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Part I. Contains t6» natontl olgnfM of geoMphf, in Mrrespoo^off aoMest and 
modem names, in a series oC tables ; vitk • prehminarjr on the proeress and extent of 
ancient geoeraplky, dUatlng partieolaity on the errors that prcTall reUtiTe to the 
luowledge the Ancients p<)sse8sed of the north of Europe and- Asia. 

Part 11. Contains the oi»il divitioiis of countries, proWOees, inhabitants, and their 
cities, in corresponcUng aaeient and modem name*, in a series of tables, with an histo- 
rical sketch of the ancient revotodons of each chantry annexed to each table ; also, a 
prelimiBscT on the ort«n and mig^tiens o( parental nations, vith two chronological 
tables of the first and seeood Gothlo ptfiignm over Europe, and a few hints on the 
origin of the feudal 83r8tem. 

Part 111. Contains thp vrarcd Geography, In eoiretpooding aneient and flDOdcm 
names, in several tables, with an historioal sketch annexed to each table ; abo a prelikA- 
inary, with three tables of tilie three first patriarehal ages, with annotations^ ko. 

Containaa view of aneient hiatotr Ihmi the Creation till the extinction ofdhe Homan 
empire in ^k West, chronologically and oonseeutirely arranged, with a reeapitolatioD 
by ((uestioos; also an Appendix, eontaining a ehromkigical imperial table, i^id a chrono- 
logical regal table. 




rivB BOOKS or mosbs (three maps in one), the land Of 






A. Fagan Printer. ^ 

1813, s^s r" 


Be it remembered, That on the sixth daj of December, in the thirty-eighth 
year of the Independence of the United States of America, A.D. 1813, Robert 
Mayo, of the said district, hath deposted in this office the title of a book, the right 
thereof he claims as author, in the words following, to wit : 

A view of Ancient Geography, and Ancient History. Two volumes in one. The 
first volume, part 1. contains the natural objects of geography, in corresponding an- 
cient and modern names, in a series of tables; "with a preliminary on the pi*ogress 
and extent of Ancient geography, dilating particularly on the errors that prevail re- 
lative to the knowledge the Ancients possessed of the north of Europe and Asia. 
Part II. contains the civil divisions of '^ countries, provinces, inhabitants, and their 
cities, in coiTCsnonding ancient and modern names, in a series of tebles, with an his- 
torical sketch of thfc ancient revolutions of each country annexed to each table; also, 
a preliininary on the origin and migrations of parental nations, with two chronological 
tables of the fiist and second Gothic progress over Europe, and a few hints on the 
origin of the Feudal system. Part lU, contains the Sacred Geography, in corres- 
pondnig ancient and modern names, in Several tables, with an historical sketch an- 
nexed to each table ; also, a preliminary^ with three tables of the three first patri- 
archal ages, with annotations, &;c. 

The second volume conUins a view of Ancient history, from the ci*eation till the 
extinction of the Roman empire in the west, chronologically and consecutively ar 

tabula, Grxcia antiqua, Italia antiqua, plac»» rfe<$ord€^ in the five books of Moses 
(three maps in one), the land of Moriah or Jerusalem, and the adjacent country, and 
state of nation* at the Christian »ra, with a chronolc^cai chart of history and biog- 
raphy, coloured; calculated for the use of seminaries, &c. By Robert Mayo, M. U. 

In conformity to the act of the congress of the United States, intituled ''An act foi? 
the encouragement of learning, by ^curing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to 

the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned.'' 

And also to the act, entitied, "An act supplementary to an act, entitied **An act for 
the encouragement of learning, ,by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to 
the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned,^' and 
extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching histor- 
ical juid other prints.*' 


Clerk qf the District of Pennsylvania. 





IF this methodised summary of ancient geography 
and history possesses any merit, I have a two- fold claim 
tp inscribe it to you. For, to you I am more indebted 
than to any other preceptor, for any inclinatioi\of my feeble 
powers to science ; and to you solely am I under obli- 
gations for pertinent counsel, and the loan of rare and 
indispeusible books, in the prosecution of this work. 
The former also renders you a considerable indirect agent 
in the fruition of my studies in general; and the latter 
gives you a just claim to the greater portion of the merit 
of this performance. 


That you may for many succeeding, as you have for 
many past years, continue a distinguished improver of cis- 
Atlantic science, is the ardent wish, of 

Your sincere Friend, 


1 aoFtQP^ 








YOU who preside over the education of our youth^ 
are the best judges of the pretensions of a book, whose 
object is to facilitate the scientific progress of the rising 
generation ; therefore I dedicate this to you, though not 
unthout a mixed concern of hope and fear for its fate. In 
the mean time permit me to make my particular acknow- 
ledgments to those of you who have already expressed 
your approbation of the wwk, in person, and by letter ; 
whilst I subscribe myself^ with due consideration, 


R. MAYX>. 



THOSE who dovallie bvoar of a |^ce atto neglected a 
part of a book as the |iiefiKoe, will be pleand on «eeiiig that we 
do not meoace them widi the tnmti necrMini y atteadant on a long 
and elaborate one, geneialljr the otinor of an author's Tanity. 
Nevertheless o\a reader mil indulge os in one reasark, diat in 
adding this to the vast catalogue of boobs already extant, we 
would be sorry to increase the fordlde propriety of the Latin 
adage, oifia Mrorunh or of die English one of naular import, 
to the making rfwumjf book» there is no end. 

The ground on which this bofdc founds a hope of pobBc pa- 
tronage, is, the embodying of many sidyjects of ccmsideraMe 
aflinity, digested into a method presumed to be pciqiiciious, and 
evidently brief, wUch has hitherto been in a very dispersed and 
immethodical conation, in a style for the most part <fiftise, and 
on the whole, tnacceasible to the student as an elementary ex- 
ercise. It certakily supposes some previous ar«|naintanrr with 
modem geography ; but that can be no objection, in an age that 
so well appreciates the knowledge of a science so essential for 
every practical or speculative purpose. Moreover, inasmuch 
as all the sciences reciprocate elucidation, no system can be per- 
fect that does not embrace them all, a wild project that has been 
attempted by many, but will never have patronage while science 
is so partially studied. 

I will save myself the awkward attempt to prove that ancient 
geography is essential to give interest to every species of anti- 
quity. It would be equally superfluous to descant on die ad- 
vantages of a knowledge id history. Tet, however undeniable 
is the affirmative tA these propositions, we daily witness with 
deep commiseration, the superfluous and comparatively ungain- 
ful labour of our youth in conning over the classics and other 
detached parts of ancient science, without any more conception 
of ancient geography, than a dream of a lunar voyage could 


I doubt tiot that when the student of laudable emulation a&d 
sympathetic feeling, regards the vicissitudes of human affairs, 
as are sketched in the text of the second volume, and lucidly 
demonstrated by the historical chart, a patriotic ardour will 
rouse him to inquire for the cause, from more minute historical 
details, and the fundametal principles of human nature, that he 
may contribute to the duration of our several state and federal 
compacts, whose foundations are already more appropriately 
constructed for national and individual prosperity, than any po- 
litical fabric the world ever before witnessed. It would 
be assuming to myself, indeed, no small portion of the magnani- 
mous sentiment of amor patrias^ to sa)^ that it was not my least 
considerable motive in compiling and digesting this little work, 
that an early and successful attention to history might be thereby 
produced, and a consequent improvement of institutions that 
have already excited the admiration of other nations, and that 
may truly be styled the master'pieces of political wisdom. 

The Atlas that accompanies this book, consists only of such a 
selection of Maps, chiefly from Wilkinson's Atlas Classica, as are 
absolutely necessary for the elementary purpose to which our 
views herein have been uniformly confined. If we meet the 
success that we hope for, and be called on for a second edition, 
we contemplate to enlarge the plan, at least of the Atlas, and 
probably of the text book, so far as may be judged to be pru- 
dent ; taking care at the same time not to render either un- 
wieldy for the use of schools, whose convenience the author 
pledges himself always to consider as the prime object. 

It may be an important suggestion to the student that he 
should pass twice or thrice in a cursory manner over the capital 
objects both of the geography and history, ere he attends to 
the details of either ; being calculated to save him much labour, 
as well as excite a progressive interest and curiosity. And if 
any division of these demand precedence, it should be given to 
the sacred geography, and the table of empires. 









Page 22; line 3» correct Riphsei vel Hyperborei ; line S, correct Alpk. 
30» IS, correct Indians. P. 41» 1. 36, correct Scythians. 
47, 29, correct identieal. P- 60, tabl« V 1 8, correct Peakini. 
63, 36^ MrtocrMaivK B. 4t^ t Sl^tfCorr^et nieevaritii; 1 90; mrrect S£ vbx- 

, trngi-m^Jl^Bfi' P.' SO^ K laati eorreet M k mM ltbniusi 
d4, 21, correct called. P. It3» 1. 1, note, correct See Vol. 11. 
137, 15, cities, correct Ostium^ P. 154^ L 13, correct Uarilah; 1. 18, correct 
d. 2183. 


4, 24, reatl (he establishment-of the Olympie* P. 23. margin, correct G. 
\% 15, correct war. 


Hofoing wbrnitted thu work to the oacandnation of mam gentlemen of diotd^ 
talents and erudition, we hofe ve viU be excuoedfirprefxing it vitK the f^t. 
extract of their oeveral opimono, tfn the plea o/juotice to a new work and to tkooe 
are inadegnate fo j«4f0 of it for timmoetoeo. 

FAiladelphia Dec. 24» 1813. 
We have examined^ individually, your View of Ancient 
Geography and Ancient History, and cheerftiUy pronounce it 
a very valuable work, and calculated to be especially useful 
to the higher classes in the public seminaries of the United 

Benjamin Smith Barton, M- O. 

Prqfesoor of the Inotituteo ^fMsdiclne^ C/f. 
t^nron*iil^ of Pemujfhania, 

James G. Thomson, A. M. 

JProfeooor qf I^a^gtmge*^ Vniveroil^ •f Pemuyhfouia. 

James Abercaombie, D. D. 

Director tftke PhOadelphia Jieademy. 
James G&AT, D. D. l Gray and WyU^o 

Samuel B. Wylie, A. M. J •^««*»«r. 
Robert Mato, M. D. 

Baltimore Colkgej Oct. 22, 1813. 

I duly receive the parts of your Ancient Geography and 
History you have been so kind as to forward to me. I have no 
doubt of its being an useful and necessary work for the public semi- 
naries, especially with maps. I shall not fail, so soon as I am 
favoured with the work complete, to recommend it to the youth 
in this institution. 

I am. Sir, jova very respectful and 

Most dbedient humble Servant, 


Preoident </ Baltimore CoUege. 

HoBERT Mayo, M. D. 



Dartmouth College^ Dec. 27, 1813. 


I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of 
your View of Ancient Geography and History, forwarded in a 
succession of sheets. 

The view of any of the learned sciences is enriched by em- 
bracing its relations and bearings, in the different ages of im-> 
provement ; and no one can become an accomplished master of 
the same, without a knowledge of its state, and progress, in for- 
mer times. This remark is strikingly true, as applied to the geo- 
graphical brancht-^It presents, more than any other, lively ties- 
of connexion between the Ancients and Modems ; and is the pur- 
est aid in judging of their relative conditions* 

I have read, with satisfaction, the pages of your volume. It 
promises much benefit to the student— being calculated to fill an 
important chasm in its department, which has been too long ne- 
glected. The materials are judiciously selected ; they are arran- 
ged with consistency; and they are expressed with perspicuity and 
conciseness. The proposed Maps oi the different countries and 
places noted in the tables, will greatly increase the utility and esti- 
mation of the performance. 

I shall be happy in promoting your useful object — and am 

Sir, your most sincere and 

Respectful Servant, 

JPreeident of DartmmUh CoUege. 

Robert Mato, M. D. 

Philadelphia^ Jan. 15, 1814. 
I have perused with pleasure, your View of Ancient Geography 
and Ancient History. It exhibits a mass of information of high 
importance to the Philosopher and the Christian, digested into an 
order unusually lucid and easy. A work of this description has, 
in our public seminaries, been long ^desideratum^ which I am 
satisfied it will well supply. 

In every effort of this nature, permit me to wish you great 
success, and to express my anticipation of the general diffusion of 
your work through our schools. 

I am. Sir, respectfully yours, 


Potior of the Baptiit CkurchySanavm tt, Pfdl^a, 

Robert Mayo, M, D. 

I I 


, o» 





Progress and extent of Ancient Qeogtaphym 

ON casting an eye over the Terka Vrteribvi Nota, 
as delineated on a single map) we perceive that the ancient 
geographers had some acquaintatice with a considerable part 
of the three continents of Asia^ Ayrica and EvROFR* 

It will also be observable that their acqualntaace waa 
much more extensive coastwise^ than tnlandi their navigatort 
having carried their commerce to Thynctj the capital of 
Sinmy on the river Senus now Camboja, in the ulterior 
peninsula of India, where their Eoan Ocean respects the 
east ; circumnavigated Africa ; and penetrated to the ThuU^ 
now Shetland isles: here they acquired some idea of the 
Jfyte IHgrum or Northern Ocean, which they would fain 
connect with the Eoan or Eastern Oceai^ by an extensioa 
of the Baltic under the name of SeythiCf Am>akhwmf cq^ 



Frozen Ocean^ over a great part of the north of Europe* 
and Asia. 

But this error apart, their minute acquaintance was rather 
confined to a somewhat central position between the three 
continents; which, by its aea9 communicating with the ocean 
to the east and the west; and by its navigable rivers flowing 
on every hand from the interior of either continent to these 
seasy is peculiarly appointed by nature for the nursery of 

The reason that they knew more of this region,' is not 
that it was more populous, but that it was, from advantages 
of situation, the theatre of sociability — mother of science and 
refinemenU the reason that they knew less of the more inte- 
rior regions, is not that they were less populous, but Aat 
their inhabitants, from want of more abundant channels of 
communication, were immersed in solitude — asylum of igno- 
rantje and barbarism. For, though the civilized world of 
the ancients was populous almost to a miracle, yet the re- 
moter regions of either continent were in no very inferior 
degree supplied with their barbarous inhabitants; who, com* 
paratively speaking, confined themselves for the most part 
within the precincts of their own villages, &c., till the 
wanton encroachments of the Roman empire roused their 
implacable ferocity to destroy it. But to be a little more 
particular on the progress and extent oi our proper subject— r 

By ancient geography, (Scripture apart) we understand, 
whatever the Greek and Rohan writers have left us on 
that subject. And it is observable of it, that time has 
prescribed to its progress, distinct and successive periods 



1st. The information contained in the poems of Homer 
m^kes the frst age (if we may so speak) of ancient geo- 
graphy. Greece, the neighbouring shores of Italy, part 

* It will be seen in the detail that the knowledge of the ancients did not extend 
to the North Gape^ erroneou^l}- called Jiuha$ Pronhntorium, 


of Asia, ami a small portion of AraicA toward Egypt, 
composed the whole of its object. 

2nd. Those contracted limits of geography received no 
considerable aggrandizement till the conquests of Alexander 
the Great; which may form its second age or period; for the 
Greeks, before that period, had no knowledge of India but 
its name, and that of the Indus. 

Srd. They would have remained equally ignorant of the 
West, if some of their historians had not mentioned the 
navigation of the Phoenicians, about the southern shores of 
Iberia or Spain; which constitutes an epoch in our subject 
that may be entided its third age, 

4th. The Roman domination, whei^ it extended itself in 
the West, and towards the north of Eitrope, made us ac- 
quainted with the difiEerent countries of that quarter* The 
parts of Asia and Africa subjected to the same power^ 
became also much better known thaft they had been hitherto* 
Thus what, according to some ancient writers, we may call 
the JRoMAN World, makes the fourth and principal age of 
ancient geography; which, being detailed with most minute* 
ness and precision, of course predominates in these pages. 

Nothing more contributed to retard the improvement of 
the ancients in geography, than the opinion. That the earth 
was habitahle only in temperate regions; for, according to this 
system^, the torrid zone was a barrier that permitted no com* 
munication between the northern temperate zone which they 
inhabited, and the southern. Their intelligence being thus 
confined to a band or zone, they might with propriety call 
extension from west to east, length or longitude; and the 
more, contracted space from north to south, width or latitiuh* 
Strabo, the most illustrious geographer of antiquity, was 
not undeceived in this : opinion, which circumscribed the 
object of his science ; he, nevertheless, extended it to some 
regions beyond the Tropic. Ptolemy extended its limits^ 
and even adyaticed it beyond the Equinoctial line. And 
the Ganges, which bounded the investigations , of Strabo, on 
the east, was not the line that terminated the geography of 


pCdkmf* Navigation had opened the waf tlmmgk the 
ulterior countries as far as that of SivM; which we shall 
make known in the sequel of this volume. 

Thus much we conceived it indispensable to say on tiie 
progress and extent of ancient geography. But as our phui 
in the following tables will be to commence with the higher 
northern latitudes where geographical errors peculiarljr 
abound, therefore, to avoid the appearance of stumbling ia 
Ae threshold, we will also premise this First Part with. 
Mr. Pinkerton's remarks on Pliny's geography of the nortk 
of Europe and Asia; hoping that these^ as well as many cr^ 
rors of the historic kind, to be noticed in like manner in the 
Preliminary to the Second Part, will stand hereafter, ua 
consequence of his researches, singularly corrected. 

His words are<*^^^ Pliny's geography of the north is here 
given, as the most full and curtous of all antiquity. The 
bounds of ancient knowledge on the west and south are fixed 
and clear. On the east, D^Anvilie has fully setded them. 
But the northern, the most important of all, to the history 
of Europe, D'Aavillo leaves as Cluverius ignorantly put 

" The Riphetan mountains of Pliny, as of Ptolemy^ 
palpably run from east to west ; as he passes them to go 
to the Scythic Ocean* It is clear from Ptolemy, that they 
ran along die head of Tanais and are ofteh named with 
Tanahs by the ancients; for by all ancient accounts the Tanais 
yose in them. But this is nothing to the matter. The 
question is what the ancients thought. And it is clear 
that they often confounded a forest with a chain of moun* 
tains, as Pliny here does the Hercynian forest. No wonder 
dien that in civilized times no such mountains^ otherwise 
forestSy are to be found. The Riphman fhrest^ I am con> 
viaced, was that now called Volkonski, still 150 miles long 
from the west, to Moscow on the east. It is also a range 
of small hills. 

'^ Timaus, as we learn from other passages of Pliny, called 
the isle opposite Raunonia by the name of Baltia* It is 


tbei^fom a ^p of Ptiiiy when he pnts Ais among the 
D8mele«ft bles. What river the ancients called Paroptmi'^ 
sus^ is doubtful. There was a wufuntain nxkd region Paro*' 
pamisus at the head of the Indus. The Amalchian was evi* 
dcndy the eastern part of the Scythic Ocean* Present 
Sarasu, or. some other rt\^er running north on the east of 
tbe Caspian, may be Faropamisus. 

'VThe ProflEiontory iii/iaa^ seems to me that on die west 
of the mouth of the river £1160 or Dwina, being the north 
point of the present Courland. Cluverius, who puts it in 
the north of Lapland shcfws strange ignorance. The ancients 
knew nO more of Lapland than of Americas and were never , 
further north than Shetland,* and the south part of Scandi- 
navia. The Cronian seems here the north-east part of the 
Baltic sea. As Pliny tells us repeatedly, in other placesy* 
that Baltiaj ov Basilia^ was the isle where, only, amber was 
found, it is clearly Glessaria of Prussia, not Seandinavku 
The isles Oonmy &c., all grant to be those of Oesel, &c., at 
the moudi of the Finnish Gulf. 

^' Clttverins is so utterly fo^luh\ as to put die Sevo Mans 
of Pliny, in Norway; in which childish blunder he is blindly 
foilowedi as usual, by Cellarius and D'Anville, which last 
has not examined one dttle of die ancient geography of 
Germany, though the most important of all, to the history 
of Europe. Pliny's Sevo Mons^ is actually that chain be- 
tween Prussia and Silesia, called Assiburgius Mons^ by Ptol* 
emy, and now Zottenberg. In the map of modem Germany 
by Cluverius, this chain is fully marked, from the east of 
Bohemia and Silesia up to the Resehout. Tacit^s mentions 
this Sevo Mons (though he gives not the name) as dividing 
the Sue^i from the north to south. Most ancients regarded 
the Vistula as the eastern bound of Germany, and the Basternas 

* The real Thule or Tfayle of the ancients, as D'Anville shews. 

t Yet, for the sake of aniformity we haye placed Baltia among the Seandioai^nL 
isles as being in the same sea. 

♦^ Though we quote it, we do not sanction the abrupt phrase of our profound 
antiquary; who seems, from the tenour of his book, to pi^oe himself upon that 
\evj exceiitionable and uncoartepus qvLiXiiy of m^rosatess. 


as a German nadon out of Germany; so that the Seto 
Mons^ as running along the Fistula^ was on the eastern ex- 
tremity of Germany as Pliny states. 

** The Scandinavia of Pliny, is the largest Scandia of 
Ptolemy, not reaching beyond the Wetter lake. Eningia 
may be the south part of Finland:, perhaps by the ancients 
believed another isle in the Scythian Ocean. • The Hirrz 
gave name to Irland or Virland^ in Icelafidic accounts, now 
Reval. Sciringsheal^ or the rock or town of the Scirri^ 
seems to have been present Kronstadt, opposite St. Peters- 
burg* The gulf Cylipenus is apparently that of Finland: 
Lagtcs is another name for the south of the Baltic or Co- 
dctnus* Fromontorium Cimbrorum is the north point of Jut- 
land. Cartris is Wendsyssel on the north of Jutland. Bur* 
chana is Funen, or Zealand. 

^^ The Tanais or Don was the ancient, as it is the modem 
boundary of Asia and Europe (about its mouth). Bat on 
the north, moderns have extended it (o the Uralito moun- 
tains, along the river Oby; while the ancients brought it much 
further west, following the Tanais (throughout its course, we 
presume, as well as that of the Turunthtss or Duna, fron 
the context). The east end of the Gulf of Finland was, of 
course the ancient boundary between Asia and Europe* 
Here then Pliny begins, and goes to the east along the 
shores of a nonexistent ocean, the Scythic^ till he comes 
to the river Volga; which, with many of the ancients, he 
thought was an inlet between the Scythic Ocean and Caspian 
Sea. Lytarmisj which like his Tabis beyond Seres in Asia^ 
is a nonexistent promontory, he puts about present Moscow. 
The opinion of a Scythic^ Ocean seems to have prevailed in 
the eleventh century; for Adam of Bremen says people could 
sail from the Baltic down to Greece. It seems also the 
Ocean of Darkness in Eastern writings. I, know not if 

^ * Pethaps this was only an error loci of the Frozen Ocean thatoceupies a 
higher northern liititude, of which some imperfect account in all probahility had 
been given by Fmnish and Sarmatic emigrants tVom that quarter. It was very ensy 
^t Itast to confound it %vith the Btdtic sea. 

V.«-AV» .'^' '■ " " 


its existence was not believed in Europe till the sixteenth 

It only remains for the tables to demonstrate the posi- 
tions alluded to in these strictures of Mr. Pinkerton on the 
modern errors concerning the northern geography of the 
ancients; lest indeed^ we be excusable for alleging a presump- 
tive evidence in favour of so profound an interpreter, of 
ancient authorities; such as the well-known opinion of the 
ancients, That the earth was habitable only in temperate 
regions ; which, alone, might have sufficiehdy restrained 
their zeal for discovery, to have precluded them from an ac- 
curate acquaintance higher north than the judgment of our 
author is inclined to admit they possessed. 








THE sfigbtest attention to the ^ indented arrangement of the 
objects of this series of tables, will evince the design of repreaentbg, 
in some degree, the natural appeairance of the sea coasts. 

The aqueous objects are marked in Romany Arithmetical^ and 
M/ihabetical characters. 

The Roman charactei" distinguishes the sea at the head of the 
table— as it does the head of every table through the book. 

The Arithmetical character distinguishes the sinuses mostly, or 
whatever a<^ueous object that has immediate connexion wi^ the 
principal object of the table; 

The Alfihabeiical character, distinguishes the rivers mostly, or 
whatever aqueous object that has mediate connexion only, with such 
principal sea of the table. 

The promontories are pla(red more or less in relief of the aqueous 
objects, as they are more or less prominent on the coasts. 

The objects that are put in parentheses in the column of ancient 
names, are not proper to the tables in which they so occur, but 
are introduced as conspicuous land marks, to define the situation of 
ether intervening or contiguous objects: those that are similarly 
couched, in the modern, without correspondbg parentheses in the 
ancient column, are explicative substitutes for unknown, or non-- 
existent modern names^— «nd this last idea, indeed, is adopted in 
every part of the work. 



Ancient, | 


(amalchium by the natives). 

Promontorium Cimbrorum, 
1.' Mare Suevicum vcl Codanus, 
Venedicus seu Lagus Sinus, 

a. Viadus vel Suevua fluvius, 
Sevo Mons terminus, 

b. Vistula fluvius, 

c. Chronus vel I^ubo fluvius, 
Prom. Rubeas, 

2. Cronium Mare, 

a. Turunthus fluvius, 
(Irland vel Virland), 

b. Cylipenus Sinus, 
Prom. Lytarmis, 


formed a part; the rest fictitious. 

North point of Jutland. 

1. The Baltic sea as far sis 
Courland point. 

a. The river Oder. 
Resehout Promontory. 

b. The river Vistula. 

c. The river Niemen. 
North point of Courland. 

2. east of said point. 

a. The river Dwina. 
(now Reval city). 

b. Gulf of Fmland. 
(Kronstadt city), 

(A summit near Moscow). 



1. Mare Pigrum vel Concretum, 
Promontorium Texalum, 

2. Oceanu^ Germanicus, 

a. Boderia ^stuarium, 

b. Alaunus fluvius, 
Prom. Ocellum, 

c. Abus fluvius, 

d. Metaris ^stuarium, 

e. Thamesis ^stuarium, 
Prom* Cantium. 

f. Fretum Gallicum, 
Prom. Itium, 

g. Helium Ostium, 
h. Medium Ostium, 
i. Flevum Ostium, 
j. Vi^urgis fluvius, 
k. Albis fluvius. 

Prom, Epidium, 
Prom. Robogdium, 

3. Mare Hibernicum, 

a. Glota jEstuarium, 
Novum Chersonesus, 

b. Ituna ^stuarium,. 

c. Moricambe ^stuarium, 

d. Deva vel Devana ^stuar. 
Prom. Ganganorum, 

Prom. Iberon vel Sacrum, 


1 . Northern or Frozen Ocean. 
Buchanness PromontoryV 

2. German Ocean. 

a. Firth of Forth. 

b. The river Avon* 
Spurn Head. 

c. The river Humber. 

d. The Wash. 

e. Mouth of the Thames. 
(Near Margate.) 

f. Dover Strait. 
(Near Calais). 

g. (Mouth of the Mease), 
-h. (Mouth of th« Rhine). 

i. (outlet of Zuyderzee). 

j, Thfe river W^ser. 

k. The river Elbe. 
MuH of Cantyre. 
Fair Head. 

3. Irish Sea. 

a. Firth of Clyde. 
Mull of Galloway. 

b. Sol way Firth. 

c. Moricambe Bay. 

d. Mouth of the Dee. 
Brachy Pull. 
C^rnsore Point. 




Prom. Octapitarum, 

e. Sabrina ^stuariuni> 
From. AntivestseumvelBolerium, 

4. Oceanus Britannicus, 
Prom. Ocrinum, 

a. Uxellse J^stuariumy 

b. Sequana fiuviuS) 
Prom. Goboeum, 

5. Oceanus Cantabricus yel 

a. Liger fiuvius, 

b. Garumna fluvius, 
Prom. Artabrum, Celticum vel 


6. Durius fluvius, 
Prom. Lunarium) 

Prom. Magnum, 

7. Tagus fluvius, 
Prom. Barbaricum, 

Prom. Sacrum, 

3. Gaditanus Sinus, 

a. Anas fluvius, 

b. Bseds fluvius, [culeum, 

9. Fretum Gaditanum vel Her- 

10. Lixus fluvius minor, 
Atlas Minor vel soloeis, 

Solis Mons, 
Prem. Herculis, 
Atlas Major, 

11. liixus fluvius major, vel 

Gannaria Extrema, 
(Cern6 Insula),* 

12. Chretes fluvius, 

13. Daradus fluvius, 
Prom. Asinarium, 

14. Stacbir velBambotus fluv. 
Hesperi Cornu (of Pliny), 

15. Western Horn (M.Rennell) 
a. Nia fluvius f Ptolemy), 

Hesperi Cornu {oi^ Ptolemy) vel 
Deorum Currus Mons, 

1 6. South. Horn (Maj. Rennell) 
Southern Horn (of Pliny),t 

St. David's Head. 

e. Bristol Channel. 
Lands End — of England. 

4. British ChanneL 
Lizfird Point. 

a. Plymouth Harbour. 

b. The Seine. 
Lands-End of Bretagne^ 

5. Bay of Biscay. 

a. The Loire. 

b. The Garonne. 
Cape Finisterre. 

6. The river Douro. 
Cape Peniche. * 

Cape Roca de Sintravo. 

r. The river Tajo. 

Cape d'Espichel. 
Cape dc St. Vincent. 

8. Bay of Cadiz. 

a. The river Guadiana. 

b. The river Guadalquivir. 

9. Strait of Gibraltar. 

10. The Laroche or Arais. 
Cape Cantin, or Cape Blanco 

Tafelane Point. 
Cape Ger. 
Cape Bajadore. 

11. The Cyprian, or River of 

Cape Blanco (major). 
(Arguin Island). 

12. The river St. John's. 

13. The river Senegal. 
Cape Verde. 

14. The river Gambia. 
Cape Roxo. 

15. Bissago Bay and Islands, 
a. The Rio Grande. 

Cape Sagres or Tumbo, (Chariot 
of the Gods); heights of Serra 

16. Bay of Sherbo. 

Cape St. Anne (S. point of Sherbo). 

• The utmost Colony founded by Hanno; his voyage farther south to the Southem-hornt 
-where he stopped for the want of provisions, b^ng confined to the object of discoyery. 
f See Magor. RenneU's Herodotus, for Hanuo's voyage on the coast of Africa. 




l.Fretum Hercu- I 
leumi r 

Fromontorium CalpCi J Herculis. 

2. Malaca Portusi 
Pram. Charidepumi 

3. Vlrg^tanus Sinu8> 
Prom. Sccmibraria) 

4. Illicitanus Sini^^y 
Prom. Dianium, 

5. Sncronensis Sinus, 
a. IberuB fluvii|9i 

Prom. Pyrenseum, 

6. Gtducus Sinu$) 
a. Rhodanus fiuvius. 

Prom. Citharistes, 

7. Ligpii8ticu9 Sinus, 

8. Sardoum Mare, 
a. Fo8$a prietufn, 

9. Mare f yrrl^^eum, Tuscum, 
vel Inferum,^ 

a. Arnus fluyiusy 

b. Tiber fluvius, 
Prom. Circium, 

c. Lirisfiuviusy 

d. Vultumus fiuyiusi 
Prom. Misenum, 

e. Crater Sinus, 
Prom. Miniervae, 

f. Paestanus Sinus, 
Prom^ Palinurum, 

g. Laus Sinus, 

h. Tcrinaeus Sinu$, 
Prom. Leucopetra, 

i. Fretum Siculum, 
Prom. Pelorum, 
Prom. lilvbasum, 
Prom. Pachynum, 

10. Mare Siculum, 
Pr6m* Herculis, 

1 1. Ionium Mare* (contiqued), 
Prom, Cocintum, 

' a. Scyladus Sinus, 




Abf la or tittle Atlas. 
1. Strait of Gibralu^*, 

Rock of Gibraltar. 

S. Harbour of Afalag^ 
Cape Gata. 

3. (South of Carths^o Nova)* 
Cape Palos. 

4. East of Ancient imsis. 
C^pe Martin. 

5. (East of Saguntus). 
a. The river Ebro. 

Cape Creus. 

6. Gulf of Lyons, 
a. The river Rhcme. 

Cape Cicier. 

7. Gulf of Genoa* 

8. Sea of Sardinia, 
a. Strait Bonifacio. 

9* Sea of J^aples. 

a. The river Amo. 
l^. The rivcfr Tiber* 
Monte Cerceilo* 

c. The river Gariglia. 

d. The river Vuiturnp. 
Cape Miseno. 

e. Bay of Naples. 

Cape Minerva or Campanelle. 

f. Gulf of Salerno. 
Cape Palinuro. 

g. Gulf of Laio. 

. h. Gulf of St. Eufemia. 

Cape Piattaro. 
i. Strait of Messina. 

Cape Faro. 1 Three 

Cape Boeo. > corners 

Cape Passara. j of Sicily. 

10. Sea of Sicily. 
Cape of Spartiv^i|tq. 

11. The Ionian Sea. 
Cape Stilo. 

j a. Gulf of Squilaco. 

• As it respects Italy, to whieh the coast of the Adriatic sueceeds . before the 
Ionian as it respcets Greece. 

6£AS, BATS, PR0M0KT0B1E8, &e. 


Prom Lacinium, 
b. TarentinuB Sinus, 
Prom. Salentinum vei I«pygi|im, 
13. Mare Hadriaticum, yei Su- 

a. Urias Sinus, 
Prom. Gargarum, 

b. Rubico fluviuS) 

c. Septem Maria, 

d. Tergestinus Sinus, 

e. Flanaticus Sinus, 

f. Manius Sinua^ 
Prom. Nymph^um, 

Prom. Acro-ceraunia, 
Ol). loniuin Marc,* 

c. Sinus Ambracius, 

Prom. Leucata (Leucadia)i 

d. Myrtuntium Mare, 

e. Achelous fluvius, 
Prom. Anti Rhiuinf, 

f. Corinthiacus Sinus, 
(a) Crissssus Sinus, 

Prom. Pharygium, 
(3) Alcyonium Mare, 
Prom. Olmiae, 
(Neptuni Tcmplum), 
Promon. Rhium, 
Prom- Araxuni, 

g. Cyllenicus Sinus, 
Prom. Hyrmina, 
Prom. Chelonites, 

h. Chelonites Sinus. 

Prom. Ichthys vel Phaea, 
i. Alpheus fiuvius, 
]. Cyparissius Sinus, 

Prom. Cyparissius, 
Prom Acritas, 

13. Mcsseniacus Sums, 
Prom. Taenaremn, 

14. Laconicus Sinus, 
a. Eurotas fluvius, 

Prom. Malea, 

15. ^gaeum Mare, 
( 1 ). Myrtoum Mare, 

a. ArgoUcus Sinus, 

Cape Colonna. 
b. Gulf of Tarento. 
Cape Lecica. (Heel of Italy). 
13. Adriatic sea or Gulf of 

a. Gulf of Manfredonia. 
Cape Viestice. 

b. The river Fiumesino. 

c. Mouths of the Po. 

d. Gulf of Trieste. 

e. Gulf of Quamero. 

f. Gulf of Brazza. 
Cape Nymphe. 

(Opposite the Heel of Italy). 
(11). Ionian Sea. 
(Prevesa- Veccheia) . 

c. Gulf of Arta. 

Cape Oucato (Lovers* Leap). 

d. Gulf of St. Maura. 

e. The Aspro Potamo. 
Dardanelles of Lepanto. 

f. Gulf Lepanto. 

(a) Gulf of Salona. 
(A Pr. between these Bays). 
(6) East end of Lepanto. 
(A Pp. in theAlcyonium) 
(Opposite to Pharygium). 
fSce Anti-Rhiumt). 
Cape Papa. 

Promontories and bays on 
the western coast of the 

i. The river Alfeo. 

j. Gulf of Arcadia. 

Southern cape of Cyparissius 
Cape Galio. i ajn^,^ 

13. Gulf ofCoron. ^ 
Cape Matapan. 

14. Gulf of Colokythia. 
a. The Royal river. 


15. Archipelago or iEg aeanset. 
(1. On the east of Morea). 

a. Guifof Napoli. 

As it resptcts Grteee^ l»eiBg No. It. eontmued. 



Prom Struthuntum, 

b. Hermione SinuS} 
Prom. Bucephalum, 
Prom. Scyllaeum, 

c. Saronicus Sinusy 
Prom. Sunium, 
Prom. Caphareum^ 
(2.) Euripus, 

(3.) Opontius Sinus, 

Prom. Cenaeum, > 

Prom. Cerinthus,5 

(4;. Maliacus Sinus, 

Prom. Posidium, 

(5). Pagasaeus vel Pelasgicus 

Prom. Sepias, 
(6). Thermaicus Sinus, 

a. ^Peneus fluvius, 

b. Haliacmon fluvius, 

c. Erigon fluvius, 

d. Axius fluvius. 
Prom. Canastroeum, 
(7). Toronaicus Sinus, 
Prom. Ampelos, 

(8). Singiticus Sinus, 
Prom. Acro-Athos, 
(9). Strymonicus Sinus, 

a. Strymon fltivius, 

b. Mestus vel Nestus fluvius, 
Prom. Serrhium, 

(10). Melanis Sinus, 

a. Hebrus fluvius, 
Prom. Mastusia (Thr. Cherso- 

(11), Hellespontus, 
Prom. Sigeum (near Trpy), 
Prom. Lee turn, 

(12\. Adramyttium Sinus, 
(13). Smyrneus Sinus, 

a. Hermus fluvius, 
Prom. Melaena Acra, 
Prom. Coryceon, 
(U). Caystrus fluvius. 
Prom. Mycale, 
(15). Icarium Mare, 

a. Meander fluvius, 
Prom. Latmus, 

b. Issus Sinus, 


Cape Porraqua. 

b. C (on the eastern coast of 
I Argolis). 

Cape Skilleo. 

c. Gulf of Engia. 
South point of Attica. 
(South-east end of Ncgropont.) 

2.) Strait of Negropont. 

3. North expansion of aboire 


(West and North points of Ne- 
(4). Gulf of Malia. 
Cape Isola. 
(5). Gulf of Volo. 

Cape St. George. 

(6). Gulf of Thessalonica. 

a. The river Peneus. 

b. The river Platamone. 

c. The river Vardar. 

d. The river Calico. 
Cape Canouistro. 

(7). Gulf of Cassandra. 

Cape Xacro. 

(8). Gulf of Monte Santo. 

Cape Monte-Santo. 

(9). Gulf of Contessa. • 

a. The river Stryiiibn. 

b. The river Mesto. - 
Cape Macri. 

(10) Gulf of Saros. 

a. The river Marisa. 
Cape Greco. 

(11). Strait of Dardanelles. 

Cape Ineihisari. 

Cape Baba. 

(12) Gulf of Adramitti. 

(13). Bay of Ismir. 

a. The river Sarabat. 
Black Point. 
Cape Curco. 

(U). The little Meander, 
f Opposite the Isle of Samos). 
(15. Part of Archipellago). 

a. The river Meander. 
Mount Latmus. 

b. Bay of Assem Kalasi. 



(Halicarnassus city)^ 

c. Ceramicus Sinus, 
Prom. Triopium, 

d. Daridis SinuS) 
Khodus (resumed below)> 
(16). Creticum Mare, 
Prom. Criu Metopou, 
Prom. Samonium| 

Khodus Insula, 

1 6. Telmissus vel Glaucus Si- 

Prom. Sacrum, 

.17. Pamphylium Mare, 
a. Cataractes iiuvius, 

Prom. Anemurium, 

18. Issicus Sinus, 

a. Pyramus fluvlus, 
• b. Pinarus fluvius, 
Amanus Mons, 

19. Mare Cilicium, 
a. Orontes fluvius, 

Aradus (a firojecting)-^ 

20. Phoenicium Mare, 

a* Eleutherus fluvius, 
Prom. Theo-Prosopon, 

a. Leontos fluvius, 
(Tyrus Insula), 
(Aco, vel Ptolemais-— city), 
(Turris Stratonis), 

a. (JamnisB vel Jabnae portus) 

b. (Palus Sirbonis), 
Casus Mons, 

21. Mare\figyptum, 

a. ^gypti vel Nili Ostia, 
(Pharos Insula, near Alexan- 


b. Plinthinetes Sinus, 
Catabathmus Minor vel Cher- 

sonesus Parvus, 
Catabathmus major, 
Prom. Phycus, 

22. Syrtis Major, 

Prom. Triaeorium vel Cephalae, 

23. Cinyphs fluvius, 
(Meninx Insula), 

24. Syrtis Minor, 

a. Tritonis fluvius. 
Prom. Hermoeum, 

25. Bagradas fluvius. 

(Bodroun castle, on a Prom.) 

c. Bay of Keramo. 
C^pe Crio. 

^ d. (Part of the Gulf Maori). 
Island of Rhodes. 
( 1 6. Part of the Archipelago). 
Cape Crio. > Kxtremiti«s of 

Cape Salamone. 3 Crete or CancUa. 
Rhodes (see above), 

16. Part of the Gulf Macri. 

Cape Kelidoni. 

17. (Part of the Levant). 

a. The river Dodensoul. 
Cape Anemur. 

1 8. Gulf of Aise. 

a. The river Geihoun. 

b. The river Delisou. 

19. (Part of the Levant), 
a. The river Asi. 

Raud— rocA: ^ city. 

20. (Part of the Levant), 
a. The great River. 

(Divine Countenance). 

a. The river Casmieh. 
(Tyre, site of). 
/Arse, on a point of land). 
(Site of Caesarea). 

a. (Port of Jebna). 

b. (Sebaket-Bardoil). 
Cape del Kas or Chisel. 

21. (Coast of the Delta). 

a. Mouths of the Nile. 
(Now part of the continent). 

b. (west of Pharos). 


22. Gulf of Sitra. 
Cape Mesrata or Kanem. 

23. The Wadi-quaham. 
(lerba or Zerbi Island). 

24. Gulf of Kabes or Gab6s. 
a. The river Farooun. 

Cape Bon. (nearest to Sicily.) 

25. The river Mezjerad. 



Prom. Apoliimsy 
Prom. Candidum, 
Prom. Tretam, 
2^. Ampsagms fliiTiasy 
Prom. Metagcmium. 
27. Molochath tcI Blalm flur. 
Prom. Rusadir, 
(Prom. AbylaX 

Cape Ras-Zebid. 
Cape Serrat or Ras-el Abida4. 
Cape Sebda*niz or Burgarone. 
26. The rirer Wad-il-Kibir. 
Cape Har^;oiie. 
37. The riTer Mulya. 
Cape TreS'Forcas. 
(See the beginmiig of the table). 


(1. Hellesponttts)) 

2. Propontis, 

a. Granicus fiuyius, 

b. Rhyndacus fluviusy 

3. Bosporus Thracius, 
Prom. Thynias, 

4. Danubus vel Ister fluviusy 

5. Tyras fluvius, 

6. Borysthenes fluYUiSy 
Dromus Acbillisj 

7. Carcinites Sinusy 

Prom. Criumetopon or Ram's 
Forehead 9 

8. Bosporus Cimmerius, 

9. Palus Moeotis, 
a. Tanais fiuvius, 

10. Cerceticus Sinus, 

11. Amiseus Sinus, 

a. Thermodon fiuvius, 

b. Iris flavius, 

c. Halys fluvius, 
Prom. Carambis, 

a. Sagaris vel Sangarius fluv. 
(12. Bosporus Thracius), 


1. (see j&gxum Mare,(Now 11). 

2. Sea of Marmora. 

a. The river Ousvola. 

b. (£dls into Marmora). 

3. Strait of Constantinople. 
Cape Tiniada. 

4. The river Danube. 

5. The river Dneister. 

6. The river Dnieper. 

(Cape between Dnieper €c Ne« 

7. Nccropyla or Funeral Gate. 
Karadje-Bourun (or Black 


8. Strait of Cafa or Zabach6. 

9. Sea of Azoff. 
a^ The river Don. 

(on the coast of Cir- 

a. The river Termeh. 

b. The Ikii-ermark. 

c. The Kizel-ermark. 
Cape KerempL 

a. The river Sakaria. 
(12). See the begbning of the 

10. I 

11. $ 



1. Rha fluvius, 

2. Jaxartes fluv. [(false Tanais), 

3. Oxus fluvius,* 



1. The river Walga. 

2. The river Sir or Sihon. 

3. The river Gihon. 

m' ■■Fii'i 

* THken for a f^vAf of the Soythic Oeean at a later period than the time of Herodo- 
tus who was better informed. 






4. Sideris fluvius, 

5. Socanda fiuvius, 

6. A raxes fiuTius, 

7. Cyrus fluvius, 

1 Modem. 

4. The rWer Ester. 

5. The river Abi-Scoun. 

6. The river Aras. 

T, The river Persis or Kur 



1. Sen us iluvius, 
Prom. Satyrorum, 

2. Magnus Sinus, 
a. Serus fiuvius. 

Prom. Magnum, 


1. The river Camboja. 
Point of Camboja, 
3. Guif of Siam. 
. a. The river Menan. 
Cape Malay. 


(Prom. Magnum), 
.1. Gangeticus Sinus, 

a. Perimulicus Sinus, 

b. Sabaricus Sinus. 
Prom, Tamala (cr 0/iidum)j 

c. Ganges ftuvius, 
Prom. Caliigicum, 

d. Colchicus Sinus, 
Prom. Comaria, 

. -2. Erythraeum Mare, 
(1). Barygazenus Sinus, 
2. Canthi vel Baraces Sinus, 

a. Indus fluvius, 
(3). Terabdon Sirtus, 

a. Arbis vel Arabis fiuvius, 

b. Cophanta {luvius, 
Prom. Carpella, 

(^). Persic us Sinus, 

a. Araxes vel Aroses fluvius, 

b. Tigris fluvius, 

c. Euphrates fluvius, 

d. (Tylos Insula), 
Prom. Maceta, 
Prom. Syagros, 
(5). Sacalites Sinus, 

a. Prion fluvins, 
(6). Avalites Sinus, 
(7). Sinus Arabicus, 

a, ^laniticus Sinus^ 
Pi oiH. Phara vel Posidium, 


(See the last table.) 

1 . Bay of Bengal. 

a. Strait of Malacca. 

b. Gulf of Martaban. 
Cape Al-Demlou (and city J, 

c. The river Ganges, 

Cape Calymere or Calla-Medu. 

d. Gulf of Manara •r Kilkar. 
Cape Comorin. 

2. The Arabian Sea. 
(I). Gulfof Cambay. 
(2). Gulf of Sindi. 

a. The river Indus, 
(S). west of the latter. 

a. The A^t-ab. 

b. The river Mend6. 
Cape Jask. 

(4). Persian Gulf. 

a. The Bend-Emir. 

b. The river Basalinfa. 

c. The river Frat. 

d. (Bahi-ain). 
Cape Magandon. 
Cape Tlas-al-Hhad. 
(5). Gulfof Herbs. 

a. The river Prim. 
(6). Babelmandel. 
(7). The Red Sea. 

a. Gulf of Bahr-el-Acaba. 
Cape Ras-Mahamed. 



b. Heroopolitinusi SinuS) 
Prom. Aromatum^* 

b. Gulf of Suez. 
Cape Guardafui. 

u^/^/^yv/^•'>^A ''»^^^«^ 


1. Rhenus fluYius, 

a. Vabalis fluviusy 

b. Flcvus fluvius, 

c. Mosella fluvms, 

d. Moenus fiuviuS) 

2. Padus fluvius^ 
a. Padusa, 
b« Caprasia^ 

c. Sagis, 

d. Volana, 

e. Eridanus Sec, 
f.'Ollius fluviiis, 
g. Addua fluvius, 
h. Ticinus fluvius, 
i. Tanarus fluvius, 
j. Duria Major fluvius^ 

3^ Danubius fluvius, 

a. Savus fluvius, 

b. Tibiscus fluvius, 

c. Dravus fluvius, 

d. Marus fluvius, 

e. Aetius fluvius, 
4. Nilus vel ^gyptus fluvius, 

a. Canopicum, 

b. Bolbitinum, 

c. Seben'.yticum, 

d. Phatniticum, 

e. Mendesium, 

f. Taniticum, 

g. Pelusium, 
li. Astapus fluvius, 
i. Gir fluvius, 




1. The river Rhine. 

a. The Waal. C^^^O- 

b. The UUe iand the Zuyder- 

c. The Moselle. 

d. The Mein. 

2. ThePo. 

Mouths of the Po. 

f. The river Oglio. 

g. The river Adda, 
h. The river Tesino. 
i. The river Tanoro. 
j. The piver Doria. 

3. The river Danube. 

a. The river Save. 

b. The river Teisse. 
c; The river Drave. 

d. The river Morava. 

e. The river Inn. 

4. The river Nile. 

a. Maadie,or the passage. 

b. Rascid. 

c. Bereloss. 

d. Damiat. 

e. Dibe. 

f. Euinme-Farrage. 

g. TinehJ 

h. The White river, 
i. The Blue river. 

* Further south, the coast of Africa was little known to the Ancients, though that 
continent was believed to have been cireuranavigated more than ouce. 'I'hefiti^twas 
executed by order of iCecho (Pharaoh) kipjf of Kypt, under the conduct of Phoeni- 
ciaoi. See RennelU HerQdotus, 




1. Wcnep lacus, 

2. Flevo laciis, 

3. Lemanus JacuS) 

4. Brigantinus, vel Acronius 

5. Verbanus lacus, 

6. Iiarius lacos, 

7. Sevinus lacus, 

8. Bcna^us lacus, 

9. Trasimenu^ lacus, 

10. VulsinensU tacus, 

11. Fucinus lac us, 
IS. Perguaa lacus, 

13. Palicorum lacuS) 

14. Copals lacus, 

15. Lerna 2acus> 


.% lake Mios, in Norwaj, 

2. ThcZuyderzec. V ^^.^^ 

3. Lake of Geneva. V ^^^ 

4. Lake Constance. J 

5. Lake Majora. T ^^^^^^ ^^ 

6. Lake Come I ^^^, ^^ 

7. Lake Isco. f ^^ p^ 

8. Lake Garda. J 

9. Lake Perugia. 

10. LakeBolsena. 

11. LakeCelano. 

jH (In Sicily) 


qf Italy\ 

14. LWadialimne 

15. Lake MoUni 

imne. 7 
oUni. S 



1 . Samochonites lacus, 

2. Genesareth lacus, 

3. Asphaltites lacus, 

4. Arrissa lacus, 


1. Lake Bahr^l-HouleL 

2. Sea of Tiberias. 

3. Dead or Salt sea, &c. 

4. Lake Van. 


1. Sirboms lacus, 

2. Mareotis laous, 

3. Moeris* lacus, 

4. Coloelacusf 

5. Pallas et Tritonis Paludes, 

1. Sebaket-Bardoil. 

2. (near Alexandria). 

3. Bathen or the Deep, p^ile) 

4. (Ptolemy's source ot the 

5. Farooun and Loudeah. 

• The celebrated artifieml lake ofaneieDt Bjot^j •f**^'^^?™ WS^C^lodttt 
dorua. There waa another lake in Egypt, c«lUd Mien*, that waa of Nature • prwoe- 

tioB, Dotieed 1^ Strabo and Ptolemy* 






1. Grampius Mons, 

2. Sevo Mons, 

3. Hcpcynii, Riphiae vel.Hypcp- 
borie*Silvae, seu Monies/ 

4. Pyreniae Monies, 

5. Alps Monies. 

a. Alpis Marilima, 

b. Alpis Pennina, 

c. Alpis Graiac, 

d. Alpis Coitiae, 

f. Alpis Noricae, 

g. Alpis Rhaeiicae, 

h. Alpis Vcnetae, [pates, 
i. Alpis Baiftarnicae vel Car- 

6. Apenninus Mons, 

7. Vesuvius Mons, 

8. i£tna Mons, 

9. Haemus Mons, 
10. Pindus Mons, 

> Modern, 

1. The Grampian Hills. 

2. Zoltenberg (^iee Preliminary) 

3. Volkonski {%ee Preliminary) 

4. The Pyrenees. 

5. The Alps. 

a. (on Ihe gulf of Genoa). 

b. Little St. Benrand. 

c. Great St. Bertrand. 

d. Mount Genivere. 

between the Adriatk 
sea and the Danube. 

i. Carpathian mountsdns. 
. Apennine mountains. 

7. Mount Vesuvius. 

8. Mount ^tna. 

9. Mount Eminehdag. 

10. (between Thessaly&Epirus). 

h. J. 



1. Caucasus Mons, 

2. Taurus Mons, 

a. Amtinus mons, 

b. Anti-taurus, 

c. Matinei monies, 

d. Mosclucus mons, 

e. Niphates mons, 

f. Amoranta mons, 

g. Paropamisus mons, 
h. Imaus mons, &c. 

1. Mount Caucasus. 

2. Mount Taurus. 

These extended, interruptedly 

I from Asia Minor to Chinese 

Tartary; their corresponding 

names not clear of ambiguity. 

* The foretU of the north of Europe and Asia were confoanded by the Ancienti 
with the idea of moantains ; whieh> ia different pArtt« hare paaaed under these denoni- 






1. Lunx montes, 

2. Arabicus monsy 

,3. Lybicus mons, 

4. Atlas minor, 

5. Atlas major, 

6. Oeorum Currus mons, 

1. Mountidns of the Moon. 
3! (Between the Red Sea and 

3. (West of the Nile). 

4. Cape Cantin. 

5. Bajadore Cape. 

6. Heights of Serra Leona. 





1. Bergon insula, 

2. Nerigon insula, 

3. Scandinavia, vel Scandia in- 

4. Burchana insula, 

5. Codanovia insula, 

6. Baltia, Electrides, vel Gles- 
saria insula, 

7. .Cons vel Hippopodum In- 

8. Eningia insula, 


2* \ (The south of Norway). 

3. (The south of Sweden). 

4. Funen. 

5. Zealand. 

6. (At the Mouth of the Vis- 

7. Oseland Dego. 

8. (The south of Fmland). 



1. Thule vel Thyle*, 

2. Ebudes insulse, 

3. Hibernia vel leme, 

4. Monaeda vel Mona, 

5. Mona, 

6. Albion vel Britannia, 
7i Vectis," 

1. Orkney and Shetland Isles. 

2. Hebrides or Western Isles. 

3. Ireland. 

4. Man. 

5. Anglesey. 

6. Britain. 

7. Isle of Wight. 

Brroneoiuly applied to IcelAnd^ irhieh wanuknoim to the Anoieati. 



8. Riduna, 

9. Sarmia, 

10. Cxsarea 

11. Uuuids, 

12. VindiliSy 

13. UlianiSf 

U. Gades yel Gadir, 

15. P«a (of Ptolemy), 

16. Fortuoats Inaulae, 

a. Junonia, 

b. Capraria, 

c Pluvialia yel Ombiiosy 

d. NiYariay 

e. Canaria, 

f. Purpurariae TnsulXy 

17. Cern6 Insula, 

18. Gorg;ade8 Insulacy 

8. Alderney. 

9. Guemsef . 

10. Jenef. 

11. UshaDt. 

12. Belle lale. 

13. Oieron. 

14. (Site of Cadis). 

15. Madeira. 

l<i. The Canariea. 

a. Pal ma. 

b. Gomera. 

c. Ferro. 

d. Tenerif. 

e. Canaiy. 

f. Fortuventura et Lan9arota. 

17. Arguin. 

18. Bissagos Isles. 



1. PitjTUsac Inaulae, 

a. Ebusus, 

b. Ophiusa, 

2. Baleares vel Gfmnesix in- 

a. Major Baleares, 

b. Minor Baleares, 

3. Corsica vel Cymos, 

4. Sardinia vel Ichnust^ 

5. Ilva, 

6. £olis vel Vulcanic insuhei 

7. Sicilia, Sicania vel Trinacria, 

8. Issa insula, 

9. Corcyra Nigra, 

10. Saso, 

11. Corcyra Phseaciprum, 

12. Leucadia, 

13. Cephallenidf 

14. ZacynthuSf 

15. Strophades, 

16. Creta, 

17. Dium, 

18. J&gilia, 

19. Cythera, 

20. Cycladae Insulae, 

a. Melos, 

b. Cimolus, 

I. (West of the Balearic isles). 

a. Ivica. 

b. Formentera. 

3. The Balearic isles. 

a. Majorca. 

b. Minorca. 

3. Corsica. 

4. Sardinia. 

5. Elba. 

6. Lipari Isles. 

7. Sicily. 

8. Lissa. 

9. Curzola. 

10. Saseno. 

II. Corfu. 

12. Leucadia. 

13. Cefalonia* 

14. Zante. 

15. Strivali. 

16. Candla. 

17. Sun Dia. 

18. Cerigotto, 

19. Cerigo. 

20. The Cycladcs. 

a. Milo. 

b. Argentiera. . . 



c. Siphnus, 

d. Seriphusy 
c. Cythnus, 

f. Ceos, 

g. Andros, 
h. Tenos, 
i. Syrps;. 

J. Delos et Rhenea insulx, 

k. Myconus, 

]. Naxos, 

m. Paros, 

n. Oliarus, 

o. los, 

p. Sicinus, 

q. Pholegandras^ 

Tr Thera, 

s. Anaphe, 

t. Astypolea, Sec. 
31. ^gina, 
23. Salamis, 
'24. Helena velMacrU, 

25. Belbina, 

26. Euboeai 

27. Scyros, 

28. Scyathus, 

29. ScopeloS) 

30. Halone&us, 

31. Preparethus, 

32. Thasos, 

34. Imbrosy 

35. LetnnoSi 

36. Tenedos, 

37. Arginustse Insulse, 

38. Lesbos, 

39. Chios. 

40. SamoS) 

41. Sporades insulae, 

a. Icaria. 

b. Pathmos, 

c. Leros, 

d. Calymna) 

e. Cos, 

f. Nysirus, 

g. TeloS) 

h. Carpathas> 
i. Rhodus, 

42. Cyprus, 


c. Siphanto. 

d. Serpho. 

e. Thermia. 

f. Zia. 

g. Aiidro. 
h. Tina. 

i. (West of Dclos). 
j. Sdili. 
k. Myconi. 
1. Naxia. 
m. Parps, 
n. Antiparos. 
o. Nio. 
' p. Sikino. 
q. Policandrc 
r. Santorin. 
8. Nanphio. 
t. Stanphalia, Itc. 

2 1 . Engia. 

22. Corsaire, 

23. Colouri 

24. Macro-nisi. 

25. Lavousa. 

26. Negropont. 

27. Syra. 

28. Sciathus. 
22. Scopelus. 

30. Dromo. 

31. Pelagnisi. 

32. Thapso. 

33. Samothraki. 
3^. Imbro. 

35. Stalimen. 

36. Tenedos. 

37. Arginusi (three i8les)i 

38. Mytilin. 

39. Scio. 

40. Samos. 

41. (In the Icariansea). 

a. Nicaria. 

b. Pathmos. 

c. Leros. 

d. Calmine. 

e. StancoorLango. 

f. Nisari. 

g. Piscopia. 
fa. Scafpaato. 
i. Rhodes. 

49. Cfprui. 




43. Tyrus (site of Tyre), 

44. Pharos (near Alexandria), 

45. Meninx, 

46. Melita, 

47. Cercina, 

48. Lopadusa, 


43. (The city is called Sur). 

44. (Part of the continent). 

45. Zerbi or Jerba. 

46. Malta. 

47. Kerkeni. 

48. Lampedusa. 



1. Jabadii insula, 

2. Tacola, 

3. Smdae, 

4. Barussae, 

5. Maniolse, 

6. BonaeFortunac, 

T, Taprobana yel Salice, 

8. Insulae ante Taprobanum, 

9. Tylos (in the Persian Gulf), 

10. Dioscoridis, 

Nicobar isles. 

1. Sumatra. 

2. Junkselon. 

5. Little Andaman. 

6. Great Andaman. 

7. Isle of Ceylon. 

8. Maldives islands. 

9. Bahrain. 

10. Socotora, 







Previously to entering on the detail of the civil {^isions^ 
as they may be termed, in contra- distinction from the natural 
divisions just given, of sea$, rivers, lakes, islands moun- 
tains &c. it is conceived that infinite advantage ^ill result to 
the student, from a concise view of the distinct races of man- 
kind known to the ancients, with their migrations, so far as 
Mr. John Pinkerton's ^^ Dissertation en the Goths'' enables 
us to speak on so large a subject. For without some idea of 
these dawnings of civil history, out of which the first deno- 
minations of civil geography originate ; this would necessarily 
be obscure from beginning to end, as that would equally be, un- 
der a like circumstance. — Such is the reciprocity of light and 
illustration between history and geography. 

As Mr. Pinkertpn but slightly hints at the scriptural ac* 
count of the origin of nations ; and, speaking of the accounts 
of the Scythof given by some of the fathers of the church, says, 
'^ Perhaps it may be thought that these ecclesiastical authorities 

28 PlUiLlAflNKAT. 

prove too much, as they mark the whole immediate descen- 
dants of Noah as Scythians ; and of course might prove all 
the nations of the earth to be Scythians, as by Scripture ac- 
count they all sprung from Noah," therefore the student must 
regard the following sketch as derived by Mr. P. from the most 
approved writers of profane history — sacred history being 
consigned apart as inadequate here. But as this summary is 
intended to be a key to general history, both the sacred ac* 
count of the plantation of the earth, and sacred geography, &c. 
form Part the Third of this work; where it will appear that 
the sacred and profane accounts corroborate each other, much 
more than seems to justify our author's neglect of the former. 

In the course of the following sketch, the reader will observe 
that the Scythians^ Geta^ or Goths occupy by much the greater 
portion of our attention; but not unjustly, as they were not 
only the progenitors of almost all modern Europe, but of an- 
cient Greece and Rome, as well as the greater part of Asia 
Minor; thereby rendering themselves alniost as highly dis- 
tinguished above the rest of mankind in ^ancient, as in modern 
history. But to the point-rr 

Not^tQ motion the host of authorides and numberless quo- 
tations given by Mr. P., which he has most laboriously, and no 
doubt judiciously examined, in order to restore these " historic 
truths*^ to Vght, we shall content ourselves with giving a plain 
narrative of vrhat we find to our purpose ; as it would derogate 
exceedingly aga'mst the continuity as well as brevity wished to 
bfe maintained here^ Therefore, drawing to a focus the bril- 
liant lights irradiating from every page of his invaluable work, 
we gather an idea of s^ven distinct aboriginal races of men, 
viz. \st. The Chinese^ 2nd. The East Indians^ 3d, The Scy- 
thians^ 4fth. The Asyrians^ Sth. The Sarmatiansy 6. The Ceits^ 
7th. The Fins or Laplanders; of which the five first were Asi- 
(iticy and the latter two European^ 



Our author informs us that the Chinese and Japanese 
are infallibly, as their language and history declare, a grand 


aboriginal nation. That the Tartars (a) were a colony from 
them, and that their wars with the Chinese can be traced 
back to 200 years before Christ ; in which, about 87 years 
before Christ, the Chinese obtained a prodigious, victory 
over them. After this, their vast nations fell into civil wars. 
In process of time, the numerous hordes that were vanquished, 
moved west in two divisions. One division settled in the 
confines of present Persia, while the other, under the name of— 

HuKs, passed north yrcst over the vast river Walga, and 
poured into Europe about 375 years after Christ, id such amaz- 
ing numbers as no valour could withstand* They first encoun- 
tered the Alani whom they overpowered, but admitted as allies. 
The A/ani and the other Gothic nations— who, even to the 
Caledonian woods of the Picts^ were of large limbs, elegant 
and blooming features, and light hair*-— were astonished at the 
very forms of these new invaders, distinguished by squat limbs, 
flat noses, brolad faces; small black eyes, dark hair, with little 
or no beard ; as indeed are the present Tartars. The OstrO" 
goths also yielded to the Hunnic swarms, and were admitted as 
allies on condition of fighting in their armies. The Huns 
niow. commanded by Balamir, as they were afterwards by three 
others before the famous Attila, entered the Vesigothic terrri- 
tory, and expelled the inhabitants, who found it vain to resist* 
such myriads of warlike invaders. 

** But as the Huns came not in upon the Scythic settlements 
till the fourth century of our sera, there is every reason to con- 
clude that the inhabitants, then far advanced in civilization, 
remained in their possessions (contemplating a period subae- 
quent to their successful career); for the Goths who came 
into the Roman Empire are counted by thousands, whereas 
those who remained (of the Romans we presume) may be rec- 
koned by millions; and Busbequius, with others, shews that the 
peasants of Crim Tartary still speak the Gothic. In the year 
453, Ardaric, king of the Ostrogoths^ assisted by the Gepida:^ 
defeated the Hunsy &c. The remainder of the European Huns, 
much reduced, were afterwards nearly extinguished by the Igours 


(o). '* Mogul seems to be Ihe rightful appellation for thw people down to the 
t'welfth eentury, when the name of Tartar began to be applied by us to almost half of 
KfosJ^ PinkertOD on the Goths. 

30 PRBliMlNARY. 

bf Siberia; so that in Hungaiy, whose name aroste from that 
peopk, there is not one Hun.^^ 


'* llie East Indians are not Tartars, but a race and language 
of men to themselves." M . D' Anville says that ^' sciences and 
polity were found among the ladians from the earliest times in 
which their country was known. The enterprises of Cyrus, 
and of Darius, son of Hystaspes, on India, preceded by an ex- 
pedition of Semiramis, and by that attributed to Dionysius or 
Bacchus, have afforded to the west no particular knowledge of 
this country. Nor did Europe acquire any geographical ac- 
quaintance with India till the invasion of it by Alexander/' 
As the ancient East Indies are not noted for migrations to, 
and colonising other countries, they claim no further notice 


The ancient Scythians were aborigines of present Persia. 
Under their king Tanaus, they attat:ked and subdued Vexores 
king of Egypt on the one hand, and conquered India on the 
other, about 1500 years before Ninus, or 3660 before Christ; ex- 
tending their empire east and west from Egypt to the Ganges, 
and north and south from the Indian ocean to the Caspian sea. 
About 1500 years after, or 2160 years before Christ, Ninus 
subverted the Scythian empire and established the Assyrian 
on its ruins; when, by consequence, the Scy thee Nomacksj a 
pastoral people of the north of Persia, crossed the Araxes 
and Caucasus to settle around the Euxtne or Bl^ck sea; leaving 
behind them the southern Scythes or Persians, who arc the 
progenitors of the Persians of the present day. This asylum 
of the Scythians north of the Euxine, corresponding with Little 
Tartary, Mr. P. in compliance with custom, calls ancient Scy 
thia^ as being the Parent country of the European or western^ 
as well as of the eastern Scythians, who gradually extended 
from this nursery of valorous men, in either direction. 


1. Easteen ScTTHiE. But in regard to the eastern mi- 
gration and somewhat retrograde motion of these Scythw^ in 
what proportion those to the east of the Caspian sea, known 
as Scythtp intra et extra ImauMj were derived from the 
Euxincj or direcdy from the ancient Scythic empire, seems 
to rest in a degree of uncertainty. In his statement of 
these eastern settlements Mr. P. explicitly sajrs that the 
Massagetoi and Sacas^ who were the Scytha intra Imaum and 
the Chatec or Getea and fabalons Arimaapi^ who were the 
Scythtt extra Imaumj on the authority of Diodorus Siculus, 
came respectively from tht Palus Mctctis. He also as ex- 
pressly states that the Bactriani were Sacee or old Scythae who 
extended thus far during the Scythic empire in Persia; for Ni« 
nus made war on them. But he speaks doubtfully of the So£^- 
diani and Margiani rather inclining to derive the former from 
the source of the Bactriani. and the latter from that of the 

Our author also informs us, on the authority of Dionysius 
the Geographer, that the positions between the Euxine and 
the Caspian seas, as Albaniay Iberia, Colchis^ and south of these, 
Armenia, were Scythic settlements: but that those of Colchis 
were dispersed by a colony of Egyptians about 1480 years be- 
fore Christ, (afterwards the famous Colchtans) attracted thither^ 
as were the Argonauts, by the gold mines of the country. 
Here also a small doubt abides. In Mr. P's laudable zeal to 
prove that the Getof, Goths and Scythte were one people, he 
omits to inform us whether these settlements were made as the 
Scythians passed over this tract to the neighbourhood of the 
Pains Mctotis, or afterwards, by retrogression.* The judgment 
of every one, however, will most probably affirm the first al- 
ternative, as migrations generally leave their trac^, though sel- 
dom retrograde. 

Let us consider this account of the eastern settlements of the 
Scythians sufficient for the relative weight of the subject, and 
return to Parent Scythia, formerly called Ancient or Little Scy^ 
thia now Little Tjirtary, and trace their western progress. 

2. Western Scythiaks. The Scythas Nomades of the 
north of Persia, who retired from the power of Ninus, having 


attained this fruitful situation about 2000 years before Christ, 
had here their first encounter with native Celts known by the ap- 
pellative of Cimmeriiy whom they did not finally expel from 
their fastness in the Tauric Chersonese^ till 640 years before 
Christ; and after making early settlements in the east, a^ just 
seen, they tarried here tiU about 1800 years before Christ, when 
they began to colonize— 

a. Thrace; and thence, Asia Minor, Ilit/rtcum, aild Greece; 
which they completed in 300 years. In the neighbourhood of 
Thrace, respecting the north, we must not confound the nations 
of Jazyges and Roxolani with the Daci, Massi and Geta; or Goths; 
the former being Sarmatic^ who came from the north of Asia 
about 1000 years before Christ, and settled in amity among the 
latter, who were all Scythic, 


It may be deemed almost superfluous to observe that the 
terms Scythce, Qetce, and Goths are clearly proven by Mr. P. 
to be convertible; though that of G^M^ made its appearance 
only as early as 250 years after Christ, as shewn by Mr. Gib- 
bon ; whereas Getce .was known among the Scythians about the 
ImauSj with but a slight variation in the form of Getes, several 
centuries earlier. And every one knows how extensively the 
epithet of Goths, unjustly opprobrious, has been apply ed to the 
Scythic nations throughout Europe. 

i. Asia minor. Those Scythians who passed the Bosporus 
Thracius,^nd the Hellespont, into Asia Minor from Thrace, were 
the Bithynians, Mariandyni, Phrygians and all the nations of 
the kingdom of. Pontus — ^namely, the fihcebi, Paphlagonians, 
Chalybes, Tihareni, Mossynasi, Peileres, Macrones, Bechires, 
Byzeres, and Chalcedonians, about the south of the Euxine : 
East of the Hellespont and iEgsan sea, were the Misyans Ly- 
dians and Carians* Besides these from Thrace, the Lycians, 
PamphzHans, &c. came from Greece, being branches of the Pel- 
asgi, Hellenes, or Greek Scythians yet to be noticed. So that 
all Asia Minor was settled by Scythians^ excepting only Cafia- 
docia and Cilicia; of which the former, on the authority of Dio- 
nysius, was settled by Assyrians, as was the latter, on the 
giound of rational induction from proximity of situation ; hav- 
ing no certain authority for the origin of its iQhabitants. 


c. iLLYRictJM*. The history, of those Scythians who from 
Thrace settled the country between the Danube and the Adria- 
tic sea, is not a little obscure. Some centuries after coming 
hither, they successively submitted to their more thrifty breih* 
ren of Macedon and of Rome* Excepting some Illyrian settle- 
ments on tbe neighbouring shoi^es of Itahj^ the Scythic migra- 
tion on this route extended no further west ; in which direction 
the Celts still retained their Gallic possessions till about 500 
years before Christ, when the Germans^ or northern Scytha^ 
poured in upon them ; having passed into Germany by a north- 
west direction from Parent Scythiuy as herein after explained. 

d. Greece. Those Scythians who went into Greece as 
above mentioned, were called Pelasgi^ and afterwards Hellenes; 
as was all Greece known principally by the names first of Pelas* 
gia and afterwards of Hellas among its own inhabitants. The 
Pelasgt were the first possessors of Greece of whom we have 
any historic account : for the. aborigines of Europe penetrated 
into neither extremity of Italy nor Greece. To what eminence 
the Greeks arose in arts and science, pnly rivalled by their 
Scytkiap brethren in other ages and countries, is variously de- 
scanted on by Greek antiquaries : and to what extent two 
small Egyptian colonies of Athens and Argos led by Cecrops 
and Danaus, and one Phoenician colony of T/^ebes led by Cad- 
mus, coittributed to this eminence, will probably ever rest un- 
decided even by the most indefatigable of these enquirers. We 
fas(ve already seen that this Scythic branch colonized Lycia^ 
Pamphiliaf and other parts of Asia Minor. Nor should we 
omit to mention the Greek colony of Massilia^ now Marseilles, 
in France, who came from Phocia a city of lonia^ 600 years be« 
fore Christ ; not to confpund the «ame with the Phomician 
colony of Marseilles, of 60 years posterior date, as is yet to be no- 
ticed. Besides passing eastwardly to Asia Minor, and thence 
to Marseilles, the Greeks or Pelasgi colonized-- 

e. Italy. Mr. Pinkerton derives the Scythic settlers of 
Italy from four sources, and makes as many partitions of the 
country, corresponding with the settlements thus made j which, 

* lllyricum, in the enlarged sense of Mr. P., extends all along^ the north side of t^^ 
A^i^Uc to Gaul ; haTing the Daaube aorth; Thrace and Macedon e^t. 



in regard to the three first, were about IQOO years before Christ, 
and 500 in regard to the last. Excepting the aboriginal Celt^^ 
whom they found in the Gallic part, the Scythians were the first 
possessors of Italy. 

IsU The first of the divisions just alluded to, comprehends 
Grascia Magna^ Campania and Latium; which was setded by 
Pelasgi from Arcadia. Sometime after, a few other Pela»gi 
from EpiruB coming hither, were repulsed by these first colo* 
nists, who were erroneously thought to be aborigines* With 
many other proofs of the Greek origin of this portion of Italy, 
Mr. P. says, ** The Latin language is a clear proof of the origin 
of the people, being merely the jEqUc dialect of the Greeks as 
Quintilian remarks, and as the learned well know." 

2nd. That part of Italy which lies opposite to Illyricum on 
the Adriatic sea, a part of which was cdled Peuketia^ was set- 
tled by the Pmketi from Jllyricum^ » branch of the great BciS'. 
temic nation of Parent Scythia; who, by the bye, forming them- 
selves into several other divisions, and proceding in difterea^ 
directions, overran the rest of Europe; of which presendy, 

3d. The Etrurians^ as we learn from Herodotus, whom Pliny, 
Paterculus, and others of the best ancient writers follow, were 
a Lydian colony; and we have just been told that the Lydians 
were Scythians from Thrace direct. The J^ydians were early 
polished by their neighbourhood with the Assyrians of Cappa^ 
docia; hence the *' Etrurians seem to have been skilled in the 
i^ne arts long before the jLatinSi as the many ancient pieces pre- 
served, shew." 

4M. That part of Italy called Cisalpina Gallia, was settled 
by German Gauls of the Basternic or Scythic ra9e, about 500 
years before Christ. They expelled the aboriginal GeUs^ who 
occupied no other part of Italy. But this is, in some measure, 
anticipating the movements of the Bmternic oation, wtM>m we 
must now attend to, in pursuance of the order of the first Scy^ 
thic progress over Europe^ by returning once nnore to the grand 
store-house of European nations; whence we shall proceed 
with our l^st, and probably largest colonies to supply-^ 



f. Germany, ScANDiwA VI A, ondthereBt of Europe, Mr. 
Pinkerton enters on this article in the following emphatic, and 
we may say exulting manner. ^^ We are now arrived at the last 
and most important part of this dissertation: and a subject upon 
whic}) the whole modern history of Europe depends* If we 
catinot shew the Germans to have bedn originally Scythast^ this 
dissertation is inept. If we can, a field of wide curiosity and 
enquiry opens to the learned of Europe. For, the origin of 
government, manners, laws., in short, all of the antiquities of 
Europe^ will assume a new appearance; and instead of being 
only traced to the woods of Germany, as Montesquieu and 
the greatest writers have hitherto done, may be followed 
through the long descriptions of the manners, he. of the Scy 
thians and Thracians given by Herodotus; nay, even up to the 
aboriginal Scythian empire of Persia. And beyond this there 
is no memorial of human affairs, save in Egypt alone, the his- 
tory of which begins with Menes, the first king, about 4G0O 
years before our aera; while the earliest appearance of the Scy* 
thians in history is about 400 years after, when Vexores was 
king of Egypt, and Tanaus of the ^S^cyf Aar-~not to mention the 
collateral light derived from the whole history of the Greeks 
and Romansy who were Scythct, as just shcwn.^ 

On this route we shall find the Scythians^ Getof or Goths not 
only peopling all Scandinavia and Germany^ but extending 
hence arid actually possessing Gatd and Spain 500 years before 
Christ, as well as Britain and Ireland 30& years before Christ, 
dispossessing the aboriginal Celts almost at pleasure. 

Setting out then from the shores of the Euxine with the 
Scythic migration towards Germany and Scandinavia, the Great 
Basterntc nation engrosses attention. This nation sprung from 
Feukiy an island in the mouth of the Danube, and heart of Pa-^, 
rental Scythia. In their gradual migration towards the Baltic^ 
after sending a branch to lUyricum. and Italy, afore-mentioned, 
the Bastema became 86 numerous as to extend over one fifth 
of ancient Germany; in length 500 miles from the Euxine to 
the Baltic, and in breadth 150 miles between the Vistula on the 
west, and the Memen and Dneiper on the east. It was this 
Scythian nation with whom the Sarmata^ their Asiatic neigh- 
bours, were so much confounded by superficial writers; the 




latter having come by detachments into Europe at a ]^08terlor 
date to, and settled in amity among, the former, under the 
names of Venedij Fenni^ Roxol^ni^ Jozyges^ 6?c. of whom 

Progressing from this extensive tract to the west and the 
north, the name of Basterrut seems to be merged in those of Au 
Tnonty SitoneSj and Peukini. ^^ Of these three divisions of Bas- . 
ternae,'* says Mr. P. " The Atmontj if I mistake not, spreading 
west along the Danube, became the Southern Bastemcty or' 
those properly and absolutely so called by the ancients; while 
the Sitones and Feuiini proceeded northward till they arrived at 
the Baltic sea and Scandinavia/' In this manner did the 
Scythic population diffuse itself over Scandinavia and Germany, 
and penetrate into Gaul, the Gallic part of Italy, and Spain, as 
early as iOO years before Christ. Having now pervaded the 
whole of the European continent, besides making the famous 
expedition into Asia minor, under Lomnorius and Lutarius, 
to found the kingdom Galatia^ which consisted of a detach- 
, ment of those Gauls who had invaded Italy under Brennus, 
they yet find the isolated spots of Britain and Ireland to the s 
west, where they make settlements 300 years before Christ. 
Of these settlers the Piks and Belgce are particularly distin- 
guished. The Piks passed from Scandinavia to the north of 
Britain; and if they were not the immediate descendants of the 
Peukiniy whom we have traced from the island of Peuke in the 
mouth of the Danube, it is very evident that with so plausible 
a pretext, " etymological manta^^ would find very little difficulty 
in deriving Piks from Peuke* The Beiges went from Gaul to 
the south of Britain, driving before them the scanty remains of 
the Celts, and in like manner settled in Ireland about the period 
above noted. The Scythic or Gothic language and manners 
have also been much preserved in the wilds of Iceland; which 
was colonised from Norway in the ninth century, and might 
also be called Scythic, if this settlement be not of too modern 
a date* % 

This account of the settlements of the Geta, Scythes^ or Goths 
in Europe, forms Mr. Pinkerton's ** Epochs of the first Gothic 
progressr over Europe." His " Epochs of the second Gothic pro- 
gre99 from Getia and from Germany over Europe" relate to 

PREUMINAirr. » g7 

the inuDdation of these nations, who had remained in a semibar^ 
barous state, upon their more refined brethren of the south ; 
involving the Roman empire in ruin. The substance of these 
epochas shall be subjoined hereto* We will now say a few 
words of the other aboriginal races of men as formerly cnu* 


All that we see relating to this head in the dissertation of 
our author, is the following ; which I presume is sufficient at 
least for the object of this abstract. 

"Ninus is reputed the founder of the Tower of Babel^ which 
was followed by the dispersion of mankind. He was certainly 
the founder of the Assyrian empire, whose capital was Babylon^ 
and the dispersion of the Scythians followed. Of the race of 
Ham, by Scripture account, was Nimrod, thought to be Ninuss 
and Ashur, thought to be the father of the Assyrians. To this 
race also, belonged the fathers of the nations along the east end 
of the Mediterranean, the Arabic gulf or Red sea, and through 
all Arabia. Certain it is that the Arabic is a dialect of the 
Grand Assyrian language^ as arc the Syrian^ Phcsnician^ He* 
brew^ Chaldee^ Coptic^ Abyssinian^ &c. all sister dialects: and 
the Assyrians who qyerturned the Scythian empire, formed one 
great language or race of men, extending along the east end of 
the Mediterranean and Arabian seas, to the Erythraean sea, 
gulf of Persia, and river Euphrates. From them the Egyp' 
tians and White Ethiopians must also have sprung, as their lan- 
guage and situation declare.'' From this we are authorized to 
consider as branches of the Assyrian race, the Egyptian colo- 
nies of Colchis J of Athens^ and ofArgos; the Phoenician colonies 
of Thebes^ in Greece ; of Hippo ^ Utica^ and Carthage^ in Africa; 
of MassiRa^ in Gaul; and of Gades^ in Spain (who extended their 
commerce into Britain and Gaul long ere Scandinavia and Ger*- 
many were at all known to the Greeks or Romans); also the 
Ajuitaniy in Gaul, who are traced back as far as Arabia, 
whence they passed through Africa, under the name of Mauri; 
and through Spain under the name of Iberi; into Gaul, unaet 
that of Aquitani; where they were found by Julius Csesar, makmg 



counter atrokea with the Belgas^ upon the ill fated Celts. But to 
be more particular of the Egyptian and Phanician coloniei 

The Egyptian colony of Colchis was left there by Sesostrisy 
king of Egypt, when he was extending his arms in the east^ 
1400 years before Christ. That of Athens was conducted by 
Cecrops, a native of Sais in Egypt, 1556 before Christ. He ia 
said to have introduced the laws and customs of Egypt among^ 
the native Pelasgi, and to have founded Athens. That of Ar^ 
gos was conducted by Danaus 1475 years before Christ; having^ 
reigned in Egypt jointly with his brother Egyptus, till in conse- 
quence of a difference between them, he sailed with his fifty 
daughters, in search of another setdement. He was hospitably 
received by Gelanor, king of Argos^ whom he afterwards de- 
throned, by intriguing with his disaffected subjects. 

The Phcentctan colony of Thebes was conducted by Cadmus, 
son of Agenor, king of Phcenicia^ 1280 years before Christ, 
who was sent on a fruitle?? search for his sister Europa, stolen 
by Jupiter, with order not to return without her, as the fable 
goes. He is reputed to have founded Thebes in consequence 
of this unsuccessful mission. The Phanicians settled Utica 
1200 years before Christ; and Carthage^ under the conduct- of 
Dido, from Tyre, about 800 years before Christ.^ They settled 
^ the island Gades^ in Spain, 1200 years before Christ ; and Mas- 
«.{/ia, in Gaul, 539 before Christ. 

The reader now perceives how extensively the Scythian and 
Assyrian races intermixed in Asia Minor, and in Greece in 
particular. And observing that the latter had the advantage of 
the former in civilization and arts« wherever they united, he will 
be inclined to demur on the title of preference given the Scythic, 
by Mr. P., over all other races of mankind. But granting the 
higher distinction of the Phcenicians and Egyptians about the 
" Epochs of the first Scythic progress over Europe," and pass- 
ing by the renown that the Scythic race attained in Greece and 
Rome, which is plausibly attributed to their neighbours of the 
Assyrjimi race, the present refinement of Europe and America, 
which Mr. P., calls ^^ a Scythic empire of the present day 
th(mgb uot under one sovereign/' far surpasses the social effort 


of any previous ejnpire*-^wavin^ the mortifyitig anticipatioD of 
the savag^e fate AaI seems once more universally • impending* 
With their unjust aversion to Assyrian rivalship, how much 
more then should the feelings of our Sc)rthian monopolisers of 
human excellence revolt at the opinion of Major Rennell, that 
the ancient Egyptians hajd blaci skin and crisped hair as the 
degraded slaves of America; of which he cites the far-famed 
Sesostris as a special instance.^ Such a position scarcely de- 
serves the epithet of hypothetical^ much less to gain credence in 
defiance of the Egyptian Mummies as proofs of the contrary*! 1 

\ . 


' ^^ The Sarmata were in all appearance, originally, possessors 
I of south-west Tartary, but expelled by the Tartars* For their 
speech, the Sarmatic or Slavonic^ is remote from the Tartaric; 
and their persons, full of grace and majesty, are different from 
those of the Tartars : so that they are not of Tartaric origin." 
Besides proving that they are not of Tartaric origin, many rea- 
sons are adduced to shew that they are an original race. 

They entered Europe about 1000 years before Christ ; for 
they were far behind the Scythas in their progress, and it is 
clear that upon their entry, they found the greater part of Eu- 
rope occupied by the Scythoe^ who bounded them on the south- 
\ west, and north-west. Hence, in process of time, several of 
\ the Sarmatic and Scythic tribes of their frontier, settled among 
\ each other, and generally waged war in alliance. Those of the 
Sarmatce who are found entirely within the Scythic territpry, are 
' three nations of JazygeSy viz. the Jazyges Eneocadlce^ on the 
f east of the mouth of the Tyros; the Jazyges Moeotac^ on the 

* See RetiDelfs Herodotus. 

t If this be not sufficient to remove the stigma of the above opinion, let the reader 
console himself with the following — *' quant ^ moi, je suis et serai toujours persuade 
^ue les K^gres n'ont ^t^ produits que par la cause indiquee ci-dessus ; crest-a-dire, par 
It melange de notre sang avec eelui de Tonrang^outang. Au surplus, il serait facile de 
s'en assurer/* &c &c Such is the eccentricity of speculative tolly, on subjects of which 
uimmon sense entertains no doubts, nor thinks them worthy a moment's discussion. 


north of the Mctotis; and chiefly the Jazygea Metanastety between 
the Danube and Tt:i88| above Pannonia. Besides these^ we find 
several other Sarroatic nations within the territory above as- 
signed to the Basternic nation of Scythct as we proceed north-^ 
ward upon the Baltic, such as the Venedi^ the Htrri^ and the 
Fennu This country, commonly known as Germano-Sarmatia^ 
was the ultimate tract of Europe on the north-east in those re- 
mote periods, though in more modem times, that boundary 
runs much further to the north-east. 

A great Sarmatic nation, the Roxolant^ gave name to Russia; 
and that part of Poland, far from Russia, called Red or Black 
RusJita^ took its name from a part of the Roxolani who had 
penetrated to that corner and settled. Their posterity, as may 
be said of the Sarmata in general^ still subsist in the inhabitants 
of Russia and Poland. 


We are informed that the Celts were the most ancient in- 
habitants of Europe that can be traced; and were to the after 
settlers, what the aboriginal savages of America are to the Eu- 
ropean settlers there. These people form themselves under 
two grand divisions. 1st. The CV/^s properly and peculiarly 
so called ; and 2d. The Cimbri^ Cimmerii^ or Cumru 

1. The Celts proper^ occupied that part of Europe which 
lies west and south of the Rhine, even beyond the Pyrenees ; 
but extended not beyond the Gallic part of Italy. They were 
finally pent up in the extremity of Gaul, by the Scythians^ un- 
der the name Belgos^ on the north, and the Aquitam^ a Mauric 
people, on the south : whence a portion of them were pursued 
by a portion of the Belgce into the south of Britain, about ^(^ 
years, before Christ : and again driven thence about the same 
time to Ireland, by their brethren the Cimbri or Cumri^ who 
were the first inhabitants, and presumed by Mr. P. to have 
come to the north of Britain from the opposite shores of Ger- 
many, at a very remote period. 


2. The Cihmeiiii, Cihbri, or Cumri, are by much the 
larger division of the original Celtic inhabitants of Europe, and 
are supposed to spring from a northetn pr egress of the proper 
Celts. They possessed all ancient Germany according to the 
enlarged boundary of Mr. P.| when they were disturbed in 
their peaceful possessions by the obtruding Scythians, at inter- 
vals, from 2000 to 500 years before Christ. 

At the first Scythic pressure from the east, if not at an 
earlier period, a part of the Cimbri or Cumri^ of the north-west 
comer of Germany, are supposed by our author to have passed 
into the north of Britain; being the oldest inhabitants that 
can be traced, and leaving Cumraic names to rivers and moan- 
tains even in the furthest Hebudes (Hebrides or Western Isles). 
Of these we are told that the present Celto- Welch and High- 
landers of Scotland are remains; as are the Celt-Irish the re- 
mains of the Gael or proper Celts^ who passed from Gaul to 
Britain, and were promoted thence to Ireland, by the Cumriy 
about 300 years before Christ, as just motioned. These Celt- 
Irish, Celto- Welch, and the Highlanders of Scotland are the 
only Celtic remains that Mr. P. will allow of in all Europe. 

•The few remaining Citnbri of this corner of Germany were 
every where surrounded by the Scythes about 100 years before 
Christ, when the Scandinavian Scyttue poured down upon them, 
and drove them and the Teutones (of Scythic origin) before 
them. The southern Germans permitted them to pass through 
their territories in search of new habitations. They ruled Gaul 
and ravaged Spain a while, till turning upon Italy, they were al- 
most extingiaished by the sword of Marius 102 years before 

We have already seen, incidentally, (as indeed have we nearly 
the whole of this article on the Celts) that a part of the Cim- 
bri or Cimmerii for a long while defended themselves against 
the Scythes in the Tauric Chersonese, or were neglected by 
them till 646 years before Christ; when, passing the Cimme- 
rian Bosporus, they made their way into Asia Minor over the 
mountains of Caucasus. The Scythans pursued them, van- 
quished, and perhaps extinguished them. 



Mr. p. endeavours to distinguiah between the Fins and the 
Fenni; as he would shew that the former were aboriginals of 
Finland, Lapland, &c.; and the latter a nation of Sarmatic origin. 
Bt^t with due deference, I think his words are inconclusive, or 
rather inclining to a contrary opinion, viz, That they are one 
and the same people^ of the Sarmatic race. For, notwithstand- 
ing^he says, severally, that ^* the northern Fins^ including Lap- 
landers^ seem to have been infallably aborigines of their coun- 
try; for they are so weak, so peaceable, and their soil so wretch- 
ed, that they could have vanquished no nation, and no nation 
could envy them their possessions in climes beyond the solar 
roady^ (pag^ 175); and speaking of the western progress of the 
Scythes^ that "here every European is personally interested, save 
the Sarmatians of Russia and Poland; save the CeltO'Welch of 
England, th^ Celt-Irish of Ireland and the Highlanders of Scot- 
land; and save the Fins of Hungary y Finland and Laplandy 
(page 90); yet he also states elsewhere, speaking of the Huns^ &c. 
that " the remainder of the European Huns was but very small, 
and afterwards nearly extinguished by the Igours of Siberia-^ 
and the Hungarians proper, are Igours^ a Finnish people who 
settled there in the ninth century.'' * It needs only to be de- 
manded, if these Finnish Igours from Siberia, the quarter 
"whence the Sarmatians were expelled by the Tartars" (page 18), 
were the ^^ Fins of Hungary ^ Lapland^ and Finland*^ why 
should Mr. P. consider these as aboriginals of Finland and 
Lapland, whilst he distinguishes the Finnish Igours, or Fenni 
as of Sarmatic origin? Perhaps our author did not consider this 
point to be of much moment in a dissertation on the Goths, or 
he had been less aqabiguous. 

We will conclude this abstract, with a short extract on the 
feudal 9ystemy and. a brief view of the epochs of the first and 
second Gothic progress over Europe, from the same ster- 
ling dissertation, previously to resuming our proper subject of 



We cannot forbear subjomiDg what Mr. Pinkerton says* on a 
subject, perhaps, the most interesting to the present civilized 
World, of , all others in the vast scope of political speculation! 
though, without disparagement to its military convenience and 
utility in the periods of simplicity out of which it arose, we 
should unanimously accord its extinguished Hate as at least af« 
fording an opportunity of a more popular policy (however par* 
tial to the United States in its adoption as yet) notwithstanding 
Mr. P,*s specious regret of its fate. 


He says — ^^ The feudal system has been treated of by many 

writers, but so uncommon a quality is penetration, that all of 

them to this day have confounded two grand divisions in its 

history which are totally dissimilar. These divisions are, 

1. The Feudal System* 2- The corrupted Feudal System* The 

former extends from the earliest account of time, through the 

early history of Greece and Rome till the progress of society 

changed the manners of these nations: and through the early 

history of the Goths and Germans who overturned the Roman 

empire, down to the eleventh century. At this period com- 

mences the corrupted feudal system^ and lasts till the fifteenth 

century, when the feudal system, began, after its corruption, to 

dissolve quite away. The corruption of the feudal system 

took place soon after the petty kingdoms of the former ages 

were united into great monarchies, as the heptarchies in £ng« 

land became subject to our monarch ; and so in other countries. 

This corruption is no more the feudal system than any other 

corruption is the substance preceding corruption, that is quite 

the reverse: and yet, such is modern superficiality, that it 

has been termed the feudal system ; ancl all writers estimate the 

feudal system by its corruption only, just as if we should judge 

of a republic by its condition when changed into an aristocracy. 

About the eleventh century, by the change of small kingdoms 





OV»R , 


/• FtrMt Gothic Epochs.* 

The Scythifiuds, whom the dawn of history discovers in b.c. 
present Persia under their king Tanaus, attack Vexores 
king of Egypt, conquer Asia, and establish the Scythian 
empire 1500 before Ninus, or - - • - 3660 

Ninus, first monarch of the Assyrian empire establish- 
ed the same by subverting the Scythian; when by conse- 
quence, the Scythse Nomades of the north of Persia cross 
the river Araxes and Mount Caucasus and settle around 
the Euxine sea -----. 2160 


The Scythians begin settlements in Thrace, lUyricum, 
Greece and Asia Minor - «- - • - 1800 

The Scythians have completely peopled Thrace,. lUyri- 
cnm, Greece aad Asia Minor - . * . . 1500 

The Scythians have peopled Italy ... lOOO 

The Scythians have peopled Germany and Scandinavia, 
as well as a great part of Gaul and Spain - • 500 


The reader will bear in mind (as iJbe terms ^* first and tecond Gothic progress*' 
est) that the Goths of this^r^/ section, were the Scyth» Nomades of Persia, who 

••^Ut^ — / ' -' 4/'" -' — — ^ — , ^. VIW !«•%< WW^ ».~—  - ^ 

overran Europe as spoken of in this and the preceding pages ; and that the Goths of 
the following «econa section, were the associations of their savage progeny, (with the 
lulciition of liuns and Sarmatians)^ who again overran Europe in the manner there 



The Belgae of Scythic origin pass into the south of Bri« b.g. 

tain and Ireland - • - - - - 300 

The PikS) likewise of Scythic origin, pass into the 

north of Britain - - _ - - - . 300 

//• Second Gothic Epochs. 

A.D. The Vesigoths* or Western-Getse were the Goths who 
250: poured into Dacia, ravaged it, and niarched on, south, 
over the Danube into Thrace. 

251. Decius is defeated and slain in Mssiaby the Vesigoths 
or Wetern-Geta. 

252. Gallus purchases peace of the Goths by an annual tribute. 
They return to their own country. 

260. The Franci, or Free-men, a confederation of the Chauci 
Cherusci Catti (who were great nations of Germany), 
Bructeri, Usipii, Tencteri, Salii, Ansivarii, &c. (who 
were smaller nations) burst through Gaul, and ravage 
Spain: a part passing over into Africa. 

260* The Alamanni, (a//rm(fn, men of all tribes, or whole* 
m&n^ &c.) a confederation of several tribes of the vast 
German nations of the Suevi, invade Italy, and return la- 
den with spoil. 

260* The Ostrogoths seize on the small kingdom of the Bos- 
porus Cimmerius which had long subsisted under Roman 
protection : afterwards in one naval expedition they take 
Trebisond, and ravage the Euxine shores; in a second, 
moving westward, they plunder Bithynia; and in a third 
they ravage Greece. 


• The Get» or Parental Goths were the very people vhom Darius found 500 jreara 
before Christ, as Herodotus shews, in the indentioal country whence they nOw issue. 
Soon after this expedition of Danus, we find the Gets or Goths divided into Vesigoths 
or western Golhs on the west of the Doristhenes; and Ostrogoths or eastern Goths and 
Alaoi (a Scythic iiation) on the east of the Boristhenes. 


A.D. With another naval armament the Ostrogoths land in 
269b Macedonia. Claudius the emperor advancing against 
them, fought a great battle at Naissus in Dardania, and 
conquering them, obtained the surname of Gothicus. 

272. The Vesigoths who extended over the north and west o£ 
Dacia forced Aurelian to surrender that province. 

272* The Alamanni again invade Italy, but are repulsed hy 



276. The Alani invading Pontus, are defeated by Tacitus. 

278. Probus builds a wall from the Rhine to the Danube about 
200 miles long to protect the empire from the German 

322. The Vesigoths no' longer content with Dacia, pour into 
IU3n:icum, but are expelled by Constantine I. 


331* The Vandals, also an association of Suevian tribes, hav- 
ing found Germany open by the frequent transitions of 
the Franks and Alamanni south-west, had gradually 
spread south-east, till they bordered on the Vesigoths, 
and had many conflicts with them* 

331. Constantine I. again repels the Goths; and conquers a 
few Sarmatians. 

355, The Franks and Alamanni pass the Rhine and ravage 
Gaul ; but are conquered and repelled by lulian. 

365. The Alamanni again invade Gaul, and are a^ain defeated* 

367. Ulphilas, bishop of those Goths who had been allowed by 
Constantine II. to settle in Maesia, translates the Scrip- 
tures into Gothic; a part of which translation now remsuns, 
and before the year 400 most of the Gothic nations in the 
Rootan empire, and QU its fronders, become Christians* 


PRfiLlMmABT. 49 

A.9. The Burgondians, a Vandalic race, who appeait4 under 
370. this name on the south-west of Germany, about present 
Alsace, invade Gaul. 

3fO« The Saxones a Vandalic race also, and whom Ptolemy 
first mentions at the mouth of the Elbe, ravage the coa«ta 
of Gaul and Britain* 


aro. The Piks, a German Gothic people from. Scandinavia, 
ravage the north of Britain, and with their confederatea 
the Scots, advance even to London, where they are repelled 
by Theodosius, general of Valentinian, to their ancient 
possessions beyond the Clyde and Forth. 

SfO. Hermapric, king of the Ostrogoths or eastern Get«, con- 
quering the Vesigoths, the Heruli and Venedi of Poland, 
and theiEstii of Prussia, with many other aations, is com- 
pared to Alexander. 



^375. The Huns burst at once from Tartary, upon the do- 
minions of the Alani and Ostrogoths, whom they conquer^ 
and admit as allies to fight in their armies. 

376. The Huns enter the Vesigothic territory; on which 
the inhabitants, conscious of inferiority, seek the protec- 
tion of the emperor Valens, and gain admittance into the 
Roman territory of M sesia, when, being refused provisions, 
they revolt. 

377. The Goths penetrate into Thrace. 

378. On the 9th of August was fought the famous battle of 
Hadrianople, in which Valens was defeated and slain by 
the Goths. But the Goths falling into intestine di- 
visions, were in the course . of a dozen years repelled 
into Pannonia; an army of 40,000 Goths being retained 
for the defence of the empire. 

395. The Goths unanimou;sly rise under the command of the 
great Alaric. - 


A«D« 396* Alarie ravage* Greece. 

400—403. Alarie invades Italy^— is ddftated by Stilkiio^ who 
was himself a Vandalic Goth. 

406* Radagaisas^ at the head of a large army of German 
nations, viz. Vandats, Suevi, Burgondtans, &c. ii^vades 
Italy. He is likewise defeated by Stilicho, but the re- 
mains of his army mvage Gaul. 

408. Atarie again invade Italy;*^esieges Rome thrice, and 
at length takes it in 410, in which year he died. The mo- 
deration of the Goths is highly praised by several co- 
temporary writers. The monuments of art suffered not 
from them; but from time and barbarous pontiffs. 

41 ST. Ataulphns, brother-in-law to Ahrie, and his elected 
successor, make peace with the Romans, and marches the 
Vesigoths into the south of Gaul which they possess for a 
long time. 

415. The Suevi, Vandals, and Alani, having in40d penetrated 
from the south-west of Germany into Gaul, which they 
ravaged, were afterwards forced by Gon^tantine, brother- 
in-law of Honorius, to abandon Gaul, and pass into Spain. 
Ataulphus, king of the Vesigoths, now leads his forces 
against them; conquers them, and restores Spain to the 
Romans, with the exception of Gallicia, which the Suevi 
and Vandals still retained. 

420. The Franks, Burgundians, and Vesigoths obtain a per- 
manent seat and dominion in Gaul. The first in Belgic 
Gaul, on the north, the second in Lugdunensis and present 
Burgundy, in the middle; the last in Narbonne and Aqui- 
tain, on the south. 

429. The Vandals of Spain pass intd Africa under Genseric, 
their king, and establish the Vandalic kingdom there, 
which endured 96 years, when it was terminated by the 
conquest of the celebrated Roman general Belisarius. 


A.b. .The great Attila, king of the Huns, begina to Kigu 
430. aboqt this time. His fame chiefly sprung from the terror 
he. spread into the Roman empire; his conquests have been 
ridiculously nAagnified. On the east the Ostrogoths, the 
Gepidae and Heruli, obeyed him; as did the Rugii,. and 
Thuringi on the west. His domains were vast; but he 
turned with scorn from the barren north, while the south 
aflbrded every temptation* 

449. The Vetss or Jutes arrive in Britain and seize 
on a corner of Kent. 

460. They increase and found the kingdom of Kent* 

4Tr« The first Saxons arrived in Britain and founded the 
kingdom of South Saxons* In 

495, The West Saxons arrived in Britain* In 

527, The East Saxons arrived in Britain* In 

547, The first AngU came,, under Ida, to Bemicia in 
Britain* In « 

575, The East Angles appeared in Britain* 

585. Foundation of Mercia; which Beda says was an 
Anglic kingdom, but seems to me a Frisian, as we 
know that the Frisi were of the nations who seized 
Britain, though omitted by Beda, who was an Anglus, 
and gives that name most improperly* 

.451* Attila invades Gaul and besieges Orleans;, the grand bat-* 
tie of Chalons, the Campt Catahuntci, is fought* This 
conflict, the most prodigious and important ever joined in 
Europe in any age, was between Attila on the one hand 
with his innumerable army of Hjans, Ostrogoths, Rugii^ 
Thuringi ; on the other, iEtius with Romans, and Theo- 
doric with Vesigoths, Alani, Saxons, Franks, Burgun* 
dians, Armoricans &c. Attila is totally defeated and 
forced to retreat, leaving 150,000 of his army on the field 


» >^ 

PART ir. 







1. Vcnnicmi, 

2. Robogdii> 

3. Erdini, 

4. Voluntii, 

5. Cauci, 

6. VodisB, et Iberni, 

7. Brigantes,' 

8. Vel^bori, 

9. Gangari, 

10. Auteri, 

11. Nagnatae, 

1 2. Coriondi) . 

13. Menapii) 

14. Blanii, . 



1. Donnegal or Tyrconnel. 

2. Londonderiy, Antrim, &c. 

3. Fermanagh. 

4. Louth, Armagh, Down, &c. 

5. Cavan, East & West Meaths. 

6. Cork County. 

7. Waterford and Tippcrary. 

8. Limerick and Kerry. 

9. Clare and Galway 

10 Longford and Roscommon. 
U. MayO)'Sligoe9 and Leitrim. 

12. King's, Queen's, ScKilkenny. 

13. Carlow and Wexford. 

14. Wicklow, Dublin & Kildare. 

L Eblana, 

2. Regia^ 

3, Jernis, 


1. Dublin. 

2. Armagh^ 

3. Cashel. 


*^ Juat preceding the fall of .^he Western empire, i^^efind this 
island mentioned under the nsLmeci Scotia^ and the inhabit^ts^ 
who issued from it to invade the north of Britain, under that 
of Scott. 



^^ The Romans never having carried their arms into Ireland, 
had no other knowledge of it than such as commerce afiForded^ 
nor does it enter into history till an age very much posterior to 
that of antiquity." So says M . D'AnviUe; though the prelimi* 
^nary to this Part, drawn from PinkertorCs dissertation on the 
GathSy gives tts a claim to a much earlier acquaintance with her 



11. CALEDONIA, vcl BRI- 


1. Comabii. 

2. Mertae ct ^ Scott. 

S. Vacomagi, 

4. Tacxali, 

5. Hore&tae> 

6. Vernicones, 

7. Epidii, Gadeni & Certones, 

8. Caledonii, 


9. Damnu 

10. Ottadoni. 

1 1. N^vaDteS) 

12. Selgovae, 

!>nii, 1 



I. Csathness. 

3. Sutherland Ross and Cro- 

3. Nair and Inverness. 

4. Elgin, Banf, and Aberdeen. 

5. Forfar. 

6. Kincardin. 

7. Argyle. 

8. Perth) Kmross, Fife^ and 

9. Haddington, Edinburgh, Lin- 
lethgow, Stirling, Dumlwirtoii 
Renfrew and Bute. 

10. Berwick. 

1 L. Air, Lanerk) and Peebles. 
1?. Kirkudbright, Dumfries, 
Roxburg and Selkirk. 


' i 

1. Victoria, 

2. AlataCastra, 

1. (Near the Grampiai^ HUls.) 

2. Edinburgh. 


This part of Great Britain was fiever conquered by the Ro- 
mans beyond the Forth; which encroachment was again repelled 
by the inb^bhai£its. The principal revolutions produced here 
by the Smi ft^m Ireland, belong to a period subsequent to an- 
cknt'gi^ography ittid histor^^ 

civile DIVISIOKS. 



BmnoH InhaHtanU. 

^ . DumnoQiiy 
. Ourotrigevi 
. BelgaS) 

4. Attrebateiit 

5. Cantiii 
^6, Regni, 


2. Demetae^ 

3. Ordoticesi 

1. Dobuniy 

2. Catieuchlimi} 

3. Sinioni vel Iceni) 

4. Trinobant^s^ 

5. CoriMivM, 

6. Coritaniy 

IMA ri. 

[EN- < 




CIS. j[2. Parisi, 

Ottadini et Gadini^ 




f 1. Dubris Pdrtiis^ 

2. Ritupia PcHtus, 

3. Duroverno, 

4. DHrobriviS} 

5. Regnum, 

6. Venta Belgarum, 

7. Celeva, 
S. Somodunimi) 

9. Vindogladia, 

10. Dtrniovaria, 

1 1 . Isca Dumnoniorum; 
^12. Aquae Solisy 


Counfies. ' 

1. Cornwall and DevoiiBKirri 

2. Dorsetshire. 

3. Hampshire) Somf r^etuhire} 

and Wiltshire. 

4. Berk&hire. 

5. Kent. ! 

6. Suriy and Sussex. 

1. Monmouthshirey Hereford- 
shire) Radnorf Brecknock and 

2. Pembroke, Cardigan) and 

3. Flint) Montgomery, Denbigh, 
Carnarvon and Merioneth- 

1. Oxford )9nd Crioucestershire. 

2. Buckinghamshire, Hertford- 
shire, Cambridge, Hunting- 
dot),. Norpiampton) Bedfordfc 

3. Norf9lk and Suffolk. 

4. Elesex, & part of Middlesex, 

5. WarwicWorceetcr, Stafford, 
Shropshire and Cheshire. 

6. Lincoln, Nottingham) Derb^) 
Rutland and Leicester. 

1. Lancashire, North & West 
Ridings of Yorkshire. 

2. East Riding of Yorkshire. 

1. Northumberl^d) U. Durham. 

2. Cumberland. 

3. Westmoreland* 


1. Dover. 

2. Sandwich. 

3. Canterbury. 

4. Rochester. 

5. Ring wood. 

6. Winchester* 

7. Alton. 

8. Old Sarum. 

9. Winborn. 

10. Dorchester. 

11. Exet^f. 

12. Bath. 



w 2 

s -^ 












1. Isca SilurUxn, 

2. Venta Silurum, 
J 3. Mariduiium, 

j 4. Magnis, 
5. Segontiuiti, 
^6. fiomum, 

1. Deva, 

2. Condate, 

3. Mediolannm, 

4. Pennocnicium, ' 

5. Etocetum, 

) 6. Manduessedufn, 

7. Glevum, 

8. Durocornoviutn, 

9. Magiovintuin, 

10. Durocobrivis, 

1 1. Veroiamium, 
13. Londiniutn, '^• 

13. Csesaro Magnus, • • 

1 4. Camalodunum, 

1 5. Sitomagus, 

1 6. Venta Icenoruih, 

17. Camboritum, 
^8. Durolipons, 

19. Causennis, 

20. Durobrivis, 

21. Ratis, 
L22. Lindum, 

1. Prseiorium, 

2. Eboracum, 
3 Calcaria, 

4. Cambodunum^ 

5. Mancunium, 

6. Coccium, 

7. Bremetonacis, 

8. Castra Exploratorum, 

9. Luguvallum, ' ' 

10. Corstopitum, 
LU. Vindomora*, 



1. Caerleon* 

2. Caergwent. 

3. Caermarthen. 

4. Old Radnor. 

5. Caniarvon. 

6. Cowbridge. 

1. Chester. 

2. Northwich. 

3. Meywood. \ 

4. Penkridg^. 

5. Uttoxeter. 

6. Manchester. j 

7. Gloucester. 

8. Cirenchester, 

9. Dunstable. 

10. Berkhamstead. 
n.(NearSt. Albins). . 

12. London. 

13. Chelmsford. 

14. Colchester. 

15. Thctford. 

16. Caster (near Norwich). 

17. Cambridge. 

18. Godmanchester. 

1 9. Folkingham. 

20. Dornford (near Caster). 

21. Leicester. 

22. Lincoln. 

1. Patrington. 

2. York. 

3. Tadcaster. 

4. Almansbury. 

5. Manchester. 

6. Cockley. 

7. Lancaster. 

8. pid-Carlisle. 

9. Carlisle. 

10. Mospeth. ^ 

11. Newcastle. 


The Phoenician colony of Gades (Cadiz) had a very early 
commercial acquaintance with Britain as well as with Gaul 
which their policy kept secret. It was unknown to the Romans 

, * I'he towns of Vaieiiiia, which should come in here, are not distinctly noticed by 
M. D'Anville, &CC. &c. 

1 1 



till It was mvaded by Julius Caesar during his Gallic wars be* 
fore Christ 55 » It was ascertained to be an island by Agricola^ 

who sailed around iu 

When Caesar passed ioto Britain, he advanced only to the 
banks of the Tham^s^ which merely served, as it were, to shew 
bitn the country. Augustus, little attached to extending the 
limits of the empire, neglected the conquest of it t and it was 
not seriously invaded till the reign of Claudius, when the part 
nearest to Gaul, between the east and south, was subjected. 
Under the reign of DomiUan, the Roman anis commanded by 
Agricola penetrated even to Caledonia ; that is to say, into the 
centre of Scotland* The difficulty of maintaining this distant 
frontier against the assaults of the unconquered people, deter- 
mined Adrian to contract the limits of the Roman province ia 
Britain, and separate it from the barbarous country by a rampart 
of eighty miles in length, from the bottom of the gulf noiw 
called Solway Frith, to Tinmouth, which is the entrance of a 
river on the east side of the island. Severus carried these limtta 
further, in constructing another ram^ar/, of thirty-two. miles, ia 
the narrowest part of the island between Glota^ or the river 
Clyde, and the bottom of Bobotria, or the gulf near which the 
city of Edinburgh stands. 

The nnultiplication of provinces which prevailed throughout 
the Roman empire, furnished in this island, a Britannia Prima 
and Sectmda; a Flavia Cccsariensis^ a Maodima Ccesariemis and 
a Valentia^ as shown in the table. After holding this part of the 
British isle for nearly ^00 years, being no longer able to defend 
so distant a province, the Romans relinquished it to the old in- 
habitants ; who, calling in the Saxons from Germany to assist in 
repelling the Picts and Scots, fell a prey with thesCi to the sinister 
sdly, except those who retired to Wales. 

Ancient, Modern, 

ZA, vel BALTIA. 

Islands* Inhabitants, 

1. Bergon lpeukini,vel 

2. Nerigon J ^^^' 




(The South of Norway) 




"^ Hellcvionesy 
S. Scandinavia 




Hnavia 1 ^^''Z et 

J Gythorics, 

4. Codtoovia, 1 


5. Barclian% J 

6. Bajtia,£lec- 1 

trideS) vel > JEstii^ 
Glessaria. 3 
r. Hippop6dum,|^ J p^^^.^ 

8. Eningia, J "^ ^^ *^*™' 

3. (The south of Sweden). 

4. Zealand. 

5. Funen. 

6. (At the mouth of tlic Vistula). 

7. Osel ahd Dego. 

U Bergt>n> 

8. (The South of Finland). 


I 1. Befgeii. 


The atqiiaintanc« that the Greeks and Rooiaos had. witb 
Scandinavia was of a commercial nature. The principal artick 
of trade was amber, which was^ and* is, procured only at the 
island ^of Baltia and about the mouth of the Vistula. Its ge* 
ography wa^, of course, very little known, as they mistook the 
southern promontories of Norway and Sweden for islands. 


V. SARMATIA. viz. Ger- 

mano-Sarmatia, Sarmatia-Pro- 
pria, ct Satmatia-Scythica, vel 

Counties and Inhabitants, 

' 1. Gesmano-Sarmatia.-^ 
Hirii, ^stii, Venedi, Fen- 
Ge!oni, Bastemse) Peu- 
ni, kini, Bodeni, Amadoci, 
Tyragfette, Veaigotha Osr 
. trogothiy Sccfcc. 
2. Sarmatia Propria^— 
Scirri, Cariones, Basi* 
lici, Biidihl, Hamaxobii) 
Roxolani, Jazygea> Tau- 
ri; &c. Vc. 




part of Poland and Prussia; 
with Little Tartary, Circas- 
sia and Cuban Tartary. 

Countries J ^t, 

1. Parts of Poland, Prussia 
and Little Tartary, viz. 

Courland, Wilna, East-Prus- 
sia, Slonim, Minsk, Wol- 
hynia, Podoli^ Otchakov, 
part of Ekaterinoslav) &c. 

2. EuRO'PBAN Russia, and part 
of Little Tartary, viz,| 
fteval, Riga, Novogorod,! 
Mosciow, Kiow, Belgoro4j 
Waronetz, . Crimea or Tau* 
rida, &c. &^ 





1. Sarmatia Sctthica, 

iM^eots, Amaaon/es) Zichi) 

i ^. 






'K Amadoca) 

2. Metropolis, 


a. Olbia, 

4. Odessu^j 

5. Irland, 

6. Scirlngsheal) 

7. Gelonus. 

8. Carqine, 

9. Taphrae, 

10. Ekipatoriutxi) 

11. PartheniuTn. 
i% Cimmjeritmi; 
IS. Theodoski, 
14. Panticapaeum> 
"1. T^nais, 

2. Phanagorla. 

3. Corbcondama} 

4. Sindicus Portus, 

I 1. Circassia &c« (havitig the Doa 
and Wolga on the north; 
Ct^ucasus, 9Qutb( theC^pian 
and. ^lack ^ea|»y east aD4 


1. (Above Metrdpolit). 

2. (On the Qorysthenes above 

3. (Near the moutb of the Borys* 

4. (Beach of Perezen). 

5. Reval. 

6. Kronstad. 

7. (Burnt by Dari^s)^ 
is. Negropoli. 

9. Perekop, or OrcapL 

10. Ak-Meschet. 
1 i.Casan-dlp. 
12. (No renoain^ of). 
14. Kirche. 

1. Azof. 

2. "> (Between th^ moutl^s of tbe 
3.5 H^fpanis). 
4. Sundgik. 


To preserve Sarmatia entire we have trespassed upon the 
boundaries of Asia. The Vistuia is regarded as the separation 
between Sarmatia and ancient Germany. y\xe Tanais qdakes 
the division between the European add Asiatic Sarmatia^ towards 
the lower p^rt of its coarse, tending to the Palu9 Mototts^ 
Thence, and from the Cimmerian Bosphorusj the Asiatic part^ 
bounded on the j^outh by the ^uxine and moiiiit Caucasus^ ex* 
tends as far as the Caspian s^q^ the northern shore of which it 
covers i to say nothing of the un]|cnowii extent of Sarmatia to 
the north-east. 

' At an je^rlier period than that which this jtable cpntemplateis, 
when this track was first settled by the Scythians and Sarma- 
TiANS, that part of it here called Asiatic Sarmatia would attach 
i^elf jtp Ea^tfirn Scyfhia^ according to IVf r. Pinkerton : as Wfis 
that part of European Sarmatia now called X«ittle Tartary, the 




true Parental or Ancient Scythia. About the same time also, 
that part here distinguished as Germano-Sarmatia yroyxlA fall iu 
the limits of Germania; circumscribing the real Sarmatia 
nfithin a much smaller north-eastern limit, till her numerous 
tribes penetrated further into Europe, and, intermixing with the 
Scythians^ who had preceded them, with what degree of justice? 
changed the name of the country. 


VI. GERMANIA. (Between the 
Rhine, Danube,' Vistula, Baltic 
and German Ocean), 


^1. Nuithones, Suardones, 
Eudoces, Varini, AngU^ 
Aviones, &c. 


VI. Pans of, DENMARK, Uni- 
ted Provinces, Poland, Prussia, 
and Germany. 

Countries^ ^c. 
U Jutland. 

2. Part of Lower Saxony. 

and Brandea- 

2. Saxonesy Cimbri, Chauci, 

Ansibarii et LemovU, 
\, Langobardiy 1 1. Luxemburg, 

2. Sueviy et Semmones, 2. Mecklinburg 

3. Burgundionesy 3. Great Poland. 

4. Guftones vel Gothones, 4. Pomerellia. 

5. Rugii, Sidini, &c., 5. Pomerania. 

1. Lygii, vel Lugii, Sec. 1 * Little Poland and Silesia. 

2. Quadi, 2. Moravia. 

3. Boil, Marcomanni, &c. 3. Bohemia Proper. 

4. Hcrmunduri, Catti et 4. f^arts of Upper and Lower 
Cherusci, Saxooy, south of the Elbe. 

1. Francis Frissii^ Bructeri, 1. Friesiand^Gronitigen, Overys- 
Chamavi, Usipii, &c. sel, and part of Westphalia. 

2. ./^/amflnmVMattiaci,Sedu- 2. Part of the Rhepish Circles, 
sii, Marcomannif &c. i Franconia, and part of Swabvu 


1 . Castellum Cattorum, 

2. Mattium, 

1. H^sse Cassell. 

2. Marpurg. 


We have her^ given four of the five grand divisions of 
Germany, according to Pliny, such as Ingcevonesy Vindili^ Her' 
mionesy and Istcevones; the Jif thy which he terms Peuiini^'BaS' 
ternary forming the German&'Sarmatiay of later geographers, as 
may be seen in the last table. The smaller nations and tribes 

CIVIL DlV1510«a X QS 

are arranged under these four divUions, according to Mr. Pin- 
kerton's interpretation of Tacitus and Pliny, whose great indus- 
try, and accuracy of judgment, entitle him to credit ^hore ^^the 
mere copyist of other* s errors.^^ However, let the truth lay 
where it may, the student may console himself with a solecism, 
that on 90 JltiCtuating a subject ^ each may be rights and each may 
be wrong: for it is a palpable impossibility precbely to desig- 
nate the locality of an ever-wandering people. It may also 
be well to hint to the student, that the inhabitants of these nor- 
thern regions are here called under a single review, from the 
Jlrst to the second epochs of the Gothic progress over Europe, 
inclusively. Therefore, that he may distinguish those that were 
conspicuous rather as associations of, than as individual, na- 
tions, in the sJscond gothic pHooress, they are printed in 
Italics^ and are placed in or about the situations where they 
Jirst commenced to be formidable* 

Separated from Gaul by thei^Atn^, Germania extended 
east-ward to the Vistula^ which may serve it for a limit on the 
side of Surmatia; while the shore of the 9€a towards the north, 
an^ the course of the Danube^ on the south, are elsewhere 
its boundaries. That which we now see comprized in Ger* 
many between the Danube and the Alps, did not belong te it. 
The name of Germ an i; did not belong to this nation from 
immemorial antiqi^ity. There was a time when the Celts pre- 
vailed beyond the Rhine, as establishments formed in Germany 
by Celtic nations sufficiently evince. But when detachments of 
Germanic people invaded this country, Tacitus informs us that 
these strangers, superior in arms, were called Germani; and we 
find that, in the Teutonic^ or Germanic language, Ger-man signi- 
fies a warrior. The name oi^Alemagncy which the French ex- 
tended to Germany, comes from a particular people, of whom 
the first mention is made at the beginning of the third century, 
under the reign of Caracalla. This name of Ale-man^ or All man^ 
signifies properly a multitude of men; and the Alemanni appear 
to have been established in the country now called Swabia, in de- 
scending the Rhine to the confluence of the Main. This nation 
having detached ' itself from the Francic league^ formed in the 
same age by tlie nations of the Lower Rhine, had arrived to 
the highest degree of power. The Romans frequently* carried 
their arms into this countryVto restrain her savage inhabitants, 
but never conquered it. . 





Vn. GALUA. (Between the 
RhlnCf Alps, Mediterranean, 
Pyrenees, Atlantic, & British 










r - S5 C .^ • Ubii,Gugcmi,Tun- 
" * ) gri, Eurones, Menapii, 
3.S ^ Toxandri, Frisii Mino- 
i* V res et Batavi, 

II J 2. Triboci, Nemetea, 
^ - ' ct Vangiones. 

3. Sequani, Helvetii) 
et Rauraci. 

4. Treveri, Mcdio- 
matrici, eiLeuci. 

{S.Remi, Suessiones, 
Veromandui, Beilov?ici, 
Sllvanectes, Ambriani, 
Atrehates, Morini* N«r- 
vii, Belg0C, 

f r r I . Caleti, Veliocasscs, 
1^ ) licxovir, Aulerci-Ebur- 
|| iovice$, Viducasses, IT- 
S'? vneiU, Bajocasses, &c. 
i. r» /* 
^ I 2. Aureliani, Senon- 

6 g \ es, Camutes, Parisii, 
1 3 (^Meldi, Tricasses. 

^ 3. Segusiani, Edui, 
g'g 1 Lingones, Celt4s, 


f-.r 4. Turonesy Andes, 

"^■i I Aulerci-Cenomani, Di- 

^•f I ablinte8,Arvii, Redones, 

* i I Namnetes, Veneti, Cq- 

, S (. risolites, Osismii, &g. | 


LAND, with parts of GER- 
MANY, and the NETHER- 

Countrien. * 

1. Limburg, Liege, Brabant, U-r 

trecbt, Holland, tind Zealand. 

3. AJsace, and part of Upper 

3. Franche-Compte and Swit- 

4 Lorrcdne, Luxemburg, and 

5. Part of (^hanipagn€, parl^ of 
the Isle of France, Picardy,Artois, 
Hainault, and Flanders. 

1. Normandy. 

2. Part of the Isljs of France, 
with Orleannoi^. 

3. Lyonnois, part of Burgundy, 
Nivernois, part of Champagne. 

4. Bretagoe, Twrainet Anjou, 
and Mainct 







\ . fiituriges-Cubi, 

Arvemi, Gabali, Ru- 

^ teni, Cadurci, Lemovi- 

V. ces, &c. 

X > r 2. Bituriges-Vibisci, 


\ " 2 


2 I si J Petrocorii,* Nitobriges, 
^ ; l-l I Santones, Pictc-^^- •"*• 
^i * Ipictavi, et Ag 


il J Sotiates, Vasates, Tar- 
y%\ belli, Bigcrrottes, Con- 
s' I venae, Aguitani^ ix,c. 

Pictones vel 

3. Elusates, Ausci, 


1 ». Berry, Auviergne and IJia- 


2. Poitouy Saintonge and Gui« 

v^3 L 




a. or 

r 1. Sardones, Conso- 
w J ranni, Volcae-Arecomi- 
§ ] ci, Volcae-Tcctosages, 

s. Ih 

Helvii, &c; 

^§ J 2. Vocontii, Sega- 
%%\ launi, Allobroges, &c. 

3. Salyes, vel Salu- 
vii, Reil, vel Albxci,&cc» 

3. Gascon^, Navarrei and 

1. RousiUon^ and Languedoc 

2. Dauphin6 and part of Bur- 





l:f. 1 4* Caturigcs, and part 
^ " \ o/" Me Ugures, 

|.V 5. Centrones, Nan- 
j J tnates, Vers^ri, ct Se- 




5« Part of Dauphine and Savoy. 


i. Colonia* Agrippina^ 

2. Bonna, 

3. Novesiuttii, 

4. Vetera, . 

5. Tungri (Atuatuca) 

1. Cologne. 

2. Bonn. 

3. Nuys. 

4. Santen. 

5. Tongrcs* 
^. Durstadt. 

7. Nimeguen. 

8. Xieyden. 

* We must observe here that the seats of f>^venimeiit of the Roman provinees, «« 
veil aft the capitals of other aoantnes throtighoat these tables, are marked wi^ as- 
teriaks. When the asterisk is applied to more than one townin the same pronocey kxA.^ 







"I. Argcntoratuin,* 

2. BroconiaguS) 

3. Nemctes (Noviomagus) 

4. Vangiones (Barbetomagus) 

ij 5. Montiacum,* 


"•  SB « 

r Antunnacum, 

8. Bingium, 

9. Nava, 

10. ConfluenteS) 

1. Vesontio,* 

2. Aventicutn, 

3. Saloduruni) 

4. Augusta, 

1. Trevcri (a) (^Augusta), 

2. Verodunum, 

3. Metis (Divodutum), 

4. Tulluni, 
f\. Remi* (Durocortoruro), 

2. Catalauni, 

3. Suessiones (Augusta), 
4 Augusta, 

5. Bellovici (Caesaromagus), 

6. Silvanectes (Augustomagus)) 

7. Ambiani (Samaro-briva), 

8. Atrebates (Nemetacum), 

9. Tarucnna, 

10. Ca&tellum, 

11. Poptus Itius, 

12. Bag^cum, 
.13. Carmaracum 

1. Rotomagu^,* 

2. Juliobona, 

3. Eburovices (Mediolanutn) 

4. Lexovii (Noviomagus) 
^ 5. Bajocasses (Arsegeneus) 
rl. Scnoncs* (Agedincum), . 

^ j 2. Autricum, 

gf- J 3. Parisi (Leutccia), 

^ g "> 4. Genabum, 
I |- I 5. latimura, 
I " L6. Augustobona, 


1. Strasburg. 

2. Brumt. 

3. Spire. 

4. Worms. 

5. Mentz. 

6. Seltz. 

7. ^ndermach, 

8. Bingen. 

9. Nahe. 

10. Coblcntz. 

1. Besan^on. 4c 

2. Avenche. 

3. Soleur. . 

4. Augst. 

1. Triers. 

2. Verdun. 

3. Metz. 

4. Toul. 

1. Reims. ' 

2. Cfialon. 

3. Soissions. 

4. St. Quintin. 
5* Beauvab. 

6. Senlis. 

7. Amiens. 

8. Arras or Attrecht. 

9. Terouenne. 

10. Cassei. 

11. Witsand. 

1 2. Bavia. 

13. Cambrai. . 

1. Rouen. 

2. Lilebone. 

3. Evreux. 

4. Lizieux. 

5. Baieux. 

1. Sens. 

2. Chartres. 

3. Paris. 

4. Orleans. 

5. Meaux. 

6. Trois. 

ft expresMS that the dignity of metropolift has been alternated betweenthemi Where 
two names of a town occur, the more ancient one is placed between parentheses; m 
in this case, in Gaol and Spain particularly, the substitute for the raoreancicnt name 
-was adopted from that of the inhahitanU whose capital it was; which, with a sinaU 
i^ariation, is retained to the present day, * 

(a). The scat of pretorian prcfectare of Cfaul jtill its destruction by the BartariauJ; 
vheQ it was ii^eceeded i& that dignity by prelate, in Narbouensis. 

* / 





Ancitnu, Modem. 





ri. Forui 
j 2. Rodij 








? J 4. Cabillouuni) 
"^5. Matisco, 

6. Nervium, 

7. Alesia^ 

w8. Ligones (Andematurum), 
"l. Turones (Cassarodunum)) 

2. Juliomagus, 

S.Cenomani (Suindinunii)^ 
_ 4. Diablintes (N seodunum), 
iX 5. Redones (Condate), 

6. Namnetes (Condivienum)| 

7 Veneti (Oariorigum), 

S, Vopganium, 
L^* Brivates Portus, 

1. Biturigcs* (Avaricum), 

2. Augustonemetum, 

3. Gabali (Anderitum), 

4. Vellavi (Revessio), 

5. Rutani (Segodunum), 

6. Cadurci (Dirona), 

7. Iiemovices (Auguatoritum), 

1. Burdigaja,* 

2. Aginum, 

3. Mediolanum, 

4. Rotiatum, 

1. Elusa,* 

2. Ausci* (Augusta)^ 

3. Sotiates, :' 

4. Aquae AugustaSj 

5. Beneharnum, 

6. Tarba, 

7. Lugdunum, 

1. Nemausu9,* 

2. Tolosa, 

3. Narbo*-Martius, 

4. Agatha^ 
^ J S, Baeterrasy 

5* } 6. Carcasoy ^ 
'^  7. Lutevd) 

8. Atba Augusta, 

9. Ruscino, 

10. Helena (Illibris}i 
I. Vienna,* 

Gratianople (Cukro), 







1. Feup. 

2. Rouane. 

3. Autun. 

4. Cballon. 

5. Macon^ 
5. Nivers* 
7. Aiise. 
g. Langres. 

1. Toups. 

2. Angepii. 

3. Mans. 

4. Jublins. 

5. Rcnnes. 

6. Nantes^ 

7. Vennes, 

8. Kaphez. 

9. Bpest. 

1. Bourges. 

2. (Near Clermont). 

3. Javols. 
4* St. Paulin, ^ 
5* Hodez* 
6. Querci. 

17. Limoges. 
1. Bourdeaux. 

2. A^en. 

3. City^ of Saints.. 

4. Retz. 

1. £use« 

2. Auch. 

3. Sos. 

4. Aqs. 

5. (No remains). 

6. Tarbe. 

7. St. Bertrand. 
I. Nimes. 
2t Toulouse. 

3. Narbonne. 

4. Agde. 

6. Carcass^e.. 

7. Lodere. 

8. Alps. 

9. Pemignan. 

10. Elne. 

1. Vienne. 

2. Geneva. 

3. GrenoUe« 
















7. Augusta, 

8. Arausipf 

9. AveniO|. 

1. AquflB-SextisC)* 
3. Telo MartiuB) 

3. Forum JuUi, 

4. Aotipolb, 

5. Reii) 

6. AptA JuHa, 

7. S«gUSt6F0^ 








4. Vtdsoa^ 

5. Die. 

6. Valence. 

7. St.Paul-trois^liateiix 

8. Orange. 

9. Avigooo. 

10. Aries. 

IK Marseilles, 

1. Aix. 

2. Toulon^ 

3. Frejua. 

4. Antibes. 

5. Reiz. 

6. Apt. 

7. SisteroHf 

1. Nice. 

2. Embrun. 

3. Suza, 

1. Montiere. 

2. Sttten or Sion, 


' Bounded by t^ sea from the north to the we»t, it was* limited 
on the eastern side, only by the Rhine in the whole extent of 
Its course^ The ahain of the Alp$ succeeded thence to the 
Mediterranean: th^ cf^2iBt of this ^ea, amd then tht Pyrene^es^ 
terminated the 9outhem part* Thus we may remark th^t 
Pr^n^]^ does not occupy the whole extent of ancienit GAVIf) 
^^eing the excels of t]iiis on the side of the Rhine and MpSm 

Three grieat nations, Ce/tee^ Belgce and Aquitani^ dij&tiinguished 
by language and by customs, divided amopg them, the whole 
extent of Gau{,; but in a manner very unequsd* The reader 
must also be ipformed^ that the name of Celtcs^zod of €eltka% 
iBXtended to Gavl ii^ general, being that given by the natioq to 
themselvest |t is from the Romans that we learn to call them 
^a//i, and their country Gallia. The Roman policy of having 
fellies beyond the limitss of their provineea, and lihe pretext of 
succouring the city of Mqs^iliax and the Eduian people, caused 
ibe iloman armies to enter Gaul an hundred and twenty years 
before |:he Christiap ^va^ THl3 first attettipt put Itome in pos** 

f - 

i session o^ ^ province, which, bordering t}l6 left bank of the 
I Rhone to the sea, extended itself on the other side of the motiQ* 
''\ tain ot Ceoetmes^ and thence along the 9ea^ to the ^yteme*. 
\ It was at first distinguished by the generic name of Pr(Jt{ntU^ 
I beiftg Only iomamed Bracc&ta^ from a garment worn by the ba» 
[ tiveft, whkh covered ibeir tbighst; at the same tme the name q€ 
\ Cantata was given to Cdtic Gaul^ because the people inhabiting 
I it, wore long hain What remliined of. Gaul, and which wan 
[ by much the greatest part, was a conquest reserved for Ca»ar, 
more than, siitty years after the precedent. The limiits (rf ihft 
TH&££ nations were then, such as we have reported* 

But Augustus holding Gaul in the 27th year bdfarie tfte 
Christian «ra, made a new division of it, in which he showed 
more attention to equality in the extent of provinces, than to any 
distinction of the several people that inhabited them. Thus the 
nation of Aquttani^ who were before limited to the Garonne^ were 
made to commianicate their name to a provtnte which encroach- 
ed upon the Celtccy as far as the mouth of the Loire; and that 
which the Celta: had, contigous to the Rhine^ was taken into the 
limits of a province called Belgtca. Lugdunum^ a €<)lony founded 
after the death of Julius, and before Ae Triumvirate, gave the 
name of LugdunensiSj or the Lyonoise, to what remained of Cei* 
tic Gaul; whilst the Roman province took that of Narboneitsi^^ 
or Narbonpise. But as each of these provinces hi the suees- 
sion of time formed many others, insomuch tfaM in about 400 
years their number augmented to sEVENrEEisr. They will be 
found in Uie table comprized under the greater divisions to 
which each belongs, although refering to an age posterior to ^hat 
which furnishes the reignin|g objects in aneiettt geography. 

Ancients | Modem. 

Vltll, HISPANIA vd IBERIA. VIH. Si^AlN and POllTUOAl.- 


provinces. JthhiXtitCllttg* 

^\^7\h Ceretanly Ilergetisy 
"^ I 3^3 L^etanl^acttetanijVas- 
£ I "S I I cones^ Carpetani, Cel- 

rI v*!.! tiberi, kc, 


I. Cm^tSa^ Arragon, Navarre, 
and pan^ «f Old GaartUe, Kew 


i '. 




c^r3. Vardali,Cantabn,As- 
= j turea, Artabti, Callaici, 
|.i Vaccsei, Arevaci, &c. 

rfl- Lusitani, Vetones, 
r|-( Celtici, tec. 

Bp, Turdetani, Vandali 
e.4 Turduli, Baatiiani, Baa- 
9 (^tulj, Pani, &c. - 

2. Valentia and Mercia- 

Biscay, Old Cauile, AatQri% 
part of Le<H), Gallncia } Emiii- 
ho-Duro and Tralos-montes im 

Beira, part of Leon, the Es- 
tremaduras, Alentajo, Entretajo; 
and Algava. 

Andalnua and Granada. 

1 '■ 








Carthago nova, 



Cxsar-AuguBU* (Salduba), 







Locus* August!, 

Braccara* Augusta, 




Olisipo (UlyasBB)) 




Norba Cxsarea, 

Augusta Emerita,* 


1. Ampurias. 
3. Gironoa. 

3. Vic de Osona. 

4. Barcelona. 

5. Tarragona. 

6. Madrid. 

1. Carth^ena. 
3. Denia. 

3. Murcia. 

4. Saragosa. 

5. Murviedro. 

6. Valentia. 

7. Segorbe. 

I. Porto-Gailete. 
3. Astoi^a. 

3. Oviedo. 

4. Lugo. 

5. Braga. 

6. Palencia. 

7. Corugna. 

8. Numantia. 
]. Lisibon. 

3. San tare m. 


Salamanca. ^ 


7. Beja. 









"l. Corduba,* 

2. Castuloy 

3. Astigis,* 

4. Hispalis,* 
9. Itttiica, 

6. Ilipula, 

7. Gadcs,* 

8. Munda, 
^9. Sisapo, 


1. Cordoua. 

2. Cazlona. 

3. Ecija. 

4. Sevilla. 

5. Sevilla la Vieja. 

6. Niebla. 

7. Cadi*. 
3 Munda. 
9. Aimaden. 





Was called Ibekia by the Greeks, from the river Ibertut 
which, having ita mouth in the Mediterranean, must have been 
better known to early antiquity than the other great rivers of 
Spain, that discharge themselves into the ocean. From its re* 
mote situation towards the west, it acquired also the name of 
Hesperia. It is almost superfluous to aay^thaton the s^p where 
it is not environed by the sea^ it is inclosed by the Pyrenees^ 
which separate it from Gaul. 

The Romans having successfully disputed with the Carthch 
ginians the dominion of Spain, and reduced by long wars the 
Spanish nations who refused obedience, divided the whole coun« 
try into two provinces, distinguished by the appellations of Cite- 
RiOR and Ulterior. Under Augustus, the Ulterior province 
was again parted into two, Bettica and Lusitania; at the same 
time that the Citerior assumed the name of Tarraconensis^ from 
TarracOy its metropolis. This Tarraconoise occupied all the 
northern part, from the foot of the Pyrenees to the mouth of the 
Durius where Lusitania terminated, and the eastern, almost en- 
tire to the confines of ^^^ica, which derived this name from 
the river Bcstts that traversed it during its whole course, extend* 
ing from the north to the west along the bank of the river Anas^ 
by which it was separated from Lusitania; \fi\\i\st this last-men- 
tioned province was continued to the ocean^ between the mouths 
of the Anas and Durim* 

This division of Spain must be regarded as properly belozig- 
ing to the principal ^d dominant state of ancient geography. 
It was not till ab«at the age ef Dioclesian and Constantinc^ 



i¥hen the nntnher of provinces was multiplted by subdivision, 
that the Tanraconoise ^as dismembered into vwooew provinces; 
one towards the limits of B»tica, and adjacent co the Meditcr* 
ranean, to which the city of Carthago navcj communicated tfae 
name of Carthaginmsh; the other on the ocean to the north of 
Lusitania, and lo which the nation of Callaici or Calktci^ in the 
angle of Spun, which advances towards the north- east, has 
given the name of CaiUtcia^ still subsisting in that of Gallicia, 
whilst the tract towards the Pyrenees retained that of Tarraco- 
nensu Proper* 

Independently of these distinctions of provinces, Spain un<^ 
derthe Roman government was divided into jurisdictions, called 
Conventus, of which there are counted foghteek; each one for- 
med of Che union of several citiesy and held their'assizes in tfae 
principaf city of the district^ as the asterisks shew. 

The isles adjacent to the HRuraconoise called Baleares^ &c., 
now Majorca and Minorca, Sec, in the augmentation of the num- 
ber of provinces, assumed the rank of a particular one. IThe 
principal city in the first, preserves its ancient name of Palma; 
the name of Portus Magonts given to that of Minorca by a 
Carthaginian commander, is Port Mahone. 

^ Ancient, 


JRngdom9i^c. Inkabimtm* 

3 H p 1. Segusinit Taurini, 
^i J Lepentii, Orobii, In- 
^\\ subres,Cenomani, Eu- 
^ ? Lganii, ct Vcneti, 
g^Q r 2. Lingones, Boii, 
^'ij Anamani, Ligurii, fcc. 

S L 

f S-g r 1. Tusci, MagellU 
I 3 1-^ Vetulonii, Falisci, 
I F^ LVulsinii, 'Vientes, &c. 





luUian ^uae*. 

1. Part of Savoy, Piedmont, 
Mcntserat, and Anessandrine; 
Milan, Venice, and part of Man- 

2. Part of Mantua; Ferrarese,* 
Bologncse,* Modena,Panna; parts 
of AllessandriBe, Montserat and 
Piedmont ; Genoa. 

K Lucoa:^ Tuscany, Patrimony 
of St. Peter,* Orvieto.* 

cmt. mvisioKB. 




3. Umbri, ft Senones, 

» -t 5 3, Piceni, vel Piceiir 

>] is r 5 4. Latini, Sabmi, iE- 
^ r c ^l''*^' Volaci, Hernici,&;c, 
g f 5* Sanmites, Vestini^ 
s's J Marracinii Frentani) 
^ • I Hirpini, 
"S p \ 6. CuiBsi vel Cuma- 



3. Umbria, PemgiB) Uubi- 
and Romagna. 

3. Aiicona, Fermoi and Ab- 
razzo UItra.t 

4. Campania di Roma» and 

5. Abruzao Citrat Molise,^ 
Capitanata, and Ultra prin- 

6. Terra di Lavoh). 


f=v|5 l.DAuni, 

S: - 

Si If J 

£ I 5 3. Bratii (the cxti;e- 
I iilmitjroytaly), 

Peuceti, Ja- 1 i . Puglia, Terra di Ban, and 
Messapii, | Terra D'Otranto. 

2. Basalicatay and Salerno 
piincipality. 1 ^ 

3. North €abdbria> and 
South Calabria. 

2. Lueani et Sibirite$, 



f 1. Auguata* Praetoria^ 
I 2. Eporedla, 

3. Rig;omagHS| . 

4. Vercellae* 

5. Raudii Campi, 

6. Laumelliun, 
f. Papia (Tricinum^ 

8. Medioianumy 

9. Comuniy 

10. BergODHun, 

I. J 12. Mantua, 
^ 13v Veron^ 

14. Altkiuviy 

15. Ateste, 

16. Hadria, 

17. Patavium, 
!8. Yenctus Portus, 

19. Viqentk^ 

20. Julium Caimium, 

21. Fonim Julif, 

22. Vedinum, 

L' 9^ Aquiteiaf 
24. Tergest^i 


1. Aouata. 

2. Ivica. 

3. Rkicot 

4. Vercelli. 
1 5. Rho. 

6. LaumclUni 

7. Pavia. , 

8. Milan. 

9. Conio. 

10. Bergamo. 

11. Cremona. 

12. Mantua.. 

13. VCTona. 
14i. Aldno. 
15. Eftte. 
^6. Adria. 

17. Padua« 

18. Venice. 

19. Vicenza. 

20. ZttgliO;. 

21. Ciudal-dLFriuH. 

22. Udin«. 

•23* liaonza 

24. Tmate^ 




* These appertain to the states of the Charoh. 
f This ifpperbuiui to the kingdom of Maples. 












*'l. Ravenna,* 

2. Forum Populi, 

3. Forum Livii. 

4. Bononia (Felsina), 

5. Foriun Allieni) 

6. Padinum, 

7. Mutina, 
8 Reg^um Lepidii 

9. Parma, 

10. Forum Novum, 
U. Placentia^ 
1 3. Genua, 

13. Aquae Statiellas, 

14. Alba Pompeia, 

15. Forum Fulvii Valentinum, 

16. Bodincomagnum vel Industria, 

17. Augusta* Taurinorum, 
Ig. Augusta* Vagiennorum, 

^19. Albium Intemelium, 
f I. Luca, 

2. Pis9, 

3. Pistoria, 

4. Florentia. 

5. Sena- Julia, 

6. Arctium, 
7* Cortona, 

8. Perusia, 

9. Clusium, 
to. Livomo (Herculis Labronis 


1 1. Valentcrrae), 

12. Vetulonii*, 

13. Ilva (Populonum)^ 

14. Russeliae, 

15. Portus Herculis Cosani, 

16. Vwlsinii, 

17. Falerii*, 

18. Veii*, 

19. Caere, 

L20. Portus Augusta, . 
''1. Arimiuro, 

2. Pisaurum, 

3. Fanum Fortunae, 

4. Sena Gallica, 

5. Forum Sempronii, 

6. Umbrium Hortense, 
7 Camerinum, 
8. Fifemum, 

^9. Iguvium, 


I. Ravenna. 

3. Forli. 

4. Bologna. 

5. Ferrara. 

6. Bondeno. 

7. Modena. 

8. Regio. 

9. Parma. 

10. Fornovo. 

II. Placenza. 

12. Genoa. 

13. Aqui. 

14. Alba. 
\S, Volentia. 

16. (Near Turin). 

17. Turin. 

18. Vico. 

19. VentimigUa. 

1. Lucca. 

2. Pisa. 

3. Pistoria. 

4. Florence. 

5. Sienna. 

6. Arezzo. 

7. Cortona. 

8. Perugia. 

9. Chiusi. 

10. Leghorn. 

11. VoUerra. 

12. (no vestige). 

13. Elba. 

14. Rossella. 

15. Porto Hercule. 

16. Bolsensa. 

17. Palari. 

18. (no remains). 

19. Cer-Veteri. 

20. Porto. 

1. Rimini. 

2. Pesaro. 

3. Fano. 

4. Senigalia. 

5. Fossombrone. 

6. Umbrino. 

7. Camerino. 

8. Citta di Castello. 

9. Guibo. 

Civil- niviSKms, 



\ 2 

10. ^iTuceriae, 

- *^ 

1 c 

11. Fudicr, 


12. Spoletiun^ 


J 3. Ameria, 


^1. Ancona,* 



3. Auximumy 



3. Firmum, 

4* Asculum^ 




5. Hadria, , 



^6. Ateruniy 
"1. Reatc,* 

2. Quirites (Cures), 

3. Cutiliae, 

4. Nuraia, 

5. Tibur, 


6. Roma • vel Urbs 




7. Ostia, 
8 Lavinium, 

r 1 9. Ardea, I 


10. Antium, 



1 1. Cerceii, 

12. Terracina, 

13. Cajeta, 

14. Tusculum, 


15. Alba Longa, 

16. Praeneste, 

17. Anagnia, 

18. Suesta Pompetia} 


19. Corioli, 
^20. Arpinum, 
"1. Capua,* 

2. Neapolis (Parthenople). 

3. Puteoli, 


4. Baiae, 


5. Misepum, 


6. Cumae, 

7. SaleiDum, 

8. Picentia, 

9. Nuceria, 

10. Nola, 

11. Sues$a Aurunca, 


^12. Teanum Sidicinum, 



•1. Arpi, 

2. Salapia, 

3. Sipuntum, 

4. Venusia, 


5. Cannas, 


6. Barium, 

f *< 7. Tarentum vel Tarasi | 




10. Nocera^ 

11. Todi. 

12. Spoleto. 

13. Amelia. 

1. Ancona. 

2. Osimo* 

3. Fermo* 

4. Ascoli* 

5. Ati*i. 

6. Pescanu 

1. Rieti. 

2. Correse* 

3. Citta-DucalL 

4. Norsia. 

5. Trivoli 

6. Rome, or the city of 
Seven Hills. 

7. Ostia. 

8. Pratica. 

9. Ardia. 

10. Anzino. 

U. Montes CircellO. 

12. Tarracina. 

13. Gaeta. 

14. Trascali. 
1^. Palazzo. 

16. Palestrina. 

17. Anagni. 

18. (No remains). 

19. (No remains). 

20. Arpino. 

1 . (Near preaentCapua). 

2. Naples. 

3. Pouzzola. 

4. Baya. 

g' > (Now obscure)* 

7. Salerno. 

8. Bicenza^ 

9. Nocra. 

10. Nola. 

11. Sezza. 

12. Tiano. 

1. Arpi. 

2. Salpe. 

3. (Near Manfredonia). 

4. Venosa* 

5. Cann^. 

6. Bari. ^ 
7 Tarento. 










8. Brundusiuniy 

9. Lupiae, 

10. Rudiaey 

11. Hydruntuiiiy 

12. Calliix^is, 

1-13. Castrum Minerva?, 
^\. Pcstum vel Neptunia, 

2. Helea, 

3. Bruxentum, 

4. Abellinum Marsicum^ 

5. Potentia, 

6. Metapontumi 

7. Heraclea, 

^8. Sybaris vel Thurii> 
^\. Roscianumi 

2. Consenda^ 

3. Petilia, 

4. 'CrotODy 

5. Scylaciunit 

6. Hipponium vel Vibq, 

7. Tropaea, 

8. Nicotera, 

9. Mamertuni) 

10. Epi-Zephyru^ 
,11. Rhegiuo)) 

8. BrindisL 

9. Lecce. 

10. (no ranuns}.^ 

11. Otranto. 

12. GallipolL 

13. Castra. 

1. Pcsti. 

2. Brucca. 

3. Policastro. ' 

4. Marsico Veterc' 

5. Potenax. 

7. > (no remains);:. 

1. Rosano. 

2. Cosenza. ' 

3. StrongolL ^ |' 

4. Crotona. 

5. SquillacL 

6. Bivona. 

7. Tropsca. 

8. Nicotera. 

9. Oppido. 

10. Motta-di-Burzano. 

11. R^gio. 


Of Italy there is no idea more famitrar than that of the re- 
nown which it acquired from having ruled over nearly all the 
aticient civilized world, after the very inconsiderable beginning 
pf her IMPERIAL CITY on the Palatine Mount, whose policy 
was to increase her inhabitants as well by affording an asylum 
for the outcasts and malefactors of other comniunities, who fled 
their country to avoid punishment and shame, as by ^fraudulent 
reduction of the neighbouring women* . 

' Gallia Cisalpina extends from the declivity of the 
Alps, which looks toward the east, to the strand of the Adriatic, 
or Superior sea. The Rhcetian nations, established in the Alps, 
confined the Cisalpine on the north; and the Simu Ligttsticus^ 
called notv the gulf of Genoa, bounded them on the south* A 
current celebrated under the name of RubieOy which formed of 
three brooks, is called at its mouth Fieumesino, separates it from 
Italy Proper ^ on the side of the Superior seal and a tittle river 


named Macra^ on the Inferior. Cisalpine .Gaul was abo called 
Togata^ because the people inhabiting it were gratified with the 
privilege of wearing the Roman Taga. 

The river Padus, or the Po, issuing from the Alps, and tra- 
versing the whole breadth of t;his country from west to east, 
discharges itself into the Adriatic sea by many mpuths ; afford- 
ing in its course a distinction to the regions Cispadake and 
Trans? AD AN£, or, this, side and that side of the Po, in relation 
to Italy. 


Etjiu|iia. The country which the Tusci retained after hav^ 
ing lost what they occupied beyond the limits of Italy Proper, 
as the first that presents itself in these limits. And this nation^ 
which was there known more particularly under the name of 
JEiruscij gave the name of Etruria to all that which borders the 
western bank of the Tiber from it& source in the Apennine to 
the sea. According to the prevalent opinion, the Etruscans^ 
named Tytrheni by the Greeks, were originally Meonians of 
Lydia, in what is cooimonly called Asia Minor. They dis- 
tinguished themselves in the arts at a time when they were little 
known to their neighbours. The frivolous science of augury 
also was peculiar to them. This country extending along the sea, 
from the Macra to the mouth of the Tibfr, is bounded on the 
north by the Apennines as by the Tiber towards the east. 

- Umbria. The Tiber directing its course from north to 
south, borders successively Umbria, Sabina, and Latium* The 
Umbri are spoken of as a nation the most ancient in Italy. Not 
being at first bounded by the Rubicon, they extended to the fo^ 
in the vicinity of Ravenna, to which country the name of Um- 
bria was appropriated. 

PiCENVM. This division was' an appendage to ancient Umbria^ 
fay continuity on the Superior sea* Its Unfits are sometimes 
extended to the tiytt Aternw* 

Latium. We have now arrived at Ldtium^ from which is- 
sued that power which extended itself in the three parts of th{8 
ancient world* * 



The Sabini^ ti which Sabinna now preserves the name, suc- 
ceeded the Umbrians on the same bank of the Tiber, as far as 
the river AniOy which is Teverone. It may be said in general 
of this people that it was reputed one of the most ancient in 
Italy, without entering into a discussion of the diversity of tra- 
ditions on the subject. They are said to have migrated from a 
place > near the city of ^mi^^rnc^m, to settle at ReatCy which is 
Rieti^ extending themselves to the Tiber* 

The Latini^ the principal people of this territory, occupied 
the space between the Tiber ^ the Teverone^ and the Sea; a space 
that made but a small part of Latlum ; whose limits by the ac- 
cession of many other people, correspond with the modem Cam- 
pagna di Roma. Of these people, the most powerful and most 
difficult to reduce were the VoUcu 

Campania succeeds to Latium. This is the country of Italy 
which nature appears to have most favoured ; the beauty and 
fertility of which being much celebrated in antiquity. It made 
the principal of what is now named Terra di Lavoro. Its ex*^ 
tent along the sea is carried to the limits of Lucania ; and it is 
bounded on its interior side by Samtiium* 


Samnivm. Under this article will be comprised all that 
which extends from Sabinna and Picenum to Apulia ; or, other- 
wise, from the limits of Latium and Campania^ to the Superior 
sea. The Apennine runs obliquely through the length of this 
space. It is well known how much exercise the martial nation 
pf Samnites aiforded the Roman arms during many ages. 


It must be remarked, that what remains to be surveyed of 
the continent of Italy is distinguished among the authors of 
antiquity by the name of Magna GRi£ciA, from the number 
of Greek colonies there established. We find sometimes the 
name of Apulia extending to the heel of this continent, although 
this extremity be more commonly denominated Ipygta^ or 
Messapia. That of Apulia subsists under the form of Puglia. 
The country which bore the name of Lucania brings us back 
to the boQom of the gulf of Tarentum^ and eictends thence. 


dVli. DIVISIONS. ^ f^ 

according to the resemblance of Italy to a boot, across* the in-, 
step to the Inferior sea* That which is now called Calabria, 
south of ancient Lucaniai was called Bruttium^ occupied by the 

It would be fruitless to attempt a tabular view of all the ci* 
vil divisions that Italy has undergone from the origin to the 
decline of Roman greatness; therefore we have given such as 
are most conspicuous in its history. We will mention, in thc^ 
words of M. p^AnvtUe, the divisions of it by Augustus into 

^ , ELEVEN REGioKs; though morc curious than useful to be known. 
^^ The FIRST consisted of Latium 3nd Campania^ to the river Sil- 
arus. The second encroaches on that which we have seen be- 
longing to Samnium^ including the Herpini; extending thence 
in Apulia^ and the more ancient country of the Calabrians to 

\ the tapygian promontory. Lucania^ and the country of the BnU* 
tians^ composed the third. The fourth, reputed to include 
the naost martial people of Italy, comprized Sabinna^ and the 

^ rest of Samnium* Pictnumi one of the most populous coun« 
tries of Italy appear^ to have constituted the fifth region. 
Umbria made the sixth; and Etruria^ to the river Macroy the 
SEysNTH: which completed ancient Italy precisely so called* 
The eighth region of Italy then extended, between the Apen- 
nine, ^nd the river Po, to Placentta inclusively. Liguria^ in 
ascending the same bank of the river to the summit of the Alps, 
made the ninth. Iii the tenth, Venetia and the country of 
the Catnip were comprehended. The eleventh comprized the 
space between the limits of Venetia^ and the Pennine^ or higher 
Alps." So that besides the seven that fall in Italy proper, the 
remaining four were in Cisalpine Gaul^ i. e. two in Cispadane^ 
and TWO in Transpadane. 





1. Messana (Zancle), 

2. Tauromenium, 

3. Catana, 

4. Leontini, 



1. Messina. 

2. Taorimna. 

3. Catana (in Val Dcmone) 

4. Lentini. 




5. Syracus«,» 
6b Neaetum, 

7. Helarum, 

8. Camerinay 

9. Gela, 

10. Agiigentuni) 

11. Thermae Seiinunti«> 

12. Selynus, 
IS. Mazarum, 

14. Lilybaeuni) 

15. Drepanunii 

16. SegestCy 

17. Panormust 

18. Himera^ ] 

19. Cephalacdis, 

20. Tyndaris, 
2U MylX) 
jt2, Naulocusy 
23. Enna, 

S4. Hybia Major, 

25. Halycia> 

26. Entella, 

27. Men as, 

II. coRsiqA Tel cTHiros. 

1. Mariana* 

2. Aleria,* 

3. Mantinorum oppidum, 
A, Paula, 


1. Calaris, 
2« Sulci, 

3. Neapolis, 

4. Lesa, 

5. Forum Trajani, 

6. Bosa, 
7 Nora, 

8. Turris Libisonis, 

9. Tibula, 

10. Olbia, 


5. Syragu«a. 

6. (In Val-di-Noto). 

7. Muri Ucci. 

8. Camarana. 

9. (Near Terra Nova), 

10. Girgentd Vecchion 

11. (near Sciacca). 

12. (In ruins). 

13. (In Val-^i-Mazara). 

14. Marsalla. 

15. Trapan|. 

16. (No remains). 

17. Palermo. 

18. Termini. 

19. Cefalu. 

20. Tindari. 

21. Melazzo. 

22. (Near Mylae). 

23. Castro Janni. 

24. (No remains)^ 
S5. Salem6. 

26. Entella; 
37. Mineo. 


1. (Colony of Marius).. 
^ (Colony of Sylla.) 

3. Bastia. 

4. Forto-Pollo. 


1. Cagliari. 

2. (opposite St. Antioco). 

3. Neapolis. 

4. A16s. 

5. Fordongiano. 

6. Bosa. 

7. Nura. 

8. Porto-di-Torro. 

9. Longo^Sardo. 

10. Terra-Nova, 

SiciLiA, Sardinia, and Corsica. 

These islands were successively calonised by, and in posses- 
sion of the Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans* The Scicanu 
Siculij Cyclopes^ as to Sigilt, and Ligures as to Corsica and 
I^ARDiNiA, from the adjacent cpntinent^ were their original iB' 



habitants. Of the three modem divisions of Sicily, such as the 
Val Demone, the Valdi Noto, an4 the Val di Mazara; ancient 
NecctumjZixd Mazarutn^ correspond with the two latter, and the 
dependencies of anciei^t Catana very nearly with the former. 


XI. RHjETIA,NORICUM, pannonia, illyricum, dacia, 




2. Rhaeti, Brigand!, 

LSarunetes,Rucantii, Le- 
pontii, Vennones, Tri- 
g"*! I dentin!, Brixentse, et 
^ sVCotuantii. 

t. Norici, Sevaces, 
Alauni, et Ambidrani, 

2. Ambisontil, et Am- 



1. Scordisci, Tauri- 
sci, Amantini, et Jazy- 

(Its inhabitants are 
not particukrly named). 

2. Lybumi, Pe«ce1ti, 
vel Feukini, et Japy- 
I ^ ^ 3. Autariatx, et Af- 


Labeates) et Var- 

?f 4. 


CountricBy t^r. 



Orisons of Switzerland; and 
^parts of Swabia and Bavari^ 
of Germany. 



Paits of Bai^ffiay and Aas-- 


h Parts 'of Austria, Hungary, 
Croatia and Sclavonia. 




Morlachia, Dalmatia, an4 
>parts of Croatia, Bosnia, and 


* Also ealled ^u^Ha, . 

t Another natioa of Jazyges, surnamed Metanastse^ occupied the tract between tli«' 
ntokube and Teisse, call the country wHtdn the Danube, bounded K. by the CarpathiMBi' 
mountains; which preserved itself ifidependent of the Homaa empire* 


-*iCTrti(. Modem. 

I. Daci, Anarti, Teu-( 1. TranailvaniajWalachia, Mol- 
riaci, Gets, JazyKcs, ' davia, Bessarabia, and part of Hun- 
BritoUgs, et Fcukini, gary. 

1. Scordisci, et Mjti, 

2. Dardani, et Tii- 

3. ScythsE, et Peu- 

I, BesU) Ellets et 

3. Aatae, et Odryaa, 

4. Thyni, et Peti, 

•Servia and Bulgaria. 


1. Regina,* 
3. Auguata," 

3. Batara Caatrai 

4. Germanicuin, - 

5. Subtnontorium> 

6. Samulocenia, 

7. Camboduaum, 

8. JulionagUG, 

9. Panhanum, 

1. Brigatitia, 

2. Curia," 

3. Oacela, 

4. Clavenna, 

5. Tridentum, 

6. Fcltria, 

7. Sabio," 

8. Teiioli, 

I. Regensbui^. 
3. Augsburg, 

3. Passau. 

4. Vohburg. 

5. Schroben-hausen, 

6. Saul gen. 

7. Kempten. 

8. Hohen-Twiel, 

9. Partcn-Kirk. 

1. Bre gents. 

2. Coire. 

3. Domo d'Oscula, 

4. eleven or CtuaveHa. 

5. Trent. 

6. Fellri. 

7. Scben. 
«. Tirol. 

cava, DtvisioNB. 



» Z. 

3 3 

n S 
































































































(Near Clagenfurt). 
(Near Wolk-marktt). 
Saint Leonhard. 
Buda or Ofen. 

(On the Save). 

Cabo d*Istria. 
Upper Laybach. 

Metttx Vetud. 

Zara Vecchia. 

Fortress of Cliss^ 
In ruins). 
No remains). 
Ragusi Vecchio. 
(Near the latter). 







1. Tibiscus, 

2. Ulpia Trajana* (Sar- 

3. Apulumy 

4. Salinse, 

5. Napocay 

6. Ulpianuni) , 

7. Rh\iconiuni» 

8. Otidava, 

9. Castra Trajanai 

10. Castra Novai 

11. Zernes, 
13. ArdeiscuS} 

13. Petrodavaj 

14. Susidava. 

15. Netindava, 

16. Jassiorilm Municlv 

^17, Praetoria Aueusta.* 
^ * Singidttnum, 

^ ri. Bononia, 
I I 2. Ratiaria,* 
lis. Valeriana, 
•5 5 4* Oescus, 

I I I 5. Nicopolis ad Islrutn) 
^ I • Le. Nicopolis ad latruniy 

1. NaissuSy 

2. Horrea Magi, 

3. Succorum August^Cy 
4u Sardica,* 

5. Uipa Fautatia. 

6. Justiniana * Prima 

I 7. . Jutttitiiatia * Se^nda 

L (Ulpianum), 

Bylazora (anci^nt^y 
the capital of Paeonia)) 


1. Temteswar. 

2. Warhel or Gfadis^a. 

3. Albe-Gyula. 

4. Tada. 

5. Doboca. 

6. Kolfiovar. 

7. Regen. 

8. Udvar. 

9. (^Near Ribnik}. 

10. Forcas. 

11. Czemez. 

12. Argis. 

13. Piatra. 

14. Suczava. 

15. Sniatyn. 

16. Jassi. 

17. Roman. 

1. Belgrade. 

2. Smendria. 

3. Kastolatz. 

4. (Scanty remains). 

5. Gradisca. 

1. Bidin or Vidin. 

2. Artzar. 

3. Vadin. 

4. Igieji. 

5. Nocopoli. 

6. Nicop. 

1. Nissa. 

2. Mbravahisar. 

3. Zucora. 

4. Triaditza, 

5. (Not found). 

6. Guiatendil. 

$. Cmni, 

7, Is also Guistendil. 

1. Uskup. 

2. (Nothing corresponding). 

1. Distra. 

2. Axipoles or Rassavat* 

3. Kerscua. 

4. Kara K.erm^. 

5. Tormeswar or Baba. ^ 

1. Marcenopoli or PrebUlaw- 

2. Varna. 

3. Bakchick. 

ctvii. mvisioNs. 





1. Philippopolis * vcl 

3. Irenopolis* (Beraea), 

4. Didymotichosy 

1 .Hadrianopolis*{Ore9- 

3. BergulSi 

3. Cabyla, 
^<{ 4. SaLmydessuSy 
" ' 5. Apollonian 

V;8. Debeltusi 

1. Cypsela* 

2. ^nos, 
1. Sestus, 

4. Calliopolis. 

5. Lysimachia (Cardia,) 
'\ 6. Heradea  (Perio- 


7. Selymbria) 

8. Constantinopolis(By* 

W.9. Tarullus, 
.1. TrajanopoUs% 

3. Nicopolis ad JVesfunt} 

4. Jamphra, 

5. Topiris Ulpia^ 
^6. Abdei^i 




U Philippopoll or PhilUMU 

2. Statimaka. 

3. Eski-zadra. 

4. Dimotuc. 

1. Adriaaopleor Hedrine. 

2. Bergase. fmiQah) 

3. <Whitlver Philip baniahed crl« 

4. Midjeh. 

5. SozopoUs or Sizebolit. 

6. ]\(Iisevna. 

7. Akkiali. 
8* Zagora. 
1. Cypsela. 
2r Eno. 

1. Zemenic. 

4. Gallipoli. 

5. Hexamili. 

6. Erakli, 

7. Selivria. 

8. Constaatinople. 

9. Tchourli. 

1. Trajanopolis. 

2. Marogna. 

3. Nicopolis. 

4. (Not found). 

5. Bourun. 

6. (Ac the mouth of the Nestus). 


RHiETiA, properly so called^ occupied the Alfs from the 
frontier of the Helvetic country pf Gaul, to Venetia and the 
limits of Noricum^ by which it was bounded on the east. Fin* 
delicia confined it on the north, and the flat country of Cisal* 
pine Gaul on the south. 

ViNDELioA, which, from the city of Briffontiay or Bregentz, 
on a lake which took the name of BriganttU8^ before it ws^ 
called the lake of Constance, extended to the Danube; while 
the lower part of the JEnus^ or Inn, separated it from Noricum. 
A powerful colony was established in the angle formed by 
the two rivers Vindo and Lieus; whence it would aeem that tlMi^ 


nation derived the name of Vikdelicia; and that of Augusta^ 
given to this colony, is preserved, as it is well known, in Augs- 
burg, between the rivers Lech and Wertach. s. 

The RRiCTZ were a colony of the Tu8ciy or Tuscans, a civil- 
ized nation, established in Rhastia Proper when the Gauls came 
to invade Italy. This colony, becoming savage, and infesting 
Cisalpine Gaul, were subjugated under the reign of Augustus 
and Drusus. And because the Vtndeltei armed in favour of 
their neighbours, Tiberius sen^ a force that reduced them also 
to obedience. This double conquest formed a province called 
RHiSTiA; comprehending VindeHcia^ without obliterating alto- 
gether the distinction. But in the multiplication that Diodesian, 
and some emperors after him made of the provinces, Rh^ti a was 
^divided into fti;^, under the distinction oi Jirst and secondi a cir^ 
cumsunce that caused Rhwtia Proper (as to the j/?r«r) and Vtr^e' 
Hda (as to the second) to resume their primitive distinctions. 


. NoaicvM extends along the southern shore of the Danube, 
from the mouth of the Inn to mount Cetius, which causes the 
river to form a flexure a little above the position of Vienba* 
Embracing the beginning of the course of the DravuSy or Drave, 
and comprehending that which tompbses the duchies of Cavio- 
thia and Stiria, it is bounded by the summit of the Alps on the 

This country which is first spoken of as having a king', fol- 
lowed the fate of Pannonia; for when that was reduced, Nori- 
cuH also became a province, under ^e reign of Augustus. Af* 
terwards^ and by the multiplicaticm of provinces, there is dis-* 
tinguished a Noricum Rtpense^ adjacent to the Danube, from a 
Noricum Mediterraneum^ distant from that river in the bosom 
of the Alps. 

' i ' 


Pavkoni A stretched along die right bank of the Danube, 
from the frontier of Noricum to the mouth of the Sa9e: the 



country beyond the river beipg occupied, from the limits of the 
Germanic nation of the ^wuRans^ by Sarmatians, caUed Jazyges 
Metanastm* On the southern side, ^Pannokia was bounded by 
Da/matia comprised in lUyricum. It received the Drave from 
its issue out of Noricum, and inclosed the greatest part of the 
course of the Save. 

In the war which Augustus, bearing yet but; the name of 
Octavius, made with the Japydta and the Dalmatians onilyri* 
cum, the Roman arms had penetrated to the Pannovians. But 
it was reserved for Ttberius, who commanded in these coua- 
tries, to reduce Panmonia into a province. It was divided in 
the time of the Amonines into Superior and Inferior^ and 
the mouth of the river Arrabo^ or Raab, in the Danube, made 
the separation of it, according to Ptolemy. Afterwards we 
find employed the terms ^rst and second^ as in the other 
provinces of the empire: and in a later age we see a thirds under 
the name of Valeria^ between the former two. The second^ 
occupying the banks of the Drave and Save, obtained also the 
name of Savia, which now gives to a canton of this country the 
name of Po-Savia; expressing in the Slavonic language a situa* 
Ion adjacent to the Save. 


The extent of diis country, till the province of Jstria was de- 
tached from it, and added^to Italy, by Augustus^ conducted along 
the Adriatic sea from Tergestinus Sinus^ to the mouth of the 
Drih^t or Drin, bordering Epirus Nova^ or Macedonia* As to 
the limits on the side of Pannonia, which mikke the northern 
frontier, we find them^ determined by many positions under the 
name of FineSy which may be attributed to the Roman govern* 
ment, as we find these points of termination in many countries 
diat haVe beeii subjected to tktt power* 

The Illtrian nations are described in the eariieat age as 
a savage people, who printed marks on their skins, like llie 
Thraciansi and the piracy which they practised furnished the 
Romans the first o<^casion to arm against them, more than two 
hundred years before the Christian' sera; aldiough the entire 


M^miMion 6f the country was cmly achieved by Tibdri^s lo- 
wards the end of the reign of Augustos. 

Ijlltricux was first divided into the three provinces of 
^ria or Uisifia^ and Lyburnioy towards the head of the 
Adriatic, and the more famous one under the name, of Dalnuh 
tia^ in the southern part, which name it still preserves. A 
fourth province, tinder the Greek emperors, called PritvaH* 
Utna^ was formed^ extending beyond the limits of IUyricam» 


Two nations who appear associated, and to whom the same 
language was common, the Daci and the G^TiE, occupied a 
great space of country, which, from the shore of the Danube, 
iowardb the north, extended to the frontiers of European Sar* 
matia* The jfazyges MetanasUty a Sarmatic nation, as above 
nentidned, established between Pannonia and Dacxa, should be 
comprised, by their situation, in the object under consideration* 

The Daci and GETi£ impatient of their limits, M<eaia and 
JUyritum suffered from their incursions and the Celtic nations 
there established, were destroyed by them. Augustus for 
whom the Danube^ as the Shines was a boundary, which nature 
seemed to give to the empire, contented himself with t^epelling 
^he Dacians, and fortifying the banks of the river. But Tra- 
jan had conceived an appetite for conquest, and annexed it to 
the empire under one vast province* 


We comprehend under this name the country which^ between 
.the limits of Thrace and Macedon on the south, and the banks 
af the hter^ or Danube, on the north, extends in lengthy east* 
ward, from Pannonia^ and lUyricum to the Euxine sea. It mns^ 
be remarked, that the name of the country, and of the natiout i* 
also written Mysia^ amd Mtsx; as the name of the province 
south of the Propontis^ in Asia^ and of its peoide, who issued 
from the MiEsxA now under consideration. Darius,^ son of 

OVIL mvisioKs. 1^ 


Hystaspes, marchthg against the Scytlnans, encountered the 
Gtt€t^ who were reputed Thraeians, od his passage, before ar- 
l4vmg at the Ister ; aad we have seen that t^tft extremity of die 
country on the Euzine bore the n^ant of Scythia* 

MiEsiA appears to have been subjected to the empire under 
Augustus and Tiberius* Its extent along the river, which sepa- 
rated it from Dacia on the north) was divided into Superior and 
Bdjermr; and a Gtde river named CtabriM or Cehrus^ now Zibriz, 
between the Timacus and the Qescus^ makes, according t9 Pto- 
lemy, the separation of these two Mesias. Bat MJ^ia suffer- 
ed encroachment upon its center, in the admission of a new pro- 
vince, under the name of Dapia. Aurelian, fearing that he 
could not maintain the conquest of Trajan beyond the Ister, 
called Dacia, abandoned it, a|id retired with the troops and 
people, which he placed on the hither side of the river, affecting 
to call his- new province die Dacia pf AureHan* That 'which 
M^siA preserved of the superipr division, was called the Fi^H 
Mrsia^ 2Lnd ih^ inferior was the Second Mmsiom There was 
afterwards distinguished in Dada the part bordering on the 
river under the name of Ripen^ts^ and that which was seques- 
tered in the interior country under die name of Mediterranean 
occupied probably a country con^guous to Macedonia, and 
known more anciently by the nsime of Dardania* 


Thracia extends from the Ironder of Macedonia j^ong the 
Mgean sea and the Propontis to the Euxine; while Mount 
Hcemus separsrtes it from Massia. Mount Rhodope envelopes it 
on the western side, where it borders on Macedonia* 

We see TfiRACB divided among many kings before it fell 
under the Roman domination, which did not happen till the 
reign of Claudius. In the 6Ubdivisions whitli the age of Dio^ 
desian and Constantine produced in the empire, Thkage was. 
ibrmed into many provinces. That part whifi^h borders the 
Propontis was called Europa^ as being the entrance nof Europe, 
opposite the iandtif Asia;; -which is only separated by die nar* 
row chaomel called the ]&o«iphQriis« JSmmi'^antns was die 



name of another province, which descended to the Hebrus* 
Rhodope borders the iEgean sea, and the name of Thracifi 
-was reserved for a portion of the country towards the sotirces of 
Che Hebrus. 

«xvr!,^M %/\/v/vrN^N/VN/« 


Grtdan Snunand hihabitanU 

"f^^ 1. Parthini, Taulan- 

j3 1' ^ tii) Orestae, Eljrmiotasy 

f 2. Pelagonia vol Paeo- 

S nia, Eordaea, Mygdonia, 

|< ^mathia, Pieria, Chal- 

o I cidica) Edonis et Sinti- 

^ u, 

C« r 3. Chaonia, Thespro- 
1'^ tia, Molossis et Atha- 
• (.mania— Molossi, &c. 

{4. Estiaeotis, Thesa- 
iiotis, Phthiotis, Per- 
rhaebla) et Dolopia— - 
^oleSf Perrhaebiy fe- 
lasgi, &c, 
r 1. Acamania, ^to- 
3 ? 7 Ha, Doris, Locris, Phd- 
> I *a.s. i CIS, Baeotia, Megarb et 
g J * * vAttica— lonesetDores, 
r I I? f ^" Achaia, Elis, Ar- 
• I i I* < cadia, Argolis, Laconia, 
I S g J Messemar-^-IonesetDo- 
t • tres, 



lurkUh Provincet* 

1. Albania. 

2. Macedonia. 

3. Chimera. 

4. Thessalf, or Janna, by the 

1. Livadiai or Achaia* 

2. The Morea. 


U Dyrrachium (Epi-i I. Durazzo. 

2. ApoUonia." 

3. Anion, 

4. Elyma, 

5. Scampis, 

6. Lychnidus, 

7. Deborus, 

8. AlbanopoUs, 

2. Polina. 

3. Valona. 

4. Amaut, BeU«grad. 

5. IscampL 
5. Achrida. 

7. Dibra.. 

8. Albasano. ' 

* These were priDcipal eities^ l»efore the Roman domination in Oreentw 


CIVIL ravmaNa, 








1. Byl^zora,* yel 

2. Stobi,* 
S. Edessa,* (^ge), 

5. Beraeay 

6. Celethruni} 
f . Py(hia Tel Citrooy 

8. Diunif 

9. Thessalonica,* 

IQ. Apollonia, 

11. Cassandra (Poti- 

12. T<m>ne, 

13. OsynthuSy 

14. Su^g^yra, 
\5*r Amphipolis^ 

16. Heraclea Sinticay 

17. Philippi,* 

18. Neapolift)* 

1. Chimaera, 

2. Burtbrotuni) 

3. Dodona, 

4. Ambracia,* 

5. Nicopolis,* 

6. Argitha, 

1. Larissai* 

2. Tricca, 

3. Goin[^i, 

4. OloOSSODy 

5. Azorus Tripoli* 

6. Pharsalus, 

7. Demetriasy 

8. Pagasae, 

9. Thcbae* Phthiod- 

10. Aphet»9 
U. Magnesia, 
12. Lamia, 

13« Heraclea (Trach- 

"4* Anactorium, 

2. Actium, 

3. Argos, (Amphik)- 





1. Alexintau 

2. (Near the abave% 

3. Kdessa or Mogleiuu 

4. Pialatisa (ruina)t 

5. Cara-Veria. 

6. Castoria. 

7. Kitro. 

8. Standia, 

9. Ssllonica. 

10. Polonia. 

11. (Near tlie Gates of CasHHf 

12. ToroQ. 

13. ^ear Agiomama]. 

14. Stauros. 

15. Jamboli. 

16. (Above the latter}. 

17. (In ruins). 

18. Carvale. 

1. Cimenu 

2. Butrino. 

3. Dodone. 

4. (Near ArU). 

5. Prevesa Veccheia, 

6. (Near Mount Pindus). 

1. Larissa. 

2. Tricola. 

3. (Above the latter). 

4. Alessone. 

5. (North of the latter). 

6. Farsa. 

8. I 

9. V(On the Pelaagicus Sinusi 
I or gulf of Volo). 

10. J 

11. Magnesia. 

12. (Near the Sperciu3)« 

13. Zeiton. 

1. (Near Actium). 

2. Asao. 

3. (No renuuns). 

4. f On the Ache1otts> 

5. (At its mouth). 






^1. Calydon vel Caly- 

2. ThermttSy* 

3. PieuroDy 

4. Apollonia, 





1. Naupactusy* 

2. Amphissa, * 

3. CnemideS)* 

4. Thronium,* Epi- 

5* Opus Opuotii»* 

2. Delphi,* 

3. Cyparissusy 

4. Crissa^ 
5* Andcyra, 

rt. Thebae vel Cad- 

2. Lebadea^* 

3. Cheron<£a« 

4. Orchomenus^ 

5. Hceliartusy 

6. Thespiae> 

7. Leuctra> 

8. Platsea, 

9. Tanagara, 

10. Oropusy 

11. Aulis, 
Lis* Anthedon> 

^fl. Nisasa, 
(g < 2. Megara,* 
3*1.3. Eleutherae, 

1. AthenaC)* 

2. Pirxus, 

3. Munychia) 

4. PhaleruS) 

5. Eleusis, 

I 8. Marathciif 
L9. Rhamnu9) ^ 






Principal cities of JEtolia, 

3. ^ on the branches of the 

4. I Evenu9 now Fidari). 


2. f Tetr APOLis, or the four prin*^ 

3. 1 cipal cities of Doris). 


1. Lepanto. 

2. Salona. 

4. \ (South of Thermopylae in the 
i east extremity of Locris). 


1. Turco^horio. 

2. Cistra. 

3. (East of Delphi). 

4. (South of Delphi). 

5. Aspro-Spitia. 
K Tliim 

2. livadia. 

3. . 
(Near Copias Lacus). 

(In the seuUi of Boeotia)* 

(Near tlie coast opposite 

„* > (On the Saronicus Sinus). 

3. (Borders on Bceotia). 
1. Atheni or Athens. 


ortsof Athenac). 

5. Lessina. 

6* Cabo-Cqionni. 

7. (East of Athenae). 

8. Marathon. 

9. (North of Marathon). 

1 . Basilico. 

2. CorjitOy (a ruin). 

4! \ (P*^^* ^f Corinthus). 




5. Phliusy 

6. ^gira^ 

7. Ceiynia, 

8. Egiumi* 

9. Patrae, 

10. Dyme, 

11. Tritaea, 

1. Olympia,* 

2. Pisa, 

3. Elis,* 

4. Pylusy 

5. Cyllene, 

I. Mantinea, 
fh Tegea, 

3. Orchomenus, 

4. Stymphalusy 

5. Pheneos> 

6. Cliton, 

7. Psophis, 

8. Telphasa» 

9. Heraea, 

10. Aiphera, 

II. MegaUpoIiS)* 

1. Apg08>* 

2. Mycenae,* 

3. Tyrius,* 

4. Nauplia, 

5. Epidaurusy 

6. Traezeo, 

1. Lacedacm(m vel 

2. Amyplas, 

3. EpidaurusLuneraj 

4. Gythium, 

5. Boea, 

1. Messene,* 

2. Coione, 

3. Methone, 

4. Cyparissus, 

5. Stenyclarust 

I 5. Staphlica. 


rincipal ckies along th« 
Corinthian gulf)« 


1. Rofeo, (by conjecture). 

2. (Joined Olympia). 

3. Gastonni? 

4. (East of Elis). 

5. The port of Elii). 

1. Trapolitza? 

2. Moklia. 

3. (North of Mantinea). 

4. (North of Orchomenus). ^ 

5. Phonia* 


g* I (Principal cities on the 
g f branches of the Alpheus)* 


11. Leonard!. 

1. Argo., 

2. (North of Argos). 

3. Vathta. 

4. NapU Romania. 

5. Pidavra. 

6. Damala. 

1. Paleo-Chori. 

2. (Near Sparta). 

3. Malvasia-Vecchia. 

4. (The port of Sparta). 

5. Vatica. 

1. Mavra-Matia. 

2. Corone. 

3. Modon. 

4. Arcadia. 

5. NisL 


To judge of the extent of Greece by the power which ena-* 
hied its States, individually, to ana against each other, or uni- 

t The names of the principal cities of the Greek islands were meaectXIjt adopted 
Irpm those of the islands them«e|?e»; for which, aee pases 84 and SS, as we dispense 
^ith giving them a taholar insertion here. Except from u^s remark the isle of Eab<B%^ 
^bjoae chief eitks were CMci$f £mria, Qrem or hUttOf jEdn^w^ voA CurifHua. 



tedly, to sustain the attacks of formidable foreign enemies^ would 
be to form an idea of a great coutatry. A more intimate ao> 
quaintance with it, however, will undeceive us in this point 
Tor we shall see that Greece^ properly so called, scarcely con- 
tains more space than the kingdom of Naples occupies in the 
cbntinent of Italy. And the island of Sicily alone is deemed 
equal to the Peloponnesus^ considered exclusively of Greece 
Proper; although in it there are enumerated ^ix distinct pro* 
vinces. The circumstance that contributes among others to the 
glory of Gre£«9 is well known to be, that, though reduced by 
the Roman arms, she triumphed in Jkome by establishing the 
arts which in this mistress of the world were unk*v>wn* 


But after having remarked a relative distinction in the extent 
of the name of Greece, it becomes us to signify here, that it is 
in its most comprehensive space that we propose to treat it. Re- 
turning to the frontier of Jlfyricum^ thence to take our departure, 
we shall include Macedon^ in its extent over Epirus Nova 
on the one side, and to Thrace on the other. 


The Greeks gave themselves the name of Helenes ; and that 
of Hellines is still known to the Turks in speaking of the 
Greeks. But the country they call Hellas did not extend over 
all that is comprehended under the name of Greece ; for it ex- 
cluded Macedon^ and the greatest part of Epirus. There is men- 
tion made of a primitive people under the name oi Pelasgi^ ia 
a state of society little better than that of nations which, we con- 
sider as savages. Three principal races afterwards are distio* 
guished) lonesy Dores^ and Moles. Attica was the original seat of 
the loNiAKS, whotin the Peloponnesus, occupied Achaia. The 
DoRiAifs, migrating from the trxyiirovks oS Parnassus^ became 
powerful in Peloponnesus. The Etolians inhabited Thessaly^ 
when foreigners came from Egypt and Phcmicia to civilize the 
first inhabitants of Greece. 

Epirus Nova. The lUyrian people occupied, by a conti- 

-huity of extent, the neighbouring country of the Adriatic sea^ 

to the confines of Epirus^ before it was attached to M acedon by 

the Romans, and after it had made a particular province under 

the name of Epirus Nova, or the New Epirus. 



MaceixHi, in its mcHre ancient state, was bounded on the 
west by. the country whereof we have just spoken, and confined 
on the side of the east by Thrace; by which it was also con- 
I tracced, before the borders of the rivei- Strymon were comprised 
I in it. It Yi^A Dardania on the north, and was bounded on the 
I' south by Thessaty. But in the interior of a country so re- 
[ nowned, there is still wanting much of the actual intelligence 
I from^ which ancient geography derives its most important 
[ iUustration. 


\ E^iRirs. The shore of Epirus commences at a point named 
I' AcrO'Ceraunia^ where it borders on Epirua Novcm It touches 
Macedon and Thessaly eastward, aud covers the Ambraciua 
Sinus^ which parts it from Grascia Propria on the south i unless 
we attach Acarnaniaj as it was originally, to the kingdom of 

Thessaly is bounded on three sides by mountains ; namely, 
on the north by Olympus^ which divides it from Macedon ; on 
the west by Pindus^ which divides it from Epirus ; and on the 
south by Oeta^ which parts it from Grascia Propria; having the 
Mgmn sea to the east withal. 

GRiEci A Propria. This grand division of Greece was 
bounded on the north, by mount Oeta^ which divided it from 
Thessaly; on the west, by the Ionian sea; on the south, by the 
Corinthian and Saronic gulfs, and the Isthmus of Corinth^ which 
separated it from Peloponnesus) and on the east, by the 
JEgean sea» 

The subdivisions of Gr^cia Propria were seven; viz. At* 
tlca^ Meg'ari^y Bietica^ Phocisj Locris^ Dorisj and Mtolta. 

Pelopoknesus. This peninsula derived it»name from Pelops, 
the son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia, and in its general form, 
resembles the leaf of a palm tree. It is joined to Grctcia PrO" 
pria by the Isthmus of Corinth^ which is only about five miles 
over. On this spot the inhabitants of Peloponnesus usually in- 
trenched themselves when in dread of an invasion ; and here the 
bthmean games were trienniaUy celebrated. Demetrius, C^sar^ 



and others, attempted to cut through tfaia isthmus, but uniform- 
ly failed. 

The subdivisions of Peloponnesus wore siXfYiz* Achaia^ JEEs^ 
Messenia^ Laconia^ Arcadia^ and Argolis* 

The Romans, in the third Macedonian war^ reduced the 
greater part of Greece to a province, called Macedonia; pne 
hundred and forty-eight years before Christ. The rest of 
Greece shortly after shared the same fate, and was reduced to a 
province, called Achaia, when the Achasan league was sv^vert* 
ed under the war conducted by Mumnuus* 





Troasi Dardania, 
i&olisy Ciiicia, et 

Abrettena. Troja- 

nes, Mjrsi vel Maesi. 

Olfmpena.— -Thjmi 
6t Bithynii Mariandjr- 
ni) Caucones. 

3. DomanitrL— *HenetL 

4. Phanaraea, Phazemo- 
myscyra et Sidena.-^ 
Leuco-Syri,' Amazo- 
ne8, Tibareni^et Chal- 
dasi yel Hepta-Come* 

(Comprised a league 
cdf twelve states or 

Lydivel Maeones. 

Lycaonia, Epictetus, 
Paroreias, Eumenia. 
— >Phriges. 
Gallo*Graecii^— •To« 
listo-Boiiy . Trocmiy 

1. Heliespofttus.^ 

3. Bithynia fiotttu^ ' Honoriaa ct 

3. PapMagonia. 

4. Heleno-PoDtus et Poltmoiua^ 


7. Phry^ia-Pacatiana, Phrygii- 
Salotaris, et Lycaonia. 

8. Galatia Piima, et GaliUia Se« 

IWI W l l 

* The eivil divisions of Asia Minor of the present day eorrespond to 3iy» and are .19 
-few eomtMirativelj, with those of antiqaitr, whieh are soffieient to fit! the usual plaa «C 
oar tables, that we must he contented with stating in the way of note, that this eoantsy 
is now divided into three provinees of the Toriush empire. One ealled N^tolia* 
•r rather Anatolia, whieh occupies the toettemjfart, extendi^; over its whmia 
width i while the other two^ called Am as i a, on the JBlach tea, uA CiiaAK AKXAfOM 
the Levant^ oeoapy ths readue, aastward^ to the £uphrmteK 






Xfnffdoma. Provinces^ Inhubitantt, ^c. 

~^9. Cilicia, Garsaufa^ et 
Armenia Minor.—— 
10. Dorist Peraea-Rho- 
diorutn. — Doresi Ca- 
res, et Lelegeik. 

c4 11. Milyas— Licii. 

12. Cabalia, Pisidia) 
laauria.— Solymi. 

13. Tracheay Cetis, 
Campesms, Lamo- 
tris9Ch«racene,et L^ 
canitis.— -Cilices. 

Jloman Prvdnceg^ 

9. Cappadocia Prima, Secunda et 
Tarda; Armenia Prima et Se- 

10. Caria. 

11. Lycia. 

12. Pamphylia Prima, Pampbylta 
Secunda, et Pisidia. 

13. Cilicia Prima, et Cilicia Se* 


1. Troja vel Ilium 

2. Alexandria«Troa$» 

3. Dardanus, 
4« Abydos, 

5. Lampsacust 



11. Pergamus,* 

12. Elaea, 

13. Scepsis, 

14. Thebe, 

15. Lyrnessus, 

16. Zeleia, 

17. Miletopoli«, 

18. Hiera-Germa, 

1. Prusa* ad Olym- 

2. Cius, 

3. Myrlea vel Apa- 

A* Dascyliiua» 

5. Apollonia, 

6. Hadriani, 
T. Nicaea, 

10. Astacus, 

1. (No remains)* 

2. Eski-Stan^oul* 

3. (No remains). 

4. Nagara, (a ruin)- 

5. Lamsaki. 

6. Camanar. 

7. Caraboa. 

8. Cyzicus (a ruin), 

9. Artaki. 

10. Asso. 

U. Bergamo. 

12. (Port of Pergamus). 

13. (No remains). 

j^-^ (Unknown). 

16. (Near Biga). 

17. Balikejiri.^ 

18. Ghermasti. 

1. Bursa. 

2. Ghio, or Kemlik. 

3. Moudania. 

4. Diaskillo. 

5. Aboullona. 

6. Ed^enos. 
r. Is-Nick. 

8. Is-Nikmid. 

9. Bastaa. 

10. (Near Nicomcdia). 

CIVIL niy(sio59. 


gt il. Xiibyssa, 
>• 1 12. Pantichiumy 

13. Chalcedony 

14. Chrysopolisy 

15. SophoD, 

16. Calpe, 
35 1 17. Prusa ad Hypium, 
l.fis. Heraclea* Pontica. 
P J 19. Tium, 

20. Gratia vel Fla- 

21. Hadrianopolisy 

1. Amastrisv* 

2. Cytorus, 

3. Abonitichos vel . 


6. CinoUs, 

7. Stephane/ 

8. Sinope, 

9- GermanicopoUS) 
10. PompeiopolUi 

1. EupatoriaAmissuSj 

2. MagnabpliS) 

3. PhazemoO) 

4. Amaseay* 

5. Pimopoiisy 

6. Gaziura,* 

7. Zela, 

8. Sebastopolisi 

9. fierisa, 

10. Trapezus?* 

11. Com ana, 

12. Neo-Caesarea^ 

13. Cerasus, 

14. Tripolis, 

15. Athense, 

16. TecheS) 

1. Smyrna, 

2. Phocxa, 

3. Cuma vel CyniCf^ 

^. > 4. Ephesus,* 


5. Clazomane, 

6. ErythraB, 

7. Tcos, 

8. Neapolis, 

9. Priene, 

10. Miletus, 

11. Myu8, 


11. Gebis6, 

12. Pantichi. 
13tK adri-'keui. 

14. Scutari. 

15. Sabandgeh. 

16. Kerbech. 

17. Uskubi. 

18. ErekU. 

19. Falios. 

20. Ghered^b' 

21. Boll. 

1. Amasreh. 

2. ^udros. 
2. AinehboU. 

4. Kianganu 

5. Ginuc. 

6. Kinoli. 

7. Iste&n. 

8. Sinub. 

9. Kastanmoni. 

10. (Near Sinope). 

1. Samsoun, (a ruin). 

2. Ichenikeh. 

3. Merzifoun. 
4. . Amaaieh. 

5. Osmandgik. 

6. Gueden 

7. Zeleh. 

8. Turcal, 

9. Tocat 

10. Trebisond. 

11. Almons. 

12. Niksar. 

13. Reresoun* 

14. tireboli. 

15. Athenoh' 

16. Teheh. 

1. Ismir. 

2. Focbia. 

3. Nemourt, (a ruin). 

4. Aiosoluc, (a ruin). 

5. (Near Vourla). 

6. Erethri. 

7. Sigagik. 

8. Scala nova. 
I O.J (South of Ephesus). 








I. Sardes,* 
3. Hyracania, 

3. Magnesia Sypiliat 

4. Metropolis^* 

5. ThyaUrai 

6. Hypxpaf 

7. Magnesia Msandri) 

8. Tralles, 

9. Nysa, 

10. Tripolis, 

II. Philadelphia} 
12. Maeonia, 

1. Doiylaeuni} 

2. Cotyaeiumi 

3. Peltc, 

4. Cadi, 

5. Azaniy 

6. Ancyra, 
7« Cumenia, 

? 1 8. HierapoliS} 



I J 18. 

I.*  ** 

11. Cibyraf 

12. Apuaea CibotuS) 

15. Thjrmbriuin) 

16. Laodicea Com* 

19. Laranda, 

1. Gordium vel Julio- 

2. PesMDus,* 

3. Germa Colonia, 

4. Amorium, 

5. Ancyra,* 

6. Gorbeus,* 

7. Tavia, 

1. Masacia * Cesaria, 

2. Nyssa, 

3. Garsrusa, 

4. Cammanene?* 

7. Comans^i* 


U Sart, (a ruin). 

2. Marmora. 

3. Magnesia. 

4. Tireh. 

5. Akhisar. 

6. Berki. 

7. Gurzel-Hi7ar. 

8. Sultan*Hizar. 

9. Nosti. 

10. (On the Meander}. 

11. Alar-Shehr. 

12. (Near the latter). 

1. Eski-Sherhr. 

2. Kutaieh. 

3. Uschak. 

4. Kedous. 
5.T • 

6. V (Unknown)^ 


8. Bambuk-Kalasi. 

9. Ladik, (a ruin). 

10. Chonos. 

11. Buruz. 

12. Amphion Karahizat 

13. (Unknown). 

14. Ilgoun. 

15. (Near Th]rmbraia). 

16. Jurekiam Ladik. 

17. Konieh. 

18. Ismit. 

19 Larendeh. 

> (Unknown). 


3. (Near the latter). 

4. Amora. 

5. Angoura. 

6. Gorbaga. 

7. Tchoroum. 
.1. Kaisarieh. 

2. Nous-Sher. 

3. Ak-Serai. 

4. Kaman. 

5. Nigdeh. 

6. Nour. 

7. £l*Bostan. 



8. Justinianopolis* Mo- 

9. PodanduSf 

10. CUCU8U89 

11. Ariathiai* 

12. Tyana * yel Dana^ 

13. Tonosa, 

14. Musana) 




8« MouciouB. 

9. Podando. 

10. Cocaon. 


vel Te- 



1. lassus^ 

2. Halicamass ua* 
'3. Ceramusi 

4. £nld[u8, 

5. CauQUS) 

6. Alabanda, 

^n 7. Antiochia Maeandria^ 
g ^ 8. AphrodisiaSy* 
^^ 9..l^tratomcea * 

10. Mylasa, 
. 11. Phiscusi 

.12 Alinda,* 

13. Tabs, 

1. Telmissus, 

2. Xanthus,* 

3. Pinani) 

4. Tlos, 
-^ 5. Patara, 
2" -^ 7. Limyra, 

8. Olympus, 

9. PhaseliS) 

4. Sydra, 


I!- 1' 

14. -I 

J 2 ^ (Unknoivii> 

15. Sebaste. 

16. Malaria* 

17. Artik-abadk 

IS. DiyrikL 

19. Sivas. 

20. Arzingan* 

1. Asaem Kalad. 

2. Bodroun castle. 

3. Keramo. 

4. (In ruins). 

5. kiuguez. 

5. (Near the Meander). 

7. legni Shehr, 

8. Gheira. 

9. Eski Shehr. 

10. Marmara. 

11. Physco. 

12. (Near Moglad). 

13. Tabas. 

1. Macii* 

2. Eksenide. 

' > (unknown). 

5. Patera. 

6. Myra. 

7. (East of Myra). 

8. (In ruins). 

9. rionda. 

1. Satalia. 

2. Kara-hisar. 
i3. Iburar. 

4. (East of Coraoesium)}^ 

5. (In Cabalia), 

6. Candeloro^ 

7. Alaaiebv 




1. Cremna) 

2. Barisi 

3. L3rsone) 

4. Trogitis, 
Antiochia * ad Fisi- 

5.1 5. Oroax 
I ye. Antio 
^'j dianiy 



7. Seleucia Ferrea^ 

8. Selga,» 

9. Fetnelis«u8, 

10. Isaura, 

11 . Derbe, 

12. Ceralis, 

1. Setinus Trajanopotisi 

2. Antiochia, 

3. CharadruS) 

4. Anemurium, 

5. CelenderiSf 

6. Selucia * Trachw, 

7. Homonaday 

8. 01ba» 

9. Coiycnsy 

1 0. Pompeiopolis (S6&)y 

11. Tarsus,* 
12; Adana, 

13. MgXy 

14. Anazarbus 

15. Mallus, 

16. Mopsusy 

17. Fftivias, 

18. Irenopolis, 
19' Issus, 

20. Nicopolis, 

21. Epiphania, 

22. Baia&> 


Modem. • 

I. Kebrinaz* 
3. Isbarteh. 
3. Aglason. 
4* Egreder. 

5. HaTiran. 

6. Ak-Shehr. 

7. Eushar. 

8. (Unknown). 

9. (Near Selg^). 

10. (Unknown).^' 

II. Alah-Da^y 
12. Kerali. 

1. Selciiti. 

2. Anteochen^ 

3. Calandro. 

4. Anemufielu 

5. Kelnat*. 

7. Ermenak. 

8. (Unknown). 

9. Curco. 

10.' (On the Lamns). 

11. Tarsous. 

12. Adana. 

13. Alas. 

14. Anazarba. 

15. Mallo. * 

16. Messis. 

^g' > (Unknown). 

19. Aiasse. 

20. Kenisat-asoud« 

21. Surfendkan 

22. Faias. 


It itiUst be premised, that antiquity knew no distinctiott of 
country under the name of Asia Minor; though there be found 
sometimes in the ancient writers, Asia oti this side of Mount 
Taurus and the river HalySy distinguished from that which is 
beyond. But to comprise what we propose under the present 
tide, we must advance eastward to the Euphriatesi follow the 
shore of the Euxine northward to Colchis.^ and the shore of the 
interior ^ea^ or Mediterranean, to the limits of Syria4 

CIVIL mvisioNs, ip3 

The frequent revolutions that the countries of Asia have ex« 
perieQced, attended with occasional contractions and expansions 
of their limits/ render it impossible to treat of those limits with 

Two grand niiCCESEs, or departments, under the- emperors 
of the eiast, in the fourth century, divided this Asia, by the 
names of Asiana and Pontica^ under the two metropolitan sees 
of Ephesus^ and Casarea of Cappadocia* But this division has 
no affinity with any distribution in the ages of antiquity; nor 
does it preserve any traces at present. Asiana occupied all the 
shore of the Mediterranean, P^ntica that of the Black sea ; and 
aline drawn oblfquely from the Propontis made the seperatioo* 

Endeavouring to apply method to the distribution of the di- 
vers countries which compose Asia Minor, we find them dis^ 
posed in such a manner as to be divisable into three classes: 
one towards the north, along the Euxine^ one towards the south, 
along the Mediterranean^ separated from the precedent by a 
middle class, which extended from the JEgean sea to the JEu- 
phrates* Each of these classes, or assemblages, is composed 
of FOUR principal countries* Under the^r»^or northern, are 
ranged Mysia^ Bithynia^ Paphlagonia^ and Pohtus; in the second 
or INTERMEDIATE, Lydia^ Phrygia^ Galatia^ and Cappadocia. 
The third or southern consists of Cariay Lycia^ Pamphylia and 
Cilicia. Consequently the foUowing detail will be divided^into 
THREE sections, each bearing the title of the countries comprised 
therein* And some portions of territory which do not appear 
in this arrangement, shall be made known by their connection 
with some individual province : thus Ionia will appear with Ly» 
dia; Lycaonia with Phrygia^ Pisidia yfith Pamphylia f and Ar^ 
menia Minor with Cafpadociok 


II nil I 



Mtsia is adjacent to the Propontis on the north, and to the 
Mgean seu on the west : it is bounded by Bithynia on the east, 
and on the south by Lydiny We have 3ecn that the My si owed 


their origin to the JUitai^ natives of Thrace in the vicinity of the 
later* The name of HelespMtus was given to the greatest part 
of Mtsia, on forming it into a province in a posterior age« It 
is well known that HeUea-p^nms is tK« channel which conducts 
from the uEgean &a to the Propontis, and now called the strait 
of the Dardanelles. Nothing is so much celebrated in this coim« 
try as the ancient Troas^ the kingdom of Priam* Troja Of 
Troyy named otherwise /Sum, having been destroyed by the 
Greeks, rose again from its ashes, to take a position nearer to 
the sea, at the mouth of the Scamandtr^ or Xanthus, below the 
junction of the Simos^ What are commonly regarded as the 
ruins of Troy^ under the name of Eski-Stkmboul, or Old Con- 
stantinople, are the fragments of another city, which received 
from Lysimachus, one of the successors of Alexander, the name 
of Alexandria^. to which the surname of Troas was also added, 
and under the Romans this city had considerable iinmunities^ 
from the pretension of the Romans to be of Trojan origin* 


Departing frbm the Rhyndacus^ we shall extend Bithtkia 
to the river Parthenitts ; observing that there was a time wbea 
the dependencies of Pontus^ extending to Heraclea^ confined 
BiTHTNiA within narrower bounds ; and remarking withal that 
under the lower empire, Bithynia was no longer the name of a 
province ; its principal part in the vicinity of the Propontis hav* 
ing assumed the name of Pontica and the part adjacent to 
Paphlagonia composed a separate province, called Hcnorias* 

This country was named Bebrycia^ before a people who are 
said to have issued from Thrace gave it the name of Bithtnia. 
There is qaoreover observed a distinction between the Thyni 
jMud iSiMyni, -although both were reputed of Thracian origin. 


Paphlagonia, extends from the river Partheniusy which pre- 
serves the name of Partheni, to the river HtiUya before mention* 
ed« It is -adjacent to the Euxine on the north, imd contiguous 

CIVIL raviBiOKs. lOS 

f • 

[ on the south to Galaticu There is an tmbig^ty concerning the 
timits of Paphlagonia and Galatia, Gangra was the metro- 
polis of the former province under the lower empire, yet the 
local position of this city, and the circumstance of its having 
been the residence of a Galatian prince, as king Dejoratus, seem 
to fftvour the claim of Galatta during the ages of antiqiuty* 



Till the time of the Trojaw war this country was occupied 
by the Heneti^ who pretended to have afterwards passed 
into Italy, having confounded their, name with that of the 

» r 



PoNTus was dismembered from Cappadociay as a separate 
Satrapy under the kings of Persia, till it was erected into a 
kingdom about 300 years before the Christian sera. The name 
of Leuco'Syri^ or White Syrians, which was given to the Cappa* 
docians^ extended to a people who inhabited Poirrus ; and it is 
plainly seen that the term Pontus distinguished the maritime 
people from those who dwelt in the Mediterranean country. 

This great spa^e extending to Colchis^ formed under the 
Roman empire two provinces ; the one, encroaching on Paph-^ 
lagonia on the side of SinopCy was distinguished by the term Pri^ 
ma^ and afterwards by the name of Helench Pontus^ from He» 
len, mother of Constanrtine* The other was called Ponius Po* 
kmoniacuSj from the name of Polemon, which had been that 
of a race of king$; the last of which made a formal cession of 
his state to Nero»-^We now treat of what fills the intermediate 



Ltdia, including Iohia, is the first country, in proceeding 
thtis from west to easiji It is bounded by Mysia on the norths 


Phrygia on the east, and Carta on the south. The name of 
Mctonia was also common to it; but, leaving equivocal distinc- 
tions, we may aiErm that the Lydi and Masones were the same 
nation. The borders of the seavhaving been occupied by Ionian 
colonies, about 900 years before the Christian sera, took the 
name of Ionia* 

Ephesus^ the most illustrious city in Asia, was founded by a 
son of Codrus, king of Athens ; was adorned with a superb tem- 
ple, constructed by common contribution of the Asiatic cities; 
and was the residence of a Roman /^rocon^u/, whose jurisdiction 
respected a province of great extent, under the name of Asia. 
Miletus was included in the Ionic union though it b^ com- 
prised within the limits of Cariofl 


Succeeding to Lydia^ towards the east, Phrygia is one of 
the principal countries in Asia Minor. The Phryges were of 
Thracian origin according to Strabo ; and their first establish- 
ments, from the time that Gordius and Midas reigned over this 
nation, were towards the sources of the Sangar^ which divided 
their territory from Bithyniay according to the report of the 
same author. It is to this part, although at first but of small 
extent, compared with its subsequent expansion, that the name 
of Greater Phrygia is given by distinction from a Phrygia 
Minor, which encroached on Mysia towards the Hellespont, 
and was thus denominated from Phrygians who occupied this 
country after the destruction of Troy. The testimony of Stra- 
bo is explicit ; and if the Trojans are called Phrygians by Vir- 
gil, they became so by usurpation ; and that accidental event 
will not justify us in obliterating the distinction between Mysia 
and Phrygia, as provinces. But by a dismemberment which 
the kingdom of Bithynia suffered on the part of the Romans, 
and to the advantage of the kings of Pergamus, this part of the 
territory, which was Phrygian, assumed under these kings the 
name of Epictetus^ or Phrygia by acquisition. The territory 
which Phrygia poj^sessed towards thft south, and contiguous 


to Pisidia and Lycia^ appears to have been called Ptar^rncM; 
denoting it in the Gre^k to be in the vicinity of moumains. 

In the snbdivisions of provmces that took place in the time 
of Constantine, we here distinguish three; one was called 
Phrygia- Pacatiana^ another Phrygia-Saiutaris^ and that part of 
the country called Lycaonia formed a third of the same name* 


Galatia is adjacent on the north to Bithynia and Paphlor 
gonia. The Sangar and the Halys traverse the contiguous ex- 
tremities of these provinces. We see in history, that about 270 
years before the Christian «ra, a handful of Gauls detached 
under Lomilorius and Lutarius, from a great emigration led 
by Brennus against Rome, passed into Asia by crossing the Hel* 
kspont. After having laid under contribution all the country 
on this side mount TauricSy these Gauls cantoned themselves 
in a part of Phrygian extending to the confines of Cappadocia* 
And, as there had been previous establishments formed by the 
Greeks, with whom the strangers had mingled, the' conquered 
country obtained the name also of GALLo-GRiEciA. However^ 
they had so well preserved the distinction, that their language 
appeared to St. Jerome, about 600 years after their migration, 
the same as that spoken at his time in Treves. This nation was 
composed of three people: the Ti^/i^^^-^^ii, confining on Phrygia, 
called Epictetus; the Trocmi^ on the side of Cappadocia; and 
the Tectosages^ occupying the intermediate territory. Among 
many cotemporary princes, called TefrarcA*, who ruled in Ga- 
latia, Dejotarus, favoured by Pbmpey, J^nd not less so by Ca- 
sar, usurped the government of the whole, and assumed the title 
of king. But a kingdom that Amyntas, a creature of Antony, 
possessed, and which beyond Galatia, extended in Lycaonia 
and Pisidia, was reunited tp the empire by Augustus, after the 
battle of Actium* ^ 

As to the occurrences of later times, Galatia was not di* 
vided into tv^o provinces till the reign of Theodosius ; the one 
distinguished as Galatia Prima^ tlie other as Galatia Secunda^ 
suruamed 4Sa/t^^am« 






Separated from Pontus by a chain of mountains, Cappado- 
CIA extends southward to Mount Taurus. ~ We have seen that 
Pontus was only distinguished from Capfadocia by its having 
been detached from it; that the nation was fundamentally the 
same in one part as the other, and reputed of Syrian race; the 
Capj>adocian8 being .generally called leuco-Syri or White Sy- 
rians. But that which was properly Cappadogia, was called 
Cappapocia Magnu^ or Major* 

This country was a kingdom of the Persian empire; and, at 
liie e:i^tinction of the royal race, the Cappadocians, to whom li- 
berty was offered by the Romans, preferred being governed by 
kings. It has been said of the king of C appadoci a, that, though 
poor in monet/y he W4s rich in slaves; alluding to the condition 
of the peasantry in his allodial demesnes, which was that of the 
most miserable vassalage* 

Under Tiberius, this kingdom was reunited to the empire; 
but it did not extend, as a separate domain, to the Euphrates, 
An union with the Armenian nation caused the part adjacent 
to the river to assume the name of Armenia Minor, but in a 
manner indeterminate, and much more contracted at first than 
in posterior times, when, by the division of Cappadoc:ia into 
^ve provinces the name of Armenia was extended to two of 
them, distinguished by Prima and Secunda^ as were the three 
Cappadqcias by Prima^ Secundq^ and Terfia. 

These countries, which remaiQ tp be inspected, ipake the 
ffouthem and maritime circuit. \ 



C AHIA, which is adjacent to the sea on the southern and 
western sides, cannot be more distinctly separated from Zy(/ia 
than by the course of the river M^mder^ 

CIVIL Dmsiovs. tflV 

iThe Gaues ^d their language were esteemtd barbarous by 
the Greeks^ who made establishments among them. They had 
inhabited isles of the iEgean sea« and had extended even to the 
coast of Lydiay before the arrival of the Ionian colonies. The 
LeUges^ obliged about the time of the Trojan war to quit a 
maritime canton of TrOaa^ retired into Caria, where they pos- 
sessed m»iy cities* And this is all that can be said concerning 
the more remote antiquity in Carta* Aphrodisia$ had the rank, 
of metropcdis, in the province of Carta* 


Lycia, contained between two gulfs^ is encompassed by die 
sea on three sides. Mountains which extend their branches in 
various directions through the country, cover it on the Qther* 

It is recorded of the Lycti^ that having ports favourable for 
navigation, they had preferred the establishment of a good ad- 
ministration to the example of their neighbours of Pamphylta 
and Cilicia^ who were addicted to piracy. Myra held the dignity 
of metropolis in the province of Lyctaj and retains its name and 



We thus comprise, under the same title, two countries, be- 
tween which it would be difficult to determine the limits with 
precision. But what distinguishes them in a general manner is^ 
that Pamphylia borders the sea while Pisidia occupies the inte^ 
fior country. - 

Besides tlie province of Pisidia PAHPHTtiA was divided In* 
to a Pamphylia Prima^ and Pamphyiia Secunda* 


Overlooked by the ridge of Taurus^ on the northern side« 
CiLiciA borders the se^ louthward, to the limits of ' Syrian 



The Cilices are first mentioned at a time when the weak- 
ness of the kings of Syria^ and the divisions in their house^ 
permitted this nation to exercise piracy with impunity; a prac- 
tice which could not but be agreeable to the Ptolemies, ene- 
mies to the Seleucides, and which was not at first an object 
directly interesting to the Romans. But the predatory powcr^ 
which extended to the maritime places as well as on the seas, 
having grown to such a height as to brave the Romans' on the 
shores of Italy, Servilius Isauricus was sent to destroy the Pi- 
f^atcs. He, hoWever, did but begin the work, which Pompey 
finished by a naval victory under Coracesium. 

On the division of Cilicia into two provinces, under the 
younger Theodosius, Anazarbus or Cassarea^ was elevated to 
the rank of metropolis in the second Cilicia; Tarstis preserving 
that dignity in the^r^f Cilicicu 

»/vr>»v# \A/»./\/\/Ny\/\/* 



Cantons and Inhabitants* 

o-^f 1. Lazica, Moschia— 
^cs Colchi vel Lazi, Abasci, et 

^g C 2. Moschia— ^— Moschi, 
rp^Scythae, Sabiri vel Hunni, 
Mosehia— MoschiJLe- 
vel Scythae, 

4. Pcrsarmenia, Phasi- 
^ I ane, Taochi, Chorzenc, 
g< Moxoene, Adlisene, "So- 
HJ phene, Arzanene— Tzani 



4. Armenia, or Diar-Bskir 6y 
the Arabs. 


. Phasis, 

2. JEa, 

3. Sarapana^ 

1. > (Both on the Phasis, near the 
2. 5 Black Sea). 
3. Shorabani. 

* With the addition of MajQr, to disttDguish it from AnneDiii Mnor, belongiDg to 







4. Cyta,* 

5. Archaeopolis, 

6. Dioscuriasy yel Se- 

7. Pityus, 

8. Scanda. 

1. Harmozika, 

2. Seumara, 

3. Zalissa,* 

4. Phrixus, 

1. Cabalaca,* 

2. Albana, 

3. Getara, 

4. Mamechia> 

I. Arze, 
3. Elegja^ 

3. Gymniasy 

4. Theodosiopoiisi 

5. Hispiratis, 

6. Adranutziunii 

7. Abnicum, 

8. Chorsa^ 

9. Armama>* 

10. Artaxata,* 

II. Tibium, 

)3. Valarsapat>* 

13. Naxuanai 

14. Sigua, 

15. Daudyana, 

16. Arsamosata) 

17. ArzsuQionim Op- 
pidum (Thespia), 

18. Cepha^ 

19. Martyropolisy 

20. Tigranocerta> 


4. Cotatis. 

5. Ruki. 

6. Iskuriah. 

7. Pitchindai 

8. Scanda. 

1. (near Alkalzik6). 

2. Alkalzik6. 

3. (Unknown). 

4. Ideessa. 

1. Kablas-Var. 
2.. Niasabad. 

3. Baku. 

4. ShamakL 

1. Arze-Roum. 

2. Ilija. 

3. Gennis. 

4. Hassan-Cala. 

5. Ispira. 

6. ArdanoudjL 

7. Anisi. 

8. Kars. 

9. Armavir. 

1©. Ardesh, (a ruin). 

11. Tcvin. 

12. Eksmiazin. 

13. Naksivan. 

14. Baiazid. 

15. Diadine. 

16. Simsat. 

17. Erzen. 

18. Hesn-Keif. 

19. Miafarekui' 

20. Sered. 


Colchis, which iht fable of the Goidepjleece, and the expe- 
dition of Jason and the ArgonmiU^ have rendered famous in re- 
mote antiquity, borders the head of the Euxine sea: being 
bounded on the east by Iberia^ and covered by Caucasus to- 
wards the north. 

In the time of the Lower Empire this country was called La* 
zicas and tb& name of Colcbj, appears to have beeii replaced 


hy that of the Lazi^ which anteriorly was only proper to a par- 
ticular nation, comprised in the limits of what is now named 
Guria, on the flTouthern bank of the Faz. 


Iberia, holds the middle of the space that extends from the 
Euxine to the Caspian aecu Mountains detached from the 
ridge of Ccoicasus^ by which it is covered towards the nortlif 
embrace it on one side towards Colchisj and on the other to- 
wards Albania^ and thus intermpt the communication between 
the two seas. 

iBE&tA, was not subject to the Medes or Persians; nor could 
it have been well known in the west before the Roman armiea 
under the conduct of Pompey, penetrated through Albania, to 
the Caspian sea; and till the affairs of Armenia Qcca8i<med dis^ 
oord with the kings of Iberia. 


Albakia, extends from 3eria eastward to the Caspian sea^ 
and along its coast to the Cyrus^ which appears to separate it 
from Media Atropatena ; and its limits remount this hver^ to a 
stream, which it receives towards the frontier of Iberia^ called 
AlazoTiy and which has not changed its name. 

The country was divided among many nations, which Pom- 
pey found united under a king. The people inhabictog 
Albania, less inclined to the culture of the land than those of 
Iberia^ were occupied principally in the feeding of cattle. 


Armenia, extends from the Euphratts eastward to the place 
where the Kur and Araa unite their streams, not far from their 
mouth* It is contiguous, on the north to Calchie^ Iberia^ and 
Albania^ which fill all the interval between the Euxine and Cas^ 
pian seas* Towards the south it is bounded by Mesopotamia^ 
Assyrkh And iUdia* It is a countty much diversified with 


CIVIL mvinoKs. 


mountains and plains* The Euphrates and TigrU have here 
their sources; and the Aras traverses the principal part of the 
country from west, to east. We have seen Armenia., not 
bounded by the Euphrates, but extending westwjird of that 
river, in Cappadocia^ under the name of Armenia ifafis^r, hj 
distinction from the Armenia Proper or Major ^ which consti- 
tutes our present object. 

Vh;^ fables published by the Greeks concerning the origin of 
thi« nation, and the name of the country, merit not the ledst con* 
sideration* Armenia, appears to have' been successivdy sub- 
jected to the great monarchies of the East: to that of th^ Medes^ 
after the Assyrian dominajtion, and, then governed by satraps^ 
Under the kings of Persia* The Seieucides, reigned till the de* 
feat of Antiochus the Great, by the Romans. The governors 
who commanded in Armenia then, rendered themselves inde* 
pendent* But this state, fluctuating t>etween two pctent em- 
pires, and alternately ruled by the Romans and the taithians^ 
was considered by the latter as the portion for the caiet of the 
house of the Arsacides.* It was the same under the second em* 
pire of the Persians; and the part confipin^ on this empire Wa^ 
ipalled Persarmenia* 


^f I. Seleucis,Cc&U-Sy- 

"^^ I ria,Coroagene,Chalibo- 

^ J nitis, Chalcidice, Cyr- 

3 1 rhestica, Palmyrene, et 
/§. j Phoenice.— Syri, Phoe- 

* t.neci et Nazanni. 

mT 2f Judaea, Samaria, 
f 2-J Galiljca, &Pera?a.~Phi. 

? (^listaeiy vel Allophyli, 

MESOPQ.? 1. Osroenei Anthe- 
TAW(IA. V musia. 

jRotmm Province* t 
1. Syria Prima, Syria Secunda vel 
S^lutaris, et Syria Eupbraten* 
sis^ Phccnicia Propria, et Phoe^ 
nicia Libani. 

2. Palaestina Prinuif et Patestina 

1. Mesopotamia. 



* The kiags of thfi Partitiuui were to ealled from Amoes. tlie fine king. 
Part iv. 

t Modem tabdivisioni are parctermitted, for the sake of the more important items of 
Boman provinces Nevertheless ve observe in Syri a» those of Damascusy Acre, Txit* 
poll, and Al^ppOi in Aii«Gs%ia^ > thoie aC iHwbekir* Ratsca and MotoL 











1. Alexandria Cata-Is- 

2. Rhosus, 

3. Pagrae, 

4. Antiochia * Theopo- 


5. Daphne, 

6. Seleucia, 

7. Seluco-Belns, 

8. Apamea^* 

9. LysiaS) 

10. Thelmenissusy 

1 1 . Marra, 
13. Larissa, 

13. £piphania(Hemath}, 

14. Arethusa, 

15. Emefta, 
6. Laodicea Llbani) 

17. labruda, 

18. Carrse, 

19. Heliopdis, 

20. Samosata^* 

21. Bargalium, 

22. Claudias, 

25. Pendenissus, 
24. Zengma^ 

E ^25. Hierapolis  vel 

26. Batnas, 

27. Beraea (Chabylon), 

28. Cyrrhus, 

29. Chalcis, 

30. Barbalissus,* 
SI. ThapsacviB, 

32. Palmyra,* 

33. Laodicea ad Mare, 

34. Gabala, ^ 

35. Balnea, 

36. M^rathos, 

37. Aradus, 

38. Antaradus, 

^ t 40. lUphanea^, 
^ I 41.Demetria6, 
?J 42. Arce, 

43. Simyra, 

44i Tripolis, 

45. Aphacai 




1. Alexandretta or Scanderon^ 

2. Rhosus. 

3. Bagraft. 

4. Antakra, (a ruin). 

5. Beit-el-Ma. 

6. Suveldia. ' 

7. Shagr. 

8. Farniefa. 

9. Berzieh. 

10. Sermin. 

11. (Unknown). 
22. Shizar. 

13. Hatnah. 

14. Restan^ 

15. Hems. 

16. louschiah. 

17. labrud. 
J 8. Kara. 

19. Baalbek. 

20. Seroisat 

21. Bersel. 

22. Cloudieh. 

23. Behensi. 

24. Roum-Cala. * 

25. Menbigz. 

26. Adaneh. 

27. Hhaleb. 

28. Corns. 

29. Old Alep. 

30. Beles. 

31. El-Der. 

32. Tadmor. 

34. Gebileti. 

35. Belnias. 

36. (Ko remains). 

37. Rand. 

38. Tortosa. 

39. Sur (a ruin). . 

40. Rafineh. v^t 
4l.Akkar. , 

42. Arka. 

43. Suraira. 

44. Tarabolus. 

45. (pestrojed by Constantine). 


CIVIL mvisioKS. 


r. V46 Damascus, ^^ 
f ( 47. Porptiytfoft, 
^ -^ 48. Sidon,* 
49. Sarep]a» 
\ 50. Pta«f Tyrils,*^ 

51. Abiia Lysania&, < 
t^i. Sef>aste (Samana\*^ 
.Neapolis (Sichcro),* 
Casarea * (Tumsr 

5. Legloy 

6. MageddOf 

7. Dori, 

8. Ptolemais (Aco)) 



13. Jotapata, 

14. Caesarea"^ Fhilippi 

15. Asor,* 

1 6. Jeru salem,*Hieroso- 
l3nna, Cadytis, sive 
Salem; postea^ J£Ca 
Capkolina,^ " 

17. Gaphna,' . 

18. AniipatriS) 
^ 19. ApbllonluSi 
> 20. Jappo, 

[e 21. Lydda vel DiospoIU, 

SK tl3. ianmia vel labhe, 

23. Ekron vel Accarony 

24. Gath vel £i#Qtbero- 

25. AscaloDi"^ 
26« Gaaa,* 
27. Raphiai 

29. Hebron,*' 
29; Bet-lchem, 

30. Herodiumi 
^l. £minaus vel Ni- 

32. Hierichus, 
SS.'Ckstra Amonet)si$i, 
34. LiviaS) 

35*. HeseboB^vet fisbusi 
36. Medaba^ 


1 46. Damesk. 

47. Rbmeilfe. 

48. Seide. 

49. Siirfond. 

50. (No rei^n^s). 

51. Nebl-Abel. 

1. Sebaste, a ruin. 

2. Nabolus. 

3. Csesarea, (a rub)'. 

4. Esdrdlon, 

5. Legune. 

6. (Unknown). 

7. Tartoura* 

8. Acre. 

9. Zib. 
iO. Sipphori* 

11. Ba&an. 

12. Saphet (a ruin). 

13. (Near the latter]^ 
1 14. Belines or Benais. 


il5. Asor (a'ruih). 

.16. Belt-el-Makd^St &ad4he4^ 

i or. lUa. 


1 7. Worth of Jerusalein) 

18. (Near the foilovriog). 

19. Arsuf, (a ruin). 
1 30. Jafa (a ruin) 

22. lebna. 
21. Ekron. 

25. Ascalon (in ruins). 

26. Gaza. 

27. Refah. 

28. Cabr-Ibrahim. "* i 
^9. (Near Jerusalem); 

10. (East of lerusa(em). 

11. (West of Jerusalem). 

32. Eriha. 

33. (A Roman Fort.) 

34. {N^dir the Jordan^ 
3iL HdsboD. 

36. A^-Selka^a. 





37. Amathus, 
36. Ratnoth-Gallaady* 

39. Gaulony 

40. Gadara,* 
^"l 41. Juliasy 

§. ^43. Bostra,* 

^ J 43. Philadelphia, (Ra- 

44. Areopolis, (Ra- 


1. Edessa,* 

2. Anthemusias,* 

I 3. Bathnas Sarugi, 
4. Carrx vel Charroe, 
5 Leontopolis,* (Cai- 

6. Circesium^ 

7. Theodosiopolis, 

8. Anatho, 

9. Neharda, 

10. Pompeditha, 
g*^!!. Is vel ^iopolis, 

~ " rel Vitra, 

Singara, * 

1 6. Labbarui) * 

17. Antiochia) (Nisi« 

18. AnastatiopoliS)* 

19. Rabdium, 

20. Constantia (Tela), 


37. Asselt. 

38. (Near Jkbok> 

39. Adgeloun. 

41. Tel-ouiy (a ruin). 
43. Bosra. 

43. Alfimaii. 

44. El-Raba^ or Maad. 

1. Roha,>or Orha. 

2. Shar-Melik. 

3. Seroug. 

4. Haran, (a ruin). 

5. Racca. 

6. Kerkisia. 

7. Ras-Ain. 

8. Anah. 

9. Haditha. 

10. Juba» 

11. Hit. 

12. Tecrit. 

13. Kara Amid. 

14. Hatder, (a rub]. 

15. Sinjar. 

16. Beled. 

17. NislHD, (a ruin). 

18. Dara Kardin> (a ruin). 

19. Tur-Rabdin. 

20. Tel- Kiuran. 


Among the countries of Asia, those which we proceed to 
describe, are the most worthy to be known* The Strian nation 
was not bounded by the limits which comprise Stria, but ex- 
tended beyond the Euphrates into Mesopotamia ; and we have 
also remarked, in treating of Cappadocia^ that the people who 
occupied it, as far as the Euxine, were reputed of Syrian oris- 
gin. Syria extends along the sea from the frontier oiCilicia^ 
and comprehending Palestine^ touches the limits of Egypt ^ 
Mount Taurus covers it towards theinorth i and to die course 

CIVIL iwisiond. 117' 

of die Euphrates^ on the side of the east, succeeds an indefinite 
canton of the desert Arabia; .which, taming to the south, stretch- 
es into the Arabia Petrcea* 

In the dismemberment which the empire of Alexander suf- 
fered after the death of that conqueror, Seleucus Nicator having 
become the most powerful of princes among whom this empire 
was portioned, possessed the greatest division of it, extending 
from the Mgean sea to India. But the insurrection of the Par- 
thisms, which happened under Antiochus II. grandson of Seleu- 
cus, deprived the successors of that prince of the eastern pro- 
vinces ; and Antiochus III. in the war that he had with the 
Romans, lost that part of A^ia which was situated beyond 
mount Taurus, with regard to Stria. Great divisions in the 
house of the Seleucides having at length enfeebled extremely 
this power, Tigraaes, king of Armenia^ took possession of St- 
HIA ; and, when reduced by Pompey to confine himself within 
iHs proper limits, his conquest became a province of the Roman 
empire. A situation bordering upon the Parthian empire, which 
was the second empire of the Persians, must have made the 
defence of this province an object of the greatest importance • 


Syria Propria, constituted by much the greatest part of that 
dtascese (for sothe great departments established before the end 
of the fourth century were named) called Orijens; which also 
comprised Palestine^ a district of Mesofotamiay the province of 
Cilicia^ and the isle, of Cyprus. 


Every one knows how much the Phoenicians distinguished 
themselves by navigation ; from which their commerce derivecl 
its extension and aggrandizement. Confined to a margin of 
land, between the s€a suid mountains^ they could only acquire 
power by the means which they employed, and which were so 
successfully exerted as to enable diiem to form establishments, 
not only on the shores of their own sea, but also on those of thp 
Western ocean. The arts owed both their birth and their per* 
fection to theta. It was a Phoenician who introduced into 
Greece the k^awledge of letters, and their use s and arii^ 


brought from Tyre peiided over the constructioa of the Tea)p|t 
with which Solomon embellished his capital ci^* 

By a division of primitive provinces, there appear ^v^ in the 
Ifmita of Stria exclusive of P^/?«tin^.'<Tci^ Syrias, jPrima, and 
Secunda or Salutaria;^ two PhoBnicias, one properly «o called, 
and the other sumamed Libani^ by the extejEision of the anterior 
limits of Pboenice; and finally, the Suphrctensis* 

Under diis title we comprehend the part of Stria extending 
south from the limits of Cctk-SyriarXo Arabia Petrma: and this 
•pace is bounded on the west by the sea called in the BiUe the 
Hredt sea^ and confined by Arabia Deserta on the eastern/side* 

It is agreed that the name PaliEstine is derived from the 
fhilistines. For notwithstanding that die Hebrew people estab* 
Itahed themselves in Canaan, the Philistines maintained poases* 
aion of a mariUme country, which extended to the limits df 
Egypt. And there is reason to believe that it was the Sjrrisns 
who, by a greater atuchment to this people Aan to a natioa 
originally foreign in the country, have given occasion to the ex* 
tension of the name of Palsestine, which is found in history at 
the time of Herodotus, and which the Jewish writers have since 
adopted in the same extent. The people of Juda, transported to 
pabylon by Nabucodonosor, had obtained liberty from Cyrus to 
return to Uieir native country ; and the Jewish nation, since this 
return, extending themselves as well in what composed the king*' 
dom of Israel as that of Juda, diffused the name of Judaea over 
the same space i and this was the name of the kingdom possessed 
by Herod» 

This distinction is incompetent to the thorough knowledge of 
H country, which divides with some othera, the greatest celebrity 
in history* A particular diaeussion, however, concerning tli« 
diiFerent Canaanite people established in the country before the 
conquest of it by Joshua, is proper to the third part of this 
work. What is proper further to be observed here is, that the 
eittinctiou of the kingdoms of ^udah and Israel^ into which 
pAXfBSTWfi; had been divtdedf destroyed all traces of those di- 
visions of this couotryt 

ara:« onrisioNa. lis 

After tbe tetum of the Jews from captivity, and during the 
time« of the Second Temfl^ wt here distinguish y^ur priacipid 
coontries: as Judma^ Samaria^ Galibta^ and Peraa; of which the 
three former were on this side of the Jordan^ whereas the lat- 
ter denomination denotes the country beyond this riven We 
find also the name of Judcea applied to the greater part of the 
country, as do the Jewish naUon also^ owe their distingaishiog 
appellaBtton to it. But Judaa Proper occupied the south, Gofi- 
hea the north, and Samaria filled the intermediate space. AU 
though all the country beyond the Jordan may with the same 
propriety be called Percea^ according to the signification of the 
term, yet this distinction is more particularly applied to that 
part which made the portions of Reuben and Gad, extending 
from the torrent of 4r/tan northward to the mount called Ga- 
laad^ at neariy the same height with the issue of the Jordan 
from the Tiberiad Sea* And Bostra was the metropolis of % 
Roman province formed here under the name of Arabia. 

But, in the enumeration of the provinces of the empire, Palais* 
tine is the name for the whole country : and in the first years 
of the first century this name was communicated to three pro* 
vinces; as Paktstma Primal PalmHina Secunda^ and Palesttna 
Tertia. But as thk latt occupied Arabia Petnxa^ we shall speak 
of it under that head* And we have just seen that the part be« 
yond the Jordan formed n province cdled. Arabia* 


The name of Mesopotamia is known to denote a country 
between rivers* It is also known that ^theae rivers are the 
£uphraites and the Ttgrisj which embrace this country, in its 
whole length, and contract it by their approximation in the low* 
er or southern part, which is contiguous to Babylon* From 
this situation it has acquired the name of Al-Gezira among the 
Arabs, who have no specific term to distinguish a peninsula 
from an island. 

The district of Mesopotamia, which is only Separated from 
Syria by the course of the Euphrates, bore die came of X)iroene^ 
which it owed to Osroes, or, according to the chronicles of the 
country, Orfhpes; who profiting by the feebleness of the Seleu* 



cideB, caused by their diviaions, acquired a principality about 
one hundred and twenty years before the Christian era. In the 
time of the unsuccessful expedition of Crassus against the t'ar- 
thianst we see in this country a prince, whose name of Abgar 
piassed successively to many others. 

The Euphrates appearing to the prudence of Augustus as the 
boundary that nature had prescribed to the empire, the Osroene 
princes had to adjust their interests between the Roman power 
and that of the Parthians ; and Trajan, in the conquest that he 
made of Mesopotamia, forbore to despoil the prince Abgu-f 
But Caracalla did not conduct himself with equal moderatioD. 
However, it cannot be decided that the Osroene was distinguish- 
ed as a province of the empire before the first successors of 
Constantine, of which, after encroaching upon Armenia, Amid» 
^as made the capital. 


0waitie9, JHitrictt ^ hihabitants. 

g> r !• Idumaea vcl Ge- 
H>'< balene, Madiana— -Na- 
§S (^batbaei, Madianites, 
P^r 2. Minaea, &c.— Tha- 
>ts>\ mydeni vel Thamuditae, 
p,^< Oaditx, Maadeni, Gas- 
^^1 andi, Sabaei, Homerita, 

§j^ r 3. Ararena, Sec— 
^S } Scenitac, Saraceni, Ma- 
^gjcae, Ichtbyophagi, et 
>> (^Hagareui, 



1. Arabia Petbjsa. 

2. Arabia Felix or Iemek 6y 
the Arabt. 

3. Arabia Deserta. 


1. Zoara vel Segor, 

2. JEllana vel Ailath, 

3. Berenice) (Asion- 

4. Phara, 

1. Zoar. 

2. Allah, (a ruin). . 

3. Minet IddahsLb. 

4. Deir-Faran, (a ruin). 

* The eaase of our finding the modern denommatioiiB under this head newrly the 
same with the ancient is,, that this country hasne?er been invaded in such a manner a* 
to mi^e any great change ia the popuiationi as some others hare Veen. 



Petra,* . 
Phoenicum Oppid. 

1. Thema, 

2. Albus Pagus, 

3. CharmotaS) 

4. Jambia, 

5. latrippa, 

6. Ma^Q-raba, 

7. Badeo Regia, 

8. Sabet> 
9i Musa, 

10. Ocelis, 

11. Sabatha,* 
12* Carana,* 
IS. Saphar»^ 

14. Tamala, 

15. Mariaba,* 

16. Anagrana, 

17. ArabiaFelixEmparium)* 

18. Cana Emporium)^ 
Moscha Portus, 
Omanum* £inpoTiuin> 

' ^\s. Alata, 
• L6. 



5. Tor. 

6. K.rac. 

7. Megar-el-Shuaih. 

8. Calaat-el-Moilah. 

1. Tima. 

2. Hawr. 

3. Al-Sharm, 

4. Jamba. 

5. latreb or Medina. 

6. Mecca. 

7. Badea. 

8. Zebid. 

9. Moseh. 

10. Gfaela. 

11. Sanaa. \ 

12. Almakarana. 

13. Dafar. 

14. Al-Demlou. 

15. Mareb. 

16. Nageranor Nagran.^ 

17. Aden. 

18. Cana-Camm. 

1. Mascat. 

2. Oman. 

3. Vadana. 

4. £l*KaUf. 

5. Ahsa. 

6. Cariataiir 


We proceed to survey a vast country, which extends &<»& 
the Euphrates on the north, to the Erythrean sea on the soudi; 
having for its .western limits the Arabic Gulf, commonly called 
the Red Sea; and on the east the Persian Gulf, which as well as 
die precedent, is an inlet of the Erythrean or Arabian sea* 
From its situation, encompassed by water on three sides, it is 
called in the language of the people who inhabit it, GeT^trat^el* 
Arabf the island or PekinsuIiA of Arabia. 

There are distinguished two races in Arabia^ asi well by line- 
age as by modes of life. The first and more ancient are re- 
puted to owe their origin to Jactan, or Kahtan, son of Eher, are 
cslled pur^ Araisy inh^it cities, and have been governed by 


kings* A posterior generation of. Mostarabes^ or mixed Arais^ 
who are not stationary, or occupied by agriculture^ biit erratic 
and pastoral^ recqg^se for U«eir author, IflOBaad,. the son- of 

It has been remarked, that none of the great Asiatic powers 
have subjugated a nation whose liberty seems defended by die 
nature of their country, destitute of water, and for the most part 
uncultivated; and an expedition undertaken there by AugusttiSy 
had nearly occasioned the destruction of a Roman army, with- 
out any advantage resulting'^ from it. It is sufficiently known 
that this continent is divided into three regions distingnished 
from each other by the several epithets of Petrteai the Sapp^^ 
and the Desert Arabia* 


Arabia PETKiEA, from the confines oijudea^ extends towarda 
the south to the Arabic Gulf; which embraces it by two smalleF 
gulfs that terminate the greater, under the names of Heroopoktes 
on the west, and jElanitea on the east. The limits of Egypt 
also terminate it towards the west. 

The part of this country confining on Judea is particularly 
distinguished under the name of Idumtea^ formed from that of 
Edom^ which was given to Esau, the son of Jacob. And the 
posterity of this patriarch was in possession of a part of Ara- 
bia PsTRiEA, when the people of Israel, (respecting the limits 
of a nation sprung from a common ancestor) m^de a great eir^ 
cait through the desert, tamed south to the jEianitic gtil^ and 
then remounting northward^ entered by the country oi M&ai. 
But the posterity of Ismael^ who derived their name from Na- 
bajoth,;hts eldest son, becoming very numerous, the name of 
Ndbc^hai prev^led in Arabia PsTRiEA; which in the time of 
Augustus was governed by a king seated at Petra^ whence the 
country drew its name. Having been conquered by Trajan, it 
was joined to Palestine; and afterwards formed a particular pro- 
vmce called the Thtpd Palestine^ and otherwise Sahitarisy of 
which the metropolis was the ancient residence of its kings. 




The southern part of Arabia, which^ bounded on the east by 
the Arabic Gulfy and on the south by the Erythrean sea^ is that 
which particularly merits the appellation of Happy. The 
name of lemen, whereby it is actually know;i, is a term in 
the Arabic, as in many other oriental languages, to express 
the right; and turning towards the rising sun, according to 
the aspect affected by the Asiatics, such will be the relative 
position of a southern country. It may be added that in this 
term of lemen is also comprised an idea of felicity. Among 
the several people included in this country, and specially reputed 
yectanides^ qr children of Jectan, the Sabasi are the most dis- 
tinguished, and sometimes comprise others under their name. 


It must be remarked that what appertains to the Arabia 
Deserta of Ptolemy, appears restrained to the country con- 
tiguous to Syria and Babylon^ and has relation to that which ia 
now called Dahna, or the Desert plain. 

To the region of Incense succeeds a country named Mahrah, 
whose aspect is sufficiently deformed by nature to merit the dis- 
tinction of the Sterile Arabia: for, between the country of 
Oman, and the environs of Mecca, a continued desert, extend- 
ing across the. continent, furnishes no particular objects in ge- 
ography; antiquity appearing even to be unacquainted with the 
country in this part. But adhering to the coast, we find it 
somewhat otherwise; and, knbwibg only as Arabia Deserta, 
what extends on the south side of the Euphrates between Syria 
and Babylon,, the writers of antiquity have comprised this shore 
of the Persian gulf in Arabia Felix, Truly some places are 
recognized on it, that do not disgrace this distinction. We 
should not omit to remark that among the tribes of this region 
of Arabia, the Saraceni attract attention as the original of a cele- 
brated empire, the Saracen* 





Kingdomi. Cantont & Jnhaditant». 

1. Aturiat Adiabene, 
Corduene, ApoUonia, 
Sec.—— CardAchi vel 
Gordyc, et Garamaei) 


1. Kurdistan. 

2. Irak Arabi. 


"1. Aloni, 

1. Ghilon. 

2. Nineveh,* 

2r Nino, (a ruin). 

3. Arabehb 

3. Erbil. 

4. Gaugamela^ 

4. (Near the latter). 


5. Corcura, 

5. Kerkouk. 


6. Siazurosi 

6. Sherzoi\r. 


7. Carcha, ^ 

r. Kark (Old Bagdad). 

8. SumerCi 

8. Samera. 


9. Dura, 

9. DcHir. 

10. Opis vel Antiochia, 

10. (On the Tieris). 

1 1 . Da9cara-el-IVielUs . 

1 1. Artemita (Dastagerda))* 

12. Apollonia» 

12. Shereban. 

^13. Albana, 

13. Holuan. 

"1. Sippora, vel Narragai 

1. (Unknown). 


2. Sitac^e, 

2. Karkuf(aruin). 

3. Irenopolisy 

3. Bagdad or Bagdat. 

4. > Seieucia* et 

5. 5 Ctesiphon,* 

4. 7 Al-Modain, or the 

5. 5 two Cities. 


6. Babylon,* 

6. Babil (a i»ain)i 



7* Vologesia, 

7. (Near Babyton). 


B. AlexaaddavelHira,* 

8. Mesch^a-Ali. 

9. Borsippa vel Barsitm 

9. Semevat or Celestial. 

10. Sura, 

10. Sura. 


U. Korna. 


13. Aracca. 

12. Wash. 

13. Dirldotis vel Teredon, J 

13. (At the mouth of tho 



^14. Orchpg, 

14. (Near the latter). 



Separated from Mesopotamia by the Tigris^ Assyria extends 
on Uie eastern bank c3Ff this rii^r from the, limits of Armenia to- 
"wards the north, to those of Babylon in the south. A chain of 


xnoantaiDs^ whose aame was Zagrae^ called now by die Torka 
Tag-Atagha, sepsiraitea i% toward the east from Me4i(u 

It is thought tp owe its naaae to Asshur, the toa of Shem; 
and what its name has in ccuniQoti with that of Syria, caused it 
to be sometimes transferred to the Syrian nation, whose origin 
refers to Aratn* also descended from Shem. It was sometimes 
called Aturioy although this name was proper only to a partica- 
lar canton. of the country in the environs of Nineveh. 'There 
is also mention of the name of Adiabene^ as having supplanted 
that of Assyria, notwithstanding it was distinguished as belong* 
ing^ only to a particular country which Assyria comprehended* 

We know that from the remotest aintiquity, the AssTniAN 
monarchy extended over a great part of Adia, till the fkU of its 
BMPiaE about seven hundred years before the Christian aera* 
But although this power appears to have been destroyed by the 
Medea while Babylon formed at the same time a separate king* 
dom, many kings mentioned in the Scriptures evince a second 
dynasty in Asstria. 


From the limits which it has appeared expedient to give to 
Mesopotamia and Asayria^ Babylonia extends both on the 
Euphratea and Tigris to the Persian Gulf, by which it is termi- 
nated towards the south; confining with Arabia Deserta on the 
west, and with Susiana on the east. The name of Chaldea^ 
which is more precisely appropriated to the part nearest to the 
Gulf, is sometimes employed as a designation of the entire 
country. And the greatest part of it being comprehended be- 
tween the rivers, has given occasion to extend to it erroneously, 
the name of Mesopotamia* 

We shall iee in Part III. of this work that the country now 
under consideration was the theatre of the earliest and most 
wonderful transacuons of Sacred History, irhereof those of f^H^ 
oefi^^ stand conspicuous^ ( - 


This empire^ to which Cambyses, son of Cyrus, added Egypt^ 
subsisted not more than two ages, when it was conquered by 
Alexander ; after whose death the eastern provinces fell to the 
lot of Seleucus Nicalor; and bis successors in Syria lost these 
provinces to the Parthiaks* But under the dosiinii^ of these 
last, PxRUA had its own kings; and in an eimmeratioB 
which we have of the provinces of their empire, neither Persby' 
aor the adjacent countries of Suuana and Carmania, are found 
comprised. The Persian princes were neverthelesa in a state 
of dependence dill the third century. A Persian who lock the 
name of Artazerxes, shook off the yoke of the Parthiars, 
and transferred their power to the Persians, who enjoyed it 
about four hundred years, till the invasion of the Arabs under 
the first Khalifs, successors of Mahomet. 

The ancient renown of Persia, which the second dyrmij 
renewed, has maintained the name of this empire, in a large 
sense, as a general term in geography, applied to all that coun- 
try which, from the limits of the Turkish domination^ cxteni& 
eastward to Hindoostan. 


Carmania succeeding Persia^ towards the east, preserved 
in its extent the same parallels of latitude. Ptolemy, encroach- 
ing on Gedrosia, exaggerates the dimenuons of CarmanIa, far 
beyond the limits assigned to it in the relation of ^earcus; w1k)> 
coasting along these countries, fixes as a term of division, a 
promontory named Carpella^ which is indubitably Cape Jask; 
, and recognizing moreover for the first place in C ARscAiflA, com* 
ing from the mouths of the Indus, that which, under the name 
of Badis, he indicates as adjacent. The objects that antiquity of- 
fers to observadon in Carmania^ are forthe most part limited 
toi the sea'-coast. 


Gedrosia, from die fimits of Carmania^ extends to IndiOf 
and from the shore of the jt^^ stretches inland to Araehosia^ ii^ 
Aria. This country is now caUcd Mtkraa* 



I What an army of Alexander suffered here, retnmtng from 
Indiay affords a most disadvantageous idea of this country: and 
. it appears that the same distresses, from want of provisions and 
^ water, and from columns of moving sand, had long beforeproved 
I ^e destruction of the armies of Semiramis and Cyrus. 



Countries (^ Inhabituntt, 

r 1. Anabon, Sacagtiana,] 1/ 
1^) Aracfaosia,Paro]iamisus,&c. 
r "^ -i^Arii, Ziarangsei, vel Dran- 

Cgae, Ariaspas, &c. 

Modem » 

part of PERSIA. 


St 2. Astabena, Apavaretica, 
-^jg 1 Parthiene vel Parthia, 
^o^Margiana.-— Dahae, Barca- 
^ ' nil} &c. 

3, Guria— Tocbari, 


^Khorasan; being ftari qf ptt^ 
aeni Feraia* 


UsBBc Tartary. 



1. Aria* vel Artacoanai 

2. Sissia, 

3. BitEkxa, 

4. Sariga, 

5. Prop^hthasia,* 

6. Zans, 
T. Abeflte, 

8. Phra vel Para, 

9. Alexandria, 

1. Zadracarta,* 

2. Syringis^velHyrcania, 

3. Assac, 

4. Parthaunisa* vel Ntsaea^ 

5. Antiochia, 

6. Mauracai 

1. Herat> 

2. Zeuzan. 

3. Badkis. 

4. Seraks. 

5. Zarang. 

6. Ctesias. 

7. Aracfaosia* 

8. Ferah. 

9. Scandarie. 

1. Sau. 

2. Jorjan or Corcan. 

3. Zai^eh. 

4. Nesa. 

5. Marw-Sbahi-gian. 

6. Marw-errund. 


An€ient. ' Modem, 

1. Bactra* vel Zariaspa, 

2. Drapsaca vel Da- 

3. Aornosy 

1. Maracanda^ 

2. Oxiana, 

3. Alexandria Oxiana^ 

4. Nautaca, 

5. GabaC) 

6. Cyreschatay 

7. Gorgo,* 

1. Balk. 

2. Bamian. 

3. Talekan. 

. 1. Sarmakand. 

2. Termed. 

3. Sali-Serai. 

4. Nekshab. 

5. Kauos. 

6. Cogend. 

7. Corcang. 


Aria. The name of Artaih properly that of a particular 
province; and it is by extension of its Trniits, to conaprtjhend se- 
Teral adjacent cantons, that Ari an a appears a name distingui^ed 
from Aria^ in antiquity. This extension is carried by Strabo 
as far as the mouths of the Indus; and its limits described in 
such a manner as to embrace the frontier of Carmania as far as 
Gedrosta. "Ryxt^without descending thus to the sea, it may be said 
that the country which represents. the ancient AriA^ is that which 
the Persians call Khorasan, because of its relative situation 
towards the rising son: and the name of Choro- Mithfena^ in 
which is recogniajed that of Mithra, the deity of the sun ac- 
cording to the ancient Persians, would correspond with thej. si- 
tuation of the same country, if Ptolemy did apply it to a district 
of Media less remote than Khorasan. 

Hyrcania. The limits of HtRC^^NiA are*not easily deter- 
mined. To assume as a term, the mouth of a river natmed Si' 
deris^ where the s^a commonly called Caspian, takes, according 
to Pliny, the name of Mare Hyrcanum^ is to circumscribe it 
within the angle Which this sea forms between the east and the 
south; though it appears properly prolonged on the southern 
coast of the Caspian sea* 

A canton of thi& country called Parthiene or ParfAia, formed 
the rudiments of the Parthian empire, once so illustrious; ex- 
tending its name to the surroutiding country, and is that part of 
Media situated beyond the Caspian sea. 


Bactriana — extends along the southern banks of the Oxus^ 
which separates it from Sogdiana,^ The moutitaias which are 
a continuation of the Faropamisus^ covering the north of India, 
bound Bactriana towards the south. 

This country is said to be of such high antiquity as to have 
been conquered by Ninus. It was subjected to the Persians 
since the time of Cyrus ; but never conquered by the far' 
thians. At the time of the Parthian insurrection against the 
Syrian kings, the Greeks, who under these kings governed 
the remote provinces, rendered themselves independent in Bac- 
triana; and became so powerful by Aew conquests, that the 
country to the mouths of the Indus, and much beyond the limits 
of Alexander's conquests, was subjected to them. 

SoGDiANA-r-extends along the right or northern sidfe of the 
river O^e^*,.or in the oriental geography, Gihon, whosd course 
divides two great regions, Iran and Touran ; the one embracing 
the Persian provinces in general, the. other extending over the 
countries of ancient Scythia* The country called by us Trans- 
Oxiane corresponds with that which the orientals also express 
by the name qf Mauemnahr, or beyond the river. The name 
of SoGDiANA subsists in that of al-Sogd, proper to a valley 
Which, for its exuberant fertility, is one of the four cantons dis- 
tinguised by the name Fordous, or Paradise. Under the se* 
cond empire of the Persians we find the country about the 
mouth of the Oxm occupied by a Scythian nation, called ^;^« 
t halites by the Greeks of the Lower Empire. 







-'^cf ^* Massagetae, Get6) 
^3 ^ F vel Sacae, Comedae, A- 
d^^^^bii, Arimaspi, Griphi, 
^g f V Argippaei, &c, 

SIRICA. ^ ^* ^^^^' Ithaguri, 
2 Issedones, 




Tartarjr and Tib^t* 




1. Turns Lapidea> 

2. Auxacia)* 

3. Issedon Scythixi 

4. Chatae, 

1, Issedon Sericae, 
3. Asmirasay* 

3. Drosache, . 

4. Sera Metropolis,* 

1. Aatas. 

2. Acsou. 

3. Hara-Shar. 

4. Kotan. 

1. Lop. 

2. Hami. 

3. Cas-Nop, 

I 4. Kati-tcheou* 


This country, exclusive of Serica^ was divided by Ptolcfny, 
into ScYTHi A intra Im aum, and Scythia extra Im aum. The 
mountain of lmau9 is connected with Faropamism by the chain 
which covers the north of India. 

According to the knowledge that the ancients had of this 
Scythia, (another called Parental Scythia of antiquity hav- 
ing occupied the neighbourhood of the jPaltis Mceotis)^ it was 
but a small part of that which common usage comprehends un- 
der the general name of Tartary. And this name of Tartary 
is of recent date, that of Tatar (as it should be) only appear- 
ing towards the close of the twelfth century; and even limited 
to a single horde or tribe, whose submission to that of the Mo- 
guls commanded by Zenghiz Khan, was the first achievement 
pf this conqueror; an event that did not hinder the name of the 
vanquished people from prevailing over the other to such an 
amount, as to become a general indication for almost half the 
continent of Asia. Those Scythians who subverted the Me- 
dian empire in Upper Asia^ which they retained only twenty- 



eight years, were European Scythians, from the neighbourhood 
of the Palus Mccotis just mentioned. Their enterprise gave 
rise to the pretence of Darius, son of Hystaspes, to carry the 
ivar beyond the Ister or Danube, into the country whither they 
had returned. 

Seric A— -which remains to be spoken of, appears to be a con- 
tinuation of the same country with Scythta^ without a separa- 
tion marked by any local circumstance. The name of the peo- 
ple of Seres, is cited in many. writers in antiquity; but it is to 
Ptolemv alone that we owe any detail of this country, as well 
as of tire anterior part of Scythia* 

Among all the regions which the geography of Ptolemy com- 
prehends, it is not without some surprise that we remark Seri- 
GA to be the most correctly treated, although one of the object^ 
the most remote in it. But this country was on the route by 
which a great trade was maintained with the frontier of Chinas 
and he might have gained information of its chorography by the 
same way. 



Countriee, Cantons & Inhabitants, 

1 . Suastene, Prosiane, 
Patalene, Indo-Scythia, 
Syrastene et Dacha- 
SS^S<? '^^bades.— Aspii, Gu- 
b3 fl raei, Assacene,Ser*Indi, 
SI I Maili, Oxydracae, Pra- 
I sii, Brachmani, Antich- 
l.thones, &c. 

Besyngitis, Au- 
Chersonesus, Sec. 

> B 



1. The Western pBNiMspLik A* 




3. Sines vel Singi, 4 3, 


The Easti^rn VttxissvhA^ 







1. Alexandria^ 

2. Peucela, 

3. Taxila,* 

4. Aomos. 

5. Ca8pira>* 

6. Nyaa, 

7. Bucephala^ 

8. Nicoea, 

9. Lahora, 

10. Sangala, 

11. Serinda, 
12- Scg4i»» 

13. Miiiagara,* 

14. Xylenopolis> 

15. Palibothra,* 

16. Agara, 

17. Melhora, 

18. Sambalacay 

19. ScandrabatiS)* 

20. Gange-Regia, 

21. Gagasmira^ 

22. BaIeocuri*-Regia, 

23. Ozene,* 

24. Mandiadeniy 

25. Barygazai 

26. Muziris, 
27« Sippara, 
28. Carura,* 
29 Cottiara,* 

30. Cole hi, 

31. Moduva,* 

32. Nigama, 

33. Arcati>* 

1. Sada. 

2. Berabonna, 

3. Mareara,* 

4. Zeba, 

5. Tha^ora, 

6. Perimula. 

7. Argentea,* 

1. Thyn«,vel Sinse,* 


1. KandahaTi 

2. Pocual, 

3. Attock. 

4. Renas? 

5. Kashmir. 

6. Nagar. 

g* > (Near Labora]* 

9. Lahaur. 

10. (no remains). 

11. Serhend. 

12. Bukor. 

13. Al-Mansor. 

14. Laheri? 

15. Alhabad» 

16. Aagra. 

17. Matura. 

18. Sanbal. 

19. Scanderbad. 

20. Raji-Mohol. 

21. Asmcr. 

22. Amedabad. 

23. Ugen. 

24. Mandou. 

25. Berug. 

36. Vizipdruk. 
27. Sefareh. 
38. Kauri, 

29. Aiccotta. 

30. Kilkat. 

31. Madure. 

32. Negapatnam. 

33. Arcot. 

1. Sedoa. 

2. Barabon. 

3. Mero. 

4. Batu-Saber. 

5. Tingoran. 

6. Perac 

7. Ashem. 

1, Loukin. 



India is the most exteasive part of ancient Asia, as it is one 
of the most celebrated. Sciences and polity are found among 
the Indians from the eaiiiest time in which the country was 
known. The enterprises of Cyrus, and of Darius, son of Hya- 
taspes, on India, preceded by an expedition of Semiramis, and 
by that attributed to Dionysius or Bacchus, have afforded to the 
west no particular knowledge of this country. Nor did Europe 
acquire any geographical acquaintance with India till the inva- 
sion of it by Alexander. It was under Seleucus Nicator, who, 
in die dismemberment of the empire of this conqueror, saw all 
iMrJEast under his domination, that this continent was explored 
to the Ganges^ and the bounds which the sea prescribed to it on 
the south ascertained by navigators. But navigation and com- 
merce, more favourable still than war to the extension of the » 
limits of geography (as we have seen exemplified in ages pois- 
terior to those of antiquity), had carried these limits beyond the 
Ganges as far as the country of Since; and what Strabo, and 
Pliny, have left us ignorant of in this extremity of the world 
known to the ancients, is an advancement due to Ptolemy. And 
whatever be the defects of his geography, the application of 
modern notices to the objecs which he presents, will be sufficient 
to fix them in the positions which severally belong to them. 

In India there are two great rivers, the Indus and the Ganges. 
The course of this last makes a partition of the country into 
two regions, India intra Gangentj and India ultra^ or, India 
within, and India without the Ganges. It would appear that 
India received its name from the former river, which traverses 
from north to south all that part of it bordering on the anterior 
countries. But it must be remarked that, in the country it- 
self, this river is called Sind, from an appellative denoting a 
river common in every age; and the name of SinduSy or Sinthus^ 
is also applied in antiquity to the Indus. 

SiN£. India beyond the Ganges is terminated at the head of 
the Magnus Sinus, or the gulf of Siam, which separates it from 
the country of the Sin^. It is evident in modern geography, 
that these lipmits are the same that separate Siam from Camboja. 



We know that this countiy, and Cochin- China, which is conti- 
guous, occupy a great tract of land, which the sea envelopes 6ii 
three sides, from the east to the west, by the south. The exte- 
rior limits of the further India were the barriers of the world^ 
when Ptolemy passed them, and described a remoter cotintry^^ 
called SiKi£^ till then unknown by name* 




Roman Provinces* 


^\. Egyptus Propria; 

; 2. augustamnica ; 

. ^ ftostea Agustamnica 

V Prijnaj et Secuuda. 


MIS. ^ tea Arcadia^ 
J&GTPTus ri. Thebais; fiositea 
SUPERIOR ) Thebais Anterior, 

vei i et Thebias Supe- 





T^trkiah PrvoinceB. 
i.*^ Bahire, including the Delta.- 


1. Said, or Upper Egtpt» J 





1 . Plinthinc, 

2. Taposiris, 

3. Alexandria^ •(Rhaco- 

4. Ni^poHs, 

5. Canopus, 

6. Hermopolis parra, 

7. Nitria, 

8. TerenuthiS) 

9. Metelis, 

10. Naiicratis> 

11. Sai8,» 

12. Taua, 
X3. Nicii,* 

14. Byblos, ^ 

15. Butus, 

16. Onuphis, 

17. Busiris, 

18. Tamiathis, 

19. Mendes, 

20. Thmuis, [physis, 

21. Diosp(4is yel Pane- 

1. (West of Alexandria). 

2. Abousir. 

3. Alexandria, or Escanderia* 

4. Ksar Kiasera. 

5. Abukir. 

6^ Demenhur. 

7. (Near the lakes of Nitre). 

8. Teran6. 

9. Missil. 

10. (Near Sals). 

11. Sa. 

12. Taua. 

13. Nikios. 

14. Rabel. [urn), 

15. (Near Sebennyticum Ostri- 

16. ]3anub. 

17. Busir. 

18. Damiat 

19. Ashmun-Tanah. 

20. Tmai6. 

21. Msuui^g. [ 





22. Tanis,* (Zoan), 

23. Tennesus, 

24. Lt\ ontopolisy 

25. Sethruni 

26. Pelusium, 

1. Rhinocorurai . 

2. Phacusa, 

3. Bcibastus,* 

4. Atpibis,* 

2* I (On the Pelusiac branch). 

g.S 5. 
g U- 




1. Memphis,* 

2. HeracleaopoUs, 

3. AproditopoliSy • 

4. Arsinoe* rcl Cpoco- 

5. Oxjriynchu^ 

6. Cynopolis, 
J. Hermopoli8*Magna, 

1. Cvi«a, 

2. Lycopolis, 

3. Apollinis Minor, 

4. Hypselis, 

5. Abotis, 

6. Antxopolis, 

7. Chemmis vel Pano- 

8. AphroditopoliS) 

9. Crocodilopolis, 

10. Ptolemais Hermii,* 

11. Abydus, 

12. Oaris Magna, . 
13' Oaris parva, 

g^s^ 14. Coptos, 

15. Thebae* vcl Dios* 
poils Magna, 

16. Appllinopolis Magy 

17. Apollinopolis parva, 

18. Diospoiis parva, 

19. Hermothis) 
r20. £l«thya5 

21. Syene, 

22. Berenice, 

23. Philoteris, 

24. Myos^-^Hermos, 

25. Arsinoe \.el Cleo* 








__ * 









a r* 
•a. n 



22. San. 

23. Tennis. 

24. Tel-£ssab6. 

25. Sethron. 

26. Tineh, (a ruin). 
1. Artish. 

4. Atrib. 



(On the canal from the Nile 
;;j ta the Red Sea). ^^^^^^ 

1. (Its Pyramids above Deltai re- 

2. (Was above Memphis). 

3. Alfieh. 

4. (Near lake Moeris). • 

5. Behnes6. 

6. (below the latter). 

7. Ashmunein. 
1 Cussi^. 

2. Siut ot Osiot. 

3. Sedaf^. 

4. Sciotb. 

5. Abutig. 

6. Kau-iUKubbara. 

7. Ekmim. 

8. Itfu, (a ruin). 

9. Adrib^- 

10. Menshie, (a ruin). 
Ul. Madfun6 (a ruin). 

12. > (distant, west, frodi the 

13. S Nile). 

14. Kipt. 

15. Aksor, or Luxo/. 

1 6. Edfu, 

17. Kous. 

18. How. 

1 9. Erment. 

20. Lucina. 

21. Assuan. 

'23. V (Ports on the Red Sea).* 

^24. J 

25, Suez: 









f 1. Alexandrionorum.* 

2. Menelaitis. 

3. Andronopolites. 

4. Gynaecopolites. 

5. Letopolites. 

6. hjuriotis. 

7. Metelite. 

8. Phtheiiote. 

9. Cabasites. 

10. Saites. 

11. Naucratites. 

12. Phthembuthi. 

13. Prosopites. 

14. Se benny tes Superior. 

15. Sebennytes Inferior. 

16. Omiphites. 

17. Busirites. 

18. Xoites. 

19. Mendesius. 

20. Thmuites. 

21. Nout. 

22. Tanites. 

23. Sethroites. 

24. Arabise. 

25. Leontopolites. 

126. Athributes. 
27. Bubastites. 


28. Phabaethites. 

29. Heroopolites. 

30. Phagroriopolites. 
.31. HeliopoUtes. 

"l. Memphites. 

2. Arsindites. 

3. Heracleopolites. 

4. Oxyrynchites. 

5. Cynopolites. 

6. Hermopolites. 

7. Aphroditopolites. 
8; Antinoites. 

^9. Oasitae. 
f I. Lycopolites. 
C I 2. Hypselites. 

3. Aphroditopolite$* 

4. Anta^opplites. 

5. Panopolites. 

6. Thaulte9. 

7. Diospolites, 
I S. Tentyrites. 
! 9. Coptites. 

10. Thebarum. 

11. Phaturites. 

12. Hermonthit^s. 
.13. ApoUopolited* 
14, Ombites. 




The great celebrity maintained by this country in antiquity 
is well known* It was from Egypt that Greece obtained the 
first appehension of the sciences and arts ; which from Greece 
passed into the west. The industry of the Egyptians is also 
signalized not only by their edifices, wherein solidity appears 
to prevail over elegance, but by the more useful labour of in- 
numerable canals opened through their lands, which have no 
other means of fertility than the waters of the singular i-ivelr that 
nature has given to the country. '^ 

• The names of these districts were derived, for lh«J most* part, from the principal 
cities which they contained* 




Egypt 13 comprised properly in a long valley ; which, frond 
north to south, following the course of the river, extends more 
than six degrees, and so contracted in breadth as to appear only 
a scantlet of land. But at the issue of this valley the country 
expands to give a passage to the different branches by Which this 
river communicates with the sea^ and adds to the extent of the 
country a degree and a half of latitude. All that is beyond the 
ceach of the derivations from the river is a sterile and unculti- 
vated land ; which, from the summit of the mountains that form 
the valley, extends on one side, to the Arabic gulf^ and has no 
other inhabitants than a race of nomades^ or pastors^ while the 
western limits are confounded in the deserts of Libya* 

Egypt, governed from immemorial time by its own kings, 
whether in a single monarchy, or in separate kingdoms, sub- 
mitted at length, under Cambyses, son of Cyrus, to the yoke of 
the Persians, which it sustained but impatiently. To Uiis dy- 
nasty succeeded, by dismemberment of the empire of Alexander, 
the reign of the Ptolemies, which continued until the reduction 
of the country into a Roman province^ under Augustus. And 
from the Eastern empire it was wrested by the Arabs, under the 
khalifat of Omar, in the seventh century. 

To this introductipfi wie shall add what concerns the distinc- 
tions of the several regions of Egypt; capitally divided into 
Superior^ Heptanomis^ and Inferior* This last is chiefly com- 
prehended within the two principal branches of the Nile, from 
its division, to its mouths; and the triangular figure of a Greek 
letter which it resembles, has occasioned it to be called the 
Delta : and it must be added, that the country of Mgyptus 
Inferior surpasses, both on the east and west, the natural limits 
of the Delta* As to Mgyptus Superior^ we find it separated 
from the precedent .by the Heptanomis^ whose name denotes it 
to have been composed of the union of seven districts^ or pre- 
fectures which in Egypt are called NomeSy of which more than 
fiity are distinguished in the detail that antiquity furnishes of 
this country, whereof likewise thirty are as old as the reign of Se« 
sostris. Towards the cataract which made the boundary of Egypt 
ami antient Ethiopia^ 3, territory owed to the famous Thebes its 
proper denomination of Thebais. 



Such were the ancient divisions of Egypt ; but in the mul- 
tiplication of the provinces of the empire, what Lower Egypt 
possessed beyond the arm of the Nile which discharges itself 
below the modern position of Damiat, composed, in the fourth 
century, a province, under the name of Au^stamnica; and the 
name of Mgyptus, remained provincially distinctive of the rest, 
including a countiry called Scithiaca by Ptolemy, bordering the 
desert of Libya, as well as the natural division called the Delta* 
Under Justinian we see the ^ugustamnic divided into two pro- 
vinces, a Prima and Secunda ; this maritime, and that inland. 
The Heptanomts took under Arcadius, son of the Great Theo- 
dosius, the name of Arcadia. Finally, we see the Thebais in a 
post^'rior age divided also into two provinces, Anterior and Su" 
periory according to the terms which we find employed to dis- 
tinguish these parts* 

iTs^^*/ *,/\/»,rjr\/\y\rwn 



1. Blemmyes. 

2. Nobatx. 
3* Meroe. 

4. Troglodytce. 

5. Avalites. 

6. Barbara vel Azania* 




2. V Nubia. 

3.3 . 

4. > Abyssinia bordering the 
5.3 Red^eb, 

6. Ajan. 



Cambysis ^ratrium, 



Meroe,* [ron, 

Theon Soter, vel Sote- 

Ptolemais vel Epitheras 

Auxume,^« . 


Gira* Metropolis, 



Berinice Epidires, 

Emporium Avalitanim 


Rapta* Metropolis, 

1. Ibrim. 

2. Moscho. 

3. Argo. 

4. (Unknown). 

5. Nuabia. 

6. Suakem. 

7. Ras-Ahehaz. 

1. Axum. 

2. Dobarua. 

3. Koukou? 

4. Arkiko. 
'5. Assab. 

6. (Near Zeila). 
r. Zeila. 

1. (At the mouth of the Soul). 
3. Pat6. 



By ascending the Nile from the frontier of Egypty we shall 
penetrate into the heart of ^Ethiopia. If recurrence be had to 
several versions of the Scriptures, and to the testimonies of Jo- 
sephus and St. Jerome, it will be found that thetuame of Chus^ 
from the son of Cham, appertained to this country. That of 
India is also applied to it, in several passages of the ancient 
%?riters, Ptolemy contracts it on the side of the west, because 
he indicates, under the name of Libya Interior^ that which, from 
a concatenation of local circumstances, is judged more proper to 
be embraced under the present title. 

The same distinction in the face of the country, between the 
lands adjacent to the Nile and those that are distant from it, as 
has been remarked^ of Egypt, prevails in the country immedi- 
ately succeeding under the modem name of Nubia ; and this to- 
pical character is continued as far as Abyssinia. 

We owe to the author of the Periptus of Hanno, a circum- 
stance worthy of remark,, ^'THctt all of this country on the Ery- 
threan sea^ by a very ancient tenure, is a dependence on Arabia, 
and on one of its prmces in particular,'^ Hence we find that the 
establishment of the ^rabs on tliis coast, was long previous to, 
Mahometanism ; the propagation of which, it might be imagined, 
brought them hither. From this circumstance is drawn an in- 
ference leading to the discovery of Ophirj which may subsist in 
Sophala, whither the fleets of Solomon resorted for gold, and 
which has escaped those who in their search for this country, 
have cast their eyes on the eastern shore of Africa. 

The position of Cambysis Mratrium^ now called Moscho, de- 
notes the deposit of the military chest of Caiabyses, who pushed 
his expedition beyond the limits of Egypt. This conqueror, 
after having departed from the Nile, passed the El-Wak, and 
traversed one of the driest and most difficult desarts, in which 
the greatest part of his army perished,, found himself again on. 
he banks of the Nile. An insult offered to the Roman name 
on the frontier of Egypt, under the reign of Augustus, occa- 
sioned a Roman army to pass as far as Napata^ which was the 
J^csidence of a queen named Condace. 





Ancient, Modem, 



States of Barbary, 


I. Marmaridae et Adyr- [ 1. 
^^.- , 2. Nasamones et Psyl- 

^ ,lj C 1. Phazania— — *Loto- 1 i. Tripoli andFEzzAK. 
a- 2. ^ phagi et Gara-mantes, 

-I.. I 

1-2. J 

2. Massyli et Massaesili, 

3. Carthaginienses, Sec, 


1. GaetuIia^^Masssesili, 
et Gsetuli vel Berey 

1., Maurasii, Ms^uri, et 




1. Algier. 

1. Fe«. 












Tcuchira (Asinoe), 

Berenice (Hesperis)! 

1. Al-Baretoun. 

2. (Neai^ the above), 

3. Akabet^ssolom. 

4. Sant-reih. 

5. 'AUgila. 

1. Darne. 

2. Curin, (a ruin). 

3. Sosush. 

4. Tolometa. 

5. Barca. 

6. Teukera. 

7. Bernic or Beugazi. 







"1. Phitenorum Arac, 

j 1. (Bordering Cyrenica). 

2. Macomades Syrtis, 

2. Sort (a ruin). 

3. Gerisa, 

3. Gherze. 


4. Leptis Magna, 

4. Lebida (a ruin). 


5. Oea, 

5. Tripoli. 


1.1 6. Sab rata, 

6. Sabart. 


7. Cydamus,* 

7. Ghedemes. 

8. Garama,* 

8. Gherma. 

9. Bedirum, 

9. Mederam. 

10. Sabe, 

10. Tasava. 

pi. Tacape, 

1. Gabes. 

% Byzacium,* 

2. Beghni. 

3. Macomades Minores, 

3. El-Mahres. 

4. Thenae, 

4. Taineh. 


5. Taphrura, 

5. Skafes. 

6. Tysdrus, 

6. ElrJera. 

5"v 7. Vicus August!, 

7. Kairwan? . - 



8. Tapsus, 

8. Demsas. ^* 

9. Leptis Minor, 

9. Lemta. 

10. Hadrumetum,* 

10. (Near Susa). 


11. Cabar Susis, 

11. Susa. 

12. Horrea Caelia, 

12. Erklia. 

f I. Grasse,* 

1. Jerads. 

. ' 

2. Neapolis, 

% Nabel. 

3. Curubis, 

3. Gurb6s. ] 


4. Clypea, 

4. Aklibia. ^ 


5 Tunetum, 

5. Tunb. 



6. Carthago,* 

6. (Scanty remains). 

7 Utic2^ vel Ithyca, 

7. Satcor. ' * 

|- i 8. Hippo Zaritas, 

8 Benzert* 

^<i 9. Tabraca, 

9. (Near Tabarca).' 


10. Tuburbo, 

10. Tuburbo. 

1 1: Tucaborum, 

11. Tucaber. 


12. Tuburbo Majus, 

12. fubernok. 


15. Bulla Regw, 

13. Wad-ei-BuI. 


14. Mudaurus, ^ 

1 4' (Near Tagaste), 



15. Sicca Venera, 

15. Urbs, or Kef. 

1 16. Tucca, * 
^ Lit. Zama, 

16. Tuggaii 

17. (Near the latter). 

I. Hippo* Regiusy 

1. (Near Mount Pappua). 


2. Rusicade, 

2. Sgigada. 

3. Cullu, ' -'; ' 

3. Cullu. 

4. Constantina,(Cirta),* 

4. Constantino, 

5. Milevis, 

5 Mila. 


6. Sigus, 

6. Siguenic. 

|j B J 7. Tipasa, 

7. Tifas. : ; 


8. Aquae, 

8. Hammam. 



9. Tagast«, 

9. Tajelt. j 


10. Tebt ste, 

10. Tebess. j| 

11. Lambaesa, 

U. Lambesr. 








ft ^ 



I 12. Lamasba, 
I 13. Bagai, 
1^14. Vesccther, 

1. Igiigilis, 

% Saidae, 

3. TubusuptuS) 

4. Rusu«curru, 

5. Caesarea* (Jol), 

6. Cartenna) 

7. Icosiumy 

8. Murustaga, 

9. Portus Magnus^ 
Iq. Portus Divini, 

12. Calaa, * 

13. Sitifi, 

14. Tub una, 
t5. Maliiana, 
16. Succubaf, 
ir. Regiae,* 
18. Medianum Castel- 


1. Rusadir, ' 

2. Perietinaj 

3. Jagath. 
s 4. Tingis, 
^ ^ 5. Zilrs, 

jj, - . 6» Lixus, • 

p-li 7. Banasai 

8. Sata, 

9. Volubilis, 

10. Exploratio ad Mer- 




12. Lamasbe. 

13. Bagai. 

14. Pescara. 

1. JijelL 

2. Tedl6s. 

3. Burg. 

4. ttur. 
.5. Vacur. 

6. Tenez. 

7. 8er$eL 

8. Mustuganim. 

9. Arzeu. 
0. Marz-al-Kibir. 
\. Ned-Roma. 

2. Cs^aat-el-Wad. 

3. Sitef 

4. Tubnah. 

5. Meliana. 

6. Zuchar. 

7. Tlemsen. 

8. (Bound of Roman arms). 

1. Melilta. 

2. Velez dc Gomera. 

3. Tetewen, 

4. Tinja or Tangier. 

5. AzzUla. 

6. Larache. 

I 7. Old Maraorc. 

8. Rabat. 

9. Gualili. 

10. (An out post). 


The name of Libya, among the Greeks, extended to all Af- 
rica: but, strictly speaking, it was comprised in what succeeded 
to Egypt towards the west, as far as a gulf of the Mediterra- 
nean, called' the Gr^i^ tS'yrti^* 

The Ptolemies, or some prince of their house, possessed this 
country : and under the Eastern empire, Lybia was annexed 
to the Egyptian government, when we distinguish two pro- 
vinces in it, Marmarica and Cyrenica ; the first confining on 
Egypt y th^ second extending towards the Syrtis* 



It is enveloped by the. Sea on two sides: on the east, from 
the bottom of the smaller Syrtis to the Hernutum promontory, 
or that of Mercury, now Cape Bon ; and on the north, from 
this promontory to the limits of Numidia. It may be added^ 
that a line of division between the provinces of Africa and 
Numidia appears given by that which separates the kingdoms of 
Tunis and Algiers- The country adjacent to the Syrtis was 
distinguished by the name of Byzacium, From this position 
the maritime country takes the name of Zeugitana,^ without our 
knowing whether under (his name it extended as far inland as 
to correspond with the limits o( the departm^it that was after- 
wards named Proconsular is. 


This name extended primitively to all the country comprised 
between Africa Proper^ and the more ancient boundary of Man- 
retania^ which was a river named Molochath^ or Maha^ now 
Mulvia, whose mouth is opposite Cape Gata, on the southern 
shore of Spain ; and this space is now occupied by the kingdom 
of Algien 

Two people participated this extensive country : the Massyliy 
oh the side of Africa ; and the Massctsili^ towards Mauretania: 
and a promontory far s^dvaneed in the s^a., heretofore named 
Tretuniy now Sebda-ruz, or the Seven Capes by the people of 
the country, and, by mariners, Bergaronie, made the term of 
separation between them. They obeyed two princes celebrated 
in history ; the first being subjects of Masinissa, the second of 
Syphax. The attachment of Masinissa to the Romans, required 
on their part not only a re-establishment in the kingdom of 
which he had been despoiled by Syphax, but also that he be 
guaranteed in possession of that of his enemy; an ^vent that 


united Numidia under one prince. This kingdom, in the same 
state under Jugurtha, and the same also under Juba, was van- 
quished by Caesar, who reduced it to a Roman province. But 
Augustus having gratified Juba, son of Juba, with a part of the 
kingdom of his father, this province of Numioia suffered ab- 
scission of that part which had taken the name of Mauretania; 
and appeared finally bounded by the river Ampsagas^ that falls 
into the sea on the side of the promontory of Tretum^ £lnd which 
is now named Wad-il-Kibir, dr the Great River. 


It is thus, and not Mauhztakia that this name appears io 
most monuments of antiquity, whether medals or lapidary in- 
scriptions ; and it may be added, that the national name is M AU* 
RAsii, according to the Greek writers. The country over which 
Bocchus, who delivered Jugurtha to the Romans, reigned, was 
limited, as we have said in speaking of the primitive state of 
Numidia^ by the river Mdlochath^ whose naime being otherwisie 
Maha^ has given occasion to some modern authors, misled by 
Ptolemy, to distinguish two rivers for one. 

We are not precisely informed what occasioned the amplifica- 
tion of ancient Mauretakia: it is known, however, that it was 
Juba, who, put in possession of the stated of the two Maurish 
princes Bogeed and Bocchus by the favour of Augustus, construct- 
ed the city of Cctsaria^ which gave the name of Cccsariensis to 
that part of Mauretania which was taken from Numidia. 
Now if it be supposed that Mauretania was a concession pri-^ 
or to the aggrandizement made of his paternal dominion, we 
shall find in diese circumstances, what gave occasion to the ex- 
tension of the nanxe* 

This kingdom was reduced into a province under Claudius, 
and divided mlo two : the one, called Cctsariemis^ consisted ia 
what had belonged to Numidia; and the other^ called Tingitana, 
was the original Mauretania, which extended to the ocean. 
We may add in general terms, that all this coast of Africa 
was filled with Ronian colonies. 




What remains to be delineated of the interior parts of Africa, 
may be announced under this title, as we find it in Ptolemy. To 
GattuHa immediately contiguous to Numidia and Mauretania, 
succeeds a vast 8(>ace divested of all local circumstance, 
and exhibited in the chart, under the title of Deseata LiBTiE 
Interioris. MelanO'Gtttuli^^ or black Getulians, occupied it 
in antiquity, and confined on a country called Nigrttia^ which 
owes its name less to the Negro race in general, than to the 
river which traverses this part of Africa. The ancients Imtvr 
this river under the name of Ntger^ which, contrary to the opin- 
ion they commonly had of it, directs its course from west to 
cast, as Herodotus indeed appears to indicate* 

In the le^s remote and maritime part, the Autohles are men- 
tioned as a great nation, from whom the Roman frontier of MdU' 
Tetania suffered molestation. A nation of Getulians distinguish- 
ed by the name of Dara;^ have left their name to Darah, sepa- 
rated from Morocco by a branch of mount Atlas* 

' • The parts of the interior of Africa are so few and inconsiderable that we hay? 
emitted a tabular arrvigement of them-. 





Bearing in mind the obscurity that dwells on aoyie of the 
objects of Postdiluvian geography, as we might say, of almost 
every age and every country, the student should not be disap- 
pointed when he is told, that positive certainty is not by any 
means pretended to be attached to the location of Antediluvian 
positions in corresponding modem ones* All that we can pro- 
mise is, the greater degree of certainty as to the prominent 
features, and the greater degree of probability as to those of 
xninor import. For amidst the very numerous interpretations 
of this part of Scripture made by learned divines and others, 
the contrariety of opinion is so great as almost to reduce every 
prospect of consent to a fault. 

To illustrate this matter, we will mention the examples that 
occasion the remark; which indeed comprise nearly the whole 
of the Antediluvian geography transmitted to U9 in any shape. 
The Land of Nod 1% placed by Dr. Wells in Desert Arabia. 
Wilkinson on the contrary, places it in present Persia, about 
the situation of ancient Susianay as we presume, with most 
plausibility. Dr. Geddes, seemingly against all propriety, 
renders the river Phison or Pison^ the Araxes; and the Gthon^ 
the Oxus; the one.dn the west of the Caspian sea, and the other 
on the east, which is certainly the Gihon to the present day: the 
Hiddekel he calls the Tigris. Far otherwise is the opinion 


of Dr. Wells. He makes the Gihon the easterly channel of 
the two into which the Euphrates is divided after its union 
with the Tigp'is, and some time before its waters disembogue 
into the Persian gulf, and. the Phison the westerly one; de- 
signating the Hiddekel by the Tigris withal. To us it seems 
that no better compromise can be made of such a difference, 
than to adopt the opinion of Wilkinson ; for which see the ta- ' 
ble and map of this country. There is less dispute as to the 
location, of the Xcm^and Garden of Eden^ and the identity of 
the Euphrates. 

In passing from our view of the Land of Egypt to that of the 
Promised Land^ we have not availed ourselves of the usual pri- 
Tilege of mental aerostation, but, on the path of Moses and the 
Israelites, have made our exody : thinking it best to assemble 
the objects that are spoken of in the renowned Exodus of the 
Jews, with a summary account of its incidents, in one table. 

We baVe judged it impracticable to reduce the geography of 
Canaan^ after the conquest of Joshua, to the comparative table 
of corresponding ancient and modern names, for a reason . too 
evident to repeat, that this country abounded, beypnd almost 
any other in times of antiquity, with geographical and historical 
notices; whereas at the present day, it has become almost deso- 
late, and some of the most fruitful tracts formerly are now bar- 
ren wastes. But that the account may be as striking to the 
eye, as the narrative form is susceptible of, we have given tlxe 
prmcipal objects a margiual relief from the body of the page. 

The same motive that actuated me to give a preliminary 
sketch of the origin and migrations of Parent Nations, to Part 
XL, prompts me in like manner to insert her^, a tabular view of 
the three first Patriarchal ages, with annotations to each, to 
give light and interest to the Sacred Geography. The context 
between these tables must be looked for in Jathet^ Shentj 
and Ham^ in passing from the first to the second j in Ha- 
ran^ Abraham^ and Nahor^ in passing from the second to the 
third, and through Jacob %q the twelve tribes^ 

. We have adopted a chronological order in the succession both 
of the Patriarchal and^ Geographical tables, as nearly as the sue* 


cessive evolutiod of their objects would admit of. According 
to this method, we have been underthe necessity of giving more 
than one table of the same tract of country when its revolutions 
have so changed, its civil divisions as to render them quite as 
foreign from each other, at different periods, as though the iden- 
tity of territory itself had been changed* Of this, Canaan fur- 
nishes a striking illustration. 






The Antediluvian Patriarchs. 

1. Cain, born Anno Mundithe second.* 

a. Enoch, son of Cain. 

b. Irad, son of Enoch. 
c* Mehujael, son of Irad. 

d. Methusael, son of Mehujael. 

e, Latnech, son of Methusael. ^He had by Adan, 
— -Jabal, the inventor of tents and keeping of cattle ; and 
— Jubal, the inventor of music. Also^ by Ziilah, 
— Tubal-Cain, the inventor of working in metals ; and 

* — Naamah, supposed to be Venus. 

2. Abel. 

jr> <j 3. Seth, born A. M. ISO, died '042, aged 912. 

^ a. Enos, son of Seth, born 235, died 11 40, aged 905. 

b. Cainan, son of Enos, born 325, died 1235, aged 910. 

r. Mahalalael, son of Cainan, born 395, died 1290, aged 895. 

d. Jared, son of Mahalaieel, born 460, died 1422, aged 96X 
' e. Enoch, son of Jared, born 622, was translated to heaven. 
> f, Methuselah, sondf Enoch, born 687, died 1656, aged 969. 

^. Lamech, son of Methuselah, born 874, died 1651, aged 777, 

h, Noah, son of Lauiech, born ^056, aged 600 at the Flood. 

— Japhet) his first sua, l>om 1556, aged 100 at the Flood. 

--^Sbem, his second son, born 1558, aged 98 at the Flood. 

-^Ham^ his third son, born 1560, aged 96 at the Flood. 


Adah the first man, and Eve the first woman, formed by 
the immediate power of God, on the sixth day of the cre- 

* The better opinion seems to be, that Cain was horn the first, and Abel the seoond 
year of the world. See Sacred Mtrror^ bj the Kev. TKomas SmiUi, page 5. 


. ation,* in a state of purity and happiness ; fell into guilt 
and tnisery by transgressing the divine command; were 
banished from their blissful residence in the garden of 
Eden ; sentenced to suffering and death ; yet favoured 
with the promise of a Saviour. C^cn. chap* 3jJ Adam 
died 930 Anno Mundi ; having seen eight generations* 
Eve died Anno Mundi 940. 

Cain, the first man born of a woman, followed busbandry, 
murdered his brother Abql, and went to live in the land of 
Nod, where he built the first city, and named it after his 
son, Enoch. His posterity were called the Children of 
^meriy of whom there is no account either respecting their 
births or deaths ; , nor is there any of his death. 

Lamech introduced polygamy. He is supposed to be the jfu- 
filter of the Greeks^ Jabal, Pan; Jubal, Apollo; Tubal- 
Cain, Vulcan; and Naamah, Venus. 

Abel, the second Bon, tended flocks, and died by his brother's 
hand, a martyr to obedience* 

- * 

Seth, the third son, was born soon after the murder of Abel. 
His posterity were called the Children of God* He lived 
cotemporary with all the Antediluvian Patriarchs, except 


Enos was cotemporary with all the Antediluvian Patriarchs. In 
his days the worshippers of God began to be distinguished. 

• The following note from Mr. Pinkerton we presume will not be considered as any 
burthen to truth, on whichever side it stands^ bat rather, as tending to its further devel- 
opement. He says — *^Ancient chronology has been ruined by attempting to force it to 
Scriptupe, which is surely no canon of chronology ; for the Septuagint, translated from 
MBb. for more ancient than any we have, differs from the present Hebrew no less 
than 576 years before the time of Noah ; and 880yeat*8 frOm Noah to the time of Abra- 
ham. The Greek church, certainly as well instructed as that of the Koman, dates the 
creation 5508 yeai-s before Christ Epiphanius, Augustin, and other fathers, follow the 
Hebrew of their time, which agrees with the Septuagint. But ancient chronology ought 
only to be estimated from ancient authors, and kept quite apart from soriptural chrono- 
logy. The date of the creation, &c.. can never be decided, either from Scripture or 
otherwise; and such speculations \kve futile. In other points, the authority of the learaed 
Usher, now universally allowed the best chrouologer, is followed," &g. 


Enoch ws^ked with God 365 years, and was translated into 
heaven without seeing death. 

JVIethuselah, the oldest of all men, having been a cotemporary 
with Adam 243 years, and with^Noah 600, died a little 
before the flood. 

Noah. In the days of Noah, by the sinful alliances of the 
posterity of Seth, or Sons ofGod^ with the posterity of Cain, 
or Daughters of Hen^ and other causes, the world was 
filled with universal corruption. Noah was commissioned 
by the Almighty to call them to repentance during 120 
years, while he was preparing the Ark. On their incor- 
rigible disobedience, the universal deluge (which took place 
A. M. 1656, and lasted 150 days, produced by a rain of 40 
days,) at last destroyed them all; except Noah and his fa- 
mily, with a sufficient number of every species of animals, 
who were preseij'ved in the Ark. 





The Postdiluvian Patriarchs till the call of Abraham ; including 
the Plantation of Nations^ and the Origin of Languages. 


a* > 

g w 




'I. GoMER, and sons, peopled the N. W. parts of Europe, viz* 
o. Ashkenaz^ son of Gomer, settled France. 
b. Riphath, son of Gomer, settled the British Isles, 8cc. 
r. Togarmah, son of Gomer, Settled Germany, Sweden, &c. 

2. Ma GOO, and posterity, peopled Russia, Siberia, Sec. 

3. Madai. 

4. Javan. and sons, peopled the N. E. coast of the Mediter- 

ranean, viz. 

a. Elisha, son of Javan, settled Greece. 

b, Tarshish, son of Javan, settled the S. of Asia Minor. 

c. Kitdm, son of Javan, settled Macedon. 

d, Dodanim, son of Javan, settled W. coast of Asia Minor. 

5. Tubal, and posterity, peopled Spain. 

6. Mkshecb, and posterity, peopled Italy. 

7. TiaAs, and posterity, peopled Thrace. 



















ElaM) and posterity, peopled Persia. 

AsHUR, and posterity, peopled Asi»yria, and built Ninevelu 
Arpbaxad, born i658, and died 2096, peopled Ciirniania, 
ff. Siilah, son of^Arphaxad, bora 1693, died, 2i26, aged 433. 
b. Eber, or Heber, son of Saiah, bom, 1723, died 2187; fa- 
ther of the Hebrews. 
(a). Joktan, son of Eber, peopled S. £. of Asia, viz. 
— Sheba, offspriog of Joktan, settled Hindoostan or India. 
— ^Orphir, offspring of Joktan, settled Molucca Isles, &c. 
— Havilak, offspring of Joktan, settled Thibetj 8cc. 
(^). Peleg, son of Eber, bom 1757, when the eanh was 

divided; died 1996. 
(cV Reu,son of Peleg, bom 1787, di6d 2026, aged 239. 
(rf). Scrug, son of Reu, born 1819, died 2049, aged 230. 
(f). Nahor, son of Serug, born 1849, died 1997, at Ur^ 
(/). Ter^h, son of Nahor, born 1878, died 2083, at Haran. 
— Haran, sonof Terah, born .948, at Ur, died 2073. 
— Abraham,son of Tei'ah,b. 20e8, atUr; call'd 2d83,d. 1283. 
■—Nahor, son of Terah, born at Ur, and died at Haran. 
— Sarah, half sister, and wife of Abraham, b. 20 1 8, d.2 1 45. 
Luo, and posterity, peopled Lydia in Asia Minor. 
AraM) and sons, peopled Syria, ^nd Mesopotamia, viz. 
a. Uz, s©n of Aram, settled the S. W. part of Syria. 
b» Hul, son of Aram,«ettledthe N. W. part of Syria. 
r. Gethcr, son of Aram, settled the S. E. part of Syria. 
d. Mash, son of Aram, setted Mesopotamia. 
CusH, and sons, peopled the S. of Africa and Arabia, viz. 

a. Seba, son of Cush, settled Arabia. 

b. Sabtah, son of Cush^, settled Ethiopia. 

c. Raamah, daughter of Cubh. 

(a). Sheba, offspring of Raamah, settled Sofala. 

d. Nimrod (Belus), son of Cush, founded Babylon. 
MizHAiM, and sons, peopled Egypt, &c. viz. 

a. Lehabim, son of Mizraim, settled Libya. . 

d. Caphtorim, son of Mizraim, ancestor of the Copts. 

c. Casiuhim, son of Mizraim, settled between Egypt and 

Canaan. . 

(a), Philistira, son of Cashihim* ancestor of the Philistians. 
Phut, ancestor of the Moors. 
Can AAM, ancestor of the Canaanites, viz. 

a. Sidon^ ancestor of the Phoenicians, dwelt at Sidon. 

b. Heth, ancestor of the Hittites, dwelt at Hebron. 

c. Jebusite, ancestor of the Jebusites, founded Jerusalem. 

d. Amorite, ancestor of the Amorites, dwelt at Heshlbn. 

e. Girgasite, ancestor of the Girgasites, dwelt at Gergesa. 

f, Hiviie, ancestor of the IJivites, dwelt at Gibioe. 

g. Arkite, ancestor of the Arkites, dwelt at Archa. 

h. Sinite, ancestor of the Sinite^, dwelt near theJDescrt of Sin. 
i. Aryadite, ancestor of the Arvadites, dwelt at Arad; and. 
j. llamathite; ancestor of the Hamathite8> dwelt at Hmnath 



Nosu, was 7S4f years old at the Confusion, and 950 at his death; 
which happened two years before the birth of Abraham* 

NiHRoD, began to build Babel, in the Land of Shinar, 1757; 
which continued 55 years, till the Confusion of Tongues, 
1810 from the Creation of the World, or about 2190^ be* 
fore Christ. 

^ Nations and Languages. The original, number of nationi 
I and languages after the confusion, appears to have been 

seventy— " every one after their families, after their ton- 
I gues, in their nations." (Gen. 10. 5.). Doctor Weils says 

that as to the number of languages then begun to be spoken, 
they could not probably be fewer than there were nations, 
nor more than there were families. If there were no more 
than there were nations, or heads of nations, then the 
number is'easily counted. Seven in Japhet, foUrin Ham^ 
and five in Shem. But if they were as many as there 
were families at the confusion, their number cannot be 
known; because Moses (as Mr. Mede observes) does not 
make an enumeration of all the families, or heads of fami* 
Ilea. . Howfver, the common opinion is, that their number 
was according to the number of families; and this Moses 
seems to insinuate, because he joins throughout Genesis, 
' families and tongues' together* 

Abram, married his half sister Sarai at Ur, from whence he 
was called, together with his father Terah, brother Na- 
hor, and nephew Lot, to leave Chaldea in Si078. They 
then dweh in*Haran in Mesopotamia, from whence he was 
again called in 2083, on his father's death, to remove to 
Canaan; after which his name was changed to Abraham, 
and his wife's tb Sarah. She is the only woman of this 
period whose age is recorded. After her death AbrahaiA 
took a second wife named, Keturah. 

* See the dispersion of the Scythiam by Ninus, in the Epoehi si ^ ^'^ CMO^s 
ProgTMSy i^»ge 4!^, ^itih w)|j^6|l 4ii» ptriod neavljr mnu&Kiii^ 





tjH tKOjamsiXT. 


From the call of Abraham to the Exodus; in two Sections^ 

!• LoTTf ii6pli9W of Abniuuit 
a. Moabf micestor of the Mosdutes. 
6, Ammony ahcestor of the Ammomtes. 


M1LCAH9 wife of Nahor. 
^U ISHHAEi, ancestor of the Ishfaacfites^b. B. C. 1910, d. 1773. 
6. KedaT) son of IsfafiMi^l. 1 

(a). Hamaly bod of Keter. > Atteestdri of Mfthotaiet. 

-^ Nobctf Solaman, &c. I 
b* Adbeel, Mibiam, Mbfamay 1 

Dumab, Massa, Hadar, Te- i Princes of the Ishmaelites. 

ttta, Sec. sods of Ishmatl. J 
c. Bathematk) datighter of IslnnM|» and third ndfe of Esau. 
9. IsAACyWaabom ia96,diedin Canaan 1716raged 18a 
a. EsaU} son of Isaac, bom ^837, ancestor of the £domit€;s. 

(a). Eliphaz, son of Esau by his first wife Adah. 

— AiAelek, son of Eliphaz, hj Timnah. 


(b), Jeusby Jaalam, korah> ctiildren of Esau, by his se-> 

cond wife, Aholibamsdi. * 

(c). Reuel, son of Esau by hi$ thir'd wife Bashemath. 

- iS^S """^i ^^- «=^«»-'' ^' ^«-'- 

b, Jacob, or Israel, bom 1 837 in Canaan, died 1689 in Egypt. 
3. ZiMR AH, 8cc. to No. 8. were Abmhaxn's chil4ren by Ketun^. 

4. JoKSBAK. 

t DeStt \ ^^^^^^^ ®f Joksban. 
(<v). Ashurim, and LetusfainA, descendants of Dedam 

5. MSDAK. . ,\ ^ 

6. Midi AN, ancestor of the Midi^ites. 

17. ISltBAK. 
8. Sbuah. 

* Th9 periods of the femiiig tablet are reckoned from the Creation: tbote of tiA' 
auteeocKuiK> <^ reckoned remMpeeUf ely fron ftie hii^^ CttriHt* 





CaOMrep ^ K«lMr, hf 4ttttnu|u 

3. Tbahai^h^ 

4. Mac AH. 

5. Uc^joioMor of f obf 1 

6. ftvE, Anceiter of £]ihu, f>OliMidmi J>j ificiodu 

7. BKTwatLf lived at Haruiy J * 

a. Lab^iii son of Bethuel, lived^at Haran. 

(d\ LeMi, (laughter of Lfbrn^ and first wife pf Jjiucdb. 

(6). Rachel, daughter of Lab»ti and second wife of Jaeok 
6. Rebecta, daughter of Bethuel, md wife of Jiaac 

* SECTION lis 


RsusEN, bom before Christ 1 758, had four som. 
Simeon, born before Christ 1757, had six sons. 
Lkti, bom before' Christ 1756, died 4-619, aged llf. 

a. Oershon, son of Levi. 

d^ Kohath, son of Levi, aged 133 at his death. 
. (^). Aipram, son of Kohath, died in EgTpt, aged 1 5f . 

— Aaron, son of Amram, b. 1574, d. 145 1, aged 133* 

— Moses, s«i of Amram, b. 1571, d. 1451, aged 13ib 
r. Merari, son -Of Levi. 

</• Jocbebe^^ 4«.ughter of JL.evi,|uvd wife of Amrwu 

4. JuDAH, born before Christ 1755; had tbreo sooAi 

5. IssACRAR, had four sons. 

6. Zebulok, had three sons. 

(7). Dinah, facob'sonly daugi^r. 
7« Jonufft^horm before Christ 1745, died .|6ft5. 
.4)u Manasseh, son of Joseph hy Asenath. 

b. Ephrtdm, son of Joseph b^ Asenatb. 
8. Benjamin, bom before Christ 17^4, had ten um^. 

y 1 

g X 9, Dam. 

APHTALi, h^d four sons. 

Ga]>9 bad seven sons. 

AsHVR, had four sons, Itfid one daugbt^.. 



Lot, lived at Sodom. tiU it3 destn^ction, of which he ^vjia pre-ad* 
monished by angels, who brought him, his wife, and two 

H i ■•■l> 

« HapdatM ^ Bsflhitil^ 

t ihtMbUNAtoi^eiQli 


dattgfaters out of the city, afid ordered them to flee with 
idl possible precipitation to the mountains, warning them 
not to look back, lest they should be involved in the gene- 
ral destruction. His wife disobeying this injunction, was 
immediately changed^ into a pillar of salt. Several of his 
children died at Sodom* 

MoAB & Ammon, were children of Lot by his two daughters. 
Their posterity were giants who dwelt in the country they 
conquered from the gigantic Emims and Zam^ummims. 

IsBV AEL, was son of Abraham by Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah. 
His posterity, the Ishmaelites or Hagarenes settled in Ara- 
bia; and their descendants have been called Arabs or 

Isaac, was son of Abraham by his first wife Sarah. Isaac 
had, by his only wife Rebecca, twin sons Esau add Jacob. 

Esau, also called Edoh in consequence of swearing away his 
birthright or right of primogeniture in favour of Jacob, 
was ancestor of the Edbmites by his wives Adah, AhoH- 
bamah, and Bashemath or Mahalah; the two former were 
Canaaniush women, and the latter Ishmaelitish. The 
Edomites dwelt in the land of the Horims, or Horites. 
whose daughters they married, and by descent or con* 
quest possessed the country. They were first dukes, and 
afterwards kings of Edom, before there was any king of 

Jacob, went frpm Canaan, to his uncle Laban at Haran or Pa- 
dan-aram, in Mesopotamia, B. C. 1759, with whom he 
lived 20 years, and having married Leah and Rachel| re- 
turns to Canaan. ' 

ZzHR-^3tf , JoKSBAK, &c. to No. 8. of the table inclusively, chil- 
dren of Abraham by Keturah, were settled in. the east 
country, by their father, before his death. 

Nahob, was bom at Ur, and died at Haran* He had two 
wive^i the name of one was Rei^mah and the other Milcah.. 

P3BLnfUIAAT. 159 



Jacob, or IsRAEivin the decline of life, B« C. 1706, removed 
his family, 70 in number, to Egypt, by the solicitation of 
his son Joseph, and the invitation of the king of Egypt; 
Joseph having been sold into Egypt, 23 years before that 
period, by his brothers; and having been advanced, by 
reason of his wisdom, from a state of slavery to the highest 
trust. In his last moments Jacob blessed his sons sever- 
ally, and after his death was carried back to Canaan and 
interred, by his request, at the cave of Machpelah* His 
obsequies being performed, his sons, progenitors of th& 
twelve tribes, returned to abide in Egypt. 

Joseph. But little more is recorded of Israel's family, till just 
before the death of Joseph, when he sent for his brethren, 
and told them, in the same prophetic spirit that illuminated 
his aged father, that God would assuredly perform his gra- 
cious promise, by bringing their posterity out of Egypt, 
and giving them the land of Canaan for an inheritance. 
He therefore earnestly requested they would not bury him 
in Goshen, but lay his body in a coffin, and deposit it in 
some secure place, whence they might take it on the ac- 
complishment of his predictions, to the Land of Promise. 
For the fulfilment of this request, his brethren bound 
themselves by an oath. 

l^osES. Subsequent to this melancholy occurrence^ the de- 
scendants of Israel increased prodigiously both in strength 
and numbers, so much that the natives, who began to fear 
that they would eventually cover the whole face of tho 
kingdom, resolved to weaken them by taxes, labour, and 
every species of tyrannical oppression. But the first mea- 
sures failing of the desired eifect, thereupon a diabolical 
•edict was promulgated, commanding that every male child 
efthe Hebrews that was bom thereafter^ should be casttnf^ 
the Ntle^ and that none but the females should be permitted 
to live. Under this edict Moses was born, to humble the 
pride of Egypt, and to lead his groaning countr}'mea in 
triumph from the house of bondage.. 



Exodus. The time having arrived, for* the fulfilment of the 
divine promise' of bringiog the Israelites out of Egypt; 
and Moses having prevailed with Pharaoh by means of 
many miraculous feats, to permit 1^ Jews to de^p^t fgr 
the Land of Promise; they set out from JRam^ses. Whea 
they arrived at Mount Sinai^ in the Wilderness, God ap- 
pointed them a day for the promulgation of his Decklogue* 
On the appointed day, Moses committed the care of hi^ 
people to Aaron and ^ur^ and went up with Joshua into 
the mountain, where he continued footy days, while God 
gave him the ten cammandments^ on two tables of stone; 
• called TABLES OF COVENANT, together with the whole plan 
of the Jewish tabernacle, and n^de of worship. After 
Moses descended from the Mount, fac desired his congre- 
gation to bring an offering of different materials for the 
holy tabernacle ; and he was immedi^ely supfAied witb .9 
profusion of jewels, metals, ointments^ perfumes, and every 
other requisite article; which he distributed to proper su-- 
tificers and workmen, whom God jiad endowed widi the 
peculiar skill to contrive, and ability to es^ecute, the^arious 
designs that bad been shewn to Moses on the mountain. 
The work was performed with ^uch {Alacrity and diligence, 
that m less than six months, the tabernacle, with sdl its 
magnificent furniture and apparatus^ was sfit up at the foot 
of Mount Sinai, and the pompous worship of the Israelites ^ 
was begun.— -We will subjoin the results of the .mus<iering 
and numbering of the tribes of Israel, jthe patriarchal chiefs 
of each, and the order of their encampment ^bout the 
tabernacle, with a scheme of the same. 

Reuben. The tribe of Eeuhen was 46^500 in number; south of 
the tabernacle, and east^f Simeon^ £x.];;2UR, P. cliief. 

Sf MEOK. The tribe of Simeon was 59,900 m number; south of 
the tabernacle and west of Ri^ubie^^* S^ELUMifi^, P« 

Ce&shon* The Gershonites were T50Q in number; west of the 
tabernacle; carried the cuf tains, vellA> &c. EliasAPV} P* 

PRELUmNAltT. 161 

KoH ATfi* The Kokatfiites were 8600 in number; south of the ta- 
bernack; carried Ihe Sanetuafy, Ark, &c. Elisaphan, P. 
chief. , 

Merari* The Merarites were 6200 in numbcrj south of the ta- 
bernacle; carried the boards, bands, &c« Zuriel, P. 

JvDAH. The tribe of Jadah was 74,600 in number, east of the 
tid)emacle, ancl north of Issachan Naason, P. chief. 

IssACHAR. The tribe of Issachar was 54,400 in number; east 
of the t a bcm ac l^y and south of Judah» Nethaneel, P. 

itKMiM»* Tlie tribe ef Z«b«iIo» wa» $7^400 in number; east 
of tha tabernacle, and south of Issachar* Eliah, P. 
clatt. , 

Iff AKASsiiH* The tribe of Manasseh wAs 32,200 in number; 
west of the tabemdcle, and north of Ephraim* Gam ALi£Ly 
P. chitt 

EpKRAiif. The ^ibe of Ephraim, was 40,500 in number; west 
of thd tabernacle, and soath of Manasseh* Elishaj)iai]^, 
P* chief* 

Bekjamik* The tribe of Benjamin was 35,400 in number; west 
of the t&bernacte, and north of Manasseh* AbidaW, 
P. chief. 

Dan. The tribe of Dan was 62,700 in number ; north of the 
tabernacle, and westof Asher* Ahiezer, P* Chief* 

Naphtali. The tribe of Naphtali, was 53,400 in number; 
north of the tabernacle, and east of Asher* Ahirah, P* 

» ' • 

Gad. The tribe of Gad was 46^650 in number; south of the 
tabernacle, and west of Simeon* Eliasaph, P* Chief* 



A8H£R« The tribe of Asber was 41|500 in number; north of 
the tabernacle, and east^ of Da6« Pagiel, P. Chief. 

Caleb and Joshua. Caleb was a descendant of Judah : Jo- 
shua was a descendant of Joseph* 
















THE H g» § 












t\ •' ^* 


>■ ' ^t 

■K '. i 


•. / : • ' 1 

PABT m. 




' i 




1. Land of Edkx, 
a. Paradise^orgardenof Edeii] 

3. Land of Nob> 
a. £noch-*-cit]r) 


]l. Shinar, Babyloma^ and It^S^ 
a. (Oh the common channel of 
the Euphrates) Tigpris, kc^ 
about 60 miles from the Per- 
sian gulf]). 
2. ElamySusianai and Persia, 8u&« 
a. Built by Cain^ in the land 4t 
. Nodv 


I. PisoU) or Phison, 
3, Gihon, 

3. Hiddekel, 

4. Euphrates^ or Perathi 

1. Tigrii. 

3. (Uncertun). 

3. Zeindek (Gyndes). 

4. Euphrates^ or Great Rivei^ 

As the sacred hiatoty is very short in other particulars relat- 
ing to the antediluvian world (that is, the state of the world 
before the flood) so is it in reference to its geography; all the 
places thereof mentioned by Moses, being either the garden of 
£4ln with such placea as beljcmg to the description of iis sltf • 



ation in the land of Eden» or the land of Nod and the city of 
Enoch bailt therein. 

The term Eden^ denotia^ pleasure or delight by its primary 
acceptation in the Hebrew^ language^ . has beei| imposed as a 
proper name on several places : as the Eden or Beth-Eden^ 
mentioned by the prophet Amos, near Damascus ; and a village 
on Mount Lebanus of the same name, besides others; and 
therefore mistaken for the site of the original terrestrial Paradise. 
See Doctor Wells' Geography o(thp Ol4 Xc^Umept^. 

The same author is of opinion, that the Ark. was built in the 
land of Eden, where the ant^Unvja^.i^atriarchs are supposed to 
have remained though ejected ftom the Garden* He shews 
that the Ark was built of cypress, whence the Greeks hpnoured 
the bones of their deceased warriprs with V cypress arks, or 



Ancient. Modem. 


a. Mount Ararat, 

3^ LaNP OF. §1NGAR, O^ Sl^I^A^, 

*1. Present Armenia^. 

a. Mountains of Armenia. 
3. Mesopotamia and Babylonia 
J now Irak, 
a. Between the Euphrates and 

b^ Supposed to have given name 
to* the land Of Shinar. 
c. Sem, or Shem— -city, I c. Zama, of Ptolemy, 

i/. Babel—city andftowei> i d. Babylon, or Babil. 

a. Singan— city, 

k. Singaras mountain, 

The short account of the antediluvian world, given in the six: 
£rst chap^rs of G^x^is^ is; foUp,wed)by.thr?%h(aiid 8dicte^ers 
of: the-saiK^e^ book; with, aii ai^c^mt)0(fitheideluge^^or floodi; upona* 
tl^ aba^i^g wherepfs t|ie< sa^r^di historian tells; us that^ the Ark 
re^ted.upon the m(9.uptain of Ar^i^f Pri3im thia penoduotho' 
•0|»Ci;^icp{Of:JQs(IMl9 Uu^.gepgrap^c»liQfitkwaiX(ai:ie^ 

anterior to it, as just seen; and nearly in ttie it^Yne region of 
country, only contracting the eistem, and extending ttie Dorthern 
limit* These yarrow limits bf geography render it easy to 
comprehend the expression, 4s applying to that period, ^^that 
the whofe earth was bf otie lan|;uage*" 

Noah and his family having descended, in the course of the 
Tigris, from the mount and land of Ararat, enter and settle in 
the northern pistrtof the land of Shiaar, where they built the city 
of Shem. There, (according to the conjecture of On WeU^ 
Nc^ah,* Shem, and Japhet, if not Ham, continued, dpfiosiag the 
construcUon of the tower of Bafoel^ while the undertalk^ra of it 
removed to some distance from the patriarchs, and pitched 
upon a place more suitable for their purpose, on the bsmks of 
the Euphrates, afterwards the site of the city of Babylon,- since 
so famous* ' However this be, they suffered equally with thehr 
presumptuous offspring, who iTould thus assail the kingdom of 
Heaven, and were included as principab in the dispersion that 
ensued ; which haS been recited in the Preliminary, and is again 
repeated in the following table* 


Ancient. , Modem. 

h LaKD. of JaPH£T| 

1. Javan^ 

a., Tarshish> 

b, Dodanim> 

c, £lisha> ^ 

J. Europe and iroRTH er Asia. 
K The north-east coast of the 
Mediterranean, vl2. 
a. South coast of Asia Minor. 
b.' West coast of Asia Minor. 
t. Greece. 
4. Macedon. 

1^. Tiras, 12. Thrace. 

3. Meshech) I 3* Italy. 


* Tbe autlior of the Sactrbd MikrOr safs, that Noah, afiter the deluge^ havin[{ 
l^ceired inestimable mark* 4if affeetioo frqm the Great 0\m6et of his adoratioiii de* 
aiiended from the mountains of Ararat, and applied himself to husbandry. After the 
aeene of his inebriaition, irt the time of his notage, the same a«dior teUs «s that no 
farther particulars are recorded of Koah, but that he died in the 990th jear of his age. 
So that it is ancertaiti where he passed the remaining 900 vears of hi9 life f ^^i*. ^^ 
confusion^ The Orientals, howev^, affirm that he wasbaned in Mesopotamia, '^J^^ 
his sepulchre is still shewn, in the Tiwuty of aa edifice whiek ii eeUed Iw Ahonalii <» 
the mmsutcr^ of our father, ^ 



4. Tubal, 
4t. Gotner, 

a. Ripath, 

b. AfthkenaE, 

c. Togarmahf 

e. Magog, or Gog, 
II. Land of Shbm, 
i. Elam, 
^. Ashur, 
% Arphaxad, 
4. Eber, or Hebeie^ 
a. Joktan, 

a. Havilah, 

6. Sheba, 

c. Ophtr, 
4. Ludt 
7. Aram, 

o. Gether, 

6. Us, 

c. Hul, 

d. Mash, 

HI. Land or Ham, 
1« Cufth, 

a. Nimrod, 

b. Seba, 
t. Sabtah, 
cf. Sheba, 

^. Mizram, 

a. Capthorim, 
^. Casluhim, 

c. Philistim, 

d. Lehabini, 
•9. Phut, 

4. CiM:^ai}| 

' Modern^ 

4. Spain. 

5. N.W: parts of Europe, viz. 
a. British isles. 

6. France. 

r. Germany, Sweden, &«• 

6. Russia, Siberia, 8cc. 

II. Thb south of Asia^ 

1. Persia. 

2. Assyria. 

3. Carmania. 

4. The Hebrew nations. 

5. South-east parts of Asia, yiz. 
a. Thibet, &c. 

d. Hindostan, or India. 

c. The Molucca isles. 

6. Lydia. 

7. Syria and Mesopotamia^ viz. 
o. South-east part of Syria. 

d. South-west part of Syria. 

c. North-west part of Syria. 

d, Mesopotamia. 

III. Africa, Arabia, &c. 

I. Arabia, and S« of Africai yiz, 

a. Babylon. 

b. Arabia. 
r. Ethiopia. 

d, Sofala.v 
3. Egypt, &c. viz. 

a. Coptos, now Kypt— city. 

b. About the isthmus Sues. 

c. Part of Palesdne, 
d» Libya. 

3. Mauretania, &o» 

4* Palestine, part of Syria. 

From the text of the sacred historian it may be well inferred^ 
ftis the learned Mr. Mede has observed, that this gveat division 
and plantation of the earth was performed in an orderly man- 
ner, and was not a confused and irregular dispersion, wherein 
every one went, whither he listed, and seated hiniself aiB fa6 
liked best, Au orderly -«or^iqg is plainly denoted by the ex- 
pressions U8e4 in the aacred text, viz* ^^ after their families, 
«fter their tongues, in their elands, in their nations." The 
reader is referred to the article Natioks and Languages, uo- 
4cr the second table of the Preliminary, for what wc hav« hv? 
m^tr laid on this head^ 






U Paras, or Persia, 

a. Shushan,Cuthan, olrCuth, 
3. Assyria, 

a. Nineveh, or Nin-eve, ' 

b. Resen, 

c. Halah, or Csdasih, 
3. Mesopotamia, 

a. Haran, or Padan Aram, 

^. Rehoboth(on the Euphrates), 
-c. Rehoboth (on the Tigris), 
4' Chaloea^ 

'\a. Calneh, 

b, Accad, 
r. Erech, 
Kf. Babyloq, 
r. Ur, 

1 1. Nod, Elam, Susiana, and Per*- 
sia successively. 
a, Suster, formerly Susa. 

2. Kurdistan, formerly Ashur. 

a. NinOf formerly Ninus. 

b. Larlssa, of Xenophon. 

c. (East of Resen). 

3. Al-Gezira. 

a. (Whither Abraham was cal- 
led from Ur). 

b. El-Bir, formerly Bertha* 

c. Tecrit, formerly Vitra. 

4. Part of Shinar, Babylonia, and 

Irak, successively. 

a. Al-Modain. 

b. Karkuf, formerly Sitace; 

c. Wasit, formerly ^racca. 

d. Babil. 

c, Uz, (whence Abraham was 
called to Canaan). 

Moses, having named the other sons and grandsons of 
Cush to whom part of the east countries under question were 
allotted at the plantation after the flood, subjoins, that Cush be- 
gat Nimrod who began to be a mighty one upon earth. Indeed 
he was so very well skilled in warfare and hunting, that he be- 
came proverbial for valour and strength* Having seen the 
greater part of the neighbouring country subdued by his arms, 
he pitched^upon the very spot where the city and tower of Babel 
had been begun, to rear the metropolis of his kingdom; which 
was therefore called Babel or Babylon, afterwards distinguished 
as oae of the WQuders of the world for its enormous size and 
singular productions of Art* Some attribute the tower to him. 


In following the series of the sacred histoiy so far as to 
Abraham's leaving Hsiran to come into the land of Canaaan, it 
remains to give an account of that country from the first plan- 
tation of it by Canaan and his posterity after the flood, down 
to the period, of Abraham's coming, before we proceed to speak 
of places mentioned during his sojoumiug therein* 


and Horites, they also smote the counlry of the Amatekites; 
but this must be understood proleptically of the Amaiekites, as 
they were descendanu of Amalek, grandson of Esau, and there* 
fore gsLve name to that country long subsequent to the days of 
Abraham and Chedorlaomer. They consequently belong to a no- 
tice(which concludes the Sacred Geography) that will be givea of 
the neighbouring nations of Cai^aan of a subsequent period, wlio 
had supplanted those just mentioned^ previous to Joshua^s con- 
quest of the Promised Land. 

^/\/\/\/\/\r; #N/\r>/\/» 




1. Salem, or Sechem, afterwards Jerusalem, whither Abraham 

came from Haran by divine command, with his nephew Lot. 

2. Plain of Morieh, otherwise rendered the -Hig'A Oei^ where 

he sojumed awhile, near Salem* 

3* Bethel, whither he came next to sojbum in a neighbour- 
ing mount, till a famine occasioned his departure for Egj^t; 
and whither he shortly returned with Lot. 

4. Ha I, or A I, divided from Bethel by the above mentioned 


5. Plain of Jordan, through ivhich the river Jordan^ flowed^ 

and of which the valley of ^mcA^, and V2ie of Sii&m^ 
were parts. After parting with his, uncle Abraham at the 
mount between Bethel and Hai, Lot chose all the plain of 
. Jordan to abide in, and pitched his tent near Sodom. 

6. SoDOM, GoMORRAk, ApMAH, Zeboim, and Bel A or ZoAa, 

the Pentapolis or five cities of that part of the plain of 
Jordan called vale of Sidim, afterwards destroyed by fire, 
and covered by the Salt eea. 


7. Plaik of Mamre^ near Hebron, where Abraham went i» 
abide after parting with Lot, and where he entertained 
three angels under an oak* 

8* Laish or Lashah^ afterwards called Dan, and atattill later 
period Casarea Philippic whither Abraham , pursued the 
army of Chedorlaomer, who had carried Lot into captivity* 

9* HoBi^H, whither Abraham t continued the pursuit of Chedor- 
laomer, and recovers Lot* 

10. The Wildehness of Paran, whither he sent Hagar and 
her soil Ishmael to reside by Sarah'fi request* 

1 ] • Beersheb a, or the well of the O^th^ so called on account of 
the covenant Abraham there made with Abimelech, king 
of the Philistinesi. A city afterwards built here took the 
same name* 

12* Mount Mori ah, whither Abraham was ordered by the Al- 
mighty to go and make him a burnt sacrifice of his only 
son Isaac whom he loved* 

13. Cave of Machpelah, in the field of Machpelahy where 

Sarah was buried; and after her, Abraham,* his son Isaac, 
and other patriarchs* 

14. Beer LAHAi'Roi, where Isaac dwelt some time after hit 

father's death, till he removed to 



* At his denth Abraham made Isaae his heir, having given hia other children ]present» 
«iid setileti them In the east country eonti&^ous to Canaan. The fate of the nations de- 
scended of these branches of the patriarch's faihily and of those descended of his grand* 
son Esau, seems to have bieen very seriously involved with that 6f the Canaanites, when 
the Almighty promised the J^ndot Canaan to the seed of Abraham for an inheritance^ 
and withal further prr)i!nised to gife unto his seed (he domnitn of a mueh larger traoii 
namely, tron^ the river of t':gypt, nnto the great river Euphrates: vf eoorte excluding 
from the title of -wed of *Soraham, all but those descended of Jaoob, to whom hii 
promises were repeated, and the title of Israel conferred».to the excliision of the other 
branches, who were only included in the title of dondnian. Dr. Wells remarks that 
** this distinction between what God promised to give and aotnally did to the Israelitei 
"for a))oMe«ston, and what he promised to give and actually did give to them for cTf* 
** miniw, is of 'good use for tKv «learir understandiiig #f the ttcredTustoif •" 



15. The Vallet of Gerar, where he repaired the weU of Beer- 

eheba, and entered into a covenant with Abimelech, like 

.that which his father had joined before him. Jacob hav- 

' ing deceived him, is sent to his uncle's at Haran ; and 

Isaac afterwards dwelt at Mamre* 

tCr. Bethel, or house of God^ where Jacob on his way from 
Beersheba to Haran, had a vision, in which the Almighty 
renewed the promise he had made to Abraham and Isaac, 
that in his seed should all the families of th^ earth be blessedy 
alluding to the Saviour of the world. The name of Bethel 
was communicated to the neighbouring city of Luz, whix^h 
was afterwards called Beth-aven by the prophet Hosea, in 
consequence of Jeroboam's setting up one of his golden 
calves therein. 

17* GiLEAD, where Laban overtook Jacob on his flight with 
his wives from Haran. 

18. Mahanim, or the two hosts ^vfhere, Jacob met the angels of 

God, on diis side of the Jordan. Here David retired 
during the rebellion of his son Absalom* 

19. Peniel, or Pbmxtel, where Jacob, still on his journey 

from Haran, saw God face to face^ when the Almighty 
named him Israel. He next came to 

2P. Succoth, not far from the Jordan, where he biiilt himself 
a house, and booths for his cattle. After some time he 
proceeds to 

V • 

21. Salem, or Sechem, afterwards Jerusalem as seen above^ 
where he bought a ^parcel of ground.' Having had ano- 
ther vision of the Almighty at Bethel whither he went by 
divine appointment, he proceeds to 

2S. EPHRATB or Bethlehem, near which Rebecca died in 
giving birtti to Benjamin. And Jacob set a pillar upou 
her grave between Salem and Bethlehem. After this he 
went to 

eiviL DiyiBio:^s; 


23. The Plaik of Mamre^ or Hebron, unto his father, who, 
dying shortly after, was buried by hia two sons Esau and 
Jacob; the former then going into Mount Seir for his habi- 
tation, th^ latter continued at the late residence of his 

father, whence, sometime after, his son Joseph went to 

J . ' 

24* DoTHAN, for his brothers; whereupon they sell him to 
Ishmaelite and Midianite merchants, who carried him 
thence into Egypt. 



1. (Objects west 

a. Isle of the 70 Interpreters, 

b. No, or Ammon-No, 
r. Noph, or Memphis, 

2. Rahab, 

fl. Zoan, (royal city of I^haraoh), 

b. Sain, 

c. Ribeseth, 

S. XjAnd ef GosHEK,* or Rame- 

S£S, \ 

a. Sin, 

b. Taphanhes, or Taphnas, 

€, On, Aven, or fiethshemesh, 
c/. Old Cairo, 

f . Pithom, 

yi Rameses or Raamses, 

g, Succoth, 
h, Etham, 

i. iPiahitoth, 
j, Migdol, 
k, Baal-zephon, 
4. Lani> of Pathros, 
a. No, or Ammon-No, (City of 
. h, Syene, 

(c). Nahal, or Great River, 
(rf). Sichor, or river of Egypt, 

1. —of the Nile). 

a. Pharos, nemr Alexandiiaf 

b. Alexandria. 

c. (No remains). 

2. The Delta. 

a. San, (Tanis of the Greeks}^ 

b. Sa, (Sais). 

c. Basta, (Bubastus)^ 

3. (East of the Delta to the Istlu 


a, Tineh, (Pclusium)? 

b, Safnas, (Daphnae Pelusix), 

c, Matarea, (Heiiopolis). 

d, (Rose from the decline of 

e, Haroopous. 

e. (Whence the Israelites d^ 
parted for Canaan). 

h, I (Confining ^m the Red Se^ 
«• >in theroute of the Israelite^ 
y. I journeying from Egypt). 

3. Thebais, or Upper Egypt. 
c. Aksor^ or Luxor' (Diosplis 

Magna, or Thebae). 
b, AssuaD. 
(c). The Nile* 
{d\. Between Egypt & Canaam 

* That tract of ISgypt whUk was asaigned t» t)ie hnlelitn to dwell ia. 

174 ▼iK^ o' AMcnsirr geograput. 




1* RAME9E9J whence the Israelites set forth for Canaan. 

2. SuccOTH, their first day's journey, marching eastwardly. 

3. Etham, their second day's journey, near the wilderness, 

whence, God having vouchsafed to guide them in future 
by a mtrAculous pillar, that had the appearance of smoke 
by day, and fire by night, they turn S. W. to 

4. PiHAHiROTB, their third day's journey, to pass the 

5* Red Sea (its western arm) or Weedy sea^ to avoid Pharaoh's 
army; the water yielding to them but destroying the army. 

6* WilDerhess of Ethah, or Shur, into which, out of the 
Red Sea, they went three day's journeying to 

7« MARAtTf where the water was bitter, but sweetened by a 
peculiar w6od. Hence they went to 

8. Elim, where they found 12 wells, and 70 palm-trees. From 

EUm, passing near the 

9. Red Sea, they encamped in the 

10. Wilderness of Sin, where God first sent them matins, 

with which they were thereafter regularly served. 

11. DoPskoHy was next to Sin. 

12. Alxtsh, was next to Dophkoh. 

13. Rephidim, at Mt. Horeb or Massah, where Moses smote 

the f ock of Horeb for water, subdued the Amaalekites, 
and built aa altar. They next encamped at 

emL Di\isioKs. 175 

t4t* Mt. Sihai, part of Mt. Horeb (now Mt. of Moses) where 
they stript themselves of their ornaments to make the 
golden calf; which they worshipped, whilst Moses went 
into the mount to receive the Table of Covenant from 
God and the plan of the tabernacle, and here erected it. 
Next is 

ISm Taberah, where God destroyed some of the Israelites for 
murmurings &c., with fire and a plague. They were car- 
ried to • 

16. K^BROTR-HATTAAVAH, where they were buried. Hence 
the Israelites journeyed to 

IT- Hazeroth, where Miriam was punished with leprosy for 
speaking against Moses, &c« 

18. Kadesh-barnea, in the wilderness of Paran, whence 

Moses by divine command, sent men to search for the land 
of Canaan ; their account of which produced despair of 
its conquest. For this want of faith God condemns the 
adults to dwell and die in the wilderness, excepting Joshua 
and Caleb. Notwithstanding, they in defiance, attempt to 
go direct to Canaan ; but the Amalekites and Canaanites 
spote them into 

19. HoRMAH,' whereupoh they wept before the Lord; but he 

would not hearken to their voices; so they took their 
journey again into the wilderness, by the Red.seaunto 

aO. Kadesh, in Zin, whtreabouta they abode for several days.; 
and having compassed mount Seir, Or land of Edom for 
some time, leave the desert, and encamp at 

^t. Mount Hor, in the edge of Edom, where Aaron died. 
Decamping hence they pitchod in Zalmonahj then in Punon 
and then in 

22* Oboth, where they again despair; for which fiery serpents 
are sent among them: they repent and are forgiven^ &c. 
They proQiped Xm 


23. IjE-BARiM, on the border of Moab; Whence they patss the 

valley or brook Zered; when, 38 years, having elapsed, 
and the offenders being nearly all dead, God charges M o- 
fies to pass the coast of Moab, and not to distress the chil- 
dren of Ammon, on coming among them. Accordingly 
they pass the river Arnon to 

24. Dibom-Gad, among the Amorites. After making several 

other encampments, they pitched in the 

25. Plains of Moab, by. the Jordan, near Jericho; whence 

God commanded Moses to get into the mountain Aharm^ 
unto mount Nebo^ to the' top of Pisgash that is over 
against Jericho, and take a view of the delightful country 
from which he was excluded on account of his improper 
conduct in the desert of Zin; which he did, aftef appoint- 
ing Joshua his successor to conduct the Isfaelites into 
Canaan, and there died. 




Names— THIS rich and beautiful tract of country was first 
called the Land of Canaan, from Noah's grandson, 
by whorti it was peopled : but in the latter ages it has 
been* distinguished by other appellations | such as the 

many. Land of ProftiUe^ the Land of Gody the Holy Lctnd^ 

Palestine y Judea^ and the Xan^of Israel. 

M^yiMnl "^^^ J^w^ ^^^^ dignified this country with the title 
oi Holy.Landy on account of its metropolis, "which was 
regarded as the center of God's worship, and his pe- 
culiar habitation : and Christian writers have deemed 
it worthy of the same honor, as being the scene on 
which the coequal Son of God accomplished the great 
work pfredem ption. 


It was called Palestine from the Palestines or Phil- W'Av caiied 
istines, who po35essed a considerable share of it : and 
Judea, from the tribe of Judah, who inhabited the 
finest part of the whole. At present it is generally 
distinguished by the name of Palestine. 

It was bounded on the west by the Great sea^ or Me- Boundary 


diterranean ; on the east by the lake Asphaltttes^ the^x *" 

river Jordan^ the Siamachonite lake, and the sea of 
Tiberias; on the north by the mountains of Antili- 
banus : and on the south by Edomot. Idumea* Its eX' 
tent^ according to the most accurate nnaps, appears to 
have been 200 miles in lengthv and about 80 in breadth 
at the widest part. It reach^ from 31 deg. 3 min. to 
33. deg. 20, min. of north latitude; and from 34 deg. 
50 min. to 37 deg. 15 miow of east longitude. 

It is necessary to observe^, that this description is doubtful in 
confined to the part which is properly called the h a^jut) l^^^^ 
of Promise;, the boundaries of that part which be- 
longed to two tribes and a half on the other side of 
the Jordan, called Perma^ and of the kingdontis of 
Sihan^ .0^, &c. are not so easily ascertained, any more 
than the. conquests and acquisitions which they after- 
wards made under the reigns of the^r most prosperous 
monarchs. . 

The serenity, of the air, the fertijity of the soil, andCLiMAT* 
the incomparable excellence of the fruits of Palestine, Fecundi- 
induced the Jewish lawgiver to describe it as "a land^^' 
that flowed with milk and honey ; a land of brooks and 
waters, of fountains that spring ^out of the hills and 
valleys ; a l^d of wheat and barley, of vines, pome- 
granates, figs, and hoi^y ; a land where, there is. no 
lack or scarcity of any thing." Its richness and fecun- 
dity have been extolled even by Julian the Apostate, 
and niany writers have descanted upon its natural 
beauties. But in consequence of the just anger of 
God, the greater part of it is now reduced into a mere 
desert, and seems incapable of cultivation* 


MoiTH- Of the mountains «o frequently celebrated in the poe- 

2^i5[J*,7"* tic books of Holy writ, those of LbIbanok^ or Lib anus, 
were the highest and most considerable. This famous 
chain is computed to be about 300 miles in compass, 
having Mesopotamia on the east, ilrm^m'a on the nortb, 
Palestine on the south, and the Mediterranean on the 
west. It consists of four ridges^ which rise above 
each other ; the Jirst is extremely fertile in grain and 
fruit ; the second barren and rocky ; the third embel' 
lished with verdant plants, balsamic herbs, ai^d odor- 
iferouB flowers ; and the Jburth^ by reason of its sur- 
prising height, 18 generally covered with snow. Several 
inconsiderable rivers have theit' sources in these moun* 
tains, viz. the Jordan^ Rocham^ Nakar-Rosstan^ and 
Nahar-Cadicha ; some others of less stream, rush down 
the heights, and form the most beautiful cascades that 
ever attracted the admiration of the curious. The 
western ridge is properly distinguished hy the appella- 
tion of Libanus^ as the eastern is called AntiiiiHmus^ 
and the hollow between, Ccelosyria. They are at pre- 
sent inhabited by the Maroottes and wild Arabs; and 
spotted with varioQs edifices^ as churches, convents, 
chapels, grots, Eicc. These mountains make a consider- 
able figure in the Jewish History, on account of the 
prodigious number of cedars, which they afforded for 
the ornament of Solomon's tempte and metropolis. 
And St» Jerom, speaking of Lib anus, says, "it is the 
highest hill in all the Land of Promise^ as well as the 
most woody and thickset." 

MovntTa- MouNT Tabor is justly admired for its beaatyi 
regularity, fertility, and central situation in a large 
plain, at a distance from any other bill. It enjoys the 
noblest prospetjt that can possibly be imagined, of many 
places famed in Scripture; such as the hills of Safna^ 
maria and Engadi on the south-; thbse of Hermon and 
Vtlboa on the east and north-ea^ ; and^ mount Carmel 
on the south* west. Some remains of the waU and 
gates built by Josephus are still visible on the top ; 
and on the eastern side are those of a strong castle^ ip 
the cincture of which are three altars in remembranec 


•f the three tabernacles^ which St« Peter proposed to 
erect at the time of our Lord's transfiguration. 

Mount Carmel stands on the skirts of the sea, and M^um Cmi^ 
is the most remarkable headland on the coast. It seems 
to have derived its name from its abundant fertility, 
and is highly venerated both by Jews and Christians, 
as having been the residence of the prophet Elijah. 

Mount Olivet, or the mount of Olives^ is situ- .ifM«# oar* 
ated at the distance of one mile from jferusalem^ and 
commands a fine view of the city, from which it is 
parted by the brook iTif^ron, and the valley of Jeho- 
shaphat. It is not, in reality, a single hill, hut part of 
a long ridge, "wiih four summits extcndiug from north 
to south; the middlemost of which is that whence 
Our Saviour ascended to Heaven. 

Mount Calvary claims our chief regard, ^^theMvuntCtHf 
scene of our REi)EEUE,Vi^s ffr eat atonement for his sinful^'^''^' 
creatures. It stood anciently without the grates of the 
city, being the place' appointed for public executions. 
But the emperor Adrian having ordered Jerusalem to 
be rebuilt a little to the northward of its former situa- 
tion, enclosed this mountain within the walls. Con- 
stantine erected a magnificent church upon it ; and it 
has always been regarded as a place of great venera- 
tion by Christians of all denominations. 

Mount Gihon stands west of Jerusalem^ and at ZMovnt C^ 
smaller distance than Cdivari^^ being about two furlongs **"' 
from the gate of Bethlehem. It was here that Solomon 
was anointed king by Zadock the priest, and Nathan 
the prophet. ' There was also a celebrated pool upon it, 
from which king Hezekiah brought water by an aque* 
duct, into the city, ft is^till a noble basin, one hundred 
and six paces long, and sixty^seven broad, lined with 
plaster, and well stored with water. 

Mount Mori ah, the site of the famous temple otjuomtJH^' 
Solomon, stands on the south-east of Calvary^ having'"**^ 



Millo Qt^ the west) so called from the filling up of that 
deep vallej^, in order to raise it to a lev^l virith the rest. 
It is commonly supposed that Abraham was com- 
mauded to offer his beloved son Isaac as a burnt sa- 
crifice tp God upon ^his mountain. This article of 
mountabs may be concluded with observing, that those 
in the kingdom of Judah mostly stand southward to- 
wards the land of Edom ; but those of the Idngdom of 
Jkrael are interspersed within the country. 

Va&lbts: The most celebrated of the valleys were Ber^^khah, 
in the tribe of Judah^ on the west side of the lake of 
Sodom; Sidim, fanied for. the overthrow oi Chedor- 
laomer; Shaveh, or the royal valley, where the king 
of Sodom met Abraham -after the defeat of the cob- 
fedt rates ; the vale of Salt, celebrated for the over- 
thrbw of the Edomites by David and Amaziali ; Jex- 
REEL, the scene of Jtzabei^s uatimely end; Mamre, 
so called from the name of its owner^ and from vhe 
oak under which Abraham entertained the three celes- 
tial visitors; Rephaim, the vale of the Titans and 
gjiants ; Jehoshaphat, so called from the victory 
there obtained bv a monarch of that name ; Uinnok* 
anciently defiled by many barbarous rites and super- 
stitions; Zeboim, which received its appellation from 
one of the four cities that perished with Sodom^ near 
the Dead sea; Achor, where Achan was put tp 
death by the Israelitish host, for his sacrilege; BocHiMf 
so denominated from the universal mourning which the 
Israelites made there on account of the dreadful mes- 
aage which they received from God for their disobe- 
dience ; and the valley of Elah^ famous for the de- 
feat of Goliath and the Philistines, by David and his 
royal patron Saul. 

ThAim. There were likeyirise sever;^ noted plains in Palef* 
tine^ viz. the Great i^laxn, through which the river 
Jordan runs; the plain of Jezreel, which extended 
from Scythopolis to mount Carmel; Sharon, where the 
Gadites are supposed to have fed their numorous 
flocks and herds ; SEPBAiiABy W^ich extended west- 


Irard and southward of EleutheropoRs ; JsRiCROf touch 
celebrated for its palni'trees^ bainiy shrub^ and rose* 
trees; with others too numerous to admit of memory. 

Many deserts and wildernesses of this country arc Dsieilts. 
mentioned in' the sacred history, which are not, how- 
ever, to be understood of places quite barren or unin- 
habited; for several of them contained cities and vil- 
lages. The word, therefore, commonly nieant no 
more than a tract that bore neither corn, wine, nor oil, 
but was left to the spontaneous productions of nature. 
The most noted of these deserts Were Arnon, in which 
the river of that name runs through the land of Giiead; 
ZiPH, where David sought an asylum from persecu- 
tion ; Cadesh, near Cadesh-Barnea^ on the south side 
of Judah^ mentioned as the place where Moses and 
Aaron were chastised for smiting the rock ; Mahow, 
oti iht ^oMthol Jeshimon ; Tekoah, Bezer, Gibeon, 

and several others. ' 


Among the woods or forests mentioned in Scrip* Woopt. 
ture, were those of Hareth,^ whither David with- 
drew from Saul; Ephraim, where Absalom received 
the just reward of his rebellion; Lebanon, wher6 
Sc^lomon built a magnificent palace; and Bethel, 
whence the bears came and devoured the children 
who insulted the' Prophet Elisha. 

Of the seas there are commonly reckoned ^v^, i^iz. Seas. 
the Great sea cSr the Mediterranean, the Dead sea^ 
the sea of Tiberias^ the Samochonite sea or lake, and 
the sea of Jazer* The Jirst of these has been fre- 
quently described by travellers: the second^ called by 
some {iiithors the Asphaltite la^e^ is so impregnated 
with salt, that those who dive beneath its surface are 
immediately covered with a brine; and vast quantities 
of bitumen are thrown by its waves, upon the shore: the 
third is highly commended by Jbsephus for the'sWeet- 
nbss and coolness of its wiater, and variety of excel- 
lent fish: the fourth is famed only for the thickness of 
its water, from which it is supposed to have derived 






its name: and the fifth is no other than a small lake ia 
the vicinity of the city Jazer* , 

The Jordan is the most considerable of the river^y 
and indeed the only stream that merits the name^ as 
the AmoTij jfabbok^ Chireth^ Sorek^ Khhoriy Bosofj &?c« 
are but brooks or rivulets in comparison of this. It 
has its source at the famous lake of Phiala, about ten 
miles north of that of Samochon; its course is mostly 
southward inclining a few degrees towards the west; 
its breadth has been compared to that of the Thames at 
Windsor; its depth, is said to be three yards at the very 
brink; , its rapidity considerable ; aqd the scenery of 
its banks varied, according to the place which it inter- 
sects. In ancient times, it overflowed about the sea* 
aon of the early harvest, or soon after Easter, but it 
is no longer subject to this inundation. The plain 
on both sides from the sea of Tibertaa^ to the Aephal- 
tite lake, is extremely arid and unwholesome during the 
heat of summer, and every where steril, except that 
part which lies contiguous to the river. 

Among the most remarkable cin-iosities of Palestine, 
may be justly reckoned various petrifactions in the 
neighbourhood of Mount Carmel^ which bear the most 
exact resemblance to citrons^ melons^ oiivea, peaches^ 
and other vegetable productions. Here are also found 
a kind of oysters^ and bunches of grapes qi the same 
consistence. Small round stones, resembling peas^ 
have been frequently seen on a spot of ground near 
Rachel's tomb, not far from Bethlehem. On the same 
road is a fountain, honoured with the name of Apos- 
tles' Fountain; and a little further is a barren 
rugged, and dismal solitude, to which our Saviour 
retired, and was tempted by the Devil. In 'this de- 
scent appears a steep and craggy mountain, on the 
summit of ^i^hich are two chapels. There are also 
several gloomy caverns in the neighbourhood, for- 
merly the solitary retreat of Christian anchorets. 
Under this class of natural curiosities must also be 
ranked the hot and medicinal waters of Pakatinei the 


saline efflorescences observed at the distance of a few i 
leagues trom the Dead sea; and the celebrated fruit, 
called by the Arabs Zacho^e which grows on a kind 
of thorny bush and resembles a sn^aU unripe walnut* 

Among the' artificial rarities may be considered ^^rHfciai 
the ruins of Ftoiemais, or St. John d'Acr.e, which still 
retain many vestiges of ancient magnificence; ^uch as 
the remains of a noble Gothic cathedral^ formerly dedi- 
cated to St. Andrew; the church of St. John^ the titu- 
lar sai^t of the city; the converts of the knights hos- 
pitallers; and the palace of their grand master. The 
remains of Sebaste (the ancient Samaria), though long 
ago laid in ruins, and great part of it turned into arable 
land, exhibit some marks of those sumptuous edifices 
with which it was adorned by king. Herod. Towards 
the north side of a large square piazza, encompassed 
with marble pillars, together with the fragments of 
strong walls at some distance* But the most remarka- 
ble object is a churchy said to have been built by the 
empress Helena over the place where St. John the 
Baptist was beheaded, the dome of which, together 
with some beautiful columns, capitate, and mosaic work, 
prove it to have been a noble fabric. , 

Jacob's W£Ll is highly venerated by Christian tra^ jacobU toett. 
veilers on account of \t$ antiquity, and oiT our Re- 
deemer's conference with the woman of Samaria. It is 
hewn out of the solid rock, about^thirty-five yards in 
depth, and three indiameter, and is at present covered 
with a stone vault* 

The Pools of So tOHON, supposed to have h^tu PooU of SoU 
made by order of that monarch . for the supply of his ***"•"• 
palaces, gardens, and even of the metropolis itself, still 
appear to have been a work of immense cost and labour: 
such also are the sealed fountains immediately opposite* 
T!he%^ pools 9Lrt three m a row, one over the other, 
and disposed in such a manner that the water of the 
uppermost may fall ii^tp the second, and from the se- 
cond into the third* They are all qaadrangular, and of 


an equal breadth, viz. about ninety paces; bat in leng;th 
they differ, the Jirst being 160 paces, the second 'iOO 
paces, and the third 2t^0 paces: tbey are all of a can- 
aiderable depth, walled and plastered, and contain a 
large quantity of water. At the distance of one hua- 
dred and twenty paces, is the spring which supplies 
them* The aqueduct is built on a foundation of 
stones, «nd water runs* in earthen pipes about ten in- 
ches in diameter. This work anciently extended 
several leagues, hut at present there are only some 
fragments of it to be found* The gardens of Solomon 
have also been long destroyed, and the ground is said 
to appear almost incapable of cultivation* t 

9th€r pooiM. The famous Pools of Gihon, and the Pools of 
B^THESDA, may be ranked among the most stately 
ruins; the former is situated about a quarter of a mile 
from Bethlehem- ff ate westward: its length is 160 paces, 
and Its breadth 67 paces* It is lined with a waiJ and 
plaster, and contains a considerable store of water* 
The other at JeriLsalem^ is 120 paces long, 40 broad 
and 8 deep; but at present dry* 

j^raHveman- In the City of Bethlehem they pretend to show 
gevfi; * 'the stable and wwin^^r where the adorable 'Messiah lay 
at the period of his nativity; and exhibit Kgroho hewn 
out of a chalky rock, in which they affirm the blessed 
^ Virgin concealed herself and holy child itotA the per- 
secution of Herod** 

^urchet. At Nazareth is a magnificent church under gi'ound, 
said to occupy the very cave -where the Virgin RTary 
received the angePs salutation, and wiiibre two beauti- 
ful PiLLAas of GRANITE erected in cionimemora- 
tiou of that interesting event* At a small distance are' 
some fine remkins of atiother c^rch, supposed to 
have been erected in the tixAt of the enipi^ess Heietia* 
But this is much itifieirior to the great cntJRCH built 
over our Saviour's sepulchre By the same empreii^ 
and called the * church of the Holy Sepulchre^ 

The last class of artificial curiosities worthy of no- Sepniohnii 
lice is that of the sjipulchral mo^juments, which arc ^^*''*™'"^ 
scattered all oyer the eountry; apd of which the most 
remarkable are selected for^ th^ reader's gratification. 

Th<^ tomb of the holy Virgin, situated near Jerusa- 7^* ofihe 
lem, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, to which there is a ^ "^*^' 
descent by a magnificent flight of steps, has on the 
i^^ght h^nd side,^the sepulchre of St. Anna the mother, 
and on. the left, that of Joseph the husband, of Mary. 
In each division are aUarsfor the celebration of divine 
worship; and the whole is cut out of the solid rock. 


The monument of king Jehoshaphat is divided into Tombt of Jo, 
several appartments; one of which contains his tovwh^ Mtmm. 
adorned with a stately portico and entablature. That 
of Absalom, two furlongs distant from Jerusalem, is 
about twenty cubits square, adorned below with four 
columns of the loiiic order, with their capitals and entab« 
latures to each front. From the height of twenty to 
forty feet it is somewhat less, and quite plain, except- 
ing a small fillet at the upper end; and from forty to , 
the topv it changes into a round, which tapers regularly 
to a point, the whole cut out of the solid rock. 

A little further westward i* the tomb of Zecharia, yom* </ Z4- 
the son of Barrachia, who is said to have been slain by *^*'"^* 
the Jews between the temple and the altar. This 
structure is all cut out of the natural rock. It is 
eighteen feet high, as many square, and adorned with 
Ionic columns. 

But the most curious and magnificent pieces of ahti- The royal 
quity of this kind are the royal sepulchres, without *^^^'^*^'' 
the waUs of Jerusalem : they are all hewn out of the 
solid marble, and contain several spacious and elabo- 
rate apartments. On the eastern side is the entrance 
leading to.a stately court, about 120 feet square, neatly 
wrought and polished. On the south side of it is a 
sumptuous portico, embellished in front with a kindt>f 
architrave, and supported by columns, and on the left 


of the*portico is a descent into the sepulchral apart- 
ments. The first of these apartments is a handsome 
room, about 24 feet square^ formed with such neatness 
and accuracy, that it may justly be styled a beautiful 
chamber, hollowed out of one piece of marble. ^From. 
this room are three passages leading to other chambers 
of a similar fabric, but of different dimensions ; in each 
of which are stone coffins placed in niches, that were 
once covered with semicircular lids, eipbellished with 
flowers, garlands, &c. but now broken in pieces. The 
door cases, hinges, pivots, &c. are all of the same stone 
with the other parts of these rooms, and even the 
doors appear to have been cut out of the very pieces to 
which they hang. Why these grots are honoured virith 
the appellation of sepulchres sf the kings^ is not exactly 
known; but whoever views them with any degree of 
attention must be induced to pronounce them a royal 
work, and to regard them as the most authentic re- 
mains of the old regal splendour, that are to be met 
with in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. 

^d'^^iZ' Subsequent to its conquest by the children of Israel^ 
tiant. J0DEA, or Canaan in its most extensive sense, was di- 

vided into maritime and inland^ as well as into cham- 
paign and mountainous; and again subdivided into Judea 
on this side, and Judea beyond, the Jordan. But the 
most considerable division was that made by lot 
among the twelve tribes^ for the prevention of mur* 
murs and discontent, when two tribes and a half were 
seated beyond the river, and the rest on this side. 
In the reign of king Solomon it was divided into twelve 
districts^ each under a peculiar officer; and, in the time 
of his imprudent son Rehoboam, a more fatal division 
was effected by the revolt of ten tribes, who under the 
conduct of Jeroboam, established a new monarchy, 
which they called the kingdom of Israel^ in opposition 
to that of Judahm After the return of the Jews front 
captivity, and during the times of the second temphj 
we here distinguish four principal divisions: as Judea^ 
Samaria^ Galilosa^ and Percea. The Romans divided 
it mXo provinces which have been seen in Part !{•; and 



after various changes that took place under the north- 
ern barbarians, Saracens^ &c« the Turks reduced it to > 
a protfince uhdcr tlxQ beglerbegate or bashawship of 

But tp be more particular, we will speak of the Twely* 
twelve tribes of Israel, begininng with the two tribes '^^****' 
and a half, seated beyond Jordan; proceeding to the 
nine and a half on this side, styled more properly the 
Holy Land; and concluding with a topical description 
of the contiguous countries, the inhabitants of which 
cither mingled with, or bordered upon the Jews* 

The kiilgs of Bashan and of the ^^morites, being van- Two tribA 
quished by the children of Israel, their territories *?|^ * *^» 
were settled by the two tribes of Reuben and Gad, 
with half of Manasseh; and subsequent to the Jewish 
captivity took the denomination of Persea. 


Reuben, who was the eldest, had the southern part*--B^^> 
of the new conquest, extending from the nort-east coasts 
of the Asphaltite lake along the eastern banks of the 
river Jordan; divided on the south from Midian by the 
Arnon;onthe north from the tribe of Gad, by another 
little river; and bordered on^the east partly by the 
Moabites, and partly by the Ammonites; while the 
Jordan parted it on the west from the land of Promise. 
It exhibited three famous mountains, viz. Peor^ Nebo^ 
and Pisgah^ and was everywhere extremely fertile in 
corn, wine, fruits, and paaturage. 

To the north of Reuben was fixed the tribe of Gad,..Ga(jNanij 
having likewise the river Jordan on the west, the 
Ammonites on the east, and the half tribe of Manasseh 
on the north. . This tract of country, like the former, 
was famed for its rich pasturage and exuberant produc- 

The portion allotted to the half tribe of Manasseh hatfofM^ 
was bounded on the south by that of Gad, on the west" 
by the Jordan and Samochonite lake, on the east by 



Other four 
tribes, m. 


the hiHsof Bashan and Hermon, and on the north by 
a part of Lebanon. Its extent was almost equal to 
the other two; and when a subsequent distribution of 
names furnished that of Galilsea to the northern parts 
of Judea largely taken, this tract constituted that part 
of it that was properly called Upper Galilsea, or the 
Galilee of the Gentiles. 

The furthest northern verge of Judea on this side 
of the Jordan, was occupied by the tribes of Asher, 
Naphtali, Zebulon, and Issachar. It was afterwards 
called Lower GaliUea. It produced an abundance of 
corn. Oily wine, and fruits of various sorts, and was, ia 
its flourishing condition, so full of towns and viliag^es, 
that Josephus observes, the least of them contained 
fifteen thousand inhabitants. 

— *^«A«ri 

The tribe of Asher was* seated on the north-west 
comer of this tract, having the Mediterranean oil 
the west, Zebulon on the south, and Naphtali on the 
east. Its fecundity and the excellence of its produc- 
tions, fully answered the blessing which dying Jacob, 
gave it: ^^ that the bread of it should be fat, and that 

it should yield royal dainties.'^ 


^^jsTaphtdUs Naphtali possessed a tract of of countr7 betweea 
that of Asher and the river Jordan. It was exceed- 
ingly fertile, and extended along the western bank of 
the river from Mount Lebanon to the sea of Tiberias. 

^Zebulon; Xo the south of Asher and Naphtali was seated the 
tribe of Zebulon, having the Mediterranean on the 
west, the sea of Galilee on the east, the river-Jepthael 
on the north, and that of Kishon on the south; and by- 
its vicinity to the sea, its numerous ports, and exten- 
sive commerce, it perfectly verified' the blessings givea 
to Zebulon both by Jacob and Moses. 

'^Ittachar, '^he possessions of Issachar were bounded by the 
Jordan on the east, by Zebulon on the' north, by the 


Mediterranean on the west, and by the odier half of I 

Alanas-^eh on the south* Its most remarkable places 
vrere Mounts Carmel and Gilboa, the valley of Jezreel, 
add the great plain of Megiddo. 

The tract on the south of Issachar, distinguished in ^^J <»« k 
I later times by the name of Samaria, was divided be- Wz. ' 

tween the other half tribe of Manasseh, and the tribe of 
Ephraitn. The face of it varied considerably, some 
parts being mountainous, rocky, and steril; while 
others were pleasant, fertile, and populous. 

: / » 

^ That portion which appertained to Manasseh was-^a^o/ 

I bordered on the north and south by Issachar and ^^5"""***' 

! Ephraim, and on the east and west by the Jordan and 

I the Mediterranean. It was agreeably diversified with 

mountains, plains, and valleys, and contained a con* 

siderable number of stately cities. 

The tribe of Ephraim occupied the south side of'-Ephram. 
Samaria, and extended- like that of Manasseh, from 
the Mediterranean to the river Jordan., The low lands 
were extremely rich ^nd luxuriant; the hills afforded , 
excellent pasture, and even the rocks were, prtttily 
decorated with trees. The towns and cities were nu- 
merous, and the population considerable. 

That district of the Promised Land to which the Other fto 
name of Judea was particularly applied after the libera- ^ 
tion of the Jews above alluded to, when it had Sama- 
ria on the north, the Mediterranean on the west, Egypt 
and Idumea on the south, with the Jordan and Dead 
sea on the east, was allotted to the tribes of Benjamin, 
Judah, Dan, and Simeon. The climate wa» warm, 
but well refreshed with cooling winds; and the face of 
the country exhibited the most beautiful assemblage of 
verdant mountains, irriguous plains, fruitful hills, ena- 
melled valleys, and crystal rivulets; while a rich pro- .|{ 
fusion of com, wine, and oil, evinced the natural fiir- 
cundity of the soil. 

\ 4 


^^Menjomns The tribe of Benjamin was contiguous to Judah on the 
south, to Ephraim on the north, and to Dan on the 
west. It contained but few towns and cities; but this 
want was amply compensated by the possession of the 
city of Jerusalem, the centre of the Jewish worship, 
the seat of the monarchs and pontiffs, and the great 
inetropolis of the holy land. Jerusalem was formerly 
divided into four parts, each enclosed with separate 
walls^ viz. the old city of Jebus, situated on Mount 
Zion, where David and his successors resided; the 
lower city, embellished with some' magnificent palaces 
and citadels, by Solomon, Antiochus, and Herod ; the 
aew city, chiefly inhabited by merchants, tradesmen, 
and artificers; and Mount Moriah, which supported the 
sumptuous temple of Solomon, destroyed by Nebu- 
chadnezzar, rebuilt by the Jews on their return from the 
Babylonish captivity, and afterwards renewed, adorned, 
and enriched by Herod. This once rich and stately me- 
tropolis is at present reduced to a thinly inhabited town 
of about three miles in circumference. It stands in 
31 deg. 48 min. of north latitude, and ^5 deg. 3^min« 
of east longitude, on a rocky eminence,- surroutided on 
all sides, except the north, with steep ascents and deep 
valleys helow; and these again are environed with other 
hills at a distance. The soil in some places produces 
com, wine, and oil ; but the greater part, for want of 
cultivation, is become stony, sandy, and barren. Sub- 
sequent to its total destruction by Vespasian, the em- 
peror Adrian built a new city almost upon the site of 
the old town, and adori^ed it with several noble edi- 
fices; but in the time of Helena, mother of C(MistantiQe 
the Great, it was found in so ruinous and forlorn a 
condition as raised her pity into a noble zeal of restor- 
ing it to .its ancient grandeur. With this design she 
caused all the rubbish to be removed from Mount Cal- 
vary, and ordered a magnificent church to be built 
there^ to comprehend as many of the. scenes of our 
. Redeemer's sufferings as could be conveniently enclosed 
within one edifice. The walls are of stone, and the 
roof of cedar ; the east end includes Mount Calvary, 
and the west contains the holy sepulchre. The former 

, tRVIL mvisioNs. 191 

is covered with a handsome cupola, supported by six- 
teen masswe colutnus, formerly incrusted with marble. 
The centre is open on the top just over the sepulchre; 
and above the high altar, at the east end, h another 
stately dome. The nave of the church forms the choir, 
and in the interior aisles are the places where the most 
remarkable circumstances of our. Saviour's passion 
Were transacted, together with the tombs of Godfrey #" 
and Baldwin, the first of two Christian kings of Jeru- 
salem* An ascent of twenty^two steps leads to a 
ctiapel, where;that part of Calvary is shewn on which 
the Messiah was crucified. . The altar is adorned with 
three crosses, ^nd other costly embellishments, among 
which are- ibrty-six silver lamps that are kept constant- 
ly burning. Contiguous to this is another small chapel 
fronting the body of the church. At the west end is 
the chapel of the sepulchre, hewn out of the solid rock, 
and ornamented with pillars of porphyry. The clois- 
ter round the sepulchre is divided into several chapels 
for the use of the different Christian sects who reside 
there ;. and on the north* west are the apartments of 
the Latins, who have the care of the church. It may 
be proper to mention here an edifice erected on Mount 
Moriah, called Solomon's temple, though it is not easy 
to guess when or by whom it was built. The entrance 
is at the east end, under an octagon, adorned with a 
cupola and lantern ; and towards the west is a straight 
aisle likevthat of a church, the whole surrounded with 
a spacious court, and walled on every side. In the 
midst of it is erected a Turkish mosque, remarkable 
neither for its structure nor magnitude, but which 
makes a stately figure by its advantageous situation. 
Dr. Pococke, who took a particular view of the edifice, 
has highly extolled the beauty of the prospect, as well 
as the materials and workmanship. The colonnades 
are said to be of the Corinthian order, with arches 
turned over them } being, in all probability, the por- 
ticos leading to the interior of the building : but the 
place is held in such veneration by the Turks, that a ' 
stranger cannot approach it without danger of forfeiting, 
his life or reUgion; This city' is at present tinder the 


governnient of a sangiac, whose tyranny keeps the 
Christian inhabitants so poor, that their chief support 
and trade consists in providing strangers with accom- 
nnodations, and selling them beads, relics, &c* from 
which they are compelled to ^ pay considerable sums to 
the sangiac and his officers. 

-^Judah^ The canton of the tribe of Judah was bounded' on 
the east by the Asphaltite lake, and on the west by the 
tribes of Dan and Simeon. It was reckoned the largest 
and most populous of the Jewish territories, and the 
inhabitants were the mQst valiant. The land was 
charmingly diversified with hills and dales, meadows, 
lakes, and fountains; and exclMsive of that part which 
lay contiguous to Idumea, it produced an exuberant sup- 
ply of fruits, corn, oil, and wine. It was chie&y in Judah 
that the Canaanites resided, and it was here likewise 
that Abraham and his descendants sojourned^ previous 
to their removal into Egypt. 

*-Daw/ and The lot of Datt was bounded on the north by 
Ephraim, on the west by the Philistities and the Me- 
diterranean, on the south by Simeon, and on the east 
by Judah and Benjamin. Its greatest length, from 
north to south, did not exceed forty miles i and the 
whole tract was rather narrow ; but what it wanted in 
room was fully compensated by the richness of ihf soil, 
and the valour and industry of its inhabitants, some of 
whom penetrated to the utmost verge of Palestine on 
the north in quest of new settlements. Here was the 
famous valley Nahal^Escol, from which the Israelitish 
spies brought Moses such noble specimens of the fer- 
tility of the land. Among the most considerable cities 
of this part was Joppa, now JafFa^ the only port which 
the Jews had on the Mediterranean. It was seated on 
a high hill, which commanded a fitie prospect of a fer- 
tile country on one side, and of the sea on the other. 
This city suffered so severely during the holy war, that 
scarcely any of ita buildings were left standing, except 
two old castles. Jt is now ^rebuilt towards the sea, with 
storehouses, and is p^s^esaed of a considerable trade. 


On the western side of the haven is a copious spring, 
which yields an excellent supply to the inhabitants, 
and an acceptable refreshment to travellers. 

The tribe of Simeon was confined to a very small— ^'"*«»«- • 
territory in the most southern corner of Judea, bound- 
ed by Dan on the north, by the little river Sichor on 
the south, by Judah on the east, and by a small neck of 
land towards the Mediterranean on the west. The 
greatest part of it was sandy, barren, and mountainous; 
and the inhabitants were so harassed by the Idumean? 
on one side, and the Philistines on thr other, that they 
were necessitated, to seek their fortune among other 
tribes^ Some hired themselves but to assist their 
brethren in the conquest of their lots, and others dis- 
persed themselves among every tribe, where they 
served as scribes, notaries, &c. so fully was Jacob's 
curse verified on them, as well as on the tribe of Levi, 
on account of the cruel massacre of the Schechemites; 
^' Cursed (said the patriarch) be their anger, for it was 
"fierce; and their revenge, for it was inhuman: I will 
"disperse them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel." 

Having thus cpmpleted the purposed description ofi^j^^gf* 
the lots of the twelve tribes, it will be proper to speak 
of the five Philistine satrapies, prelusive to the geo- 
graphy of those nations which bordered on the Israel- 
itish provinces. 

These satrapies, viz. Gath, Ekron, Ashdod, As- '''^«'»'.^^« . - 
calon, and Gaza, were situated along the Mediter- 
ranean coast ; and extended from the seaport of Jamnia 
to the mouth of the river Bezor. The extent of their 
inland territories cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, 
but they were upon- the whole confined within narrow 

Gath, the birth-place of the gigantic warrior Goliath,— Ga^Ai 
was conquered by king David, fortified by I^ehoboam, 
and retaken by Uzziah and Hezekiah. It was seated 
under ^he ^5th degree of east longitude, and 3ist de- 



gree, 56 min. of north latitude; six miles south of Jam* 
nia, fourteen south of Joppa, and thirty-two westof Jeru- 
salem. It recovered its liberty and pristine splendour in 
the days of Amos and Micah, but, afterward was demo- 
lished, by Hazael, king of Syria* After that period it 
was a place of small consideration, till the holy war^ 
when Fulk, king of Jerusalem, erected a castle on its 

— Ekron; 

Ekron, situated about ten miles south of Gath, and 
thirty- four west of Jerusalem, appears to have been a 
place of considerable strength and importance* Upon 
the first division of the promised Land, it fell to the 
lot of Judah, but was afterwards given to the tribe of 


— Ascdlorii 

Ashdod was a famous port on the Mediterranean, 
situated about fifteen miles south of Ekron, between 
that city and Ascalon. It was here the idol Dagon 
fell in pieces before the ark of God. The strength of 
the place was so considerable, that it is said to have 
sustained a siege of twenty-nine years under Psammit- 
tichus king of Egypt. 

Ascalon, another maritime town and satrapy, lying 
between Ashdod and Gaza, was reckoned the strongest 
of any of the Philistine coast; but was soon reduced, 
after the death of Joshua, by the tribe of Judah. This 
city was made an episcopal see from the earliest ages 
of Christianity, and during the holy war it was adorn- 
ed with several magnificent edifices; but these have 
been demolished by the Saracens, and Turks, and As- 
calon is now dwindled into an inconsiderable village* 



'^GtLza, Gaza, the last satrapy, stood on a fine eminence, 

about fifteen miles south of Ascalon, four north of the 
river Bezor, and at a small distance from the Mediter 
ranean. It was surrounded by the most beautiful val-| 
leys, supplied with, an abundance of water^ and en- 
compassed, at a futher distance on the inland side, wit 
cultivated hills. The city was remaiicably strong) aD< 


/ / 



surrounded with waUs and towers after the manner of 
the Philxstmes. It was taken by Caleb, the son of Je- 
phunneb, but soon after regained by the ancient in* 
habitants, whp kept possession of it till the time of 
Sampson* It passed from the Jews to the Chaldeans, 
Persians, and Egyptians, till it was pillaged by Alex- 
ander the Great: it was a second time destroyed bjr 
the Maccabees, and no further mention is made of 
It till St, Luke speaks of it as a ruined place. It 
stands about three miles distant from the sea, 2nd 
still exhibits some noble monuments of antiquity, such 
as stately marble colonnades, finely wrought sepulchres^ 
&c. In the immediate vicinage of the city is a 
round castle, flanked with four square towers ; and a 
little above it, are the remains of an old Roman castle, 
the materiab of which are so firm, that the ham* 
mer will niake no impression on them* The Greeks 
have here a handsome church, with a fine roof, sup- 
ported by marble pillars of the Corinthian order* 
The castle is the residence of the sang^ac* The ad*^ 
jaceat territory is pleasant and delightful; but beyond 
it the ground is rather barren, quite to the river of 
Egypt, and inhabited by wild Arabs. 

It now remains to give a concise account of the ^'^^'''J^** 
countries belonging to those nations that were seated Can^^ait* 
around Palestine. 

Idumea, or land of Edom, constituted a part of Ara- E^mitf^ 
bia Petrsea, having Judea on the north, Egypt and a 
branch of the Red sea on the west, the rest of Arabia 
Petrsea on the south, and the desert of Arabia on the 
^ast. Its extent seems to have varied considerably at 
diiferent periods, in consequence of which Josephus dis- 
tinguishes it, when at the largest, by the epithet of great, 
in opposition to its more narrow boundaries. The 
same author divides it into Upper and Lower Idu- 
mea; but the country, upon the whole is represented 
as dry, mountiaihous, hot, and in some parts steril; 
the high lands exhibiting many dreadful caverns and 
recesses, which resemble those in the sou^em (art of 



Judea. This country is at present under the domi- 
nion of the Turks, mostly waste and uncultivated; and 
inhabited by wild Arabs, with whom Europeans have 
but little intercourse* 

Jimatekiut. The nation of Amalek was seated on that part of 
Arabia Petraea which lay eastward of the .Edomites, 
and extended almost as far north as the AsphaUite 
lake, and as far southward as the Red sea : but as the. 
people were mostly of a wandering disposition, and 
lived in booths, tents, or caverns, like the Arabs, it is 
impos^sible to ascertain their limits with any degree of 

M^aniiet. The Midianites, or the land of Midian, was situated 
on the north of Amalek. It was hot, sandy, and in 
many parts desert; yet abounded with camels and 
other species of cattle* It appears to have contained 
-«., many cities, castles, &c. as early as the time of Exodus. 
" The city of Midian was, in all probability, rebuilt sub- 
sequent to that period, as both Eusebius and St* Jeronci 
assert there were some remains of it to be seen in their 

Moahues. The land of Moab was likewise in Arabia Petraa^ 
on the north of Midian, having the river Amon on 
the west, the land of Gilead on the north, and the Ish- 
maelites on the east. It contained several consider- 
able cities, which the Moabites wrested from the gi- 
gantic Emims and Zamzummim^, but which were af* 
terwards possessed by the Jews. 

Amm(mite9, The Ammonites were seated to the north-east of 
their brethren the Moabites, in Arabia Deserta, having 
the Amon on the west, the Ishmaelites on the south, 
the deserts of Arabia on the east, and the hills of Ba* 
shan and Gilead on the north. Their territories, ac- 
cording to the sacred historians, seem to have been an- 
ciently confined by the rivers Jabbok and Amon; but 
their frequent incursions into the neighbouring states oc- 
casioned their boundaries to be in constant fiuctuatioii^ 


» The descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham hhmaeUte^ 
and Hagar, occupied a part of Arabia Deserta, east* 
ward of Moab and Midian, and bounded on the north 
by Ammon ; but how far they extended southward and 
eastward it is impossible to determine. It may, hbw« 
ever, be presumed, from an assertion of Moses, that 
their territory reached from Havilah, which was situ- 
ated near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, 
to Shur, on the isthmus of Suez. Thenge they are said 
to have spread themselves ovei' the greatest part of 
Arabia ; in consequence of which Josephus styles their 
progenitor the founder of the Arabian naUon.* 


* If oiTHT Hbbmon, vhi«h ahoQld kaTe been notieed immediately after Lebanon^ 
page 178, is, like it, amally eapped with nowi is next to it in dignity for height; and was 
onee fnmed for an andent temple mnoh resorted to by the saperstitiom heathens. Itia 
also eelebrated \n the Koy^l Psalmist for its refreshing dews, which descended on the ad-' 
joiniDg mount of Slon : and 9t Jerom aaMrt% ttat iti»saoir ints carried tjt> Tm and 
'"'^-ii, !• be v«td a i«fr«iVqg U^pitfkft 

lEfSa^ OF YOU L 

) . 

« \' 








HISTORlE', k its literal acceptation, embracea every tpedea 
of story, or narrative, and is a strict synonyme with either of 
these terms ; for, its original, fmtoria^ is of Greek derivation,, 
and is rendered in pure latin by the term narratiOy from which 
the term narrative is derived, whilst story is but an abbre- 
viation of the Greek derivative* Nevertheless, the term history 
is daily wrested from its true import, in two remarkable and 
contradictory particulars. In the one it is extended to a sci*^ 
ence that is quite heterogeneous to its proper object ; in the 
other it is restrained to a single one of the numerous branches 
of narrative science which properly belong to it*. Upon an ac- 
curate investigation of these two abuses, we shall find, in regard 
to the first, that the term cosmography is the legitimate deno- 
mination for that extensive science which professes to treat of 
the whole physical world under the three kingdoms of animal, 
vegetable, and mineral; though the imposing surname of natu^ 
ral be annexed to history^ as a palliative of that abuse. It must 
not be objected that cosmography professes to treat only of the 
planetary world, for its Greek original tells us that it discourses 
9n the worldj necessarily implying the adjunct palpable or phy^ 
sical^ and by logical induction including the objects of the three 
kingdoms just mentioned* In canvassing the second abuse of 
the term history ^ we shall feel much more shocked at the feroci- 
ousnesSf and indocility of taste, that have confined it to the details 
of war and bloodshed— of chicane, usurpation, and tyranny-^-of 
incredible atrocities perpetrated against the cause of humanity; 
while the higher order of social interests in the historical de- 
partment — ^such as the progress of the arts, philosophical dis- 
coveries, &c«-— are often entirely pretermitted, or at best, are 
cast in miniature so far in the back ground of the picture, as 
to elude ordinary observation* Reflecting thu8,it may most com- 
port with literal accuracy to define the term history, a recital 
9r narrative of all the known events that have occurred in memorial 
time. Yet, in compliance with the predilection that mankind 
have always felt for the recitals of war and the consequent revo» 
lutions' of nations and empires, to the prejudice of the social 
transactions of peace, and especially in an epitome like that wc 


have here given, we must not only pass by these refining opera- 
tions of peace with thif bare mention of ^e names of principal 
artists, philosophers, &c» but must even greatly retrench the 
favourite theme* The arts and sciences nevertheless have 
each their proper historian for the edificadpn and nmeusementof 
diose of elegant leisure and cultivated taste. 

History is commonly distinguished into Sacred and Paov ane. 
Sacred History is contained in the Old and New Testament; 
and is divided into three parts* 1st. The dispenaatioh of the 
law of nature, extending from the time of Adam to that of Moses* 
2nd. The dispensation of the written law, from the time of 
Moses, to that of our Lord Jesus Christ* 3rd* The dispensa- 
tion of grace, which comprehends the time since the establish- 
ment of the gospel* 

Profane History is contained in all other approved re* 
cords, and is generally divided into three great intervals* 1st* 
Obscure or uncertain time; which elapsed from the creation of 
the world, to the origin of the Greek fables, or to the deluge 
that happened in the days of Ogyges, king of the Athenians. 2nd* 
Fabulous, or heroical time; which elapsed from the deluge of 
Ogyges, to the establishment of the Olympic games : it is so 
calied because the heroes and demi-gods of the Greeks are pre- 
tended to have lived during .this period* drd* Historical time; 
wbich has elapsed since the Olympic games^ when history be- 
gan to be more authentic* 

History has also been further subdivided jnto epochs and 
periods y which, though very convenient for method, are entirely 
arbitrary and almost at the will of every historian* Bat 
we would not be understood to sneer at any attempt at method, 
if the factitious one is not incompatible with that which nature 
gives. On the contrai^ I think we have sufficiently demon- 
strated our high opinion of it as an auxiliary to the understand- 
ing, as well as to the memory, in the foregoing volume; and from 
the same conviction, we have so arranged this abstract of his- 
tory, as to enable the student to peruse it chronologic ally, in 
the order of events, or coNsEquRNTx ally, nation after nation, in 
the order of their priority* 

A.* t 





From the Creatioh to the Deluge^ which includes 1656 


' !• IN tbe beginning God created the heaven and "■• 
the earth, and curiously; finished them in the space of * 

six days* To Adam, the first of the human race, he 
gave command over all the other creatures. Adam, 
by his wife Eve, begat Cain and Abel; the former of 
whom was a tiller of the ground, and tb« latter a shep- 
herd. But wickedness soon breakingr <^ut in his family, 
Cain slew Abel. Cain's posterity invented music, the 
working of iron, and other a<ts. The descendants of 
Seth, who was bora to Adam af ter|he murder of Abel, 
proved virtuous ; those of Cain vicious. The World 
was created 400^ years before the Christian sera. 

2. Enoch, the fifth in descent from Seth, about a 
thousand years after the creation of the world, was ta- 
ken up from the society and converse of men into 
heaven, on account of his intimate familiarity with 
God. His son* Methuselah died a natural death, after 
he had lived near a thousand years. But men gener- 
ally unmindful of death, began to abuse longevity, for 
most of them lived full 900 years. Moreover the fe- 




mily of Seth intermarrying with that of Cain, gave 
birth to a gigantic race of men; and, degenerating into 
heathenish practices, broke through aU the restraints 
of modesty and duty. 

3. Wherefore, 1656 years after the world was cre- 
atedt and 2348 before the birth of Christ, God, pro- 
voked with the wickedness of men, determined to 
drown the whole world by a deluge. Forty days the 
waters increased exceedingly, and rose fifteen cubits 
above the highest mooatains ; no living creature any 
where remained, except those which Noah, a good 
man, saved by the direction of God in a certain large 
vessel or Ark. After the flood, the measure of man's 
strength and life was lessened. From Japheth, Shem, 
and Ham, the three sons of Noah, all th6 families of 
the earth have been gradually propagated. 

CHAP. I£. 

Ft am the Deluge to the vocation pf Abrakanpy 1^80 
before Ckt:ist ; containing A%7 year^* 

*II' !• THE postetity of ^oah^ about 101 year$ after 

iVSSYRlA* ^^ flood, before th|ir dispersKm; entered upon a pro- 
ject of building a Qity and a to?/r^r, whose top tnight 
reach to heaven. . But the divine p^wer checked the 
insolent attempts of mortals. They all then used the 
same language, which on a sudden was mlraeuloissly 
divided into a multiplicity of tongues. Accordingl)^ 
the intercourse of speech being cut off, the buiHmg was 
laid aside. After this the earth beg^n to be {}eopled* 
The city thus begun, from the confusion of IftnguagoB, 
was firs^ ^led Babel, and afterwards Babylon. Nim- 
rod having^subdued spme neighbouring people by force 
of arms, reigned in it th^ fixst after the flood. 


%m About the time of Nimrod, Kgypt seems to have Hf, 
been divided ifitp four dynasties, or principalities; Egypt. 
Tbebesy Thio, MeiopHis, ^nd Tank. From this pe- ^* 
riod, also, the Eg3^ptis^ii laiws aad poiiey take their rise* 
Already tiiey began to make a figure in the knowledge 
of astronomy; they fir^ adjusted the year to the an- 
nual revolution of the sun. The inhabitants of this 
country wer^ renowned for their wisdom and learning, 
even in the earliest times. Their Hermes, or Mercurf 
Trismegistus, filled all Egypt with useful inventions. 
He, according to them, first taught. men music, letters^ 
religion, eloquence, statuary, and other arts besides. 
Most historians say, that ^scutapias, or Tosorthus^ 
king of Memphis, first discovered physic and anatomy. 
In fine, the ancient Egyptians, as to arts and sciences, 
.%nd the illustrious monuments ^f wealth and grandeur, 
have deservedly obtained the pneferem^e among all na* 
tiods of the world. Everybody owns that Men«s was 
the first mortal who reigned over Egypt. But the 
most famous among their princes was Sesostris ; wha 
with amazing rapidity overran and conquered Asia, 
and, subduing the countries beyond the Ganges, ad- 
vanced eastward as far as the ocean. At last, losing 
his sight, he laid violent hands on himself. The kings 
of that part of Egypt, whereof Tanis was the capital, 
took all the name of Pharaoh. 

3. Belusissaid to have reigned at Babylon; whose It. 
son Ninus caused his father's image to be worshipped ASSryRUft 
as a god. This is remarked to have been the origin of 
idols. Ninus, fired with the lust of sovereignty, be- 
gan to e,xtend his empire by arms. He reduced Asia 
under bis dominion ; made himself master of Bactri- 
ana, by vanquishing Oxyartes king of the Bactrians, 
and the inventor of magic. He enlarged the city Ni- 
neveh that had been built by Ashur ; and founded the 
. empire of the Assyrians. He himsetf reigned $4 years. 

4. Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, a woman of a mas- 
culine spirit, transferred the crown to herself, in 
prejudice of her son, who was yet si minor. By 


her Babylon was adorned in a most magnificent man- 
ner ; Asia, Media, Persia, and Egypt, overrun with 
mighty armies ; and a great part of Libya and Ethiopia 
conquered* At last she voluntarily resigned the scep- 
tre, after she had swayed it 42 years* But Justin says 
she was murdered by her son Ninyas* 

5. Ninyas degenerated quite from^ both his parents, 
and giving up the management of his kingdom to lieu- 
tenants, he shut himsslf up in his palace, entirely aban- 
doned to his pleasures. He had thirty or more of the 
Assyrian monarchs that sciccessively followed his 
worthless example, the following ones being always 
worse than the former^ the last of whom was Sardana- 
jy^ palus, a man more effeminate than a woman. He being 
M£DIA. defeated by Arb^ces, governor of the Medes, betook 
!• himself into his palace, where, erecting a funeral pile, 
he burnt himself, his wives, and all his wealth. Thus 
Arbaces transferred the empire from the Asi3rrian8 to 
the Medes, after it had lasted, as some say,i300 years. 
But this whole account of the Assyrian empire is re- 
jected by. very good authors, as false and fictitious* 
The history of this monarchy that appears rational, and 
agreeable to Scripture, is related in chap. VII. 2. 

v.. 6. Abraham, the father of the Hebrews, by nation 

CANAAN.'^ Chaldean, descended from Heber, is calle* by God, 
in the year of the flood 428th^ and before Christ 1920th. 
Whilst he sojourned in Palestine, the seat promised to 
his posterity, being pinched by a famine, he went down 
into Egypt. Returning from thence, he delivered Lot, 
his brother's son, who had been carried o£f prisoner from 
Sodom. After this he paid tithes to the prie&t Mel- 
chisedeck* Moreover, being now 100 years old, hav- 
< ing, at the divine command, circumcised himself and 
his family, he had, by his wife Sarah, Isaac, the son 
promised him by God. Isaac was not yet bom, when 

• T^iis denotes the Hebrew, or JewiahJ historr, whether ia or out of 
Canaan. * /^ 


Abraham, by his prevailing interceseion with God, 
rescued Lot, together with his wife and children, from 
the burning of Sodom. But Lot's wife, for looking 
back, was turned into a pillar of salt. Further, Abra* 
ham's faith being tried by God, became eminently illus- 
trious > for God commanding him to sacrifice with hi^ 
own hands, his only son Isaac, the sole hope of any 
progeny, he scrupled not to obey. His readiness to 
comply was accepted instead of actual performance. 

7. About the same time, as Eusebius supposes, VI. 
lived the Titans in Crete; the eldest of whom was Sa- ^**^^^'^- 
turn, who is said to be the father of Jupiter. Jupiter was 
' regarded as a god, on account of his fatherly affection 
towards his people. His brothers were Neptune and 
Pluto^ the one admiral of the king's fleet, the other in- 
vehtor of funeral ceremonies in Greece. Which cir- 
cumst^nces, amongst the foolish ancients, procured the 
empire of the sea to the former as a divinity, and to 
the latter, the sovereignty of hell as a god. 


From the vocation of Abraham tathe departure of the 
Israelites out of Egypt^ 1491 before Christ; compre^ 
hending 429 years* 

1. ISAAC, the son of Abraham, born about the y. 
year after the flood 457, had, by his wife Rebecca, CANAAi{. 
Esau and Jacob. Of Leah, Rachel, and his other wives, ^* 
Jacob begat the patriarchs, the heads of the 12 tribes. 
He was called Israel by God; hence the Israelites de- 
rived their name. Joseph, one of the patriarchs, was 
sold by his brothers out of envy, and sent into Egypt. 
Afterwards Joseph forgave his brothers this ill usage, 
though an opportunity of revenging it ofiered. ije pre- 
vailed with his father to come down into Egypt with all 




his faiiiily» vhere in n short time the IsraeUtts mul^ 
tiplied ID a surprisiag maimen This removal took 
place in the year of the world 2:^90^ M^ before Chriat 

VI. 2. Almost cotemporary with Isaac was loachus, the 

GREECE, first king of the Argives; whose son Phoroneus is rc- 
^* corded to have collected his .waaderin^ and scattered 
peopled into one body, and to have Secured them by 
cities and laws. But Apollo^ Mars, Vulcan, Venus, 
Minerva, children of Jupitery the priodpal deities of 
Greece, and the great founders of superstition, fell ra 
with the age of the patriarchs ; as also Ogyges, the 
ftrst king of. Attica, under whose reign bappeoed 
that remarkable inundation of Attica, called the de** 
luge of Ogyges* - Eusebi us places Spartus, the son of 
Phoroneus, who built Sparta^ almost cotemporary with 
Joseph. Argus, the grandson of Phoroneus, who, on 
account of his wonderful sagacity was said to have aa 
hundred eyes, built Argos. Hieronymus too makes 
• Job, so much famed for patience, coeval with Joseph; 
but others place him much later. 

.3. About the same time lived Prometheus and At- 
las, two eminent astronbmers, celebrated in the fabu« 
lous poems of the Greeks. Prometheus, the son of 
Japetus,one of the l^itans, is represented by the poets 
as having made a man of clay, because he formed men 
that were ignorant and savage, to a civilized way of Uv- 
ing; as being chamed to Caucasus^ because he diligently 
observed the courses of the stars upon Caucasus, a 
mountain in Scythia; and, as having stolen fire firom the 
gods, because he invented the method of striking fire 
from flint. And his brother Atlas, on account of his 
great skill in astronomy, is reported to have sustamed 
heaven on his shoulders: he gave name to Adas, a 
mountain of Mauretania. 

V, ; 4». Moses, the great grandson of Jacob, bom afaoat 

CANAAN. 50 years after the death of Joseph, and 1571 before 

^' Christ, was brought up by Pharaoh's daughter, and 


weU kistructed ia the Egyptian learning. At eighty 
yearft of age, admonished of God, and assisted by his 
brother Aaron, he attempts to deliver the nation of the 
Israelites from the slavery of the Egyptians. In fine, 
having struck a mighty terror into Pharaoh, by many 
very great miracles he brings forth the Israeli ted, loaded 
with the spoils of the Egyptians, in the year of the 
flood 8sr, and before Christ i49l» 

5* The Red sea being divided, the Israelites passr 
over into the deserts of Arabia: provisions were iur- 
nished to them tn a miraculoas manner ; water gushed 
out of the rocks, and manna descended from heaven* 
At mount Sinai, the law was given to them by Moses, 
their sa<;:nfices and ceremoni^ instituted, and Aaron 
consecTated high priest. After this, in the 40th year* 
of their journeying, their number bein^ taken at Jor- 
dan, the sum of those that were able to bear arms, was 
fibove 600 thousand ; among whom there was not Qne 
of those who had come but of Egypt, except Joshua 
ftnd Caleti : for Moses, alter "^ having taken a prospect 
of the promised settU'inents from mount Pisgah, died; 
Joshua being appointed his auooessor* 

6. Much about the satnetime that Mos#ti delivered yj. 
to the Hebrews their religioas ceremonies, Cecrops <>U£KC£. 
too, founder of Athens, introduced images and aacri- . *^- 
fices into Greece. In tlie reigpti of Ceorops flourished 
Mercury, the grandson of Atlas, the son of Jupiter 
and Maia, and the author of eloquence and many other 
discoveries. Deucalion, upon Thessaiy's being over- 
iBoWed by an inundation, saved several persons on the 
topa of Parnassus, where he reigned ; and, by means 
of his wife pyrrha, brought them over from a ssrvagc 
and rustic life, toaahuinane and civilized behaviour. 
ileooe rise was given to a number of fables. 

7* At the same time, as if the fire had conspired y** 

with the water for the destruction of men, a mighty n aly. 
conflsigtation, in the timt of 'Phaeton's reign brok<* out 1. 
in.' £|jair)s'tiear the. river Po; which proved no small mat- 



ter of fiction to the luxuriant fancy of the poets. Oe- 
notrus too, the son of Lycaon, having brought over a 
colony of Arcadians into Italy, settled near the Tus- 
can sea, and, dispossessing the native Umbrians, peo- 
pled Italy. These, called at first Aborigines, from 
their uncertain extraction, afterwards Italians, from 
their king Atalus, gave name to the country of Italy. 


From the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt to 
the destruction of Troy f 1184 before Christ; contain' 
ing 307 ye&rs* 

' ^ ' . * 

V. !• JOSHUA having miraculously dried up the river 

CANAAN. Jordan, brought over the Israelites. After . this he 
^* overturns the walls of tlte city Jericho, by the ark of 
the covenant carried seven times round it, by the sound 
of trumpets, and the shouts of his army. He utterly 
destroys the Amorites,the sun and moon standing still 
at his coiilnand for the s]Sace of one day, as specta- 
tors of the victory. At last, after conquering thirty 
kings, and all the nations of Palestine, he settled the 
Israelites in the country promised to their sincestors, 
in the year of the creation 2560, and before Christ 

VI. 2. About the same time Danaus, causing his fifty 

GRBfiCE. to be murdered by his daughters, of whom 
there was the like number, makes himself master of 
the kingdom of Egypt. But being' deposed 1by Linus, 
his son-in-law, he seizes upon Argos. Orcus, king of 
the Molossi, carries off Proserpina, the daughter of 
Ceres, out of Sicily. Europa, ravished by Jupiter, 
^ brought forth Minos and Rhkdamanthus, and gave 

name t6 the third part of the earth; a large field for 
fable to the poets. Much about this time flo^ristied 


the court of the Areopagites at Athens. Upon the 
Nile too, Busiris, the son of Neptune and Libya, 
violating the most sacred laws of hospitality, is said to ' 

have exefcised violence upon his Quests. About the y 
same time the Israelites were treated' in a way not CANAAN, 
moch kinder by the king of Mesopotamia; but judges, 5. 
by the divine favour, were raised up from time to time 
for their relief. 

3. Othoniel, the firfet of the Hebrew judges, delivers 
his people, by slaying the king of Mesopotamia, in the 
year before Christ 1405. Othoniel's successor was 
Ehud, who killed Eglon, king of the Moabites. Ehud 
was succeeded by Deborah, a woman of more than 
masculine courage. She attended Barak, general of 
the army to the war, and obtained a signal victory over 
the enemy. Jael, a woman too, had a hand in this 
victory. She completed the enemy's overthrow, by the 
slaughter of their general Sisera, in the year before 
Christ 1235. 

4. Whilst in Palestine even women make a figure in Ji/i>6dfa#- 
the achievements of war, in other nations rnen became *^°^" ' 
illustrious generally for the arts of peace. In Egypt, 
Trismegistus, the grandson of Mercury, excelled in 
reputation for learning. Janus reigned in Latium. 
Cadmus, the brother of Europa, brought over letters 

from Phoenicia into Greece, and built Thebes in Boeotia. 
Rhadamanthus reigned in Lycia, an(j[ Minos in Crete, 
with the highest characters of strict impartiality. Acri- 
sius, king of the Argives, instituted or new- modelled 
the Amphictyoncs, the most august council of Greece; 
he erected the temple and oracle of Apollo at 

5. In the mean time .Aniphion, cotcmporary with 
Linus, expelling Cadmus, and building the citadel of 
Thebes, occasioned abundant matter of fiction to the 
poets; Liber, or Bacchus, built the city Nysa,,near 
the river Indus. He conquered India with an army of 
Bacchse. Perseus, the son of Jupiter and Danse, took 



off the head of Gorgon, a courtezan of exquisite beautjr. 
Pelops too, the son of Tantalus, by his planting a col- 
ony, gave name to Peloponnesus. His sister Niobe, 
stupified with grief for the toss of her children, gave 
rise to the fable of the poets. Dardanus, the son of 
Jupiter, and son-in-law of Teucer, gave name to the 
country of Dardania; which was afterwards called 
Troas, from Tros his son and successor. 

VII. 6. In Latium, Janus was succeeded by Saturn; 
ITALY, under whose reign, they tejl you, a^l things were com« 
mon, and all men free. Hence it was called the golden 
age« The same Saturn taught men to till the ground* 
to build houses, to plant vines, and gather in the 
fruits. Meanwhile the Pelasgi, seizing upon the sea 
coast of Italy, which is next to Sicily, introduced learn- 
ing into Italy. From them the country was named 
Great Greece. Siculus, the son of Italus, being •driven 
out of Italy by the Pelasgi, passed over into the next 
island, which the Cyclopes had anciently possessed, 
and the Sicani then inhabited: and the island was 
called Sicily, from king Siculus. After Saturn, Picus, 
after Picus, Faunus, the fourth from Janus, held the 
kingdom* The wife of Faunus, who was also the 
mother of king LatinUs, is said to have invented the 
I^atin characters. 

V. 7* Gideon, the fourth judge of the Hebrews, about 

CANAAN, the year of the world 2759, and before Christ 1245^^er. 
formed an exploit that deserves to be celebrated in the 
annals of all nations. By the direction of God, he se- 
lected 300 men out of all his a^my. These he arms 
with trumpets and lamps. Then he orders the pitch- 
ers, in which the lamps were concealed, to be dashed 
together, and all the trumpets to be blown at the same 
instant. This unusual way of fighting wrought such 
confusion in the camp of the. Midi anites^ that they 
slaughtered one another with mutual havock. Abim- 
elech, Gideon's son, was unlike his father ; he usurped 
the sovereignty, after he had put to death his brothers, 
in number 70. But within three years, he was slain 


by a woman with a piece of a mittstone, as he was set* 
ting fire to the tower of Thebes^ 

8. Toward ;the latter end of Gideon's age appeared 
the Grecian heroes, furnishing ample subject for fabu- QgRgr 
lous stories. Hercules, Orpheus, Castor, Pollu^^, and 5^ 
the other Argonauts, having built the ship Argo, sail- 
ed from Thtssaly to Troas, and thence to Colchis, un- 
der the conduct of Jason. Whilst they were at Troy, 
Hercules delivered Hesione, the daughter of Laome- 
don, the son of Ilus, and king of Troy, from a sea- 
monster, to which she had been exposed. Her father 
promised him the young lady, with some fleet horses, 
as the reward of his hazardous enterprise. Being ar- 
rived at Colchis, they soothed the fierce and savage 
guards by means of Medea, the king's daughter ; 
brought off the treasures which had been carried thi- 
ther by Phryxus out of Thessaly, called the golden 
fleece. In their return they killed Laomedon, for re« 
fusing the stipulated reward, and gave the kiiigdom to 
his son Priam^ This expedition happened about 1280 
years before Christ. 

0. About the same time iEgeus, king of the Athe- 
nians, and the father of Theseus, had invidttously slain 
Androgeos, the son of Minos, king of Crete. For 
which reason the Athenians were ordered to send an- 
nually into Crete seven young men, and as many girls, devoured by the Minotaur. In the number of 
these went Theseus, who by the assistance of Daedalus 
Jttid Ariadne, Minos^s daughter, slew the Minotaur, 
and delivered his country. Minos vfhh a fleet pursu- 
ing Dsedalus in his flight, was killed in the bath by 
king Cocalus in Sicily. After this Theseus encounter- 
ed the Centaurs, or Thessalian horsemen, ^ith good 
succeiss, and associated himself with Hercules. 

10. The Amazons too, who were women, natives of ScythUm 
Scythia, having lost their husbands in war, took ^p*^*^^^^' 
atrms, assuming at the same time a masculine intrepi- 
dity; possessed themselves of the Lesser Asia^ ^d built 




Ephesus. Hercules and Theseus made war upon them, 
and conquered them, oiore to the glory of the van- 
quished than their own ; for though women, they had 
valiantly coped with such heroes, and when taken pri- 
soners, made their escape by killing the guards. Her- 
cules is further reported to have instituted the Olympic, 
and Theseus the Isthmian games. 

11. Much about this time, Greece exhibited scenes 
of an horrible and tragical nature* Atreus and Thyes- 
tes the sons of Pelops, vented their mutual resentment 
in a more hostile way than became brothers. For Thy- 
estes committed a rape on his brother's wife ; Atreus, 
on his part, caused Thyestes's sons to be served up to 
him at a banquet. Oedipus having been exposed by his 
father Laius, slew him afterwards in a squabble, with- 
out knowing him to be his father ; and restored the 
country about Thebes to a perfect tranquillity, by kil- 
ling the Sphinx, an artful mischievous woman. Hav- 
ing thus procured himself his father's ^kingdom, he 
unwittingly married his mother , Jocasta. However 
being informed of the whole matter by Teresius, the 
seer, he plucked out his own eyes^ and left the kingdom 
to hi5 sons Polynices and Eteocles. But Polynices 
being qukkly expelled the kingdom by his brother, fled 
to Adrastus king of the Arglves. Supported by him, 
he made war upon his brother, attended by the pro- 
phetic Amphiaraus, who having fceen betrayed by his 
wife Eriphyla, gave orders to his son Alcmeon to as- 
iiassinate his mother ; in this mo^e wicked than his 
» wife, that he made a son the murderer of his parent. 

During that war, Amphiaraus was swallowed up, by an 
earthquake. Polynices and his brother fell by mutual 

y. 12. Jeptha, the seventh judge of the Hebrews, was 

CANAAN, somewhat later than- Hercules. As he was about to 
7» join battle with the enemy, hp vowed, that if he over- 
came, he would consecrate to God whatever he should 
meet first at his return. He engaged the enemy, and 
gained the victory: his daughter, the only child he had, 



met hiin first of all in bis return home, and converted 
the glory of the victory into mourning, about the year 
before Christ 1188. 


13. About the same" time a much greater disaster VIII. 
befel Priam king of Troy, who refusing to restore He- TUOY. 
len, the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, that had 
been carried off by his son Paris, called also Alexan- 
der, w^s stripped of his kingdom, children, and life, 
by the Greeks, after a. siege often years. Troy was 
destroyed 2820 years after the creation of the world, 
436 before the building of Rome, and before the birth 
of Christ, 1184. 


From the destruction of Troy to the Jini^hing and ' 
dedication of the temple at Jerusalem by Solomon^ 
1021 before Christ; including 163 years. 

1. iENE AS, flying from Troy, came into Italy. VII. 
There he^ contracted an alliance and affinity with La- I'i'ALY. 
tinus, king of the Latins: from his wife's name, he 
called the town biiilt by him Lavinium. He routed 

in battle and put to flight Tufnus, king of the Rutuli. 
After that, he greatly weakened the power of the He- 
trusci; and Latinus dying in battle, he himself reaped 
all the benefit of the victory. In order to strengthen his 
interest, the name and laws of the Latins, were by him 
imposed on the Trojans: he himself was called king of 
the Latins. After this iEneas fell in battle, fighting 
against Mezentius, king of the Hetrusci, four years 
after the death of his father-in-law Latinus. 

2. Sampson was cotemporary with iEneas. He V. 
killed a lion without any weapon ; checked the pride CANAAN. 
of the Philistines, and made a dreadful havoc of his 8. 


enemies with the jaw-bone of an ass* Having lost his 
strength together with his hair, he fell into the hands 
of his enemies, by the treachery of a woman, whom he 
- passionately loved. To them, after they had put out 
his eyes, he served long for an object of derision. At 
length, having recovered his strength with his hair, he 
endeavoured to put an honourable period to his igno- 
minious servitude. Ilie pillars of the house whereip 
the Philistines beheld hun, making sport, he overset; 
the Philistines who were present, and Sampson him- 
self, were crushed to death by the fall of the building, 
in the year before Christ 1117. 

VII. 3. Ascanius, iEneas's son, resigning Lavinium to 

ITALY, jjig mother-in-law, founded Alba Longa. After this 
the sovereignty was conferred by the people on Syl- 
vius, a son of iEneas, bom after his death. The 
priesthood was given to Julus, the son of Ascanius, 
which the Julian family, originally sprung from Julus, 
enjoyed hereditary ever after. After Sylvias, thirteen 
kings reigned in Alba Longa, for near 400 years ; of 
whom iEneas Sylvius swayed the sceptre 31 years. 
Latinos 51) Alba 39, Sylvius Atys, or Capetus I. 26y 
Capys 28, Capetus II. 13, TiberinUs 8,- Agrippa 24, 
Romolus Sylvius, or Allaclius'19, Aventinus 37, Pro- 
cas 23, Amulius 42 ; whose brother Numitor was the 
last king of Alba. 

V. 4. Samuel, the kst judge of the Hebrews, by God's 

CANAAN, direction, anoints Saul king, as he was in quest of his 

^* father's asses, seven years before jEneas Sylvius began 

his reign in Latium. The Hebrew state was managed 

by judges about 400 years. 

VI, 5. The HeracUdae, viz. the posterfty of Hercules, 

GREECE, who long harassed by Euristheus, king of Mycenae, 
^- had lived in exile with Ce jx in Thrace, and afterwards 
with Theseus king of Athens; at length, about 80 years 
after the destruction of Troy, returned to Pelopon- 
nesus, and there setded. 


View of ANcnsNT hiStory. 19 

6. Saul, the fim king Off the Israelites, came to the y. 
throne about the year of the world 2909, and before CANAAN. 
Christ 1095. At first he behaved well, but afterwards 10. 
offended heinously. Hereupon he was rejected by 

God, and David cho&en in his room, who, having pre- 
viously slain Goliah, a gigantic Philistine, was advanc- 
ed to be the king's son-in-law. Saul fell in battle, 
fighting against the Philistines, in the twentieth year 
of his reign* David, after lamenting the death of his 
father-in-law, mounted the throne, in the reign of La- 
tinus Sylvius, the son of iEiieas Sylvius, king of the 

7. King David, a man of singular piety towards 
God, was ever victorious over his foes. He was de- 
throned hy his soti Absalom; but having defeated 
Absalom in battle, he recovered his kingdom. David 
reigned 40 years. 

8* Almost at the s^ame time that Absalom suffered yj^ 
the punishment of his unnatural behaviour to his fa- GRb£C£. 
ther, Codrus, the son of Melanthus, and the last king 7* 
of Athens, gained the character of a most extraordi- 
nary affection for his country. In the Dorian or Pe- 
loponnesian war, being informed by the oracle that the 
enemy would prove victorious, unless the king of the 
Athenians was killed, he devoted his life for the safety 
of his country. Having disguised himself in the habit 
of a peasant, he wounded a common soldier of the 
Dorians^ in a .quarrel, and being slain by him as he 
wished, saved his country from the blockade of the '" 
enemy— in ^ac^, rather than in name, the father of his 
country. Upon his death the gov^ernment of Athens 
devolved on magistrates, who were called Archons. 
The first of them was Medon, the son of Codrus. 

9. Solomon, the third king of the Hebrews, reigned V. 
also 40 years. He built and dedicated the temple de- CANAAN, 
signed by his father David, in the most magnificent * 
manner, about the year of the world 2983, and before 
tlv^ t»irth of Christ 1021, in the reign of Alba Sylvius, 


king of the Latins* Solomon, the wisest of all men, 
in his old age was seduced by his wives into' the wor- 
ship of Heathen deities. Homer was something older 
than Solomon, if he lived, as Herodotus says, 168 
years after the Trojan war. 


From the dedication of the Temple to the building of 
Rome^ 748 before Christ; comprehending 273 years. 

1. REHOBOAM, Solomon's son, by his folly com- 
pleted the ruin of the empire, already tottering by his 

JDmV/«//n/o father's misconduct. Thus out of one were two king- 
iHraeL "" doms formed; the one was called the kingdom of Ju- 
dah or Jerusalem; the other that of Isr^^l or Samaria. 
The tribe of Judah and Benjamin were subject to Re- 
hoboamf and the other successive descendants of Da- 
vid ; the other ten tribes, being seduced and corrupted 
by Jeroboam their first king, bad princes of very dif- 
ferent families. The kings of Samaria were all impious 
to a mau, and worshippers of idols: the kings of Jeru- 
salem otherwise. And these |:wo kingdoms contepded 
with one another in almost continual wars. In the 
fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Jerusalem was besieg- 
ed by Shishak, king of Egypt. He carried away alL 
the sacred furniture of the temple. Rehoboam dying 
i» the l7th year of his reign, leaves his kingdom to his 
son Abija, Sylvius Atys being then king of the Latins. 

2. In the third year of Abijah's reign, Asa -his son 
succeeded him, a king of eminent pi^ty, who swayed 

'/m/v,i»ar!^ the sceptre 41 years^ In his reign Capys ruled in La- 
aUet^. tium; and Omri,king of Israel, built the royal city of 

3. Jehosaphat, the son of Asa, proved a second 
Dalvid for piety. He held the government 25 years. 
In his reign lived Ahab king of Samaria, and the holy 


prophet Elijah thie Tishbite. Much about the same 
time Tiberinus too, the son of Capetus, the ninth king 
of the Albans after Ascanius^ being drowned in hu 
passage over the Albula, gave name to that river* 

4. Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat, and son-in-lavr 
of king Ahabv followed the impious example of his 
father-in-law. Ae possessed the throne eight years* 
His son Ahaziah reigned oqly one year; Agrippa 
being, then king of the Latins. 

5. Joa$h) the son of Ahaziah, the tenth king of the 
Jews after David, reigned 40 years. In his reiga 
Romulus Sylvius, king of the Albans, was burnt up by 
lightning. After him Aventinus got the kingdom^ who 
gave name to the hill on which he was buried* 

6. Amaziah, the son of Joash, governed 29 years* 

In hisv reign, as £usebius relates,. flourished Lycurgus, yj 
the famous lawgiver of Sparta, who spontaneously re* grebcb. 
signed the crown of Lacedemon, le/t him by his bro- 8* 
thtT, to Charilaus, his brother's son, born after his fa- 
ther's death* He divided the land of Laqonia to each 
man c qually; abolished the use of gold and silver; and 
enjoiiK'd all people to eat in public* Then he bound 
his counirymt^n by an oath, that they should not make, 
any alteration of his laws, till he should return from 
consulting the Oracle at Delphos. He died in Crete, 
in voluntary exile, ahoiit the time of the death of Am- 
aziah, king of the Jews. Uzziah, who is also called 
Azariah, was the son and successor of Amaziah. He 
reigned 52 years* 

7* Elisa, who. is also called Dido, abhoring her bro- j«^ 
ther Pygmalion, the murderer of her husband Sichseus, CAR- 
privately put on board all her husband's wealth, and THAGU. 
sailed from Tyre. Landing on the coast of Libya, she ** 
built a city, which was first called Byrsa, and after- 
wards Carthage* Carthage was founded about 143 
years before the building of Rome, and before the birth 
•f Christ 890. About the same time Bocchoms, or 


Bocchorides, king of Eg>'pt, settled the laws and is* 
stitutions oi the figyptianB. 

VI. 8. About the same time, that is, 409 years after the 
OHBKCE. dj.3j^^ction of Troy, and 27 before the building of 

Rome, the Olvmpic games were revived by Iphitus; 
for tht> had been instituted before by Hercules, as^as 
related above. The Olympic games were so called 
iVom Olympia, a city of EHs in Peloponnesus,. near 
which they were celebrated ever}' 4th year, by a great 
concourse of people from all Greece and other nations. 
From this period the Greeks began to use the Olym- 
piads for the distinction of times. Before that epoch 
Anthtntie fiction prevailed. From it the true history of the 
]^^^j;'^*^*™" Greeks takes its rise. In the beginning of the first 
Olympiad; if we believe Herodotus, died Hesiod, about 
140 j-ears later than Homer. 

mixettae- 9* Jotham, Uzziah's son, and father of Ahaz, a 

''^'"*** pious man, and beloved of God, governed 16 years. 
In his reign Theopompus, king of the Laced emoniana, 
in order to render the sovereign authority more staple, 
by sharing the power with the people, created five 
Ephori, X30 years after Lycurgus. These magistrates 
very much resembled the tribunes of the people among 
the Romans. 

VII. 10. In Latium, Amulius having deposed his elder 
flALY. brother Numitor, usurped the crown. Romulus and 

^* Remus, the sons of Rhea Sylvia, or Ilia, Numttor's 
daughter, having been exposed by Amulius, were edu- 
cated by Faustulus, the king's shepherd. When they 
came to ag<?, they knew their grandfather Numitor, . 
and having slain Amulius, replaced him on his throne. 
they themselves having got together a body of shep- 
herds, founded on mount Palatine the city of Rome, 
for which was destined the empire of the world. 
Rome was built in the third year of the seventh Olym- 
piad, 436 years after the destruction of Ti-oy, in the year 
of the world 3256, of the flOod 1600, and before the 
%irth of Christ 748. 



Fromthe building of Rome to the liberation of the yews 
from the Babylonish captivity by Cyrus^ 5 34 btfore 
Christy in the first year of the Persian empire; con* 
taining' 214 years* 

1. ROMULUS 18 commonly reported to have kil- 
,led his brother Remus, lor having contemptuouiily leap* 

ed over^ his new walls. Thus he became sole monarch* 
Jie took numbers of his neighbours into his city. Ke 
chose an hundred senators, whp, from their age, were 
called Fathers, and their children Patricii. I'hen, as 
he and his people had no wives, he invited the neigh-^ 
bouring nations to the sight of ga^ies^and seized their 
young women. Whereupon the adjacent nations made 
war upon the Romans. Romulus, having routed the 
Csentenses, and slain their king Acron with his own 
.handi presented the spoha opima to Jupiter Feretrius^ 
/to whom he then dedicated a temple^ He triumphed 
.QVcr the Antemnates, the Crustuminians,^ the Fide* 
nates, and Veieiites. Upon seeing his army like to 
be worsted by Tatius, king of the Sabines, he vowed 
a temple in the Forum to Jupiter Stator. The action 
being renewed, the Sabine women, throwing them- 
selves into the battle, put an end to the war by their 
entreaties. An alliance is made up between the gen- 
erals, and the Sabines remove to Rome. At. last Ro- 
mulus, a sudden tempest arising as he reviewed his 
army at the lake pf Caprea, entirely disappeared* He 
was supposed to have gone to the gods. He reigned 
37 years. 

2. Nineveh, as formerly observed was founded by IL 
Ashur, some time after BabyloiV had been built by ASbYRlifr. 
Nimrod; but continued for many ages a private royalty: ^* 
for Pul, also called Ninus, one of the kings of Nine- 
veh^ and probably also king of Babylon, seems to have 
founded the Assyrian empire. He makes his first ap- 


pearance in Scripture, in the beginning of the reign of 
Menahem, king of Israel, and 771 years before the 
birth of Christ.* This empire lasted about 170 years* 
The chief of its monarchs were, lst« Pul, supposed to 
be the same with Belus* He reigned upwards of 24 
years. 2d. Tiglathpileser, who is supposed to be the 
same with Ninus, and who subdued Damascus, and 
put an end to the ancient kingdom of Syria, reigned 
about 19 years. 3d. Shalmaneser, who besieged and 
sacked Samaria, reigned 12 years. 4th. Sennach- 
erib, whose army, whilst he attempted to besiege Je- 
rusalem, was smitten by an angel, reigned 6 years. 5th* 
**- Esarhaddon, who carried Manasseh, king of Judah, cap- 

tive to Babylon^ and conquered £gypt and Ethiopia, 
reigned 42 years. 6th. Saosduchinus, in Scripture 
called Nebuchadonosor, who conquered Phraortes, king 
of the Medes, levelled Ecbatan with the ground, and, 
returning to Nineveh, feasted 120 days, reigned 29 
years. 7th. Chynulydad, supposed to be the same with 
Sardanapalus, reigned 22 years. • This prince, the 
Medes having made war upon hini, and the Babylo- 
nians having revolted from him, set fire to his palace, 
and was consumed with all his wealth in the James. 
The Assyrian empire subsisted several years after his 
Empire sab- death; but was in the end overturned . by the Medes 
veited. and Babylonians, lin the year before Christ 601. Thus 
two empires arose out of that of the Assyrians, namely, 
f the Babylonian and Median. 

X. 3. From the time of Nimrod to that of Pul,agreat 

BABYLON. Q^any petty princes reigned in Babylon- Nineveh too, 
and Babylon seem to have been often governed by the 
same king. But, in the 24th year of the- reign of Paly 
and 747 years before Christ, these became two distinct 
kingdoms. Nabonassar, who gives name to the famoui 
sera, and who seems to have been a younger son of 
Pul, gets the kingdom of Babylon, whilst his elder 

• THw account of Assyria, remounts, for the sake of continuity, aboot 
20 years higher than the building of ROttie; the period plescribed at U>e 
head of the ehapler. 


brother Tiglathpilcser obtains the sceptre at Nineveh. 
During the flourishing state of the Assyrian monarchy, 
the kings of Babyton s^em to have been only viceroys, 
or lord-lieutenants to those of Nineveh; but afterwards 
Babylon rose^ upon its ruins, and became a great em- 
pire, which, computing from Nabonassar, lasted 209 
years ; viz. Nabonassar, called also Belesis and Na- 
nybrus, reigned 14 ye^s. Nadius 2. Chinzirus and 
Porus jointly 5. Jugseus 6* Mardoc Empadus, in 
Scripture called Merodachbaladan, who sent an em- 
bassy to Hezekiah, king of Judah, to inquire about the 
sun's retrogression, reigned 12 years. Arkianus 5. 
An interreign of two years Balibus 3. A- 
pronadius 6. Mesessimordacus 4. Then an inter- 
reign of eight years. Assaradinus, or Esarhaddon, 
who, with his two successors, were also kings of As- 
syria, reigned 13 years. Ss^osduchinus 20. Chynaly- 
dan, called also Sarac, 22. Nabopallasar, who revolted 
from Ch)n[ialydan, and transferred the seat of the em- 
pire from Nineveh to Babylon, reigned 21 years. He, 
joinmg his force with those of Cyaxares, king of the 
Medes, reduced Nineveh to a low condition, but did 
not live to see its final destruction, having been divert- 
ed from this war by an irruption of the Scythians, who 
at that time overran a great part of Asia. Naboco- 
lassar, or Nebuchadnezzar, who in a most magnificent 
manner adorned the city Babylon, and raised the em- 
pire to its highest pitch of glory, and was himself after- 
wards, by the decree of heaveii, driven from the society 
of men to dwell with the beasts of the field, reigned 43 
years, ^vilmerodach reigned 2 years. Neriglajssar 
4. Nabonadius, Labynitus, or Belshazzar 17; in 
whose time the city of Babylon was taken by Cyrus, 
and the empire overturped, in the year before 
Christ 53p. ^ 

4. The Medea, having -thrown off the Assyrian IV. 
yoke in the reign of Sennacherib, lived some time MEDIA, 
without a king; hut intestine disorders arising, De- ^* 
joces, one of their own number, called Arphaxad in 
the book of Judith, was chojsen king in the year before 

^ VIEW OF AKonanr ristoht. 

Christ no. In his latter days hie made war upon Sa» 
osduchiDUs, king of Ae Assyrians; but bis army was 
defeated in a battle 'foufl;ht in the great plain of Ra- 
gau, himself slain<» and his capital, ficbatan. destroyed, 
after a reign of 5S years. His son Phraortes subdued 
a great part of the Upper Asia, invaded Assyria, and 
laid siege to Nineveh ; where he perished, with the 
greater pait of his armVy after having reigned 22 years. 
His son, Cyaxares L by a stratagem relieved his 
country from the* Scythians. He engaged in war with 
the Lydians ; but a total eclipse of the sun, said to 
havr been foretold by Thales the Milesian, happening 
in the time of battle, both armies retreated, and a 
peace was concluded. He afterwards, in conjuncttoa 
with Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, invested Ni- 
ntveh, and razed it to the ground, in the year before 
Christ 601. This confederate army soon after over- 
ran and conquered Egypt, Judea, Syria, Armenia, 
Pontus, Cappadocia, and Persia. Cyaxares reigned 40 
years. His son Astyages, called Ahasuer^s in the 
book of Daniel, repulsed the Babylonians, who, under 
the conduct of Evilmerodach, h^td nutde an irruption 
into Media. He reigned 35 years. His son, Cyaxares 
II. called in Scripture Darius the Mede, reigned 23 
years. He had a bloody war with the kings of Baby- 
lon, and their ally Croesus, king of Lydia,for the space 
of 21 years. In this war he was assisted by Cyrus, 
his nephew, who at last took Babylon, and placed his 
uncle on the throne; where he reigned two years. 
Upon his death, Cyrus transferred the seat of empire 
from the Babylonians and Med^s to the Persians, in 
the year before Christ 536. 

III. 5. Twenty-five years after the building of Rome, 

I So, or Sabacus, the Ethiopian, began to reign in Egypt; 

whose successors, for about 200 years, were Anysis, 

Sethon, 12 kings jointly, P^ammitichus, Necho, Psam- 

mis, Apries, Amasis, and Psamminitus. 

^ 6. Twenty-seven years after the building of RoiWf 

j2^ * and 721 before Christ, Samaria, or Israel was taken 

Israel, and destroyed by Salmaneser^ king of the Assyrians. 




The ten tribes, with their king Hoshea^ were carried 
away into Assyria* Tobias was one of the captives, 
whose piety preserved him his liberty in the midst of 
servitude*. Hezekiah, the son of king Ahaz, a man 
of eminent piety, was then king of Jerusalem. At this 
time, too, lived.the prophet Isaiah. 

7. N4ima PompiUus^ the second king of the Romans, yn. 
i tras called to the throne from Gures^ a town' of the Sa- ITALY. 
\ bines, on account of his renowned wisdc^m. He soft- ^* 
I ened the martial fierceness of Rome by religion. He^ 
i instituted pT4est8 and sacred rites, pretending inter* 
couree with ^ the goddess Egeria in the night. Then 
I he built the temple of Janus, and shut its gates, which 
' vas the sign of peace. He completed the yezx by the 
I addition of two months; and, instead of March, ap« 
. pointed January to be the beginning ol the year. He 
! reigned 43 years. 


8, TManasseh, the son of Hezekiah, reigned then in V. 
Judea. At the same time lived Judith, by whom Ho- CANAAN, 
lof ernes, general of Saosduchinus, king of the Assy- 
rians, was slain ; Gyges too, who is said to have been 
the intimate favourite of Candaules, king of the Ly- 
d >ns, was forced by him to view the beauty of 
his queen when naked; after which Gyges, at the 
queen's desire, murdered Candaulee, and seized upon 
die kingdom. 

9. After Numa, TuUus Hostilius being created king VII. 
of Rome, made war upon the Albans^ The dispute ^'^^'-Y. 
being referred to three Horatii on the side of the Ro- 
mans, and as many Guriatii on that of the Albans, vic- 
tory declared for the Romans. The Albans afterwards 
rebelling, Tullus, after demolishing Alba, ordered them 
to remove to Rome. Rome being increased by the 
ruins of Alba, mount Cselius was added to the city, 
Tullus was thunderstruck, and, burnt up with all his 
house, after he had reigned Si years. In the menn time 
Ammon, Manasseh's son, and king of Jerusitlcm, waa Judah, 
Sissassinated by his servants* « 


10* After TuUus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, the 
graodson of Numa by a daughter, took upon him the 
governmeQt. He proclaimed war by his heralds against 
the Latins, and vanquished them. He took a great 
many of them afterwards into the city. He united the 
Aventioe mount to the city, and likewise the Janicu- 
lum, by throwing a Wooden bridge over the river. He 
extended the Roman dominion quite to the sea, and 
built the city Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. He 
died of a distemper in the 24th year of his reign. A 
Judah. f<cw years after, Josiah, Hczekiah's grandson, fell ia 
battle, fighting against Nccho, king oi £gypt. The 
prophet Jeremiah and all the people lamented him. 

11. The fifth king of Rome was Tarquinus Priscus, 
the son of Demaratus of Corinth. He doubled the 
number of the senators, built the circus, and instituted 
the Circensiau games. He auhdued the twelve nations 
of Tuscany, and borrowed from them the^ ensigns of 
supreme power, the fasces, the trabeas, the curule 
chairs, the pretexta, and other things of that kind. 
He was slain by the sons of Ancus, in the 37th year 
of his reign. 

yj^ 12. Draco, who was Archon at Athens, in the year 

GRii^ECE. before Christ 623, laid the Athenians under the most 
10. cruel laws, by which the smallest offences and the great- 
est crimes were equally punished with deatfar. For 
which he himself assigned this reason : small faults 
seem to me worthy of death, and for flagrant and great 
offences I can find no higher punishment. But these 
laws did not long please the Athenians. Demades was 
wont to say that Draco's laws were not written with 
ink, but blood. - 

V. 13. In Judea, after the death of Josiah, his ^son en- 

^^^^^^' j^y^^ ^^^ crown three months, and his brother a few 

years. Josiah's brother was succeeded by Zedekiah 

the last king of the Jews, who was reduced to slavery 

by Nebuchadnezzari king of Babylon; Jerusalem also,. 




and the Temple, were burnt, and the citizens carried 
away into Babylon, in the year before the birth of 
Christ 588. 

14. Whilst Palestine and Syria were laid waste by VI. 
the arms of Barbarians, Greece was improved by the GREECB* 
institutions of itsr wise men. The seven wise men of 
Greece flourished at the same time. Solon, one of 

their number, having abolished Draco's laws, enacted 
new ones, more proper for the Athenians. 

15. Servius TulKus, the sixth king of the Romans, VII. 
having conquered the Hetrusci and Veientes, institu- H'ALT. 
ted the Census. He divided the people into classes ^* 
and centuries; added to the city the Quirinal, Vimtnal, 

and Esquiline hills. He was murdered in the 44th 
year of his reign, by the villany of his son-in-law Tar- 
quin the proud. 

16. About this period lived a set of the most sav- J^i^edM- 
age tyrants in different parts of the world ; Periander 

at Corinth, Ptsistratus at Athens, Thrasybulus at Mi^ 
letus, Polycrates in the island Samos, and Phalaris in 
Sicily. The same age was very productive of wise 
men: then flourished ifisopthe famous writer of fables, 
and Pythagoras in Italy, who first called himself a 
philosopher. In Greece the poets Alco&us, Stesicho- 
rus, Sappho, Simonides, Anacreon, and Pindar, were 
greatly renowned. 


17. Towards^ the latter end of Servius TuUius's XI. 
time flourished Cyrus the Persian. He was the son PERSIA 
of Cambyses, either king of Persia, or a man of the 
first rank in that country; and of Mandane, the daugh* 
ter of Astyages, king of the Medes. Herodotus in- 
deed says, that his father was a mean man; and that 
Cyrus, on account of a dream had been exposed in his 
infancy by order of his grandfather. But greater cre- 
dit is due to Xenophon. Cyrus, in the fortieth year 
of his age, was called from Persia to assist his uncle 
Cyazares, king of the Medes, in his war against the 




Babylonians, and their ally Crcesus, Icing of Lydi?* 
This war lasted 21 years. Cyrus commanded the 
UDitrd army of Medes and Persians; and from this 
perio'' h storians compute the beginning of his reign. 
Cyrus's (onrlurt in this war was glorious, and his suc- 
cess wonderful. He vanquished CroKus, and took 
the royal city of Sardis; after this he subdued all the 
continent from the iEgt-an sea to the Euphrates. He 
reduced the strong city of Babylon, and delivering the 
government of that kingdom to his uncle Cyaxares, 
cailfd also Darius the Mede, he returned into Persia. 
A'<»ut two years after, Cyaxares dying, as also Cam- 
b> ses king of Persia, Cyrus took upon himself the gov- 
ernment of the whole empire ; which he held for the 
space of seven years. In the first of these seven years, 
and before Christ 534, he issued out his decree for re- 
storing the Jews to their country. In the reign of 
C\rus lived the prophet Daniel, whom that monarch 
esteemed with an affectionate regard. 

t8. A few years after, as Herodotus relates, Cyrua 
made war upon the Scythians, and cut off the son of 
their queen Tomyris with his army. But the advan- 
tages of the victory proved delusive and of short da- 
ration. For, flushed with his success, he march- 
ed out into a place of disadvantage, where he was 
trepanned by the enemy, and cut to pieces with all his 
forces. But Xenophon says, Cyrus died at home, a 
natural death, in the 70th year of his age, and was 
buried at Pasargada in Persia, leaving his son Camby- 
ses heir to his empire; who, having conquered Psam- 
minitus, annexed Egypt to his father's realm. The 
Persian empire lasted 228 years. Cyrus reigned 30 
yearsj Cambyses 7 years; Darius Hysta^pes 36 years; 
Xt'fxes 2il years; Artaxerxes Longimanus, called 
Ahasuerus in the Scriptures, and who had Esther for 
his queen, 41 years; Darius Nothus 19; Axtaxerxes 
Mnemon4di Ochus2i; Arces^2| Darius Codomapus 6« 



From the liberation of the yews by Ct/tfis to the o^er* 
throw of the Persian empire by Alexander the Greaiy 
330 before Christ; including 204 years. 

1. TARQUINIUS Superbns, the seventh and la»t VII. 
of the Roman kings, derived his surname from his be- HALT. 
haviour. He slighted the authority of the senate in ^* 
the management of the government: he finished the 
temple of Jupiter, whi<:h had been begun by his fa- 
ther : he subdued the Vorlsci, and took Oabit by 

the artfui conduct of his son Sextus. He is said to 
have purchased the Sibylline book from the Cumean 
Sibyl* At last he was turned out o§ the ciiy, and 
his kingdom too, for a rape committed by his son 
upoti Lucretia, a woman of' quality, in the 23d year of 
his reign, in the 68th Ofympaid, and before Christ 50(5# 
The regal power endured at Rome, under seven kings, 
almost 242 years. 

2. After the expulsion <Jf the kings, two consul* 
were created annua:lly at Rome. Brutus and CoUa- 
tinus were the first consuls. Brutus, upon the dis* 
covery of a conspiracy agaipst the public liberty, pun- 
isht^d the conspirators, among whom were two of his 
own sons, with death. 

3. About the same time a Kke incident delivered the yj^ 
Athenians from tyranny, Hipparchus, the son of Pis- gukecE. 
istratus, bad debauched Harmodius's sister. Where- 1^* 
upon Harmodius slays the tyrant. Being forced with 
torture by Hippias, the tyrant's brother, to name those 

that were accessary to the murdtr, he named the ty-« 
rant's friends; wlio were all inimediately put to death. 
The citizens, roused by the magnanimity of Harmodius, 
hanished Hippias, and restored tht- mselves to liberty. 
I'hey erected a statue to Hurmodi us. 


•XL ^* Cambyses, king of the Persians, caused his bro- 

PERSIA, ther Smerdis to be assassinated, because he had dream- 
^* ed that he saw him on the throne. Cambyses died 
soon after, of a wound by his own sword dropping acci- 
dentally out of the sheath. Patizithes, one of the 
Magi, concealing the death of Smerdis, put up his own 
brodier Oropastes in his room, who, personating 
Smerdis, obtained the sovereignty. But the impos- 
ture being soon discovered, the pretended king, with 
his brother, w|8 taken off by the grandees of Persia. 

5. The grandees who had dispatched Oropastes, 
agreed among themselves to come to the palace before 
sunrise, and that he whose horse neighed first, should 
be king. The horse of Darius, the son of Hystaspes^ 
neighed first, and procured his owner the kingdom. 

6. Darius Hystaspes being thus created king of the 
Persians, granted leave to the Jews to finish the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem; the prophet Haggai at the same 
time encouraging them thereto. Babylon, which had 
revolted from the Persians, he recovered by the artifice 
of his friend Zopyrus. For he having cut off his nose 
and ears, made the Babylonians believe* he had fled 
over to them, on having been barbarously used by 
Darius. Accordingly he betrayed the city, with which 
they intrusted him, to Darius. 

VII. 7. Tarquinius Superbus being banished from Rome, 

ITALY, implored the assistance of Porsenna, king of the He- 
^^* trusci; who, waging war with the Romans, possessed 
himself of the Janiculum. Horatius Codes alone sus- 
tained the assaults of the enemy on the Sublician 
bridge for a considerable time, till the bridge was cut 
down behind him. Then he plunged into the Tiber^ 
and swam over safe to the Romans amidst the darts of 
the enemy. Claelia too, a Roman lady, one of the hos- 
tages, having eluded her keepers, swam over the Tiber, 
amidst the darts of the Hetrusci. Moreover, Mutius 
Scsevola, in order to deliver his country from the 
enemy's blockade, conveys himself into their camp, and 





instead of the king, by mistake kills his secretary. Be- 
ing carried before the king to be examined, he thrusts 
his right hand into the fire ; and at the same time de- 
clares to the. king, that 300 Romans had in like man- 
ner taken an oath to murder him. Whereupon Por- 
senna, making peace with the Romans, returned home. 

' 8* After this the Latins made war upon the Romans, 
under the conduct of Tarquin's son-in law ; against 
. whom Posthumius being made dictator, he vanquished 
them in a memorable battle at the lake Regillus. It is 
said the gods^ particularly Castor and Pollux, were 
present in this battle, and were seen to fight on white 
horses, in the year of the city 255. Gclo at that time 
reigned in Syracuse. 

9. Darius also, king df the Persians, endeavouring xi» 
to reinstate Hippias hi his kingdom, made war upon PERSIA. 
Athens. Miltiades, general of the Athenians, quickly ^* 
meets him at Marathon with a small body of men. 
Ten thousand Athenians encountered two hundred 
thousand Persians. Darius's army was routed and 
put to flight, in the year before the birth of Christ 490. 


10. Rome, delivered from foreign enemies was, well VII. 
nigh ruined by intestine divisions. The commons, 'TaJ^V. 
harassed by the senators and usurers, withdrew to the 
Sacred Mount, on the other side of the Anip; but 
were appeased by the persuasions .of Menenius Agrip- 
pa, and upon obtaining the protection of the tribunes 
of the people against the patricians, returned into the 

11. Martius Coriolanus, having been forced from 
the city by the spite of the tribunes, went over to the 
Volsci, and made war upon his country. He so broke 
the power of the Romans, that they were obliged to 
sue for peace, by sending his mother Veturia to him. 
Coriolanus yielded to his mother^s entreaties, and the 
Volsci were afterwards quite reduced by Spurius Cas- 
sias. But Cassius, after this, elated with his mighty 





success, and aiming at covert* ignty, was thrown head- 
long from the Tarptian rock, in the year of the 
city 268. 

VT. 12. About the same time, Aristides, surnamed the 

GRI-x Bb Just, was banished Athens. But being soon restored, 

^^* he assisted Themistocles in the Persian war, bv whose 

interest he had been expelled, sacrificing private 

wrongs to the good of his country. 

VIL ^3. At Rome the Fabian family, to ease their coua- 

ITALY, try of trouble, petitioned for the entire management of 

*' the Veientian war to themselves* They defeated the 

Veientes several times. Being now victorious, they 

were almost utterly destroyed by a stratagem of the 

enemy: above 300 of the Fabii were cutoff in due day. 

XI. 14. Xerxes, the son of Darius Hystaspes, heir to 

PKKsiA. jjjg father's crown and inveterate enmitv tothe Greeks, 
having built a bridge of boats over the Ht^llespont, and . 
Greece. digged through Mount Athos, invaded Grerce with an 
army of two millions of men. At the straits of Ther- 
mopylse, Leonidas, king of the Spartan^, with a hand- 
ful of men, made a dreadful slaughter of his troops, 
till, spent with killing, he fell victorious upon heaps of 
slain enemies. The Athenians, in the mean time, 
quitting their city equipt a fleet of 200 ships. Accord- 
ingly Xf rxes, having found Athens deserted, burnt it. 
But his fleet, consisting of 2000 sail and upwards, 
being defeated near Salamis, and put to flight by the 
contrivance and valour of Themistocles, the Athenian 
admiral, he marched off in great dismay towards 
Thrace, in Order to cross the Hellespont : hut finding 
his bridge brokern down by the violence of the storms, 
he passed over in a fishing-boat, and continued his 
flight to Sardis, in the year of Rome 268, and before 
Christ 480. 

15. The year following Mardoniiis, who had been, 
left by Xerxes with 300,000 men to prosecute the war, 
met with a great overthrow at Platca, from the Greeks, 


under the condact of Aristidcs and Pausanias* In the 
reign of Xrrxes, flourished Herodotus, the father of 
historians, about 600 years later than Homer. 

16. Qiiintius Cincinnatus, called from the plough, VII. 
by the Romans, to the dictatorship, delivered the con- n^^t«Y. 
sul Minutius, Who had betn hlocked up by the i£qut ' 
at Algidum, and caused the enemy to pass under the 

yokt*. Cimon also, the son of Miltiades, having whh Greece, 
the like good conduct vanquished the forces of Xerxes, 
near Cyprus, restored the Greek cities of Asia to li- 
berty. Nor was Greece then illustrious for its generals 
only, but philosopher^ alsb; for the same age produced 
Heractitus, ^Democritus, Anaxagoras, and several 

17. At Rome, 9bq\xt 300 years after the building of 
the city, instead of two consuls, decemviri were cre- 
ated. They compiled a body of laws brought over 
from Greece, and particularly from Athens. These, 
being inscribed on twelve tables^ were called the laws 
of the XII. tables. . Within a few years, by the lust of 
Appius Claudius, and the outrages of his colleagues, 
the government reverted to the consuls. 

18. Artaxerxes Longithanus granted leave to Nehe- vj 
miah, his cup bearer, to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, PKiisiA. 
in the year before the birth of Christ 445. In the ^* 
reign of Artaxerxes lived the famous naturalists Em- 
pedoclfs and Parmenides, Hippocrdtes the physician, 
Polycletus and Phidias, statuaries; Xeuxis, Parrhasius, 

and 1 imantes, painters. 

19. About six years after the decemviral power VII. 
was abolished, military tribunes with consular autho- iTALY. 
rity began to be created at Rome. The censors, too, 

were then first made for holding the census. Cornelius 
Gossns, a military tribune, having; slain Tolumnius, 
king of the Veientes, with his own hand, next after 
Romulus, presented the spoiia ofima to Jupiter Fe* 


yj^ 20. .The same years that the military tribunes were 

GRKECE. created at Rome, the Peloponnesian war broke out in 
14, Greece, which spreading itself over all Greepe, conti- 
nued 27 years. Thucydides, having been forced into 
banishment by Pericles, the incendiary of the war, 
wrote the history of it. 

21. A few years after, the seat of the war was trans- 
ferred into Sicily. The Athenians, importuned for 
aid by the Catanenses, engaged in a war against the 
Syracusans, in the reign of Darius Nothus, king of the 
Persians. The first attempts of the Athenians in this 
war were very successful, but th^ issue proved fatal to 
them. The generals of the Athenians were Alcibiades, 
Nicias, and Lam^chus. 

22. But at Athens the study of the liberal arts was 
in high repute. Then flourished Aristophapes; Cra« 
tinus, and Eupolis, comic poets; Sophocles and Euri- 

* pides, tragic poets; Praxiteles the famous statuary; 

Gorgias, and other sophists in great numbers; and 
Socrates, the father of philosophers. But Diagoras 
denying the existence of the gods, was banished from 
Athens, a reward being offered by the government if 
any one would kill him* 

VII. 23. The Galli Senones, during the reign of Tar- 

ITALY, quiniu^ Pri^cus, having driven out the Tuscans, had 
seized upon that part of Italy which was afterwards 
called Cisalpine Gaul. This people, incensed by Q* 
Fabius the ambassador <^ the Roman people, at the 
' siege ot Clusium, a town of the Hetrusci, turned their 
arms against the Romans, and^ having cut off their 
forces at the river Allia, fell upon the city, under their 
leader Brennus, took s^nd destroyed it with fire and 
sword* Rome was burnt in the year 365 after it was 

VI. 24. About those times a calamity of much the like 

CRBECE. nature befel Athens. Lysander, general of the Lace- 
demonians, assisted by th^ power of Persia, having 



vanquished Cooon, and reduced the Athenians veiy 
low, took Athens itself, deinolished its walls, and ap- 
pointed thirty commissioners to govern the state ; who, 
tjrrannizing cruelly over the citizens, were turned ouS 
by Thrasybulus, four years after the taking of the city^ 
and Athens restored to its liberty* 

25. About the same time flourished Ctesias of Cni Mixed a&. 
4lu8, who having been taken prisoner in the wars of ^'*"^' 
Cyrus against Artaxerxes Mnemon, king of the Per* 
sians, was very honourably treated by the king on ac- 
eount of his skill in physic: he wrote the history of. 
the Persians. At the same time lived Archytas of 
Tarentum; and likewise Antisthenes, Aristippus, Xe* 
aophon, Plato, Isocrates, disciples of Socrates* 

26« In those times flourished several famous gene* 
rsds; at Athens, Iphicrates, Chabrias, Thras^^bulus^ 
\ and Timotheus ; amongst the Thebans, Pelopidas, and 
Epaminondas,^ a man of an illustrious character not 
oidy for military glory, but likewise for his skill in 
ph^sophy, and his integrity of life. 

27* At Rome, Camillus, created dictator in his ab- VH. 
sence,^ having raised an army, advanced to the city, ITALlr 
expelled the Gauls, and utterly destroyed their whole ^^* 
army. Rome within a year, by the generous activity 
of Camillus, was reared up anew. Lucius Sextius, who 
after a4ong dispute, was the first consul made from 
among the plebeians, put an end to the creation of mili- 
tary tribunes. A city prstor, and two curule ^ediles^ 
were created* 

2B. ^paminbndas, having cut off Cleombrotus king y|^ 
ef the Lacedemonians, together with his army, at gbkb^cIJ; 
Leuctra, fell in battle fighting with great bravery against ^6« 
Agesilaus, at Mantinea* With him fell the glor>' of 
the Thebans. The martial character of the Lacedemo- 
nians likewise died, upon the introducing of gold, and 
along with it avarice, by their general Lysander* 










29. From the Greeks the martial spirit passed to the 
Carthaginians, who subdued Sardinia with their arma, 
and, having vanquished Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse^ 
took several towns from the Syracusans^"*^ . Not long^ 
after, Oionysius being killed by his subjects, left the^ 
sovereignty to his son Dionysius; who being at last 
driven from Syracuse for his unparalleled extravagance, 
by Dion, the disciple of Plato, set up a school at Co- 
rinth ; whilst Isocrates, Demosthenes'a master, as yet 
taught rhetoric at Athens. 

30. The arts of war in the mean time were in great 
lustre at Rome. T. Manlius, upon a challenge in the 
Gallic war, slew a Gaul of prodigious stature in the 
face of both armies, and was called Torquatus, fronoL 
the chain which he took from the Gaul's neck* Vale- 
rius, too, killed a Gaul of like size, by the assistance of 
a raven, which perching on his helmet, had annoyed 
his antagonist with his wings and beak, and got the 
surname of Corvinus. 

VL 31. Alexander the Great was bom at Pella, a towa 

QRE£CE. Qf Macedonia, in the year after the building of Rome 
392, in the 106th Olympiad, and before the birth of 
Christ 356; his father Philip, king of the Macedonians^ 
subdued the illyrians, took several cities from the 
Athenians and other Greeks, and would have made 
himself master of all Greece, had he not been opposed 
by Demosthenes the orator- Finally, being, created 
general of Greece for managing the Persian war, he 
was slain by Pausanias,. whose ill usage he had neglect- 
ed to revenge, in the reign of Ochus, king of the Per- 




32. In the mean time, the war with the Samnites 
proved very grievous and lastipg. War was declared 
against the Samnites in favour of the Campani, who* 

• The aeqiiel of the history of Cai^thage and Syraeaae is intlmateW 
bletidiid with that of luljr uuUer No, 20, page 4U 


had put themselves under the protection of the Ro- 
man peaple, and was carried on with various success. 
To it was added the war with the Latins ; in which 
war T. Maniius Torquatus, the consul, beheaded his 
own son,. for engaging the enemy contrary to orders. 
In the same war Decius Mus, upon the Roman troops 
giving ground, devoted himself for the army* The 
ships of the Antiates taken during the war, were 
brought to Rome, and with their beaks the gallery in 
the foru^ was adorned: whilst Diogenes the cynic, 
and scholar of Antisthenes; also Aristotle, Xenocrates, 
Speusippus, disciples of Plato ; taught in Greece. 

33. Alexander the Great in his youth studied under V|. 
Aristotle; whilst yet very young he conquered the GBEECB. 
•Thracians and lUyrians, destroyed Thebes, and received ' 
Athens upon surrcfnder. After this, supported by the 
confederate arms of the Greeks and Thessalians, he 
passes over into Asia to the Persian war. He defeats 
Darius Codomannus kingof the Persians, first at Gra- 
nicus^ and a second time at Issus. 


34. Moreover, Alexander having taken, Tyre, tnva- Alexander 
ded Judea. But being received in a friendly msLtmer ^^he Greek 
at Jerusalem by Jaddeus the high priest, he offered sa- *»^«>«» 
orifices in the temple. Having made himself master 
of Egypt, he builds the city of Alexandria, callirig it 
by his own name. In fine, he passes the Euphrates, 
conquers Darius a third time at Arbela, and having 
taken Babylon, transfers the empire from the Persians 
to the Macedonians, in the fourth year of his reign, in 
the 112th Olympaid, in the year of Rome 418, and 
before Christ 330. 



^From the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alexander 
the Greats to the defeat of Perseus^ his last successor 
in Greece^ by ^miiius Paulus^ 167 before Christy 
when Rome became the mistress of the world; compre* 
hending 163 years. 

1. THE Macedonian empire being thus erected, 
Alexander inarches into India, and, after .conquering^ 
many nations, returns to Babylon; where he died ia 
I the 12th year of his reign, being 33 y^ars old, in the 
year before the birth of Christ 323. In his reign flour* 
ished the historians Theopompus, Megaathenes, and 

^reehem- ^* Upon the demise of Alexander, many princes 
lyre lA'viefed started up in the room, of one. Ptolemy, the son of 
Lagus, called also Ptolemy Soter, reigned in Egypt^ 
Eumenes in Cappadocia; Antigonus in Asia; L}r8ima- 
chus in Thrace i^Seleucus at Babylon ; and Cassander 
having put to death Alexander's son, and his mother 
Olympiaa, seized upon the kingdom of Macedonia. At 
the same time M enander, the comic poet; Crantor, the 
disciple of Xenocrates, and Crates of Diogenes; Epi- 
curus; Zeno, the father of the Stoics; as also Theo-*^ 
phrastus, were in great reputation. 

VII. ^' About the time of Alexander's death, Appius 
ITALY. Claudius, the censor, paved the Appian way at Rome. 
19. About the same time the Tarentine war was kindled 
up, occasioned by their insulting the Roman ambassa- 
dors. In which war the integrity and courage of Cu- 
rius and Fabricius, with respect to Pyrrhus king of 
Epirus, who hud come to the assistance of the Taren- 
tines, were remarkably eminent. C. Dentatus having; 
defeated him in battle, drove him at last out of Italy, 
and forced the Tarentines to surrender, about 483 years 
after the building of the city* 


4. After the death of Alexander the Great, the regal m, 
government continued in Egypt for the space of near i^gvpt. 
275 years. Ptolemy Soter, the beginning of whose ^* 
reign is to be computed from the year before Christ 

304, for this successor of Alexander long disclaimed 
thb title of king^ rutod 20 years* Ptolemy Phiiadelphus 
38 years; Ptolemy Evergetes 25 years; Ptolemy Philo- 
patcr 17 years; Ptolemy Epiphanes 24 years; Ptolemy 
Philometor 35 years; Ptolemy Physcon 29 years ; 
Ptolemy Lathurnus, or Sotcr 36 years; Alexander, 15 
years; Ptolemy Auletes 14» years; queen Cleopatra 22 


5. Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, being' be- VII. 
«ieged by the Carthaginians, passes over privately with ^^^^' 
his fleet into Africa; by which means he drew off the suractue. 
enemy to the defence of their own country. Having 

made peace with the Carthagmians, he makes himself 
absolute master of Sicily. He was succeeded by Hiero, 
who, for his great moderation, was honoured with the 
tide of king, by the Syracusans. He gave occasion 
to the first Punic war with the Romans. 

6. About 495 years after the building of the city ^ First Punic 
the Roman people having subdued almost all Italy, '*^'''*"" 
passed over into Sicily, to succour the Mamertini, their 

allies, against Hiero and the Carthaginians. Accord- 
ingly the Romans^ under their general Appius Clau- * 
dius, vanquished Hiero; and, having worsted the Car- 
thaginians, received several towns of Sicily upon sur- 
render. After this C* Duilius first gained a naval 
victory over the Carthaginians. The seat of the war 
was immediately carried into Africa, under the com- . . . 
mand of Attiliua Regulus. He having taken Tunis, "^ 
and other towns of the Carthaginians, laid siege to 
Carthage. But being worsted by Xantippus, general 
of the Lacedemonians, who came to the assistance of 
^e Carthaginians, he (ell into the hands of his enemies. 
Regulus being afterwards sent to Rome, to negociate a 
peace, advised the Romans to make no peace with the 
(^Uiagiaians* He himaelf returning to Carthage ia 


consequence of the engagements he had made vith 
the enemy^ was pat to death in the most cruel man- 
ner imaginable. Finally^ consul Luctatius humbled 
the power of the Carthaginians in a sea-fight, and 
Pfa^tfM eon- granted them a peace. The first Punic war being en- 
ded in the 24th year,, the temple of Janus was shut^ a i 
second time. About the same time the' consul Mar- 
cellus, having killed Veridomarus king of the Insubres, 
with his own hand, was the third that presented the 
opima spolia to Jupiter. C. Flaminius, the censor, paved 
the Flaminian way. 

Mixed a§' y^ [^ Greece, Aratus, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus, 
disciples of Zeno; Arcesilas too, and Demetrius Pha- 
lereus the scKolar of Theophrastus, left illustrious 
monuments of their parts and learning, during the 
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus in Egypt; who furnished 
the famous library at Alexandria, and in order to ren- 
der it the more complete, procured the sacred books 
from Eleazer the high priest of Jerusalem, and caused 
them to be translated into Creek, in the year before 
Christ 277. In the mean tiine the Parthians revolted 
from the dominion of the Macedonians. Arsaces was 
the first king of Parthia; from him the other kings of 
the Parthians were called Arsacidas. 

Second Pu- 8* The tranquillity of Rome, after the first Punic 

nic -war:^ ^^^^ lasted scarce 24 years. Saguntum, a city in Spain, 

in alliance with the Roman people having been des- 

— «» Spaki. troyed by Annibal the Carthaginian general, gisive rise 

to the second Punic war. Annibal, leaving his bro- 

ther Asdrubal in Spain, marches over the Alps into 

— fn Jtai^, Italy. Cornelius Scipio meets him at Ticinum ; but 

narrowly escaped himself with the loss of his army* 

Flaminius, with a more terrible stroke, is cut off with 

his army by Annibal at the lake Thrasymene. Q. Fa- 

bius Maximus checked the enemy's career a little, by 

tvith alter- Waving battle; hence he was called Cunctator. But a 

natesMccm/gjgj^j^j overthrow was received at Cannae, a village of 

Apulia, by the rashness ofTerentius Varro. So great 

was the number of the slain, that a bushel of gold 



rings, xirhich had been taken from the hands of the Ro- 
maic knights, was sent to Carthage. But the follow- 
ing year, M. Claudius Marcellus, fighting a successful 
battle at Nola, made it appear that Annibal could be 

9* Hieronymus, the son of Hiero, king of Syracuse, --«» Sidliff 
had revolted to Annibal. Whereupon, the consul 
Marcellus makes war upon the S)^acu9aQs, and takes 
the city of Syracuse by surprise in the night, which 
was long defended, no less by the iiptventions of Ar- 
chimedes, than the arms of the citizens. The modera- 
tion of the coni|uerer heightened the glory of the con- 
quest. He spared the city and the inhabitants. In 
fine, Lsvinus made Sicily the first province of the Ro- ^ 
man people. 

10. Cornelius Scipio, yet very young, is sent into--»«^j^»^*» 
Spain by the' Romans. He takes New Carthage; drives j^^'ca, 
Asdrubal out of Spaiii; and enters into a league with 
Masinissa. In the. mean time Claudius Nero cuts off 
Asdrubal at the river Metaurus, as he was going into 

Italy to join forces with his brother Annibal; While 
Scipio passes over into Africa, on design to draw off 
the enemy, who still kept fast by Italy. He cuts off 
Hanno, the general of the Carthaginians, with his army, 
and having conquered Syphax, their ally in battle, . 
takes hiih prisoner. 

11. In the 16th year of the war, Annibal was re- ^^^,^ fff^^'n 
called into Africa by the Carthaginians. He encoun- 
ters Scipio : beings defeated, his makes his escape from 

battle, and giving up all for lost, flits into Asia. Car-' 
thage was entirely subdued in the year of Rome 560^ 
just 188 years before the birth of Christ. 

12. From Africa, Scipio got the surname of Afri- 
canus, being the first that was dignified with the name 
of a vanquished nation. He greatly honoured Ennius 
the epic poet, with whom the comedians Nsevius, 
Csscilius, Plautus, are reckoned nearly cotemporary. 


13. The peace with Carthage was succeeded by the 
ThsMace- MacedoBian war, which was undertaken for the Athe- 
'nians, their aUies, and carried on with various success 
for ten years. At last this war was ended by Quinc- 
tius Flaminius, by the entire conquest of Philip king 
of Macedonia, and liberty restored to all Greece, in 
the year of the city S7%* 

JTar -with 14. After this Antiochus, king of Syria and Asia, 
iSnttocfttu, jujj^g ^^j. ^jp^n ^j,g Romans, at the inscigation 6f An* 

nibal. But Antiochus being defeated both by sea aocL 
land, by L. Scipio, sued for peace; which was grsmted 
him on these terms: that he should quit all Asia, and 
surrender up Annibal; who, to prevent his^ falling lotm 
the hands of his enemies, swallowed poison, smd died 
in the year of the city 581. From Asia, L« Scipio re- 
ceived the surname of Asiaticus* In those times 
Livy, the writer of tragedies, was accounted famous* 

OthernKceB* 15. About the same time M. Fulvius, having taken 
SJii **^'* Ambracia, the residence of Pyrrhus, king of the Epi- 
rotes, conquered the iEtolians; L. Posthumius Albinos 
subdued the Lusitani; Appius Puleher the Istri; i£nu- 
iius Paulus reduced Perseus, king of Macedon,the last 
successor of Alexander the Great in Greece, and ledL 
him in triumph to Rome, in the year of the city 581^ 
and before Christ 167. Rome now began to be ac- 
counted the mistress of the world,# 

Judah, jg^ Much about &e same time, bloody wars were 

carried on in Judea by the Maccabees, against Anti* 
ochus and Detnetrius, with various success* 

* From this period, all ancient hifltoi^ Biay be regarded as co&eeatnite^ 
in that of the Komaa empire. 




From the defeat of Perseus^ to the birth of Christ or 
the beginning of the Christian mra; including 167 

1. THE Carthaginians, disregarding treaties, an,d^><^^v 
making war upon Masinissa, gave occasion to tht^ third * 
Punic war. Wherefore, by the persuasion of M. Cato, 

a war is commenced against them. At last, being quite 
vanquished in the fourth year of it, by P. Scipio, they 
surrendered themselves at' discretion. .Carthage was 
levelled with the ground, after it had stood above 700 
years ; in the year from the building of Rome 602. 
The same. Scipio made Panaetius the philosopher, Po« 
lybius the historian, Terence the comic poet, his inti* 
mate friends* These gentlemen in their old a^ were 
succeeded by Pacuvius and Accius, tragic poets, and 
Aristarchus the grammarian. 

2. About these times the Corinthians had beaten the The Aehean 
ambassadors of. the Roman people, and ei^gaged the, ^^'*^* 
Acheans to join them as confederates in the war. 
Whereupon L. Mummius, the consul, having received 
Achaia upon surrender, destroyed Corinth, after it had 

stood 952 years ; in the year of Rome 602. About 
the same time Q. Fabius in a great measure recovered 
Lusitania, which had been seized upon by Viriatus the 
robber. P, Scipio too, 14 years after the destruction 
of Carthage, razed Numantia in Spain, with the same 
army which had before been often routed by the Nu- 
mantians. Of such importance was a general and 


3. A bloody sedition in the mean time broke out ztAgraHm 
Rome. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus embroiled the jJ^J^*''^*' 
state, by preferring the Agrarian law forbidding any 


person to possess above 500 acres of land. Whereupon 
he was killed in the capitol by Scipio Nasica. And not 
long afteri his brother, C. Gracchus attempting the 
same, was slain by L. Opimius the consul, and together 
with him Fuivius Flaccus, a gentleman of consular 
dignity. About the same time Attains king of Phrygia 
dying, made the Roman people his heir, in the year of 
the city 615. 

MmtrrecHon 4ib One Eunus, a Syrian, having broke prison in 
* *'Xy- Sicily, and drawn together a vast multitude of slaves 
from the country, gave the Roman commanders several 
great overthrows. At last he was routed by P. Ru- 
pilius, the consul, in the year of the city 917* Then 
flourished Lucius the satirist* 

fugurtMns 5, After this the Jugurthine war broke but. Ju- 
gurtha, king of Numidia, and grandson of Masinissa, 
had dispossessed his brothers, the sons of Micipsa, of 
their kingdom. The latter implored the protection of 
the Roman people« Accordingly war was waged with 
Jugurtha ; who, being at last driven from his domi- 
nions by C. TMarius, fled to Bocchus, king of Maure- 
tania ; by him he was delivered up bound to L. Sylla, 
Marius's questor, much about the same time that Ci- 
cero was born, in the year after the building of the 
city 643. Marius, continuing several years in the con- 
sulship, cut ofl* the Cimbri, Teutones, and other bar- 
barous nations, who were breaking in upon Italy. 

MmHm 6. In the mean time fresh disturbances broke out at 
£iion. Rome. Saturninus, a tribune of the people, a turbulent 
fellow, exasperated the senate against him^ by forcibly 
passing the Agrarian law. Whereupon he was mur- 
dered in a concourse of the Patricians rushing upon 
him. Soon after Livius Drusus, attempting the same 
thing with a greater power, was assassinated at his 
- own house. 

|fe.^dda/ jr. After this the social was lighted up in Italy. 
The Marsi, Picentes, Peligni, Samnites, Lucani, and 


ether nations of Italy, finding they could not obtain the 
freedom of the city by gentle methods, endeavoured to 
compass it by force of arms* At last being conquered 
by Cn« Pompey, and other commanders, they sued for 
peace* Together with the peace, the freedom of the 
city was spontaneously conferred on them. About the juMi» 
same time, Aristobulus the high priest received the 
ensigns of royalty, in Judea, almost 482 years after 
Zedekiah the last king of Judea. 

8. Mithridates, king of Pontus, had dispossessed /?#V92; •/ 
Ariobarzanes, king of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes, '^^* 
king of Bithynia, allies of the Roman people^ of their 
respective kingdoms. War was declared against him 
under the conduct of L. Sylla. Upon this a civil war 

was kindled up in Italy: C. Marius envying Sylla, his 
old lieutenant, so large a field of glory, brought it 
about by means of Sulpitius, a tribune of the people, 
that the management of the war was committed to him- 
self. Upon this head, Marius being forced from the 
city by Sylla, withdrew into Africa- Sylla, marching 
into Asia, fought with great success against Mithrida- 
tes. He recovered Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia, 
in the year of the city 663. 

9. Marius in the mean time, by the assistance of h.lntettirie 
Cinna the consul, breaks into Rome with an army. Sylla '*'"'^** 
brings over his victorious forces out of Asia, and hav- 
ing vanquished Marius's party, fills the city and Italy 

with slaughter and bloodshed, the proscription of citi- 
zens being then first set on foot. Sylla, about four 
years sifter, consumed of the lousy disease, died in the 
year of the city 671* 

10. Sertorius, a general of the Marian faction, had nevflt t^f 
seized upon Spain, and concluded an alliance with ^P^^' 
Mithridates. Q. M^tellus and Cn. Pompey waged 

war against him with various success. At last Serto- 
rius being murdered by his own men, Spain was recov- 
ered, iti the year of the city 675. 



Mnturvction H* At the same ixiXj^t sl^vtes and pirates raised dit- 
^k Italy. turbances. One Spartacus, with above 70 gladiators^ 
having made his escape from a fencing school at Capau, 
and drawn together a numerous body of forces, routed 
the Roman armies several times. At last he was cut 
off by M. Crassus. Cn. Pompey also, afterwards cal- 
led Pompey the Great, subdued the pirates, who, at 
the instigation of Mithridates, infested the seas, in the 
year of the city 682. 

Pontnt re. 
duced to a 

12. Mithridates having been reinforced with fresh 
succours, renewed the war in Asia. Lucullus, after 
he had brought him very low by several battles, hem- 
med him in within Pontus. At the same time Metel- 
lus, having reduced the island of Crete under the do- 
minion of the Roman people, was named Creticus* 
After this Cn. Pompey stripped Mithridates of his 
kingdom; and admitted Tigranes, his confederate in 
th6 war, to a surrender; taking from him Syria and 
Phaenicia. He reduced Pontus into the form of a 
province, in the year of the city 684. 

Judea r#- 

Catiline' t 

1 3. Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, the sons of Alexan- 
der, king of the Jews, disputing about the succession 
to the crown, Pompey came into Judea in the charac- 
ter of an umpire, to decide their differences; but being 
provoked by Aristobulus, he takes Jerusalem by storm, 
demolishes the walls, entered the holy recesses of the 
temple, but meddled with nothing sacred'. He made 
Judea tributary to the Roman people, and carried Ar* 
istobulus with him to Rome,in the year before Christ 63. 

14. Whilst the Roman empire was extending itself 
over all Asia, Rome itself was well nigh ruined by an 
intestine war. L. Catiline having raised an army in 
Etruria, had catered into a conspiracy with Lentulus 
the praetor, Cethegus, and other senators, to massacre 
the consuls and the senate, and set fire to the city. 
This conspiracy was discovered and crushed by M. 
TuUius Cicero the consul, and Catiline cut off with his 
army by C. Antonius, in the year of the city 686. 


Cicero three years after was forced into banishment by 
P. Clodi\is^ for having put to death the conspirators. 
But within 16 months, he was recalled with great 
glory. The same man was highly illustrious for his 
eloquence; whilst M. Varro the philologist, Sallust 
the historian, Lucretius and Catullus poets, were much 
esteemed at Roine. Csesar Augustus was likewise bom 
this year. 

15r About the same time C. Julius Cs&sar attached Ccfsar^ JPom* 
Cn. Pompey to his interest by tnarriage, having taken ^•^^^. ^^ 
to wife his daughter Julia. He won over M. Crassus/r^f 7V»um- 
to himself and to Pompey. A combination of three ^ ** *• 
leading men being thus formed, the province of Gaul 
is decreed^ to Casar, Spainr to Pompey, and the man- 
agement of the Parthian wa committed to Crassus. 

16. Crassus marching into Asia, plundered the tem- Crassus" 
pie of Jerusalem of its sacred treasure, fought the **' * 
Parthians to great disadvantage, and lost his army to* 
gcther with his son. At last he himself being trepan- 
ned under pretence of an interview, is slkin by the en- 

17. But Cfiesar constrained the Helvetii to return to 
their country ; overthrew Ariovistus, king of the Ger- 
mans, the disturber of Gaul ; subdued the Aquitani, 
Gauls, and Belgae ; and conquered Germany and Bri- 
tain. Meanwhile his Wife Julia dyings Caesar's power 
appeared to Pompey and the senate exorbitant, and 
dangerous to the state; wherefore he is ordered to dis- 
band his army. From those beginnings broke out the Civil vmrs 
civil war, about 699 years after the building of the city. 

18. Caesar marches with an hostile army to Rome^ 


-J ^^ ed by Caaar 

enters the <:ity that had been abandoned by the nobi- at Moma 
lity, causes himself to be declared dictator, and pillages 
the treasury. After this having forced Pompey out of 
Italy, he drove his lieutenants Afranius aiid Petreius 
out of Spain, and returns again to Rome. He passed 
over immediately into Greece, still prosecuting the war 


—-/* carried against Pompcy. The seat of the war being carried to 
' Pharsalla, Pompey resolves to reduce Caesar rather by 
^ famine, intercepting his provisions, than bv fight^ 
« ing him. But constrained by the pressing instances 

of the nobility, he engaged the enemy, and being de- 
feated, makes his escape, with the loss of. his army. 
Pompey going into Egypt is slain by order of king 
Ptolemy, to whom he fled for protection, in the 58th 
year of his age. 

— m Esrypt; 19. Caesar arrived at Alexandria in pursuit of 
Pompey; and as be was endeavouring to settle the 
differences betwixt Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra, 
had like to have been cut off by that king; but he set 
fire to his fleet to prevent its falling into the hands of 
his enemies. By its flames, that famous library of 
Alexandria, collected by Ptolemy Philadelphus, was 
consumed. But at length, after the conquest and 
death of Ptolemy, he delivers up the kingdom to Cleo- 

— »fi ,Ji8ia; 20. After this he vanquished Phamaces, the son of 
Mithridates, who had broke in upon the territories of 
of the Roman people, with a single effort ; so that he 
seemed to have conquered the enemy almost before he 

—«■« Jfrica. saw them. Then he subdued Juba, king of Mauri- 
tania, who, at the persuasion of Scipio and Cato, was 
renewing the, civil war in Africa. Cato, that he 
might not fiall into the hands of Caesar, dispatches him- 
self at Utica, whence he has been called Uticensls. 

—is elided ^1. In the mean time war was levied in Spsun, by 
in Spain. Cneius and Sextus, the sons of Pompey the Great. Cae- 
sar goes thither with his army, comes to a general ac- 
tion, overthrows the Pompeys at Munda, a city of 
Spain. Cneius was slain in a tower, to which he bad 

Caaar dicta^ 22. The re publlcan government being thus subverted^ 

iorforiije. Csesar was declared perpetual dictator by the senate. 

He refbirmed the year by interc^ary days,^ according 


tQ the judgment of astronomers^ and called the month 
QumtUts, from his own name, July. After this, being 
elated with pride, he began to slight the senate, and 
aspire to sovereign power. Wherefore, in the. fifth 
year of his, dictatorship, he was slain in the senate- 
house by .Brutus, Cassias, and the other conspirators, 
being dispatched by three and twenty wounds, in the 
year of the city 706, and before Christ 42. 

' ■* ' . 
28. M. Anthony, the constil, stirring up the people ^nfAonym 
at Caesar's funeral against the. deliverers of their coun- ^^'^"'''^ 
try, threw all into confusion; he overawed the senate 
by an armed force, aiid seized upon Cisalpine Gaul. 
Whereupon war is resolved on against him by the se- 
nate, at the persuasion of Cicero. The consuls Hir- 
tius and Pansa, as likewise Octavius, Julius Casar's 
heir, and his. sister's grandson, advanced to Mutina, 
at the head of three armies, and coming to an engage- 
ment with Anthony, obtained the victory. 

24. That victory cost the Roman people dear. The Octavimt Ids \ 
consuls being slain, the three armies subjected them- ^^^°^^^ ' 
selves to the command of Octavius alone; who march- 
ing his forces to Rome, procured himself the consulate 

frotn the set)ate by main force, being a youth about 
20 years of age. Anthony, 'mean time, had fled into 
Transalpine Gaul, to M. Lepidus, master of the horse, 
and entered into a treaty with him. Octavius, created 
> commander in chief by the senate in the war against 
Anthony and Lepidus, betrays his trust, and enters in* 
to an association with them. 

25. Accordingly the triumvirate being formed, \Z0 Anthony, Le- 
senators were proscribed by the triumviri; in the num-^^"^^,^"^ 
ber of* whom was Cicero. By these three men too^ the second 
the vanquished earth was divided, as if it had been 

their patrimonial estate. The East and Greece fell to 
Anthony, Africa to Lepidus, Italy and the west to 
Octavius. Sicily was allotted to Sextus Pompey, who 
was master of a very powerful fleet; then flourished 
Diodorus Sij^ulus the historian. 


^^if^feat the 36* Octavius hftving been adopted into the family 
repubiicant, ^f Q^jar, was Called Caesar Octav^anus. Octavianus 
and Anthony now publicly declaring themselves the 
avengers of Cassar thot dictator, began to levy war 
against M. Brutus and C. Cassius. A battle was 
fought at Philippi, a city of Thesaaly. Brutus and 
Cassius being defeated, laid violent hands on them- 
selves. Sextus Pompey, warring against Octavianus, 
was vanquished in a sea- fight by his admiral M. Agrip- 
pa, and fled into Asia, where he died soon after, ia 
the reign of Herod,, king of Judea. 

jnthonyand 37, Anthony having divorced Octayia, the sister of 
atiaar. C«sar Octavianus, had, married Cleopatra, queen of 
Egypt; and in order to make her mistress of the world 
made war upon Octavianus: a naval engagement en* 
suing at Actium, Octavianus gained the victory, and 
pursuing the enemy, laid seige to Alexandria. An- 
thony thinking his affairs desperate^ dispatches himself; 
Cleopatra, imitating him, died by the poison of an asp, 
in the year of the city 719. 

P^'«««««» 28. Caesar Octavianus, in the 12th year after the 
^Im. triumvirate was set on foot, being now lord of the 
world, had the title of Augustus bestowed on him by 
the senate. He gave his nain^ to the month of Au- 
gust, which before w^s called Sextilia, Having pro- 
cured peace by sea and Und, he shvit the temple gf 
.Janus for the third time. He had ^n afiectionate re* 
gard for the poets Virgil and Horace; shewed a great 
esteem for the historians T. Livy 5ind Strabo. He 
banished Ovid into Ma^sia. ITieir cotemporaries 
were Quintus Curtius the historian, Tibullus and Pro- 
pertius poets. Caesar Augustas reigned 12 years in 
conjunction with the trumviri, and 44 alone* He died 
at Nola, in the 76th year of his age, and of the city 
762; leaving Rome, as he himself bo^istedy reared of 
marble instead of bricks. 

M'th of 29. In the year of the world 4004, in the year of 

"^*" Rome 748, in the 194tih Olympiad, and 14 years he- 


fore the death Augustus^ the Virgin Mary, of the lioeage 
of David^ went to Bethlehem^ and there brought forth 
the adorable infant Jesus Christ, sent (rom heaven 
to expiate the divine virrath; o^ whom the angel Ga- 
briel had previously asserted "that he should save his 
-people from their aiD9<," &ۥ &c. 



> t 


Rome under the Emperors-^r<?m the birth of Christy 
to the extinction of the Roman empire in the west 
by Odoacer king of the Herulz^ A. D. 476. 

1. 'Augustus, just before his death 14 years after Augastw. 
the birth of Christ, had appointed the empress Livia, 
and Tiberius, her son by her first husband Domitius 
Nero, to be his successors; and substituted Drusus the 
son, and Germanicus the nephew, of Tiberius, to suc- 
qeed them. 

2. Tiberius was vicious, debauched, and cruel; yetT^^«J»«i»J. 
the very dread of his character operated in securing 
an esay succession to. the empire. An embassy from 
the senate entreated him to accept the government^ 
which he modestly affected to decline, but artfully suf- 
fered himself to be won by their supplications. Not- 
withstanding these symptoms of. moderation, it soon 
appeared that the power enjoyed by his predecessor 
was too limited for the ambition of Tiberius, It was 
not enough that the battle of Actium, which in fact de- 
cided the fate of the Roman commonwealth 31 years 
before the birth of Christ, should have destroyed the 
substance of the republic in rendering Augustus mas- 
ter of the empire, though the^ guardian of the liberties 
and happiness of his subjects; it was reserved for Ti- 
berius to demolish the very appearances which the 
policy of Augustus had allowed to remain. The ^e<}- ' 

7 "  

idiji YBW m AXdB&V mSTORT. 

pit weft no longer assembled^ and die maturates 
of the state were substituted by the imperial will. 

/M«Mf Gefw 3» Oermanictis, the nephev of Tiberius, became tht 
•*'"^*'' object of his jealousy, from the glory which he had ac- 
quired by his military exploits in Oermaoy, and die 
high favour in which he stood with the Roman people* 
He was recalled in the midst of his successes, and dis- 
patched to the oriental provinces, where he soon after 
died ; and as was generally believed, of poison ad- 
ministered by the emperor's command. 

?ctt«et &- 4^ iElius Sejanus, praefect of the prstorian guards, the 
favourite counsellor of Tiberius, and the obsequioa^ 
minister of his tyranny and crimes, conceived the dar- 
ing project of a revolution, which should place himself 
on the throne, by the extermination of the whole im- 
perial family. Drusus, the son of the emperor, was 
destroyed by poison* Agrippina, the widow of Ger- 
manicus, and her elder son, were banished; and the 
younger son was confined, in prison* Tiberius waa 
persuaded by Sejanus, under the pretence ef the dis- 
covery of plots for his assassination, to retire from 
Rome to the isle of Caprea, and devolve the govern- 
ment upon his faithful minister. But while Sejaous, 
thus far successful, meditated the last step to the ac« 
complishment of his wishes, by the murder of his 
sovereign, his treason was detected ; and the empe- 
ror dispatched his mandate to the senate, which was 
followed by his immediate sentence and execution. 
The public indignation was not satisfied with his death: 
the populace tore his body in pieces, and threw it into 
the Tiber. 

dhrist cruet" 5. In die 18th year of Tiberius our Lord and Sa- 
•'^ Vvibur Jesus Christ, the divme author of our religios^ 

suffered death upon the cross, a sacrifice and propitia* 
tlpn for the sins of mankind, A. D. SB* 

•Tr^fei* ' ®' Tiberius now became utterly negligent of the 
8ai?es of government, and. the imperial power was dia- 


played only tn paUk:- etecutkm», confiactttteDft, Mil 
scenes of cruelty aad rapine. At length the tyrant 
falling sick was strangled in his bed by Macro, the 
pfa&fect af the pratofian guilrds, in the 78th year of his 
age, and 33d of his rdgn* About this period flourish* 
ed Valerius Maximum, Columella, PompoBHis Mela, 
Af^ion, Pbtlo Jodseus, and Artabanus* 

7* Tiberius had noininated for his heir Caligula>^^»|^^ 
the son of Germanicus, and had joined withhioi Tibe- anattma- 
riu8, the son of Drusus. Caligula enjoyed, on his^*"* 
father's accounty the favour of tht people; stnd the se* 
nate, to gratify them, set aside the right of his coI» 
league, and conferred on him the empire undivided* 
The conimencemeot of his reign was signalized by a 
few acts of clemency^ and eVen good poUcy. He re* 
stored the privileges of the comitia, and abolbhed 
arbitrary prosecutions for crimes of state* But, tyran- 
nical and cruel by nature, he substituted military exe- 
cution for legal punishment. The provinces were 
loaded with the most oppressive taxes, and daily con- 
fiscations filled the imperial coffers. The foHSes a)nd 
absurdities of Caligula were eqttal to his vices, and it is 
bard to say whether he w^s most the object of hatred or • 
of contempt with hp^ subjects. He perished hy assassif- 
nation in the fourth year of his reign, the twenty-ninth 
of his age, in the year of the city 794, A. D. 42. 

8w Claudius, tihe uncle of Caligula, was saluted em- Ciaudiiui 
peror by the prsetorkin guards, who had been the mur- 
derers of his nephew. He was the son of Oct^via, the 
sifter of Augustus; a nsan of weak intellect's, and of 
no education: yet his shorl^ reign w^ marked by aii> 
enterprise of imporlaiice. He undertook the reduc- 
tion of Britain, and,. after visiting the. island in persony 
left his ge»eralsi| Pbmtms and Vespasian, to prosecute 
St war which wa^ carried on for several years with va-» 
tious^ success. TheSikirefr,' or inhabitants of- South 
Wales, tiBder:,their king Caraotacus, Caradoc^ mside a 
bravei resiistaace, but were finally defeated; and Carac* 
tacus w^s^^l^d captivje tp Home, where the niagnaniiaity 


of his demeanour procured him respect and admira- 

/• poi89ned 9. The civil administration of Claudius was weak 
Siw^'^' and contemptible. He was the slave even of his do- 
mt-stics, and the dupe of his infamous wives Messa- 
lina and Agrippina. The former, abandoned to the 
most shameful profligacy, was at length put to death 
on suspicion of treasonable designs. The latter, who 
was the daughter of Germanicus, bent her utmost en- 
deavours to secure the succession to the empire to her 
•on Domittus Oenobardus, and employed every engine 
of vice and inhumanity to remove the obstacles to the 
accomplishment of her wishes. Having at length 
prevailed on Claudius to adopt her son, and confer on 
him the title of Caesar, to the exclusion of his own son 
Britannicus, she now made room for the immediate 
elevation of Domitius, by poisoning her husband. 
Claudius was put to death in the 15th year of his 
reign, and 63d of his age. 

Nero; 10. The son of Agrippina assumed the title of Nero 

fehJ^i^' Claudius. He had enjoyed the benefit of a good edu- 
cation under the philosopher Seneca, but reaped from 
his instructions no Qther fruit than a pedantic affectation 
of taste and learning, with no real pretension to either. 
While cohtrouled by his tutor Seneca, and by Burrhus, 
captain of the praetorian guards, a man of worth and 
ability, Nero maintained for a short time a decency of 
public conduct ; but the restraint was intolerable, and 
nature soon unveiled itself. His real character was a 
compound of every thing that is base and inhuman. In 
the murder of his mother Agrippina, he revenged the 
crime which she had committed in raising him to the 
throne ; he rewarded the fidelity of Burrhiis by poison- 
ing him ; and as a last kindness to his tutor Seneca, 
he allowed him tochuse the. mode of his death. It 
was his darling simusement to exhibit on the stage and 
amphithea^tre as an actor, miSisician, or gladiator. At 
length, become the object of universal hatred and con- 
tempt^ a rebellion of his subjects, heiaded. by Vinder, 



an illastrious Gaul, hurled this monster from the ^ 
throne. He had not the courage to attempt resistance; 
and a slave, at his own request, dispatched him with a 
dagger, Nero- perished in the 30th year of his age, 
after a reign of fourteen years, A. D. 69. With him 
ended the family of the Caesars, though the name was 
continued to the succeeding emperors as a title. This . 
was the age of Persius, Q. Curttus, Pliny the Elder, 
Josephus, Fronttnus, Burrhus, Corbulo^ Thrasea, and 
Boadicea* *: 

11. Galha,'the successor of Nero, was of an ancient GsIImi; 
and illustrious family. He was in the 73d year of his ii'J^fjf' 
age, when the senate, ratifying the choice of the prae- 
torian bands;^' proclaimed him empel-or. But an im- [ 
politic rigour o£ discipline soon disgusted the army ; 

the avarice of his disposition, grudging the populace 
their, favourite games and spectacles, deprived him of 
their affections ; and'some iniquitous prosecutions and 
confiscations excited general discontent and mutiny. 
Gaiba adopted as a favourite, and designed for his > 
successor, the able and virtuous Piso ; a measure 
which excited the jealousy of Otho, his former fa- 
vourite, and led him to form the daring plan of raising 
hin>«elf to the throne by the destruction of both. He 
found the praetorians apt to his purpose. They pro- 
claimed him emperor, and presented him, as a grateful 
offering, the heads of Galba and Piso, who were slain 
in quelling the insurrection. Galba reigned 7 months. 

12. Otho liad a formidable rival in Vitellius, whoOdio; 
had been proclaimed emperor by his army in Germany. ® ^'^' 
It is difl&cult to determine which of the competitors 

was, in point of abilities the more despicable, or in 
character the more infamous. A decisive battle was 
fought at Bedriacum, near Mantua, where Otho was 
defeated, and in a (it of despair ended his life by his 
own hand) after a reign of .3 months, A. D. 70. 

13. The reign of Vitellius was of eight months* du- viteiifos; 
Tation. He is said to have proposed Nero for his «»fl»'flcr<rrf. 



models and it was just that he should ii^esemble btia m 
his fate. Vespasian had obtained fttmi Nero the 
charge of the war against &e Jews, which he had cod-* 
ducted with ability and soecesa, and was proclaittiecl 
emperor by his troops in the east* A great part of 
Italy submitting to Yespaaiaa's generals^ ViteUiua 
meanly capitulated to save his life by a resignation o£ 
the empire. The people, indignant at his dastardly 
spirit, compelled him to an effort of resistance ; bnt the 
attempt was fruitless. Priscus, one of the generals of 
Vespasian, took possession of Rome; and VitelUus 
was massacred, and his body thrown into the Tiber. 


Vetpasiim; 14- VespasisD, though of mean descent, was wtMrthy 
hit deed: ^f ^^ empire, and reigned with high popularity for 
ten years. He. possessed great clemency of dfts|>08i- 
tion. His manners were affable and engaging^ and his 
mode of life was characterized by simplicity and fru<* 
gality. He respected the ancient forms of tite eonsti-' 
tution, restored the . senate to its deliberative rights^ 
and acted by its authority in the administration of aB 
public affairs. The only blemish in his character was 
a tincture of avarice, and even that is greatly extenn* 
ated by the laudabie and patriotic' use which he made 
of his revenues. 


Jerusalem 15, Under his reira, and by the arms of his son 
generat ' Titus, was termiiiated the war against the Jews. They 
^"m! *** ^*^ ^^^^ brought under the yoke of Rome by Pompcy, 
who took Jerusalem. They were governed for some 
time by Jlerod, as viceroy under Augustus: The 
tyranny of his son Archelaus was the cause of his bam- 
iahment,, and of the redaction of Judea into the ordi* 
nary condition of a Roman province. The Jews rie- 
belling on every slight occasion, Nero had sent Ves* 
pasian to reduce them to order* He had just prepared 
for the siege of Jerusalem, ^hen he was cailed to 
Rome to assume the governmentof the empire. Tito* 
having succeeded his father in the command of the 
army, wished to spare the city, and triedf every m6:ans 
to prevail on the Joto to sunrender, but in 


Their ruin was decreed b)^ Heaven* After ftn obsti* 
nate blockade of sin months Jerusalem was taken by 
ttorm, the ttaiple was burnt to ashes, and the city 
buried in ruins. The Roman enipire was now in pro- 
found pea<%. Vespasian associa/ted Titus in the im- 
perial dig&ky) and soon after died, uniTersaily lamentr- 
ed, »t the age of '69' years, A. D. 79.' 

16. The character of Titus was humane^ munificent, Titas; 
dignified, and splendid. His short reign was a period ^****"^ 
of great happiness and prosperity to the empire; and 
>his governmi^nt was a constant example of virtue, jus- 
tice^ and b^eficence. In his time happened that 

[ dreadful ernpcipn of Vesuvius, which overwhelmed 
the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The public 

I losses from this calamity he repaiired by the sacrifice 
of his fortune and revenues. He died in the third year 
of his reign, and the fortieth of his age ; ever to be 
remembered by that most exalted epithet, diiicia hu- 
ptani generU^ C^t delight 0/ majtHndJ, Hi^ death 
was attributed to the poison of Dobiitian. This was 
the age of Silius Itaticus, Martial, Tyanoeus, Valerius 
Flaceus, SoFmus, Epictetus, Quintilian, Lupus, and 
Agricola. ^ 

17. Domitian, the brother of Titus, succeeded to DomitiAn; 
the empire, A. D. 81. He was a vicious and inhuman '^aUm?^^' 
tyrant. A rebellion in Germany gave him occasion to 
signalize the barbarity of his disposition; and its con- 
sequences were long felt in the sanguinary punishments 
inflicted under the pretence of justice. The prodigal 
and voluptuous spirit of this reign was a singular con* 
trast to its, tyranny and inhumanity. The people 
were loaded with insupportable taxes to furnish spee- 
tacles and games for their amusement. The successes 
of Agricola in Britain threw a lustre on the Roman 
arms ; no part of which however reflected cm the em-; 
peror, i<xt he treated this eminent commander with the 
basest ingratitude. After fifteen tedious years this 
monster fell the victim of assassination, the empress 
h^s^lf conducting the plot for hi^ murder, A. D. 96. 


Nepya; jg, Cocceius Ncfva, a Cretan by birth, was chosca 

Aif tictithm 

emperor by the senate, from respect' to the virtues of 
his character. But he was too old for the burden of 
government, and of a temper too placid, for the re- 
straint of rooted corruptions and -enormities ; his reign 
therefore was weak, inefficient, and contemptible. His 
only act of real merit. as a sovereign, was xhe adoption 
of the virtuous Trajan as his successor. Nerva died 
after a reign of 16 months. A* D. 98* This was the 
age of Juvenal, and Tacitus. 

Tnijsn; 19. Ulpius Trajanus possessed every, talent and 

^de^ih^^nd ^^cry Virtue that can adorn a sovereign. Of great 
death, military abilities, and indefatigable spirit of enterprise, 

he raised the Roman arms to thetir antient splendour, 
tmd greatly enlarged the boundaries of the empire. He 
subdued- the Dacians, conquered the Parjdiia;ns, and 
brought under subjt:Ction Assyria, Mesopotamia, and 
Arabia Felix* Nar was he less eminent in promotiog 
the happiness of hts c»ubjects,and the interiial prosperity 
of the empire. His largesses were humane and muni- 
ficent. He was the friend and support <of the virtu- 
ous indigent, and .the liberal patron of every useful 
art and talent. His bounties were siupplied by a well 
judged economy in his private fortune,, and a wise ad- 
minstration of the public finances. Id his own life he 
was a man of simple manners, modest, affable, fond of 
the familiar intercourse of his friends, and sensible to 
all the social and benevolent afi^ctions«i. In a word, 
he merited the surname ^univicrsally bestowed on him, 
of Trajanus Optimus* He died at the age of 63 
years, after a glorious reign of nineteen years^ A. D. 
118. About this time flourished Florus, Suctonlas, 
Pliny junior, Philo Byblius, Dion Prus^vts^ Plutarch. 

Adrian; 20. iElius Adriauus, ncphcwof Trajan, and worthy 

^dnd death' ^^ ^^^ ^^^ J)lace, was chosen emperor by the. army in 
the east, and his title was acknowledged by all orders 
of the state* But he adopted a policy different, from 
th^t of his predecessor, in abandoning all the ciyiqueats. 
of Traj^o; bQunding the eastern provinces by the Eu- 


; N 


pirates, and the northern by the Danube; judging the 
- former limits of the empire too extensive. He visited 
in person all the provinces of the empire, reforming 
in his progress, all abuses, relieving his subjects of 
every oppressive burden, rebuilding the ruined cities, 
' and establishing every where a regular and mild ad- 
' ministration, under magistrates of approved probity 
and humanity. He gave a discharge to the indigent 
, debtors of the state, and appointed liberal institutions 
for the * education of the children of the poor. To 
' the talenis of an able politician he joined an excellent 
taste in the liberal arts. His reign was an aera both 
of public happiness and splendour. In the last year 
, of his life he bequeathed to the empire a double legacy, 
in adopting and declaring for his immediate succes- 
sor, Titus Aurelius Antoninus, and substituting An- 
nios Verus to succeed Antoninus. These were the 
Antonines, who ruled the Roman empire, during forty 
years, with consummate wisdom^ ability, and virtue. 
Adrian reigned 22 years, and died, A. D. 138, at the 
age of 62. In the reign of Adrian, flourished Theon, 
Phavorinus, Phlegon, Trallian, Aristides, Aquila, Sal- 
vius Julian, Polycarp, Arian, and Ptolemy. 

21. The happiest reigns furnish the fewest events Antomne I. ' 
for the pen of history. Antoninus sumamed Pius,^^^"^ 
was the father of his people. He preferred peace to deaths 
the ambition of Conquest; yet in every necessary war 
the Roman arms had their wonted renown; The^ Bri- 
tish province was enlarged by the conquests of Urbi- 
cus, and some formidable rebellions were subiued in 
Germany, Dacia, tnd the east. The domestic admin- 
istration of the sovereign was dignified, splendid, and 
humane. With all the virtues of Numa, as his love 
of religion, peace, and justice, he had the superior ad- 
vantage of diffusing those blessings over a great por- 
tion of the world. He died at the age of seventy-four, 
after a reign of twenty-two years, A. D. 161. In the 
reign of Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius, Pau- 
 eanias, Diophahtus, Lucian, Hermogcne*, Aulus Gel- 


UttSt Polyamvis, Appiap, Artei^i4prt:|&i Jus^ ^9 
inartyr, Apuleius, ^c« 


Antoninell. j^. At bU Succession to the t^rp^ie* Aopius V?t-ui|' 
AfDrrtT^ assumed ihe name of Marcus Aurelius Automnus, 
^SrAtSi *°^ bestowed op his brother t^ucius Verv^ s^ joii^t adr 
ministration of the empire^ The form^er ii^as as ev^X' 
nent for the worth and virtues of ht^ charac^V) ^ ^^^ 
latter was refpark^ble for hisprofligacyt meanness., nQ4 
vi^e. Marcus Aurelius was aits^^h^d both by Duturo 
^nd education to the Stoical philosophy, which H^: h^^ 
admirably taught and illustrated in his A(€(ittqti(mt^ 
His own life was the best commentary on his prrc pU^ 
The Parthians were repulsed in an attacii qpon the; 
empire, and a rebellion of the Gercpans was ^^bduedt 
In those wars the mean and worthless Y^rus brpugl^^ 
disgrace upon the Roman name in every region where 
he commanded ; but fortunately relieved the empire of 
its fears hy an early death. The residue of the reign 
9f Marcus Aurelius was a continued blessing tp hb 
•ubjects. He reformed the internal policy of the s^ta^tCi 
regulated the government of the provinces, ^nd yis>^f4 
for the purposes of btOefictnce, the most dist^^l 
quarters of his dominions. ** He appeared," says an 
aincient author, ** like some benevolent deity, diffuaing 
around him universal pe«ce and happiness." He die4 
iin Paionpnia, in the 59th year of his age, and xath ojf 
his reign. A* D- 180, In the last reign fiouriahed G?,- 
len, Athenagoras, Titian, Ath^eneusj Moftt?uavis, Pitji* 
g^n^ Mprtiws^ 

SS^jJI^fe ^^' Commodus, his most unworthy son, suqccede* 
mnmd 00909- tp jthe empire on bis deaths He resenibled iq characr 
^ '^' t«:r his fnoth^r Faustina/ a womiin infai|^ous for aU 
i^apner of vice- Her profligacy was kno^n to all bqt 
her husband Marcus, by whom she was regarded ^ % 
paragon of virtue. Commpdus had an aversic^n ta 
every rational a»d liberal pursuit, ^x4 > fond attach^ 
in^n^ to the qpgrts of the cireus and amphitheatre^ the 
hunting of wild beasts, and the combats of bQ^rs aa4 
gladiators. The measures^qf this reign were as uniin. 

pb^tAnl: ts i^t ch';A^dd«r of the sovet^ign wsi* cbtttcmpti 
ibi^. Hi^ tbiittibi^^ and Sonltt of his chief officeii 
(>ffeV6titea Aeir to^h destfUctibrt by ass^ssittatitig thi^ 
lyriM, iti thfe S2d year of hid agfe, and 1 3th of hi4 
ffeijgt^, A: D. 193. Under Cotmrtodus Bourished J. 
Polltix, Tht^odotioh, and St. Iheneutii 

24. The praetorian guards gave the empire to Pub- Pertinai; 
lius Helvius Pertinax, a man of mean birth, who. had and murdgr. 
fwen tb Esteem by his virtues and military talents. 
Mt; applied himself with teal to the corrcttioti of 
Abuses; but the austerity of his government deprived 
him of the affections erf a corrupted people. He had 
disAppointted the army of a promised reward, and aftei^ 
a reign of B6 days, was murdered in the imperldl 
palace by the same hands which had placed him oii 
the throne. 

2^. The empire i^Vih ito'w put up to aufction by the |*5*'""* 
Jrsetorians, ahd was purchased by Didius Julianus; ^eatt 
whik Pesctfnius Niget in Asia, Clodius Albinus itk jil^Zui M» 
Byitaih, and Septimius Severus in Illyria, were each «**•'*• 
chosen emperor by the stoops whieh thfey tomthanded. 
Severus niarched ttti Hotiae, and, on his approach, th<^ 
ptifetrof tans abandontfd Didius, who had foiled to paj- 
the stipulated pyifce' for his elevation; and the senatt 
fbtmally deposed and piit him to death. Severus be- 
inlj now master of Rome, prepared to reduce the 
prbviwces which had aclcnowledged the sovereignty of 
Niger and Albinus. These two rivals wci*e succes- 
sively -subdired. Niger was slain in battle, and Albi- * 
nils fell by his o\vn hands. The administration o^ 
Severus was wise and equitable, but tinctured with 
despotic rigour. It was his purpose to erect the fabric 
of Absolute monarchy, and all his institution^ operated 
with able polity to that end. He possessedl eminent 
military talents, lie gloriously boasted, that having 
received the empire oppressed with foreign and domes- 
tit wars, he left it in profotind, universal, and hotioura- 
able peace. He tarried with him ittto Britain his two 
silmS) Catac^la atid Geta, ti^hbse uhpromisihg disposi- 


tions clouded his latter days. Id this war^ the Cale- 
donians under Fingal are said to have defeated, on the 
banks of the Carron, Caracul^ the son of the^ king o£ 
the world. Severus died at York^ in the 66th year of 
his age, after a reign of 18 years, A. D. 21 K lathe 
feign of Severus, flourished Tcrtullian, Minutius Felix^ 
Papinianus, Clemens of Alexandria, Pbilostratus, Plo- 
tianus, and Bulas. 

Caracdlatt 26. The mutual hatred of Caracalla and Geta was 
eo?A*ot*at«- increased by their association in the empire; and the 
rtuted. former, with brutal inhumanity, caused his brother to 

be openly murdered in the arms of his mT>ther. His 
reign, which waj» of six years' duration, and one con- 
tinued series of atrocities, was at length terminated by 
assassination, A. D. 217. 

AiMander 27. The Interval here of 67 years till the accession 
mid '^. o/AtfrOt Diocletian, was filled by the rtigns ol HeIiogabaluS| 
cmperora Alexander Severus, M axiniin, Gordian, Decius, Cal- 
lus, Valerianus, Gallienus, Claudius, Aurelianos, 
Tacitus, Probus, and Carus: a period of which the an- 
nals furnish neither amusement nor useful information* 
The single exceptio;) is the reign of Alexander Seve- 
rus, a mild, beneficent, and enlightened prince, whose 
character shines the more from the contrast of those 
who preceded and followed him. .The reign of Alex- 
ander Severus was the age of Julius Africanus, Dion, 
Cassius, Origen, and Ammonius : about the reign of 
Gordian, flourished Censorinus, and Gregory Thauma- 
•turgus: in the reign of Gallus flourished St. Cyprian, 
and Plotinus: and in that of Claudius, flourished Lon- 
ginus, Paulus Samosatenus, Sec* 

Suxlrnlun;^ 28- Diocletiau began his reign A. D. 284, and in- 
«n</»M«ra*.troduced a new system of administration, dividing the 

ioduies and • • ^ r ^ % '. 

vsurpert, empire into tour governments, under as many princes. 
Maximian shared with him, the title of Augustus, and 
Galerius and Constantius were declared Csesars. Each 
had his separate department or province, all nominally 
sovereign, but in reality under the direction of the sU- 


perior talents and anthorityof Diocletian: an unwise | 

poUcy, .which depended for itstjefficacy on individual . I 

ability alone. Diocletian and^ Maximian, trusting to ' 

the continuance of that ord^r iff the empire which their I 

vigpur bad established, retired from sovereignty, and ^ 

l^ft xhe government in the hapds of the Caesars; but 
Constantius died soon after in Britain v^nd his , son 
Copstantine was pro<;laicned York, though , 
Galerius did not acknowledge his title. Maximian, 
however, having once more resumed the purple, be- 
stowed on Constantine his daughter in marriage, and 
thus invested him with a double title to empire. On 
the death of Maximian and Galerius, Constantine had 
no other cTompetior but Maxentius, the son of the for- 
mer, and the, contest between them was decided by the 
sword. Maxentius fell in battle, and Constantine re- 
mained sole maister of the empire. About this time 
flourished J. Gapitolinus, Arhobius, Gregory and Her- 
mogepes the lawyers, -/Elius, Spartianus, Hierocles, 
Flavins Vopiscus, Trebellius, Poilio, &c. 

29. The adminstratioti of Constantine was, in the Constantiife; 

1 • •'■ri_» • 'u '^ii _i i»» removes his 

beginning 01 hia reign, mud, equitable, and politic, eo^^^^o^w. 
Though zealously attached to the christian faith, he ^nwrfww,- a«« 

J .  ^ . . , ,. . .' death. 

, made no violent mnovations on the religion of the 
state. . He introduced order- and economy into the 
civil government, and repressed evei*}'^ species of dp« 
pression and corruption. But bis natural temper was 
severe and cruel, and the latter part of his reign was 
as much deformed by intolerant zeal and sanguinary 
rigour, as the former had been remarkable for^ equity 
and benignity.. From this unfavourable change of 
char^icter he lost the affections of his subjects; and, from 
a feeling probably of reciprocal disgust, he removed - 
the seat of the Roman empire to Byzantium, now term- 
ed Constantinople. The court followed the sovereign; 
the opulent proprietors were attended by their slaves 
and retainers. In a few years Rome was greatly de- 
populated, and the new capital swelled at once to an 
enormous magnitude. It was characterized by eastern 
splendour, luxury, and voluptuousness; and die citieis 

of Gteett #^t«^ dig.%pdii«d f6f k t^tr^Vis^ftt^llt.^ tft 
tin ekpedttioA a^ilVnM the Pet^itrdis CtMir^tsmttaii died ^ 
NitcMnedla, iti the SOth yeat* c^f M^ t^ign^ ie^tid 63d t^ 
tiisag«, A. D« 837. Itt th^ tiitie bf <>cif}MAttti1^«, tm^ 
Dtiths had tHiade steVeral tffupftiofti^ <in the tridfifre, niid^ 
though repulsed amd besteti; tegltti gl^dtliiUy to ^- 
eroach on the proV»ftte6, In the t*igh of GbirttAtttlb^ 
iouri^hed LacUcteioA, Athaha^iUs, Arias, 4ibd Eu^ 

* 111 lieu of the aitcicnt republican diktinctioiis, wbleb wer6 fofitided iDhiefty on per'- 
sotial merit, a rigid suhordiiiation ot' rank aitd office now went through all the orders of 
the stale I'he ma^i-ttrHtcs were divided inio thfiee cia6S6s, distinguished by die uii- 
nifaninfi; titlen of, 1, the illu9tri9U8f -^, the renpectahle ; 8, the ohrwwfd: The epithet 
#t' illustrious was bestowed on, 1, the consuls and patriciaQS; 3, the prsetorian prrefects 
of Home and Coiisiahtinofiie; 3, the masters generifl ot'th^ caviilry diiB mt'ahtrf; 4« th6 
seven ninistera of the palace. 4 he consuls were created by the sole atitlioritv ot the 
enipemr: their dij^niiy was }nefR"cient; they had no appropriate function in tlie f>tate9 
and their names served only to give the te^^ai date totlie y«ftr Tllte digtiflj)' t>rp»tric{«fi 
vas not, as in ancient times, a hereditai-y distiuctioh; but was bestowed by the enriperoi: 
on his lavoarires, us a title ot hontxttr Frt)m the tim^ of tlie abolition Af tite pl*jfctoi4Att 
baitds by Constantine, the dignity of prsetoiian pracfefel was conferred oo llie civil gover- 
nors of the foor departments of the empire. These werie, the Kast^ lllyria,'ltaly, and 
the ' tanls They had the sn{ii*etTte adnaimstratiOn of justice and Of the ^nances, ChA 
power of supplying ail the inferior magistracies in their district, and an appellative juris- 
diction from ail its tribunals. Independent of their authonty, Home and Constantinople 
had each its own prefect, who was the chief magMtrate of the city. In the se,feond class, 
tiie rcspect:iblt', were the proconsuls of Asia^ Achaia. and Airica, and the military 
comi^if and ducesy geaerftla of the imperiai artniea. The third ^ss, c)fari£<«imif, x»m' 
prebend ed the inferior governors and magistrates of the provinces^ responsible to thi^ 
ju ccfects and Uieir deputies. -• . - 

The intercourse betyreen the eourt fltnd provinces tirns maintained^ by ihe eonstrtf^tioit 
of roads, and the institution of regular posts or couriers; under which denomination were 
ranked tlie numberless Spies of go\'errtment, whose ilot} it was to ctinvey" all sort ofirt- 
telligcnce from the remotest quarters ot* ibe empire to its chief seat Kvery i^istittilioii 
was calculated to support the fabric of despotism. Torture was employed ^orthc dis- 
covery of crimes. 1 axes aijcl impositions of every kind ^ere pr^^eribetf and levied by 
the sole authority of the emperor. The quantity and rate were fiaed by a census made 
over all the provinces, and j)art was generally paid in rttoney, part in the produce of thb 
lands; a burden frequeutly found so grievous as le prompt to tlie ne^eetbf figriettliureh 
Kvery object Of 'hierchandise and manufacture was likewise highly taxed, babsidies, 
luoieover, Uiider tli^ name o\'free /^iftg wcl*e exacted from all the 6iCies;'on varibiis ot>- 
casions of pubtic concerns; as the accension of an emperor, his consulate, the birth of a 
prhice, a victory over the barbarians, or any other cv6nt of stiAilar ii^p'ortatace. 

All impolitic distinction was made bet ween the troo^js stationed in the'distaiit>proviiiccS 
and those in the heart of the empire. The latter, termed palatines, enjoyed a higher 
pay and moi*e peculiar, favour, and having less employment, sp^nt their time itt idlei^ess 
and luxury; while the former, termed the bordere**8, who, in fact, had'lhecare of the 
empire, and were exposed to perpetual hard service, had, with an mferior reward, the 
mortiiication of feeling themsdves i^garded as of meaner rank that) Uieir feUow-doidierk. 
Constantine likewise, from a timid policy of guarding against mutinies of the troops^ 
reduced th« legion friora its ancient coYnplemetit Of* 5000, 6000, 7000, and «000, to 100t> 
or 1500, and debased the body of the army by the intermixture of bey thiaoa^ tiothSjaad 
Gerraans - 

This immeoee mass of.h>eter(^eneous pat^, which kitetl^Bfly Ihboiired with th^fleedft 
of dissolution and corruption, was kept togother lor some time by the vigorous exertion 
of despotic authority. The fabric was splendid and aUguAt; but it n^anted bdth that energy 
of constitution and that real dignity* wbtehi ia'forkner titi«% it derifvd from the z%xr* 
cise of hecoio and patriotie rirt^es. 

S0» Constantinp, with a destraetiva poUcy, ha^d di- Constantius; 
yided th^ ei^ptre among ^ye prmces« threQ ot theoi ni« eroachmmn 
^ons, and t^o nepl^ws ; but G«nstaptius, th^ youngest ^j^**'"^"''' 
pf the spns, finally got; irid of ail his pomp^titora^ and 
ruled th^ <^Wpk^ alon^ >^itk. a weak and impotent 
a^eptre* A variety of doipeslic broils, and mutinies 
of the troops against ibeir genernls, had left the western 
frontier to the mercy of the barbarian nations. The 
Franks, Salmons, Aleinanni, and ^ariiiatiau$, laid waste 
^U the fine countries watered by the Rhine, and the 
Pereians made dreadful incursions qu the provinces of 
the ea^t, while Constantius indolently wasted h^s time 
in theological controversies* 

31. He wjis prevailed on, however, to adopt one rz/»/>oi>ito jv^- 
prudent measure, the appointment of bis cousin J^^'^^^paren?^M9 
to the dignity of Caesan Julian possessed many he- death. 
roic qualities, and his mind was farmed by nature for 
the sovereignty of a great people ; but, educated at 
Athei:is, in the schools of the PUtonie philosophy, he 
had uhlortunately conceived a rooted aiitii>9thy to the 
doctrines of Christianity* Possessing every talent of ' 

a general, and the confidence and affection of his troops, 
he once more restored the glory of the Roman arms, 
^nd si^ccessfuUy repressed the invasions of the barba- 
rians. His victories excited the jealousy of Constan«- 
tius, who meanly resolved to remove from his com- 
inand the better part of his troops. The consequence 
WaS) a declaration of the army, that Julian should be 
^eir emperor. Death delivered Constantius of the 
ignomifny that awaited him at this critical juncture, 
^nd Julian was immediately acknowledged sovereign 
of the Rotnan empire. About this period flourished 
£lius Donatus, Eutropius, Lihanius, Ammian, Mar- 
9cUii^us, Jaqablicus* w^d St. Hilary* 

19. The reforniatioii of civil abuses formed the first Xaiian; 
plflect of Juli^m's attention; and he next turned to the chHstnMtyf 
reforr|:i9tion» a« he thought, of religion, by the sup ^»* *^^^ 
Sires^iqn of Christianity* He began by reforming the 
JfW^ thfi9logyt wd iougbi ta rai»e the character of 


its priests, by inculcating purity of life and sanctity of 
morals; thus bearing involuntary testinnony to the su- 
perior excellence, in those respects, of that religion 
which he laboured to abolish. Without persecuting, 
he attacked the christians by the nnore dangerous 
policy of treating them with contempt, and removing 
them, as visionaries, from all employments of public 
trust* He refused them the benefit of the laws to de- 
cide their differences, because their religion forbade all 
dissensions ; and thev were debarred the studies of 
literature and philosophy, which they could learn only 
from pagan authors. He was, as a pagan, the slave of 
the most bigoted superstition, believing in omens and 
auguries, and fancying himself favoured with an actual 
intercourse with the gods and goddesses. To avenge 
the injuries which the empire had sustained from the 
Persians, Julian marched into the interior of Asia, and 
was for some time in the train of conquest ; but at 
length was slain in a victorious battle, at the age of 
thirty-one, after a reign of three years, A. D. 363. 
In the reign of Julian flourished Gregory Nazienzen, 
Themistius, and Aurelius Victor. 

Jovial; Q3. The Roman army was dispirited by the death 

chrittianityt of its commander. They chose for their emperor 
$ death, j^vjan, a captain of the domestic guards, and pur- 
chased a free retreat from the do nri in ions, of Persia by 
the ignominious surrender of five provinces, which had 
been ceded to Galerius by a former sovereign. The 
short reign of Jovian, a period of seven months, was 
mild and equitable. He favoured Christianity, and 
restored its votaries to all their privileges as subjects. 

He died suddenly at the age of thirty- three. 


Vai<»ntiniaii 34. On the death of Jovism, Valentinian was chosen 
^/IJJ^^jJ/"* emperor by the army; a man of obscure birth and 
empire^ severe manners, but of considerable military talents. 
He associated in the empire his brother Valens, to 
whom he gave the dominion of th« eastern provinces, 
reserving to himself the western. The Persians, 
under Sapor, were making inroads on the former pre* 

iriEW 07 ANCIE19T HISTORT. 49 

vinces ; and the latter were subject to continual inva* 
sion from the northern barbarians, who were success- 
fully repelled by Valentinian in noiany battles. His 
domestic administration was wise^ equitable, and 
politic* The christian religion was favoured by the 
emperor, though not promoted by the persecution of 
its adversaries; a contrast to the conduct of his brother 
Valens, who, intemperatcly supporting the Arian 
heresy, set all the provinces in a flame, and drew a ' 
swarm of invaders upon the empire, in the guise of 
friends and a^ies, who in the end entirely subverted 
it. These were the Goths, who, had settled on the 
banks of the Palus Mceotls, and had thence gradually 
extended their territory. In the reign of Valens they 
took possession of Dacia, and were known by the dis- 
tinct appellation of Ostrogoths and Visigoths, or east- 
ern and western Goths. . Valentinian died on an ex- 
pedition against the Alemanni, and was succeeded in 
the empire of the west by Gratian, his eldest son, boy 
of sixteen years of age, A. D. 36r« * 

35. Valens, in the east, was the scourge of his peo- Valcn^- 
pie. The Huns, a new race of barbarians, of Tartar or '^'^^JJa^ 
Siberian origin, now poured down onthe provinces both 

of the west and east. The Goths, comparatively a 
civilized people, fled before them. The Visigoths, who 
were first attacked, requested protection from the em- 
pire, and Valens imprudently gave them a settlement in 
Thrace. The Ostrogoths made the same request, and, 
on refusal, forced their way into the same province. 
Valens gave them battle at Adrianople. His army 
was defeated, and he was slain in the engagement. The 
Goths, unresisted, ravaged Achaia and Pannonia. 

36. Gratian, a youth of great worth, but of little Gratian and 
energy of character, asssumed Theodosius as his col- their deathal 
league. On the early death of Gratian, and the 
minority of his son Valentinian II. Theodosius govern- 
ed both the eastern and western empire with ^reat 

ability. The character of Theodosius, deservedly 



Bumamed the Greats was worthy of the best ages of 
the Roman state. He successfully repelled the ea- 
croachments of the barbarians, and secured by whole* 
some laws, the prosperity of his people* He died 
after a reign of eighteen years, assigning to his sons, 
Arcadius and Hr^norius, the separate sovereignties of 
east and west« A. D. 395* In the reign of Theodosius 
flourished Ausonius, Eunaptus, Pappus, Theon, Pru- 
dentius, St. Austin, St. Jerome, and St. Ambrose.* 

Arcadini 37. In the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius the 

iio'mrhw '* sons and successors of Theodo&ius, the barbarian na- 
in the veitf tions established themselves in the frontier provinces 
both of the east and west. Theodosius had committed 
the government to Rudnus and Stilkho during the 
nonage of his sons; and their fatal dissensions gave 
every advantage to the enemies of the empire. The 
Huns, actually Rufinus, overspread Armenia, 

* I'he reign of Tri«oi]o8m» was signalized by the downfall of the pa|;an superstition* 
and the full establishment of the christian religion in the Roman empire. This great 
revototion of opinions is highly worthv of attention, and naturally indaees a retros- 
pect to the condition of the christian church, from its institution down to tJhis period. 

It has heen frequently remarked (because it is an obvious truth), that at the time oF 
our S)iviour'3 birth a divine revelation seemed more peculiarly needed; and that, from 
a concurrence of circumstances, the state of the world was then uncommonly favourable 
for the extensive dissemination of the doctrines which it conveyed. The Union of so 
many nations under one power, and the extennon of civilisation, were favourable to the 
progress of a religion which prescribed universal charity and benevolence The gross 
suikerstitions of paganism, and its tendency to corrupt the morals, contribu^d to ex- 
plode its influence with every thinking mind, bven the prevalent pbitosophy of the 
times, epicurism, more easily understood than the refinements of the Platonists, and 
more grateful than the severities of the Stoics, tended to degrade human nature to the 
level of the brute creation. The christian religion, thus necessary for the reformation 
of the world, found its chief partisans in the friends of virtue, and its enemies among 
the votaries of vice 

The persecution which the christians suffered from the Romans has been deemed 
an deception to that spirit of toleration which they showed to the religions of other na- 
tions: but they were tolerant only to those wbose theologies were not hostile to their 
own The religion 'of the Romans was interwoven with their political constitution. 
The zeal of the christians, aiming at the suppression of all idolatry, was naturally re- 
garded as dangerous to the state; and hence they were the object of hatred and perse- 
cution. In the fiiit century the christian church suffered deeply under Nero, and !)»• 
luitiant yet those persecutions had no tendency to check the progress of its doctrines. 

It is a matter of question, whatwas the form of the primitive church, and the natnre 
of its government; and on this head much difference of opinion obtains, not onlv between 
eatholics and protestants, but between the different classes of the latter, as the Luthe- 
rans and Calvinists it is moreover an opinion, that our Saviour and his apostles, con- 
fining their precepts to the pure doetrmes of religion, have lert all christian societies tc» 
regulate their frame and government in the manner best suited to the civil constitutions 
of the countries in which they are established 

In the second centut^ the books of the New Testament were collected into a volume 
hj ^ elder fathers of the ohnrch, and received as n canon of fiuth. The Old Testa- 




Cappadocia, and Syria. The Goths, under Alaric, ra- ••« f^ortuted 
vagcd to the border of Italy , and laid waste Achilla to tLeatt^ u 
the Peloponnesus. Stilkho, an able general, made a Greece i* <?«. 
noble resistance against those invaders ; but his plans cfe^/ ami 
were frustrated by the machinations of his rivals, and 
the weakness of Arcadius, who purchased an ignomi- 
nious peace, by ceding to Alaric the whole of Greece. 
The mean and dissdlute Arcadius died in the year 408^ 
leaving the eastern empire to his infant son Theodo- 
sius II* 

38. Alaric, now styled king of the Visigoths, pre '^^la¥ie 
pared tp add Italy to his new dominions. He passed M9 death, ' 
the Alps, and was every where successful, when the 
politic Stilicho, who then commanded the armies of 
Honprius, amu'sing him with the prospect of a new 
tession of territory, attacked by surprise and defeated 
his army. On that occasion the emperor triumphantly 

xnent had been translflted from the liebrew into Greek, by order of Ptolemy PhilfldeU 

Shu8, 284 yeurs before Christ The early church suffered much from an absurd en* 
eavoiir of the more learned of its votaries to reconcile its doctrines to the tenets of the 
pagan philosophers, hence the sects of the Gnostics and Ammonians. and the Plato- 
nising christians. In the second century the Greek churches be»in to fortn provincial 
■ssociatirtns, and to establish g^eneral rules of government an)! discipline. Assemblies 
were held, termed f^noc/of' and concilia^ over which a metropolitan presided. A short 
time after arose the superior order oi patriarch, presiding over a large district of the 
Christian world; and a subordination taking place even amvng these, the bishop ot' liome 
was acknowledged the chief of the patriarchs Persecution still attended the e: rl/ 
church, even under those excellent princes, Trajan, Adrian, and the Autonines; and, in 
Oie re>gn of Sevems, all the provinces of the empire were stained with the blood of the 

The third century was more favourable to the progress of Christianity and the tran- 
quillity of its disciples In those times it suffered less from the civil power than from 
ihe pens of the pagan philosophers. Porphyry, Philostratus, &c.; but those attacks cal- 
led forth the zeal and talents of mvay able defenders, as Origen, Uionysius, and Cyprian. 
A par t of the Gauls, Germany.and Bntain, received the light of the gospel in this century. 

Ill thefouith century tl\e christian cbureh was alternately persecuted and cherishecl 
by the Roman emperors. Among its oppressors we rank Diocletian, Galerius, and 
Julian; among its favourers, Coi^stantine and his sons, ValeqtiDian, Valens, Gratian, and 
the excellent Theodosius; in wliose reign the pagan superstition was finally extinguished. 

Fi'om the age of Numa to the reign of Gratian the Romans preserved the regular 
succession of the several sacerdotal col leges/ the pontiffs, augjurs, vestalsy^fmnetf, salii^ 
kc, whose authority, though weakened in the jatter ages, was still protected by the 
laws Even the christian emperors held, like their pagan predecessors,^ the office of 
ponUfex maximuB. Gratian was the first who refused that ancient dignity as a profa- 
nation. In the time of Theodosius the cause of cl^ristianity and of paganism was so- 
lemnly debated in the Komao senate, between Ambrose, arehbishop of of Milan, the 
champion of the former, and Symmachus, the defender of the latter. The cause of 
Christianity was triumphant, and the' senate issued a decree for the abolition of pagan- 
ism, whose downfal in the capital was soon followed by its extinction in the provinces^ 
Theodosius, with able policy, .permitted no persecution of ihe ancient religion^ whicli 
]pei*islied with mor« rapidity because its fall w«s gentle and unresisted. 


celebrated the eternal defeat of the Gothic nation; ati 
eternity bounded by the lap&e of a few months. In 
this interval, a torrent of the Goths breaking down 
upon Germany forced the nations whom they dis- 
possessed, the Suevi, Alani, and Vandals, to precipitate 
themselves upon Italy. They joined their arms to 
those of Alaric, who, thus reinforced, determined to 
overwhelm Rome. The policy of Stilicbo made him 
change his purpose, on the promise of 400O pounds 
weight of gold ; a promise repeatedly broken by Hq» 
norius, the which was finally revenged by Alaric, by 
the sack and plund<ir of the city, A. D« 410. With 
generous magnanimity he spared the lives of tKe van- 
quished, and, with singular libeirality of spirit, was 
anxious to preserve every ancient edifice from destruc- 
tion. Alaric preparing now for the conquest of Sicily 
and Africa, died at this era of his highest glory. 

•»w{<^*<' 39* Honorius, instead of profiting by this event to 
gundiant, ' recover his lost provinces, made a treaty with his suc- 
cessor Ataulfus, gave him in marriage bis sister Pla- 
cidia, and secured his friendship by ceding to him a 
portion of Spain, while a great part of what remained 
had been before occupied by the Vandals. Soon after- 
ward he allowed to the Burgundians a just title to 
their conquests in Gaul. Thus the western empire 
was passing by degrees from the dominion of its an- 
cient masters* Honorius died in the year 423. The 
laws of Arcadius and Honorius are,, with a few excep- 
tions, remarkable for their wisdom and equity; which 
is ^ singular circumstance, considering the personal 
character of those princes, and evinces at least that they 
employed some able ministers. About this time 
flourished Sulpicius Severus, Macrobius, Anianus,Pa- 
nodorus, Stobcsus, Servius the commentator, Hypatia, 
Pelagius, Synpsius, Cyrill, Orosius, Socrates, &c. 

Cfem^aidis^ 40. The Vandals, under Genseric, subdued the 

de tariff^ Roman province in Africa* The Huns, in the east, 

pifm. extended their conquests from the borders of China to 

the Baltic s^a. Vniev Attila they laid waste M«&ia 


and Thrace ; and Theodosius II. after a mean attempt 
to murder the barbarian general, ingloriously submitted 
to pay him an annual tribute. It was in this crisis of 
universal decay that the Britons implored the Romans 
to defend them against the Picts and Scots, and receiv- 
ed for answer, that they had nothing to bestow on them 
but compassion. The Britons, in despair, sought aid 
from the Saxons and Angles, who seized, as their pro- 
perty, the country which they were invited to protect, 
and founded, in the fifth and sixth centuries, the king- 
doms of the Saxon heptarchy. About this time flou- 
rished Zozimus, Nestorius, Theodoret, Sozomen, and 

41. Attila, with an army of 500,000 men threatened Vaientinian 
the total destruction of the empire. He was ably op- in the west. 
posed by ^tius, general of Vaientinian III. now em- 
peror of the west. Vaientinian was shut up in Rome 

by the arms of the barbarian, and at length compelled 
to purchase a peace. On the death of Attila his 
dominions were dismembered by his sons, whose dis- 
sensions gave temporary relief to the falling empire. 

42. After Vaientinian III. we have in the west aAttgustuius; 
succession of princes, or rather names, for the events ^/ J^S'^^JT^ 
of their reigns merit no detail. In tKe reign of 
Romulus, surnamed Augustulus, the son of Orestes, 

the empire of the west came to a final period. Odoacer, 
prince of the Heruli, subdued Italy, and spared the 
life of Augustulus, on condition of his resigning the 
throne, A. O. 476. From the building of Rome to 
extinction of the western empire, A« D. 476, is a 
period of 1224 years. About this time flourished Eu^ 
tyches, Prosper, Victorius, Sydonius, and ApoUinaris. 

43. The Berulian dominion in Italy was of short Theodorie; 
duration. Theodorie, prince of the Ostrogoths, after- pj^l*^^ ^f^g 
wards deservedly surnamed ^^^ Greaty obtained per-we*'* 
mission of Zeno, emperor of the east, to attempt the 
recovery of Italy, and a promise of its sovereignty as 

74 ^1^^ OP AKCIBNT H!8T01tt> 

the reward of his succ^a. The whole nation of the 
Ostrogoths attended the stsuidard of Theodoric, who 
was victorious in repeated engagements, and at length 
compelled Odoacei* to surrender all Italy to the con- 
queror. The Romans had tasted happiness under the 
government of Odoacer; hut their happiness was in* 
creased under the dominion of Theodoric, who pos- 
sessed every talenl and virtue of a sovereign. His 
equity and clemency rendered him a blessing to his 
subjects. He allied himself with all the surrounding 
nations, the Franks, Visigoths^^ Burgundians, and 
Vandals. He left a peaceable sceptre to his grandson 
Athalaric, during whose infancy his mother Amala- 
sonte governed with such admirable wisdom and mo- 
deration, as left her subjects noreal^rause of regret for 
the loss of her father. About this time flourished 
Boethius and Syromuchus. « 

Ja^iniftn f. 44; While such was the state of Gothic Italy, the 

wn the eaaSy ^ ^ ' 

retakealtaiy. empire ot the east was under the government of Jus- 
tinian, a prince of mean ability, vain^ capricious^ and 
tvrannical. Yet the Roman name rose for a while 
from its abasement by the merit of his generals. Be- 
lisarius was the support of his throne; yet Justinian 
treated him with the most shocking ingratitude. The 
Persians were at this time the most formidable enemies 
of the empire, under their sovereigns Cabades and 
Cosrhoes; and from the latter, a most able prince, 
Justinian meanly purchased a peace, by a cession of 
territory, and an enormous tribute in gold. The civil 
factions of Constantinople^ arising from the most con- 
temptible of causes, the v disputes of the performers in 
the circus and amphitheatre, threatened to hurl Justi- 
nian from the throne, but were fortunately composed 
by the arms and the policy of Belisarius. This great 
general overwhelmed the Vandal sovereignty of Af- 
rica, and recovered that province to the empire. He 
wrested Italy from its Gothic sovereign, and once more 
restored it for a short time to the dominion of its an- 
cient masters. 



45. Italy was again subdued by the Goths under the J^ >> ^// re- 
heroic Totila, who besieged and took the city of Rome,^^'/^ 
but forebore to destroy it at the request of Belisarius. 
The fortunes of Belisarius were now in the wane* He 
was compelled to evacuate Italy, and on his return to 
Constantinople, his long services were repaid with dis- 
grace. He was superseded in the command of the 
armied by the eunuch Narses, whoi defeated Totila in a 
(decisive engagement, in which the Gothic prince was 
slain. N arses governed Italy with great ability for 
thirteen years, when he was ungratefully recalled by 
Justin II. the successor of Justinian. He invited the 
Lombards to avenge his injuries; and this new tribe of 
invaders ov.crran and conquered the country, A. D. 
568.* Under the reigit of Justinian I. flourished Jor- 
nandes, Paul the Silentiary, Simplicius, Dionysius, 
Procopius, Proclus, Narses^ and Priscian. 

46. We will conclude this abstract of ancient history Conc*V«». 
by remarking for the benefit of the junior student, that 
its context with modem history is maintained in the 
construction of a new empire by Charlemagne in the 
west; iand the gradual extinction of the other branch 
of the empire, and the substitution of a new one, by the 
Saracens in the east* 


* For a oonneeted view of these destructiTe operations of the bapbarians on the Ro 
man empire, the reader is referred to the /%e eecand Gothic progre^i^ in the la»t vo^ 







From the Creation to the Deluge^ which includes 1656 


I- 1* HOW many years from the creation to the de« 

^^^^^' luge? In how many days did God create the world? 
Who was the first man and first woman? Who were 
their sons? What their occupations? Which of them 
slew his brother? What was their character, and what 
the inventions of their posterity? When was the world 

2* Who was Enoch? When did he flourish? What 
became of him? Who was his son? How long did his 
son live? What was the usual length of human life at 
that time? Whence sprung the race of the giants? 

3. Why did God destroy the old world by a deluge^ 
When happened the deluge? How high did the waters 
rise? Who were saved from the deluge, and by wiiat 
means? By whom was the earth peopled after the 



-jf^m the Belug'e to the vocation of Abraham^ 1920 be^ 
fore Christ; containing 427 y^ears* 


1. HOW many years from the deluge to the calling II. 
of Abraham? By whom was the tower of Babel found- ASSYRIA, 
cd? On what design, and when? Why was the build* 

ing laid aside? Who was the first king of Babylon? 

2. What was the state of Egypt iathe time of Nim* m, 
rod? What the names of the dynasties? For what were EGYPT, 
the Egyptians at this time renowned? Who, according ^* 
to the Egyptians; first taught music, letters, religion, 

8cc.? Who invented physic and anatomy? Who reign- 
ed first in Egypt? Who was the most famous among 
their princes? What were his achievements? Who 
were the Lings that assumed the name of Pharaoh? 

Z. Whose son was Ninus? Why is he said to be II. 
the author of idolatry? What were his chief actions? Assyria. 
Where, and how long is he said to have reigned? Who 
founded Nineveh? 

4« Whose queen was Seroiramis? What were her 
exploits, and the length of her reign? 

5. Whose son was Ninyas? What was lus charac- IV. 
ter? What the character of his successors? Who was M^DlA. 
the last of them, and what was his end? How long is ^* 
the Assyrian monarchy said to have lasted; smd ifi this 
account of it thought to be genuine? 

^. Who was Abraham? When was he called by V. 

God? What the history of his life? CANAAN. 


7 When flourished the Titans? Who was the eldest yj^ 
of theni? Why was Jupiter esteemed a god? Why was GREECE. 
Neptune called god of the sea, and Pli&to the god of 1» 




from the vocation of Abraham to the departure of the 
Israelites out of Egypty\^9i before Christ; compre." 
hendinff 429 years. 

V. 1. HOW many years from the vocation of Abra« 

QANAAN.)|2^iii to the departure of the Israelites from Eg>'pt? 

^ Whose son was Isaac? When was he born? Who was 

. his wife? Who were his sons? Who were Jacob's wives? 

Who his sons? What other name did Jacob obtain? 

What is the story of Joseph? When, and upon what 

invitation did Jacob and his family go down to Egypt? 

VI. 2. Who was Ihachus? When did he flourish? Who 

^Eft£CV. ^^g jjjg ^n^ 31, J ij^hat is recorded of him? Who were 

the children of Jupiter? When did they flourish, and 
for what were they famous? Who was Ogyges? For 
what was his reign remarkable? By whom' was Sparta 
built, and when? Who was Argus? What city did he 
found? Why said to have had 100 eyes? When lived 
Job, and for what famed? 

3* Who were Prometheus a,nd Atlas? Why is Pro- 
metheus said to have made a man of clay? Why repre- 
sented as chained to Caucasus? Why said to have sto- 
len fire from heaven? Why is Atlas $^aid to sustain hea- 
ven on hi^ shoulders? 

V. 4. Who was Moses, and when was he bom? Haw 

CANAAN, educated? By whose assistance, by what means, and 
' when did he bring the Israelites okt of Egypt? 

5. What miracles attended the Israelites in their 
travels from Egypt, and through the deserts? Who 
was their high-prie§t? Where was the law given? 
What was the number of their army in the 40th year 
of their journeying? How many of diose who had come 
out of Egypt were then alive? What 4iecame of M#- 
ses? Who was his successor? 



6 By whom was Athens founded, and when? Who VI. 
was Mercury? When did he flourish? What was he cnEBCBt' 

the author of? Where reigned Deucalion? Who was his •• 
wife? For what were they renowned? 

7. What is the story of Phaeton? Who was Oeno- VII. 
trus? What . were his achievementsJl Who wert tho- ^'A*-'*'» 
Aborigines? Whence the Viame Italy? 


J ' ' f 

prom the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt t$ 
the destruction qf Troy ^ IIM before Christy contain^ 
inff 307' years* 

1. HOW many years from the the excision V, 
of Troy? What the history of Joshua and his wars? CANAAJKT 
When came he and the Israelites to the possession of ^ 

9. What the story of Danaus? What is recorded of yj^ 
Orcus and Proserpina? What the story of Jupiter and «RE£UBi 
Europe, and who were her spns? What the Areopa* 4/. 
gites? Who was Busitis? 

3. Who was Othoniel, and when did he cut off the y^ 
king of Mesopotamia? What the $tory of Ehud? For CAKAAj^. 
what was Deborah renowned? When was Sisera slain, ^* 
and by whom? 

4. What account give historians of Tri8megistU8,Jlrxtfrffl*#* 
#f Janus, of Cadmus, of Rhadamanthus, of Minos, ^•''"*** 
and of Acrisius? 

5. What is said of Amphion, of Bacchus, of Per- 
seus, of Pelops, of Niobe^ and of DardanUs? Whence 
the iiame of Troas? 

•0 RECAPltULAlriON- 

VII. 6. What the history of Saturn? What is said o^ the 
ITALY. Pelasgi? What the story of Siculus? Who were Sa- 
tum^s successors? For what is the wife of Faunas re- 

V. . f • Who was Gideon ? How, and when did he de- 
CANAAN. feat the Midianites? Who was Abimelech, and what 

®* is said of himi 

VI. 8. Who were the Argonauts, and what their history? 
GREECE. What is meant by the Golden fleece? Whence, whither, 

^* and when was it carried off? 

9* Who was Theseus, and what his adventures with 
respect to the Minotaur and Centaurs? 

ScytMm , 10* Who were the Amazons^ nnd by whom con- 
tnaxont. q^g^ed? What is farther said of Hercuka and Tlie- 

11. Who were the sons of Pelops, and what Aeir 
history? What the story of Oedipu^ Who were hb 
sons, and what is said of them? / 

CANAAN. *^* When flourished Jephtha, and what his st^ry? 

VII. 13. What occasioned the Trojan War? Whesi Vig^ 
TROY. Troy destroyed? 



From the destruction of Troy to the fmshing- and 
dedication of the terftpk at Jermxtlem by Solomon^ 
1021 before Christ; including 163 years. 

VII. 1. HOW many years from the destruction of Tfoy, 
ITALY, to the dedication of the temple vix J^usaletn? What 
the adventures of jEneas? 



2. What the histoiy of Sampsoii? How, and when y, 
did he die^ CANAAN. 


3. Who founded, and who were the kings of A|ba yit. 
Longa? ITALY, 


4. When, and by whom was Saul anointed king of V. 
IsraeU How long was Israel under judges? CANAAN. 

5. What the story of^ the Heraclidaef When hap- VI. 
pened their return? GREECE. 

6. Wheti came Saul to the throne? How, and how V. 
long did he reign?' By what mean&, and when did David CANAAN. 
obtain the kingdom? ^^* 

7. What the character of king David? How long 
did he reign? 

8. Who was Codrus? What his story? Who was VI. 
the first Archon of Athens? GREECE. 

9. How long reigned Solonron? When did he dedi- y. 
cate the temple? What was his character? When flou- canaan. 
rished Homer? ^^* 

CHAP. yi. 

Froni the dedication of the Temple to the ' building' of 
Some J 748 before Chriit; comprehending' 273 years. 

1. HOW mtmy years from the dedication of the Divided inu 
temple to the huilding of Rome? What occasioned the j^^^' ''"^ 
dTsmt^mbernig -of the Hebrew monarchy? How long 

did Rehoboam reign? Who was his successor? 

2. How long reigned Abijah? How long Asa? Jvdah, and 
What his character? In his reign who were kings oiJSit^^' 
Batitim and Israiel? 


d. What Jehoshaphat's character? How long his 
reign? Who was then king of Samaria? Who the exni* 
nent prophet? What the story of Tiberinus? 

4. What Jehoram^s character? How long his reign? 
" How long reigned Ahaziah? Who was then ki^g of 


5. How long reigned Joash? What the fate of Ro«^ 
mulus Sylvius? What the story of Aventinus? 

VI. 6. How long reigned Am^ziah? Who was Lycur* 

GREECE, g^g? What his history? How long reigned Uzziah? 

IX. 7, What is related of Elisa or Dido? When was 

TMAGE. Carthage founded? What is said of Bocchorus? 

VI. 8. What were the Olympic games? By whom in- 
GUEECE. stituted? By whom, and when revived? When died 

®- Hesiod? 

mixed ac- 9. What J otham's character? How long his reign? 
^^^"'' Who was Theopompus? What his history? 

VII. 10. What are we told of Amulius? What the his- 
ITALY. ^^^ q£ Romulus and Remus? When was Rome built? 


Frofn the building of Rome to the liberation of the Jeijos 
from the Babylonish captivity by Cyrus^ 534 before 
Christy in thej^rst year of the Persian empire; con^ 
taining 214 years. 

1. HOW long from the building of Rome, to the 
liberation of the Jews by Cyrus? What the achieve- 
ments of king Romulus? How long reigned he? 



.. .9. By whom and when was the Assyrian empire n. 
founded? How long did it subsist? Who were the ASSYRIA. 

Assyrian^ monarchs, and what remarkable in their 2* 
reigns? When,- and by whom was this empire over- 

3. By whbm, and when was the Bybylonian em- X* 
pire founded? How long did it subsist? Who were the BABYLOir. 
Babylonian roonarchs, and what remarkable in their . ^* 
reigns? When, and by whom was this empire over- 

4. By whom, and wlien was the empire of the jy^ 
IVIedes founded? Who were their kings, and what MEDIA, 
memorable in their reigns? When, and by whom was , 2- 
this empire overturned? 

S» When came So or Sabacus to the throne of HI. 

Egypt? Who were his successors for the two follow- «^gypt. 

ing centuries? ^ ^* 

6. When, and by whom were the ten tribes carried V. 
captive? What is recorded of Tobias? Who was then CANAAN, 
king of Judah? What eminent prophet then flourished? ^^* 

7. What is the History of Numa Pompilius? How VII. 
long did he reign? ITALY. 

8. Who was Manasseh, and when did he reign? y. 
What is recorded of Judith? What do historians say^^-^^-^^N. 
of Gyges? ^3* 

9. What the history of TuUus Hostillius? Hbw VII. 
long did be reign? What the fate of Ammon? n'ALY« 

10. What the history of Ancus Martins? How long 
his reign? What the fate of Josiah? What prophet then 

1 1. What the history of Tarquinius Priscus? How 
long reigned be^ 


VI* 12« When flourtshod Draco? What the nature of 

GRfcifciCB. his laws? What was said of them? 

V. 13. ^ho reigned in Judea after Josiah? When, ^Qd 

CANAAN, by whom was Jerusalem burnt? What became of the 

^^* people? 

GiiEEC£ ^^'- W^®*^ flourished the wise men of Greece? What 

11^^ is recorded of Solon? 

iTAi T ^ ^' ^'^^^ were the principal transactions in the reiga 

g^ of Servius Tullius? How long his reign? 

Mixed uB^ 16. What tyrants flourished about this time? What 

**^" * wise men? What poets? 

^I- 17. What the history of Cvrus? When were the 


Jews liberated? What is said of Daniel? 

18. How and when died Cyrus? Wheie was be bu- 
ried? How long subsisted the Persian empire? Who 
were the Persian monarchs? 

CHAP- vin. 

From the liberation of the Jews by Cyrus to the over^ 
throw of the Persian empire 4y Alexander the Greaty 
33^0 before Christ; incltulhff 994» year 9* 

; • 

VII. 1. HOW many years from the liberation of the 

ITALIC Jews to- the overthrow of die Persian empire? What 

^ the history of Tarquinius Superbus;? Whei^ swd for 

what was he expelled? What was the ifumber of the 

Boman kings^ and how long subsisted the regal aucho- 

. rity? "^^^ 

2. What kind of government succeeded at Rome? 
Who were the first coDSvils? HoW di4 Brutus shew 
 his zeal for liberty? 




S. What the heroic conduct of Harmodius? GREbCB 


4. What the story of Cambyses? What the fate pf XI. 
Smerdisf PERStA. 


5. How was Darius Hystaspes chosea l^ing of the 

6. What favour shewed Darius Hystaspjes to the 
Jews? By what means did he recover Babylon? 

7. What efforts did Tarquinius Superbus use in VII. 
order to be restored? What the story of Codes, ef ''[^^^ 
Clelia, and of Mutius? What course did Porsenna a( 

last takef 

8. What the history of the battle at the lake Regil- 
lus? When was it fought? Who then reigned at Syr^« 

9* What the. history of the battle of Maratl^on? p^gj^ 
When was it fought? 3^ 

10. What occasioned the secession of the commons VIL 
at Rome? How were they appeased? ITALY. 

11. What the story of Coriplanus? What th^ vic- 
tory of Caasius? Why, how, and when was he put to 

12. What is most memorable ia the life of Arts'- VI. 
tides? ««;f»- 


13. What the story of the Fabii? ITALX. 


14. What the history of X^rxes's ezpe^tion against *'*.. 
Greece? In what ye^ did it happen? ^ 

15. Who gained the victory in the battle at Platea? 
Who was Herodotus, and when did he flourish? 




VII. 16. What the story of Q. Cincinnatus? By whom 

ITALY, ^ere the Qreek cities of Asia restored to liberty? 

What philosophers at this time made a figure? 

17. When were the Decemviri created? What re- 
markable thing did they do? Why were they deposed? 
What kind of government ensued? 

XI. 18. What favour did Artaxerxes shew to the Jews, 

nusiA. ^^^ when? What men of genius were at this time il- 

VII. t9. When were the military tribunes with consular 

1^^ authority created at Rome? When the censors? What 
the achievements of Cornelius Cossus? 

VI. 20. When broke out the Peloponnesian war? How 
GREfiOE. iQug ^i^ i^ ijmj? -^yijq wrote the history of it? 


21. Who were the Athenian generals in the war 
against the Syracusans? When did this war happen? 
How did it turn out? 

. 22. What men of learning and genius flourished at 
this time? what is recorded of Diagoras? 

VII. 23. What the history of the Galli Senones? What 
^'^^y^' provoked them to burn Rome? When did this happen? 

VI. 24. What happened to Athens about this time? By 

GRKRCE. ^hom, and when were the tyrants turned but? 

Mixed a^- 25. What is recorded of Ctesias of Cnidus? What 
**^''" other famous men were his cotemporaries? 

26. What famous generals flourished at this time? 
What the character of Epaminondas? 

VIL 27. What the achievements of Camillus? Who was 
ITALY, ^hg gjpg^ Plebeian consul? 


28. What the achievements of Epaminondas, and VI. 
where was he slain? To what is the decay of the mar- GRkEGE. 
tial spirit among the Lacedemonians ascribed? *^* 

29. What conquests did the Carthaginians about IX. 
this time make f What the fate of Dionysius, father and thagb. 
son? How was Isocrates now employed? 2. 

30. What the exploit of T. Manlius? What the VII. 
story of Valerius? ^'^^^^' 

31. Where, and when was Alexander the Great VL 
born? What the conquests of his father Philip at this 6Rt.K€E. 
time? Who obstructed the progress of his arms? By ^ <^» 
whom was he slain? Who was then Ung of the Per- 
sians? , 

32. What wars were the Romans at this time en- yij^ 
gaged in? What the story of Manlius Torquatus ? iTALT. 
What are we told of Decius Mus? What use did the ^8* 
Romans make of the ships of the Antiates^ What 

men of letters flourished then.^ 

33. Who was preceptor to Alexander the Great? Yl* 
What his conquest till the battle of Issus? GJIEECB. 

34. What wer« his other wars and adventures till •^^f**'' 
he overturned the Persian empirei When did this hap- the Greek 
pen? •^^^^ 


From the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alexander 
the Greats to the defeat of Perseus his last successor 
in Greece^ by JSmilius Paulus^ 167 before Christy 
when Rome became the mistress of the world; comprt^ 
hending 163 years. 

1. HOW many years from the overthrow of the 
Persian empire to ^he defeat of Perst-as? Wh u con- 
quests did Alexander make after erecting the Mace* 


doman empire? WKere, and when did he die? WVvat 
historians of note flourished in his reign? 

Grttkem^ 2. How was Alexander's great empire divided? 
firt ciitMfed w^at men of letters now made a figure? 

VII. ^' When, and hy whom was the Appian way paved 
ITALY, at Romt? what the history of the Tarentine war? 
t^- when was il ended? 

III. *• How long did the successors of Alexander reign 

EGYPT, in Egypt? Who were these princes, and hpw long did 
^* • each of them reign? 

VII. 5* What the history of Agathocles? What the 
ITALY, character of Hiero? 

J^f*« Pww. ^* When broke out, and what occasioned the first 
"«'•• Punic war? Wh-^t the history of it, and how long did 

it last? What the notable exploit of Marcellus? What 
perpetuates the memory of C. Flaminius? 

Mxedae- 7. What men of learning flourished in the reign of 
cwnt. Ptolemy Philadelphus? What pains did Ptolemy take 

to furnish his library at Alexandria? Who was the 

first king of the Parthians? 

SecondPiu 8. How long from the first to the second Punic war? 
nic toars What gave rise to the second Punic war? What the 

history of it in Italy? 

-K» Siciigi 9* What success had the Romans in Sicily.^ 

--«n 5/wiin, 10, What feats performed Cor. Scipio in Spain and 
Italy, and Africa? What became of Asdrubal? 

.Peace again jj^ When Was Annibal recalled from Italy? What 

**^" * measures did he then take? When was the war ended? 


12. What hopour was conferred on Cor. Scipio? 
What is recorded witli respect to the poet Ennius? 
' Who Were hiis cotemporiea? 


18. What the history of the Macedonian war? How 2J^^^*• 
long did it last? When was it ended? 

14. What the histoiy of the war with Antiochus? Pfar/udth 
How, and when died Hannibal? What poet now flou- **** 
rished? , 

15. What other wars were the Romans enga^d in Othertuceei^ 
at this time? Who was Perseus? When was he con- amu. 

16. What wars in Judea at this time? ^"^• 


Ftofti ihe defeat of Perseus^ to the birth of Christ or 
the beginning of ihe Christian osra; including 167 

1. HOW many years from the defeat of Perseus, T%ir</Pii«fc 
to the birth of Christ? What occasioned the third Pu- '^^^' 

nic war? How long did it last? When was Carthage 
destroyed? Who were the men of letters P. Scipio 
so much esteemed? Who succeeded them? 

2. For what offence, by whom, and when was Co- The Achtan 
rinth destroyed? What the case of Lusitania? By^^"**^' 
whom, and when was Numantia razed? 

3. What the history of the Agrarian law? When ^graviwi 
died Attalus? What his testament? ditimi. 

4. What the insurrection of Eunus? By whom, ^sAlnnm^ctim 
when quelled? What satirist then flourished? 

5. What the history of the Jugurthine war? How, ^S^^^^ 
and when was it ended? In what other wars did Ma- 

rius command? 

90 ' 

iaiw and m- 


6. What attempts were now made to revive tha 
Agrarian \Awf 

TheSncUd 7. What the history of the social war? When did 
Aristobulus receive the ensigns of royalty in Judea? 


8. What gave occasion to the Mithridatic war? 
Whence arose the civil war at this time? By whom, 
and when was the Mithridatic war ended? 


9. what the further progress of the civil war? 
When died Sylla? 

^2jJ| •/ 10. What the history of the war with Sertorius? 
How, and when was it ended? 

^^T^^^ 11. What the story of Spartacus? Did not pirates 

in Itmbf, 

likewise raise disturbances at the same time? 

d!^i7a ^^* ^^^ Mithridatic war being renewed, who was 

province, the Roman general, and what his success? On what 

occasion was Metellus named Creticus? By whom, 

in what manner, when was the Mithridatic war ended? 

Judea re- 

13. What the history of Pompcy^s going to Judea? 
When did he return? 

eatiUn^s " 14. What the history of Catiline's conspiracy? By 
€^9ptrac^. ^j^Qjjj^ j^nj when was it crushed? What became of 

Cicero? For what was he illustrious? What men of 
learning now flourished? What person of distinctioa 
was bom this year? 

V^^^'l 1^' How was the first triumvirate formed? What 

rate. provinces were assigned to the triumvirs? 

Cratsu^ 16. What the history of Crassus's expedition into 

*-«* Asia? ^ 

Chdlwari 17. What the conquests of Julius Caesar in Gaul? 
How, and when broke out the civil wars? 


18. What the history of Cesar's civil wars till the -^commencrd 
jdeath of Pompey? ^ jJo^^*^ *** 

19. What Cesar's ad vetttures in Egypt^ ^^4nE^t. 

20. What the progress of Caesar's arms in Asia and —in Jina, 

21. What his victory in Spaio/ -^t ended m 

^ • • Spatn. 

22. What accoui^ts have we of C$esar after the civil Caear dicta- 
wars? By whom, and when was he slain? for /or nfi. 

23. What the history of the disturbances raised by ^ihmy in 
U. Anthony? ''^••- 

24. By what means was Octavius made consul? OctaUtu hit 
What became of M. Anthony after-th» battle of Mu- "^P^"^*' 
tina? How did Octavius execute the orders of the se- 
nate against him and M. Lepidus? 

25. What the conduct jof the new triumvirs? How ^ second 
did they divide the Roman empire? What historian 

now flourished? 


26. Why was Octavius's name changed to Octavia- T^^ucant 
nus? What the history of the battle of Philippic* What 

the story of Sextus Pompey? Who at this time- was 
king of Judea? . 

27. Who gained the victory hi the battle of Ac-^^tf^ny and 
tium? How, and when died M. Anthony and Clco- a^^^^"** 

28. When, and by whom was the title of Augustus (ktcevianus 
conferred on Octavianqs? What the history of Au'^'^f'^''' 
gustus's reign? What poets and .historians then fiou* 

rished, and what is recorded of them? How long 
did Augustus reign? Where and when died he? 
What was his boiist? 


Birth ^ 


29. Wh«n was Jesus Christ bom? What his 
mission, and the prediction of Gabriel? 



Rome under the Emperors— ;/rom the birth of Christy 
to the extinction of the Roman empire in the west 
by Odoacer king of the Heruli^ A. D* 476. 

1. On whom did Augustus confer the empire at his 
death? Whom did he substitute to succeed them^ 

Tiberiui; 2^ What was the character of Tiberius? In what 

hi9 deedt; manner did he accept the empire? Did his affected 

moderation endure? What revolutioiis did he make ia 

the political fabrick? 

pviMtiB Ger- 3, With what sentiment did he regard Germani- 
cus? On what account did he so regard him, and 
what was his conduct towards him? 

•mccutef Se- 4. Who was Tiberius' counsellor? How did he re- 
jonus; quite the favours of Tiberius? How far did he suc- 
ceed-in his plot? What was the consequence of his de- 

Christ emci' 5. In what year of Tiberius' rei^ was our Saviour- 
''^' crucified? What was his age? 

Tibertu9j8 6. What characterized. Tib^rius, and his reign about 
ttrctng . ^j^^ lime? What was his fate and by whom brought 
about? What was his age, and length ot reign? What 
men of letters, Eec* lived about this^me?. 

Caligula; 7. Whom did Tiberius nominate to succeed him? 

^'^^J^'a^^^^Did both succeed in fact? For what acts was ^he reiga 
tion, of Caligula remarkable? What sentiments did his sub- 



jects entertain for him? What was his end, and at 
what time of the city? What was his age, and length 
of reign? . . ' 

8. Who succeeded Calicrula? What was his descent Claudius; 
and character? What enterprise did Claudius under- 
take? What was its success? 


9. What was his civil ad)g||nistration and domestic u poisoned 
chai-acter? What was^is end, how, and by "^^^^^^^^^ 
achieved, and for what purpose? What was his age, 

and length of reign? 

to. Who was the successor of Claudius? What was Nero; 
Nero's real character? Did it thus manifest itself ^tfiltJ^ 
first? What were his atrocities? What were his amuse- 
ments? Who headed the insurrection against' him? 
^What his dastardly resort, and end? What was his age 
and length of reign? What became of the succession of 
Csesars, and of the name? What eminent characters 
flourished about this time? 

,  ' / 


11. Who succeeded Nero, and atl^hat age? WhatCMba; 
was the character of his administration, and the conse- utiain!^ 
quence? What the effects of adopting a new fayourite? 

12. Did Otho now succeed without a rival? In what Otho; 
were they equal? Where did they join battle, and the-^*^'*"*'' 
result? L 

13* Whom did Vitellius, his rival and successor, yi^iiiass 
propose as his model? Was his succession without a ""***'**^^ 
rival? How did he act on the occasion? His fate? 

14. What was the dignity of Vespasian's descent? VespasUn; 
What his merit aqd deportment? What changes did he ' ^ 
make in the body politic? What his vice, and its ex- 

15. When, and by whom, was the war against the J^»^«^ 
Jews ended? In what manner hsid the Jews been go- genera; 


peaet; hit 



verned since their conquest by Pompey? Howhadtibey 
endared their condition, till the seige of Jerusalem hy 
Titi^? Did he spare the city? What the state of the 
empire after the destruction of Jerusalem? At what 
age did Vespasian die, and in what year? 

16. The successor of Vespasian, his character, and 
administration? What remarkable calamity during Che 
reign of Titus, and his c^^duct on the occasion? How 
Iqng did he live, and reign? Tfk manner of his deaths 
and the epithet conferred on him? What eminent cha- 
racters flourished then? 

hiif aMBOSti' 

h»8 tUath* 

17. Who was Domitian? His character? What 
were the* unworthy traits of his reign? Was there any 
worthy achievement? How was Agricola rewarded? 
What was Domitian's end, and by whom ccmducted? 

18. Who succeeded to the empire, and at what age? 
The character of his reign? What worthy deed? The 
time of his death? What literary characters graced this 

T"fr5ott« ^^* ^'^^^ ^^^ TrajAn's merits? What his con- 
tieed», and quests? What the traits of bis internal administration? 
death, ^-^ personal demeanour, and the epithet conferred oix 

him? What was his age, and length of reign? Whsit 

men of merit lived about this time? 

noble deeds, 
and death. 

20. who succeeded Trajan? What were his merits? 
How did the policy of Adrian differ from that of Tra- 
jan? How did he proceed to correct the abu!^s of the 
empire? what was his last important service? How iong^ 
did Adrian reign? When, and at what age did he die? 
Who flourished then? 

Antonjiicr. '21. What was the surname of Antoninus? His 
deedtund Character, military achievements, and domestic adnam* 
death. istration? His age^ and length of i^eign? What men of 
letters lived then? 



22. Who saccecded A. Pius? What name did he as- Antonlne n. 
sume, and what associate? What their comparative «rfwrJ""' 
worth? What military glory, and what disgrace? What a^^^fj^ 
distinguished the reign of Aurelius aftei*'the death of 
Vcrus? When and where did he die; his age, and length 

of reign? Who flourished in this reign? 

23. -Who succeeded A ureliu% Antoninus? Th^^cha- Cpmmodui; 
racter of Gommodus? His amusements? What was his cJ and atwai 
end, and by whom brought about? His age, and reigp? ••''"^'•»«' 
What tnen of fame distinguished it? 

24. Who succeeded Commodus? His birth andPeriinax; 
character? what the consequence of Pertinax's aus-J^/JU^ 

25. In what manner was the empire disposed of Septimias 
after the murder of Perttnaz? Who contended for it, d^fi^ 
and who jsucceeded? What characterised the reign o{'^£^^. 
Septimius Severus? What disturbed his latter days? ikath. 
By whom was his son defeated in Britain,? where did 
Sevtrus die, at what age, &c.? Who flourished in his 

26. Who succeeded Severus? What were the cha- Gameaiia & 
racters of Caracalla and Geta? What their respective ^^'^^^^^^^.^ 
fates, aind the character of this reign? noted. 

27. What interval till the reign of Diocletian, and AUxandcr 
by what emperors filled? Which the most meritorious Md^other 
of them?* Who flourished in the reigns of Alexander ^^^^^''** 
Severus, of Gordian, of Gallus, and of Claudius? 

28. When did Diocletian succeed to the empire? Diocletian & 
Who was his associate? What ciianges did be intro ^f^^^'as. 
duce in the government, and to whom distributed? •<'"«^«^<' 
Who was paramount? What singular measure^ did 
Diocletian and Maximian adopt, and the consequence? "^ 

By what train of events were those differences settled, .. 

and to whom did they affirm the imperial totbority? 

.Who flourished about this this time? . 



C<ms(aiitiii«i 39» What characterized the earlier part of Constan- 
^rt^tl Bv- tineas reign? How reversed in its latter part, and the 
*[^2J|*' consequence of the change? What the diverse eflfects 
of the removal of his court, upon Byzantium and 
Rome? Where did Constaotine die, at what age, &c*? 
What encroachments were commenced in his reign, 
and with what success? 'What men of eminence lived 
then? •. 

Coniteiiciai; oq. Who Succeeded Constantine, and by what pre- 
eroachmentt paratory measures? What depredations were going on 
%g^^^^ in the west and the east, and Constantius's unappro- 
priate vocation at that time? 

Mminu Ju- 3t, What Worthy deed did he consent to do? What 
flamtg^^ the education, and achievements of his general? The 
death. empcror^s conduct towards him, the consequences, and 

how relieved from them? What eminent men graced 

this reign? 

Julian; 32* What successively attracted Julian's attention? 

^rxmnityf What policy did b^ adopt against the christians? The 
Am death, ^^^j^ ^f Y^^^ bigotry? What was his death, at what 

age, &c.? Who flourished in his reign? 

/flwtt°» 33. What did the army at the death of Julian? On 

S^rrfT rt*^' what terms did they extricate themselves from the 

Persians? What did Jovian for the Christiana? His 

death and age? 

^Jlfj*|'||j*'jj, 34. Who was the successor of Jovian? What was 
divide th^ the birth and talent of Valentinian I.? What change 
' ^^^^' did he make in the empire ? To whom did he give the 
eastern division? What encroachments were they then 
suffering in the east and the west? The conduct of Va- 
lentinian to the christians? What footing had the Goths 
procured in the empire, and under what names? On 
what occasion happened Valentinian^s death? 

yaiens— 35, What was the character of Valens in the east? 

is death, Who Were the duns, and how extensive their opera- 


tions? What reception gave Valens to the Visigoths 
and Ostrogothsi? His fate, and the success of the 

36. Who succeeded Valentinian in the west? Who gratian and 
was the associate of Gratianr How were the two em their d^at/a:' 
pires governed after Gratiap^ death? Whose minority 
was under the tutelage of Theodosius I.? What was 
his success against the barbarians? In what year of his 
age, reign^ and of Christ, was his death, and how #id 
he dispose of the empire? What eminent men lived 
in his reign? 

ar. To what generals were the two empires com-^'^'J^^ 
mitted during the minority of ArcadKus and Honorius? uonorius 
What the conduct of R«|6nus and Stilicho to each other *** '** ^'^' 
and to the Goths? The successes of Alaric, and to 
what attributed? The death of Arcadius, and his suc- 
cessor in the east? ' 

38. Whither dbw directs Alaric his attention, and J^^"*^'^^ 
with what success? With what auxiliaries does he re- t/te wesu 
«ew his efforts, and how are they diverted? What was^***^**'** 
their final issue, and the cause? What his conduct to 
the inhabitants and public buildings? What new pre- 
parations^ and by what prevented? 

39; The deportment of Honorius to the son o( Gaul ceded 
Alaric, and afterwards to the Burgundians? Vf\iti\ gundiam,* 
happened his death? Who were the distinguished men 
of this period? ' ' 

4©. What happened next in Africa, in the east, and Oenerai dU» 

in other parts of the empire particularly in Britain? /^T 6arL-^. 
who flourished in the reign of Theodosiiiis 11. ? '*""*• 

41. What fate now threatens the empire, and by Vaientinian 
what two circumatances relieved? . J*» 

tnthe west, 

42. What is the character of the events from Va- Augustuius; 
lentioian, till the reign of Romulus Augustuius ? •/j^^^t^.'' 



What happened then, in what years of Christ and of 
the cttyf Who flourished then? 

Tbcodorie; 43. Did the Herulian dominion endure? By whom 
,^^Jj/^^^8ub verted? What the character and policy of Theodo-' 
ric. To whom did he leave his sceptre? 

joi^ian I. 44, During these events in Italy, who ruled in the 

maibcti^/5'. east? The contrast between Justinian and his generals? 

W^t external and internal disturbances, and how conei- 

posed? Who restores Italy to the Roman domination? 

Jtithttfre- 45* What Gothic prince retakes it, and his forbear- 
jSmi^hti ^^^*^' How were the services of Belisarius requited? 
By whom were the Goths dispossessed again? Hovr 
long did Narses govern Italy? How was he treated by 
Justin, and the final consequence upon the Roman do- 
mination in Italy? What men of letters flourished in 
the reign of Justinian L? 

Cweln$i9n, 46. What remarkable changes of empire in the east 
and the west form the connexion between ancient and 
modem history? 

ra ^ ■eLr^'^td: < 








i EmpircM. 







1. Assyria! 

2. Bactriana, 

3. Persia, 

4. Media, 

5. Syria, 

6. Armenia, 
.7. Asia Minori 

1. i£gyptus, 

2. Syria,* 

3. Assyria, 

4. Persia, 

5. India, 

6. Bactriana, 

7. Media, 

8. Iberia/' 
'9. Armenia, - 

{\ 10/ Asia<Miiior, 

1 1. Thrada, 

12. Libya, 

1. Assyria, 

2. Bactriana» 
5, Persia, 

4. Media, 

5. Armenia) 

under Nimroi> 

*un4er Ninusi 

under Sesostris, 

Before Chruh 



'Uiider Sabdanapalvsi 900. 



^^ ' 




"l. Persia, 
3. BactriaDAt 
3. Media, 

M3ng^d9m$, &c. 

Before ChrUt, 

BMFiM, < 4- Assyria. 




'Under Ctrusi 


divided hu 
genera la. 

5. Syria, 

6. Armenia, 

7. Asia Minor, 

1. Persia, 

2. India, 

3. Bactriana, 

4. Media, 

5. Assyria, 

6. Syria, 

7. Armenia, 
S Iberia, 

9. Asia Minor, 

10. ^gyptus, 

^11. Libya, ^ 

fl. Graecia, 
'a. Thracia, 

3. Asia Minor, 

4. Armenia} 

5. Iberia, 

6. Media, 

7. Bactriana, 

8. India, 

9. Persia, 

10. Assyria, 
U. Syria, 
v3. JEgyptus, 

Li 3. Libya, 
I. Grxcla, 

1. Thracia^ 

2. Asia Minor f part J 

1. Asia Minor (part) 

2. Armenia, 

3. Media, 

4. iBactriana, 

5. India, 

6. Persia, 

7. Assyria, 

8. Syria (part), 
I 1. ^gyptus. 

I 2. Lib^a, 

L3* Syria (part), 

under Daeius HtstaspsSv 509. 

under Alexander, 


to Cassahder, 
to Ltsimacus, 

»to Sei.ei;cus, 

1* Italia, 


CARTHA- f I. Africa Profiria^ 
GKNiAN < 2. Mauretania, 
EMPiRE> L3. Hispania^ 



under the Consuls^ 

under Hannibali 










JSnffs, &c. 


JSefife ChrUt. 

I * 






6. Thracia, 

7. Asia Minor (part), 

8. Syria (part), 
\9, Africa (propria), 

'1. Italia, 

2. Hispania, 

3. Gallia, 

4. Germania (part), 

5. Illyricum, 

6. Grascia, 

7. Thracia, 

8. Asia Minor, 

9. Syria, 

10. iigyptus, 

11. Libya, 
!2. Afriea (propria), 

^ 1 3. Mauretania (part) 



4. Assyria, 
^\\ Italia, 

2. Hispania, 

3. Gallia, 

4. Britannia, 

5. Germania (part), 

6. Illyricum, 

7. Graecia, 

under Julius Cjesar, 


Jlfier Chrkt 
•^under Tiberius CiBSAR) 18. 

) I 

lUider Arsaces Venones, 46. 

EMPIRE, ^ ^ j)^^.^ ^ 

4. ir\ A _i_ JkM 

^under Trajanj 

iO. Asia, Minor, 
U. Armenia, 

12. Syriaj 

13. ^eyptus, 

14. Libya, 

15. Africa (propria), 

16. Mauretania, 

1. Italia, 

2. Hispania, 

3. Gallia, 

4. Britannia, 

5. Germania (part), 

6. Illyricum, 

7. Grscia, 
















r^ w i 









. 3 

I 8. Thracia, 
, ^ 9. Dacia, 

10. Asia Minor, 

11. Armenia, 
»2. Syria, 

13. J&gyptas, 

14. Libya, 

15. Africa (propria), 

16. Mauretania, 

1. Italia, 

2. Hispania, 

3. Gallia, 

4. Britannia, 

5. lilyncum, 

6. Dacia, 

7. Africa Propria, 
""l. Thracia, 

3. Graecia, 

3. Asia Minor, 

4. Syria, 

5. ^gyptus, 
^6. Libya, 
^\, Thracia, 

3 Gr^eitf 

3. Asia Minor, 

4. Armenia, 

5. Syria, 
g^6. ^gyptus, 

7. Lybia, 

8. Africa (propria), 

9. Mauretania, 

10. Italia, 

11. Illyricum, 

1. Bactrimia, 

2. Persia, 

3. Media, 

4. Assyria, 

5. Syria, 

6. J&gyptus, 

7. Libya, 

8. Africa (propria), 

9. Mauretania, 

10. Hispania, 
K Gaaia, 

2. Germania, 

3. Italia, 

4. Illyricum, 

1. Thracia, 

2. Grsecia, 

3. Asia Minor, 

4. Armenia, 



M!in^», ^c. Jifier CkriH. 

»iinder Constavtike, 306. 

nder Honorius, '' 


under Arcadius, 

"under JTysTiNiAN, 

^53 • 

>under Soltmak, 


under Charlem^gnb, 

under Nicephorus 




TABi;.E 11. 



CHEATION, Adam, Eve, 

of Abel, 


of Enos, 

of Cainan, 

of Mahalaleel,^ 

of Jared, 

of Enoch, 

of Methuselah, 

of Lamech, 

of Noah, 

of Japhet, 

of Ham, 

of Shem, 

(the deluge) 


Birth of Arphaxad, 
of Salah, 
of Eber, 
of Peleg, 
of Reu, 
of Serug, * 
. of Nahor, 
of Terah, 
of Abram, 
of Sarah, 

B. G. 




Abraift goes to Mesopotamia, 1929 
Calling of Abram, 1921 

Famine in Canaan — Abram 

and Lot go into Egypt, 1920 

Birth of Ishmael, 1 9 i 

Sodom consumed, 1 897 

Circumcision established, 1897 

Binh of Isaac, 1896 

Isaac marries Rebecca, 1 8^6 

Birth af Jacob, 1 836 

of Reubeo, 1758 

of Simeon, 1757 

of Judah, 1755 

of Dan, 1753 

of Naphtali, 1754 

of Gad, 1754 

of Issachar, 1749 

of Ashur, 1749 

of Zabulon, 1748 

of Levi, 1748 

of Joseph, 17^45 

Jacob returns to Canaan, 1739 
Birth of Benjamin, 17S8 

Joseph sold into Egypt 1728 

is made minister of Egypt, 1715 
Birth of Manasseh, 17 U 

of 5phraim, 1710 

Seven years' famine begins, 1 708 
Jacob removes into Egypt, 1760 
Birth of Kohath, son of Levi, 1 662 
of Amram, son*of Ko- 
hath, 1630 
of Aaron son of Amram, 1 574 
Edict of Pharaoh against the 
male children of the He- 
brews, 1573 
Birth of Motes, son of Am- 
ram, 1571 
Moses returns into Egypt to 
deliver a^d bring back the 
Hebrews, ' 1491 






Deborah and Barak, 





145 If 














Sampftoo bom about 







1. Saul, 1095 

2. David or lahbosheth, 1088 

3. David alone from 1093 to 1015 

4. Solomon, 1015 
Division of the kingdom into 

Judah and Israel, 975 


Two tribe9. 

1. Rehoboam, 975 

2. Abijam, 958 

3. Asa, 955 

4. Jehoshaphat, 914 

5. Jehoram, 889 

6. Amaziah, 885 

7. Athaliah, 884 

8. Joash, 870 

9. Amaziah, 826 
10. Azariab, 810 
11., Jotham^ . 759 
12. Ahaz, 742 
IS. Hezekiah, 726 

14. Manasseh, 698 

15. Amon, 645 

16. Josiah, ,641 

17. Jehoahaz, 6lo 

18. Jehoiakim, 610 

19. Jehoiachin, 599 

20. Jedekiah, 599 

21. Nebuchadnezzar, des- 

troyed Jeinisalem, 588 


Ten tribes, 

1- Jeroboam I, . 975 

2. Nadab, 954 

3. Baasha, 953 

4. Elah," 930 

5. Zimri, 929 

6. Omri, 929 

7. Ahab, 918 
& Ahaziah; 898 


9. Jehoram, 

10. Jehu, 

11. Jeoahaz, 
13. Joash, , 

13. Jeroboam II, 
Interre^um 1 1^ years, 837 

14. Zachariah, 769 

15. Mensdiem, 769 

16. Shallum, 763 

17. Pekehiah, 761 

18. Pekab, 759 

19. Hosea, 759 
Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, 

destroyed the kingdom of 



1. Belus or Nimrod, 

2. Ninus built Nineveh, 

3. Semiramis, 

4. Nynias, 

5. Arius, 

6. Aralius, 

7. Xerxes, or Balaeus, 

8. Armamitheus, 

9. Belochus, 

10. Balxus, 

11. Sethos, or ^Ithadas, 

12. Mamythus, 

13. Manchaleus, 

14. Spharus, 

15. Mamylus, 

16. Sparetus, 

17. Ascatades, 
18 Amyntes, 

19. Belochus, 

20. Lamptides, 

21. Sosares, 

22. Lampraes, 

23. Panyas, 

24. Sosarmus, 

25. Mytraeus, 

26. Teutames, 

27. Teutaeus, 

28. Arabelus, 

29. Chalaus, 

30. Andjus, 



2164 ' 






























31. Babirusy 1120 

isS. Thinaeus, 1083 

33. Dercylus, 1053 

34. Eupaemes, or Eppalesy 1013 

35. LaostheneS) 975 
3^. Pyritiades, 930 

37. Ophratha»ds^ 900 

38. Ephruheres, 879 

39. Ocrazares, or A&acynda- 

rax, 827 

40. ^ardanapalusy 787 



1. Arbaces revolted against 

Sardanapalus, 770 
The Medes subdued by 

the Assyrians, 766 

2. Dejoces, 710 

3. Phraortes, 657 
Scythians in Asia, 635 

4. Cyaxares, 6 11 
Scythians driven out, 607 

5. Astyages or Darius, 596 

6. Cyrus with Astyages, 560 



1. Pul, called also Ninus, 770 

2. Tigiath Pileser, 758 
Salmaneser takes Sama- 
ria; 729 

3. Sennacherib, 714 

4. Assaradin, or Essarhad- 

don, 710 

Essarhaddon takes Baby- 
lon, 685 

5. Saosduchihus, 668. 

6. Clinaladon or Saracus, 648 

7. Nabopolassar, 626 

8. Nabopolassar or Nebucho- 

donosar, 605 

9. Evil Merodack, 562 
1 0. Laborosochord with Ncr^- 

glissar, 561 


11. Laborosochord alone, 556 

12. Nabonide, Nabonadi\is La- 

bynitus, or Belshazzar, 556 

13. Darius Medus, or Astya- 

ges, SSS 



1. Belesft, 


2. Nabonassar, 


3. Nadius, 


4. Cincertus, 


5. Jugaeus, 


6. Mardocimpade, or Mero- 

dac Baladan, 721 

7. Arcianus, T09 
Interregnum, 704 

8. Belibus, 702 

9. Apronadius, 699 

10. Regibelus, 693' 

11. Messessimordac, 692 

1 2. Essarhaddon king of Assy- 
ria, takes Babylon, 680 











Cyrus, ' 536 

Cambyses, 529 

Smerdis, 523 
Darius 1. son of Hystas- 

pes, 522 

Xerxes the Great, 486 
Artaxerxes Longimanus, 465 

Xerxes 11, 424 

Sogdianus, 424 

Ochus, 424 

Artaxerxes Mnemon, 405 
Artaxerxes Ochus, 

Darius Codomannus, 
Alexander the Great, 



Arsaces I, 256 

Tyridates, or Arsaces II, 254 
Artabanes I, 217 


* See mixed ajceount. Vol. II. page 42. 



B C 

5. Phra^ef, 

6. MuhridaUtXy 164 

7. Phraates II, 139 
8.' ArtabAfiest II9 138 
9. Mithridates Ily the Great, 125 

10. Mnalkiresy 86 

11. SinatbrocsSf 77 

12. Phraates, III, 70 

13. Mithridates III, 61 

14. Orodes, or Yrode99 53 

15. Phraatcs IV, 37 

He ^eignrd till thejourth 
year of Christ. A. D 

16. Phraatace, less than a 

month, 15 

17. Orodes II, a few months, 15 

18. Vonones I, 15 

19. Anabanes III, 18 

20. Tiridates, 35 
Artabanes re-established, 36 

21. Cinnane, a few days, 
Artabanes, re-established, 

Died, 43 

32. Vardanes, 43 

23. Gotharze, 43 
Vardanes, re-established 43 
Gotharze, re-established, 47 

24. Vonones II, a few months, 50 

25. VologesesI, 50 

26. Artabanes IV, 50 

27. Pacorc, 90 

28. Cosrhoes, 107 

29. Parthamaspares, 117 
Cosrhoes re-established, 133 

50. Vologeses II, 189 

31. Vologeses III, 214 

32. Artabanes V, 223 

Dethroned by Ar- 

taxerxes, 226 

Died in, 229 


1. Artaxerxes, 225 

2. Sapor I, 238 

3. Hormisdas I, 269 

4. Vararanes I, or Bohram, 272 

5. Vararanes II, 279 

6. Narses, 294 

7. Hormisdas 11, 303 


». Sapor It, 


9. Artaxerxes II, 


10. Sapor III, 


11. Vararanes III, 


12. Jesdegirdes \f 


13. Vararanes IV, 


14. Jesde^rdes it. 


15. Prozes, 


1 6. Baiasces, or Obalaa, 


17. Cavades, or Kobad, 


1 8. Cosrhoes the Greait, 


19. Hormisdas, III. 


20. Cosrhoes II, 


21. Siroes, 8 months. 


22. Ardeser, 7 months, 


23. Sarbazas, 2 months. 


24. Jourandakht, 16 months 

, 630 

25. Jesdegirdes III, last king, 632 



I. Tamerlane, 


His descendants were ex« 



2. Usum Cassan, in 


1. Jacub, 


4. Jalaver, 


5. Baysancor, 


6. Rustan, 


7. Achmad^ usurper. 


8. Alvarid, 


The SofiM. 

1. Ismael I, 


2. Thamas I, 


3. Ismael H, 


4. Mahommed Hodabende, 

. 1585 

5. Humzed, 


6. Ismael III, 


7, Abbas the Great, 


8. Mirza^ 


9. Abbas II. ^ 


10, Soliman,  


11. Hussein, 


12. Mah mound. 


13. AstafF, usurper^ 


14. Thamas 11, deposed. 


15. Mirza Abbas, 


16, Nadir Shaw, 


Assassinated in 






X^ommencing at the Nineteenth 

I. Sesostri39 or Raxnesses^ 1722 
S^. Ehamses, 1663 

3. Amenophis III) 1597 

4. Amenophis IV, I59i; 

5. Ramesses, 1558 
d. Ammenexnesi 1499 
T. Thuoris, 1472 

8. Nichepsos, 1455 

9. Psammathis, 1436 

10. Unknown, 1423 

II. Ccrtos, 1419 

12. Rhampses, 1398 

13. Atnenses, 1354 

14. Ochiras, 13^4 

15. Amedes, 1314 

16. Thuoris, or Polibiis, 1287 

17. Athotis, or Phusannus, 1237 

18. Censenes, 1209 

19. Vennephes, 1180 

20. Smedes, 1138 
31. Psusennes, 1112 

22. Nepheicheres, 1066 

23. Osochor, 1062 

24. Amenophis, 1053 

25. Pinaches, 1047 
26 Susenes, 1038 

27. Sesonchis, or Shishack, 1008 

28. Osoroth, 973 

29. 1 

30. V Unknown, 958 

31. J 

32. Tacellotis, 933 

33. 1 

34. > Unknown, 920 

35. J 

36. Petubates,* 836 

37. Osorcho, 828 

38. Psammus, 817 

39. Zeth, 817 

40. Bochoris, 786 
41 Seba^on 1, 742 

42. Suechus, 730 

43. Tharaca, 718 

44. Sabason II, 698 

45. Sethon, 692 

B. C. 

AVARCRt, 687 

46. Psammeticusy 170 

47. Necho, ne 

48. Psammuthis, 600 

49. A{>ries, or Ephrues, 594 

50. Perrhamis, 575 

51. Amasis, 559 

52. Psammenites, 526 

53. Cambyses-^conquered 
Egypt, 525 

54. Smerdis, the Magian, 523 

55. Darius Hystaspes, 522 

56. Xerxes I, the Great, 486 

57. Artaxerxes Longimanus, 465 

58. Xerxes II, 424 

59. Sogdianus, 434 

60. Ochus, 424 

61. Amyrtheus, 413 

62. Nephorites I, 407 

63. Achoris, 189 
64 Psammuthis, 376 

65. Nephorites II, 375 

66. Nectambe I, ' 375 

67. Tachos, 363 

68. Nectambe II, 162 

69. Artaxerxes Ochus, 350 

70. Arses, or Arsames, 339 

71. Darius Codomannus, 336 

72. Alexander the Great, 332 

73. Ptolemeus Soter, 322 

74. Ptolemeus Philadelphus, 285 

75. Ptolemeus Euergetes, 246 

76. Ptolemeus Philopater, 221 

77. Ptolemeus Epiphanes, 204 

78. Ptolemeus Philometor, 180 

79. Ptolemeus Euergetes II, 146 

80. Ptolemeus Soter II, 116 

81. Ptolemeus Alexander, 106 

82. Berenice, or Cleopatra, 88 

Berenice and Alexander, 80 

83. Ptoliemeus Dionysius, or 

Auletes, 73 

84. Ptolemeus Dionysius and 

Cleopatra his sister, 51 

85. Ptolemeus the Younger 

and Cleopatra, 47 
Cleopatra, 44 
Egypt became a Roman pro- 
vince, 30 





1. Seleucus Nicator, 312 

2. Antiochus I, Soter, 282 

3. Antiochus 11, Deus, 262 

4. Seleuctts 11, Callhiciust 247 

5. Seleucus III, Ceraunus, 227 

6. Antiochus III, the Great, 224 

7. Seleucus IV, Pbilopater, 1 87 

8. Antiochus IV, £{>iphanes, 176 

9. Antiochus V, Eupator, 164 
10. Demetrius I, Soter, 16) 
n. Alexander I, Balas, 151 
13. Demetrius II, Nicator, 146 

13. Antiochus VI, Balaa, HS 

14. Diodotus, or Tryphonus, 143 

15. Antiochus VII, Sidetes, 139 
Demetrius II, Nicator, re- 
established, 131 

16. Alexander II, Zebina, 129 
17 Seleucus V, 127 

18. Antiochus VIII, Gripus, 126 

19. Antiochus IX, Cyzicenus 114 

20. Seleucus VI, Gripus, 97 
31 Antiochus X, Cyzicenus, 95 
32. Antiochus XI, 94 

23. Demetrius III, with Anti- 

ochus XI, 93 

24. Tygranes, king of Ar- 

menia, 84 

25. Antiochus XII, the Asiatic, 69 
Syria became a Roman pro- 
vince, 63 


11. AlbaSilvius, 1048 

12. Capetes orSilfius Atis, 1008 

13. Capys, 

14. Calpetus, 
16. Tiberinus 

16. Agrippa, 

17. Alladius, 

18. Ayentinus, 

19. Procas, 

20. Numitor, 

21. Amulius, dethrcmed Nu- 

mitor, 799 

Numitor, re-established by 
Romulus and Remus, 755 


1. Romulus, 753 

Romulus, assassinated in 

the senate, T\6 

Interregnum of one year, 716 




1. Janus, 

2. Saturn, 

3. Picas, or Jupiter, 

4. Faunus, or Mercury, . 

5. Latinus, 

6. ^neas the Trojan, 

7. Ascanius, or Julius, 

8. Silvius Posthumus, 

9. ^neas Silvius, 
10. Latinus Silvius, 









'2. Numa Pompilius, 

3. Tullus Hostilius, 
Alba destroyed, 

4. Ancus Martins, 

5. Tarquin the Elder, 

6. Servius Tullus, 

7. Tarquin the Proud, 
Last king of the Romans expelled 


1. Julius Caesar, dictator 

2. Augustus, 

f Birth of Christ). 

3. Tiberius, 

4. Caligula, 

5. Claudius, 
• 6. Nero, 

7. Galba, 

8. Otho, 

9. Vitellius, 

10. Vespasian, 

11. Titus, 

12. Domitian, 

13. Nerva, 

14. Trajan, 

15. Adrian, 

1 16. Antonius Pius, 

1 17. Marcus Aurelius and 





• See Greek empire divided^ Vol. II. pi^e 4p, 









1 &* Luciu« V6ru8, 

Marcus Aur^lius alone, 
19. Commodus, 

f Decline of the emftire), 

20. Pertinax, 

21. Julian 66 days in 

22. Septim. Severus, 

23. Caracalla and Geta, 
24 MacriuuS) 

25. Heliog^abaluS) , ' 

26. Alex SeveruS) 

27. Maximin, 
TGordian the elder andl 

28. •< Gordian his son, one V237 
(. mouth six days, J 

29. Ma^cimu^ and Balbinus, 238 

30. Gordian the younger, 244 
21^ Philip tiie ekler, and 

' I Philip his son, 

32. Ucciusy 251 

33. Kostilianus 252 

34. Gallus, and Volusian, his 


35. Emilius, 4 months, 

36. Valerian and Gallein,: his 


37. Claudius II, and Quinti- 

lian," 17 days, 

38. Aureliaiv, 

39. Tacitus 6 months, aiid > 

40. Florian 3 months, 3 

41. Probus, 

42. Carus, 
rCarinus and his bro- 

A2,< ther 

(^ Numerian, 

fDioclesian and Maxi- 
44.^ mian, 

(^ Hercules^ 

45. Constantius Chlofus, 

46. Galerus, 

47. Severus II, 

48. Maximinus, 

49. Licinius, 

50. Constantine, 







305 1 

A. D. 

51. Constantine the Younger, 340 
r Constantius 350 

52. < and ., ./ 
(^Constans, 361 

53. Julian the Apostate, 364 

54. Jovian, ^69 

( The empire divided. J 


1. Valentiniaiil. , 364 

2. Gratian k Valentinian II. 37r 

3. Theodosius the Great, 

and Gratian, 380 

4. Arcadius, 383 

5. Honorius, 395 
Alaric takes Rome, 4Q9 

6. Constantius, 7 months, 423 

7. Jovian in Britain and Gaul, a 
& Heraclius in Africa^ ^ ; > 
9 Attila in Rome, 

10. Valentinian III, ,. 424 

11. Petronius Maximus, 455 

12. Avitusr a few monthsi 455 
Interregnum^ . 457 

13. Majorian, 459 

14. Severus, 461 
Interregnum, 467 

15. Anthemius, 467 

16. Olybius, 7 months 472 
Interregnum 472 

17. Glycerius, - . . 473 

18. Julius Nepos, 474 

19. Augustulus,* 475 


1. Odoacer reigned in 476 

2 Theodortc, 493 

3. Alaric, i . . . . ' 546 

4. Theodatus, 534 

5. Vigltes, 536 

6. Theodebaldi 54| 

7. Ararict 541 

8. Totila, ^ 541 

9. Tejas, the last king, 552 
Narses governor. 

EMPBR0R9 or TH£ EA9t.' 

1. Valens, 364 

. * The recognized term of aniBietit hi^torYft though kthe foregoijig narrative b ^^ 
tended • little below this dute. ' ' • ** 




% Gntiaoy 

3. Theodoutts the Great, 

4. Arcadias, 

5. Theodosius II. the Youn- 


6. Marcien, 

7. Leo I. 

8. Leo 11. the Toungeis 

9. ZenOy 
.^ C Basiliscus Marcieni 8c 

I Leonee, 
11. Anabtasius I, 

13. Justin I) 
13 Justinian I, 

14. Justin II9 

1 5. Tiberias, 

16. Maurice, 

17. Phocas, 

18. Heraclius, 

19. Heraclius Constantine, 3 


50. Heraclianus, 7 months, 

51. Tiberias, a few days, 
S3. Constance, 

Maurice and Gregoiy, 
23. Constantine Pogonat, 
24 Justinian II. 
S5. Leonee, 

26. Absimare Tiberius, 

27. Philip Bardanus, 

28. Anastatius II, 

29. Theodosius III, 

30. Leo III, the Isaurien, < 

31. Constantine IV9 
Artabasde, 1 
Nicephorus, I- assumed* 
Nicetas, J 

33. Leo IV, Chazau, 
^rt C Constantine V, 

l And Irene, empress 

34. Irene alone 

35. Nicephorus, 

36. Staurace, 3 ipoiiths, 

37. Michael 1, 1 uropolatC|^ , 

38. Leo V, the Armenian, 

39. Michael II, Stammerer, 
40 Tbeophilus, 

4\, Michael HI, 










43. Basil I, S86 

43. Leo VI, the Philosopher, 911 

44. Alexander, 912 

45. Constantine VI, \ 
Roman I, (^between, 



915 & 948 


47. Christopher, 
48 Stephen, 

49. Constantine alone, from 

948 to 

50. Roman II, 

5 1 . Nicephoras Phocas, 

52. John Zemi^us, 

53. Basilll, 

54. Constantine VII, 
55^ Roman III, 

56. Michael IV, 

57. Michael V, 

58. Zoa and Theodova, 

59. Constantine VIII, 
Theodbni restored, 

60. Michael VI, 

61. Isaac Comuennes 
63. Constantine X; Ducas, 

f Constantine Ducas, 

63. < and Michuel An 
t dronicus Ducas, 

64. Roman piogenes, . ^ lOf 1 

65. Michael Andronicus Du- 

cas, 1078 

66. Nicephor Botoriiate, 1081 

67. Alexis Comnennes, U^S 

68. John Comnennes, 1143 

69. Manuel Comnennes, 1180 

70. Alexis Comnennes, 1 1 83 

7 1 . Andron. Comnennes, 1 1 85 

72. Isaac L'Ange, 1185 

73. Alexis L'Ange Comnen. 1203 

74. Alexis Ducas MurUufle, 1204 





















1. Mahomet from 632 to 

2. Aboubekir, 

3. Omar, 

4. Othnum, 

5. Moavia, in Egypt 

6. AH, in Arabia, 

7. Hasanj 




A. D. 

^ Moavia, alonet 683 

9. Yesid I, 684 

10. Moavia II, 685 

11. Mirvan I, 705 

12. Abdomalec, 715 

13. Valid, 717 
14- Solymao, 720 

15. Omar II, 724 

16. Yesid II, 743 

17. Mescham, 743 
L8. Valid II, 744 

19. Yesid III, 744 

20. Ibrahim, 744 

21. Mirvan II, 750 

22. Aborel Abbas, 775 
2_3. Abougiafai Almansor, 775 
24 Mohammed Mahadi, 785 
25* Hadi, 786 

26. Haroun Alraschid, B09 

27. Amir, 813 

28. Mamoun, «33 

29. Motassem, 842 

30. ValekBillah, 847 
31- Mota Vakel, 861 

32. Mostanscr, 862 

33. Mostain Billah, 866 

34. Motaz, 869 
35 Mothadi Billah, 870 

36, Motamed Billah, 892 

37. Mothaded Billah, 902 
38 Moctafi Billah, 908 

39. Moctader Billah, 93^^ 

40. Kaher, 934 

41. Rhadi, 940 

42. Motaki, 944 

43. Mostakfi, 946 

44. Mothi, 974 

45. Thai, 991 

46. Kadcr, 1031 

47. Kaiem Bamrillahf 1075 

48. Moctadi Bamrillah, 1094 

49. Mosthadhea, v H18 

50. Mostarohed, 1 r35 

51. Raschid, 1136 

52. MoctaiB II, 1160 

53. Mostanged, Uro 

54. Mostadi, 1180 
55 Nasser, 1226 
56. Dalier» 1226 



A. D« 











Louis le Debonnaire, 

Lothaire I, 

Louis II, 

Charles the Bald, 

Interregnum 3 years. 

Charles the Gross, 



Berenger and Lambert, 

Louis III, 

Conrad L 

Henry rOisileur, 

Otho the Great, 

Otho II, 

Otho III, 

Henry II, 

Conrad II, 

Henry HI, 

Henry IV, 

Henry V, 

Lothaire Hf 

Conrad III, 

Frederic I, Barbarossa, 

Henry VI, 

Otho IV, 

Frederic II, 

Conrad IV, 


Interregnum until 

30. Adolphus «f Nassau, 1298 

31. Albert of Austria, , 1298 

32. Henry VII, 1308 
Frederick, in 1314 

33. Louis of Bavaria, 1314 

34. Charles IV, 1347 

35. Winceblaus, 1378 

Deposed in 1400 

36. Robert, Palatine of the 

Rhine, 1410 

37. Josse of Moiavia n 1410 

38. Sigisumud of Luxem- 





99. Albert II, of Austria, U38 

40. Frederic II, 1439 

41. Maximiliaa I, 1439 
43. Charles V, 1519 

43. FerdiDand I, 1557 

44. Maximilian II, 1564 

45. Rodolph II, i576 

46. Mathias,*- 1613 

47. Ferdinand ir, 1619 

48. Ferdinand III, 1637 

49. Leopold I| 1658 
ao. Joseph I, 1705 
51. Charles VI, 1711 
53. Charles VII, 1743 
53. Francis I, duke of Lou* 

▼ain, 1745 

(4. Joseph II, 1765 

55. Leopold II, 1790 

56. Francis II, 1792 



J. Merovinian Race* 
ClodiO) died in 
Merovius, ditto, 
Clovis I, dittO) 
Chiideric I, 

C odomir, 
Clothaire I, 
Chilptne, '■ 
Clothsure II. son of Chil- 














Dag^bert I, 
Clovis II, 
Clothaire III, 

C Chiideric II, 

J Thierry I, deposed in 
Clovis III, 
Childebert II, 
Dagobert 11, 
Clothaire IV, 
Chilpetic II, 
Thierry II, 



//. Carlovifdan Race. 
19. Charles Martel, 

30. Chiideric 111, 

31. Pepin, the Short, 
33. Charlemagne, 
33. Louis le Debonnaire, 
24. Charles I, the Bald, 

35. Louis II, the Stammerer, 877 

36. Louis III, 879 

37. Carloman, 883 

38. Charles II, the Gross, 884 

39. Eudes, 888 
30. Charles III, the Simple, 898 

Deposed, 922 
31 Robert I, Usurper, 932 

33. Ralph, 92$ 

33. Louis IV, d'Outrcmcr, 9^6 

34. Lothaire, 954 

35. Louis V, 986 

///. Cafietean Race. 
26.' Hugh Capet, Usurper, 

37. Robert II, 

38. Henry I, 

39. Philip I, 

40. Louis VI^ the Gross, 

41. Louis VII, the Young 

42. Philip II, Augustus, 

43. Louis VllI, Coeur de 

44. Louis IX, St. Louis, 

45. Philip III, the Bold, 

46. Philip IV^ le Bel, 

47. Louis X, Hutin, 

48. John I, 8 days, 

49. Philip V, the Long, 

50. Charles i V, le Bel, 

IV. HouAC qf Valois, 

51. Philip VI, 

52. John II, the Good, 

53. Charles Vy the Wise, 

54. Charles VI, the Beloved, 1380 

55. Charles VII, the Victo- 

rious, i*3^ 

56. Louis XI, 1467 

57. Charles VIII. 1483 

58. Louis XII, Father of the 
People, U9» 

59. Francis I, the Gentle- 
man, >315 





A. D 

60. Henry 11, I547 

6>- Francis II, 1 559 

62. Charles IX, the Bloody, 1560 

63. Henry III, I544 

V, House of Bourbon, 

64. Henry IV, tbe Great, 1589 

65. Louis Xlil, the Just, 1610 

66. Louis Xiy, the GreUt, 1643 

67. Louis XV, 1715 

68. Louis XVI, 1774 

Deprived, 1792 

Beheaded, . . 1793 

VL French RefiubUc^ 
Directorial 'Goverunent: 
Rewbel, 3arras, LaVeil- 
lierjB, Le Faux, Mertin, 
Treillard, Le^ToUrnier, 
Neuschatieau, Camot^ . 
Barthelemi, Sieyes, Du*' 
cos, &c. &c. &c- ^ 1794 

VIL Consular Government, 
1. Bonaparte 1st Consul, ^ 
Cambaceres 2d Con-f .-^-^ 
sul, Le Brun 3d Con- 1 *^^^ 
sul, } 

VIII. Imfierial Government, 
1. Bonaparte, 



A. D. 


Henry count of Portugal, IO94 

1. AlphonsoHe^rlques, ist 
king, 1112 

2. Sanchol, ng^ 

3. Alphonso II, 1211 

4. Sancho II, 1223 

5. Alphonso III, 1248 

6. Denis, the Liberal, 1279 

7. Alphonso IV, 1325 

8. Peter, 1357 
5. Ferdinand, 1357 

10. Interregnum, 18 months, 1383 

1 1. John I, the Great, 1385 

12. Edward, . ' 1433 

1 3. A Iphonso V, the African, 1 438 
U, John II, the Perfeqt, 1487 

1 5. Emanuel the Fortunate, 1 495 

1 6. John III, the Puissant, 1 52 1 

17. Sebastian, 1557 

1 8. Henry, Cardinal, 1573 

19. Anthony, titular king, 1580 

20. Philip II, 1^. \ ri595 

7 kings of r? 



Since the union of the 
kingdoms of Castile 
and Arragon. 
CJane and Philip I,, of 

1. < Austria, 1506 
i Jane his queen alone, I5O6 

2. Charles I, and V of Ger* 

21. Philip III 

22. Philip IV ^ 
1804 1 23. John IV, Braganza, 

24. Alphonso VI, . 
j25. Peter II, 

26. John V, 

27. Joseph, 

28. Maty, and Peter, 

29. Maiy alone, 



3. Philip II, 

4. Philip III, 

5. Philip IV, 

6. Charles II, 

7. Philip V, 

8. Louis I, 
Philip V, again, 

. 9. Ferdinand VI, 
10. Charles III, 
il. CharlesIV, 




1. Attila, 

2. Stephen, 

3. Peter, 

4. Aba, or O won, 

5. Andrew I, 

6. Bela I, 

7. Salomon, 

8. Guisa, 

9. Uladislaus 
10. Coleman, 
n. Stephen II, 

1783112. Bela II, 








Gui^a n. 



Stephen III| 



Beta III» 






Uiadislaus Ily 



Andrew Ily 



fie la IV, 



Stephen IV, 



Uiadislaus III| 



Andrew III» 












Louis I, 






Mai-y and Sigismund) 



Albert of Austria, 



Uiadislaus I\', 



John Cowint, regent, 



Uiadislaus V,, 



Matthias Cowin, 



Uiadislaus VI, 



Louis 11, 



John Zepolski, 





John Zepolski restored, 



John II, 

For the rest see em- 
perors of Germany. 





1. I wan or John IV, Bazi^ 

lowitz, 1536 

2. Taedor, or Theodore, 1584 

3. Boris Godounouvi, 1598 

4. Demetrius, Usurper, 1605 

5. Bazil Schuiski, deposed, 1606 

6. Uiadislaus, prince of Po- 

land, 1 600 

7. Michael Faedorowitz, 1613 

8. Alexis Michaelowitz, 1645 
y. Taedor Alexiowitz, 1676 

10. Peter AlexiowitZ) the 

Great, and Iwan V, 1682 

11. Peter I, the Great, alone, 169 6 

12. Catherine I, v 1725 

13. Pet«r II, AlexiowitZ, 1727 
H' Anne Ivanovna, 1730 

15. Iwan, or John VI, 1740 

1 6. Elisabeth Petrovna, 1 74 1 

17. Peter III, A7e^ 

18. Catherine II, the Great, 1763 

19. Paul I, 1796 
30. Alexander I, 1801 



I. Egbert, 1st monarch, 82r 

3. Ethelwolfe and Ethelstan 854 

3. Ethebald and Ethelbert, 857 

4. Etheibert alone, 860 

5. Etbelred I, i SS^ 

6. Alfred the»Great, BT I 

7. Edward I, or the Elder > 901 

8. Athelstan, 925 

9. Edmund I, 941 

10. Edred, 946 

1 1. Edwy, 955 

12. Edgar the Peaceable, 959 

13. Edward II, the Martyr, 975 

14. Ethelred II, dethroned, 978 

1 5. Sweyn king of Denmark, 10 ; 3 

Ethelred again, 1014 

16. Edmond II, Ironside, 1016 


1 7. Canute king of Denmark, 1017 

18. Harold I, i033 

19. Hardi Canute II, 1039 

20. Edward III, Confessor, 1041 

21. Harold III 9 months, 1066 


22. William I, Conqueror, 1066 

23. William II, Rufus, 1087 

24. Henry I, Beauclerc,' i loo 

25. Stephen, 1 135 

Dethroned, 1141 

26. Matilda, or Maud, 1141 

Stephen again, 1 1 42 

/. The House of Plantagenet^ 
or jinjou. 

27. Henry II, Plantagenet, 1 1 54 

28. Richard I, Cceur de Lion, 1 1 89 

29. John, 1 1 99 

30. Henry III, 1216 



31. Edward I9 
32 Edward II, 

33, fcdward UI, 

34. Richard II, - 

A. D 


//. House of Lancaster J called 

the Red Rose. 

35. Henry IV, Boiingbroke, 1399 

36 Henry V, 1412 

37. Henry VI, 14^2 
///. House of York^ tailed the 

IV/dte Rose. 

38. Edward IV, 1460 

39. Edward V, .1483 

40. Richard III, 1483 
Union of the two houses 

of York and Lancaster. 
IF. House of Tudor, 

41. Henry VII, Tudor, 

42. Henry VIII, 

43. Edward VI, the Pius, 

44. Mary I, the Bloodjri 

45. Elizabeth^ 




r. The house of Stewart. 
46 James I, Stewart, 

47. Charles I, 


Commonwealth from 

1648 to 1653 

Oliver Cromwell, Pro- 
tector, 1653 

R. Cromwell, Protector, 
in 1659 and 166O 

48. Charles II, 166O 

49. James II, 1535 

Abdicated, 1688 


50. Mary II, & William III, 1688 

51. Anne daughter of 

James II, 1 702 

VI. House of Hanover i JBruns' 
wicky or Guelf. 

52. George I, Guelf, 1714 

53. George II, iy2T 

54. George III, 1750 







lUufttrated by appropriate^ engravings, calculated for the first 
impreftsions of that Fabulous Creation of idolatrous and poetic 
fancy, and purified to the taste of the fairest reader— i» ready 
for the press, and will be speedily published for the author. I 

R. M. i 

Philadelphia^ November 12thf 1813*