my dressing table is denuded of all the smaller things. He buries 
anything he likes very much, under a quilt or the corner of a cushion. 
I have never met a bird so free from fear : the only thing he hates is 
a dog, and the awful noise he makes, terrifies them as much as he is 
terrified himself. I caught him carrying off a ring the other day, 
and we had quite a fight before he would give it up. 

I feed him on " Perfecto," Mr. Galloway's food, and York 
cheese, and he has a small bird such as a Sparrow when one is 
caught, also some raw meat as he is moulting so heavily. He likes 
raw peas in their j)ods, flies, and gentles. He found the mealworm 
pan the other day, and I was wondering what mischief he was up to 
as he was so quiet : I found him simply gorging as fast as he could 
pick them out. He will also eat potato and rice. 

I let him fly about as often as possible, and for a large bird I 
have never noticed so little smell : he is very clean and, in fact, quite 
a companion. 

64 Mr. Herbeet K. Job, 


By Herbert K. Job, 

state Ornithologist of Connecticut. 
(By kind ^permission of the Outing Puhlishincj Co.) 

The Crucial Stage of the Manitoba Wild Duck Expedition 
— Hatching, Eearing and Transporting the Ducklings. 

Somehow it seemed as though the breezy, bracmg atmosphere 
of the wild Manitoba prairie, while it sparkled with exhilaration, was 
tremulous also with interrogation. Everything that we were under- 
taking was new and without precedent. Questions and problems 
confronted us on every hand. Perhaps we might fail. It was con- 
siderable of a load of responsibility. 

One of the fundamental questions confronting us was whether 
eggs could be safely transported, or whether it would be necessary to 
try to hatch them and raise the young before starting back. In 
either case there were uncertainties, so I had decided to try both 
methods. During the first few days of the hunt we found quite a 
few ducks' nests with fresh, incomplete sets, six eggs or less. The 
normal full set is usually eight to eleven eggs, and occasionally there 
are even more. I have found as many as twenty-two ! Picking up 
now a few of these incomplete sets, I sent them on by express. 
They were at once set, and before the trip was half over I knew the 
result. Not a single one developed an embryo. 

From previous investigation I knew it was hopeless to trans- 
port eggs in the earlier stages of incubation, as the jar was sure to 
break the delicate blood-vessels. I had learned, though, that the 
embryos within a few days of hatching could stand a good deal. 
Mr., C. William Beebe, of the New York Zoological Park, had 
brought incubated seabirds' eggs from Virginia to New York, without 
artificial heat, which had hatched normally on arrival. In case it 
should prove expedient, I had thought to attempt transporting some 
in lighted incubators on the cars, and had secured special permission 
from the express companies. 

An early incident of the expedition showed how much punish- 
ment incubated eggs would stand. On a driving trip, off exploring, 
we found a set of thirteen Gadwalls' eggs on an island, thirty miles 
from camp. Wrapping them in a rubber-coated focus-cloth to retain 

on Wild Ducks from an Incubator. 65 

the heat, and putting them in a creel, they were carried all the 
afternoon in a boat, then set under a hen at a ranch at night, and 
driven all the next day over rough prairie trails. The weather was 
hot all the time, and upon arrival the eggs were fully as warm as 
when taken from the nest. The assistant had carried the creel all 
day in his hands, to save the eggs from the jolting as much as 
possible. Two days and a half later every one of the thirteen 
hatched. Eleven of these ducklings, as I now write, grow^n to 
maturity, are happy and active in their new surroundings in our 
"effete" civilization of the East. Evidently the "rough riding" 
experience did them no harm. 

This was our first batch, one hundred per cent, which came 
off on the 2nd of July. Rejoiced at tliis auspicious beginning, next 
morning the assistant and I started out in the canoe and collected 
the various sets of ducks' eggs previously found, most of them 
heavily incubated. cThe incubator was now considerably filled. How 
handsome the tray looked, as we took it out for cooling and sprink- 
ling each day, how entrancingiy interesting, with all those eggs of so 
many shades and sizes, freighted, too, wath such possibilities ! The 
unitiated would say that they looked much alike, but years of ex- 
perience reveal real differences in shade, size, and texture. The only 
kinds in that region that are indistinguishable are the eggs of Gad- 
wall and Baldpate, both of which range' from pure wdiite to creamy, 
and those of the two Teals, which are small and creamy white. 
Day by day other sets were added, and the wonder and interest 


Right here we w^ere, from necessity, violating one of the 

fundamental rules of incubator work, never to put in one machine 
eggs at different times and in different stages of incubation. It was 
clearly impossible to provide, out there in the wilderness, a separate 
machine for every set of eggs. Setting hens, moreover, could not 
be had. So we had to take chances on spoling the eggs. 

Here were the incubator methods used. In the main room 
of the lodge, which was built of logs and plastered, we ran the incu- 
bators, which were kept at 103 degrees. Once a day we cooled the 
eggs, till the temperature felt neutral when the egg was laid against 
the eyelid. Then the tray was laid on the floor, and water, com- 

66 Mr. Heebert K. Job, 

fortably warm to the hand, was dashed over the eggs. They were 
then turned, the other side sprinkled, and then placed back in the 
machine. Two towels were then soaked in quite hot water and 
placed, almost dripping, on the tray below the eggs. In cool weather, 
when the temperature was slow in recovering, the regulator was shut 
down temporarily, to hasten matters. 

As soon as any set of eggs showed signs of hatching, it was 
removed to the second incubator, which was run at 104 degrees, 
which was maintained till the hatch was complete. The ducklings 
were kept in the machine from twenty-four to thirty-six hours after 
hatching. Owing .to lack of brooder facihties, we sometimes used 
the third incubator for another day or two as a brooder, keeping the 
door ajar and the temperature from ninety to ninety-five. 

After our first hatch no more occurred for nearly a week. 
Then business came with a rush, on July 8th, a memorable day. On 
the seventh three sets had begun to pip, one each of Eedhead, Lesser 
Scaup, and Pintail. This morning, as I went forth to hunt Buddy 
Ducks' nests, two little Bedheads wei'e already out. At dinner time, 
when I returned successful, the batch was actively in progress, the 
eggs popping almost like corn over a fire. 

It was so exciting and fascinating that we both let dinner 
wait and sat in front of the machine to watch. How they did come! 
First the shell was chipped nearly round. Pulsations more and more 
violent ! Off bursts the larger end of the sheh. A few more struggles, 
the head is out ; then again, and the soaking little novice tumbles all 
over himself and everything else. Getting his balance, he takes a 
look around, and immediately goes to preening, as though his mother 
had previously whispered to him just what to do. 

The afternoon was still young when the hatch was complete. 
Of twenty-four eggs, only three had failed to hatch — one infertile, 
one with dead chick, and one rotten. One set, the Scaups', hatched 
every egg. Our next hatch, a set of Bedhead, on the eleventh, 
yielded another one hundred per cent, as did next day a set of what we 
hoped were Baldpate or American Widgeon, but which proved to be 
Gadwall. By this time it seemed so natural to hatch every egg of a 
set that we were surprised and even a bit regretful if even a single 
€gg failed. As, for instance, on the twelfth also, when our small set 

on Wild Ducks from an Incubator. 67 

of four ruddy's eggs came to term. All four were pipped, and three 
came out promptly. The other duckling was having a hard struggle 
and seemed to be stuck. After a time I decided to assist, but it was 
too late. The little fellow had died from exhaustion. 

So it ran on from time to time. The next four sets hatched 
consecutively one hundred per cent. Tlie poorest hatch of all was a 
set of Blue- winged Teal, from which we got five good ducklings, 
three nearly ready to hatch, being dead in the shell. Tliis was pro- 
bably due to my forgetting the eggs when they were out cooling, 
Yet even that result was not bad. 

On tabulating the records, I find that only three eggs w^ere 
infertile, and very few embryos failed to hatch. In over half the 
sets every egg hatched, the avei'age hatch for the season being 
ninety-two per cent, which is certainly remarkable, far surpassing 
the results in ordinary poultry work. This was despite the dis- 
advantages of placing miscellaneous eggs in the same machine, 
transporting them for miles at critical stages of incubation, and 
subjecting them to the abrupt change of conditions. Probably it is 
the great vigour and virility of this wild stock, hardened to rigorous 
climatic conditions, that accounts for this astonishing percentage. 

To revert to stern realities, lack of brooders was one of our 
principal causes for anxiety. All we had at first was an indoor 
hover, with hot water heater. The lai'ge outdoor brooder we had 
ordered was delayed in transportation. The weather was cold and 
stormy, and, even in the kitchen, that hover would not heat up to 
over eighty degrees. We had to keep our first brood quite a while 
in the incubator. Finally, getting the hover enclosed in a box and 
building a fire in the stove to warm the room, we ventured to transfer 
the ducklings. During rare periods of sunshine we transferred the 
ducklings by hand outdoors to a wire run on the lee side of the cot- 
tage, partly sheltered from the raging prairie wind. As other broods 
hatched, we had our hands more than full and saved the ducklings 
only by unremitting toil. Finally, one day, the assistant discovered 
the long-desired brooder behind an unused cottage, where a drunken 
driver had dumped it tlie night before. 

Everyone familiar with young wild ducks knows what shy 
skulkers they are, having a supposed inherent and unconquerable 

68 Mr. Herbeet K. Job, 

wilclness. This notion may now be consigned to the scrap-heap. 
These duckhngs, of various kinds, hatched artificially, away from the 
influence and teaching of the wild mother, have absolutely no fear of 
man. Instead of fleeing from us, they simply would not get out of 
the way, and we had to be very careful, in the runways, not to step 
on them. 

Of all the hungry creatures I ever saw, these took the prize. 
The instant I appeared, an hour or more after any meal, they would 
rush at me in a frantic mob, i^iping, struggling, jumping on one 
another. If I reached out my hand to remove an empty water 
fountain, they would almost eat me up ! AVhen the two heaping 
plates of food were placed on the ground to divide the mob, they 
simply hurled themselves at the dishes, each one gulping, gobbling, 
shovelling, for all it was worth. One species is specially named 
shoveller." but, bless them, every one is a shoveller from the word 
"go !" After about two or three mouthfuls, each duckling hustles to 
get a drink and wash it down, sifting the water through its bill. 
A quart of water did not last any time. It was necessary to use 
drinking fountains to keep them from getting soaked, and even then 
they got all too wet. We improvised small fountains for the smaller 
ones with saucers and tin cans with holes cut in them. 

The crucical question now was whether the food would 
nourish the ducklings properly. The first week with that first 
brood was an anxious one. Every day I was afraid that they 
would begin to die off. In a few days one did die, and we held 
an anxious post mortem. The others, though grew and flourished. 
As the next broods hatched, we could see that the first had made 
great gain in size. Another stage of the battle was won. In fact, 
for all except the Buddies and Scoters the food proved wholly suit- 
able. They all thrived on it, and there was not one single death 
by indigestion or disease the whole trip. 

The feeding system was as follows : The main staples were 
raw oatmeal and a special wild duck meal. For nursery food we 
began with three parts of oatmeal to one of duck meal, mixed with 
barely enough water to moisten, not sloppy. Into this was mixed 
also a moderate amount of coarse, sharp sand, not over ten per cent. 
This, I believe, is absolutely essential for proper digestion. Also we 

on Wild Ducks from an Incubator. 69 

kept by them a dish of fine grit and cliarcoal, and plenty of fresh 
water. As they grew older we increased the proportion of duck 
meal, till, at over two weeks old, it was about half and half. 

Hard-boiled egg, finely ground up, shell and all, is also a. 
most desirable food. Whenever eggs could be secured, we fed these 
once a day, mingled with sand and diluted with oatmeal. The duck- 
lings were eager for this above everything else. It was very hard to 
secure eggs from the settlers. Another time I would have cheap 
eggs shipped out from civilization in case lots. From about five 
days old and on we fed a little crissel, a preparation of dried clean 
lean meat, but it must be used sparingly. From the age of two 
weeks I began to add a little chick-grain, and from a month old and 
on they had a considerable quantity of this. 

Green vegetable food is important. Having the ducklings 
out on the grass, we frequently changed the location of the yards, 
and they soon stripped the leaves off the weeds. As substitutes for 
lettuce and cabbage, we pulled up armsful of cat-tails and rushes in 
the adjoining marsh, and chopped up the tender inside growth, down 
near the root, for which the ducklings were always eager. 

During the downy stage we fed them five times a day, as 
much as they would eat up clean in a short time, reducing the- 
number of meals as they grew larger. Three times is enough when 
they are getting fledged and two thereafter. 

I did not dare to give them water to swim in, especially as the 
weather was cold nearly all the time. Under proper conditions, on 
warm days, however, they really need an occasional short bath, to 
prevent their plumage from getting stuck up. Sometimes I had to 
wash them off by hand, and occasionally dry them off in the incubator. 
Doubtless it seems strange that ducklings should be kept out of the 
water. In the wild state the mother probably keeps them oiled, and 
broods them frequently. In confinement, however, they soon be- 
come soaked and chilled, and are apt to die of cramp. We had little 
of this, because I did not give them the chance. One or two went 
that way, and others I saved by hustling them promptly into the 
incubator. Very hot sun is also dangerous, and shade should always 
be accessible. The brooder also must not be allowed to set hot. 

70 Mrs. Noel E. Wateefield, 

On warm days it should be opened, and the lamp in daytime should 
ordinarily be turned very low. 

Of our twelve species of ducklings, there were but two for 
which our methods were inadequate. — the Buddy Duck and the 
White-winged Scoter. The young scoters are big ducklings, with 
black and white down ; beautiful, gentle creatures. They walk around 
in an upright attitude, like little men, with a sort of wise air. 
Docile, they ate qu.ite freely, though they did not rush and shovel 
quite like the others. The food, however, did not nourish them, 
and they kept dying. 

{To he continued). 


By Mrs. Noel E. Waterfield. 

A few notes on some of the birds that are to be seen in the 
Eastern Sudan may be of interest to readers of the Avicultural 
Magazine, as, during the winter, the bird population is largely in- 
creased by immigrants from England and more northerly climes. 
"White Wagtails, Willow^ Wrens, Whitethroats and Wheatears are all 
common in cultivated ground and gardens. The first-named seems 
to be the commonest bird of all, and in the desert flocks are to be 
seen busily running about with perhaps one or two Yellow Wagtails 
wha have joined the company. Occasionally a Eedstart appears in 
the garden or a Eed-backed Shrike, but one is struck by the silence 
of all the birds ; they are seldom heard, and only to be seen as the 
result of much watching. A couple of Bluethroats were the only 
birds who seemed to enjoy life, and they were bathing in a pool from 
the hose and thoroughly enjoyed themselves and one another's 

The birds all get wonderfully tame, and work diligently for a 
living in the sesabau (Parkinsonia) bushes round the little patch of 
rough grass, called by courtesy a garden. One other bird who 
frequents the house and garden is a Blue Thrush. He sings, though 
not very melodiously, and has his special nook for roosting on the 
upstair verandah, having kept the same spot for the last three 


Bird Notes from Port Sudan. 71 

winters. Perhaps it is his winter plumage, but under a field-glass 
all the feathers of his breast appear tipped with grey. '''' 

Everywhere round Port Sudan the country is salt, sandy, and 
without vegetation, except whei-e a khor brings down soil from the 
hills. It is in these dry water courses that one gets glimpses of 
bird-life that are interesting, nay exciting. A beautiful little Bee- 
eater, suggestive only of a Swallow but with chestnut orange sides, 
sipping honey at the pink blossoms of the wild caper, is a sight not 
readily to be forgotten. 

But the true desert birds are quiet in their colouring and 
wonderfully adapted to their surroundings. First among tliem for 
interest is the little Finch Lark. The male is striking in the curious 
arrangement of his colouring. Breast and underparts are jet black, 
cheeks white, back wings and tail mottled sandy colour. It is only 
when flying overhead that he can be appreciated, on the stony ground 
the bird is invisible. 

A beautiful bird and a very common one in the khor is the 
Bush Shrike. He flies about eii famille during the winter and 
breeds in June in a thorny bush. Nesting sites would be hard to 
find if he did not want a thorny bush. 

The male has a brilliant and irregular carmine marking all 
down the breast and a touch of the same colour at the base of the 
tail. The hen bird has considerably less carmine to relieve the 
sandiness of her plumage. 

Another bird always to be seen in the khor is the Desert Chat. 
He certainly is the smartest bird imaginable with his black face and 
wings, and behaves very much as a Stonechat does at home, taking 
up a position on the topmost twig of a bush from which to watch 

These few notes cannot close without some mention of the 
Egyptian Vulture as he is one of the commonest of birds, and may 
be seen by the score in the desert, round a pool after a shower of 
rain. Their short tails and slow walk give them a curiously fowl- 
like appearance, so they are well-named Pharoah's chickens. 

* The Blue Eock Thrush has a much more powdered appearance after the 
autumn moult, the feathers of the head becoming purer bluein the spring. — ED. 

72 The Marquis of Tavistock, 


By The Marquis of Tavistock. 

Although not, perhaps, one of the most gorgeous members of 
the brightly -clad family to which it belongs, the Adelaide Parrakeet 
{Platycercus adelaida) is certainly not the least beautiful : the varied 
and rather autumnal tints of its plumage, when seen to advantage, 
being seldom forgotten. 

It is not very easy to give an accurate description of an adult 
cock Adelaide's plumage, but some idea can be conveyed to those 
who have never seen one, by saying that it has the breast and crown 
of the head a rosy brick colour, the rides of the neck yellowish buff, 
the rump and flanks yellowish or reddish buff and the shoulders 
marked with black in the ' hen pheasant ' pattern seen in the Eosella 
and many other Australian Parrakeets. The wings are partly blue and 
partly black with some buff or greenish markings, and the tail feathers 
are of different shades of blue. Some hen Adelaides closely resemble 
the cocks in colour, and are only distinguishable by their smaller 
size and slightly duller tints. Others, however, have hardly any 
green or buff' about them at all, and might almost be mistaken for 
small, dull-coloured Pennants. I at one time regarded these very red 
birds — they always seem to be hens, I have never seen a cock, dead 
or alive — as Pennant hybrids, but I am now rather inclined to think 
that this is not the case, for a pair of imported Adelaides, coming 
from the same district and perhaps belonging to the same brood, in 
which the cock was of the buftish type and the hen very red, pro- 
duced young in which the sexes (now in full colour) are almost alike 
in plumage and are indistinguishable from another imported pair in 
which there is a similar absence of any marked difference in the 
appearance of the male and female. 

So much for the colouration of adult Adelaides : noyy for that 
of the young. When first leaving the nest the latter are a golden 
olive, yellower on the back than on the breast, with blue cheek 
patches, a little red round the throat and some blue in the wings 
and tail. During the course of their first autumn and winter they 
tend to become rather greener, (though they are never so green as. 

on Adelaide Parrakeets. 73 

young Pennants), and there is a slow but continuous growth of red 
feathers on the breast and a gradual appearance of the 'hen pheasant ' 
pattern on the back. By the time they are twelve months old and 
are beginning to think of nesting they are almost as red on the 
breast as they will ever become, and the pattern on the back is very 
marked, though not yet perfect. There is, however, nothing like the 
full amount of blue and black on the wings and the rump is still 
yellowish olive and not yellowish or reddish buff. In early autumn, 
immediately after breeding, there is a complete moult and the full 
adult plumage is assumed. It is rather curious that Gould, in his 
' Birds of Australia ' has given figures of what he describes as an 
adult Adelaide and one in immature dress. As a matter of fact, the 
plate depicts two adult birds — a hen of the red phase and a cock of 
the buff' type. The lower figure (the cock) does not show any of the 
markings — or rather lack of markings — really cbaracteristic of im- 
maturity. As an aviary bird the Adelaide possesses the merit of being 
absolutely indifferent to cold, when properly acclimatized, not par- 
ticularly destructive to woodwork and easily catered for — wheat, 
oats, Canary, millet and hemp, with apple and green stuff, being all 
that it requires in the way of food. Grit should, of course, be 
supplied, as well as water for drinking and bathing. During the 
breeding season a mated cock Adelaide is an impossible neighbour 
for any other Platycercus kept in the same aviary. Whether he will 
or will not tolerate the presence of other varieties of Parrakeets less 
nearly related to him depends a good deal on individual temperament. 
He will not, as a rule, interfere with small finches, but as in nearly 
all cases, where the latter are kept with parrots or parrakeets, it is 
very advisable to protect their sleeping and nesting quarters with 
large mesh wire netting, through which they alone are able to pass. 
Under these conditions, the casualties, if any occur, will be confined 
to sick birds and very young fledgelings which are not sufliciently 
alert to keep out of the way of danger. 

In the acclimatization experiment, in which I have been 
engaged during the past few years with different species of Australian 
parrakeets, the Adelaide has, on the whole, brought me more satis- 
faction than disappointment, which is more than I can say of its 
near relative the Pennant, whose exasperating behaviour I am at 

74 The Maequis of Tavistock, 

present unable to describe in language sufficiently temperate to 
appear in the pages of the magazine. This is, I think, due not so 
much to the stay-at-home qualities of Adelaides in general, as to the 
fact that I was particularly fortunate in my first pair which happened 
to be endowed with more sense than others of their kind have sub- 
sequently proved to possess. Their history is as follows : — 

In the summer of 1911 I bought from a dealer three young 
Adelaides, which appeared to be about twelve months old. They were 
in rather poor condition, but on being turned, with cut wings, into a 
sunny grass enclosure, they improved steadily, and in a few weeks time 
had moulted into adult plumage and were flying about the garden. 
One of them wandered away and was picked up dead in an orchard, 
too much decomposed for the cause of its death to be ascertainable ; 
but the survivors, which proved to be a cock and a hen, continued to 
stay and throve well. They did not, however, appear to care much 
for each other's company and the hen ultimately paired with a 
Pennant. During the course of that winter I bought another 
Adelaide, in fine condition, together with his mate, a hen Eosella. 
Not then possessing the knowledge with which bitter experience has 
since endowed me, I let the pair out together, full-winged. They 
stayed for a few days, then the wandering spirit, which is character- 
istic of her kind, asserted itself in the Eosella and she vanished — 
and the Adelaide wath her. After that, matters ran an uneventful 
course until the end of March, when one day I received the dis- 
agreeable information that the cock Adelaide had been picked up 
with a broken wing. Wc put him iu a cage, intending to keep him 
safe and well fed, until Nature had repaired the injury, He, how- 
ever, was of opinion that the healing hand of Nature would work 
better outside a parrot cage than inside, for, three days later, he 
squeezed himself through the bars and disappeared entirely. We 
watched for him on the ground feeding trays, but he never came and 
was soon given up for dead. What was our surprise, therefore, when 
about a month later he suddenly turned up again as strong and well 
as ever, except for a slightly ' dropped ' wing, which did not interfere 
seriously with his powers of flight. His miraculous return not only 
surprised us, but it also, apparently, made a favourable impression 
on the hen Adelaide, who deserted her alien husband and took up 

on Adelaide Parrakeets. 75 

"with the ex-invalid. The disgusted Pennant departed witli all pos- 
sible despatch and was never seen by us again. 

The pair of Adelaides had not been together long when the hen 
in her turn vanished, and as they had shown no particular signs of 
nesting, I imagined that she had followed the Pennant's example 
.and that she was lost for good. About this time I received two 
more Adelaides from the Continent. They were fine birds, but the 
cock proved so insufferably pugnacious that I ultimately sent him 
away. The hen I turned out, hoping that she wou.ld mate with the 
broken-winged bird and prevent him from straying in search of a 
wife. She stayed well enough, but to my surprise he took very little 
notice of her. Then one da3^ she killed herself by flying against 
something — and the outlook seemed gloomy in the extreme. How- 
ever, a few days later, the tide of fortune turned, for after an absence 
of about seven weeks the first hen re-appeared, and I saw her in 
company with the cock, feeding busily on one of the trays. For 
the next fortnight tlie pair were constantly together and seemed to be 
-eating an such abnormal amount of seed, that at length I began to feel 
convinced that there must be " something up." There was ; for one 
day came the satisfactory news that the young Adelaides had made 
their appearance, and on going out I found four — there ultimately 
proved to be six — sitting in a yew tree, uttering their plaintive call 
for food. No doubt they had been out of the nest for some time 
before we found them, but young Platycercines are not easy to 
locate at first as they do not fly far, are very silent except when 
hungry, and harmonize perfectly with the green foliage among which 
they sit. Their plumage is, from the moment they leave the nest, 
wonderfully sleek and perfect, not a feather frayed, ruffled or out of 
place, and their soft colours, dainty heads and beaks and dark eyes, 
give them a beauty hardly less attractive than the splendour of 
the adults. The old birds continued to feed their offspring for 
several days; then, evidently considering they were quite old enough 
to look aftef themselves, they became at first indifferent towards 
them, and, before long, actively hostile. Unlike Eosellas, Stanleys 
and Barnards, Adelaides are, as far as my experience goes, single- 
brooded, beginning to moult very soon after the young are able to 
fly and never attempting to nest again during the same season. 

76 The Maequis of Tavistock, 

The family of six, now deserted by their parents, did not keep 
very closely together, and it was the exception to see the whole 
number at one time ; also they very soon began to disagree among 
themselves, especially at mealtimes, and the stronger of the young 
cocks would seldom tolerate the presence of his brother until he had 
satisfied his hunger and left the feeding tray. During September 
and October both old and voung birds strayed to considerable dis- 
tances and two of the latter never returned. They showed a great 
partiality for apples and paid frequent visits to neighbouring orchards 
without, however, doing serious damage to the fruit, as they are far 
less wasteful and destructive than many of the larger parrots, which 
throw down and spoil much more than they actually consume. 

After the departure of the pair just referred to, my stock of 
Adelaides consisted (in November 1912) of the two breeding birds, 
an imported cock and two hens acquired during the summer, the 
young cock and three young hens. The imported birds, all of which 
were fully adult, stayed well during the winter, started to prospect 
for nesting sites in February, raised my hopes and then, in true 
Pennant fashion, departed for good. Of the three young hens : one 
paired with the young cock and another with a cock Pennant. The 
third, when about five months old, completely lost the use of one 
of her legs ; I thought she had sustained some injury, but when,, 
eight weeks later, she lost the use of the other leg also and had to 
be destroyed, it became evident that she had been suffering from a. 
mysterious form of paralysis which sometimes attacks my parrakeets, 
etc. when at liberty. Fortunately the disease is rare among Platy- 
cercines, and a Many-Colour, which recently fell a victim after 
enjoying nearly a year's freedom in perfect health, is the only other 
case which I have met with in this particular family. Madagascar 
Love-birds, however, develop the disease so freely that I have had 
to give uj) keeping them. I have sent several for post mortem exami- 
nation, but the reports have always been vague and unsatisfactory. 

In March of this year the old pair of Adelaides nested in the 
decaying trunk of an oak about 40ft. from the ground, the entrance hole 
being perfectly round and only just large enough to allow them to 
squeeze through. The hen, as on the previous occasion, disappeared 
entirely for nearly seven weeks, being fed on the nest by the cock, 

on Adelaide Parrakeets. 77 

and I am rather doubtful if she ever came off at all, certainly we 
never saw her do so. At the end of her long period of seclusion, 
she resumed a more normal mode of existence, flying about with her 
mate and feeding busily. I was hoping for the appearance of another 
brood of six, but in this I was disappointed, for although the young 
bird which at length emerged was as strong as I could wish, no 
others followed, and it became evident that if more had been hatched, 
some misfoitune must have overtaken them while still in the nest. 
Another piece of ill-luck followed, for very shortly after the appear- 
ance of his child the cock Adelaide was picked up very thin and 
weak and evidently in a bad way. His condition aroused in my 
mind grave fears of tuberculosis and septic fever — the two fell diseases 
against which I am for ever waging a none too successful warfare ; 
but as it turned out, I need not have been anxious, for when the bird 
died the 2^ost mortem revealed inflammation of the lungs as the sole 
cause. Poor fellow ! it seemed hard luck, that after enduring the fogs 
and frost of two winters, unscathed, he should have had his brief 
but useful career ignominiously terminated in July by an ordinary 
cold caught in the moult. If I had only "cooked" him up for a 
few days in a room with a temperature of 80 — 90° (the sovereign 
remedy for most sick parrots) I might very likely have saved him ! 

The fortunes of the young birds in the matter of nesting, fared 
no better than those of their parents. The hen which had i^aired 
with the Pennant, lost her mate in the early spring and took up with 
a Yellow-bellied Parrakeet (P. flaviveutris). Both she and her sister 
evidently nested, as they vanished for many weeks, while their mates 
remained. But no young have made their appearance and they are 
now long over-due. 

To keep up my stock and introduce fresh blood, I have 
lately secured three more Adelaides — two cocks and a hen. One of 
the former I hope will make a pair with the old breeding bird ; the 
-other — or the hen, I shall reserve as a mate for this year's young one 
whose sex is at present uncertain. Next year, if all goes well, I may 
have eighteen young Adelaides ; if it doesn't — but we won't think 
about that. How could one bear the present trials and past dis- 
appointments of aviculture if one did not always contemplate a 
preternaturally roseate future '? 

78 EicHARD C. McGregor, 



cf, A Manual of Philippine Birds by 

EicHARD C. McGregor. 


TiLvturiim. DUSSUMIER'S TURTLE Dove. Streptopelia 
dussumieri. Sexes aklie. Forehead and face pearl grey. Top and 
sides of head and nape darker, washed with vinous, ntichal collar 
blackish, each feather touched witli grey, the tips faint metallic 
green. Upper parts, earthy brown : chin white shading into light 
vinous on throat, breast, and sides of neck and abdomen ; sides and 
flanks grey, etc. Enormously abundant in many localities, especially 
about the rice-fields in harvest. Everywhere common in open 
country. It is a favourite cage-bird with the natives, who call ib 

" took-roo " from its note. 

* * * 

Eed Turtle Dove. (Enopopelia Immilis. Back, wings, 
and under parts nearly uniform vinaceous-red ; upper parts more 
reddish -brown ; head and sides of face light slate-grey sharply 
separated from colour of back by a narrow black nuchal band ; lower 
back, rump and upper tail coverts blackish slate ; chin white ; bill 
and legs black. 

It is one of the common Doves of Luzon, and is very 
abundant in open lowland country ; many are sold at Manila. 

throughout the year. 

* * * 

Malay Spotted Dove. Spipopelia tigrina. Head dark 
grey, forehead and face lighter ; lores with a small black spot ; 
bifurcated feathers of neck black with white tips ; upper parts brown 
with paler rusty edges to the feathers and dark shaft-stripes ; lower 
parts vinous, abdomen white washed with buff. 

This Dove occurs in small numbers as a winter visitor to 

Balabac and Palawan. 

*■ * * 

Barred Ground Dove. Geopelia striata. One of the 
commonest species in Luzon, but occurring rarely in other islands of 
the Archipelago. 

Some Birds of the Philippine Islands. 79 

Indian Bronze-winged Dove. Chalcophaps indica. 
Exceedingly common throughout the group. 

Invariably found on the ground, and in deep woods. In no 
place abundant, the species may be found in nearly every island 
where forest, or even a small growth of trees exists to afford protected 

feeding grounds. 

* * * 

Genus. Phlegmias. BLEEDING Heart Doves. These are 
known under the name of Puualada, meaning " stabbed with a 

f. Luzonica. This beautiful Dove is often found in the 
Manila markets and is a well-known favourite of the Spaniards. In 
Europe it is the best known of the genus. 

[A carpenter working at my aviaries in Italy came to me to 
tell me that two Doves must have been badly injured, as both had 
deep wounds in their breasts. They were " Bleeding-hearts." 


* * * 

P. criniger. See Avic. Mag., June, 1909. Coloured illustra- 
tion, and an account by Mr. T. H. Newman. 

This Dove is known as Bartlett's Bleeding-heart. They are 
invariably found on the ground in the forest. They run very rapidly, 
and in close cover frequently escape in this way without taking wing. 

This Dove is fairly abundant in Basilan, but much rarer in 


* * * 

P. Eeayi. Keay's Bleeding-heart. This Dove is easily 
recognised by the conspicuous white band across the wing. 

Head, upper parts of cheeks, hind neck, sides of breast^ 
mantle, and lesser wing-coverts grey, broadly egded with dark 
metallic green, changing to amethystine ; back and rump chestnut 
with amethystine margins ; upper tail coverts purplish chestnut ; 
central tail feathers chestnut, the remainder grey with a broad 
subapical band of black ; low^er parts whitish, with small blood-red 

spot on the front breast. 

* * * 

P. menagei. Tawi Tawi Punalada. Entire upper surface 
of head, upper back and sides of breast rich metallic green. Wings, 
etc., ruddy brown with violet and dark green lights, etc. The 

80 Some Birds of the Philippine Islands. 

metallic green of neck, etc., is continned in a distinct band across the 
breast, only slightly interrupted at centre of breast and enclosing a 
beautiful orange plastron formed by the bristle-like tips of the 
feathers of the fore breast ; underparts, creamy white and buff. 

This Bleeding-heart Dove is extremely rare and difficult to 


* *■ * 

P. platenoe. MiNDORO PUNALADA. Head and neck dark 
metallic green, changing to amethystine ; scapulars, back, and rump 
chestnut, with edgings of green ; below white to buff ; finely 
speckled with grey on sides of breast ; red crop-patch very small, 
etc., etc. 

Common in the old forests in the interior of Mindoro, but 
very difficult to shoot. Its nest has been found in a tangle of vines 
about eight feet from the ground. The female flew from the nest, 

pretending to be lame. 

* * * 

Calcenas ricobarica. NiCOBAE, PiGEON. This curious pigeon 
with its short white tail and long neck-plumes, etc., of bright metallic 
green, blue and red-bronze, is well known in Europe, although some- 
what rarely imported. 

It is rare in all the Philippine Islands except Tawi Tawi, 
where it is very common, and is invariably found in deep woods. It 
rises very heavily and with much noise, always alighting in low 

trees, and then flying from tree to tree if disturbed. 

* * * 

Macropygia tenuirostris. SLENDER-BILLED CuCKOO DoVE. 
Head, sides of neck, breast and lower parts cinnamon-rufous ; above, 
including wings and tail dark brown ; most of the feathers edged 
with fine rufous dots ; neck feathers covered with irregular vermicu- 
lations of rufous and blackish brown. A few black cross lines on 
sides of neck and crop, the neck being glossed with amethystine and 
green, the metallic colours extending faintly on to the back and 

Exceedingly common in some localities ; for example, among 

the mountains of North Luzon, nesting where the large tracts of 
dead bracken afford it good protection. It is also plentiful in the 
lowland forests. 

Nesting of the Yelloto Wagtail. 81 

M. phcBa. Dark Cuckoo Dove. Similar to M. temdrostris, 

but larger and darker. Rather abundant in Calayan. 

* * * 

In addition to these there are at least thirty-three species of 

Pigeons, including Thick-billed, Wedge-tailed, Green, etc., and Fruit 

Pigeons. H. D. Astley. 

{To be continued). 


Motacilla flava. 
By W. E. Teschemaker. 

My attempts to breed this beautiful species date, as in the 
case of the White Wagtail, from the year 1906, when, on a green 
sward close to Hickling Broad, I came across a small colony of nests 
and thought the sight one of the most charming glimpses of bird-life 
which I have ever seen. 

Every summer since then I have had a pair of M. flava in 
the aviary, but it was not until last year that I obtained a nest from 
an old male, which had been more than three years in the aviary, 
and a female which had resided with me for fully a couple of years. 
Season after season the male had selected a site for a nest and it 
had been most interesting to see him- executing his singular love- 
flight, always in the same manner, hovering or circling slowly over 
one particular spot, the body feathers ruffled out, his wings drooped 
and his legs trailing. The central idea of ruffling out the feathers 
seems to be to make the slim graceful body look as large as possible. 
It is a singular fact that this particular male and female had always 
been the w^orst of friends : the former had frequently persecuted the 
latter and the latter had on one occasion during the winter turned 
the tables and nearly managed to slay the former. 

However, they at length composed their differences, and 
during the very wet summer of 1912 built a nest in some long grass. 
It was close to a Crested Lark's nest, but, as the female was careful 
never to rise from the nest itself, I did not exactly locate it. One 
morning, after the female had been sitting for about a week, I saw 
the male moping in a corner in the deepest dejection and the female 

82 Nesting of the Yellow Wagtail. 

flying about the aviary. Something liad happened to the nest, but 
wliat that something was I do not know to this day ; I suspect slugs 
The despair of the male was quite touching ; perliaps some prophetic 
instinct warned him that this would be his first and last attempt 
to rear a family — at all events he died during last winter, having 
reached more than the usual span of life of a captive softbill. 

This summer the same female and a very fine male com- 
menced to nest early in July. Once again the characteristic love- 
flight was seen in the aviary, but this male hovered over the female, 
not over the nest. The nest was on the ground, close up to the 
skirting of the aviary. The period of incubation was fourteen days 
and the five eggs hatched on consecutive days. The female sat most 
unsteadily, seldom remaining more than five minutes on the nest, 
but, by concealing myself carefully in the aviary, I was able to 
ascertain that the male always took her place when he fancied him- 
self unobserved. Without his assistance the eggs would never have 
been hatched. The young, with long sprawly legs and some 
yellowish down, seemed delicate little things and did not grow 
well at first, being almost entirely fed by the female ; the male 
would brood them bat he refused to feed with anything but flies. 
The young began to look greyish in the pen-feather stage but the 
buff tips of the flights projecting beyond the quills gave the wings a 
mottled appearance. 

On the tenth day I extracted one youngster from the nest for 
the purpose of a photo and a description. The crown and back were 
huffish brown with buff tips to the feathers ; sides of crown dark 
brown ; cliin pale chrome, ditto eyebrow (well marked) and cheeks ; 
under and around cheeks and a streak in centre of upper breast 
dark blackish-brown ; wings brown ; lower and middle coverts con- 
spicuously tipped with warm buff ; legs, feet and beak light flesh- 
colour ; two outer rectrices huffish-white. 

The note of the young is similar to that of the adults — a 
faint " witz-ee " with the accent on the first syllable ; the call-note 
of the White Wagtail has the accent on the second syllable and 
sounds to me like " chis-sick." 

The young scattered in the long grass on the eleventh day 
and I had great difficulty in finding one to show to a visitor (Dr. 

Breeding of the Grey Waxhill. 83 

King, of Paignton). In a few days tliey began to show tliemselves 
in the more open parts of the aviary, and the dark markings on the 
sides of the liead and the bars on the wing were very conspicuous. 
Soon they became very bold, chasing one another on the wnng and 
catching flies for themselves. On the 15th x\ugust I showed them 
to another visitor (Mr. A. Bartlett), and on the 24th I released the 
entire family, numbering seven individuals. Once or twice after- 
wards I saw them on the roof of the aviary but they showed not the 
least wish to re-enter it. It is with very great amusement that I 
now and again hear the suggestion made that birds prefer captivity 
to freedom.'" 

The Yellow Wagtail seems to be rather a delicate species and 
intolerant of cold, but I have never had any difficulty in dome^ti' 
eating it. 


Estrilda cineera. 
By W. A. Bainbridge. 

Only commencing the keeping of foreign birds towards the 
latter part of 1912 it stood to reason that I should not know how to 
begin. What I did was this : I went to a dealer's and saw some 
birds, when some such conversation as this would take place : — 

What are those '? Firefinches : Grey Waxbills. 

Are they expensive ? No ! 3/- a pair. 

Are they hardy ? Very. ( ? ). 

Will they breed '? Yes. 

And so on ; the result was that the birds were bought and the 
poor mites brought home and put straight into an aviary. Now we 
know better, then we didn't, and in consequence lost the majority. 
Some, however, survived and amongst them the Grey Waxbills. 
Why do people call it the Common Waxbill ? Of course it is 
common in that it is plentiful, but so are others, and a Grey Waxbill 
in good plumage is anything but common to look upon, as with his 

* Some birds undoubtedly look upon their cages as humans do their houses. 
One has known instances of birds shewing evident relief on getting home after 
having gone astray. — ED. 

84 Breeding of the Grey Waxhill. 

tail, an example of perpetual motion, he flits here and there amidst 
the foliage searching for some hapless fly — but to progress. 

About the same time, in my ignorance, I bought a pair of 
St. Helenas so-called, in reality a cock St. Helena and a hen Grey 
Waxbill ; still there it was, the St. Helena died and the three Grey 
Waxbills didn't, so that in this aviary I commenced the season with 
three, all of whom had braved the hardships of a winter out of doors, 
merely helped along by having their shed warmed on frosty nights 
and on the coldest of days. 

Despite, or in consequence of this, they decided to set up 
house-keeping late in February or early in March, when their first 
nest was built. For variou.s reasons, this and their two next nests 
were deserted and a fourth started on x\pril 1st " April-fools' day: " 
said I, ' Believe them not," and I didn't, but there I was wrong as 
events subsequently proved, hence this article. 

This last nest was added to and enlarged until it was roughly 
six inches high and wide and about twice as long. I have never yet 
been able to discover exactly where the birds got in and out, but it 
was somewhere on the far side where I could not see properly ; I 
fancy there was an entrance tube, the nest proper being some little 
way in. All of these nests were built on the ground in a corner and 
easily visible ; three out of the four were built behind bare pea sticks, 
the remaining one behind a privet bush, in no case was there grass 
within a yard of the nest. It was unfortunately impossible to see 
the nest from the outside of the aviary, and the birds must have left 
it as I opened the aviary door to enter, as I never saw them leave it 
or approach it closely until July 23rd, when for the first time I stw 
one of them go to it with what I took to be a crushed up mealworm 
in its beak. 

I was inside the aviary about this time several times a day 
and did not see them feed before this, again at this time they also 
became much tamer, and I presume that the young must have 
hatched about if not on this day. 

The three adults now became exceedingly tame and would 
come almost to my feet for mealworixis. On August 3rd two young 
left the nest and four days later they were dead ; I was away from 
home and never saw these young ones, but two more left the nest 

The Avicultural Magazine. 


Photo by H. Willford. 


On Bullfinches as Decoys. 85 

on August 16th and these Hved, and at the time of writing are still 
alive. From Aug. 16th to Aug. 29th the parents fed them on meal- 
worms and seed, principally the latter, w^iile flowering grass and 
docks were always available. August 29th saw the young feeding 
on white millet. 

When in the nest the parents had access to all the above 
foods, in addition ants' eggs, alive and preserved, and occasionally 
spiders were thrown to them. 

Two dead young ones were found the other day just by the 
nest, and from what w^as left of them I came to the conclusion that 
they too had been Grey Waxbills, in which case the number of eggs 
must have been at least six, but whether laid by one hen or two I 
cannot say, probably the latter, which would account for the second 
two young leaving the nest eleven days after the first two. 

Young plumage. On leaving the nest the colours of the young 
were as follows : — Breast and abdomen, light grey ; wings and back, 
light browny grey ; tail, brown with some black feathers (I think 
the outer ones) ; beak, black ; throat, light grey, with two darkish 
lines (thus a) from the base of beak descending a short distance. 
On Sept. 3rd the red eyebrow streak was beginning to show, and 
to-day (Sept. 21st) the young are showing signs of being indistin- 
guishable from their parents at no far distant date. The parent 
birds have again been seen carrying nesting material. 


By E. DOEOTHY Leeke. 

A cock Bullfinch (a German) owned by a friend living in a 
London flat, flew out of his cage about eighteen months ago, and 
away into Chelsea Gardens where he probably remained, but unseen, 
for about six iveeks. He was extremely tame and quite devoted to 
his mistress, w^ho had him as a constant comj)anion for three years. 
He had lived chiefly outside his cage in her room. Every method 
was tried to entice ' Joseph ' home, but in vain. At last, in sorrow 
and despair of his life, she procured another Bullfinch — a freshly- 
caught young cock from Shropshire — and he (Anthony) took posses- 
sion of the late lamented one's cage. 

86 Corresijondence. 

From the moment this wild young bird was placed out on the 
window sill he never ceased to call across the road to the birds in 
■Chelsea Gardens, until at the end of a week the old Bullfinch 
responded and flew into the room, where his mistress discovered 
him on her return home one afternoon. But he was out through 
the window in a moment and no more seen that day. However, he 
re-appeared the next morning, tempted by a train of hemp seed (the 
" forbidden fruit ") ; moreover by his intense jealousy of the inter- 
loper, and this time accompanied by a sparrow. While fighting 
furiously through the bars of the cage, with poor Anthony inside, 
his mistress crept from her hiding i^lace, shut the window and 
Joseph was caught : now a shabby-looking little object, much pecked 
and draggle tailed, he had clearly been engaged in many a battle — - 
one German against many Britishers, — having also lost his own 
song he had adopted that of the Dunnock. He was as wild as a 
hawk for many weeks, and for a long time nothing could persuade 
him to come out of his cage. 

But now and for many months he has recovered his looks 
and has become tamer and more devoted to his mistress than ever, 
and spends most of his time attacking imaginary rivals in the 
looking glass. 



Sir, — As it was impossible to say all that was advisable in a footnote, I 
wish now to make a few additional observations respecting the characters noticed 
many years ago, as distinguishing males from females in various Orders of birds. 

The flatness of the crown in male birds , though not an absolutely constant 
-character, since there are females in which the crown is flatter than in the male, 
was first brought to my notice by the late Mr. Abrahams about the year 1885, 
when I asked him how to distinguish the sexes of certain finches. In his usual 
way, he did not answer me, but caught a pair and held them side by side and asked 
me if I could see any difference. Of course, with my training as an Entomo- 
logist and an Insect-artist, I noticed the difference at a glance and this proved 
immensely useful to me later on when comparing the sexes of various birds . 

I have no doubt that Mr. Abrahams was well aware of the fact that the 
Psittaci, in common with many other groups, more often than not differ sexually 

Correspondence. 87 

in the sarae way ; he may even have directed my attention to the shape of the 
head when with me at some of the Crystal Palace Bird-Shows. 

In my footnote I remarked that I believed I had published this character 
for distinguishing the sexes of the Psittaci previous to the publication of ' ' How 
to sex Cage-Birds": I see that in my "Hints on Cage-Birds" p. 32, when 
indicating sexual characters to be looked for in Parrots, I say: "note whether 
the crown is short and arched, or long and fiattish." This little book was 
published in 1903 and had previously appeared in serial form in ' ' The Feathered 
World," the above observation appearing in the part for May, 80th, 1902, and it 
is certain that I was aware of the character many years before. 

Characters which occur in birds, based upon the form of the skull and 
beak, depend largely upon the habits of their possessors : where the female has 
to do the thinking and the building, as well as taking her share in defending her 
nest and young, she sometimes assumes what are in a general way male charac- 
ters ; indeed she is sometimes more masculine in form of head than her husband, 
as I have noted in the case of the Quaker Parrakeet. 

By the way, with regard to the green spot in female Rosellas, which, when 
present, seems to be always round and of about the size of a pea, I never stated 
on my own authority that it was absolutely constant ; but where a green spot is 
present in male birds it appears to be invariably irregular, never rounded. 

ARTHUR G. Butler. 


Sir, — In a footnote on page 43 of last issue, Dr. Butler refers to a state- 
ment of mine in " Aviaries and Aviary Life." Though the matter is hut small, 
perhaps, I may be permitted to state, that I acknowledged in the preface of 
"A. and A. L." all works which I consulted in its compilation, and that the 
statement referred to was from experience gathered from my own and many 
friends' birds under the conditions of aviarj^ life. 

Tq_ Dr. Butler belongs the honour of gathering together systematically 
what was known, as to differences in contour, between the sexes of similarly 
plumaged species, aud adding thereto, from an exhaustive examination of the 
■skins at the British Museum, etc. 

At the same time it must be obvious that many of these distinctions could 
not be original; for instance, the one in question as to contour of head, etc. 
(this appeared in Bird Life in 1906, I think), was known to myself and many 
other aviculturists long before that date, and, not only as regards Psittaci, but 
other Orders too. 

In "A. and A. L." owing to lack of space, I had to make reference to 
such matters by a general statement, covering groups and not individual species. 
Of course, I read Dr. Butler's serial "How to Sex Cage Birds," in Bird Life, 
but did not get it when published in book form : had I quoted therefrom I 
should most certainly have made due acknowledgment. 

Before laying aside my pen, permit me to remark, re the " green spot on 

88 Correspondence. 

the nape" of some hen Rosella Parrakeets, that I have seen this on many 
individuals, all of which ultimately proved to be hens ; on the other hand, while 
I have never come across a cock with the green spot on the nape, I have also 
seen many proved hens which did not possess it, hence I always refer to it as yiot 

With all that Dr. Butler has done, by collation and research, which none 
recognise more than the writer, much yet remains to be done, and, the data yet 
to be gathered, to be of real value, must come from living birds and from many 
individual pairs of the same species ; thus it is obvious that it must be the work 
of many (all) aviculturists , the result to be ultimately collated in concrete form 
by some enthusiastic and industrious author of the future. 

In conclusion may I be permitted to urge all aviculturists (the topic covers 
all orders of birds) to have a part therein, and to carefully observe and record 
any distinctions in contour of any true pairs which pass through their hands, 
whose plumages are similar. It would be of great interest, if observations were 
taken as to what extent these contour distinctions are common with such species 
in which the plumage of the sexes is dissimilar {Psittaci especially). 



Humming Birds. Herr August Fockelmann received in the beginning 
of November three Humming Birds, which only lived, alas ! a few days, and he 
sent me the bodies to inspect. 

Sporadimis ricordi — the size of a small Sunbird — deep emerald green, 
with forked tail, and a little patch of white on the under tail-coverts. 

Calypte helence — literally scarcely larger than a Humming-bird Hawk 
Moth. Dark emerald green with white throat and underparts. Its tiny feet would 
find the stalk of a millet-spray almost too large. ~ Bill half an inch. Tail half an 
inch. Head and body three quarters of an inch. One could hardly believe it 
to be a bird, and how this minute creature lasted out through severe ocean 
storms from Mexico (?) to Germany, puzzles one. 

Herr Fockelmann still has hopes, when storms do not rage and when the 
sun shines more warmly, of successfully importing some of these wonderful 
little bn-ds. H. D. A. 

Mr. 0. MiLLSUM watched a Swallow, near Broadstairs, flying about 
on the 23rd of November. 


vS Mr. Walter Rothschild and Mr. ASTLEY have acquired some very 

\;- rare Conures from an uninhabited island (Mona Islands), which are said to be 

\V ^ C . gimdlachi {?) They are in immature plumage, all green with a few scarlet 

feathers showing here and there on head, breast and back; under the wings the- 

colour is bright scarlet. They were sold by Mr. A. E. Jamrach. 

Notices to Members — t Cotitinued from page tt. of cover. j 

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Mr. L. G. Chiozza Money, M.P., The Grey House, Hanipstead Lane, 

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Dr. Geffrey, We-;t Linton, Peebleshire. 


Miss Chawner . . . . . . . . ;^'i i o 

Dr. Lovel-Keajs .. .. .. .. o xr o 

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My Sunbirds' Aviaiy {Coloured Plate), by A Lover of Birds in France 

Some Notes on the White-legged Falconet, 

by E. C. Stuart Baker, F.Z.S., etc. 

Wild Ducks from an Incubator {Concluded) , by HERBERT K. JOB 

Hand-Eearing British Birds (Hhistrated), by Dr. ARTHUR G. BUTLER 

The Apparent Assumption of a Distinctive Phase of Breeding Plumage 

in the Male Plumed Ground Dove, by E. W. H. BLAGG 
A few of my Birds in Gages, by Mrs. WARREK VERNON ...' 

"Bobs" and "Billy," by Mrs. CURREY 

Some Rarities at the Horticultural Hall Bird Show {Ulicstrated) 
Obituary ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Illustration Fund 

Longevity in Captivity ; Sexing Parrakeets 






119— I'iO 

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1. To encourage the keeping of wild animals, birds and reptiles 

by private individuals. 

2. To help such private individuals, when starting, with advice 

as to the purchase of animals and birds and the man- 
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Edited by Frank M. Chapman. 


About 400 pages, with 12 full-page colored plates of our own birds, 
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Descriptions of experiences with living birds in their haunts, and help- 
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Bird Censuses by numerous observers. 

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A Manual intended as a practical help to those who find both 
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With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Uncoloured. 
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Fulvous Tree= Ducks 

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Ruddy Sheldrakes 

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Red-shouldered ,, 

{Nettiicni torquatiim) 

Chilian Teals 
,, Pintails 

,, Wigeons 




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Pomes, Tortoises, Lizards, Snakes, Crocodiles, &c. 

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Monkeys, Mannozeets, Hussars, Jews, Rhesus, &c. 

Large Animals. Elephants, Yaks, Camels, Emus, Rheas, Ostriches, 
Canadian Bears, Japanese Bears, Russian Bears, Wolves. Hyeuas, Lions. 
Tigers, Pantliers, Wild Asses, Buffaloes. 

A uiillion Cowrie, Tridacna, and giant clam shells, also Curios of 
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Pochards, Pintail, Widgeon, Wild Ducks and fancy varieties of Call Ducks, 
every kind. 

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Hartz Mountain Roller Canaries always in slock, Alexandrine Parrots, 
Bengal Parrakeets, Conures, Lories, Rose Cockatoos, vSleilderbill Cockatoos, 
Lemoncrest Cockatoos, Quaker Parrakeets, Banded Parrakeets, Madagascar, 
Red-faced and Australian Love Birds, Macaws, &c. 

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Fowls, Ornamental Pheasants, Typical Poultrv of all varieties. 


JUST ARRIVED. — Chinese Rosy-tiuied Starlings {Folwpsar canibodianus.), 
;^'3 pair. Clnliau Orchard Finches (PhryoHus Jncticeti), £2^ pair. 
vSinging Green Bulbul, 50/- Siefert's Schoolmaster Canaries, charm- 
ing songsters, 21/- each. Piping Bullfinches " Pretty Polh^ Perkins," 
_i^5. Finger-tame Canary-wing Parrakeets, 70/- pair. Pair Meyer's 
Parrots, Pair breeding Ceram Lories. All-green Parrakeets. Jeudaya 
Nandy Conures. Cockateils. Mulicean Cockatoos. Pigmy Javan 
Cockatoos (breeding). Pair Salle's Amazons. Pair Cutthroat Ama- 
zons. Ouails. Fancy Pigeons and Doves. Redhead Finches. Dwarf 

Cables and Telegrams : " Cross, Liverpool." 

National 'Phone 6491 Central. 






Third Series.— Yol. V.— No. S.—All rights reserved. JANUARY, 1914. 


Bv A LovEK OF Birds in France. 

My collection of Sun and Sugar Birds at present consists of 
the following species, mostly in pairs, though in some cases I have 
several cocks to one hen. 

Yellow-winged Sugar-bird {Coereba cyanea). 

Purple Sugar-bird {Coereba coerulea). Two pairs. 

Black-legged Pale Blue Sugar-bird {Dacnis nigripes). 

Indian White Eyes {Zosterops palpebrosus). One pair. 

Amethyst-rumped Sunbird {Ginnyris zeijlonica) . Two pairs. 

Purple Sunbird {Araohiiechthra asiatica). 

Malachite Sunbird {Nectarinia famosa). Two pairs. 

Amethyst Sunbird {Ginnyris amethystinus). 

Lesser Double-collared Sunbird {Ginnyris chalybcBUs). Four 
cocks, 1 hen. 

Greater Double-collared Sunbird {Ginnyris afer). Two pairs. 

Eed Sunbird {(EtJwpyga sehericB). 

Scarlet-chested or Bifasciated Sunbird {Ginnyris mariquensis) . 

White-breasted Sunbird {Ginnyris leucogaster or Talatala). 

The great majority of these birds live in a large aviary — 
roughly 14 feet long and about 10 feet high — all wire, and resting on a 
zinc floor beneath which there are two thicknesses of linoleum, then 
the parquet, this being an indoor arrangement, to which a whole 
fair-sized room has been devoted. Another part of the same room 
is filled by a similar though slightly smaller aviary, which is occupied 
by my collection of rare Waxbills and finches ; then I have a few 


odd cages, placed upon collapsible shelves and over the fire-place, 
containing either recent arrivals or birds that need special care. 
The room is lit on dark days by three powerful electric lamps, as is 
also a small adjoining room, opening into a bigger one, and where 
most of the cleaning takes place, containing all bird-utensils, foods, 
medicines, etc. Each of the two aviaries runs to and encloses a 
French window, which being protected by wire inside as well as 
outside, can be thrown wide open, during the fine season, for the 
inhabitants to enjoy the air and sunshine. There are three ventila- 
tion holes, which can be open and closed at will, one on each window 
and one on the ceiling. For perching accommodation I use dead 
fruit trees only and branches of trees, the latter being changed at 
regular intervals. The floor of the Sunbirds' house is covered with 
sawdust, which is raked up daily and at intervals thrown away and 
replaced as necessity commands, for I may say here that if there is 
anything I believe in, where the keeping of birds is concerned, 
it is the strictest and most unceasing attention to hygiene and 
cleanliness. As the whole of the room where my birds are housed 
is whitewashed, dirt is easily rubbed or sponged off, and I boast 
of the fact that no " bird-smell " prevails anywhere. 

All my Sunbirds get the usual mixture of Mellin's food, 
Nestle's milk and honey, as well as a little insectivorous food for 
the few Sugar Birds who share their home ; then a variety of salads 
and ripe fruit — grapes, orange, pear, apple, banana, figs, etc. tw^ice a 
week I receive fresh from the country, in addition to some big roots 
of grass for my finches. Traveller's Joy or other creeper, and this, 
besides furnishing all inmates with food and amusement, forms when 
being sprayed, their favourite bathing-place. They love to alight on 
the wet foliage, some even seeking the spray, shaking their iridescent 
plumage, throwing out their golden shoulders, rubbing and brushing 
their feathers against the dripping leaves, then carefully combing 
them with their slender beaks. To this, and to the more thorough 
bath which they generally indulge in afterwards, in the trough pro- 
vided for the purpose, also of course to the large space given them 
and which ensures them exercise, I attribute their faultless and 
brilliant plumage, their happy appearance, and their almost incessant 
singing. Quarrels, unfortunately, there are, as most of these species 

My Sunbirds' Aviary. 91 

are so spiteful by nature, but so far, there have been no serious rows 
beyond occasional bad words, owing no doubt to their being able to 
get away from each other, and also to the great number of feeders pro- 
vided round the different sides of their enclosure. It is a pretty 
sight of a morning and after the daily cleaning process has taken 
place, to see them all crowding round the entrance door, waiting the 
appearance of the food tray, then perching all over it the moment it 
is carried into the aviary, each bird eager to be first served or to find 
his favourite feeder. 

As my bird-room opens on one side into a large and well- 
heated hall there is little need for any artificial heating, as the door 
is constantly left open when the windows are kept closed, and the 
air admitted is quite warm enough, but as an extra ordinary pre- 
caution against frost there is also an electric radiator ; which how- 
ever is but seldom used. 

I am often asked which species of these lovely birds I like 
most. Indeed it is hard to say, though for combined grace of shape 
and attitude, charming plumage and brilliant song, perhaps the 
Malachite is my favourite ''' — one of them especially, who from the 
first was always tame, and allows me to touch him without even 
trying to get away. Then the African Amethyst, — a bird sombre 
yet radiant like a tropical night, — deep violet all over with a copper- 
coloured spot on the rump, blue shoulder, an emerald green cap and 
a gorget that flashes like a flame in the light. To the Lesser and 
Greater Double-collared I have one objection only, that is the fact 
that after the first moult the crimson of the breast fades away into 
orange, though all the tints of the body remain as brilliant as ever. 
It is of course possible yet, as this sj)ecies has only been some six 
months in my possession, that the original crimson may reappear, 
but I fear it will not, and the same may apply to the Red Sunbird, 
who, at time of writing, is in the moult. But of my loresent col- 
lection, the gem is that rarest of rare birds, the Scarlet-chested or 
Southern Bifasciated Sunbird {Cinnyris inariquensis). This species 
inhabits the wilds of the lower parts of the Transvaal, and in order 
to procure it for me, as well as another charming one, the White- 

* The beautiful Malachite Sunbird, exhibited by Mr. A. Ezra at the last 
L.C.B.A. Show, was also the public's favourite. — ED. 

92 My Sunbirds' Aviary. 

breasted Sunbird [Cinnyris le^icogaster or Talatala) it was necessary 
for the birds, after capture, to be conveyed across the Transvaal 
Veldt for six wearisome weeks in a rough waggon ; then followed a 
five days' journey in the train to the coast, and, lastly, the three 
weeks sea journey home. Yet some even of those reached these 
shores in almost faultless condition, and to my mind this speaks 
well, not only for the well-known "pluck" and determination to 
live, which forms an interesting feature of these apparently frail 
birds, but also proves the care and diligent attention bestowed upon 
them by those to whom I owe so many of my finest and rarest 
specimens. Cinnyris viariquensis, like most of the genus, rejoices in a 
rather short tail, but his garment on the back, head and upper throat 
is of cloth of gold — old gold, shining with almost every metallic hue 
as the light strikes him ; his mantle is deep black, his rump blue; a 
band of sapphire encircles his gorget, and below there is another 
band of scarlet — truly a bird of the sun. He has a pretty song, too, 
though not so sweet as the Malachite, and this is heard at its best 
when he challenges another male, for this species is particularly 
pugnacious, and it is almost impossible to cage two together in a 
small enclosure. 

A pretty sight is to watch all these birds when it has been 
possible to obtain for them some branches of Honeysuckle, Bignonia, 
Lethoea, or other flowers containing nectar. Some of them will 
perch on the blooms, twisting backwards and forwards into every 
conceivable position and attitude. Others, the Malachite for in- 
stance, enjoy hovering over the blooms, after true humming birds' 
fashion, all plunging their long beaks into the very heart of the 
flowers in order to extract the honey by means of their flexible 
tongue. But they can also take solid food in the way of small 
insects — spiders, flies, green fly, etc., when in season — though in a 
few cases the mixture seems to be much more relished. Nearly all 
will also eat fruit, large pieces of the moistened sponge cake, like 
the Sugar-birds. As this is rather fattening, and one must beware 
of fits with all these genera, I find it necessary to dose all at times 
with a pinch of sulphate of soda dissolved in the syrup. 

To conclude these few notes, I will say that besides the great 
beauty of most representatives of the Sunbirds' family, besides their 

Some Notes on the White-legged Falcojiet. 93 

many curious and interesting traits, one of tlie features concerning 
them, that from my point of view is a great attraction, is the diffi- 
culty of obtaining them. In most colonies, including Africa, these 
birds now-a-days are I'igidly protected : for that reason and for the 
real rarity of certain species, it seems to me unlikely that they 
will ever become really common. At any rate those species which 
inhabit wild and almost inaccessible tracts of land (and there are 
many such) can hardly come into the greedy hands of the bird- 
dealer. For their sakes, let us rejoice that this is so. 


Microhierax melanoleucus . 
By E. C. Stuaet Bakee, F.Z.S., etc. 

As pets the members of the Falconidce are not often kept, 
except for the purpose of hawking, yet amongst the birds I have 
personally made the acquaintance of in captivity, some of the most 
interesting have been Eagles and Hawks. 

Perhaps the most uncommon capture — I cannot say he was a 
pet — I have had, was a tiny Pigmy Falcon or Falconet {Microhierax 
melanoleucus) and the way in which it came into my possession was 
in itself a very striking instance of the bird's character. At the 
time this happened I was stationed in the North Cachar Hills, a 
district of Assam, and one day during the rainy season, whilst out 
in camp, my dakioallah, or postal runner, handed me with my letters 
a bundle in a cloth which he said was a small bird he had caught on 
the road. He also advised me to be careful how I opened the cloth 
as it was " a very furious bird" and had bitten him severely before 
he tied it up in his puggree. With great caution, therefore, I opened 
the bundle and discovered inside this wonderful little black and white 
falcon, and with him the body of a Scimitar Babbler {Pomatorhinus 
phayrci) in the breast feathers of which his feet were still entangled. 
The runner's story was to the effect that he had come on the falcon 
seated on the babbler, which he was busy eating, in the middle of 
the forest path, and that the killer being smaller than his victim he 

94 Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker, 

was unable to carry it away, and his feet being entangled in the wet 
breast feathers he could not leave it behind and so became an easy 

As soon as we had freed the Falconet's feet from his dinner 
we placed him in a small wicker-work cage with a perch across it, 
upon which he clambered and there sat glowering at us. Even 
under these depressing circumstances he looked, every one of his six 
inches, a regal little bird, and in attitude more like a Golden Eagle 
than a true falcon. His head was held low and sticking out, 
his shoulders humped, wings slightly spread, and his black eyes 
shining wickedly at us from under his prominent eye-brows. For 
two days he sulked and would eat nothing, but as he had, just 
previous to being caught, eaten a fine meal off the breast of the 
Babbler, this did not hurt him. 

The third day I arrived home, and was then able to place him 
in an aviary, though, as there w^ere none empty, he had to share 
one with some Eed-footed Kestrels (Erythropus amurensis) and a 
pair of big Woodpeckers {Chrysocolaptes guttacri statu s) . The small 
Kestrels were about twice the size of the Falconet, the Wood- 
peckers certainly three times his weight and size : moreover, as 
the latter had been more than able to hold their own against the 
Kestrels, I had no fear for them in regard to the Falconet, though I 
was rather nervous for his sake. 

My nervousness however was quite unnecessary, for on being 
let out of his wicker cage he stretched his wings by flying a couple 
of times round the aviary and then sat on a perch which was vacant 
and took a look round his new domain. The Kestrels, who were 
scattered about on different perches, at once attracted his attention, 
and he proceeded to hunch himself up in imitation of an angry eagle, 
opening his mouth and gently hissing at the same time, an intima- 
tion to all hearers not to interfere with his lordship. Having 
satisfied himself that he had inspired mortal terror into the hearts 
of all the other occupants of the cage he then proceeded to start 
bullying them, a proceeding to which the meek little Kestrels sub- 
mitted without protest, collecting in a bunch on the perch furthest 
from that taken possession of by the little tyrant. For the time 
being, this seemed to satisfy him and he dropped his noble attitude, 

Sojne Notes on the White-legged Falconet. 95 

fluifed himself out, preened his feathers and cleaned his feet, after 
which he considered his toilet finished and composed himself to rest. 

The following morning, on visiting the cage, I found that he 
had made an attack on one of the Woodpeckers, for there were many 
of its feathers lying in tufts on the ground, but with them were some 
white ones, evidently from the breast of the Falconet himself, so I 
concluded he had been worsted and would leave them alone in 
future. Not a bit of it, however, he was only biding his time and 
meant retaliation as soon as possible. That day I saw nothing more 
in the way of bullying. The Kestrels he seemed to realize were a 
kind of " poor relation," and as long as they cringed to him and 
were utterly subservient in every way, not daring to sit on his 
particular perch, he left them alone. He also condescended to eat 
one or two fat locusts and drank a great deal of water, but most of 
his time he spent seated on the highest available perch at one end 
of the aviary, where he surveyed his domain and his subjects. 

The next day I gave him a couple of live Sparrows, and one 
of these he killed and ate whilst I was away in office, so what I saw 
done on my return therefrom was not an act impelled by hunger. 

For the convenience of my pair of Woodpeckers I had placed 
in this aviary some long logs of wood, one of which passed directly 
under the throne of the Falconet. This log had been carefully avoided- 
during the morning by the two birds, but familiarity, I suppose, had 
begun to breed contempt, for as I was passing the cage in the after- 
noon I saw one of the Woodpeckers run up the log and under the 
throne. In a second, the Falconet had swooped and knocked his 
bulky opponent off on to the ground, but that was the extent of his 
victory on this occasion, for, on falling to the ground the Wood- 
pecker, as is the custom of these birds in such emergencies, turned 
on its back and presented such formidable beak and claws to the 
falcon's attack that the latter retired, pretending to be satisfied with 
the damage inflicted. 

For some days all went on well, and the Falconet was content 
with killing such small birds as 1 gave him for the purpose, varying 
his diet with insect food of all kinds, but refusing entirely to eat the 
carcase of any dead bird placed in the cage. He even became 
reconciled to me sufficiently to eat when I was within a few feet of 

96 Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker, 

him, but he still infinitely preferred flying savagely at a finger placed 
through the wires rather than take food from it. 

There was about a fortnight of this calm and then a tragedy 
occurred, for on visiting the aviary one morning I found that Mr. 
Woodpecker was a widower and his poor lady lay on the floor of the 
cage not only dead but half eaten. There was a solemn hush in the 
aviary, the widower crouched on a log in the furthermost corner, the 
Kestrels huddled together on a perch, awestruck and mute, whilst 
the murderer sat on a perch by himself and picked from his claws 
the remains of Mrs. Woodpecker which still adhered to them. 

An examination of the victim's body showed that the little 
falcon had struck just like the larger birds, such as the Peregrines 
strike, ripping open the centre of the Woodpecker's back, and it must 
be assumed, stunning her so that he was enabled to finish his bloody 
deed on the ground. 

After this I removed the other Woodpecker to a safer abode, 
leaving the aviary to the sole occupation of the birds of prey, but I 
really think the Kestrels would also have liked a "remove." They 
wore a scared expression, and the subsequent death of one or 
two of them may have been due to nerves, for I could find no other 
cause. I never saw the falcon attack them, but if he was irritated 
or annoyed by their flying or perching too close to him he would 
hunch himself up and hiss at them in such a vicious manner that 
they always at once collapsed into stillness until his majesty was 
once more good tempered. 

This little Falconet remained with me for two years, and was 
finally released when I went home on leave, as there was no one I 
could trust to look after him in my absence. It is impossible to say 
that he ever became tame, in the sense that one uses the word of 
most cage birds. He had no fear of me, but neither had he any 
fear of anything else, and the utmost I can pretend to having gained 
from him was a dignified tolerance of my presence and an accept- 
ance of my services when he needed them. He would take any 
special dainty from my fingers, or if the dainty was not special 
enough, would take a bit of tlie finger instead when he had the 

He was very crepuscular in his habits, like the wild birds of 

Some Notes on the White-legged Falconet. 97 

his kind, and for most of the day would sit quite quiet and apparently 
asleep, but up to about ten in the morning and after three or four in 
the afternoon was very lively and active, much to the distress and 
.'^I'lconvenience of the Kestrels, who had always to be on the alert 
and clear off any perch he desired for the moment to rest on. 
, ■^ He would never kill the small birds given him for food if he 

knew that I was looking on, but the one or two I caught him killing 
unawares were all killed in the same way as that in which I first 
saw him try to encompass the Woodpecker's death. He waited 
paitently until his prey was just under him and then hurled himself 
upon it with incredible speed and accuracy, the result in every 
case being death to the bird attacked. The corpses of those I have 
found killed seemed to have all met their death in the same way. 

In a state of nature the Falconets undoubtedly live far more 
on insects than on birds or small mammals, and I have several times 
watched them hawking termites in the evening w^hen these were 
flighting. Whilst engaged in this pursuit their actions were t^^pically 
those of the larger birds of prey, the foot always being used for the 
capture, and for conveyance of the captured white ant to the mouth. 
They seldom seemed to miss any termite they struck at, being far 
more accurate in this respect than the Eollers, King-crows, and other 
birds which joined in the fray. 

A flight of "white-ants" is a wonderful sight, and in some 
cases many hundreds of thousands of ants must be on the wing at a 
time, so there is for the time being food and to spare for all who 
care. Accordingly Falconets and other birds are all fully employed, 
and there is no reason for the former to resent the latter sharing in 
the banquet and I never saw any attempt at molestation. 

They seem often to have very favourite perches which they 
visit evening after evening at about the same hour. One such perch 
was a dead branch on the top of an immense tree standing on a 
plateau and surrounded by tea, which was regularly visited by a pair 
of these birds, who hawked insects during the summer months, from 
about four o'clock until it was almost dark. Under this tree were a 
good many of the pellets which these little birds disgorge, and these 
pellets proved that they were very largely insect eaters, though we 
also found bones of mice, bats and small birds, whilst scattered about 

98 Sovie Notes on the White-legged Falconet. 

were feathers which proved that Barbets, Cinnamon Sparrows, a 
Pipit of some kind and various otlier birds larger than themselves 
had been sacrificed to their appetite. 

Sometimes they soar round in the air much in the way 
of Swallow- Shrikes, fluttering to one side or the other, as some 
insect attracts their attention, but keeping much to one spot generally 
round and round some big tree. My attention to this habit was first 
drawn by Dr. H. N. CoUtart, to whose garden at Margherita, in 
Assam, a pair of these Falconets were regular visitors, evidently 
nesting somewhere in the close vicinity, though we never succeeded 
in finding where. 

Very little is known of the breeding of this and the allied 
Falconets, but it is probable that they always lay their eggs in holes 
in trees, deserted nest holes of Woodpeckers, Barbets, etc. I once 
found an egg of this species in N. Cachar and two others in the Khasia 
Hills, and in each case these eggs were taken from deserted Barbet's 
nest holes, which were more or less filled with a mass of wings, legs, 
and other remains of insects. In addition to these there were a few 
feathers, conspicuous amongst them the scarlet and black feathers 
from a Minivet in one nest, and in another those of a Franklin's 

The eggs are very unhawk-like in character and colour. In 
shape they are rather stout little ovals, practically the same size at 
either end, and the texture is like that of polished chalk, not so soft 
and chalky as that of the Crow Pheasants {Taccocua or Centrojnis), 
but more so than that of the Barbets, Parrots, etc. 

Two eggs now in my collection measure respectively 29'1 ^ 
23'3 mm. and 277 ^ 227 mm. 

The only other egg I have seen of these little Falconets is one 
of Microhierax eutohnus, sent to me from the Malay States. This 
is exactly like those already described and measures 29"2 ^ 24'5. 
This last egg was taken on the 4th February from a deserted Wood- 
pecker's nest-hole high up in a big tree. My two eggs of the White- 
legged Falconet were taken on the 12th March, 1889, and the 4th 
of July, 1908, respectively. 

Wild Blocks from an Incubator. 99 


By Heebert K. Job, 

state Ornithologist of Connecticut. 
(By kind permission of the Outing Piiblishing Co.) 

The Crucial Stage op the Manitoba Wild Duck Expedition 
— Hatching, Eearing and Transporting the Ducklings. 


Out in the wilds our resources were scant. Some of tliem 
survived the long journey. An expert from the New York Zoological 
Park came out to advise on the problem. Minnows were offered 
them, and they were given a varied fish, meat, and insect diet, all in 
vain. At the Zoological Park, we were told, they had never been 
able to keep Scoters alive. Here is a problem for further study. 

The Buddy Duck is another problem. This duck, though 
little larger than a Teal, lays eggs bigger than those of such large 
species as the Mallard and Canvasback. The young are most 
curious creatures. Similar in colour to the young Scoters, they are 
diff"erently marked, and, rather strangely, have larger bills, of broad 
spoon-shape. They have a coarse, hair-like plumage, and are fat 
and squatty, about as broad as they are long. Their legs are set 
uncommonly far " aft," even for a diving duck, and the body is so 
heavy that they can hardly stand more than for a moment. The 
feet are enormously broad. Waddling a few steps, down they fall 
and lie there, blinking helplessly, with a sort of foolish air. Seldom 
would they take even a mouthful of food or drink. The way they 
flop over the ground reminds one of turtles. 

I tried various plans to induce them to eat. About the only 
way was to put food in water, but they made bad work with it, and 
soon would become thoroughly soaked. The first attempt killed one 
with cramp, and I had to desist. If I forced food down their 
throats they hawked it up. They steadily refused food, and died in 
less than a week. Opening one that was four days old, I was 
surprised to find a large unabsorbed yolk in the abdominal cavity. 
It is entirely different from any other duck, if, indeed, it deserves to 
be classed with the ducks. It presents a singular problem — which, 
by the way, our guide did not consider worth solving. 

100 Mr. Herbert K. Job, 

What in the world does he want to raise ruddies for ? " 
said he to the assistant. " They're no good, even if he raised them. 
Why, if you go and pluck one, you pull off the meat with the 

Though I hope to pursue the problem further, as an interest- 
ing matter of science, it is probable that various marine species, such 
as Scoters, Mergansers, Eiders, the Old Squaw, and the Eiiddy 
Duck, will prove unadaptable to domestication, and would be of no 
practical or commercial value."' 

The other ten species, however, that we investigated, are 
readily raised. These are, — to repeat from the other article {The 
Outing Magazine, November), — Pintail, Shoveller, Mallard, Gadwell, 
Baldpate, Blue-winged and Green-winged Teals, Bedhead, Canvas- 
back, Lesser Scaup. The young Canvasbacks and Eedheads, con- 
trary to what might be expected, are docile creatures and do 
splendidly. The only duckling that showed any trace of natural 
wildness was the Scaup — the blue-bill or broad-bill of our Atlantic 
coast gunners. Not that they are afraid, but they are nervous and 
restless, always running around and jumping, trying to get out. 
They seem rather harder to raise than the others, and w^e lost more 
in proportion. Nevertheless, we have a nice little bunch of them 
grown to maturity. 

In addition to the above species which are evidently capable 
of domestication, the Dusky or Black Duck and the Wood Duck are 
known to come in this category. The chances are also, I believe, in 
favour of the American and Barrows' Golden-eyes and the little 
Bufflehead. The Greater Scaup would doubtless be like the Lesser. 
Then there is the Cinnamon Teal, found farther west. So here are 
at least seventeen splendid native American Wild Ducks, all probably 
capable of artificial increase, as some are already known to be. 
These are problems well worthy the attention of lovers of 

I had imagined that most of the wild ducklings would be 
practically indistinguishable. As a matter of fact, however, many 
of them are absolutely unlike, and all can readily be told apart, even 

* Perhaps Mr. St. Quintin will write something on this subject ? — ED. 

071 Wild Ducks from an Incubator. 101 

though some are very much ahke. Canvasbacks and Eedheads 
are the " yellow-birds " among the duck tribe, but have distinctly 
different bills. The Pintail is a blackish and white striped bird. Gad- 
wall and Baldpate are identical, save that the former has light 
brownish feet, the latter dark slaty. The Blue- winged and Green - 
winged Teals are similar, save for a difl'erence in marking on 
the head, and the Green-wing has a smaller, shorter bill. The 
Scaup is a very dark bird, mostly blackish brown, with a slight 
crest. The Shoveller is always distinguishable by its enormous bill. 
And so on. 

Owing to our late arrival, we found it desirable to try to 
complete our stock by catching some ducklings already hatched in 
the wild state. If anyone imagines this an easy task, a few 
attempts will disabuse him of the notion. I shall never forget my 
own futile attempts to chase broods of Canvasbacks and Eedheads. 
When I first saw them out on open waters of the larger bays, I 
thought surely I could catch some, as they w^ere quite young. But, 
as I paddled up fairly near, they began to skitter rapidly over the 
surface, and then they plunged. Not a sign of them could I see 
again, for the surface was ruffled, and they only raised their bills to 
breathe, swimming long distances under water to the edge of the 
rushes, where they were absolutely safe. 

Finally, we were lucky enough t'o enlist some French-Indian 
half-breeds, who are wonderful paddlers and hunters. Whenever 
we saw their rig, in the evening, driving towards our camp, I always 
felt a thrill of excitement, knowing that something of great 
interest was near. Besides some small ducklings, they caught some 
magnificent specimens, fledged all but the flight feathers, of Canvas- 
back, Pintail, Shoveller, and Mallard. 

It was exciting to hear them tellhow they caught the Canvas- 
backs. Two or three canoes would single one out from the rest and 
chase it. For nearly an hour it would dive and skulk. It took 
keen eyes to see where it stuck up its bill and expert paddhng to 
keep up with it. They simply tired it out, and at last the poor 
duck, unable to dive any longer, came to the surface and meekly 
allowed the nearest boat to pick it up. 

We had little trouble in taming and rearing most of these 

102 Mr. Heebeet K. Job, 

captives. The Canvasbacks at first would lie down fiat on the 
ground and skulk, but they soon got over this. In a few hours all of 
them would be shyly eating and drinking, and within a week they 
would eat out of my hand. The only serious trouble or loss was due 
to fighting, on account of a lack of coops, in which to segregate new 
arrivals. The larger ducks are terribly savage to others put in with 
them as strangers, chasing and hammering them, and we lost some 
nice birds thus. Those that could stand it for a day or two were 
then accepted on equal terms. We found that the prairie is no 
lumber-yard, when it conies to building operations. The proper way 
is to build a number of coops in advance, keep new arrivals separate 
till they get to eating well, and then mix the groups so that, more 
or less, all feel strange. 

Though heat is not needed after the ducklings are over a 
month or so old, it is necessary to provide good shelter for cold 
windy nights and the heavy rains of the region. After learning a 
lesson by losing a fine Canvasback, we brought into the kitchen each 
night all the ducks not fully fledged, not having material for coops, 
and not daring to take any more chances. We also found that a 
moderate percentage of wild ducklings captured at a very tender age 
were liable to die from shock, exhaustion, or abstinence. Most of 
them, though, would take right hold with the tame incubator 
birds. With these latter, it was encouraging to find that practically 
about the only losses were due to overcrowded conditions. In the 
large brooder hardly a bird died, save in the youngest brood of 
Gadwalls. The others seemed to get the start of them and were 
always stepping on them and pushing them away from the food. 
They became more and more bedraggled and stunted, and in the end 
we lost them all. 

In the other brooder, with the smallest ducklings, the hover 
was crowded at night. It was too bad to have to make fat Scoters 
and tiny Teals sleep together, for some of the little ones were 
trampled or smothered. There was very little loss from any other 
cause. If I were doing the thing again, I should know exactly what 
equipment and facilities to provide and should expect the losses to be 
almost nil, certainly no more than on a well-regulated tame-duck 

on Wild Ducks from an Incubator. 103 

The days passed rapidly, crowded with incident and adven- 
ture which there is not space enough here to recount. It was the 
last night in camp. At midnight, having completed the necessary 
tasks, I went outside before retiring, and sat on the brooder in the 
moonlight, enjoying the wonderful scene and listening to the weird 
voice sounds of birds from the great mysterious marsh. How I 
should miss the canoe and the charm of the strange labyrinth where 
bred the noble Canvasback ! 

Soon dawned the eventful day when 102 ducklings were to 
start on their long journey. In the incubator w^ere a few eggs still 
unhatched. Three of them were the remnant of a set of Green- 
winged Teal stepped on by cattle ; the rest were of the late-laying 
Scoter. I had calculated that these would not hatch till the end of 
the journey. Alas, some were pipped that last night, and on the 
morning of leaving a Teal and a Scoter were out, all the rest being 
in process of hatching. 

It was a real tragedy, but it was too late to alter our plans. 
So, reluctantly, I put the unlucky brood in a pail, with warm sand 
beneath, wrapped in a blanket. I misjudged the temperature. Every 
egg had a live duckling in it, but by the time we got aboard the 
train all had been overheated or smothered, save the two already 
hatched, which, strange to relate, made the trip safely to 

We could not, therefore, determine the point about tran- 
sporting incubated eggs. I did, however, settle the question of the 
safety of carrying a fresh Wild Ducks' eggs in the cars on a very 
long journey under the best conditions, with personal care. I had 
saved for this test a set of eggs laid close by our camp, taking each 
new egg as it was laid, to make sure of its being fresh, substituting 
each time an egg from another set of the same kind in the incubator. 
I packed them with great care, in springy paper, took care of them 
on the journey, and turned them each day. Despite all this, not one 
of them started an embryo. It is clear that the only sure way is to 
hatch out the eggs before starting. 

I might devote the entire ^article to the experiences of that 
memorable 2,000 mile journey. Two large double wagon loads 
trailed southward over the prairie, that twenty-ninth of July, merci- 

104 On Wild Ducks from an Incubator. 

fully one of the few pleasant days. The ducklings were carried in 
two crates and two brooders, assorted according to size. Officials at 
every divisional point, through the courtesy of the Dominion Express 
Company, had received orders to give every facility, and I remember 
everyone of them with gratitude. The bumping and jerking of the 
cars kept throwing the poor ducklings off their feet, but they were so 
tame they endured it philosophically, and devoted themselves to 
eating and drinking. The worst trouble was in keeping them dry, as 
the water slopped around, and they spilled it in drinking. I carried 
a bag of hay, from which I frequently changed the litter for them. 

At one point. Fort William, Ontario, I suddenly found that 
they were going to divide the train into two sections. I hustled my 
suitcase from the Pullman to the express car and saw no more of 
my berth or my son for the next tw^enty-four hours. I tremble to 
think of what would have happened to the ducklings had I been left 
behind ! That night I slept on top of two boxes in the express 
car. It was hardly as comfortable as the lower berth, but more 
desirable for the purpose in hand. The nights were cool, and I had 
to keep a little heat in the brooders most of the way. 

All things come to an end, and on the afternoon of the fifth 
day of the trip, over four whole days from the start, I landed the 
ducklings on the preserve — 102 of them, representing eleven species 
of Wild Ducks. Also there was a Coot or Mud-hen that harmonized 
beautifully with the Ducks and makes a singular appearance among 
them, with its long legs and slender lobed toes. We had lost 
eighteen birds on the journey, and during the next few days some of 
the smallest ones dropped off from the effects of the journey. Ever 
since then, as at present, the rest have been in fine shape. 

It was most encouraging and instructive to find that of the 
losses due to the journey, every one, with one solitary exception, were 
of birds not over twelve days old at the start, and down to three 
days. Every duck three weeks old or over at the start, except this 
one, a Eed-head, which may have been about three weeks old and 
perhaps was hurt, stood the ordeal safely. It simply means that 
young Wild Ducks over three weeks old can stand a long journey if 
they are properly fed and handled. A good rule would be to have 
them one month old to make sure. 



Hand-Bearing British Birds. 105 

It is a rare delight now to have this unique and beautiful 
stock within easy access, to study their early plumages and changes, as 
yet not all described in books, to note their interesting ways, and 
to work out details of handling, feeding, and breeding, under the 
auspices of a Government Experiment Station, where scientific work 
is understood and appreciated. If only experiments could thus have 
been made with the lamented Passenger Pigeon, we should doubtless 
have had them alive to-day. We may well hope that from such 
beginnings these splendid wildfowl species may be so widely multi- 
plied that extermination will be impossible, and, better still, that 
through public interest engendered in their welfare, they may again 
become familiar sights upon the waters of our entire country. 

[We are most grateful to the Outing Publishing Co. for so kindly permit- 
ting Mr. Herbert K. Job's extremely interesting paper to be reproduced in our 
Magazine . — E D . ] 


By De. Arthur G. Butler. 

Although many of my experiences in rearing our British 
Birds have been published elsewhere, I have never drawn con- 
clusions from my own successes and failures, which might be of 
value to others who may be contemplating a similar course. 

First of all then I would point out, for the benefit of those 
who desire to rear birds for show purposes, that hand-reared birds 
will always remain delightfully tame and steady while associated 
only with human beings, even though allowed to fly freely in a 
room — and in some cases in the open-air : but many of them, if once 
associated with other birds in an aviary, become ten times more 
nervous than wild caught birds : it almost seems as if the older 
inhabitants of the aviary had gone to work to set the new-comers 
against their owners and foster-parents. In the case of the Titmice 
however we have a notable exception to this rule, for they continue 
to be as confiding as ever. 

In the second place, if birds are required for song, proper 
tutors must be provided, excepting in the case of certain types such 

106 Dr. A. G. Butlee, 

as the Larks and Wagtails, in which the wild song seems to be 

By constantly hearing music superior to its own, we know 
that the poor little melody of the Bullfinch (when brought up from 
the nest) can be replaced by recognizable tunes and the chirping and 
chattering of the House-Sparrow can be replaced by a softer 
reproduction of the notes of a Norwich Canary. Untaught Black- 
birds and Thrushes utter a few loud notes which are neither 
pleasing nor in the least melodious ; but if given half a chance they 
are liable, while still young, to pick up anything in the shape of a 
song : thus I once had a hand-reared Song -Thrush w^hich had 
learned to sing from a Canary and made such a terrific noise that an 
inn-keeper who had heard of it came to inspect it, and willingly 
paid rather a high price to become the possessor of it. It proved a 
disappointment however, for it ceased to sing when hung up in a 
public bar. 

Like most beginners I started my experiments with those 
birds most easy to obtain and also most easily reared — the Song- 
Thrush, Blackbird and Starling : at first I fed these with a mixture 
of what is popularly called fig-dust (oat-flour) and pea-meal, given 
very wet until the birds were old enough to drink, and afterwards 
made up into the consistency of dough and rolled up into small 
sausage-shaped pellets. Later, I discovered that greater success 
attended my efforts when I gave scalded Spratt's poultry-meal 
mixed with pea-meal ; but these coarse feeders rarely fail one ; 
indeed I have heard of Blackbirds which had been successfully 
brought up upon sopped bread alone, though I should doubt their 
having strong constitutions after such poor fare. Nowadays, even 
for these birds I should provide far more expensive and nutritious 
diet, for I believe in nourishing food for children of all kinds. 

I got no opportunity to hand -rear Missel Thrushes until 
1886, when I found a nest containing a young pair : these I reared 
easily on the pea-meal and flg-dust mixture with scalded snails cut 
up and small worms ; they were strong and handsome birds of 
which I gave away the hen but kept the cock for show purposes, but 
the first show I sent it to (when it was nearly four years old) it was 
fed upon minced raw beef mixed with breadcrumbs (instead of the 

071 Hand-Bearing British Birds. 107 

food which I forwarded with it) and consequently had one fit after 
another, dying about an hour after I got it home again."" 

As evidence of the evil effects of raw beef upon the Turdidce, 
when given regularly I may note that about the year 1886 a lad 
brought me a nest of young Eobins (supposing them to be 
Nightingales) and, in my ignorance, I tried to rear them upon 
shredded raw beef and sopped bread mixed up together, which 
speedily killed them all. Then again in June 1887, I got a 
genuine nest of Nightingales and, in addition to more suitable food, 
gave a little chopped meat : they all got violent diarrhoea and two of 
them died ; I then discontinued the meat, feeding the remaining 
three upon powdered dog-biscuit, oat-flower, pea-meal, yolk of egg 
and ants' cocoons, and reared them without difficulty. 

The same year I attempted to rear a nest of Lesser White- 
throats upon moistened Abrahams' food (a sort of German paste mixed 
with yolk of egg and ants' cocoons) but the tiny things got dirty with 
the messy food, which contained a quantity of golden syrup, so that 
I lost two of the four and the other two (like many hand-reared 
birds when kept in a cage) ate more than was good for them and 
died from apoplexy when about a month old. 

Later in the same year I successfully reared one of two 
Sedge- Warblers, feeding at first upon hard-boiled egg and bread- 
crumbs, but later upon the same food as'that upon which I had reared 
my Nightingales. I kept the young bird in a flight-cage and he was 
most fascinatingly tame : but overeating caused his death in 
September, after the completion of his moult : I still possess his skin 
which was pronounced by the late Dr. Sharpe to be one of the most 
brightly-coloured examples he had seen. 

I only once attempted to bring up a nest of Hedge-Accentors, 
but failed owing to the fact that I gave a mixture of egg and sweet 
biscuit — excellent for domesticated Canaries, but quite insuflicient for 
insectivorous birds. 

* This and many similar experiences of carelessness on the part of show 
attendants, and not infrequently ignorance on the part of judges who preferred 
two cock birds exhibited as a pair to genuine sexes (on the plea that the former 
were " bigger birds" — two cocks would seem bigger than a pair) I gave up 
showing years ago. 

108 ■ Dr. A. G. Butler, 

The Titmice are most entertaining birds to hand-rear, they 
stand in a row on the edge of a basket sliouting all together and 
forcibly remind one of a class of charity children dressed alike and 
reciting, but when feeding begins they push and struggle and jump 
over each other's backs to get at the feeding-stick. I nearly 
succeeded with Great Tits in 1886, but they were so intolerably 
greedy that, after they were fully fledged and able to fly, they 
apparently swallow^ed some of the wadding in their sleeping-basket, 
and all died in one day. Coal-tits I could have brought up with- 
out trouble in 1888, but unfortunately my holiday came to an end 
just as they were beginning to flutter about me, so that I had to 
leave them to the care of a young girl who allowed them to 
get into such a dirty condition that I lost them all. Blue-tits I 
reared without difficulty in 1889, and for several months they were 
some of the most delightful pets I had, flying to me and running all 
over me so long as I remained in their aviary ; but they require 
warmth in winter when kept in captivity and at that time the 
enclosure which sheltered them was only protected from the cold on 
the outside by a curtain. I provided warmly lined boxes for them 
to retire to, but each bird would have a bed to himself and per- 
mitted no other to enter ; consequently they gradually all died 
from cold. For rearing Tits a good insectivorous food moistened 
is all that is needed ; but they must have warmth when adult, or 
they will not long survive. 

The only Wagtail I ever took in hand was the Pied, a bird 
which I have frequently written about as the most charming and 
satisfactory of all my foster-children. I and my wife brought it up 
between us in 1892, feeding it upon a mixture of crushed biscuit, 
yolk of egg, ants' cocoons, and Abrahams' food, mixed together and 
moistened. The late Dr. Bradburn asserted that it was impossible 
to hand-rear Wagtails, but as a matter of fact they give less trouble 
than most young birds. I stated this fact some years ago, and 
not long afterwards a reader of the Feathered World wi'ote to say 
that he had brought up a nest of Yellow- Wagtails and was delighted 
with their tameness. I never heard the love-song of the Pied Wagtail 
until my bird became fully adult ; he often sang it to my servant 
when she approached his cage. Of course we gave him a good deal 

on Hand-Bearing British Birds. 109 

of liberty, but I fear that he did not get sufficient Hving insect food 
since he died in May, 1896. 

I reared Sand-Martins in 1887 upon Abrahams' Nightingale 
mixture, but after they had acquired the use of their wings they did 
not care to take exercise, but simply sat on the food-pot and gorged 
themselves to repletion. Of course I ought to have discontinued the 
soft food and given them scoured maggots ; but this I did not know 
at the time, so I lost them all in about three weeks time. In 1891 
I tried House Martins and with these I was rather more successful 
owing to some extent perhaps to their affectionate nature which im- 
pelled them to leave their food and fly to me at once when I called 
them ; unlike most birds they delight to nestle down in one's hand. 
However about two and a half months saw the end of them, to my 
very great regret, and I do not recommend any of our members to 
attempt to keep these birds, since it is very difficult to supply them 
with anything approaching their natural conditions of life : I 
should never have taken the nests myself, but when they were brought 
to me I felt bound to do my best to save the poor little orphans' 

Finches are of course easy to bring up, at first upon egg and 
biscuit made into a paste and later upon scalded seeds and perhaps a 
few smooth caterpillars, spiders, green fly, etc., but when reared they 
must be kept apart from other birds if you do not wish them to 
become insanely wild. I reared nine Linnets in 1888 and in the 
previous year I had brought up a nest of four Chaffinches : the 
only difficulty with the latter is that as soon as you offer to feed 
them, although they open their beaks widely they sway their heads 
from side to side and back away from you, so that it requires quick- 
ness and accuracy to get the food into their mouths and not all over 
their faces : however I succeeded, and got two pairs of strong and 
healthy birds for my pains. 

In 1898 a young Jay was given to me ; it had been taken from 
the nest shortly before and fed upon shredded raw beef and bread- 
crumbs. I at once changed the diet to a mixture of bread-crumbs, 
powdered biscuit, egg and " Century Food " (a mixture very similar 
to " Cekto.") I reared this bii-d without the least dfficulty, and, as 
I have already noted, it lived in perfect health for thirteen years : I 

110 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

rarely gave it raw meat, as too much of this tends to produce 
diarrhoea, and is better avoided altogether if small dead birds or 
mice are obtainable. 

My first attempt to bring up young Skylarks was in 1886 and, 
through want of knowledge, I lost them all ; but in 1887 and 1888 
I w^as successful, owing to the fact that I introduced a good-sized 
fresh turf into the runner in which I kept them : in the turf I cut a 
round hole wherein I placed an old Sedge-Warbler's nest, in which I 
placed the birds, covering them up with flannel after each meal. 
The birds I took in 1888 were only six days old when I removed 
them, as I was returning home that day : I regarded tliis as some- 
what of a triumph at the time, but as only a perky little hen bird 
survived the autumn moult, the only advantage I gained was tlie 
knowledge that hand-reared hen Skylarks were able to sing 

In 1887 I reared three Wrynecks from the nest, feeding them 
upon Abrahams' Nightingale food and smooth caterpillars ; but I lost 
all three before the end of the year, probably from lack of sufficient 
living insect food. Years afterwards I tried a young Cuckoo, but it 
was a disgustingly greedy bird and no sooner was it induced to feed 
itself than it simply stuffed until its food-pan was empty, shouting 
to be fed all the time it was eating and then going off into a state of 
stupor from which it only aroused to eat again : it never attempted to 
clean itself and its plumage became matted with filth : I gave it a 
thorough wash every now and then, drying it afterwards by a fire, 
but it soon died from over eating, unregretted. 

Now it will perhaps be noticed that nearly the whole of my 
experiments in hand-rearing birds were made in tlie three years 
from 1886 to 1888 although I brought up successfully one or two 
birds at later dates, and it will be seen that of the score or so of 
species which I took in hand the following were the only ones which 
lived for any length of time afterwards, viz. : — Missel-Thrush, Song- 
Thrush, Blackbird, Nightingale, Pied Wagtail, Linnet, Chaffinch, 
Starling, Jay, and Skylark, and of these the Wagtail and 
Jay were reared when my experience in keeping birds was much 
riper than when I made my previous attempts and long after I had 
decided that it was not only kinder to the birds, but more satisfactory 

on Haiid- Bearing British Birds. Ill 

to the owner, to capture them when adult than to bring them up by 
hand ; not that the parents suffer, as sentimentaUsts would have one 
believe, to any great extent, when deprived of their young ; they are 
indeed furious at the time, but they very speedily settle down to the 
construction of a new nest ; indeed, in the case of Martins and House- 
Sparrows, I have seen them at work almost immediately after the 
removal of the old one ; moreover I have seen young neglected by 
their parents and dying of starvation simply because the nest had 
become drenched by heavy rain or because a thorn had grown 
through the side, rendering it uncomfortable for the parent to settle 

in it. 

At the same time my advice to all bird-lovers is — Do not 

attempt to stand in loco pareyitis to baby birds unless you have 

learned, by the successes and failures recorded by others, exactly 

how to treat them ; and remember that you must be content to hop 

out of bed every morning at 6 a.m. to give the first meal : and that, 

until the youngsters begin to get fairly lively, they will need a meal 

every hour up to 9 p.m. (little and often is far better than a big 

meal and stupor every two or three hours). Secondly I would 

suggest that no young birds should be taken unless urgently required 

for show-purposes, or as household pets : nestlings are extremely 

fascinating, but this only makes one feel the deeper remorse at 

having taken them, when they die young. 

On the other hand, if nestling birds are brought to you which 
you have not asked for, as was the case with not a few of those 
which found their way to me, or if from any other cause the lives of 
young birds are threatened, by all means do your utmost to bring them 
up by hand, and may good luck attend your efforts. 

Of birds which came into my hands soon after they had left 
the nest I cannot boast : I kept them for a time, but they died 

112 The Apparent Assumption of a Distinctive Phase of 




By E. W. H. Blagg. 

Towards the end of the month of June, 1911, I obtained a 
pair of the very pretty AustraHan Plumed Ground Dove [Lophophaps 
leucogaster). Within a few minutes of being turned into the aviary 
the cock bird proclaimed his sex by bowing and showing off to his 
mate, with outspread wings and tail. In all the published accounts 
of this species that I have had access to it is stated that the cock 
and hen bird are identical in the colouring and marking of their 
plumage, and so were these two birds on arrival, and so they remained 
until the early summer of 1912, when the cock bird, by moult, 
changed the colour of his plumes from fawn colour to blue grey, and 
the posterior part of the crown of the head also became blue grey 
instead of fawn colour. At the same time the black marking on his 
throat became more extensive and pronounced. 

In this state of plumage, not even the most earless observer 
could say that the sexes were alike in colouring. I used to amuse 
myself by asking casual visitors to my birds, '' Do you see any 
difference in those two birds ? " and at once would come the reply, 
" Certainly, one has a blue head and the other one has a brown 

At this time I was speculating as to whether my bird would 
retain his blue head for the rest of his life, or whether he would 
reassume his brown head at his autumnal moult : in the former case 
I should have drawn the conclusion that the blue head was the mark 
of full maturity, and in the latter case that the blue head marked the 
full breeding plumage. I was also wondering whether the hen bird 
was going to follow the lead of her mate, and change the colour of 
her plumes, &c., for in that case the sexes would still be alike. 
But no, the hen's plumes have always remained brown, and at his 
autumn moult the cock reassumed brown plumes. At the beginning 
of this summer, 1913, his head again became blue, and at his autumn 
moult he has once more grown brown plumes. 

It would be interesting to hear whether anyone who has kept 

Breeding Plumage in the Male Plumed Ground Dove. 113 

this species has noticed this change of plumage, or whether it has 
been noticed amongst the wild birds in Australia. It appears to me 
to be an analogous case to the Chaffinch getting a blue head in 
summer, the Brambling and Black-headed Bunting getting black 
heads, and the various other breeding plumage changes in different 
species, but, so far as I am aware, it has not hitherto been recorded 
of any species of dove or pigeon that it assumes a distinctive phase 
of plumage for the breeding season. 


By Mes. Warren Vernon. 

I am living at present in a very cold part of Scotland, and at 
an altitude of 904 feet, so after hearing that last winter the glass 
went down to 7° below zero I gave up all idea of out-door aviaries. 
I have turned a room into a place for the birds to get exercise and 
change, but the majority I have to keep in cages. So far this plan 
seems to answer well, and from former experience I consider one has 
a better chance of seeing if the birds require attention when in cages 
and separately, than when a lot of them are together flying loose. 
There is often one looking rough and a little immediate attention 
and medicine if given at once will cure,- when in an aviary the bird 
may be moping behind something and escape notice till too late to 
save its life. 

The room has cork lino on the floor and looks N.W. getting 
sun in the afternoon, large boughs in pots, lots of nest boxes and 
cocoa nuts to furnish it. On the deep window sill I place some 
green stuff, and in front of it a long bough on which the birds sit. 
The window is half-wired and is opened whenever the weather 
permits, it changes very quickly here from warm to bitter cold. 
Large baths stand on a tray, the birds bathing constantly no matter 
how cold the weather is. On a mantelshelf all the seeds for the 
hard bills are put. There is electric light in the room, and I can 
turn it on in the dark evenings, as it begins to get dark so early now, 

I found certain birds much more restless and disturbers of 
the peace at night than others, viz. : Java Sparrows (white variety) 

114 A feto of my birds in cages. 

and Wagtails. The latter used to keep up a continual tapping for 
hours at night, until I discovered who the culprits were and caged 
them. Now quiet reigns. 

The following is a list of birds I at present keep, some in 
cages, others flying loose : — Great Eeed Warbler ; Lesser Eeed 
Warbler ; Marsh Warbler ; Sedge Warbler ; Eed-creasted Fly- 
catcher : Blue-throated Warbler ; Wood Warbler ; White-throated 
Singing Finch ; Eussian Bullfinch. ; Pied Wagtails (6) ; Belgian 
Canaries ; AVhite Javas ; Orange Bishops (6) ; Zebra Waxbills ; 
Diamond Sparrows. 

In one large aviary cage I have the following Small x\frican 
Waxbills, etc. : — Cordon Blues ; Orange Breasts ; Orange Cheeks ; 
African Waxbills ; Grey Singing Finches ; African Fire Finch ; 
Euficaudas ; Bronze Wing Mannikins ; Avadavats. 

The food I give all the soft bills is Galloway's " Life," for 
smaller ones " Perfecto," for Thrush and larger birds I mix it with 
chopped lettuce and York cheese, gentles and mealworms, according 
to their individual requirements, some of the Warblers are most 
fearfully greedy and will eat till they die, so some days I give dry 
sponge cake and ants' eggs. There is much less eaten on those 
days ! Seeds as follows : Paddy rice, three sorts of millet, spray 
millet, canary, inga, sunflower and hemp ; shell gravel in a saucer. 
This finishes the foods. 

I have also a lovely Blue Eock Thrush, a hand-reared Wry- 
neck, Gold Crest Wren and Jenny Wren. The latter I also hand- 
reared. Also a lovely specimen of the Hunting Cissa, about which I 
wrote last month. All the birds have become very tame, from being 
constantly handled, and changed from cages to bird-room. Those in 
cages fly every day for a short time in my room. They perch on my 
head, and also help themselves to the food as I am preparing it. 
T find all the small Waxbills like the soft food, and what is left over 
in the various glasses from the soft bills I throw on the tray in their 
cage. They find great amusement in picking it all over. The grass 
seed too is a great delight when the seed is all picked out, the long 
ends are taken up and made into nests ; all the eight nest boxes are full 
of grass. They wall also eat small gentles and of course mealworms. 
Personally I believe all foreign hardbills will eat hve food if given. 

''Bobs" and "Billy." 115 

The inmates of the Waxbill Aviary are a sight for color con- 
ditions and plumage. The Fire-finch is quite lovely. I have two 
cock Grey Singing Finches and one hen. One cock bird sings 
beautifully and continually, the other has never uttered a sound. I 
have heard that sometimes they never do sing. 

The pair have mated and the hen is sitting now, she has 
built herself a lovely nest on the top of a box lined with horse-hair. 
She was badly egg bound the other day but I was able to save her, 
and she is all right and sitting steadily now. Apparently the noisy 
inmates don't in the least disturb her. The Hunting Cissa is really 
a most funny pet, he is not like a bird at all, letting one pick him up, 
hold him close to one and ruffle his feathers, all he does is to make 
a growling noise and spread out his wings. He collects all the 
shoes, handkerchiefs, etc., he can find in a heap, and will play a tug 
of war with the girdle of a gown, pulling for all he is worth. 
He hides meat in one's shoes, and if given a dead Sparrow eats it, 
bones, head and all. 

I shall be going to a more salubrious part of Scotland next 
spring and shall hope to have more birds and aviaries. I have also 
one pair Long-tailed Tits, very tame and very pretty. This ends 
my hst. 

"BOBS" 'S;? "BILLY." 

By Mrs. CURREY. 

" Bobs " was a most charming specimen of the robin family. 
He first made my acquaintance during the hot summer of 1911, 
when he was still in his baby clothes. Two days after our intro- 
duction an enticing mealworm brought him into my lap, and after 
that we became fast friends and I never had any peace when sitting 
in his particular piece of the garden, but his district seemed to have a 
definite limit. 

He always came to the dining room for meals, and one hot 
night slept on the curtains and caused a fearful commotion by falling 
out of bed in the middle of dinner and landing on the butler's head. 
The room had to be darkened and a lamp put in the garden before he 
could be persuaded to leave the room. Sometimes he would be in a 

116 'Bobs" and "Billy." 

room a few minutes before anyone noticed him, when he would sing a 
few notes to attract attention, and would generally be found perched 
on a candle. 

The spring of 1912 I found his nest, but his wife was never 
allowed to come for food, any titbits were carried to her. Unfor- 
tunately the w^hole family succumbed to a too liberal allowance of 
mealworms. Bobs himself became ill, nearly losing all power in one 
leg, as apparently mealworms cause a sort of fit. He was about all 
last winter and gradually got well and strong again, until at last, this 
spring, he brought his wife "Eoberta" to the window, but she never 
came inside the room. i\.fter much consultation their nest was made 
in the conservatory close by. It was on a large palm pot hidden by 
maiden-hair fern, and Eoberta's bright eyes peeping out of the foliage 
made the prettiest picture. 

It was amusing to see how Bobs kept all birds away from the 
dining room window, especially another robin — " Billy " by name — 
who had a nest on a Camellia tree in a greenhouse on the other side 
of the dining room. He and his wife " Wilhaemena" would perch on 
a small tree near, and Billy would swoop on any food that he 
thought Bobs did not notice ; a battle royal usually followed, in 
which Bobs was always victorious. One day I noticed Billy had a 
tiny speck on his head, so I thought Bobs had pulled his feathers out, 
but the speck grew larger until the whole head and neck grew abso- 
lutely bald. In spite of this, Billy reared two families, and it was 
comic to see the bald-headed father attending to the children, as two 
days after the fledglings had left the first nest, Wilhamena began 
laying again in the same nest, and Billy seemed to have sole charge 
of the little ones. He disappeared about the beginning of June, and 
has not been seen since, so whether he has died of a cold in the head 
or sunstroke I do not know. 

Bob's family again met with disaster, as the eggs were sucked 
by mice a few days before they should have hatched. Bobs also has 
not been seen since, but I hope he is not dead. I feel I have lost a 
friend and am still vainly hoping he may come back again when I 
call him. 

Some Rarities at the Horticultural Hall Bird Shoio. 117 


The twenty-fifth annual exhibition of the L.C.B.A. was held 
at the Horticultural Hall on the 27th, 28th and 29th of last month. 
The entries were a record, thanks to the untiring energy of Mr. Allen 
Silver and The Foreign Bird Exhibitors' League for altering the 
classifications and guaranteeing all the Classes. The Show un- 
doubtedly was a huge success, as never before was there such a 
marvellous collection of rare and beautiful Foreign Birds seen — 
nearly 20 of which being quite new to the show bench. The most 
coveted prize for the Best Foreign Bird in the Show was awarded 
to Mr. A. Ezra's Southern Malachite Sunbird {Nectarinia famosa), 
a most beautifully graceful bird and in most perfect condition. 
Many good judges declared it the best bird ever exhibited both as 
regards beauty and condition. In the Class for Parrakeets Miss 
Clare's pair of Queen Alexandra's were beautiful, also her pair of 
Hooded Parrakeets. The rarest Waxbill was Mr. Maxwell's " Peter's 
Spotted Finch," a bird so seldom seen, and next to him came Mr. 
Frost's lovely pair of Eed-faced Finches (Pytelia afra) as well as 
a Jameson's Finch, both of which were not for com]petition. Mr. 
Watts showed his beautiful Queen Whydah, and Mr. Beaty a Gold- 
collared Paradise Whydah, a rare bird. Mr. Ezra's Blue Chafi&nch 
was a very rare exhibit, as this bird is very scarce, even on the 
island of Tenerifl'e, where they are known to occur, and is not 
found except on one or two of the Canary Islands. 

In the Class for Sunbirds, etc., Mr. Ezra showed five 
different species of these exquisite creatures. They were the 
Southern Malachite, the Greater Amethyst, the Cape Lesser 
Double-collared, the Black-breasted, Yellow-backed, and the 
Amethyst-rumped Sunbirds. Numbers two, three, and four were 
new to shows. Major Horsbrugh sent a rare Brown-eared Bulbul 
and a Blue and Black Jay from Yucatan, both new to the show 
bench. Mrs. Warren Vernon exhfbited a most lovely Hunting Cissa 
— the tamest bird in the show. 

In the rare-feathered Class Mr. Ezra showed a beautiful 

118 Illustration Fund. 

Yellow Eing-necked Parrakeet and a very rare yellow variety of 
the Blossom-headed Parrakeet, the head in this instance being pale 
pink. Mr. Sutton and Miss Clare benched some good Blue 

In the Class for Flycatchers, etc., Mr. Ezra showed the 
Small Minivet, the Eed-flanked Bush Eobin, the Large Niltava, a 
pair of Fire Caps and a Short-billed Minivet. All except the last 
shown for the first time — an exceptionally rare lot of birds. 

In "All other Species," Lady Kathleen Pilkington showed a 
lovely pair of Yuhimas, and a Black-throated Wren Babbler, and 
Mr. Ezra a very rare and fascinating bird, the Eed-tailed Minla — all 
three new to the show-bench. Mr. Townsend showed a charming 
pigmy Woodpecker and a splendid Indian Kingfisher, Mr. Maxwell 
a good specimen of Levaillant's Barbet and a Pink-crested Touraco. 

In the Class for Tanagers Lady Kathleen Pilkington showed 
a very rare Black-cheeked, Mr. Ezra a good pair of Pretres, Miss 
Bonsfield a splendid White-capped, Mr. Maxwell a Eed and 
Black, an exceptionally rare bird. Mr. Townsend's Black-shouldered 
was a perfect beauty and in splendid condition. 


We regret the passing away of Mrs. NOBLE, of Park Place, 
Henley-on-Thames, who had been a member of the Society since 


Will not some more Members follow the good example set by 
a few, and very kindly give something : otherwise it will be quite 
impossible to keep up the standard and number of our illustrations 
month by month. EDITOR. 

Correspondence. 119 



Sir, — In the October number of the Magazine there was an article by 
Dr. A. G. Butler on '' Longevity in Captivity," etc. It may be of interest in 
this connection to place on record the following cases ; — 

In Februar}^ 1874, I bought a Red-headed Cardinal {Paroaria cucullata). 
This bird died in June, 1899. He thus lived twenty-five years and four months 
in captivity, occupying the same cage during the whole period. During the last 
three years or so he showed some signs of age, much thickened scales on the legs 
and a difficulty in the autumn moult, otherwise he remained in excellent 
plumage with a brilliant red crest, mostly raised, and was very lively to the end. 

In July, 1872, I bought a Lesser Sulphur Crested Cockatoo {Cacatua 
sulpherea), he was then a year old. This bird was killed by an accident in June, 
1906, being then about thirty-five years old and showing no signs of age. He 
enjoyed a good deal of liberty about the grounds. Of course this is not so in- 
teresting a case as the first, since some species of parrots are known to live to a 
great age, over 100 years probably. WALTER CHAMBERLAIN. 


Sir, — I was glad to see that my humble paper had called forth such a 
hearty response. Lord Tavistock's article is extremely interesting and should 
prove most helpful to keepers of Parrakeets. Since writing my paper I have 
bought several more Broadtails and in every single case the broods have either 
been sexed wrongly or the birds have not been sexed at all. 

With regard to young Redrumps I am glad to be put right. I understand 
from one who had bred them that one could not sex them until the first moult. 
Personally I have never had them although I possess a pair. 

The Red Rosella question seems to have caused a good deal of heart- 
burning and I fear I was a little precipitate in bringing Dr. Butler's name into 
the discussion. I do not possess Dr. Butler's " How to Sex Cage Birds," but a 
friend allowed me to consult his copy one day and I quoted from memory with 
regard to the green spot. Like Dr. Butler I have been a very keen entomologist 
and I dare say he will recognise the name in that capacity. It was the Red 
Rosellas that first led me to doubt whether they were a true pair. One or two 
senior aviculturists took a good deal of trouble to point out the green spot in the 
one bird but not in the other. But I couldn't see it myself and I felt more and 
more convinced I had two cocks. Subsequent history proved I was right, and 
from that moment I have never ceased to carry out for myself the differences in 
the sexes of birds in general and Parrakeets in particular. The result of my 
investigations are chronicled. They are absolutely original as far as I am con- 
cerned, and, with the one exception of the unfortunate green spot, I neither 

120 Correspondence. 

referred to nor consulted a single book of any sort. True I used Mr. Page's book 
as a reference to this extent. I referred to the illustrations in his book to. 
illustrate my points and for all I know he may have in the text entirely reversed 
my opinion. I hold that if you want to effectually check all progress in an}^ 
subject (and aviculture no less than any other) you will write papers with 
' ' reference ' ' books spread thickly on the table before you and be fearful lest you 
say aught that does not entirely agree with the authorities. If then any remark or 
phrase of mine occurs which has appeared in some book or paper or journal some 
years previously it is because the writer of that book, paper, or journal and I had 
made a similar observation ; which being corroborated is therefore probably 
correct. At any rate I can plead guiltless of plagiarism. 

But I still feel unconvinced about the green spot, as far as my experience 
goes that part of the Rosellas anatomical colouration seems to me to be 
absolutely variable and inconsistant. The fact that hen Rosellas are more green 
about the head and neck than cocks would ipso facto tend to the assumption 
that a bird with a green spot was a hen. But to say that hens had a green spot, 
or that all birds who have a green spot are hens, seems to me more than one can 
say. Such a variable quality cannot be constant and an inconstant characteristic 
cannot be a certain sign, and an uncertain sign cannot be a reliable guide. In 
saying this I impugn no lack of respect to Abrahams' extraordinary and innate 
genius. I have no doubt he could spot a hen Rosella the moment he saw it. 
Having found a hen Rosella or perhaps several with a green spot he inferred that 
all had, and we know quickly the wish becomes father to the thought. Besides, 
I ask, who would want to waste time looking for the green spot in a bird so easy 
to sex as a Red Rosella. 

I must apologise for occupying so much space, but I felt that certain 
points needed clearing up, especially from my point of view. 


Notices to Members — /Continued from page ti. of cover.) 

Ml. Taka-Tsukasa, 25 Kainiiiibaucho Kojiuiachi, Tokyo, Japan. 

Proposed by Mr. R. I. PocoCK. 

Lady Yulk, Hanstead House, Bricket Wood, Herts. 

Proposed by The Hoiible. Mary C. Hawke. 

Mr. E. SprankIvING, Brooklaud Cotta<<e, South Road, Taunton. 

Proposed by Mr. Wesi^ey T. Page. 

Mr. R. J. Watts, " Wihnar," Wiggenhall Road, Watford, Herts. 

Mr. R. P. BuFTON, "Caerlyn," Llandrindod Wells. 

Miss KeIvLY, West Mailing, Kent. 

Proposed by Mr. Ara^EN S11.VER. 


Mr. W. CarsTairs Dougi^as, 26 The Boltons, S.W. 
Mrs. L' Estrange Malone, West Lodge, Mai ton, Yorks. 

The charge for private advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
words or less, and one penny for every additional three words or less. 
Trade advertisements are not allowed in this column. Dealers 
who are members, wishing to adve> tise, should apply to the Publisher for terms. 
Advertisements i7iust reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Council reserve the right op refusi7ig afiy advertisement 
they may consider ujidesirable. 

The charge Jor members' advertisements under this heading is four 
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Foreign Doves at Liberty, by THE MAEQUIS OF TAVISTOCK... ... 123 

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Third Series.— Yo\. V.— No. L—All rights reserved. FEBRUARY, 1914. 


Eurypyga helias. 
By D. Seth-Smith, F.Z.S. 

(Curator of Birds, Zoological Society of London). 

This very elegant and graceful species is more often seen in 
Zoological Gardens than in private collections of living birds, but it 
is one that would well repay the attention of aviculturists if only it 
could be procured. It is but seldom imported however, and always 
commands a high pi'ice. 

That enterprising and reliable dealer Herr August Fockelmann, 
of Hamburg, received a consignment some few months ago, of which 
the Zoological Society of London procured a pair. These were 
placed in a compartment of the Western Aviary, next to that in 
which was a male example of the same species which has lived in 
the Gardens for some time. 

The latter bird saluted the new arrivals through the wire 
partition with a series of displays of his wonderfully marked wings, 
but whether this was a sign of pleasure or disapproval I am not 
certain. I am inclined to think the latter was the case, for the 
" display " of this bird, when I have seen it, has not been one of love, 
but one evidently int-ended to frighten away the object to which it is 
directed. The sexes are alike in plumage, and I doubt if there is 
any definite sexual display. I was very anxious to obtain a photo- 
graph of the Sun-Bittern with wings expanded, so one morning I had 
a Kagu run through into the compartment in which lived the then 
solitary male of this species. The Sun Bittern commenced to display 

122 On the Sun-Biiiern. 

to the Kagu at once, and I had no difficulty in secui"ing some good 

There are two species of Sun-Bitterns, Eurypyga helias of 
Brazil, Amazonia, Bolivia, Guiana, and Venezuela, and the slightly 
larger E. major of Central America, Columbia and Ecuador. 

These birds are said to inhabit the Swamps, feeding on all 
kinds of insects, small fish and probably small frogs. In captivity 
they live well on a diet of finely-chopped raw meat, mealworms, 
small live fish and any insects procurable. Fly-catching appears to 
be one of their favourite occupations. The insect is approached 
with slow stealthy steps until the bird is within striking distance, 
when the thin, snake-like neck darts forward and the insect is 
secured at the top of the spear-like bill. 

When at rest amongst vegetation the Sun-Bittern is practi- 
cally invisible, the undulations on its plumage being wonderfully 
protective, but no sooner does it rise and expand its large butterfly- 
like wings than it becomes a most conspicuous and very beautiful 

The late Mr. A. D. Bartlett contributed a very interesting 
account of the breeding of the Sun-Bittern to the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society in 1866. It appears that the year 1865 w^as re- 
markable for the long continuance of dry hot weather during the 
summer and autumn, which probably influenced the breeding and 
tendency to breed amongst animals that had previously shown no 
•stich inclination. In May, a pair of Sun-Bitterns, the first ap- 
parently that the Society had possessed, commenced to show signs 
of wishing to breed. Bits of stick, roots of grass and similar 
materials were carried about, and the birds were noticed constantly 
walking round the w^ater pool apparently in search of something. 
The idea suggested itself that they were searching for mud, so this 
was supplied, with the result that they commenced at once to use it. 

An old straw nest was placed at the top of a ten-foot pole and 
was adopted by the birds, both of Avhich carried up mud and clay, 
mixed with straw, roots, and grass. The sides of the nest were 
raised and thickly plastered with mud. The first egg was laid in 
May, but was dropped on the ground, and so much did the fragments 
resemble the egg of a Moorhen that, as there was a single blue 

Foreign Doves at Uberiy. 123 

"Waterhen in the same compartment, Bartlett was inclined to think 
at first that this bird had laid the egg. However, in the early part 
of June another egg was laid, this time in the nest, and it agreed 
with the fragments discovered earlier. The two birds took turns in 
incubation and in twenty-seven days the egg hatched. 

Bartlett describes the young bird as one of the prettiest he 
ever saw, being covered with fine short tufts of down, and much 
resembling the young of Plovers and Snipe. It remained for twenty- 
one days in the nest, being regularly fed by its parents on small fish 
and insects. It grew rapidly, and at the end of two months was 
indistinguishable from its parents. A second young bird was hatched 
later on in the same year and was also successfully reared. It is 
much to be hoped that we may be able to repeat this success in the 
coming summer. 

[The Sun-Bittern I have, is ridiculously tame, and does not 
resent being picked up ; and placed on the palm of the hand. 

H. D. A.] 


By The Marquis of Tavistock. 

To anyone inclined to embark on that form of aviculture in 
vphich an attempt is made to induce foreign birds to remain uncon- 
iined in the vicinity of their owner's home, the dove family affords a 
not unpromising field for experiment and a fair chance of success. 
Many exotic doves are, in the first place, quite indifferent to cold 
.and some of the hardiest are reasonably well endowed with the 
necessary homing instinct. Unlike finches and parrakeets, they can 
generally be relied upon to arrive free from infectious disease : they 
are easily and cheaply fed (I refer of course to the grain-eating 
■species only) and under no circumstances are they destructive to 
trees and shrubs. 

Our experiments with doves at liberty have now been carried 
on for a considerable number of years, and in a few cases interesting 
and satisfactory results have been obtained. The number of failures 
has certainly been large, but in some instances it is only fair to 
-eonelude that they have been due to unfavourable local conditions 

124 The Marquis of Tavistock. 

which do not exist in every part of the country, and that species 
which have not done well with us might succeed in establishing 
themselves amid more suitable surroundings. Our garden is unfor- 
tunately by no means an ideal home for any bird needing shelter and 
seclusion, as it is very scantily provided with winter cover, a defect 
which the heavy clay soil makes it extremely difficult to remedy, 
since many of the most useful evergreen trees g^w slowly and thrive 
none too well. It is also more or less surrounded at a distance by 
large woods which tend to draw the birds away ; and last, but not 
least, it is the happy hunting ground of owls — both brown and white, 
— endowed with a perverted appetite for feathered game which an 
unlimited supply of rats and mice renders wholly inexcusable. It 
is, therefore, not to be wondered at that our losses have at times 
been heavy and disappointing, and tliat more than one promising 
experiment has ended in failure. 

Australian Crested Doves {Ocyphaps lophotes) were among 
the earliest introductions, and although they do not appear to 
increase from year to year, their numbers are well maintained, and 
no fresh importation seems necessary. Most of the original birds 
were turned out with cut wings, so that they had plenty of time 
to become accustomed to their surroundings before they gradually 
regained their powers of flight. Their welfare has twice been 
seriously threatened by outbreaks of disease, but, fortunately, on 
neither occasion did the mischief get quite beyond control. About six 
years ago, the wild Turtle Doves, which visit the gardens in large 
numbers, were found to be suffering from canker, a highly infectious 
disease of the throat, well known to pigeon fanciers. How they 
started it will always remain a mystery, but probably one of them 
had come into contact with a diseased domestic bird and soon spread 
the infection among his fellows. The results were most disastrous; 
large numbers of South American Spotted Pigeons were lost, and 
practically the entire stock of Barbary Doves, Senegal Doves, and 
other foreign members of the genus Turtur. When the infection 
had become really bad, the Crested Doves also began to die, and for 
a time things looked very bad indeed. Fortunately, however, when 
the autumn migration removed the Turtle Doves, an improvement 
set in, and by the beginning of winter the disease had apparently 

on Foreign Doves at liberty. 125 

disappeared. The next summer, on the return of the Turtle Doves, 
it broke out afresh, but by immediately destroying all sick birds, 
discouraging the presence of the healthy ones on the foreign birds' 
feeding trays and dressing large areas of ground with salt, a serious 
outbreak was fortunately averted. The following season a few cases 
again occurred ; but, this last year, I am glad to say there has been 
no outbreak at all, and I am hoping that the disease will not return. 
Canker is quite distinct from the diphtheria which in certain seasons 
•carries off the Woodpigeons in such vast numbers. A Woodpigeon 
suffering from diphtheria will be found to have its throat covered 
with whitish spots : a dove suffering from canker has the entire 
gullet choked with cheesy matter and much distended. It has great 
difficulty in swallowing food and often throws away a grain of seed 
after making several ineffectual attempts to get it down. Another 
bird which picks up the same seed afterwards, will, if susceptible to 
the disease become infected on the spot. I have never seen any 
kind of dove suffering fi'om diphtheria, except the Woodpigeon ; 
but many species, including the Stock Dove, readily contract canker. 

During the winter following the first canker outbreak, tuber- 
culosis made its appearance among the Crested Doves. A good 
many were lost from this cause also, but I managed to save a few of 
the sick ones by keeping them warm and feeding them on stimulating 
food ; avian tuberculosis, even when very advanced, is by no means 
so incurable as some people imagine, although, if the diseased bird is 
not a valuable one, it is usually better to destroy it at once. The 
same methods as were adopted in dealing with the canker outbreak, 
viz., salt dressings and the removal of sickly birds at the earliest 
opportunity, did a good deal towards checking the ravages of tuber- 
culosis. The wretched disease has not been entirely got rid of, as I 
know to my cost, probably owing to the large area over which the 
infection is spread and the difficulty of treating the whole : but the 
cases which occur now are isolated ones and it is long since a 
Crested Dove has been among the victims. 

When at liberty Crested Doves attempt to breed nearly the 
whole year round, but during the winter months they are seldom or 
never successful in rearing their young. The latter, on leaving the 
nest, niay be distinguished from their parents by their duller colours 

126 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

and very large crests, whicli, curiously enough, are at that time 
moi'e developed than when the birds are fully adult. 

In disposition the Crested Dove is little better than the 
majority of the pigeon family, which, contrary to popular ideas, 
are jealous, quarrelsome, and greedy, and much given to bullying 
their own wives and running after tlieir neighbours'. 

When courting, tlie cock raises his tail vertically over his 
back and makes a succession of rather rapid bows, each bow being 
accompanied by a gulping coo and a spreading of the tail and wings ; 
an exactly similar performance is gone through to intimidate a male 
rival. The Crested Dove shows little inclination to molest other 
birds, but is quite able to take its own part when attacked, and in a 
dispute in which I once saw one engaged with a Eoseate Cockatoo, 
the cockatoo, who had been tiie aggressor, came off rather second best. 

Although largely arboreal in their habits. Crested Doves spend 
a good deal of time on the ground as well, and run wdth great 
rapidity. Their flight, which is accompanied by a loud whistling 
sound, is tremendously rapid, and I know few birds which can equal 
them in point of speed : the wmgs are flapped several times in quick 
succession, after which they are held rigid for a few moments until 
the imi)etus begins to slacken. On alighting, the bird throws its 
tail up over its back, apparently with a view to keeping its balance. 

South American Spotted Pigeons [Columha maculosa) were 
introduced about the same time as the Crested Doves and treated in 
the same way on their arrival. They have done well — except during 
the canker epidemic already mentioned — and a flock of about eighteen 
maintains itself from year to year, the number of young birds bred 
each season being apparently just suflicient to make up for the losses 
among the adults. The flight of this bird is not unlike that of the 
Eingdove, but when seen on the wing it is not easily mistaken for 
any other species as the rather large head and neck give it a peculiar 
appearance which distinguishes it from other doves of the same size. 

The Spotted Pigeon begins to nest very early in the year, and 
frequently selects the prickly branches of an Araucaria as a site for 
building operations. During the breeding season the cock may often 
be seen sitting at the extreme top of some bare tree, uttering his 
peculiar call, a hoarse rhythmical c'hrrnv, cor, cor, coorrrw, cor, cor 

0)1 Foreign Doves at liberty, 127 

coorrrw, at frequent intervals. Should a rival attempt to answer 
him from near at hand, a battle generally ensues, for the species is 
decidedly pugnacious. When courting, the male bird makes a deep, 
quick bow to the hen, accompanying it with a short " corw," fol- 
lowed by a shiver of the wings. 

Bronze-necked Wood-doves {Haplopelia larvata) were a later 
introduction than the two species already mentioned, our first and 
only consignment reaching us about seven yeai*s ago. This rare South 
African Dove is so little known to aviculturists that it may be well to 
give some account of its appearance. In size and general build it 
bears a very close resemblance to the Australian Green-winged Dove 
and probably also to the Rufous Dove, a bird which I ought however 
to say that I have never seen alive. The adult male has the back, 
wings, and tail a uniform dark vinous brown and the breast dark 
vinous, becoming more or less chestnut on the abdomen and under 
tail coverts. The face is greyish white and there is a good deal of 
metallic green on the back of the neck. The hen is smaller and 
duller than the cock and has little or no white on her face. Young 
birds at first possess a speckly, rather grouse-like plumage, which is 
moulted shortly after leaving the nest. 

The Bronze-necked Wood-dove appears to be quite hardy ; 
our birds spent their first winter out of doors without injury, although 
during a brief spell of severe frost, the tiiermometer on one occasion 
actually fell below zero, and the following summer they bred and 
successfully reared their young. The nest is generally built in a thick 
bush, about 8ft. from the ground, and is composed of fibrous roots and 
fine twigs; it is rather a slip-shod affair, as is usual with pigeons, but 
a certain amount of stability is sometimes ensured by the use of an 
old Thrush's nest as a foundation. Two white eggs are usually laid 
and both sexes take part in their incubation ; two or three broods 
being reared in one season. When breeding, the cock becomes very 
jealous and quarrelsome, fighting with other doves, attacking and 
driving away any small birds which happen to approach him and 
pursuing his mate with low humming coos. 

The Bronze-necked Wood-dove is mainly terrestial in its habits, 
walking and running rapidly over the bare ground underneath thick 
evergreen shrubs and never venturing into the open. The flight is 

128 The Marquis op Tavistock, 

low, rapid, and silent, and is not unlike that of a Woodcock. In 
their diet these birds appear to be largely insectivorous and I have 
found them extremely fond of mealworms, although they have some 
trouble in killing them and evidently feel uncomfortable if they 
happen to swallow them alive. They eat a considerable quantity 
of maize and often seem to prefer it to smaller grain. 

The first year we bred them a good many late hatched young 
died during the early winter, so next season I attempted to in- 
crease our stock by catching up all the immature birds I could get 
hold of and placing them in an aviary. I managed to secure four, 
but the experiment was not a success as two died shortly afterwards 
of septic fever and a third killed itself by flying against some glass. 
As far as I can tell we have at present about four or five pairs of 
Bronze-necked Wood-doves at liberty in the garden, but their retiring 
habits and unsociable disposition make them extremely difficult to 
count. They appear to be immune to canker, but occasionally suffer 
from tuberculosis. 

Wonga-wonga Pigeons {Leucosarcia picata) were imported in 
small numbers on several occasions, but it is only quite recently that 
they have begun to establish themselves and do really well. At 
first, many succumbed to tuberculosis and the few young that were 
hatched were destroyed by the American Grey Squirrels before they 
were able to protect themselves. For the last two years, however, 
the ground has been less contaminated, and the squirrels being as far 
as possible removed, the Wonga-wongas have done much better and 
a number of young were successfully reared this season. Leucosarcia 
picata is mainly terrestial in its habits, only perching in trees when 
alarmed or engaged in nesting or when uttering its peculiar call — a 
loud, high-pitched coo-coo, coo-coo, coo-coo, coo-coo, coo, coo, coo, coo — 
often continued for five or ten minutes without a pause. The nest is 
usually placed in an evergreen tree from ten to twenty feet from the 
ground. The method of building is rather peculiar, the hen sitting 
on the selected site, while the cock searches for the materials. 
Having found a suitable stick he flies up close to his mate, walks 
round her two or three times and then steps on to her back and gently 
offers his burden which she takes and arranges under her, while he 
goes off to obtain a further supply. 

071 Foreign Doves at liberty. 129 

Like many other Australian Doves, the Wonga-wonga has a 
fatal habit, when at liberty, of attempting to fly through closed 
windows and wire netting. In the case of the window, the bird's 
great weight and the tremendous impetus of its flight sometimes 
carry it off victorious to the detriment of the glass, but where wire 
netting is the obstacle, a broken neck or a cracked skull is the sad 
and inevitable result of the collision. 

A small importation of Peaceful Doves {Geopelia tranquilla) 
did not promise well at first, and after twelve months had elapsed, a 
solitary cock alone remained. It did not seem worth while to get 
any more, as such small birds appeared to stand a poor chance 
against the relentless harrying of the owls ; but the little fellow's 
musical coia-coo, coia-coo, sounded so persistently throughout the 
day that I at length took pity on his loneliness and got him a mate. 
Some weeks after she had been turned out she injured her wing and 
had considerable difficulty in flying, although she was just able to 
elude my attempt to capture her. In the end, however, rather to 
my surprise, she made a good recovery and brought up three broods 
during the course of the summer. The latest hatched did not 
survive very long after they had left the nest, and two more fell 
victims to a neighbour's escaped Goshawk, which for many months 
paid the most unwelcome visits to the garden. Four however, were 
left at the end of the winter and more young were reared during the 
ensuing summer and again this year. With luck, therefore, and the 
importation of a few fresh birds, this pretty little species may 
eventually become established. 

Barbary Doves {Turtur risorius) which are kept at liberty in 
many gardens with considerable success, have never done well with 
us. Many of those first liberated proved unable to stand the winter 
without artificial shelter, and of the survivors all but one perished 
during the canker outbreak, together with the Senegal and Half- 
collared Doves. About a year ago a few more were obtained, which 
have proved hardier than their predecessors, but they have not bred 


Bronze-winged Pigeons (Phaps chalcoptera) at one time 

promised well, being hardy birds, indifferent to cold, not susceptible 

to disease and little inclined to stray when first released. In the 

130 Thl Marquis of Tavistock, 

end, however, they gradually used to disappear, and although we 
tried them on several occasions the result was always the same. 
The hens, for some reason, invariably vanished sooner than the cocks, 
some of the latter remaining about for nearly two years. 

Thibetan Pigeons {Golumha leiiconota) were released full- 
winged. They stayed well for a short time and then deserted us. 
I believe we should have had more success with them had they been 
pi'ovided with a dove-cote, for they are naturally rock-dwellers and 
spent most of their time on the roof and ledges of the house. 
Cinnamon Doves, Scaly Doves and White-crowned Pigeons have 
all been tried but soon grew discontented with their surroundings 
and left. Tambourine Doves, Bleeding-heart Pigeons and Crowned 
Pigeons stayed better, but were imable to survive the winter without 
artificial heat. Triangular Spotted Pigeons also proved sensitive to 
the cold : a hen of this species we once had was extremely tame, 
delighting in being stroked and petted, and showing her pleasure at 
the approach of her friends by cooing and shaking her wings. For 
quite a long time she was much attached to me and I could do any- 
thing I liked with her, but after I had been absent from home for a 
few weeks she would have nothing more to do with me, pecking and 
striking in the most spiteful manner whenever I attempted to touch 
her. I could never understand this sudden change in her behaviour, 
for she was as affectionate as ever towards her other friends, and 
birds as a rule have good memories and seldom forget those of whom 
they have once been fond. 

About eighteen months ago I started an experiment with 
Smith's Ground Doves {Geophaps smithi), obtaining eight of these 
curious little brown and white birds, which look more like partridges 
than pigeons. On their arrival I cut their wings and turned them 
into tlie grass quadrangle round which the house is built and which, 
being sunny and sheltered, I hoped would provide them with a 
satisfactory home. They did well for a short time, but after about 
a fortnight four died very suddenly, from what exact cause I was 
unable to discover. The remainder, however, were more fortunate 
and lived for some months in perfect harmony. Then, one day to 
my great surprise, three of them suddenly attacked the fourth and 
scalped his head badly, and would doubtless have killed him had 

on Foreign Doves at liberty. 131 

they not been prevented by a timely rescue. They had always 
seemed so peaceable, sitting together huddled up in a heap for 
hours at a time that I was much astonished by this murderous out- 
break. The victim was kept shut up until he had recovered from his 
injuries and was then released in another part of the garden. 

Not long afterwards, one of the three in the quadrangle was 
killed by a dog, but the others, which proved to be a pair, survived 
the winter and showed no disposition to stray when their wings had 
grown. They spent their whole time on the ground, never attempt- 
ing to perch, and if anyone approached them they would squat until 
nearly trodden on, rising at the last moment with a loud whirring 
flight which carried them up and over the roof like rockets, almost 
before one had time to realize that they had gone. In a very short 
time however tliey would be back again in their old quarters. 

The courting display of Smith's Ground Dove bears a very 
close resemblance to that of the Crested Dove, the bird bowing and 
half-spreading its wings and raised tail and uttering a loud purring 
" corrw " with each bow. Both sexes indulge in this pei'formance, 
and may sometimes be seen bowing and cooing to each other, alter- 
nately, a habit I have not observed in any other pigeon. When 
moving about, feeding, the birds have a rather different call to the 
one already described, a kind of " corrw — coo " uttered at frequent 
intervals with a short pause after the first note. I have found mine, 
on the whole, quite peaceable with other birds, but occasionally the 
persistent quarrelling of the Crested Doves would irritate the cock 
Geophaps smithi, causing him to rush upon the disturbers of the 
peace and chase them until they took flight, when he would indulge 
in his funny little display as a last defiance to the retreating foe and 
return in triumph to his wife. As the pair appeared to be in the 
best of health I had great hopes that they might breed this summer. 
They have not, however, done so, and recently the hen became 
partially paralyzed in her legs, apparently in consequence of some 
injury, but is now I am glad to say well on the road to recovery. 
The single bird stayed for some time in the enclosure in which we 
had placed him and then vanished entirely for about three months. 
I had quite given him up for lost and was thei'efore considerably 
surprised one day to hear that he had been seen walking along the 

13-2 Foreig7i Doves at Liberty. 

stone terrace in front of the house. After that he again disappeared, 
but when in June I obtained a second lot of G. smithi and put them 
in a large glass aviary surrounded by high wire netting, he had joined 
the newcomers within three days of their arrival. How he succeeded 
in discovering his relations so quickly is rather a mystery to me, as 
he could not possibly have seen them and was separated from them 
by many obstacles. From that time on, he has been constantly in 
evidence, but what will be the ultimate fate of the little flock time 
alone can show. 

In concluding an article dealing with the acclimatization of a 
family of birds which includes among its British representatives such 
a notorious evil doer as the common Woodpigeon, it may not be out 
of place to say something in answer to the arguments of those people 
who view with horror the introduction of exotic birds and regard it 
as a certain menace to fruit-growing and agriculture. They point out 
continually the disastrous results which have followed the introduc- 
tion of the Sparrow into America and the Starling into Australia and 
appear to imagine that because British birds multiply abnormally in 
foreign countries, therefore foreign birds will multiply abnormally in 
Great Britain. The analogy is, I can confidently say, quite unsound 
and their fears are not in the slightest degree likely to be justified. 
Of the many species of foreign birds we keep, or have kept at liberty, 
(most of which have been carefully chosen as being particularly likely 
to establish themselves) one and only one, if certain eminently desir- 
able species of Waterfowl are excepted, has shown some promise of 
becoming a truly wild bird, viz., the beautiful and harmless Hill Tit 
{Liothrix leutea) or "PekinEobin." Such an addition to the British 
list, no one surely could find any objection to. All the rest — doves, 
finches, parrakeets, etc. — viiist have artificial feeding throughout the 
year, and even with this assistance, a maintenance of numbers and 
not an annual increase is, as a rule, the most that can be expected. 

Something about Hooded Parraheets and other Birds. 133 



OF "The Northern Territory" of Australia. 
By G. A. Heumann. 

Beading not long ago Mr. Astley's article in No. 3, Vol. IV. 
of the AvicuUural Magazine as to the breeding of the Hooded 
Parrakeets, and later in No. IV. his remarks on the colouration of 
the head and hood, it may be of interest to members to hear a few 
words on this question from one who has seen and studied them 
in their native home, the Northern Territory of Australia. 

Six years ago I conceived the idea of " doing " the Northern 
Territory with a friend, and leaving Sydney early in June by boat, 
we arrived in due course, via Brisbane and Thursday Island, in Port 
Darwin. The train leaves here twice a week for Pine Creek, the 
last outpost of civilization, and takes 9 — 10 hours to do the 140 
miles, providing the driver does not see a "turkey" along the line, 
.when he will stop the train to shoot the " turkey " first. We were 
fortunate enough to be able to hire donkeys to take us into tlie 
interior, but I will not be wearisome with a description of my travels 
but come straight to the point on which I wanted to write. Camp- 
ing in a place called Granite Eocks, we were fortunate in having 
picked a spot where parrots, pigeons, and finches abounded, more so 
than in any other place we camped in during our trip. These 
granite rocks are most interesting in themselves. Huge granite 
boulders lie strewn about ; above them again would lie one, some- 
times two, or even three separate boulders. One wonders at the 
wonderful energy I'equired to roll these boulders on the top of each 
other. Two water-holes, each one abou.t 100 feet in circumference,, 
are the attraction for the thousands of birds which come to visit 
this dreary spot. The weather in these regions is very hot during 
the day-time, even in the colder months, registering 120^ and more^ 
in the sun, but sinking to 40° at five or six in the morning at times, 
and I may say that not expecting this low temperature we had not 
sufficiently provided for the cold and felt it at times most intensely. 
The sun rose (July) about 7 a.m., but already, at about 6.30 the- 

134 Mr. G. A. Heumann, 

common Parrakeets flew past, screeching as they always do ; after 
them came the Hawks, waiting for the flocks of Doves and Finches 
to feast on. I shot as many as six to ten every morning, amongst 
them the heautiful white variety. The first of the smaller birds to 
arrive were the Blue-eyed Doves, and in countless numbers. When 
a hawk would swoop down on them whilst drinking, the whirr of 
their wings reminded us of the roar of the incoming waves on the 
ocean beach. Then appeared the Parrakeets, the Browns and the 
Hooded, and here I may mention that those I handled all had the 
hood coloured black ; the younger male, only half coloured, showed a 
more dirty sooty colour. All the specimens I handled — speaking of 
males of course, — showed either the black or sooty colouration. 
JSIone, either from this part or those from the Mary River or Driffield 
way, had a hood that one might call brown, even with a certain 
amount of imagination. Of course the Northern Territory is a vast 
country and other forms may exist elsewhere, but within 300 miles 
south of Port Dai' win, they are all alike. I often w^ondered where 
the real Golden-shouldered, " the yellow frontal banded," might be 
at home, but no information was available, so that I have concluded 
they must be found in the southern part of the Golf Country, 
down the Roper River or thereabouts. 

After tlie Parrakeets had quenched their thirst, the Finches 
arrived in untold quantities. Gouldians, the red and black-headed 
ones in grey and coloured costumes, Masks, Longtail Grassfinches 
(the red-billed variety) and Double-bars (the black-rumped kind) — 
they all catne, not in hundreds but in thousands. The Blood-finches 
seem to me to be the elite of this rabble, always keeping to themselves, 
taking their drink apart from the others. It is generally supposed 
that all these birds are very delicate, but to live through the cold 
and bleak nights up there would convince anyone that they are as 
hardy as any hard finch. All they really want in an aviary is a 
family nest, so that, as in their native home, they can roost in com- 
pany inside and keep one another warm during the colder nights. 
One may see their nests almost on every bush. As the sun rises, 
the different kinds of Honeysuckers come flitting across the water ; 
tliose gorgeous Bee-eaters are there in great numbers, probably their 
winter quarters ; and during the day, Pelicans or Jabberoos would 

Something about Hooded Parrakeeis and other Birds. 135 

visit the water-holes, but, strange to say, all the birds would only 
come to one and the same water-hole for their drink. The Parrakeets 

1 have only seen drinking in the morning ; the Finches again at about 

2 p.m., when also the Pigeons would come for their only daily drink. 
I have counted as many as ninety Squatter Pigeons run single hie to 
their favorite spot, take their drink and march out in the opposite 
direction. About 20 miles away from here we met flocks of hundreds 
of Black Cockatoos and Corellas, but they were very shy and it was 
hard to get a shot at them. What we found a great nuisance were 
the native cats at the Granite Rocks, they would carry off anything 
not under lock and key : it w^as most annoying to me to lose my 
spectacles and my toothbrush. 

Undoubtedly the Northern Territory is a paradise for the 
sportsman, if it can be called " sport " to sit at the side of a " billa- 
bong " (i.e. large waterhole) and shoot at a flock of ducks till one is 
tired : they will just rise at the shot, circle round and alight again. 
They liave probably never seen a white man and most likely never 
before heard a shot. On the Alligator swamps. Pigmy Geese are in 
thousands, as are in fact every other kind of Waterfowl, and their 
species are numerous. I forgot to mention the beautiful Tree Creepers 
I saw up there. Towards evening they would play in the air, having 
kind of games as it were, and so display their beautifully marked 
wings, they always appeared to me to be as looking, when gracefully 
displayed, like beautiful lace. 

Of course expeditions like these are not all " beer and skittles" 
as the saying goes, for there are humorous and sad experiences, and 
though nothing in the bird-line, I would like to give a humorous 
incident in concluding this article. Riding alongside of me was one 
of our black boys who had a smattering of English and civilisation 
— coming from Pine Creek. Having lived on hard biscuits the last 
days, my mouth was dry and very sore. To give myself relief I 
removed my top plate and the nigger saw" it. He got away f)'om 
me, fear depicted in his face. In his pigeon-English he informed 
my friend of the fact that I had removed my jaw, asking liim to 
make me do it again. I showed him, to convince him it was not 
xny jaw. Yet a few minutes later his hands went up to his teeth 
as he had seen me do it and he rattled them in the hope to remove 

136 SonietJiing about Hooded Parrakeets and other Birds. 

them ; but in vain, they would not budge ! The result was that no 
present, tobacco, knife, or anything else would tempt him to come 
near me again, and that night he deserted us. He took me to be a 
witch doctor. 

There is yet another point that might interest some of our 
members, belonging perchance to the Aquaria-keeping fraternity. 
They would find these Billabongs and small water-holes veritable 
treasure-troves. Nearly all saltwater fish may be caught in fresh- 
water, the reason is that in the rainy season these water-holes are 
connected with creeks, which in their turn join the Mary or Daly 
Rivers, emptying themselves into the sea. No doubt the fish find their 
way up, and when the floods recede must stay in enforced confine- 
ment and accustom themselves to fresh water. But it is the smaller 
species of fish, suitable for aquaria, which I want to draw attention 
to. There is one species — " Five Guns " we called them — the shape 
of a South American Chanchitos, but silver in colour, with five black 
spots on each side, lessening in size from head to tail, the adult fish 
about three inches. Then a little mud Carp, very small, between 
one and one-and-a-half inches, in colour shining all shades of the 
rainbow in the sun ; this Carp, like the Needle fish of evil remem- 
brance — which once stung by, one never forgets it — will bury itself 
in the mud and lie dormant whilst the water-hole is dry and sun- 
baked. When the rains come, up comes the fish to enjoy new life. 
And there are many more, small pied fish, greedily eating the 
breadcrumbs one feeds them with, and others striped red and blue. 
Every water- hole seems to have a gem of its own. But as this is a 
bird- journal, I will say no more about fish. 

Much to my regret, I had to leave the Territory befoi'e the 
scheduled time, for Malaria, — the curse of the tropics, — proved too 
much for me, and were it not for the recurrence, even now, of this 
awful illness, I w^ould have nothing but delightful recollections of 
what was, with that one exception, a most interesting and very 
enjoyable trip. 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

(Geocichla erythronota). 

The Celehean Ground Thrush. 137 


Geocichla erythronota (Sclater). 

This extremely handsome Ground Thrush was discovered by 
Dr. Alfred Eussell Wallace (who has only lately passed away) near 
Makassar in the island of Celebes, to which it seems to be confined, 
occurring in both the southern and the northern parts. Dr. Meyer, 
who spent some months in Celebes, in 1870 and 1871, states that 
he observed this fine species a few miles from Menado on the way 
to Lotta in February and March, at Tumumpat near Menado in 
March, and in the churchyard of the Europeans at the latter place, 
from April to July. It lives chiefly on the ground, and is very shy. 

In the Ibis of 1859, p. 113, we find the following : — "Another 
'' interesting bird in Mr. Wallace's last Macassar collection is a 
" curiously marked Thrush of the section Geocichla, allied to G. 
" interpres, of Java and Sumatra, but having the whole back as well 
" as the head chestnut-red. For this bird, of which only two examples 
" were sent, we propose the name Geocichla erythronota. From 
•' Lombok Mr. Wallace has transmitted the true Geocichla interpres." 

It seems that the female resembles the male in colour, but I 
should imagine that as in others of the group, the male would be 
distinguishable by more purity of colouring, as for instance in the 
case of the fairly well known G. citrina — the Orange-headed Ground 
Thrush ; where the back of the female is not nearly so pure a grey 
as her mate's. The adult bird has the general colour of the upper 
parts orange-chestnut; lores white; eye-stripe black; etc. I will not 
weary readers with an elaborate and detailed description, sufi&ce it 
to say that except for the forehead, crown of head, back of neck, 
back, and upper tail coverts, which are, as I have said, orange- 
chestnut, this Thrush is black and white, as seen in the illustration. 
A fine distribution and rjiixture of colouring, a bird much to be 
desired, especially if it be as melodious a songster as the Orange- 
headed. Bye-the-bye! why "orange-headed," considering the whole 
of the underparts are conspicuously that colour ? 

There is a good coloured figure of G. erythronota in Seebohm's 
'Monograph of the Turdidse " — Vol. I. It is a pity that naturalists 

138 The Lady William Cecil, 

and travellers cannot manage to write more details of the habits of 
birds than they often do. Looking through the Ihis from the years 
1859 to 1912, I can only find the Celebean Ground-Thrush little 
more than mentioned, some three or four times. Surely, Dr. Meyer, 
for instance, could have stated whether he heard this species sing, etc. 
since he observed it in more than one place, and on more than one 
occasion. It is tiring, to say the least of it, to search through 
volume after volume of some periodical, and find for one's pains — 
G. erythronota " on the page to which one has been guided, when 
the index filled one with hope ! All the more reason for one of our 
Members to try to secure this fine Ground-Thrush alive. 



By The Lady William Cecil 
(Baeoness Amherst of Hackney). 

It has often been said, and again and again repeated, that 
there are very few birds in France, and that nearly all are shot as 
game " by the sportsman who goes out walking with a small 
gun charged with small cartridges, and who " pots " every " cock- 
sparrow that sits on a twig ! " Perhaps to some extent this sweep- 
ing statement is true, for certain it is that annually hundreds, 
perhaps thousands of small birds are destroyed for mischief, fun, or 
sport, by those whose best interest it would be to preserve these 
little feathered friends," who feed on the grubs and insects, by 
which the crops are so often ruined." 

The well-to-do sportsman stalks his quarry carefully and, I 
am told, that it needs considerable skill to shoot even a Robin 
sitting on a branch in a leafy tree ? The small birds are shot sitting 
either on a tree or on the ground, very rarely on the wing. The 
peasant shoots for food, or anyhow as an addition to his frugal meals. 

A man once showed me triumphantly the result of his 
day's sport ; it consisted of two Lesser Whitethroats and a 
Sparrow. He was taking them home to be roasted for supper ! 

One evening we had driven some distance along an unfre- 
quented country road and stopped to rest in the shade of some big 

A few Bird Notes from Southern Provence. 139 

cork trees, and in the brushwood below them a little flock of Golden- 
crested Wrens were flitting about from twig to twig, seeking a 
resting-place after their long migratory flight. I pointed them out 
to our Proven9al coachman, and his remark was truly characteristic, 
" Oui, oui, Miladi, ils sont tres gentils et ils sont tr6s bons ' k la 
broche ' ? " 

Some few years ago an excellent law was passed in France, 
which to some extent protects small birds; so that now, even in 
Southern Provence, there is a "close time" for "petit gibier." Already 
there is a marked difference in the larger number of birds found in this 
neighbourhood. We also protect our own birds as much as possible 
by putting up boards with "chasse gardee " in all out-of-the-way 
places, and we rarely hear a shot fired or meet a bird-catcher on our 
land. In this rather lonely neighbourhood there are numbers of 
birds to delight us "with gay plumage and merry song." Provence 
can show many rare and interesting specimens to the bird-lover, 
who looks about him with seeing eyes. 

On the hill-sides, clothed with evergreens and aromatic 
shrubs and endless flowers, there is plenty of bird-life. Among the 
groves of olives, and in the branches of wide-spreading " umbrella " 
(stone) pines, and in the vast forests of " Maritima" and " Alleppo " 
pines, that cover the Esterels, in the wild summits and rich valleys 
of the Maures, where Spanish chestnut and other deciduous trees 
grow, and where the cork, the ilex, and the vine flourish, there 
birds are also to be found ; by the rocky, ferny banks of little 
streams, or by the reed-fringed rivers and in marshy estuaries, indeed 
everywhere from the seashore to the far-off Basse Alpes there are 
birds. Here in the mountains the Golden Eagle may be seen soaring 
far up in the blue sky, and I believe Bonelli's and the Short-toed 
Eagle, and the Booted Eagle may also be found, though I have not 
heard of their being identified. 

In the shady ravines of the fir-clad Esterels, the big " Grand 
Due " Owl blinks by day and hunts by night. The peasants say he 
can see by daylight quite as well as in the dark. The Wood Owl, 
large and fluffy, is occasionally seen, and the knowing looking Long- 
eared Owl builds in old hollow cork trees, or often in some disused 
remains of a Magpie's nest, returning year after year to the same 

140 The Lady William Cecil, 

place. In nearly every pine in the more open country the little 
"Chouette" (Scops) Owl may be heard calling in high-pitched 
voices, " ay-oo," " ay-oo," to his neighbours. On the hill-side, or 
near the cultivated farm-lands, a Hen Harrier; or the rarer Lanner 
Falcon circles and swoops, or a Sparrow Hawk hovers and drops on 
its unsuspecting prey. 

There are literally hundreds of Magpies, who chatter con- 
tinually from March to June, after that, like the good little girls in 
the nursery rhyme, they are generally " seen and not heard." The 
Chouettes too are nearly silent in the summer. 

In the mountains, Ravens croak and flap their sable wings 
and I have seen Jackdaws at Rocquebrune, but they are rare and I 
think only stragglers. 

Perhaps the most numerous of all our bird-neighbours in the 

spring and early summer are the Nightingales, from sunset to dawn, 

and often too in the daytime, they sing, and sing, and sing ; and at 

night close to our windows, 

" Philomel with melody, 
Sing in our sweet lullaby." 

sometimes so loudly, and so constantly that they keep us awake 

while they hold their concerts, and " one cannot choose but hear ! " 

I think the same pairs often return to their old nesting-places, and 

the male bird sings from the same branch to his mate as she sits 

snug on her nest in the long grass below. For several years we 

knew one Nightingale with a little " catch " in his voice, who sang 

every evening and most of the night in a tree close to the house, 

near the dining-room window. Last year he was there again, and all 

April, and for the first two weeks in May he bravely sang "' Jug, jug, 

jug ! " but finished his melody with a tiny squeak, which seemed 

more pronounced each day ; aud one morning we found him under 

the tree, quite dead ! If one may judge by claws and bill he must 

have been a very old bird. 

On opening your windows some morning in early April, you 

mav hear ' Hoo, Hoo, Hoo,' oft repeated, then you know that the 

Hoopoes have arrived, and a few minutes walk will take you to the 

tree where the first pair invariably rest on their journey from the 

South to this district. The Hoopoes stay with us all the summer, 

and if warm weather continues, sometimes to the middle of October 

A few Bird Notes from Southern Provence. 141 

They may be seen constantly fluttering among the trees, or strutting 
along the terrace walls of vine and olive yards, peeping into every 
nook and corner in their inquisitive fussy way. 

Among the elms and ilex that border the streams, and in 
shady clumps in the plain and lower hillsides, a sweet song and a 
Hash of orange colour will betray the presence of the Golden Oriole, 
who comes early and stays late, often from March to October if the 
season is mild. Eather late in the afternoon, in the middle of May, 
if you follow the road across the plain from Fregus to Les Arcs, at a 
certain bend of the road, where the telegraph wires take a short cut 
across a stretch of scanty grass-land, you will find the first flock of 
bee-eaters, arrived from Africa for their summer season in Provence, 
— a string of exquisite yellow and green jewels do they seem as they 
sit on the wire ; or more lovely still as the sunlight catches the 
emerald sheen on their backs as they hover and dart at some passing 
insect. Various sections of this same wire are popular with the 
flycatchers, too; both the Common and the Pied Flycatchers are 
met with in Provence. 

Among the low bushes that in places border the field paths 
and vineyards, the common Wren is nearly always to be found , I 
think all the year round. I have seen them in seasons as far divided 
as December, June, and September. The Golden-crested Wrens I 
mentioned before are very numerous sometimes in October and again 
in the late Spring. They seem to collect here before migration. 
I counted as many as twenty-two one afternoon during a short 
walk. There are numerous Tits, including some that are rare. 
Perhaps the most interesting is the Penduline Tit, or ' Mesange de 
Narbonne.' It is a very pretty little bird with a whitish head and 
red-brown body, black cheeks and tail and dark brown wings. It 
builds the most wonderful nest, a big round ball-like structure, which 
it hangs on a branch, something after the manner of the Mocking 
Birds. Mesanges are more plentiful in the Ehone Valley than in 
this drier district, and I have never found a nest here. 

The ' Continental ' Coal Tits are often seen ; they differ 
rather from the British species, the under parts being more buff all 
over, and the two bars on the wings more distinctly white and the 
back more slaty blue. The Great Tit and the Blue Tit are here. 

142 The Lady William Cecil, 

too, among the birds common to the South and to Great Britain. 
Another sweet little bird is the ' Scieur' {Provenqal Ion Si alia). As- 
he flies he makes a noise just like sawing with a fine saw. 

Between Fregus and the peach orchards of the Boson Valley 
the Meadow Bunting may be seen, and probably in many similar 
localities ; the French call it ' Le Bruant fou " as it is supposed to 
let itself be very easily caught. 

The Serin Finch {Le Serin vert de Provence) is found in most 
of the orchards and gardens in the neighbourhood. It is probably a- 
resident, though more numerous in the Spring. It begins to sing 
quite early in March, and is among the first to build. The nest is a 
neat and cosy little one, and is generally placed in the lower branches 
of a large tree, not in bushes or shrubs. 

The Citral Finch is found nearer the mountains, and in the 
higher hills beyond Bagnols and Fayence ; it is probably a inuch 
rarer bird here than the little Serin. 

Several Warblers are both to be seen and heard in the 
neighbourhood. ' Beccofico " is a common name given to those who 
habitually frequent the gardens and orchards along the coast and 
inland as far as the mountains. Among the rai'er ones may be found 
the Sardinian Warbler, the Olivaceous Warbler and the Spectacled 
Warbler ; the large Barred Warbler {Faiivette eperviere) has also been 
noted. The Black Caps and the Chiff Chaffs warble and twitter in 
Proven9al Gardens as they do in " Old England." 

Among other rare birds, the Eusset Wheatear is found 
occasionally in the plain of Fregus. In the meadows and in the 
valleys of the Argens, the Pedegal, the Nartoby and Verdon there 
are various Wagtails ; among them, the grey, the yellow and the 
white Wagtails. In the tall canes and reeds of the marshy parts 
of the river beds, the Moustached Sedge Warbler builds, and I 
think, in Spring and' Summer, the nest of the Great Eeed Warbler 
would probably be found. 

In the oak woods between Draguignan and Moustiers, and 

in the Maures Mountains, and other districts where there are 

deciduous trees, there are plenty of Blackbirds and Thrushes in. 

April and May : Goldfinches, Linnets, Greenfinches, and many other 

old familiar friends ' from ' Beyond the parting sea,' visit us here 

A few Bird Notes from Southern Provence. 143 

in Spring and Autumn, on their migrations south and north. The 
voice of the Cuckoo is now and then heard, and in the woods ' the 
Cuckoo's mate,' the Wryneck, feeds on the tree insects, with its long 
tongue, while sometimes the Great Spotted Woodpecker makes the 
forest resound with his hammering. There are Night-Jars too, the 
common ' Europaeus,' and also, I believe, the Eed-necked Night- 
Jar might be found ; it has been seen near Marseilles. 

Swifts circle and scream round the old tower of the Cathedral 
at Fr6gus and many another ancient building in this country-side. 
The Swallows come in the Spring time, though I believe some hardy 
birds remain here all the winter if it is fairly mild. They build 
■under our eaves and in the cloister on the north side of the house, 
and in the " Miradou " (loggia) on the south. They come in and 
out quite fearlessly, and smear the cornices in all directions with 
building material, before they fix on a suitable spot on which to 
fasten the permanent nests of the season. There are Martins, too, 
and in the mountain gorges of the Basse Alpes near Castelane, Crag 
Swallows are found. It is curious how many pure White Swallows 
breed in our neighbourhood ; year after year several nests are re- 
ported, and the young birds as well as the parents are pure white. 
This spring (1913) a pair of white Swallows built in the tower at 
St. Eaphael and hatched out four pure white nestlings. The ex- 
tremely rare Eufus Swallow has, I believe, been noted in this district. 

Another very rare bird, the ' Two-barred Crossbill,' appeared 
here only this morning (September 15th). We saw two of them (a 
pair ?) in a pine tree close to this house, and were able to observe 
them for several minutes before they Hew further afield. A few 
common Crossbills come every spring and autumn. 

Among the brushwood in the hills, and even close to the side 
of paths and far up into the Esterels, coveys of Partridges are met. 
with, and of late years, since ' game birds ' from Golden -crested 
Wrens to Golden Eagles, have been more " protected,' their numbers 
have greatly increased ; they are very tame, just rising in front of a 
pedestrian, and after flying a few yards close to the ground, they 
quickly settle again among the bushes. They are also often seen 
on the main road, in the hills, ' dusting ' in the roads, or picking 
xip tiny insects and bits of grit. 

144 Mrs. Katherine Currey, 

It is quite impossible to enumerate all the birds in a district 
so wide and so varied as this ; bounded as it is on one side by the 
sea and level plain, and more distant marsh land, and on the other 
by mountains both pine-clad and bare and interspersed by deep 
ravines, fertile valleys and grassy uplands. The gulls and other 
coast birds might be a study by themselves. They include, among 
many others, the ' Yellow-legged Mediterranean Gull,' the Audouin 
Gull and the Slender-billed Gull. One of the favourite breeding 
places of the latter used to be, and I believe still is, the mouth of 
the Rhone. In the marshy districts are various duck and also teal, 
as well as snipe. Among the rarer waders are the graceful Avocet 
and the handsome Purple Heron. 

These short notes may perhaps serve to show that the ' Fair 
land of Provence ' is not devoid of bird-life, and that any morning 
' ' When all the birds have Matin said 
And sung their Thankful Hymn ' ' 
the bird-lover or field ornithologist may sally forth armed with field- 
glass and note-book, and he will surely find much to amuse, to 
interest, and may be, to instruct him further in his favourite study. 
Lou GasUn, Valesune, Var. 


By Katharine Currey. 

There are so many instances recorded of the remarkable 
tameness of the Tit family, that now that winter has come, I 
resolved to put it to the proof by placing ground-nuts and maize and 
other ' tit-bits ' on an upstairs window-sill early in the morning, and 
waiting to see what would happen. 

The Great Tit has always been one of the most frequent of 
our winter guests, fearlessly feeding in the verandah off maize, or 
dari, or ground-nuts, which he flies off with to some good hammering 
point, such as a garden-chair or table or a forked branch, but beyond 
the verandah and into the house he has never ventured. The wee 
' Blue Bonnet ' flashes up on to the winter supply of lard and bones 
on the bird-pole, but neither he nor the Cole Tit have ever trusted 
themselves long in the verandah. 

Breakfast Guests. 14:5 

To return to the window-sill. On the first morning, when 
I put out the nuts and waited to see what would happen, the Great 
Tit appeared on an ilex tree opposite and looked and called "Weetle ! 
weetle !' There lay the ground-nuts and nobody in sight. But it 
might be a trap set by the Human Giant, whose hand he saw place 
them there. But oh! those ground-nuts ! After a bit, he made a dart, 
towards the window-sill, seized one, and whisked off with it into the 
ilex, where he fixed it into the fork of a branch and began to hammer. 
More nuts lay on the sill, and after a few minutes spent in devouring 
the first nut, he again ventured, repeating the same performance. 
Again and again he came, flying away across the garden with some,, 
to, I presume, a winter storehouse, but he managed to eat several. 
After a week, he came regularly at 6.30 for his breakfast, and brought 
his mate, who is more shy, ringing his little bell of two or three 
consecutive notes, in reality untranslatable into human language,, 
but which I can only render by the words " Pingle ! Pingle! " I have 
noticed that he has three call-notes : "Weetle ! weetle ! " " Weetle ! 
weetle! wee!" And if he wants anything, "Pingle! Pingle!" 
These sounds are of course very roughly translated. Sometimes 
the " Weetle ! Weetle ! " changes to " Weet ! Weet!" The clearness 
of sound I could only liken to a tiny bell. If his breakfast was not 
there, he fluttered before the window and called for it but he never 
calls when on the wing. Needless to say his summons was at once 
obeyed ! If hazel nuts are cracked for him, a Eobin purloins them. 
Now, after nearl^^ a month, the Great Tit waits on the ilex tree- 
regularly for the window to be opened, and even flies towards an 
outstretched hand with a ground nut on it, but has not yet ventured 
on to it. After hovering near it, he flies away again. I often wonder 
at the boldness of a tiny bird. What an amount of courage is 
required to approach a being whose ear, say, is about the size of 
one's whole person ! 

Day by day we advance further in our friendship with our 
lovely little breakfast guest, but he never fails to come at a call or 
whistle. If he sees no nuts in the original window, he flies to the 
next, and hovers before it to attract attention, and so on to a third 
window. He comes after me now in the verandah. 

146 Review. 



Mr. Stuart Baker has written exhaustively and interestingly 
in this companion volume to his work on " Indian Ducks," neither 
need he apologize for " the egoism in the whole programme." When 
a work is produced, we want just that ; the experiences, the views, 
the personal observances of the writer, rather than quotations from 
books already published. 

And Mr. Stuart Baker has been a close observer of a beautiful 
family of birds ; a good example of this being found in the chapter 
on the Bengal Green Pigeon, where the description of how he 
listened in silence to these birds' soft mellow calls amongst some 
Mango trees will appeal to aviculturists, more than to the graphic 
account of shooting them, fun though it may be for those who take 
pleasure therein ! to my mind a very selfish one ! 

There may be no danger of these Indian Pigeons, etc., going 
the way of the late Passenger Pigeon of the United States, but 
nevertheless the insatiable love of killing for mere enjoyment finds 
no sympathetic chord in one's heart. There is too much killing : 
with men, for the sport of it, with women, for the wearing of it. 
'" I have seen parties bring in over two hundred birds," Mr. Stuart 
Baker writes in a chapter on the "beautiful little" Pink-necked 
Green Pigeon. This sort of thing may be considered " sport," but 
it may also be written down as slaughter, and even butchery! 

It was Professor Osborn who himself told the writer of this 
critique that when a young man he visited a certain part of Canada, 
and found it teeming with every possible kind of game ; he some 
years afterwards, with the loonderful picture of wild life still clearly 
in his mind's eye, took members of his family to see, promising 
them something worth looking at. They arrived : the place was a 
wilderness ! Man had stepped in and had shot down everything. 
"From that moment," Professor Osborn said, "I who had delighted 
"in shooting, put away gun and rifle, and vowed never to use them 
" again." 

* Indian Pigeons and Doves, hj E. C. STUART BAKER, P.Z.S., F.L.S., etc., 

with twenty-seven coloured plates from drawings by H. Gronvold & G. E. Lodge. 

WITHERBY & Co., 326, High Holborn, London, 1913. 

Correspondence. 147 

The aviculturist will find Mr. Stuart Baker's book full of 
information, and will learn much of what has been hitherto vague. 
Enhanced as it is by fine coloured plates, the book is worthy of a 
place on the bookshelves of the ornithologist's and aviculturist's 


Some of the plates are a little wooden, but several are ex- 
cellent, notably that of the Bronze- winged or Emerald Dove (why 
not green-vfinged bye-the-bye ?) the Snow-Pigeon and the Barred 
Ground Dove. Others are very good too, but not so artistic. 

H. D. A. 



On the moat which surrounds the house, Mr. Astley has a pair of Black- 
necked Swans, ten Tufted Duck, four White-eyed Pochard, a pair of Red-Crested 
Pochard, some Shelduck, and Brown Call-Ducks. These are all becoming quite 
tame, and can come on the water so close to the house that bread can be thrown 
out of the windows to them. The moat is fed by a small stream of running 
water, and several springs, so that it is clean and clear. 

Mr. Astley hopes to obtain some Smew before long, as there are quantities 
of small dace for them to feed upon. 

The melodious whistling of the Black-necked Swans at night, under the 
windows, adds to the charm of the 14th Century house. 

All Mr. Astley's other Ducks are in a large paddock, in which there are 
springs, so that a series of small ponds have been formed. 

Here there are about 80 ducks, inclijding such species as Cinnamon, 

Falcated, Ringed, and Japanese Teal; Red-billed Tree Ducks; etc., etc. 

« « * 

An addition to Mr. Astley's collection of birds, is a pair of handsome little 

Senegal Bustards (Trachelotis senegalensis) which is about the size of a pheasant. 

The male has the head marked not at all unlike that of a male Ringed Teal, 

with the same creamy face, black crown and ring coming down round the neck. 

The body is a bright sandy chestnut, and on the throat and upper breast there 

is a patch of rich grey. The female is lighter, and whilst her eyes are pale 

yellow, her mate's are dark brown. These birds are not at all shy. 

* * * 

Two scarlet Flamingoes, from ]\Iexico, are another addition. They are 

brilliant shrimp-red : boiled shrimp, that is to say ! 

* * * 

Mr. C. BARNBY Smith would be glad to hear from any member who may 
have a practical knowledge of keeping Grebe in captivity. 


Sir, — I have read Mr. Job's article under this heading with the greatest 

interest, and I feel sure that all lovers of Waterfowl will join with me in heartily 

congratulating him on his success in what appears to have been ' ' new ground ' ' 

to him altogether. It is a great pity that he did not succeed with Scoters and 

148 Co)resj)oudence. 

Ruddy Ducks, for I feel sure it must be possible to rear them, since Mr. St. 
Quinton has succeeded with Eiders and a Harlequin, perhaps he would be good 
enough to make a few suggestions for Mr. Job to try on a future occasion. 
Personally I think he would stand a better chance if it were possible for him to 
use hens instead of incubators. I have found it perfectly hopeless to try forcing 
food down duckling's throats, they invariably throw it up. I believe if Mr. Job 
could manage to use a few hens and enclose a little pool of water and feed the 
ducklings with flies (which could be caught very easily in a butterfly net and 
quashed and sprinkled on the water) as well as prepared meal, etc., the hen 
might show them the way to feed. I should also recommend him to try chopped 
worms and maggots. I cannot see that Mr. Job used maggots at all, these could 
surely be easily procured, and I have always found them the finest food possible 
for ducklings, they wriggle and sometimes tempt ducklings who have previously 
showed no inclination to feed. Mr. Job seems surprised that Canvasbacks and 
Eedheads should do well ; they are both nearly related, I understand, to the 
Common Pochard, which in my experience is about the easiest of all ducklings 
to rear, although usually very shy. Mr. Job will find the Cinnamon Teal quite 
as easy to rear as the Blue-winged Teal; both these are great maggot fanciers. 
I cannot understand Mr. Job's statement that the young of " Gadwall and 
Baldpate are identical." In this country young Gadwalls and American Wigeon 
are no more alike than Pintail and Mallard, and I cannot believe that young 
Baldpates in America can differ greatly from young Baldpates bred in this 
country from stock originally imported from America, and it seems likely that 
the young of American and British Gadwall will be the same. 

I fully endorse Mr. Job's remarks re the difficulty of persuading various 
ducklings of different ages to live amicably, and he was lucky in that he did not 
lose more from this cause. 

With regard to transporting fresh ducks' eggs, I do not think that the one 
clutch of eggs experimented with is sufficient evidence, one can get no proof that 
they were fertile to start with ! though I acknowledge that it is extremely rare to 
take a nest of wild bred ducks' eggs which are not fertile, although I have done 
so on more than one occasion, but surely if eggs can travel from Iceland to 
England and hatch they should be able to stand the journey which those Mr. 
Job mentions were subjected to, I am not sure that his eggs did not suffer from 
too much care ! I think if the eggs were packed carefully in wood-wool and then 
left to take care of themselves, the jolting of the cars would do all the turning 
necessary. At the same time, I know that duck eggs, for some obscure reason 
will not travel so well as other eggs — Pheasants, for instance — which I have sent 
to Russia from Norfolk, and they have hatched out 76 per cent. ; these were 
packed in wood-wool (which must be absolutely dry) in baskets of 300, the baskets 
were then packed in a large wooden crate and the spaces between the baskets 
being carefully stuffed up with straw, the lid of the crate was then screwed down 
the crates started on their journey to Russia ; these eggs were certainly never 
turned on the journey ! H. WORMALD. 

Notices to Members — f Continued from page ti. of covet:) 

Mr. Taka-Tsukasa, 25 Kaniiiiibaiicho Kojiuiaclii, Tokyo, Japan. 

Lady Yule, Haiistead House, Bricket Wood, Herts. 

Mr. E. Sprankling, Brookland Cottage, vSouth Road, Taunton. 

Mr. R. J. Watts, " Wilm^r," Wiggenhall Road, Watford, Herts. 

Mr. R. P. BuFTON, "Caerlyn," Llandrindod Wells. 

Miss KeTvIvY, West Mailing, Kent. 


The Revd. Richard H. Wilmot, Bisliopstone Rectory, Hereford. 

Proposed by Mr. Hubert D. Asti^ey. 

Mr. O. J. Stone, " Cunmor," The Drive, Lawiie Park, Upper Sydenham, 
S.E. Proposed by Mr. J. C SchlutER. 

Dr. Bernard E. Potter, 58, Park Street, London, W. 

Proposed by Dr. NathanieXv Lucas. 

The Honble. Sir SchomberG McDonnell, G.C.V.O., K.C. B., Dalness, 
Taynuilt, Argyllshire. [Present Address : La Floridiaua, Naples). 

Proposed by Dr. A. G. ButlER. 

Miss O. DE Pass, 6, The Orchard, Bedford Park, London, W. 

Proposed by iMiss Alice Hutchinson. 


/ s. d. 
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month. The Council reserve the right oj refusing any advertisement 
ihey -may consider undesirable. 

For Sale. — Very fine European Crane ; ditto Central African Crowned Crane. 
In splendid order. Completely acclimatised. Price £1 each ; £\2 
the iwo. Honble. Gerald Lascelles, Lyndhurst. 

Burmese Spotted Doves [Sireptopelia ligrina). What offers } 

V. MOERSCHELL, Imperial Hotel, Malvern. 

The charge Jor members' advertisements under this heading is four 
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£,^. Finger-tame Canary-wing Parrakeets, 70/- pair. Pair Meyer's 
Parrots, Pair breeding Ceram Lories. All-green Parrakeets. Jendaya 
Nandy Conures. Cockateils. Mulicean Cockatoos. Pigmy Javan 
Cockatoos (breeding). Pair Salle's Amazons. Pair Cutthroat Ama- 
zons. Quails. Fancy Pigeons and Doves. Redhead Finches. Dwarf 

Cables and Telegrams : " Cross, Liverpool." 

National 'Phone 6491 Central. 

Avi c ultur aJ M ag a zm e . 

H. Goodchfld del. et litli. 

Huth imp , 

Cha-lcopliaps clirys ochlora.. 





Third Series.— Yo\. V.— No. 5.— All rights reserved. MARCH, 1914. 


By Miss E. Aldekson. 

There are two varieties of the Green-winged Dove that are 
commonly kept in captivity. That, figured in tlie plate, known as 
the Australian Green-winged Dove {Chalcophaps chrysochlora) and 
another, known as the Indian Green- wing {Ghalcophaps indica). 
To most bird-dealers, and indeed to many other owners of the birds, 
the two kinds are hardly distinguishable, and go by the general 
title of Green-wing. 

The price of these doves is usually about 7/6 a pair, never 
less and often more. Dr. Greene in " Notes on Cage Birds," pub- 
lished in 1899, quotes the price for the 'Australian variety at 30/- to 
40/- a pair, though in 1900 I paid 18/6 for four birds, but which 
variety these latter were I cannot remember. I noted at the time 
that the average price then was 12/6 a pair. The Green-wing is a 
dove that cannot always be had when wanted, for it does not seem 
to be imxjorted regularly all the year round, though the Indian 
variety especially, seems common enough in its native country, but 
even there it is not often seen offered for sale. 

The Green-wing seems a very long-lived bird. One of my 
four original birds only died last year, thirteen years since I bought 
him as an adult bird, and Dr. Butler mentions one (the Australian 
variety) that he kept for over twelve years. 

I have found the Green-wing a very hardy dove, though, as 
there is an exception to every rule, I have twice nearly lost birds 
through collapse from cold. In both cases the birds recovered after 

150 Miss E. Alderson, 

help had been given them, though they were almost unconscious 
when found. One bird was a young hen, not long out of the nest, 
and though she is now quite healthy and strong I shall always think 
the shock checked her growth, for she is undersized and habitually 
droops her wings. The other bird affected was one of my original 
four. I found him laid on the ground and moaning, but warmth 
and a little weak brandy and water brought him round, though for a 
day he would eat nothing. 

I have noticed this cry of distress, when ill or frightened, in 
one other dove, the Aurita, who really cries before it is hurt. If 
you only catch the bird it begins to make a sobbing cry, most 
distressing to hear. Most doves, and I think other birds too, suffer 
pain in complete silence. I shall never forget a little Dwarf Turtle 
that had injured itself most terribly on the head, and though the 
dressing I put on must have smarted very badly, the bird never 
uttered a sound, but kept quite still in my hand during the operation. 

I find the Green- winged Dove is a general favourite whenever 
any visitors — those especially who know nothing about birds — come 
to see my aviary. I have got quite used to hearing " Oh ! what are 
those green ones — that one with the red beak ? " Just as it is always 
said of my Bleeding Heart Pigeon that it really looks as if it was 
wounded ; indeed on one occasion a visitor took the heart " quite 
seriously and thought some tragedy had happened. 

The Indian Green-wing was first kept at the Zoo in 1856 and 
the Australian five years later. Both varieties were bred by Mr. 
Seth-Smith some years ago. Dr. Euss bred the Indian freely in his 
bird-room. In Dr. Greene's " Notes on Cage Birds " there is a most 
interesting account of the nesting of the Indian Green-wing in Wales 
in an unheated aviary. This pair had five young birds during the 
season, and three were reared, the other two died through falling out 
of the nest. Some of the winters these birds passed through were 
very cold, especially in 1881 when the thermometer went down to 
three degrees below zero. 

The Green-wing is an easy dove to keep. I have read of 
some being fed on maize, some on Canary seed and millet, others on 
hemp, and in each case the birds seemed to thrive and do well. My 
own birds have a choice of about six seeds — as there are other 

on Green-winged Doves. 151 

inmates in the aviary to consider — and they always seem to keep in 
good health. It is one of the great advantages of doves, they are so 
easy to provide for. 

Dr. Butler tells us hov^ an hen Green-wing that he had, picked 
up a worm and shook it to pieces, eating it all, and in a wild state 
these doves are said to be very fond of white ants. They are also 
very partial to wild strawberries, and in a lesser degree raspberries 
and blackberries. 

I had long wanted to breed the Green-wing, but never suc- 
ceeded in doing so till the year before last. The eggs, two in number, 
are very dark in colour, almost buff. My birds sat exceptionally 
well and the young when hatched I found to be the most curious 
baby doves I had ever seen, with blackish skins. Many eggs were 
laid and most of them hatched, but whether the young doves were 
more restless in the nest than most of their tribe I do not know, but 
several wei-e lost through straying to the nest side and getting caught 
in the nesting material or branches, and dying before they could be 
found or rescued. At the end of the season I had only reared three, 
they turned out to be two cocks and one hen. 

The young Green-wings were very pretty when fully feathered, 
the feathers dark blackish brown with lighter brown markings and 
iust a few bright green feathers — as if one had dropped a spot of 
metallic paint — on the back and wings. They were not at all timid 
and allowed themselves to be photographed at very close quarters. 

In Indian Doves and Pigeons " it is recorded that in a wild 
state the Green- wings' eggs have been found at an elevation of over 
4000 feet, though this height is exceptional. The nest is generally 
well concealed, and more substantial than that of most doves. It is 
■composed both of dead twigs and live ones plucked from the tree. 
The nests are mostly built in bushes at a distance of about five feet 
from the ground. The favourite breeding season is from January to 
May, according to the different locality ; there are generally two 
broods, sometimes three. In the case of my own birds in captivity 
I found that, having once started, they would go on having nest 
after nest all through the summer, and had we been more fortunate 
I ought to have had quite a small flock of young birds. 

152 On Green-ioinged Doves. 

It is a good plan to always provide a lump of rock salt 
(placed in a glazed pot to keep it clean) in every aviary. The cost is 
very slight and the salt is a valuable addition to the birds' ordinary 
diet to help to keep them' in good health. 

In India, the Green-wing much frequents the " salt-licks," 

and so well known is this fact that it has become a saying that " the 

elephant and deer like salt-licks, buffalo and gour must resort to 

them at times, but that the Emerald Dove (as the Green-wing is 

sometimes called in India) dies if it is kept from them more than a 


The Green-wing in its wild state is often seen in pairs or 

singly, though sometimes a flock of about six may be seen together, 

the flight is very strong. 

To anyone starting to keep doves, or adding a few of the 
brighter-coloured ones to a mixed collection of birds, either variety 
of Green-wing Dove will prove a very attractive addition. As a rule 
they are good-tempered compared to many doves, though occasion- 
ally one will have a sudden outbreak of spitefulness, but this fault is 
shared by many other birds besides the Green-wings. Sometimes 
indeed I have known these doves form strange attachments. I have 
a very pleasant remembrance of a little Long-tailed Tit that used to 
nestle most lovingly against his big friend, one of the Green-wings ; 
and again where a small Diamond Dove and a Green-wing were 
close companions. 

I have lost my old Green-wing hen, and do not expect ever 
to replace her, she was such a good nesting bird, but I have hopes 
of again rearing some young ones, for my young hen laid eggs and 
sat well last season. Unfortunately she was disturbed by another 
bird, but this year, under quieter surroundings, she may do better.. 

Notes on some Conures. 153 


By The Honble. Walter Eothschild, F.R.S., Ph.D., etc. 

Some few months ago a number of living Conures were 
•distributed in this country under the name of Gonums gimdlachi, 
and were said to have come from Mona Island. Upon examining 
three of these Conures I at once saw that they had nothing to do 
with Gonurus gimdlachi, whose proper name is Gonurus maugei, 
(De Souance) and whose home WAS Porto Rico, but the bird is now 
quite extinct. 

On comparing the birds with Gonurus chloroiHerus of St. 
Domingo it was at once evident that, though they agreed absolutely 
in colour, they were much smaller ; in fact they agree perfectly with 
Gonurus euops of Cuba, except that the bill is larger, being half-way 
between the bill of G. euops and G. chloropterus in size. On ques- 
tioning the vendor as to the real origin of these birds, I was 
informed they had been shipped from South America with other 
South American live stock, and having believed them to be in fact 
G. gundlachi, he assigned them as having come from Mona Island, 
the supposed home of G. gundlachi. The fact is that it is highly 
doubtful where the two wings, which form the TYPE of G. gundlachi, 
came from. Gundlach, was however on Porto Rico, and these 
wings really belong to the extinct Porto Rico Gonurus maugei. 

It is evident, therefore, that the living birds are a new race 
of the G. euops group from an unknown South American locality. 
The Mona Island bird, according to Dr. A. Wetmore, of Washington, 
is hardly if at all distinct from G. chloropterus, but as only one 
specimen could be procured on the island it might have been an 
escaped cage bird of the St. Domingo race. 

154 Mr. E. C. Stuaet Baker, 


Spilornis cheela. 
By E. C. Stuart Baker. 

In the last article I had the pleasure of writing for our 
magazine, I gave an account of one of the smallest but at the same 
time fiercest of our Indian raptores ; in the present article I deal 
with one of the largest and at the same time most easily tamed of 
the same family. 

The two birds whose life with me I am about to describe 
were brought to me as nestlings ; yellowish-white fluffy youngsters 
with pale yellow eyes, pale lead-coloured feet and bill and a gape, 
which gaped continually for food, matching the eyes in colour. 

For a day or two after they were taken from the nest they 
displayed all the ferocity of their kind and though they readily 
accepted food, struck savagely at the hand which gave it, not with 
their bills as one would have expected, but with their feet. Very 
shortly, however, they became quite reconciled to me and from- 
thenceforward I had no further difficulty with them ; they soon 
began to recognise me when I approached their basket with food, 
and hailed each visit with loud and harsh squawks of welcome. 
Their usual attitude in the basket, which took the place of their 
nest, was squatting well back on their haunches, a position which 
made them look as if they were on the point of falling backward. 
In this posture they always received their food and when they first 
came, struck out with one leg without losing their balance. When 
replete, however, they lay down full length with their heads and 
necks stretched out in front of them, their legs either both tucked 
under their bodies or one stuck out and grasping one of the small 
branches with which the basket was lined. In this position they 
lay asleep or dozing but it was a light foot which could approach 
within five yards of them without putting them on the qui vive. 
They grew with extraordinary rapidity and within a month of coming 
into my possession were almost fully fledged, though it was more 
than another month before the quills of their wings and tails had 
attained their full size. 

some Notes on Tame Serpent Eagles. 155 

They were never confined in any cage or aviary, having the 
most absolute freedom in every way, but after they were big enough 
to get about by themselves they selected a perch in my fowl house 
where they nightly roosted in perfect amity with a large assortment of 
fowls, guinea-fowls, ducks, etc. In a state of nature, these beautiful 
eagles roost at night on very lofty trees, almost invariably selecting 
one which has very dense foliage amongst which they sit and, not as 
some other eagles do, on a lofty bare branch. My birds, however, 
although there was not the slightest restriction placed upon them, 
never showed any inclination to roost on high trees and when as 
occasionally happened in my absence, they were shut out of the fowl 
house, they roosted on one of the lower boughs of some pine trees 
in my garden. 

They took a remakably long time to learn to feed themselves 
and before they had got as far as picking up their food from the 
ground were in the habit of snatching it from one another. This the 
female bird, who was very much larger than the male, soon ceased to 
tolerate, so that the male eagle then began to hunt around for and 
pick up scraps of meat for himself, after which fired with his example, 
the female also began to feed herself. It was weeks, however, before 
they relinquished all idea of being fed, and whenever food was 
brought them they would throw themselves back on their haunches 
and demand to have it given them with all the energy and noise 
they had displayed as babies. 

They were, I think, quite the most tame birds I have ever 
kept, and their kindly confiding ways were not displayed towards me 
alone but equally so to the large circle of pets which at that time 
shared my menage. Amongst other animals were four bears, three 
of whom were most estimable characters, but the fourth was quite 
the reverse and the two eagles soon learnt that whilst they could 
take any liberties they liked with the former it was advisable to give 
the latter a wide berth. For a short time the bad-tempered bear made 
life very hard for them, for although these eagles in a state of nature 
seldom visit the ground, these particular birds were very fond of 
walking about both in the verandah and also in the garden round 
about the house. This procedure the bear resented for some reason 
best known to himself and he was constantly making rushes at them, 

156 Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker, 

uttering hideous noises as he did so, most unsettling to the birds. 
It was with a sigh of content, I think, that they eventually saw him 
led away by some Nagas to form the 25^6ce cle resistance at one of 
their wedding feasts. With the other bears they were on very 
friendly terms and had regular games ; the bears, like all other 
young bears, used to have wrestling matches, two of them wrestling 
whilst the third did referee and also sometimes at critical moments 
rushed into the arena and bowled over both the contestants. The 
eagles took an intense interest in these matches, and when as often 
happened, the wrestlers suddenly stopped the match and rushed 
headlong upon the birds, they merely hopped up into the air over 
their heads and waited for the next round. My tame deer never 
really liked the eagles though they tolerated their presence, but the 
dogs, cats, and monkeys were all on good terms with them and their 
special favourites amongst these were a beautiful greyhound and 
a large civet cat. 

It was possibly because they had so many four-footed friends 
that these eagles spent so much time on the ground, but it certainly 
was a very curious sight to see these two birds following me round 
the compound on foot with the rest of my pets, only taking to wing 
when they had fallen too far behind and had to catch us up again. 
Sometimes when the stag beetles had been playing such havoc with 
my orange trees that it was necessary to take determined action 
against them the two eagles would accompany me round as I went 
from tree to tree cutting out the fat larvte from the boles and larger 
branches. Whilst the extraction was going on they would stand one 
on either side of me watching the proceedings with the most intense 
interest, getting frightfully excited when the tempting morsel came at 
last into sight. Their bushy crests were then erected to the full and 
they danced from one foot to another uttering harsh cries until one 
bird was given the grub when both subsided again with quiet 
expectation until the next lucious mouthful appeared. 

They never uttered their wild shrill calls except when soaring 
in the air, high up and often out of sight or, very rarely, when 
perched on the summit of a huge Bombax Tree which grew beside 
my garden. Sometimes very early in the morning when they were 
fastened up in the fowl-house they began their cry but it was always 

some Notes on Tavie Serpent Eagles. 157 

cut short in the middle. Later on when I had made an opening for 
them just under the roof, they got out of the fowl- house through 
this and I never again heard them call inside the house. They were 
very early retiring birds and were generally on their perch in the 
fowl-house before the fowls themselves went in to roost and after 
the window had been made for them they were always out first 
also and would soar up to great heights to gi-eet the morning sun, 
li^. ^ welcoming the first rays with their shrill notes. This call can 
be heard from an immense distance and I nearly always knew of the 
advent of my eagles, first by ear and afterwards by eye. When I 
had been away from home out in camp and was returning, the two 
birds would often spot me as they soared overhead, although they 
were quite invisible to me, and would come to meet me when I was 
within some three or four miles of the house. They would occa- 
sionally come right down, and more than once actually settled on 
my shoulder, but as a rule they came to the roadside and perched on 
some tree, from which they would take short flights from one tree 
to another as they followed me on my route home. 

I was often away from home for weeks at a time, but it 
seemed to make no difference to the eagles, and they always re- 
sumed relations exactly where we had left off. Curiously enough, 
when I went away from home they never accompanied me, though 
they so often met me on my return, and probably they ranged over 
a very restricted area for such powerful winged birds. I do not 
think I ever met them five miles from the house, so that a diameter 
of ten miles would have probably covered their special extent of 

About the same area would also seem to form the hunting 
ground of wild pairs, and in many instances it is possibly much 
smaller even than this. In North Cachar, and indeed all over 
Assam, these eagles are extraordinarily numerous, and it would be 
impossible to take a walk of 20 miles in any direction in well- wooded 
country without seeing one or more pairs. In spite of this, however, 
its nest is one of the hardest eagle's nests to find that I know of, 
and even when found it seems to be nearly always empty. The 
reason for this is probably that the birds do not lay season after 

158 Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker, 

season in the same nest like most eagles do, and also because their 
laying season extends over several months, i.e. March to August. 

With most eagles, once having found a nest, you have a 
certain yearly take of eggs, as long as you leave the second laying 
to the birds, but with the Serpent Eagles this does not hold good. 
My own birds never attempted to nest, and it is just possible that 
the larger eagles, whilst certainly taking two years, may even take 
three before they commence breeding. 

I do not know what became of my eagles eventually, but 
believe when I left North Cachar for good they were still alive and 
well, being then about twelve years old. After I had had them for 
some three years I was transferred on special duty for five months, 
and though the birds came into my compound and slept nightly in 
the fowl-house, they were certainly more like wild birds on my 
return than when I had left them, though they were just as friendly 
with me personally. Then long furlough home followed close upon 
this shorter absence, and when the man who acted for me inhos- 
pitably closed the fowl-house door upon them, the eagles appeared 
to be disheartened and took to the jungles entirely. They did not 
however desert the neighbourhood, and when eventually in 1900 1 
was transferred from North Cachar to another district in Assam, a 
pair of these fine eagles still haunted my old home in Gungoug, 
which pair the Nagas declared were my former tame birds. 

The Genus Spilornis is one which is very well represented in 
India, there being at least three species, and yet other sub-species 
to be found within its limits. These are as follows : — 

Spilornis cheela cheela, the largest form found in India 
proper, ranging throughout Central India, extending well into the 
West and North West, and again throughout Southern India 
both in the West and East. 

In the North East of India and thence into Burmah, Yunnan, 
Northern Shan States etc., its place is taken by Eutherford's 
Serpent Eagle {Sjnlornis cheela rutherfordi) distinguished by its 
smaller size and more barred under plumage. 

Smaller races yet again in davisoni and pallidus are found far 
South in the Malay Peninsular and Archipelago, whilst in Southern 
India, breeding in a part of the same area as that occupied by the 

some Notes on Tame Serpent Eagles. 169 

Crested Serpent Eagle, is to be found a much smaller bird known as 
alhidus, to which must be given the rank of a species. 

In the Andamans, yet another species is found, the Andaman 
Serpent Eagle (S. elgini elgini), whose place is taken in the Nicobars 
by a very closely allied form S. elgini minimus, a very small bird, 
with a wing of only 11 — 12 inches or about two-thirds the size of 
the big Indian bird. 

The Crested Serpent Eagles are amongst the most handsome 
of the Eaptores ; the plumage itself is very handsomely barred and 
spotted, and all the species are provided with a magnificent erectile 
crest of black and white feathers which is very thick and full. 
The eyes are a brilliant golden yellow and the cere and gape are 
also a bright lemon yellow ; these colours against the dark plumage 
having a very striking effect. 

As its trivial name shows, this bird in a state of nature is 
very largely a snake-eater, and every individual must destroy yearly 
hundreds of these reptiles. Its mode of attack appears to be to 
descend on the ground, sometimes striking at and disabling its 
quarry as it descends, but more often knocking the snake down 
with its wings after it has settled, and the snake erects itself to 
attack. I once came on an eagle attacking a large cobra which it 
was buffetting furiously with its wings. I did not see the commence- 
ment of the attack, and the grass in which it was carried on 
prevented a very good view of what was happening, but the only 
weapon used by the bird, as far as could be seen, were the wings, 
still when I examined the snake I found its head and neck had been 
badly torn, so that probably the eagle had struck with its talons as 
well. They will occasionally stoop at jungle fowl, pheasants, and 
partridge, but they do not seem to be very successful at such quarry, 
and after snakes, lizards, frogs and small water birds would appear 
to form their principal diet. 

They are bold birds, but vary very much in temperament 
individually, and whilst some will defend their nest, eggs or young 
with the greatest bravery, others will flop away from their nests 
when these latter are rifled without any attempt to resent the 

160 Mr. Hubert D. Astley, 


Glangula glaucion. 

The Golden-eye is one of the most handsome of British 
Ducks. Like the Scaup, it is only a winter visitor, but frequents 
inland waters as well as the coast, whilst the Scaup prefers the 
latter. On the Continent the Golden-eye breeds as far South as 
Germany, Switzerland, and Bohemia. 

It is curious that the adult males are so seldom seen in 
England. As to whether this species has ever bred in Scotland, 
seems to be doubtful, but Mr. A. G. More stated that a pair nested 
in the hollow of an old larch tree at Loch Assyn — that is talking of 
about 50 years ago — and that the nest with the young birds was 
found by a shepherd. In Shetland also, a female with young 
ones has been seen. 

In Finland, Sweden, and Norway, it nests not infrequently in 
boxes hung up in trees by the peasants. 

The display of the males is worth seeing, the feathers of the 
cheeks and crest being erected so as to enlarge the appearance of the 
head ; then the birds spring forwards, elevating the breast, after 
which the neck is stretched out, and the bill pointing upwards is 
opened, a rasping note being emitted. The head is then quickly 
jerked back until it almost touches the root of the tail, and as 
quickly brought to its normal position, whilst the bird springs for- 
ward, kicking the water in a spurt, and displaying the orange legs. 

It is said that one male Golden-eye will drive away another 
by diving and attacking his rival beneath the water. This sounds 
effective, after the manner of a submarine. 

I kept a pair of Golden-eye for some years on a lake (at 
Benham Valence), in which was an island, with plenty of hollow 
logs lying about beneath the trees. I was assured by the keeper 
who fed the ducks that the female Golden-eye had laid four eggs in 
one of these logs, and had been seen coming out ; but I was away 
at the time, and unable to verify the statement. If males were 
pinioned, and females turned down with cut flights, one would think 
that on growing them afresh, they ought to remain with their mates 





The British Shelduck. 161 

and nest in hollow logs placed among neighbouring trees, overhang- 
ing the water. Mr. F. E. Blaauw succeeded with them, when both 
parents were, I imagine, pinioned ; but the female did not hatch her 
own eggs, after having laid them in two boxes placed on poles in the 
water, [c.f. Avic. Mag., Vol. VII., p. 37]. 

The Golden-eyes are splendid divers, and the male with his 
head of glossy dark green, his bright yellow eye, black and white 
plumage and orange legs and feet is a conspicuous bird in a collection 
of ducks. 

=;; * ;;; 


Tadorna coniuta. 

If these birds were imported from some far-off part of the 
world for the first time, duck fanciers would tumble over each other 
to obtain them, for there is no duck more strikingly handsome. 
Moreover they become exceedingly tame, but are inclined to be very 

The male is easily distinguished from the female, being a good 
size larger, and his colouring more brilliantly and definitely defined. 
The crimson knob too of the male (especially in the spring time) 
is very much larger and more vivid in colouring. 

As with other ducks, and geese too, the voices of the sexes 
differ, the female Shelduck emits a distinct quack,' as well as a sort 
of bark, whilst the drake's notes are more whistling, and in the 
breeding season they take the form of a clear rapidly-repeated trill. 

Shelducks are known as Burrow Ducks, from their almost 
invariable habit of nesting in burrows near the sea ; although they 
do sometimes lay their eggs under bushes, and amongst bracken, if 
the coast is too rocky and shingly for them to burrow. They will 
also resort to rabbit-warrens which are not far from the sea. 

On Wolferton Heath in Norfolk, the old birds will pass 
through the village street with their young ones en route for the 
sea-coast, where several broods collect together. Shelduck take two, 
if not three years to fully mature. 

They are not naturally divers, but can do so when playing on 
the water, or in the event of escaping from a Peregrine. 

162 Dr. L. Lovell-Keays, 

The Shelduck is a link between the ducks and the geese, and 
the handsome New Zealand Shelduck has a very goose-like appear- 


By Dr. L. Lovell-Keays. 

I thought perhaps the following notes might be of interest to 
readers of the Avictilhiral Magazine, as show^ing the great difficulty 
in sexing these beautiful little parrots. 

I had two pairs of these birds : one in an outdoor quite 
unprotected aviary, and the other, a more recent addition, in my 
new covered shelter flight. The former I got from Mr. Fockelmann 
in June, 1913, and they very soon went to nest. The birds were 
as like as two peas, but the cock (?) was a shade larger and the beak 
a little fuller. I could detect little or no difference in colouration 
or the size of the white circumorbital ring. The first clutch of eggs 
proved infertile, and I came to the conclusion I had two hens. 
However, no sooner had I come to this conclusion and advertised 
for a cock than to my joy I found them pairing one day. This was 
the first occasion I had noticed any amativeness on the part of 
either bird. However, I had noticed that only one bird carried 
nesting material, and the whole time this bird sat, the other (which 
of course subsequently proved to be the cock) took no notice of his 
persevering wife. The hen bird carried nesting material in her beak. 
My Madagascar Love-birds appeared to carry nesting material under 
the wing and tucked very closely in the rump feathers. 

For weeks nothing happened with the second clutch, and as 
later the hen left the nest fairly frequently I took the nesting barrel 
down, but could see no sign of life, nor did I ever hear young birds. 
However, the hen bird so frequently visited the shelter that I felt 
convinced there was something there, and later on I again took the 
nesting barrel down and saw three young birds fully fledged. 
Whether the cock fed the young I cannot say ; the two birds 
are so exactly alike that no casual observer could tell them apart, 
and it is only when sitting next each other I can tell them even 

on Sexing Black-cheeked Love-Birds. 163 

to-day. At the time when I still doubted that I had a true pair, I 
bespoke a pair from Mr. Frost. They duly came to hand last 
November and I noticed one had a slight bald patch on the head, 
quite slight and over one eye. That bird was by far the larger 
bird. The circumorbital rings were noticeably larger and the beak 
fuller and larger and the colour rather brighter than in the smaller 
bird. To sex these birds was easy. Eggs had already been laid 
before they came to me, and on turning them into a small aviary 
with a pair of Guiana Love-birds and other species they quickly settled 
down and went to nest. But alas ! one morning, on going to feed the 
birds, I found the " cock " bird in one corner with the crown of the 
head bleeding and featherless. As I had frequently detected the 
Guianas fighting with the Black-cheeks the case seemed clear. I 
caught the " cock " up easily enough. The hen was sitting in the 
barrel, incubating. In trying to catch her she escaped and I detected 
three eggs. However, she did not return to the nest, so I caught 
her up and caged the two together, having first given the wounded 
bird a good roasting, the sovereign remedy, as Lord Tavistock points 
out, for all sick birds. In two or three days an egg was laid, and 
In a couple of days after that I turned the birds into another aviary 
with a covered inner flight. They quickly settled down again and the 
hen bird was very busy carrying nesting material and spent much 
time in the outer flight when the birds were let out. I thought it odd 
the cock bird did not appear more often, but put it down to timidity 
and to the fact that it had been almost scalped. But he often did 
appear and even carried nesting material at times. Things went 
well for quite a while, but on December 29th I went to look at my 
birds at night and found the cock bird with his scalp quite raw 
again, evidently from recent injury and as dead as a door nail. 
I was perplexed. On picking it up and examining it, I found to 
my utter astonishment the bird was no cock but a hen, and died 
from egg-binding. There had been a sudden cold snap and no doubt 
that caused it. My theory is that the pain caused the bird to rub 
its head on the roof of the nesting barrel or against a tree trunk and 
was not caused by another bird at all, as the scalp wound did not 
appear to be caused by another parrakeet's beak. If I had only 
searched more carefully night and morning, before it was too late. 

164 Mr. P. F. M. Galloway, 

I might have found the bird ahve, roasted it up again, and if it had 
laid an egg my experience would have been bought w^ithout losing 
my bird. I must say that this is the greatest surprise in aviculture 
I have yet experienced, and Lreproach myself bitterly for not having 
diagnosed the cause of the first illness, and I write this note in the 
hope that it may save somebody else from falling into so blame- 
worthy an oversight as to omit to thoroughly examine a sick bird 
no matter how apparent the malady or injury. I may add that I 
have no doubt that the birds were a true pair and both were adult 


Locustella noevia. 
By P. F. M. Galloway. 

This species is always a scarce one, and has been so ever 
since I can remember. It is certainly not through the egg collector, 
for the nest is one of, if not the most difficult to find. I have only 
found the nest of this species once, and if it had not been that I saw 
what I took to be a mouse run along the ground from my foot, 
which I found was almost on top of the nest of eggs, I do not 
suppose for a moment that I should have found it then. I am 
certain that the reason why this bird is rather scarce is through the 
nest being right on the ground, the eggs and young are destroyed 
by mice and other vermin. 

When this bird first arrives, which is generally about the 
10th of April, it may be found in very unusual situations. I have 
seen it in a thin piece of hedgerow beside a main road, close to 
Caversham, Oxon., where people were passing to and fro at short 
intervals, and I got within almost arms length of him, so near that I 
could plainly see his throat moving whilst he was reeling loudly. 

During the severe snowstorm, on the 25th of April, about 
four years ago, I saw one come out of a tuft of grass on a bank and 
flutter across the snow on the road and go down into a garden on 
the opposite side, in fact it practically tumbled down into the garden, 
for it was numbed with cold and half-starved, and I should doubt if 
it lived through the night. 

on the Grasshopper Warbler. 165 

These birds soon find their way to a common of furze and 
heather, or to a reed or sedge bed by the river ; these seem to be the 
favourite liaunts of this species. 

I have seen it stated in books, when writing of the Grass- 
hopper Warbler, that this bird is so shy that it is impossible to get 
a glimpse of it, and that it will even run out to the end 6f a bough, 
deliver its song and return to its cover at once ; all I can say is 
that the habits of these birds have wonderfully altered since these 
books were written. If one knows the habits of the bird and is 
careful to step quietly, one can come right up to within a few 
yards of it and watch it, but anything like snapping of sticks or 
brushwood under the feet and the bird will turn and run down a 
stick to the undergrowth below the bush just like a mouse, and 
after a short time, if all is quiet, will work its way up to the same 
place and almost onto the same twig an I commence reeling again. 
I have had these birds run almost over my feet. I once stood on a 
common about sunset, quite close to whore the bird was, and two 
of them came running after each other round and round me, my 
foot was not more than three inches off the rabbit run which these 
birds were using and I bent down and watched them pass my foot, 
round they would go behind me and then run past my foot again and 
again, taking not the slightest notice of me and reeling loudly all 
the time and carrying their wings up over their back, after the 
fashion of a Plover when first alighting on the ground. They were 
evidently two male birds. 

From the time this species arrives, and up to about the end 
of the first week in May, it can be heard at intervals throughout 
the day, but after this time not a sound can be heard all day until 
after sunset, and often not until nearly nine o'clock at night and 
again just at sunrise. 

The note is very difficult to imitate ; the noise made by a 
new free wheel of a bicycle does not quite do it, the nearest approach 
to it is to pull out evenly and continually the fishing line attached 
to a check reel on a fishing rod. 

The Grasshopper Warbler in captivity soon becomes very 
tame. The gait of this bird is unlike any other small insectivorous 
bird, it can run fairly fast, seldom hops, and when walking slowly, 

166 On the Grasshopper Warbler. 

it walks in a proud manner after the style of a game bantam cock, 
picking its feet up well and putting them down carefully, and has 
occasionally a peculiar habit of stepping backwards a couple of steps 
or so, and with its tail often spread out fan-shaped. When reeling, 
the tail is generally dropped and is then closed and pointed. 

Some years ago I was anxious to have some young of this 
species and I had a clutch of fresh eggs sent me by post, six in 
number. The difficulty was to find a suitable wild bird's nest with 
eggs freshly laid in which to exchange the eggs. It would have 
been useless to place the eggs in an open nest on account of the 
difference in the colour of these eggs, which are a beautiful pink tint, 
and the fine spots on them look as if the eggs had been sprinkled 
with cayenne pepper. I found a ChilTchaffs nest, built a foot off 
the ground, and being an oval nest with hole at side, the Grass- 
hopper Warbler's eggs were in shadow as it were and the Chiffchaffs 
would take no notice of the exchanged eggs. The birds incubated 
them straight away and hatched five, the other egg being addled. 
As soon as the young Grasshoppers began feathering I found 
one missing from the nest, and the next day another was gone, 
leaving only three ; vermin had found them out, probably mice, 
and the other three would have been destroyed, the same thing 
would have occurred to her own young if she had not had the eggs 
exchanged. Finding that vermin were certain to destroy the re- 
maining three, I took these and the pair of Chiffchaffs and placed 
them in a large cage fitted up with ivy and boughs. I provided the 
old birds with smooth green caterpillars, various other insects and 
fresh live ants' eggs ; the result was that they fed themselves and 
reared the young without the slightest trouble from the moment 
they were placed in their cage. 

I fancy the young were two cocks and one hen, but it is 
difficult to tell for certain except by the size, as the young males do 
not assume their necklace of tiny black Thrush-like spots on the 
throat until after their second moult. 



Aviculture at the Amsterdmn Zoological Gardens. 167 


By Graham Eenshaw, M.B. 

Amongst recent improvements in aviculture, a prominent place 
must be assigned to the handsome installations of the Amsterdam 
Zoological Society — better known as the " Artis," from its famous 
motto " Natura Artis Magistra." When the writer visited the col- 
lection some years ago, the smaller birds were well displayed in 
roomy cages and aviaries : to-day they are lodged in a veritable 


The new Bird House is a magnificent structure, with its 

handsome, lofty outdoor aviaries, well provided with perching 
accommodation, well planted with growing shrubs, w^ell stocked 
with healthy birds. Inside one stammers with admiration at the 
line spacious hall, reminding one of the buildings in the New York 
Zoological Park. Quite odourless, the Bird House at Amsterdam 
presents internally a double row of cages, the larger of these being 
practically aviaries. These large cages have impervious concrete 
floors, and are enclosed by diamond-meshed netting. The house is 
flooded with light through the roof, and in winter is heated by neat, 
compact installations of hot-water pipes. Large palms planted in 
tubs add to the pleasing appearance 6i the building. The floor is 
laid with tiles in tasteful patterns, and the house painted through- 
out in an unobtrusive colour scheme of cream and buff. The bird 
house is continuous with an equally fine monkey-house : in the roof 
will be noticed the famous Falconnier bricks, made of glass and each 
■containing a vacuum. In the outside aviaries, at the time of the 
writer's visit, there was a fine laburnum tree which had begun to 
grow through the roof. 

Many of the labels in the Bird House exhibit pictures of the 
birds, excellently done in oils. In the larger cages several species 
are kept together. Amongst the more notable exhibits may be 
mentioned : a Cuban Thrush {Mimocichla rubripes), a Himalayan 
White-collared Ouzel {Merula albocincta), Temminck's Himalayan 
Thrush {Myiophoneus temminckii) , Andaman Starling {Spodiopsar 
andamanensis) , Pagoda Starling {Temenuchus pagodarum), Malabar 

168 Avictdture at the Amsterdam Zoological Gardens. 

Starling {Spodiopsar malabaricus) . The building contains two 
especially rare birds — the Rhinoceros Hornbill {Buceros rhinoceros) 
from Sumatra, and the Red-billed Hornbill {Lophoceros erijthro- 
rhynchus) from Africa. The Cape Masked Doves {CEna capensis) at 
Amsterdam are very lovely ; the grey portions of their plumage 
exquisitely tinged w^ith blue. Then, again, there is a fine brilliant 
Gallinule (Porphri/riola martinica), a Drongo {Dissemuriis paradiseus). 
Red-cheeked Mouse-bird (Colius erythromelon) , Bell-bird {Chasmo- 
rhyncha nudicollis), together with various Troupials, Jays, Toucans 
and Pigeons. Both common and Victoria Crowned Pigeons are very 
well represented : the booming note of these birds reminds one of 
Bougainville's sailors. When these heroes first landed in New 
Guinea they fled in terror from the concealed pigeons, mistaking 
their booming cry for the signals of ambushed savages ! 

The small cages on the opposite side of the Bird House 
contain much of interest. There is exhibited in this series : (l) a 
Senegal Parrot, (2) a species of Pionus (Pionus menstruus), f3) a very 
fine male Lesser Bird of Paradise, (4) a Timneh Parrot {Psittacus 
timneh) (5) a Black-headed Siskin {Chrysomitris magellanica), (6) a 
Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis vasa), (7) an Eclectics {Eclectus pectoralis) ,. 
and (Q) a very good pair of Dinemellia dinemelli, the species well 
termed by Sir Harry Johnston " the King of the Sparrows." The 
series also contains the Paradise Whydah, Pintailed Whydah, Laven- 
der Finch, Scarlet Tanager, Purple-capped Lory, and other well- 
known birds. 

Amsterdam is justly famous for its rich exhibit of Storks and 
Cranes and Herons. This delightful installation consists of a neat, 
double row of tiny houses, each with a little yard in front of it, 
through which flows a stream of water. The shelter houses are 
beautifully finished, almost like doll's houses with their doors and 
windows. It is charming to stand at one end of the avenue viewing 
this bird town and its inhabitants, so well set off by the rich greenery 
in the background. Amongst the exhibits may be mentioned : the 
Australian Crane, Stanley Crane, White-necked Crane, Common 
Crane, Demoiselle Crane, Goliath Heron, Adjutant or Marabout, 
Malacca Heron, African Tantalus, Indian Tantalus — and so forth. 

Then, again, the Cassowaries are pleasingly located in a series 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Gr-aham Renshaw photo. 


Cage in the old Bird Gallery. 

(Showing method of exhibiting the Lesser Paradise Bird.) 

Nutcracker versus Chough. 169 

of neat shelter-houses, almost like sentry-boxes, with ample yards 
for exercise. The fine mass of vegetation adjoining the yards, with 
the great birds running about and playing, almost suggests a forest 
scene in New Guinea ! It is amusing, too, to see the domestic fowls 
walking unconcernedly about the feet of the Cassowaries, who do 
them no harm. There are also tine pheasantries ; a very pretty Ibis 
aviary ; and a big enclosure for water-birds extending across the 


An Episode at the Zoological Gardens, London. 

By Miss Lilian M. Medland, F.Z.S. 

I witnessed a very amusing and interesting incident at the 
Zoological Gardens the other day, between the Nutcracker {N. 
caryocatactes) and the Chough (P. graculus). 1 offered the Chough 
a grape to see what he would do with it. He took it, promptly laid 
it on the ground, dug a shallow hole with his bill, placed the grape 
therein and covered it up, as a dog will bury a bone or biscuit for 
which he has no immediate need. He came back quickly for 
another grape, which he took to the same place, dug up the first one, 
and taking both grapes in his bill, carried them to another spot and 
buried them together. He came back a third time, took a grape and 
hurried back to the other two, dug them up again and proceeded to 
try and carry all three in his bill. He picked two up, and in trying 
to get the third one, dropped one of the others. This went on for 
several moments, and after a successful bit of juggling he managed 
it, and took the three grapes to a place about three yards away 
under the bushes, scraped a hole and buried all three grapes together 
and carefully covered them up. Again he returned to me, and 
immediately his back was turned, the Nutcracker, evidently with 
evil intention in his mind, hurried to the hidden grapes, unearthed 
them and took one away and buried it in a spot far removed from 
the others and remained there on guard, with his back turned to the 
Chough, who meanwhile had found the uncovered grapes which the 
Nutcracker had left. The Chough, with his fourth grape which he 

170 Nutcracker versus Chough. 

laid with the others, again covered them up and came back to me 
for another. Immediately the Nutcracker, who had been watching 
his opportunity, hurried along to the Chough's hidden treasure and 
dug it up again, captured another grape and came back and hid it 
with the first theft. 

Tlie Chough began to notice something amiss by this time, 
and the fifth and sixth grapes he hid in different places and covered 
them up with some leaves which were lying under the bush. He 
then unearthed the first lot of grapes, minus two which the Nut- 
cracker had appropriated, and hid them in fresh places. He came 
back to me and finding that I was not going to give him any more, 
went back to the bush, carefully looked around and walked into the 
sleeping-place at the back. The Nutcracker watched him out of the 
back of his head apparently, and as soon as the Chough was out of 
sight ran up to the bush and commenced digging it up all round. 
The Chough came out again and the Nutcracker ceased his nefarious 
task and deliberately turned his back on the Chough, and one could 
see as plainly as possible that he was trying his utmost to annoy 
the Chough without being detected. The Chough then came back 
to the first patch of ground and turned it all over to see if he had 
overlooked any grapes, or to find out where the missing ones had 
gone to. Meanwhile the Nutcracker had found one of the hidden 
grapes and took it a couple of feet away, dug a hole and covered it 
with five or six leaves which had fallen from the bush. The two 
birds never attempted to disagree, and in fact held no converse, as it 
were, with one another at all. The Nutcracker assuming a non- 
chalent air the whole time, succeeded admirably in nonplussing the 
poor harrassed, but persevering. Chough. 

At this moment the keeper arrived to put them to bed, thus 
closing this decidedly amusing and certainly instructive incident. 
It showed perseverance on one side, and perhaps the mischievious 
qualities on the other side. 

Notes on WIS. 171 

NOTES ON 1913. 

By Miss E. Alderson. 

It seems rather late to write notes on last year, but with the 
task of arranging the birds for the season of 1914, one's thoughts 
fly backwards to the past summer, and how certain birds failed and 
others were a success, and what mistakes are to be avoided in 
arranging the birds afresh. 

For when a separate aviary cannot be given to each pair of 
birds so much depends on whether the inmates will live happily 
together. If they will there is some hope of a smooth nesting 
season, but where they disagree it is impossible for the young birds 
to have the care and attention they need if they are to thrive. I 
have even known one instance of doves molesting the young one of 
another pair with whom they had disagreed ; the poor little thing 
was defenceless, and when found was so injured that it died. 

So it is as well, when arranging for a coming season, to think 
over the past one with a view to making any changes needed, but if 
you have found several pairs of doves that will be friendly together 
it is far wiser to let them alone, and to neither increase nor decrease 
their number. No set rule may be given about any one variety of 
dove ; it is more the individual character of the bird that determines 
the question. I cannot claim to keep- regular notes on my birds, 
though I feel that it is what everyone who keep any ought to do. 
Such notes as the date the bird was acquired, its price, late owner, 
and all nesting notes especially, would make an interesting after- 
record, not only to the owner of the bird, but to others also. 

My largest aviary has seven divisions. Five of these are 
practically the same size — 7ft. by 16ft. — and are divided into shelter 
and flight. The doors of the shelter always stand open, and a 
passage running at the back of the aviary is heated by a coke and 
gas stove. I will take the compartments as they come. 

No. 1 Division :— 1 pair of Diamond Doves ; 1 pair of Brush 
Bronze- wing Doves ; 1 pair of Violet (or White-fronted) Doves. 

In 1912 I tried keeping two pairs of Diamond Doves together 
in this house, but it did not answer. Both pair of birds wanted the 

172 Miss E. Alderson, 

same side of the house to nest on, and though they did not fight it 
ended in hopeless confusion, and only four young birds were reared 
altogether by the two pairs. I found that eggs were laid in the nest, 
then more material added, then eggs laid again, and which pair of 
birds they belonged to would be difficult to say ; I can hardly think 
they were all laid by one hen. 

This last season the pair have reared five fine young ones : 
two others died, one when in adult plumage, the other a late-hatched 
bird that seemed to feel the cold, so T put it in a cage near the stove 
in the passage. It did not occur to me at the time, but I think the 
bird's death was hastened through the fuel I was using giving off 
gas fumes. Now I am using another kind, and, though much more 
expensive, it is far more satisfactory and gives off a clean heat with 
little smoke. 

I left all my five young Diamond Doves in with their parents 
till the end of the season, and they were a very happy little flock 
together. There was such continual nesting going on in the house 
that it was almost impossible to at any time do any catching up 
without the risk of disturbing some sitting bird or young ones still 
in the nest. 

I find in every house where more than one pair of nesting 
birds is kept there is this difficulty, and if the young birds have to 
be left in, room must be allowed for them even if the aviary looks 
only half full at the beginning of the season. 

The cock Brush Bronzewing in this house is the survivor of 
my first pair of this dove. I have had him a number of years, but 
he shows no sign of age. The hen is a young bird about three 
years old. I am always specially interested in her because she was 
hand-reared by me from the egg till she was about a fortnight old, 
but her earlier destiny has nothing to do with these notes, which 
only concern her as she is now, a very shapely bird, though smaller 
than some hens I have had. 

This hen laid several eggs during the season, but only one 
young bird was reared. It turned out to' be a hen, and did very 
well and is now as large as its mother, but I have never seen a 
hen with such a large round head. The shape is entirely different 
to that of most Brush Bronze-wings, and I am curious to see how 

Notes on 1913. 173 

the bird turns out. At present all three birds are still together and 
agree perfectly. 

The Violet Doves have done nothing. Early in the summer 
I had a third bird (a cock) in the aviary, but I took him away as the 
other two seemed inclined to nest. They now and then sat in one 
of the nest-baskets but that was all. I have never reared any 
Violet Doves since 1903, and these two birds are not my original 
breeding pair. I have kept a good many of this dove at different 
times, but have never found they nested very readily, save the one 
pair I once had. The Violet is one of the most beautiful doves 
imported, and I shall never forget what a pretty sight a flock of 
fourteen were when altogether, just as they were sent to me from 
Jamaica by a friend. ;ic :;: ^,c 

In No. 2 Division I have : 1 pair of Bronze-wing Pigeons, 
1 pair of Diamond Doves ; 1 pair of Senegal Doves ; 1 cock Eufous 


The Bronze-wings were both adult when they came to me, 

and I have had them over ten years. They still show no sign of 
age, but the cock is quite blind on one side from an injury done 
before he came to me. Besides rather spoiling his beauty, it makes 
him somewhat clumsy on the nest with eggs or young birds, 
though he is very steady when sitting, and a good parent. 

When first this pair of Bronze-wings came to me, I also 
bought at the same time, and from the same owner, a second cock, 
a very fine bird. I gave the hen her choice, and without hesitation 
she choose the blind bird, and they have been a devoted couple ever 
since. I have watched the hen showing off to the cock, spreading 
her gorgeous metallic wing to attract his notice, and giving him 
affectionate little dabs with her beak, which I suppose in the bird 
world we may look upon as kisses. The cock took it all very 
quietly, but no doubt he was pleased with such flattering attention. 

These Bronze-wings have reared many young ones, but I 
almost thought they were too old to nest, though the hen laid eggs 
and both birds would sit. To my surprise this year they reared a 
very fine well-coloured cock bird. It was very strong and grew 
very fast, perhaps being a single bird it got extra attention from 
its parents. 

174 Miss E. Aldeeson, 

The Diamond Doves in this house reared three young ones. 
A further pair — very late hatched — died of cold when out of the 
nest. I had put them up a shelter and a good bed of hay, as I do 
for all young doves just out (as it is seldom a young dove returns to 
the nest, and as a rule it still needs warmth and protection) and in 
the morning they were all right. Unfortunately they strayed away 
and got on the cold cement floor and one was found dead, the other 
cold and unconscious. Warmth and patience revived it, and I took 
it in the house and hand-reared it for some days. The little bird was 
easy to feed, with a shaped quill tooth-pick, on soaked small seeds. 
It was so tame, and loved to sit nestling on my finger before the 
warm fire, and as it grew and the plumage began to mature, I began 
to hope I should rear it, and pictured what a nice tame pet it would 
make. But my hopes came to nothing. One day my fox-terrier 
puppy got to the cage through someone leaving the room door open, 
and though he could not get to the bird, he upset the cage and I 
have no doubt gave the poor Diamond a bad shock and bruised it. 
I do not know whether it was this or not, but the bird began to 
get weaker and in a few days died. 

The pair of Senegal Doves had five young ones, but one died 
when full grown. The old birds hardly ever stop nesting all through 
the summer, and would go on all through the year if allowed. They 
seem to come off the eggs frequently, and yet they always hatch 
and the young are generally reared. When I first had these Senegals 
I was in despair with them because they would not brood their 
young ones properly, and time after time the poor little things died 
of cold, now I never have any trouble, for the old birds seem to have 
learnt wisdom as they grew older. 

The Eufous Dove cock in this division I have had eleven 
years, and being an imported bird I do not know his age when he 
came to me. His mate died some years ago, and he is too old now 
even to fly, but he enjoys his life in a quiet way for none of the 
other doves molest him. The two Rufous Doves were almost the 
nicest and gentlest doves I have ever kept, and perfect parents to 
the many young ones they reared whilst the hen lived. 

Notes on 1918. 175 

In No 3 Division I had— for it is re-arranged now — 1 pair 
of Brush Bronze-wings ; 1 pair of Diamond Doves ; 1 hen SoHtary 
Ground Dove. 

Tliese Brusli Bronze-wings I have liad for several years and 

I used to consider them a good nesting pair, but latterly they have 

done very badly, and this year did not rear a single young one. 

They make nests and the hen lays many eggs, but the birds either 

will not sit out their time, or else they let the young ones die when 

a day or two old. Now and then I find several eggs laid in one nest 

and the birds not sitting at all. I have tried to hatch the eggs under 

Barbary Doves but without success, though the eggs are generally 


It is the more disappointing as in their earlier years — in the 

same aviary — these Brush Bronze- wings used to rear such fine 

young birds. 

The Diamond Doves in this house did the worst of all my 
four nesting pairs. They only reared two young ones : the hen was 
shy and would often leave the nest, though I think she generally 
returned to it later. 

The hen Solitary Ground Dove I have had eleven years. I 
put her into this aviary in the summer because she was being 
tormented by other birds in the next division and I was forced to 
move her, though I very much dislike' altering the arrangement of 
the birds when once the season has started. The Bronze- wings did 
not at first care for the Solitary hen, but finally settled down. I 
have, however, had to move her again just recently, as I found her 
one day wdth her feathers plucked and only the Bronze-wings could 
be the culprits. 

The hen Solitary Ground Dove is a very rare Dove. I only 
once remember seeing some ofi'ered for sale. This hen I bought for 
5/-, she being offered me at that price as a rough plumaged unknown 
Dove and I did not know at the time what she was. My delight at 
getting her was great and as I had already a cock — bought under a 
wrong name. They nested, but I only once reared one bird to full 
maturity. '' 

No. 4 Division contained : 1 pair of Green-winged Doves : 
a hen Madagascar Dove ; 2 cock Spotted Pigeons. 

176 Notes on 1913. 

In this house I bred nothing all through the summer. The 
Green-wings made several nests, and some of the eggs were hatched 
but no young ones reared. 

The Green-wing eggs are so deep a cream as to be almost 
buff, the young birds have very dark, blackish skins, making them 
look like little negro birds I always think, and such a contrast to 
the young White Java Doves w^hose bodies are a soft clear pink with 
no down on at all, almost like baby mice. The hen Green- wing is a 
bird I bred some years ago, at a time when I reared several. She 
nearly died of cold after she left the nest and I think this gave her a 
check and caused her to be rather undersized, but she is a healthy 
little bird all the same. 

I was rather sorry for the Green-wings, because one of the 
Spotted Pigeons took a fancy to their nesting basket and persisted 
in sitting in it. Often when I have come in the house I have seen 
the big pigeon's head peeping over the edge of the nest, though I 
do not think it ever harmed the Greenwings themselves. I had to 
separate the two Spotted Pigeons, for being two cocks they fought, 
and later I sold them both. I was very sorry to part with them for 
they were lovely birds, but too large for my small places. The 
coloui'ing of the Spotted Pigeon is most harmonious, the tints are so 
soft and there seems almost a bloom on the plumage which is always 
tight and smooth, the eye is light coloured and seems of just the 
shade to perfectly match the surrounding feathers. 

The Madagascar there is nothing to chronicle about. She 
was just an odd hen, whose mate died the year before. 

{To he continued). 

Protection of Birds. 177 



We are asked to announce that a Public Meeting in support 
of the above-mentioned Bill will be held at the Caxton Hall, "West- 
minster, on March 19th, 1914, at 5.30 p.m. 

This Bill, a non-party measure, will prohibit the importation 
into the United Kingdom of the plumage of wild birds, such as 
Egrets and Birds of Paradise — Ostrich feathers being especially 
exempted — and it is confidently believed that such legislation will 
have far-reaching effects towards the preservation of many rare and 
beautiful birds now in danger of extermination. 

Mr. Sydney Buxton, ex-President of the Board of Trade, and 
Mr. Page Croft, M.P., who introduced the Bill into the House of 
Commons last year, will speak, among others ; and since it is 
desirable that the Meeting should be as representative and influential 
as possible, it is hoped that all members of the Avicultural Society 
in favour of the measure wall attend, if possible. 

Free tickets for the Meeting may be obtained from : 

Mr. E. I. POCOCK, F.E.S., 

Hon. Sec. Avicultural Society, 

Zoological Society, Eegent's Park, N.W. 



Since members living abroad are by the rules of the Society 
ineligible for the medal for priority in breeding, the Council decided 
to offer an annual prize for the best article or series of articles or 
notes upon foreign birds, either wild or captive, submitted by such 
members and accepted for publication in the magazine ; the prize to 
consist of a bound and inscribed copy of " Practical Bird-Keeping," 
or some suitable book on Aviculture or Ornithology. The award of 
the prize, which is offered for the current and following years, will 
rest with the Editor of the Magazine. 

178 (Correspondence. 


The following medals were awarded : — 
Mr. W. E. Teschemaker for breeding the Scaly Finch, Crested Lark, 

Black Eedstart, Whinchat, and the Sprosser Nightingale. 
Dr. Amsler for breeding the Hooded Siskin. 
Miss Drummond for breeding the Great Eclectus. 
Mr. H. D. Astley for breeding the Hooded Parrakeet. 

If any member is acquainted with iDrevious cases of the 
breeding in captivity of the above-mentioned biixls, he would oblige 
the Council by forwarding particulars to the Hon. Secretary before 
March 16th. 


It was decided to give a friendly and informal tea to members 
of the Society in the Zoological Gardens after the summer meeting 
of the Society in the latter half of June of this year, the exact date 
and other particulars to be announced in the number of the Maga- 
zine issued in May. E. I. POCOCK, 

Hon. Business Secretary. 



Will members very kindly do their best to send articles and notes ? I 
micst have sufficient copy in hand to carry on the Magazine with any success. 


My pair of Blue Budgerigars, when I moved my birds from Berkshire to 
Herefordshire last October, were put in a small cage, in my new bird-room, for 
the winter. The hen laid a clutch of four eggs in a very short time after the 
move, two of which were hatched. The eggs were laid anyhow on the drawer of 
the cage, which was covered with sawdust, but the birds scratched that away, so 
that the eggs were on the bare wood, and were repeatedly rolled about from one 
end of the cage to the other. Except for the female, who performed the incu- 
bating, coming off her eggs when the daily food was given and for feeding, she 
never left them. There were eight days between the birth of the two young ones. 

Correspondence. Ill 

the youngest dying wlaen a fortnight old. The first-born still survives and is 
blue, but rather undersized, and nothing like so robust and brilliant in colouring 
as were two from the same parents hatched in my former aviaries at Benham 
Valence last summer, both of which birds most unfortunately killed themselves 
against the wire meshing when they left their nest in a large hollow log. They 
were almost as brilliant a blue as their parents, and almost as large. The old 
birds are in robust health, so that it is puzzling to know why this, their latest 
progeny, should be undersized, for its life in a cage until leaving the nest would 
be exactly the same as that in a wild state. The parents had plenty of green 
food all the time, 

Now, they will be turned into an outdoor aviary, where I hope they will 
rear a good brood. H. D. ASTLEY. 


Sir,— I was interested to read Lord Tavistock's article on Foreign Doves 
at Liberty in the February number, and the difficulties he had to contend with 
in the shape of ' canker.' 

I have myself known the ordinary Collared Dove to catch the disease from 
the wild Turtle Dove, which also gave the disease to his Foreign Doves. 

But I am especially interested, because I am a Pigeon fancier as well as a 
Foreign Bird enthusiast, and during the 1913 breeding season lost a great number 
of youngsters through canker. 

This disease I had not experienced during the last five years, and the 
exact reason for it is hard to account for among Pigeon Fanciers, I believe. 
But the curious thing is that the disease only affected young birds in the 
' squeaker stage, and that the old birds, though feeding the youngsters in some 
cases before it was discovered, did not contract it, in a single instance. 

In both the cases I have instanced I have examined specimens, and the 
' canker ' outwardly appeared the same— a yellowy cheesy matter which choked 
the gullet and stopped the free passage of air. 

But why did the Doves contract it from feeding on the discarded corn, 
perhaps of the Turtle Doves, while the old Tumblers, though feeding youngsters 
when choked with canker, were not aiiected in a single case. 

I thought that the parallel cases would not be irrelevant to the Avicultural 
Magazine, and that some member might throw some light on the subject. 
Bale Rectory, Melton Constable, Norfolk. TREVOR Oliphant. 


Sir, — I was fortunate enough to see a beautiful Waxwing at Malton on 
Dec. 15th, 1913. It was extremely tame and allowed me to watch it for several 
minutes from a distance of a few yards, whilst it fed on something on a small 
shrub in a nursery garden. A week later there was an account in the Yorkshire 

178 Correspondence. 

Post of a Waxwing having been shot at Hunmanby, about twenty miles from 
Malton, and I greatly fear it would be the bird that I saw. 



Sir, — I am not a member* of the Avicultural Society but read the monthly 
magazine and was interested to read Mr. Blaggs notes on the Plumed Ground 
Dove. I have a pair which laid several times last summer and sat their full 
time, the last pair of eggs being left when the young birds were partly hatched, 
two other lots of eggs were fertile but failed to hatch. In the case of my pair 
there was certainly no change of any sort in the plumage. The birds were in an 
outdoor open-air aviary and in perfect condition. They were very wild and shy 
at first and deserted the first two pairs of eggs, after sitting a few days, but 
afterwards settled down and were quite comparatively tame. You might like to 
have my experience with these doves, so I thought I would write you a few lines. 

Herbert Bright. 

Sir. — I thought the following would be interesting to the readers of the 
Avicultural Magazine. 

A Sand Martin was flying up and down the river Thames, close to Tile- 
hurst, which is two miles from Reading. It was seen there about ten days 
before Christmas. I have never heard of or seen a Sand Martin at such a time 
of the year, although I have seen House Martins as late as the third week in 

A fortnight ago a most unusual thing occurred. A large brood of Part- 
ridges hatched o& at Silchester Manor Farm and were all doing well. 


[ * Will not Mr. Bright become a member. — ED.] 

Notices to Mkmbkrs — (Continued froiti page li. of cover.) 

The Revd. Richard H. Wit.mot, Bishopstoiie Rectoiy, Hereford. 

Mr. O. J. Stonh, " Cuniiior," Tlie Drive, Lawrie Park, Uoper Svdeiihani, 

Dr. Bernard E. Potter, 58, Park Street, I,ondoii, W. 

The Honble. Sir Schombkrg McDonnell, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., Daliiess, 
Tayiiiiilt, Argyilsliire. [Present Address : La Floridiaua, Naples). 

.Miss O. DE Pass, 6, The Orchard, Bedford Park, London, W. 


Mr. W. P. PycrafT was elected an Honorary Member of the Society. 


Mr. G. H. Acton, Bythani, Kidniore Road, Cavershani, Reading. 

Proposed by Mr. P. F. M. Galloway. 
The Rev. H. A. Soames, F.L.vS., Lyncroft, Bromley, Kent. 

Proposed by Mr. R. I. PococK. 
Mr. Thomas Hebb, Brooklea, The Downs, Lnton, Beds. 

Proposed by Mr. Hubert d. Astley. 

The Marquis of Tavistock .. .. ^10 o o 

The charge for private advertiseuients is sixpence for eighteen 
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The charge for members' advertisements under this heading is four 
PENCE for twelve words or under, atid o7ie penny for every additional 
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Wanted. — A pair of Red, or Blue (Yellow-breasted) Macaws in good con- 
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Hubert Astley, FJsq., Rrinsop Court, Hereford. 

Wa?ited. — Female Cinnamon Teal, hand-reared off water, pinioned. 

Maurice Portal, Esq., Hexham. 

Wa«/^^/.— Acclimatised hens: one Violet-eared Waxbill, three Rnficaudas, 
two Golden-breasted Waxbills, and one Indian Grey Tit (Parns 
atnceps). W. Temple, Ormonde, Datchet, Bucks. 





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by Dr. A. G. BUTLER ... 179 

Aviculture in Paraguay, by Lord BRABOURNE 185 

My Birds at Brinsop Court by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 191 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture, by Dr. A. G. BUTLER 194 

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Another arrival of Humming Birds ; Note on the Cock of the Rock 201 — 202 

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1. Petronia albigularis. 5. Chalcopelia chalcospila. 








Third Series.— Yol. V.— No. 6.— All rights reserved. APRIL, 1914. 


By Dr. k. G. BUTLEE. 

If all the eggs produced in our cages and aviaries became 
birds the market would soon be glutted ; but as it is many eggs are 
infertile ; and many others, though hatched, result in youngsters 
which either die or are killed in infancy. The following is a summary 
of my failures and successes to date : I do not include domesticated 
Canaries, because everybody either has bred or could easily breed 
more or less decent examples of these sports, and because our rules 
exclude them, but hybrids between the Canary and any wild type 
are admissable. 

Beginning with the Thrush-like birds then, this is my modest 
record : — 

Merula houlhoul x Merula merula bred 1895 and 1896. 

Accentor modular is. An unpaired hen built and laid a full 
clutch of eggs. 

Sialia sialis, one bird bred in 1890. 

Saxicola monticola unpaired, lays every year. 

Frmgilla coelebs x Serinus serinus var canaria infertile eggs. 

Fringilla montifringilla. A hen in one of my aviaries, un- 
paired, laid several bright green eggs. 

Cardiielis elegans, three in one nest reared and a second 
sitting hatched in 1895. Of course I have also bred mules with the 
Canary, the cock bird helping to rear the young, but then the birds 
were not confined within the limits of a Canary breeding-cage, but 
had a cage 18 inches cubic measure to themselves : in a confined 

180 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

space a cock Goldfinch sometimes becomes unreliable, breaking the 

Petronia dentata and alhignlaris. Unpaired hens: they built 

a neat nest, but dropped many infertile eggs on the floor of the cage. 

Sycalis flaveola. Formerly I used to breed this species every 
year : I also bred hybrids between it and S. pulzelni, and in 1898 I 
bred several hybrids between a Canary and a hen of this species : 
unfortunately only one (a female bird) survived the moult and with 
each successive moult became more and more like its mother, never- 
theless a cock Saffron-finch associated with it ignored it utterly. 

Sycalis arvensis — built in 1907, but the hen died without 
laying, possibly egg-bound. 

Serinus fiaviventris. An old hen of this species paired with 
a cock Canary in 1912 ; built, but laid only one egg which she 
reared : — a fine cock bird, hardly distinguishable from (? S. fiaviven- 
tris, but with Canary song. 

Serinus icterus. Built and laid on several occasions in my 
aviaries, but the eggs invariably disappeared, apparently eaten by 
the cock bird. 

Serinus leucopygius. Built and laid, but the hen generally 
died from egg-binding before the clutch was complete. A hen paired 
with a Canary hatched young, which however died before they were 


Alario alario. Built a nest and laid in August, 1901, but 
failed to hatch. 

Acanthus cannahina. Of course I have bred hybrids between 
this species and a Canary. 

Pyrrhula europoea. This species built, laid and incubated in 
one of my aviaries ; but died on the nest just as the young hatched : 
I handed them over to the tender mercies of a Canary which failed 
to rear them : perhaps this was as well, for I believe it was the 
same bird which, after bringing up an infant Goldfinch, plucked it 
so unmercifully that it died. 

Emheriza citrinella. Built a beautiful nest in 1889, but was 
disturbed and did not lay. 

Gyanospiza cyanea. Paired with Canary which built and 
laid in 1896 ; the Indigo Finch wonld not let her sit, but repeatedly 
pulled out the nest so that nothing resulted. 

on Egg-laying and Nesting Experiences. 181 

Gubernatrix cristata. Built, laid and hatched out four young 
ones in a Chinese wicker cage hung up in one of my aviaries, in 
1895 ; but three of the four young ones were thrown out of the 
nest when half grown, because the parents could not get sufficient 
Hving insect food to satisfy them. The fourth bird was reared 
and flew, but did not take kindly to the soft food and consequently 
died in the young plumage. 

Paroaria larvata. Built, laid and began to sit in 1904, but 
deserted the nest and died just as the eggs were beginning to develop. 

Paroaria cucullata. Built several nests and pulled them to 
pieces again, but did not lay. 

Ghloris chloris. Built', laid and reared its young without the 
least difficulty, the nest being formed in an ordinary Canary nest-box 
hung on the wire-work of the aviary. 

Spermophila alhigularis. Built several nests from fine tough 
fibre, but never laid. 

Sporcegintlius ama^idava. A pair built in one of my bird- 
room aviaries in a potted box-tree, but the nest was seized by other 
Waxbills successively and consequently there was no result. 

Stictospiza formosa has both built nests and laid in my 
aviaries, but has always been disturbed by other birds, so that I 
have never bred it. 

Estrilda cinerea. This Waxbill has also built and laid in my 
birdroom, but never succeeded in hatching its eggs. 

Poephila mirabiUs. After many attempts to breed this species 
in cages and indoor aviaries, I at length succeeded in an outdoor 
aviary in 1905 and 1906. The two eggs illustrated were from 
the same clutch. 

Poephila acuticauda. A female paired with a male P. cincta 
built but did not lay : she was of the race to which the name hecki 
was given. 

Poephila cincta. I have only once bred this species, the hens 
being very liable to egg-binding. 

Steganopleura guttata. Went to nest on one occasion but 
the hen killed her husband because he entered the nest when she 
was sitting in the daytime, so there was no result. 

Bathilda ruficauda. A female paired with Tozniopijgia 

182 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

castanotis in 1896 built but did not lay, A pair purchased in 
1905 built and began to lay but were driven from their nest by 
a pair of Mania jpectoralis. 

Tceniopygia castanotis. I bred dozens of this common little 
species without difficulty. 

Aidemosyne modesta. Built in a bush in one of my indoor 
aviaries and laid a full clutch of eggs, but the parents suddenly and 
unaccountably disappeared. I suspected mice of having carried them 
off, since no trace of the birds could be found. 

Amadina fasciata. My first pair of this species bred without 
the least trouble, but all others received later suffered from the usual 
fault, — egg-binding, which causes the death of most of the hens. 

Amadina erythrocephala . I never succeeded in breeding this 
species, all the hens died from egg-binding. 

Uroloncha acuticauda. Eeadily nested in a flight-cage, but 
never succeeded in rearing young until paired up with a Bengalee 
{U. domestica of Flower). Of the latter, which I regard as of hybrid 
origin, I have bred all three varieties at various times. 

M^inia punctulata. Has built and laid in my aviaries, but 
has never hatched out. 

Munia maja. Nested and laid, but was too restless to hatch 
its eggs. 

Munia atricajnlla. Eepeatedly built and laid, but never 
hatched an egg. 

Munia oryzivora. I have bred this common species freely,, 
both in cage and aviary, in all its varieties. 

S%)ermestes cucullatus. A hen paired with Poex>Mla cincta 
built repeatedly, but never laid. 

Hy2}ochera chalybeatce. Hens which went to nest in my bird- 
room died from egg-binding. 

Hypochera ultramiarina. The same observation applies to 
this as to the preceding species. 

Pyromelana franciscana. Built in a cage in 1885, but both 
sexes died before eggs were produced. In 1899 one egg was laid in 
another aviary, but not in a nest. 

Quelea quelea. Built frequently, and on one occasion laid 
two eggs which subsequently disappeared from the nest, probably 
devoured bv some other bird. 

on Egg -laying and Nesting Experiences. 183 

Hy2:>hantornis cucuUatus. Nests built, but there was no hen 
to lay in them. 

Hyphantornis melanocephalus. Built, but the females never 
appropriated the nests. 

Ploceus baya. My males built many nests, but there were 
no females with them. 

Ploceus manyah. The same observation applies to this as to 
the preceding" species. 

Anthus pratensis. In 1890 a female in one of my aviaries 
laid an egg in a Canary's nest built about two feet above the ground. 

Alauda arvensis. In 1889 a hand-reared hen laid an egg in 
one of my aviaries. 

Calopsittacus novce-hollandicB. I bred one young cock in my 
birdroom in 1907. Some years previously I had fertile eggs, but the 
hen died during incubation. In an outdoor aviary, breeding with 
this species is well-known to be easy. 

PalcBornis roses. I bred one female in an indoor aviary in 

Agapornis roseicollis. Two hens kept together in a flight-cage 

laid several eggs in a nest-box. 

Melopsittacus undulatus. I bred nine young ones in the 
winter of 1892-3, but they were all delicate and eight of them died 
in 1893 : even in an indoor aviary it is' not advisable to let one's 
birds breed in the winter. 

Zenaida aurita. Built in an outdoor aviary, but did not lay. 
In July 1900 it laid one egg on the floor of an indoor aviary. 

Turtur risorius. I suppose everyone has bred this domesti- 
cated species, certainly anyone could do so : I bred numbers both of 
the typical form, the white sport and hybrids between the latter and 
the Necklaced Dove. 

Turtur semitorquatus. Laid many eggs on a hamper-lid in 
one of my aviaries, but were so much disturbed by other birds that 
they never succeeded in hatching. 

Turtur tigrinus. I bred this in an outdoor aviary in 1897. 

Geopelia cuneata. After repeated failures to breed this com- 
mon Dove indoors, I in 1907 turned a pair into a large garden aviary 
where they reared young without trouble ; I however left them out 

184 Ofi Egg-laying and Nesting Experiences. 

too late and lost them; but I bred the species again in the two 
succeeding years. 

Columbuia picui. In 1900 I found an egg of this species on 
the floor of the birdroom. 

Ghamapelia iMsserina. Built, but the hens died from egg- 

Tympanistria tympanistria. I bred this species in an outdoor 
aviary in 1906, 1907 and 1908 ; but indoors, although many eggs had 
been laid and one youngster partly reared in 1903, I had never been 

ChalcopxeUa chalcospila. The hen occasionally laid an egg in 
a basket-nest in an indoor aviary ; but the cock would not take his 
part in incubation, so that none was hatched. 

Chalcophaps chrysochlora. The hen of a pair purchased in 
1896 occasionally laid an egg, but never built : a pair turned into an 
outdoor aviary in 1907 (after building but not laying in 1906) made 
some pretence at courting but did not even attempt to build. 

Phaps chalcoj^tera. I tried a pair of this species for many 
years both in indoor and oiatdoor aviaries, giving them a hamper-lid 
to nest upon, the hen laid many eggs, mostly fertile, and did her 
duty in incubating them, but the cock had gouty toes and always 
managed to injure the eggs before they were ready to hatch. 

Ocyphaps lophotes. The hen of a pair purchased in 1896 
laid an egg on the ground ; but though I kept the birds until 1903, 
no further attempt was made at breeding. 

Leptoptila wellsi. A female received in exchange in 1898, 
although un]3aired, laid eggs incessantly during the whole of 1905, 
and steadily incubated unless they were removed. I secured quite a 
number of eggs for collections, but the bird so enfeebled itself that it 
died early in the year following. 

Leucosarcia picata. Although I could not persuade this 
species to breed in an outdoor aviary, the birds were no sooner 
brought indoors than the hen began to lay on a loose platform of 
branches through which many eggs fell to the floor and others half 
way through the twigs, so that none could be incubated. 

Excalfactoria chinensis. Laid many eggs, but none were 

Aviculture in Paraguay. 185 

Lophortyx calif ornicus. Laid, but did not sit. 

Thus, of the seventy forms or thereabouts which have either 
built, laid, or both, in my aviaries, only twenty have been success- 
fully reared. Had I kept fewer birds and in outdoor aviaries only, I 
do not doubt that I should have bred quite double that number. 
At the same time, in spite of all our successful friends may say and 
think respecting luck in breeding ; the fact that many birds difficult 
to breed have been reared in aviaries more crowded and smaller than 
mine, looks suspiciously like sheer luck : on the other hand it is just 
conceivable that, when the owner (as in my case) looks after his 
birds himself, they may become too comfortable, fat, and lazy, to 
trouble about rearing families. I have heard bird-owners say, that 
a day of starvation occasionally is as good for birds as for dyspeptic 
human beings ; but I should not like to put it to the test. 

It is an odd thing that those bird-owners who laugh at the 
idea of success being more or less a matter of luck, do themselves 
occasionally speak of having had an unlucky season : it is perhaps 
natural to think that another's misfortunes are the result of care- 
lessness and one's own of sheer ill-luck. 


By LoED Braboukne. 

An " embarras do richesses " will beset any attempt at 
aviculture in Paraguay. It is enough for it to be merely known that 
an interest is taken in birds and apparently every boy for miles 
round forsakes the daily routine of his life in the mistaken pursuit 
of every bird, from a King Vulture to a Humming Bird. 

The spot, to which these notes refer, was situated 27 miles 
north of Villa Eica (the second town of Paraguay) and but a few 
hundred yards or so from absolutely virgin forest ; across this small 
distance nothing but forest primeval and uninhabited intervened 
between the Parana Eiver 100 miles to the westward. 

In a country where all the world outside the towns lives in 
open thatched huts and where houses in the European sense of the 
word are unknown, aviculture must necessarily be rather a haphazard 

186 Lord Beabouene, 

affair, and the following subjects all lived unfettered in their cap- 
tivity, coming and going at their own sweet will, and for the most 
part sooner or later roamed away to their native forest or swamp. 
Indeed, in a spot where a Humming Bird's {Chlorostilbon aureo- 
ventris) nest was discovered under the eaves, where Toucans, Trogons 
and Parrakeets would perch in a tree not 50 yards from where one 
fed daily and where Tinamous (C. Tataupa) would be calling and 
answering each other in the garden itself, any kind of restraint 
would seem veritable sacrilege. 

On arrival in Paraguay the menagerie consisted of but one 
bird, a Eed Macaw {A. Macao) ; beyond the fact that his wing was 
cut he was entirely free ; this to the detriment of a vine-covered 
" pergola " and the thatched roof. His usual perch was on the 
half-walled-up side of the hut, and from there he descended with 
regularity at meal times and climbed up on to the back of the 
nearest chair, if his demands were not attended to with the utmost 
speed, he would draw attention by gently worrying the neck or 
shoulder of the occupant of the chair. The intelligence with which 
he understood the reproof or caress implied by the intonation of his 
name was a marvel. If the former he would scuttle down from off 
the chair, pausing every yard or so in his bow-legged shamble to look 
upwards and listen for the least sign of relenting, and, if this was 
detected, he used to return shamelessly to his original spot to pursue 
his persecutions. Macaws occasionally flew overhead, upon which 
the captive would call and the passing birds answer. Once a flock 
of six came right down and flew several times round the house 
within a few yards, and the tame bird became quite frantic in his 
efforts to use his clipped wings. 

At a spot some 40 miles northwards, where there are large 
grassy openings in the forest, sprinkled with many low palms bearing 
in March a yellow fruit called " Yataity," the Blue and Yellow 
Macaws {A. Ararauna) collect in numbers to feed, and a native 
makes a yearly custom of netting them with a call-bird and selling 
the birds in Villa Eica and Asuncion. He had just returned, and his 
catch of over 50 was loose with wings cut in the garden. The noise 
may be imagined : also the state of some half-dozen orange trees, in 
which the birds were placed ; but oranges in Paraguay are as 

on Aviculture iu Paraguay. 187 

plentiful as acorns in England, and as cheap. So it was decided on 
the return journey to provide a companion for the Eed Bird. How 
to convey him home on horse-back was a difficulty. However, a 
cloth was wrapped firmly round the barrel of a 12-bore shot gun, 
whilst a stout leather thong was bound round the Macaw's feet, and 
bird and gun were attached. Words fail to picture the discomforts 
of the journey, the bird's attempts to fall off the perch, his attempted 
frantic assaults on the bearer of the gun, and the difficulty of 
dismounting and re-mounting, etc. It happened to be heavy rainy 
weather, and at that time Parrots both tame and wild are most 
voluble, and the Eed bird was heard at some distance proclaiming 
the fact that he still lived ; the Blue Macaw as soon as he arrived in 
earshot gave the most piercing shrieks of joy at the near iDroximity 
of a fellow ; and a concert of shriek and counter- shriek was main- 
tained during the time it took to bring the birds to closer quarters. 
But the new-comer once placed beside the Red bird the latter' s 
attitude changed to one of suspicion. He backed before his new- 
found friend with one claw^ raised deprecatingiy, and kept the 
intruder at a distance for some time. Still, at the end of a few days 
they became on the very best of terms, never more than a few feet 
away, and scratching each other's heads continually. Under the 
civilizing influence of the older prisoner the Blue and Yellow Macaw 
at the end of a month had become comparatively tame, though he 
never quite reached that degree of familiarity which the former 
displayed. When it is considered that six months before acquaint- 
ance with the Eed bird he had possibly never even seen a man, that 
he had been captured more or less violently and when adult, and 
that in that short space of time he had become as docile and almost 
as intelligent as a dog, whose ancestors have been bred in captivity 
for countless generations, it is impossible not to wonder at the truly 
marvellous intelligence and adaptability of these Macaws. 

The Parrots cannot be left without mentioning an amusing 
incident that occurred just before the arrival of the Yellow Macaw. 
A Toucan (Pteroglossus castanotis) that had met with some accident 
and could not fly, but that was otherwise sound, had been brought 
in from the woods by one of the men. He was placed alongside the 
Macaw and remained apparently lost in reflections on his unhappy 

188 Lord Brabourne, 

state. The Macaw, brave as a lion and very curious, approached, 
and seemed to have some intention of making himself acquainted, 
when the Toucan suddenly awoke and in a fury made lunge after 
lunge with his long beak at the Parrot, who was driven simply to 
fall off his perch to the ground before his small adversary. This 
bird could not be persuaded to eat, so at the end of 24 hours it 
seemed better to kill it, and his final resting-place is the Bird 
Department of the South Kensington Museum. 

" Isabel " was an Urraca Jay (Cyanocorax chrysops), the 
Acahe " of the Guaranis, and was taken from the nest at a very 
early age ; it was some time before it could be persuaded to forage 
for itself, and required a deal of personal attention, but seemed to 
thrive well on a diet of chopped raw meat. Still, when after a 
few weeks it was able to leave its box and see life it became an 
almost insufferable nuisance. The perpetual croaking cry for food 
could be ignored so long as it was confined to its box, but when one 
was awakened at the very early dawn by unceasing pleadings from 
under the very bed, and when in a few days later the bird would 
flutter on to the very bed itself, sudden death nearly overtook it 
more than once. By-and-bye the Jay began to use its wings, and 
becoming less and less familiar soon vanished altogether, probably 
to join one of the numerous flocks in the neighbourhood. These 
Jays play a conspicuous part in the bird-life of Paraguay, and by 
their lovely blue and primrose colouring and strange inquisitive notes 
are amongst the first birds to attract the attention of a sti"anger. 
They are always seen in flocks of from about 6 to 12. 

An interesting pet whose captivity was of the shortest dura- 
tion was a Tinamou (Rhyncotus rufescens), the Large Partridge of 
Argentina and Paraguay. This was at a time when Locusts in the 
' hopper " stage were swarming everywhere. The bird was only 
about the size of a 10-day old chicken, but well able to forage for 
itself. Several of these Locusts were placed near it, and in spite of 
their jerking efforts to escape, the Tinamou caught them one after 
another with all the stately strategy and deliberate greed of a mature 
old hen. This young bird showed not the slightest fear of man, but 
its powers of upward movement were underestimated ; it was placed 
in a large open box and in the morning had vanished. As Locusts 

on Aviculture in Paraguay. 189 

continued to be abundant for some time, it doubtless grew to be a 
fine healthy bird. 

A Wood Partridge (Odontophorus capueira), a bird of un- 
sociable nature, was not a success. This " Uru," as the Guranis 
call it, was captured when adult, and flatly refusing all sustenance 
moped with its head in the corner of its box. So after twenty- 
four hours' captivity the bird was liberated. 

Every country in South America seems to possess what may 
be termed the " national tame bird." In Argentina it would appear 
to be the Cardinal {Paraoria cumdlata) ; in the coast region of Peru 
the " Huarakeke {Burhinus superciliaris) ; in Venezuela the Sun 
Bittern (Eurypyga helias), and certainly in Paraguay it is the 
Whistling Heron {Syrigma sibilatrix), the " Quarah-mimbi " (mean- 
in " Child of the sun ") of the Guaranis. It is appreciated not for 
its beauty only. The idea of the natives, that it destroys beetles, 
cockroaches, etc., is probably correct. But large indeed would be 
the flock necessary to make an impression on a Paraguayan 
" rancho." Many of these birds were always for sale in the Hotel 
in Villa Eica, where rich Argentines come to spend the winter. 
Several other species were also kept. Egrets {Egretta egretta), 
Curassows and Guans {Craz sclateri and Ortalis canicollis), 
Cariamas {Gariavia cristata), " Teru-terus " {Belonopterus grisescens). 
No great trade can have been done in -these last, since they swarm 
throughout Argentina. From this Hotel on returning south a King 
Vultui'e was bought. He was an interesting bird, and his first feat 
was to escape from his cage on the docks in Asuncion. Luckily his 
powers of flight were as yet merely sufficient to provide exercise for 
the obese, which infirmity was i^rominent in our two porters ; and he 
was not very easily secured. On arrival at his destination he was 
given complete liberty and soon became very tame, and would pull 
one's bootlaces or take one's hand and hold it in his beak. As his 
wings grew stronger he developed a most unbirdlike " trait." Small 
Tinamous {Noth^ira maculosa) abound in most parts of Argentina, 
and in that locality they were sufficiently abundant. So, when 
shooting, no great distance had to be covered before the first was 
flushed. At the near sound of a gun-shot the Vulture would 
immediately fly towards the shooter and attempt to perch on his 

190 071 Aviculture in J^araguay. 

shoulders, and would follow up shot after shot in this manner for 
some distance. The favourite perch of this bird was on the highest 
point of the roof, where he could be seen in the early morning 
motionless with wings widespread, as if to catch the fullest warmth 
of the first rays of the sun ; a well-known position of all the South 
American Vultures. He was discovered one day dead, and a post- 
mortem examination disclosed a badly contused skull. The assassin 
was never discovered. 

Amongst birds of interest to aviculturists and easily to be 
obtained may be mentioned Blue Tanagers (Thraupis sayaca), 
Yellow Tanagers (Tangara flava), the Long-tailed Manakin Chiroxi- 
phia caudata) ; various members of the Troupial family, of which 
perhaps the most interesting was the Eed-rumped Cacique (Cacicus 
aphanes). Previous to arrival these birds had actually had a 
nesting colony in the garden. The remains of their swinging nests 
were still to be seen but the birds themselves had unhappily been 
scared away, though they frequently returned in small parties, as if 
to view the site of their former home. There was a whole colony 
about half-a-mile away on the edge of the forest, possibly the same 
tribe. The beautiful Magpie Tanager (Cissopis minor) and the 
perhaps even more lovely Swallow Tanagers (Procnias caerulea) 
were amongst the rarer birds. Of the former only two were seen in 
fifteen months ; the latter were migratory and common only for 
about a fortnight in two consecutive years in September. They 
were in small flocks and kept to the tops of the tallest possible trees, 
feeding on a small black fruit. 

The comparative prices of birds in their native countries may 
be of interest to aviculturists. The Eed Macaw referred to cost 5/- ; 
the Yellow one, 8/4 ; the King Vulture, 16/8. But it must be 
remembered that these were birds particularly appreciated by the 
Paraguayans themselves, and in Asuncion would probably have 
cost double as much. The average price of smaller birds, such as 
Tanagers, Trupials, Finches, etc., may be fairly put at 1/-. The 
Jay was bought for one Paraguayan paper dollar, worth at the 
time 4d. A Curassow (Crax sclateri) was once offered to the writer 
for 6/8. 

A more ideal country than Paraguay for aviculture can 

My Birds at Brinsop Court. 191 

hardly exist ; ideal in climate, in variety and abundance of species, 
and in the fact that it is in the most southerly latitude, where 
many of those families distinguishing the great Brazilian sub-region 
of South America are still fairly plentiful and well represented, and 
where these may be seen without venturing into those countries 
where the perennial tropical nature of the climate makes even the 
effort of existence a wearisome burden. 

The only deterrent might be whether pleasure at the sight of 
caged birds might not become somewhat vapid with their wild 
confreres within calling distance of those in captivity. 



For months it was on my mind. That move from Berkshire 
into Herefordshire. I could not move all the birds at once. I 
could not be settled in my new home, yet I must prepare their 
homes, and have someone in one county and someone in another 
to look after those that would be moved and others still left behind. 
People asked me how many birds I had ? I didn't know ! About 
100 Ducks, including some 16 or 17 species, six species of Geese, 
Black-necked and Coscoroba Swans, ^14 enormous Cranes, which 
wouldn't exactly go into one portmanteau ; the contents of a bird- 
room, in which were such rarities as Eed Sun Birds, a Crested 
Ixulus, Blue-headed Eock Thrushes, Blue Budgerigars, Yucatan 
Blue Jays, etc., etc. ; about 90 birds in outdoor aviaries, and other 
etceteras, such as Japanese Bantams (the Duckwing variety). And 
at the other end all confusion, a 14th Century Manor House in a 
state of resurrection from what it had become of late years, a 
decidedly dilapidated farm-hoiise, adorned outside with every con- 
ceivable untidiness and rubbish ; the drainage of the house and farm 
emptying into the surrounding moat, the farm-yard staring at one 
from the other side of the water, offending both eyes and nose, rats 
gaily gambolling in broad daylight ; no garden, unless a strip of 
ground rich in chickweed (which, by-the-bye, encouraged me to take 
the place !) with a " summer-house," whose windows were adorned 

192 Mr. Hubert D. Astley 

with blue, red and yellow glass of the most vivid hues, could be 
•called a garden. Pleasaunce, it certainly was not ! Builders, stone- 
masons, and all the rest of it everywhere, and relays of carts laden 
with stone turning every inch of ground (after rain) in a rich soil of 
old red sandstone, with a soupcjon of clay, into a quagmire up to the 
very windows. There was more soup than soup9on, for it was mud 
■of that nature through which one waded. 

And only an occasional day on few occasions to strive amidst 
all that turmoil, scrimmage, and mess inexpressible, to settle upon 
the future residences for the birds, and edit the Avicultural 
Magazine ! The architect said, " Where have you been ? " 
"Settling on a spot for my Crane's paddock." "Whereabouts?" 
'' Over there," I answered, pointing across the moat, in that 
meadow where the other moat is." " You will, of course, 
put them quite the other side ; it will never do for any wire 
fencing to be seen." I answered, " Oh, of course" not having the 
slightest intentions of hiding away my Cranes, especially as a whole 
field intervened between the paddock I intended to form and the 
verge of the garden which was being brought into being. I did 
argue at first that the wire would be almost invisible from the 
windows, and that Cranes were in existence in 134C A.D. when the 
liouse was built and bath-rooms were not ; which latter were to 
have their place w^ithin the house itself. " I should have a bath- 
room for the Cranes ; why not ? " was the retort. 

It was plainly useless to invite him to become a member of 
the Avicultural Society ! 

" Ducks on the moat ? The water will be filthy ; you must 
have water-plants." 

" Aviaries ! Where do you propose to put them, they cannot 
be in sight of the house. They would do over there," and he pointed 
to a far-off spot behind a hedge of about 30 feet in height, where the 
future kitchen garden was to be. But the aviaries are up, in the 
place I meant them to be, within view of the windows too, with 
only the moat and an old stone wall intervening ; so that I can hear 
the shrill calls of Queen Alexandra Parrakeets, the booming of 
Bronze-winged Pigeons, the soft cooing of Diamond Doves, and the 
isofter notes of Blue Birds, etc., from my bedroom, outside which, 

My Birds at Brinsop Court. 193 

almost sweeping some of the windows with its branches, stands a 
giant cedar, planted by Wordsworth, the poet ; into the shelter and 
shade of which same tree come the Palm and Crested Doves, and 
even Kingfishers at times, whilst beneath it, on moonlight nights, I 
see the white forms of the Black-necked Swans swimming in the 
moat, and listen to their melodious whistling. 

The Aviaries occupy the site of a bai'n, decidedly on its last 
legs, which did not perish in vain, for its roof was a roof of ancient 
stone moss-grown tiles, and its timbers, which it must have feared 
were to be shivered, were of ancient oak ; both tiles and timbers 
having found an honourable place in the restoration of the house 
itself, so that all is well. The aviaries are surrounded by open 
lawn, but a short time ago a foul farmyard quagmire, which 
ground is enclosed by stone walls. Six flights, somewhere about 
the size of those which form part of the new Bird House at the 
London Zoological Gardens, perhaps a little smaller ; with roosting 
houses, in each of which is a radiator and electric light. 

The shelters are under the roof, higher within than the top 
of the open flights, the eaves projecting two feet over the latter, and 
the roof is good both in form and material, being composed of old 
Georgian grey-green slates of the thickness of stone ones, beneath 
which dwelt for some time the celebrated Lady Craven, afterwards 
Magravine of Anspach, so that even the architect busy across the 
moat had to acknowledge them to be not only inoffensive, but 
distinctly good. A passage runs the whole length at the back of the 
roosting houses, not only giving access to them but also to four 
chambers on the other side of it, one for the heating apparatus, one 
for a hospital, one for food, and the last for washing up, where hot 
and cold water is laid on. 

In each flight is a cement pool, with w^ater running from one 
end of the aviaries to the other. The floor of the aviaries is raised 
two feet above the path that runs round them, and beneath the 
flights thick steel wire meshing has been embedded, deep enough to 
allow shrubs to be planted, the meshing being welded into the 
cement of the foundations, so that no rats can possibly get in. 

Eunning water, radiators, electric light, good food and 
shelter ! What more do birds want ? They are like the bull that 

194 Dr. A. G. Butlee, 

Dr. Johnson imagined might say, ' I have a green meadow, and my 
cows; what more can anyone need!" or words to that effect. 

And here in my aviaries are Queen Alexandra and Hooded 
Golden-shouldered Parrakeets, Diamond Doves, Eose-breasted Gros- 
beaks, Blue Birds, Eobin Chats {Cossypha caffra), Chestnut-breasted 
Blue Eock Thrushes, Blue Budgerigars, Douglas and Cuban Quails, 
Sun Bitterns, Seed Snipe, Orange-headed Ground Thrushes, Bar- 
shouldered, Green-winged, Violet-necked Doves, and others. 

They can enjoy the sunshine all day, when that luminary is 

enabled to pierce through the veil of clouds which but too often 

obscures it, and on a chilly February day I have heard the Blue 

Birds warbling and the Eose-breasted Grosbeaks tuning up ; quite a 

chorus, with the Bronze-winged Pigeons acting as big drums in the 

orchestra ! 

{To be continued). 


By Dr. A. G. Butler. 

I have written so much respecting my personal experiences 
in bird-keeping, that I feel some diffidence in taking up the pages 
of our Magazine by an account of my work upon this branch of 
ornithology from the time when, as an utter ignoramus, I first 
attempted to keep birds in cages : however, our editor asks me to do 
so, and therefore I must beg our members to forgive me if I weary 

Of course I began by breeding domesticated Canaides ; but, 
although I was moderately successful with them, I soon wearied of 
fanciers' sports, and (as already noted in my article on hand-rearing 
British Birds) took up the study of species. I knew nothing about 
their correct food beyond what I could glean from various books 
respecting that eaten by the birds when at liberty, but I speedily 
made the acquaintance of a few other bird-keepers about equally 
well or ill informed, and we used to compare experiences of failures 
and successes, which may possibly have been of some slight use. 

When I began to keep birds I knew of no books which would 
give me information on the subject ; doubtless there were such books 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

(In Miss R. Alderson's Aviaries.) 

To face p. 15 L 

Thirty-tivo Years of Avic^Uture. 195 

in existence, but I was not aware of the fact ; so that when Cassell's 
Cage-Birds appeared I was only too glad to secure it. The perusal 
of our late friend Wiener's chapters on foreign birds introduced me 
to the excellent work done by the well-known Dr. Euss and first 
stimulated me to try and produce something in the same line myself, 
as a help to the ever increasing number of aviculturists in the 
British islands ; but of course I could not attempt anything of the 
kind until I had learned by bitter experience how to house and feed 
birds in captivity. 

I am afraid my eagerness to acquire a general knowledge of 
cage-birds led me into keeping too many at a time ; consequently 
there were at first more quarrels and fewer successes in breeding 
than there might otherwise have been ; but at least it taught me 
what species might be safely kept together. On two occasions my 
birds numbered 250, and (excepting during my holidays) I only had 
my evenings from 5 p.m. in which to attend to them ; my aviaries 
also were not constructed as they would have been had I possessed 
greater experience of the requirements of birds at the time when 
they were made. 

Altogether I suppose I have kept 230 species of birds, British 
and Foreign, and many of these owing to their aggressive or pre- 
dacious natures had to be kept in separate cages, but they were 
almost invariably accommodated with enclosures sufficiently large 
to enable them to use their wings and bathe at will. A small cage 
is an abomination and surely not conducive either to the health or 
happiness of its inmate. 

Of Thrush-like birds the following have lived for longer or 
shorter periods in my possession : — The Missel-Thrush, many Song- 
Thrushes both hand-reared and trapped in the garden, a pair of 
Eed-wings, a Fieldfare, numerous Blackbirds both hand-reared and 
trapped, and a Grey-winged Ousel. Hand-reared birds are some- 
times better for exhibition but not as songsters ; because they 
cannot learn their wild song without instruction. I greatly pre- 
ferred birds of the year captured during the winter : in severe 
weather these soon become tame and confiding, and, after their first 
moult in confinement, they are quite as tame as hand-reared 

196 Dr. A. G. Butlee, 

examples. I have not found any of the true Thrushes ill-natured 
towards the smaller bkds. 

Of Ghats I have kept the European Wheatear, the South 
African Mountain Chat, the Whinchat, the Stonechat, and Redstart, 
all of them amiable birds which can be safely trusted in an aviary 
with finches. I also found the American Blue-bird (Blue Robin) 
peaceful ; but the Shama I have always kept in a flight-cage. The 
English Robin I have kept both in cage and aviary ; it is a most 
fascinating little bird, but too tame by nature to be confined at all ; 
I much prefer to see it at liberty.'" Of the common Nightingale I 
have kept both hand-reared and trapped examples, but found them 
disappointing as regards their song : in my opinion a captive 
Nightingale's song is very inferior to that of its free brother ; it is 
uncertain and scrappy. I have two gramophone records of the song 
of a captive bird produced in Germany : they are very fair repro- 
ductions of that of the majority of caged Nightingales, but there is 
no comparison between them and the songs which I have heard in 
the Kentish woods and copses. - ■ 

With the Warblers I have had less success than I should 
have liked : my hand-reared Lesser Whitethroats died very young. 
I kept a Blackcap for some time but eventually it was killed by a 
Parrakeet ; a Garden Warbler lived for ten months in one of my 
aviaries but died from disease of the lungs ; a Gold-crest which I 
had, refused to eat, and only survived for about twenty-four hours : 
it was brought to me, or I should not have attempted to keep it. 
Willow- Warblers caught in my garden would eat so long as they 
were provided with living insects, but as soon as these failed they 
died ; they ignored soft food although they saw other birds eating it, 
so I soon gave up catching them. My hand-reared Sedge- Warbler 
only lived about two months. 

I have kept many Hedge-Accentors and I once caught, and 
for a time kept, a young Alpine Accentor : they are not attractive 
either as cage or aviary-birds, for they take a long time to become 
reconciled to captivity ; or perhaps to the proximity of mankind, 
since they always seemed happy enough when they could not see 

*The Robin is sometimes a dangerous associate for other small birds 
which it has been known to kill by piercing the skull with its bill. 

Tliirty-Uoo Years of Aviculture. 197 

me ; but I rarely heard one sing even in an aviary : I have found 
both Warblers and Accentors quite safe companions for the smallest 
finches, but one of the latter killed some Pipits as I note further on. 

I have kept two Mocking-birds {Mimus polyglottus) : they 
are always excellent songsters ; but my first bird, which I purchased 
from Abrahams, was far more talented than the second. If kept in 
an aviary with other birds they are mischievous, owing to the 
pleasure which they take in scaring their associates : their flight is 
noiseless, and they can turn and twist in the air in a marvellous 
manner : they are hardy and easy to keep, almost as graceful as 
Wagtails and altogether fascinating. 

Of the Jay-Thrushes I have only kept two species : — the 
Collared Jay-Thrush, a very handsome bird which became tame 
enough in time, but which had such a peneti'ating and monotonous 
whistle that at times it was quite exasperating, and the Spectacled 
Thrush, which is said to have a delightful song ; my bird however 
only uttered a few notes, owing perhaps to the fact that it was not 
in vigorous health, since it only lived with me for about three 
months. Although I saw several examples of this species in a small 
aviary at Abrahams' place flying in company with other Babblers, 
Larks, Weavers and Doves, I did not venture to trust my bird in a 
mixed community, knowing as I did that the Jay-Thrushes are to 
some extent predacious in their habits : perhaps confinement in a 
large cage may have shortened its life, but it did not have the same 
eft'ect in the case of Garrulax picticollis. 

Of the Eed-billed Liothrix I have had dozens of examples, 
the majority of which proved to be hens ; but of cock birds I have 
owned some superb songsters. I may be wrong, but my experience 
has led me to the conclusion that the Indian race is more talented in 
this respect than the Chinese, the notes being fuller, more varied, 
and better sustained. As is well known this is one of the hardiest 
and most pleasing of all imported birds, but it is an inveterate 

Counting the Spotted-wing {Psaroglossa spiloptera) of which 
I wrote in our Magazine n.s. vol. i., pp. 51 — 54, I have kept five 
species of Bulbuls, the others being the Eed-vented, Persian, Chinese 
and Eed-eared. They are natiu'ally long-lived birds with lively 

198 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

dispositions, bright notes as a rule (tliough the Persian bird far 
excels the others as a songster) confiding ; but jealous of other birds 
at whom they swear vigorously if they conceive that the latter are 
encroaching upon their rights. 

The only Titmice which I have kept are the Ox-eye or Great 
Tit, the Coal-Tit in the nestling stage, the Marsh-Tit and the Blue- 
Tit. Of these the first is a heartless butcher and far better free than 
in captivity ; the Blue-Tit is delightful, but unfortunately is very 
sensitive to cold, and has a nasty habit of killing and eating the 
brains of its invalid brethren ; but the tameness of hand-reared 
Blue-Tits is marvellous. On the whole I found the Marsh-Tit the 
most suitable for aviary life. 

I have once had the Nuthatch, which I kept in a flight-cage, 
but it did not live many weeks with me : it was a pretty bird and I 
was sorry when it died. The English Wren I have attempted to 
keep once or twice, but I could not persuade it to eat soft food, so 
after it had caught all the spiders and small insects in the aviary 
into which I had turned it, it speedily died. 

Of Wagtails I have had several examples each of the Pied, 
the Grey, and the Yellow : I consider them the most graceful and 
pleasing of all the British soft-bills : they soon become tame and, if 
hand-reared, are astonishingly so : in an aviary of small mixed birds 
they are inclined to be somewhat aggressive ; but, as house-pets 
with plenty of freedom I know of nothing to approach them. I 
have kept ten Meadow-Pipits ; but, though not disagreeable to other 
inhabitants of the aviary, they fought each other incessantly ; so 
that of the last nine which I purchased at one time some killed one 
another, others were killed by a Hedge-Accentor, and eventually 
only one hen was left alive : I cannot recommend them therefore as 
aviary birds, and as cage-birds they are not much to look at. 

I have had one Golden Oriole which lived in a flight-cage for 
about two years : it was blind in one eye which possibly may have 
been the reason for its uninteresting dulness. It rarely whistled, 
and," in spite of its bright colouring, I am afraid I did not grieve 
much when it passed away. A Eed-backed Shrike which was caught 
in its first year and given to me in 1896 was so wild, ill-tempered 
and dirty that I found it more trouble than pleasure : it used plenty 

The Avicultural Magazine. 


Photo by J. H. Sy mends. 

Thirty-Uoo Years of Aviculture. 199 

of bad language, but never sang, although there were plenty of song- 
birds round it from which it might have learned to sing well, as 
some members of its species do. A young Spotted Flycatcher which 
had stunned itself by flying against a street lamp was brought to me, 
but I could not induce it to eat, so that it died the day following. 
Forcible feeding rarely has satisfactory results. 

Of the Swallows I have only had hand-reared House and 
Sand-Martins, as noted in my little article on rearing British birds, 
and of White-eyes I have only kept the Chinese species ; a pair of 
which was given to me by the late Joseph Abrahams : I found them 
altogether charming, though at first they were rather delicate. 

Tanagers I regard as ideal pets for the bird-lover : they are 
not only, for the most part, splendid in colouring, but they are by 
no means difficult to keep, provided that their flight is sufficiently 
large to enable them to take plenty of exercise and a daily bath ; 
they usually become confiding fairly quickly, so that they will take 
mealworms, caterpillars or spiders from one's fingers, and some of 
them, in addition to the harsh song which many of them possess, 
occasionally sing very prettily. Unfortunately they are rather 
expensive birds, so that I have only kept five species : — seven 
Superb Tanagers (purchased) ; two Archbishop Tanagers (given to 
me by our present editorj ; two male Scarlet Tanagers (purchased) ; 
two young Black Tanagers (given to me by Mr. Teschemaker), but 
which owing to delay on the railway were so weakened that they 
both died within two months of their arrival ; and one male Orange- 
billed Tanager which unhappily also only survived for a similar 
period after I purchased it. Of these fourteen birds the two Scarlet 
Tanagers and one Archbishop are still in excellent health. 

(To he continued). 

200 Mr. Hubert D. Astley, 


Acrocephalus streperus. 
By HuBEET D. Astley. 

Before very long the hosts of summer immigrants will com- 
mence to wend their way northwards, and amongst them towards 
the end of April or beginning of May the dainty little Eeed Warblers 
will return to marshy and swampy localities, to dense thickets of 
reed and sedge, climbing amongst the aquatic herbage, and seldom 
going on the ground. It is not a particularly shy bird, although it 
objects to coming out into open places, but it can be observed in the 
early part of the spring before the rushes and sedges, which it loves, 
have become thick and tall as the summer goes on. 

The nest, as is well shown in Mr. Symonds' excellent photo- 
graphs, is carefully suspended on the stems of the reeds, three stems 
as a rule being woven round to sustain it. It is composed exter- 
nally of dry grass, with small pieces of wool studded about it ; the 
interior having a layer of moss, and lined with sheep's wool, willow 
flax and feathers. I once found a Cuckoo's egg in such a nest (not 
an unusual site, I be]ieve\ although I could never quite make up 
my mind that it did not belong to a Marsh Warbler, and how the 
Cuckoo managed to cling on to the slender stems of the reeds and 
place the egg in the nest was a puzzle. At any rate, it could not 
have laid it there. The nest I found was very deep, and was built 
in the reeds (not over water) which grew in a large copse of 

The Eeed Warbler is an incessant songster, especially during 
the hours of twilight. On calm summer evenings the music of 
these birds has a charm all its own. 

Mr. Stevenson wrote : — " Its lavish notes are associated in my 
mind with many a calm summer's night in the open broads, the 
stars shining brightly overhead, and the soft breeze sighing through 
the rustling reeds. All is still, save those murmuring sounds that 
seem to lull to sleep. Presently, as if by magic, the reed-birds on 
all sides are teeming with melody ; now here, now there, first one 
then another and another of the reed-birds pour forth their rich 
mocking notes, taken up again and again by others." 

The AvicuLTURAL Magazine. 


Photo by J. H, Symonds 

The AvicuLTURAL Magazine- 


Photo by J. H. Symonds. 

on the Reed Warbler. 201 

The Eeed Warblers are later in arriving in their breeding 
quarters than the fussy little chattering Sedge Warblers, and in the 
first week in June are at the height of their singing. 

Mr. William Farren writes : — " Eetiring as all the Acro- 
cephali undoubtedly are, their wonderful industry in song suggests 
that the skulking is not so much for concealment as because their 
livelihood is so closely connected with the insects and small aquatic 
creatures that abound on the stems of the plants. But when 
singing they frequently leave the cover for more exposed positions ; 
the Eeed Warbler may be seen perched on a high reed, and some- 
times it sings as it flits from one reed-bed to another." 

Although Stevenson has written of the melodious notes of 
the Eeed Warbler, there is much in the song, as Mr. Farren has 
written, that is harsh and incoherent, but the Eeed Warbler's notes 
are less grating than those of the Sedge Warbler. 

Naumann described it as resembling the syllables tiri, tiri, 
tiri, tier, tier, tier, zack, zack, zack, zack, zerr, zerr, zerr, tiri, tiri, 
scherk, scherk, scherk, tret, tret, tret. These Acrocephali are great 
mimics, especially the Sedge Warbler and the Marsh Warbler. 

The subject of these notes is not so generally distributed in 
England as the Sedge Warbler, and is more numerous on the 
Eastern side than the Western. 

Over the greater part of Europe this bird is common as a 
breeding species. In Switzerland it is common, breeding even at 
an altitude of 4,000 feet. As far as is known its range in its African 
winter quarters is extensive, occurring as far south as Ehodesia, 
the Orange Eiver Colony, and even Cape Colony. 



On the 25th of March the Editor heard that a Member of the Society had 
just returned from S. America with 14 live Humming Birds in show condition, 
comprising three varieties, of which one is exceedingly small. We hope to be 
able to publish a more detailed account later on. 

The three species are Eulampis jugularis (Garnet-throated Carib) ; 
Eulampis holosericeus (Green-breasted Carib) and Bellona exilis [which latter 
could drown in a thimble !] 

202 Correspondence. 


[The following note, whicli may interest readers of the Magazine, is 
extracted from a letter sent to rae by Mr. W. K. Pomeroy, F.Z.S., a generous 
donor of valuable birds and beasts to the Zoological Gardens. — R. I. POCOCK.] 

" Camp Rio Recio, Colombia. 

" ... I am now camped on a ridge looking over the Rio Recio, a 
river which comes down from the snowy mountain, Tolima, about twenty miles 
away. The view is simply magnificent, forest-clad mountains and meadows 
with the snowy range in the background. In the precipitous forest by the river 
is the home of the Cock of the Rock. It seems rather strange that they should 
be found here in a temperate climate at an altitude of 6,500 feet, for although in 
the day the weather is like June at home, at night it is much colder. 

" I was surprised at finding them so common. They have a habit, which 
will be fatal to them as soon as the plume-hunters discover their haunts, of 
assembling every afternoon in a particular part of the forest to have a grand 
singing match. It is a wonderful sight to see them all collected together like a 
lot of brilliant vermilion flowers. They build in the precipitous rocks by the 
river, and as the forest down to the river's brink is as steep as the side of a house 
and absolutely impenetrable unless by cutting a path through the undergrowth, 
it is not easy to find the nests, even if one could rear the young ones. I have 
seen one empty nest near a bridge, and ani employing a man to look for the nests 
as well as those of the Colombian Trogon, which builds in holes in trees, and 
would be an even more difficult job than the Cocks of the Rock. 

The assembling places of the Cocks of the Rock are called Gallineros de los 
Qallos de Mo7ite, the fowl-yards of the Cocks of the Forest. Humboldt mentions 
these birds as being sold in cages by the Indians at the cataract of the Orinoco. 
However I am afraid my chance of getting living specimens is small, the people 
here, unlike my friends on the Rio Cesar, having no idea of catching or taming 
anything " 

SlE, — Mr. P. F. M. Galloway's note on an early brood of Partridges at 
Silchester Manor Farm is of interest, but he does not say if he saw them, or how 
many, or date first seen ? 

He states "a fortnight ago," and assuming Mr. Galloway wrote on 

February 24th, that makes the birds hatch on February 10th, and the hen bird 

must have begun to sit by January 20th, and to have begun laying by January 1st 

at latest. 

Perhaps Mr. Galloway would kindly give us some details. 


The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by J. H. Syraonds. 



Notices to Members — (Continued from page ti. of cover.) 

Mr. G. H. Acton, Bytliam, Kidniore Road, Caversliaiii, Reading. 
The Rev. H. A. Soames, F.L.S., Lyucroft, Brouiley, Kent. 
Mr. Thomas Hebb, Brooklea, The Downs, Lnton, Beds. 


Mr. Ar<EXlS Komyakofk, 109, Novinsky Bonlevard, Moscow, Rnssia. 
Mr. A. S. FiNDEiSEN, Hallowdene, Toiqnay. 

Proposed by Mr. W. E. Teschemaker. 
Mr. A. E. W. WaCHSMANN, " Maitai," Murray Road, Beecroft, New South 

Wales. Proposed by Mr. P. Peir. 

The Hon. Mrs. Jul^ian Byng, General's House, Cairo, Egypt. 

Proposed by Mrs. S. S. Fr^owER. 
Mr. A. Hampe, c/o Avnhold, Kaxberg & Co., Shanghai. 

Proposed by Mr. G. T. Drake. 


£ s. d. 
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Major G. A. Perreau .. .. .. 100 


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P. Peir, c/o Taxation Depot, George Street North, Sydney, N.S.W. 

The charge for private advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
WORDS OR ivKSS, and one penny for every additiojial three words or less. 
Trade advertisements are not ahowkd in this column. Dealers 
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Advertisements must reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Council reserve the right op refusing any advertisement 
they may consider undesirable. 

I pair Magellanie Goose, ^6 , i ditto Goose, ^3 ; i Snow Goose, ^^3 ; i pair 
Ruddy Shelducks, ^2; 3 Berwick Geese, 30/- ; i pair White-fronted 
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The charge jor members' advertisements under this heading is four 
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Lady Duni.eaTh, Ballywater Park, County Down, wants a hen Rhea in 
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Now Ready. 

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John Walpole-Bond 


Demy 8vo. Over 300 pages. 7/6 net. 

A work of first-hand observation of 
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The birds which form the subjects of these 
Field-Studies are amongst those which are rare as 
nesting species in this country, or scarce and difficult 
to locate, and thus comparatively seldom observed. 

The author has been able during a number of 
years of very active field-work, to gain a wide ex- 
perience of these birds and to make such close and 
intimate observations of their habits that much of 
the information conveyed in these pleasantly written 
essays has the charm of novelty and the value of 

The scope of the book is indicated by the 
following titles of chapters : — 

Dartford Warblers. 

The Pied Flycatcher. 

Sussex Crossbills. 

Cirl Buntings in Sussex. 



Concerning the Wood-Lark. 

The " Woodcock " Owl. 


The once-Commoa Buzzard. 

In Highland haunts of Eagles. 

Irish Golden Eagles. 

The once-Common Red Kite. 

Peregrine Falcons. 

The habits of the Hobby. 

The Merlin on the Moors. 

The haunts of the Gadwall, 

Habits of the Black Guillemot. 


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Third Series.— Vo\. V.— No. l.—AU rights reserved. MAY, 1914. 


By Hubert D. Astley. 
(Continued from page 194.) 

Picture an ancient Manor House built for the most part of 
grey stone, brought from a quarry in one of the wooded hills near 
by, a house with gabled roofs and moss-grown stone tiles. Grey 
walls that have been standing since the reign of Edward III., 1340. 
A house added to or perhaps partly restored in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, with a remodelling to a small portion of it in that of 
Queen Anne. One storey high, but covering a large square of 
ground surrounded by the moat, and itself in turn surrounding a 
court-yard, the latter paved, the paving stones interrupted by beds of 
lavender and monthly roses. In the centre an oli stone font of the 
15th Century, or maybe a stoop for holy water. Italian, and dis- 
covered in a carpenter's yard in Italy. 

Only on the west side ; that is where the house shows all 
three episodes of its existence, Gothic, Elizabethan and good Queen 
Anne ; on that side there is a length of lawn, just wide enough to 
give room to the great cedar planted by the poet Wordsworth, yet 
not wide enough to keep it from spreading great branches of eternal 
shade over the moat ; whose water encroaches very much closer to 
the house, north, east and south ; within a few feet. 

And it is not often, looking through the casement windows 
towards any of the four aspects, that some ducks cannot be seen 
outside. Walk on to the old stone bridge and whistle. From the 
east side some are sure to come, steaming vigorously round the 

204 Mr. Hubert D. Astley. 

corner of the low stone wall which retains the banks. Perhaps 
three or four pairs of Tufted Duck and some Summer Duck, which 
we always call " sweety-drops," to which a child once likened them, 
the white stripes and curves on the dark ground colour of the drakes 
recalling", I suppose, peppermint bull's-eyes ! 

From the west side another and larger flotilla, headed by the 
pair of Black-necked Swans ; several Pochard, some Scaup, Chiloe 
Widgeon, Brown Call-Ducks, Shelduck, Einged Teals, Cinnamon 
Ducks and others. But I have already mentioned these. A 
pair of Golden Eye keep at a distance, and the White-eyed 
Pochard never become tame like their commoner, but equally 
handsome, cousins. Yet the White-eyes were hatched in cap- 
tivity, and the Common Pochards were caught in a wild state, 
as were the Scaup, and the Scaup becomes perfectly tame. At 
night, even when their voices are not sounding, one hears the 
" plop, plop " of the divers as they dip below ; and there are times 
when I think they have midnight dances, such a splashing is there ; 
wild galops and old-time country dances, none of your languid one- 
steps and tangos. They engage the Owls to play the flute perhaps, 
for certainly the brown ones perch in the cedar tree and hoot, which 
at any rate rhymes with flute ! And the Black-necked Swans are 
the " piccolos." I love this orchestra. As I lie in bed, with some- 
times the full moon shining through the tracery of the cedar's stately 
boughs, my windows open and the curtains drawn aside, not only do 
I listen to the music on the moat, but to the gaggling and grunting of 
the Flamingos wading in the pond, separated from the moat at its 
north end only by a narrow causeway floored with old red bricks, 
edged by irises, and adorned by quite a stately pergola constructed 
of large and ancient oak beams and timbers, up which climb roses, 
wistaria, honeysuckles, and jasmine ; not only do I hear those 
quaint, guttural notes, but, as I have already said, thei^e comes a 
sudden wild chorus of musically discordant cries from all the cranes 
across the meadow, heads uplifted and wings beating time. 

Never does such music distress or disturb me. Unlike one 
who, on having the place described to him, answered, I suppose 

you hear the d d ducks all night long ? " " Yes," was the 

answer, " and I love it." I think some people's minds are not 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Brinsop Court, South Front. 
With the moat where various species of Dueks reside. 

*"• «b8«»-",' 


Brinsop Court, West Front. Photos by a. Ezra. 

Black-necked Swans, Tufted Duck, &c., on the moat. 

My Birds at Brinsop Court. 205 

attuned to Nature's sounds, nor can they see and hear in the 
actions and voices of birds what one sees and hears oneself. If a 
bird does not behave as a human, it is called a fool, and even a 

d d fool ! I often think that to higher spirits ive might possibly 

appear in that light. To them may we not be what apes and 
gorillas and kangaroos are to us ? To them we probably appear to 
gibber and jump in foolish ways ; that is, we should appear to, were 
those in higher planes not more understanding than we. It is good 
to be endowed with a faculty, an insight, an appreciation to see 
beauty in everything. There is beauty in the bellow of the blast, as 
■Gilbert wrote. 

And so that curious rasping grunt of the Flamingos takes me 
away to some sunlit lagoon, which I have never seen in this earth 
life, where I can picture rank upon rank, squadron after squadron of 
the spindle-legged giraffe of the birds, rosy in the full light, rosier 
•still as the rays of rising and setting sun fall upon them. 

This pond at Brinsop is ideal, shallow with a good foundation 
oi soft mud, and springs to keep it clear. Eight European and one 
of the beautifully coloured Eed Flamingo from Mexico. The eight 
Common Flamingos passed last winter at the Wonder Zoo at 
Olympia, and when the show was finished Herr Hagenbeck sent 
them to me. They arrived at 10.30 p.m. on the 7th of March. I 
had given them up, and was going to bed, when a loud banging 
at a side door leading into a paved loggia made me exclaim " The 
Flamingos ! " The man who had knocked said that they had 
arrived at Hereford (61 miles distant) in such large crates that he 
had taken upon himself, with assistance, to remove them and put 
them all into a small motor van, loose ! 

Fetching a lantern, I traversed an orchard to the gate outside 
which the taxi stood. When I flashed the light of the lantern to 
the window I could have believed that eight damsels, all dressed in 
pink and white and showing a good deal of leg, had returned from a 
ball, or else from the theatre, where they had taken part in a ballet. 
How they had all managed to keep on their legs whilst being driven 
rapidly for 6i miles I don't know, especially as the last 200 yards of 
the road was all ruts. My bird-keeper came out, and the odd man. 
Four of us tucked a Flamingo under each arm, and stumbling along 

206 My Birds at Brinsop Court. 

in the dark, the Flamingos occasionally pinching every part of one's 

face, including one's nose, we landed them for the night in a large 


And next morning the great doors were flung open, and the 

corps de ballet stepped out. Oh joy ! There was a lovely pond 

within a few yards, the mud teeming with water-shrimps, the water 

fresh and wind-swept. The contrast after Olympia ! From Olympia 

to Elysium ! They all promptly sat down in the water with their 

bodies all but immersed, their long necks twisting and writhing 

like so many blush-pink snakes. The Eed Flamingo withdrew, 

haughtily, its nose turned very much down, for a Flamingo 

cannot do the opposite. Never had it seen such faded-out things.. 

But the Europeans were too busy with their ablutions to study 

colour, and if they have done so by now they have probably come 

to the conclusion that to dress in flaring shrimp-red is vulgar. 

There is nothing left to the imagination, whereas in their case 

surprises come when they lift their skirts, as it were, and flash out 

rich rosy pink on their wings. On still sunny mornings, instead of 

nine Flamingos, their number is exactly doubled ; upside down are 

nine more, so clear and bright are their reflections. 

Occasionally there are debates and bickerings, especially 
when the Red one claims to be King. Outstretched necks 
and long pointed wing feathers raised on the back, looking un- 
commonly like a Field Marshal's plumes. At other times, siestas ; 
when they stand with the water just touching their breasts, their 
necks twisted round, their beaks tucked amongst the feathers of the 
back. Then they resemble large water vessels of pale pink enamel, 
the twisted neck forming a very distinct handle. 

They possibly have their jokes, for one hears guffaws of what 
might be laughter, " Haw, haw," in guttural tones. And when 
feeding they mark time in the mud, the long necks stretched down,, 
the head immersed, searching for the water insects which they 
disturb with their pink webbed feet. There is one part of the pond 
which is out of their depth, and until they discovered this they 
would swim across it, looking like ungainly swans, the rose-pink 
knee joints working up and down beyond the tails. 

{To be continued.) 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 207 


By The Maequis of Tavistock. 

There are three ways of keeping parrots, — using the term 
" parrot " in its widest sense to include everything from a Budgerigar 
to a Eed and Yellow Macaw. They may be kept in close confine- 
ment in cages or on stands ; they may be kept in aviax-ies ; and they 
may be kept at complete liberty. The first method is the commonest 
and the most simple ; the second is the most satisfactory and the 
most lucrative ; the third is the most attractive and the most 

It must be borne in mind that all parrots do not bear close 
confinement equally well, and many even of those which will 
survive for some years in cages are in reality quite unsuited to cage 
life. Anyone, therefore, who desires a parrot as an indoor pet 
should make sure of getting a bird which is at least likely to turn 
out long-lived, contented and affectionate, even if there is not much 
hope of its ever possessing remarkable linguistic talents. Grey 
Parrots, Senegals, Amazons, Vasas, Cockatoos, Caiques, some 
Conures, Quaker Parrakeets, Brotogerys Parrakeets, and Bud- 
gerigars are all more or less suited to cage life. Some Palaornis 
Parrakeets (Eing-necks and their allies) also become very talented 
and amusing, but with this family the . cocks only should be selected 
as pets. A hen Palceornis in close confinement is usually the 
dullest bird imaginable. 

A parrot cage should be rectangular ; a bell-shaped cage is 
apt to spoil the bird's plumage, as it is always rubbing and pressing 
its feathers against the bars whenever it climbs about. Most parrot 
cages are provided with a swing, hanging from the top, and a kind of 
metal grating at the bottom. The swing may amuse the bird, but as 
often as not it only irritates it and gets in its way, in which case it 
is best removed. The grating is a senseless contrivance which 
serves no useful purpose whatever. It in no way adds to the bird's 
comfort, and greatly increases the difficulty of keeping the cage 
clean. A sliding metal tray well covered with grit and sand is all 
that is required, and it is important to use enough sand to absorb 
the moisture from the droppings before it reaches the tray itself. 

208 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

In the case of very valuable or delicate parrots, a metal " shield," 
shaped like an empty book cover, is useful to put round the back and 
sides of the cage as a protection against draughts, but on no account 
should the cage be covered with a cloth at night. A large rectangular 
cage, three feet or more square, composed of wire netting on a metal 
framework and provided with detachable perches of hard wood, a 
shield of the kind above mentioned, a sliding zinc tray, and a small 
door in the front for the insertion of food, water and baths, will be 
found very useful for birds requiring a fair amount of wing and leg 
exercise. It is particularly suitable for new arrivals which need a 
period of rest and quarantine before they can safely be placed in an 
aviary, as well as for aviary birds which cannot be left out-of-doors 
during the winter months. 

All parrots should be kept constantly supplied with pieces of 
soft wood to bite up and amuse themselves with and they should 
be allowed baths. An unglazed earthenware dish, shaped like a pie 
dish, makes the best form of bath. China dishes will do if nothing 
better is available, but they are too slippery and the birds are often 
afraid to step into them. Parrots which refuse to bathe should be 
gently sprayed or sprinkled with tepid water, or in summer put out 
in a shower of rain ; they ought afterwards to be kept in a fairly warm 
place until quite dry. Budgerigars never bathe in the ordinary way, 
and may be provided with a piece of wet turf in which they are 
often fond of rolling. Caged parrots should, if possible, be allowed 
out daily for exercise. This is not, of course, absolutely necessary, 
but it is very beneficial, and all true bird-lovers wish their pets tO' 
find the conditions of captivity as little irksome as possible. It 
must be borne in mind that parrots are very intelligent birds, loving, 
variety and amusement, and that when in a wild state many species 
take a real pleasure in flying for its own sake, and do not merely 
employ their wings as a means of getting from place to place,, 
and of escaping from the attacks of their enemies. 

Macaws, on account of their huge size, cannot as a rule be 
accommodated in cages, and are usually kept chained by the leg to a 
stand. The spectacle of the unfortunate bird perpetually fastened to 
the same hard perch until its legs grow stiff and its wings lose their 
power is not a very agreeable one, and I would not therefore advise 

Sovie Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 209 

anyone to keep a Macaw unless it can be given plenty of liberty in 
or out of doors, or proper aviary accommodation. 

Parrot -keeping in aviaries is, as I have said before, the most 
satisfactory and the most remunerative of the three methods. Not 
only do the birds usually appear happier and in more perfect 
plumage than when confined in cages, but there is also a fair chance 
of successful breeding, and a prolific pair of some rare species may 
constitute a substantial pecuniary asset to their fortunate owner. 

The size of the aviary must, of course, depend upon the 
money and space available. As a general rule the larger it is the 
better the birds will thrive, but it must not be forgotten that more 
satisfactory results are usually obtained when each pair have a 
comparatively small compartment to themselves than when the 
whole stock is kept together in one large flight. At the same time, 
if the species and individuals are carefully chosen (never forget that 
with birds as with humans " extremes meet," and that while near 
relatives may quarrel, distant ones may agree), two, and even three, 
pairs may be kept together and rear their young in perfect harmony. 
The great secret is to select birds differing considerably in size, and 
to make sure that the larger, while being masters of the smaller, are 
yet of a gentle disposition and not given to meddling in their 
neighbours' affairs. As an additional precaution the nest boxes 
should be provided with entrance holes of different sizes, for parrots, 
as a general rule, instinctively select breeding quarters with the 
smallest entrances capable of admitting their bodies. A nest box or 
barrel should be fixed high — close against the roof, if possible— for 
a sitting bird dislikes having her neighbours constantly alighting on 
the roof of her home. The bottom should be concave and covered 
with a layer of soft decayed wood or sawdust, and the entrance should 
be only an inch or two above the level of the floor, otherwise the 
young may find difficulty in making their exit. 

In building an aviary the materials used must bear some 
relation to the destructive powers of the birds which it is intended 
to introduce. Ordinary wire netting and stout woodwork will 
confine most PlatycercincB and Polytelis Parrakeets, the smaller 
Palceomida, Lories and Lorikeets, Lovebirds, Kings and Crimson- 
wings. Conures, Quaker Parrakeets, and the smaller parrots 

210 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

require rather stronger netting, and no unprotected woodwork will 
long resist their attacks. Large Parrots, Cockatoos and Macaws 
can only be kept in by something of the same nature as the metal- 
work which covers the large flight cages at the Zoological Gardens. 
The young of certain species of Parrakeets are very apt, on first 
leaving the nest, to dash themselves violently against the sides of 
the aviary and sustain fatal injuries. It is therefore advisable to 
cover, the end at any rate, of a long wire flight with sacking when a 
valuable brood is expected to make its appearance. 

When Finches and other small birds are kept in the same 
aviary with Parrots, it is advisable to protect the roosting and nesting 
quarters of the former with large-mesh wire netting through which 
they alone are able to pass. In the open they can, unless very 
young, keep out of the way of danger, and it is when asleep or 
cornered in a nest-box that they are likely to be caught and injured. 
Not all parrots, however, can be trusted in mixed company even 
with these precautions. Blue-bonnets and Lovebirds are impossible 
neighbours for anything weaker than themselves, and I, personally, 
would never trust Conures, Caiques, Lorikeets, Brotogerys Parrakeets 
or Budgerigars, though amiable individuals do sometimes occur even 
among the most mischievous and aggressive species. 

No portion of the interior of a Parrot aviary should ever be 
painted or varnished or the most disastrous results will be sure to 
follow. Parrots are extraordinarily sensitive to mineral poisons, and 
I have found to my cost that Australian Parrakeets, which can stuff 
themselves with laburnum seeds and yew buds with absolute 
impunity, will die in convulsions within a few hours of nibbling 
fragments of painted wood. 

Where the aviary consists of an inside shelter and an outside 
flight, the former must be absolutely free from draughts. It is best 
to arrange for all ventilation to come from the front only. I dislike 
top ventilation as it nearly always produces a continued upward 
current of air, which draws in from the door and, striking the birds 
underneath, is very likely to cause enteritis. 

If artificial heat is provided it is very important to secure an 
even temperature irrespective of outdoor weather conditions. This 
is by no means easy to arrive at, and I have always obtained far 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 211 

better results from the use of a stove or gas radiator than from any 
system which involves the employment of hot-v^ater pipes, which 
are usually most ineffective and troublesome. When turning birds 
into an aviary for the first time it is a wise precaution, where an 
inner compartment exists, to shut them up for the first few nights. 
It may also be advisable, especially if the nights are cold, to give a 
little artificial heat, even though they may not previously have been 
kept in a warm room.. Parrots, when first placed in unfamiliar 
quarters, have a perfect genius for selecting the draughtiest and 
most exposed places to roost in, and it is most disheartening to turn 
a valuable breeding pair into a new aviary and then to go out next 
morning to find the cock or hen dead of enteritis. I have more than 
once experienced this calamity in the case of species reputed to be 
extremely hardy. 

In concluding these hints on aviary management, it will be 
well to say something about the important art of bringing birds into 
breeding condition. This is chiefly a matter of feeding, and with 
Parrots, more perhaps than with any other class of birds, are satis- 
factory breeding results dependent on the judicious provision of extra 
dainties at the right moment. Green food must be supplied ad 
libitum, and it is particularly important to continue giving it after 
the young have hatched. Grass, chickweed, shepherd's pursei 
dandelion, sow thistle and lettuce are all good, as well as the shoots 
and leaves of non-poisonous trees. Lettuce is sometimes said to be 
bad for Parrots, but I have given it to Cockatoos, Amazons, 
Platycerci, Eclecti and Grass Parrakeets and never found it in the 
least degree injurious ; it must of course be perfectly fresh and 
unfrosted. When at liberty in this country the Australian Parra- 
keets feed their young largely on the leaves and flowers of the 
common daisy, and although I cannot say I have ever offered the 
plant to my aviary birds, I have not the slightest reason to suppose 
that it would prove harmful. Fruit, particularly apple, is an 
important item in the menu during the breeding season, and meal- 
worms may also be offered, though not all Parrots will eat them. 
A full ration of hemp and sunflower should be supplied in most cases, 
though this can generally be reduced again, with advantage, after the 
moult is over. 

212 The Marquis op Tavistock, 

In giving green food, etc., do not think that because the birds 
will not touch it the first time it is offered that it is no use trying it 
again. Many Parrots are extremely suspicious of new foods, and 
only summon up courage to try an unfamiliar article of diet after it 
has been placed before them many times. Do not grow discouraged, 
either, if they only seem to touch the tiniest fragment of what is 
given them. Little as they may actually eat, it may make the 
whole difference between eggs and no eggs, or between fertile eggs 
and clear ones. 

When it is desired to breed from a hen bird which has been 
kept for a very long period in a cage, it is often prudent to keep her 
for some time alone in the aviary on a very plain diet before intro- 
ducing her mate and the nest barrel. In this way the risk of 
egg-binding is a good deal lessened. 

The plan of keeping a number of parrots at liberty is one 
which not many aviculturists will care to attempt since the con- 
ditions indispensable to success are not to be found everywhere and 
heavy losses are likely to be sustained, especially at the outset of 
the experiment. Nevertheless there is a charm about it which 
atones for many disappointments, and successes, when they do come, 
are perhaps all the better appreciated for the failures which may 
have gone before. The beauty of the birds' plumage is certainly 
most apparent when they are living in complete freedom, partly 
because they attain a depth and brilliance of colour seldom seen, 
even among the inhabitants of the largest and best-kept aviaries. 
There is, too, the satisfactory knowledge that if a true pair can only 
be induced to stay they are practically certain to make an attempt 
at breeding, and the results are likely to be satisfactory ; for, while 
bad weather and accidents do, often enough, spoil one's hopes, infertile 
eggs and neglected young are almost unknown where birds are nest- 
ing under more or less natural conditions. Lastly, there are many 
interesting facts brought to light about the wild life of both rare 
and common species which can never be discovered as long as the 
birds are in any degree confined. 

The three conditions most necessary to success are : — 
(l) Good winter cover. (2) Good natural nesting accommodation. 

Some Hints on Parrot- Keeping. 213 

(3) Trustworthy neighbours who can see an unfamihar bh'-d without 
instantly trying to shoot it. 

A really thick spruce wood provides about the best form of 
winter cover, but any kind of tall, dense evergreen will answer the 
purpose well enough. Abies orientalis gives even better shelter than 
ahies excelsa, but is seldom found planted in any other way than as 
a single specimen tree. 

For nesting purposes English trees unfortunately appear to 
furnish very indifferent accommodation, especially for Long-tailed 
Parrakeets, which will sometimes spend many weeks in an unsuc- 
cessful search after a home to suit their taste, and finally leave the 
neighbourhood in disgust never to return. 

Very old oaks, elms, beeches and poplars are most likely to 
provide Parrots with habitable quarters, and where these are absent 
some good may be done by fixing up artificial nest barrels. These 
should alwavs be placed as far from the ground as possible, and 
where small or medium-sized birds are kept they should have 
entrance holes narrow enough to keep out Brown and White Owls, 
which are apt to play havoc among the nestling and sitting hens. 

To exclude a Barn Owl the hole should not be more than 
2t-inches in diameter ; to exclude a Brown Owl Sl-inches, 2f-inches 
will keep out a Jackdaw, and 2j-inches a Little Owl. 

Cockatoos, the larger Parrakeets, and, in fact, most members 
of the Parrot family are usually, in the first instance, best turned 
with cut wdngs into a roomy grass enclosure out of which they 
cannot climb. If released full-winged they are more than likely to 
be lost at once, but where the other plan is adopted their powers of 
flight are restored gradually during the course of the moult, and they 
are for a long time only capable of going short distances in the 
neighbourhood of their home. 

The enclosure, which should contain no valuable trees or 
shrubs (since cut-winged Parrots are ten times more destructive 
than those which are able to fly) must be provided with plenty of 
branches for the birds to perch on, good temporary shelter from rain 
and wind, and a feeding tray of the same pattern as those on which 
the birds will find their seed after they have scattered about the 
wood or garden in which it is hoped that they will make their home. 

214 The Maequis of Tavistock, 

A certain amount of trouble is often caused by fighting, and it is an 
unfortunate fact that where both assailant and victim are unable to 
fly, the latter for some reason has usually great difficulty in making 
its escape. The only plan is to shut up the worst offenders — usually 
old cocks in breeding condition — until such time as their mates, if 
they have any, are able to fly, when they may be allowed to join 
them without much risk of straying. 

Very tame Amazon Parrots and Macaws can generally be 
allowed the full use of their wings from the first ; but it is desirable 
that they should become thoroughly familiar with their surroundings 
before being released, and it is also well to allow them a little 
preliminary flying practice in an aviary or large room. It some- 
times happens that Parrots which have been long confined in cages 
are very clumsy and erratic in their flight during the first few days 
of their unaccustomed liberty, and having settled in a tall tree they 
will starve for many hours before they can summon up courage to 
attempt a descent to the ground. Lovebirds should also be released 
full-winged after having been kept for some weeks in an aviary 
containing a feeding tray of the same appearance as those they 
will find outside. They behave like small Finches similarly treated, 
and seldom give trouble by straying on the day they receive full 
liberty. In dealing with Cockatoos, Lorikeets and certain Parra- 
keets, it is sometimes safe in the case of mated pairs more or less in 
breeding condition to allow the male bird to fly, and some weeks 
later, when he has become thoroughly familiar with his surroundings, 
to permit his wife to join him. In following this plan it is of vital 
importance that the hen should remain in full view of her mate 
when he first goes out, and it is most risky to attempt it unless the 
mu.tual affection of the two birds is obviously very great indeed. 

When new arrivals will find other individuals of their own 
species already at liberty the necessity for wing-cutting may or may 
not exist, and will depend on circumstances. In the case of sociable 
and highly gregarious kinds the strangers may usually be expected 
to join their companions at liberty and give no trouble, especially if 
they are released one at a time. On tlie other hand, in dealing with 
birds not particularly sociable and gregarious, considerable care 
must be taken, or losses will be sure to follow. Let us take the 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping . 215 

PlatycercincB as an illustration. If you have three adult pairs of 
Eosellas flying at large and desire to add to your stock by importa- 
tion, it is perfectly useless to turn the new birds out full-winged 
in the hope that the others will induce them to stay ; they will do 
no such thing, and will only bully them and accelerate their depar- 
ture. If you have a small flock of young Eosellas which have not 
yet paired, the case is rather different, and it is usually safe to allow 
other young birds and even adult cocks to join them full-winged. 
Adult hens, on the other hand, are intolerant of the presence of 
young birds which do not belong to them, and are apt to resent 
rather than welcome their company. If you have an old unpaired 
cock at liberty and provide him with a wife, the latter may be 
allowed to fly out and join him as soon as he begins to show an 
active interest in her and visits the cage or aviary in which she is 
confined. If you have a hen at liberty and get a cock to turn out 
with her, the latter must be more or less in breeding condition before 
he is released (particularly in the case of Parrakeets). If he is not, 
the hen will either ill-treat or ignore him, and he will probably be 
soon lost. Unmated Parrots of either sex will, unless very tame and 
attached to their owners, wander off in search of a companion as 
soon as the nesting season approaches. Cockatoos, however, which 
have nested at liberty and afterwards lost their mates, seldom 
leave altogether. Occasionally, when a mate cannot be obtained 
for a solitary bird, a companion of the same sex will console it 
sufficiently io prevent it from straying and getting lost. 

Assuming that the first stage of the acclimitization experi- 
ment has gone off well and the inherent tendency of most Parrots 
to wander on being released has been in some manner restrained, 
future success will depend largely on the constant supply of seed or 
other food, preferably in more than one place if a number of birds 
are kept. Any system of feeding on what I may term an " open " 
tray or board is quite impracticable, as after a very short time 
immense hordes of Sparrows, Starlings, Greenfinches, Pigeons, Jack- 
daws and other unwelcome visitors will be attracted to the spot, 
and it will cost a perfect fortune to feed them and the Parrots at 
the same time. It is therefore necessary to employ a " trap-tray," 
i.e., a feeding tray which can, at a moment's notice, be converted 

216 The Makquis of Tavistock, 

into a kind of box-trap for the capture of unbidden guests. The 
■simplest form of trap-tray is a kind of box consisting of a stout 
metal framework covered with wire netting, the mesh being suffi- 
ciently fine to exclude mice. Tw^o of the sides, at right angles to 
-each other, are fastened to the top by means of hinges in such a 
way that by placing a T-shaped prop at the corner of the trap, the 
two sides can be simultaneously kept raised on a level with the top 
and the birds allowed to pass under them and reach the food con- 
tained in the shallow metal tray (perforated with two or three holes 
for drainage purposes) which lies on the floor. One end of a line is 
fastened to the stem of the prop and the other is carried behind a 
screen erected at some little distance, and so arranged that a person 
behind it can observe the birds feeding on the tray without making 
himself visible to them. A sharp pull at the line from behind the 
screen causes the prop to jump away, thereby releasing the sides, 
which fall downwards and inwards by their own weight, and the 
trap-tray becomes a closed box. Electric bell-wire makes the best 
line ; common string is most dangerous, as with the first shower of 
I'ain it shrinks considerably and pulls the trap shut by reason of the 
increasing tension, — usually selecting for the manoeuvre a moment 
when those birds are feeding on the tray which it is least desired to 
interfere with. Where there is any chance of meddlesome persons 
working the trap out of mischief or for the purpose of catching and 
-stealing the Parrots, it is advisable to lock the end of the line in a 
small box fastened securely to the back of the screen, which should 
in this case be of a very substantial description. If this is done, it 
is impossible for anyone to pull the line without first showing himself 
to the birds and scaring them away to safety. 

In the centre of the top of the trap there should be a small 
hinged door " which can be opened for the insertion of the hand 
and arm when the sides have fallen and the birds have been caught. 
The whole contrivance can either be placed on the ground or on 
some kind of raised stand. In the latter case it is usually wise to 
peg the line down, or rather to run it through swivels on the ground 
level, for if it is swinging loose, large birds flying against it or falling 
branches of trees striking it are apt to dislodge the prop at incon- 
venient moments. When the trap-tray is on the ground it is as 

Sovie Hints on Parrot- Keeping. 217 

well to shut it at night, anyhow during the winter ; otherwise the 
seed attracts enormous quantities of mice, which in turn attract the 
Owls, — and then good-bye to your smaller Parrakeets ' 

I need hardly say that the Parrots themselves should never 
be caught on the trap except in case of illness or other urgent 
necessity. Not only does it make them exceedingly shy of returning 
to feed, but there is always a slight risk of their being struck and 
injured by the falling sides. 

Lastly, it is, as I have already pointed out, absolutely neces- 
sary to familiarise them thoroughly with the appearance of the tray 
before they receive their liberty. As a general rule, the larger the 
bird the longer it will take to learn to recognise a trap-tray, 
wherever encountered, as the " fons et origo " of a good square meal. 

The ailments of parrots are many and various, and of all 
birds they make the worst patients, since owing to the peculiar 
formation and immense power of the mandibles it is almost 
impossible to forcibly administer in effective quantities either food 
or medicine, which, when really sick, they usually refuse to touch 
voluntarily. In most cases there is only one remedy to be tried, 
viz., heat, and it must be real heat, — a temperature of 85° — 90° 
evenly maintained night and day, and not merely the comfortable 
warmth of a living room at 60° (which probably drops to 45° during 
the course of the night). The effect ef great heat on a sick Parrot 
is often little short of marvellous, and I would strongly recommend 
everyone who owns a valuable collection of tropical or semi-tropical 
birds to have a small room specially fitted up as a " baking " 
hospital. Like the tiger recommended in the Bad Child's Book of 
Beasts to overburdened parents, " it well repays the trouble and 
expense," and time and time again it will save a rare treasure which 
otherwise would inevitably be lost. 

I will now deal briefly with some of the commoner Parrot 
ailments, their symptoms, and what I have found from my own 
experience to be the best treatment : — 

Enteritis. — One of the most frequent and fatal of bird diseases. 
With Parrots, generally due to chill, but sometimes caused 
by the presence of some irritant or poison in the bowels. 
The affected bird puffs its feathers, shivers, and often sits with 

218 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

its head under its wing (to use a common, if incorrect, expres- 
sion). The eye appears dull, and there is little or no appetite. 
Heat is the only really effective treatment, and if the bird is 
not too far gone will generally effect a cure. Little benefit is 
likely to be derived from medicine or dieting, as the patient will 
hardly touch food until it begins to mend. Where enteritis is 
due to the swallowing of some irritant such as paint or varnish 
the symptoms are more acute, and convulsions and paralysis of 
the legs may ensue. Recovery will depend on the strength of 
the bird's constitution and the quantity of poison taken, and 
little or nothing can be done but to keep it warm and quiet, 
hope for the best and expect the worst ! 

Pleueisy. — Often accompanied by pericarditis. Symptoms much 
the same as those of enteritis. Generally fatal in a few hours. 
Warmth the only remedy. 

Inflammation of the Lungs. — Due to chill. The bird pants 
heavily and breathes noisily, the eye remaining fairly bright. 
It seldom puts its head under its wing as the labour of breathing 
is thereby increased. Treatment : Great heat and a fairly moist 

Bronchitis. — Generally due to chill. Symptoms much the same 
as those of inflammation of the lungs. In enough distilled 
water to last for a week's supply put 30 grains of carbonate 
of ammonia, 30 drops of tincture of squills, and 50 drops of 
glycerine, and give the mixture instead of plain water. There 
is often no marked loss of appetite. Keep in a very warm and 
rather moist atmosphere. 

Peritonitis. — Generally the result of some internal injury, and 
almost invariably fatal in a few hours. The symptoms of 
chronic peritonitis are sometimes indistinguishable from those 
of tuberculosis, the bird feeding well, but showing extreme 
emaciation and some diarrhoea. 

Tuberculosis. — Most commonly met with in Cockatoos. 
Symptoms : Emaciation and diarrhoea, and, in acute cases, 
vomiting. A tame bird may become extremely savage, probably 
under the influence of pain. The appetite usually remains 
good. Tuberculosis is bv no means so incurable as some 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 219 

writers imagine, even when it has reached a very advanced 
stage. The bird should be kept extremely warm and fed on 
every kind of rich and stimulating food which it can be per- 
suaded to take, — unlimited quantities of hemp and sunflower 
seed should be offered, cake and even meat, anything, in fact, 
which will not irritate the bowels. Avian tuberculosis (which 
is not known to be communicable to human beings) is seldom 
pulmonary, and fresh air — in the sense of a constant supply of 
outdoor air — is of no use whatever in effecting a cure. Far 
more birds develop tuberculosis in outdoor aviaries than in 
cages. The disease is highly contagious, but the germs do not 
appear to be carried by the air. 

Septic Eevee. — The term popularly employed to designate a 
highly contagious malady possibly allied to tuberculosis, 
though wholly distinct from it. The disease is most commonly 
found among the newly-imported birds which have been over- 
crowded in dirty travelling boxes ; but, once introduced, it will 
flourish indefinitely in the cleanest and best-kept aviaries in 
defiance of the most thorough attempts at disinfection. The 
necessity for a lengthy period of quarantine in the case of all 
freshly imported birds likely to be suffering from the disease is 
therefore obvious. The micro-organism of septic fever is 
possessed of immense vitality, both as regards its power of 
surviving for long periods without a living host, and of resist- 
ing the action of disinfectants. It is also singularly, at times 
bewilderingly, capricious in its attacks. The disease appears 
in two forms, the acute and the chronic, the former being by 
far the most common. Both are incurable, and the symptoms 
are very similar to those of enteritis, the bird's eye always 
appearing sick, dull and watery. 

Geey Pareot " Fever." — A highly contagious disease often found 
among newly-imported Grey Parrots, P otocephalus Parrots 
(Senegals, etc.), and Blue-bonnets. It is caused by the presence 
of a diplo-coGcus in the blood, and is entirely distinct from 
ordinary septic fever, though it resembles that disease in its 
symptoms. Cases of recovery are extremely rare, but are not 
quite unknown. Great heat is the only remedy to try. 

220 Some Hints on Parrot- Keeping. 

FbaTHEE-PLUCKING. — Is generally due to improper feeding, but 
may be also caused by lack of occupation, parasites, or, 
more rarely, by anxiety to breed where no opportunity 
is allowed of doing so. A feather-plucker should be 
placed on a plain diet of canary, millet, wheat and oats 
with dry bread and unlimited fruit and green food. It should 
be freely supplied with soft, rotten wood, and small branches 
to bite up and amuse itself with, and should be allowed as 
much freedom and exercise as possible. Baths should be 
freely supplied, and if the bird refuses to bathe it should be 
sprayed daily with quassia solution, — a dessert spoonful of 
essence of quassia to a tumbler of tepid water where the 
presence of parasites is suspected. Liberty to roam at will 
with a cut wing in a large grass enclosure will cure the most 
inveterate feather-plucker that ever existed. 
Loss OF FeATHEES. — Apparently due to debility. The bird 
becomes entirely destitute both of down and feathers, the head 
being often the first part to become bare. The disease which 
renders its unfortunate victim a most grotesque and unsightly 
object, is generally very intractable. It is best to keep the 
patient fairly warm, allow it plenty of exercise and occupation, 
and feed it on a nourishing and varied diet. A few drops of 
Parrish's Chemical Food should be placed in the drinking 
French Moult. — A popular term denoting a chronic inability to 
produce fully-developed feathers, particularly in the wings and 
tail, the bird being usually unable to fly more than a few yards 
owing to its primarus being very small and malformed. French 
moult is most commonly seen in Budgerigars, which are the 
offspring of nearly-related, immature, or weakly parents, but it 
sometimes occurs among other species, and is often met with 
among Hooded Parrakeets which have been caught too young 
and received a severe check in their early youth. Treatment, 
which is seldom efficacious, should be the same as that recom- 
mended for birds suffering from loss of feathers. 

(To he continued) 

The Ayicultural Magazine. 

Photo by G. E. Low. 

{Kittacincla mucrura .) 

My Indian Shaniah. > 221 


By George B. Low. 

The Indian Shamah is very well known to all aviculturists. 
Amongst the many foreigners which come to us, there are probably 
very few which can be kept with so little trouble, and possibly none 
so delightfully tame and attractive in disposition, as well as charm- 
ing in appearance. 

My bird, " Bob " (whose photograph is reproduced) possesses 
a character and personality which quite separate him from any other 
bird I have ever kept. 

In common with, as I understand, practically all the 
Shamahs in captivity, he was tame and confiding from the time of 
his arrival, although nothing like so familiar as he has since become. 

His song is extraordinarily varied, and particular bars are 
reserved for certain purposes. For instance, "Mealworms, please," 
is invariably expressed by certain notes not utilised at other times. 

When the cage is opened in the morning for cleaning and 
feeding purposes, my lively little " pal " generally manages to slip 
out, and entertains me with one or two of his best selections from 
the top of some picture or other point of vantage, until he considers 
it time to return home for breakfast. 

His powers of mimicry, like other members of his family, are 
remarkable. A few mornings ago I was puzzled by a new whistle 
which he produced loudly several times in succession, until I 
remembered the starlings which are constantly whistling and 
chattering in the trees outside the windows. He has also picked 
up the not very musical squeak of a young Eock Thrush in the 
next cage. 

Charming and amenable as he is with human beings, I regret 
to say Bob " is a perfect tyrant where his own kind are concerned, 
and always ready — not to say anxious — to tackle anything with 
feathers on it. For this reason I have been obliged to keep him in 
solitary confinement, and as he never dashes wildly about his cage 
his plumage is always perfect. 

It is difiicult, even by the use of colour sensitive plates, to 
differentiate between the blue-black of head and throat and the 

222 Mr. C. Barney Smith, 

beautiful chestnut of the breast, but the illustrations give some 
indication of where these colours meet. Nothing but a colour 
photograph, however, could do anything like justice to the appear- 
ance of this lovely little bird. 


By C. Barney Smith. 

When trying, as I do in various ways, to get the members of 
our Society to take an interest in some of our Northern birds, I am 
never quite sure whether I should be best likened to a Pelican in 
the wilderness or to a Sparrow sitting alone on the house-top. The 
distinction is perhaps not material, but I do think it would be of 
great advantage to the Society if members could be induced to take 
more interest in birds occasionally found within the limits of the 
British Isles. To give a few examples. There are few more inter- 
esting birds in their way than Water-Eails. They are always in 
good feather, quite easy to keep, and look most charming running in 
and out of rough herbage in a large grass run. There are lots of 
details about their nesting habits which are still, I believe, obscure ; 
yet does anyone ever make an attempt to try to get them to nest in 
captivity ? If the attempt has been made a record of the result 
would be interesting. It is worthy of note that Land-Eails have 
readily nested, and the Australian Eails nest several times a season 
even under adverse conditions. 

Another example is the Turnstone. I wonder how many of the 
somewhere about 420 members of the Society ever keep these birds or 
take any interest in their quaint turnings of stones. I have always 
found Turnstones quite at home in captivity, and ready to assume 
breeding plumage at the right season ; and if I had the time and 
money nothing would give me personally greater pleasure than to 
make experiments with a view of getting them to nest. I gather 
(from what is not stated in the Natural Histories) there is still 
something to learn about their nesting habits. 

Another most interesting bird — or rather, I should say, a 
bird that one would have supposed to be interesting had the facts 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by G. E Low. 

[Kittacincla macrura.) 

on desirable Waders and Water Birds. 223 

next stated been otherwise — is the Eed-necked Phalarope. Yet I 
doubt if at this time more than one member of the Society has any 
of them in captivity. When once established they do very well, and 
are delightfully tame. A photographer will compass sea and land to 
get a few photos of Phalaropes, when with a little more trouble he 
might view perfectly healthy Phalaropes, at a yard or two distant, 
all the year round. 

Again, the Editor inserted in the February number of 
the Magazine a note asking any member of the Society who 
had practical exj)erience of keeping Grebe in captivity to com- 
municate with me. I have not had a single communication 
of any description in answer to the enquiry, which seems 
to point to the fact that no one takes an interest in these 
birds. I am sorry, as I wanted in the interests of aviculture 
to get some Slavonian Grebe for the Zoo, or for some suitable 
member of the Society who has a place for these birds. [I shall 
be delighted to try them on my moat, which has plenty of small 
dace in it. And I have a beautiful place for Phalaropes, if I could 
only obtain them. — Bd.] Of course the real trouble is how to 
manage them and feed them on the voyage to England. When 
swimming with their young round them in their native haunts 
they look to me very attractive birds. 

To mention another Northern bird ; it has often occurred to 
me that it would be delightful to see a Great Northern Diver or two 
swimming at the Zoo. Mr. Beebe once reared one from an egg, and 
a captive bird has been kept in the New York Aquarium. 

Two years ago I had some nests watched in Iceland, and got 
eight eggs over here for incubation. The experiment was a failure, 
probably owing to the eggs being shaken in ti-ansit. They were 
■certainly nearly all fresh. There seems no reason, however, why 
another attempt should not be more successful if anyone is 
sufficiently interested in Great Northern Divers to make further 

The last bird I should like to mention is not, strictly 
speaking, a Northern bird, though it used to visit the British Isles. 
I refer to the Black-winged Stilt. If anyone is keeping this bird I 
hope he will tell particulars to the other members of the Society- 

224 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

Personally I have never heard of it being kept in captivity in 
England, though this has been done successfully in the South of 
Spain, whence it can be obtained. Certainly the public took great 
interest in the young Avocet at the Zoo a few years ago. Would 
Stilts be more difficult to keep than Avocets, and, if so, why ? 

The above are only a few instances of birds that seem to me 
to be neglected by aviculturists, but if I am wrong no one will be 
more delighted than myself. If experts as to all or any of these 
birds exist, I sincerely hope they will not keep to themselves the 
results of their experience, for 

" What delights can equal those 
That stir the spirit's inner deeps. 
When one that loves but knows not reaps 
A truth from one that loves and knows ? " 


By Dr. A. G. Butler. 
(Continued from page 199.) 

It is probably supposed, because my first avicultural book 
was Foreign Finches in Captivity," that Finches are my favourite 
birds ; but this is far from being the case. They are easy to provide 
for ; but, with a few exceptions, are by no means easy to breed 
unless one possesses large and suitable outdoor aviaries : indoors 
they are more subject to egg-binding than most birds. They 
certainly do not possess the intelligence or the endearing confidence 
of most soft-billed birds ; still they are pretty, some of them beau- 
tiful in plumage, and the small size of many of them renders them 
charming. I have at various times kept the following : — 

A pair of the Madeiran Chafiinch which I kept in a flight- 
cage : quiet tame birds, w^iich I might perhaps have bred in an 
aviary, but which made no attempt to do so in a cage. The cock 
bird sang well, the performance being more varied and longer, but 
with a strong resemblance to that of the European bird. Of the 
latter I have kept many examples, mostly caught in the garden in 
the winter months. Bird-catchers assert that there are two forms 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by J. H. Symonds. 

{Ruticilla plioenicurus.) 

ThirUj-tiDo Years of Aviculture. 225 

of Chaffinch in England which they call chuchwados and kiss-me-dears, 
from the terminal notes of the songs— cJiucha churr" and " tissi- 
ear " or " ivheatear " : they consider the Essex birds the best song- 
sters. For many years I had a fine Essex bird (a chuckivado) , it 
certainly was a very strong singer. Of Bramblings I have kept a 
fair number ; but, unless kept with Weavers or other powerful birds 
they are quarrelsome and dangerous, though cowardly ; their song 
is ruined by its harsh terminal note 

I have hardly ever been without several Goldfinches, for I 
consider them the most beautiful of our British Finches ; in an 
aviary they are masterful, but not at all dangerous : they are by no 
means so confiding as the European Siskin of which I have kept 
many examples, some of which would come on to my hand to eat 
maw-seed even as early as three days after they came into my 
possession. The song is pretty but not to be compared for a moment 
with that of Yarrell's Siskin of which I once purchased a pair from 
Mr. Abrahams ; unhappily, however, they died almost immediately. 
A Black-headed Siskin which I imported in 1893 also lived a very 
short time, being in poor condition when it arrived. 

I have had a good many European Bullfinches, but I did not 
find them long-lived in captivity, indeed I have seldom succeeded in 
keeping them alive for more than eighteen months ; they are essen- 
tially wild birds and seem to resent any curtailment of their liberty. 
If hand-reared, they may live in confinement to a good age ; but 
caught birds, even though they may pair and go to nest, seem dis- 
contented, and, in my experience, soon die ; on which account I 
eventually gave up all attempts to keep them. 

I have only had hens of the Lesser Eock-Sparrow and its 
race the White-throated Sparrow ; I did not trust them with other 
birds, as Mr. Abrahams told me they were of a very murderous 
disposition. I purchased a male of the Grey-headed Sparrow in 
1895 which lived a silent uneventful life in one of my aviaries until 
1900. Of the Tree- Sparrow I had a pair given to me by Mr. Silver, 
the hen of which is still alive : I cannot recommend it as an aviary 
bird, as it never becomes tame and I have never heard it sing ; this 
is my experience, as also that of Stevenson in his Birds of Norfolk. 
On the other hand, the late Lord Lilford says that the species 

226 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

becomes very tame in confinement, and the late Eev. H. A. 
Macpherson informed me that it had " a very sweet song." I can 
hardly imagine any Sparrow having a sweet song, but perhaps his 
bird had acquired the song of some other Finch by imitation : young 
Sparrows are rather clever in this respect. 

Of the common Saffron-finch I have had and bred many 
examples, but of Pelzelu's Saffron-finch I only had a pair, which I 
imported in 1893 ; the male soon died, but the female lived for some 
years. Of Yellowish finches I have had several differing not a little 
in size and colouring, so that I am rather sceptical respecting the 
value of two or three of the forms kept separate by Museum 
ornithologists. The song of all the species of Sycalis is very poor, 
and many of the notes would no doubt be excruciating to any person 
likely to have his teeth set on edge ; I never suffered from that 
nervous affection myself. 

Of Serins (or Canaries) I have kept the Cape Canary, the 
Sulphur Seed-eater, the St. Helena Seed-eater, the Green Singing- 
finch, a hen White-throated Seed-eater, the Grey Singing-finch, and 
the Alario-finch. Some of these birds quarrel fiercely with other 
male Serins, the little Grey Singing-finch apparently fighting more 
for fun than in earnest ; it is a beautiful and indefatigable songster, 
and a great favourite of mine. Oddly enough I found the more 
powerful species with the heavier beaks the least inclined to be 

Of Eose-finches I have kept the Scarlet Eose-finch and the 
Purple Eose-finch, quiet pleasing birds, without much constitutional 
vigour apparently, for they both died early. Of Pine Grosbeaks I 
received half-a-dozen in 1896, delightfully tame birds, but before the 
end of the year they all died. A pair of Crossbills which I had, used 
to undo the fastening of their cage and work havoc in my green- 
house ; I did not regret their loss. Like our Linnets, all these birds 
are rather unsatisfactory from the fact that the beautiful rose- 
colouring of the males disappears at the first moult in captivity and 
is replaced by yellow or orange. Of course I have had numerous 
Lesser EedpoUs, Twites and Linnets ; they are rather selfish and 
quarrelsome in an aviary, and Eedpolls are a nuisance from their 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by J. H. Symonds. 


Thirty-tivo Years of Aviculture. 227 

propensity to interfere with the nests of other species, which they 
pick to pieces for sheer mischief. 

Of Buntings of tlie genus Emberiza only British species have 
come into my hands. I have had several Yellow-Buntings, a Cirl- 
Bunting or two, three Ortolan-Buntings, and a fair number of Eeed- 
Buntings. I found the Ortolans aggressive towards smaller and 
weaker birds, but the other species were quite inoffensive. Eeed- ' 
Buntings are rather inclined to skulk, so that if there are bushes in 
the aviary in which they can hide, one may not see them for days. 
An example of the Grey-headed Song- Sparrow was given to me in 
1897 upon condition that, when it died, the body should be presented 
to the Natural History Museum : as it died the same night I did not 
see much of that species ; but of the allied Chingolo Song- Sparrow I 
have had several pairs, the last being a pair bred by Mr. Teschemaker 
which he kindly gave to me. Oddly enough these birds were 
hatched from eggs with a white or creamy ground-colour, yet the 
hen (before she was killed) laid eggs with a pale greenish ground- 
tint (see my plate, fig. 2). Hudson speaks of the Chingolos as 
quarrelsome birds, but I have not found them so ; perhaps they 
only quarrel with other members of their own species. 

The Nonpareil Bunting, of which I have had a fair number 
of examples, but only two hens, is quite amiable excepting towards 
species of its own genus : it is a pity that this lovely bird loses much 
of its beauty after the first moult, and that with each successive 
moult (unless kept in an open-air sunny aviary and supplied with 
plenty of insect-food) its brilliant scarlet under-surface becomes 
more and more yellow. I found the Indigo-Bunting'" (absurd name 
for a brilliant blue bird !) far more interesting, and I rarely missed 
an opportunity of purchasing specimens when offered to me ; the 
gradual assumption of the summer plumage interested me, since it 
was quite evident that the feathers slowly changed from brown or 
whitish to blue without a moult. Both the Nonpareil and the 
Indigo Buntings are confiding species which soon learn to take meal- 
worms from one's fingers, and both have pretty little songs. 

Of Pileated-finches ( Coryphospingus) I have had several pairs, 
the first two hens I received from Mr. Abrahams in exchange for a 
* Indigo Blue is a very rich colour and need not necessarily be dark.— ED. 

228 Thirty-tivo Years of Aviculture. 

-male of the much rarer Eed-crested finch, of which I imported tliree 
males. These birds are innocent, pretty, but not otherwise inter- 
esting ; they seem to have no song, only call-notes. Of Cardinal 
Buntings I have had a pair of the Green Cardinal which reared one 
young one (the latter, however, dying before its moult), five Yellow- 
billed, tw^o pairs of Red-headed and a good many Red-crested Car- 
dinals ; though powerful, they are not aggressive birds ; but their 
songs (in spite of Hudson's praise of them) are nerve-wracking and 
cause sensitive persons to clap their hands over their ears. I have 
had three cocks, but no hens, of the Virginian Cardinal (or Cardinal 
■Grosbeak) : it is a lovely bird with a powerful, though somewhat 
monotonous, song ; it must be kept cool if it is to live any length of 
time in captivity ; cold it does not object to in the least, but great 
heat speedily kills it ; I lost my last two males from heat-apoplexy : 
I foolishly kept them in flight-cages on a sunny shelf. Unlike the 
Bunting Cardinals, this species should not be trusted with small and 
weak associates. 

I have kept plenty of Greenfinches, caught in my garden ; 
■one of them was a superbly coloured bird and had a song equal to 
that of a Norwich Canary, but of course with the hideous terminal 
note of defiance. I fancy, from its tameness when first caged, that 
this must have been an escaped cage-bird ; but I have not found 
Greenfinches at any time very wild, and in an aviary they settle 
down at once : this however may be due to the fact that they had 
not previously been kept for days or weeks in small cages and foul 
air ; for a pair of Goldfinches, turned out the day they were caught, 
were equally tame. I bought a common Hawfinch from a bird- 
catcher ; but, unlike the Greenfinch, it resented captivity greatly, 
and did not live very long : I consider it the least attractive in every 
respect of all the British finches. 

A Tropical Seed-finch, given to me by Mr. Harper in 1907, 
lived an uneventful life in a flight cage until early in 1912. Of the 
species of Spermophila, or Sporophila, as Ridgway more correctly 
calls it (the name Spermophilus having been previously used) I have 
kept the White-throated, Lavender-backed, Fire-red, Reddish, Bluish, 
Guttural, Black-headed Lined, and Lined Finches : they are delight- 
ful little birds, some of them with pretty songs and, with the ex- 

Correspondence. 229 

ception of the White-throated finch, are perfectly amiable and 
peaceable : this last is sometimes aggressive. 

So much for the true finches which have at various times 
occupied my cages and aviaries : I now proceed to the generally 
more popular Weavers, of which, almost from the first, I have had 
numerous specimens and not a few species. Unquestionably the 
latter give more satisfactory results when kept during the summer 
months in outdoor aviaries with plenty of cover, and undoubtedly 
my failure to breed many of them is due to the fact that I have 
never had more than two outdoor enclosures, and neither of these 
.altogether suitable for the purpose. 

(To he continued). 



My aviary is not a large one, but a few notes on my birds nesting may be 
-of interest. I started my aviaries two-and-a-half years ago. This last season 
one pair of Long-tailed Grass Finches brought up four strong young ones. 
The first lot came out of the nest too soon and did not live. Masked 
Grass Finches, first nest, young one died after two days. Second nest, one 
young one fully reared but disappeared when grown up and I never could find it. 
Parrot Finches, four fully reared. Diamond Doves, one pair, six young fully 
reared. Gordon Bleu, one young fully reared. Zebra Finches, about 15 fully 
reared, first nesting, three died. Black-faced Love Birds, one pair, three fully 
reared. Lavender-headed Love Birds, two pairs, eight fully reared. The 
Masked Grass Finches had three eggs each time, but they all disappeared but 
one. Mice I suppose took the eggs as, though the wire is fine, they manage to 
get in when small. I give my birds a great quantity of flowering grasses of all 
kinds, which they seem to much enjoy. Orange-breasted Waxbills hatched out 
three young ones, but they died in a few days. One pair Green Singing 
Finches hatched out one young from two eggs, but it died in two days. This 
is the first season I have had my birds in pairs so I think I have done well. I 
have now some Blue-banded Grass Parrots (N. venusta) which I hope to induce 
to nest this summer, and I hope this season will do better with all my other 
birds. Eleanor Tuener-Turner. 

Miss ChAWNER writes ;—" I am surprised to find how little my pair of 
" Rainbow Buntings care for weather ; they scarcely ever avail themselves of the 
■" shelter, but stay in the flight through frost or rain without turning a feather. 

230 Correspondence. 

" They are very skulking, always preferring the thickest bush to sit in,, 
" and though far and away the most brilliantly coloured bird in the aviary, the^ 
male usually escapes notice unless one knows exactly where to look for him. 

" Both birds are usually lethargic in the daytime, but become lively just. 
" before dusk." 


On the coloured plate and in my paper I used only the scientific names 
for the species mentioned, as I wished to render them especially of use to 
Museum workers in Ornithology, and I concluded that any aviculturist who 
was not familiar with the scientific names could easily find out their English 
equivalents by referring to my " Foreign Birds for Cage and Aviary." However, 
as every member may not have the book, our Editor has asked me to send an 
index of the English names for publication in the Magazine. 

On plate — fig 1, White-throated Rock-Sparrow ; 2, Chingolo Song- 
Sparrow ; 3, 4, Gouldian Finch ; 5, Emerald Dove ; 6, Wells' Ground-dove ; 7, 
S. African Mountain-chat ; 8, Red-headed Cardinal. 

p. 179 — Grey-winged Ouzel and Blackbird hybrid ; Hedge- Accentor ; 
American Bluebird ; S. African Mountain-chat ; Chaffinch and Canary hybrid ; 
Brambling ; Goldfinch. 

p. 180 — Lesser Rock Sparrow and its race the White-throated Rock- 
Sparrow ; Saffron finch ; Pelzeln's Saffron finch ; Yellowish finch ; St. Helena 
Seedeater ; Green Singing-finch : Grey Singing-finch ; Alario finch ; Linnet ; 
European Bullfinch ; Yellow Hammer ; Indigo-finch. 

p. 181— Green Cardinal ; Red-headed Cardinal* ; Greenfinch ; White- 
throated Finch : Amaduvade Waxbill ; Green Amaduvade ; Grey Waxbill ; 
Gouldian finch ; Long-tailed Grassfinch ; Parson finch ; Diamond finch ; Star- 

p. 182 — Zebra finch ; Cherry finch ; Cutthroat finch ; Red-headed finch ; 
Sharp-tailed finch ; Spice finch ; White-headed Mannikin ; Black-headed Man- 
nikin ; Java Sparrow ; Bronze Mannikin ; Steel finch ; Ultramarine finch ; 
Bronze Weaver ; Red-billed Weaver. 

p. 183 — Rufous-necked Weaver ; Black -headed Weaver ; Baya Weaver ; 
Manyah Weaver ; Meadow Pipit ; Skylark ; Cockatiel ; Rose-headed Parrakeet- 
or Rosa's Parrakeet ; Peach-faced Love-bird ; Budgerigar ; Martinican dove ; 
Common Barbary dove ; Half -collared Turtle dove ; Necklaced dove ; Diamond 

p. 184 — ^Picui or Steel-barred dove ; Passerine dove ; Tambourine dove ; 
Emerald dove ; Australian Green-winged dove ; Bronze-winged pigeon ; Austra- 
lian Crested pigeon; Wells' Ground-dove: Wonga-wonga pigeon; Chinese 
Painted quail. 

p. 185- Calif ornian quail. A. G. BUTLER. 

* I see that, by a slip, I have put the Linnean name dominicana on the 
plate : it is doubtful whether Linneus intended this species ; if so of course his 
name would take priority over larvata. 

Notices to Members — ( Continued fiotn page it. of cover.) 

np:w membeh^vS. 

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Proposed by The Editor. 
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Proposed by Mr. R. I. PocoCK. 

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Proposed by Mrs. HarTi^ey. 


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'' The Gun at Home and Abroad" (British Game Birds and Wild Fowl) in 
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M. Portal, High Sandoe^ Hexhham, 

Contiiiued fiom p. lii oj cover. 

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The Amethyst Sun-Bird (ivith Coloured Plate), 

by Hubert D. Astley and A. Ezra 

Crowned Cranes and Stanley Cranes [Illustrated), by MAURICE PORTAL 233 

Birds of N.S. Wales I have caught and kept. — "Scrub-Birds." 

By G. A. Heumann 

Some Grassfinches in my Aviary, by Dr. L. LOVELL-KEAYS 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture, by Dr. A. G. BUTLER 

My Birds at Brinsop Court {Illustrated), by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 

Garden Friends, by Miss ETHEL Chawner 


Ducks Breeding at Dereham ... 






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Mexican Tree-Quails. Chukar Partrid§;es. 
Mexican Spoonbills White Ibises. 

Herons. White Peafowl. 
Demoiselle Cranes, Crown Cranes. 

White 5wans. Black Swans. 

Black-necked Swans. Bewick's 5wans. 

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Edited by Frank M. Chapman. 


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Contributed to by specialists in each class of birds described. 

With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Qncoloured. 

London: WEST, NEWMAN & Co.. 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 




I Huinblodl's Wooly Monkey ; i Batlikofers Gueiioii ; i Patas 
Monkey ; 2 Pigtail Apes ; i Red Baboon ; 5 Dogface BaVjoons ; 2 Sacred 
]}abooiis; 2 Mandrills; 190 Rhesus Monkeys; 20 Jew Monkeys; 4 Black 
and While RniFed I.enmrs ; 2 Orange-cheeked Leniuis ; 7 Brown Lemnrs ; 

2 Agouti; I Coati-Mundi ; 2 Coypus ; 10 Jerboas ; i Mexican Squirrel; i 
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young Dingos ; 3 South American Rhea Ostriches ; I White-whiskered 
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3 Griffin Vultures ; i Rougii-legged Buzzard ; 13 Black Swans ; 8 White 
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Teal ; 10 Demoiselle Cranes ; 4 Antigone Cranes ; 2 Rosy Flamingoes ; 4 
Rosv Spoonbills ; 3 Ibis ; i Penguin: i marvellous talking Grey Parrot; i 
talking Hill Mynah ; I pair the new Cuban Conures [Conurns euops) ; I 
pair Blue-cheeked Rosellas [Plaiyceicus aifiathusia); i Pennants Broadtail ; 
I White-eared Conure ; i pair Red-sided Fclectus Lories ; i pair Red- 
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Orange and Yellow Bishops ; 3 Yellow-vented Buntings ; 2 Cape 
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Doves; 40 While Doves; 100 Ring Doves; 6 Vinaceous Turtle Doves; 
I Stock Dove; i Triangular-spotted Pigeon; Sternotheres ; Tortoises; 
'J'errepins; Lizards; Snakes ; Crocadiles ; etc. 

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Arj-i G ultur al Ma * a^ s in e , 

H. G o o dcliild del et litTi, 


Ginnyris ametliystmixs. 






Third Series.— Yo\. V.— No. 8.— All rights reserved. JUNE, 1914. 


Ginnyris amethystinus. 

The Amethyst Sun-bkd is found in South Africa, ranging as 
far as Angola on the Western Coast. It belongs to the "dark 
brown " group, named Chalcomitra by Eeichenbach, and to that 
section in which the front of the chest is not scarlet. 

It is distinguished by its velvet-like deep colour. It is 
common in many parts of South Africa, but appears not to occur 
from that portion of the South-West coast lying between the Orange 
River and the Cape of Good Hope. It is abundant in the Eastern 
provinces. It has been procured in the neighbourhood of Swellendam 
in the mimosa trees which line the banks of the rivers. Also in the 
Transvaal and Natal it is common, as well as Swaziland. In Natal 
this handsome Sun-bird is said to remain in the bushy country 
about Pinetown throughout the year. Mr. Atmore found a nest at 
Oudtshoorn on the 24th of January, " hanging on a branch of an 
apple tree, very rough outside, composed of short bits of stick, grass, 
and spider's web — arched, as are the nests of all the tribe. The 
number of eggs appear to be two ; before they were blown they were 
of a soft creamy-yellow colour." 

Other observers say the eggs are a beautiful creamy-grey, 
with indistinct confused blotches, spots and streaks, chiefly at the 
obtuse end. The male has a short period when the plumage is' 
duller, and when assuming the breeding colours the metallic lilac 
feathers on the throat grow first, after which the bird becomes 
generally mottled with black feathers, while the metallic green crown 

232 On the Amethyst Sunhird. 

gradually appears. The metallic lilac feathers of the upper tail 

coverts are assumed later, and those on the bend of the wing last 

of all. 

* -a- * 

By A. Ezra. 

I consider this beautiful bird, though of sombre colours, one 
of the handsomest of the African Sunbirds. In perfect plumage 
the cock bird is a beautiful velvet black with metallic purple on 
shoulders, tail coverts and throat. The crown a bright metallic 
emerald green. They do not go into eclipse plumage, but when 
moulting the bird loses its velvet black, becoming a dull black, but 
in a few weeks is in full plumage again.* In good light it is a 
marvellously rich colour, and to do the bird full justice it has to be 
seen at close quarters. The hen has olive wings with a dark brown 
tail of which the outer feathers are tipped with white. Eyebrows 
and breast buff, the latter mottled by dark feathers. Throat a dusky 
black. A young cock in immature plumage is similar to an adult 
hen but with the throat jet black. I have had a couple of these 
exquisite birds for eighteen months and they have done splendidly 
never causing me the slightest anxiety. They are undoubtedly quite 
hardy and very easy to keep. Both the sexes have a broken loud 
song which is not at all unpleasant. Of all my Sunbirds these are 
the only two that eat only the syrup and grapes, thriving on it, and 
refusing spiders and green flies which all the others devour with 
relish. They always look in perfect trim and are most peaceful in 
my Sunbird aviary, in which I have about twenty Sunbirds of eight 
different species. 

A couple of days ago I found one of my tiny Indian Amethyst- 
rumped Sunbirds sitting on the back of the Amethystinus on the 
floor of the aviary, fighting him and pulling out several of his 
tail feathers, and the larger bird allow^ed it without making the 
shghtest attempt to protect himself or to get away. The culprit 
was caught at once and caged separately and I hope this punish- 
ment will cure him of his bad temper. Strange to say the Indian 
Amethyst-rumped Sunbird seems to be the most pugnacious and 

* Shelley writes of this bird as assuming its full breeding plumage. This 
sounds as if there is something corresponding to an eclipse plumage, — ED. 

The AvicuLTURAL Magazine, 

[Ikilcarica regulorinn.) 

Photo by M. Portal. 

Groionecl Cranes and Stanley Cranes. 233 

always makes trouble in the aviary. The Amethystinus is most keen 
on his bath, and in the mornings when the plants in the aviary 
are being sprayed he will always come right up to me and open out 
his wings and ask to be sprayed. One of my birds is so tame that 
he will let me stroke him and nothing frightens him. 

The two cocks I possess seem to moult at different times and 
never together, so I am lucky enough to have one at least in perfect 
plumage always. They generally roost in amongst the leaves of the 
bay trees I have in my aviary, and it is very difficult to find them, 
they hide so carefully. It is a pleasure to see them enjoy life and 
fly in and out of the branches at a great pace. Needless to say they 
are most charming pets and a source of great pleasure to me. Of 
the two cocks I possess, one began moulting in February and was in 
perfect plumage by the middle of March, the second one started 
moulting the end of April and is very nearly in full plumage now. 

My Sunbirds are kept in an aviary in a bird-room, where I 
always have plenty of light and sunshine. The aviary is a very 
light structure made entirely of iron and linked wire netting, 
measuring 9 ft. long by 6 ft. and 7 ft. high, a few growing bay trees 
and some dead branches serve for perches. I also put in some 
sweet-smelling flowers in vases, and the birds will fly at once when 
these are put in fresh, to suck the nectar. 

No coloured-plate can possibly do such a lovely bird justice, 
partly owing to the metallic colouring of the throat and crown, 
which is not fixed, but flashes out more brilliantly according to the 
light upon them, when at other moments they are much less 


By Maukice Portal, 

In 1912 mention was made in the Avicultural Magazine of 
the nesting of the Sudan Crown Crane {Balearica pavonina) at 
Logan, in Wigtonshire. Mr, K. McDouall kindly furnished me with 
some further details, and allowed me to go and see the birds at 
Ijogan. Originally six Sudan Crown Cranes were sent home in 1906 

234 Mr. Maukice Portal, 

but two died of malarial fevei^ a few months later ; three still sur- 
vive, and two of them are full-winged and are to be seen flying about 
the estate, often four miles away from the house, but always return- 
ing at night to sleep, which they do, either roosting on the house 
top or up in a tree. The birds at Logan do not appear to feel the 
cold or suffer from frost and snow, though of course the climate there 
is no doubt milder than in most parts, and the sea on' both sides of 
the point tends to prevent long frosts or the snow from lying for 
any length of time. 

The Crowned Cranes, like most of their allies, suffer from 
frost bites on their toes as a rule, and Mr. St. Quintin told me he 
had known a Crane lose its toe from this. Probably the fact that 
the Logan birds have full use of their wings assists to keep them 
free, combined wdth the milder climate. 

The Cranes chiefly feed themselves in summer on insects and 
various grubs and seeds, but they are fed on dari and maize if they 
come up for it to the house. In the Ivordofan it has been noted 
that the birds feed in the open early on in the day, and then fly to 
the river banks and water and spend the rest of the day there, flying 
off at dusk to roost in the tops of trees. In 1912 — or six years after 
they came — a pair made a nest near the water's edge at the loch, 
and laid three eggs of a greenish hue, devoid of any markings. The 
nest was a round one, raised on rushes and reeds and not particularly 
finished off ; both birds helped in the incubation which lasted 30 
days. One young bird hatched and was carefully guarded and fed 
on insects by the old birds, but when six weeks old a weasel un- 
fortunately killed it. 

When first hatched it much resembled a long-legged Pheasant 
chick, but the tuft on the head was visible from the early days, the 
upper parts of body brown with reddish brown markings ; and under 
parts light yellowish dowm, white patch on cheek, and legs of an 
olive brown hue. In 1913 the same pair nested again, but in July, 
and laid three eggs, hatching all of them, and all went well until the 
end of September, when the birds died off, one after another — pro- 
bably from lack of insect life, which was very scarce last year. 
Altogether very unfortunate, but one hopes Mr. McDouall will have 
better luck in 1914. 


-f ^: %: 9 








Tmi i KL-lsfm.iiH it!^j>itfM-jr! 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

{Anthropoides paradisea . ) 

Photo by M. Portal. 

Crowned Cranes and Stanley Cranes. 235 

Von Heuglin was told that the Crowned Crane nested in the 
trees in Kordofan, but it would seem unlikely. 

Though these Cranes have laid occasionally at various places 
in England and Europe, the only place where they have reared their 
young appears to be in Holland. At the Giza Zoological Gardens in 
Egypt a pair laid in 1910 and in 1918, but with no result. The 
length of the egg varies from 73mm. to 75mm., and the breadth 
from 53mm. to 55mm. B. pavonina is not a migratory species, 
and extends roughly across Africa north of the Equator. 

The other variety of Crowned Crane {Balearica regulorum) 
is no less beautiful and attractive, and is rather the tamer of the 
two as a rule. It extends all over South Africa, though probably in 
less numbers than formerly. In 1892 — 95 I saw considerable 
numbers in Bechuanaland and up to the borders of Matabeleland, 
also in the Kalihari, and I once saw two young birds with the old 
ones in the Potchefstroom district. The natives stated they nested 
near a Vlei, and a Dutchman gave me two eggs of a bluish-wdiite colour, 
which he declared were Crowned Crane eggs, and said they only laid 
two. I was never fortunate enough to see any large number of these 
birds, and about 20 was the most on a sandbank on the Limpopo 
river. They are easily distinguished from B. pavonina by the large 
wattle under throat and the cheek being white with the exception of 
a very small portion at top, which is, a reddish-pink. 

Another nice Crane is the Stanley Crane [A. paradisea), which 
soon becomes tame in captivity, and does not interfere with others 
of its species. It is a resident of South Africa, and is found up to 
Mashonaland and across to Demararaland and in the district of 
Gordonia, where I once saw a few between Taungs and TJpington in 
the winter months. At the time I was astonished at the distance 
they were from water, but it is possible that they were follow- 
ing up belated Locusts. They were reputed to breed down there, 
but I personally never obtained any proof of it. The general 
appearance is pearl-grey colour, lighter on head, and the tail feathers 
dark, and in an old bird touching the ground, legs black. It is 
partially migratory only from all accounts. 

The Stanley Crane stands our climate, and has nested and 
reared a young one at Woburn and at another place. The nest is 

236 Mr. G. A. Heumann, 

merely a scrape in the ground like a Demoiselle Crane's, and no 
attempt made to build a nest like the Crowned Crane's do with 
reeds, etc. A Dutchman told me that these birds often spent the 
day with the herds of game out in the open, and were very wai-y. 
The eggs, he said, were brown coloured with spots of a darker brown 
at the big end. The bird tames easily, and once at home does not 
appear to have any desire to leave, even in its native country, as a 
storekeeper had one which the natives brought in, and it used to 
spend its day walking about and picking up stray Mealie or Millet 
seeds. When I first saw it the bird was moulting and unable to 
as it had cast its flight featliers in both wings. 



By G. A. Heumann. 

For years it had been my wish to see some of our Scrub-birds 
in my aviaries, such as Eegent, Eifle, Cat, Satin and other Bower- 
birds, Mountain-thrushes, Pittas (Dragoons), and many other 
feathered inhabitants of the Australian bush, but for years it 
remained but a wish. There was no chance of "picking" these 
birds up in any of the bird shops either here or in Melbourne, and 
how they had found their way, as I knew they had, into the aviaries 
of English fanciers I never learned. Talking the matter over with a 
friend, also an enthusiastic bird-lover, we decided that the only way 
to get these birds w^ould be to go and catch them ourselves. 
Spending the wdnter generally in a more congenial situation than 
Sydney, w-e put in, for several years running, the coldest months in 
various parts of the northern rivers of New South Wales. On the 
Tweed river we were fortunate in possessing the friendship of the 
oldest resident there, a retired Police Magistrate, wdao came to those 
parts at a time when the NuUa-NulIa and the Boomerang still 
played a conspicuous part in the tribal warfares of the natives. 
Then the thick scrub still abounded with all kinds of native birds 
and animals. Alas and alack ! the sight of a native now is as 


Birds of N.S. Wales I have caught and kept. 237 

much a curiosity as even the once plentiful native bear. With the 
Scrublands they too have gone, for little of the original virgin 
forest is left standing, and up to the present day acre after acre is 
ruthlessly and needlessly cut down, and valuable timber burned up 
even to mountain heights which no cow will climb to look for food. 
These sun-baked and bari'en ridges are now forming a melancholy 
back-ground for the more fertile fields at their foot. I mention this 
to show that it will not be long before the Australian Scrublands are 
a thing of the past, and with them will go the many birds which 
once enlivened those dense forests. Going — as the black fellows 
and the native bears have gone. Every lover of nature must there- 
fore be grateful to the old gentleman mentioned for setting aside a 
small tract of maiden scrub where no shooting is allowed, and where 
the native birds of this locality find a refuge and an asylum. As 
may be imagined, this sanctuary is thickly populated with Scrub- 
birds. Situated on the banks of an arm of the Tweed river, it 
commands an ideal position. Stepping out on the lawn from the 
bungalow opposite early in the morning, the heart of the bird lover 
is gladdened by the calls and songs of the hundred and one birds in 
the opposite Scrub. The Coach-whips are heard on every side, 
cracking, so that they almost make the air vibrate. The mournful 
call of the Koel, the booming of the Wonga-Wonga Pigeon, the 
croaking of the Eegent birds, the whistle of the Honey-eaters, and 
the crying of the Cat birds mingle together in weird harmony. 
From the plains floats across the call of the Swamp Pheasant and 
the cry of the Orioles. Once in a way the peculiar whistle of the 
Dragoon birds {Pitta) mixes with the rattle and milling noise of the 
Satin Bower-birds, and so I might go on enumerating many more 
calls and songs which greet the morning. But as the sun rises 
behind the forest, and the huge trees, overgrown with creepers of all 
shapes and sizes, throw their shadows in the tranquil waters of the 
river, little by little the many voices cease, and soon only a solitary 
crack of the Whip-birds or the croaking of the Bower-birds floats 
from the thicket across the river to break the peaceful tranquility of 
the winter's hot forenoon. 

It was here we decided to try our luck, and having received 
kind permission from the owner as well as the authorities — for all 

238 Mr. G. A. Heumann, 

Scrub-birds are protected — we commenced operations. We had 
brought with us loquats, apples and bananas, and displayed these 
invitingly on the boughs of likely trees. By-and-bye we had the 
satisfaction of seeing Cat birds, Eegent and Satin bower birds, as 
well as other fruit eaters, and Honey-suckers, enjoying the dinner 
set before them, and later on a number of them had to leave their 
happy homes to enjoy themselves or make the best of it in our 
aviaries in Sydney. Of course it took weeks to accustom the birds 
to overcome their shyness and eat the fruit set out for them, and the 
catching was not as easy as falling from the proverbial log, but the 
main point was that we got them. The Eegent birds in their 
gorgeous costume of satin black and orange are, next to the Rifle- 
men, the cream of the bush. They are easily kept on fruit, raw 
beef, bread and milk and cake, and will soon learn to take a meal- 
worm from the fingers ; indeed, all my Scrub-birds do well on this 
simple diet. The hen is brown, mottled white, with a black cap, as 
also are the young males, and it is said that it takes three years for 
a male to fully moult out. Personally I am inclined to think it 
takes longer, by observations on my own birds. The hen and young 
birds have dark brown eyes with black pupils and black beaks ; the 
young cock in an advanced stage has the eyes of the adult male, a 
straw yellow, and the beak is also light horn colour, whilst over the 
brown plumage is a hue or bloom of yellow which is missing in the 
hen. I saw in an article in the Avicultural Magazine by a prominent 
aviculturist that his Satin Bower-birds {Ptilonorhynckus violaxeus) 
would not become tame, and were to him unattractive. This 
gentleman must have got hold of a very old and recalcitrant pair. 
Those in the aviaries of my friend and my own are not only tame, 
but actually build bowers, and any bit of blue glass, blue ribbon or 
blue marble is greatly appreciated by them. It seems a remarkable 
thing this love of theirs for blue. I ventured the opinion once that 
the reason of their love for blue is probably because the male sees 
not only the blueish purple eyes of his own sex but also takes much 
notice of the hghter shade, more of a dark heliotrope, in the eyes of 
his lady-love. My theory has not met with general acceptance, but 
unless someone gives a more plausible theory, I hold on to mine ! 
This reminds me of an incident worth recording. On the northern 

Birds of N.S. Wales I have caught and hept. 239 

side of the cottage was a patch of violets in bloom. At dawn the 
Satin birds would come to get the fresh blooms and carry them to 
their bower not 100 yards away from the house. Here they would 
display, walking almost erect with drooping wings through their 
bower, uttering deep guttural sounds. Perhaps, if the English 
aviculturist who had some of these birds had given them a supply of 
twigs and blue flowers, beads, etc., he might have had a different 
account to record of these interesting birds. I often sit concealed in 
the aviary to watch them and listen to their peculiar song, which 
resembles a sawmill at work. Like all Scrub-birds thcA^ are easy 
enough to breed. It is supposed to take seven years for the male to 
assume full colour. 

I would not recommend anyone to keep Cat-birds who is not 
fond of babies, for they cry at four in the morning till late in the 
afternoon, their voices resembling something between the cry of a 
cat and that of a baby. They are the size of Satin Bower-birds, 
their jjlumage being dark green, spotted with white across the 
wings, breast and abdomen ; a delightful bird in a large aviary. 
An English mulberry tree laden with ripe fruit proved a great 
attraction to many Fruit-eaters and Honeysuckers, and especially 
so to the Australian Oriole {Mimetes sagittata). The cock 
bird is very striking in his dark sea-green coat and whitish 
streaked breast and abdomen. Around the eye and extend- 
ing behind the ear is an oval-shaped bare patch of dark scarlet 
— very brilliant in a wild state, but the moment the bird is in 
captivity the red disappears and becomes a very pale sickly pink. 
Probably the fright causes this change, for after long periods of 
captivity. I have not been able to bring back that flush to their 
cheeks which gives them in nature such an aristocratic appearance.'" 
One of the most beautiful of Cuckoos is the fruit-eating Koel, a 
handsome bird of the same steel-blue coat as the Satin Bower-bird, 
but the eyes are a carmine red, the bill hooked and the tail long and 
fan-shaped. To catch a rare bird like that is an exciting event, and 
the only pity is that to get the bird is one thing, but to get it to eat 
and so to live is quite another. With this species they will live as 

*Recl is a colour which fades in man}' birds, e.g. the Sepoy Finch, the Red 
Sun birds, etc. It generally becomes orange or j'ellow. But this change does 
not take place until the moult. — ED. 

240 Mr. G. A. Heumann, 

long as they are being stuffed, which only means to delay a little 
the inevitable end. I have met with very many refractory birds like 
this, and my experience has taught me that it is far better to give 
them their freedom. The Rifle-birds are undoubtedly the cream of 
the Australian bush, though the species here is not quite so gorgeous 
as the one from New Guinea which has been imported into England. 
They are shy birds, and I have not been so fortunate yet as to catch 
one. When insects are scarce in the bush they will feed on fruit, 
and during one of their raids on a loquat tree one fine cock got on a 
lime stick set for Regents, which my friend was watching at the 
time. However, before he was able to take the bird it had dropped 
off the stick by its own weight. This trick, when finding that the 
legs stick, of falling backwards and gradually dropping off without 
moving a feather, shows certainly a great deal of intelligence, for 
should one feather adhere to the lime there would be no escape. I 
found a number of birds do this, such as Silver Eyes, Red Heads and 
others. I regret even now that, in mistake for a Honey-sucker 
which I did not know, I once shot what proved to be afterwards a 
young male Rifle-bird. I have not given up hopes yet of seeing this 
bird in my aviaries. A fine bird is the Pitta, commonly called 
" Dragoon," on account of its proud and upright walk or run. A 
gorgeous bird, not unlike the Kingfisher. In the early morning or 
towards evening their mournful call may be heard sounding like I 
lost my wife," twice repeated. They are curious birds, and can 
easily be whistled up. A trap set with a dead bird in it will never 
fail to catch them, even whilst one looks on. Feeding principally on 
snails in the bush, these birds have the remarkable habit of carrying 
them to a certain stone in the bush which serves all the Pittas in 
the neighbourhood ; here the snails are cracked and eaten. It is, of 
course, only by chance that one finds the spot, which is apparent 
by the quantities of broken shells lying about, but, when found, to 
catch Pittas is like shelling the proverbial peas. In the aviary they 
live on raw beef, and if a smaller bird comes within their reach they 
go for its brains ; yet, with all their faults, they are most desirable 
birds. Another lovely bird we caught was the Mountain Thrush 
{Turdus lunulata). These resemble the European Thrush, but are 
larger and more stately. They live on the ground in the dense 

Birds of N.S. Wales I have caught and kept. 241 

scrub. Unlike their relatives, the Grey melodious Thrushes, they 
are much easier to keep ahve, living principally on bread and milk. 
Of all the Scrub-birds, if not in plumage yet in interest, I like the 
Coach whip best {Psophodes crepitans). The shape is that of the 
cardinal, principally dark green, a trifle mottled on the breast and 
abdomen, the large white cheek and black crest set the bird off well. 
It is the tail, however, which gives it its stateliness, long, edged with 
black and white, they have a knack of spreading and closing it as a fan ; 
in fact, they use their tail in the same coquettish way as a lady her 
fan at a ball. They are remarkably quick birds afoot, and it requires a 
fast trap to catch this bird. When the male bird cracks, no sooner 
is the last note emitted than the hen will answer with two weaker 
cracks, the pair always keeping close together. It is wonderful what 
a volume of sound a Coachman can emit ; to see him perched above 
the call-bird letting out an especially strong and angry crack is a 
sight worth seeing, a sound worth hearing. His crest stands then 
very straight, the wings drooped, and the tail spread out to its full 
capacity ; with head proudly thrown back he whips out his defiance 
and challenge. Often have I seen the bird overbalance himself 
through the recoil of the volume of his own sound. In captivity 
they do well, soon repaying the care bestowed on them, and sound- 
ing their whips ; yet it is not advisable to keep them with smaller 
birds on account of their fondness for, brains. Pigeons, such as the 
Wonga and Bronzewings, are still plentiful in the scrubs, and 
though I have tried hard, whilst the Bronzewings breed easily, the 
Wonga I never succeeded with. Then there are the King Parrots, Lyre 
Birds and Brush Turkeys. The latter come down from the ridges 
early in the morning to scratch for food along the creeks and narrow- 
flats where the undergrowth is not so dense. They are stupid birds, 
and I never relished the " sport " of shooting them. If hunted with 
a dog the bird will, when flushed, fly to the nearest tree and sit 
there gazing down at the dog not fifteen feet below it ; in that 
position a noose may be thrown over its head without fear of hunt- 
ing it away ; how different from the chase of his brothers in the 
plains ! The only way to get at them is by riding or driving straight 
at them, and only then a quick eye and a good gun will land the 
bird. I suppose I ought not to mention hunting in this paper, but 

242 Birds of N.S Wales I have caught and kept. 

the difference between hunting in these rugged parts and at home is 
worth comparing. The country is very rough and rugged ; one gets 
across the creeks best as one can, and some are fairly deep. The 
trees are very tall, covered with Elk and Staghorns, their crowns 
meeting and shutting out all sunlight. Below twilight reigns always, 
whilst the atmosphere is damp, heavy and mildewy. The under- 
growth is so thick that it is often impossible to get through even 
with a brush-hook. Creepers and climbing plants are interlaced 
between and from tree to tree, often making beautiful caves and 
bowers. The greatest curse of all vines are the so-called lawyer and 
baiTister vines, a species of trailing palm with hook-like thorns. It 
is little use trying to tear away from their embrace ; they hold tight, 
and only patience will get one out of their grasp by undoing hook 
after hook separately. The reason they are called lawyer and 
barrister vines is, I am told, that the former will only retain the 
cloth, the latter will take your flesh as w^ell ! On the Brunswick 
river, where I was shooting once, these vines are called " Wait-a-bit," 
and most appropriately. Of course, in those virgin forests, fallen 
and decayed trees are everywhere hindering progress, and as one 
makes an effort to climb them hundreds of leeches stretch out their 
slender bodies like small brown flames, feeling upwards for a support. 
One invariably carries a few away, and it is not until there is a 
squelching sound in one's boots that one realizes that some of these 
brutes have got home ! It is not so much the bite or loss of blood 
which makes these leeches so loathesome, but the frightful itching 
the bite causes later on, lasting often for days. Then there is the 
stinging tree ; the sting of its leaves is about the limit of stings ! 
Adding to these troubles the scourge of mosquitoes, one begins to 
wonder whether the sport of hunting Pigeons, Parrots, Turkeys and 
the like is worth such unpleasant experiences, — yet one goes again. 
The wild fig trees come in specially for visits of nearly all the 
fruit-eating birds in the Scrub, but a strong glass is requ.ired to 
discern the various species, in fact to see them at all in the dense 

In my next article I will wa'ite about the smaller soft bills of 
New South Wales, some of which I hope to bring with me to 
England during my forthcoming trip in June. 

Some Grass finches in my Aviary. 243 


By Dr. L. Lovell-Keays. 

Lest our members should think I have lost my reason over 
sexing birds, I have taken refuge under the above heading to give 
my experience with certain of the Grass finches. To my mind 
the Grass finches (Muniina) are among the most captivating and 
interesting of all the hard-bills. Their love-dances and their extra- 
ordinary affection for their mates, or, if a bird of the opposite sex is 
not available, for one of the same sex is simply wonderful to behold. 
My first Grass finches were a pair of Diamond SpaiTows, or better 
called the Spotted-sided finch (Steganopleura guttata). They were 
simply perfect, and I was assured that they were a true pair. They 
had been sexed b^^ several leading "fanciers" (Ugh! the hateful 
term). One at least had been discarded by a well-known aviculturist 
as a cock ; in fact both were dubbed cocks, and as such by half-a- 
dozen well-known and experienced aviculturists. I am beginning to 
lose faith in my fellow aviculturists, and if you will bear with me to 
the end you will see why. The first surprise came when cock No. 1 
laid an egg and was in no wise ashamed of the fact, but after being 
lectured on the unseemliness of a cock laying eggs proceeded to lay 
another. However, the second bird did not so far forget himself as 
to lay eggs, but displayed his crimson, beak to all and sundry. In 
this guise they came into my possession last May. They built and 
laid and sat in a way that would shame any advanced woman. 
But all to no purpose. I got Butler's " How to Sex Cage Birds," 
and further advice was sought and taken. Great pit^' was expressed 
for my lack of experience and sanguine hopes of a brood of young 
from every pair of birds. Like Agrippa, I was almost, but not quite, 
persuaded. The affection of my birds was manifest and unquestion- 
able. At last, November's dreary night-like days appeared, and one 
of my Diamond finches got very humpy, and evinced that degree of 
uncanny tameness that speaks of a happy hunting ground where 
there are no bars, no cats, and no Owls at night, and where every 
mother bird can hear the music of hungry nestlings calling for their 
ministrations. I easily caught her up and put her in my warm 
bird-room, where she became my closest friend, but death, the evil 

244 Dr. E. Lovell-Keays, 

and thirsty one, gathered her one night, and Charon took her on 
that journey whence the wayfarers never return. But I am 
digressing. I examined the eggs, they were all clear, and once again 
I was rash enough to think for myself, pink base or no pink base. 
I saw a cock advertised in Edinburgh ; I sent for him and he made 
the journey down south during that very cold weather of this winter. 
But he never turned a hair until I put him in the flight, and that 
only after 36 hours resting up on the warm pipes. When he, for it 
was a "he," saw the other supposed " he," the real and new " he " 
nearly had a traumatic dislocation of the cervical vertebrte, and as 
to the other and original " he," she simply proved a little minx. 
Subsequently I obtained another cock from the Eev. John Paterson, 
who, I regret to say is leaving us again for Cashmir. But by that 
time my other little friend was feeling too ill to take any stock of 
the male article, and his gavottings and neck tw^stings were simply 
lost on the desert air. But he was, and still is, a cock, and the first 
introduced cock doesn't forget to let him know it either, even if I 
did. Curiously enough Mr. Sich (our fellow member) had two cocks 
all last season and I had two hens. We both suspected it and yet 
both forbore to suggest an exchange. His, too, were sold as a true 
pair. I have thus been brought in contact with eight birds for Mr. 
Sich, subsequently obtained a hen bird from Mr. Frost. This last 
has, alas, also gone to the happy hunting ground. The result of my 
observations is this. The beak of all the four hens that I have seen 
has been a bright coral red with a slight pinkish stripe at and around 
the base of the upper mandible. All four cocks that I have seen and 
handled have had a dark, almost magenta, red beak with a lighter band 
at the base. But the mandible is so much darker than the hen that I 
can tell mine apart instantly even with only one in view. Is this a 
coincidence or a constant ? I am utterly unable to detect any other 
difference, except as regards behaviour. In that respect the difference 
is so marked that the veriest tyro could sex the birds. The hen, of 
course, never displays or bobs up and down, like a lady at the end 
of a bathing machine rope, with a piece of grass in her mouth. 
With the cock, how^ever, these antics seem to be his chief amuse- 
ment. The notes are of course entirely distinct, but as musical 
expressions generally fail to convey any impression to average 

Some Grass finches in my Aviary. 245 

readers I will forbear, — besides which I don't know anything about 
music. I have already dilated all too much on our Diamond finches* 
so with the Muses we will join and sing, " Sic transit gloria guttatae," 
and pass on to the next. 

If there is one more charming bird than all the rest it is the 
super-elegant, vivacious, charming Long-tailed Grass finch {Poexjhila 
acuticauda) . During the last year or two aviculturists have dis- 
criminated between what used to be the better known Yellow-billed 
variety and the more often introduced (recently, at any rate) Eed- 
billed variety and called it Hecki. Speaking personally, I much 
prefer the latter, and I can detect, or fancy I can, a very distinct 
difference in colour as regards the body tint, especially in the chest 
and abdomen. In Hecki it is quite a shade darker with a dash of 
reddish tinge in it. That and the Eed-bill does away with the anaemic 
and rather aesthetic appearance of the Yellow-billed variety. To sex 
these birds is indeed a puzzle. With all due respect to one or two 
dealers who have enlightened me, I don't believe the size of the 
gorget is any criterion at all, and I have, alas, had a good few 
through my hands which (whisper it not) have gone to swell 
the majority. One hen had a very tragic end. She had three 
times been egg-bound, and each time the dry heat treatment had 
cured her. But the last was the last, for on letting her out of the 
small cage she flew out with a joyous twitter to join her grief- 
stricken husband, for he had been inconsolable in her absence, when 
she dropped dead, as though shot, with a little thud to the ground. 
She never even breathed again. I am no pathologist. I am a 
sceptic instead, but I think we may venture ruptured blood-vessel as 
the cause of death. I thought the cock bird would die of grief, but 
by a great stroke of fortune I obtained a Yellow-billed hen for him, 
and he sits and curry-combs her toupee and kisses her neck all the 
livelong day. He is as happy as a king. Long may it last ! In 
my humble opinion there is only one way of sexing these birds, and 
that is by the bill and by the behaviour of the birds towards each 
other. True the hen appears a little slimmer as regards head and 
neck, and less inclined to "boss" it over the other inmates of the 
aviary. But the differences, if any, are extremely minute. It is 
hardly necessary to specify the differences in the bill. SuJBfice it to 

246 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

say that in the hen bird tlie bill is less massive than in the cock and 
narrower at the base. It is only fair to add that my wife, who is 
almost as keenly interested in my birds as I am, believes the gorget 
is larger and broader in the cock than in the hen. In some cocks I 
am sure it is, and when very broad it is almost indicative, but I am 
positive that it is not a constant distinction, and that some cocks 
have as small a gorget as many hens. 

I must not write more or our Editor will be sharpening his 
blue pencil.* As it is I must apologise for using up so much valuable 
space, and crave indulgence once again. 


By Dr. A. G. Butler. 

(Go7itinuecl from page 229.) 

The Waxbills (Estrildince) are fascinating little finches, but 
unfortunately some of the most attractive of them are extremely 
delicate, especially when first imported ; according to my experience, 
four to five years in captivity usually sees the end of the majority of 
them, even of the more hardy species. I have had examples of the 
following : — Common Lavender finch, an active but decidedly delicate 
bird when first imported ; I have had many examples, a few of which 
lived for more than a month, and none for more than four years : 
its delicate beauty tempts one to purchase it in spite of its fragility. 
Common African Fire finch, a very attractive midget of which I have 
at various times bought many examples, none of which survived for 
much over a week ; that vigorous examples do sometimes come to 
hand, however, is evident from the fact that it has not infrequently 
been exhibited, and that Mr. Farrar even succeeded in breeding it. 

Of the common Amaduvade, one of the hardiest of the group, 
I have had dozens, in fact it was the first Waxbill and one of the 
three first foreign birds I ever possessed, and I paid a preposterous 
price for my first pair, having no idea of its actual value. I found 
this Waxbill quite indifferent to cold : it is an interesting bir I from 
its frequent changes of plumage, the males at one time of the year 
closely resembling the females, thus invalidating the sole character 

* On the contrary, my pen is saved much labour ! — ED. 

Thirty-tivo Years of Aviculture. 247 

■upon which Shelley founded the Sub-family : fortunately, if we 
restrict the group to the Waxbills alone, other features exist. The 
Gold-breasted Waxbill, of which I have also had many examples, is 
almost equally hardy, although my earliest specimens gave me the 
impression that it was delicate ; it is one of the smallest and prettiest 
of the Sub-family. 

The Orange-checked Waxbill, another hardy favourite, has 
often inhabited my aviaries ; as pointed out by Euss, it is an 
extremely nervous bird, scared by the least sound or any sudden 
movement, thus sometimes creating a causeless panic amongst its 
tiny associates. Ridgway describes the females of specimens intro- 
duced into Porto Eico as having " no orange on side of head " (Birds 
of North and Middle America, vol. iv., p. 288), a curious change to 
have been effected by transference from the Old to the New World ! 
The Green Amaduvade I found the hardiest and longest-lived of all the 
Waxbills ; it is beautiful in colouring : I have had nine examples in 
all. It has a mischievous habit of attacking and partly denuding of 
feathers fresh examples of its own species introduced into its aviary. 
I believe it to be the easiest to breed of all the Waxbills ; indeed I 
almost succeeded in breeding it myself in indoor aviaries. 

Contrary to Dr. Euss' experience, I found the Australian 
Eed-browed Waxbill very hardy, and I have had a fair number of 
specimens : as usual, in indoor aviaries the hens were liable to die 
from egg-binding, but most of the small Ploceid finches suffer in this 
way if they attempt to go to nest indoors ; at any rate that is what 
happened to my birds. The St. Helena Waxbill, which many bird- 
lovers consider tolerably hardy, I found distinctly delicate ; about 
eighteen months being the limit of its life with me, and I have tried 
to keep it many times. Though even more delicate when first 
imported, I found the Grey Waxbill, when acclimatized, tolerably 
long-lived and easy to keep. 

I have had four Crimson-winged Waxbills, three males and a 
female, the latter only lived with me for four months and the male 
of my first pair died after ten months, the second male lived a 
little over a year ; the fourth bird (apparently of the Northern type) 
was sent to me anonymously early in 1906, and it died after two 
years and seven months in my aviai-ies. This and the other species 

248 Dr. A. G. Butlee, 

of Pytelia always struck me as rather apathetic and sluggish birds : 
my Crimson-wings delighted to bask in the sun, but on dull days 
they used frequently to hide in a bush ; excepting in disposition, 
they seemed to me to show relationship to the Lavender finch ; but 
perhaps they may come neai-er to Sundevall's Waxbill. 

My first pair of Cordon-bleus was given to me by Mr. 
Johnston, brother of Sir Harry Johnston of Uganda fame ; he used 
to exhibit at the Crystal Palace in those days. That was in the 
early days of my bird-keeping, and I remember that I thought that 
pair the most lovely example of delicate colouring that I had seen in 
any birds, and was much surprised to hear that they were quite 
cheap. After that, in spite of the delicacy of Cordon-bleus, I was 
never without them for many years. At one time I thought I had 
secured examples of the Blue-breasted Waxbill (I had not then had 
an opportunity of comparing living specimens of the two species, or 
I should not have been deceived) : of course at the next moult the 
males acquired the crimson ear-patch. The colouring of the soft 
parts, apart from the extent of blue on the body, distinguishes the 
two species at a glance. I never had the Blue-breasted bird. 

My experience of the Violet-eared Waxbill was most dis- 
appointing : Miss Gladstone sent me a perfect pair, which I turned 
into one of my two outdoor aviaries : but the hen died suddenly 
while flying, falling to the ground as if it had been shot, and the 
cock evidently got into trouble through fighting and only lived a little 
over a week. Like the Cordon-bleu it is a delicate bird when first 
imported, and is so expensive that only a rich man could afford to 
replace it continually until vigorous examples were secured : I never 
heard my cock bird sing, w^hich was a further grief to me. So much 
for the twelve species of Waxbills which I have had, not one of 
which I succeeded in breeding owing to the unsuitability of my out- 
poor aviaries and to the fact that my indoor aviaries were, perhaps, 
too overcrowded. 

With Grass finches and Mannikins I was rather more suc- 
cessful, though one of them — the Pintailed Nonpareil — owing to its 
delicate constitution was always more or less a source of trouble : 
its melamistic variations are interesting and worthy of a coloured 
illustration because of their extraordinary divergence from the normal 

Thirty-ttco Years of Aviculture. 249 

type : altogether I have had ten examples of the species and the 
longest-lived only survived for two and a quarter years. With 
Gouldian finches, of which, at different times, I have possessed about 
fifteen pairs, I was at first almost equally unfortunate ; but later, 
owing perhaps to the greater number imported and the care taken of 
them during the journey over, I found these birds far less delicate, 
and, when kept out of doors, quite hardy and ready to breed ; but 
undoubtedly the strongest birds are those bred here, since a cock 
which I bred in 1905 is still in vigorous health as I write. 

Of the- Masked Grass finch I have only had a pair ; they used 
to pretend to build and sit about in nest-boses, but they never 
definitely settled down : I found them rather uninteresting birds. Of 
Long-tailed Grass finches I have had two pairs, of which an example 
purchased in 1906 is still alive as I write, I have also had one female 
of the form with red beak ; but the most pleasing of the group is the 
common Parson finch, an impudent little bird which always reminded 
me of our Blue-tit in its actions : of this species I have had about a 
dozen pairs. At times this little finch is apt to be aggressive and 
even spiteful towards other small associates, but one cannot help 
liking it ; as previously mentioned, I only once succeeded in breeding 
it, but in an indoor aviary- 

At fairly long intervals I have had three pairs of the beautiful 
Diamond finch : I did not find them very long-lived birds, my last 
male however far excelled the other five in longevity. Of the 
Rufous-tailed or Star finch I have had seven examples, and the first 
pair, for which I paid £2, died within six months; of those purchased 
at a much lower price about ten years later, the hens far outlived the 
cocks ; they are pretty little things but not especially interesting. I 
must, since the commencement of my avicultural studies, have had 
at least a hundred of the common Zebra finch. Not only were these 
birds very cheap, but with me they bred freely either as single pairs 
in small flight cages or in indoor aviaries, accepting almost any 
kind of nesting receptacle. I turned twenty pairs into the central 
division of an ornamental wire-aviary in my conservatory, and even 
there several of them went to nest and reared one or two youngsters 
upon seed alone. 

I have had six of the lovely little Bicheno's finch and one 

250 Dr. A. G. Butlee 

pair of the Einged finch ; most of them did not survive for many 
months, but one Bicheno's finch Hved for three or four years, and 
one Einged finch for over a year. I beheve these little birds require 
plenty of small living insects to keep them in vigorous health. Of 
Cherry finches I have had three pairs, two of which attempted to 
breed, both building and laying, but in each case the birds were 
interfered with ; as they are quite hardy, I was a good deal dis- 
appointed when these birds died without leaving progeny to fill up 
the vacant place. Mr. Abrahams gave me a pair of the Indian 
Silver-bill, but they proved to be extremely delicate and did not live 
for many months : the African Silver-bill, of which I have kept many 
specimens, is far more hardy, but I never succeeded in breeding it. 

I have had many Eibbon finches ; they are not altogether 
trustworthy with weaker birds : my first attemj)t at breeding the 
species was the only successful one owing to the susceptibility of the 
hens both of this species and the Eed-headed finch to egg-binding ; 
of the latter finch I have had four cocks and one hen : males of both 
species are fairly long-lived as a rule. The genus Amadina is a 
group which might be placed either among the Grass finches or 
Mannikins, between which it is a connecting link. As a matter of fact 
the two divisions of the Muniince are purely arbitrary and merely a 
convenience for breaking up a long series of species ; in like manner 
the Quail finch might be placed in either division. 

Of both Sharp-tailed and Striated finches I have kept many 
examples ; as also, of course, of the three varieties of the Bengalee. 
The Common Spice-bird was one of the first foreign birds which I 
purchased (at an absurdly high price) ; subsequently I had many 
examples, among which there were doubtless individuals of the true 
Bar-breasted finch (M. suhundulata) . Mr. Abrahams gave me a 
pair of Tugela finches in 1894. Of Pectoral finches I have had 
seven examples, two pairs which I bought and three specimens sent 
to me anonymously ; they are handsome birds, but rather inclined 
to interfere with the nesting-operations of other species and not 
especially interesting themselves ; they seemed fairly hardy, but 
several of them appear to have escaped from my aviaries through 
surprisingly small knot-holes in the wood ; unless, perchance, they 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture. 251 

were devoured by mice, which seems unhkely since much smaller 
and weaker birds were untouched. 

The typical Mannikins of the genus Munia I consider 
the most stupid and least interesting of all finches, so far as 
their habits are concerned : some of them are ready at any 
time to build and lay, but are too nervous to sit steadily ; 
others make no attempt at breeding unless placed in a suit- 
able outdoor aviary such as I never possessed ; the songs of 
most of them are contemptible, and the efforts which they make 
when singing ludicrous. I have had nine Chestnut-breasted 
finches and found them hardy and long-lived ; of the allied Yellow- 
rumped finch I have had ten, of which one still survives as I write : 
both of these birds have audible songs. Of White-headed Mannikins 
I have only had two pairs ; of Black-headed, several dozens : this 
was one of the three first foreign birds I ever possessed, for each 
pair of which I ignorantly paid sixteen shillings and eight pence.* 
Since that time I have at different times purchased examples at five 
and six shillings the dozen- I have had two or three pairs of the 
Three-coloured Mannikins which I consider one of the prettiest of 
the group. 

In the present day, when there is a tendency to split up both 
species and genera, it puzzles me greatly to, comprehend why the 
Java Sparrow and its allies have not been kept separate from the 
other forms of Munia : to the eye they stand out at once as a very 
distinct group ; and, as a generic name {Padda) already exists, I see 
no reason for ignoring it. I have had a considerable number of the 
common Java Sparrow, and at one time used to breed it in its grey, 
pied and white varieties in considerable numbers every year, but 
now I have only a solitary specimen still living. 

Of Mannikins of the genus Spermestes I have had one pair of 
Magpie Mannikins, and they lived, one for four the other for six 
years, a most uneventful life ; but this I found to be characteristic 
of the genus. The two-coloured Mannikin was caught outside the 
Natural History Museum and was brought to me by a policeman ; 
whether the fact of its being taken up as a vagrant was too great a 

* Perhaps I ought not to reckon them at quite that price since, in addition to 
three pairs of common birds, I got the cage (a metal one) which contained them. 

252 Mr. HuBEET D. Astley. 

degradation and broke its heart I should not like to say, but it died 
that night, so that I had no chance to study this most beautiful of 
its genus : of the allied Bronze Mannikin I have had a fair number, 
but the hens always died egg-bound. I purchased two or three of 
the tiny Bib finch in poor condition, but did not succeed in keeping 
them long ; they were probably on their last legs when they came 
into my possession. The Mannikins (as a sub-group) are, generally 
speaking, hardy and long-lived. 

(To be continued.) 


By Hubert D. Astley. 
(Continued from ixtrje 206.) 

It never rains but it pours ! I wonder whether other people 
find that if there is one loss or tragedy amongst their birds, it is 
sure to be followed by one or two more. 

A few weeks ago my splendid Eed male Flamingo, whicli 
arrived from Mexico last autumn, and which I had carefully tended 
through the winter, was found dead. 

The crop was full of wheat, he was fat and well liking, and 
only the day before I had been congratulating myself on his improved 
appearance, his energy in sparring with his European cousins, his 
colour becoming more vivid, and on his whole demeanour being that 
of a bird gaining in health and strength. " Well," I said, "if that's 
the only loss I must feel fortunate," and tried to buoy up my fallen 
spirits with that poor comfort ; but I had my doubts. 

I was like a housemaid at a house I was staying in, who, 
having had a sharp misunderstanding with the cook, on its being put 
before her that the ruler of the kitchen really was not a bad sort and 
meant well, replied, " Well ! I 'opes Fanny will go to 'eaven." Her 
doubts have yet to be verified ; mine have not. 

I was about to take up my pen to write glowing accounts of 
my Cranes, how handsome they all look in one large paddock 
together, etc. : when it seemed to me by the calling and trumpeting 
that something was wrong, for some of the cries had a sound of 
distress. Looking out of the window, the first thing I realized was 

My Birds at Brinsop Court. 253 

that three of the Cranes, a Manchiarian and a pair of AustraHan, had 
managed to flap over the six-foot wire fencing, and that some great 
commotion was taking place. Then to my horror I could see the 
pair of Indian Sarus dancing a war dance over a fallen Crane, every 
now and again digging at it viciously with dagger-like bills. Out I 
rushed like a whirlwind, over the stone bridge and paved terrace, 
across the lawn, vaulted the railings, and away over the meadow. 
By the time I reached the Crane's paddock I made certain the poor 
Australian was done for ; she lay all of a heap, perfectly still, head 
and neck doubled under her body, and one big wing sticking up 
moved only by the April wind. My language was so strong that I 
looked round and felt relieved that no one was near. 

Much to my astonishment, on lifting up the fallen bird I 
found it was still alive, but grievously wounded about the head, one 
eye being apparently destroyed. When I had carried it to a small 
stream close by to lave its poor head, and then made to put it gently 
on the grass, it rose up with a hoarse cry of terror, stumbled 
forwards a few feet, and then collapsed in a heap with its neck and 
head underneath its body, just as I had first found it. 

1 looked back at the pair of Sarus, stalking about in triumph, 
and shook my fist. Were I to record what I said to them, all the 
respectable members of the Avicultural Society would at once resign, 
and it goes without saying that that- would embrace the whole 
Society ! 

After having taken the wounded Crane to the house, and 
summoned to my aid my Bird-keeper, I went out to look for the 
Manchurian — the pair of Australians which had got out were 
walking about the meadow fairly quietly — but the Manchurian was 
scared, especially as he was separated from his mate, and had 
already reached the far end of a very long meadow, apparently with 
some idea of walking to Hereford, 6i miles distant. We headed 
him, as luckily there was a high hedge to limit his peregrinations in 
that direction, walked him back towards the Cranes' paddock, and 
just as we thought we had him in, away he went with large flappings, 
dived through a gap in a hedge of overgrown hawthorns, and up a 
field of plough sloping towards a wooded hill. I ran, and he ran, 
and we all three ran. The great Manchurian first, I second, and the 

254 Mr. Hubert D. Astley, 

Bird-keeper a bad third ! The bird made for a shut gate, jammed 
his head through the bars, and struggled to get through. Wlien 
within five yards of him, he started off up the slope and gained the 
wood. Now I shall get him, I thought, he'll have to come to a stop : 
for the wood was thick in undergrowth. Not a bit of it, I might 
have been chasing a deer, so quickly did that bird scamper through, 
dodging underneath nut trees and saplings of all sorts. Darkness 
coming on, and I, like "Charley's Aunt," still running ; but the despair- 
ing part of it was, that whereas I was blown, the Crane was not. It 
was all I could do to keep him in sight, and that wood going up and up 
to hill-tops, and on and on for at least a mile, made my heart sink. 
Then at last I did lose him, and all I could do, and I only just did 
it, was to run up the hill beyond where I had seen him disappear, 
and come down again on him whilst he was still on the home side. 
Just as I was giving up the search in despair, I caught sight of his 
big white body among the trees below me. He saw that I saw [ 
set up a great " kraur-r," and was off again, plunging down the hill 
amongst the thickets : but towards home. When I reached the 
outskirts of the wood, having nearly spiked an eye with a bough in 
my wild downward rush, there he was in a large field, going like 

the , well ' the loind ! Stumbling and panting over the heavy, 

rich, red-brown Herefordshire plough, I turned him, so that he 
scrambled over a hedge into the adjoining field, and if he didn't 
make up hill again towards the wood ! I verily believe that the 
winner of a mile race at the 'Varsity Sports would have sunk down 
long before ; true I felt ready to drop, but head that bird off from 
the wood I must, and I did. Flapping madly towards his own 
moat, entangled for half a minute in the hedge he had to surmount, 
when for half a second I thought " Now I shall get him," he gained 
the island which the Crane's moat encircles, and I confessed myself 
partly beaten, and went indoors, or rather dragged myself there. 
To my relief he was still on the island next morning, separated from 
his mate only by the wire-mesh fence. 

Such are some of the amenities and vicissitudes of 
aviculture ! 

Just on the other side of the moat, the water of which flows 
round the house, live in an apple orchard four Crowned Cranes, two 


The Avicultural Magazine. 

(Balearica regulorum.) 

Photo by H. Wilford. 

My Birds at Brhisop Court. 255 

of which are a nuisance. A stranger on walking by them would 

think for the first minute or two, " What charmingly tarae birds ! " 

for these two would walk forward, marching sedately by that 

stranger's side for some few paces. Naturally the stranger stops to 

speak to them. The two Cranes put their heads together (literally), 

hold converse of low guttural sounds, and are apparently saying 

Not quite the society tee are accustomed to my dear," and then 

without another word of warning they are at one, tooth and nail, 

and I prefer the former to the latter, for their claws are uncommonly 

sharp and have a slight hook to them, and they do really claw, and 

must I think be incarcerated. More unprovoked and vicious attacks 

than they make I never witnessed. 

The first time it happened was when I stooped down with a 

bowl of melox to lay at their feet, whereupon I felt a sharp blow on 

my hatless head, the male Crowned Crane having jumped on it. I 

had a sore arm for several days where one of his talons had caught 


" What horrible birds you do keep," a guest said, and really 

not without reason in that instance ! The cry of these Crowned 
Cranes is not musical, it is monotonous and tuneless ; when all four 
join in the chorus it sounds like two or three motor cars, or 
" fiar-hux, iJar-hux, iJar-hux " ; none of that wild-sounding 
" kr-r-ar " of European, Manchurian and other Cranes. No doubt 
at a little distance, which does often lend enchantment, the cries of 
a large company of Crowned Cranes on the shores of some African 
lake, sound better. 

And these Cranes, though they can be gentle, have an ex- 
pression of exceeding fierceness in their eyes of pale straw colour 
with the hard-looking and small dark centres. 
{To he continued). 


By Miss Ethel Chawner. 

Birds have been cherished in this garden for the last twenty 
years, and it may interest some of our members to hear about them,, 
though there is nothing at all remarkable to record. 

Our chief friendships are with Eobins, Tits and Chaffinches, 

256 Miss Ethel Chawner, 

Blackbirds and Thrushes — tliough famihar enough to make their 
wants known when under stress of weather or when hungry famihes 
have to be provided for — keep their distance and obviously look on us 
as a kind of ' Whiteley' or ' Harrod,' to be patronised when occasion 
arises. Eobins are differently constituted. For the last ten years 
at least we have never been v^ithout one or more finger-tame Eobins, 
who invade our rooms, observe our exits and our entrances, and 
generally use us to suit their convenience. " Bounce," our reigning 
Robin, does more than perch and away : he hovers in the air like a 
Humming Bird while the mealworm tin is being opened, and then 
sitting on a finger he picks out what he desires, perhaps stopping in 
the middle to sing a few notes or put a feather to rights. A short time 
ago he introduced his wife Bet," who at once showed herself as 
fearless as he, and comes just as readily to hand. Bounce" will 
be four years old next June : he is the child of " Jane," who 
was utterly fearless and who largely reared him on mealworms. 
^' Jane " came to an untimely end, but fortunately we had already 
i*ained the confidence of her speckled nestlings, and Bounce " we 
hope is good for several seasons yet. When callers come he is 
always to the fore, ready to show off and be fed ; he appears in the 
kitchen, in the drawing room or in my bedroom with equal confi- 
dence, and I have more than once been awakened by his trill shouted 
literally into my ear, and have found him on my pillow demanding 
immediate attention. Or he comes in dripping from the birds' bath 
on the lawn to dry himself on my towels. When mealworms are 
not forthcoming he will condescend to " pine nuts." These nuts, 
really the kernels of the stone pine, are most useful in winning the 
confidence of birds, who all take to them at sight. Tits and Finches 
of all kinds delight in them ; Blackbirds and Thrushes bolt them 
like pills as fast as they can swallow, and Warblers generally enjoy 
them slightly crushed. They are clean to handle and carry about 
in the pocket, and a pound, which costs about 1/2, lasts a long time. 
Great Tits, Blue Tits and Cole Tits all visit my room regularly 
for pine nuts. They come attended by their families in the summer, 
and it is pretty to see a brood of young Great Tits sitting on the 
dressing table while father and mother ply them with pieces of the 
kernels. For some years I had a special friend, a kind of super-Tit, 


Garden Friends. 257 

who taught himself to fly down and dive into a bottle, which I held 
up, for his nut. This trick was entirely his own invention and I 
have never been able to persuade any other bird to attempt it. My 
little friend (a Blue Tit) was most particular and would only 
" oblige " if his own bottle was held up. During the summer he 
always disappeared and I saw nothing of him until the first frost 
brought him back spruce and confident as ever. This lasted three 
winters and then, to my deep regret, I saw him no more. 

Tits are proverbially mischievous and inquisitive, and my 
familiars are no exception. When they have emptied their dish of 
kernels they examine books — my Spanish Anthology, unwarily left 
on my bed table, has its wrapper torn and pierced in their search 
after knowledge — the dressing table (a favourite joke is to tug the 
pins out of the cushion, carry them to the edge of the table and 
drop them into space) ; the walls of the room : picture frames can be 
hammered and excavations made round nails and quite a respectable 
amount of paper torn away or plaster destroyed. I have even found 
the holes in my sponge neatly packed with pine kernels, a deed which 
I put to the credit of the Cole Tits, who are very fond of making 
stores and forgetting all about them. But in spite of these misdoings 
they are such dainty rogues and have such amusing ways that I 
have not the heart to banish them. 

The Chaffinches do not as a rule come into the house, but lie 
in wait when we go round the garden, calling loudly until their 
demands are attended to. They also like to feed their young on 
pine kernels as well as mealworms. 

It is curious that neither Marsh Tits nor Nuthatches, both 
common here and both domesticated in other gardens not far ofi^, 
have so far responded to my advances. Only once have I had 
dealings with a Marsh Tit when, during a spell of severe frost about 
six years ago, one of these birds entered a garden aviary and refused 
to be turned out. He made himself quite at home, living on hemp 
seed and mealworms and became very masterful towards the other 
inhabitants, so that I was not very sorry when spring came and he 
took his departure. 

I fear that I cannot lay claim to any particular discoveries 
from my observations of these species. Robins I find make "cast- 

258 Correspondence. 

ings " nearly as freely as do Owls and Hawks, but this fact is as 
well known as the Cole Tits' habit of "casting their bread upon 
the waters" and forgetting all about it. I can only say that I derive 
great pleasure from my garden friends and they are a never failing 
delight to children of all classes. Errand boys, Sunday school classes 
and workmen are always greatly impressed by the sight of uncaged 
birds coming to hand, and in some cases have successfully tamed 
birds for themselves. 

Last year a Thrush nested in the enclosure where a boy keeps 
his pigeons, finding her way in and out as they do, and she was 
allow^ed to rear her young and depart in peace with them when they 
were fledged. Another has a Eobin which comes in at his window, 
and not long ago a boy gleefully told me that a Tit is nesting in a 
cocoa-nut which he had hung up. This, it seems to me, is a form 
of nature study which should be encouraged by all aviculturists. 



Up to date (May 5th) I liave some 300 Ducks' eggs in process of incuba- 
tion, all laid here, composed of the following species : — Carolinas, Mandarin, 
Ruddy Shellduck, Cinnamon Teal, Common Teal, Blue-winged Teal, 
White-eyed Pochard, Red-crested Pochard, Common Pochard, Rosybill, 
American Wigeon, Chilian Pintail, Common Pintail, Gadwall, Shoveler 
Tufted Duck, Ruddy -headed Bernicle Geese. In addition to these I have 
found four or five nests containing four to six eggs, which I shall not be 
able to identify until I catch the owners on the eggs. It has been a very 
early season here, Rosybills and Ruddy Shellduck (usually late layers) "went 
down " on full clutches a fortnight ago ! Chilian, Ringed Teal, and various, 
other species appear on the point of laying. H. WORMALD. 

Mr. A. Ezra has received from India, amongst other birds, some of the 
handsome Red-headed Bullfinches (Pyrrhula erythrocephald) . In style and size 
resembling the European bird, the male has the head and breast a bright orange 

red, with small black mask round the bill. 

*- * « 

Through the kindness of Mr. David Ezra, Mr. Astley has lately received a 
lot of Cotton Teal (Nettopus coromandelianns) . For 30 years Mr. William 
Jamrach tried without success to import these pretty little water fowl, so that it 
became a fixed idea that they could not be kept in captivity. Mr. Astley has 
one in perfect health that landed in England on the 25th of January, 1914. 

Mr. A. Ezra has presented a pair, out of the consignment sent over by his. 
brother, to the London Zoological Gardens. 

Notices to Members — (Continued from page it. of cover.) 

NEW membi<:rs. 

Miss M. BouSFiKivD, 58, Southboiitiie Road, Bouriieiuouth. 

Mr. D. Mason, 23, Prince of Wales Terrace, Kensington, W. 

Mr. Hkrbp:rT Bright, " I.ynton," Pvaton Road, Cressington Park, 
Nr. I/iverpool. 

Mrs. PagKT SxeaveN-SON, Cross Bank Hill, Hurworth-on-Tees, Darlington. 

Mr. OxivEY Grabham, The Museum, York. 

Mr. C. F. Leach, Vale Lodge, Iveatherhead. 

Mr. INIGO Thomas, 2, Mulberry Walk, Church Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

Mr. G. E. Haggie, Bruiiconibe, Foxconibe Hill, Oxford. 


Mrs. G. Brampton, -Queen Anne Lodge, Stoke Newington, N. 

Proposed by Dr. A. G. Buti^ek. 
The Hon. Mrs. Fitzgerai^d, 18, Clyde Road, Dublin. 
Mr. G. Davies, 96, Greenfield Terrace, New Tredegar. 
Mr. John W. Hai,kes, The Limes, 141, Monk's Road, Lincoln. 

Proposed by The Editor. 


The Council of the Avicultural Society begs to invite the 
members to afternoon tea in the Fellows' Tea Pavilion in the 
Zoological Gardens, on June 19th, at 4 p.m. Those who wish to be 
present are requested to inform the Hon. Secretary not later than 

Tuesday, June 16th. 

E. I. POCOCK, Hon. Sec, 

Zoological Society, 

Ptegent's Park, N.W. 

The charge for ptivaie advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
WORDS or i,ess, and one penny for every additiofial three ivords or less. 
Trade advertisements are not aixowed in this column. Dealers 
ivho are members, ivishingto advet tise, should apply to the Publisher for terms. 
Advertisejtients must reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Cou7icil reserve the right of refusing any advertisement 
they may consider uridesirable. 

Fine female Black-faced Love-Bird, anxious to nest, 25/-. 

H. D. AstIvEY, Esq., Brinsop Court, Hereford. 

The charge Jor members'' advertisements under this heading is four 
pence for twb;i,ve words or under, and otie peimy for evety additional 
Ihree zvords or less. 

Continued from p. Hi oj cover. 


The Editor thinks that there are still members who might help with the 

Ilhistration Fund. 

* * * 

The Editor also thinks that as he does all the work for nothing, besides 
paying from his own pocket for all the postage of the numerous letters he writes, 
including those to the Publishers and Printers of the Magazine, that he need not 
hesitate to urge members who can afford it, to help to defray the big expenses in 

connection with the illustrations ! 

* * * 

Another thing that occurs to the Editor's mind is that some members have 
apparently dropped out of their excellent habit of contributing Articles and 
Notes, which retrogression is rather hard upon him ! and the Magazine ! 

* * * 

Editors who make plenty of money also seem to receive plenty of ' ' copy. ' ' 
This is an unfair division of things. To work hard, and to receive neither one 
nor the other is somewhat disheartening. 






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The Yellow Wagtail (Illustrated), by J. H. Symonds 

The Cinnamon Teal, by Major BOYD IIORSBRUGH 

The Greater Spotted Woodpecker, by LILIAN MEDLAND, F.Z.S.' 
Birds of N.S. Wales I have caught and kept, by G. A. HBUMANN 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture, by Dr. A. G. BUTLEE 

My Birds at Brinsop Court, by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 

Review :— Field-Studies of some Rarer British Birds 

English Names for the Parrots, by Dr. E. HOPKINSON 

Correspondence, Notes, etc. ; 

White Common House Sparrow ; Importation of Rare Australian 

Birds: The Amethyst Sun-bird 285—286 



Vol. V. No. 9. 

The price of this 
number is l/o. 

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NOTE. — A new volume commences every November. 

All Subscriptions 

should be sent to the Publishers, 
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Dead Birds for post mortem examination sliould be sent to Prof. 
G. H. WOOLDRIDGE, Zoological Society, Regent's Park, N.W. 

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A Manual intended as a practical help to those who find both 
pleasure and profit from the keeping of wild birds in confinement. 
Contributed to by specialists in each class of birds described. 

With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Uncoloured. 

London: WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 




I Humblodt's Wooly Monkey ; i Battikofers Gueiiou ; i Patas 
Monke}' ; 2 Pigtail Apes ; i Red Baboon ; 5 Dogface BaVjoons ; 2 Sacred 
Baboons; 2 Mandrills; 190 Rhesus Monkeys; 20 Jew Monkeys; 4 Black 
and White Ruffed Lemurs; 2 Orange-cheeked Lemurs ; 7 Brown Lemurs; 

2 Agouti; I Coati-Mundi ; 2 Coypus ; 10 Jerboas; i Mexican Squirrel; i 
Red Squirrel ; 20 Canadian Porcupines ; i Bull, Cow and Calf Indian Zebu 
Buffaloes ; i Sambur Stag ; I :pair Axis Deei- ; i Hog Deer ; i tame 3'oung 
Blackbuck ; 8 Bennett's Wallabies ; i perfectly tame African Leopard on 
lead; i Tibet Bear; i Sloth Bear; i Himalaya Bear; i American Bear; 2 
young Dingos ; 3 South American Rhea Ostriches ; I White-whiskered 
Paradoxure ; i Indian Civit ; 2 Swamp Civits ; i Two-spotted Parodoxure ; 

3 Griffin Vultures ; i Rough-legged Buzzard ; 13 Black Swans ; 8 White 
vSwans ; 2 Barheaded Geese ; 2 Chinese Geese ; 100 Falcated Teal; 20 Mau- 
<lariii Ducks ; 15 Formoson Teal ; 10 White-faced Tree Ducks ; 100 Common 
Teal ; 10 Demoiselle Cranes ; 4 Antigone Cranes ; 2 Rosy Flamingoes ; 4 
Rosy Spoonbills ; 3 Ibis ; i Penguin ; i marvellous talking Grey Parrot ; i 
talking Hill Mynah ; i pair the new Cuban Conures {Conurns eicops) ; i 
pair Blue-cheeked Rosellas {Platycercus atnathusia) ; i Pennants Broadtail ; 
1 White-eared Conure ; i pair Red-sided Eclectus Lories ; i pair Red- 
necked Lorikeets ; I pair Alexandrine Rock Parrots; 2 Canarywing Broto- 
gerys ; i Golden-fronted Brotogerys ; 2 Yellow-billed Pionus ; i Red-vented 
Piouus ; 2 Nandy Conures ; 2 Half-moon Conures ; 20 Amazon Parrots ; 100 
Rose Cockatoos ; 200 Budgerigars ; 50 Lavender-headed Lovebirds ; 100 
Ring-necked Parrakeets ; 10 Great Sulpliurcrest Cockatoos; 2 Bare-eyed 
Cockatoos ; i Lesser Javan Cockatoos ; I Green Military Macaw ; 11 Silky 
Starlings; i Chinese Rosy Starling; 4 Cuban Song Thrushes; i Singing 
Sliania ; 6 Chinese-crested Mynalis; 2 Crimson-eared Bulbuls ; 20 
White Java Sparrows ; 8 Saffron Finches ; 10 Dwarf Finches ; 15 
Orange and Yellow Bishops ; 3 Yellow-vented Buntings ; 2 Cape 
.Sparrows ; 12 Indigo Finches ; i pair imported Chinese Ringneck 
Pheasants; Silver, Amherst, and Reeves Pheasants; 20 Peafowl ; 20 Zebra 
Doves ; 40 White Doves ; 100 Ring Doves ; 6 Vinaceous Turtle Doves ; 
I Stock Dove; i Triangular-spotted Pigeon; Sternotlieres ; Tortoises; 
Terrepins; Lizards; Snakes ; Crocadiles ; etc. 

Wanted to Purchase, 



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National 'Phone 6491 Central. 



























Third Series.— Vol. V.— No. 9.— All rights reserved. JULY, 1914. 


By J. H. Symonds. 

During my summer fishing excursions as a boy to a deep pool 
in the river Ivel some eight or ten miles north-east of Bedford, I 
well remember the Yellow Wagtail as my constant river companion. 
Perhaps only a few yards away he was to be seen daintily pattering 
about some floating patch of weed or on a mass of cut rushes that 
had come down stream and found an anchorage against the wooden 
piles that remained as evidence of a once existing boating stage. 
Often his dainty walk would break into a jerky little run, followed by 
some wonderful sudden turns in mid-air that almost defied the eye to 
follow as he sought some luckless winged insect, and, judging by the 
continous snapping of his beak, many met their death. Sooner or 
later, however, a fresh cast of my line would send him looping to 
the next floating hunting ground. At the particular point mentioned 
the river runs through two or three rough damp meadows, freely 
sprinkled with tussocks of coarse grass, and thus admirably suitable 
as a nesting haunt for these birds. 

One afternoon in June I wandered across these same meadows 
with my camera, keeping a sharp look-out for any movement on the 
part of the birds that would give me a clue as to the whereabouts of 
the nest. By freely using my field glasses I was not long in finding 
a nest of young, but, unfortunately for my purpose, they were too 
far advanced in life ; in fact, they were on the point of leaving the 
nest. It now being late in the season, I abandoned all hope of 
photographing the Yellow Wagtail that year. However, I resolved 
to remember my little yellow bird friends when they returned from 

. 260 On the Yelloiv Wagtail. 

their North African winter quarters in the next spring. But as fate 
would have it, I was obhged to see that spring and summer go by 
without i-esult, and during the dull days of winter I forgot them 
altogether. With the welcome song of Willow Wren, White-throat 
and Cuckoo in the following April the Yellow Wagtails came back 
to memory, and towards the end of that month I set off to the 
rough meadows by the stream to find them. I was soon greeted by 
a slightly drawn-out high cry " Wheet," and a Yellow Wagtail 
alighted upon a fence near by with material for nesting purposes. 
After watching both birds visit a particular spot a few times, I went 
and found they were busy making their home cosy with a lining of 
horsehair, both birds meanwhile hovering overhead uttering a 
repeated anxious cry of " Wheesit," " Wheesit." Apparently the 
nest would be ready for eggs in about two days' time, and being 
thus satisfied with my mission I returned home. My next visit was 
early in May ; the nest then contained four eggs indistinctly spotted 
over with ash-grey spots on a dirty white background, and five 
ultimately made the full clutch. Some bitterly cold weather whilst 
incubation was in progress reduced the number of fertile eggs to 
three, which had hatched out three or four days previously to my 
going over with a camera and "hiding" on the 19th of May. As 
the weather conditions were favourable I commenced work at once. 
The hiding " was erected barely four feet in height about twelve 
feet from the nest, and then from a distance, by the aid of my field 
glasses, I watched the birds frequently go to the nest. Being thus 
assured they were not alarmed at the strange object, I left the 
immediate neighbourhood. Eeturning in a few hours I slipped into 
the hiding and hitched it up by degrees from the inside during the 
birds' absence until I got it within workable distance. I found the 
Wagtails uncommonly indifferent to any little sound proceeding from 
the tent, and the parent birds sat alternately quite unconcernedly on 
the nest whilst I arranged the camera, taking of course all care to 
work as quietly as possible. The hen Yellow Wagtail often retired 
to a favourite spot a yard or so from the nest for a moment's pause 
in the arduous task of foraging for the family, and here her actions 
were interesting. Should a fly venture near she would crouch low 
like a cat getting ready for a spring, then, at the opportune moment' 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by J. H. Symonds. 

[Motacilla rait.) 













On the Cinnamon Teal. 261 

dart forward in pursuit of the intruder. As is customary with other 
birds, both the cock and lien took part in the feeding of the young, 
the hen being, however, decidedly the most assiduous. Caterpillars 
and winged insects chiefly formed the diet of the young birds. Con- 
sistent with the traditions of small bird-life, the Yellow Wagtails 
were scrupulously attentive to the comfort of their charges ; even the 
bed came in for an occasional shake-up. A good deal of energy was 
•expended on this little duty while it lasted. It was undertaken by 
both birds ; standing over the young, they pulled vigorously at the 
interior of the nest until arranged to their satisfaction. The 
characteristic inquisitiveness of a herd of Welsh cattle caused me 
some annoyance. They would, at frequent intervals, come and 
investigate my hiding, and it was disturbing to me as well as to the 
Yellow Wagtails that I should be constantly getting out to drive the 
cattle away. Some days afterwards I was again in the vicinity, and 
went to see if the little family had been duly reared. I saw a pair 
of old Yellow Wagtails feeding some fully-fledged youngsters a short 
distance away, so I concluded all had gone well. 


Querqueclula cijanoptera — ViEiLLOT. 
By Majoe Boyd Horsbeugh. 

I must apologise for pretending that the ensuing article is 
mine. Mr. Hugh Wormald has been kind enough to send me the 
notes on the behaviour and habits of the Cinnamon Teal in captivity, 
and I think it will probably interest the members of our Society if I 
add to these some details on the distribution and habits of this 
beautiful little bird in its native home, as extracted from Bulletin 
No. 26 of the United States Department of Agriculture. The notes 
are written by Mr. Wells W. Cooke, Assistant to the Biological 
Survey. I consider Mr. Cooke knows more about N. American 
waterfowl than almost any other American Naturalist, and his notes 
are concise as well as most interesting. 

For the benefit of English readers I may explain the following 
abbreviations : — 

262 Major BoYD HOESBKUGH, 





S. C. 

South Carolina 



The breeding range of the Cinnamon Teal differs essentially 
from that of almost every other duck in tlie Western Hemisphere. 
It consists of a large area north of the Equator and a similar district 
south of the Equator, and these two homes are separated by a strip 
about 2,000 miles wide, in which the species is practically unknown. 
In North America the breeding range extends north to Southern 
British Columbia (Lac la Hache) and South -Western Alberta ; east 
to Eastern Wyoming (Lake Como, Cheyenne), Western Kansas 
(Fort Wallace, Meade County) ; south to Northern Lower California 
(La Grulla, San Eafael Valley, and possibly San Jose del Cabo), 
Northern Mexico (Chihuahua City), Southern New Mexico (Carls- 
bad), and South- Western Texas (Marathon, Eock Spring). 

The Cinnamon Teal occurs sparingly on migration as far east 
as Houston, Tex., and Omaha, Nebr. It has been noted as accidental 
at Oak Lake, Manitoba ; Big Stone Lake, Minnesota ; Lake Koshko- 
nong, Wisconsin ; Licking County Eeservoir, Ohio ; Seneca Eiver 
and Seneca Lake, New York ; Lake Pontchartrain, Lake Catta- 
watchie, St. Malo, and Opelousas, Louisiana ; Mount Pleasant, S. C. ; 
Lake lamonia and Key West, Florida. 

Throughout this breeding area the eggs are deposited during 
May and June. About six months later the South American Colony 
breeds. The breeding range includes the pampas of Argentine as far 
north as Buenos Ayres, wdiile in the Andes it extends north to 
Central Peru (Santa Luzia). Soutliward the species breeds as far 
as the Falkland Islands and Straits of Magellan. South American 
breeders of course are not the same birds which nest in North 
America, for it is true, without exception, that no bird which breeds 
north of the Equator breeds also in the southern hemisphere. 

Winter Bangs. — The Cinnamon Teal of North America 
retires in winter but little south of its breeding range in Mexico as 
far as Mazatlan, Guanajuato, and the Laguna de Chapulco, Puebla. 
It is found at this season as far north as Browmsville, Tex., Central 
New Mexico, Southern Arizona, and Tulare Lake, California. South 

on the Cinncmion Teal. 263 

of Mexico the only record is on an accidental occurrence in Coast 
Eica. There is no reliable record as yet for the West Indies. 

During the winter season the Cinnamon Teal of the southern 
hemisphere has been noted as far south as the mouth of the Senger 
Eiver, in Patagonia, latitude 440S., and Chiloe Island, Chile, in 
nearly the same latitude. The northern range in winter is not 
determinable with exactness from present data. The species passes 
north to Eio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to Southern Paraguay. It 
has been noted at Chorillos and Tungasuca, Peru ; near Quito, 
Ecuador, at Bogota and Santa Marta, Colombia. These Ecuador and 
Colombia Teal may be accidental occurrences. It is significant, at 
least, that all the specimens from Colombia were taken half a century 
ago, and the species has not been noted there by recent collectors. 

Spring Migration. — The northward movement of the Cinna- 
mon Teal in the United States begins about the 1st of March, and 
arrivals have been noted at Ash Meadows, Nevada, March 18th, 
1891 ; Grangeville, Idaho, April 11th, 1887 ; ChilHwack, British 
Columbia, April 24th, 1888, and April 22nd, 1889; Beloit, Colo., 
March 23rd, 1892 ; Colorado Springs, April 9th, 1882 ; Loveland, 
Colo., April 13th, 1890; Lay, Colo., April 20th, 1890; Omaha, 
Nebr., April 10th, 1896, and April 12th, 1897; Lake Como, 
Wyoming, about May 5th. 

Fall Migration. — Southward 'migration occurs chiefly in 
September, and the northern portion of the breeding grounds from 
British Columbia to Eastern Colorado is deserted about the middle 
of October. 

Migration in South America. — The Cinnamon Teal of South 
America is migratory in at least part of its range, for in Central 
Argentina it is abundant during the winter season, April to Septem- 
ber, and rare or lacking during the breeding period. The species is 
migratory also in the southern portion of its range in Chile. In 
Northern Chile and in Peru migration records are wanting. The 
time and direction of the migration of this species in South America 
correspond closely with those in the United States, but of course 
the breeding and wintering seasons are reversed, since they are on 
opposite sides of the Equator. 

Thus the Cinnamon Teal is distributed in two distinct 

264 On the Cinnamon Teal. 

colonies, part of the individuals breeding far north of the Equator, 
and the rest about an equal distance to the south. Tlie northern 
breeders migrate south after nesting, and the southern breeders 
migrate north. Whether or not the members of these two groups 
now represent sub-species, they are so much alike as to indicate a 
a common origin and a former continuous breeding range. Whether 
isolation was gradual or was effected rapidly it is impossible to say, 
nor do we know the cause. 

Mr. Hugh Wormald writes me as follows : — -" This is one of 
the most beautiful of the whole duck tribe, though it seems to me 
that the name Teal is a misnomer. This duck is, in my opinion, a 
Shoveler ; the bird's habits, shape and appearance are much more 
like a Shoveler than a Teal, and the courtship is identical with that 
of our Shoveler. These birds are now becoming fairly common in 
collections of ornamental waterfowl, though a year or two ago they 
w^ere practically unknown ; they are certainly among the most useful 
for ornamental purposes, being extremely beautiful, quite hardy, and, 
in my limited experience of them, very free breeders. Two pairs on 
my pond this spring produced four nests. One pair on each occasion 
nested at quite a distance from the water, and the other pair at the 
water's edge. A fact I have noticed time after time with all ducks 
is that when the first nest is taken or destroyed, and the birds nest 
a second time, the second nest is always, or nearly always, within 
about ten yards of the spot wliere the first nest was situated. The 
colour of the eggs of my Cinnamon Teal varied considerably ; one 
bird produced rich cream-coloured eggs and the other laid very nearly 
white eggs. Cinnamon Teal are said to hybridise freely with Blue- 
winged Teal (Q. cliscors), though I have never seen a bird of this 
cross, but I am told that there are some at Falloden. Young 
Cinnamon Teal are easily reared, and are sturdy little ducklings, and 
may be fed in the usual way, and provided that there are no heavy 
rains while they are quite small there should be practically no deaths. 
I have found the glass top of a garden frame fitted into wooden legs 
most excellent protection from heavy rain. The front legs must be 
shorter than the back in order to allow the water to run off easily, 
and they must be made high enough to allow" plenty of air to get in 
between the wooden sides of the " run " in front of the coop and the 

On the Greater Spotted Woodpecker. 265 

glass covering. Cinnamon Teal are much tamer in confinement 
than most of the small ducks, which is greatly in their favour. The 
importation of some wild caught drakes would be a great advantage, 
as I fancy that the stock of Cinnamon Teal in this country is 
becoming " in-bred," all the birds on the market being bred either 
here or on the Continent, and I have seen no advertisement of wild 
caught birds. Moreover I believe that all the birds in this country 
are the descendants of a few birds bred on the Continent. 

I regret that I have only a nodding acquaintance with the 
Cinnamon Teal in its wild state. I saw it on several occasions on 
the Pacific Coast in Southern California in company with Buffle- 
heads, Shoveler and Ruddy Ducks, and was able to note the great 
speed it has on the wing. I was unable to see it during the nesting 
season as I was in California during the winter only. On various 
lakes in public parks where no shooting was allowed and where 
sanctuaries were carefully maintained, it was most interesting to see 
the various birds that fed tamely close at hand. Hundreds and 
hundreds of Shovelers, which are identical with the European bird, 
and small parties of a dozen or so of Cinnamon Teal, which, as Mr. 
Wormald says, closely resemble the Shoveler in habits, hundreds of 
White-winged Scoter (Oi. deglandii) came in to wash in fresh water 
and flighted out to feed towards the evening ; parties of Pintail, 
Mallard, Green and Blue-winged Teal paddled about, while overhead 
floated Western Gulls (L. vegae) and the dark-plumaged Heerman's 
Gull {L. heermani), and the reeds were filled with Brewer's Black- 
birds and Eed-winged Starlings, — the whole making a picture of 
which one's eyes never tired. 



{Dendrocopus major). 
By Lilian Medland, E.Z.S. 

I am sending you a photograph of the Greater Spotted Wood- 
pecker which I hand-reared from the nest. I obtained this bird in 
the spring of 1907, and he has just died at the age of 62 years, 
creating, I believe, a record of the longevity of this species in cap- 

266 On the Greater Spotted Woodpecker. 

tivity. This photograph I took in my studio, and the bird is dinging 
to a piece of wood placed up against the wall. 

The first cage in which I put him he stayed in for just about 
one hour ; the cage had a wooden back, and he pecked his way out 
of it almost immediately. I then got a cage made entirely of zinc 
wire, about 2ift. by lift. Occasionally I let him fly about the room, 
when he would always make straight for my skirt and climb up on 
to my shoulder and ask for meal-worms. In one instance he settled 
on the head of a friend who happened to come in, and commenced to 
peck his head (probably thinking he had found a new piece of wood !) 
Two of his great objections were hats and overcoats, and if anyone 
went near him when in out-door clothes he invariably hid himself 
behind his log of wood in the cage. Of strangers he was also very 
shy, but directly he got used to any person he would sit as close as 
he could get to them and utter his small, quiet "chipping" note, 
which, being interpreted, meant " Meal-worms ! " I once gave him 
a companion of his own kind, which he inhospitably killed at once 
by pecking the new-comer's head. He would never tolerate any other 
bird or animal. I used to put his cage on a wide window-seat 
in which my bull-dog used to like to sit ; this the Woodpecker 
resented, and used to peck the dog's back so viciously that he was 
forced to get down. Another animal he disliked was a black Persian 
cat, which usually sat on the cover on the top of his cage, and if by 
any chance the cat put its paws beyond this cover the bird would 
fly at it and peck its feet until it was compelled to beat a hasty 
retreat. The Woodpecker, in displaying anger, M^ould loosen all its 
feathers, erect its crest, drop its wings, and literally shiver with rage, 
keeping its beak open meanwhile. 

He was so lazy in keeping himself clean at first that I used 
to take him out of his cage, well lather him with a shaving brush 
and soap, and thoroughly wash ; but after some time he would bath 
frequently, often twice a day. A pecviliarity which he had was that 
of " sounding " any fresh piece of wood which had been put into his 
cage, and on finding a hollow-sounding spot would commence to 
peck a hole, in which he would place any extra large piece of biscuit 
or bread so that he had more power over it in order to break it up. 
On several occasions, when the wood had been too new, he broke 

The Avicultural Magazine. 

Photo by Miss L. Medland. 

{Piciis major.) 

Birds of Neto South Wales I have caught and kept. 267 

the tip off the upper mandible, which however grew again after a 
week or so. 

His food consisted of insectivorous food and meal-worms, but 
nothing came amiss to him, a special delicacy being a chop bone. 
He rarely touched fruit of any kind. He used to ' talk" to me 
quite a lot in his way, and always at night he would respond to my 
"Good-night, Pecker" with a little quiet "chipping" sound. 
Another note was a prolonged scream, repeated several times as a 
rule. He also had a special, agitated, loud and repeated ' Tchuck ' ' 
which he used on hearing any unusual sound, a kind of alarm note 
presumably to give warning of approaching danger. 


By G. A. Heumann. 

" Willst du in die Feme schweifen, 
Wenn das Gute liegt so naii." 

These fine words might with good results be applied also to 
bird-keeping. It is human nature, however, to just want what is 
hardest' to get, and so we commence to keep seed-eating birds, which 
before long are joined by the delicate and — if the purse can stand it 
— the most expensive Soft-bills and Honeysuckers often before we 
are able to or capable of keeping them alive. I was no exception to 
this rule, and during many visits to the Continent I always brought 
back of rarities whatever I could buy or exchange for such Australian 
birds I had taken home with me. In this way I often managed to 
get pairs of rare birds which I afterwards bred successfully out here, 
such as Scaly-headed finches, Eed-coUared Whydahs, Tanagers, and 
many more. However, I always had a warm corner in my heart 
for the native birds of my adopted country, and little by little, 
recognizing the charm of these home treasures, they filled my 
aviaries. Now, after 20 years of tending them, there are but few 
species of N.S.W. birds suitable for aviaries which have not been 
inmates in my flights and often bred there. Yet, I admit it to my 
sorrow, that before I managed to attain success I had to look down 

268 Mr. G. A. Heumann, 

on many a dead little songster, many a beautifully-coloured corpse, 
and I often felt as if I should like to give the hobby up and stop this 
murdering by my incapability to keep them alive. The majority I 
can now safely bring on to eat artificial food, set into my aviaries, 
and they will live with me for years. Others, like the Fly-catchers, 
are still a closed book to me, yet I believe even they may be kept in 
confinement if taken young from the nest and reared up. To sum 
up my experience of Australian birds and such from other countries, 
be they seed-eaters or otherwise, I have come to the conclusion that, 
as far as those are concerned which I have had the pleasure of 
handling, the Australian birds are infinitely harder to keep and their 
lives are shorter as well. 

Judging by a number of letters I have at various times 
received from English fanciers, I thought it might interest not a few 
of the readers of the Avicultural Magazine if I tell them something 
about N.S.W. birds I have kept which were nearly all caught 
by myself, and I feel sure many of our beautiful Soft-bills could, 
with proper care and attention, be landed safely in England. 

There is a wave of fashion just now passing through the bird- 
lovers of England. The magic word is " Sun-bird," so I will com- 
mence with the only Sun-bird we have just now in too sunny New 
South Wales. 

Myzomela sanguinolenta,''' commonly called " Blood-bird," and 
it richly deserves this name. The head, back, neck, and half-way 
down the breast is bright scarlet ; abdomen mottled red, grey and 
white ; wings and tail sooty black. The hen is all brown and the 
young like the hen. The bill is long, very slender, and slightly 
curved. These beautiful little birds come around Sydney early in 
September when the first gum trees begin to bloom. Never in 
quantities, they are still some years more plentiful than in others. 
They live high up in the big gums, and early in the morning when 
the sun rises their melodious call may be heard in every direction. 
November is the month for breeding. The nest is 10 to 20 feet high 
up in turpentine trees, wattles, or even fruit trees, but at any time 
it is hard to find, as the male bird gives no clue as to its where- 

*M. Sanguinolenta is not a " Sun-bird " proper, but allied to the " Honey- 
eaters." — Ed. 

071 Birds of Netv South Wales I have ca^ight and kept. 269 

abouts. They are very jealous birds, and will not allow another 
pair within their " sphere of influence," which I noticed in all 
Australian birds, and yet a dozen and more will select one water-hole 
and meet there quite amiably at a certain time, generally between 
4 and 4.30 p.m. These birds are hard to catch, as they will take no 
notice of a decoy bird, and the only place to get them is the water- 
hole — if you can find it. For years I spent with my children one 
day a week in the bush, always with our eyes open for any bird we 
might meet, yet so far we found only one nest of the Blood-bird 
right out. It was built in a wattle tree and made of the dead blooms 
of the wattle laced together, a flimsy structure, looking just like a 
nest of a species of a hairy caterpillar often seen in the bush about 
here. This nest contained three eggs, but returning a week later we 
found it empty. No doubt a Butcher-bird was the culprit, the worst 
enemy of our small birds. I have never tried to breed the Blood- 
bird, but I should not think it more difiicult than to breed any other 
Honeysucker. Many of them have lived in my aviaries quite a long 
time, doing well on brown sugar and water, and as the flight is large 
they catch of course a great number of minute insects as well. In 
the open I have seen them on dull days come right down low, hunt- 
ing the turpentine and other shrubs for little spiders and insects. 
They are not susceptible to cold, but a draught will surel^^ kill them. 
It is a pity that these vivacious and wiiisome little gems have not 
yet been introduced into England. 

Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris. This bird is much lovelier 
than the beautiful name scientists have given it. We call them 
Spine-bill " Honeyeater, and were it smaller it would make a 
beautiful Sun-bird. Not so gorgeously attired as the Blood-bird, this 
little treasiu'-e is much more interesting. Always near the ground, it 
will visit low shrubs, hovering over a flower here or clinging to the 
stem of another, and dipping its long, slender, curved bill into the 
flower. One meets this "flower kisser" always and anywhere in 
the bush or garden, and it allows one to come quite close, showing 
very little fear. Strange to say, they build very high ; the nests 
which came under my notice were placed on the outer branches 
of high gum trees. We feed them as the Blood-bird ; in addition 
they get sponge cake, bread and milk sweetened, soft-bill food and 

270 Mr. G. A. Heumann, 

fruit. They will last years in an aviary, and they become delight- 
fully tame, especially when reared up out of the nest. As soon as I 
enter my aviary they will fly on my head and shoulders. Of all the 
Honeysucker tribe this one I would always keep ; they are charming" 
and affectionate pets. 

Ptilotis leucotis : White-eared or White- whiskered Honey- 
sucker. This is anotlier of our favourites, though harder to keep 
alive than the Spine-bill. They are essentially Bush-birds living on 
the nectar and insects of the bush flowers. The bottle-brush tree they 
are very fond of, and I noticed them also visiting the warratahs when 
they are just about to open. They are very cunning birds and hard to 
get on to the lime-stick, which is best set near their bathing place, for 
they love the water and will bathe numbers of times a day. It is a 
proud and handsome bird, the head and back greyish-black, throat 
black, chest and abdomen black and white striped, the cheeks pure 
white and fan-shaped. The wings are greyish-green at the base, 
becoming yellow towards the end ; a really lovely bird. Once used 
to the aviary they are quite at home, and live a long time. 

Ptilotis chrijsotis : Yellow-tufted Honey-eater. This is doubt- 
less a fine bird ; yellowish green with a yellow crown and yellow 
tufts as whiskers. They are terrors on soft fruit. When the per- 
simmons are ripe in my garden the tree is often more laden with 
Yellow Tufts than persimmons. They build in low bushes a nice 
•compact nest, often close to the main road, and generally so that 
every boy can see it ; yet they thrive and are always plentiful. In 
the aviary they are spiteful to small birds, sometimes taking the 
young out of the nests or whizzing past a smaller bird and lashing it 
with the wing. All the same, to an aviary with larger birds they 
are an acquisition. I have mine with Parrots, and there they have 
been for years now 

Melithreptus atricavillus : Black-cap. General appearance 
yellowish green with white band across the neck, head black, 
abdomen white, bare rim round the eyes, metallic-brick-carmine-red, 
it is an indefinable colour. This bird is more like a soft-bill than a 
Honeysucker, — a small dainty creature without defined song, but 
always calling to each other. They readily descend to a decoy. 
They make tiny nests in turpentine trees, but in my flight they built 

on Birds of Neiv South Wales I have caught and kept. 271 

in the bamboo. Like most of my birds they will take a mealworm 
out of my hand. Other fine Honeyeaters in my aviaries are the 
Spiney-checked and the Blue-faced ones. They are both rather 
large birds, the size of a Mexican Blue-Jay, and similar to it in 
shape. Unfortunately the blue in the latter birds fades pale after 
the first moult in captivity. One of my greatest pets in Honey- 
eaters is the little tawny-crowned one — Gliciphila vielanops. These 
are plain little birds of ashy-brown, with a tawny crown and whitish 
abdomen. They built their nest — a loose hanging structure of un- 
twisted rope fibre — on a branch of the tree in my aviary. I asked 
ladies at the time to come into the flight without their hats, when 
these little birds alighted on their heads immediately and tried to pull 
the hair out for their nest. This led to many an amusing scene. 

I have a number of other Honeyeaters, such as the " Chick- 
up," the " Singing " Honeyeater, and others of less interest than 
those mentioned previously. Perhaps the Blue-eyed Honeyeater 
should be excepted and deserves special mention. Similar to the 
" Black-cap " generally, it is a trifle larger, and the ring round the 
eyes is bluish-green ; a bright and lively bird. Its life in the aviary 
is, however, always short ; the reason for it is not at all clear to me, 
as they are fed as the other Honeysuckers, which do well. Towards 
Christmas they come to feed on the late wattle blooms and 
abutilons, calling like the Black-caps to one another as they fly. 
They are very shy birds and hard to catch. 

My experience with Honeysuckers has been undoubtedly 
encouraging. In the early days, when I first begun keeping them 
and knew little how to treat them, I had many losses. There was no 
one then who could advise me, as no one kept them ; and even now 
I know of no fancier here who would take the trouble to look after 
them carefully. Feeding them on honey, or honey diluted with 
water, would send them surely into fits sooner or later. Condensed 
milk would not do, and many other experiments I tried failed. The 
result was always fits and death.* 

Examining the tongue under the microscope, I found it 

* Would not Mellin's Pood, Nestle's and Honey do, a teaspoonful of each 
to a large cup of hot water? Sun-birds thrive on this mixture, which can be 
poured over sponge cake. — ED. 

272 ' Dr. A. G. Butlee, 

covered with little bristles wherewith to scoop out of the flower not 
only the nectar but also the milliards of microscopically small insects 
which no doubt supply the main food. Taking my cue from this 
observation, I tried to mix ants eggs and dried lean meat powdered 
up finely with the honey ; result : they still went on dying. I now 
changed the whole system by substituting unrefined (brown) sugar 
and water with a sprinkle of the powdered meat and ants eggs, 
sweetened bj'ead and milk, fruit and sponge cake ; result : my Honey- 
suckers live and are doing well. They are tight in feather and are 
in a general good condition. I am of opinion that honey in any 
form or quantity shortens their lives. 


By Dr. A. G. Butler. 
(Continued from page 252). 

I have only had five species of Whydahs, but a fair number 
of Viduine Weavers : thus of the Short-tailed Whydahs I have kept 
many examples of both sexes of the Combassou and the Ultramarine 
Finch ; they are harmless, excitable little birds, quite ready to breed 
when in colour, only my hens generally died from egg-binding ; 
otherwise I found them hardy and long-lived. Like the Mannikins 
they will build in any of the usual nesting-receptacles, though my 
birds always preferred a prepared Hartz-cage to any other ; like the 
Mannikins also, and unlike the Long-tailed Whydahs, their eggs are 
pure white and unmarked. 

Many a time have I been tempted to purchase specimens of 
the Pin-tailed Whydah ; but the two or three males which I have 
owned were so mischievous in scaring other species in the same 
aviary with them that I unwillingly refused them : they are most 
graceful and pleasing in flight and their colouring is attractive : I 
have had several females. As regards the reputed parasitic habits of 
the species, Stark's description of the nests which he himself saw 
containing young birds, and the description of the spotted egg given 
by Shelley, seem to me to be a sufficiently conclusive answer. I 
have had a fair number of Paradise Whydahs, and found them as a 






















Thirty-two Years of Aviculture. 273 

general rule peaceable and inoffensive, but I had one spiteful indi- 
vidual in 1897 which I was obliged to place with birds as strong as 
itself. The Long-tailed or Giant Whydah, although a large and 
powerful species, is amiable and long-suffering unless persistently- 
provoked by smaller birds : I have had only one male example 
myself, but Mr. Housden, of Sydenham, had a fair number at one 

Of Viduine Weavers I have kept many examples of the 
Napoleon Weaver and still have five or six as I write ; two males in 
the same aviary are sure to fight in the breeding season, but several 
hens can be kept safely with the same cock-bird : like most of the 
Weavers they are hardy and long-lived. I have purchased two 
Crimson-crowned Weavers from a mixed series in winter plumage, 
but both proved to be hens ; I also secured a hen of the Black- 
vented Weaver in the same manner. One male of the Grenadier 
Weaver, still in excellent health as I write, was sent to me in 1906 
by Major Horsbrugh : it is perhaps the most beautiful of the Fire- 
Weavers, and my example is in full colour by April each year ; in 
the breeding season it is master of the aviary in which it is confined ; 
but should any bird pluck up courage and stand up to it, this 
impudent Weaver retires at once, evidently considering discretion 
the better part of valour. I have had many examples of the lovely 
Orange Weaver, which greatly resembles the last-mentioned except- 
ing in its inferior size and orange throat : two males in the same 
aviary are liable to dispute during the breeding season, so that it is 
better to keep each cock in a separate enclosure with several hens. 
Of Eed-billed Weavers, the most long-lived of all and the most 
indefatigable of nest-builders, I have had many : under different 
conditions they vary greatly ; one very abnormal male sent to me by 
Major Horsbrugh at a later date moulted into quite normal plumage, 
to my great disgust ; but the albinistic form Euss' Weaver never 
reverts to the normal plumage after acquiring the buff cheeks of 
that form. 

We now come to the typical or Ploceine Weavers, some of 
which are very interesting birds to keep on account of the compact 
snail-shaped nests which they build. I obtained one male of the 
Eufous-necked Weaver in 1893, and in 1896 and 1899 I purchased 

274 Dr. A. G. Butler 

examples of the Black-headed Weaver. In 1895 I purchased a male 
of what I then supposed to be an ordinary Black-headed Weaver ; 
but, after its death on the 29th January, 1910, it was identified at 
the Natural History Museum as H. capitalis, which Shelley calls 
the Niger Black-headed Weaver ; it is conspicuously smaller than 
the commoner species and differs in several other respects. I have 
also had the Half-masked Weaver. I have had three male Baya 
Weavers and two male Manyah Weavers : they built many nests, 
but having no hens to help them, they never completed them by 
forming the cup for the eggs or the entrance tube. I have kept two 
males and one female of the brilliant Madagascar Weaver and one 
male of the nearly-related Comoro Weaver ; they are aggressive and 
quarrelsome birds, the latter especially so.* 

Next to be considered are the Starlings, which I have always 
greatly delighted in on account of their intelligence and the readiness 
with which many of them become tame and confiding : they include 
some of the most brilliantly coloured of our feathered friends, and 
are interesting as links between the Finch-like and Crow-like birds ; 
their nests, both in form and location, vary as much as they do in 
the whole of the two families of finches, while the cunning and 
mischievous propensities of some of them are similar to those which 
one finds amongst the Crows. Of the finch-like Marsh-birds I 
received single examples of the Bobolink and the Red-breasted 
Marsh-bird from the Argentine Republic in 1893 : I had to keep 
them in a smallish aviary as they were too wild and nervous for a 
flight-cage ; they did not appear to be spiteful birds. The Brown- 
headed Meadow- Starling, of which I have had two examples, were 
certainly quite amiable towards their associates. The Yellow- 
shouldered and Flame-shouldered Marsh - Troupials, with more 
slender bills, I only kept in flight-cages and therefore cannot say 
how they might behave if associated with smaller birds ; I had two 
males of the former and one of the latter species, and should judge, 
from the age to which the last-mentioned attained, that if correctly 
fed and treated, both would be examples of longevity. I found a 

*0n April 7th, 1914, Mr. Silver brought me a male out of colour of what 
he understood to be a Comoro Weaver, but it has since proved to be a Madagascar 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture. Tib 

pair of the Silky Cowbird and a second male which I received later 
long-lived, by no means aggressive, but extremely nervous and wild ; 
yet this species is said sometimes to become tame and trustful in 

Of typical Troupials I have only had a pair of De Filippi's 
Military- Starling, rather wild birds, but attractive from their beauti- 
ful colouring ; with me they only lived about two years. To my 
mind the Hangnests are the most pleasing of the New- World 
Starlings : they cannot be safely kept with other birds, even though 
almost of their own size, indeed I am satisfied that in their wild 
state they are more or less predacious in their habits ; but on the 
other hand they are most companionable, delight in being noticed, 
talked to, and made much of. They are very clever at opening the 
doors of their cages, and should a plant stand anywhere within 
reach of their long bills it is quickly disfigured, pieces of the leaves 
being torn off and pulled to pieces : if turned loose in a room they 
are said to make havoc of lace curtains. Their notes are clear, flute- 
like and resounding, and a military band will start them off singing 
vigorously ; they are hardy, and if obtained in good condition are 
long-lived. I have only had two species, a pair of the Common and 
one of the Brazilian Hangnest, the latter was in a bad way when I 
purchased it and did not long survive, but the Common Hangnests 
(of two types which I believe to be continental and insular) are still 
in excellent health as I write.* 

Of the Old- World Starlings I have had many examples of the 
European bird, both hand-reared and caught in the garden. This 
common species is a beautiful creature when seen close at hand ; it 
keeps itself in splendid condition so that it looks almost as though cast 
in metal, and it is naturally tame and easy to keep, being almost omni- 
vorous. On one occasion I trapped thirteen in quite a short space of 
time with what is known to the catchers as a caravan-trap (at one 
fall of the trap I caught three, for these birds are most reckless in 
their greed for food) ; from these thirteen birds I selected one 
perfectly-formed snaky-headed specimen with extra brilliant colour- 

* The form limoiieus proved itself to be a female by dropping eggs to 
destruction on the floor of its cage early in April ; they were coloured as in 
I. cayanensis. 

276 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

ing and perfect markings, and sent it about a month later to a show ; 
unfortunately the judge ignored its perfect form and preferred a 
thick-set ordinary example which had been forced into its summer 
plumage prematurely. I was naturally disgusted, and sold the bird 
to a gentleman who appreciated its good points for the price which 
its cage had cost me, and I am satisfied that I recognised it at 
several subsequent bii-d-shows as the winner of first prizes, but it 
had again changed hands before then. 

Among the Starling-like Mynahs I have had a male of the 
Malabar Mynah, a pleasingly-coloured bird, extremely active, but 
less confiding than some of the Starlings, and unless one can get 
both sexes not so interesting. I got tired of it after a time and 
exchanged it for something which I considered more attractive. As 
I kept it in a smallish aviary I cannot say whether it is aggressive 
or not, but I hardly think it would be towards birds of about its own 
size. I had a Common Mynah, either in 1893 or 1894, which 
occupied the same aviary later in company with my pair of Blue-birds ; 
it is not a very handsome bird. My example was a great devourer 
of cockroaches of which one could not supply it with too many ; it 
was quite indifferent to the presence of the Blue-birds, but that may 
partly have been due to the fact that its health was failing when I 
received it, for it did not live for many months and I never coveted 

In my experience the Crested Mynah is by far the most 
pleasing of all the Old-World Starlings as a pet ; from what I had 
seen of it I longed for a specimen for some years before I succeeded 
in obtaining one. It is a quaint-looking bird with its triple crest, 
but it is always in perfect plumage, in abounding health and spirits, 
eager for attention, absolutely trustful, and always ready for a fight 
with its owner. When spoken to it keeps making jerky bows, utter- 
ing at the same time queer creaky sounds ; it can be taught to talk, 
but its utterances are gruff and low-pitched ; it whistles clearly and 
makes trumpet-like noises. I fancy that my bird was too old when 
I purchased it to be taught to talk, the only word it ever uttered was 
" Joey," and I gave it that name. Although I do not doubt that 
the Crested Mynah is by nature partly predacious, killing and 
devouring small birds, mice, lizards, etc. (my bird was fond of 

Thirty-tivo Years of Aviculture. 277 

young mice), I do not think, from what I saw of a specimen in one 
of Mr. Housden's aviaries, that it would ever be spiteful towards 
birds of its own size. 

I have only had one of the Crow-like Grackles — the Greater 
Hill-Mynah ; it is handsome but heavy in its movements. A mar- 
vellous mimic, this bird can be taught to talk ; but its voice is very 
gruff. My bird had never learnt any words, but any number of 
queer sounds which it had evidently heard on board ship. In my 
opinion this large Mynah, in spite of its somewhat Crow-like aspect, 
is not predacious ; I believe I shortened the life of my bird by 
giving it raw beef, and that it would have done far better if soft food, 
fruit and living insects alone had been given to it. Even if it had a 
craving for fresh meat, I doubt whether with its ponderous move- 
ments it would be quick enough to capture small vertebrate animals, 
excepting perhaps newts, frogs or slow-worms. 

Some years later, in the aviary previously occupied by my 
Malabar and Common Mynahs, I kept two Satin Bower-birds : 
charming creatures with the most beautiful eyes of any bird known 
to me. I have already published so much respecting these two birds 
that I will say no more about them here : they are essentially vege- 
tarians, but are fond of insects. 

I have only had two species of the Crow-family : The English 
Jay and the Blue-bearded Jay. They are most delightful birds to 
keep, but of course they need a large flight-cage or a smallish aviary 
to themselves. My English bird, one of the largest and most hand- 
some of its species, was one of four taken from the nest by a Mr. 
Ginner and given to me while still a baby. I only succeeded in 
teaching him to say " Hullo Jimmy ! " but he mimicked the cats 
which passed the conservatory in which his flight was kept, copying 
both their complaining mewing and their growls when fighting ; he 
always growled when he saw a cat, and often cursed it in true Jay 
language. His imitation of a bird washing was wonderfully realistic ; 
he was very jealous of attentions paid to other birds, and if I stood 
near his flight and took no notice of him he picked up stones and 
flung them at me. In the breeding season this bird used to show off 
to me : flying to the floor of his cage he would lower his head, wings 
and tail, erect his crest, curve up his back so that all the feathers 

278 Mr. Hubert D. Astley, 

stood on end, and hop round and round in a circle of about eighteen 
inches diameter, making odd noises in his throat, and repeating all 
his imitative sounds : he looked absolutely cracked, and when my 
friend Mr. Frowhawk saw him I did not wonder at his remark " I 
say, what a fool ! " Poor old Jimmy ! he only lived thirteen years. 

My Blue-bearded Jay was a great pet, but I have written fully 
about him in this Magazine before (n.s. vol. 1, pp. 227-230, with 
coloured plate). It was very fond of having its head scratched and 
its chin tickled, and liked me to hold its bill between my thumb and 
forefinger. I purchased it in 1895 and it died in 1909. 
(To he continued.) 


By Hubert D. Astley. 
(Continued from page 255.) 

Amongst my greatest treasures is a small flock of Cotton Teal 
{Nettopus coromandelianus) , and I pride myself in being the first 
person to succeed in keeping this pretty little waterfowl in captivity 
out of India (its native country) with the exception of two which 
lived in the London Zoological Gardens for nearly a year in 1897. 
I have had one male since the 26th of January of this year (1914), 
and Mr. David Ezra most kindly sent me several more in May from 
Calcutta, a pair of which lot was presented by Mr. Alfred Ezra, his 
brother, to the London Zoological Society. 

The Cotton Teal is very small, a good size smaller than the 
English Teal, and is said to be allied to the Geese. In certain 
structural points this may be so, but in habits it is totally dissimilar. 
The legs are very short, and the Cotton Teal is not a free mover on 
land, although the idea that has hitherto been prevalent that it 
cannot walk at all is quite a false one, which idea probably arose 
from the fact that those previously imported were paralyzed. All 
my Cotton Teal can walk about in their enclosure on the turf quite 
easily, and, moreover, spend a great deal of their time out of the 
water. They perch easily and naturally. 

I had always supposed these birds to be divers, but I have 

My Birds at Brinsop Court. 279 

never seen any of mine attempt to do so ; when I let one out loose 
on a large pond and had to catch him again owing to other ducks 
and the Flamingoes starving him out, it was not until he was hard 
pressed by being harried by the boat which followed him that he 
finally dived, as any other surface duck would do under such 

The male bird is very pretty ; the face and neck snow-white, 
the crown of the head dark greenish brown with a darker ring 
coming down from the back of the neck and extending round the 
base in front ; flanks whitish-grey, upper parts deep bottle-green. 
The bill is goose-like, as in the Bernicle Geese. Cotton Teal have a 
curious way of bobbing their heads up and down, and (on land) 
wagging their tails. 

They do well on smaller seeds, such as dari, hemp seed, 
millet, etc., and are fond of water- weeds. Up till now the flock I 
have and the pair at the London Zoological Gardens are, I believe, 
the only ones in Europe, and it is only through Mr, David Ezra's 
undaunted perseverance and kindness that these have reached 
England in good health, although I must not omit my thanks to the 
Captain of one ship and the steward of another who took the 
greatest pains to tend them on the voyage from Calcutta. 

The next success to be obtained is to breed from them ! 
They are the smallest ducks that are known in the world. Eeal 

:^< ;|< * * * :^ 

In my Bird-room, which is fitted with every convenience, hot 

and cold water, radiator, and electric light, the inmates vary to a 

certain extent from time to time. Some of the birds are out in the 

aviaries during the summer ; others, especial pets, are always there, 

except when their cages are hanging in the courtyard or the loggia, 


A beautiful Blue-headed Eock Thrush still keeps in excellent 

condition, his portrait having figured in a coloured plate in the 

Magazine. Mr. A. Ezra's pair of Great Niltavas are also there, 

having been sent to me for country air and for more exercise than 

they could have in cages in London. 

The male is a magnificent shining purple-blue, the female a 


rich brown, with a small patch of bright blue on the sides of the 
neck, and a wash of warm grey, over the brown, on the head. Both 
birds are extremely tame, and are as a rule flying loose in the Bird- 
room, so that when I approach the meal-worm box they instantly 
fly down close to me, and will take the worms from my fingers. 
The only pair in Europe. 

A pair of Eed-headed Bullfinches [Pyrrhula erythrocephala) 
are charming birds, quite tame, although only imported by Mr. A. 
Ezra towards the end of May. They delight in a large bunch of 
flowering grass, chickweed, groundsel, etc. Except for a small mask 
of black round the bill, the male has the head and also the breast of 
a rich orange colour, otherwise he much resembles our British Bull- 
finch ; the female has a wash of orange yellow on the back of the 
head and a grey-brown breast. Their call-note is softer and more 
tinkling than that of their British cousin, and the song is pretty, the 
notes more rapid than the British Bullfinch's, and more chattering 

A pair of Yellow-backed Eed Sun-birds {(Ethopyga seherioe), 
also sent by Mr. A. Ezra, are generally allowed to fly about the 
Bird-room, and are remarkably fearless. The male, whose wondrous 
cardinal-red alas fades when he moults to a dull orange, looks very 
beautiful in his imported colours when perched on a large spray of 
wild cherry, apple blossom or hawthorn, sucking, with his long 
tongue, the nectar. 

A fine Bullock's Hangnest {Icterus hullochi) gives a vivid 
splash of gorgeous orange in his cage ; and he too, as do all the rest, 
comes out in his turn for a flight and a bath. This is perhaps the 
most beautiful of .all the Hangnests. 

A Shamah and a Gray's Thrush (T. grayi) make the room 
resound with their songs. A pair of Petz Conures, pretty little birds, 
make it resound, but only at moments, with their shrieks ! The 
male is all green, with a frontal patch of orange above the bill, the 
crown of the head being a bluish-grey ; the feixiale the same, but 
less bright, the orange patch above the bill being considerably 
smaller. The large eyes add very much to their beauty. 

The room is square and as large as a good-sized bedroom, and 
has a wheat-coloured composition floor rounded off at the skirting, 






My Birds at Brinsop Court. 281 

which can be washed down, and keeps beautifully sweet and clean. 
Eoomy shelves go round two sides for cages, and strong hooks for 
the same hang on the walls. Large cupboards for food, etc., are at 
one end, and at the other a sink of white porcelain, with sloping 
grooved shelves adjoining it, over which are shelves with perforated 
zinc, on which sponges, empty baths, etc., are stored. The walls 
are of enamel paint of duck-egg green, and everything is as sanitary 
and clean as is possible. 

I use sawdust for most of the cages, putting a little grit in a 
glass feeder. The seed-eaters have large bunches of all kinds of 
green food, which grows in abundance in the fertile red sandstone 
soil of Herefordshire. When I received the pair of Eed-headed 
Bullfinches (they might have been called orange-headed !) their 
■delight was great when I almost filled their cage with a bunch of 
flowering grasses, chickweed, wild cress, groundsel and Shepherd's 
purse ; they dived in amongst it, nibbling with little piping notes of 

One of the delights of receiving freshly-imported birds is to 
feel what joy one gives them after their long voyage, and to see 
them improving daily. One of the sorrows is when they arrive too 
late, moving on to an unseen plane. I don't mind birds coming 
with shabby and immature plumage, so long as they will hut move 
for it is so interesting to watch therji moult, emerging from dull 
chrysalises, as it were, into fine butterflies. I think the water here 
has iron in it, which no doubt is beneficial, for some waters must 
be better for birds than others, and here it comes from beautiful 
springs. (To he continued). 



Field-Studies of Some Rarer British Birds. — By John Walpole-Bond 
(London : Witherby & Co., 1914). 7s. 6d. net. 

Let those who are interested in such birds as Dartford 
Warblers and the Woodlark, the Kite, the Hobby, etc., obtain this 
book. It is the result of first-hand information, of close and careful 
observation, of very keen interest in several species of birds, some of 

282 Dr. E. HoPKlNSON, 

which have all but vanished from the British Isles as residents. It 
is a book of original study, and not a mere compilation of facts 
already recorded in a hundred other books on British birds. 

Mr. Walpole-Bond is very evidently a keen observer, endued 
with the gift of patience in watching and waiting. H. D. A. 


By Dr. E. Hopkinson, 

Foreword. In this list I have arranged in alphabetical 
order all the names I have been able to collect in the different works 
on the subject I have had access to. Chief among these are : — 

The Parrot Volume of the British Museum Catalogue. My 
authority in most cases for the names used by Latham and other early 
writers of his time. 

Parrakeets : Seth Smith. 

Gould's Handbook of the Birds of Australia. 

The Parrot Volume of Jardine's Naturalist's Library. 

The Dictionary of Birds : Newton. 

The most generally used name for any bird is printed in 
LAEGE CAPITALS. It is under this that the other names, by 
which the bird has been known and also its Scientific name (from 
the Hand List of the British Museum, Vol. II.) will be found. 
Names which are now obsolete are distinguished by an asterisk. 

Vernacular, including native and dealers' names, are in in- 
verted commas. 

"AA," Tahiti name for the EED-BACKED PARROT. 

" ABACAY," a native name in the Phillippines for some parrot, probably the 


tar ant a. 
ACTIVE AMAZON, = Amazona agilis of Jamaica. The AGILE PARROT of 

Latham and *LITTTE GREEN PARROT of Edwards. ? = also The 


of the first author. Known in Jamaica as the " BLACKBILL " and 

"BLACK-BILLED PARROT," teste Gosse. 
AdelaideBroadtail, the ADELAIDE PARRAKEET, Platycercusadelaidce. 

" Pheasant Parrot " in Australia. 

English Names for the Parrots. 283 

*AFEICAN Inseparable, an old-fashioned book-name for the LOVEBIRDS, 

particularly for the RED-FACED L. 

Pceocephalus fiiscicollis. 
AFRICAN RING -NECKED PARRAKEET, = PflZceo7ms docilis of West 

Africa, often also called the ROSE-RINGED PARRAKEET. Included with 

the Indian members of fhe genus in the general popular name, " RlNG- 
neck Pareakeets." 
Agile parrot, Latham's name for the ACTIVE AMAZON. 
" AJURU-CURUCA," Native name (Marograve) for the ORANGE-WINGED 

ALECTO Cockatoo, an old book name for the GREAT BLACK COCKATOO ; 

see under COCKATOO. 
ALEXANDRA PARRAKEET, Spathopterus alexandrcB, also known as the 

Princess of Wales' Parrakeet (Gould). 

Alexander parrakeet, a variant of ALEXANDRINE. 
ALEXANDRINE PARRAKEET. A name as old as Latham's time for many 
of the Parrakeets of the genus Palaornis, which contains the RING- 
Specifically Latham's name (and also his VAR. A.) applied to the birds 
from India and Ceylon, the ROSE-RINGED and CINGALESE ALEX- 

His varieties of ALEXANDRINE have been identified as follows : = 

VAR. A., see above. VAR. B., the BANDED PARRAKEET. VAR. C, 


PARRAKEET, andVAR. E., the JAVAN PARRAKEET (P. alexandri). 

Names given to different species are : — 

Andaman Alexandrine Parrakeet, see GREAT-BILLED A. P. 

BLACK-BILLED A. P., a name given to a variety of the BANDED 

CINGALESE A. P. = Palceornis eupatria, other names for which are : 


VAR. A.) both of Latham ; ? = his *BLUE-COLLARED PARROT ; RING 


Alexandrine Ring-Parr akeet, Great Alexandrine P., Alex- 
Ceylonese Paroquet ; "Labugieawa" (Cingalese). 

Great Alexandrine Parrakeet = the CINGALESE A. P. 

GREAT-BILLED A. P. = P. magnirostris, also known as the ANDAMAN 

INDO-BURMESE A. P. = P. hidoburmanica, the LARGE BUEMESR 
PAEOQUET of some authors. 

JAVAN A. P., usually known as the JAVAN PARRAKEET, q. v. 

284 English Names for the Parrots. 

Little alexandrine P., another name for the MAUEITIUS RING- 


Mauritius Alexandrine Parrakeet, see MAURITIUS RING- 

NEPALESE a. p. = p. nepalensis, the ALEXANDRINE PARRAKEET of 
Jerdon and the LARGE INDIAN PAROQUET of Gates. 

Rose-Breasted a. p., an occasional book name for the BANDED 
native bock-names for the CINGALESE A. P. or its near allies. 

of Latham ; ? = his * PRASINE PARROT ; " TUI-TIRICA," (Marog.). 
ALPINE PARRAKEET, a name sometimes applied to the ORANGE-FRONTED 

PARRAKEET of New Zealand. 
AMAZON, (or more fully AMAZON PARROT, occasionally AMAZONS P.) any 

member of the genus Amazona (Chrysotis, Sw.) several species of which 

are well known as " American Green Talking Parrots." Occasionally the 

name is popularly applied also to members of the allied gejius Piomis. 
The genus contains more than forty species, names for which are : — 


AUGUST A. = Amazona imperialis the IMPERIAL AMAZON. Local 
name in Dominica, "CiCEROO." 

BAHAMA A. = A. hahamensis. 

BLUE-FACED AMAZON (or Blue-Faced GREEN Amazon)— ^.6o2tg;wei!i 
of Dominica. Other names are; — BOUQUET'S AMAZON; * BLUE- 
FACED Green Parrot (Edwards), Blue-faced Green Amazon ; 
probably = the * AUTUMNAL PARROT, VAR. A. of Latham and also 
his *RED-AND- WHITE-FACED PARROT. The name is also used for 

BLUE-FRONTED A. (1) = A. aestiva, the most commonly imported 
of all the Amazons. Other names : COMMON AMAZON PARROT, 
(Latham) and his VARS. B., D. and H. *MAIN PARROT. 
Probably = *YelLOW-HEADED PARROT VAR, A., and *YELL0W 
Crowned Parrot (Latham). *Green Parrot from the West 
Indies (Edwards) ; *WEST INDIAN GREEN PARROT (Latham). Now 
commonly known as the "BLUE-FRONTED A." or as the " COMMON 
A."; occasionally as the ''Red-T AILED A." To an entirely yellow 
variety Latham gave the name * AURORA PARROT, and his * COUN- 
TERFEIT Parrot probably raeant an individual mottled with yellow, 
a not uncommon variety. (2) See also under BLUE-MASKED A. 

BLUE-MASKED AMAZON, = A. versicolor, also known as the BLUE - 
FACED A. The *BLUE-FRONTED A. of Latham. 

BODIN'S A. = A. hodini. 

Correspondence. 285 


"Bronze Amazon," an occasional dealer's name for the BRONZE- 
AMAZON," a variant. 

" COBIMON Abiazon," the BLUE-FRONTED A. 

Common Amazon Parrot (Latham), the BLUE -FRONTED A; also 
his VARS. B, D, and H. VARS. A. C. E. and F.=the ORANGE- 

Common Amazons Parrot, var, g. (Latham) ? = the DOUBLE- 

(To be continued.) 


Sir, — I think the following facts will prove of interest to some of your 


For several years past I had in my aviaries a White Common House- 
Sparrow. It was a hen, a pure Albino with pink ej^es. One day in February last 
year an old cock Sparrow was foolish enough to walk inside the passage of one of 
my aviaries. I chanced to be behind him and shut the door. I then opened the 
door of the aviary in which the white lady was and drove him in. They had an 
indoor aviary 14ft. by 6ft. I provided them with a nest box, a small quantity of 
hay, and a few feathers. Their first nest of youn^ consisted of two, and left the 
nest on May 10th, 1913. Another lot of four left the nest on June 12th. A third 
2ot of four left the nest on July 15th, and a fourth lot left the nest on August 13th. 
There were thus fourteen young reared, all being ordinary Sparrows without a 
white feather. Six of these young ones became the meat of a tame stoat, and 
the others I turned loose. I have a high wall all round my flower garden, and 
one or two nest-boxes against the wall. One of these about a month ago was 
•occupied by a pair of ordinary Sparrows. On Sunday the young left the nest, — 
three pure Albinos with pink eyes and two Common Sparrows. One of the 
Albinos was too strong on the wing to be caught, but my man caught the other 
two with a net, and they are now doing well. The old birds are nesting again in 
the same spot, so I hope to get several more Albinos. 

I think this is interesting as showing that in the first place the Albino here 
mated to the ordinary cock j)r:odnced fourteen young ones, all Common Sparrows ; 
but one of her sons or daughters this year at the first attempt produces three 
pure Albinos out of five young ones. 

Of course it is possible that both parents are the offspring of the old hen ; 
but with the hundreds of Sparrows we have on the place I should doubt it. 

I am now introducing another Common Cock Sparrow to the old hen (I 
let the other one go in the autumn), and I shall keep all the young ones to breed 
from next year and note what happens. W. R. TEMPLE. 

286 Correspondence. 


A member living in' Australia hopes to have been able to leave, arriving 
towards the end of June at an English port with the following birds, — about 
whose permitted exportation from their native country he was doubtful : — 

PARROT Finches — New Caledonian. New Hebrides. Fiji. 

Fire-tailed Finches, and other species more commonly imported. 

Insectivorous Birds. 

Shrike Tits (Falcunculus frontatus) . 

White-fronted Chats, " Ringlets " (Epthianura albifrons). 

Scarlet-breasted Robins (Petrioca leggei). 

Flame-breasted , , (P. phoenicea) . 

Rose-breasted ,, (P. rosea). 

Red-capped ,, (P. goodenovii). 

White-shouldered Caterpillar-eaters (Campephaga humeralis). 

White Eye-browed Wood Swallows (Artamus superciliosus) . 

Masked Wood Swallows {A . personatus) . 

Blue Wrens or Superb Warbler {Malurus cyanochlamys) . 

Red-backed Wrens {M. melanocephahis) . 

Two or three species of Honey-Eaters. 
And last, but not least, either in size or quality. 

Five pairs of Kagus from New Caledonia {Rliinochehis jubatus). 
The Kagu is, so it is said, becoming extinct. 

The Red-backed Wrens have never been imported, and the Blue Wrens are 
exquisite. Mr. R. Phillipps bred some in London some years ago. H. D.A. 

P.S. — At the moment of going to press we hear from Genoa of many misfortunes 
through storms, and also that a number of the remaining birds were 
intercepted there, and taken to Germany ! 

THE AMETHYST SUN-BIRD (Cinmjris amethystinus). 

Mr. Brook writes: — "I am much interested in the account of the 
Amethyst Sun-bird in the June Magazine. I am surprised that Mr. Ezra's do 
not take small insects, as mine feed greedily on them. Possibly the fact that 
my Sun-birds have access to the open has something to do with this. 

" I am wondering whether C. amethystinus takes two or more moults to 
acquire full plumage. My birds — a pair — reached me just over a year ago. The 
male was obviously a young bird, but he soon assumed the coloured throat and 
head, also showing a few dark feathers on the breast, wings and neck ; but other- 
wise he is still in the light-brown plumage of immaturity." 

The Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation of France has honoured the Editor 
by conferring on him a beautifully-modelled and designed silver medal for various 
species of birds kept and bred by him. 

The Society writes : — " Nous addressons toutes nos felicitations a 
"M. H. D. Astley en lui decernment notre Medaille d'argent, grand module." 

Notices to Members — (Continued frotn page ti. of cover.) 

Mrs. G. Brampton, Queen Anne Lodge, Stoke Newingtoii, N. 

The Hon. Mrs. Fitzgerald, i8, Clyde Road, Dublin. 

Mr. G. Daviks, 96, Greenfield Terrace, New Tredegar, 

Mr. John W. Hai.kes, The Limes, 141, Monk's Road, Lincoln. 

Proposed by The Editor. 


Miss R. WhiTLAW, Anierden, Taplow. 

Proposed by R. Stapi^es-Browne. 

Mr. A. E. WaCHSMAnn, " Maitai," Murray Road, Beecroft, N.S.W., 

Australia. Proposed by Mr. P. Peir. 


Major Horsbrugh . . . . . . . . ;^i 3 o 

Miss Hownian . . . , . . o 10 o 


Mr. P. Peir, c/o Taxation Department, Geoige Street North, 

Sydney, N.S.W. 

Mrs. Warren Vernon, Arrochar House, Arrochar, Dumbartonshire. 

Miss Charlotte Ivens, Rua Particular, R.M., 

a Rua Almeida e Souza, Campo d'Ourique, Ivisbon. 

The charge for ptivate advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
WORDS or less, and one penny for every additional three zvords or less. 
Trade advertisements are not allowed in this column. Dealers 
ivho are members, wishing to advei Use, should apply to the Publisher for terms. 
Advertisements must reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Council reserve the right of refusing any advertisement 
they may consider undesirable. 

Three Blackcheeked Love-Birds, ^3; two of them bred last year. Out- 
door aviary always. 

A. CUMMINGS, 16, Promenade Villas. Cheltenham. 

Four l/ong-tailed Grassfinches, bred in outdoor aviary, 20/- pair. 

B. C. Thomasset, jAshmansworth, Newbury. 

The charge Jar members' advertisements under this heading is four 
PENCE FOR TWELVE WORDS or under, and otie penny for every additio?ial 
three words or less. 

A pair South African Crowned Cranes {B. regulorum). Common Bittern ; 
female Ruby-throated Warbler. 

W. H. St. QuiNTiN, Scampston Hall, York. 

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Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping, by THE MARQUIS OF TAVISTOCK 

My Birds at Brinsop Court, by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 

Notes on my Birds, by E. R. G. Peddie WADDELL 

Notes on Gannets in Confinement, by J. H. GURNEY 

A Pew Notes on Wading Birds, by H. L. SiCH 

English Names for the Parrots, by Dr. E. HOPKINSON ... 


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Third Series.— Yol. V.— No. \0.—AU rights reserved. AUGUST, 1914. 


By Hubert D. Astley. 

Through the courtesy of Sir Harry Johnston we are able to 
publish a coloured illustration of the small Flamingo {PhcBiiiconais 
vvinor), which is to be found in such abundance in B. E. Africa, 
especially on Lake Hannington. 

Sir Harry Johnston, in his book on the Uganda Protectorate, 

wrote: — "On Lake Hannington it is no exaggeration to say that 

there must be close on a million Flamingos. These birds are mainly 

collected round the northern end of the lake and on the submerged 

banks which break up the deep blue-green of its surface. The shores 

where they cluster, and these banks in the middle of the lake where 

they are above the water's edge, are dazzling white with the birds' 


These Flamingos breed on a fiat 'plain of mud about a mile 

broad at the north end of the lake, where their nests, in the form of 

little mounds of mud with feathers plastered on the hollow top, 

appear like innumerable mole hills. 

The birds having hitherto been absolutely unmolested by man, 

are quite tame. (Written in 1902. — Ed.) They belong to a rosy 

species, Phceniconais minor, which is slightly smaller than the 

Mediterranean Flamingo, but exquisitively beautiful in plumage. 

The adult bird has a body and neck of rosy pink, the colour of 

sunset clouds. The beak is scarlet and purple ; the legs are deep 

rose-pink, inclining to scarlet. Underneath the black-pinioned 

wnngs, the larger feathers are scarlet-crimson, while beautiful 

crimson crescents tip the tertiaries and wing-coverts on the upper 

surface of the wings. 

288 Mr. Hubert D. Astley, 

Apparently the mature plumage is not reached until the birds 
are about three years old. The younger Flamingos very soon 
attain the same size as the rosy adults, but their plumage when 
they are full grown is first grey-white and then the colour of a pale 
tea-rose before it attains its full sunset glory. 

On the north coast of the lake the belt of Flamingos must 
be nearly a mile broad from the edge of the lake outwards. Seen 
from above, this mass of birds on its shoreward side is grey-white, 
then becomes white in the middle, and has a lakeward ring of the 
most exquisite rose-pink, the reason being that the birds on the 
outer edge of the semi-circle are the young ones, whilst those far- 
thest out into the lake are the oldest. It is not easy to make the 
birds take flight. When they do so suddenly and the shallow water 
is stirred, the stench which arises is sickening. The noise of these 
birds can be heard for nearly a mile distant. The kronk, kronk, 
kronk of the million, mingled with hissings and splutterings and 
splashings and the squish, squish, squish of those who are starting 
on flight, combine to make a tumult of sound in the presence of 
which one has to shout to one's companions in order to be heard. 
It is curious to watch the ungainly motions of these birds when 
they wish to rise in the air. 

Their flight has to be preceded by an absurd gallop through 
the mud before they can lift themselves on their wings." 

Sir Harry Johnston says that as regards Lake Hannington 
an important fact should be noticed, namely, that right out in the 
middle of the lake and at intervals along its shores there are the 
remains still standing of a former forest. These trees appear to 
have been killed partly by the saltish waters of the lake, and in 
part by being made the eyries of innumerable birds such as storks, 
herons, and eagles. 

Flamingos in captivity, unless they are in an enclosed aviary, 
or on a very small piece of water where it is easy to catch them up, 
should certainly be pinioned, or else sooner or later (probably sooner) 
they will fly away, and more probably still be shot, as is the custom 
in this enlightened country, just as many years ago my tame Storks 
{Giconia alba) were done to death by a farmer, when they settled in 
a field near his poultry, his excuse being that he thought they were 

on Flamingos. 289 

"' Molly urns," which, being interpreted, is ' Herons.' But those 
sort of people would shoot anything from a Humming Bird to a 

I find my Flamingos do very well on grain, wheat, oats, etc., 
but they are loose on a good sized pond, in the mud of which they 
■evidently find a great deal of natural food. Once acclimatized 
Flamingos are fairly hardy, but care must be taken in the winter 
that they do not become frozen in to ice. Indeed, during very hard 
weather, they are best in a shed, with a flooring of sawdust or peat 
moss litter. 

They are fond of bread, melox, etc. when once they take 
to it, and some of the dried fish mentioned by Mr. Sich in his notes 
on Wading Birds would no doubt be beneficial, mixed with the bread 
in a bucket of water. 

My Flamingos have been busily moulting during June and July, 
all the black pinion feathers being shed at once, after the manner of 
geese. Flamingos are classified between the Storks and the Geese, 
axidi are peculiar in having most curiously shaped bills, high at the 
base and abruptly bent down in the middle ; moreover, these bii"ds 
feed with the bill upside down, the lower mandible being uppermost 
under the water. In the young, the beak is short and straight. As 
is now well known, the Flamingo sits on her nest with her legs 
doubled under her, though it was originally declared that the nest 
was a structure of mud sufficiently high for the bird to sit straddle- 
wise on it, with the legs down on each side ! 

There are at least four species of Flamingos to be found in 
South Ainerica : — Phcenicopterus ruber, P. chilensis, P. andinus, and 
P. jamesi. 

P. chilensis of Peru and Uruguay has green-grey legs with 
red joints, the black on the bill reaching above the bend. 

P. andinus of the Andes of Bolivia, Chili, and Argentina is 
the largest of the family. 

Flamingos may be looked on as one of the most extraordinary 
developments of evolution through untold ages. 

290 Dr. A. G. Butler, 


By Dr. A. G. BUTLEE. 

(Continued from page 27S). 

Larks are sobrely-coloured birds, the Shore-larks being the 
most attractive in colouring", but everybody with any appreciation of 
music loves them. I have hand-reared a fair number of the European 
Skylark, and one winter when the snow was thick on the ground 
and birds were starving to death in thousands, my man (I had one 
then to help me in cleaning up cages and aviaries and giving fresh 
water) took out my nets" and brought me home thirteen : I kept 
the three best and they made grand songsters : I have tried these 
birds both in cage and aviary and certainly they sing better in the 
former than the latter. I have at various times bought Skylarks 
from the catchers, but I am not sure that I don't prefer to hear them 
singing from the sky rather than from a cage : I don't believe for a 
moment that they are unhappy provided that they have room to run 
about, a nice fresh turf, and a good bed of sand to dust themselves 
in, with the proper food ; and as to reducing the number of Larks 
by catching a few, one might as well talk of reducing the sand of 
the seashore by taking home a handful. Larks are hardy and long- 
lived when properly cared for, and they soon become wonderfully 
tame ; they are quarrelsome if two birds are kept together with 
space to fight in. 

I have had one or two Wood-larks, but did not care for them 
so much as for the Skylark ; they sang less often and the per- 
formance was inferior to that which I have heard when produced 
by birds at liberty : seeing that they spend much time on perches in 
the day, I was at first surprised to discover that they always roosted 
on the floor of the cage at night ; but the Alaudidce, as a family, 
are certainly more terrestrial than arboreal in their habits. The 
species which pleased me most was a fine Mongolian Lark given to 
me by Mr. Abrahams about 1891 ; it was a grand songster and 
wonderfully tame ; it always completed its song by mewing like a 

*They are used now for protecting a cherry tree from Blackbirds, but they 
are getting very rotten. 

Thirty-tiuo Years of AviculUire. 291 

cat : and, by imitating that beast I could always start it off : it 
lived to a good age and died peacefully. 

I purchased a Sulphury Tyrant about 1895 which lived in a 
small flight for about a year. I found it chiefly of interest on account 
of its Kingfisher-like habits ; it would kill a minnow or a newt 
exactly in the same manner, slapping it from side to side against its 
perch before swallowing it : of course it would be risky to trust such a 
bird with Waxbills, no doubt it could kill a small bird with one 
blow of its enormous and powerful bill : it has :an awful screech, 
nasal and prolonged, which makes anyone jump who chances to be 
looking at it : its colouring is pleasing but I don't want another 
specimen of the bird. 

As previously mentioned I have tried to keep young Swifts 
but with little success. I have hand-reared Wrynecks and found 
them interesting. I only wish I could have kept them longer, the 
strongest only lived from July to December. I am afraid the small 
greenhouse in which I was then obliged to keep my birds was 
hardly warm enough. In 1895, to save the bird's life, I bought a 
hen Green Woodpecker from a catcher ; but it absolutely refused 
9.ny kind of food, living or otherwise, and after severely damaging 
the large cage in which I had placed it, it died thirty-six hours after 
it came into my possession. ■ ' 

I hand-reared a young Cuckoo which was given to me on one 
occasion, but I would never take on another. Of all the stupid, in- 
sufferably dirty and greedy little beasts he was infinitely the worst. 
Eventually his gluttony and disinclination for proper exercise killed 
him and he was not deeply regretted. 

With the solitary exception of the Grey Parrot, which makes 
an entertaining companion, I don't care much for the Psittaci : they 
are mostly noisy and destructive and many of them cannot be 
associated with other birds without great risk. Of course there are 
many beautifully coloured species among them and there are a few 
whose ancestors must have been utterly devoid of artistic taste, to 
produce such crude and unpleasing combinations in their plumage. 
I have had the following species : — I once purchased a male Slender- 
billed Cockatoo which I kept for exactly a week, when I sold it for 
just double the price I had given for it : it was perfectly gentle and 

292 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

confiding, but certainly not talented, and I cannot say that I 
admired it. Cockatiels I have twice had and from my second pair I 
bred one male ; I still have his father ; this is one of the few 
Parrakeets which one can trust with smaller birds : it is pretty, but 
noisy and is very fond of vain repetitions. 

I had a pair of Quaker Parrakeets in 1892, but did not much 
care for them and eventually sold them to somebody who took a 
fancy to them ; they ai"e hard biters, but when they attempted to 
bite me I got hold of the lower mandible so that the bird had to bite 
upon my thumb-nail ; when it began fo pinch too hard I pressed on 
the lower mandible and it left go at once. Like other Conures this 
species is very destructive and rather noisy, but playful and con- 
sequently rather amusing. In 1903 or 1904 I purchased a pair of 
Passerine Parrotlets, being tempted by their lovely colouring : the 
hen died shortly afterwards but the cock lived until 1906 when it 
was murdered by a hen Grey-headed Lovebird which I had given it 
as a wife : if I could be sure of keeping and breeding this species I 
should like to have an aviary full ; its beauty alone would be 
sufficient to satisfy me. 

Of talking-parrots I have only kept the Yellow-fronted 
Amazon and the Grey Parrot, both excellent talkers and fond of 
me ; but the Amazon used to fly into frightful rages when it saw 
anybody who was inclined to tease it. These birds when 
acclimatized are very hardy and long-lived and for anybody 
who only wishes to keep a single bird, I would always recommend a 
Grey Parrot or Amazon, bought when quite young and taught to 
talk by its purchaser. Of course most of these birds are incorrectly 
fed from the time when they are imported, are more often than not 
treated as though they were human beings, offered all kinds of 
unwholesome table-scraps by their owners, and consequently soon get 
out of conditioi:! and die young. I have had two species of the genus 
PalcBornis, the Rose-headed Parrakeet, of which I purchased two 
young pairs in 1893 ; of these one pair had been pinioned and did 
not live long. From the other pair I bred one female, but these 
pretty Parrakeets killed several smaller birds in their aviary and the 
young bird so persecuted her mother that I had to confine the latter 
in a flight cage to save her life. I sent the father and daughter to a 

Tliirhj-tivo Years of Aviculture. 293 

show at the Crystal Palace where they were at once snapped up at 
the price which I had originally paid for the two pairs. 

Two examples, both males, of the Moustache Parrakeet were 
sent to me anonymously in 1912 ; one of these died three months 
later, but the other is in splendid health and plumage as I write. I 
cannot get this bird to eat anything but seed ; it is very destructive 
to the woodwork of its aviary but is not noisy, such sounds as it 
utters would lead one to imagine that it was constantly discontented 
or in pain ; it is rather wild, but I believe tolerably happy. 

I have had five Madagascar Lovebirds at various times, and 
I never wish to have another ; they are nervous, spiteful and 
murderous little wretches ; the males are ready to quarrel with any 
bird, thougli twice their own size ; and with their powerful beaks 
they are likely to have it pretty much their own way ; the 
females I found even worse. In the early days of my bird- 
keeping I obtained a pair of Eosy -faced Lovebirds from Mr. 
Abrahams hoping to breed from them. In those days they fetched 
a fairly high price ; however I soon regretted my purchase, for they 
not only spent the whole day in uttering an exasperating rattling 
scroopy shriek, but they attempted to kill every other bird which 
approached them : happily for me Mr. Abrahams consented to take 
them back. Years later I became possessed of two hens which I 
turned into a small flight cage where Jhey lived a quiet uneventful 
life, occasionally laying eggs of which the majority got smashed by 
being dropped from the perch. Take them all round I am not 
smitten with Lovebirds. 

The only Platycercus I ever had was a Eosella given to me by 
a gentleman who had got tired of it. I found it a quiet confiding 
bird, fond of a smooth caterpillar when it could get one. This 
was an old bird when it came into my possession and died a year or 
two later. Of course I have had and bred Budgerigars, but only 
of the normal green type : at present I have one male only. I 
should think that an aviary filled with the blue variety would be 
delightful ; lucky are those who have a chance of breeding that 
pretty little bird ! 

Doves and Pigeons always appealed to me ; although, with 
the exception of the African Bronzewings, they are a most quarrel- 

294 Dr, A. G. Butlee, 

some Order of birds ; nevertheless they can be kept safely with birds 
of other Orders, since they usually do not interfere with them. I 
never had any species of Fruit-Pigeon, nor any species of Columba 
excepting one or two domesticated sports of the Eock-Pigeon ; but 
of Turtle-Doves I have still a hand-reared example of the British 
species given to me some years ago by my friend Mr. F. W. 
Frohawk. It is much wilder even now than a fresh-caught bird would 
be, rattling about the aviary and so scaring the other birds whenever 
a stranger (especially if a lady) passes. I have kept two species of 
Zenaidina, the Martinican Dove and the Bronze-necked Dove ; they 
are very pretty, but exceedingly quarrelsome ; at least perhaps I 
ought not to speak too positively about the latter, because they did 
agree well with Necklaced Doves, which they even assisted in 
incubating their eggs ; but with other species they certainly were 
always at war and particularly in the breeding-season. 

Of typical Turtle-Doves distinct from our British species, I 
have naturally had plenty of both forms of the common Barbary 
Turtle. On one occasion I tried to cross the cock of the white 
variety with a white Fantail Pigeon, but she pulled out his feathers 
in bunches whenever he approached her, so that the atterbpt failed. 
Of the Half -collared Turtle Mr. Frank Finn gave me a pair in 1893, 
but as I could not give them an aviary to themselves I failed to 
breed them, although they laid and attempted to sit several times. 
In 1899 Major Horsbrugh gave me what purported to be a second 
pair ; about 1901 (through the carelessness of a servant) one of them 
escaped into the garden and was never recovered, the other died in 
1902 and was identified at the Natural History Museum as a 
Deceptive Turtle. In 1894 I purchased, as a pair, two cocks of the 
Necklaced Dove, one of which killed the other. In 1897 I secured 
a hen for the remaining cock and bred young which were 
subsequently killed by a Nicobar Pigeon. In 1900 I bought another 
supposed pair, which proved not only to be two cocks, but to be 
Spotted Turtle Doves ; these I sent to the Zoological Gardens. I 
had one Senegal Turtle given to me by Mr. Seth-Smith in 1902 ; it 
is a pretty little species. I paired it with Barbary Doves, but it 
would not breed. 

The GeopeliincB are far more quarrelsome than the typical 

Thirty-tioo Years of Aviculture. 295 

Turtle-Doves and the Bar-shouldered Dove is especially so. I have 
had three examples, two cocks and one hen, the latter only lived a 
year, and the two cocks, some years later, escaped into the garden 
at the same time as what I suppose was a Deceptive Turtle-Dove 
{vide supra) and were not recovered. I heard that the servant of one 
of my neighbours was much scared by one of these birds flying 
close past her as she was walking in the garden. The Peaceful 
Dove is an exception in the Subfamily, for it really is a tranquil bird 
and not pugnacious ; consequently other Doves persecute it. I have 
had three pairs and found that the hens were more delicate than the 
cocks. I only tried them in indoor aviaries, so never bred them. 
The closely related Zebra Dove is a spiteful and quarrelsome little 
wretch and gave the Peaceful Doves a bad time, so long as the two 
were associated in the same aviary. I never purchased more than 
one pair. Of the pretty little Diamond Dove I have purchased three 
pairs, two pairs in 1896 and one in 1903. In an indoor aviary I 
found that they quarrelled incessantly but never bred ; in an out- 
door aviary they breed freely, and more satisfactorily (as Mr. Seth- 
Smith tells us) when several pairs are associated. They do not 
appear to be so hardy as some Australian birds, since I lost the 
cock and all the young birds reared in 1907 by allowing them to 
spend the winter out-of-doors. x\t the present time one cock bird 
only remains alive. ■ , , , 

Of the PeristerincB I have only had two species which, in 
spite of their small size, I found the most quarrelsome of all Doves. 
The Steel-barred or Picui Dove is especially so, and when he has a 
chance does not scruple to barbarously mutilate members of his own 
species. I purchased three pairs and subsequently what proved to be 
two cocks ; the hens are delicate and I never succeeded in breeding 
the species. Of the Passerine Dove I bought a pair in 1899, but 
the hen and two others which I purchased subsequently all died 
egg-bound. Eventually I turned the cock out into an aviary with 
many other birds, some of them considerably larger than himself, 
but his impudent charges at them soon made him master of the 
entire community ; he fell in love with a hen Bronzewing Pigeon 
and always roosted beside her : in 1911 he died. 
{To be continued). 

296 The Makquis of Tavistock, 


By The Marquis of Tavistock. 
(Continued from page 220). 

NiCEOSIS. — An infectious disease of a rather mysterious character, 
which attacks many birds and occasionally causes loss among 
members of the parrot family : Roseate Cockatoos and Bourke's 
Parrakeets being the commonest victims. It is incurable and 
may assume either an acute or chronic form, the bird in the 
latter case becoming very emaciated. 
Eye Disease. — An infectious disease of the eye, sometimes found 
among newly-imported King, Crimson-wing Sbud Poly telis Parra- 
keets and certain Parrots, usually resulting in loss of sight ; 
the eyes, in bad cases, becoming entirely closed up. The eyes 
may be bathed with warm water and directly afterwards with a 
diluted solution of rose-water and zinc. Cases of recovery are 
Egg-binding. — Usually the result of over-fatness or an attempt to 
breed at a low temperature. Keep the bird very warm and 
place a few drops of olive oil in the vent at fairly frequent 
intervals. Giving oil at the beak is naturally useless, but is 
sometimes done by those who are ignorant of avian anatomy. 
Worms. — Parrots occasionally suffer from both round and tape 
worms, and these parasites, if allowed to increase unchecked, 
may cause the serious illness and even death of the bird. A 
dose of from 3 to 5 grains of cina given daily in the food 
or water will usually effect a cure. 

The subject of disease naturally leads to that of disinfection. 
For ordinary, everyday use, Condy's Fluid makes a harmless and 
satisfactory wash, but neither Condy's nor Jeyes' Fluids are of the 
smallest avail in dealing with the germs of the more dangerous 
diseases. A parrot cage, which has been occupied by a bird suffer- 
ing from septic fever, for instance, should be scorched over with the 
flame of a painter's lamp and afterwards soaked in strong carbolic, 
finally receiving a wash of plain water to remove any trace of the 
poison which may cling to the perch or bars. A small indoor aviary 
should, as far as possible, be subjected to the same treatment as a 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 297 

cage, but an outdoor aviary containing" earth and grass is far more 
difficult to deal witli. For the disinfection of an outdoor aviary, or 
indeed any large area of ground containing avian disease germs, 
nothing gives such satisfactory results as common salt applied at the 
rate of three cwt. or more to the acre. Gaslime or soot are also 
useful, but as the former is rather poisonous, the birds should be 
removed for several weeks after it has been applied, and not returned 
until it has become thoroughly dissolved and washed into the soil 
by the rain, a process which may be accelerated by digging it in. 
Ordinary lime is absolutely useless as a disinfectant. It does not 
even kill parasitic worms, and why it is so often recommended I 
cannot imagine. 

Having so far dealt more or less generally with the parrot 
family, I will, in conclusion, say something about those genera and 
individual species of the treatment and characteristics of which I 
have had some personal experience. As I wish to avoid the common 
political (?) error of laying down the law in matters of which I am 
wholly ignorant, I shall say little or nothing about birds I have 
never myself kept, and this will I hope be some excuse for the ex- 
tremely 'patchy" and uneven character of the following notes. 

Amazon Parrots {Chrysotis) are, as I have said once before, 
especially suited to cage life, for no other species keep in finer 
plumage in close confinement, live longer, or appear more contented- 
Most Amazons, with the possible exception of the magnificent large 
island races, have a considerable talent for learning to talk, although 
the cocks are usually far better performers than their mates. Amazons 
quickly become attached to their owners and are extremely fond of 
being petted, though some are a little apt to give an unpleasantly 
sharp nip in moments of excitement. This weakness, together with 
a tendency to an over liberal use of their loud and raucous voices, 
constitutes their chief failing. In an avairy, my rather limited 
experience leads me to consider them far less quarrelsome than 
parrakeets, and many species readily become inured to cold, the 
island forms being, I am told, the most delicate. When allowed 
complete liberty, they, as a rule, stay well, give little trouble and 
may often be safely released full-winged. 

Amazons should be fed on hemp, canary, millet, wheat, and 

298 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

oats, with fruit, dry bread and plain biscuit they are usually free 
bathers. The sexes are very much alike in appearance, but the cock 
is in most cases a larger, bolder, and brighter-coloured bird than the 
hen, with a larger head and heavier beak. 

Amazons are less subject than most parrots to infectious 
disease, a great advantage to those who have to buy their birds when 

Pgeocephalus Parrots. — The best known member of this 
family is the Senegal, an active, amusing little bird, with (in the 
case of the cocks) a fair talent for talking. Its principal failings are 
a tendency to bite hard in moments of excitement and unprovoked 
annoyance, and a thin unpleasant scream, which however some in- 
dividuals do not utter. It appears doubtful whether Senegals or 
any of their near relatives could be wintered altogether in an un- 
heated aviary as, like many African Parrots, they appear to dislike 
very low temperatures. The food should be the same as that of 
an Amazon. 

The Poe,ocep}iali are very susceptible to Grey Parrot fever, 
and newly-imported birds often develop this fatal malady after 
appearing in the best of health for some days after leaving the 
dealer's shop. 

Coracopsis PARROTS. — A small and very distinct family of 
hardy parrots, characterized by their remarkably sombre plumage. 
They do well in cages and should be fed and treated like Amazons. 
When acclimatized they can safely be wintered out of doors. 

Greater Vasa Parrot {Coracopsis vasa). — An amiable and 
lively bird which, with a little encouragement, becomes very tame 
and docile. It has a fair aptitude for learning to talk and readily 
imitates various noises it may happen to hear, showing an especial 
preference for such as are of a loud and hideous nature. Its natural 
cry is a kind of whistle, varied by unpleasant grunts and squawks. 
It is trustworthy with large parrots, but is apt to be mischievous 
with small ones. The sexes are much alike, and I am not aware 
what, if any, external differences exist between them. 

Lesser Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis nigra). — Very similar to 
the lasc mentioned species, but much smaller. It is a much less noisy 
bird, becomes very affectionate and behaves well in mixed company. 

Some Hints on Parrot- Keejmig. 299 

Praslin Parrot [Goracopsis herkbji). — Very like the Lesser 
Vasa, but rather smaller and browner. In spite of its sober colour 
it is rather pretty, with a large dark eye, reminding one of the 
smaller falcons. 

ECLECTUS Parrots. — A family of brilliantly-coloured parrots 
in which the sexes present a remarkable contrast in colour, the cocks 
being more or less green and the hens crimson. Most of the different 
species resemble one another so closely that one is tempted to wonder 
whether they are anything more than local races of the same bird. 

Eclecti should be fed on Canary, millet, oats, hemp and sun- 
flower with nuts and plenty of fruit and green food and an occasional 
piece of sponge cake. When kept in cages they are, as a rule, dull 
and stolid, though occasionally a tame one learns to talk and 
becomes quite a nice pet. Eclectus Parrots are decidedly sensitive 
to cold and should always be carefully protected from draughts 
and not exposed to sudden changes of temperature. They are 
extremely liable to contract septic fever and should never on any 
account be placed in an aviary which has contained a case of this 
disease. In buying an Eclectus, always see that its eye is clear and 
bright and the feathers of the head unruf&ed. If the eye looks 
watery have nothing to do wdth the bird or its cage companions 
and do not believe the dealer's assurance that it is merely suffering 
from a cold in the head. In mixed company I found Eclecti most 
inoffensive birds, suffering themselves to be unmercifully bullied 
without making any attempt at retaliation. Their cry is very loud 
and harsh, but is hardly ever uttered unless they are in exceptionally 
good health and spirits or much alarmed- One may keep an Eclectus 
for months without knowing that it possesses a voice at all. 

Cockatoos. — The habits of the various species of Cockatoos 
and their needs in captivity differ so widely, that nothing can 
profitably be said of the treatment of the family as a whole. 

Greater Sulphur Crested Cockatoo {Gacatua galerUa). 
One of the best known members of the family. It does well in a 
cage, though greatly benefited in health and appearance by a certain 
amount of liberty. It is also very hardy and when properly accli- 
matized can stand any amount of cold. The food should consist of 
Canary, millet, hemp, wheat, oats, maize, fruit, dry bread and plain 

300 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

biscuit. Sulphur-crests are readily tamed, become very affectionate 
and learn to talk well, but, like all their relatives, they are capable 
at times of producing the most ear-piercing yells. They have been 
successfully kept, and I believe bred in this country at complete 
liberty and are certainly most attractive birds when seen flying at 
large, though unfortunately they are very destructive. It is said 
that the iris of the hen's eye is much paler than that of the cock, 
but I must say I have never been able to observe this distinction 
in any White Cockatoo except the Eose-crested. 

The Greater Sulphur- Crest isspiteful in mixed company and 
its relative the Lesser Sulphur-Crest {Cacatua sulphurea) is even 


Salmon-crested Cockatoo {Cacatua moluccensis) a quaint 

and beautifully-coloured bird which should be fed like the Sulphur- 
crest. It is very hardy, but when kept closely confined in a cage is 
apt to become a feather plucker and should therefore be supplied 
with plenty of wood on which to exercise its powerful beak. The 
Moluccan Cockatoo makes a good talker and becomes absurdly 
tame and confidential, allowing its owner to take every kind of 
liberty with it. It is well able to make itself heard upon occasion, 
but it is not quite so noisy as some of its relatives. The hen is 
smaller than the cock, and has the iris of the eye very dark red 
instead of black. 

Leadbeater's Cockatoo {Cacatua leadb eater i) . — A very 
beautiful bird, but sometimes shy and unfriendly in disposition, It 
is quite hardy and should be fed like the Sulphur-crest. It is not 
to be trusted with weaker birds. 

Bare-eyed Cockatoo {Cacatua gymnopis), — A hardy bird, 
readily tamed, When kept in a cage it should never be given hemp 
or sunflower, which are most injurious to it. It stays well at liberty 
but is very destructive. 

Slender-billed Cockatoo {Licmetis nasica). — Hardy and 
should be treated like the Sulphur-crest. It is a good talker and 
becomes very tame and gentle. 

Boseate Cockatoo. — This well-known species becomes very 
tame and affectionate and is not particularly spiteful with other 
birds, but it is noisy and a poor talker. Talented specimens are, 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping, 301 

however, sometimes met with and I once owned a charming tame 
female which never screamed at all. At liberty Eoseates are very 
attractive and are less mischievous than White Cockatoos. They 
are, however, difficult to start, and it is important that the 
hens, at any rate, should be perfectly tame where an acclimati- 
zation experiment is attempted. The birds should be placed in an 
enclosure with cut wings, and it may even be necessary to keep 
them from flying until they breed, which they are usually quite 
willing to do if they have plenty of room and unlimited quantities 
of grass to feed on< 

If the plan is successful and the birds stay when they are 
full-winged, it is a wise precaution to catch up the breeding hens at 
the end of every January and keep them in confinement for three 
months. Otherwise they are almost certain to attemjat to nest too 
early and in consequence die egg-bound. 

The cock Eose-breast has the iris black, the hen red or hazel. 

Gang-gang Cockatoo [Gallocephalon galeatum). Hardy 
when properly acclimatized, but at first very sensitive to cold. 

Gang-gangs become very affectionate pets, but are noisy and 
seldom learn to talk. They should never, when caged, be allowed 
hemp or sunflower seed. They stay and do well at liberty, but 
must be released cut-winged, except in the case of an adult pair, 
when the cock may sometimes be released full- winged and his mate 
not allowed to join him until he has been flying loose for some 
months. The head of the cock is scarlet, that of the hen grey. 

Banksian Cockatoo {Galyptorl'njncus banksi). — Food: — 
hemp, sunflower, monkey-nuts and Brazil nuts — a diet which would 
kill most Cockatoos in a few weeks, but on which this splendid bird 
thrives admirably. Fruit, bread and green food is seldom appre- 
ciated, but smooth caterpillars are eaten greedily as well as the 
small white grubs found inside oak-apples. (In collecting the oak- 
apples reject all those which have a small round hole, marking the 
insect's exit). Wasp grubs, gentles and mealworms are usually re- 
fused. When buying a Black Cockatoo always be sure to find out 
to what diet the bird has been accustomed, for if it has ever been 
used to sunflower-seed it will often starve to death rather than touch 
hemp and vice-versa. Some Banksians are imported on plain Canary 

302 The Maequis op Tavistock, 

but this seed is not sufficiently nourishing and birds which will 

touch nothing else seldom thrive. 

Banksian Cockatoos do well in cages, but are not seen to 

any advantage in such close confinement. When taken young they 

are easily tamed and made dignified and charming pets, loving to be 

noticed by their owner and allowed to sit on his shoulder, though 

they have a curious objection to being stroked or having their heads 

rubbed, the gentlest of them tolerating rather than enjoying such 

attentions. Adult Banksians which have never been tamed are 

extremely nervous and intractable, and even when thoroughly 

reconciled to captivity are terribly upset by a sudden change of 

surroundings, refusing food for days in a strange place and uttering 

a grating scream of fear whenever a person approaches them. Black 

Oockatoos are not so hardy as most of their white cousins, and 

while able to stand a certain amount of frost are very sensitive to 

the effects of cold fog. My experiment with these birds at liberty 

ended in failure, but rather owing to a series of unfortunate accidents 

than to their unsuitability for life under such conditions. I did not 

find them particularly destructive and some individuals never damaged 

the trees at all. The adult cock Banksian is entirely black with a 

scarlet bar across the tail. The hen is spotted and barred with 

yellow and yellowish red. Anyone who desires to attempt to breed 

this species should be careful not to allow his cock to become too 

tame. If he does, the bird will transfer his entire affection to his 

owner and display nothing but fear or dislike towards his intended 


Great-billed Black Cockatoo {Calyptorhyncus macro- 

rhyncus). — A local race of the Banksian, differing in the rather 

larger size of the beak. 

Western Black Cockatoo {Galyptorhyncus stellatus). — 
Much smaller than the Banksian and with a rounder crest. The 
cry of the male stellatus is much shriller than that of the male 
Banksian and more nearly resembles the call of the female of the 
latter species. 

Macaws. — Food : Canary, wheat, oats, maize, hemp, sun- 
flower, nuts, fruit, green food, dry bread, plain biscuit and stale 
sponge cake. Macaws are very hardy birds, seldom ill when pro- 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 303 

perly cared for, and in the case of the large species, at any rate, very 
indifferent to cold. They often make excellent talkers — the blue and 
yellow being the best — and become much attached to their owners, 
though they are sometimes treacherous with those they do not know. 
Their chief drawbacks are their destructive propensities and deafen- 
ing cries. Macaws generally stay w^ell when allowed their liberty, 
and if attached to their owner and familiar with their surroundings 
can safely be released full- winged. 

The rare Blue Macaws — Lear's, Hyacinthine, etc., are as 
hardy as the commoner kinds, but appear more inclined to stray if 
allowed complete liberty- They are generally very docile and 
affectionate and are rather less noisy than the other members of the 
group. They are not particularly aggressive in mixed company, 
although they are well able to assert themselves. Macaws are very 
difficult to sex. 

CONURES. — A large family of Parrakeets of small or medium 
size, the majority of which inhabit South America and the adjacent 
islands. They are easily kept, either in cage or aviary and most of 
the common species can be wintered out of doors. Conures are 
lively and intelligent birds, easily tamed and capable of learning 
to talk : they are, however, extremely noisy, very destructive 
and often quarrelsome with other birds, especially those not nearly 
related to them. They should be fed. and treated like Amazon 
Parrots, but should only be allowed hemp seed in small quantities, 
as they sometimes suffer from fatty degeneration of the liver. The 
sexes are usually much alike. 

(^VAKEnVA.'KRAKERTiMyopsittaciismonac'hus) — A very hardy 
bird, indifferent to cold even when newly imported and closely 
resembling the Conures in disposition. It is usually spiteful with 
Parrots and Parrakeets, but tolerably inoffensive towards birds of 
other orders. If allowed complete liberty it usually stays well for a 
time but ultimately wanders away, and it is more destructive than 
any other bird of its size I know. 

Lovebirds. — A small genus of diminutive short-tailed 
Parrots, which despite their popular name, are not conspicuous for 
aniiability towards their neighbours or even for the idyllic character 

304 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

of their domestic existence. They are quite untrustworthy with 
weaker birds of other orders. 

Madagascar Lovebird {Agapomis cana). — A hardy and 
well known species in which the cock has the head and neck 
grey and the hen green. It should be fed on canary, millet and 
hemp seed, with grass and other green food. Madagascars stay 
fairly well at liberty and will sometimes breed, but with me they 
have sooner or later fallen victims to various ailments of which 
total paralysis of the legs is the most common. 

Black-cheeked Lovebirds {Agapomis nigrigenis). — A 
hardy and attractive little bird in which the sexes are so alike as to 
be practically indistinguishable. A number of breeding pairs will 
nest together in harmony in a large aviary, but non-breeding birds 
are very apt to pluck and molest their neighbour's young and should 
therefore be kept by themselves. 

Black-cheeks are useless for turning out as they invariably 
migrate in August and September, after breeding. 

EOSY-FACED Lovebird {Agapomis roseicollis). — A very 
beautiful species but the most vicious of all its family. It should be 
given plenty of fruit and sponge cake in addition to seed. A pair I 
once tried at liberty did not stay. 

Passerine Parrotlet {Psittamda passerina). — Commonly 
called " Blue- winged Lovebird." Passerine Parrotlets are quite 
hardy when properly acclimatised, but require plenty of heat on 
first arrival. They should be fed on millet and canary seed with 
stale sponge cake moistened in water. Green food may be offered 
them but they often refuse to touch it. In spite of their grave 
and demure appearance these little birds are much given to in- 
dulging in sudden and sanguinary fracas amongst themselves and 
should never be overcrowded either in cage or aviary. If it should 
be necessary to keep a number of them for some time in a confined 
space, it is a wise precaution to separate the sexes. Bluewings 
do fairly well at liberty and where Owls are not too numerous 
might suceed in establishing themselves- The hen is of a nearly 
uniform green colour and lacks the blue rump and secondaries which 
adorn her mate. 

Pal^ORNIS Parrakeets. — Food : Canary, millet, hemp 

Some Hints on Parrot- Keeping. 305 

and oats, with fruit and green stuff. Tiie Palc&ornidae do well in 
cages and keep in far better condition than the Australian Parra- 
keets. The cocks are not difficult to tame and make nice pets, some, 
such as the Indian Ring-neck, learning to talk well if taken from the 
nest and reared by hand. PalEeornis Parrakeets are not very- 
susceptible to infectious diseases and the majority can safely be 
wintered out-of-doors, although it is not always prudent to allow 
them to attempt to breed at low temperatures, as the hens are 
rather subject to egg binding. Most species have an immature 
dress which they wear for a considerable period, during that time 
they are most puzzling birds to sex. The palaornida are not 
unduly quarrelsome. 

Malaccan Long-tailed Parrakeet {Palaornis longicauda). 
— Deserves special mention on account of its extreme sensitiveness 
to cold. It should never be exposed to a temperature below 60 deg. 
and 70 deg. — 80 deg., would probably be necessary for the success of 
a breeding experiment. 

Great-billed Parrakeet {Tanygnathus megalorhyncus). 
— Food : Canary, millet, wheat, oats, hemp, paddy-rice, fruit, and 
nuts. This brilliantly coloured and grotesque bird is not often 
imported. It certainly cannot be described as beautiful, but makes 
an attractive addition to a collection on account of the oddity of its 
appearance and its absurd actions when tame. It is generally 
supposed to be sensitive to cold, but some newly-imported Great-aills 
I turned out this spring in very rough plumage, endured a spell of 
cold weather (including sharp night frosts) without the slightest 
injury. The hen is more " dumpy " in build than the cock, with 
a shorter neck and smaller beak. 

PoLYTELis Parrakeet. — A small genus of Australian 
Parrakeets bearing a strong'resemblance to the Palaeornidce. of the 
northern hemisphere and having nothing in common with the broad- 
tails. They are fairly peaceable birds and can be wintered out of 
•doors in a sunny, sheltered aviary. The food should consist of 
wheat, oats, canary, millet, a little hemp, fruit and green food. 

Crimson-winged Parrakeet {Ptistes erythroptems). — 
A very beautiful bird which has of late been freely imported. 
Crimson-wings should be fed on hemp, canary, millet, wheat, oats. 

306 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

a little sunflower, fruit and green food, the first-mentioned seed being 
a necessity for them, as without it they generally fail to keep their 
condition. They are perfectly hardy when properly acclimatised but, 
like most Parrakeets, are very sensitive to cold when newly imported. 
They are also highly susceptible to septic fever and take the disease 
on the smallest provocation, even when in the best of health. In 
disposition, they are spiteful and cowardly, and show but little 
affection for even their own kind. When tame, however, they 
may be quite gentle with their owners. The adult cock Crimson- 
wing can easily be distinguished from the hen by his black 
mantle, but I know of no way in which young cocks can be 
recognised with any certainty. Among the immature birds 
brought over from Australia the males sometimes outnumber the 
females by 8 to 1, and as they are said not to assume full plumage for 
three or four years, one may have to wait a long time before being 
certain of possessing a true pair. Speaking from very limited 
experience I should say that Crimson-wings might do well at 

King Paeeakeet {Aprosmictus cyanopygius). — The King 
Parrakeet should be fed and treated like the Crimson-wing, which it 
resembles in disposition, being a great coward and bully in mixed 
company, although fairly friendly towards its own species, a number 
of cocks living together in harmony as long as there is no hen near 
them. The King Parrakeet is essentially an aviary bird and is very 
hardy. It is quite unsuited to cage life, and in close confinement 
generally appears dull, listless and unhappy and not infrequently 
falls a victim to fatty degeneration of the liver. Kings are very 
susceptible to septic fever and also suffer from eye disease so that 
in buying newly-imported birds the eyes should always be carefully 
examined. Hens have the head and upper breast green and appear 
to lack the light green wing stripe which characterizes the adult cock. 
Young males also have green heads for a considerable time, but light 
feathers appear on the wings at a fairly early age. King Parra- 
keets stay moderately well when allowed their freedom, being very 
dependent on artificial feeding. They should be turned out with 
cut wings. 

Cockateel {Cyclopsittacus novae-Jiollandiae) . — A very well 

Some Hints on Parrot- Keeping . 307 

tnown bird and one of the hardiest and most amiable of the parrot 
family. Unfortunately they are useless for acclimatization purposes, 
being strongly migratory, utterly destitute of any homing instinct 
and quite unable to fend for themselves when deprived of artificial 
food during the winter months. 

Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). — Whathas just been 
■said of the Cockatiel applies to a great extent to this charming little 
bird, as far as its behaviour at liberty is concerned. It is not quite 
such an inveterate wanderer when first released, but it seldom stays 
more than a few months and its small size renders it peculiarly 
liable to fall a prey to Owls. 

Lorikeets (Trichoglossus). — Most of the old writers con- 
demn the Brush-tongued Parrots as a delicate and unsatisfactory 
family in confinement and after a series of unlucky experiences with 
some of the commoner kinds, I am driven to heartily endorse what 
they have written. Nevertheless Lories and Lorrikeets have been 
kept with great success by a few aviculturalists who, I believe, have 
fed them on a sweetened mixture of unseasoned marmite (made the 
colour of brandy) and banana crystals, with or without the addition 
of Horlick's Malted Milk. I have at different times owned upwards 
of thirty Lorikeets, but not one of them did I succeed in inducing 
to partake of this mixture. Consequently I had to feed them on 
seed, fruit, milk, sponge cake, fig, &c.. with the result that all, sooner 
or later, fell victims to fatty degeneration of the liver and fits. 
Others, I hope, will have better luck than I ! Lorikeets are not 
very sensitive to cold, but they like a snug box to roost in. They 
are peaceable among themselves but intensely vicious with all other 
birds, attacking even those which are four or five times their size. 
Tame Lorikeets stay well at liberty, but wild ones usually give 
disappointing results. They are just as susceptible to digestive 
troubles when flying at large as when kept in a cage. 

[There are only three species, viz. : The Barraband, or Green Leek ; the 
Rock Pebbler, and the Queen Alexandra, for the latter undoubtedly belongs to 
this genus, although dubbed Spathopterus , merely on account of one spatulated 
feather in the primaries of the male. ED.] 

(To be continued). 

308 Mr. Hubert D. Astley, 


By Hubert D. Astley. 
(Conchided frovi page 2S1.) 

In concluding my account I must conduct you from the bird 
room out of the house across the old stone bridge which spans the 
moat, and so along a broad flagged terrace which leads into an apple 
orchard where there is an aviary. Not much in it ; but what there 
is, attractive. 

A pair of very tame Yucatan Jays {Cissolopha yucatmiica) , 
which used to be in the Bird Eoom, but evidently required more 
space, and moreover were dangerous there, for if any small bird was 
flying about and happened to settle on the bars of the Jays' cage, 
they would instantly do their best to catch it, and that would have 
been the finish. So they are in this roomy aviary with a natural 
floor of grass, and a snug house to go into. 

These Yucatan Jays are a very beautiful unbroken ultramarine 
blue on back, wings and tail, the head and underparts being pure black. 
They are smaller than a Hunting Cissa, and of a graceful shape with 
longish tails. Like all their family, very mischevous, they are ex- 
ceedingly tame, delighting in having their head's scratched in Parrot 

A male Senegal Bustard {Trachelotis senegcdensis) and a pair 
of Cuban Quails are, as yet, the only other occupants. The Bustard 
is small as Bustards go, looking more like a large Courser, and 
uttering at times a very loud note, not unlike that of a Guinea- 
Fowl's ' Come back," but with a distinct pause between each call,, 
and a stress on the second word. 

It is a great pity that his matei which was in poor condition 
when she arrived, should have died in the winter. The male's 
principal colouring is sandy-chestnut. 

The Aviaries fproper) are close by, divided from the orchard 
by a stone wall, standing in their own ground, a spacious lawn, and 
are surrounded on three sides by a hedge of Fuchsias {Gracilis). 
The building is sheltered on the north side by old barns, and in the 
autumn, various shrubs will be planted between the barns and the 

ilv; a. 

iA\< ', ■m.sW.'^r. .;-». 'ji»,s -if*,! Vt 

My Birds at Brinsop Court. 309 

It is to me always exceedingly difficult, as I do not specialize 
in any particular genus, to keep down numbers. One makes up 
one's mind not to overcrowd, but one's mind apparently does not 
brook being ordered about ; something tempting is offered ; one says 
'" Just one more bird or pair of birds in that compartment " and so 
it goes on ! And goes on against one's real inclinations, for I do not 
care to see one's aviaries looking like a bird shop. 

It is not natural to mix too many species from various parts 
of the world together, and the flights of my aviaries are not spacious. 
I must weed out some : but what ? Take one partition for instance. 
A pair of Chestnut-breasted Blue Eock Thrushes, the only pair 
probably in Europe. A pair of Gossxjpha caffra — Cape Eobin Chats ; 
again decidedly choice. A pair of Eed Cardinals from Yucatan, a 
smaller race, the m.ale with a longer and more sharply pointed crest 
than the better-known North American type, and more vermilion ; 
yet they are not G. phoenicens. A pair of Blue Birds {Sialis). A 
Cat-Bird — a solitary widow who builds every year and lays gorgeous 
blue eggs. A pair of Orange-headed Ground Thrushes {Geocichla 
citrina). A pair of Diamond Doves and a Hooded Pitta. 

None of these would I care to part with, and yet if I gave up 
the compartment to just three pairs of birds, say, the Blue-headed 
Eock Thrushes, the Blue Birds and the Eed Cardinals, there would 
be more likelihood of successful nesting, and the effect would be 
better. Two many birds confuse the eye, besides the risk of their 

Two of the six compartments are occupied by Parrakeets and 
Doves. Three species of the former. Queen Alexandras — five males 
and two females, not altogether. Hooded Parrakeets, one pair by 
themselves, and two males in another partition, and one pair of 
Barrabands (Green Leeks). 

In with them are Barred- Shouldered Doves, Diamond Doves 
and a pair of Crested Doves, but the latter are going out, for there 
are already seven or eight flying about, a pair of which have had a nest 
in a hawthorn tree which overhangs the long paved terrace bordering 
the moat. These Crested Doves are very tame, walking about close 
to people, and paying little attention even to several Pekingese dogs 
which have been taught to leave them unmolested. The flight of the 

310 My Birds at Brinsop Court. 

Crested Dove is very swift, more resembling that of a partridge or 
quail, the wings, after sevei'al rapid vibrations, being held immovable 
(as in soaring) for some distance until the impetus flags, when they 
are again used to carry the bird along. I have never seen the 
Crested Doves soar upwards and down again from the summit of a 
tree, as the Palm and other doves do, and also our Wood Pigeon 
when the males are displaying : and the coo of the Crested Dove is 
very weak ; yet it carries a good distance. 

The display of the male is extremely pretty, the tail being 
thrown up and spread out, the wings showing the beautiful metallic 
greens and violets, being opened out also. 

But I must return to the aviaries, for the idea of turning out 
the one pair of Crested Doves made one wander in the garden. In 
another partition there are such birds as St. Helena Waxbills, Euddy 
Fire-Finches, Hooded and Columbian Siskins, only a male of the 
latter, glossy blue-black above, brilliant daffodil-yellow below ; and 
also a pair of Purple Sugar-birds, which seem to do very well in 
spite of having been out in the fickle changes of the English climate, 
really hot as it was during part of April, and then so chilly that one 
was glad of a fire to sit by. 

So that I believe these Purple Sugar-birds will stand being in 
the aviary during the winter, when the radiators warm the roosting 
houses and the electric light enables them to feed up till any hour of 
the evening that they wish to. 

Eose-breasted Grosbeaks and Black-headed (l don't think 
much of the latter) occupy another partition, as well as another pair 
of Blue Birds, always a delight ; indeed there are few birds more 
lovely and none more cheery. A male, when first the sunshine 
begins to warm up in February, opening and shutting his wings, 
warbling softly like an English Blackbird in the distance, his upper 
parts coloured like the blue of the sky, his breast with the tones of 
the old red sandstone of Herefordshire, is most beautiful. 

A pair of Seed Snipe are also with these others ; tripping 
about on short legs and Plover-like feet. Apparently quite hardy. 
And also a pair of the handsome Violet-necked Doves from Jamaica, 
always nesting in the spring and summer, and invariably choosing 
some foolish site, where the eggs or the young tumble off. I should 


Notes on my Birds. 311 

like to turn them loose ; but I think the neighbouring and never- 
ending woods of oaks with their carpets of blue bells, fox gloves, 
bracken and the like would swallow them up, although if they lived, 
their very distinctive coo would let one know they were there. 
If only they would rear their young, I would try it with the latter. 
" If only! " how often one says that in connection with one's birds, 
as well as other things ! 


By B. G. E. Peddie Waddell. 

I am sending you a short account of my birds, although I 
really do not think that what I have to tell is of interest to anyone 
but myself. 

I have kept foreign birds for about ten years now, beginning, 
as we nearly all do, with a pair of Budgerigars which I bought on a 
visit to the South of France, and at present I have about fifty birds 
of different kinds. I am quite sure that no birds belonging to any 
other member of our Society have as much travelling as mine have, 
because for five months of the year my home is in Edinburgh and 
the other seven months I live in Stirlingshire, and as in neither 
place can I leave the birds they must travel backwards and forwards 
with me. 

In the country house I have a nice bird room, about 15 feet 
long by 11 feet wide, with big cages 3 feet by 3 feet by 6 feet along 
both sides, leaving a passage between. This room has a door window 
which stands always open and a frame of wire netting fitted on the 
outside in case of accidents. These cages or compartments contain 
one pair Eedrumps, one pair Cockatiels, one pair Diamond Doves, 
one pair Black-cheeked Lovebirds, one pair Eed-collared Lorikeets, 
four pairs Yellow Budgerigars and two large compartments for small 
Finches and Waxbills, which are fitted up with branch perches and 
cosy sleeping boxes. In smaller cages at the door end of the bird- 
room I have Mesias, Pekin Robins and Long-tailed Grassfinches, 
In another room I have, in cages, Violet-eared Waxbills, Rainbow 
Bunting, Nonpareil and Indigo Buntings, a Grey Parrot, a Senegal 

312 NoUs on Gannets in confinement. 

Parrot and a Lesser Hill Mynah. The latter is a splendid talker and 
is most amusing. These birds are all very tame and are great pets. 

Owing to the difficulty of taking my birds to and from Edin- 
burgh I can only keep a certain number, so when I am tempted with 
anything new I am compelled to part with one or two of the other 
birds to make room for the new ones. Notwithstanding all these 
difficulties and drawbacks my birds give me a very great deal of 
pleasure, and I do not consider anything a trouble that adds to 
their comfort, health and happiness. 

I feed them on the usual seeds, soft food and milk sop suitable 
to the different kinds that I have at the moment, also green food and 

The floor of the bird room is linoleum with a thick covering 
of sand. I also have a good bird room in our house in Edinburgh, 
but it is not so cheerful and bright as in the country. However, so 
long as the birds are warm and comfortable they get through the 
winter months very well. I generally show some of my birds at the 
Scottish National Cage Bird Show held in Edinburgh at New Year 
time and hithei'to have been fairly successful. 



There is not much difficulty in keeping Gannets in tolerable 
health for a year or two if a regular supply of fish is obtainable and 
their feet do not get diseased. This is an obstacle which seems hard 
to guard against, swellings springing up on the soles, which in time 
make the birds lame, and nothing seems to heal them. 

Gannets fight but little in captivity, whatever they may do on 
their native rocks, probably because the sexual impulse is dulled or 
lacking, and it has only once happened that a Gannet has been 
known to kill another Gannet, and then most likely it was because, 
refusing to feed, it was driven to desperation by hunger. 

No amount of frost or cold seems to hurt a Gannet, that is, an 
old Gannet, for the young ones less inured are more delicate. The 
tame ones here described, would awake quite happy after a night of 

A feiv Notes on Wading Birds. 313 

twenty-two degrees of frost spent in the open, not a whit the worse 
for it. A small shed, open on four sides, which was put up for their 
benefit, they would never make use of, possibly because they were 
afraid of it and suspected a trap. 

Great heat they cannot endure, and on a sultry day in sum- 
mer the poor birds may be seen standing for hours with their 
mandibles apart in great distress and evidently only able to breathe 
with difficulty. And this may be remarked in a wild state also in 
very hot weather on the Bass Eock, where the cliffs get heated if 
exposed for long to a bright sun, and the Gannets at once suffer. 
A Gannet is very adept at catching a fish when thrown to it from a 
little distance, but they are much less clever if the fish falls into the 
water, or else it is some disinclination which makes them slow in 
picking it up. 


By H. L. SiCH. 

My experience of keeping Waders is not very great because 
it only began in 1911, with various intervals, owing to rats and 
escapes. I do not think that there are many members who keep 
Wading Birds, except as a mixture for varieties' sake among their 
other birds ; if there are they do not write much for the Magazine. 

My greatest difficulty is to get hold of any birds of that kind, 
and when got most of them arrive in such a dreadful condition that 
they die before one can bring them round. Their wing feathers are 
cut almost to the bone and do not moult out. Their breast bone is 
like the edge of a knife ; their feet are often very sore and ulcerous. 
They are only to be obtained from Autumn until early Spring ; at 
the worst time of the year and have not seen any water for weeks, 
perhaps months ; if they get the least chance they will soak them- 
selves with water and shiver for the rest of the day or, worse still, 
get a cold or pneumonia and die. 

Food I found was another difficulty. I am getting over that, 
but my birds are only the common species, not being able to get 
anything else. Turnstones I have never seen advertised. My pond 

314 A feiv Notes on Wading Birds. 

is not deep enough for swimming birds, besides it dries up in 
summer, so Water Eails are barred. 

The aviary is 48ft. X 29ft., with a pond three or four inches 
deep in the middle of the aviary, which stands on stiff clay, not the 
best soil for the birds. 

The following is a list of the species that I have tried to keep. 
Curlews. They did very well and kept down the mice and also 

the nestlings of a few small Finches as well. 
Oyster Catchers did not thrive very well, not getting enough 

Green Plover were quite a failure and only lived about seven 

months, though one, which was given to me after some brute 

had chopped off half its v^ing, tvhich aever healed, lived for 

quite a long time. 
The Knots always get very fat, and some are now coming into 

The Dunlins are also doing the same, but not getting too fat. 
The Euffs come into colour and moult at the proper time, so I 

consider that they are thriving properly. The Eeeves are 

difficult to get, there are now six Ruffs to one Reeve. 
Black-tailed Godwits. Two, which I bought just a year ago, 

have very much improved since last year, though their feet 

are not right yet ; three others which I had died soon after 

they arrived. 
Two Golden Plovers never got over the dirty state in which 

they arrived and soon died. 
A Little Stint lived for a few months, but did not get the right 

Two Ringed Plovers were doing very well when some rats got in 

and destroyed nearly all my Waders, but did not eat any of 

them . 
I have one REDSHANK at present, but its legs are yellow not red. 

There is a fish food which I have used for some time, it 
seems to be a help to these birds and makes the food more tasty. 
I am sending a packet to our Editor for his opinion on the matter.''' 

[It would seem to be a decidedly useful food. — ED.] 











English Names for the Parrots. 315 

I have written the above as some sort of answer to Mr. C. 
Barnby Smith's query in the May part of the Magazine. 

P.S. — This flaked cod-fisli can be bought at Harrod's Stores, 
or at the makers at 4id. a packet, and keeps quite good for a long 


(continued from jMge 285.) 

"Cuba Amazon,' see under WHITE-PEONTED A. below. 

DIADEMED AMAZON, = A. diademata. Sometimes known as the 
"King Amazon." 

" DOUBLE - FRONTED AMAZON, = 4. oratrix. Also known as 
VAR. C. 

DUPRESNE'S A.= A. dufresneana oi Guiana. 

FESTIVE AMAZON =^. festiva; FESTIVE PARROT (Latham). Some- 
times called the RED-FRONTED AMAZON or PARROT, though this name 
properly belongs to A. vittata. 

PINSCH'S A. = A.finschi. 

GOLDEN -NAPED AMAZON = A. auripalliata. Other names :— 
Yellow-naped a ; Yellow-Necked A. ; Yellow-naped Giant 

Green Amazon, BLUE-PACED. 

GREEN-CHEEKED AMAZON = A. viridigena. 

GUATEMALAN A. = A. guatemalae. 

GUILDING'S A. = A. guildingi, of St. Vincent. 


" King Amazon," a dealer's name, which generally means the DIA- 
DEMED A., though great uncertainty prevails in the use of all such 

LA PRETRE'S A. = A. pretrei. 



MERCENARY A. = A. mercenaria of Peru. " JURNALERO " in Peru. 

NATTERER'S A. = A. 7iattereri. 

ORANGE-WINGED = A. A. amazonica. Other names, mostly obso- 
lete : Common Amazon Parrot, Vars. A. C. E. and F. ; *Jamaica 
Parrot, *Blue-topped Parrot; *Brazilian Yellow- 
fronted Parrot ; * Yellow-shouldered Parrot ; all of 

316 Dr. E. HOPKINSON, 

Latham. ? = His *Yellow-Cheeked Parrot. ? = *Amazons Par- 
rot and *AouRou Parrot of other early authors. " AjuRU- 
CuEUCA " Marcg.). 

PANAMA A.=A. panamensis. 

" Pigmy A." see SALLE'S AMAZON. 

RED-FRONTED A. = A. vittata of Porto Rico. The name is also 
sometimes applied to the FESTIVE A., or other similar species. 

RED-MASKED K.^A. brasiliensis, the *Brazilian Green Parrot 
(Latham), *Blue-Faced Parrot, Var. C. (Latham), * Autumnal 
Parrot, Var. C. (Latham). Often known by dealers as the " Red- 
Tailed Amazon," though this is one of their usual names for the 

Red-Tailed A., see BLUE-FRONTED and RED-MASKED A. 

RED-THROATED A.=^. collaria of Jamaica. The Jamaica 
Parrot of some authors ; locally called the " Yellowbill " and 
" Yellow-Billed Parrot " (Gosse) ; " Sassabe," or " Xaxabes," 
said also to be local names. The Red-Throated Parrot of 
Latham. ? His *White-Headed Parrot, Var. A., and his 
*Gerini's Parrot. 

'KE'D-TOFVE'D A.=A. rhodocovytha. 

SALLE'S A. = A. ventralis, the Ash-Crowned Parrot and White- 
Fronted Parrot, Var. B., of Latham. Dealer's names, " San 
Domingo A.," " Pigmy Amazon " (?). 

SALVIN'S A. = A. salvini. 

" San Domingo A.," see SALLE'S A. 

Single Yellow-Headed A., see YELLOW-SHOULDERED A. 

" Spectacled Amazon," occasional dealer's name for the WHITE- 

" Terra del Fuego Amazon," a dealer's name sometimes used for 
some Amazon, probably the common BLUE-FRONTED. The 
epithet " blue-crowned " is generally added. 

" Tricolour A,." another's dealer name ; generally means one of 
the commoner species, which happens to show a larger amount of 
yellow than usual. 

VINACEOUS A. — A. vinacea, one of the larger species; probably 
Latham's *Red-Headed Brazilian Parrot. 

" Violet Amazon," see " Bronze Amazon," above. 

WHITE-BROWED A. = A. albifrons. White-crowned Parrot 
(Lath). " Spectacled Amazon " or "Spectacle Parrot" some- 

WHITE-FRONTED A. = A. leucocephala, from Cuba. Latham's 
name, White-Fronted Parrot ; Edwards', White-Headed 
Parrot. ?=Latham's *Pardise Parrot. "Cuba Amazon" 

English Names for the parrots. 317 

(E. D.). " Cuba Parrot," and White-Headed Amazon are other 

White-Headed a., see WHITE-FRONTED A. 

YELLOW-BELLIED A.=A. xanthops. 

YELLOW-CHEEKED A.=A. autumnalis. *Autumnal Parrot 
(Latham), and his *Blue-Faced Parrot, Var. B. *Lesser Green 
Parrot (Edwards), ? his *Blue-Faced Green Parrot. *Blue- 
Headed Creature (Banks). 

YELLOW-FRONTED A.=A. ochrocephala. Yellow - Crowned 
Parrot (Latham), and his * Yellow-Headed Amazons Parrot, 
and Vars. A. and B. ; also=his *Parti-Billed Parrot. 
* Yellow-Headed Amazons Parrot, see YELLOW-FRONTED. 
*SiNGLE Yellow-Headed A., see YELLOW-SHOULDERED A. 

YELLOW-LORED A.=^. xantholora. 

Yellow-Naped a., Yellow-Naped Giant A., see GOLDEN-NAPED 

Yellow-Necked A., see GOLDEN-NAPED A. 

YELLOW-SHOULDERED A.=A. ochroptera, the Yellow- Winged 
Parrot (Latham), * Ash-Fronted Parrot (Latham) ; * Yellow- 
Headed Creature (Banks) ; ? the *Green and Yellow Parrot 
FROM Barbadoes of Albin, or *Carolina Parrot, of Latham. 
Occasionally known among dealers as the " Single Yellow- 
Headed Amazon." 
Amazons Parrot, early variant of AMAZON PARROT. 

Yellow-Headed, see YELLOW-FRONTED AMAZON. 
*Amber Parrot, Latham's name for the RED-FRONTED LORY. See 

under Lory. 

AMBOINA PARROT (Latham's), Tanygnathus gramineus. Original 

name, *Parrot from Lord Howe's Island, but its habitat is the 
Amboina Parrakeet, see AMBOINA RED PARROT. 

AMBOINA RED PARROT { amboinensis, some- 
times known as the Amboina Parrakeet. 

" American Lovebird," popular name for the PASSERINE PARRAKEET, 
and other members of the genus Psittacula. 

" Anaca," see BLUE-WINGED CONURE. 
*Anacan Macaw, occasional book name for the SEVERE MACAW. 

" Anakan," said to be a native name of the SEVERE MACAW, whence 
presumably the book name above is derived. 

Andaman Alexandrine Parrakeet, see under Alexandrine Parrakeet. 

ANDAMAN FARRAKEET. =Palaeornis tytlevi. Other names, Tytler's 
P., Red-Cheeked Andaman Paroquet. 
*Angola Yellow Parrot, Latham's name (absolutely incorrect as to 
country of origin) for the YELLOW CONURE. 

318 Editorial. 

ANTIPODES ISLAND VKR'RK'KE'E.T. = Cyanorhamphus unicolor. 
" Araguaby," see GREEN CONURE. 

" Arara," native name for some of the Macaws. Also sometimes used as 
a book name (*) for any Macaws, and for some of the Long-Tailed 
CoNURES, such as the Patagonean and Carolina. 
" Araracanga," native name (Marcgrave) for the GREEN-WINGED 

" Arara-catenga," the MARAKANG MACAW. 
" Ararauna," the BLUE AND YELLOW MACAW. 
*Aratoo, obsolete book name for any of the BLACK COCKATOOS. 

Goliath Aratoo, the GREAT BLACK COCKATOO. 
*Ash-Brown Parrot, see LESSER VAZA PARROT. 
*Ash-Coloured Parrot, see GREY PARROT. 
*Ash-Crowned Parrot, see SALLE'S AMAZON, under Amazon. 
*Ash-Fronted Parrot, one of Latham's names for the YELLOW-SHOUL- 
Auckland Island Parrakeet, see under NEW ZEALAND PARAKEET. 
* Aurora Parrot, see BLUE-FRONTED AMAZON. 
Australian Lory, see PENNANT'S PARRAKEET. 
" Lovebird," see BUDGERIGAR. 
Grass Parrakeet, the BUDGERIGAR. 
Red-Crowned Lorikeet, see VARIED LORIKEET. 

(To he continued) 


The Editor still asks for donations towards the Illustration 
Fund. Will not many of the members send half-a-crown each, if 
nothing more ? 

Articles are also needed in order to maintain the Magazine. 

Members may possibly have friends in different countries, who could 

send them notes. 

* * * 

Lord Tavistock writes that a brood of young Pennant's 
Parrakeets have left the nest at Woburn Abbey, and, with the 
exception of a few green feathers in the wings, are of the same 
colour as the parents. This is surely unusual. 

Notices to Members — (Continued frovi page ii. of cover.) 

Miss R., Aiiierdeu, Taplow. 

Mr. A. E. Wachsmann, " Maitai," Murray Road, Beecroft, N.S.W., 


Mrs. Christie, Newton House, By JClgin. 

Proposed by Major W. Twekdie. 

Mrs. R. W. Wai.IvACE, Moelwyn, Inglis Road, Colchester. 

Pioposed by Mr. R.I, Pocock. 


Mr. Reginald B. Astley 
Mr. W. Shore Baily 
Major G. A. Perreau 
Miss E. Chawner 


£^ o o 

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o 8 o 

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The charge for private advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
WORDS OK i<Kss, and one penny for every additional three zvords or less. 
Trade advertisements are not ai,i,owkd in this column. Dealers 
zvho are members, ivish ing to adver tise^ should apply to the Publisher for terms. 
Advertisements must reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Council reserve the right oj refusing any advertisement 
they may consider undesirable. 

Two pairs White-Eye Pochard, 6o/- pair; ten pairs Carolina, 30/- pair; 
two pairs Tufled, 25/- pair; two pairs Chili Teal, 35/- pair; all hand- 
reared. M. Portal. High Sandhoe, Hexham. 

The charge Jo r members' advertisements under this heading is four 
PENCE for twelve WORDS or under, and one penny for evety additional 
three zvords or less. 

Wanted, Cock Nonpariel Bunting; would exchange for hen, 15 inunths in 
outdoor aviar}'. B. C. ThomasSET, Ashniaiisworth, Newbury. 

Wanted, Two hen Cockateels, or would exchange three cocks for them, 
latter in excellent condition. 

Mr. Buck, The Lodge Gate, Earl Soham, P'ramlinghani. 

Wanted, P'eniale Bar vShouldered Doves (Australian). 

H. 1). ASTLKY, Brinsop Court, Hereford. 





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The Eed-breasted Merganser {Illustrated) , by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 

Notes from the Zoological Gardens, by D. SetH-SmiTH, F.Z.S. 

Glimpses of South American Ornithology, by LORD BraBOURNE 

Thirty-two Years of Aviculture (Concluded), by Dr. A/G. BUTLER 

Ducks Nesting at Dereham {Illustrated), by HUGH WORMALD 

A Tame Bullfinch, by KATHARINE CURREY... 

The War, by HUBERT D. ASTLEY... 

Powers of Resuscitation in Humming Birds, by HUBERT D. ASTLEY 

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Vol. V. No. 11. 

The price of this 
number is 1/3. 

-19 14 - 

NOTE. — A new volume commences every November. 

All Subscriptions 

should be sent to the Publishers, 
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Edited by Frank M. Chapman. 


About 400 pages, with 12 full-page colored plates of our own birds, 
and many photographs from nature. 

Descriptions of experiences with living birds in their liaunts, and help- 
ful articles on how to study, birds. 

Migration tables, showing when birds may be expected at many places 
throughout the country. 

A list of prominent ornithologists wlio will help you in your study of 

Bird Censuses by numerous observers. 

Reviews of books and of magazine articles relating to birds. 

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A School Department. An Audubon vSociety Department. 


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L. BONHOTE, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

A Manual intended as a practical help to those who find both 
pleasure and profit from tlie keeping of wild birds in confinement. 
Contributed to by specialists in each class of birds described. 

With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Uncoloured. 

London: WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 




I Humblodl's Wooly Monkey ; i Batlikofers Gueuoii ; i Patas 
Monkey ; 2 Pigtail Apes ; i Red Baboon ; 5 Dogface Baboons ; 2 Sacred 
]5aboons; 2 Mandrills; 190 Rhesus Monkeys; 20 Jew Monkeys; 4 Black 
and White Ruffed Lemurs ; 2 Orange-cheeked Lemurs ; 7 Brown Lemurs; 

2 Agouti; I Coati-Mundi ; 2 Coypus ; 10 Jerboas ; i Mexican Squirrel ; i 
Red Squirrel ; 20 Canadian Porcupines ; i Bull, Cow and Calf Indian Zebu 
Buffaloes ; I Sanibur >Stag ; i pair Axis Deer ; i Hog Deer ; r tame young 
Blackbuck ; 8 Bennett's Wallabies ; i perfectly tame African I^eopard on 
lead; 1 Tibet Bear; i Sloth Bear; i Himalaya Bear; i American Bear; 2 
young Dingos ; 3 South American Rhea Ostriches ; I White-whiskered 
Paradoxure ; i Indian Civit ; 2 Swamp Civits ; i Two-spotted Parodoxure ; 

3 Griffin Vultures ; i Rough-legged Buzzard ; 13 Black vSwans ; 8 White 
Swans ; 2 ]5arheadf d Geese ; 2 Chinese Geese ; loo Falcated Teal ; 20 Man- 
darin Ducks ; 15 Formoson Teal ; 10 White-faced Tree Ducks ; 100 Common 
Teal ; 10 Demoiselle Cranes ; 4 Antigone Cranes ; 2 Rosy Flamingoes ; 4 
Rosy Spoonbills ; 3 Ibis ; i Penguin ; i marvellous talking Grey Parrot ; I 
talking Hill Mynah ; i pair the new Cuban Conures [Conurns euops) ; I 
pair Blue-cheeked Rosellas {Platycercus ainalhiista) ; i Pennants Broadtail ; 
I White-eared Conure ; l pair Red-sided Kclectus Lories ; i pair Red- 
necked Lorikeets ; I pair Alexandrine Rock Parrots; 2 Canary wing Broto- 
gerys ; i Golden-fronted Brotogerys ; 2 Yellow-billed Pionus ; i Red-vented 
Pionus ; 2 Nandy Conures ; 2 Half-moon Conures ; 20 Amazon Parrots ; 100 
Rose Cockatoos ; 200 Budgerigars ; 50 Lavender-headed Lovebirds ; loo 
Ring-necked Parrakeets ; 10 (ireat Snlpliurcrest Cockatoos ; 2 Bare-eyed 
Cockatoos; I Lesser Javan Cockatoos ; I Green Military Macaw; il Silky 
vStarlings ; i Chinese Rosy Starling ; 4 Cuban vSong Thrushes; i Singing 
Shama ; 6 Chinese-crested Mynalis ; 2 Crimson-eared Bulbuls ; 20 
White Java Sparrows ; 8 vSaffron Finches ; 10 Dwarf Finches ; 15 
Orange and Yellow Bishops ; 3 Yellow-vented Buntings ; 2 Cape 
Sparrows ; 12 Indigo Finches ; i pair imported Chinese Ringneck 
Pheasants; Silver, Amherst, and Reeves Pheasants; 20 Peafowl; 20 Zel)ra 
Doves ; 40 White Doves ; 100 Ring Doves ; 6 Vinaceous Turtle Doves ; 
I Stock Dove; i Triangular-spotted Pigeon; Sternotlieres ; Tortoises; 
Terrepins; I^izards ; Snakes ; Crocadiles ; etc. 

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Third Series— Yol. V.— No. ii.— All rights reserved. SEPTEMBER, 1914. 


Mergus serrator. 
By Hubert D. Astley. 

The length of this duck is twenty-four inches. The male in 
full dress is very handsome, with his double crest, head and upper 
]part of neck black, glossed with green ; against which the bright 
crimson beak and eyes (the legs being of the same colour) make a 
conspicuous contrast. The middle of the neck is white, and the 
base of the fore-neck, buff with dusky striations. The patch of 
white feathers, margined with black at the sides of the fore-neck at 
once attract the eye. Back, black ; wing coverts white with two 
narrow black bars. The flanks grey, with narrow pencillings of 
black and white. 

The female's head and neck is dull brownish red, and is 
altogether paler, lacking the distinctive markings of her mate. 
There is an eclipse plumage after the breeding season. 

During the latter period the Red-breasted Mergansers are 
found along the coasts and rivers of Scotland in many parts, and it 
is common on the Orkneys and also breeds in the Shetlands, as well 
as the Inner and Outer Hebrides. It does not breed in England, 
but it occurs in Ireland, in Ulster, Gonnaught, and Munster. Beyond 
the British Isles it nests in Iceland and Southern Norway, in Sweden, 
Finland, Russia and North Germany, and also in Denmark. In 
America too, Labrador, Greenland, etc. 

To England, it is a winter visitor ; a bird of passage in the 
autumn and the spring. As a rule the nest is placed on the ground 

320 Mr. D. Seth-Smith, 

amongst rank vegetation, heather, etc., sometimes amongst cairns of 
stones, or even in a hollow in an old stone wall. 

Mergansers are great eaters. Eleven good-sized salmon-parr 
have been taken from one bird. Small eels and coarse fish of all 
kinds, as well as shrimps and little crabs swell the list of their 
varied menu. 

They will live well in captivity, provided they have fish or 
flesh, but they can subsist, when accustomed to it, very largely on 
greaves, melox, etc., but of course the larger the piece of water 
stocked with natural food, the better. 


By D. Seth-Smith, F.Z.S. 

Our Editor has appealed to me to send him some notes 
for the September Magazine, and so, on a wet day on my holiday 
far from London I am writing a few notes, though as I have not 
my note-book with me, it is possible I may have omitted some 
points of interest, and as I left a week ago these notes may not 
be quite up to date. 

Amongst the most interesting of recent arrivals may be 
mentioned a specimen of the Great Courlan (Araviis giganteus) a 
bird that may be described as something between a Crane and a 
Eail, with a superficial resemblance to, and about the same size as, 
an Ibis, but with a less curved bill. It is brown, with each feather 
centred with white, giving it a very speckled appearance. It walks 
with an upright carriage and a peculiar jerky motion of the body. 
A. giganteus or %)ictus occurs in reedy swamps in Central America 
and the Southern States of North America as well as some of the 
West Indian Islands. To the south of its range occurs the closely 
allied form, which is probably merely a local race known as the 
Scolopaceous Courlan. These two are the only representatives of 
this genus and form a distinct Family of birds. 

This is the only example ever received of Aramus giganteus, 

Bird Notes from the Zoological Gardens. 321 

though one specimen of A. scolopaceus was obtained in 1874, which 
hved but a few days. 

The pair of Cotton Teal, given to us by Mr. Ezra some 
months ago and akeady mentioned in this journal by Mr. Astley, 
appear to be thriving well in the small aviary at the end of the 
Diving Bird, House. Mr. Astley very kindly gave us a second pair, 
but they were some that had been delayed for some weeks on the 
Continent, and the long close confinement resulted in their contract- 
ing tuberculosis, from which they soon succumbed. 

An example of the Black-necked Stork {Xenorhynchus asia- 
ticus) received on July 28th is an important addition to the collection 
as it is a good many years since a specimen was represented in the 
collection. It is a large and handsome Stork with greenish black 
head and neck, black wing-coverts and white body and a most 
formidable bill. It is locally distributed in suitable localities 
throughout India, Ceylon, Burma, and right away to Australia. 

The Small Bird House and Summer Aviaries contain just now 
a very interesting collection, as a good many new birds have been 
added recently. Mr. Heumann brought home a fine collection of 
Australian birds at the beginning of July, and of these the Zoological 
Society acquired several, and a number were most generously pre- 
sented by Mr. Alfred Ezra. Foremost among these may be mentioned 
the charming Blue Wren, one of the most familiar of the birds of 
the Eastern State of Australia. The male when in colour has the 
crown and back of a most brilliant enamel-like blue, relieved by jet 
black, his long tail, which is carried erect, being of a dull indigo blue 
The little hen is his exact count erpart in shape and carriage but of a 
mouse-brown, with a reddish tinge round the eyes. In Australia 
these little birds go about in family parties, generally consisting of a 
male in colour, one or two out of colour, distinguished from the 
female by the bluish tail and absence of red round the eyes, and 
several females. They occur in almost every garden where there is 
plenty of cover, frequently coming out of the low bushes and hunting 
tiny insects in the grass or flower beds. It will be remembered by 
the older members of the Avicultural Society that Mr. Eeginald 
Phillipps actually bred this species in his garden in London about 
ten years ago. 

322 Mr. D. Seth-Smith, 

Another very charming bird, of wliich we have a pair, is the 
Black and White Fantail {Bhipidura tricolor). It is a most famihar 
bird and a great favourite in most parts of Australia where it is 
called "Wagtail," "Willie Wagtail," or " Shepherd's Companion.'' 
Its long, fanlike tail is constantly swayed from side to side, as it 
settles on a post, branch or the ground with a fly or other insect in 
its bill which it has captured in the air. Its head, neck, chest, back 
and tail are black, its underparts and a streak above the eye, white. 
A cock and two hens of the White-browed Wood-Swallow {Artamus 
superciliosus) are also very desirable additions to our collection, for 
they too are most attractive birds and very handsome. But of 
more interest, because we have never had them before, are a pair of 
White-shouldered Caterpillar-eaters {Lalage tricolor), the male of 
which is black and white and the female brown. There are five 
species of Honey-eaters in the collection of Australian birds, namely 
the Wattle-bird, the Spiny-cheeked, the White-cheeked, the Yellow- 
tufted and the Lunulated Honey-eater. Of these the White-cheeked 
is the most beautiful, a singularly handsome bird, black and white 
with conspicuous white cheek-tufts and yellow on the wings. 

The Australian Robins {Petroeca) are amongst the most 
striking of all the Australian birds, and we are very glad to have on 
deposit from Mr. Ezra a pair of the Scarlet-breasted Eobin (P. leggi) 
the male of which has the breast of flaming scarlet ; the forehead, 
underparts and a patch on the wings white, and the head and 
back black. The female is brownish in colour with a tinge of 
scarlet on the breast. These and a hen of the Flame-breasted Robin 
(P. phcBiiicea^ are the first specimens of the genus that have ever 
been exhibited in the Zoological Gardens. 

The Sunbirds are becoming very popular just now with avi- 
culturists, since a few enthusiasts, notably Mr. Alfred Ezra have 
shown that they are by no means difficult birds to keep, some species 
being apparently hardy in fact. I have no doubt that before long 
these lovely birds will be imported freely. At the Zoological 
Gardens we have a very fine male of the Southern Malachite Sun- 
bird {Nectarinia famosa) recently purchased. It is a common 
species in South Africa and an extremely beautiful one. 

Four other rarities which have been presented to us by Mr. 

Bird Notes from the Zoological Gardens. 323 

Ezra, are a Velvet-fronted Nuthatch {Sitta frontalis), four Eed- 
headed Bullfinches {Pyrrhula erythrocephala) , a Blue-headed Rock- 
thrush {Petrophila cinclorhyncha) and a Golden-throated Barbet 
{Gyanops franhlini), the first three of these are new to the col- 
lection, and of the latter we have only had one specimen before. 
All are from the Himalayas. 

Still one other rarity, new to the collection, is a very beautiful 
little Hawk {Gampsonyx sioainsoni), from Central America, received 
by purchase from a dealer. It is about the size of a Hobby, very 
dark blackish brown above, with whitish forehead and chest with a 
complete whitish chestnut collar surrounding the neck and chestnut 
Hanks and underparts. 

Breeding results this year have not been great. Since we 
took up the breeding of j)heasants four or five years ago we have 
done fairly well on the whole, but each succeeding year has brought 
with it certain unforeseen diseases, a state of things which I fear is 
unavoidable where the same ground has to be used year after 
year for rearing. 

Our rare Douglas Quails laid a number of eggs which we 
hatched in an incubator and the chicks are being reared in a foster- 
mother and appear to be thriving well. Eggs laid by some hybrid 
quails, which we bred last year between the Douglas and Californian 
Quails, two closely allied species, have^ proved to be quite sterile. 

Last winter a pair of Crowned Pigeons hatched out a young 
bird in the Western Aviary, and it was not surprising that at that 
inclement season the young bird was not reared. Now they have 
bred again, and when I left a week ago the pair were brooding a 
newly-hatched squab which we hope may be successfully reared. 

Green Cardinals, Euddy and Madagascar Turtle-doves have 
all reared young, but the most interesting event, should it come to a 
successful conclusion, will be the breeding of the New Guinea Eifle- 
bird. In the spring, Mr. Brook kindly lent us a hen of this species 
which had previously laid eggs in his aviary. She was put out with 
one of our cock birds in the summer aviaries. No sign of nesting 
was noticed for a long time, but the day before I left, July 31st, the 
keeper Bailey discovered the hen sitting tightly upon a well-made 
nest of twigs and dead leaves. Of course we did not disturb her 

324 Lord Beabourne. 

and do not know how many eggs she has, but she took no notice of 
our presence in the aviary, sitting as though glued to her nest, which 
promises well. 



By Lord Beabourne. 

In a well-known novel by a well-known and popular author 

the following passage occurs : — " In the shadow overhead flew and 

chattered crowds of Green Paroquets and glossy Crows, while here and 

there we could see a Bird of Paradise drooping its smart tail-feathers 

amid the foliage. A little further and deep in the forest the ear 

caught the tap-tap of the Woodpecker, the snap of the Toucan's 

beak or the deep trumpeting of the elephant. Once we startled a 

leopard that gazed a moment at us with flaming eyes, and then was 

gone with a wild bound into the thicket." All this along a jungle 

track in Ceylon, frequented by religious votaries and sight-seers. 

Having no acquaintance with eastern bird -life the reference to 

Birds of Paradise left the writer comparatively unmoved, but the 

snapping of the Toucan's beak " sent cold shivers down the 


A few flocks of " brightly-plumaged screaming birds flitting 

their way from bough to bough, etc., etc.," present flashes of warmly 
picturesque local colouring, which both novelist and traveller alike 
seem unable to resist ; especially is the second an offender in this 
respect. And while he may make a delightful book, he fixes in the 
mind of his reader an impression doomed to a certain disappoint- 
ment, should he ever visit the scenes described. The reason is 

Imagine an observant traveller arriving at an Estancia in 
middle Argentina about the end of September. He might 
possibly notice, perched on the fencing of the garden of that 
Estancia, two recent arrivals from the north ; a small livid, red 
bird (Pyrocephalus) and one of the same family, but widely 
different in its style of beauty ; grey and white with a jet-black 

Glimpses of South American Ornithology. 325 

head, a concealed yellow crest and with two greatly elongated tail 
feathers, the well-known Scissor Tail Tyrant ; a third might be 
added to the picture ; a snowy white bird with black tips to the 
wings {Taenioptera irupero). A month later he might be travelling 
by rail through the same country ; he would certainly see from the 
railway carriage small flocks of Eoseate Spoonbill and Wood Ibis, 
collected here and there by the occasional lagunas, on their way to 
spread themselves over the Province and the Argentine Pampas. 

Such pictures of bird-life are not easily forgotten, so that 
they group themselves in the memory to form a blur of coloured 
recollection. The traveller may never visit that country again, but 
assuredly in the forthcoming book (" Six Months Impressions of a 
Continent " or some such name) he will casually refer in glowing 
terms to the brilliant nature of the Argentine bird-life. 

Still undoubtedly the haphazard traveller does occasionally 
have wonderful ornithological sights thrust upon him, unsought for. 
And it is my intention to relate a few of these from South America. 

Everyone must have his own particular idea of what the 
general effect of Tropical bird-life should be. The writer has only 
once seen his for a few hours in the Delta of the Orinoco. There is no 
great river here, but countless small mangrove and palm-fringed 
channels with sluggish currents. The steamer takes the Macareo, 
the principal and least tortuous of these, to port of Spain. Occa- 
sional pairs of both Blue and Yellow and Red and Blue Macaws flew 
over ; not " soaring like huge Hawks," as one writer puts it, but 
moving in quick-flapping trailing flight as if they knew that 
particular palm, where most fruit grew and meant to arrive as 
quickly as they could. ' Soaring Hawks " were however represented 
by perhaps the most graceful of all the family, the Swallow-tail Kite. 
An occasional Cocoi Heron was there ; and the small Blue Heron 
{Butorides striata) in rather greater numbers would rise and fly 
croaking across the water. Some exigency of river navigation takes 
the steamer rather closely and suddenly round a bend, and from 
almost under the bows rises a living streak of fire, as a flock of a 
dozen or so of Crimson Ibis flap quickly away. The fauna of that 
region has been graphically described by Mr. Beebe in " Our Search 
for a Wilderness." 

326 Lord Brabournb, 

There was no great variety of bird life ; nor were there great 
numbers of any one kind ; but those, that were seen, seemed to fit 
with the general atmosphere and surroundings — intensely tropical 
in appearance. In fact the lack of bird-life on the large South 
American rivers has been the subject of frequent comment. The 
distances are too great. 

Still one beautiful species is always present : the Blue and 
Chestnut Kingfisher (Ceryle torguata), a bird about the size of a 
Pigeon, is seen on all the South American waterways from Caracas 
to Magellan (the Southern Argentine and Chilian form C. stellata is 
slightly smaller). Indeed the bird seems to prefer the larger rivers 
to those backwaters and sheltered " riachos," where the generality 
of waterfowl congregate in swarms ; and is equally abundant on the 
Paraguay River about Asuncion, as on the Orinoco below Ciudad 

A scene from the Island of Trinidad was memorable for the 
numbers of one particularly gaudy species. From the town of 
Siparia in the southern part of the Island runs a road through the 
tropical forest to the coast. And all along this road at frequent 
intervals were nesting-colonies of the Yellow and Black Cassique 
{Cassicus cela, Persicus). Their lively spluttering, bubbling notes 
and the long nests swinging from the trees gave this road a 
peculiarity of its own. The birds actually had a noisy colony in the 
Church-yard of Sipari. Here and there were to be seen the single 
nests of the larger and non-gregarious Cassique {Ostinops decumanus) , 
The nature of the vegetation is that of the " High Woods " 
described by Charles Kingsley in " At Last " ; and the birds had 
probably all deserted the surrounding district, to avail themselves of 
the isolated trees, incident upon partial forest-clearing by man, 
from which to hang their nests- 
Birds of the Hawk family, though some species occur in 
flocks especially on migration, cannot be considered as generally 
gregarious. But sometimes hundreds may be seen together. The 
scene is on the Paraguay Eiver a few miles above Asuncion and on 
one of those stretches of water hundreds of miles inland, the straitness 
and breadth of which give the effect as of the river itself merging into 
the horizon ; the glory of the great South American rivers. On the 

Glimpses of South American Ornithology. 327 

west is the low-lying palm and bamboo-edged bank of the marshy 
Chaco ; on the east the slightly higher shore of Paraguay proper. 
Very far ahead is seen a line of birds continually passing singly, in 
pairs, in sixes and in twenties, a never-ending stream flying steadily 
from west to east. Not for an instant is there a break of more than 
a few yards in the chain. Only when the river steamer is right 
upon them, and they rise in their flight to top it, are they seen to be 
the Sociable March Hawk {Bostrhamus sociabilis) , a bird of that 
deep blue-black colouring, peculiar to certain genera of Hawks 
{Urubitinga, Leucopternis- etc.), with a salmon-orange cere and feet 
and a bright crimson iris. The steamer passes, the birds sink 
again to the original level of their flight ; and as far as the eye can 
watch them over the stern the stream continues. 

Nor is it necessarily mere numbers or gaudy colouring, that 
hold most readily the attention or are best remembered. The writer 
was once in the Llanos of Venezuela in February. From all 
accounts the Llanos would appear half the year to be a swamp and 
the other to be parched almost to desert dryness. This was 
towards the end of the desert season. The word " bish " accurately 
conveys an impression of the vegetation of that part of the Llanos. 
There are no trees larger than the English oak ; and the narrow road 
is edged on each side by dense scrub, which gradually gives place to 
the south to scattered clumps of trees and more open country. A 
glance at the map gave one the idea of a country well- watered by 
several rivers : but these appeared at that season mere sandy beds. 
A few mud-holes still remained and at one of these rather more 
deeply sunk in the ground, and not more than a few feet square, a 
strange quartet of birds was discovered. A Wood Ibis and a 
Eoseate Spooonbill rose heavily from under the mule's very nose and 
perched in a tree near by ; whilst on a small bush overhanging the 
water sat two large Black Buzzards (Urubitinga urubitinga). These 
remained perched, merely curious at the sight of a human animal 
persu.ading another animal to drink slush. The writer had been 
familiar with all these three species 2,000 miles or more further south 
in Argentina ; one of the forms of the Euby Tyrant (Pyrocephahis), 
a common Argentine bird, was abundant ; and it needed little 
imagination to transfer the whole scene to that country. 

328 LoED Bkabourne, 

And let it be said, that on that occasion during thirteen days 
continual riding not once was the snapping of "the Toucan's beak " 
heard. He was not even seen. Probably they were all on their 
vernal migration to the Island of Ceylon. 

As a comfort to those, who fear the rapid and total 
extinction of all Egrets, it may be stated, that on the morning after 
arriving at Ciudad Bolivar (the centre of the export trade in 
Egrets, and from which during the preceding year plumes to the 
value of £49,705 had been exported) over 60 of the larger kind 
{Egretta Egretta) was seen flying eastward over the town of Soledad 
on the opposite bank ; to the Laguna Mamo, a swamp about 40 
miles away, as the native boatman, who seemed to be in their con- 
fidence, said. The same man pointed out a rookery of Wood Ibis 
about a mile up stream from Soledad. There were several scores 
which could be seen with glasses from Ciudad Bolivar. He said that 
he knew of no other rookery of the kind, to which the birds 
habitually resorted for many miles either up stream or down. 

To the Ornithologist the first shot fired in a bird-thronged 
marsh must ever present a novelty, similar to that of the lifting of 
the curtain on a transformation scene to the expectant child. In 
general scenic effect tliere can be little variation the world through : 
but to the bird-watcher there will be abundant diffex-ence of detail 
in each district ; differences perhaps more of sound than of sight, 
since the confused scurryings of the startled wildfowl, make 
the singling out of individuals difficult, unless very well marked. 

To those acquainted with the Wealdon country, imagine the 
Nortli and South Downs ; imagine all the angles, breaks and irregu- 
larities immeasurably distorted and exaggerated. Here and there on 
the sky-line are copses ; replace these by jagged snow-peaks ; in 
the middle of the plain is the rush-margined Lake Junin or Chincli- 
aycocha about 22 miles long by 7 wide, the largest of the Andean 
Lakes except Titicaca and Poopoo. Here and there grow coarse,, 
strong, scrubby grasses, but the pasture is generally beaten 
flat by the bleak wind and hail or else cropped close by flocks of 
Llamas and weedy sheep. The Amazon conjures up visions of 
tropical heat and steaming damp. Yet the Amazon is there. 
Inasmuch as the Mantare, one of its countless tributaries of a 

Glimpses of South Aynerican Ornithology. 329 

tributary, rises in Lake Junin, it is permissible to regard anyone of 
the peaty rills, that fell into the Lake, as lesser tributaries them- 
selves. The whole scene is at an altitude of over 14,000 feet, is 
unspeakably bleak and miserable but is typical of the great Andean 
Plain ; the Puna country of Peru and the Paramo of Equador. 

The pale pinky smudge against the brown rushes not many 
hundred yards away is a long line of Flamingoes. Nearer at hand are 
the dark forms of small parties of Glossy Ibis [Egatheus ridgioayi), 
the bird of the neighbourhood most in evidence. An Andean Gull 
{Larus serramis), or a Carrion Hawk {Ibyeter megalopterus) in search 
of prey sails into view. The lake is not a mile away. But the 
distance is too far for the would-be collector laid low by mountain 
sickness. The nausea of the sportsman at that altitude has again 
saved the lives of many birds ; and all the Duck, Eails, Waders and 
larger fowl, that throng the rushes and the edges of the lake remain 

Notes of this nature penned in Peru can scarcely be left with- 
out some reference to the great feature of Peruvian bird-life — the 
guano " producing birds. These actually number but five 
species : Three Cormorants ( Phalacrocorax cirriger, Bougainvillii 
and Vigua) ; one Gannet {Sitla variegata) , and a Pelican {Pelecanus 

The Peruvian Coast is 1,400 miles in length. There are 44 
narrow valleys and the rest is the most arid, sterile desert. 
Generally the coast is a straight, surf-beaten, sandy shore ; here and 
there the Andes or an isolated spur rise abruptly from the ocean- 
Throughout this length of coast all day and every day pass and 
re-pass, keeping just outside the breakers, solemn flocks of 
Pelicans ; larger flocks of Gannet, vanishing every now and then 
with a dart and a splash upon some victim. In the winter come 
hugh hordes of Gulls (chiefly Larus modestus and dominicanus) 
and small flocks of the beautiful Inca Tern {Larosterna inca). 
The Gulls rest by day and roost by night in vast masses on the flat 
sand stretches immediately behind the sea shore, and on near 
approach rise up with " hoarse pelagic cries " and confusing wing- 
flappings in all directions. The great body of Cormorants keep farther 
out to sea or around the islands. Long lines are to be seen in the near 

330 Dr. A. G. Butler, 

and middle distance, great clouds of them far out and low above the 
horizon. Often a steamer will pass for an hour at a time through 
straggling flocks of sea-fowl. 

The above is no exaggeration ; it is no picture of some far off 
coast or island, inaccessible, sea girt and little known. Except for 
the Gulls, of which only a few remain during the summer, it is to be 
seen with little variation for 365 days in the year ; and is to be seen 
equally from the uninhabited sands of the Sechura Desert, as from 
the shore, less the one hour's walk from the most southerly point 
served by the Lima tram cars. 

The foregoing notes refer to a period of slightly over six years 
actual residence in South America, during which no opportunity was 
lost of observing birds and their ways ; the writer has jotted down 
incidents that depict spectacular Ornithology likely to attract the 
attention of the least observant ; so that it may be seen that in that 
region of the world most richly endowed with bird-life — ' the Great 
Bird Continent " — how few and far between these wonderful sights 
really are. 


By Dr. A. G. BUTLEE. 
(Concluded from page 295). 

Few of the Doves and Pigeons can surpass the Bronzewings 
for beauty and brilliance of colouring, and none excel the African 
species for amiability towards their associates : to this general rule 
however the quaint little Cape-Dove is an exception ; since males of 
that species, and especially in the breeding-season, fight each other. I 
I have only had two males, so that I never was in a position to attempt 
to breed it ; a feat which the late Dr. Euss considered difficult of 
accomplishment. With the Tambourine Dove, after some years of 
failure I was at last successful, as already recorded in this Magazine. 
Mr. T. L. Bonstow gave me a pair in 1902 which bred in 1906, 7, 
and 8 : the male of this pair is still in good health as I write.''' 

* This species was bred shortly afterwards in this country, but I doubt 
whether even now it has been bred on the Continent. 

Thirty-tivo Years of Aviculture. 331 

Of the Blue-spotted Dove I have had two males only, one 
which I purchased in 1903 which died towards the end of 1913, and 
a second given to me shortly afterwards by Mr. Allen Silver, which 
is still in good health. Of the lovely little Emerald Dove Mr. 
Bonstow gave me a South African female in 1902 and in 1903 I 
purchased a West African male ; they differ a good deal in the size 
and tint of the metallic green wing-patches, those on the Southern 
bird being much larger and less golden than those on the Western 
form, the colouring of the whole of the plumage in the former is 
also darker : whether these differences are constant or not is a point 
only to be satisfactorily decided after a careful comparison of many 
individuals, but it seems probable that the West African form is typical 
and that the Southern one is Eeichenow's G. chalcospila, caffra : or 
is it volhnanni 7 These subspecific names are a nuisance : if the 
birds are constant in their differences why not call them species ? 
The very beautiful Maiden Dove seems to be rarely imported, but in 
1905 nearly a dozen arrived in the London market, and of these I 
believe I received the first pair. Unhappily the Maiden Dove is 
certainly more delicate when first imported than most members of 
its group and my hen died nearly four months after she came into 
my hands, the other birds of that species also died in a disappoint- 
ing manner, so that it was impossible to breed the species : my 
male bird lived until nearly the end of November 1908 : it was a 
charming bird living in perfect friendliness with its two relatives the 
Blue-spotted and Emerald Doves and I was very sorry to lose it. 
This consignment of Maiden Doves had the metallic wing-spots of a 
glittering crimson colour : the green-spotted and crimson-spotted 
forms were at one time considered at least subspecifically distinct, 
but recent travellers have pretty well disproved that notion : to what 
purpose then is the naming of the far less distinct local variations 
of the Emerald Dove ? 

Of the far less peaceful typical Bronze wings I have had one 
male and two females of the Australian Green-winged Dove, one 
pair of the gorgeous Australian Bronze-wing and one pair of the 
common Australian Crested Pigeon : none of them ever bred suc- 
cessfully in my aviaries, though I tried the two first both in indoor 
and outdoor aviaries : they are very hardy and long-lived birds and 

332 Dk. a. G. Butler, 

I really cannot see why the Crested Pigeon which breeds freely in 
our parks when turned loose should not be as competent to find food 
to sustain it during the winter months as our English birds, if turned 
into woods well away in the country. One can hardly speak cor- 
rectly of the acclimatization of a foreign species if food has to be 
provided for it during the winter months. 

Of the GeotrygonincB or so-called " Ground-doves " I received 
a supposed pair (two hens) of Wells' Ground-dove in 1898, one of 
which was killed in 1900 by my Crested Pigeons, the second died 
early in 1906 : they are quite nice birds, but the name Ground-Dove 
is not applicable to them more than to any other doves. I purchased 
a fine pair of that delightful bird the Bleeding Heart Pigeon in 1897, 
and had I then possessed a suitable outdoor aviary I might have 
succeeded in breeding it, but indoors it would neither build nor lay ; 
the hen died in 1899 and the cock in 1900 to my great sorrow : they 
really are ground-birds, since they spend the greater part of the day 
upon the earth. In 1905 I bought a pair of Wonga-wonga pigeons 
and soon had cause to regret it on account of the awful monotonous 
noise which the cock kept up from morning to night ; the hen died 
towards the end of the same year and I got rid of the cock by 

Of that magnificently coloured but Vulturine bird the Nicobar 
Pigeon I bought a pair in 1897, which I found rather a nuisance on 
account of their absurd nervousness and murderous spitefuluess : in 
themselves they are singularly stupid and uninteresting as pets, 
spending hours sitting motionless on a branch even when out of 
doors in a heavy fall of snow : they seemed quite indifferent to cold 
and would spend a winter night in the open part of the aviary and 
in the morning I used sometimes to see them sitting contentedly 
with a little pile of snow on their backs. The female died in 1902 
and the male I think in 1904. 

I have kept both the Californian and the Chinese Painted 
Quail ; I purchased a pair of the former about 1896 or 7, and 
turned them into an outdoor aviary where the hen laid many eggs 
in corners, but never incubated them : these birds were so frightfully 
wild that I willingly sold them again at the end of six or eight 
months. I secured two pairs of Chinese Quails in 1897 and was 

ThirUj-ttoo Years of Aviculture. 333 

much pleased with them, they made nests in corners and laid, but 
were disturbed by other birds so that none were reared : I found 
these birds quarrelsome in the breeding-season, they are hardy and 
long-lived, the last survivor of my birds was unhappily billed by my 
man, who blundered into the aviary to change the drinking-water 
one evening when it was growing dark and trod upon the poor little 
mite, completely flattening it. 

In 1899 I purchased a "pair"' of the Barbary Partridge 
which proved to be two cocks : their plumage was very handsome, 
but they were stupid nervous birds : one of them went blind and 
died in about a week, the other seemed healthy enough but died 
about five weeks later. A British Eed-legged Partridge which was 
caught in Beckenham was brought to me some years ago and I 
turned it out into my larger garden aviary : it was rather wild and 
only lived for about a month after it came into my hands. 

I never purchased any Hemipodes, but years back my col- 
league Mr. W. E. 0. Grant asked me to take care of some Black- 
necked Hemipodes which he had obtained from Mr. Abrahams until 
he had a place ready to turn them into. I had them for about three 
weeks, keeping them in a long runner : they were pretty active little 
birds and I was sorry when the time came for me to part from them : 
I think they would have done well in an aviary. 

This completes the list of the species which have been in my 
possession since I first began to keep living birds : it may perhaps 
be some use to those beginning aviculture by indicating the dis- 
positions of various species, thus enabling them to decide what birds 
to associate in the same aviary and what to keep alone or in pairs ; 
but it must be borne in mind that as individual human beings differ 
from their fellows in disposition, so in birds also one occasionally 
meets with a saint in a family of sinners and vice versa : therefore 
one must not judge of the nature of a species by the behaviour of a 
single example ; but, in the case of notoriously pi^edacious birds, one 
need not hesitate about keeping them apart from all weaker than 

334 Ducks Nesting at Dereham. 


By Hugh Wormald. 

This has been on the whole a good nesting season here, but 
there have been too many infertile eggs in some species ; a complaint 
common among several of my friends who keep ducks, and I am 
quite at a loss to account for the failure of many of the eggs, though 
I believe that in Cinnamon Teal eggs, which have hatched in- 
differently, the trouble is inbreeding in the parents, there never 
seem to be any loild caught Cinnamons on the market. But from 
two pairs of the nearly-allied Blue-winged Teal I have had a won- 
derfully good percentage of fertility, every egg in the first nest of 
each pair was fertile, and only two failed to hatch, the second nests 
were also very good ; the last lot of ducklings for the year hatched 
this morning (July 23rd \ these were a late nest of Bluewings, 
augmented by one horrid looking egg which I found in a nest box 
up a tree on June 15th, and which I did not set for over a week as 
I had no others to go with it at the time, and also because I had no 
hope of it hatching, since it had a deformed shell, rather crinkled 
and discoloured in patches and very pointed at both ends, 3^et to 
my amazement a beautiful little Ringed Teal emerged from it. This 
was the only egg which the Einged Teal laid to my knowledge, she 
probably dropped the rest of her clutch in the water. 

I am not aware that Ringed Teal have nested previously in 
this country, though they appear to breed freely on the Continent. 
Next year I hope to get a full clutch from them. Other interesting 
hatchings have been a silvery grey Shoveller, which unfortunately 
died when ten days old, and a pure white American Wigeon with 
normal eyes, which is at present doing very well and should be 
reared bar accidents. 

Mr. Alec. Duncan kindly sent me nine White-faced Tree 
Ducks' eggs, from a pair which nested with him in 1912 and 1913, 
but he failed to rear the young, so this year he asked me to try. All 
the eggs hatched, and seven are at present doing well, they are 
nearly a fortnight old but look rather delicate little things and 
grow slower than most ducks, but I hope to rear some of them. 

Altogether twenty-one species have nested with me this year, 



The Avicultural Magazine. 

Female Tufted Duck on Nest. 
(Fidigula cristata.) 

What she had in it. 

Photos by Oxley Grabham. 

A Tame Bullfinch. 335 

and I have a fine lot of ducklings, many full-grown, composed of 
the following — Euddy Shell-duck, Euddy-headed Bernicle Goose, 
Carolina, Mandarin, Gadwall, Shoveler, Tufted, Pochard, Eed- 
crested Pochard, White-eyed Pochard, Eosyhill, Bahama, Common 
Teal, Cinnamon Teal, Blue-winged Teal, Chilian Teal, Einged Teal, 
American Wigeon, Chiloe Wigeon, Common Pintail and Chilian 
Pintail. The Garganey Teal unfortunately had her nest flooded out 
and destroyed. 


By Katharine Currey. 

My pet Bullfinch, "Cherry," is so clever and tame that I 
think a little account of him might be interesting. If he were sure 
to remain I would release him and let him clear the rose-bushes of 
invisible (to us' insects and blight, but I cannot risk losing him. 
He soon made himself at home in a waggon ' cage, that has done 
duty for many predecessors, with a wooden shelter at one end, and 
here he pipes and whistles in the sunshine till I let him out in the 
lawn cage to fly among boughs and enjoy his large shallow bath. 
On cold wet days I let him out in the room to fly about and tease 
the Eed Tanager to his heart's content, who, in his turn, when loose 
in the room, 'goes for' the Bullfinch who is in his cage. 

Cherry soon became tame, and came flying into my hand for 
a hemp-seed, and if in a naughty mood (for he is very wilful) he 
refuses to go to bed, he hides under a chair or in the folds of a 
curtain, where he crouches quite still, but letting me catch him. 
One day he flew out into the hall, but soon returned. From that 
day he watches for the door of the room to open, and has been 
several times all over the house, doors and windows having hastily 
to be shut. The house has two wings connected by an old landing 
lit by a skylight. This is a world of delight and mystery to him, 
and calling joyfully he explores every corner, perching on old presses, 
hiding in china bowls and cups when he hears my footsteps, and 
sitting up on a ledge in the skylight where it is impossible to 
reach him. If he was lost 'pro. tern, all I had to do was to call 

336 A Tame Bullfinch. 

" Cherry," and a loud whistle came in answer. He looked most 
fascinating at Christmas-time on a mistletoe bough hanging in the 
hall, where he sat among the berries singing his cheery little song. 
One day an upstairs room door was left open when he was loose 
and of course he flew in and on to the window sill. I entered by 
another door, close to the window, and called him. By good luck it 
was raining and a big drop splashed from the eaves on to the window 
sill just in front of him. This frightened him away and back into 
the room, whence he flew downstairs and into his own room. 

Another day the door was left ajar, and he seized the oppor- 
tunity, flew out over the hall, along a passage and out at the garden 
door. There he sat on a hawthorn and sang his little song in 
triumph. There was a pair of Bullfinches in a large cage on the lawn, 
so the only way to get him back was to leave him alone and pretend 
not to care if he came back or not (for little birds, like children, are 
apt to do exactly the opposite to what they think they are wanted to 
do). I merely placed his waggon cage against the other bullies' cage 
with the door open, and hemp seeds in it with his other food. Then 
I went about my usual morning avocations, gardening, bird-tending, 
etc., and took no more notice of him. He flew into a white cluster 
rose-bush and sat there feasting on invisible insects ; thence he flew 
on to a yew-hedge, getting tit-bits, and lastly on to a juniper tree, 
where he found delicacies in the old bark. Suddenly, there he was 
on the bullies' lawn-cage, swearing at the cock and bowing to the 
hen. I called " Cherry," and off he was again on the rose-bush. 
Birds, like animals, are for ever making precedents ; if they have 
done anything once they do it again. So with Cherry. First the 
rose-bush had to be scoured for insects, then the hedge, lastly the 
juniper. Then again, there he was on the cage. He caught sight of 
his own cage on the ground and hemp seeds in it. He peered in 
sideways, whistled, and flew off again. The same round as before 
had to be gone through, but he had discovered the hemp-seeds, and, 
moreover, must now surely be needing a little grain after all those 
insects. Again and again he came and peered into his cage, and then, 
as the day wore on, all at once he swung round and in. Next day 
the dog pushed open the door of the room he was at large in, where- 
upon, having tasted the sweets of liberty, he flew out and upstairs. 

The War. 337 

where again the room door was open and all the windows. Out he 
flew over to the orchard, but he only stayed out an hour or two and 
came back to his cage. Did he remember the hemp-seeds ? I am 
now getting him a mate, as his marked attentions to the hen of the 
other bullies have excited the wrath and jealousy of the cock so that 
he bullies his wife, and it will be interesting to see if he transfers his 
admiration or prefers single blessedness. 

He has a curious little habit, which seems to proceed from a 
nervous sort of shyness, of turning his back on one and pretending 
to be very much occupied with his own affairs if he thinks he is 
wanted to come, say for a hemp-seed or to go to bed, and then 
suddenly darting round and taking the hemp, or whisking into his 
cage when he thinks you no longer care. The other day he thought 
himself aggrieved because he had no more seed left at the end of the 
day, and flew into a rage with me, swearing and pecking at my 
fingers when I held them up to his cage. 


We do not know how many of our members have, or may be 
going, to the front. 

Sir Eoland Corbet has gone with his regiment, the Coldstream 
Guards, and no doubt there may be others whom the Society will 
especially think of in this time of trial and suspense. It is calami- 
tous and infamous that not only peace-loving nations should be 
forced into a stupendous war, but also that thousands of Germans 
who must hate and loathe it should have to be involved, and become 
our enemies. The Germans are great bird-lovers ; everywhere in 
Germany there are signs of this in the numerous nesting-boxes for 
the benefit of the wild birds. Long ago, when aviculture was in its 
infancy in England, in Germany many foreign birds had been bred 
in captivity, and insectivorous foods had been studied. The vileness 
of the plots of the Prussian War Party, with the inflated vanity of 
the Kaiser to back it up, is completely outside our experiences of 
and dealings with German bird lovers. 

The late Herr Carl Hagenbeck was a fine type of a Christian 

338 The War. 

spirit, a great enthusiast for the wonderful collection of animals and 
birds which he made, a man brimming over with kindly courtesy, 
gentleness, and hospitality. To Germans like his sons, Herr August 
Fockelmann, and many many others whom we trust will, if they 
cannot now, eventually know and realize the whole truth of the 
scandalous mode of German warfare ; their estrangement from 
England (apart from the great loss to their trade), with the appalling 
upheaval brought about by their Kaiser and his war-party must 
come as a great shock and sorrow. 

We look forward to the day when, with these blood-thirsty 
and covetous invaders and their leader crushed down for ever, we can 
once more resume friendly relations and correspondence with our 
bird-loving friends and acquaintances, w^ho will we trust no longer be 
units of the German Empire, but peaceful citizens of a better and a 
smaller country, able to pursue their various studies and trades in 
calmer and brighter years. 

In the meanwhile one fears that many bird-dealers in England 
will inevitably suffer : indeed we have already heard of one with a 
wife and six children who through August was unable to sell his 
birds unless it were at very low prices, one who is invariably honest 
and upright in all his dealings, and to whom the war will, as to 
many others, come as a hard task, master. 

Another result in detail was that a magnificent collection of live 
Humming Birds arrived safely from South America at Havre, im- 
ported by one of our members, when in the great excitement of finding 
that there was war between France and Germany, the poor birds were 
neglected and all died on board ship, before they could reach Paris, 
much to the chagrin of their owmer, as well as to all bird lovers who 

have heard about it. 

Articles and Photographs, <&c. 

The Editor hopes that in spite of the distraction and manifold 
employment of abnormal kinds in connection with the war, members 
will do their utmost to send him " copy," advertisements, &c., 
remembering that if the writing of an article takes up what may 
be considered precious time, how much more of such time has the 
Editor himself to make use of to keep the Magazine going. 


Poivers of Resuscitation in H2cm7ning birds. 339 



By Hubert D. Astley. 

Not long ago Herr x\ugust Fockelmann imported in July, 
six or seven of the beautiful little Emerald Green Humming Bird 
{Sporadinis ricordi), which Mr. A. Ezra took charge of, as they were 
unfit to continue the voyage from London to Hamburg, having been 
improperly fed so that all were almost in a dying condition, their 
feathers sticky [not blest ! ] with milk and honey. After constant 
nursing, not only by day but also by night, Mr. Ezra successfully 
brought one of these lovely little things back to health and strength, 
it having been a living skeleton when he received it- I saw it last 
month, figuratively falling on my knees to it. When the cage door 
is opened, this little " Hummer " darts out looking like an emerald 
dragon fly, whirring and hovering close to one with complete 
fearlessness, and the next moment away across the room to sip 
honey from flowers in a vase. Back again close to one's head, such 
a loud Br-r-r from its pointed swift-like wings, up towards the 
ceiling, and in another moment by one's side, it's throat glittering 
like the most vivid emerald. Absolutely a gem, and causing the 10th 
Commandment to be broken to smithereens ! Well ! if a tiny thing 
like that can be brought back from the jaws of death, where many 
another species looked upon as far more robust would have 
succumbed, it gives one just cause to look forward to Humming 
Birds being kept quite easily, so long as they are imported 
properly and can be kept in a temperature not loiver than 
65 degrees. 

What was very amusing to watch in Mr. Ezra's little 
Emerald Humming Bird was it's evident intelligence, for it would 
hum back into its cage and there take up its position on a perch, or 
hang in the air with tremulous wings sipping its food (which is the 
same given to the Sunbirds). If, however, one approached and showed 
that it was the intention to shut the cage-door, it was out like a 
flash of lightning, with absolute steady deliberateness, plainly 
saying " No you don't," and still preserving its calmness of deliberate 
movements here and there all over the room, hovering and hum- 

340 Notices. 

ming in front of a looking glass, never knocking against it, but 
defying the other bird it thought it saw in front of it. It is a fairy 
bird beyond one's wildest dreams and desires in the bird line ! 



To encourage aviculturists who are unable to keep birds in 
aviaries, it was decided at the meeting of the Council, on July 19th 
last, to give a certificate for priority in breeding birds in cages. 
The conditions of the award are to be the same as those for the 
Society's Medal and the dimensions of the cage must not exceed one 
cubic yard. 


In accoi'dance with Rule 9, the Council recommends the 
election of Mr. Alfred Ezra and Mr. A. Trevor-Battye as members of 
the Council to succeed Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, retired by 
seniority, and Mr. H. Wormald retired for non-attendance, and the 
appointment of Mr. Wormald as Scrutineer and Mr. Ogilvie Grant 
as Auditor. 


In accordance with Rule 8, Mr. R. I. Pocock. the Hon, 
Business Secretary, having served in that capacity for five years 
tendered his resignation to the Council. The appointment of a 
successor was left to the Executive Committee, who nominated Mr. 
T. H. Newman, and he has kindly undertaken the post. 

The Society tenders its grateful thanks to Mr. Pocock for his 
work as Hon. Business Secretary, at the same time regretting that 
he should feel the necessity of resigning the post through stress of 
other work which must be put first. 


In recognition of his valuable services to aviculture Mr. 
Frank Finn has been elected an Honorary Member of the Society. 

English Names for the Parrots. 341 



(continued from page 285) 
*AuTUMNAL Parrot, see AMAZON, YELLOW-CHEEKED. Vars. ,see 

AZTEC CO^\]'R'E = Conurus aztec. 

AZURE-BELLIED PARROT (Latham). = r>'ic/ana cyanogaster. Also 
known as the Blue-Bellied Parrot and (with more correct reference 
to the colour), Violet-Bellied Parrot. 

*Azure-Headed Parrakeet, * Parrot, see BLOSSOM-HEADED 


BAHAMA AMAZON.=J. bahamensis. 

BANDED PARRAKEET (i). = Palaeornis fasciata, also known as the 
Moustache Parrakeet, and less commonly as the Red-Breasted 
Parrakeet. Other book names are : Rose-Breasted Alexandrine 
Parrakeet ; *Purple-Ringed Parrakeet (Latham) ; ♦Rose- 
Ringed Parrakeet, Var. A. (Latham) ; *Alexandrine Parrakeet, 
Var. B. (Latham) ; *Blossom-headed Parrakeet, Var. B. (Lth); 
Moustacho-E. Parrot (and Var. B.) (Latham) ; *Bornean Parra- 
keet (Latham) ; * Bracelet Parrot from East India (Albin) ; 
♦Cochin China Parrot ; Black-Billed Alexandrine Parrakeet, 
= a variety. (2) Name used by Gould for BAUER'S PARRAKEET. 
*Banded Parrot, an obsolete name for the BROWN-EARED CONURE. 

" Bank Parrot," Argentine vernacular for the PATAGONIAN CONURE. 

BANKSIAN BLACK COCKKTOO.^Calyptorhynchus banksi ; other names, 
Banksian Cockatoo, and Vars. A. and C. (Latham), *Cook's C. 
(Latham) . 

Banksian C, see BANKSIAN BLACK C, and under BLACK C. (i). 



BARE-EYED COCKATOO. = Ci2ca^Mag^ywwo^ts. " Corella," an occasional 
dealer's name, but incorrect ; this name properly belongs to the 

Barnard's Broadtail, see BARNARD'S PARRAKEET. 

BARNARD'S VA'RRA'KEILT .—Barnavdius barnardi. Other names, 
Barnard's Parrot (Latham) ; Barnard's Broadtail (books) ; 
*Falcon-Breasted Parrakeet (obs. Bk-n.) ; " Bulla-Bulla," 
native name in use among Australian dealers, also " Bulla-bulla 

Barnard's Parrot, see BARNARD'S PARRAKEET. 

BARRABAND'S PARRAKEET. = Po/>/ie/is barrabanda, of Australia, 
the " Greenleek," and " Greenleek Parrakeet," of Australian 

342 Dr. E. Hopkinson, 

dealers. Other book names : *Scarlet-Breasted Parrot (Latham), 
Barraband's Ring-Parrakeet. " Cutthroat Parrakeet " is an 
occasional dealer's name. 

Barraband's Ring-Parrakeet, see above. 

BAUDIN'S COCKATOO (Gould). = Calyptorhynchus baudini. Also called 
the White-Tailed C. and White-Tailed Black C. 

BAUER'S PAKHAKEKT. = Barnardius zonarius. Banded Parakeet 
(Gould), Bauer's Parrot (Latham), Yellow-Banded Parrakeet 
(auctt.), " Port Lincoln," and "Port Lincoln Parrakeet " (dealers). 
Russ gives Boa Parrakeet as one of the English names ; obviously 
a lapsus calami. 

Bauer's Parrot, see above. 

Bavana's Parrakeet, Queen of, an occasional book name for the GOLDEN 

Bearded Pararkeet, see LUCIAN PARRAKEET. 
*Beautiful Lory (Latham), see PENNANT'S PARRAKEET. 

BEAUTIFUL PARRAKEET (Gould) {i). = Psephotus pulchemmus. Also 
known as " Paradisa and Paradise Parrakeet." (2) Gould also 
used this name for BROWN'S PARRAKEET. 

" Betcherrygah," see BUDGERIGAR. 

" Bettet," see JAVAN PARRAKEET. 


BLACK COCKATOO, (i) The generally used name for Calyptorhynchus 
funereus, the Yellow-Eared Black Cockatoo of Gould, Funereal 
C. (Latham), and *Banksian Cockatoo, Var. C, Vars. i and 4 
(Latham). Australian native name, " Wy-la " (Gould). 

The name BLACK COCKATOO also applies to the other members 
of the genus ; these are : BAUDIN'S COCKATOO, the BANKSIAN 
BLACK C, and LEACH'S COCKATOO. Other less used names 
for all these birds are Raven Cockatoos and Banksian Cockatoos. 

(2) More widely the name covers any member of the two genera 
Microglossus (the GREAT BLACK COCKATOOS) and Calypto- 

(3) *One of the names bestowed by Latham on the GREAT 

BLACK LORY ( = ChalcopsiUacus ater. 
Black Parrot, see LESSER VAZA PARROT under Vaza. 
" Blackbill," see ACTIVE AMAZON. 

Black-Billed Alexandrine Parrakeet, see under BANDED PARRA- 
" Black-Billed Parrot," same as " BLACKBILL." 
*Black-Billed Green Parrot, Jamaica, see ACTIVE AMAZON. 

English Navies for the imrrots. 343 

*Blackbonnet Lory, see PURPLE-CAPPED LORY. 

*Black-Capped Lory, one of Latham's names for the THREE-COLOURED 

*Black-Crowned Parrot, a name of Latham's which probably referred 

to L. lory, the THREE-COLOURED LORY. 

" Black-Faced Conure," an occasional dealer's name for the NANDAY 


Black-Headed Conure, an alternative name for the NANDAY CONURE. 

Black-Headed Parrot, an occasional book name for the BLACK-HEADED 

Black-Shouldered Parrot, see GREAT-BILLED ECLECTUS. 
*Black-Spotted Parrakeet, see GROUND-PARRAKEET. 

" Black-Tailed Lory," an occasional dealer's name for the BLACK- 

BLACK-TAILED PARRAKEET. = Po/y^e& melanura, the " ROCK PEP- 
LAR," (occ. " Rock Pebble "), or " Rock Peplar Parrakeet," 
of dealer's. Sometimes miscalled the " Black-Tailed Lory." 
Australian vernacular, " Mountain Parrot " ; Australian native 
names, " Wook-un-ga," " Julu-up." *Blossom-Feather Parra- 
keet (Leach). 

BLACK-THROATED 'LO'RIls.'EKT .^Trichoglossus nigrigularis. 

Black-Winged Perroquet (or Parrakeet), Brown and Latham. = 
Urochroma cingulata, of Venezuela. 
*Blew and Yellow Parrot, Etc., Great, see BLUE AND YELLOW 

*Blew Maccaw, see BLUE AND YELLOW MACAW. 

BLOOD-STAINED COCKTOO [Gould). =iCacatua sanguinea, sometimes 
called the Red-Faced White Cockatoo. 

" Bloodwing," Blood-Winged Parrakeet, see CRIMSON- WINGED P. 

" Bloodrump," " Bloodrumped Parrakeet," see RED-RUMPED 
*Blossom-Cheeked Parrakeet, see MALACCAN PARRAKEET. 
*Blossom-Feather Parrakeet, see BLACK-TAILED P. 

" Blossomhead," see BLOSSOM-HEADED PARRAKEET. 

BLOSSOMHEADED VKKRKKEET. = Palaeovnis cyanocephala, the 
" Blossomhead " (occasionally " Plumhead)" of dealers. Other 
names : Blue-Headed Parrot (Latham) ; Plumhead Parrakeet 
(Jerdon) ; Rose-Headed Parrakeet (Jerdon) ; *Yellow-Collared 
Parrakeet (Latham) ; Western Blossom-Headed Paroquet 
(Oates) ; (for Eastern, see below). Other old book names are * Jonquil 
Parrakeet, the name which Latham bestowed on an entirely yellow 
variety ; Blue-Headed Parrakeet (Edwards) ; * Alexandrine 
Parrakeet, Var. D., *Azure-Headed Parrakeet, *Azure-Headed 

344 Dr. E. Hopkinson, 

Parrot (Latham), applied to a variety with yellow spots on the 

more Eastern form of P. cyanocephala. Other names : Rosa's 
Parrakeet, Rosy Parrakeet, Rosy-headed Parrakeet, Rose- 
Headed-Ring Parrakeet (Edwards and Latham) ; Eastern 
Blossom-Headed Paroquet (Gates). The popular names, 
" Blossomhead," " Plumhead," also are applied to this species. 
BLOSSOM-HEADED PAROQUET, Eastern, see above, under Burnese. 
Blossom-Headed Paroquet, Western, see above. 
*Blossom-Headed Parrakeet, Var. B., see BANDED PARRAKEET (i). 
*Blossom-Headed Parrakeet, Var. C, see MALACCAN PARRAKEET. 
Blue and Buff Macaw, see BLUE AND YELLOW MACAW. 
BLUE AND YELLOW MACA^N.=Ara ararauna. " Ararauna," native 
name according to Marcgrave. Other names : *Blew Maccaw 
(Albin and Latham) ; *Great Maccaw (Sloane) ; * Great Blew 
AND Yellow Parrot, Macheo or Cockatoon (Charleton) ; Blue 
and Buff Macaw (auctt.). 

" Blue Parrot," popular name in Australia for the PILEATED PARRA- 
" Blue Rosella," see PALE-HEADED PARRAKEET. 
BLUE-BANDED GRASS-PARRAKEET. = Neophema vennsta. Blue- 
Banded Parrakeet, Blue-Winged Grass-Parrakeet. Obsolete 
names : *Venust Grass-Parrakeet ; *Blue-Headed Parrakeet 
(Latham) ; *Blue-Banded Nanodes. Shares with N. elegans the 
popular name, " Elegant Parrakeet." 
*Blue-Banded Nanodes. | 
Blue-Banded Parrakeet, pee BLUE-BANDED GRASS-PARRAKEET. 

Blue-Bellied Lorikeet, another name for SWAINSON'S LORIKEET. 

Blue-Bellied Parrot (i) see AZURE-BELLIED PARROT. (2) see 
*Blue-Bellied Parrot, Var. C. (Latham) ?=the RED-COLLARED 


"BLUE-BONNET PARRAKEET." = Psephotus haematorhous . "Blue- 
Bonnet," English and Australian vernacular. Other names : Red- 
Vented Parrakeet (Gould) ; Red-Vented Blue-Bonnet Parra- 
keet ; Crimson-Bellied Parrakeet. Sometimes advertised by 
dealers under the name " Red-Vented Parrot." 

KEET, the Yellow-Vented Parrakeet of Gould. 

English Names for the parrots. 345 

Blue-Breasted Lory, (i) An occasional book name for the BLUE- 
TAILED LORY. See under Red Lory (2). A name of Latham's, ? = 
the female of the CERAM ECLECTUS. 

BLUE-CHEEKED LORY. = £os cyanogenys. 

BLUE-CHEEKED PARRAKEET {Gould) . = Platycercus amathusice. 
* Blue-Collared Parrot, see CINGALESE ALEXANDRINE P., under 

*Blue-Crested Parrot, one of Latham's names for the SAMOAN LORY. 

BLUE-CROWNED CONURE. = Cowm>'ms haemorrhous ; *Blue-Crowned 
Macaw (Latham). Other book names : Blue-Headed Parrot, 
Blue-Fronted Parrakeet. 

BLUE-CROWNED EC1.E.CT\JS. ^Tanygnathus luzoniensis. Another and 
better name is Blue-Crowned Parrakeet. The imported members 
of this genus are often popularly known as " Eclecti," but this name 
properly should be confined to the genus ECLECTUS. Latham 
gave the names : *Manila Green Parrot, *Varied-Winged Parrot, 
and *Lace-Winged Parrot to this species. 

Sapphire-Crowned Parrakeet (Latham and Edwards) ; Sapphire- 
Crowned PsiTTACuLE (*bkn.) ; *Philippine Parrakeet, Var. A. 
(Latham) ; " Blue-Crowned Parrakeet " (E. D.). 
*Blue-Crowned Macaw, see BLUE-CROWNED CONURE. 

Blue-Crowned Parrakeet, see (a) BLUE-CROWNED ECLECTUS, (b) 

" Blue-Crowned Terra del Fuego Amazon," see under AMAZON. 
Needless to say no Amazon actually comes from such a place. 

Blue-Diademed Lory, an occasional book name for the BLUE-TAILED 
LORY. See under Red Lory. 

Blue-Eyed Cockatoo, another name for the SPECTACLED C. 


Blue-Faced Green Amazon. = BLUE-FACED A. 
*Blue-Faced Green Parrot, see (a) BLUE-FACED AMAZON, (b) 

BLUE-FACED LORIKEET. = rnc;so^/ossM5 haematodes . *Red-Breasted 
Parrot (Latham) ; Red-Breasted Parrakeet (Edwards). 

*Blue-Faced Parrot, Var. B., see YELLOW-CHEEKED A., under 

*Blue-Faced Parrot, Var. C, one of Latham's names for the RED- 
*Blue-Fringed Lory, see RED LORY. 

(To he continued). 

346 Gorrespondeiiee. 



Sir, — It may interest some of your readers to hear that from two 
pairs of Budgerigars I have already reared 32 young ones and both have nests now, 
one brood already fledged . About March one cock died and I did not get another 
for some weeks but the hen nested and much to my astonishment reared a family. 
The first brood reared was seveu , but I have been unable to count the later ones 
as there seemed to be a regular supply of a young bird about every three days or so. 
They have all been strong birds except one which had its feathers gnawed as if 
by mice, but it lived all right until a cat got it. I cannot keep out the mice but 
they don't seem to disturb the nests. 

In the same aviary I have a pair of Madagascar Lovebirds which reared 
four young ones. Cutthroats which have reared one and would have reared 
many more but for accidents. I think it must be one of the other birds which 
throws out their young ones and should like to know which. I suspect Java 
Sparrows ; mice never seem to go near the nest and I doubt if they could 
get to it. 

In the same aviary I have a Rufous-necked Weaver, pair of Pekin Robins, 
pair of Java Sparrows, pair of Popes and lately added a Black-cheeked Love- 
bird. The Popes and Robins seemed to wish to nest but were too crowded. 
The young Budgerigars, they are all the common green ones, are put into 
another aviary when old enough. I find the old ones are very fond of a little 
cheese and indeed most of my birds are. They also get bread soaked in sugar 
and water, dry bread, cake and the usual seeds and green stuff. One pane of the 
sitting room window opens into the aviary so that they can have bits of after- 
noon tea put through. I intend turning a pair of Red-faced and Bluewing 
Lovebirds into this aviary soon. It is about 16 ft. long and 6 ft. wide in a snug 
corner but short of sun in winter. Ivy, rose and clematis grow up the wall, 
but only the ivy is allowed to grow many leaves until it passes through the 
wire top, when the rose spreads out and forms a nice shelter. 

The wood work was painted red to go with the red sandstone wall but has 
gone an ugly purplish colour as usual with iron reds. The other aviary is done 
with " stop rot," which gives the woodwork a pretty sort of fumed oak look 
and is in every way much nicer. 

A pair of Bluewing Lovebirds were put in recently by mistake and both got 
pecked (the hen to death) before next morning, but probably that was because 
they had clipped wings and were new. Birds hate a new bird, with a " failing " 
especially, but I am going to put the cock bird back shortly as he can now fly a 
little. The Red-faced Lovebirds will also be put in shortly. 

Alfred a. Thom. 

Notices to Mkmbkrs — {Continued fro tfi page ti. of covhu) 

Mrs. ChriSTIK, Newton House, By Elgin. 

Mrs. R. W. WAi.r.ACE, Moelwyn, Inglis Road, Colchester. 



i s. d. 
Mr. J. H. Gurney .. .. .. ., i o o 

Mr. Alfred A. Thorn .. .. 026 

H. L. SiCH, Corney House, Burlington Lane, Chiswick, W. 

The charge for pyivate advertisements is sixpence for eighteen 
WORDS OR LESS, atid one penny for every additional three words or less. 
Trade advertisements are not allowed in this column. Dealers 
who are members, wishing to advei Use, should apply to the Publisher for terms. 
Advertisements must reach the Editor on or before the 26th of the 
month. The Council reserve the right of refusing any advertisement 
they may consider undesirable. 
Black-cheek Lovebird, bred last year in outdoor aviary, ;^i. 

A. Cummings, 16, Promenade Villas, Cheltenham. 

The charge Jor members' advertisements under this heading is FOUR 
I'ENCE FOR TWELVE WORDS Or under, and one penny for every additional 
three words or less. 

Female Red-billed Tree Duck. Pinioned. Sex guaranteed. 

H. D. ASTLEY, Esq., Brinsop Court, Hereford. 





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Alphabetical List of Contributors ... ... ... ... ... vi. 

List of Plates ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xi. 

The Rufous-necked Laughing Thrush {tuith Coloured Plate) 

by D. SETH-SfflTH, F.Z.S. ... 347 

Some Canadian Birds, by HENRY B. Rathboene ... ... ... 348 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping, by THE MABQUIS OF TAVISTOCK ... 353 
The Great-Billed Touraco {Illustrated), 

by Graham Renshaw, M.D., F.R.S.E. ... 361 

Birds in Autumn, by A. R. WILLIAMS ... ... ... ... 362 

Birds of New South Wales I have caught and kept : The small and 

more delicate Softbills, by G. A. Heumann ... ... ... 368 

English Names for the Parrots, by Dr. E. HOPKINSON ... ... 377 

Correspondence :— Breeding in Cages ... ... ... ... 380 

Vol. V. Noi12. 

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About 400 pages, with 12 full-page colored plates of our owu birds, 
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Descriptions of experiences with living birds in their haunts, and help- 
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Migration tables, showing wlien birds may be expected at manj' places 
throughout the country. 

A list of prominent ornithologists who will help you in your study of 

Bird Censuses by numerous observers. 

Reviews of books and of magazine articles relating to birds. 

PMitorials on current questions in bird study. 

A School Department. An Audubon vSociely Department. 


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A Manual intended as a practical help to those who find both 
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•Contributed to by specialists in each class of birds described. 

With One Coloured Plate and Sixteen Uncoloured. 

London: WEST, NEWMAN dc Co.. 54 Hatton Garden, E.G. 




I Huinblodt's Wooly Monkey ; i Batlikofers Giienoii ; i Patas 
Monkey ; 2 Pigtail Apes ; l Red Baboon ; 5 Dogface Baboons ; 2 Sacred 
Baboons; 2 Mandrills; 190 Rhesus Monkeys; 20 Jew Monkeys; 4 Black 
and While Ruffed Lemurs; 2 Orange-cheeked Lemurs ; 7 Brown Lemurs; 

2 Agouti; I Coati-Mundi ; 2 Coypus ; 10 Jerboas; i Mexican .Squirrel; i 
Red Squirrel ; 20 Canadian Porcupines ; I Bull, Cow and Calf Indian Zebu 
Buffaloes ; I Sambnr .Stag ; i pair Axis Deer ; i Hog Deer ; i tame young 
Blackbuck ; 8 Bennett's Wallabies ; i perfectly tame African Leopard on 
lead; 1 Tibet Bear; i vSloth Bear; i Himalaya Bear; r American Bear; 2 
young Dingos ; 3 vSouth American Rhea Ostriches ; i White-whiskered 
Paradoxure ; i Indian Civit ; 2 vSwamp Civits ; i Two-spotted Parodoxure ; 

3 Griffin Vultures ; 1 Rougli-legged Buzzard ; 13 Black Swans ; 8 White 
Swans; 2 Barheaded Geese ; 2 Chinese Geese ; 100 Falcated Teal; 20 Man- 
darin Ducks ; 15 Formoson Teal ; 10 White-faced Tree Ducks ; 100 Common 
Teal ; 10 Demoiselle Cranes ; 4 Antigone Cranes ; 2 Rosy F'lamingoes ; 4 
Rosy Spoonbills ; 3 Ibis ; l Penguin: i marvellous talking Grey Parrot; I 
talking Hill Mynah ; i pair the new Cuban Conures [Coimrus euops) ; I 
pair Blue-cheeked kosellas {Platycercns aniathusia); i Pennants Broadtail ; 
I White-eared Connre ; i pair Red-sided Kclectus Lories ; i pair Red- 
necked Lorikeets ; I pair Alexandrine Rock Parrots; 2 Canarywing Broto- 
gerys ; i Golden-fronted Brologerys ; 2 Yellow-billed Pionus ; i Red-vented 
Pionus ; 2 Nandy Conures ; 2 Half-moon Conures ; 20 Amazon Parrots ; loo 
Rose Cockatoos; 200 Budgerigars; 50 Lavender-headed Lovebirds; loo 
Ring-necked Parrakeets ; 10 Great vSulphurcrest Cockatoos; 2 Bare-eyed 
Cockatoos ; i Lesser Javan Cockatoos ; I Green Military Macaw ; 11 Silky 
Starlings; i Chinese Rosy Starling ; 4 Cuban Song Thrushes; i Singing 
Shania ; 6 Chinese-crested Mynahs ; 2 Crimson-eared Bulbuls ; 20 
White Java Sparrows ; 8 Saffron Finches ; kj Dwarf Finches ; 15. 
Orange and Yellow Bishops ; 3 Yellow-vented Buntings ; 2 Cape 
Sparrows ; 12 Indigo Finches ; i pair imported Chinese Ringneck 
Pheasants; Silver, Amherst, and Reeves Pheasants; 20 Peafowl ; 20 Zebra 
Doves ; 40 While Doves ; 100 Ring Doves ; 6 Vinaceous Turtle Doves ; 
I Stock Dove; l Triangular-spotted Pigeon; Sternotheres ; Tortoises; 
Terrepins; Lizards; Snakes ; Crocadiles ; etc. 

Wanted to Purchase, 



Cables and Teleg-rams : " Cross, Liverpool." 

National 'Phone 6491 Central. 






Third Series.— Yol. V.— No. \2.—AU rights reserved. OCTOBER, 1914. 


Dryonastcs ruficollis. 
By D. Seth-Smith, F.Z.S. 

Amongst the many beautiful and interesting birds brought home 
from India by Major Perreau in the spring of last year (1913) were 
several specimens of the handsome Eufous-necked Laughing Thrush 
{Dryonastes ruficollis), of which he most kindly presented four to 
the Zoological Society, which proved to be the first of their kind 
ever represented in the collection. The others went to private 
aviculturists, and it is possible that some of these may have some 
interesting notes that they can send our Editor regarding them. 
Those at the Zoological Gardens have proved to be hardy, tame and 
most attractive birds, and I have no doubt that they would have 
made an attempt at breeding if a pair could have been given a suitable 
aviary to themselves. But none of the group of Babbling Thrushes 
are safe with smaller companions, and so ours had to rough it with 
a mixed collection in one of the compartments of the Western 
Aviary where I have often seen them picking up sticks and leaves 
as if wishing to build. If all goes well we shall try to find them 
better accommodation next spring. 

Mr. Goodchild's successful plate gives a very good idea of the 
appearance of this fine species and renders any detailed description 

In a wild state D. nificoUis occurs at the lower elevations of 
not more than 4,000 feet in the Himalayas. It is said to frequent 
thick reedy jungles, constructing its nest in bushes near the ground, 
and laying from three to four eggs of a pale bluish green colour. 

348 Henry B. Eathborne, 


By Henry B. Eathborne. 

It may seem strange to our readers, on observing the heading 
of these notes, to find themselves suddenly conveyed in thought to 
Philadelphia, but as a result of the discovery that, vfhen visiting 
Canada, I could also manage a glimpse of the United States without 
any extra charge on my ticket, I found myself one evening in the 
Delawar Bay and the first thing I observed was a fine Osprey 
fishing ; he gave the steamer a wide berth, but I noticed him 
make several stoops at fish, which proved unsuccessful, after which 
he returned to land. 

It was a Sunday night, the 21st July Tafter the usual troubles 
with the Customs) that we landed at Philadelphia. The weather 
was warm and summer-like and with high temperatures something 
like 950 in the shade ; every one seemed in a hurry and rush as if 
life depended on their keeping their watches in their hands. The 
town was sufi'ocatingly hot, so I immediately made inquiries and 
discovered a place much more suited to my tastes. This was Fair- 
view Park, which I reached by trolly car : it was beautifully laid 
out in flower beds, and European Sparrows together with immature 
bronze Crackles seemed in possession, the latter waddling about on 
the grass and staring up with their impertinent little grey eyes in a 
most daring way. 

Again taking the trolly car which runs round the park I 
alighted at a miniature forest called Belmont Glen. It was now 
late in the afternoon, a large number of Chimney Swifts [ChaUira 
pelagica) were circling round the buildings and garden Kiosk, much 
as our own birds do in the old world, but these birds are much shorter 
in the wing, with hardly any tail and a habit of distending their 
primaries, which gives them a ragged appearance ; their wing motions 
are quick and their flight bat-like. 

I followed the path to Belmont Glen where there was quite 
a nice little brook running through a forest of huge trees ; by this 
time the shades of evening were fast falling, but I saw some birds 
moving about with all the appearance of going to roost : a closer 
acquaintance proving them to be a hen Virginian Cardinal and some 
grown-up young ones. 

on some Canadian Birds. 349 

A little further on a small party of Cat Birds were also in 
search of sleeping quarters, making a ferocious din which at first 
had puzzled me not a little. As it was now too dark to see I 
reluctantly turned home, determined to renew my exploration the 
following morning, which I did, and very lovely it was. The air 
so fresh, the sun so bright, the best time in these southern latitudes. 
The first thing I heard was the old familiar notes of the Scarlet 
Cardinal "whit, whit, whit, chow, chow, chow." I soon saw a fine 
male bird amorously flying after the hen, but she did not seem the 
least attracted, possibly thinking more of her grown-up sons and 
■daughters than of her husband. I imitated his song and he was 
furious, alighting in the tree just over my head, looking beautiful, 
tail stretched out and crest moving up and down. He was not 
going to put up with what he thought was another cock Cardinal, 
but I stood my ground although simply charged at. Moving a little 
onwards I heard some bird turning over the leaves, so crept quietly 
and beheld a brown Thrasher {Tonostoma rufmn) searching for 
worms in the true Thrush-like way ; these Mock-Thrushes have a 
longer and more hooked bill than the true Turdidce, and are highly 
appreciated by Uncle Sam for their song. 

Returning to the road I saw another Thrush feeding, which 
was either a Wood or Wilson's, I could not quite make out, possibly 
a Wood Thrush, as it was well-marked with spots on the breast. 
Wandering along I came across a fresh spring in a dell surrounded 
with brambles, and this was sim.ply a bird paradise ; all around was 
a perfect chorus of Song Sparrows, their notes sweet and melancholy. 
A large brown Warbler kept about the spring, Swainson's Warbler 
{Helinaia sioainsonii) a good imitation of our Eeed Warbler. The 
chipping Sparrows were also numerous here, and as I remained 
quiet, two birds flew into a tree over my head : brown and about 
the size of Mistletoe Thrushes. I could not think what they were, 
but on studying their motions it dawned on me that they were 
Cuckoos : on closer inspection I recognised them as the Yellow- 
billed Cuckoo ; most graceful creatures. As they hopped about they 
•caught the moths that they themselves disturbed. 

I returned for supper to the Kiosk, around which there were 
boxes of Cannas and Geraniums ; whilst refreshing the inner man 

350 Henry B. Eathborne, 

to my joy I saw my first humming bird, a male Euby Throat. It 
was hke a dream. For a few moments it went round the flowers, 
like our well-known Hawk moth of the same name, and then away. 
My next experience of tliis lovely bird was in Canada. 

Numerous fowls were kept about this Kiosk. This was a 
great attraction for American Crows and Grey Squirrels, so well 
known in the London Parks, and flocks of young Cow Birds which 
contained parties of twenty or thirty. 

In the wood at the back I saw a gorgeous Woodpecker cling- 
ing to some pine trees and quite tame ; the Eed-headed Woodpecker 
{Melanerpes erythroGephalus) bright red, back black with white bands 
across the wings and a snowy white breast. 

Eobins were scarce here {Turdus migratorius) and I did not 
meet them in plenty until I visited the Zoological Gardens in Bronx 
Park, NeAV York. There they were numerous, hopping over the grass 
lawns and feeding in any trees where there were berries. Another 
very tame bird was the Flicker, a Woodpecker {Colaptcs auratus). 
The first I saw was hopping over the grass, and when I approached it 
did not stir. I poked it with the end of the stick before it would 
move. The collection of birds in these gardens is about the best I 
have ever seen and the North American species well represented. 

Very few birds were seen travelling North up the Hudson. 
A few belted Kingfishers, Bank Swallows and Sandpipers feeding on 
the river banks. Eeaching Niagara, birds became more plentiful, 
and Belted Kingfishers on the river were numerous. Here I observed 
the first American Goldfinch {Astragalinus trishs). I had a walk on 
Goat Island, densely wooded with vines twisting through the trees 
with thick undergrowth. The thermometer stood over 90*^ Fahr. in 
the shade and the atmosphere humid and sultry, except by the 
margin of the river's blue-green torrent where there was a gentle 
breeze. Numerous Warblers flitted about through the trees ; they 
were timid, but I collected some round me by a ruse, imitating the 
screech of a caught bird ; six gathered round close to my head, so 
that I could see them very plainly : four were the Parula Warbler 
{Gompsothlypis americana) , the other two, American Eedstarts 
{Setop)haga ruticilla). I enjoyed w^atching their movements and 
they remained around me for some considerable time and reminding 

on some Canadian Birds. 351 

me of our genus Philoscopus, only of course they are of very bright 
colouring as most of the New World Warblers are. They spend the 
winter in tbe Southern States and migrate northward in April and 
May. I spent some time at the Experimental Farm at Ottawa, and 
there I found the well-kept lawns quite a paradise for bird life. 
Quantities of Robins i Tardus migrator ins) in search of worms ; 
Baltimore Orioles feeding on the berries of the Mountain Ash tree, as 
well as crowds of other birds such as Cedar Birds, Mock Thrushes, 
Flickers, &c. 

The Baltimore Oriole feeds in quite a peculiar way, extracting 
the juice of the berries with its bill without removing them from 
the stalk. They are hard birds to approach and dodge away at the 
back of the trees ; the males look gorgeous in their liveries of black 
and orange. There is a certain tree at the apiary where at least a 
dozen of their pensile nests can be seen ; these are so well con- 
structed that they weather for years the winter storms. Another 
beautiful bird that I just got a glimpse of was the Eose-breasted 
Grosbeak. This species keeps to the deep solitude of the woods, 
the black and white with the rose colour makes a great contrast 
against the green of thef trees, but once they know they are seen 
they mysteriously vanish into the thickets. These birds were at 
one time imported into the London market, but have disappeared of 
later year since the exportation of birds has been stopped from the 
United States. 

I noticed the King Bird, plentiful everywhere on posts and 
palings and wire fences, flying down to the ground and catching 
passing insects. It is quite a graceful bird, but its beautiful golden 
crest is not visible except when held in the hand and the feathers of 
the head set apart, for instead of a raised crest like most varieties of 
birds it is in a hollow on the crown. I have kept its allied species 
the Fork-tailed Tyrant {Milvus tiiraiius) in captivity. The bird I 
had in my possession was from Trinidad. All these Tyrants are 
bullies in an aviary : here I saw them follow in pursuit of Hawks 
and Crows or any of the large birds that may intrude into their 
■domain. I saw one on the plains of Katabazna, Quebec province, 
beat a Hawk until I lost sight of it, stooping down upon it making 
the Hawk's feathers fly. 

352 On some Canadian Birds. 

Around the suburbs of Ottawa there were some Indigo birds, 
a particular pair frequenting some scrub, the Httle cock looked so 
nice in his bright blue dress beside his slim brown mate. Purple 
Finches were along the little creek that flows here, the male is 
beautiful and quite a good singer, more puriDle than the European 
Carpodacus, and many are kept in cages here in Canada. 

A peculiarly attractive bird of the New World is the Night 
Hawk. When first I saw them I mistook them for black Terns ; 
they appear quite early in the evenings and at times in the day 
during thunder showers : they have a particular fancy for the city 
and feed over the chimney pots in company with Swifts. 

WhiiD-Poor- Wills made most uncanny sounds after dark and 
were very plentiful on the plains of Katabazna in Northern Quebec. 
All these creatures used to collect round the Sheck which was near 
a water hole, but their cries usually stopped before midnight. 

In August I could observe some signs of return migration to 
the South. Cedar Birds appeared in flocks and Purple Martins 
lined the telegraph poles ; flocks of Bobolinks passed over with a 
swift flight, Eed-winged Blackbirds were in quantities among the 
reeds, perhaps the long continued drought' shortened their stay in 
Northern latitudes. 

One day, as I strolled up a lane in Hull, one of the suburbs 
of Ottawa, I came across a wooden hut ; here, hung up, were many 
trap cages with decoy birds, chiefly Goldfinches {Astragalinus tristis) 
and a few Purple Pinches, so I enquired within for their owner. 
An old lady answered the door, who proved to be the mother of the 
bird-catcher, ^'ho was not within, so I sent for him. After some 
time a wild-looking youth appeared and I at once arranged for a 
bird-catching expedition, but in the meantime started him to work. 
Two days passed before I again re-visited the place ; on my return I 
found he had trapped five Goldfinches, several Purple Finches and a 

We started off with call-birds and trap cages up a hot and 
dusty lane, way off the main road. His traps he set on palling 
posts in a weed-covered common, chiefly thistles in seed and huge 
clumps of Solidago, Golden-rod. Many of the weeds in Eastern 
Canada are from the old country. One of the trap cages contained 

Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping . 353 

a hen, the other a cock Goldfinch. These Uttle birds are very- 
beautiful in their black and gold livery ; the male when wild has a 
delicate shell pink bill, which I find is lost after moulting in captivity. 
The call-birds were soon hard at work attracting one wild bird after 
another, which after capture were placed in an extra cage brought 
for the purpose. We got about a dozen in all and some Bobolinks 
also. I had a special cage made to convey them back with me to 
Ireland. Shortly after this I had to leave for home, being recalled 
by an urgent wire on account of the labour troubles. The voyage 
home was uneventful with the exception of seeing the grand sight of 
twenty-two icebergs together at the same time. Our ship was 
visited by a female red-breasted Nuthatch {Sitta canadensis) in the 
gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Birds of all kinds are plentiful as well as tame both in the 
United States and in Canada, (and it is a most enjoyable place for 
field study for any ornithologist) from the lively little Chickadee to 
the great blue Heron on the silent marsh, with the full feeling of 
freedom which in Canada alone we can grasp in its overwhelming 


By The Maequis op Tavistock. 
(Continued from page 307j. 

Platycerinae. — A large family of AUSTEALASIAN Paeeakeets 
which includes among its representatives many of the most graceful 
and beautiful of living birds. 

PlatycerciiTuvB Beoadtail Paeeakeets). — Food : Canary, 
millet, wheat, oats> a little hemp or sunflower, fruit (especially 
apple) and green food. All the true Broadtails can be wintered out 
of doors when properly hardened off, but all are sensitive to cold 
when newly imported and few can stand, in winter, a damp or 
draughty aviary which gets little sun. They will live in cages but 
are not really suited to cage life, as their beautiful plumage is very 
apt to lose its brilliance after a year or two of close confinement. 
As pets, too, they are a failure, having no talent for talking, and being 
difficult to tame, and when tamed excitable and treacherous and usually 

354 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

destitute of any affection for their owner. During the breeding 
season and often at other times, paired birds fight savagely with all 
members of their own and aUied species, although they may tolerate 
the presence of Parrakeets of other orders. Unmated cocks, how- 
ever, agree fairly well together, and it is sometimes possible to pair 
two hens to one cock and breed from both at the same time, 
provided the hens are on reasonably friendly terms, as is often the case 
with a mother and daughter who have never been separated. 
During incubation and for some time after the young are hatched, 
the hen seldom or never leaves the nest. Hen Broadtails have 
smaller heads and narrower beaks than cocks. The young often 
breed when a year old, but do not obtain full plumage for eighteen 

ROSELLA Parrakeet (Platycercus eximius). — The com- 
monest and one of the most beautiful of the family. The adult hen 
has the red area on the head and neck smaller than in the cock and 
with much more ragged edges and behind the eye the red has a 
greyish, washed out, tint. The presence or absence of a green spot 
on the nape is not a very useful guide to sex, for while it is probably 
true to say that it is never found on an adult cock, it is certainly 
absent in the case of many adult hens. Young birds have a narrow 
green bar running from the back of the neck to the centre of the 
crown and show very little blue on the closed wing. For turning 
out, it is absolutely necessary to get tame, or half-tame adult cocks 
—the tameness of the hens does not matter so much. Newly 
imported or young birds are inveterate wanderers when given their 


Yellow-mantled Parrakeet {Platycercus splendichis). — 
A local race of the Common Rosella with a yellower neck and wings 
and brighter coloration generally. It is very rarely imported. 

Mealy Eosella {Platycercus iDallicliceps) . — Requires 
careful treatment until it has completed its first moult in this 
country, after which it is as indifferent to cold as any other 
Platycercus. It is a satisfactory bird at liberty, wandering less 
than many of its allies, and nesting readily either in barrels or 
in natural holes in trees. It is very spiteful in disposition, showing 
a special aversion to its cousin the Red Rosella and also to the 

Some Hints on Parrot- Keeping. 355 

Blue-bonnefc Parrakeet. The hen is rather smaller than the cock 
and has a narrower head. 

Blue - CHEEKED Parrakeet {Plati/cercus amatliusiae). — 
A local variety of the Common or " Moreton Bay " Mealy Eosella, 
differing from the southern form in the bluer colouring of the cheeks. 
Blue-Cheeks often show a few red feathers on the crown of the 
head, a peculiarity wdiich sometimes occurs in the ordinary form. 

Brown's Parrakeet {Platycercus hroivni). — Eequires 
warmth and care until well through the first moult following 
importation, but afterwards perfectly hardy. Brown's Parrakeet is 
unfortunately a less good stayer at liberty than the Mealy Eosella, 
but it is by no means a hopeless bird to try. Like P. ■pallicliceps it 
has an intense aversion to Bluebonnets and it would be most unwise 
io attempt to keep the two species in the same aviary. The cock 
Brown's has a decidedly larger head and heavier beak than the hen. 
Among imported birds the proportion of cocks is usually very small 
and the number of large, bright-coloured hens, sold as cocks, is 
correspondingly great. 

Stanley Parrakeet {Platycerciis icterotis). — The smallest 
of the Platycerci and a free breeder in captivity. The hen is 
readily distinguishable by her dull and patchy tints, the Stanley 
being the only typical Broadtail in which the sexes differ markedly 
in colour. Stanley's are not to be recommended for turning out, 
as they are bad stayers and are too small to defend themselves 
against the attack of Owls 

Yellow-rumped Parrakeet (Platycercus fl.aveolus). — 
Formerly quite common, but now rarely imported- The sexes are 
much alike and are often very difficult to distinguish. It appears to 
stay well at liberty, but I may say that my experience of Yellow- 
rumps has been very limited. 

Yellow-bellied Parrakeet (Platycercus flaviventris). — 
Easily distinguishable from the last-mentioned species by its dark 
green back. The Yellow-belly is a savage and aggressive bird, the hens 
being quite as quarrelsome as the cocks and a great nuisance in 
mixed company. They are readily distinguishable by the small size 
of their heads and beaks. Yellow-bellies are not very good stayers 
^vhen allowed their freedom. 

356 The Maequis of Tavistock, 

Pennant's Parrakeet {Platycercus elegans). — Sexes are' 
alike in colour, but hens very readily distinguishable by the small adult 
size of the head. Young birds on leaving the nest are a dark leaf 
green with a little red on the throat and forehead, blue cheek patches 
and some blue in the wings and tail. In securing a pair of Pennants 
for turning out make sure that the cock is a steady old show bird 
well used to cage life and the ways of the world generally. Newly- 
imported, immature or out-door aviary birds, are a vexation of the 
spirit as they stay well for many months and then depart on the 
approach of the breeding season. When in poor condition, Pennants 
are very susceptible to septic fever. 

Adelaide Parrakeet (Platycercus adelaidce). — Sexes much 
alike, but very red birds are nearly always hens. The young are 
decidedly smaller than young Pennants of the same age and of a 
more golden olive colour. Adelaides do fairly well at liberty. 

Barnaedius Parrakeet. — Closely alhed to the typical 
Platycerci their food and treatment should be the same. 

Barnard's Parrakeet {Bamardius bamardi). — A very 
beautiful bird and not particularly dangerous in mixed company. 
Beak of the hen much smaller than that of the cock and her colours, 
usually, though not invariably, duller and showing less blue. Barnard's 
do well at liberty but the young are apt to stray to great distances 
from their birth place and eventuall^^ fail to return. 

Bauer's Parrakeet {Bamardius zonarins). — Typical 
specimens have the lower breast almost entirely yellow and have no 
red on the forehead. The hens are easily distinguished by the 
small size of their head and beak. Bauer's are most dangerous 
neighbours for other quarrelsome Parrakeets likely to fight with 
them and even at liberty will often inflict fatal injuries by biting 
deeply into the upper mandible of an adversary and sometimes 
tearing it completely ofi'. Half-tame birds are best for turning out. 

Yellow-Collared or Port Lincoln Parrakeet 
{Barnardhis semitorquatus) . — Typical examples have the lower breast 
pale green and some red feathers at the base of the upper mandible, 
but intermediate forms between this species and P. zonarius are 
very common and are of no fixed tj^De. The hen Port Lincoln is 
less eas3^ to tell from the cock than the hen Bauer and the sexes> 

Sovie Hints on Parrot-Keeioing. 357 

are alike in colour. Port Lincoln's stay fairly well at liberty and 
their loud whistling calls, unpleasantly noisy in a room, are most 
beautiful when heard at a little distance in the open air. Un- 
fortunately B. semitorquatus is a murderous fighter and just as 
expert as the Bauer in inflicting beak injuries. 

PiLEATED OE Eed-CAPPED Paeeakeet (Poiyhywcephalus 
spurius). — This curious, aberrant Platycercinc is, in spite of the fact 
that it is lively, striking in appearance and amiable in disposition, 
liable to bring its owner more anxiety and disappointment than 
satisfaction. Of all Parrakeets it is the most intensely nervous, and 
catching and handling it in the most gentle manner will often reduce 
it to such a state of prostration through sheer terror, that its life 
may be seriously endangered. It also possesses in captivity an 
absolute unrivalled capacity for catching fatal chills on the smallest 
provocation. It is therefore a wise precaution to remove it from the 
aviary in autumn and keep it in a roomy cage in a warm room until 
spring is well advanced when it may be very cautiously hardened off. 
At the same time Pileateds are under certain circumstances capable 
of withstanding cold, as is proved by the fact that I had a fine cock 
at liberty during the greater part of the winter of 1912 which kept in 
perfect health. Unfortunately in February he strayed in search of 
a mate, lost his way and quickly starved. Pileated Parrakeets would 
probably do well at liberty as they are very dependent on artificial 
feeding, but the process of cutting their wings is so likely to prove 
fatal that one hesitates to try it with such valuable birds. 
P orphyrocephalus spurius is one of the very few Australian Parra- 
keets which will eat banana with any relish. 

PSEPHOTUS Paeeakeet. — A family of rather small 
Parrakeets of extreme grace and beauty, which spend a good deal of 
their time on the ground. The sexes usually present a striking 
difference in colour. The food should be the same as that provided 
for the Platycerci and green stuff' is most important. When tame 
they make gentle and affectionate pets. 

Eedeump Paeeakeet {Pseplwtus hcematonotus) . — The best 
known member of the family. Very hardy when properly acclima- 
tized but not at other times, Redrumps would be charming birds at 
liberty were it not for the fact that owing to their small size they 

358 The Marquis of Tavistock, 

almost invariably fall victims to Owls before they have time to 
establish themselves. They stay remarkably well when released in 
pairs, but directly a cock or hen is lost its mate will invariably go 
clean away within two or three days if a substitute is not provided. 
Eedrumps are very dependent on artificial feeding and unlike many 
of the true Platycerci starve directly their supply of seed is beyond 
their reach. They may either be turned out with cut wings or if a 
pair in breeding condition are obtained, the cock may be released 
full-winged and his mate (who must be kept within sight and hearing) 
allowed to join him after a few days. Adult Eedrumps fight savagely 
with members of their own and nearly allied species. They are 
highly susceptible to septic fever. 

Many-coloured Parrakeet {Psepliotus multicolor). Like 
the Redrump, able to stand cold when properly hardened off. Old 
writers describe this bird as a hopeless one to keep on account of 
its liability to die suddenly and without apparent reason from 
cerebral hgemorrhage. There is no doubt that Many-colours do 
sometimes succumb to this ailment on very insuflicient provocation, 
but they certainly do not do so to such an extent that anyone need 
be deterred from trying them. They are however given to developing 
septic fever in the most inexplicable fashion and the greatest care 
must be taken to safeguard them from possible infection. Like 
Redrumps they are very quarrelsome. 

Hooded Parrakeet {Psephotus cucullatus). — This beau- 
tiful bird has been described as very sensitive to cold, but I have 
found that, provided it is well protected from draughts and cold 
winds, it is by no means impossible to winter it without artificial 
heat. It is, however, fatal to allow it to nest at a low temperature 
as the hens are very subject to egg-binding and many are lost from 
this cause. On leaving the nest the young of both sexes resemble 
the female in their sober coloration, though the young cocks always 
show a trace more blue on the cheeks and breast. Adult plumage is 
assumed during the course of the first moult when the birds are 
about ten months old. Hooded Parrakeets are not quite so 
susceptible to septic fever as are their near relatives. Psephotus 
chrysopterygius, the Golden-shouldered Parrakeet, described by Gould, 
-appears to differ from the Hooded in the presence in the adult male 

Sovie Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 359 

of a yellowish frontal band and a greyish mantle without any trac& 
of black. It is a rare bird of which hardly anything is known. 

Blue -BONNET Pareakeet (Psephotiis xanthorrhous) . — A 
very aberrant PsepJiotiis which really deserves to be placed in a 
genus of its own. Why this bird should be classed with species to 
which it has a very remote affinity, and that most typical Polytelis 
the Queen Alexandra Parrakeet separated from its two near relatives 
for the very insufficient reason that the adult cock possesses one 
primary feather somewhat peculiarly shaped at the tip, is one 
of the mysteries of scientific classification which are most difficult 
to account for. Cock and hen Blue-bonnets are alike in colour, but 
the latter have rather smaller heads and are less perky and assertive 
in their demeanour. Blue-bonnets are the hardiest of all Australian 
Parrakeets and can safely be turned out of doors at any time of 
year. They are, however, highly susceptible to septic fever and 
grey parrot fever, the germs of which they cannot resisc even when 
in the most perfect health and condition. In disposition they are 
excessively spiteful both towards parrakeets and birds of other 
orders. When tame they make nice pets but usually bestow their 
affections on one person only. When given their liberty they are 
apt to stray during the first few weeks, but after that they generally 
stay well. They seldom fall victims to owls and are able to live 
for many days even during the winter on what they pick up for 
themselves in the woods and fields. -Blue-bonnets should be fed 
like the other Psephoti, but it is not wise to allow them much hemp 
unless they are flying at large. 

Eed-vented Blue-bonnet {Psej^hotics hcematorrhous) . — 
Differs from the common variety in the possession of red feathers 
under the tail and a reddish chestnut or maroon patch on the wings. 
Both kinds have a red patch on the abdomen. P. hcematorrhous 
has little claim to be considered anything but a local variety of the 
common Blue-bonnet, and birds showing intermediate characteristics 
are often met with. 

Neophemas Parrakeet. — These beautiful little grass parra- 
keets are now rarely imported and it appears only too likely that 
some of the most lovely species are nearly or quite extinct. They 
should be fed on white and spray millet, grass seed and canary seed.' 

360 Some Hints on Parrot-Keeping. 

A few of the larger seeds will do no harm, but they seldom seem to 
care for them. Grass-parrakeets are very peaceable with other birds, 
but are rather more sensitive to cold than the platycerci. 

Elegant Grass Parrakeet {Neophema elegans). — The 
largest of the group, like all its relatives, highly susceptible to 
septic fever. It is very fond of grass and other green food. The 
hen lias less blue on the forehead than her mate. 

Blue-winged Grass-parrakeet {Neophema venusta), also 
called ' Blue-banded Grass-parrakeet.' Very like the Elegant 
but of a duller, darker and less golden green and with more blue on 
the wing. The hen has much less blue on her forehead than the 
cock — often only the merest trace — and young birds are less blue on 
the wing than old ones. Gould asserts that in N. elegans the blue 
frontal band extends behind the eye and in N. venusta it does not, 
but the distinction only applies to adult cocks, as I have seen no hen 
elegans in which the frontal band did not stop on reaching the eye. 

TuRQUOisiNE Grass-parrakeet {Neophema pulchella). — A 
very distinct species in which the markings are different from those 
of its commoner green relatives. The cock is readily distinguishable 
from the hen by the possession of a small chestnut patch on the 
wings. The Turquoisine appears to be on the verge of extinction, 
a lamentable circumstance for which aviculturalists both in England 
and on the Continent are much to blame, as the bird was at one 
time freely imported and bred so readily in captivity that it might 
easily have been preserved in a state of semi-domestication. 

Bourke's Parrakeet {Neophema bourkei). — A fairly hardy 
little bird, rather less subject to septic fever than others of the genus. 
Some adult cocks have a broad blue band across the forehead, but in 
others this is nearly or entirely absent, and the sexes may be most diffi- 
cult to distinguish as they are of exactly the same size. Bourkes, 
especially when young, are very apt to dash themselves violently 
against the sides of their aviary in moments of sudden panic and all 
glass and wire netting affording facilities for this method of suicide 
should be protected by string netting or sacking. Bourkes are not 
so fond of green food as their near relatives and a constant supply 
is not necessary when they are not breeding. Nesting pairs are 
best kept separate as I have had birds killed through fighting. 

The AvicuLTURAL Magazine. 

Great-billed Touraco (with crest lowered). 

Great-billed Touraco. photos by Graham Renshaw. 

The Great-billed Touraco. 361 

New Zealand Paeeakeet (C?/cmor/ic677zptts novoe-zealandice) . 
A gentle and beautiful bird, now hardly ever imported. It should 
be treated like an ordinary Broadtail, but should not be exposed 
to too much cold. 

Pyrehulopsis Paeeakeets. — A small genus of large, 
brilliant Parrakeets, all of which are rare in captivity. They should 
be fed and treated like the Aprosmicti and a large supply of fruit is 
indispensable to their health. The sexes are much alike in colour. 
The Masked, Tabuan, and shining Parrakeets are the best known if 
not the only members of the genus, the two latter being much alike, 
but while the Tabuan Parrakeet has a maroon head and breast, in 
the Eed-shining Parrakeet the maroon is replaced by bright crimson. 


By Geaham Eenshaw, M.D., F.E.S.E. 

It is unfortunate that the handsome birds known as Touracos 
or Plantain-eaters are but little known to aviculture : for, although 
somewhat delicate in confinement, their curious ways and quaint 
yet lovely plumage render them eminently desirable as pets. Im- 
ported at long and irregular intervals, the total number arriving 
in a year can be reckoned on the fingers of one hand : even the 
commonest are rarities, though several species have been shown 
from time to time at the Zoo. 

The writer has in his possession a Great-billed Touraco 
{Turacus macrorhynchus) . This fine species has the head, throat 
and chest dark shining green, the wings are crimson, mantle and 
tail violet. The stout beak is yellow anteriorly, but the upper 
mandible has a crimson spot immediately in front of the nostril, 
and the posterior two-thirds of the lower mandible are almost 
entirely crimson. The feathers of the head are produced into a 
crest, and this is faintly tipped with white, as if a paint-brush 
had been lightly passed along it : a smart white streak also runs 
below and behind the eye. The eyelids are bright crimson, the 
legs and feet black. This charming and harmonious colour-pattern 
is well adapted to conceal an arboreal, forest-haunting bird such as 

362 Mr. A. E. Williams, 

the present ; it is further remarkable that these hues also occur irr 
the flower, fruit and leaves of the bananas on which it feeds ! 

The writer's Touraco lives in an unheated aviary with a- 
spacious outdoor flight. For companions it has a Tucai Toucan 
{Ehamphastos dicolorus), three Cape Mouse-birds {Golius striatus) 
and a Delalande's Fruit Pigeon {Vinago delalandei). It agrees well 
with all of them, though at meal times the Toucan's big beak 
ensures the respect of the others, The Touraco is fed on cut-up 
apples and bananas, and does not appear to care for mealworms, 
which these birds are said to take in captivity. On coming to the 
ground to feed, the Touraco utters a short croak and runs smartly 
to the food-pan. The stout beak acts like a pair of pincers, gouging 
out pieces of banana pulp and swallowing them whole : pieces of 
apple also swiftly disappear down the wide, distensible throat. 
The upper beak is but loosely articulated to the skull, and can be 
moved up and down with a hinge-like action, thus permitting the 
passage of morsels which would choke many birds. 

Touracos are adepts at hiding, keeping concealed behind 
objects (such as posts or boughs) which would have been thought 
much too slender for the purpose. When alarmed the bird stretches 
out its head and neck, at the same time elevating its crest. The 
writer's specimen is most active in the morning and evening, spend- 
ing the middle of the day in sleep. Besides the croaking sound 
already mentioned, Touracos utter barking cries, and also a curious 
sound like the winding of a clock, hence the name clock bird"' 
often applied to them. 

By A. E. Williams. 

The West or Herefordshire side of the Malvern Hills is more 
beautiful than the Eastern, Worcestershire, side. The country is 
more varied, better wooded, and undulates slightly, with small 
ranges of hills, giving the interest of variety to the landscape. 

Standing on a tree-clad ridge some three or four miles west- 
ward, one gets a magnificent view of the whole range of hills. On 
the left, northward, are the bare and regular peaks of the North 

Birds in Autumn. 363 

Hill and the Beacon. Sweeping along the line, the eyes perceive 
gorse and fern clad slopes, with houses dotted about in places. 
Straight in front the top of one hill is covered with pine trees, 
whilst lower down is a considerable wood of mixed trees, through 
which the high road runs. A few cottages and some large white 
houses border the road at intervals, and occasionally vehicles pass 
along. To the right, southward, looms the British Camp, square 
and angular and entrenched, a grim relic of the days when our 
ancestors alternated war with the chase, sometimes for pleasure, 
often as a vital necessity of life, to prevent slaughter or enslavement. 
From there a number of small hills slope down, through one of 
of which, Dog Hill, the railway runs to Ledbury. 

About there a huge obelisk stands ever- visible, a monument 
to some past Lord Somers. 

It is a peaceful scene. The only disturbances it gets are when 
a train rushes with roar and rattle between the Malvern and Ledbury 
tunnels, and, in autumn and winter, the wild career of hunters and 
hounds in pursuit of a fox. For the rest it is quiet enough. The 
ill-paid labourer pursues his useful work unobtrusively, and the 
great white-faced " Herefuds " stand contentedly grazing, or stare 
at the passer-by with large, soft, fearless eyes. 

About half-a-mile below us stands a church, a gray building 
with a square ivy-clad tower, typical of so many in this country. 
A few sombre yews and tall elms stand round it. This is the resort 
of the rooks. In the elms they have their loosely-built nests, and 
at all seasons they wheel round the tower, or perch flapping on its 

In the tower itself a number of jackdaws have taken up 
their abode, and can be seen popping in and out through numerous 
holes at the top of the tower. In the Spring the noise of the rooks 
can be heard for miles. Now in October they are quieter. They 
have not the weighty matters of nesting and rearing young to call 
forth " caws," and food is so plentiful, in the shape of acorns and 
refuse from harvest, that they are at peace with themselves and the 

The rook is an omnivorous feeder. He is a destroyer of 
pests as well as a partaker in what man has grown, ranging over the 

364 Mr. A. E. Williams, 

animal and vegetable kingdom for his food. Of slugs, grubs, worms^ 
and other creatu^res of the earth he eats an enormous quantity, as 
he does also of acorns. 

Coming up a bank suddenly to a sloping field, we disturbed a 
rook. He flew up with a rush, bearing something between his claws. 
In his haste he had not secured his prize, and it dropped. I went 
and picked it up. It was a big potato. In it there were two or 
three holes pecked and claw marks. My companion, a local country- 
man, informs me that rooks are very partial to potatoes. 

Talking of acorns brings us to the subject of wild pigeons, 
" quiests " or " quises " as they are called about here. 

The pigeon is the farmer's bete noir- The pigeon has no word 
said in its favour. It takes toll of everything vegetable, prefers 
crops and leaves pests strictly alone. So it is shot whenever 
possible, but flourishes nevertheless, and seems to be increasing, 
although it is exempted from the Wild Birds' Protection Acts, as is 
also the sparrow. 

"Quiests" eat large quantities of grain, peas, and beans. 
They have a still more culpable weakness. It is for young clover. 
They bite it off close to the ground, often so closely as to prevent 
further growth. In fact, they will eat anything green and tender, 
and any kind of seeds. Their voracity for acorns is astonishing. 
My friend assures me that he has taken as many as nineteen acorns 
from the crop of one pigeon. 

This part of the country is a perfect birds' paradise. The 
prevalence of large farms, the fertility of the soil, the abundance of 
woodland, covert, and hedge row, and the sparsity of population, all 
favour birds, and they take full advantage of these opportunities. 

Man, as farmer, curses many of the birds, and tries to reduce 
their numbers, but with little success. The two he hates most, the 
sparrow and the wild pigeon, are the commonest, and their numbers 
seem to increase. 

Pigeons have some peculiar habits. They are very fond of 
larch trees, and will spend hours in them, perched cooing and preen- 
ing, but never build there. The nests are usually in w^oodland trees, 
beech being shown a preference. 

The sparrows are ubiquitous. They swarm everywhere, and 

Birds in Autumn. 365 

shooting, trapping, and even nest and egg destroying fail to make 
a,ny appreciable reduction in their flocks. 

Game-keeping has made considerable difference to the inci- 
dence of birds, as it has done in the case of animals, just as in the 
same way trout and salmon preserving has affected the other fish 
and the riverside creatures. A visit to a gamekeeper's " gallows " 
will testify to this — a gruesome row of birds and beasts shot or 
trapped and nailed to a post as common malefactors. Jays have 
been much I'educed this way. The jay is inordinately fond of eggs, 
especially pheasant and partridge eggs. So the gamekeeper fixes up 
a pole in or near the wood, places a small platform on top, and 
secures there a steel trap. This is baited w^ith an empty egg shell. * 
The jay swoops down and pecks hard at it, thus losing his life in the 
trap. In some parts jays are getting comparatively scarce. The 
magpie is a much persecuted bird, being shot as it flies out from the 
hedge or copse. But it is still fairly common, and may often be 
seen taking its low undulating flight over the meadows. This bird 
is remarkable for its long tail, and the use it makes of it while flying, 
raising and depressing it as a sort of plane, the result being a rising 
and falling, switch -back sort of progression. 

The large birds are the chief sufferers in modern England. 
Some have been quite exterminated, though many would return and 
the present species increase numerically were they but given some 
encoiiragement and protection. 

But most of the common small birds liave multiplied greatly, 
thereby occasioning much grumbling from those on whose ground 
they feed, particularly fruit-farmers. 

There is no bird for which the fruit-grower has a word of 
praise : the most credit he will give to the best-intentioned bird is a 
grunt of disdain or uncertainty. Considering the varieties of birds 
which feed on insects and creeping things, most of which are a 
menace to the cultivator, a strong case can be made out for the 
birds, and a little bud and fruit-eating might be forgiven them. 

This increase of the common birds is rather curious and its 
causes not quite definitely assigned. They are mostly small birds, 

* This form of trap is illegal, and extreraeh^ cruel. — ED. 

366 Mr. A. E. Williams, 

to whom improvement of cultivation is no bar, but rather encourage- 
ment, for it simphfies feeding. The destruction of birds of prey may 
be a contributory cause. Hawks are becoming rare in this part of 
England. A kestrel is sometimes seen, but not often. The spaiTow- 
hawk and kestrel used to destroy numbers of small birds, as well as 
small animals and vermin. Now their deterrent influence is not felt. 

Above us was a small wooded hill. The farmer informed me 
that it was a few years ago frequented by a kestrel. It used to soar 
to a great height from the far side of the wood, hover, and take 
short flights, darting down with lightning rapidity on to its prey. 
But it disappeared ; shot no doubt. 

Owls are plentiful, both the barn or screech-owl, and the 
brown wood-owl, with its "tu-whit, tu-whoo," curiously resembling 
at a distance a forlorn human voice. 

Elocks of wild geese sometimes pass over in autumn. This 
is said to portend a severe winter, as is also a plentitude of berries. 
Both statements lack proof, there being no reliable data to support 
either belief. 

We moved up towards the house. Below us lay a large pond, 
overhung with elms, alders and water-loving bushes. It was rapidly 
filling with the Canadian pond-weed, and has to be raked at intervals 
or it would be completely choked up. A number of gold-fish were 
swimming about. These fish attain an amazing size in a large pond. 
Some of them were well over a foot long. 

Trout were kept here at one time, and then a heron used to 
visit the pond. It was often seen leaving at daybreak. But the 
heron does not confine itself to fish : it eats frogs and any aquatic 
creatures obtainable. Herons are now protected by many country 
gentry, who take great pride in possessing a " heronry," and so these 
interesting birds are increasing. 

In ten years the owner had seen only one kingfisher here, 
and then only on one occasion. They are shy birds and somewhat 
localised. On parts of the Severn one can often see them, and a 
little patience is rewarded by seeing the bird dive, or rather dip and 
catch, after which it perches and works the fish along through its 
beak. Why is this ? Is it to kill the fish or break its bones or to 
soften it for the young ? 

Birds in Autumn. 367 

A few water-hens, mis-called moor-hens, were paddling about, 
but rapidly disappeared under cover at our approach. 

Woodpeckers are common, and their quick rhythmical tap 
may often be heard. 

If disturbed, partridges flap noisily away from where they 
have been squatting in the long grass. A pheasant, when suddenly 
startled, will often rocket with tremendous force straight up and 
through the tree-tops. 

Away in a large distant meadow countless black specks were 
bobbing busily up and down. 

Look at those Starlings worming," remarked my cicerone. 
A wagoner's boy passing along the road shouted ' Shoo." Instantly 
the whole flock rose in a cloud and flew to the tops of the elms close 
to us. There must have been thousands of them. Not one was 
still or quiet for a moment. The whole lot were on the move 
incessantly, hopping from bough to bough, bobbing and bending and 
turning and flapping unendingly, with quick jerky movements. 

Their noise was deafening. Each starling kept up a sibilant, 
half-whistling call, a sort of catch or round on two or three ascending 
notes. After watching and listening for a few minutes, we clapped 
our hands and shouted, and the flock went off at top speed to 
another field. They continue like that all through the winter, 
pairing off finally about Februai"y or March. 

The Starling always builds in a hole, or anything that the 
least resembles one, making a rough untidy nest, and has a prefer- 
ence for straw. 

At the back of the house is an old brick-built shed, used as a 
store bj' the carpenter. In one gable-end is an opening, two feet 
square, through which the carpenter pushed his ladders. About 
two years ago this shed was disused and the door was locked all 
through the winter. One day, about the beginning of April, the 
carpenter went in to have a look round to see if the place could be 
used again. He had cleared everything out. Inside, at the bottom 
of the wall, below the ladder opening, he found a big heap of straw, 
nearly a barrowful. He could not understand how it came there. 
A careful watch revealed two starlings at work. They carried 
straws from the pig-styes and laid them on the lower ledge of the 

368 Mr G. A. Heumann, 

opening. Before they got much there it was blown inside by the 
wind. But the stariings persisted, and the result was the heap of 
straw, all of which had been carried by this pair of birds. The 
carpenter using the shed again put an end to the birds visits, or it 
would be interesting to know how long they would have kept on in 
this way. 

The Pied Wagtail is a resident about here, but the yellow 
wagtail is scarce, only being seen occasionally. 

The early-setting sun was now low in the west. The robin 
had ceased his little bursts of autumn melody. The call of birds 
were lessening. The starlings flew off with a great rush to the 
woods to roost. Eound the church-yard elms the rooks were gather- 
ing and giving a final chorus of " caw" befo