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A VIEW "'/^ 

SOaETY AMD MANNERS 



FRANCE, SFTITZERLAND 

Ant 

GERMANY: 

WITB 

A19ECD0TES RELATING TO SOUS EMINEKT 
CHAKAGTEAS. 

By JOHN MOORE, M.D. 
IN TWO YOLUIIES. 

VOL. L 

Strentia Boa cxerctt intrtia : navibiu atqnt 
QaadjrifMpt^nmibeaaTiTCTe. Qoodl petit, liic est. 

Hob. 



LONDON:. 



Printed for A. SnuRAx end T CA3>xn- 
i8o3. 



4 ADVERTISEMENT, 

fituation in the two firft letters gave 
an air of fiftion to the real incidents 
in the reft of the work, he has now 
reftored thole two letters to thf ir pri? 
ginal form. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The late Revolution in France hat 
been coniidered as a proof, that an 
erroneous idea of the(entimencs of the 
French nation on the fubjcft of Qo^ 
vernment, is conveyed in this work. 

It oug^t to be remembered, howe* 
ver, that the Firft EUiition appeared in 
the year 1 779* between which and the 
year of the Revolution, i jSg^ there is 
as long an interval as that in uhich 
nations of a more fteady character than 
the French, have changed thctr poli- 
tical fentiments aod condud. ^ 

A traveller who pafied through En- 
gland in the year 1 649, would give a 
very diflFcrcnt accbutit erf the general 
bias of political opinion, from what 
would be given by another who lived 
in the lame country at the year of tlx 



TX ADTEKTISEMENT* 

Reftoration ; and yet both accounts 
might be juft. 

What a very oppofite turn did the 
national fentimcnt on the fubjeft ©f 
Government again take towards the 
end of the reign of Charles the Second^ 
yrhcn Ruffel and Sidney fufFered ; and 
afterward, when the feeds o£ liberty, 
which thofe patriots had fawn, came to 
maturity, and produced the Revoludoiv, 
Opinions, as well as manners, arc con- 
tinually varying; all that an obferver 
can do, is to catch them living as they 
ri/e^ anddefcribe them as they are ; not 
' as they will be when they alter, or die. 
Thofe who are acquainted with what 
the prevalent manners and opinions of 
the French were, when thefe Letters 
firft appeared, will perhaps do the Au- 
thor the juftice to fay, the view he has 
given fs pretty accurate. 

But France had not. then formed an 



ADY^ILTI8B3ll£KT. Ttf 

alliance with America i French anniet 
and fleets, fraught with American opi* 
nions, and zealous to diffufe them, had 
not returned to their native country ; 
nor did the Author forefee their in« 
fluence, when ftrengtfaened by thofe 
writings on Government, which iflbed 
froth the French prefs about the fame 
time, with a ireedom unknown before. 
Although he could noc forefee thoic 
combined caufes, nor their effe£t$, yet 
no man. would have had more iatif- 
£iAion in a view of the defbrudton of 
defpotifm in France, and in the hope 
that a fair and rational fyftem of free* 
dom would be eftabliflied in a country 
fo rich in tafle, fo ferdle in fancy, and 
which had fo long fuffered from the 
complicated oppreffions of its' govern- 
ment. This fentiment, it is natural to 
thinks he has in common with thofe 



tiii ADVERTISEAfETStv 

liberal - minded inhabitants of this 
ifland^ who have a juft feofe of th« 
blcfling <^ a fuee governmi^nt ; a blef- 
£ng wrefted, by the pcrfevcring efforts 
©f ' theit anceftors, from the rekwft^nt 
hands of tyranny. 

That to rejoice in the overthrow of a 
ncighbduring ftryfturc of defpotifm, 
implies in Britiih fubje&s a wiih tp in- 
jure that welUpoifed fabric of freedom, 
Eaifed by the wiCdom and cemented by 
the blood ctf their anceftors, is an idea 
which can arife only in the brain of 
ideotifm, and be only promulgated by 
the tongue of inalevoienee. 

With regard to thofe fcenes of in- 
juftioe, horror, and barbarity, that have 
of late been afted in France, and which 
difgrate the name of freedom, and re- 
volt the heart of humanity, it is hoped 
there is but one fentiment in Britain and 
Ireland. » 



TO HIS GRACE 

DOUGLAS, 

Duhe ofHjMiLTON and BuANVOVa 
Marquis of DoUGLJSj etc. 



MY LORDBUXE, 

might, QQ. lius occafion^ juflify my 
hokltiig a Jwgpage Ko your Grace 
•which i never ibefiuie ufod, jet you 
have inothing cf that Idod m fear ; it 
is as iaconfiftent orith my idi^oihion 
to offer ^ulation^ as k is cpoirary to 
yours to defire it. — Nor does this ad- 
drefs proceed from a vain belief that 
the luAre o( your name will difpofe 



% vEmcxnaSs 

tne Public to wink at the blemifhes 
of my performance. The higheft titles 
do not fcre'en even thole to whom 
they belong from contempt, when their 
p«:fonal charafters are contemptrbk ; 
far left can they (helter the dulnefs or 
folly of others. 

I am prompted to offer this View of 
Society and Manners to your Grace, 
by fentiments of the moft fincere efteem 
and attachment ; and, exclufivc of all 
confiderations of that nature,, it is pre- 
fented with peculiar propriety to you, 
as no other perfon has had equal op- 
portunities of knowing how far the 
. objefts it comprehends are juft, and 
faithfully drawn from nature. 

Some perhaps may imagine, that I 
flipuld have difplayed more prudence 



DEDICATION. XI 

in offering this work to a lefs competent 
judge ; but I am encouraged in my 
delire of prefixing your Name to 
thefe imperfca fketches, by the fond 
perfuaiion, that nobody can be more 
inclined to afibrd them the indulgence 
of which I am (enfible they (land in fo 
much need. 

I have the honour to be, with the 
moft refpe£lful and cordial regard, 

YOUR GRACE'S 

Moft obedient, and 

obliged Servant, 

THE AUTHOR- 



CONTENTS 



or 



THE FIRST VOLUME. 



LETTER r. p. 1. 

, LETTER H. p. 9. 

JL LAN of conduct ti^hile abroad^-^-Agree 
to correspond by letter. — Servants. — 
Masters, 

LETTER in. p. i4. 



LETTER IV. p. 2u 

Frtnch manners, 

LETTER V. p. vf. 

Park* — London, — French opinions, "-^Mar^. 
quis de F and Lord M 

LETTER VL p. 3i| 

Loyalty /English^ GermanjTurhhhjFrenqh^ 
— Zr^ Roi, — Princes of the blood, '•^Idea^ 
of government • 

LETTER Vn. p. 4o. 

Sentiments of Frenchmen concerning the 
British constitution. 

LETTER Vm. p. 45, 

JPreTifih Kings have peculiar reasons to 
' Uve their wbjects^'^The three sons of 



Catherine of Medicie^ — Henry IV. — 
Natural effects of exertion ani of sloth 
on the body, understandingj heart. 

LETTER IX. p. 5%. 

^Jt French lover ^ 

LETTER X. p. Sj. 

Groundless accusational •— Friendehip^^^ 
English travellers. 

LETTER XL p. ff4. 

^English prejudices. — CJonversation ftnth Mr, 

S ' ' ' ' , — • Reflections. 

LETTER Xn. p. 7a. 

Tragedy of Siege of CkUais.^^Bon mo^ of 
Due d'Jlyen. — Russia. — Prussia.*^ — 
France.— Statue of Lends XF* -* Spi- 
grams. 



LETTER Xni p. 80. 

Chevalier B — ' — and his lady , -^Madame 
de M ■ ■ > her chfiracterj her npisfortune. 

LETTER XIV. p. ?;• 

Condition of the common people in France, 
— ^ Unwillingness to censure the King. -— 
French parliaments. --■^Lawyers indiscri" 
minately ridieided on the Jh'vnck stage* 
'■^Opposition in EngUmd. \ 

LETyEH Xy. p. ^ 

JMbois 4tnd Fanehon* 

LETTER Xyi. p. idf. 

Mankind do not always act from mx)tiues 
^ self mtere%tf*^A fine gfnilema^ <xijd a 
pihe^apple. -^* Supper tut the Mar^tis de 
^— t'«. ,:— Generosity ef Mr, ^B-*-^. 
*^Men fvho calculate. — Men who do nfiir 



^ liETTEa xrn. p. hg. 

•I>ifferefU taste ofPreMAshand ^mgUah wUb 
respect to tragedy. — Le Kain,~-r Garnet. 
-—French comedy. — ComedU ItalieniUj 
CarUn,r^IlepQ^§ie of Le Kain. 

LETTER XVm. p. lag, 

Plecisurfi and* bufin^ss. -^l^ons,^^ Geneva 

L1E.TTEB. XIX. p. i33. 

Situation of Geneva. -^i^M^inners,^^ Gopem- 
ment, — JTt^ clergy.^ — Peculiar cu^tonM*--- 
Circles. — AmusenterUs, 

LETTER XX p. i43. 

English families at Cologny. — I^Jour cj? 
P Escalade. — Military establishment,-^^ 
Political squabbles. — Sentiments of an 
Englishman, — Of a geitleman of Qe-, 
neva. 



xyiii ccmnsm. 

LETTER XXI. p. i5u 

Xing of ArquebusioTM.^'^A Procession, ^^^Jt 
JBtUOe. 

LETTER XXn. p. iSg. 

Ji# Feasi. 

LETTER X?UU. p. i65. 

T?ie garrison imd fortificeUions of Geneva 
not . useless, — Standing armies in other 
countries, — The freedom and indepen-' 
dunce of Geneva of service to the King 
of Sardinia, 

LETTER XXIV. p. 170. 

Journey to the Glaciers of Savoy, — Mole,^^ 
Cluse, — The Rhone and the Arve, — Sal^ 
lenche, — Mules, — ji church, — Conversa^ 
tion with a young peasant in the vmHe^ 
sf Chamouni, 



LETTTER XXV. p. iSi. 

JWontanv&re^'^The Chamois. ^^3founi Bf9* 
ven. — Mont Blanc^The NsedUi. — TAs 
Falkfjr of Ice.-^jivalancht. 

LETTER XXVI. p. 19S. 
Account of GktcierA coniirmedj'^'Ih§orU$* 

LETTER XXVn. p. aoo. 

Ideots,'^The s^ntimmitt of an old Soklisr. 
'^-Guatres.-'-' Journey from Ckamouni to 
the Pays de Fallaie. — Martignj.-^Sion. 

LETTER XXVm. p. aio. 

Xoad to St. Maurice, •— Meflections on the 
fituation of the Pays de VaUais, — Bex. 
*^Aigle. — St. '<xiHgo. — MeiUerie. -— 
Evian. — Bepaille^ 



J.ETTEII XXIX. p. 2?i2, 
Voltaire* 

LETTER XXX. p. !?35. 
Voltaire. 

LETTER XXXL p. 244; 

The education proper for an English gen^^ 
tleman, . 

LETTER XXXIL p. vt57. 

Suicide frequent at Genei^a. — TU^oremarB^ 
able instances, 

LETTER XXXIIL p. a64. 

The Pays de Vaud,'^LaiManne.^^Fev^^ 
"^Ludlopi^^ 



LEtTEH XXXIV, p. aya. 
J^Turc^'-^SfPiss peasants. 

LETTER XXXV. p. ujS. 

LETTER XXXVI. p. 2S7. 
MeHgion, — G^^'ernmefH, — Troops* 

LETTER XXXVIJ. p. 295. 

ISokurre^-^BasiL-r:^ Judicious remark onth9 
use of language, by a Dutchman* 

LETTEJl XXXYltt. p. 3<k). 

Manner. -^ Tt^sfl-^cHom onfdrntaiity. — TAS 
Uhrdrj . — titfibens . — jiHenaL — "Counoil' 
JmlL — The clock in the Tott^et.^-^Jt hettd. 



Sjdl <JOKTKNTJ* 

LJETTER XXXIX. p. Sog. 

Marechal Contades^-^ Theatre, ^^French 
troops. 

LETTER XL. p. 3i5. 

Gothic architecture. — '- Cathedral of Stras^ 
hourg, — A 8ermon,-^A Jewish plot. 

LETTER XLL p. SiiJ. 

KarlscnUch^^-^The Margave of Baden Dur^ 
lach. 

LETTER XLH.p. 55ii. 

Mfanheim.-^The Elector, — The Court, — A 
buffoon, 

LETTER XLin. p. 357. 

Heidelberg, — The same church for the Pro^ 
testant and Roman Catholic worship,'^ 
Parade devotion^ 



LETTER XLIY. p. 34^ 

IteflectUmM 0n the liberty of llh€ preee, — « 
ComparUons of inconvenienciee arising 
from tJuH cause, urith those fell under 
despotic restraint, 

LETTER XLV. p. 54/. 
MentB. 

LETTER XLVI. p. J5i. 

JTranlfort. — laUJierans unbind to Calviniste* 
•^Psalmody, — Burials. — Jenfs. 

LETTER XLVn. p. 36i. 

Manners. '^Distinction of ranks, —Thetitncal 
entertainments, ^^The German language. 
^^Traineaus* 



LETTE3EI XLVUI. f. 371. 

IfohiUiy and cUi%em,-^TJie revenge of a 
TohaccQriiat.—The Jkld of Bergen. 

LETTER XLIX. p. 579. 

^ke Prince ef Hem^ Dcarmstadt. -^Dhci^ 
f line, ^^'Phe family of Prince peprge, 



A VIEW 



VIEW 



SJOCIETY AND MANNBlty^ 



LETTEH I 

Farit. 

1 WAS gr«ardjr di&ppotnted by your not 
commgto town^asryou intendeidf having.becn 
for feme time impatient to inform yoa of 
vrhat pafled between your youtig frieod -«« 
and me ; I relied till the moment of our de« 
parture on having an opj^onunity of doing. 
thi&perfonaUyv Since oar arrWar at Fim 
my time has bi^n takett vrp with ceriaia iom 
difpeniable arraagetnents bv the Duke o£t 
llamHtoq, and X 99W ft^M: tbci fir& oecft* 



9 ^ngw 09 aocterr Jam 

fion of communicating the whole to yoir, 
in the only manner at prefent in my power. 
You will remember the uneaiinefs yoa 
once expreflcJ to me on account of that 
gentleman*s propenGty to gammg, and of 
Uie inconveniencies to which he had been 
put by fome recent lofles ; you will alfo re^' 
mjsnber the refolutions whidh, in confe- 
^uence of your requeft, he formed againft 
play ; but you have yet to learn, that he re* 
fumed the dice before the month was ended 
in which he )iad determined never to touch 
them morCi and concluded one unfortu- 
nate night, by throwing away a fum fikf 
ebcceeding any of his former lofles. 

' Afbamed of his weakncfs, he carefully 
crocked his misfortune from you/ and 
thereby has been fubjected to fome diftref- 
fes of a more mortifying nature than any 
he had formerly felt. 

^ What fhocked him moft, was a circumw 
ftance which will not greatly aftonifh you 
— r the indifference which man^» who call 
thimielves his friends /hewed at his (itua^ 



^(m, and the colchi^ with which they ex« 
Cttfed thetafelvcs fVMi kni^ikihg any attempts 
to TeKeve him frem' hit diffictiltiei. Seve- 
ral to whom he had advanc^ confiderable 
fmits in the cbys of his gi^od feitane, de^' 
Glared a pei€cct ifiability of relaying an^ 
part of their debt.; they told fome fad tale 
of an nnfordeea aoeident, which had put 
that eiitnely out of their power for the pre- 
lent ; yet one xX tbefe tinforttxnate gentle- 
men^ the fame evening that he refufed to 
repay our friend, loft double the fum, 
every farthing of "which be actuafiy paid in 
re^dy money. 

Mr. — *s expedations from thofe re- 
foarces having m a great mealure failed, he 
applied to Mr. P — in the City, whofupplicd 
htxn with money ac 1^1 intereft, fufficient 
to clear all his^debts^ for which he has gran- 
ted him a mortgage on his efiate. -^ While 
our young friend Informed me of all^ this,' 
he declariedi that the remorfe he felt on the 
recollection of his folly was infinitely 
greater thiitt any pterfure fa§ had ever expo^' 



4r' rvKff or societt iim 

rienc^d fieim the utmoft fucpcCi, He eir- 
prefled, at the fame %\met^ a ftrong fehfe of 
ol4igation t» yoii and' tci me, for our en- 
deavours to wean hicn from the babk of 
gaining, legretted that they ]lad not been 
fqoner fucce^ul, hut was hapi>y ta fiod* 
that he ftill had enough left, to enable hioi 
to live in a decent maoaer» agreabie lo a 
plan of cecqnomy which he has laid down, 
;ind to which he is irefolved to adhere till the 
mortgage is relieved, ♦* | hav^ now (added 
be in a.fplemn manner) formed an lUtimato 
refoiution againd gaqpiii]ig foi? the reft of mf 
life ; if I ever deviate from this, you have a 
yigbt tocoQfider me aa devoid of manly 
firip[ine&a«dtnjth, vmwQitby of your friends* 
^ip, and the wcal^eft of npyortals..'* 

Noevfithftanding the;y<)ung gentleman**' 
feijure 00 a* former occa£on, yet the j^ft 
iefle<£tions he made on his pad condu£^» dit^ 
the determined manner in; wlijch he fpokcj^ 
give me great hopes that he will keep hia 
prcfent'refolution.*-7 To him I feemed fuU 
\j peffudded of this, and^ T6Atai;e4 to %, 



tkat 1 could fcarcely regitt his laft ran of 

bad lack, \thich had operated (b bkflEsd ait 

c^ct ; for he who has the vig5or to difen* 

tangle himfelf frotn t)»s fnares of deep play, 

^ at the expence of half his fbrtutie, and mth 

his chara^er entire, may on the whole be 

edcemcd a fortunate man^ I dierefote it»* 

fifted ftrongly on the wifdom of his plain 

which I contrafied with the tifual determi- 

tiation of thofe who have been unlucky ait 

play. Without fortitude to retrench their 

eitpenceji, or bear their firft misfortunes^ 

they can only bring ihemfeWcs the length 

of refolding to renounce gaming 4itfimm tbff 

JhM regmntohat tbty baveh/l\ and imagining 

they have Aill a claim to the money whkh 

is now in the pockets of others, becaufe it 

was once in their own, they throw away 

their whole forhine in fearch of an inconfi^ 

derable part, and finiih by being ooit^pleteiy 

ruined, becaufe they couid not fuppiort a 

fmall inconvenience. I pointed oat, how 

infinitely more honourable it was to depend 

for repairing his fortune on his own good 



fenfe and perfeveraDCCy than on the reYohr- 
tion$ of chance ^ which, even if they fiiould 
be favourable, could only re-e(bblifh him at 
the expence of others, mod probably of 
thofe who had no. hand in occafioning ^hit 
lofles. His infeparable companion — ? — 
entered while I was in the middle of my 
Jharangue. Our friend, who had previou%:. 
4icquainted hira with his deteriiaination. of^ 
.renouncing gaming, endeavoured to prevail 
on that gentleman to adopt the fame mea- 
fore, but in vain. — "—laughed at his. pro^. 
j>ofal, ikidy ^' he was too eafily terrified; 
Aat one tolerable run of good fortune would 
letrieve his agairs ; that my fears about ruin . 
.were mere bugbears; that the word ruin^ 
:like cannon charged with powder, had an 
alarming found, but was attended with no 
danger ; that if the worft fhould happen, I 
could but be ruined ; which was only being 
in: the fame iituation with fome of the moft 
ialhionable people in the nation." 

He then enumerated many inftances of . 
thofe who lived as well s^, the weaUbieJlk 



r. 

fiwi» in Cng^nd, and yet erery body pro2> 
nottAoed cbem rained.. ** Then is Chailit 
FoSy. added bci a utaa comptetely ruined ; 
yet beloved by iid&friendB^ and admired by 
his country as much as everi" 

To this fine reabning I replied, " That 
the lofs of fortune could not ruin Mr. 
Fox; that if not>ody had been influenced 
by that gentleman's example, except thofe 
Who poflefied his genius, his turn for play 
would never hurt one man in the kingdom ; 
Ibut that thofe who owed their importance 
folely to their fortune, ought not to riik 
it fo wantonly as be might do, wbofe 
fortune had always been of little impor- 
tance, when compared with his abilities | 
and fince they could not imitate Mr. Fox 
iii the things for which he was fo juftly 
applauded, they ought not to follow his . 
example in thofe for which he was as 
juftly condemned ; for the fame fire whicii 
burns a piece, of ^ood to aihes, can only 
melt a guihea, Which fiiti retains its iiH 



trlnfic value, iimfb hk Majefifs aunknann 
m Imger Jbma en it.** 

— — did not feem to reli(b my 

«rgument^ and fbon after left us; but oar 
young friend feemed confirmed in his refo* 
lutionsy and gave mefrefh alTaranees, the 
day on which I left Loodoni that be never 
jvouldvary. 

. Knowing the intereft yoa take in hit 
welfare, and the high efteem he has for 
you, I have thought it right to |;ive thi* 
piece of information, lyhich I know will 
afford you pleafure. His greatell difficulty 
in adhering to the new adopted plan wi}| 
ht at firit ; in hts prefent ftate of mind, the 
foothings and fupport of friendfhip niay b^ 
of the greatell fervice. 

-When your afFairi permit yon to |p to 
London, I dare fay you will take the earlieft 
opportunity of throwing yourfelf in his 
way: You will find no difficulty in,perfttad«» 
ing him to accompany you to the country* 
Removed fpr fome months from his prefenj 
companions and ufual lounging places^ the 



influence of his old habiu will gradaaily 
diminish ; and^ confirmed by yottr conver* 
fatfon, foiail chance will remain of hit being 
fucked into the old fyftem, and again whirled 
round in the ?onex of difSpation and 
gaming. 



LETTER IIJ 

Jl OUR fetting out for London immci^ 
diately on the receipt of my Iciter, is what 
might have been expefted. — Nothing ren- 
ders a man to a£live as an eager defire of 
doing good j and I might have forefccn 
that you would catch at the opportunity 
with which I furniflicd you to indulge a 
ruling paffion* 

It gives me great fatisfa^lion to know, 

that our young friend and you arc upon 

* - ^ .. . . 



lo ttew 03P sociaen a»d 

{ttchr 2t confidential footing ; and I heartily 
hope ^hat nothing will interrupt a connec- 
tion which nmft be a fource of pleafihg 
reflexion to you, and in every way advaar 
tageoQS to^ him. r^I had. no. doubt that he 
would readily agree to accompany, you to 
the country ; but I was not fo certain that 
be might not have found it neceffary ta 
accept of your other very friendly propofal*. 
^-*- His refufal is a proofs that he has recon^ 
ciled his mind to his circumftances i and 
with thofe fentiments, 1 am convinced that 
he will be able to live within his remaining- 
yearly income with more fatjsfaSion than 
he enjoyed when he fpent fi^e times that 
fum. ■ . ■'■ 

Yoainfift fo much on my writing to you 
xegularly, from the different places where I 
may refide during my abfence from England, 
that I. begin to believe you are in earneft, 
and' fhall certainly obey your commands. 

1 know you do not expefk from me a 
minute account of pburches and palaces. 
However agreeable ifxek may be to thf 



KAKlkfltf: m. ttttMLr SB 

(gtStzlor^ tbey generally afford but t flcfw 
der entertainment when ferved up in de-r 
{criptian. 

There are couniries» fome of whidi I ma)r 
again vifit before mv return tm England^ 
Nvhofe appearance always ftrikes the eye 
with delight ; bqt it is difficult to convey a* 
precife idea of their beauties in words. The 
pencil is a more powerful vehicle than the 
pen for that purpofe ; for the landicape is 
apt to vanifh from the mind before the de- 
fcription can be read. 

The manners^ cuftoms, and charaAert 
of the people may probably farni£b the 
chief materials in the correfpondence yoa 
exaft, with fuch> refkdions as may arife 
from the fubjed. In thefe, I apprifo yoa 
before-handy I fhail take what latitude I- 
pleafe : and though the complexion of my' 
letters may mod probably receive feme tint- 
or (hade of colouring from the country' 
where they may be wrote; yet if I take* 
it into my head to inilil on the little tricks^^ 
of an attorney^, when you ^ espcGt to hear oi^ 



the politics of a prime minifter; or, if I 
tell you ^ tale about an old woman, when 
you are impatient for anecdotes of a great 
general, you muft not fret or fall into a 
paflion ; for if you do not permit me to 
tvrite on what fubje£t$ I plcafc, and treat 
Ihem in my own way, the correfpondencc 
yott require would become a fad flavery 
to me, and of confequencc no amufemenC 
to you. Whereas, if you leave me free 
and unreftrained, it will at leail form fome 
occupation to myfelf, may wean me from 
the habit of lounging, and will afford an 
cxcufe, m my own mind, for my letlving 
thofe parties of pleafure where people arc 
apt to continue, forcing fmiles and yawning 
fpontaneoufly for two or three hours after 
»I1 relifh is fled. 

Yet in this difmal condition many remain 
night after night, becaufe the hour of fleep 
is not yet arrived; — and what clfc caii 
they do ? ' \ 

Have you never found yourfelf in thii 
lifllefs fituation ? Without any pleafate 



wKerc you are, without any motive to be 
gone, you remain in a kind of pafllive, 
gaping oyfter-ftate^ till the tide of the 
t:ompany moves yoa to your carriage. And 
-vrhca you recover your reflediion in your 
bed-chamber, you find you have p^fled 
the two Jaft hours in a kind of huminiiq; 
buzzing ftupor^ without faiisia&ioii^ or 
ideas of any kind* 

I thank you for your offer of Dupontb 
I^nowing your regard for him| and hit 
dexterity and intelligence in the fcience of 
valet-de-?hambrefbip» I fee the full force of 
the facrifice you are mlling to make. If 
1 could be fo felfiih on. another occafion a» 
to accept your oficr^ the good*will I bear to 
your old friend John would prevent me at 
prefent. Dupont, to be fure, is wofth 
twenty ' of John for that employment i 
but I can never forget his long attachment^ 
and I am how Co habituated. to him, that 
one generaJIy eftcemed a more perfe<£k 
fervant would not fuit me fo well. I thiidb 
my felf benefited even by his deficiencies 



i4 TiFfif OF aoctert j|!fiT» 

which have obliged me to do many thingir 
for myfelf that other people perform by^ 
the handis of their fervants. Many of our 
acquaintances feem abfolutely incapabie of 
motion, till they have been wound up by 
their Talets. They have no more ufe of 
their hands for any office about their own 
perfons, than if they were paralytic At 
sight they muft wait for their fervants*, 
before they can un^efs themfelves, and go* 
to bed : in the morning, if the valet happenrs 
to be outpf the way, the mafter muff remain 
helplefs and fprawling in bed, like a turtlb^ 
on its back upon the kitchen-table of an^ 
alderinan. 

I remain^ &€•■ 



LETTER III; 



Wris. 
1 went a few. * ts fince to the lulian 
Comedy; while I enjoyed the exquijBLte 



naiveti of my old friend Garliny the Marquit 

de F , whom you have feen atLondonv 

entered' the box r--^' He flew^ to me with. 

air tlie vivacity of a-Frenchmaiiy and with 

every mark of plcafure and regard; Hfe 

had ten thoufend' queftlom to aflt about 

his friends in England all in one breatb, 

and without waiting for an an(wer. Mon 

cher ami this, ma ch^re amie t*otHer;: 

la belle fuch a one, la charmante fncll. 

another^ 

Perceiving, we difturbed tHe company^. 
and having/ no hopea that the Marquis 
would be more quiet £dx fome time, ( 
propofed: leaving the Comedy^ He aflented: 
immediately: — Vous avez raifon:.iI n'y 
a perfonne ici ; c'eft un defcrt — (by the 
way the houfe was very, much crowded;— * 
Jp fais venu comme vous voyezi en po- 
Itflbn ; — -tout le monde eft' au Coliflee— *> 
Allons. — We ftepped into his. vis-A-vis: 
}^* prderc^d the coachman to drive vite 
comoifi toos les: diables.. The horfes went. 



l6 TIEW Of 806l£f¥ A^B 

as faft as they. could» and the Mafquis^j 
tongue ftiil fader than they* 

When we arrived, I propofed going 
wp to the gallery, where w« might fee 
the company below^ and converfe without 
interruption! Bon, fays he, nous nous 
nicherons dans un coin poar critiquer tout 
le monde, comme deux diables boiteux. 

A lady of a fine fhape and majeftic air 
drew my attention : I aiked the Marquis 
if he did liot think her remarkably hand^ 
fome ?^^Li, La, faid he, coldly.— ^Nous 
fommes heureufement places pour elJe^ 
G*eft un tableau fait pour 6tre vu de loin* 
—I then took notice of the exceiBve white* 
iiefs of her fkin. — — .. C'eft apparemment 
le gout de fon amant d'aujourd*hui, faid 
!he ; et quand un autre fe pr^fenteroit qui 
preftreroit la couleur de puce, a Taide d*un 
pea d^eau chaude, ^elle ferpit auffi fon 
affaire, 

I next remarked two ladies drefled a little 
beyond the extravajrance of the m'ode. 
^heir features betrayed the apprpach .<rf 



VJLKKEES IK nUfK'Gk -ijr 

iifty, in fpke of all the art which had 
evidently beed a fed to conceal that hated 

At fight of tTiein the Marquis darted xxp. 
•Ah ! pavbku, faid he, ces deux morceault 
"d^arttiqu W font de mes parentcs. — Excafc«* 
'moi pbvir deux minutes :' il fimt que jjt 
in^approche tfellei, pour les fclicher ik 
leurs appas. OU ladies, continued he, who 
*avc* the rage to be thought young, arc df 
^ anftxnrts the iribft^ii^diAiTe' when negj- 
leAed, and I have particular reafons kk 
^ipriihing to remain in the5r |Jood graces.' He 
tferi left 'me, and having walked roond tKfe 
weld With the ladies, returned and tbdc hi 
Icat!*^ P have got inyfclf well out of the 
fcrape, faid he ; I toH them 1 was engaged 
"With a Milofdj whom I (hodd have the 
honour of prcfenting at their houfe, and I 
•fixed a young officer with them, whofoheft 
hopes df promotion depend upon their in- 
liiiehoe at court, and who darts as foon quit 
bfi colours in battle^ as forfake thefe two 



A young man very magnifice&tly^ Arrfitf 
entered the T6om : He announced his im- 
portance by! his airs, his buftle, the loud 
and decifive tone of his voice. The Mar- 
quis told me it was indifpenrably neceflarjr 
that I ihould be prefented to him ; there 
vras no living in Paris without that advan- 
tage ; adding, -«— II eft un pea fat, infioF- 
jnent bete, d*ailleurs le meilleur en£int do 
.monde. . • . 

A fine lady next appeared, who Teemed to 
command the admiration of the whole af- 
^fembly. She floated round the circle of the 
GoUifeey furrounded by a clufter of Petitt 
Maitrcs, whoTe eyes were fixed on her, and 
who feenoed to nx>ve by her motion like fa^ 
tellites under the influence of their planet 
She, on her part, was perle£Uy ferene, and 
.nnembarrafl*ed by the attention and the eyes 
of the fpedlators* She fmiled to one, nod* 
ded to another, ihrugged to a third, ftnack. 
a fourth with her fan, burft into a fit of 



laughter, to a 6&b, and whifpered in the ear 
€>( a fixth. Ali theie, and^ a thoufand tricb 
snorcy ihe ran through with theeafe of an 
afkrefs and the rapidity of a jugj^er. Sho 
leemed fully perfuaded that Ae was ihq 
enly perfon prefent worthy of attention; that 
k belonged to her to develope her charms, 
drCplaj her graces and ain, and that k^ 
tlie part of the reft of the company to m* 
- saain attentive and admiring fpeAatorib 

Cette drolefle-fiy. faid" the Marquif , eft jo* 
he, et pour cette raifon, on crolt qu'elle a do 
l'e(prit: On a rnenie tlch^ de r^p^ier fet 
bona* mots r niais ih ne ^nt hits que ponr fil 
houche. EUe eft beapeoup phi» yaine qtto 
fm(lble,, ^rand foutien pour ia vertu ! ait 
refte, die eft dame de quality, i la faveur de 
quoi elle poUede un. gout de hardiefle fi hea« 
reux, qu'elle jouit du benefice de Tcfionte* 
lie sans eire effront^e. 

I was furprifed to find all .this fatire d[» 
re6led againft fo beautiful a woman, and 
fuipeAed that the edge of F— -'s remarks was 
fturpenc^d by fome recent pique* I w^ 



goin{; to rally him on that fuppofition, whed 

vhe fuddenly ftarted up» faying, Voila Mon£ 
dd — , Ic mcilleur dc mes amis. — I* eft ai* 
iD^blp ; on no peut pas plus. -^ II a de I'es* 
prit cocninq un dertoki. *— II faut que vous 
leconnoiffiez. Allons: --^Defcendons* & 

. Aiy<n& he hurried me down! ftaifs, preienred 
SHe to Monf. de — ^ as un philofophe Anglois> 
who underftood race-hoifes better than the 
great Newton himfelfy and who had noaver- 

.fion to the game of Whift. Monf. de — 
received me with open arms, and we were 

^ intimate friends in ten minutes. He carried 
the Marquii and me to fup at his houfe, 
where we found a numerous company. ' 

The converfation was cheerful and ani- 
mated. There were feme very ingenious 
men prefent, with an admirable mixture of 

.agreeable women, who remained to the laft, 
and joined in the converfation even when it 
turned on fubjeds of literature ; upon which 
occafions Engllfh ladies generally imagine it 
becomes them to remain filent. But here 
they took their ihare without fcrupic or he- 



itAioinata nr nuKcs. nit 

iitoatlon. Thofe who underftood any thmg 
of the fubjcit deKvered their (entimenu with ' 
great precifion, snd more grace than the 
men ; tl^pfe who knew nodiing of the mat- 
ter faWied theif own ignorance in fuch a 
fpFightljr manner, as convinced CTcry body, 
that knowledge is not necefTary to render n 
woman exceedingly agreeable fn fociety. 

After paifinga nioft delightful erening. 
I returned to my lodgings, my head undif- 
turbed with wine, and my fpiriti anjade4 
by play. 



. LETTER VL 

yVs 1^^^^ b«en> mondi a Parii; a 
longer tiipo ttem wai intcodod at ourjorivah 
yet our departuie appean to me at a greatei ■ 
difianoe now thmit did tl^»« 



^ VllW^ OF *>OtETf Aim 

F-^ has bttn my moft cotiftant com- 
panion ; he is unlver(aily liked^ lives In t|ic 
very befi company , and virhoever is in tra- 
duced by him, is fare of a fiivourable re- 
ception« I found little or no difficalty in 
excufing myfelf from play. The Marquis 
i^idertook to make this matter eafy ; and no« 
thing can be a greater proof of his influence 
in fome of the moft faKhionable circles^ 
than his being able to introduce a man 
Tf itfaout a title» and who never games. 

He is alfo intimately acquainted with 
fome of the moft eminent men of letters, 
to whom he has made me known. Many 
of thofe, whofe works you admire, are re- 
ceived at the houfes of the firft nobility on 
•he moft liberal footing. 

You can ftarccly*believ,cihe influence 
which this body of m^n have in the gay 
and diffipated city of Paris. Their opinions 
not only determine the merit of works of 
tafte and fcience, but they have confiderable 
vteight on the manners and fentiments o 
people of rank,. of the public in general; wc 



uxsvoMB rs mijfoi. id 

•onfequently are not without cffeA on die 
meafures of government. 
. The fame thing takes place in (bme de- 
gree in mod coantric9 of Europe; but, if 
I am not mlftaken, more at Paris than any 
vrhere elfe ; becaufe men of letters are here 
at once united to each other by the various 
academies, and diffafed among private fo- 
cieties, by the manners and general tafte of 
the nation. 

As the fentiments and converfation of 
men of letters influeace^ to a certain dc- 
grecy the opinions and the condud of the 
£i£hionable world; the manners of thefe 
laft have a more obvious efied upon the 
air, the behaviour, and the cpnfervation of 
the former, which in jgeneral is polite and 
eafy; equally purified .from the awkward, 
timidity contra^ed in retirement, and the 
difgufting arrogance infpired by univerfity 
honours,- or church digniti^* Jit Paris, the 
pedants of Moliete are to be feen on the 
ftagc only; 
In this coantry^ at prciipnty there are^ 



3$ ¥fiJW Of X^Ctfft AIO^ 

many men cRftinguHlied by their learning; 
who at the feme time are cheerful and eafjr 
in rnPxed company, tmprftfuming in argu* 
ment, and m every refpefl as well bred ar 
tbofcwho have no other pretenfion, 

Pofitenefe and good manners, Jndecdi may' 
be traced, thougb in diftrent proportions, 
through every rank, from the greateft of 
the nobility to the loweft mechanic. This 
forms a more remarkable and diftinguHhing^ 
feature in the French national charafter, 
than the vivacity, mpetaofity, and fick* 
lenefs^ for which the ancient as well as- the 
moileriT inhabitants of this country have 
been noted.i^it certainly is a tei7 fingular 
phsenomenon, that politenefs, which in 
every other country is confined to people of 
A certain rank in Irfe, fiioirldl here > pervade 
every fituatioft and profeffion; The man 
ill power is courteous to his dependant, the 
profperous to the unfortunate, the very 
beggar who foficits charity, does it •* en' 
homme comme il faut ; '' and if His requeft^ 
^ not granted, Ue k furei at kali, that it 

will 



trill be refafed with an appearance of ha* 
manity, and not with harlhnefs or infolt. 

A iltanger, quite new and nnverfed in 
their language, whofe accent is uncouth 
and ridiculous in the ears of the French^ 
and who can fcarcely open his mouth 
without aidking a blunder in grammar or 
idiom, is heard with the moil ferious at* 
tention, and never laughed at, even whea 
he utters the oddeft folecifm or equivocal 
expreffion« 

i am afraid, faid I, yefterday, to a 
French gentleman, the phrafe which I 
ttfed juft now is not French. Monileur, 
replied hey cette expreffion eflfeflivement 
n'eft pas Fran9oifey mais elle m^rite biea 
de Tetre. 

The moft daring deviation from fafliion^ 
in the important article of drefs, cannot 
snake them forget the laws of good-breed* 
ing. When a perfon appears at the public 
Walks, in clothes inade againft every law 
of the mode, upon which the French are 
fuppofed to lay fuch ftrefs^ they do not 

VOL. I. . . 3 



96 TXBW OF SQCIfiTY A27D 

gaTie or fneer at him ; they allow hiiia firft 
to pafe, as it were, unoUerved, and do not 
till then turn round to indulge the curio* 
fity iwhich hts uncommon figure may have 
excited. I have xonarked this iniilance of 
delicacy often in the ftreets in the lowed 
of the vulgar^ or rather of the common 
people ; for there are really very few of 
the natives of. Paris, who can be called 
vulgar. 

There are exceptions to thefe, as to all 
general remarks on the manners and cha- 
ia£ter of any natiocL 

I have heard ifwftanoes of die military 
treating pofUlltons and ion-keepers with 
injuftice ; and the feignenr or intendant 
oppreffing the peafant. Examples of the 
abtflife of power, and infbleixe of oiEce, 
are to be mst with every where. If they 
are tderatcd, .»tbc faalt lies in the go« 
vernment. 

I have not been fpeafcing of the Fraich 
government. Their national .. chamdfer is 
one thing ; the nature of their government 



ilAKNEAS IN FRANCE. 2J 

IS a^very different matter. Bat I am con- 
vinced there is no country in Europe where 
royal favour, high birjth, and the military 
profcffion, could be aSlowed fuch privHeges 
as tliey have in France, and where ihcrc 
would be fo few inftances of their pro- 
ducing rough and brutal behaviour to in- 
feriors. 



LETTER V. 



A CAKDID EngUihman, of whatcTcr rank 
in life he may be/muft fee witii indignation, 
tbat erery thing in this kingdom is arranged 
for the accommodation of tht rich and the . 
pow^ul ; and that little or no regard is 
paid t<» the comfort of citizens of an in-* 
ferior ftation. This appears in a thoufand 



aS VIEW OF SOCIETY AKB 

inftances, and ftrjkes the eye immediately 
on entering Paris. 

1 think I have fcen it fomewhere re- 
markedy that the regular and efFe£lual 
manner in which the city of London is 
lighted at night, and the raifed pavementis 
on the fides of every ftreet for the fecurity 
and conveftiency of foot paflengers, feem 
to indicate, that the body of the people, 
as well as the rich and great, are counted 
of fome importance in the eye of govern- 
ment. Whereas Paris is poorly and par- 
tially lighted ; and except on the Pont 
Neuf and Pont Royal, and the quays be- 
tween them, is not provided with foot- 
ways for the accommodation and ' fafety 
of thofe wIk) cannot afford carriages.* They 
muft therefore grope their way as they bcft 
can, and fkulk behind pillars, or run into 
ihops, to avoid being crufhed by the coaches, 
which are driven as near the wall as the 
coachman pleafes ; difperfing the people on 
foot at their approach, like chaff before the 
wind. 



It mud be acknowledged, that monarchy 
(for tlie French do not love to hear it called 
defpotifm, and il is needlefs to quarrel with 
them about a word ) is raifed in this coun- 
try fo very high^ that it quite lofes fight of 
the buik of the nation, and pays attention 
. only to a few, who, being in exalted ftations, 
come within the Court's fphcrt of vifion. 

Le peupie, in France, if a term of re« 
proacb. Un homme du peuple, implies a 
want of both education and manners. Uti 
homme comme il faut, on the other hand, 
does not imply a man of fenfe or prin- 
ciple,, but limply a man of birth or fafbion.; 
for a man may be homme comme il faut, 
and yet be devoid of every quality which 
, adorns human nature. There is no queftion 
that government leaves the middle and infe- 
rior ranks of life in fome degree unprotcfliccl 
and expofed to the injuftice and infolence of 
the great , who are confidered in this coun- 
try, as fomewhat above the law, though 
greatly below the Monarch. 

But the poliflied mildncfs of Frenchman- 



So nxw OF sociETsr akit 

ners» the gay and fociable tarn the of nation, 
the a£)ble and eafy condu£): of mailers to 
their fervants, fupply the deficiences^ and 
corred the errors, of the governmenCy and 
render the condition of the comoioD people 
in France^ 1>uti particularly al Paris, better 
dian in feveral other eountriefr of Europe ; 
and much more toleraUe ^an it would be, 
i^ the national character refembled thaC of 
thofe countries. 



I was interrupted by Lord M. who arrived 
laft night. He agreed to dine with as. F— ^ 
ealled foon after : he was difengaged aifo, 
and promifed to be of the party* 

You know how laborious a thing k is to 
keep alive a dialogue with my Lord M, 
The converfation cither degenerates into a 
foliloquy on your part, or expires altoge- 
ther. I was therefore exceedingly happy 
with the thoughts of the Marquis's comw 
pany. He was uncommonly lively^; ad- 
•dreffed much of his converfation to his Lord- 



&ip; tried bim opoB ev«ry fubjcA, wtoe^ 
women, horfes, p<>liti€s» and rdigion. Hd 
then fimgChlnfoaftaboife, and-eniteavoai«d 
in vain to get my Lord to join in the chorus* 
Nofchisg wotikl do. — • He admired bit 
dotb^» praifed hi& dog» aod bid a dtov^aad 
(Mif^g things of the English natioii. To no 
purpofe: his Lordihip kept up his iilenco 
and referve to the laft, and then drove away 
to the opera. 

Ma foi» faid the Marquis, as foon as he 
went out of the room, il a de grands talcns 
pour le filcnce, ce Milord-ii. 



LETTER VI. 

In a fofffflcr letler, I mentioned good breed- 
ing as a ftrikirig part of the French na*. 
tional chara£ler. Loyally, oran un<x>mmott 



52 VIEW o» Bocaxr ak» 

^ondnefs for» and attachment to^ the perfons 
of their princes, is another* 

An Englifhman, though he views the 
virtues of his king with a jealous eye during 
his reign, yet he will do them all juftice ia • 
the reign of his fucceflbr. 

A German, while he is filent with refpeA 
to the foibles of his prince, admires all his 
talents, much more than he would the (an^ 
qualities in any other perfon^ 

A Turk, or Perfian, contemplates his 
Emperor vfixh fear and reverence, as a fupe»- 
rior being, to whofe pleafure it is his duty 
to fubmit, as to the laws of Nature, and the 
will of Providence* 

But a Frenchma"h, while he knows that his 
king is of the fame nature, and fiable to all 
the weaknefles of other men ; while he enu- 
merates his follies, and laughs as he laments 
them, is neverthelefs attached to him by 9 
fentiment of equal refpefl and tendernefs ; a 
kind of afiedionate prejudice, indepcBdent 
lof his real chara£tef • 






MAimsas IS mufos. 3§ 

Rot * is a word which conveys to the 
minds of Frenchraeu the ideas of benevo- 
lence, gratitude, and love ; as well as thofe 
of power, grandeur, and happinefs. 

They flock to Verfaillcs every Sunday, 
behold him with unfated cariofity, and gaze 
on him with as much fatisfadlibn the twen- 
tieth, time as the fitik. 

They confider him as their friend, though 
he does not know their perfons ; a$ their 
proteflor, though their greateft danger is 
from an Elxempt or Lettre dc Cachet ; and 
as their benefa£lor, while they are opprefled 
with taxes. 

. They magnify into importance his moil 
indifferent actions ; they palliate and excufe 
all his weaknefies ; and they impute bis er- 
lors or crimes to his minidersor other eviS 



♦ We tranfiate le Roi, by « the Ring, " whicif 
Is by no means equivalent. Le Roi does himfelf;^ 
and makes others do, what he pleafes. The 
king cannot do what he pleafes, but does what 
othei's'pleafe* 

it* 



5i TIEW OF SOCIETY JlSTO 

coanfellors, who (asibey fondly affert) have^ 
for fome bafe purpole, impofed upon bis 
judgmcnr, and perverted the undcviating. 
reSitude of his intentions. 

They repeal, with fond applaufe, every 
faying of his which feems to indicate the 
fmallcft approach to wit, or even bears tlie 
mark of ordinary fagacity. 

Tlie moft . inconfiderabfe circamfiance 
which relates to the Monarch is of impor- 
tance : whether he eat much or little at din- 
ner ; the coat he wears, the horfe oft which 
he rides, alt afford matter of converfation in 
the various Societies at Paris, and are the 
moft agreeable fubjeSs of epiflobry corref- 
pondence with their friends in the pro- 
vinces. 

^ If he happens to be a little itidifpofcd, all 
Paris> all France, is alarmed, as if a real ca- 
lamity was threatened : and to feem intereft- 
ed, and to converfe upon any other fubjed 
till this has been difcufled> would be confi- 
lered as » proof of unpardonable indtf* 
fcrence. 



At a review, the troops pcrfbroi their 
manoeuvres unheeded by fach of the fpec- 
tators as are withtn fight of the King. They 
are all engrofied m contemphition of the 
Prince. -** Avet-tout vu Ic ror ? — .Tencz-^ 
ah ! — 'voila le ror— Lc toi' rit. — Appa-^ 
remrlient il dl content. — Je fuis charme, 
—ah, il touflcF— *A-t-il loxxS6l — Oui, 
parbfea ! et bicnfort— Je fuis aa ifefefpoif'. 
At maft, it i« the King not the Prieft, 
who is the otjeft of attention. The Hoft 
is elevated ; bnt the people's eyes remain 
fixed upon the f^ce of their beloved Mo* 
narch. 

- Even the moft applauded pieces of the 
theatre,, which in Paris create mOre emotion 
tfian the ceremonies of religion, can ^^ith 
Afteulty divide t?tcir attention. A fmile 
from the King makes them forget the fof- 
tow of Andromache, and the wrongs of the 
Cid. 

This exceffive attachment is not confined 
to tjae perfon of the Monarch, but extends 
to every branch of the ropl family; all of 



36 YXSW OF SOCIXTY JLSO 

wliotii» it is imagined io this country, have 
an hereditary right to every gratification and 
enjayment that human nature is capable of 
receiving. And if any cauie» moral or phy- 
fical, impede or obftrudt this, they meet 
with univerfal fympathy. The moft. trivial 
difappoiatment or chagrin^ which befals 
them, is confidered a$ more ferious and 
aflediing, than the moft dreadful calamity 
which can happen ta a private family. It 
is lamented as if the natural oi;der of things 
were counteracted, and the amiable Prince, 
or Frincefs, deprived,, by a cruel phaenome- 
non, of that fupreme degree of happinefs, to 
which their rank in life gives them an unde^ 
niable title.. 

All this regard le^ms r^al, and notaffedM 
from any motive of intcreft ; at leaft it muft 
he fo with reljpeCt to the bulk of the people^ 
who can have no hopes of ever being known 
to their princes, far lefs of ever receiving 
any perfonal favour from thcnf. 

The philofophieal idea, that Kings have 
been appointed for public conveniency j that 



ICAKNSKS IN nUKd. Zf 

lliey are accountable to their fubjc^ for 
mal-adminiftration, or for continued a£U of 
injuftice andopprei&oa; is a doctrine very 
oppoiite to the general prejudices of this 
nation^ If any of their kings were to behave 
in fuch an imprudent and outrageous man* 
ner as to occaflon a revolt, and if the infur* 
gents actually, got the better^ I queftion if 
they would think of new-modelling the go- 
vernment> and limiting the power of the 
crown, as was done in Britain at the Revo- 
lution, fo as to prevent the kke abufcsfov 
the future. They never would think of 
going further, I imagine, than placing ano* 
ther prince of the Bourbon family on the 
throne, with the fame power that his predcf- 
ceSor had, and tlien quietly lay down their 
arms, fatisfied with his royal word, or decls)-^ 
ration to govern with more equity.. 

The French feeoi fo delighted and! 
dazzled with the luftre of Monarchy, that 
they cannot bear the thoughts of any quai- 
lifying mixture, which might abate its vio*. 
knee, and render its ardour more bcnlgiv 



38 vtEw Of aocarr Airb 

They chufe to give the fpendid machine 
full play, though it often fcorehes and 
threatens to confunic tbenjfel?cs and their 
effe(3s. 

They conCder the povrer of the king, 
from which their fervitude proceeds, as 
if it were their own power. You wiH 
hardly believe it ; but I am fare of th« 
h& : They are proud of it ; they are ppoud 
that there is no check or limitation to his 
authority. 

They tell you with cxultatioti, that the 
king has an army of near two hundred 
thoufand men in the time of peace. A 
Frenchman is as vain of the palafces, hne 
gardens, number of horfes, and atl the pa- 
raphernalia belonging to the court of the 
Monarch, as an Englifllman can be of his 
own houfe, gardens, and equipage. 

When they afe told of the diffufion of 
wealth in England, the immcnfc fortunes 
made by many individuals, the affluence of 
thofe of middle rank, the fecurity and eafy 
fituation of the common people; inftead 



VAKKcas IK Tiuircft. 39 

of being mortified by the comparifon which 
might naturally occur to their ims^inationt, 
they comfort thcmfelvcs with the refle6tion 
that the cot^rt of France is more brilliant 
tfean the court of Great Britain, and that 
the Duke of Orleans and the Prince of 
Condd have greater revenues than any of 
the Englifli nobility. 

When they hear of the freedom of de- 
bate in parliament, of the liberties taken in 
writing or fpeaking of ihc condu6t of the 
king, or meafures of governments and the 
forms to be obfervcd, before thofe who ven- 
ture on the mod daring abufe of either can 
be brought to punifliment, they ktm filled 
with indignation, and fey with an air of tri- 
umph. — C'eft bien autrcment chez nous : Si 
le Roi de France avott affitirc a cesMeffieur$-_ 
li, il leor apprendroit i vivre. And then 
they would proceed to inform you, that, 
parbleu ! their minifter would grve himfelf 
no trouble about forms or proofs ; that fuf- 
picton was fufficient for him, and without 
more ado he would ftiut up fuch impertinent 



40 VI|?W OF SOCIZrS* AH3' 

people in the Baftille for many years. AilA 
then raifing their voices, as if what they faid 
were a proof of the courage or magnanimity 
of the minifter — Ou peut-etrc il feroit con- 

damner ces droles-li aux galercs pour U 

* 
vie. 



LETTER Vn. ; 

Park*. 
J,T would be almofl fuperfluous to obfervc, 
that there are a great many people in France, 
who think in a very difierent manner from 
that which I have mentioned in my lad, 
and who have juft and liberalMdeas of the 
defign and /nature of government, and 
proper and manly fentiments of the na- 
tural rights of mankind. The writings 
of Montefquieu are greatly admired : This 
alone is fuflBicient to^rove it» Many later 



authors, and the conver&tion of the philo- 
sophical and reafoniiig people, difplay the 
fame fpirit. 

What is mentioned in my lad letter* 
Jiowever, comprehends the general, tarn or 
manner of thinking of the French nation* 
and evinces how very oppofite their fen- 
timents upon the fubje6l of civil government 
are to thofe of our countrymen. 

I have heard an Englifhman enumerate 
the advantages of the Britifb conftitution to 
a circle of French Bourgeois* and explain 
to them in what manner the people of 
their rank of life were protected from the 
infolence of the courtiers and nobility ; that 
the pooreft fliop- keeper, and lowed tradef- 
man in England, could have immediate re- 
drefs for any injury done him by the greateCl 
nobleman in the kingdom* 

Well, what impreflion do you think this 
declamation had upon the Frenc^ auditory ? 
You will naturally imagine they wouU ad- 
mire fuch a conftitution, and wifh for the 
fame in France : — Not at all. Thej fyca- 



4fl View of society ajud 

pathized with the great : they ktmei to 
feci for their want of importaiKe. Qfifc 
obferved, C*eft peu de chofe d*etre ftoblc 
ehez votis : afid aneiher, filling hrs head, 
added, Oe n'eft pas tiatarel, tout ceta. , 

When meViUoa Wat made that the king 
of Great Ritam could not impcrfe a t^x by 
his owtt authority ; feat the Cdnfent of par- 
liament, particalarly of the houfe of com* 
mons, was neceffary, to which afleirtbly 
people of their rank of life were admitted ; 
they faid with (bwie degree of fatisfe<£tiei>, 
Cependsmt, e'eft aflez bcaa, ccla. But whcii 
the Englifh p^ktrnatt, expe9;ing their com- 
plete approbation, continued informing 
them, that the king himfelf had not the 
power to encroach upon the liberty of the 
meaneft of his fubjedls ; that if he or the 
minifler did, damages were recoverable 
at a court of law, a loud and prolonged 
DiABLE iflRied from every mouth. They 
forgot theii' own fituation, and the fecurity 
of the people, and turned to their natural 
bias of fympathy with the King, who they 



ati fiseemed to think muft be the mcft op« 
prefled and idjured of mankinds 

One af them at laft, addreffiiig bimfelf to 
the English politician, faid, Toat ce que jc 
puis vous dire, Monlieur, c*cft que v^le 
pauvre Roi eft bien a plaindre. 

This folicitude of theirs for the happinefs 
and glory of royaFty cxfei>d« in feme degree 
to afM crowned heads whatever; But with 
regard to their own Monarch, it fcems the 
reigf^ing and darling poffion of their fouls, 
which they carry with tbeiri to the grave, 

A French foldi«T, who lay covered wMi 
wounds on the field of Dettingen, demancf- 
cd, a little before he expired, of an Englifh 
officer, how the battle was likefy to termi- 
nate ; and being anfwered, that the Brttifh 
troops had obtained a great viftory ; Mon 
pauvre Roi, faid the dying man, que fe- 
ra-t-il ? 

For my part, my friend, although I 
heartily wilh his M^efty all public and do- 
meftk happinefs, yet if the fmalleft folicitude 
about either fliould dtfturb my dying mo- 



44 TOW oy sociBinr a»9 

ments, it will be the ftrongefl proof that toy 
own affairs, fpiritual and temporal, your 
concerns, as well as thofe of my other pri* 
vate friendsi are in a mod comfortable fi« 
tuation. 

Adieu. 

P. S. I have not fccn the Marquis for f«- 
veral days. He had informed me, at our 
very firft meeting, that he was paying his 
court to a young lady of family at his^ mo- 
ther's defire, who was impatient to fee him 
married. He faid, he could refufc his mo- 
ther nothing, parce qu*elle ^toit Ic meilleur 
enfant du monde : Befides, he faid, the young 
lady was very pretty and agreeable, and be 
was over head and ears in love with her» 
He has told me fince, that every thing was 
arranged, and he expe£led to be in a (hort 
time the happieft man in. the world, and 
would have the honour of prefenting me to 
his bride very foon. I fhall let you know 
my opinion of the lady when I fee her-*;. 
But ler her be what ihe will, I am forry 



xhzt F— thinks of marrying fo early in life; 
for a Frenchman of five^and-twenty is not 
quite fo fedate an animal as an Englifhman 
«f fifteen. 



LETTER VIIL 

Fans. 
X HEitE is an abfol ate penury of pxkblic news; 
I have nothing particular to inform yon ofcon- 
cerning myfelf ; but you hold me to my en- 
gagement. So here I am feated to write to 
^ouy and fhall refume the fubjeA of my 
laft letter, in hopes, however, that my 
pen may gather materials as it moves. 

In whatever light this prejudice i« 
^favour of monarchy may appear to the 
eye of pbilofophy ; and though of all 
paiSons the Iov« of a King, merely becaufe 
he is a King, is perhaps the iillieft; yet it 



46 VIEW OF 80CISTT AXI> 

forely ought to be confidered as mfirkorioifts 
by thofe who are the objcfils of it. 

No people exiftii^, or who dk) ever 
exifty have had fo juft a claim to die 
gratitude and aflPcdiions of their fovereign, 
as the French. They rejoice in his joy, 
are grieved at his grief, proud of his power, 
vain of his accomplishments, indulgent to 
his failings. They cheerfully yield their 
own conveniencies to his fuperfluities, and 
are at all times willing to facrihce their 
lives for his glory. . . 

• A King, one would imagifje, mujft be a 
perfcA monfter of rel-fiflinefs and infenfi- 
biTrty, who did not kwe fuch fubjefts, and 
who did not beftow ferae time and attention 
to promote their happinefs : Yet the Freadi 
nation has not had a Monarch worthy of all. 
this regard fince the days of Henry IV. and 
of all their kings they ufed him the worft. 

Of the three brothers who immediately 
preceded him, the fir fl was a fickly creature, 
as feeble in mind as in hody ; the fecond, a 
Monfter of fuperftiti^n and cruelty ; ' and 



the ihivd, s^ter a dawn of feme brightneff , 
allowed his meridian Co be obfcured by 
tbe gr»$e(l dosaiis of effeminacy and volup- 
tttoufoers. Tbelr Italian mother^ who 
gottreraed yW the tbree, feeois to have been 
p^fe&ly Qureftrained by any feelings of 
humanity or of con&ience, and fokly guid- 
ed by motives of intereft, and the moft 
perfidioas folicy^ 

The princes who have fiacceeded, as wcJl 
as thoffs who reigned before the fourth 
Henry, fe^ye as foils which difplay his 
Vight qualities with double laftre. 

Notwithftanding aU the inducements 
which the F/coch kings have to promote 
the hap|iinefs of their f^bjeiSts, it may be 
oaajiy.cent'^tries before they are blefled with 
one who diall have that paffion in fuch a 
high degree. 

. A charader in which the great and ami- 
able virtues are fo finely blended* is very 
rarely produced in any nation. How fmall 
then aauft be ^he <hance that this prize 
ihalJ hU to the individual who is def- 



4S VlBVr OP SOCIETY an» 

tined for the throne ? Henry received an 
education very different from that which is 
generally beftowed on Kings, His cha- 
rafter was formed in the hardy fchool of 
adverfity : his mind was (Irengthened by 
continual exertions of courage and pru- 
dence. He was taught humanity by fuf- 
fcring under the rod of tyranny, and ex- 
periencing the pangs of the unfortunate* 
Having frequently flood in need of ^friends, 
he knew the value of their attachment, and 
his heart became capable of friendihip. 

Difficulties and dangers often ftrike out 
particles of genius which otherwife might 
remain latent and ufelefs, and contribute to 
the formation of a vigorous chara£ler, by 
animating thofe fparks of virtue which a 
life of indolence would have completely 
extinguifhed. 

Thofe people who, from their earlieft in- 
£incy, have found every thing provided for 
them, who have not much ambition, and 
confequently are feldom excited to any 
great exertion of their faculties, generally 

feel 



lIANKEftS IN VBJiJiCt, I*) 

fee! thefe faculties dwindle and grow weak, 
for the fame reafoh that a man's arms 
would become gradually feeble, and at 
length perfcf^ly ufelefs, ' if he were to 
wear them *m a fcaff for any confideraUe 
time. 

That the faculties of the underftanding, 
like the fmews of the body, are relaxed 
by floth and ftrengthened by exercife, no^ 
body will doubt. I imagine the fame ana- 
logy holds in fome degree between the body 
and the qualities of the heart. Benevolence; 
pity, gratitude, are, I fufpe^l, exceedingly 
apt to ftagnate into a calm, lluggiih infen- 
fibility in that bread which has not been 
agitated from real misfortunes. 

People do not fully enter into diftrefles 
which they never have felt, and which they 
think they run but a fmall riik of feeling. 
Accordingly it has been remarked, that thofe 
who have been favoured through life with 
the fmile of fortune, and whofe time has 
been fpent in the amufeoients of courts and 
Iqxurious indulgences, very often acquire an 

VOL. h c 



5|r VU5W or 89CI2TT AMP 

aftoniihing infcnfibility to th€ misfortunci 
of others. The charadlcr the moft pcrfeftly 
cold of all I ever knew> devoid of fr iend{hipy 
gratitude, and in fotne inftances dead to na- 
tural aiFe£iion, belongs to a woman of ele- 
vated rank; v^hofc life hitherto been a 
continued feries of fortunate events. 

Yet while all their cares are contra<9ed, 
and all their feelings abforbed, within the 
compafe of their own fkin, fuch people fcem 
often convinced, that they themfelves are of 
f he moft humane difpofitions and the moft 
cxtenfive benevolence, upon no better foun- 
dation, than becaufe they have felt them« 
felves affe^ed by the artful diftrefles of a 
romance, and bccaufe they could (bed a few 
barren tears at a tragedy. 

If to thefe fymptoms of fenfibiiity, they 
can add, that of having occaiionally given 
a guinea when the contribution has been fet 
a- going, or have parted with a little fuper- 
fluous money to free thcmfelves from impor- 
tunity, they have then carried benevolence 



to the utmoft length of l^^r idea of thsA 
virtue, 

Thcf have no notion of any thing beyond 
this; nor would tbey make ohe actife exct% 
pOAf pdftpone a fingle party 6f pleafure^ or 
ki any £hape iiilerrupt the tranquillity of 
their own indolence, to perform the moll 
eflemial.lbrvice (I will Oct fay to a friend* 
iuch people can have ilone) toanyH>ftte 
human: rsice. ... 

'Jhereare many exceptions ; but in gene- 
ral thof^ perfons who are expofed to the 
Jiings and arrows of outrageous fortune^ who 
have experienced the bafe indilicrence of 
mankind, and have in fome icgrce/eli what 
wretches fid y are endued wsth the trued fym- 
pathy, and enter, with thcixixift lively fenfi- 
bility, into the fituation of the unfortunate. 

lHovi ignara mali, oaiferis fuccurrcrc difco,* 
faid Dido,' who had been obliged to fly from 

* Like you, an alien b a land unknown, 
I leara to pity woca, fo like my own. 



52 YlEW OP SOCEETT ANB 

her country, to -^lEneas, who had been wit- 
nefs to the deftruction of his. 

Dido and ^neas i — How in the name 
of wandering have wc got into their com- 
pany ? I could no more have guefled at this,- 
than at the fubjefl of one of Montaigne's 
Effays from the title. We fet out, I believe, 
with fomething about France ; — but you 
cannot expe£t that I fhould attempt to take 
up a thread which is left fo far behind. 

Adieu. 



L E T T E R IX. 

Paris. 

X Mentioned in a former letter, that my 
friend F — was on the point of bqing married. 
He called. at my lodgings a little while ago. 
His air was fo very gay, that I imagined he 
had fome agreeable news to communicate. 



Me v6il^ au defefpoir, mon cher ami, faid 
he, with a loud laugh; — You are the mer- 
rieft man I ever faw in that fltuation, faid 
I. y He th^n informed me, that the old 
Marquis de P* his miftrefss father, had waited 
on his mother, and, after ten thoufand apblo* 
gies and circumhKutions, had given her to 
vnderdand, that certain things had inter- 
vened, which rendered it impoiSble that he 
jfhould ever have the honour of being father- 
in-law X6 her fon ; and requefted her to in- 
form him, how infinitely uneafy he and all 
his family were^ at an accident which de- 
prived them of the pleafure they had pro- 
pofed to themfelves from that connection* 
His mdihef , he faid, had indeavoured to dif- 
cover the incident which has produced this 
fudden alteration ; — but' to no purpofe. — 
The old gentleman contented himfelf with 
^fluring her, that the particulars would be 
equally difagreeable . and fuperfluous, — and 
then took his leave, in the mod polite and 
afFe<aionate terms that the French language 
could furniih him with. 



14 Tttw or socitTT ast^ 

F-^ told me all this with an air fa czff 
and contented^ that I did not well know 
what to make of it»^ My dear Marquis, faid 
ly it is fortunate that I have been mifkkvn;; 
for you mud know, I had taken it into my 
head that yon were fond of the lady^— • Ybii 
were in the right, rty friend, faid he, je Tai^ 
mois infiniment. — Comment, infiniment \ 
faid I,, and yet be fo merry when you are 
juft going to lofe- her! Mais vous autrei 
Anglois, faid he, vous avez des id^es fi bi* 
zarres ! •— Aimer infiniment, cela veut dire 
aimer comme on aime,— tout le monde 
Vaime ainil quand. il ne fe halt pas. "^ Mail 
)c vous contcrai toute I'histoire. 

My mother, added he, who is the beft 
creature in the world, and whom I love with^ 
all my foul, told me this marriage would 
make 'her quite happy. — All my unclei 
and aunts, andcoufins, for ten generations, 
told me the feme. I was informed: over and 
above, that the lady, her father, and all her 
relatbns, wifhed this alliance with the moft 
obliging earneftnefs.. The girl herfelf is to^- 



lerably pretty. They will perfuadc me to 
marry fome time or other, thought I ; why 
not now, as well as at another time ^ Why 
fbouli I refufe to do a thing which wilt 
pio^e (b taamf people, Without being in the 
finaU«a3i^ree ifi^kafing to myfelf? — To^ 
be fure» bii I, that would ba?e been ill-nni' 
tured. It was lucky, however^ that yovl 
happened to be perfedly difengaged, and 
did not prefer any other woman. 

You are mtftaken, my friend, faid he ; 1 
preferred many to the lady in queftion, and 
one in particular, whofe name I will not 
mention, bat whom I love — « wliom I do^ 
love. — - Comme on aime, faid I, interrap* 
ting him. -— Non, parbleu ! added he, with 
warmth, comme on n'aime pas. — » Good 
Heaven !. then, cried I, how could you think 
of marrying another r — Cela n'cmpcche 
rien ! faid the Marquis, coolly — for I could 
not marry theother. She had the dart of 
me, and had undergone the ceremony al- 
ready; and therefore fhe had no objeflion 
to my obliging my mother and relations in* 



S6 TIEW OP SOf;i|;TY XV9 

this particular, for (he is the beft-natured* 
woman in the world. 

So fhe appears to be, faid I. — O ! , pour 
ccla, oui, mon cher, added .he,, el le eft Ja 
bonte nieme. However, I ana very well 
pkafed, upon the whole, that the affair has 
gone off without any fault of oiine ; and. 
though it is poffible that it. may be broijghr 
on at fome future period, I fliall Aiil be a 
gainer, parce.qu'un mariage recul^ eft tou-<. 
Ipurs autant de gagne fur Je repentir. So 
feying, he wheeled on his heel, humming^ 

Non, tu ne le mettras pas, Colin, etc. 

There's the picture of a French lover for 

you. — I fet down the wliole fcene as foon 

as F — left me, and fo I leave you to make. 

your own refle£tions. 

Adieu. 



XAKKXRS IM TRAKCE. &f^ 



LETTER X. 

Paris^ 
X ou ha^c often heard the French accafed 
of infincerityy and of being warm in pro- 
feilions, but devoid of real ftiendihip. 

Our countrymen^ in particular, are led 
into this opinion, from the manners ia 
general being more obfequious here than iA 
Elngland^ What Frenchmen confider as 
common good manners, many Englidimen 
would call flattery, perhaps &wning. 

Their language abounds in complimentat 
phrafes, which they diftribute wiih won- 
derful profufion and volubility; but they 
intend no more by them, than an Englifb- 
man means when he fubfcribes himfclf 
your mod obedient humble fervant, at the 
conclufion of a letter* 

A Frenchman not only means nothing: 
leyond common civility,, by the plentiful 



Wi XJtEW OF SOCIETT AKP^ 

fliower of compliments which he pours on» 
every ftranger ; but, alfo, he takes it for 
granted, that the ftranger knows that no- 
thing mor« is meant.. Thcfe expreflions 
are fully underftood by his. own country- 
men : he imagines- all the world are as weUb 
informed ; and he has not the fmalleft in- 
tention to deceive. Biif if any man takef. 
thefe expreiBons in a literal fenfe, and'be- 
lieves that people are in reality infpired^* 
yrith friendihip; or have feUen in love with: 
him at firft fight, he will be very muck 
difappointed ; efpecially if he expedJts ftrong- 
proofs of either.. 

Yet he has no right to accufe the French:; 
©f infincerity, or breach of friendfhip.— — • 
Friendfliip is entirely out of the queftiorii 
They never intend to convey any other 
idea, than that they; were willing to.^eceive^ 
him on the footing of an acquaintance ^ 
- and it was the bufinefs of his lan- 
guage- mafter to have informed^ him of thfc 
real import of their expreffions. 

If tjie fame words indeed were literallj^ 



lifcTffKltlW IK yftlHQK. 69) 

hanflated into Engltfiiy and uftd by one 
£ngli(hinan toanother, theperfonto whom 
tbey were addrefled, wonld have good reafon 
to imagine that the other had a particular 
regard for him, or meant to deceive him; 
becaufe the cftaWifhcd modes of civility 
and poiitenefs in England do not require* 
fuch language.. 

' .ITie not making a proper allowance for 
different modes and ufages which accideiit 
has eflablifhed, is one great caufe of the 
lanfavourable and harih fent'iments^ which 
the people of the different countries of 
the world too often harbour againfl each^ 
other. , 

You may fay, perhaps,, that this fuper^^^ 
fluity of compliments which the Frenck 
make ufe of, is^ a proof of the matter iii^ 
gaeftion jthat the French have Icfs dncerity 
than their neighbours,. By the fame rule wc- 
xnufl. conclude, that the common people qf 
every nation, who ufe few complimentaji' 
phrafes in their difcourfe, have agiTcater 
regard to truth, and flronger fenlimcnts ofi' 



Go YIEW OF SOCIETY J^D 

friendfliip, than thofe in the middle and 
higher ranks. But this is what I imagine it 
would be difficult to prove. 

Thefe complimental phrafes, which have 
crept into all modern language^ may, per- 
haps, be fuperfluous ; or, if you pleafe^ 
abfurd : but they are fo fully eftaWifhed, that 
people of the greateft integrity muft ufe 
them, both in England and in France; wkh 
this difference^ that a fmaller proportion wilt 
4o in the language of the one country, than* 
in that of the other ; but they are indica*- 
tions of friendfliip in neither, 

Friendfhip isaphntofflow growth, ih 
every climate. Happy the man who can 
rear a feiv, even where he has the moft 
fettled* refidence. Travellers, paffing through 
foreign countries, feldom take time to cul- 
tivate them ; if they be pTefented with 
fome flowers, although of a flimfy texture 
ahd quicker growth, they^ ought to accept 
of them with thankfulnefs, and not quarret 
with the natives, for choofing to rctaia 



MAITNZBS IN VRANC£* St 

t]:>e other more valuable plant for their 
own vk. 

Of all travellerSj the young Englifh no- 
bility and gentry have the leaft light to 
find fault with their entetalnment while on 
their tours abroad; for fuch of them as 
fliow a defire of forming a conne&ion with 
the inhabitants, by even a moderate degree 
of attention^are received ispon cafier terms 
than the travellers from an j^other coHntry- 
But a very confiderabie number of our 
countrymen have not the fmalleft defire of 
that • nature : they feem rather to avoid 
their fociety, and accept with reJu^bnce* 
every offer of hofpitaljty^ .TWs happens 
partly from a prejudice againft foreigner»» 
of every kind : partly from timidity or na- 
tural referve ; and in a great meafure frook 
indolence, and an abfolute deteftanon of 
ceremony and reftraint. Befides, they 
bate to be obliged to- fpeak a language of 
which they feldom acquire a pcrfedl com- 
mands 

They frequently, therefore, form focie- 



&X TtBW OF SOOMTY Aim 

tics or clubs of their own, where all cere^ 
mony is difmiffcd, and the greateft eafe 
and latitude allowed in behaviour, dfefs, 
and con verfation^ There they confirm each* 
other in all their prejudices, and with united 
voice condemn and ridicule the cuftoms* 
and manners of every country but their 
own* 

By this condujft the true purpofc of tra- 
velling is loft 0? perverted; and many Eng- 
lifli' travellers remain four or five years^ 
abroad, and have feldom, during all thi&^ 
fpace, been in any company but that o£ 
Uieir own countrymen; 

To go to France and Italy, and thcre^ 
Gonverfe with none but Englifh people, and'* 
merely that you may hawe it to fay that- 
you have been in thofe countries,* is cer- 
tainly abfurd :. Nothing can be more fo, ex- 
cept to adopt with enthufiafm the fafhions, 
fopperies, taftc, and manners of thofc 
countries^ and tranfplant them to England; 
where they never will thrive, and where 
they always appear awkward and unnatural.. 



For after all his e£rorts of imitation, a tra- 
Telled Engliflicnan is as difierent from ar 
Frenchman or an kaiian, as an Englifli 
ra^AiS is from a monkey or a fox : And if 
ever that fedate and plain-meaning dog 
&ould pretend, ta the gay friikuQe& of the 
ene, or , to the fubtiky of the other, we 
fliould. certainly vakie* him much Itk than 
wedo^ 

But I: do not imagine that this extreme i« 
by any means fo commoni at the former* 
It is much more naterai to the Engliih. 
character to defpife foreigners, than to imi* 
late them* A few tawdry examples, to th< 
contrary^ who^retorn every winter fi-omthe* 
iHmtJneot^ are hardly worth, mentioning a» 
exceptions.. 



Si raw OS SQCCEZT xxm 



LETTER XL 

Parisv 
JL o u R acquaintance B" ■ ■ has been in 
Paris for thefe thi*ee weeks paft. I cannot 
conceive how he has reniatnect fo long ; for 
he has a very bad opinion of this nation, and 
is fraught with the ftrorigcft prejudice again ft 
French manners in general. He confiders 
all their politeflfe as impertinence, and re- 
ceives their civilities as a prelude to the 
picking of his pocket. 

He and I went this forenoon to a review 
irf" the foot-guards, by Marfhal Biron. 
There was a crowd ; and we could with 
diflBcuIty get within the circle fo as to fee 
conveniently. An old officer of high rank 
touched fome people who (lood before us, 
faying, — Ces deux Meffieurs font des etran- 
gers ; upon which they immediately made 
way, and allowed us to pafs— Don't yott 
think that was very obliging ? faid I>— -Yes^ 



anfwered he; but^ by heavens, it was very 
unjuft. 

"We returned by the Boalevards, where 
crowds of citizens, in their holiday drefles, 
vrere making merry ; the young dancing 
cotillons, the old beating time to the 
niufic, and applauding the dancers, all in a. 
cardefs oblivion of the paft, thoughtlefs of 
the future, and totally occupied with the 
prefent. — ^Thefe people feem very happy, 
faid I. — Happy ! exclaimed B ; if they 

had common fenfe or refled^ion, they would 
be miferable. . Why fo? — Could not the rai- 
nider, anfwered he, pick out half a dozen 
of them, if he pleafed, and clap them into 
the Bicctre ? — ^That is true indeed, faid I ; • 
that is a cataftrophe which, to be fure, may 
very probably happen, and yet I thought no 
more of it than they. 

. We met, a few days after he arrived, at 
a French houfe where we had both been 
invited to dinner. There was an old lady 
of quality prefent, next to whom a young 
officer was feated^ who paid her the utmoil 



6S tncevf or soaxrr xttsr 

attention.— -He helped her to the difhes flie 
liked, filled her glafs with wine or water^ 
vBEiA addrefled bis difeoorfe jparticttlarly tcr 
lier. — What a fod, feya B" '■■ " ' , do« that 
yoang fellow niake of the poeroU wofoanr I 
If {he were nly mother j^ d^-^i mej if I woold 
ifot call him to an account for it. 

Though B- underftands French, ani 

fpeaks it better than moft Englifhmen, he 
bad no relifti for the converfation, foon left 
the company, and has rcfufecJ all invitations 
to dinner ever fince. He generally finds 
fome of our countrymen who dihe and pafs 
the evening with him it the Pare Royal;. 

After the review this day, we continued 
together, and being both difengaged, I pro- 
pofed, by way of variety, to dine at the public 
ordinary of the Hotel de Bourbon. He did 
not like this muchatfirft. — I (hall be teafed^ 
iays he, with their confounded ceremony :— 
But on my obferving, that we could not ex- 
pe€t much ceremony or politettcfs at a pub* 
lie ordinary, he agreed to go. 

Our entertainment turned -out different, 



I 



UJonntm or nuKci. €f 

jK>wever, from my expefbiMnt and hk 
^^iihcs. A marked attCDtion waft paid us tb» 
anoxnent we entered ; every body fcemod ia* 
dined to accommodate us with the beftplacc&. 
They helped us firft, and all th« company 
li^emed ready to facrifice every littte coo* 
veniency and di{lin£tioa to the ftraogert : 
Cor^ext to that of a lady, the moftre(^>e£ted 
chara^er at Paris is that of a ftranger.. 

After dinner, B and I walked into 

fi^ gardens of the Falai$ Royal. 

There was nothing real in aU the fuft 
Ihofe people made about us, fays he. 

I can't help thinking it fimethingy faid I, 
lobe treated with civility and apparent kind* 
jiefsin a foreign country — by ftrangcrs who 
know nothing about us, but that we are 
Engliflimen, and often their enemies. 

But their politencfs confifts in trifles, faid 
^e»— In what confifts any body's politeneft? 

rejoined L ^Thc utmoft a Frcnchmaa 

•will do for you, added he, ia to endeavour 
to amufe y<w, and make ypur time pafs 
agreeably while you remain inhas country. 



6B TOW OF SOCHTY AX^ 

And I think that nd trifle, anfwefed 1.-*^' 
There are fo many fources of une^iinefs and 
vexation in this life, that I cannot help 
having a good will, and even gratitude, to aM 
thofe who enable n>e to forget them: — for 
fach people alleviate my pain, and contribute 
to my happinefs. 

But thefe Frenchmen, rejoined he, do not 
care a farthing for you in their hearts. — 
And why flibuld I care a farthing for that? 
faid L — We have nothing to do with their 
hearts — You do not expeft a friend in every- 
agreeable acquaintance. 

But they are ah interefted fet of people ; 
and even thofe among them who pretend to 
be your friends,'— do it only for fome felfifh 
end. 

This is only an afiertion, faid I, but no 
proof.— If you ftood in need of pecuniary 
affiftance, they would not advance you a louis 
to fave you from a jailj continued he. 

I hope never to be perfedlly convinced 
of that, faid I ; — but if we were to cultivate 
friendfhip from the idea of affiftance of that. 



ICAKKSRS IK FBAKCE. 6^ 

nature, it would be doing cxatftly what you 
accufe them of : Beiides, continued T, the 
power and opportunity of obliging our ac- 
quaintances and friends by great, and, what 
are called, efiential fervkes, feldom occur ; 
but thofe attentions and courtefies, which 
fmooth the commerce between man and man, 
and fweeten focial life, are in every body's 
power, and there are daily and hourly occa- 
fions of difplaying them,-— particularly to 
ftrangers;——Curfe their courtefics, faid he, 
—they are the gr^ateft Bore in nature. — ^I 
hate the French. — ^They are the enemies of 
England, and a falfe, deceitful, perfidious— 
But as we did not come o?er, interrupted T, 
to fight them at prefent; we (hall fufpcnd 
hoililities till a more convenient feafon ; and 
in the mean time, if you have no objedion, 
let us go to the play. ^ 

He agreed to this propofal, and here our'^ 
converfation ended. 

You know B — isasw(M"thya fellow a$* 
lives; and, under a rough addrefs, conceals 
the beft diljpofition in the world. His man- 



*ftr VBBW Off socixrr Aim 

ner, I imaglney was originally afiunied fraxA 
a notion, which he ha< in common with, 
many people, that great politenefs, and ap^ 
parent gentlenefs of bfehaviour,. arc generally 
accompanied with falfehood and real cold- 
nefs^ -— even inhumanity of chara£ter ; — -•' 
as if hilman nature, like marble, took al 
poiiifa proportionable to its hardnefs. 

This idea is' certainly formed without aa 
accurate examination, and: from' a fuperficiat 
view of mankind. As a boorifii addrefs is 
no proof of honefty, (o is politenefs no indi« 
cation of the reverfe ; — and if they are Once 
reduced to an dquality in this particular, iris 
evident that the latter is preferable in every 
other refpe<Jl. 

But to return to the French ; I am clearly 
of opinion, that a ftranger may fairly avail 
himfelf of every conveniency ariflng frottt' 
.their obliging riiannei-s, although he fliould 
be convinced that all their affiduity and atten- 
tion are unconnedled with any regard to him, 
and flow entirely from vanity and felf-lovi,' 
He may perceive that his Parifian friend, 5 



iwhile he loads him with civilities, is roa^ 
Icing a difplay of his own proficiency in the 
Icience of poiitenefs, and endeavouring to 
thruft faimfelf forward in the good opinion 
of the company, by yielding the preference 
<m a thou(and trifling occafions. — Though 
l\e plainly fees, that all his ftoQping is with 
a view to conquer, why fhould he repine at 
a viiStory which is accompanied with fo many 
conveniencies to himfelf ? why quarrel with 
the mcmve while he feel^ the benefit of the 
effc(9? 

If writers or preachers of morality could, 
by the force of eloquence, eradicate felfiih- 
nefs from the hearts of men, and make then^ 
in reality love their neighbours as thejh* 
felves, it would be a change devoutly to be 
wiihed. But until that blefled event, let ui 
not find fault with thofe forms and atten- 
tions which create a kind of artificial friend* 
Ihip and benevolence, which for many of 
the purpofes ^of fociety produce the fame 
cfFed^ as the true. 
People who love to amufe themftlvist 



73' TDBW OT SOCBETY AK* 

with play, and have not ready money, arc 
obliged to ufe counters. You and I, ixiy 
friend, as long as we cut and fhuflSie to- 
gether, ihall never have occafion for fuch a 
fuccedaneum ; — • I am fully perfuaded we 
are provided, on both fides, with afufficieut 
quantity of pure gold. 



LETTER XIL 

Pans. 
VV HtN B— and I went to th^ playhoufc, 
as was mentioned in my laft, we found a 
prodigious crowd of people before the door : 
We could not get a place till after a confi* 
derable firuggle. The play was the Siege 
of Calais, founded on a popular ftbry, which 
muft needs be intereftiog and flattering to 
the French nation. . 

. You cannot conceive what preiEng and 

crowding 



MxanmsAs is nuKCE. ^5 

crowding there is every night to fee this fa- 
vourite piece, which has had tlie fame fucceft 
at Verfailles as at Paris. 

There are fome few critics, however, who 
aflert that it is entirely devoid of merit, and 
owes its run to the popular nature ef the 
f ubjeS, more than to any intrinfic beauty 
in the verfcs, which fome declare are not 
even good French, 

When it was lad afted before the King, 
it is |ad, his Majefly, obferving that the 
Due d'Ayen did not join in applauding, but 
that he rather fhe wed. fome marks of difguft, 
turned to the Duke and faid, Vbus n'applaa* 
diiFezpas? Vous n'^es pas bon Franfois^ 
Monf. le Due : — To this the Duke re- 
plied, — A Dieu ne plaife que je ne fufle pas 
xneiHeur qxie les vers de la pi^ce. 

Obedient to the court in every other par- 
ticuhr, the French difregard the decifions 
pronounced at Verfailles in matters of tafte. 
It very often happens that a dramatic piece» 
which has been z&ed before the royal family 
and the court, with the higheft applaufe, is 

- VOL. I. D 



74 VIEW or S0C3TY and' 

afterwards damned with every circumftance 
of ignominy at Paris. In all works of genius 
the Parifians lead the judgement of thecour-. 
tiers, and diftate tp their monarch. 

In other countries of Europe, it has hap- 
pened, that fomc prince of fuperior talents 
has, by the brightnefs of his own genius, en- 
lightened the minds of his fubjefts, and diC- 
pelled the clouds of barbarifm from his do- 
minions. 

Since the commencement of this ^tury 
a great empire has been improved from a 
ftate of grofs ignorance, refined by the arts 
of peace, and inftrudled in the arts of war, 
by the vaft genius and induftry of one of its 
Princes, who laid the foundation of its prc- 
fent power and grandeur. 

Another inconfiderable ftate, with fewer 
refources, has, at a later period, been created 
a powerful monarchy, by the aftonifhing 
efforts, perfeverance, and magnanimity of its 
prefent king ; whofe love of knowledge and 
the arts has drawn fome of the greateft 
geniufles in Europe to his capital ^whence 



iMNmEM IN niANCB> ^^ 

ftience and tade muft gradually flow through « 
his whole dominions, where they were for« 
merly but little cberi&ed. 

In thefe inftances,^an(!^thers which might 
be enumerated, the princes have been fu- 
perior in genius to any of theirfufaie£l8.* 
The throne has been the fource whence 
knowledge and reffinement have flowed to 
the extremities of the nation, - 

But this has never been the cafe in France, 
where it is not the king who poliihcs the- 
people; — but the people who refine the 
manners,' humanize the heart, and, if it be' 
not perfe£Hy opaque, enlighten the under- 
ftanding of the king. 

Telemaque, and many orher works, have 
been compofed with this miention. In many 
addrefles and remonftrances to the throne, " 
excellent precepts and hints arc infinuatetf 
in an indireft and delicate manner. 

By the emphatic applaufe they l>eftow on' 
particular paflages of the pieces rcprcfented * 
at the theatre, they ccMivcy to the monarch 



yB raw of society ah» 

the fenttments of the nation reipeding the 
meafures of his government* . . 

By afcribing qualities to him which he 
does not poflefs, they endeavour to excite 
within his breaft a define to attain them : 
vthey try to cajole him into virtue. Con- 
iid^£d in this point of view, the defign of 
the equeftrian ilatue whidi the city of Paris 
. has eredled in honour of Lewis XV. may 
have been fuggefted from a more generous 
motive than flattery, to which it is generally 
iipputed. This was begun by Bouchardon ;. 
who died when the work was well advanced, 
and has fince been committed to Pigal to be 
finifhed. 

The horfc is placed on a very high pe- 
deftaL At the angles are four figures, (land- 
in the manner of Caryatides, who reprefent 
the four virtues. Fortitude, Juftice, Pru- 
dence, and the love of Peace. All the orna- 
ments are of bronze. 

The two fmall fides of the pcde/lal are 
frnameotcd with gilded Jaurels and iofcrip. 



tions. On the fronts tawards the Thttii- 
Jeries, is the following : 

LUDOVICO XV. 

OPTIMO PRINCIPI 

QUOD 

AD SCALDUM, MOSAM, RHENUM, 

VICTOR 

PACEM ARMIS 

PACE 

SUORUM ET EUROPjE 

FELtClTATEM 

QU^SIVIT. 

The largeiiJes of the pedeflal are adorned 
with trophies and has r'eliefs. One repre^* 
fents Lewis giving peace to Europe ; the 
other reprefents him in a triumphal cha- 
riot crowned with vi£lory, and condu6ted 
by renown to a people who fubmit. 

When we recollcft that the infcription 
and emblems allude to the conclufion of 
the war before the laft, and what kind ef 
infcriptions are ufually pat under the ftataes 
of kings, we ihall not find any thing out- 



78 VIKW OV SOCIETT AJS9 

rageoufly flattering in the above ; the m^ 
ral ' of which is, that the love of peace k 
one of the greateft virtues a king can pof-- 

fefs the bed moral that can be infinuated 

into the bread of a monarch. 

In this work the horfe is infinitely more 
admired by fculptors and artifts, than 
the king. But the greateft overfight is 
that the whole group, though^ all the figures 
are larger than life,, have a diminutive ap» 
pearance in the centre of the vaft area -in. 
which they are placed. 

The wits of Paris coutd not altew fuch 
an opportunity of indulging their vcm to 
efcapc unimproved. Many epigrams ar# 
handed about,— Here are two: 

Bouchardon eft un aniraal„ 
Et fon ouvrage fait pitie ; 
11 place les vices a cheval, 
Et met .les vertus i pied. 

Voila hotre Roi comme il eft k Verfailles^ 
• Sans foi, fans loi, et fans entrailler^ j 

Both are too fevere ; giving th© idea of 



VNcted difpoiiiions, and cruelty of tempert 
which do not belong to Lewis the Fif- 
teenth; whofe real charafter, in three 
words, is that of a good natured, eafy* 
tempered man, funk in floth and fen- 
fuality. 

I have fccn another infcription for the 
fiatue handed about ; it is in Latin, and 
very fliort ; 

STATU A STATUTE.* 

' You may imagine that the authors of 
thefe would meet with a dreadful puri'iih- 
ment, . if they were difcovered. No <bnger 
of that kind is fufficient to reflrain the 
inhabitants of this city from writing and 
fpreading fuch Fafquinades, which are 
greatly relifhed by the whole nation. 

Indeed, I imagine there is more of the 
fpirit of, revenge, than of good, policy, in 
attempting to repel fuch humours ; which, 
if they did not get vent in this maiinery 

* The Statue of a Statue. 



might break out in a mor« daflgeraos 

ifaape. 

Adieu* 



LETTER XIII. 

Paris* 

1' Dined yefterday with an equal nun^ber 
of both fcxer, at the Chevalier B — — 's. 
He is F 's ^ery intimate friend, 

and has a charming houfe within 
a few leagues of Paris, whtcb the 
Marquis makes full as much ufe of ar 
the owner. 

The Chevalier has a confiderable revenue 
which he fpends with equal magnificence 
and oeconomy He has been married many 
years to his prefent lady, a moft agreeable 
woman, with whom he pofTeiTes every 
thing which caa make their union happy. 



except children. They endeavour to forget 
^his difagreeSibIc circumftancCy by a con- 
ftant fucceffion of company ; and, which 
is very Angular here, the fociety entertained 
bjr the huCband and wife are the fame. 

F f though much younger than either; 

is a great favourite of both ; and th€fy art 
always plcafcd when he invites a fmall 
company of his- friends to dine at thci* 
houfe. 

Thte prefent party was propofed by 
l^adame de M , a rich young widbw^ 
much admired here ; of whom I (hall give 
you a glimpfe, en pafllmt— *-for do not 
imagine I undertake to defcribe the mod 
undefcribable of all human beings,-— —a. 
fine French lady. 

Madame de M-^— »bas fome wit, more 
beauty, and vivacity in the greateft raea^ 
fure ; if there were a fourth degree of 
comparifon, I fhould place her vanity there; 
She laughs a great deal, and fhe is in the 
right; for her teeth are remarkably fine. 
She talks very much, and in a loud and de* 



89 Ti£W OS sbcisrr Msam 

cifive tone of voice. — ^This is not fo judi- 
cious, bec?iufe her fentiments arc not fbr 
brilliant as her teetb, and her voice is rather 
harfh.*— She is r^eived w^ith attention and 
refpefit every where;-— that (he owes to' hex 
yank, — She is liked and followed by the 
men ; this (be owes ta her beauty. She is 
not dlfliked by the w6men, which is pro*- 
bably pwing.to. her foibles*. 
. This lady is thought to be fond a£ 

F : fo^ to prevent* (caudal, fhe de- 

^red me to call at her houfe^ and attend 
her to the Cbevalier^s. -. 

- I found her at her toilette^ in confuka- 
lion with a general officer and two abb^s^ 
concerning a new head-drefe which fhe had 
juft invented. — It was fmart and fanciful t 
and, after a few corrections, received the 
landiion of all thofe critics*. They declared 
it to be a valuable difcovery, and foretold 
that it would imi&ediately become the 
general mode of Paris ; and do immortal 
honour to the genius of Madame diet 

U r. 



She wheeled from before the glafi, with 
an air of exuItsttion.-^AJlons, donc» mes 
canfens - r — a la gloire,-— cried (he ; and 
was proceeding to give orders for her equi«*. 
page, when a fervant entered, and informed 
her that Madame la Comtefle had accepttd 
her invitation^ and would certainly do her* 
felf the honor of dining, with her. 

I defpair of giving you an idea of the 
fudden change which this mellage . occa- 
jQoned in the features of Madame de M — '« 
Had fhe heard of the death of her father, 
or her only child, fl\e coald not have been 
Qiore confounded. — EftilpoffiUe (faid fhe^ 
lyith an accent of defpair) qa'on puifle etre 
ix bete 1 — ^The fervant was called, and exst* 
mined regarding the import of the anfwef 
. he had brought from Madame la ComtefiC' 
—It was even fo— — {he was, affuredly to 
come. — Freih exclamations on the part of 
Madame deM— . Did yoa fend to in-*, 
vite her for this day ? Olid I — Undoubtedlyr 
I. did, replied. Madame de M ' > That 
could be delayed no .longer,— She came (0 



84: vnrw oi^-^ soctept Atm 

town lad Suiulsry. — I therefore fent her the 
politeft meiTage in the world, begging t<>' 
have the honour of her company for this 
ctay, at dinner ; and beliold the horrid' 
woman ( with a rudenefs or ignorance oP 
life without exarnple) fends me word flie 
will come. 

It very fhockiag, indeed, faid I, that' 
fhe fhould have mifunderftood your kiitd^ 
nefs ft) prodigioufly. —Is it hot? faid fhe.' 
Could any mortal have expelled fo barba*' 
rous a return of civility ?^ — —She is con-' 
iie<fted with fome of my relations in the 
country : —when fhe came to town, I im- 
xnediately left my name with her porter. — i- 
She called next day on me— I had' informed' 
riiy Swifs, that I was always to be out' 
when fhe canfie, I was denied according- 
ly.— -Gela eft tout fimplc, et felon ks rigles/ 
Th^ woman is twenty years older than I,* 
and we muft be. infupportaHe to each other 
-— She ought to have feen^ that my invitap-' 
lion was didbted by poHtenefs only : — ther 
&axt politenefs oo her part fhould have 



pTCmtipted her to send a refuial. In this 
iBanner we might have vifited each other, 
dified and Tupped together, And remained 
on the moft agreeable footing imaginable 
through the whole courfe of our lives : — but 
this inftance of groffierct^. muft put an end 
to all connecSion.— Well — ^there is nO' 
remedy. — I muft fu^r purgatory for this 
one day. Adieo. — Prefent my complin 
ments to Madame B Inform Jxr of 

this horrkl accident. 

Having condoled with Madame de M— «— 
on her unmerited misfonone» 1 took my 
leave and joined F » to whom I re- 

Goontied the lad chance which had deprived 
us of that lady's company. 

He did not appear quite fo unhappy as 
fhe had on the occafion ; but he fwore he 
was ^convinced that the Countefs bad ae» 
cepted die invitation to dinner par pure 
malice ; for to his knowledge, ihc was ac- 
quainted with their party to the Chevalier 
B ■ ■ * s, and had certainly feized that op- 
portunity of plaguing Madame de M ■ ^ 



4^6 TIEW^OF SOCIETY Aj«r 

whom (he hated. Without that doucearr 
Ijie imagined the dinner would be as great 
a purgatpry, to the Cauhtefs, as it could 

poflibly be to Madame de M . . How 

thefe affcftionate friends, contrived to pafs 
their time together I know not, but we had 
a mod agreeable party at the Chevalier's— 
^he Marquis entertaining the company 

with the hiftory of Madanve de M *» 

misfortune, and the loving tete-a-tete which 

it had occafioned. ^Xhis he related with 

£uch fprightlinefs, and defcribed his own 
grief and difappointment with fuch a flow 
of gopd humour, as in fome degree indeob- 
iiifi^d the company for the lady's abfcncc*. 



UJomstMA m FBAKex^ Mf 



LETTER XIV. 

Paris* 
X HOUGH the gentlenefs of French man* 
nets qualifies in fooic d^ree the fevcrity 
of the government, as I obferved in a for« 
nier letter, ftill the condition of the 
common people is. by no means com^ 
fortable^ 

When we cenfider the prodigious re^ 
(oQFces of this kingdom ; the advantages it 
enjoys above almoft ev<ery other country ia 
point of foil, climate, and fituation ; the 
inJuflry and ingenuity of the inhabitantSy 
stitached by affe£tion to their kings, and 
fubmiffive to the laws ;. wenatuvally expefh 
that ^he bulk of the nation fhould be at 
their cafe, and that poverty ihould be as 
little known here as in any country of 
Europe. I do not fpeak of that ideal ofi 
comparative poverty, the child of envy and 
covetoufoefsy which may be felt by tlift 



88 new of society an© 

richeft citiaens of London or Anxfterdam ^ 
or of the poverty produced in capitals .by 
gaming, kxury, and didipation ; but o( 
that a6lual poverty, which arifes when the 
laborious part of the nation cannot acquire 
a competent jhare of the neccfl&ries of 
life by their ' indullry. * 

The two firft flow from the vices and 
extravagance of individuals : — ^ The other 
from a bad government. 

Much of the firft may be found in Lon* 
don, where more riches circulate than in 
any city of Eui-ope ; of the laft there is little 
to be feen in the country of England. • 

The rcverfe of this is the cafe in France^ 
where the pooreft inhabitants of the cap!-* 
ral are often in a better fituation than the 
laborious peafant. The former, by admi- 
niftering to the luxuries, or by takiitg ad- 
vantage of the follies of the great and the 
wealthy, may procure a tolerable livelihood, 
and fometimes make a fortune ; while the 
peafant cannot, without much difficulty, earn 
» fcanty and precarious fubfiftence. 



To have an adequate idea of the wealth 
of England, we muft vifit the provinoei, 
and fee ho\ir the nobility, the gentry, and 
efpecially the farmers and country people, 
in general live. The magnificence of the 
former, and the alnindance which prevails 
among the latter dafles, muft aftoniih the 
natives of any other country in Europe* 

To retain a favourable notion of the 
wcahh of France, we muft remain in the 
capital, or vifit a few trading or manufiic* * 
luring towns ; but muft feldom enter the 
chateau of the Seigneur, or the hut of the 
peafant. In the one, we fhall find nothing 
but tawdry furniture, and from the other 
we fliali be feared by penury. 

A failure of crops, or a carelefs admini- 
firation, may occafion diftrefs and fcarcity 
of bread among the common people at a 
particular time : but when there is a per« 
nianent poverty through various reigns, and 
for a long trafk of years, among the pea- 
fantry of fuch • a country as France ; this 
feems to me the (iireft proof of a carelefs, 



90 T0P9f c^ aacissT 

and confequcntly an opprcffivegovcrhmcftn 
Yet the French very feldom complain of 
their government, though often : of their 
governors , and never of the King, bat sA-' 
ways of the minifter. 

Ahhough the enthafiaftic ^fkStion which 
the people of this nation once felt for their 
prefent monarch be greatly abated, it is not 
annihilated. Some of the: courtiers, indeed, 
who are fuppofed to adminifter to the 
King's pleafares,.are'detefted. The impru- 
dent oftentatious luxury of the miftrefs, is 
publicly execrated ; but their cenfure of the 
King, even where they think themfelves 
quite fafe, never burfts out as it would in 
fome other nations, in violent ^xprefTions, 
fuchas, Curfehis folly, — his wcaknefs, or— • 
hisobAinacy. No: even their cenfure of 
him is intermingled with sl kind of affec- 
tionate regret. — Naturellement il eft bon, 
they fay. — And when they obferve the de- 
plorable anxiety and difguft in his coun« 
tenance, which are the concomitants of a 
cdnftitution jaded by pleafure^ and of a 



ihmd Incapable of application^ they cry. 
Mod Dieu, qu'il eft trifte ! — II eft mal* 
heuraux lui-meme ;«—— comment peut*tl 
pei>rer k nous autres? 

I am perfuaded^ that, in fptte of the diA 
^ntent which really fubfifts at prefent 
m France, the King' might recover the 
efteem and a&fkion of his futjeSs at once 
:by the fimple manonivre of difmi/fing bis 
sniniftery and a few other unpopular cba* 
I3(£iers. A Lett re de cachet, ordering them 
to bani(liment» or Ihutting them up in the 
Baftille, would be confidered as a complete 
revolution of government, and the nation 
would require no other Bil/ of Rights than 
what proceeded from thi& dreadful inftn> 
mcnt of tyranny. 

' As matters are at prefent. In my opinioif, 
no body of men in France has, properly 
fpeaking, any rights. The Princes, the 
jQobleffe, and the clergy, tovc indeed cer- 
tain piivileges, which dift'mguifli them ia 
diflferent degrees from their fellow-fubjeiSls : 
Hut as for rightSjthey have none ; or,, which 



99 tsxyr of sqcisit mo 

amounts to. the Tame thing, none whick 
can defend them, or which they can defend 
againft the Monarch, whenever he in his 
royal wifdonsi choofes to invade or annihilate 
them. 

A Frenchmati will tell foo,. that their 
parttameott have the right of remimftratiiig 
-to the throne ttpoa certain oeeafiims.^^ 
This is a precious privilege indeed! the 
common-council of Lond(»i are in p<^3s& 
fion of this glorious right alfo, and we aM 
know what it avails. It is like the power 
of which Owen Glendower boafted-— — 
^'calling fpirits from the vafty deep/'—* 
£at the misfortune was, that ngne came in 
-confequence of his caU. 

The parliaments of Paris can indeed re- 
monftrate ; aild have done it with fuch 
strength of reafoning and energy of exprcf* 
lion, that if eloquence were able to prevail 
over unlimited power, every grievance 
Would have been redrefled. 

Some of thefe rcmon ft ranees dif play not 
only examples of the moft fublime and pa^ 



B£i2mSftB IK TRAKCS. ^3 

thetic eloqaence, but alfo breathe a fpirit 

of freedom which would do honour to«a 

Britiih Houfe of Omimons. 

^ The refiftance Which, the memben of 

the parliament of Paris tnade to the will of 

the King, does them the gre«ieft honour. 

Ifideed the lawyers in France have dif- 

playednK>rejuft and manly fentiments of 

government, and have made a nobler ftrag* 

gle.^inft defpotic power, than any fetof 

men in the kingdom. It hat therefore 

often affeded me with furprife and indig- 

nation^ to obferve the attempts that are 

made here to turn this body of men into 

ridicule. 

One of this profeffion is never introduced 
on the flage but in a ridiculous charaAer. 
Thk may give fatisfadlion to the prince, 
whofe power they have endeavoured ta 
limit, or to tfaoc^htlefs flavifh courtiers ; 
but ot^ht to be viewed with horror by the 
nation, for whofe good the gentlemen of 
the lowg robe ha«c hazarded fo much ; for 
in their oppoiitbu to the court, much per-' 



^i VIEW OP SOcitW JLKH 

fdnal danger was to be feared, and no la« 
crative advantage to be reaped. 

Thofe who oppofe the court meafures in 
our ifland incur, I thank Heaven, no per- 
fonal rilk on that account. — '— A memliser 
of the Brttifh parliament may launcli his 
patriotic bark in the moft perfeft fecurity : 
—He may glide down »the current of in-* 
ve<9:ive, fpread ail his canvas, catch every 
gale, and fail for an hour or two upon the 
edge of ti^eafon, without any n(k of being 
fucked into its whilpool. But though he 
has nothing to fear, it is equally evident that 
he has nothing to hope from fuch a voyage. 
Oppofition was formerly confidered as a 
means of getting into power: Mais nous 
avons change tout cela. Let any one re* 
colleft the numbers who, with very mo- 
derate abilities, have crawled on their knees' 
into bffice, and compare them with the 
numbers and fuccefs of thofc who, armed 
with genius and the artillery of eloquence,- 
attempt the places by ftorm ; if, after this, 
he joins the ailailantS; he muft either 26k 



MAKNSB5 IK'nULKCB. gS 

from other motives than thofe of felf-inte- 
refly or betray his ignorance in the calca*- 
lation of chances. 

The fccurity, and even the exiftence, of 
the Parliament of Paris, depending eotirely 
on the pieafure of the King, and having 
no other weapons, ofienfive or defenfive* 
but juftice, argument, and reafon, their 
Fate might have been forefeen*-tbe afoal 
fate of thofe who have no other artillery 
to oppofe to power :— - The members were 
dtfgraced, and the parliament aboliihed. 
The meafore was confidered as violent ; the 
exiles were regarded as martyrs; the people 
were aftonifhed and grieved At length, 
recovering from their furprife, they diili- 
pated their forrow, as they do on all occa* 
iions of great calamity— -^--by fome very 
merry fongs. 



^6 VIEW or SOdSTT ASB 



LETTER XV. 

Fans. 
jVlY frknd F-— ^called on me a few 
days fince, and as (bon as he underftood 
that I had no particular engagement, he 
iniifted that I (hoold drive (bmewhere ioito 
the coantry, dine t6te-a*tete with him, and 
return in time for the play. 

When we had drove a few miles I per- 
ceived a genteel-looking young fellow 
drefied in an oM uniform. Ht fat ixoder a 
tree, on the grafs, at a little diftance fmm 
the roady and amufed himfelf by playing 
on the violin. As we came nearer we per^ 
ceived he had a wooden leg, part of which 
lay in fragments by his fide. 

What do you there, foldicr? faid the 
Marquis. — I am on my way home to my 
own village, mon officier, faid the foldier. 
— But, my poor friend, refumed the Mar- 

quisj 



MANKtaiS IN FRAKCiS. 97 

quis, you will be a furious long time before 
you arrive at your journey's end, if you have 
no other carriage befides thefe, pointing at 
the fragments of his wooden leg. — • I wak 
for my equipage and all my fuite, faid the 
foldier ; and I am greatly miftaken if I do 
not fee them this moment coming down 
the hill. 

We faw a kind of cart, drawn by one 
horfe, in which Was a woman, and a pea* 
fant who drove the horfe. — While they 
drew near, the foldier told us he had been 
wounded in Gorfica — that his leg had been 
cut off— that before. fetting out on that ex- 
pedition, he had been contracted to a young 
v?oman in the neighbourhood -*^ that the 
fliarriage had been poftponed till his return ; 
-«^ but wfaeQ he appeared with a woodea 
leg, that all the girl's relations had oppofed 
the match, — The girl's mother, who was 
her only furviving parent, when he began 
his courtihip, bad always beeiK his friend { 
but (he had died while he wAs abroad — » 
The young woman herfcif, however, re- 

VOL. I. E 



^ VIEW OF SOCICTT ANB 

maiiied conftant in her affeiStions, received 
htm with open arms, and had agreed to 
leave her relations, and accompany him to 
Paris, from whence they intended to fet oat 
in the diligence to the town where he was 
born, and where his father ftill lived. -— 
That on the way to Paris his wooden leg 
had fnapped ; which had obliged his miftreb 
to leave him, and go to the next village in 
queft of a Cart to carry him thither, where 
he would remain tUl fuch time as the car* 
penter fliould renew his leg. — C'eft un 
malheur,. mon officier, concluded the foU 
dier, qui fera bientot rcpare-— et voici mon 
amie 1 — 

The girl fprang before the cart, feized the 
DUtftretched hand of her lover, and told him 
with a fmile full of afiedion, -^ that ihe 
had feen an admirable carpenter, who had 
promifed to make a leg that would not 
break, that it would be ready by the mor- 
row, and they might refume their journey 
as foon after as they pleafed. 



The foldier received his miftrcfe's com* 
pliment as it deforved. 

She feecoed about twenty years of age, a 
beautiful, fine-fliaped gtrl — a brunette, 
vrhofe countenance indicated fentifflent and 
. ▼fvacity. 

You muft be much fetigued, my dear^ 
fatd the Marquis. — On ne fe fatigue pas, 
!Monfieur, quand on travaille pour ce qu'oa 
aime, replied, the girl. — The foldier kified 
her hand with a gallant and' tender air. «-« 
When a woman has fixed her heart upon a 
man, you fee, faid the Marquis, turning to* 
me, it is not a leg more or lefs that will 
make her change her fentiments. — Nor 
was it his leg^, faid Fandidn, which made 
any impreffion on my heart. If they bad 
made a little, however, faid the Marquis, 
you would notjiaye been fingular in your 
way of thinking ; but allons, contained he, 
addrelSng him(elf to me— This girl is <}uite 
charming — her lover has the appearance 
of a braye fellow; — they have but three 
legs betwixt thcjD, andivc have fourj — if 



S3355 



100 -VIEW OV SOCIETY AND 

you have no obje€iion, they fliall have the 
carriage, and we will follow on foot to the, 
next village, and fee what can be done for 
thefe lovers. — I never agreed to a propofal 
with more plcafure in my life. 

The foldier began to make difficalties 
about entering into the vis-a-vis. —Come, 
conie, friend, faid the Marquis, I am a Co- 
lonel, and it is your duty to obey : get in- 
without much ado, and your miftrefs (hall 
follow. 

Entrons, men bon ami, faid the girl, fince 
thefe gentlemen infift upon doing us fo much 
honour. 

A girl like you would do honour to the 
fioeft coadi in France. Nothing could 
pleafe me more than to ha^ it iti my power 
to make you happy, faid the Marquis. — 
Laiflez moi faire, monCoionel) faid the fol- 
dier. Je fuis heureufe comme une reine, faid 
Fanchon.— Away moved the chaife, and the 
Marquis and I followed. 

Voyez vous, combien nous fommes hcu- 
reux nous autres Fran9Qis a b6n march^^ 



MAKKERS in ^KANCB. lOl 

faid the Marquis to me, add'mg with afmile, 
|e bonheur, i ce qu'on m'a dit, eft plu$ 
cher en Angleterre. But, anfwered I* how 
^ Jong will this laft with thefe poor people? 
-i— Ah, pour Ic coop, faid he, voili unc re- 
flexion bien Angloife — that, indeed, is 
what I cannot tell ; neither do 1 know how 
long you or I may live ; but I fancy it would 
be great folly to be forrowful through life, 
fcecaufc we do not know how (bon misfor- 
tunes may come, and becnufc we arc quite 
certain that death is to come at laft. 

When we arrived at the inn to which wp 
had ordered the poftilion to drive, we found 
ihe foldier and Fanchon. After having or- 
dered fome viftuals and wine — Pray, faid I 
to the foldier, how do you propofe to main- 
tain your wife and yourfclf? — One who 
has contrived to life for 6ve years on folr 
dier's pay, replied he, can have little diffi*- 
culty for the reft of his life. — I can play 
tolerably well on the fiddle, added he, and 
perhaps there is not a village in all France 
of the fize, where there arQ fo many mar* 



102 Tiffvf Of soei^Y Asn 

riages as in that in which ^e are going tit 
fettle — I ftiall never ^ant employment. 

— And I, faid Faochon^ can weave hair nets' 
and iilk purfes, and mcBd ftockingi. Be* 
fides, my uncle has two hundred livres of 
mine in his hands, and althongh he is bro- 
ther-in-law to the Bailifiv and v^hfttUrs hru^ 
falf yet I will make him pay it every foav. 

— And I, faid the foldier, have fifteen livret 
in my pocket; befides two louisthat I lent 
to a poor farmer to enable him to pay the 
taxes, and which he will repay me when he 
is able. 

You fee, Sir, (aid Fanchon to me, that 
we are not objefls of compaffion. — May 
we not be happy, my good friend (turrting 
to her lover witb a look of exquifitc ten- 
dernefs), if it be not our own fault ? — If 
you are not, ma douce amie ! faid the foldier 
with great warmth, je ferai bien a pJaindrc. - 
— I never felt a more charming fftifationi 
The tear trembled in the Marquis's eye. — 
Ma foi, faid he to me, c'eft une comedie 
larmoyaote -^ Then turning to Fanchon^, . 



iiAjmSSLB IK FRAKCS. lo3 

Gofiie hither, my dear, faid he ; till focb 
ttine as yoa can get payment of the two 
hundred iivres, and my friend here recovers 
his tvvo louis, accept of this from me, puN 
ting a purfc of louis into her hand — I 
hope you will continue to love your hu£- 
bond, and to be loved by him. -*- Letmer 
know from time to time how your afiairs 
go on, and how I can ferve you. This 
Will inform you of my name, and where 
I live. Bat if ever you do me the plea^* 
fure of calling at my houfe at Paris, — 
be fure to bring your huft>and with you; 
for I would not wiih to efteem you left 
or love you more than I do this moment 
Let me fee you fometitoes ; but always bring 
your hufband along with you. — I fliali 
n6ver be afraid to truft her with you^ 
faid the foldier : — She ihall fee you a» 
often as fhe pleafes, without my going 
with her. 

It was by too much venturing (as your 
ferjeant told me) that you loft your leg^ 
niy beft friend, faid Fanchon, with a fmile^ 



I04 rUW OF SOCIETY JLjm 

* 

Mb her lover. Monfieur le Colonel n*cfl 
que trop aimable. I fhall follow his ad- 
vice literally, and when I have the honour 
of waiting on him, you fliall always at* 
tend me. 

Heaven Wefs you both, my good friends, 
faid the Marquis ; may he never kno^ what 
happinefs is who attempts to interrupt your 
felicity ! — It {hall be my bufinefs to find 
out fome employment for you, my fellow- 
foldier, more profitable than playing on the 
fiddle. III the mean time« flay here till a 
coach comes, which iliall bring you both this 
night to Paris; my fervant fhall provide 
Ipdgings for you, and the beft furgeon for 
wooden legs that can be found. When 
you are properly equipped, let me fee you 
before you go home. Adieu, my honeft 
fellow ; be kind to Fanchon : She feems 
to defervc your loye. Adieu, Fanchon ; I 
Ihall be happy to hear that you arc a& 
fond of Dubois two years hence as you are 
at prefent. So faying, he (hook Dubois 
by the hand, falutcd Fanchon» puihed me 



ICAKNEHS IK FEAKCE. Io5 

into the carriage before hiiHy and away wc 
drove. 

As we returned to town, he broke out 
feveral times into warm praifes of Fan* 
chon's beauty, which infpired me with 
feme fufpicion that he might have farther 
view$ upon her. 

I was fufiSciently acquainted with his 
free manner of life, and I had a little 
before fecn him on the point of being 
married to one womaii, after he had ar*- 
ranged every thing, as he called it, with 
another. 

To fatisfy myfelf in this particular, I 
queftioned Him in a jocular ftyle' on this 
fubjedl. 

No, my friend, faid he, Fanchon (hall 
never be attempted by me.— —Though I 
think her exceedingly pretty, and of that 
kind of beauty too that is moft to my tafte; 
yet I am more charmed with her coo- 
flancy to honeft Dubois, than with any 
mh^r thing about her : if flie lofes that 
fhe will lofp her greateft beauty in my 



io$ THSW or gociEinr '■ Amr 

eyes. Had flie been (hackled to a morofe-^ 
exhaufted^ jealous fellbw, and defireda rc;- 
drefs of grievances, the cafe would have- 
been different ; but her heart is. fixed upon 
her old lover Dubois, wJio feems to be a 
worthy man, and. I dare fay will make her 
happy, . If I were inclined to try her, very 
probably it woiild be in vain ; — ^The con- 
ilancy which has Aood firnr againft abfence,. 
and a cannon-ball> would not be overturned 
by the airs, the tinfel, and the jargon of a 
petit-maitre.«— — It gives me pleafure te. 
believe it woold not, and I am determined, 
never to make the trials 

jp — ,p_« never appeared fo perfeSly 
amiable. 

B ■ called and fapped with mc the 
fame evening. I was too> full of the ad- 
venture of FanchoQ and Dubeis^^ not to 
mention it to him, with all the particui- 
lars.of th& Marquis's behaviour^— — This 
F of yours, iaid he,, is an honeft 
fellow* Do— -contrive to let us dine with 
him to-morrow. By the bye,, continued 



1CAKKSH8 IK FSJUVCS. IO7 

Ke after a little pauie, are not thofe 
^ * ' 'S originally from England?—^! 
think I have beard of fiich a name in 
yofkfhirc, 

AdieOr 



LETTER XVL 

1 Am nneafy wbeh I hear people aflert, 
that mankind always aft from motives 
ef fcltintereft. It creates a fufpicion that 
ihofe vrtio maintain this fyfhcm*, judge of 
others by their own fceKngs. This con- 
clnfion, however, may be as erroneous as 
the • general affertion ; for I have heard it 
maintained (perhaps from affeflation) by 
very d\j&ntereftcd people, who, when pufh- 
ed, coald not fupport their argument with- 
oat perverting the received meaning' of 



to8 TIEW OF SOCXETT JOSD 

language.— Thofe who perform generom 
or apparently difinterefted atSions, fay. they 
are prompted by fei£{h motive s < b y^ the 
pleafure which they themfelves feel. < ■ 
Tliere are people who have this feeling fo 
ftrong, that they cannot pais a miferable 
object without endeavouring to affift him— 
'Such people really relieve themfelves whca 
they relieve the wretched. 

All this is very true ; but is it not a 
ftrange aflertion, that people are not be- 
nevolenty becaufe they cannot be other- 
wife I 

Two men are ftandin^ near a frait-fhop 
in St, James's ftreet. There are fome pine* 
apples within the window, and a poor wo- 
man, with an infant crying at her empty 
breaft, without. One of the gentleaiea 
walks in> p^ys a guinea for a pine-^f pie, 
which he calmly devours ; wbile the wo 
man implores him for a penny, to buy her 
a morlel of bread-^and implores in vain.: 
not that this fine gentleman values a penny .; 
but to put his hand in his pocket would 



give him fome trouble ;*— the diflrefs of tha 
woman gives him noae. The other man 
kappens to have a guinea in bis pocket 
alfo ; he gives it to the woman, walks 
home, and dines on beef-fteaks, with his 
wife and children. 

Without doing injuftice to the taftc of 
the former, we may beiievp that the latter 
received the greateft gratification for his 
guinea,— You wiii never convince ine, 
however^ that his motive in bcftowing it 
was as feUiih as the other's. 

Sofzie few days after die adventure I 
XQenttoncd io my laft letter, I met F — ^ 
and B ' J 1 at the opera* They had be- 
come acqoaimed with each other at my 
lodging two days before, according to 

B ^s define. — It pve mc pkafure tOiJke 

them osjk Co good a footing. 
. F incited us to go home and fit 

an hour vnth him before we went to bed ;« 
••—to which we afented. 

The Marquis then told us, we fhouM 
have the pJcaCiire of feeing Fancboii in hei; 



ISO TnSW OF SOCEBIT iCNir 

bed gown, and Dubois with his new leg— ^ 
for he had ordered his valet to invite tben>^ 
with two or three of his companions, to a 
little fupper. . 

While the Marquis was (peaking, his 
coach drove up to the door of the opera- — 
where a well known lady wa» at thae 
moment waiting for her carriage. 

B feemed to recolle£fc himfelf of » 

fudden, faying, he much be excufed froni> 
going with us^ having an affair of (bme 
importance to tranfa£lat home» 

The Marquis fmiled ffaook B 

by the hand-^faying, C'eft apparemment 
quelque affaire qui regarde la conAitu- 
tion ; vivent les Anglois pour L'amouD 
patriotique ! 

When we arrived at the Marquis's, the 
fervants and their guefts were aficmbled 
in^ the little garden behind the hotel, and 
dancing by moon-light to Dubois?s mufic. 

He and Fanchon were invited to a glaft- 
of wine in the Marquis's parlour.— The 
poor fellow's heart fwelled at the fight ofi 



KAMyns IN nuHCB. «ii 

has bene&dlor.— -He attempted to expre6 
liis gratitude ; but his voice failed and he 
could not articalate a word. 

Vous n'avez. pas a fatre a des Ingrats^ 
Monfieur le Colonel, (aid Fanchon. Mj 
kufbandy coniinaed flie» is nore afieflod 
With your goodnefi, than he was by th« 
lofs of his leg, or the cruelty of my rela« 

tions. She then, in a lerious manner,. 

iPi^ith the voice of gratitude,, and in the lan^- 
guageof Nature, exprefled her own and her 
hi]fband*s obligations to the Marquis ; and, 
ambngft othersVfhe alloded to. twenty lousi 
which; her hufhand had received da fi pari 
that very afternoon.— —Yo«s intend to 
snake a £iint of a finner,, my dear, faid the 
Marquis ; and to fucceed the better, yon 
invent fiilfc miracles. Ikrtow nothing of 
the twenty loiiis yog mention.— ——But' I 
know a great deal ; for here they are in 
my poeket,,fays Dubois. — The Marquis ftiU 
' infifted they had not come from him.— — 
The foldier then declared, that he had 
exiled about one o'clock^ to pay his duty 



to Monfieur de F ■ ■ ; but not find- 

ing him at home, he was returning to hit 
lodgings, when, in the ftrcet, he obferved 
a gentleman looking at him with attention, 
who (bon accofted him, demanding if his 
name was not Dubois? if he had not loft 
his leg at Corfica ? and feveral other quef- 
tions : which being anfwered in the affirmsk- 
tive, he flipped twenty louis into his hand, 
telling him that it would help to furnifh 
iiis houfe. Dubois in aflohiihment 

had exclaimed.— Mon Dieu ! voila encore 
Monfieur de F ' Upon which the 

ft ranger had replied : yes, he fends you that 
by me : and immediately he turned into 
• another ftreet^ and Dubois faW no more of 
him. 

We were all equally farprifed at the 
iinguhrity of this little adventure. On 
inquiring more particularly aix>ut the ap- 
pearance of the ftranger, Iwas convinced he 
could be no other than B— — . 

I remembered he had been afFcfted with 
the ftory of Dubois when I told it to him. 



You know B-- — is not ojie ,of thofe who 
allow any^ emotioni of that nature to pafs 
uniiiiprosred, or to evaporate in fentiment. 
He generally puU them to fomc praiSical 
ufe.*— So having met Dubois accidentally 
m the ilreet, he had made him this fmajl 
prefent, in the manner above related ; and 
on his underftanding that Dubois and 
Fanchon were at F *s, he had de- 

clined ^oingy to avoid any explanation on 
the fubjedl. 

Had our friend B ■■ "■ ■ " ' been a roan of 
fyftem, or much refledlion, in his charity^ 
he would have confidered, that as the foidier 
bad already been taken good care of, and 
was under the protection of a generous man, 
there was no call for his interfering in 
the bufinefs ; and he would probably have 
kept his twenty guineas for fome more 
preffing occalion. . 

There are men in the world (and very 
ufeful and mod refpeCbble men no doubt 
they are) , who examine the pro's and the 
con's. before they jdecide upon the moft 



ii4 niw OP socttrr xsv 

indifferent occafjon ^ who are. dire^d iif 
all their adtions \if proprfety, and by the 
generally received notions of duty* They 
weigh, in the niceft fcdes, every claiis 
that an acqaaiotance, a relation, or a 
friend may have on them ; and they en« 
deavour to pay them on demand, as they 
would a bill of exchange. They calcu- 
late their income, and proportion every 
expence; and hearing it aflerted every 
week from the pulpit, that there is ex- 
ceeding good intereft to be paid one time 
or other, for the money that is given ta 
the poor, they rilk a little every year upon 
that venture. Their paffions and their 
affairs are alwap in excellent order ; they 
walk through life undifturbed by the mif- 
fortunes of others : and when they come ta 
the end of their journey, they are decently 
interred in a church-yard. 

There is another fet of men, who never 
calculate ; for they are generally guided 
by the heart, which never was taught . 
arithmetic, find . knows nothing of ac- 



HAKKXSB IK FKAHOC. Il5 

counts. Their heads have fcarcely a vote 
in tl^ choice of their acquaintances; and 
without the confent of the heart» moft 
certainly none in their friendfhips. They 
perform a£b of benevolence (without re» 
colledking that this is a duty) merely for 
the pleafure they afibrd ; and perhaps for« 
get them, as they do their own pleafures» 
when pad. 

As for little occafional charities, theft 
are as natural to fuch tharaders as breach- 
ing : and they claim as Uttle merit for the 
one as for the other, the whole feem- 
ing an affair of inftindl rather than of re- 
fle£tion. 

That the fir(l of thefe two clafles of 
men is the moft ufefal in fociety ; that 
their affairs will be condudled with moft 
circumfpection -, that they will keep out 
of many fcrapes and difficulties that the 
others. may fall into; and that they are 
( if you infift upon it very violently ) 
the moft virtuous of the two, I fhall not 
difpute : Yet for the foul of me I cannot 



Il6 VIEW OF SOCIETY AN* 

help preferring the other; for aimofl: all 
the friends I have ever had in my iifet arc 
of the fecond clafs. 



LETTER XVII. 

V^ONSIDERING the natural gaiety and vo- 
latility of the French nation, I have often 
heen furprifed at their fondnefs for tra- 
' gedy, efpecially as their tragedies are barren 
'of incident, full of long dialogues and 
declamatory fpeeches ; — and modelled 
according to the ftri6teft code of critical 
legiflation. 

The mod fprightly and fafliionable 
people of both fexes flock to thefe enter- 
tainments in preference to all others, and 
liften with unrelaxed gravity and attention. 
One would imagine that fuch a ferious, 
corredi, and uniform amufement, would 
, be more congenial with the phlegm and 



MAIMERS m FRANCE* II7 

faturnine difpofitions of the Englifli, than 
with the gay, volatile temper of the 
French. 

An EngUfh audience loves fliew, buftle, 
and incident, in their trageSies ; and have 
a mortal averfion to long dialogues and 
fpeeches, however 5ne the fentimcnts, and 
however beautifol the language may be. 
In this, it would feem that the two na- 
tions had changed charadlers. Perhaps it 
w^ould be difficult to account for it in a 
fatijfeaory manner. 1 fliall not attempt 
it. A Frenchman would cut the matter 
fhort, by faying, that the Paris audience 
has a more corredl and juft tafte than 
that of London ; that the one could be 
amufed and delighted with poetry and fen- 
timent, while the other could not be kept 
awake without buftle, guards, proceiTions, 
trumpets, fighting, and murder. 

For my own part, I admire the French 
Melpomene more in the clofet than on the 
ftage. I cannot be reconciled to the French 
adlors of tragedy. Their pompous manner 



%lB VIEW OF SOCIETY AUD 

of declaiming feems to me very unnatural. 
The ftrut, and fuperb geftares, and what 
they call a maniere noble, of their boafted 
LeKain, appear, in my eyes, a little outr^. 

The juflneft, the dignified fimplicitjr, 
the energy of Garrick's a£tion, have de- 
flroyed my rcliih for any manner different 
from his. That exqaifite, bat concealed 
art, that magic power, by which he couFd 
melt, freeze, terrify the foul, and command 
the obedient paflions as he pleafed, we look 
ibr in vain upon our own, or any other 
fiage. 

What Horace faid of Nature may be. 
applied with equal juftnefs to that unrivalled 

B&OT : 

■ ■ — - Juvat, aut irapellit ad iram, 
Aut ad humum mcerore gravi deducit, et 
angit,* 

♦ Transports to rage ; dilates the heart with mirtli, 
Wnogs the cad s.oal aod beads It down to earth« 

f!iUNCIS« 



.^ KAKKXas IN FRAirCE. IJ^ 

. One of the mod difficult things in aAing 
is the player's concealing himfelf behind the 
chara&er he aflames : the inftant the fpec- 
tator gets a peep of him, the whole allofion 
van'iihes> and the pieafure is focceeded by 
difguib. In OedipuSy Mahomet, and Orof* 
mane; I have always deteAed Le Kain; 
but J have feen the Engliih Rofcius repre- 
fcnt Hamlet, Lear, Richard, without recol* 
le£ting that there was fuch a perfon as David 
Garrick in the world. 

The French tragedians are apt in my 
opinion to overjiep the modify rf nature. 
Nature is not the criterion by which their 
merit is tobetried.— «The audience meafurei 
them by a more fublime flandard, and jf they 
come not up to that, they cannot pafs 
snufter. 

Natural a£lion, and a natural elocution 
they feem to think incompatible with dig* 
nity, and imagine that the hero muft an* 
nounce tlie greatnefs of his foul by fup^er* 
cilious lodes, haughty geftures, and a hol- 
low founding voice. Such eafy familiar 



ISO VIEW OF SOCIETY A»B 

dialogue as Hamlet holds with' his ^Id 
< fchool-fellow Horatio, appears to them low, 
vulgar, and inconfillent with the dignity of 
tragedy. 

But if fimplicity of manners be not 
incontinent 4n real Ufe^ with genius, and 
the moft exalted greatnefs of mind, J do 
not fee why the a6lor who reprefents a 
hero, fhould afTume geftures which wc 
have no reafon to think were ever in ufe 
in any age, or among any rank of men« 
Simplicity of manners, however, is fo far 
from being inconfiilent with magnanimity, 
that the one for the moft part accompanies 
the other. The French have fome reafon 
to lean to this opinion ; for two of the 
greateft men their nation ever produced 
were remarkable for the fimplicity of their 
manners. Henry IV. and Mar^chal Tu- 
renne were diflinguifhed by that, as well as 
by their magnanimity and other heroic 
virtues. 

How infinitely fuperior in real greatnefs 
and intrinfic merity were thofc men to th« 

ftutting 



UAjmekS IK FRANCS* lit 

^rutting oftentatious Lewis, who was al- 
ways aflFedling agreatirefs he never poflefled, 
--- till misfortane h ambled his mind to the 
ftandard of humanity ? then, indeed, throw- 
ing away his pageantry and blufter, he at 
fiuned true dignity, and for the firft time 
obtained the admiration of the judicious. 
In the correfpondence with de Torcy, 
Lewis's letters, which it is now certain 
were written and compofed by himfcif, 
prove this, and difplay a foundnefs of judg«^ 
. ment and real greatneis of mind whick 
feldom appeared in the meridian of what 
tljyey call his glory. 

What Lewis was ( in the height of his 
profperity ) to Henry in the eflential 
qualities of a King and Hero, fuch is Le 
Kain to Garrick as an a£kor. 

The French Aage can boaft at prefent 
of more than * one a£b:efs who may difputo 
the laurel of tragedy with Mrs. Yates, or 
Mrs. Barry.* 

♦ When thcfe letters were firft publiihcd, 

VOL. I. F 



12A YUSW OF SOCSEETV ANB- 

In comedy, the French ailors excel, and 
can produce at all times a greater number 
far abore mediocrity, than are to be found 
on the Engiifli ftage. 

The national charaAer and manners of 
the French give them perhaps advantages 
in this line ; and befides, they have more 
numerous refotrrces to fuf^Iy them with 
a£lors of every kind. In aB the large 
trading and manufaduring towns, of which 
there are a great number in France, there 
are playhoufes eftablrflied* The fame thfr>g 
takes place in moft of the frontier tewns^ 
and wherever there is a garrifon of tw« 
or three xcgiments. 

Mrs. Siddons, 

At whofe command our paffions rife or faff, 
Obedient to the magic of her call, 

had not Bppcsuiccd on the London flage. The 
jufhiefs, dignity, and energy of this charming 
woman's a£Hon certainly never was furpailed^ 
if it ever was equalled, on the French, or any 
oth«rfbge. 



liCANKZRS IK FRikNCE. xaS 

' ThiEfre are companies of French come* 
idiafls alfo at the northern courts. In a^ the 
large towns of Gerniany, and at fome of 
the courts of Italy, All of thefe are aca«- 
demies which educate a£tors-fiir the Paris 
ftage; 

In genteel comedy particularly, I ima^ 
gine the French a^rs excel ours. They 
have in general more the appearjince of 
people of faihion. 

There b not fach a difference between 
the manners and behaviour of the peopio 
of the firft rank« and thoie of the middle 
and lower ranks, in France as in England^ 
Players, therefore, who wifh to catch the 
manners of people of high rank and 
fafhion, do not undertake fo great a talk 
in the one country as m the other. 

You very feldom meet with an EnglUh 
fervant who could pais for a man of quality 
or fafhion ; and accordingly very few peo- 
ple who have been in that fitnation ever 
appear on the English ftage : But there are 
many vaUts deflace in Paris fo very polito« 



124 VDBffr OF SOCtETT AK» 

fo completely poffeffcd of all the little cti- 
Qaettes, fafhionable phrafes, and ufual airs 
of the beau monde^ that if they were fet ofF 
by the ornaments of drefs and eqaipage, 
they would pafs iti many of the courts of 
Europe, for men of fa(hion, tr^s-poli'^, — 
bien aimable — tout-a-fait comme il faut, ct 
avec in&niment d'efprit ; and could be de- 
te£ted only at the court of France, or by * 
fuch foreigners as have had opportunities of 
obferving, and penetration to diftinguifh, 
the genuine eafe and natural politeneis, 
which prevail among the people of rank in 
this country. 

* In the charafler of a lively, petulant, 
genteel petit-maitre of fafhion. Mold ex- 
cels any a£tor in London. 

The fuperiority of the French in genteel 
comedy is ftill more evident with regard 
to the adlreffes. Very few Englifh adrefles 
have appeared equal to the parts of Lady 
Betty Modifh, in the Carelels Hufband, 
or of Millamanty in The Way of the World. 
Grofc abfurdity, extravagant folJy, and 



aft6<£btion» are eafily imitated ; bat the ele^ 
gant coquetry, the lively, playful, agree- 
able aflfedlation of thefe two finely-imagined 
cliarafiers, require greater powers. I ims^ 
gine, however, from the execution I have 
obferved in £imilar parts, that there are 
feveral a£krefies on the French ftage at pre- 
fent who could do them ample juftice« 
Except Mrs. Barry and Mrs. Abington, I 
know no a£trefs in England who could give 
an adequate idea of all that Congreve meant 
in Miilamant. 

It is remarkable, that the latter alfo ex- 
cels in a chara£ter the moft perfe6Uy oppo- 
fite to this,' that of an ill taught, awkward, 
country gu-L Perhaps there is no fuch 
young lady in France as Congreve's Mifs 
Prue : but if there were many fuch origi- 
nals, no adlrefs in that kingdom could give 
a copy more exquifite than Mrs. Abington*s. 

In low comedy the French are delightful. 
I can form no notion of any thing fuperior 
to Preville in many of his parts. 

The little French operas which were given 



taC TiBW or sociEtY akb 

At the Comedie Italienne, are executed in a 
much more agreeable manner than any thing 
of the fame kind at London. Their baliettei 
alfo are more beautiful ; —There is a genti* 
Jcflc and legerct^ in their manner of repre^ 
fenting thefe tittle fanciful pieces, which make 
our fingers and dancers appear (bmewhae 
ikwkward and'clumfy in the comparifom 

As for the Italian piecesi they are no\v 
performed only thrice a week, and the 
French feem to have loft, in a great meafuFe, 
their reli(h for them. Carlin, the celebrated 
Harlequin, is the only fupport of thefe 
pieces. You are acquainted with the won* 
derful naivet^ and comic powers of this man, 
which make us forget the extravagance 
of the Italian drama, and which can create 
objeAs of unbounded mirth, from a chaoa 
of the moft incoherent and abfurd materials. 

An advantageous figure, a graceful man- 
ner, a good voice, a (Irong memory, an 
accurate judgni^nt, are all required in a 
player: fenfibility, and the power of ex*- 
prcffing the emotions of the heart by the 



voice, and featare», are indifpeoiable. It 
feems therefore unreafonable, not to con- 
fider that profeffion as creditahley in which 
we expeft fo many qoalhtes united ; while 
many others are thought refpe^ble^ in 
which we daily fee people arrive at e.ninence 
wlthoot common fenfe. 

This prejudice is flili ftronger in France 
than in England. In a company whem 
Monf. Le Kain was, moition bappentd to 
be made, that the king of France had juft 
granted a peniion to a certaMi foperaiinuatod 
ador« All oficer prefent, fixing his eyes 
on Ijc Kain, expncfled his indignation at fe 
much being beftowed on a rafcally player^ 
while he htmfelf had got nothing. Eh^ 
Monfieur ! retorted the aflor, comptez-foos 
pour rien la liberty de me parler ainfi i 



13^9 TUPW OF SOCKTT AKJ^' 



LETTER XVII Iv 



h Found myfelf fo much hurried during 
the laft week of my ftay at Paris that.it wa9^ 
not in piy power to write to you. 

Ten thoufand little affairs, which might 
have been arranged much better, and per-» 
formed with moreeafe, had they been tranfc 
aded as they occurred, were all crowded, byi 
the flothful demon of procraflination^ into 
the, laft buftling week, and executed in an 
imperfefi manner. 

I have often adnjired, without being able 
perfedUy to imitate, thofe who have the 
happy talent of intermingling bufinefs with 
amufement, 

Pleafure and bufinefs contrail and give z 
relifh to each other, like day and nighf,. 
the conftant vicii&tudes of which are far 



MANNERS IN nUNCZ. . Ifl^ 

more delightful than an uninterrupted half 
year of either would be. 

To pafs life in the mod agreeable manner, 
one ought not to be fo much a man of plea- 
fure as to podpone any neceflary bufinefs ; 
nor fo much a man of bufinefs as to defpifc 
elegant amufement. A proper mixture of 
both forms a more infallible fpecihc againft 
tedium and fatigue, than a conftant regimen 
of the moft pleafant of the two. 

As foon as I found the Duke of Hamilton 
difpofed to leave Paris, I ipade the neceflary 
arrangements for our departure, and a few 
days after we began our journey. 

Fading through Dijon, Chalons, Macon, 
and a country delightful to behold, but tedi- 
ous to defcribe, we arrived on the fourth 
day at Lypns. 

After Paris, Lyons Is the raoft magnifi- 
cent town in France, enlivened by induftry, 
enriched by commerce, beautified by wealth, 
and by its fituation, in the middle of a fer- 
tile country, and at the confluence of the 
Saone and the Rhone. The number of Irk 



l30 VIEW or SOClETSf AKJ> 

habitants 5$ cftimated at 2cx),ooo. The 
theatre is accounted the fined in France; 
and all the luxuries of Paris are to be found 
at Lyons, though not in equal perfe£Uon, 

The manners and converfation of mer- 
chants and manufafiturers have been gene* 
rally confidcrel as peculiar to themfelves. 
It is very certain, that there is a ftriking dif- 
ference in thefe particulars between the in- 
habitants of all the manufa£iuring and coin« 
mercial towns of Britain, and ihofc of Wcft- 
minfter. I could tiot remark the fame dif- 
ference between the manners and addrefs of 
the people of Lyons and the courtiera of 
Verfailles itfclf. 

There appeared- to me a wonderful flmi- 
litude between the two. It is probable, 
however, that a Frenchmen would perceive 
a difference where I could not. A foreigner 
does not obferve- the different accents ia 
which an Engliihman, a Scotchman, and an 
Irifliman fpeak Engliih ; neither perhSps 
does he obferve any difference between the 
manners and addrefs of the inhabitants of 



Bnftol, and diofc of Grofvcnor-fqaarc, 
though all tbefe are obvious to a native of 
England. 

After a fhort <lay at Lyons, we pro- 
ceeded to Geneva, and here we hav^e re* 
mained thefb three weeks, without feeling 
the fmall^fl: inclination to ihift the fcene. 
That I fhould wiih to remain here is no 
way furprifing, but it was hardly to be 
expeSed that the Duke of Hamilton would 
have been of the fame mind. — Fortunately, 
however, this is the cafe. 1 know no place 
on the continent to which we could go with 
any probability of gaining by the change : 
the opportunities of improvement here are 
many, the araofcmenis are few in number, 
and of a moderate kind : The hours glide 
along very fmoothly, and though they are 
not always quickened by pleafure, ihey ar^ 
unretarded by languor, and unruffled by 
remorfe. 

As for myfelf, I have been fo very often 
and fo miferably difappointed in my hopes 
of happinefs by change, that I fhall not, 



iSa viBW OP sAcibtV .and^ 

without fome powerful motive, incline tor 
forego my.prefent ftate of cootent, for the 
chance of more exquifite enjoyments in a 
different place or fituatioo* 

I have at length learht by nay own ez«. 
perience (for not one in twenty profits by. 
the experience of others), that one great 
fojurce of vexation proceeds from: our in^* 
dulging. too fanguine hopes of enjoyment 
from the bleflings we e&pe£t^ and too mvch 
indifference for thofe wq pofTefs. We fcorii 
a thoufand fources of fatis&£^iQn which we 
might have had in. the interim, and permit 
oul* comfort to be diflurbed, and our time 
to pafs.unepjpyed, ftpia impatience for fome 
imagined pleafure at a diftance, which we 
may perhaps never obtain^ or which, when 
obtained, may change its nature, and be n^ 
Jk)nger pleafure.:. , Young fays, 

Theprefent moment, like a wife, we fhun^. 
And ne*er enjoy, becaufe it is our ownV • 

The devil thus cheats, men both out o£ 
itie eQJoymcnt of t^s life and of th^t ^blcbk 



i? to come, making us, in the firft place; 
prefer the pleafares of this life to thofe of a 
£atare ftatei and then continually prefer 
future pleafbres in this life to thofe whicfc 
are prefent. 

The fum of aihhefe apophthegms amounts 
to this .-t-We fhall certainly remain at Gc* 
neva till we become more tired of it than at 
preiBnt* . 



LETTER XIX. 

6eiit?». 

X HE fituati'Ofi of Geneva is in many ref« 
peSs'as happy as the heart of man couM 
ie&rty pr. his imagination conceive. The 
llhpne^.ruihing out of.the noUeft lake in 
Europe, Sows through the middle of tUt 
^ky^* vi^hiicK is encircled by fertilefelds^ 2- 



t34 vaw OF seciEtY inn 

tivatcd by the induftry, and adorned 1)y tE^ 
riches and taAe, of the inhabitants. 

The long ridge of mountains called Mount 
Jiara on the one fide, with the Alps, tb< 
Glaciers of Savoy, and the fnowy head of 
Mont BJanc on the other, ferve as lx>uii- 
daries to the moft charmingly variegated 
landfcape that ever delighted the eyd. 

With thefe advantages in point of fitaa^ 
tion, the citizens of Geneva enjoy freedom 
untainted by licentioufnes, and fecurity un- 
bought by the horrors of war. 

The great number of men of letters, 
who either are natives of the place^ or have 
chofcn it for their refidence, the decent 
manners, the eafy circumflances, and hu- 
mane difpofitions of the Genevois in gene- 
ral, render this city and its environs a very 
defirable retreat for people of a phaofophic 
turn of mindj who are contented with moi- 
derate and calro enjoymentsi have no local 
attachments or.domeftic rcafons ifor prc^ 
ferring another dountryi and whto wJflK in 
a certain degree to retire from the baftte 



SL4NNERS IK FRAXCS/ l3i 

of the world to narrower and calmcF 
fcenes, and there, for the reft of their 
days— 

Dacere folicitse jucanda gblivia vitx.^ 

As education here is equally cheap and 
liberal, the citizens of Geneva of both fexes 
are remarkably well inRrufted. I do not 
imagine that any country iii the world can 
produce an equal number of perfons (takeii 
without eleftion from all degrees and pro- 
feflions) with m'mds fo much cultivated as 
the inhabitants of Geneva poffcfs. 

It is not uncommon to find mechanics 
in the intervals of their labour amufing 
themfelves with the works of Locke, Mon- 
tefquicu, Newton, and other produdlions of 
the fame kind. 

When I fpeak of the cheap nefs of a 
liberal education, I mean for the natives 

♦ In fweet oblivion, blifsful balm, 
' The bufy cares of life becalm. 

Francis. ' 



l36 TIEW Ol? SOCIETY AN» 

and citizens only ; for ftrangers now find 
every thing dear at Geneva* WhcrevcF 
Engliihinen refbrt, this is the cafe. If ihcy 
do not fiflid things dear, they foon make 
them fo. 

The democratical nature of their govern- 
ment infpires every citizen with an idea of 
his owp importance : He perceives that no 
man in the republic can infult, or even 
negledl him, with impunity. 

It is an excellent circumftance in any 
government, when the mod powerful maa 
in the ftate has fomething to fear from the 
mod feeble* This is the cafe here: the 
meaneft citizen of Geneva is poflcfled of 
certain rights, which render him an obje<Sfc 
deferving the attention of the greateft. Be- 
fides, a confcioufnefs of this makes him 
Tefpefl himfelf ; a fentiment which, withia 
proper bounds, has a tendency to render a 
man refpeflable to others. 

The general cbara£br of human nature 
forbids us to expe£l that men will always 
a^irom motives of public fpirlt, 'without 



an eye to private intereft. The bed form 
of governmenty therefore, is that in which 
the intereft of individuals it moft intimately 
blended with the public good.— This may 
be more perfe<ftly accomplifbed in a fmall 
republic than iii a great monarchy.-— In the 
firft, men of genias and virtue are dticovered 
^nd called to offices of truft by the impartial 
admiration of their fellow^citizens — in the 
other, the highcft places are difpofed of by 
tlie caprice of the prince, or of his miftrefs, 
or of tho(e courtiers, male or female, who 
are nearcft his perfon, watch the variations 
of his hunK)ar, and know how to feize the 
fmiling moments, and turn them to their 
own advantage, or that of their dependents. 
Montefquieu fays, that a fenfe of honour 
produces the fame efFe£b in a monarchy, 
that public fpirit or patriotifm does in a 
republic: it niuft be remembered, however, 
that the firft, according lo the modern accep- 
tation of the word, is generally con&ned to 
the nobility and gentry; whereas public 
fpirit is a more univer&l principle, and 



l3S m^ Off SeCXESTY AJOI 

fpreads through all the a)embcr& of tW 
commonwealth. 

As far as I can judge, a fpirit of indc'* 
pendency and freedom, tempeied by ientU 
ments of decency and the loVe of order^ 
influence, in a moft remarkable manner, the 
minds of the fabje£l8 of this happy re* 
pnblic. 

- Before I knew them, I had formed an 
opinion, that the people of this place were 
fanatical, gloomy-minded, and unfociable 
as the puritans in England, and the preiby-* 
terians in Scotland were, daring the civil 
wars, and the reigns of Charles II. and bis 
brother. In this, however, I find I had 
conceived a very erroneous notion. 

There is not, I may ventwe to afiert, a 
city in Europe where the minds c^ the 
people are lefs under the influence of fuper- 
ftition or fanatical enthuflafm than at Ge* 
ncva. ServetQS, were he now alive, would 
not run the fmalleft rilk of perfecution. 
The prefent clergy have, I am perfuac'cd, 
as little the inclination as the power of mo« 



leiling any perfon for fpeculative opinions* 
Should' the Pope himfelf chufe this city 
for a retreaty it would be his own fault if 
he did not live in at much fecurity as at the 
Vatican. 

The clergy of Geneva in general are men 
of fenfe, learning, and moderation, impref- 
fing upon the minds of their hearers the 
tenets of Chriflianity with all the gracea 
of pulpit eloquence, and iliuftrating the 
efficacy of the dofkrine by their condud 
in life. 

The people of every ftation in this place 
attend fermons and the public woHhip with 
remarkable punAuality, The Sunday is 
honoured with the moft refpeAful decorum 
during the hours of divine fervice; but as 
foon as that is over, all the ufualamufe- 
ments commence. 

The puUic walks are crowded by all de* 
grees of people in their beft dreflcs.--- 
Tlie different focieties, and what they call 
circles, aflemble in the houfes and gardenia 
of individuals* — ^They play at cards and at 



l4o TIEW OV SOCIXVY JkJTB 

bowls and have parties upon the lake witk 
mufic. ' 

There is one cuftom univerfal here, and^ 
as far as I know, peculiar to this, place; 
The parents form focieties for their chil- 
drcaat a very early period of their lives. 
Thefe focieties confift of ten, a dozen, or 
more children of the fame fex, and nearly 
of the fame age and fituation in life. They 
aflemble once a week in the houfes of th^ 
different parents, who entertain the company 
by turns with tea, coffee, bifcaits, and fruit ; 
and then leave the . young affembly to the 
freedom of their own converfation. 

This conneftioo is ftn<ft!y kept up 
through life whatever alterations may take 
place in the fituation or circumftances of 
the individuals. And although they fhould 
afterwards form new or preferable intima-^ 
cies, they never entirely abandon this fo- 
clety ; but, to the latefl period of their Uves> 
cootinueto pafsa few evenings every, yjear 
with the companions of their youth and 
their earlieft friepds. 



XAl^flUS IN ntAKCKi l4l' 

The richer cJafs of the citizens have 

country houfes adjacent to the town, where 

they pafs one half of the year. Thefe houfes 

are all of them neat, and fome of them 

fplendid. One piece- of magnificence they 

poflefs in greater perfe£tion than the moft 

fuperb villa of the greateft lord in any 

other part of the world can boaft, I mean 

the profpe A which almsft all of them com-* 

niand. — ^The gardens and vineyards of the 

republic ; — ^the Pays de Vaux ; — Geneva 

with its lake ; — innamerable country-feats ; 

— rcaftles, and little towns around the lake : 

— the vallies of Savoy, and the lofticft 

xnountains of the Alps, all within one 

(weep of the eye. 

Thofe whofe fortunes or employments 
do not permit them to pafs the fummer in 
the country, make frequent parties of plea* 
fare upon the lake, and dine and fpend the 
evening at fome of the villages in the envi- 
rons, where they amufe themfclves with 
mufic and dancing. 

Sometimes they form thcmfelves into 



l49 VIEW OS SOCIETY Aim 

circles conMing of forty or fifty perfons, 
and purchafe or liire a houfe and garden 
near the town, where they aflemble every 
afternoon during the fammer, drink coffee^ 
kmonade, and other refrefhing liquor$ ; 
and amufe themfelves with cards, conver- 
Citiork, and playing at bowls ; a game very 
different from that which goes by the fame 
name in England; for here, inftead of 
a fmobth kvel green, they often ehuie 
the roogheft and aiofl: uncqngi piece of 
ground. The ptayer, inftead of rolling the 
bow), throws ttinfacb a manner, that it 
refts in the place where it iirft touches the 
ground ; and if that be a fortunate fituation, 
the next player pitches his bowl dlredlly oa 
his advcrfary's, fo as to make that fpiing 
away, wfaiJe his own fixes itiidf in the fpo^ 
from whence the other had been difloged.-— 
Some of the citizens are afton^tngly dex- 
terous at this game, which is more com- 
plicated and intercfting than the Englifh 
manner of playing. 
They generally continue thcfe circles till 



MAITKBRS IK VRAKCE. 1 45 

tlie duik' of the evenings and the fomid of 
the drum from the ramparts call them to 
the town ; and at that time the gates are 
ihuty after which no perfon can enter or go 
ottt, the officier of the guard not having the 
power to open them, without an order 
from the Syndics, which is not to be ob- 
tained but on fome great emergency. 



LETTER XX. 

GencTi. 

JL HE Ruldneis of the cltmatc the fub» 
lime beauties of the conntry^ and the 
agreeabfe manners of the tnfaabitants^ are 
not, in my opinion, the greateft attrac- 
tions of this place. 

Upon the fame hill, in the neigbbour- 
hood of Geneva^ three Engliib >6uBiltes «C 



l44 VJSW or SOCIETT 1KI> 

prefent refide, whofe fociety would render 
any country agreeable. 

The houfe of Mr. Neville is a temple of 
hofpitality, good hutnour, and friendfhip. 

Near to him lives your acquaintance Mr. 
TJpton. He perfe6Uy anfwers yoar dc- 
fcription, lively, fenfible» and obliging ; 
and, I imagine happier than ever you 
faw him, having flnce that time drawn a 
great prize in the matrimonial lottery. 

Their neareft neighbours are the family 
of Mr. Locke. This gentleman, his lady 
and children, form one of the moft pleafing 
piftures of domeftic felicity I ever beheld- 
He himfelf is a man of refined tafte, a be- 
nevolent mind, and elegant manners, 

Thefe three families, who live in the 
greatcft cordiality with the citizens of Ge- 
neva, their own . countrymen, and one 
another, render the hill of Cologny the 
mod delightful place perhaps at this mo«- 
ment in the world. 

The Englifli gentlemen . who refide in 
the town often reibrt hither^ and miK 

with 



HAKKXRa tS TRANCE.- l45 

.With parties of the bed company tn 
Geneva. 

I am told, that oar young cotmtrymen 
never were on fo friendly and fociable foot- 
ing with the citizens of this republic as at 
prcfenty owing in a great degree to the con- 
ciliatory manners of thefe three 6mlltes,and 
to the great popalarify of an Englifli noble* 
man, who has lived with his lady and fon in 
this (late for feveral years. 

I formerly mentioned, that all who live 
in town, muft return from their vifits in 
the country at fun-fet, otherwife they are 
certain of being fhut out;«- the Gfenevois 
being wonderfully jealous of the external, 
as well as the internal enemies of their in- 
dependency. ^ This jealouiy has been tranf- 
mitted from one generation to another, ever 
iince the attempt made by the Duke of 
Savoy, in the year 1602, to feize upon the 
town. 

He marched an army, in the middle of a 
dark night, in the time of peace to the gates, 
applied fcaltng-ladders to the ramparts and 

YOJL. I. G 



l4^ VIEW OS BOdETT AKD 

walls, and having furprifed the centinek, 
feveral hundreds of the Savoyard foldiers had 
a£i:aally got into the town, and the reft 
were following, when they were at length 
difoovered by a woman, who gave the 
alarm* 

The Genevois ftarted from their fleepy 
feized the readied arms they could find, at^ 
racked the aflailants with fpirit and energy, 
killed numbers in the ftreet, drove others out 
of the gate, or tumbled them over the ram- 
parts, and the few who were taken pri- 
foners, they beheaded next^norning, without 
further procefs or ceremony. "* 

The Genevois annually diftinguifh the 
day on which^this memorabiS ei&ploit was 
performed, as a day of public thank%iviug 
and rejoicing. 

It is called le Jour de TEfcalade. There' 
is divine worfhip in all die churches.— -• 
The clergymen, on this occafion, after fer- 
mon, recapitulate all the circumflances of 
this interefting event; put the audience.in 
mind of the gratitude they owe to Divine 



ll£AKK£KS IN P&AKCB. ^ X^J 

Providence, and to the valour of tlicir an- - 
ceftors, which faved them in fo remarkable 
a manner from civil and religious bondage; 
enumerate the peculiar bleffings which they 
enjoy ; and exhort them, in the moft pathe- 
tic ftrain, to yvatch over their liberties, re- 
main (leady in their religion, and tranfmit 
rhefe, and all their other advantages, unim- 
paired to their pofterity, 

Tlie evening of the Jour de TEfcalade is 
fpent in vidting, feafting, dancing, and all 
kinds of diverfions \ for the Genevois feldom 
venture ^n great feftivity, till they have 
previoufly pc^-formed their religious duties 
' In this, obferving the maxim of the 
Pfllmift, to join trembling wkh their 
fnirth. 

The Slate keeps in pay a^irifbn of fix 
hundred mercenaries, who mount ^ard and 
do duty every day. But they do not truft 
the fafety of the republic to thefe alone. 
All citizens of Geneva are foldiers. They 
are exercifed feveral hgurs, daily, for two 
toonths, every fummer ; during which time 



l48 VIEW OP SOCIETY JSW 

they wear their uniforms, and at the end of 
that period arc reviewed by the Syndics. 

As they receive no pay, and as the officers 
are their fellow^ citizens, it cannot be ima- 
gined that ihcfe troops will perform the ma- 
nual exercife and military evolutions with 
the exa<^nefs of foldiers who have no other 
occupation, and who are under all the rigour 
of military difcipline. 

Neverthelefs they make a very rcfpedlable 
figure in the eyes even of difinterefted fpec* 
tators J who are, however, but few in num- 
ber, the greater part confiiling of their own 
parents, *wives, and children. So, I dare 
fwear, there are no troops in the world, who, 
at a review, are beheld with more approba- 
tion than thofe of Geneva. 

Even a ftranger of a moderate {hare of 
fenfibility, 'who recollefU the conne^on 
between the troops and the beholders, who 
obferves the anxiety, the tendernels, the 
exultation, and various movements of the 
heart, which appear in the countenances of 
the fpe£tators, will find it difficult to remaia 



xmconcerned : — - bat fympathiflng with all 
aroand hiniy he will nata rally yield to the 
pleafing emotions, and at length behold the 
militia of Geneva with the eyes of a citizen 
of the republic. 

Genevai like all fret (lat^, is expof«d to 
party- rage, and the paUic harmony is fine* 
quently interrupted by political iqaabbles. 
Without entering into a detail oftbepar* 
ticular difputes which agitate them at prefent, 
I (hall tell you in general, that one part of 
the citizens are acculed of a defign of throw- 
ing all the power into the hands of a few fa- 
milies, and of eftabliihing a complete ariflo- 
cracy. The other oppofes every meafure 
which is fuppofed to have that tendency, and 
by their adverfaries are accufed of feditious 
defigns. 

It is difficult for Grangers who reiide 
here any confiderable time, to obferve a 
Av\&, neutrality. The Englifli in particular 
are exceedingly difpofed to take part Vith 
one (ide or other : and as the government 
has not hitheito attempted to bribe them, 



l5o VtEW OF SOCIETY Alfffi. 

they generally attach thcmfelvcs to the op- 
pofitioru 

Walking one afternoon with a young 
nobteman) who, to a ftrong tafte for natural 
philofophy, unites the moil pai&onate oeal 
£>r civil liberty r* we paiTed near the garden, 
in whif:h one of thofe cirdes which fupport 
the pretenfion^ of the inagiAracy aflemble* 
I propofed joining them. No, faid my 
Lprdy witl} indignation ; I will not go for 
a moment into fuch a fociety : I confide r 
thefe men as the enemies of theit country, 
and that place as a focus for confumlng; 
freedom* 

Aniong the citisens themfelves, political 
altercations are carried on with great fire 
and fpirit. . A very, worthy old gentleman, 
in whofe houfe I have been often entertained 
With great hofpitalityf declaiming warmly 
againft certain racafures of the Council, af- 
ferted that all thofe who had promoted them 
deferved death ; and if it depended en him, 
they ihould all be hanged without lofs of 
time. His brother^ who was in that predi- 



ttlllKZRS IN nj^ciL i5t 

camcnty mterrupted him, and fatd, Mrith a 

tone of voke which feemd ro beg for mer-* 

cy , Gk>od God I brother ! forely yoo would' 

iHM: pufti If our refentmentTo far : yoKr wooid 

tiot ai&aaUjr hang them ^ Out, afliir^fflent/ 

re^^ied the p^Ortot^ With a determined courts 

tenance, et vous^ tiioii tres-ther frire^ yoas 

feries le premier penda pour mohtrer mon 

impartiality* 



LETTER XXI. 

j\.LTH0UGH this republic has long con- 
tinued in a profound peace, and there is na 
great probability of its being foon enga^d 
in bloody coQfli£t, yet the citizens of Ge- 
neva are not the lefs fond of the pomp 
of wan 

This appears in what they call their mi-^ 



l5a TIBW or SOCIETY AKV 

litary feafts, which are their mod favourite 
amufements^ and which tjiey take cv^ry 
opportunity of enjoying. 

I was prefent lately at a very grand en- 
tertainment of this kind, which was given 
by the King of the Arquebufieis upon his 
acceffion to the royal dignity. 

This envied rank is neither tranfmitteJby 
hereditary right, nor obtained by eleAion ; 
but gained by (kill and real merit. 

A war with this ftatc, like the war of 
Tioy, muft neceiFarily coniift of a (iege. 
The {kllful ufe of the cannon and arquebufe 
is therefore thought to, be of the greateft 
importance. During fevcral months every 
year, a confiderable number of the citizens 
arc alraoft conftantly employed in firing 
^t a marki which is placed at a proper 
dlftancc. v 

Any citizen has a right, at a fmall ex- 
pence, to make trial of his ikill in this 
way; and after a due number af trials, 
the mod expert maikfman is declared 
King, 



icAimisas of fringe. i55 

There has not been a coronation of this 
kind thefe.ten yean, his late Majefty hav- 
ing kept peaceable pofleffion of the throne 
during that period. Bat this fummer, 
Mr. Mofes Maudrier was found to excel iu 
fkill every competitor; and was raifed to 
the throne by the unanimous voice of the 
judges. 

He was attended to his own houfe from 
the field of conted by the Syndics, amidft 
the acclamations of the people. Some time 
after this, on the day of his feaft, a camp 
was formed on a plain, without the gates of 
the city. 

Here the. whole forces of the republic, 
both horfe and foot, were aflembled, and 
divided into two diftinA armies. They 
were to perform a battle in honour of his 
Majefty, all the combaunts having pre- 
viovfly ftudied their parts. 

This very ingenious, warlike drama had 
been compofed by one of the reyercnd 
minifters who is faid to poffcfs a very 
extenfive miliiqjy genius. 

o* 



l54 VTEW OF SOC3CETY AND 

That the ladies and people of diftinc- 
tion, who were not to be adlually engaged, 
might view the adion with the greater cafe 
and fafcty, a large amphitheatre of feats wa& 
prepared for them at a convenient diftance ' 
from the field of battle. 

Every thing being in readineGfc, the Syn* 
dies, the Council, ftrangers of diftin£tion, 
and the relation, and favourites of the King» 
afiembled at his Majefty's palace, which is 
a little fnug houfe, fituated in a narrow lanb 
in the lower part of the city. From the 
palace, the procefiion fet out in the foirow* 
ing order : 

His Majefty walked firft, fppported by 
the two eldeft Syndics. 

In the next rank was the Duke of H-*-, 
with the youngeft. 

After thefe walked Lord Stanhope, the . 
Prince Gallitain, Mr. Clive, fon to Lord 
Ciive ; Mr. Grenville, fon to the late mi- 
ni fter; Mr. St. Leger, and many other 
Englifh gentlemen^ who had been invited to 
♦^efeaft. . • 



Next to them came the Council of 
twetity-five ; and the proceffion vras dofed 
by the King's particular friends and re«> 
iations* 

In this order th«y marched throagh the 
city, preceded by a band of mufic, who 
played, as you may believe, the moft 
martial tunes 4hey poffibly could think 
ofc 

When this company camd to the field 
where the troops were drawn np, they 
were faluted by the officers ; and having 
made a complete circuit of both armiesi 
the King and all his attendants took their - 
feats at the aiiiphithefttre» which had been 
prepared for that purpofe. 

The impatience of the troops bad been 
.▼ery vifible for forae ^me. When the 
King was feated, their ardour could be nd 
lotiger reftraiHed. They called loudly to 
their o£Bcers to lead them to glory,— -* 
The fignal was given— They advanced to 
the attack- in tiie moft undaunted man- 
per, ■ C onfcions that they fought under 



v56 Tixw OB socarr aubl « 

the eyes of their King, the Syndics, of 
their .wives, children, mothers, and granct- 
mothers, they difdained the thoughts of 
retreat.— ^^— They ftood undifturbed by the 
thickeft fire. They fmiled at the roaring 
of the cannon, and, like the horfe in Job, 
they cried among the trumpets, ha, ha ! 
" The ingenious author of the battle had 
taken care to diverfify it with feveral en« 
tertaifiing incidents. 

An ambufcade was placed by one of the 
armies, behind fome trees, to forprize the 
enemy— ——This fucceeded to a miracle^ 
although the ambufqide was pofted in the 
fight of both armies, and aU the fpefta* 
tors. 

A coiivey with provifions, advancing 
towards one of ithe armies, was attadccd 
by a detachment from the other ; and after 
a fmart ikirmi ill, one half of the waggons 
were carried away by the afiailants ; *— The 
other remained with the troops for whom 
they fetemed to hd\c been originally m* 
tended. 



lU^KXBS Ur F&AKCS. iSj 

A wooden bridge was briikly attacked, 
and as refolttteljr defended ; but at length 
vras trod to pieces by both armies ; for, in 
the fory lif the fight, the combatants for- 
got whether this poor bridge was their 
friend or their foe. By what means it got 
into the midft of the battle, I nevsr could 
conceive ; for there was neither river, 
brook, nor ditch in the whole field. ' 

The cavalry on both • fides performed 
wonders.— —It was difficult to determine 
which of the generals diftinguiihed him- 
felf moft. They were both drefled in 
clothes exuberantly- covered with lace ; 
for the fumptuary laws were fufpended for 
this day, that the battle might be as mag- 
nificent as poifible. 

As neither of thefe gallant commanders 
would confent to the being defeated, the 
reverend author of the engagement could 
not make the cataftropbe fo decifive and 
affecting as he intended. 

•While Viiftory, with equipoifed wings, 
hovered over both armies, a meffenger ar- 



i58 TX£W 07 socaan Am 

rived from the town-hall with intelligetiee 
that dinner was ready. This news quickly 
fpread among the combatants, and had art 
efFe£l (imilar to that which the Sabine wo- 
men produced when they rufhed between 
their ravifliers and their relations* — The -. 
warriors of Geneva relented at once ; and 
both armies fufpended the^ir animofityy in 
the contemplation of that which they both 
loved. —They, threw down their aritis^ . 
fhook hands, and were friends* 

Thus ended the battle. 1 don't know 

how it will afied you : but it has fiitigued 
me fo completely, that I have lofl. all appe- 
tite for the feaft, which muft therefore be 
delayed till another poft. 



xjumnks IN TiANQBb i56 



LETTER XXII. 



JL H£ fame companyvivhich had attended 
the King to the field of battle, marched 
with him in proceffion from that to the 
Maifo*n de ViUe, where a fumptuous en^ 
tertainment was prepared* 

This was exaftly the reverfe of a fete- 
champetre, being held in the town-houfe^ 
and in the middle of the (Ireets adjacent ; 
where tables were covered, and dinner pro- 
vided, for feveral hundreds of the o£Ecer& 
and foldiers. 

The King, the Syndics, moft of the 
members of the Council, and all the (Iran* 
gers, dined in the toyn-hall. The other 
fooms, as well as the outer court, were 
likewife full of company. 

There was much greater havoc at 4in- 



l6o TIXW OF SOCEBTT JkKD 

ner than had been at the battle, and the 
fcntertainmcnt in other refpe6is was nearly 
as warlike. 

A kettle-drum was placed in the middle 
of the hall, upon which a martial floariifa 
was performed at every toaft. This was 
immediately anfwered by the drums and 
trumpets without the hall, and the cannon 
of the baftion. 

Profperity to the republic, is a favourite 
toaft : — When this was announced by the 
firft Syndic, all the company ftood up with 
their fwords drawn in one hand, and glafles 
filled with wine in the other. 

Having drank the toaft, they clafhed their 
fwords, a 'ceremony always performed in 
every circle or club where there is a public 
dinner, as often as this particular toaft is 
named, — —It is an old cuftooi» and im- 
plies that every man is ready to fight in 
defence of the republic. 

After we had been about two hours at 
table, a new ceremony took place, which I 
cxpeded as little in the middle ofafeaft. 



HAK29X118 nr lEJUCCE. l€l 

Aa hundred grenadiers, with their fwords 
drawn, marched with, great folemnity into 
the middle of the hall ; for* the tables being 
placed in the form of a horfe-fhoe, there 
was vacant fpace in the middle fufficicnt to 
admit them. 

They defired pemiiffion to give a toad : 
this being granted, t$ich of the grenadiers, 
by a well-timed movement, like a motion 
in the exercife, pulled from his pocket a 
large water-glafs, which being immediately 
filled with wine, one', of the foldiers, in the 
name of all, drank a health to King Mofes 
the firft. Hisexample was followed by his 
comj^nions and all the company, and was 
inftantly honoured by the found of the 
drums, trumpets, and artillery. 

When the grenadiers had drank this, 
and a toaft or two more, they wheeled 
about, and marched out of the hall with 
the fame folemnity with which they had 
entered, refuming' their places at the tables 
in the ftreet. • * ' 

Sbon after tihts a man £intaftica!Iy drefled 



l6a inEW OF SOCEETT JlHSs 

entered the hally and diftributed among tb^ 
company (ome printed fheets which feeuied 
to have come dirc(91y from the prefs. 

This proved to be a (ong made for the 
occafion, replete with gaiety, wit, and good 
feofe, pointing out, in a humorous ftrain^ . 
the advantages which the citizens of Geneva 
pofleiled, and^e^^faorling them to unanimity, 
induftry, and public fpirit.. — This ditty 
was fung by ' the man who brought it, 
while many of the company joined in the 
chorus. 

When wc defcended from the town- hall, 
we found the (bldiers intermingled with 
their officers/ (lill feated at ttie tables in the 
ftreets, and encircled by their wives and 
children. 

They all arofe foon after, and dividing 
into different companies, repaired to the 
ramparts, the fields, and the gardens, 
where, with muiic and dancing, they con- 
tinued in high glee during the reft of the 
evening. ^ 

The whole exhibition of the day, thoBgh 



' MANKXR8 IN fRAKO. 1 63 

no >^ery.juft reprcfentation of the manoeuvres 
of war, or the elegance of a court entertain* 
mcnt, formed the mod lively pidturc of jol- 
lity, mirth, good-humour, and cordiality^ 
that I had ever feen. * . 

The inhabitants of a whole city, — of 
^ whole ftate if you pleafe, united in one 
feeneof good feUowfhip» like a fiAgle(amily^ 
is fufely no common fight. 

If this fketch conveys one half of the fa* 
tisfafiion to your mind, which the fcenc itfelf 
ajSbrded mine, you will not think thefe tw6 . 
long letters tedious. 



LETTER XXm. 

Genera, 
i HERE arc fome of the citizens of Ge- 
neva themfelves who deride the little mill* 
tary eftahlilhmcnt of the republic, and xlc* 



l64 TUrW OF.SOCIETT AKD* 

dare it to be highly ridiculous in Aich a 
feeble ftate to pirefume that they could de« 
fend themfelves. The very idea of rcfiC- 
tance againft Savoy or Fiance, they hold as 
abfard. 

They feem to take pleafore in mortifying 
their countrymen, afluring them^ that in cafe 
of an attack all their efforts would be fruit* 
lefs^ and their garrifoo unable to ftand a liege 
of ten days. 

Thefe politicians declaim againft the need- 
. Icfs cxpence of kcepiiig the fortifications in ^ 
repair, and they calculate the money loft, by 
fo many manufa£turers being employed in 
wielding ufelefs firelocks inftead of the tools 
of their refpeftive profefEons. 

Were I a member of this republic, I 
fliould have no patience with thefe difcou- 
raging malcontents, who endeavour tode- 
prefs the minds of their coantrym^, and 
embitter a fource of real enjoyment. 

I am convinced that the garrifon, fmall as 
it is, aided by the zeal of the inhabitants, 
and regulated by that ftiare of difcipline 



UXHIKERS m FRAKCZ. l65 

which their fituation admits, would be fuf- 
ficient to.fecure them from a coup-de-main, 
or any immediate infult, and might enable 
tham to defend the town from the attempts 
of any one of the neighbouring dates, till 
they (hould receive fuccour from fome of 
the others. 

. Independent of thefe confideratlons, the 
ramparts are moft agreeable walks, conve- 
nient for the inhabitants, and ornamental to 
the city. 

The excrcifing and reviewing the militia 
form an innocent and agreeable fpe£lacle to 
the woman and children, contribute to the 
health and amufement of. the troops them- 
felves, and infpire the inhabitants in general 
with the pleafing ideas of fecarity and of 
their own importance. 

Upon the whole, I am convinced that 
the fortifications, and the militia of Geneva, 
produce more happinefs, in thefe various 
ways taken together, than could be pnrchafed 
by all the money they coft, expended in any 
other manner. 



iSS VIEW OF SOOIETT AK» 

This I imagine is more than can be faid 
in favour of the greater part of th« (landing 
armies on the continent of Europe, wbofe 
numbers fecure the defpotifm of the firmce^ 
whofe maintenance is a moft fevere burdea 
upon the countries. whicl> fupport them, 
and whofe difcipline, inftead of exciting 
pleafm emotions, imprefles the mind with 
horror. 

The individuals who compofe thof&armies 
are miferable, by the tyranny exercifed on 
them, and are themfelves the caufe of mi- 
fery to their fellow^citizens by the tyranny 
they exercifcu 

But it will be faid they defend the nation 
from foreign enemies. — Alas ! could a fo- 
reign conqueror occafion more wretchednefs 

than fuch defenders ? When he who 

calls himfelf my jtote6\or has tlripped me of 
my property, and deprived me of my free- 
dom, I cannot return him very cordial thanks^ 
when he tells me, that he will defend me 
from ever other robber. 

The moft folid fecurity which this little 



MASVtSLS IN FRAKC£. 167 

repablic has for its independency, is found- 
ed -on the mutual jealoufy of its neigh- 
' boars. , ' 

There is no danger of its meeting with 
the misfortune which has fo lately befallen 
Poland. — Geneva is fuch an atom of a.ft2Cte 
as not to be divifible. 

It ferves, however, as a kind of barrier 
or alarm-pofl; to the Swifs Cantons, particu« 
larly that of Bern, which certainly would 
not like to fee it in the hands either of the 
King of France or Sardinia. 

The acquifition iis not worth the attco* 
tion of the firft ; and it is better for 
the fepond, that the republic fhould re- 
main in its prefent free and independ^ 
ont fituationi than that it fhould revert 
to his pofieffion, and be fubjeded to the 
fame government with his other domi* 
nions. 

For no fooncr would Geneva be in .the 
poCTeffion of Sardinia, than the wealthiefl 
of the citizens would abandon it, and carry 



X6S VIEW OF SOCIETY AKD 

their families and riches to Switzerland, 
Holland* or England. 

Trade and manafaflures would dwindle 
with, the fpirit and independence of the in- 
habitants' ; and the flouriflung, enlightened, 
happy city of Geneva* like other tovi^ns of 
Piedmont and Savoy* would become the 
refidence of oppreffion* fuperflitioii, and 
poverty. 

In this fituation it could add but little to 
the King's revenue; whereas, H prefent, 
tha peafants of his dominiom refort in 
great numberstp Geneva every market day, 
where they find a ready fale for all the pro- 
ductions of their farms. The land is, on 
this account, more valuable, and the pea- 
fants are more at their eafe, though the 
taxes are very high, than in any other part 
of Savoy; 

This republic, therefore,, in its prelent 
hidependapt ftate, is of more ufe to the 
King of Sardinia, than if it were his pro- 
.pcrty. 

^ If a wealthy merchant fhould purchafe a 

piece 



%rANK£B5 m FRANCE. l6g' 

piece of ground from a poor Lord, build a 
large hoafe^ and form beautiful gardens upon 
it, keep a number of Servants, (pend a great 
part of his revenue in good houfekeeping 
and hofpttality, the confumption of his 
table, and many other articles, being pur- 
chafed from this Lord's tenants, it is evident 
that they would become rich, and be able to 
pay a larger rent to their landlord. This 
Lord would certainly a(% againft his own 
interdl, if he attempted, by law, chicane, or 
force, todifpoflefs the proprietor ofthehoufe 
and gardens. 

The free republic of Geneva is to the 
King of Sardinia exa£kly what the fup[]/ofed 
rich man would be to the poor Lord. 

It affoirds me fatisfa£lion to perceive, that 
the (lability of this little fabric of freedom, 
raifed by my friends the citizens of Geneva, 
does not depend on the juftice and mo^ 
deration of the neighbouring powers, or 
any equivocal fupport ; but is founded on 
the folid lading pillars of their mutual in"* 
tereft. 

VOL. I. H 



I70 VIEW or aocutry Am 



LETTER XXIV. 

X Return^ a few days fince fv^at a jour- 
ney to the Glacien of Savoy, the Fays 
de VallaiSy and otber places among the 
Aips. 

The wondeff al accounts I had . h^wri of 
the Glaciers had ejccited my cotioikjr a good 
deal, while the air of fuperiority aflumed by 
ibme who had made thi&^hoafled tour jMqded 
my pride IHllmore. 

One could hardly mentioa any thiog cur 
rious or fingular^ without being told by 
fome of thofe travellers, with an air of cool 
contempt-— Dear Sir, — that is pretty w^U ; 
hut take, ray word for A, it is noliiing to.ihe 
Glaciers of Savoy. * 

I determined at lad not to tsJcie tbeir 
word for It, and I found fome gentJemeci 
of the fame way of thirtking. The party 



confifted of the Duke of Hamilton, Mr. 
Upton, Mr. GrenviiJe, Mr. Kennedy, and 
xnyfelf. 

We left Geneva early in tlie j»orning of 
the third of Augoft» and breakfaded sMk 
Bonneville, a fmall town in the ducby of 
5ovoy, fituated at the foot of Mole, and o» 
cibe banks of the river Arve. 

The fumoiit of Mole, as we were told, is 
about 46CX) Englifh feet above the Jake of 
Geneva, at the lower paflf^ge of the Rhone, 
vrKich lad is about laoo feet above ihe kvd 
of the Mediterraoeaa. For tbefe particu*- 
lars, I ihall take the word of my informer, 
whatever airs of fuperiority he laay alTume 
on the difcovery. 

From Bonneville we proceeded to Clule 
by a >r4ad tolerably good, and highly enter- 
taining on account of the fingularity and va» 
riety of landscape to be (stn from it. TI19 
object diange their appearai^ce every ino« 
ment as yon advance, for the path is con-" 
tinually winding, to humour the pofuionof 
the JMuntains^ and to gain an accefs between 



,17^ VIEW or socjmrr ai?» 

the rocks, whidh in fome places hang over it 
in a very threatening manner. The moun- 
tains overlook and prefs fo clofely upon this 
little town of Clufe, that when I flood in 
•the principal ftri^et, bach end of it feemed to 
be perfeflly ihut tip ; and wherever any of 
thelioufes had fallen down, the vacancy ap- 
peared to the eye,f at a moderate diftance, to 
be plugged up in the -fame manner =by a 
green mountain. 

On leaving Ciufe, however, we found a 
well made road running along the banks of 
the Arve, and flanked on each fide by very 
high hills, whofe oppofite fides tally fo ex- 
atStly, as to lead one ^o imagine they have 
been torn from each other by fome violent 
convutfion of nature. 

In bther p»laces one fide of this defile is 
a high perpendicular rock, fo. very fmbbth 
that it feems not to havjs been torn by na- 
ture, bftt chifelled by art, from top to bot- 
tom, while the wliole of the fide dire£Uy 
oppofite is of the mofl fmiling verdure. 

The paflTage bctWQ^n the mountains »gra- 



dualif Opens as you advance, and the fcene 
diverfifies with a fine lujniriancy of wild 
landfcape. 

Before you enter the town of Sallenchv, 
y6a muft crofs the Arve, which at this 
feafon is* much larger than in winter, 
being fwoln by the diflblving fnows of the* 
Alps. 

This river has its fource at the parifli ot 
Argentiere, in the valley of Chamouni, is 
immediately augmented by torrents from 
the neighbouring Glaciers, and pours it9 
chili turbid ftream into the Rhone, foon 
after that river ifiues from the lake of 
Geneva^ 

Tbecontraft between thofc two riven is 
very (Iriking, the one being as pure and 
limpid as the othc;r is foul and muddy* 
The Rhone fecms to fcorn the alliance, and 
keeps as long as ^oifible • unmingled with 
his dirty fpoufe. Two miles below the 
place of their junfiklon, a diflference and 
oppofition between this ill forted couple i» 
0iil obfervable; thefe, howeveTj graduall]}: 



>74 VIEW «Mr socimr juk9 

tibatc by long habit, till at laft, yieldrng to 
neceffiny, and to thofe unrdentiirg Ia#t 
which joined them together, they atq'ix m 
perfeft umoTi, and- flow m a common (tream 
to the end of their cour{e« 

We pafiid the night at Salktiche, and 
the remaining part of our journey not 
admitting of chaifes^ they were fent back 
to Geneva, with orders to the driven , to go 
round by the otiier fide of the lake, and 
meet va at the village of Maj^tigny, m the 
Pssys de Vallais. 

We agreed wid] a muleteer at JSatlenche^ 
who provided n^ules to carry us over the 
mountains to Martigny. It is a good 
(hy's journey from Satlenche to Cbamouni^ 
not on account of the diffancc, but from 
the difficulty and perpkxity of. tbe road^ 
and the fleep afcents and defcems with 
which you are tcafed alternately the whole 
way. 

Sonse of the Riouiitains are covered with 
pine, oak, beech, and walnut trees. Thcfc 
are imerfperied with appk, plumbj^ cherry* 



and other fmit trees, fo that we rode a grear 
part of the forenoon in fhade. 

Befides the refrefhing coolnefs this occa- 
fionedt rt was paoft agreeable to mc on 
another account. The road waf in fome 
places fo exceedingly fteep that ^ never 
doubted but fome of us were to fall; I 
therefore. rcfieSed with fariifadion, that 
thofe trees wctuld probably arrcft our courfe, 
and hinder us from rolling n grent way. 

Bat many pathlefs craggy mountains 
remained to be traverfcd after we had loft 
the proteAion of the trees. We then had 
nothing but the fagactty of our mules to 
truft to. For my own part, I was very 
foon convinced that it was much fafer on 
all dubious occafions to depend on thetr*$ 
than on my own : for as often as I was 
prefented with a choice of difficulties, and 
thenpufe aiid 1 were of different opinions, 
if, becoming more / crolrnate than he, I in.- 
fifted on hrs taking my track, 1 never failed 
to repent it, ami often was obliged to re^ 
turn to the place where the controverfy had 



t^G V1«W OF SOCIETY j^i> 

begun, and follow the path to which' he 
hsii pointed at firft.. 

It is entertaining to obferve the prudence 
of thefe animals in making their way down 
fuch dangerous rocks. They fometimes put 
their heads over the edge of the precipice^ 
and examine with anxious circurnfpediliaii 
every poffible way by which they can 
defcend/ and at length are furc to fix 
on that which upon the whole is the befL 
Having obferved this in feveral iniiances, I 
laid the bridle on the neck of my mule, and 
allowed him to take his own way, without 
prefumjng to controul him in the fmalleft 
degree. 

This is doubt}efs the beft method, and 
what I recommend to all my friends in 
their journey through life when they have 
mules for their companions. 

We refted fome time, during, the fultry 
heat of the day, at a ^y pleafmgly fituated 
village called Serve; and afcending thence - 
along the fteepeft and rougheft road we had 
yet fcen, we pafled by a* mountain, wherein, 



KUNNEHS'IK FRANCE. IJJ 

they told us» there 1$ a rich vein of copper, 
but that the proprietOF^ have left off work* 
iog. it for ma{3y years. 

As we paffed through one little village, 
I faw many peafants going into a church. 
— It was fome Saint's day— The poor 
people muft have half-ruined themfelves 
by purchafnig gold-leaf,— Every thing was 
gilded.— The Virgin was drefled in a. new 
gown of gold paper ;^— -The infant in her 
arms was equally brilliant, all but the peri- 
lyig on his head, which was milk-white, 
and had certainly been fre^i powdered that 
very morning. 

I could fcarcely refrain from fmiling at 
this ridiculous fight, which the people be- 
held with as much veneration as they could 
have fliewn, had the originals been prefent. 

Upon carting up my eyes to the cieling, 
I faw fomething more extraordinary dill : 
rhis was a portrait of God the Father, fitting 
on a cloud, and drefled like a Pope, with the 
tiara on hiis head. Any one muft naturally 
be fhocked at this, if he be not at the fame 



i'^& TIXW or SOCIETY JLK^ 

inftant maved ta laughter at the infinite 
abfurdity of the i<ka» 

About Irx in the evening we arrived at 
the valley af Chanrouni, and found lodg- 
ings in a fmafl village called Prieure. The 
valley of Chamouni is about 6x leagues in 
length, and an Englifh mile in breadth. It 
is bounded on all fides by very high 
mountains. Between the intervals of thefc 
mountains, on one fide of the valley, tlic 
taft bodies of fnow and ice, which are 
Called Glaciers, dcfcend from Mont Blanc, 
which is their fourcc. 

On one fide of the valley, oppofite to the 
(jlaciers, (lands Breven, a mountain whofc 
lidge is 5300 Englifh feet higher than the 
valley. Many travellers, who have more 
curlofity, and who think lefs of fatigue than 
we, take their firft view of the Glaciers from 
the top of Mount Breven. As thcire is only 
the narrow valley between that and the 
Glaciers, all of which it overlooks, and 
every other objedl around, except Mont 

I 



MAKN£RS m FKAKCf£. Ifg 

Hlanc, the view from it muft be Tcry ad- 
vantageous and magnificent. 

We determined to begin with Mon tan- 
vert, from which we could walk to the 
Glaciers, referving Mount Brcven for ano- 
ther day's work, if we (hould find ourfclves 
fo inclined. After an hour*s refrefhment 
at our quarters, Mis Kennedy and I took 
a walk through the valley. 

The chapter of Priefts and Canons of 
Sallenche have the Lordlhip of Chamouni, 
and draw a revenue from the poor inhalu« ^ 
tants ; the highefl: mountains of the Alps, 
with all their icf and fnow, not being fuffi- 
cient to defend them from rapacity and 
extortion. 

The prieft's houfe is beyond comparifon 
tbfl beft ia (be whole valley « Looking at 
it, I aiked a young man who ilood near 
me, if the prieft was rich ? 

Oui, Monfieur, hornblement, — replied 
he, — et aufli il mange prefque tout notre 
h\6. 



l80. TJEW OE. SOCIETY ANn 

I then afkedy if the people of Chamouiu 
wiflied to. get rid. of him? 

Qui, bien de cehii-ti — mais il.&at avoir 
un autre. 

I do not fee the abfolute neceflity of that^ 

faid I. Gonfider, if you had no priefts, 

you would have more to eat. 

The lad ftared then anfwered with 

great ndiveti — Ah, MonCeur, dans ce pays- 
ci les pretres font tout audi n^cefiaires que 
le manger. 

It is plain^ that this clergyman inflru£ls^ 
his pariihioners very carefuiry in the prin- 
ciples of religion.- ■ I perceive, that your 
foul is in very fave handy, faid Kennedy, 
giving-the Boy a crown ; but here is fome« 
thing to enable you to take care of your 
body. 

In my next I (hall endeavour to give you 
forae account of the Glaciers :— Atprefent^ 
I jnuft wiih you good nig^t. 



MJkNSm^ IM FRAKCE- l8i' 



LETTER XXV. 

^ Geneva.. 

VV E began pretty early in the morning 
• to afcend Montanvert, from the top of 
which, there is eafy accefs to the Glacier 
of that name, apd to the Valley of Ice. 

Our mules carried us from the inn acrofs 
ihe valley, and even, for a conrfiderable way. 
up the mountain ; which at length became 
fo exceedingly fteep, that we were obliged 
to difmount and fend them back. Mr. 
Uptoa only, who had been here before, and 
was accuftomed to fuch expeditions^ con« 
tinned without compundiion on his mule 
till he got to the top, riding- fearlefs over 
rocks, which a goat or a chamois would 
have pafled with caution. 

In this laft animal, which is to be found 
ea thefe mountains only^ are blended the 
di&rent ^[uaUties of the goat and the 



i8a Tixw oi; socEcnr ani>- 

tleer. — —It is faid to have more agility 
than any other quadruped poffeffed of the 
fame degree of ftreugtb. 

After afcending four hours, we gained 

~ the fummit of Montanvert. The day Avas 

remarkably fine, the objecSls around -aoble 

and m^ijeffic, but in fonre refpefts difFerent 

froms" what I had esrpeflbcd. 

The valfcy of Chamouni had difappeared : 
— Mount Breven ftcmetl to have crept 
Wonderfully near ; and if I had not juft 
crofled the pfctinr which fcparates the two 
mountains^ and is a mile in breadth, I 
fhoutd have concluded thait their bafes were 
in contaA, and that their diftance abovtf 
was folely owrng ta the dimrinutioruin the 
fee of all mountains towards the furamrt. 
Judging from the eye alone, I ftwoid hav« 
thought it poffibte tohave thrown a lloirt 
from the place where I ftoodf to Mo«»t 
Breven. 

There is a ehatn of mountains behind 
Montanvert, all covered with friow, which 
terminate in four diftinfl rocks, of a great 



height, having the appearance of narrow 
pyramids or (pires. They arc called tlie 
"Needtes ; and each has a diftin6l name. — 
Mont Blanc, furronnded by Montanvcrt, 
Mount Brevcn, the Needles, and other 
fnowy mountains, appears like a giant among 
ptgrntes. 

The height which we had now attained, 
was fo far on our way up this noountain* 
I was therefore equally fnrprifed and mor- 
tified to find, after an afcent of three thou- 
sand feet, that Mont Blanc feemed as high 
here as when we Mjpc in the valley. 

Having afcended Montanvert from Cha- 
roonni, dn defcending a little on the other 
fide, we found ourfelves on a plain, whofe 
appearance has been aptly compared to that 
which a ftormy fea would have, if it were 
fuddcnly arretted and fixed by a ftrong 
froft. This is called the Valley of Ice. 
It ftretchcs feveral leagues behind Mon- 
tanvert, and is reckoned 2300 feet higher 
than the valley of Chamouni. 

From the higheft part of Montanvert 



l84 TIEW OP SOCIETY AKD 

wc had ?ill the following objefts under our 
eye, fomc of which feemed to obftfud): the 
view of others equally interefting ; -r- the 
Valley of Ice,, the Needles, Mont Blanc, 
with the fnowy mountains below, finely 
contraftcd with Breven, and the grean hills 
on the oppofite £de of Chamouni, and the 
fun in full fplendor ihowing all of them 
to the greateft advantage. — The whole 
forms _a fcene equally fuhlime and beautiful^ 
far above my power of defcription, and 
worthy of the eloquence of that very inge- 
nious gentleman, who has fo finely illuf- 
irated thefe fubjefts, in a particular trea- 
tjfe, and given fo many examples of both 
in his parliamentary fpeeches. 

While we remained in contemplation of 
this fcene, fome of the company obfcrved, 
that from the top o(one of the Needles the 
profpedl would be (iill more magnificent, 
as the eye could ftretch over Breven, beyond 
Geneva, all the way to Mount Jura, and 
comprehend the Pays de Vallois, and 
many other mountains and vallics« 



This excited the ambition of the Doke 
of Hamittom* He fpmng up, and made 
tov^arSs the Aiguille da Dru, which is the 
higheft of the four Needles. Though he 
bounded over the ice with the elafticity of a 
yoang chamois, jt was* a coniiderable time 
before he could- arrive at the foot of the 
Needle : — for people are greatly deceived as 
to diftances in thofe fhowy regions. 

Should he get^ near the top, faid Mr. 
Grenville, looking after him with eager^ 
nefs, he will fWear we have fecn nothing — 
But I will try to mount as high as he can«; 
I am not fond of feeing people above n^e; 
So faying, he fprung after him. 

In a fliort time we faw them both fcram>- 

bling up the rock : The Duke had 

gained a confidera^Ie height, when he was 
fud^enly {lopped by a part of the rock 
which was perfecSkly imprafUcable ( for his 
impetuofity had. prevented him. from cbooff 
ing the eafieft way ) ; fo Mr. Grenville 
overtook him. • 

Here they had. time to breathe andcQol 



i86 TTBW or socnwY asm 

a little. The one being determined* not 
to be furpaffcd, t!>e other tKowght the ex- 
ploit not wof th his while, fincc the bonocir 
mufi be divided. S* like two rivsd powers, 
who have exbaufted their ftmngth by a 
fniitlefr cottteft, they returned, fkigaed 
and dtfappolnted, ta the place from whicfc 
they had fet out. 

After a very agreeable Mpaft, on the 
provifions and wine wbtcfa oo^r guides had 
brought from the Prieurc, wc pa&dj by an 
eafy defcait, from the green part of Monr- 
anvert to the VaHeyof Ice. A wsAk upon 
thii frozen fea is afttended with incotYve- 
niencies. In fome places, the fweMings^ 
Avhich Iravc been compared to waves, are 
forty or fifty feet high : yet, as they are 
roogh, and Tl>e ice intermingled with fnow, 
one may walk over them. In other parts, 
thofe waves arc of a very moderate fize, and 
in fome places the furface is quite level. 

What renders a paflage over this valley 
ftill more difficult and dangerous is, the 
rents in the ice, which arc to be met with, 



whatever direSion yoo follow. Thefe rents 
are from two to fix feet wide, and of an 
amassing deprh; reaching from the furface 
of the vatlef, through a body ofjcemanf 
hundred fathoms thick. On throwing 
down a ftone, or any other folid fub- 
ftan^e^ we could hear the hollow nrarmur 
of its defeent for a very long time, found- 
ing Uke far didant waves breakirrg upon 
rocks. 

Our guides, emboldened by habit, (kipped 
over thcfe rents wiihout any fign of fear, 
though they infortned us, that they had 
often feen frefh clefts formed, while they 
walked on the valley. They added, indeed, 
for our encooragementj that t&is was always 
preceded by a loud continued noife, which 
gave warning of what was to happen. 

h is evident, however, that this warning, 
though it fhoafd always precede the rent, 
could be of little ufe to thofe who had ad- 
vanced to the mtddle of the valley ;( for 
they neither could know certainly in what 
iire<Stforfto run, nor could they have timer 



tfi& VJEW ©J SOCIETY AKU* 

to get off: ancMncafe the ice ihoald yawir 
direftly under their feet, they muft inevi- 
tably perifli.-^But probably few accidents 
of that kind happen ; and this has greater 
influence, than any reafoning upon the 
fubjedl. 

It is fuppofedy that the fnow and ice ar 
the bottom, melting by the warmth of die 
earth, leave great vacancies, in the form of 
vaults. Thefe natural arches fupport for a 
long time an amazing weight. of ice atid 
fnow ; — for there is a vaft diftance from the 
bottom to the fiirface of this valley.—^ — But 
the ice beneath continuing to dilTolvc, and 
the fnow above to increafe, the arches muft 
at laft. give way, which occadons the noifc 
and rents above mentioned* Water alfoj 
which may have fallen from the furface into 
the clefts, or is lodged by any means in 
this great mafs of fnow, will, by its fudden 
expanfion in the vlA of freezing, occafiou. 
new rents at the furface. 

We had heard a great deal of the havoc 
made by avalanches. Thefe are formed o£ 



1CAKKER8 m HUKC£. I89 

-fnow driven by the winds agalnft the 
highcA and moft protuberant parts of rocks 
and mountains, ivhere it hardens' and ad- 
heres fometimes till a prodigious mafs k 
accumulated. But when thefe fupporters 
are able to fuftain the increafing weight no 
longer, the avalanche falls at once, hurry* 
ing large portions of the loofened rock or 

mountain along with it ; and rolling 

from a vaft height, with a thundering noiie, 
to the valley, involves in certain de(lru£tioR 
all the tr^es, houles, cattl^ and oien, which 
l\e in its way*. 

* Ac veluti montis saxam de Tertice prfficeps 
Cam mit ayulsum rento, sea tarbidaa imber 
Prolait^ aat annis solrit aablapsa vetvutas : 
Fertnr in abraptum magao mona improboa acta^ 
Ejcaltatque solo, silvas, armenta, yiros^ue 
layolveos secam. Vmo* 

As when, by agf, or rains, or tempests torn, 
A rock from some high precipice is borne ^ 
Trees, herds, and swains involving in the sweep, 
.The, mass flies furious from th' aerial steep. 
Leaps down the mountain's side, v^th many a hound, 
In Eery whirls, and smokes along tfie ground. 

Pitt. 



1^ Ynsw OF sotmxrr anb 

Tbe greater part of thofc who have maJe 
a journey to the Glaocrs have feen one or 
mone of thefe avahnches in the very sA of 
filing, and have themlelves always efcaped 
by iniracte.— Juft as raoft people who 
have made a fingle voys^e by fea, if it 
were ody between Dover and Calais, have 
naet with a ftorm, and very namswly eicaped 
ftiipwreck. 

All that any of t)nr party can boaft is, 
tbat during the nights' we lay at Chamounj, 
we frequently heard a noifc like diflant 
thunder, which we were told was occa- 
iioned by the falling of fome of thefe fame 
avalanches at a few mites lirfianoe. And 
during our excurfions, we faw trees de- 
ftroyed/and traSs of foil torn from the 
fides of the mountains, over which the 
avalanches were faid to have rolled, two 
or three years before we pafflbd, Thefe 

were the narroweft efcapes we made. 

I heartily wifli the fame good lack to all 
travellers, whatever account they tbemfelves 



may choofe to give to their friends when 
they retoro. 

The Valley of Ice is feveral leagues in 
length, and not above a qearter of a league 
in hreadth. |t divides into branches, which 
run behind the chain of mountains formerly 
taken notice of. It appears like a frozen 
amphitheatre, and is bounded by moun- 
tains, in whofe clefts columns of cryftal, as 
we were informed, are to be found. — ^The 
hoary majeity of Mont Blanc * ***** * 
I was in danger of rifing into poetry, when 
recolledting the ftory of Icarus, I thought 
it beft not to truft lo my own waxen 
wings. — ^I beg leave rather to borrow the 
following lines, which will pleafe you better 
than any flight of mine, and prevent me 
from a fail: 

So Zembla*s rocks (the beauteous wt>rk of 

froft) 
Rife white m air, and glitter o*«r the eoaft'; 
Pale funs, unfelt, at diftanceroH away. 
And on th'imfaffive ice the Bghtnings play J 



1^ VIEW OS SOCtETY MSt 

Eternal fnows the growing mafs fupply. 
Fill the bright mountains, prop th'incumbent 

fey; ^ 

As Atlas fix'd, each hoary pile appears. 
The gathered winter of a theu(and y e^rs* 

Having walked a confiderable lime on 
the valley, and being fufEciently regaled 
with ice, we at length thought of return- 
irjg to our cottage at Prieur^. Our guides 
led us down by a fliorter and fteeper way 
than that by which we had afcended ; and 
in about two hours after we had begun our 
defcent, we found ourfelves at the l)Qttoin 
of the mountain. This rapid manner of 
dcfcending, moft people find more fevere 
upon the mufcles of the legs and thighs, 
than even the afcent. For my own part, I 
was very near exhaufted ; and as we were 
ftill a couple of miles diftant from our 
loclgings, it was \tith the greateft fatisfac- 
tion that I faw our obfequious mules in 
waiting to carry us to our cottage ; where 
Jiaving at laft arrived, and being aflembled 

. in a 



m a fmall room, excluded from the view ot 
icy valleys, cryftal hills, and fnowy moan* 
tains, with nothing be&re us but hambic 
obje£b, as cold meat, coarfe bread, and 
poor wine, we contrived to pafs an hour 
before going to bed, in talking over the 
exploits of die day, and die wonders we 
had feen.— 'Whether there is greater plea- 
fare in this, or in viewing the Scenes them« 
fdveSf is a qoeftion not yet decided by tho 
cafiiifts. 



LETTER XXVI. 

1 HERE are five or fix dtflfcrent Ghcien, 
which all terminate upon orie fide of the 
valley of Chathoani, within the fpace of 
about five leagues, t . 

Thcfe are prodigious colicdions of fnow 

VOL. I, I 



igi Tixw OF scnixTT Asn 

and. ice, ibrcned in the intervals or hollows 
between the mountains that bound the fide 
of the valley near which Mont Blaoc 
ftand . 

The fnow in thofe hollows being fcredned 
from the infjiuence of the fun, the beat of 
fummer can di£Eblve only a c^tain portion 
<^ it. Thcfe mtgatines of ice and fnovif 
are not formed by what ^lls diredly from 
the heavens into the intervals. They are 
fupplied by the fnow which ^IIs during 
winter on the loftiefl; parts of Mont Blanc ; 
large beds or ftrata of which Aide down 
imperceptibly by ^heir own gravity, and 
finding no refiftance at thefe intervals, they 
form lon^ irregular roots ^tbund all the 
adjacent mountains. 

Five of thefe enter, by five different em- 
bouchurei, into the valley of Chamouni^ 
;ind ar« called Glitcterft, oa oiie of which 
we had beep. 

At prel^nt their fiirftee is from a thou^ 
fand, or two thoufand feet h'^, above the 
yalley. 



Their breadth depends on the widenefs 
of the interval between the mountaini ia 
which they are formed* 

Viewed from the valley, they have, iit 
my opinion, a much finer ttkGt than ftota 
their fummit. 

The rays of the fun (Iriking with variou* 
force on the different parts, according as 
they arc more or lefs cxpofed, occafion an 
unequal diflToIution of the ice ; and, with 
the help of a little imagination, giv^the ap^ 
pearances of columns, arches, and turrets^ 
which are in fome places tranfparent. 

A fabric of ice in this flatc, two thou^ 
(and feet hi^i, and three times as broadtf 
with the fun fhining full upon it, you mufl 
acknowledge to be a^ very lingular piece o£ 
archite£lure* 

Our company afeended only the Glacicx 
of Moiitanvert, which is not thfe highoft, 
tad were contented with a view of the 
others from the valley; but more xarioua 
travellers will furely think it worth theit 



,t^6 VIEW OF 80CIBTY ANJ> 

labour to examine each of them more par- 
ticularly. 

Some people are fo fond of Glaciers, that 
]pot fatisfied with their prefent dzey tbey 
ipfift pofitively, that they muft neceflarily 
grow larger every year ; and they argue the 
matter thus : 

The prefent exifience of the Glaciers is 
a fufEcient proof that there has, at fome 
period or other, been a greater quantity of 
fnow formed during the winter, than the 
heat of me fummerhas been able todiflblve. 
But this difproportion muft neceflarily in« 
creafe every year, and, of confequence, the 
Glaciers muft augment : becaufe, any given 
quantity of fnow and ice remaining through 
the courfe of one fummer, muft increafe 
the cold of the atmofphere round it in 
fome degree ; which being reinforced by 
the ihows of the fucxeeding winter, will 
lefift the diSblvhig power of the fuffi more 
the fecond fummer than the iirft, and 
ftill mprfi the third than the feccMod, and 
fo on. . , 



The conclufion of this teafoning is, that 
th« Glaciers muft grow larger by an in- 
creaCng^ ratio every year, till the end of 
time. For this reafon, the authors of thf» 
theory regret, that they themfelves have 
been fent into the world fo foon ; becaufe^ 
if their birth had been delayed for nine or 
ten thoufand years, they fhould have feen 
the Glaciers in much greater glory^ Mont 
Blanc being but a Lilliputian at prefent, ra 
comparifon of what it will be then. 

However rational this may appear, ob- 
jeftions have neverthelefs lieen faggefted, 
vrhich I am forry for; becaufe, when a^thcory 
is tolerably confident, well &bricated, and 
goodly, to behold, nothing can be more vex- 
atious, than to feea plodding officious fel«* 
low overthrow the whole ftruSure at once 
by adafhofhrs pen, as Harlequin does a 
houfe with a touch of his fword, in a"~pan- 
tomime entertainment. 

Such cavillers fay, that as the Glaciers 

augment in fize, there muft be a greater ex* 

^ent of furface for the fun-beams toa<^ upoB^ 



ig8 Torw Of sociBTT xsp 

and, of confequence, the difibiquon will be 
greater, which muft effe^ujilly prevent the 
continual increafe contend^ for.. 

But the other party extricate themfelves 
from this difficulty by roundly afferting, that 
Ac additional cold occafioncd by the fnew 
and ice already depofited, has a much grea- 
ter in^tience in retarding their diflblution, 
than the increafed furface can havein hail- 
cning it ; and, in confirmation <Jf their fyf- 
tem, tlieytell you, that the oldeft inhabi* 
tants of Chapiouni remember the Glaciers 
when they were much fmaller than at pre- 
fent ; and alfo remember the time when they 
could walk, from the Valley of Ice, to placet 
liehind the mountains, by paffages which ar^ 
now quite choked up with hills of fnow, 
not above fifty years old. 
' Whether the inhabitants of Chamouni af- 
fert this from a laudable partiality to the Gla- 
ciers, whpm they may now confider (on zc^ 
count of theif drawing fl rangers to vifit the 
valley) as their heft ^leighbours : —or from 
politenefs to the fupporters of the above- 



nentioiied opinion ; -^ op from riftl obferu 
vatioii, I ihall not prrfume to fa^. — »B«t { 
m^retfkive heard fevenO^of the old people 
in Chamouni aibt the h&^ 

the cavillers being thus obliged to relln« 
qoiih tiu^r former objei^on, attempt, in the 
fteJtt place, to fhow, that the sdk)ve theory 
leads 10 an abfardity i becaafe^ fay. they, rt 
the Glaciers go on iiicreafing in bulk ad in-- 
Jimtum^ the globe itfelf would become in 
procefs of time a n^ere appendage to Mont 
Blanc* 

^The advocates for the continual augmei^ 
tation of the Glaciers reply, that as thii 
inconveniency has not already happened^ 
there needs no other refutation of the im- 
pious dodlrine of certain philofophers, who 
aflcrt that the world has exiftcd from eter- 
nity ; and as to the globe's becoming an 
appendage to the mountain, they affure u$» 
that the world will be at an end long before 
that event can happen. So that thofe of the 
jnoft timid natures, and mod delicate con* 



OOO " TIXW or SOCUfFT Msm 

ftitutionty may difmifs thrir fears on thak 
fobjea. 

, For my own part, though I wife Well to 
the Glaciers, and all the inhabitants of Cha- 
mojEUiJ, having pafled fome days very plea- 
lantly in their company ; I will take no part 
in this controverfy, the merits of which I 
leave to your own judgment. 



LETTER XXVIL 



X HE morning of the day on which we de- 
parted from Prieur^^ I obferved a girl. of a 
very fingular appearance fitting before the 
door of one of the houfes. When I fpoke 
to her, flie made no anfwer : . but an elderly 
man, who had been a foldier in the King of 
Sardinia's fervice, and my acquaintance fincc 



rhe? moment of our arrival, informed me, 
that this girl was an ideoty and bad been fa 
from her birth. 

He took me to two other houfes ia the 
village, in each of which there was one pcr- 
fon in the fame melancholy fituation ; and 
he affured me, that all <Jver the valley of 
Chamouniy in a family confiding of five or 
fix children, one of them, generally fpeak* 
ing, was a perfe<9; natural. 

This was confirmed by fome others, to 
whom I afterwardi mentioned it. I was 
told at the fame time, that the parents, fo 
far from confidering titis as a misfortune, 
looked upon it as an indication of good luck 
to the reft of the family, and no unhap- 
pinefs to the individual, whom they always 
cherifh and protedi with tlie ulmoft ten- 
dernefe. 

I aiked my foldier, if any of his own fa- 
mily were in that fituation? Non, Mon- 
fieur, anfwercd he ; et auffi j'^ai pajQS une vi« 
bien dure. 



t^ Tisw OT nocwvr Aim 

Don't you think thcfe poor creatures very 
tinhappy ? 

Demande pardon » Monfieur ; — lis font 
ti^s-heureax — — 

But you would not tike to have been bom 
in that ftate yourfelf ? 

Vous croyeK dcmc, Monfieur, quej'auroit 
iii bien attrap^ ? 

Atlrapc ! — certainly : *^don't you think 
fo too ? 

Pour cela, non, Monfieur j je n*aur(»s ja- 
mais travaiUe. 

To one who has through life been obliged 
to work hard for a bare fubfidence^ Ijkboufr 
appears the greateft evil, and perfed idleneis 
the greateft blefling. If this foldier had bees 
brought up in idlenefs, and had experienced 
all the horrors and deje&ion which attend 
indolent luxury, very poffibly he would be 
of a diflerent opinion. 

During this journey, I remarked, that in 
fome particular villages, and for a confi- 
defable traft of country, fcarcely was there 
any body to be fecn who had that fwcUing 



JOKirtKs m nusrot. suS 

. of tile throat and ncc^ whidi is thought 
£o geoentl among all. the iohsrfmants of the 
. Alps^ In paitkular^ I diJ not obferf c any 
body at Frieut^ with this complaint ; and, 
upon enquiry, was informed that there are 
many pariihes in which not a fingle perfon 
IS troubled with it» and that in other 
places at no great didance^ it is almoft 
univerfal« 
In the yalley of ChamouOi there is only 
. one hamlet where it is common i but in the 
Pays de Vallais, I was told* it is more fre- 
quent than in any other place. 

As this difeafe Teems to be endemical, it 
cannot 9 as has been imagined^ proceed from 
the drinking of water impregnated with fnoM^ 
or ice ; for this beverage is common to all 
the inhabitants of the Alps* and of other 
mountains* 

If the Water be in reality the vehicle. of 
this difeafe, We muft fuppofe it impregnated^ 
not only with diflblved ice and fnow, but 
alfo with fome fait, or other fubftance, pof« 
fefled of the noxious quality of oUtru^^g 



ao4 ' VIEW OF soonenr Jign> 

the glands of the throat ^ and we miift alfb 
fuppofe, that this noxious fobftance is ta 
ht found in no other inhabited place but 
the Alps.- 

After one of the inhabitants of Cha- 
mouni had enumerated many parifhes where 
there were, and others where there were no 
Goitres ( which is the name they give this 
fwelling,) he concluded by tellrng me, I 
fhould fee them in great abundance among 
the Vallaifans, to whofe country we were 
going. — When I told the man, I thought 
his country people very' happy, in beiirg 
quite free from fuch an odious difeafe^ 
which affli£bed their poor neighbours 
En revanche, feid the peafant, nous fommes 
accabMs dcs impots ; — et d^ns le Rys de 
Vallars on ne paye rien. 

The d ^1 is in the fellow, exclaimed 

I. — Wer it in your choice, would you ac- 
cept of Goires, to get free of taxes ? 

Trcs - volontiersi Monfieur ; — I'un vaut 
kicn Fautce^ 



Qnid caufie eft^ -merito ^n tlfis Jvpiter 

ambas, 
Iratas bnceas infiet.* 

You fee, my friend, that it is not in 
courts and capitals alone that men are dif- 
contented with their fortunes, The caufbs 
of repining are difFerent in dlfierent places ; 
but the effe& is the fame every where. 

On the morning of the fixth day, we bid 
adieu to Prieure ; and having afcended the 
mountains which fliut up the valley of 
Chamouni at the end oppofite to that by 
which wc had entered, after various wind- 
ings on a very rugged road, we gradually 
defcended into a holfow of the mod difmal 
appearance. 

Jt is furrounded with high, bare, rugged 
rocks, without trees or verdure of any 
kind, the bottom being as barren and craggy 



-jind aLall not lore. 



Widi cheeks inffaia'd, and angry Ijtow, Ibrswear 
His ynak mdulgoiue to ihtlt fcHure piayer? 



2o6 n*w OP tocoftr jKS(i$ 

u the fidesj atid the whole forming si moft 
hideous landfcapcj ^ This dreary valley is of 
a confiderable length, bat very narroiwr. I 
imagine it would have pleafed the fancy of 
Salvator, who might have been tempted to 
fteal a corner of it for one of Ws pieces, 
which, when he had enlivened with a 
marder or two, would have been a mafter-» 
piece of the Horrible. 

Having traverfed this, we Continoed oaf 
journey, fometimes afcending, then de- 
fending into other vallies whofe names I 
have forgot*— We had. a loilg continued 
afcent over Mount Noir^ a very high hill, 
coyered with pine trees, many of which 
are above a hundred feet in height, I was 
obliged to walk on foot moft of this road« 
which is full as fteep as any part of that by 
which we had afcended MontanVert* 

Wc came at length to the pafs whicfit 
feparates the King of Sardinia's country 
from the little republic, called the Pays-de 
Vallais^ Acrofs this there is an old thick 
wattj and a gate, without any guard. This 



tiarro# pafs continues for feveral miks.— - 
A few peafantt arranged along the upper 
part of the mountains could^ bjr rolling 
down flones) deftroy a whole army, if it 
ihould attempt to enter into the country 
by this road. 

When you have pafled through this long 
. defile, the road' runs along the (ide of a high 
and deep mountain ; but is ftill fo very 
narrow, that two perfons cannot with fafety 
^ abreafty and all paffengers are entirely at 
the mfcrcy of thofe who may be potted 
on the higher parts of the mountain. 

From the fide of the mountain on which 
we pafied, we couM have fpoken to tfao 
people who inhaUted the fide of the moun^ 
tain oppofite. But I am convinced it would 
have tal^ three or four hours walking, to 
have gone to them : Becaufe we mnft, by 
a long oblique tour, have firfl: reached the 
bottom of the cleft between us, and then 
have afcended to them, by another long fo- 
tigaing path, which could not be done in 
lefs time than I have mentioned. 



ao8 "VUSW Of SOCrETY AKD 

Wherever there is a fpot of the mountain 
tolerably fertile, and the flppe lefs formi- 
dable than ufual^ you are aimed certain to 
£nd apeafant's houfe. All the houfes are 
built of the iine red pine, which grows near 
at hand. The carriage of this, even for a 
ihortway, upon thofevery fteep mountains, 
mud have been attended with no fmall dif- 
ficulty and danger. The dwelling are raifed 
on wooden props, or pillars, two or three 
feet j^bove the ground. On the top of each 
j>illar a large flag, or broad ftdne is plaoed, to 
obflrrufl the entrance of rats.— Indeed rfie 
fituation of thefe abodes is fo very aerial, 
that they feem.alraoft inacceilible to every 
animal that has not wtngs^ at well as to {"ats. 

The road led us at length to thefummit, 
which is level, »nd covered withpines for 
Several, miles. Having traverfed this, and 
defdended a little on the.other fide^ the lower 
Vallais opened to our view. Nothing can 
be imagined more fingularly picturefque : — 
It is of aaov^ £E>rm, about feven leagues in 
lengthy aad one in breadth, furrounded oa 



all fides by mountains of a ftupendous 
height y the lower parts of which arc covered 
with very rich pafture* —The vallejr itfelf i$ 
fertile in the higheft degree: finely culti- 
vated, and divided into meadows, gardens, 
and vineyards. The Rhone flows in beau- 
tiful mazes from the one end to the other. — 
Ston, the capital of the Vallais, is fituatedon 
the upper extremity, and the town of Mar- 
tigny on the lower, many viitages and de- 
tached houfes appearing all. over the valley 
between Hkm, The profpe^^ we had now 
under our eye formed a ftriking and agreeable 
contVaft with the fccnes we hadjuft left. 
The diftance from this point to Martigny, 
which flands near the bottom of the moon* 
tain, is about fix miles. There is one con- 
tinued defj^nt the whole way» which is 
rendered^ eafy by the roads being thrown 
into a x.ig-zag dire£bion. 

After the rugged paths we had been 
accuftomed to, it was, comparatively fpcak- 
ing, reft, to walk dov^n this mountain. — 
We aiAed at Martigny refrefhed, and ja 
high fpii its. 



aia ynm ^ tocmrt jam 



tETTER XXVHt 

jL|ub.ikg our Jouriiey over the mouii^ 

tains which ^ encircle the lower Vallais, I 
had often feh an inclination to enter foine 
of the peaf^nts' houfes, that I might be a 
Witnefs of the domeftic esconomy of si 
people which Roaffeatt has fo dRightfmlty 
defcribed. 

Had I been alone, or Mrith a fingle com*^ 
panion^ I ihoold have pledged them lihe« 
tally, and made a temporary facrifice of my 
reafon to the Penates of thofe happy moun'^ 
taintfers ( for, according to him,|^thi$ it the 
only (Payment they will receive for their 
entertainment: but our company was by 
far coo fiuknerous, and would have put their 
hofpitality to too fevere a tri^I. 

After a night's refreflimcnt at Martigny, 
We looked with fome degree of inS^tience 



vuxmnsM nr nuMcK. an 

for the cabriolets, which \aA be» ordered 
to meet us there. We all talked with rap- 
ture of the foblime fcenes from which we 
had defcended 5 yet nobody regretted that the 
reft of the journey was to be performed on 
plain ground. The cabriolets arriving the 
fame forenoon, we fet out by the«m*i«eAir*, 
■which leads to St. Maurice. 

That immenfe rampart of mountain* 
which furrounds the Vallais at every other 
part, is cut through here, which renders that 
country acceffible to the inhabitants of the 
canton of Bern. This opening has the ap. 
pearance of « vaft and magnificent avenue, 
00 each fide of which a row of lofty moun- 
tains are placed, inftcad of trees. It is 
fome leagues in length. Tlw ground it 
exceedingly fertile, and perfeftly level : yet 
if an attack were fufpeded, this paf« could 
be eafily defended by batteries at the bot- 
totn of the mountains on each fide. B©- 
fides a river of confiderable depth 4»w« 
along, fometimes on the one fide and fome- 
timej on the other-j and, by continually crefr 



a 1 a TIBW op SOCIETY ilMI 

flng the plain, feems to forbid all hoftile en- 
croachtnents. 

. This little fpot, the country of the Vai- 
laifans, .which comprehends the valley above 
defcribed, the mountains that furroand it, 
and ftretch on one fide all the way to the 
lake, including three or four towns and many 
villages, is a diftri^, governed by its own 
laws and magiftrates, in alliance with, bat 
independent of the Swifs cantons, or any 
otlier power. The religion is popery, and 
the form of government democratic. — It 
feems to have been imagined by Nature as a 
lad afylum for that divinity, without whofe 
influence all her other gifts are of fmall value* 
Should the rapacious hand of defpotifm ever 
cruih the rights of mankind, and overturn 
the ahars of Freedom, in every other 
country in Europe, achofen people may 
here preferve the true worfhip, and fharc 
her regard jWith the provinces beyond the 
AtJi^tic. • - 

. . In the middle of the opening above men- 
tioned, about four leagues from Martigny^ 



between two high mountains, and at the 
fide of the Rhone, is fituated the httle town 
of St. Maurice, which guards this entrance 
into the lower Vallais. 

Having pafled a bridge, at this town, 
which divides the country of the Vallaifans 
from the canton of Bern, we proceeded to 
Bex, a village remarkable for its delight- 
ful fituation, and for the falt-works which 
are near it. After dinner, we vifited thefe. 
We entered the largeft faline by a paflfage 
cut out of the folid rock, of a fufficient 
height and breadth to allow a man to walk 
with cafe. 

Travellers who have the curiofity to ex- 
plore thefe gloomy abodes, are previoufly 
^rnifhed with lighted lamps or torches, and 
dreiTed in a coarfe habit, to defend them from 
the ilimy drippings which fall from the roof 
and fides of the paffage. 

Upon arriving at the refer voir of fait wa- 
ter, which \s about three quarters of a mile 
from the entrance, I was feized with anaufea^ 
from the diiagreeabie fmell of the place, and 



Sni , VTEVr OP SOCIKTY ANtt 

returned with all poflibic expedition to the 
open air, leaving 'my companions to pa(h 
their refearches tis far as they pleafed. They 
remained a confiderable time after me. 
What fatisfaiSkion they received within^ I 
ihall not take upon me to determine ; bat 
I never faw a fet of people make a more 
melancholy exit;-—- with their greafy 
frocks, their torches^ their fmoky, woc-be- 
^gone countenances, they put me in mind 
^of a proceffion of condemned hereticsi 
walking to the flames, at an Auto de F^ at 
Lifbon. 

Having recovered their looks and fpirits 
at the inn at Bex, they affured me, that the 
curiofities they had feen during their fub- 
terraneous progrefs, particularly after my 
feceffion, were more worthy of obfervation 
than any thing we had met with fince we 
had left Geneva ; and they all advifed me, 
with affcdied ferioufnefs, to return and com* 
plete the interefting vifit which I had le& 
unfinifhed, 

NeiKt morning our company divided, the 



Puke of Hamilton and Mr. Grenville 
chufing to return by Vevay and Laufanne, 
Mr, Upton» Mr. Kennedy, and myfcif, 
went by the other fide of the lake of Geneva, 
They took with them the two chaifcs, and 
we proceeded on horfeback^ our road no 
lidmitttng of wheel carriages. 

We left Btx early in the morning, pat 
Cng through Aigle, a thriving little town, 
Whofe boufefc are built of a white marMo 
' fonnd in the nclghbouThood.*-^The ideas 
of gloom and wretchednefs, as well as of 
magnificence, had fomehow been linked 
in my mind with this fuSftance.-^I don't 
know whether thii i» owing^ to its being 
lafcd in tdmbs and monuments ;-;K>r to my 
having obfervcd, that the hoafes mod 
firofufely ornamented by it arc fo often 
the maniioni Otf d«lnefs and^ dtfcontent.— 
Whatev^ gave rtfe to this connection of 
ideas, the appearance of the inhabitants of 
Aigle was well calculated to cure me of the 
prejudice; for although tfaemeaneft houfeft 
in this poor little tovirn are built «f marhld^) 



Qi6 Ti»w OF Bocjmr and 

yet in the . courfe of iny life I never beheld 
lefs care and more (atisfa&ion in the cotui* 
tenancesof any fet of people. An appeannnce 
of eafe and content prevails not only here, 
but all over Switzerland. 
. A little beyond Aigie, we crofled the 
Rhone in boats. It is broader at this ferry, 
than where it flows from the lake of Geneva. 
As.foon as we arrived on. the other fide, we 
j^ere again dn the dominions ofxhe Valbdlans* 
which extend on this fide all the way to die 
lake. 

We had a delightful ride to St. Gingo, 
where we dined, and remained feveral 
hours to refrefli our horfes. Though it 
was Sunday, there was a fair at this town, 
to which fuch a contourfe of people had 
rcforted. from the Pays de Vallais, the 
canton of Bern, and from Savoy, that we 
could not without difficulty find a room to ' 
dine in. 

; The drefs of the young Vallaifanncs is 
remarkably piiSurefque. A little filk hat, 
fixed on:one fide of .ii^e head, fi-om which 

a bunch 



a bunch of ribbons hangs negligently, with 
a jacket very advantageoos to the ihape, 
ogives them a fmart air, and is upon the 
iwhole more becoming thzn the dreis of the 
common people in any country I have yet 
feen. 

A little beyond St. Gingo we entered the 
dukedom of Savoy. The road is here cut 
out of the lofty rocks which rife from the 
i«ke of Geneva. It muft be pafled with 
caution, being exceedingly narrow, and np 
fence to prevent the traveller from falling 
over a very high precipice into the lake, in 
cafe his horfe fhould flart to one fide. 

At fome places this narrow road is ren- 
^red ftill more dangerous by fragments 
which have fallen from the mountains 
^bove^ and have tmpaire4 and alrttoft de- 
(Iroyed the path. At thofc places we were 
obliged to difmoant, and lead our horfey, 
with great attention, over rubbifli and 
broken rocks, till we gained thofe parts of 
the road which were entire. 

The fight of Meitlerie brought to mj 

VOL. I. K 



ai$ VJZW OS flOCIETT AVD 

remembrance the charming letters of Rou£- 
fcau*» two lovers. This reCoUeAion filled 
me with a pleafing enthufiafm. I fought 
vrith my eyes, and imagined I difcovered 
the identical place where St Prcux fat with 
his telefcope to view the habitation of his 
beloved Julia.«— I traced in my imagination 
{lis route, when he fprung from rock to 
rock after one of her letters, which a fudden 
guft of wind had fnatched from his hands.—- 
I marked the point at which the two lovers 
embarked to return to Clarence, after an 
evening vifit to thofe very rocks,<^when 
St. Preux, agonized with tender recolle6lionS| 
and diftra&ed with defpair, was tempted to 
feize his miflrefs, then the wife of another, 
;ind precipitate himfelf along with her, from 
the boat headlong into the middle of the 
lake. 

Every circumftance of that pathetic ftory 
came fre(h into my mind. I felt myfelf on 
a kind of claflic grbund, and experienced 
that the eloquence of that inimitable writer 
had given me an intereft in the landfcape 



li^yj^JESft IK FBANCE. SU^ 

before my eyes, beyond that which its own 
natural beauties could have effefled. 

Having left tlie romantic rocks of Meit* 
lerie behind, we defcended to a fertile plain^. 
almoft on a level with the lake, along which 
the road riins» flanked with rows of fin* tail 
trees all the way to Evian, an agreeable little 
town, renowned for its mineral waters. Here 
we^ met with many of our Geneva acquain* 
tances of both kKCs, who had come, under 
pretence of drinking the waters, to amufe 
themfelves in this delightful retreat. 

We next proceeded to Tonon, a mod 
religious city, if we may judge by the 
number of churches and monafleries which 
k contains, The number of inhabitants are 
calculated at fix , or feven thoufand, and 
every feventh perlbn I (aw wore the uni- 
form of fome r^igious ordcn After this,. 
I was not greatly furprifibd to perceive 
every fymptom of poverty among the lay 
inhabitants* 

Haying befpo^efupper and beds at this 
^lace; we went and vifi(ed the conveut 



ii2& VIFTT Of SOCIETY AKB 

of Cartbufians at RipaiUe, which is at a 
little difhince. 

" It was here that a Duke of Savoy, after 
a fortunate reign, afTuitied the charadler of 
a hermit, and lived with the Others a Itfe <^ 
piety and mortificatioir, according to fome; 
of voluptuoufhcft and policy, according 
to others. What we are wcH afibred of is, 
that he was in a fliort time eleAed Pope, by 
the council of Bad, which dignity he was 
obliged to rclinquifh nine ycars^after, having 
firft made very honourable conditions for 
himfelf. After thty, he fpent the remainder 
of l^is life with the reputation of great fanflity 
at Ripaiile. 

Had he been allowed td chafe any part 
6f Europe foi* his retreat, he coqM not 
have found one more agreeable^ than this 
which his' own dominions fumifhed. 

The fathers with peit polfitenefi fhowed 
ts their foreft; thetr gardens, their s^art* 
ments, and a very elegant new cbapel, which 
is juft finifhed. Thby then condu<fted ui 
into the chamber where their fovereign had 



lived and died. They talked much of hia 
genius, his benevolence, and his fanAity. 
We heard them with every mark of acqui- 
elcence, and returned to our inn, where 
tho' we certainly did not /aire Ripaille^ I am 
convinced the fleas did : as Shakefpear's 
carrier fays, there was never a King ia 
Chriftendom better bit than we vitxjt, 
through the whofe night. We paid for 
<oar eatertaiament, fudi as it was, a very 
extraingant bill in the morning, and wiihr 
Ottt grudging; foi: we coiift4eted,.that w^ 
were to leave oar boft and his family 
amoBgft r f^rm of biood-f^ckers, ftitf 
more intolerable than fleas. ^ 

^ We arrived the fame £(>reiioon at Geneva^ 
having finiilied a tour in which* a greater 
variety of fublime and interefting objefis 
oflS^r themfelves to the contemplatioa df 
the traveller, than can be found in any 
other part of the globe of the fame extent. 

I am, &c. 



iaii ynxw ov socutt xkb- 



LETTER XXIX. 



I AM not fttrprifed that your enquiriei of 
late entirely regard the philofopher of Fer* 
rey. This extraordinary pcrfon has con- 
trived to excite more coriofity, and to 
tetain the alteration of Europe for a longer 
fpaceof time, than any other man this ag^ 
has produced, monarchs *itid 'lieroes in- 
cluded.— Even the moft trivial anecdote 
relating to him feems, in fonae degree, to 
antereft the Public 

Since I have been in this caunlry^ I 
have had frequent opportunities of con- 
verfirig with him, and dill more with thofe 
4vho have lived in intimacy with hi in for 
many years: fo that, whatever remarks I 
may fend you on this fubjedl, are founded 
either on my own obfervation, or on that 



UAXKOof ixr nuorca. aaS 

o the moft candid and inteUigent of his 

acqaaintance. 

He has enemies and admirers here, as he 

has every where elfe ; and not unfrequently 
both united in the fame perfon. 

The firft idea which has prefented itfeif 
to all who have attempted a defcription o£ 
his perfon, is that of a ikeleton. In as Tar 
as. this implies excei&ve leannefs, it is juft ; 
bvit it mud be remembered, that this fke« 
leton, this mere compofttion of fkin and 

'^ne, has a look of more fpirit and viva- 
city, than is generally produ^d by fleih 
and blood, however blooming and youth* 
ful. 

. The moft piercing eyes I ever beheld 
are thofe of Voltaire, now in his eightieth 
year. His whole countenance is expref- 
five of genius, obfervation, and extreme 
fenfibility. 

In the morning he has a look of anxiety 
and difcontent ; but this gradually wears 
off, and after dinner he feems cheerful ;— 
yet an air of irony neVer entirely forfakcs 



0384 TiEW OP tocstnrr xv» 

his face, but may always be obfervcd Icirk*^ 
ing in his features, whether he frowns or 
(miles. 

When the weather rs' favourable, he: 
takes an airing in his coach, with his niece, 
^r with fome of his guefts, of whom there 
is always a fufficient number at Ferney. 
Sometinles he laiinteii in his garden ; or, if 
the weather does not permit him to go 
abroad, he employs his leifure houris in 
playing tt. chefs with Fere Adam ; or in 
i^celvii^ the vifits of ftrangeff, a cohtinval^ 
fucceffioii of whom attend at Ferney to 
catch an opportunity of feeing Jiim ; or in 
diflating and reading letters ; for he ftill 
retaim correipondeHts in all the countries of 
Europe, who inform him of every remar- 
kable occurrence, and fend him every new 
literary ptodu£fcioh as foon as it appears. 

By far the greater part of his time is 
fpem in his ftudy;*and whether he reads 
himfelf,-ior Tiftens to another, he always has 
a pen in his hand, to take notes, or make 
remarks. 



Compoiltion is his prindpai amofeineiir. 
No aothof who writes for ^^ily bread, no 
yoong poet ardent for diftin6lion, is mow 
ailiduous with hi« pen, or more anxioi^ 
for fre/h fame, than the wealthy aad aj>- 
planded Seigneur of Ferney^ 

He lives in a very hoffutableonanner, and 
takes care always to ktef a good cook. He 
has generally two or three yifitors from Paris, 
who (lay with him a month or fix weeks at 
a tioie. When they go, their plaees aife 
foon fupplied ; fo that there it a con&aitt 
rotation of fociety at Fernery. Thcfc, witU 
Yoltaire-s own family, and his vifitors from 
Gefieva, com{>pie a company of twelve pr 
fourteen people, who dine daily at his tabtf , 
whetiier he appears or not. vdf^or.when e^- 
gagsd in preparing ffune new produd^ioii f^r 
the prefs, indifpofipd or in bad fpirits, he 
does not dine with the company ; but fatif« 
fies hiitifelf with feeing them for a few.mi« 
^nutcs, either before or after dinner. f 

AU who bring recommendations from his 
friends, may depend upon .being recoiveijy 



526 VIEW OF SOCIETY i»2) 

if he be not really indifpofed. — He often 
prefents himfelf to the ftrangers, who af- 
femble almofl every afternoon in his anti- 
chamber, although they bring no particular 
Tecommendation. But ibmetimes they "are 
obliged to retire without having their cu- 
riofity gratified. . 

As often as this happens, he is fure of 
being accufed of peevifhnefs ; and a thou- 
fand ill-natured (lories arc related, perha{ts 
invetited, out of revenge, becaufe he is not 
in the humour of being exhibited like a 
dancing bear on a holiday. It is nuich lefs 
farprifing that he fonietimes refufes, thjin 
that he fhoiild comply fo often. In him, 
this complaifance muft proceed folely from 
a defire to oblige ; for Voltaire has bceu 
fo long accuftomed to admiration, that the 
ftare of a few ftrangers cannot be fuppofed 
to aflFord him much pleafure. 

His niece, Madame Denis, does the 
honours* of the table, and entertains the 
company, when her uncle is not able, or 
docs not choofe to appear. She is a well- 



- HAIDERS IK nUKCB. SStJ 

Qtrpofed woman, who behaves with good- 
humoar to every body, and with unremit- 
ting attention and tendernefs to her uncle. 

The forenoon is not a proper time to vifit 
Voltaife. He cannot bear to have his 
hours of ftudy interrupted. This alone is 
fufficient to put him out of humour ; be« 
ildes, he is then apt to be querulous, 
whether he fufFers by the infirmities of age, 
or from fome accidental caufe of chagrin. 
Whatever is the reafon, he is left an opti- 
mift at that part of the day than at any 

other. It was in the morning, probably; 

that he remarked, que c'«^toit dommagc 

que le quinquina fe trouvoit en Amerique, 
et la fi^vre en nos climats. 
, Thofe who are invited to fupper, have 
an opportunity of feeing him in the mod 
advantageous point of view. He then ex- 
,erts himfelf to entertain the conipany, and 
Teems as fond of faying, what are called 

good things, as ever : and when any 

lively remark or bon mot comes fom 
another, he is equally defigbted, and pays 



ss8 THsw ov aoci^gVy Jtxm 

the fulfeft tribute of applaufe. — s-: ^c 
fpirit of mirth gains \ipon him by indul*^ 
gence. — t When fuFround^ hy his friends^ 
and animated by the prefence of women, 
he feems to enjoy life with aH the fen&bi^ 
lity of yoath. His genius then turmounts 
the reftraints of age and infirmity, and 
flows along in a fine drain of pleafing, fpi-i 
rited obfervation, and delicate irony. 

He has an ex<reUent talent of adapting hts 
converfation to his company.— The firft time 
the Duke of Haftntlton waited on him, he 
turned the difcourfe 6n the ancient ^illianoe 
between the French and Scotch natio&s.^-^ 
Keciting the <trcatn(laRce of one of his 
Grace's predeceflTors having accompanied 
Mary Queai of Scots, whofe heir he at 
that tirtie was, to the court of Frances- 
he fpoke <rf the heroic characS^ers of Ms 
ftnceftoFS, the ancient Earls of Dougla^-^ 
of the great literary reputation of fome^ 
his couhtrymcn, then living r and men**' 
tioned the names of Hume aind RobertfoiH 
itt terms of high ap{]irobation. 



A ih&rt time afterwards, he was vifited 
by two Ruffian noblemen, who are now at 
Geneva. Voltaire talked to them a great 
^^eal of their Emprefs, and the flouriflitsig 
4late of their country.— —Formerly, faid 
he, your countrymen were guided by ig^ 
%ioraiit priefts, — the arts were unknown, 
^nd your lands by wade ; but now xht 
arts flooriih, and the lands are cuhtvated.-^ 
One of the young men replied. That there 
was ftill a great proportion of barren land 
tA Raffia, -i- At Itflfft, faid Voltaire, you 
«nuft*adfntt, that of late your countty hai 
been v&ry /i^ile in laurels. 

His diflike to the clergy \s well known.— 
.Tim leads him to joirt in -a ytrj trite topic 
lof i^ufe with people who 'have no preteri'- 
fion to that degree of wit which alone 
could make their railings tolerable. — ^The 
converfation happening to. tarn into'this 
channel, one perfon faid. If you fubtraJi^ 
pride from prieils nothing will remain.^-* 
Vdus com!pte£ done, Monfieur, la gour- 
mandife pour rien, faid Voltaire. 



USO TIEW OJ SOCIETY AIOI 

He approves much more of Marmontel^s 
Art of Poetry, than of any poems of that 
author's compoiition. Speaking of thefe, 
he faid that Marmontel, like Mofes, coul4- 
guide others to xhe Holy Land, though he 
was not allowed to enter it himfelf.* 
, Voltaire's unbecoming allufions to the 
Sacred Writings, and his attempts to turn 
into ridicule fome ofthe^moft venerable 
ehara£ters mentioned in them, are no* 
torious. 

' A certain petfon, who ftammered very 
much, found means to get hi mfeif 'intro- 
duced at Ferncy. He had no other re- 

* The fame allufion, though probaWjr 
Voltaire did not know it, was long fince made 
by Cowley-— -«• 

Bacon like Mofes led* us forth at laft, 
The barren wildernefs he paft, 
• Did on the v.ery border ftand 
Of the bleft promifed land. 
And from the mountain top of his exalted wit 
Saw it himfelf, and fliew*d us it. 



UAKK£BS IN PHANCE. 0^1 

commendation than the praifes he very 

liberally beftowed on himfelf. When 

he left the room Voltaire faid, he fuppofed 
him to be an avanturier, un impofteur. — » 
Madame Denis faid, Impoftors never ftam* 
mer ; — To which Voltaire replied — ^Moife, 
ne begayoit-il pas ? 

You mud have heard of the animofity 
which has long fubfifted between Voltaire 
and Frcfon, the JournaHft, at Paris. The 
former was walking one day in.his gardeQ 
with a gentleman from Geneva. A toad 
crawled acrofs the road before them : — ^Thc 
gentleman, to pleafe Voltaire, faid, point- 
ing at the toad, — ^Therc is a Freron. What 
can that poor animal have done to you, 
replied the Wit, to deferve fuch a name? 

He compared the Britifli nation to a hog- 
fliead of their own ftrong beer ; the top 
of which is froth, the bottom dregs, the 
middle excellent. 

A friend of Voltaire's having recom- 
mended to his perufal a particular fyftem of 
metaphyfics, fupported by a train of reafon- 



a3a Tnftr of socnprf Aiib 

ings, by which the author 31 fplayed his own 
ingenuity and addrefs, without convincing 
the mind of the reader, or proving any thing 
befides his own eloquence and fophiftry, 
alkcd, fome time after, the critic's Opinion of 
this performance. 

Metaphyfical writers, replied Voltaire^ 
are like minuet-dancers; who being drcffed 
to the greateft advantage, make a ooople of 
bows, move through the room in the fineft 
iatttitudes, difplay all fhjgir grades, are in oon** 
tinual motion without advancing a ftep^ 
and finifii at the identical point from which 
they fet out. JPferhaps he l^orrowed this 
thought from tlie folldwing lines in Pope's 
Dunciad: ; 

Or fct on metaphyfic ground to prance, 
Show all his paces, not a ftep advance. 

This, I hope, will fetisfy you for the-prer 
fent ; in my next, I fliall fend you whatfefr 
dier particulars I thirtk worth your n6ticc 
concerning this ftngufar man.— Mean white, 
I am, &e. 



lUSNZXS IH AAMd. 935 



LETTER XXX. 



Genera* 
C^pxifidereA as a mafter, Voltaire «ppcan 
in a very amiable light. He ii affiblei 
httmane^ amU generous to bis tenants and 
dependants. He loves to fee them profper 9 
and takes part rn their private and domefti^ 
concerns with the attention of a patriardn 
-*-^e prottiotes indaftry and manufii(Slores 
among them, by every means he can devife ; 
by his care and patronage alone, Ferney/ 
from a wretched village, whoTe inhabitants 
were funk in flotk and poverty, is be- 
come a flourifhing and commodioQs little 
town. 

That acrimony, which appears in fome of 
Voltaire's works, feems to be excited only 
agatnft rival wits, and contemporary wri- 
ters, who refufe him that diftingui/hed 



a34 TISW OS SO«IKT7 AKO 

place on Parnaffus, to whkrh his talents est- 
title him. 

If he has been the author of fevere fatire, 
he has alfo been the obje£t of a great deal. 
Who has been the aggreffor, it would be 
difEcuh to determine ; but it muft be con- 
fei&d, that where he has not been irritated 
as a writer, he appears a good- humoured 
man ; and, in particular inftances, difplays a 
true philanthropy. —The whole of his con-. 
dii£); refpe6ting the Galas family ; — ^his pro- 
ted ion of the Sirvens, his patronage of the. 
young lady defcended from Corneille, and 
n^any es^unples, which might be mentioned^ 
are all of this nature. 

, Some people will tell you, that all the 
buftle he made, on thefe, and fimiliar occa-. 
fions, proceeded from vanity; but, in ray 
.mind, the man who takes pains to juAify 
opprefled innocence, to roufe the indigna- 
tion of mankind againft cruelty, and to re- 
lieve indigent merit, is in reality benevo- 
lent, however vain he may be. of fucb. 
a^kions.— — ^Such a man is unqucftionably 



KiUKXfiS IN VRAKeX, aZS 

a more ufeful member of fociety, t&an the 
htimbieft monk^ who has no other plan in 
life, than the working out his own faivation 
in a corner. 

Voltaire's criticifms on the writings of 
Shakefpear do him no honour ; they betray 
an ignorance of the author, whofe works he 
fo raflily condemns. Shakefpear's irreguia* 
rities, and his difregard for the unities of the 
drama, are obvious to the dulleft of modern 
eritics; but Voltaire's national prejudices« 
and his imperfe£^ knowledge of the lan- 
guage, render him blind to fome of the moft 
ihining beauties of the Englifh Poet ; his 
remarks, however, though not always can- 
did nor delicate, are for the moft part 
lively. 

One evening, at Ferney, the converfation 
happening to turn on the genius of Shake* 
fpear, Voltaire expatiated on the impropriety 
and abfurdity of introducing low characters 
and vulgar dialogue into Tragedy ; and gave 
many inftances of the Englifli bard*s having 
offended in that particular, even in hi$ moft 



pathetic plays. A gentleman of the'cdtn- 
pany, who is a great admirer of Shakefpcar, 
obfcrved, by way of palliatioii, that though 
thofe charadiers were low, yet they were na- 
tural (dans la nature was his expreffion) : 
Avec permiffion, Monfieur, replied Voltaire, 
mon cul ed bien dans la nature, et cepemiast 
je porte des culc^tes. 

Voltaire had formerly a little theatre ^ 
hts own houfe, 'where dramatic pieces wem 
reprefented by fome of the fociety who 
vifited there, he himfelf generally taking 
femre important chara£ker ; but by all ad- 
counts this was not his fort, nature having 
iittcd him for conceiving the feRtknent^, 
but not reprefenting the anions of a hero. 

Mr. Cramer, of Geneva, fometimes affiftcd 

upon thefe occafions.- 1 have often feen 

that gentleman a€t at a private theatre in 
that city with deferved applaufe. Very feW 
of thofe who have made ading the ftody and 
bufinefs of their lives, could have reprefented 
the char afters in which he appeared^ wiih 
more judgment and energy. 



_ The celebrated CJairon hcrfeff has been 
proud to tread Voltaire*s domeftic theatre, 
and to difplay at once his genius and her 
own* 

Thefe dramatic entertainments at Per- 
ney, to which many of the inhabitants of 
Ocneva were, from time to time, invited, 
in all probability increafed their defirc for 
fuch amuiements, and gave the hint to a 
company of Freni^ comedians, to come 
every fummer to the neighbourhood. 

As the Syndics and Council did not 
judge it proper to licence their a£ting, this 
company have eredled a theatre at Chate* 
laine, which is on the French fide of the 
ideal line which feparates that kingdom from 
the territories of the republic, and about 
three miles from the ramparts of Geneva. 

People come occafionally from Savoy 
and Switzerland to attend thefe reprefenta- 
tions ; but the company on which the 
^ors chiefly depend, aire the citizens of 
Geneva. The ploy ^cgins at three or four 
m fhe afternoon, that the Q)e<^ators may; 



USB YI»W OP SOCIETY AK» 

m 

have time to return before the ihdtting of 
the gates. 

I have beea frequently at this theatre. 
The performers are moderately good« The 
admired Le Kain, who is now at Ferncy oa 
a vifit to Voltaire, fometimes exhibits:— 
but when I go, my chief inducement is to 
fee Voltaire, who generally attends when 
Le Kain a£ls, and when one of his owa' 
tragedies is to be reprefiHRed. 

He fits oh the ftage, and behind the 
fcenes ; but fo as to be feen by a great part 
of the audience. He takes as much intereft 
iu the rcprefentation, as if his own charafter 
depended on the performance. He feems 
perfexSlly chagrined and difgufted when any 
of the aflors commit a miftake ; and when 
he thinks they perform well, never fails to * 
mark his approbation with all the violence 
of voice and gefture. 

He enters into the feigned diftreffes of the 
piece with every fymptom of real emotion, 
and even flieds. tears with the profufioft. 



MANNERS IK FRAKCI. 259 

of a girl prefent for the firft time at a 
tragedy. 

I have fometimes fat near him during 
tlie whole entertainment, obferving with 
aftoni(hment fuch a degree of fenfibility in 
a man of eighty. This great age, one would 
natarally believe, might have coniiderably 
blunted every fenfation, particularly thofe 
occaiioged by the fidtitious diftrefles of the 
drama, to which he has been habituated fi-om 
his youth. 

The piece reprefented having been written 
by himfelf, is another circumftance whith, 
in my opinion, (hoald naturally tend to 
prevent their effedl on him. Some peoj^le 
indeed aflert that this, (o far from diminilh- 
ing, is the real caufe of all his fenfibility ; 
and they urge, as a proof of this affertion, 
that he attends the theatre only when fome 
of his own pieces are to be a£led. 

That he fhould be better pleafed to fee 
his own tragedies reprefented than any 
others, is natural ; but I do not readily 
comprehend, how he can be more eaiily 



S40 VTttW OS sociExr A3m 

snoved and deceived, by diftrcffes which 
he himfelf invented. Yet this degree of 
deception feems qecefTary ta make a lyan 
ihed tears. While thefe tears are flowing, be 
iTJuft believe the woes he weeps are real : he 
maft have been fo far deceived by the canning 
of the fcene^ as to have forgot that he was in 
a playhoufe. The moment he recolleds that 
the whole is fi&ion, his fympathy and tears 
mufl ceafe. 

I fliouldbe glad, however, to fep Voltaire 
prefent at the reprefentation of fome of 
Corneille or Racine's tragedies, that I 
might obfcrve whether he would difcover 
more or leis fenfibility than he has done 
at his own. We (hould then be able to 
afcertain this curious, difputed point, whether 
this fympathy regarded the piece or the 
author. 

Happy, if this extraordinary man had 
confined his genius to its native home, to the 
walks which the mgfes love, and where b« 
has always been received with diflinguiihoA 
faonoury and that he had never deviated from 
» thefe 



thefe, into the thorny paths of controvcrfy ! 
For while he attacked the tyrants and op- 
preflbrs of maidLiod,and thofe who have per- 
verted the benevolent nature of Chridiantty 
to the moft fdfifli and malignant purpofes, 
it is for ever to be r^etted, that he allowed 
the ikafts of hts ridicule to glance upon the 
Chriftian religion itfclft * 

By perfevcring in this, be has not only 
&ocked the pious, but even difgufted infi&lst 
who accnfe him of borrowing from himfelf, 
and repeatmg the fame argument in variout 
publications ; and feem as tired of the ftale 
fiiecr agatnft the Chriftian doilrincs, as of 
tiie daileft and taoft tedious £»'mons in 
fopport of them. 

Voltaire's befaanriour dming fidcoefi has 
been reprefented in -very oppofite lights. I 
have heard much of his great contrition and 
repcntaoce, when he had rcafon to believe 
his end approaching. Thefe ilorics, had they 
been true, would have pr^^ved, that his infi. 
delhy was aflfeaatioa, and lihat he was a 
believer and Chriftian in his hearc 

VOL, I. T 



s44 viKW Of aocjETr AH9 



LETTE R XXXI. 



{n obedience to your requeft, I ihsAl 
give you my opinion freely with regard to 
Lor d ' - 's fcfaeme of fending his two b>nt 
to be educated at Genevai, 

The ddeft, if I redaember right, is not 
more than nine years of age ; and they bav« 
advanced no farther in thetr education than 
being aUe to read Ehgliih tolerably weU« 
His Lordfhip's idea is, that when they (hall 
have acquired a perfed knowledge of the 
French language, they may %c taught Latin 
throu^ ^e mtedium of that language, and 
purfue any other ftudy that may be though^ 
{H-oper* 

I havic attended to his l^ord&lp's objec- 
tions againft the public fchools in England, 
and after due confideration, 'and weighing 
every circumftatiCiC, I remain of opinion. 



that iTo coantry but Great- Britain is proper 
for tbe education of a Britifli fvibjed, who 
propofes to pafs hia life in his own country. 
The moft important pointy in my mindf 
to be fecured in the eduoMiion of a yoong 
man of rank of oar country, is to make him 
an Englifhoian -^ and this can be done no 
where fo etkStvMj as in England* 

He will there acqutte thofe fentiments, 
that particuhr ufte and tuifn of mind^ which 
wiU make htm prefer the goyemments 
and reliih the manners, the diveffions, and 
general way of Kving* which prevail in 
England- 
He will there acquire that ebara&eri 
which diHirngaiihej EngliihEoen from the 
natives of ail the other countries of Europe, 
and which, once attained, however it may 
be afterwards embellifhed or ,e formed, can 
never be entirely efFaced, 

If it could be proved, that this charadiler 
is not the moft amiable, it does not follow 
that it is not the mod expedient* It is fuf- 
£cietit, that it is upon the whole moft ap- 



i45 VIKW OF SOCIETY ASW 

proved of in England. For I hold it as in* 
difpntabley that the good opinion of a man's 
countrymen is of more importance to him 
than that of all the reft of mankind: Indeed, 
without the firft, he very rarely can enjoy 
the fecond. 

It is thought, that by an early foreign edu- 
cation, all ridiculous Englifli prejudices will 
be avoided. This may be true ;— but other 
prejudices, perhaps as ridiculous, and much 
more detrimental, will be formed. The firft 
cannot be attended with many inconver 
niertcies ; the fecond may render the young 
people unhappy in their own country when 
they return, and difagreeabie to their coun- 
trymen all the reft of tlieir lives. 

It is true, that the French noanners arc 
adopted in almoft every country of Europe : 
they prevail all over Germany and the nor- 
thern courts. They are gaining ground^ 
though with a flower pace, in Spain, and in 
the Italian States. — - This is not the cafe in 
England. — The Englifh manners are uni- 
verfal in the provinces, prevail m the capital. 



MANNERS m FRANCi. U^f 

and are to be found uncontaminated even at 
court. 

In all the countries above mentioned, the 
body of the people behold this preference to 
foreign manners with difguft. But in all 
thofe countries, the fentiments of the people 
are difregarded ; whereas, in England, po- 
pularity is of real importance ; and the higher 
a man's rank is, the more he will feel the 
iofs of it. 

Befides, a prejudice againft French man- 
ners is not confined to the lower ranks in 
England : — It is diflfufed over the whole na- 
tion. Even thofe who have none of the 
ufual prejudices ;— who do all manner of 
^ juftice to the talents and ingenuity of their 
neighbours ;— who approve of French man- 
ners in French people; yet cannot fufier 
them when grafted on their countrymen* 
Should an Engllfh gentleman think this 
kind of grafting at all admiffible, it will be 
in fome of the lowed daffes with whom he 
is conne^ted^ as his tailor, barber, valet* 



i^48 virwr .of jboceett jam 

de-chambre, or cook;— but never in hW 
friend. 

I can fcarcely remember an inftance of an 
JEnglifhman of fafhion, who has evinced in 
his drefs or ftyle of living a preference to 
French manners, vrho did not lofe by it in 
the opinion of his countrymen. 

"What I have faid of French manners ii 
.applicable to foreign manners in genera^ 
which are all in fome degree French, and the 
particular differences ai;e not diftinguifhed 
by the Englilh, 

The fentiments of the citizens of Geneva 
arc more analogous in many refpefb to the 
turn of thinking in England, than to the 
general opinions in France. Yet a Gcnc^ 
vois in London will univerfally pafs for a 
Frenchman, 

An Englifli boy, fent to Geneva at an 
early period of life, and remaining there fix 
or feven years, if his parents be not along 
with him, wiH probably, in the eyes of the 
Engliili, appear a kind of Frenchman all 
his life after. This is an incovenience 



which ought to be avoided with the grcateft 
attention. 

With regard to the obje^lions againft 
public fchoolsy they are» in many xctptSts^ 
applicable to thofe of every country. But I 
freely own, they never appeared to me fuf- 
ficient to overbalance the advantages which 
attend that method of education; particu- 
cularly as it i^ condu&ed in Engliih public 
,fchoois. 

I have perceived- a certain hatdihood and 
manlinefs of character in boys who have 
had a public educaripn, fuperior to what 
appears in thoTe of the iame stgc educated 
privately. 

At a public fchool, thou^ a general at* 
t^ntion is paid to the whole, in many parti- 
ticulars each boy is neceffitated to decide and 
aft for himfclf. His reputation aniong 
his companions; depends Colely on his own 
condaft. This gradually ftrengthens the 
mind> infpires firmnefs and decifion, and 
prevoits that vvavering imbecility obfervabic 
in- thofe. who have been accuftomed u> 

L * 



25o -raw OF SOCTETT JIN» 

rely upon the aiTiftance and • opinion of 
others. ^ I 

The original impreffions which fink into 
the heart and mind, and form the charac- 
ter, never change. — ^The objefts oF our at- 
tention vary in the different periods of iife. 
— rThis is fometiraes miftaken for a change 
of chara£ber, which in reality remains ef- 
fentially the fame. — He who is referved, 
deceitful, cruel, or avaricious, when a boy^;. 
will not, in any fatare period of life, be- 
come open, faithful, compafSonate, or ge- 
nerous. 

The young mind has,, at a pubKc fchoo^ 
the heft chance of receiving thofe fentiments 
which incline the heart to fri«nd(bip, and 
corrcft felfiflinefs. They are drawn in by 
obfervation, which i& infii^tely more powep- 
ful than precept. 

A boy perceives that courage, gcncro- 
£ty, gratitude, conmnand the efteem and . 
applaufe of all his . companions. He chc* 
ri&es diefe qiralities in his own breaft, 'and 
cjadeavjoun to t:onneA himfelf in friendfUp 



HAimzits nr faakcb. !i5i 

with thofe who poflefs them.^^He fees that 
mcannefs of fpirit, ingratitude, and per* . 
fidy, are the objeds of deteftation. — He 
ihuns the boys who difplay any indications 
of thefe odious qualities. What is the ob« 
jeA of applaufe or contempt to his fchooU 
fellows, he will endeavour to graft into» or 
eradicate from, . his own charafler, with ten 
thoufand times more eagernefs than that 
which was applauded and cenfured by his 
tutor or parents. ^ 

The admonitions of thefe laft hare pro- 
bably loft their tStSt by frequent repeti- 
tion ; or he may imagine their maxims are 
only applicable to a former age, and to 
manners wbich are obfolete. •— But he feels 
the fentiments of his companions af&£t his 
reputation and fame in the moft feniible 
manner. 

In all the countries of Europe, England 
excepted, fuch a deference ts paid to boys 
of rank at the public fchools, that emula* 
tion, the chief fpur to diligence, is greatly 
blunted. — The boys in the middle rank of 



25a firvr ok sociext ani> 

life af« depcefled by the infolence of their 
titled companions^ which they ^re not :%U 
lowed to correA or retaliate.— —This has 
the word tSeSt on the minds, of both, by 
rendering thefe more infolenti and thofe 
more abje£l:. 

The public fchools in England dlfdain^ 
this mean partiality ; and are, on that ac- 
county peculiarly ufeful to boys of high, 
rank and great fortune. Thefe young, people 
are exceedingly apt to inijbibe falie ideasr 
of their own importance, which in thofe 
impartial feminari^s will be perfedlly afcer- 
tained, and* the real merit- of the youths, 
weighed ia j*iftcc fcales than are generally 
to be found in a parent's: houfci. 

The young peer will be taught by the 
mafters, and ,JIill more, effcfkually by his 
comrades, this moft ufeful of all leifons,- — 
to expedk diftin£lion and efteem from per- 
fonal qualities only ; becaufe no other can 
make him eftimable, or even fove him from 
contempt,-*— -He will fee a dunce of high 
rank flogged with as little, ceremony as the 



MAKNSR8 nr vra;k<^ 355^- 

fbn of a tailor ; and the richeil coward 
I^icked about by his companions equally 
with the pooreft poltroon. — He will find 
that diligence, gen't^, and fpirit, are the 
trae fources of fuperiority and applauie^ 
both within and without the fcbooK 

The adiive principle of emulation when- 
allowed full play, as in the chief fchoolsin- 
England, operates in various ways, and al- 
ways with a gooieflfefl:. If a boy finds 

that he 6Ik beneath hts companions in 
Jiterary merit, he will endeavour to excel 
them in intrepidity, or fome othejr accom* 

pliihm^nt. If he be brought to di/grace 

fbr neglecting his exercife, he will try to- 
- feve himfelf from contempt by the firmnefs 
with which he bears bis puniflimcnt. 

The liflleflhefs and indolence to be found 
fo frequently among our young people df 
rank, are not to be imputed to their edu- 
cation at a public fchool, which in reality 
has the greateft tendency to counteraft 
thefe habits^ and often does fo, and gives an 



<254 TIEW.OV 80CDETT ANB 

energy to the mind which remains througb 
life. 

Thofe wretched qualities creep on after- 
wards, when the youths become their own 
mafters, and have enfeebled their minds by 
indulging in all the pleafures which fortune 
puts in their power, and luxury prefenis. 

Upon the whole, I am clearly of opinion* 
that the earlieft period of every Englifh- 
man's education, during which the mind 
receives the mod lafting impreffions, ought 
to.be in England. 

If, however, the opinion of relations, or 
any peculiarity in fituation, prevents ^is 
being educated at home, Geneva ftiould lie 
preferred to any other place. Or if, by 
fome negle<9:, either of his own or his 
parents, a young Englifli gentleman of for- 
tune has allowed the firft years of youth 
to fly unimproved, and has auained the age 
of feventeen or eighteen with little literary 
knowledge, 1 know no place where he may 
have a better chance of recovering what he 
has loft than in this city. He may have a 



MANNEM IN FRJU7CB. ^55 

clioice of men of eminence, in every branch 
of literature, to affift him in his ftudies, a 
great proportion of Mrhom are men of ge- 
nt us, and as amiable in their -manners as 
tliey are eminent in their particular pro- 
feffions. 

He will have conftant opportunities of 
being in company with very ingenious 
pcopid, whofe thoughts and converfation 
turn upon literary lubje<5ls. In fuch (<>• 
cJety, a young man will feel the neccffity of 
ibmc degree of (ludy. This will gradually 
form a tafte for knowledge, which may 
remain through life. 

It may alfo be numbered among the ad- 
vantages of this place, that there are few 
obje£ts of diffipation, and hardly any 
fources of amufement, befides thofe derived 
from the natural beauties of the country, 
and from an intimacy with a people by 
whofe converfation a young man can fcarce 
fail to improve, 

P. S. An Englifh nobleman and his lady 
. having taken the refolution of educating 



a56 VIEW o^ soctEty Aim- 

their fon at Geneva, attended him . hither, 
and have eflFedtually prevented the incon- 
Veniencies above mentioned, by remaining, 
^ith him for feven or eight years. 

The hofpitality, generolity, and bene- 
volent difpofitions of this fkmily had ac« 
quired them the bigheft degree of popula- 
rity. I ' faw them leave the place. Their 
carriage could with difiBculty move through- 
the^ multitude, Vf^ho were ai&mb]ed in the 
ftreets.-^-^^Numbers of the poorer fort, who 
had been relieved by their fecret charity,^ 
unable longer to obey the injunfilions of 
their benefa£iors, proclaimed their gratitude 
aloud. 

-The young gehtleinan was obliged to 
come out again and again to his old JFriends 
and companions, who preiTed around the 
coach to bid him farewel, and exprefs their 
forrow for his departure, and their wiihe* 
for his profperity. The eyes of the parents 
overflowed with tears of happinefs j and the 
whole fajnily carried along with them tlie 
affedions of the greater party and the cftecm 
of all the citizens. 



MAKKERS IK ERANCE. aSj 



LETTER XXXIL 



Crcnera;. 
Suicide is very frequent at Geneva. 1 
am told this has been the cafe ever fince 
the oldeft pe6f>Ie in the republic can r&» 
member ; and there Js reafon to believe,, 
that it happens oftencr here, in proportion 
to the number of inhabitants, than in E'ngr 
hnd, or any other country of Europe. 

The multipikrity of inftances which ha» 
occurred fince I have been here is aftonKh- 
ing. Two that have happened very lately 
a^re remarkable for the peculiar citcum-* 
ilances which accompanied ihero. 

The firft was occafioned by a fudden and 
unaccountable fit of defpair, which feized 
the fon of one of the wealthier and mod 
refpeftable citizens of the republic. This 
young gentleman had; in appcaijance,, every 



258 VIEW OF 50CIET7 AKB 

reafon to be fatisfied with his lot. He was 
handfome, and in the vigour of youth, 
married to a woman of an excellent cha- 
ra<9er, who had brought him a great for- 
tune, and by whom he was the father of a 
fin^ child. In the raidft of all thefe bleffings, 
furrounded by every thing which could in- 
fpire a man with an attachment to I'lfSf 
he felt it infupportable, and without any 
obvious caufe of chagtin, determined to 
deftroy himfelf. 

Having palTed fome hours with his mo« 
ther, a moft valuable woman, and with his 
wife and child, he left them in apparent 
good humour, went into another room, ap- 
plied the muzele of a mufket to his fore- 
head, thruft back the trigger with his toe, 
and blew out his brains, in the hearing of 
the unfufpe£ting company he had juft 
quitted. 

The fecond inftance, is that of a blacks 
fmith, who, taking the fame fatal refola- 
tion, and not havi4ig any convenient inftra- 
ment at hand, charged an old gun-barrel 



vumma nr frakcx. 269 

vrith a brace of ballets, and putting one 
cod into the fire of his forge, tied a ftring 
to the hand[e of the bellows, by pulling of 
iw^Iilch he could make them play, while he 
>^as at a convenient diftance. Kneeling 
down, he then placed his head near the 
jTiouth of the barrel, and moving the bel- 
lows by means of the ftring, they blew up 
tVie fire, he keeping his head with aftonifli- 
ing iirmnefs, and horrible deliberation, in 
that pofition^ till the farther end of the bar- 
rel was fo heated as to kindle the powder, 
Vfhofe exploiion inftantly drove the bullets 
through his brains. 

Though I know that this happened ii« 
terally as I have related, yet there is 
fomething fo extraordinary, and almoft^ in« 
credible, in the circumftances, that perhaps 
I fhould not have mentioned it, had it not 
been well attefted, and known to the inha-^ 
bitants of Geneva, and all the Engiifh who 
are at prefent here. 

Why fuicide is more frequent in Great 
Britain and Geneva than elfewhere, would 



a€a raw ot socrcrr ami' 

be a matter of curious inveftigation. For it 
appears very extraordinary^ that men fliould 
be mod inclined to kill diemfelves in cauii«» 
tries where the bl^ffings of life are bcft fe- 
cured. There mafl be fome (Irong and pe- 
culiar caufe fot an efie£k fe prepofterous* 

Before coming here, I was of optnlariy 
that the freopiency of fnicide in England; 
was occaiioned in a great meafure by ther 
flormy and unequal climate, which) while 
it clouds the &.yv throws alfo a gloom over 
the minds of tlic natives. — To this caufe 
fioreigaers geiietally add, that of the uie o£ 
coal, inftead of wood, for fuel* 

I refled fatis&d with famic vague theory^ 
bailt on thefe taken together : — But nei- 
ther can account for the fame cflFeft at Ge- 
neva, wher^ coal is< not u&d^ and where 
the climate is the fame with that in Swit- 
zerland, Savoy, an<F the neighbouring parts 
of France, where indahces of fuicide are. 
certainiy much more „ rare. 

Without prcfuming to decide what arc 
the remote caufes of this fatal propenfityr 



It appears evident to me, that no reafoning 

<:an have the fmalleft force in preventing 

it, but what it founded upon the foal's im« 

mortality and a futtire ftate.— What efkdt 

can the common arguments have on a man 

wlio does not believe that neceflkry and im« 

portant doArine ?— He may be told, that 

he did not give himfelf life, therefore. he 

has no right to take it avay ; — that he is^a 

centinel on a poft, and ought to remain till 

he is relieved : — what is all this to the man 

a^ho thinks he is never to be queAioned for 

his violence and defertion ? 

If you attempt, to pique this man's pride, 

by afferting, that it is a greater proof of 

.courage to bear the His of life, than to flee 

from them ; he will anfwer you from the 

Roman hiftory, and alk. Whether Cato, 

Caflius,, and Marcus Brutus, were cowards ? 

The great legiflatdr of the Jews feems 

<o have been convinced, that no law or 

argument againft fuicide could have any 

influence on the minds of people- who were 

ignorant of the foul's immortality ; and 



aBa TtEW OF societt akd 



therefore, as he did not think it necefiary 
to in(lru£l them in the one, (for reafons 
which the Bi'fhop of Gloucefter has un- 
folded in his treatife on the Divine Legation 
of MofeSy) he alfo thought it fuperfluous 
to give them any exprefs law againfl the 
other. 

Thofe philofophers, therefore, who have 
endeavoured to (hake this great and im- 
portant convi<%ion from the nvinds of men, 
have thereby opened a door to fuicide as 
well as to other crimes. — For, whoever rea- 
fons againft that, without founding upon 
the do<arine of a future ftate, will foon fee 
all his arguments overturned. 

It muft be acknowledged, indeed, that 
in many cafes this queftion is decided by 
men's feelings, independent of reafonings 
of any kind. 

Nature has not trufted a matter of fo 
great importance entirely to the fallible 
reafon of man ; but has planted in the 
human breaft liich a love of life, and horror 



MiNITERS XS FRAKCE. 265 

of death, as feldom can be overcome even 
by the greateft misfortunes. 

But there is a difeafe which fometimes 
afie^s the body, and afterwards communi- 
cates its baneful influence to the mind, over 
which it hangs fuch a cloud of horrors as 
renders life abfolutely infupportabk. In 
this dreadful ilate, every pleating idea 4s 
banifhedy and all the fources of comfort 
in life are poifoned. -— Neither fortune, 
honours, friends, nor family, can afford the 
fmallcft fatisfaaion Hope, the laft pil- 
lar of the wretched, falls to the ground — 
Defpair lays hold of the abandoned fufllerer 
— Then all rcafoning becomes vain — 
Even arguments of religion have no weight, 
and the poor creature embraces death as 
his only friend, which, as he thinks, may 
terminate, but cannot augment, his mifery. 

I am, &c. 

P. S. .You need not write till you hear 
from me again, as I think it is probable 
that we (hall have left this place before your 
letter could arrive. 



\ 



;!|64 TI£W 09 SOCIBXT MiXP 



LETTER XXXIII. 



lAusasne. 

HE Duke of Hamilton having a defire to 
f tlit fome of the German Courts, we bade 
adieu %p our friends at Geneva, and are 
thus far on our iatended journey. It is 
ot peculiar advantage in Germany, above 
all other countries, to be in company with 
a man of rank and high tUIe, becai»fe it 
facilitates your reception every where, and 
fuperfedes the neceffity of recommendatory 
letters. 

I have met here with my friend Brydone, 
wliofe con^pany and converiation have re- 
tarded our joumey, by fupplying the chief 
obje£ls of travellings if amufement and in« 
(Vrudlion are to be ranked among them. 
He is here with the Marquis of Lindfay, 
a lively, fpirited young man j-H^ne of thofe 

€afy. 



jtfAKNXBs IK niAKCE. a6S 

cafy^ carelefs characters, fo much beloved 
by their intimates, and fo regardlefs of the < 
opinion of the reft of n\ankind. 

Since you hold roe to my promife of 
writing fo very regularly, you mud fome- 
times expe£t -to receive a letter dated from 
three or four different places, when eitlxcr 
my fliort ftay in one place deprives me of 
the leifure, or meeting with nothing unconjt* 
mon in another, deprives me of materials 
for fo long a letter as you require. 

The road from Geneva to this towit is 
along the fide of the lake, through a de- 
lightful country, abounding in vineyards, 
which produce the vin dt la cdte^^o much 
^flecmed. All the little towns on the way, 
Nyon, Roile, and Morges, are finely fitu- 
ated, neatly built, and inhabited by a thriv- 
ing and contented people. 

Laufanne i& the capital of this charming 
country, which formerly belonged to the 
Duke of Savoy^ but Is noW under th,c 
dominion of the canton of Bern. 

However mortifying ttiis may be to the 

VOL. I. ji. M 



!^GG VIEW OF SOCIETY AKD 

* - '. ^ . 

former poffeflpr, it hps certainly been a( 
happy difpenfation to the inhabitants of the; 
Pays de Vaud, who are in every refpedl 
0)ore at their eafe, and in a better Ctuatioo, 
than any of the fubk£ts of his ^rdiniat^ 
Majefty. 

^his city is iituated near the lake, an4 
5jt the diftanc^ q{ about thirty miles froni 
Geneva. As the mobility, froni the couHt 
try, and from fome parts of Switzerland, 
and the families of feveral officers whq 
have retired fironi fervipe, refide here, there 
is an air of ixiore fsafe and gaiety fjperhaps 
alfo more politenefsj in the focieties at 
Laufanne, than in thofe of Geneva ; at leafl 
this is firmly believed and aflerted by all 
the nobles of this place, who confider 
themfelves s^s greatly fuperior to the citi- 
zens of Geneva. Thefe, on the oihe^ 
hai^d, talk a good deal of the poverty, fri- 
voloufnefs, and ignorance of thofe fame 
n<ibiliiy, and make no fcruplc of ranking 
their own enlightened mechaiiics above thea^ 
in every efTeniial quality. 



VLjkJfSim IN ilUKCS. 36f 

Vtvay. 
: The road between Laafanne and Vevay 
is very mountainous ; but the mountains aro 
cultivated to the fummtts, and covered with 
vines.— •-^This would have been impradlU 
cable on account of the fteepnefsj had not 
the proprietors built ftrong ftooerwalls^ at 
proper intervals, one above the other, 
which fupport the foil, and form little 
terraces from the bottom to the top of the 
mountains. ^ . 

The peafants afcind by narrow flairf^ 
and, befbre tliey arrive at the ground they 
are to cultivate, have frequently to mount 
higher than a mafon who is employed ia 
repairing the top of a fteeple* 

The mountainous nature of thk country 
fufbjeSs it to frequent lorrent^'t which,, 
when violent, -fweep away vines, foil, and 
walls in one common deftroSion* The 
inhabitants behold the havoc with ai'ft^y 
concern, and, without giving :vwy to the. 
.clamorous rage of the French^t or. (inking 
i«to the gloomy dcfpair.of the EngJifli, 



268 VIEW or SOCTETY Alf» 

think onTy of the moil efFediual means of 
repairing the lors.*<— As foon as the ftorm 
has abated, they begin, with admirable pa* 
tience ami perfeverance, to rebuild \hm 
walls, to carry frefli earth on hurdles to the 
top of the mountain, and to fpread z f»w' 
foil wherever the old has been wafiiedi 
away. 

Where property h perici^y fecare^ and 
men are allowed to enjoy the fruks of 
their own labour, they are capable of 
efforts unknown in thqfe coontries where 
defpotifm renders every thing preearioiis» 
and whe^ a tyrant reaps what fiaves hav« 
fdwn. 

This part of the Pays de Vaad is inha? • 
bited by the de&endants of thofe tsnbsppy 
people, wbo^ were driven by the mioft abfurd 
and cruel perfeeution ffx>m tbe vallies of 
Piedmont and Savoy. 

T wiU'not aflert, that the ini^tty of ^ 
perfeiecitarS' hais been vi£ted upon itieir 
children ; but the fulierings and: Aed&llflefr 
of the peirfecuted feem to btfrecompot^ b% 



the happjr fitsation in w)»icbd»eif childvpn 
of the dtird and foitrch geaerawnl am mm 
placed. 

Vtvay is « pietty Kttle tcwiii containing 
between ihtee or four th6«(and inhabitants. 
h k (weetly fituated on a plain^ near 
the head of the lake of Geneva^ where 
the Rhone enteri. The mountains behind 
the toWn» though exceedingly high, are 
entirely calthr atol^ like thqfe on the roa^ 
fiom LanGuitie. 

There is a laiige yilbige abK>tit half-way 
typ the' naotintiitn, in a dired iine above 
Vevay, which, viewed from below, ieeaae 
adhering to.Ae ^c <if die prectpicei and 
hasatrerf fingiihtand romantic appearance. 

The principal chorch is detached frooQi 
the lown^ and fitoated on a hill which 
overlooks it« From the terrace, or church^ 
yar^ theto is a view of the Alfs^ the 
Rhone, the lake, with towns and villages 
oft its margin.—- -^Within this church .the 
body of General Lodlow is dspoCted. That 
fteady republican withdrew from Xiaulanne 



s';o rtEsir op iociztt anb 

to this place, after the' aflaffination of his 
friend Lifle, who was fhot through the 
heartj as he was going to church, by a 
TuflBan, who had come acrofs the lake for 
that purpofe, and who, amidft the confd- 
fion occaiioned by the murder, got fafe to 
the boat, and efcaped to the Duke of Savoy^s 
territories on the other fide, where he was 
openly protedied. — This was a pitiful way 
of avenging the death of a monarchy who^ 
whether juftly or not, had been publicly 
condemned and executed. 

There is a long Latin epitaph on Ludlow's 
monument, enumerating many circumftances 
of his life, but omitting the nioft remarkable 
of them all. He is called. Patriae libertatis 
defenfor, et poteftatis arbitrariae propugnator 
acerrimus,* &c.— But no nearer hint is 
given of his having been one of King 
Charles the Firft's judges, and of his having 

* A defender of the liberty of his native 
counti7, and a determined oppofer of arbitrary 
power, &c, 



figned Ac fentenee agatnft that ill-£ited 
Prince. 

Howevfer fond the Swifs in genbral may 
he of liberty, and however partial to its 
aflertorS) it is prefumable that thofe who 
protected Ludlow did not approve of thift 
part • of his (loryi and on that account a 
particular mention of it was not made on 
his tombi 

There is no travelling by poft through 
Switzerland: we therefore hired horfes at 
Geneva, to carry us to Bafil ; from whence 
%ye can proceed by poft to Strafbourg^ 
Vrhich is the route we de fign to take. We 
leave Laufande the day after to-morrow. . 



ija yrxsr at sQCsxrr ms^b 

LETTER XXXIV. 

\ 

O^ my return frMiiVevayto Laufanne^ 
I found our friend Mr. Harvey, at the inn^ 
tfith the Duke of Hamilton. His Grace 
inclines to remain fome time longer at that 
city *, but defired that I might proceed with 
the carriages and all the (ervants, except hift 
vs(!et de-chambre and one footman, to Straf- 
bourg, which I readily agreed to» on his pro- 
mifing to join me there within a few days. 
Harvey at tlie fame time made the very 
agreeable propofal of accompanying me to 
Strafbourg, where he will remain till our 
departure from thence, leaving his chaife for 
the Duke. 

We began our journey the following 
day, and were efcorted as far as Payerne by 
Meffrs. Brydone and Humberfton, where we 
pafled a gay evening, and proceeded next 



morning to the town of Avancti^,. the capital 
of Swttsxrfand in Tacitus*s time* 

No country in the world can he mor^ 
agreeable to travellers during the fummer 
than Switzerland : for, befides the commo« 
dious roads and comfortable inns»» fome ofihe 
mod beautifal obje(£ls of nature, woods, 
mountains, lakes, intermingled with fertile 
£etds, vineyards, and fcenes of the mod per- 
fcSt cuhivation, are here prefented to the 
eye in greater variety, and on a larger JCcalc^ 
than in any other country. 

« Near this town, the Hdvetitns mat As 
fnted by Calctiia, oiie of Viteiitus^ LituMt»dCf . 
*-— Muka homuium milia c«i«, moha fab co- 
rona venumdata. Cumque direptis omnibiil. 
Aventtcum gcntts caput jufto agmine petemur, 
Taciti Hidoria, lib. i. C9p.^8. 

— - Many thoiifiinds were llain, and many 
^ftiDuTands fold as leaves ; and after comtnlntn^ 
great ravage, the army marched in order |of 
battle to Aventicum the c;^ital x>f the country. 

1 * 



274 Tttw Of sdcnmr utd 

From Avanche we advanced to Murtenf^ 
or Murat, as it is pronounced by the Frcnchr; 
f neat little town, fituated upon a rifing 
ground! on the fide of the lake of the fame 
namei. 

The army of Charles Duke of Burgundy^ 
Befieging this town, Was defeated, with great 
daughter, by the Swifs, in the year 1476; 
Near the road, within a mile of Murat, there 
IS a little building fall of human bones, which 
are faid to be thofe of the Burgundians (Iain 
in the battle. As this curious cabinet was 
ere£ted many years after the battle, it may 
lie fuppofedf that foine of the bones of the 
vi^iors are here packed up along with thofc 
of the vanquifhed, in order to fwell thecoU 
k^lion. 

There are feveral infcriptiom on the 
chipe). 

DEO OPTIM. MAX. 

CiROLI INCUTI ET FORTI86IMI BURGUNBLIE 

DUCISEXERCITUS MtlRATUM OBSIDENS AB 

* HELYETIlS C./ESUS HOC StJI MONUMENTUM 

'REUQUIT, 1476. 



On another fiJe is the following^ 

SACELLUM 

QUO BELIQUIiiS 

EXERGITUS BURGUNDICt 

AB HELVETIIS. A. 1^76. 

WA ANTIQUITAS CONDIH. 

AENOVARt 

yilSQiDE PUBLiaS MUMM 

JtSSERUNT 

BEHUM NUNC DOMINJfi 

BEEPUBLlCifi 

BERNENSIS ET FRIBURGENSI3 

ANNO 1755. 

The borfcrs of the lake of IVturat are ctt^ 
rtched with gentlemen's houfes^ and village* 
in great abandance^ 

The drefs, mahhefs> afiA perfons of thd 
itihabitahts of this country indicate a dlfie^ 
rent people from the Genevois, Savoyards, ot\ 
the inhabitants of the Pays de Vaud. 

We dined at Murat, and remained feyeral 
hours in the town. There was a fair, and a 
gteat concourfe of people* — • The $wi(i 



2j6 VIEW OF Boejsrt Ain* 

peafants are the talJeil and mod robuft I hare 
ever feen. Their drefs is very particular. — 
They have little round hats, like thofe worn 
by the Dutdi fltip^^ersc — Their coats and 
waiftcoats are atl of a kind of cuaf fe black 
cloth. — ^Thcir breedics arc made of coarfe 
linen, fomcthmg like failors trowfei's ; but 
drawn together in pilaits below the knees, 
and the ftockings are of the fame fluff with 
the breeches. 

The women wear^ ihort jackets, with a 
great fuperfluity of buttons. The Jinoaar- 
ried women value themfelves on the length 
of their hair, which they feparate into two 
divifi<M)s» »rid allow to hang at its full length, 
bratdsd with ribandl in the Raoiillie 6fliionV 

After marriage, thcfe trefib wx no 

longer permitted to bang down ; but, being 
twifted round the head in fprral lines^ are 
fixed at the crown with lar^e (ilver pins* 
This is the opiy difference, in point of drefi^ 
which matrimony makes. 

Married ^nd unmarried wear ftraw hats, 
ornamented with black ribands. So far the 



women's drefs is becoming enough ^but they 
have an awkward manner of fixing their 
petticoats fo high as to leave hardly any 
waift. This encroachoieat of the petticoats 
upon the waift, with the amazing n amber 
the;, wear, gives a fize and importance to 
the lower and bind part of the body t0 
which it is by no means entitled^ aod migh- 
tily deforms the appearance of the whole 
perfon. 

' The elegant figure of the Venus de Medi- 
ci$^ or of the DucheGi of Devonflifre, would 
be impaired, or annihilated^ under (uch a 
prepofteroas load of drefs. — As wc anuved 
only this afternoon, I can lay nothing of 
Bern? You ihall htar more in my next 
Meanwhile I am^ &c» 



ij8 roitr o» adcifitir mi^ 



LETTER XXXV. 

JlJern is ^ "regular well-built town, witti 
feme air of magnificence. The houles 
are of a fihe white frcc-ftonc, and pretty 
uniform, particularly in the principal (Ireet^ 
where they ate alf cxaftly of the fame 
height. There arc piazzas on each fide. 
With a walk ralfed four feet above the 
level of the ftrect^ very eotnmodious in 
Wet weather. 

A fmall branch of the Aar has been 
tujped into this ftrcct, and being confined 
to a narrow channel in the middle, which 
has a confiderable ilope, i( runs with great 
rapidity ; and, without being a difagreeable 
objefl of itfelf, is of great , fcrvice in keep« 
ing the ftreet clean. 

Another circumftance contributes to ren-» 
der this one of the moft cleanly towns in 



MAimSAd IK nUUNCB. ^f§ 

Europe r-^Criminals are employed in re-* 
moving rubbish from the flreecs and public 
Walks. The more atrocious delinqaents 
are chained to waggons, while thofe who 
are condemned for fmaller crimes^ are em«. 
ployed in fweeping the light rabbifli into 
the rivulet, and throwing the heavier into 
the carts and waggons, which their more 
criminal companions ar^ obliged to pufh of 
draw along. 

Thefe wretches have collars of iron fixed 
around their ndcks, with a pro)e£ling handle 
in the form of a hook to each, by which . 
on the flighted oflence or mutiny, they 
may ht feized, and are entirely at the com-* 
manJ of the guard, whofe duty is to fee 
'them perform their work. — ^People of both 
fexes arc ' condemned to this labour for 
months, years, or for life, according to the 
nature of their crimes. 

It is alledged, that ovep and above the de- 
terring from criincs, which is effe<fted by 
this, in common With the other methods 
of punifhing, there is the additions] advan- 



2^9' Txsw OF aooDEnr ^jukd 

tage, of obliging the criminal to Fqmir by 
hit labour the tojury which be liat done to 
the comaittnlty. 

I fufpcct, however, that this advantage ts 
overbalanced bj the bfrf efefts of habitu- 
ating people to behold the mtfery of thehr 
fcUow-creatttrcs, which Iimagmc gradaally 
hardens the hearts of the fpedators, and 
renden them Icfs fufceptibic of the ^motrons 
of compaffioH and pity ; — feelings, which, 
perhaps, of all others, have the bcft in- 
floenee upon, and are the nfioft becdming^ 
human nature. Jtivenal fays, 

molliflima corda 

Humano geneci dare fe natura fatetur, 
Quae iachrymas dedit : hasc .noftri pars op- 
tima fenfus.* 

^ Nature -avows, diat 4hc has beftowed the 
moft confiaffionatelieartson tlie. human race,., 
by giving them tears; 4md this fenfibility is the 
beil quality of -our minds. 



Wherever public executions and punifli^ 
ments are frequent, the common people 
have been obferved to acquire a greater de- 
gree of infenfibility and -cruelty of difpofi- 
fitioti, than in places where fuch fcenes 
feldom o«cur. I remember^ while I was at 
Geneva, where executions arc very lare, • 
young man was condemned to be hanged for 
murder, and there was a general gloom and 
uneafmefs evident in every fociety for feverai 
days before and after the execution. 

The public baildings at Bern, at the hof* 
spital, the granary, the 'goard^houfe, the 
«rfenai, and the churches^ are magnificenf. 
There is a very elegant building ju^ com^ 
4>kted, with accommodations for many pub- 
lie amufements, fuch as balls, concerts, and 
theatrical entertainments. There are al(b 
apartments for private focteties and aflem* 
blies. It was built by a voluntary iabfcrip* 
tion among the noUlity ; and oo fedettei« 
but of the patrician order, are allowed tlieir« 
• Theatrical entertain nrents arc feldom per*- 



aSa rrsw or socrtrr a^ 

mitted at Bern ; none have as yet becM 
performed at this neW theatre. 

The walk by the great church was foi*- 
itoerly the only public walk, and much ad*- 
tnired on account of the vieW frorti it, and 
the peculiarity of its fituation, being 6n a 
level with the ftrects on one fide, and (orttc 
hundred feet of perpettdicular height above 
them on the other. But there is nov^r rinoiher 
public walk, at fome diftande without the 
town, which has been lately made upon a 
high bank by the (ide of the Aar$ and is the 
mod magnificent' I ever faw belonging to 
this or any other town. From it there i> a 
commanding view of the river, the toWh 
of Bern, the country about it, and theGla* 
ciers of Switzerland. 

I have vifitcd the library,- where, befides 
the books^ there are a few antiques, and 
fome other curioiities* The fmall figure of 
che pheft pouring wine between the horns 
of a bulJ> is valuable only becaufe it iliuf^ 
trates , a paflkge in Virgil^ and has ^en 
mentiancJ.by Addifon. 



IfAKKERS IN nUNCB^ S9J 

An addition was lately made to this library 
by a coUefkion of Englifh books magnifi- 
cently bounds which were fent as a prefent 
by an Englifh gentleman ; who, though he 
has thought proper to conceal his name, has 
fu£BcientIy difcovered his political principles 
by the nature of the colie£lion, amongft 
which, I diftinguifhed Milton's works, 
particularly his profe writiji|;^ ; Algernon 
Sidney oa Government, Locke, Ludlow'i 
MenioirSy. Gordon's tranflation df Tacitus, 
Addifon's works, particularly The Frec^ 
holder;. Marvel's works. Steel's, &c.— 
Tliey were the larged and fined editions, 
and might be about the value of 20Oi.-— 
This gentleman made a preicnt of the fante 
nature to the public library at Geneva, 

I happened to open the Glafgow edition 
of Homer, which I faw here, on a blank 
page of which was an addrefs in Latin to 
the Corfican General, Paoli, figped James 
Bofwell. This very elegant book had been 
fent, I fuppofe, as a prefent from Mr. Bot 
well to his friend thd General ; and, when 



ik84 -nxw cxp aoGzsrr ism 

that unfbrtttTiate chtef was oUiged to As^-^ 
don his country^ fell, with other of his 
tSSe&Sy into the hands of the Swifs o^Ekxr 
in the French fervice, who t&ade a prefer 
of the Homer to this library* 

The atfenal I cotiM not have omitttd 
feeing had I been fo inclined, as the BeN 
nois value themfelves on the trophies caa- 
tained in it, and npon the quantity* good 
condition, and arrangement of the arms, 

Nothif^g intetefted me ib much as the 
figures of the brave Switzers, who "firft took 
anni agamd tyranny, and that of .WiUiMi 
Tell, who is repre&nted aiming at the 
apple on his fon*s head. I contemplated 
this with an emotion wMch was created 
by the circamftanct of the ftory, not by 
the workmanfliip ; for* at that moment, I 
(hoold have beheld with titgkSt the moft 
exquifite ftatue that ever was formed of 
Augudus Ciefar. 

Surely no chara<S^en have fo jud a claim 
to the admiration and gratitude of poAerity 
as thofe who have freed their countrymen 



MANVBIIB IK FHAKCB. 2l85 

from the capricious infolence of tyrants : 
and whether all the incidents of Teil't 
ftory be true or fabulous, the men {wbxh» 
ever they were) who rouicd and incited 
their fellQiw^citizens to throw off the Auf« 
trian yoke, deferve to be regarded as |mi« 
triots, having undoubtedly been aAuated 
by that principle, fo dear lo every generous 
hearty the fpirit of independence. 

** Who with the gen'rous ruftia fate, 
** On UriV rock, in clofc divan, 
" And wingy that arrow fove as fatev 
*« Which afeertain*d the facptd rights of 
•^ man." 

Mr. Addifon obferves, that there is no 
great pleafure in vifiting arfenals, merely to 
fee a repetition of thefe magazines of war ; 
yet it is worth while, as it gives an idea of 
the force of a ftate, and ferves to fix in the 
mind the mod confiderable parts of its 
hiflory* 

The arms taken from the Burgundians, 



UtS TIBW OF SOCIETY i.N» 

iii the various' battlel^whtch eftabliihed the 
hberty of Switzerland, are difplayed here ; 
aMb the figure of the General of Bern, who, 
in the year 1536, conquered the Pays do 
Vaud from Charles III. Duke of ^voy.-^ 
And, if they liave no trophies to fhew of a 
later date, I am convinced it is becaufe 
they are too poor and too vyrife-to aim at any 
extenfion of dominion :-— and becaufe all 
the neighbouring powrers are at length become 
fenf^ble, that the- nature of their country, 
and their, perfonal valour, hz^ve rendered 
the Svvifs as unconquerable, as fipm political 
confiderations they are . ^verfe to attpmf t 
pon^ueds. 



^A2ii?EBS IN F]UKC£. 287 



I.ETTER XXXVI, 



Bern. 
X HE ^i^ereftt cantons of SmtzeUand, 
tjiough united togetl^er by a con)iT)on bon4»« 
apd all of«a republican form of government, 
diflTer in thelhatore of that ibri^, as well as 
ir\ religion. 

Xhe I^oiTian patholic religion being fa- 
vourable to monarchy, one would naturaJIy 
in^agine, that, when adqpted by a republic, 
it would gradually wind ap the government 
tp the highef^ pitch of ariilocraoy. 

The fa£l never^helcCs is, that thofe can- 
tons, which are in the ftrongeft degree de- 
mocratical, are pf the Popifli per|uafioni 
and^ the mpft pcrf(?£l aridocracy of then^ 
all is eftablifhed in this proteftant canton of, 
^ern, vyhich is alfo indeed the moft pow- 
lerful. In exte# of country, and nvimber of 



• % 



28^ VIEW or SOCIETY AN* 

inhabitants, it is reckoned nearly equal to all 
the others taken together. 

The nobility of Bern are accufed of an 
extraordinary degree of pride and ftatelinefs. 
They afFedl to keep the citizens at a great 
dilhmce ; and it is with difficuky that their 
wives and daughters will condefcenJ x» 
mix with the mercantile families at balls, 
^•flembiies, and fuch public occafions, where 
numbers (ecm cflbntial to the nature of the 
entertainment ; by which means a nobility 
ball lofcs in cheetfulnefs what it retains in 
dignity, and is often as lam told, as devoid of 
amufement as it is folemn. 

The whole power oF the government, 
SHidall the honourable offices of the (late, 
are in the hands of the nobility. As it is 
not permitted them to trade, they would 
naturally fall into poverty without this 
refource: but by the number of places 
^hich the nobles enjoy, and to whicTi very 
/Confiderable penfions are annexed, the pooreft 
of them arc enabled to fupport their families 
with dignity, * 

The 



The bailliages, into which the whole 
canton and (he conquered territories are 
divided, form lucrative and honourable 
edablifliments for the principal families of 
Bern. The bailiff is governor and judge in 
his own dillrift, and there is a magnificent 
chateau in each for his accommodation. An 
appeal may be made from all /ubordinate 
courts to him ; as alfo from his decifiony to 
the council at Bern. 

The nobility of Bern, though born to be 
judges, are not always in(lrud.ed in law. 
It has therefore been thought requiiite, to 
appoint a certain number of perfons, as their 
afleflbrsy who have been bred to the pro- 
feffion. But in cafe the judge fhould differ 
from thofe affeffors, and retain his own 
opinion in fpite of their remonfl ranees, as 
nobility has the precedency of law, the de- 
cifion muft be given according to the will 
of the judge. 

This office remains in the hands of the 
fame perfon for the term of fix years only 
I have been informed^ that in fome of thefe 

VOL. I. N 



igO TIEW OF 50CIBTT AN* 

bailliages, the governor may live with pro- 
per magnificence, and lay up, during the 
period of his office, two or three thourand 
pounds, without cxtration, or unbecoming 
parfimony. There is no law againft his 
being afterwards named to another bailliage. 

The executive power of the government, 
with all tlrt^rlucrative and honourable o£Bces, 
being thus in the hands of the nobility, it 
may be imagined, that the middle and 
lower ranks of people are poor and oppreflTed. 
This, however, is by no means the cafe ; for * 
the citizens, I mean the merchants and 
tradefpeople, fcem, in general, to enjoy 
all the comforts and conveniencies of life* 
And the peafantry is uncommonly wealthy 
throughout the whole canton of Bern. 

The Swifs have no objeftion to their 
nobles being their judges, and to the prin- 
cipal offices of government remaining in 
their hands. They look upon the nobility 
as their natural fuperiors, and think, that 
they and their families ought to be fup- 
ported with a certain degree of fplendor :— 



MA2WEK5 IK FRA^^CJE. ^§1 

But the power of dire£t taxation is a diffe- 
rent quedion, and muft be| managed with 
all poffible caution and delicacy. It is a 
common caufe, and the condu£t of the 
nobles in this particular is watched with 
very jealous eyes. They are fuflSciemly 
aware of this, and ufc their power with 
moderation. But left the nobles fhould at 
any time forget, a very good hint is given 
in a German infcription in the arfenai, im- 
plying. That the infolence and rapacity of 
high rank had brought about the liberty of 
Switzerland. 

A people who have always arms in their 
hands, and form the only military force of 
the country, are in no danger of being op- 
preffed and irritated with taxes. 

It has been confidered by fome as a per-. 
, nicious policy in the Swifs, to allow fo 
many of their inhabitants to fervc as mer- 
cenaries in the different armies of Europe. 
There are others, who confider this meafurc 
as expedient, or lefs pernicious in the Swifs 



HQH VIEW OF SOCIETY AMJ 

cantons, than it would be in any other 
country^ 

They who fupport this^ opinion affert, that 
every part of Switzerland, which is capable 
of cultivation, is already improved to the 
higheft degree ; that, after retaining a fuffi- 
cient number of hands to keep it always in 
this condition, and for the fupport of every 
man u factory, ftill there remains a ftirplus of 
inhabitants, which forms the troops that are 
allowed to go /into foreign fervices. They 
add, that thefe troops only engage for a li- 
mited number of years, after the expiration 
of which, many of them return with rtiouey 
to their native country ; and all of them, 
by ftipulation, may be recalled by the ftatq 
on any emergency, -?? — By this means, 
they retain a numerous and well-difciplined* 
army on foot; which, fp far frqm being 
a burden^ in reality enriches the ftate: — r 
an advantage vvhiich no other people ever 
poffeffed. 

There is ftill another motive for this mea- 
fure, which, though it be not openly avowed. 



yet I fufpeft has confiderable weight: the 
council are perhaps afraid, that if the youn^ 
nobility were kept at home, where they could 
have but few obje£h to occupy them, they 
Slight cabal and fpread diCentions in the ftate ; 
or perhaps^ through idlenefs and ambition, 
excite dangerous infurre£li^$ among the 
peafants. For, although the laws are fevcro 
againft tiate crimes, and eaiily put in exe« 
Ctttion a^lnfl: ordinary offenders, it might be 
difficult and dangerous to punifh a popular 
young nobleman. 

It may on thefe acc^ounts be thought 
highly prudent^ to allow a large proportion 
of them to exhaufti in fonie foreign fervice^ 
the fiery and relUeis years of youth, which 
at home might have been fpent in &£tioQ 
and dangerous intrigues. Very probjibly the 
dates would incline to permit the officers to 
go, while they retained the private man at 
home*; but are under a neceffity of allowing 
the latter alfo, becaufe without them the of- 
ficers could not be raifed to thofe dlftinguifhed 
fitaatiofls in foreign fervices which are their 



^94 VIEW or SOCIETY AKJ0 

grcateft' inducements to leave their own 
country. 

After having ferved a certain ttme, almoft 
all of them return to Switzerland. Some, 
becaufe they are tired of diffipation ; others 
to inherit a paternal edate ; and many with 
penfions from the Princes they have ferved. 
— The heat of youth is then moft probably 
oven — They begin Iwifpire to thofc offices 
in their own country to which their birth 
gives them a claim^ and which they now 
prefer ta the lullrc of military rank. They 
wifh to fupport tbofe laws, and that go- 
vernment, which they find fo partial to their 
faniiiiei ; or their defire to pafs the remainder 
of life in eafe atid retirement on their pater- 
nal ettates. 

It is remarkable, that the Swifs officers, 
who return from foreign fervices, particu- 
larly that of France, inftead of importing 
French manners to their native mountains, 
and infeding their countrymen with the 
luxuries and fopperies of that nation, throw 
off all foreign airs with their uniform^ and 



incimedbtelf refume the plain and frugal 
llyle of life whidi prevails in their own 
country. 



LETTER XXXVII. 

nAViNO, on a former oceafion, made a 
more cxtenfive tour through SwUaerlind, we 
determined not to deviate from the dirc£l 
rond to Strafbourg. In purfuance of this 
refolution, Harvey and I, when we left Bern, 
pa(fed by Soleurre, the capital of the canton 
of the fame name, 

Soleurre is an agreeable little town fitu- 
ated on the river Aar, The houfes are 
neatly built, and not inelegant ; the meaneft 
of them have a cleanly appearance. The 
cam mon. people feem to be in eafier crrcum* 
fiances, and have a greater air of content. 



OiqG TIEW OF SOCIETY ANI> 

than in any Roman Catholic country I have 
ever vifited. The inn where we lodged has 
the comfortable look of an Englifli one. 
The French ambaffador to the cantons has 
his refidence in this town. One of the 
' churches of Sole urre is the moft magnificent 
of modern buildings in Switzerland. 

The arfenal is flored with arms, in pro- 
portion to the number of inhabitants in the 
canton ; and there a^e trophies, and other 
monuments of the valoui of their anceftors, 
tis^in the arfenal of Bern. In the middle of 
the hall there are thirteen figures of«men ia 
complete armour, reprefenting the thirteen 
Swifs cantons. 

The country between Soleurre and Bafil, 
though very hilly, is beautiful, perhaps the 
more fo on that account ; becahfe of the vff- 
liety of furfaceand different views it prefents. 
'Harvey and I had more leifure to admire 
thofe fine landfcapes fjian we wiflied, for the 
axle-tree of the chaife broke at fome miles 
diftant from Bafil. 

It was the gay feafoa of the" vintage.—* 



The country was crowded with pcafantry 
f)f both fcxes and every age» all employed 
in gathering and carrying home the grapes* 
Our walk for thefe few miles was agreeable 
and amufing. In all countries this is the 
feafon of joy and feftivity, and approaches 
neareft the exaggerated defcription which 
the ancient poets have given of rural hap- 
pinefs. Perhaps there is in reality not fo 
'much exaggeration in their defcription, as 
alteration in our manners.-— For if the pea- 
fants were allowed to enjoy ihc fruits of 
4heir own labour, would not their lives be 
more delightful than thofe of any other 
people ?— In fpite of poverty and oppreffion^ 
a happy enthufiafm, a char%ing madnefs, 
and perfed oblivion of care, are d:fFufcd 
all over France during the vintage.— Every 
village is enlivened with muiic, dancing, and 
glee ; — and were it B<pt for. their tattered 
clothes and emaciated countenances, one 
who viewed them in the vintage feafon, 
would imagine the country people of France 
in a'iituation as enviable as that which, ac- 



2jj8 VIEW OF SOCIETT AND 

cording to the poets, - was formerly enjoyed 
by ihe Shepherds of Arcadia. — The pea- 
fantry of this country have ngt fo great a 
fenfibility or expreffion of joy ; and though 
blelTed with heahh, freedom, and abun- 
dance, a compofed fatisfa<Sion, a kind of 
phlegmatic good-humour, mark the boun* 
daries of their happinefs. 

When we arrived at Bafil, we went di- 
rectly to the Three Kings. This inn, in 
point of fituation, is the moft agreeable yoa 
can well imagine. The Rhone wafhes its 
wails, and the windows of a large dinmg- 
room look acrofs that noble river to the 
fertile plains ofi the oppofite fide. 

I am juft returned from that fume dining- 
room, where Harvey 9nd I thought proper 
ID fup.»— Tl)ere were ten or a dozen people 
at table. I fat next to a genteel-looking 
man from Scrafbourg, with whom I con* 
verfed a good deal during f upper. He had 
for his companion a round faced, rofy, plunf>p 
(gentleman, from Amfterdam, who did not 
ipeak Frcuch \ but the Straiburger addrefled 



SCAHKElkS IK FRANCS^ Sgg 

him from time to time in Low Dutch, 
to which the other replied by nods. 

When the retreat of the greater part of 
the company had contra£led the little circle 
which remained, I exprefTed feme regret to 
my Strafbourg acquaintance, that Mr. Har* 
vey and I could not fpeak a little Dutch ; or 
that his friend could not fpeak French, that 
we might enjoy the pleafure of his conver- 
fation. This was immediately tranflated 
to the Dutchman, .who heard it with great 
compofure, and then took his pipe from 
his mouth, and made an anfwcr, which I 
got our interpreter, with fome difficulty, 
to explain. It was to this effe<St ;— That wp 
ought to confole ourfelvcs for the accident 
pf our not underdanding each other ; for as 
•we had no connection, or dealings in tradi 
•together, our converfing could not poffibiy 
anfwer any ufeful purpofe, Haryey made 
'3 low bow to this compliment, fi^ying, that 
*the judnefs and good fenfe of that rentark 
had certainly efcaped my obfervation, as he 
-acknowledged }c. had hither^ done bi«. 



5oo Hnxw ov BocwFT A3ni 

A man that travels, yoa fee, my friend, 
and takes care to get into good company, 
is always learning fomething. — • Had I not 
vifited the Three Kings at Bafil, I might 
have converted all my lifetime without 
iknowing the true ufe of language. 



LETTER XXXVIIL 

Basa. 
X HE&E has been an kiterval of three 
days fince I had the converfation wkh my 
ingenious acquaintance from Amfterdam. 
We are affured that the chaife, which has 
been accoinmodated with a new axle-tree, 
will be ready this afternoon. In the interim, 
I ihall wHte you, a few remarks on this 
town. ' 
Bafil is larger than any town in Switp 



ifierland, but not To populous for its iGze as 
Geneva* The inhabitants fecm to be un« 
commonly afraid of thieves, moft of the 
windows being guarded by iron bars or 
grates, like thofe of convents or prifons* 

I obferved at the lower end of many 
windows a kind of wooden box, projcA** 
ing towards the ftreet, with a round giafs^ 
of about half a foot diameter, in the mid- 
dle. I was told this was for the conveni^ 
ency of people within ; who, without being 
feen, choofe to fit .at the windows, and 
amufe themfelves by looking at the paf«> 
fengers ; — that they were moftly occupied 
by the ladies, who are taught to think k 
indecent to appear at the windows. 

The inhabitants of Baiil feem. to be of 
a referved and faturnine dtfpofition ; whe^ 
ther it is natural or aiFefled I cannot tell, 
but the few 1 converted with, had fomcr 
thing uncommonly ferious and formal in 
their manner. How an unremiuing gra- 
vity and folemnity of manner,, in the com- 
mon afiairs of life, CQmes to be confid^ed 



Soa viKW OF sooiBnp aoti. 

as an indication of \vifdom, Or of extraor- 
dinary parts," is what I never could under*- 
ftand. — So many ridiculous things occur 
every day in this world, that men, who 
are endowed with that degree of feniibiliqr 
which ufually accompanies genius, find it 
very difficult to maintain a continued gni<- 
vity. This difficulty is abundantly felt 
even in the grave and learned profeffions of 
- law, phyfic, and divinity ; and the indi- 
viduals who have been mofl fuccefsfal in 
furmountlng it, and who never deviate 
from the fokmnity of eftablifhed forms, 
have not been always the moA diftinguifhed 
for real knowledge or genius ; though they 
generally arc moft admired by the muiti- 
tttde, who are very apt to miflake that 
gravity for wifdom, which proceeds from 
a liieral weight of brain, and muddinefs 
t>f underftanding. Miftakes of tite fame 
jcind are frequently made in forming a 
judgment of books as well as men. Thofc 
•which profcfs a formal defign to inftru<^ 
and reform, and carry on the work me- 



thodtcaliy till the reader is lulled into re- 
pofc, have pafled for deep and ufeful per- 
formances ; while others, replete with 
original obfervation and real in(lru6lioii« 
have been treated as frivolous, becaufe 
ihcy are written in a ^miliar ftyle, and 
the precepts conveyed in a fprightty and 
indire£t manner. 

Works which are coinpofed with the la- 
borious defire of being thought profound^ 
have fo very often the misfortune to be 
dull, that fome people have confidered the 
two terms as fynonimous; and the men 
who receive it «$ a rule, that one fet of 
books are profound becaufe they are dull, 
may naturally conclude that others are 
fuperficial becaufe they are entfrtaining. 
With refpeft to books, however, matters 
are foon fet to rights ; thofe of puffed and 
falfe pret6nfions die neglcdited, while thofe 
of real merit live and flourifli. But with 
regard to the men, the cataftrophe VofteA 
dilFerent ; we daily ft*e 'formal affuming 
blockheads i3ounih and enjoy the fruits of 



J5o4 YEEW O* SOCIETY A^O 

their pompous impofitions^ while many men 
of talents who difdain fuch arts, live in 

obfcurity, and die negleded. — ■ I alk 

you pardon, I have jufl: recoUeiSied that I 
was giving you fome account of Bafil. 

The library here is much efteemed.— 
It is reckoned particularly rich in manu- 
.fcripts. They (howed us one of a Greek 
New Teftament, with which you may be- 
lieve Harvey and I were greatly edified. 
We arc told it is above a tboufand years 
old. 

At the arfcnal is fliown the armour in 
which Charles Duke of Burgundy wis 
> killed. That unfortunate prince has orna- 
mented all the arfenals in •SwitZiCrland with 
trophies. 

We vifited the hall where the famous 
Council fat fo many years, and voted fo 
intrepidly agamft the Pope. Not fati fied 
with condemn mg his condudt, they ac- 
tually damned him in effigy. A famous 
painting,, in the town-houfe, is (uppof^d to 
have been executed under their aufpices. 



MAKKSRS IK TKAKCE* 5o5 

In this piece the Devil is reprefented driving 
the Pope and feveral ccclefiaftics before him 
to hell- — Why they /hould fuppofe the 
Devil fhoulcl be fo very active againft his 
>,Holinefs, I know no reafon. 

Here are many piftures of Hans HoIbcn*s 
(who yiras a native of Bafil, and the favourite 
painter of Henry Vlll. to whom he was 
firft recommended by Erafmus) ; particu* 
larly, feveral portraits of Erafmus, and one 
fketch of Sir Thomas More*g family. 
Though portraits are in general the moft 
infipid of all kinds of paintings, yet thofe of 
fuch celebrated perfons, done by fuch a 
painter, arc certainly very intercfting pieces. 

The moft admired of atl Holben's works, 
is a fuit of fmall pieces in difiercnt com- 
partpients, reprefenting the paflion and 
fu£F^rings of our Saviour. In thefe, be 
colours remain with wonderful vivacity. 

We were alfo conducted to the difmal 

gallery, upon whofe walls, what is called 

Holben's Death's Dance is reprefented. 

. The colours having been long expofed to 



So6 Txxw OF aoGonrx aud 

^ the air, are now quite faded, which I cm. 
fcarce think is much to be regretted^ for the 
plan of the piece is (o wretched, that the 
fineft execution could hardly prevent it from 
giving difguft, 

A fkeleton, which teprefents Death, leads 
off, in a dancing attitude, people of both 
fexes, of all ages, and of every condition, 
from the emperor to the beggar. All of' 
them difplay the greateft unwilUngnefs to 
accompany their hideous parm«r, who, re- 
gardleff of teari, expoftulationsi and bribeit 
draws them along. 

You will take notice, that there it a 
Death for each charaftcr,^ which occafions 
a naufeous repetition o£ the fame figure ; 
and the reluctance marked by the difierent 
people who are forced to this hated minuet, 
is in fome accompanied with grimaces fo 
very ridiculous, that one cannot refrain 
fiom fmiiing; which furely is not the 
efFe<9: the painter Intended to produce.— If 
he did, ot. all the contrivances that ever 
were thought of to put. people in good 



SLOTKERS IN FRANCE. Soj 

h'limour, his muft be allowed the moft ex*' 
traordinary. 

To this piece^ fuch as it is, Prior alludes 
in his ode to the memory of Colonel 

Villcrs: 

Nor awM by forcfight, nor mifled by chance, 
Imperious Death diredh his ebon lance, 
Peoples great Henry's tomb, and leads up 
Holben's dance. 

In this city all the clocks are an hour ad« 
vanced. When it is but one o'clock in 
all the towns and villages around, it it 
exaAly two at Ba(il. This fingularity is 
of three or four hundred years (landing ; 
and what is as fingular as the cuilom itfelf, 
the origin of it is not known. This is 
plain, by their giving quite different ac^ 
counts of it. 

The moft popular ftpry is, that, about 
four hundred years ago, the city was 
threatened with an aflault by furprife. 
The enemy was to begin the attack when 
the large clock of the tower at one end 



5oS VIKW OF SOCIETY JLVli 

of the bridge (hould ftrike one after mid* 
night. The artift who had the care of the 
clock, being informed that this was the ex* 
pe£ked fignpl, caufed the clock to- be altered^ 
and it ftruck two inftead of one ; fo the 
enemy thinking they were an hour too Jate, 
gave up the atteiiipt; and in commemo- 
ration of this deliverance ; all the clocks irt 
Bafil have eVer fince ftruck two at on6 
o'clock, and (o on* ^ 

In cafe this account of the matter (hould 
not be fatisfadkoryl they (how, by way of 
confirnoAtion, a head, which is placed near 
to this patriotic clock, with the iace tamed 
to the. road by which the enemy was to 
have entered. This fame bead lolls out 
its tongue every minute, in the moft infuit* 
ing manner poiTible. This was originally 
a piece of mechanical wit of the famous 
clockmaker's who faved the town. He 
framed it in derifion of the enemy, whom 
he had fo dexteroufly deceived. It has 
been repaired, renewed, and enabled to 
thruft out its tongue every Hiinute, for thefe 



MANNERS IN FBANCE. 30t^ 

four hundred years, by the care of the ma- 
giftrates, who think fo excellent a jol^e can* 
fiot be too often repeated, 



LETTER XXXIX. 



jSira&botirg* 

iN OTHING can form a finer contrail iVitli 
the mountains of Switzerland, than the 
|>iains of Alface. From Bafil to Stralbourg 
is a continued, well cultivated plain, as flat 
almoft as a bowling-green. We faw great 
quantities of tobacco hanging at the pca- 
f^nts' doors, as we came along, this herb 
being plentifully cultivated in ihefe fields. 

We have pafled fome days very agreeably 
in this town. One can fcarcely be at a lofs 
for good company and amnfement in si 



Jio rnsw or society a»b 

place where there is a numerous French 
garrifdn, Marechal Contades reiides here 
at prefent, as commander of the troops, and 
governor of the province^ He lives in a 
magnificent manner. The Englifh who 
happen to pafs this way, as well as^ the of- 
ficers of the garrifon, have great reafon to 
praife his hofpitality and politenefs, 

After dining at his hojufe with feverai 
Englifh gentlemen, he- invited the com- 
pany to his box at the playhoufe. Vol- 
taire's Enfant Prodigue was a6ied ; and for 
the Petite Piece, le Francois i Londres. 
Our nation is a little hantered, a$ you 
know, in the laft. The eyes of the fpec- 
tators were frequently turned towards the 
Marechal's box, to obfcrve how wc bore 
the raillery. ^ We clapped heartily, and 
fhewed the mofl: perfedl good-humour. 
There was indeed no reafon to do other^ 
wife. The fatire is genteel, and not too 
fevere ; and reparation is made for the li- 
berties taken ; for in the fame piece, all 
manner of juflice is done to the real good 



tUKINSRS IN FBAKC£. 3l 1 

qualities belonging to the Englifh national 
charafler. ^ 

An old French oflSccr who was in the 
n€xt box to us, feemcd uneafy, and hurt 
at the peals of laughter which burft from 
the audience at fome particular paiTages : 
he touched my {houlder, and aiTured me 
that no nation was more refpe£tedin France 
than the Englifh ;— ^adding, * Hanc veniam 
damuSy petimufque viciffim.' 

It were to be wifhed that French cha- 
x^Stcr% when brought on the Englifli ilage, 
had been always treated with as little fe- 
ver ity, and with equal juftice ; and not fo 
often facrificed to the illiberat and abfurd 
prejudices of the vulgar, 

I have feeti the greater number of the 
regiments perform their exercife feparately, 
and there has been one general field day 
fince I came hither. The French troops are 
infinitely better cloathed, and in all refpefe 
better appointed than they were during the 
lafl war. For this reformation I am told 
they, are obliged to the Due de Choifeul, 



3l2 TIEW or SOCIETY AN» 

who, though how in difgrace, ftill retains 
many friends in the army. 

There are, befides the French, two Ger- 
man regiments in this gaiTifon. Thefe ad- 
mit of the dMcipline of the cane upon every 
'flight occafion, which is never permitted 
among the French troops. Not^yithftandi^g 
their being fo plentifully provided with 
thofc fcvere flappers to roufe their attention, 
I could not perceive that the German regi- 
ments went through their exercife with 
more precifion or alertnefs than the French ; 
and any difference would, in my opinion, 
be dearly purchafed at the price of treating 
one foldier like a fpanieU 

Perhaps what improve the hardy and 
phlegmatic German, would have a contrary 
effeft on the more delicate and lively French- 
man ; as the fame feverity which is requifite 
to train a pointef, would render a greyhound 
good for nothing, v . 

After all, I queftion very much, whether 
this (hocking cuftom is abfolutely necefiarj 
in the armies of any nation ; for, let our 

Martinets 



Martinets fay what they pleafe, there is 
fiirely fome difference between men and - 
dogs. > 

With refpeft to the French, I am con* 
vinced that great fcverity would break their 
fpirit, and impair that fire and impetuofity 
in attack, for which they have been dif- 
tinguifhed, and which makes French troops 
more formidable than any mother qaality 
they poiTefs. 

I muft own I was highly pleafed with the 
eafy, familiar air, and appearance of good 
will, with which the French officers in ge- 
neral fpeak to the common foldiers.— This> 
I am told, does not diminiih the refpedt and 
obedience which foldiers owe to their fupe« 
riors, or that degree of fubordination which 
military difcipline exa6is. On the > con- 
trary, it is afierted. that to ihefe properties, 
which the French pofiefs in common with 
other foldiers, they join a kind of grateful 
attachment and afFe£tion. 

In fome fervices, the behaviour of the 
officers to the private foldiers is to morofe, 

VOL. I. o 



|l4 XIXW OB aOCDETY A3m 

ievere, and unrelenting, that a man mtght 
be led to believe tliat pne of their principal 
enjoyments was to render the lives of thft 
comnion men as miferable as poffible. 

If a certain degree of gentlenefs does no 
harm in the great articles of obedience and 
fubordinatidn, it is furely worth while to 
pay fome attention to the feelings of fo large 
a proportion ^f mankind, as are by modern 
policy neceflitated to follow a -miHtary life. 
To put their happi|iefs entirely out of the 
qneftion, in thtf government of the armies 
of which they forminfinitely the major part, 
is rather hard treatment of creatures who 
are of the fame fpecies, ertiployed in the 
iame caufe, and expofed to the fame xiangers 
with their officers. 

When I began this, I intended to have 
told you a few things about Strafboiirg, in- 
flead of whichj have been led out of my 
way by French and German foldiers.— • 
Digreffing is a trick to which I am very 
fubjedy and rsither than not be indulged in 



it, I would throw away my pen altogether. 
The Duke of Hamilton arrived here ex* 
adlly at the time he propofed. 



LETTER XL. 



X HE cathedral of Stralbourg is a very- 
fine building, and never fails to attraft the 
attention of ftrangcrs. 

Our Gothic anceftors, like the Greeks and 
Romans, bailt for poflerity. Their ideas in 
architefture, though di£Ferent from thofe of 
the Grecian artifts, were vaft, fublime, and 
generous, far fuperior to the felfifli fnugnefi 
of modern lafte, which is generally confined 
to one or two generations ; the plans of our 
anceftors with a more extenfive bcnevoIcnc6 



3l6 VIEW at SOCIETY AN» ' 

embrace diftant ages. Many Gothic buildings 
ftill habitable eviiKe this, «nd ought to 
infpire fentiments of gratitude to thofe who 
have not grudged fuch labour and expence 
for the accommodation of tlieir remote pof- 
terity. 

The number and magnitude of Gothic 
churches, in the different countries of Eu- 
rope, form a prefumption, that the clergy 
were- not devoid of public fpirit in thofe 
days ; for if the powerful ecclefiaftics had 
then been entirely afluatcd by motives of 
felf-intereft, they would have turned the 
cxceffive influence which they had acquired 
over the minds of their fellow-citizens, to 
purpcrfes more immediately advantageous to 
thcmfelves ; inftead of encouraging them to 
raife magnificent churches for the ufe of the 
public, they might have preached it up as 
ftill more meritorious to build fine houfes 
and palaces for the immediate fervants and 
ambafTadors of God — But we find very few 
ecclefiaftical palaces, in comparifon with 
the number of churches which ftill remaia 



HAimERS Df FRANCE. SlJ 

for the public conveniency. This fufficiently 
{hews the injuftice of ihofe indifcnminating 
fatirifts, who affert that the clergy, in all 
ages and countries, have difplayed a fpirit 
equally proud and interefted. 

No fpecies of architefturc is better con- 
trived for the dwelling of heavenly fenpvc 
contemplation^ than the Gothic ; it has a 
powerful tendency to fill the mind with 
fublime, folemn, and religious ffentiments ; 
the antiquity of the Gothic churches con- 
tributes to increafe that veneration which 
their form and fize infpire. We naturally 
feel a refpeft for a fabric into which we 
know that our forefathers have entered with 
. reverence, and which has flood the aflauUs 
of many centuries, and of a thoufand ftorms. 
That religious melancholy which ufually 
pofTeiTes the mind in large Gothic churches, 
is however confiderably counterafled by 
certain fatirical bas reliefs, with which the 
pillars and cornices of this church of 
Strafbourg were originally ornamented.--*- 
The vices of monks are here expofed under 



the allegorical figure of hogs, afles, monkeys^ 
and foxes, which being dreiTed in monkifli 
habits, perform .the moft venerable fnnftions 
of religion. And for the edification of thofe 
who do not comprehend allegory, a monk, 
in the robes of his order, is engraved on 
the pulpit in a moft indecent pofture, with 
a nun lying by him. 

Upon the whole, the cathedral of Straf. 
bourg is confidered by Tome people as the 
moft impious, and by others as the merrieft 
Gothic church in Chriftendom. I leave 
you to folve the problem as you pleafe.— 
As for me, 1 am a very unconcerned 
pafFenger. 

I fay nothing of the great clock and its 
various movements. Though it was an 
objcdl of admiration when firft conftrufled, 
it is beheld with indifierence by niodern 
artifts. 

I had the curiofity to afcend the fteepfe 
of this cathedral, which is reckoned one of 
the higheft in Europe, its height being 574 
feet. You may eafily form an idea of the 



view from it, when I tell you it compre- 
hends the town of Strafbourg, the extenfive 
plains -of Alface^ with the Rhine flowing 
through them. Such views are not un- 
common: they are always agreeable, bul 
do not a(loni(h and elevate the mind, Iik« 
the wild, irregular, and fublim^ fccncs ia 
Switzerland. 

One forenoon as. I was fauntering through 
the ftreets with fome of our countrymen, 
we were informed that the mufic of fome 
of the regiments had been ordered to a 
particular church, where theCoCint de — — , 
Ton of Lewis the XVth by Madame de 
Pompadour, was expe£ted to be at mafs.— 
We all immediately went for the fake of the 
military mufiCj'and found a very numerous 
and genteel company attending.v After 
having waited a conGderable time, it ftruck 
twelve, upon which the whole company 
retired without hearing the mufic or mafs. 
— After mid- day the ceremony could not 
have been performed, although the Count 
had come. Something very important muft 



52Q VIEW OF SOCIETY Al» 

have intervened to prevent a FrenchmaH, 
and one of his charadter for politenefs, from 
attending on fuch an occafion. There was 
however a murmur of difapprohation for 
this want of attention, and the prieft was 
not applauded^ Avho had hazarded the fouls 
of a whole churchful of people, out of com- 
plaifance to one man ; for thofe who rmagine 
that a mafs can fave fouls, mud admit that 
the want of it may be the caufe of damnation, 
Mr. Harvey whifpered nve, *' In England 
** they would hot, have had half the com- 
" plaifance fpr the king himfelf, accom- 
** panied by all his legitimate children, that 
** thefe people have ftiewn to this fon of 
** a w— e." 

To indemnify myfelf for-this'difappoint- 
ment, I went the fame afternoon with a 
French officer to hear a celebrated preacher. 
The fubjedl of his difcouffe "Was the mife- 
rable fituation of men who are under the do- 
xninon of their paffions. — Do you wifli for 
a fnmple of his difcourfe ? — Here Jit is :— — 
** A flavc in the galleys (cried the preacher) 



MAKNERS IN FHANdE. Sstl 

IS happier, and more free, than a man un-* 
dcr the. tyranny of his paffions ; for though 
the body of the ilave is in chains, his mind 
may be free. — Whereas the wretch who is 
under the government of his paiEons, has his 
mind, his very foul in chains.— Is his paflion ^ 
luft ? — He will facrificc a faithful feryant to 
gratify it ; — David did fo.-^Is it avarice ?— 
lie will betray his mafter ; — Judas did fo« 
— Is he attached to a miftrefs? — he will 
murder a. faint to pleafe her ? — • Herod 
did fo. '* 

As we returned from the church, the 
French officer, who had been for fome time 
in a reverie, faid, Ma foi, cet homme parte 
avec beaucoup d'ondlion ; je vais profiter de 
fon fermon. — Ou efl-ce que vous allez? 
faid L — Je m'en vais chez Nanette, replied 
he, pour me debarafler de ma paifion do- 
minante. 

Among the curiofities of the cathedral, I 
ought to have mentioned twa large belb, 
which they fhow to ftrangers. One is of 
brafs, and weigjPis ten tonsj the other of 

# 



5221 VIEW Oy SOCIETY ASCtf 

filver, which they fay weighs above two.— 
They alfo (how a large French horn, whofe 
hiftory is as follows :— About four hundred 
years ago, the Jews formed a confpiracy to 
betray the city, and with tliis identical horn> 
^ they intended to give the enemy notice when 
to begin the attack. 

Is it not amazing that fuch a number of 
ftrange ftories have been circulated concern- 
ing thefe fame Jews ? 

The plot, however, was difcovered ; many 
of the Jews were burnt alive, the reft were 
plundered of their money and effefts, and 
banifhed the town. And this horn is 
founded twice every night from the battle- 
ments of the fteeple, in gratitude for the de- 
liverance. 

The Jews, as you would expeft, deny 
every circumftance of this ftory, except the 
murdering and pillaging their countrymen. 
They fay the whole ftory was fabricated to 
furnifli a pretext for thefe robberies apd 
xnurder$9 and alTert that the fteeple of Straf- 



MANNERS IN PRAKC*. H^S 

))6urg, as has been faid of the monument of 
Xondon, 

«* Like a tall bully lifts the head and lies, " 



LETTER XLL 

A-LL the advantages I might propofe from 
the Duke of Hamilton's company, did not 
prevent my regret at parting from my friend 
Harvey, who fet out for Lyons the fame 
morning on which we left Stralbourg* 

Upon croffing the Rhine we entered into 
the territories of the Margrave of Baden Dur* 
.lach, which lie along the banks of that rivcf 
immediately oppofite to Alface. 

At Raftadt we were informed that the 
Margrave and his family were at Karifcraclu 



3^4 TIEW OF SOCEETY AK© 

Raftadt is the capital of this prince-*s Joml-^ 
nions. — The town is but fmall, and not vefy 
populous: — ^The Margrave's palace, how- 
ever, rs fufiBciently large. — We made only a 
ihort (lay to examine it, being impatient to 
gel on to Karlfcruch^ 
• There is another very magnificent palace 
f|iat Karifcruch, build in good tafte. It was, 
begun many years ago, and has been lately 
finished by the reigning prince 

The town ^of Karifcruch is built on a re- 
gular plan. It confifts of one principal ftreet 
of above an Englifh mile in length. This . 
jftreet is at a conllderable diftance ia front of 
the palace, and in a parallel direftion with 
it. All the othfr ftreets go off at different 
angles from the principal one^ in fuch a 
manner as that whichfoever of them you 
enter, walking from it,, the view is lermi- 
sated by the front of the palace. The length 
of thefe fmaller ftreets is- afcertained, none 
of them being allowed to encroach on the 
fyacious. area, whicB. is kept clear before the: 
palace^ ^ 



1KA1919XRS IN FRANCS. $25 

The principal ftreet may be extended to 
any length, and as many additional (Ireets 
as they pleafe may be built from it,' all of 
which, according to this plan» will have the 
palace for a termination. 

The houfcs of this town are all as uniform 
as the ftreets, being of an eqaal fize and 
height y fo that one would be led to imagine 
that none of the inhabitants are in any con« 
fiderable degree richer or poorer than their 
neighbours* There arc indeed a few new 
houfes, more elegant than the others, be- 
longing to fome of the ofiScers of the courts 
>uilt at one fide of the palace: but they arc 
not, properly fpeaking, in the town. 

Having announced in the ufual form, that 
we wiihed to have the honour of paying our 
court to the Margrave, an officer waited on 
tbe Duke of Hamilton, and cQndu£led us to 
the palace. 

There were at dinner the reigning Prince 
and Princefs ; — three of their fons, the eldeft 
of whom is married to a Princefs of Hefli 
Daxmftadt. — She, with, one of her ii&sts^ 



8ii6 VIEW o^ scxtifttY Airn 

was prcfent, alfo the Princefs Dowager o( 
Bareith, daughter to the Duke of Bruns- 
wick ; two general officers in the imperial 
fervice> and other ladies and gentlemen j 
making in all a company of above thirty 
tit table. 

The entertainment was fplendid.— The 
Margrave behaved with the politeft attention 
to the Duke of Hamilton, and with aBfabi-^ 
lity to every body. 

The Princefs of Bareith is of a gay, lively, 
agreeable charadier. After dinner the Duke 
took a view of the different apartments of 
the palace, and afterwards walked with the 
Margrave in the gardens till the evening. 

The fame company were at fupper; a 
band of mufic played during the repaft> and 
the day went off in a more eafy, agreeable 
manner than I could have expedleJ, con« 
fidering the number of Pjrinces and Prin- 
cefles* 

The Margrave of Baden Durlach is be* 
tween forty and fifty years of age. He is ,a 
man of learning, good fenfe, and benevolent 



1IANNERS tS FttAN<lE:* ?2^ 

difpofition. I had heard much, long before 
I faw him, of his humanity and attention to 
the well-being of his fubjefls. This made 
itie view him with a cordial regard, which 
his rank alone could not have commanded^ 
He fpeaks the Engliih language with con- 
liderablc facility, and is well acquainted with 
our bed authors. Solicitous that his fon 
fhould enjoy th&fame advantages, he has en- 
gaged Mr. Cramer, a young gentleman from 
Scotland, of an excellent charaSer, who has 
been for feveral years at this court, as tutor 
and companion to the young Prince. 

" The German Princes are minute obfervcrs 
of form. The fame eftablifhment for their 
houfehold, the fame officers in the palace, are 
to be found here, as in the court of the mod 
powerful monarch in Europe. — The dif- 
ference lies more in the falaries than in the 
talents requifite for thefe places ; . one Pay- 
mafter for the forces has greater emoluments 
in England, than a Grand Marechal, a Grand 
Chamberlain, two Secretaries of State, and 



5a8 TTEW or society Aum 

half a dozen more of the chief officers of a 
German court, all taken together. 

The Margrave of Baden has body guards 
Vfho do duty in the palace, foot guards wha 
parade before it ; alfo horfe guards and hu£- 
fars, all of whom are perfe£lly well equipped, 
and exaftly difciplined ; — a piece of magni- 
ficence which feems to be adopted by this 
Prince, merely in conformity with the 
cuftom long eftablifhed in this country. 

He Eeeps on foot no other troops befides 
the few which are neceffary for this duty 
at the palace, though his revenue is more. 
confiderable, and his finances are in much 
better order, than fome Princes in Germany 
who liave little (landing armies in condant 
pay. He tias too juft an underftanding not 
to perceive that the greateft army he could 
poilibly maintain, could be no defence to his 
dominions, Ctuated as they are between the 
powerful flates of France and Auflria ; and 
probably his principles and difpofkion 
prevent him from thinking of filling his 



MANNERS IN FRANCT. 52^ 

Goffers by hiring his fubjecSts to foreign 
powers. 

If he were fo inclined, there is no man- 
ner of doubt that he might fell the perfons 
ot his fubjedls as foldiers, or employ them 
in any other way he fhould think proper ; 
.for he, as well as the other fovereign Princes 
in Germany^ has an unlimited power over 
his people. If you 'alk the queflion, in 
dircA terms, of a German, he will anfwer 
in the negative, and will talk of certain 
rights which the fubjefts enjoy, and that 
they can appeal to the great council or 
general diet ,of the empire for relief. But 
after all his ingenuity and diftindlions, you 
find that the barriers which proteft the 
peafant from the power of the prince, are 
fo very weak, that they are hardly worth 
, keeping lip, and that the only fecurity the 
peafant, has for his perfon or property, muft 
proceed from the moderation, good fenfe, 
and jiiftice of his fovereign. 

Happy wogld it be for mankind if this 
unlimited power were always placed in as 



SfSo Yaw OP SOCIETY Aid) 

equitable hands as thofe of the Margrave of 
Baden, who employs it entirely for the good 
of his fubjefts, by whom be is adored ) 

This Prinpe endeavoqrs^ by every meaQ3 
he can devife, to introduce tnduftry 9nd ma« 
nufadlures among'his people. — There is a 
con&dera^le number of Engliih tradefmen 
here, who make Birmingham work, and 
inftrudi the inhabitants in that bufinefs. He 
has alfo engaged *many watch-makers frohi 
Geneva to fettle here, by granting them eni- 
couragements and privileges of every kind, 
and allows no opportunity to flip unim« 
proved, by which he can promote the comfort 
and happinefs of his* people : a prince g£ 
fuch a character is certainly a public blefSng, 
and the people are fortunate who ate born 
under his government : but far more fortu* 
nate they who are born under a government 
which can protect them, independent of the 
virtues, and in fpite of the vices, of their 
fovereign. 

When we left Karlfcruch, the Margrave 
gave orders that we mght be allowed to 



MAKKSRS IN tJiM^(t»i ^ SSi 

pafs by a roa4 lately finiflied, through a 
noble foreAy feveral* leagues in length* 
After having traverfed this, we fell in with 
the common poAing road, entered the bifliop 
of Spires's territories, pafled by the town of 
that name, proceeded to the Ele£brate of 
Palatine, and arrived' the fame vig^t at 
Manheim. 

AH the countries I have mentioned form 
one rich fertile plain ; tliere are few or no 
gentlemen's l;ioufes to vary the fcene ; no- 
thing but the palaqe of the prince and the 
cottages of the peafants, the gentry living 
in dependance at court, and the merchants 
and manufa^urers in the towns* / 



35a nxw or soceett akb. 



LETTER XLII. 



Manlieim* 

X HIS is generally reckoned one of the 
moft beautiful cities in Germany. The 
ftreets are all as ftraight as arrows, being 
what they Call tlrees au cordeau, and in- 
terfe£l each other at right angles. This 
never fails to pleafe at firft, but becomes 
fooner tirefome than a town built with lefs 
regularity. When a man has walked 
through ^e town for half a forenoon, his 
eyes fearch in vain for variety : the fame 
objedls feem to move along with him, as if 
he had been all the while a fliip-board. 

They calculate the number of inhabitants 
at 24,000, including the garrifon, which 
confifts of 5000 men. This town has three 
noble gates, adorned with baflb relievos very 



KjLMKERS IK FRANCS* 353 

beautifully executed. The Duke and I 
Avalked round the ramparts with cafe in the 
fpace of an hour. The fortifications ate 
well-contrived and in good order, and the 
town acquires great additional ftrength from 
being almoll entirely furrounded by the 
!N^eckar and the Rhine, and (ituated in a 
flat, not commanded by any rifing ground. 
Yet perhaps it would be better that this 
city were quite open, and without any for- 
tification. An attempt to defend it might 
prove the de(lru£tion of the citizens' houfes, 
and the eledoral palace. A palace is inju- 
dicioufly fituated when built within a for- 
tified town, becaufe a threat from the ene^ny 
to bombard it, might induce the garrifon to 
lurrender. ^ 

The elediloral palace is a moft magnificent 
ftru6ture, fituated at the junftion of the 
Rhine and the Neckar. — The cabinet of na- 
tural curiofities, and the colledlion of pic- 
tures, are much vaunted. To examine them 
was amufing enough : — to defcribe them 
would) I fear, be a little tedious. v 



'S 



S34 ^rnvr ov spcisrr akii 

The EleAor himfelf is a man of tafle 
and magnificence, circumftances in his 
charader, which probably afford more plea- 
fare to himfelf, and the ftrangcrs who paft 
this way, than to his own fufojedft. 

I accompanied the Duke to iNie of the 
Cheers of the court, whofe bufinefs it is to 
prefent ftrangcrs. This gentleman is re- 
markable for his amazing knowledge in all 
the myfteries of etiquette. He entertained 
his Grace with much erndition on this fab* 
jcdl.— I never obferved the Duke yawn f6 
very much. — When our vifit was over, he 
aiTerted that it had lafted two hours.~Upon 
examining his watch, he difcovered that he 
had made a miftake of one hour and forty 
minutes only. 

We were prefented the following day to 
the Eledlor and the Eledrefs. He was 
dreiTed in the uniform of his guards, feems to 
be on the borders of fifty, and has a fenfiblc 
manly countenance, which I am told is the 
true index of his charafler. 

The Hereditary Prince is a young man of 



VAim^RS IN FKANCt. 535 

knowledge and good fenfe. He furprifed 
me by talfcing of the party difputes and ad- 
ventures which have happened of late years 
in England, of which I found him minutely 
informed.— -—-Many people in Germany 
have the Ekigliih news-papers and political 
pamphlets regularly tranfmitted to them. 
The acrimony and freedom with which the 
higheft charadiers are treated, adonifh and 
amufe them, and from thefe they often form 
very falfe and extraordinary conclufioris with 
regard to the ftate of the nation, 
. As the Eleiftor intends foonto vifit 
Italy, great numbers of officers have 
come hither to pay their 'duty to their 
fovereign before he departs for that coufi- 
try. He is much edeemed by his officers^ 
with whom he lives in a very affable 
niannen There are generally thirty covers 
every day at his table for them, and the 
ftrangers who happen to be at 4he court of 
^anheira. 

Ode day at dinner a kind of buffi)on came 
into the room. He walked round the table 



336 VIFW O]^ SOCIETY AND 

and converfed in a fartiiliar manner with 
every body prefent, the princes not ex- 
cepted. His obfervations were followed by 
loud burfts of applaufe from all whom he 
addreffed. As he fpoke in German, I could 
notjudgeofhis wit, but (tared around with 
the anxiety of countenance natural to a man 
who fees a whole company ready to die 
with laughter at a jeft which he cannot com- 
prehend. An old officer, who fate near me, 
was touched with compaffion for my fitua* 
tion and explained in French fome of the 
moft brilliant repartees for my private ufe. 

As this good-natured officer did not feern 
to have a great command of the French lan- 
guage,' the whole fpirit of the jeft was al- 
lowed to evaporate during the tranflation :— 
at leaft I could not fmell a particle when 
the procefs was over. However, as thefe 
tranflations evidently coft him a good dtal 
, of trouble, I thought myfelf obliged to feem 
delighted with his performance ; fo I joined 
in the mirth of the company, and endea- 
voured 



Voiired^ to laugh at mocfi as any perfon at 
the table. 

' My interpreter, afterwards informed me 
that this genius was from fhe Tyrol, that htf 
fpokethe Germah with fo peculiar an acccr>t, 
that whatever he ftid never failed to fet iht 
whole table in a t<mr ; c'eft poarquoi, aASti 
he, il eft en pofleilion d*entrer toujours avecf 
te ddfert* 

' This is rtic ^nly example that I know 
remainti^ of * €ourt fiaof or liceitc^d jefler i 
tfn office JForntefly m all. the c^ns o^ 
Europe* 



t^ttmmmmit^iMiitmmtfti n>i ^ 



VV^^ made a* fhort jal^nt to Hdddbir^ Jp 
few d^s^ fince. That town is* aboot'lbiMlf* 
leagues from Manhcim* ' : . -/^ 

^ Heide^Ibcirg ti lituated in' vt hbWm6ii flS8* 

VOL. I. F 



338 VIEW Of SOCIETY ANB 

banks of the Neckar, and is furroundcd bjr 
charming hills pcrfefkly cultivated. 

More cheerful fccnes of exuberant fertility 
are to be feen no where than along the fine 
chain of hills which begin near this town. 
The fummits of thefe hills arc crowned with 
trees,. and their lides and bottoms are doathed 
witji vines. 

The Eledlor's caftle is placed on an emi- 
nence, which commands the town, and a 
view of the valley below ; but the cattle it- 
felf unfortunately is commanded by another 
eminence too near it, from which this noble 
building was cannonaded when the whole 
Palatine was pillaged and buri)^ in confe* 
qpence of that cruel order of Lewis XIV. 
too literally executed by Tarennc. 

The particulars of that difmal (cene have 
been tranfmitted from father to fon, and arp 
ftilL^keii of with horror by'^the peafantty 
6f this country, among whpm the French 
nation i^ held in deteftation to this day. 
, While we were in the caftle we did not 
•mif'vifitmg the, renowned Heidelberg t^in s 



h\it ai it was pjerie3ty empty, it made but 
a dull and unioterefting appearance^ 

The inhsJ^itants of the Palinate are partly 
FroteftantSy and partly Roman Catholics^ 
whp live here in harmony 'with each other. 
The great church at Heidelberg i$ divided 
into two apartments^^n one of whidi the 
Protoftants, and in the other the Papifts per-; 
form public woiAip : — A (ingalar proof 
of moderat4on and coolnefs of people's 
minds with reg^d to a TubjeA that inflamed 
the^ fo violently in the days of their an- 
oeftors. 

We remained only one d^y at Heidefiberg 
and returned in the : evening to this place. 
The lives and manners <^ the inhabitants^ of 
this city feem te be as uniform and Ibrmal as 
the ftreets and buildings. No noife, mobs 
OT'buftle ; at mid-day -every^ thing is as calm 
and quiet as the ftreets of London at mid- 
night. This gives one the notion that the 
citizens are under the fame reftraint and 
difcipline with the troops. 

I Jbave feen thefe laft perforrii their ex- 



?4a YIXWQW SOCIETY AND 

ercife every morning on the |>arade. I was 
a good dcs^ fnrprifed to obferve^ that not 
only the moveoxefita of the foUiers* mufkets, 
and the ^rtthodes. of their bodies, but ajfo 
their* devotions, were. under the diredion of 
the major's cane. The fellovring motions 
are performed as pact of the military on- 
nosavres etery day befbre the Uoops arc 
marched to their different goards* 

The major ildnriihcs bis cane ;*««-the drum 
gives a fingla tap, and every men under arma 
raifes bis hand; to his hat ;;•*-' at a fecond 
ftroke on the drum, they take of t^eh* hats 
and are fuppofed to pFay ; — at a thirds they 
finiih their petitions, and put then hats on 
tbejr head^. •*«« If any man has the afiiirance 
ti>^pfolMg bis prayer a minute longer diatl 
the dvum: indicates, he is paniihed on th^ 
fpof, and taugto to be lefs devout for &e 
ftituffe* i 

The ingenious inventor of drums certainly 
never dteamt of- their becoming tbe regnla^ 
tors of people's piety. But the moderiCr im-* 
p^Hwemertts in the military art. are truly 



Wonderful !— and we need not defpair, after 
this, of feeing a whole fegimcnt, by the 
progrefs of difcipline, fo modelled as to eat, 
drink, and perform other animal fondions, 
utiiformlv together, at the word of com- 
mand, as they poife their firelocks. 



LETTER XLIV. 

JlXavino left orders at Geneva to forward 
all our letters of a certain date to Manhetm,- 
and to direftthofe which 'feould come after-* 
wards, to Frankfort onf the Maine, I had 
thd good fortune to reoeive yours laft night. 
r feel as much indignjftion as you poflRWy 
can, againft thofe who endeivour to hurt 
the peace of families by malignant pubiica« 



iiii TOW GB soexBTT Mjsm 

tions, and I enter fully into Lord * ^ o» 

fo unmerited an attack. Yet I fhould be 
heartily forry to fee thefe evils renoedied by 
any reftridlion on the freedom of the pr€&; 
becaufe I am every day more and more con* 
vinced that its unreftrained produ&ions». the 
licentious news-papen themfelves not ex- 
cepted, have conveyed to every corner of 
Great Britain, along with ni uch impertinence 
and fcurrility, ftich^ a regard for the confti- 
tution, fuch a fenfe of the rights of the fub- 
y&f and fuch a degree of general knowledge^ 
as never were fo ontverfaily diffufed over^ 
any other nation. Such a law as your friend 
propofes might, no-doubt» proteft individuals 
from unjuft attacks in print ; but it would 
at the &me time remove one great means of 
clearing their innocence, andmaking knawa 
their wrongs, when injured in a more eifen- 
tial manner* It would Umil the right which 
every Briton has of publicly addrefling his 
country men, wben^be finds himfelf injured 
or opprelled by the perverfion of law, ^or the 
infolencc of office* 



Examples might be given of men of great 
integrity being attacked in the moft cruel 
sind ungenerous manner by people high ia 
office, and guarded hf power* Sach meit 
had no other means of redrefs than that of 
appealing to the candour and good fenfe of 
the public, which they ufed with fuccefs. 
Every main's obfervation may faggeft to him 
many kinds of injuftice and oppreffion* 
which the rich, the infidious, or the power- 
ful> can commit in fpite of law» or perhaps 
^y the aid of law, againft the poor, the un- 
fufpeSing, and the friendlefs. — Many, who 
can filence confcience and evade law, tremble 
at the thoughts of their injuftice being pub- 
lished ; and nothing is, nothing can be, a 
greater check to the waritonnefs of power, 
than the privilege of unfolding private grie- 
vances at the bar of the public. For thus 
the caufe of individuals is made a public con- 
cern, and the general indignation which their 
wrongs excite, forms at once one of the fc- 
vereft punifhmenls which can be inflifted on 
the oppreffor, and one of the ftrongeft bul- 



944 VIZW OS SOCIXTY JklOk 

warks that can be railed in .defence of tTie^^ 
linprotedled. 

By this meam alfo tha . mod fpee% and 
effectual alarm is given aU over the natioi^ 
whea any great pubiic mifcondui^ happeris^ 
or upon a,ny appearance of a defign againii; 
th^ conflitution ; ^nd many evik are detedlecl 
^nd prevented, which otherwi& might ha v^ 
been unobferved, till they had become too 
flroflg for re^iedy. And though thm Uberty^ 
produces mt^ch filly advice, and malignanf 
c^^fora wUbopt number, it likewife (^en% 
ihe door to ioiw of a dtlferent charaderi. 
wha give ufeful bints to minifters^ whicfai: 
wojuld have bpen loft witho4^t the freedooi^ 
f»f anonyioouf publication. 

X^ temporary and partial diforders^ 
which are the confe^uencet of public Ixee-^ 
dom, have been greatly e^ggpraled hy fome 
people, and reprefented asipore than equi^ 
v^alent to all th/e advantage refulting from a 
free goyermD^ni, But if fucb perfons h^ 
opportunities of obferving the nature of thofe 
evils, which fpripg up in abfplute govern-r 



KXSJSrSKS XS FRANCE. 345 

ments, they would foon be convinced of 
their error. 

The greateft evil that can arife from ihc 
ficcntioufnefs which accompanies civil liberty 
is, that people may rafliiy take a diflike to 
liberty herfelf, from the teafing impertinence 
and abfardity of feme of her real or affefted 
welt-wifliers ; ' As a ynan might become lefs 
"fond of the company of his belt friend,' If he 
found him always attended by a fnappifli 
cur, which' without provocation was always 
growling and barking. 

But to prove the wcaknefs of fuch con- 
duit, we have bnly to call to mind, that the 
ftream of licentit)ufnefs perhaps never rofe 
higher than it did fome years fitice in Eng- 
laYld. — And wh«lt were the mighty evils 
that foHowed?— ^Many refpeftable characT- . 
ten were grofsly mifreprefented in printcA 
publicatioris.-^— Certain daring fcribblers^ 
evaded the punifhinent they 'deferved :— ^ 
many windows were broken, and the chariots 
of a few members of parliament were befpat- 
tered with dirt by the mob. What are* 



^befe frivoloiis diforders when cotivpared 
to the gloomy regularity produced by dc- 
fpotifm ; in which men are obliged to* the 
iilqft painful ciccumfpeftion m all their 
actions ;. are afraid to fpealc their fentiments 
on the mofi common ocfurrences i fufpicibu^ 
of cheriihing goveFmnent fpies in their houfe- 
bold (ervaats ;, diftruftful of their own rela- 
tioas and moft intimate companions, and at 
all times expofed to the oppreiEon of men m 
power, and to the infolence of their favott- 
rites ?— No confufion, in my mind^ can be 
more terrible than the ftern dlfcipliBed 
regularity and vaunted police of arbitrary 
governnients, where every heart is deprefied 
by fear,, where mankind dare not affume 
their natural characters,, where the ^-ee fpirit 
muft crouch to the flave in ofiBce, where 
genius muft repiefs her effuiious, or, like 
the Egyptian wor{hi|>per$, oiler them ia 
-facrifice to the calves of power -, and where 
the human mind, always in (hackles^ fhrink^ 
from every generous effort. 



ir 



iBiNinBM xzr ftus^toL 347 



LETTER XLV. 



Menu. 
VV E 'eft Manheim fiv6 or fix days ago. 
It is very cafy travelling through this pan of 
Germany, the r<i»ds being perfeAly good, 
and the coantry a continued (Jain* From 
Bail], to within a few miles of Mentz^ the 
polling road does not make even the moft 
gentle afcent ; a vaft length of country to be 
all along a perfe£l lev^l. 

By the great numbers of Monks and 
Friars, of all colours and conditions, that 
are to be met near this city, we were ap- 
prifed of our entrance into an ecclefiaAical 
{late, while the plump perfons and rofy 
complexions of thefe Fathers fufficiei tly 
proved, that ihey did not live in the fei lie 
land of Rhenifli for nothing. 

However good Chriftians thf y might b e 



348: rixw <^:soeBBTY 4^^* 

many of them had much the appearance of 
paying occafionai homage to the ancient 
heathen deity Bacchus, without being re* 
ilrained in their worfhip like the foldiers. 
on the parade at Manheim.-^Qne of themr 
in particular appeared to have juftariferia 
from his devotion.--^He moved along. ii>c 
the raoft unconcerned manner imuiginable,. 
without obferving any dircil coarfe, or re- 
garding whether he went to the right hand 
or to the left. He muttered to himielf as- 
he went.-p^Does ha repeat his pater- nofter t 
feid L^-r-I rather imagine he prayS: fronts 
Horace^ rcphed the Duke, 



* Q uo me, Bacche, rapis tui 
Plenum ? Qija? nemora,,aut quoi agar ins 

fpecus. . 
Velox mente nova ?* » ■» 

* O Bacchus, when by thee poffeft, 
What facred fplrit fills my raving breaft 
How am I rapt to dreary glades, 
To gloomy caverns, unfrequented fhadcs; 



On^Dth&leiof the Rhine the ground 
Sicre begins to become hiJly and irregular, 
.forming banks finely expofed to the fun»- 
Here the beft Rheniflt wine is produced, and 
even a very fmall portion of thefe exuberant 
^anks is of coniid^rable value. A chain of 
vrell-inhabited villages runs along fronv 
Ment5&, by Bacharacb, all the way to^ 
Goblentz, where ^he Rhine is joined by 
the Mofelle. 

Bacharach is faid to derive its name from 
an altar of Bacchus (Bacchi Ara). fuppofcA 
^ have been erefted by the Romans in 
gratitude for the quantity and 'quality of the 
wine produced in the neighbourhood. A 
Kttle before we entered Mentz, we pafled by 
the Favorita, a beautrful palace bclbnging 
to the Eled^r, fituated where the Rhine is 
joined by the Maine. ^ 

Mentz is finely fituated; built in aa 
irregular manner, and moft plentifully pro- 
vided with churches. The cathedral is but 
a gteomy fabric; In this there is what 
they call a treafucy, which. <cie)£itaii:i8 st 



35o TiEir Of soeiBTT Axn» 

number of clomfy jewels^ feme relics, and 
a mighty rich wardrobe of priefts^ ^eft- 
ments. 

There are fome troops in this capital, 
but 1 do not think the "officers have that 
fmart prefurhptuous air which generally 
accompanies men of their profeffion. They 
feem confcious that the clergy are their 
mafters ; and, I have a notion, are a little 
out of countenance on that account. 

The ftrc^ts fwarm with eccIeGaftics, fome 
of them in iine coaches, and attended by 
a great number of fervants. I remarked 
alfo many genteel airy abb^s ; who, one 
could eafily fee, were the mod fefhionabie 
people, and give the ton at this place. 

Though' it is moft evident that in this 
el^dorate the clergy have taken exceeding 
good care of themfelves ; yet in juftice to 
them, it muft be acknowledged, that the 
people alfo feem to be in an eafy iituation. 

The peafantry appear to be in a ftate of 
far greater abundance than thofc of France^ 



HAKKEB3 IK FBANCS. 35 1 

er even thofe in the eIe<^or of Maiiheim'» 
dominions. 

I have fome defire to fee an Ecclefiaftlcal 
court, and would willingly vifit this of 
Mentz, but the Duke of Hamilton, who 
feems to have no exceffive fondnefs for any 
court, fays, a court of clergymen mull be 
snore difmai and tedious than any other, 
and 1 fear will not b^ prevailed on to ap- 
pear at this ; in which cafe we (hall leave 
this place to-morrow morning early, with- 
out further ceremony. 



LETTER XLVT. 

Frankfort on the Maine.. 

W £ have been here two weeks. — ^To 

form a proper judgment of il:ie genius 

,and manners of any nation, it is necef- 



35a vnrw or sochett jlkiv 

fary to Jive femiliarly with the inhabitants 
for a condderable time ; but a fmaiier degree 
of obfervation will fuffice to give a pretty 
juft idea of the nature of its government. 
The chilling effects of defpotic oppreflion, 
or the benign inflyence of freedom and 
commerce, ftrike the eye of the moft care- 
lefs traveller. 

The ftreets of Frankfort are fpacious and 
well paved ; the houfes ftately, clean, and 
convenient ; the ftiops well furniihed , the 
drefs, the numbers, the air, and general 
manners of the inhabitants^ fufficiently 
fhow, without other information, that there 
is no little defpot wtthui.tbetr watis, to im*. 
poverifli them in fupport of his grandeur, 
and to put every adlion of their lives, every 
movement of their bodies, under reftraint 
by his caprice. 

The houfes are of brick, but have a 
better appearance than brick houfes in ge- 
neral, owing chiefly to their being covered 
with a kind of reddifk (lucco, which is ■ 
come into u(e here of latt,. and, it is 



aiANX7£B9 IN r&AKCZ. 358 

believed, will render the buildings inor^ 
durable. . The fronts of many of the fineft 
are alfo adorned with bas rcliej& of white 
ftucco, in imitation of marble. Thefe 
"white ornaments, on the red/ground, form 
top (Irong ^ contraft, and do not pleafe zt^ 
cyp fotid of finf>pHcity. B>at die Germaos, 
in general, have a tafte for ihowy orna^ 
inent, in their drefs, furniture, and houfes, 
Franckfort is a free imperial city, having ^ 
finall teriiiory belonging to it, and i$ go- 
. vcrncd by its own magiftracy. 

All religions ate toleraied here, under 
. certain reftrl£li6ns i bat Lutheranifm is th^ 
«ftablij(hed faiths as the magifirates are of 
that communion^ t 

The principal charch is in the pofieffion 
of the Roman Catholics^ hot no public 
proceffion of the hoft 15 -permitted through 
ihe ftrcets. All the ceremonies of their 
religion are confined to the houfeflf of indi*- 
viduaU, or permitted within the walls of 
this church. In it there is a chapel, to 
which the emperor is condu^d immc'- 



.554 vxfiw 07 soctetY asm 

«diatefy after the elefkion, in order to be 
crowned by the de£tor of Mentz» 

The Jews hav« 9 fynagogue in this city, 

•^ where they perform their religious rites ; 
but the Calvinifts have never been allowed 
any public houfe of worihip within the 
territory of Frankfort. They attend divine 
fervice at a place called Bockenheim in the 
county of Hanauy where they have built a 
church. 

This is but unkind treatment ; and it 
feems at firft fight a little extraordinary, • 
that Martin Luther (hould 0iow more in- 
dulgence to bis old enemy Lord Peter, and 
even to Judas Ifcariot himfelf, than to his 
fcllow-reform^r John Calvin. 

Though Frankfort is thought a fine town, 
and the effeft produced by the whole is 
magnifeent, yet there are no buildings in 
particular worthy attention. It is ex- 
peSed, however, that all ftrangers fhould 
vifit the town-houfe, and fee the chamber 
where the Emperor^ is cledled. And it 
would be reckoned a great want of curiofity. 



KANHZR5 IK FRjOfCZ* S5S 

. mot to fee the famous golden bull which is ' 
kept there with the utmoft care. A fighl 
of this cods a golden ducat ; a fufficient 
price for a glance of an old manufcript^ 
which not one perfon in a hundred cao read, 
and ftill fewer can underftand. 

A 'Countryman of ours, wlio exped^d 
more amufement for his ' money, com* 
plained loudly of this as an impoiition ; and 
^n hearing a German talk of the high price 
^"which every thing bore in England, he re- 
torted on him in thefe words : — II n'y a 
Tien en Angleterre fi chcr qile volje taurcam 
d\r i Frankfort. 

.There is a cuftom obferved here, which 
I fhall mention on account of its fingularity, 
though I enquired in vain for its origin. 
Two women appear every day at noon on 
the battlements of the principal fteeple, and 
play Ibme very folemn airs with trumpets* 
This mufic is accompanied by vocal pfal- 
mody, performed by four or five men, who 
always attend the fetoale trumpeters foy 
that purpofe. 



556 VIEW or socTE-nr xKd 

The people here have a violent tafte for 
pfalrti-finging. TTiere are a confiderable 
number of men and boys, who have this 
for their only profeffion. They are engaged 
by fome femilies to officiate two or three 
times a week in the morning, before the' 
mafter and miftrefs of the family get Out 
of bed. .V 

When any perfon in tolerable circum-^ 
Aances dies, a band pf thefe fweet fingers 
aiTembles in the ftreets before the houfe, 
and chaunt an hour every day to the corpfc^ 
till it is interred. The fame band accom- 
panies the fpoerals^ .fmging hymos all the 
way. 

Funerals are condudJed with an uiicom-s 
mon degree of folemnity in this town : '-^ 
A man clothed in a black cloak, and car*% 
rying^ a crucifix, at the end of-a long pole> 
leads the proceflion.; - — A. great number of 
hired mourners in the Tame drefs, and each 
with a jemon in his hand, ^ march after 
him : — then come the fingers, followed 



MANNERS IN FRANCE. SSj 

by the corpfe in a hearfe ; and laAIy, the 
relations in inourning coaches* 

The crucifiji is carried in this nNifiner aft 
^U fonerals, wbether the deceafed has died 
a R«Hxian CathoHc, a Liftheta», or a CaU 
vinilL . That this cuftonfi fhould be fol-* 
lowed by the two latter, furprifed mc a 
good deal. I fhould have imagined that 
the Galvinifts in particBlar, whatever they 
did with the l»»mons, would never have 
been able to digcft the crucifix. 

There is a vety confidcrablc rrambcr of 
CalviniAs in this place ; it is generally 
thought they are the mdft induftriouS.' 
They unqoeJftioriaWy are the richeft piart 
of ^he inhabitants. This may be partly 
owing td a crrcumftance that Ul§^ p£ th^m 
confider as a hardfliip -—*-* their being ex- 
cluded from any ihare in the government 
of the city. — Many of the Calyinift fami- 
lies are defcendants of Ffench Ppoteftants^ 
who left frheiir country aft the revocation of, 
the ediS of Nanta. . ; . 



35S Tnsw or sociEnr asb 

There arc fomc villages near Frankfort 
coAfifting entirely of French refugees ; who, 
deferiing their country at the fame time» 
have fettfed here in a ctufter. Their de- 
fcendants fpeajc French in their common 
converfation, anS^retain many of their ori- 
ginal coftoms to this hour. 

Two or three families now living at 
Frankfort are of Englifli origin. Their 
predeceflbrs fled fit ft to Holland, during 
the perfecutions in the reign of Mary, and 
being afterwards driven out of that country 
by the cruelty of the Duke of Alva, they 
at length found an afylum for themfelves, 
and their pofterity, in this free imperial 
city. 

The nurtlbcr of Jews in Frankfort is 
prodigious, confidering one difmal incon- 
vemence they are fubjefted to, being 
cAJliged to Hve all together in a fingle ftreet 
built up at one end : — There h a large gate 
at the other, whidi is regularly fliut at a 
cei^taan hour of the ni^t, after which no 



iIaKNEKS IK FHANCS. 35§ 

Jews dare appear in the ftrects; but the 
whole herd muft remain cooped and 
crowded together, like fo many black 
^cattle, till morning. As this flreet is nar- 
row, the room allotted for each family 
fixiall, and as the children of Ifrael were 
never remarkable for their cleanlinefs, and 
always noted for breeding, the Jews* quar- 
ter, you will believe, is not the fwceteft 
part b^he town. I fcarce think they could 
een worfe lodged in the land of 




They have fcveral times made ofFcr of 
confiderable fums to the magiftrates of 
- Frankfort for liberty to build or purchafe 
another (Ireet for their accommodation; 
bat all fach propofals have hitherto beea 
rejefted. 

The Jews in Frankfort arc obliged \o 
fetch water when a fire happens in any 
part of the city ; and the magiftrates, in re- 
turn, pcr^ait them to choofe judges out of 
their own body for deciding difputes amon|; 



960 vow OF SOCEETT Ain> 

themfclves ; but if cither' party refufes to 
fdbmit to this, an appeal is open to the 
magrftrat€$i 

They mttft unqoeftionaWy enjoy fome 
gTcat advantages by. the trade they carry 
Oil, to compenCaie for ftich hiconvcniencics. 
During the day-time they ai'e allowed the 
liberty of waikWig all o^er the town ; a 
privilege which they inaprote with equ&i 
ailiduity and addrefs^ They attack you in 
the ftreef, ply at the gate of your lodgings^ 
and even glide into your apartments, oflFcr- 
_ing to fupply you vifith every commcKKty 
you can have occafion for. And if you 
happen to'pafs by the entrance of their 
ftreet, they intreat your cuftom with the 
violence and vociferation of fo many 
Thames watermen. 

I was twice at their fynagogue.. There, 
is nothing magnificent in their worfhip; 
but much apparent zeal and fervour. 1 ^ 
fa w one of their moft important rites per- 
formed on two children. It was impoflible 
ndt to feel cotopa'flion" for the poor infants, 

thus 



thus cruelly initiated into a community, 
who had formerly the misfortune of being 
tkfpifed by the Heathens, and sow are 
execrated by all pious Chriftians. 



C E T T E K XLVn. 

^rank&n oa the Mameb 

X ou will be furprifed at our remaining fo 
long at a plaee ^here there is no court, and 
few of tfaofe. entertainments which allure 
and detain trairellers. Thetruthis, theDuke 
of Hamilton feems fond of this place ; and 
at for my own part, I have formed an ac» 
qutintance with fome very worthy people 
here, whofe friendfhip I fhall take every 
occafion to cultivate. , 

Society here is divided' into Noblefle and 
the Bourgeois. The firft conGfts of fdme 
VOL, I. c^. 



noble families from varioai parts of Ger* 
many, wbo hav9 choTen Frankfort for their 
rvfideiKCf ^Bd ^ few original pitmns of 
Frankfort^ bttt who have now Qbtaitie4 the 
rank of nobility. The citizens who conneft 
themfelves with ftrangers, have made their 
fortunes by commerce, which fon^e of t|ieii| 
ftillfollowt 

There is a public aflemhly for the nobility 
once a weel^, $t which they drink tea, con- 
verfe, or play at cards froni fix to ten, Oa 
the other nights, the fame company meet 
alternately s|t eachjother^s houfes, and pafs 
the evening in the fiuqe manner; None of 
the Bourgeois fatigiiiiei are invited to thefe 
parties ; but they have aiftmblies of the fiinic 
kind among ttemfeWes, and often entertain 
their f riends^ and the ftrai^ers with whoni 
they are acquainted, in a very hofpitablo 
mani^er at ^eir tables. The noUemeo 
"who refidein Frmskfort, and the nobility of 
all degrees, and of every natibit, who aocsi* 
dentally p&fs throu^ it, cheerfully accept of 
t^iefeinvitaciQm todioe yriibtheciti^paMf but 



none of the Oercilan kdies^of quality conde^ 
fcend fo far. While their fathers, hufbands^ 
m^brtM&efs, are entiertitned at a Boorgcois 
taUe, diey diufe rtitber to dine at ' borne 
by tbei^fcl^rei; and they certainly jac^ 
imCtiff if they prefer a fpate^diet ta good 
eberr;' 

, The dillbdioQ of rapks is ot^ferved irt 
Germany 9. with all the fcr upulous precifioa 
tiiat a inaC^r of that importance deferves. 
There is a public concert in this place fup- 
ported by fubfcription. One would imaginct 
that the fahfcriben would take their feats aa 
they entered the room, ths^t thofe who came 
carlieft would ]|avi^ their choice. — No fucji 
matter .--i-The two firft rows are kept for the 
Udies of qu;liityt and the wives and daugh-* 
ters of thp citizens muft be contented to fil 
behind, let them come at what hour, and 
pay what money they pleafe.— After all^ 
this U not, Jo bad as..in an aflfembly of 
ciobiiiy^ whq(e ^onunons ^e jiot^ permitted 
to. {^^1, even in the lobby, whaijcyer price 



564 VIBW '^OF SOCIETT '11» 

they may have paid for their feat In pan** 
liameot. 

Since we arriyed, the theatre lias been 
opened for the vrinter» by a troop bf Ger* 
man comedians. I was there the firft. nighty 
previoas to the play, there was a kjnd of 
allegorical prologue, intented as. a compli- 
ment to the magiAratcis of Frankfort, This 
* was performed hy Jujiice^ WtfdofA^ and 
Tknty^ each of whom appeared in perfon^ 
withthie iifual attributes. The laft was very 
properly perfonated by a large fat woman^ 
big with child. As to the two former, I 
hope, for the fake of the good people of 
Frankforty that they are 1>etter reprefented 
in the town<kx>uncil9 than they were on the 
flage. This prologue was concluded by a 
long harangue, pronounced by the plumpeft 
Apollo, I dare venture to fay, that evor 
appeared in the heavens above, or on tl^e 
«aiaih beneath. 

After this the play hegan, which was a 
German tranOatidh of pie En^fh play of 
GeiM'ge fiurnwel^ with confiderable jAerir 



fioi\s; Barn well w rcprcfcntcd a$ an iinpra-> 
dent yoang man ; but ht dbes not murder 
Ms unc4e, as ih the Engli(h play f or cem- 
iftit any grofs crhfie ; the German tranflator; 
dierefof^, ittftcad of hahging, only marries 
him at the end of the^ piece. 

Mort of the plays reprefented on the Ger- 
man llage, are tranflations from the Englifti 
or French ; for Germany, fo fertile in wri- 
ters in divinity^ jurifpriidencey medicine» 
ichymiflry, and other parts^ of natural phiIo«< 
iophy, has produced few poets till of late; 

. Jaamova'progenies ceclo d^mittitur alto,,* 
pnd the Gerntan mufe.^il^ now a^ired all 
over Europe.., Her ,)3|eatttjics ar^ feit and ap*. 
plaiided.i>)r, men, of g(enios,:even througja the 
medium of 9 tranilatiQn, which is a ftrong 
jroof of her original energy. I^ muft, how- 
cyec, be a great difcguragemqnt to Gernaan 
poetry in g;eneral, ;ind to (he dramatic in 
particular, that the French lat^age prevails 

No# a new progeiif fnodJ heaven defcend; 



Wi nxfrow socisnr Aicto. 

in^yyi thea^om^and tlutFreiich pfays are 
|t|ir€fented. there, in pi£fi!reQce to German. 
. The natijip lafguage gf the country is 
treated like a vulg^ and provincial dialed, 
yfh'ile the, French is. treated as the only 
proper language for people of fafbion.*-^ 
Children of the M families are intruded 
in French, before they acquire their mother- 
tongue, and pains are taken to keep them 
ignorant of this, that it may not hurt iheit 
pronunciation of the other. I have met witli 
people virho coniidere^ it as an accompiifh- 
inent to he unable to expre(s themfelves in 
the larnjgtlage of thefrcoilhtry, arid who have 
pretendad to Ij^ mdfe 1|n6rartt hi this^rti* 
cular, flian they <vel-eth teafity; • 

I have heen affured by «iany who^ undcr- 
ftand the German htiguage well, that it is 
iiefVous, copious, mdft exprefihre, and ca- 
jpaHe of all the graces of poetry, The trdth 
of this appears by th^ works 'c£ fevei^t late 
Writers j whoJiaveendeavojircd' to check thit 
unnatural prejudice m, their Cbwitrymen, 
and to teftore th^ Ian|[ti^i»f thjciriinceftors 



to Its native hoaors.*-^Bat what are the 
efforts of good, fenfe) taAe> and genius, in 
oppofitioki to faflvony tn4 the influence o( 
•courts f 

Among the winter aniniemettti of this 
plaoe, ttaineau parties may be reckoned^ 
Thefe can tak^ place in the time of froft 
oniy^ and when there is a confiderable 
^quantity of fnow upon the ground. I hai 
'an apportuhtty of feeing a very fplendid 
entertainment of thh kind lately, which 
-was given by fome young gentlemen to an 
(eqoa) nnmber of ladies* 
'^ A traineau is a tnachitie m the (hape of a 
horfe, 1ion» fwan^ or in that of a griffin^ 
\]nicornr/or fothe otbes |anci&l form, with* 
out wheels ; but made below like a fledgCi 
for the convenicncy of Hiding over the'fnow* 
Bome are gilded, and othevwifii ornamented 
•according to the whim of the propri^ton*-* 
A pole ftands up from one fide, to whidi an 
enfign or flag is Aftened^ which waves ovet 
the heads of thofe placed on the machine, 
•The lady wrapped in fur, fiti iicfore, and 



mXW OF 80CIBTT MfM 

the gentleman ftands behind on a boapil- 
made for that purpofe. 

The whole it drawn by two horTes, whkh 
are either conducted by a poftillion, or driven 
by the gentleman. — The hotHfs are gaudily 
ornamented^, and have bells hanging frona 
the trappings which cover tbem< 

This party; confifted of^ about thirty 
traineausy each attended by. two. or three 
lervants on> hoi-feback with flambeaux ; for 
this amufement was taken when it began to 
grow dark.-— One traineau took the lead ;— - 
the reft followed at a convenient diflance ia 
a line^ and drove for two or three hours 
fhroughthe principaUftreets and fquares of 
Frankfort.— The bbrfes go at a briik trot oj- 
canter; the motion of the traineau is'eafy 
and agreeable ; the belhf enfigns, and 
torches, make a' very gay and fhowy apr 
pearance, which feemed to be much reiiihcd 
by the parties immediatelyv concerned, and 
admired by the fpe£tator8> 

A few dayt after this exhibition^ as 
we were preparing to fet.out.for Hanau, in 



a trameau> Mr- Stanley, brother to Lord - 
Stanley, arrived' at the inn. Though he had 
travelled for two days and nights, with- 
out having been in btpd, he was fo little 
iatigued^ that lie went along with us. I^« 
nau is fome leagues diftant from Frankfort. 
We had a fulkproof of the fmooth move^ 
ment of the traineau, which, in the time 
offroft, and wbeQ. there is a proper qaan-^ 
tity of fnow on the ground, k* certainly 
the moft delightful way of travelling thfiC 
can poffibly be iniagiuedi 

Hanau is\ the rcfidence of the Hereditary 
Prince of Heffe CaiTel. As Ave entered the 
town we met the Princefs, who is fifter-in-* 
law to the King of Denmark. She, with 
fonae of the ladies of the comsc^ was taking 
the air alfo in a traineau. 
, . Befide& the troops- of Hanau, two regii 
ments of Hanoverians arc there at prefcnt* 
The Hereditary Prince is not on the beft 
terms with' his father. He lives here, how- 
ever, in a ftate of independency, poifefTed 
of the revcnues^ of this country, which is 
'' ' o * ■ 



{uaranteed to him by ibe Kings of Briuin, 
Pefimark, wi Prv^ : hut there is no 
intercourfe bemsen Ui^ii lilUiscwrt ^ tfaac 
of Heffc CafliU . ^ . . 

t After dmWT we miufied' lo Ft^nkfort. 
The Ji\At prevailed with J^r. Stanley to re- 
jmio a longer tiole atFjraak^t tteih he had 
intondfid. He is a feni^ble yotuig man of fpi-i 
lit 9nd^amhition« Hi& grandfather, the old 
£arl of Derby, ei^deavoars to (educe him 
kito holy orders, prfmiiiing him a living of 
3CXXD I. a year^ which is la the gift of the 
£iinily. This you will acknowlec^e to be 
a temptation which few yottnger brothers 
could withdand. *Natufc, however, feems 
to have defined this young gentleman for 
another line m iife^ My own opinion is, 
he would rather have the command of a 
trtep of dragpon^i thao be promoted to the 
S«e rf Gantcrbuiy. 



ttAKl^ias t» nUKct. 371 



LET^TEIt XLVni: 



OoME*of the nobility wlio rcfidc in this 
city, lake every 6pportup?ty of pointing out 
the eflcntial difference that there 19, and the 
didinftions that ought to be ihadey between 
their &milies and thofe of the Bourgeois | 
who, though they have, by commerce, or 
fome profeffion equally ignoble, attained 
great v^ealth^ which enables them to live in 
a ftyle of magnificence unbecoming theit 
rank ; yet their noble neighbours infiniiatei^ 
that they always retain a vulgarity of fenti- 
ment and manners, unknown to thofe whoCo 
blood has flowed pure through feveral gene« 
rations, unmixed with that puddle which 
fiagnates in the veins <i( plebeians. 

The Duke of Hamilton does not feem to 
have ftudied natural philofophy with accu* 



372 TDEW or. SOCIETY AJSOk 

racy fufficient to enable him to obferve this, 
diftin^ion. He mingles in the focieties of^ 
the atizeiu, with as much eafe and.alacrity^ 
as in thofe of the nobility ; dining with the 
one, and drinking v^ith the other, in the 
mod impartial manner; and between the 
two, he contrives to amufe himfelf to!€«» 
rably welH 

The two /femilies with* which we are in 
the greateft degree of intimacy, are thofe of 
Mbnf. Barkhaufe, and Monf. P. Gogl6, 
The former is a principal perfon in the ma- 
giftracy, a man of learning and worth. HFs 
lady is of 'a noMe family in the dukedom of 
Brunfwick, a woman of admirable good 
fehfe and' many accomplifhments. She is 
well acquainted with Englifh and French li- 
terature. The Frencli language flie fpeaks 
like a native, and though fhe cannot con- 
verfe in Englifh without di£BicuIty, fhe un- 
derffands and relifhqs tlie works of fome of 
our befl authors* 

Mr. Gogle has travelled over the greateft 
part of Europe, and is equally acquainted 



UAvmms IN nLANCB. 3jS 

with men and books. He has made a plen-- 
tiftil fortune by commerce, and lives in a 
very agreeable and Hofpitable manner. 

Iti thcfe two houfes we oGCafionally meet 
with the heft company of both the clalTes of 
focieiy-in this place, and in one or others 
when there is no public affembly, we gene* 
rally pafs the afternoon. — ? The former part 
of the day. (a thaw having lately diflblved 
the fnow) we often pafs in jaunts to the 
environs of this place,, which are very 
beautiful. 

As the IXike of Hamilton and- 1 were 
riding one day along the banks of the Maine, 
near the village of Beix, which is in the 
territbries of the EfeSor of Mentz, we ob- 
fcFved a building; which feemed to be the 
reddence of fome prince, or brfliop at leaft. 
We were furprifed we never had heard k 
fpoken of, as it had a more magnificent ap- 
pearance than any modern building we had 
fcen fince our arrival in Germany. Wa 
rode up, and upon« entering it, found that 
the^ apartments within^ though not laid 



S/i TOW ef aociErr aha 

oat in the beft tafte, feemed to correrpbni, 
ki point of expenccy with the CKternai ap« 
pearance. 

We were informed by t&e workmen, who 
were e|«ipioyod in ftnifiiing thefeapartments, 
that this palace belonged to a lohaGContft in 
Frankfort, where he (lili kepf (bop, and had 
accumulated a prodigious fortune by making 
and felling (huff. 

Near to the principal houfe, there i$ 
another great building, intented for a work* 
boufe, in which tabacco is to be manu* 
faftured, with many apartments for the 
workmen, and vaulted cellars, in ^hich the 
f arious kinds of fnuff are to be kept moifti 
till fent for inland fale to Frankfort, or 
fliipped on the Maine for foreign markets. 

.The owner informed us, there were ex« 
iREUy three hundred rooms in both build- 
ings, and the greater number of thefe hc^ 
longed to the dvireUing-houfe, We did not 
cbufe to puzzle the man by difficult quef» 
ttons, and therefore refrained from enquir« 
ing, what ufo he intended to make of fucb 



an amazing number of rooms; which 
feemed rather contrived as barracks for two 
or three thoufand foldiers, than any other 
furpofe. 

Oh our'rcmrn to town, wc were informed 
that this perfon, who is not a native of 
:F^nkiTntf though he has beeit many years 
eftablifhcA th«rc> had applied to the ma- 
j^Arates for liberty to purchafca certain fpot 
of ground, on which he propofed fo build a 
dwelling-houfe, &c. which cannot be done 
by any hut citizens, without the confent of 
tKecouncil. This being refufed, he bought 
a little piece of land in the territory of 
Mentz, immediately beyond that of Frank* 
fort, and on the banks of the Maine ; and 
being highly piqued by the rrfufai he had 
met with Trpm the m'agiftrates, he had 
reared a buiHing greatly larger and more 
extifcnfive than was neceflary, or than he at 
firft hitd intended, in thefuH perfuafion that 
the remorfe df the magiftrates would be in 
proportion to the fize of this fabrkr. 

The tobaceonift has already expended fifij^ 



376 VIBW OP SOOietV AKB' 

thoafand pouinds on this temple of vett^ 
geancc, and his wrath againft the magiilrates 
feems to he yet anappeafed-^for he iliil la- 
viflies his money with a rancoar agaiifft 
thefe unfortunate men, that is very unbe- 
coming a Chriftian. The inhabitants of 
Frankfort, while they acknowledge the im*- 
prudenceof the magjftrates^ do not applaud 
the wifdom of their antagonift, in whofe 
brain they aiTert there maft be fame apart* 
ments as empty as any in* the vaft ftru&ure 
he is building. 

Another day his Grace ^nd I rode to 
Bergen^ a fmalL village which has, been ren- 
dered eminent by the attempt made there 
by Prince Ferdinand on the French-army in 
the year 1759. 

We were accompanied by. the Meffrs. de 
Leffener, two gentlemen, noyirVetired from 
the fervice, and. living at Frankfort, who 
had been in the a£lion, one a Cap^tain ia 
the Hanoverian army, the other of the 
fame rank in the French. 

Diiring the winter of that memorable 



MAlWEftS IK V&AKCK. Z'pf 

yeaTi you may remember that the French, 
with- mole policy than jufiice,. had fei^ 
upon this, neutral city, and eftabliiKed thetr 
liead-quarters here. This was attended by 
great advantages^ fecuring to them thecourfe 
of the Maine and Upper Rhine, by which 
they received, fupplies from Straibourg, and 
all the intermediate cities. 

Prince Ferdinan^ having formed the de- 
fign of driving them from this advantageous 
fituation, before they couldi be reinforced, 
fuddenly aflembled his army, which was cai»- 
;toned about Itfunfter, and after three days 
of forced marches, came in fight of the 
French, army,, at that time commanded by . 
the Duke de Broglio, who, having received 
intelligence of the Pf incc'sfcheme, had made 
2t very judicious difpofition. 
. On the afternoon of the 1 3th of April, the 
Prince began his attack on the right wing of 
the French army, which occupiedthe village 
of Bergen.— This was. renewed with great 
vivacity three feveral times. The Prinoe 
oflfembourg, and about, ijpoof the AUieik> 



Sjfi Vt$SW or SOCflBTT AM 

ieii in the aftiotn which was prolonged till 
the evenings Prinoe Ferdinand ^chbn deter- 
mining to dravr i^his ito(^^ made fuch a 
difpofition ai perfuaded the enemy be in* 
tended a general attack next morning«^nd 
hj this means he aocompliibed hit retreat in 
the night, without being haraflcd by the 
French. 

I have heai^ officers Jffg4!eat merit afTert, 
that nothing cottld be more judtcioufly 
planned and executed, than this enterprife; 
the only one of; importance^ however, in 
which that greak Geseral %Ied during the 
whole war. 

By this miifoTtune the alHed army were 
ledoced to great difficurhies, and the pfogrefi 
of the French, with the continued retreat 
of the Allies, fpread fuch an alarm over the 
Uledorate ^of Hanover, that many in- 
dividiMils fent their moft valaabte effe^ to 
Stade, from whence tliey might be con* 
▼eyed to England. 71m afiairs of the 
Allies were foon after re-eftablifhcS by the 
deeUb/c v'lStary of Mioden, wbidi raafed 



SCAHK£A6 IK FftAKCB. ' S79 

tlie military charafter of Prince Ferdinand 
fcighcr than ever; ' though officers of pe- 
netration, who were at both a£lion$^ are ftill 
of opinion, ♦ thfat his talents were to the full 
as confpicnoos af Bergen, where he was 
t^pulfed, arat the glorious field of Mlndeiti 
by' which Hanover ami Brunfwick were prc- 
ferved, and the French obliged to abandoit 
almoA all Weilphalia. 



LETTER XLIX. 



FrfmkAm* 
X returned a few days fincc from Darm* 
ftadr, having accompanied the Duke of Ha« 
Sftihon on a vifit which fic made to that 
court; , ^^ 

The feigning prince ofHcffe Darmftadt 



38o TIKW OF 8«CIXrT Al» 

not being there, we were direded to pay 
our Erft vifit to the PrinceTs MaximUbin, 
his^ aunt.-— >She invited us the lame evening 
to play at cards and fup with hen^ — There 
were about ten people at table,— The Prin- 
cefg was g^y, aflFable, and talkative.— The 
Duke confefled he never had pafled an 
evening fo agreeably with an old woman 
in his life. 

Next morning we went to the parade, 
which is an objedl of great attention at this 
place. The Prince has a mod enthufialdic 
paffion for military manoeuvres' 2tt\d evolu- 
tions.— -Drilling and exercifing his foldiers 
are his chief amufements, and almofl his 
fole employement. That he majf^joy thfs 
in all kinds of weather, and <it every feafon 
of the year, he has built a room fufficiently 
capacious to admit 1500 men, to perform 
their exercife in it all together. 

This room is accommodated with.fixteen 
ftovesy by which it may be kept at the exad 
degrees of temperature which fuits hi^ 
Highnefs's conftitution..— -Qn the moniinj. 



HxmfZRs -nsr frakge. SSi 

.that we were prefent, there was only the 
ordinary guard, confifting of three hundred 
men, who having performed their exercifes, 
and marched for anliour'up and down this 
fpacious Gymnafium, were divided into par- 
ties and detached to their refpeflive pdfts. 

The Darmftadt foldiers are tall, tolerably 
clothed, and above all things remarkably 
well powdered. They go through their 
manceuvres with that dexterity which may 
be expe£led of men yJho are continually 
employed in tlie fame a£tion, under the 
eye of their prince, who is an admir2(ble 
judge, and fev,ere critic in thijs part of thp 
military art. ^ 

There is no regular fortification round 
this towir; but a v«ery high ftone-Mrall, 
whidi is not intended to prevent an enen\f 
from entering, being ^by no means adequatie 
to fttch 3 pai:p0fe ; but merely defigned tt 
binder, the gairifoii ifir<^m deferting, to which 
iikpy are ^xce^ingly in^lin^d ; thefe poor 
men taking no delight in the warlike agmfti* 



38s VISW OV SOdSTY ATO 

ments which conftitute the fupreme joy o( 
their fovercign. 

CcAtiaels are placed at fmall difta&ces 9l\ 
round Uiewall» who are obliged to be ex* 
ceedldgly alert. One foldier gives the words 
alliswclLxxi Gernaao, to hi& neighbour on 
the right, who immediately calls the fame to 
the centinel beyond him, and. fo it goes 
round till the firft foldier receives the words 
from the left, which he tranfmits to the 
right as formerly, and fo the call circulates, 
without any inlcrraifSon, through the whole 
night. . 

Every other part of garrifon duty is per- 
formed with equal exa£tnefs, and all ne- 
gledis^s fevcrely puniihed as if an enemy 
' were at the gates. 

The men are ftldonl nk>re than two 
Dfight9 out of three in bed. This, witfi xht 
attention requifite to keep their clothes and 
Uccoutrements clean, is very hard duty, efpe- 
c>aliy'at pitfent, when tbefroft is uncom- 
t^f^\f\itini and the g^und cohered with 



aCANKEBS nf VRAKCS. SSS 

• 

There is a ftiiall body of cavalry at Darm- 
ftadtjuft now. Tjicy arc drelTed in bufF 
coats, and magnificently accoutred. — Thefe 
are the Ijorfc-giiards of the Prince.~Fcw as 
they arc, I never &w fo many men together 
of fuch a height in -my life, none of them 
being under Hk Englifli feet three inches 
high, and feveral of them confiderably above' 
that enormoos {latore. 

The Prince of Hefie Darmftadt formerly 
kept a.greater number of troops : at prefent 
bi$ whok army does not exceed five thou* 
fand men. But as the conduct of princes, 
bow^vee judicious it may be, feidom pafles . 
uncenfured, there are people who blame 
hiAi for entertaining even this fiumben 
They declare that this princess finances* 
hmg in very great diforder, cannot fupport 
tfois eftabiifliment ; which, though fmall, 
ttiay*be counted high, canfideriog the extent 
of dominion^. Tbty infift alio upon the 
lofi Which agricukure and maniiAiAttrea 
muft fuftain, by Kaviiig the ftouteft raeit 
taken ^way from thefe necefikry empt^'^' 



364 TiEW OF flocisTir jam 

mentSy and their ftrength exhaufied in uTe- 
lefs parade, j^or tbefe rigid cenfors have the 
aflurance to afiert, -that an army of ^vc 
thoufand men, though burdenfeme to the 
country, is not fufficient to*defend it; that 
the nun^ris-by far too great for amufe- 
menty and infinitely too &nall:for any raaa^ 
ner of ufc. 

The fame day, we dined with the Prin^ 
Cftfi Maximilian, and in the afternoon were 
prefented to Prince George's family. He 
U brother to the reigning Prince. He hap- 
pened to be indifpofed; but his Princefs 
received the Duke with the utmoft polite* 
i^cfs. 

Their two youngeft ions and three Aiugfi- 
tes6 were at fupper. The former are ftiH 
very young ; the latter are welWooking, re- 
markably accompliihed, and do much credk 
to the great pains their mother has beflowed 
^n their education. 

Next morning we' were invited to break- 

£ift» by the Baron Riedefal, at a pleafant 

country-ihoufe he has near Darmftadr.— 

- His 



llis Grace went with himy in a carriage of 
a very particular conftruftion. The Baron 
fat on a low feat next the horfes, and drove j 
the Duke in a higher place behind him. 
Each of thefe is made for one perfon only j 
but behind all, there was a wooden feat, in 
the fhape of a little borfe, on which two 
fervants were nM>unted. The ufual pofting- 
chaifes in this country hold fix perfons with 
eafe; and people even of. the firft rank 
generally have two or three fervants in the 
chaife with them. In point of oeconomy, 
fhefe carriages are well imagined; and, in 
the time of froft, not inconvenient; for 
here travellers take fpecial care to fortify 
themfelves againft cold by cloaks lined with 
fur. But when it rains hard, two of the 
company at leaft muft be drenched, for the 
Germain chaifes are never entirely covered 
above# 

I went with Count Cullemberg in his 
coach. We pafled the forenoon very agree- 
ably at this houfe, vrhich feems to be ad« 

tOL. I* K 



3g« Tisw oi^ sociBVT jlki» 

vantageauily fituated; but in its prefent 
iJQowy drefs, one can no more judge of the 
natural complexion of the country, than 
of that of an a£tre(s new-painted for the 
ftagc. 

We dined with Prince George, who was 
fofficiently recovered to be at table. He is^ 
a handfome man, of a foldier-like appearance, 
and has all the eafe and openefs of the mk 
Hiary charadler. 

His fecond fon, who had been abfent for 
fome weeks, arrived while we were at table. 
He is a fine young man, about eighteenr 
years of age. It was pleafing to obferve the 
fatisfadtion which this fmall incident diffufed 
over the faces of father, mother, and the 
v^rhole family, which formed a groupc wor- 
thy the pencil of Greufe. 

Do not fufpeA that I am prejudiced in 
favour of this family, merely becaufe* they 

belong to a prince. Anappea/ance of 

domeftic happinefs is always agreeable, whe- 
ther we find it in a palace or a cottage j and 



MAlfKXRS Ur 7BJLNCE. ^9^ 

the fame fymptoms of good humonr, though 
they would not have furprifed me fo much,^ 
would have delighted me equally in the fa- 
mily of a peafant. 



THE END OF THE FIRST VOLUME^ 



^•.(S: 



M5^ 




IIBErisFr