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Par^ I. Contains tli^ natural object* of geogra{»hy, in correspondiiig aneteiit and 
ifiWertf Dsmes, in a series of tables ; with a preliminarj oo the progress and extent of 
adcient geomphy, dilating particularly oo the errops that prevail retatiye to thft 
fcAowledgfe tn« Ancients ^lossessed of the north of Europe and Asia. 

Part II. Contains the civil divisions of countries, provinces, inhahitaBt^ and their 
c^esi in coirf eftpbtidiDg ancient and modem name% in a aeries of tables, wiOt an htsto- 
riiekl sjtbtldh of the anqient revolutions of each eouatry annexed to eaeh table ; alto, a 
pi^unnarr on Uie origin and mictions of parental nations, vpith two ehronologieal 
tnKlei^bf the fit«t and second Gothic progress over Europe, uid a fev hints on the 
origin of the feudal system. 

PA«t 111. Contains the sacred Ge^raphy, in ecorespondinff ancient and modem 
mtlnei, in several tables, with an historical sketch annexed to each table; also a pre&m- 
UEUJTj w9th tlii^ tables' of the three first patriarchal ages, vrith annoti^iona, ft(e. 


Coii^i^s a >deT? of ancient history from the Creation tit! the eXtinetUm of the Roman 
edipife in the West, chronologically and consecutively arranged, with a recapitulation. 
hf qneatitirfs; abb an Appendix, containing a clu*onological imperial table, and a ehronO- 
lopeal regsll tabte. 








BIOGRAPHY, coloured; 


By BOBERT mayo, M. D. 



i A. Fagan Pnnten 






'f«D4 - 

mSTRlCT OF PEjVJSrsrLVJU^Li, to -wit T 

Be IT R EMBMB BUS D,That'oii the sixth day of Decembei'yjn the thiity-eighth 
year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1813, Robert 
Mayo, of the laid district, hath deposted in this office the title of a book, the rif^t 
vhereof he claims as author, in the words following, to wit : 

A view of Aneient Geognit)hy, and Ancient History. Two yolumes vi^ one. The 
first volunse, pail I. contains the natural obiects of geograph/^ jn eorrespondiog aa- 
cieat and modem naroes, in a series of taoles; with a prehminary on the proereis 
aiidextentof Ancient geomphy, dilating partieulariy on the errors that pveTail re- 
lative to the knowledge the Anci^tft possessed of the north of Europe mnd Asia. 
Part II. contains the eivil divisions of eountries, provinces, inhabitants, and their 
citiea, in corresponding ancient and modem names, ifii a series of tables, with an his- 
torieal sketch of the aneient revolutions of each country annexed to each table : also* 
a preliminary on the origin and mictions of parental nations, with two ehronologiQal 
taWoiof the ir«t and second Gothic progress over Enmpe, and a tew hints on the 
origin of the Feudal system. Part III. contains the Sacred Geography, in eorres* 
ponding aneient and modern names, in several tables, with an histoneal sketch an- 
offlwd to «aeb table; alto, a preliminary, with three tables of the three first patri* 
archal ages, with annotations, &e. 

Tha second volnme contnns a view of Aneitnt h&tory, frdhi. the creation till Cbe 
extinction of the Roman empire in the west, chronologically and consecutively ar« 
r^ged, with a recapitulation by questions ; also an appendix* cootainin|[ a chrono* 
logieal imperial taUe, and aehronological'regal table. Accompanied with an atlas 
oAen select maps, coloured, viz. Terra veteriMis aota, Romanum imperiom^ Orientes 
tabuh^ Gr««ia aotiqua, Italia aqtiqua, plaees reeonle4 in the five books of Mciies 
(three maps in one), the land of Moriah or Jerusalem, and the adjacent oountrv, and 
state of nations at the Christian sera, with a chronolokcal chart of histonr a&d biog- 
.T^^9 eoloarcd; ealeahited fyc the «Me >of seminaries, sec. By Robert Mayo, M. U. 

In conformity to tlie act of the congress of the United States, intituled ''An act for 
theeoeoiirageinent of learning, by securing the copies of maps, oharta* and books, to 
the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein menticmcd."—- 
And also to the act, entitled, <'Au act supplementary to an act, entitled <*An act finr 
the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, chartt, and books, to 
tiie authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned," and 
extending the benefits thereof to the arUof designing, engraving, and etching histor- 
icaUad other prinU." D. CAU)WIILL, 

Clerk of the Difitiict of Pennsylvania, 

Mr Www 





IF this methodised summary of ancient geography 
and history possesses any merit^ I have a two- fold claim 

to inscribe it to you. For, to you I am more indebted 

■> • * , * . 

than to any other preceptor, for any inclination of my feeble 
powers to science; and to you solely am I under oUi-* 
gations for pertinent counsel^ and the loan of rare and 
indispensible bopks, in the prosecution cxf this work. 
* The ibrmer also renders you a considerable indirect j^ent 
ixx die fruition of my studies in general; and the latter 
, gives you a just claim to the greater portion erf the merit 
of this perfOTmance. ' 

Tliat you may for many succeeding, as you have for 
many past years, continue a distinguished Improver of cis- 
Atlahtic scienee, is the ardent wish, of 

Your sincere Friend, 

I J J J J 

• J J J J ' 

^ ■» _, * ' ' ^ . ' 

jrf J J ■> ' ■> ' 

t J J J 'J 

J J J J 

"R, MAYO, 


Tm PBopEipi;e|sojus 






YOU who preside over the education erf our youA, 
are the best judges of the pretensions of a book, whose 
object b to &cilitate the scientific progress of the rising 
generation; therefore I dedicate this to you, though not 
without a mixed concern of hope and fear for its fate. In 
the meaQ time permit me to make my particular acknow- 
ledgments to those. of you who have already exjn^ssed 
your approbation of the work, in person, and by letter ; 
whilst I ftufoscribe myself, with d%e consideration, 


• s* 

• * 

• ^ • 

* Ik 


* b b tt 


tt ^ * 

• • " » •> 

* • • f » 

•• "»» »• %• *»!»«  


AVE have examined, individually, your Fiew of Ancient 
Geography and History ^ and cheerfolly pronounce it a 
yeiy valuable work, and calculated to be especially useful 
to the higher classes in the public seminaries of the Umted 


Prof<M9or of the Tnatitutes and Practice ofPf^fnck, l^c, 
Umvei^tg 9fPenn9ifh)ani€L 

- »ji ■• 


Profiswr of hanguagt9i University of Pennnfhania, 


Director of the PhUadelphia Aeademy, 

JAMES GRAY, D, D. le^« ,^, ...^ 

SAMUEL B. WYLIE, A» M. J **** ***^* •*'•**• 

Robert Mayo, M. D* . 

Philadelfihia^ Dec. 24, 1813. 



\ » 

TJIOSE who do IIS tbe iavour of ft gUmcc ailso wq^ectdim 
part of a book as the preface, will be plea^cid 4)a (Soeiog )liiat ipe 
do not menace them wi^h the f/^m/i necessarily attcatflaat on a long 
sind elaborate one, ^nerally l^e nainroT of aa author's ta»i^. 
Nevertheless our reader will indulge »s m one remark, that n 
adding tKis to the vast catalogue of books already leAtaat, vie 
would be sorry to increase the forcible prcgirie^ of the Latin 
adage, copia Hbrorum^ or of the Enj^lisb one of ^lapilar import, 
to the making of many books thfire is no^nd* 

The ground on which this hook founds a bope^fif public par 
tronage, is, the embodying of many subjects of considerable 
^Bnity^ digested Uito a method presumed to be perspicaoos, and 
evidently brief, which has hitherto been in a very dispersed and 
immethodical condition, in a style for the most part difftiae, and 
on the whole, Inaccessible to the student as an elemetttary ex^ 
ercise. It certainly supposes some previous acqw^tfttance with 
modera geography ; but that can be no objection, in an age Aat 
so well appreciates the knowledge of a science so essea^ for 
every practical or speculative purpose. Moreover, inasoiittcii 
as all the sciences reciprocate elucidation, no system can be per* 
feet that does not embrace them all, a wild project that has been 
attempted by many, but will never have patronage while science 
is so partisUly studied* 

I will save oiyself the awkward attempt to prove diat ancient 
geography is essential to give interest to every species of anti* 
quity. It would be equally superfluous to descant on the ad- 
vanuges of a knowledge of. history.. Yet;, however undeniable 
is the affirmative of these propositions, we daily witness with 
deep commiseration, the superfluous and comparatively ungain- 
ful labour of our youth in' conning over the classics and other 
detached parts of ancient science, without any more Conception 
of ancient geography, than a dream of a lunar voyage could 


I doabt not that when the student of laudable emulation and 
8]nnpathetic feeling, regards the vicissitudes of human aSairs, 
as are sketched in the text of the second volume, and lucidly 
demonstrated by the historical chart, a patriotic ardouf wiU 
rouse him to inquire for the cause, from more minute historical 
details, and the fundametal principles of human nature, that he 
jnay contribute to the duration of our several state and federal 
.compacts, whose foundations are already more appropriately 
constructed for national and individual prosperity, than any po- 
.litical fabric the world ever. before witnessed. It would 
be assuming to myself, indeed, no small portioaof the magnani- 
mous sentiment of amor pafrjcCi to ,s2iy that it was not my leaat 
iconsiderable motive in compiling and digesting this little work, 
that an early and successful attention to history might be thereby 
produced, and a consequent improvement of institutions that 
have already excited the admiration, of other nations, and that 
may truly be styled the master-pieces of political wisdom* 

The Atlas that accom'panles this book, consists only of such a 
selection of Maps, chiefly from Wilkinson's Atlas Classica, as are 
absolutely necessary for the elementary purpose to which our 
views herein have been uniformly confined. If we meet the 
success that we hope for, and be called on for a second edition, 
we contemplate to enlarge thtf plan, at least of. the Atlas, and 
probably of the text book, so far as may be judged to be pru- 
dexkt; t^ing care, at the same time not to render either un* 
wieldy for the lise of schools, *whose convenience the author 
pledges himself always to consider as the prime object. 

It may be an important suggestion to the student that he 
should pass twice or thrice in a cursory manner over the capital 
objects both of the geography and history, ere he attends to 
the details of either; being calculated to save him much labour, 
as well as excite a progressive interest and curiosity- And if 
any division of these demand precedence, it should be given to 
the sacred geography, and the table of empires. 









Page SS, line 3, cwrect Biphsei vel Hyperborei; line S^ correct Alpis. 
50, 13, correct Indiaos. Pj^41» 1. 36, correct Scythians 
47, 29, correct identica' 

94^ SI, correct called. P. 113, 1. 1, note, correct See Yol. II. 
137, 15, eities, correct Ostium. P. 154» 1. 13, correct Havilah; 1. 18, correct 
d. S183. 

vdt: n. 

4» 24, read the establishment of the Olympic. P. 23. maif;iii, correct 3. 
49, 15, correct war. 







Progress and extent of Ancient Geography. 


ON casting an eye over the Terra Veteribus Nota, 
S8 delineated on a single map, we perceive that the ancient 
geographers had some acquaintance with a considerable pkrt 
of the three continents of Asia, Africa ancl Europe. 

It will also be observable that their acquaintance was 
much more extensive coastwise^ than inland; their navigators 
having carried their commerce to Thynac^ the capital of 
«Sfn<r, on the river Scnus now Camboja, in the ulterior 
peninsula of India, where their Eoan Ocean respects the 
east ; circumnavigated Africa ; and penetrated to the Thule^ 
now Shetland isles: here they acquired «ome idea of the 
Mare Pigrum or Northern Ocean, which they would fainr 
connect with the Eoan or Eastern Ocean by an extension 
of the Baltic under the name of ^SVr^/Ajc, Amalchiunij ot 


Frozen jOcean, over a great part of the north of Europe^^ 
and Asia. 

But this error apart, their minute acquaintance was rather 
confined to a somewhat centkal position between the three 
continents; which, by its seas communicating with the ocean 
to the east and the west; and by its navigable rivers flowing 
on every hand from the interior of either continent to these 
seas^ is peculiarly appointed by nature for the nursery of 

The reason that they knew more of this region, is not 
that it was more populous, but that it was, from advantages 
of situation, the theatre of sociability — mother of science and 
refinement: the reason that they knew less of the more inte- 
rior regions, is not that they were less populous, but that 
their inhabitants, from want of more abundant channels of 
communication, were immersed in solitttde-«n0sylum of igno- 
rance and barbarism. For, though the civilized world of 
the ancients was populous almost to a miracle, yet the re- 
moter regions qf either continent were in no very inferior 
degree supplied with their barbarous inhabitants; who, com- 
paratively speaking, confined themselves for the most part 
within the precincts of their own villages, &c., till the 
wanton encroachments of the Roman empire roused their 
implacable ferocity to destroy it. But to be a litde more 
particular on the progress and extent of our proper subject- 
By ancient geography, (Scripture apart) we underatand, 
whatever the Greek and Romak writers have left us on 
that subject. And it is observable of it, that time has 
larescribed to its progress, distinct and successive periods 
•r ages* 


Ist. The information contained in the poems of Homer 
makes the first age (if we may so speak) of ancient geo- 
graphy. Gke;£C£, the neighbouring shores of Italy, part 

* It will be seen in the detail that the knowledge of the aneienti did not extend 
to the North Gftpe^ «rroiieoulf called Bubeas FrmMiaorhan, 

of AsYAi Bod a small portion of AfRzcA toward EotvTy 
oomposed the whole of its object* 

2nd. Those contracted limits of geography received no 
oooisiderable aggrandizement till the conquests of Alexander 
^le Great; which may form its second age or period; for the 
Greeks, before that period, had no knowledge of IkDxa but 
its name, and that of the Indus. 

( 3rd* They would have remained equally ignorant of the 
West, if some of their historians had not mentioned the 
navigation of the Phoenicians, about the southern shores of 
Iberia or Spain ; which constitutes an epoch in our subject 
that may be entided its third age. 

4th. The Roman domination, when it extended itself in 
the West, and towards the north of Europe> made us ac« 
quainted with the different countries of that quarter. The 
parts of Asia and Africa subjected to the same power, 
became also much better known than they had been hitherto* 
Thus what, according to some ancient writers, we may call 
the Roman World, makes the fourth and principal age of 
ancient geography; which, being detailed with most minute* 
ness and precision, of course predominates in these pages. 

Nothing more contributed to retard the . improvement of 
the ancients in geography, than the opinion, That the earth 
was habitable only in temperate regions; for, according to this 
system, the torrid zone was a barrier that permitted no com* 
munication between the northern temperate zone which they 
inhabited, and^the southern. Their intelligence being thus 
confined to a band or zone, they might with propriety call 
extension from west to east, length or longitude; and the 
more contracted space from north to south, xvidth or latitude» 
Strabo, the most illustrious geographer of antiquity, was 
not undeceived in this opinion, which circumscribed the 
object of his science ; he, nevertheless, extended it to some 
regions beyond the Tropic. Ptolemy extended its limitS) 
and even advanced it beyond the Equinoctial line. And 
the Ganges, which bounded the investigations of Strabo, on 
the eastf was not the line that terminated the geography of 

Pt o lc m y# Nmgation had opened the wajr throiq^' th» 
ulterior countries as far as that of Siw^ which we dntt 
make known in the sequel of this volume. 

. Thus much we conceived it indispensable to sajr.on the 
progress and extent of ancient geography. But as our plaa 
in the following tables will be to commence with the highei; 
northern latitudes where geographical errors peculiarly 
abound, therefore, to avoid the appearance of stumbling in 
die threshold, we will also premise this First Part with 
Mr. Pinkerton's remarks on Pliny's geography of the north 
of Europe and Asia; hoping that these^ as well as many er« 
tors of the historic kind, to be noticed in like manner in the 
Preliminary to the Second Part, will stand hereafteri i& 
consequence of his researches, singularly corrected* 

His words arc-^" Pliny's geography of the north is here 
given, as the most full and curious of all antiquity. The 
bounds of ancient knowledge on the west and south are fixed 
and clear. On the east, D^Anville has fully settled them* 
But the northern, the most important of all, to the history 
of Europe, D'Anville leaves as Cluverius ignorantly put 
them* ^ 


^' The Riphctan mountains of Pliny, as of Ptolemy, 
palpably run from east to west ; as he passes them to go 
' to the Scythic Ocean* It is clear from Ptolemy, that they 
ran along the head of Tanais and are often named with 
-lanais by the ancients; for by all ancient accounts the Tanai$ 
Vose in them* But this is nothing to the matter* The 
question is what the ancients thought* And it is clear 
that they often confounded a forest with a chain of moun<* 
tains, as Pliny here does the Hercynian forest* . No wonder 
then that in civilized times no such mountains^ otherwise 
forests^ are to be found. The Riphcean forest^ I am con- 
vinced, was that now called Volkonski, still 150 miles long 
from the west, to Moscow on the east* It is also a range 
of small hills. 

^^ Timceus, as we learn from other passages of Pliny, called 
the isle opposite Kaunonia by the name of Baltia. It is 

diertfim' a sHp of PHuy when he puts linfl jundttg * the. 
nwieleas »les« What' river the ancients caHed Paropami* 
suSy is doubtful. There .was a mountain and region Paro*. 
pamiaus at the head of the Indus. The Amalchian was evi- 
dmtiy^ the' eastern fMrt of the Scythic Ocean* Present 
Sarasa^ or some odier river running north on the east of 
the Caspian, may be Paropamisuf* 

^ ^ The Promontory Rubeas seems to me that on the west 
of the mouth of the tivitr Rubo or Dwina, being the nordi 
point of the present Courland* Cluverius, who puts it h& 
die north of Lapland shews strange ignorance. The ancients 
knew no more of Lapland than of America: and were never 
fiirdier north than Shetland,* and the south part of Scandi* 
navia. The Cronian seems here the north-east part of the 
Baltic sea. As Pliny tells us repeatedly, in other places, 
that Baltic^ or Basilia, was the isle where, only., amber was 
found, it is clearly Glessaria of Prussia, not ScandtnaxAu 
The ides Oonm^ &c., all grant to be those of Oesel, &c., at 
tlie moiith of the Finnish Gulf« 

^ Clttverius is so VLtterly foolish^ as to put the Sevo Mona 
of Pliny, in Norway; in which childish blunder he is blindly 
followed, as usual, by Cellarius and D'Anville, which last 
has not examined one tittle of the ancient geography of 
Germany, though the most important of all, to the his^(»y 
of Europe. Pliny's Sevo Mons^ is actually that chain be*- 
tween Prussia and Silesia, called Asstburgtua Mons^ by VtxA- 
amj^ and now Zottenberg. In the map of modern Germany 
by Cluverius, this chain is fully marked, from the east of 
Bohemia and Silesia up to the Resehout. Tacitus mentions 
this S^o Mon» (though he gives not the name)' as dividing 
die Suevi from the north to south. Most ancients regarded 
the Vistula as the eastern bound of Germany, and the Basternot 

* The real Thale or Thyle of the ancients, as D'Anville shews. 

f Yet, for the sake of aniformity we have placed Baltia ain«ng the Scandinayian 
isles as being in the same sea. 

# Thoogh we quote it, we do not safiction the abrupt phra$e of our profound 
antiquary; who seems^ from the tenour of his book, to pique himself npOB that 
Tory exceptionable and uucoaileous quality ofmorosenesa. 

iS a CbsnftMi vatitia odt of Crermany; bo ^diat da Awo^ 
Jiini», w rumnsg along the Visttdm^ was oa ^ eastern «3:- 
tiwoiky of fi^nuaay as Hmjr statei. 

. ^ l^e «Sb«»Smma of IHiny, is the largest Scimdia of 
l^letajr, not reaching twyood the Wener labeu Enmgia' 
may be the south part of Fioiand, perhaps by the anckntn 
believed another isle in the Scythian Ocean. The Hirri 
gare aanne eo Irlcmd at Viriand^ m Icelandic accounts, now 
Reval. Sdrmgsheal^ or the rock or town of the Scirri^ 
aoems to tiave been present Kronstadt, opposite St. Peters-* 
ImrgJ The gulf CtfUpentcs is apparently that of Finland : 
iMgta- is another name for the south of the Baltic or C»- 
damu* Fr^montorium dmbrorum is the north point of Jut* 
hnnd. Cartris is Wendsyssel on the north of Jutland. i3tfr* 
chana is F^uien, or Zealand. 

^ The Tanah or Don was the ancient, as it is the modem 
boundary of Asia and Europe (about its moath). But o% 
the north, moderns have extended it 'to the Uraliaa inoun^ 
tains, along the river Oby; while the ancients brought it much 
fiortker west, foilowiag the Tanais (throughout its course, we 
presume, as well as that of the Turunthus or Duna, from 
the context). The east end of the Gulf of Finland was of 
course the anpient boundary between Asia and Europe. 
H«re then Pliny begins, and goes to the east along the 
shores of a nonexistent ocean, the Scythic^ till he comes 
to the river Volga; which, with many of the ancients, he 
thought was an inlet between the Scythic Ocean and Caspian ^ 
Sea. Lytarmis^ which like his Tabts beyond Seres in Asia, 
is a nonexistent promontory, he puts about present Moscow* 
The opinion of a Scythic* Ocean seems to have prevailed in 
the eleventh century; for Adam of Bremen says people could 
sail from the Baltic down to Greece. It seems also the 
0(^an of Darknfiss in Eastern writings. I know not if 

^ • Perhaps this was only an ermr loci of the Frozen Ocean that occupies a 
higher northern latitude, of which some im|>erfect account in all probability had 
been given by Ftnniih and Sarmatic emigraals Irom that quarter. It was very easy 
at least to confound it with the Baliio sea. 


its eustence was not believed in Europe tUl the sixteeiidi 
century •" 

It only remains for the tables to demonstrate the posi-* 
tions alluded to in these strictures of Mr. Pinkerton on the 
modem errors concerning the northern geography of the 
ancients; lest indeed, we be excusable for alleging a presump* 
tive evidence in favour of so profound an interpreter, of 
ancient authorities; such as the well-known opinion of the 
ancients, That the earth was habitable only in temperate 
regions; which, alone, might have sufficiently restrained 
their zeal for discovery, to have precluded them from an ac« 
curate acquaintance higher north than the judgment of our 
author is inclined to admit they possessed* 



I doabt not that when the student of laudable emulation and 
ajrmpathetic feeling, regards the vicissitudes of human affairs, 
as are sketched in the text of the second volume, and lucidly 
demonstrated by the historical chart, a patriotic ardour wiU 
rouse him to inquire for the caused from more minute historical 
details, and the fundametal principles of human nature, that he 
xazy contribute to the duration of our several state and federal 
compacts, whose foundations are already more appropriately 
constructed for national and individual prosperity, than any po- 
Jitical fabric the world ever. before witnessed. It would 
be assuming to myself, indeed, no small portioaof the magnani- 
mous sentiment of amor pafr,ia!^ to, say that it was not my least 
considerable motive in compiling and digesting this little work, 
that an early and successful attention to history might be therel^y 
produced, and a consequent improvement of institutions that 
have already excited the admiration, of other nations, and that 
may truly be styled the master-pieces of political wisdom. 

The Atlas that accompanies this book, consists only of such a 
selection of Maps, chiefly from Wilkinson^s Atlas Classica, as are 
absolutely necessary for the elementary purpose to which our 
views herein have been uniformly confined. If we meet the 
success that we hope for, and be called on for a second edition, 
we contemplate to enlarge tb^ plan, at least of. the Atlas, and 
probably of the text book, so far as may be judged to be pru- 
dent ; taking care, at the same time not to render either un* 
wieldy for the use of schools, 'whose convenience the author 
pledges himself always to consider as the prime object. 

It may be an important suggestion to the student that he 
should pass twice or thrice in a cursory manner over the capital 
objects both of the geography and history, ere he attends to 
the details of either ; being calculated to save him much labour, 
as well as excite a progressive interest and curiosity* And if 
any division of these demand precedence, it should be given to 
the sacred geography, and the table of empires. 










(amalchium by the natives). 

Promontorium Cimbrorutn, 
1. Mare Suevicum vel Codanu&j 
Venedicus seu Lagus Sinus, 

a. Viadus vel Suevus fluvius) 
Sevo Mons terminusi 

b. Vistula fiuviusy 

c. Chronus vel Rubo iluviuS) 
Prom. Rubeasy 

8. Cronium Mare, 

a. Turunthus fluviuy, 
(Irland vel Virland),* 

b. Cylipenus SinuSy 
From. Lytarmisi 





formed a part; the rest fictitious^. 

North point of Jutland. 

1. The Baltic sea as 
Courland point. 

a. The river Oder. 
Resehout Promontory. 

b. The river Vistula. 

c. The river Niemen. 
North point of Courland, 

2. east of said point. 

a. The river Dwina. 
(now Reval city). 

b. Gulf of Finland. 
(Kronstadt city). 
(A summit near Moscow). 



1 . Marc Pigrum vel Concretnm^ 
Promontorium Texalum, 

2. Oceanus Germanicus, 

a. Boderia ^stuai*ium> 

b. Alaunus fluviuS} 
Prom. Ocellum, 

c. Abus fluvius, 

d. Metaris JEstuarium, 
"e. Thamesis -fistuarium, 

Prom. Cantium- 

f. Fretum GalHcum, 
Prom. Itium, 

g. Helium Ostium, 
h. Medium Ostium, 
i. Flevum Ostium, 
j. Visurgis fluviusi 
Jc. Albis fiuvius, 

Prom. Epidium, 
From. Robogdium, 

3. Mare Hibernicum, 

a. Glota iEstuarium, 
Novum Chersonesus, 

b. Ituna iEstuarium, 

c. Moricambe- ^stuarium, 

d. Deva vel Devana ^stuar. 
Prom. Ganganorum, 
Prom> Ib^ron vel Sucruro, 


' 1. Northern or Frozen Ocean. 
Buchanness Promontory^ 
2. German Ocean. 

a. Firth of Forth. 

b. The river Avon. 
Spnrn Head. . 

c. The river Humbor. 

d. The Wash. 

e. Mouth of the Thames. 
(Near Margate.) 

f. Dover Strait. 
(Near Calais). 

g. j[ Mouth of the Mease), 
h. (Mouth of the Rhine). 

i. (outlet of Zayderzee). 

j. The river Weser. 

k. The river Elbe. 
Mull of Cantyre. 
Fair Head. 
S. Irish Sea. 

a. Firth of Clyde. 
Mull of Galloway. 

b. Sol way Firth. 

c. Moricambe Bay. 

d. Mouth of the Dee, 
Brachy Pull. 
Carnsore Point. 



From. OctapitaruiDr 

e. Sabrina i&stuarium} 
Prom. AntivesiaeumvelBoleriuin, 

4. Oceanus BritannicuS) 

Prom. Ocrinum, 

a. Uxeliae ^stuariuni) 

b. Sequana fluvius, 
Prom. Goboeum, 

;5. Oceanus Cantabricus vel 

a. Liger fluvius, 

b. Garumna fluvius. 
Prom. Artabrum, Celticum ycI 


6. Durius fluvius. 
Prom. Lunarium) 

Prom. Magnum, 

7. Tagus fluvius, 
Prom. Barbaricum, 

Prom. Sa(!rum, 

8. Gaditanus Sinus, 

a. Anasiluvius, 

b. Bactis fluvius, [culeum, 

9. Fretum Gaditanum vel Her» 

10. Lixus fiuvius minor, 
Atlas Minor ye^ soloeis, 

Soils Monfi, 
Prom. Herculis, 
Atlas Major, 

11. Lixus fiuvius major, vel 

Gannarifi Extrema, 
(Cem6 Insula),* 

12. Chretes fiuvius, 

1 3. Daradus fiuvius. 
Prom. Asinarium, 

14. Stftchir vel Bambotus fiuv. 
Hesperi .Ck)rnu (of Pliny), 

15. Western Horn (M.Rennell) 
a. Nia fiuvius (Ptolemy), 

Hesperi Cornu (of Ptolemy) veJ 
Deorum Currus Mons, 

16. South. Horn (Maj. Rennell) 
Southern Horn (of Pliny), t 

St. David's Head. 

e. Bristol Channel. 
Lands End — of England. 

4. British Channel. 
Lizard Point. 

a. Plymouth Harbour. 

b. The Seine. 
LandS'End of Bretagne. 

5. Bay of Biscay. 

a. The Loire. 

b. The Garonne. 
Cape Finisterre. 

6. The river Douro. 
Cape Penichc. 

Cape Roca de Sintravo. 

7. The river Tajo. 
Cape d'Espichel. 

Cape de StJ Vincent. 

8. Bay of Cadiz. 

a. The river Guadiana. 

b. The river Guadalquivir. 

9. Strait of Gibraltar. 

10. The Laroche or Arais. 
Cape Cantin, or Cape Blancicx 

Tafelane Point. 
Cape Ger. , 

Cape Bajadore. 

11. The Cyprian, or River of 


Cape Blanco (major). 
(Arguin Island). 

12. The river St. John's. 

13. The river Senegal. 
Cape Verde.. 

14. The river Gambia.^ 
Cape Roxo. 

15. Bissago Bay and Islands, 
a. The Rio Grande, 

Cape Sagres or Tumbo, (Chariot 
of the Gods); heights of Serra 

16. Bay of Sherbo. 

Cape St. Anne (S. point of Sherbo). 

• The utmost colony foanded by Haiino; his voyajje farther south to Xh&S(mt\em-h9rn^ 
where he stopped for the want of provisions, being, confined to the object of diacovery. 
f See Major. UenncU't Herodotas, for ilanuo's voyage on the comc of Afrmu 

w joxcaaxt esoeiiikrat. 


ProTnontorium Abyla*^ Cohimnae 

1. Frctum Hercu>- I 
leuni) y 

Promontorium Calpe, J Herculis. 

2. Malaca PortuS} 
Prom. Charidenum, 

3. Virgitanus Sinus, 
Prom. Scombraria, 

4. Illicitanus Sinus, 
Prom. Dianiura, 

5. Sacronensis Sinus, 
a. Iberus fluvius, 

Prom. Pyrenaeiira, 

6. Gallicus Sinus, 
a. Rhodanus fluvius, 

Prom. Citharistes, 

7. Ligusticus Sinus, 

8. Sardoum Mare, 
a. Fossa Fretum, 

$. Mare Tyrrheum, Tuscum, 
vel Inferum, 

a. Arnus fluvius, 

b. Tiber fluvius, 
Prom. Circium, 

c. Liris fluvius, 

d. Vulturnus fluvius, 
Prom. Misenum, 

e. Crater Sinus, 
Prom. Minervae, 

f. Paestanus Sitius, 
Prom. Palinurum, . 

g. Laus Sinus, 

h. Terinxus Sinus, 
Prom. Leucopetra, 

i. Fretum Siculum, 
Prom. Pelorum, 
Prom. Lilybaeum, 
'Prom. Pachjrnuiri, 

10. Mare Siculum, 
prom. Herculis, 

11. Ionium Mare* (continued), 
Prom. Cocintum, 

a. Scylacius Sinus, 



Abyla qt little Atlas. 

1. Strut of Gibraltar. 

Rock of Gibraltar* 

2. Harbour of Malaga. 
Cape Gata. 

3. (South of Carthago Nova). 
Cape Palos. 

4. East of Ancient Illisis. 
Cape Martin. 

5. (East of Saguntus). 
a. The river Ebro. 

Cape Creus.' 

6. Gulf of Lyons. ^ 

a. The river Rhone. 
Cape Cicier. 

7. Gulf of Genoa. 

8. Sea of Sardinia, 
a. Strait. Bonifacio. 

9. Sea of Naples. 

a. The river Amo. 
' b. The river Tiber. 
Monte Cercello. 

c. The river Ganglia. 

d. The river Vulturno. 
Cape Miseno. 

e. Bay of Naples. 

Cape Minerva or Campanello. 

f. Gulf of Salerno. 
Cape Palinuro. 

g. Gulf of Laio. 

h. Gulf of St. Eufemia. 
Cape Piattaro. 

i. Strait of Messina. 
Cape Faro. 1 TJbrcc 

Cape Boeo. > cornel's 

Cape Passara. J of Sicily. 

10. Sea of Sicily. 
Cape of Spartivento. 

1 1 . The Ionian Sea. 
Cape Stilo. 

a. Gulf of Squilaco. 


• A« it respects Itjily, to which the coMt of the Adriatic sucoeeds before the 
IQliian «ft it rcipccts Greece. 


Prom Lacinium, . 
'b. Tarentinus Siim«| 
Prom. Salentinum vel lapygium, 

12. Mare Hadriadcum, vel Su- 

a. Urias SinnSf 

. From. Garganiro, 

b. Rubico fiuvius, 
«. Septem Maria, 

d. Tergestinus SiniiSi 

e. Flanaticus Sinus, 

f. Manius Sinus, 
Prom. Nymphaeum, 

Prom. Acro-ceraunia, 
1). Ionium Marc,* 

c. Sinus Ambracius, 

Prom. Leucata (Leucadia), 
■d. Myrtuntium Mare, 

e. Achelous fiuvius, 
Prom. Anti Rhiumf, 

f. Corinthiacus Sinus, 
(a) Crissaeus Sinus, 

Prom. Pharygium, 
(*) Alcyonium Mare, 
Prom. Olmiae, 
(Neptuni Templum), 
Promon. Rhium, 
Prom. Araxum, 

g. Cyllenicus Sinus, 
Prom. Hyrmina, 
Prom. Chelonites, 

h. Chelonites Sinus. 
Prom. Ichthys vel Phxa, 
i. Alpheus fiuvius, 
j. Cyparissius Sinus, 
Prom. Cyparissius, 
Prom Acritas, 

13. Messeniacus Sinus, 
Prom. Taenareum, 

14. Laconicus Sinus, 
a. Eurotas fiuvius, 

Prom. Malea, 

15. ^gaeum Mare, 
(I). Myrtoum Mare, 

a. Argolicus Sinus, 

Cape Cokmna. 
b. Gulf of Tarento. 
Cape Lecica (Heel of Italy). 
13. Adriatic sea or Gulf of 

a. Gulf of Manfredonia* 
Cape Vicstice. 

b. The river Fiumesino. 

c. Mouths of the Po. 

d. Gulf of Trieste. 

e. Gulf of Quamero. 

f. Gulf of Brazza. 
Cape Nymphe. 

(Opposite the Heel of Italy). 
(I I). Ionian Sea. 
(Prevesa- Veccheia) . 

c. Gulf of Arta. 

Cape Ducato (Lovers* Leap). 

d. Gulf of St. Maura. 

e. The Aspro Potamo. 
Dardanelles of Lepanto. 

f. Gulf Lepanto. 

(fl) Gulfof Salona. 
(A Pr. between these Bays). 
(Jf) East end of Lepanto. 
(A Pr. in theAlcyonium) 
(Opposite to Pharygium). 
(See Anti-Rhiumt). 
Cape Papa. 

Promontories and bays on 
the western coast of the 

i. The river Alfeo. 
j. Gulf of Arcadia. 

Southern cape of Cyparissius 
Cape Gailo. i gjuus, 

13. Gulf ofCoron. 
Cape Matapan. 

14. Gulf of Colokythia. 
a. The Royal river. 

Cape Malio. 

i5. Archipelago or iSgaeanset. 
(1. On the east of Morea). 
a. Gulf of Napoli. 

• A« it respects Greece^ beiDg No. 11. eontinued. 

§ FaxuMmAxn 

Ptolemf. Navigtticm had opened Ae waf throu|^' ihm 
ulterior couDtriea as far as that of SiViS; which we diatt 
floake known in the sequel of this volume. 

. Thus much we conceived it indispensable to sajr.on dbe 
progress and extent of ancient geography. But as our plaa 
in the following tables will be to commence with the lugheit 
northern latitudes where geographical errors peculiarly 
abound, therefore, to avoid the appearance of stumbling in 
die threshold, we will also premise this FiasT Part with 
Mr. Pinkerton's remarks on Pliny's geography of the nortH 
i»f Europe and Asia; hoping that theae^ as well as many er* 
rors of the historic kind, to be noticed in like manner in the 
Preliminary to the Second Part, will stand hereafter, in 
. consequence of his researches, singularly corrected. 

His words arc-^" Pliny's geography of the north is here 
ipven, as the most full and curious of all antiquity. The 
bounds of ancient knowledge on the west and south are fixed 
and clear. On the east, D^Anville has fully settled them* 
But the northern, the most important of all, to the history 
of Europe, D'Anville leaves as Cluverius ignorantly put 
Ihem. ^ 


^' The Riphaan mountains of Pliny, as of Ptolemy, 
palpably run from east to west ; as he passes them to go 
to the Scythic Ocean* It is clear from Ptolemy, that they 
ran along the head of Tanais and are often named with 
Tanais by the anciients; for by all ancient accounts the Tanais 
Vose in them. But this is nothing to the matter. The 
question is what the ancients thought. And it is clear 
that they often confounded a forest with a chain of moun-* 
tarns, as Pliny here does the Hercynian forest. . No wonder 
then that in civilized times no such mountains^ otherwise 
forests^ are to be found. The Rtphasan forest^ I am con- 
vinced, was that now called Volkonski, still 150 miles long 
from the west, to Moscow on the east. It is also a range 
of small hills. 

/ . 

^* Timoeus, as we learn from other passages of Pliny, called 
die isle opposite Kaunonia by the name of Baltia. It is 

Aerefbie^ a sKp of Plifty when he puts ibaa mmdiig' the. 
najaeleaa »ies« Vtrhat- river the ancienti called Paropami* 
8U8^ is doubtful* There .was a mountain and region Paro^, 
pamisua at the head of the Indus. The Amalchian was evi- 
diBntly die eastern part :^of the Seythic Oceans Present 
SarasUf or some other river running nordi on the east of 
^be Caspian, may be Paropamisus. 

'. ■• 
^ ^^ The Promontory Rubeas seems to me that on the west 
<^ the mouth of die river Rubo or Dwina, being the nordi 
point of the present Courland. Cluverius, who puts it h& 
the north of Lapland shews strange ignorance. The ancienta 
knew no more of Lapland than of America: and were never 
fordier north than Shetland,* and the south part of Scandi- 
navia. The Cronian seems here the north-east part of the 
Baltic sea. As Pliny tells us repeatedly, in other places^ 
that Baltia\ or Basilia^ was the isle where, only, amber was 
found, it 19 clearly Glessaria of Prussia, not ScandinaxAu 
The isles Oonm^ &c., all grant to be those of Oesel, &c*, at 
die mottdi pf the Finnish Gulf« 

*' Cluverius is so utterly foolish^ as to put die Sevo Mono 
of Pliny, in Norway; in which childish blunder he is blindly 
followed, as usual, by Cellarius and D'Anville, which last 
has not examined one titde of the ancient geography of 
Germany, though the most important of all, to the history 
of Europe. Pliny's Sevo Mons^ is actually that chain be** 
tween Prussia and Silesia, called Assiburgmo Mons^ by Pt(d« 
amy, and now Zottenberg. In the map of modern Germany 
by Cluverius, this chain is fully marked, from the east of 
Bohemia and Silesia up to the Resehout. Tacitus mendona 
this Sevo Mom (though he gives not the name)' as dividing 
the Suevi from the north to south. Most ancients regarded 
the Fistula as the eastern bound of Germany, and the Bastema 

* The real Thule or Thyle of the ancients, as D'Anville shews. 

t Yet, for the sake of uniformity we have placed Baltia am«ng the ScandiDaTian 
isles as being in the same sea. 

t Though we quote it, we do not sanction the abrupt phrase of our profound 
antiquary; who seems, from the tenour of his book, to pique himself upos that 
very exceptionable and uucoaileous quality of morosenesa. 



Prom* Apollinisy 
Prom. Candidum> 
. Prom. T re turn, 

26. Ampsagas fluviui. 
Prom. Metagonium. 

27. Molochath vel Malva fiuy. 
Prom. RusadiFi 

(Prom. Abyla)) 

Cape Ras-Zebid. 
Cape Serrat or Ras*ti Abidad. 
Cape Sebda-ruz or Burgarone. 

26. The river Wad-a-Kibir. 
Cape Harsgone. 

27. The river Mulva. 
Cape Tres-Forcas. 

(See the beginning of the table). 



(I. Hellespontus)^ 

2. Propontis, 

a. Granicus fluviusy 

b. Rhyndacus fluviusi 

3. Bosporus Thraciu8| 
Prom. Thynias, 

4. Danubus vel Ister fluvius, 

5. Tyras fluvius, 

6. Borysthenes flttviusy 
Dromus AchilUS) 

7. Carcinites Sinus, 

Prom. Criumetopon or Ram's 

8. Bosporus Cimmerius, 

9. Palus Mceotis, 
a. Tanais fliivius, 

10. Ccrceticus Sinus, 

11. Amiseus Sinus, 

a. Thermodon iluvius, 

b. Iris fiuvius, 
q. Halys fiuvius, 

Prom. Carambis, 

a. Sagaris vel Sang^rius flu v. 
(12. Bosporus Thracius), 


1 . (see £g«um Mare,(No. 1 1). 

2. Sea of Marmora. 

a. The river Ousvola. 

b. (falls into Marmora). 

3. Strait of Constantinople. 
Cape Tiniada. 

4. The river Danube. 

5. The river Dneister. 

6. The river Dnieper. 

(Cape between Dnieper & Nc^ 

7. Necropyla or Funeral Gate. 
Karadje-Bourun (or Black 


8. Strait of Cafa or Zabach6* 

9. Sea of Azoff. 

a. The river Don. 

10. 7 (on the coast of Cir.- 

11. 3 cassia). 

a. The river Termeh. 

b. The Ikil-ermark. 

c. The Kizel-ermark. 
Cape Kerempi. 

a. The river Sakaria. 
(12). See the beginning of thc 



1. Rha iluvius^ 

2. Jaxartes flu v. (false Tanais), 

3. Oxus fiuvius, 


1. The river Walga. 

2. The river Sir or Sihon. 

3. The river Gihon. 

* Taken for a g^u^f of the Seytiiie Ocean at a later period than the titne tf Herodo- 
tnivho vas better infarmed. 





4. Sideris fluvius, 
9. Socanda fluvius, 

6. Araxes fluvius, 

7. Cyrus fluvius^ 


4. The river Ester. 

5. The river Abi-Scoun. 

6. The river Aras. 

7. The river Persis or Kur. 



1. Senus fluvius, 
Prom. Satyrorum^ 
3^. Magnus Sinus, 
a. Serus fluvius. 
From. Magnum, 


1. The river Camboja. 
Point of Camboja, 
3. Gulf of Siam. 
a. The river Menan. 
Cape Malay. 



(From. Magnum), 
1. Gangeticus Sinus, 
su Perimulicus Sinus, 

b. Sabaricus Sinus. 
Prom. Tamala (et Ofiidum)^ 

c. Ganges fiuvius, 
Prom. Calligicum, 

d. Colchicus Smus, 
Prom. Comaria, , 

2. Erythraeum Mare, 
^l). Barygazenus Sinus, 

3. Canthi vcl Baraces Sinus, 
a. Indus fluvius, 

(3). Terabdon Sinus, 

a. Arbis vel Arabis fluvius, 

b. Cophanta fluvius, 
Prom. Carpella, 

(4). Persic us Sinus, 

. a. Araxes vel Aroses fluvius, 

b. Tigris fluvius, 

c. Euphrates fluvius, 

d. (Tylos Insula), 
Prom. Maceta, 
Prom. Syagros, 
(5). Sacalites Sinus, 

a. Prion fluvins, 
(6). Avalites Sinus, 
(7). Sinus Arabicus, 

a. JKIaniticus Sinus, 
Piom* Phara vel Posidiumi 



(See the last table.) 

1. Bay of Bengal. 

a. Strait of Malacca. . 

b. Gulf of Martaban. 
Cape Al-Demlou (and city). 

c. The river Ganges, 

Cape Calymere or Calla-Medu. 

d. Gulf of Manara •r Kilkar. 
Cape Comorin. 

2. The Arabian Sea. 
l). Gulfof Cambay. 
2). Gulf of Sindi. 

a. The river Indus. 
^3). west of the latter. 

a. The Afit-ab. 

b. The riv^r Mende. 
Cape Jask. 
(4). Persian Gulf. 

a. The Bend-Emir. 

b. The river Basalinfa. 

c. The river Frat. 

d. (Bahrain). 
Cape Ma9andon. 
Cape Ras-aUHhad. 
(5). Gulfof Herbs. 

a. The river Prim. 
(6). Babelmandel. 
(7). The Red Sea. 

a. Gulf of Bahr«el«Acaba. 
Cape Ras-Mahamed. 




b. Heroopofitinus Sinusy 
Prom. Aromatuni}* 

b. Gulf of Suez. 
Cape Guardaful. 

»/\/vr<»yvr'»/>#v rk^N/\#* 


1. Rheniia fluvius, 

a. Vahalis fluvius, 

b. FlcvuB fluvius, 

c. Mosella fluvius, 

d. Moenus fluvius, 

2. Padus fluvius, 

a. Padusa, 

b. Caprasia, 

c. Sagis, 

d. Volana, 

e. Eridanus 8cc, 

f. OUius fluvius, 

g. Addua fluvius, 
h. Ticinus fluvius, 
i. Tanarus fluvius, 
j. Duria Major fluvius, 

3. Danubius fluvius, 

a. Savus fluvius, 

b. Tibiscus fluvius, 

c. Dravus fluvius, 

d. Marus fluvius, 

e. Aenus fluvius, 

4. Nilus vel JEgyptus fluvius 

a. Canopicum, 

b. Bolbitinuiti, 

c. Sebennyticutn, 

d. Phatniticum, 

e. Mendesium, 

f. Taniticum, 

g. Pelusiuiih 
h. Astapus fluvius, 
i. Gir fluvius, 


1. The river Rhine. 

a- The Waal. [z^f). 

b. The Ulie {and the Zuyder- 

c. The Moselle. 

d. TheMein. 

2. The Po. 

Mouths of the Fo. 

f. The river Oglio. 

g. The river Adda. 
h. The river Tesino. 
i. The river Tanoro. 
j. The river Doria. 

3. The river Danube. 

a. The river Save. 

b. The river Teisse. 

c. The river Drave. 

d. The river Morava. 

e. The river Inn, 

4. The river Nile. 

a. Maadie or the passage. 

b. Rascid. 

c. Bereloss. 

d. Damiat. 

e. Dibe. ) 

, f. Eumme-Farrage. 
g. Tineh. 

h. The White river. 
i. The Blue river. 

■» F >■ 

* Farther south, the coast of Africa wsls little known to the AncientSy though that 
continent was believed to have heen circumnavigated more than once. The first was 
executed by order of Necho (Pharaoh) king of Bypt, under the conduct of Phoeai- 
ciand. See Menn^9 Hcro(ktui, 




i: Wetier lacusf 
-2. Flevo lacus, 

3. Lemanus lacuSf 

4. Brigantmus, yel Acronius 

5. Verbanus lacuS} 

6. Larius lacusy 

7. Sevinus lacus^ 

8. Bcnacus lacus, 

9. Trasimenus lacus» 

10. Vulsinensis lacusy 

11. Fucinus lacusi 

12. Pergusa lacus, 
IX Palicorum lacusy 

14. Copals lacus, 

15. Lerna lacus, 


1. lake Mios, in Norway. 

2. The Zuyderzee. 1 . . -^ 

3. Lake of Geneva. U««««^»f 

4. Lake Constance. J ^*'***« 

5. Lake Majonu 1 . ^ 

6. LakeComo. 1**5^"*'* 
r> Lake Isco. f -^f^* "'^ 

8. Lake Garda. J '** ^''• 

9. Lake Perugia. 

10. Lake Bolsenai. 

11. Lake Celano. 

!JJ (In Sicily). 

14. Livadia limne. 

15. Lake Molini. 


of Ital^, 




1. Samochonites lacus, 

2. Genesareth lacus, 

3. Asphaltites lacus, 

4. Arrissa lacus. 

1. Ldke Bahr-el-HouleL 

2. Sea of Tiberias. 

3. Dead or Salt sea, Sec. 

4. Lake Van. 



1. Sirbonis lacus, 

2. Mareotis lacus, 

3. Moeris* lacus, 

4. Coloe lacus, 

5. Pallas et Tritonis Paludes, 

1. Sebaket-Bardoil. 

2. (near Alexandria). 

3. Bathen or the Deep. [Nile) 

4. (Ptolemy's source of the 

5. Farooun and Loudeah. 


* The celebrated artifieial lake of ancieiit Egypt, according to Herodotus and Dio« 
4orus. There vaa another lake in figypt^ called SimiM, thai was of Nature'* prodac^ 
tion, noticed hj Strabo and Ftolemy. 




1. Grainpius Mons, 
3. Sevo Mons, 

3. Hercynii, Riphiae vel Hyper- 
borie Silvse, seu Montes>* 

4. Pyreniae Monies, 

5. Alps Monies. 

a. Alpis Marilima, 

b. Alpis Pennina, 

c. Alpis Graiae, 

d. Alpis Cottiae, 

' f. Alpis Noricae, 
g. Alpis Rhaeticae, 
h. Alpis VenetaSy [pates, 
i. Alpis Ba^arnicae vel Car- 

6. Apenninus Mons, 

7. Vesuvius Mons, 

8. ^tna Mons, 

9. Haemus Mons, 
10. Pindus Mons, 

Modem, ^ 

1. The Grampian Hills. 

2. Zottcnberg (see Preliminary) 

3. Volkonski (see Preliminary^ 

4. The Pyrenees. 

5. The Alps. 

a. (on the gulf of Genoa). 

b. Little St. Bertrand. 

c. Great St. Bertrand. 

d. Mount Genivere.* 


between the Adriatic 
sea and the Danube. 


i. Carpathian mountains. 
. Apennine mountains. 

7. Mount Vesuvius. 

8. Mount ^tna. 

9. Mount Erainehdag. 

10. (between Thessaly&Epirus). 


1. Caucasus Mons, 

2. Taurus Mons, 

a. Amanus mons, 

b. Anti-taurus, 

c. Matinei montes, 

d. Moschicus monS| 

e. Niphates mons, 

f. Amoranta mons, 

g. Paropamisus mons, 
h. Imaus mons. Sec. 

1. Mount Caucasus. 

2. Mount Taurus. 

These extended, interruptedly 

^from Asia Minor to Chinese 

Tartary ; their corresponding^ 

names not clear of anibiguity. 

* The forests of the north of Europe and Asia were coafounded by the Aneients 
-with the idea of moaataiDS } which, id diSereat parts, have passed under these denomi- 


\ * 


1. Liinx monteS) 
3. Arabicus moQSy 

3. Lybicus monS) 

4. Atlas minoF) 
J. Atlas major, 

6. Debrum Currus monS) 

1. Mountains of the Moon. 
3. (Between the Red SeiLani 

3. (West of the NUe)* 

4. Cape Cantin. 

5. Bajadore Cape. 

\ Heights of Serra Leonst; 





1. Bergon insula, 

2. Nerigon insula, 

S. Scandinavia, vel Scandia in- 
' aula, 

4. Burchana insula, 

5. Codanovia insula, 

6. Baltia, Electrides, vel Gles- 
saria insula, 

7. Oonae vel Hippopodum In- 

8. Eningia insula^ 

2* ? (The south of Norway). 

3. (The south of Sweden). 

4. Funen. 

5. Zealand. 

6. (At the Mouth of the Vis* 

7. Oseland Dego. 

8. (The south of Finland). 



1. Thule vel Thyle*, 
d. Ebudes insulae, 

3. Hibernia vel leme, 

4. Monseda vel Mona, 

5. Mona, 

€. Albion vel Britannia, 
7. Vectis, 

1. Orkney and Shetland Isles. 

2. Hebrides or Western Isles. 

3. Ireland. 

4. Man. 

5. Anglesey. 

6. Britain. 

7. Isle of Wight 


* firroneondy sppUed to Icelaad^ vhich was yyaluowii to the Aneieati. 


▼KW OP AjKBarr «E06BAnnr. 

0« Ridona, 
9, Sarmiat 
la CaesarM 

12. Vindilii^ 

13. UUarus, 

U. Gadet vel Gadir, 

15. Paea (of Ptolemy), 

16. Fortunatai InaulXj 

a. Junonia, 

b. Capraria, 

c. Pluvialia rel Ombrios, 

d. Nivaria, 
e^ Canaria, 

f. Purpurarix InsuIaBi 

17. Cem6 Insula, 

18. Gorgades Insulx, 

8. Aldernejr. 

9. Gruemsey. 

10. Jersey. 

11. Uahant. 

12. Belle Isle. 

13. Oleron. 

14. (Site of Cadiz). 

15. Madeira. 

16. The Canariea. 

a. Palma. 

b. Gomenu 

c. Ferro. 

d. Tenerif. 

e. Canary. 

f. FortuTenturaet Lan^arot^ 

17. Arguin. 

18. Bissagos Isles. 



I. Pityusas Insulae, 

a. Ebusus, 

b. Ophiusa, 

3. Baleares vel Gymnesise in- 

a. Major Baleares, 
, b. Minor Baleares, 

3. Corsica vel Cymos, 

4. Sardinia vel Ichnusa, 

5. Ilva, 

6. ^oliae vel Vtilcaniae insulae^ 

7. Sicilia, Sicania vel Trinacria, 

8. Issa insula, 

9. Corcyra Nigra, 

10. Sa^o, 

I I. Corcyra Phaeaciorum, 
13. Leucadia, 

13. Cephallenia, 

14. Zacynthus, 

15. Strophades, 

16. Creta, 

17. Dium, 

18. ^gilia, 

19. Cyt^era, 

30. Cyclad« Insulae, 

a. Melos, 

b. CimolUB, 


1. (West of the Balearic isles). 

a. Ivica. 

b. Formentera. 

2. The Balearic isles. 

a. Majorca. 

b. Minorca. 

3. Corsica. 

4. Sardinia. 

5. Elba. 

6. Lipari Isles. 

7. Sicily. 

8. Lissa. 

9. Curzola. 

10. Saseno. 

11. Corfu. 

12. Leucadia. 

13. Cefalonia. 

14. Zante. 

15. Strivali. 

16. Candia. 

17. Stan Dia. 

18. Cerigotto. 

19. Cerigo. 

20. The Cyclades. 

a. Milo. 

b. Ai^otierii. 




C. SiphAus, 

d. Seriphus, 

e. Cythnus, 

f. Ceos, 

g. AndroS) 
h. Tenosi 
i. Syros; 

]. Delos et Rhenea insulse, 

k. Myconusy 

1. Naxosi 

m. Parosy 

n. Oliarusi 

o. los, 

p. Sicinus, 

q. Pholegandrua) 

r. Thera, 

8. Anaphe, 

t. Astypolea^ 8cc. 
21. i^gina, 
22.Calauria^ ^ 

23. Salamist 

24. Helena vel Maoris, 

25. Bell^ina, 

26. Euboea, 

27. Scyros, 

28. Scyathus, 

29. Scopelosi 
SO. Halonesus, 

31. Preparethus, 

32. Thasos, 

S3. Samothrace, 

34. Imbros, 

35. Lemnosy 

36. Tenedos, 

37. Arginustae InsuIaC) 
38« Lesbos, 

39. Chios. 

40. Samos. 

41. Sporades insulas, 

a. Icaria. 

b. Pathmos, 

c. Leros, 

d. Calymna, 

e. Cos, 

f. Nysirusi 

g. Telos, ' 
b. CarpathuSj 
i. Rhodus, 

42.. Cyprus, 

c. Siphanto. 

d. Serpho. 

e. Thermia. 

f. Zia. 

g. Andro. 
h. Tina. 

i. (West of Delos). 
j. Sdili. 
k. Myconi. 
1. Naxia. 
m* Paros. 
n. Antiparos. 
o. Nio. 
p. Sikino. 
q. Policandro. 
r. Santorin. 
s. Nanphio. 
t Stanphalia, Kb. 
31. Engia. 

22. Corsaire, 

23. Coiouri. 

24. Macro-nisi. 

25. Lavousa. 

26. Negropont. 

27. Syra. 

28. Sciathus. 
22. Scopelus. 

30. Dromo. 

31. ]Pelagnisi* 

32. Thapso. 

33. Samothraki. 

34. Imbro. 

35. Stalimen. - 

36. Tenedos. 

37. Arginusi (three isles). 

38. Mytilin. 

39. Scio. 

40. Samos. 

41 . (In the Icarian sea). 

a. Nicaria. 

b. Pathmos. 

c. Leros. 

d. Calmine. 

e. StancoorLango. 

f. Nisari. 

g. Piscopia. 
h. Scarp^mto. . 
i. Rhodes. 

42; Cyprus. 



43* Tynis (iitc of Tyre), 

44. Pharos (near Alexandria)) 

45. Meninx, 

46. Melita, 

47. Cercina^ 
4t. Lopadu8% 


43. (The city is called Sur). 

44. (Part of the continent). 

45. Zerbi or Jerba. 

46. Malta. 

47. Kerkeni. 

48. Lampedqsa. 



1. Jabadii insula, 

2. Tacola, 

3. Sindae, 

4. Barussacy 

5. Maniols, 

6. Bonae Fortunae, 

7. Taprobana vel Salice, 

S. Insulas ante Taprobanum, 
^9. Tylos (in the Persian Gulf), 
Id. Dioscoridis. 

1. Sumatra. 

2. Junkselon. 

' > Nicobar isles. 

5. Little Andaman. 

6. Great Andaman. 

7. Isle of Ceylon. 

8. Maldives islands. 

9. Bahrain. 

10. Socotora. 







Previously to entering on the detail of the civtl divisionsy 
as they may be termed, in contra- distinction from the natural 
divisions just given, of seas, rivers, lakes, islands moun- > 
tains &c. it is conceived that infinite advantage will result to 
the student, from a concise view of the distinct races of man* 
kind known to the ancients, with their migrations, so far as 
Mr. John Pinkerton's ^^ Dissertation on the Goths" enables 
us to speak on so large a subject. For without some idea of 
these dawnings of civil history, out of which the first deno- 
minations of civil geography originate ; this would necessarily 
be obscure from beginning to end, as that would equally be, un- 
der a like circumstance.— -Such is the reciprocity of light and 
illustration between history and geography. 

As Mr. Pinkerton but slightly hints at the scriptural ac- 
count of the origin of nations ; and, speaking of the accounts 
of the Scythas given by some of the fathers of the church, says, 
*^ Perhaps it may be thought that these ecclesiastical authorities 



prove too much, as they mark the whole immediate descen- 
dants of Noah as Scythians ; and of course might prove all 
the nations of the earth to be Scythians, as by Scripture ac- 
count they all sprung from Noah,^' therefore the student must 
regard the following sketch as derived by Mr. P. from the most 
approved writers of profane history— sacred history being 
consigned apart as inadequate here. But as this summary is 
intended to be a key to general history, both the sacred ac* 
count of the plantation of the earth, and sacred geography, &c. 
form Part the Third of this work; where it will appear that 
the sacred and profane accounts corroborate each other, much 
more than seems to justify our author's neglect of tl^ former. 

In the course of the following sketch, the reader will observe 
that the Scythians^ Getce^ or Goths occupy by much the greater 
portion of our attention ; but not unjustly, as they were not 
only the progenitors of almost all modem Europe, but of an* 
cient Greece and Rome, as well as the greater part of Asia 
Minor ; thereby rendering themselves almost as highly dis* 
tinguished above the rest of mankind in ancient, as in modern 
history. But to the point — 

Not to mention the host of authorities and numberless quo- 
tations given *by Mr* P., which be has most laboriously, and no 
doubt judiciously examined, in order to restore these ^^ historic 
truths?* to light, we shall content ourselves with giving a plain 
narrative of what we find to our purpose ; as it would derogate 
exceedingly against the continuity as well as brevity wished to 
be maintained here. Therefore, drawing to a focus the bril- 
liant lights irradiating from every page of his invaluable work, 
we gather an idea of seven distinct aboriginal races of men, 
viz. 1st. The Chinese^ 2nd* The East Im&ans, 3^. The Sctf^ 
thians^ 4^h. Tbe Asyrians^ 5th* The Sarmatians^ G. The Celt9^ 
7th. The Fins or Laplandersi; of which the five first were Asi- 
aiiCy and the latter two European* 


Our author informs us that tbe Chinese and Japanese 
are infallibly, as their language and history declare, a grand 


aborigtaai iiaitiocu That the Tartars (a) were a colony from 
them, and that their wars with the Chinese can be traced 
back to 200 years before Christ ; in which, about 87 years 
before. Christ, the Chinese obtained a prodigious victory 
over them. After this, their vast nations fell into civil wars* 
In process of time, the numerous hordes that were vanquished, 
moved west in two divisions. One division settled in the 
confines of present Persia, while the other, under the name of—- 

Huns,, passed north west over the vast river Walga, and 
poured into Europe about 37 S years after Christ, in such amaz- 
ing numbers as no valour could withstand. They first encoun- 
tered the Alani whom they overpowered, but admitted as allies. 
The Alani and the other Gothic nations— ^who, even to the 
Caledonian woods of the JHcts, were of large limbs, elegant 
and blooming features, and light hair—- were astonished at the 
very forms of these new invaders, distinguished by squat limbs, 
flat noses, broad faces, small black eyes, dark hair, with little 
or no beard ; as indeed are the present Tartars. The OstrO" 
goths also yielded to the Hunnic swarms, and were admitted as 
allies on condition of fighting in their armies. The Huns 
now commanded by Balamir, as they were afterwards by three 
others before the famous Attila, entered the Vesigothic terrri- 
tory, and expelled the inhabitants, who found it vain to resist 
such myriads of warlike invaders. 

^ But as the Hum came not in upon the Scyth|c settlements 
till the fourth century of our aera, there is every reason to con- 
clude that the inhabitants, then far advanced in civilization, 
remained in dieir possessions (contemplating a period subse- 
quent to their succesisful career); for the Goths, who came 
into the Roman Empire are counted by thousands, whereas 
those who remained (of the Romans we presume) rec- 
koned by millions; and Busbequius, with others, shews that the 
peasants of Crim Tartary still speak the Gothic. In the year 
453, Ardaric, king of the Ostrogoths^ assisted by the Gepidcty 
defeated the Huns^ &c. The remainder of the European Huns, 
much reduced, were afterwards nearly extinguished by the Igours 

{a)» ** Mogul seeras to be the rightful appellation for this people down to the 
tweltth century, when the name of Tartar began to be applied bj us to almost half of 
Ana.*' li'tnkerton on the Goths. 


of Siberia; so that in Hungary, whose same arose from that 

people, there is not one JSun*! 


^' The East Indians are not Tartars, but a race and language 
of men to themselves." M* D'Anville says that ^' sciences and 
polity were found among the Indians from the earliest times in 
which their country was known. The^uterprises of Cyrus, 
and of Darius, son of Hystaspes, on India, preceded by an ex- 
pedition of Semiramis, and by that attributed to Dionysius or 
Bacchus, have a£forded to the west no particular knowledge of 
this country. Nor did Europe acquire any geographical ac- 
quaintance with India till the invasion of it by Alexander*" 
As the ancient East Indies are not noted for migratioi),s to^ 
and colonising other countries, they claim no further notice 


The ancient Scythians were aborigines of present Persia. 
Under their king Tanaus, they attacked and subdued Vexores 
king of Egypt on the one hand, and conquered India on the 
other, about 1500 years before Ninus, or 3660 before Christ; ex- 
tending their empire east and west from Egypt to the Ganges, 
and north and south from the Indian ocean to the Caspian sea* 
About 1500 years after, or 2160 years before Christ, Ninus 
subverted the Scythian empire and established the Assyrian 
on its ruins; when, by consequence, the Scythcc Nomades^ a 
pastoral people of the north of Persia, crossed the Araxes 
and Caucasus to settle around the Euxine or Black sea; leaving 
behind them the southern Scythm or Persians, who are the 
progenitors of the Persians of the present day. This asylum 
of the Scythians north of the Euxine, corresponding with Little 
Tartary, Mr. P. in compliance with custom, calls ancient Scy 
thiaj as being the Parent country of the European or western^ 
as well as of the eastern Scythians, who gradually extended 
from this nursery of valorous men, in either direction. 


1. Eastebh ScTTBiS. But in regard to the eastern mi- 
gration and somewhat retrograde motion of these Scythes^ in 
what proportion those to the east of the Caspisui sea, knowa 
as Scytha intra et extra Imaum^ were derived from the 
JEuxiney or directly from the ancient Scythie empire, seems 
to rest in a degve« oF uncertainty. In his statement. of 
these eastern settlements Mr. P. explicitly says that the 
Massageta and Sacas^ who were the Scythps intra Imaum and 
the Chata or Getes and fabulous Arimaspi^ vho were the 
Scythas extra Imaum^ on the authority of Diodorus Sic.ulus, 
came respectively from the Palus Moeotis. He also as ex- 
presslyi states that the Eactriani were Saca or old Scythse who 
extended thus far during the Scythie empire in Persia; for Ni- 
nus made war on them. But he speaks doubtfully of the Sog- 
diani and Margiani rather inclining to derive the former from 
the source of the Bactrianiy and the latter from that of the 

Our author also informs us, on the authority of Dionysius 
the Geographer, that the positions between the Euxine and 
the Caspian seas, as Albania^ Jberiay Colchis, and south of these, 
Armenia, were Scythie settlements: but that those of Colchh 
were dispersed by a colony of Egyptians about 1480 ^ears be- 
fore Christ, (afterwards the famous Colchians) attracted thither, 
as were the Argonauts, by the gold mines of the country. 
Here also a small doubt abides. In Mr. P's laudable zeal to 
prove that the Getct, Goths and Scythoe were one people, he 
omits to inform us whether these settlements were made as the 
Scythians passed over this tract to the neighbourhood of the 
Petlus Masotis, or afterwards, by retrogression. The judgment 
of every one, however, will most probably affirm the first al- 
ternative, as migrations generally leave their traces, though sel- 
dom retrograde. 

Let us consider this account of the eastern settlements of the 
Scythians, sufficient fbr the relative weight of the subject, and 
return to Parent Scythia, formerly called Ancient or Little Scy^ 
thia now Little T^rtary, and trace their western progress. 

2. Western Scythians. The Scythas Nomades of the 
north of Persia, who retired from the power of Ninus, having 

muined this fruitful situation about 3000 yean before Christ, 
had here their first encouater with native Cek9 knovRi by the ap- 
pellative of Cimwieru^ whom they did not finally expel firbin 
their fastne«s in the Tauric Chers9ne9e, till 640 years before 
Christ; and after making early settlements in the east, as just 
seen, they tarried here till about 1800 years before Christ, when 
they began to coloni^e-^ 

a. Thrace; and thence, Asia JMinor, lUyricum^ and Greece; 
which they completed in 300 years. In the neighbourhood of 
Thrace^ respecting the north, we must not confound the nations 
of Jazyges and Roxolani with the Dact, Mast and Getw or Goths; 
the former being Sarmatic^ who came from the north of Asia 
about 1000 years before Christ, and settled in amity among the 
latter, who were all Scythic. 

It may be deemed almost superfluous to observe that the 
terms Scythwy Getctj and Goths are clearly proven by Mr. P. 
to be convertible ; though that of Goths made its appeiu'ance 
only as early as 250 years after Christ, as shewn by Mr. Gib- 
bon ; whereas Geticc was known among the Scythians about the 
Jmaus^ with but a slight variation in the form of Getes^ several 
centuries earlier. And every one knows how extensively the 
epithet of Goths ^ unjustly opprobrious, has been applyed to the 
Scythic nations throughout Europe. 

b* Asia minor. Those Scythians who passed the Bosporus 
Thracius^and the Hellespont^ into Asia Minor from Thrace, were 
the BithynianSj Martandyni^ Phrygians and all the nations of 
the kingdom of Pon^z^— ^namely, the Rhabi^ Paphlagonians, 
Chalybesy Tibarenij Mossymesi, Peileres^ MacroneSj BechireSj 
ByzereSy and Chalcedoniansy about the south of the Euxine : 
East of the Hellespont and jEgsean sea, were the Misyans Ly* 
dians and Cartans, Besides these from Thrace, the Lyciansy 
PamphilianSy &c. came from Greece, being branches of the Pel* 
asgiy Heltenesy or Greek Scythians yet to be noticed. So that 
all Asia Minor was settled by Scythians, excepting only Capa'- 
docia and Cilicia; of which the former, on the authority of Dio- 
nysius, was settled by AssyrianSy as was the latter, on the 
ground of rational induction from proximity of situation ; hav- 
ing no certain authority for the origin of its inhabitants. 



c« lLZ.Yaicysi*. The history of those Seyih^ns who from 
Thrace settled the country between the Danube and the Adria* 
tic sea, is not a little obscure. Some centuries after coining 
hither, they successively submitted to their more thrifty breth^ 
Ten of Macedon and of Rome. Excepting some Illyrian settle- 
ments on the neighbouring shores of Italy ^ the Scythic migra- 
tion on this route extended no further west ; in which direction 
the CelU still retained their Gallic possessions till about 500 
years before Christ, when the Germans, . or northern Scyt/utj 
poured in upon tbem ; having passed into Germany by a north- 
west direction from Parent Scythia^ as herein after explained* 

dm Geeece« Those Scythians who went into Greece as 
above mentioned, were called Pelaagi, and afterwards Hellene^; 
as was all Greece known principally by the names first of Felas" 
ffta and afterwards of Hellas among its own inhabitants. The 
Fehsgi were the first possessors of Greece of whom we have 
any historic account : for the aborigines of Europe penetrated 
into neither extremity of Italy nor Greece* To what eminence 
the Greeks arose in arts and science, xHily rivalled l^ their 
Scythian brethren in other ages and countries, is variously de- 
scanted on by Greek antiquaries : and to what extent two 
small Egyptian colonies of Athens and Argos led by Cecrops 
and Danaus, and one Phoenician colony of Thebes led by Cad- 
mus, contributed to this eminence, will probably ever rest un- 
decided even by the most indefatigable of these enquirers. We 
have already seen that this Scythic branch colonized Lycioy 
Pamphiliaj and other parts of Asia Minor. Nor should we 
omit to mention the Greek colony of Massilia, now Marseilles, 
in France, who came from Phocia a city of Ionia, 600 yeara be* 
fore Christ; not to confound the, same with the Phcsnician 
colo^of Marseilles^ of 60 years posterior date, as is yet to be no- 
ticed. Besides passing eastwardly to Asia Minor, andvthence 
to Marseilles, the Greeks or Pelasgi colonized-— 

e. Italy* Mr. Pinkerton derives the Scythic settlers of 
Italy from four sources, and makes as many partitions of the 
country, corresponding with the settlements thus made ; which. 

* Illyricum, in the enlarged sense of Mr. P., extends all along the north side of the 
Adriatic to Gaul) haying the Danube north; Thrace and Macedon east 


i&< regard to the three first, were about 1000 years before Christ, 
and 500 in regard to the last. Excepting the aboriginal Celts y 
vhom they found in the Gallic part, the Scythians were the first 
possessors of Italy. 

1^^. The first of the divisions just alluded to, comprehends 
Gracia Magna^ Campania and Latium; which was settled by 
Pelasgi from Arcadia. Sometime after, a few other Pekzsgi 
from Epirus coming hither, were repulsed by these first colo« 
nists, who were erroneously thought to be aborigines. With 
many other proofs of the Greek origin of this portion of Itafy^ 
Mr. P. says, ^^ The Latin language is a clear proof of the origin 
of the people, being merely the ^olic dialect of the Greeks as 
Quintilian remarks, and as the learned well know." 

2nd. That part of Italy which lies opposite to Illyricum on 
the Adriatic sea, a part of which was called Peuketiay was set- 
tled by the Peuksti from lUyricumy a branch of the great .£09* 
ternic nation of Parent Scythia; who^ by the bye, forming diein« 
selves into several other divisions, and proceding in different 
directions, overran the rest of Europe;- of which presently. 

3^. The Etruriansy as we learn from Herodotus, whom Pliny, 
Paterculus, and others of the best ancient writers follow, were 
a Lydia2i colony; and we have }ust been told that the Lydian^ 
were Scythians from Thrace direct. The Lydiahs were eari^ 
polished by their neighbourhood with the Assyrians of Cappa* 
^(7da; hence the ^^ £/rt/rian« seem to have been skilled in the 
fine arts long before the Latins^ as the many ancient pieces pre- 
served, shew." 

4th. That part of Italy called Cisalpina Gallia^ was settled 
by German Gauls of the Basternic or Scythic race, about 500 
years >before Christ. The^ expelled the aboriginal CeltSy who 
occupied no other part of Italy. But this is, in some measure, 
anticipating the movements of the Basterntc nation, whom we 
must now attend to, in pursuance of the order of the first Scy- 
thic progress over Europe, by returning once more to the grand 
store-house of European nations; whence we shall proceed 
with our last, and probably largest colonies to supply-^ 


f. Gerhakt, Scakdiitavia, andthe rAt of Europe. Mt. 
Pinkertoo enters on t^is artick in the following emphatic, aiid 
we may say exokingmannrr. ^^ We are now aurived at the last 
and most important part of this dissertation: and a subject upoti 
which the whole modern history of Europe depends. If we 
cannot shew the Getmans to have-beea originally Seytkct^ this 
dissertatioa is inqpt; If we -can, a field of Wide cm-iosity ' ami 
enquiry opois to tbe lesumed d£ Europe. For, the origin of 
government, manners, laws, in short,^ all of the antk|ulti^& of 
£urof>e, wiU assume a new appearance; and instead of being 
only traced to the' woods of Genbany, as Montesquieu and 
the greatest writers have hitherto done^ may be foUowbd 
trough the long descriptions of the manners, &c. of the Scif^ 
thians aod Thraeums given by Herodotus; nay, even up to thfe 
^o^igifkal Scythitm empire of Pdroia. And beyond this there 
ia no saemiMrial of human affairs, Mve in Egypt aleiM, the hia- 
tofy of whi^h begins with Mskes^ the first king, about 4d00 
years before our »ra; while the earliest appearance of the Scy^ 
tkiata in history is about 4^0 ^yealv ^after, when Veibires was 
king of iEgypt, and Tanaiia^ of the Sctfthos-'-^^Bijat to itiention the 
collateral light denved fvom the irhole. history of the Greeks 
and Momans^ who wer« Scy^m\ ^ just shewn." 

On this route we shall find fkm Sey^iansy Gette or Goths not 
•aly peopling all ScAndinapia and Germany^ but extending 
hence and actually possesaeag Gau/ and Spain 500 years before 
Christ, as well as BHt^n and Ireland* 300 years before Christ, 
dispossessiag the aboriginal ^'CV/^^ almost at pleasure. 

Setting out then from the siiores of >the Euxine with the 
Scytbic migration towards Germtmy and Scandinavia, the Great 
BaHernic nation engrosses attention^ This nation sprung from 
FeuASy an island in the mouth' of ^the^Donube, and heart of Pa^ 
i«Btal Scythia. In thteir gradualimigrationftowards the Baltic, 
after sending a branch to lUyricum and Italy, afore-mentioned, 
the Basterna became so numerous as to extend over one fifth 
of ancient Germany; in length 500 miles from the Euxine to 
the Baltic, and in breadth 150 miles between the Fistula on the 
west, and the Niemen and Dneiper on the east. It was this 
ScjTthian nation with whom the Sarmatce^ their Asiatic neigh- 
boiurs, were so much confounded by superficial writers; the 

5 ' 

date to, «iid settUrd ta aoiity sniMg, the former,, uoder the 
names of Fi^eeH^ Fenni^ Soxolani^ y^f^lUt^^^ ^^* ^^ whom 

Progressing fr6ni this extensive tract to the west ||94 ^ 
north; the name of Basterna seens to be merged in those of At' 
mdni^ SitoneSy and Peuktnu ^' Of these three divisions of Bas- 
ternae/' says Mr. P. ^ The Jkmmiy if I misu^Jce not, spreadmg 
west along the Danube, became the Southern BoMtemm^ or 
those properly and aibsolately so caUed by the; an^ientsf while 
she iSJ^one^jand JPtuiini proceeded northward tULthey arrived at 
the. Baitic' sea and Scandinavia**' In this aswiier did the 
Scythtc population diffuse itself ovjer Scandinavia and Germany, 
and petBOtrate into Glkul, the GaUic part of Italy^ akid Spahif at 
early as SOO years before Christ* Having now pervaded thf 
wbdle; of the .European conttneot, beside^. making the famous 
expedition 'into. Asia minor, under I»omnortusand Lutarii^ 
tOw found the Jctngdom. 6«blfo, which cooststodof a detacb* 
inent)af those Gauls who had ihvaded Italy under Brennus^ 
jshey yet iind the isolated spots of Bmtain and Ireland to .the 
west, where they: meake seitlem enis 3O0 years before. Christ* 
Of these settlers the Pits and Belgm are partijpularly distin** 
guished^ The^A*ir..pas^ed ^fims 'ScatiAntxt^ia to the north of 
Sttttain; ^nd if they were not the immediate descendants of tl^ 
Peuhim^ whom we have traced frons the island of JPeuie in th^ 
mouth of the Danube^ .it i% v^y evident that with so plausible 
a pretext, ^^ eiymolaffieai manid'^l,\vi»ild iiod.«rery little dafictii^y 
in deriving Fiis from Peuke* The Belgas went from. Gaul to 
she south of Britaitiy driving biforws th^m the scanty remains of 
thefiWto, and ia^like mianoer settled in. Irelat^ abput the period 
above noted. • The ikythieiror Gothic language and manners 
have also been much preserved in the. wilds of Iceland; which 
was colonised from Norw|iy.ili the ninth century, and might 
also be caUed Scythicy if tiy s settlement be nOt of top modern 
a date. 

( I'his aecount of the setdements of the Getw^ Scytho:^ or Goths 
in £uropev forms Mr. Pinkerton's ^' Epochs of the first Gothic 
progress «vcr Europe." His " Epochs of the second Gothic pro- 
gro&tt from. Getia and from. Gennany oversEc^r^pe^'rehite, to 

barous .'state, upoti thi^DMite refined brethren ^of tike aomjhiii. 
involving the Romair emphre in ruin». ' The substance of theie 
^pochas shall be subjoined hereto. We will' now say a few 
words of the other aboriginal races of men as formerly enu* 
iserated. "' '•- - • - 



'-- All that we see relating to ihi» head in the disseftaiton of 
tlor author, is the f<^lowitig ; which I presume is sufficient at 
leaist for xSNt object of this abstract. 

^"^ ^*Nimis i«f reputed the founder of the, Tbt&rrfi/'^ii&e/yWh^ell 
#as followed by the dispersion of mankind. He was certainly 
the founder of the Assyrian empire, whose capital was Batyisn^ 
iMdr ihe^ dispiirston of the Seytkiana foUowed* . Of the race <d^ 
Hdm^by Scripture account, was Nim^rod, thought to be Jfinuas 
lind Asfaur, thought to be the father of the Assyrians* Ta this 
facetklso, belonged the farilera of the nations akmgi the east ^end 
of the M^diterranesm, the Arabic gulf or Red sea, and thcough 
tfl Arabia. Certain it is that the Arabw is a delect of the 
Srattd Assyrian language^ as are the St^rian^ JPhcsniciaUy . Mc^ 
hrew^ Chaldte^ Ct^tiCy Abyssiniiin^ &ci all sister dtakclst - and 
ttfe Assyrians who overturned the Sey ibian enlpire, formed one 
great language Or race of m^en, eitteoding along the east end of 
the Mediterranean and Arabian seas, to the. Erythraean sea, 
gulf of Persia, and river^ Euphrates. Fvom them the Egypr 
tians and White Ethiopians must also hoire sprung, a& dudr bmi- 
^uage aii^ situation declare.'' From this we are auchortzed to 
condder as branches of th^ Assyrian race, the Egyptian colo- 
nies of C^khisyof Athensy and of Argo$itht Bhpanician colonies 
oi'Thehes^ in Greece ; of Hippo^Uthdi and Carthagv^in Africa; 
of MassiHd^ tn Gaul; and of Gades^ m Spain (who extended their / 
commerce into Britain and Gaul long ere Scandinavia and Ger^ 
many were at all known to the Greeics or Romans); also the 
Aquitant^ in Gaul, who are traced bacfc as far asi Arabia, 
iHience they passed through Africa^ under the name of Mautis 
atnl d^rough Spain under the? name of Iheri; into Gmul, uodisr 
thaitjrf Aquitar^i; where they were found by Julius Csesar, making 

•ouster sirobes wtth-Ae Bkfyte^ upon Ae ill hxxAdM. Boti^ 
be^flUMK {Minitiilarof the JSgyptian and Phanivian cohsnie**^ 

The Egyptian colony of C^M u lra» left thete by Se^ottriiy 
king of £|^pt4 when he wa» eitendatig hit «fai» ill thereit^ 
1400. years before Christ. That of Athens was condudttMl faf' 
Cecrops, a native of Sais in Egypt, 1556 before Christ* Heia 
said to have introduced the laws and customs of Egypt among 
the native Pelasg-i^waSL to have .founded Athens* That of Ar* 
gos was conducted by Danaus 1475 years before Christ; having 
reigned in Egypt jointly with his brother Egyptus, till in conse- 
qaeace of a difference between them^ he sailed with his fifty 
daughters, in search of another setdement. He wat hospitftbly 
received by Gelanor, king of Argos^ whom he afterwards de- 
dinxied, fay intrigiiing wiUi bia disaffected snbjccts* 

. The Fhccnician colony of Thehs was conducted by Cadmui, 
son of AgenoF, king of Phsmtsia^ mo years before Christ, 
who was sent on i^ fruitlesa seiaitdi for his sister Europa, stolen 
by Jupiter, wath older not to return without her, as the faUe 
goes* He is reputed to have founded Tkebes in consequeiMe. 
of this unsuccessful mission* The Phmnicians settled Uttt^ 
IdOOyeara before Christ; and Certhage^ under Uie conduct of 
Dido, fiaom Tyre, about 800 years before Christ. Tfity settled 
the island Gadss^ in Spain, 1200 years before Christ; and Mas^ 
silia^ in Gaul, 5^9 before Christ* 

.' The reader now perceives how extensively die Scythian mkI 
il^^^rian races i^t^rmixed in Asia Minor, and in Greece -m 
particular. And observing that the latter had die advantage of 
die former iai civilization, and arts, wherever diey united^ he will 
be inclined to demur on the title of preference given the Sdytbic, 
fay Mr. P., over all other races of mankind. But granting the 
higher distinction of the Phoenicians and Egyptians about the 
^^ Epochs of the first Scythic progress over Europe,'' and pass* 
ing by the renown that the Scythic race attained in Greece and 
Rome, which is plausibly attributed to their neigid30urB of the 
Assyrian race, the present refinement of Europe and America, 
which Mr. P., calls >^ a Scythic empire of the present day 
though not under one sovereign,'* far surpasses the social effort 

mSuMf prenous elApire^M^tvuig t^mor^j^ng «ilitidpiili<f»:^ 
the 9€9ege faie tbat aeeoM once more 'umversiJiUjr iitipfliidiagi 
With their unjust aversion to Assyrian rivakhip, hxrw: much 
fBtas then ehcnikl tlw fedingft of our Scythitu monopolisert of 
hniaan exeeUeftce tevblt at the opfaiion of Major Reoaell, that 
ijak anoitat Eg3rptiaas had llaci akin and cruped hair as tht 
degraded skeoes of America; of which he cites the fiir«fhme4 
jSesostrb as a apecsal instance.* Such a position scarcely dcp 
serves the epithet of htpothetiecd^ much less to gain trede&oe ia 
defiance of the Egyptian Mummies as proofs of the contrary .f 


^' The Sarmatet were in all apperance, originaUy, possessors 
of south-west Tartary^ but expelled by the Tartar^. For dteiv 
speech, the Sarmatic or Slavonic^ is remote from the Tartaric: 
and their persons, full of grace and majesty, are different from 
those of the Tartars : so that they are not of Tartaric origin." 
Besides proving that they are not of Tartaric origin, many rea- 
smis are adduced to shew that they are an original race. 


They entered Europe about 1000 years before Christ; for 
ifaey were far behind the Scytha in their progress, and it b 
clear that upon their entry, they found the greater part of Eu-* 
rope occupied by the Scytka^ who bounded them oa the south* 
west, and north-west. Hence, in process of time, several of 
the Smrmatic and Scythic tribes of their frontier, settled among 
each other, and generally waged war in alliance. Those of the 
Searmatee who are found entirely within the Scythic terlritory, are 
diree aations of Jazyges^, viz. the yazyges EneocatUm^ on the 
east of the mouth of the Tyras; the Jazyges Meevtm^ on the 

i^W— — — >i— ■'■' I ^t K t^ ^ wm^mmtmmmmmmfmtm 

* See Renoell's Herodotus. 

f W tlilt be not mffleient to remore tlie Btigma of tlie aboTe opinion, let the reacTep 
coniole IniDself vitli the foUoiriti^; — " quant a moi, je wis et serai tocgoors persuade 
que les K^gres n'ont ^t^ produits que par la cause indiqu^e ci-dessus; o'est-a^dire, 
I par le melange de notre sang avee celui de L'Orang-outang*. Aa turplosyil seraitiii- 

cile de t^ea assurer,** ^c. &c. La Creation du Montk (replete with original and cu- 
rious speculations), by R. De Bbcourt. 


BOith of t!ie Afee^is; and chiefly the Jazygti Metanastmy between 
the Danube and Teiss, above Pannonta. Besides these, we find 
several other Sarmatic nations within the territory above  as- 
signed to the Basternic nation of Scythw as we proceed north- 
ward . upon the Baltic, such as the Venediy the Hirri^ and die 
Fennu This country, commonly known as GermanO'Sarmatia^ 
was the ultimate tract of Europe on the north-east in those re- 
mote periods, though in more modem timesy that boundary 

funs much further to the north-east. 

J* . * 

A great Sarmatic nation, the Roxolant^ gave name to Russia:' 
and that part of Poland, far from Russia, called Red or Black'' 
Rjussia^ took its name from a part of the Roxolani who had' 
penetrated to that corner and settled. Their posterity, as may' 
be said of the Sarmafct in general^ still subsist in the inhabitants 
of Russia and Poland* 



We are informed that the Celta were the most ancient in- 
habitants of Europe that can be traced; and were to the after 
« settlers, what the aboriginal savages of America are to the Eu- 
ropean settlers there. These people form themselves under 
two grand divisions. 1st. The Celts properly and peculiarly 
so called; and 2d. The Ctmbrij Cimmeriij or Cumru 

1. The CzhTs proper^ occupied that part of Europe wh)ch 
lies west and south of the Rhine, even beyond the Pyrenees; 
but extended not beyond the Gallic part of Italy. They were 
finally pent up in the extremity of Gaul, by the Scythians^ un- 
der the name Belgqs^ on the^ north, and the Aquitani^ k Mauric 
people, on the south; whence a portion of them were pursued 
by a portion of the Belgce into the south of Britain, about 300 
years before Christ; and again driven thence about the same 
time to Ireland, by their brethren .the Cimbri or Cumri, who 
were the first inhabitants, and presumed by^ Mr. P. to have 
come to the north of Britain from the opposite shores of Ger- 
many, at a very remote period. 


2. The Cimheeii» Ciubrik, or Cvvki, are bjr m^ch the 
larger division of the. original (7d//{C. inhabitants of Europe, and 
are supppsed to spring from a northern progress of the propel 
Celts* They possessed all ancient Germany according to the 
^larged boundary, of Mr. P., when they were disturbed ia 
tlhieir peaceful possessions by the obtruding Scythians, at inters 
vals, from 2000 to 500 years before Christ. 

At the first Scythic pressure from the es^st, if not at ai| 
earlier period, a part of the Cimbri or Cumrtj of the north-west 
cQmer/pf Germany, are supposed by our author to have pa^ed 
i^.to <Jthe north of Britain; being the oldest inhabitants that 
<^in be traced, s^d leaving Cumraic names to rivers and moun^ 
^ins even in the furthest JSebudes (Hebrides or Western Isles)*^ 
Of these we are told that the pi-esent Celto- Welch and High- 
landers of Scotland are remains; as are the Celt- Irish the re- 
mains of the Gciel or proper Celts^ who passed from Gaul to 
Britain, and were promoted th<^ce to Ireland, by the Cumriy 
about 300 years before Christ, as just mentioned. These Celt* 
Irish, Celto- Welch, and the Highlanders of Scotland are the 
only Celtic remains that Mr. P. will allow of in all Europe^ 

The few remaining Cimbri of this corner of Germany were 
every where surrounded by the Scytha: about 100 years before 
Christ, when the Scandinavian Scythx poured down upon them, 
and drove them and the Teutones (of Scythic origin) before 
them. The southern Germans permitted them to pass through 
their territories in search of new habitations. They ruled Gaul 
and ravaged^Spain a while, till turning upon Italy, they were al- 
inost extii^uished by the sword of Marius 102 years before 

We have already seen, inciden^ly, (as indeed have we nearly 
the whole of this article on the Celts) that a part of the Cim* 
bri or Cimmerii for a long while defended themselves against 
the Scytha in the Tauric Chersonese, or were neglected by 
them till 646 years before Christ; when, passing the CimiK* 
rian Bosporus, they made their way into Asia Minor over the 
mountains of Caucasus. The Scythans pursued them, van- 
quished, and perhaps extinguished them* 




Mr* p. endeavours to distiogoish between the Fins and the 
JPenm; as he would shew that the former were abomginala tA 
Ig'iaJaQd, Lapland, &c«; and the hitter a nation of Sarmatic origin* 
But with due deference, I think his worda are inconchisiv^, or 
rather inclining to a contrary opinion, viz, That thq/ are one 
§nd th9 wme people y of the Sarnuaic race. For, notwidis^d- 
iog^e says, severally, that ^^ the northern Ftns^ including Lap* 
ianders^ iieem to have been infallably aborighies of their eoiim 
try; for they are so weak, so peac^ible, and their* soil so wretch* 
odf that they could have vanquished no nation, and no nation 
could envy them their possessions in climes beyond the- oolar 
rH^d^ (pA@e 1/5); and speaking of the westem^progress <^ the 
^cythm^ that f 'here every £uropean< is personally interested, savtt 
the Sarmatians of Russia and Poland; saire the CtUo-Wdch of 
iEog^nd, the Ceh^Irish of Ireland and tbe Highlandera ^ Scot* 
\uiAl and fiave the Fins of Hungary y Fmkmd and Lapland^^ 
{page 90); yet he also states elsewhere, speaking of the Hknay &c« 
tiMit '^ the remainder of the European Huns was but very small, 
and afterwards nearly extinguished by the Igours of Siberia^^ 
and the Hungarians proper, are Igours^ a Finnish people who 
settled there in the ninth century." It needs only to be de^ 
manded, if these Finnish Igours from Siberia, the quarter 
** whence the Sarmatians were expelled by the Tartars" (page 18), 
were the ^^Fins of Hungary, Lapland, and Finland,^' why 
shobld Mn P. consider these as aboriginals of Finland and 
Lapland, whilst he distinguishes the Finnish Igours, or Fenni 
as of Sarmatic origin? Perhaps our author did not consider this 
point to be of much moment in a dissertation on the Goths, or 
he had been less ambiguous. 

We will conclude this abstract, with a short extract on the 
feudal system, and a brief view of the epochs of the first and 
Sfttjcond Gothic progress over Europe, from the same ster- 
ling dissertation, previously to resuming our •proper subject of 



We cannot forbear subjoinbg what Mr. Pinkerton says on li 
•abject, perhaps, the most interesting to the present civilized 
world, of ail others in the vast scope of political speculation; 
though, without disparagement to its military convenience and 
^lity in the periods of simplicity out of which it arose, we 
should unanimously accord its extinffuiahed state as at least af- 
fording an opportunity of a more popular policy (however par- 
tial to the United States in its adoption as yet) notwithstanding 
Mr. P.*» specious regret of its fate. 

He aajrs-^*' The feudal system has been treated of by many 
writers, but do uncommon a quality is penetration, that all of 
them to this day have confounded two grand divisions in its 
history which are totally dissimilar. These divisions are, 
1. The Feudal System^ 2. The corrupted Feudal System. The 
former extendi from the earliest account of time, through the 
early history of Greece and Rome till the progress of society 
changed the manners of these nations: and through the early 
history of the Goths and Germans who overturned the Roman 
emiHre, down to the eleventh century. At this period com- 
mences the corrupted feudal system^ and lasts till the fifteenth 
century, when the feudal system, began, after its corruption, to 
dissolve quite away. The corruption of the feudal system 
took place soon after the petty kingdoms of the former ages 
were united into great monarchies, as the heptarchies in Eng-* 
land became subject to our monarch ; and so in other countries. 
This corruption is no more the feudal system than any other 
corruption is the substance preceding corruption, that is quite 
the reverse: and yet, such is modern superficiality, that it 
has been termed the feudal system ; and all writers estimate the. 
feudal system by its corruption only, just as if we should judge 
of a irepublic by its condition when changed into an aristocracy. 
About the eleventh century, by the change of small kingdoms 



into one great monarchy, and by a concatenation of other 
causes, which it would require a volume to detail, the feudal 
system corrupted (and corruptto optimi pesaimd) into a state of 
aristocratic tyranny and oppression. Before that period no such 
matter can be found. The greatest cause was, that nobility and 
estates annexed, were not hereditary till that time, so that the 
great were kept in perpetual awe ; and that check was removed, 
before the cities had attained such privileges and powers as to 
balance the nobility. In ancient Greece and Italy, confined 
spots, cities were from the first the grand receptacles of socittyv 
To the want of cities, the subjection of the people to their lords 
and all the corrupted feudal system is owing. To cities the ruin 
of that corrupted feudal system (generally called the feudal sys- 
tem) is solely to be ascribed. Of the corrupted feudal system, 
nothing shall be added here, as it commenced at a late period, 
and is foreign to my work ; save one or two remarks on chivalry, 
an institution quite misunderstood. It was so heterogeneous 
to the feudal system, that, had the latter lasted pure, the former 
would never have appeared. But as it is often so decreed, 
that out of the corruption of a constitution, a remedy for that 
corruption springs, such was the case in chivalry, an institution 
which does honour to human nature. The knighthood was not 
hereditary, but an honour of personal worth. Its professors 
were bound to help the oppressed, and curb the tyrannic spirit of 
the hereditary great, those giants of. power and romance* 
Had the ridicule of Cervantes appeared three centuries sooner, 
we must have branded him as the greatest enemy to society 
that ever wrote. As it is, a sensible French writer well ob- 
serves that it now begins to be questioned whether his book be 
not worthy of execration. All professions have their foibles; 
but ridicul/e ought never to be exerted against the benefit of 
society. Cervantes envied the success of the romances; but 
ought not to have derided"^ an institution so beneficial, because 
even fables concerning it had the fortune to delight his cotem- 
poraries. But to give a remark or two on the genuine feudal 
system which was purely democratic, as the corrupted was 


• There are but few who will not see an inconsistency herc.^ It is the *' comtpti^ 
optim pemina*' that the admired Cei*vante8, so saccessfally ridiculed. 


^ M. D^Hancarville rather fancifully dates the feudal system 
from the first Scythic empire, for Justin says, Sis igitur Asia 
per mille yuingentos annos vectigalis Jiiit; Asia was tributary 
to them for one thousand five hundred years : and especially 
A$iam perdomitam vectigalem fecere modico tributo^ magia in ti^ 
tulum imperii quam in victoria: premium* This last is a definition 
of homage : and the feudal system was that of the Persians, 
who were, and are, Scythae or Goths, as ancient authors and 
their own speech testify. Xenophon tells us that, when the 
Younger Cyrus came to Cilicia, he was met by Epyaxa, the 
beautiful wife of the satrap, who, according to the custom of 
the east, presented her acknowledged liege lord and superior 
with gold, silver, and other precious gifts* Indeed the feudal 
system, about which so much noise is made, is the natural fruit 
of conquest, and is as old in the world as conquest. A territory 
is acquired, and the state or the general^ bestows it on the lead- 
ers, and soldiers, on condition of military service, and of tokens 
acknowledging gratitude to donors. It was known in the Greek 
heroic ages. It was known to Lycurgus ; for all the lands of 
Sparta were held in military tenure. It was known to Romulus, 
when he regulated Rome. It was known to Augustus, when 
he gave lands to his veterans, on condition that their sons 
should, at fifteen years of age, do military service. The reason 
it did not preponderate and corrupt in Greece and Rome was, 
that it was stifled by the necessary effects of cities as above men* 
tioned. In Persia, where there were no cities of any power or 
privilege, it preponderate4 and corrupted at an early period. 

*'The feudal system, whether in its original democracy, or cor- 
rupted into aristocracy, must limit the power of kings ; for men 
who hold their possessions on military service must, of course, 
have arms in their hands : and even in absolute governments 
the soldiers are free, witness the pretorian bands of Imperial 
Rome, and the Turkish janisaries. By the feudal system every 
man held arms and freedom in his hands. Montesquieu has 
begun his account of the feudal system with that of the ancient 
Germans, given by Tacitus ; and prides himself in leaving off 
where others began. A writer ^ore profound would leave off 
where Montesquieu begins, &c." 






/. First Gothic Epochs.* 

The Scythians, whom the dawn of history discovers in b»C» 
present Persia under their king Tanaus, attack Vexores 
king of Egypt, conquer Asia, and establish the Scythian 
empire 1500 before Ninus, or - - - - 3660 

Ninus, first monarch of the Assyrian empire establish- 
ed the same by subverting the Scythian; when by conse- 
quence, the Scythse Nomades of the north of Persia cross 
the river Araxes and Mount Caucasus and settle around 
the Euxine sea - -'- - - - 2160 

The Scythians begin settlements in Thrace, ^Uyricum, 
Greece and Asia Minor - -* - - - 18CX> 

The Scythians have completely peopled Thrace, lUyri- 
cum, Greece aad Asia Minor - - - - 1500 

The Scythians have peopled Italy 


The Scythians have peopled Germany and Scandinavia, 
as well as a great part of Gaul and Spain - - 500 

• The reader will bear in mind (as the terms ** first and second Gothic progress*' 
suggest) that the Goths of this^r*^ section, were the Scythse Nomades of Persia, who 
overran Europe as spoken of in this and the preceding pages ; and that the Goths of 
the following second section, were the associations of their savage prc^ny, (with the 
addition of Huns and Sarmatians), who again overran Europe in the manlier there 


The Belgse of Scythic origin pasa into the south of Bri- b.c* 

tsunand Ireland - * - - - - 300 

The Piks, likewise of Scythic origin, pass into the 

north of Britain • - ^ - « - • 300 

//. Second Gothic Epochs* 

A.D, The Vesigoths* or Western-Getae were the Goths who 
250* poured into Dacia, ravaged it, and marched on, south, 
. over the Danube into Thrace. ' 

251. Decius is defeated and slain in Maesia by the Vesigoths 
or Wetern-Geta. 

252* Gallus purchases peace of the Goths by an annual tribute* 
They return to their own country. 

260. The Franci, or Free-men, a confederation of the Chauci 

' Cherusci Catti (who were great nations of Germany), 

*Bructeri, Usipii, Tencteri, Salii, Ansivarii, &c. (who 

were smaller nations) burst through Gaul, and ravage 

Spai^: a part passing over into Africa* 

260. The Alamanni, {all-men^ men of all tribes, or -whole* 
meriy &c.) a confederation of several tribes of the vast 
German nations of the Suevi, invade Italy, and return la- 
den with spoil* 

260* The Ostrogoths seize on the small kingdom of the Bos- 
porus Cimmerius which had long subsisted under Roman 
protection : afterwards in one naval expedition they take 
Trebisond, and ravage the Euxine shores; in a second, 
moving westward, they plunder Bithynia; and in a third 
they ravage Greece* 

• The Get» or Parental Goths were the very people whom Darios found 500 years 
before Christ, as Herodotus shews. In the indentical country whence they now issue. 
Soon after this expedition of Darius, we find the Getse or Goths divided into Vesigoths 
or western Goths on the west of the Doristhenes; and Ostrogoths or eastern Goths-and 
Alaoi (a Scy tkio nation) on the east of the Boristhenes, 

4s fbelhhnary. 

▲.0. With another naval armament the Ostrogoths land in 
369. Macedonia. Claudius the emperor advancing against 
them, fought a great battle at Naissus in Dardania, and 
conquering them, obtained the surname of Gothicus* 

S72« The Vesigoths who extended over the north and west of 
Dacia forced Aurelian to surrender that province. 

27'2* The Alamanni again invade Italy, but are repulsed by 

276« The Alani invading Pontus, are defeated by Tacitus. 

378* Probus builds a wall from the Rhine to the Danube about 
2(X> miles long to protect the empire from the German 

322. The Vesigoths no longer content with Dacia, pour into 
Illyricum,but are expelled by Constantine I*. 


331. The Vandals, also an association of Suevian tribes, hav- 
ing found Germany open by the frequent transitions of 
the Franks and Alamanni south-west, had gradually 
spread south-east, till they bordered on the Vesigoths, 
and had many conflicts with them* 

331. Constantine I. again repels the Goths; and conquers a 
few Sarmatians* 

355* The Franks and Alamanni pass the Rhine and ravage 
Gaul ; but are conquered and repelled by lulian. 

365. The Alamanni again invade Gaul, and are again defeated. 

Z6T» Ulphilas, bishop of those Goths who had been allowed by 
Constantine II. to settle in M^sia, translates the Scrip- 
tures into Gothic; a part of which translation now remains, 
and before the year 400 most of the Gothic nations in the 
Roman empire, and on its frontiers, become Christians. 



A.D. The Burgandians, a Vandalic race, who appeared under 
370. this name on the south-west of Germany, about present 
Alsace, invade Gaul* 

3fO. The Saxones a Vandalic race also, and whom Ptolemy 
first mentions at the mouth of the £lbe, ravage the coasti 
of Gaul and Britain* 

3ro« The Piks, a German Gothic people from Scandinavia, 
ravage the north of Britain, and with their confederates 
the Scots, advance even to London^ where they are repelled 
by Theodosius, general of Valentinian, to their ancient 
possessions beyond the Clyde and Forth. 

370* ^ Hermanric, king of the Ostrqgoths or eastern Gets, con- 
quering the Vesigoths, the Heruli and Venedi of Poland, 
and theiEsiii of Prussia, with many other nations, is com- 
pared to Alexander. 

375. The Huns burst at once from Tartary, upon the do- 
minions of the Alani and Ostrogoths, whom they conquer, 
and admit as allies to fight in their armies. 

376. The Huns enter the Vesigothic territory; on which 
the inhabitants, conscious of inferiority, seek the protec- 
tion of the emperor Valens, and gain admittance into the 
Roman territory of Mssia, when, being refused provisions, 
they revolt. 


377* The Goths penetrate into Thrace. 

57 S* On the 9th of August was fought the famous battle of 
Hadrianople, in which Valens was defeated and slain by 
the Goths. But the Goths falling into intestine di- 
visions, were in the course of a dozen years repelled 
into Pannonia; an army of 40,000 Goths being retained 
for the defence of the empire. 

395. The Goths unanimously rise under the cc|mmand of the 
great Alaric. 


A,D. 396. Alaric ravages Greece. 

400—403. Alaric invades Italy*^is defeated hy Stilicho, who 
was himself a Vandalic Goth. 

406. Radagaisus^ at the head' of a large army of German 
nations, viz. Vandals, Suevi, Burgundians, &c'. invades 
Italy. He is likewise defeated by Stilicho, but the re- 
mains of his army ravage Gaul* 


408. Alaric again invades Italy;— ^besieges Rome thrice, and 
at length takes it in 410, in which year he died. The mo- 
deration of the Goths is highly praised by several co- 
te norary writers. The monuments of art suffered not 
from them; but from time and barbarous pontiffs. 

412. Ataulphus, brother-in-law to Alaric, and his elected 
successor, make peace with the Romans, and marches the 
Vesigoths into the south of Gaul which they possess for a 
long time. 

415. The Suevi, Vandals, and Alani, having in 409 penetrated 
from the south-west of Germany into Gaul, which they 
ravaged, were afterwards forced by Constantine, brother- 
in-law of Honorius, to abandon Gaul, and pass into Spain.* 
Ataulphus, king of the Vesigoths, now leads his forces 
against them; conquers them, and restores Spain to the 
Romans, with the exception of Gallicia, 'which the Suevi 
and Vandals still retained. 

426. The Franks, Burgundians, and Vesigoths obtain a per- 
manent seat and dominion in Gaul. The first in Belgic 
Gaul, on the north, the second in Lugdunensis and present 
Burgundy, in the middle; thq last in Narbonne and Aqui- 
tain, on the south. 

429. The Vandals of Spain pass into Africa under Genseric, 
their king, and establish the Vandalic kingdom there, 
which endured 96 years, when it was terminated by the 
conquest of the celebrated Roman general Belisarius. 

FBEUMINAtllf. fl 

A.D. The great Attila, king of the Hans, begins to teiga* 
43d« about this time. His fam^ chiefly sprung from the terror 
he spread into the Roman empire; his conquests have been 
ridiculously magnified. On the east the Ostrogoths, the 
Gepida^ and Heruli, obeyed him; as did the Rugii, and 
Thuringi on the west. His domains were vast; but he 
turned widi scorn from the barren north, while the south 
afforded every temptation. 

449. The Vetse or Jutes arrive in Britain and seize 
on a comer of Kent* 

460: They increase and found the kingdom of Kent. 

477* The first Saxons arrived in Britain and founded the 
kingdom of South Saxons. In 

495, The West Saxons arrived in Britain. In 

, 527, The East Saxons arrived in Britain. In 

547, The first Angli came, under Ida, to Bernicia in 
Britain. In 

575 J The East Angles appeared in Britain* 

585. Foundation of Mercia; which Beda says was an 
Anglic kingdom, but seems to me a Frisian, as we 
know that the Frisi were of the nations who seized 
Britain, though omitted by Beda, who was an Anglus^ 
and gives that name most improperly* 

451* - Attila invades Gaul and besieges Orleans; the grand bat' 
tie of Chalons, the Campi Catalaunici^ is fought. This 
conflict, the most prodigious and important ever joined in 
Europe in any age, was between Attila on the one hand 
With his innumerable army of Huns, Ostrogoths, Riigii, 
Thuringi ; on the. other, ^tius with Romans, and Theo- 
doric with Vesigoths, Aleni, Saxons, Franks, Burgun* 
dians, Armoricans &c. Attila is totally defeated and 
forced to retreat, leaving 150,000 of his army on the field 


12 PBEU]Mqa«A»Y, 

j^,Pm sit the. smallest; c<»nputatiQna. Had he> CQmpwre4, dl Sviit 
Xopa wouldi. now be Quimish or Turkish instead oi^ Si^ytdhAQ^^ 
or QptHi<? : and fifonv the Polyg^pciy &c, of the H1U19, iai- 
Df^cal to the Chri;M;iap. faixh, it i& likely, (Ctiyigji^ ^usey 
ap9,]:t)) vr,e had all been ]V[^Qii^t;amsiT.i^«f]( much vf^y 4«pend 
on oji^e bour. 

isi* Attila again comes upon Italy, bi;^ ap^i;% Rome*, lie is 
again defeated by Torismond king of the Vesigoths; and dies 
the ixext year. His va^ empire, being npw divided. wiong 
his discordant sons, falls at once UJce a meteor that passes 
over one half the globe and then in an instant vanishes 

45^* Ard^rip, king oJ^ thie Ostrogoths, assisted by the Gr^pidse^ 
defeats the Huns,, whom he h^. abandoned 11^ Pannonia ; 
seizes the palace of Attila, with all Dacia and lUyricum. 
The remainder of the £,uropeai» Huns was but sn^alli and 
afterwards nearly extinguished by the Igours of Siberia* 
In Hungary th^re i;s not on,e Hun, thojDgh the nai^e arose 
from the Huns* The Hungarians proper are Igours, a 
Finnish people, who settled there 19, the. ninth cent^y* 

455. Genseric, king of the African Vandals, takes Rome* 

456. Theodoric, king of the Vesigoths, defeats the Suevi in' 

^6fl'r^72% Eui^ic, successor of Theodoric, makes conquest? 
in the north-west of GauL Save only Gallicia, which the 
Suevi held, and which was. afterwards united to the Gothic 
empire about 550, by Leovigild, Euric subdues all Spain, 
and thus begins the Gothic empire there ; which lasted tUL 
713,. when the Moors conquered the Goths and maintained 
part of their Spanish domains till the end of the fifteenth 
century. The present Spaniards are descendants of th^ 
Vesigoths, Romans, and Iberians. 

475« Odoacer at the head of the Turcilingi, Scyrri, Heruli, 
and other mixed Sarmatic and Gothic tribes^ termj^^ates 



^•D. the Roman empire in the west; and reigns at Rome four* 
teen years. 

490. Theodortc the Great, king of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, 
vanquishes Odoacer, and rules Italy^ wl^ich is now ever- 
whelmed with Ostrogoths^ 

49O-^08. The Franks, under Clovis subdued the Vesigotha 
in Gaul, and the Burgundians ; an event with which pro- 
perly commences the French kingdom. 

400— <453. The Lombards came from the centre of Germany, 
thence moving south-east till they settle in Pannonia about 
400 years after Christ, or perhaps after Attila's death, or 
about 453, when the Gepids of whom ancient authors call 
the Lombards or Langobardi a part, seized Dacia* In 
Psinnonia the Lombards remained till about 

570, When under Alboin they seized oc^ the north of Italy ; 
afterwards holding almost the whole, save Rome and Ra-. 
venna, till 

YT^f When Desiderius the last king was vanqiushed by Char- 
lemagne. The present race of Italy spring from the an- 
ient Romans, Ostrogoths, and Lombards. 









1. Vennicniii 

2. Robogdiij 

3. Erdini, 

4. Voluntii) 

5. Caucif 

6. Vodiae, et Il>erni5 

7. Brigantes> 

8. Velabori, 

9. Gangari, 

10. Auteriy 

11. NagnataB) 
13. Coriondi, 

13. Menapii) 

14. Blaiuii 



1. Donnegal or Tyrconnel. 

2. Londonderry, Antrim, &c. 

3. Fermanagh. 

4. Louth, Armagh, Down, Sec. 

5. Cavan, East & West Meaths. 

6. Cork County. 

7. Waterford and Tipperary. 

8. Limerick and Kerry. 

9. Clare and Galway 

10 Longford and Roscommon. 

11. Mayo, ;Sligoe, and Leitrim. 

12. King's, Queen's, kKilkenny. 

13. Carlow and Wexford. 

14. Wicklow, Dublin & Kildare. 

1. Eblana, 

2. Regia, 

3. Jemis. 


1. Dublin. 

2. Armagh. 

3. Cashel. 


'' Just preceding the fall of the Western empire, we find this 
island mentioned under the name of Scotia; and the inhabitants, 
who issued from it to invade the north of Britain^ under that 
of Scoti. 



^^ The Romans never having cao-fied their arms into Ireland, 
had no other knowledge of it than such as commerce afforded; 
nor does it enter into history till an age very much posterior to 
that of antiquity.'' So says M. D'Anville; though the prelimi- 
nary to this Part, drawn from Piniertpn^s dissertation on the 
Goths^ gives us a claim to a Tnuch earlier acquaintance with her 




1. Comabii. 
JJ. Mertx et V Scoti. 

$. Vacomagi^ 

4. Taexali, 

5. Horestse, 

6. Vernicon'fiB, 

7. Epidii, Gadeni & Certones, 
IS. Caledoniii 1 

9. Damniif J 

10. Ottadoni. 

1 1 . Novantes, 

12. Selgovae, 



I. Caithness. 

t, Sutherland Ross and! Cro- 

3. Nair and Inverness. 

4. Elgin, Banfy and Aberdeen. 

5. Forfar. 

I 6. Kincafdin. 

7. Argyle. 

8. Perth, Kinross^ Fife| ^d 

9. Haddington, Edinburgh, Lin- 
lethgow, Stirling, Dunibaftoa 
RenfreVf and Bute. 

10. Berwick. 

II. Air, Lanerk, and Peebles. 
12. Kirkudbright, Dumfries, 
. Roxburg and Selkirk. 


1. Victoria^ 
3. Alata Castrai 

1. (Near the Grampian Hills.) 
%, Edinburgh. 


This part of Great Britain wafc never conquered by the Ro- 
inans beyond the Forth; which encroachment was again repelled 
by the inhabitants. The principal revolutions produced here 
by the Scoti from Ireland, belong to a period subsequent to an-^ 
ci^ilt geography and history. 




Soman Inhabitanfis^ 

^1, Dumnonii^ 

2. Durotrigesji^ 

3. Belgae, 


• as 

4. AttrebateS) 

5. Cantii» 

6. Regni, 
^1. SilureS) 

w 2 

2. Demetse^ 

3. Ordovicesi 

"1. Dobuni) 
2. Catieuchlaov 


•^ 3. SiitieDi v^l Iceniy 
4. Trinobantesy 
5* CornAviiy 

6. Coritani) 

iv. MAXIMA ri. Brigantes, 


CIS. (^2. Parisi, 

Ottadini et Gadini^ 




1. Cornwall and Oevenshire* 

2. Dorsetshire. 

3. Hampshire^ Sonverse^hirei 
and Wiltshire. 

4. Berkshire. 

5. Kent. 

6. Surry and Sussex- 

1. Monmouthshire^ Herqford- 
shire., Radnor, Brecknock and 

2. Pembroke, Cardigan, and 

3. Flint, Montgomery, Deidbigh, 
Carnarvon and Merioneth- 

1. Oxford and Gloucestershire. 

2. Buckinghamshire, Hertford- 
shire, Cambridge, Hunting- 
don, Northampton, BedfordS^ 

3. Norfolk and Suffolk. 

4. Essex, Sc part of Middlesex. 

5. Warwic, Worcester, Stafford, 
Shropshire ai^d Cheshire. 

6. Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, 
Rutland and Leicester. 

1. Lancashire, North & West 
Ridings of Yorkshire. 

2. East Riding of Yorkshire. 

1. Northumberland) & Durham* 

2. Cumberland. 

3. Westmoreland. 


fl. Dubris Portus,, 

2. Ritupis Portus,^ 

3. Dnroverno, 

4. Diirobrivis, 

5. Regnum, 

6. Venta Belga^n)> 

7. Celeva, 

8. Sorviodununii 

9. Vindogladia, 

10. Durnovaria) 

• 111. Isca Dumnoniorumj 
.l,12. AquSB SoUs> 




1. Dover. 

2. Sandwich. 

3. Canterbury. 

4. Rochester. 

5. Ring wood. 

6. Winchester. 

7. Alton. 

8. Old Sarum. 

9. Winborn. 

10. Dorchester. 

11. Exeter. 

12. Batlu 



» 2 

• > 


S fl* Isca Silurum, 

2. Venta Silurum, 

3. Maridunum, 
4.' Magnis, 
5. Segontium, 
6 Bomumj 
1. Deva, 
3. Condate, 

3. Mediolanum, 

4. Pcnnocrucium, 

5. Etocetum, 

6. Manduessedum, 

7. Glevum, 

8. Durocomovium, 

9. Magiovintuniy 

10. Durocobrivis, 
^ 1 1 1. Verolamium, 
fc 1 12. Londinium, 

13. Caesaro Magnus, 
14 Camalodunum, 

15. Sitomagus, 

1 6. Venta Icenorum, 

17. Camboritum, 
'8. Durolipons, 

19. Causennis, 

20. Durobrivisj 
(21. Rails, 
1^22. Lindum, 

'l. Praeiorium, 
2. Eboracum, 
3 Calcaria, 

4. Cambodunum^ 

5. Mancunium, 

6. Coccium, 

7. Bremetonacis, 

8. Castra Exploratorum, 

9. Luguvalluniy 

10. Corstopitum, 
v^ll. Vindomora*, 








1. Caerleon. 

2. Oergwent. 

3. CSbrmarthen. 

4. Old Radnor. 

5. Carnarvon. 

6. Cowbridgc. 

1. Chester. 

2. Nortkwich. 

3. Meywood. 

4. Penkridge. 

5. Uttoxeter. 

6. Manchester. 

7. Gloucester. 

8. Cirenchester. 

9. Dunstable. 

10. Berkhamstead. 
;i.(Near St. Albins). 

12. London. 

13. Chelmsford. 

14. Colchester. 

15. Thctford. 

16. Caster (near Norwich). 

17. Cambridge. 

18. Godmanchester. 

19. Folkingham. 

20. Dornford (near Caster). 

21. Leicester. 

22. Lincoln. 

1. Patrington. 

2. York. 

3. Tadcaster. 

4. Almansbury. 

5. ^Manchester. 

6. Cockley. 

7. Lancaster. 

8. Old-Carlisle. 

9. Carlisle. 

10. Mospeth. 

1 11. Newcastle. 


The Phoenician colony of Gades (Cadiz) had a very, early 
commercial acquaintance with Britain as well as with Gaql 
which their policy kept secret. It was unknown to the Romans 

• The towns of Valentia, which should come in here, are Hot distinetJy , nffltioed by 

[ TVAnvill**. Vft Atp. 

M. IVAnYille, &c. «cc. 


till it was invaded by Julius Csesar during his Gallic wars be- 
fore Christ 55. It was ascertained to be an island by Agricolai 
who sailed around it. 

When Csesar passed into Britaik, he advanced only to the 
banks of the Thames, which merely served, as it were, to sheir 
him the country. Augustus, litde attached to extending the 
limits of the empire, neglected the conquest of it : and it was 
not seriously invaded till the reign of Claudius, when the part 
nearest to Gaul, between the east and south, was -subjected. 
Under the reign of Domitian, the Roman arms commanded by 
Agricola penetrated even to Caledonia ; that is to say, into the 
centre of Scotland. The difficulty of maintaining this distant 
frontier against ^he assaults of the unconquered people, deter- 
mined Adrian to contract the limits of the Roman province iti 
Britain, and separate it from the barbarous country by a rampart 
of eighty miles in length, from the bottom of the gulf now 
called Solway Frith, to Tinmouth, which is the entrance of a 
river on the east side of the island. Severu^ carried these lifnita 
further, in constructing another rampart^ bf thirty-two miles, in 
the narrowest part of the island between Glota^ or the river 
Clyde, and the bottom of Bobotria^ or the gulf near which the 
city of Edinburgh stands. 

The multiplication of provinces which prevailed thrbughout 
the Roman empire, furnished in this island, a Britannia Prima 
and Secunda; a Flavia Cecsariensis^ a Maxima Cassariehsis and 
a Valentia^ as shown in the table. After holding this part of the 
British isle for nearly 500 years, being no longer able to defend 
so distant a province, the Romans relinquished it to the old in- 
habitants.; who, calling in the Saxons, from Germany to assist in 
repelling the Picts and Scots, fell a prey with these, to the sinister 
ally, except those who retired to Wales. 


Ancient, Modem, 

ZA, vel BALTIA. 

Iglandt* Inhabitants, 

LBergoa j pe^kini, yd 

2, Nerigon J ^^"^^'^ . 2 




'• 1 

V(Tbe South of Honniyi) 



S. Scandinavia 


1 HelUviones, 

linavia 1 t^'^"". . 

J Gythonesy 
4* Codanovia) 1 


5. Burchanaf j 

6. Baltia,£lec- j 

Gleaflaria. 3 


3. (The south fff Siredtn)* 

4. Zealand* 

5. Funcn. 1 

^. (At the iEnonth of the Tiatilla), 

4* 9ergoiPy 

7. Oael iand Dego. 

8. (The South of Ftaland), 


I 1. Bergen* 


The sicquaintance that the Greeks and Rom&ns had with 
Scandinavia wa3 of a commercial nature. The principal article 
pf tr&4& wa^ ambeTf which was, and is, procured only at the 
island of Baltia and about the mouth of the Vistula* Its go^ 
ography was, of course, very little known, as they mistool^ the 
Bouthern promontories of Norway and Sweden for islands. 



V. SARMATIA. v\%. Gcr- 
mano-SariDatia, Sarmatia-Pro- 
pria, et Sarn>aii|^-8cy tiiii^ai vel 

Cottfititn and InfutUttMte. 

1. OsltMANO'^AItMATIA.'— 

Hirii, j£stii, Venedi, Fen- 
Ge oni. Bas;ernae, Peu 
ni, kini, Bodeni, Atnadbci, 
TyragetK, VesigotfiM 0«- 
trogothB^ S^c. Uc 

2. 9ARM4TU PbOFBIAj — 

Splrri, Carioncs, Basi- 

lici, Budinif Hamaxobii, 

^ I Roxolani, Jazyges> Tau-* 

part of Poland and Prusua; 
with Little Tartar^, Circa$«- 
sia and Cuban Tartar^. 

t. Parts of Poland, Pevssia 
and LiTTtB T art art, viz.' 
Courland, WUna, East-Prus- 
sia, Slonim, Minsk, Wol- 
hynia, Podolia, OtchakoTy 
part of Ekaterinos|$iy, &c. 
^. EvKpfi&A^ Russia, and part 
of LiTTL* Ta^tAry, viz, 
Aeral, ^igi^y Novogotod, 
Moscow, KioW) ififtl^rcai, 
Waronetz, Crimea or Tau* 
rid^ {cc.^(^ 




IVf^otae, Amazones^ Zichi, 



^1. Amadoca^ 

2. Metropolis^ 

3. 01bi% 

. 4. Odea^u^i 

5. Irland, 

6. Sciringsheal] 

8. Carcine, 

9. Taphrx, 

10. Eupatorium, 

11. Parthenium. 

13. CWBrn0riiii«iL 

13. Theodosia, 
;.r4. Pandcap£tti% 

f J. Ta^ai^, 
► jj J 2. Phanagoria* 
* s 1 ^* ^<^rocondamai 
H > L4. Siadicus PorUUH 





; 1^ Circassia &c. (having the Doqi. 
and Wolga or the north; 
Caucasus, south; the Caspii^ 
dnd Bfsick stWf twA tsutf 


1. (Above Metropolis). 
,2. (On the Borysthenes above 

3. (Near the mouth of the Borys* 

4. (Beach oC Berezen). 

5. Reval. 

6. Kronstad. 

7. (Burnt by Dariu»>. 
& Negropoli. 

9. Perekop, orOrGiq;^ 

10. Ak-Meschet 
1 1 i . CaMtn-dip. 

12. (No r^naiils ol}» 


14. Kirche. 

11. Az0f. 

1 2. > (Between thff nMcifcte of tto 
3.5r Hypaaia). 
4. SundgiJu 


To preserve Sarmatia entire we have trespassed uport the 
boundaries of Asia. The Vistula is regarded as the aepsiration 
betwejen Sabmati A and ancient Germany. The Tanaie makes 
the division between the European and Astatic Sarrmtiet^ to\^F(h 
the lower part of its courici tending to the Palm Mceotis. 
Thence, and from the Cimmerian Boaphorus^ the Asiatic part^ 
bounded on the south by the Suxine artd- monnt Caucasus^ cx« 
tends as far as the Caspian sea, the northern shore of which it 
covers i to «ay nothing of tfae^ unkix>wn extent of Sarmatia to 
the north-east* 

At an earlier period than that ^hich this table contemplatesr, 

.when this track was first settled by the Scythiaks and Sa&ma- 

^ttiAjffB<»thatipart of it here called Asiatic Sarmatia would attack 

llself te £mtem Sctfthitty according to Mr. Pinterton : aft was 

that part of European Sarmatia now called Little Tartar^, tbe 


VIEW wuammn omwafuy. 

true Parental or Ancient Seythia^ About lihe inkt time tdio^ 
that part her« distinguished as Qermano-Sarmatia would ^1 iti 
the linuts of Germanic; circumscribing the real Sa&matia -^ 
withia a much smaller north-eststem limit, till her nuteeroup . 
tribei^ penetrated further into Europe, and, intermixing wi^ th|t - 
Scythians^ who had preceded theq», with what degree of jus^cel 
changed the name of the country. 


\ Ancient. 

VI. GERMANIA. (Between the 
Rhine, Danube, Vistula^ Baltic 
and German Ocean). 


^1. ' Nuithones, Suardones, 
Eudoces, Varini, Angli^ 
Aviones, &c. 





2, Saxoue^^Ctimhtli Chauci, 
Ansibarii et Lemoviii 

1. Langobardij 

2, Sueviy et Seinmones, 
$4 Bkrgtmdiofie^^ 

4. Gutttnes.vel Gothonesi 

5. Rugii, Sidini, &c., 

1. Lygii, vel Lugii, &c. 

2. Quadi, 

3. Boil, Marcoinanni, Stc. 

4. Uermunduri, Catti et 

1. Francis Frissii, Bructeri, 
Chamavi, Usipii, &c. 

2. ./lifaffmTim', Mkttiaci,Sedu- 
sii, Marcomanni, &c. 

Modern^ j ^ 

VI. Parts of, DENMARK, Uhi- 
ted Provinces, Poland, Prussiai 
and Germany. 

U Jutland, ' 

2. Part of Lower Sdxtoy. 

2. Castellum Cattorum, 
^, Mattium, 

1. Luxemburg. . [burg.. 

2. Mecklinburg and Brandea- 

3. Great Poland. 

4. PomereUia. 
i5. Pomerania« 

1. Little Poland and Sik^ua.. 
a. Moravia. 
3. Bohemia Proper. 
j 4. Parts of Upper and Lower . 
Saxony, south of the Elbe. 

1. Friesiand, Gronin^en, Overys-^ 
scl, and part of Westpl»li«- 

2. Part of the Rhenish Circles, . 
Franconia, and part of Swabia. 


1. Hesse Cassell. 

2. Marpurg^^. 


We have here given four of the five grand divisions ot 

Gbrxant, according to Pliny, such as Ingccvm&s^ Vindili^ Ifer- 

micnes^mA himvenesr thtJ/cA, which he terms Peuiiniy-^as^l 

'^r»«, forming the GermanO'Sarmattay of later geographers, a^l 

may be seen in the last table. The smaller nations and tribe#. 

/ t 

;• ' 

^■.^mnKy m$mmm/' ^ 

arfi nranged tmitt t&ese four Visions, accinrding to Mr« Pin- 
kcrtoo^s interpretation of Tftcitus and Pliny, whose great indus- 
trftt^ditfltaHSCttracy of ^d^jmem, entitle bim to credit diovt ^^thi 
mire copyht tf pther^s errors J^ Wxwtytr^ let thte truth lay 
irWre it may, th^ irtudentmay console himself with a solecism, 
lAot on SjO fluchutting a subject^ each may be rights and each may 
be wrong: for it is a palpable impossibility precj$ely to desig- 
nate the locality of an ever- wandering people. It may also 
be well to hint to the student^ that the ii^ahitatits: of these nor- 
thern regions are here c^led under a single review, from the 
frwt to the second epochs of the Gothic progress over £uro|)e, 
inclusively. Therefore, that he may distinguish those that were 
coQ^cttous- rather as associations of, than as individual, na- 
tions, in the second gothic progress, they are printed ; in 
Italics^ and are placed in or about the situations where they 
first commenced to be formidable^ 

Separated from Oaul by thtRhine^ GeltMANiA extended 

east- ward to the Vistula^ which may serve it for a limit on the 
side of Sarmatia; while the shore of the sea towards the .north, 
and the course of the Danube^ on the south, are elsewhere 
its boundaries. That which we now see comprized in Ger* 
many between the Danube and the Alps, did not belong to it. 
The name of Germami; did not belong to this nation from 
immemorial antiquity. There was a time when the Celts pre- 
vailed beyond the Rhine, as establishments formed in Germany 
by Celtic nations suflEiciently evince. But when detachments of 
Germanic people invaded this country, Tacitus inforijns us that 
these fltrangers, superior in arms, were called Germani; and we 
find that, in the Teutonic^ or Germanic language, Gef^man signi- 
fies a warrior. The name of AlemagnCf which the French ex- 
tended to Germany, comes from a particular people, o£ whom 
the first mention is made at the beginning of the t^ird century, 
under the reign of Caracalla. This name ot Ale-man^ or All-man^ 
signifies ptoperly a multitude o^ men; and the Alcmanni appear 
to have been established in the country now called Swabia, in de- 
scending the Rhine to the confluence of the M^iQ. This nation 
having detached itself from the Francic league^ foroa^ in^e 
same age by the nations of the Lower Rhine, had arrived to 
tile highest degree of power. The Romans frequently carried 
their arms into this country, to restrain her savage inhabitants, 
but never conquered it. 


RluD&r Alpsi ]V[edHeccatiean, 


IKeimm lahaBUotttt. 

' ». Sn>ll,Oogflrtii,THB- 
. gri, £un>aefl,'M«iapii, 
Toxandri* Frisii Mioo- 
res et Batavi, 

ct Vangiancs.. 

1 '' 



3. Sequani, Helvetii, 
et Rauraci. 

4. Treveri, Me^o- 
murict, etLeuci. 

5. Remi, Suesaiones, 
Veromandui, Bellovaci, 
Sitranectes, Ambriani, 
Atpebotes, MoraUtNer- 

S-r f 1. Calcti, Vefiocassea, 
f^ TLcMvii, Auhrci-Eb«r- 
I a levioes, Viditeaases, U- 
B?. ( neLU) Bajocaases, tec. 
'^4 r ^ Auveliam, Scbmi- 
JS (Meldi, Tricaasea. 

3. S«g;usiani, Edui, 
Lingonea, Celuc. 

4. TuroBas, Andn, 
Aul«Eici-CenDniai)i( Di- 
ablintes,Arvii, Redones, 
Namnetes, Veneti, Cu- 


' ,  mdfrn. - ' 


MANY, and t£e NETH^ 


-■ -4 

i'. Lmibur;, Liege, Brabant) 0;ir 
:trscht>.U(dlBiidr!UKlZca)Biid. ' ^ 

3. Alaace*. ud pRit oC l^pes 
Rhine. . - li 

3. Franck«-Goii4Mi6: Mtd Sviib* 

4 LoFrainv, Luxemburo qn4 

5. PartoC Chaapagn^rinrt iqC 
the Isle of FFMice, PicaidfiAnCtu^ 
HainiBult, an J Fl«&ders. 

1. Nonnwdx. 

2. PaKt of the Isk of Frne^ 
with OrleaaoMSt 

3, Lnoonoifl] part of Burgnndjri 
Nivcmois, part of Champagnfe^ 

4. Bretapic, Tawmoe, Anj>% 


vrfiL nrvBiDAs/ 


prtrainptM* * Inhabftant$, 

S r > r ^- Bituriges-Cubi, 
g^ j xi.JArverni, GabalU Ru- 
"^ If^teiii, Cadurci, Lemcm- 
»^* V ces, &c- 
^>r 2. BiturigeB-Vibisci, 
I g. J Pctrocorii, Nltobriges, 
1*1 I Sariton^s, Pictones vel 
;^»lpictayi, et Agcsinates, 

-SI ^ 

I"? J Sotiates, Vasates, Tar- 
""" belli, Bigerrones, Con- 
venas, jiguitani^ &c. 






^ ^ r J» Sardones, Conso- 
§ S ] ci, Voice-Tectosage9, 

3.^ Vocondi, Sega- 
launii AUobroges, &c* 

3. Sftlfefly vtX Salu* 
vU, Reii, Tel Albaeci,Scc. 



^.i". ) 4. Catmifes) andfiart 
%^\of the Ligures» 

Iv Berry, Ativergne and Lim- 


2. Poitou, Sdntonge and Gui* 

3. Gascoiii6» Nayan^, aad 

1. RouaiUoA, and La&guedoe. 

2. Dauphine and part of Bur- 




i'f } 5. Ccntrones, Nan- 
s' J0 1 tuatea, Veragri, et Se* 
? Cduniy 


1. 'Colonia* Agrippina, 

2. Bontia, 

3. NoTcsinni> 

4. Vetera, 

5. Tungri (Atnatuca) 
I'' I S. Batavodumm) 

7. Noviomagnunii 

8. Lugdununif 

5. Part of Dauphine and Savoy. 




1. Cologne. 

2. Bonn. 

3. Nuys. 

4. Santen. 

5. Tongre?s. 
6» Dcirstadt. 
T. Nimeguen. 
8. Ley den. 

* We must obserre her& that the seats of govcnunent of the fiomaB proyinces, as 
veUiia t^ eapitais of other conntriea throughout these tables, are marked with as- 
terisks. Whea the astemk is applied to more thau one town in the lame previaeey it«^ 





3 OK 

Jioman AnHent* 

"1. Argentoratum,* 

2. Brocomagus, - 

3. Nemetes (Noviomagus) 

4. Vangiones (Barbetomagus) 

5. Montiacum,* 

6. Saletio 
7 Antunnacum, 

8. Bingiuin, 

9. Nava, 
.10. Confluentesi 

1. Vcsontio,* 
3. Avendcuihy 

3. Saloduruniy 

4. Augusta, 

1. Trcvcri (a) (Augusta)^ 

2. Verodununiy 

3. Metis (Divoduium), 

4. Tullum, 
^1. Rerai* (Durocortorum)^ 

2. Catalauni, 

3. Suessiones (Augusta), 

4. Augusta,- 

5. BelTovici (Csesaromagus), 

6. Silvanectes (Augustoinagus)^ 

7. Ambiani (Samaro-briva), 

8. Atrebates (Nemetacum), 

9. Taruenna^ 

10. Castellum, 

1 1 . Portus Itius, 

12. Bagacura, 
^13. Carmaracuni 

1. Rotomagus,* 

2. Juliobona, 

3. Eburovices (Mediolanum) 
4» Lexovii (Noviomagus) 
5. Bajocasses (Araegeneus) • ' 

'1. Senones* (Agedincutn), 
2. AutricuiTi, 
l^l" I ^. Parisi (Leutccia), 
g S "l 4. Genabum, 

||. 5. latimum, 
L^* Augustobpna, 




1. Strasburg. 

2. BvumU 

3. Spire, 

4. Worms. 

5. Meotz. 

6. Seltz. 

7. Andermacb} 

8. Bingen. i 

9. Nahe. 

10. Coblcntz. * 

1. Be8an9Qn. 

2. Ayencbe. 

3. Soleur. 

4. Augst. 

1. Triers. 

2. Verdun. 

3. Meti. 

4. TouJ. 

1. )leims. 

2. Chalon. 

3. Soissions. 

4. St. Qumtin. 

5. BeauTais. 

6. Senlis. 

7. Amiens. 

8. Arras or Attrecht 

9. Terouenne. 

10. Cassel. 

11. Witsand. 

12. Bavia. 

13. Cambrai, 

1. Rouen. 

2. Lilebone. 

3. Evreux. 

4. Lizieux. 

5. Baieux. 

1. Sens. 

2. Ghartres. 

3. Paris. 

4. Orleans. 

5. Meaux. 

6. Trois. . 

It expresses that the dignity of metropolis has been aUema^ed between theiji- Where 
two names of a town occur, the more ancient one is placed between parentheses ; and 
in this case, in Gaul and Spain particularly, the substilute for the more ancient name 
▼M adopted from that of the inhabitants whose capital it was; which, with a small 
▼anation, is retained to the present day. 

(a). The seat of pretorian prefecture of |Gau! till Its destruction by the DarbaiiinS; 
whea It was succeeded in that dignity by Areiate, in KaAonensis. 

cr^ DivisHml. 



fN r I, Forum, 
o| j 2. Rodumna, 

1 1 3. AugustoduDum* (Bibraicte), 
' 4. Cabillonum> 

5. Matiseo, 

6. Nervium, 

7. Atesk, 

8. Ligones (Atidematurum), 

1. Turones (Caesarodunum), 

2. Jaliomagusy 

3. Cenomani (Suindinum), 

4. Diabiimes (Naeodunum), 

5. Redones (Condatc), 

6. Naninetes (Condivicnum), 
7^ Veneti (Dariorigum) , 
8. Vorganium, 

J.9. Brivates Portus, 

"U BitUriges^ (Avaricum), 

2. AugUBtonettietum, 

3. Gabali (Anderitum), 

4. Vellavi (Revessio), 

5. Rutahi (Segodunum), 

6. Cadurci (Divona), 

7. Lemovices (Augustoritum), 
► ^?r *• ^urdigala,* - 

^ ^ 2. Aginum, 

3. Mediolanumi 

4. Rouatum, 

1. Elusa,* 
2.5 I 2. Ausci* (Augusta), 

3. Sotiates, 

4. Aquae Augustae, 

5. Beneharnum, 

6. Tarba, 

7. Lugdunum, 
^1. Nemaususy* 

2. Tolosa, 

3. Narbo*-Martius, 

4. Agatha, 

5. Bseterrx, 

6. Carcasoy 

7. Luteva, 

8. Arba Augusta^ 

9. Ruscino, 

10. Helena (Illibris), 
Grsitianople (Cularo), 








I 3. 


1. Feur. 

2. Rouane. 

3. Autun. 

4. Challon. 

5. Macon. 

6. Nivers. 
f . Alise. 
8. L,angres. \ 

1. Tottps. j 

2. Angers. 

3. Mans. 

4. Jublins. 

5. Rennes*' 

6. Nantes* 

7. Venncs. 

8. Karhez. 

9. Brest. 

1. Bourges. ^^ 

2. (Nfear Clermont), 

3. JaTok. 
4; St. Paulin. ; 
5. Rodez. 
6* QuercL 
7. Limoges. 

1. Bourdeaux. 

2. Agen. 

3. Citjr of Saints. 

4. Retz. 

1. Euse. 

2. Auch. 

3. Sosi 

4. Aqs. 

5. (No remains). 

6. Tarbe. 

7. St. Bertrand. 

1. Nimes. 

2. Toulouse. 

3. Narbonne* 

4. Agde. _ 

5. Bezier. 

6. Carc^sfiane. 

7. Lodeve. 

8. Alps. 

9. Pernignan. 

10. Blue. 
1. Vienne. 
2^ Geneva. 
3. Gr«noble. 







Contestani) ^dita- 

or 3. Varduli,Cantabri,A8- 
I \ tures, Artabri, Callaici, 
0.1 Vaccaei) Arevaci, &c. 

B r » r f 1 • Lusitani, Vctones, 
g S-S-j Ccltici, 8cc. 

Si » f^- Turdetaiu, Vandali, 
8 1 fi I Turduli, Bastitani, Bas- 
50 L ? ltuli> Paeni, &c. 


2. Valentia and Mercia. 

3. Biscay, Old Castile, Asttiria, 
part of Leon, Gallacia ; Emin* 
ho'-Duro and Tralos-montes in 

1. Beira, part of Leon, the Es- 
tremaduras, Alentajo, Entretajo^ 
and Algava. ' 
2^ Andalasia and Granada. 










Carthago noYa> 


Vergilia, • 

Caesar-Augusta* (Salduba), 







Locus* Augusti, 

Braccara* Augusta, 




Olisipo (Ulysses,) 




Norba Csesarea, 

Augusta Emerita,* 


1. Ampurias* 

2. Gironna. 

3. Vic de Osona* 

4. Barcelona. 

5. Tarragopa. 

6. Madrid. 

1. Carthagena. 

2. Denia. 

3. Murcia. 

4. Saragosa. 

5. Murviedro4 

6. Valentia. 

7. Segorbe. 

1. Porto-Gallete. 

2. Astorga. 

3. Oviedo. 

4. Lugo. 

5. Braga. 

6. Palencia. 

7. Corugna. 

8. Numantia. 

1. Lisbon. 

2. Santarem. 

3. Coimbra. 

4. Salamanca. 

5. Alcantara* 

6. Merida* 

7. Beja. 







'!. Corduba,* 

2. CastulOy 

3. Astigis,* 

4. Hispalis/ 

5. Italica, 

6. Ilipola» 

7. GadeS)* 

8. Munda) 

9. SisapOy 


1. Cordoua. 

2. Cazlona. 

3. Ecija. 

4. Sevilla. 

5. Sevilla la Vlcja. 

6. Niebla. 

7. Cadiz. 

8. Munda. 

9. Almaden. 


Was called Iberia, by the Greeks, from the river Iberuss 
which, having its' mouth in the Mediterranean, must have been 
better known to early antiquity than the other great rivers of 
Spain, that discharge themselves into the ocean. From its re-, 
mote situation towards the west, it acquired also the name of 
Hesperia. It is almost superfluous to say, thaton the side where 
it is not environed by the aea^ it is inclosed by the Pyrenee^^ 
which separate it from GauU 

The Romans having successfully disputed with the Cartha^ 
gtnians the dominion of Spain, and reduced by long wars the 
Spanish nations who refused obedience, divided the whole coun- 
try into TWO provinces, distinguished by the appellations of Cite« 
RiOR and Ulterior. Under Augustus, the Ulterior province 
was again parted into two, Bastica and Lusitania; at the same 
time that the Citerior assumed the name of TarraconensiSy £rom 
Tarracoy its metropolis. This Tarraconoise occupied all the 
northern part, from the foot of the Pyrenees to the mouth of the 
Durius wherf Lusitania terminated, and the eastern, almost en* 
tire to the confines of Bietica^ which derived this name from 
the river Batis that traversed it during its whole course, extend- 
ing from the north to the west along the bank of the river Anas^ 
by which it was separated from Lusitania; whilst this last-men- 
tioned province was continued to the oceauy between the mouths 
of the Anas and Durius* 

This division of Spain must be regarded as properly belong- 
ing to the principal and dominant state of ancient geography. 
It was not till about the age of Dioclesian and ConstanUne 




when the number of provinces was multiplied by subdivision, 
that the Tarraconoise was dismembered into two new provinces; 
one towards the limits of Bsetica, and adjacent to the Mediter- 
ranean, to which the city of Carthago nava^ communicaited the 
name .of Carthagtnensis; the other on the ocean to the north of 
Lusitania, and to which the nation of Callaici or Callctci^ in the 
angle of Spain, which advances towards the north-east, has 
given the name of Callcecta^ still subsisting in that of Gallicia, 
whilst the tract towards the Pyrenees retained that of TarracO' 
nensis Proper* 

Independently of these distinctions of provinces, Spain un- 
der the Roman govemmetit was divided into jurisdictions, called 
Conventus^ of which there are counted fourteen; each one for- 
med of the union of several cities^ and held their assizes in the 
principal city of the district^ as the asterisks shew. 

The isles adjacent to the Tarraconoise called Baleares, &c., 
now Majorca and Minorca, Sec, in the augmentation of the num- 
ber of provinces, assumed the rank of a particular one. The 
principal city in the first, preserves its ancient name of Paltna; 
the name of Fortus Magonis given to that of Minorca by a 
Carthaginian commander, is Port Mahone. 



jKingdomsytS^c. Inhabitants. 

"s 1^ f 1. Segusinl, Taurini, 
^1 J Lepontii, Orobii, In-^ 
ll'i I subres,Cenomani, Eu- 
^ f" Lganiij et Veneti, 



f sg f 1. Tusci, Magelli, 
I i i < Vetulonii, Falisci, 
I ?'| I^Vulsinii, Vientes, &c. 



' Italian Sti^tet, 

1. Part of Savoy, Piedmont, 
Montserat, and Allessandrine^ 
Milan, Venice, and part of Man* 

2. Part of Mantua; Ferrarese,* 
Bolognese,* Modena,Parma; parts 
of AUessandrine, Montserat and 
Piedmont ; Genoa. 

1. Lucca, Tuscany, Patrimony 
of St. Peter,* T)rvieto.» 



> , 



90* s 

• • 

c r 







2. Umbri, et Senones, 

C 3. Piceni, vel Piccn- 

^tes, PraetutU, 

C 4. Latini, Sabini, ^- 

\ qui, Volsci, Hetnici,Scc, 

r 5. Samnites, Vestini, 

< Marraciniy Frentani, 


^ 6. Cumaei vel Cuma- 




J C 1 . Dauni, Peuceti, Ja- 
? C P^Si^ ^^ Messapii, 
. g*«C 2. Lucani et Sibirites, 

3. Bruiii ^the extre- 
mity of^Italy), 


2. Umbria, Perugia, Uubi- } g 
and Romagna. \ \ J 

3. Ancona, Fermo, and Ab- 1$ 
ruzzo Ultra.t 

4. Campania di Roma, and 

5. Abruzzo Citra, Molise,< 
Capitanata, and Ultra prin- 

6. Terra di Lavoro. 



1. Puglia, Terra di Bari, and 
Terra D'Otranto. 

2. BasalicaU, and Salerno 

3. North Calabria, and 
3outh Calabria. 





"l. Augusta* Praetoria, 

2. Eporedia, 

3. Rigomagus, 

4. Vercellst, 

5. Raudii Campi, 

6. Laumellum, 

7. Papia (Tricinum), 

8. Mediolanum, 

9. Comum, 

10. Bergomum, 

13. Verona, 

14. Altinum, 

15. Ateste, 

16. Hadria, 

17. Patavium, 

18. Venetus Portus, 

19. Vicentia, 

20. Julium Carnium, 

21. Forum Julii, 

22. Vedinum, 
93. Aquileia, 
.24. Tergeste, 

J 10. 

1. Aoiista. 

2. Ivica. 

3. Rinco. 

4 VercellL 

5. Rho. 

6. Laumellin. 

7. Pavia. 

8. Milan. 

9. Como. 

10. Bergamo. 

11. Cremona. 

12. Mantua. 

13. Verona. 

14. Altino. 

15. Efite. 

16. Adria. 

17. Padua. 

18. Venice. 

19. Vicenza. 

20. Zuglio. 

21. Qiudal'di-FriulL 

22. Udino. 

23. Lisonzo. 

24. Trieste. 

* Tliese appertain to the states of tlie Church, 
t This appertatni to the kingdom of Kaples. 











O I 
P I 





- ? 


1. Ravenna,* 

2. Forum Populi, 

3. ForuiT) Livii. 

4. Bononia (Felsina), 

5. Forum Ailieni, 

6. Padinum, 

7. Mutina, 

8. Regium Lepidi, 

9. Parma, 

10. Forum Novum^ 

1 1 . Placentia, 
1 3. Genua, 

13. Aquae Statiells, 

14. Alba Pompeia, 

15. Forum Fulvii Valentinurti, 

1 6. Bodincomagnum vel Industria, 

17. Augusta* Taurinorum, 
Ig. Augusta* Vagiennorum, 

,19. Albium Intemelium, 
'I. Luca, 

2. Pisae, 

3. Pistoria, 

4. Florentia. 

5. Sena-JuliaV 

6. Arctiunv, ' 
7* Cortona, 

8. Perusia, 

9. Clusium, 

10. Livorno (Herculis Labronis 

1 1. Valenterrae), 

12. Vetulonii*, 
IS. Ilva (Populonum), 

14. Russellae, 

15. Portus Herculis Cosani, 

16. Vulsinii, 
1.7. Falerii*, 

18. Veil*,. 

19. Caere, ^ 
^20. Portus Augusta, 
*^\. Arimium, 

2. Pisaurum, 

3. Fanum Fortunae, 

4. Sena (jrallica, 

5. Forum Sempronii, 

6. Umbrium Hortense, 

7. Camerinum, 

8. Fifemum, 

p^ *" \^9. Jguvium, 


I. Ravenna. 

3. Forli. 

4. Bologna. 

5. Ferrara. 

6. Bondeno. 

7. Modena. 
^8. Regio. 

9. Parma. 
ID. Fomovo. 

II. Placenza. 
42. Genoa. 

13. Aqui. 

14. Alba. 

15. Volentia. 

16. (Near Turin). 

17. Turin. 

18. Vico. 

19. Ventimiglia. . 

1. Lucca. 

2. Pisa. 

3. Pistoria. 

4. Florence. 

5. Sienna. 

6. Arezzo. 

7. Cortona. 

8. Perugia. 

9. Chiusi. 

10. Legkoi*n. 

11. Volterra. 

12. (no vestige). 

13. Elba. 

14. Rossella. 

15. Porto Hercule, 

16. Bolsensa. 

17. Palari. 

18. (no remains). 

19. Cer-Veteri. 

20. Porto. 

1. Rimini. 

2. Pesaro. 

3. Fano. 

4. Senigalia. 

5. Fossombrone* 

6. Umbrino. 

7. Camerino. 

8. Citta di Castello. 

9. Quibou 




10. Nuceriaey 

11. Fuder, 


1^. Spoletium^ 


1^1 3. Aineriii} 

ri. Ancona^* 

^ 3. Auximum^ 
g J 3. Firmum, 
g*^ 4. Asculum, 

? 5. Hadria, 

^6. Aterumf 

"1. Reate,* 

2. Quirites (Cures), 

3. CuUliae, 


4. Nursia, 

5. Tibur, 

•6. Roma * vcl Urbs 

7. Ostia, 
8 Lavinium, 


9. Ardea, 

10. Antium, 


11. Cerceii, 

12. Terracitia, 

13. Cajeta, 

14. Tusculum, 

15. Alba Longa, 

16. Praeneste, 

17. Anagnia, 

18. Suesta Pompetia, 

19. Corioli. 

L20. Arpinum, | 

"1. Capua,* 

2. Neapolis (Parthenople)* 

3. Puteoli, 

4. Baias, 

5. Misenum, 


6. Cumae, 

7. Salernum, 

8. Picentia, 

9. Nuceria, 

10. Nola, 

1 1 . Suessa Aurunca, 


cl2. Teanum Sidicinum, 


"1. Arpi, 
3. Salapia, 

3. Sipuntumi 

4. Venusia, 


5. Cannas, 

1 j 6. Barium, 1 
f'i 7. Tarentum yel Taras^ J 




10. Nocera* 

11. Todi. 

12. Spoleto. 

13. Amelia* 
1. Ancona. 
3. Osimo. 

3. Fermo. 

4. Ascoli. 

5. Atri. 

6. Pescara. 

I. Rieti. 

3. Correse. 

3. Citta-^Oucali. 

4. Norsia. 

5. Trivoli. 

6. Rome, or the citf o& 
Seven Hills. 

7. Ostia. 

8. Pratica* 

9. Ardia. 

10. Anzino. 

II. Montes Circello* 
13. Tarracioak 

13. Gaeta. 

14. Trascali. 

15. Palazzo. 

16. Palestrina. 

17. Anagni. 

18. (No remains). 

19. (No remains). 

20. Arpino. 

1 . (Near presentCapua)* 

2. Naples. 

3. Pouzzola. 

4. Baya. 

J > (Now obscure)* 

7. Salerno. 

8. Bicenza. 

9. Nocra. 

10. Nola. 

11. Sezza. 

12. Tiarfb. 

1. Arpi. 

2. Salpe. 

3. (Near Maafredonia). 

4. Venosa. 

5. Canne. 

6. Bari. 

7 Tarento. 







0. BrunduBiumi 

9. Lupis, 

10. Rudiasy 

11. Hydruntum, 

12. Callipolis, 
^13. CastFum Minervse, 

1. Pestum vel Neptuiu% 

2. Helea, 

3. Bruxentum, 

4. Abellinum MarsicQm^ 

5. Potential 

6. MetapontuiDy 

7. Heraclea, 
-8. Sybaris vel Thurii| 
'I. Roscianum, 

3. Consentia^. 
3. Petilia, 
4n Croton^ 
5. Scylacium^ 
-«s 6. Hipponium vcl Vibo, 

7. Tropaea, 

8. Nicotera, 

9. Mamertunif 

10. £pi-Zephyrii> 
^U. Rhegiuni) 

8. Brindiii* 

9. Lecce* ' 

10. (no remains). 

11. Otranto. 
13. Gastnu 

1. PestL 

2. Bnicca. 

3. Policastro. . 

4. Marsico Veterc* 

5. Potenax. . 

7. > (no remains). 

8 J 

1. Rosanb. 

2. Cosenza. * 

3. Strongoli. 

4. Crotona. 

5. Squillaci. 

6. Blvona. 

7. Tropaca. 

8. Nicotera. 

9. Opjudo. 

10. Motta-di-Burzan^. 

11. Regio. 


O^ Italy there ^s no idea mote familiar than that of the re% 
nown which it acquired from having ruled over nearly all thq^. 
ancient civilized world, after the very inconsiderable beginning 
of her IMPERIAL CITY on the Palatine Mount, whose policy- 
was to increase her inhabitants as well by a£fording an asylun^ 
for the outcasts and malefactors of other communities, who fled 
their country to avoid punishment and shame, as by ?ifrauduhnt 
seduction of the neighbouring women. 

Gallia Cisalpina extends from the declivity of the 
Alps, which looks toward the east, to the strand of the Adriatic, 
pr Superior sea. The Jf^Ao^^ian nations, established in the Alps^ 
confined the Cisalpine on the north ; and the Sinus Ligusticus^ 
called now the gulf of Genoa, bounded them on the south. A 
current celebrated under the name of Rubico^ which formed of 
three brooks, is called at its mouth Fieumesino, separates it fronot 
Italy Prefer^ on the side of the Superior sea; and a little river 

Bmnefl iUocfi^, Oft. the Infertof. < Cisalpine Gaul was also called 
TQgiUa^ becaiiie the people i&habittng it were gratifi^ with Ae , 
prtvilege of wearing the Boman Toga^ 

The riTer Padu^, or the Po, issuing from the Alps, and tra« 
i^rsisg the whole ibmidih of this aotintry fvom west to east^ 
discharges itself into the Adriatic aea by many mouths ; afford^ 
ing in its course a distinction to the regions Cispadahe and 
Transp^dane, or, this side and that side of the Po, in relatioa . 
to Italy. 


£T&i;aiA« The country which the Tusci retsuned after hav« 
ing lost what they occupied beygnd the limits of Italy Proper^ 
is the first that presents itself in these limits. And this nation, 
which was there known niore particularly under the name of 
Etruscty gave the jname of Etruria to all that which borders the 
western bank of the Tiber from its source in the Apennine to 
the sea. According to the prevalent opinion, the Etruscans^ 
named Tyrrheni by the Greeks, were originally Meontans of 
Lydia, in what is commonly called Asia Minor. They dis- 
tinguished themselves in the arts at a time when they were little their neighbours. The frivolous science of augurjr 
also was peculiar to them. This country extending along the sea, 
from the Macra to the mouth. of the Tiber ^ is bounded on the 
north by the Apennines as by the Tiber towards the east. 

Umbria. The Tiber directing its course from north to 
south, borders s.uccessively Umbria^ Sabina^ and Latium* The 
Urhbri are spoken of as a nation the most ancient in Italy. Not 
being at first bounded by the Rubicon^ they extended to the Po^ 
in the vicinity of Raveimoy to which country the name of Urn* 
hria was appropriated. . * 

PiCENUM. This division was an appendage to ancient Umbria^ 
by continuity on the Superior sea. Its limits are sometimei 
extended to the river Aternus. 

' , Latiitm. We have now arrived at Latium^ from which is- 
sued that power which extended itself in the three parts of the 
ancient world. 

yg- VIEW OF jkMcamr oaatAPHY. 

The SaUnif of which Sabinia warn pretoenM the • iittO(ie, Me*', 
ceeded the Ufnbrian» on the eame babk of the Tiber, as far as ' 
the river Anio^ which is Tevetotte* It may be said in geaendf 
of this people that it was reputed one of the most ancient in. 
Italy, without entering into a discussion of the diversity of tra- 
ditions on th« subject. They are taid to have fisigrated from a' 
place near the city of Amitemutn^ to settle- at^iilV which is^^ 
Rietiy extending themselves to the Tiber. . . > . . 

» • 

^ ft * 

The Latini, the principal people of this territory, occupied' 
the space between the Tiber ^ the Teverone^ and the Sea; a space 
ihsx made but a small part of L^tium ; whose limits by the ac- 
cession of many other people, correspond with the modem Cam* 
pagna di iRoma. Of these people, the most powerful and most 
difficult to reduce were the r&isci* 


Campania succeeds to Latium, This is the country of Italy 
which nature appears to have most favoured ; the beauty and* 
fertility of which being much celebrated in antiquity. It made 
|he principal of what is now named Terra di Lavoro. Its ex*' 
tent along the sea is carried to the limits of Lucaniai and it is^ 
bounded on i^ interior side by Samniumi ^ 


Savkium. Under this article will be comprised alt that^ 
which extends from Sabinna and Pictnum to Apulia ; or, other<«> 
wise, from the limits of Latium and Campdnia^ to the Superior 
aea. The Apennine rans obliquely through the length of this 
jipace. It is well known how much exercise the martial natioa 
of Somnite^' 0ovd^d the Roman arms during many ages. 


It must be remarked, that what remains to be surveyed of 
the continent of Italy is distinguished among the authors of 
lintiquity by the name of Magna GRiSciA, from the number 
0f Greek colonies there established. We find sometimes the 
paiy^e of Apulia extending to the heel of this continent, although 
|his extremity be more commonly denominated Ipt/gia^ or 
Jd^smpia* That of Apulia subsists under the form of Puglia« 
The country which bore the name of Lucania brings us back 
te tb$ bpttpm of the ^ulf of Tarentun*^ md exteud9 theoce^ 

aceerdiiig (o the reftemUance of Italy to a boot^ aerosa the in- 
step to the Inferior sea* That which is now called Calabria!^ 
atmth of ancient Zi/cama, was called Bruttium^ occupied by the 
Bruttti. . ^ ^ ' 

It would be fruitless to attempt a tabular view of all the ci« ^ 
vil dirkions that Italy has undergone from the origin to the 
decline of Roman grea^ess; therefore we have given such as 
are most conspicuous in its history. We will mientiony in the 
words of M. D'AnviUe) the divisions of it by Augustus into 
ELEVEN regions; though more curious than useful to be known; 
^ The EIR8T consisted of Lafium and Campania^ to the river Sil« 
arus. The second encroaches bn that which we have seen be* 
longing to Samniumy including the Herpini; extending thenClS 
in Apulia^ and the more ancient country of the Caiabrians to 
the lapygian promontory. Lucania^ and the country of the Brittt 
tians,, composed the t^ird. The fourth, reputed to include 
llie most martial people of Italy, comprized Sabinrm^ and- the 
rest of Samnium. Picenum^ one of Hhe most populous coun«< 
tries of Italy appears to have ^cxmstituted the fifth R£GiOK» 
Vmbria made the ftiXTHj and Etruria^ ta the river Mdcra^ the 
seventh: which completed nnctenr Italy precisely so called* 
The eighth RXGiGK of Italy then extended^ between the Apen* 
nine, and the river Po, to Placentia inclusively. Ligtiriai in 
ascending the same bank of the river to the summit of the Alps, 
made the ninth. In the tenth, Venetta and the country di 
die Carniy Were comprehended* The eleventh comprized the 
space between the limits of Venetia^ and the Pennine^ or highef 
Alps." So that besides the seven that fall in Italy proper, the 
remaining four were in Cisaipir^e Gaufy i. e. two in CispadQney 
and two in Transpadane. 




\. Me^sana (Zapcle), 

2. Tauromenium, 

3. Catana, 

4. Leontipi, 



1. Messina. 

2. Taormina. 

3. Catana (in Val Demone) 

4. Lentini. 



1 . Modern. 


5» Syracusae,* 

5* Syragi|»a. 

6. (In Val-di-Noto). . 

7. Muri Ucci. 

- t 

fc Ne actum, 

%, Helorurn, 

8. Camerlfia) 

8. Camarana. 


9. Gela, 

9. (Near Terra Nova). 

10. Agrigentum, 

10, Girgenti Vccchior. 

11. Tbermae Selinuntiae, 

lU (near Sciacca). 


12. Selynus, 

12. (In ruins). 


15. Mazarum, * 

13. (In VaNdi-Mazara). * 


14. Lilybaeum, 

14. Mars^lla. 

' 1 

15. Drepaxiiun> 

15. Trapani. 

/ 16. Segest^, 

16. (No renmns). 


17. Panormus, 

17. Palermo. 


18. Himera, 

18. Termini. 

1^. Cephalacdisy 

19. Cefalu. 


JO. Tyndaris, 

20. Tindari. 

*• ' 

V Myla^, 

21. Mdazj»0. 

22. Naulocus, 

22. (Near Mylae). 
23." Castro Janni. 


33. Ehna, , 

^4. Hybla Major, 

24. (No remains). 

35; Halyda, 

55. Salem6. 


36. EnteUa, 

26. Etitclla. 


27. Meoa^ . 

37. Mineo. 

1 . 

> . • 

11. coKSiCA yel ctrwos. . 


1. Mariana* ' 

2. Aleria** 

•I. (Colony of Marius). 
2. (Colony of Sylla.) 


5. Mantinorum oppidiim, 

3. Bastia* 


4. Paula, 

4. Porto-Pollo. 




• •> 

> * 

1. Calaris, 

I. CagUari. 

) * 

5. Sulci," 

2. (opposite St. Antioco). 

S. Neapolis, 

3. Neapolis. 

4. Lesa, 

4. Al6s. 

jf. Forum Trajani, 

.5. Fordongiano* 

6. Bosa, 

6. Bosa. 

7 Nora, 

7. Nufa. 

$. Tunis Libis<MUS| 

8. Porto-di-Torro. 


9. Tibula, 

9. Longo-Sardo. 

10. Olbia, 

10. Terra-Nova. 

SiciLiA, Sardinia, and Corsica. 

These islands were successively colonised by, and in posses- 
sion of the Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans. The Scicani^ 
Skulij Cyclopes^ as to Sicily,, and Ligures as to Corsica and 
Sardinia, from the adjacent continent, were their original ia* 




habitants. Of the three modem divisions of Sicily, such as the 
Val Demone, the VaIdi'Nbto,aiidthe Val di Mazara; ancient 
Feectumj and Mazarum, correspond with the two latter, and thr 
dependencies of ancient Catdna very nearly with the former. 



Raman. ~^ InhabUontB^ 

^'s't *• Vindclici, Br^uni, 
^|-J Estiones, Consuanetes, 
's |:j Cenanni, Licates, et 
X I S-^ vVirucinates. 

ij If r 2. Rhaeti, Brigantii, 

^ I ^^3 ^^^i^^^^^cB)^ucantii,Le- 

1 • ^1 pontii, Vennoncs, Tri- 

I g-i I dentini, BrixentX) et 







I g §. J 1. Norici, Sevaces, 
^ I t-^l^uni, et Ambidrani, 

, 2. Ambisontii, et Am- 

1. Scordisci, Tauri- 
sci, Amantiniy et Jazy- 

(Its inhabitants are 
not particularly named), 

2. Lybumi, Pevceti, 
vel Peukini, ^et Japy- 

§ ^ 5 ^' Autariatae, et Ar- 
? ^ cdyg«i, 

Labeates, et Var- 

CoufitricMy tfe. 

S?3 f 4. 




Grisotis of Switzerland; and 
^parts of Swabia and Bavaria 
of Germany. 



Paits of Bavaria, and Aus^ 


1. Parts of Austria, Hungary, 
Croatia and Sclavonia^ 





Morlachia, Dalmatia, and 
>parts of Croatia, Bosnia, and 

. • Also called Audita, 

i^f Anotfaer nation of Jazyges^ sntnamed^MetaDastes, oeeupied the tract between th« 
psBobe and Tei8se,,ea}1 the country within the Danube, bounded ST. b)t th^CwpaUuAii 
ndniAkins? which preserved itself independent of the Jioman empire. 
^ Also called &avia. 


Jncitni. Modern. 

1. THid, Atuuij, Tett-I 1. TnuiailTeuiUfWaluhii, Mti- 
risci, Getse, Jazfaea, dam}BessantHa,andiMUtofHun« 
Britotagae, et Peukini, gary 

1. Scordisd) et My^ 

3. Dardaiu, et Tri. 

3. Scytha, et Peu- 

1. BcBsi, EltetiS et 

3. Astx, et Odiysie» 

4. Thyni,etPeti, 

kSerria and Bulgaiia. 

1. Regina,* 
3. Augusta," 

3. fiatava Castra, 

4. German icum, 

5. Submontorium, 

6. Samulocenis, 

7. Cambodunum, 

8. Jalignagus, 

9. Parthauumt 

1. Brigantia, 

2. Curia,* 

3. Oscela, 

4. Clavennai 

5. Trideatuis, - 

6. Feltria, 

7. Sabio," 
9. Terioli, 

1. Regensburg. 
3. Augsburg. 

3. Passau. 

4. Vohburg. 

5. Schroben-hausen. 

6. Saul gen. 

7. Kempten. 

8. Hohen-Twicl. 

9. Parten-Kirk. 
1, Bregentz. 

5. Coire. 

3. Donio d'Oacula. 

4. eleven or Chiaventf. 

6. Trent. 

6. Peltn. 

7. Seben. 
e. Tirol. 

cifiL jmnsKwa. 



2 E 






















































1. Innstadt. 

2. Lorch. 

3. Lentz. 

4. Wells. 

5. Burghausen. 

6. Saltzburg. 

7. Crems. 

1. fNear Clagen{urt> 

2. (Near Wolk-marktt). 

3. Saint Leonhard. 

4. Cellei. 

5. Kottisch. 
1. Vienna. 

3. Altenburg. 

3. Javarin. 

4. Sarvar. 

1. Pannonia. 

2. Buda or Ofen. 

3. Tolna. 

4. Legrad. 

5. Petaw. 

1. Peterwaradia. 

2. Siankemen. 

3. Izeruinka* 

4. (On the Save). 

5. Swilei. 

6. Sisseg. 

7. Essek. 

8. Illok. 

1. Cabo d'Istria. 

2. Parenzo. 

3. Pola. 

4. Laybach. 

5. Upper Laybach. 

1. Fianona. 

2. Tersatz. 

3. Segna. 

4. Metux Vctus. 

5. Zara. 

6. Nona. 

7. Zara Vecchia. 
1 .Scardona. 

2. Salona. 

3. Fortress of Clissa. 

4. (In ruins). 

5. (No remains). 

6. Ragusi Vecchio. 

1. Scutara* 

2. Alesso; 

3. (Near the latter). 




'1. Tibiscus, 

2. Ulpia Trajana* (Sar- . 

3. Apulum, 

4. SalinX) 

5. ^^apocay 

6. Ulgianuihy 

7. Rhuconiuni) 

8. Utidava, 
^-^ 9. Castra Trajanaj « 
•^ 10. Castra Nova, 

11. Zernes, 
13. Ardeiscusy 

13. Petrodava> 

14. Susidava. 

15. Netindava) 

16. Jassiorum Munich* 

Ll7. Praetoria Augusta.* 
^ JSingidunum, 

Aureus Mons, 
''e f L Bononia) 
I. I 3. Radaria,* 
!^ J 3. Valerianay 
•5" 1 4. Oeicus, 
I I 5. Nicopolis ad Istrum, 
' L6^ Nicopolis ad latrumy 
1. Naissus, 
3. Horrea Magi, 

3. Succorum Augusts, 

4. Sardica,* 

5. Ulpa Pautalia. 

6. Justiaiana * Prima 

7. Jastioiaha * Secunda 
Bylazora {anciently 

the capital of Paeonia,) 
1. Durostoirus, 
3. Axiopolis, 
3. Carsumi 
4* Istnopolis^ 
5. Tomi,* 
1. MarcenopoliS} 
3. Odessusy 
%m Cnmi| ." 

Modem* . 
1. Termeswar. 
3. Warhel or Gradisca. 

3. Albe-GyiilsL 

4. Tada. 

5. Doboca. 

6. Kolsovar. 

7. Regen. 
^. Udvar. 

9. (Near Ribnik)* 

10. Forcas. 
U. Czernez. 
13. Argis. 

13. Piatra. 

14. Suczava. 

15. Sniatyn. 

16. Jassi. 

17. Roman. 
1. Belgrade. 
3. Smendria. 

3. KastolaU. 

4. (Scanty renuuns). 

5. Gradisca. 

1. Bidinor Vidin. 
3. Artzar. 

3. Vadb. 

4. Igien. 

5. Nocopoli. 

6. Nicop. 
1. Nissa. 

3. Moravahisar. 

3. Zucora. 

4. Triaditza, 

5. (Not found). 

6. Guistendii. 

7. Is also Guistendil. 

1. Uskup. 

3. (Nothing Gotresponidins^* ^ 

I. Distra. 

3. Axipoles pr Rassovat. 

3. Kerscua. 

4. Kasa Kcn&an. 

5. Tormeswar or Bsiba. 

1. Marcenopoli or Prcbislaw^^ 
3. Varna. 
3. Baltchtck. 





r^ rii. Philippopolis ' 
J 3 ^ f Trimontmm, 
; { •§ g-'s 2. Uscudama* 

^'§' I 3. Ircnopoli** (Beraea), 
L4. Didymotichos, 

1 .Hadriaiiopoiis*(Ores- 

2. Bergulae/ 

3. Cabyla, 

4. SklmydessuS) 

5. ApoUonia, 

6. Mesembria, 

7. AnchialuS) 
^8. Debeltus, 

1. Cypsela> 

2. Ji^noS} 
K Sestus, 

4. Calliopolis. 

5. Lysimachia (Cardiac) 
"^ 6. Heraclea  (Perin- 


7. Selymbria, 

8. Constantinopolia (By- 

.9. TarulluS) 

1. Trajanopolis*9 

2. Mei&embria, 
3.NiQopolis adMstum^ 

.g I 4. Jalnphra, 

^ I 5. Topiris Ulpia, 





J ;). INlQOpOllS 

] 4. Ja^phra, 
I 5. Topiris ^' 
{6, Abdera^ 


1. Philippopoli or Philiba. 

2. Statimaka. 

3. Eski-zadra. 

4. Dimotuc, 

1. Adrianopleor Hedrine. 

2. iBergase. . [minals) 

3. (Whither Philip banished cri*< 

4. Midjeh. 

5. Sozopolis or Sizebolii 

6. Misevria. 

7. Akkiali. 
8- Zagora. 

1. CypseUu 

2. £no. 

1. Zemenic. 

4. GaUipoii. 

5. Hexamili. 

6. Erekli. 

7. Selivria. 

8. Constantinople, 

9. TchourtL 

1. Trajanopolis. 

2. Marogna. 

3. >j[icopolis, 

4. (Not found). 
^ 5. sourun. 

6. (At the mouth of the Neatus). 


RtfiETiA, properly so called, occupied the Alps from the 
frontier of the Helvetic country of Gaul, to Venetia and the 
limits of Noricum^ by which it was bounded on the east* Vtn^ 
delicia confined it on the north, and the flat cmintry ol Chat* 
pink Cktal im- iht south. < 

ViHDELiqiA, which, from the city of JSrif anfra, or Bregentz, 
on a lake which took the name of Brigantius^ before it Was 
called the lake of Constance, extended to the Danube; while 
the lower part of the JSnus^ or Inn, separated it from Npricum. 
A powerfHil colony was established in the angle formed by 
A/e two rivers Vzndo as4 Xfct^/ whence it v^ould seem that the 


nation derived the name of VinDeligia; and that of Augusta^ 
given to thiar colony, is preserved, as it is well known^ in Augs* 
burg, between the rivers Lech and Wcrtach. 

The RHiETi were a colony of the Tewri, or Tuscatts^ « civtU 
ized nation, established in Rhaetta Proper when the Gabls calae 
to invade Italy. This colony, becoming savage, and infesting 
Cisalpine Gatil, were subjugated under the reign of Augustus 
lEind Drusus» And because the Vindelki armed in favour of 
their neighbours, Tiberius %ent a force that reduced them also 
to obediencfi^ This double conquest formed a province caAed 
RfliETiA; eomprehending Vtndeltctny without obliterating alto- 
gether the distinction. But in the multiplication that Dioclesian, 
and some emperors after him made of the provinces, Rh^tia was 
divided into ^ti^p, under the distinction oi Jirst and second; a civ*- 
cumstance that caused Rhcetia Proper (as to the^r^^) and Viride' 
licia (as to the second) to resume their primitive distinctions* 


NoRtcxTM extends along the southern shore of the Dannbe^ 
from the mouth of the Inn to mount Cetius^ which causes the 
river to form a flexure a little above the position of Yiei^a. 
Embracing the beginning of the course of the Drat>ttSy or Drave, 
and comprehending that which composes the duchies of Carin- 
thia and Stiria, it is bounded by the summit of the Alps on the 

This country which is first spoken of as having a king^ fol- 
lowed the fate of Pannonia; for when that was reduced,, Nora^- 
CUM also became a province, under the reign of Augustus. Af* 
ferwards, and by the multiplication of provinces, there is dia-* 
tinguished a Noricum Ripense^ adjacent .to tli^ I>aaiibe, from o 
JSforicum Mediterraneunij distant from that river in the bosom 
of the A%>s. *" , ' 


' f 

Panhonia stretched along the right bank of the Damibtf, 
from the frontier of Noricum to the mouth of the iSbvr; the 


coaiilry beyond the river being oecupied, from the limtU of tho 
Germanic nation of' the ^uaditms^ by Sarmattansi called yazyges 
Meianastcs. On th& southern side, Pannonia was bounded by 
Dalnuttia comprised in lUyrkum, It received the Drave from 
its 'issue out of Noricum^ and inclosed the greatest put of the 
course .of the Save* 

la tb^ war which Aagustus^ bearing yet but the name of 
Qctavitts, made with the Japydes and. the Dalmatians of IUyri<^ 
cum, the Roman arms had penetrated to the Pannomians. ^But 
it was reserved for Tiberius, who commanded in these coun- 
tries, to reduce Pannonia into a province. It was divided in 
die time of the Antonines into Superior and Inferior^ and 
the mouth of the river Arrabo^ or Raab, in the Danube, made 
the reparation of it, according to Ptolemy* Afterwards we 
find employed the terms Jirst and secondy as in the other 
provinces of the empire: and in a later age we see a thirds under 
the name of Valeriay between the former two. The second^ 
^cupying the banks of the Drave and Save, obtained also the 
oame of Savia^ which now gives to a canton of this country the 
name of Po-Savia; expressing in the Slavonic language a situa* 
ioa^adjacent to the Save* 


The extent of this country, till the province of Istria was de- , 
tached from it^ and added to Italy, by Augustus, conducted along 
the Adriatic sea from Tergestinus Sinus^ to the mouth of the 
Driloy or Drin, bordering Epirus Nova^ or Macedonia* As to 
the»liaHts on the side of Pannonia^ which make the northern 
frontier, we find them determined by many positions under the 
name of Fines^ which may be attributed to the Roman govern- 
ment, as we find these points of termination in many countries 
that have been subjected to that power* 

The Illtrian nations are described in the earliest age as 
a savage people, who printed marks on their skins, like the 
Thractans; and the piracy which they practised furnished the 
Romans the first occasion to arm against them, more than two 
biodred years before the Christian aera; although the entire 



iHlimisticm of the" country was only aehieved by Tibcritts ' t^< 
weeds the end of the reign of Augustus. 

■* < «■ 

Illyricum. was first divided into the three provinces ^ 
Atria or Histrta^ and Lyburnia^ towards the head of the 
Adriatic^ and the more famous one under the name of Dalma^ 
tm^ in the southern part, which name it still preserves. A 
Jburth province, under the Greek emperors, called JVtrtwrff-' 
lAfiii, was formed,, extending beyond the limits of niyricaiii> 


 . ' • ' 4  

<« • I 

, Two nations who appear associated, and to whom thfe saitte 
Jhmguage was 'common, the Daci and the G^T^, ocddpiedm 
|;re^t space of country, which, from the shore of the Danube,: 
towards the north, extended to the frontiers of European Sar^ 
maita*- l^ejazyges itfl?^ana*f«, a Sarmatic nation, as above- 
mentioned, established between Pannonia and Daci a, should b^ 
iKteprised, by their situation^ in the object under consideratiott/ 

.» The Daci and Get^e impatient of their limits, Mar$ia'^ni!? 
^Shfrkum suSered from their incursions and the Celtic nattonif ' 
.there established, were destroyed by them. Augustus for^ 
whom the Danube^ as the Rhine^ was a boundary, which nature 
seemed to give to the empire, contented himself with repelling 
the Dacians, and fortifying the banks of the river. But Tra*' 
jan^ had conceived an appetite for conquest, and annexed it to 
ii[^'€»k^\ttMndtv one vast province. 


* We comprehend under this name the country which, between 
iht limits of Thrace and Macedon on the south, and the banks 
«f the bter^ or Danube, on the north, extends in length, east- 
ward, from Pannonia^ and Styricum to the Euxine sea. It must 
be remarked, that the name of the country, and of the nation, 'la 
also written Mysia, and Mysi; as the name of the province 
south of the Propontis^ iu Asia^ and of its people, who issued* 
from the M^sia now under consideration. Darius, son of 

^y^taspesy. marching against the Scythiaas^ encfiaotered dia^ 
Getdj, who-' were reputed Thmciana, on his passage, befote ar** 
living at the Ister ; and we have seen that this extremity of the 
§fgu^, pn the Ettjine bore the name of Scythicft^ 

.M^siA appears to have been wb|€Cted to the empise under. 
Apgnstus and Tiberius. Its extent along the river, which ftepA>» 
rat^dit from Dacia on the north, was divided into Si^erior and 
Jb^erior; s^nd a litde river named Ciabrus or Cebru$f now Zibria^ 
between the Timacus and the Oescus^ makes, according to Pto- 
lemy, the separation of these two Mscsias. But Mjesia suflFer* 
ed encipachment upon its center, in the admission of a new pro- 
vince, under the name of Dacia* Aurelian, fearing that he 
copild not maintsun the conquest of Trajan beyond the Ister, 
odled Dacia, abandoned it, and retired with the troops and 
people, which he placed on the hither side of the river, affectioff;^ 
to call his new provino^ the Dacia of Aurelian. That which 
M4ESIA preserved of the. superior division, was called the Firsi 
Mossiiff and the in/prior was the Second Mxsiom • There wap 
afterwards distinguished in Dacia the part bordering on thf 
river under the name of Ripensu^ and that which was seques** 
tercd in the interior country under the name of Mediterranean 
<^(cupied probably a country contiguous to Macedonia^ and 
l^^wn,more anciently by the n^me of Dardania. 


4 « 


Thracia extends from the frontier of Macedonia^ viong the 
JEgean sea and the Propontis to the Euxine; while Mount 
Hamus separates it from Mcesia. Mount Rhodope envelopes it 
on the western side, where it borders on Macedonia. 

., We. see Thrace divided among many kings befojre it fell 
vinder the , Ron^m domination, which did not happei^ till tl|e 
re^ of Claudius^ In the subdivisions whioh the ago jof JDio>%. 
clesj^n and Constantine prpduced in the empire, Ti^Af £ waa 
^maed into ma^if provinces. That part whi<^ bord^ics th^ 
J^rppQntis was called Europa^ as being die entrance of £urcq^y 
^l^oaite the laud of Asia; which is only separated by thcroav^ 
r^w,,.;ph^e)i^, called the Bosphorp8« , J^ncmi'Montns was the 



luune of aaothor {urovince, which descended ta theHebnia. 
SAodope borders die ^gean sea, and the name of Thracia 
was. reserved for a portion of the country towards the sources of 
the Hebrua. 

t/V/\/««i VN^.^S^^/N/^^V< 



V Grecian Staten and hthahitanti 


•« '•g^WC 1. Parthbi, Taulan- 

2I3 (tiiy Orestae, Elymiotae, 

' " r 2. Pelagonia vel Paeo- 

S I nia, Eordaea, Mygdonia, 

|< iElmathia, Pieria, Chal- 

o { cidica, Edonis ct ^inti- 

•" Lea, 

&^ R f ' 3. Chaonia, Thcspro* 

CI %'\ tia, Molossis et Atha- 

« (, mania— Molossi, Sec. 

{4. Estiaeotis^ Thesa- 
liotis, Phthiotis, Per- 
rhaebia, et Dolopia-* 
Jloles, Perrhaebi^ Pe- 
lasgi, &c, 


jaris et 

Attica — Jones et Dores, 

I»« r 2. Achaia, Elis, Ar- 
I §* J cadia^ Argolis, Laconia, 
§0 I Messenia— lonesetDo- 
L • ^res, 


lurhish Provincet. 

1. Albania. 

2. Macedonia. 

3. Chimera. 

4. Thessaly, or Janna, by the 

1. Livadia, or Achaia. 

3. The Morea. 


1. Dyrracbium (Epi- 

2. Apollonia. 

3. Aulon, 

4. El3rma, 

5. Scampis, 
$. Lychnidus, 

7. Deborus, 

8. Aibanopolis, 


U Durazzo* 

2. Polina. 

3. Valona. 

4. Amaut, Beli-gradi- 

5. Iscampi* 
5. Achrida. 

7. Dibra.. 

8. Albasano. 


* These were principal cities, before the Roman domination in Greece. 


cmt nivisKHsrs. 










1. Bylazora^* vel 

2. Stobi,* 

3. Edessa,* (^gc), 

4. Pella,* 

5. Bersea^ 

6. Celethrum, 

7. Pydna vei Citrqn, 

8. DiuiDy 

9. Thessalonica,* 

10. ApQllonia, 

11. Cassandra (Poti- 

12. Toronc, 

13. Osynthusi 

14. Stagyra, 

15. Amphipolis, 

16. Heraclea Sintica, 

17. Philippi,* 

18. NeapoliS}* 

1. Chiraaera, 

2. Burthrotum, 

3. Dodona, 

4. Ambracia,* 

5. Nicopolis,* ' 

6. Argitha^ 

1. Larissa^* 

2. Tricca, 

3. Gomphi, 

4. Oloosson, 

5. Azorus Tripoli- 

6. Pharsalus, 

7. Demetrias, 

8. Pagasas, 

9. Thebae* Phthiod- 

10. Aphetae, 

11. Magnesia, 

12. Lamia, 

13. Heraclea (Trach- 

1. Anactorium, 

2. Actium, 

3. Argos, (Amphilo- 
chium), ' 


§ 1 
I 4. 

' •' 

1. AlexinUa. 

2. (Near the above), 

3. Edessa or Moglena« 

4. Palatisa (ruins)> 

5. Cara-Veria. 

6. Castoria. 

7. Kitro. 

8. Stan4ia, 

9. Salonica. 

10. Polonia« 

11. (Near the Gates of Cassan- 

12. Toron. 

13. (Near Agiomama). 
• 14^ Stauros. 

15. Jamboli. 

16. r Above the latter]. 

17. (In ruins). 

18. Carvale. 

1. Cimera. 

2. Butrino. 

3. Dodone. 

4. (Near Arta). 

5. Prevesa Vfcccheia, 

6. (Near Mount Pindus). 

1. Larissa. 

2. Tricola. 

3. (Above the latter). 

4. Alessone. 

5. (North of the latter). 

6. Farsa. 

9. >(On the Pelasgicus Sinus^ 
I or gulf of Volo). 

10. J 

11. Magnesia. 

12. (Near the Spercius). 

13. Zeiton. 

1. (Near Actium). 

2. Azio. 

3. (No remsdns). 


iOn the Achelou8)L 
At its mouth). 

viBw OF AMcnvr oramtAPHY. 

"1. Caljrdon vel Caly- 

3. Thermusy* 

3. PleuroO) 

4. Apojlonia, 




1. Naupactus,* 
3. Amphlssay 

3. Cnemidesy* 

4. Thronium,* Epi- 

5. Opus OpuQtiiy* 

2. Delphi,* 

3. Cyparis8U8| 

4. Crissa, 

5. Antieyra, 

1. Thebs Tel Cad- 

2. Lebadeajf* 

3. Cheroncea^ 
4 Orchomenusy 
5. Hoeliartusy 

1^6. Thespix, 

7. Leuctra, 

8. Plataea, 

9. Tanagara, 

10. Oropus, 

11. Aulis, 
J. 2. Anthedon> 


1. Athciiac,* 

2. Piraeus, 

3. Munychia^ 

4. PhaleruB) 

5. Eleusis, 

I 8. Marathcny 
1.9. RharonuB> 

1. Sicyon,* 

2. Corinthus,* 

3. Lechxum) 

4. Cenchreie> 

;. f l.Ni! 

I < 2. M( 

5 U- El 



Principal cities of JEtolia^ 
on the branches of thf 
EvenuM now Fidari). 


2. f TxTR AFOLis, or the four pvin« 

3. Tcipal cities of Doris). 
^. ^ 

1. Lepanto. 

2. Salona. 

4. f (South of Thermopylae in the 
i east extremity of Locris). 


1. Turco-chorio. 

2. Ci&tra. 

3. (East of Delphi). 

4. (South of Delphi}. 

5. Aspro-fSpitia. - 
1. Thiva. 

2. Livadia. 

4. V (Ne^r Copias Lacus). 


7. V (In the seuth of Boeptia). 

8. J 

9. 1 

10. I (Near tlie coast qpposite 

11. fEuboea). 

2* ? (On the Saronicus Sinus) . 

3. (Borders on Boeotia). 
1. Atheni or Athens. 

3. > (Ports of Athenas). 

5. Lessina. 

6. Cabo'CQlonni. 

7. (East of Athenae). 

8. Marathon. 

9. (North of Marathon). 

1. BasilicQ. 

2. Corito, (a rain). 

^' I (Ports of Corinthus). 




5. Phliusi 

6. ^gira, 

7. Cerynia, 

8. EgiuiH)* 

9. Patrx, 

10. Dyme, 

11. Tritaea, 
1. Olympia,* 
3. Pisai 

3. Elis,* 

4. Pylus, 

5. Cyllene^ 

I. Mantineay 
3. Tegea, 

3. OrchonienuS) 

4. Stymph^lusy 

5. PheneoS) 

6. Cllton, 

7. Psophisi 

5. Telphusa, 

9. Heraeaf 

10. Aiphera> 

II. Megalapolisy* 
1. Argos,* 
2l Mycenae,* 

3. Tyrius)* 

4. Nauplia, 
St. Epidaurus, 

6. Traezen, 
1. Lacedacmon rel 

9. Amyclas, 

3. EpidaurusLimera, 

4. Gythium, 

5. Boca, 

1. Messene,* 

2. Coione, 

3. Methonei 

4. Cyparissus, 

5. Stenyclarust 


5. Staphlica. 

' I (Princi 

9.' I ^^"^ 

ipal cities along the 
Corinthian gulf). 

(Principal cities on the 
branches of the Alpheus). 

11. Triti. 

1. Rofeo, (by conjecture). 

2. (Joined Olympia). 

3. Gastonni? 

4. (East of Elis). 

5. The port of Elis). 

I. Trapolizza? 
2l. Moklia. 

3. (North of Mantinea). 

4. (North of Orchomentts). 

5. Phonia. 


II. Leonardi. 

1. Argo. 

2. (North of Argos). 

3. Vathia* 

4. Napli Romania., 

5. Pidavra. 

6. Damala. 

1. Paleo-Chori. 

2. (Near Sparta). 

3. Malvasia-Vecchia. 

4. (The port of Sparta). 

5. Vatica. 

1. Mavra-Matia. 

2. Corooe. 

3. Modon. 

4. Arcadia. 

5. NisL 


To judge of the extent of Greece bjr the power vhich ena- 
bled its States, individually, to arm against each other, or uni- 

- - . i___  - — "^ 

t llie names of the principal cities of the Greek islands were generally adopted 
mm those of the islands themselves ; for which, see pages 24 and 35, as we dispense 
with giving them a tabular insertion here. Except from uiis remark the isle of Euhcea, 
whose chief cities were Chalcit^ JEntria^ Oreus or Uti^Ot Ed^pnu^ and Cary%tu»» 


tedly, to sustain the attacks of formidable foreign enemies, would 
be to form an idea of a great country. A more intimate iic- 
quaintance with it, however, will undeceive us in thi| point* 
For we shall see that Greece^ properly so called, scarcely coni- 
tains more space than the kingdom of Naples occupies in the 
tpntinent of Italy. And the island of iSicily alone is deemed 
equal to the Peloponnesus^ considered exclusively of Greece 
Proper ; although in it there are enumerated six . distinct pro* 
vinces. The circumstance that contributes among others to the 
glory of Greece, is well known to be, that, though reduced by 
the Roman arms, she triumphed in Pome by establishing the 
arts which in this mistress of the world were unknown. 

But after having remarked a relative distinction in the extent 
of the name of Greece, it becomes us to signify here, that it ie ' 
in its most comprehensive space that we propose to treat it. Re- 
turning to the frontier of Illyricum^ thence to take our departure, 
tye ^ shall include Macedon^ in its extent ovtx Epirus Nova 
on the one side, and to Thrace on the other. 

The Greeks gave themselves the name of Helenes; and that' 
of Hellines is still known to the Turks in speaking of the 
Greeks. But the country they call Hellas did not extend over 
ftll that is comprehended under the name of Greece ; for it ex- 
cluded Macedon^ and the greatest part of Epirus. ' There is men^ 
tion made of a primitive people under the name' of Pelasgi^ In 
a state of society little better than that of nations which we'con* 
eider as savages. Three principal races afterwards are distinr- 
guished; lones^ Dores^ and Moles. Attica was the original seat of 
the loNiANS, who, in the Peloponnesus, occupied Achaia. The 
Dorians, migrating from the environs of Parnassus^ became 
powerful in Peloponnesus* The Etolians inhabited Thes^saly^ 
when foreigners came from Egypt and Phoenicia to civilize the 
. first inhabitants of Greece. 

tpiRUs Nova. The Illyrian people occupied, by a conti- 
nuity of extent, the neighbouring country of the Adriatic sea, 
to the confines of Epirusy before it was attached to Macedon by 
the Romans, and after it had made a particular province under 
the name of JE^pirus Nova, or the New Epirus. 


M ACED^Nt in its more ancient state, was bounded on th« 
west by the country whereof we have just spoken, and confined 
on the side of the east by Thrace; by which it was also con*- 
tracted, before the borders of the river Strymon were comprised 
in it« It had Dardama on tEe north, and was bounded on the 
south by Thessaly^ But in the interior of a country so re* 
Bowned, there is still wanting much of the actual intelligence 
from ^ which ancient geography derives its most important 

Epirus. The shore of Epirus commences at a point named 
AcrO'Cerauniaj where it borders on Epirua Nova. It touches 
Macedon and Thessaly eastward, and covers the Ambraciua 
Sinus^ which parts it from Grascia Propria on the south ; unless 
* we attach Acarnaniay as it was originally, to the kingdom of 

Thessalt is bounded on three sides by mountains ; namely, 
on the north by Olympus^ which divides it from Macedon ; on , 
the west by Pindus^ which divides it from Epirus ; and on the 
south by Oeta^ which parts it from Grwcia Propria; having the 
Mgasn sea to the east withal* 


GRiECiA Propria. This grand division of Greece was 
bounded on the north, by mount Oetay which divided, it from 
Thessaly; on the west, by the Ionian sea; on the south, by the 
'Cafinthlan and Saronic gulfs, and the Isthmus of Corinth^ Which 
separated it from Peloponnesus; and on the east^ by the 

The subdivisions of GRiCciA Propria were seven; viz. At- 
iicaj Megarisy Bcctica^ Phocis^ Locrisj Dorisy and Mtolia. 

Peloponnesus. This peninsula derived its name from Pelops, 
the son of Tantalus, king "of Phrygia, and in its general form, 
resembles 'the leaf of a palm tree. It is jsined to Grascia Pro* 
pria by the Isthmus of Corinth^ which is only about five miles 
over. On this spot the inhabitants of Peloponnesus usually in- 
trenched themselves when in dread of an invasion ; and here the 
Isthmean games we^-e triennially celebrated. Demetrius, Caesar, 


and others, attempted to cut through thia istbmuli but 
ly failed* 

The fubdivistons of Peloponnesus were sbc^yiz»Achaiat£rtSf 
MesseniCf Laconia^ Arcadia^ and ArgolU. 

' The Romans, in the third Macedonian war^ reduced the 
greater part of Greece to a province, called Macedonia; one 
hundred and forty-eight years before Christ. The rest of 
Greece shordy after shared the same fate, and was reduced to a 
province, called Aghaia, when the Achwan kagU€ ^as subvert- 
ed under the war conducted by Mummius* 




Pr&vincea, Inhabitanttt ^c 

TroaS} Dardania, 
^oliS} 'Cilicia^ et 

Abrettena. Troja- 

nes^ Mysi vel Massi. 

Olympena.— Thyni 
et Bithyni, Marisu^dy- 
niy Caucones. 

Domanitri.— H^netl* 

Ph^araea) Phazemq- 
myscyra et Siden^.— -• 
Lpuco-Syri, Amazo- 
nes, Tibareniiet Chal- 
daei vel Hepta-Com^- 


(Comprised a league 
of twelve states or 

Lydi vel M sones. 

Lycaonia, Epictetus, 
Paroreias, Eumenia. 
— Phriges. 
Gallo-Grsecia^— To« 
listo-Boii, Trocmiy 

Moman Provinces, 

1. Hellespontus^j 

2. Bithynio fiostea^ Honorias et 

9. Paphlagonia. 

A. Heleno-Pontus et Polemoma* 


T. Phrygia-Pacatiana^ Phrygia- 
Salutaris, et Lycaonia. 

8. Galatia Primai et CJalatia Se- 

* The eml divisions of Asia Minor of the present day correspond so illj, and are so 
few comparatively, with those of antiquity, which are sufficient to fill the usual plan of 
oar tables, that we must be contented with stauog in the way of note, that this ooqntiy 
is now divided into three pravinces of tha Turkish empire. One called Natolia* 
or rather Anatolia, which occupies the western part, extenilinK over its wh^o 
width ; while the other two, called Am as i a, on the JBUtck ««a> aii4 CA^AM4^|f I A« oa 
the Levant, eeeupy the re«ldue, eastward^ to the Euphrates* 


JSnffdoms, Profmncet, fnhMfants, &c. 



10. Doris, Peraa-Rho- 
diorum. — Dores, Ca- 
res, et Leleges. 

o-l 11. Milyas— Licii. 

pgjCl2. Cabalia, Pisidia, 
► t* ? c Isauria. — Solymi. 

Trachea, Cetis, 


9. Cappadocia Prima, SecundjEi et 
Tertia; Armenia Prima et Se- 

10. Caria. 1 

11. Lycia. 


12. Pamphylia Prima, Pamphylia 
Secunda, et Pisidia. 

1 3. Cilicia Prima, ^t Cilicia fee- 
cunda. "j 


1. Troja vcl Ilium 

3. Alexandria-Troas, 
3. Dardantis, 
4r. AbydoB, 
5. Lampsacus, 

1. Pergamus,* 

2. Elsa, 

3. Scepsis, 

4. Thebe, 

5. Lyrnesaus, 
■6. Zeieia, 

7. Miietopolis, 

8. Hiera-Germa, 
Prusa* ad Olym- 


2. Cius, 

3. Myrlea vel Apa- 
' mea, 

4. Dascylium, 

5. ApoUoniai 

6. Hadriani). 
^^7. Nicasa, 

10, Astacus, 

1. (No remains). 

2. EskioStamboul. 

3. (No remains). 

4. Nagara, (a ruin). 

5. Lamsaki. 

6. Camanar. 

7. Caraboa. 

8. Cyzicus (a ruin), 

9. Artaki. 

10. Asso. 

11. Bergamo. 

12. fPort of Pergamus); 

13. (No remains). 

}H (Unknown).' 

16. (Near Biga). 

17. Balikesri. 

18. Ghermasti. 

1. Bursa. 

2. Ghio, or Kemlik. ' 

3. Moudania. 

4. Diaskillo. 

5. Aboullona. 

6. Edrenos. 

7. Is-Nick. 

8. Is-Nikndd. 

9. Bast^n. 

10. (Near Nicomedia). 

cavBL mVOMNtllS. 



11. Libyssa, 

12. Pahtichium, 

13. ChalcedoD, 

14. Chry8opolis> 

15. Sophont 

16. Calpe, 

Heraclea* Pondca. 

jl ir.Prusaad 
aflS. Heracle 
P J 19. Tium, 

20. Cratia yel Fla- 

21. Hadrianopolisi 

1. AmastriS)* 

2. Cytorus, 

3. Abonitichos yel 


7. Stephane^ 

8. Sinopef 

9. GetmanicopoUs) 

10. PompeiopoliS} 

1. £upatoriaAmisau3) 

2. Magnabplisy 

3. Phazemony 

4. Amasea}* 

5. Pimopolisy 

6. Gaziura>* 

7. Zela, 

8. Seba9topolis9 

9. Berisay 
I' VlO. Trapezus?* 

11. Comana, 

12. ^leo^Caesare^i 

13. Cerasu% 
U. Tripolla, 

15. Athenacy 

16. Teches, 

1. Smyrnay 

2. Phocxay 

^ 3. Cuma vel Cymey 
^. i 4. Ephesusy* 
* ^ 5. Clazom^aey 

6. Erythriey 

7. Tecs, 

8. NeapoliS) 

9. Prieney 

10. Miletusy 





11. Gebi8^9 

12. Panlichi. 

13. Kadri-keui. 
14* Scutari. 

15. Sabandgeh. 
16b Kerbech. 

17. Uskubi. 

18. EreklL 

19. Falios. 

20. Gheredeh. 

21. Boli. 

1. Amasreh. 

2. Kudros. 
2. Ainehboli. 

4. Kiangara. • 

5. Ginuc. 

6. Kinoli. 

7. Iitefan. 

8. Sinub. 

9. Kastanmcffii. 

10. j(Ncar Sinope). 

1. SamsouDy (a ruin). 

2. Ichenikeh. 

3. Merzifoun. 

4. Amaaieh. 

5. Osmandgiki 

6. Gueder. 

7. Zeleh. 

8. Turcal. 

9. Tocat. 

10. Trebisond. 

11. Almons. 

12. Niksar. 

13. Keresoun. 

14. Tireboli. 

15. Athenoh. 

16. Teheh. 

1. Ismir. 

2. Fochia. 

3. Nemourty (a ruin). 

4. Aiosolucy (a ruin). 

5. (Near Vourla). 

6. ErethrL 

7. Sigagik. 

8. Scala nova. 

^- ? 

lO.V (South of Ephesus). 


. O^'^' ' 







1. Sardesi* 

2. Hyracapia) 

3. Magnesia S^inliay 

4. Metropolis,* 

5. Thyatira, 

6. Hypaepa, 

7. Magnesia Maeandriy 
,8. Tralles, 

9. Nysa, 

10. Tripolis, 

11. Philadelphia, 

12. Maeonia, 

1. Dorylaeuniy 

2. Cotyaeiuro, 

3. Pelta^, 

4. Cadi, 

5. Azanii 

6. Ancyra, 

J 7. Cumenia, 
8. HierapoliS) 
0. Laodiceas* 
'0. Colossse, 
U. Cibyra, 
1 \%, Apamea Cibotus, 
Vl3. Synnada,* 
J 14. Philomeliuin, 

15. Thymbrium, 

16. Lao^i^ea Com^ 
") busta, 

VI 7. Iconium,* 
J 18. Psibelay ' 

19. Laranda, • 

1. Gordium vel Julio- 
^ 2. Pessinus,* 
1 3. Germa Colonia, 
4. Amoriuin, 

5. Ancyra,* 

6. Gorbeus,* 

7. Tavia, 

1. Ma^acia * CacSaria, 

2. Nyssa, 

3. Garsrusa, 

4. Cammanene?* 

5. Cadyna, 

6. Nora, 

7. Comana)* 


MMern: * 
1. Sart, (a min). 
3. Marmora. ' 

3. Magnesia* 

4. Tireh. 

5. Akhisar^ 

6. Berki. 

7. Gurzel-Hirar. 

8. Sultan^Hisar. 

9. Nosti. ' '  

10. (On the Meahdefr)* 
U. Alar-Shehr. 

12. (Near the latter), 

1. Eski'Sherhr. 

2. Kutaieh. ' 

3. ^Uschak. 

4. Kedous. 



8. Bambuk-Kalasi. 

9. Ladik, (arttin). . 

10. Chonos. ' 

11. Buruz. 

12. Ampbion KarahW. 

13. (Unknown). f 

14. Ilgoun. j 

15. (Near Thymbraia),! 

16. Jurekiam Ladik. [ 

17. Konieh. 

18. Ismit. > 
19 Larendeb. 

> (Unknown). 

2. J 

3. (Near the latter). 

4. Amora. ' . 

5. Angoura. 

6. Gorbaga. 

7. TchoroufH. 

1. Kaisarieh. 

2. Nou8-Shfer» 

3. Ak-Serai. 

4. Kaman. 

5. Nigdeht 

6. Nour. 

7. El-3o8laQ« 

) -^ 

. <*,.JK» 


^8. JustinianopQ^d* Mo- 

9. PodanduS) . . \ . 



Tyana • vel Dana, 
Tonosaj - r 


8* Moucious. 

vel Te- 




1. lassnsy 

2. Halicarp$uv» i)a.f \ 

3. Ceramus> \ 
. 4. £nidus, . 

5. CaunuS) 

6. Alabanda^ 

^^7. Antiochia Mae.andria, 
1^8. Aphrodisjt^,* 
^ ^ 9. Stratonicea * 

10. Mylasa, 

11. Phiscusi 
.12 Alinda,^ 
13. Tab«, 

1. Teimissus,. 

2. Xantkusy* 

3. Pinara, 

4. Tlos, 
^^5. Patara, 
• 7. Litnyra) 

8. Olympus, 

9. Phasfi!tis, 

;^^^. Sydra, 

9. Podando. ^ . 

10. Cocson. X 

n.:v . V . 

Jg- >(Unknown> 


15. Sebaste. 

16. Malaria. 

17. Aitik*abad, 

18. DiVrikL 

19. Sivas. 

20. Arzmgan. 

1. Assem ^laaL 

2. Bodroun easily 

3. Keramo. 

4. (In rui|is}. 

5. Kaiguez. 

5. (Near the Mesuider), 

7. legni Sliehr. 

8. [G^^nu 

9. Eski Shehf. , 

10. Marmara. 

11. Physco. 

12. (Near Moglah), . 

13. Tabas. 

1. Macri. 

2. £ksenide. 

' > (unknown). 

5. Patera. 

6. Myra. 

74 TEast of Myra). 

8. (In ruins). 

9. Fionda. ^ 
1; Satatia. 

2. Kara-hisar. 

3. iburar. 

4. (East of Corafiesiom)^ 

5. (In Cabalia). 

6. Candelorot 

7. Alanieh. 


VIEW og'AKCaanT oBOcnApinr. 

1. Creimuit 

2. Baris, 

3. Lysone, 

4. TrogitiS) 
Aotiochi^ * wi Pi^- 

^ 7.1 5. Oroanday 

si fi f ^ Aotiochii 
« ^3 dianiy 

• I 

7. Seleucia Ferrea, ; 
«. Selga,» 
9*. PetnelitAu, 

10. Isaura, ' 

11. Derbey 
13. Ceralisy 

1. Selinus Trajanopolis, 
3. Antiochiay 

3. Charadrusy 

4. Anemuriumy 

5. CelenderiB, 

6. Sclucia * Trachea, 

7. Homonad% 

8. Olba^ 

9. Corycus, 

fil 10. PompciopolU (Soli), 

£>11. Tarsus,* 

S J 13, Adana, 

bl 13. JEg«, 

S^ V 14. Aoazarbtta * yel 

|PJ Cxaarea, 

15. Mallus,' 

16. Mopsus, 

17. Flavian, 

18. Ir^iofoUfif ' ! 
19* Issus, 

20. Nicopolis, 

21. Epiphania, 
ti. Bai9, 

.{1. Kebrinaz. 

3. Isbart^h« 

3. Aglason. 

4* Egreder. 

5. Hariran. - 

6. Ak-Sbchr« 

7. Eushar. 

8. (Unknown). 

9. (Near Selga). 

10. (Unknown). 

11. Alah-Dag^ 
13. Kerali. 

1. Selenti. 

2. Anteochetft, 

3. Calandro. 

4. Anemurkh. 

5. Kelnar. 


6. Seletkeh. 

7. Ermenak. 

8. (Unknown)* 

9. Curco. 

10. (On the Lamus). 

11. Tarsous. 
13. Adana. 

13. AiM* 

14. Anasarba. 

15. Mallo. 

16. Messis. 

19. Aiasse^ 

20. Kenisat-asoud. 
31. Surfendkar. 
33. Paias, 



i ^o 




;• « 



ASIA. w 

It nuiflt be .f temiied}. that amtlquJtjr knew no dntiflcti<»n of 
country under the name of Asia Minor ; though there be found 
sometimes in the ancient writers, Asia on this side of Mount 
Taurus and the river Zb/2)i»,idif t^guished from that which is 
heyoruU But to comprise what we propose under th^ present 
tMe, we must adiranoe eastward to the Euphrates^ follow the 
shore of the EuoAne nofthward to Cokhis^ and the shore of ijntk 
tmerior sea^ or Mtdttemmean, to the limits o£ Syriu* 

^tht fkvquent mvhilfons that the countries of Ast a have ex* 
perienced, attended with de^tsional contractions and eipanstoM 
ol their limiu, render it impostible to treat of those Itmiu wi^ 

Tfrb grand oiitc«tf its, o^ departibents, under idie emperoraf 
of die east, in the fouKh century, divided this Asia, by thp 
names of Asiana and i'on^^ca, under the two metropolitan SEts 
of E^emB^ and Cttearea of Cappadocia. Biit this division has 
no affinity with any distribution in the ages of antiquity ; nor 
does it preserve any tmtca «c prevent* ^^cma uteupicd aU the 
shore of the Mediterranean, Pcnttea that of the Blaclc sea; and 
a tine drawn obliqudy from the Propontis made the seperatidn. 

Endeavouring tf> dppfy method to the distribution of the ti-^ 
vers countries which compose Asia Minor, we find them dis- 
posed in sueh a manner as to be'divisable into thrbb classes: 
one towards the north, along the Euonnty one towards the south, 
along the Mediterranedn^ separated from the' precedent by a 
middle class, ^hich extended from the JEgtan sea to the Bu^ 
phrates. Each of these classes, or assemblages, is composed 
6f rovR {principal cotmtries* Under the Jirst or NORTHsaN, are 
ranged Mysia^ Btthyma^ Papklagoniay and Pontus; in iAit second 
or intermediate, Lydia^ Phrygia^ Galatia^ and CappadociOm 
The third or southern consists of Carioj Lycia^ Pamphylia and 
Citicia. Consequently the following detsul will be divided into 
THREE sections, each bearing the tide of the countries comprised 
therein. And some portions of territory which do nbt appear 
in this arrangement, shall be made known by their connection 
with some individual proyii|ce ; thus Ionia will appear with Ly* 
&a; Lycaonia with Phrygioy Pisidza with Pamphylia; and ^r- 
menia JUinor with Cappadocia. 


• ^ MYSIA* 

•^'Mtsxa is adjacent to the Propontis on the north, and to tii6 
M^ean -sm on the west : it is bounded by Bithynia on the east# 
and on thC'Sotttltby JLydia* We have seen tlilstt the My si o^m^ 


ktdlyi to sustain the attacks of formidable foreign enemies^ would 
be to form an idea of a great country. A more intimate ac- 
quaintance with it, however, will undeceive us in thij point. 
For we shall see that Greece^ properly so called, scarcely con- 
tains more space than the kingdom of Naples occupies in the 
tpntinent of Italy. And the island of iSicily alone is deemed 
equal to the Peloponnesus^ considered exclusively of Greece 
Proper ; although in it there are enumerated six . distinct pro« 
vinces. The circumstance that contributes among others to the 
glory of Greece, is well known to be, that, though reduced by 
the Roman arms, she triumphed in Some by establishing the 
arts which in this -mistress of the world were unknown* 

But after having remarked a relative distinction in the extent 
of the name of Greece, it becomes us to signify here, that it is ' 
in its most comprehensive space that we propose to treat it. Re* 
turning to the frontier of lUyricum^ thence to take our departure, 
tye ^ shall include Macedon^ in its extent over Epirus Nova 
on the one side, and to Thrace on the other. 

The Greeks gave themselves the name of Helenes ; and that' 
of Hellines is still known to the Turks in speaking of the 
Greeks. But the country they call Hellas did not extend over 
till that is comprehended under the name of Greece ; for it ex- 
cluded Macedon^ and the greatest part of Eptrus* There is men^ 
tion made of a primitive people under the name' of Pelasgi^ in 
a state of society little better than that of nations which we con- 
sider as savages. Three principal races afterwards are distin- 
guished; lones^ Dores^ and jEoles» Attica was the original seat of 
the loNiANS, who, in the Peloponnesus, occupied Achaia. The 
Dorians, migrating from the environs of Parnassus^ became 
powerful in Peloponnesus. The Etolians inhabited Thessaly^ 
when foreigners came from Egypt and Phosnicta to civilize the 
. first inhabitants of Greece. 

Epirvs Nova. The lUyrian people occupied, by a conti- 
nuity of extent, the neighbouring country of the Adriatic sea, 
to the confines of Epirus^ before it was attached to Macedon by 
the Romans, and after it had made a particular province under 
the name of E^pirus Nova, or the New Epirus. 


MACED^iff In its more ancient state, was bounded on tha 
west by the country whereof we have just spoken, and confined 
on the side of the east by Thrace; by which it was also con- 
tracted, before the borders of the river Strymon were comprised 
in it* It had Dardama on t^e north, and was bounded on the 
south by Thessaltf* But in the interior of a country so re- 
ttowned, there is still wanting much of the actual intelligence 
from which ancient geography derives its most impqrtant 

Epirvs. The shore of Epirus commences at a point named 
Acro-ceraunia^ where it borders on Epirus Nova. It touches 
Macedori and Thessaly eastward, and covers the Ambracius 
Sinus ^ which parts it from Grascia Propria on the south ; unless 
* we attach Acarnaniay as it was originally, to the kingdom of 

Thessalv is bounded on three sides by mountains ; namely, 
on the north by Olympus^ which divides it from Macedon ; on , 
the west by Pindus^ which divides it from Epirus ; and on the 
south by Oeta^ which parts it from Grascia Propria f havitig the 
JEgcm sea to the east withal. 


GRi£CiA Propria. This grand division of Greece was 
bounded on the north, by mount Oeta^ which divided, it from 
Thessaly; on the west, by the Ionian sea; on the south, by the 
^Cafinthian and Saronic gulfs, and the Isthmus of Corinth^ Which 
separated it from Peloponnesus; and on the east^ by the 
jEg'ean sea. 

The subdivisions of Gr>£cia Propria were seven; viz. At- 
tieay Megarisy Bcetica, Phocisy Locrisy Dorisy and jEtolia. 

Pelopoknesus. This peninsula derived its name from Pelops, 
the son of Tantalus, king^of Phrygia, and in its general form, 
resembles 'the leaf of a palm tree. It is jsined to Grada Pro* 
pria by the Isthmus of Corinthy which is only about five miles 
over. On this spot the inhabitants of Peloponnesus usually in- 
trenched themselves when in dread of an invasion ; and here the 
Isthmean games we^e triennially celebrated. Demetrius, Caesar, 




and others, aUemptcd to cut through this isthmu^t ^^ umform* 
ly failed* 

The subdivisions of Peloponnesus were six^viz*Ach(iiaf£lUf 
Messeniaf Laconia^ Arcadia^ and ArgoltB* 

' The Romans, in the third Macedonian war^ reduced the 
greater part of Greece to a province, called MacbdOnxa; one 
hundred and forty-eight years before Christ. The rest of 
Greece shortly after shared the same fate, and was reduced to a 
province, called Ach aia, when the Ackasan Uaguc ^as subvert- 
ed under the war conducted by M ummius.. 




t4 »tf 

Provinces, Inhabitants, ^c 

Troas, Dardania, 
^olis, 'Cilicia, et 
Abrettena.— Troja- 
nes> Mysi vel Maesi. 

Olympena.— Thyni 
et Bithyni, MariaQdy- 
niy Caucones. 

3. Domanitri.-— Hqnelji. 

4. Phanaraea, Phazemq- 

myscyra et Siden^.— - 
Lpuco-Syri, Amazo- 
nes, Tibareni,et Chal- 
daei vel Hepta-CoiuQ* 

(Comprised a league 
of twelve states or 

Lydi vel Msones. 

Lycaonia, Epictetus, 
Paroreias, Euinenia. 
— Phriges. 
Gallo-Graecia— ^Top 
listo-Boiii Trocmiy I 

Roman Provmee», 

1. ilellespontus.^ 

2. Bithynio fioatea^ Honorias et 

9. Paphlagonla. 

4. Heleno-Pontus et Polemoiua- 



t. Phrygia-Pacatianay Phrygia- 
Salutarisy et Lycaonia. 

8. Galatia Primai et Galatia Se- 


* The eWil dirisions of Asia Minor of the present day coi^eapond ao illy, and are to 
few eom)>arativelyf with thoae of antiquitTy which are sufficient to fill the asnat plan of 
oar tables, that we must be contented with stoting in the way of note, that this country 
is now divided into three pravinces of tha Turkish empire. One called Natolia^ 
or rather Anatolia* which ocaupies the western part, eitending over its whole 
width ; while the otber two, called Am asia, on the iflack se(Hi aii4 Ca^amasii A» o« 
the Levant^ eeeupy the re^idue^ eastward^ to the Euphrates^ 


VIEW OP AMeiBirr geography. 

JSfiffdoma. Prwinces, inhabitants, &c. 

^9. Cilicia, Garsaura, ct 

Armenia Minor.-'-^ 


10. Doris, Peraea-Rho- 

-Doresy Ca- 


o pO. Doris, F 
pa i diorum. — ] 
► I res, et Lei 


11. Milyas— Licii. 

P g U C 12. Cabalia, Pisidia, 
► •< K ^ Isauria. — Solymi. 
o ri3. Trachea, Cetis, 
Campestris, Lamo- 
tris,Characene,et Ly- 
canitis.— Cilices. 

Roman iVovtMlBie». 

9. Cappadocia Prima, Secundp et 
Tertiaj Armenia Prima et Sc- 

10. Caria. 

11. Lycia. ' 

^ . •» 

12. Pamphylia Prima^ Pamphylia 
Secunda, et Pisidia. 

13. Cilicia Primaj ^^ Cilicia ^e- 
cunda. ^^ 


1. Troja vcl Ilium 

3. Alexandria-TroaS) 

3. DardantiSy 

4. Abydosy 

5. LampsacuS) 

6. Parium, 

7. Priapus, 

8. Cyzicus, * 

9. Artace, 

0. AssuS) 

1. Pergamus,* 
2« Elaea^ 

3. Scepsis, 

4. Thebe, 

5. Lyrnessus, 

6. Zeleia, 

7. Miietopolis, 

8. Miera-Germa, 
. Prusa* ad Olym- 

3. Cius, 

3. Myrlea vel Apa- 

4. Dascylium^ 

5. Apollonia, 

6. Hadriani^ 

7. Nicaa, 

10, Astacus, 

I. (No remains). 

3. Eski*StambouI. 

3. (No remains). 

4. Nagara, (a ruin). 

5. Lamsaki. 

6. Camanar. 

7. Caraboa. 

8. Cyzicus (a ruin), 

9. Artaki. 

10. Asso. 

II. Bergamo. 

12. fPort of Pcrgamus); 

1 3. (No remains). 

\^A (Unknown).' 

16. (NcarBiga). 

17. Balikesri. 

18. Ghermasti. 

1. Bursa. 

2. Ghio, or Kemlik. ' 

3. Moudania. 

4. Diaskillo. 

5. AbouUona. 

6. Edrenos. 

7. Is-Nick. 

8. Is-Nikmid. 

9. Bast^n. 

10. (Near Nicomedia). 

QSY1L vimstm?. 



11. Libyssa^ 

12. Pahtichiumi 

13. Chalcedon, 

14. Chrysopolisy 

15. SophoDi 

16. Calpe, 

S^l 17. PrusaadHypiuni) 
a f 18. Heraclea* Pondca. 
? J 19. Tium, 

20. Gratia tcI Fla- 

21. Hadrianopolisi 

1. Amastris** 

2. Cytorus, . . / 
«^^3. Abonitichos yel 



7. Stephane^ 

8. Sinopef 

9. GeirinanicopoUs) 

10. Pompeiopolis, 
1. £upatoriaAmisau9> 
3. Magnabplisy 


7. Zela, 

8. Seba9topolis, 

9. fierisai 
|- ^10. Trapezus?* 

11. C^mana^ 

12. l^eo-C»are9» 

13. Cerasu^ 
U. Tripolisi 

15. Athenacy 

16. TecheSf 

1. Smyrnay 

2. Phocaea, 

^ 3. Cuma vel Cyme} 
^. V 4. Ephe^uS)* 
^ ) 5. Clazom^e} 

6. Erytbriey 

7. Teos, 

8. NeapoUS) 

9. Priene) 

10. MiletuS) 
1 }^ Myu8} 



11. Gebi8^9 

12. Panlichi. 

13. Radri'keui. 

14. Scutari. 

15. Sabandgeh. 
16« Kerbech. 

17. Uskubi. 

18. EreklL 

19. Falios. 

20. Gheredeh. 

21. Boll. 

1. Amasreh. 

2. Kudros. 
2. Ainehboli. 

4. Kiangara. • 

5. Ginuc. 

6. Kinoli. 

7. Ittefan. 

8. Sinub« 

9. Kastamaom. 

10. j(Near Sinope). 

1. SamsouQ) (a ruin). 

2. Ichenikeh. 

3. M^rzifoun. 

4. Amaaieh. 

5. Osmandgikt 

6. Gueder. , 

7. Zeleh. 

8. Turcal. 

9. Tocat. 

10. Trebisond. 

11. Almoos. 

12. Niksar. 

13. Keresoun. 

14. Tircboli. 

15. Athenoh. 

16. Tehoh. 

1. Ismir, 

2. Fochia. 

3. Nemourt) (a ruin). 

4. AiosoluC) (a ruin). 

5. (Near Vouria). 

6. Erethri. 

7. Sigagik. 

8. Scala nova. 

\0.\ (Sooth of Ephesus). 





I. Sardes,* 
S. Hjrracapia, 

3. Magnesia Syinliay 

4. Metropolisi* 

5. Thyatiray 

6. Hypaepa, 

7. Magnesia Mseandriy 
.8. Tralles, 

9. Nysa, 

10. Tripoiisy 

II. Philadelphia^ 
12. Maeonia, 

1. Dorylaeuniy 

2. Cotyaeiumi 

3. Peltie> 

4. Cadi) 

5. Azaniy 

6. Ancyra^ 

7. Cumenia> 

11. Cibyra, 

13. Apamea CibotttSi 

15. Thymbrium) 

16. Lao^icea Coin^ 


19. Larandai 
^^ 1. Gordium vel Julio< 
& I polis, 
|>2. Pessinus^* 
£ I 3. Germa Colonial 
^ 4. Amoriuni) 

5. Ancyra,* 

6. Gorbeus,* 

7. Tavia, 

1. Ma^^acia * Csefiaria, 

2. Nyssa, 

3. Garsrusa, 

4. Cammanene?* 

5. Cadyna, 

6. Nora, 

7. Comana>* 

I. Salt, (a ruin). 
3. Marmora. 

3. Magnesia* 

4. Tireh. 

5. Akhisan 
6f Berki. 

7. Gurzel-Hirar. 

8. Sultan^Hisar. 

9. Nosti. * 

10. (On the Meaider). 

II. Alar-Shehr. 

12. (Near the latter^ 

1. £ski*Sherhr. 

2. Kutaieh. ' 

3. 'Uschak. 

4. Kedous. 




8. Bambuk-Kalasi. 

9. Ladik, (arttin). 

10. Chonos. 

11. Buruz. 

12. Amphion Karahlz^. . 

13. (Unknown). \ 
14« Ilgoun. j 

15. (Near Thymbtaia),! 

16. Jurekiatti Ladik. i 

17. Konieh. 

18. Ismit, . 
19 Larendeh. 

> (Unknown). 


3. (Near the latter). 

4. Amora. 

5. Angoura. 

6. Gorbaga* 

7. Tchoroutft, 

1. Kaisarieh. 

2. Noua-Sher, 

3. Ak-Serai. 

4. Kaman. 

5. Nigdch, 

6. Nour. 

7. Ei-Boatan* 

t . 




8. JustinianopQl^* Mo- 

9. Podandufl) f 

10. CucusuS} . 

11. Ariathiayt 

12. Tyana • vel Dana^ 

13. Tonosas r 

1 4. Musana'r 

1* lassusy 

2. Halicar|i9«B ua* < 

3. CeramuS) ; 

4. EniduS) . 

5. Caunusy 

6. Alabauda, 

^^7. Antiochia Mae.andria) 
i?8. Aphrodisjt^i* 
^ ^ 9. Stratonicea * 

10. Mylasa, 

11. Phiscusi 
.12 Alinda/ 
13. Tabae, 

1. Telmissus, 

2. Xantkusy* 

3. Pinara, 

4. Tlos, 

5. Patara, 


i|. Sydra, 


8* Moucioua. 

9. Podando. 

10. Cocson. 

12. f 

13. i 

14. J 


15. Sebaste* 

16. Malaria. 

17. Artlk-abad^ 

18. DiyrikL 

19. Sivas. 

20. Arzingan. 

1. Assem J^aaL 

2. Bodroun easily 

3. Keramo. 

4. (In ruins}* 

5. Kaiguez. 
5. (Near the Meimder), 

7. legni Shehr. 

8. [Qh»nu 

9. Eski Shehr. 

10. Marmara. 

11. Physco. 

12. (Near Moglah). 

13. Tabas. 

1. Macri. 

2. Eksenide. 

' > (unknown). 

5. Patera. 

6. Myra. 

r: f East of Myra). 

8. (in ruins). 

9. vionda. ' ^ 

1. Satalia. 

2. Kara-hisar. 

3. Iburar. 

4. (East of Coracesiaoi). 

5. (In Cabalia). 

6. Candeloro* 

7. Alanieh. 


A.O JL.^« 


Provinces, Inhabitanta, ^c 

Troas, Dardania, 
^olis, "Ciiicia, et 

Abrettena. Troja- 

nes) My si vel Maesi. 

Olympena.— Thyni 
et Bithyni, Mariaody- 
ni, Caucones. 

Domanitri.— H^nett. 

Phanaraea, Phazemo- 
myscyra et Siden^.— 
Lpuco-Syri, Amazo- 
nes, Tibareni,et Chal- 
daei vel Hepta-Comq- 

(Comprised a league 
of twelve states or 

« •{ 6. Lydi vel Maeones. 

Lycaonia, Epictetus, 
Paroreias, Eumenia. 
— Phriges. 
Gallo-Graecia— -To* 
listo-Boii, Trocmiy 

Moman Provmeen, 

1. KellespoDtus.^ 

2. Bithynio JiOBtea^ Honorias et 

3. Paphlagonia. 

4. Heleno-Pontus et Polemoida- 


f. Phrygia-Pacatianai Phrygia- 
SalutariS) et Lycaonia. 

8. Galatia Primai et Galatia Se- 

* The eiyil divisions of Asia Minor of the present day eoi^recpond so illj, and are ao 
few eomparatively, with those of antiqui^, which are sufficient to fill the asaal plan of 
our tables, that we must be contented with stating in the way of note, that this country 
is now divided into three pravinces of tha Turkish empire. One called Natolia^ 
or rather Anatolia., which occupies the vfftefnjbart, extending over its whola 
width i while the other two, called Amasi a, on the Bloick «ea» tad UAaAM^LHl A» OB 
the Levant^ eeaupy the re«idiie» eastward^ to the Euphrates^ 



JSnffdoms. Provincejf, inhabitants, ^c 
9. Ciiicia, Garsaura, et 
Armenia Minor.-<«— 
« flO. Doris, Peraa-Rho- 
g < diorum. — Dores, Ca- 
► ( res, et Leleges. 

o-c 11. Milyas — Licii. 

pgjCl2. Cabalia, Pisidia, 
► -^i s( ^ Isauria — Solymi. 

Trachea, Cetis, 
»et Ly- I 

Roman JPrtmnliei, 

9. Cappadocia Prima, Secundfi et 
Tenia; Armenia Prima et Se- 

10. Caria. 

11. Lycia. ' 

12. Pamphylia Prima, Pamphylia 
Secunda, et Pisidia. 

13. Ciiicia Prima^ ^t Gilicia )Se- 
cunda. ^| 



1. Troja vcl Ilium 

2. Alexandria-Troas,, 

3. Dardantis, 

4. Abydos, 

5. Lampsacus, 

6. Parium, 

7. Priapus, 

8. Cyzicus,  

9. Artace, 

0. Assus, 

1. Pergamus,* 

2. Elaea, 

3. Scepsis, 

4. Thebe, 

5. Lyrnessus, 

6. Zeleia, 

7. Miletopolis, 

8. Hiera-Germa, 
. Prusa* ad Olym- 


2. Cius, 

3. Myrlea vel Apa- 
* mea, 

4. Dascylium, 

5. Apollonia, 

6. Hadriani^ 

7. Nicaea, 

10. Astacus, 

1. (No remsdns). 

2. Eski-Stamboul. 

3. (No remains). 

4. Nagara, (a ruin). 

5. Lamsaki. 

6. Camanar. 

7. Caraboa. 

8. Cyzicus (a ruin), 

9. Artaki. 

0. Asso. 

1. Bergamo. 

2. (Port of Pergamus).' 

3. (No remains). 

^- 1 (Unknown).' 

6. (Near Biga)i 

7. Balikesri. c 

8. Ghermasti. 
. Bursa. 

2. Ghio, or Kemlik. ' 

3. Moudania. 

4. Diaskillo. 

5. AbouUona. 

6. Edrenos. 

7. Is-Nick. 

8. Is-Nikmid. 

9. Bast^n. 

10. (Near Nicomcdia). 



11. libyssa, 

12. Pahtichiumi 

13. ChalcedoD) 

14. ChrysopoliS) 

15. Sophon^ 

16. Calpe, 

^1 17. Prusa ad HypiuiD) 
s:fl8. Heraclea* Pontica. 
P J 19. Tium, 

20. Cratia vel Fla- 

21. Hadrianopolisy 

1. Amastris** 

_ * ^ 

2. Cytorus, . . / 
Mv 3. Abonitichos yel 


7. Stephane, 

8. Siooper 

9. Germanicopolisf 

10. Pompeiopolisy 

I. £upatoriaAmissu3) 
1 2. Magnabplisy 

3. PhazemoDy 

4. Amaseat* 

5. PiiQopolisy 
1$. Gaziura,* 

7. Zela, 

8. Seba9topo]is, 

9. Berisay 

10. Trapezus?* 

II. Comana, 

12. >Ieo«C9e8are;i| 

13. Cerasu^ 

14. Tripoliss 

15. Athenacy 

16. Teches, 

1. Smyrna) 

2. Phocaeay 

^ 3. Cuma vel Cymey 
s. y 4. £phe&us>* 


5. ClazomaDe} 

6. Erythrtei 

7. Tecs, 

8. NeapoliS) 

9. Priene) 

10. Miletusy 



11. Gebi8^9 

12. Panlichi. 

13. Radri'keui. 

14. Scutari. 

15. Sabandgeh. 

16. Kerbecb. 

17. Uskubi. 

18. EreklL 

19. Falios. 

30. Gheredeh. 

31. Boli. 

1. Amasreh. 

2. Kudros. 

2. AinehboU. 

4. Kianganu < 

5. Ginuc. 

6. Kinoll. 

7. Istefan. 

8. Siiiid)« 

9. KastanmcmL 

10. XNear Sinope). 

I. SamsouO} (a ruin). 

3. Ichenikeh. 

3. M^rzifoun. 

4. Amaaieh. 

5. Osmandgiki 

6. Gueder. ^ 

7. Zeleh. 

8. Turcal. 

9. Tocat. 

10. Trebisond. 

II. Almons. 
13. Niksar. 

13. Kereaoun. 

14. Tireboli. 

15. Atbenoh. 

16. Teheh. 

1. Ismir, 

2. Fochia. 

3. Nemourt) (a ruin). 

4. AiosoluC) (a ruin). 

5. (Near Vourla). 

6. ErethrL 

7. Sigagik. 

8. Scala nova. 

^- ? 

\0.\ (South of Ephesus). 




VIEW OF AKcnarr mfmBj^mt. 



I s 

1. Sardes,* 

2. H^racapiay 

3. Magnesia Syptliai 

4. Metropolis^* 

5. Thyatira^ 

6. Hypaepa, 

7. Magnesia Mseandriy 
.8. Tralles, 

9. Nysa, 

10. Tripoiis, 

11. Philadelphia, 

12. Mxonia) 

1. Dorylaeuniy 

2. Cotyxiumi 

3. Peltae> 

4. Cadi) 

5. Azanif 

6. Ancyray 

J 7. Cumeniay 
8. HierapoliS) 
9. Laodicea,* 
<'0. Colossae, 
11. Cibyra, 
1 IS. Apamea Cibotus, 
Vl3. Synnada,* 
J 14. Philomeliuui) 

15. Thymbrium) 

16. Lao^cea Com^ 
") buata» 

1 17. Iconium,* 
J 18. Psibela, 
19. Larandat 

!l. Gordium vel Julio- 
2. Pessinus,* 
3. Geima Colonia> 

4. Amoriunii 

5. Ancyra,* 

6. Gorbeus,* 

7. Tavia, 

1. Mazacia • CaeSaria, 

2. Nyssa, 

3. Garsrusai 

4. Cammanefie?* 

5. Cadyna^ 

6. Nora, 

7. Comsma^* 

1. Salt, (a ruin). 

2. Marmora. ' 

3. Magnesia. 

4. Tireh. 

5. Akhisar* 

6. Berki. 

7. Gurzel-Hifar. 

8. Sultan^Hisar. 

9. Nosti. ' 

10. (On the Meaidet). 

11. Alar-Shehr; 

12. (Near the latter)^ 

1. Eski-Sherlir. 

2. Kutaieh. ' 

3. 'Uschak. 

4. Kedous. 




8. Bambuk-Kalasi. * 

9. Ladik, (a ruin). . 

10. Chonos. ; ^ 

11. Buruz. 

12. Amphion Karahlai. 

13. (Unknown). f 

14. Ilgoun. i 

15. (Near Thynibraia).) 

16. Jurekiaih Ladik. f 


17. Konieh. 

18. Ismit. . 

19 Larendeb. ' 

> (Unknown). 

3. (Near the latter). 

4. Amora. 

5. Angoura. 

6. Gorbaga. 

7. Tchoroum, 

1. Kaisarieh. 

2. Nous-ShBr. 

3. Ak-Serai. 

4. Kaman. 

5. Nigdeht 

6. Nour. 

7. El-fioatao* 




8. JustinianopQ)f3* Mo- 

9. PodanduS) \ . 

10. Cucusus, 

11. AriathU}* 

12. Tyana » vel Dana, 

13. Tonosai r 

14. Musanar^ 

8« Moucious* 


viel Tc. 

i» lassosy 

3. HalioariifkM u»f ^ 

3. Ceramus> > 

4. Enidus, . . 

5. Caunus, 

6. Alabauda, 
^^7. Antiochia Mae.andria9 
I. > 8. Aphrodisj^Mi,* 

" ^ 9. Stratonicea * 

10. Mylasay 

11. PhiscuS) 
.12 Alinda,* 
13. Tab«, 

1. Telmissusy 

2. Xantibiusy* 

3. Pinara, 

4. TI089 
^-% 5. Patara, 


4. Sydra^ 

{2 i g 1 5. T^rmessQSi 
^ » >6. Side,* 

' L 5 J /• CorftQQsium** 

9, Podando. ( 

10. Cocson. 

jg' > (Unknown). 

15. Sebaste* 

16. Malaria. 

17. Ardk-abad. 

18. DiVrikL 


19. Sivas. 

20. Arzingan. 

1. Assem ^aaL 

2. Bodroun easily . 

3. Keramo. 
4.. (In ruins). 
5. Kaiguez. 

5. (Near the Mj^ander), 

7. legni Shehr. 

8. ;€Mieinu 

9. Eski Shehf. 

10. Marmara. 

11. Ph3rsco. 

12. (Near Moglab), 

13. Tabas. 

1. MacrL 

2. Eksenide. 

' V (unknown). 

5. Patera. 

6. Myra. 

7. TEast of Myra). 

8. (in ruins). 

9. Fionda. \ 
.1; Satalia. 

2. Kara-hisar. 

3. iburar. 

4. (East of Coracesitnn)* 

5. (In Cabalia). 

6. Candeloro* 

7. Alanieh. 

VIEW OF AMnorr gmgbapry. 





"1. Calyd(m Tel Calf- 


2. ThermuS)* 

3. Pleuron, 

4. Apollonia, 
. TrichoniuiB, 

3. Ampfaissay 

3. Cnemides,* 

4. Thronium,* Epi- 

^5. Opus OpuEitiii* 

2. Delphi,* 

3. CyparissuSy 

4. Crissa, 

5. Antic jrra, 

1. Thebae vcl Cad- 

2. Lebadea,!* 

3. Cheroncea* 
4 Orchomenuiy 
5. Hoeliartusy 

f -^ 6. Thespix, 

7. Leuctray 

8. Plataea, 

9. Tanagara, 
10« Oropusi 

11. AuliS} 

12. Anthedony 
!• Nisaea, 

2. Mcgara,* 

3. Eleutherse, 

1. AthenXy* 

2. Piraeus, 

3. Munychiay 

4. Phalerusy 

5. Eleusis, 

6. Suniuniy 

7. Panormusy 

8. MarathcDy 
1.9. RhamnuBy 

1. Sicyon,* 

2. Corinthus,* 

3. Lechaeuniy 

4. Cenchreasy 








Principal cities of JE^olia^ 
on the branchea of thf 
£venu$ now Fidari). 



2. f TxTB APOLxs, or the four pvin- 

3. C cipal cities of Doris). 

1. Lepanto. 

2. Salona. 

4. f (South of Thermopylae in the 
I east extremity of Locris). 

1. Turco-chorio. 

2. Cistra. 

3. (East of Delphi)* 

4. (South of Delphi}. 

5. Aspro-jSpilia. - 
1. Thiva. 

2. Livadia. 
3 1 

4. V (Ne^r Copias Lacus). 


7. V (In the aisuth of Boepda). 

8. J 

^- 1 

10. I (Near tlie coast Qpposite 

11. fEuboea). 

12. J 

2* ^ (On the Saronicus Sinus). 

3. (Borders on Bceotia). 
1. Atheni or Athens. 


3. > (Ports of Athene). 

5. Lessina. 

6. Cabo-Colonni. 

7. (East of Athenae). 

8. Marathon. 

9. (North of Marathon). 

1. BasilicQ. 

2. Corito, (a ruin). 

^' I (Ports of Corinthus). 

CIVIL mvisioiis. 


5. PhliuB» 

6. ^giray 

7. Ceiynia, 

8. £giuin)* 

9. Patrae, 

10. Dyme, 

11. Tritaea, 
1. Olympia,* 
3. Pisa, 

3. Elis,» 

4. Pylus, 

5. Cyllene^ 

I. Mantineay 
3. Tegea, 

3. Orchomenus, 

4. Stymph^uSf 

5. PheneoS) 

6. Clitoiiy 

7. PsophiSy 

8. Telphosay 

9. Heraeai 

10. Aiphera^ 

II. MegalapoliSy* 
1. Argos,* 
21 Mycenae,* 

3. Tyrius,» 

4. Nauplia, 

5. Epidaurus, 

6. Traczen, 
1. Lacedaemon yel 

3. Amyclae, 

3. EpidaurusLimera, 

4. Gythium, 

5. Boca, 

1. Messene,* 

2. Ck>ione, 

3. Methone, 

4. Cyparissus, 

5. Stenyclarust 

Modern^ i 

5. Staphlica. 

rl . 

8 I (Principal cities along the 
^* I Corinthian gulf). 

10. J 

11. Triti. 

1. Rofeo, (by conjecture). 

2. (Joined Olympia). 

3. Ga«tonni? 

4. (East of Elis). 

5. The port of Elis). 

1. Trapolizza? 

2. Moklia. 

3. (North of Mantinea). 

4. (North of Orchomenus). 

5. Phonia. 
11. Leonard!. 

1. Argo. 

2. (North of Argos). 

3. Vathia. 

4. Napli Romania., 

5. Pidavra. 

6. Damala. 

1. Paleo-Chori. 

2. (Near Sparta). 

3. Malvasia-Vecchia. 

4. (The port of Sparta). 

5. Vatica. 

1. Mavra*Matia. 

2. Corone. 

3. Modon. 

4. Arcadia. 

5. NisL 

(Principal cities on the 
branches of the Alpheus). 


To judge of the extent of Greece by the power vhxch ena- 
bled its States^ individually, to arm against each other, or uni- 

II _. -^ 

\ The names of the principal cities of the Greek islands were generally adopted 
from those of the idands themsetves ; for -which, see pages 24 and 35, as we dispenae 
with giving them a tabular insertion here. Except from Uiis remark the isle of Eabcea^ 
whove chief cities were Chalcity Eretria^ Or em or ItHaa^ Edepnu, and Carytttu* 


Cedly, to sustain the attacks of formidable foreign enemies^ would 
be to form an idea of a great country. A more intimate Ac- 
quaintance with it, however, will undeceive us in thi^ point. 
For we shall see that Greece, properly so called, scarcely con* 
tains more space than the kingdom of Naples occupies in the 
Continent of Italy. And the island of 'Sicily alone is deemed 
equal to the Peloponnesus, considered exclusively of Greece 
Proper ; although in it there are enumerated six . distiiict pro% 
vinces. The circumstance that contributes among others to the 
glory of Greece, is well known to be, that, though reduced by 
the Roman arms, she triumphed in Pome by establishing the 
arts which in this -mistress of the world were unknown. 

But after having remarked a relative distinction in the extent 
of the name of Greece, it becomes us to signify here, that it is * 
in its most comprehensive space that we propose to treat it. Re- 
turning to the frontier of Illyricum, thence to take our departure, 
ti^e ^ shall include Macedon, in its extent o\ tr Epirus Nova 
on the one side, and to Thrace on the other. 

The Greeks gave themselves the name of Helenes ; and thf^' 
of Hellines is still known to the Turks in speaking of the 
Greeks. But the country they call Hellas did not extend over 
till that is comprehended under the name of Greece ; for it ex- 
cluded Macedon, and the greatest part of Epirus. ' There is mem 
tion made of a primitive people under the name of Pelasgi, in 
a state of society little better than that of nations which wexoi*- 
sider as savages. Three principal races afterwards are dtstior- 
guished; lones, Dores, and Moles* Attica was the original seat of 
the loNiANS, who, in the Peloponnesus, occupied Achaia. The 
Dorians, migrating from the environs of Parnassus,, became 
powerful in Peloponnesus. The Etolians inhabited The^saly^ 
when foreigners came from Egypt and Phoenicia to civilize the 
. first inhabitants of Greece. 

Epirits Nova. The Illyrian people occupied, by a conti- 
nuity of extent, the neighbouring country of the Adriatic sea, 
to the confines of Epirus, before it was attached to Macedon by 
the Romans, and after it had made a particular province under 
the name of £pirus Nova, or the New Epirus. 

MACEtMifft in its more ancient state, was bounded on th» 
west by the country whereof we have just spoken, and confined 
on the side of the east by Thrace; by which it was also con- 
tracted, before the borders of the river Strymon were comprised 
in it* It had Dardama on t^e north, and was bounded on the 
south by Thessaly. But in the interior of a country so re- 
nowned, there is still wanting much of the actual intelligence 
from which ancient geography derives its most important 

Epzrus. The shore of Epirus commences at a point named 
Acro-cerauniay where it borders on £pirus Nova. It touches 
Macedon and Thessaly eastward, and covers the Ambraciua 
Sinusy which parts it from Grascta Propria on the south ; unless 

* we attach Acarnania^ as it was originally, to the kingdom of 

Thessaly is bounded on three sides by mountains ; namely^ 
on the north by Olympus^ which divides it from Macedon ; on . 
the west by Ptndus^ which divides it from Epirus ; and on the 
■outh by Oeta^ which parts it from Grcecia Propria; havihg the 
Mgmn sea to the east withal. 



GRiEciA Propria. This grand division of Greece was 
bounded on the north, by mount Oeta^ which divided, it from 
Thessaly; on the west, by the Ionian sea; on the south, by the 

* Corinthian and Saronic gulfs, and the Isthmus of Corinth^ ^hich 
separated it from Peloponnesus; and on the east^ by the 
JEgean sea. 

The subdivisions of GRiCciA Propria were seven; viz. Ai- 
tiea^ Megarisy Boctica, Phocisj Locrisj Doris^ and jEtoiia, 

Peloponnesus. This peninsula derived its name from Pelops, 
the son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia, and in its general form, 
resembles the leaf of a palm tree. It is joined to Grwcia Pro* 
pria by the Isthmus of Corinth^ which is only about five miles 
over. On this spot the inhabitants of Peloponnesus usually in- 
trenched themselves when in dread of an invasion ; and here the 
Isthmean games wei'e triennially celebrated. Demetrius, C«sar, 




and others^ attempted to cut through this isthmuly but unifairm- 
ly failed. 

The subdivisions of Peloponnesus were siXfyiz^Ac/iaiafEiUf 
MesseniCf Laconia^ Arcadia^ and Argolis. 

' The Romans, in the third MaceJonian war^ reduced th« 
greater part of Greece to a province, called Macedonia; one 
hundred and forty-eight years before Christ. The rest o£ 
Greece shordy after shared the same fate, and was reduced to a 
province, called Aghaia, when the Ackofan Uaguc ^as subvert- 
ed under the war conducted by Mummius» 




t* *t 

Provincetf InhabitantSt ^c 

Troas, Dardania, 
JEoliS) Xiliciay et 
Abrettena.— Troja- 
nes) Mysi vel Maesi. 

Olympena.— Thyni 
et Blthyni, Mari^z^dy- 
niy Caucones. 

3. Domanitri.— -Hqnett. 

Phanaraea, Phazemo- 
myscyra et Sidena*— ^ 
L^uco-Syri, Amazo- 
nes, Tibareni,et Chal- 
daei yel Hepta-Comq* 

(Comprised a league 
of twelve states or 

Lydi vel Mseones. 

Lycaonia, £pictetuS| 
Paroreias, Eumenia. 
— Phriges. 
Gallo-Gra^cia — ^To* 
listo-Boiii Trocmiy 

1. Hielle8pontua.j 

2. Bithynio fioafecf Honorias et 

$. Paphlagonia. 

4. Heleno-Pontus et Polemotua* 




T. Phrygia-Pacatiana, Phrj^- 
SalutariS) et Lycaonia. 

8. Galatia Primai et CJalatia Se- 

* The eivil divitions of Asia Minor of the present day eoi:reipond ao illy, and are » 
few comparatively, with thoie of antiquity, which are sufficient to fill the usual plan of 
our tables, that we must be contented with stating in the way of note, that this eountiy 
is now divided into three pravinces of tha Turkish empire. One called Natolia* 
or rather Anatolia* which occupies the •wetternpart, eitending over its whol« 
width ; while the other two, called Amasi a, on the JaUkck 9en^ aiui Ca^am^L^ii A> Qm 
the Levant, occupy the refjiduey eastward^ to the £uphrat€s» 

qiyi/^jmw>ff9' , ' W 


The southern part of Arabia, which, bounded on the east hf. 
the Arabic Gulft and on the south by the Erythrean sea^ is that 
which particularly merits the appellation of Happt. The 
name of lemen, whereby it is actually known, is a term in 
the Arabic, as in many other oriental languages, to express 
the right ; and turning towards the rising sun, according td 
'the aspect affected by the Asiatics, such will be the relative 
portion of a southern country. It may be added that in this 
term of lemen is also comprised an idea of felicity. Among 
the several people included in this country, and specially reputed 
yectanides^ or children of Jectan, the Sabast are the most dis*^ 
tinguished, and sometimes comprise others under their name. 


. It must be remarked that what ^pertains to die Arabia 
OftSBiiTA of Ptdkmy, appears restrained to the country cQa- 
tiguous to S^ria and Babylon^ and has relation to that which is 
low called Dahna, or the Desert plain. 

To the region of Incense succeeds a country named Mahrah, 
whose aspect is sufficiently deformed by nature to merit the dis- 
tinction of the St£Ril£ Arabia: for^ between the country of 
Oman, and the environs of Mecca, a continued desert, extend- 
ing across the continent, furnishes, no particular objects in ge* 
oipraphyi antiquity appearing even to be unacquainted with tl|e 
country in this part. But adhering to the coast, we find it 
jjsmewhat otherwise; and, knowing only as A|iabia DesertAi 
what extends on the south side of the Euphrates between Syria 
and Babyhn^ the writers of antiquity have comprised this shoee 
-of the Persian gulf in Arabia, Felix, Truly some places are 
jreeognized on it, that do not. disgrace this distinction* We 
should not omit to remark that among the tribes of this region 
of Arabia, the Saraceni attract attention as the original of % cete«> 
brated e«q>ire, the Saracetu 



irmw OF ai901£mt qbogbaphy. 



Aiigdwnt. Cantons ^ InhMttinta. 

> r I. AtuHa, Adiabene, 

g ; Cordnene, Apollonia, 

kc.*«— Carduthi vel 

Gordytt, et Garamsei) 


1. Kurdistan. 

2. Irak Arabi. 



1. Aloni) 
.S. Nirieveh,* 

3. Arabela, 

4. Gaugamela) 

5. Corcura, 

6. Siazurosy 

g<^ 7, Carcha, 
t, 8. Sumerc, 
d. Dura, 

1 0. Opis vel Antiochia, 
U. Art€«iitti (Dastegexxla),* 
!2. Apollonia^ 
13. Albana, 
"L Sippora velNarraga) 
2. Sitate, 
3* Irei^opdis, 
4» ^ SeteWiia* et 
5. 3 Ctesiphof))* 
j 6. Babylon,* 
J 7, Vologesia, 
< 6. Alexantina'vcl Hira,* 
i 9. Borftip^ vel Barsila^ 

i I . Apamea> 

12. Aracca, 

13- Diridoiid Yel Tercdon, 

1. Gfulon. 

2. Nino, (a ruin). . 

3. Erbil. 

4. (Near the latter). 

5. Kerkouk. 

6. Sherzour. 

7. Kark (Old Bagdad). 

8. Samera. 

9. Dour. 

10. (On the Tigris). 

11. Dascara<*el*MeUk. 
13. Shereban. 

13. Holuan. 

1. (Unknown). 

2. Karkuf (aruin). 

3. Bagdad or Bagdat 

«4. ^ Al*Medfiin) "or thm 
5. 5 ^wo Cities^ 
€. Babil (a ruin). 

7. (Near Babylon). 

8. Meachel-Ali. 

9. Semcvat Of Celestial. 
lOf Sura. 

11. Korna. 

12. Wasit. 

1 3. (At the tnouth of the 

14. (Near the latter). 


Separated from Mesopotamia by the Tigris^ Asstrt a extends 
on the eastern bank of this river from the limits of Armenia io^ 
V^ards the north, to those of Babylon in the south*. A chain of 


movnliamt vboar name waii Shgro^^ calU 4 now by the ^^rks 
Tag- Aiagl^a, Bepa|-ate9 it toward the east from Media* 

Jt is thought to owe its name to Asshur, the son of Shem; 
and what its name has io common with tha^ of Syriag caused it 
jto be sometimes transferred to the Syrian Aafion, whose origin 
refers to Aram, also descended from Shem* It was sometimes 
called Aturia^ although this name was proper only to a partku- 
lai^ canton of the country in the environs of Nineveh* There 
is fdso mention of the name of Adiabene^ as having sitpplanted 
that of Assyria, notwithstanding it was distinguished as belong- 
ing only to a particular country which Assyria comprehended* 


We know that from the remotest antiquity, the As8T;R,iAN 
monarchy extended over a great part of Asia, till the iall 6f its 
XM1PIKE about seven hundred years before the Christian; mna 
But although this power appears to have been destroyed by the 
Medes while Babylon formed at the same time a separate king- 
dom, many kings mentioned in the Scriptures evince a second 
dynasty in AiSYAlA** 


From the limits which it hae appeared expedient to g(ve fb 
Mesopotamia and Assyria^ Babylonia extends both o)i the 
Euphrates and Tigris to the Persian Gulf^ by which it is termi- 
nated towards the south; confining with Arabia Deserta on the 
west, and with Susiana on the east* The name of Chaldea^ 
' which is more )>recisely appropriated to the part nearest to the 
Gulf, is sometimes employed as a designation of the entire 
country. And the greatest part of it being comprehended be- 
tween the rivers, has given occasion to extend to it erroneously, 
the name of Mesopotamia* 

We shall see in Part III. of this work that the cpwtry nev 
under consideration was the theatre of the earliest and most 
vonderful transactions of Stcre4 History, whereof those of Pqf 
adise stand conspicuou?* 





Ancient. Modem. 

Ccuniriet. C<gnton^ &c. InhMtanU. 

^r . \. Atropafena, Mattana,^ 
p: 1 vel Mandnea, Clioara,Coiiii- 
.£f seae^ fcc-^AnuuKiivelMar- 
'*' L di^ ct Tapuri. 

, 2. Persia Propria^ Susia- 
.— -Elymxi, Cusii vel Ci- 
Cosssei, Uxii, et Parse- 

Madomarstice> et Car- 
mania Deserta. 

Oriuet 6t Arabitx. 

Persian prvwnceu. 

i. Irak-Ajami} and Aderbl-* 

3. Khozistan, Ketzardara^ Is- 
pahan, Farsistan, &c. 


3. Laristaa. 

"l. Gaza,* yel Gazaca, 

2. Morunda, 

3. Thebarmaii 

4. Ecbatana^* 

5. Congobar, 

6. Rages, vel Ragse, 
Si 7. T&bas, 

8. Choana, 

9. Zadra-carta^' 

10. Cyropolis, 

11. Semina, 
\\%. Hecatoo'pylosy 


^ % ' Pasargadae,* 
v-t 4. Aspadana, 


Isatii;haS9 > 


r^ I ^. Cannania,* 

1. Tisa, 

2. Pura,* 

3. <%odda, 

4. ^RaiqbiiCii^ 

■B ft: 

4. Mekrao^ 


1. Ebriz, or Gftnzak. 

2. Marand. 

3. Urtniah. 

4. Hamedan. 

5. Kenghever. 

6. Rei. 

7. Saua, (a ruin). 

8. Komm. 

9. Sari. 

10 Kurab. 

11. Semian, 

12. Demegan. 

1. Tuater or Suster. 

2. Estakar, (a ruin). 

3. Pasa Kuri. 

4. Ispahan. 

5. Gnerden. 

6. Jezd. 

7. taug; 

1. Gomron or Gambron. 
2« Kenaa&^or Sir Jan. 

1. Tiiz, 

2. Purg, or Toreg. 

3. Kidje. 

4. JBmafjU. 






, ^ 

iXniWtUKMIk ' igy 


]|s ftcpsmted on the north from Arminia by die Araxes^ and 
Iheiii bounded by the southern shore of the Casfian Sea. Perm 
nnci Smiana^ «re the ' countries contiguous to it on the south, 
As^ria on the west, and Aria on the east. The name of Irak, 
widi the surname of Ajami, that is to say, Persian Irak, to 
4ii8tingui8h it from the Irak Arabia^ which is Babylonia, ex- 
llnds at present over a great part of ancient Media; and ^hat 
which is contiguous to Armenia, is now called Aderbigian, 
the Persian term, Adet signifying fire. 

^e know that there was a time when the Medes, having 
shaken off the Assyrian yoke, ruled over that part of Asm 
wh|ch' extended towards the west as far as the river iStafysj^ hut 
we "know very little of the commencement of their monarchy. 



PeesIs, or Persia Proper^ extends from the frontier of Jfe* 
£a^ on the north, southward to the gulf which from it is named 
Sinus Persicus. It is separated from Babylonia by Stiriana^ 
and bounded on the east by Carmama. 


S0SIANA, whose name is now Khozistan, participates the 
utuation of Persia, as being contained within the limits of Me^ 
iEa and the Persian Oulf. It confines with Baiylon in the 
neighbourhood of the Tigris; and the river Oroates^ calledTab, 
in modem geography, separates it from Persia Proper on the 
borders of the Gulf. 

Elam, son of Shem, is the patrent of the Persian nation, ac- 
cording to the holy text. It remained in obscurity tilT the time 
of Cyrus, who extended his dominion over the most considerable 
part of Asia, that was known, from the river Jhdus to the JS- 
gpan Sea; subjecting to the patrimony of his ancestor as well 
the kingdom of Babylon^ as whatever the domination of the 
Medes had comprehended westward of the river Halysi and 
anneung to it also tSie ktngdotn of Lydia befond that, liver. 

. » 

;f^ VIEW or AMHttlT iQMGRAniT. 

This empire, to whkh Cambyses, son of C3mx8, $Adied Egypt^ 
subsisted not more than two tgest . when it was conquered b]r 
Alexander ; after whose death the eastern provinces fell to the 
lot of Seleuens NicaCor; add kis iu4cesoortf in Syria \0H tiese 
provinces to the Parthians* Bttt under the dominion of ihelKl 
last, PsasiA had its own kings ; and in an enumeratioA 
which we have of the provinces of their empire, neither Persis* 
.nor the adjacent countries of Susiana and Carmania, are found 
comprised. The Persian princes were nevertheless in a state 
of dependence tiU the third century. A Persian who took the 
^name of Artaserxes^ shook off the yoke of the PAmTHXAvs, 
and transferred their power to the Persians, who enjoyed it 
about four hundred years, till the invasion of the Arabs under 
ihe first Khalifs, successors of Mahomet* 

The ancient renown of Persia, which the second dyofusif 
renewed^ has maintained the name of this empire in a large 
sense, as a general term in geography, applied to all that coun* 
try which, from the limits of the Turkish dominationi extends 
eastward to Hindoostan« 


Carmania succeeding Persia^ towards the east, presetved 
in its extent the same parallels of latitude. Ptolemy, encroach* 
ing on Gedrosia^ exaggerates the dimensions of Carkamxa, far 
beyond the limits assigned to it in the relation of Nearcus; who, 
coasting along these countries, fixes as a term of division, a 
promontory named CarpeUoj which is indubitably Cape Jask ; 
and recognizing moreover for the first place in Carmania, con- 
ing from the mouths of the Indus, that which, under the .nai|ie„ 
of Badis^ he indicates as adjacent. The objects that antiquity of- 
fers to observation in Carhakia^ are for the most part limited 
to the sea-coast* 


GkEDRosia, from the limits of Carmania^ extends to Indioj 
and from' the shore of the ji/^ stretches inland to Aracjhoeia^ im 
This counltry ia now cidled Mekran« 




What aa army of Alexakdm suffered here, retarniiig from 
J^ia, affords a most disadvantageous idea of this counitry: and 
it appears that the same distresses, from want of provisions and 
watia*, and from columns of nu>ving sand, had long before proved 
the destruction of the armies of Semiramis and Ctrus. 



Countries l^ Inhabiianta, 

f 1. Anabon, Sacagtiana, 
^ ) Arachosia, Paropamisus, &c 
p\ p^Aril, Zarangasi, vel Dran- 
' Cg*) Ariaspse^ Sec. 
IQ C 3. Astabeua, Apavaretica^ 
^ J Parthiene vel Parthia, 
o ^ Margiana— — DahaC) Barca- 
^ ' nii« &c. 

Modem k 

part of PERSIA. 



3. Guria.— Tocharii 

4. Naura.-— Cborasmii 

2^ vKhorasan; being' fiart of /irc* 

UsBBc Tartart. 


1. Aria* vel Artacoana, 

1. Herat? 

3. Susia, 

3, Zeuzan. 

8. Bitaxa, 

3. Badkis. 

4. Sariga, 

4. Seraks. 

5. Prophthasia,* 

5. Zarang. 

6. Zans, 

6. Ctesias. 

7. Abeste, 

7. Arachosia. 

8. Phra vel Para, 

8. Ferah, 

9« Alexandria, 

9. Scandarie. 

1. Zadracarta,* . 

1. Sau. 

3. Syringis* vel Hyrcania, 

3. Jorjan or Corcan. 

3. Asaac, 

3 Zadeh. 

4. Parthaunisa* vel Nisaea, 

4. Nesa. 

5. Antiochia, 

5. Marw-Shabi-gian* 

^ Mauraca^ ^ 

6. Marw-errund. 





1. Bactra* vel Zariaspa^ 

2. Drapsaca rel Da* 

3. Aomos, 

1. Maracaod&y 

3. Oxiana, 

3; Alexandria Oxiana, 

4. Nautaca, 

5. Gabse, 

6. Cyreschatdi 

7. Gorge,* 

1. Balk. 

2. Bamii^n. 

3. Talekan. 

1. Sannakand^ 

2. Termed. 

3. Sali-SeFBl» 

4. Nekshab. 

5. Kados. 

6. Cogend. 

7. CorcaDg. 



Aria. The name of Aria is property that of a particular 
province;, and it is by extension of its limits, to comprehend se* 
veral adjacent cantons, that Ari ana Appears a name distinguished 
from Aria^ in antiquity* This extension is carried by Strabo 
as far as the mouths of the Indus; and its limits descrijbed in 
6uch a manner as to embrace the frontier of Carmania as far as 
Cedrosia. ^MtyWithout descending thus to the sea, it may be said 
that the country which represents the ancient Aria, is that which 
the Persians call Khorasan, because of its relative situation 
towards the rising sun: and the name of Choro-Mtthrena^ in 
which is recognized that of Mithra, the deity of the sun ae- 
cording to the ancient Persians, would correspond with the si* 
tuation of the same country^ if Ptolemy did apply it to a district 
of Media less remote than Khorasan. 

Htrcania. The limits of Hyrcania are not easily deter* 
mined. To assume as a term, the mouth of a river named Si* 
derisy where the sea commonly called Caspian, takes, according 
to Pliny, the name of Mare Hyrcanum^ is to circumscribe it 
within the angle which this sea forms between the east and the 
93Uth; though it appears properly prolonged on the southern 
coast of the Caspian sea. 

A canton of this country called Parthiene or Parthia^ formed 
the rudiments of the Parthian empire, once so illustrious; ex- 
tending its name to the surrounding country, and is that part of 
Media situated beyond the Caspian sea. 


Bactriana— extends along the southern banks of the Oxus^ 
which separates it ito^ Sogdiana. The mountains whrch are 
a continuation of the Paropamuus^ covering the north of India, 
bound Bactriana towards the south. 


This country is said to be of such hi{^ antiquity a9 to;h;^ve 
been conquered by Ninus. It was subjected to the PersiUna 
sioice the time of Cyrus ; but never conquered by the JPiar* 
thians. At the time of the Parthian insurrection against the 
Syrian kings, the Greeks, who under these kings governed 
the remote provinces, rendered themselves independent in Bac- 
triana; and became so powerful by new conquests, that th& 
country to the mouths of the Indus, and much beyond the lin&its 
of Alexander's conquests, was subjected to them. 

So GDI ANA-— extends along the right or northern side of the 
river Oxiut^ or in the oriental geography, Gihon, whose course 
divides two great regions, Iran and Touran ; the one embracing 
the Persian provinces in general, the other extending over the 
countries of ancient Scythia. The country called by us Trana- 
b^ane corresponds with that which the orientals also express 
by the name ^f Mauernnahr, or beyond the river. The name 
of SoGDiANA subsists iu that of al-Sogd, proper to a valley 
which, for its exuberant fertility, is one of the four cantons dis- 
tinguised by the name Fordous, or Paradise. Under the se- 
cond empire of the Persians we find the country < about the 
mouth of the Oxv^ occupied by a Scythian nation, called ^j^ 
thaliteB by the Greeks of the Lower Empire. 



vffiw OF ASKminr gbography. 




-I ?? C 1- Massage tx, Gct6, 
^3 ;2^ ivelSacae, Comcd«, A- 
csg^^bii, Arimaspi, Griphi, 
^ ^ > V Ai'gippaei) &c, 
WRICaS 2. Seres, Ithaguri, 




.Part of Tartaiy and Tibet. 




1. Tunis Lapidea, 

2. Auxada,* 
Issedon Soythitt, 

Issedon Sericae, 
Sera MeuopoUs,* 

1. Aatas. 

2. Acsou. 

3. Hara-Shar. 

4. Kotan. 

1. Lop. 

2. Hami. 

3. Cas-Noa 

4. Kan«tcheou. 


This country, exclusive of Serica^ was divided by Ptolemy^ 
iato ScYTHiA intra Imaum, and Scythia extra Imavm. The 
Riountain of Imam is connected with Paropatntsus by the ch^a 
which covers the north of India^ 

According to the knowledge that the ancients had of this 
Scythia, (another called Parental Scythia of antiquity hav- 
ing occupied the neighbourhood of the Palus Mxotis\ it was 
but a small part of that which common usage comprehends un- 
der the general name of Tartary. And this name of Tartary 
is of recent date, that of Tatar (as it should be) only appear- 
ing towards the close of the twelfth century; and even limited 
to a single horde or tribe, whose submission to that of the Mo- 
guls commanded by Zenghiz Khan, was the first achievement 
of this conqueror; an event that did not hinder the name of the 
vanquished people from prevailing over the other to such an 
amount, as to become a general indication for almost half the 
continent of Asia. Those Scythians who subverted the Me- 
dian empire in Upper Asia, w^icl^ they retaii^ed only twenty- 

CIVIL nnpiamis. 


eight yean, were European Scythians, from the neighbourhood 
•f the Palus Mceotis just mentionecU Their enterprise gave 
rise to the pretence of Darius, son of Hystasp^s, to carry the 
war beyond the Istcr or Danube, into the country whither they 
had returned. 

Serica^— which remains to be spoken of, appears to be aeon- 
tinuation of the same country with Scythia^ without a separa- 
tion marked by any local circumstance. The name of the peo- 
ple of Seres, is cited in many writers in antiquity ; but it is to 
Ptolemy alone that we owe any detail of this country, as well 
as of the anterior part of Scythia. 

Among all the regions which the geography of Ptolemy com* 
prebends, it is not without some surprise that we remark Seri- 
GA to be the most correctly treated, although one of the objects 
the most remote in \U But this country was on the route by 
which a great trade was maintained with the frontier of Chinas 
and he might have gained information of its chdrography by the 
same way. 



CvtmtPUi, Canto^$ & InhabitaniB, 

\ . Suastene, Proaiane, 
Patalene, Indo-Scythia, 
Syrastene et Dacha- 
nabades.— -Aspii, Gu- 
rxi, A88acene,Ser*Indi, 
Malli, OxydracaD, Pra- 
sii, Brachmanii Antich« 
thones^ &c. 



^Igl 2. Besyngitis, Au- 
^S ^ ^ rea Chersonesus, &c. 


SlNJE^ 3. Sines vel Singij 



K The WasTEi^N Psnxhsvla oi^ 




The Eastern Peninsula. 


irmw OF. Asmomm GioeitAnir. 





1. Alexandria) 

2. Peucela, 

3. Taxila,* 

4. Aornos. 

5. Caspira^* 

6. Nysay 

7. Bucephala^ 

8. Nicoea, 

9. Lahora, 

10. Sangala^ 

11. Serinda, 

13. Minagara,* 

14. Xylenopolis, 

15. Palibothra,* 

16. Agaray 

, 17. Methoni) 

18. Sambalaca) 

19. Scandrabatis,* 
30. Gange-Regia, 

21. Gaga&miray 

22. Baleocuri**Regia> 

23. Ozene,* 

24. Mandiadeniy 

25. Barygaza^ 

26. Muziris, 

27. Sippara, 
29 Cottiara,* 

30. Colchi, 

31. Modura,* 

32. Nigama, 

33. Arcati,* 

1. Sada. 

2. Berabonna, 

3. Mareara,* 

4. Zeba, 

5. Thagora, 

6. Perimula. 

7. Argentea,* 

1. Thynse^ vel SinaS)* 


1. Kandahary 

2. Pocual, 

3. Attock*. 

4. Renas? 

5. Kashmir. 

6. Nagar. 

g* i (Near Lahora). 

9. Lahaur. 

10. (no remams). 

11. Serhend. 
12* Bukor. 

13. Al-Mansor» 

14. Laheri? 

15. Alhabad. 

16. Aagta. 

17. Matura. 

18. Sanbal. 

19. Scanderbad. 

20. Raji-Mohol. 

21. Asmer. 

22. Amedabad» 

23. Ugen. 

24. Mandou. 

25. Berug. 

26. Vizindruk. 

27. Sefareh. 

28. Kauri. 

29. Aiccotta. 

30. Kilkat. 

31. Madur6. 

32. Negapatnam. 

33. Arcot. 

1. Sedoa. 

2. Barabon. 

3. Mero. 

4. Batu-Saber. 

5. Tingoran. 

6. Pcrac. 

7. Ashem. 

1. Loukiffi. 

esvjLmvmmn. • t^g. 


. IiiDiA is the most extensive part of ancient Asia, as it is one 
of the most celebrajtcd. Sciences and polity are found among 
the Indians from the earliest time in which the country was 
known. The enterprises of Cyrus, and of Darius, son of Hys- 
taspes, on India, preceded by an expedition of Semiramis, and 
by that attributed to Dionysius or Bacchus, have afforded to the 
west no particular knowledge of this country* Nor did Europe 
acquire any geographical acquaintance with India till the inva« 
sion of it by Alexander. It was under Seleucus Nicator, who, 
in the dismemberment of the empire of this conqueror, saw all 
the East under his domination, that this continent was explored 
to the Ganges, and the bounds which the sea prescribed to it on 
the south ascertained by navigators. But navigation and com- 
merce, more favourable still than war to the extension of the 
limits of geography (as we have seen exemplified in ages pos- 
terior to those of antiquity), had carried these limits beyond die 
Ganges as far as the country of Sirm; and what Strabo, and 
Pliny, have left us ignorant of in this extremity of the world 
known to the ancients, is an advancement due to Ptolemy. And 
whatever be the defects of his geography, the application o( 
modern notices to the objecs which he presents, will be sufficient 
to fix them in the positions which severally belong to them. 

In India there are two great rivers, the Indus and the Ganges* 
The course of this last makes a partition of the country into 
two regions, India intra Gangem, and In<Ra ultra^ or, India 
within, and India without the Ganges. It would appear that 
India received its name from the former river, which traverses 
from north to south all that part of it bordering on the anterior 
countries. But it must be remarked that, in the country it- 
self, this river is called Sind, from an appellative denoting a 
river common in every age; and the name of Sindus, or Sinthusj 
is also applied ia antiquity to the Indus. 

SiNi£. India beyond the Ganges is terminated at the head of 
the Magnus Sinus, or the gulf of Siam, which separates it from 
the country of the SiNiC It is evident in modern geography, 
that these limits are the same that separate Siam froth Qamboja* 



We know that this country, wd Cochin- China^ which is conti- 
guous, occupy a great tract of land,, which the sea envelopes on 
three sides, from the east to the west, by the south. The exte- 
rior limits of the fortfaer India were die barrkrs of Ae world, 
when Ptolemy passed them, awl described a remoter coumry^^ 
catted Sv^ tin then miknown by same. 





J7«man ProvinccM, 

f\. EoTPTus Propria; 


iMVSBioii.^ y^o^r^a Ag;ustamnica 

V Prima) et Secunda. 
HBPTANO-O. Heptakohis; /^o«« 

MIS. I tea Arcadia^ 
JKOTPTUS ri. Thebais; fioatea 
SUPSRIOE } Thebais Axiteiiori 

vel I et Thebias Supe- 




T\irkish ProDtncet. 
1.^ BAHIRE9 including the DeUtu 

2, fS HARRIS* 

1. Saidi or Upper Egtft. 




f I. Plinthine, 
3. Taposiris) 

3. AleiLandriat *(Rhaco* 

4. NicopoHsy 

5. Canopas, 

6. HermopoHs parvR^ 

7. Nilriay 

8. Terenutfais, 

9. Metelisy 

10. Naucratisi 
U. SaiS)* 

12. Taua, 

13. Nicii,« 

14. Byblos, 

15. Butus, 

16. Onuphisy 

17. Busiris, 

18. Tamiatliis, 

19. Mendes, 
2Q. Thmuis, [physis^ 
21. Diospolis yel Pane- 

1. (West of Alexandria)* 

2. Abousir. 

3. AleRandriay or Escanderia. 

4. Ksar Kiasera. 

5. Abukir. 

6. DemeBhur. 

7. (Near the lakes of Kitre). 

8. Terali^. 

9. Missil. 

10. (Near Sais). 

11. Sa. 
13. Taua. 

13. Nikios. 

14. Rabel. [um). 

15. (Near BdiennjticuQi Oi 

16. Banub. 

17. Busir. 

18. Damiat. 

19. Ashmun-Tanafa. 

20. Tmai^. 

21. Manzal6. 







22. Tanis,* (Zoan), 

23. Tennesus, 

24. Ltentopolisy 

25. Sethrun, 

26. Pelusium, 

_ Bnbastus,* 

S I ^ 4, Atribis,* 
|i ] 5. Heliopolis,* 
?* J J 6 HeroopoUsj 
I ^.7. Babylon, 

1. Memphis,* 

2. Hieracleaopolis, 

3. At)roditopoli8, 

4. Arsinoe* vel Croco- 

5. Oxyrynchus, 

6. Cynopolis, 
.7. Hermopolis*Magna, 
1.' Cusa, 

2. Lycopolis, 

3. Apollinis Minor, 

4. Hypselis, 

5. Abotis, 

6. Antxopolis, 

7. Cheminis vel Pano- 


8. Aphroditopolis, 

9. Crocodilopoiis, 

10. Ptoiemais Hermii,* 

11. Abydus, 

12. Oaris Magna, 
13* Oaris parva, - 

tlia<^ 14. Coptos, 
"" '^ 15. Thebae* yd Dios- 
poils' Magna, 

16. ApoUinopolis Mag- 

17. Apollinopotis parya, 

18. Diospolis parva, 

19. Hermothis, . . 

20. Elethya, 

21. Syene, 

22. Berenice, 

23. Philoteris, • 

24. Myos-Hcrmos, 

25. Arsinoe %el Cleo*- 
L patys. . . . 

•o n 

ffi "i 


iX (On 

7. J *° 


'22. San. 

23. Tennis. • 

24. Tcl-Essabe. 

25. Sethron. 

26. Tinch, (a ruin). 

1. Artish. 

2* \ (On the Pelusiac branch). 
4. Atrib. 

the canal from the Nile 
the Red Sea)., j-^^j^ 

1. '(Its Pyramids above Delta^ re- 

2. (Was above Memphis). 

3. Alfieh. 

4. (Near lake Moeris). 

5. Behnes6. 

6. (below the latter). 

7. Ashmunein. 
1 Cussi6. 

2. Siut ot Osiot. 

3. Sedaf6. 

4. Sciotb. • ' ' 

5. Abu tig. 

6. Kau-il-Kubbara. 

7. Ekmim. 

8. Itfu, (aruin). 

9. Adrib6. 

10. Menshie, (a ruin). 

11. Madfun6 (aruin). 

1 2 . > (distant, west, from 

13. S Nile). 

14. Kipt. 

15. Aksor, or Ltixor. 

1 6. Edfu. 

17. Kous. 

18. How. 

19. Erraent.* 

20. Lucina. 

21. Assuan. 

23. I (Ports on the Red Sea); 

24. J 

25. Suez. 











p. Alexandrionorum.* 

2. Menelaitis. 

3. Andronopolites. 

4. Gynaecopolites. 

5. Letopoiites. 

6. Nuriotis. 

7. Metelite. 

8. Phthenote. 

9. Cabasltes. 

0. Saites. 

1. Naucratites. 

2. Phthembuthi. 

3. Prosopites. ^ . 

4. Sebennytes Superior. 

5. Sebennytes 'Inferior. 

6. Omiphites. 

7. Busirites. 

8. Xoites. 

9. Mendesius. 

20. Thmuites. 

21. Nout. 

22. Tanites. 

23. Sethroites. 

24. Arabiae. 
I 25. Leontopolites. 

26. Athributes. 

27. Bubastites. 

128. Phabaethites* 
29. Heroopolites. 
, 30. Phagroriopolites. 
L31. Heliopolites. 
'I. Memphites. 

2. Arsinoites. 

3. Heracleopolites. 

4. Oxyrynchites. 

5. Cynopolites. 

6. Hermopolites. 

7. Aphroditopolites.< 

8. Antinoites. 
,9. Oasitse. 

^1. Lycopolites. 

2. Hypselites. 

3. Aphroditopolites. 

4. Antxopolites. 

5. Panopolites. 

6. Thanites. 
■x J 7. Diospolites. 
2i 8. Tentyrites. 
§ 1 ,9. Coptites. 

10. Thebarum. 

11. Phaturites. 

12. Hermonthites. 

13. ApoUopoUtes, 
^14. Ombites. 








The great celebrity maintained by this country in antiquity 
is well known. It was from Egypt that Greece obtained the 
first appehension of; the sciences and arts ; which from Greece 
passed into the west* The industry of the Egyptians is also 
signalized not only by their edifices, wherein solidity appears 
to prevail over elegance, but by the more useful labour of in- 
numerable canals opened through their lands, which have no 
other means of fertility than the waters of the singular river that 
nature has given to the country. 


. * The names of these districts were deriTcd^ for the most puvtj fii'om the priDcipal 
cities which they contained. 



Egypt is comprised properly in a long valley ; which, from 
north to south, following the course of the river, extends more 
than six degrees, and so contracted in breadth as to appear only 
a scantlet of land. But at the issue of this valley the country 
expands to give a passage to the different branches by which this 
river commupicates with the sea^ and adds to the extent of the 
country a degree and a half of latitude* All that is beyond the 
reach of the derivations from the river is a sterile and unculti- 
vated land; which, from the summit of the mountains that forna 
the valley, extends on one side to the Arabic gulf, -and has no 
other inhabitants than a race of nomades^ or pastors^ while the 
western limits are confounded in the deserts of Libya* 

Egypt, governed from immemorial time by its own kings, 
whether in a single monarchy, or in separate kingdoms, sub- 
mitted at length, under Cambyscs, son of Cyrus, to the yoke of 
the Persians, which it sustained but impatiently. To this dy- 
nasty succeeded, by dismemberment of the empire of Alexander, 
the reign of the Ptolemies, which continued until the reduction 
of the country into a Roman province^ under Augustus. And 
from the Eastern empire it was wrested by the Arabs, under the 
khalifat'of Omar, in the sfeventh century. 

To this introduction we shall add what concerns the distinc- 
tions of the several regions of Egypt; capitally divided into 
Superior^ Heptanorfiis^ and Inferior. This last is chiefly com-^ 
prehended within the two principal branches of the Nile, from 
its division to its mouths; and the triangular figure of a Greek 
letter which it resembles, has occasioned it to be called the 
Delta : and it must be added, that the country of Mgyptus 
Inferior surpasses, both on the ^ast and west, the natural limits 
of the Delta. As to Mgyptus Superior^ we find it separated 
from the precedent by the Heptanomisy whose name denotes it 
to have been composed of the union of seven districts^ or pre* 
features which in Egypt are called Nomes^ of which more than 
fifty are distinguished in the detail that antiquity furnishes of 
this country, whereof likewise thirty are as old as the reign of Se- 
sostris. Towards the cataract which made the boundary of Egypt 
and antient Ethiopia^ 2l territory owed to the famous Thebes its 
ptoper denomination of Thebais. 



Such were the ancient divisions of Egtpt; but in the mul- 
tiplication of the provinces of the empire, what Lower Egypt 
possessed beyond the arm of the Nile which discharges itself 
below the modem position of Damiat, composed, in the fourth 
century, a province, under the name of Augustamnica; and the 
name of JEgyptus remained provincially distinctive of the rest, 
including a country called Scithiaca by Ptolemy, bordering the 
desert of Libya, as well as the natural division called the Delta. 
Under Justinian we see the Augustamnic divided into two pro- 
vinces, a Prima and Secunda ; this maritime, and that inland. 
The Heptanomis took under Arcadius, son of the Great Theo« 
dosius, the name of Arcadia. Finally, we see the Thebdis in a 
postjrior age divided also into two provinces, Anterior and Su'* 
^^ri^r, according to the terms which we find employed to dis? 
tinguish these parts. 



I. Blemmyes. 

3. Nobatx. 

3. Meroe. 

4. Trogiodytce. 

5. Avalites- 

6» Barbara vel Azania. 



} Nubia. 

4. > Abyssinia bordering the 
5.5 Red sea- 
6. Ajan. 


S f 1. Premis. 

§ j 2. Cambysis ^ratrium^ 
1^4 3. Arbos. 
5 2 J 4. Napata,* 
^'Z] 5. Meroe,* [ron, 

§• J 6. Theon Soter, vel Sote- 

^ [7. PtolemaisvelEpitheras 

1. Auxume,* 

2. Coloe,* 

3. Gira* Metropolis^ 

4. Adulis, 

5. Sabae, 

6. Berinice Epidires, 
^7. Emporium Avalitarum 

> \sii 

^<%y !• Mosylon, 

T2-I i 2. Rapu» Metropolis, 



1. Ibrim. 

2. Moscho. 

3. Argo. 

4. (Unknown). 

5. Nuabia. 

6. Suakem. 

7. Ras-Ahehaz* 

1. Axum. 

2. Dobarua. 

3. Koukou? 

4. Arkiko. 

5. Assab. 

6. (Near Zeila). 
7 Zeiia. 

i. (At the mouth of the Soul). 
2. Pat^. 





By ascending the Nile from the frontier of Egypt^ we shall 
penetrate into the heart of ^Ethiopia. If recurrence be had to 
several versions of the Scriptures, and to the testimonies of Jo- 
sephus and St. Jerome, it will be found that the name of Chus^ 
from the son of Cham, appertained to this country* That of 
India is also applied to it, in several passages of the ancient 
writers. Ptolemy contracts it on the side of the west, because 
he indicates, under the name of Libya Interior^ that which, from 
a concatenation of local circumstances, ia judged more proper to 
be embraced under the present title* 

The same distinction in the face of the country, between the 
lands adjacent to the Nile and those that are distant from it, as 
has been remarked of Egypt, prevails in the country immedi- 
ately succeeding under the modern name of Nubia ; and this to- 
pical character is continued as far as Abyssinia. 

We owe to the author of the Periplus of Hanno, a circum- 
stance worthy of remark, " That all of this country on the Ery^ 
threan sea^ by a very ancient tenure, is a dependence on Arabia, 
^nd on one of its princes in particular*" Hence we find that the 
establishment of the Arabs on this coast, was long previous to 
Mahpmetanism ; the propagation of which, it might be imagined, 
brought them hither. From this circumstance is drawn an in- 
ference leading to the discovery of Ophir^ which may subsist in 
Sophala, whither the fleets of Solomon resorted for gold, and 
which has escaped those who in their search for this country, 
have cast their eyes on the eastern shore of Africa. 

The position of Cambysis jEratrium, now called Moscho, de- 
notes the deposit of the military chest of Cambyses, who pushed 
his expedition beyond the limits of Egypt. This conqueror, 
after having departed from the Nile, passed the El-Wak, and 
traversed one of the driest and most difficult desarts, in which 
the greatest part of his army perished^ found himself again on 
he banks of the Nile. An insult oifered to the Roman name 
on the frontier of Egypt, under the reign of Augustus, occa- 
sioned a Roman army to pass as far as Napata^ which was the 
i^esidence of a queen named Condace. 




It P, 




1. Marmaridae et Adyr- i. 

2. Nasamones et Psyl- 2. 


Pha^ani a- Loto» 

s- f • ^ phagi et Gara-mantes, 

5 N J 2. Massyli et Massaesili, 
? I 

3. Carthaginienses, &c. 


Gaetulia— Massaesili, 
et Gaetuli vel Bere- 


Maurasii, Mauri, et 


> Modem. 
States of Barbary. 


1. Tripoli and FazzAN. 




1. Aloier. 

I. Fez. 












Teuchira (Asinoe), 

Berenice (Uesperis), 

1. Al-Baretoun. 

2. (Near the above). 

3. Akabet-ossolom. 

4. Sant-reih. 

5. AUgila. 

1. Darne. 

2. Curin, (a ruin). 

3. Sosush. 

4. Tolometa. 

5. Barca. 

6. Teukcra. 

7. Bemic or Bengazi. 






ft ^ 






1. Philaenorum Arae, 

2. Macomades Syrtisy 

3. Gerisa, 

4. Leptis Magna, 

5. Oea, 

6. Sabrata, 

ri. Tacape, 
^. Byzacium,* 

3. Macomades Minoresi 

4. Thenas, 

5. Taphrura, 

6. Tysdrusy 

7. Vicus Augusti, 

8. Tapsus, 

9. Leptis Minor, 

10. Hadrumetuniy* 

1 1. Cabar Susis, 
^12. Horrea Caelia, 
^l. Grasse,* 

2. Neapoiis, 

3. Curubisy 

4. Clypea, 

5. Tunetum, 

6. Carthago,* 

7. Utica* vel Ithyca, 

8. Hippo Zaritas, 

9. Tabraca, 

10. Tuburbo, 

1 1 . Tucaborum, 

12. Tuburbo MajuS) 
15. Bulla Regia, 

14. Madaurus, 

15. Sicca Venera, 

16. Tucca, 
Ll7. 2«ama, 

1. Hippo* RegiuS) 

2. Rusicade, 

3. Cullu, 

4. Constantina,(Cirta),* 

5. Miievis) 

6. Sigus, 
I J 7. Tipasa, 
^* 8. Aquae, 

9. Tagaste, 

10. Tebeste, 
H. Lambae^a) 









1. (Bordering Cyrenica). 

2. Sort (a ruin). 

3. Gherz6. 

4. Lebida (a ram). 

5. Tripoli. 

6. Sabart. 

7. Ghedemes. 

8. G^erma. 

9. Mederam. 

10. Tasava. 

1. Gdbes. 

2. Beghni. 

3. £i-Mahres. 

4. Taineh. 

5. Skafes. , 

6. £i-Jera. 

7. Kairwao? 

8. Demsas. 

9. Lemta. 

10. (Near Susa). 

1 1 . Susa. 

12. Erklia. 

1. Jerads. 

2. Nabel. 

3. Gurb6s. 

4. Aklibia. 

5. Tunis. 

6. (Scanty remains), 

7. Satcor. 

8 Benzert. 

9. (Near Tabarca). 

0. Tuburbo. 

1. Tucaber. 

2. Tubcrnok. 

3. Wad-el-BuI. 
4- (Near Tagaste). 

5. Urbs, or Kef. 

6. Tugga. 

7. (Neartheiatter). 
. (Near Mount Pappua). 

2. Sgigada. 

3. Cullu. 

4. Constantino. 
5 Miia. 

6. Siguenic. 

7. Tifas. 

8. Hammam. 

9. Tajclt, 
11. J^ambese. 

cnriL nmsfONs. 


I Hi 








S oe 



12. Lamasba^ 

f 1. Igilgilis, 

2. Salds, 

3. Tubusuptusy 

4. Rusu-currU) 

5. Caesarea* (Jol), 

6. Cartenna) 

7. IcoMuniy 

8. Murustaga, 

9. Portus Magnus, 
iQ. Portus Divini, 
U. Siga,» 

13. Calaa, 

13. Sitifi, 

14. Tubuna, 

15. Malliana, 

16. Succubar, 
ir, Regiae,* 
18. Medianum Castel- 

^ lum. 
f 1. Rusadir, 

2. Perietinay 

3. Jagath. 

4. Tingisf 

5. Zilisy 

6. Lixus, 
1 7. Banasa, 

8. Saia, 

9. VolubiliS) 

10. Exploratio ad Mer- 



12. Lamasbe* 

13. Bagai. 

14. Pescara. 

1. Jijeli. 

2. Tcdl6s. 

3. Burgp* 

4. Hur. 

5. Vacur. 

6. Tenez. 

7. Serael. 

8. Mustugafum. 

9. Arzeu. 

10. Marz-al-Kibir. 

11. Ned-Roma. 

12. Calaat-el-Wad. 

13. Sitef. 

14. Tubnah. 

15. Meliana. 

16. Zuchar. 

17. Tlemsen. 

18. (Bound of Roman arms). 

1. Melilla. 

2. Velez de Gomera. 

3. Tetewen. 

4. Tinja or Tangier. 

5. Azzilia. 

6. Larache. 

7. Old Mamorc. 

8. Rabat. 

9. Gualili. 

10. (An out post). 


The name of Libya, among the Greeks, extended to all Af- 
rica: but, strictly speaking, it was comprised in what succeeded 
to Egypt towards the west, ^s far as a gulf of the Mediterra- 
nean, called the Great Syrtis. 

The Ptolemies, or some prince of their house, possessed this 
country : and under the Eastern empire, Lybia was annexed 
to the Egyptian government, when we distinguish two pro- 
vinces in it, Marmarica and Cyrenica ; the first confining oa 
^gypty the second extending towards the Syrtu. 



It is enveloped by the Sea on two sides : on the east, from 
the bottom of the smaller Syrtis to the Hermmum promontoiy^ 
or that of Mercury, nqw Cape Bon ; and on the north, from 
this promontory to the limits of Numidia. It ^ may be added, 
that a line of division between the provinces of ArRicA and 
Numidia appears given by that which separates the kingdoms of 
Tunis and Algiers. The country adjacent to the Syrtis was 
distinguished by the name of B'yzacium, From this position 
the maritime country takes the name of Zeugitana^ without our 
knowing whether under this name it extended as far - inland as 
to correspond with the limits of the department that was after- 
wards named Proconsularis. 


This name extended primitively to all the country comprised 
between Africa Proper^ and the more ancient boundary of Mau- 
Tetania^ which was a river named Molochath^ or Malva^ now 
Mulvia, whose mouth is opposite Cape Gata, on the southern 
shore of Spain ; and this space is now occupied by the kingdom 
of Algier. 


Two people participated this extensive country : the Massylt^ 
on the side of Africa ; and the Massassiliy towards Mauretaniai 
aqd a promontory far advanced in the sea, heretofore named 
Tretum^ now Sebda-ruz, or the Seven Capes by the people of 
the country, and, by mariners, Bergaronie, made the term of 
separation between them. They obeyed two princes celebrated 
^in history; the first being subjects of Masinissa^ the second of 
Syphax. The attachment of Masiiiissa to the Romans, required 
on their part not only a re-establishment in the kingdom of 
which he had been despoiled by Syphax, but also that he be 
guaranteed in possession of that of his enemy; an event that 

• 01 VtL DIVISIONS. / '14y 

united NUMIDIA under one prince. This kingdpm, in the same 
state under Jugurtha, and the same also under Juba, was van- 
quished by Caesar, who reduced it to a Roman province. But 
Augustus having gratified Juba, son of Juba, with a part of the 
kingdom of his father, this province of Numidia suffered ab- 
scission of that part which had taken the name of Mauretania; 
and appeared finally bounded by the river Ampsagas^ that falls 
into the sea on the side of the promontory of Tretum^ and which 
is now named Wad-il-Kibir, or the Great Riven 


It is thus, and not Maurztania that this name appears ia 
most monuments of antiquity, whether medals or lapidary in- 
scriptions ; and it may be added, that the national name is Mau- 
RAsit, according to the Greek writers. The country over which 
Bocchus, who delivered Jugurtha to the Romans, reigned, was 
limited, as we have said in speaking of the primitive state of 
Numidia^ by the river Molochath^ whose name being otherwise 
Malva^'h2c& given occasion to some modem authors, misled by 
Ptolemy, to distinguish two rivers for one. 

We are not precisely informed what occasioned the amplifica- 
tion of ancient Mauretania: it is known, however, that it was 
Jub9^ who, put in possession of the states of the two Maurish 
princes Bogeed and Bocchus by the favour of Augustus, construct- 
ed the city of Ccesarta^ which gave the name of Casartetisis to 
that part of Mauretania whiqh was taken from Numidia. 
Now if it be supposed that Mauretania was a concession pri- 
or to the aggrandizement made of his paternal dominion, we 
shall find in these circumstances, what gave occasion to the ex- 
tension of the name. , 

This kingdom was reduced into a province under Claudius, 
and divided into two : the onej called Cctsariensh^ consisted in 
what had belonged to Numidia; and the other ^ called Tingitana^ 
was the original Mauretania, which extended to the ocean* 
We may add in general terms, that all this coast of Africa 
was filled with Roman colonies. 


Ij^ VIEW OF ANCfjEgrr gi^jq^gpaput. 


What remains to be delineated of the interior parts of ^^frica, 
ipay be announced under this title, as we find it in Ptolemy* To 
Gatulia immediately contiguous to Numidia and Jfauretania^ 
succeeds a va^t space divested of all local circumstance^ 
and exhibited in the chart, under the title of Deserta LiBTiE 
Interioris. MelanO'Gcctuli^j or black Getulians, occupied it 
in antiquity, and confined on a country called Nigritia^ which 
owes its name less to the Negro race in general, than to the 
river which traverses this part of Africa. The ancients knew 
this river under the name of Niger^ which, contrary to the opin* 
ion they commonly had of it, directs its course fron(i west to 
east, as Herodotus indeed appears to indicate* 

In the less remote and maritime part, the Autololes are men- 
tioned as a great nation, from whom the Roman frontier of MaU'- 
tetania suffttred molestation. A nation of Getulians distinguish* 
ed by the name of Daras^ have lefttheir name to Darah^ sepa- 
rated trom Morocco by a branch of mount Atlas. 

* The parts of the interior of Africa are to few and inconiidecable that we Yisf^xt 
omitted a tabular arraDgement of them. 





Bearing in mind the obscurity that dwells on some of the 
obje'^ts of Postdiluvian geography, as \^t might say, of almost 
^very age and ev'ery country, the student should not be disap- 
jSbinted nvhen hd is told, that positive certainty is not by any 
xneatis pretended to be attached to the location of Antc^diluviaii 
positions in corresponding niodern ones. All that i^e can pro« 
mis6 is, th^ greater degree of certainty as to the prcmintnt 
features, and the greater degree of probability as to those of 
minor import. For amidst the very numerous interpretations 
of this part of Scripture made by learned divines and others, 
the contrariety of opinion is so great as almost to reduce every 
prospect of consent to a faulU 

To illustrate this matter, we will mention the examples that 
<$ccasion the remark; which indeed comprise nearly the whole 
of the Antediluvian geography transmitted to us in any shape. 
Tht Land of Nod is placed by Dr. Wells in Desert Arabia. 
Wilkinson on the contrary, places it in present Persia, about 
the situation of ancient Susiana^ as we presume, with most 
plausibility. Dr., Geddes, seemingly against all propriety, 
renders the river Phuon or Pison^ the Araxes; and the Gihon^ 
the Oxus; the one on the west of the Caspian sea, and the other 
On the east, which is certainly the Gihon to the present day: the 
Hiddeiel he calb the Tigris. Far otherwise is the opicaonT 


of Dr. Welk. He makes the Gihon the easterly channel of 
the two into which the £u]|}hraces is divided aftei^ its unioii 
with the Tigris, and some time before its waters disembogue 
into the Persian gulf, and the Phtson the westerly one; de«> 
signating the Hiddekel by the Tigris withal. To us it seems 
that no better compromise can be made of such a difference^ 
than to adopt the opinion of Wilkinson ; for which see the ta- 
/ble and map of this country. There is less dispute as to the 
location of the Land 21x16, Garden of Eden^ and the identity of 
the Euphrates* - 

In passing from our view of the Land of Egypt to that of the 
Promised Land^ we have fiot availed ourselves of the usual pri- 
vilege of mental aerostation, but, on the path of Moses and the 
Israelites, have made our exody : thinking it best to assemble 
the objects that are spoken of in the renowned Exodus of the 
Jews, with a summary account of its incidents, in one table. 

We have judged it impracticable to reduce the geography of 
Canaan^ .after the conquest of Joshua, to the comparative table 
of corresponding ancient and modern names, for a reason too 
evident to repeat, that this country abounded, beyond almost 
any other in times of antiquity, with geographical and historical 
notices; whereas at the present day, it has become almost deso- 
late, and some of the most fruitful tracts formerly are now bar- 
ren wastes. But that the account may be as striking to the 
eye, as the narrative form is susceptible of, we have given the 
principal objects a marginal relief from the body of the page. 

The same motive that actuated me to give a preliminary 
sketch of the origin and migrations of Parent Nations, to Part 
II., prompts me in like manner to insert here, a tabular view of 
the- three first Patriarchal ages, with annotations to ^ach, to 
give light and interest to the Sacred Geography. The context 
between these tables must' be looked for in Jathet^ Shem^ 
and Hartiy in passing from the first to the second; in Ha- 
ran^ Abraham^ and Nahor^ in .passing from the second to the 
third, and through Jacob to the twelve tribes. ' 

We have adopted a chronological order in the succession both 
of the Patriarchal and Geographical tables, as nearly as th^ suc« 


FteLmtlTA&Y. ! I^f 

eesftiveevolutioii'or their objects would admit of. * According 
to. this. method, we have been underthe necesait3r of giving more 
than oQe table of the same tract of country when hs revolutions 
have so changed its ciyil divisions as to render them qiiite as^ 
foreign from each other, at different periods, as thpugh the iden- 
tity/ of territory itself had been changed. Of this, Canaan fur- 
nishes a striking illustration. 




The Antediluvian Patriarchs. 


1. Cain, born Anno Mundithe second.* 
' cL Enoch, son of Cain. 

t, Irad, son of Enoch* , 

c, Mehujael, son of Irad. 

d, Methusael, son of Mehujael. 

e, Lamech, son of Methusael. He had by Adan, 
— Jabal, the inventor of tents and keeping of cattle ; and 
— Jubal, the inventor of music. " Also, by Zillah, 
— Tubal-Cain, the inventor of working in metals; and 
— Naamah, supposed to be Venus. 

2. Abel. 

3. Skth, bom A. M. 130, died 042, aged 913. 

a, Enos, son of Seth, born 235, died 1 140, aged 905. 

b, Cainan, son of Enos, born 3i5, died 1235, aged 910. 

c, Mahalalael, son of Cainan, born 395, died 12 JO, aged 895. 

d, Jared, son of Mahalaleel, born 460, died 1422, aged 962. 

e, Enoch, son of Jared, born 622, was translated to heaven. 
/. Methuselah, son of Enoch, born 687, died i656, aged 969. 

' g. Lamech, son of Methu«^elah, born 874, died 1651, aged 777. 
h. Noah, son of Lamech, born 1056, aged 600 at the Flood, 
•^aphet, his first son, bom 1556, aged 100 at the JPlood. 
— Shem, his second son, born 1558, aged 98 at the Flood. 
—Ham, his third son, born 1560, aged 96 at the Flood. 


A^DAH the first noian, and Eve the first woman, formed by^ 
the immediate power of God, on the sixth day of the ere- 

* The better opinion seems to be, that Cain was born the ii rat, aud Abel the second 
year of die world. 5e& ijacred Mirror^ bj tke KeT. TJiomas Smith; page 5. 



• » 

|g^ FKISiliilHriliyil 

attoH,* m a attte of parity and fiap|)ii«e9« ; ftll iftt6 gilSh 
and nrisary by tronsgfes^ag the divitte tforifriaraivel; wtr0 
baoRsfaed from their bK^sfut rdsidencd in t\t^ gfavden* of 
£de»^ semsDoed ta safforitig a*d dtaib; y«t favom^ed- 
with the pvmaisc of a Savroun ^0^»r cHaf, 9 J* Adam- 
died 930* Aim6 Mandi ;> ha«riag 8«ea elghc geM^alioflBB* 
Eve died Anno Mundi 940. 

Cain, the first man beM of a iroman, followed husbandry, 
murdered his brother Abel^ and went to live in the land of 
Nod^ where he buHt the first city, and named it after his 
son, Enoch. His posterity were called the Children of 
meriy of whom there is no account either respecting their 
births or deaths ; nor is there any of his death. 

Lamech introduced polygamy. He is supposed to be the yi^ 
piter of the Greeks; Jabal, Pan; Jubalr, Afioifo; Tubal- 
Cain, Vulcan; and Naaipah, Venus. 

Abel, the second son, tended flocks, and died foy his brother's 
hand, a martyr to obedience. 

Seth, the third son, was born soon after the murder orAbek 
His posterity were called the Chtldren cf God. He lived 
cotempoi'ary with all the Antediluvian Patriarchs, except 

Enos was cotemporary with all the Antediluvian Patriarchs. Im- 
his- days the worshippers of God began to be diisttbguished* 

I* Mil 

• The following note from Mr. Pinkerton we presume will not be considered as any 
bailh'en to truth, on whichever side it stands, but rather, as tending to its further devel- 
opement. He says— "Ancient chronology has been ruined by attempting to force it t« 
Scripture, which is surely no canon of chronology ; for the Septuagint, translated front 
MttS. far more ancient than any we have, differs from Ihe present Hebrew no les* 
than 576 years before the tiiAe of Noah ; and 880 years froni Noah to the time of Abra«> 
ham. The Greek church, certainly as well instructed as that of the Koman, dates the 
creation 5508 years before Christ. Kpiphauius, Augusiin, and other fathers, follow the 
Hebrew of their tiine, wliich agrees with the Septuugint. But ancient chi-onology ought 
^.^^^i-.-„**,^v.v«*-*te^ :.... -.t.^. :.- __^rr..-. ..r. .. 'tural chrono- 

Scripture or 
, »f the learned 
Usher, now uuirei'sally aUowed the best- chrouokiger, ia ibUowed/'flec. 

Enoch walked with Ged 365 fears, and was trafiskted into 
beavea without seeing death. 

'S/^KTlpJa^EpA^^ ih^ oldest of all men, haviqg been a cotemporaiy 
with Adam 243 years, and with Noah 600, died a little 
before the flood. 

JIoAH. in the days of Noah, by the sinful alliances of the 
|K>9(erity of S^th, or Sena ofGod^ with the posterity of Cain, 
or Daughters of Men^ and other causes, the world was 
filled with universal corruption. Noah was commissioned 
\>y the Almighty to call them to repentance during 120 
years, while he was preparing the Ark. On their incor- 
' rigible disobedience, the universal deluge (which took place 
A. M. 1656, and lasted 150 days, produced by a rali\ of 4Q 
,days,) at last destroyed them all; except Noah and his fa- 
mily, with a sufficient number of every apecies. of aniyials, 
who were preserved in the Ark. 




The Postdiluvian Patriarchs till the catt of Abraham : including 
the Plantation of Nations j and the Origin of Languages. 




1. GoMER, and sons, peopled the N. W. garts of Europe, viz. 

a. Ashkenaz, son of Corner, settled France. 

b. Riphath, son of Gomer, settled the British Isles, 8fc, 

c. Togarmah, son of Gpmer, Settled Germany, Sweden, &c. 

2. Mago0, and posterity, peopled Russia, Siberia, &c. 

3. Madai. 

4. Javan, and sons, peopled the N. E. coast of the Mediter<» 
ranean, viz. 

a. Elisha, son of Javan,^ settled Greece. 

b. Tarshish, son of Javan, settled the S. of Asia Minor. 

c. Kittim, son of Javan) settled Macedon. 
rf. Dodanim, son of Javan, settled W. coast of Asia Minor. 

g^ 15. Tubal, and posterity, peopled Spain. 
|»f j 6. Mrshech, and posterity, peopled Italy. 
Xj, TiRASi and posterity, peopled Thi*ace. 











fl. El'am, and posterity, pebplcd Persia. ^ 
2. AsHUR, and posteiity, peopled Assyria, and built Nineveh. 
Arpmaxad, born 658, and died 2096, peopled Carmauia. 

a. Salah, son of Arphaxad, born 1693, died, 2126, aged 433. 

b, Eber, or Heber, son of Salah, born, 1723, died 2187; fa- 
^ ther of the Hebrews. 

(a). Joktan, son of Eber, peopled S. E. of Asia, viz. 
— Sheba, offspring of Joktan, settled Hindoostan or India. 
— Orphir, offspring of Joktan, settled Molucca Isles, &c. 
»— Haviiak, offspring of Joktan, settled Thibet, &c. 
(d). Peleg, son of Eber, bom 1757^ when the earth was 
divided; died 1996. 






(c\ Reu, son of Peleg, born 1787, died 2026, aged 239. 
(fl?). Serug, son of Reu, bom 1819, died 2049, aged 230. 
W. Nahor, son of Serug, born 1849, died 1997, at Ur. 
(/;. Terah, son of Nahor, born 1878, died 2083, atHarao. 

— Haran, son of Terah, born :948, at Ur, died 2073. 

— Abraham,son of Terah,b. 2098, atUr; call'd 2083,d.l283, 

— Nahor, son of Terah, born at Ur, and died at Haran. 

-—Sarah, half sister, and wife of Abraham, b. 2018, d.J145. 

4. LuD, and posterity, peopled Lydia in Asia Minor. 

5. Aram, and sons, peopled Syria, and Mesopotamia, viz. 
a. Uz, son of Aram, settled the S. W part of Syria. 
A. Hul, son of Aram, settled the N. W. part of Syria, 
c. Gethcr, son of Aram, settled the S. E. part of Syria. 

^ d. Mash, son of Aram, setted Mesopotamia. 

"1 . CusH, and sons, peopled the S. of Africa and Arabia, viz. 

a. Seba, son of Gush, settled Arabia. 

b. Sabtah, son of Gush, settled Ethiopia. 

c. Raamah, daughter of Gush, 
(a). Sheba, offspring of Raamah, settled Sofala. 

d. Nimrod (Belus), son of Gush, founded Babylon. 

2. MiZRAiM, and sons, peopled Egypt, &c. viz. 

a. Lehabim, son of Mizraim, settled Libya. 

b, Gaphtorim, son of Mizraira, ancestor of the Copts. 
r. Gasluhim, son of Mizraim, settled between Egypt and 


(a). Hhilistim, son of Gasluhim, ancestor of the Philistians- 

3. Phut, ancestor of the Moors. 

4. Canaan, ancestor of the Canaanites, viz. 

a. Sidon, ancestor of the Phoenicians, dwelt at Sidon. 

b. Heth, ancestor of the Hi ttites, dwelt at Hebron. 

c. Jebusite, ancestor of the Jebusites, founded Jerusalem. 

d. Amorite, ancestor of the Atnorites, dwelt at Hcbhbon. 

e. Girgasite, ancestor of the Girgasites, dwelt at Gergesa, . 
/. Hivi^e, ancestor of the Hivites, dwelt at Gibion. 

g. Arkite, ancestor of the Arkites, dwelt at Archa. 

A. Sinite, ancestor of the Sinites, dwelt near the Desert of Sin. 

L Arvadite, ancestor of the Arvadites, dwelt at Arad; and. 
>. Hamathite, ancestor of the Hamathites, dwelt at Hamad^. 



Noah, was 754 years old at the Confusion^ and 950 at his death; 
which happened two years before the birth of Abraham. 

NiHROD, began to build Babel, in the Land of Shinar, 1757; 
which continued 53 years, till the Confusion of Tongues, 
1810 from the Creation of the World, or ab6ut 21S0'*f' be- 
fore Christ* 

Nations and Languages. The original number of nations 
and languages after the cbnfusion, appears to have been 
seventy— **• every one after their families, after their ton- 
gues, in their nations." (Gen^ 10. 5. J. Doctor Wells says 
that as to the number of languages then begun to be spoken, 
they could not probably be fewer than there wepe nations, 
nor more than there were families. If ftiere were no more 
^ than there were nations, or heads of nations, then the 
number is easily counted. Seven in Japhet, four in Ham, 
and five in Shem. But if they were as many as there 
were families at the confusion, their number cannot be 
known; because Moses (as Mr. Mede observes) does not 
make an enumeration of all the families, or heads of fami- 
lies. However, the common opinion is, that their number 
was according to the number of families; and this Moses 
seems to insinuate, because he joins throughout Genesis, 
^tfamilies and tongues' together. 

Abram, married his half sister Sarai at Ur, from whence he 
was called, together with his father Terah, brother Na- 
hor, and nephew Lot, to leave Chaldea in 2078. They 
then dwelt in Haran in Mesopotamia, from whence he was 
again Called in 2083, on his father's death, to remove to 
Canaan; aifter which his name was changed to Abt;^ham, 
and his wife's to Sarah. She is the only woman of this 
period whose age is recorded. After her death Abraham 
took a second wife named Keturah. 

* See the disperaion of jthe Scythians by Ninns, in the Bpocltf of tHe first Goiflue 
Progress, page 46) vit)^ wbic{||k tikus period nearly correspwds. - 





From the call of Abraham to the Exodus; in two Sectiortf* 


1. Lot, nephew of Abraham. ^ 
Moab, ancestor of the Moabites. 

^ < b, Ammon, ancestor of the Ammonites. 

ISCAH. ' ' 

M11.CAH9 ^'}i^ of Nahor. 
^ "1. IsHMABL, ancestor of the Ishmaelites, b. B. C. 19 10, A. 1773. 

a, Kedar, son of Ishmael. 1 
(a). Hamal, son of K.edar. > Ancestors of Mahomet. 
— Nobet, Salaman, &c. J 

b, Adbeel, Mlbs^, Mishma, 1 ^^ 
Diimah, Massa, Hadar^ Te- > Princes^of the Ishmaelites. 
nia, &c. sons of Ishmael. j 

e, Bashemath, daughter of Ishmael, and third ii^ife of Esau. 

2. Isaac, was born 1896, died in Canaan 1716, aged 180. 

a. Es^u, 'son of Isaac, bom 1837, ancestor of the Edomites. 
(a). Eliphaz, son of Esau by his first wife Adah. 
— - Anielek, son of Eliphaz, by Timnah. 

" ""G^^^lSt:' I O^^^r chUdren of EUphaz. 
(6). Jeush, Jaalam, Korah, children of Esau, by his se- 
cond wife, Aholibamah. 
(c). Reuel, son of Esau by his third wife Bashemath. 

b, Jacob, or Israel, born 1837 in Canaan, died 1689 in Egypt. 

3. ZiMRAN, &c. to No. 8. were Abraham's children by Keturah. 


a. Sheba, > Children of Joksban. 

b, Dedan, J ^ ^ 
(a). Ashurim, and Letushim, descendants of Dedan. 

5. Medan. 

6. MiDiAN, ancestor of the Midianites. 

^8^ SmJAH. 





* The periods of the forgoiDg tables are, reckoned from the Creation: those of th« 
Vicceeding, are reekoned retrospectively froin the birth Christ. 

^1. TWAH. 

-o * 

I; ?J"hAsh, \ C^^l^^n of Nahor, by ftenmah. 

4. Mac AH. J 

5. Uz, ancestor of Job^ 1 

6. 3uZ) ancestor of Elihu^ > Children by Milcah. 

7. 'Betkuel, lived at Haran^ J 
a, Laban, son of Bethuel, lived at Haran. 

(a\ Leah, daughter of Laban, and first nfife of Jatob. 
(b), Rachel, daughter of Laban and second wife of Jacok 
V. ^' Rebecca, daughter of Bethuel, and wife of Isaac. 



1. Reuben, bom before Christ 1758, had four sons. 

2. Simeon, born before Christ 1757, had six sons. 

3. Levi, bom before Christ 1756, died 1619, aged 137. 
a. Gershon, son of Levi. 

6. Kohath, son of Levi, aged 133 at his death. 

(a). Amram, son of Kohath, died in Egypt, aged i 37. 
-— Aaron, son of Amram, b. 1574, d. 1451, aged 133. 
-— Moses, son of Amram, b. 1 5 7 1 , d. 1 45 1 , aged 1 3^ 

c. Merari, son of Levi. 

d. Jochebed, daughter of Levi, and wife of Amram. 

4. JuDAH, born before Christ 1755; had three sons. 

5. IssACHA^R, had four sons. 

6. Zebulon, had three sons. 

(7). Dinah, Jacob*s only daughter. 

7. Joseph, bom before Christ 1745* died 1635. 

a, Manasseh, son of Joseph by Asenath. 

b. Ephraim, son of Joseph by Asenath. 

8. Benjamin, bom before Christ 1734, had ten sons. • 

9. Dan. 

10. Napbtali, had four sons. 


11. Gad, had seven sons. 

12. AsHUR, had four sons, and one daughter. 



Lot, lived at Sodom till its destruction, of which he was prC'-ad- 
monished by angels, who brought bim, his wife, and two 

■* ' ar 

Handittaid to Raeliel. 

t Handmaid to Lc^K. 


151 PRBUlUNABt. 

daughters out of the city, and ordered them to flee with 
all possible precipitation to the moumains, warning them 
not to look back, lest they should be involved in the gene- 
ral destruction. His wife disobeying this injunction, was 
immediately changed into a pillar of salt. Several of hi$ 
children died at Sodom. 

MoAB & Ahmon, were children of Lot by his two daughters. 
Their posterity were giants who dwelt in the country they 
conquered from the gigantic Emims and Zamzummims. 

IsHM AEL, was son of Abraham by Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah. 
His posterity, the Ishmaelites or Hagarenes settled in Ara- 
bia; and their descendants have been called Arabs or 

Isaac, was son of Abraham by his first wife Sarah. Isaac 
had, b^ his only wife Rebecca, twin sons Esau and Jacob. 

Esau, also called Edom in consequence of swearing away his 
birthright or right of primogeniture in favour of Jacob, 
was ancestor of the Edomites by his wives Adah, Aholi- 
bamah, and Bashemath or Mahalah; the two former were 
Canaanitish women, and the latter Ishmaelitish. The 
Edomites dwelt in the land of the Horims, .or Horites, 
9 whose daughters they married, and by descent or con- 
quest possessed the country. They were first dukes, and 
afterwards kings of Edom, before there was any king of 

Jacob, went from Canaan, to his uncle Laban at Haran or Pa- 
dan-aram, in Mesopotamia, B. C. 1759, with whom he 
lived 20 years, and having married Leah and Rachel, re- 
turns to Canaan. 

ZimRAm, Joksban, &c. to No. 8. of the table inclusivelyi chil- 
dren of Abraham by Keturah, were settled in %he east 
country, by their father, before his death. 


Nahor, was born at Ur, and died at Haran. ^ He had two 
wivss; the name of one was Reumah and the other Milcah. 



Jacob, or Israel, in the decline of life, B. C. 19^06, removed 
his family, 70 in number, to Egypt, by the solicitation of 
his son Joseph, and the invitation of the king of Egypt; 
Joseph having been sold into Egypt, 23 years before that 
period, by his brothers; and having been advanced, by 
reason of his wisdom, from a state of slavery to the highest 
trust. In his last moments Jacob blessed his sons sever- 
ally, and after his death was carried back to Canaan and 
interred, by his request, at the cave of M achpelah* His 
^ obsequies being performed, his sons, progenitors of the 
~ twelve tribes, returned to abide in Egypt. 

Joseph. But little more is recorded of Israel's family, till just 
before the death of Joseph, when he sent for his brethren, 
and told them, in the same prophetic spirit that illuminated 
his aged father, that God would assuredly perform his gra- 
cious promise, by bringiag their posterity out of Egypt^ 
and giving them the land of Canaan for an inheritance. 
He therefore earnestly requested they would not bury him 
in Goshen, but lay his body in a coffin, smd deposit it in 
some secure place, whence they might take it on the ac- 
complishment of his predictions, to the Land of Promise. 
For the fulfilment of this request, his brethren bound 
themselves by an oath. 

Mos£s. Subsequent to this melancholy occurrence, the .de- 
scendants of Israel increased prodigiously both in strength 
and numbers, so much that the natives, who began to fear 
that they would eventually cover the whole, face of the 
kingdom, resolved to weaken them by taxes, labour, and 
every species of tyrannical oppression. But the first mea- 
sures failing of the desired effect, thereupon a diabolical 
edict was promulgated, commanding that every male child 
of the Hebrews that was born thereafter^ should be cast into 
. the Nikj and that none hut the females should be permitted 
to live. Under this edict Moses was born, to hbmble the 
pride of Egypt, and to lead his groaning countrymen in 
triumph from the house of bondage. 


Exodus* The time having arrived for the fulfilment of the 
divine promise of briog^i^ t)i^ Israelites out of Egypt; 
and Moses having prevailed with Pharaoh by means of 
many mintculous feaits, to peronit the Jews tip depart fpr 
the Land of Promise; they set out from Ram^e$* When 
they arrived at Mount Siufii, in the Wilderness, God ap- 
pointed them a d^y for the prqmulgation of his Decalogue. 
On the appointed day* Moses committed the c^re of his 
people to Aaron and Hur, and went up with Joshusi into 
the mountain, where he cootmued forty days, whUe God 
gave him the ten commandments^ qo two tables of stone, 
, called TABLES o;f covenant, together with t^e whole {>lan 

of the Jewish tabernacle, and mode of worship* After 
Moses descended from the Mount, ha desired his cpngre- 
gation to bring an offering of different materials for the 
holy tabernacle; And he was immediately supplied with a 
profusion of jeweU, metals, ointxjients, perfumes, and every 
other requisite article ; which he distributed to proper ar- 
tificers and workmen, whom God had endowed with the 
peculiar skill to contrive, and ability to execute, the vfurious 
designs that had been s-hewn to Moses on the noiountain. 
The work was performed with such alacrity and diligence, 
that in less than %\% months, tbe tabernacle, wi>h all its 
magnificent furniture and apparatus, was set up at the foot 
of Mount Sinai, and the pompous worship of the Israelites 
was begun.-*-We will subjoin the results of the mustering 
and numbering of the tribes of .Israel, the patriarchal chiefs 
of each, and the order of their encampment about the 
tabernacle, with a scheme of the same. 

Reuben. The tribe of Reuben was 46,500 in number; south of 
the tabernacle, and east of Simepn. Elizur, P« chiei 


Simeon. The tribe of Simeon was 59,300 in number; south of 
the tabernacle and west of Reuben. Shelumiel, P. 

/ Gershon. The Gershonites were* 7500 in number; west of the 
tabernacle; carried the curtains, veils, &c. Eli^sapk, P* 


KoHAtn. The Kbh^tMtes were 8600 in number; south cf the tsr- 
berhatle^ carried. tiie Sanctuary, Ark, &c. EnsAipHAN, P. 
chief. • 

Mer ARt. The Merarites were 6200 in number; south of the ta- 
bernacle; carried the boards, bands, &c. Zuriel, P. 

JUDAB. The tribe of Jadah was 7^4,600 in number, east of the 
tabernacle, and north of Issachar. Naason, P. chief. 

IssACHAR. The tribe of Issachar was 54,400 in number; east 
of the tabernacle, and south of Judah. Nethanebl, P« 

2bbvi.on. The tribe of Zebulon was ^7^400 in number; «ast 
of the tabernacle, and south of Issachar* J^liah, B* 

ManAsseh. The tribe of Manasseh wlis 32,200 in number; 
west of the tabernacle^ and north of Ephraim. Gamaliei,^ 
P. chief. 

E^HRAiH. The tribe of Ephraim, was 40,500 in number; west 
of the tabernacle, and south of Manasseh. Elishamah, 
•P. Chief. 

Benjamin. The tribe of Benjamin was 35,400 in number; west 
TSf the labernacle, and north of IVIanasseh. Abidan, 
P. chief* 

Dan. The tribe of Dan was 62,700 in number ; north of the 
tabernacle, and westof Asher. Ahiezer, P. Chief. 

Nafhtali. The tribe of Naphtali, was 53,400 in number; 
north of the tabernacle, and east of Asher. Ahirah, P. 

Gad. The tribe of Gad was 46,650 in number; south of the 
tabernacle, and^west of Simeon. Eliasapb^ P. Chief. 



AsHER. The tribe of Asher was 41,500 in number ; • north of 
the tabernacle, and east of Dan* Pagiel, P. Chief. 

Caleb and Joshua. Caleb was a descendant of Judah : Jo- 
shua was a descendant of Joseph. 











5* tt lABERNACLE. 












Reuben. I Cattle, 



, .  . • 

PABT in. 




1. Land ov Eden, ' 

a. Paradise, or garden of £den> 

3. Land of Nob, 
tf. Enooh— -cityt 


1. Shiiiar, Babylonh, and 


a. (On the common channel of 

the Euphrates, Tigris, Scc^ 

about 60 miles from the Per-» 

sian gulf)* 
3. Elam, Susiana, ^d Persia, sue* 
a. Built by Cain^ in the land tf 

1. Pison, orPhisoDt 

2. Gihon, 

3. Uiddekel, 

4. Euphrates, or Perath, 


1. Tigris- 

2. (UncerUdn), 

3. Zeindek (G3mdes). 

4. Euphrates, or Great River. 

As the sacred history is very short in other particulars relaC* 
ing to the antediluvian world (that is, the state of the world 
before the flood) so is it in reference to its geography; all tho 
places thereof mentioned by Moses, being either the garden of 
I^den with such places as belong to ihe deacription of ita A%%i 



ation in the land of Eden, or the land of Nod and the city of 
Enoch built therein* 

The term Eden, denoting pleaaure or delight by its primary 
acceptation in the Hebrevir language, has been imposed as a 
proper name on several places: as the Eden or Beth- Eden, 
mentioned by the prophet Amos, near Damascus ; and a village 
on Mount Lebanus of the same name, besides others ; and 
therefore mistaken for th^ site of the original terrestrial Paradise. 
See Doctor Wells' G^ography^ of the Old Testament* 

The same author is of opinion, that the Ark was built in the 
land of Eden, where the antediluvian patriarchs are supposed to 
have remained though ejected froni the Garden. He shews 
that the Ark was built of cypress, whence the Greeks honoured 
the bones of their deceased waiEriors with ^^ cypress arks, or 




,4ncienU Modem. 

X, GouNTitY OF Aharat, I I. Present Armenia. 

Cr. Mount Ararat, ' " M^nntaina nf A 

9« Land of Simoar, or Srinar, 
o. Singar— city, 
^. Singaras mountsdn, 

c. Sem, or Shem — city, 

d. Babel— >city and tower, 

a. Mountains of Armenia. 
3. Mesopotamia and Babylonir, 
now Irak. 

a. Between the Euphrates and 

b. Supposed to have given name 
to the land of Shinar. 

c. Zama, of Ptolemy. 

d. Babylon, or Babii. 


The short account of the antediluvian world, given in the six 
first chapters of Genesis, is followed by the 7th and 8th chapters 
of the same book with an account of the deluge, or flood ; upon 
the abating whereof, the sacred historian tells us tjiat the Ark 
rested upon the mountain of Ararat* From this period to the 
confusion %i Babel} th.e geographical notices are as few as those 

anterior to it, ai just seen ; and nearly in the «iBne region of 

country, only contracting theesiBtem, and extending the northern 
limit. These narrow limits 6f geography render it easy to 
comprehend the expression, as applying to that .peripd, -^ that 
the whole earth was q£ one language." 

Noah and his family having descended, in the course of .the 
Tigris, from the mount and land o{ Arardt, enter and settle in 
the northern part of the landof Shinar, where they buiitthe city 
of Shem. There, (according to the conjecture of Dr. Wells) 
Noah,* Shem, and Japhet, if not Ham, continued, opposiujg the 
construction of the tower of Babel, while the undertakerBxof it 
removed to some, distance from the patriarchs, and pitched 
"^ upon a place more suitable for their purpose, on the bariks of 
tile Euphrates, afterwards the site of the city of Babylon, since 
so famous. However this be, they suffered equally with their 
presumptuous offspring, who would thus assail the kingdom of 
Heaven, and were included as principals in the dispersion that 
ensued ; which has been recited in the Preliminary, and is agutt 
repeated in the following table* 



Ancient. Modem. 

.1. Land of Japhet^ 

1. Javan, 

a. Tarshish, 

b. Dodanim, 

c. Elisha, 

d. Kittim, 

2. Tiras, 

3. Mesheeh, 

I. Europe and morth ov Asia. 
1. The north-east coast of the 
Mediterranean, viz. 

a. South coast of A3ia Minor. 

b. West coast of Asia Minor. 

c. Greece. 

d. Macedon. 
% Thrace. 

3. Italy. 


* The author of the Sacrbs Mzrkor aays, that Noaht after the deluge, haviog 
receired inestimable marks of affection from the Great O^ect of bis adoration, de« 
leended from the mountains of Ararat, and applied lUmself to husbandry After the 
acene of his inebriation, at the time of his vintage, the same author tells us that n<^ 
further particulars are recorded of Noah, but that be died in the 9S0th year of bis ace. 
8o that it is unoertain where he passed the remaining 900 years of his life after w 
confusion. The Orientals, however, affirm that he was buried in Mesopotamia, whefs 
his sepulchre is still shewn, in the ti^uuty of an sdlfiee whieh is calltd liahr Ahonihi or 
the monastery of our father. 


VIEW OF AHdSMmateMiiAPinr 

A. Tubal, 
'5. Gomery 

a. Ripath, 

b. Ashkenaz, 
e. Togarmah, 

6. Magog, or Gogf 
JI. Land oj Shsm, 
1. Elani) 
d. Ashur, 
' 9. Arpharady 
4. £ber, orHebei^ 
^. Joktan, 
a. Havilah) 
^. Sheba, 
r. Ophiri 
, e. Lud» 
T- Aram, 
a. Gethcr, 
A. Uz, 

c. Hul, 
tf. Mash, 

JPI. Land or Ham^ 
I. Cush, 
a. Nimrod, 
^. Seba, 

c. Subtah, 

d, Sheba, 
^. Mizranif 

a. CapthoHmi 

b. Casluhinti 

c. Phiiistiin, 

d. Lehabim, 
8. Phut, 

4. Canaan) 


4. Spain. 

5. N.W. parts of Europe, viz. 
a. British isles. 

d. France. 

r, Germany, Sweden, kc. 

6. Russia, Siberia, k.c. 

II. Thk ^ovtb ov AsiAi 

1. Persia. ' 

2. Assyria. 

3. Carmania. 

4. The Hebrew nations. ^ " 

5. South-east parts of Asia, vie. 
a. Thibet, &c. 

6. Hindostan, or India. 
c. The Molucca isles. 

6. Lydia. 

7. Syria and Mesopotamia, viz. 

a. South-east part of Syria. 

b. South-west part of Syria. 

c. North-west part of Syria. 
d* Mesopotamia. 

III. Africa, Arabia, Sec 

1. Arabia, and S. of Africa, yv^ 

a, Babylon. 

b. Arabia. 

c, Ethiopia. 

d. Sofala. ^ 

2. Egypt, &c. vi9* 

a, Coptos, now Kypt— city. 

b. About the isthmus Suez* 

c. Part of Palestine. 

d, Libya. 

3. Mauretania, Scq*' 

4. Palestine, part of Syria. 

From the text of the sacred historian it may be well inferred, 
«B the learned Mr. Mede has observed, that this great division 
and plantation of the earth was performed in an orderly man- 
ner, and was not a confused and irregular dispersion, wherein 
every one went whither he listed, and ' seated himself as he 
liked best* An orderly sorting is plainly denoted by the ex- 
pressions used in the sacred text, viz. ^^ after their families, 
after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations." The 
reader i^ referred to the article Nations and Lakguaoes, un^ 
tier the second table of the Prelioiinary, for what we have fur* 
iher ;gaid on this headt 

enrBL nmsnoNs. 





I. Paras, or Persia, 

a, Shushan, Cuthah, o^ Cuth, 
^. Assyria, 

a. Nineveh, or Nin-evc, 

b. Resen, 

c. Hdlah, or Calash, 

3. Mesopotamia, 

41. Haran, or Padan Aram, 

b. Rehoboth(on the Euphrates), 

c. Rehoboth (on the Tigris), 

4. Chaloea, 

a. Calneh, 

b. Accad, 
r. Erech, 
</. Babylon^ 

e. Ur, 





Nod, Elam, Susiana, and Per- 
sia successively. 

a. Suster, formerly Susa. 

Kurdist&n, formerly Ashur. 

a, Nino, formerly Ninus. 

h. Larissa, of Xenophon, 

c. (East of Resen). 


a. (Whither Abraham was cal- 

• led from Ur). 

h, El-Bir, formerly Bertha. 

c. Tecrit, formerly Vitra. 

Part of Shinar, Babylonia, and 
Irak, successively. 

a. Al-Modain. 

b. K2a*kuf, formerly Sitace, 

c. Wasit, formerly Aracca. 
d Babil. 

e. Uz, (whence Abraham was 
called to Canaan). ' 

Moses, having named the other sons and grandsons of 
Gush to whom part of the east countries under question were 
allotted at the plantation after the flood, subjoins, that Cush be- 
gat Nimrod who began to 'be a mighty one. upon earth. Indeed 
he was so very well skilled in warfare and hunting, that he be- 
came proverbial for valour and strength. Having seen the 
greater part of the neighbouring country subdued by his arms, 
he pitched upon the very spot where the city and tower of Babel 
had been begun, to . rear the metropolis of his kingdom; which 
was therefore called Babel or Babylon, afterwards distinguished 
a3 one of the wonders of the world for its enormous size and 
singular productions of Art. Some attribute the tower to him. 

In following the series of the sacred history so fgr as to 
Abraham's leaving Haran to come into the land of Canaaan, it 
remains to give an account of that country from the first plan* 
ta^Q of it by Canaan and his posterity after the flood, down 
to, the period, of Abraham's coming, before we proceed to speak 
•f places mentioned duriag his sojourning therein. 








1. Sidonians, 
a. Sidon, 

2. Hittitesy 

a, Hebron or Mamre, 

3. Jebusltes, 

a. Jerusalem, or Je.bu8| 

4. Amorites, 

a. Haze-zon*tamary 

5. Girgashites, 
a. Gergesa? 

6. Hivites, (in Mount Lebanon), 
(7). Canaanites proper,* 

7. Ark4tes, 

a. Arce? (near Mt. Libanus), 

8. Sinites, 
a. Sin, 

9. Aryadites, 

a. Ardus, or Aradu9| 

10. Zieraarltes, 
a, Simgra? 

11. Hamat bites, 
a. Ham at h, 

(11). Kadmonites, and 

1. From Si^don the first son. « 
a. Seide. 

2. From Heth the second son* 
a, Cabr-lbrahim. 

3. From Jebustite the third son. 
a, Kad-She-if, or Ilia. 

4.. From Amorite the fourth soil 
a. (In the hilly country). 

5. From Girgashite the fifth son. 
a. (Unknown). 

6. From Hivite the sixth don. 
(7). (A mixture of families). 

7. From Arkite thb seventh Boa* 
a. Arka. 

8. From Sinite, the eighth jM>n. 
a. (Near Arka). 

9. From Arvadite the ninth son. 
a. Raud. 

10« From Zemarite the tenth aon. 

a. Sumira. 
1 1 . FromHamathite, eleventh son. 

a. Antioch. 
(11). Were Canaanites of inde- 
, terminate origin* 

. Upon the dispersion of mankind the country lying on the 
east ancl south east of the Mediterranean sea, fell to the share 
of Canaan, one of the immediate sons of Ham. So that he 
was seated between the nation of Aram, an immediate son of 
Shera, to the north and east; and the nation of Cush one of his 
brothers, to the south and south-east; and the nation of Miz*- 
ralm, another of his' brothers, to the south-west; his western 
boundary- being the Mediterranean sea. 

The Canaanitish nations took their' names from the elevea 
sons of Canaan from whom they were descended, respectively. 
Dn Wells says that it is more than probable that all these 

* These were the remnants in Canaan, of the five follovia^ natioiiB who were re- 
iBeved out of its limits by the ineroachmeut of tJie Fhilistines. « 


£fimilie8 wefe seated originally in the trae borders of Canaan; 
but in process of time, being dispossessed of a considerable por- 
tion of their patrimony by the Philistines,, some of these were 
obliged to croud closer together in the portion that remained to 
their possession, whilq others were compelled to seek their asy* 
lum in the neighbouring country. Being disturbed in their 
southern possessions, those who flee their country passed its 
northern limits, and those nations that we thus find beyond the 
limits of Canaan, are^ the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, 
the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. We are also informed 
that a portion of each of these nations remaining in Canaan 
were so confusedly mixt as to be no longer distinguishable, and 
were therefore denoted collectively by the general appellative of 
Canaanites. The Kadmonites and Perizzites, were also attri* 
bated to the common original of the Canaanites. 

Before concluding this article we must observe, that this is the 
most suitable place to mention other nations of the vicinity of 
Canaan, though we cannot promise their several origins to be 
Very distinctly marked, as in some instances they are quite ob- 
scure* These were the Avims, the Philistines, the Horites, 
the Emims, the Zamzummims, the Rephaitns. Th^ Avims 
Were probably descendants of Cush. They occupied the tract 
between Gaza and Hazaroth, till they were dispossessed of it 
by the Philistines, descendants of Mizraim, as they passed over 
to perform the like discomfiture for a portion of the Canaanites; 
which they had accomplished when Abraham came to sojourn 
in the promised Land. On the south of Canaan, the Horites 
inhabited, mount Seir 9a\d the adjacent parts so far as, the wiU 
derness otFaran. Further eastwards, and south-east of Canaan, 
dwelt the gigantic Emims. And full east of Canaan, dwelt th# 
gigantic Zamzummims or Zumims. Lastly, on the north-east 
dwelt the Rephaims, who were also of the same gigantic race* 
Thus we have seen the several people that inhabited the coun- 
tries adjoining Canaan on the south-west, south-east, east, and 
north-east, when Abraham came thither. The country directly 
on the north, we have just shewn, was possessed by Btver^ 
Canaanitish families, who had been dispersed by the Philistines* 

It is indeed said, that when Crhedorlaomer, king of Elam, 
with his confederates, smote the Rephaims, Zumims, £mim%, 


and Horites, they also amote the country of the Amalekttes; 
but this mu&t be understood proleptically of the Amalekites^ as 
they were desceqdants of Amalek, grandson of Esau, and there* 
fore gave name to that country long subsequent to the days of 
Abraham and Chedbrlaomer. They consequently belong to a no-* 
ttce (which concludes the Sacred Geography) that will be given of 
the neighbouring nations of Canaan of a subsequent period, who 
had supplanted those just mentioned, previous to Joshua's con* 
quest of the Promised Land* 

s/N/N/V/NyNy^ /•s/NAvTvy* 




!• Salem, or Sechem, afterwards Jerusalem, whither Abraham 
came from Haran by divine command, with his nephew Lotk 

2. Plain of Morieh, otherwise rendered the High Oak^ where 

^ he sojurned awhile, near Salem. 

3. Bethel, whither he came next to sojburn in a neighbour- 

ing mount, till a famine occasioned his departure for Egypt; 
and whither he shortly returned with Lot* 

4. Hai, or Ai, divided from Bethel by the above mentioned 


5. Plain of Jordan, through which the river Jordan flowed, 

and of which the valley of Jericho^ and vale of Sidim^ 
were parts. After parting with his uncle Abraham at the 
mount between Bethel and Hai, Lot chose all the plain of 
Jordan to abide in, and pitched his tent near Sodom. 

6. .SoDOM, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and B^la or Zoar, 

the Pefttapolis or five cities of that pw-t of the, plain of 
Jordan called vale of Sidim, afterwards destroyed by fire, 
and covered by the »ya/f ^era^ '. . 



r. Plajbt of Mahius, near Hebron, where Abraham went td 
abide after parting with Lot, and where he entertained 
three angels under an oak. 

8. Laish or Lash AH, afterwards called Dan, and ataatill later 
period Cwsarea Philippic whither Abraham pursued the 
army of Chedorlaomer, who had carried Lot imo captivity*^ 

9* Ho BAH, whither Abraham continues the purauit of Chedw- 
laomer, and recovers Lot* 

10* The Wilderness of Param, whither he sent Hagar and 
her son. Ishmael to reside by Sarah's request* 

11* B£rRSH£BA,or the well of the Oath^so called on acco^intof 
the covenant Ahraham there made with Abimelech, king 
of the Philistines. ^ A city afterwards built here took the 
same name. 

12. Mount Mo&iah, whither Abraham was ordered by the Al- 

mighty .to go and make him a burnt sacrifice of his only 
son Isaac whom he loved. 


13. Cave of Machpelah, in the field of Machpelahy wherA 

Sarah was buried; and after her, Abraham,* his son Isaac, 
and other patriarchs. 

14. Beerlahai-roi, where Isaac dwelt some time after hift 

father's death, till he removed^ to 

* At bis death Abraham ir)a<Ie Isaac his heir, having given his other ehiMren presetitl 
and setilefl the»n in tlu- cniintry contiguous to Canaan- The fate of the nations de- 
acended of these branches of the pati'iareh's family and of those descended of his grand- 
son Ksau, seems to huvt- been very seriously involved with that of the Cadiaanitep, wheft 
the .\imighty '.trrtmisod the y^OTiJof Canaan to the seed of Abraham for an inheritance, 
and Withal lurtiier proMiised to give unto his seed the dominion of a much larger tracts 
iianieh\ tror the river of Kgypt, unto the great river buphratei: ef course excluding 
from the title ot ieed of ^braham^ all but those descended of Jacob, to whom his 
proniises weie rtpeated, and the title of Israel conferred^ to the exclusion of the other 
tranches, who were only included in the title of dominion. Dr Wells remarks thtt 
** this disti4tciton between what God promised to give and actually did to the liraelitw 
*' for a possesbion, and what he promised to give and actuajly did eive to them for de» 
** minion, is of good use for die olearar understanding •t*tho aaored liiitory.*' 



15. The VaIlkt of Gsbar^ where he repaired the wettoC JBeer« 
. . sheba^ and entered into a covenant with Abimelech, like 
that which his father had joined before him* Jacob hav- 
ing deceived him, is sent to his uncle's at Haran ; and 
Isaac afterwards dwelt at Mamre. 

I6« BBTRELf or house of God^ where Jacob on his way from 
Beersheba to Haran, had a vision, in which the Almighty 
renewed the proiiiise he had made to Abraham and Isaac, 
that in his seed should all the families of the earth be blessed^ 
alluding to the Saviour of the world* The name of Bethel 
was communicated to the neighbouring city of Luz, which 
was afterwards called Beth-aven by the prophet Hosea, in 
consequence of Jeroboam's setting up one of his golden 
calves therein* 

17. GiLEAD) where Laban overtook Jacob on his flight with 
his wives from Haran. 

I8« Mahaitim, or the two Ao^^^^ where Jacob met the angels bf 
God, on this side of the Jordan* Here David retired 
during the rebellion of his son Absadom* 

19* Peniel, or Pekuel, where Jacob, still on his journey 
from Haran, saw God face to face, wheh the Almighty 
named him Israel* He next came to 

90. SuccoTH, not £ar from the Jordan^ where he bttitt hiihself 
a house, and booths for his cattle* After some time he 
proceeds to 

21* Salem, Or Sechem, afterwards Jerusalem as seen above, 
where he bought a ^parcel of ground.' Having had ano- 
ther vision of the Almighty at Bethel whither he wctot by 
divine appointment^ he proceeds to 

22« Ephratb or Bethlehem, near which Rebecca died In 
• giving birlii to Benjamin* And Jacob set a pillar opon 
her grave between Salem and Bethlehem. After this he 
went to 



33. The Plaik of Mahre, or Hebrou, tinto his father, who, 
dyin^ tb^Hrdy after, yas btiried by his two sobs E^u and 
Jacob; the former then going into Mount Seir for his habi- 
latjioi}, thie letter (Gooiinui^d at • the late residence qf hif 
father, whence, aometinie after, his aon Joseph went to 

24. DoTHAy, for his brothers; whereupon they sell him to 
Ishmaelite and Midianite merchants, who carried him 
thence into Egypt. 


1. (Objects west 

a. Isle of the 70 Interpreters, 

d. No, or Ammon-No, 
c. Noph, or Memphis, 

2. Rahab, 
o. Zoan, (royal city of Pharaoh), 

b. Sain, 
r. Ribeisetbf 

3. Land of Go^hbk,* or Rahk- 


a. SiO) 

b. Tapfaanhes, or Taphnas, 
r. On, Aven, or Bethshemesh, 
d» Old Cairo, 

e. Pithom, 
/, Rameses or Raamses, 

g, Succothy 
h. Etham, 

f. Piahiroth, 
j. Migdol, 
k. Baal-sephon, 

4. Land of Pathros, 
X a. No, or A.mmon-No, (City of 

b. Syene, 

(cV Nahal, or Great River, 
{dy Sichor, or river of Egypt, ^ 

1. — oftheNUe). 

a. Pharos, near Al€wandiia» 

b. Alexandria. 

c. (No remains). 

2. The Delta. 

a. San, (Tanis of the Greeks). 

b. Sa, (Sais^. 

c. Basta, (Bubastus). 

3. (East of the Delu to the Isth« 

a. Tineh, (Pelusium)? 

b. Safnas, (Daphnas Pelusias). 

c. Matarea, (Heiiopolis). 

d. (Rose from the decline of 

e. Heroopolis. 
e. (Whence the Israelites, de^ 

parted for Canaan). 

h, I (Confining on the Red Sea, 
<• >in theroute of the Israelite^ 
h I journeying from. Egypt). 

3. Thebais, or Upper ^oypt. ^ 

a. Aksor, or LuKor (Qiospltfl 
Magna, or Thebae). 

b, Assuan. 
(c). The Nile, 
(cf). Between Egypt Sc Canaan. 


* That tni«t^lfi{iypt wKick was assiigned to tlM IsradHet to 4well w; 

174 vnsw or ANCiBNt geography. 




I. Rameses; whence the Israelites set forth for Canaan. 

Sl« SuccoTH, their first day's journey, marching eastwardly. 

3* Etham, their second day's journey, near the wilderness, 
whence, God having vouchsafed to guide them in future 
by a niiraculous pillar, that had the appearance of smoke 
by day, and fire by night, they turn S. W. to 

4. PiHAHiROTH, their third day's journey, to pass the 

5« Red Sea (its western arm) or Weedy «ea, to avoid Pharaoh's 
army; the water yielding to them but destroying, the army. 

6. Wilderness of Etham, or Shur, into which, out of the 

Red Sea, they went three day's journeying to 

7. Marah, where the water was bitter, but sweetened by a 

peculiar wood* Hence they went to 

8. Elim, where they found 12 wells, and 70 palm-trees. From 

Elim, passing near the 

9* Red Sea, they encamped in the 

10. Wilderness of Sin, where God first sent them manna, 
with which they were thereafter regularly served. 

II. DoPHKOH, was next to Sin. 

12* Alush, was next to Dophkoh. 

13. Rephidini, at Mt. Horeb or Massah, where Mosea smote 
the rock of Horeb for water, subdued the Amaalekites, 
and built aa altar. They next encamped at 



14. Mt. Sinai, part of Mt. Horeb (now Mt. of Moses) where 

they stript themselves of their ornaments to make the 
golden calf; which they worshipped, whilst Moses went 
into the mount to receive the Table of Covenant from 
God and the plan of the tabernacle, aiid here erected it. 
Next is 

15. Taberah, where God destroyed some of the Israelites for 

niurmurings &c., with fire and a plague. They were car- 
ried to 

16. KiBRoTH-HATTAAVAH, wherc they were buried. Hence 

the Israelites journeyed to 

ir. Hazeroth, where Miriam was punished with leprosy for 
speaking against Moses, &c« 

18. Kadesh-barnea, in the wilderness of Paran, whence 
Moses bv divine command, sent men to search for the land 
of Canaan ; their account of which produced despair of 
its conquest. For this want of faith God condemns the 
adults to dwell and die in the wilderness, excepting Joshua 
and Caleb. I^otwithstanding, they in defiance, attempt to 
go direct to Canaan ; but the Amalekites and Canaanites 
smote them into 

19. HoRMAH, whereupon they wept before the Lord ; but he 

would not hearken to their voices; so they took their 
journey again into the wilderness, by the Red sea unto 

20. Kadesh, in Zin, whereabouts they abode for several days • 

and having compassed mount Seir, or land of Edom for- 
some time, leave the desert, and encamp at 

31. Mount Hor, in the edge of Edom, where Aaron died. 
Decamping hence they pitched in Zalmonahy then in Punon 
and then in 

22. bfiOTH, where they again despair; for which fiery serpents 
. are sent among them; they repent and are forgiven, &c» 
They proofed te 


23. IjB-BARiM, on the border of Moab; wheiKC th«y pass the. 

valley or brook Zered; when, 38 years having elapsed, 
and the aff nders being nearly all dead) God churges Mo- 
E^s to pa»s the coast of Moabv and not to di^re$0 the chil- 
dren pf Amman, on coining ^moing ciiem* Accordingly 
they pass the river Amon to 

24. Dibon-Gad, among the Amorites. After making several 

other encampments, they pitched in the 

25. Plains of Moab, by the Jordan, near Jericho; whence 

God commanded Moses to get into the mountain Abarim^ 
unto mount Nebo^ to the top of Pisgash that is over 
against Jericho, and take a view of the delightful country 
from which he was excluded on account of his improper 
conduct in the desert of Zio; which he did, after appoint- 
ing Josh]iia his successor to conduct the Israelites into 
Canaan, and there died. 




Nam£&— this rich and beautiful tract of country was first 
called the Land of Canaan, from Noah'« grandson, 
by whom it was peopled : but in the latter ages it has 
been distinguished by other appellations ; such as the 

many. Land of Promise^ the Land of God^ the Holy Land^ 

Palestine^ JudeUy and the Land of IsrasL 

m^Mnd, ^^^ J^^* ^^^ dignified this country with the title ^ 
of Holy Land^ on account of its metropolis, which was 
regarded as the center of God's worship, and his pe- 
culiar habitation : * and Christian writers have deemed 
it worthy of the same honor, as being the scene oa 
which the coequal Son of God accomplished the great 
work ofredem ption. 

CnrtL IHTKH0N9. 


It Was ciUcd Pakstine from the Palestmes or Phil- Why eaUed 
ittines, who possessed a considerable share of it : and 
Judea, from the tribe of Judab, who inhabited the 
finest part of the whole. At present it is generally 
distinguished by th€ name of Palestine; 

It was bounded on the west by the Great sea^ or Me* Boundary 
diiierranean I on the cast by the lake Asphaltites^ ^^^ Extent- 
river jfordan^ the Samachonite lake, and the sea of 
Tiberias \ on the north by the mountains of Anttli" 
banus : and on the south by Edom or Idumea. Its ex* 
tent, according to the most accurate maps, appears to 
have been 200 miles in lengthy and about 80 in breadth 
it the widest part. It reaches from 31 deg. 3 min. to 
33 deg. 20 min. of north latitude ; and from 34 deg. 
50 mio. to 37 deg. 15 min. of east longitude. 

It 18 necessary to observe, that this description isdoubtfuUn 
confined to the part which is properly called the Land JXr*^^*' 
of Promise ; the boundaries of that part which be- 
longed to two tribes and a half on the other side of 
the Jordan, called Percea^ and of the kingdoms of 
Sihan^ Og^ &c. are not so easily ascertained, any more 
than the conquests and acquisitions which they after- 
wards made under the reigns of their most prosperous 

The serenity of the air, the fertility of the soil, and Climate 
the incomparable excellence of the fruits of Palestine, Fecundi- 
induced the Jewish lawgiver to describe it as " a land ^^' 
that flowed with milk and honey ; a land of brooks and 
waters, of fountains that spring out of the hills and 
valleys ; a land of wheat and barley, of vines, pome- 
granates, figs, and honey ; a land where there is no 
Iftck or scarcity of any thing.'' Its richness and fecun- 
dity have been extolled even by Julian the Apostate, 
and many writers have descanted upon its natural 
beauties. But in consequence of«the just anger of 
God, the greater part of it is now reduced into a mere 
desert, and seems incapable of cultivation. 


"Movjx- Of the mountains so frequently celebrated in the pqe- 

JMumuif * tic books of Holy writ, those of Lebanon, or Lib anus, 
were the highest and most considerable* This famous 
chain is computed to be about 300 miles in compass, 
having Mesopotamia on the east, ^rm^riia on the nortn, 
Palestine on the south, and the Mediterranean on the 
west. It consists of four rtdffes^ which rise above 
each other ; the first is extremely fertile in grain and 
fruit ; the second barren and rocky ; the third embel- 
lished with verdant plants, balsamic herbs, and odor- 
iferous flowers ; and the fourth^ by reason of its sur- 
prising, height, is generally covered with snow. Several 
inconsiderable rivers have their sources in these moun- 
tains, viz. the 'Jordan^ Rocham^ Nahar-Rossian^ and 
Nahar-Cadicha ; some others of less stream, rush down 
the heights, and form the most beautiful cascades that 
ever attracted the admiration of the curious. The 
western ridge is properly distinguished by the appella- 
tion of Libaniis^ as the eastern is called AntilibanuSj 
and the hollow between, Ccelosyria* They are at pre- 
sent inhabited by the Maronites and wild Arabs : and 
spotted with various edifices, as churches, convents, 
chapels, grots, &c. These mountains make a consider- 
able figure in the Jewish history, on account of the 
prodigious number of cedars, which they afforded for 
the ornament of Solomon's temple and metropolis* 
And St. Jerom, speaking of Libanus, says, "it is the 
highest hill in all the Land oi Promise ^ as well as the 
most woody and thickset.*' 

M9imt ra- Mount Tabor is justly admired for its beauty, 
regularity, fertility, and central situation in a large 
plain, at a distance from any other hill. It enjoys the 
noblest prospect that can possibly be imagined, of many 
places famed in Scripture; such as the hills oi Sama- 
maria and Engadi on the south ; those of Herman and 
Gilboa on the east and north-east ; and mount Carmel 
on the south-west^ Some remains of the wall and 
gates built by Josephus are still visible on the top ; 
and on the eastern side are those of a strong castle^ in 
the cincture of which are three altars ia remembrance 


•f the three tabernacles^ which St. -Peter proposed to 
erect at the time of our Lord's transfiguration. 

Mount C akmel stands on the skirts of the sea« and Momi C«S 
18 the most remarkable headland on the coast* It seems 
to have derived its name from its abundant fertility, 
and is highly venerated both by Jews and Christians, 
as having be^en the residence of the prophet Elijah. 

Mount Olivkt, or the mount of Olives, is sitxx^ Mcmt OJu 
ated at the distance of one mile from Jerusalem^ and^'' 
commands a fine view of the city, from which it is 
parted by the brook Kedron^ and the valley of Jeho* 
shaphat. It is not, in reality, a single hill, but part of ' 
a long ridge, withybz^r sumtbits extending from north 
to south ; the middlemost of which is that whence 
Our Saviour ascended to Heaven. 

Mount Calvary claims our chief regard, ^s the Mount Cay 
scene of our Redeemer's ^r«i^ atonement for his sinful^"*"^' 
creatures. It stood anciently without the gates of the 
c;ty, being the place appointed for public executions*. 
But the emperor Adrian having ordered Jerusalem to 
be rebuilt a little to the northward of its former situa- 
tion, enclosed this mountain within the walls. Con* 
stantine erected a magnificent church upon it ; and it 
has always beien regarded as a place of great venera- 
tion by Christians of all denominations. 

Mount Gihon stands west of jferusaleniy and at 9l Mount fik 
smaller distance than Calvary j being about two furlongs **"' 
from the gate of Bethlehem. It was here that Solomon 
was anointed king by Zadock the priest, and Nathan 
the prophet. There was also a celebrated pool upon it, ' 
from which king Hezekiah brought water by an aque- 
duct, into the city. It is still a noble basin, one hundred 
and six paces long, and sixty-seven broad, lined with 
plaster, and well stored with water/ 

Mount Mori ah, the site of the famous temple oi j^ount Jifi- 
Solomon, stands on the south-east of Calvary^ having **«**• 



Millo on the west, so called from the filling up of that 
deep valley, in order to raise it to a level with the rest« 
It is commonly supposed that Abraham ^was com- 
manded to offer his beloved son Isaac as a burnt sa- 
crifice to God upon this mountain. I^is article of 
mountains may be* concluded with observing, that those 
in the kingdom of yudah mostly stand southward to- 
wards the land of Edom ; but those of the kingdom of 
Israel are interspersed within the country. 

• « 

Valleys; The most celebrated of the valleys were Berekhah, 
• in the tribe .of Judah^ on the west side of the lake of 
Sodom; Sidim, famed for the overthrow of Chtdor- 
laomer; Shaveh, or the royal valley, where the king 
of Sodom met Abraham after the defeat of the con- 
federates ; the VALE of Salt, celebrated for the over- 
throw of the Edomites by David and Amaziah ; Jez- 
REEL, the scene of Jezabei's untimely end ; Mamre, 
80 called from the name of its owner, and from the 
oak under which Abraham entertained the three celes- 
tial visitors; Rephaik, the vale of the Titans and 
giants ; Jehoshaphat, so called from the victory 
there obtained by a monarch of that name ; Hinnom, 
anciently defiled by many barbarous rites and super- 
Btitiqns ; Zeboim, which received its appellation from 
one of the four cities that perished with Sodom^ near 
the Dead sea; Achor, where Achan was put to 
death by the Israelitish host^forhis sacrilege; Bochim, 
so denominated from the universal mourning which the 
Israelites made there on account of the dreadful mes- 
sage which they received from God for their disobe- 
dience ; and the valley or Elah, famous for the de- 
feat of Goliath and the Philistines, by David and his 
royal patron SauU 

Flaini. There were likewise several noted plains in Pales* 

tiney viz. the Great plain, through which the river 
Jordan runs; the plain of Jezreel, which extended 
from Scythopolis to mount Carmel; Sharon, where the 
Gadites are supposed to have fed their numorous 
flocks and herdA ; Sapualah, which extended we8(« 

CIVIL myisicyNs. j81 


ward and southward of jEleutherofiolis ; jEHidHO, much 
celebrated for its palm'trees^ balm^ shruby and rosC' 
trees ; with others too numerous to admit of memory. 

Many deserts and wildernesses of this country are Dbse&ts. 
mentioned in the sacred history, which are not, how- 
ever, to be understood of places quite barren or ttnin-' 
habited ; for several of them contained cities and vil- 
lages. The word, therefore, commonly meant no * 
more than a tract that bore neither corn, wine, nor oil^ 
but was left to the spontaneous productions of nature* 
The most noted of these deserts were Arnon, in which ' 
the river of that name runs through the land of Giteadg 
ZiPH, where David sought an asylum from persecu- 
tion ; . C ADESH, near Cadesh-Barneuy on the south side 
of Judah^ mentioned as the place where Moses and 
Aaron were chastised for smiting the rock ; Mahon^ 
on the south of Jeshimon; Tekoah, Bezer, Gibeok^ 
and several others. 

Among the woods or forests mentioned in Scrip- Woods. 
ture, were those of Hareth, whither David with- 
drew from Saul; Ephraim, where Absalom received 
the just' reward of his rebellion; Lebanon, where 
Solomon built a magnificent palace; and Bethel^ 
whence the bears came and devoured the children 
who insulted the Prophet Elisha* 

Of the seas there are commonly reckoned ^o^, viz.SsAt. 
the Great sea or the Mediterranean, the Dead sea^ 
the sea of Tiberias^ the Samochonite sea or lake, and 
the sea of Jazer* The Jirst of these has been frp* * 
quently described by travellers: the second^ called by 
some authors the Asphaltite lake^ i#» so impregnated 
with salt, that those who dive beneath its surface are 
immediately covered with a brine; and vast quantities 
of bitumen are thrown by its ^aves, upon the shore: the 
third is highly commended by Josephus for the sweet- 
loess and coolness of its water, and variety of excel* ^ 
lent fish: the fourth is famed only for the thickness of 
its water, from which it is supposed to have derived 





its name: and the fifth is no other than a small lake in 


the vicinity of the city Jazer* 

ftzvxRt. The Jordan is the most considerable of the riversj 

-and indeed the only stream that merits the name, as 
the Arnoriy Jabbok^ Chtreth^ Sorek^ Kishon^ Bosor^ i^c. 
are but brooks or rivulets in comparison of this. It 
has its source at the famous lake of Phiala^ about ten 
miles north of that of Samochon; its course is mostly 
^ southward inclining a few degrees towards the west; 
its breadth has been compared to that of the Thames at 
Windsor; its depth is said to be three yards at the very 
brink; its rapidity considerable ; and the , scenery of 
its banks varied, according to the place which it inter- 
sects. In ancient times, it overflowed about the sea- 
son' of the early harvest, or soon after Easter, but it 
is no longer subject to this inundation. The plain 
on both sides from the sea of Tiberias^ to the Asphal* 
ttte lake, is extremely arid and unwholesome during the 
heat, of summer, and every where steril, except that 
part which lies contiguous to the riven 


Among the most remarkable curiosities of Palestine, 
ms^ be justly reckoned various petrifactions in the 
neighbourhood of Mount Carmel^ which bear the most 
exact resemblance to citrons j melons^ olives^ peaches^ 
and other vegetable productions. Here are also found 
a kind of oysters^ and bunches of grapes of the same 
consistence. Small round stones, resembling peas^ 
'have been frequently seen on a spot of ground near 
Rachel's tomb, not far from Bethlehem^ On the same 
road is a fountain, honoured with the name of Apos- 
tles' Fountain; and a little further is a barren 
rugged, and dismal solitude, to which our Saviour 
retired, and was tempted by the Devil. In this de- 
scent appears a steep and craggy mountain, on the 
summit sf which are two chapels. There are also 
several gloomy caverns in the neighbourhood, for- 
merly the solitary retreat of Christian anchorets. 
Under this class of natural curiosities must also be 
ranked the hot and medicinal waters of Palestine,; the 


saline efflorescences observed, at the distance of a- few 
leagues from the Dead sea; and the celebrated fruit, 
called by the Arabs Zachone which grows on a kind 
of thorny bush and resembles^a small unripe walnut. 

Among the artificial rarities may be considered ^''^t/^'^*"/ 
the ruins of Ptotcmais^ or St. John d'Acre, which still 
retain many vestiges of ancient magnificence; such as ' 
the remains of a noble Gothic cathedral^ formerly dedi'* 
cated to St. Andrew; the church of St* jfohn^ the titu-* 
lar saint of the city; the converts of the knights hos- 
pitallers; and the palace of their grand master. The 
remains of Sebaste (the ancient Samaria), though long 
ago laid in ruins, and great part of it turned into arable 
land, exhibit some marks of those sumptuous edifices 
with .which it was adorned by king Herod. Towards 
the north side of a large square piazza, encompassed 
with marble pillars, together with the fragments of 
strong walls at some distance. But the most remarka- 
ble object is a churchy said to have been built by the 
empress Helena over the place where St. John the 
Baptist was beheaded, the dome of which, together 
with some beautiful columns, capitals, and mosaic work, 
prove it to have been a noble fabric. 

Jacob's well is highly venerated by Christian tra- jraroiV w<rfl. 
vellers on account of its antiquity, and of our Re- 
deemer's conference with the woman of Samaria. It is \ 
hewn out of the solid rock, about thirty-five yards in 
depth, and three in diameter, and is at present covered 
with a stone vault* 

. The Pools of Solomon, supposed to have hi^txk PoohofSol- 
made by order of that monarch for the supply of his ^^^^* 
palaces, gardens, and even of the metropolis itself, still 
appear to have been a work of immense cost and labour: 
such also are the sealed fountains immediately opposite. 
These pools are three in a row, one over th'b other, 
and disposed in such a manner that the water of the 
uppermost may fall into the second, and from the se- 
cond into the third. They are all quadrangular, and of 

Ig^ yiBW OF ANCiEirr geography* 

an ei^ual breadth, viz. about ninety paces; but in length 
they differ, the first being 160 paces, the second 20O 
paces, and the^Mir^ 220 paces: they are all of a con- 
siderable depth, walled and plastered, and contain a 
large quantity of water. At the distance of one hun- 
dred and twenty paces, is the spring which supplies 
them. The aqueduct is built on a foundation of 
stones, and water runs in earthen pipes about ten in- 
ches in diameter. This work anciently extended 
several leagues, but at present there are only some 
fragments of it to be found. The gardens of Solomon 
have also been long destroyed, and the ground is said 
to appear almost incapable of cultivation. 

Oihtr popu. The famous Pools of Gihon, and the Pools of 
Bethesda, may be ranked among the most stately 
ruins; the former is situated about a quarter of a mile 
from Bethlehem-gate westward: its length is 160 paces, 
and its breadth 67 paces. .It is lined with a wall and 
plaster, and contains a considerable store of water. 
The other at Jerusalem^ is 120 paces long, 40 broad 
and 8 deep; but at present dry. 

jsrativeman' In the City of Bethlehem they pretend to show 
geroj 18 . ^^ stable and manger where the adorable Messiah lay 
at the period of his nativity; and exhibit ^grotto hewn 
out of a chalky rock, in which they affirm the blessed 
Virgin concealed herself and holy child from the per- 
secution of Herod. 

Churcftes, At Nazareth is a magnificent church under ground, 

said to occupy the very caye where the Virgin Mary 
received the angel's salutation, and where two beauti- 
ful PILLARS of GRANITE are erected in commemora- 
tion of that interesting event. At a small distance are 
some fine remains of another church, supposed to 
have been erected in the time of the empress Helena. 
But this is much inferior to the great church built 
' over our Saviour's sepulchre by the same empress, 

and called the church of the Holy Sepulchre* 

• N 



The last class of artificial curiosities worthy of no- Sepulehrai 
tice is that of the sepulchral monuments, which are 


scattered all over the country; and of which the most 
remarkable are selected for the reader^s gratification. ' 

The tomb of the holy Virgin, situated near Jerusa- Tomb of the 
lem, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, to which there is a ^^ *'^"*' 
descent by a magnificent flight of steps, has on the 
right hand side, the sepulchre of St. Anna the mother, 
and on the left, that of Joseph the husband, of Mary. 
In each division are altars for the celebration of divine 
worship; and the whole i3 cut out of the solid rock. 

The monument of king Jehoshaphat is divided into TJ^Tf'/-^*^*? 
several appartments; one of which contains his tomb, ^6<a£m. 
adorned with a stately portico and entablature. That 
of Absalom, two furlongs distant from Jerusalem, is 
about twenty cubits square, adorned below with four 
columns of the Ionic order, with th/eir capitals and entab- 
latures to each front. From the height of twenty to 
forty feet it is somewhat less, and quite plain, excepts 
ing a small fillet at the upper end; and from forty to 
the top it changes into a round, which tapers regularly 
to a point, the whole cut out of the solid rock. 

A little further westward is the tomb of Zecharia, Tomb «/ Zc- 
the son of Barrachia, who is said to have been slain by ^ '^ 
the Jews between the temple and the altar. This 
structure is all cut out of the natural rock. It is 
eighteen feet high, as many square, and adorned with 
Ionic columns. 

But the most curious and magnificent pieces of anti- The royal 
quity of this kind are the royal sepulchres, without **^^'*^*^*^* 
the walls of Jerusalem : they are all hewn out of the 
solid' marble, and contain several spacious and elabo- 
rate apartments. On the eastern side is the entrance 
leading to a stately court, about 120 feet square, neatly 
wrought and polished. On the south side of it is a 
sumptuous portico, embellished in front with a kind of 
architrave, and supported by columns, and on the left 


of the portico is a descent into the sepulchral apart- 
ments. The first of these apartments is a handsome 
room, about 24 feet square, formed with such neatness 
and accuracy, that it may justly be styled a beautiful 
chamber, hollowed out of one piece of marble. From 
this room are three passages leading to^ other chambers 
of a similar fabric, but of different dimensions ; in each 
of which are stone coffins placed in niches, that were 
once covered with semicircular lids, embellished with 
flowers, garlands, &c. but now broken in pieces. The 
door cases, hinges, pivots, &c. are all of the same stone 
with the other parts of these rooms, and even the 
doors appear to have been cut out of the very pieces to 
which they hang. Why these grots are honoured with 
the appellation of sepulchres of the king's^ is not exactly 
known; but whoever views them with any degree of 
attention must be induced to pronounce them a royal 
work, and to regard them as the most authentic re- 
mains of the old regal splendour, that are to be met 
with in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. 

SStt." Subsequent to its conquest^fey the children of Israel, 
tiont, JuDEA, or Canaan in its mo^t extensive sense, was di- 

vided into maritime and inland^ as well as into cham- 
patgn ^nd mountainous; and again subdivided into Judea 
on this side, and Judea beyond the Jordan. But the 
most considerable division was that made by lot 
among the twelve tribes^ for the prevention of mur- 
murs and discontent, when two tribes and a half wer^ 
seated beyond the river, and the rest on this side. 
In the reign of king Solomon it was divided into twelve 
districts, each under a peculiar officer; and, in the time 
of his imprudent son Rehoboam, a more fatal division 
was effected by the revolt, of ten tribes, who under the 
conduct of Jeroboam, established a new monarchy, 
which they called the kingdom of Israel, in opposition 
to that of Judah. After the return of the Jews from 
captivity, and during the times of the second temple^ 
we here distinguish four principal divisions: as Judea^ 
Samaria, Galilosa, and Percca. The Romans divided 
it into provinces Yi\i\z^ have been seen in Part II*; and 

after VHrkmid changes that totik pUce tinder the north* 
em bariiamifs, Sameens^ SriCi the Tiirka reduced- it to 
n.' province VLTkAtt the beglerbeg^te or bashawship of 

But to be more particular, we will speak of theTwBLv* 
twelve tribes of Israel, begininng with the two tribes^*'***' 
and a half, seated beyond • Jordan; proceeding to the 
nine and a half on this side, staled more properly the 
Holy Land; and concluding with a topical description 
of the contiguous countries, the inhabitants of which 
either mingled with, or bordered upon the Jews. 

The kings of Bashan and of the Amorites, being van' Two tribe* 
' quished by the children of Israel, their territories ^^^ * ^^» 
were settled by the two tribes of Reuben and Gad^ 
with half of Manasseh; and subsequent to the Jewish 
captivity took the denomination of Persea* 

Reuben, who was the eldest, had the southern part— i2««*«> 
of the new conquest, extending from the nort-east coasts 
of the Asphaltite lake along the eastern banks of the 
river Jordan; divided on the south from Midian by the 
Arnon; on the north from the tribe of Gad, by another 
little river; and bordered on the east partly by the 
Moabites, and partly by the Ammonites; while the 
Jordan parted it on the west from the land of Promise. 
It exhibited three famous mountains, viz. Peor^ Nebo^ 
and Pisgah^ and was everywhere extremely fertile in 
com, wine, fruits, and pasturage. 

To the north of Reuben was fixed the tribe of Gad, ^Gad,- an^ 
having likewise the river Jordan on the west, the 
Ammonites on the east, and the half tribe of Manasseh 
on the north. This tract of country, like the former, 
was famed for its rich pasturage and exuberant produc- 

The portion allotted to the half tribe of Manasseh halfofMif 
was bounded on the south by that of Gad, oti the west"**** 
by the Jordan and Samochonite lake, on the east by 




the hilk of Bashan and flermon, and on the north by 
a part of Lebanon. Its extent was almost equal to 
the other two; and when a sufcisequent distribution of 
names furnished that of Galil«ea to the northern parta 
of Judea largely taken, this tract constituted that part 
of it that was properly called Upper GaUlsea, or the 
Galilee of the Gentiles. 

Other foar The furthest northern verge of Judea on this side 
'* ^*- ^f ^\^^ Jordan, was occupied by the tribes of A$her, 
Naphtali, Zebulon, and Issachs^r. It was afterwards 
called Lower Galilaea. It produced an abundance of 
corn, oil, wine, and fruits of various sorts; and was, in 
its flourishing condition, so full of towns and villages, 
that Josephus observes, the least of them contained 
fifteen thousand inhabitants. 

.mother: The tribe of Asher was seated on the i«)rth*we8t 

corner of this tract, having the Mediterranean on 
the west, Zebulon on the south, and Naphtaii on the 
east. Its fecundity and the excellence of its produc- 
tions, fully answtred the blessing which dying Jacob, 
gave it: ^^ that the bread of it should be fat, and that 
*^ it should yield royal dainties." 

— JVo/Atofi/ Naphtaii possessed a tract of of country between 
that of Asher and the river Jordan. It was exceed** 
ingly fertile, and extended along the western bank of 
the river from Mount Lebanon to the sea of Tiberias* 

^ZelnUon; Xo the south of Asher and Naphtaii was seated the 
tribe of Zebulon, having the Mediterranean on the 
west, the sea of Galilee on the east, the river Jepthael 
on the north, and that of Kishon on the south; and by 
its vicinity to the sea^ its numerous ports, and exten- 
sive commerce, it perfectly verified the blessings given 
to Zebulon both by Jacob and Moses. 


The possessions of Issachar were bounded by the 
Jordan on the east; by Zebulon on the north, by th« 


Mediterraoiean on the west, and by the other half of 
Manasseh on the south. Its most remarkable places 
were Mounts Carmel and Gilboa, the valley of Jezreel, 
and the great plain of Megiddot 

- The tract on the south of Issachar, distinguished Mi^£jf ^^^ 
later times by the name of Samaria, Was divided be^ viz. . ' 
tween the other half tribe of Manasseh, and the tribe of ,^ 
Ephraim. The face of it. varied considerably, some 
partsr being mountainous, rocky, and steril; while 
others were pleasant, fertile, and populous* 

That portion which appertained to Manasseh was^^-Jfej^of 
bordered on the north and south by Issachar and J^^^******'* 
Ephraim, and on the east and west by the Jordan and 
the Mediterranean. It was agreeably diversified with 
mountains, plains, and valleys, and contained a con« 
siderable number of stately cities^ 

The tribe of Ephraim occupied the south side of—^^*'"^ 
Samaria, and extended like that of Manasseh, from 
the Mediterranean to the river Jordan. The lowlands 
were extremely rich and luxuriant; the hills afforded 
excellent pasture, and even the rocks were, prettily 
decorated with trees. The towns and cities were nu- 
merous, and the population considerable. 

That district of the Promised Land to which the Other ftjf 
name of Judea was particularly applied after the libera- V 
tion of the Jews above alluded to, when it had Sama- 
ria on the north, the Mediterranean on the west, Egypt 
and Idumea on the south, with the Jordan and Dead 
sea on the east, was allotted to the tribes of Benjamin, 
Judah, Dan, and Simeon. The climate was warm, 
but well refreshed with cooling winds; and the face of 
the country exhibited the most beautiful assemblage of 
verdant mountains, irriguous plains, fruitful hills, ena- 
melled valleys, and crystal rivulets; while a rich pro- 
fusion of corn, wine, and oil, evinced the natural te^ . ^'^^ 
cundity of the soil. 


- "V 

|f9 *^^^ ^ ANCQarr «fSOGRAFOT. 

^Mtnjaminj j^ tribe of BeajftmiD was contiguous to |iidah on die 
^outb^ to Ephraim on the norths and to Dan on the 
west* It contained but few town^ and cities; but. this 
want was amply compH^naated by the possession of the 
city of Jerusalem, the centre of the Jewish worship, 
the. seat of the monarchs and pontiffs, and the great 
metropolis of the holy land. Jerusalem was formerly 
divided into four parts, each eiiclosed .with separa^ 
walls, viz. the old city pf J^bus, situated on Mount 
Zipn, where David and his successors resided ; the 
lower city, embellished with some magnificent palaces 
and citadels, by Solomon, Antiochus, and Herod ; the 
new qity, chiefly inhabited by merchants, tradesmen, 
9nd aritificers; apd Mount Moriah, which supported the 
sumptuous temple of Solomon, .dc^stroyed by Nebu** 
qhadne^zar, rebuilt by the Jews on their return from the 
Babylonish captivity, and afterwards reqewed, adorned^ 
and enriched by Herod. This pace rich af^ stately mc^ 
tropolis is at present reduced to a thinly inhabited town 
of about three miles in circuinference. It stands in 
31 deg* 48 min. of north latitude, and 34» deg* 34 min« 
of east longitude, on a rocky eminenqe, surrounded on 
aHl a^es, except the north, withstepp ascents and deep 
valleys below; and these again are environed with other 
hUls at a distance. The soil in some places produces 
com, wine, and oil ; but the greater part, fgr want of 
cultivation, is become stony, sandy, and barren. Sub- 
sequent to. its total destruction by Vespasian, the em- 
peror Adrian built a new city almost upon the sit^e of 
the old town, and adorned it with several noble edi- 
fices ; but In the time of Helena, mother of Constantino 

/ the Gre^t, it was found in so ruinous and forlorn a 

condition as raised her pity into a noble zeal of restor- 
ing it to its ancient grandeur. With this design she 
cau9i^ all the rubbish to be removed frpjpd Moui^t Cal- 
vary, and ordered a magnificent church to be built 
there, to comprehend as many of the scenes of our 
Redeemer's sufferings as could be conveniently enclosed 
within one edifice. The walls are of stone, and the 
roof of cedar ; the east end includes Mount Calvary, 
and the west contains the holy sepulchre. The formec 

9ITJL mvimQirs; ' "^ 4^ 

is' covered widi a handsome ciip(dft, supported *l^ six- 
teen massive columns, foimerly-incrusted with marble*. 
The centre is open oa the top just over the sepulchre; 
and above the high' ait^r,* at the east end,- is another 
statdy dome. The nave of the church forms the choir, 
and in the interior aisles are the places wh^re the most 
remarkable circumstances of our Saviour's passion 
were transacted, together with the tombs of Godfrey 
and Baldwin, t^e first of two Christian kings of Jeru- 
salem* An ascent of twenty-two steps leads to a 
chapel, where that part of Calvary is shewn on which 
due Messiah was crucified* The altar is adorned with 
three crosses, and other costly embellishments, among 
which, are forty-six silver lamps that are kept constant- 
Vf burnings Contiguous to this is another small chapel < 
fronting the body of the church. At the west end is 
the chapel of the sepulchre, hewn out of the solid rock, 
and ornamented with pillars of porphyry. The clois* 
ter rotind the sepulchre is divided into several chapels 
for the use of, the different Christian sects who reside 
there ; a^d on the north-west are the apartments of 
the Latins, who have the care of the church. It may 
be proper to mention here an edifice erected on Mount 
Moriah, called Solomon's temple, though it is not easy 
to guess when or by whom it was built. The entrance 
is at the east end, under an octagon, adorned with a 
cupola and lantern ; and towards the west is a straight 
^isle like that of a church, the whole surrounded with 


a spacious court, and walled on every side* In the 
midst of it is erected a Turkish mosque, remarkable 
neither for its structure nor magnitude, but which, 
makes a stately figure by its advantageous situation. 
Dr. Pococke, who took a particular view of the edifice, 
has highly extolled the beauty of the prospect, as well 
as the materials and .workmanship. The coloni;iade8 
are said to be of the Corinthian order, with arches 
turned over diem ; being, in all probability, the por- 
ticos leading to the interior of the building: but the 
place is held in such veneration by the Turks, that a 
stranger cannot approach it without danger of forfeiting^ 
his life or religion. This city is at present under the 



> ^vernment of ' a sangiac, whose, tyranny keeps the 
Christian inhabitants so poor, that their chief support 
and trade consists in providing strangers with accom« 
modations^ and selling them beads, relics, &c from 
which they are compelled to pay considerable sums>to 
the sangiac and his officers* 

-r^iidah; The canton of the tribe of J.udah was bounded on 
the east by the Asphaltite lake, and on the west by the 
tribes of Dan and Simeon. It was reckoned the largest 
and most populous of the Jewish territories, and the 
inhabitants were the most valiant* The land was 
charmingly diversified with hills and dales, meadows^ 
i lakes, and fountains ; and exclusive of that part which 

^ lay contiguoiis to Idumea, it produced an exuberant sup* 

ply of fruits, corn, oil, and wine. It was chiefly in Judah 
that the Canaanites resided, and it was here likewise 
that Abraham and his descendants sojourned, previous 
to their removal into Egypt. 

— /)a«/ and The lot of Dan was bounded on the north by 
Ephraim, on the west by the Philistines and the Me- 
diterranean, on the south by Simeon, and on the east 
by Judah and Benjamin. Its. greatest length, from 
north to south, did not Exceed forty miles; and Uie 
whole tract was rather narrow ; but what it wanted in 
room was fully compensated by the richness of the soil, 
and the valour and industry of its inhabitants, some of 
whom penetrated to the.utmost verge of Palestine on 
the north in quest of new settlements. Here was the 
famous valley Nahal-Escol, from which the Israelitish 
§pies brought Moses such noble^specimens of the fer- 
L tility of the land. Among the most considerable cities 

of this part was Joppa, now Jaila, the only port which 
the Jews had on the Mediterranean. It was seated on 
a high hill, which commanded a fine prospect of a fer- 
tile country on one side, and of the sea on the other. 
This city suffered so severely during the holy war, that 
scarcely any of its buildings were left standing, except 
two old castles. It is now rebuilt towards the sea, with 
storehouses, and is possessed of a considerable trade. 



On the western side of the haven is a copious spring, 
which yields an excellent supply to the inhabitants, 
and an acceptable refreshment to travellers. 

The tribe of Simeon was confined to a very small — Simeon. 
territory in the roost southern corner of Judea, bound- 
ed by Dan on the north, by the little river Sichor oti 
the south, by Judah on the east, and by a small neck of 
land towards the Mediterranean on the west. The ' 
greatest part of it was sandy, barren, and mountainous; 
apd the inhabitants were so harassed by the Idumeans 
on one side, and the Philistines on the other, that they 
were necessitated to seek their fortune among other 
tribes. Some hired themselves out to assist their ' 
brethren in the conquest of their lots, and others dis- 
persed themselves among every tribe, where they 
served as scribes, notaries, &c. so fully was Jacob's 
curse verified on them, as well as on the tribe of Levi, 
on account of the cruel massacre of the Schechemites; 
*^ Cursed (said the patriarch) be their anger, for it was 
** fierce; and their revenge, for it was inhuman: I will 

disperse them in Jacob,-and scatter them in Israel." 


Having thus completed the purposed description of .^.J^gg*^ 
the lots of the twelve tribes, it will be proper to speak 
of the five Philistine satrapies, prelusive to the geo- 
graphy of those nations which bordered on the Israel- 
itish provinces. 

These satrapies, viz. Gath, Ekron, Ashdod, As- '''^«'^/*^* . 

*■ , satrapies, VIZ. 

calon, atid Gaza, were situated along the M editer- 
ranean coast ; and extended from the seaport of Jamnia 
to the mouth of the river Bezor. The extent of their 
inland territories cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, 
but they were upon the whole confined within narrow 

Gath, the birth-place of the gigantic warrior Goliath,— GaM; 
was conquered by king David, fortified by Rehoboam, 
and retaken by Uzziah and Hezekiah. It was seated 
'under the ,(^5th degree of east longitude, ^nd 31st de« 




geety 56 min. of north latitude; six miles south of Jam- 
nia,fourteensouthof Joppa,and thirty twowestof Jeru-* 
salem. It recovered its liberty and pristine splendoar ia 
the days of Amos and Micah, but, afterward was demo« 
Ilshed by Hazael, king of Syria. After that period it 
was a place of small consideration, till the holy war^ 
when Fulk, king of Jerusalem, erected a casde on its 

Ekron, situated about ten miles south of Gath, and 
thirty- four west of Jerusalem, appears to have been a 
place of considerable strength and importance. Upon 
the first division of the promised Land, it fell to the 
lot of Judah, but was afterwards given to thb tribe of 

-"^shdodi , Ashdod was a famous port on the Mediterranean, 
situated about fifteen miles south of Ekron, between 
that city and Ascalon. It was here the idol Dagon 
fell in pieces before the ark of G6d. The strength of 
the place was so considerable, that it is said to have 
sustained a siege of twenty-nine years'udder Psammit- 
tichus king of Egypt. 

— Ascalon,' Ascalon, another maritime town and satrapy, l5^ing 
between Ashdod and Gaza, was reckoned the strongest 
of any of the Philistine coast; but was soon reduced, 
after the death of Joshua, by the tribe of Judah. This 
city was made an episcopal see from the earliest ages 
of Christianity, and during the holy war it was adorn- 
ed with several magnificent edifices; but these have 
been demolished by the Saracens and Turks, and As- 
calon is now dwindled into an inconsiderable village.* 

— iGaza. Gaza, the last satrapy, stood on a fine eminence, 

about fifteen miles south of Ascalon, fOur north of the 
river Bezor, and at a small distance from the Mediter- 
ranean. It was surrounded by the most beautiful val- 
leys, supplied with an abundance of water, and en- 
compassed, at a father distance on the inland side, with 
cultivated hills. The city was remarkably strong, and 

aumhindfcd with walk and towers after the' manner of 
the PhilistiaeB. It was taken by Caleb, the son •£ Je« 
phonneh, but soon after regsnned by die ancient in« 
habitants, who kept possession of it till the time of 
Sampson. It^passed from the Jews to the Chaldeans, 
Persians, and Egyptians, till it w^s pillaged by Alex- 
ander the Great: it was a second time destroyed Iqr 
the Maccabees, and no further mention is made of 
it till St Luke speaks of it as a ruined place. It 
stands about three miles distant from the sea, and 
still exhibits some noble monuments of antiquity, such 
as stately marble colonnades, finely wrought sepulchres. 
Sec. In the immediate vicinage of the city is a 
round castle, flanked with four square towers ; and a 
little above it, are the remains of an old Roman castle, 
the materials of which are so firm, that the ham* 
mer will make no impression on them* The Greeks 
have here a handsome church, with a fine roof, si^ 
ported by marble pillars of the Corinthian orden 
The castle is the residence of the sangiac. The ad* 
jacent territory is pleasant and delightful* but beyond 
it the ground is rather barren, quite to the river of 
Egypt^ and inhabited by wild Arabs. 

It now remains to give a concise account of the ^^^^*** 
countries belonging to those nations that were seated Canaait. 
around Palestine. 

Idumea, or land of Edom, constituted a part of Ara- BthnnUu* 
bia .Petrsea, having Judea on the north, Egypt and a 
branch of the Red sea on the west, the rest of Arabia 
Petraea on the south, and the desert of Arabia on the 
east. Its extent seems to have varied considerably at 
different periods, in consequence of which Josephus dis* 
tinguishes it, when at the largest, by the epithet of great, 
in opposition to its more narrow boundaries. The 
same author divides it into Upper and Lower Idu- 
mea; but the country, upon the whole is represented 
as dry, mountainous, hot, and in spme parts steril; 
the high lands exhibiting many dreadful caverns and 
recesses, which resemble those in the southern part of 





Judea* This country is at present under the domi- 
nion of the Turks, mostly waste and uncultivated; and 
inhabited by wild Arabs, vrith whom Europeans have 
but little intercourse* 

The nation of Amalek was seated on that part of 
Arabia Petrsea which lay eastward of the Edomites, 
and extended almost as for north as the Asphaltite 
lake, and as far southward as the Red sea : but as the 
people were mostly of a wandering disposition, and 
lived in boodis, tents, or caverns, like the Arabs, it is 
impossible to ascertain their limits w^h any degree of 

MdianiUf. The Midianites, or the land of Midian, was situated 
on the north of Amalek. It was hot, sandy, and ia 
many -parts desert; yet abounded with camels and 
other species of cattle. It appears to have contaiped 
many cities, castles, &c. as early as the time of Exodus* 
The city of Midian was, in all probability, rebuilt sub-' 
sequent to that period, as both Eusebius and St. Jerom 
assert there were some remains of it to be seen in their 



The land of JVloab was likewise in Arabia Petrsea, 
on the north of Midian, having the river Arnon on 
the west, the land of Gilead on the north, and the Ish- 
maeiites on the east. It contained several considerr 
able cities, which the M oabites wrested from the gi- 
gantic Emims and Zamzummims, but which were, af- 
terwards possessed by the Jews. 

The Ammonites were seated to the north-cast of 
their brethren the Moabites, in Arabia Deserta, having 
the Arnon on the west, the Ishmaelites on the souths 
the deserts of Arabia on the east, and the hills of Ba- 
shan and Gilead on the north. Their territories, ac- 
cording to the sacred historians, seem to have been an- 
ciently confined by the rivers Jabbok and. Arnon; but 
their frequent incursions into the neighbouring states oc- 
casioned their boundaries to be in constant fluctuation. 


The descendants of Ishmael, the son ot Abraham MmaeUtei* 
and Hagar, occupied a part of Arabia Deserta, east- 
ward of Moab and Midian, and bounded on the north 
by Ammon ; but how far they extended southward and 
eastward it is impossible to determine. It may, hoW' 
evar, be presumed, from an assertion of Moses, that 
their territory reached from Havilah, which was situ- 
ated near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, 
to Shur, on the isthmus of Suez. Thence they are said 
to have sj^read themselves over the greatest part of 
Arabia ; in consequence of which Josephus styles their 
progenitor the founder of the Arabian nation."* 


* Mount Hbamok, whieh shcnild have been noticed immediately after LeliaQOii» 
page 178, is, like it, usually capped with snow; is next to it in dignity for height; and was 
ckkcc lamed for an ancient temple much resorted to by t1|e superstitious heathens. It is 
also celebrated bj the Royal Psalmist for its refreshing dews, which descended on the ad- 
joining mount or Sion : and 9t Jerom asserts, ^t its snow was earned to Tyre and 
SidoD, to be nied ui refreihiDC liqw>n» 









" ' t A 
• >• ^ - \ 


— . t 






A3T0R .-F.iJ~'> .. ^T ' 
Tl LOCN J- 1 Un L' A r ' ON '. J 

:^64 ! 



HISTORY, in its literal acceptation, embraces every species 
«f story, or narrative, and is a strict synqnyme with either of 
these terms ; for its original, historian is of Greek derivation, 
and is rendered in pure latin by the term narratio^ from which 
the term narrative is derived, whilst story is but an abbre- 
viation of the Greek derivative* Nevertheless, the term history 
is daily wrested from its true import, in two remarkable and 
contradictory particulars* In the one it is extended to a sci- 
ence that is quite heterogeneous to its proper object ; in the 
other it is restrained to a single one of the numerous branches 
of narrative science which properly belong to it* Upon an ac- 
curate investigation of these two abuses, we shall find, in regard 
to the first, that the term cosmography is the legitimate deno-^ 
mination for that extensive science which professes to treat of 
the whole physical world under the three kingdoms of animal, 
vegetable, and mineral ; though the imposing surname of natU'- 
ral be annexed to history^ as a palliative of that abuse. It must 
not be objected that cosmography professes to treat only of the 
pldnetary world, for its Greek original tells us that it discourses 
9n the worlds necessarily implying the adjunct /^a/j^a^/^ or phy^ 
sicaly and by logical induction including the objects of the three 
kingdoms just mentioned*' In canvassing the second abuse of 
the term history y we shall feel much more shocked at the feroci<> 
ousness, and tndocility of taste, that have confined it to the details 
of war and bloodshed-— of chicane, usurpation, and tyranny — of 
incredible atrocities perpetrated against the cause of humanity; 
while the. higher order of social interests ini the historical de- 
partment— -such as the progress of the arts, philosophical dis- 
coveries, &c; — are often entirely pretermitted, or at best, are 
cast in miniature so far in the back ground of the picture, as 
to elude ordinary observation. Reflecting thus,it may most com- 
port with literal accuracy to define the term history, a recital 
or narrative of all the known events that have occurred in memorial 
time* , Yet, in compliance with the predilection that mankind 
have ialways felt for the recitals of war and the consequent revo- 
lutions of nations and empires, to the prejudice of the social 
transactions of peace, and especially in aa epitome like that we 


have here given, we must not only pass by these refining opera- 
tions o^ peace with the bare mention' of the names of principal 
artists, philosophers, &c. but must even greatly retrench the 
favourite theme. The arts and sciences nevertheless have 
each their proper historian for the edification and amusement of 

those of elegant leisure and cultivated taste* 


History is commonly distinguished into Sacred and Provane. 
Sacred History is contained in the Old and New Testament; 
and is divided into three parts, lit. The dispensation of the 
law of nature, extending from the time of'Adam to that of Moses. 
2nd. The dispensation of the written law, from the time of 
Moses, to that of our Lord Jesus Christ. 3rd. The dispensa^ 
tion of grace, which comprehends the time since the' establish* 
ment of the gospel. 

Profane History is contained in all other approved re- 
cords, and is generally divided into three great intervals. Ist. 
Obscure or uncertain time; which elapsed from the greation of 
the world, to the origin of the Greek fables, or to the deluge 
that happened in the days of Ogy^ges, king of the Athenians. 2nd* 
Fabulous, or heroical time; which elapsed from the deluge of 
Ogyges, to the establishment of the Olympic games : it is so 
called because the heroes and demi-gods of the Greeks are pre- 
tended to have lived during this period* 3rd. Historical time; 
which has elapsed since the Olympic games, when history be- 
gan to be more authentic. 

History has also been further subdivided into epochs and 
periods^ which, though very convenient for method, are entirely 
arbitrary and almost at the will of every historian. But 
we would not be understood to sneer at any attempt at method, 
if the factitious one is not incompatible with that which nature 
gives. On the contrary I think we have sufficiently demon- 
strnted our high opinion of it as an auxiliary to the understand- 
ing, as well as to the memory, in the foregoing volume; and from 
the same conviction, we have so arranged this abstract of his- 
tory, as to enable the student to peruse it chrokologically, in ^ 
the order of events, or conse(^uentially, nation after nation, in 
the order of their priority. 







» » 


From the Creation to the Deluge^ which includes 1656 


1. IN the beginning Cod created the heaven and „_][; 
the earth, and curiously finished them in the space of 
six days. To Adam, the first of the human race, he 
gave cominand over all the other creatures. Adam, 
by his wife .£ve, begat Cain and Abel; the former of 
whom was a tiller of the ground, and the latter a shep- 
herdr But wickedness soon breaking out in his family^ 
Cain slew Abel. Cain's posterity invented music, the 
working of iron, and other arts. The descendants of 
Seth, who was born to Adam after the murder of Abel, 
proved virtuous ; those of Cain vicious. The world 
was created 4004 years before the Christian «ra. 

2. Enoch, the fifth in descent from Seth, about a 
thousand years after the creation of the world, was ta* 
ken up from the society and converse of men into 
heaven, on account of his intimate familiarity with 
God. His son Methuselah died a natural death, after 
he bad lived near a thousand years. But men gener- 
ally unmindful of death, began to abuse longevity, for 
most of them lived full 900 years* Moreover the fa- 



mily of Seth intermarrying with that of Cain, g^ve 
birth to a gigantic race of men; and, degenerating into 
heathenish practices, broke through all the restraints 
of- modesty and duty. 

3. Wherefore, 1656 years after the world was cre- 
ated, and 2348 before the birth of Christ, God, pro- 
voked with the wickedness of men, determined to 
drown the whole world by a deluge. Forty days the 
waters increased exceedingly, and rose fifteen cubits 
above the highest mountains ; no living creature any 
where remained, except those which Noah, a good 
man, saved by the direction of God in a certain large, 
vessel or Ark. After the flood, the measure of man's 
strength and life was lessened* From Japheth, Shem, 
^ and Ham, the three sons of Noah, all the families df 
the earth have been gradually propagated. 


From the Deluge to the vocation of Abraham^ 1920 
before Christ ; containing 427 years. 

ASSYRIA. ^* THE posterity of Noah, about 101 years after 
" j^ * the flood, before their dispersion, entered upon a pro- 
ject of building a city and a tower, whose top might 
reach to heaven. But the divine power checked the 
insolent attempts of mortals. They all then used the 
same language, which on a sudden was miraculously 
divided into a multiplicity of tongues. Accordingly 
the intercourse of speech being cut ofl", the building was 
laid aside. After this the earth began to be peopled. 
The city thus begun, from the confusion of languages, 
was first called Babel, and afterwards Babylon. Nim- 
rod having subdued some neighbouring people by force 
of atms, reigned in it the first after the flood. 


2. About the time of Nimrod, Egypt seems to have ijf . 
been divided into four dynasties, or principalities; £GYJt*T. 
'Thebes, Thin, Memphis, and Tanis. From this pe- ^* 
riod, also, the Egyptian laws and policy take their rise. 
Already they began to make a figure in the knowledge 

of astronomy; they first adjusted the year to the aa- 
Dual revolution of the sun. The inhabitants of this 
country were renowned for their wisdom and learning, 
even in the earliest times. Their Hermes, or Mercury 
Trismegistus, filled all Egypt with useful inventions. 
He, according to them, first ^ught men music, letters, 
religion, eloquence, statuary, and other arts besides* 
Most historians say, that iEsculapius, or Tosorthus, 
king of Memphis, first discovered physic and anatomy. 
In fine, the ancient Egyptians, as to arts and sciences, 
and the illustrious monuments of wealth and grandeur, 
have deservedly obtained the preference among all na* 
tions of the world. Every body owns that Menes was 
the first mortal who reigned over Egypt. But the 
most famous among their princes was Sesostris; who 
with amazing rapidity overran and conquered Asia, 
and, subduing the countries beyond the Ganges, ad- 
vanced eastward as far as the ocean. At last, losing 
his sight, he laid violent hands on himself. The kings 
of that part of Egypt, whereof Tanis was the capital, 
took all the name of Pharaoh. 

3. Belus is said to have reigned at Babylon ; whose II. 
son Ninus caused his father's image to be worshipped ASSYRIA^ 
as a god. This is remarked to have been the origin of 

idols. Ninus, fired with the lust of sovereignty, be- 
gan to extend his empire by arms. He reduced Asia 
under his dominion ; made himself master of Bactri- 
ana, by vanquishing Oxyartes king of the Bactrians, 
and the inventor of magic. He enlarged the city Ni- 
neveh that had been built by Ashur ; and founded the 
empire of the Assyrians. He himself reigned 54 years* 

4. Semiramis, the wife of Ninus, a woman of a mas- 
euline spirit, transferred the crown to herself, m 
]^rejudice of her son, who was yet a minor. By 


her Ba%toD was adorned in a most magnificent itoan- 
ner ; Asia, Media*, Persia, and Egypt, overrun with 
mighty armies ; and a great part of Libya and Ethiopia 
conquered* At last she voluntarily resigned the scep- 
tre, after she had swayed it 42 years. But Justin says 
she was murdered by her son Ninyas. 

5. Ninyas degenerated quite from both his parents, 
and giving up the management of his kingdom to tieu« 
tenants, he shut nimself up in his palace, entirely aban- 
^ doned t6 his pleasures. He had thirty or more of the 

Assyrian monarchs that successively followed his 
iKrorthless exanlple, the following ones being always 
worse thian the former, the last of whom was Sardana- 
IV. I^alus, a man more effeminate than a woman. He being 
MbDlA. defeated by Arbaces, governor of the Medes, betook 
1* himself into his palace, where, erecting a funeral pile. 
He burnt himself, his wives, and all his wealth. Thus 
Arbaces transferred the em|^ire from the Assyrians to 
the Medes, after it had lasted, as some say, 1300 years. 
• But this whole account of the Assyrian empire is re- 
jected by very good authors, as false and fictitious. 
The history of this monarchy that appears rational, and 
agreeable to Scripture, is related in chap. VII. 2. 

V. 6. Abraham, the father of the Hebrews, by nation 

a Chaldean, descended from Heber, is called by God^ 
in the year of the flood 428th, and before Christ 1920th» 
Whilst he sojourned in Palestine, the seat promised to 
his posterity, being pinched by a famine, he went down 
into Egypt. Returning from thence, he delivered Lot^ 
his brother's son, who had been carried off prisoner from 
Sodom. After this he paid tithes to the priest Mel« 
chisedeck. Moreover, being now 100 years old, hav- 
ing, at the divine command, circumcised himself and 
his family, he had, by his wife Sarah, Isaac, the son 
promised him by God. Isaac was not yet bom, when 

* Thi9 denotes the ilebrev, or Jewish history, whether in or out of 


Abraham, by his prevailing intercession with God, 
rescued Lot, together with his wife and children, from 
the burning of Sodonr.'^ But Lot's wife, for looking 
back, was turned into a pillar of salt. Further, Abra- 
ham's faith being tried by God^ became eminently illus- 
trious ; for God commanding him to sacrifice with his 
own hands, his only son Isaac, the sole hope of any 
progeny, he scrupled not to obey. His readiness to 
comply was accepted instead of actual performance* 

7* About the same time, as Eusebius supposes, VL 
lived the Titans in Crete; the eldest of whom was Sa- ^^^J'^^* 
turn, who is said to be the father of Jupiter* Jupiter was 
regarded as a god, on account of his fatherly affection 
towards his people. His brothers were Neptune and 
Pluto, the one admiral of the king'^s fleet, the other in- 
ventor of funeral ceremonies in Greece. Which cir- 
cumstances, amongst the foolish ancients, procured the 
empire of the sea to the former as a divinity, and to 
the latter, the sovereignty of hell as a god. 



From the vocation of Abraham to the departure of the 
Israelites out of Egypt ^ 1491 before Christ; compre^ 
hendtrig 429 years* 

1. ISAAC, the son of Abraham, born about the V. 
year after the flood 457, had, by his wife Rebecca, CANAAN. 
Esau and Jacob. Of Leah, Rachel, and his other wives, ^* 
Jacob begat the patriarchs, the heads of the 12 tribes. 
He was called Israel by God; hence the Israelites de- 
rived their name. Joseph, one of the patriarchs, was 
sold by his brothers out of envy, and sent into Egypt. 
Afterwards Joseph forgave his brothers this ill usage, 
though an opportunity of revenging it offered. He pre- 
vailed with his father to come down into Egypt with all 


his family, where in a short time the Israelites mul- 
tiplied in a surprising manner. This removal took 
place in the year of the world 2298, and before Christ 


VI. 2. Almost cotemporary with Isaac was Inachus, the 

GRi'^BCE. first king of the Argvves; whose son Phoroneus is re- 
^* corded to have collected his wandering and scattered 
ptfopled into one body, and to have secured them by 
cities and laws. But Apollo, Mars, Vulcan, Venus, 
Minerva, children of Jupiter, the principal deities of 
Greece, and the great founders of superstition, fell ia 
with the age of the patriarchs ; as also Ogyges, the 
first king of Attica, under whose reign happened 
that remarkable inundation of Attica, called the de« 
luge of Og) ges/ Eusebius places Spartus, the son of 
Phoroneus, who built Sparta, almost cotemporary with 
Joseph. Argus, the grandson of Phoroneus, who, on 
account of his wonderful sagacity was said to have aa | 
hundred eyes, built Argos. Hieronymus too makes 
• Job, so much famed for patience, coeval with Joseph; ' 
but others place him much later. / I 

3. About the same time lived Prometheus and At- \ 
las, two eminent astronomers, celebrated in the fabu- 
lous poems of the Greeks. Prometheus, the son of '' 
Japetus, one of the Titans, is represented by the poets 
as having made a man of clay, because he formed men I 
that were ignorant and savage, to a civilized way of liv- 
ing; as being chained to Caucasus, because he diligently 
observed -the courses of the stars upon Caucasus, a 
mountain in Scythia; and, as having stolen fire from the 
gods, because he invented the method of striking fire 
from flint. And hib brother Atlas, on account of his 
great skill in astronomy, is reported to have sustained 
heaven on his shoulders: he gave name to Atlas, a 
mountain of Mauretania. 

V. 4. Moses, the great grandson of Jacob, born about 

CANAAN. 50 years after the death of Joseph, and 1571 before 

Christ, was brought up by Pharaoh's daughter, and. . 



well instructed in the Egj'ptian learning. At eighty 
years of age, admonished of God, and assisted by his 
brother Aaron, he attempts to deliver the nation of the 
Israelites from the slavery of the Egyptians. In fine, 
having struck a mighty terror into Pharaoh, by many 
very great miracles he brings forth the Israelites, loaded 
with the spoils of the Egyptians, in the year of the 
flood 857, and before Christ 1491. 

. 5. The "Red sea being divided, the Israelites pasa 
over into the deserts of Arabia: provisions were fur- 
nished to them in a miraculous manner ; water gushed 
out of the rocks, and manna descended from heaven. 
At mount Sinai, the law was given to them by Moses, 
their sacrifices and ceremonies instituted, and Aaron 
consecrated high priest. After this, in the 40th year 
^ of their journeying, their number being taken at Jor- 
dan, the sum of those that were able to bear arms, was 
above 600 thousand ; among whom there was not one 
of those who had come out of Egypt, except Joshua 
and Caleb : for Moses, after having taken a prospect 
of the promised settlements from mount Pisgah, died; 

i Joshua being appointed his successor. 

I ' 

! 6. Much about the same time that Moses delivered VI. 

\ to the Hebrews their religious ceremonies, Cecrops CittEECE. 
too, founder of Athens, introduced images and sacri- ^- 
fices'into Greece. In the reign of Cecrops flourished 
Mercury, the grandson of Atlas, the son of Jupiter 
and Maia, and the author of eloquence and many other 
discoveries. Deucalion, upon Thessaly's being over- 
flowed by an inundation, saved several persons on the 
tops of Parnassus, where he reigned ; and, by means 
of his wife Pyrrha, brought them over from a savage 
and rustic life, to an humane and civilized behaviour. 
Hence rise was given to a number of fables. 

7* At the same time, as if the fire had conspired- yjxr 

with the water for the destruction of men, a mighty haly. 
conflagration, in the time of Phaeton's reign broke out l« 
lA Italy, near the river Po; which proved no small mat- 


ter of (iqtion to the luxuriant fancy of the poets* Oe- 
notruB too, the son of Lycaon, having brought over a 
colony of Arcadians into Italy, settled near the Tus- 
can sea, and, dispossessing the native Umbrians, peo- 
pled Italy. These, called at first Aborigines, fropi 
their uncertain extraction, afterwards Italians, from 
their king Atalus, gave name to the country of Italy. 


From the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt to 
the destruction of Troy^ 1184 before Christy contain' 
ing M7 years. 

V. !• JOSHUA having miraculously dried up the river 

CANAAN. Jordan, brought over the Israelites. After this he 
*' overturns the walls of the city Jericho, by the ark of 
the covenant carried seven times round it, by the souxid 
of trumpets, and the shouts of his army. He uttei^y 
destroys the Amorites, the sun and moon standing still 
at his command for the space of one day, as specta- 
tors of the victory. At last, after conquering thirty 
kings, and all the nations of Palestine,' he settled the 
Israelites in the country promised to their ancestors, 
in the year of the crea^tion 2560, and before Christ 

VL 2. About the same time Danaus, causing his fifty 

sons-in-law to be murdered by his daughters, of whom 
there was the like number, makes himself master of 
the kingdom of Egypt. But being deposed by Linus, 
his l^on-in.-law, he seizes upon Argos. Qrcus, king of 
the Molossi, carries off Proserpina, the daughter of 
Ceres, out of Sicily. Europa, ravished by Jupiter, 
brought forth Minos and Rhadamanthus, and gave 
name to the third part of the earth ; a large field for 
fable to the poets. Much ^qut thi$ time fiourUbed 




the court of the Areopagites at Athens. Upon the 
Nile too, Busiris, the son of Neptuue and Libya, 
violating the most sacred laws of hospitality, is said to. 
have exercised violence upon his guests. About the y 
same time the Israelites were treated in a way not CANAAN, 
much kinder by the king of Mesopotamia; but judges, 5. 
by the divine favour, were raised up ftoxa tin^e to time 
for their relief* 

3. Othonid, the first of the Hebrew judges, delivers 
his people, by slaying the king of Mesopotamia, in the 
year before Christ 1405. Othopiers successor was. 
Ehud, who killed Eglon, king of the Moabites. Ehud 
was succeefled by Deborah, a woman of more than 
masculine courage. She attended Barak, general of 
the army to the war, and obtained a signal victory over 
the enemy. Jael, a woman too, had a hand in this 
victory. She completed the enemy's overthrow by the 
slaughter of their general Sisera, in the year before 
Christ 1285. 

4. Whilst in Palestine even women make, a figure in Mixed at* 
the achievements of war, in other nations men became ^^^^' 
illustrious generally for the arts of peace. In Egypt, 
Thsmegistus, the grandson of Mercury, excelled in 
reputation for learning. Janus reigned in Latium. 
Cadmus, the brother of Europa, brought over letters 

from Phoenicia into Greece, and built Thebes in Boeotia. 
Rhadamanthus reigned in Lycia, and Minos in Crete, 
with the highest .characters of strict impartiality. Acri- 
sius, king of the Argives,. instituted or new- modelled 
the Amphictyonesj the most august council of Greece; 
he erected the templ6 and oracle of Apollo at 
Delphos. ' 

$• In the mean time Amphion, cotemporary with 
Linus, expelling Cadmus, and building the citadel of 
Thebes, occasioned abundant matter of fiction to the 
poets. Liber, or Bacchus, built the city Nysa, near 
the river Indus, ^e conquered India with an army of 
Qacchs. Perseus^ the son of Jupiter and Dans, took 



off the head of Gorgon, a courtezan of exquhite beauty. 
Pelops too, the son of Tantalus, by his planting a col- 
ony, gave name to Peloponnesus. His sister Niobe, 
stupiiied with grief for the loss of her children, gave 
rise to the fable of the poets. Dardanus, the son of 
Jupiter, and son-in-law of Teucer, gave name to the 
country of Dardania; which was afterwards called 
Troas, from Tros his son and successor. 

VII. 6« In Latium, Janus was succeeded by Saturn; 

ITALY, under whose reign, they tell you, all things were com- 
mon, and all men free. Hence it was called the golden 
age. The same Saturn taught men to till the ground, 
to build houses, to plant vines, and gather in the 
fruits. Meanwhile the Pelasgi, seizing upon the sea 
coast of Italy, which is next to Sicily, introduced learn- 
ing into Italy. From them the country was named 
Great Greece. Siculus, the son of Italus, being driven 
out of Italy by the Pelasgi, passed over into the next 
island, which the Cyclopes had anciently possessed, 
and the Sicani then inhabited : and the island was 
called Sicily, from king Siculus. After Saturn, Picus, 
after Picus, Faunus, the fourth from Janus, held the 
kingdom. The wife of Faunus, who was also the 
mother of king Latinus, is said to have invented the 
Latin characters. 

V. 7- Gideon, the fourth judge of the Hebrews, about 

CANAAN, the year of the world 2759, and before Christ 1245, per- 
^* formed an exploit that deserves to be celebrated in the 
annals of all nations. By the direction of God, he se- 
lected 300 men out of all his army. These he arms 
with trumpets and lamps. Then he orders the pitch- 
ers, in which the lamps were concealed, to be dashed 
together, and all the trumpets to be blown at the same 
instant. This unusual way of fighting wrought such 
confusion in the camp of the Midianites, that they 
slaughtered one another with mutual havock. Abim- 
% elech, Gideon's son, was unlike his father ; he usurped 

the sovereignty, after he had put to death his brothers, 
in number 70. But within three ye$rsi, he was slain 


hf a womim with a piece of a milkione, as he was set^ 
^g fire to the tower of Thebes. 

8. Toward the latter end of Gideon's age appeared 

Ae Grecian heroes, furnishing ample subject for fabu- ojie Jnft 
jbus stories* Hercules, Orpheus, Castor, Pollux, and ^^ 
the other Argonauts, having built the ship Argo, sail- 
ed from Thessaly to Troas, and thence to Colchis, un- 
tler the conduct of Jason. Whilst they were at Troy, 
Hercules delivered Hesione, the daughter of Laome- 
don, the json of Ilus, and king of Troy, from a sea- 
monster; to which she had. been exposed. Her father 
promised htm the young lady, with some fleet horses, 
as the reward of his hazardous enterprise. Being ar- 
rived at Colchis, they soothed the fierce and savage 
guards by means of Medea, the king's daughter; 
i»rought off the treasures which had been carried thi- 
ther by Phryxus out of Thessaly, called the goldea 
fleece. In their return they killed Laomedon, for re- 
fusing the stipulated reward, and gave the kingdom to 
bis son Priam. This expedition happened about 1280 
years before Christ* 

9. About the same time iEgeus, king of the Athe- 
nians, and the father of Theseus, had inviduously slain 
Androgeos, the son of Minos, king of Crete. For 
which reason the Athenians were ordered . to send an- 
nually into Crete seven young men, and as many girls^ 
to be devoured by the Minotaur. In the number of 
these went Theseus, who by the assistance of Daedalua 
and Aftadne, Minos's daughter, slew the Minotaur, 
and delivered his country. Minos with a fleet pursu- 
ing D«dalus in his flight, was killed in the bjith by 
king Cocalus in Sicily. After this Theseus encounter- 
ed the Centaurs, or Thessalian horsemen, with good 
success, and associated himself with Hercules. 

10. The Amazons too, who were women, natives ofSofMrn 
Scythia, having lost their husbands in war, took up '"^'**^* 
arms, assuming at the same time a masculine intrepi- 

.dity; possessed themselves of the Lesser Asia, and built 


£phesus« Hercules and Theseua made war upon thein^ 
and conquered them, more to the glory of the van- 
quished than their own ; for though women, they had 
valiantly coped with such heroes, and when taken pri- 
soners, made their escape by killing the guards. Her- 
cules is further reported to have instituted the 01ympic^ 
•and Theseus the Isthmian games. 

11. Much about this time, Greece exhibited scenes 
of an horrible and tragical nature. Atreus and Thyes- 
tes.tbe sons of Pelops, vented their mutual resentment 
in a more hostile way than became brothers. For Thy- 
estes committed a rape on his brother's wife ; Atreus, 
on his part, caused Thyestes's sons to be served up to 
him at a banquet. Oedipus having been exposed b}^ his 
father Laius, slew him afterwards in a squabble, with- 
out knowing him to be his father ; and restored the 
country about Thebes to a perfect tranquillity, by kil- 
ling the Sphinx, an artful mischievous woman. Hav- 
ing thus procured himself his father's kingdom, he 
^unwittingly married his mother Jocasta. However 
being informed of the whole matter by Teresius, the 
seer, he plucked out his own eyes, and left the kingdom 
to his sons Polynices and Eteocles. But Polynices 
being quickly expelled the kingdom by his brother, fled 
to Adr^stut king of the Argives. Supported by him, 
be made war upon his brother, attended by the pro- 
phetic Amphiaraus, who having been betrayed by his 
wife Eriphyla, gave orders to his son Alcmeon to as- 
sassinate his mother ; in this more wicked than his 
wife, that he made a son the murderer of his parent. 
During that war, Amphiaraus was swallowed up by an 
earthquake. Polynices and hU brother fell by niutual 

V. 12. Jeptha, the seventh judge of the Hebrews, was 

CANAAN, somewhat later than Hencules. As he was about to 
7. join battle with the enemy, he vowed, that if he over- 
came, he would consecrate to God whatever he should 
meet first at his return. He engaged the enemy, and 
gained the victory: his daughter, the only child he had, 


'met him first of all in his return home, and converted 
the glory of the victory into mourning, about the year 
before Christ 1188. 

13* About the same- time a much greater disaster 
befel Priam king of Troy, who refusing to restore He- 
len, the wife of ^Menelaus, king of Sparta, that had 
been carried oiF by his son Paris, called also Alexan- 
der, was stripped of his kingdom, children, and life, 
by the Greeks, after a siege of ten years. Troy was 
destroyed 2820 years after the creation of the world, 
436 before the building of Rome, and before the birth 
of Christ, 1184. 





From the destruction of. Troy to the jpnishmg and 
dedication of the temple at Jerusalem by Solomon^ 
1021 before Christ ; including 163 years. 

1. iENEAS, flying from Troy, came into Italy. 
-There he contracted an alliance and affinity with La« 
tinvis, king of the Latins: from his wife's name, he 
called the town built by him Lavinium. He routed 
in battle and put to flight Turnus, king of the Rutuli. 
After that, he greatly weakened the power of the He- 
trusci; and Latinus dying in battle, he himself reaped 
all the benefit of the victory. In order to strengthen his 
interest, the name and laws of the Latins, were by him 
imposed on the Trojans: he himself was called king of 
the Latins. After this iEneas fell in battle, fighting 
against Mezentius, king of the Hetrusci, four years 
after the death of his father-in-law Latinus. 



2. Sampson was cotemporary with iEneas. He y. 
killed a lion without any weapon ; checked the pride CANAAN. 
of the Philistines, and made a dreadful havoc of his 8. 


enemiea with the jaw-bofie of an as$. Having loBt his 
strength together with bis hair, he fell into the haadf 
of his enemies, by the treachery of .a womaiif whom h^ 
passionately loved. To them, after they had put out 
his eyes, be served long for an object of dertsion. At 
length, having recovered his strength with his hair, b« 
endeavoured to put an honourable period to his igno* 
minious servitude* . The pillars of the house wherein 
the Philistines beheld him, makiag sport, he overset^ 
the Philistines who vrere present, and Sampson him'* 
self, were crushed to- death by the fall of the boildingt 
in the year before Christ 1117. 

VII. 3* Ascanius, ^neas's son, resigning Lavtnium to 

ITALY, jjjg mother-in-law, founded Alba Longa. After this 
the sovereignty was conferred by the people on Syl- 
vius, a son of ^neas, born after his death. Thp 
priesthood was given to Julus, the son of Ascaniu^, 
which the Julian family, origitiaHy sprung from Julus, 
enjoyed hereditary ever after. After Sylvius, thirteen 
Isiiags reigned in Alba Longa, for near 400 y.ears ; of 
whom iSaeas Sylvius swayed the sceptre 31 years, 
Latinus 51, Alba 39^ Sylvius Atys, or Capetus L 26, 
Capys 28, Capetus II. 13, Tiberinus 8, Agrippa 24,. 
Romolns Sylvius, or Alladius 19, Aventtnus 37, Pro- 
cas 23, Amulius 42 ; whose brother Kumitor was the 
last king of Alba. 

V. . 4. Samuel, the last judge of the Hebrews, by God's 

CANAA.N. direction, anoints Saul king, as he was in quest of his 

^* father's asse&, seven years before j£neas Sylvius begaa 

lus reign ia Latium. llie Hebrew state was managed 

by judges about 400 years* 

VI. 5. The Heradidae, viz. the posterity of Herculesi 

GREECE, who long harassed by Euristheus, king of Mycenae, 

6* had lived in exile with Ceyx in Thrace, and afterwards , 

with Theseus king of Athens; at length, about 80 years 

after the de&truction of Troy, 'returned to Pelopon- 

aesus, and there settled* 

vmw w kj^msft RisTottt. ig 

6. Saul, the first king of the Israelites, came to the y. 
throne about the year of the world 2909, and before CANAAK. 
Christ 1095, At first he behaved well, but afterwards 10. 
offended heinously. Hereupon he was rejected by 

God, and David chosen in his room, who, having pre- 
viously slain Goliah, a gigantic Philistine, was advanc- 
ed to be the king's son-in-law. Saul fell in battle, 
fighting against the Philistines, in the twentieth yeVr 
of his reign. David, after lamenting the death of his 
father-in-law, mounted the throne, in the reign of La- 
tinus Sylvius, the son of iEneas Sylvius, king of the 

7. King David, a man of singular piety towards 
God, was ever victorious over his foes. *He was de- 
thronefd by his son Absalom; but having defeated 
Absalom in battle, he recovered his kingdom. David 
reigned 40 years. 

8. Almost at the same time that Absalom suffered yj^ 
the punishment of his unnatural behaviour to his fa- GRbEC& 
ther, Codrus, the son of Melanthus, and the last king 7»^ 
of Athens, gained the character of a most extraordi- 
nary affection for his country. In the Dorian or Pe- 
lopoonesian war, being informed by the oracle that the 
enemy would prove victorious, unless the king of the 
Athenians was killed, he devoted his life for the safety 

of his country. Having disguised himself in the habit 
of a peasant, he wounded a common soldier of the 
Dorians in a quarrel, and being slain by him as he 
wished, saved his country from the blockade of the 
enemy-— in yj/c^, rather than in name^ the father of his 
country. Upon his death the government of Athens 
devolved on magistrates, who were called Arthons. 
The first of them was Medon, the son of Codrus. 

9. Solomon, the third king of the Hebrews, reigned V. 
also 40 years. He built and dedicated the temple de- CANAAN. 
signed by his father David, in the most magnificent ^^* 
manner, about the year of the world 2983, and before 

the birth of Christ 1021, in the reign of Alba l^ylvius, 



king of the Latins. Solomon, the wisest of ail mi^ii, 
in his old age was seduced by his wives into the wor- 
ship of Heathen deities* Homer was something older 
than Solomon, if he lived, as Herodotus says, 168 
years after the Trojan war. 


From the dedication of the Temple to the building of 
Homey 748 before Christ; comprehending 273 years. 

1. REHOBO AM, Solomon's son, by his folly com- 
pleted the ruin of the empire, already tottering by his 

Divided into {2itheT^s misconduct. TJius out of one were two king- 
JsraeL ^^ doms formed; the one was called the kingdom of Ju- 
dah or Jerusalem; the other that of Israel or Samaria* 
The tribe of Judah and Benjamin were subject to Re-* 
hoboam, and the other successive descendants of Da- 
vid ; the other ten tribes, being seduced and corrupted 
* by Jeroboam their first king, had princes of very dif- 

ferent families. The kings of Samaria were all impious 
to a man, and worshippers of idols: the kings of Jeru- 
salem otherwise. And these two kingdoms contended 
with one another in almost continual wars* In the 
fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Jerusalem was besieg- 
ed by Shishak, king of Egypt. He carried away all 
the sacred furniture of the temple. Rehoboam dying 
in the 1 7th year of his reign, leaves his kingdom to his 
son Abija, S3dvius Atys being then king of the Latins* 

2. In the third year of Abijah's reign, Asa his son 
succeeded him, a king of eminent piety, who swayed 

'll^^par"^'^^^ sceptre 41 years. In his reign Capys ruled in La- 
tiiiti if, tium; and Omri, king of Israel, built the royal city of ^ 



3. Jehosaphat, the s6n of Asa, proved a second 
David for piety. He held the government 25 years. 
In his reign lived Ahab king of Samaria, and the holy*' 

prophet El^zh the Tisbbite* Much about th^ eismif 
time Tiberinus too, the son of Capet us, the ninth king 
of the Albans after Ascanius, being drowned in his 
passage over the A^^ula, gave name to that riyer. 

4. Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat, and son-in-laif 
pf king Ahab, followed the impious example of hi« 
father-in-law. He possessed the throne eight years* 
His son Ahaziah reigned only oae year; Agrippa 
being then king of tlie Latins* 

5. Joash, the son of Ahaziah, the tenth king of the 
Jews after David, reigned 40 years. In his reigii 
Romulus Sylvius, king of the Albans, was bi^rpt up bj 
lightning. After him Aventinus got the kingdom^ wha 
gave name to the hill on which he was buried. 

6* Amaziah, the son of Joash, governed 29 years. 
In his reign, as £usebius relates, flourished Lycurgus, y.f^ 
the famous lawgiver of Sparta^ who spontaneously re- GREKGI. 
signed the crown of Lacedemon, left him by his bro- 8* 
ther, to Charilaus, his brother's sqn, born after his fa* 
ther's death. He divided the land of Laconia to each 
man equally; abolished the use of gold and silver; and 
enjoined all people, to eat in public. Then he bounci 
his countrymen by an oath, that they should not makf^ 
any alteration of his laws, till he should return from 
consulting the Oracle at Delphos. He died ip Crete, 
in voluntary exile, about the time of the death of Am< 
azi«ih, king of the Jews* Uzziah, who is also called 
Azariah, was the son and successor of Amaziah. He 
reigned 52 years. 


7. Elisa, who is also called Dido, abhoring her bro« »«# 
ther Pygmalion, the murderer of her husband Sichseus, car* 
privately put on bpard all her husband's wealth, and TWAGB. 
tailed from Tyre. Landing on the coast of Libya, sh.e 
built a city, which was first called Byrsa, and after- 
wards Carthage. Carthage was founded about 142 
years before the building of jRome, and before the birth 
•f Christ 890. About the same time JBocchor^, or 

3 •* 


Bocchorides, king of Egypt, settled the laws and im- 
stitutions of the Egyptians. 

^'* 8. About the same time, that is, 409 years after the 


' destruction of Troy, and 27 before the building of 

Rome, the Olympic games were revived by Iphitus; 
for they had been instituted before by Hercules, as was 
related above. The Olympic games were so called 
from Olympia, a city of Elis in Peloponnesus, near 
which they were celebrated every 4th year, by a great 
concourse of people from all Greece and other nations. 
From this period the Greeks began to use the Oh m- 
piads for the distinction of times. Before that epoch 
▲afhentie fiction prevailed. From it the true history of the 
Woiy o"«"-Qreek8 takes its rise. In the beffinninc: of the first 
Olyo^piad; if we believe Herodotus, died Hesiod, about 
140 years later than Homer. 

#ixedao- 9* Jotham, Uzziah's son, and father of Ahaz, a 

ipiiDt pious man, and beloved of God, governed 16 years. 

In his reign Theopompus, king of the Lacedemonians, 
in order to render the sovereign authority more staple, 
by sharing the power with the people, created five 
Ephori, 130 years after Lycurgus. These magistrates 
very much resembled the tribunes of the people among 
the Romans. 

VII. 10. In Latium, Amulius having deposed his elder 

ITALY, brother Numitor, usurped the crown. Romulus and 
^' Remus, the sons of Rhea Sylvia, or Ilia, Numitor'a 
daughter, having been exposed by Amulius, were edu- 
cated by Faustulus, the king's shepherd. When they 
came to age, they knew their grandfather Numitor, 
and having slain Amulius, replaced him on his. throne, 
they themselves having got together a body of shep- 
herds, founded on mount Palatine the city of Rome, 
for which was destined the empire of the world. 
Rome was built in the third year of the seventh Olym- 
piad, 436 years after the destruction of Troy, in the year 
of the world 3256, of the flood 1600, and before the 
l^irth of Christ 748. 



Prom the building of Rome to the liberation of the yeW9 
from the Babylonish captivity by Cyrus ^ 5 J4 btfor0 
Christy in the first year of the Persian empire; con^^ 
iaininff 214 years. 

!• ROMULUS 18 commonly reported to have kil- 
led his brother Remus, for having contemptuously leap* 
ed over his new walls. Thus he became sole monarch* 
He took numbers of his neighbours into his city. Ho 
chose an hundred senators, who, from their age, were \ 
called Fathers, and their children Patricii. Then, as 
he and his people had no wives, he invited the neigh« 
bouring nations to the sight of games, and seized their . 
young women. Whereupon the adjacent nations made 
war upon the Romans. Romulus, having routed the 
Csenienses, and slain their king Acron with his owa 
hand, presented the spolia opima to Jupiter Feretrius^ 
lo whom he then dedicated a temple. He triumphed 
over the Antemnates, the Crustuminians, the Fide* 
nates and Veientes. Upon seeing his army like to 
be worsted by Tatius, king of the Sabines, he vowed 
a temple in the Forum to Jupiter Stator. The action 
being renewed, the Sabine women, throwing them* 
selves into the battle, put an end to the war by their 
entreaties. An alliance is made up between the gen- 
erals, and the Sabines remove to Rome. At last Ro- 
mulus, a sudden tempest arising as he reviewed his 
army at the lake of Caprea, entirely disappeared. He 
was supposed to have gone to the gods. He reigned 
Z7 years. 

2. Nineveh, as formerly observed was founded by If, 
Ashur, some time after Babylon had been built by ASSYRUfc 
^imrod; but continued for many ages a private royalty: *• 
for Pul, also called Ninus, one of the kings of Nine- 
veh, and probably also king of Babylon, seems to have 
founded the Assyrian empire. He makei^ his first ap« 


pearance in Scripture, in the beginning of the reign of 
Mcnahem, king of Isrs^el, and 771 ytars before the 
birth of Christ.* ^ ThisHcmpire lasted about 170 years* 
The chief of its monarchs were, 1st. Pul, supposed to 
be the same with Belus* He reigned upwards of 24 
years. 2d. Tiglathpileser, who is supposed to be the 
same with Ninus, and who subdutd Damascus, and 
put an end to the ancient kingdom of Syria, reigned 
about 19 years. 3d. Shalmaneser, who besieged and 
»acked Samaria,' reigned 12 years. 4th. Sennach- 
trib, whose army, whilst he attempted to besiege Je* 
rusalem, was smitten by an angel, reigned 6 years. 5th« 
Esarhaddon, who carried Manasseh, king of Judah, cap- 
tive to Babylon, and conquered Egypt and Ethiopia, 
leigned 42 years. 6th. Saosduchinus, in Scripture 
ealled Nebuchadonosor, who conquered Phraortes, king 
. of the Medes, levelled Ecbatan with the ground, and, 
returning to Nineveh, feasted 120 days, reigned 29 
years. 7th. Chynalydad, supposed to be the same with 
Sardanapalus, reigned 22 years. This prince, the 
Medes having made war upon him, and the Babylo- 
-nians having revolted from him, set fire toliis palace, 
and was consumed with all his wealth in the flames. 
The Assyrian' empire subsisted several years after his 
Empire aub- death; but was in the end overturned by the Medea 
retted. jm^ Babylonians, in the year before Christ 601. Thus 
two empires arose out of that of the Assyrians, namely, 
the Babylonian and Median. 

X. 3* From the time of Nimrod to that of Pul, a great 

BABYLON, juajjy petty princes reigned in Babylon Nineveh too, 
* and Babylon seem to have been often governed by the 
same king* But, in the 24th year of the reign of Pul, 
and 747 years before Christ, these became two distinct 
kingdoms. Nabonassar, who gives name to the famous 
9ra, and who seems to have been a younger son of 
Pul, gets the kingdom of Babylon, whilst his elder 

* This account of Assyria, remounts, fbr the sake of continuity, about 
20 years higher than th« building of Rome; the period prescribed at the 
kejKd of the chapter. 


View eP AlflCIEKT filSTORT. 


brri tt ier Tr^athpilever obtains the sceptre at Nineveh* 
During the Aour^hing state of the Assyrian monarchjr, 
die kings of Babylon seem to have been only viceroys^ 
or lord-lieutenants to itiose of Nineveh ; but afterwards 
Babylon rose upon its ruins, and became a great em- 
pire, which, compming from Nabonassar, lasted 209 
yea^s ; viz. Nabonassar, called also Belesis and Na- 
nybrus, reigned 14 years* Nadius 2. Chinzirus and 
Porus jointly 5. Jugteufs 5. Mardoc Empadus, in 
Scripture caRed Merodachbaladan, ' who sent an em- 
bassy to Hezekiah, king of Judah, to inquire about the 
sun's retrogressiofi, reigned 12 years. Arkianus 5. 
An interreign of two years followed. Balibus 3. A- 
pronadius 6 Mcsessimordacus 4. Then an inter- 
reign of eight years. Assaradlnus, or Esarhaddon, 
who, with his two successors, were also kings of As* 
syria^ reigned 13 years. . Saosduchinus 20. Chynaly- 
dan, called also Sarac, 22. Nabopallasar, who revolted 
from Chynalydan, and transferred the seat of the em- 
pire from Nineveli to Babylon, reigned 21 years. He, 
joining his force with those of Cyaxares, icing of the 
Medes, reduced Nineveh to a low condition, but did 
not live to see its final destruciioe, having been divert- 
ed from this war by an irruption of the Scythians, who 
at that time overran a great part of Asia. Naboco- 
lassar, or Nebochadnezzar, who in a most magnificent 
manner adorned the city Babylon, ^nd raised the em- 
pire to its highest pitch of glory, and was himself after- 
wards, by the decree of heaven, driven from the society 
of men to dwell with the beasts of the field, reigned 43 
years. Evilmerodaqh reigned 2 years. Neriglassar 
4. Nabonadius, Labynitus, or Belshazzar 17; in 
whose time the city of Babylon was taken by Cyrus, 
and the empire overturned, in the year before 
Christ 538. 

4. The Medes, having thrown off the Assyrian . IV. 
yoke in the reign of Sennacherib, lived some time MEDIA, 
without a king; but intestine disorders arising, De- ** 
joces, one of their own number, called Arphaxad in 
(he book of Judith, was chosen king in the year before 

ymw w AH ciENT fnsTOKf 4 

Christ 710. In his latter days he made wat* upos S«^ 
osduchinus, king of the Assyrians ; but his army was 
defeated in a battle fought in the great plain of Ra« 
gau, himseif slain, and his capital, Echatan. destroyed^ 
after a reign of 53 years. His son Phraortes subdued 
a great part of the Upper Asia, invaded Assyria, and 
laid siege to Nineveh ; where he perished, with the 
greater part of his army, after having reigned 22 years. 
His son, Cyaxares I. by a stratagem relieved ht9 
country from the Scythians. He engaged in war with 
the Lydians ; but a total eclipse of the sun, said to 
have been foretold by Thales the Milesian, happening 
in the time of battle, both armies retreated, and a 
peace was concluded. He afterwards, in conjunctioa 
with Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, invested Ni^ 
nev<.h, and razed it to the ground, in the year before 
Christ 601. This confederate army soon after over* 
ran and conquered Egvpt, Judea, Syria, Armtnis^ 
Pontus, C:^ppadocia, and Persia. Cyaxares reigned 40 
years. , His son Astyages, called Ahasuerus in the 
book of DanieK repulsed the Babylonians, who, und^ 
the conduct of Evilmerodach, had made an irruptioa 
into Media. He reigned 3a years. His son, Cyaxares 
II. called in Scripture Darius the Mede, reigned 22 
years. He. had a bloody war with the kings of Baby«- 
Ion, and their ally Croesus, king of L>dia, for the space 
of 21 years. In this war he was assisted b} CVruSf 
his nephew, who at last took Babylon, and placed his 
uncle on the throne; where he reignfd two years. 
Upon his death, Cyrus transferred the seat of empire 
from the Babylonians and Medes to the Persians, in 
the year before Christ 536. 

III. 5. Twenty- five years after the building of Rom€« 

liGYPT. g^^ Qj. Sabacus, the Ethiopian, be^an to reign in Egypt; 

whose successors, for about 200 years, were Anysis, 

Sethon, 12 kings jointly, Psammitichus, Necho, Psam- 

mis, Aprtes, Amasis, and Psamminitus. 

V- 6. Twenty- seven years after the building of Rom^e, 

^^ ' and 721 b(f)re Christ, Samaria, or Israel was tak«ii 

Jbraei. and <lesiroyed by S<ilmaacfier, king of the Assyrians. 

irmw m xvemrr msToiir. 




9ltie ten tribes, with their king Hoshea, were carried 
ftway into Assyria. Tobias was one of the captives, 
whose piety preserved him his liberty in the midst of 
servitude. Hezekiah, the son of king Aha'z, a maa 
of eminent piety, was then king of Jerusalem. At this 
time, too, lived the prophet Isaiah. 

7. Numa Pompilius, the second king of the Romans, 
was called to the throne from Cures, a town of the Sa- 
bines, on account of his renowned wisdom. He soft* 
ened the martial fierceness of Rome by religion. He 
instituted priests and sacred rites, pretending inter* 
tour^e with the goddess Egeria in the night. 1 hen 
lie built the temple of Janus, and shut its gates, which 
was the sign of peace. He completed the year by the 
addition of two months ; and, instead of March, ap- 
pointed January to be the beginning of the year. He 
reigned 43 years. 

8« Manasseh, the son of Hezekiah, reigned then in V. 
Judea. At the same time lived Jodith, by whom Ho* CANAAN, 
lofernes, general of Saosduchinus, king of>.the Assy- ^^* 
rians, was slain ; Gyges too, who is said to have been 
the intimate favourite of Candaules, king of the Ly- 
dians, was forced by him to view the beauty of 
bis queen when naked; after which Gyges, at the 
queen's desire, murdered Candaules, and seized upon 
the kingdom. 


9* After Numa, Tullus Hostilius being created king 
of Rome, made war upon the Albans. The dispute 
being referred to three Horatii on the side of the Ro- 
mans, and as many Curiatii on that of the Albans, vic- 
tory declared for the Romans. The Albans afterwards 
rebelling, Tullus, after demolishing Alba, ordered them 
to remove to Rome. Rome being increased by the 
ruins of Alba, mount Cslius was added to the city, 
Tullus was thunderstruck, and burnt up with all his 
house, after he had reigned 31 years. In the mean time 
Ammon, Manasseh's son, and king of^ Jerusalem) was 
assassinated by his servants* 






YiEw OF ^M^mvT nmmf' 

lOi Afur TuUus Hoatiiiua, Aocus MKTtkw, tl%e 
grandson of Numa by a daughter,, took i|pon him tk^ 
government. He proclaimed war by his heralds against 
the Latins, and vanquished them* tie too|^ a grea^ 
n^any of them afterwards into the city.^ He united th^ 
Aventine mount to the city, and likewise the Janicur 
lum, by throwing a wooden bridge over the river. He 
extended the Roman dominion quite to the sea, and 
built the city Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. He 
died of a distemper in the 24th year of his reign. A 
Judah. f<cw year9 after, Josiah, Hezekiah's grandson, fell iu 
battle, fighting against Nccho, king of £gy|it. The 
prophet Jeremiah and all the people lamented hi|n^ 

11. The fifth king of Rom^ was Tarquinus Priscu^^ 
the son of Demaratus of Corinth. He doubled tbti 
number of the senators, built the circus, and institute^ 
the Circensian games. He subdued the twelve natioQf 
of Tuscany, and borrowed from them the ensigns o£ 
supreme power, the fasces, the trabcs, the cur^ile 
chairs, the prete:2(ta, and other things of that kiud« 
He was slain by the son^ of Ancus, in ^he 3.rth yea£. 
of his reign. 

yj^ 19. Draco, who was Archon at Athens, in.^he yeac 

GRi^i^CE. before Christ 623, laid the Athenians under the mpat 

10. cruel laws, by which the smallest offences and the great* 
est crimes were equally punished with death. / Foe 
which he himself assigned this reason: small faults^ 
seem to me worthy of death, and for flagrant aiid great 
offences I can find no higher punishmentt But these 
laws did not long please the Athenians. Demades was 
wont to say ^at Drapo's laW9 were Qot wi'Uten witli 
' ink, but blopd. 

V. 13. In Judea, after the death of Josiah, his ^spn jco-? 

CANAAN, joyed the crown three months* and his brqther a few 

Juciah Y^^^^* Josiah's brother was suicceeded by i^dekial^ 

the last king of the Jews, who was reduced to slaver/ 

hy Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon} Jerusalein also. 


wd the Temple, were burnt, and the citizens carried 
ftway into Babylon, in the year before the birth of 
Christ 588. 

14. Whilst Palestine and Syria were laid waste by VI. 
the arms of Barbarians, Greece was improved by the C'^^^'C^. 
institutions of its wise men. The seven wise men of 
Greece flourished at the same time. Solon, one of 

their number, having abolished Draco's laws, enacted 
new ones, more proper for the Athenians. 


15. Servius TuUius, the sixth king of the Romans^ VIL , 
having conquered the Hetrusci and Vcientes, institu- ITALY, 
ted the Census. He divided the people into classes ^* 
a^nd centuries; added to the city the Quirinal, Viminal, 

and Esqutline hills. He was murdered in the 44th 
year of his reign, by the villany of his son-in-law Tar- 
^uin the proud. 

16. About this period lived a set of the most sav- -Wfartfrf «** 
age tyrtints in different parts 6f the world; Periander 

at Corinth, Pisistratus at Athens, Thrasybulus at Mi- 
letus, Polycrates in the island Samos, and Phalaris in 
Sicily. The same age was very productive of wise 
men: then flourished iEsop the famous writer of fables, f 

and Pythagoras in Italy, who first called himself a 
philosopher. In Greece the poets Alcceus, Stesicho- ^^. . 

rus, Sappho, Simonides, Anacreon, and Pindar, were ^t 

greatly renowned. ^- 

17. Towards the latter end of Servius Tullius*s XI. 
time flourished Cyrus the Persian. He was the son PERSIA. 
of Cambyses, either king of Persia, or a man of the ^ 
first rank in that country; and of Mandane, the daugh- 
ter of Astyages, king of the Medes. Herodotus in- 
deed says, that his father was a mean man ; and that -^ 
Cyrus, on account of a dream had been exposed in his 

infancy by order of his grandfather. But greater cre^ , 

dtt is due to Xenophon. Cyrus, in the fortieth year 
of his age, was called from Persia to assist his uncle 
Clyaxares, king of the Medes, in his war against the 



Babylonians, dnd their ally Cr<sdu&, kin^ of Ly<li^« 
This war lasted 21 years*' Cyrvs commanded thtt 
united army of Medes and Persians; and from thiv 
period historians compute the beginning of his reign* 
Cyruses conduct in this war vras glorious, and his siic- 
cess wonderful. He vanquished Croesus, and to»olc 
ihe royal city of Sardis; after this he subdued all th^ 
Continent from the i£gean sea to the Euphrates. He- 
reduced the strong city of Babylon, attd delivering the 
government of that kingdom to his uncle CyaxareS^^ 
called also Darius the Mede, he returned into Persia* 
About two years after, Cyaxares dying, as also Cam* 
byses king of Persia, Cyruii took upon himself the gtfi* 
cmment of the whole empire ; which he held fdf th^e 
•pace of seven years. In the first of thesie SeVen yeairti, 
tod before Cfcrist 534, he issued out his deci'ee for rfe- 
•toring the Jews to their country. In the reign of 
Cyrus lived the prophet Daniel, whom that monarebr 
esteemed with an aiTectionate regard. 

is. A few years after, as He!*6rfotus relates, Cyfti6 
niade war upon the ScytUians, and cut off the son of 
their queen Tomyris with his army. But the advttn- 
Cages of the victory proved delusive and of short da- 
yation. For, flushed with his success, he march* 
ed out into a place of disadvantage, where he Wns 
trepanned by the enemy, and cut to pieces with all his 
forces. But Xenophon says, Cyrus died at home, ^ 
natural death, in the 70th year of his age, and waa 
buried at Pasargada in Persia, leaving his son Camby- 
ses heir to his empire; who, having conquered Psam- 
itiinitus, annexed Egypt to his father's realm. The 
Persian empire lasted 228 years. Cyrus reigned 30 
years; Cambyses 7 years; Darius Hystaspfes 8(J y^ara; 
Xerxes 21 years; Artaxerxes Longinnaniis, cMted 
Ahasuerus in the Scriptures, and who had Esther fol^ 
his queen, 41 years; Darius Nothus 19; Axt^xerxes 
.Mnemon46; OchusSl; Ar8e]5^;DariUsGodotnaiiiifs6> 

iK»w OP AXsassitT jnsrgiwt. tt 


^^ jRr^m tAe iiberation (jf the Jews by Cyma to the o©^#- 
ti^otv {if the Persian empire by Alexander the Great^ 
x^M before Christ; including' 204 years. 

1. TARQUINIUS Superbus, the seventh and last VIL 
ef the Roman kings, derived his surname from his be- ITAli; 
iMiviour. He slighted the authority of the senate in ^* 
4be management of the government: he finished the 
4emple of Jupiter, which had been begun, by his fa- 

, Aer : he subdued the Volsci, and took Gabit by 
the artful 43onduct of his \ son Sextus. IJe is said to 
have purchased the Sibylline book from the Cumean 

.£tbyi« At last he was turned out of the city, and 
his kingdom too, for a rape committed by his son 
;upon Ijucretia, a woman of quality, in the 23d year of 

• fliis reign, in the 68th (Mympaid, and before Christ 506* 
The regal power endured at Rome, under seven kings, 

almost 242 years. 

2. After the expulsion of the kings, two consuls 
mtte created annually at Rome. Bri^tus and Colta- 
dnus were the first consuls. Brutus, upon the dis- 

' covery of a conspiracy against the public liberty, pun- 
ished the conspirators, among whom were two of his 
#wii sons, with death. 

3. About the same time a like incident delivered the yf, 
Athenians from tyranny* Hipparchus, the son of Pis- GREECE 
istratus, had debauched Harmodius's sjster. Where- H* 
upon Hannodius slays the tyrant. Being forced with 
torture by Hippias, the tyrant's brother, to name those 
that were accessary to the murder, he named the ty« | 
rant's friends; who were all immediately put to death* ! 
The citizens, roused by the magnanimity of Harmodius^ . ] 
banished Hippias, and restored themselves to liberty* ^ j 
They erected a statue to Harmodius. 


XI. 4* Cambyses, king of the Persians, caused his br«- 

PERSIA, ther Smerdis to be assassinated, because he had dream* 
^ ed that he saw him on the throne. Cambyses died 
soon after, of a wound by his own sword dropping acci- 
dentally out of the sheath. Patizithes, one of the 
Magi, concealing the death of Smerdis, put up his own 
brother Oropastes in his room, who, personating 
Smerdis, obtained the sovereignty. But the impos- 
ture being soon discovered, the pretended king, with 
his brother, was taken off by the grandees of Persia*. 

5. The grandees who had dispatched Oropastes^ 
agreed among themselves to come to the palace before 
sunrise, and that he whose horse neighed first, should 
be king. The horse of Darius, the son of Hystaspes^ 
neighed first, and procured his owner the kingdom. 

6. Darius Hystaspes being thus created king of the . 
Persians, granted leave to the Jews to finish the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem ; the prophet Haggai at the same 
time encouraging them thereto. Babylon, which had 
revolted from the Persians, he recovered by the artifice 
of his friend Zopyrus. For he haviog cut off his nose 
and ears, made the Babylonians believe he had fled 
over to them, on havifig been barbarously used b^ 
Darius. Accordingly he betrayed the city, with which 
they intrusted nim, to Darius. 

VII. 7. Tarquinius Superbus being banished from Rome^ 

rrALY. implored the assistance of Porsenna, king of the He- 
trusci ; who, waging war with the Romans, possessed 
himself of the Janiculum. Horatius Codes alone sus- 
tained the assaults of the enemy on the Subliciaa 
bridge for a considerable time, till the bridge was cut 
down behind him. Then he plunged into the Tiber, 
and swam over safe to the Romans amidst the darts of 
the enemy. Clselia too, a Roman lady, one of the hos- 
tages, having eluded her keepers, swam over the Tiber^ 
amidst the darts of the Hetrusci. Moreover, Mutio^ . 
Sctevola, in order to deliver his country from the 
enemy'ji blockade, conveys himself into their camp, and 


initead of the king, by mistake kills his secretary. Be- 
ing carried before the king to be examined, he thrusts 
his right hand into the fire ; and at the same time de- 
dares to the king, that 300 Romans had in like man- 
ner taken an oath to murder him. Whereupon Por- 
senna, ttiaking peace with the Romans, returned home. 

8. After this the Latins made war upon the Romans j 
under the conduct of Tarquin's son-in law; against 
whom Posthumius being made dictator, he vanquished 
them in a memorable battle at the lake Reglllus. It is 
said the gods, ' particularly Castor and Pollux, were 
present in this battle, and were seen to fight bn white 
horses, in the year of the city 255. Gelo at that time 
reigned in Syracuse. 

9. Darius also, king of the Persians, endeavouring xi, 
to reinstate Hippias in his kingdom, made war upon PERSIA. 
Athens. Miltiades, general of the Athenians, quickly ^* 
meets htm at Marathon with a small body of men. 

Ten thousand Athenians encountered two hundred 
thousand Persians. Dariiis's army was routed and 
put to flight, in the year before the birth of Christ 490. 

10. Rome, delivered from foreign enemies was, well VII. 
nigh ruined by intestine divisions. The commons, ITALY, 
harassed by the senators and usurers, withdrew to the 
Sacred Mount, on the other side of the Anio; but 

were appeased by the persuasions of Menenius Agrip- ./ 

pa, and upon obtaining the protection of the tribunes 
of the people against the patricians, returned into the 

11. Martius Coriolanus, having been forced from 
the city by the spite of the tribunes, went over to the 
Voisci, and made war upon his country. He so broke 
the power of the Romans, that they were obliged to 
sue for peace, by sending his mother Veturia to him. 
Coriolanus yielded to his mother's entreaties, and the 
Volsci were afterwards quite reduced by Spurius Cas- 
aiuA. But Cassiusy ^fter this, elated with his migh^ 

^ Vmvr OF AttClBNT nHSTORf . 

sQcccM^ txid aiming at sovereignty, wms Aravm IubbA* 
long from the Tarpeian rock, in ihe year of ibt 
-city U68. 

Vr. 12. About the same time, Ariertidet, sanumned dK 

GRBKCB..|ust» wafi banished Adiens* But being sooa neatoredl, 

^•^' he assisted Themistocles in the Persian war, by whose 

interest he had been expelled, sacrificing private 

wrongs to the good of his cottntry* 


VIL ^^* ^^ Rome the Fabian family, to ease their couo- 

ITALY. try of trouble, petitioned for the entire management <yf 

^^* the Veienttan war to themselves. They defeated die 

Veientes several times. Being now victorious, they 

were almost utterly destroyed by a stratagem of tfae 

enemy: above 300 of the Fabii were cutoflf in one day. 

XL 14. Xerxes, the son of Darius Hystaspes, heir 16 

^*^lt^'^' his father's crown and inveterate enmity to the Greeks^ 
^ * having built a bridge of boats over the Hellespont, and 
Greece. digged through IMI ount Athos, invaded Greece with an 
armv of two millions of men. At the straits of Tber- 
mopylse, Leonidas, king of the Spartans, with a hand- 
ful of men, made a dreadful slaughter of his troops, 
till, spent with killing, he fell victorious upon heaps of 
slain enemies. The Athenians, in the mean time, 
-quitting their city., equipt a fleet of 200 ships. Accord* 
ingly Xerxes, having found Athens deserted, burnt it. 
But his fleet, consisting of 2000 sail and upwards, 
being defeated near Salamis, and put to flight by th|^ 
contrivance and valour of Themistocles, the Athenian 
admiral, he marched off in great dismay towards 
Thrace, in order to cross the Hellespont: but finding 
-his bridge broken down by the violence of the storms, 
he passed over in a fishing-boat, and continued hift 
-flight to Sardis, in the year of Rome 268, and before 
Christ 480. 

15. The year f(JIowing Mardonius, who had been 
left by Xerxes with 300,000 men to prosecute the war, 
met with a great overthrow at PUtea, from the Greeksr, 


ittiw oP Aircmirr ntstoR^ 

•Mdcr tli6 cofi^uct of Aristides and Pausamils. In die 
ireign of Xerxes, flourished Herodotujs, the father of 
historians, about 600 years later than Homer. 

16* Quititius Cincintiatus, called from the plough, VIL 
by the Romans, to the dictatorship, delivered the con- n aly. 
•ul Minutius, who had been blocked up by the i£qui 
^ Algtdum, and caused the enemy to pass under the 
yoke. Cimon also, the son of Miltiades, having with Greece, 
iltit like good conduct vanquished the forces of Xerxes, 
near Cyprus, restored the Greek cities of Asia to li- 
berty* Nor was Greece then illustrious for its generals 
bnly, but philosophers also ; for the same age produced 
Heraclitus, Democritus, Anaxagoras, and several 

17* At Rome, about 3i30 years after the building of 
HHe city, instead of two consuls, decemviri were cre- 
ated. They compiled a body of laws brought over 
Irom Greece, and particularly from Athens. These, 
being inscribed on twelve tables, were called the laws 
6f the XIL, tables. Within a few years, by the lust of 
Appius Claudius, and the outrages of his colleagues, 
the govemment reverted to the consuls. 

18. Artaxerxes Longimanus granted leave to Nehe* j^i^ 
ifiiah, his cup bearer, to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, PJfiiiSiA, 
in the year before the birth of Christ 445. In the ^* 
reign of Artaxerxes lived the famous naturalists Em- 
pedocles and Parmenides, Hippocrates the physician, 
Polycletus and Phidias, statuaries; Xeuxis, Parrhasius, 
and Timantes, painters. 

19* About six years after the decemviral power 
was abolished, military tribunes with consular autho- 
rity began to be created at Rome. The censors, too, 
were then first made for holding the census. Cornelius 
Cossus, a military tribune, having slain Toiumnius, 
king of the Veientes, with his own hand, next after 
Romulus, presented the spoliu ofifna to Jupiter Fe* 




VI. . ^0* /^^^ same yeara that the military tribunes were 
QREECfi. created at Rome, the Peloponnesian war broke out in. 
14* Greece, which spreading itself over all Greece, conti- 
nued 27 years. Thucydides, having been forced into 
banishment by Pericles, the incendiary of the war, 
wrote the history of it. 

21* A few years after, the seat of the war was trans- 
ferred into Sicily. The Athenians, importuned for 
Slid by the Catanenses, engaged in a war against the 
Syracusans, in the reign of Darius Nothus, king of the 
Persians. The first attempts of the Athenians in this 
wsir were very successful, but the issue proved fatal to 
them. The generals of the Athenians were Alcibiades^ 
Nicias, and Lamachus. 

22. But at Athens the study of the liberal arts was 
in high repute. Then flourished Aristophanes, Cra- 
tinus, and Eupolis, comic poets ; Sophocles and Euri- 
pides, tragic poets; Praxiteles the famous statuary; 
Gorgias, and other sophists in great numbers ; and 
Socrates, the father of philosophers. But Diagoras 
denying the existence of the gods, was banished from 
Athens, a reward being offered by the government if 
any one would kill him. 

VII. 23. The Galli Senones, during the reign of Tar- 

ITALY. quinius Priscus, having driven out the Tuscans, had 
seized upon that part of Italy which was afterwards 
called Cisalpine Gaul. This people, incensed by Q. 
Fabius the ambassador of the Roman people, at the 
siege of Clusium, a town of the Hetrusci, turned their 
arms against the Romans, and, having cut off their 
forces at the river Allia, fell upon the city, under their 
leader Brennus, tosk and destroyed it with fire an^r 
sword* Rome was burnt in the yeai: 365 after it was 

VI. 24. About those times a calamity of much the like 

dRBKCE. nature befel Athens. Lysander, genetal of the Lace^ 

demonians, assisted by the power of Persia, having 


Vanquished Conoii) and reduced the Athenians vety 
low, took Athens itself^ demolished its walls, and ap« 
pointed thirty <:ommissioners to govern the state; who^ 
tyrannizing cruelly over the citizens* were turned out 
by Thrasybulus, four years after the taking of the city, 
and Athens restored to its liberty. 

25. About the same time flourished Ctesias of Cm- M-xeda^ 
ivLSi who having been taken prisoner in the wars of *^*""^ 
Cyrus against Artaxerxes Mnemon, king of the Per- 
sians, was very honourably treated by the king on ac- 
count of his skill in physic: he wrote the history of 

the Persians. . At the same time lived Archytas of 
Tarentum; and likewise Antisthenes, Aristippus, Xe- 
Bophon, Plato, Isocrates, disciples of Socrates. 

26. In those times flourished several famous gene« 
rals; at Athens, Iphicrates, Chabrias, Thrasybulusr, 
and Timotheus ; amongst the Thcbans, Pelopidas, and 
Epaminondas, a man of an illustrious character not 
only for military glory, but likewise for his skill in 
philosophy, and his integrity of life. 

27. At Rome, Camillus, created dictator in his ab- VlT, 
sence, having raised an army, advanced to the city, IT a Life 
expelled the Gauls, and utt^ly destroyed their whole' ^^ 
army. -Rome within ^a year, by the generous activity 

of Camillus, was reared up anew. Lucius Sextius, who 
after a long dispute, was the first consul made from 
among the plebeians, put an end to the creation of mili- 
tary tribunes. A city prstor, and two curule aediles^ 
were created. 

28. Epaminondas, having cut off Cleombrotus king y|^ 
•f the Lacedemonians, together with his army, at grkkc 
Leuctra, fell in battle fighting with great bravery against ^^« 
Agesilaus, at Mantinea. With him fell the glory of 
the Thebans. The martial character of the Lact* demo- 
aians likewise died, upon the introducing of gold, and 
along with it avarice, by their general Lysander* 


^1 TlfiW or AKClfiNT HISTOnY. 

IX. ^* From the Greeks the murtial spirit passed to tSie 

CAR- Carthaginians, who subdued Sardinia with their artns^ 
2. ^°^) having vanquished Dtonysius, t^^rant of Syracuse^ 
took several towns from the Syracusans.^ Not long 
after, Dionysius being killed by his subjects, left the 
sovereignty to his soq Dionysius ; who being at last 
driven from Syracuse for his unparalleled extravagance, 
by Dion, the disciple of Plato, set up a school at Co- 
rinth ; whilst Isocrates, Demosthenes's master, as yet 
taught rhetoric at Athens. 

VII. ^^* '^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ mean time were in great 

ITALY, lustre at Rome. T. Manlius, upon a challenge in the 

^"^» Gallic war, slew a Gaul of prodigious stature in the 

face of both armies, and was called Torquatus, from 

the chain which he took from the Gaul's neck. Vale- 

yius, too, killed a Gaul of like size, by the assistance of 

a raven, whith perching on his helmet, had annoyed 

his smtagonist with his wings and beak, and got the 

surname of Corvinus. 

VI. 31. Alexander the Great was bom at Pella, a town 

6RBEGB. Qf Macedonia, in the year after the building of Rome 
392, in the 106th Olympiad, and before the birth of 
• Christ 356; his father Philip, king of the Macedonians, 
subdued the Illyrians, took several cities from the 
Athenians and other Greeks, and would ha^e made 
himself master of all Greece, had he not been opposed 
by Demosthenes the orator. Finally, being created 
general of Greece for managing the Persian war, he 
was slain by Pausanias, whose ill usage he had neglect- 
cd to revenge, in the reign of Ochus, king of the Per- 

VII. ^2* I^ ^^^ mean time, the war with the Samnites 

ITALY, proved very grievous and lasting. War was declared 

^^* against the Samnites in favour of the Campani, who 

* The sequel of the hrstory of Carthage and Sjraeiue is intimate}/ 
blended with that ef Italy under No. SO, page 41. 

bad put .themselves under the protection of the Ro- 
man people, and was carried on with various success* 
To it was added the war with the Latins ; in which 
war T. Manilas Torquatus, the consul, beheaded his 
own son, for engaging the enemy contrary to orders. 
In the same war Decius Mas, upon the Roman troops 
giving ground, devoted himself for the army. Itht 
^ips of the Antiates taken during the war, were 
brought to Rome, and with their beaks the gallery in 
the forum was adorned: whilst Diogenes the cynic, 
smd scholar of Antisthenes; also Aristotle, Xenocrates, 
Speusippus, disciples' of Plato ; taught in Greece. 

d3« Alexander the Great in bis youth studied undei^ VI. 
Aristotle ; whilst yet very young he conquered the GREECE; 
Thracians and lUyrians, destroyed Thebes, and received* 
Athens upon surrender. After this, supported by the- 
confederate arms of the Greeks and Thessalians, he 
passes over into Asia to the Persian war. He defeati 
Darius Codomannus king of the Persians, first at Gra- 
mcus, and a second time at Issus. 

34. Moreover, Alexander having taken Tyre, iava- Mexandtr 
ded Judea. But being received in a fyiendly manner ^Ig Oretk 
at Jerusalem by Jaddeus the high priest, he offered sa-^"'^^'* 
crifices in the temple. Having made himself master 
of Egypt, he builds the city of Alexandria, calling it 
by his own name. In fine, he passes the Euphrates, 
cpnquers Darius a third time at Arbela, and having 
t^ken Babylon, transfers the empire from the Persians 
to the Macedonians, in the fourth year of his reign, in 
the 112th Olympaid, in the year of Rome 418, and 
before Christ 330. 






W'rom the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alexander ^ 
the Greats to the defeat of Perseus^ hie last successor 
in Greece^ by £milius Paulus^ 167 before Christy 
when Pome became the mistress of the world; compre" 
hending 163 year^, 

1. THE Macedonian empire being thus erected^ 
Alexander inarches into India, and, after conquering 
many nations, returns to Babylon; where he died ia 
the 12th year of his reign, being 33 years old, in the 
year before the birth of Christ 323. In his reign flour- 
ished the historians XheopompuSf Megasthenes, and 

ifreehem'- ^' Upon the demise of Alexander, many princes* 
pr0 i&vided stiirttd up in the room of one. Ptolemy, the son of 
Lagus, called also Ptolemy Soter, reigned in £gypt» 
Eumenes in Cappadocia; Antigonus in Asia; Lysima- 
chus in Thrace ; Scleucus at Babylon ; and Cassander 
having put to death Alexander's son, and his mother 
Olympias, seized upon the kingdom of Macedonia. At 
the same time Menander, the comic poet; Crantor, the 
disciple of Xenocrates, ^and Crates of Diogenes; Epi-«. 
curus^ Zeno, the father of the Stoics; as also Theo- 
phrastus, w^re in great reputation, 

VII. *^* About the time of Alexander's death, Appius 

ITALY. Claudius, the censor, paved the Appian way at Rome. 
t9. About the same time the Tarentine war was kindled 
up, occasioned by their insulting the Roman ambassa* 
dors. In which war the integrity and courage of Cu- 
rius and Fabricius, with respect to Pyrrhus king of 
Epirus, who had come to tl}e assistance of the Taren- 
tines, were remarkably eminent. C. Dentatus having 
defeated him in battle, drove him at last out of Italy^ 
and forced the Tarentines to surrender, about 483 years 
after the building of the city* 


4. After the death of Alexander the Great^ the regal m. 
government continued in Egypt for the space of near EGVPT. 
275 years. Ptolemy Soter, the begii^^ning of whose ^* 
reign is to be computed from the year before Christ 
304, for this successor of Alexander long disclaimed 
the title of Jcing, ruled 2Pyearsi Ptolemy Philadclphus 
38 years; Ptolemy Evergetes25 years; Ptolemy Philo- 
pater 17 years; Ptolemy Epiphanes 24 years; Ptolemy 
Philometor 35 years; Ptolemy Physcon 29 years; 
Ptolemy Lathurnus, or Soter 36 years; Alexander 15 
years; Ptolemy Auletes 14 years; qu^en Cleopatra 22 

5.* Agathoclcs, the tyrant of Syracuse, being be- VII. 
«ieged by the Carthaginians, passes over privately with ^^AJ^^* 
his fleet into Africa; by which means he drew off the Syracwe, 
enemy to the defence of their own country. Having 
made peace with the Carthaginians, he makes himself 
sribsolute master of Sicily. He was succeeded by Hiero, 
who, tor his great moderation, was honoured with the 
title of king, by the S\ racusans. He gave occasion 
to the first Punic war with the Romans. 

6. About 495 years after the building of the city, Firet Puttie 
the Roman people having subdued almost all Italy, '*'**'^"" 
passed over into Sicily, to succour the M amertini, their 
allies, against Hiero and the Carthaginians. Accord- . 
ingly the Romans, under their general Appius Clau- 
dius, vanquished Hiero; and, having worsted the Car- 
thaginians, received several towns of Sicily upon sur- 
render. After this C. Duilius first gained a naval 
victory over the Carthaginians. The seat of the war 
was immediately carried into Africa, under the com- . 
mand of Attilius Regulus. He having taken Tunis, 
and other towns of the Carthaginians, laid siege to 
Carthage. But being worsted by Xantippus, general ' 

of the Lacedemonians, who came to the assistance of 
the Carthaginians, befell into the hands of his enemies. 
Regulus being afterwards sent to Rome, to negociate a 
peace, advised the Romans to make no peace with the 
(^thagiaians. He himjBelf returning to Carthage in 



coasequence of the engagei^eiHs he had made with 
the enemy, was put to death in the most cruel man- 
ner imaginable* Finally, consul Luptfttius humbled 
the power of the Carthaginians in a sea-fight, and 
j'^flMfs con- granted them a peace. The first Punic war being co- 
ded in the ^th year, the temple of Janus was shut a 
second time. About the same time the consul Mar* 
oellus, having killed Veridomarus king of the Insubres, 
with his own hand, was the third that presented the 
opima spolia to Jupiter. C Flai3:i)muS) the censor^ paved 
the Flaminian way. 

Mixed ap- y, j^ Greece, Aratus, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus, 
disciples of Zeiio; Arcesilas too, anod Demetrius Pha- 
lereus the scholar of Theophrastus, left illustrious 
monuments of their parts and learning, during the 
reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus in Egypt; who furnished 
the famous library at Alexandria, and in order to ren* 
der it the more complete^ prqcured the sa/ered booka 
from Eleazer the high priest of J^rusi^eia, and caused 
them to be translated into Qreek, in the year before: 
Christ 277. In the mean time the Parthians revolted 
from the dominion of the Macedonians. Arsaceswas, 
the first king of Parthia; from him the other kings of 
the Parthiaas were called Arsacidae. 


Sfcfmd Pu' 8. The tranquillity of Rome, after the first PuoiiQ: 
war, lasted scarce 24 years. Saguntum, a city m opam^ 
in alliance with the Roman people having been des«^ 

•— tV? Spain, troyed by Annibal the Carthaginian genered^ gave riser 
to the second Punic war. Annibai, leaving his brcH 
ther Asdrubal in Spain, niiarches over the Alps intfk 

-^n Italy, Italy. Cornelius Scipio meets him at Ticinttm; but 
narrowly escaped himself with the loss oh his army*. 
Flaminius, with a more terrible stroke, is cut off with* 
his army by Annibal at die lake Thraaymene. Qh Fa- 
bius Maximus checked the enemy's career a little, hj 

loith after- Waving battle; hence he was called Cqnctator. But a 

7iure«ttccM*;gjgj^^j overthrow was received at Cannae, a village of 
Apulia, by the rashness of Terentius Varro. So^eat 
was the number of the slain, that a bm^l pi gold- 


ritigi, which had been taken from the hands of th^ Ro- 
man knights, was sent to Carthage. But the follow- 
ing year, M. Claudius Marcelius, fighting a successful 
battle at Nola, made it appear that Annibal could be 

9. Hieronymus, the son of Hiero, king of Syracuse, «-«n Sicily; 
had revolted to Annibal. Whereupon, the consul 
Marcellus makes war upon the Syracusans, and t&kes 

the city of Syracuse by surprise in the night, which « 
Was long defended, no less by the inventions of Ar- . 
thimedes, than the arms of the citizens. The modera- 
tion of the conquerer heightened the glory of the con- 
quest. He spared the city and the inhabitants. In 
fine, L»vinu8 made Sicily the first province of the Ro- 
man people. 

10. Cornelius Scipio, yet very young, is sent mtoj*^sp°*^% 
Spain by the Romans. He takes New Carthage; drives ^rlca. 
AsdrutMul out of Spain; and enters into a league with 
Masinissa. In the mean time Claudius Nero cuts off 
Asdrubal at the river Metaurus, as he was going into 

Italy to join forces with his brother Annibal; While 
Scipio passes over into Africa, on design to draw off 
the enemy, who still kept fast by Italy. He cuts oiF 
Hanno, the general of the Carthaginians, with his army, 
and having conquered Syphax, their ally in battle, 
takes him prisoner. 

11. In the 16th year of the war, Annibal was re-^^^'^C*?^/*'"' 


called into Africa by the Carthaginians. He encoun- 
ters Scipio : being defeated, he makes his escape from 
battle, and giving up all for lost, f^ies into Asia. Car- 
thage was entirely subdued in the year of Rome 560, 
just 188 years before the birth of Christ. 

12. From Africa, Scipio got the surname of Afri- 
canus, being the first that was dignified with the name 
of a vanquished nation. He greatly honoured Ennius 
the epic, poet, with whom the comedians Naevius, 
C^^cUius, Plautus, are reckoned nearly cotemporary. 


13. The peace with Carthage was succeeded by the 
Ths Mace- Macedonian war, which was undertaken for the Athe- 
mans, their alhes, and carried on with various success 
for ten years. Ac last this war was ended by Quinc« 
tius Flaminius, by the entire conquest of Philip king 
of Macedonia, and liberty restored to all Greece, in 
the year of the city 572. 

War -with 14. After, this Antiochus, king of Syria and Asia, 
made \var upon che Romans, at the instigation of An- 
nibal. But Antiochus being defeated both by sea and 
. land, by L. Scipio, sued for peace; which was granted 
him on these terms: that he should quit all Asia, and 
surrender up Annibal; who, to prevent his falling into 
the hands of his enemies, swallowed poison, and died 
in the year of the city 581. From Asia, L. Scipio re« 
ceived the surname of Asiaticus. In those times 
Livy, the writer of tragedies, was accounted famouf* 

Othifttiieces' 15. About the same time M. Fulvius, having taken 
aniw. ^"'"'' Ambracia, tne residence of Pyrrhus, king of the Epi- 
rotes., conquered the iEtolians; L* Posthumius Albinas 
subdued the Lusitani; Appius Pulcher the Istri; iEmi- 
lius Paulus reduced Perseus, king of Macedon^thelaU 
successor of Alexander the Great in Greece, and led 
him in triumph to Rome, in the year of the city 581, 
and before Christ 167. Rome now began to be ac- 
counted the mistress of the world.* 

Juda/i. jQ^ Much about the same time, bloody wars were 

carried on in Judea by the Maccabees, against Anti- 
ochus and Demetrius, with various success* 

* From this period, all ancient history may be regarded as cODcentratdl 
in that of the Komaa empire^ 

ifan or jLKesBirr onToa^: 41$ 


From the defeat of Perseits^ to the birth of Christ or 
the beginning of the Christian cera; including 16f 
years, ^ 

1. THE Cai'thaginians, disregarding treaties, zniTfutdPu^ 
making war upon Masinissa, gave occasion to the third "*^ ^°' ' ' 
Punic war. Wherefore, by the persuasion of M. Cat6, 

a war is commenced against them. At last, being quite 
vanquished in the fourth year of it, by P, Scipio, they 
surrendered themselves, at discretion. Carthage w^s 
levelled with the ground, after it had stood above 700 
years ; in the year from the building of Rome 602. 
The same Scipio made Panaetius the philosbpher, Po- 
lybius the historian, Terence the comic poet, his inti- 
mate friends. These gentlemen in their old age were 
succeeded by Pacuvius and Accius, tragic poets, ana 
Aristarchus the grammarian. * ' 

2. About these times the Corinthians had beaten the T^e Jichem 
ambassadors of the Roman people, and engaged th«^"^"*' 
Aoheans to join them as confederates in the wan 
Whereupon L. Mummius, the consul, having received 
Achaia upon surrender, destroyed Corinth, after it had 

stood 952 years ;■ in the year of Rome 602. Aboiit 
the same time Q. Fabius in a great measure recovered 
Lusitania, which had been seized upon by Viriatqs the 
robber. P. Scipio too, 14 years after the destruction 
of Carthage, razed Numantia in Spain, with the same 
army which had before been often routed by the Nu- 
mantians. Of such importance was a general and 
discipline. . ' 

3. A bloody sedition in the mean time broke out zt Agrarian 
Rome. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus embroiled the ^'J^^^ "' 
state, by preferring, the Agrarian law forbidding any 

H^ rwm \» hmmxft fosjofv^i 


person to possess above 500 acres of land* Whereupon 
he wa(s killed in the capitol by" Scipio Nasica* And not 
long after, his brother, C* Gracchus attempting the 
same, was slain by L. Opimius'the consul, and together, 
with him Fulvius Flaccus, a gtntleman of consular 
dignity. About the same time Attains king of Phrygia 
dying, made the Roman people his heir, in the year of 
the city 615* ^ 

Jbmirrfetkn 4* One Eunus, a Syrian, having broke prison in 
f» Skill/. Sicily, and drawn together a vast multitude of slaves 
from the country, gave the Roman eommandtrs several 
great overthrows. At lasjt he was routed by P. Ru* 
pilius, the consul, in the year of tl^ city 9X7* Then 
flourished Lucius the satirist. 

Sugunhivs 5. After this the Jugurthine war broke out. Ju- 
gurtha, king of Numidia, and grandson of JVIasinissa, 
had dispossessed his brothers, the sons of Micipsa^ of 
their kingdom. The latter implored the protection of 
the Roman people. Accordingly war was waged with 
, Jugurtha; who, being at last driven from his domi- 
liions by C. Marius, fled to Bocchus, king of Maure* 
tania; by him he was delivered up bound to L. Sylla, 
Marius's questor, much about the same time that Ci- 
cero was born, in the year after the building of the 
city 643. Marius, continuing several years in the con* 
sulship, cut oflf the Cimbri, Teutones, and other bar» 
barous nations, who were, breaking in upon Italy. 

jigrariari \ 5, In the mean time fresh disturbances broke t)ut at 
tUtjon. Rome. Saturninus, a tribune of the people, a turbulent 
fellow, exasperated the senate against him, by forcibly 
passing the Agrarian law. Whereupon he was mur- 
"^dered in a concourse of the Patricians rushing upon 
hxn^m Soon after Livius Druaus, attempting the same 
thing with a greater pojver, was assassinated at his 

^ Shml 7. After this the social was lighted up in ^taly* 
The Marsi, Picentes, Peligni, Samnites, Lucani, and 

0ther imtioos of Italy, fitidtng theycoold not obtain the 
freedom of the cit]r by geotk methods, endeavoared to 
compass it by force of arms. At last being conquered 
by* Co. Pompey, and other commanders, they saed for 
peace* Together with the peace, the freedom of the 
tity was spontaneously conferred on them* About the jj^ji^- 
same time, Aristobulus the hig^ priest received the 
ensigns of royalty, in Judea, almost 482 years after 
Zedekiah the last king of Judea. 
.' . • ■» 

8. Mithridates, king of Pontus, had dispossessed Revolt ^ 
Ariobarzanes, kmg of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes, '^"** 
king of Bithynia, allies of the Roman people, of their ' 
respective kingdoms* War was declared against him 
tmder the condiicf^of L. SyUa. Upon this a civil war 
was kindled up in Italy: C. Marius envying Sylla, his 
old lieutenant, so large a field of glory, brought it 
about by means * of Salpitius, a tribune of the people^ 
that the m&nagement of the war was committed to him- 
aelf» Upon this head, Marius being forced from the 
city by Sylla, withdrew into Africa. Sylla, marching 
into Asia, fought with great success against Mithrida* 
tes. He recovered Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia, 
in the year x)f the city 663. ' 

9* Marius in the mean time, by the assistance of L. InUutmt 
Ginna the*consul, breaks into Rome with an army. Sylla *'^'^** 
brings over his victorious forces out of Asia, and hav* 
ing vanquished Marius's party, fills the city and Italy 
with slaughter and bloodshed, the proscription of citi- 
£ens being then first set on foot. Sylla, about four 
years after, consumed of the lousy disease, died in the 
year of the cfity §71. 

10. Sertorius^a general of the Marian faction, had 7?et;9f^ «/ 
seized upon Spain, and concluded an aili^ce with ^P^^ 
Mithridates. Q. Metellus and Cn. Pompey waged 
war against him with various success. At last Serto- 
rius being murdered by his own men, Spain was recov* 
ered/ in the year of the city 675. 

Yrnvf ow AKC»HT mrfMiir. 

JntwrecHon H* At the same' time slaves and pirates raised di»- 
An itafy. torbanccs. One Spartacus, with above 70 gladiators, 
having made his escape from a fencing school at Capsui, 
and drawn together a numerous body of forces, routed 
the' Roman armies several times* At last he was cut 
off by M. Crassus. Cn« Pompey also, afterwards calr. 
led Pompey ihe Great, subdued the pirates, who, at 
the instigation of Mithridates, infested the seas, in the 
year of the city 682. 

Ponius re' 
duced to a 

12. Mithridates having been reinforced with fresh 
succours, renewed the war in Asia. Lucullus, after 
he had brought him very low by several battles, hem* 
med him in within Pontus. At the same time Metel- 
Iu8, having reduced the island of Crete under the do- 
minion of the Roman people, w-n^ named Creticus* 
After this Cn. Pompey stripped Mithridates of his 
kingdom; and admitted Tigranes, his confederate , in 
the war, to a -surrender; taking from hinySyria and 
Phsenicia. He reduced Pontus into the form of .a 
province, in the year of the city 684* 

Judea re- 

13. Aristobulus and Hyrcanus, the sons of Alexan- 
der, king of the Jews, disputing about the succession 
to the crown, Pompey came into Judea in the charac- 
ter of an umpire, to decide their differences; but being 
provoked, by Aristobulus, he takes Jerusalem by storm^ 
demolishes the walls, entered the holy recesses of the 
temple, but meddled with nothing sacred. He made 
Judea tributary to the Roman people, and carried Ar« 
istobulus widi him to Rome,in the year before Christ 6*1« 


14. Whilst the Roman empire was extending itself 
over all Asia, Rome itself was well nigh ruined by an 
intestine war. L. Catiline having r^sed an army in 
Etruria, had entered into a conspiracy with Lentuljus 
the praetor, Cethegus, and other senators, to massacre 
the consuls and the senate, and set fire to the city. 
This conspiracy was discovered and crushed by M. 
Tullius Cicero the consul, and Catiline cut off with his 
avmy by C Antonius, in tt^e year ^f the city 686. 

mmw^ot' AUGBNT imroRT- 4^ 

,Ctcero ihree y^srs after was forced into bantiihment by 
F.Xlodius, for having put to des^th the conspiratprs. 
\But withiQ 16 months, he Was recalled with great 
glory. ' The same man was highly illustrious for his 
eloquence; whilst M. Varro the philologist, Sallust 
the historian, Lucretius .and, Catullus poets, were much 
esteemed at Rome. Csesar Augustus was likewise bom 
this yean 

15* About the same time C. Julius Caesar attached c«Hir,i>«m- 
Cn* Pompey to his interest by marriage, having taken ^^^^^^f.,^ 
to wife his daughter Julia. He won over M. Crassu8/»;»^ '/Wum- 
to himself and to Pompey. A combination ^of three 
' leading men being thus formed, the province of Gaul 
i^ decreed to Csasar, Spain to Pompey, and the man- 
agement of the Parthian wa committed to Crassus. 


16« Crassus marching into Asia, plundered the tem- Crasnu^ 
pie of Jerusalem of its sacred treasure, fought the*^ 
Parthians to great disadvantage, and lost his army to* 
gether with his son. At last he himself being trepan- 
ned, under pretence of an interview, is slain by the en- 

17. But Caesar constrained the Helvetii to return to 
their country ; overthrew Ariovistus, king of the Ger- 
mans, the disturber of Gaul ; subdued tUe Aquitani, 
Gauls, and Belgae ; aqd conquered Germany and Bri- 
.tain. Meanwhile his wife Julia dying, Cssar's power 
appeared to Pompey and the senate exorbitant, and 
dangerous to the state; wherefore he is ordered to dis- 
band his army. From those beginnings broke out the Civil wm-; 
civil ^ar, about 699 years after the building of the city. 

18. Caesar marches with an hostile army to I^ome, ^^^^^J, 
enters the city that had been abandoned by the nobi- at Rome: 
lity, causes himself to be defclared dictator, and pillages 

the treasury. After this having forced Pompey out of 
Italy, he drove his lieutenants Afranius and Petreius 
out of Spain, and returns again to Rome. He passed 
•ver immediately into Greece, still prosecuting the war 

M Twr Of AMfosm msfwt. 

gm^i^ tgaiMt Pbmpej. The 9ei^ of tlie war beisg oUTfed to 
'Fbarsattaf Pompey resolves ta reduce C»sar rather' bjr 
femine^ intercepting his provisions, than bv figbl^ 
ing him* But constrained by the pressing * iastancos 
of the norbility, he engaged the enemy, and bttog de» 
feated, makes his escape, with the toss of his armyi 
Pompey going into Egypt is slain by order of king 
Ptolemy, to whom he < fled for protection, in the SBth 
year of his age. 

-^4x1 Egypt; 19, CsBsar arrived' at Alexandria in piirsuit' of 
Pompey; and as he was endeavouring to-settle the 
differences betwixt Ptolemy and his sister Cleopatra, 
had like to have been cut off by that king ; but he set 
fire to his fleet to prevent its falling into the hands cf 
his enemies. By its flames, that famous library of 
Alexandria, collected by Ptolemy Philadelphus, was 
consumed* But at length, after the conquest and 
death of Ptolemy, he delivers up the kibgdom. to Cleo* 

^fl Ada; 20. After this he vanquished Phamaces, the son of 
Mithridates, who had broke in upon the territories of 
of the Roman people, with a single effort ; so that he 
seemed to have conqj[iered the enemy almost before he 

^ifi .>9/rico saw them. Then he subdued J uba, king of Mauri- 
tania, who, at the persuasion of Scipio and C&to, was 
renewing the civil war in Africa. Cato, that he 
might not fell into the hands of Csesar, dispatches hinr- 
self at Utica, whence he has been called Uticensis. 

-^is ended 21. In the mean time war was levied ih Spain, by 
in Spain. Cncius and Sextas, the sons of Pompey the Great. Ca- 
sar goes thither with his army, comes to a general aoA 
tion, overthrows the Pompeys at MundA, a city of 
Spain. Cneius was slain in a tower, to which be had 

CitBar dicta- 22. The republican government being thus subverted, 

tor for Ufe. Caesar was declared, perpetual dictator by the senate. 

He reformed the year by intercalary days, accordii^ 


t9 llie judgment of a^ooomers^'atid cadited llie month 
QuiiitUis, from his own naixM, Julf* , After thts, being 
dated with pride^ he hegan to slight the senate, and 
•spire to sovereign power. Wherefore, in the fifth 
jrear of his dictatorship, he was slain in the senate- 
house - by Brutus, Cassius, and the other conspirators^ 
being dispatched by three and twenty wounds^ in the' 
year ^ the city 706, and before Christ 42. 

28« M*. Anthony, the consul, stirring up the people ./^nrAonytn 
at Caesar's funeral agaiost the d^verers of their coun- ^'''^•"^ 
Uy, threw all into confusion ; he overawed the senate 
by fm armed force, and seized u|k>d CisaI|Hne Craul. 
Whereupon war is resolved on against him by the ae* 
Hate, at the persuasion of Cicero. Thexonsuls-Hir^ 
ttus and Paaaa, as likewise Octavius, Julius Caisar^s 
heir, and his siRster's grandson, advanced to Mutina^ 
at the head of three armies, and coming to an engage*- 
meat with Anthony, obtained the victory. , 

24. That victory cost the Roman people dear. The Octtnim ku 
consuls being slain, the three armies subjected them- *^^®5«" • 
«elves to the command of Ootavius alone; who' march- 
ing bis forces to Rome, procured himseif the consulate 

from the senate by main force, being a youth about 
30 yeans of age. Anthony, mean time, had fled into 
Transalpine Gaul, to M. Lepidos, master of the horsey 
and entered into a treaty with him. Octavius, created 
commander iu chief by the senate in the war against 
Anthony and Lepidus, betrays his trust, and enters in* 
to an association with them. 

25. Accordingly the triumvirate being formed, tSOJnthonytte- 
senators were proscribed by the triumviri; in the num- ^'jJ'Ji,^ 
ber oft whom was Cicero. By these three men too, thetecond 
the vanquished eartn was divided, as if it had been 

their patrinionial estate. The East and Greece fell to 
Anthony, Africa to Lepidus, Italy and the west to 
Octavius. Sicily was allotted to Sextus Pompey, who 
was master of a very powerful fleet; then flourished 
^Jodorus Sicttlus the historism. 

^ VIEW OF AUciEirr mstoftt* 

^defeat the 26. Octavius having been adopted into the family 
repubUcana. ^f Casar, was called Ca&sar Octavianus. Octavianus 
and Anthony now publicly declaring themselves the 
avengers of C«sar the dictator, began to levy war 
against M. Brutus and C. Cassius. A battle was 
fought at Philippi, a city of Thessaly. Brutus and 
Cassius being defeated, laid violent hands on them- 
selves. Sextus Pompey, warring against Octavianus, 
was vanquished in a sea-fight by his admiral M. Agrip- 
pa, and fled into Asia, where he died soon after, in 
the reign of Herod, king of Judea. 

Mthonyand 27* Anthony having divorced Octavia, the sister of 
tit war. CKsar Octavianus, had married Cleopatra, queen of 
Egypt; and in order to make her mistress of the world 
made war upon Octavianus: a naval engagement en* 
Buing at Actium, Octavianus gained ^e victor}', and 
pursuing the enemy, laid seige to Alexandria. An- 
thony thinking his affairs desperate, dispatches himself; 
Cleopatra, imitating him, died by the poison of an asp, 
in the year of the city 719. 

OetavianuB gg. Cacsar Octavianus, in the 12th year after the 

is BtyleaAU' . . r i • * i i «• t 

^8tut/ triumvirate was set on foot, being now lord ot the 
World, had the title of Augustus bestowed on him by 
the senate. He gave his name to the month of Au- 
gust, which before was called Sextilis. Having pro- 
cured peace by sea and land, he shut the temple of 
Janus for the third time. He had an affectionate re- 
gard for the poets Virgil and Horace; shewed a great 
esteem for the historians T. Livy and Strabo. He 

^ banished Ovid into Msesia. Their cotemporaries 

were Quintus Curtius the historian, Tibullus and Pro- 
pertius poets. Caesar Augustus reigned 12 years in 
conjunction with the trumviri, and 44 alone. - He died 
at Nola, in the 76th year of his age, and of the city 
762; leaving Rome, as he himself boasted^ reared of 
marble instead of bricks. 


jBirth of 29. In the year of the world 4004, in the year of 

Rome 748, in the 194th Olympiad, and 14 years be- 

fore the 4eath Augustus, the Virgin* Mary, of the lineage 
of David, went to Bethlehem, and there brought forth 
the adorable infant Jesus Christ, sent from heaven 
to expiate the divine wrath; of whom the angel Ga- 
brii&l had previously asserted ^^ that he should save his 
people from their sins," &c. &c. 


Rome under the Emperors— ^rc^w the birth of Christy 
to the extinction of the Roman empire in the west 
by Odoacer king of the HeruU^ A. D. 476. 

1. Augustus, just before his death \4t years after Augustui. 
the birth of Christ, had appointed the empress Livia, 

and Tiberius, her son by her first husband Domitius 
Nero, to be his successors; and substituted Drusus the 
son, and Germanicus the nephew, of Tiberius, to suc- 
ceed them, 

2. Tiberius was vicious, debauched, and cruel; yet ^jberiug; 
the very dread of his character operated in securing 

an esay succession to the empire. An embassy from 
the senate entreated him to accept the government, 
which he modestly affected to decline, but artfully, suf- 
fered himself to be won by their supplications. Not- 
withstanding these symptoms of moderation, it soon 
appeared that the power enjoyed by his predecessor 
was too limited for the ambition of Tiberius. It was 
not enough that the battle of Actium, which in fact de- 
cided the fate of the Roman commonwealth 31 years 
before the birth of Christ, should have destroyed the 
substance of the republic in rendering Augustus mas- 
ter of the empire, though the guardian of the liberties 
and happiness of his subjects; it was reserved for Ti- 
berius to demolish the very appearances which the 
policy of Augustus had allowed to remain. The peo- 



pie were no longer assembled, and the magistrates 
of the state were substituted by the imperial will. 

p9iwm9 Ger- 3. Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius, became the 
pMucutf object of his jealousy, from the glory which he had ac- 
quired by his military exploits in Germany, and the 
high favour in which he stood with the Romaa people* 
He was recalled in the midst of his successes, and dis- 
patched to the oriental provinces, where he soon after 
died ; and as was generally believed, of poison ad- 
ministered by the emperor's command. 

•iwett/<?# Se' 4^ iElius Sejanus, prafect of the praetorian guards, the 
favourite counsellor of Tiberius, and the obsequious 
tninister of his tyranny and crimes, conceived the dar- 
ing project of a revolution, which should place himself 
on the throne, by the extermination of the whole im- 
perial family. Drusus, the son of the emperor, was 
destroyed by poison. Agrippina, the widow of Ger- 
manicus, and her elder son, were banished; and the 
younger son was confined in prison. Tiberius was 
persuaded by Sejanus, under the pretence of the dis- 
covery of plots for his assassination, to retire from 
Rome to the isle of Caprea, and devolve the govern- 
ment upon his faithful minister. But while Sejanus, 
thus far successful, meditated the last step to the ac- 
complishment of his wishes, by the murder of his 
sovereign, his treason was detected ; and the empe- 
ror dispatched his mandate to the senate, which was 
followed by his 'immediate sentence and execution. 
The public indignation was not satisfied with his death: 
the populace tore his body in pieces, and threw it into 
the Tiber. "^ 

Christ cruci' 5. In the 18th year of Tiberius our Lord and Sa- 
•^ " viour Jesus Christ, the divine author of our religion, 
suffered death upon the cross, a sacrifice and propitia- 
tion for the sins of mankind, A. D. 33. 

i/^**^^'/ V' ®' Tiberius now became utterly negligent of the 
cares of government, and the imperial power was dis- 

played only in public executions, confiscations, and 
scenes of cruelty aad rapine. At length the tyrant 
falling sick was strangled in his bed by Macro, the 
pnefect of the prstorian guards, in the 78th year of his 
age, and 23d of his reign* About this period flourish- 
ed Valerius Maximus, Columella, Pomponius Mela^ 
Appion, Philo Judseus, and Artabanus* 

7. Tiberius had nominated for his ^^i*" Caligula, ^i^^Jg^^ 
the son of Germanicus, and had joined with him Tibe- assasHM' 
rius, the son of Drusus. Caligula enjoyed, on his^^'^ 
father's account, the favour of the people; and the se« 
nate, to gratify them, set aside the right of his col- 
league, and conferred ou him the empire undivided* 
The commencement of his reign was signalized by a 
few acts of clemency, and even good policy. He re- 
stored the privileges of the comitia, and abolished 
arbitrary prosecutions for crimes of state. But, tyran- 
nical and cruel by nature, he substituted military exe- 
cution for legal punishment. The provinces were 
Joaded with the most oppressive taxes, and daily con- 
fiscations filled the imperial coffers. The follies and 
absurdities of Caligula were equal to his vices, and it is 
hard to say whether he was most the object of hatred or 
of contempt with his subjects. He perished by assassi- 
nation in the fourth year of his reign, the twenty-ninth 
of his age, in the year of the city 794, A. D. 42. 

8. Claudius, the uncle of Caligula, was saluted em- Ciandms; 
peror by the praetorian guards, who had been the mur- 
derers of his nephew. He was the son of Octavia, the 
sister of Augustus; a man of weak intellects, and of 
no education: yet his short reign was marked by an 
enterprise of importance. He undertook the reduc- 
tion of Britain, and, after visiting the island in person, 
left his generals, PJautius and Vespasian, to prosecute 
a war which was carried on for several years with va- 
rious success. The Silures, or inhabitants of South 
Wales, under^their king Caractacus, Caradoc, made a 
brave resistance, but were finally defeated; and Carac- 
tacus was kd captive to Rome, where the magnanimity 


of hift demeanour procured him respect and admira- 
tion, t 

Itpoiioned 9. The Civil administration of Claudius was weak 
fl^^ and contemptibk. He was the slave even of his do- 
mestics, and the dupe of his infamous wives Messa- 
lina and Agrippina. The former, abandoned to the 
, most shameful profligacy, was at length put to death 
on suspicion of treasonable designs. The latter, who 
was the daughter of Germanicus, bent her utmost en- 
deavours to secure the succession to the empire to her 
son Domitius Oenobardus, and employed every engine 
of vice and inhumanity to remove the obstacles to th« 
accomplishment of her wishes. Having at length 
prevailed on Claudius to adopt her son, and confer on 
him the title of Caesar, to the exclusion of his own son 
Britannicus, she now made room for the immediate 
elevation of Domitius, by poisoning her husband. 
Claudius was put to death in .the 15th year of his 
reign, and 63d of his age. 

Nero; 10. The SOU of Agrippina assumed the title of Nero 

fdf-iZt' Claudius. He had enjoyed the benefit of a good edu- 
cation under the philosopher Seneca, but reaped from 
his instructions no other fruit than a pedantic affectation 
of taste and learning, with no real pretension to either. 
While controuled by his tutor Seneca, and by Burrhus, 
captain of the prsetorian guards, a man of worth and 
ability, Nero maintained for a short time a decency of 
public conduct ; but the restraint was intolerable, and 
nature soon unveiled itself. His real character was a 
compound of every thing that is base and inhuman. In 
the murder of his mother Agrippina, he revenged the 
crime which she had committed in raising him to the 
throne ; he rewarded the fidelity of Burrhus by poison- 
ing him ; and as a last kindness to his tutor Seneca, 
he allowed him to chuse the mode of his death. It 
was his darling amusement to exhibit on the stage and 
amphitheatre as an actor, musician, or gladiator. At 
length, become the object of universal hatred and con- 
tempt, a rebellion of his subjects, headed by Vindez, 

* VifeW OF AirtitfcNt HidTORT. ^ 

ati illustrious Gaul, hurled this xhonster from the 
throne. He h&d not the courage to attempt resistance; 
and sk ^l)aVe, at his owi^ request, dispatched him with a 
dagger. Nei^ perished in the iSOth year of his age, 
after a reign of fourteen years, A. D. 69. With him 
ended the family of the C^sars, though the name was 
continued to the succeeding emperors as a title. This 
was the age of Persius, Q. Curtius, Pliny the Elder, 
Jbsephus, Frontinus, Burrhus, Coii>ulo, Thrasea, abd 

11. Galba, the successor of Nero, was of an ancient Gaiba; 
and illustrious family. He was in the rsd year of his ?",^** 
age, when th« senate, ratifying the choice of the pra- 
tbrian bands, proclaimed him e^mperor. But an im- 
politic rigour of discipline soon disgusted the army ; 

the avarice of his disposition, grudging the populace 
their favourite games and spectacles, deprived him of 
their affections ; and some iniquitous prosecutions and 
confiscations excited general discontent and mutiny. 
Galba adopted as a favourite, and designed for his 
successor, the able and virtuous Piso; a measure 
ithich excited the jealousy of Otho, his former fa- 
vourite, and led him to form the daring plan of raising 
himself to the throne by the destruction of both. He 
found the praetorians apt to his purpose. They pro- 
claimed him emperor, and presented him, as a grateful 
offering, the heads of Galba and Piso, who were slain 
in quelling the insurrection. Galba reigned i months. 

12. Otho had a formidable rival in Vitellius, who Otho; 
had been proclaimed emperor by his army in Germany.*'*^ " **'* 
It is difficult to determine which of the competitors' 

was, in point of abilities the more despicable, or in 
character the more infamous. A decisive battle was 
fought at Bedriacum, near Mantua^ where Otho was ' 
defeated, and in a fit of despair ended his life by his 
own hand, after a reign of 3 months, A. D. TO. 

13. The reign of Vitellius was of eight months' du- viteiiius; 
ration. He is said to have proposed Nero for his ^Mttacred. 



his deeds. 

model, and it was just that he shoald resemble him hi 
his fate. Vespasian had obtained from Nero the 
charge of the war against the Jews, which he had con- 
ducted with ability and success, and was proclaimed 
emperor by his troops in the east* A great part of 
Italy submitting to Vespasian's generals, Vitelliua 
meanly capitulated to save his life by a resignation of 
the empire. The people, indignant at his dastardly 
spirit, compelled him to an effort of resistance ; but the 
attempt was fruitless. Priscus, one of the generals of 
Vespasian, took possession of Rome; and Vitellius 
was massacred, and his body thrown into the Tiber. 


14. Vespasian, though of mean descent, was worthy 

of the empire, and reigned with high popularity for 
ten years. He possessed great clemency of disposi- 
tion. His manners were affable and engaging, and his 
mode of life was characterized by simplicity and fru- 
gality. He respected the ancient forms of the consti- 
tution, restored the senate to its deliberative rights, 
and acted by its authority in the administration of all 
public affairs. The only blemish in his character was 
a tincture of avarice, and even that is greatly extenu- 
ated by the laudable and patriotic use which he made 
of his revenues. 

peace; his 

15. Under his reign, and by the arms. of his son 
Titus, was terminated the war against the Jews. They 
had been brought under the yoke of Rome by Pompey, 
who took Jerusalem. They were governed for some 
time by Herod, as viceroy under Augustus. The 
tyranny of his son Archelaus was the cause of his ban- 
ishment, and of the reduction, of Judea into the ordi- 
nary condition of a Roman province. The Jews re- 
belling on every slight occasion, Nero had sent Ves- 
pasian to reduce them to order. He had just prepared 
for the siege of Jerusalem, when he was called to 
Rome to assume the government of the empire. Titus 
having succeeded his father in the command of the 
army, wished to spare the city, and tried every means 
to prevail on the Jews to surrender, but in vain* 



Their ruin was decreed by Heaven. After an obsti- 
nate blockade of six months Jerusalem was taken by 
storm, the temple was burnt to ashes, and the city 
buried in ruins. The Roman empire was now in pro* 
found peace. Vespasian associated Titus in the im- 
perial dignity, and soon after died, universally lament- 
ed, at the age of 69 years, A. D. 79. 

^16. The character of Htus was humane, munificent, Titus; 
dignified, and splendid. His short reign was a period ^*^®"^*^ 
of great happiness and prosperity to the empire; and 
his government was a constant example of virtue, jus- 
tice, and beneficence. In his time happened that 
dreadful eruption of Vesuvius, 'which overwhelmed 
the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The public 
losses from this calamity he repaired by the sacrifice 
of his fortune and revenues. He died in the third year 
of his reign, and the fortieth of his age ; ever t6 be 
remembered by that most exalted epithet, delicice hu-^ 
tnani generis^ (the delight of mankind J. His death 
was attributed to the poison of Domitian. This was 
the age of Silius Italicus, Martial, Tyanoeus, Valerius 
Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian, Lupus, and 

17. Domitian, the brother of Titus, succeeded to Domitian; 
the empire, A. D. 81. He was a vicious and inhuman ^au^^'^' 
tyrant. A rebellion in Germany gave him occasion to 
signalize the barbarity of his disposition ; and its con- 
sequences were long felt in the sanguinary punishments 
inflicted under the pretence of justice. The prodigal 
and voluptuous spirit of this reign was a singular con- 
trast to its tyranny and inhumanity. The people 
were loaded with insupportable taxes to furnish spec- 
tacles and games for their amusement. The successes 
of Agricola in Britain threw a lustre on the Romaii 
arms ; no part of which however reflected on the em- 
jferor, for he treated this eminent commander with the 
basest ingratitude. After fifteen tedious years this 
monster fell the victim of assassination, the empress 
herself conducting the plot for his murder, A. D. 96« 


Vi£W OF ANCIENT m^rQ^tf 

Alt death. 

Trajan; ,. 
deeds, and 

18. Cocpeius Nerya, a Cretaq by birth) was choaep 
epdperor by ^he seaat/e, from respect to the virtues of 
his character. But \it was too old for the burden of 
government, and of a ^mper too placid for the re- 
straint of rooted corruptions and enormities; his reign 
therefore was weak, inefficient, and contemptible. Hi^ 
only act of real merit as a sovereign, w^s the adoption 
of the virtuous Trajan as his successor. Nerva died 
after a reign of 16 months, A. D. 98. This was the 
age of Juvenal, and Tacitus. 

19. tJlpius Trajanus possessed every tajent an4 
every virtue that can adorn a sovereign. Of great 
military abilities, and indefatigable spirit of enterprise^ 
be raised the Roman arms to their ancient splendour, 
and greatly enlarged the boundaries of the empire. Hq 
subdued the Dacians, conquered the Parthians, and 
brought under subjection Assyria, Mesopotamia, and 
Arabia Felix. Nor was he less eminent in promoting 
the happiness of his subjects, and the internal prosperity 
of the empire. His largesses were humane and muni- 
ficent. He was the friend and support of the virtu* 
Qus indigent, and the liberal patron of every useful 
art and talent. His bounties were supplied by a well 
judged economy in his private fortune, and a wise ad- 
minstration of the public finances. In his own life he 
was a man of simple manners, modest, affable, fond of 
the familiar intercourse of his friends, and sensible tp 
all the social and benevolent affections. In a word, 
he merited the surname universally bestowed on him, 
of Trofomts Optimus. He died at the age of 63 
years, after a glorious reign of nineteen years, A. D* 
11,8. About this time flourished Florus, Suetonius, 
Pliny junior, Philo Qyblius, Dion Prusseus, Plutarch« 

Adrian; 20. iElius Adrianus, nephew of Trajan, and worthy 

^and death,' t^ ^^^ ^** place, was chosen emperor by the army in 
the east, and his title was acknowledged by all orders 
of the state. But he adopted a policy different from 
that of his predecessor, in abandoning all the conquests 
6f Trajan; bounding the eastern provinces by the £u- 

VIBW 09 ANClBirr MBTcmvt ^ 

^hratet, and the northern by the Danube; judging th# 
former limits qt the empire too extensive. He visited 
i& person all the provinces of the empire^ reforming 
in his progress, all abuses, relieving his subjects of 
every oppressive burden, rebuilding the ruined cities^ 
and establishing every where a regular and mild ad* 
ministration, uitdel* magistrates of approved probity^ 
and humanity. He gave a discharge to the indigeiit 
debtors o( the state, and appointed liberal institutions 
for the education of the children of the poor. To 
the talem.8 of an able politician he joined an excellent 
taste in the liberal arts. His reign was an sera both 
of public happiness ^ and splendour. In the last year 
of his life he bequeathed to the empire a double legacy^ 
in adopting and declaring for his immediate succes- 
sor, Titus Aurelius Antoninus, and substituting An<*- 
nius Verus to succeed Antoninus. These were tho 
Antonines, who ruled the Roman empire, during forty 
years, with consummate wisdom, ability, and virtue* 
Adrian reigned 22 years, and died, A. D. 138, at the 
age of 62. In the reign of Adrian flourished Theoni 
Phavorinus, Phlegon, Trallian, Aristides, Aquila, Sal- 
tins Julian, Polycarp, Arian, and Ptolemy* 

21. The happiest reigns furnish the fewest events Antonine L 
for the pen of history. Antoninus sumamed Pi^^i^edTSirf 
was the father of his people. He preferred peace to dcaih^ 
the ambition of conquest; yet in every necessary war 
the Roman arms had their wonted renown. The Bri- 
tish province was enlarged by the conquests of Urbi- 
cus, and some formidable rebellions were subdued ia 
Germany, Dacia, ancf the east. The domestic admin- 
istration of the sovereign was dignified, splendid, and 
humane. With all the virtues of Numa, as his love 
of religion, peace, andjustice, he had the superior ad- 
vantage of diffusing those blessings over a great por- 
tion of the world. He died at the age of seventy-four, 
after a reign of twenty-two years, A. D. 161. In the 
reign of Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius, Paa«v 
eanias^ Piophantus, Lucian, Hermogeaes, Aulas Cet* 

Ywr#jr AncwfimrwBvoBr. 

A^AineU. 32. At hip acGCAMQii io 4ihe lihrone, Amus Vc^Hi 
adverte ^Mwuned the «ana« of M^rcMs Auvetiufl Antooiiu>Q« 
^^^^fTifl and bestowed on his hrotber Lucius Vcrus a joint inA* 
Viinifiriratiou of the em(ttre» The fojwier was .as eim* 
neot fi^ the worth and virtiaeft pf his chai^oter, <«8 the 
bitter was reiiiai4u(b}e jbr hkproltigacy, BAeaaoess., nod 
yii:e* MaFQa^ Aurelius was attached boibb hy natane 
M»d educatioa fto the Stoicail philosophy, whicb Iwe bus 
admirably tau|;bt aad illustrated vx his Mediiatfom» 
{{is owvi U£e was tbehest conmsentaryonhis .precepts* 
pThe Parthiana Wiere irepulsed in an afitack upou ^hc 
Cffipire^ asid a rebeUioQ of the <«erjpans was subdued* 
Jm those war« die mean and worthkas Verus hrougjht 
diagrace upon the Roman name in «very rQgi<»i wbeoe 
be commanded J but fortunately rejyieved the empire of 
it0 ftpars by an early deatb. The reaidue of the reign 
of TA2iX<x^ Aur^ius was a cootinued blesahig to Tbim 
pttbJGCfts. He reformed ^e internal policy of iheatate, 
regulateid the |^vei?nmept of the pnovinces^and wsited 
for the purposes tof beaefioence, the ^most 4istanfc 
quarters of his dominions* ^^ He appeared," says aa 
ancient authorr, \* like some benevolent ^deity, diffusing 
aroiuiid htm lUnirersal peace and happineas." He dte4 
in Paffmoaia, in the 59th year of his age, and 19th of 
bss reign, A».C>» l^O^ In the last reign flourished Ga^ 
leix, Anhenagojsas, Tatiaa/ A^hvaeua, jMLontaniiaf IAq* 
gene^ Laevoua* 

&>'ToA"'a- ^^* Com«K4uB, bis moat uawiorihy saoa, sunceedad 
mf^attas' to ihe .eanpine on his death* He ^resembled m charaG* 
i^uum* ^^ j^;^ saQther Fauatina, a woman infamous for aH 
manner ^f vice. Uer proAigaciy w^as known to ail hot 
har 'husband Marcus, by .whom she was regarded «s a 
paragon of virtue, Conmiodus had an avatsioa to 
i»veny rational and 'liberal pursuit, and a kmd attanh* 
anent to the sporiis (oi the cxrova and amphitheatre, ifaa 
hunting oi wild beasts, and the combats of bo^ess and 
gladiatprs^ The mcasur^s^pf this reign were as unim" 

ible. HiA' t0tkCKiltme a«i4 some df hid chief officei^ 
pre^ftiltedl t&«ir OMm de5trti€ti>oii by slasasskiaiiffg iSftt 
l^ramt, uv the 39d yeair o# Kis «^, and iSth of bit 
niigii, A^ IX 193» Ubckr CoiM*Mfodiis ftoumbed' J* 
VoUUX', Tlifeock^lion, a^d St* Irsen^u^ 


24. The pratorian guards gave the empire to Fob- j^^"***' »^ 
lius Helvius Pertinax, a man of mean birth, who had and murdm^* 
ritfeii to eiiteeitt by his virtues and^ mifitavy talents. ^ 

He applied hiriHelf with z^al to the correction of . 
abttsesf but the austerity of his governnfient deprived 
him of the affections of a corrapted people. He had 
dbappicintied the army of a promised reward, and aftet 
a* retgn df Sd^ d^ys^ was murdered in the imperiaft 
palace by the same hands whi^h had placed hktt on 
the throne. 

9S. The empire was now put up to auctio» by the |^5^^^ 
|!ir»eoriaAs, and* was purchasred by Didiuer Julianus; ^jeata 
wiitfle Pissceniv^ Nigei< in Asia, Clodius Albiuus in ji^^^m 
ftritaift, and Septimius Severu» in lUyrta, were each<^^^^ 
lAiosen eMperor by the troops which they commanded^ 
Severiis marched to Romre, aiid, oti his approach, the 
ptaetariai^s tihfeiridoned Didkn, who had failed to pay 
the stipulated pric< for his eieVation; and' the senate 
fftrmalfy d^pesed and put him td death. Severus be'- 
iflg now master of BJome, prepared to reduce the 
p^oviuees whii^h had acknowledged the sovereignty of 
Niger and Albinus. These two rivals were succes*- 
aively subdued. Niger was slatu in battle, and Albi* 
tfiM'fell by his own hands^ The administration of 
Severus was wise and equitable, but tinctured with 
despotic rigour. It was his purpose to erect the fabric 
of absolute monarchy, and all his institutions^ operated 
with abk policy to that end. He possessed eminent 
lAiUtary talents. He gloriously boasted, that having 
received the cmfpire oppressed with foreign and domes- 
rtc wars^ he left it in profound, universal, and honourst- 
irble petfee* Me carried with him into Britain his two 
son^y Garacalla and Geta, whose unpromising^ disposi« 


tions clouded his latter days. In this vrzr^ the €ale« 
donians under Fingai are said to have defeated, on th# 
banks of the Carroa» CaracuA , the son of the king of 
the world. Severus died at York, in the 66th year of 
his. age, after a reign of 18 ycar«. A* D- 21 1. In the 
reign of Severiis, flourished T'-rtullia<^ Minutius Feiix^ 
Papinianus, Clemens of Alexandria, Philostratus, Plo* 
tianus, and Bulas. 

. . , 

^anLMiiaSe 26. The mutual hatred of Caracalla and Geta^wat 

McAwiwt*- increased by » their association in the empire; and the 

f»«ct(. former, with brutal inhumanity, caused his brother to 

be openly murdered in tht* arms of his mother* His 

reign, which was of six years' duration, and one con* 

' tinned series of atrocities, was at length terminated bjr 

;a8sa8sination, A. O* 217. 

Alexander 27. The interval here of 67 years till the acceasioa 
ArtdTifofiWr of Diocletian, was filled by the reigns of Heliogabalus, 
^mpcrort, Alexander Severus, Maximin, Gordian^ Decius, Gal* 
lus,. Valeria nus, Gallienus, Claudius, Aufelianus, 
Tacitus, Probus, and Carus: a period of which the an- 
nals furnish neither amusement nor useful in£prmation« 
The single exception is the reign of Alexander Seve- 
irus, a mild, beneficent, and enlightened prince, whose 
* character shines the more from the contrast of those 
whi) preceded and followed him. The reign of Alex* 
ander Severus was the age of Julius A fricanus, Dion^ 
Cnssius, Origen, and Ammonius : about the reign of 
.Gordian, flourished Censorinus, and Gregory Thauma* 
turgus: in the reign of Gallus flourished St. Cyprian, 
and Plotinus: and in that of Claudius, flourished Loa* 
ginus, Paulus Samosatenus, &c« 

STxi^an*' ^^' Eljiocletian began his reign A. D. 284?, ^d in- 
mnd other cu'txoduced a new system of administration, dividing the 
t^ptrt. empire into four governments, under as maay princes* 
IVUiximian shared with him the title of Augustus, and 
Galerius and Constantius were declared Caesars. Each 
had his separate department or province^ all nomixially 
•evereign^ but in reality under the direction of the su* 

perior tale&ts and authority of Dtocletiaii: an anwiai 
policy, which depended for its efficacy on individual 
idbility alone* Diocletian and Maximian, trusting to 
the continuance of that order in the empire which their 
irigour had established, retii^ed from sovereignty, and 
left the govek-nm^it in the hands of the Caesars; but 
Constantius died soon after in Britain, and his son 
Constantine was proclaimed emperor at York, though 
Galerius did not acknowledge his title. Maximian, 
however, having once more resumed the purple, be- '' 

stowed OD Constantine his daughter in marriage, and 
thus invested him with a double title to empire. On 
the death of Maximian and Galerius, Constantine had 
no other competior but Maxentius, the son of the for* 
mer, and the contest between them was decided by the 
aword* Maxentius fell in battle, and Constantine. re- 
mained sole master of the empire. About this time 
flourished J. Capitolinus, Arnobius, Gregory and Her- 
mogenes the lawyers, iElius, Spartianus, ^Hierocles, 
Flavius Vopiscus, TrebelUus, Pollio, &c. 

29. The adminstration of Constantine was, in the Constantine; 
beginnmg ot his reign, mud, equitable, and pontic, cour^ ^o JS^- 
Though zealously attached to the christian faith, he ^"^«"»/ ^ 
made no violent innovations on the religion of the 
0tate« . He . introduced order and economy , into the 
civil government, and repressed every species of op« 
j»ression and corruption. But his natural temper was 
severe and cruel, and the latter part of his reign was 
as much deformed by intolerant zeal and sanguinary 
rigour, as the former had been remarkable for equity 
and benignity. From this unfavourable change of ^ 
•character he lost the affections of his subjects; and, from 
a feeling probably of reciprocal disgust, he removed 
the seat of the Roman empire to Byzantium, now term- 
%A Constantinople. The court followed the sovereign; 
the opulent proprietors were attended by their slaves 
and retainers. In a few years Rome was^ greatly de- 
populated, and the new capital swelled at once to an 
enormous magnitude. It was characterized by eastern 
spkiado«r> luxury, and velvptttoosness; and the cities 


•f Sreeoe w«ve despoiled for if mnbdiidMnMt.'^ I« 
an expedition sigsnnst the P<itsiatt» Canumname died at 
Nicomedia, in the SMkh jireai of hio T^igoy «nd 63di of 
hnsiage, A. D. SW* In the tifi«e* ai Coaetantine, the 
Gothk had made sfeveiral irruiptiotM on the empire, awi^ 
thoi^ repulsed and beaten^ begiift< gvadoodi^rtd ea* 
croach on the pnyrinces* iff the reign of Constantiso 
flourhhed Lactiaiiciutr, Athanasivs, Ariuft^ and £u^ 

* In Ueu of tlie ancient repnbUean distinetiontv wUeH weM foaaded ehiefty on pM^ 
■onal merit, a rigid subonrmaiion of rank and office now went through all the orders of 
the state The magistrates vrer« divided into three cfantes, tltstinguished by the mi- 
meanin^ titles of, I, the illiutrioutf S, the re»pectMef S, the daritmnd. The epitb«t 
of illustrious was bestowed on, 1, the consuls and patricians; 2, the praetorian prsefects 
of Rome and Cobstantinople; 3, the lAHBtter* genera) of the eavrfry and iDfanlvy; 4, t!le 
seven ministers o\ the palace I'he consuls were create«l by the sole authority of the 
emperor: their dignity was inefficienr; they bad no appropriate fairetioit in tne cttrtt^ 
and their names served only to giva the legal dat« to the year. The digoity of patrieitA 
-was not, as in ancient times, a hereditary distinction; but was bestowed by the emperor 
on his favoaritta^ as » title of honoof From tha time of tbe aholitioii of th« ppseterun 
bands by Constantine, the digniy of pnetorian prsefeet was conferred on the civil govo^ 
nors of the fAur d'e^artments of the ampire- These were, the East, fllyria, Italy, a£A 
the (lauU The^ had the supreme adminktration of justiee and of th!e iioa«oea» tk 
power of supplying all the inferior magistracies in their district, and an amiellative juris- 
diction from all iti tribunals. Independent of their authority, Rome and Constantinople 
had each its own prsefect, who was the chief magistrate of the city. In the teeoud elasi^ 
fhe respectable, were the proconsuls of A^a, Achaia, and Africa, and the military 
comitet and duces, fj^enerals of the imperial armie& The third claai^ cl arMamtti ^ oont* 
prehended the inferior governors and magistrates of the provinces, responsible to the 
prsefeets and their deputies. 

The intercourse betweerf the court and provinces wm maintained by the constraetieB 
of roads, and the institution of regular posts or couriers; under which denomination were 
ranked Ae nomberleaa spies of govertimenti whose dtity it wa^-to convey all sort df ill- 
ftelligence from the remotest quarters of the empire to its chief seat Everr inatitutioa 
was calculated to suprpon the fabric Of despotism. Toiture waft' emptoyea fbr the 40- 
eovery of crimes. Taxes and impositions of every kind were preaoribed and levied bf 
the sole authority of the emperor. I'he quantity and rate were fixed by a census made 
over all the prorvincea, and part was generally paid in money, part hi the produee o^dfh 
lands; a burden frequently found so grievous as te prompt to the neglect of agriculture. 
Every object of merchandise and' manufactiire was likewise highly taxed. Subsidies^ 
moreover, under the name ^i free gifts were exaoi^ from all the citiea; eit varioaf oer* 
casiona of public concerns; as the accession of an emperor, his consulate, the birth of a 
prince, a vicUn^ over the barbarians, or any othdr event of similar importatrce. 

An impolitic distinction was made between the troops atatioued in the distant proviDCee 
and those in the heart of the empire. The latter, termed palatines^ enjoyed a higher 
])ay and more pecnlier fiivour, ami liavlng less employment, spent their ume in idlenelb 
and laxnry; while the former, termed the borderer's, who, in faet« had the care of the 
empire, and were exposed to perpetual hiird service, had, vrith art inferior reward, (hfe 
mortification of feeling themselves regarded aaof meaner rank. than their fellow-soldiers. 
Uon^tantiue likewise, from a timid policy of guarding against mutinies of the troops, 
reduced the legion ft^m i U ancient eompleraent of 5000, 6000^ 7000, and 8000, to f 000 
or 1500, and debased the body of the army by the intermisture of Seythiana, Goths, And 

i'his immeaae masa of heterogetieoua parts, which internally hdxlaRNi #ith the aeedt 
of dissolution and coiTuption^ was kept logotber for some time by the vigorous exertion 
of despotic authority. The fabric was splendid and imgUst; but \i wanted both that energy 
of constitution and that real dignity, whioh^ i» former tUQea^ it derived frem the cater* 
cise of heroic «tfd patriotie Tirtu^. 

nuv Of AiHaisaw wsfiQttt: 45f 

«iaed 'the «mpi«et.«oii«dKr« princes. ^L of them hU ^':;^4:;.> 
AOiks^ imd two mepbews; tbtit Conatantius, the youngest ^J^*'^*'*'^ 
itf the ton^f 'fin^y got arid of aH his oompetttore, and 
jrinlod itbe empire sdone with k weak and impotent 
•oeptoe* A rvanrioty tof domestic iba-oils, and iiniitinies 
ef 'the tcoo{i8.agaiii»t Aheir generals, iiad (left ithe westevA 
frontier to the mecey of the (barbarian nations. The 
F.ra&k^ Saxons, Alemanni, ;9nd fSarmatians, laid waste 
idl xht i&ae iCDunmes watered hy the fihine, and the 
jBeraiaoa made dceadful incursicms on the .pravinces of 
ike efiiat, wdiUe Ciottstantiaa indolently ^wasted his ^tim^ 
In tbeoki^cal QOBtroi^.ersies. 

:dl« He was prevaUed on, <kowever, to adopt one appHnu Ju^ 
iprudent naeaaure, .the appointment of fakxonsin Julian ^^|!^^.')^* 
t» (ihc dignity of C^aar. Julian possessed many ihe- <^a^A. 
Koii: qualities, aod 'hia mind was formed by nature for 
Ibe aov.ei3eignty of a great pec»ple ; but, educated at 
Afthena^ in the schools of the platouic philosophy, he 
had im£QPtunately conceived a rooted antipathy to the 
doctrines of Christianity. . Possessing every talent of 
a general, and the confidence and affection of his troops, 
he once ;more restored the ^lory of the Soman arms, 
imd rSttcceasfttUy Tepvessed the invasions of the barba-^ 
j^ans. iHis viotorifis escitod stbe jealousy of iConstan- 
iMis^ Wiho meanly sesolved ^o cemoi/:e cfrom his com- 
mand (he better pavt of his troops. The .consequence 
was, a declaKalion of the :army, that Julian should be 
ibeir empenoF. Death delivered Constantius of the 
Ignominy that awaited him at this critical jui^cture, 
and JuUan was immediately acknowledged sovereign 
of the Roman empire. About this period flourished 
£lius Donatus, Eutropius, Ltbantus, Ammian, Mar*- 
fmUinua, Jamblicus^ .and &• Hilary* 

lis. The itefiMrmaiion of civil abuses >formed the first Julian; 
object of JuJian'a attention; and he neat turned to the^^^^^j^^^ 
Deformaiioa, as he cthan^t, of toligion, by the sup ^ ^^^^ 
pca»»an of idhristiamty. He rbegan by reforming the 
|l»fiui rksAo^ffy sukA «ougl$ to jraiae the jthacacter.^^ 

ft Tift If or AACAKn' tUS^f O0f . 

^ its priests, by inculcating purity of life and sanciitf of 

morals ; thus bearing involuntary testifmony to the su* 
perior exccrllence, in those respects, of that religion 
'Which he laboured to abolish. Without persecuting, 
he attacked the christians by the more dangerdus 
policy of treating them with contempt, and removing 
them, as visionaries, from all employments of public 
trust. He refused them the benefit of the laws to de- 
cide their differences, because their religion forbade aU 
•^ dissensions; and they were debarred the studies of 
literature and philosophy, which they could learn only 
from pagan authors. He was, as a pagan, the slave <tf 
the most bigoted superstition, believing in omens and 
auguries, and fancying himself favoured with an actual 
intercourse with the gods and goddesses. To avenge 
the injuries which the empire had sustained from the 
rersians, Julian marched into the interior of Asia, and 
was for some time in the train of conquest^ but at 
length was slain in a victorious battle, at tht: age of 
thirty- one, after a reign of three years, A. D. Bid* 
In the reign of Julian flourished Gregory Nazienzen, 
Themistius, and Aurelius Victor. 

Jovian; 53, The Roman army was dispirited by the death 

chnHianityf 01 its commander. They chose for their emperor 
* ''^ * Jovian, a captain of the domestic guards, and pur- 
chased a free retreat from the dominions of Persia by 
the ignominious surrender of five provinces, which had 
beien ceded to Galerius by a former sovereign. The 
abort reign of Jovian.,, a period of seven months,' wa» 
mild and equitable. He favoured Christianity, and 
restored its votaries to all their privileges as subjecttf^ 
He died suddenly at the age of thirty-three. 

Vatentinian 34. On the death of Jovian, Valentinian was chosea 
Ji^j^y^®"' emperor by the army ; a man of obscure birth and 
mpirc. severe manners, but of considerable military talents* 
He associated in the empire his brother Valens, to 
whom he gave the dominion of the eastern provinceSi 
reserving to himself the western. The Persians, 
^nder Sapor, were making iproads on the former pro- 

lOM^f mkii the latter were sabject to t^ontitiQal inva''^ 
sioa hovk tke northern barbsirians, who were success- 
iuAy repcUisd 1^ Vakntinian in many battles* Hia 
diMtestie administration was wise, equitable, and 
politic* The christian, religion was favoured by the 
emperbr, though not promoted by the persecution of 
sto adversaries^ a contrast to the conduct of his brother 
Valens, who, intemperately* supporting the Ariaa 
hereby, set all .the provinces in a flame, and drew a 
swarm ^ of invaders upon the empire, in the guise of 
friends and allies, who in the end entirely subverted 
k* * These were the Goths, who, had settled on the 
banks of the Palus Moeotis, and had thence gradually 
ext)Bndcd their territory. In the reign of Valens^they 
took possession of Dacia, and were known by the dis- 
tinct appellation of Ostrogoths and Visigoths, or east- 
iirn and western Goths* Valentinian died on an ez« 
pedition^against the Alemanni, and was succeeded in 
the empire of the west by Gratian, his eldest son, boy 
of sixteen years of age, A* D. 367* 

35. Vakns, in the east, was the scourge of his peo- yaieii§<- 
pie. The Huns, a new race of barbarians, of Tartar or](Jg'|j^2/ 
%berian origin, now poured down on the provinces both 

of the west and east. The Goths, comparatively a 
civilized people,.fled before them. The Visigoths, who 
were first attacked, requested protection from the em* 
pire, and Valens imprudently gave them a setdement in 
Thtace. The Ostrogoths made the san^e request, and, 
on refusal, forced their way into the same province. 
Valens gave them battle at Adrianople. His army 
was defeated, and he was slain in the engagement. The 
Goths, unresisted, ravaged Achaia and Pannonia* 

36, Gratian, a youth of great worth, but of ^*tt'^Srj!j2'^^i- 
energy of character, asssumed Theodosius as his cpl- their d$a$ftt^i 
league. On the early death of Gratian, and the 
minority of his son Valentinian II. Theodosius govern- 
ed both the eastern and western empire with great 

ability. The character of Theodosius, deservedly 



Mimiuned the Greats was worthy of tJbe .best agts^of 
the Roman stsite* He auccebafuUy repelled the eD.** 
croachments of the barbarians, aod secured bv whole* 
some laws, the prosperity of his people* He died 
after a reign of eighteen yeaiis, assigning to his sobs^ 
Arcadius and Honorius, the separate sovereigatiea of 
east and west, A. D« 395. In the reign of Theodosiin 
flourished Ausonius, Eunapius, Pappus, Theon^ PrU- 
dentius, Su Austin, St. Jerome, and St. Ambrose** 

s. ft 

Arcadias 37* In the reigns of Arcadius and Honorius the 

Tiollorias'' ^^^^ ^^^ successors of Theodosius, the barbarian na* 
in the vests tions established themselves in the frontier provinces 
both of the east and west* Theodosius had committed 
the government to Rufinus and Stilicho during the 
nonage of his sons ; and their fatal dissensions gave 
every advantage to the enemies of the empire* The 
Huns, actually invited by Rufinus^ overspread Armenia^ 

* The reign of Thepdosius was sig^nalized by the dowofall of the pftp^an superatHioo* 
and the fall establishmeot of the christian religion in the Bouian empire 1 hia great 
revointion of opinions is highly worthy of attention, and naturally indoeea a retroa- 
p^et to the eondition of the christian church, from its institution down to thia period. 

It-has been frequently remarked (because it is an obTioos truth), that at the tirae of 
our Saviour's birth a divine revelation seemed more peculiarly needed; and Uiat* frona 
a eonoarrence of circumstances, the state of the world was then uncommonly favourable 
ior the exteasivo dissemination of the doctrines which it conveyed. The union of a» 
many nations under one power, ami the extensiuu of civilization, were favourable to ihe 
progress of a religion which prescribed universal charity and benevolence The gross 
snperstitions of paganism, and its tendency to corrupt the morals, contributed to ex- 
plode its influence with every thinking roiml. hven the prevalent philosophy of the 
times, epicuiism, more easily understood than the refinements of the Platonitta, and 
more grateful than the severities of the Stoics, tended to degrade human nature to the 
level of the brute creation The christian religion, thus necessary for the reformation 
of the world, found its chief partizant in the friends of virtue, and its enemieafSmong 
the votaries of vice 

The \iersecution which the christians suffered from the Romans has been deemed 
an exception to that spirit of toleration which they sbowe<l to the religions ofotker na- 
tions: but they were tolerant only to those whose theologies were not hostile to their 
own The religion ol the iiomaiis was interwoven with their political constitution. 
The zeal of the christians, aiming at the suppression of all idolatry, was naturally re« 
earded as dangerous to the state; and hence they were the object of liatred and perse- 
ention. In the first century the christian church suffere<) deeply under Nero^ and l)o« 
initian; yet those persecutions had no tendency to check the .progress of its doetrinea. 

It is a naatter of question, what was the form of the primitive church, tndthe nature 
of its government; and on this head much ditiferenceof opinion obtains, not only between 
catholics and ^>rote8tants, but between the different classes of the latter, as the LfUth&- 
rans and Calviuists it is moreover an opinion, that our Saviour and his apo^es, Iran* 
Suing their precepts to the pure doctrines of religion, have le^t all christian societies to 
regulate their frame and government in the manner best suited to the civil constttatiom 
of the couutnes in which they are establishetl 

In the second eenturv the bonks of the New I'esiament were collected i'htoa volume 
by the elder lathers of the ohttrohj Wid jreeeired as a oanoa of faith.. The Old TestV 

mtm on AKOHBMT ai8T0IVir. 


ChippadoGia, and Syria. The Goths, under Alaric, ra- ^^^^l"^^ 
▼aged to the border of Italy, and laid waste Achaia to theeaau t% 
the Peloponnesus^ Stilicho, an able general, made a GreTcc i » cf * 
noble resistance against those invaders ; but his plans ^^: arui 
were frustrated bv the machinations of his rivals, and 
tke weakness of Arcadius, who purchased an ignomi- 
•nious peace, by ceding to Alaric the whole of Greecei 
Tke mean and dissolute Arcadius died in the year 408, 
leaving the eastern empire to his infant son Theodo^ 
•ius IL 

3a. Alaric,<now styled king of the Visigoths, pre*7^«^^wc 
Ipared to add Italy to his new dominions. He passed his death, ' 
the Alps, and was every where successful, when the 
politic Stiliebo, who then commanded the armies of 
Honorius, amusing him with the prospect of a new 
cession of territory, attacked by surprise and defeated 
Ipis army. On that occasion the emperor triumphandy 

merit had been translated from the Hebrew into (Treek, by order of Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus, 284 ye^rs before Christ The early chur6h suffered much from an absurd e«- 
«ieaToor of the more learned of its votaries to reconcile its doctrines to the tenets of the 
pagan philosophers, hence the sects of the Gnostics and AnunonianSt and the Plato- 
nising christians. In the second century the (i reek churches began to form provincial 
MflociationS) and to establish general rules of government and discipline. Assembliei 
"were held, termed synodoi and concilia, over which a metropolitan presided. A short 
4ime after arose the superior order of patriarch, presiding over a large district of th# 
Christian world; and a subordination taking place even among these, the bishop of Nome 
'was acknowledged the chief ot' the patriarchs Persecution still attended the eHrly 
<^arch, even under those excel lent princes, Trajan, Adrian, and the Antonines; and, in 
the reign of Severus, all the provinces of the empire were stained with the blood of the 

' The third eentury was more favourable to theorogress of chriftianity and the tran- 
ooillity of its disciples In those times it suffered less from the eivil power than froia 
tiie pens of the pagan philosophers, PoVphyry, Philostratus, kc; but those attacks cal- 
led forth the zeal and talents of many able defenders, as Urigen, Dionysius, and Cyprian. 
A part of the Gauls, Germany.and Bi'itain, received the light of the gospel in this century. 

In thefouitk eentury the christian ohu]«ch was alternately persecuted and cherished 
by the Koman emperors Among its oppressors we rank Diocletian, Galerius, and 
Jttliiin; among its favourers, Constantine and his sons, Valeotinian, Valens, Gratia n, and 
the excellent Theodosius; in whose reign the pagan superstition was finally extinguished. 

From the age of Numa to the reign of Gratian the Romans preserved the regular 
sueeession of the'several sacerdotal ootleges, the pontiffs, angurs, vestals,^tafVie«, salUf 
iic, whose authority, though weakened in the latter ^ges, was still protected by the 
fakws. FiVen the christian eihperors held, like their pagan predeeessors, the office of 
poniifex maximum. Gratian was the first who refused that ancient dignity as a profit- 
nation. In the time of Theodosius the cause of Christianity and of paganism was so« . 
leinnly delated in the Koman senate, between Ambrose, archbishop of of Milan, the 
champion of the former, and Symmachus, the defender of the latter. The cause of 
Christianity was triumphant, and the senate issued a decree for the abolition of pagan- 
ism, whose dnwnfal in the Capital wa^s soon followed b} its extinction ita the provinces. 
Theodosius, with able policy, permitted no pcrseciition of the ancient rel^ioD, which 
pei'idied with more rapidity beeaiise its &li was gentle and unresisted. 


twt or AUCKirr BSTOMc 

celisbraleci die eternal defeat of the GcHUc ikalioa; an 
eternity bounded by the lapse of a few montfaci^ hsk 
this imerval, a torrent of the Gotba breaki&g down 
upon GtBrmany forced the nations whom they di** 
poasessed^ th<; Suevi, Alani, and VandaU>^ to pre&i^kal» 
themselves upon Italy* They joined ibek anna to 
those of Alaricy who, thus reinforced, detem^ioed tx^ 
overwhelm Rome. The policy of Stilkbo madis him 
change his purpose, on the promiae of 4Q00 pounds 
weight of gold ; a promise repeatedly broken by Ho* 
norius, the which was finally revenged by Alaric, by 
the sack and plunder of the city, A. D. 4iO« With 
generous magnanimity he spared the lives of die vanr 
quished, and, with singular liberality of spirit, was 
anxious to preserve every anci^ edifice from destruc- 
tion* Alaric preparing now for the conquest of Siciljr 
and Africa, died at this era of his highest glory. 

^aui ceded 39. Honorius, instead of profiting by this event to 
gundian9. recover his lost provmces, made a treaty with his sue* 
cessor Ataulfus, gave him in marriage bis sister Pia« 
cidia, and secured his friendship by ceding to him a 
portion of Spain, while a great part of what remained 
had been before occupied by the Vand^. Socm after- 
ward he allowed to the Burgundians a just title to 
their conquests in Gaul. Thus the western empire' 
was passing by degrees from the dominion of its an- 
cient masters. Honorius died in the year 423. - The 
laws of Arcadius and Honorius are, with a fewexcep* 
tions, remarkable for their wisdom and equity; which 
is a singular circumstance, considering the personal 
character of those princes, and evinces at leaa^ that they 
employed some able ministers. About this tUae 
flourished Sulpicius Severus, Macrobius, Anianus, Pa- 
nodorus, Stobonis, Servius the commentator, Hypatia, 
Pelagius, Synejsius, Cyrill, Oro^ius, Socrates, &c« 

General dis' 40. The Vandals, under Genseric, subdued ths 
thl tarla.^ Roman provjjice in Africa. The Huns, in the east, 
riujis, extended their conquests from the borders of China to , 

the Baltic ,sea. Under Attila they laid waste JMoesia 


ud Thime; and Theodosius U« after a mean atttmpt 
tasturdes- tfae barbarian gQiioralytnglarioiuily submitted 
to pay htm im annual -iribitfe. It was in ^is crisis of 
unt«ier^ deei^ that tbe feitoas im^dored the Romans 
todelend them, i^^aiast tite I^cts and Scots, and raceiT- 
ad for anaver, diat they had nothing lio 'beatow on them 
bstt coaspassion. The Britons, in desipair, sought mA 
from the Saxons and Angles, who seized, as their pro« 
petfty, the country irliich they were invited u> protect, 
and iouDdttd, in the fiCdi and sixth centuries, the Icings 
dmns of the Saxon heptarchy. About this time flou- 
rished Zozimus, Ncstorttts, Theodoret, Sozomen, and 

41« Attfla, with an army of 500,000 men threatened Taientmian 
the ^tal destruction of the empire* He was My op- in the •»««/. 
posed by j£tiu8, general of Val^itiniaa IIL now em« 
peror of the west. Valentinian was shut up in Rome 
hy the arms of the barbarian, and at length compelled 
to purchase a peace. On the death of Attila his 
dominions were dismembered by bis sons, whose dis* 
s^sions gave temporary retief to the falling empire. 

42. After Valentinian III. we have in the west aAugastuiuA; 
sasceesslon of princes, or rather names, for the events ^?^^'^^^'* 
of doteir rrigas merit no detail. In the reign of 
Romulus,, sumamed Augustulus, the son of Orestes, 

the empire of the west came to a final period. Odoacer, ^ 

prince of the Heruli, subdued Italy, and spared the 
life of Augustulus, on condition of his resigning the 
throne, A. D. 476. From the building of Rome to 
extinction of the western empire, A^ D. 476, is a 
period of 1224 years. About this time flourished Eu* 
tyches. Prosper, Victorius, Sydonius, and ApoUinaris. ' 

43. The Herulian dominion in Italy was of short Theodoric; 
duration. Theodoric, prince of the Ostrogoths, after- ^ifi^ the 
wards deservedly snmamed iht Great ^ obtained per-^^^'* 
missioii of \2^eno, emperor of the east, to attempt the 
recovery of Italy, and a promise of its sovereignty as 


f 4 V1B1V 09 AMOIBirr mSTOIlY. 

the revard of his success. The whole nation of 4he 
Ostrogoths attended the standard of Theodoric, wha 
was victorious in repeated engagements, and at langtb 
compelled Odoacer to surrender all Italy to the coni* 
queror^ The Romans bad tasted happiness under the 
government of Odoacer; but their happiness was in* 
creased under the dominion of Theodoric, who pos** 
sessed every, talent and virtue of a sovereign* Mia. 
equity and clemency rendered him a blessing to :his, 
subjects* He allied himself with all the surrounding 
nations, the Franks, Visigoths, Burgundians, and- 
Vandals. He left a peaceab^ sceptre to his grandsoo 
Athalaric, during whose infancy his mother Anaala- 
sonte governed with such admirable wisdom and mo- 
deration, as left her subjects no real cause of regret for 
the loss of her father. About this time flourished 
Boethius and Symmachus. 

^**?i!"'*" /• ^4. While such was the state of Gothic Itsly, the 

in the eoBtt - r i / 

retaketltaly, empire Qi the east was undef the government of Jus« 
tinian, a prince of mean ability, vain, capricious, and 
tyrannical. Yet the Roman name rose for a. while 
from its abasement by the merit of his generals. Be- 
lisarius was the support of his throne; yet Justinian 
treated him with the most shocking ingratitude. Th<^ 
Persians were at this time the most formidable enemies 
of the empire^ under their sovereigns Cabades and 
Cosrhoes; and from the latter, a most able prince, 
Justinian meanly purchased a peace, by a cession of 
territory, and an enormous tribute in gold. The civil 
factions of Constantinople, arising from the most con- 
temptible of causes, the disputes of the performers in 
the circus and amphitheatre, threatened to hurl Justi- 
nian from the throne, but were fortunately composed 
by the arms and the policy of Belisarius. This great 
general overwhelmed the Vandal sovereignty of Af- 
rica, and recovered that province to the empire. He 
wrested Italy from its Gothic sovereign), and once more 
restored it for a short time to the dominion of its an- 
cient masters. 



45. Italy was again subdued by the Goths under the A i« &•// re- 
beroic Totila, who besieged and took the city of Romt^jtial^ lott, 
but forebore to destroy it at the request of Belisarius. 

The fortunes of BeHsarius were now in the wane. He 
was compelled to evaeuate Itaiy^ and on hi^ return to 
Constantinople, his long services were repaid with dis- 
grace. He was superseded in the command of the 
armies by the eunuibh Narses, wfab defeated Totila in a 
decisive engagement, in which the Gothic prince was 
slain. Narses governed Italy with great ability for 
thirteen years, when he was ungratefully recalled by 
Justin II. the successor of Justinian. He invited th^ 
Lombards to avenge hi^ injuries; and this new tribe of 
invaders overran and conquered the country, A. D. 
568.* Under the reign of Justinian I. flourished Jor- 
nandes, Paul the Silentiary, Simplicius, Dionysius, 
Procopius, Proclus, Narses, and Priscian. 

46. We will conclude this abstract of ancient history Con€Mnih» 
by remarking for the benefit of the junior student, that 

its Context with m6dern history is maintained 'in th6 
construction of a new empire by Charlemagne in the 
west; and the gradual extinction of the other branch 
of the empire, and the substitution of a new one, by the 
Saracens in the east. 

* For a eonneeted view of theie destruetiTe operations of the barbarians on the Rdl 
man einpire> the reader k referred to tke Th» aecancf Gothic progrcMp w the lavt.Vo- 





CHivP* !• 

Fr9m the CreaHon to the Deluge^ wfach includes 1656 


I- 1. HOW many years £rom the creation to die de* 

BDBN. i^g^j jjj jj^^ many days did God create the wolid^ 

Who was the first man and' first woman? Who were 
their sons? What their occupations? Which of them 
slew his brother? What was their character, and what 
the inventions of their posterity? When was the world 

2* Who was Enoch? When did he flourish? What 
became of him? Who was his son? How long did his 
son live? What was the usual length of human life at 
that time? Whence sprung the race of the grants? 

3. Why did God destroy the old world by a deluge? 
When happened the deluge? How high did the waters 
rise? Who were saved from the deluge, and by what 
means? By whom was the earth peopled after the 



from the Delude to the vocation of Abraham^ 1920 be- 
fore Christ; contmninff, 427 years. 

1. HOW many years from the deluge to the calling IL, 
of Abraham? By whom was the tower of Babel found- ASSYRIA, 
ed? On what design, apd when? Why was the build- 
ing laid aside? Who was the first king of Babylon? 

2. What was the state of Egypt in the time of Nim- m. 
rod? ^^at the names of the dynasties? For what were EGYPT, 
the Egyptians at this time renowned? Who, according ^* 
to the Egyptians, first taught music, letters, religion, 

&c.? Who invented physic and anatomy? Who reign- 
ed first in Egypt? Who was the most famous among 
their princes? What were his achieveinents? Who 
were the kings that assumed the name of Pharaoh? 

3* Whose son was Ninus? Why is he said to be II* 
the author of idolatry? ' What were his chief actions? A.SSYRIA. 
Where, and how long is he said to have reigned? Who * ^ 

founded Nineveh? 

4. Whose queen was Semiramis? What were her 
exploits, and the length of her reign? 

5. Whose son was Ninyas? What was his chara^- IV. 
ter? What the character of his successors? Who was MEDIA, 
the last of thenti^and what was his end? How long is ^* 
the Assyrian monarchy said to have lasted; and is this 
account of it thought to be genuine? 

6. Who was Abraham? When was he called by V. 

God? What the history of his life? CANAAN. 

7- When flourished the Titans? Who was the eldest yj^ 
of them? Why was Jupiter esteemed a god? Why was GREECE. 
Neptune called god of the sea, and Plttto the god of 1* 



From the vocation of Abraham to the departure of the 
Israelites out of Egypt j 1491 before Christ; comprc' 
hending 429 years. 

V. 1. HOW many years from the vocation of AbraN 
0ANAAX. j^2i„i ^Q the departure of the Israelites from Eg}'pt? 

 • Whose son was Isaac? When was he born? Who was 
his wife? Who were bis sons? Who were Jacob's wives? 
Who his sons? What other name did Jacob obt^n? 
What is the st6ry of Joseph? When, and upon what 
invitation did Jacob and his family go down to Egypt} 

VI. 2* Who was Inachus? When did he flonrish? Who 
f l^£ECB. ^j^ j^jg gQjj^ ^uj what is recorded of him? Who were 

' the children of Jupiter? When did they flourish, and 
for what were they famous? Who was Ogyges? For 
what was his reign remarkable? By whom was Sparta 
built, and when? Who was Argus? What city did he 
found? Why said to have had 100 eyes? When lived 
Job, and for what famed? 

3* Who were Prometheus and Atlas? Why is Pro- 
metheus said to have i^ade a man of clay? Why repre^ 
sented as chained to Caucasus? Why said to have sto^ 
len fire from heaven? Why is Atlas said to sustain hea« 
yen on his shoulders? 

V. 4. Who was Moses, and when was he born? How 

PANAAN. educated? By whose assistance, by what means, and 
^' when did he bring the Israelites out of Egypt? 

5* What miracles attended the Israelites in their 
travels from Egypt, and through the deserts^ Who 
was their high-priest? Where was the law given? 
What was the number of their army in the 4Qth year 
pf their journeying? How many of those who had come 
put of Egypt were then alive? What became of '^%*- 
(jips? Who W9S his successor? 

RiarromcAi. f^ 

6 By wiiom was Athens foundeid, and when? tVho Vj. 

W» Mercuryf When did he floarish? What was he Gm^4£CB. 

the author of? Where reigned Deucalion? Who was his ^* 
wife? For what were they renowned? 

» 7. What is the story of Phaeton? Who was Oeno- VII. 

ttrus? What were his achievements? Who were the ^^'-^' 

Aborigines? Whence the name Italy? ^* 


From the departure of the Israelites out of E^ypt to 
the destruction of Troy ,^ ilB4f before Christ; contain" 
ing 307 years* ' 

1. HOW many years from the exody to the excision V. 
of Troy? What the history of Joshua and his wars? CANAAlft 
When came he and the Israelites to the possession of ^* 

2. What the story of Danaus? What is recorded of y j 
Orcus and Proserpina? What the story of Jupiter and «BBECIfr. 
fiaropa, and who were her sons? What the Areopa- 4. 
gites? Who was Busiris? 

3. Who was Othoniel, and when did he cut off the y^ 
king of Mesopotamia? What the story of Ehud? For CANAA^J. 
what was Deborah renoiyned? When was Sisera slain^ ^• 
and by whom? 

4. What account give historians of Trismegistus,.*&xtfrf(r#i 
of Janus, of Cadmus, of Rhadamanthus, of Minos, *®'*"^** 
atid of Acrisius? 

Si What is said of Amphion, of Bacchus, of Per- 
seus, of Pelops, of Niobe, and of Dardanus? Whence 
the name of Troas? 


VII. ^* What the history of Saturn? What is sa'KTofthe 

ITALY. Pelasgi? What the story of Siculus? Who were Sa* 
tum^s successors? For what is the wife of Faunus re- 

V. 1* Who was Gideon? How, and when did he dc- 
9ANAAN. feat the Midianites? Who was Abimclech, and what 

^* is said of him? 

VI. 8. Who were the Argonauts, and what their history? 
GREECE. What is meant by the Golden fleece? Whence, whither, 

^' and when was it carried off? 


9- Who was Theseus, and what his adventures with 
respect to the Minotaur and Centaurs? 

Scythian iQ. Who were the Amazons, and by whom con* 

^^'^'' quered? What is farther said of Hercules and The- 

11. Who were the sons of Pelops, and what their 
history? What the story of Oedipus? Who were his 
^ons, and what is said of them? 

CANAAN. ^^* When flourished Jephtha, and what'hii^ story? 


VII. 13. What occasioned the Trojan war? When was 
TJiOY. Troy destroyed? 


From the destruction of Troy to the Jinishtng and 
dedication of the temple at Jerusalem by Solomon^ 
1021 before Christ; including 163 years. . 

VII. !• HOW many years from the destruction of Troy, 

ITALY, to the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem? What 
*^* the adventures of iEneas? 

% What* the history of Sampson? How^ and when y. 
he die? ^ CANAAV. 

3. Who founded, and who were the kings of Alba VIL 
Longa? ^ ITALY, 


4. When, and by whom was Saul anointed king of V. 
Israel? How long was Israel under judges? CANAAN". 

S» What the story of the Heraclidse? When hap- VI* 
pened their return? GREEC«. 

6. When came Saul to the throne? How, and how V. 
long did he reign? By what means, and- when did David CANAAN, 
obtain the kingdom? 

7» What the character of king David? How long 
did he reign? 

8* Who was Codrus? What his story? Who was VI. 

the fir^t Archon of Athens? GREECE. 


9. How long reigned Solomon? When did he dedi- V. 
cate the temple? What Was his character? When flou- CANaAn, 
rished Homer? ^^* 


From the dedication of the Temple to the building of 
jRomey 748 before Christ; comprehending 273 years. 

1. HOW many years from the dedication of xh^ Divided inf 
temple to the building of Rome? What occasioned the jj"^^;/ 
dismembering of the Hebrew monarchy? How long 
did Rehoboam reign? Who was his successor? 

2« How long reigned Abijah? How long Asa? Judah, and 
What his character? In his reign who were kings of mUefo^!^^' 
£»atiam and Israel? 


' d* Wliat J«hosIniphat'« dmnifcter? How lo&g his 
reign? Who was then king of Samaria? Who tfie eaai^ 
xient prophet? What the story of Tiberinus? 

4. What Jehoram's character? How long his mg^ 
How long reigned Ahaziah? Who was then king of 

5« How long reigned Joash? What tJie fate of Ro- 
mulus Sylvius? What the story of Aventiaaa^ 

VI. 6. How long reigned Amaziah? Who was Lycur- 

GREECE, g^j Yfh9t his history? How long reigned Uzziah J 

IX. jr. What is related of Elisa or Dido? When waa 


TMA6E. Carthage founded? What is said of Bocchorus? 

VI. 8. What were the Olympic games? By whom ia- 

GBEECE. stituted? By whom, and when revived? When died 

^ Hesiod? 

mixed ac' 9. What Jotham's character? How long his reign? 


Who was Theopompus? What bis history? 

VH. 10. What are we told of Amulius? What the his- 
ITALT. ^Qj.y ^f Romulus and Remus? When was Rome built? 


Mrcm the building of Rome to the Meration of the Jeruy^ 
from the Babylonish captivity by Cyrus ^ 534 before 
Christy in the first year of the Persian empire; cott' 
taining 214 years. 

. 1. HOW long from the building of Rome, to the 
liberation of the Jews by Gyrus? What the achieve- 
ments of king Romulu^? How long reigned he? 

• 3. By whom and when was the Aftsyrian empire n. 
founded? How long did it subsist^ Who were the ASSTRii* 
Assyrian monarchs, and what remarkable 4n their 3* 
reigns? When, and by whom was this empire over- 

3. By whom, and when was the Bybylonian em- X. 
pire founded? How long did it subsist? Who were the lABYLOK. 
Babylonian monarchs, and what remarkable in their ^* 
reigns? When, and by whom was this empire over» 

4. By whom, and when was the empire of the jy^ 
Medes founded? Who were their kings, and what MEDIA, 
memorable in their reigns? When, and by whom was ^« 
this empire overturned? 

$» When came So or Sabacus to the throne of HI, 
Egypt? Who were his successors for the two follow- B<^YPT. 
ing centuries? ^ 

6. When, and by whom were the ten tribes carried V« 
captive? What is recorded of Tobias? Who was then CANAAN, 
king of Judah? What eminent prophet then flourished? ^^* 

7. What is the History of Numa Pompilius? How VII. 

long did he reign? ITALY. 


8« Who was Manasseh, and when did he reign? V. 
What is recorded of Judith? What do historians say CANAAN, 
of Gygcs? ^^* 

g.What the history of TuUus Hostillius? How VII. 
long did he reign? What the fate of Ammon? italy, 

10. What the history of Ancus Martius? How long 
his reign? What the fate of Josiah? What prophet then 

11, What the hislory of Tarquinius Priscus? How 
long reigned he? 

.04 ^BBGAPnmtAtid^. 

VI. 12» Whch flourished. Draco? What the natuite of 

QRKECE. Ki^ laws? What was said of them? 
10. . 

V. 13. Who reigned in Judea after Josiah? When, and 

CANAAN, by whom was Jerusalem burnt? What became of the 

^^^ people? 

«.i^i^i? 14-. When flourished the wise men of Gfeece? What 

11^ is recolrded of Solon? 

vvxii ^^* W^^^ were the principal transactions in the reiga 

g^ ' of Servius Tullius? How long his reign? 

Miaced a»> 16. What tyrants flourished about this time? Whkt 

**" ' wise men? What poets? ^ 

« J. 

^V 17. What the history of C5a-us? When were the 

^^ Jews liberated? What is said of Daniel? 

18. How and when died Cyrus? Where was he bu- 
ried? How long subsisted the Persian empire? Who 
were the Persian monarchs? 


From the liberation of the Jews by Cyrus to the over^ 
throxv of the Persian empire by Alexander the Great j 
330 before Christ; including 204 years* 

VII. 1. HOW many years from the liberation of the 

ITALY. Jews to the overthrow of the Persian empire? What 

^' the history of Tarquinius Superbus? When and for 

what was he expelled? What was the number of the 

Roman kings, and how long subsisted the regal autho<. 

rity? - . 

2. What kind of government succeeded at Rome? 
Who were the first consuls? How did Brutus shew 
his zeal for liberty? 

^^ Wkit thft heroic coMlttCt of Haurmodittt^ . GUt^B. 


4. What the stoiy of Cambyses? What the fate of XL 
Smerdis? PEBSIA. 

5. How was Darius Hystaspes chosen king of this 

6« What favour shewed Darius Hystaspes to the 
Jews? By what means did he recaver Babylon? 

7* What efforts did Tarquinius Superbus use in VII* 
order to be restored? What the story of Codes, of , *'*'^^' 
Cleita, and of Muuus? What, course did Porsenna at 
last take) 

' a* What the history of the battle at the lake Regil- 
luB? When was it fought? Who then reigned at Syra- 

. 9. What the history of the battle of Marathon? p,^J^ 
When was it fought? 3^ 

lOt What occasioned the secession of the commons VII. 
at Rome? How Were they appeased? ITALY. 

%%• What the story of Coriolanus? What the vie- 
tpry of Cassius? Why, how, and when was he put to 

12. What is most memorable in the Ufe of Arb- VI« 
tides? e»*f=«' 

1 V* 



13. What the story of the Fabii? 

l^. What the history of Xerxes^s ezpeditioD against X'* 
Greece? In what year did it happen? ^^ 

%$• Who gained the victory in the battle at Platea? 
Who was Herodotus, and when did he flourish? 


g^ * * nnTOIEICAL 

Vn. 16; What the story of *Q. Cittcttmatu*? By #hom 

fTALY. y0^jf^ ^Ijc Greek citica of Asia restored to liberty? 

What philosophers at fkn time n^de a figure? 

17* When were the Decemviri created? What re- 
markable thing did they do? Why were the^ deposed? 
What kind of gOTemment ensaed^ 

XI. Id. What favour did Artaxerxes shew to the Jews, 

rsKSiA. ^^ when? What men of genius were at this time il- 

yil. 19. When were the military tribunes with consaltt 
lil^ authority created at Rome? When the censors? What 
the achievements of Comditts Cossos? ' ** 

VI. SO. When broke out the Peloponnesian war? How 
GBfiMB. i^g dia it last? Who wrote the history of it? 

21 • Who were the Athenian generals in the war 
against the Syracusans? When did this War happen? 
How did it turn out? 

22. What men of learning and genius flourished at 
this time? what is reccM^d of Diagorasf 

VII. 23. What the history of the Galli Scnones? What 
^'^^y^' provoked them to burn Rome? When did this happef^ 

yi. 24. What happened to Athens about this time? By 

GSKKCfi. ^iiQnj, and when were the tyrants turned out? 

Mixed 99- 25. What is recorded of Ctesias of Cnidus? What 
'^"^' other f»iious men were his cotemporaries? - 

26. What famous generals flourished at this time? 
What the character of Epaminondas? 

VII. 27. What the achievements of Camillus? Who was 

^t¥^' the first Pfebeiaii consul? ^ • 

16. > 

USAlWtnMillOK. Mg 

wbei9 was he dam? To vniil is tbe decay of the nwr^ gbeegb. 
tial spirit among the X«a€«deiiigxiiaiis ascribed? ^* 

29* Whad oonquiasts . did the Carthai^iiiaiKs adioiit IX. 
thU. limfB make? What the fate of Diotiysius^ father and tu^gc. 
BOO? How was Isocralas^^ ^om emfdoyedl ^ 8. 


30. What- ^e <BSi^tt of T. MaaUiu? What the VU. 
Wpiy of V»l«riBa? "jj^^ 

31. Wherei and when was Alexander the Great yi, 
iKnrn? What the ^o^esta of his fathar Philip at this Gflia^B. 
ti^t^ Who obstructed the progress of his arms? Bjr ^'^*- 
whom was he slaili? Who waa Aea ki»g of (he Per* 


32. What wars were^ the .Romana at this tiase en^* yrj^ 
gaged in? What the story of Manlius Torquatus ? itaLt, 
^hat fire we told of Deems Mas? What use did the ^*» 
Romaaes make of the ahipa of the Aoldates? Whfil; 

men of letters flourished then? 

: , ZZm Who was precept to Alemnder the G^al? VI* 
What his conqne^tUll the baftde^flssw? gwebcb. 

^. What were his other wars and adventures till *^^^^i^ 
h^v^vi^r^nteA ,the Pttrsiao emfttre? Wheadid.tms hap- the Ortth 
pen? • , "^^^ 


From the orfer^fow jtfthe IkrHan empire by dliowukt 
the Great ^ to the defeat of Perseus his last successor 

^ Jjf Greece i by MmUiu» Paulus^ 16f before Christy 
when Rome became the wmtitees of thewark^ camfire" 
hefiding 163 years* 

1. HOW many years froJBd th# ow^hf5i>w ^f the 
Persian empire to the defeat of Perseus? What con* 
quests did Alexander make after erecting the Mace- 

'g|^ WSt^WMMi 

^ *doniiin empire? Where, and when did he t£ie> What 
historians oi note flourished in his reign^ 

Greek em- 8. How was Alexander's great empire > divided/ 
^reidMded ^j^^^ jg^^^ ^ letters now made a figure? • 

Vll. ^* When, and by whom waathe Appian yffCf paved 
, i^AUT. at Romt* ? what the history of the Tarendne war? 
^^•, Vhen was it endet^ 

III, 4. How long did the successors of Alexander reigii 

E^YPT. in Egypt? Who were theae princes, and how long, did 
^' each of them reign? 

VII. 5. What the history of Agathodes? What the 
FTALY. character of Hiero? 

Fim Pume ^* When broke out, ^nd 'Wbat occasioned the first 
***•• Punic wai:? What the history of it, and how long did 

it last? What the notable exploit of MarceUus? - Whst 
perpetuates tte memory of C. Fhiminiu»? 

Mixed ae- 7* What men of learning flourished in the reign of 
€0uM. ptoleftij Philadelphus? What pains did Ptolemy take 

to furnish his library at Alexaadha? Who was the 

first king of the Parthianb? 

Second Pu. «• How long from the first to the second Punic war?, 
mc war/ What gave rise to the second Punic war? What the 
history of it in Ital} ? 

>^'ff Sicikfi 9. What succesa had the Romans in Sicily? 

-4n Spain, lO. What feats performed Cor. Scipio in Sp^tfi and 
;J^/f;!„^"^ Africa? What became of Aadrubal? 

^SXT" ^^' When was Annibal recalled from Italy^ What 
measures did he then take? When was the. war ended? 

ia» What honour ^s conferred on Cor* Scipio? 
What is recorded with respeet^ to the poet Entuuft? . 
Wbo wereitis'cetemrpories? 

1$. Whait; ^Ite IMlbir ^f l)li^ MicjiNiMiail^pai^ Bow Tn^^^^bu^- 

* Jttmnmrfm , it «■ 

long did it last? Wbea was it ended? 

■' $ , 


14k What^tie^hlflfCttrf 6f thtf wiir wifll Amtibcbus? frar-wi^ 
Kow^'^nd when 4i0d HifiUiiifbal^ V(%at ^o«t now flcMl* ^^'^ 

/ "* i#* What other waw wei^ tbie Romans enMged tn Otherniie^a^ 
at this time? Who was Perseus? When was he eon* «nn«. 

t 16^ What wars in Judea at this time? imm. 


F^fn the defmt of Ftrseus^ to the birth of Christ or 
the beginning of the Christian- dtrai tnctw^ng 16f 

' 1. HOW many years from the defeat of Perseus, rurJj^mie 
to'fhe birth of'Christ? What occasioned Ae third Pu- ^^' 
nic war? How long did it last? When was Carthage 
destroyed? Who were the men of letters P. Scipio 
so mUchMesteemedf Who succeeded tiiem? ^ ' 

2. For what offence, by Whom, ated' when was^ Go- The Achean 
rinth destroyed? What the case of Lusitania? By "^^^ 
whom, and when was Numantia razed? 

S. Wh*rt the history of the Agrariiin law? When^l^^^J" 
died Attains? What Ms testament? dition. 

f*«4.«^Wiiat the insurrecdon of Ennus? By *^^om, and ^^»:^«»«'» 
wl^n quelled? What satirist then flourished? - *" ' 

"^tfi l«ftiarAeMsti)ry of the Jugorthine war? How, J%«^'*»'»* 
. and when wasit end^d? in What othcfr wars did Ma- 
\ rius command? 

10 \^ mngmanut i: 

6« Vffmt attempts .¥«efie . mom. ouide ta iwive^^the 

^i^ ' Agrarian law? 

TUSMai 7. What tbt hiafeiHT pf thesoicSil.wfU-? MThc^did 
Aristobulua receive the ensigiifl of royalty in Judea?. 


^y^^ 8. What gave occasion to the Mithridatic wm# 
Whence arose the civil war at this xkmtf By whom, 
and when was the Mithridatic war ended? 

Aite»ft«c 9^ wh^ the further pro^ss of the civil \mxf 

When died Sylk? 

^^^ •/ 10. What the history of the war with Sertorius? 
' How, and when was it ended? 

S'iKS^''^ !!• What the story of Spartacus? Did not pin^s 
likewise raise distuijbanc^s at tho same tiiw? 

* • -•  -'■ 

£*J^,^" 12. The Mithridatic war b^ng reoewedy^h^ ^rua 

prwinee. the Roman general, and what his success? On what 

occwion was. MeteUus named Creticus? By. wilpm, 

in what manner, when was the Mithridatic war endedf 

* *  

^2'''- * 13. What the history of Pompey's going to Judea? 

Whw did he rejtai^ 

« . • « 

Catmn^a 14. What the history of Canine's con^iuraey? B^ 
eompitaqf. ^y^^^^^ ^^j^^ when was it crushed? What bpcame qf 

Cicero? For what was he illustrious? What men of 
learning now flourished? Y^hat person of diftindion 
was born thia yearf . 

TViuwoL ^^* ^^^ ^** ^^^ ^"* triumvirate formed? What 

rmte. provinces w^re assj|^ed totjbe; tritti|ni^>rs? 

Ctmuue 16. What the history of Craasus^a e^^ditk^ jnt9 

Asia? .,1 

1 , 

ChUwarf 17. What the conquesU of JuUi^ Can/ir.iii^ Qml? 
How, and when broke out the civil wars? 

VS^dMM^iMOH. ^ 

^ tSi What Ihelfistort ^f C«8ai^« «l¥il wars fill the ^ ^ ^ 
death of Poropey? ' Aome/ 

19f. What Caesar's adventures in Egypt? — ^J&a^'v 

20* What the progress of Caesar's arms in Asia and -^ JiUa,- 

21. What his victory in Spain? '^S!f^^*^ 

98. WhataecoontB iH^e we of Casar after die civil Cir«ar dicto' 
wars? By whom, and when was he slain? ^"^^ •''' 

* SB. What the history of the disturbances raised by .intfm^ ^ 
M.Anthony? ^'^••"■ 

' 84; By what ineans was Octavius made consul? Octomt$ km 
What became of M. Anthony after the battle of Ma- •-^^•**^' 
tina? How did Octavius execute the orders of the se- 
nate against him and M. Lepidu^? 

f • W. what tfce conduct of the new triumvirs? ^<>^ xliimUrtL 
did they divide the Roman empire? What historian 
now flourished? 

^6. Why was Octavius's name changed to Octavia- 'T^^^a^ 
nus? What the history of the battle of Philippi? What 
Ihe story of Sextus Pompey? Who at this time was 

kingt>f Jttdea? 

• • " ■* • 

«r.' Who gained the victory in the brittle of Ac-^*A««yo«rf 
tium? How, and when died M. Anthbny and Cleo- a/ ^**^'"** 



28* When, and by whom was the title of Aufiii3tus Octcniaam 
conferred on Octavianus? What the histoty of Au-^,^. 
^crtus's reign? What poetb and' historian^ then flou- 
rished, and what is recorded of them? How long 
did Augustus reign? Where and when died he? ' 

What wis his boast? 

K4 < 


Mirth 9/ 


29. When' was Jew« Christ bdm^ What hit 
mission, and the prediction of Gabritif 


Rome under the Emperors— ^rom the birth ^f ChH^^ 
to the extinction of the R^n^n empire ih the wetH 
by Odoacer king of the Hewuii^ A* I>* 479^ 

Auc«tta«i 1* On whom did Augustus confer the endpire «t his 

death? Whom did he substitute to sueceed th^m^ 

3. What was the character of Tiberias? In what 
manner did he accept the empiref Did his affected 
moderation endure? What revolutions did be mak^ in 
the political fabrick? 

pn9m9 Cer- 3. With what sentiment did he ri&gard Germani- 
cus? On what account did he so regard him, aftd 

what was his conduct towards him? 

§Mtcutet 'Sk' 4. Who was Tiberius* couiiseHor? How did he re- 
janua; quite the favours of Tiberius? How far did he suc- 
ceed in his pldt? What was tb^lconse^uence of his de- 

ehHii^nui' 5. In whiat y«ar of Tiberius' reign' was our Sairiour 
^' crucified? What Was his age? 

Tiheriu9i9 6. What characterized Tiberius, and his reign about 
Strang . ^^^ time? What was his fate and by whonfi' brought 
about? What was his age^ and length of reign?- What 
men of letters, Sec* lived about this time?* 

Caiigaift; 7* Whotn did Tiberius Dominate to succeed him? 

'^•^^*^^'**^Did both succeed in fact? For what acts wa^eh^ reign 
fi»n. of Caligula remarkable? What sentiments did his sub- 


»jlf««i^ iSmmmn for hioa? WhatiiTfts Ms end, aad a< 
ir^ac time ol die aty! What was his age, and length 
df reign? 

8. Whosueceeded Caligula? What was his descent £|a«diiu; 
and character? What enterprise did Claudius under- 
take? What was its success? 

' 9» What was his civil administration and domestic /« poiawied 
/dteracter? What was his end, how v and by whom^,^^^^* 
nehieved^ and for what purpose? What was his age, 
and length of reign? , 

^ > 10» Who was the successor of Claudius? What was Xero; 
Metq^s rfeal chai:acter? Did it thus manifest itself ^tfX^J^' 
first? What were his atrocities? What were his amuse- 

« msnts? Who headed the insurrection against him? 

-What his dastardly resort, and end? What was his age 
and length of reign? What became of the succession of 
C^sars, and of the name? What eminent characters 
flourished* about this time? 

11. Who succeeded Nero, and at what age? WhatGaiba; 
was the character. of his administration, and the conse^ ^',^^ 
quence? What the effects of adopting a new favourite? 

12^ Did Otho now succeed without a rival? In what Otho; 
. Vere they equal? Where did they join battle, and the*^*'*"*^'*^* 

1S« Whom did. Vitellius, his rival and successor, ViteiiiiM* 
propose as his model? Was his succession without a 
rival? How did he act on the occasion? His fate? 

14. What was the dignity of Vespasian's descent? Ve»g«an5 
What his merit and deportment? What changes did he 
make in the body politic? What his vice, and its ex- 

,15# When, and by whom, was the war against *^^Jf"'*J^ 
Jisws ended? In what manner had the Jews been go- ffenermi * 


"VI. 12. When flourished Dracof 'What the nature of 

QRKEGE. his laws? What was said of them? 

V. 13. Who reigned in Judea after Josiah? When, and 

CANAAN, by whom was Jerusalem burnt? What became of the 
14. people? 

GitEECSu ^^* When flourished the wise men of Greece? What 
^ ^^ is recorded of Solon? 

vvxii ^^* ^^^^ were the principal transactions in the reign 
jj^ * of Servius Tullius? How long his reign? 

Mixed a^ 16. What tyrants flourished about this time? Whkt 


wise men? What poets? ^ 

f u. 

^'; 17. What the history of Cyrus? When were the 

^^ Jews liberated? What is said of Daniel? 

18. How and when died Cyrus? Where was he bu- 
ried? How long subsisted the Persian empire? Who 
were the Persian monarchs? 


From the Rberation of the Jews by Cyrus to the over^ 
throw of the Persian empire by Alexander the Great j 
330 before Christ; including- 204 years. 

VII. 1. HOW many years from the liberation of the 

llALY. Jews to the overthrow of the Persian empire? What 
the history of Tarquinius Superbus? When and for 
what was he expelled? What was the number of the 
Roman kings, and how long subsisted the regal aiitho* 
rity? • 

2. What kind of government succeeded at Rome? 
Who were the first consuls? How did Brutus shew 
his zeal for liberty? 

EBCifmnjtviOK. ^ 


$f W4at the boroic coMlttct of Haiiiiiodiiit^ . g]iL«cb. 


4. What the story of Cambyses? What the fate of XL 
Smerdis? PEKSiA. 


5. How was Darius Hystaspes chosen king of the 

6« What favour shewed Darius Hystaspes to the 
Jews? By what means did he recover Babylon? 

7* What efforts did Tarquinius Superbus use in VII. 
order to be restored? What the story of Codes, of. **^^' 
Cleiia, and of Mmius? What, course did Porsenna at 
last takef 

' a. What the history of the battle at the lake Regil- 
lus? When was it fought? Who then reigned at Syra- 

. 9. What the history of the battle of Marathon? p,^';. 
When was it fought? 3. ' 

10* What occasioned the secession of the commons VIL 
at Rome? How Were they appeased? ITALY. 

It. What the story of Coriolanus? What the .vie- 
tpry of Cassius? Why, how, and when was he put to 

12. What is most memorable in the Ufe of Aris- VI. 

tides? ^'-^^ 



13. What the story of the Fabli? ITAlt. 


14. What the history of Xerxes's expedition against ^I* 
Greece? In what year did it happen? ^^ 

15. Who gained the victory in the battle at Plateaf 
Who was Herodotus^ and when did he flourish? 


Vn. 16» What ^e atoty cf 'Q. Cittemiitttu*? Bjr #llom 

WAUY. ^^1^ ^ije Greek chic* of Asia restored to liberty? 

What philosophers at diis time ntfade a figure? 

17* When were the Decemvhfi created? Whiit re- 
markable thing did they do? Why frere they deposed? 
What kind of gOTemment ensued? 

XI. Id. What favour did Artaxerxes shew to the Jews, 

rEKSiA. j^j when? What men of genius were at this time il- 

yiL 19, When were the military tribunes with consate 
^'^U^ authority created at Rome? When the censors? What 
the achterements of ComeliBs CossQS? ' '"• 

VI. 20. When broke out the Peloponnesian war? How 
GB£i»B. i^ng jMi it i^gt? ^^rho wrote the history of it? 

21. Who were the Athenian generals in die war 
against the Syracusans? When did this War happen? 
How did it turn out? 

22. What men of learning and gemus flourished at 
this time? what is recorded of Diagoras? 

VII. 23. What the history of the Galli Senones? What 
^^y^* provoked them to burn Rome? When did this happetif 

VI. 24. What happened to -Athens about this time? By 
GBRBCfi. ^ijom, and when were the tyrants turned out? 

Mixed n9^ 25. What is recorded of Ctesias of Cnidus? What 
•*^'*' other famous men were his cotempdrarie^ • 

26. What famous generals flourished at this time? 
What the character of Epaminondas? 

VII. 27. What the achievements of Camillus? Who was 
^^^' the first Pfchttan tonsui? * ^ 


UClAflf IttMlOK. ^ 

^ 9IU ;Wb*ftriiie AcUweiiettts of Epftmioottias^ tad VL 

wh^itt waa he •!«»{ To wmt U the decay of the bmu> caiEBGB. 

tial spirit among the Xfacadeinaiiia&a ascribed? ^^* 

29* Whal oom|Uflat8 . did the Cardtagimans about IX. 

ihia lime make? What the fate of Otoftysius^ father and tu^ge. 

aooi How was Isocrataa ^am emfdoycd? i %. 

30. What ^e <»x^ic of T. ManUosr What the V'U. 
story of Valerias? ^^"j^ 


31. Where, and when was Alexander the Great y\^ 
iKim? What the ^n^ests of his father Philip at this GfliafiiCB. 
I^ne^ Who obstructed the progress of his arms? By ^'^* 
whom was he slaiu? Wt|o was tfien kmg of the Per* 


32. What warn were the .Romana at this time en* vVi* 
gaged in? What the story of Manlius Torquatus ? iTAtT, 
^bat ure we toU of Declus Mus? What use did the 1*» 
ftomafld inake of the shtpa of die Anldiates? Whtf 

men of letters flourished then? 

33. Who was preceptor to Alexander the Great? VL 
Whathisconqoe^tUU the battle ^flssus? grebcb. 

Zt» What were his other wars and adventures till '^^^^^^f^ 
he,9vertunieid .the Persian empire? When did this hap- the Gmk 
pen? • , *^^*^ 


From the ov^thraw jiffthe JPefsian emfiire by jUtoHmiet 
the Greats to the defeat of Perseus his last successor 

- i3% Greece ^t by jEniiHus Paulus^ 167 before Christy 
when Rome became the mis^ess of the vforld$ comfits'^ 
hefiding 163 years. 

1. HOW many years from the e^ii^jrthf!DW of the 
Persian empire to the defeat of Perseus? What con* 
quests did Alexander make after erecting the Mace- 

'* BBtOHIOM. > 

^ ^etmMn'tmfira Where, and wlicn dkl iie 4itf Wliftt 
hiBtorians oi note lourished in his reign/ 

Greek em- 2. How was Alexander's great empire , divided/ 
pirgih\nded ^fcat men ©f letters now made a figore? ' • 

Vll. ^* When, and by whom was the A pptan fray paved 
, ITALY, at Romt- / what the history of the Tarentine war? 
^^\ when was it endei^ 

III. 4* How long did the successors of Alexander reigii 

EGYPt. in Egypt? Who were these princes, and how long did 
^' each of them reign? 

VII. 5. What the history of Agathodes? What the 
ITALY, character of Hicro? 

Fku Pume ^* When broke out, aiid 'Wh^t occasioned the first 
*••'• Punic wai:? What the history of it, and how long did 

it last? What the notebie exploit of Marcellus? - What 
perpetuates the memory of C Flaminius? 

Mixed ac' 7* What men of learning flourished in the reign of 
c9umu ptoletnj Philadelphus? What pains did Ptolemy take 

to furnish his l%rary at Alexandria? Who was the 

first king of the Parthiaob? 

Second Pu~ «• How loug from the first to the second Punic war?. 
IMC war/ What gave rise to the second- Punic war? What the 
history of it in Ital}? 

.^'ff Sidhfs 9. What success had the Romans in Sicily^ 

—ffl Spain, lO. What feats performed Cor. Scipio in Spai<i smd 

ij^/j;;^"'*^ Africa? What became of AsdTubal? 

^^ildfJt'' ^^* ^'^^ ^^ AnnJbal recalled from Italy? What 
measures did he then take? When was the war ended? 

13* What honour ^s conferred on Cor* Scipio? 
What is recorded with resp^et^ to the poet Entuus?.. 
Who were Jiis eotcmfpories? 


'IS. Whaft l!k» Milbiy ^^f the Mtcie«olifaiili|PM4P How Tn^a^ 
long did it last/ When was it ended^ 

' 1** Whait<1ic^lM»«irjr of the war with Affiitibcbus? fTarwiih 
flow, ^nA wh^n* 4i0d HMtiibai^ What ^o«t oow flao- *^^^' ^ 

' ** 1I#. What other war* wrfc Ae Romans enneed in OthertucetB 
at this time^ Who was Perseus^ When was he ton* mmu. 

J • 

li ^ ' • t . • f 

1 le* What wars in Judea at this cimc^ '"** 


Fi^rn the defeat of Perseus\, to the birth of Christ or 
the hegtnntng of the Christian mrat including 16r 

' 1. HOW many years from the defeat of Perseus, TTtfrJPiinK 
to the birth of Christ^ What occasioned the third Pu- '^''• 
nic war? How long did it last/ When was G^rthage 
destroyed? Who were the men of letters P. Scipio 
so mnch esteemed? 'Who succeeded them? ' 

3. For what offence, by Whom, and when was Co- The Mhean, 
rimh destroyed? What the case of Lusitania? By '^*^* 
whom, and when was Numantia razed? 

S. What the history of the Agraritm law? When ^^J^nrf" . 
died Attalus? What his tesCamett^ dition, 

«*<♦. '^Wliat the insurrection of Eunus? By whom, and /"^JJJJ***'*, 
wl^fi quelled ? What satirist then flourished ? 

^ffi WhafAe Wstfery ^ the Jngnrthtne war? How,^^*»'»* 
and when was it ended? In what other wars did Ma- 
\ rius command? 

10 '.. mmrmamib r 

6« "What at3Mipt& .i«G«e . s<Mfi ouide ^to ivfive cthe 

4&Mn Agrarian iaw7 

Tte^MM/ jr. What tbf MaMr of ihtttmciAlm»-r Wbcii did 
Aristobttlus receive the ensigns of royalty in Judea?, 


^?^^ 8. What gave occasion to the Mithridatic wac^ 
Whence arose the civil war at this time^ By whom, 
and when was the Mnhridaiic war ended? 

j|jtef/we 9^ iffhat the further pra^ss of the cltil ugar? 

When died ^Ua? 

^^^ •/ 10. What the history of the war with Sertorius? 
How, and when was it ejaded? 

5 A»£!*^ !!• What the story of Spartacus? Did not pisvtes 

likewise raise distufj^c^s %% the samcr timci? 

' ^ " -■ 

d^a^tTa ^2- The Mithridfitic w«r being reodwed^^h^ 9W 

frvoince, the Roman general, and what his success? On what 

occmion was . MeteUus named Creticias? By. wh^m^ 

in what manner, when was the MithridMic war efkdedf 


j^^*"'- ' 13. What the history of Pompey's going to Judea? 

Whfn did he retui^? 

* . > « 

CatiUnet 14. What the history of .Ca|!|line's conqiiraegr/ Qgr 
coiapifacg. ^j^^^^^ jmj when was it crushed? What b|scame of 

Cicero? For what was he illustrious? What men of 
learning now flourii^tied? Y^hat person of <Uftino|ion 
was born this yearf 

'^wivoL ^^* ^^""^ ^*' ^^ ^"* triumvirate formed? What 
Tmt€. provinces were assjigned to. the: triumi^irs? 

Crmnm^ 16. What the history of Crassus's eueditk^ int^ 

Asia? i-x 

CM war; 17. What the conquests of Julius, Csu^r^x^ QdH)/ 
How, and when broke out the civil wars? 

BEcykivracimoir. ^ 

^ IS. What the historjr of CMar's dWl wtw fill the ^^^^^ 
death of Pompey? ^ jj^,^. 

19. What Cssar*8 adventures in Egypi^ WnJ?ffs^. 

20* What the progress of Caesar's arms in Asia and *-iii JiUa,- 
I- ' ' 

2 1 . What Ms victory in Spain? "^J^^^ 

38. What accounts have we of Csesar after Ae dvil c^^or dicul^ 
wars? By whom, and when was he slain? ^*^ '^* 

'39. What tile history of the distui1>ances raised by .^nthm^f «» 
M.Anthony? «%..— 

' 84r By what means was Octavius made consul? Octatoim im 
What became of M. Anthony after the battle of Mo- "^P^""^' 
tina? How did Octavius execute the orders of the se- 
nate against him and M. Lepidus? 

* • - 

I '-Its. What tile conduct of the new triumvirs? HowJ]^^«^ 
did diey divide' the Roman empire? What historian 
now flourished? 

tf 6. Why was Octavius's name changed to Octavia- Ji^^^^JJ^^ 
nus? What the history of the battle of Philippi? What 
Ae story of Sextus Pompey? Who at this! time was 
Wng^ Judea? 

• «T.- Who gdned the victory in the biittfe of Ac-^thot^and 
tium? How, and when died M. Anthony and Cleo-a^ 


J • » 


28. Whenv and by whom Was the iMe of Augustus pacnianvi 
conferred on Octavianus? What the history of Au-]^^^. 
gUc^us'sreiga? What poet^ and' historians tl)6n flou- 
rished, and what is recorded of them? How long 
did Augustus reign? Where and when died he? 
What w«s hiitf boast? 


Birth rf 



29: When' was Jews Christ bdm^ Whal hit 
mission, and the prediction of Gabrielf 


Rome under the Emperors— ^rom the birth $fChri9i^ 
to the extinction of the R^man empire in the west 
by Odoacer king of the Hetrtdi^ A» ZX 474» 

Ancttitiit. 1. On whom did Augustus confer the empire mt his 

death? Whom did he substitute to succeed tbtm^ 

3. What was the ebaracter of Tiberms? In - what 
manner did he accept the empire? Did his affected 
moderation endure? What revolutions did be make in 

the political fabrick? 

ptUmw Cer- 3. With what sentiment did he ncgard Germani- 
cus? On what account did he so regard him^ aful 
what was his conduct towards him? 

Hfecutet iSp- 4. Whd 'WaS' Tiberius' couiiaeHor? How did he re- 
jonu9; quite the favours of Tiberius? How far did he suc- 
ceed in his plot? What was the^consetjuence of his de- 


5. In what year of Tiberius* rtign^was out Sattour 

crucified? What was his age? 


TiheriwU 6. What characterized Tiberius, and hiVeign about 
MtrangUa, ^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ brought 

about? What was his age, and length of rcikn?* What 
men of letters, 8cc. lived about this time?* 1[ 

Ciiiguin; 7. Whotn did Tiberius <iominate to succe^ him? 

*%^^i^!^l^y^ both succeed in fact? For what acts was -ih^reiea 
«t»n. of Caligula remarkable? What sentiments did hil *^^* 

mKMiRil9HBn»vA • • • mg. 

hi ^p^(&m mimtSia for hlmi What iiras kis end^ and at 
Wtiat time ol the city? What was hia age, and length 
<yf reign? 

8. Who sueceeded Caligula? What was hia descent ciandiiu; 
and character^ What enterprise did Claudius under- 
lake? What was its success? 

9w What was his civil administration and domestic /« poiswed 
Si . loharacter? What was his end, how, and by whom %^^^ 
f aahieved^ and for what purpose? What was his age, 
and length of reign? , 

[1  10» Who was the successor of Claudius? What wasKero; 

i Me»o's real chai:acter? Did it thus manifest itself 2Lt^^^J^/ 
first? What were his atrocities? What were his amuse- 
*,iil«nta? Who headed the insurrection against him? 
-What his dastardly resort, and end? What was his age 
and length of reign? What became of the succession of 
Caesars, and of the name? What eminent characters 
flourished* about this time? 

II. Who succeeded Nero, and at what age? WhatGsiiM; 
was the character of his administration, and the conse- i/^iain 
quence? What the effects of adopting a new favourite? 

1^ Did Otho now succeed without a rival? InwhatOthos 
. vere they equal? Where did they join battle, and* the'^*^'*'*^'^** 

IS. Whom did.ViteUius, his rival and successor, Viteiiiaej 
propose as his model? Was his succession without a 
rival? How did he act on the occasion? His fate? 

14. What was the dignity of Vespasian's descent? y®'g*?J*5 
What his inerit and deportment? What changes did he 
make in die body politic? What his vice, and its ex- 


,15. When, and by whon^ was the war against *c^Jf^'''^ 
J^ws. ended? In what maimer had the Jews been go- ^enermi ' 




B* ۥ 


Iephtha» . 


9. Jehoranii 




10. JehU) 




U. Jeoahaz, 




13. Joash, 


Sampson born about 


13. Jeroboam 11, 





1 1} years, 83r. 

Samuel, . . 


14. Zachariah, 



1. Saul, 1095 

9. David or Ishboshetb, > 1088 

3. David alone from 1093 to 1015 

4. Solomon, 1015 
Division of the kingdom into 

Judah and Israel, 975 


Two tribes, 

i. Reboboam, 975 

2. Abijam, 958 

3. Asa, 955 

4. Jehoshaphat, 914 

5. Jehoram, 889 

6. Amaziah, 886 

7. Athaliab, 884 

8. Joash, 870 

9. Amaziab, 826 
10. Azariah, 810 
il. Jotham, '759 
13. Ahaz, 742 

13. Hezekiah, 726 

14. Manasseh, .698 

15. Ainon, 645 

16. Josiah, 641 

17. Jehoahaz, 610 

18. Jehoiakim, • 6^0 
r9. Jehoiachin, 599 

20. Jedekiah, 599 

21. Nebuchadnezzar, des- 

troyed Jerusalem, 588 


7Vn tribes, 

i, Jeroboam I, 975 

3. Nadab, 954 

3. Baasha, 953 

4. Elah, 930 

5. Zimri, ' 929 
«. Omri, 929 
7. Ahab, 918 
a. .^tLbluial& 698. 

15. Menahem, 769 

16. Shallum, 763. 

17. Pekehiah, 761 

18. Pekah, 75^ 

19. Hosea, 759 
Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, 

destroyed the kingdom of 



1. Belusor Nimrod, 


2. Ninus built Nineveh, 


3. Semiramis, 


4. Nynias, 


5. Arius, 


6. Aralius, 


7. Xerxes, or Balsus, 


8. Armamitheus, 


9. Belochus, 


10. Balaeus, 


1 1. Sethos, or Althadas, 


12. Mamythus, 


13. Manchaleus, 


L4. Spharus, 


15. Mamylus, 


16. Sparetus, 


17. Ascatades, 


18. Amyntes, 


19. Belochus, 


30. Lamptides, 


21. Sosares, 


22. Lampraes, 


23. Panyas, 


34. Sosarmus, 


25. Mytraeus, 


36. Teutames, 


37. Teutaeus, 


28. Arabelus, 


29. Chalaus, 


30. Anabua^. 




^. Babirus, 1120 

'a^. Thinaeus, 1083 

SS. Dercylosy 1053 

54. Eupaemes, or Eujialesy 1013 

55. Laosthenes, r 975 

36. Pyrttiaile^, - 930 

37. OphrathaeuS) ' 900 
38« Ephraheres, 879 
39. Ocrazares, or Anacfnda*- . 

. * rax, 827 

^40, Sardanapalus, 




1. Arbaces revolted against 

Sardanapalus, 770 

The Medes subdued by 

the Assyrians). 

2. Dejoces, 

3. Phraortes, 
Scythians in Asiai 

4. Cyaxares, 
Scythians driven out) 

5. Astyages or Darius, 

6. Cyrus with AstyageS) 




1. Pul, called also Ninus, 770 

2. Tigiath Pileser, 758 
Salmaneser takes Sama^ 

ria, 729 

3. Sennacherib, 714 

4. Assaradin, or Essarhad- 

don, 710 

Essarhaddon takes Baby* 
loU) 685 

5. Sapsduchinus, 668 

6. Ctinaladon or Saracus, 648 

7. Nabopolassar, 626 

8. Nabopolassar or Nebuchor 

donosar, 605 

9. Evil Merodack) 562 
10. [j^borosochord with Nere* 

glissar, 561 

B* c« 

11. Laborosochord alond, '556 

12. Nabonide, Nabonadius La- 

bynitus, or Belshazzar, 556 

13. Darius Medus, or Astj^b- 

ges, ' 538 



1. Belesis, 770 

2. Nabonassar, 747 
5. Nadius, 733 

4. Cincertus, 731 

5. Jugaeus, 726 

6. Mardocim]^de, or Mero- 



dac BaladaO) 
7. Arcianus, 

8 Belibus, 
9. Apronadius, 

10. Regibelus, 

1 1. Messessimordac, 

12. Essarhaddon king of Assy- 
ria, takes Babylon, 680 



1. Cyrus, 536 

2. Canibyses, 529 

3. Smerdis, 523 

4. Dai'ius I. son of Hystaa- 

pes, 522 

5. Xerxes the Great, .486 

6. Artaxerxes Longimanus, 465 

7. Xerxes II, 

8. Sogdianus, 

9. Ochus, 

10. Artaxerxes Mnemon, 
U. Artaxerxes Ochus, 
12. Arses, 

(3. Darius Codomannus, 
14. Alexander the Great, 


1. Arsaces I, 2^ 

2. Tyridates, or Arsaces II, 254 

3. Artabanes I, 217 

4. PhriapatiuS) 




• See mixed account, Vol. 11. page 42. 


B G. 

*5. PhraalMy 

6. Mithridftbcftr, 144 

7. Plwaauit Ih 139 

8. Artabanesy IB, 138 

9. Mithridates II, the Oroaty 135 

10. Mnalkires, 86 

11. SinathpoceS) .77 

12. Phraates, III, Vo 

13. Mithridates III, 41 
f4. Orodes, or Yrodes, S3 
t5. Phraates IV, 37 

He reigned till thejovrth 
year of Christ, a. d 

16. Phraatace, less than a 

month, 13 

17. Orodes II, a few months^ 15 
tB. Vonones I, 1 5 

19. Artabanes IIT, . 18 

20. Tiridates, 35 
Artabanes re-established, 36 

2U Cinnane, a few days, 

Artabanes, re-estabfishedy 

Died, 43 

22. Vardancs, 43 

33. Gotharze, 43 

Vardanes, re-«atabli6hed 43 
Golbarze, re-establishod> 47 

)4. Vonones II, a few months^ 50 

25. Vologcserl, 50 

26. Artabanes IV, 50 

27. Paeorca, ,90 

28. Cosrhoes, 107 

29. Parthatnasparcs, 117 
Cosrhoes re-established, 1 33 

30. Vologescs II, 189 

31. Vologeses III, 214 

32. Artabanes V, 223 

Dethroned by Ar- 

taxerxes, 226 

Died in, 229 


1. Artaxerxes, 225 

2. Sapor I, 238 

3. Hormisdas I, 269 

4. Vararanes I, or Bohrani, 272 

5. Vararanes II, 279 

6. Narsesy 294 

7. Hormisdas 11, 303 

A. 9* 

8. Sapor II, 3t4 

9. Artaxerxes II, 9M 
ICh Sapor III, M4 
n. Varannes^rif, 3M 

12. Jesdegirdes I, ^^ 

13. Vararanes IV, 4i*d 

14. Jesdegirdes ft, 44^ 

15. Prozes, 45^ 

1 6. Baktseesv or Obafe»^ 4S§ 

17. Cavades, or Robad^ 499 

18. Cosrhoes the Great, 5^^ 

19. Hormisdas III. 579 

20. Cosrhoes II, 590 

21. Siroes, 8 months, 628 

22. Ardeser, 7 months, ' 629 

23. Sarbazas, 2 months, 629 

24. Jourandakht, 16 months, 630 

25. Jesdegirdes III, la^t king, 633 


1. Tamerlane, 1396 
His descendants were ex« 


2. Usum Cassan, in 14'67 
1. Jacub, 147a 

4. Jalaver, 1485 

5. Baysancor, 1488 

6. Rustan, 1490 

7. Achmed, osarper. 1497 

8. Alvarid, 1497 

1. Ismael I, 1499 

2. Thamas I, 1 523 

3. Ismael 11,^ 1579 

4. Mahommed Hodabende^ 1585 

5. Hamzed, 15^5 

6. Ismael III, 1586 

7. Abbas the Great, . 1628 
:8. Mirza, 1642 
,9. Abbas II. 1666 

10. Soliman, 1794 

11. Hussein, 1721 

12. Mahmound, 1725 
il3.A»talF, usurper, , 1730 

14. Thamas II, deposed, 1732 

15. Mirza Abbaa, 17'36 

16. Nadir Shaw, 173$ 
Assassinated i» 1 747 




». c. 

. thmmencing at the MtMHemth 

U Sesostris, or RaioeMefl, 17^ 

3«. Rhamses, 1663 

a Amenophis III, 1597 

4. Amenophis IV, 4590 

5w Ramesscs, I55B 

#. AmmenemeS) f499 

Y. Thuoris, U72 

a. Kichepsos, 1455 

ft. PsunmathiSt 4436 

U). UnknowQ* i4S3 

|l. Certos, 1419 

j^3. Rliampses^ )399 

13. AnieoseS) 1354 

U. Ochiras, 1324 

15. Amedest 1314 

16. Thuoris, or Polibus, l?87 

17. Athotis, or Phusannusy 1237 
IB. Ccnsenes, 1209 
19. Vcnncphcs, il80 
90. Smedes, 1138 
31. Psusennesy 1112 
92. Nephelcheres, 1066 
23, Osochor, 1062 
S4. Amenophis, 1053 
is. Pinaches, 1047 
26- Suscncs, 10^8 

27. Sesonchis, or SfaUhacki 1006 

28. Osoroth, 973 

29. 1 

30. V Unknown, 956 

31. J 

32. TacelUtis, 933 

33. 1 

34. y Unknown, 920 

35. J 

36. Petubates, 836 

37. Osorcho, 828 
38 Psammus, 817 

39. Zeth, 8fr 

40. Bochoris, 786 

41 Sebason 1, 742 

42 Suechus, 730 

43. Tharaca, 718 

44. SabasonII> 698 

45. Sethon, 692 


46. PsammetiGU«y . 170 

47. Necho, 116 

48. Psammuthis, 600 

49. Apries, or Ephruei , 594 
sa Perrhamifi, 575 
51. Amasis, 569 
524 Psammenitet, 586 

53. CambyBC^^-^onquered 

54. Smerdis, the Magiaa, . 523 

55. Darius Hystwpesy 529 

56. Xerxes I, the Great* 48$ 

57. Artaxerxc« JUDi^gunwMlSy 46S 

58. Xerxes II, 424 

59. Sogdi^ums, 434 

60. Ochus, 424 

61. Amyrtbeus, 413 

62. Nephorites I, 407 

63. Achpria, 189 
64 Psammuthis, 376 

65. Nephorites 11^ 375 

66. Nectarobe I, " 375 

67. Tachos, 36a 

68. Nectambell* 163 

69. Artaxerxes Ochu4» 350 

70. Arses, or Arsam<es, 339 

71. Darius CodomanniM, 336 

72. Alexander the Grea;^ SS2 

73. Ptolemcus Soter, 322 

74. Ptolemeua PhiladelphiU}, 285 

75. Ptolemeua £uergetes, 246 

76. Ptolemeus Philopater, 221 

77. Ptolemeus Epiphanes, 204 

78. Ptolemeus Pbilometor, 180 

79. Ptolemeus Euergetes 11, 146 

80. Ptolemeus Soter II, 116 

81. Ptolemeus Alexander, 106 

82. Berenice, or Cleopatra, 88 

Berenice and Alexander, 80 

83. Ptolemeus Dionysius, or 

Auletes, 73* 

84. Ptolemeus Dionysius and 

Cleopatra his sister, 51 

85. Ptolemeus the Younger 

and Cleopatra, 4f 

Cleopatra, ' 44 
^g^TPt became a ^onuui p ro- 

vmce> 30 



B. C 



^ I. Seleucus Nicator, 312 

2. Antiochus I, Soter, 282 

3. Antiochus IT, Deus, 262 

4. Seleucus II, Cailincius, 247 

5. Seleucus III, Ceraunus, 227 

6. Antiochus III, the Great, 224 

7. Seleucus IV, Philopater, 187 
, 8. Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, 176 

9. Antiochus V, Eupator, 164 

10. Demetrius I, Soter, 161 

11. Alexander I, Balas, 151 

12. Demetrius II, Nicator, 146 

13. Antiochus VI, Balas, 145 

14. Diodotus, or Tryphonus, 143 

15. Antiochus VII, Sidetes, 139 
Demetrius II, Nicator, re- 
established, 131 

15. Alexander il, Zebina, 129 

17 Seleucus V, 127 

* 18. Antiochus VIII, Gripus, 126 

19. Antiochus IX, Cyzicenus 114 

20. Seleucus VI, Gripus, 97 
SI Atiiiochus X, Cyzicenus, 95 
S2. Antiochus XI, 94 
23. Demetrius III, with Anti- 
ochus XI, 93 

34. Tygranes, king of Ar- 
menia, 84 
25. Antiochus XII, the Asiatic, 69 
Syria became a Roman pro- 
rince^ 63 



1. Janus, 1389 

2. Saturn, 1353 

3. Picus, or Jupiter, 1320 

4. Fauuus, or Mercury, ^ 1283 

5. Latinus, 1239 

6. ^neas the Trojan, 1204 

7. Ascanius, or Julius, 1197 
$. Silvius Posthumus, 1159 
9. iEneas Silvius, 1130 

10. Latinus Silvius, 1099 

IL Alba Silvius, 1048 

12. Capetes or SUvius Ati&i 1008 

13. Capys, 974 

14. Calpetus, 946 
16. Tiberinus 911 

16. Agrippa, '9%S 

17. Alladius, 834 
18* Aventinufl, 864 

19. Procas, B%7 

20. Numitor, 800 
21/ Amulius, dethroned- Na« 

roifor, 799 

Numitor, re-established by 

Romalus and Remui, 75$ 


1. Romulus, 753 

Romulus, assassinated in 

the senate, 716 

Interregnum of one year, 716 


2. Numa Pompilius, 

3. TuHus Hostilius, 
Alba destroyed, 

4. Ancus Martins, 

5. Tarquin the Elder, 

6. Servius TuUus, 

7. Tarquin the Proud, 
Last king of the Romans expelled 


1. Julius Caesar, dictator 44 

2. Augustus, 30 

f Birth of Christ J. a. d. . 

3. Tiberius, 17 

4. Caligula, 4 1 * 

5. Claudius, 54 

6. Nero, 68 

7. Galba, 69 

8. Otho, 69 

9. Vitellius, 69 

10. Vespasian^ 79 

11. Titus, 81 

12. Domitian, 96 

13. Nerva, 98 

14. Trajan, 117 

15. Adrian, 139 

1 6. Antonius PiUs, 1 6 1 

17. Marcus Aurelius and 180 


* See Greek empire divided, Vol. U. page 40. 



a'. D* 

18., Lucius Vcrus, ' 180 

^ Mfti^tks Aurelitts al6n«, 
1^. Commodus, 192 

f Decline of the empire}. 

.30. Pertkiaic, . 193 

% I / Julian 66 dafs in 193 

^3. Septim. SeveroK^ 311 

S3* Caracalla and Geta, 217 

84. Macrinu«9 318 

25. HeliqgabftluS) 232 

36. Alex. Severu«» . . 235 

27. MaximiD, 337 
fGordiaa tlie elder 4acll 

28. \ Gordian bia som one V 337 
(, month six days, J 

29. Maximuaand Balbinum 238 
>30. Gordian the younger^ 344 
«i < Philip the eider, and > ^.m 

^ Philip his son^ 5 

33. Decius, 351 
S3. .Hostilianus 252 

34. .GalittSi and Voluaian, his 

son, 253 

35. Emilius, 4 months, 253 

36. Valerian and Gallein, his 

son, 267 

37. Claudius II, and Quinti- 
lian, 17 days, 270 

38. Aurelian, ^ 275 
'^9. Tacitus 6 months, and> ^^. 

40. Florian 3 months, \ 

41. Probus, 276 

42. Carus, 282 
fCarinus and his bro- 

43. «< ther 283 
I^Numerian, ' 285 
fDioclesian and Maxi- 

44. < mian, 285 
\ Hercules, 3€5 

45. Constahtius Chlorus, 306 

46. Galerus, 311 

47. Severus II, 311 

48. Maximinus, 313 

49. Licinius, 523 

50. Constantine, 337 

A. D. 

51. Constantine the YoungeH 340 



53. j and ^ 


53. Julian the Apostate, 

54. Jovian, • * 

(The emtiire divided. )^ 


1. Valentinian I. - 364 

2. Gratian 8c V^dentinian II. 377 

3. Theodosius the Great, 

and Gratian, ' Up 

4. Arcadius, ' 38^3 

5. Honorius, •' • ' 395 
Alaric takes Rome, 409 

6. Constantius, 7 months, 42.3 

7. Jovian in Britain and Gaul, ' 

8. Heractius in .Africa, 

9. Attila in Rome, 

10. Valentinian III, 424 

1. Petronius Maximus, 455 

2. Avitus, a few months, ' 455 
Interregnum, 457 

3. Majorian, 459 

4. Severus, 461 
Interregnum, • 467 

5. Anthemius, ' 467 

6. Olybius, 7 months 472 
Interregnum 4T3 

7. Glycerins, 473 

8. Julius Nepos, 4f 4 

9. Augustulus,* 475 


1. Odoacer reigned in 

2. Theodoric, 

3. Alaric, 

4. TheodatuS) ^ 

5. Vigites, 

6. Theodebald, 

7. Araric, 

8. totila, 

9. Tejas, the last king, 
Narses governor. 


1. Valens, 







* The recognized term ofumient hratory, thoagh .the foregoing airrative is ex- 

^ded a little below this date. 









4S»tijiPi .?70 

Theodositts ti^ fjffi^ . 38^ 
Arcadius, .^5 

Theodosius XL tj|p^^ Yo^ii- 






Leo I. 

L<;o j[l. ]tbe youDgex") 


Anastasius X, 
Justin I9 
Justinian I, 
Justin II| 




Heraclius Copsta^jbioC) .^ 

He^Udims, 7 q^oar^fy 

Tiberias, a fe^r (ff^y^y 


Maurice and Gr^goryi . * 

Consuntine Ppgpqaty . 

Justini^p I). 


Absimare Tibefiupi 

Philip fiard^usy 

Anastatius IL 

Theodpsius III| 

I^eo III, the Isauriepi 

Constantine IV| 

Artabasde, T 

Kicephorus, >^^$ume^. 

Nicetas, J 

Leo IV, Chazau, 
C Constantine V» 
\ And' Irene, empress 

Irene alone 


Staurace, 2 months, 

Michael 1, 1 uropolate) 

Leo V, the Armenian, 

Michael II, Stammerer, 


Michael (11, 

























Baul I, ^^ 

L^ Vhi?^P Pbi^PW^bfi^ 911 

Alexander, 9p 

Pons^ntine y\%\ 
Roman I, (between, 

Christopher, 4 9 16 It 94ft 
Stephen, \ 

Constanttne aloae^ £r|im 

94#t* MO 

Roman II, SA0 

Nicephoras Fhbcti, \ 960 
John Zem^stts, 9f6 

Basil II, 1096 

Constantine Vil» . |OdS 

^Imnan HI, . i0d4 

filichaeHV, 4041 

Michael V, . 104ft 

Zoa ai^ Theodo«a, 104ft 
Constandne VIII, \ 10^ 
Theodoi» restorpd,, 1056 

Michael VI, lOif 

Isaac Comnennss 106t 

Consuntine X, Duc»», lOftf 
r Constantine Ducas,! 
< and Michael Ah* \ 106ft 
I dronicus Dttca*, J ' 
Roman Diogenes, >:1071 

Michael Aniipanicus Dn* 

cas, 1078 

Nicephor Botopiats, lOftl 
Alexis Comncnnea^ . 1 1 Ift 
Jqihn Comnenncs, i 14S 

Manuel Comnenniis^ 1180 
Alexis Comnennes, llftd 

Andpon. Comnennei, 1 1 8i5 
Isaac L'Ange, 11 84 

Alexis L'Ang^ Comnen. 1 203 
Alexis Ducas Murtxttfle^ }204 



1. Mahomet from 6^2 to 6S8 

2. Aboubekir, 6^9 

3. Omar, 6S4 

4. Othman, 644 

5. Moavia, in Egypt. 650 

6. Ali, in Arabia^ * 661 

7. ifos«», 660 


8: Moavft, akmy 

m Yesidlj ^ 
l€)t Moavia II9 
II* Mirvan ly 
19. AbdomaleCi' 
♦S; Yalidf 
14'. Solymafry 
15. dn^ar li^ 
f »1 Yesid II, 
t7t Meschani) 
18; YalidHf 
19; Yesid III, 
BO: Ibrahim^ 
91. 'MiTiran My 
^8. Aborel Abbsf,^ 
#3. Abougiafai Almansor^ 
M. MotiantiMl^ Mahadi^ 
M. Hadi, 

d8. Haroun Alraschk)^ 
37. Amir,' 
98; MafHMiQity 
0$. Motassem, 
dO: ValekBtUah, 
9t, MolaVakel, 
89. Mo6t8f»^r, ' 
SB. Mol^taiti Bmah)' 
M. Motazv 
35. Mot»«dl BiUaUy 
^8. Motamed Billah, 
5^. Motheldcftl Biltah, : 
i^. Moctafr' Bilittb, 
j^. Moctado^ '^Itih , 
4o, Kaher, 
4^. Rhadi, 
42. Motak^y 
4^. Mostafefi, 
44. Mdtltii 
^^. Thai, 

46. Kader, 

47. Kaieifi Batar Ulah> 
46. Moctadi Bamrillah, 
49; Mostliadhfea, 

fK>. Mostarched, 
^1. Raschid, 
S&i Moctaii II, 
SSi MofttaAg^d, 
M> Mostadi, 
55 Nas&er, 
J90. Daher, 

A. D. 


* 861 

' 866 






























Charlemagne, 800 

Louis le Deboonairti 814 

Lothaire I, . 840 

]Louis II, 85S 

Charles the l^ald, 87i 

Interregnum 3 years. .^ 

Charles the GrosS) 888 

Guy, 899 

Arnold,. 912 
fierenger and Lambert^. 918 

Louis III, 936 

Conrad h 97i 

Henry rOisileur, 983 

Otho the Great', 1002 

OthoIL 1024 

Otho III, 1039 

Hertry PI, 1056 

Cohr&d ir, 1 106 

Henry III, llis 

Henry IV, 1137 

Henry V, 1152 

Lothaire Hi il9D 

Conrad III, 1 197 

Frederic I, Barbarbssa,^ f 198 

Henry VI, 1 1 99 

Otho IV, 1218 

Frederic II, ^ ! 1250 

Conrad IV, 1254 

William, 12^:6 

Interregnum until 1273 
29. Rodolph of.HapsBourg,* 1273 










30. Ad^phus' of Nassau, 

31. Albert of Austria, 

32. Henry VII, 
Frederick, in 

33. Louis of Bavaria, 

34. Charles IV, 

35. Wincebiaus, 

Deposed In 
3©: Robert, Palatine of the 

3T. Josse of Moravia 
38. Sigismund of Luxem* 

1 293 




$9. Albcin II, of AjMnth 


40. Frederic II, 


41. Maximiliaa I, 


42. Charles V, 


43. FerdthVind I; 


44. Maxiinilian II, 


is. Rodolph II, 


46. Maitn&s, 


47. Ferdinand II, 


48. Ferdinand III, 


49. Leopold I, 


50. Joseph I, 


51. Charles VI, 


52. Charles VII, 


53. Francis I, duke of Lou- 




54. Joseph II, 


55. Leopold II, 


56. Francis II, 







, L MerovinianJidc€* 

, 1. I^haramond, '. , 


' ^» Clodlo, died in 


.3. Merotius, ditto, • 


4. Clovis I, ditto, 


> S, Childeric I, 


r Thierry,' 


ifk } Clodomir, 
^' 1 Childebert, 



L Clothaire I, 




- 1 Gontran, 
^' ) Chilperic, 



' Sigebert, 


8. Clothaire 11. son of Chil- | 



9. Dagobcrt I, 


io. Clovis II, 


11. Clothaire III, 


J 2 JChiJderic II, 

^ Thierry I, deposed i 


n 670 

13. Clovis III, 


14. Childebert H, 


. 15. Dagobert II, 


' 16. Clothaire IV, 


17. Chilperic 11, 


1^, l^ierry II, 

















Charles Martel, 
Childerie III, 
Pepin, the Short, ' 
Lottift le Debonnaire, 
Charles I, the Bald, 



Louis II, the Stammerer, 877 

Louis III, 879 

Carloman, Wi 

Charles II, tlie GA>88, 884 

Eudes, 888 

Charles III, the Simple, 898 

Deposed, 933 

Robert I, Usurper, 933 

Ralph, 933 

Louis IV, d*Ottt»emer, 936 

Lothaire, 954 

Louis V, «986 

///. Captt^an Bate* 

Hugh Capety Usurper^ 987 

Robert II, 996 

Henry I, 1030 

Philip I, 1060 

Louis VI, the Grass, 1 108 

Louis VII, the Young 1 1 37 

Philip II, Augustus, 1 1 80 
Louis VIU, Coeur de 

Lion, 1333 

Louis IX, St. Louis, 1336 

Philip III, the Bold, 1370 

Philip IV, le Bel, 1385 

Louis X, Uutia, 1314 

John I, 8 days, 1316 

Philip V, the Long, 1316 

Charles IV, le Bel, 1332 

Philip VI, . 1338 

John II, the Good, 1350 

Charles V, the Wise, 1 364 

Charles VI, the Beloved, 138Q 

Charles VII, tlie Victo- 
rious, *433 
Louis XI, U67 
Charles VIII. 1483 
Louis XII,Father of the 
People, 1498 
Francis I, the Gentle- 
man, 1515 


A. D. 

60. I^uiiy n»' ' ^ i. 154r 

6il. Francjis I J, ( 1559 

es. Charles 1X9 theBloody, 1560 

63. fieniy III»^^ 1544 

54* Henry IV, tbeGreati . 1589 

65. Louis XIII, the Just, 1610 

66. L(mis XIV, the Great» 1643 

67. Louis XV, 1715 

68. Louis XVI, I 1774 

Deprived, 1792 

Beheaded, 1793 

FL Ftench RefmNic. 
Directorial Government : 
Rewbel, Barras, JLaVeil* 
liere, Le Pauz, Merlioi 
TreiUar<if Le Toumier, 
Neuschateau, Camot, 
~ . Barthelemi, Siejrea, Du* 

cos, &c. &c. ,&c. 1794 

VII, Conndar Ocvemmenf. 
< 1; Bonaparte 1st ConBtll,^ 

* Cambaceres 2d Con- f .^^^ 
'' sul, Le Brun 3d Con- i 
' sul, J 

VIII. Imfierial Government. 

1. Bonaparte, 1804 



Since the. union of the 
kingdoms of Castile 
and Arragon. 
' C Jane and Philip I, of 
U < Aifiitria, 1 506 

i lane his queen alone, 1506 
 3* Charles I, and V of Ger- 



: 3. Philip Ih 
- 4. Philip III, 

5. Philip IV, 

6. Charles II, 

7. Philip V, 

8. Louis I, 
Philip V, agaih^ 

. 9. Ferdinand VI, 

10. Charles III, 

11. CharlesIV, 














Henry count of Portugal, .1094 
Alphonso Henriques) 1st ' 
king, 1112 

Sanchol, 1185 

Alphonso II, 1211 

Sancho II, 1223 

Alphonso III, 1243 

Denis, the Liberal, 1279 

Alphonso IV, 1325 

Peter, 1357 

Ferdinand, J 367 

Interregnum, 18 months, 138^ 
John I, the Great, 1385 

Edward, 1433 

Alphonso V, the African,1438 
John II, the Perfect, 1487 
Emanuel the Fortunate, 1495 
John III, the Puissant, 
Henry, Cardinal, 
Anthony, titular king. 

PhiuE IV, J ^p*>°» 1 1 

John IV, Braganza, 

Alphonso VI, 

Peter II, 

John V, 


Mary, and Peter, 

Mary alone. 

















1 . Attila, 454 
2.' Stephen, 

3. Peter, 1038 

4. Aba, or OwoQ, 1041 

5. Andrew I, 1047 

6. Bela I, . 1 06 1 

7. Salomon, 1063 

8. Guisa, 1074 

9. Uladislaus 1077 
10. Coleman, 1095 
M. Stephen II, 1114 
12. Bela II, 1131 



« • 


A. D. 





Stephen Illf 



B«ta nr, 






Uracfi«latls IT, 



Andrew II, 



Bela IV, 



Stephen IV, 



Uladislaus III^ 



Andrew III^ 












Louis I, 






Mary aiid Sigiamund^ 



Albert of Austria, 



(Hadislaus (t. 



John Cowini, regent,. 



Uladislaus V,. 



Matthias Cowin^ 



Uladislaul Vl» 



Louis II> 



J^hh Zepolsfei, 





John 2!ep^s]tfi restored^ 



John II, 

For the rest see cm- 
perors of Germany^ 


ezARs OR KMneKdR» or iitr^^. 
I.- 1 wan or JohnLVr B.aai- 
lowitx, 1536 

2. Taedor, or Theodore, 1584 

3. Boris Godounouvi, 1598 
4* Demetrius, Usurper, 1605 
5. Bazil Schuiski, deposed, 1 606 
6< Uladislaus, prince of Po- 
land, 1 600 

7. Michael Faedorowitz, 1613 

8. Alexis MichaelowitB, 1645 
V. Taedor Alexiowitz, 

10. Peter Alexiowitz, the 

Great, and Iwan V, 
n. Peter I, the Great, alone,1696 
12/ Catherine I, 1725 

13^ Pet»r II, Aleitiowice, 1727 
14. Anne Ivanoyna> 1730 



' A. D. 

I K Iwan, or John VI^- - ' J 1 7^ 

t^ Elicabeth PetroVnttV 17^ 

tr» Pel«rlll, 1^01 
itw Catherine II, tAiOrWd^ 17«l 

19. PftQll^ . 1796 

20» AleiMttiet* ly \Wi 


KUiOS OV %h4^vIV. 

f . Egbert, 1 st nk>tiflti<t1i^ ^ 827 

2. £thei#oIfe dnd Efhiflstai 854 

3. EthebaM and l£tfthelBer(, Mf 

4. Etftfeftoen akffiie, * 860 

5. Ethelred I, 866 

6. Alft<ed tjbe fJ^ft^f 871 

7. Edward I, of Ave £!d^,< 9(H 

8. AthteietAn^ SS5 

9. Edmund I, ' 941 
10. £dre4f 946 

12. Edgar the Peaceabter 959 

13. Edward II, ibhe MuAy^y 975 

14. Ethelred II, dethroned^ 978 

1 5. Sweyn king of Denmark, 10 3 

Ethelred again, 1014 

16. Edmond II, Ironside, 10 1 6 

17. Canute king of Denmark, 1 017 

18. Haratd T, 1033 

19. Hardi Cantite !I, 1039 

20. Edward III, CoHfessof, 1041 

2 1 . Harold ih 9 nlonthS) 1066 


22. WilTiarn I, Conqnerbr,- 1066 

23. WilHam Ilf R^fiis, 101^7 
24; Henry I, Beauclerc, i lOO 

25. Stephen, 1135' 

Dethroned, lUl 

26. Matilda, or Maud) 1141 

Stephen again, ' 1142 

t, The House qf Plantagenet^ 
or jinjou, 

27. Henry II, Plantagenet, 1 154 

28. Richard I, Cceur de Lion, 1 189 

29. John, 1199 
130. Henry III, 1216 


31. Edward l; 1272 

32 EdwawiH, _ 1307 

3S. Ldward III, 1326 

34. Richard II, 1377 
. //. Hou^e qfLancaatCTf eaikd 

the Red. Roae. 

35. Henry IV, Bolingbrokc, 1399 

36. Henry V, 1412 

37. Henry VI, 1422 
///. Hijme of Tf^rkj calkd the 

fVhiU ^oae. 

3». Edward IV, 1*60 

^9* Edward V, 1*83 

4a. Richard UI, 1^53 

Union of the two houses 

of York and Lancaster. 

IF. H<m9e of Tud^r. 

Ah Henry VII, Tudor, 
aS3.. Henry VIII, 
43. Edward VI, the Pius, 
.44. Mary I, the Bloodf , 
45. Elizabeth, 



A* 0« 

r. The house of Stemfr$» 
46 James I, Stews^, 
47. Charles I, 

Commonwealth from 

1648 to 1653 

Oliver Cromwell, Pro- 

r tector, 1653 

R. Cromw^i, Protector, 

in 1659 and 1660 

4ft. Charles II, . 1660 

49. James II, , 1685 

Abdicated, 1 688* 


50. Mary II, 8c William III, 1688 

51. Anne daughter of : 

James II, . < 1703 

VL House o/ Hknovcvy Mruns" 
. wick, or Gue(f» 

52. George I,Quel^ 1714 

53. George 11, 172r 
54^ George ill, 1760 


.. i '. 






Illustrated by appropriate engravings, calculated for the first 
impressions of that Fabulous Creation of idolatrous and poetic 
fancy, and purified to the taste of the fairest reader—- is ready 
for the press, and will be speedily published for the author. 

R. M. 

Philadelphia^ November 12thj 181^. 

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book is under no oirdumstanoes to be t.^ 
teken from the Building 

ij form 410 





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