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Full text of "The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania: Series A, Cuneiform Texts"

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THE BABYLONKN EXPEDITION 



THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



SHRIES A: CUNEIFORM TEXTS 



H. V. HILPRECHT 



■'KCKIEY BRINTON COXE, JUNIOR, FUND" 



I-HILAUEI-PHIA, 
ipartmeni ol Archaeology, Umversily al Pennsylno, 



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MATHEMATICAL, 

MUTHOUKJICAI, AM) ('Hll(IN'(»L()(il(!AL 
TAHLETS 



^fmplp JJibrary nf Qtppur 



H. V. HILPRECHT 



r'HiLAr)E:r.r>i-nA 



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"Che Duke fricdricb of Hnbalt 



RevtrciKC, Love and Gr.ititude 



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The .siiK'JiiM'iii t<'xlx linv puhlixliiHl f..y,u a iviy sjiudi |mii1 <>I' „ Uir-^- <-<>IJ<H'li 

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.1 i»>t niu'^iii l]\v ■JViii|il.' Aitliivi' (iiji Hlii.li .r. V..|y. .\1\', XV uikI .,Hi.r v.il 
^inliillim), ..r tlii'Ti'.Mpl.' S-Ihii.1 |wi wliidi <-f. Vi,l. -\IX, I'-.iri I, in j.ivs-, :im 
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iii('kiti>l<i!..f V.ii.XIX, I'iiil I lintiix>s^); 'MliKka 'IVsf« iiml Kx.msi« tV.im lli.. 
'IViii|ili>S,k„„I nl'Nip]iiir." Tkie i-iiu|>tcr ivus ivi-ilU'u lu fliriii |iiirt .if tkc luiwiit iNKik ; 
liut li]i(liiii,-tliiillln>Lfiviiiiitlifiimlinil.iiiil ciiroiiiil.iftiral tablflK ki^n- ciiilni n-ifiiiml u 
full.i ai-.iiK.*ion tliiiii urijriimlly i.liiiiiii-il, I iviiH ul.lif,fil t.) riwervr it f.)r »ip iic.Yt vdI- 
IIIII.S in H-liicli Iho Ti'iiiplc 8<.-liiii>i iiml Tcin|>k^ Aitliivu iiiv tri'nloil in tlirir irkili.m ti> 
tlu' ■ri;lii].ll> Likniiy. 

It ix a vory n.iliirnl a.^iii- uii t\w ]«ii-t ..I' sdi,)l;iiv t.i «h. ,,,il,liHk.Hl .is ,.ivly iis i-:^- 
silile wiiiil is left iif tlie wicntiHc nii.niltnm- adivity lit (In- -li.iwl ami imwt rnumiml 
Biihyloiiiiiii siim-tiiary iiiii! waf nf learning. At tlir minic liuii!, it k not nij- nor any one's 
fiiait (imt llw vBiiuii.? ix^xnit-i of oiir cxfiivafimis ciiiikl not Inive Ih^ii Biibniitliil niori' 
ra])iaiy 10 A»=yrIijIo{:ists. All tlio uiGmWrs of the Hiil.ykiiiiHii Section of tlic> liinvcivity 
of Pi'iiiiKylvania arc liixi-l to fkp iitioont witk <-on«(aiil ivork on lliu iiiateriiii to ajipitir in 

I'roin ikiy lo ilay. Jkrfbiv lilt' nitlior (liuHxant ta^k of " I look-n inking " can begin, tlie 



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h'ludk, iiiicl ii" t'ai'iiHpiH-'ibli'.i'iiiiiil lo'itlur )iim« .it' tin' '^uiiii- tiilih'l I'lllcii i'xi.'<iv;it<Ml ;il 
(limnviil tinif-K l>v ilitll-rriit csiicliliiHi-),' llmt tin- wliiiliir niLvn-ti'il uitli tlii> .■iliUiiK "f" 

tiitii-iiiti^' I in 'I i mi nan- work bu iHTii|iinl llu' writi'r's Iii'mI time Jiiriiis liii' ]ris1 vriirs, 
uli.'ii iKitti 111 I'liiliiiHpliiii iuiiH'i>tislaiitiiii>].U' lie amiiliiml niiil nitiili^ui'il .'Uii('il*<ii'iii 

II [iiTtirt diaiii III' lurj:;.-]', eiiiiilk-r iin<l siiiuIM trii^ni.uts i.l* iiiilmi^il I mostly diifi'- 

.■fiiuTil. iTiiinbliiij:, lulnMi.vmHl .mil "tli.Twi-r diiiiiiisi'.l fiiMi't" »'i"'i''''l>' "i-i'"'" i" 
t)lil-1t»liyli>iiiiiui'tiMiiii'luvy. 

<ln llir nlnilr. llLi>IiiiiK'l-IV..mHii.'siiiiill,.iM,-iii|a,. lil.i-Miy ..f iln. ( ■„„„:(,■ priiml iiiv 

tlir uiiil lit' ^[iiy, till"). 111.' imli,|ii;iiiw .M-.iviilMil liy tlii. I'liiirlli .•s]i,-iiitii)ii innl [tnk^l id 
llillik ii[iil<-i' Hiiyiii'^' |i<.M'>^iiiiiil >^ii)K'i'visltiii, wi'H' -^.'iilt'.l iitiil .li'lnvLvil li> tlii' ivprrj'i'nhi-. 
tiws „f til.' Olti>ii»iii ("nvriiiuviil lit lliiil jiUr.. t;.r «liiiiiufiil ti. Ciiii^tunlliiiiiiU., The 

n.-<< llaniily tiu.l l[»lil H.-y lli> ^tIkiui u;;iuii I o\\.,\j^f my w«na<>,t ii|i]iiwmlli>ii .if llimr 
,i>nli,nH"l liitci'.vl „„.l li>y,U -iiiiiiort .if.mv «i>rk) iliil ..v..yytl,i.,s !ii ll,..ir [mn-.-r t" H,.,.|in- 
tlii- «irly niriviil .if llu' »iili.|iiitif« ,if lli.i [iiiiimiil Miimiii. ; l.iit iiiur,. tlii.i. .1 yi-ar 
"Uil-'PiS belbri' tlity wlt.! IiiihIimI :il tliiir iilm-.. .,f .[.■Btiiiatii)ii. 

r.'pukiuj,' iiioiT tliiiii 2ll.i*"l hisiribi'il tiilili'ln iiml fmjriiii'iits witliiii limr iiiciutlm. A 
Inr;;!^ |Kii-tii,n nf the Tfiii|.li. T,ilii',Lry ivii^ ].i:i*oiit.^.l liy ]\U Maji^xly the Hiill.ui to tlu> 
writer for Ills jiHSt M-r\\rm in c'liiiiirr'tiiin with tLf oi'g.i!ii/iiliiiii i,f (In- Iiii[iiTiul ()ll"iii!iii 
MUS..I1IU. It liiippm-*! tliiit liii~.-(' msf^-ri of iiutiiiiiiti..'.' rruiii ..tlicr I'xniviiti.ius nmv.-il in 
(■.iiistiintinii]jli' thill v.Ty yi'iir, wliili- lli.' iimjritiii.Tiit fliiril biiililiiig .if Hir SiilUiiiV 



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w h ! 1 SI I ll U r-ljl lb ]«- I ( I I18lt h tl 

nritiT WU3 ••ll rout, 1 B 1 1 ii ) tl ^ huh no -<iiitiiblB placo for eiitalogiuiig mid BU.r- 
iiig llici llioiiBdnda oi lu I j t w I <ly oblaiiiiil, nflur llio liiiiilfJ sputu (I'liijMirjirily 
iiueigiicil to till! Uiib 1 ui. M f llie Libntry biiildiiig bud bi.'i'n tiKud. JUuuy of the 

boxes tben in our po«h it to 1 1 ot be opened ut h11 ; otbfiw, nfti>r a liasty exiiinination of 
tbeir coiiwiili', w«rB ] k I It 1 ivitb tiie iii^t in tlii' i.-.'lbir i>( tb(^ IJbrary building. 



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Ahmt W KM Will HI tiltjIKs lliiil fi-.isinP[il>*li!H-<- Ixvji ralilii>.^ni'ii I.*- Ilir «v\U;- in I'iillii- 

iliiiiiis tlH> siiiiic tiiiii-. My iitniuliriil. criliw niii-t mil furji^a tliiit, viilli ;iir tliu nRll-fcm.wii 
,-iui-y iiiiJ fiithusiiism distiliiy.'.! Ii.v tlio .uitiioHtL.^ .il" tW. llriliMli Mu^iii.i, l^ir \h-m-y 
H;iivllii-(Ui :xiiil Lis iiildlisfiit Hiiil liiinWnockmft ,iwi»liiiif-. uvMy tiily y.^iiv .■lii|»^'il 
WfM-i- A-.'yrioli.isistK cmia DlitiiLii a ti.loi-.ilily aifiiriitr i.liM of llii. .■.nil.iils of llic Iumii- 
tifiilly iiiwriljril liiikrel frajriiieiitH of tin- iiiliiiit.'ly lirtfiM' |iii'«uivi'il .T.ilniiry 'il' Asliiir- 
biiiuinil. I l>lwirl f„r only l.Mt y<.irH for my ii«.ifi,itiT' iiiiil iiiy-flr l.i ilnnoLiHtn.t.' liir rird 
(■onH'iitsiifllic "i.ll. |.r..r,M..l rii,.i;i,nnt« of lli,. IVnii.lt I.il.niry i>f Nimmr. Apurt 
from tliL' iinlii: i .. ' <ul''il siml ['Imimilopi'a] s|uriim-iiH Hiilniiltlctl ui tli<' 

folloiviiiK [M^,;.- , . I , li - ,. ..II tl„. Tnnt.1.. KOi.iot, nlivmly ui jmw, liiiir iiiuri' vol- 

Inbletd, aii([ tliu ••^■.■i-Al i.Di'iv»[ioiiai'ii<v iHlniiii tlii' Ti'tiipli' oKifiY and tlir IS]il>y!<iitiiiii 
kings are iiliraily in tln' eniirKt irt' iin}«iiiilioii ; to xny imiliiiig cf Uiv olIii'V voliiim.s i>ii 

.lalt<l ilociinieilN, incllliiiils fiit-s.Ti.w oo Hie T(iii]>k' Av.liiv.. irc.iifly s.iiic-sfiilly .,]»• 1 

l>y l-rof. Cliiy. 

twiisortli.Mmliii»ryoomfnifcnflili.>iiil«'Ualrui-a«.ii..nlificiiiiil.'r(akiMgH"llivn.,urro-- 

lit i- :il)ly .u,iporteiI, H» tiif r'.lilor rLtniliy i», l.y liitll' ii •Um'\i .if .'iill.ii»ias:i<: ;<iipil^ ^unl 

of Fi'iiuriylvniuH's Ilalwloiiiim cxiKHUtioii.*. 

Miiny 4UCHli.ii.n, >vlii<-li tiiiiU' up it) i'iiiiiii'i-|i„ii i^irl, lln- study of tin. Icxif. lui-. si.li- 
initti'd, mill! onty Ik' toii(dinl iii»ni, If lii.> inlnuliidioi, w,i:; t., \..- nniliii...! to it,s ]no]Hr 
limits. Till, B-ritfr, lliiwfoii!, litis oxfliiiUd a ,li,cii'«io,i of tlv niil iiii'.iniiis "f a iiliifH 
<,f lablols r..pwf«>nl..il liy N'js. 20, 21, ItT of liis iuiloj;niiili [ilatw iiii.l liy l'liiU« IV, 
V, XlII and XIV <,f tlic pliiitotypf iUuslralloiis, il,r nliicli ii.> trf.T- li. tlu> liitniiliit-tloii 
of Yol. XIX. For tlx- j.ivneiit it Jimy «ulliui- In sfato tliat tlioy an' li^sl-l-ioki. |iiviKicfil 
by tlip tiiui'liern iu tli« cdai^ruriju anil afiernarils lii'iiocitcii in lln> Tniijilo Library. 

workK of Jfiibyloninu tiiiipiv li'iraii'« "ith .<inipli.iiii>iiti;il iiiiil iiiciriiSfil. M|iiiiiiiiMis iif 
tliis kiml iiw known U, nif fi'oni Niiffar, Joklia' and Aijil Iliiblw." On the OIivcisb of 
Xos. 20. 24, :i7 Itf. ]'!:- IV ami XIlll tlit- (irii-H in Hiui^'c. of tlii> Hii« nroti' tlip Ht 
(.■oUiniti ivitli liiK <in-ii linml ■■v s niodi'l for ttii' jiiijiil, wiio i-opiinl tlii' Ipxt in tliu ri^lit 



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i;"liii]iji. M'hi'ii the i^erdsK wiis siitisliictuty, Ihi^ taiclicr ri'iimviil llm jiiijiil's writing by 
sii^iplii*! tl(C ii]ijii-r Inj-vr of tliiv oft' tlip riglit ci.lliiiiii. Kmiuuiilly, lioivcviT, hctui-e 
ili-alTOvidj; tliu pujiil'is <i;i'ri.i3i', the ti'HtliiT fiinii.'(! tlii' tnbli>t ovfr and iiiKiTibod (lie 

thri'i! tiiiii>:, iiflrr tlic maiiiiiT of our uwii Sckiilmrsfhrfflrn. On somo uf the biblrts 
o.\uniiii('i[ tlic rij^lil LHibiiun hiix bii'ii iiixcvibcil iitul Rrrii|iiil oK' im friK^ucutly tluit il i* 
I'liiiijuh'rubly thimici' lliiiii tlii' b'ii ujhnun. 1'hi'ii^ am vvi'ii K|K'i.'iiiii'iM wbi.-i-G tbu right 
(siliiLiiii liiiM bit'ii cut uU' entirely.' Tii olhir husw tlii; piipilV cxciviw has iiwii riaiiovi^fl 
ai> Biii«T)H'iiiUy thiit, like ii (invk imliiiijim-st, tlit- Uvifiw h'ft oiil in doi'liibi-riii^ iJie t-oii- 
IfiKs (if lhi> |inwi>i\-cil but fi'ii|iiciilly ihiiiiiij.iil It* cohiiiiu. TbiDiij-h n luiinniiti- iitfid.'ii ' 

i.f Ni.. 20 (vf. ul^Li I'l. 1 V iif t!u- [.hol..tA'|« r.'|.r J,hu!tioii-l. 

If 111.' wMu-v Wit< vimnK inul iiL'sj. (■]■!.■ ik'i',1 or cjlitI.w, liU writliisa w.ti' as liltle 
fm'fr.iniiiiii:hik('»astlL<'lKii>kxofinoiI<'ni"jinif<'>«4ii's,"oi' Uh. luiiiiy h'jpil ,lu<iumunta of 
aiii'iciil liiibyloiija, u-liuiv, If iiuyirliui-o, wu Nlimilil uxjiirt a <-iiii'fiil wnnlb;; itixl n-rit- 
iiij;. I hiy Arw^ ii|ioii tliifi fm-t, hh it liii« Ihiiuih' r;illjcr l;i«liiui(uljlii in tt'rtjiin iiiiurlcni 
to ii^iiril ..viTvlliins "s xi wlioui .■xercixc, due l<. m, muiiiHliikiil.lf teii.UiiCT to iii<ii«nre 
liiibyl<nii,oi wMicilorai norkx ivllh .iiiollii^t stHiiilinii than tin- "lilcTiiLy '• iuid "^deiitifiu" 
l.roiimtions of tiMlay. As ilbifitnifud hI«o by Vol. XIX, Hut,' .ire, of i-ourso, iv 

ivith tlu' piirjiiHo iif llu'lr |ir(^'rv:itiuii. .VI tk' aiinie tiuie it kIiouM lir ki'pl ill mind 
tluil, il" It ruh', ill iiiicii'tit liubyliniiii kuvIi cxi^n'jrit's \T('I\' dl'^'11'oyl'd imiiuil Intel y iifkr they 
had Ix'i'ii written. ThlK Ik iiiLi{ily li'stilled hj the very iiuiiieroiisi i^eniix uf iuscrilittl ftay 
lalileU inti'iillonidly iiiwi-e.! out of KhnjK', whieli we K:itheiiil fiiim the floor of the 
Tt.ni[ilo t^eliuol at Kijiiiur. 

In ihiH lir-l iinblinilioii on tlit- ■|Viiiplp Librarj- of Nippur, It was thc> iiiteutimi of 
tbu writer to j^ivii Ai»'yrIi(loKi''li' iw ohjoi-tlvo uii iiislglitus possiWle intii llie real euudiljou 
of tile Tiiuleruil «t bl« ili»|iosul iind tlui iiiuiiiier iit ivhieli thi' texU ben' puliuiittifl nre 
iii«'ribeil inid iirrHiigiil uu the orij^liiiilji. lie, therefore, biii' iiijilBd eveii iiiBprl}illoiia, like 
theObveMiufNiw. 2;((<-t-. Pl«. Vlllund Vl ), 2.(, ;i7, Ihe Jtevoiw <if Nu. 3«, tlio ti-sts 
given as Nos. -il, J-l, ■10 aud I'l. XIJI, which with the same right wiiiid be ela«"in<»l aa 
syllahurie.. and lexiei.grapbieiil tjdilels. l'\ir a |i™[>er distiission of thin fciiwl of cuiiei- 
fbrm li'xiK tbe mider in rclened lo Vol. XXI.whkh in in tiie cmrse of pn'paratjoii, ami 
to Chapter V of llic present voluinn {" Diw.rlplinn of ■[■ahlels and llulns," pp. 6llf.). A 
few oliBervatioiw may he added tii ehuuilalu wime of those iuHi-riptiouu. 



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Till' eliiiriU-lcr i.f tlu' tiibU't- licR. tiTHtfil iiinl llic. ilUlU'iiltv of tl»! Ch-.*b H'Xt in 
ivliia flic fiiinuiLs niiiiiWr .if I'l^itii «iiiu'!M-s (if. Cluiiiur II, pp. 21l-:[l, (k1i.«) iiuido it 
iicfcTKiiy for iiif to H|.|«.'iii fu lilt fritud^i hikI i-oll.>imiic^ in lU'- Cnivoi'sity of i'tiiii- 
-ylvMiiui. Fur tlir .■li.^mliMl 11111! iiii.'iM«'"|.i.nil tiii.ilvsL. i.f llic cUiy of MTlaiii tiib- 
\,-t:^ Viri-Pruv„,t X>r, VA-ff„- V. Smllli mi.l l*n,f. Dr. Aiiio^ T. llr.,«ii aiw-cvo my 
lniittiLVt- tliniik^; ivIiLk. Vt.A ]>i-. E. ^. CriinUy iv,is iiUviiy,. nM.ly li> UiiU .1 iiiiiiJ in 
H-jlvins Liiiitliuiiiiiticwl i>nil,li'tii«, -.wA I'lv.!'. I)i'. \V. A. l.iiiiii^TMn s|.ciit an .■iitiii; cvriiing, 

nritiiigs ami .■iiiililuiic liiiii I" prolil .,ll„.nvi-i,. froii. I.i> [ir.ifoinia l<ii„ivU.,!^r,. „f (hvk 

Nilion of Ihr r.iivcr-ily of IVniisylv^niii.. liii- rmUh-.y 111.' wiiti'r lo priK'iiiv lliii Iminl- 
s.)mi> plii.li,typi> llhistnitlollM f. I »l tlir I'li.l of Ihix vi.lillili', iviiu'li l.u (Ms slirp nil! U' 

ik-sirt-. alsM to isiniss liis iviinii appnvialii.ii to Mr. II. (.'. Jlorcrr, uf I ),.yl.slo\vn. 
I'll., tor hi" iiiiiny siirif-^Ilil dforls ill linking I'lmriforii. tiiiilolH of our lliil.yloiii.iii ih.I- 
Iwlioii-- ill his kiln nnil thii^ hi'lpiiij; lo piTsiTif tlirai, .mil ti. [>r. Tiil.-ott Williinii", 
lui'iiiWr of 111.' lloiiril of Miiims..is of lliv Tiiivi'isity .\[iis<.HiiL. who lor livciily y.^iirn 
hiiK tiikcn 11 (Mraiiil ioliM'M in our rMLyloiiiiii) n'»Mr<'lii'>'. 

fi-oiii :Mr, I'k-klry Itriiiliin Ccixu, Jr., N^iii-l'ri^l.li.iit of llii- 1), purl mini oi' .Vivlianilojy, 
iiunHvi,.riiii; iis 11 iiinii iiml .1- :i frl,.Mul, «li<. iK.l only iijiitimieil jpiicmnKly to jirovulo flu- 
nii'iin.' fiir Itiu pulilif-jitinii of tin. (■]i]i.'.litioii work, lull tosi'thfr nilh I'rovo-t Ur. C. C. 
lliirrisoii, llr, Simni-I I-'. Houston, ['ri^siilriil of the riiiv<T.-ily .\lii«.inii, iiiwl .Mr. .1. 
Levi^riiig Joiius — all in<-iiilx.iv of lliu Pulilii'iilion C linnniittii' — iiiid niiiiiy otlii'i' iiii'iiilii'rx 

uinl entonrnKins iiini in llic ibrt;.>t lioum of lii^ lili , 

II. V. llir,n;i;i[['r. 



yGoogk 



LIST OF AlilSKEVIATIONS. 



yGoogk 



Vn lUrlidnBlwl ca -^ 



yGoogk 









C .N 1 


E N T S . 




I. 


Ox Tl 


K \<.r Of U.M 


VLi.MAN Ll 


.:«.vii:n, , , . 




11. 


-Mn.r 


■l.ir.lTK,^ .,NI> 


l.iv,.„«- T 


.... 




11. 


Asm. 


, l^lThllAS, Sl[- 


. A„.u:,„ 


, s„.i,. 






IV. 


A Xk 


V CllHWOLOl.T. 


u, l.„T , 








V. 




I.TI1.N <ll' T.lll 

.1. .\iLt.>gr,ipl 
/;, l'liot.,ly|,(. 
'.,:i, Ti:^TH Ai 


lt.'|.1'.Kllltli 
lltliriiliHlii, 


„. . 




riii 


11. 


''"'""' 


Z'Z' 


.IN^ , 






I'lllte 



yGoogk 



yGoogk 



ON THE ACE OF BABYLOMAN I.l'l'liliA'l U1!R 



tLiin« 1 1 .1 i»irt 1)1 111! hrjilii iwiii M I 

nliiili I I nttli mi»>ii ' iiIki »<is < ilkcl 

OiniKN \ I \i It il 111- till nli<il< IH1I3 oniiiEi 

(lentUK ».» U. Iliu t IJi u .1 >t 1 ml Liii ki 1 li4) - litwl .iikiIIkt (i.r 11 tiumuti }' 
ll.u I mul f<><>f >.iiui]ur t.. IIhm of .1 lliui) but ^itlij iiiukI lo th< Ml " t 111 111 1 Jt ilex) Il l<l H 
hiiiiiiiii \.>Ki viid I rqiK-^iitntioii iif lujii i" [in^tr^nl <uii t IIih iliiv fliis In in;; it 

m^liiKkclm II III III! LiinntuU'c i.t nritin^, ol miiiik'x iii>Uur\ kitxl ol lit li< liii^'lit 
tliciti liiin to ^lllc ton til liMoniti-iKt liuitili" tii iiitiixUiii linsiiiiil t > 14 | Ij lli< jiriii 
uiii«s.,f s^iHi-liKil kiMnUiU-. M I III 1 s (. '^m iim! Iim lo^rttlnffiiiit 
111 '<li rt L( iii'ttriKti'd nifii 111 tlip iiiltiiK <>t liti 1 roiii llmt 

iiiuit. J'lit nluii tUt Bill) Hit tl t { liiii^i ii^iiiii mill tilt 'o.d iiid 

iibjili ill iiiglit Jti till iltip, tur 11 w f~, iiii] }i]b) 1 



yGoogk 



Biroaiii HtatemiiitB nitL regml ti tlu until 1 ^•, \m\ lii-t irj if liin onii j pnjili 
liiiYf bull Ko iiiiiph (siiiliriniifl h\ ciiiii ifi)rm iliniinmiff: ' tli it lit tin i lit*! ni mm a-»uiiii 
«ilh -lUU thifL MAS II KU pnl Bilul iii t fr J ti ii i c i Iiti., t «! h fl lie^i ijiinR. 



tli 1 h I il t I «( M I I il 

1. iiuti i ll sum 1 il 1 1 111 111 

tim. liiiiinhii'L'dlM.mtlicrLnviik.bl. .Ii-h.i w ihs miul, iii tb. il.'. iK.'i I'Inih. ul Niilliii 
Tdl), liini Bi,.iiiiljii,aml ibil llubbs, n bitli tt i iiim1> rtU c-hiiuti l.'i.l u- buck uilo tin 
tliinlainlliiurtlipri'-Cliru'tuLULiiilliiiiimiii'i Tii-ilH i\m_tli n.i.irl\ niiii lis I Li'nl mm 
intuiid bU.ritiiro, (Hitiiiti natiinil coiidii lui-, mid (i)iii| ii-Mni" mill mil lishiblnl t-cl ludH 
liini tltcniRfUcs iiiiMtHbl^ upiiti iih \\i km » li i <-< lUiiii ibiil tin I'eimiuiiiiliM.lv lii.li 
state ,.t (ivih/HtMHi t^mhIciI bi v„<|i i.ii.iiiiiiiuit>- i- / tli. ii^.'-ng,,,,, irchi-i, 
ndU niiil .Iraiiis' the. stili. of ^ lU ,n oimiii iih kiiimi ii- tlu -1< 1< .t Miltiirc^ 
i^n-(t( I )>} lijiiiiiiiitiiiii '' n b 

tfru gitiit iliiilH iind tlio <v, tf k 

gjiilH m loptur ttitb mil t 

inliin t,ibl(lB .111 «liul — > 



■»tl C (i 1u bin 



yGoogk 



HUM lii»c Ih III tlio 11111 It 111 u grmliial di Mlopim 



ll.-.r III Ml II- 1 llll-Ul , Ll I I L Ll L H) .11 \I\ J,s 

(iiH-i,»i ,.1 llii II. « ,bn,iit.livK-il ti.i^jiiuil,iml.iiHl,>,l>,i,i'l HJi.l llmtiiii IVUiH fur- 
niiili mutcnal tti->]mft tliiit Mil JiilivlommB liiul tmilitHii lii follow tWii politiciil hiitorv far 
Ujiiiul 111. lime of SarKiHi 1 mil Niii imAiii (( 'i^KlBt , (f nm|itpr IV, Ixlon), 
h; luuins nf ini i< iit IihIh ciiiil inning tin. ii iiiiu~ iiiiil n'i^ii'< of ut I. ititt UH iiiutij pre-l r- 
riii,'iiiii riili.i» i-f iM kniiv til hint lut'.l Iroiii I r-EiiKurl.' hiiiiii tunc l>etwcii 2"ilK) nii.l 
i MXJ IJ ( I to tin full .if Brtli; Ion U'ii<i B C ) In i>t)n i sun.ls nt » iii'>dL'rate HBtiimiK tin 
l^il>\ li>n).in vli.iliir^ ol IIk ktfr |u rioii vii« alilt' to time tlio livtorj i)t tktriimiitn 
dil jli iLijinil]) ]|~ fur biiLk II. 111. f lorth nulUuumhi liptoM .ml tifl ' 

Tins .1 HM nut nml ti, MiipiM n- r,in-niknng tlic ftHrtliiifc hiit «oll-f.Jiiml..l fiWillH 
.il.t.iin.'.l \n lIummA .iii.l » in. kl. i lliiougli then . Mminiilion ol tli. niliiui^ol firbiiii 
Halijloniiiii nioiitliH. A^ i-iirly hk 1H1I1, Iloiiimel liiid .Imwn l1i<^ uiniiliiHioii from the 
iluxigiiiili.in iif Thuiiiiiiz iiiiil Kiiil, -.m llii' niiititli iif Hiiniii},' iiii.l tLu month wliini tlir grdii 
if ill till' Oiir, Unit tli.'W.' tiv., iiii>iilIiH iiin«t hiivo fiillun imidi iiiirller than in liiutoriiuil 
liini-!., wliun tlioy f.nTpK|»iinl to our JiiiU'-.luly iinil AiifpiBt-StplemItT n'njiwlivply. lit 
wrote iiK fiilliHVH:' "Jii •'•uli/i- ilrr^fl/irn [aniY. ihr Moiuihiinmiai] wiTititn fnt/ar iih Uebrrhkih- 
™? d;er wx'h frliheii'u X-U [.'f. Iiis AufmUr uiul AMaodliwgoi, pp. as.") mid 460] 
bezrieliiiH ifm/.w. l>,>i,i >,-ri,u. ih-r umi-Fim-hf Jfami- ilet olxrleii., Iirzm. TOr 3^,110 w. Chr. 
<lntl<", lloiinUiIni X«,af>i "Aiismiil," di-r xeehtlf (licz«: frmfir) olfr "Arlire di-r (intlm 
hbir," I'Tu niifilii Eriife I'lid 'Inn Deexi-hm irelal, Keiuit, to jKumt hier ih-ii Ltiiideaetrliiill- 
Wiw'" w.i.'A imUr iltr .Mi (hf:ii\ ,/imi) fiirs trutciv, nnch iIt fie/ifeuilinr firm: Anffiiil 

or wliidii'f.lindou, "KoilyI'sliyl"ni.i"'listi.ry,"p,ie,nnM1,aiiilp.a21; IfaHoii, "4 Skelpli lit R™111c Ori)rinB," 

Ihis tsMi< mis piiUWird hf EUon Splon Og*n 1" /. -1 , O. S.. Vol. XSTO, pp. 19F. D. An unpiibliahf d si™e lahlpl 
ol Ihc Ilnliylnninn Muaeuni of the Tlnivcwlly ill P.-iiiis(lvniiln, to iippaar In IlUpretbt, B. F.., SmIm A, Vol. 1. Tiirl 3. 



A , F.. Hrrllc BrUic (XIII), p. SOS 



yGoogk 



h-ffcml lirtr/wu K;., /mimi mlint ; 'l.u.n/ ^iml ■'■!,■.,/«,■ i„i 7. ,<.lrr /,,•.■ S. n,r/n-idl!c!,en 
Jn/,rtvM-ml; ,/<■«» „m-/, f.llh:..r .,„/„i. ilie MUlf- ,let k'i-c!m-« !.„ M.,:- ISUQ v. Vhr. ,1m 
FrTili lhig»]>ii iii-l eiii."' 

WiufkliT iu-1-iM'.l lit siiiiiliii- n>i,U-; in lii:^ <IWiu<^ioii i.f llic sisiiiliniLiw of IV //.' ^;! 
Oi IH of llu' ]i»l>vloiMi>ii m.MW, Willi Llii' <'om's,v,ii<lnig ^^A^ jilaml nlDiigKlil.'-j. SiHii.: 
of Lis m>K Liiii..irtiLiil -.■iiUmiii^ innv U. nn'iMiliii'fil Ij-'ir litfnillj :" '■/>"' Mmmhl!,'!'- 
z.-;.il d,-«IU.-h. ,l;m .Ik I ■,-ri.U"->,i ,1.-,- Mon»lr m. ■!!(■ n,K,l,mi (fr.lhr nm' Z-il c.jvfw-w/:/, 
«-o il«s J.-I,i :„• SVvfH b';,..m. .1 h. iru i/.c S.m»e hi .f<« ZtUUmj.;. ■wfy'iiiif, «lm i«-m-li.-n 
5700 uml S.W." . . . '•!>:.■ 3[:m«ie XU'.ii ,.:,<! .Uni Mml .:1m n-'l «,Aln- i-m.. I-Uiih' .Uv 
Jn/i,f- ";. .i:.- S,,.r..' ,„,..l:l •,;.i->J.;i, «A ..,.„. ./.;. A .....ikU-l. .,<il .ffm HV-,y.v/"c(v„ .I.t 

)««:] ""./ .'(> /■:.:>/.■ !.i M..i-T.i>,: [=f:M^filll, m filirl ,h.^ ,...f <■:,„■„ rri!l,/:,>.jm,,/m,., 
im Z.iehi:i .I.-' lii-'lws -i-hi- Mg.ii- ihv Lihiru, ..Im ra,- Hmo. .In... »,» '1770 i: VI:: nl..n.l- 
ille .'^ui.i.r l„ d.r Jlilh </(■- A'ir'w,'-." . , . " ll.r 3/.m.,/ «»., ,W AV,v,„, ..-l,-,! .<U„ hitr 
IWii^„"ni (\l. ST-lMl] ■'/" .hr M..aal .1.:. J../. „■»/,,/, „.,,■, -/,■» /■',-r'hJ;/.rm,./,'h'«-/!.i„.s. 
I,r/,.'..ilil/, .n.- M ;.,. 7. J:h-I'„.m.<l (In- F.i/I .r,„: Jlir .m,l!m/m/ie i,ml \Vrim../ft,m'l 
nrl„„-l ,lt„„.neh .io.-li mil .lc„ d..„.,ili'j,;, H»l.:.t,:«i,n, ihr M..,,.<l.- 'lofl ,.lrl,l mil th-ma 

lhr.T y^-ii." 

"J}.,* Glm/.e. ijlll -■",. ,/-■,■ wV/, m.,l,'kh .u. '11.- M.^ .u.s.'hlli-'^.:,.!,-,. Il.-z.4ch. >.,./, ,ki 
Mm.:U M, ..U .mil. ...wl lllhll, .he 3I.W..I do l/e.yilol.-.y.i* .1.:, Illl.ll {Fcmy.lll, .lemi 
•lien.;- fh-hjl M:.,.i.llhl. .10 Jh'if i.'irl. d.:,i tn\l.j.'linf.:il<; •."■■li ilrm \Vi.ih<.::-*Ul::i il.-r 
tV.\l.jf.h,-^.H„.- [.\fnfd.ik-T...,..it.,-\ Lend,. Aim ..m-l, Ukr ...l^prlr/.t ,1k wy/-«/'-/<WiB 
He,k,.hmy .h' Ah .1.:. ]WI'i:lli,l^.-'i d.'^ 7. M,.-l,..,..;,d»r 

Wiiii-klcr, iu mliliii-iiia iion ]iiui>r tliiLl liiil.yloiii, ytlir.loftj iTnts liii^-olj vi|k>ii 

KStniiLinm-, sboivs lit tlm wnmc! liim; tliiit tin- ]>iLi(Hl r.'Hwhvl h\ iiiiiiiy .if tlin ralcmliir 
uiyllis i« tilt tiiiip littffi'i'u tliv «ixtli iiii.l tlf (iiiulli j^r^-Clirisliiiii iiiilleniiiiiins, anil tliiit, 
(Ligmivcr, l!ii» iK'riml in nhifli (lie Scniitit HdliylDiiinn civiiirnitinn sri'W iitid diivi'lii|ipii, 
SrmluiLllj sii|"-i«ci!ini; tliu Siuneri.Lu .mil v\ny«]n'n: iiillnfnwd by llic liittiT, wiiK IIh^ 
fuuduintiilul jicTiiiil fur tlio ciifiii.' fiillinviiig t-iv ill M lion jti^uei'iLlly a.i<isnatu.1 H« Itabjlciuiiiii, 
111 liiler tiiiiw till' aiH-ic'iil biirning nan ri'^irilwl an the tnm onis.^ 'niii art of Houtiisiy- 
iiig IIUI.1 liiviiiation, ai'iiinlinj.' tii a ennuifijriii iii«(:ri|)|.ioii, origiiuih'il ivitli Ei..i>i'-Diirnaki. 



yGoogk 



I 1 k „ I Ttrr.>s (11 It. ( 

L L b cl I a -1 tl w ( t 

I V I -9 1 9 tt 1 tl f r HH n»Ut I " 

O c k vl Ijcf f Hal lo t. 11 r II p 

Jur I 1 pH Iro 1 1 1 f r t \ I 
tl col ] I H otU t u I tl 1 I ! 
ji I ir-w Hi tie t ■a fAU 1 J 
allj t 1 U \'« r 1 BiKtMll 1 

K J juk IKl « e t f r 11 f 1 vt 1 1 ^ I 

kf n (. I B I t !■■( »t ! u «o f tl t III) 1 r I Ills 

«i-«t. 1 I I II r I I 1 fl tl ". It I rt i t 

of tl t uj, 1 f,-! „ 1 I I II II 1 t r J J rj Ml 

to I t t y px |l^ 1 u t, I „ K (. 1 r ^ tl lii„ 

n t. ] lists of archaJc signs and picture characters (t t I I tl 

Ass r « llrtlll I U f I I I I II II t,l Ir- ^ 

utti -1 t) fBh lA luc I \ I M |[ -J Jtt IK o f I r 

li,\L \ ol V ( r T" R II ( t I ) Or the hymn of thanksgiving by 

Nebuchadrezzar I I tl 1 t I f I tl ) I I A .bO A 14 1 

111 II same king s song of lamentation { r r 1 tl \ K A 

thetviofragmentsof royal letters A 4 I A II I If tl 

t il r > U k "s 1 tl ^ tl I tl t < II 

1 I t I r I r I I I J 1 J, I r t «. t tl ^ 
sit l^rt CIrx II n Or the Inscription of the Cassite king Agum 
Kakrimet. IMH It C ) k ui\ Ij t i} f I r III j N ) 



yGoogk 



the collections of laws ivrLttin. on A' -Vi-2"y, llio. 377, iiml otIuT tiiMi'ls' ntnl tlu> 
iiii]ii<'i'(iii>< t'rii;j;iii<'jii^ of the £ranimat[co-1e};al series <'ull<>il itim iiiUlm. nliii'li mi ai.-- 

diiim1<'rUi<M)fUi.><Mn-i!iibvloiiLiLu«nitr;ipl«,piiinUt"llivMimlmillniiimiLibet;mi(1iHKt 
■M the pciilwUIr (InHMjf ill iwiipihitioii.- Or, the legend of Sargon of AgadefA" ;.! 101 
+ ««. :il IW, A''M70)r "III. is «il,l to Uhvo liv«l :il«iut :U10O miis Is^ftiiv .V,;liMil>iMiii|Ml. 
or the tablet of omens retrrrln^' t« iW "mw f^,v-,.m niuj hi:- ^ui X»r^iiii-.Siii liiiJ ovi- 
.U-iitly i"iitiiniiigliMmi™lfiv.tsljii«il ii|>oii aiiciml Ili-Ih of .lull's.' Or the legends of 
tlammurabi, Ubit'lshtar of Isin, Dungi of Ur, Naram-Sin and other early 
kings pul'li«'i'''l ''y l<^i"K ii' "Ciiiu'ifonu T.'xts," Vol. XIII, I'ls. 11-17, l!l~rt'.' ComiMirc 
aWA"SS(r.4- l(l,2:i« + l(>,SMS,iiiil A']l,.?,Ni\vil]iJoliiisiii"Amcwnii.1..iirnahifS,.|iiLtio 
Luiit^iiigi^." Vol.XVril.Xo. :ii'-Aiie«-imU->^iofAKluir").!niilH™.lil'«miiiirk«iiiZ^I., 
Vol. XVI, [1. lUf. 

Ill i,mte II tiiiiiil»'i'or<':)s<« till' inliTJiiil uvhkun' m\M lK'sii]>j.url^Hl l,yj^nhs,'.|iM'i.t ,lis- 
i-nvcri(« iiii.l i-si')iviitioii,i. Tims, r.y., the legend of Adapa, kiioM-ii tii)io A'S'2I 1 iiml 

r, 1-11MI n,C., tl,iiiii;;li/;.r/;.-. r.-1.. 7'A..;.{.V,cIiti-<Il>v \\'iiirkkT.iii.lAI>el, TI,.„>hMf..,.,l 

iM„i FJ-Am„ni.'. V. itifi, II Hiiil li. The legend of Btana (W. i«]>iiii:illy K->i\i)t\ iiml 

.It Uiist !.t till' liiiR' i.r IJainnuuiilii Itf. tl.« friifiniciit |.iibHsli..l l.y Sdi.'il in lt,-^,,nl. Vol, 
XXIII, Xi,, I.\'.S'lii^ X..l.'~<rrj,!;,mj,l,ir fl ,n,Kk.-:.lo.jk .«../.■->""-«).' Porli.inM of tliu 
Oilgamesh epics, for tlir );nnttfr j«iit iilitc.t l>y Hiuijil in rti^ JSuhijliHiivlii- Kluirod- 
'■/.o-.-' K..r.. iirov.^1 liT Jlpissiicr Ii. Millnh'ny<;. ,hr Vonhi-'tmitmhri, Oe^lU-h-ip. \\*n, 
P).. lir. (<-r, PinclifH in /'. ,V. i'. ,^., V.W\, J*U. « iii>.l Stl. to Imv.^ .'xisfi'tl in ii .lilluif .it vor- 
nion ut tlw liniK of th.; fii'st ilynusiy of Iklijlou (Hn-Ua, V.A., Th. ■HO.'.l. T\v.: Icyen.I 
altniilK'i) til tlio nHLiii' of tin iini-i.'iil king of Cuthah ( AT^IK, A' TiU Id, A' m%2) ma non 
l« slii.Iiud fr.,111 H niiicli «arli.'i- fi-iignient. (r. 2(XK) B.C.) pobllslieil Ijj Sclioil in R^i:,:-!!. 






yGoogk 



\ ol \X 1 1 (Kif \o; \X\\ The story o£ the Delude I I I ■< Tr 

lum n H I „ e t of tl e roj 1 1 1 r r\ ^ v l>^ t II k t I 1 e f 

K g V ?i(! g b) ti e 1 f u t 1, t t tl c -j\ I t^ I Ipt t |«>s t 

uliale Jt W P? lso| llsl U) -h1 I /(r I \ul \X \ote X_VX 

«li I Ui story of a creation of men 1 il t <a 11 hh M f rral t o A A!J> 

I A 1 1 i ( V tE wl I i A H^ tl c -*- tl 1. 1 1 t t tl I t tl 

I t M 1 k) I I f n (, 11;/ r tl I II | I 

J )1 1- r 1 l*lo g J, [< tl |K i I H 1 1 I 

If f to 11 ro H tHl 1 t 1 I -(iwl k f \ 1 I 

I r tl t h fa t p t 1 t 1 tl 1 t 1) 11 1 H I 

M 1 1 ( / I ( I E I \ 1 \ N +1 1 44 H ]«r Iwtl 

/ / / I s 1 11 / / / / j//f I II /jio e n a 

W tl I 1 tl 1 « I 11 n„ I L Ir 1 «, t 1 Hj 

lU 1 Ik r \ r U^ 1 I I g ll t If, tlol ^ 1 1 « V 

1 ) « I 1 t M In Ts tr I (r 1 ),i 1 ( H ll ^r 1 1 r 1 »ri 

I Ik t ll II ur r \sl I). ] II 1 t 1 1 tl 1 I ui tl I rst ly t) 

fill (1 tllM I 1 , / / /// I ( / I 

1 // ] 4 ( U I S) iJ ?f I Ijl I J «l 

Hi \ ( I It II tl k mill Id g 

I e I I rj 1/ I I i I J lij l( Id d 

I ft I I If Jtl I I V (I / I ! I I Z I I hl»lj 

lu Ml I I I fj I I I I I I k " I I I II I 

\ f»l I I I I I I S, I II « I J Ifj I f I r a 

I M dv II '■^ I ( „ii r / D / I 1 1 1 I I a 

II I t U J> ill t I II Im Ffl I I 11 II k \i» l« 
J f { I I J I I I I U ] -m I « /. cl II i / I U 

r«6i a (J'.uiU <lii drilliii Julirliiiuniilx ». CAc). Ami ul alii-r tlm-h melil (intmicliiiifH, dast 
>!cli dh- M-i/loHlmiln- Jli-Hi/wn !„m;-l,;lh d!,wr :«>r! J«ln-hu^;id,-- iilrhl ,lm-l- eei-Ttmlfrl viid 
m-iUr mUrh-MI. luUle. ; n.-lm,-hr hu/in, wir •imli-rifflllur dlivtlr Sd-'ujiilMAi; die /••■Hii:i»e«, 
/hta lokhe Watemilwiekliing, me j.i iiaeli slbelci-rtlihitUlcl,, !„ il>-i- Till 'hill ijefmuiea 
hat. Die iiHn eoiTiiyeiideit Ifyiitiieii ami (lehele neieiilirrn iliiriiiit m iMiriiuiiii'n iiickl 






yGoogk 



Anfange 



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t f tl -ec I I iwi f Ij I I ] 1 1 1 1 pe I rc 1 th 

to 1 r I 1 11 t Ml b n oiiRi 

If f,l t k I // I I 77 1 1 I U I ( t « ir t 

It] I t) Iti 1 I 1 V I // NJ II tl i SH^ b t 1 

) t II tl 1 t t U I 1 t t II t tl O I i 

1 b I tl 1 cccl I 1 I 1 It I! 1 Ih- I tl 1 ! 

>, I (, ll t 1 Irol "1 1 tal 1 I h I 1 f 1 1 B I I s- 

n. I I 1 ro I ;, 1 1 1 trl I I t ll ( f tl k e t tl I) tj 



1! ( 


1. 


1 1 


f,l «. (fi 111 1 


1 l« HI <« 1 1 


1 1 II 


t 


1 1- 


llti t II t.- 1 t , t 1 


1 -W Igt 


1 1 tl M 


I 


1 t, I 


1 ( II b 


f b I les f 


t in I tl 


1 1 1 <J 


k 1 1 t tl It 


t t la tr 


el >ab 


1 11 


i f fl tl 1 


11 1 1 (1 1 


1 llj 1 cci 


y K B yy 


L</l 


IJ-. ,, 


fH 1 \ \ 


J 1 181)8-] KX) 


1 M 1 


f V 


1 J- II 


\ '•ji C 190 1 


1 1 tl frft t 


t ll<»t 




t t 111 
1 k t 


II tl tl 1 t, 1 
tl 1 11 11 IM t 


1 rm l8 It 


i» It 




-ifJI 1 


t. R 1 1 tl 


m It 


|rxt 


1 Ih 1 1 tx 


t. {, 1 rb t 


It. lit 


1 


t tl xa t 


11 1 1 tl 1. 1 


t t liH H»nl 1 


1 " 1 


1 tl 


Im iRt t 


1 1 t 1 11 hi 


1 111 <) ll 



th 1 1 tl 1 tcnir 1 t fl t tH I 1 1 I I I 1 I I— « 1 In 

tt|llltpp(fn'*'l 11 II "■ r ^ 

1 I t 1 t,«l tl t 1 I t I }, I t tl h. ]l fill 1 
th I ;, I, 1 t I II 1 B, t 11 1 II t i (, t I 

11 ibltcllUljp.' 1 1 I l}>i<£ I 

lo.'al W t I tl ™ it I iHtrt Itl tl t 11 lltl 1 1 fBaljl 
1 1 tl k r \ I n 1 1 1 1 It t 1 t tl tiiu i H ml 

M} r i •.eel gatDii. iii ci.iiiiiO(.fii)ii n-itli llii cnrlinit instiiliHl lalikiH nnd artiHtic 

rPiimitisfniiiiTfllftiiinlKuffarwere sinomwl up tliii»; " Aiu-ienl SnmprmLii.rtHinl science 
linvn gniclunlly ili'^i'iiisratoil iiiidur the Semitic iiivmltts. It in truu in a-rbiiii lipoclin of 
uatlonnl impiirtiiiiLt h lauiliiblo rciiaisiaiieii took plnco, Hinl [iiucli tliiit in Korlby of reeog- 



yGoogk 



10 Llih 1H;ji|>I.K MBIilliY Of MITUn. 

iiiti.m wii:^ !n,-,.ni|.li,.l„.,l ill niiiny .1.'|iufl.iLu.iits in llu' <liiv« of tlir kintc^ <.f I'r. of n H.ini- 
iMiiiiilii, „f llio i^V-S^[l': [=I«iii]' 'lyiiai^lj-, iif nil AHl.utbitiii.i«il .iikI a Nol.iich.L,lr.^.Kar ; 
but coiniKiiTil B-ilb tUiit Uijjbly .l.^vploiH'd civiliMtiou on tin; tbnwhDld iif tlip fiffli iiml 
fi>iirth niMlfUiiiiiniH, tbc iirw xlioiitij an' rntly iiiiwriibUi iilli-rpiinlbs iit* u ^niit pcriml cif 
bHlrjioiidcnt I'n'Bliuii Iniij; piHt."" Iti iinlcc to iiiiilcrBtiiiul iiikI Hp]iiiH'iate tliie nm-iciit 
f'liiicliim<>iital pi'iiiid iii'irii fully tliaii i« jKMiible ill prc«piit, wo mill iiii iiiOTCiiKi'(l iiiiMiV'r 
.if nifrary mid ix-ioulllk- UhV'U Mvr tli^ui tliu K.ivctitti ('^'iiUiry, »lil<-b will viiiibki w ta 
tr;i™ th« v»fi(,.is l.niH.-lH.B .if As-ynhKiihyliniiiiu litcnitiirv iiuil tliP .■oiilciitx of (rrlabi 
repriiKeiitativi' toxtK »tc|i by -tep lliroiisli t.lio ti'iitiirku i-vcii fiirtlicr Imck tliiiii ivc «m d.i 
Willi tlif iimteriiil iilrviiily pHbli!<bi-.l, nml wliii-li luiiy c-veii lirlp iih t" .li'lfriaiiif tin.' plii.'.>, 
time iiiiil cironniHtiiiidii <if tlii'ir .iiigliinl I'miipiisitiuii iiiiil IIik i'l]aiif!;i.a tbi'v iiiitiiiiilly iiiiist 
liiivp iKLlrrgoiif ill tlio rtmiwj of miliuniiiiLiiiB iiuiitr iliiriTcnt ]KjliLicul iiti.l vi'ligious cni- 
ililiovm iiiui many iitlifv itidiifiiifu Tlu> liival nsiilt will doiilit.l.-KH prcnc tlif m rivet iluhh 
of till' view of (lie cxtraonliiiury iisu of tin- cutiri' Bflbyliiiiiun civiliaitiiiii iiiniiitiiincil iiy 
H<'rcfiHS, nn.l ill VPry (■■weiitini loatiiiiw alri'inly «irrohoniti4l liy iiiikIi'I-ii AiSKyri.ili^ifiil 
rfflt'Hrdi, Till' lexis from thi> Tt'iii]ilr Lilii'iiry of Nippur piiliiislic'il in lliis iiii.l otli.T vul- 
uiiips .if a-riort A «ill, il \b liopuii, iu>iitril>iit« lliidr hIuiit l..«arilH till' solution of tliB 
pmVileiii by *-naliliii^ m t.i lv»w (lip .lim.'iTiit braiu^u^ of jkliyloiiiiiii lilcraliuvbiio«ti 
from thi. library .)f A*luirl«iiiaiKil (t. "■"i*! B.C.I to I1h> iiiidilU- of tii.. sfiiiiiii «iid U, Ihf 
iiiidilkMif Hk. tiiird milleiiuiiiiu. nii<l in ^oiur ■ .,-- m.h ■.,..;,. „. I ii. 

[ii lb.' fir^tc-lmptf'r.levotnl lotbis-iil-'.. ' , |. ■ i ! I ■■ Nm |iriwnt voliimi^tbfl 

ivritir wlUfii.lr,i™rtosliW, liowiiwrUiiii .1 , I -liy il.'si.i^.nHtcl by lloaild 

ivsiiwlln'imitiniliii bin EiVfw/Hi' and "Oit.ilo^u.,' Inil )> |.i,.ail.>a .mly liy » few H|M.n- 
nioiisiiilboroyallilmiiy ofNiiifve, iiiiibe»tu.lic.ili,r Llii'limt time mdliodi cully wilii 
tli(-ui.l oftlioiniportniitiii.'u-iii»t.'riiil iiuido iiviiilulili-tbiiiugb tiiuUiM-uvcryof Lli.^'lVnipli' 
I-ibniry .if Xip]mr. As far as iiin.-.iillicd au.l Ktudip.1, tiiu. libriiry coiiHijits of two iiiri;!- 
i-oll«:tio[iMorijibli.tHiiii.lfr.ipiienlK, likB the libriirj' .if ,Wiui-liiitiii]i!d lif. p. Ti, iiol« :t). 
diHiivm-.! ill two dilfi^rait liuil.liiiKu "I tmi dilllTiiii jBirls of tlic mound. Tlio .mo, i-x- 
cavuLil in 111,, long lidgi. to tliu nvnt of llie S/,„// ^«-Xil,-^ «-„« iviill.-n ot llip tim« .if tlio 
CHSKito riilKTri (c. l&-jl» B.i::.), tho oilier, foiiiicl in th« birgi; triiiiigiiUir nioiind ojniiwilo it,' 
datw from tbf poriod of tiie fir«l ilyniwly of Inin (e. -iaw) B.C.). F.ir further d.'tiiilK ns 
t.1 tho iijrc ami coiil.'iifc. of ibe Toiiiple Library of. Vol. ,X] X, (niajitor I lin pri^si). Si>.d- 
nicns from liolli rall«-tions are KubmitttJ tii Ais'vri.ih^islB in thn liillowinf; ynffx. 



yGoogk 



MULTIPLICATION A\D DIVISION TAltLKS. 



K<»o)<l,m1iiM/,;/mrf''j'(l8m),|)]i.22r>f.,Miiiii>umtiHliiiilyKixinMTlj>fiuiis,l.lim'ol'ivliii'liiii'(> 
nitlu'r Itxii'iijrrMiiliiuHl in t-lmrwfiT.' Hhn'c tlii'i: a li'w miiru liililrti' linvo liwii mlilcil by 
riiit-lifK- and ICiiij^'' fmiii t.ho mlliuliotiK nf Ihc Brilwli JIii^ciiiii, by Mcis-iuT' .mil otliciH' 
tVi>iii UuH' of tU(- IWIlti :ilii>«'Uiiix, »ii<l Vy iii-h<-;\ fnm, ib<- i'I'HilIIk oI' bin o;i<m'!Uioiix ut 
(Vbfl ir.ibbii. Till! new kxia wUicli ive iiwi^ to tlu' last itieotii>in.il l''rein;b A»<yriolc«i«t 
iiru Ifii iuctnili)gU'ii! ti^xla {iiicliiiliii}; viiriaTitu iiiid iliijilii'iiliw, of. I'Sji/m; ]>|i. 41> ■14) anil 
tbn-c mHtlK'nmtinil \<-^U, No. 2HS) (,i iTHLltiplif,,!!,,!! talil,. : li,". X ] ).' «••- ■I'.'H,' iiiul Nd. 
(W.I (a tabli' iif «|iiapi! riKils, kiioivii iilwiily IVom I\' A." :!7).' H<-siili.« tlierc hav.i k^eri 
l>iibliBlii>il II iiiiiiilx'r iif tiijiograiiliinil |ilaiiH,'-' ivliiub iiiiiy k' ynjiiiK'il mnli-r tbi! spili'iiiI 



,il.^J«fr„n,X 


n.lux. rpiDi 


.™rJi,«loT,n™ 


iiiiiM'*.^;^ 


A(«*r.r«"*,7.. 


,L^Zl 


' . " " 


z 




.i„."r,V,i 






,C« ^a. 






M J. <l»«iirr ■ 












[s:«]. 


Ml 


itutlHkiO. »X1 




[7*11 770, 70), 


















i,rtlLi..Ui.: 


(■.M„Bl,.,l,>.i, 


I'B ■'- 










MSflmKlKaiW.l 












■"Cliwitn 




■l-«rtlX,.T«.S.-i, 




































„; (;;,«)-,*«». 


llorib. 








.1 31 to SO, 
















, Kipi'", \> 




~mh.^l in 1 








U-* 


s,™ri,„.J.l>l-il. 


.en.vh^w. 


„itn|,i„llI,l„U.l.. 




,li,.1,l,.,Ji„u,ll 








■ l)rs.-ril*.l 


ii,ja.h,.a 


iis"KjOTiw<fr™f, 


i»C' !.<(>,» 










t iit puW-b.li"0 


. (n^«i 


iiuule lliia liltk- I, 




,l,j„1^r:..p«Tj1r.lHi 










,.■■!„»«.;,(.»■ Iff, 


„l«.. mvi. 


w. (."fl.l, .-l, 


iH^ ol'io 




nil: 


WtkJ„:«i"l Jn 


■;v.rf/*i„/ 


i/^. K;n,r,,%(n„, 


Wh> wn^in 


*e Q^«Jr,fH,.I.I 


■■C"it. 


.1.,V 





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1 138 t liUltl m 1 t 1 I I t. 1 1 I jt" » I 

t c r L oTittlfeT Ml Rl 1 Ure I tl Iftlvol otiaCnbhj 

Bi II 1 t« 1 f irt bl fr u I v tH n f ^ aa tl Ht iili^l 

I u I I f I I vk I 1 il t I I I tl f rlMA JC 10) 

1 - (Ik II I I T I r iw t s t bl ) « 

I 11 T Ik tl - 1 tl I I 1 1 1 i ( 1 1 t nl p k \ J 1. 

t I ] III// I C tr I h g ri- \ Id 

I \ I Ik. I»l "-t 11 I f 1 u I I « I l» „ l~<clk 1 h 

1 Ig IM as . I ^ t tt It 1 Ik;, 

(A [fl 4 |Krl f IS, St t A sm 1-1 ( I 111 

Utt r 1 I I Ifn I --■ t i \ 1 ti I «.ll UK rtl 

Mr ttl ([,1 i 1 I '-I t I s I ir««>lly 

B ? Uh «pl / I \ I Wll It 

\( I gi r<l 1 I u tl I I t I t u f I to lo I 

oH stirf O kJ ft N».S,14 I-*.! Ilisitdf. 

IHi 1 « [),j/ N 4 s I i ( „ t ( I I |I t 1 I 

leg t <r ( f I 1 til <y- tit 



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n. ro.,t3 ill wvcriLl cipiuH,' .i bibU- .if rube roolK, 

( XI) fromSii,i«ir'(Nu. ^89), ftudlln-uthcr (4J)X1) 

J sajTum liHt Uiilijloiiiiiu.' Tlinnigli llit' diseovi'ry 

k iriwlcjgp (if till.' mntlH'iiiuticnl siiJ mptnili^iail 

w eo w prably,' Moru tluiii liiilf of tliu lablcls biiIh 

Lcniiitii'ul,'' wliilu Hixlt-cii ti'Xls iiifi tiic;tri)li>^[i:al. 

b I or triiiltil iritUoiit <lil1U'iilty rniiii tliu umh'riiil 

1^ it Ki'i'mtil wiser t<i fjiTi'iwi ii ii-rtaiii n'rtrainl, 

s cif lliiji yriliiiiii! :w isiiiipn'liciiHivi' iiM jiossibli', 

n iiiul Miilxlivi^ioiis of K<'i'i>'» A. Jkfiili'H, sotiio of 

llu-w ]iHgw ure hu InhIIv pi-esi'VU'il or bi> fmj»- 

i>v KtliPr l»irlr: of tliis v'iliuii<!, in the Iloih' tinit tbc 



yGoogk 



14 TMIO TI-JTI'l.U L1I1I!A1!Y ilF ^■|^■i■L'l;. 

llii> t;M<^ ol' Hiiiiiin'B given nil I'ls. 1(1 .mil X diffiT ti.>Hiewli«t IVoni IV W.' J7. in so llir 
(IK .l-/>U[ll.i] is 11..1 iis,..l ill tlif fivn \ii.|.iir U-xfn, .md Itiu ivrltlriK .if tlio iiuiiilKir IS» 
is i*i.'ii!inr i>ii I'!. Hi. No. 3(1. As imiliMlfil ;iliiiv.>, ].. 10. .iii.l »M<■^^ in .klail in 
till' '■ l)<w-ri]>ti.in ol"l'iib1i'le iiiiil Ruin.'" (Cli»i>t('r V). IIh' iiuilli.'iiiiiticiil iiixl iiiehiil.iginil 
bililrW li..fc piililislinl lidiiiig til 111.- wn.11,1 K-. l:---;!) ii.V.) luicl lliir.l (f. li-JOO jl.C.l pr.- 
Cluisliaii iiilllmimiiii^; llnv w.w liiU.ii fiinii livn C'lilkTliiiw .if l.iliUtw writti'ii lit tlie 
liiiii' of till' (lisiilf iiil.'rs ,111,1 111., kin;;,' ,.( tlic liist' .lyiiHxty ,>f Isiii ri«i»rliv.'ly. Tlif 
StHiiiH^rinii ]iriif(n'«i(iii I'l. I ■'•, Xn- -'■'i. (-Iiiinu'fi'iii-i'.l iiy llii' ]»i'iiliiir f.iiiii iif ifs Liilili'l.' 

lint hitor lliiiu 111,' «™iiid ilymisty ■■( Vr. 

AlltliiMiiiiili|.U,.iiti.iiitia.lL.t.siil™llt,.il«-,r,M'.'(,.Hv»(..,ll..v,iiiv.'s]«,lilioiis,itNi[ii.iir, 
,.,wii1 "!l X l"U-f. I'l-^. Ni>. ;l.'iinl"TiililiM,iT,itil,'iil«"). n-liii'li «™ |iiiivli,i«'.Hniili 
iiunthcr iiiiilli..mii(inil tiii.Ul} iiy .N..ni,ui, ii iiicmliiT i)f .mr liM mi.l h,.,»,ii,I ,.aii),i,ii(t!i!^, 
from Ai'iil», «'li.. intWiiii^i) liiiii Unit IhiIIi niiiK' fiMiii Alnl HuIiIki.' Aml> v.nu'ity \f t.i.i 
wdlliiirmii fliiLiiiR ^!.-iiiilisls 1,1 miiiir.. iiiiy illii«triili,iii .,ii iiiy [iiirl. \Vv imy hit.' jt (lir 
all tliul it is n-ortli. lint «<■ iiuiHt siir,-ly U- inTmlltnl l.i .lii.ii's;iiril iin Aiiili stiil.iueiit 

iimliipli,':itii>i. Lii>l,'oi>t;ii lliy X<h)H;iii foi ill.' (iiivi'ixily Mils,' did not come from 

Abu Habba, but from Nippur, ivlirn.'vi.l.'iillv il liEiill»i'ii«t,>liiii fruiinmi- tmidH'sor 
Hcrcdy li.'i'n vxruvakKl by mimu' Anililxl. J''.>i' tliix iiiMiii ii tili.iLiifrriipli iif Lliiit tiililct 
Kiis iilrwuly 11W.I in my (i.Tiimii ]'o,im;/, ]: (H), .\r>k 4:i, iw iin illiii^riiliiHi i)f(ini (■oiiteiilH 
.if till' U-mplc lil.iiiiy, fiiiiii nliii'li ;it flu' tiiiii' tlit I.tIiii'.' w.is ili'lin'ii'.l ami luiiitol I 
«ii- lli.>iisiii.l>< .il' iiiilof' iiivay. 'ill,' nlliiT iiiiilti.'iiialii'al liibl.'t just h-f.-rntl t<i will a|>|K'.ii' 
ill I'lirt 2 .if ill.' pii'-'i'iil viiliiiiii'. My iiiiHiiis for iiKsi^niii^ tlio jmitliaMvl iiiultiplli'^ifioii 
|„U,', il X I, I" tU,. I'liiiis of Niimir, m \tH |ihu-e <,f origin, iir,' bri.'Hy siiiiiiu,.,] iij. =,s 
foll.™«: 

1. Kti-iiliiig anil ecr-nt <!ij!(:liig wiifl I'liri'ii'il on liy Ihi: Ar.iliH at Niilfai' Ion;; iH'fiire 
„iir iirrlval tlii'ir in IKS'.I. ami Iih" tii'i'ii i'<iiitiiini-<I .'V,T xmw. Tliis in iiiiiviil by tbo 
iipiKT imil .if a larf,-,: boiin.lary "l.iiii' In Hic! l{.>yiil Miwi'iims of BiTliii. .IcwrilK'.I aa 
.-.iraing-'froni Nij.piii" in r.'i':™'/-,H\./<r I W/.'W./n^W-." Jfti'^;«<<'/ (»(,/ (///W-yii**,-, 



yGoogk 



1SS9 I (ri N 1 b) Iki- j.k t t h „ r t j « tl [ u s. 

ol Hjj 1 rl t I uri s t t w. [I IkI J, I t (I t il t Ikl 

I t lUrn r]« 1 I Iwe r 1 I tl \ 1 x tr It t I \ ( I I fff 

Npi f \ 1 II I .61) 1 lU C ntl 1 I ll i 1 tl \t t I 

[ \ ITr 1 I t) ) li! t I 1.1 I f tl 11 II I 

I t jU I 1 I I } t} I t I I I I 

n|tl JKT ilNllr II rwl I I lUU titlliB 

I «1 tlj H 1 f V, 1 tl p 1 -. t ( IH I 1 1 il 1 t -^ \jj \ I 

I II 76ir \ I II i IIU| ■ctll / 1 \ 1 I\ |[ •< H \II 1 IS tl 

A r St \ \ I xn 1 

Ami « It) ni T „|» -t l"\ 1 W II 1 il It |1 t f 11 H 

re 1 r t I t k t fllo 1 1 1 I I n I \ || — 1 bWcsl „ | 1 1 ■<) 1 

I r I 1 [ "fl Itl v)— tI I tl t t t All II II tl 111 M II t 

one Itjl t till I 1 u r r 1 a | 1 r f t rv t t 

II It ] 1 t tublf i X ] ll M t fl t t nw TV tl ll r JS 1 1 r 

It 1 1 i til f tl C K U I r 1 1« 1 r f 1 i» lucut,n 1 1 1 ^i 1 

UK r l« I u „ A imi 11 t ~ ( I N s 1 1 1 I 1^ ( ) 

1 tl«? )„>■ l-"l(l ^ " 11)1 tl >, I t I I I t tl 11 

tl 11 lit ]] Til tJilUt\t| i-tU t \ I ll t ftl 1 ^ ^ 

(To -1 I II t I 1 I It tl ttl t II t I Nt I I JilHt tl <. I 

IK 1 vl. 1 s J -4iiiUlly n tl IS XMtt 11 t 1 Ir i, ts f > a ■■ 
ttl 1p tl t 1 rl f, t> k 1 1„ gt el I 11 t I ll « I hIIuih 

l>a cxn I 1 1 Ml II llu It tl tl 1 1} lt]l t I (.il 

( X 1) i 1 I ^ n« m IS ^ I llj t 1 I r ^ H r I 1 1 Is « t 

tl 1„ 1 ■^l \Jmi\) r ri „ t. II ft lltl ( k U 

fr tl S 1 1 t I let I t I rt ■' f tW I p) l« 't I ll f m t, 

^ for 4 fu I R t QW <i Up p I r tU t 1 tr I ^ 1 I 1^1 

1 Ijllets fro ^ [1 !■ ( *■ ^"- 7 "' 1 ) " 1 1 B 1 I 1 tl p j i f a 
k K o' t' In* I ' IBUl I ll tl tl '<"■ ^ '11 J. 

" Sill M l^l{=n ! ) / - I/( M// S 1 t I t t 1 l! 1 1p f 

1 tl tCKCtrUgt rt 11 {,11 t n I I b I I k 1 h tl t, I Pt <• il 

mltltl nil rt^oltlpf tl ll « tl J i tl 1 si h „ 1 1 of tl 



yGoogk 



regiiliir ^V.l (oxcliisi?oiy !i> ii«.' iit tlis tiiiip of tlii' (^^s■^ilp p^riiKll,' tiiv RiiRii'ii^iit ti> show 
(hat tho Sijipiir tnUlet nui ml iviiltoii iliiriiif; iIib time <il' tliH (liKr^ilo iiil^rn, lint must 
lii-liiiig ti. aji e;irlk-r piliKl, pmluibk tli.> tiiui! i.f Hie IJ«iuiimrjl)i ilj-UiiBly.- 

1. Ll["ni inj- n'ijiii''t Prof. Aiiiiw I'. ISroivn, of th« l'Liiv(-r''it_v iif P<?mi"jiTiuiin, 
kiuMy Kiilyc'i'toil tJic uliiy uf ii iiiuiiIht iif tnblcbi from Xii>].iir, Hiiliyliiii ami Hipjsiv, 
iiu>lii,liiii< llu> niultiiiliuuliim t.ilili' !l X 1 iiml Hir Niiipiir tiilili^t (1 X 1 (i-xnivali^l hv 
I'fti'm ill ttic niurA^ i)f liij' si'i'iuid ('Utii|>iii};iil, lii a iiiiiriisi'ri|jiiiil I'xniiiiiiiitiiui uiiil a 
I'lit'iniml uimlysiH. WitliDiil Iniviiij; imy kiiDnlcil^i' ax to tlicir [iUiih'h of nrigiii, liu at 
oiui! W[ianil<il tlii-sc livo miil(i|iliifiti.MJ taliliw, iw (l.iJiiiiif,'ii ilistiiii'l Kniii]i by |lii-niwlvi«, 
fniiii lilt' V'-sl of tbp tiiblcis, ilci'biriiif; llii'ir day 1o !>!■ pnii'liiiilly iilciitiuil iinil iiiiiBiiiaitlv 
tuti'ii from Hi.' soin.. Ih'iI. 

All Hip imilli|.liciiti..ii hibl.'-. iiii'ln.liiis! A' sr.-J' -.,„<[ !<;<,<■:,. No. -'H'.'. mv iiimiiRiMl ii> 
tie folWiiis niHiiiUT: Tlic %nri« i in ^1. 3(1, 4()iiiJil 00 an- siv<'ii in their HHiwioiitivi' 
iiriler, tojrctlicr "illi tfii> aiiiiiiiiitn obtiiiiipfi bv miiUiplyiiig V3v\\ (\'f,uw bj ii isirtaiii iiiiiii- 
lifr. AcuitfJiiifi to tlio nil' or luiiliwiun of the iilpogniiu .\-[)l\l{A) reprcHciitiiig 
our «gii of miiitiiplii'atioii (X = " tiiiips "), ivu rlwtiiigiii-h thiit.liirm'iit ways in wbidi 
tliHSe lubU'S aiv ivritti'ii : 



joao 

1020 

aioo 

y70() 



yGoogk 



.l-J!-i U . Si 17 ItWo 2.1 17 i2r> 

A-HA 18 3G 18 i)72fl 25 18 4.10 

A-U.l 19 3H 19 10,2W U,j 11) 47^1 

/t-/f.I 20 40 20 10,SOi' lil 20 -TOO 

.(-/;_.I 30 60 3(1 lG,'20;i tir, ;tO 750 

J-/i'J 40 KO 4" 2l,(;i» 25 10 111*1 

A-RJ 50 100 50 27,000 25 SO 12W 

Oil ri. 3, N.I. 5, whiuli offei's tliu ssiiiip poiiti'iits ( 1 8 X ' I li'* PI. 2, No. 4r tlm Ki;rilK.', 
eviilently throiigli ii inistiikp,' omifli'd " tiiiii's 50 = iHM)," nritiii},' " linn* (50 = lOHO 
(= 18 ^u<)" liistcail. TliiH Ik lli.i only csis.. kiioivu ti> iii<' iu nlikli tlu' iuiilti)i[i('at1oji i^ 
utrriwl III (M) (= 1 wW]. Hodiiitiiiuw, liiiiTev.'r, on.' -ir min-c. lulilitioiml liiicH, iiiiH.M.iiiiaMily 
SfiKiiully iiiiitiliiUi.1. follmv llie imiltiiiliniti.iu tnlile ]>im|«t. (T. N.i-. 3, 3, 4, 7. 8, 12, 
Ifl, Ifi (l>rolmMj- niso Nu. 17, lli'v.. Col. TV). It in riol pwil.Ie l-i ^Wttuvitli rertiiinty 
ivliiit ill cncli niwstiKxlLliuii'. Tlw <-I<i-iiig ILiiuh ofN.k 2 ]i.is«ihlj- tiintniiicl « .lute.* In 
No.4t!u-lu*tfiiurHifriiHrruil: ". . . J'J-''A'.(,-y.r/,"\vliicli (iviUi duo ™ii8ii]orHtioii of tlip 
tiw«« loft, la til.' l>i'guitaiisi.fUi-lin.!)miiyUm-t(miiitii''[>y<W.«j'']/fcV*.''A«j^^^ 



yGoogk 



« nlip llti kirgil \ 7 Jl irr-n h'« nliuli |>>-*il.K « |i vd.,! ^iVmully 

h\ iiiotliir xi jii nilliulndiil tuniuUli |ii]Hriiiim t (li ^i [> \t lln' .-ml urDtliir 
tiUI t-»<>lm<] 11.11 nl I tlxiiciuiii^ tnliil i. ri 1 >i)i ii^Kir | I S,.. :], 21; ^o. 
S 24 N 1.' 21)' J""""' fw^w ln\i ii.lipli u in In ilm, H" i '■^1 lim.-sl mnt- 
ti]>lHili iitiUk >r till nil k sen. >< s< mtfinii^ | nml U \ tli -. ,ii<n < lllio iiiiinlii'r iniil- 
lijili. l.titlKtiil)lit(.t rj \il2 24r Bliiilinilr 4 2X'l 2==lSf (i2l,"nWN.i. Ill, 
M ii.il\. II K. (r)l II II nluli ri^iinlUrnl 144 X 141= '"7 if'")- H..i.i.'tiiiii-» 
fliwei hill tiinnofimiKiitiiKi I .r lb i imtuii Ii r«Hii Imp; f tl e iiiiiitil.li.'iitiiiii tiililu 
itx If ILii (/ \ . I J un k i-^-i Uitliu 'tXl=l r » ■fl *■ X I = '■i40," ct.-. 
rii cioih n li nrM.e n i liii« ri)0 X 1 - *^> H" Instill iiMdii I iiiter|Jwtiiti.iii 1h 



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MATIIUMATrcAJ,, METIIOLOIHI'*!. AKD H[i;ON01fll,II'Ar. TAiil.HTB. VJ 

out ftf qmstioii. No. 16 cloaes witli "7')U X "5" = ■'•G-l/iOt)," Iblliroc'il by the mlo- 
p)ion " 72(} X 1 = 7^1 " (tlie iiust low<«t mimltor ol' tU- wi'ii-s). 

]!i«iili« siiuh KiHgie iiLulti|i]ii»ilii)ii laWt* iin publiKfiiil uji PIk. 1-7, tlio Babylon tans 
luul iahlfbt ou whicli clifforeiit miilliiJitatioii tiibk^s kit.' [-lvvii l-^-tliiT. Cf. Nw. 17. 
18, I!), 22 (lluv.), 23 (llcv.) ami PI. VII, RfV. It in t,. bf obmTv,.,! fb.it tbw .'law of 
raiiRiplu'iilion liillw bi'ginH iiIwhj'k nitb tin' bigbcst. iiiiihIbt hi U' iiuiIti|JifHl, iimi piiiIs 
witb tUi! lowest. TbH« No. 17, nbich c-.iii Ix' i'H?ily iTHt.ir(Ml Hx.-(-|il ibe fiftb iiiiiiibi.r, 
\yliicb iiiLiKt rriiifiin doubtful), .■oiiljijiicl tlif fblluwiiig tiiiu' labb-s ; 1080 X 1 , H*"*! X I , 
!lfl()X 1,»(10X], [imilnil.lv 810 XI], 720 Xl,<il>OX l,-">*)X I.^IOX 1- Tli.aigli 
viTV fi-jyiiH'iitiiry, No. IS bus iiiwiviil ii'iiiiibi« of 2100 X 1. l-'-'H' X 1 (Obv.) iiml 
lOlKlXl (R*-*-., Col. II); No, 1i), ]ioHb.ii, of ;Minxl.240X 1 (Obv.), IHOXl, 
l.-.OX1,l'14Xl'"'uI12<>Xl (Itov.) ; No. -22, lt.-v., |>.iiti.ms ofKSriO X 1, 108(1 XI, 
!KiOX J ; Mo. 2:l, Itcv.', portions of 1:!.".0 X 1 (C^'l- U, KM) X U 10"0X 1 (tl'l- 1')- 
liOOXl (Cob lil), 720 XI, cot) XI (Col. rV),.'->OOX I, 480 X I ((',,1. V),4:!2X1 
(Col. VI). Ail iiiit^'nii.h tO]iy of I'l, VII, Ri-v., ivliidi loiitiiiiis tb.' iiiviltiiilioi^oii 
tiiblowof wry bijjb iiiiuiliPrs (iiiiii.iig tlicm 180,000 X 1, HJ2,IKH) X I mi.l 1G0,0(>0 X I) 
will b<i piib1iMli,4l bi Part 2 of tbis vobiiiip. For our i.ri.-iMtt piiri«t<o it \» «iimcu>iit lo 
Htiibi tliiil- it K itniiiigpil liku all tbo other foblcti< iiiiitikiiiiii^' iiioiv ibaii ono iiiiiltipliiiitioii 
tabic. 

lufluiliiij; dio Wippiiv tiililpt (2.-, X 1 ) an.l A" 8."i27 (4.1 X 1 )— l«>th being iilso rep- 
rt*eiiteil in the Nnffiir collectioiuf'— nnil llic ciloiiboiin on Nib. 8. 1.1 nii.l HI.' t.lie fullowintf 
4i-4C iiiiilti|.Ui!ilii>Ti Uiblre are tluiH far biioivii lo loo from tlic Tciiipln Sfliool aiiJ T(iiii)lu 
l-llmiiy of Nippur (cf. II. K, Htrit-s D. Vol. I, pp. .Wlf.): 



yGoogk 



OXll^' "■=»."--. No.: 



tHKIXl 
7-lil X 1 



IfioXl 
ISO XI 



SIfid X I 
ItKKlX 1 

lasiixi 



■2-- X I 
fiox i 
36 X 1 



IS<MKK)X1 

t.i..H bibk-H iiri. ™lla^»^l t.> wilLiiii iitimlH'tv, ..v wlwtlivr nv iiiiit >.'.s]ii.,( i„ liii.l :iiiy 
uiiiiik.r k'tw™ 1 mill lSll,(K)ll(i.f vwii ),is!ii-r) tliii^ miilfi|>1l.'il. In /;. A'.. SitIh. ll, 

Vul. 1, ]i. ,'>:tl, I illrlilk'J to till' l»tl<'i' vi<'»-, riliKV al>iili.1 '.t. Ail ath-Mf't \\\U JioH' U' 

iimile (u A,in\- Unit ii m'tuiii iiritu-ipl.' ii]Mri'i'li<s lIx'Hr iiutllit.Mivillon t:il>i<'s, tlir iivuj;!.^- 
(i.m III' ii-Jik-h >vill iH-ij, (IS t„ ,l,.|,-miiir lU.'ir nil) i.m|-«', Oiiv ^iltHitimi is .lirrilt.,! :il 

log^tlxT, t)in liiKliwI iiKmliiT l.cfiiii- tlu' «ni,«. 2. Tlic hiiiiilK.iv; iiiultiplini iiri' ."it «iii- 
xii'iitivi', 1)iit an- otti'ii Hi'iiiiiMli'il fiiMii I'lii'li iilliiT liy n>iyi]Hii''.itivi'l,v liii;^' hitiTviilK. :!. 
Ik'siiW ;i ami fi, no iiii<iiv;.lalilu iiiiiiikr .«■ itM ii»ili;|il.> is iu.iltiiilL«l {i,oU> tl»! iitis,.m><- 
,>f7, II, Tli, 14, 17, lit, -il.-iJ, -23. 2i;, -JS, :i!l. :U, .■53, :«, ;W. .1.-.). 

Kiii(.->- tlu' 4iii)liHiit iif u uuiiiIkt <Jivi<)»l>k' liy moiv (In i,v iimiik'i' iie.iiiiK^ 

snmllcv tlic hii'<^'i' llic ait'i»i.r };ri»vj«, llii' siijiiioi'itioii lilt's it.su)!' ii]niii m t)iiit Uii' Ki'i'ics 
of iimiiWi^ miilti(ilin) i>ii llii- ,iiimii l.iMi'l iiiiiy n.'prt^'inil ii •Ifiii'iidltig sidi's nf ijiiDticulH 
i>r;.!i ii(ikrii>H-n liifjlr niimW ilivi<ka by hii \M-Kwm,i wrk^ <.f iiiimU'ii* ,™itaiii..,l in 
iU AH.liimcviT, lli.-<livUiiv;„|-|iniiiiil,i.iiiri.tli.!wim..»stli.'<|ii<.tic'iitKiii hivortc',] i>fcli.f, 
it «i,iiM k vliiiililliil ivli,.tli,r 111., siiih'tf. miilti|ilinitioii lul.i.s {.■r. Ni«. 1-1(1. No. 20, 



vGooqIc 



l)l)v. :in,l i:,.v.. N... -21, Oliv. aliJ lli'v Ni> 11 {}\.\ ) ull b. Ix l,,iinl<-<l as mulliph.il 
<liviHjix uv ijiiotk'Jitij. It] vifW of ttit Lirciim-.tiiiUH tlitit Hit fi.rty uilil iiiiiUipliuituiJi 
tEibkn given nlwvK most ihuIwiU}- ili. iiiif ri [iriMiil nil the itmnkrjs tliat iiw.l U> k iiiulti 
(jliiMl, iitul furtbiTiiioiT lii.it ive ilo not kiiiin -Blutliu tht latti i trp iln wors (or inictniita) 
of one or iiioi'i.' uiikiioun lii>;li immlx'r llie hdIiiIiihi i>1 die prolilim siiuii^ In in uuixt 
ilillkull Fi)tiiiiuitilj,liiiwiMr tiiin iii n iiiiinlHr iit iiiMtliuualiiiil liil)l<l« Liioirii fnmi 
iLpinii (ftmrof»I.J.li«rf piil)li-.lii-.ni,n .i Ni> _>(), Rts Si> Jl K« iNo JJ Ol.i 
niul \o M Kf> ) »lii<li tliran niiNiiIi ml.k li^rht ,,11 tlic nlicil. qm-itioii 

IIkm UiiilitK iiri ill riivmiiittiit 1111.I ultiPi-niM 11111111111-11 liiil 11 xlmh iiii.l iiijii- 
[lari'tuii (if llii (iiiiiiliirm siriw pii-^ni'il .m (Ikiii piiuIiIi lis tu ^■-hm 11 i«irl of tin 11 
oiivmil Uxtraiiiplilih It IX iltU on all III tliuii and ii-aiK Ir-oiHlitn-atiil tl^ to1lr>vs 

1 I.WKKXI _■ ISDHk) 

4 JinCXKi J 4O1OOO 
I 1 'L'(K>I ii WHKH) 

I, JKililMXI 10 ,JIOIH) 

5 UJIHNKI 4 I JSHOOO 
') 1 HOidKI 4S J700(X» 



mux! 


i> Lett 


[ 

[ 
.1 |.i 


I 


till 




l\ ol 111 


. Otlli 


HI] 
"'] 
r tin. I 


rittui tliK 


■L Inn 




Itilllatil 




Mtll 


" X 1 


1 .ll>S. 


(1 with 


iloiiu til 


It lli< 


lirxl 


U^lllK 




..llltl, 


ilKiLllim 


tulik.j 


<.r tin 


1. iiiiung 


till 11 


iiniili 


.IN >taii 


[lin 


, nl 


tbe li(^' 


iimni^ 


of tlic 


Mint III.' 1 


a><t nil 


iiiIh'I 


r of llil> 


<<v: 


U(l. 


K(I,(KK)) 


if. :,U., 


.Kie of 


s llm- fai 


'kllou 


■rili 


•I.VII), 


I<. 


rilltill 


Unl till' 


Pik-Llh 


itkm to 


till olll.T 


Urn 


liluh 


nrnlli,.! 


k'lit 


ion t 


illik',- 1,1 




■r„„ Pi. 


0X1 ""1 


1 1(i(i 


,IMX) 


X 1), i 


■iro 


i.knt 


kill witli tlic 


.-lusiiis 



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1 «rni 1 fc 1 t ta » J e. . I „ r u. (tl r f,U 1 ) li « 

I 1 tl c 1 1 t 1 H t t1 er V « 1 1 ub 11 (1 Uw f 1 r 1 «t 

I I 1 1 t 11 1 ) a 1 li 1 I I 1 I btl ■« 1«. fu 1 I t 

( lo il t -tri* 1 i ]l lU > t 1 et tl talUI I 



Itil 



^ >■ 01 c I I -] iiy 



I 



[ 



I 1 K I— \—i 1/ /If t tl 1 = 4 » I n 

/( /— —(Hr // 1 It I MH 

J( I— ^f t! J / t U I I t) _4 f loi 

4 / /— 1— iy /y I , = 1 KK 

/ / — \r 1 1 I , =2 i XH 

I I—^^^ il ] / = HK 

I U tl n nl tl I I 11 tl 1 1 tl 

I [ I /( / 4 1 KX / / 1 1 KK <■ 

II Ur t\ hi (W KK 11 I ^ (/r/ 47 I J, 
e e I ul t s 1 I III *■ 1-1 1 

I t ) f 1 I ]K. 1 ]W t il 1 // / ( t ) B 

ir««l li ) tl 1 !■« I „1 V I< I 1(1/ I I tie 1 

t t d r I f 11 I 4 \ V p r V \ / Oi T rf -,1) 

tUl I lit 1 I 1 tl r<l) Ix ,j I trl I k I I „ 

KI AT \ •<• II ( ) r I I (/ II «fi 



vGoosIe 



.IriTil by tliv l.lHujjiMiii -l-DFT, r,«ji. .l-(^UIl |.-f. Sof. U >iiul II). I if^iU'd tlir UW.r 
"Illy iu-ii vaiiiUitornii ;ihl)ivviiili>il luriiml' .1-/K'. Tlii» ■.■xiiliiiiEifiiiiL wiSfH^U Ki^t-lf i" 
vk'W <if IliL' lin.il-iiR' (i>.r. p. lo, jiljiivf) iixiil I'lir .l-/>f/i.ii wrtniii Hiii|)iii' Uililil-, in vieiv 
i.f tl,^ tiu't tlinl. .1-I}r7am\ A-<llfit -Tiir in tl„. siimi. tcxi (ct; Kn. 9, I : A-DU. ivliifi' 
Mil llie otluT iiiu'B ciffiT .1-^.77^1, MLi.1 alsn in vitn- i,f ..iWr varifliilK .xriii ilii^- in ll].' 
iiiatht-miiliBil fjLblcts fiiim Nilipur, iiiiliibfy Ihc niiiiii'niiiB v;irJ!iiit« of "lO,"' jimui' ni' 

■^T4.'«)^,4(?^,«^, 4(1^ ,«^,<4^ , <f<TS, «W «^ 



Ti„7 evULmlly ;ill g.i llHct i<i llir fi>fhi ^(.^jy'^ '"' <<f7¥ (-'0 — 1 = lit)- 



t bu ve denom tia o 



yGoogk 






yGoogk 



A vroril must be said with regard to the first lino of tlio lUviwioii tiiblw Iiere 
piiblislieil. Tbcy alli'eaa: "1 H,m\0OO A- AJV." Tiiu iiiiotiorit «.r.40,(HX) being S of 
12.900,001), weslioiilil mtUer bx ppBt " 1 i " iiistaul of " 1 " iis iW ilivisor, tor l!i,9C(),()()0 
iHvi<lo<l \,y ^ k= V2,!K9},Cm X}- I um uii]ib]i: bi <!x|ibiiii iiuo sti'uiigf ]>Iu'ii<mirLiuii. 
PoHMlbly «e have to rcgartl it as an abbreviatKil i-spreHsiiiii well iiiiiU'rHt^iiHl bj tbo 
UabjloiLkiis. 

BoKidOM tlifi diviHiuu tiibles Irom tliu temple libciirj- of Nippur, wbii-b an.' mII biisiid 
iipoii 12,y6O(X)O(=(!l)'=3b00')»»tUurdniauid, I kiion' of oiilj one othur dimiim 
tid>le, which onco bclougi^l to tlic library it AsliiirbiiLia]>iil iti jSiiievi<. Four lines 
of this frjigmeul, ih.uUhI A' .20(10 ivero publisbwl bj Ik'/^ld, wlio di-stribos il as 
"prolwbly t-ouUiuung m itlieniatieil eultuktioiiH ' (" Qiluli^aie," Vol. 1, ji. 400). Tliis 
tiiblut iiidti ites Ibe (ruction by lOIalom. (the ubbrcviaCud lerin rcCeriinl bi alHive, ]>. 22). 



Hut tholno nurabcniiiwb hHVQ b(HHi rnudi bipclia. Ojipert'B treatmmt of the Ditllrc ImcripEiDIL fa luo^t uripiLturir. 
To order to provo lilg tLcory, ha WJ* obUged to maka very PbUcJil eluui^^fl in lliu cviixlEonn l*xt ottend by ^c^in). 

ArayrioloeiBt nulild iidve mode all the miatdkcH uiipiited to lUe one or Uto oUlot by Op|>ort- I'niGtiiii; from my 

Tlic trnilaeatajj tejit publishttd by 8clunL coiunta of seven lines wHlten on the Ubvoruo of D Unis-Hlinpu*! cbiy 
tahUt- 'Hh upper part of the Aeverse &1» bonra ttLUHB of on iTBoriptiQn or three lines (appuenliy nuniben), ior Uio 
f^naterpurt baillj effaced jiml uUicrfrisn ilurnaged. The Grat llneetx-ou bySolwil ialheflrHtlinH of Hie talfkt. LI. i : 
Hk KDWnl wedoe at tlis Gist nuniltcr C'3") u »in«iriint effa«d. Tba flrth number of UiislLne is aivrecl^ "4" 
Och»iT)|}Ut "£"; for tFiPUftl) only Lhe Iwo lower nodgcfl anil the Loner enil of thangliLiipporivDdeo anpFODffrvcd.Llic 
" Ti" ia certaiD, Iwenuio evorywliore In oiu' l£iC th« " 4" Il writlflQ ffiUi the ^ign A^ (j,p,, vitU one loner wedg^), never 
nlh llKBigu fi (^f., nith two lowvwodgi^), U. a add 3: ^10 rturnbora givfu by ^lu'il nre jnirdy correct. U. < ! 
In Lhe Ent BigTi I recugnEae^l tro more vcd;^ bclev tbo time givn by Sehekl. To Iwlffi from tixir pontoon I muld 
rcfiudtiiiaflTftnumbsrloben" JS,"Uke the aenond number of tiie wune line. Immedijih^ly Aftflr Um IvtUr tiicre isn 
hdhJI birBk in the tablet, by whieh poalEdy a nonQ number was dcstd^yoA- LI. 5 ■■(! 6 1 Tlic euncifurm ngns ppen 



partly "here Ihey sli 



pqndinilAir htJs<4 (tjM one nr 



yGoogk 



Oil Ihc biisis ,>f tliii ll'W lines given bj Xiiiolil, Kjo tliyiileTia -^■eiiK'd W Im ir.,1i!0,000 
(= I2,l>60,000 [y ] + ^,1(10,<X)0 [-^]).' Rut- remenilH'riiiK my .■xpcviciHi^ wiUi UiP 
Nij)|)iir bi1>1cCs, the iliviiU'iiil of wliieL Imil lii l>u iitcrt'iisiil an •lOttii us a new f'mgiiipnt was 
addi'd, until liio (.iimiileU! test liiiiJ liwii rp>!Uircil, I aski'il Kiiij! for a ci)]>y of tlic entire 
i'rnj;munl, wliidi he kindly pljinil iit my dinpiwil. ll coiilirnih Bfjiiild'fi i^itpmrnt that 
tlie line desigmib.>d l.y liini hb Obv., li. 1;), is tlie IhkI line of the Obveree. Tlic bRRimiiriR 
of tliis line, iis siiffieioiitly inilic:ifei5 by the reinaininj; lioriwnihd Btnite (line.! by the miribe 
cxclusiTflv Ifli lill lint the empty K]mce of a line ivitii only one liir^ nnnilwr at the 
beginning), anil suppiirttd by nij' ciiltnliition, ninst have ri'ad " Hfl 4." A[Hirt 
from tlio riwtnmtion of tlw-sc. two ebaraetei^ the end of the Obverw anil thi^ liegiiining ol' 
the Hevcfw am entirely pttvervi^.l, wi that the twciity-wght lincis or iKjrtionw of lim-a 
inrerilied on tlie fragiiifiit fonn a «.nlinno(iM inaeriptiiiii. This U of im]if.rt.inep for onr 
dediihfTinc;. For owing tii tliK nWnipe of a Kcro in lliihjloniaii, every Y or <t, as 
iUnstrated by fbc rolloivin;; ™il(- (wliidi m;iy b« eontinneil Iiidefiiiik^ly), 

T < T <: T < T < T 

12,960,000 2,160,000 216,000 36,000 3,600 600 60 10 1 

can l>e read in iniiny different iviiy,-, niile,'« dpterinineil by the eonfext imd n snffideiit 
iiunilier of smaller fij;iir<js il.liowiiig. Jiith line of LIik left cohnnii of A'20tiy heKinijinK 
with citlier a " 2," " -J " or " 4," and of tlie right with n " 10," it \» tiiHj lo anocrliiin the 
aelniil rnlneti of thcKC llrst iiuinhcri' by ilotormining their poaitjim in tbv lon^iit numlier 
preserved in eaeli ralnmn. The longest number iti thu left (»]nmu luiving nix figures 
ami cn.iing in "20" {Obv., li. 11), the value of tlio (irat figin'e (a " 2," " 3 " or "4 ") in 
caeh line of thi» column is obtaineil by multiplying thin (igare with 21(1,000. The 
longoit ninnluT in the right column aoiisi«tiiig of nine figunw ami ending in "40" 
(Rev., 11. 24), the ArBt ligure (a "10") ui eaeh line of Uii« eolumn luw the vuhm 
12!>,e00,000. 

The tliii'.I line given by l(e»,ld, U., ia thei^efore lo ho triinslitemled an foihHvs: 
IGl 3 X 216,000 (=: O-IR.OOO) [ 21! X 12,t)n(),0(X) (= 20H,()HO,0<K)) + 2 X 3,10(),<)UO 
(=4,320,000); in otbci' words i,J,^ = 3O2,4(K),O0O. or i = 3lG,tOI),()00 X G-18,0"0 = 
195,y53,2l>0,000,0<K), i.e.. 12,00 ),00l)^ (= 167,061 ,000,1 HXt.OOO, expressed by J) + 
(2,160,000' X C), '.£-, tlie next lowest unit (•<[) in the seiile of nnmbere (= 27,- 



yGoogk 



9i)y,C00,000,0UU). X, 2009, Ihciftbrp, is u .livisioii (able, coiit.iiiiiiig n number' of ilivlaors 
of 195,055,2W,O0O,()O0 (= ^ in an iuciiissins scrioa (iu tlie left colunm), with 
their corrfsimndiHg niLi.tioiilH ill a (Itsctn Jirg RiTi(» (in the right culiinin). In ull proliii- 

liility t1ia tuit, tu wliich this biblet beloufps, begun : <^ — [ 1 }<( ||'^ ' 

"the 21C,l)0(H!i imrt of ia5,9.>>,2lfl,OO(),O00 = iJ07,L1K),(KKI." 

[f we would laku tlio limo ami (rouble to fiml iill tin- i.tlier aiviaom aiiit;iiiinl \n 



li).5,i)55,200,()00,IMI0, we couU! eiwily i 


rOBtore the entire 1 


yxt. For oLir |iri«ont piirimae 1 


will be suffii-ii-nt to fill out the /.iiwic 


in tho thiitwu lii 


n-s i.ni<ervt'<l on tlie Obvei'se an 


ill tliu lir><t ten liiitw of tlic Itevuiw, 


These tncntj-thm> liiu« cesti.ii.Hl mi.l us follows 


A" axiil. Obv. i: lai 


54(),ll(») = 


;!02,HS(I,OIM^' 


'i: li.il 


570,(XK) = 


340,200,0(X)' 


■A : }<Jl 


600,00(1 = 


32G,Ci)2,0<MI 


i : Id 


6-ia,IMI0 = 


a)2,4{(0,000 


'< : lai 


{57(1,000 = 


290,:!04,000 


C; IGl 


0111,200 = 


2tK(,500,0(M) 


7: Id I 


720,000 = 


272,1 (a,000 


H: 101 


72<J,(0J = 


2G8,800,(X» 


y: IGI 


768,(M)0 = 


255,150,000 


10; IGI 


777,000 = 


252,000,000 


11: nil 


800,000 = 


244,!f44,(HKl' 


l-l : IGI 


HI 0,000 = 


241,'J20,(HK) 


V,;-. IJGI 


8&i,000]' = 


226,800,(H>0 


Ruv. II' JGI 


874,800 = 


224,000,000 


U: IGI 


■J0O,O0O = 


217,723,000 


10: /(// 


011,250 = 


215,040,000 


17; IGI 


)I21,600 = 


212,025,000 


' Eva. the lilt ol divlms (d.™ by the 8Cri 


.l.clDll«,.racT™l2.l 


lin« u uot niu|>lete. Vdt. is q<»>le .lol 


™ oiHTnpk, 7SO.OO0 (omitlnJ l,y llir srribo) ski. la 


B divL,M (»Ui. llx cotrapim^iig quolleiit Ml.iTS/JW). Th» uoi 


i,iBnnpl=«na8 1. lra].«„Uj ImM on 0,^ Hiwnir .li 






■nio. ora tni™ «»>udi PKKii'cd !.. U,ls 1 






mdps [iwli - 210,000) and B.™ uei>1>r h«>k4 ( 


«.^,-WJ)0OHn.l«k 


JtHilamn. TUc horiionlal slrote loUuirin 






.Google 



Kvv. 18: 


I&I 


i)3y,120 = 


210.000.000 


11): 


IGI 


937,500 = 


200,018,000 


20: 


IGI 


900,000 = 


204,120,000 


21: 


IGI 


072,000 :=: 


201,000,000 


22: 


J[GI 1, 


o;w,800]' = 


180.000,000 


■M: 


IIGI j,om,ooif}- = 


181.440,000 


Eu ^^iiiirctloi. with the niiLltiplit-atiou 


aiid divi«io.i 


(.ililea jiist Irtiite 


be aiid iiboiit til.' iuturtstlng 


iHtt, Ko. 2.), 




Li. 1 : 123 


720 


Li. y: 


2(KH» 


2: lai-GAI^IlI 


H)3,'»0 


10: 


TGI-GAI.Iil 


Li. ;j ; 2jO 


3G0 


Li. n : 


4000 


4: IGI-&AL-II1 


51.84(1 


12; 


IGI-UAf.BI 


Li. ■) : m) 


180 


Li. i:! : 


SHOO 


6; 1GI-GAL.HI 


2J,{I2U 


14: 


Wl-UAL-m 


Li. 7 : KXKJ 


^ 0() 


Li, 1^:^ 


li>,Of"^ 


8: IGI-GAMJI 


12,060 


HI; 


Wl-OAL-BI 



810 

■\Vt oWrvu (u) that tli.1 lirst !UiTiil»-r« uf iill tlif will liriPB (1. :j, 5, 7. H, 1 1 , l;(, 15) funii 
mi inen'iu»iu(;, iind nil tlits iiuLiilwra of lim ovoii lint's (prci-edi'd by I(JI-OAJ,-JII = "jls 
ilFtiuuiiiititiir ") 11 ilMCL'iiiliiig gooniMncul prugivstiioii ; {/•) tliat tJiv lii'sl nuiiilMT uf cv«ry 
Olid line cjin be uxpreaicJ liy h fraction wLidi ]ias I2,iK)0,tKK) aa ila iiuiuiinitor iLiid tbc 
cioBing number ciftlnjuorreRiwiidiHg ev<ia tine tw its dcimniinnt'ir, in iitlicr worde I2-) = 
ia.Mo,««. ,,-n_ la.gwMWi, .-.,,_ is,wo,«io ]/i^,_ iii.mo.«™. o,uui— ".i*"-™. jiuv. — 
imrnwi ■ '■J'^— ei.siii" ■ ■'^'^— "!!D,aBS~' ^^''-' ~i3.wo ,^""'— o,jisr~> *"'^' — 

-a^ir^: *"""■'= -TiS«°^; 10,000 = !''^j'^^. But tliu dosing imnibei's of all tiic mid 
lines (7211, 3(10. 180, 00, 18, 0. 18, 11) nre «till ol)w,nrc to hic. Notwitjistanding all my 
elfurls to lin<l u Uiw in tEirai ur Co isotvH tho pi-oblein hy tlm Hid uf coiu]>uCpnt Americun 
and Enrujifan m:itlLiiuuitiKmnn, I luivi; failed bi get at tlieir nieiiniiig. Suffice it to atate 
tbat tbere fnvnis to uxlst a wrbiin iTlatioii bttwetii the fiiitt anil the BOistiid nuniber in each 
Olid llns. Fur if ne write 12.) (li. l} = 2m3 + 5, iiO = 4 «oei + 10. 600=8 sots 
+ 20, lOiX) = 1 iw-V + »w*. + 40, 2O0O = 3 n,'-,- + 200, 4000 = 1 sAiir + 400, 80IM) = 
2 a/mr + 1 lU^r + 2)X), Hl.lMJO = 4 Mr + 2 lu^r + 400, and diviile 3G00 by tli« hist figufu 



yGoogk 



tlius obtaiiict (5, 10, 20, 40. 2<K), 400, 200. 4(M(), «-o obtiiii tliB h.st tHiniliti- of evoiy .xld 
]■ t(^='-'>0 "7 = ^''*' ^=18" ^5^=90 ^ = 18^='*-^ = 18-^ = 

) 

Tl lu !sti nr xTH I t m tli mu ^ ot nil th s f \M t in rC I ir la tl 
■a g ul till, un I or 12 M) (KX) (= GO r SOOO) I cl derl <« 11 tl « i ntl emut- 

■ul UtlB I t trt Ul ol 1 s t' "^IF till t 'A 20G9 d A f 7? fl 
a -wer h t >«v a lo I ftli ^ b I luf I k It j bl li.x k Mil 

i4( K D wl I tauiB tl e f s N n 1h r of 1 1 t U slj tli wt I IT ult 

|)BRt}^ InnrtjfJ Aorl^'^'I vV]: In! tli> latest 

tl on> (,1 1 u ^a ol tl I, I I n. I Bsi (, nreo pi 1 I tl (■ ftM r r f t i-s t 
tie mie w. 1 tci' tu wrtU uu U h bj >ct tl 1 lit ll I tl <j 't k a 1 

ot a tU lUt luho e Tie i kr ms, re tl 1 !i g tit lloru 

re fiiir lail ^ "r taC6 uf Si tc n 1 1 luN (1 lu artli) or tl (, (.rata a 1 
Lico a State 01 }, r lij J Dc u n y 4 ly ) 1 1 1 u to tl ixrfit 

pul ty 1 porloit I B 1 iH tl P KjHii, li cl n iicter of sti 1 ■« h lite -d I y 

th t of Uiv Uals llortwll U fiv 1 I g tjiii'o of 1 I I hanutpr ei Iwd eil 
rtit".ctv 1) n 1 ile tocrat > the ti a 1 tal 3 ll bgicil 1 4 II o d u i- 

rtitiil o tic tM^u a1 Du II o co u n«Hl n II Ih cmi nl hist u 1 tbr 
wrIstlenUI Ik 11 dins* T uanhj m t of \r U«r j' It ay lie la 1 
lo a verail n I tl t nt ( t I cl juot r ale 1 bj I -w » ll 

tilt gimruiiig duod. TlieMuwann inmkui Iflti.ll how hint Mslition lutcrsHl. Kstrj- 
tlihig that biiH a bugiiiuing liiia ul«o an end. i^nii llie iilual city, tlicrefure, ivjl] iii liiiio 
perinli and wiiiui lo dJEinjlutioii. But tlie eauBe of ileaiy, not behij; oontfiineil in llii? ideal 
cjty itself, muMt mme fiimi without. What is this niiine? How dots this dugeiu'ration 
Btiiil? By wrong or iiiop|iortuiii' mBri'Jagi>g uiid births (j'ffi'^ijLm jmIAo; TtOTf of' tirae). 
Having indicRtuI tliis caiiBe anil dciiei'ilicil the uiauiier in whi(4i de^'iieration begins 
lo take plac*, Plato proeewls ti) eonftr'ii't a " j^i'imii'ti'ii'iil ouiuImt " (yeujifrfito; upiSfnl;) 
uiit of tlio olfliiwiits of tbc nnnilier which expresHes tlie Hhoiio't jn'riod of ge»lutioti in |]ic 
huniim kind (218 duys). This " gdiiiietriwl number" (12,900,000), whieh ho calk " the 

Pn/esEor ot QrfftV in the Uiiivtreity of FvniiEylvHua. «I|D ip Kvenil imporlAat delailfl diSin trvn Adam. To both 
bi'I]QUii J vtprta my wuntnt IhfltkB for jUI IM bncflC dulvi'd frHn thfiT TeBcarcheo. 



.Google 



lord <)f Wtitir and woiiio birtlis," Ls tlie avitlinieliail i!xi)ns«ii)ii iifii great kw coutcolling 



pa, ipt ntipa 



X G4 X 



yGoogk 



— (IXlLK))^ lilOO — 10n = 4MOO), or if from imitio.ial diiimi'ti'i-s (of liv.-), .liiiuii- 
islieil iiy t«<j (pHi-li) (i.e., {\'r)0)'X HlO — (2X 1*'<)) = .KX)I) — 2(10 = 4H0l)j, uii tli« 
-ithcr IuuhI, i)f 100 eiibw <if ti (i.e.. 10*) X 3' = 2700 ; llm Ki.<-.,n(l liHrniDiiy ia tlicr.'foi'o 
■1800 X 27001. TliiR bitiil nuiLiht-r, a jtifimutriL-ul ninnijor (Adaiii : "a iimnl«ir- mmmir- 
iiiff IliF mrilt "I, k lonl iif iK'ttw ami \im-m birtlis ; itjiil ivIii'iieviT one (^minliHiiR in 
iRiiorimc!!! ("f llicsn iiiirli^rljitig princiiiW) pniiimtu marriii^Hi iii(i|iiiiiiiiiiu'l.v, tl«' iillH[)riiij,' 
(<if 3U«L iiniiins) «ii.iiot be -ncil tii<|.)Ki.Hl \mr otoh iliv,.ri>l of fiirliiiK'."' 

At'imnliiit' bi Ailain tin- Iwo lianiioiiifs "f I'JHto fnmii-liwl hj lU) X '"O X '^> X 'lO 
{i.e., giimpaiiil 4H() X 2701), iHfth = 12,f)ia),l)0()) " rc'inwc'ut two rfniireiit -.mm^ in tlio 
life of tlic Uiiivt^r^, iu wliiKli tliii Wui-lil wiikch uml «iiii<» nitfrii^iC'ly, tliii IianiiDiiy 
:WiW mwwiiring tlip fj-cic! ol' fniforinitv, aii<l Uie Liivmony 4H0O X 'i700 111., cyci.' of 
Dissimiliii-ity -Iwcrilwd br J'ialo in tlie r-ililieiit. Hi! t.liis iiij it may (rf. al«i p .'il, 
nolo 1, lu'loB-), it gin'i! nillioiil miyiiij? tliitt tlm tiiimliur .1(1011 riTts lijioii tliu Biiby- 
loiiiau wjsagpfflinal syetPin. From llio fiit-t liial Plato I'Oiistriii-bt \iw. niimln'r(l2,0ll0,00()) 
wit of tlie I'lenmLitH of tUe iiiimlior cxpri'SsiHg IJlc sliorfi'st pcriixl of hiiiiiiiii j;iWatioii 
(21<>), it amy bn iiifi>rn'<) tbnt, aocordiiig tii Pluto, Ixjtb slitiul in ]i H-rlaiii mnlbemiitiuil 
robitioii Ui Oiif iinotlior. The HUiiilior niimlxT {'lid) rafiTriiig to days, it \n sifn to iati'i'- 
jirot 12,1160,1100 al*) ae diiyti. Novf l'2,l)rHI,(KKI liuys, .■xjirmwd in jcarx (:li;o dwyB 
(imiitwl ill Jli« yewr), aro iiiiiul to :tfi,()UO year-. AniL we know fiimi BerosiiH, ivboso 
acpiiniiy in all imitcprn i-onnoci«d witli tlio niytboliigy and liistory of liic jiwf lo has breii 
siiffioieutly toaKiil (cf. ClispliT 1, idmvp), that a ]icrir»l of ;lli,(KN) j-oain (cJilkil "the 
i;r«Lt Piatoiiip yunr," iiuii/niu (liiloiiie'ia «iiHue, in uai'ly HstroiioTtiicnl trfaliein) was 
UL-tiially tbtt dur^idon of a B(d>rloiunii oyck'. We aleii liavo hIioiui above tliat all the 
iiiulli plication iind division liddos from tliii ti-iaiile libciirim of Nippar and Sippur ami 
fpim tlie iibniry of Asharluinaifiil are bawd upiai I2,iWi0,(MI0. Thiw <-oiiici.k-nn^ ciiii 
sciircoly lie ncuidoiital. We niiiHt nwtssiirily coiiici to llie c-ondiiRicm that Pluto, or ratlipr 
PytbugoniH, irliont liu cloatly foIloiv«d, Ixii'Tonud hi# tiiiiiuiiH iiiuilIk'i; iiiiil llic wiiola icUii 
of a dec-isiivo iiifluoiiee pxorrised by it apoii tlip life of imin ilirretly from Hiibyiouia. 
Ih V ry exprtssioii "lord of bftter and worfl' birtliH," as a de«ij;iiatiiiu for wimclhing 

a ate pimU to Btdiylonlaii origin. Of. tlie Bimilar im> of Ik'Iii, " lord," in A,7r 
q nil V H. 11, 17, IKuridlj " (he lords of war," a dusigiiatioii for " war weaponti," Pvi- 
t tly tl s styled lnawuHe weujionH lire the HiipmnP nilera in viia; ilek'niiiniufr iti Ijnal 
9S1C I ke diriuo licings or human ulllm cndowiNl with rcaaiiu, tboy, thoii^ore, aii' 

*Hed jmn" by the wiirriore to detide the battle {m/m'iM kiikki'thmiii, Creation 
Btarj r\ 03; .SliNft. 11,77, etc.). 



yGoogk 



Tils Pliitmic iiiiiiiliur, I'i.tHlO.lKX), iiKsiJ-iiriiig a porioil in tlie Ufiitiiiia of tliB Eartli, 
anil tlu'ivioif (lis Ailam piiiiits out) isiUihI j-PiiiuTpini; in tlii' imliiiiirj sciiok of the tpnii 
as well as in the j-yiobolii', is "Iho liiril iif bftlcr iiii.l woiiie births." In wliiit HOnw tliis 
iiumliBi', I.e., tlif aiiiiiin> of tliu higliwit Jiabj-loniiiii iiiiiulxfr (lt«ignntoil by ii spc'i'ial 
luiiuo {Mr). lU'ti'miiLKH goixi ami bad liirtiis lins k'l'ii px|ilain('d in mrimi- niiyu. 
Adiiiu bplieviif thu cxjihiimtion of I'lato'H wnnU tii lie siiuply tliis ; thai in thu eiirly 
KliiRfM (if onr fy.-l,> of Sa.lXN) jwirs, iK-forc diMiut.igcalion imd diiwiniilarily liad j^jiic far, 
Nnliire j.nHliipcd Ix-ltiT chihirrii than hittT, lifrau* (!i« Univpiw! is j^roiving worac. 
But thi« inttTjirptaliim is si-am-ly suiHcii'ul. Kvid.'Mtly Ihf Givet jiliilosiipher ivant« 
to l>riiig uiit till' iloiibk' id<-a {'i) tinit tliiviiigli tli<- ignoring of a limdanicntjil law of 
tlic I'uivfrBe at «mif *tii'K- linn- " strili; biik kiiidlcl," /.'■., iliivigruanifnt arcwi', iolhiwoil 
b)' II HiibxcijiitMit di'gi'iifi'ation of thi' n-linle liiiiiian iw-e ; |/i) lltat tliP xaini.' fiiiidiinientiil 
iuiv still govwns till' Uiiin'ri'i', and that its violation at any tinu' is ai'TOiniianiiil bj' the 
sanm n-snlt. Thongli, tlicii, it U tiuf thai all (he bivthx occuiTing at » laler Htjige of oitr 
I'vi'lc of SB,(KKI yeiirK iirt uoiniianitivi'lv woi>a' thiiii (Iniw at an ojitlifT ]ipiiiKl, tlip fornuT 
arc by no mi-aiiB of .'i,nal vnliip, (In IIh- cnli-arj-, I'liil^i's mnili. : ■' Whi'iu'viT onr 
gii«nlian« in ignoriincu (of liim- nn.d'rlying princiiili'rfl [iiuinoti' niarriiij^iw inopiwr- 
Inni'ly, tlio olTn]>ring eannot In' well I'mlowi'il nor cvi'ii fiinni'd of fortnnr," nfCB«»rily 
imply that vlmncvfr tbc gunnlianH ilo oliuirvi' llitw jiriiii'ijilt^', tlic cliildron born will lie 
ir<'ll-tiirin«d and pi'oxiii'roiiH in lili'. TTfni'a it loliuwn thai gnixl births an not i-onlincd 
to 111! Piiclier «ljigi' iif llie lifu of tin: ITniverHt' and Imd onts to a liiler oiu.', but timt RikhI 
and luid hirtiis miir oi'tiir at all tiiiim in our I'.yi'h'. Wiii'thi'r a birth is ffun] cir iiad if 
di'ti'rmiiiHl by the nnmlx-r lli,!t6(MJ0IJ, wliicb for this very ivason is I'ulhid " thu lonl of 
bctttr and wor«- liirtiiK." Tliu aiiiining of I'lafo's ivords, tlH'ri'lorp, win l«' but Ibis : In 
orchir to ba a. good birth, tlit birtli of a idilld— i*.^„ tlio wjniHiuaialion .if its porioil of 
gestation, lonrkeil by lis i-ritiflnct' into llfi^— must stand in a iiirtain ndal.ioii U> 12,0(a),<IO(), 
us tlm Hritlimetiiail txprewiiui nCa fmidainp.iitid law of tlio Univer«', which Adam f=dkil 
tlic " I^aw of diatigc," and tlic wrlti'r the " l^aw of Harmony." 

Butwhntis thinhiw? How can this number infhii'nis! or licti'imino tin; birth and 
futuiT of n cliild? Till' nirmct uolution of the problem is doHcly nmmiclisrt with the 
Babylonian conception of llie Horld,' ndiitli stanile in the ii-jitre of liie Babylonian 
religion. Tiio Universe and everything within, wiiethei- gri'at or small, an- ciiaited 
and sustained by thu saiiip tiimlamcntal Iiiwh. The aime jiowpra mid priniaples, tliere- 



yGoogk 



lii'li rub ii> Uie n-iirl<i ilI liirgx. tlic iiiucriH9)»iiL. uii' V]iliil In IIk' lin.' ,ti iiiiiii, llic 
Itis tlio1ii-.k.ufii<1n)tuim\,nliuJifjim-i till <<iiiii>l»tii>ti ut tli< iiitnii >i\it< ui, 
til iiriiiii tliiB uniiDiiuitj mill jiiinnimj.iiiiil fii lUtCrniiiii tliiw, m\ iriiilili iiin- vrliii.li [iir- 
ineaU tin Unmi'win ill it» partM luiil BiilHluihicm-' I nr tin iliri; fLimiiiiiint (liiiiiipili 
iiliiili till s<)Ji iirmtiimlly iiii il tlitiiisthm w tin giiiil biiijl, llii ^/-ifn tlnrnf- (' tin 
ni-iliiigol jiiiiioi 'J, 111 vlii>lit)i>\ )itii< vnlton \\v ^Imln Kt.<i> nl Ikiimji iiikI niilli 
itJS [iiiHt, priwiit iiuil fiiUin V] \ 1 1 I |l I I iiiiHiitiii^' 

tliptislriilii^r inteiiinUil- i 

Al-CDClllltg lo tlllH II I I I ~1 11 y 1 1 

himly uiiiliVLUtlieaifluiit jl I I ll I I I Ulniinihi 

iimtliuiiiitie. iina iitrcinoniy, c\iu tliP iiuinki il"fll, tli< iIuliuiii i.l llm iiiik ititii A*\ 
.legms Uioo.-ili-niliir,tlii.Hi^tpmi)f miwiunHaiiil nfi^litx,iiri i.f ilniiu ciii;?inli.r VWa\i- 
UrT, p 1) Eitrytliiti^iiHting in lufliai ik lunnil in n ki*«i .l<„'n.i. im i-irtli, jinil 
wlislwevtr ullixlb tlieliTpot ilic l.'iii\im aHiibi tiiu tnniillii imli iit tin. Iifi of innn 
Tin iiumlwr IJ.'KiiyiOO giuBnis tlic UiiiTurst, Cii 12,'JM),0IH) <l>iMt iii. Miitiil iil«.w iii 
M[na! to '■M),(KK)i™n<, whuli lonri ii Bubjlmiiiiii ijilc or <iinstiliiic iii .iiini in tin. liti ol 
tlitlTima-^ Ah in<m H LOutiiillnl by tlio xame iinitlipniiitii'.il lnii-< i» IIil I'iiimivi dI 
nLulilietiirinMijjiirt or Irittuiu, llie Hiimi. mimlKr 12'llJMKK) m irni ct it- liadioiis 
(i-cjUThScI bi ib)dui-«iM)mii«t coiiliul tin life iit iimii ^^>n ni kinm limn iiiotlnr 
piihMig. iiftln ■'Hf[mbLL ' (IWk \ 1.15 B) timt Hat.) rf-keinil tlit iliiiiitiim.it 1 in in in 
Uti IB KKI^uiP', orlllOX M« = ^fl,l)ll<) Jn*^ nuiu it fnlkras tint ii ilm in tin lite 
1.1 iiMii onfn,ivmjK to a jt.li ill tbi lili nl tbe UmiLi^v. in <itlnr ni.nK tin iliinitiim 
nl a liuninii litHiiiio fi.riUh the 3W)tli i«irtot .in siHni oi tin UiiiMr^. (ni tin .(>()tli iliftri* 
of n I i)ci(wpi)m1iiig tin 1(1 KstTjlliing clw in iiinn -i Lfp iiiim litRbiitli to bii iliiilb a, 
(riivinnil bj tin Binni inimbir or bi duo ol itK duiioiw, PBpeinilh tin ]hiii)i1 iif gi-i- 
tiLion— ). Ibutimi tlie iliilil ix in tin womb ot it« motlui— wlmli inuKt ~tunl in n iirliiin 
nlndon to 12, NiO.IXK) tlnit tlit birth niiiy Ik. goml iitid tin siiljwiiiniit lih iiiHmiil T lis 
iiiuiibBr itshigini] to tbe jhiujiI uf ge-tiitnin In l*lut« in tin imsHiigi LmiiBliiliil iibirtt IB 
211., «liicb "nil', kiioiMi to tbi Pj lb i^in im ii" llie ii;t"?'«ii»,, xii-., krnivi it 
ixpr(~Bi's tin, ]n,nitil ill tLo iw\ui moutliB iltibl isiiiiitiil in linH 270 is tin I'\tlii- 



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Imv,. in.. .,,..1 . , ^ i. !..■ ■■ r, ,, I. I- iiw ilivi«™ <if 12,itli(t,()(HI. Uk,y 

ivi-e<^. > .i,., ... , .. II .._: I : : ■■ ' ■. lM,-|li,.,'liLl.r«blrt.|i, if llirti.iiiil«r of 

ifuTol'uiv llu'v Imvi' (iiiiliiuuil cv.'ii M flii' [iiiwiil ti> In' ivg.iril<il hs iii.liu'ky iiiLiiibrrH 
ill till' lit'.- iiiiil liislovv <if iiiiui. Ill 1)i!k li^'hl .'^iiiiiiiii' \[,i- UiiUvl Kibliiitli <,iiMiuii. 

Imiiiiii lifi'TOtiiri', »-ilI iloiilitUf.. tliiMir iiiori' H^ilif ii[>i>ii tlii' full >'i^'iiinnitii'.Mir (U<. I'liilniiii' 
nm^lH-r. I'nr llu' pri'Mi'iil it iiiii><t muffin' liv ti^.'iiii^ ol' Ilu' Xi|>|)iir l:il>!<>t>- to \m\v ti-ii.'.'il 
i(^ iiri^'iii U. IkiiyUiiiiii mill to liiivc iMiiiiudcil it nillt tliu tiiinliiitiviilHl lii.liyitii.iHii 

liwtriiH', Hifi>filiL!s to n-liidi llir Hiiiif cliviii,. [inHfr tiifists it-Hf Imrmoiiiciisly in nil 

pirls III' Ilk' TniviT.'i?. Ill vii'AT of tlir iiii|Hirtiuii'i' ultribiitL^il to this iiiiiiilx-i' liy (lii' I {nvk 
|iliiloso]>li<'r till' ItiUL'ts \,m piililLtliiil v\\\ n'i'i'Ivi' iiti nilililioiuil si^-iiifU'iiiK-i'. Tlii'r nn- not 
iLicro iiiiiIri[iliivilioti :iui! (iivirtimi tuliliti in mir sense i.f (lie. niml. ImiI liiive mi iistruli^^ii'iii 

,<>./. Jfllt'Mln- rn-n-/.h; .,/...(■ ,hm >rlr 'i/^r hi. j.l-l i.« Sl.„„l.- .iii-l, •lU- KrI/r ,lirm- ,'/.<;(:<•» 
[Hrr/l'/rr-ni^, 'lm» Oli'tlir np//<f/, -.mliUl «,i<l ■^(■■UtI,.;-:,uI.,II.;.." 

M'e close tliis cliiiiiter ii(iont tlie iiint. iiiiiriieiiiiiticiil t*st^ from lli<t li'tiijile liliniry of 
Ni|ipiiv,i.iyKfcilli»^liiitli<'I'l.it.iiii<Miiiiii1"r lli,!N',ll,(KKI,ivitlitl.CMvi.rilsiif Ail>iiiHi..L!IW|: 
"I kiioiv not wliiit other- will tlthik, l.iit io im \i swm* l.lmt tin- i-stiiionliiiary riiii^e 

who iH full of ' tlioiij,'lil« tlmt w,iii,U.,. lbr.iiisli ..■tmiity.' TIk- c'lminvtion k.livn.n the 

lliminn Chlhl iinil tU' JJiviue, the MietiKmiu nml tlie Miu'iik^mii, hits jihm'.l no » It 

|»,rl III the hi«lory of hiuiiiiu thought, miil the -.lory of ii Omit Ynu, with the liiipe 
n-liieh it iiHoiih of tlie .bwardiTOTi; of nil thiiijp' (Aet« ill, :il), liiix l>eeti miU h, iii its 
rtligioHS setting. Ihe wihiee mnl ^njiiiorl i>{ iiimiy n ' hiniiiiii ehihl.' " 

' .Waiii . ■■ .Mill 1^11. ivl,i,.|, -iri[Ti<*l] f2nil()XS01. Iflllic^iiinnr iiio u-mally r™siiia>(J ]»Tiud. of p-e- 



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ASHLU. SUIilUN. MUM. AOARINNU, SII.I.U. 



Till' molnilii^^ieal texia licir stiliiiiiftisl will 1k! ilistir>«iil in I'art 2 of tlii' ju'Wi'iit 
viiluiiip, wiifvi' T (;x|iUi-l. li] Kuiiijik'li^ tin- airifM m( lliit ■■hiss of tiibU-ti< I'.-iiiLViitoil nt Niiirar. 
At. Hl.> aniiie Hhip .hi ,.|fi,rl wHi Iv iiiiulu U> .■.■st<ii>e tliu diflin.iit l.ibk's cif miiiBiiri'M iiiiil 
nisiglilM ivitti tlii'ir oori'ffijiijucliiig i>i|iiivali'nlH f'ri)iii nil tlio t'l'sigiiiciitn lit my ilutjiosal, 
m,-e<jiilitiK III til.' iiiilli<„1 niifipiinl in Si'riiT. A. N'ol. T, I'.ii't 2, \'\h. ;I,S-I2. For tlu> 
[irPWHt it iiiiiy KuHi«' b) iidl iitlciitiDii Co tin- fiifl tlmt tlii> cKinti'iHf ol' «n auim'il-i "f 
(limT<'iLt ^tmuhii'-lH, ].ii;viinixly iiLfcfitxl by l>:liiUiUiLi' 1111.1 .itlii'iv.iK fully ii.ri'olwr=it»l l)y 
thu iu'«- billols [iiil.li-lu'.l un Vh. 30 and 27. Tli..y iiiako ii« »<»|iiiiiiit.',l with t«o 
(lilli.mit feiiiil- <>C 'o«„,ul.>. 111.. oiiit = ;!()HW««(.V,>s.'.|l .ma -12: Nu. :i(), 0)l«. I aii.I 
in, till' oiUiT = 24 iM,i,- (No. 3(1, <■.,!«. Ill anil iVI. Wt: aiw) «■.■ timt i,hih,u «.i« not 
till' loni'Hl mill UiioKii, Imt tlmt iiii »l,^h,>i I'onl.l Ik' suli.livi.ini 11^11111- t'.ir tlio on.' Htatiilaiil 
cf, 1 ,>!,.hiii= 2.fiNo. 4l.!iiiilN.,i. :Ht, (.'...i. Ill, fnim n-l.l.'li it foll.iws that 4 "Wh« v.™ 
dwignnlcil by a micclal oiiiiif ; aii.l 1 I'li'hn' = W j' (No, 42, ami No. :W), (W. I). Vm 
til.' otiuT sliuuliiril of. 1 .M„.- = MK) y. (No. :i". Col. III. upi).'!' liain, or 1 «/"!»" = 
!)ll.i:(N<.. ;M>, (Wh. Iir iiii.l IV), or 1 «Mh« = Vj(N.). 31), <.V.1. IV, lower liiilf). 

FiHuiiNo. aOw.-Viii'nli.'Kl.l.'Klliiit « fiMin was i'<[uiil t.i 5 OAll, uiul tlmt an 
tdh WHS .■<|iial to tivo f.,b/,.i„r Kor tlii' ti'st of t'.il. I, linra llift'., fl.oiiM l.i' r,«toif'.l as 
follows (bfeiiiiis ill iiiiii.1 tlial lli.' serilK.- rri'.iiu'onsly t.«k * GA It an noil in iiiiw 8fl'.) : 

I,i. 1(1-17; 5(X;i<'i<"' = IN.IK)-lj-) =l(lC/.4Jiti,(-HW.im|orralliiT ^'' = r.(;,l;,', 
«lii.-liar.M-all.^la«»W";«), 
18: [HI (X 3C.l)l) = ■Mfm..)-\ = ,f«l,-l,i a.\}t{=y^ = mOAIl='ifiilA-m) 
lit-2i): [1.')(X:;mk,i = 54,t)IM)/)] = m/.-/» [.]«-«/<-*£!« (/.«., 1 «sAi« and 1 
j«M.;h = I.". (lAR) 

' IX. Arlta da kumim'foejria iatfTmllMol Aa Vrimlnllilt.'Vii. 11, pp. lOTK.i Znlwiri/l /Hr iMsol.^, Vol. 
Wii^nfitliall^HaaL^pttg," N'ovi'iiilvr 11, 11101, p|i. .VII. 



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^2-;i3: [:io(X ;il1K» = IHMKK) J-) = ,ki-i.i-l[,i' a^Uii «lit-iib-!xii>^ {i.r,, 2 t,M» 

ana i^,M,hi = -2r>GAi;) 

24 : S» (X 3(K)I)) = 1(IH,(KK) /) = .*«-/«-»-/' n(J<-/[H] {/".f.. :l»J.;« = ^(1 (,',1 H) 
ij-2li: -'SiHX :tl")(l) — 12i:.(XXI.il — a/i'i-la-aiJi ■•'h-/ii fii-ii/-/«ii' (i.<:,:l fidlu :\iKi 
1 -H^Sii,! = y.> fM/') 
27; 411 (:;:HaKi) = i44,(XMIy) = <v-h'f adi-ln (!.■:. 4 iwM" = 40 <IAIi) 
pvi.lmtly .■i.iKii.mil to 
(.\>1. IT.Ii, U:[(UM''-;i"'0)= ^Ili,!""'^ =(.'."-/(-/"] (-liO (,Mft = l (WW). 

till.' l.\i-<-:iU- ]Kiiu4 rri.iii ^"o. Stt. tVk ] iiii.l II liiii|icT liiilD, iiii.l Xi.s. 41 iiiiil l-J ; 

1 A'A&(,'w=&> mil {~\m> (!.u;\ 
1 rw/ = t;,iM<i 1= (M) c;jy,:i 

1 <.<Mii = 2f:Mthi{= ID GAR) 

1 .,.l,l„hi = r, UAI! 

1 uUmn = 2 (n.'«p. ltl| / 

Xi) li -i-i iiili'iL-tiiig lire; tin' llmt' Jiifi-riiitivu [liim^ 

II. Ill ■AW\ IV. TIk' lll>l 1"!IJ bU tl-HMslL(.'™k'd illlll ll 

(.'ui, a, li. n>: ««-«;-(; »*-;«<( <i/w w «w,./ 

11:1 "„u,u,l« <;,:-»ml -^^rH. 10 I.T-JIKSIf 

,1 (iiw« nl' IuikI imik'i' oiilliviitiiiii, 10 •j»,.r, luug nml 1 -y™.! imiiid (cf. .loliii^ /..;., ,i. 221), 
wliieh (ri'qiiii'i's »crl li[IiiiI to)' a vtiw-l i^illpil 'id-i/M, I ciiliit wiili! lit its iiurrowi-st 
( = Hi((i,i)'iii'l niili-rtt(^"if"i'.'H;i") [mrtsiiml 1 ciiliit LIgli I =f"7?"l. 

Tf my iiitcTpri'liiliim ul' the (liirc tocliiiical l«riii« meiitiiniCH] Im' cinrcct, it iit'C««i- 
rily fiilliiivrt tliiit ill tlic- inicldlc of t!ii' wfl-oiul pi-o-diviHtUiii iiiillcjiiiiiim tliK HibjlotiiauB 



.Google 



were able to determine the contents or volume of a certain vessel, i^iUkil 
•tihpa, from Its three dimensions.' 

Tlie more cxiiet ileleniiinntioii of tii'iim iinil iij/iifiiuui ilniioiiils ii()Oii our under- 
sUimliiig ol'tlii' slin{N! of this vos5<!l. Tiie purlii-sl Biibyloiiliiii rojipcr vi-wicls [A'DA-1'.l 
is gciiprnll)- dL>l<Tirii[Hfll liy irti, "eoppt'r"! i^xravatwl by 
! ll I r fn -t f ht 1 




111 



1 Ul 



I Hli 



I I 



I tg I I I 1/ / I / / ( fl/i'l ft 1 I 

1 1001 I in (N I) \M [[1 It 11 i SB t 
-^1 ( f lUtjid \ I il I I f I IP 

1 81 1 4G() 1 I tl sx II (M 

1 k i I / f^/1 /"■/(■*.) t 

I f, I., t t 1 -t t tl b 1 



t r. 1 1 (/) Sll 1 

11 il 1 It t Ij t 

II 1 tU f tl I i t 11 



ri I 



il 



□ 



I I tl 



: ) 



tl II ( ) 



< 



1 I 
tl 1 


i 1 
11- tl 




Itt 1 


1 


lb 


f tl 


! J \ tl 



t 1 ( I ill t B) II I 

I I 10 t I I 11?/ 

jiiitiirally "uiiia r.'ffT t.> its bit.-iMl .ilj|;o 
or"»ltitii.lo"(r). 

Aa tliiwo tlirL'p .liiiiciisioiiK iiru lo U- 
i'<|iiul, tlir Yivsfl ill ijiiL't'tiuii nuiilil bi! a 
rertimgiilnr piinilli'lo]u[iL'ii iviiose fad's iirc 
»ll «pi„rra, ill other wcixls » .■o1k>. ^ ■ 
Wliieh of tlic tivo v.-sscls i» imiiiit i>i tlic 
inaori[itlon isoiiiot yot lit m'ttkil. The fiirt 

limt tiirly ifiibjloiiiaii viiwiIk, whether miiilc of stoiie, lupiJer or ttrra-wtlH, geiiiTHlly i 
cireiilai', Hii'ftka in fuvur of ii (.-yliiiilrienl veneel ; but tlio ti rcii nisi ei hot tbat it is casii'i 



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h Bab n an mu ha 



h h w ng h 



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A NMU ('HU()N()L(MJ[( Al. LIST. 

Tlif. upvr ,ihmiii.loj.inil list ivliidi I liiivc ].iil.lWlu^l ,is tli,. I.i«t t.-xt ..f tlii- voluiu.- 
(cf. PK XV iiMil ;il)) iM ill iiiiir.' tliiiii i.ih! >viiv <if iiiliTi'-t iiinl iiii]kirt!iiio>. Sliic'u l.lii. 
iliw-ovury ut Nippur of ilal^' IIhI^ of kings of tlii' MTOniii (lyii»sl,y iiC ['r (,-.{. Jl. K, 
S'rit-s V \a\ T No-< 12r> hikI 127) ' it wuh iiIiiiohL (-.'itiiiti tliiil -<<,i.iipr 'r Inf^r n-c tv )iil<l 



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tn iiK, must have Ijts-ii fiir f'r.iiii oiwfiiiv (u Ivliij; NiilxpiiiiliB, ivUii ivfrt* tn it, sliitiiif; rvcii 
the nmiilw?!- ul' Vf-JIM Iviii^ iK'i.mrii l.lh: mvii liiiii: :inil t.luit of iT.rlJiiii ajifii-iit nilern. 

'I'lio ii.'W .■lii™i«li>si'"il ri:iKiii<'iil, «iill.'ii U>\y:<vk the I'lwl .if l-lii' t1iir.l uiilU'imLmn,' 
fDriiislii-s IIS iiniil.lirr link iti the cliiiiti of iirhiiiiiontx, nliimlii;; tliiil i'Wn>tiii1i>j;;('iil 
}UU witli |.|u> iiHiiUfl of ilyiiiwUft-, 111.. iiiiinlN'r of niloi^B kOuiif-iiis f. cni'li, nml th<.ij' 
ivspiftivo j-Kii's (if jiiiinTtiiiunif. afliiiillv exiKd'il ii«iilv ^KXI vi'iirH lipfi>ie Kiii^ Kiilxi- 
iiiil.i«, kIkw Ktiilfiiii'iits liuvo (iirii »iil)j(Ttcd loiH(TV*viTiM-ril!i'[Biii. LTnlyrtiiiialfl\- 
what is l«fl <•( tlilB |.r..|'ioiis liililil is ill .'iicli ii ili.|ilnralilu <.-,iiiiiillmi, tliiil fiir llit piiwiit 
it=< RcTorse iiluiii' miM lu> piilili^lu'd in iiii iiiitnsr.ipli iiil.;-. T)ie 01ivit-|., l:irj;i>lv covciifl 
nith iTvslals ami irtlicr ilfjuisifw, nill liavi> tn Ih> Irnitc'il iliemiciiUy l>ffi>ri! it «ni lii> ilwi- 
[ilieiTiil, As it van iiiipiwsiMe tii i-iciiii il Hiifliriiiilly witlmnt ('iiiliiiij^trinp; tiit K<'vi.'i-si>, 
ivliii-li )>i'<;;ii>i tu K<iil>' nO', [l ^miKil nixi'V In li>uvi- tliu Olivuivi' iiiilmii'lii'il, until nil lU- 
ipiestinns wliiuli iiiuy .■nuio up in nniimrinii witii my fnllnwiiig ilistusji<m .if tiic Upwvm 
Imvi' l)t^-ii settloil (H» fiir hh lliis is juKsilili') liy ii l^■JK■iltl■l! fx;miimitii.i> iif uvoi-y tniiH- uf 

Tlip phntr'i'typc ri.pr™lT-<-linn im !'l. XV, -vliiHi may scrv,^ i.^ nil illii«ln^tin,i „f tlio 

.11 ■ . ■■ I ■■■ ■■ ■■ Ki.li<tinrt ns most nf Hip fiiiiinrti'ii^ nn tiic 

III I II |i ■ ■ .,,-,.■. ..ly Unit it iilsncnntiiiiipil tlm immi^suf rulers 

rcmaiiih nl' il pi-rpHiilii'iiUir iliviiliii^ line, ckiirly vlr<il>lu iiciir tlic iippur ri^lit •lij^'u fif tliu 
lie*-trsi>, iiml fnnii tlie fm'l lliai llip frugniiiil riiir!iw it- f-n^atcst, tliifkiiCHH at tlic riKlit 
Inwer i-irnpr nf Kevfi'sr, it fljJlows llial tlic talilc^f, ivlii^ii iH.mpl.^tr, niit. iit.uif iloiiliR. .is 
■ 1 11 tl rf If ItH ■ ■ 1" sislci! -if four iiiliimiiK of 

re & y l!>il.yloiiitiu rnlnv. As 

b trlinlfnf Col. IV, lii.f-in- 

k E m) RC:., timn- iiiusi liltvn 

iilmut i:!;) piivJILiifjiiric 

r^ 1 pi'CHfiit to liiivc livrJ 

Ri ini.lns {r,:yj ]l.c.). if. 



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iUTrL];j[ATlc.i.r, Mi;Tiu.i«.iiii.vL asl. chi.oni.i/wi.^ai, tahi.kts. 41 

!liez-,if,)rf, iii,l, ,.l,]i,iiol,^i,,nl list« ns tln> iini^ litTe piiWialied KPm |irOHertc>.l In the 
teiiiplf ari'liivpK iMiil lilmirips (if llie Nni-BBUyli)tiiiiii ciiipio', wliiili app«iim to me 
Boclaiii, till! priortB iui<I wlioliim i>f Nniimiiili» wcro ahle iiut iiiilj- (o Irui'i^ tli« liiBtory 
of llu'ir couiitn- to Hnrgoii 1, but tii ii uoiwiilrmlTlj' «iriiiT jx-cioil. Tin' ipifstiiiii arisi'p, 
wliiit \n tliu age ci'iJrcwiilcJ liy this «ii'ty pfriod? 

Tint Kliiniiiiliicricnl rc'fiTliicm gntliuriil fraiu N'iilmuiiltc-' innrripfimw ivitli it'gmtl ti> 
the aj,T of Srtigi]" I (anil «f otliur Oarly Biilijlonjaii riil.™j nill always ivmitiu of f-rcat 
viiliio, as a luwiiis of I'liwbiiig our own resiilla, iiiilitM il I'lin bi; ]ii'riv(il iliat Ibc kiiij; or 
Ills m-boluhf, as iittBii lias lii^cu iinai'i-ttil, "iiiaiiiilai'tiiruil " tliia liij^li ilaU', in iinliT to 
altribnti' a jjitjatiT ini|iortunis' tv tlicir own iiPcii!L'Oiogk'»l nwi'iii'iiiipn. 'rliis piwif. Imvr- 
I'HT, liHM ui'Vf-r burn fnrnjslied, imtwitbutaiiiling tlic jiiii'tly HuciTSHfnl plfortu iif jimininput 
Kolnilai's Hi Amw thr iniiHiKKibility of NabonidoK' iissciliiiiii'. AVc iu'kti<iiv!cl>!i>, Ib-rr iiru 
vpry ^iTioiiH ilillii-nlliiTi criinn'ttpil nitb our uwcirtiiig tbi' kiiif-'s stiili'nn'nls. J^'biniiiiii, 
tliBiiifotc, ^iKluiiviHTil to n^dauc tlio yiffll yiBira giviMi by Niibmii.loB as tbo liitorvnl 
butttC'n NarSm-Siii, son of Hiirgoir I, aod bi« own ),i,HTnmciit, by a«umiiig a wrilml 
error In tbo Hgiiiv of tlic cunelfonn tfxtK (2200 yenrs iiiKlpart of 3200);' ■\Vini'klpr, by 
t!ikinf! it for gr.intcJ that tiin Ni'ii-Kabyloniiin w-lnilni'R bail " tcltir Kniiiij'V'rzfi'-lin'tse 
mthr. m-lrl;- hi, m,f ti,ryo,i\ /.,■!! luumlfyrrnM /.n/lnu"' Vm- vm'iou« r«ii.nin n.^ithiT 
theory, h<m<■^■(■r al.ly drfenihil, ini't with nm.^li fnvor luiioa;,' AH«yriolo);i«t, an.l bisloriaiit.. 
It Bifnis to tm that tlm prolili'ni may \ie. appi'oafln.il and solve! in Mill uiiothiT muiiinT. 

AftiT il vory eiiroful i¥-^xamiin.tion of tlir vatUi: rnaWrial fii.in ivhii'li «« nunally 
PoiiBlrai^ the fnimciv.irk of Hiibyhniian history, nznl with dup (.im«idi.>iMtirHL of thu two 
ahltB of tho chniiiologif'al fnignmit umler lUsCiiSHioii, whii-li atalirBt tjlaut'o wouhl )ip[)«ir 
rather to nnpiiovt Nnboniiliw' lOaims, I liavo folt it ini'is«iLr;- tj. reviKe mid nn«lify my 
formiT foin^liisions. A« snllirieutly indicatfd in (!liapt.'i> I and mi. lOf,, idiovt, I mon- than 
cvur l"'li(.'ve in the gii-it age <if Habyliinian liti'iiilurt, nriU I liavc jHmitive cuasuns ibr 
aK'Oi'tiny that tlio Neo-Bidiy Ionian acholaiv had I'liranoloj^ical liftp, by miiinx of'whieb 
they could stndy the. history of tlieir coniitTV far bi^yoiid the time of Smij,^! I. At tlie 
Mnnio finif, J lind it no longer jxissiible to n^iimeilB N'uboniilot!' statements ivith eertjiin 
well-known fiU'tw cstahlislnil by AHuyriologinil n-ai'an'.h, not the Uiist by Ai'lm^kler's anil 
Iji'bnmHn'K own wrltingB. 

Thi! waults at wliicb 1 have arrired may b« summed np briolly m follows ; 

1. 'fhe c. S200 ycai's chiinLud by Nalwnidos as the approximalo ngt- of Narfim-,Sin rep- 



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iiaciilalbn,., hiiMtl «iwii iiiillK'iilk' tliniiKili^^icMl iii^iti'riiil M llu'ir <\Up<m\. 

■1. TI1.W- «i)r.|il:ii;i.ii-, UonTvrr, iiiT .TmiifiHis, like .rrtiiiii Dtlii'i' cliiviiLoU^giHil sftilp- 
im'iilri Willi Mu !■: (■■Mu ;m..>rttirlv]l,ibyl(nihi» ml.TS Imiml in XHl™ii<li>s' t™is mi.t 

iiiirU'iii 1; I . . '....iiiil lists. IS.ll. tli« iiii-wki' iii:i.!o li,v III.' kill}; 1111.I hi« 

:i. In ]ill i^roliibilhy Xulx.iii.U .lUf^lnt^l lik <hi1..< l>y <iil'llii^ llu' y.-.n-s „l' llii' 
aill'm'iif. .lyinistii'.' fimiid in \w lisln, l.-li.'viii):. villi Iii^ »'!nil]irs nii.I irtiiiT ( liiil.yl.miiiti 
iiiul nniiU'rii) ciiiimiilngi^lH. tliiil tlic^i' c'liri)iiiil<>j;k-)i1 lislx nmbiiiiiil, in xiiiri^4<ivi' Driln', 
tin. nnnu'^ >,f M tlic ml.M* iimniyliis lli.. llir-in' "C l!iilivl,>i,ii, )nu,i On. r.irll.i^t tinn« 

4. In c'xuiiiiniiig iIhw plir.niul.ifriciil li-l" "f inu-r, Iii.wiv.t, ilistin-iii-li lidnvm, 
kings nf n cTliiin i-ily m ai^ln.'t h.kI kiiij;> or ,ni]i,.nM-> U" us,. Ilii- un.ir xiKnllinitil 
tillol .,f' Eiihyfoni'i. l''c>r 11..I all tlu' iin'mlii'i-s .,( {\„- vnrions <lynuxH<>» renin!..! n)nl<l 
!uy claim ti> tin' more i-isnifidint of tluw tivo titk*. 'I'lii' ,-liMni.li,;£ii-!il UhIs, Hipii, in- 
pfmcl n< only ninLfrnin;; crrlnin liti.M -.ia<\ ilistrii'ts liiiviiij; 11 lciii|..iriiry (i.'.si-inuny uvi'i- 

tr.}!(^!uT M-illi 1(1.. nuini^ ,mil m^iw of llii'lr liH.'nl iiiU'i^ C'lm-tilntiiif- wrtiiin ,!yti,iKti.*: 
Imt tlicy .io nnt ^ivo n^ iiuy iiifiiriniili.in ,i« to lirra- tminy of llim. Iiinil rul'.TK wvr,. 
<'iti|,.'ii.i's of Ibiliyloiiiii at till' .jiinii' tinn'. 

tion of vHrly riiii>ylon;iiti oiimiioldtry. Tin,' iniiniw of tlnw.. lo^il kiogK ivlio aU, ncir 
t'liipi'rorii fif IJiiliylnniii, tlii' ilnnitiim (if their ni<;Lis lis ,-m|iiTorx nml tlu'lr sllm■s^^il.ll, 
uiiii't l)u i*liilili^ln-(l from iitlipr Minrtiw, noliilily by ini'im» of tlnir tillis iissniiiwl in 



liyi,tlii'r.iim-tor imliiwl ovi<l,.iiiT <lrn«ji fmni tli.'i 



ti'iiii«iiii- 



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''■ ■\- ■■<■<■■ '■■ :i - ■ I !■: f: i-\, Wliirkler. Nicbiilir, l,injl. el,'., tho .lyimatics 

'■"""" ■' i !■ ■ II li ■ I . !!]iHnovcr]iip™i;liolln'r, liiret'i'rriiigmj rwidfre 

'" t'"' ni li-l . ■■ I ■ I ■ I ■ I I ■ ■,j, i;(, I Htiitc.' it iiR my imit ciiuvictuiii, bascil niiiin 
iirk-ii,,ttlL,l-u'. i.LiU „Li.l iiuv. ^,yymyi,iii.., (<i) tliut ubout the Wt KM) yiairs of tliu first 
ilyiiHKty .il Isiii (for ivliii'li luinjUinj my li^t lipli.w) arv iDiiteiiiixiraiirmiri witli lliii iirnt 
li'l yiiirn n( llip IJimimuralji ilyimnly (I'f. p. 19, 11..I1. .\ Ijuiow), niiil tliiit tlif (lyiiiictiifl 
»f ICiuili (iv|m'«Mi((Hl by Sili-fiiVllid, ..(.■.) ]iti.l liimm, (kiiuivii fnim Nili-.Immi.r, ,■(!.■.) 
luii^t l„. [ibn-cil in i\w. ^m- Ki'iicral [UT-ioil ; ' {!,) iU:,i t1ip .lyii.isty „f ,S7//'>7/( TK (Z)- 

II ■■'■■■at IBiit i" i'iHLloii4ii>r.iii.im» ivilb tlir IJiimmiinibi ilyiiiisly (rf. pp. .TiH'., U.l»ff); = 
(.■I tlLUt ul h-.,M (be fii'st «ll-l(«l y<„i>w of tlir Oitwit.. .lymisty vim |ii.Mll..| wilb Ibo ciriv- 
s|ii)ini;iiK I'liMiiig jiiiiii of lli<. pni^eiiiiig dyii^iHtim; ' (r?) Unit tliu lirnl .■. iVlH vi>ai>i ,if till: 



,,Googk 



44 THE TEMPLE LCBBART OF KIPPUK. 

I [ IIF II 1 1 «t ro 1 r Ttl tl 1 ^4 ^ 

ofth < ^tcl t It t>.-l } Iri I } t} I f 1 ll k L ll K 1 
Inltlsv-ltlol I ) tlj Ills 

[H r i R I I 

V I J, t r| mt u '^ 1 1 « I I I I 111 

to ctr 1 I t H 1 1 t J III 1 t 1 u t II \\ „u 

cal 1 tl ll p hr t r t N 1 In v 1 i n Ik 1 I II 

-. Ij II <■ vt n . J, « I' >, t 1" tl f S 

I I 1! "C tl '' i r r llfr 1 1^ I r v 1 i Is > t tl p 

<- del *t f B M U H k I I ( ^ k 1 

(/ ! >! r t e \\ I K7 t k n Ir ll t I ( n» t 

I M t ) Ij tl 1 1 I tl rut ntxx b 1 tl lilt 

g el el fru I f II n t. ' ■>' uf I- S" f o" " I » I '"- " ' 

ir „ ^ ^BjI I t u- Vtti »a c I II I t f 

I k ixr kL t le 1 le« 1 I rwl I Jj v, II „[ nt<l) 
e el > I l« Ir 1 B 1 1 t I « e I 1 t W e n< 
li I tl 1 V i L. irf. »s II 1 le 10 ™ 11 ! 

II of \e iciiu 1 IK.'. <i B Ivl a Ik aijr X u ll 
a 111 IK t1 I t 1! Ix, t 1 1 r 1 I « -( I k f, f 
I =11 J- BL +tUJer-fIiMi 1 c -^ois k Ir tl I I 1 
1 t ( = H !- « B C + t n 1 tl ( «< tc 1 t I rfM Bi. 

t i tl t^JsitU + Sj r« 1 tie «e 1 1 i»l _ llS-''i 



yGoogk 



KCl + JMl 1 rfl}j rail! IJ 1 I tj ( = I («| J ( ) + KKI 

1 J 1 tl ly t i Lord d 1 \ {= ^ |K) li t 1 + 

I tl I t 1 t t I ( I tl K i ! If 1 1 1 = 74h 

S 4|m ) + 11 f tl I t f I I f tl I 1 II K t 

11= il ( I) ] ( 1 I tl w I t I t t t II 

I II r< II 1 ttl ^, ( I L t. " '*<- 
11 i ( \/\ // I li t fH 1 I Ii( I tl fllKt 

k t fl M I I J ( ll Irsf 111 ( ssl 1 1 ] t 

II I I I II !■* 1 j( 1 1 \ 1 I 1 T. II 

I I I 1 t I K I t k ll t tl I t I I t I 

1 I < 1> ] tK t 1 t I l< k »4 Ij I If I I 

I Ik I U \ ll f tl) 1 I ( 11 1 I I I 10 

111 |lt tl 1 ! I 1 t 1 If I I H M I 

U 1 1 f 1 1 ^I K Jil r- 1 I -ll (I ( ll / // /A/ 

b / 1 t I r t tl I 1 ] I I 1 tl 

ft III t 1 t t t tl 1 tl « -W. rs J 1 t< lill I 

(1 I 1 t o 37A)lSi {\ m t^'sl'"'' \ ) i M J- 1 

M lU p j^ ) II 11 I It I tl I t r \ 1 11 1 1 

I I ll t II <l II t n 1 i tl 1 I t I It 

f-i 1 1 1 1 1 N 1 I 1 1 I tl 1 tt 

I 11 1 lit 

S \ It I 1 I I 1 1 ;; tl t 1 1 1 1 I 

1 t f II 1 1 1 I [ow bl 1 t W n. I -wl 1 J 

1 lUUy M) j« \ I 1(1 1 w 1110 lU t 

\ I I 1 I 111 1 1^ t. B l-sl 11 1 t 

1 t tl ( I I >, nil IK ) 1 1 1 ( 1 1 I 

I tl L * t I 1 1 \.j, H k w ] 1 1 1 tl 1 1 1 »( t 1 

f 11. 1 I V It I f 1 tl t t t tl t I « s 

t I t ll i-^ 11 1 xtK 1 1 ll Oi>v t d 1 tl tl I mt 1 ty I 

IkUvlnii, tliu (lulex ti> he> UF!xigii<><l to HiiTiumiiiilii iiiiixt viirv conxiilpriibly. At tlif liini'st 
extitHHtc 1li> nilwl v. 1H3() JJ.C, ut the higliwt lie (wiinut lj,> pliR-ed boyon.l aXXt JS.C. 
l'i'-''.V/.Y-JA', in-c,rJiiigly, woiilil linvc nilp.l toiihi tiiiip Ijotnt™ SMK) nn,l SUt UX'., 
Tr-Eiigui- mav tiim- hchvfcn ■_■/■>"< i :iiul 'J^fKi VJ.'.., Surgon I betivirn :M)(H>»nil 3701) B.C. 
I liiy KlrfKKcmly U|iu.i '. i : ^i' .i f i lU iib.vf. The cliilui tlinitisclvi'a mtiat be 
nmlprDtuiiil iiM iiicn' jKjssiliil I < li . i l><j llxuil mun: aouiiratcly without tl much 

bfttcr kiii>n'lfilj(i' lit' Wain III. I III i.-.jii Ii.iil, 1 frankly caiiifeffii, wo liave ut jKiwctit. 



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11 i[;jJ[']-'''-"-'" '' '-''- 'l'"-:i"-:i' n '■.-«[.«] 

13. r,-t'.vj.v-;]« is i.,.[,,] 

M. [«».'.«]„ J r,J.v/.v- //.■-, 21 .-.,[,,1 

I.-,, /[-(.-;,-A-].i-[..j]" -' ""-«- ■"' •[-]-[,'/] 

in. ..-..-..-..-.. .'.-» 7 ;»-"[»] 

18. 'ivtflJ.,-,^;] n ,■[.-.,] 

la. x„.„r,-..-,r.', I ,1,„,] 

2L-BJI.ISII,'i-..-.. ,.,, .1 ;[,„„,] 

-■2. ■'.« -[../']'■ •» II .■["-■/I 

11. liiw,,,/-,-.], ■ [.,]. IS.-, ,v. ii ;,„,[,„- 



li. .^ kiiiK-, 



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0. niin-n,,ffi„. 




1 <-!■ J-libl-l'ni, 
inffiimil-ilisliu, 


1. Mimt-Ifcisiiji, 


KOI 


mf Miii-Dn^Sii, 


2. liil.it-Miliir. 


m., 


, nrMmK-DiiK^i 


;!. rr--.NbiLl>, 







17. Win?)-..- 

13. Hi-i-i,riiii, 
ly. Zii-„i,.(!|. 
•J I. ? 

--■ f*iii-"i"Si 
■23. D;imi.|-il 



from ainmii'k 'S (Wiiifkltr, ri.lr,-'--/. ■.„!/.■„, p. l.-^i|. V:.,- a,, = hrh. "lu nilis" if. 
\' y,'. V^, .-Vh. All 111.- iiiiiiii-« [iivi'fdoil by (hw:, " ™.ii of," liiivc llie K<'iiiliv .'ikii ./.■. 
pxci'lrt Ji...--''Iil,i (11. I.)) mid ■•S-i-i-wgu- (li. 2;!). Oli^rvr tli.' |V-,V;i„/,-v»«y^,.7/.. "jy." 
hIW Ui-Tm;/!!,- (li, 1, Inii, sfraiijjcly (uionsli. "iniltcil iii li. 2 lieforu jiO, wliii'li piiivcN 
Unit the royJl iin,ii..ni.!c.J i» ,: >V tlii> nwlin^' "™-/;„'" I'f.Tliiivmii-Dunsiii, i" /.Vri/r 
.r A^!/n;/'«/i>; Vol. V, |i. 71), nut.' 2, iui.l /..» /„^n/,lhu,. ih- N»wrr H >rMhi,l. y. 2(1:1. 
wA'-'X Ki. Ii*s imiisiiHl is till- l'T/ri,iym(".v^»,7A."„.,"all<:r''>V'" ill iiiii-« :f-.-.. Tliix 
ii«: <,r III.. Vr,-/ii„,/a-m,f,^i/k'- "i-"" mill ",in" (wtiurinlly (li.. hilt.T, iis^iiriiij; llir 
Ht'iiiitic I'niiliiijj of ■'J-:X'Xlr= ".SVh), ill (ijiiiiirtiiiiL «illi til.' <mii..«nii of tliu Vn-H>„S'-r~ 
««:,^!IU;,",m'-„[tvi- (>",»'■■ Jliiil "l>«" 3th-r Mi-"' iV\. D—^-vm-rKWy .imittiil only in 
llii. Si'iuilic itiwriiitiojiB of tin- ki lifts of fr iiii.l I«iii nm! of tli.'ir jhtIoiI, vliik. llic 
Siiiiipriiiii ti'xtH liin-c Iln-iii— imivcs tiiiit. tlir SinmTiiiii rtiii' writlin liy ii Sniiti.- w.iil,r, 
ivliitli for nllHT iTMiKiiiin nt nuyliow wouUI liiivr nwiiiiiril. 

L.i'j«/-A-AX {liiti's 1 aii.l S) = l;,/,>!-n.., (tf Z. A'., Vol. 1. p. 31X1), " lie wiik " -ic 
" lie Ixiiiiiic kins;" (ol'. iihnjh-it,-<.,», " lii' whs » sod,'' Priiici', " ^Intfrinlf for u tfiiiiicrum 
l,|..tlwii," 11. 11). wlillo lmi.ll-,: olli-ii iK-ciiiTiii;,' in tlin .hW* of llic 1. dynii'-ly of Kil.y- 



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V.>I.TV,p. 401, l),ikl».H, .1./;., p. 71,Ktiul:.', K.K. f!m^- A, VI, 1,]l II, iiolc 1, In 
II. <■' In- nii^hik.' til.' xiTihf (.mitM «,», di-tlm-t Hiin« rif wliuli ;irf pivsLTVi'J 
in 11. 24. \iM th.. omWiiHi i>i' llif .-ijj" ZF iittw "A'.V (,.f. ]'l. XV) ii. t\w, 
m<im' ..( )ih.nl~-','ih, (Ii. fi) is (liio l« im nmr <iii lh.> i>iirt of llic .■iliti.r. /Vh«i"- 
«(" Ui. 1) m'X hi«'''m (Ii. Ml, miirkiiij; III.' I^'jiiiiiiiiis of n n^n ilynn^^ty. iiir 

toiik, si'iw.l." ii [ilmiso mil ki"iini CiiiiLi tlu' liiiHLiif,-* iwinls 1= " lir riT<.'iv.vr' ^ 
lu-hi.,- or wif/iir) ol'ths tliini luillriiTiiiiiii. Tiiu niiliiL.; l-\>\-''s;„ (Ii. ,',) J,.lii,iti4y sillh^ 
tin. reiiiliti!; ,)f til., iinin.- iil* tlie List kiti^ uC tiif dyiiaslv <,f Ur, t.'.-ii.'i-.illy writkTi 
I^XE-'S;,,. m fiivor uf I)..|il»^i>iiV |m.i"siti.m = Wl-^AV,- (in '.'. -(., V.il. II, |.. f.-lC), 
Mwf.Wi\ hy Ktuikc. /';«.■;■/«/;««. ]i. ■-'.•*, II. A'., Si-i'iiv I), \'iil. Ill, [.. •>■>•.}. mil,. ,'., 
Tlllllti^ll-Diillgill, il'.v,«-,V ,/,. 71</-/r//<« a.'<lih%-HHr>, ji. I, uiif.- y, <ilu1 h't r,wni.lh«- 'h 
S,i„„ ,■ ,i .TAkkml, p. 2N!t, ii„i« Ii, ,111.1 odifis— a traiwlit.THtmti ivlii,-ii ! )v\\tv^-\i liiiiiwtf, 
iioKrvoL-, iiili'ly niiutiai,(ic(l iifjaiii iti lii* ItuhijIomKhc iiii-l .i«»ijrm-hc Hn-ivehiflhlm, 

\\.r \W iiU'iitity of tl,i. ii:uii.« 7;,i,( ivrllti'ii lil^iHiiiplii.-iilty, i-f. lifiiiiiioiv, " \ <.'l,i«sl- 
fieil Lisl," X<i. OlXWj-^.V/w im.l /;»(■( nritl.-u KvlhiUkBlly, <-f. Itruiiii-iw, /,.■., .V,.. Ii!t71|-:SV<(, 
rf. KrHl/^'li, ii> /.'. .1,, Vi.l. II, |.[i. (122R'. Tlif iiiinio »f Kiuj; l.l~l,!.:iAA\i=ly\^t 
( = i.».i;i, if. Tluircui-Daii^'iLi, Z^- l,mrii.Ho«i >lr S,m.rr .-I ,r_U-h-l. [.. 2!K)), kiii.vvi, 
iilnwiy fi-om Ijis tivo nmf iuH'ripfi.ms (KiiifT, ""'iiikmIWi,! Tests," Vol. XX[. I'k IM 
iiml i;i).iswritti>ii /,.V.,V-''/s/.-/w in A*2!I7:; (Kiiift, " t'immfun.i Ti'Xts," Viil. XIII, I'l. 
4-1, Oln-.. !i. 1). I .itii iiiHiiiiHi lo ivsiiiil !(»■ luiiue y^««-/ u« III! iiMir.'viah'.l Somitii- 
.imm. niilt.ii f:yll„hif:illy = I>:m'ii Tl«- veil. ,/»«(,;./(, is niiMUiOLilj ii-ihI in llic ™rli,r 

S,™ilic |>,-o|"'i- ii^'n^'-s ft. Ii. 2:i ..1 .ml- <'lir..ii.ilr.i;i..«l list iiii.l tli iimw j'Ai«-,>,l/..,v/„i-, 

Jhu,uj.-/!r/, ll,u.,;ri„, V„n..i:-ilUh,, D.omi'-.Shi. //--J-Iwh,, lia-lH-Jifl-ilr^hhiui,, 
/■:ii-mir(>ui,!ij, i.iiJ wpfciiilly llii' two iii.^tim'livf fpiiiiiiitii- iiiiiii.'s, Ihi-imi-mi-br-el-Hm iiinl 
Ill-tlumiTCJh-'/i' («liic4i, hiiwcver, .■iiii alsi. Ix' jt.i.I llUV^i ; for ii/./ ;iiiil ;i-t« 

TLv pn^CTvcI lM.itioii .>f tin- R.ivrM- is .livkli'.l iiilo Ino si-t-li.,n^ (..) lin.'H f-ll : (li.' 
kiiif!:! cif thc' Oyiiiisty i.f I'r, WgliiiiiiiK witli : " Ur: lU-ICnjtiir iK'Ci.iii.' kinp, \k riil,-,l 
IHyeiiK" {Ii, 1). iiiul d.isins witli: ".1 kids" mM 117 yniiv " Hi. (i). (A) li)ii'H7-24: 
tin- kinsH of tlic ilyiiast.v of Isiii, iK-siiiiiiiig villi : " L'r, ils w\^\vC) .-..^.s..,!" (litiralty 
"lirok.-," "Ion.'," " iK>ri»lif.l," " wiis ili'stiiiy"!," or tliL- liku), " iHiii s*i»il its kiiigli.xiil " 
(Ii. 7). " Isln 1 Islilii-Urii Iw.t-nnu! king, I.^ inle.1 :J2 ymm " (ii. 8), aii.I I'Lisini; nltli : 
■'li; kings ruW 220 J-ciir«." 

-MutiliLti;.! .IS sjnu- .,f tin- iiiimk-h ..t (li.- I.ravf I'lnl .)f tl... fraKii"'iil aif, il». tiiiiiit..<i' 



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iiF rulers coiii)n«i[ig the twy clyniiiilii« miil their I'lwi'octini reigns dxv aliKolutflj- tcrlniii. 
I-k'sideB, tivo uF tiw. njyul imiiiPH (liiiBS l^t and IH) <si!i be I'CMtiinxl witli givut prolwljility 
fTDin suvcrul iinpiiljlinlioit Ntjumr falilito coiitiiininj! tli« ]imm« iif two otlierwiao uiikiiinvn 
kings, n-lii. fiiv vnrioiisi tuOBiins iiiiiat liavis bifii iiiuiiilioin of tlii' dynasty of Isiu, 
Tiies* tn-i> royal niim™ are 'I-le-ii^KA-i/u'f, and 'liM-lii-m. Tlio lust nionti.nied kidg. 
iilrwiiiy refcrrwl lo hy Wi'iieil {in iirtwci/, Vol. XIX, XoU? XXVII, Llt^pritit, p. 2:i), 
ivlio fiiinid liini nil .V. L ')., Ni. y53, is kuo«-n to me from tliren Other diiteil Sipi'iLC 
ialilutH, among tliom V. H. 31. ll.ail' iind 31. I. 0., Ni. 18'J8. King •'/-ie-ir-A.'M-s/i'i 
(on JiTJ-s/i,;, rf. Itiinke, ^. A'., Surids 1), Vol. Ill, pp. Slof., note!)) iippflwa on tlirce 
datiiil tabk-ts. Tlic one— the iiiterioc of a oise-tablet, eovertil ropwilaiUy witli tho seal 
inijirii^ioiL ol' n wrtniu AwH-'AV^f-IB. Kon of A"^((= Ainil- or Bt-yHIX-fB, ]>rouu- 
nentlymuMlionwlintliolciinsai-tion— isdHM"'^/IW-(7Wjr(i>., Mff"'«.)'«»''^fc-lV 
A'.■^-«A.^ />ig«l-r." Tlie »e<.-oiiil is ii frasmunt eliwing witli "'^APlN-OAIi-A {i.e., 
Arft^-mnimi) iiin 'I-ic-ir-KA-tM Ififil" foHoweil Ity llirei! not \ ery disliiLc't ]in«S (<-on- 
l.inutng tUe dule nnd mentioning JiH und Xippiir). The tliiril is among the nueliiHsifieil 
tablets wliiitli I cx»min«l only oueo very hastily. There owiure aiiotJier king by the 
iimnoof.-(.l/-.S/yW)-i7;-/.(m)n-.l.Von tlio onpubliBliedliibletKi/.J/^^ 11,013, iTbo,hovf- 
<!ver, einnot iH'linig lo this dynasty («f. p. )35, note 1). in 1. 16 of the now (-lironological 
list we find the sigiL KJIKVITnOer tlie tnipes of ai>{t), ivhioh I do not regurd as puct of tlie 
mime, but us an iipjKieition to X, designating llie liittor an the hrutlier of tlie jin'Cediug 
KinR ''U<--!r-/CAtA.1, unil, tberofin'e, as ii seuuid son of ISili'-Sin of Iain. Of. the same 
sign S//A;y/ placed alUr Shnslii of tlie dyiuinly of SHJ-JtH^UItUyKU^ (on tho 
largt-rlifltof kings, known as Al, who thereby is dcMignatcii ns tliu brolhsr" of /ii/ii'iint 

With the i!XW!ptiou of one oontract tabli-t oxuiintted by Scliell lit Abil ILiblni'aud 
dutcd " in the yoir iiftcr tliat iii whioh King [Mlimq-iUiilia built th<: wall oi' Iain," 
dueunients dated an^onltng t^j kings of the djmiMty of Isin, to the Ust of my knowladgt, 
have thus for been discovored only at Nnfiiir. licsidcs the tablets jnst tripled, 1 have seen 
one datt-d " iu tlie year when 'Ur-'KINIB' . . " (rest nintilaled. 3f. I. 0., Ni. 1!)12), three 
in tlie mgu of 'Dix-iii'i-lq-iU-Khfi litgal (ef. C. S. M. 11,G02),' and one or ta-o in tSio reign 



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■'■0 TllK TKIIPLK UIHlAltY I.F N UU. 

ofB.!r-W».' Alto^i'tlLiT. tlim'fiirc, livf tiiijj< oflliis .lymi.ly mv it|,ivsi.-iiU.I liy ihilid 
hililuU. 1 liavi' 1IO dvnlil n ^i)i»l iiitiulM'r iif tlic iiiHiilIidi'Jitly ihib'il Xi]i|nii' .liKiiini'iitH 
(i'.(^., (liiU'i! alter mi iintiLLltiiit i>vi>iit but iiinilliiis!; tlic ii.inn' of tli.> ruliT) nill turn out 
to lu'liing Id the snmi! jmtIixI. IMuii'j-ilidiii is nlsn kiiuwii f'liiiii twii rriisiiicutjirj' t«rni- 
ciitbi WHIPS with iaunliwil iii-criptiiiiis, fxtiivutf.1 iit Xiilliir in IM',);5 iiiiil I.S9.-| rrB]).*- 
tivtly,' ..Lid pii.l«l,ly ,il-i. fi-,.111 Cl.rmiicU' S. (hirg.. IVusin,. li. 3l uiul A". IfUll:;, li. HI (.'f. 
WiiifklcT, -■[. K n'. ,-.1.-,ff.l. X,i-wh/ir U r<-]<TV^mU-i[ l.y t«i. fiiisiuciitu of !i t.Tiui-oottii 
i-oiie (of th- BUiiiC' )B-tifnii ty|iu ;[K tliiw iif Il.tiiiii|-ili«liii fniiii Xiiiimi'l rxciiVHleil liy llie 
(h-r[iiii[. oxiwlitioii in tlif tfiiipl,. A^i'.!-/'/ -T/-/..! ol'IkiViyLiii .mil luililislinl W WViw 
iBi,4i in lii« Il«i./I;H !>,■!„■ J/;»v//.», I'i. 1, Mo. 1 nt»l p. I. A niiirl, miitliiitci! iiiwrii.lioii 
iinaiii-DaKuii'iif Un «iiM fx.'.ivut.'il l.y Si'lifil al Aii.l H..l)l.a iiii.l |...l.li-l..il in /,■..■".;/, 
Vol. XVI (lW'4i, p]>. ISTil'. (cP. ..It^.1 »>,"(r. ]i. i;!l ).' ''M-l.i-C-m- /"../»/ /->;.,■„-[''„„] 
is iiiMitiniml ill li. }1 „f nii<,tl.i.r iii.itil<.tnl Itsl imbli^lic.l in IV AV :!'., N... 7." IIIk sdii 



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\) ff 'Ur M\I[ I^Ur ■^ I k u Ik arlKl vU tier mes 

It tics IN II I- bo tl ,. ito s I J I t lit r t t 11 I 

Ti ■P' It i r 1 u M tl t te it) it k gK t rn j, fl o 

I niRty I I n nl 'aly I I r to « I o I r -triln r) o Ik u ts 

I t\l tL V s A 1 p fl 1. 11 Ifr I ) I (I cli- I „ I 

1 t(f il Ifll ) It I I II tl 1 tl s * I f. I e< I t 

It Bl ill 1 llj tl 1 S I 1 fl I CUlK I ft 1 1(^1 1 J-"! wll 

lK,f 1 I lip I fl til In I N flu ir Irowtl nil) 

tlf to I k „ ■M « / t I C 1 r T I I B»n> ftl He 

Hfl „ k gs S ? ^ (S ] I / / \ I \\l\ J / I\|l I 

r Z 1 K) C 1 UH 1 e l» 11 1 -^ 11 r I otl I I t H " 

1 ■«, I tj \h t< til « 11 I ( ; / itl flKtIj Rt t 11 Jff 

^\ W H t [« rt t R I I 1 '^ ^ 1 ^ ■< bp T tl 1 ty 

1 <1 In tl ll Kig lo g kI tl I t II tl k T ki ^ ol 11 1 uu»ty 

1« r I I I J / thnr ii« 1 1 h I tl ao r tt lur jj; tl t 

)C rut 1 1 tl t 11 II ll t a ) I ll ^t c tl I ro ol g 5 1 

I t W I k 1 !■ « t tl t (1 r- f ll I Htj f I in« clwlj 

t I ti tl 1 p* f ll gr I H -t 1 ^ll r t r t« IxrH iln p 

II p I ll * / J / \ / ^ T I I I M ^ I J 1 , I I Ui M ^ r 
,1 III r - A/ ■* I I 1 ll 1 ^ lutlp f«l -i «tl p li 

ri «■*! lip Is 1 I tl U t I ll t lip I 1 I ( 1 rt l»l r lltU 

oil pr t tl \ 1 W k ll I tl fl J. 1 tin I J I /->! I bl l>-l» = 

I tl t I k " 1 ll I I t IS 1 lU rl I kt.t e I 1 tU 

I J 1 Rlol lklll(^ £iurl I J rks / > '*< r w V \ 1 I I -t n III 

II l&tr „D ^ I J II IHjf 1 rPtU 11 f N|i r 11 Ih K ^S, * 1 
n tl II llel k ftlcl 1 tl nil 1 1 tt^. nil 111 la K 
tl e « r l«, tl c trp I tl ri I ) 1 1 h k um- tl c 1 tlj joj 1 1 

1 or Ik b hO T is I b I) j; II ry ] U I S i II >- Ixf utl c u kti fi 
b -e so offl »ttl tl J crptUl uirirc tt ■< 1 lid e rtl llppnl<.iii 
of Juiiicutioii BPPDIH to liiivp sjiriiiig ii]i with Siirgiiii I, ln'fii i-pvivisl by Diingi- and liin 

'('CUilprcrM, 11. R., Rrrlw A, Viil. I, X.i.. Is uiul III, 3111] |i|i. SH. Tlii-lirie-t li'?-iiilsi>: Miiiii'-n»|ttii, nUi h!«i 



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ra (JdchniiiLg Nfii'-lHiiiipr iithI Kim-*?!!!), a"'I "tier ii lajBO (if la 
ndoptsil ii;r)ijii \iy KiirigiilKU, Suzi-ManitWsli, Kailusliiunii-THrgn, KniljiBliiiiiin-Bi'l,' 
KiLilur-HPI and Slmgimikli-SliiuiiiBlL, wliu iiiiule If i]ipiir tlu-it stnmghiild- unil .■viJoiitlj 
gtiiueil the ciiiiiiort of ils prieatlumJ by Mulwivoriiig to ri?Ktiiri> tlic fiirmiT glorj' of Ekiir 
(luil by skipping fiirwiicii aa tlie ulianipinnu of llio shcwiI riglitK "f " tlii' fiitlier of tlie 
HmW vflio iiii'etiinifor Iheir lo;-alty [iml di'votion raiwil tlicvii t« Hii' niiik of go-Is nliiio 
still living." The ticgU-ct of tlit ^■[pplll■ nilt, i.e., ilic ilimitmlioii of the temple incoiin', 
swiiis lo K.ive (■omiiieiiei.il willi Bitili.lfhii. On the mvi Iwiiiiihin- stone r.f Kfliiifliiiil- 
ci'zjoii- 1. from Nippur (ef. p. 44, nulc l.iilHive) this is j;] veil iis the (".mw of llie mij^ui' ol' 
Hel. resulting iti th« itowiifii!! of the ('awile (lyiiiistj. 

Oil tlic bnais of tho two Nippur lists eoiitiiiiiing dates of Diiugi, ]!ili'-Siii and (tiinil- 



.Google 



Sill iu climiLoli^oil oiiliT,' ivud cTrUiiii (uklitigiial iiuik'rhil pitlieivcl by several Asayrl- 
"logisls I'l-oiii ditb'il taltlotK, wal iiiipcinisiiina aiiiJ otlicr nim'ifiirni tests, Tlniivau-DiiiiKii" 
liiid ]iri;vioiiHly tatnlilislii'i! tlie order iif KHCi'enBiiiii uf tin' five kiiigK ol' Ur, nt tlie siiinu 
time i-tatiii!; tliiit TTi-Eiisiir nileJ ill. ]nU fiur, Ihnigi lit k-ast I'Drly-HLX, iiiul Ibi-Slii nt 

IcM.i (Iiirr u.ir-. ■Al,il.'Tiriv->lii .iLi.l < V, , . .^ -Km must liiiw mlpd nine y<iirs e!n-li.= Willi 
III. ■ ■ |i I ■■! i.r , I I II' .1 . I ._ till.' Fiviu'h .-WyriologiRt was n>iri'<l. Hiif. 

si-viT.tl j-niiK c,r Diiiii^i I, lui' tlio list i)t diLl(« .-.lit<'d W nu' in /.'. K, >'ei'i.'« A, \'ol. I, Kn. 
127 (ill iidiirdiim* with Tliuniiii-])iiiigELi'i< oivii eiileiilatioiiH, /"-™ iiMriplkui Je SuiHer 
,1 iVAkkmJ, p]). ;13IU'.), iifKigiin ciily wv«ii ynLOj lo (!iiiiil-Hiii, in I'liliii; .Htiml witli tlic' 
t^e>f elir(Mi<,l<^i(']d list diwiHxed ubov<'. Tli<> imi.']u>«itlcd d>it.^ glvfii by l^itbcll, R.'^„nl, 
X'A. XIX, lip. ri4ir„ and 'I^hiireiiii-Dniigiii. /,«., \\\\. SSliff., m viv may iiinv wifcdy iiBsiiiiii'. 
bcKiiifT III IJi'-Kiigiir, l)iiiij'i, Tbi-Siii of Ur, and in-rlnips nlm ti> kliigM of Isin iitiii Liirsn. 
The iiiiiiriii:iliuii (inivtypil by tlio new elinuhili^ncal tidilet is of extrHi.nliiiiiry 
liii]Hiituiiei' I'or iiiir Ix'tter iiiulei'xtiiiidiiig of n vrit olixciire rJiiipter i>f Biibylotiliiii 
bistory, uiiri KiinOy nc aiT jjnitefid for ivIiiLt we bnvf ni'eived. BliI nt tlif «iiiic time 

siTve a« !i lii'sl. giiiili' llirougli the ]H>riiiil wbii'b «']i;inileB llie rrij;ti of Ifie hint kiiij; of 
Isiii frotii llie luiu' of lliiiiiiiiurabi. I 'oiisidc-ciii}; all the evideiiee befor.' lis, I iiiiisl. adbrn' 
til Tiiy pri'vioiisly i-.-i [iiVHHi'd wiivietioii ( li. K. Herltw II, Vol. T, p, :i«2), tliiit the ilyiiasty 
<if ^iii wax siipplmilod liy the clyii.isty of i.iimi. T,.v ii'it only iiii- the lablels iliitiil in the 
Ki^ii <it RIni-Hiii found poi-lji'iilly iti the wiiui- Ktmtiiui ill Xi]i]iiii', Imt fhc' few n-iiiHiiiH of 
iiiiiLitoiiii Algii» left, ill li. ri of the iicn- <-limiioloj,.ieid list H.I'm lo fiivor tbis vi<-w. 
I 01 ussliiiiiii(!; thut li. 2o wiis phrased iix li. 7— which, honi^vor, Ik nutliiug but ii iii<-re 
lii]nitluwM— lhotrace«iiiidir"« l,,-,!./" of li. a I ivoiild eoiitiiiii ]iiii-t of the iiiiiiie of this 
ul; Tvbiih «iiei'.wled Isiii, !.,:, UD (jiiirt of tlip Iioad of the |KTpei»lh-iihir wiilg.' of 
tin «ien piCHerviil) + UXU (the two upptr boriwiiiliil wpilgi'ii piwervitl) + A7 (two 
hori/oiitul WLilgiw pi'csc'rved?) = Ijirmi. Disregnnliiij; the tran' of the liist sij;;!! (ivhiiOi 
boni.\er(iiiiiiot be the ituuiIiik of /"), n-e obhiiii the gcimp UXC-A'I ^ I'ruk, whieh of 
eoiii-K nould fit unotbcr llieory, in-pording to ivbieh the dynasty of Km-b, known to us 
fram the jiiiuiph of Hiu-giishid and Biii-xuiiiil, Biipjiiaiiti'il the dyiuiMly of leiii. Cut lo 



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THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR. 



judge from their titles in their own inscriptions ("king of Uruk. king of Amiiaiuim ") 
and from the utter absence of their inscriptions at Nippnr, these kings of Erech {unless z= 
SHESH{ UliU)~KU) did not play an importiiiit political role in the history of Babylonia. 

In B. K, Scries D, Vol. I, pp. o78ff. and 5120'., I luid reached the conclusion that 
the breaking and scattering of so many vases, statues, slabs, etc., in the temple court of 
Nip2)ur (^irior to Ur-''^/i\-//^'s accession to the throne), and of thousands of literary 
docnments in thi^ Temple Library and School to the soutii of it, " not only indicates a 
])eriod of great political <listurbance in Babylonia but points nnniistakablj' to a foreign 
invasion," which I calle<l the first iOlamltic invasion, occurring about 12i) years hetbre 
tlui second, from which Hamnuirabi iinally freed Jiabylonia, The (piestion arises 
whether or not tlie«c two invasions are only two known jihasos of that great political 
movement and migration of nations taking place in AVestern Asia at that period and tiret felt 
in Babylonia as an invasion by the Ehnnifes,' who only gradually were able to conquer the 
fertile jtlain, 2)erhaps at one time and in one district victorious, while at another time and 
in another province repulsed by a Babylonian prince or general, who in consecptence of his 
temporary success acc^uired a cerUiin iuHuencc for himself and his city. At any rate apei-iod 
of great political unrest is also reflected in the second half of the new chronological list. 

After tiie family of Islibi-Ura, founder of the dynasty of Isin, bad oecui>ied the 
throne of Babylonia fur 94 years or less, Vr-''NIX-I]>, " the son of a nobody " (to quote a. 
Neo-Babylonian plira.«e), usurped the throne. About the same time we find Enanatum, 
another son of Ishme-D.igan, and therefore the legitimate successor of Lihit-Islitar, his 
brother, as high-priest in the temple of Sin at Ur,^ which then stood under the control of 
a certain Gunguini, " king of Ur," who, however, in his own inscription calls himself 
" king of Ijai-sa, king of Shniner and Akkad." Considered i]i the light of the devasUition 
of the temple of Bi'l referred to above, the historical sitnation seems to have been this: 
Towards the end of Libit-lshtar's government a foreign army had invaded Bsd)ylonia, 
succeeding even in con<]uering Nipjiur, desecrating anti pillaging its famous sanctuary 
and overthrowing the old line of the dynasty of Isin. Ishme-Dagi'in's second son, 
unless investeil by his own father with the high office he held at Ur, sought refuge with 
Gungunu, a Southern prince, who in the general turmoil had established a city kingdom 
in Larsa^ and Ur, assuming even the proud title "king of Simmer and Akkad." But 



iJns' tiabiilom 



' Cf. already M'iiickler, Unlersudmwji 
Assyrkns, p. 48, etc. Hosted by 

' En-sal~NUNUZ~ZI •iNamujr, en, dNaiinar, thus called in two iiiscTiptions from Muqayyar (cf. Tliureaa- 
Dai^ri, Les Iriscn'plions de Swncr ct d' Akkad, pp. 294f .), t)ie one inscribed on bricks from the teni}>le ol ;^in ut Ur, which 
by llicir very existence testify tti tlie high jHisition Enanatum occupied there. 



MATHEMATICAL, METROLOGICAT, AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLETS. OO 

Gimgunu's influtince in Babylonia did not last very long. \5v-^NIN-IB of Isin restored 
order in tlie country evidently by repnlsing the foreigners and winning the "kingdom 
of the fonr quarters of the world " for himself and his descendants. After about half a 
century a new disaster befell his dynasty. No less than six usurpers ascended the tlirone 
within the 36 or 37 years following the death of Biir-Sin's unknown second son. It is 
safe to assert that with the exception of BOl-bani, who ruled 24 years and was in 
possession of Nijipur, they had enough to do at Tsin to hold and strengthen their position. 
We may take it for granted that some of the old renowned centres, like 
Ur, Erech, Larsa and Sippar, profited from the political weakness manifested by 
these nominal Babylonian rulers of the dynasty of Isin. For various reasons^ it seems 
to me almost certain that we have to place Sunui-ilu, "king of Ur,"' the unknown 
successors of king Gnugunu of Ur and Larsa referred to above (and including 
Nur-Immcr [generally read Nur-Adad] Sin-iddinam,-' etc., and possibly Kim-Anuni, 
unless he belonged to the dynasty of Erech),' Sin-gilshid and Sin-gamil, " kings of 

' (T. pp.49r., imto .5, andp, .W. -N'lit my Iciist rciusim is tliy fact tlirtt tlic form and color of tln^ AnU-A i-Kay talili'ts 
of tlio dynasty of Isin, Larsa and ISiihylon, tlip stratiun in wliidi tlicy an! found, tlic writing, phraseology and tccliiiifal 
tiirins and proper names of tliRtr inseriptioiis, the iiainra of the months, etc., are practically the sinne. The tablets resemble 
each other bo much that withont a thorough knowledge of their coTitents they cannot be distinguished from each other. 
Theoverthrowof Iain in the seventeenth year of Sin-mulialit ( = the last year of Uilmiq-iUshu) seems to have been accoiii- 
plislied by the united forces of this king and Rim-Sin, whom we find in possession of Xippur, making the tall of Mn the 
beginning of a new era (tablets of his government dated even as high aathe"thirtiotli year after the tall of Isin" have 
been discovered at Nippur). We are therefore justified in regarding Rtm-Siii as the immediate successor of Ddmiq- 
ilisliu of Isin. 

'Known from a votive dog in steatite offered to Niu-Isin*", i.e., "the lady of Isin" for the life of Sumn-ibi, 
' 'king of Ur, " by a high dignitary of Lagash. We infer from this dedication that this goddess must have been regarded 
iis specially powerful at the tiinethe subject was inscribed. This leads na to the period when the dynasty of Iain played 
a leading part i» the shaping of Babylonian affairs; in other words, about the time of Ishme-Dagfln — nearly the same 
result reached by Thureau-Uangin from palaeographical considerations {Remte d' Assyrioiogie, Vol. VI, p. 70). Whether 
Sumu-ilu lived before Gungunu or after him cannot be decided at present. 

' Cf. also Thureau-Dangin, Revue d'AsmjrUitogie, Vol. VI, p. 70, note 7. 

' There are a number of other "kings" (cf. also p. 51, above), who up to the present time cannot be placed in 
any of the known dynasties. Cf. Bu-nti-toli-fu-un-i-la (C. B. M. 1629, Rankc, B. E., Series D, Vol. Ill, pp. IXf., and 
Heries A, Vol. VI, Part 1, No. 6) or corrupted Bu-un4ok--un-i-la {By. 91-5-9, 2184, and King, "The Letters and Inscrip- 
tions of Hammurabi," Vol. Ill, p. 220, note 16;Daiehes, ^.fl., p. 27, note 2, and Ranke, i.e.), a contemporary of Sumu- 
ja-ilu apparently to be analyzed as Biin(u)-tahtua-lla, i.e., "Tlie childis the protege of the god" or "oidlla" (tofeWn 
[form taj'0,1 from feoiiinn, "to protect"] has a double meaning, 1. "protection," 2. "protfige," cf. the similar use of 
migru). Possibly he also belongs to the dynasty of Larsa, being a predecessor of N&r-Irnmer. To the sanM dynasty i 
and general period I assign King Ma-na-ma-an-te-el (for the formation of his name cf. Su-WQ)3li»Mif,VSaL@-©^IC 
2378 — "Cuneiform Texts," Vol. VIII, PI. 38, li. 11), unless indeed the two kings mentioned are representativesot another 
dynasty (Erech, "Sea Land"?) temporarily gaining some influence in a certain part of Babylonia. Concerning Nur- 
Dagan andSin-'lrlbam ef. p, 51, above. As to iRimerum and llu-ina-(rf)l-la, two other contemporaries of Sumu-!a- 



56 THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR. 

Erech'" (the former of the last mentioned two rulers also styling himself "king of 
Amnanu "^), and also the beginning of the city kingdom of Babylon under Sumu-abu(i), 
founder of the first dynasty of Babylon, in this period of Babylonisckes Faudrecht. Once 
more Isin regained its political influence under Sin-milgir and his son Damiq-ilishu, who 
both have the title " king of Sliumer and Akkad " and otherwise left their traces in Baby- 
lonian history.' Upon the death, of the latter the dynasty of Larsa, temporarily repre- 
sented by Rim-Sin, son of Kudur-Mabuk, the Elamlte, who seems to have overthrown 
Bin-iddinam, son of Nilr-Iinmer, of the native dynasty of that city, took the leading 
role in the shaping of Babylonian polities; but only for a short period (c. 30 years), for 
the kings of Babylon made tliemselves more and more felt in the North, until finally 
Hammurabi defeated the Elamite army and united the various Babylonian cities and 
states under his powerful sceptre. 

A word remains to be said with regard to Immerum and Ilu-ma-'^I-la* so-called 
" Usurpatoren," who were contemporaneous^ with Sumu-la-ilu of the first dvnasty of 

.V/-A'/( = i/i) + m<" + A.V( = i(u),tlierpfore to be transliterated as BUrm-ma-au = BH-iti{cS. Hanke berea D Vol. 
Ill, p. 224)-ma-iiu, "Tiiclord of gods (an epithet ot Ac, Shamash, Sin, etc.) is god," or bett r (tl e s gn dii fre- 
quenUy having the value "M" at this v>eriod, ct. p. 48, above) as Bi-Ul-ma-Hu ^ Belt ma ilu The lord s god," 
an abbreviated name, as indicated by the ma after Biti (probably standing for Blt-iU, cE. my remirka aB E Ser ea D, 
Vol. Ill, p. 186, note 1, and B.B., Series A, Vol. X, pp. Xff.). The ■question may be asked whether or not tlus king 
is identical with the first king of the so-called second dynasty, A N-ma(_-ilti.), ganeraWy reid Ilu iia lit; for the sign 
AN is also ideogram for "belu" (V R., 21, 17g} and shamt (V R. 30,8a). The tablet n'ls foind at Nippur by 
the first expedition together with a number of tablets dated in the reign of Samsu-iluna. It. therelore, belongs to that 
general period. My pupil, Dr. Arno Poebt^l, who lias a volume on the tablets of the Hammurabi dynasty excavated 
at Nippur in the course of preparation ( = Series A, Vol. VI, Part 2), informs me that certain names occurring in the 
Bi~Ui-ma-ilu tablet are found abo on Samsu-ituna tablets. Hence Beli-ma~Uu must belong to the dynasty of a city 
which under Samsu-iluna or soon after him (ef. King, "Letters," Vol. HI, p. LXIX) obtained a signal success, even 
occupying Nippur (as tablets were dated there according to this king's reign). Unless, as just stated, he was the first 
king himself, he probably was a prince of the second dynasty. At any rate, as already indicated by the absence of 
the determinative ilu before his name, he cannot be r^arded as a member of the Isin dynasty. As to the king Glr- 
Ma-Ma or Ara(I-Sha(g}-Slia(g) (made known by Scheil in Recueil, Vol. XXIV, Note LXII, and O. L. 2., 1905, Col. 
351) cf . Thureau-Dangin, ies Imcriptions de Sumeretd' Akkad, pp. 3iii. For the king AA'-^-.dJV see the references 
given pp. 56a, f., below, 

' For the liteiature concerning their inscriptions of. Thureau-Dan^n, I.e., pp. 294f., 316f., also pp. 344f. 

' Cf. Winckler, Sumer and Akkad, p. 13, and Unfersuchungm zur nUoTi^iiSalischen CkschicMe, pp. 40f. 

= Cf. pp. 49f. I regard the one as the founder of BU-Sin-mayir sftd mui tr,mdi (cf. B. E., Series A., Vol. I, Fart 
I, PLs. 30-31 and pp. 38ff.. and Wei:<sbach, Babyhnische Mucellen, p. 1), and the other as the ancestor of Shimmash- 
Skipak_ son of Erb(iSin, of the fifth dynasty (or the "Sea-Land"), {idb pad Ddmi^-iiMu, i.e.. "man of the dynast v ot 
Ddmig-uMu" (Chronicle S, published by Wincklar, Untersvchungen zur aUbabylonisrhen Ge^ckichte, p. 153). 

< Generally read Anwan or Anmanila, cf. Daiehes, A. R., pp. 31ff„ Thureau-Dangin, Les Imcriptions de Sumer 
el d' Akkad, pp. 340f., note 3; but cf. Ranke, B. E., Series A, Vol. VI, Part 1, p. 8. 



MATHEMATICAL, METROLOGICAL AND CHKONOLOGICAL TABLETS. 56a 

Babylon. I cannot enter here into a full discussion of a most interesting and difficult 
problem, but must confine myself to a brief statement of my own view. 

Thureau-Dangin has recently shown ^ that Im-me-rum (variant : I-im-me-ir and 
I-im-me-1-uin) is an abbreviated name containing the name of the god Immer, whom I 
regard as identical with the god Im-raox Mir-ra.'^ In the passages given by the French 
scholar Iinmerum is abbreviated from Na-ra-am-^I3I, but it goes without saying that any 
other name having the same god as second element could also be shortened to Immerum. 
Thureau-Dangin concludes correctly that the name of King Nitr-^IM of Larsa (father 
of Sin-iddinam), generally read Nur-Bammdn or NAr-Adad, must be transliterated as 
Xur-Immer? "We draw still another conclusion. As indicated above (p. 54), at the 
time of Libit-Ishtar and XJr-^NIN-IB the city of Larsa began to make itself felt in 
Babylonian affairs through Gungunu, "king of Ur," and "king of Larsa, king of 
Shumer and Akkad." It, therefore, is certain that a dynasty of Larsa actually existed 
about 30-40 years before the time of Sumu-la-ihi, whose reign of 36 years commenced 
about the 19tli or 20tlt year of Bur-Sin II of Isin (cf. pp. 49f., note 5). From other 
passages we infer that Larsa's influence gradually extended far into Northern Babylonia, 
including Sippar,'' where the same cult of Shamash flourished ; and, furthermore, that 
Nur-Immer, king of Larsa, who in his inscription from Ur^lias the determinative 
ilii before his name, and, therefore (cf, pp. olf.), at some time jnust also have possessed 
Nippur, is identical with Immerum," the contemporary of 5umu-ia-ilu. 

Repeated attempts have been made to identify ^A'^j4-j4iV'( generally read Ilu-ma, 
"secretary,"' son of Bcl-shemea, identified by me^ with AJV-A-AN, " the ab-ba of the 
people of Freeh ") with AI^-A-AN, lugal, occurring in two dated tablets published by 
Sclieil and Thureau-Dangin (cf. pp. 55f , note 4, above), and AN-ma {-AN) (generally 
read Ilu-ma, resp. Ilu-ma-ilu), the first king of the so-called second dynasty, with 

' Cf . Les Inscriplions de Burner et d' Akkad, p. 296, note 2. 

' CE. the names quoted by Ranke, B, E., Series D, Vol. Ill, p. 202. 

' Ct. also the interchange of ^Im-ra and ^Im {^Im is abbreviated from d[ni-raT) in the date formula of Hammu- 
rabi's 18th year (quoted by Lindl), Rankc, B. E., Series D, Vol. Ill, p. 202, note 2. 

'Cf. already Niebuhr in Mitteiltiiijeit der Vorderasiattschen Gesellschaft, 1897, pp. 293E. "viellewkl war er 
[Immerum] geUgentlich von Larsa ausiiher Sippar geselzt, v/m diese Siadt dent babj/loniscken Gesehtecht zu i^tufkeii und 
so dessen Mackt zu eckwdchen. ' ' 

> Cf. "Cuneiform Texts," Vol. XXI, PI. 29, No. 30070, li. 3. 

'This will explain, to Daiches (A. R,, p. 26) why "the king of Larsa " is not mentioned u 
Immerum and Sumu-la-ilu in the oath-formulaa of dated tablets — Immerum himself being that king o 

' For this reading (^fupsfton-u) cf. Ranke, B. E., Series A, Vol. VI, Part 1, p. 8, note 1. 

•Cf. B. E., Series A, Vol, I, Part 1, No. 26 (and Part 2, p. 48, note 3); Assyriaca, pp^lOlff. Cf.also Hommel 

/..,K:,fi.i.tonol^,or! (hn In^-rintmn mrri^pf.lvl in P S. R 4..NriV 1S93 nil T 3ff ■ Windklor A.F Tirst.ft.i-i™ nn Wdf - 



g of Laraa. (3 



56b THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR. 

AN-ma-NI-la (read Ilv^-ma-I-la by Eanke, cf. p. 5o, note 4, above), or AN-ma-^I-la, 
contemporary of Sumu-la-ilu of the first dynasty of Babylon, or to regard them all as 
the same person. The political situation seems to favor these identifications. For it 
can be shown that both Uruk and the " Sea-Land," where the second dynasty doubtless 
arose (cf. p. 43, above), began to influence Babylonian politics at that very time. If we 
allow this identity, we would obtain as contemporaries Bur-Sin II (or his two sotis) of 
the Isin dynasty, Sumu-la-ilu of the Hammurabi dynasty,^ Nur-Immer (or Immerum) 
of the Larsa dynasty, and AN'-mar4lu{a), founder of the so-called second dynasty. 
It then would follow with great probability that Damiq-ilishu, last king of the Isin 
dynasty, and Da-niH-ilishu, third king of the so-called second dynasty, are identical, 
since the interval between the unclassified AN-ma-^Ila (contemporaneous with Sumu- 
la-ilu and Biir-Sin II, resp. his two sons) and Ddmiq-ilishu of Isin is practically the 
same as the interval between the second half of the reign of AN-ma-ilu and Damki- 
ilishu of the second dynasty. And it would also follow, that Sin-magir, father of 
Ditmiq-ilishu of Isin, was a prince of the ancestral home of the second dynasty, i.e., the 
" Sea-Land " (cf. p. 43, above), and, therefore, apparently identical with Sin-magir, the 
founder of Bit-Sin-magir, a province of the " Sea-Land," In this case Gulkishar, 
king of the " Sea-Land," would have been a contemporary of Samsu-iluna and Abi- 
^huh. This seems to be a plausible theory, which may be supported by additional com- 
binations, but which cannot yet be proved definitely with the material available, and 
with the other candidate Bi~Ui-ma-iln (pp. 55f., note 4, the contemporary of Samsu- 
ilunu) to be disposed of.^ 

' TJie 19th or 20th year of Biir^in II, as we iiaw above, is identical with the first year of Suniu-la-ilu 
AN-ma-ita o£ the second dynasty, who ruled 60 years, therefore, would liave been contemporaneous also with 
Ut-^NIN-IB of Isin and Sumu-abu, founder of the so-called first dynasty. 

= In order to have this book appear as early as possible. Chapter V, pp. 57ff. (bdng written first), was printed 
and paged first. Afterwards it was found that the space allowed for tlie preceding material was underi.'stimated 
alittle. I consequently introduced pp. 56a and 56b. 



yGoogk 



V. 
DESCRIPTION OF TABLETS AND RUINS 

Abbreviations. 

C, circa; C<B.M., Catalogue ot tlie Babylonian. Museum, University of Penasylvaiiia (prepared by tlic 
Editor) ; cf., confer; col{s)., column(s); f^xp., Expedition; f., following page; ff., following pages; f. e., from 
(the) end; fr., tragment(ary); f'pgs., fragments ; Inscr., inscription; T^. E., Left Edge; li., line(s); Iio. B., 
Lower Edge; M.I.O., Mus^'e Imperial Ottoman, Constantinople; Ni., Nippur; Ni. V, IX, refers to the 
corresponding numbers in Vol. I, Part I, PI. XV; No(9)., Number(5) ; O., Obverse; ori^., originally; p.. page; 
pp., pages; R.. Reverse; R. E., Right Edge; U. E., Upper Edge; Vol., Volume. 

Measurements are given in centimetres; length (height) X width X thickness. WJiencver the tablet (or 
fragment) varies in sine, the largest measurement is given. 

Texts drawn by hand and at the same time reproduced in phototype are indicated by a bold number in the first 
column. Tablets quoted without a number are not yet catalogued. 

A. Autograph Eeproductions. 

Text, Pi.ate. Aqb. Contents. Description. 

1 1 c. 1350 B.C. 2X1 Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 



spots. Small pieces of lower part of R. 
chipped off. Ruled, double li. indicate 
ing end. 6.2 X 4.3 X 2.5. Inscr. 11 
(0.) + 12 (R.) = 23 li. Ni. IX. 
Fourth Exp. 

Baked. Reddish brown. Greater part ot 
lower half of R, chipped off. Ruled. 
7 X 4.3 X 2.5. Inscr. 13 (O.) + 12 (R.) 
= 251i. Ni.TX. SecondExp. C.B.M. 
3335. For half-tone illustration cf- 
Hilprecht, B.E.. Series D, Vol. I, p. 531 ; 
Vorlrag, p. 60; "Lecture," p, 51. 

Baked. Reddish brown. Partly chipped > 
off. Li. indicating end of multjplica-)y It, 
tion table. 5,8 X 4 X 2.3. Inscr. 16 *^ 
(0.) + 1 (Lo. E.) 4- 7 (R.) = 24 li. 
Purchased by D. Nooriaa, interpreter 



THE TEMPLF LUSKARY OF NIPPUK. 



Description. 
have come from Abil Habba, but accord- 
ing to all evidence (ct. pp. 14ff.) doubtless 
from Nippur, probably IX. CB.M. 8535. 
For half-tone illustration cf. Hilprecht, 
Vm-lrag, p. 60. 

Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 
spots. Three frags, joined. Somewhat 
eraeked, and small pieces of O. and R. 
chipped oft. Ruled, double li. indieat- 
iiiR end of multiphcation tabic. 7.2 X 
4.8 X 1.9. Inser. 13 (U.) + 11 (R.) = 
2-1 li. Ni. IX. Third Exp. (J.B.M. 
COGS. 

Unbaked. Brown willi occasiona.1 blaclc 
spots. R. somewhat rubbed off, tablet 
otherwise well preserved. Ruled, dou- 
ble li. indicating end. Round impres- 
sions made with the upper end of the 
stylus in li. 5, 15, 17 and 19. 5.5 X 3.8 
X 2. Inser. 11 (O.) 4- 12 (R.) - 231i. 
Ni, IX Second Exp. CB.M. 10221. 
Cf. PI. II, No. 3. 

Fr. (lower part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked, 
Brown. Small piece of R. chipped off. 
Ruled. 3.7 (orig. c. 6.2) X 3.3 X 2, 
Inacr. 7 {orig. 12, O.) + 6 (orig. 11, R.l 
= 13 (orig. 23) ii. Ni. IX. Fourth 
Exp. 

Fr. (upper part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked. 
Brown, Small pieces chipped off. 
Ruled. 4,5 (orig. c. 6.5) X 4.4 X 1.8 
(orig. c. 2.1). Inser. 7 (orig. 11, O.) -H 
6 (orig. 11, R.) + 2 (Lo. E.) = 15 (orig. 
24) li. Ni. V. Second Exp. CB.M. 
8537. Cf. PI. II, No. 4. 

Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 
spots. Small pieces chipped off, other- 
wise wJll preserved. Ruled, double li. 
after li. 8, 5.2 X 3.6 X 2,4. Inser. 12 
(O.) + 12 (R.) - 24 li, Ni, IX. 
Fourth Exp. 

Fr, (left part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked. 
Light brown. Somewhat rubbed off. 
Ruled. 5,8 X 3.5 (orig. c. 3.8) X 1.9. 
Inser. 10 (O.) + 13 (R,) - 23 h. Ni. 



MATHEMATICAL, METISOLOGICAL AKD CHEO^"OLOGR•AL TABLETS. .59 

r.ATE. Age. Contents. Description. 

Somewhat rubbed off. Ruled. On U., 
L. and Lo. E, traces of cuneiform wedges 
insufficiently erased (apparently remains 
of the scribe's calculations). 6.2 X 4.1 
X l.S.Inscr. 11 (0.) + 12 (R.) = 23 li. 
Ki. IX. Third Exp. M.I.O.,Ni.927. 

r> c. 1350 B.C. 150 X 1 Unbaked. Brown with occasional black 

spots. Somewhat rubbed off, parts of R. 
broken away. Ruled. G X 4 X 2.1. 
Inscr. 11 (O.) + 12 (R.) = 23 \i. Ni. 
IX. Second Exp. C.B.M. 10190. Cf. 
PI. II, No. 5. 

(i c. 1350 H.C. 1-'i2 X 1 tliilialted. Dark brown with occasional 

black spots. Lower left comer entirely 
broken away. Somewlwt rubbed off 
Li. indicating end of multiplication 
table (432 X 432). 8 X 5.5 X 3.4. 
Inscr. 14 (0.) + 12 (R.) - 26 li. Ni. 
IX. Fourth Exp. M.I.O., Ni. 1S71. 

c. 1350 li.C. 432 X 1 PV. (central part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked, 

Brown with occasional black spots. 
Ruled, double li, indicating end, 4.9 
(fr.)X 4.4 X 2.2. Inscr. 10 (0.) + 3 (R.) 
-13(orig. 23)li. Ni.IX. FourthExp. 
(Cf.M.I.O., Ni. 1911, a duphcate of the 
same period. Three frgs. joined. Un- 
baked. Brown. 6.3 (fr.) X 4.5 (fr.) X 
2.6. Ni.IX. Third Exp.). 

7 e. 1350 B.C. 450 X 1 Baked. Brown. Greaterpartof O. and un- 

inacribed portion of lower right side of 
R. broken away. Ruled, double li. 
indicating end. 7.2 X 3.9 X 2. Inscr. 
15 (0.) + 7 (li.) - 22 h. Ni. IX. 
Third Exp. M.I.O., Ni. 894. 

7 c. 1359 B.C. 540 X 1 Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 

spots. 111. a fine state of preservation. 
Ruled, double li. indicating end (catch 
li.: 500 X 1). 5.3 X 3.4 X 2.2. Inacr, 
14 (0.) + 10 (R.) = 24 li. Ni. IX. 
Fourth Exp. 

7 c. 1350 B.C. 750 X 1 Unbaked. Brown. Several cracks, small 

pieces chipped off on both si 
{catch U .: 720 X l,^fec^e<k'by^ 
5.7 X 4.2 X 2.5. Inscr. 13 (O.) + 12" 
, (R.) = 25 li. Ni. IX. Fourth Exp. 

.« :i. 13.iO B.C. lOSO X 1. 1000X1, Fr. (upper part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked. 



60 

Text. Piatb. 



THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OP NIPPUR. 



Contents. 
720 XI, 600 X 1. 
540 XI, 500 X 1. 



Portions of 2160 >; 
J500 X 1, 1000 > 



Portions of 300 X 1, 24f 
X 1, 180 X 1, 150 X 1 
144 X 1 (ending witli 
144=), 120 X 1. 



5X1 (Left column written, 
by teacher, riglit by 
pupil). 



Description, 
each section (by mistake ot scribe also 
R., Col. II, 4 f. e.). 6.6 (orig. c. 12) X 
9 X 2.5. Inscr. 0.: 8 (orig. 25, Col. I) 
+ 12 (orig. 27, Col. II) + 12 (orig. 
28, Col. Ill) + U (orig. 27 or 28, Col. 
iv) + E..: U (orig. 22 or 21, Col. I) 
+ 10 (orig. 30, Col. II) + 10 (orig. 27, 
Col. Ill) + 1 (orig. c. 22, Col. IV) - 78 
(orig. c. 208) li. Ni. IX. Second Exp. 
C.B.M. 10219. Cf. PI. m. No. 6. 

Fr. (central part) ot a clay tablet. Unbaked. 
Brown with black spots. Ruled. 5.7 
(fr.) X 6.5 (fr.) X 3.6. Inscr. O.: 3 
(Col. 1) + 9 (Col. II) + 11 (Col. Ill) + 
R.: 8 (Col. I) + S (Col. II) =39 U. Col. 
Ill formed the laat col. of O.; the com- 
plete tablet therefore had 6 cola. Ni. V, 
Fourth Exp. M.I.O., Ni. 1868. 

Fr, (upper right part) of a clay tablet. Un- 
baked. Brown with numeroua black 
spots. Ruled, double li. indicating end 
of each section. 6.9 (orig. c. 15) X 5.2 
(orig. c. 12.5) X 2.6 (orig. c. 3). Inscr. 
O.: 20 (Col. Ill) + 18 (Col. IV) + R. 
18 (Col. I) + 16 (Col. II) = 72 U. Ni 
IX. Fourth Exp. (Cf. C.B.M. 19841, 
a duplicate ot the same period Fr. 
Unbaked. Brown with black spots. 6 
(fr.) X 3.4 (fr.) X 2.5 (fr.). Inscr. 2 
fr. cols, on O. (Cob. Ill and IV, the 
latter beginning with 240 X 1) and one 
on R. (Col. I, ending with 180 X 50). 
Ni. IX. Fourth Exp.). 

Seven frgs. of a clay tablet joined. Un- 
baked. Light brown with occasional 
black spots. Ruled. 13 (orig. 17.3) X 
11 X 3.3. After these tr^. had been 
copied, an eighth fr. (C.B.M. 11402, also 
excavated at Ni. V by the First Exp.) 
was found to belong to the same tablet 
(joined on PI. IV). Its O. being un- 
inscribed, this fr. was disregarded in 
the autograph copy on P!, 10. Inscr. 
on 0.: 17 (orig. 23, Col. I) + 7 (orig. 10, 
Col. II) = 24 (orig. 33) li. Ni. V. 
First Exp. C.B.M. 11340. CE. PI, IV, 



MATHEMATICAL, METROLOGICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLETS. 



61 



21, 0. 10 



22, R. 12 



23, 0. !3 



Contents. 
from IJ to 81 with their 
quotients, and 50 X 1, 
written alternately 3 



Divisors of 12,960,000 and 
60 X 1, written alter- 
nately. 



Divisors of 12,980,000 (Col. 
I) and 50 X 1 (Col. II). 



Portions of 1350 > 



Ideograms determined by 
amelu, and their Sem.- 
Rabyl. equivalents. 



Portions of 

1350 X 1, 1080 X 1, 
1000 XI, 900 X 1, 



Description. 
of each section. Inscr. on R.; 28 (oiig, 
probably 38, Col. I) + 28 (orig. prob- 
ably 37, Col. II) + 21 (orig. probably 
29, Col. Ill) + 25 {orig. probably 32, 
Col. IV) = 102 (orig. probably 136) li. 
C.B.M. 11340 + 11402. Cf. PI. V, No. 
7, R. (Cf. M.I.O., Ni. 1960, a duplicate 
of the same period. Fr. Unbaked. 
Brown. 7.8 (fr.) X 4.2 (fr.) X 2.7 (fr.). 
R., last col. Preserved portion of O, un- 
inscribed. Ni. V. Fourth Exp.). 

Fr. (left lower part) of a clay tablet. Un- 
baked. Light brown. Much rubbed 
off and otherwise damaged. Ruled. 7 
(tr.) X 7 (fr.) X 2.8 (fr.). Inscr. on 
O.: 9 (orig. 22) + 1 (Lo. E.) = 10 (orig. 
23)11. Ni.V. FirstExp. C.B.M. 11368. 

The same. Inscr. on R. 9 (Col. Ill) + 9 
(Col. IV) = 18 0. Col. Ill, 1-9, con- 
tains the divisors 27 to 54 with their 
quotients. Col. IV: 50 X 30, 50 X 40, 50 
X 50, and the divisors 1 (resp. IJ) to 9 
with their quotients. 

Fr. (central part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked. 
Light brown. O. somewhat, R. much 
rubbed off, a small hole running half 
way through tablet from O. towards R. 
Ruled. 9 (fr.) X 9.1 (orig. c. 15) X 
3.9. Iiiscr.onO.:ll{Col. I) + 13 (Col. 
II) + 3 (Col. Ill, last col.) = 27 li. Ni. 
V. Second Exp. C.B.M. 11902. 

The same. Inscr. on R. 15 (Col. II) + 19 
(Col. Ill) + 17 (Col. IV, last eol.) = 
51 h. 

Fr. (central part) of a clay tablet. Un- 
baked. Light brown. Cracked and 
somewhat rubbed off. Ruled. 7.1 (fr.) 
X 9.9 (fr.) X 4.2. Inscr. on O.: 5 (Col. 
I, doubtless orig. preceded by another 
col.) + 6 (Col. II) = 11 li. Ni. V. 
Fourth Exp. C.B.M. 19790. a. Pi. 
VIII, No. 9, O. (also PI. VI, No. 8, O.). 

The same, but not ruled. Line indicating 
end of each section. Inscr. on R. (to be 
read from left to right, cf . p. 19, note 2) : 



/Pnl 



Tr\ J- 1 



■■^1 



THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR. 



Text. 


Plate. 


Age. 


Contents. 


24,0. 


14 


c. 2200 B.C. 


Syllabary (PAD with its 
Sura, and Sem.-Babyl. 
values). 



The first 30 divisors of 
12,960,000 and portions of 
■ir, X ], 40 X 1, 30 X 1. 



Divisors ot 12,960,000 and 
their quotients in geo- 
ini'lrical progression. 



Aritlimeticai calculations. 



e roofs 1 to 12. 



Description. 
Two frgs. of a clay tablet joined, Unbi^ed. 
Light brown. O. somewliat, R. mucli 
rubbed off. Eight part of 0. cut away 
by scribe. Ruled. 7,7 (fr.) X 9.2 (fr.) 
X3.3, Inscr.onO.:4(Col.I) +5{Col. 
II) = 91i. Ni.V. SeeondExp. C.B.M. 
11097. 
The same, but not ruled, Inscr, on R. (to be 
read from left to right, ef. pp. 19, note 2, 
and 23, note 1): 15 (Co). I, left hand!) 
+ 14 (Col. II) + 10 (Col. Ill) + IC (Oil. 
IV) + 10 (Col. V) = 71 li. 
Unbaked. Brownisli gray. O. somewliiit 
rubbed off, otherwise well preserved. 
Ruled with double lines. 8.2 x 6 X 
2.1. Inser. 7 (O.) + 8 (R.) 4- 1 (U. E.) 
= )61i. Hi.V. Second Exp. C.B.M. 
10201. Cf. PI. IX, No. 10. 
Three frgs. of a elay tablet joined. Unbated. 
Dark brown. O. considerably chipped 
off. R. almost entirely broken away, a 
few cuneiform characters (beginnings 
of 15 li.) preserved, sufficient to sliow 
tiiat tlie contents of R, was similar to that 
ofO. Ruled. 10.9(fr.) x7.1S(fr.) X2. 
Inscr, on O, ; 20 (Col. I) + 16 (CoL II) =30 
li. Ni. V. Second Exp. C.B.M. 12648. 
Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 
spots. Right upper corner broken 
away, small pieces chipped off. Ruled, 
double li. indicating end, 6.5 X 4.4 X 
2.7. Inscr. 13 (0,) + 10 (R.) = 23 li. 
Ni. IX. Fourth Exp. Cf, PI. X, No. 
12, 0., also No. II, 0. and R.(= C.B.M. 
19836, a duplicate referred to as Fr. b 
on PI. 16), and IV R.\ 37, Fr. 12136 
(additions: 81-2-1, 72), R., Col. III. 
Fr. (right lower part) of a clay tablet. 
Unbaked. Light brown. O. erased, 
traces of a few cuneiform signs left. R. 
considerably rubbed off. Ruled. 8.1 
(fr.) X 5.6 (fr.) X 2.9 (fv.). Inscr, on 
R, : 12 li. (Col. I). Ni. V. Fourth 
Exp. C.B.M. 19813. Cf. PI. X, No. 13, 
also IV R.\ 37, Fr. 12136 (additions: 
81-2-1. 72). R.. Col. II. and K. 3168. R. 



MATHEMATICAL, METKOI.OCllCAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLETS. 



63 



!. 2200 B.C. 



i;s of surface and length. 



Measures of length, includ- 
ing cubits of different 
standards, ?iibb6n and 
ashlu, with their corre- 
sponding values. 



Deschiption. 
Unbaked, Brown with occasional blacit 
spots. Lo. E. broken away, small piece 
of O, thipped off. R. unlnsoribed. 6,4 
(fr.) X 5.2 X 1.8. Inscr. 11 li. (2 co!s,). 
Ni. V. Fourth Exp. Cf . PI. X, No. 14, 
also IV B.\ 37, Fr. 12136 (additions; 
81-2-1, 72), R., Col. II, and K. 3168. R. 
Cf, likewise Verzeicknis der Vorderasia- 
lischen AUeMmer und GipsabgHsse in den 
Kimigl. Museen za Berlin, 1889, p. fi5, 
Tk. 253. See p. 23, note 3, above. 
Tlirec frgs. of a clay tablet (joined on PI. XI). 
Unbaked. Light brown. Much rubbed 
off, small pieces broken away, partly 
crambUng. Ruled. 19.3 X 16.3 (fr.) 
X 3.5 (fr.). Long after PI. 17 had been 
prepared, tlic 2 frgs. joined and pub- 
lished on PI. 18, whicb belong to tbe 
same tablet, were discovered. Insrr. 
on O,: 19 (Col. II) 4- 17 (Col. Ill) + 33 
(orig. 39, Co!. IV) + 28 (Col. V) + 23 
(Col. VI) = 120 li. Tlie complete Ub- 
lethadl2cols.,6onO.,and6onR. Ni. 
V. Second and Fourth Exps. C.B.M, 
10990 (11. Exp.) + 19815 (IV. Exp.) + 
19757 (IV.Exp.). Cf. PI. XI, No. 15,0., 
also Pi. XIV, No. 16, R. Cf. likewise 
Meissner, Beitr&ge zatn allbabylonischen 
Privatreekt, Pis. 58 (= T. A. 2596) and 
56-57 (= V.A. 1165),and Scheil, Sippar, 
pp. 52f. and 49ff. 
The same. Inscr.-lon R.flS.XCol. I) -1- 18 
(Col. II) + 24 (Col. Ill) + 17 (Col. IV) 
-i- 14 (Col. V) + 4 (Col. VI) =.95 li. 
Cf. PI. XII, No. 15, R., also Scheil, Sip- 
far, p. 54. 
Nine frgs. of a day_tablet joined. Baked. 
Brown, Writing very distinct. To fa- 
cilitate reading, cuneiform signs in tabu- 
lar statements are connected by heavy 
'shallow lines drawn with the upper 
(round) end of the stylus. A heavy li. 
made in the same manner indicates the 
end of each section. 10 (fr.) X 9 X 3. 
Inscr. on 0. : 26 (Col. I) + 26 (Col. 11) + 
25 (Col. nil = 77 li. Ni, IX. Third 



THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR. 



Text. 
30, R. 



Contents. 

Measures of length con- 
tinued, weights ami 
measures of capacity, 
with their corresponding 
values. 

MeEisurea of capacity (or 
weights?) to 1 GIN, 
with their corresponding 
values. 



Vfcasures of eapat'ity (or 
weights?) from 20 SUE 
to 1 GIN, and their cor- 
respond! i^ values. 



;, 2200 B.C. Measures of capacity (or 
weights?) from 1 to 19 
GIN, with their corre- 
sponding values, 

;. 2200 B.C. Measures of capacity (or 
weights?) with their cor- 
responding values. Por- 
Uons of 1 to 20 GIN 
preserved. 



DBaCMPTtON. 

The same. Inscr. on E. 26 (Col. IV) H 
(Col. V) + 32 (Col. VI) = 77 li. 



Fr. (lower part) of a clay tablet. Unbaked. 
Light brown with numerous black spots. 
Cracked. R. considerably chipped off. 
Ruled. 4 (fr.) X 5.6 X 2.4. Inscr. 10 
(orig. 25, O.) -H 8 (orig. probably 14, R.) 
= 18 (orig. probably 39) li. Ni. IX. 
Fourth Exp. (Cf. M.I.O., Ni. 1903, a 
duplicate of an earlier period (c. 2200 
B.C.) Fr. Unbaked. Brown. Inscr. 5 
li. on 0. (identical with li. 15-20 of our 
text). Ni. V. Fourth Exp.). 
Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 
spots. Cracked. Small piece broken 
out from the middle of U. E., otherwise 
well preserved. Ruled, double li. indi- 
cating end. 8.5 X 6.5 X 2.8. Inscr, 
14 (O,) + 5 (R.) = 19 li. On the lower 
part of R, and on the 4 edges numerous 
wedges insufficientiy erased. Ni. V. 
Fourth Exp. 
Unbaked. Dark brown. Small f leces chip- 
ped off. Ruled, double li, indicating 
end. 8.9 X 5.2 X 2.8. Inscr. 14 (O.) 
-I- 9 (R.) = 23 li, Ni. V. Second Exp, 
C.B.M. 4505. 
Two frgs. of a clay tablet joined. Unbaked, 
Light brown with numerous black spots. 
Ruled. 7.4 (fr,) X 5.9 (fr.) X 3 (fr.). 
The preserved portion ot_0. uninscribed. 
Inscr. on R.: 12 (Col, 1) + 4 (Col. II) - 
16 li. Ni. V. Fourth Eip. C.B.M. 



Measures of capacity 
with their corresponding 
values. Portions of 2 G/A' 
to 9 QA preserved. 



Two frgs, of a clay tablet joined. Unbaked. 
Light brown with large black spots near 
upper part of R., O. entirely broken 
away. Ruled. 10.2 (fr,) X 6.8 (fr.) X 
2.8 (fr.). Inscr. on R,: 12 (Col. I) + 12 
(Col. II) = 24 li. C. 1 cm. of the un- 
inscribed upper and lower parts of the 
tablet disregarded in the autograph 



M.rtI, V.^ 



f-Rlif 



MATHEMATICAL, METROLOGICAL AND CHKONOLOGICAL TABLETS. 



65 



Measures of capacit>, trora 
1 GIN tol20 GUR, with 
their correaponding lalues 



c. 2200 H 0. Syllabary (KUL, LA, SI, 
si-gunil, VM, TUB with 
their Sum. values). 



Tbo siune. Mt^asures of capacity, from 

1 GINtoiaURimQA. 



HX'. Mi'iisiiri's i>l' Piipadt.y Ui 
]St)m)<lUlt. 



List ot ideograms writteu 
twice (diiiJnu, pirn, ^ar- 

Meaaures of surface, from 
J GAN (- 50 SAR), J 
C^JV + 10S^R,etc.,tn 

zaoANi-amosAR), 

witli their corrcspoiiilinj,' 



Measures of surface, from 
IGANi- 100S^fi)to 
d&GAN(,= 3600 SAH), 
with their correaponrling 



Description. 
Brown 6 7 (f r ) X 4.3 (fr.) X 2.5 (Ir.) 
ProbahlyR Ni \ Fourth Exp.). 

Four frgs of i cUv tablet joined. Un- 
baked Brown Several cracks. Small 
pieces broken away, much rubbed off. 
About i of original length of tablet 
wanting. Ruled, double li, indicating 
end. 11.5 (orig. c. 15.5) X 6 X 3.2. 
Inscr. 41 (orig. c. 60, 0.) + 32 (orig. c. 
52, R.) = 73 (orig. probably 112) li. 
The 2 numbers (not erased) below the 
double line indicate that the scribe in- 
tended to continue his table beyond 120 
GUR. Ni. V. Fourth Exp. 

Fr. (lower part) of a clay tablet. Unbakefl. 
Brown with numerous black spots. 
Small piec^ broken off. Right part ot 
O, cut away by scribe. Ruled. 8.5. 
(orig. c. 16.2) X 11.17 X 3.3. Inscr. on 
O.:10U. Ni.V. Fourth Exp. 

The same. Inscr. on R. 11 (orig. 22, Col. 
I) + 11 (orig. 22, Col. It) + 11 (orig. 25, 
Col. Ill) + 13 (orig. possibly 23 ( = 1(1 
OUR), Col. IV) = 4fi (orig. c. 02) li. 

l''r. (riglit central part) of a large clay tablet. 
Unbaked. Dark brown. Ruled, 7.5 
(fr.) X 8.5 (fr.) X 3.8 (fr,). Inscr. on 
0.: 7 (Col. Ill) + 6 (Col. IV) - 13 li. 
Ni. V. Second Exp. C.B.M. 10207. 

The same. Inscr. on R.: 3 (Col. I) + 3 ((VI. 
II, identical with Col. I) = fi li. 

Five frgs. of a clay tablet joined, Unliaked. 
Brown with numerous black spots. 
Cracked and smalt pieces chippetl off. 
Right upper and the two lower corners 
of O. wanting, about lialf of R. entirely 
broken away. Ruled, double li. indi- 
cating end. 9.3 X 5.0 X 2.8. Inscr. 
17 (0.) + (orig. 1, Lo. E.) + 13 (R.) - 
30 (orig. 31) h, O. arranged h 
Ni. V. Fourth Exp. 

Unbaked. Brown wHlb laurtier^ 

spots. Small pieces chipped off. Lett 
upper and lower comers of O, wanting. 
R. cracked and otherwise damaged. 



..rCofilgle 



THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR. 



Text. Plate 



Measures of length, from 
1 ubanu (= 2 i) to 2 
GAR { = 1440 x). 
[Ilnnce 1 ammatu = 30 



Measures of leuglb, from 
ubQnu (= 10 :c) to : 

[Hence 1 ammaiu = 3 



Mcnsiivcs oC Icnj^li, from i 
KAS-GID (-900 GAR) 
to to KAS-GID (- 
18,000 GAR). 



:. 1350 B.C. Vocabulary (_umu and 
compounds with Hmu in 
their ideogr. and sylla,bifi 
(Sem.-Babyl.) writini;). 



Description. 
17 11. On the lower part of R. numer- 
ous wedges insufficiently erased. Ni. 
V. Fourth Exp. (There is a fr. dupli- 
cate of the same period {upper part). 
Unbaked. Brown. Ruled. 4 (fr.) x 
7X2.3(fr.>. InEcr.61i.onO. (ICAJV 
= 100, U OAN = 150, 2 GAN - 200, 
to5 0^iV). Ni. V. Fourth Exp.) 

Unbaked. Brown with numerous black 
spots. Small pieces chipped off. Upper 
half of R. E. broken away. The 
greater part of R. destroyed. Ruled. 
5.5 X 4.3 X 1.9. Inser. 13 (O.) + 10 
(orig. 12) li. = 23 (orig. 25) li. Besides 
U. E,, L. E, and R. E. contain 1 U. each. 
Ni. V. Fourth Exp. 

Unbaked, Light brown with numerous 
black spots. Small pieces chipped off. 
Ruled, double li. indicating end. 8,2 X 
4.5 X 3. Inscr. 13 (O.) + 4 (R,) ~ 17 
li. On. lower part of R. numerous 
wedges insufficiently erased. Ni. V, 
l''ourtli Ekp. 

Two fr^s. it( a clay tablet joined. Unbaked. 
I-ight brown. Small pieces chipped off, 
a considerable portion of R. E. broken 
away. Ruled, double li. indicating end. 
1(1.5 X (i.3 X 2.2. Inscr. 12 (0.) + i) 
(H..)-21li. Ni.V. Fourth Exp. 

Fr. (right upper part) of a clay tablet. Un- 
baked. Brown. a.65(tr.) X 3.5(fr.)X2 
(fr.). Inscr.I21i. (written in double cols.) 
onO. Ni.IX. Second Exp. M,I.O.,Ni. 
1893. Cr. Hilprecht, Assyriaca, 1894, pp. 
67-72, and Seheil in Recueil, Vol. XIX 
(1896), Note XXVII, pp. 61f. A more 
(«mplete duplicate of this text (cf.IIlR. 
50, No. 4, restored from K. 6012 -|- K. 
10684, with completions from Babylonian 
dupKcates, 81-8-30, 739; 82-3-23, 4504, 
4n05 ; 82-7-14, 3766, and others) was pub- 
lished and translated by Pinches in ' ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Bibhcal Archfe- 
ology," Vol. XXVI (Feb. 1904),pp. 51-56 
and the plate appended to his paiier, Ct. 
btsidea Zimmern (wIki firs 



MATHEMATICAL, METROLOGIUAL AND CHRUKOLOGrCAL TAHl.l'' 



(i7 



44, H. 


28 


Th(! aame. 


liilingual (too fr., each sec- 
tion closes with risheshu). 


45 


29 


c. 13.W B.C. 


Names of the months in 






(or later). 


SumBriaJi and Semitic- 
Babylooiaa, followed by 
short bilingual sentences. 



DESCRflTlON. 

in Zeitschrift der Deulschen Morgciddnd- 
iscAcn GeselUchafl, Vol. LVIII (1904), pp. 
l'J9-202 and pp. 458-460, and Delitzsch 
in Zeitgeist (supplement to Berliner Tage- 
biaU), No. 16 (April 18, 1904). 

Tlie same. Inacr. on R. : 8 li. (arranged in 4 
sections). 

Fr. (left upper part) ot a clay tablet Un- 
baked. Light brown with numerous 
blaek spots on O. and edges. Pieces of 
O. ehlpped off. R. ruled. 7 (fr.) X 7.6 
(fr.) X 3.4 (tr.). Three cob. of writing, 
separated from each other by 3 per- 
pendicular 11., on O.: 8 -H 10 + 4 - 22 
U., and 4 li. on R. = 26 li. Ni. IX. 
Second Exp. C.B.M. 11063. The tab- 
let is a duplicate of ® 116 -1- Sp. II -I- 
K. 4158 + K. 2033 {- © 257) + Rm. 
607 + K. 4322 + K. 4170 + K. 4317, 0. 
(Bezold, Sabylonisch-Assyrische Liiera- 
(ur,pp 212 f,). Gi.llmipt, Akkadische 
und Sumerische KeihchrifUexle, pp. 4'!, 
64ff. (II R. 18, No. 2, and V R. 29, No. 1), 
andMeissner in Z. A., Vol. VII, pp. 16fE. 

Unbaked. Light brown. Lower part of R. 
E. wanting. Small pieces of chipped 
off, about half of R. broken away. 
Ruled, double li. indicating end. 4.8 X 
4 X 1.0. Inscr. 6 (0.) + 1 (Lo. E.) + 
(R.) + 1 (L. E.) = 14 h, Ni, V, 
Fourth Exp. C.B.M. 19782. 

Fr. (left lower part) of a clay tablet. Baked. 
Reddish brown. Crumbling. Consid- 
erably rubbed off. Small pieces broken 
out. Writing scaling off. 8.4 (fr.) X 
7.3 (fr.) X 2.7. O. badly effaced and 
partly covered with crystals. For the 
autograph copy oE its inscription cf . Vol. 
XX, Part 2. Inscr.onR.: 251i.(Col.IV). 
Probably Ni. V. Fourth (or First?) ' Exp, 
C.B.M. 19797. Cf. PI. XV, No. 17. 

^ ~ " HviirKGooQle 

'Certidn fragments of the first expedition (laid aside in the hope that fragments of the other expeditions inigfit' 
lie joined witii them, or at li^ast be shown to belong to the same tablets) and similar fragments of the fourth expedition 
had been placed on the same slielf in the baseiiiinit of the Museum, with a slip of paper botwocni tlu'm. S(jme time when 



The Babyl. ideogra 
the months. 



;. 2000 B.C. Chronolo^cal list of early 
Babylonian kings (the 
Dynasties of Ur and Isin). 



THE TEMl'LK LIKKAItY OF XIPPUK. 



B. Phototype Kepkoductions. 

Contents. Deschiption. 

liX'. Nortlieasfc section of the Extensive group of ruined rooms anU gal- 
earlier temple school and lories excavated by the Fourth Exp. in 
library at Nippur. the northeast section of Ni. V. South- 
Suuthenst view. east view. The floor of these building 
remains was reached at an average depth 
of 6 to 7.30 m. below the surface. The 
cuneiform tablets hero discovered oc- 
curred in a stratum from c. 0.30 to 
1.20m. thick. An especially large num- 
ber of tablets was found in the room to 
the extreme right in the foreground of the 
picture, and also in the large room to the 
left of the centre of the picture. In the 
background the ruins of the temple of 
JSfil, its stage-tower being covered by a 
modern building of the Exp. erected by 
llayiics. Photograpli taken by Haynes, 
Feb, 20, 1900. Cf. Geerc's survey and 
drawing of the ground-plan of this section 
of the ruins in Hilpreeht, B. E., Series D, 
Vol. I, p. 523. 
-M. The same. Northeast view. Cf PI 1 I Northciat view In the back- 
ground the 'Afotah swamps Photo- 
graph taken I.J Haynes leb 20 1900. 
riic illustration pubhshui lu Hilprccht, 
B E , Sene= D, \ol I p 509, was pre- 
pared from another negative 
B.C. 18 X 1 Unbaked day tablet, O. and R. Ni. IX. Cf. 

PI. 3, No. 5. 
B.C. 36 X 1 Fr. ot an unbaked clay tablet, O. and R. Ni. 

V. Cf. PI. 3, No. 7. 
li.C loO X 1 Unbaked clay tablet. O. and R. Ni. IX. 

Cf. PI. 5, No. 11. 
H.C, 1080 X 1, 1000 X 1, Fr. of an unbaked clay tablet, 0. and R. Ni. 

960X1, 900X1, IX. Cf. PI. 8, No. 17. 

[810.CT) X 1], 
720 XI, 600 X 1, 
540 X 1, 500 X 1. 
B.C. 45 X 1 (left column writ- Fr, unbaked clay tablet, O. Ni. V. Cf. PI. 

ten by teacher, right 10, No. a 

by pupil). 
B.C. Divisors of 12,960,000 and The same, R. a. PI. 11, No. 20, XL 
50 X 1, written alter- 



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MATUEMATICAI., MF.TROLOiilCAL AND CHRONOI.iKilCAl, TABLETS. 



m 



15, R. 
16,0. 



Contents. 
ametu, and tlieir Semitic- 
Babylonian equivalents 
n twice). 



MnlljpUcation table. The 
last column contains 
180,000 X 1, 102,000 X 
1, 160,000 X 1. 

Ideogiams determined by 
amehi, and their Semitic- 
Babylonian eqnivalenta. 
Portions of 

1350 X 1, 1080 X 1, 
1000 XI, 900 X I, 
720 XI, GOO X 1, 
500 X 1, 480 X 1, 
432 X 1. 
Divisors of 12,960,000 and 
tkeir quotjents in goo- 
metrical progression- 
Squares of 1 to .'iO. 



c. 1^50 B.C. Squares of 1 to 30. 

c. 2200 B.C. Square roots 1 to 12. ' 

c. 2200 B.C. Square roots 30 to 40. 

c. 2200 B.C. Measures of capacity and 
weights. 

The same. Weights continued, meas- 

ures of surface and length . 
c. 2200 B.C. Ideogrs. with occasional 
glosses containing their 
Sumerian pronunciation. 



Description. 
Light brown. O. somewhat rubbed olT, 
R. much damaged, writing in part illeg- 
ible. Ruled. 16.9 (fr.) X 10 (tr.) X 
4.4. Inscr. on 0. : 16 (Cols. I and 11)4-12 
(Col. Ill) = 28 li. Ni. V. First Exp. 
C.B.M. 1139T. For the autograpli re- 
production of the inser. cf. Vol. XX, 
Part 2. 

The same, but not ruled. luscr. onR.: 7 
(orig. probably 10) cols., li. indicating 
end of each section. For further de- 
t^ and the autograph reproduction of 
the inscr. cf. Vol. XX, Part 2. 

FV. of an unbaked clay tablet, O. Ni.V. Cf. 
PI. 13, No, 23, O. 



Thes! 



i, R. a. Pi. 13, No. 23, R. 



Unbaked day tablet, 0. and R. Ni. V. Cf. 
PI. 15, No. 25. 

Pr. (upper part) of a clay biblet. Unbaked. 
Brown. Ruled, double li. indicating 
end. 2.9 (fr.) X 3.8 X 2.3. Inscr. 5 
(0.) 4- 4 (R.) = 9 li. Ni.IX. Fourth 
Exp. C.B.M. 19836. Cf. PI. 16, No. 
26. 

Unbaked clay tablet, O. Ni. IX. Cf. Pi. 
16, No. 26. 

Fr. of an unbaked day tablet, R. Ni. V. 
Cf. PI. 16, No. 27. 

Fr. unbaked day tablet, O. Ni. V. Cf. PI. 
16, No. 28. 

Tiirce frgs. of an unbaked clay tablet joined, 
O. Reduced. Ni. V. Cf. Pis. 17 and 
18, No. 29, O.; also Pi. XIV, No. 16, R. 

The same, R. Reduced. Cf . Pis. 17 and 19, 



No.: 



Unbaked clay tablet (in 1905 baked by 

C. H, Mercer in his kiln at Doylestown, 
Pa.). Brown. Cracked, small pieces 
broken awav. coiisiderablv ruhlwrl nPf 



)gle 



THi; TEMPLE LIBKARY OF NIPPUR. 



17 XV 



A.iK. 




Description. 
Hi 1j. Ni. V. Second Exp. C.IS.M. 
1074.'>. For tlie autograph reproduction 
of the inscr. cf . Vol. XX, Part 2. 


.'Ii(! sum.'. 


Muasurw of capacity trom 


Thusame. Inscr. on R.: 4 cols. For fur- 




1 aiN upwunl, toUoweil 


ther details and t]ie autograph repro- 




l.y wciglits (cihI ol Cot. 


duction ot the inscr. ef . Vol. XX, Part 2 . 




IV). 


Cf. also PI. XI, No. 15, 0. 


2000 B.C. 


Clironological list of oarly 


Fr. of a baked clay tablet, 0. aad R. Cf. PI. 




Babylonian kings (R.; 


30, No. 4T. 




the Dynasties of Ur and 






Isin). 





ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Introduction. 



;t; 8, note d : Remove "A mshu-iK-bi'm " (cf , p, 49) . 



AuTOGUAPH Plates. 



PI, 2, No. 4, h. 19: Add marginal note: "After A-KA (=Sem. adi) insert a 'ten,' reading '20-1' (inst<^ad ot '10-1,' 

which is a mistake of the scribe)." 
PI. 7, No. 14, li. IS: Add marginal note: "Read '30' instead of '20' (last figure of the line), the last '10' (written on 

tlie edge) evidently being broken away." 
PI. 14, No. 24, Rev.: Change tlie numbers indicating tlie columns; for tlie Reverse ought to be read from left to right 

(cf. pp. 19, note 2, and 23, note 1). Read, therefore, Col. I (instead of Col. VI), Col. II (instead of Col, V), 

Col. Ill (instead ot Col. IV), Col. IV (instead of Col. Ill), Col. V (instead of Col. II). 
PI. 20, No. 30, Obv., Col. T, li. 25; The figure "25" printed to the left of Col. I, to indicate tiie corresponding line in 

the cuneiform text of tliia column, should be moved up one hue. Cf. p. 36, note 1, 
PI. 29, No. 45, Rev.: Write "Last Column" below "Reverse." 
PL 30, No. 47, Rev., h. 5: Insert "Z[/" between the second dE.V and no, correctly given on the original. Cf. p. 48, 



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Col HI Co II 



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MuuxiPLrcATiON table: 




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MULTIPLICATION TABLE 




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C;H RONOLOGICAL LIST OF EARLV RABVl Ots 



THE BABYLONIAN EXPEDITION 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 
SERIES A: CUNEIFORM TEXTS 



EDITED BY 



H. V. HILPRECHT 



VOLUME XX. Part 1 

MATHEMATICAL. METROLOGICAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL TABLETS 

FriOM THE TEMPLE LIBRARY OF NIPPUR 



I l_ P R E C H T 



"ECKIEY BRINTON COXE. JUNIOR, FUND" 



PHILADELPHIA 
Published by the Department of Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania 



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