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BANCROFT 
LIBRARY 



THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 




Vol. 1. 



Octobep, 1895. 



No. 2. 



The Avifauna. 



^^^j CONTENTS 




Color Plate of Condor's Egg Frontispiece. 

Cut of California Vulture '. 17 

Notes on California Condor, (illustrated) W. H. Hoffman 18 

A Double Nest, (illustrated) Lee Chambers 19 

What Others Say of Us 19 

Yellow Billed Magpie, (illustrated) C. Barlow 20 

The California Partridge— D. A. Cohen 22 

The Mexican Raven (illustrated) — Otto J. Zahn. 24 

Button's Vireo in Los Angeles, Cal., (illustrated) — Horace A. Gaylord....26 

Bryant's Marsh Sparrow^ — M. L. Wicks, Jr 27 

A Trip along the North Shore of Lake Superior — Frank S. Daggett 28 

Editorial 30 

Extracts from Fish and Game Laws of the State of California 31 



WANTED, FOR SALE. AND EXCHANGE,. 

Charges— First Insertion, 35 words for 50 cents. 

Second Insertion : 25 cents. 

Extra Words, one cent per word, cash with order. 

Dealers can only use these columns at regular rates. 

Strictly first-class specimens will be accep.ed at one-half 

list rates in payment for exchange notices 

Every subscriber is entitled to one exchange note of 35 

words. 

'PC EXCHANGE— U. S. and Hawaiian stamps 
■1 for British Colonies, in good condition. Scott's 
54th as basis. Send me your sheets and receive 
mine. Have fine lot of Foreign Stamps for sale 
at 50 per cent off catalogue. Ref. Secy. Y. M. 
C. A. and Ed. of this journal. F. G. Purssord, 
R. 21 Y. M. C. A. Building. Los Angeles, Cal. 

\A7 OULD like to correspond with entomolo- 
"' gists who have butterflies or beetles to ex. 
Have about 35 varieties of California Lepodep- 
tra constantly on hand also California bird eggs 
in sets or singles for the above or for U. S. 
and foreign stamps. O. W. Howard, 
.___ Los Angeles, Ca l. 

\\/ANTED— To bear from all those having 
»» old United Slates, Department and Brit- 
ish Colonies stamps. Must be in first-class con- 
dition. Will pay spot cash if prices are right. 
J. H. Humphreys. P. O. Box 807 Los Angeles, Cal. 

\A/ AN TED— A 24c. Treasury— prefer unused. 
' ^ Have to exchange rare U. S. and foreign, 
or will pay cash. Write, stating condition and 
exchange desired. Edwin L. Viereck, 429 South 
Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



FOR SALE— DON'T READ THIS unless you 
want to buy some eggs at bed-rock prices. 
I have on hand between twenty and thirt}- va- 
rieties of So. California eggs in sets with original 
datas. Among others are Black Chin Hummers 
@ 40c.; Costas Hummer (((} 60.; and Annas @ 40. 
or the three above sets with nests sent prepaid, 
for only I1.30. Full list sent on application. 

O. W. Howard, Los Angeles, Cal. 

FOR 35 cents in unused postage stamps I will 
mail to any address post paid a fine moun- 
ted specimen of the Tarantula, Horned Toad, 
Scorpion or Centepede. For 50 cts. a Trap-door 
Spider and nest. \Vm. F. Winkler, 320 South 
Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

CINE CABINET SPECIMEN OF AZURITE 
^ post paid from 25c to fi.oo. Queen Copper 
from |i.oo to I5.00. Fine clear specimens of 
Stalactics from 25c to I15.00. Will exchange any 
of the above specimens for old U. S. stamps. 

C. J. R. Carson, 544 South Main Street, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

FOR EXCHANGE.— Eggs in sets, of this local- 
ity for those of others, many with nests. 
Desires correspondence from Colorado in regard 
to exchanging notes and specimens. Have also 
Butterflies to ex. A. I. McCormick, 92 Temple 
Blk. Los Angeles, Cal. 

WANTED — Parties having back numbers in 
good condition of the Yc^ung Oologist, 
Oologist, O. & O., Auk, or Nidiologist to dis- 
pose c>f, will please send list and lowest cash 
price to \\\ S. Cobleigh, 527 E. 28th St., Los 
Angeles, Cal. 



The Av 



EXCHANGES— Continued. 

FOR SALE— A fine collection of North Ameri- 
can bird skins, principally western species, 
at a great bargain, if taken as a whole. Write 
for particulars. L. Zellner, 1825 Oak St., Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

MY EXCHANGE notice in Sept. Avifauna, 
has paid me well. I have sold more goods 
from it than any other advertising I have had 
since on this coast- C. J. R. Carson, 

T^O EXCHANGE.— Sioux Indian Doll, Moccas- 
^ ins. Purse all well beaded, Carnellian Paper 
weight (polished), Webbs Adding machine, for 
U. S. adhesive stamps only. Write first. 

F. E. EUis^ Santa Barbara, Cal 

WANTED— A first-class I25.00 Kodak. Will 
give in exchange rare California eggs in 
sets. Send description and ask for list. 

Ralph Arnold Pasadena, Cal. 

WANTED. — Reloading tools brass shells for 
twelve gage shot gun. and Taxidermist's 
instruments. Have to exchange first-class eggs 
in sets or singles frotn this locality. Write first 
telling what you have. 

A. I. McCormick, 92 Temple Blk, Los Angeles. 



The Wakeley's Novelty Works, 

Manu^rersif SOUVENIR GOODS. 

YuccR and Bin Tree Bark Pin (;ushi<)n« Napkin Kings. 

Vases, (^atseye Goods. Orange Placjiies. Pai)t*rCul- 

tfirs. Cnnes. Natural History Goi-ds. Stools. 

Wild Flower, Moss and Fern Books, 



PASADENA, ... 



uiitl ItKLT A I I J. 

. . . CALIFORNIA. 



Notice to all 2lover§ of rare Gacti ! 

Echinocadiis Polyancesteas, 

Opuntia ''Grizzly Bear,'" 

Golden Yellow-spitied Echinocadiis Lecontei. 

I have secured a fine lot of the above rare 
Cacti, particularly E. Polyancesteas, the 
finest of the species and the most difficult 
to obtain as it grows in almost unaccess- 
ible parts of the Mojave Desert. Its spurs 
are ivory white and reddish brown, com- 
pletely hiding the body of the plant. 
Make it without doubt the handsomest of 
all Echinocacti. %\ to $10 according to size. 

" Orizzly Bfn?;'^ a great curiosity, the plant being covered 
with long white hair similar to PUoreceus Senetis, .50 cts 
per plant. 

Yellow-Spirted Lecontei, a handsome species found by me in 
the Panimint Mountains during the Spring of the pre- 
sent year. $i.00 to *B 00 each. 

flosperocalix Vudiilafa.—l have a few bulbs to offer of this 
rare and beautiful Desert Day Lily. Flower pure white 
inside, silvery gray without. A plant eagerly sought 
after but difficult to obtain. Strong sound bulbs 50:i each. 
Address, J^ R K r>. pr . Fl OA\' A R T>. 



■IFAUNA. ,,,,,,,.,. \ 0^ 

Currier's Tanning Liquor f /. 

For TANNING SKINS ' ' ^ 

That are to be used for 

M ATSorJR OBES 

Price $1.00 per Bottle. 
SUFFICIENT TO TAN TWELVE FOX SKINS 

Full direction with each bottle. 

C J. R. CARSON, 

544 S. Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

^re You Interested" ^ 

—IN— 

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Contains the Information You want 
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PRESENTS Short, Crisp. Interesting Stories by the best 
WriterH of the Southwest — all with a flavorof local coloring. 

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IS RECOGNIZED by the Leading Newspapers, Weeklies 
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_ IS ENDORSED by the Local Press and Leading Organiza- 
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Price lOc. a Copy. $1.00 per Year. 



THOS. SHOOTER & GO. 
3^ TAXIDERMIST 9fc 

Skinns Tanned and flounted for Rugs. 

Specimens for Sale. Highest Price paid for Skins of Bear, 
Lion and Wild Cat with Head and Feet. 

LOS ANOELES, Cal. 



113 Commercial Street, 



COLLECTORS! » You can't find a 

Cheaper place in U. S. to buy Stamps. My approval 

# Sheets are great: 40 per cent, on old and scarce U S., 

• and 50 per cent, on British Colonials is what I allow. 
Send for a trial. I must have references. 



(Mention this Paper) P o. Box 484. LOS ANQELES, CAL CHAS. M. HATFIELD, - South Pasadena, Cal. 



The Avifauna. 



Buu and Sell 

Posta§:e 
STAMPS 



GAME BIRDS AT HOME, 

...Just Published... 
By THEODORE S. VAN DYKE. 

A volume depicting a large variety of Outdoor 
Delights with Quail, Woodcock,' the diflferent 
Grouses, Ducks, Salt Water birds, Etc., their 
homes and habits. i6mo.; decorated in inks 
and gold, gilt top $i-50 



^taigp? for i|ll Cla^^e? of dolktof?. The Still Hunter, $2.00 



* 



Albums, Catalogues 

And All Kinds of 

Philatelic Supplies. 



The only analj'tical treatise on deer hunting, the 
hunting rifle and its use in the field. 



SHEETS FOR COliIiECTOHS 

Sent on Apppoval — SO pet* eent. to flet. 

Send for trial lot, but be sure and send references. 

W. A. H. CONNOR, 
Box 182. Los Angeles, Cat. 



Millionaires of a Day, $i .00 

An inside History of the great California Boom. 

Sent, postage prepaid, upon receipt of price. 
Address, 

The avifauna, 

544 South Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 



Rambler Bicycles 



ARE MADE IN A 



iZHRlETY OF PHTTERNS 




-Soiitl S^tamp Tor Ca.ta,lo«:«e- 



THOS. H. B. VARNEY, Coast Agent, 



4i8T S. SI»R.IIVG ST. 




Vol. I, No. 2. 



Los Angeles, Cal^ October, i8g^. 



ONE DOLLAR 

PER YEAR. 




CALIFORNIA CONDOR. 

(From Collection of G. Frean Moecom.) 



i8 



The Avifauna. 




CALIFORNIA 

Notes on California Condors. 

/^lyTHOUGH this bird is now compara- 
J^ tively rare, and as Dr. Brewer re- 
marks "The single species composing this 
ver>' distinct genus belongs to western North 
America and so far as known has the most 
restricted distribution of any large raptorial 
bird in the world. 

Virtually the skins and eggs are of extra- 
ordinirus divideration and \'alue to our orni- 
thologists and oologists. Of the skins Los 
Angeles has probably the largest number in 
proportion to population, of any city in 
America, no less than eight perfect speci- 
mens being found in our private collections. 
Likewise Los Angeles boasts of the possess- 
ion of two out of the three known eggs con- 
tained in all North American collections 
public or private. (The class of ornitholo- 
gists residing in the home of the Avifauna 
is therefor ob%'ious.) 

The illustration on page 17 is of a bird 
now in the collection of Mr. G. Frean 
Morcom. It was killed near Julian, San 
Diego Co., Cal. on June 2nd, 1888 and is an 
adult female, measuring 3 ft. 7 i-io inches 
length, 9 ft. 2 7-10 inches in extent, weight 
21 pounds. The half Tone on this page is 
of a male bird shot April 21, 1895, by Mr. 
J. M, Henrj' with a 38 caliber revolver 
about seven miles northeast of Santa Monica, 
Cal. Its weight was 27 pounds, extent 9 ft. 
8 inches. 

This Vulture* was perched on a rock at 
the time and was shot by Mr. H. from his 



VULTURE. Monnted by Thus. Schooter. 

horse while ascending the canyon. Not- 
withstanding these birds are generally quite 
wan,', the one in question showed no fear 
so that it was approached within about 30 
feet before attempting to rise. 

The condor is variousl}- described as to 
size and weight. Prof. Ridgway gives the 
extent as 8)4 to nearly 11 feet, weight 
from 20 to 25 lbs. In the Nidiologist of 
Februar\^ Mr. Geo. F. Breninger of Santa 
Cruz, Cal., reports shooting an adult bird 
which measured 11 feet from tip to tip. 

One of the more noticable differences be- 
tween this species and the Condor of the 
Andes is the absence in this variety of the 
crest or comb found on its more tropical 
cousin. 

Our colored plate of the egg is a splendid 
reproduction of the specimen collected for 
Mr. Shields in April last, by Mr. O. W. 
Howard of this cit}'. It was obtained from 
a cave in the side of a lofty precipice in the 
San Louis Obispo mountains this state (see 
Nidiologist July 25, 1895.) 

It is so far as known one of the three 
authentic specimens now in the United 
States, two of these are now in Mr. Mor- 
com' s collection, the other in the L^. S. 
National Museum. 

Thus far no one has been found who can 
confidently assert that anj' of the European 
Museums possess a specimen. 

The original of the colored plate is a per- 
fect prepaired egg measuring 4.42 x 2.65 
inches. Its companion in Mr. Morcom' s 



The Avifauna. 



19 



collection, we understand was recently pur- 
chased by him from Mr. H. R. Taylor. Its 
measurments are 4.40 x 2.60 inches. The 
eggs are verj' similar, the first mentioned 
being a shade darker and the pits are some- 
what coarser and deeper. 

W. H. Hoffman. 

A Double Nest 




Tt has not been my good fortune to find 
^ man}' double nests, but the one which I 
mention is a very extraordinar>' find. In 
May 1893 as I was out collecting in a grove 
of eucalyptus trees, my attention was at- 
tracted by a scolding above my head in a 



tall tree, and looking up I soon discovered 
a pair of Bullock Orioles hopping around 
in the small branches of a large limb and 
was not long in finding a nest about 50 feet 
up. I climbed to it and found five young 
birds about a week old. 

In the following year about the same 
time I was going through the same grove 
and remembering my last year's nest I 
looked up and instead of one nest I saw two. 
A new one had been built about four inches 
above the old one. I climbed to it imme- 
diately as I expected to find a set of eggs, 
but both nests were empty. I visited the 
nests again and again, but with no better 
results, so at last I cut both nests down. I 
think by this and other incidents I have 
noticed that the Bullock Oriole inhabits the 
.same localit}" year after year. 

Lee Chambers. 






What others say of us. 



The Avifauna. 

The Avifauna, a magazine devoted to the in- 
terests of oology add ornithology, is edited and 
published by W. H. Hoffman, of this city. The 
initial number, just received, is bright and can- 
not but prove interesting to those loving the 
study of birds and their eggs and nests. The 
contents, among other good things, embrace ar- 
ticles on Owls of Pasadena and Vicinity, by Mr, 
Horace Gay lord: The Valley Partridge, by Mr, 
A. M. Shields: The Blue Jay, by E. W. Currier: 
The Red-breasted Sapsucker, by Joseph Grinnell, 
and the Nesting of the Louisiana Tanager, by 
Ralph Arnold. The illustrations are many and 
good. — L. A. Herald. 

A well-printed, highly edited monthly maga- 
zine called the Avifauna, devoted to oology 
and ornithology, has been issued by W. H. Hoff- 
man at 544 South Main street. The new jour- 
nal takes a peculiar field all its own, and prom- 
ises to be an instructive and exceedingly inter- 
esting journal of extensive circulation. The 
first number is replete with good illustrations. 
— L. A. Record. 

The Avifauna starts out better than any 
journal of its class which I have seen. 

M. L. Wicks, Jr. 

L,os Angeles, Cal. 



20 



The Avifauna, 



The Yellow-Billed Magpie. 

Pica nuttalli. 



It was not until early this spring that I 
had the pleasure of forming the acquain- 
tance of the Yellow-billed Magpie {Pica 
nuttalli) though I had heard much con- 
cerning its nesting habits from brother col- 
lectors, March 31st dawned a beautifully 
clear day at Sargent's in the lower part of 
Santa Clara county where I had gone the 
evening before to spend a day with our 
feathered friends. Arising early I was 



ance in their striking black and white 
plumage. Soon a few others joined them 
and the colony was depopulated, the birds 
not returning while I remained, though 
they could be heard now and then in the 
distance. Walking under one of the trees 
I beheld my first Magpie's nest; not so won- 
derful an object as I expected it might be. 
The nest, outwardly presenting the appear- 
ance of large masses of sticks, were situated 
in the highest forks of the trees, averaging 
30 feet in height. It was in general some- 
what earley for eggs, one nest contained but 
one fresh e^g, another a set of five eggs and 




r 



YELLOW-BILLED MAGrPlE. {Fim nuttalli) From the collection of (,'. Barlow. 



greeted with the industrious tapping of a 
Woodpecker near at hand and the ringing 
notes of Parkman's Wren, and the hills 
everywhere carpeted with green, invited a 
stroll. After a pleasant tramp I approached 
a knoll covered with Hve-oaks in which I 
suspected several pairs of Magpies had their 
abodes from an occasional "caw" which 
emenated from out the foliage. As I drew 
nearer several of the birds flitted lightly 
from the tree-tops and soared away, rising 
to quite a height and decidedly beyond gun 
range. They presented a pleasing appear- 



a third seven eggs in which incubation was 
advanced. This latter nest was by far the 
best specimen I examined. It was about 
two feet high and one foot in diameter at 
its thickest part and composed outwardly, of 
dried oak tw4gs of various sizes. The en- 
trance was near the center and the inside 
plastered with mud and lined with fine root- 
lets and horse hair. The top of this nest 
was latticed, yet securely put together, and 
the eggs were easily discernible from the 
outside. 

Near by a nest was observed 30 feet up 



The Avifauna. 



21 



in a white oak which held six young ap- 
parently just hatched. The parent birds 
did not make their appearanc at all, though 
several adult birds were seen feeding on a 
bog a short distance away. Three weeks 
later I visited this nest with the intention 
of placing two of the young birds in mj' col- 
lection. The tree was duly climbed but the 
birds had flown and I was about to decend 
when a glance into the tree top brought to 
view the young Magpies sitting contentedly 
in a group. They had not made a sound or 
movement which I could detect while I was 
climbing about in the tree. Cautiously 
advancing upon the group I made an attempt 
to catch one but the}- were all on the alert 
and fluttered out of reach. After several 
unsuccessful attempts I resorted to a small 
charge of dust shot and secured two inter- 
esting specimens. The}- are precisely the 
same in plumage as the adult birds, though 
not as bright and with scarcely any tail 
feathers. 

The small colony on the hill was again 
visited but aside from a few fresh eggs and 
one nest containing young (which had been 
overlooked on the previous visit) there was 
nothing interesting to note. Two of the old 
nests had been taken possession of by Desert 
Sparrow Hawks and a beautiful set of five 
eggs was collected. 

April yth was billed for a trip to a well- 
known colony of Magpies so the writer and 
friend were out on the road before day-break, 
one riding a horse and the other propelling 
his " silent steed." The oft-told beauty of 
a California sunrise was witnessed as we 
journeyed along the tortuous road amid the 
hills. Finally we travelled up a creek well 
wooded with sjxamores, in which we were 
informed Magpies were nesting. Unfortun- 
ately, as it afterwards proved, we had taken 
the wrong trail and after walking for several 
hours over the hills beneath the scorching 
sun, a number of nests were found in the 
sycamores bordering a small stream. Most 
of them were inaccessible, being placed far 
out on some small limb of the tree at a con- 



siderable height. A few were climbed to 
but all were empt}', having been recently 
lined. One nest held five eggs but was just 
out of reach on a small limb. The Magpies 
could be heard in the scrub oaks on the hill- 
side and a few were observed hopping about 
on a marshy spot. They seem to feed largely 
upon worms and grubs, though I am told 
that they are incessant nest-robbers and do 
not despise young birds for food either. 

As the afternoon crept on it dawned upon 
us that we had missed the rookery for which 
we were searching and threading our way 
out to the road once more, we followed it 
for perhaps half a mile when we came upon 
the much-sought colony. The white-oaks 
in the field held each from one nest upward, 
though many were old structures. Our 
earlier efforts had told upon us and after 
facing several of the climbs and being en- 
couraged onl}' with empty nests we retired. 
Thus it was that through one little mistake 
we missed an interesting day, but experience, 
while often severe, is nevertheless a profit- 
able teacher. Future trips may prove pleas- 
anter, though we must confess that our 
spirits were consoled b}' the satisfaction that 
we had robbed no poor bird of her treasures ! 
The accompanying illustration is from a 
photograph of a mounted Yellow-billed Mag- 
pie in mj' collection, the work of Mr. R. H. 
Beck, who has succeeded admirably in giv- 
ing it a natural and pleasing position. 

C. Bari^ow. 

Santa Clara, Cal. 



The Sept. Avifauna presents a very neat ap- 
pearance and shows up well. It would seem 
that there is a good field for it and you have 
my best wishes for its success. 

C. Barlow, 
Santa Clara, Cal. 

Copy of Avifauna received. Am pleased 
with its originality. Find amount for subscrip- 
tion. Actions speak louder than words. 

\V. S. CoBLEiGH, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Enclosed please find one dollar bill for one 
years subscription to Avifauna. She is simply 
immense and I am more than pleased with it. 
Success and long life. LEE Chambers, Santa 
Monica, Cal. 



22 



The Avifauna. 



The California Partridge. 



/^N abundant resident of Alameda County, 
J^ California, and formeily included the 
Valley Partridge whose habitat is given in 
Mr. A. M. Shield's article in the September 
number of this Magazine. 

The two terms : Valley Partridge and Cali- 
fornia Partridge of the Ornithologist are not 
correctly recognized by the sportsman who 
knows the partridges, or quail, as he calls 
them, as two varieties in this State, viz. : the 
Mountain Partridge and the Valley Partridge. 
The former term embraces the Mountain 
Partridge and its subspecies, the Plumed and 
the San Pedro Partridges, while the latter is 
the California and the Valley Partri(Iges, 
that look alike to him. 

In this locality the California Partridge is 
mated by the latter part of March, and eggs 
may be found early in April, but most are 
laid in May. Eggs under the process of 
incubation are occasionally found in August 
and I once discovered a bird on a nest of 
eggs in September. These were probably 
second sets, the first having most likely been 
destroyed. 

This Partridge has as many if not more 
enemies than any other ground nesting bird. 
The collector and the ubiquitous small boy 
do not cut any figure compared to haycutting 
and wild animals. The scythe and the mov- 
ing machines either kill the birds that are 
very close si:ters, or, change the aspect of 
the surroundings so that the birds will desert 
their half incubated eggs. I have seen the 
first sets destroyed by cutting the hay and 
the second sets, which were laid in the hay- 
cocks were scattered and ruined when the 
hay was hauled. Strange to say, not a single 
Partridge nest was noticed this year in a 
thirty-acre hay field on my home, in which 
field there were annually many nests. 

This bird prefers to nest in clearings and 
on farms where it hopes to escape wild ani- 
mals, but, cats kill a large number of the set- 
ting hens, as is indicated by a few of the 
eggs being found broken among the tangled 



grass and bunches of feathers. Another 
casualty was noticed this year when a cow 
trampled fourteen eggs that were almost 
hatched. 

There were this spring at least one hundred 
pairs of partridges on my home and I found 
five nests of eggs within a radius of 95 to 
1 10 feet. 

As written for the Nidiologist, it is a com- 
mon occurrence to find this bird nesting in 
elevated places, such as tops of vine-clad 
sheds and fences and in crotches and hollows 
of trees thickly covered with vines. One nest 
noted was eighteen inches from the ground, 
in a vine-covered cavity of a live oak. and 
another was fully twenty feet from the ground 
in a hollow crotch of a similar tree and well 
concealed by ivy. The latter hollow was 
lined with a large quantity of grass that had 
been cut from the lawn below by the gardener 
and had been carried to the nest, without a 
doubt, by the birds themselves, and goes to 
demonstrate the inventive genius of birds 
that are not ne'^t builders exept in cases of 
sheer necessity. In several instances I have 
found eggs <^)f this partridge in abandoi^.ed 
California and Spurred Towhees' nests in 
trees and in vines, from six to twelve feet 
from the ground, and took this year in one 
nest Spurred Townee, ^ and California Part- 
ridge, i-iS and a set of " Gallina Domes- 
tica " close by ; in a clump of poison oak 
and wild blackberry vines partridge eggs are 
sometimes found in chicken and turkey nests 
in the brush and in the fields. 

Clumps of prickly thistles are favorite nest- 
ing resorts, as the sharp spines defy cats and 
other small animals, and horses and cattle 
avoid tramping on them. 

In 1 886 I was cutting out a large, circular 
clump of these thistles, and was working 
around the edge, making the clump smaller 
and smaller until only a small bunch re- 
mained. My hoe struck out once more and 
I was startled by a sharp whirr and saw a 
partridge disappear, and a lot of little oiu s 
just hatched scrambling under protecting 
leaves. I imitated the low chuckle of the 



The Avifauna. 



23 



mother, and, one by one the confiding little 
birds ran toward me, and in about five 
minutes I had them all in my hat — about 
fourteen I believe, and some were so recent 
from the shell that their down was still moist, 
and one egg in the nest was just hatching. 
The mother was not to be seen, so I put 
them all out on the ground and they immed- 
iately scrambled for cover, while I departed 
to allow her to return and collect her little 
treasures. 

These partridges can be raised successfully 
from eggs set under domestic hens, but their 
wild instinct leads them away forever at ap- 
proach of the mating season. 

Eleven to fifteen eggs seems to be the 
average number in a set, and, in sets of 
twenty or more, the markings, color, shape 
and size strongly indicate the product of two 
or more females. Under the laws of Nature 
it is not reasonable that one bird would lay, 
say, twenty-five eggs, because those first laid 
would be stale by the time incubation was 
started. I have observed as many as five 
eggs deposited in one day in a single nest, 
but the number will vary greatly from day 
to day. 

There is a wide difference in markings, 
color, size and shape of the eggs, especially 
in the ground color and markings. The eggs 
are of various shades of cream color, more 
or less blotched, spotted and dotted with old- 
gold and chestnut-brown, the latter color 
often approaching black. One egg of a set 
of twelve was buff, unspotted, like the egg 
of the Ruffled Grouse. Five eggs of a set of 
seventeen were light buff with rough shell 
granulations, so minutely and faintly dotted 
as to give them a queer appearance. Oc- 
casionally an almost pure white egg is found 
among a set. but more often dropped and 
deposited at random along road sides and in 
fields, or wherever the bird may be when 
torced to get rid of the egg ; biit these eggs 
lack the smooth, shiny surface. 

My largest find was one bird incubating 
thirty- eight eggs, piled in layers, one on top 
of the other, and in such a case, where the 



"set" was made by more than one bird^ 
only one pair assumes ownership at and after 
incu'-ation is begun, although an occasional 
egg may be deposited under the setting bird 
and the others seek new nesting sites for their 
second sets. 

Both parents are engaged in rearing the 
brood, and the oldest flocks become gregar" 
ious about September, remaining in flocks 
of ten to fifty or more until they pair off next 
spring. 

A few years ago there was a band of these 
partridges, at least one thousand, that daily 
entered the ground** of Mills' Seminary, situ- 
ated in the foothills back of Alameda, to be 
fed. Flocks could be seen at feeding time 
running over the lawns and walks, some of 
them almost as tame as chickens Hunters 
on the outskirts played havoc with this band ; 
it was no uncommon sight to see wounded 
birds limping about the grounds — and of late 
vears the gentleman whose pride was his 
flock of partridges has passed away an<l the 
the custom of feeding them has been neg- 
lected so that there are now very few birds 
left on this once magnificent preserve 

D. A. Cohen. 

Alameda, Cal. 



The specimen copy of Avifauna received and 
Mr. D. and myself think it a beautiful little 
journal. 1 like the cover and think it very ar- 
tistic and graceful as well as appropriate. We 
wish you much success. I mail yon one dollar for 
one years subscription. \). A. Dodge. Chula 
Vista, Cal. 

I received the sample copy of the Avifauna 
and am very much pleased to know that South- 
ern California is to have so valuable an addi- 
tion to ornithology and oology. Enclosed please 
find draft for one dollar for one years subscrip- 
tion. May success crown your efforts is one of 
my wishes. J. Maurice Hatch, Escondido. CaL 

Your creditable magazine received, thanks. 

W. E. Webb, Albion, N. Y. 

Sample copy Avifauna to hand, am much 
pleased with same. D. M. AvERiLL, Portland, Or, 

Sunday morning August 31, 1895, I noticed a 
small group of white-throated Swifts flying 
due south over the city, undoubtedly migra- 
ting. 

O. W. Howard. 



24 



The Avifauna. 



The Mexican Raven on Catalina 
Island, 



N the very early part of the spring of 
1894, I had occasion to visit Santa Cat- 
alina Island. This island is about twenty- 
three miles long, with a trend nearly paral- 
lel to the coast, and is eight miles in its 
widest part; and lies twenty-seven miles 
south of San Pedro, the port of Los An- 
geles. 



making a drawing card for the summer 
sportsman. 

Few tree8,but many large bushes are found ; 
only the Cottonwood, willow, wild-cherry 
and perhaps an oak reach a size that war- 
rants them being called trees, and they are 
hidden in the narrow canyons, bushes, how- 
ever grow almost everywhere, but most lux- 
uriantly upon the northern exposures of the 
steep slopes, where they often seem to be too 
large for bushes. 




Two mountains form the island, which 
indeed comes near being two islands but for 
an isthmus only three-fourths of a mile 
wide and thirty feet above sea level, which 
joines them. The mountains reach a 
height of between 1,000 and 2,000 feet; 
their sides are broken by numerous canyons 
and gulches and the summits are often 
somewhat level or rolling. The canyons 
sometimes widen into small level parks, 
but ordinarily they are narrow and the 
sides are very steep, water being found on- 
ly in the larger ones. 

The island has for many years been in- 
}iabited by sheep and wild goats, the latter 



On landing the first thing I noticed, 
after viewing the little town of Avalon, the 
queen summer resort of the coast and which 
has many permanent residents, was the 
flock of what I at first thought to be Buz- 
zards circling high up back of the canyons. 

There were also a lot of Ravens around the 
town, which at first I thought were Crows, 
they were very tame and could be approach- 
ed within eight or ten yards unless you had 
a gun along, when they would keep out of 
range. 

Very early the next morning I was a- 
wakened by some loud cawing and a strange 
queer gurgling noise which I was at a loss 



The Avifauna. 



25 



for the cause, later in the day, on nearer ap- 
proach I found my very early risers to be 
nothing else but the Mexican Raven Corvus 
corax siriuatiis, and was told that the birds 
I saw circling high up in the air, were the 
same and not Buzzards as I at first supposed. 

I have never seen a Duzzard on the is- 
land but found the hawks and especialythe 
Red-tail quite plentiful, probably the 
Ravens have no use for them and keep 
them away. 

Leaving the island the same day I did 
not have occasion to visit it again until 
April 25 and then I put in a little time 
looking about The Ravens had just begun 
to pair off and were making it quite noisy 
with their loud (croaking) cawing; the 
smaller birds were also quite lively, espec- 
ially the mocking-bird which was then in 
full song and quite common. 

I had not up to this time, found out what 
that strange queer gurgling noise was, but 
one morning I saw a Raven on the hotel 
roof apparently in the act of vomiting, how- 
ever he was only commencing to make this 
queer noise which he kept up for five min- 
utes. 

The Raven and the corrmon Crow act 
about the same in their general habits but 
the depredation of the former on the young 
chickens of a resident of the town is be- 
coming a nuisance. I ask him to shoot me 
one on the morning I was to leave which he 
willingly did. He found the surest way to 
shoot them was to fasten a shot-gun to the 
fence, in such a way as to have it aimed at 
a spot where the Ravens generally alight 
and pull the trigger by means of a string 
which leads into the house. 

One afternoon I took a stroll up the can- 
on and seeing a wall of rocks at the head 
of a small canon and a noisy pair of Ravens 
flying about, which were continually after 
a red-tailed hawk whenever he came near. 
I thought there must surely be a nest near 
by; I had not proceeded very far before 
three nests were seen on shelves of rock; I 



hurridly went back of the rocks and climb- 
ed down from above only to find the first 
nest an old one and also the second but the 
third, which was rather dangerous to 
get at without a rope, contained three 
fresh eggs nearly hidden in the thick lining 
of sheep's wool: all this time the birds 
kept well away and only cawing at inter- 
vals, finally leaving. I could not reach 
the nest by four feet so I procured a stick 
forked at one end and tied a handkerchief 
at this end in such a way as to make a cup 
shaped scoop, with this I secured the eggs 
one at a time. The nest was similar to 
that of the Crow except larger, being made 
of coarse sticks and measuring twenty-two 
inches across, the cavity was five inches 
deep by a foot wide, and lined wholly with 
wool and that to spare. The eggs in color 
and markings, are similar to those of the 
Common American Crow, but in size are 
much larger, measuring 1.96 x 1.20, 2.02 x 
1.24, and 1.96 x 1.22. This being a very 
early nesting for them I did not find an- 
other set. 

I am told by persons familiar with the 
islands about here, that on San Clemente 
Island, which is twenty-six miles south 
of this island, the Ravens are quite com- 
mon, but breed high up on the chff"s in 
very inaccesible places, probably on ac- 
count of the depredations of the foxes 
which are quite numerous on both islands. 
I am also informed about the breeding of 
a few pair of bald-eagles and fish-hawks on 
these islands. I have noticed three nests 
and several of these birds on Catalina. but 
had no opportunity to collect their eggs. 
Otto J. Zahn. 



Mr. Joseph Grinnell reports that the Pine 
Siskin has not been observed about Pasadena 
since 1892. In that year these birds were 
quite common in the arroyos, in the willow and 
sycamore trees, they seemed to be feeding on 
seeds from the cathins and sycamore balls. A 
specimen of the Pine Siskin taken in 1892 by 
Mr. Grinnell w..s exhibited at one of the late 
meetings of the Annex. Mr. Judson reported 
seeing flooks of these birds in June 1894, while 
on a trip through Bear Valley. 



26 



The Avifauna. 



Mutton's Vireo in Los Angeles, Cal. 

{Vireo huttoni.) 



^T^His neat little Vireo is a common resident 
VS' of this locality; more common perhaps in 
the fall and winter than during the other 
seasons. Every arroyo, canon, and plot of oak 
woods in the immediate vicinity of Pasa- 
dena seems to have among its inhabitants 
a number of these birds, and at almost 
anj- time during the day they can be found 
among the thick branches of some tree 
quietly and contentedly searching for 
food. The}- live entirely on insects and 
insect larvae, judging from the contents 
of several stomachs examined during the 
past year; in no case was there any trace 
of vegetable matter in these stomachs. 

The separation of "V. huttoni" from 
the other VMreos of this vicinity is an 
easy matter; for of the four species found 
here the Hutton's is the only one having 
the under parts decidedly yellow. There 
is no difference in the plumage between 
the two sexes. The size is small, being 



March the more ambitious couples have laid 
their set of eggs. During the mating season 
two, or even three male birds follow one female 
and court her favors until she shows her prefer- 
ence. Some times two males become jealous of 
each other, but a little combat among the thick 
branches of an oak tree settles the supremacy 





NESTS OF HUnON"« VIREOS. 
less than five inches long. A male taken on 
March i6, 1895, shows the following measure- 
ments: length, 4.90 in.; stretch, 7.55 in.; wing, 
2.40 in.; tail, 2.00 in. 

Early in the spring this species begins to 
mate, and occasionally by the latter part of 



N!«r And I GGS OF HUTTONS VIREOS. 

of one, and the defeated suitor departs 
oseek the affections of another female. 
Soon after mating the new couple 
search through all the favorable local- 
ities for a nesting site, and eventually 
decide upon one suitable to their tastes. 
They will often tr\- several situations 
before settling their minds on the one 
where they complete the nest. While 
the nest is being cmstructed the male 
is constantly near the female uttering 
at intervals, a single low note. This 
note is uttered only when the female 
is within hearing, and after the eggs 
have been laid, when she is on the nest. 
N>th withstanding the abundance of 
the birds during the breeding season, 
very few nests are found by collectors; and he 
who is fortunate enough to collect a nice set, 
feels well paid for a long tramp and a diligent 
search. Even when 3-ou find a nest it is often 
quite another thing to collect it, especially 
when the birds have been cautious enouyh to 



The Avifauna. 



27 



build at the extremity of a slender cotton-wood 
limb near the top of a tall tree. 

The nest is generally situated in a tree from 
eight to thirty-five feet up. The oak is perhaps 
the kind of tree most frequently used; but 
alders, cotton-woods, and sycamores are not neg- 
lected. The composition of the nest is a sure 
means for the identification of it. The great 
quantities of a lichen, taken principally from 
the oak tree, used in the construction of the 
nest gives it an appearance which none of the 
nests of the other Vireos of this vicinity possess. 
Cotton, fur, cobwebs, and fine grass are among 
the other materials used in the building of the 
nest. 

The breeding season begins in the latter part 

of March and lasts through the spring months 

into the early part of July. April and May seem 

to be the favorite months. On March 25, 1892, 

I found a nest of Hutton's Vireo built near the 

extremity of an oak branch, eight feet up, C(jn- 

taining four fresh eggs. A set noted July 15, 

1894, also contained four fresh eggs, and the 

nest was built in an oak tree twelve feet up. 

These are the two extreme nesting dates that I 

have record of, while sets collected during the 

month of May and the first part of June show 

the average date. The usual number of eggs in 

a set is four; but three is very often a full set, 

and a set of five is very uncommon, in this 

locality at least. 

Horace A. Gavlord. 

A Sparrow in a Fly Wheel. 

A sparrow flew into the bar works factory at 
Anderson, Ind., and getting too near a small 
fly wheel, was sucked in, The men who noticed 
it thought the end had come for the sparrow, 
and did not shut down the machinery. They 
ran along till noon, four hours after the incid- 
ent, and then shut down. They had forgotten 
the bird, and were surprised to hear it chirp. 
They looked over to the pulley and the spar- 
row was perched on one of the inside braces. 
He seemed a little dazed, but a moment later 
jumped off his perch and flew away. The 
wheel made 31,000 revolutions in four hours and 
the bird was carried around over 73.8 miles. 

S. F. Bulletin. 



Bryant's Harsh Sparrow. 

{Ammodrainus sandwichensis bryantt.) 



JUDGING by the dearth of articles on 
the nesting of these birds, they would 
seem to be more rare than they really are. 

One reason for this is no doubt the com- 
paratively limited area in which they are to 
be found breeding. 

On June 28, 1891, while walking near the 
end of Market St., San Francisco, toward 
the ocean, I saw several of these birds 
perched around a marshy spot in a field 
which had very recenth^ been used as a 
cattle pasture. Thinking it might not be 
too late for a set of eggs, though they are 
generally said to nidify a month earlier. I 
began to look arotmd and very soon saw a 
bird flush from the grass in front of me. 
You can imagine my delight to find a nest 
containinv; three fresh and prettily marked 
eggs, having a light ground color blotched 
and spotted with reddish brown and lilac. 

The eggs and nest are before me as I 
write, the latter being composed of small dry 
grass slightly lined with finer grasses and is 
necessaril}' loose on account of the material 
but fairly thick. 

It was so placed in a depression in the 
ground that its top was even with the sur- 
face and being at the edge of a bunch of 
weeds was sheltered and protected by them. 

The measurment of the set are as follows: 
.77 X .59, .76 X 58, .73 X .58, inches, or 
19.63 X 15., 19.33 X 14.66, 18.5 X 14.66 
millimeters. 

The two smaller eggs are alike in having 
nearly the entire ground color covered with 
markings, while in the larger one much 
more ground color is exposed. It is of a 
slightly darker tint and the lilac markings 
are much more abundant. 

M. L. WiCHS, Jr., lyos Angeles. 

The subscription price of the Avifauna fur 
one year is |i. 00, low enough for anyone who 
takes pleasure in the study of Ornithology and 
Oolog5s — Its interesting, try it. 



28 



The Avifauna. 



A Trip along the North Shore of 
Lake Superior. 



I ANY interesting articles have been written 
upon the beauties of the Lake Superior reg- 
ion in general, and that Elysium of brook trout 
fishers, the ^' North Shore,'' in particular, but 
nearly all relate to the pleasures of the trip and the 
magnificent trout fishing indulged in along its dif- 
ferent water courses. The fact is there is little to 
attract an orinthologist and I have often noticed 
that once engaged in the excitement of landing 
speckled beauties, the enthusiastic anybody has an 
eye for little else, at least that was my experience. 
As the years rolled on, however, I began to look 
about and it was a red letter day in my orintholog- 
ical studies when in answer to an oft repeated croak 
I laid the rod aside and climbed a cliff over one 
hundred feet high to investigate a raven's nest; 
■ but I only reached the base of the stunted pine in 
which it was placed, for I recall how my enthusiasm 
gradually ebbed in contemplation of the trunk of 
that tree hanging out at an angle over the precipice, 
and it did not take long to convince myself that 
the few sturdy roots had a very insecure hold in 
the crevices, and the contents of that nest remain 
a mystery to this day. 

At the mouth of Cross River we called upon a 
fisherman who proved to be a better collector, for 
he had a pail nearly full of Merganser and Gulls- 
eggs, taken from a little rocky isle near by, and 
even with this well stocked larder he had feasted 
on fried eggs for a week back. 

About every half mile along the rocky shore one 
meets, in the right season, a pair of loons, and a 
close inspection of the little gaps in the shore line 
where short beaches of bright colored pebbles glis- 
ten in the sun, would be rewarded by the finding 
of their eggs, a find that always filled me with 
enough satisfafction to take the place of the great 
amount of breath expended in the blowing- of such 
magnificently large eggs. ' 

In running off" shore in the fast little steam craft 
often used in the trips, we occasionally came onto 
a pair far out in the lake directly ahead, and as we 
drew near they would dive and swim to one side; 
by changing the course of the craft in that direction 
it would sometimes happen that they would rise to 



the surface almost alongside the boat and be off" 
after a tremendous flapping and splashing about. 
I secured my first loon under these conditions. 
The next one, with the help of my brother, I se- 
cured in a little isle dotted bay on Isle Royal, by 
strategy. We were camped on one of the rocky 
islands and found the bay much frequented by 
loons which always kept just beyond shooting dis- 
tance, although their wind call or laugh came into 
camp at all hours of day and night. One morning 
we took a light boat and went further up the bay 
where they had not been disturbed. Seeing a pair 
opposite an island ahead we went through a chan- 
nel on the other side and when completely hid I 
landed and or&wled to the edge of the brush on the 
opposite side, my brother continuing on beyond 
the island with the boat just as though no stop had 
been made. The loons, however, were out from 
the island too far to be shot so he went on a dis- 
tance, then turned and came back outside of the 
pair far enough away to not scare them, but near 
enough to cause them to move a little towards the 
island. Travelling up and down, each time a little 
nearer, the loons were gradually driven close in to 
the island when from under cover I took a favor- 
able opportunity to shoot one. 

It was on this same trip that we stopped at a 
fisherman's hut and found the breasts ot several 
loons tacked to the shanty door drying, to be used, 
the fisherman explained, as lining for his snow 
packs next winter. Further enquiry elicited the 
fact that he caught from one to six every day dur- 
ing the early spring on his set lines. When the 
lake trout move towards the reefs to spawn, the 
fishermen use long lines anchored about a fathom 
below the surface. To these, at intervals, are at- 
tached shorter lines with hooks baited with large 
herring, and these attractively baited hooks not 
only catch the desired trout but are sure to take 
any loon unfortunate enough to notice them when 
diving for food. There is usually slack enough in 
the line to enable a bird so powerful to come to the 
surface where the fisherman finds him full of fight, 
but it is always one-sided for each boat carries a 
heavy club for this use alone. No use was ever 
made of these birds, except as noted above, and 
their carcasses were often noticed along the shore 
until a few years ago a taxidermist in one of the 



The Avifauna. 



29 



larger cities, hearing of these accidental catches, 
arranged with the fish packing company to pay 50 
cents each for them. The company notified the 
fishermen and over one hundred were sent in the 
first spring. We found these same fishermen vary- 
ing their diet by a free use of the eggs of the 
American Herring Gull gathered at Gull Rock, N. 
E. of Isle Royale. My first visit to Gull Rocks 
after a series of adult gulls, was in one of their sail 
boats. The three little isles designated as Gull 
Rocks were still surrounded by a barrier of honey- 
combed ice formed by the spray of wintry storms. 
A rope was tied about a great mass of it and a man 
left aboard to hold the craft away with an oar. 
While I busied myself getting specimens the other 
two men wandered over the island taking eggs 
from nests which contained but one or two, for the 
eggs were generally fresh where the whole com- 
pilement had not been laid. Taking off their coats 
and tying the ends of the sleeves with strings, 
these impromptu bags were soon filled with eggs 
and delivered aboard without accident. I found 
that it was the custom of every fishing hamlet on 
Isle Royale to gather three or. four hundred eggs 
each spring for home consumption. The birds 
enter only a mild protest to this arrangement for 
they continue to breed, about a thousand strong, 
fiTom year to year. 

The gulls, loons, a few ducks, crows and ravens 
are about the only conspicuous birds seen along 
the North shore in the spring. Of course there are 
many of the smaller varieties, but during migra- 
tion they either pass around the West end of the 
lake or tarry on the islands only long enough to 
rest after the weary flight over the open water, the 
chill air from over the icy waters driving them into 
warmer quarters further inland. 

One week's collecting at Duluth at the West end 
of the lake would produce better results during 
the seasons of migration than a month along shore 
further East. 

Frank S. Daggett, Pasadena, Cal. 



Report of the Annex Meeting, Sept. 30, 
1895. 



/^ HE regular monthly meeting of the Annex was 
^^ held at the Residence of Mr. W. B. Judson, at 
Highland Park, members present, five; visitors, 
five; lotal attendance, ten. 

An editorial, to be published in the October Nid- 
iologist prepared by H. R. Taylor, in regard to an 
article entitled, "Wholesale Frauds," published in 
the July Nidiologist, was read and accepted. 

The plan for the formation of the Bureau of Ex- 
change, discussed at previous meetings, was again 
discussed, and definate plans were formed for the 
organization of such a bureau. Every member of 
the Cooper Ornethological Club wishing to join 
this bureau, should send his list of specimens, 
(skins and eggs) to the following address; W. B. 
Judson, Highland Park, Cal. In exchanging 
through this bureau, all specimens must be sent 
"on approval" to insure an even exchange. 

An amendment to the By-Laws was proposed, 
concerning the change of the name of the Annex. 
A committee was appointed to draw up such an 
amendment or amendments and present the same 
in proper form at the next meeting. The Commit- 
tee consists of two members, Messrs. Judson and 
Gaylord and one advisor, Mr. W. H. Hoffman. 
The name of Mr. F. S. Daggett of Pasadena, Cal. 
was proposed for active membership and duly el- 
ected. Interesting papers were read; The Fly- 
catcher, F. B.Jewell; Hammonds Flycatcher, W. 
B. Judson; Representatives of the Family Tyran- 
nidae in Los Angeles Co., H. A. Gaylord; An In- 
land Rookery by Corydon Chamberlain. Twelve 
speeies of Flycatchers were exhibited all taken in 
Los Angeles Co., including a specimen of the 
King-bird, taken by W. B. Judson at Santa Monica 
Beach, Aug. 31, 1895. This is aparantly the only 
record of this bird being taken in California. The 
nest and eggs of Hammond's Flycatcher collected 
by Mr. Judson in Bear Valley were exhibited. 

The next meeting will be an outing, to be held 
on the last Saturday and Sunday in October, each 
person attending, must carry his own blankets and 
provisions, 

Horace A. Gaylord, Sec'y, 



« 1^^^ 



^ 



■^^ 



On account of lack of space, it was impossi- 
ble for us to insert several first class articles 
which will appear in our next issue — Readers 
watch for them. 



To advertise and get results 

Is to business people anoint. 
Place your " ad " in a lively sheet 

That reaches the classes — see the point ! 

— Printers Devil. 



30 



The Avifauna. 




AN ILLUSTRA TED . . . 

. . . MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

DEVOTED TO 

OOLOCY AND ORNITHOLOGY 

EDITED BY 
W. H. HOFFMAN. 



Original Contributions with or without illustrations of 

interest to the study of Birds, their Nests 

and Eggs are earnestly desired. 

Issued at Los Angeles, California. 

Onel'earinadrartcejpostpaid) One Dollar. 

Single Copies Ten Cents. 

ADVERTISING RATES: 

(^Terms Cash with Order.) 

1 page (outside) Each Insertion, $10.00 

Vi page ' ' ■ ' * ' 5-00 

1 page (inside) '' '' 8.00 

Vt page " " ' 4 00 

Perinch " " 100 

Special rates on time contracts. 



"Remittances should be made by Draft. Express or P. 

O Money Order. Registered Letter or Postal Note Unused 
Postage Stamps of > ny denomination will be accepted for 
sums under one dollar. Make Monev Order and Drafts 
payable and addiess alt subscriptions and communica- 
tions to W. H. HOFFMAN, 

544 South Main Street, 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



The complimentary notices we are receiving 
from many of our exchanges are indeed very en- 
couraging. 

* * 

* * * * 

We have just received the Autumn bargain 
list of Mr. Walter F. Webb of Albion, N. Y„ 
and in looking it over we are surprised at the 
bargains he is now offering. If you have not 
received one of his lists, we advise you to send 
for one. His prices on eggs and skins are un- 
usually low, to say nothing of quotations on 
other nature history specimens. 

* * * * 

One of our local collectors had occasion to go 
to Lordsburg (this county) recently and while 
there his attention was called by the rattling 
of a chain. On looking around he was surprised 
to see a young Golden Eagle, in good plumage, 
chained to a plank up between two eucalyptus 
trees and was told that it had been captured a 
few months before at the Bear Valley Dam by 
means of a lasso as it had not then learned, to 
fly well. 



Among the boys who have dropped in during 
the past few days we are pleased to mention 
Mr. W. S. Cobleigh, formerly of Peoria 111. Mr. 
C. is an ornithologist of the true type and has 
promised that the readers of the Avifauna 
shall ere long have the benefit of some of his 
most interesting experiences. We are glad to 
say Mr. Cobleigh has decided to make the home 
of the Avifauna also his own; we congratulate 
the ornithologists of Southern California in 
this worthy addition to their ranks. 

Mr. Frank S. Daggett of Pasadena also favored 
the Avifauna with a call. During the short 
time Bro. D. has resided in Southern Califonia, 
he has made considerable additions to his al- 
ready large collection of western skins. 

Mr. A. M. Ingersoll of San Diego, was also a 
recent visitor, but we regret very much b^ing 
absent at the time. Mr. I. is an enthusiastic 
ornithologist and was one of the first to send 
in his dollar for the Avif.\una. We sincerely 
hope he will again favor us with a visit and 
shall endeavor to be at home next time. 



GAME BIRDS AT HOME. 
Theodore S. Van Dyke has an established 
reputation as an authority on sports in Calif- 
ornia, so his "Game Birds at Home" may be 
taken on trust by any one who sees his name 
on the title page. This book is madeupof rem- 
iniscenses of hunting well-known game birds, 
with many useful hints to the inexperienced. 
A good specimen of Mr. Van D3ke's style may 
be seen in the chapter on "The Quails of Calif- 
ornia." It shows the difficulties of the sport 
and at the same time it is saturated with that 
love and appreciation of nature which ths au- 
thor justly says forms half the pleasure of hunt- 
ing with genuine sportsmen. The book will 
please any lover of sports, but the general reader 
will find it entertaining, for there is no dullness 
in the style, and even the tyro may see that the 
author is a master of his craft. 



The Avifauna has been added to the number 
of magazines published in Los Angeles. It is 
an ornithological monthly, well-printed and 
prettily illustrated. W. H. Hoffman, is the ed- 
itor and publisher. — L. A. Times. 

The latest aspirant in the field of ornithology 
is the Avifauna, published monthly at Los 
Angeles, Cal. If future numbers are as good 
as the Sept. No. i, Vol. i number is, its success 
is assured. — The Oregon Naturalits. 



The Avifauna. 



31 



We have awarded a set of two eggs of the Golden 
Eagle to Mr. W. S. Cobleigh, who won first prize 
in the subscription contest. The second prize goes 
to Mr. R. Vincent, the third to Mr Horace A. Gay- 
lord and the fourth to Mr. O. W. Howard. 

* * ■:;- -;:- 

The Avifauna desires to extend thanks to Mr, 
G. Frean Morcom for interesting notes and photo 
of Condor ; also to Mr. M L Wicks, Jr., for valu- 
able information and field notes, and to Mr. O. W. 
Howard and several nienileis of the Annex for 
valuable and much appreciated a.ssistance in mak- 
ing this number what we modestly believe it to be 
an Ai edition of neaty ornithological matter. 

■X- * * * 

* * 

The Avifauna is much flattered that its esteemed 
contemporary '■'• Sports Afield'' has shown its ap- 
preciation of our first number by inserting in its 
October issue adoptations from several of our best 
articles, some mere extracts, others reproduced 
bodily. As above stated we were much flattered 
thereat, but would respectfully inform our e. c. 
that we would be still more flattered if due credit 
be given us in case " Sports Afield'" sees fit in the 
future to make further extracts from the columns 
of Avifauna. 

* * * * 

* * 

The California bluejay, that beautiful bird of 
gaudy plumage, will soon have its death-knell pro- 
nounced. The bluejay is a predatory bird that 
diligently and constanth- searches for the nests of 
other birds and eats the eggs contained therein. 
This is exceedingly discouraging to birds that are 
laying, and quail are particularly aff"ected by it. 

The consequence is that a raid will soon be^ 
commenced on bluejays with the hope of exter- 
minating them. The Olympia Gun Club hopes to 
secure the co-operation of all the sportsmen in the 
State in this matter. The idea is to appoint some 
one particular day, to be called "Jay Day," when 
€very one who has a shotgun will sally forth to 
shoot bluejays. 



Extracts from the Fish and Game Laws 
of the State of California. 

Seventh Edition, 1895. 



In and around the port of Ensenada, Lower Cali- 
fornia, pelicans are more plentiful than at any 
point on this coast , It is estimated that fully ten 
thousand of these birds can be seen at any time 
from the Ensenada pier, all of them soaring above 
the sea looking or diving for fish. Hundreds of 
these birds constantly plunge beneath the waves, 
seizing fish, and the surface of the ocean is dotted 
with the splashes of these bird-plungers. They 
are among the most expert fishers of the bird king- 
dom, and at the single port of Ensenada they 
probably capture thousands of pounds of fish 
•daily. — L. A. Times. 



Killing, etc,, Birds in Cemeteries. 

598. Every person who, within any public 
cemetery or burying ground, kills, wounds, or 
traps any bird, or destroys any bird's nest, other 
than swallows' nests, or removes any eggs or 
young birds from any nest, is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor. 

Valley Quail, Bob-White, Partridge, Robin, 
Wild Duck or Rail. 

626. Every person who, in the State of Cali- 
fornia, between the fifteenth day of February 
and the fifteenth day of October in each 5'ear, 
shall hunt, pursue, take, kill or destroy, or have 
in his possession, whether taken in the State of 
California or shipped into the State from any 
other State, Territory, or foreign country, except 
for purposes of propagation, any valley quail, 
bob-white, partridge, robin, or any kind of wild 
duck, or rail, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor; 
provided^ that the right to have in possession 
for the purposes of propagation shall first be 
obtained, by permit, in writing, from the Game 
Warden of the county wherein said birds are to 
be caught. 

riountain Quail or Grouse. 

626a. Every person who, in the State of Cali- 
fornia, between the fifteenth day of February 
and the fifteenth day of August in each year, 
shall hunt, pursue, take, kill or destroy, or have 
in his possession, whether taken or killed in 
the State of California or shipped into the State 
from any other State, Territory, or foreign 
country, except for purposes of propagation, any 
mountain quail or grouse, shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor; provided, that the right to have 
in possession for the purposes of propagation 
shall first be obtained; by permit, in writing, 
from the Game Warden of the county wherein 
said birds are to be caught. Every person who, 
in the State of California, shall take, gather, or 
destroy the eggs of any quail, bob-white, part- 
ridge, pheasant, grouse, dove, or robin, or any- 
kind of wild duck, shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor. 

Doves. 

626^. Every person who, in the State of Cali- 
fornia, between the fifteenth day of February 
aud the first day of July in each year shall hunt, 
pursue, take, kill, or destroy, or have in his pos- 
sessihn any dove or doves, shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor. 



32 



The Avifauna. 



Pheasants. 

626^. Every person who, in the State of Cali- 
fornia, shall, within three years next after the 
passage of this Act, hunt, pursue, take, kill, or 
destroy, or have in his possessiqn, except for the 
purposes of propagation, any ptieasant, shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Cold-storage, Hotel Keeper, ilarketman, etc. 

626^. Every cold-storage company, person 
keeping a cold-storage warehouse, tavern or 
hotel keeper, restaurant or eatiag-house keeper, 
marketman, or other person, who shall buy, sell, 
expose, or ofifer for sale, or give away, or have in 
his possession, ill this State, any quail, bob- 
white, partridge, pheasant, grouse, dove, or wild 
duck, during the time it shall be unlawful to 
kill stich birds, whether taken or killed in the 
State of California, or shipped into the State 
from any other State or Territory, or foreign 
country, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Sale of Game. 

626/'. Every cold-storage company, and every 
person keeping a cold-storage warehouse, tavern, 
hotel, restaurant, or eating house, and every 
marketman or other person, who shall buy, sell 
expose or offer for sale, in this State, any quail, 
bob-white, partridge, grouse, dove, or wild duck, 
whether taken or killed in the State of Cali- 
fornia, or shipped into the State from any other 
State, Territory, or foreign country, except 
between the fifteenth day of November and the 
fifteenth day of January- of the following year, 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Caliber of Shotguns. 

627. Every person who shall use a shotgun of 
■a larger caliber than that commonly known and 
designated as a number ten gauge, shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor. The proof of the pos- 
session of said gun in the field, on marsh, bay, 
lake, or stream, shall he prima facte evidence of 
its illegal use. 

Song Birds. 

627^. Every person who, in the State of Cal- 
ifornia, shall at any time hunt, shoot, shoot at, 
take, kill, or destroy, buy, sell, give away, or 
have in his possession, except for the purpose 
of propagation or for educational or scientific 
purposes, any English skylark, canary, Calif- 
ornia oriole, humming-bird, throush or mocking 
bird, or any part of the skin, skins, or plumage 
thereof, or who shall rob the nests, or take or 
destroy the 6ggs of any of the said birds, shall 
be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Trapping Quail, Partridge, and Grouse. 

631. Every person who shall at any time net 
or pound, cage, or trap any quail, partridge, or 



grouse, and every person who shall sell, trans- 
port, or give away, or offer or expose for sale, or 
have in his possession any quail, partridge, 
or grouse that has been snared, captured, or 
taken by means of any net or pound, cage or 
trap, whether taken in the State of California 
or shipped into the State from any other State, 
Territory, or foreign country, is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor; provided, the same may be taken for 
the purposes of propagation, written permission 
having been first obtained from the Game War- 
den of the county wherein said birds are to be 
taken. Proof of possession of any quail, par- 
tridge or grouse which shall not show evidence 
of having been taken by means other than a 
net or pound, shall be prima facie evidence in 
any prosecution for violation of the provisions 
of this section that the person in whose posses- 
sion such quail, partridge or grouse is found 
took, killed, or destroyed the seme by means of 
net or pound. 

Acts of the Legislature relating to Dif- 
ferent Kinds of Birds Not Spec- 
ified in the Penal Code. 
nocking=Blrds. 

■ An Act to prevent the capture and destruction of 
mocking-birds in this State. 

[Approved Feb'y 14, 1872; Stats. 187 1-2, p. 102.] 
Section i. Any person or persons who shall 
willfully and knowingly shoot, wound, trap, 
snare, or in any other manner catch or capture 
any mocking-bird in the State of California, or 
shall knowingly take, injure, or destroy the 
nest of any mocking-bird, or shall take, injure, 
or destroy any mocking-bird's eggs, in the nest 
or otherwise, in this State, shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof before any Justice of the Peace of the 
township in which the offence shall be com- 
mitted, shall be fined in the sum not less than 
five dollars nor exceeding ten dollars, and the 
cost of the action, for each offence, or may be 
imprisoned not less than five days nor more 
than ten days, or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment, as the judgement of the Court maj' 
direct. 

Sec. 2. All fines collected under the provis- 
ions of this Act shall be paid into the County 
Treasury for the benefit of the Common School 
Fund. 

Sec. 3. This Act shall take effect and be in 
force from and after its passage. 



The Avifauna. 




The Avifauna. 



Blancliard-FllzQerald Music 60. 

113 S. Spring St., Los Angeles. 

^EVERY THING IN MUSICS 

Publishers "Our Italy" So. California. March. 
Just issued. Send one to your best girl. By mail, 
postpaid, 60c. 

TAXIDERHIST'S GUNS 

Shot Guns, Revolvers, Rifles, Etc., Seins, Nets, 

Fish and Animal Traps and Sporting Goods 

of every description at very lowest prices. 

We have something of interest to you. 

Send Stamp for Catalogue, to 

H. SLOTTERBECK, 

21 I N. MAIN STREET, L08 ANQELE8. Cal. 



Have Your 



Half Tones and 

Zinc Etchings 



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MADE BY THE 



Western Empire Pub. Co. 

500 New High St. Los Angeles. 

o 

H High Grade Work 

Prices Reasonable 
Plates Delivered 

When Promised 
Proof Submitted for O. K. 




TflXIbERniST ^ NflTURflLIJT 



. . . AND DEALER IN . . . 

SHELLS, MINERALS AND CALIFORNIA CURIOS. 

Sliells Brounil and Polislieil. Bird & Animal Eyes for Sale. 

820 SOUTH BROADWAY, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

^11 for $1.00 Bill.... 

IT'S A SNAP? AINT IT? 

The following 4 sets and one full year's subscrip- 
tion to "The Museum" for above. 

Chachalaca, '/j - - .75 

White Wing Dove, J4 .40 

White Ibis, l4 ,75 

Dwarf Cowbird, i-i .10 

$2. GO 

Order at once and we promise yon will be satisfied. What 
we say we do we do do. .\ddreH8, 

WALTER F. WEBB, Albion, N. Y. 



f^UPPER STflflFS TO ORDER 

JAS. F. BYRAM & CO., 

230h South Spring Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Y'OUl* FvG ...i^o ii^O"-'" You... 

The Pennsylvania Philatelist is the largest and 

best Stamp Magazine published in the World. 

Subscription, - - - 50 Cents a year. 

Advertising, - - - 50c. per inch. 

Address C. W. KISSENGER, 
Box 368. READING, PA. 

.Send tor my Wholesale Prices 

on mounted Tarantulas, Horned 
Toads, Scorpions and Trap-Door 
^"iu'Vr'il "'''''' '"ilil''i^ Spiders. Best Work and Lowest 
VV '' Wjffl P"*'®^- ^'otiash. ri Specimen Col- 
'ilfi'l I.'tIWII lections consisting of HoamedToad, 
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\JW^ Trap-Door Spider, on cards 10x12 
inehe- ai^d bi .-.Li for only $12 per 
doz. Very fast sellers. 

Trap-door Spider NESTS in the 
rough and also neatly put up in 
Redwood Pails. 

I make a specialty of Pincushions 
from Yucca Palm or Spanish Bayo- 
net. G. W TUTTLE. 
Pasadena, • - California. 



$1.00 W""^" Of Specimens Fr66. 

/^ • • " 

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a premium with ever}- jearly sub- 
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♦•^^ $ 1 WORTH OF BIRb'5 EQ^S 

Your selection at the Catalogue rates 
of any reliable dealer. 

theNatcjkali5Tah± Collector 





* 



^ 



Is a 32-page Monthly Journal devoted to the 
study of Ornithology, Oology, Etc. It is well 
printed on good book paper and is profusely 
illustrated. Free exchange column Take 
it together with the " Avif.\dna " and you 
h ave the two best journals in America, cover- ^^- 
ing the whole U. S. 
The Subscription price is only 7.5 cents. 

.\ddress, Shoop Publishing Co., 

ABINOPON. ILL. 

E. L. LOVEJOY, 

lannfacmrer ofABALOME SHELL, CATS' EYES & spar jewelry. 

A beautiful Collection of California Coast Shells, securely 
sealed in Glass Paper Weight: a useful article sent by 
mail for 60c in stamps. Ro'led Plate Gold Wire Name 
Pin only 25 cents, post paid. 

307 SOUTH 5PRING STREET, LOS ANGELES, CaL 



The Avifauna. 



EQQ5 ffT PED ROCK PRICEJ. 



W 




E have more eggs than we know what to do with, so have decided 
to get rid of some of them. Our very liberal offer on back cover 
of September Avifauna was heartily appreciated, counting from 
the number of subscriptions that came in. 

Below will be found a list, at prices we are now selling 
them. 






THE ENTIRE LOT POST PAID FOR $i.oo, or 



:With The AVIFAUNA one Year, $i.^o. 



m 



If you do not care for the entire lot you can order 
with each new subscriber 50 cents worth. That is 50 r^^'^^ 
cents worth of Eggs from this list and The Avifauna ^^^^ 
One Year for only One Dollar. 






51« American Herring Gull .. .10 

74 Eeast Teru 04 

118 Anhinga 13 

197 Snowy Heron, .08 

200 Little Blue Heron 06 

201 Green Heron 06 

202 Black-crowned Night Heron .06 

218 Purple Gallinule 13 

385 Road-runner 13 



529« Western Goldfinch 05 

552« Western Lark Sparrow 03 

5SU Heermann's Song Sparrow .05 

591^ California Towhee 05 

596 Black-headed Grosbeak 08 

612 Cliff Swallow 02 

QSSci Long-tailed Chat 08 

743« California Bush Tit 08 



.23 



THE AVIFAUNA, 

544 S. Main St , Los Angeles, Cal. 




Press of L, HtiRZO&, Los Angeles, 




vol.. I 



SANTA BARBARA, CAL., SEPTEMBER, 1897. 



NO. 3 



The Avifauna. 



CONTENTS 



I'oitran or hem )■ »^.iuipiiiaii rord ^; 

Henry Chapman Ford, — Juliette Estelle Mathis :;4 

The Golden Eagle ^illustrated), C. Barlow 7,4 

\ .<unner and Snake (illustrated), T. S. Van Dyke ^6 

File V\ lute Eyed Vireo (illustrated), P. Wilbur Shoap 

N, W. Canada Notes,— G. F. Dippie 39 

Bird Industry (illustrated). F. S 40 

Notes on the Mocking Bird,— P. L. Hatch, M. D 41 

The Burrowing Owl, — Prof. H. C. Ford 42 

Sparrow Hawk V. Cooper's Hawk, — VV. t. Rotzell, M. D 45 

Editorial ; 46 

<'^"'1ecting Under Difficulties, — D. A r,.; ^^n 47 



CORBETT AND 
FiTZSIMMONS. 



have met, fought and parted. V\ r uicci >hh Lj,iij'c-t)t<ji>. and 
give 'em " fitz " just now^ in the way of 



WHEELS 



There is always a leader among bicycle stores. You know if 
you come here for a wheel, you will get value for your money. 
We are the leaders. Second hand wheels from S5 up. Rent- 
ing at popular prices. 



Southern Mill and Warehouse Company, 



Lower Hawley Block. 



Library Books 

All books upon the County Catalogue for school libraries, 
as we'l as those in the State Catalogue for the same can he 
' "■■ short notice at 

FiSKE & Johnston's 

707STATK ..,.,..., 

A full line of natural Ijistory works in stock. 



Santa Barbara, Cal. 



C. C. HUNT, 
Real Estate, Insurance and General Easiness Agent 



Lands subdivided; exchanges perfected: houses rented, 
furnished or unfurnished: loans negotiated: business op- 
portunities secured; taxes paid. etc. 

1204 State St., Hawley Bldg. Santa Barbara. Cal. 




Vol. I, No. 3. 



Santa Barbara Cal., September, 1897. 



ONE D3LLAR 
A VeAR. 




HENRY CHAPHAN FORD. 



34 



The Avifauna. 



Henry Chapman Ford. 

Artist, Traveler, Patriot, Soldier and Nat- 
uralist. 



^HE remarkable subject of this sketch 
was all this and more, for in addition 
to his scholarly acquirements, he possessed 
a personality of exquisite refinement and a 
gentle reserve that vaunted upon no occas- 
ion whatsoever, although he was an accept- 
ed authority on special lines. Mr. Ford 
was born at Livonia, N. Y., in the year 
1828. When quite young he decided to 
pursue art as a profession and spent several 
years in Europe, studying principally in 
the cities of Florence and Paris. He re- 
turned to the United States at the com- 
mencement of the civil war and enlisted in 
the army in 1861. Of delicate phj^sique 
naturall}', his service was consequently 
limited, and in one year he was discharged 
on account of physical disability. He 
opened a study in Chicago, Ills., and here 
the sketches made in the South became 
valuable capital. He was the pioneer 
landscape artist of that city and was one of 
the charter members of its Academy of 
Design, filling the president's chair for 
several years. For sketching purposes he 
toured the picturesque portions of the 
northern, southern and middle states. He 
visited the Rocky Mountains, accompanied 
by his wife and two other artists, in 1866, 
and spent the summer in the then wilder- 
ness of Colorado scenery, through which 
no railroad had as yet made travel easy. 
In 1874 a failure of health necessitated an 
absolute change of climate which resulted 
in his removal to Southern California, and 
locating permanently at the little seaside 
city of Santa Barbara. Nearly every sum- 
mer season was spent in camp, either in the 
Yosemite valley or among the old Francis- 
can Missions throughout the state, of which 
he made a complete set of etchings and 
painted many beautiful pictures in oil. As 
a naturalist Mr. Ford occupied a prominent 



position in Southern California. For many 
years he was president of the Santa Barbara 
Society of Natural History and always an 
active member of the Horticultural Society 
of that county. On his beautiful country 
seat in the rural suburb of Carpinteria he 
gratified his fine botanical tastes to the 
lasting benefit of the community. Here he 
devoted time and space to the cultivation 
of rare flowers, importing many trees and 
shrubs that were strangers in the valley. 
Mr. Ford was an especial lover of birds and 
the writer remembers with delight an in- 
finitesimal owl that was domiciled and 
thoroughly domesticated in one of the 
deep-seated windows of his studio. His 
lamented death occurred February 27, 1894, 
leaving a vacancy in hearts and places no 
other man can fill. 

Juliette Estelle Mathis. 

-*- — '. i ='>?.'3<" i '. — ►^>- 

The Golden Eagle. 

Aquila Chrysaetos. 

THIS magnificent "king of the air" has 
received considerable attention at the 
hands of our ornithological writers, and it 
is with no idea of adding any remarkable 
facts to its life history that this article is 
presented. In Santa Clara county the 
Golden Eagle is perhaps as abundant as in 
any other portion of the world, from which 
it is not to be inferred that it is a common 
bird for he may well count himself fortunate 
who has stormed the stronghold of Aquila 
and borne away her treasures to his cabi- 
net. The eagle inhabits both the moun- 
tainous and valley regions, showing little 
preference so long as its food is abundant. 
They are resident, usually remaining 
throughout the year near the locality in 
which they are accustomed to nest. During 
the winter months and in the spring they 
may at times be observed soaring idly and 
most gracefully over the deep ravines in the 
mountains. By a series of circlings they 
rise from the bottom of a canon to far above 



The Avifauna. 



35 



its summit with the utmost ease. 

The Golden Eagle associates with the 
Western Redtail to a greater or less degree 
while soaring about in air but is easily 
recognizable by its plumage and superior 
size. The nesting sites of this eagle vary 
according to surroundings. I have never 
seen a nest placed elsewhere than in a tree, 
though I am informed that a few pair nest 
on clififs in the region south of this county. 
In the mountains, pines are frequently 
selected and sycamores share the honors as 



and all were so situated in the trees that 
they afforded a view of the canon, doubtless 
a precaution on the part of the builders. 
The nests are composed chiefly of sticks 
and twigs of varying sizes, forming a com- 
pact mass. In the center of the nest a 
slight depression is lined with grass, stubble 
and various other materials. 

The accompanying illustration is of a 
nest in a white pine on the side of a ravine, 
and is difficult of approach, owing to the 
steepness of the cafion. The nest which is 




Eggs and Nest of Golden Eagle. 



^well. During the spring months the nests 
-may usually be seen at a distance owing to 
the sparing foliage of the pine and the bare- 
ness of the sycamores. Live-oaks are 
chiefly used in the valley regions, the dense 
foliage affording a hiding place for the nest. 
Ordinarily the nest of this eagle is easily 
told from that of the Western Redtailed 
Hawk, owing to its greater size and flatness 
of construction, though there are rare 
exceptions to this rule. I have examined 
several nests placed on the sides of gulches 



an average one is placed 75 feet up, near 
the top, and the tree being two feet across 
at its base and partially dead presents a 
formidable appearance to one who reaches 
it and gazes at the nest so far above. Near 
by is a waterfall, which lends to the en- 
chantment of the cafion. A set of two 
eggs was taken from this nest February 29, 
1892, and were slightly incubated. The 
nest has not since been used by the birds. 
The usual nesting time seems to vary from 
February 25th to the middle of March for 



36 



The Avifauna, 



fresh eggs, though it may be later in a 
particularly wet and cold season. 

March 31st of this year I took a set of 
two eggs from a nest in a live oak 35 feet 
up. The nest was about 4 feet across and 
2 feet deep, being composed of oak limbs 
and twigs of varying sizes. The nest was 
lined with dry stubble and grass, and con- 
tained by way of ornament a soap-root and 
a mullein leaf. The nest was very sub- 
stantially built and one could walk around 
in it without fear. One egg of this set was 
normal in size and appearance while its 
mate was elongated, and not unlike a buz- 
zard's egg in shape, though proportionately 
larger. This latter egg was infertile; the 
other being advanced in incubation. 
Neither of the eagles made their appearance 
during my visit, but doubtless returned 
later to discover their loss. 

Average set of two egge of the Golden 
Eagle measure 3x2.25 and 3x2,12 inches 
respectively. Sets of three eggs must be 
considered as uncommon, and are only 
occasionally taken. Throughout Santa 
Clara County are numerous old ornithologi- 
cal landmarks in the shape of abandoned 
eagles' nests. Some remain intact as yet 
and are drifted full of dead leaves, offering 
perhaps a nesting site to some stray di^do, 
while the wrecks of others are marked only 
by a ragged mass of dead sticks; the 
weather-beaten and deserted castles of some 
eagles of the past. C. Barlow. 

Santa Clara, Cal. 

— ■§— f<- — • 



The Road Runner and Snake. 



-u^. 



THE Road Runner, Chapparal Cock, or 
Paisano as it is called by the old Span- 
ish residents, was once one of the most 
common sights in the lowlands of California, 
but is now becoming very rare. This is 
because of the stupidity of tourists who 
want to murder everything new and the 
cruelty of many who call themselves sports- 
men, but whose only claim to the name is 



the possession of a fine gun. With this 
they start out to murder everything of any 
size that can fly or run and this harmless 
and useful bird is one of their favorite 
victims. 

Probably nothing in boiler-plate science 
is now so firmly established as the idea that 
this bird kills rattlesnakes by putting balls 
of cactus in the coil of the snake, upon 
which the snake strikes at it, hits himself, 
and dies of his own poison. One of the 
last acts of Prof. Spencer Baird was to des- 
cribe this in an article in Harper's Maga- 
zine, called "Our Guardian Birds," as an 
actual fact, and the funny part of it was 
that the artist — probably under his direction 
— put the lobes of the prickly pear in the 
bird's mouth. If the bird did such a thing 
at all it would be with the balls of the 
cholla cactus that are shed freely by the 
plant and lie in plenty upon the ground, 
remaining for a long time with spines as 
strong and sharp as ever. But the lobes of 
the prickly pear are not shed until the plant 
has passed the stage of ability to injure, 
anything. Lobes as fresh and stiff as are 
represented in that picture could only be 
torn from the plant by an ostrich and he 
would want to sublet the job after the first 
trial. The dear public does not want truth 
in natural history. It wants something 
astonishing. Truth is too tame. Probably 
not a paper in the United States would pub- 
lish a refutation of this old story, but a 
rehash of it with a spice of big adjectives 
would make a boiler-plate round of the 
world. , 

The old story of raccoons catching crabs 
with their tails is far more probable than 
this for it contains nothing contradictory 
to known facts. Crabs might take hold of 
a tail as well as of a piece of meat on a 
string and the tail might be twitched quickly 
enough to land the crab on the bank within 
reach of the coon's claws before it could 
get back to the water. But the snake story 
is contradictory to several well known facts. 



The Avifauna. 



37 



H 



o 

A 

S 

n 



C/5 

o 
c 

sr 




;^*iZJ 



First the rat'aesnake lives in cacti of all 
kinds and especialh' in the cholla. It 
crawls over, under and through piles of the 
balls as readily as among leaves, and is 



perfectly at home in the thickest mass of 
them. This is not as surprising as it is to 
see quails run or fly in or out of -it at full 
speed, run over the limbs and roost in it, 



38 



The Avifauna. 



flying into it in a large mass when it is 
apparently too dark to see a spine. The 
cottontail, the rat, kangaroo mouse, and 
several other animals and birds care no 
more for it than for so much swan's down. 
Why then should the snake, with a far 
tougher skin, care for it, or care for it when 
in coil any more than when out of coil ? 
The other form of the story, that the bird 
builds a barrier of it, fences in the snake 
and picks him to death, is still more absurd. 
I have seen snakes climb more cacti than 
a road runner would heap up in half a da3\ 
A cottontail would prefer it to open ground. 

Secondly I doubt if the snake ever strikes 
itself with the poison fangs. I have often 
seen rattlesnakes and copper-heads bite 
themselves when wounded or even when 
tantalized with a stick, and have often 
made the rattlesnake of this country do it. 
But it is with the teeth and not the fangs. 
They grab with the jaws instead of striking 
as they do at the thing that is troubling 
them. I have played with scores of snakes 
and made them do this many times and it 
is always the same biting or grabbing 
movement and not striking. 

Thirdly it is very doubtful if the poison 
of a snake will injure it even in a iarge 
vein. The experiments of Dr. Weir Mitch- 
ell show positively that it will not . I know 
men who ought to be good observers and 
who were not writing for the great Ameri- 
can Educator — boiler-plate — who say they 
have seen a snake die from its own stroke. 
But Dr. Mitchell has innoculated snakes 
with their own poison so often that I prefer 
his word to that of anyone else. That 
reputable men should say they have seen it 
is not strange. Many now living can re- 
member, as I can, reputable men saying 
they had seen birds fall from the telegraph 
wire when the dispatch went through. 
They had seen dead birds on the ground 
that had flown against it, in the early days 
of the telegraph the shock was supposed 
deadly to small things, and from these two 
facts it was easy to convince fancy that it 
had seen them drop. T. S. Van Dyke. 



The White=eyed Vireo. 

Viy^o Noveboracensis. 

TTHE sprightly little White eyed Vireo is 
an abundant species wherever suitable 
localities are found. It is not very choice 
in regard to its habitation, for every bushy 
swamp, blackberry patch or hazel thicket is 
found to contain man}' of them. It seems 
desirous that all .should know of its pres- 
ence, for it continuously utters its song — if 
such it can be called — which is remarkable 
both for oddity and its great strength, 




Nest and Eggs of White Throated Vireo. 

which makes it appear entirely out of pro- 
portion to the bird which produces it. 

It does not show that fear of mankind 
which is almost universal among the bird 
family, but on the approach of one, it ad- 
vances and meets him half way, where 
very marked curiosity is exhibited. When 
they have a nest this lack of suspicion 
vanishes and the bird is ever on the alert. 

When near their nest, great uneasiness is 
expressed, and should one venture too near 
he will be greeted hj a torrent of scolding 
and abuse, which if it could be translated 
into English, judging from the emphatic 



The Avifauna. 



39 



way in which it is uttered, would be more 
forcible than elegant. 

Few birds are capable of constructing a 
more beautiful nest. In a forked branch of 
the hazel bush it collects a mass of odd 
materials and weav^es, or rather glues, them 
into a cup-shaped structure. Straws, mos- 
ses, lichens, grass blades, bits of decayed 
wood, bits of spider webs and various vege- 
table fibres are curiously intermingled. In 
this beautiful nest, which is rather large for 
the size of the bird, five eggs are deposited 
by the parent bird. They are of a clear, 
crystal white ground and are spotted about 
the larger end with fine, dark purple and 
reddish brown spots. Their average size 
is about .60X.70. 



N. W. Canada Notes. 




The White Eyed Vireo. 

It has two distinct white bands on the 
wings. The lores are dusky and bordered 
above by a yellow streak with a white 
orbital ring. The upper parts are olive 
green, with the nape usually of an ashy 
color. The lower parts are white and the 
sides greenish yellow. In the adult the iris 
is white. 

Its unpronounceable name of Vireo Nove- 
boracensis, with which scientists have bur- 
dened it, does not seem to bother it in the 
least, but it is ever the same joyous, light- 
hearted bird, which has earned for it its 
place in the hearts of all observers. 

P. Wilbur Shoap. 

Abingdon, 111. 



TTHE American Hawk Owl undoubtedly 
breeds in Alberta. On June 28th a 
friend shot a female near Red Deer, with 
the belly bare of feathers and the skin of a 
glutinous nature, proving that the bird had 
been nesting. On July ist, when driving 
from Red Deer to the Blindman River I 
saw two Hawk Owls, but unfortunately my 
gun had been sent on ahead of me and I 
was not able to secure them. They were 
tame and allowed us to drive within easy 
gunshot several times. 

The American Goshawk breeds in the 
Red Deer region. My friend found a nest 
containing four nearh' fledged young on 
June loth at Snake Lake. 

The Prairie Falcon breeds in suitable 
localities throughout Alberta; I collected 
two specimens, both females. One day 
earl}' in August I saw one of the above 
birds dash at a fowl on the main street of 
Calgary, and although it made the feathers 
fly, it did not succeed in carrying off the 
bird. 

I had the good fortune to take the nest 
of Richardson's Merlin on this trip; on July 
2ist I found a nest containing five downy 
young, which I secured along with the 
lemale. On May i8th my friend took a 
beautiful set of five eggs near Calgary, the 
male was shot and the identity established 
without a doubt. For a full account of 
these two nests see the ' ' Oologist ' ' for 
Sept., 1895. 

Clark's Crow breeds in the foothills west 
of Calgary. The local taxidermist at Cal- 
gary told me of a nest he found in May, 
situated in a thick pine tree; both birds 
were seen around the nest but he, to quote 
his own words, ''didnt trouble to climb up to 
the nest as Jie thought the eggs were no use.'' 
Ignorance is bliss indeed ! 

Richardson's Grouse, (Dabscurus Rich- 
ardsoni,) breeds in the foothills west of 
Calgary; on Aug. 3d I shot a female and a 



40 



The Avifauna. 



fully-fledged young male out of a brood. 
Franklin's Grouse are also found in the 
mountains; they are commonly called "Fool 
Hens ' ' ; both species inhabit very rough 
country and the collector who goes in 
search of them must make up his mind to 
do some pretty hard work. 

The Bohemian Wax Ring breeds in the 
mountains. On Aug. 12th, I saw a flock 
of five at Banff, unfortunately I had no gun, 
but I had a good view of them as they sat 
on the top of a small pine tree. 

The White-^tailed Ptarmigan is said to 
breed on the mountains around Banff, in 
the winter they descend into the valleys 
and the foothills, particularly if the weather 
is severe, but in summer are only found 
above timber line. I am (probably like 
many more ambitious oologists) contem- 
plating a trip after their eggs in the near 
future. 

On August 4th, I shot a female Am. 
Three-toe Woodpecker {P. Aniericaniis) in 
the hills west of Calgary, and have every 
reason to believe they breed there. 

The Solitary Sandpiper breeds in the 
vicinity of Calgary, about the third week 
in July (exact date not noted), I came 
across a pair, which by their actions evi- 
dently had young in the grass, but although 
I hunted carefully for some time, I was 
unable to locate the ' ' proteges ' ' ; upon sev- 
eral other occasions I observed pairs of 
these birds. 

I did not devote much time to the Man- 
malice, but amongst species I collected 
were, Richardson's Spermophile {Spermo- 
phile Richardsoni) abundant, Long-tailed 
Weasel {Pjitorius longicande) , Rocky Moun- 
tain Chipmunk {Tamias a quadavittahis) , 
abundant. Nor. Pocket Gopher {Thommoys 
Taepoides), abundant, and the White-footed 
Mouse {^Herperomys lececopus) very abun- 
dant, and a great pest to the mammal 
hunter, continually getting into traps set 
for other species. G. F. Dippie. 

Toronto, Can. 



Bird Industry. 



/^UR engraving presents a beautiful ex- 
ample of the industry, patience and 
ingenuity of the woodpecker. The frag- 
ment of tree is part of a white oak which 
grew in the upper Santa Ynez mountains, 
about ten miles from Santa Barbara, CaL 









The Woodpeckers' Storehouse. 



The Avifauna. 



41 



When it first reached the hands of the pres- 
ent possessor, the holes which appear so 
completely dotting the wood were very 
nearly all filled with acorns, the holes being 
worked into the wood and the acorns 
placed therein by the patient toil of the 
woodpecker. The mountain hunters, who 
brought the specimen to town, told a rather 
interesting story of their find. They were 
eating their mid-day lunch, when they be- 
came aware of rather a noisy conclave of 
birds near by. They investigated, and this 
is what they saw : — 

About the old dead tree trunk were per- 
haps half a dozen woodpeckers, chattering 
and scolding in a most animated manner. 
They had been filling their storehouse and 
a score or more of black bandits had beset 
them, helping themselves to the product of 
their labor and ruthlessly destroying a 
large portion of what they did not eat, it 
being scattered about on the ground in all 
directions. And there were the bandits, 
the black robbers. 

A lot of crows ! they were out on a real 
lark. They had discovered the smaller 
birds, industriously at their work, and in 
apparent deviltry decided ' ' to hold them 
up," rummage their house, and steal, de- 
stroy, and mock the owners. And the 
rascals were there at their task. 

They would rush to the old tree, tear out 
the acorns, scatter them on the ground, 
and then "caw, caw, caw " their delight 
at the remonstrances of the woodpeckers. 

This was continued some time, when ap- 
parently weary of their sport, the crows 
flew off in a body and sat upon a near-by 
tree, and watched their victims repair, as 
best they could, their loss. But even then 
the crows were not content, but must add 
insult to injury by continued ribald caws. 

It was an interesting and very humorous 
affair, though the hunters ended the con- 
clave by a couple of shots which left two 
of the black rascals lying dead upon the 
ground. F. S. 



Notes on the Mocking=Bird. 

I I yHIIvE spending a few days, recently, 
with my son Dr. R. W. Hatch, in Los 
Angeles, I enjoyed an exceptionally good 
opportunity for observing the Mocking- 
birds. They are really very common in 
the residence portions of the city, and are 
already bringing up their second brood of 
young. Never having lived where I could 
observe the habits of this species of birds, 
and there being apparently but few birds to 
be seen in general, I was able to notice this 
species minutely. At a distance of two 
hundred feet from the porch of his resi- 
dence, I could continuously see from three 
to five males, and hear as many more at 
increased distances during most of the day, 
and /learthem all during most of the bright, 
moonlight nights. The singers, almost 
uniformly, were perched on the corner of 
a tall, unused chimney, in which the female 
was sitting, as was evident by his occa- 
sional disappearance down the inside of it, 
and constituted about the only interruptions 
of his varied song, made up of snatches 
from nearly every bird song I have any rec- 
ollections of having ever heard. While 
visible, with no interruption to his song, 
each singer would bound up into the air 
from three to five feet, and turning instantly 
would resume the corner of the chimney, 
in which performance he displayed his pat- 
tern and plumage so perfectly that no mis- 
take as to his identity was possible. It 
seemed to be a method of working off 
the excess of his energies to avoid explo- 
sion. The mimicry includes much more: 
variety in their freedom than in captivity.. 
And I fancy that it is more mellifluent, 
which, however, I will not assume to be a 
fact, without further opportunity for ob- 
serving. 

P. L, Hatch, M. D. 

H. A. Gaylord reports the taking of an allino 
specimen from a flock of fifty Western Chipping 
Sparrows in 1894. 



42 



The Avifauna. 



The Burrowing Owl. 



THE Burrowing Owl (Athene ciinicidaria) 
is quite common in that portion of Cal- 
ifornia north of Monterey and west of the 
Sierras. In all the valleys that have be- 
come the home of that pest of the Califor- 
nia ranch owner, the ground Squirrel {Sper- 
morpJiilus BeecJieyi), this Owl is a joint 
occupant, sitting throughout the day on a 
little mound of earth at the entrance of a 
deserted burrow in delightful companion- 
ship with his four-footed neighbor, not in 
the least dazzled by the brightness of tne 
sun, and allowing a person to approach 
quite near, and greeting him, with repeated 
polite bows, and giving a peculiar cackling 
note. 

If closely interviewed, he at once plunges 
into his burrow or rapidh^ flies to another 
not far away. 

It has been known to make a burrow for 
itself in a region where no animal had pre- 
viously dug one. In the most northern 
part of the State, the females prepare to 
lay their eggs in January. During the 
months of February and March in the early 
part of the evening the males sit at the 
mouth of their dwelling or on a neighbor- 
ing fence and utter a note w^hich resembles 
the word cuc-koo slowly spoken, with the 
stress upon the first syllable and the last 
long drawn out. 

The tone is soft and quite musical and 
appears farther aw'aj^ than in reality, and 
for that reason it is difficult to locate the 
bird. 

An observer speaks of finding the nest 
of this owl by following a burrow to the 
depth of three feet, and horizontall}'^ five 
feet, where, in an enlarged chamber, were 
discovered two fresh eggs, somewhat smaller 
than those of pigeons, nearly round and 
pure white, deposited on a few feathers. 

About the end of April the young appear 
at the mouth of their burrows, and sit in 
the early morning with their parents. 



Their food is mice, small birds, gophers, 
and insects, the hunting of which is done 
in the evening, or the gray of the morning. 
They are also particularly active on moon- 
light nights. 

Early in July when on one of vny sketch- 
ing excursions with carriage and tent, while 
walking up a steep hill to relieve the horse, 
I discovered by the roadside, in a depression 
made by the foot of some hoofed animal, a 
little fledgling covered only wnth a light 
grey down. Picking it up carefulh' and 
not knowing whether it belonged to the 
hawk or owl famih', I went to the carriage 
and placed it in the hands of my wife, re- 
marking that I had brought her a strange 
pet. She at once said, "I will keep and 
rear it." He took kindly to his new sur- 
roundings, nestling quietly in her lap, as 
we pursued our journey, usually wide 
awake. His food at this period was small 
bits of raw beef and mutton or morsels of 
little birds killed with my fowling piece. 
He throve remarkably under this diet and 
iti two weeks had nearly attained his full 
plumage when we were no longer in doubt 
as to his parentage. He soon began to 
utter a soft crowing note sounding like 
Too-Too^ with the accent on the last and 
prolonged . This note decided a name for 
our pet, which became Toot for short. 

When we went into camp he sat upon the 
dash board or seat of the carriage until our 
arrangements for the night were made, then 
he was placed at the door of the tent and 
he went in and out at his pleasure. At 
this stage of his life he was very playful 
and we were struck with the similarity of 
his motions wnth those of a kitten . When 
given a small roll of paper he would take it 
in his beak, turn over on his back, scratch 
and tear it with evident enjoyment. A 
pastebbard roll, five inches in diameter and 
three feet long, in which canvas had been 
sent me, was at once adopted by him as a 
burrow, and in this he slept as it lay beside 
our bed, and to which he quickly retreated 



The Avifauna. 



43 



when awake if he was suddenly' alarmed. 

While striking our tent and making pre- 
parations for the daj-'s journej^ he seemed 
undisturbed and when all was read}^ he was 
placed on the seat between us, where he 
stood intently watching for hawks or buz- 
zards. Upon his detecting one, no matter 
how far away, a mere speck in the sky, he 
would utter quickly a short, shrill cry and 
hide himself under the folds of our clothing. 

When we halted for our noon lunch be- 
side the highway, he would at once fly 
down and take a bath in the thickest dust 
he could find, sending it up in a cloud by 
the quick movements of his wings, like a 
chicken. After thoroughly shaking him- 
self he would be read}- for his meal. He 
never failed to inform us when he was in 
want of food, b}' a peculiar note which was 
readih- understood. 

When in camp, as twilight approached, 
, he was peculiarly active, flying about in 
search of game, which, with the exception 
of grasshoppers, beetles and moths, he 
rarely found. These flights were often pro- 
longed to the time when honest campers- 
and civilized owls should be in bed, and 
, gave us so much anxiety that we decided to 
clip one of his wings. Thereafter his 
wanderings were perforce made on foot and 
with less rapidity. 

When the evenings were quite cool we 
heated the tent with a kerosene stove. Toot 
soon discovered the source of warmth and 
with much gusto and apparent delight he 
would place himself before the stove and 
with outstretched wings remain by the half 
hour. 

Of course so novel a sight as an uncaged 
owl for a camp pet attracted the neighbor- 
ing boys, but should they approach too 

ar, Toot made a vigorous dive at their 
bare feet, which sent them scampering, and 
this was repeated as long as they were too 
familiar. My wife insisted that he was 
■jealous of any child that she took up on her 
lap. He certainl}' would fly at the object 



of his aversion with snapping beak. 

He would not brook the intrusion of dogs 
or cats near the camp and they manifested 
much fear from the formidable bristling ap- 
pearance he assumed, for they almost in- 
var iabU' ran away. 

Sometimes, when pressed too closely, he 
would utter a crackling cry and retire to 
his roll, but soon appearing again sitting at 
the entrance with his large eyes wide open 
and fixed upon the intruder, following every 
motion. If our horse, while grazing, ap- 
proached Toot's domain too closely, the 
size of the animal did not save him from a 
vicious attack by the bird. Other birds 
were greatly annoyed when they discovered 
Toot sitting on his stool at the front of the 
tent or on a near fence. 

Blackbirds, Jays, Thrushes, Ground 
Robins and Sparrows all manifested their 
uneasiness at his presence by their scolding 
notes. The Swallows would swoop down 
near him in their graceful flights, as is their 
wont when a cat is discovered, but it seemed 
more in play than having a desire to do 
him harm. 

Not so with the Shrikes, however, for 
these assassins made more violent demonstra- 
tions, but Toot only seemed startled by 
them and never left his perch, although 
they nearly knocked him off. When any 
bird came unpleasantly near he would squat 
as low as possible, recovering his natural 
position immediately. 

When our camp was near a colony of 
ground squirrels Toot would at once take 
possession of one of the mounds of earth 
thrown out at the entrance of their burrows, 
sitting there throughout the day and oc- 
casionalh^ descending into the ground and 
peeping from the hole. 

Upon reaching San Francisco and Oak- 
land, while leaving our bohemian life for a 
short period and sojourning in the dwellings 
of friends, Toot seemed to take kindly to 
the more civilized conditions, but he oc- 
casionally strayed and gave us much concern 



44 



The Avifauna. 



until found by searching the odd corners of 
the neighborhood. On our return to camp 
life he was at home again. We vividly 
remember his antics when the first autumn 
rain fell, while we were in camp near Santa 
Cruz . As the drops fell profusely he seemed 
determined to leave the shelter of the tent 
and stand outside. With some solicitude 
in regard to the consequences of a wetting 
we compelled him to return within the tent, 
but as often as this was repeated he per- 
sisted in receiving his baptism, crawling 
under the edge of the tent which we had 
tightly closed. Looking out we found him 
with his wings extended and his whole body 
quivering with apparent delight. His size 
was greatly reduced , and with his wet 
feathers clinging to the body, and darkened 
by the drenching, and with his big eyes 
standing out from his head, he was an un- 
canny looking creature. This was his first 
experience in a rain storm and whenever 
rain fell afterward he seemed anxious to 
repeat it. After that kind ofbath he would 
come in shivering and stand before the 
kerosene stove to dry himself carefully, 
pluming his disordered feathers. If the 
sun shone brightly he would often go out 
and throw himself down upon his breast 
and spread his wings upon the ground-a^id 
with open mouth pant with evident enjoy- 
ment. 

Upon our return to Santa Barbara we al- 
lowed him the freedom of the studio, and 
his favorite perch was in the windowsill, 
where he would sit throughout the day 
watching the movements on the street. If 
a stranger came in at the door he generally 
hopped down and ran under a case of min- 
erals ; should the supposed intruder come 
near his retreat he would run out and, with 
bristling feathers and outstretched wings, 
give him a peck. He seemed to have his 
likes and dislikes, however, for he would 
allow most adults to approach without any 
demonstration, while to others he mani- 
fested great aversion. Children were the 



special objects of his spite, although his 

movements toward them often seemed more 
in play than otherwise. Whenever either 
myself or wife returned to the room after 
an absence, he would invariably greet us 
with his soft cuc-koo, and what seemed 
remarkable, from his window he would 
often detect me as I approached on the 
walk and utter his welcome. One of our 
friends, who very often made us a visit, had 
frequent rough and tumble plays with Toot, 
much to the bird's enjoyment, for as soon 
as he opened the door he was recognized 
and a rush was made to his retreat under 
the case, but he at once reappeared and 
gave a bristling challenge. Another friend 
had in some manner incured Toot's dis- 
pleasure and he never escaped a demon- 
stration of it, no matter how often he ap- 
peared. 

He suffered himself to be handled by 
those with whom he was familiar, and my 
wife taught him to nibble her cheek, which 
she interpreted as a kiss. Whenever he 
was thirsty, which was seldom, he made 
his wants known by going to the hydrant 
and calling. 

His food was principally fresh meat — 
beef, mutton and liver. He invariably re- 
jected the fat and was much disgusted if 
the meat was stale, alu ays turning away 
from it when offered. When, very hungry 
he would eat a little salt beef. Mice, 
gophers and little birds were a delicacy for 
him. He was also fond of small fish. He 
rejected all vegetable substances, with one 
exception , he would swallow bits of water- 
melon, perhaps because it had the color of 
meat. He had great diflSculty in swallow- 
ing the mice whole when he was quite 
young, and after repeated effort all would 
disappear except the tails, which hung out 
of his mouth in a ludicrous manner. When 
swallowing a deliciousmorselhis eyes would 
be closed with an exceedingly satisfied ex- 
pression . 

A box of pulverized earth was placed out- 



The Avifauna. 



side the window and in this he took his 
dust bath every morning. He was in a 
habit of standing before the fire in the grate 
of cool mornings, and on one occasion my 
wife detected tht smell of burnt feathers 
and noticed that Toot had backed up to the 
fire and spread his wings in such a manner 
that the extremities had touched some live 
coals. On the occasion of our evening re- 
ceptions he would sit motionless upon a 
covered match box on the mantle without 
apparently taking any interest in our pro- 
ceedings. One evening a young lady re- 
marked to her companion that I had an 
exceedingly fine specimen of taxidermy in 
the owl, as she approached pointing her 
finger in close proximity to Toot. He at 
once snapped at it, eliciting a shriek from 
the victim and a laugh from the company. 

When vexed, if he could obtain a sheet 
of newspaper he would viciously tear it to 
shreds with his beak and claws. 

He was wont to sit upon my shoulder for 
hours while I was reading in the evening 
and he would occasionalh^ lovingly pull my 
mustache with his beak, and sometimes he 
considered the top of my head a capital 
perch. , 

As he was an important member of the 
family we thought best to perpetuate his 
appearance in a photograph. Taking him 
to the galler}' he was excited by his ride in 
the rattling street car and it seemed diffi- 
cult for him to properly compose his nerves 
for a successful picture. Whenever the cap 
of the camera was removed he insisted upon 
responding with a gracefully twisted bow- 
that totalh' upset and defeated the plans of 
the photographer, who had no instantaneous 
snap attached to his instrument. The pro- 
ject was abandoned for that day but a 
subsequent trail was made successfully. 

During an absence in the East for several 
months we left our pet with a friend, and 
from whose quarters he frequently strayed, 
usually being found by the neighboring 
boys and returned. But finally he was 
missing for the last time, probably having 
fallen a victim to some dog that had no 
love or respect for an owl. 

Prof. H. C. Ford. 



Sparrow Hawk v. Cooper's Hawk 



I saw a very interesting, although very 
brief, combat that took place recently, the 
participants being a Sparrow Hawk and a 
Cooper's Hawk. 

There were several song sparrows frolick- 
ing around in a field, which I was observ- 
ing from my ofiice window, when along 
darted a Sparrow Hawk, catching one of 
the little fellows and continuing on its 
course, a few feet above the ground, for 
perhaps about a hundred and fifty feet, and 
then darted upward. Here a Cooper's 
Hawk, which I had not previously observed, 
swooped down upon the Sparrow Hawk 
evidently bent upon taking the sparrow 
from the latter hawk. I ran around into 
the field, in order to obtain a better view 
of the combat, but arrived only in time to 
see the hawks flying away, each going in a 
different direction. 

Which bird secured the sparrow I do not 
know, but an examination of the ground 
beneath the place of combat indicated that 
it did not fall to the ground. The fight 
while it lasted was quite spirited ; but the 
duration, I should judge, was hardly a 
couple of minutes. 

This incident was to me quite interesting, 
for does it not raise the question : Do the 
larger hawks ever prey upon the smaller 
species of hawks ? It is well known that 
the Cooper's Hawk is quite voracious, com- 
monly making havoc among chickens, 
turkeys, and ducks. Dr. Fisher (Hawks 
and Owls of the United States) mentions an 
instance where it was even so bold as to. 
attack a man. 

W. E. ROTZELL, M. D.. 

Boys, if you are not positive ot" the identity oi 
your specimens in the field do not remove them 
until you have thoroughly convinced yourself 
that you are correct. Again, carefully nidify 
specimens received from other collections before 
exchanging or selling the same. One cannot be 
too careful ; as your reputation depends on your 
accuracy. 



46 



The i\.VIFAUNA. 




AN ILLUSTRATED 



MONTHL V MAGAZINE. 



DEVOTED TO 

O6LOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY 

EDITED BY 
W. H. HOFFMAN. 



Original Contributions with or without illustrations of 

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The publisher of Avifauna takes no small 
pleasure in again presenting the work, after so 
long a delay. We will not now discuss the many 
reasons why the work was so long suspended, 
more than to hint that the " hard times " had 
•considerable to do with it. 

We now present the magazine to its old friends 
•vs'ith the belief that they will find in its ample 
pages matter that interests and instructs. The 
main topic implied in its name, A.vi fauna (bird- 
life), has made many and constantly increasing 
numbers of friends since our last issue. Where 
one person was interested in our feathered friends 
then, we can say twice or three times the number 
are interested now. And we are very glad it is 
so. The birds are a part of the Divine creation 
that appeals more and more to our sympathies, 
as we use more and more our eyes and reflect on 
the wonderful mechanism that propels them 



through space. From now on we hope to issue 
our magazine with reasonable promptitude on 
the fifteenth of each month. We will try and 
make each number more and more interesting, 
and to do our best we ask the help of all who 
love to watch and studv the birds. 



The present issue is not nearly up to our inten- 
tion in regard to future issues. We had many 
obstacles to overcome incidental to changing the 
place of publication from Los Angeles to this 
city, and everything could not be expected to run 
as smoothly as we may expect in the future. But 
we offer no apologies. Let the magazine speak 
for itself: hoe our own row; make its own 
friends. That 's our way. 

* 

All old subscribers will receive the magazine to 
the limit of their subscriptions, and with the 
object of doing the most and best work in view, 
we ask all our friends to assist the magazine to 
new subscribers, as far as possible. 

* * 

The more patronage we get, the better maga- 
zine we can give — will give. 

* * * 
Many of our birds have a way of dealing with 
the robbers of their eggs that is well worth study- 
ing. Take, for instance, the swallow: their nests 
are usually safe from man without resorting to 
artificial methods of reaching them. The wren 
is sly enough in placing its nest to elude the cat. 
The eagles generally select a site beyond the skill 
of the average collector, while the P. B. grebe 
locates its nest and covers its eggs so as to elude 
the strictest search of the amateur and also the 
crow. The crows and jays are incessant robbers, 
but many of our birds protect their eggs well by 
their variations of nesting sites. Crows, jays, 
cats, and snakes are natural enemies to all birds. 

W. D. Cobleigh reports finding sixty-six differ- 
ent specimens of birds breeding on a 160-acre 
farm in Fulton County, Illinois. This farm lies 
in the river-bottoms,' second bottoms, and the 
bluffs. 

Blow our own horn now; others will blow it 
later. 

Prepare A 1 skins and specimens. It reflects 
credit. 

Cannot the oologists of America get up a stan- 
dard data blank? Some one suggest. 

Read the latest periodicals of date and keep 
posted. Subscribe for the Avifauna noio. 

Who has found a nest of the Crested Fly 
Catcher without the traditional snake skin? ' 



The Avifauna. 



47 



Collecting Under Difficulties. 



On the morning of April 17th, Mr. 
H. R. Taylor, editor of the Nidiologist, 
and myself took the nine o'clock train bound 
ior a small station on the South Pacific 
Coast Railway. Arriving at the station at 
ten o'clock we set out across meadows and 
ploughed fields and vegetable farms, cut up 
with drainage and irrigation ditches, to a 
thickly wooded swamp, about two miles 
distant, stopping now and then to examine 
suspicious looking clumps of wild black- 
berry vines from which we took two richly 
marked sets of Samuel's Song Sparrow and 
a set of the California Bush Tit. Empty 
nests, some containing a broken 'igg, es- 
pecially of the House Finch, indicated that 
snakes had been dining. Hundreds of 
Gambel's Sparrows fluttered from the wil- 
lows and tall grasses and brambles along 
the fences, but we failed to find any of their 
uests. A few pairs of Mexican Horned 
Larks were seen on patches of alkaline land 
where they were undoubtedly nesting. After 
crossing a few more fences we were in close 
view of our destination. This swamp is 
half a mile wide bj- about two miles long 
and partly dried up in summer. It is 
thickly timbered with oaks and tamarack 
and gigantic sycamores, with a fair sprink- 
ling of laurel and willows, and full of thick 
underbrush and rank vegetation. The 
surrounding land is all under cultivation, 
chiefly by Chinese vegetable gardeners 
whose redwood, shingled shanties are 
scattered in groups of three or four. 

Upon reaching the swamp we walked for 
half a mile along its north side until coming 
to the road which led through to the south 
side. Stopping at a well I brought forth 
my tin cup and we drank freely of the pure, 
cold water, for the day was hot. 

Our first find was a nest of straw con- 
taining four white eggs, in a burnt-out 
stump of a monster forest oak. These we 
easily identified as specimens of Gallina 



Domestica and therefore decided to leave 
them as it was rather close to a farm house. 
Quite a number of Tree Swallows were 
breeding in natural cavities in sycamores, 
and, having no climbers with us, we wasted 
no time shinning up the smooth trunks. 

Our business was to get eggs of the Great 
Blue Heron ; we had seen some of these 
birds perched on trees and flying about be- 
fore we entered the swamp, so, walking 
briskly along, we were soon on the south 
side of the swamp and stopped onh- once 
to examine a nest of the White-tailed Kite, 
about forty feet up in a large oak; it proved 
to be an old nest. A creek or ditch, four 
feet wide and two feet deep, followed this 
side of the swamp and the water was clear 
as crystal and cold even on a hot afternoon. 

Crossing a narrow foot bridge we were soon 
well into the swamp and followed a trail 
that soon lost itself in a wilderness of net- 
tles, vines and brambles, poison oak and 
matted brush. The poison oak in Cali- 
fornia is very similiar to the poison ivy of 
the Eastern states. Here my buckskin 
gloves came into good use to protect my 
hands and wrists from the venemous nettles 
and sharp thorns. The poison oak was 
not shunned as neither of us ever "caught" 
it. 

Soon we were under several sycamores 
containing nests of the Great Blue Herons 
and the birds had flown away at our ap- 
proach and were now sailing and flapping 
a few rods distant, and arousing others in 
the neighboring trees by their gutteral 
"konk, konk." Selecting the easiest tree 
to climb, Mr. Taylor ascended and packed 
several sets of fresh eggs into a fish basket 
and let it down to me with a ball of twine. 
I removed the eggs and he pulled the basket 
up and repeated the operation. 

Several nests were empty and we con- 
cluded that we had come about a week too 
soon to make a good haul. These nests 
were from fifty to seventj' feet from the 
ground, and there was quite a stiff breeze 



48 



The Avifauna. 



among the tree tops that made Mr. Taylor 
haug on and look at the nettles and bram- 
bles below and say that he would not like 
to take a tumble into them. 

Having seen a very large tree, apparently 
full of nests, some distance to the west be- 
fore we entered the swamp, we decided to 
investigate. While hiding mj' shotgun and 
our extra baggage in some thick brush we 
found a lot of honeycomb in a hollow oak 
stub, and from the quantity of bees on it, 
decided we did not care for honey. The 
vegetation became less rank and the nettles 
fewer as we advanced, but the thorns and 
matted brush overgrown with tough vines 
became thicker and thicker and presented a 
formidable barrier to penetrate. Again we 
would have to cross mounds of dead brush 
which at times was just rotten enough to 
let us through or to pitch us headlong into 
a clump of thorns or a bog, and the vines 
played tricks on us by tripping us up. We 
took turns in breaking a trail through this 
Garden of Eden, and, crawling, climbing, 
tumbling and scrambling, at last sat down 
to rest under the giant sycamore, the object 
of our toiling search, and I doubt if any 
human being had ever been in that part of 
the jungle before we had. The only living 
things we saw on our way were a snake glid- 
ing under the vines and a ferocious looking 
woodrat sitting on top of his nest, which 
was a cone shaped affair of sticks built up 
from the ground as high as a man's head. 
I fired two shots at him with a revolver be- 
fore he disappeared. 

We counted just 32 nests in this tree, 
which was about no feet high, and no nest 
was less than 85 or 90 feet from the ground. 
They w^ere nearly all tennanted too, for, at 
our approach numerous "konking" Herons 
flapped hurriedly away. A thrill ofool- 
ogical delight passed through our veins at 
the thought of 32 nests, most of them con- 
taining sets, but the next thought was, 
"that's a w^hooping big tree to get up." 

That tree was six feet in diameter if it was 



six inches, and there was not a limb nearer 
than sixty feet on its straight, smooth trunk, 
but a thick growth of vines and poison oak 
covered the trunk almost to the first limb. 
The lot of attempting the climb fe!l to Mr. 
Taylor, who tried going up the vines and 
poison oak hand over hand but could not 
get a good start. So, placing a branch 
about fifteen feet long against the trunk of 
the tree the ascent was slowly made up this 
whitewashed trellis to within a few feet of 
the first limb, which was found to be too 
large to straddle without the aid of ropes 
and climbers. Mr. Taylor did well, but, 
none but Darwin's Missing Link could pos- 
sibly have circumvented that limb. 

Retracing our steps and obtaining our 
hidden baggage, we decided to cut across 
the swamp as the nearest way to the station, 
as it was getting late and there was but one 
train home that night. I found a half 
built nest of Allen's Hummingbird on a 
briar a foot from the ground near our bag- 
gage. Once again on our acrobatic march 
we were soon into a big bog, and worked 
and worked to reach the opening of the 
swamp without seeming to make much pro- 
gress ; and to make matters worse we could 
not see the sun and had to guess the way 
the tortuous passage was leading us. After 
a lot of work avoiding the usual impedi- 
ments in our way, we emerged from the 
swamp almost before we knew it, and, be- 
spattered with mud, tired, hungry, tattered 
and torn, set out double-quick across vege- 
table patches, clods and clover fields to the 
station, not forgetting to pull up a quantity' 
of onicns and lettuce for refreshment. 

D. A. Cohen. 

J. A. MORENO, 

(Formerly with J. M. Forbes) 

/T\exi(:a9 fiapd ^arued Ceatl^er U/orl^. 



We make a specialty of Fine Purses from |:.5o to 
$10.00 ; Portfolios from |io.o'o up ; Hatbands from 75Cts, $i.oo, 
f 1.50 and up ; Chatelain Bags from $1.50 up ; Pocket Books 
fro'm $1 .50 up ; Card Cases from $1.50 up; Cigar Cases from 
fi.5,0 up; Cigarette Cases from $1.00 up ; Spectacle and Eye- 
glass Cases from sects up; Ladies' Belts from Ji.oo up; 
Picture Frames from focts up. In fact hundreds of articles 
in stamped leather. 

Mexican and English Saddles made to order. Orders 
by mail promptly attended to, and goods sent CO. D. with 
privilege of examining. 

Address all orders to 

J. A. MORENO. 

8E. DE LA GUERRA STREET, 
Santa Barbara, Cal. 



^' 



The Avifauna. 



TRAVELERS . . . 
AND TOURISTS . 



\isiting Santa Barbara, and desirous of procur- 
ing Indian Kelics, Mineral Specimens, Shells, 
Fernt;, etc., or anj' rare California Curiosities for 
cabinets or presents to friends in Kurope or the 
Atlantic States, will find a Magnificent Display 
on exhibition and for sale at Starkie's Art Wood 
Works and Free Museum, State street, opp. Ar- 
lington Hotel. «» 

Our stock comprises Hare Mineral Specimens 
from nearly every mineral producing mine on 
the coast and Mexico. Shells and Corals from 
all the sea coast regions of Alaska, California, 
Mexico and South Sea Islands. Indian Kelirs 
and Cnri.)s from most of the differeirt tribes of 
tlio past and present age. Mounted Birds and 
animals, liird skins and Bird eggs, Santa Barbara 
and Yoseniite Views and View Books, Sea Mosses, 
Tarantiilars and Nests, Pampas Plumes, P'erns, 
CaliforniH Art Wood AVork, Pearls, Mineral 
Work, etc., et<'.., etc. Shells painted in stock and 
to oroer, Polished Shells a specialty. .Mail orders 
solicited. 

STARKIh'S ART WOOD WORKS. 




BUY and 

m 

POSTSGE 
STUMPS 



Stamps for all classes of collectors ; 
.Albums, Catalogues and all kinds of Phil- 
atelic Supplies. 

Sheets for collectors sent on ap- 
proval — 50 per cent to net. Send for trial 
1 )t, but be sure and send references. 

A few more of the original Bicycle 
Stamps on hand. Send for special prices. 

Sant.-^ Barbara, Cal. 

DR. RABAT DONZE, 

The Noted Com Doctor, 

Hxtracts the most severe Corns and Bnnions 
without pain, or use of knife or chemicals. 
Would like to prove it to your satisfaction. Call 
and see me. 

Room 10 t'pper Ha»yley Block, 



IaL 



LIVERV, 
FEED MND 

STPl3L-ES. 



Open and closed landaus ; gentle horses 
for buggy or saddle ; parties driven to all 
points of interest. Horses boarded, bought, 
sold or exchanged. 

CARTEY & BRO., Props. 

819 State Street. Telephone G9. 

f(\en<:a[) jHapd Stapnped Ceat:l;)er (joods 

I'lioto and tablet holders; handkerchief and glove 
Ml cushions; shells and curios of all kinds. 
■ make a specialty of fine purses, portfolios, hat 
iMiii.v, difltelHiue bags, pocket books, card cases, etc. 
Send x(,imp for price list. 

530 State Street Santa Barbara, Cal. 

FRANCIS H. KNIGHT, 

U/all • paper • apd • f\r\: • Store 

Mattings, Linoleums, Window Shades, Pic- 
tures and Frames, Artists' 
Materials. 

GAfiUNO BLOCK, ^ lel, /5i Night and Sunday 191 Blact 
I'ndertaker and Funeral Director. 

Jot79 U/i(^lai}d Br<^u;i9(5 Qo.'s 

Lager— '^^ 

Is offered to the public. Having just completed 
our new Bottling Work- we are able to please the 
most fastidious customer for a LAGER BEER, 
and at prices no higher than you pay for inferior 
beers. We handle all kinds of Eastern Beer. 
We also deliver to Montecito. 

T. &A.GCUX, 
iioi State street. Tel. Main 136. 



Tiii'. AviFArx 




Drop I9 f\r)y Simt^ 



Brinii \'0u: •lifcl an 

it repaireJ, ur itop and louK ai 
otirs. We ai''.' al\\\i\'s readv t'fH- 
"vvheely ; -1 

talk of any sort intcrt'St.- - 
Be in tomorrow ? 

Exclusive agent t' 
Barbara county for RamBLI^R 
and Crescent bicycles ; tennis 
and jiolf goods, bicycle suits, 

^; , . stockings, shoes, guns 



and ammunition, li.-,liing tackle, athletic goods. Send stamp tor caialogs. 

BICYCLES AND SPORTING GOODS. 
M . S. SHORT, '^^~^) S^'^te St., Sanui Barbara. 

Santa Barbara Livery Stable, 




H. C. JBNKINS, Proprietor 



^^ 1/ W. Cartillo Street, op?. M M^n 



f 



Ie';e;i[i]tis lE^ Miin 



. . . Parties Driven to all Places of Interest . . . 
Special attention to the care of boarders Terms on application 




^ De Kalb Fence Company's 

Field and Hog Fence 




Poultry and Garden Fence 
^ Park and Ornamental Fence 
FOR SALE BY 

G, jL. bdOF^F^?AAN, Xextt.FstNatun inanK 

HARDWARE, TINWARE, GRANITEWARE AND STOVES. 

HETAL C0RNIC3 and GALVANIZED IRON GUTTERS 
HADE TO ORDER. 

is^W ' .EROW. -it an 

equal — as a Metal Worker, has charge of this part of